Open Collections

UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

A study in developing a technique of method evaluation in the teaching of English as a second language… Livesey, Adelia Frances 1961

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1961_A8 L4 S8.pdf [ 4.19MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0106196.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0106196-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0106196-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0106196-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0106196-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0106196-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0106196-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0106196-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0106196.ris

Full Text

A STUDY IN DEVELOPING A TECHNIQUE OP METHOD EVALUATION IN THE TEACHING OF ENGLISH AS A SECOND LANGUAGE TO ADULTS IN MULTILINGUAL CLASSES by ADELIA PRANCES LIVESEY B..A., U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1957 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the F a c u l t y and College of Education We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the re q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August 1961 In presenting t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference and study. I f u r t h e r agree that permission f o r extensive copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s representatives. It i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver 8, Canada. Date A STUDY IN DEVELOPING A TECHNIQUE OF METHOD EVALUATION IN THE TEACHING OF ENGLISH AS A SECOND LANGUAGE TO ADULTS IN MULTILINGUAL CLASSES ABSTRACT The promotion of a s u c c e s s f u l programme of second language l e a r n i n g r e q u i r e s that the best p o s s i b l e choice of method"'" be made. Reason and argument should support choice of method. A technique of method e v a l u a t i o n i s necessary to supply reason and argument and to a s s i s t i n the promotion of a success-f u l programme. The development and i l l u s t r a t i o n of a technique of method e v a l u a t i o n i s the purpose of t h i s study. Three steps are o u t l i n e d i n the proposed technique: (1) A survey of the judgments of a u t h o r i t i e s i n the f i e l d s of language teaching and l i n g u i s t i c s i s made to determine those c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s stressed as necessary to a good method. The common c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the judgments of the a u t h o r i -t i e s become the y a r d s t i c k f o r e v a l u a t i n g a method. (2) A s t r u c t u r e of method a n a l y s i s which w i l l r e v e a l the nature of the method i s o u t l i n e d . For d e f i n i t i o n of "method" as used throughout t h i s study see p. 4. (3) The f i n a l step i s examination of the a n a l y s i s of the method to determine to what extent the common c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a good method are present. The worth and v a l i d i t y of the survey of the judgments of a u t h o r i t i e s are dependent upon two f a c t o r s : ( l ) the extent of the judgments reviewed; and (2) the recency of the judgments reviewed. The need to s u b s t i t u t e f a c t f o r opinion, and to s u b s t i t u t e o b j e c t i v i t y f o r s u b j e c t i v i t y i n choice of method has prompted the study. The procedure recommended i s able t o supply reason and argument f o r choice of method. Method e v a l u a t i o n i s a means to ensure choice of a good method, and therefore i s a means to an improved language programme. TABLE OP CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE I . , THE PROBLEM AND DEFINITIONS OF TERMS USED . . . . 1 The Problem 2 Statement of the problem 2 D e l i m i t a t i o n s of the study 2 J u s t i f i c a t i o n .of the study 3 D e f i n i t i o n s of Terms Used 4 Organization of Remainder of the Thesis . . . . 5 I I . REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 7 I I I . A PROCEDURE OF METHOD EVALUATION STATED 14 IV. A PROCEDURE OF METHOD EVALUATION DEMONSTRATED . . 17 Survey of A u t h o r i t i e s 17 Examination of Two Methods 26 E v a l u a t i o n of Two Methods 50 V. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 56 Summary 56 Conclusions 57 BIBLIOGRAPHY 60 CHAPTER I THE PROBLEM AND THE DEFINITIONS OF TERMS USED The promotion of a s u c c e s s f u l programme of second language l e a r n i n g i n v o l v e s c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the three items: teacher, student, method."'" I t i s not f e a s i b l e to consider these three items w i t h i n the l i m i t s of a s i n g l e study. This study i s confined to the t h i r d item, method. The question of the best p o s s i b l e method f o r the promotion of a second language teaching programme i s today the concern of UNESCO, of governments, and of p r i v a t e agencies, both r e l i g i o u s and s o c i a l . Such concern i s not new. The teaching and l e a r n i n g of second languages have 2 been discussed f o r two thousand years. But despite the cent u r i e s of concern, despite the c o n t r i b u t i o n of the developing science of l i n g u i s t i c s , the c o n t r i b u t i o n of psychology, despite the v i t a l i z i n g of second language teaching provided by World War I I , and despite the post-war volume of research no one answer has been reached by For d e f i n i t i o n of "method" as used throughout t h i s study see p. 4. 2 Leonard B l o o m f i e l d , Language (London: George A l l e n and Unwin L t d . , 1 9 5 8 ) , PP« 10-11. a u t h o r i t i e s . The question remains. 2 I . THE PROBLEM Statement of the problem. Because no one method has been accepted as best, because no systematic body of r e f e r -ence on language teaching i s a v a i l a b l e , and because choice of method must needs be made o b j e c t i v e l y , w i t h n e i t h e r i n e r t i a nor r e s i s t a n c e to change, nor w i l f u l ignorance, nor vested i n t e r e s t having any p a r t , a technique f o r e v a l u a t i n g methods i s necessary to the language teacher. A technique of method e v a l u a t i o n i s necessary i n order that the best p o s s i b l e choice be made to the end that a s u c c e s s f u l prog-ramme be more n e a r l y r e a l i z e d . The development and i l l u s -t r a t i o n of a means of e v a l u a t i n g the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of a method Is the purpose of t h i s study. D e l i m i n a t i o n s of the study. The study i s concerned w i t h : ( l ) the teaching of E n g l i s h as a second language to •^Randolph Quirk, and A.H. Smith (eds.), The Teaching  of E n g l i s h . Studies i n Communication 3 (London: Seeker and Warburg, 1959)> P. 166; Harold E. Dunkel, Second-Language  Learning (New York: Ginn and Company, 1948), pp. 2-11; Peter Hagboldt, Language Learning (Chicago: The U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago.Press, 1935)> p.110; Vernon M a l l i n s o n , Teaching a Modern Language (London: W i l l i a m Heinemann L t d . " 1953)7 ~. 44; Isaac M o r r i s , The Teaching of E n g l i s h as a_ Second  Language (London: Macmillan, 1954), p. v i ; UNESCO. The  Teaching of Modern Languages (Amsterdam: UNESCO, 1955), P. 47. This was pointed out by P r o f e s s o r W i l l i a m F. Mackey on J u l y 10, 1958 i n the course "Teaching E n g l i s h as a Second Language" at the U n i v e r s i t y of A l b e r t a . 3 a d u l t s , and (2) the teaching of m u l t i l i n g u a l c l a s s e s . ^ J u s t i f i c a t i o n of the study. Examination of the p u b l i -cations l i s t e d i n the b i b l i o g r a p h y of t h i s study and examin-a t i o n of current educational research has revealed no means of ev a l u a t i n g a language teaching method. 6 7 8 9 Palmer, Dunkel, Henkl, and the UNESCCr seminar of 1953 give sets of p r i n c i p l e s of language teaching. With the exception of the UNESCO repo r t no author s t a t e s how the p r i n c i p l e s were derived, whose opinions were sought, or i n what manner the opinions were obtained. An attempt has been made i n t h i s study to employ means of which the foregoing c r i t i c i s m s cannot be made. Mackey"^ presents a procedure f o r i n v e s t i g a t i n g a method; h i s main categories of i n v e s t i g a t i o n are used M u l t i l i n g u a l c l a s s e s are usual i n B r i t i s h Columbia, whether held under the auspices of the Night Schools, the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, or p r i v a t e agencies. The only exceptions have been s p e c i a l c l a s s e s arranged f o r Hungarians f o l l o w i n g t h e i r r e c e p t i o n i n the province a f t e r the "October Revolution of 1956." and s p e c i a l c l a s s e s arranged f o r Chinese i n the Vancouver and V i c t o r i a areas at times when immigration numbers j u s t i f i e d such c l a s s e s . Monolingual cl a s s e s are not a r e g u l a r f e a t u r e of the language l e a r n i n g scene i n B r i t i s h Columbia. ^Harold E. Palmer, The P r i n c i p l e s of Language Study (London: George H. Harrap, 1928) . ^Dunkel, op_. c i t . % t o l f Henkl, P h i l o l o g y - L i n g u i s t i c s (Ferozons, Peshawar: U n i v e r s i t y of Kabul, 1952). ^UNESCO, op. c i t . 1 0 W i l l i a m F. Mackey, " S e l e c t i o n " , Second Language Teach- i n g , V o l . 7 ( 1 9 5 2 - 3 ) , PP. 7 7 - 8 4 , "Grading," i b i d . , V o l . 8 T T 9 5 3 - 4 ) , pp. 45-52, " P r e s e n t a t i o n , " i b i d . , V o l . 9 (1954-5) , pp. 41-57. 4 i n t h i s study."1""1" His procedure provides a means of determining  the c o n s t i t u t i o n of a method. I t Is a technique of method  a n a l y s i s ; i t i s not a technique of e v a l u a t i o n . I I . DEFINITIONS OF TERMS USED Content words. This term s h a l l "be used to describe nouns, a c t i o n verbs, a d j e c t i v e s , and adverbs. In the words of F r i e s "... the body of 'content 1 words of our language i s our a n a l y s i s of ' r e a l i t y ' .... i n E n g l i s h these words f a l l roughly i n t o three c l a s s e s : (a) words f o r 'things'; (b) words- f o r • 'actions 1, 12 and (c) words f o r ' q u a l i t i e s ' . " Function words. This term s h a l l be used to describe those words which p r i m a r i l y operate as a means of expressing r e l a t i o n s of grammatical s t r u c t u r e , or which serve t o Ind i c a t e the 13 r e l a t i o n s h i p or f u n c t i o n s of other words. These i n c l u d e a r t i c l e s , p r e p o s i t i o n s , conjunctions, pronouns, a u x i l i a r y verbs, a u x i l i a r y adverbs (or i n t e n s i f i e r s ) , i n f l e c t i o n s (e.g. the "s" of "days", and a f f i x e s . 1 ^ 1 1 S e e Chap. I I , p. 1 3 , and Chap. I l l P t . I I p. 1 5 . 12 Charles C. F r i e s , Teaching and Learning E n g l i s h as a_ Foreign Language (Ann Arbor: U n i v e r s i t y of Michigan Press, 1953)V P. 44. "^Cf. F r i e s , op_. c i t . , p. 46; Mario A. 'Pel and Frank Gaynor, A D i c t i o n a r y of L i n g u i s t i c s (New York: P h i l o s o p h i c a l L i b r a r y , 1954), p. 7 9 . 1^An " a f f i x " i s any element added to a root word to change i t s meaning, e.g. " - l y " i n " k i n d l y " or "be-" i n "behead". The term " a f f i x " i n c l u d e s s u f f i x e s , p r e f i x e s , and i n f i x e s . 5 Method. This word means "way" or "procedure f o r a t t a i n -i n g an o b j e c t i v e . " The term "method" has been a p p l i e d l o o s e l y to that which i s but a feature of a method. Thus the "Direct. Method" i s not a method but a technique of p r e s e n t a t i o n , e.g. as used i n the method " E n g l i s h Through Pictures."" 1"^ The term "method" throughout t h i s study s h a l l be used to mean the sel e c -t i o n , grading, and p r e s e n t a t i o n of language by authors f o r teaching any or a l l of the language s k i l l s ( i . e . understand-i n g , speaking, reading, and w r i t i n g ) . Sentence P a t t e r n . This term s h a l l be used to describe any group of sentences w i t h i d e n t i c a l s t r u c t u r e , e.g. "What i s t h i s ? " ( i n t e r r o g a t i v e pronoun + verb + demonstrative pro-noun) i s d i f f e r e n t from "Whose book i s t h i s ? " ( i n t e r r o g a t i v e a d j e c t i v e + noun + verb + demonstrative pronoun). I l l ; ORGANIZATION OF REMAINDER OF THE THESIS Chapters I I I and IV comprise the t e x t of the study. Chapter I I I contains the statement of the proposed evalua-t i o n technique; Chapter IV contains the demonstration of the proposed technique. General procedure f o r d e a l i n g w i t h the problem: (a) A survey of the judgments of a u t h o r i t i e s i n the f i e l d s of language teaching and l i n g u i s t i c s i s "^I.A. Richards and CM. Gibson, E n g l i s h Through  P i c t u r e s (New York: Pocket Books, Inc., 1953). 6 to be used to determine the common character-i s t i c s of those f a c t o r s s t r e s s e d as necessary to a good method. These common c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s become the y a r d s t i c k f o r measuring the worth of a method. This survey i s Step I of Chapter I I I and i t s demonstration i s Step I of.Chapter IV. A procedure of examination i s recommended i n Step I I of Chapter I I I and i t s demonstration i s Step I I of Chapter IV. The f i n a l step i n the e v a l u a t i o n technique i s to determine to what extent the common c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a good method (Step I) are present. CHAPTER I I REVIEW OP THE LITERATURE "Improperly designed m a t e r i a l s , " s t a t e s Brooks, "have been a m i l l s t o n e about the teacher's neck f o r many decades .... Meanwhile, even w i t h the m a t e r i a l s we now have, there may be f a r greater r e t u r n s almost overnight i f teachers are more f u l l y informed about methods, more s e l e c t i v e i n t h e i r choice of methods l e a d i n g t o coordinate l e a r n i n g s , and more determined to keep inadequate m a t e r i a l s from d e f l e c t i n g l e a r n i n g s away from true objectives.""'" Brooks' statement p o i n t s up the need f o r e v a l u a t i o n technique or procedure. Yet a review of the l i t e r a t u r e on second language teaching r e v e a l s c u r i o u s l y l i t t l e on the t o p i c . Many statements are given regarding p r i n c i p l e s which commentators consider should be embodied i n methods, but no s p e c i f i c procedures of evalua-t i o n are o f f e r e d to a i d the language teacher i n a j u d i c i o u s choice of method. Mackey's s p e c i f i c procedure f o r i n v e s t i -g a t i n g and a n a l y s i n g a method i s the sole exception. Comenius, w r i t i n g on "The Method-of Languages," out-l i n e s an approach which could be of t h i s century: The study of languages, e s p e c i a l l y i n youth, should be joi n e d to that of o b j e c t s , that our acquaintance w i t h the o b j e c t i v e world and w i t h ^Nelson Brooks, Language and Language Learning (New York: Harcourt, Brace and Company, I960), pp. 137-138. 8 language, that i s to say, our knowledge of f a c t s and our power to express them may progress side by s i d e . ... words should not be learned apart from the objects t o which they r e f e r . ... complete and d e t a i l e d knowledge of a language ... Is qu i t e unnecessary. Each language must be learned s e p a r a t e l y . . . . I t i s only when they have been thoroughly acquired that I t i s of use to" compare them by means of p a r a l l e l grammars, d i c t i o n a r i e s . . . . A l l languages are e a s i e r to l e a r n by p r a c t i c e than by r u l e s . . . . But r u l e s a s s i s t and strengthen the knowledge derived from p r a c t i c e . In w r i t i n g r u l e s f o r the new language the one already known must be kept i n mind, so that s t r e s s may be l a i d only on the p o i n t s i n which the languages d i f f e r . The f i r s t e x e r c i s e s i n a new language must deal w i t h subject matter that i s already f a m i l i a r . . . . Otherwise the mind w i l l have to pay a t t e n t i o n to words and t o things at the same time, and w i l l thus be d i s t r a c t e d and weakened. A l l languages ... can be learned ... by p r a c t i c e , combined w i t h r u l e s of a very simple nature that only r e f e r to p o i n t s of d i f f e r e n c e w i t h the language already known, and by ex e r c i s e s that r e f e r to some f a m i l i a r subject.2 o In 1928 Palmer J defined p r i n c i p l e s of language teach-i n g i n which he considered there was general agreement: ( l ) The i n i t i a l p r e p a r a t i o n of the student by the t r a i n i n g of h i s spontaneous c a p a c i t i e s f o r a s s i m i l a t i n g spoken language. John Amos Comenius, The Great D i d a c t i c , w i t h i n t r o -d uctions, b i o g r a p h i c a l and h i s t o r i c a l by M.W. Keatinge (London: Adam and Charles Black, 1896), pp. 355-359-3 -^Palmer, op. c i t . 9 (2) The forming of new and appropriate h a b i t s and the u t i l i z a t i o n of p r e v i o u s l y formed h a b i t s . (3) Accuracy i n work i n order to prevent the a c q u i r i n g of bad h a b i t s . (4) Gradation of the work i n such a way as to ensure an e v e r - i n c r e a s i n g r a t e of progress. (5) Due p r o p o r t i o n i n the treatment of the various aspects and branches of the su b j e c t . (6) The p r e s e n t a t i o n of language m a t e r i a l i n a con-crete r a t h e r than an a b s t r a c t way. ( 7 ) The securing and maintaining of the student's i n t e r e s t i n order t o a c c e l e r a t e h i s progress. (8) A l o g i c a l order of progression i n accordance w i t h p r i n c i p l e s of speech philosophy. (9) The approaching of the subject simultaneously from d i f f e r e n t sides by means of d i f f e r e n t and appropriate devices--the m u l t i p l e l i n e of approach. Henkl, i n h i s " i n v e s t i g a t i o n of fundamental t r u t h s and p r i n c i p l e s forming the s c i e n t i f i c base f o r a l l r a t i o n a l language studying and t e a c h i n g " ^ echoes Palmer. He l i s t s : (1) The supreme importance of the elementary stage. (2) The forming of r i g h t h a b i t s . (3) Gradation--the passing from the known to" the unknown by easy stages, each of which serves as a prepar-a t i o n f o r the next. 4 1 r Henkl, op_. c i t . , pp. 137-146. 10 (4) P r o p o r t i o n . This p r i n c i p l e i s observed, he notes, when the r i g h t amount of a t t e n t i o n i s paid to phonetics, orthography, accidence and etymology, syntax and a n a l y s i s , and f i n a l l y , semantics. (5) Concreteness. Teaching should be by example, not precept. (6) I n t e r e s t . (7) R a t i o n a l order of progress. He argues the r a t i o n a l order of progress Is the modern approach of f i r s t l e a r n i n g t o form sounds, then memorizing sentences, then l e a r n i n g s y s t e m a t i c a l l y how to form sentences, and l a s t l y l e a r n i n g how to form words. (8) The m u l t i p l e l i n e of approach. Dunkel's study of the state of second language l e a r n -i n g i n the United States promises to "discover the major areas of f a i r l y complete argument [of the various schools of thought] and t o attempt to derive from them some of the fundamental c r i t e r i a f o r judging m a t e r i a l s f o r language l e a r n i n g . " ^ Dunkel's discourse ranges the t o p i c s : ( l ) d i f f e r e n t approaches f o r d i f f e r e n t s k i l l s ; (2) r e p e t i -t i o n as the b a s i s f o r l e a r n i n g ; (3) p r a c t i c e at various p l a t e a u l e v e l s ; and (4) the n e c e s s i t y for,graded m a t e r i a l s — then lapses Into a d i s c u s s i o n of the argument between extensive reading and i n t e n s i v e reading advocates, of the disagreement whether frequency l i s t s based on w r i t t e n 'Dunkel, op_. c i t . , pp. 151-163. 11 m a t e r i a l s are s u i t a b l e guides f o r c o n s t r u c t i n g m a t e r i a l s to develop a u r a l comprehension., of the controversy regarding what a student s h a l l be taught to say, of the d i s a p p o i n t i n g c o n t r i b u t i o n of experimental psychology to second language l e a r n i n g , etc.. He f a i l s to produce the promised c r i t e r i a . The i n t e r n a t i o n a l seminar on the teaching of modern languages, organized by UNESCO and held i n Ceylon i n "August 1953, d e l i b e r a t e d at leng t h on various methods of teaching modern languages. The delegates f a i l e d to agree i n support of any one method but a m a j o r i t y subscribed to a general set of p r i n c i p l e s . These were t h a t : (1) The approach should be p r i m a r i l y o r a l . (2) A c t i v e methods of teaching s h a l l be used as f a r as p o s s i b l e . (3) The greatest p o s s i b l e use of the f o r e i g n tongue should be made i n the classroom. (4) The d i f f i c u l t i e s of the f o r e i g n tongue i n the matter of pr o n u n c i a t i o n , vocabulary, and grammar should be c a r e f u l l y graded'for p r e s e n t a t i o n . • • (.5) The teaching of a language should be considered more as the imparting of a s k i l l than' as the p r o v i s i o n of information about the forms of the language.6 The seminar f u r t h e r agreed t h a t the fundamental s k i l l s of understanding, speaking, reading, and w r i t i n g should be taught i n the order named; that accurate p r o n u n c i a t i o n , i n c l u d i n g c o r r e c t i n t o n a t i o n should be a UNESCO, op_. c i t . , p. 5 0 . 12 teaching aim; that, the teaching of formal grammar i n the e a r l y stages i s to be condemned; that the r e s u l t s of l i n g u i s t i c research have a d i s t i n c t c o n t r i b u t i o n to make to improved technique of p r e s e n t a t i o n ; that reading i s a f r u s t r a t i n g e x e r c i s e unless considerable o r a l a b i l i t y has been p r e v i o u s l y acquired; that i n the e a r l y stages t r a n s -l a t i o n should not be used. More than one thousand textbooks sent i n by twenty-three c o u n t r i e s were on d i s p l a y . The repo r t of the seminar notes, "... the techniques of language textbook production have improved immensely since the. l a s t war.... Most textbooks ... now pay a commendable regard to vocabulary s e l e c t i o n even i f s t r u c t u r a l grading i s s t i l l too advanced and abstruse a p r o p o s i t i o n f o r many textbook p u b l i s h e r s . " ' On the t o p i c "Suggestions f o r the S e l e c t i o n and Prepar a t i o n of Textbooks" the re p o r t s t a t e s : A textbook should contain a c l e a r and d e t a i l e d s t a t e -ment of I t s aims, the p r i n c i p l e s and methods fo l l o w e d i n i t , and i t s scope.... Guide-books f o r teachers, g i v i n g d e t a i l e d advice on how to present and review each item i n a methodical, i n t e r e s t i n g , and a t t r a c t i v e way would be welcome... An index of vocabulary and sentence patterns used should be provided.... In the case of vocabulary an I n d i c a t i o n of the meanings i n which words have been introduced should be provided.... Only normal language i n current use should be employed.8 The n e c e s s i t y f o r grading of sounds, i n t o n a t i o n p a t t e r n s , words (or new meanings of words already known), I b i d . , p. 1 5 0 . I b i d . , pp. 1 5 2 - 1 5 3 . 13 and sentence patterns i s emphasized, as a l s o i s the ne c e s s i f o r s t r i c t l y c o n t r o l l e d vocabulary, f o r adherence to the p r i n c i p l e of pr e s e n t i n g one i n d i v i d u a l item at a time, and f o r ample r e v i s i o n of e a r l i e r times. Mackey^ examines the meaning of "method," then o u t l i n e s a procedure f o r a n a l y s i n g a method. He asks, "What are methods made of, and how does one method d i f f e r from another?", then answers, " A l l methods, whether good or bad, must include some so r t of s e l e c t i o n , some sort of grading, and some so r t of p r e s e n t a t i o n . " Every method includes s e l e c t i o n because I t i s impossible t o teach the whole of a f i e l d of knowledge; every method in c l u d e s grad-i n g because i t i s impossible to teach the e n t i r e s e l e c t i o n at one time; every method must inc l u d e p r e s e n t a t i o n because i t i s Impossible to teach without communicating or t r y i n g to communicate something t o somebody, and some means f o r converting what i s taught Into a system of h a b i t s . A l l methods must, c o n s c i o u s l y or unconsciously, s e l e c t , grade, and present t h e i r m a t e r i a l . His t h e s i s i s that only by a l i n g u i s t i c a n a l y s i s of the inherent c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of s e l e c t i o n , grading, p r e s e n t a t i o n , and h a b i t formation can a true p i c t u r e of a method be gained i n order t h a t the d i f f e r e n c e s between methods may be determined. Mackey, op. c i t . CHAPTER I I I A PROCEDURE OF METHOD EVALUATION STATED The f o l l o w i n g three steps comprise a procedure to evaluate methods of teaching E n g l i s h as a second language to a d u l t s i n m u l t i l i n g u a l c l a s s e s : Step 1. A survey of pronouncements by a u t h o r i t i e s i n the f i e l d s of l i n g u i s t i c s and language teaching i s made to determine what c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a good method are common to these pronouncements. I t i s recommended that t h i s survey be as wide and as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e as p o s s i b l e i n order to avoid b i a s and to obtain a balanced e v a l u a t i o n " y a r d s t i c k . " I t i s f u r t h e r recommended that the survey in c l u d e recent p u b l i c a t i o n s of research and judgments as w e l l as classics' 1' i n the f i e l d . 2 Step I I . An examination of the methods under c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s made to determine t h e i r exact nature and content. •'•e.g. Leonard B l o n m f i e l d , Language (New York: H o l t , 1933). The main categories of t h i s examination ( i . e . s e l e c -t i o n , grading p r e s e n t a t i o n , and habi t formation) are those of Mackey ( c f . Chap. I I , p. 1 3 ) . J.C. Catford, D i r e c t o r of the Department of L i n g u i s t i c s , U n i v e r s i t y of Edinburgh, endorses Mackey's c a t e g o r i e s ; see Randolph Quirk and A.H. Smith (eds.) The Teaching of E n g l i s h . Studies i n Com-munication 3 (London: Seeker and Warburg, 1 9 5 9 ) , PP. 1 6 8 - 1 7 1 . 15 Such an examination cannot be l i m i t e d t o any author's preface, or be i n any way cursory; i t must be systematic and thorough. Examination of method: I. S e l e c t i o n : 1 . For whom was the s e l e c t i o n of con-tent made? 2. How was the s e l e c t i o n of content made? 3- What does the s e l e c t i o n of content include? (a) of language s t r u c t u r e ? (b) of vocabulary? (c) of phonetics? (d) of semantics? 4. What q u a n t i t y i s taught? (a) what q u a n t i t y of s t r u c t u r e ? (b) what q u a n t i t y of vocabulary? (c) what q u a n t i t y of phonetics? 5 . Does everything s e l e c t e d f i t t o -gether? I I . Grading: 1 . What i s the s t r u c t u r a l , l e x i c a l , phonetic, and semantic grading? 2. Is the grading systematic? (a) do the words f i t i n t o f a m i l i e s ? (b) do the words f i t i n t o phrase pattern? (c) do the phrases f i t into, sentence patterns? 3. How productive i s the s e l e c t i o n of sentence patterns? 4. What i s the s t r u c t u r a l and l e x i c a l i n t a k e - - i . e . what i s the r a t e at which new m a t e r i a l i s introduced? 5 . What i s the usefulness of the vocabulary chosen? I t i s 16 recommended that the General  Service L i s t 3 be used. I I I . P r e s e n t a t i o n : 1. In what order are the language s k i l l s ( i . e . understanding, speak-i n g , reading, and w r i t i n g ) presented? 2. In what manner are the language s k i l l s presented? 3. How i s meaning taught (e.g., use of na t i v e language; o b j e c t s , a c t i o n s , and s i t u a t i o n s ; p i c t u r e s ; words i n context)? IV. Habit Formation: 1. How i s comprehension made a habit? (a) a u d i t o r y comprehension made a ha b i t ? (b) v i s u a l comprehension made a habi t ? 2. How i s expression made a ha b i t ? (a) o r a l expression made a hab i t ? (b) w r i t t e n expression made a habi t ? Step I I I . The f i n a l step of the e v a l u a t i o n proced-ure i s to determine t o what extent the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the survey i n Step I are revealed by the examination i n Step I I . "5 Michael West, A General Service L i s t of E n g l i s h  Words (London; New York; Toronto: Longmans, Green and Co. Th i r d Impression, 1957). CHAPTER IV A PROCEDURE OP METHOD EVALUATION DEMONSTRATED The purpose of t h i s chapter i s to demonstrate use of the e v a l u a t i o n procedure recommended i n Chapter I I I f o r methods of teaching E n g l i s h as a second language to ad u l t s In m u l t i l i n g u a l c l a s s e s . DEMONSTRATION OF STEP I The pronouncements of the f o l l o w i n g a u t h o r i t i e s are surveyed to determine what c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s s t r e s s e d as necessary to' a good method are common to t h e i r pronounce-ments . (1) : David Abercrombie Problems and P r i n c i p l e s : Studies i n the  Teaching of E n g l i s h as a_ Second Language. London: Longmans, Green, 1 9 5 6 . (2) F r e d e r i c k B. Agard An I n v e s t i g a t i o n of Second-Language Teaching. New York: Ginn and Company, 1 9 4 6 . . (3) Paul F. A n g i o l i l l o Armed F o r c e s 1 Foreign Language Teaching: C r i t i c a l E v a l u a t i o n and I m p l i c a t i o n s . New York: S.F. Vanni, 1 9 W { . (.4) Leonard B l o o m f i e l d Language. New York: H o l t , 1 9 3 3 . Outline Guide f o r the P r a c t i c a l Study of  Foreign Languages. Baltimore, Md.: L i n g u i s t i c S ociety of America, 1 9 4 2 . (5) . Nelson Brooke Language and Language Learning. New York: Harcourt Brace and Company, i 9 6 0 . 18 J.C. Catford "The Teaching of E n g l i s h as a Foreign Language," The Teaching of E n g l i s h : Studies i n Communication 3: c o n t r i b u t e d to the Communication Research Centre, U n i v e r s i t y College, London. London: Seeker and Warburg, 1959, PP . 164-189. J.B. C a r r o l l The Study of Language. Cambridge: Harvard U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1955. Harold B. Dunkel An I n v e s t i g a t i o n of Second-Language Teaching. New York: Ginn and Company, 194b. Charles C. F r i e s Teaching and Learning E n g l i s h as §_ Foreign  Language. Ann Arbor: U n i v e r s i t y of Michigan Press, 1945. A.W. F r i s b y Teaching E n g l i s h . London: Longmans, Green, 1957. J.O. Gauntlett Basic P r i n c i p l e s of E n g l i s h Language Teaching. Tokyo: Sanseido, 1951. Teaching E n g l i s h as a_ Foreign Language. London: Macmillan and Company, 1957. P e r c i v a l Gurrey Teaching E n g l i s h as a_ Foreign Language. London: Longmans, GveerT, 1956. Peter Hagboldt Language Learning. Chicago: The U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago Press, 1935. R o l f Henkl P h i l o l o g y - L i n g u i s t i c s . Ferozsons, Peshawar: U n i v e r s i t y of Kabul, 1952. H.R. Huse The Psychology of Foreign Language Study. Chapel H i l l : The U n i v e r s i t y of North C a r o l i n a Press, 1931. Otto Jespersen How To Teach a_ Foreign Language. London: A l l e n and Unwin, 1912. 19 (17) (18) (19) (20) (21) (22) Robert Lado L i n g u i s t i c s Across C u l t u r e s . Ann Arbor, Michigan: U n i v e r s i t y of Michigan Press, 1957. W i l l i a m P. Mackey "The Meaning of. Method," E n g l i s h Language  Teaching, V o l . 5 (October^ 1950), pp. 3-6. " S e l e c t i o n , " i b i d . , V o l . 7 (1952-3), pp. 77-84. "Grading," i b i d . , V o l . 8 (1953-4), pp. 45-52. " P r e s e n t a t i o n , " i b i d . , V o l . 9 (1954-5), PP. 41-57. Vernon M a l l i n s o n Teaching §_ Modern Language. London: W i l l i a m Heinemann L t d . , 1953. I . Morris The Art of Teaching E n g l i s h as a_ L i v i n g  Language. London: Macmillan, 195^H Eugene Nida Learning a_ Foreign Language. New York: Foreign Missions Conference of North America, 1950. Harold E. Palmer The Oral Method of Teaching Languages. Cambridge, England: W. Heffer and Sons, L t d . , 1923. The P r i n c i p l e s of Language Study. London: George H. Harrap, 1928. The S c i e n t i f i c Study and Teaching of Languages. London: George H. Harrap, 1917. The Teaching of Oral E n g l i s h . London: Longmans, Green, 1958. The Technique of Question-Answering. Tokyo: The I n s t i t u t e f o r Research i n Language Teaching, 1958. 20 (23) Michael West On Learning to. Speak §_ Foreign Language London: Longmans, Green, 1933. Learning to Read a_ Foreign Language. London: Longmans, Green, 1955. In a d d i t i o n the two f o l l o w i n g p u b l i c a t i o n s are surveyed: (24) G u i l l e t t e , Cameron C , L. C l a r k Keating, Claude P. Giens. Teaching a_ Modern  Language. New York: F. S. C r o f t s , 1942. (25) Problems i n Education - X. The Teaching of Modern Languages. Amsterdam: UNESCO, 1955. The foregoing a u t h o r i t i e s have been s e l e c t e d f o r  these reasons: (1) B l o o m f i e l d , Jespersen, and Sweet because t h e i r statements on language are considered c l a s s i c s ; the remainder because they are contemporary s c h o l a r s . (2) I n v e s t i g a t i o n has d i s c l o s e d that t h e i r pronounce-1 ments bear upon t h i s study. (3) They represent a range of experience i n and c o n t r i b u t i o n to language programmes. A survey of t h e i r judgments should be widely r e p r e s e n t a t i v e both of co u n t r i e s and schools of thought, and f r e e from any charge of b i a s or imbalance. The studies of Bloch, Smith, Trager, and Sapir have not been overlooked; t h e i r s t u d i e s have been examined, and have been found t o have no d i r e c t bearing upon t h i s study, except i n s o f a r as any method to be examined may be based upon t h e i r work. 21 Common c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s revealed by survey of pronouncements. (1) The study of language should be i n l i n g u i s t i c  terms. A l l the a u t h o r i t i e s express t h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of a good method, e.g.: Leonard B l o o m f i e l d , Language, pp. 496-509; C a r r o l l , op_. c i t . , pp. 140-143, 186-190; Catford, ojo. c i t . , pp. 164, 174, 176, l 8 l , - 189; F r i e s , op_. c i t . , pp. 5, 9; Lado, op_. c i t . , p. 3; Nida, op_. c i t . , p. 210; Sweet, op_. c i t . , p. 3; UNESCO, op_. c i t . , pp. 51, 230-2^, 2ZF5-262. (2) ' Economy should apply i n s e l e c t i o n of m a t e r i a l . Vocabulary, phrases, idioms, and sentence pat-terns are to be s t r i c t l y l i m i t e d and c o n t r o l l e d , yet s u f f i c i e n t l y productive to express the most necessary i d e a s . There i s disagreement as to a c t u a l choice of items, and to the frequency l i s t s to be used, but the p r i n c i p l e of economy i s sup-ported. Abercrombie, op. c i t . , pp. 17, 26-27; A n g i o l i l l o , op. c i t . , pp.410-412; B l o o m f i e l d , op. c i t . , p. 505; Brooks, op_. c i t . , pp. 52, 13o; Dunkel, op. c i t . , pp. 151-155j F r i e s 2 , op. . c i t . , pp. o7 32, 34, 54; F r i s b y , op_. c i t . , pp. 18, 29, 97-98; G u i l l e t t e et a l . , op_. c i t . , p. 34; Henkl, op. c i t . , pp. 78-79, 137; Huse, op_. c i t . , pp. 6, 162, 164,. 176, 180-181; Jespersen, op. c i t . , p. 30; Mackey, op_. c i t . , V o l . 9 Robert Lado i n L i n g u i s t i c s Across C u l t u r e s . ('Ann Arbor, Michigan: U n i v e r s i t y of Michigan Press, 1947), p. 9, s t a t e s that he endorses "... a l l fundamental assumptions of F r i e s as contained i n Teaching and Learning E n g l i s h as a_ Foreign Language." Throughout Chap. IV t h e r e f o r e , any reference t o F r i e s a p p l i e s e q u a l l y to Lado unless otherwise s t a t e d . 22 (1954-5), P. 55; M a l l i n s o n , op_. c i t . , pp. 49, 90-91; M o r r i s , op_. c i t . , pp. 29-31, 36, 44-47; Palmer, The S c i e n t i f i c Study and Teaching of Languages, p. 12; , The P r i n c i p l e s of Language Study, pp. 14, T6; Sweet,. op_. c i t . , pp. 110, 120-121, 173; UNESCO, op. c i t . , pp. 51, 229, 241, 247, 251, 262; West, On Learning to Speak a_ Foreign Language, pp. 39, 44, 52, 8 l ; , Learning to Read a_ Foreign Language, pp. 22" 47. (3) Grading should be a p p l i e d to a l l aspects of  language. A l l m a t e r i a l s of I n s t r u c t i o n should be graded so that the student meets the most frequent and necessary elements f i r s t , and so that he passes from the concrete to the a b s t r a c t , from the simple to the complex, from the known to the unknown by easy stages each of which serves as a p r e p a r a t i o n f o r the next. Abercrombie, op_. c i t . , pp. 25-27; Brooks, op. c i t . , p. 52; C a r r o l l , op_. c i t . , pp. 155-15$; C a t f o r d , op_. c i t . , p. 171; Dunkel, op. c i t . , pp. 153, 156; F r i e s , op_. c i t . , pp. 3, 7, 32, 60; F r i s b y , op_. c i t . , p. 40; Gurrey, op. c i t . , p. 78; Hagboldt, op. c i t . , pp. 104, 114; Henkl, op. c i t . , pp. l42-l43; Huse, op. c i t . , p. l 6 l ; Jespersen, op_. c i t . , p. 23; Lado, op_. c i t . , p. 3; Mackey, l o c . c i t . ; Palmer, The Oral Method of Teaching Languages, p. IX; _, The S c i e n t i f i c Study and Teaching of Languages, p. 14; Sweet, op_. c i t . , pp. 105, 174; UNESCO, op. c i t . , pp. 50, 152, 226, 251. (4) The sequence of the p r e s e n t a t i o n of the language s k i l l s should be hearing before speaking, speaking before seeing, seeing before w r i t i n g . A n g i o l i l l o , op_. c i t . , p. 412; B l o o m f i e l d , Outline Guide f o r the P r a c t i c a l Study of Foreign 23 Languages, pp. 3, 8; Brooks, op_. c i t . , C a r r o l l , op. c i t . , pp. 186-190; P r i e s , op. c i t . , p. 6; F r i s b y , op_. c i t . , pp. 125, 170; Gurrey, op_. c i t . , p. 17; Henkl, op_. c i t . , pp. 135, 142; Jespersen, op_. c i t . , p. 145; M a l l i n s o n , op_. c i t . , p. 91; Mo r r i s , op_. c i t . , pp. 24-26; Nida, op_. c i t . , p. 21; Palmer, The P r i n c i p l e s of Language Study, p. 149; UNESCO, op_. c i t . , pp. 50-51, 261. N.B. West and Abercrombie disagree w i t h t h i s sequence of p r e s e n t a t i o n , and place reading f i r s t . I t i s i n s t r u c t i v e that no author l i s t e d i n the b i b l i o g r a p h y of t h i s study shares t h e i r view. Abercrombie, op_. c i t . , pp. 16-17, 33. West, Learning to Read a Foreign Language, p. 5. (5) The teaching of a_ second language should  emphasize the o r a l approach. Abercrombie, op_. c i t . , pp. 17-23; A n g i o l i l l o , op. c i t . , p. 2Ti0; B l o o m f i e l d , op_. c i t . , pp. 3, 8; Brooks, op_. c i t . , p. 138; C a r r o l l , op_. c i t . , p.190; F r i e s , op_. c i t , , pp. 6-7; F r i s b y , op. c i t . , p. 33; Gurrey, op_. c i t . , p. 1; Hagboldt, op_. c i t . , pp. 6, 113-114, 151; Henkl, op_. c i t . , p. 147; Jespersen, op_. c i t . , p. 145; M a l l i n s o n , op. c i t . , p. 69; M o r r i s , op. c i t . , pp. 4-6, 24-2o~J 162; Palmer, The Oral Method of Teaching Languages, pp. 15, T 8 7 23; , The Technique of Question- Answering, pp. 2-3; Sweet, op_. c i t . , pT 8 1 UNESCO, op_. c i t . , p . 50. (6) Language i s a_ system of w e l l - l e a r n e d h a b i t u a l responses and should not be taught through r u l e s . Brooks, op_. c i t . , pp. 46, 138; C a r r o l l , op_. c i t . , pp. 190-191; F r i e s , op_. c i t . , pp. 6, 8-9, 26, 34-35; F r i s b y , op_. c i t . , p. 34; Gurrey, op_. c i t . , p. 21; Hagboldt, op_. c i t . , pp. 102-103; Henkl, 24 op. c i t . , pp. l 4 l - l 4 2 ; Jespersen, op_. c i t . , p. 124; M a l l i n s o n , op. c i t . , pp. 43, 51; M o r r i s , op_. c i t . , p. l 6 l ; Palmer, The P r i n c i p l e s of Language Study, p. 80; Sweet, op_. c i t . , pp. 71, 93; UNESCO, op_. c i t . . , pp. 50-51, 229, 250. (7) Grammar should be a_ " t o o l " and not a_ "goal" of language study; i f presented, i t should be taught  i n d u c t i v e l y and f u n c t i o n a l l y ; I t should be avoided In the elementary stages. Morris expresses the views of the a u t h o r i t i e s consulted when he s t a t e s , " I m i t a t i o n and r e p e t i -t i o n of c o r r e c t expression are f a r more e f f i c a -cious i n forming c o r r e c t h a b i t s of usage than grammatical knowledge.... [grammar i s ] not a ready means of promoting the language s k i l l , since i t i s e s s e n t i a l l y a recourse r e q u i r i n g r e f l e c t i o n . " Grammar i n the elementary stages i s condemned. A n g i o l i l l o , op_. c i t . , p. 42; B l o o m f i e l d , Language, p. 505; Brooks, op. c i t . , p. 49; C a r r o l l , op_. c i t . , pp. 1.50-155; Gurrey, op_. c i t . , p. 78; Jesperson, op_. c i t . , p. 128; M a l l i n s o n , op. c i t . , p. 75; M o r r i s , op_. c i t . , pp. 59-60, 02-63, 70-71; UNESCO, op_. c i t . , pp. 51, 250, 262. (8) T r a n s l a t i o n i s a_ p r a c t i c e to be_ avoided. B l o o m f i e l d , op_. c i t . , p. 505; Brooks, op_. c i t . , pp. 50, 138; C a t f o r d , op_. c i t . , p. 187; F r i e s , op. c i t . , p. 7; Hagboldt, op. c i t . , pp. 103, 152; M a l l i n s o n , op_. c i t . , p. 49; M o r r i s , op. c i t . , DI. M o r r i s , The A r t of Teaching E n g l i s h as a. L i v i n g Language (London: Macmillan, 1954), pp. 70-71. 25 pp. 51-52; Palmer, The Technique of Question- Answering, p. 3; UNESCO, op. c i t . , pp. 50-51, 235, 247, 262. (9) P a t t e r n p r a c t i c e should be a_ feature of a method. This common c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the judgments of the a u t h o r i t i e s consulted i s i n d i c a t i v e of the b e l i e f that language should be presented through l a r g e u n i t s , w i t h "... basic p a t t e r n s or formulas, which the student can use by r o t e , and which he can form i n t o the new combinations and i n which he can s u b s t i t u t e . " ^ Abercrombie i s the only 5 a u t h o r i t y who does not support p a t t e r n p r a c t i c e . Brooks, op_. c i t . , pp. 49, 55, 139; Dunkel, op. c i t . , pp~ 4~0, 54, 151, 160; F r i e s , op. c i t . , pp. 9, 34-35, 54; F r i s b y , op_. c i t . , p. 34; Gurrey, op_. c i t . , pp. 21, 70, 73; Henkl, op_. c i t . , pp. 151-152; M a l l i n s o n , op. c i t . , p. 75; M o r r i s , 14-15; Palmer, The P r i n c i p l e s of Language Study, p. 154; Sweet, op_. c i t . , pp. 93, 100, 103; UNESCO, op_. c i t . , pp. 229, 247, 250-253. (10) R e p e t i t i o n should be a_ b a s i c feature of a_ method. Every item s e l e c t e d f o r i n c l u s i o n i n a method should be met repeatedly i n a v a r i e t y of exer-c i s e s i n order to insure mastery of the item. A n g i o l i l l o , op_. c i t . , pp. 410, 4l2; B l o o m f i e l d , Language, p. 505; , Outline Guide f o r the P r a c t i c a l Study of Foreign Languages, pp. 12, I T T 16; Brooks, op_. c i t . , pp. 46, 51-52, 55, 1393-'Dunkel, op. c i t . , p. 57. ^David Abercrombie, Problems and P r i n c i p l e s : Studies  i n . the Teaching of E n g l i s h as a Second Language (London: Longmans, Green, 1956), p. 23. C a r r o l l , op_. c i t . , p. 173; Dunkel, op_. c i t . , pp. 56, 151-152, 155; P r i e s , op_. c i t . , pp. 6-7, 24; F r i s b y , op_. c i t , p. 40; G u i l l e t t e et a l . , op. c i t . , pp, 13, 15; Gurrey, op_. c i t . , pp. 1§, 78; Hagboldt, op. c i t . , pp. 103- 104~7~H2, 154; Henkl, op_. c i t . , pp. 141-142; Huse, op_. c i t . , p. 65; Jespersen, op. c i t . , p. 88; Mackey, l o c . c i t . ; M o r r i s , op_. c i t . , pp. 19, 78, 84, 91, 96~1 Nida, op_. c i t . , pp. 23, 25; Palmer, The S c i e n t i f i c Study and Teaching of Languages, p. 13; Sweet, op_. c i t . , p. 110; UNESCO, op_. c i t . pp. 229, 235.. DEMONSTRATION OP STEP I I Two language teaching methods have been s e l e c t e d f o r demonstration of Steps I I and I I I of the e v a l u a t i o n procedure: (1) Lucas, E d i t h E. E n g l i s h and C i t i z e n s h i p . Toronto: J.M. Dent, 1958". Throughout Steps I and I I t h i s method i s designated Method I . (2) E n g l i s h Language Research Inc. Learning the E n g l i s h Language. Toronto: Thomas Nelson and Sons L i m i t e d , 1949. Throughout Steps I and I I t h i s method i s designated Method I I . Examination of methods I . S e l e c t i o n 1. Por whom was the s e l e c t i o n made? Method I was w r i t t e n f o r nig h t school c l a s s e s . These methods are c u r r e n t l y i n use In B r i t i s h Columbia. An examination of them could prove of i n t e r e s t . 27 Method I I was w r i t t e n "... f o r anyone young or o l d ... p r i m a r i l y designed f o r classroom work.... developed w i t h the needs of the f o r e i g n -p o p u l a t i o n . . . i n mind" (Teacher's Guide, p. i i i ) . 2. How was the s e l e c t i o n made? Method I i s the work of a s i n g l e author. I t was w r i t t e n and t e s t e d by the author. I t i s not based on any frequency count. Method I I i s the work of research teams of the E n g l i s h Language Research Inc., Cambridge, Mass. I t was w r i t t e n by a team of l i n g u i s t s and language teachers, e x t e n s i v e l y t e s t e d , and c o o p e r a t i v e l y r e v i s e d . The method employs Ba s i c E n g l i s h "... as a means to f u r t h e r E n g l i s h ; not as a language complete In I t s e l f f o r I n t e r -n a t i o n a l communication" (Teacher's Guide, p. i i i ) . 3. What i s taught? (a) What s e l e c t i o n of E n g l i s h s t r u c t u r e i s taught? ( i ) s t r u c t u r a l words Method I : the sample examined i s Chaps. 1-3, Bk. I , and represents one quarter of a year's work. Method I I : the sample examined i s Steps 1-8, Bk. I , and represents one quarter of a year's work. Method I Method I I 1 what 13 you 1 t h i s 13 me 2 i s 14 he 2 that 14 him 3 t h i s 15 they 3 I 15 her 4 a 16 she 4 you 16 to 5 6 an 17 whose 5 he 17 from or 18 an 6 she 18 i t 7 no 19 my 7 my 19 on 8 not 20 h i s 8 your 20 o f f 9 yet 21 her 9 h i s 21 i n 10 i t 22 t h e i r 10 her 22 these 11 I 23 our 11 a 23. those 12 we 24 your 12 an 24 they (continued) Method I Method I I 25 at 45 across 25 them 34 tomorrow 26 the 46 i n t o 26 we 35 i s 27 t o 47 when 27 us 36 are 28 on 48 were 28 our 37 and 29 from 49 here 29 you 38 am 30 these 50 someone 30 your 39 w i l l be 31 am 51 something 31 t h e i r 40 was 32 are 52 along 32 the 4 l were 33 of 53 against 33 today 42 yesterday 34 i n 54 w i t h 35 where 55' without 36 how 56 by 37 many 57 that 38 before 58 l a s t 39 a f t e r 59 today 40 w i l l be 60 tomorrow 41 was 61 yesterday 42 near 62 can 43 who 63 dozen 44 f o r Method I - i n a t o t a l of 268 words 63 are s t r u c t u r a l (approximately one q u a r t e r ) . Method I I - i n a t o t a l of 160 words 42 are s t r u c t u r a l (approximately one q u a r t e r ) . ( i i ) i n f l e c t i o n a l forms--verbs Method I : ( l ) present i n d e f i n i t e tense of verb "to be." (2) past i n d e f i n i t e tense of verb "to be." (3) f u t u r e i n d e f i n i t e tense of verb "to be." (4) present i n d e f i n i t e tense of the f o l l o w i n g 87 verbs: 1 .knock 2 open 3 close 4 shut 5 walk 6 s i t down 7 stand up 8 get up 9 go 10 p i c k up 11 take 12 w r i t e N.B. N ; B ; 13 put down 14 read 15 erase ] 16 rub' out 17 speak 18 teach 19 l i v e 20 look 21 come 22 see 23 wait 24 pay N . ' B . 25 hang 26 r i n g 27 ask 28 l i s t e n . 29 understand 30 know 31 answer 32 r a i s e 33 count 34 thread 35 add 36 do (continued) 29 37 d r i v e 54 f a s t e n 71 t w i s t 38 begin '55 use 72 h o i s t 39 have 56 p u l l 73 t i g h t e n 40 say 57 drag . 74 loosen 4 l excuse 58 bind 75 support 42 pass 59 c h i s e l 76 shovel 43 give 60 d r i l l 77 cut 44 beg 61 sharpen 78 solder 45 bump 62 saw 79 separate 46 meet 63 hammer 80 square 47 get 64 lean 81 hold 48 p u l l 65 climb 82 wreck 49 chop 66 l e v e l 83 water 50 bore 67 measure 84 swing 51 i r o n 68 cook 85 l i f t 52 heat 69 screw 86 open 53 melt 70 plane 87 to be Method I I : ( l ) present i n d e f i n i t e tense of verb "to be." (2) past i n d e f i n i t e tense of verb "to be." (3) f u t u r e i n d e f i n i t e tense of verb "to be." (4) present, past, and futu r e i n d e f i n i t e tenses of the f o l l o w i n g 6 verbs 1 give 3 put 5 say 2 get 4 take 6 t o be i n f l e c t i o n a l forms—nouns and pronouns Method I : f l ) p l u r a l of nouns (2) personal pronouns—nominative, o b j e c t i v e , p ossessive. Method I I : f l ) possessive s i n g u l a r of nouns (2) p l u r a l of nouns (3) personal pronouns--nominative, o b j e c t i v e , possessive ( i i i ) syntax patterns (one quarter of a year's work)--sentence patterns7 Method I : ( l ) What i s t h i s ? (2) Is t h i s a door? (3) This i s a door. (4) Is t h i s a door or window? (5) No, t h i s i s not a door. 16) Yes, i t i s . (7) Whose book i s t h i s ? ^For d e f i n i t i o n of "sentence p a t t e r n " as used i n t h i s study see p. 5-30 •9 do! (11) (12) Look at t h i s map of Canada. There are ten provinces on i t . Are there i s l a n d s north of Canada? How many oceans are there on the map of Canada? In what province do you l i v e now? Method I I : ( l j This i s I . 2 ) I give t h i s card to you, ,3) My t r a y i s on the t a b l e . 4) Then i t w i l l be In your hand. (5) I go to the window. syntax p a t t e r n s — p h r a s e p a t t e r n s Method I : (1) a door ,21 t h i s book 3) at the door 4) a piece of chalk (5) (phrasal verbs) take o f f , rub out (6) two i s l a n d provinces (7) from east to west (8) sweep the yard (9) i n what province (10) gives way to Method I I : ) a woman ,2) my book [3} on that t a b l 4) from me to you (5) between us and them (6) f a r from syntax p a t t e r n s — f o r m u l a s Method I : 1 2 ' X 4! 6< Ji 8 f[ 9 < (io; Thank you. Method I I : Good morning I'm s o r r y . I beg your pardon. I'm very s o r r y Excuse me. How are you? How do you do?^ Very w e l l , thank you. What time i s i t ? N.B. N.B. 1) Thank you. [2] Good morning ,3) Please. 4) Goodbye. 31 Summary of syntax p a t t e r n s ; Method I : ( l ) 12 sentences p a t t e r n s — i n c l u d i n g a s s e r t i v e , i n t e r r o g a t i v e , and imperative. (2) 10 phrase p a t t e r n s . (3) 10 f o r m u l a s — u n p r o d u c t i v e r e p e t i t i o n e.g. I'm s o r r y , I !m very s o r r y , I beg your pardon. Method I I : (l) 5 sentence p a t t e r n s — a l l a s s e r t i v e . (2^ 6 phrase p a t t e r n s . (3) 4 formulas. The sentence types of Methods I and I I can absorb a l l the vocabulary. The phrase types of Methods I and I I f i t i n t o the sentence types. (b) What s e l e c t i o n of E n g l i s h vocabulary i s taught? ( i ) nouns: Method I . Chaps. 1-3: 9 a b s t r a c t nouns (e.g. colour, number, p i e c e , p a r t , middle, t h i n g , problem) : the a b s t r a c t noun "part " i s taught w i t h "of." : the a b s t r a c t noun "answer" i s taught w i t h " t o . " : 128 concrete nouns: these nouns are mainly everyday words w i t h the exception of pp. 5^-56 which describe t o o l s . Method I I . Steps 1-i every noun Is concrete except "statement." every noun i s an every-day word and h i g h l y u s e f u l . ( i i ) verbs: Method I. 87 verbs l i s t e d on p.28 i n c l u d e u s e f u l verbs (e.g. go, take, see), but many (e.g. erase, bore, melt, drag, bind) have l i m i t e d a p p l i -c a t i o n , and impose a heavy l e a r n i n g 32 load, e s p e c i a l l y i n the elementary stages. The r e p e t i t i o n of synonymous  verbs (e.g. erase, rub out) i s w a s t e f u l . The i n c l u s i o n of 5 p h r a s a l verbs Imposes l e a r n i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s . Method I I . 6_ verbs l i s t e d on p. 29 are of high frequency and ther e f o r e h i g h l y u s e f u l . ( i i i ) m o d i f i e r s : Method I Method I I 1 east 10 blue 19 yellow 2 west 11 brown 20 same 3 north 12 dark 21 d i f f e r e n t 4 small 13 green 22 p o l i t e 5 wide 14 l i g h t 23 s o r r y 6 high 15 p i n k 24 rude 7 approximately 16 purple 25 w i l l 8 s t r a i g h t 17 red 26 z i g - z a g 9 black 18 white 27 r i g h t Method I : introduces m o d i f i e r s at the s i x t h l e s s o n . : the adverb "approximately" has teaching and l e a r n i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s i n elementary stages of language. : "pink" and "purple" are not u s e f u l i n a beginner's course.' Method I I : the two a d j e c t i v e s "wet" and "dry" are introduced i n Step 7. (c) What s e l e c t i o n of E n g l i s h phonetics i s taught? Method I . none Method I I . none (d) What s e l e c t i o n of E n g l i s h semantics i s taught? Method I . There are repeated instances of s e v e r a l words or s t r u c t u r e s per meaning (e.g. Ch. 1: "seat," " c h a i r " ; " r e p l y , " "answer"; Ch. 4: " l a r g e , " " b i g " ; "I'm so r r y , " "I'm very s o r r y , " " I beg your pardon.") 33 Method I I . There are 4 instances of non-i d i o m a t i c E n g l i s h : Step 7: "cord" f o r " c l o t h e s l i n e " ; Step 15: "great" f o r " l a r g e " (e.g. "a great p a r c e l " ) ; Step 20: " b i t s of cake" f o r "pieces of cake"; Step 14: "Mary w i l l go on the f l o o r " f o r "Mary w i l l f a l l on the f l o o r . " These 4 instances r e s u l t from the l i m i t e d vocabulary. The meanings, otherwise, are w e l l chosen and c l o s e l y connected. 4. What q u a n t i t y of E n g l i s h i s taught? (a) structure—sample--one quarter of one year. Method I 12 sentence p a t t e r n s 10 phrase p a t t e r n s 10 formulas Method I I 5 sentence patterns 6 phrase p a t t e r n s 4 formulas (b) vocabulary Method I year's course: 1,202 words one quarter: 268 words of which one t h i r d are s t r u c t u r a l . nouns: 128 concrete 9 a b s t r a c t verbs: 87 5 are p h r a s a l m o d i f i e r s : 27 s t r u c t u r a l words: 63 Method I I year's course: 571 words one quarter: l60 words nouns: 109 concrete 1 a b s t r a c t verbs: 6 m o d i f i e r s : 2 s t r u c t u r a l words: 42 (c) phonetics Method I . Separate pronunciation e x e r c i s e s are i n c l u d e d ; not a l l the sounds and sound c l u s t e r s are based on the words and forms s e l e c t e d t o be taught i n the method. No teaching of phonetics i s in c l u d e d . Method I I . No p r o n u n c i a t i o n e x e r c i s e s are i n c l u d e d . No teaching of phonetics i s inclu d e d . The teacher's guide of each method discusses the teaching of p r o n u n c i a t i o n . 34 5. Does everything s e l e c t e d f i t together? Method I . The s e l e c t e d meanings, forms, and s t r u c t u r e s do f i t together. The words s e l e c t e d and a l l t h e i r meanings do f i t together i n t o the s e l e c t e d forms and s t r u c t u r e s . The q u a n t i t y of s e l e c t i o n imposes a heavy l e a r n i n g load upon the student,'and a heavy teaching load . upon the i n s t r u c t o r . Method I I . The s e l e c t e d meanings, forms, and s t r u c t u r e s do f i t ' together. The words s e l e c t e d and a l l t h e i r meanings do f i t together i n t o the s e l e c t e d forms and s t r u c t u r e s . The system of the method as a r e s u l t of i t s c o n t r o l l e d s e l e c t i o n combines a minimum l e a r n i n g load w i t h a maximum range of meaning and expression. I I . Grading 1. S t r u c t u r a l grading. (a) s t r u c t u r a l w o r d s — f i r s t 20 of method. Method I Method I I 1 what 11 are 1 i s 11 that 2 i s 12 you 2 1 12 a 3 t h i s 13 he 3 you 13 me 4 a 14 they 4 he 14 you 5 or 15 she 5 she 15 him 6 not 16 whose 6 my 16 her 7 i t 17 my 7 your 17 to 8 1 18 h i s 8 h i s 18 from 9 we 19 her 9 her 19 i t 10 am 20 t h e i r 10 t h i s 20 on Method I : begins w i t h general reference word " t h i s " ( c f . Teacher's Guide p. 8). I t has the most frequent word " i s . " Method I l t b e g i n s w i t h general reference words, " t h i s , " " t h a t . " I t has the most frequent word " i s . " 35 i n f l e c t i o n a l forms (based upon one quarter of year's work) Method I : ( l ) verb-"to be"—past,- present, and fu t u r e i n d e f i n i t e . 2) s i n g u l a r and p l u r a l of nouns. 3) nominative, o b j e c t i v e , and possessive of personal pronouns except " i t s . " (4) present i n d e f i n i t e tense of a l l verbs. (5) a s s e r t i v e and i n t e r r o g a t i v e forms of 1 a l l verbs i n the present i n d e f i n i t e tense. (6) negative statements In the present i n d e f i n i t e tense. Method I I : ( l ) present i n d e f i n i t e tense of. a l l verbs. (2) past i n d e f i n i t e tense of a l l verbs. (3) f u t u r e i n d e f i n i t e tense of a l l verbs. (4) s i n g u l a r and p l u r a l of nouns. Most nouns s e l e c t e d form t h e i r p l u r a l s i n " s , " and the v a r i a n t s upon t h i s r u l e are no memory load w i t h the minimum voca-b u l a r y of the method. (5) nominative, o b j e c t i v e , and possessive of personal pronouns except " i t s . " (6) possessive form of nouns. syntax patterns ( i ) s e n t e n c e — f i r s t f i v e sentence p a t t e r n s of method. Method I : ( l ) This i s a door. (2) What Is t h i s ? (3} Is t h i s a door or window? (4) No, t h i s i s not a door. (5) Is t h i s a door? Method I I : (l) This i s I . (or) This Is me. (2) I give t h i s card to you. (3) My t r a y i s on the t a b l e . (4) Then i t w i l l be i n your hand. (5) I go to the window. 36 Summary: Method I inc l u d e s i n t e r r o g a t i v e as w e l l • a s ' a s s e r t i v e sentences. I t incl u d e s negative as w e l l as a f f i r m a t i v e p a t t e r n s . Method II:has only a s s e r t i v e sentences, and except f o r sentence p a t t e r n (5) i s l i m i t e d t o the general p a t t e r n of Subject + Verb + Complement. :has a choice of simple b a s i c p a t t e r n s , a l l o w i n g opportunity f o r r e p e t i t i o n to promote habit formation. * r e : u s e f u l n e s s : Method I does not f o l l o w the order of frequency : Method I I f o l l o w s the order of frequency. r e : t e a c h a b i l i t y : Method I : only ( l ) and (4) p a r a l l e l s i t u a t i o n s . Method I I : the 5 pat-terns p a r a l l e l s i t u a t i o n s . r e : e x p a n s i b i l i t y : Method T l ( l ) This i s a door (she, hat, open, p e n c i l , etc.) (2) What i s (are) t h i s (these)? (3) Is (are) t h i s (these) a door (shoe, etc.) or window (hat, e t c . ) ? (4) No, t h i s (these) i s fare) not a door (pen, e t c . ) . (5) Is (are) t h i s (these) a door (hat, e t c . ) ? Method I I : ( l ) T h i s (these) i s (are) not a door (pen, e t c . ) . (2)1 (he, we) give (take, etc.) t h i s (these) card ( l e t t e r , etc.) to (from, etc.) you (him, e t c . ) . 37 Summary: Method I : Method I I : ( i i ) p h r a s e — f i r s t f i v e Method I (1) a door ( 2 ) t h i s door (3) at the door (4) a piece of chalk (5) take o f f Summary: (3) My (your, etc.) t r a y (hook, etc.) i s (are) on (under,.etc.) the t a b l e ( c h a i r , e t c . ) . (4) Then i t (they) w i l l be i n (on, etc.) your ( h i s , etc.) hand ( t a b l e , e t c . ) . (5) I (he) go (walk) t o (from, etc.) the window (door, e t c . ) . sentence patterns (3), (4), and (5) are f u l l y expanded. every element of each p a t t e r n can be expanded. I t t h e r e f o r e has good s t r u c t u r a l expansion. phrase patterns of method. Method I I (1) a woman (2) my book (3) on that t a b l e (4) from me to you (5) near t o . Method I : s t a r t s w i t h simple patterns and leads to more complex ones. Method I I : s t a r t s w i t h simple patterns and leads to more complex ones. ( i i i ) formula Method I : 10 formulas i n the f i r s t quarter of the course ( l i s t e d on p. 30); 5 of these formulas are synonymous, the r e f o r e w a s t e f u l . Method 11:4 u s e f u l formulas. 3 8 2. L e x i c a l grading (a) nouns Method I : begins w i t h teachable names f o r items t h a t can be seen, touched, and manipulated. : the nouns "blackboard," "eraser," "basket," e t c . (Lesson l ) are not h i g h l y u s e f u l . : the concrete nouns are u s e f u l f o r the s t r u c t u r e s taught; they make c l e a r such s t r u c t u r a l words as "on," " i n , " " t o , " "from." : the a b s t r a c t nouns are based on con-crete words which define them (e.g. pp. 6 1 - 6 5 : the noun "food" i s based on vari o u s f r u i t s , vegetables, e t c . ) . Method I I : begins w i t h teachable names f o r Items that can be seen, touched, and manipulated. : a l l nouns are of high frequency. : the concrete nouns are u s e f u l f o r the s t r u c t u r e s taught. : only 1 a b s t r a c t noun eases the teach-i n g and l e a r n i n g loads. (b) verbs Method I : 8 7 verbs i n f i r s t quarter of year's work. : not a l l verbs are of high frequency. : f i r s t 6 v e r b s — " t o be," "knock," "open," " c l o s e , " "walk," " s i t down" i l l u s t r a t e l a c k of grading; the p h r a s a l verb does not f o l l o w the simple verb. Method I I : 7 verbs i n f i r s t quarter of method. : a l l are h i g h l y u s e f u l , and are able to manipulate many items. (c) m o d i f i e r s Method I : f i r s t m o d i f i e r s are Introduced at Lesson 6 . a l l are r e a d i l y teachable except "approximately." lesson on p. 7 6 uses p i c t u r e s and o p p o s i t i o n . 11 39 : names of items which define the q u a l i t y words are Introduced before the m o d i f i e r s . Method I I : the 2 m o d i f i e r s "wet" and "dry" are introduced i n Step J. : a l l q u a l i t y words i n the method are u s e f u l , frequent, and teach-able . 3. Phonetic grading Method I: phonetics are not a p a r t of the method i n any formal sense. Method I I : phonetics are not a p a r t of the method i n any formal sense. 4. Semantic grading (a) s t r u c t u r a l meanings ( i ) s t r u c t u r a l words e.g. the teaching of Method Method I I : (1) on my c h a i r ' 2 ) on the blackboard 3) puts on her gloves '4) puts on h i s coat 5J on the map t h i s i s good semantic grading; the p h y s i c a l meanings are taught f i r s t . 'l} on t h i s t a b l e ' 2 ) on t h i s t r a y 3 ) on t h i s g l a s s '4) on that w a l l 5) on that door t h i s i s good semantic grading: the most frequent p h y s i c a l mean-ings are taught f i r s t w i t h r e p e t i t i o n . ( i i ) i n f l e c t i o n a l forms Method I . ( l ) present i n d e f i n i t e tense i n the h a b i t u a l a c t i o n sense. 4o (2) 1 s - g e n i t i v e - i n the f i r s t quarter of the method only the meaning of pos-session i s used, e.g. "John's s i s t e r . " Method I I . ( l ) present i n d e f i n i t e tense--h a b i t u a l a c t i o n sense. (2) "s - g e n i t i v e - i n the f i r s t quarter of the method only the meaning of pos-session i s used. ( i i i ) syntax patterns ( l ) sentence patterns Method I . e.g. Subject Verb Complement This i s a door. fa) i d e n t i f i c a t i o n (b) l o c a t i o n (c) performs an a c t i o n . Method I I . e.g. Subject Verb Complement This i s my nose, a.) i d e n t i f i c a t i o n b) l o c a t i o n (c) does some-t h i n g to somebody. Methods I and I I s t a r t w i t h the same meanings i n patterns of l o g i c a l order, but Method I contains 2.4 times as many patterns as does Method I I . (2) phrase patterns Both methods f o l l o w the modifier-noun p a t t e r n . (b) l e x i c a l meanings ( i ) nouns Method I has the f o l l o w i n g extensions of meaning: p. 102 - the p a r t s of the body are described; p. I l l - "the face of the clo c k " and "the hands of the c l o c k . " 41 ( i i ) verbs Method I imposes the f o l l o w i n g d i f f i c u l t y — the f i r s t meanings of "give" and "get" which are taught are: ( l ) "He gives way to a lady"; (2) " I get on the bus. h There Is l a c k of grading. Method I I teaches the f i r s t meanings of "give" and "get": ( l ) " I give t h i s card to you"; (2) "You get t h i s card from me." The meanings of Method I I are p h y s i c a l and e a s i l y teachable. Method I I has good semantic grading. Systematic grading (a) words i n t o f a m i l i e s Method I : The words f i t i n t o manageable f a m i l i e s : (1) the whole goes w i t h the p a r t s , e.g. classroom—desks, books, blackboards; (2) the general does go w i t h the p a r t i c u l a r , e.g. f r u i t — a p p l e s , oranges, bananas; f a m i l y — f a t h e r , mother, s i s t e r , brother; (3) the object does go w i t h i t s complement, e.g. t e a c h e r — students, school. (4) words of common denominator are taught together, e.g. hat, coat. (5) there i s i n t e r l i n k i n g of things and events, e.g. going to school-bus, f a r e , e t c . Method I I : The words f i t i n t o manageable f a m i l i e s : (1) the whole goes w i t h the p a r t s , e.g. r o o m — w a l l , window, door. (2) the general does go w i t h the p a r t i c u l a r , e.g. f r u i t - - a p p l e s , oranges, e t c . (3) the object does go w i t h i t s complement, e.g. t e a c h e r -l e a r n e r , school. (4) words of common denominator are taught together, e.g. l o c k , key. 42 (b) words i n t o phrase p a t t e r n s In both methods the words do f i t the phrase s t r u c t u r e s which are i n c l u d e d . (c) phrases i n t o sentence p a t t e r n s In both methods the phrases do f i t the sentence p a t t e r n s which are i n c l u d e d . Summary of systematic grading: Method I : the sentences make up u n i t s which give meaning and sequence which form s i t u a t i o n s . Method I I : the sentences make up u n i t s which give meaning and sequence which form s i t u a t i o n s . : each u n i t i s based on the previous u n i t . : a l l of the u n i t s combine. : i s graded w i t h a minimum l e a r n i n g l e a d , and a maximum range of mean-in g and expression. : i s a graded synthesis of s t r u c t u r e , form, and meaning. How productive i s the s e l e c t i o n of sentence patterns? Method I - based on pp. 1-12. - 7 sentences p a t t e r n s p r o d u c t i v i t y [II 1) What i s t h i s ? 2) (a) This i s a door. 1 3 x 6 x 1 x 44 792 (b) I am a teacher. 9 x 1 x 1 x 44 396 (c) My name i s . 6 x 45 x 1 x 45 ' 12,150 (3) (a) Is t h i s a door or window? 1 x 2 x 4 5 x 1 x 4 5 : 4,050 (b) Is t h i s my or my 1 x 1 x 7 x T 5 x 7 x~4~5 99,225 (4) I s t h i s a door? 1 x 7 x 1 x 45 315 (5) No, t h i s i s not a book. 1 x 1 x 1 x 1 x 7 x 45 315 43 - 7 sentences patterns p r o d u c t i v i t y (6) (a) Yes, you are a teacher. 1 x 7 x 1 x 45 315 (b) What i s h i s name? 1 x 1 x 7 x 45 315 (7) Whose book i s t h i s ? 1 x 45 x 1 x 1 45. T o t a l p r o d u c t i v i t y 117,928 Method I I - based on Steps 1 and 2 - one sentence p a t t e r n - Noun + Verb + Complement T o t a l p r o d u c t i v i t y 2,299 Summary: Method I has high p r o d u c t i v i t y i n sentence pa t t e r n s ( 2 ) ( c ) , ( 3 ) ( a ) , and ( 3 ) ( b ) . The remaining sentence patterns are not productive The heavy vocabulary load and J sentence patterns are not adequately productive f o r the elementary stages of language l e a r n i n g . Method I I uses the most frequent sentence p a t t e r n , and w i t h a minimum vocabulary has s a t i s f a c t o r y p r o d u c t i v i t y . Intake ( i . e . What i s the r a t e at which new m a t e r i a l i s int r o d u c e d ? ) . (a) s t r u c t u r a l i n t a k e : Method I : sentence p a t t e r n s In the f i r s t quarter of method - 12 sentence p a t t e r n s i n the f i r s t 12 pages - 7 sentence patterns Method I I : sentence p a t t e r n s i n the f i r s t quarter of method - 5 sentence patterns i n Steps 1 and 2 - 1 sentence pattern,:. Comparison of grading of sentence p a t t e r n s : Method I i s 2.4 times as s t e e p l y graded i n the f i r s t quarter as i n Method I I . Method I i s 7 times as s t e e p l y graded i n the f i r s t 12 pages than i s Method I I i n the equivalent Steps 1 and 2. 44 Method I : formulas i n the f i r s t quarter-- 1 0 formulas Method I I : formulas i n the f i r s t q u a r t e r — 4 formulas Comparison of grading of formulas: Method I i s 2 .5 times as s t e e p l y graded as Method I I . Method I : phrase patterns i n the f i r s t q u a r t e r — 1 0 phrase patterns Method I I : phrase p a t t e r n s i n the f i r s t q u a r t e r — 5 phrase patterns Comparison of grading of phrase p a t t e r n s : Method I i s 2 times as s t e e p l y graded as Method I I . (b) l e x i c a l i ntake Method I In a year teaches 1,202 words Method I I i n a year teaches 571 words Comparison of word i n t a k e : Method I i s 2 + times as st e e p l y graded i n word intake as i s Method I I . Method I i n the f i r s t q u a r t e r — 63 s t r u c t u r a l words 87 verbs 128 concrete nouns 9 a b s t r a c t nouns Method I I i n the f i r s t q u a r t e r — 42 s t r u c t u r a l words 6 verbs 124 concrete nouns 1 a b s t r a c t noun Usefulness of words Method I : 27 words out of 2 6 8 — 1 0 . 1 ^—are not In the General Service L i s t . 45 ( l ) a b b r e v i a t i o n [^) 12) blouse (l-1-) (3) calendar i-1-2) (4) c e i l i n g (-L3) (5) student l-^} (6) decimal (l5) (7) bracket i 1^) (8) wrench (-'-7) (9) v i s e (18) a f f i r m a t i v e (19) hack-saw bump (20) forehead cloakroom (21) lemon zig-zag (22) f a r e song 23) .kilometre deny (24) province p u l l e y (25 axe c h i s e l (26 h o i s t d r i l l (27) plywood Method I I ; 6 words out of l60--3.7%-- are not i n the General Service L i s t . ( 1 ) chin (4) oven • (2) cord (5) potato (3) k e t t l e (6) province Comparison of usefulness of words: The vocabulary of Method I I i s more u s e f u l than that of Method I f o r the average student. I I I . P r e s e n t a t i o n 1. Form (a) In what order are the language s k i l l s presented? Method I : ( l ) r e c o g n i z i n g sounds and sound groups ("... the student must hear and l e a r n to pronounce a word before he i s re q u i r e d t o read i t , " Teacher's Guide, p. 6.).. (2) understanding speech. (3) p r o n u n c i a t i o n . (4) speaking. (5} r e c o g n i z i n g l e t t e r s . (6) reading. (7) w r i t i n g . Method I I : the p r e s e n t a t i o n i s the same as that f o r Method I / The steps of pr e s e n t a t i o n are explained i n " D e t a i l s of Teaching Procedure," Teacher's Guide, pp. x - x i i i . 46 (b) In. what manner are the language s k i l l s presented? ( l ) the spoken language: Method I : ( i ) l i s t e n i n g — t o the teacher. ( i i ) s p e a k i n g — i m i t a t i o n of the teacher. Method I I : ( i ) l i s t e n i n g — t o the teacher. ( i i ) s p e a k i n g - - i m i t a t i o n of the teacher. (cl (2) the w r i t t e n language: Method I : ( i ) reading: (a) f l a s h cards recommended, blackboard. c h o r a l reading of m a t e r i a l already-taught by teacher (cf. Teacher 1 s  Guide, p. 8 . ) . ( i i ) w r i t i n g models: *a) p r i n t e d In t e x t , 'b) blackboard c) f l a s h cards recommended. Method I I : ( i ) reading: (a) f l a s h cards recommended, (b) blackboard. I t i s recommended that reading be s i l e n t at f i r s t (Teacher 1s  Guide, p. x i i i . ) . ( i i ) w r i t i n g : (a) f l a s h cards recommended, (b) blackboard. 2. How i s meaning taught? (a) No use of n a t i v e language i s made i n e i t h e r  method. (b) Objects, a c t i o n s , and s i t u a t i o n s . ( i ) o b j e c t s : both methods teach meaning through o b j e c t s . : s p e c i f i c d i r e c t i o n s are.given In the Teacher's Guide of each method. 47 : emphasis i s placed upon c a r e f u l l y c o n t r o l l e d gestures and upon accur-ate and n a t u r a l p r o n u n c i a t i o n . : teach both vocabulary and s t r u c t u r e . : teach p o s i t i o n . : teach time. ( i i ) a c t i o n s : both methods s t r e s s c a r e f u l a c t i o n s to make meaning c l e a r . ( i i i ) s i t u a t i o n s : both methods have mechanisms which all o w f o r changing words i n a p a t t e r n , while the p a t t e r n remains unchanged. : both methods put s t r u c t u r e i n t o s i t u a t i o n s which give s o c i a l meaning. (c) P i c t u r e s . ( i ) classroom p i c t u r e s : none w i t h e i t h e r method. ( i i ) textbook p i c t u r e s : Method I : i l l u s t r a t i v e p i c t u r e s to focus a t t e n t i o n of l e a r n e r . Method I I : f u n c t i o n a l p i c t u r e s to teach meaning. ( i i i ) f i l m s t r i p s and s l i d e s : none w i t h e i t h e r method. '(-iv) f i l m s and f i l m loops: none w i t h e i t h e r method. ( d) Words i n context. ( i ) d e f i n i t i o n : Method I : uses t h i s device, e.g. explanation of " f r u i t , " " f a m i l y , " e t c . Method I I : uses t h i s device, e.g. explanation of "colour," "food," etc.. ( i i ) enumeration of c l a s s e s of t h i n g s : Method I : uses t h i s device, e.g.: ( l ) number, p. 5 ; colour, p. 5 0 . Method I I : uses t h i s device, e.g.: col o u r , Step 13. 48 ( i i i ) metaphor: Method I : uses t h i s , e.g. "a c l o c k has hands and a f a c e , " p. 111. ( i v ) s u b s t i t u t i o n : i s used i n both methods. (v) o p p o s i t i o n : i s used e x t e n s i v e l y i n both methods. e.g. Method I, pp. 7 6 - 7 7 : c l o s e d — o p e n f a t - - t h i n t a l l — s h o r t e.g.Method I I , Step J: wet--dry. ( v i ) m u l t i p l e context: i s used i n both methods. Habit Formation 1. Comprehension (a) a u d i t o r y . ( i ) phonetic comprehension d r i l l s : none i n e i t h e r method. ( i i ) semantic comprehension d r i l l s : both methods use l i s t e n and p o i n t , and l i s t e n and do e x e r c i s e s . (b) v i s u a l . ( i ) r e c o g n i t i o n d r i l l s : the Teacher's guide of each method gives d i r e c t i o n s f o r • f l a s h cards. ( i i ) extensive reading: n e i t h e r method has supple-mentary readers. 2. Expression (a) o r a l . ( i ) p r o n u n c i a t i o n d r i l l s : Method I: provides d r i l l s f o r i s o l a t e d words, many of which are not taught i n the method. 49 : the n o t a t i o n of the Merriam-Webster D i c t i o n a r y i s used f o r these d r i l l s . ' ? ( i i ) speech d r i l l s : (1) speech through a c t i o n s Method I : ( i ) look and say. ( i i ) do and say. ( i i i ) d ramatization of model dialogues. Method I I : ( i ) look and say ( i i ) do and say. (2) speech through p i c t u r e s : both methods have i l l u s t r a t e d t e x t s . (3) speech through speech: both methods use: (I) question and answer d r i l l s based on the t e x t , ( i i ) s u b s t i t u t i o n t a b l e s , ( i i i ) e x e r c i s e d r i l l s that can be used f o r o r a l d r i l l , ( i v ) conversion, completion, matching, (v) reproduction d r i l l s : Method I : gives s p e c i f i c d i r e c t i o n s , i n the Teacher's Guide, P. 19. Method I I : gives s p e c i f i c d i r e c t i o n s i n the Teacher's Guide, p. 16. "... some d i c t i o n a r y makers have invented a phonetic or pseudophonetic annotation of t h e i r own, mostly based on popular s p e l l i n g , so as to be r e a d i l y a c c e s s i b l e to the reader s c i e n t i f i c a l l y u n t r ained, even at the expense of s c i e n t i f i c accuracy...Merriam-Webster uses s i x t y - f i v e symbols f o r English....[Langenscheidt's system i s a l s o described] A l l these systems represent sounds, even f o r e i g n sounds i n the phonology of t h e i r own language, and are th e r e f o r e bound to f a i l i n t h e i r u l t i m a t e purpose. The Merriam-Webster... commits, i n a d d i t i o n to u s i n g i t s own symbols and not those of the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Phonetic Association,' the grave e r r o r of u s i n g as phonetic symbols l e t t e r s which have an e s t a b l i s h e d phonetic value elsewhere." Henkl, op_. c i t . , pp. 112-113. 50 (b) w r i t t e n ( i ) Neither method has formal s p e l l i n g d r i l l s , but both have s p e l l i n g i n completion e x e r c i s e s , a l t e r a t i o n e x e r c i s e s , and word b u i l d i n g e x e r c i s e s . • ( i i ) There i s w r i t i n g of sentences i n both methods i n completion e x e r c i s e s , conversion e x e r c i s e s , and reproduction e x e r c i s e s . ( i i i ) Both methods in c l u d e e x e r c i s e s i n reading and understanding. DEMONSTRATION OP STEP I I I The purpose of Step I I I i s to determine the extent t o which the examination of Methods I and I I (Step I I ) r e f l e c t s the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a good method (Step I ) . 1. The study of language should be i n l i n g u i s t i c terms. Method I . This c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i s absent. The examination of the s e l e c t i o n (pp. 27-34) and of grading (pp. 34-45) r e v e a l s that the method i s not e n t i r e l y based upon the p r i n c i p l e s of modern l i n g u i s t i c science and that the f i n d i n g s of l i n g u i s t i c research have not been c o n s i s t e n t l y a p p l i e d to e i t h e r the choice or sequence of lesson m a t e r i a l s . Method I I . This c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i s present. The systematic s e l e c t i o n and grading (pp. 27-45) i n d i c a t e a l i n g u i s t i c approach. Bas i c E n g l i s h , that i s , the a n a l y s i s of E n g l i s h vocabulary and sentence p a t t e r n s by C. K. Ogden,is the foundation of the method, and provides the means to postpone the problems„of more complex E n g l i s h u n t i l a l i m i t e d vocabulary and syntax have been f u l l y mastered. 2. Economy should apply i n s e l e c t i o n of m a t e r i a l . Method I . This c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i s absent. Absence of economy i s i n d i c a t e d by the f o l l o w i n g examples: ( l ) synonyms " c l o s e " and "shut", "stand 51 up" and "get up", "erase" and'tub out" (p. 28); (2) the synonymous formulas "I'm s o r r y " , "I'm very s o r r y " , " I beg your pardon" (p. 30); (3) the three sentence p a t t e r n s , "Is t h i s a door or window?", "No, t h i s i s not a door.", "This i s a door." (p. 35), are not capable of easy f u r t h e r expansion; (4) pro-n u n c i a t i o n d r i l l s i n c l u d e i s o l a t e d words many of which are not taught i n the method (p. 48). Method I I . This c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i s present. R i g i d economy i s i n d i c a t e d by a slow r a t e of Intake of vocabulary and s t r u c t u r e , e.g. the sample of one quarter of one year's work Includes only 5 sentence p a t t e r n s , 6 phrase p a t t e r n s , 4 formulas, and 160 words (p. 33). Every noun Is concrete (except "statement"). The use of B a s i c E n g l i s h as the foundation of the method i s evidence of economy of s e l e c t i o n . 3. Grading should be a p p l i e d to a l l aspects of language. Method I . This c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i s absent. Incomplete grading i s i n d i c a t e d by: (1) Intake f o r one quarter of one year's.work: (a) s t r u c t u r a l : 12 sentence patterns (7 sentence p a t t e r n s i n pp. 1-12), • 10 formulas, 10 phrase p a t t e r n s (pp. 43-44). (b) l e x i c a l : 268 words (p. 33). (2) L e x i c a l grading: the r e p e t i t i o n of synonyms, e.g. "seat" and " c h a i r " , " r e p l y " and "answer", " l a r g e " and " b i g . " (3) Semantic grading: 5 verbs are p h r a s a l (e.g. "take o f f " , "rub out") and the r e f o r e impose teaching and l e a r n i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s because the sum of the p a r t s does not equal the meaning (p. 32); the f i r s t meanings taught f o r " give" and "get" are "He gives way to a lady" and " I get on the bus." (p. 4 l ) . (4) Phonetic grading: absent. 52 Method I I . This c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i s present except f o r phonetic grading. (1) Intake f o r one quarter of one year's work: (a) s t r u c t u r a l : 5 sentence patterns ( l sen-tence p a t t e r n i n Steps 1 and 2), 4 formulas, 5 phrase p a t t e r n s . (b) l e x i c a l : 160 words (p. 33). (2) L e x i c a l grading: the r i g o r o u s r e d u c t i o n of verbs to 6 of high frequency. (3) Semantic grading: s h i f t s of meaning are avoided, e.g. Ogden's work on p r e p o s i t i o n s , e t c . i s followed f o r sound grading (p. v i i i , Teacher 1s Guide). (4) Phonetic grading: absent. (5) S t r u c t u r a l grading: the vocabulary s e c t i o n (pp. 27-29) i n d i c a t e s s i m p l i f i c a t i o n of the language by concentration upon the manipulatory sentence-building words r a t h e r than upon the names and q u a l i t i e s which these words connect i n the v a r i o u s s t r u c t u r e p a t t e r n s of the language; the order of frequency i n sentence pa t t e r n s i s f o l l o w e d , i . e . the f i r s t 5 patterns are a l l a s s e r t i v e ; the sentences make up: ( l ) u n i t s ; (2) s i t u a t i o n s which give meaning, and (3) sequences which form or express s i t u a -t i o n s . Each u n i t i s based on the previous u n i t . 4. The sequence of p r e s e n t a t i o n of the language s k i l l s should  be hearing before speaking, speaking before seeing, seeing  before w r i t i n g . Method I . This c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i s present. The order of p r e s e n t a t i o n i s l i s t e n i n g to the teacher, speaking i n I m i t a t i o n of the teacher, reading, w r i t i n g (p. 46). Method I I . This c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i s present and i s i d e n t i c a l to Method I (p. 46). 53 5. The teaching of a_ second language should emphasize the o r a l  approach. Method I . This c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i s present (p. 45). Method I I . This c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i s present (p. 45).^ 6. Language i s a system of w e l l - l e a r n e d h a b i t u a l responses  and should not be taught through r u l e s . Method I . This c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i s present. Rules are not employed i n the sample of method examined. Method I I . This c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i s present. Rules are not employed. 7 . Grammar should be a. " t o o l " and not a. "goal" of language  study, and, i f presented, be taught i n d u c t i v e l y and  f u n c t i o n a l l y . Method I . This c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i s absent. Formal grammatical terms are used from the outset as headings and sub-headings of the.various chapters. No i n d i c a t i o n i s given, e i t h e r i n the t e x t of the method or i n the teacher's guide, Suggestions f o r Teachers, how these terms are to be used. Method I I . This c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i s present. Method I I uses no formal grammar. The method makes "... no attempt to Inform ... about the grammatical make-up o f . E n g l i s h , but devises i n s t e a d a conducted journey through i t s most u s e f u l sentence p a t t e r n s i n a sequence which w i l l make what i s s a i d and how i t i s s a i d com-pr e h e n s i b l e , " (Teacher's Guide f o r Learning the  E n g l i s h Language, p. i i i ) . yThe sentence p a t t e r n , " I give t h i s card t o you," though not the usual o r a l p a t t e r n , " I give you t h i s card" has the f o l -lowing teaching advantages: ( l ) many v a r i a t i o n s of word order can be b u i l t up from i t without confusion; (2) The sentence i s an example of word order f o l l o w i n g e x a c t l y the order of the a c t i o n which i t de s c r i b e s , that . i s , the sentence i s demonstrably l u c i d . 8. T r a n s l a t i o n i s §_ p r a c t i c e t o be avoided. Method I . This c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i s present. The method employs the d i r e c t approach, I.e. i t teaches E n g l i s h by u s i n g E n g l i s h . Method I I . This c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i s present. The method employs the d i r e c t approach, i . e . i t teaches E n g l i s h by us i n g E n g l i s h . 9. P a t t e r n p r a c t i c e should be a. feature of a_ method. Method Method I I . This c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i s present to a l i m i t e d degree. The examination of h a b i t formation (pp. 48 -50) i n d i c a t e s that the importance of e s t a b l i s h i n g c o r r e c t sentence patterns i s recognized. This c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i s present. The examination of ha b i t formation (pp. 48 -50) i n d i c a t e s r e c o g n i t i o n of t h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c . The s c i e n t i f i c grading w i t h a minimum l e a r n i n g load allows time f o r ample p r a c t i c e . 1 0 . R e p e t i t i o n should be a ba s i c feature of a_ method, Method I . Method I I . This c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i s not a ba s i c f e a t u r e . This c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i s present. The s c i e n t i f i c grading incorporates r e p e t i t i o n , and provides plateaus of l e a r n i n g . Conclusions on b a s i s of demonstrated e v a l u a t i o n procedure: ( 1 ) Method I has some of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a good method. (2) Method I I has more of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a good method. I t observes greater economy i n s e l e c t i o n and more c a r e f u l grading ( c f . comparison of grading of sentence p a t t e r n s , formulas, phrase p a t t e r n s and l e x i c a l i n t a k e and usef u l n e s s , pp. 43-45); I t avoids formal grammar; i t provides more r e p e t i t i o n than does Method I . The procedure of e v a l u a t i o n used shows that Method I I s a t i s f i e s more of the r e q u i r e -ments of a good method. CHAPTER V SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS I t has been the purpose of t h i s study to o u t l i n e and to demonstrate a technique of method e v a l u a t i o n f o r the teacher of E n g l i s h as a second language to adult s i n m u l t i l i n g u a l c l a s s e s . The need to s u b s t i t u t e f a c t f o r opi n i o n , and to s u b s t i t u t e o b j e c t i v i t y f o r s u b j e c t i v i t y i n the choice of method has prompted the study. The procedure recommended i n Steps I, I I , and I I I of Chapters I I I and IV i s able to supply argument and reason f o r choice of method. Two f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c e the worth and v a l i d i t y of Step I , the survey of pronouncements of a u t h o r i t i e s . The f i r s t f a c t o r i s the extent of the pronouncements reviewed. The survey must be r e p r e s e n t a t i v e . N either one school of thought nor the pronouncements of a u t h o r i t i e s of one country Is s u f f i c i e n t . The second f a c t o r i s recency. The survey must in c l u d e the most recent research and p u b l i c a t i o n s . .An i l l u s t r a t i o n of t h i s a r i s e s from the demonstrated survey i n Chapter IV. No statement can be made at t h i s time concerning the teaching of pronunciation i n a method. The a u t h o r i t i e s consulted are d i v i d e d . 1 Opinions range from that of M a l l i n s o n who advocates the Ma l l i n s o n , op_. c i t . , p. 57. .57 2 formal teaching of phonetics, through B l o o m f i e l d who advocates i m i t a t i o n and who would employ phonetics only to make the student s e n s i t i v e t o f o r e i g n sounds, to Nida who sta t e s that "... mimicry i s the key to language l e a r n i n g . " Yet research i n the teaching of p r o n u n c i a t i o n could conceivably i n the near fu t u r e supply an approach which might be g e n e r a l l y accepted and be a f u r t h e r d i r e c t i o n t o the language teacher. I t i s of the utmost importance that E n g l i s h language c l a s s e s f o r f o r e i g n students studying i n Canada and f o r landed immigrants to t h i s country be as productive as pos-s i b l e . With the former the n e c e s s i t y stems from concern f o r the i n d i v i d u a l ' s needs and development, and f o r the i n v a l u a b l e goal of c u l t u r a l exchange; w i t h immigrants the n e c e s s i t y stems not only from the f i n a n c i a l investment of the three l e v e l s of government i n E n g l i s h c l a s s e s as w e l l as the immigrants' own investment i n energy, time, and fees, but a l s o from the advantage t o the Canadian community In the newcomers becoming p a r t of that community as r a p i d l y as p o s s i b l e . An adequate knowledge of the language, that which mediates between man and h i s environment, i s the key to f u l l p a r t i c i p a t i n g membership i n the community. Choice of s u i t a b l e method Is a s i g n i f i c a n t item In promoting a s u c c e s s f u l language teaching programme that B l o o m f i e l d , op_. c i t . , p. 5 . •^Eugene Nida, Learning a. Foreign Language (New York: Foreign Missions Conference of North America, 1 9 5 0 ) , P. 2 3 . 58 i s productive and that s u p p l i e s the student w i t h an adequate knowledge of the language, the key to f u l l p a r t i c i p a t i n g membership i n the community. Method ev a l u a t i o n i s a means to insure choice of a good method, and t h e r e f o r e i s a means to an improved language programme. The procedure proposed here i s , however, of l i m i t e d v a l u e . I t i s l i m i t e d by the number of common c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s determined by the survey of pronouncements. The i l l u s t r a t i o n of the procedure has nothing to say, f o r example, concerning the appeal of method content; i t has nothing to say concern-in g the s e l e c t i o n , grading, and p r e s e n t a t i o n of phonetics. The common c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the i l l u s t r a t i o n are by no means complete and cannot c o n s t i t u t e the sole c r i t e r i a f o r choice of method. Despite experimentation there i s l i t t l e evidence to show to what extent aspects of method are themselves produc-t i v e of superior or i n f e r i o r r e s u l t s ; the f u r t h e r f i n d i n g s of educational p s y c h o l o g i s t s , of schools of education, and of l i n g u i s t i c s c i e n t i s t s must be awaited to provide a d d i t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Therefore, t h i s study provides but a common denominator, a minimum set of requirements of a good method. Any choice of method must a l s o depend upon the ob j e c t i v e s set up f o r language study, upon the teacher, h i s p e r s o n a l i t y , h i s s k i l l and i n t e r e s t , upon the agency under-t a k i n g the language programme, upon the age, i n t e l l i g e n c e , and motivation of the students, and upon the l i n g u i s t i c 59 surroundings i n which the language i s learned. The procedure developed and i l l u s t r a t e d i n t h i s study, though l i m i t e d , can be u s e f u l i n promoting a language programme. BIBLIOGRAPHY Language and L i n g u i s t i c s A l l e n , Harold Boughton. (ed.) Readings i n Ap p l i e d E n g l i s h  L i n g u i s t i c s . New York: Appleton-Century C r o f t s , 1958. Bloch, Bernard, and George L. Trager. Outline of L i n g u i s t i c A n a l y s i s . B a l t i m o r e : L i n g u i s t i c S o c i e t y of America, 1942. B l o o m f i e l d , Leonard. Language. New York: H o l t , 1933. B l o o m f i e l d , Leonard. On Recent Work i n General L i n g u i s t i c s , Modern P h i l o l o g y 25: 211-30 (1927). Boas, Franz. Race, Language, and C u l t u r e . New York: Macmillan, 1940. C a r r o l l , John B. The Study of Language. Cambridge: Harvard U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1955. Gleason, H. A. An I n t r o d u c t i o n to D e s c r i p t i v e  L i n g u i s t i c s i New York: H o l t , 1955-Gray, Louis H. Foundations of Language. New York: Macmillan, 1939. H a l l , Robert A., J r . Leave Your Language Alone i Ithaca: L i n g u i s t i c a , 1950. H a l l , Robert A., J r . "American L i n g u i s t i c s , 1925-1950-;" Archivum L i n g u i s t i c u m , 3: 101-25 (1951) and 4: 1-16 (1952). H a l l , Robert A., J r . L i n g u i s t i c s and Your Language. Garden C i t y , New York: Doubleday and Company, Inc., i960. H a r r i s , Z e l l i g S. Methods i n S t r u c t u r a l L i n g u i s t i c s . Chicago: U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago Press, 1951. Hockett, Charles F. A Course In Modern L i n g u i s t i c s . New York: Macmillan, 195b. Hockett, Charles F. "Review of Travaux du Cercle L i n g u i s t i q u e de Copenhague V, Recherches S t r u c t u r a l l e s I n t e r n a t i o n a l J o u r n a l of American L i n g u i s t i c s , 18: 86-99 (1952). : Jespersen, Otto. Language: I t s Nature, Development, and  O r i g i n . London: A l l e n and Unwin, 1922. Joos, M a r t i n , (ed.). Readings i n L i n g u i s t i c s : The Develop- ment of D e s c r i p t i v e L i n g u i s t i c s i n America since 1925. Washington: American Council of Learned S o c i e t i e s , 1957. Lado, Robert. L i n g u i s t i c s Across C u l t u r e s . Ann Arbor, Michigan: U n i v e r s i t y of Michigan Press, 1957. M i l l e r , George A. Language and Communication. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1951. S a p i r , E. Language. New York: Harcourt, Brace and Co., Harvest E d i t i o n , 1948. Sturtevant, Edgar H. An I n t r o d u c t i o n to L i n g u i s t i c Science. New Haven: Yale U n i v e r s i t y Press. Trager, G. L. "The F i e l d of L i n g u i s t i c s . " Studies i n  L i n g u i s t i c s . Occasional Papers, 1 (March, 1949). Whorf, Benjamin Lee. Language, Thought, and R e a l i t y . Selected W r i t i n g s of Benjamin L. Whorf. E d i t e d by John B. C a r r o l l . New York: Wiley, 1956. I I . E n g l i s h Language Aiken, Janet Rankin. E n g l i s h : Present and Past. New York: The Ronald Press Company, 1930. B a r f i e l d , Owen. H i s t o r y i n E n g l i s h Words. London: Methuen and Co. L t d . , 1926. Baugh, A l b e r t C. A H i s t o r y of the E n g l i s h Language, 2nd e d i t i o n . New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1957. Classen, E. Outlines of the H i s t o r y of; the E n g l i s h Language London: Macmillan, 1930. Emerson, O l i v e r Farran. The H i s t o r y of the E n g l i s h Language London: Macmillah, 1935. Jespersen, 0. Growth and Structure of the E n g l i s h Language. Oxford: B l a c k w e l l , 194B7 Krapp, George P h i l i p . Modern E n g l i s h : I t s Growth and Present Use. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1909. Leonard, S t e r l i n g A. Current E n g l i s h Usage. E n g l i s h Monograph No. 1, N a t i o n a l Council of Teachers of E n g l i s h 1932. 62 McKnight, George H. Modern E n g l i s h i n the Making. New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1930. Robertson, S t u a r t , and F r e d e r i c G. Cassidy. The Development  of Modern .English. 2nd e d i t i o n . New York: P r e n t i c e H a l l , 1954. V a l l i n s , G. H. The P a t t e r n of E n g l i s h . London: Andre Deutsch L i m i t e d , 1956. Wyld, Henry C e c i l . A Short H i s t o r y of E n g l i s h . London: John Murray, 1937. I I I . Vocabulary S e l e c t i o n F r i e s , Charles C , and A. A i l e e n Traver. E n g l i s h Word  L i s t s . Ann Arbor,-. Michigan: The George Wahr P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1950. Lorge, I r v i n g . The Semantic Count of 570 Commonest E n g l i s h  Words. New York: Teachers College, Columbia U n i v e r s i t y , 1949. Thorndike, Edward L. and I r v i n g Lorge. The Teacher 1s Word  Book of 30,000 Words. New York: Teachers College, Columbia U n i v e r s i t y , 1952. West, Michael. A General Service L i s t of E n g l i s h Words. London; New York; Toronto: Longmans, Green and Co., Th i r d Impression, 1957. IV. Grammar F r i e s , Charles C. American E n g l i s h Grammar: The Grammatical  Str u c t u r e of Present Day American E n g l i s h w i t h E s p e c i a l  Reference to S o c i a l D i f f e r e n c e s of Class D i a l e c t s . New York: D. Appleton-Century, 1950. F r i e s , Charles C. The Structure of E n g l i s h . New York: Harcourt, Brace and Company, 1952. F r a n c i s , W. Nelson. The Structure of American E n g l i s h . New York: Ronald Press Co., 195^7 H i l l , A r c h i b a l d A. An I n t r o d u c t i o n t o L i n g u i s t i c S t r u c t u r e s : From Sound to Sentence i n E n g l i s h . New York: Harcourt, • Brace, 1958. :63 Jespersen, Otto. A Modern E n g l i s h Grammar i n H i s t o r i c a l  P r i n c i p l e s . Heidelberg: C a r l Winter, 6 v o l s . , 1909-31. Jespersen, Otto. The Philosophy.of Grammar. New York: Holt 1925. Jespersen, Otto. E s s e n t i a l s of E n g l i s h Grammar. New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1939-L l o y d , Donald J . , and Harry R. Warfel. American E n g l i s h i n i t s C u l t u r a l S e t t i n g . New York: A l f r e d A. Knopf, 195(57 P i k e , K. L. "Grammatical P r e r e q u i s i t e s to Phonemic A n a l y s i s Word, 3 (1947), PP. 155-72. Roberts, P a u l . Understanding Grammar. New York: Harper, 1954. Roberts, P a u l . Patterns of E n g l i s h . New York: Harcourt and Brace, 1956. Roberts, P a u l . Understanding E n g l i s h . New York: Harper, 1958. Sledd, James. "A Review of S t r u c t u r a l E s s e n t i a l s of E n g l i s h , American E n g l i s h i n i t s C u l t u r a l S e t t i n g , and Patterns of E n g l i s h , " Language, 33 (1957), PP. 261-271. Sledd, James. A Short I n t r o d u c t i o n to E n g l i s h Grammar. Chicago, A t l a n t a , e t c . : S c o t t , Foreman and Co., 1959. Sledd, James. "A Review of An Outline of E n g l i s h Structure and The Structure of E n g l i s h , " Language, 31 (1955)> pp. 312-345. W h i t e h a l l , Harold. S t r u c t u r a l E s s e n t i a l s of; E n g l i s h . New York: Harcourt, Brace, 1956. Phonetics Aiken, Janet Rankin. Why E n g l i s h Sounds Change.. New York: The Ronald Press Company, 1929. Jones, D a n i e l . The Pronunciation of E n g l i s h . Cambridge, England: Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1950. 64 Jones, D a n i e l . An Outline of E n g l i s h Phonetics. 7 t h e d i t i o n . Cambridge, England: W. Heffer and Sons L t d . , 1 9 5 6 . Jones, D a n i e l . An E n g l i s h Pronouncing D i c t i o n a r y . New York: E.P. Dutton and Company, Inc., 1 9 4 6 . Kenyon, John S. American Pr o n u n c i a t i o n . 9 t h e d i t i o n . Ann Arbor," Michigan: George Wahr, P u b l i s h e r , 1 9 4 6 . Kingdon, Roger. The Teaching of E n g l i s h I n t o n a t i o n . London: The B r i t i s h C o u n c i l . Kingdon, Roger. The Groundwork of E n g l i s h S t r e s s . London: Longmans, Green, 195BT Kingdon, Roger. The Groundwork of E n g l i s h I n t o n a t i o n . London; New York: Longmans, Green, 1 9 5 8 . Kingdon, Roger. E n g l i s h I n t o n a t i o n P r a c t i c e . London: Longmans, Green, 1 9 5 8 . M i c k l i n , Thomas. The Sounds of Standard E n g l i s h . Oxford: The Clarendon Press, 1 9 2 0 . Newman, S. S. "On the Stress System of E n g l i s h . " Word, 2 ( 1 9 4 6 ) , pp. 1 7 1 - 1 8 7 . P i k e , Kenneth L. The In t o n a t i o n of American E n g l i s h . Ann Arbor: U n i v e r s i t y of Michigan Press, 1 9 4 6 . P i k e , Kenneth L. "On the Phonemic Status of E n g l i s h Diphthongs." Language, 23 ( 1 9 4 7 ) , pp. 1 5 1 - 1 5 9 . Palmer, Harold E. A Grammar of Spoken E n g l i s h : on a_ S t r i c t l y  Phonetic B a s i s . Cambridge, England: W. Heffer and Sons L t d . , 1 9 3 9 . Swadesh, M. "On the A n a l y s i s of E n g l i s h S y l l a b l e s . " Language, 23 ( 1 9 4 7 ) , pp. 1 3 7 - 1 5 0 . Schubiger, Maria. E n g l i s h I n t o n a t i o n : I t s Form and Function. Tubingen: M. Niemeyer, 1 9 5 8 . Trager, George L. and Henry Lee Smith, J r . An Outline of  E n g l i s h S t r u c t u r e . Norman, Oklahoma: Battenburg Press, 1 9 5 1 . Wise, Claude Merton. A p p l i e d Phonetics. Englewood C l i f f s , New Jersey: P r e n t i c e - H a l l , 1957. '£5 Whorf, B. L. "Phonemic A n a l y s i s of E n g l i s h pf Eastern Massachusetts." Studies i n L i n g u i s t i c s , 2, 21-40 (1943). And: Trager, G. L. "Comments on B. L. Whorf." Studies i n L i n g u i s t i c s 2. 41-44 (1943). Wells, Roulon S. "The P i t c h Phonemes of E n g l i s h . " Language, 21 (19^5), PP. 27-39. VI." Methodology Abercrombie, David. Problems and P r i n c i p l e s : Studies i n the  Teaching of E n g l i s h as a_ Second Language. London and New York: Longmans, Green" 195©• Agard, F r e d e r i c k B., and Harold B. Dunkel. An I n v e s t i g a t i o n  of Second-Language Teaching. New York: Ginn and Company, 194bC A n g i r l i l l o , Paul F. Armed F o r c e s 1 Foreign Language  Teaching: C r i t i c a l E v a l u a t i o n and I m p l i c a t i o n s . New York: S. F. Vanni, 1947. Bennett," Rodney. The F i r s t Steps' i n Speech T r a i n i n g . Boston: Expression Company, 1937. B l o o m f i e l d , Leonard. Outline Guide f o r the P r a c t i c a l Study  of Foreign Languages. Published by the L i n g u i s t i c S o c i e t y of America, 1942. Brooks, Nelson. Language and Language Learning: Theory  and P r a c t i c e . New York: Harcourt, Brace and Company, i960. • • Chapman, L. R. H. •Teaching E n g l i s h t o Beginners. London: Longmans, Green" 1958. Cochran, Anne. Modern Methods of Teaching E n g l i s h as_ a_ Foreign Language. Washington, D.C.: E d u c a t i o n a l Services^ 19547 Cole, R. D. and J . B. Thorp. Modern Foreign Languages and  Their Teaching. New York: D. Appleton Century Company, 1937. Comenius, John.Amos. The Great D i d a c t i c , w i t h i n t r o d u c t i o n s , b i o g r a p h i c a l and h i s t o r i c a l by M. W. Keatinge. London: Adam and Charles Black, 1896. C o r n e l i u s , Edwin T., J r . Teaching E n g l i s h . Washington, D. C : Washington P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1955. 66 Dunkel, Harold B. Second-Language Learning. New York: Ginn and Company^ 1948. E n g l i s h f o r Foreign Students. Handbook f o r Foreign Student  A d v i s e r s , Part V I I I . New York: N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n f o r Student A d v i s e r s , i960. E n g l i s h Language S e r i e s , No. I, Numbers 1-2. New York: The N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n of Foreign Student A d v i s e r s , New York U n i v e r s i t y , A p r i l , 1958. Emmons, Margaret L. et a l . O r i e n t a t i o n and E n g l i s h I n s t r u c t i o n f o r Students from Other Lands. B u l l e t i n 1950. No. 8. Federal S e c u r i t y Agency, O f f i c e of Education, Washington, D. C : United States Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e . F r i e s , Charles C. Teaching and Learning E n g l i s h a_s_ a_ Foreign Language. Ann Arbor: U n i v e r s i t y of Michigan Press, 1945. French, F. G. Common E r r o r s In E n g l i s h : Their Cause, Prevention and Cure. London: Geoffrey Cumberlege. Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1949. French, F. G. The Teaching of E n g l i s h Abroad. London: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1959. Gatenby, E. V. E n g l i s h as a Foreign Language. London: Longmans, Green and Co.~, 1944. G a u n t l e t t , J . 0. B a s i c P r i n c i p l e s of E n g l i s h Language  Teaching. Tokyo: Sanseido, 1951. G a u n t l e t t , J . 0. Teaching E n g l i s h as a_ Foreign Language. London: Macmillan, 1957. G u i l l e t t e , Cameron C , L. C l a r k Keating, Claude P. Viens. Teaching §_ Modern Language. New York: F.S. C r o f t s and Co., 19%2~. Gurrey, P e r c i v a l . Teaching E n g l i s h as a_ Foreign Language. London: Longmans, Green, 1956. Hagboldt, Peter. Language Learning. Chicago: The U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago Press, 1935. Henkl, R o l f . P h i l o l o g y - L i n g u i s t i c s . Ferozsons, Peshawar: U n i v e r s i t y of Kabul, 1952. :6;7 Hicks, David. Foundations of E n g l i s h f o r Foreign Students. Teachers' Book. London: Longmans, Green, 1956. Huse, H. R. The Psychology of Foreign Language Study. Chapel H i l l : The U n i v e r s i t y of North C a r o l i n a Press, 1931. L e a v i t t , L. W. The Teaching of E n g l i s h to Foreign Students. London; New York: Longmans, Green, 1946. M a l l i n s o n , Vernon. Teaching a_ Modern Language. London: W i l l i a m Heinemann L t d . , 1953. M o r r i s , Isaac. The Teaching of E n g l i s h as a Second  Language. London: Macmillan, 1954. Nida, Eugene. Learning a Foreign Language. New York: Foreign Missions Conference of North America, 1950. Ogden, C. K. The S t r u c t u r e of Bas i c E n g l i s h . New York: Harcourt, Brace, 1934. Palmer, Harold E., and H. V. Redman. The Language Learning Business. New York: World Book Company, 1932. Palmer, Harold E. The Technique of Question-Answering. Tokyo: The I n s t i t u t e f o r Research i n Language Teaching, 1958. Palmer, Harold E. The Teaching .of Oral E n g l i s h . London: Longmans, Green, 1958. Palmer, Harold E. The S c i e n t i f i c Study and Teaching of  Languages. London: George G. Harrap, 1917. Palmer, Harold E. The P r i n c i p l e s of Language Study. London: George G. Harrap, 1928. Palmer, Harold E. The Oral Method of Teaching Languages. Cambridge, England: W. He f f e r , 1923. Pooley, Robert C. Teaching E n g l i s h Usage. New York: Appleton-Century-Croft, 1956. Quirk, Randolph, and A.H. Smith (eds.) The Teaching  of E n g l i s h . Studies i n Communication 3. London: Seeker and Warburg, 1959-Roberts, P a u l . Understanding E n g l i s h . New York: Harper, 1958. 68 Roche, Andre J . L'Etude Des Langues Vivantes et Ses Problernes. Presses U n i v e r s i t a i r e s de France, 1955. S t e v i c k , E a r l W. Helping People Learn E n g l i s h ; A Manual  f o r Teachers of E n g l i s h as a_ Second Language. New-York: .Abingdon Press, 1957. Selected A r t i c l e s from Language Learning, Series I, E n g l i s h as a Foreign Language. Ann Arbor: Michigan, 1953. Smith, Henry Lee. L i n g u i s t i c Science and the Teaching of  E n g l i s h . Cambridge, U.S.A.: Harvard U n i v e r s i t y Press; 195^ Somaratno, Wierakandabuge Richard Perera. Aids and Tests  i n the Teaching of E n g l i s h as §_ Second Language. London: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1957. UNESCO. The Teaching of Modern Languages. Amsterdam: UNESCO, 1955. Van Syoc, B r i c e , ed. L i n g u i s t i c s and the Teaching of  E n g l i s h as a_ Foreign Language. Language Learning: A J o u r n a l of Ap p l i e d L i n g u i s t i c s , S p e c i a l Issue, June, 1958. West, Michael. 0n_ L e a r n i n g to Speak a_ Foreign Language. London: Longmans, Green, 1933. West, Michael. Learning t o Read a_ Foreign Language. London: Longmans, Green, 1955. Wilmers, W i l l i a m E. Spoken E n g l i s h . as a_ Foreign Language . I n s t r u c t o r ' s Manual. Washington, D.C'.: American Cou n c i l of Learned S o c i e t i e s , . 1953• / V I I . A u d i o - V i s u a l Aids i n Language Teaching Marty, Fernand. Language Laboratory Learning. W e l l e s l e y , Mass.: Audio-V i s u a l P u b l i c a t i o n s , I 9 6 0 . Stack, Edward M. The Language Laboratory and Modern  Language Teaching. New York: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press, 19^0~. Strevens, Peter. A u r a l Aids i n Language Teaching. London: New York: Longmans, Green, 19587 69 V I I I . Textbooks ACLS. E n g l i s h f o r Foreigners S e r i e s . 0 A l l e n , ¥. Stannard. L i v i n g E n g l i s h S t r u c t u r e : A P r a c t i c e  Book f o r Foreign Students. 4 t h e d i t i o n . London; New York:.Longmans, Green, 1959. A l l e n , V i r g i n i a French.. People i n Fact and F i c t i o n : S e l e c t i o n s Adapted f o r Students of E n g l i s h as a_ Foreign Language. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1957. The Commonwealth O f f i c e of Education, f o r the Department of Immigration. E n g l i s h f o r Newcomers to A u s t r a l i a :  Students' Book One. 5 th e d i t i o n (1958); Students' Book Two. 4 t h e d i t i o n (1956); Teachers' Book. 4~th e d i t i o n 1956. C r o f t , Kenneth, and A. L. Davis. A P r a c t i c a l Course i n  E n g l i s h f o r Foreign Students. U n i t s 1-5. Washington, D.C: American U n i v e r s i t y Language Centre, 1957. C r o f t , Kenneth. Reading and Word Study: .For Students of  E n g l i s h as a. Second Language. Englewood C l i f f s , New Jersey: P r e n t i c e - H a l l ^ I960. Doty, Gladys G. and Ross, Janet. Language and L i f e i n the U.S.. A. American E n g l i s h f o r Foreign Students. Evanston, I l l i n o i s : Row, Peterson and Co., i 9 6 0 . E n g l i s h Language I n s t i t u t e S t a f f [ U n i v e r s i t y of Michigan], Robert Lado, D i r e c t o r ; Charles C F r i e s , Consultant. E n g l i s h Sentence P a t t e r n s , (1958J. E n g l i s h P a t t e r n P r a c t i c e s , (1958). E n g l i s h P r o n u n c i a t i o n , VT95Q). Lessons i n Vocabulary, ( l 9 5 6 ) . (An Intensive Course i n E n g l i s h ) Ann Arbor, Michigan: U n i v e r s i t y of Michigan Press. E n g l i s h Language Research Inc. Learning the E n g l i s h Language. Toronto: Thomas Nelson and Sons L i m i t e d , 1949. Harrop, Leonard B. An. E n g l i s h Phonetic Reader. Published by the author, March, 1957. ( A v a i l a b l e from the M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y Book Store, Montreal.) King, Harold V., and R u s s e l l N. Campbell. Modern E n g l i s h  Primer. P a r t s I .and I I . Washington, D.C: Washington P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1956, 1957. fo" Lucas, E d i t h C. E n g l i s h and C i t i z e n s h i p . Toronto: J . M. Dent,. 1958. Mcintosh, L o i s , et a l . E n g l i s h as a_ Second Language w i t h  S p e c i a l A p p l i c a t i o n to Hungarians. The American Language Centre, Columbia U n i v e r s i t y . New York: Rinehart, 1957. Paratore, Angela. E n g l i s h Dialogues f o r Foreign Students. New York: Rinehart, 195b. Richards, I . A. and C h r i s t i n e Gibson. E n g l i s h Through  P i c t u r e s . Book I and Book I I . New York: Pocket Books Inc., 1958. Robinson, Richard H., Donald F. T h e a l l , and.John ¥. Wevers, researchers. Let's Speak E n g l i s h . Toronto: W. J . Gage L t d . , i960. S t r u c t u r a l Notes and Corpus: A B a s i s f o r the Preparation  of M a t e r i a l s t o Teach E n g l i s h as a_ Foreign Language. Published by the Committee on the Language Programme, American Council of Learned S o c i e t i e s , Washington, D.C., 1952. (This i s a textbook f o r students w i t h explanations and i n s t r u c t i o n s w r i t t e n i n E n g l i s h and addressed to the student.) Trager, E d i t h Crowell, and Sarah Cook Henderson. Pronunciation D r i l l s f o r Learners of E n g l i s h . The P.D.'s. Washington, D.C: American Language Centre, American U n i v e r s i t y , 1956. Wohl, M i l t o n , and Ruth C. Metcalf. E n g l i s h i s Spoken.' Pa r t s I and I I . Washington, D.C: Washington P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1958. 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0106196/manifest

Comment

Related Items