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Municipal policy in social assistance : a comparative review of social assistance policy in selected… Wiedeman, Frank Victor 1959

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MUNICIPAL POLICY IN SOCIAL ASSISTANCE A Comparative Review of S o c i a l Assistance P o l i c y i n Selected Major C i t i e s of Western Canada, 1959.  by FRANK VICTOR WIEDEMAN HARVEY SHELDON LAMMER  Thesis Submitted i n P a r t i a l Fulfilment of the Requirements for the Degree of MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK i n the School of S o c i a l Work  Accepted as conforming to the standard required f o r the degree of Master of S o c i a l Work  School of S o c i a l Work  1959 The University of B r i t i s h Columbia  iv  ABSTRACT Municipalities have always been the c r u c i a l element i n s o c i a l assistance. But recent events which make a comparative study of s o c i a l assistance p o l i c y timely are (a) the current community i n t e r e s t i n the adequacy of s o c i a l assistance allowances i n Vancouver, and (b) the passage of the Unemployment Assistance Act amendment of 1958. The c i t i e s studied comprises c i t i e s of Vancouver, Burnaby, Edmonton, Regina, and Winnipeg. The aspects of p o l i c y p a r t i c u l a r l y examined include: the determination of need, the extent to which the c i t i e s are w i l l i n g to meet that need; residence p o l i c y ; r e l a t i v e s ' r e s p o n s i b i l i t y ; assistance given to the able-bodied unemployed; income to lowincome f a m i l i e s ; and the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n services offered the client. As introduction material the h i s t o r i c a l impact of the Poor Law t r a d i t i o n i n Canada i s reviewed, also the l e g a l background of p r o v i n c i a l s o c i a l assistance. Questionnaires were formulated and submitted to the c i t y welfare departments. Interviews were held with the public assistance administrators i n Vancouver, Burnaby, Edmonton and Regina. P o l i c y manuals are u t i l i z e d wherever a v a i l a b l e . Several studies on r e h a b i l i t a t i o n approaches to public assistance c l i e n t s i n the United States were examined for comparative purposes. The s i m i l a r i t y of s o c i a l assistance l e g i s l a t i o n i n the provinces shows as the f i r s t finding of t h i s study. Only B r i t i s h Columbia and Saskatchewan, however, have so far abolished the l o c a l residence q u a l i f i c a t i o n s to comply with the signed Unemployment Assistance agreements. A l l the c i t i e s have made an e f f o r t to standardize and l i b e r a l i z e p o l i c i e s respecting assessment of resources and income. Limited dental and o p t i c a l services are provided under each c i t y ' s health program, which should be expanded. I t i s argued that the budget-deficit method for determining grants meets the c l i e n t s needs more adequately than the flat-grant-plus-supplement method. Each c i t y now provides f i n a n c i a l assistance to the able-bodied unemployed but i t i s suggested that each c i t y should examine their p o l i c y on supplementing income to low-income f a m i l i e s . Multiple-purpose agencies ( i l l u s t r a t e d by Burnaby and Edmonton) appear as most e f f e c t i v e i n providing services to "multiple-problem" f a m i l i e s . Coordination of services, public and private, optimum innovations i n the use of personnel and the i n i t i a t i o n of research are necessary for the most e f f e c t i v e r e h a b i l i t a t i o n program. One informational contribution i s the d e s c r i p t i o n of some of the components of resources and budget items within the s o c i a l assistance program. 1  In the  presenting  requirements  of  British  it  freely  agree for  that  for  Columbia, available  thesis  I agree for  purposes  o r by h i s  that  copying  or  gain  s h a l l not  degree  fulfilment  at  the  the  Library shall  reference  and  study.  extensive  may b e  copying  granted  representatives.  allowed  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Vancouver $, Canada.  this  without  It  thesis  is  make  further this  Head o f  thesis my  understood  for  my w r i t t e n  Columbia,  I of  by t h e  of  University  that  p u b l i c a t i o n of be  in partial  an advanced  permission for  scholarly  Department  this  financial  permission.  In p r e s e n t i n g the  t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of  requirements f o r an advanced degree at the  University  of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the  L i b r a r y s h a l l make  it  study.  f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference  agree t h a t  and  I further  permission f o r e x t e n s i v e copying of t h i s t h e s i s  f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may  be granted by the  Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s .  Head of  my  I t i s understood  that  copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l  gain  s h a l l not be allowed without my  Department of ( 3 a-6^o^ The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Vancouver 8, Canada. Date  frleuf  f,  ?  Columbia,  written  permission.  ii  TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter 1.  The Canadian Approach to Public Assistance  The impact of the "Poor Law" t r a d i t i o n ; early beginnings i n Canada. Current programs of public assistance i n Canada. Legal background of p r o v i n c i a l s o c i a l assistance. The need f o r a descriptive study of S o c i a l Assistance p o l i c i e s . Method of study Chapter 2.  Eligibility  28  Standards of Assistance  Methods of determining need. The actual rates of assistance granted. Special provisions f o r s p e c i a l needs. Determination of continuing e l i g i b i l i t y . Health services ... Chapter 4.  1  Qualifications  Residence q u a l i f i c a t i o n s . The assessment of resources; r e a l property, personal property and income. Relatives' r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . P o l i c y on able-bodied unemployed. P o l i c y on supplementing income to low-income families Chapter 3»  Page  55  P o l i c y on R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Services  D e f i n i t i o n of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . P o l i c y of c i t i e s on r e h a b i l i t a t i o n ; the resources available; the use made of r e f e r r a l . Multi-purpose agencies; Burnaby and Edmonton. Refer to studies i n the United States  97  Chapter 5. A Comparative Assessment Public welfare p r i n c i p l e s . L e g i s l a t i v e foundation. E l i g i b i l i t y q u a l i f i c a t i o n s ; residence, assessment of resources, r e l a t i v e s ' r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , p o l i c y on able-bodied unemployed, supplementing income to low-income f a m i l i e s . Standards of assistance; methods of determining need; rates of assistance; s p e c i a l provisions; health services. Policy on r e h a b i l i t a t i o n services. General recommendations ........  113  Appendices: A. B.  Questionnaire on S o c i a l Assistance P o l i c y Bibliography  130 134-  iii  TABLES IN TEXT Table 1.  Page  Rates of Assistance of C i t y S o c i a l Service  60  Department, Vancouver Table 2.  Rates of Assistance of Edmonton Welfare 62  Table 3.  Department Monthly Allowances by Category, S o c i a l Service Department, Regina  64  Average Monthly Allowances by Category, Department of Public Welfare, Winnipeg  65  Table 4. Table 5.  Table 6.  Table 7.  Public Assistance Rates granted to " T y p i c a l Family Groups" i n Vancouver, Burnaby, Edmonton, Regina, Winnipeg  •  69  Special P r o v i s i o n Allowances i n S o c i a l Assistance P o l i c y i n Vancouver, Burnaby, Edmonton, Regina and Winnipeg  72-74  Health Services Provided f o r S o c i a l Assistance Recipients i n Vancouver, Burnaby, Edmonton, Regina, and Winnipeg «  84-86  V  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS  The writers wish to acknowledge the assistance of the following persons i n the preparation of this study. To Professor W. G. Dixon, Director of the School of S o c i a l Work and Dr. Leonard C. Marsh of the Faculty for their counsel and assistance i n the preparation of this t h e s i s . To the following people for their co-operation and i n t e r e s t and for providing the material on p o l i c y i n their respective c i t i e s . Miss Margaret Gourley, Welfare Director, Vancouver C i t y S o c i a l Service Department. Mr. E. L. Coughlin, Administrator, S o c i a l Service Department, Corporation of the D i s t r i c t of Burnaby. Mr. E. S. Bishop, Superintendent, C i t y Welfare Department, Edmonton. Mr. J . A. B u t t e r f i e l d , Director, S o c i a l Service Department, Regina. Mr. C. A. Patrick, Director, Public Welfare Department, Winnipeg.  MUNICIPAL POLICY  IN SOCIAL  ASSISTANCE  CHAPTER I THE CANADIAN APPROACH TO PUBLIC ASSISTANCE The present Canadian public welfare programs are, h i s t o r i c a l l y speaking, r e l a t i v e l y new, but they are based upon early English law. As early as 1572,  the Parliament of England  passed a law for the "Relief of the Poor" which recognized the p r i n c i p l e of public r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for dependent classes. This Act provided for the appointment of overseers of the poor i n every parish. The overseers were empowered to raise weekly by taxation a sum of money s u f f i c i e n t for the necessary r e l i e f of the lame, impotent, aged, b l i n d , and for apprenticing dependent children. This Act also enunciated the doctrine of family r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . Subsequently,  this law was incorporated i n the Elizabethan Poor  Law of 1601, which may be accepted as the beginning of our present welfare program. The Elizabethan Poor Law of 1601 set up f o r the f i r s t time an e f f e c t i v e system of administration, placing the poor r e l i e f operations i n the hands of the parishes and organizing a d e f i n i t e system of obligatory financing. "....Furthermore i t enunciated three s p e c i f i c classes to be r e l i e v e d :  the dependent  children, the abled-bodied unemployed, and the i n f i r m .  Also the  kind of assistance to be given to each group was s p e c i f i e d . "  2  Miles, Arthur P., An Introduction to Public Welfare. Boston, D. C. Heath and Company, 194-9, pp. 26-27. 1  2  Ibid., p. 28.  2  Further entrenchment of the p r i n c i p l e of l o c a l public respons i b i l i t y for the destitute i s exemplified  i n the punitive and  harsh Act of Settlement of 1662, whereby a recent a r r i v a l to a parish could be refused r e l i e f and repatriated to where the person was l a s t l e g a l l y s e t t l e d .  Following  this period hospitals,  houses of correction, and almshouses or workhouses were established by l o c a l authorities i n many communities i n England. In Canada, previous to Confederation, the influence of both B r i t i s h and L a t i n ideals and customs was apparent.  Poor  r e l i e f , a f t e r the French custom, was almost wholly i n the hands of private a u t h o r i t i e s . ....The p r i n c i p l e of subsidies was established but government inspection had barely found a foothold; one p r o v i n c i a l and four private insane asylums were receiving government support; gaols i n Upper Canada were under l o c a l control and there was one p r o v i n c i a l penitentiary, while i n Lower Canada the system was that of d i s t r i c t prisons b u i l t and administered by commissioners appointed by the central government. There were no s p e c i a l provisions f o r the handicapped, such as the feeble-minded, deaf, or b l i n d .  Child welfare work was i n  i t s infancy, while the problems of immigration were among the most pressing. This pre-Confederation philosophy has influenced the history of public welfare i n Quebec up to the present time. The Quebec Act of 1774 recognized a difference i n t r a d i t i o n  Strong, Margaret Kirkpatriek, Public Welfare Adminis t r a t i o n i n Canada. Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1 9 3 0 , P» 2. Y "i 1  A  r  3  between the English and the French s e t t l e r s .  The C o n s t i t u t i o n a l  Act (1791), by separating the provinces of Upper and Lower Canada, gave further opportunity for the perpetuation of the r e l i g i o n and i n s t i t u t i o n s of French Canada without interference on the part of the B r i t i s h .  This was further assured when the  Act of Union (1841) united the two provinces and recognized the p r i n c i p l e of l o c a l self-government. This was the period i n which England, following the "Poor Law Commissioner's Report" of 1834, introduced an elaborate, s t r i c t e r administration of the Poor Law.  The practice of  levying a poor rate as i n England was never adopted by the Province of Canada and the care of the destitute was l e f t l a r g e l y to private philanthropy.  The Province of Canada had no poor  law to administer and i t was not interested i n this form of legislation.  However, this p o l i c y i s i n s t r i k i n g contrast to  that of Nova Scotia, where the p r i n c i p l e s of the English Poor Law were accepted from the beginning and i t s e f f e c t s are s t i l l i n evidence as w i l l be discussed l a t e r i n this  chapter.  For the treatment of poverty i n the general popul a t i o n large numbers of charitable organizations were incorporated by statute during this period. These organizations were frequently under r e l i g i o u s auspices and i n other instances the members were inspired l a r g e l y by p a t r i o t i c motives and worked s o l e l y for persons of their own country o r i g i n . 1  The c i t y administrations i n Toronto and Montreal i n the 1850's directed and maintained Houses of Industry for destitute persons to encourage work habits and also to provide them  Strong, op. c i t . , p. 35  4 with work. which was  These are i n i t i a l examples of l o c a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s  one of the main facets of the English Poor Law  tradition. At the Confederation scene the economic and  social  changes which have marked Canadian l i f e i n the twentieth century were never envisioned by the group of men who B r i t i s h North America Act^- i n 1867.  drafted the  There was no expectation  of the problems which would confront governments at a l l l e v e l s , p a r t i c u l a r l y those r e s u l t i n g from unemployment, modern industry and business depressions, when the d i v i s i o n of powers between the Dominion and the provinces was ascribed i n this statute. The fathers of Confederation c l e a r l y thought they were assigning the provinces the unimportant and inexpensive functions of government, among which education, hospitals, c h a r i t i e s , and municipal i n s t i t u t i o n s were then reasonably numbered.^ At the time of Confederation Canada was a f r o n t i e r society where the community took care of i t s sick and aged.  The able-  bodies unemployed men moved, usually Westward, where there were new  opportunities and plenty of work.3 In the early years after Confederation public welfare,  under the provisions of poor law, as i n the Maritimes, or municipal statutes, was almost wholly the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of  x  Great B r i t a i n 30 V i c t o r i a ,  c.3.  Wallace, Elizabeth, The Origin of the S o c i a l Welfare State i n Canada 1867-1900. Canadian Journal of Economics and P o l i t i c a l Science. Volume 16, p. 384. 2  3 Fowler, Douglas W., The Unemployment Assistance Act (19-56). Master of S o c i a l Work Thesis for the B r i t i s h Columbia School of S o c i a l Work, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1958, pp.  2-3.  5 the municipalities.  Following British poor law precedent, they  were charged with the obligation of making provision for a l l classes of the poor, while the provincial governments did l i t t l e except operate gaols or insane asylums.  But by the end of the  nineteenth century i t had become apparent that additional specialized services were needed, and the provinces enacted legislation to provide for institutions for the feeble-minded, homes for the feeble-minded, homes for the aged and infirm, child welfare services, hospitalization for the indigent, and other programs.  These were to be operated directly or by the  municipalities and private agencies, sometimes with provincial financial support.^ After the war of 1914-1918 there came provincial schemes of mothers' pensions, a Dominion-provincial system of old age pensions, and extensions and improvements i n public health, with venereal disease c l i n i c s , tuberculosis c l i n i c s , public health nursing and other new services being established, partly under provincial and partly under municipal auspices. Social and economic forces affected the Dominion government, which under the British North America Act was charged with very l i t t l e direct responsibility for the social services. Penitentiaries and services for Indians have always been a federal government responsibility.  Since the f i r s t World War the federal  Cassidy, Harry M., Public Health and Welfare Reorganization, Toronto, The Ryerson Press, 1945, Chapter 1. 1  6  government has provided various s o c i a l services for war over and above the usual m i l i t a r y pensions.  veterans  In 1919 the Depart-  ment of Health was established by the Dominion government to deal with i n t e r n a t i o n a l or i n t e r - p r o v i n c i a l health problems. The adoption of the Old Age Pension Act of 1927, marked the serious entrance of the Dominion into the f i e l d of public a s s i s tance. Heavy demands for r e l i e f made by the unemployed upon the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , f i r s t during the post-war depression of the early nineteen-twenties, and then during the great depression of the nineteen-thirties, led to the general adoption of p r o v i n c i a l grants-in-aid to municipalities to a s s i s t them i n meeting the heavy costs of unemployment r e l i e f .  Through the long depression  years and a f t e r , the provinces were forced more and more into the business of public welfare.  In some instances, as i n the  cases of B r i t i s h Columbia's and Ontario's bankrupt m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , the drought areas of Saskatchewan and homeless men  i n the West,  the p r o v i n c i a l governments took over both administrative and f i n a n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y from the l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s . The costliness of the s o c i a l services, p a r t i c u l a r l y unemployment r e l i e f , and the obvious i n a b i l i t y of most of the provinces and municipalities to finance them from their limited tax resources led to demands that the Dominion should assume major r e s p o n s i b i l i t y .  From 1930 to 1941 the federal government  spent nearly $400,000,000 on unemployment r e l i e f , mainly i n grants to the provinces.  In 1935 a harassed senior government  7  referred the vexed question of unemployment r e l i e f to the National Employment Commission for study and advice.  A year  later the senior government appointed the Royal Commission on Dominion-Provincial Relations (the Rowell-Sirois Commission) to consider the manifold d i f f i c u l t i e s of the  intergovernmental  relations which depression and unemployment and the high costs of the s o c i a l services had brought to a head.  The authorities  i n government and i n the academic f i e l d recognized the temporary expedients and stopgap solutions i n dealing with fundamental public welfare issues.  Definite, systematic p o l i c i e s were pro-  posed i n some outstanding studies. completed i n May,  The Rowell-Sirois Report,  1940, acknowledged that i n certain f i e l d s of  welfare the national government should accept greater respons i b i l i t y ; for example, the maintenance of the employable, unemployed and their dependents, assistance to a g r i c u l t u r a l areas i n the event of wide-spread crop f a i l u r e or disaster, and the payment of non-contributing old age pensions.  To enable the  provinces and the Dominion government to carry out their o b l i g ations, the Commission looked for an expanded n a t i o n a l income, more economical carrying of the public debt by the national government, greater cooperation i n future borrowings and proposed f i n a n c i a l adjustment grants with the provinces surrendering tax f i e l d s of personal and corporation income taxes and succession duties."'"  A major recommendation became a r e a l i t y i n 1940, when  England, Robert, Contemporary Canada; a Mid-Twentieth Century Orientation, The Educational Book Company of Toronto, Limited, pp. 202-203. 1  8 after c o n s t i t u t i o n a l authorization was obtained by amendment of the B r i t i s h North America Act, a national system of unemployment insurance was enacted. Another important study was the Marsh Report on " S o c i a l Security for Canada," an o f f i c i a l Dominion document, released 1  on March 16, 194-3.  This proposed a comprehensive plan of s o c i a l  security covering family allowances, unemployment insurance, funeral grants, health insurance (medical care), insurance against loss of income during sickness or d i s a b i l i t y , and o l d age, d i s a b i l i t y , and widows' pensions.  On the same day there  appeared a lengthy report on health insurance and public health, prepared by the Dominion Advisory Committee on Health  Insurance  2  (the Heagerty Committee). Gradually these s o c i a l security proposals were and are being implemented by the senior governments.  For example,  there are available to Canadian c i t i z e n s such welfare programs as unemployment Insurance, family allowances, old age security; old age assistance, b l i n d and disabled person's  allowances;  supplementary occupational and training schemes; and as of January 1, 1958, schemes.  Dominion aid for p r o v i n c i a l h o s p i t a l i z a t i o n  I t was i n 194-4 that parliament established a federal  - Marsh, Leonard C , Report on Social-Security for Canada. Ottawa, King's P r i n t e r , 1943. House of Commons S p e c i a l Committee on S o c i a l Security, Session, 1943. Report on the Advisory Committee on Health Insurance. 2  9  department of health and  welfare.  The passage of the Unemployment Assistance Act i n July, 1956  represents a s i g n i f i c a n t break with the t r a d i t i o n a l approach  to s o c i a l assistance i n Canada for i t brought Dominion government p a r t i c i p a t i o n into a f i e l d always regarded as the exclusive r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the provinces.  Due  to this simple  proposal  the Dominion shares with the provinces and m u n i c i p a l i t i e s the cost of unemployment r e l i e f .  An Important element i n the l e g i -  s l a t i o n i s the a b o l i t i o n of residence regulations between the p a r t i c i p a t i n g provinces, a step which may  bring an end to one  of the biggest problems i n public welfare administration.  This.  Act could have far reaching implications for s o c i a l security i n Canada.  With this background, this study i s interested i n the  extent that selected c i t i e s i n Western Canada are w i l l i n g to invest their resources  to meet the economic needs of the indigent  and to provide r e h a b i l i t a t i o n services for them. Current Programs of Public Assistance i n Canada In the l a s t section, the Canadian h i s t o r i c a l development of public assistance was  b r i e f l y sketched.  Public assistance  has been simply defined as " f i n a n c i a l aid extended to needy people i n their own homes or places of residence."  1  Basic to  the concept of public assistance i s the assessment of' the applicant as to his e l i g i b i l i t y for a i d .  The following i s a  Leyendecker, H i l a r y M., Problems and P o l i c y In.Public Assistance. New York, Harper and Brothers, 1955» p. 2.  10  review of the current federal, p r o v i n c i a l and municipal programs of public assistance which involve a means t e s t . War Veterans' Allowance. Act was introduced i n 1930  The War Veterans' Allowance  to make provision for the maintenance  of 1914-1918 who,  of veterans of the War  at the age of  incapable of maintaining themselves; or who, permanently unemployable.  60,  are  at any age, are  The scope of the act has been enlarged  to include a l l veterans who. must have served i n a "theatre of actual war". age, who,  A t h i r d category includes those veterans of any  i n the opinion of the War Veterans' Allowance Board  at Ottawa, are incapable of maintaining themselves, and oanlikely to become capable "due to a combination- of reasons or handicaps, physical, mental or e c o n o m i c " W i d o w s and orphans are admitted to the benefits of the act, providing the veteran was himself e l i g i b l e during his l i f e t i m e .  Complete medical and dental  treatment, under the Department of Veterans' A f f a i r s , are available to the veteran i n receipt of the allowance, but not to a widow on allowance, or to any dependent of the r e c i p i e n t . Public Assistance to Indians.  The Federal Government  has assumed r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for the health and welfare of Canada's Indians.  Approximately  $3*000,000  i s given annually to Indians  through old age security, old age assistance, and b l i n d persons allowances.  In  1956,  Indian families received  family allowances on behalf of  1  2  68,210  Canada Year Book, 1946, p.  Ibid., 1957-58, p. 148.  $4,098,643  children.  1064  2  in  11 In cases of necessity, the government gives d i r e c t assistance i n kind to individuals or groups of i n d i v i d u a l s . The food r a t i o n to destitute Indians has recently been increased, and some welfare services have been made available to the Indian reservations.  Health services to Indians are provided  by the Department of National Health and Welfare.  A planned  health and welfare program i s being implemented f o r the benefit of Canada's  11,000  Eskimoes.  Disaster R e l i e f .  I t has been the p o l i c y of the Dominion  Government, i n regard to the granting of disaster r e l i e f , to deal with each p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n on the basis of the need rather than to establish a permanent program.  A commission i s  appointed consisting of a representative of the f e d e r a l government and a representative of the p r o v i n c i a l government.  The f e d e r a l  government generally makes a substantial grant and then accepts seventy-five per cent of some s p e c i f i c costs.  Such procedures  have been used i n the disasters of the severe floods i n the Fraser Valley i n June, 1958,  the Winnipeg Flood i n 1950, and  the disastrous f i r e s at Rimouski and Cabano during the same y e a r . Federal Grant-in-Aid Programs.  1  Rather than taking respon-  s i b i l i t y for the development of nation-wide public assistance programs which might have been interpreted as a v i o l a t i o n of the B r i t i s h North America Act, the Federal government has adopted  Jackson, Douglas Lascelles, Public Assistance P o l i c y (Master of S o c i a l Work Thesis, The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, 1955)> P» 19. 1  12  a p o l i c y of making grants to a s s i s t i n the development of programs within the provinces. of 1927  This started with the Old Age Pensipn Act  which provided for federal grants equal to one-half the  costs of assistance, (seventy-five per cent after 1931), to be awarded to needy persons over seventy years under p r o v i n c i a l legislation.  In 1937 the needy b l i n d over f o r t y years of age  were included, and i n 194-8 the qualifying age -was lowered to twenty-one years. In January 1952  the federal government authorized  through i t s Old Age Security Act, pensions to a l l persons over seventy years who country.  could establish twenty years residence i n the  At the same time, with the passage,of the Old Age  Assistance Act, the f e d e r a l government agreed to pay half the cost of assistance to needy persons between the ages of s i x t y f i v e and seventy years with similar residence.  During the same  year the residence required for recipients of b l i n d pensions was lowered to ten years under the provisions of the B l i n d Persons Act, with the f e d e r a l government continuing to pay seventy-five per cent of the costs.  Since November  1957»  residence regulations were reduced to a ten year requirement for  Old Age Assistance and the maximum award was raised to the  present $55  per month.  The provinces administer the program and, within the l i m i t s of the federal Act, may f i x the amount of assistance payable, the maximum income allowed and other conditions of eligibility.  In addition to the basic allowance, Alberta,  B r i t i s h Columbia and the Yukon make supplementary payments to  13 recipients of old age assistance who q u a l i f y under a means and residence test.  In Ontario, the p r o v i n c i a l government shares  the major cost of a supplement paid by a municipality to a needy r e c i p i e n t of old age assistance.  In some provinces and  i n the Yukon r e c i p i e n t s of old age assistance who are i n s p e c i a l need might be e l i g i b l e for s o c i a l assistance. In A p r i l ,  1955?  a Dominion-provincial  to the t o t a l l y disabled came into e f f e c t .  program of a i d  I t has a ten year  residence clause, a means test similar to that within the Old Age Assistance program, and the same awards.  Applicants not  qualifying are to be screened with a view to r e h a b i l i t a t i o n training.  Many provinces provide health services f o r those who  receive Supplementary Allowances, Old Age Assistance, B l i n d Persons' Allowance, and Disabled Persons' Allowance. Unemployment Assistance.  Under the Unemployment  Assistance Act of 1956 the federal government may share with a province and i t s municipalities the cost of f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t ance to unemployed persons.  No d i s t i n c t i o n i s made i n l e g i -  s l a t i o n between the employable and the unemployable.  Reimburse-  ment of f i f t y per cent i s made to the province for payments within the existing p r o v i n c i a l framework of general assistance. The scale and conditions of r e l i e f payments to r e c i p i e n t s continue  to be determined by the provinces and m u n i c i p a l i t i e s ,  except that the province agrees not to make length of residence a condition for the receipt of assistance when an applicant  14  comes from another province which has signed a similar agreement.  I t provides for federal sharing of p r o v i n c i a l and muni-  c i p a l payments for those i n c e r t a i n types of homes f o r s p e c i a l care.  I t excludes assistance to those on mothers' allowances  or who would be e l i g i b l e for such a program, c o s t - o f - l i v i n g bonus or across-the-board pension supplements made to such persons who are unemployed and i n need, health care and administration costs.  1  P r o v i n c i a l and Municipal Programs i n Public Assistance Mothers' Allowances.  A l l provinces have statutory  provision f o r allowances to enable certain needy mothers to remain a t home to care for their dependent  children.  The t o t a l  cost of this assistance i s paid from p r o v i n c i a l funds except i n Alberta where a portion of each allowance i s charged to the municipality of residence. In Newfoundland the Mothers' Allowances program was incorporated i n the S o c i a l Assistance Act 1 9 5 4 which became e f f e c t i v e A p r i l 1, 1955.  B r i t i s h Columbia has  l e t their Mothers' Allowances go into disuse on September 1, 1958 and these recipients were transferred to the provinces comprehensive  s o c i a l assistance program.  Subject to the conditions of residence and age of children e l i g i b i l i t y which vary from province to province, the allowances are  payable to applicants who are widoxved or, except i n Alberta,  1  Canada Year Book, 1957-58, p. 2 8 l  15 where husbands are p h y s i c a l l y disabled and unabled and unable to support their f a m i l i e s , and, whose husbands are mentally incapacitated.  They are also payable, except In Nova Scotia,  to deserted wives who provinces  meet s p e c i f i e d conditions, i n several  to mothers who  separation;  in--some-to unmarried mothers; and i n Ontario  Indian mothers. cumstances.  have been granted a divorce or l e g a l to  Foster mothers are e l i g i b l e under c e r t a i n c i r -  In each province  the relevant Act i s administered  by public welfare a u t h o r i t i e s .  Most provinces  have a mothers'  allowances board or commission which makes the f i n a l decision regarding  e l i g i b i l i t y and  acts i n an advisory  the amount of allowance granted, or  capacity.  S o c i a l Assistance.  1  S o c i a l assistance or r e l i e f are  governed by p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n , although i n many areas r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for services rests with municipal  agencies.  Though the programs and the methods of financing vary considerably, most provinces municipal  share the costs of some or a l l of the  services i n organized areas and assume the t o t a l cost  i n unorganized t e r r i t o r i e s .  At the l o c a l l e v e l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  for health services varies widely but municipalities i n most provinces  provide basic services and p a r t i c i p a t e i n the cost of  hospital care:for indigents.  There has been a rapid growth of  health services through the organization of health u n i t s . F i n a n c i a l and administrative r e s p o n s i b i l i t y usually i s shared by the p r o v i n c i a l and the l o c a l authority.  Canada Year Book,  1957-58,  p.  282.  This thesis w i l l  16  explain i n more d e t a i l the s o c i a l assistance programs i n f i v e c i t i e s of the four Western Canadian c i t i e s .  Many provinces  and municipalities make s p e c i a l provisions for the care of the indigent aged.  .  Legal Background of P r o v i n c i a l S o c i a l Assistance Most of the provinces  of Canada have established  p r o v i n c i a l welfare departments, to set standards, define requirements, for e l i g i b i l i t y and provide financial, resources  the larger m u n i c i p a l i t i e s  to meet the costs of S o c i a l Assistance., •,  The p r o v i n c i a l welfare department usually provides  the services  for the smaller m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , and the sparsely s e t t l e d areas, as well as those who are i n e l i g i b l e i n the larger m u n i c i p a l i t i e s for assistance because of residence. The federal government has also provided services.for special categories of people i n need,, either by d i r e c t services or through grants-in-aid.  These include Old Age Security,  Unemployment.-Insurance, Disabled and B l i n d Persons' Allowances., Veterans' Allowances, Unemployment Assistance,•and Allowances.  Family  In this-study an examination'of the p r o v i n c i a l  l e g i s l a t i o n i s made to determine where the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for assistance i n each province, i s placed, and how l e g i s l a t i o n defines e l i g i b i l i t y , standards of assistance, supplementing of other assistance programs, and the provision of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n services.  Although this study i s confined to f i v e major c i t i e s  of the four western provinces•the vinces was reviewed.  l e g i s l a t i o n of a l l the pro-  17 E l i g i b i l i t y Qualifications.  The e l i g i b i l i t y q u a l i -  f i c a t i o n s as defined i n this study include residence, resources, employability, and the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of r e l a t i v e s . Columbia  In B r i t i s h  the Residence and Responsibility Act was revised i n  September 1958.  A person may now apply for assistance wherever  he may be l i v i n g at the time; the only residence requirement being that he s h a l l have l i v e d i n B r i t i s h Columbia  one year.  As for other q u a l i f i c a t i o n s for assistance, the S o c i a l Assistance Act  of B r i t i s h Columbia,  states:  S o c i a l Assistance may be granted to individuals or families who through mental or physical i l l n e s s or other exigency are unable to provide i n whole or i n part by their own e f f o r t s , through other security methods, or from income and other resources, necessities e s s e n t i a l to maintain or a s s i s t i n maintaining a reasonably normal and healthy e x i s t e n c e . 1  This section of the act provides a basis f o r the granting of assistance to the destitute and needy. set  up special requirements for e l i g i b i l i t y .  I t does not  These requirements  are set by the Department of S o c i a l Welfare and provided i n written form i n p o l i c y manuals and statements. no mention of supplementary  There i s also  allowances, or the able-bodied  unemployed, as these are matters of p o l i c y and determined by the Department of S o c i a l Welfare.  As for r e l a t i v e s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y ,  the Parents Maintenance Act provides that children s h a l l provide as much assistance for their parents as they can.  However,  this Act i s seldom used because of the d i f f i c u l t i e s surrounding  Revised Statutes of B r i t i s h Columbia S o c i a l Assistance Act. Sec. 3* 1  1948,  CJxpt.  310,  18 enforcement, although childr.en are approached f o r help f o r nursing or boarding home care f o r e l d e r l y parents. In Alberta residence i s defined i n the Municipal D i s t r i c t s Act, to which the Public Welfare Act r e f e r s f o r this purpose, residence i s established by having twelve  consecutive  months residence i n one municipality In the l a s t two years without receiving assistance.  This means a softening of the  residence q u a l i f i c a t i o n , because of the two year l i m i t on trying to define  residence.  To q u a l i f y for assistance a person must be "a destitute person who i s a transient person or a resident of the province." There i s no s p e c i f i c mention of the able-bodied  unemployed,  supplementary allowances, nor r e l a t i v e s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y .  These  matters are determined as p o l i c y by the Department of Public Welfare, and by the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s .  There i s also a Maintenance  Act i n Alberta s i m i l a r to the Parents Maintenance Act i n B r i t i s h Columbia.  I t i s seldom used because of enforcement problems,  but r e l a t i v e s are approached regarding boarding and nursing home care. Saskatchewan has a residence q u a l i f i c a t i o n i n i t s l e g i s l a t i o n stating that a person i s a resident with i n one municipality without receiving assistance.  365* days  The S o c i a l  Aid Act, states that, "public assistance means f i n a n c i a l aid or  Revised Statutes of Alberta Welfare Act, Sec. 2 . 1  1955>  Chp.  2 6 8  >  Public  19  aid i n kind granted by a public agency to a person i n needycircumstances to provide him with the necessities of l i f e . "  1  There i s again no mention of the able-bodied unemployed, supplementary  allowances, or r e l a t i v e s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y .  These  are p o l i c y matters determined by the Department of S o c i a l Welfare and R e h a b i l i t a t i o n of Saskatchewan.  Saskatchewan also  has a Parents Maintenance Act which i s never used. The Manitoba Municipal Act states that residence i s acquired by l i v i n g f o r twelve consecutive months i n one municip a l i t y without receiving assistance, within the previous three years.  The act known as the S o c i a l Assistance Act of Manitoba  i s presently under r e v i s i o n , but i t does state that: Assistance i s d i r e c t a i d to an indigent person".  "Social  There i s no  2  special provision made f o r unemployed employables, nor i s there any stated p o l i c y on supplementary  allowances.  Relatives  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s covered by a Parents Maintenance Act, but i t i s seldom used because of enforcement  difficulties.  The Unemployment R e l i e f Act f o r Ontario i s also being revised.  However the present act states that, "residence i s  determined by residing f o r a period of twelve months i n one municipality a t any time since A p r i l 1, 1948".3 that r e l i e f may be granted by the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s .  Revised Statutes of Saskatchewan S o c i a l A i d Act, Sec. 2. 1  1953>  The a c t states There i s no  Chp. 241,  Revised Statutes of Manitoba 1954, Assistance Act, Sec. 2.  Chp. 246, S o c i a l  3 Statutes of Ontario, R e l i e f Act, Amendment Sec. 2.  106, Unemployment  2  1952-53,  Chp.  20  provision i n the act for the able-bodied unemployed nor supplementary allowances.  There i s also a Parents Maintenance  Act i n Ontario similar to the act i n most of the other Quebec i s d i f f e r e n t from the r e s t of the  provinces.  provinces,  because there are a large number of private agencies which provide most of the welfare services. under the Quebec Public Charities Act.  "Assistance  i s given  The Act provides  assistance "within walls" for cases which cannot be dealt with within the family group or through neighborly kind".  help of some  Actually this act i s a generalized assistance act, the  1  regulations of which provide for d i f f e r e n t categories with d i f f e r e n t benefits.  In Montreal, for example, the Department  of S o c i a l Welfare i s a public agency of the municipality.  It  i s also a private s o c i a l agency acknowledged i n the Province of Quebec by the Bureau of Public C h a r i t i e s .  Residence i n Quebec  i s established by l i v i n g i n one municipality for twelve monsecutive months.  As a public agency the Department decides on  and domicile and, as a private agency, provides the or service requested.  indigency  assistance  A l l matters of e l i g i b i l i t y except  are matters of p o l i c y to be decided by the Department and  residence the  Bureau of Public C h a r i t i e s . Nova Scotia passed a S o c i a l Assistance Act i n May which amended the act of 1956 Act.  This new  Act was  1958  and replaced the old Poor R e l i e f  passed a f t e r the signing of the Dominion  The Canadian Welfare Council, Workbook for Conference on Certain Issues i n S o c i a l Security. June 1958. 1  21 p r o v i n c i a l agreement under the Unemployment Assistance Act  (1956). The new Act provides that assistance s h a l l be paid by the municipality within which the person resides, and settlement becomes a formula for determining the municipal unit f i n a n c i a l l y responsible for the maintenance of the person i n need. The period of residence to acquire settlement has been reduced from two years to one y e a r . l The new Act provides assistance to families i n need, but the indigent single men homes.  and women are placed i n municipal  There are minimum standards  also for the municipal homes.  for food allowances,  and  There i s also a provision i n  the Act f o r parents maintenance that provides for r e l a t i v e s responsibility. New  Brunswick and Prince Edward Island provide for  their poor and destitute through their Municipality and Town Acts, which state that each municipality or town i s responsible for the r e l i e f of the poor and d e s t i t u t e .  New  Brunswick also  has a Municipal Homes Act which provides for the and maintenance of "poor-houses".  establishment  Both provinces have l e g i -  s l a t i o n regarding r e l a t i v e s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y .  In New  Brunswick  i t i s the Parents Maintenance Act, and i n Prince Edward Island i t i s included i n the Children's Act. Newfoundland passed a new  S o c i a l Assistance Act i n  to replace the Public Health and Welfare Act.  1954  The Act defines  Ha-r-t, George, "The Death of the Poor Law i n Nova Scotia", Canadian Welfare, V o l . XXXIV, No. 5j p. 226.  22  residence, i n respect of any person means that the main place of abode of the family i s i n Newfoundland, to which, when the person i s absent, he intends to return, but i n no case s h a l l a person be considered i n Newfoundland during any consecutive absence from Newfoundland which exceeds one year. The Act defines quite e x p l i c i t l y the various people to whom assistance may be granted, and this includes, "adults or families who through mental or physical incapacity...are unable to provide i n whole or i n part...necessities to maintain o  a reasonable  normal and healthy existence".  The Act goes on to include dependent children of widows, unmarried mothers, and fathers who have to remain at home to care for children.  A further category i s for a person or  family whose assistance i s considered necessary for the proper maintenance or r e h a b i l i t a t i o n of the family.  Assistance i s  provided on a reduced scale for the able-bodied unemployed, but leaves r e l a t i v e s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to the Parents Maintenance Act of Newfoundland. Standards of Assistance.  The l e g i s l a t i o n of the pro-  vinces does not set the rates of assistance, but states that these rates w i l l be determined by the administrator of the Public Welfare Department or the Board, as i n Newfoundland.  Statutes of Newfoundland 1954, Chp. 37, S o c i a l Assistance Act, Sec. 2. 1  2  Loc. c i t .  23  The l e g i s l a t i o n does give an i n d i c a t i o n of whether assistance given w i l l be on a f l a t rate scale or budget deficiency method.  For example, Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba,  and Newfoundland indicate by l e g i s l a t i o n that they w i l l  provide  adequate assistance f o r food, shelter, clothing and other necessities.  B r i t i s h Columbia and Ontario do not make any  provision f o r dividing assistance into the categories of food, shelter and clothing, but provide f o r the necessities of l i f e i n an i n c l u s i v e way. R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Services. provinces for  The l e g i s l a t i o n s of a l l the  except New Brunswick and Prince Edward Island provide  assistance as a means to r e h a b i l i t a t e the r e c i p i e n t .  However only B r i t i s h Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Newfoundland state s p e c i f i c a l l y that counseling  services are to  be provided by the municipality or P r o v i n c i a l Welfare Department. In conclusion, i t appears that the eastern provinces of Canada such as Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island, and New Brunswick were profoundly  influenced by the Elizabethan poor laws i n  their s o c i a l welfare legislation:.  The Western provinces  however  have been influenced very l i t t l e , and have never had a poor law. Nova Scotia and Newfoundland have recently enacted new S o c i a l Assistance Acts which are very l i b e r a l compared to previous legislations.  Quebec was not influenced by the poor laws, but  by the philosophy  that the church and the private c i t i z e n s  care f o r the poor and destitute.  should  As a r e s u l t Quebec has many  private agencies to meet assistance needs, and even the few  24  p u b l i c agencies are i n c o r p o r a t e d C h a r i t i e s so t h a t they may Current  Issues  under the Bureau of P u b l i c  p r o v i d e a s s i s t a n c e to those i n need. i n S o c i a l Assistance  S o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e i s the p r o v i s i o n made f o r a l l needy persons not e l i g i b l e f o r c a t e g o r i c a l a i d .  In d i f f e r e n t  v i n c e s t h i s r e s i d u a l program i s known as poor r e l i e f , ment r e l i e f or a s s i s t a n c e , s o c i a l a i d , g e n e r a l  unemploy-  assistance,  s o c i a l allowances or sometimes p u b l i c a s s i s t a n c e .  There  always been s i n c e the enactment of the E l i z a b e t h a n Poor questions  pro-  has Law,  r a i s e d about the p o l i c i e s of the s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e  program. Some of the obvious c u r r e n t i s s u e s i n s o c i a l are as f o l l o w s :  Are  assistance  the r a t e s of a s s i s t a n c e adequate to meet a  minimum l e v e l of h e a l t h and  decency?  s t i l l a b a r r i e r f o r a p p l i c a n t s who  Are r e s i d e n c e  apply  for social  regulations assistance?  Is there a n e c e s s i t y f o r s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e to be based upon sound, c l e a r l y d e f i n e d e l i g i b i l i t y standards?  Should a s s i s t a n c e  be payable to people i f they have r e l a t i v e s capable of them? extent?  I f so, which r e l a t i v e s are to be held l i a b l e and  supporting to what  Should p u b l i c a s s i s t a n c e be used to supplement incomes  of persons i n f u l l - t i m e but low-paid employment? be f o r c e d to dispose  Should people  of a l l t h e i r a s s e t s before r e c e i v i n g a i d ?  Should p o l i c i e s make i t p o s s i b l e f o r r e l i e f r e c i p i e n t s to enjoy any minor or major l u x u r i e s ? .Are  comprehensive h e a l t h  r e h a b i l i t a t i o n s e r v i c e s a v a i l a b l e to r e c i p i e n t s ? and  and  These i s s u e s  others w i l l be reviewed i n t h i s t h e s i s as they are p r a c t i s e d  25  i n the f i v e selected c i t i e s of Western Canada. Many of the p o l i c y issues confronting Canadians i n the f i e l d of s o c i a l assistance are of a moral or e t h i c a l nature. For example:  Should the names of general assistance r e c i p i e n t s  be made public?  Should the r e c i p i e n t have the r i g h t of appeal  against administrative decisions?  Should public assistance  payments be made to families where the father has deserted or where the mother has had i l l e g i t i m a t e children?  Other technical  issues requiring p o l i t i c a l or administrative consideration are: Should there be many d i f f e r e n t public assistance programs, such as Old Age Assistance, Blind Persons' Allowance, Mothers  1  Allowance and S o c i a l Assistance, or should there be a single category of a i d to needy people?  What should be the r o l e of  d i f f e r e n t levels of government i n the program?  Should the  federal government bear any part of the costs?  I f so, i n what  proportion and under what formula?  What degree of f e d e r a l  control should accompany federal f i n a n c i a l aid?  What should  be the f i n a n c i a l and administrative relationships between the p r o v i n c i a l and the l o c a l governments?  1  Are there adequate  provisions f o r q u a l i f i e d s t a f f ? These are some of the current issues i n S o c i a l A s s i s t ance.  Too often these problems have been met indeterminately  as they have come to the fore.  The Canadian Welfare Council  Barias, Eveline M., S o c i a l Security and Public P o l i c y , New York, McGraw-Hill Book Company, Incorporated, 1 9 5 6 , p. 1 2 . 1  26  believes that Canada has now reached the point where public opinion w i l l support the provision of f i n a n c i a l assistance to persons i n need i f based on fact, regardless of the p a r t i c u l a r reason for such need.  S o c i a l assistance i s the f i n a l guarantee  that such people s h a l l not lack the necessities of l i f e .  This  i s a p r i n c i p l e reason for being aware of the issues i n s o c i a l assistance and advocating  a thorough study of this program.  1  The Need for a Study of Public Assistance P o l i c y A number of considerations prompted this study.  We  f e l t that there was a need to define the public assistance p o l i c i e s of the municipalities i n order to explore whether there was an approach to a uniform, adequate, and integrated program of public assistance i n Canada.  We wished to discover what use  i f any the municipalities are making of the Unemployment Assistance Act, and whether there was a difference i n p o l i c y i n provinces  that have signed the agreement and those who have not  signed. We also f e l t that although we could not attempt to evaluate  the.adequacy of the assistance given i n the various  municipalities, we could make some attempt at evaluating the f l a t rate versus the budget deficiency method of administering assistance. cipalities  We also wishes to know how, i f at a l l , the muniwere meeting the present unemployment c r i s i s .  study has been limited to f i v e major c i t i e s  Our  or m u n i c i p a l i t i e s  Canadian Welfare Council: S o c i a l Security for Canada, June 2, 1958. Canadian Welfare Council, Ottawa, 1958, pp. 9-11. 1  27  i n Western Canada, but we f e e l that this i s a s t a r t towards describing the administration of assistance i n Canada. Methods Used Two students collaborated on this study.  Our material  was obtained from the public welfare services of Vancouver, Burnaby, Edmonton, Regina, and Winnipeg.  We also had personal  interviews with administrators of the Vancouver City S o c i a l Service Department, the Burnaby S o c i a l Service Department, the Edmonton C i t y Welfare Department, and the Regina S o c i a l Service Department. We reviewed the l e g i s l a t i o n and l i t e r a t u r e on public assistance i n Canada, and gave p a r t i c u l a r attention to the S o c i a l Assistance Acts of the various provinces and the f e d e r a l Unemployment Assistance Act  (1956).  To obtain uniform, accurate and detailed information we submitted a questionnaire to each of the c i t i e s studied. (Appendix A)  The material from the questionnaires i s discussed  i n chapters I I , I I I and IV. i n chapter V.  Our conclusions on p o l i c y appear  CHAPTER II ELIGIBILITY QUALIFICATIONS The purpose of this chapter i s to define the e l i g i b i l i t y q u a l i f i c a t i o n s as defined by the c i t i e s studied. concern was  the p o l i c y regarding residence.  p o l i c y on assessment of resources.  Our  Next we  first explored  We also wanted to know  whether the r e l a t i v e s of applicants for public assistance are required to provide f i n a n c i a l assistance for members of their family.  We were p a r t i c u l a r l y anxious for the c i t i e s to define  their p o l i c y on the able-bodied  unemployed, as this i s a  that has assumed great proportions c r i s i s i n Canada.  i n the present  question  unemployment  The writers were also concerned about  • A^  assistance for low income families with low wages or i n r e c e i p t of s o c i a l insurance  or public assistance.  Residence Q u a l i f i c a t i o n s The Canadian Welfare Council, i n i t s b u l l e t i n S o c i a l Security for Canada of June 2,  1958  asked i n recommendation 7  part (a) that "length of residence s h a l l not be a condition for the r e c e i p t of a s s i s t a n c e .  1,1  This recommendation was made  because of the varying residence requirements of the of Canada, the poor treatment often afforded the  provinces  non-resident,  and the expenditure of time, money and e f f o r t used to v e r i f y  June 2,  Canadian Welfare Council, S o c i a l Security for Canada, 1958. Canadian Welfare Council, Ottawa, 1958, p. 10.  29 residence.  In a report on "Sharing Welfare Costs" Mr. E. R.  Rickinson, Deputy Minister of S o c i a l Welfare i n B r i t i s h Columbia stated, "In Vancouver, i t was estimated that the checking of residence over a period of one year, consumed the f u l l time of four to s i x s o c i a l workers."  1  I t might be added that the  Unemployment Assistance Act states that " i n the agreement with the provinces, length of residence s h a l l not be made a condition for  the r e c e i p t of a s s i s t a n c e . . . "  2  For these reasons the writers considered residence to be one of the major questions of p o l i c y .  Thus our f i r s t  question was "What i s your p o l i c y on residence q u a l i f i c a t i o n s ? " As described e a r l i e r i n the section on " P r o v i n c i a l L e g i s l a t i o n r e l a t i n g to Public Assistance" there i s a great v a r i a t i o n i n the residence requirements of each province, with some provinces having l i b e r a l regulations, and others with quite restrictive rules. Vancouver C i t y S o c i a l Service Department answered this question by stating that, "Since September 1958,  assistance i s  granted to anyone a c t u a l l y residing i n B r i t i s h Columbia, on the basis of need, regardless of length of residence i n the l o c a l area i n which he applies.  I f the applicant has been i n B r i t i s h  Columbia less than one year, r e p a t r i a t i o n may be considered."*  Rickinson, E. R., " B r i t i s h Columbia's Per Capita Plan", Canadian Welfare, Vol. 34, No. 5, December, 1958, p. 221. 1  2  Canada. 4-5 Elizabeth I I , c.26.  * Quoted from the questionnaire on p o l i c y submitted to each c i t y . A l l such quotations w i l l be noted i n this manner.  30  However, a resident of West Vancouver applying to the C i t y of Vancouver f o r assistance w i l l be referred back to West Vancouver to make his a p p l i c a t i o n .  This i s done i n both Vancouver and  Burnaby to avoid the p o s s i b i l i t y of fraud, but i t does mean that residence s t i l l looms i n public assistance administration. Burnaby S o c i a l Service Department's reply to our question was similar, when i t stated that:  "Since September  1958  assistance i s granted to anyone resident i n B r i t i s h Columbia for one year or more, on .the basis of need, regardless of length of residence i n the l o c a l area i n which he applies." administrator  The  of the Burnaby S o c i a l Service Department  elaborated  on this point, they"can grant assistance to anybody, even i f they have not got a year's residence i n B r i t i s h Columbia.  Those  with less than twelve months residence i n B r i t i s h Columbia are referred back to their l a s t place of established  residence  for the payment of assistance, but r e p a t r i a t i o n i s only  considered  i f the c l i e n t wishes to return." This i s done i n a l l cases-except applicants from Saskatchewan, as there i s a r e c i p r o c a l agreement between Saskatchewan and B r i t i s h Columbia which provides assistance f o r the other.  f o r each province  to provide  For example, a resident of B r i t i s h  Columbia who moves to Saskatchewan and applies f o r assistance, w i l l be granted that assistance as though he were a resident of Saskatchewan with no r e f e r r a l being made to B r i t i s h Columbia unless the c l i e n t desires to return. The residence q u a l i f i c a t i o n s of both Vancouver and  31  Burnaby are a t least p a r t i a l l y a r e s u l t of the DominionP r o v i n c i a l agreement under the Unemployment Assistance Act ( 1 9 % ) , which provides  that the Dominion government w i l l pay  f i f t y per cent of the actual costs of public assistance, but that residence s h a l l not be a bar to the granting of assistance. The residence q u a l i f i c a t i o n s i n Edmonton are the q u a l i f i c a t i o n s set out i n the Municipal D i s t r i c t s Act Chapter 43, section 7, subsection (a) "a person i s a resident of a municip a l i t y i f he has twelve consecutive months of residence,  within  the l a s t two years i n any one municipality, without receiving assistance."  1  I f the applicant has not established  residence  i n Edmonton, but i n some other municipality, a check of residence i s made and a r e f e r r a l i s made to the responsible municipality for payment and instructions for the d i s p o s i t i o n of the case. Repatriation to the responsible municipality i s only made when the c l i e n t desires to return, or when the responsible municip a l i t y requests  the return of the c l i e n t .  I f an applicant has not established residence one municipality within the two years previous  i n any  to a p p l i c a t i o n  for assistance he i s considered a transient, and a r e f e r r a l i s made to the Department of Public Welfare of the province.  The  Department w i l l then grant him assistance, usually using the assistance'rates set by the C i t y of Edmonton Welfare Department. In Regina a resident i s considered as a person who has  C i t y of Edmonton, P o l i c y Manual, 1958.  32 "one  year of s e l f sustaining residence i n the municipality  during two or more periods providing these periods have not been broken by public assistance."*  The Saskatchewan S o c i a l  Aid p o l i c y manual also states that i f a person has not established residence i n any one municipality, "the appropriate  regional  o f f i c e s of the Department of S o c i a l Welfare and R e h a b i l i t a t i o n should be n o t i f i e d . "  1  In this case the applicant w i l l be  granted assistance by the municipality, and the municipality w i l l be reimbursed by the province.  Thus residence i s not a  b a r r i e r to the granting of assistance i n Saskatchewan. Residence i n Winnipeg i s "checked on every case opened or reopened, based on residence rules set up by the P r o v i n c i a l Municipal Act, one basic requirement of which i s one year's residence i n a municipality within the previous Cases may  three  years.  be reopened i n advance of residence v e r i f i c a t i o n i f  the s i t u a t i o n i s urgent, but the check i s usually completed within one week.  The province or any municipality deemed to  be responsible i s immediately n o t i f i e d and may  issue instructions  for d i s p o s i t i o n of the case."* In summary, B r i t i s h Columbia shows the f i r s t signs of the impact of the Unemployment Assistance Act h i s t o r i c problem of residence.  (1956)  on the  As a r e s u l t of B r i t i s h Columbia  signing the agreement with the Dominion government inter-municipal residence requirements have been abolished, although as noted e a r l i e r , applicants for assistance are expected to apply to the  Department of S o c i a l Welfare and R e h a b i l i t a t i o n , Saskatchewan, S o c i a l A i d Manual, 1958, p. 25. 1  33  s o c i a l welfare o f f i c e serving their municipality.  Alberta  also shows a softening of the residence p o l i c y , a p o l i c y that has been i n e f f e c t since 194-1 when the Municipal D i s t r i c t s Act was  amended to change the residence q u a l i f i c a t i o n s .  Saskatchewan  i s another province that shows a more lenient p o l i c y toward residence.  There i s , for example, the p o l i c y stated i n the  p o l i c y manual that a person may  be considered a resident of a  municipality with one year's residence even though that year i s i n two or more periods.  This seems to the writers to indicate  that there i s a recognition of the transient nature of labour, e s p e c i a l l y i n a province such as Saskatchewan, where farm labourers move about a great deal i n the spring and f a l l of each year.  However, Saskatchewan does not set a l i m i t on the number  of years an applicant must go back, i n order to e s t a b l i s h residence. Manitoba appears to have the s t r i c t e s t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of residence l e g i s l a t i o n by stating that, "Residence i s checked on every opened.or reopened case."  However b y setting a rea-  sonable l i m i t of three years they are s t i l l very lenient i n their p o l i c y regarding residence q u a l i f i c a t i o n s .  We have also  been assured by the C i t y of Winnipeg Welfare Department that their whole' p o l i c y i s presently i n a state of change. From our examination of the residence q u a l i f i c a t i o n s of the f i v e c i t i e s studied we have noted that a l l have changed their p o l i c y recently or are i n the process of changing i t .  34  Assessment of Resources Regardless o f budgetary standards, a s s i s t a n c e grants w i l l bear some r e l a t i o n to the resources of the a p p l i c a n t and the way i n which such resources are evaluated. By resources i s meant anything possessed by the needy person that r e p r e s e n t s income or i t s e q u i v a l e n t , a c t u a l l y a t hand or immediately a v a i l a b l e . . . . - almost anything which might c o n t r i b u t e to h i s maintenance and which might be g i v e n monetary value.1 The  primary f u n c t i o n of the p u b l i c a s s i s t a n c e worker  i s to determine the extent  of the a p p l i c a n t ' s need by a p r o c e s s  of i n v e s t i g a t i n g , v e r i f y i n g and e v a l u a t i n g  h i s resources.  This  process has been known as the "means t e s t " , and i s p r o b a b l y the most d i s t a s t e f u l aspect  o f the i n d i g e n t person's d e a l i n g w i t h  the a s s i s t a n c e agency.  The means t e s t must be conducted w i t h  thoroughness and y e t w i t h an understanding o f i t s p a i n f u l n a t u r e so t h a t those who must submit to i t a r e n o t n e e d l e s s l y  hurt.  p  Resource p o l i c y i s as e s s e n t i a l t o the means t e s t as the l a t t e r i s to p u b l i c a s s i s t a n c e . should  The p u b l i c a s s i s t a n c e agency  develop p o l i c i e s and procedures f o r the e x p l o r a t i o n ,  e v a l u a t i o n and a p p l i c a t i o n o f a l l resources C l e a r and d e f i n i t i v e r e s o u r c e s out i n r e c e n t  of the c l i e n t .  p o l i c i e s have o n l y been s p e l l e d  years f o r the c i t y s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e  administrations.  For example, Edmonton has j u s t t h i s p a s t year completed the process o f compiling  a manual, and Winnipeg's P u b l i c Welfare  Department has been undergoing a r e o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n c e the f i r s t  Leyendecker, H i l a r y M., Problems and P o l i c y i n P u b l i c A s s i s t a n c e , New York, Harper and Brothers P u b l i s h e r s , 1955> P- 193. 1  2  I b i d . , pp. 193-195.  35 of May,  1956,  which has also meant defining their c l i e n t ' s  resources p o l i c y . Resources are those which are immediately  available,  s i g n i f i c a n t i n amount and to be applied against current l i v i n g requirements;  other resources may be p o t e n t i a l l y available and  the applicant should be expected to develop them. available resources include such items as:  Immediately  income from employ-  ment, net revenue from business, cash on hand, bank accounts, savings bonds. items as:  P o t e n t i a l l y available resources include such  r e a l property, personal property, stocks, r e a l i z a b l e  value of mortgages, money payments from f r a t e r n a l and labour organizations, inheritances, income from trust funds and  law  s u i t s , agreements of. sale, and cash surrender value of insurance. Other p o t e n t i a l resources to consider are income from c o n t r i butory schemes (superannuation, unemployment insurance, workmen's compensation, annuities, accident insurance), s o c i a l insurances, (old age security, old age assistance, blind person's mothers' allowances, war veterans' allowances, war  allowance,  veterans'  d i s a b i l i t y pensions, various p r o v i n c i a l supplementary or costo f - l i v i n g allowances), contributions from r e l a t i v e s or charitable organizations, and earnings from possible employment. following i s a survey on how  The  the c i t y s o c i a l service departments  under study, assess most of these resources i n order to determine the amount of the assistance grant. Real Property:  In the assessment of r e a l property there  i s generally a difference made between property which a person  36 i s using for shelter and that which i s s o l e l y used for purposes of revenue or speculation.  S o c i a l allowance regulations appear  to he most l i b e r a l but this should be q u a l i f i e d with the statement that property other than that used for shelter i s generally considered as a l i q u i d asset, and the person i s encouraged to s e l l i t before applying for a s s i s t a n c e .  1  In general the c i t i e s  do not have any r e s t r i c t i o n s or income considerations of r e a l property as a source of income.  Edmonton and Winnipeg do place  liens on property owners who apply for assistance. The attitudes taken i n the d i f f e r e n t c i t i e s toward the assessment of shelter and meals, provided without charge vary l i t t l e .  to the r e c i p i e n t s  The recipients of s o c i a l allowance,  who receive free shelter, or room and board, get only a f r a c t i o n of the f u l l grant.  While the practice of ignoring these  resources  i s not businesslike, i t may appear j u s t i f i a b l e as a move i n securing f o r the r e c i p i e n t a l e v e l of l i v i n g which i s closer to adequacy. In the case of boarders or roomers i n the C i t y of Vancouver and i n the municipality of Burnaby, for  the f i r s t boarder and  $35.00  i s exempt  for each a d d i t i o n a l boarder,  subject to l o c a l by-laws regarding rooming houses.  $50.00  operation of boarding or  I f a home i s licensed, i t i s not considered  i t should be subsidized by public assistance.  that  The S o c i a l Welfare  Branch p o l i c y manual states that income from roomers or suites  Jackson, Douglas Lascelles, Public Assistance P o l i c y , Master of S o c i a l Work Thesis for the B r i t i s h Columbia School of S o c i a l Work, University of B r i t i s h Columbia;, 1955, pp. 61-62.  37 rented within the family home where services are provided by the landlord, shall be considered as earned income with the same exemptions as earnings of heads of families.  Services are  considered to be the provisions of any of the following:  heat,  light, fuel, laundry f a c i l i t i e s , supplying of linen, janitor and/or cleaning or other similar services.  1  In Edmonton seventy-five per cent of the income from boarders i s exempt and twenty-five per cent of the income from lodgers is exempt.  The City of Regina assesses an applicant  $15.00 per month for board and room, and a f i f t y per cent assessment for room rent.  The City of Winnipeg's Director of  Public Welfare wrote i n a special letter of March 17? 1959 on the assessing of board and/or room as income: We do not consider that the total amount paid for board and/or room should be assessed as income. S t r i c t l y speaking, only that portion of board and/or room which exceeds the outlay necessary to provide i t can be considered as income. Since i t i s also necessary for the individual to have a larger home than otherwise would be required, the calculations can become quite complicated. We are prepared to accept the worker's recommendation regarding, the amount that should be considered as income, but as a general rule, this may be considered to be $15.00 i n a board and room case. Personal Property and Income.  In assessing personal  property, household equipment and clothing are exempted. In general the following are included:  cash on hand or i n the  bank, government bonds, stocks, and other securities, cash surrender value of insurance, agreements for sale and mortgages,  Social Welfare Branch, Acts and Regulations for Field Service, Department of Health and Welfare, Victoria, p. 2 2 8 . 1  38 livestock  and automobiles.  How regulations  much,  permit people  assistance? cash  assets  family  need  allowance. that  Vancouver fora  specific  in  general  general opened. stated  single  assets  amount  i n their  policy  There  Winnipeg  policy  about  with  Life  insurance policies  n o t be c a s h e d  on  case-by-case  income  i n calculating  The who  recipient  i s suffering  respect  from  to personal  rehabilitation  the f i v e  Vancouver  annuities  Edmonton has  that  replies  that a  that i n  the case i s  the  clearest  was  the cash cities  under  of  study.  i n , but are handled  the only  and this  assets  city  city  that  considers  com-  this  eligibility.  from  British  tuberculosis  property,  plans."  Social  need  basis. from  of a  savings.  insurance and a n n u i t i e s  on income  $250  i t i s expected  states  have  of  social  a t the time  and Burnaby  solidified  mented  for social  but they r e p l y  life  a  man,  Regina  be e x h a u s t e d  Vancouver  regarding  i s no  be gone.  cities  possession  exhausted.  policy  any savings.  a l l s a v i n g s must Therefore,  qualify  be a b a r t o r e c e i v i n g  ployable-unemployed  stated  of the  $500 f o r t h e h e a d  s h o u l d be n e a r l y  retain  each  and s t i l l  person and  a l l s a v i n g s must  cannot  will  and Burnaby.state that  F o r t h e em  no  to retain  not, i n i t s e l f ,  h i s cash  client  i f any, cash a s s e t s  1  Columbia gets  "because  on s o c i a l  special  Policy  consideration i n  of the importance  C o n s i d e r e d as income  Welfare Branch,  assistance  and  Manual,  p.  of  deductible  33.  39  from the basic allowance i s three per cent of the amount i n excess of the maximum of $250 or $500 depending on his status. For example, $2,500 i s $2,000 i n excess of the exemption; and three per cent of this i s $60.00 per year. i s reduced by $ 5 . 0 0 .  The basic allowance  The r e c i p i e n t with T. B. i s also e l i g i b l e  for an extra allowance to cover payment of insurance premiums, to prevent the p o l i c y becoming void.  Also the r e c i p i e n t  may  experience d i f f i c u l t y i n obtaining insurance at a l a t e r date because of his history of T. B.  The s p e c i a l consideration given  to such patients represents a r e f l e c t i o n of the categorical approach where certain cases have status. How much and what kind, i f any, of convertible assets (for  example r e a l property, car) may people r e t a i n and  qualify for s o c i a l assistance? p o l i c i e s are i d e n t i c a l .  still  Vancouver's and Burnaby's  They report that r e a l property, i f used  as a home, i s exempt and ordinary personal and household are not taken into account i n determining e l i g i b i l i t y .  effects Property  not being so used may be calculated as a negotiable asset. Applicants are not required to s e l l their automobiles, but are not permitted to operate them while i n receipt of s o c i a l allowance, except i n extra-ordinary cases, when permission may be authorized by the Administrator.  Edmonton succinctly writes  that no convertible assets may be retained except the home they, the c l i e n t s , are l i v i n g . a c l i e n t may keep i t .  Where a car must be used f o r employment  Regina's p o l i c y states that i f applicants  own property other than their home they are required to dispose  40  of i t or use i t , for security that i s non-revenue bearing. Applicants may  r e t a i n their home and car.  Winnipeg's answer i s :  In the case of a home owner, a protection up to the maximum r e n t a l allowance for the size of the family concerned may be afforded provided the family i s residing i n the home. Assessment would be made i n connection with other properties owned i f sale was indicated, or an assessment made of income from such properties. In a l l instances of a property ownership a l i e n i s placed. Normally, a person i s not asked to dispose of an automobile or truck but such vehicles are to be t i e d up during the period assistance i s granted and the license plates, etc., must be turned i n . * Income and A d d i t i o n a l Exemptions.  Vancouver and Burnaby,  following the regulations l a i d down by the Department of S o c i a l Welfare, allow their c l i e n t s some casual and permanent earnings. For single persons the basic exemption i s $10 a month plus twenty-five per cent of the balance of earnings.  For the head  of a family the basic exemption i s $20 a month plus twenty-five per cent of the balance of earnings.  In Edmonton, the income  from the sources of wages and casual earnings i s exempt up to one-third of the food allowance. may  The Assistant Superintendent  authorize working mothers exemption up to one-half of the  food allowance, to pay for baby s i t t e r s for example.  Regina  has the same p o l i c y as Edmonton whereby one-third of the food quota may  be retained as allowable earned income.  Winnipeg  reports that the present maximum monthly exemption i s $12 i n cases of families and $10 for single persons, but the adminis t r a t i o n anticipates an early r e v i s i o n upwards. There Is value i n this p o l i c y of allowing a d d i t i o n a l earned income, when an allowance  i s being granted as part of a  41  t o t a l r e h a b i l i t a t i o n plan.  As the r e c i p i e n t regains his strength,  i f his indigence has been caused by i l l n e s s , or injury, he i s able to increase his income.  To reduce the s o c i a l assistance  allowance by the f u l l amount would, i n effect, penalize a person for trying to help himself.  A t o t a l income allowable might be  set for each family grouping, and as the r e c i p i e n t s ' earnings increase toward this figure, the allowance grant could be lowered proportionately.  In e f f e c t , this i s what i s done i n War Veterans'  Allowance and Old Age Assistance. One would wonder i f i t i s common practice for recipients of S o c i a l Assistance to r e s t r i c t their earnings to the maximum allOT/ed to avoid becoming i n e l i g i b l e for assistance.  However,  under this proposal they would be apt to earn more because their o v e r a l l income would remain constant instead of being seriously curtailed through loss of assistance.  This would reduce assistance  costs, encourage recipients to a higher degree of independence, and allow them a more adequate l e v e l of l i v i n g . What are the c i t i e s p o l i c i e s with regards to assessing children's earnings as income i n determining assistance paid?  the amount of s o c i a l  Vancouver and Burnaby have a four-part p o l i c y  on children's earnings.  I t reads:  (1)  Earnings of children up to the age of 18 s t i l l at school and included i n the s o c i a l assistance are exempted up to $30 per month plus 25 per cent of excess earnings,  (2)  Working children over 18, l i v i n g i n the home, are exempted 75 per cent of gross i n d i v i d u a l earnings, or.$80, whichever i s the greater. I f there are more than two such earning children  42  i n t h e home, t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f t h e f a m i l y b e i n g s e l f - m a i n t a i n i n g w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d , (3)  I n t h e case o f s i n g l e c h i l d r e n earning and l i v i n g o u t o f t h e home, t h e y s h o u l d b e approached and encouraged to c o n t r i b u t e t o the f a m i l y . Subject to individual circums t a n c e s , a maximum o f 50 p e r c e n t o f c o n t r i b u t i o n s should be deducted from t h e allowance payable to the family. This a p p l i e s a l s o to assigned pay,  (4)  Married children, unless they volunteer such h e l p , a r e c o n s i d e r e d t o have f i r s t respons i b i l i t y t o t h e i r own f a m i l i e s . *  Edmonton's contribution shall such  policy  f o r room  be exempt children  from  reads  and board  similars  per cent  made b y c h i l d r e n  deduction.  u p t o a maximum  Fifty  One-third  o f $65  of any  i n t h e home  of the earnings  monthly  of  i s considered  an  adequate c o n t r i b u t i o n . *  Regina's children's board  earnings  a n d room  grant.  i s $15  This  the is  i s made child  $65  i s quite  to assessing  vague.  I t states  p e r month assessment  has a  i s included  that  regards  i s made a g a i n s t  clearer,  of forty-five  recommending  future  with  assessment  Winnipeg ment  policy  f o r board  t h e maximum  City  assistance  a n d room.*  An  assess-  earnings but  The a d m i n i s t r a t i o n  C o u n c i l Committee  c o n t r i b u t i o n from  usually  policy.  of the child's  i n the f a m i l y budget.  to their  that  the parent's  yet stricter  per, c e n t  as income t h e  i n the near  an earning  child  be  p e r month.*  Gifts amount  could  of social  be a s s e s s e d  as income  assistance paid.  i n determining  Vancouver's  policy  the  states  4-3  that are  small presents  wholly deductible  individual  cases,  clothing  or  Winnipeg  do n o t  are  their  that  sufficient  to  gifts.  under of  give  but  any  exemption i s  of  money f o r  expense.* However,  in actual that  deducted  cash  gifts  authorized  purchase  Burnaby,  statement  exempts  resources.  is  of so  of  in  of  Edmonton and practice  they  small gifts from the  are  social  i n times the  of  a n a t i o n a l minimum —  is  b o u n d up w i t h  of  of  chief  the  Family Allowance has  been  —  the  direct  of  and c l o t h i n g  is  continuous  earner a  need  food a  p r o s p e r i t y and  are  income  recognized  children —  proper  Family Allowances  the  It  family l i f e  and whether  or not.  study  them h e a l t h ,  conditions  depression,  is  clear  part  attack  and  requirement.  times  earning  of  his of  full  the  on p o v e r t y  s t r a i n imposed by a l a r g e  income  policy where  f a m i l y on a  i t  small  1  It  must not  residual  program of  policies  of  or  extra  the maintenance  requirement  income.  a present  contributions are  city  throughout  income  calculated,  special  to Regina's  assessment  desirable  a  not  award.  Every  This  assess  but r e g u l a r  assistance  some  closer  are  unless  s u c h as  t o meet  probably  exempt  in  i n kind  the  be  social assistance  cities programs  the  that are  other  This  is  reflected  public assistance  assessed  public assistance  is  as  income.  general  rule  Ottawa,  M a r s h , L. C , R e p o r t o n S o c i a l S e c u r i t y K i n g ' s P r i n t e r , 194-3, p . b7. 1  that  that  public assistance.  five  s o c i a l insurance  forgotten  worker w i l l  It  a in  programs is  explore  for  the  a the  Canada.  44  p o s s i b i l i t i e s of an applicant f i r s t being e l i g i b l e for some other public assistance program or s o c i a l insurance program. These programs are:  Old Age Security, Old Age Assistance,  Blind Person's Allowance, Disabled Person's Allowance, Supplemental or Cost-of-Living Allowance, Mothers' Allowance, War Veteran's Allowance, War Veteran's D i s a b i l i t y pensions, Unemployment Insurance benefits, Workmen's Compensation, accident insurances  and government annuities.  Every c i t y can make pro-  visions to supplement other public assistance or s o c i a l  insurance  programs with s o c i a l assistance up to their a l l o t e d minimum standard  of l i v i n g . The p o l i c i e s f o r the assessment of resources  i n deter-  mining the s o c i a l assistance awards are quite similar i n the five c i t i e s .  There should possibly be clearer written statements  i n some instances which would be of benefit, not only to the c l i e n t but to the public assistance worker who i s responsible for assessing a c l i e n t ' s resources.  For example, Edmonton,  Regina and Winnipeg state that c l i e n t s generally cannot r e t a i n any sayings and i t i s questioned i f this could l i t e r a l l y be true. I f not, what i s the upper amount that a worker would allow a c l i e n t to retain?  Too, p o l i c i e s are vague with regards to the  assets possible from l i f e insurances  and annuities.  There i s a  tendency for clearer regulations f o r the assessment of resources i n the c i t i e s that adhere to the f l a t - r a t e plus supplement method of determining need than i n the c i t i e s that use the budget d e f i c iency method.  I t would not be correct to state that clearer regu-  lations mean s t r i c t e r regulations i n these instances.  45 Relatives R e s p o n s i b i l i t y The idea of mutual o b l i g a t i o n among c l o s e l y related members of a family group to help one another i n time of trouble i s deeply imbedded i n our culture — indeed, i n most c u l t u r e s . ! This idea has been incorporated into law i n many places and stems from the Elizabethan poor law. i t was  As Leyendecker says,  included "not to enforce a moral obligation, but rather  as a fixed measure to reduce the burden of maintaining o poor."^  the  This has been a problem causing considerable debate,  court action, and expense i n the United States.  Because of the  i n t e r e s t regarding r e l a t i v e s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , the writers decided that this should be included i n the study.  The concern i s with  those r e l a t i v e s l i v i n g outside the home, as the children l i v i n g at home and working, have been considered i n more d e t a i l previously under "Assessment of Resources". Vancouver's r e p l y to the question of r e l a t i v e s s i b i l i t y was,  respon-  "Unmarried children are encouraged to do as much as  possible, and earnings of the children i n the home are considered. Married children are sometimes asked to contribute to the cost of boarding or nursing home care i f they are able."*  This state-  ment, which has been discussed previously i n this chapter under assessment of resources, i s almost a d i r e c t quote from the B r i t i s h Columbia S o c i a l Welfare Branch p o l i c y manual.  Leyendecker, op. c i t . , p. 2  Ibid., p.  215.  215.  However  46  Vancouver goes on to state:  " i n general, there i s a lenient  p o l i c y regarding r e l a t i v e s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and no pressure i s exerted even upon immediate family members."* Burnaby also referred us to the p r o v i n c i a l p o l i c y manual, stating also that the earnings of single children residing at home are considered  i n any a p p l i c a t i o n .  Otherwise the  other  members of the family are approached to contribute, e s p e c i a l l y i f boarding or nursing home care i s required. Edmonton i n reply to our question states: p o l i c y regarding r e l a t i v e s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y .  "There i s no  However we do not  pay rent where a family i s l i v i n g with r e l a t i v e s , unless i t w i l l r e s u l t i n hardship  to the r e l a t i v e s . " *  Edmonton also  considers  the wages of working children l i v i n g at home. Regina's approach to this problem i s that:  "Relatives  are expected to provide as much assistance as possible, but  there  i s no assessment other than board and room and deductions for regular contributions. Winnipeg r e p l i e d stating that:  "There have been few cases  i n which support has been obtainable, apart from patients i n nursing homes and i n s t i t u t i o n s . case of parents,  We have found that, even i n the  there i s l i t t l e that can be done under the  existing law.  Where contributions appear to be indicated,  assistance may  be withheld  committee."*  u n t i l the case i s reviewed by the  47  In a l l f i v e of the c i t i e s studied, r e l a t i v e s are considered  to be a t least p a r t i a l l y responsible i n time of need.  In Edmonton the only r e s p o n s i b i l i t y r e l a t i v e s are expected to accept i s i f the r e c i p i e n t of assistance happens to be l i v i n g with r e l a t i v e s .  They are then expected to provide free rent  unless this w i l l be a hardship.  Vancouver, Burnaby, Regina, and  Winnipeg approach r e l a t i v e s for help when boarding or nursing home care i s required.  In most cases the r e l a t i v e s are not  forced to contribute, as there i s no assessment of the contributions they should make.  However, there i s an assessment  by a l l the c i t i e s of regular contributions to a family receiving assistance, but i r r e g u l a r contributions are not assessed i n budgeting. P o l i c y on Abie-Bodied Unemployed Whether the able-bodied  unemployed who does not q u a l i f y  for Unemployment Insurance or has exhausted benefits, should receive assistance i s a r e a l issue i n public assistance p o l i c y . A l l the f i v e c i t i e s studied grant assistance to the ablebodied unemployed, but there are minor variations of p o l i c y . Vancouver grants assistance to the unemployed employable with the q u a l i f i c a t i o n that they, "produce evidence that they have registered at the National Employment Services.  Evidence  i s also required that they have made e f f o r t s to f i n d work during periods of p l e n t i f u l employment."* Burnaby also grants assistance to the unemployed  48  employable. Employment Burnaby  They  Service,  also  assistance, has  been  and  regular  requires  reporting  able-bodied  and  a  produce of  the  indicated  reported  i s reviewed is  Special Services  a l l the  to  recipients  are  receive  expected  and  to  considerable  a  for  factor.  granting  This  policy  assistance  to  able-bodied  National  Employment  to i t .  assistance the  to  the  National  that  are  they  The  unemployed  Employment  the  grant  National  every  there." in a  also  employables,  Service  assistance  qualifications for  The  this  Employment  fourteen  Special  and  days,  are  that  Service,  showing  possibility Services  to  of  other  Section. intake  The  workers  Section.  to  studies the  t o make a  encouraged amount  provide  able-bodied  Unemployment  employment, spend  reason  c a r e f u l l y s c r u t i n i z e d by  cities  assistance  ineligible  is a  regularly.  1955*  grants  register with  work r e c o r d  unemployment  reporting  r e g i s t r a t i o n at  grants  the-National  to i t .  having  Thus  of  governing  since  r e g i s t r a t i o n card  work placement previous  of  register at  work"  the  city  unemployed.  must  evidence  the  registration at  "Applicants  and  is  of  reporting  also  Winnipeg the  "out  need  upon proof  Regina  regular  that  to  furnish proof  that  Edmonton  unemployed  and  and  states and  required  i n e f f e c t i n Burnaby  In  Service  are  to of  public  unemployed  Insurance real do  time  to  obtain  Winnipeg, and  who  benefits.  effort  so.  assistance  effort  or  are  A l l gainful  however  seems  attempting  to  49  h e l p the unemployed employable Services  Section.  f r a n k l y admits n o t have  o b t a i n a job through i t s  The V a n c o u v e r C i t y S o c i a l S e r v i c e  that,  the s t a f f  but are  Department  d u r i n g t i m e s o f mass u n e m p l o y m e n t i t  to help a p p l i c a n t s  issued their assistance  by the c l e r i c a l  find  employment.  a n d some a t t e m p t  They a r e a b l e  staff.  unemployed  i s made t o h e l p  t o do t h i s b e c a u s e o f  them  the  r e l a t i v e l y few a b l e - b o d i e d u n e m p l o y e d i n t h e s e c e n t e r s pared to  the  worker's  B u r n a b y , E d m o n t o n and R e g i n a do a s s i g n t h e a b l e - b o d i e d to t h e i r s o c i a l workers,  does  o b t a i n employment a n d  a b l e - b o d i e d unemployed a r e n o t u s u a l l y c a r r i e d on a caseload,  Special  as  com-  Vancouver.  P o l i c y o n S u p p l e m e n t i n g Income t o L o w - I n c o m e F a m i l i e s The u n s k i l l e d o r s e m i - s k i l l e d l a b o u r e r w i t h a f a m i l y who i s  frequently  the b a s i c needs o f f o o d , because of  today's  tance agency  unemployed f i n d s rent,  high cost  d i f f i c u l t to  c l o t h i n g , and m e d i c a l  of l i v i n g .  Does  provide  expenses  the p u b l i c  assis-  have a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o s u p p l e m e n t i n c o m e t o  income f a m i l i e s  t o m a i n t a i n a c e r t a i n minimum s t a n d a r d o f  S e v e r a l a d m i n i s t r a t o r s commented t h a t public assistance t h e minimum wage  this  w h i c h c a n n o t be s o l e l y  g e n e r a l p o l i c y of  Edmonton s o c i a l s e r v i c e to low-income f a m i l i e s .  living?  i s a coming i s s u e  in  s o l v e d by m a n i p u l a t i n g  departments However,  the Vancouver,  Burnaby and  i s not to supplement  the Burnaby agency  o t h e r a r e a s o f need w i t h t h e s e f a m i l i e s , care,  low-  laws.  The p r e s e n t  patient's  it  large  may  such as m e d i c a l  income identify out-  or the r e t r a i n i n g of an u n s k i l l e d worker f o r  a  50  more suitable employment which involves keeping the family on s o c i a l assistance.  In Edmonton, help may be given for rent or  food i n emergencies i f the bread-winner i s not engaged i n f u l l time employment. The C i t y of Regina supplements income to low-income families up to the minimum standard of assistance, calculating the amount by the budget d e f i c i t method.  The Public Welfare  Department of Winnipeg w i l l also supplement the income of lowincome f a m i l i e s .  In the case of f u l l time employment, however,  only heating and a f u e l allowance may be granted during the nine months of September 1st  to May 31st.  In cases where employment  i s less than f u l l time, a supplementary  allowance may be granted  to the f u l l extent allowed by F/innipeg's budget deficiency schedule. I t should be r e c a l l e d that, an early but abortive attempt to establish some reasonable standard of l i v i n g for the poor occurred i n the l a t t e r part of the eighteenth century. It took the form of grants to supplement inadequate wages, the grants being adjusted to fluctuations i n the price of bread. I t i s of significence because i t represents the f i r s t attempt to r e l a t e an individual's resources to the cost of l i v i n g , and because i t i l l u s t r a t e s the problems that arise when government t r i e s to subsidize employers who pay substandard wages.l Wages were depressed s t i l l lower and thus increased the number of persons who became e n t i t l e d to the "allowance", which sharply raised the tax rate.  Leyendecker,  From this experience i t should have  op. c i t . , p.  150.  51 been learned "the f u t i l i t y of trying to improve the economic p o s i t i o n of the underprivileged class by r e l i e f measures alone, and  the necessity of coordinating such measures with plans to  strengthen the o v e r a l l economic s t r u c t u r e . "  1  These same  mistakes were made i n Canada i n the nineteen-thirties but there have been measures taken to correct them. The supplementing of incomes to low-income families i s no longer the threat to the economic structure i t used to be. The growing strength of organized labour has been a factor i n s t a b i l i z i n g periods or length of employment, and improving.the working conditions of the employed.  Too, this problem of sup-  plementation i s now a r e s i d u a l one, not a universal demand. There are more r e h a b i l i t a t i o n services available to t r a i n or r e t r a i n employable people, f i t t i n g the r i g h t people f o r the r i g h t jobs. Measures to improve the economic p o s i t i o n of the underp r i v i l e g e d class i n Canada include continual a g i t a t i o n f o r improvement of low and sub-standard wages by passing minimum wage laws, the use of s o c i a l insurance schemes such as Unemployment Insurance and Workmen's Compensation, and the provision of Family Allowances.  These programs have assisted many families  who otherwise would be l i v i n g on subsistence incomes.  However,  there w i l l be those cases that do not meet the various program regulations and these families w i l l require some s o c i a l assistance to maintain a certain "adequate" or "decent" standard of l i v i n g .  Leyendecker, op. c i t . , p.  151»  52  I t i s therefore important to depend upon well developed standards of administration which include well defined p o l i c i e s and upon the use of trained s o c i a l work personnel because of the constructive function that can be made when working with s o c i a l assistance r e c i p i e n t s .  This w i l l be expanded i n the chapter  on r e h a b i l i t a t i o n of s o c i a l assistance r e c i p i e n t s .  One of the  strongest arguments i n support of supplementing income to lowincome families i s that the children's needs should be met as a special claim on the nation, not merely i n periods of unemployment or on occasions  of d i s t r e s s , but at a l l times.  There are other considerations, besides one,  the h i s t o r i c a l  i n discussing the problems of supplementing income to low-  income f a m i l i e s .  Many people who go on and off assistance r o l l s  at frequent intervals have very low earning power.  Their best  earnings are i n s u f f i c i e n t to meet their needs or mere approximate what they would receive i n f u l l assistance.  However, the  public assistance agency cannot allow people to choose assistance instead of work; they are expected to work, i f they are able to do so, even though working may r e s u l t i n a s l i g h t reduction i n their grant.  Unfortunately,  many assistance agencies do not  take into consideration a l l of the expenses i n c i d e n t a l to employment, and when they budget the income from employment, the r e c i p i e n t may a c t u a l l y be penalized. law has many references  The history of the poor  to the fear that r e l i e f was demoralizing  and that the poor would come to prefer i t to maintaining selves through their own e f f o r t s .  them-  I t i s doubtful i f many persons  53 at the margin, or just below the margin, of f i n a n c i a l independence are influenced very much by such considerations as c i v i c r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , the moral obligation to be self-supporting, and the s a t i s f a c t i o n s to be derived from work.  More probably they  w i l l be absorbed by such immediate and p r a c t i c a l questions  as  to whether there w i l l be enough milk for the children, where the rent money i s to come from and other items of worry and expense.  1  A f i n a l consideration to be noted i s that some persons who  conduct their own business need assistance because they  lack s u f f i c i e n t income to maintain themselves. enterprises are small — and carpentry shops — his family.  Usually the  such as shoe repair shops, lunch shops and employ only the owner and members of  The a d v i s a b i l i t y of a s s i s t i n g needy persons so  that they can continue i n business depends upon (1) whether or not the business produces a net income for government could not subsidize an enterprise, and  ( 2 ) whether or not the p r o b a b i l i t y  that the enterprise w i l l become s u f f i c i e n t l y p r o f i t a b l e for the proprietor and his family to return to self-support.  I t may  be  best for the needy person to seek more remunerative work. Summary This chapter deals with those areas generally included i n the assessment of an applicant's resources  i n reference  to  The problems that public assistance c l i e n t s face i s v i v i d l y told i n the thesis by Maureen Evans, Living on a Marginal Budget, a thesis for the degree of Master of S o c i a l ¥/ork i n the School of S o c i a l Work, 1953. The University of B r i t i s h Columbia.  54  establishing  and meeting h i s need f o r s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e .  The  r e s i d e n c e requirements of the f i v e c i t i e s were examined. factors  The  of r e a l and p e r s o n a l p r o p e r t y as w e l l as the assessment  of income are d i s c u s s e d g e n e r a l l y . p r o p e r t y i s mentioned.  The i s s u e  of t r a n s f e r r i n g  The approach taken by the f i v e  cities  w i t h regards to r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of r e l a t i v e s to a s s i s t r e l a t e d f a m i l y members i s e x p l o r e d .  The l a s t two s e c t i o n s ,  p o l i c y on  a b l e - b o d i e d unemployed and p o l i c y on supplementing incomes t o low-income f a m i l i e s are t i m e l y with.  t o p i c s which have been  dealt  CHAPTER III STANDARDS OF ASSISTANCE Methods of Determining Need To determine the amount of a social assistance grant, several approaches are taken by public assistance agencies. These are the budget-deficiency method, the  flat-grant-less-  income method and the flat-grant-plus-supplement method.  1  In determining the needs of the eligible individual and the amount of assistance necessary, a family budget is used as a uniform and practical gauge.  For the agency i t presumably  offers a flexible and objective standard for determining whether or not the family resources are adequate to maintain minimum standards of health and decency.  Expenses included i n the  family budget usually are food, special diets, clothing, rent, shelter, fuel, u t i l i t i e s , household expenses, medical care, instalment payments on essential household furniture and on personal and small loans, transportation and school supplies. Food budgets may be based upon scientific nutrition requirements; that i s , on a basis of a. low cost diet which w i l l meet the requirements i n different sex, age and activity groups.  Minimum  clothing and rent schedules have been devised i n many places.  1 Many of the following arguments have been extracted from H. M. Leyendecker, Problems and Policy i n Public Assistance, A. P. Miles, An Introduction to Public Vfelfare and E . Burns, Social Security and Public Policy.  56 Therefore,  i t is  recipients  to  would if  theoretically possible  have  involve  proper  ideal  this  can  be  discuss  the  various  From  diets,  household  achieved  clothing  of  of  methods  of  budget-deficiency  method  is  used  some  use  the  Edmonton, should  study  Regina  equal and  being  usually  the  the  actual  vincial wide  standards  and  decency"  the  various  It  ment  of  very  detail  and  are is  of  by  i n the  that in  between  the  the law,  the  to  of  standard  the  to  now  need,  method  this  Under  these by  There such  which  require-  difference provisions,  the  are,  terms  are  grant  living  them,  The  are  assistance  agency.  the  provinces.  developed  that  i t is  that  keep  advantages  has  the  level  various of  of  thus  the  easy  is  of  pronaturally,  as  "health  mentioned  in  of  the  of  Its  budget  sharp  in  schedule  fluctuations  easily  derived  measure-  devised.  budget  or be  budget-deficit  objective  f a r been  total  can  the  most  prices,  items,  assistance  i t is relatively  the  adequacy  e f f e c t upon  general  cost  are  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of  of  claimed  i s , the  the  estimated  meet  life"  wish  regulations.  some  serves  of  deficit.  of  doubtful  determining  the  to  municipal  "essentials  is  This  need.  social  between  assistance  the  and  The  budget  It  budget-deficit  available a  i n d i v i d u a l need  changes  than  or  acts  What  Since  difference  known as  differences  focus;  Winnipeg.  resources  agency  method?  and  the  ments  which  i n  assistance  shelter.  writers  determining  variety  under  and  The  the  cities  public  management b u t  in practice.  methods  for  from  of as  determined. policy  t o make a d j u s t m e n t s  rather  i n the  budget  57  schedule  to take i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n changing c o n d i t i o n s . There are a number of disadvantages t h a t can be made  a g a i n s t the b u d g e t - d e f i c i t method. complicated clients.  In the f i r s t p l a c e , i t i s  and not e a s i l y understood by the workers or  In the second p l a c e , i t i s claimed  the  t h a t i t does not  r e s u l t i n true s o c i a l s e c u r i t y to the c l i e n t s s i n c e they  may  not know the amount of t h e i r grants from one month to the next should  their situations alter.  I n the t h i r d p l a c e , the system  i s not always o b j e c t i v e , s i n c e many items f o r assessment depend upon the p e r s o n a l  judgment of the case worker.  system i s cumbersome to work w i t h .  The  Finally,  the  i n i t i a l calculations,  as w e l l as the innumerable minor adjustments that must subsequently be made, are w a s t e f u l of time and p r o d u c t i v e The need.  f l a t - g r a n t - l e s s income i s a method of  Under t h i s system the l e g i s l a t u r e s e t s the  of e r r o r .  determining standard,  which becomes both a minimum and a maximum a l l o w a b l e g r a n t . system does not e l i m i n a t e the d i f f i c u l t and resources  task of a s s e s s i n g  which must be done i n the same way  This  income  as under the  b u d g e t - d e f i c i t method. T h i s system, i t i s claimed, sense of s e c u r i t y .  He  determine from month to  gives the r e c i p i e n t a g r e a t e r  knows what h i s needs are, and  he  month what h i s grant w i l l be.  can Further-  more, those i n f a v o r of t h i s system b e l i e v e t h a t i t i s more o b j e c t i v e i n t h a t the s o c i a l worker does not have to compute the needs of every e l i g i b l e  individual.  58  One o b v i o u s individual need.  criticism  i s that  i t does n o t m e a s u r e  U n d e r some c i r c u m s t a n c e s r e c i p i e n t s may g e t  1  less  t h a n t h e y need, s u c h as c i t y r e s i d e n t s  rent  rates  who p a y  t h a n r u r a l r e c i p i e n t s p o s s i b l y do, a n d y e t b o t h  under t h e same p r o v i n c i a l p o l i c y r e g u l a t i o n s . would contend  that  the f l a t - r a t e  b e c a u s e i t r e s u l t s i n many h i g h beyond o r d i n a r y  The  s u p p l e m e n t s method —  this  includes  the standard  Also  of this  under  that are obviously  need —  this  the f l a t - g r a n t -  Columbia, and  survey, system,  f o r t h e minimum a l l o w a b l e  the c i t i e s of the l e g i s l a t u r e  grant  but the  has t h e d i s c r e t i o n a r y power t o a p p r o v e o r d i s -  approve o f supplementary grants  f o r such items as s p e c i a l d i e t a r y  s p e c i a l c l o t h i n g and r e n t a l l o w a n c e s .  seem t o a d m i t  that  the regular  meet t h e r e c i p i e n t s ' n e e d s . and  grants  i s used i n B r i t i s h  f o r the purposes  V a n c o u v e r and B u r n a b y .  allowances,  critics  system i s f a r too expensive  t h i r d method o f d e t e r m i n i n g  administrator  A few  come  need.  plus  sets  higher  does n o t e l i m i n a t e  flat  This  rates  This  would  are insufficient to  system i s c o s t l y t o  administer  the weaknesses o f the f l a t - g r a n t - l e s s -  income method.  One o t h e r  method f o r d e t e r m i n i n g  w o u l d be t h e s e t t i n g o f a maximum  the s i z e o f the grant  amount b y s t a t u t e  that a  T h i s i s borne o u t by the Vancouver C h e s t and C o u n c i l ' s s t u d y on t h e a d e q u a c y o f s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e r a t e s i n V a n c o u v e r w h i c h was r e l e a s e d i n September 1 9 5 8 . I t p o i n t s o u t t h a t t h e r a t e s h a v e n e v e r r e a c h e d " a d e q u a c y " a l t h o u g h t h e y have b e e n k e e p i n g up w i t h the c o s t o f l i v i n g ; t h e y j u s t n e v e r began b y b e i n g a d e q u a t e .  59  s o c i a l assistance c l i e n t could receive.  Possibly the maximum  amount of a grant could be set by the administration.  However,  the need below maxima of a c l i e n t i s s t i l l determined by a budgetary method.  In the United States, some states do not  specify a maximum amount i n the old-age assistance grants, but w i l l not grant more than w i l l be matched by the federal government.  This i s true i n Canada with regards  programs.  to categorical  The l e v e l of the grant could include the assistance  plus an income, and does i n the categorical public assistance programs. Actual Rates of Assistance To define the actual rates of assistance paid by each c i t y , the writers f e l t that i t would be simpler, and more e f f e c t i v e to quote the schedules that each c i t y used.  The  fol-  lowing table i s the schedule used by Vancouver, Burnaby, and the B r i t i s h Columbia S o c i a l Welfare Branch. set  I t i s the schedule  by the p r o v i n c i a l department, and i s the maximum allowance  that the province w i l l recognize i n the sharing of welfare costs. Municipalities may  exceed this amount at their own d i s c r e t i o n  and expense, and may  approach the p r o v i n c i a l department with  special cases for the sharing of overages of rent, f u e l and special c l i e n t s . The groups are defined as follows:  Group 1 i s one  adult, Group 2 i s one adult and one c h i l d or two adults, Group 3 i s one adult and two children or two adults and c h i l d , and so on up to Group  8.  one  60  Table 1.  Group  Monthly rates of S o c i a l Assistance of the Vancouver City S o c i a l Service Department and the Burnaby S o c i a l Service Department  Food  Total  $55.oo  30.00 35.00  104.50  122.50  18.50 21.50  40.00  140.50  45.00  158.50  102.00  24.50  112.00  27.50  50.00 55.00  176.50 194.50  $30.00 52.00  3. 4.  62.00 72.00  5. 6.  82.00 92.00  7. 8.  $7.00  Shelter  $18.00 25.00  1. 2.  Source:  Clothing and Misc.  9.50 12.50 15.50  86.50  P o l i c y Manual, S o c i a l Welfare Branch, B r i t i s h Columbia, (1958).  I t w i l l be noted that, although the schedule i s divided into food, clothing, and shelter, this i s only f o r ease of administration i n cases where either food, clothing or shelter are  provided by r e l a t i v e s or other sources.  I t i s also written  i n this manner to enable the s o c i a l worker to a s s i s t the r e c i p i e n t i n budgeting by having an approximate budget f o r each item.  The schedule i s s t i l l a f l a t rate schedule, because there  i s no allowance made f o r r e n t a l differences or the cost of utilities. Both Vancouver and Burnaby provide special dietary extras  61  and  prenatal  allowances a  variety  allowances  for of  on a  tuberculosis  extra  help  Health Aid Plan,  There  also  fuel  stated  Regina  and  mining  social  Winnipeg  on  actual  an  The Edmonton. Public  for  I t  The  not but  the  budget  basis  is  the  the  shelter  same  rental  and  the  w i l l  contribute.  overages  cities  deficiency  There  and  method  of  deter-  f l a t  rate  usually  a  with  shelter  and  u t i l i t i e s  instances.  used  by  the  C i t y  by  the  Department  that  used  province  does  contribute  a  Edmonton,  is  some  allowance  to  three  as  i n Edmonton i s  maximum e q u a l  Table  2 we  assumed  for  food  for  each  are  unknown and  Food the  scale is  where  schedule  maximum a l l o w e d ,  There  services,  under  province  items, i n  the  This  extra  housekeeping  the  other  rates.  the  up  the  be  by  as  to  the  its  of  share  payment  food  of  of  of  rent,  allowance  group.  In  mined  which cases  sundry  cost  mortgage  each  would  is  Welfare,  or  and  following  costs.  taxes  use  assistance  clothing  well  allowed.  earlier,  food,  paid  the  are  as  i n d i v i d u a l basis  to  minority of  supplement  As  for  a  basis,  patients,  on an  Emergency are  case  is  is  group.  We  that  the  which could  is not  amount also  paid  the  include  for  shelter  maximum u t i l i t i e s  allowance as  they  variable.  a  f l a t  rate  Dominion Bureau reviewed  presently  a  each  based of year  on  the  cost  S t a t i s t i c s and  recommendation  and  of  a  five  as  deter-  i n d i v i d u a l p r i c i n g .  adjustments for  food  are per  recommended.  cent  increase  62  Table 2.  Group  Monthly Rates of Assistance of Edmonton Welfare Department  Household Sundry A l l .  Clothing  Food  Shelter (maximum)  Total  $3-00  $2.00  $22.00  $23.00  $49.00  1A+1 Child  3.50  4.00  36.00  36.00  79.50  1A+2  4.00  6.00  49.00  49.00  108.00  1A+3  4.50  8.00  61.00  61.00  134.50  1A+4  5.00  10.00  72.00  72.00  149.00  1A+5  5.50  12.00  82.00  82.00  171.50  1A+6  6.00  14.00  91.00  91.00  192.00  1A+7  6.50  16.00  99.00  99.00  220.50  1A+8  7.00  18.00  106.00  106.00  227.00  1A+9  7.50  20.00  112.00  112.00  231.50  1A+10  8.00  22.00  117.00  117.00  264.00  $4.00  $4.00  $40.00  $40.00  $88.00  2A+1 Child  4.50  6.00  53.00  53.00  116.50  2A+2  5.00  8.00  65.00  65.00  143.00  2A+3  5.50  10.00  75.00  75.00  165.50  2A+4  6.00  12.00  86.00  86.00  180.00  2A+5  6.50  14.00  95.00  95.00  210.50  2A+6  7.00  16.00  103.00  103.00  229.00  2A+7  7.50  18.00  110.00  110.00  245.50  2A+8  8.00  20.00  116.00  116.00  260.00  2A+9  8.50  22.00  121.00  121.00  272.50  2A+10  9.00  24.00  125.00  125.00  283.00  1 Adult  2 Adults  63  For  each  Special  child Diet  allowance (a)  -  add;  ten,  Under monthly rent in  food  the  for  There  for  and i s  except  is is  flexible also  bills  pays  p a i d as  a family payments  the  a  pregnancy  Department.  $5.00 e x t r a  a guide  and tax  for  dietary  required,  as  each  allowance.  using for  the  a maximum  payments  may be  sundries  and  every  layette  light,  water,  are  made  are  made  this,  allowance.  The  given  allowance  of  and f u e l  are  directly  to  the  However  i f  they  city  made a n d  does n o t  pay  to  special  directed  pay  is  upon  $20.00.  to  an advance  each  months  requested  when needed.  for  three  consideration is  Clients  company  deposits have  deducted for  telephone  cases.  Edmonton uses a i n the  $2.00 p e r m o n t h f o r  issued  special  for  service.  funds  is  and payments  i n exceptional  planning  is  usually  i n s t a l l i n g services  the  also  a $4.30 s p e c i a l  rent  Mortgage  department  insufficient from  city  clothing allowance  This  supplying  Edmonton W e l f a r e  w e l l as  allowance  Utility to  The  shelter  f a m i l y member  needs.  includes  rent.  The  request.  $5.00  extra.  as  allowance.  l i e u of  add;  $4.30.  allowances.  over  of,age  certificate,  P o l i c y Manual of  food  child  10 y e a r s  on m e d i c a l  U t i l i t i e s are  Source:  in  over  fairly  s i m p l e method  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of  of  budget  public- assistance.  deficiency The  only  64 change f o r age of children occurs at ten years of age. The schedule used by Regina i s more complicated, with closer budgeting of separate items.  The following table i s the  schedule used by the C i t y of Regina. Table 3.  Monthly Allowances by Category, S o c i a l Service Department Regina  Status of Recipients  Food and Incidentals  $27.25  Single Adult  Clothing  $6.65  Families 1 Adult  28.15  6.65  2 Adults  44.18  10.00  16-18  22.90  5.35  12-15 6-11  22.00 17.55 12.45  4.68 4.00  Children ages  5 or under a.  Number in Family  1.  Rent House -  Rooms  $  $21.10  3  2. 3.  45.00  4. 5.  50.00 55.00  6 and above  60.00  40.00  45.00 50.50 56.00 61.50 67.00  2.65  U t i l i t i e s are extra.  Note;  Deduct 10% from the clothing allowance i n a family having  two or more children of the same sex with less than three years difference i n age. Source:  Policy Manual, Department of S o c i a l Welfare and Rehabilitation, Saskatchewan, (1958). City of Regina, S o c i a l Service Department.  65  The C i t y o f R e g i n a a l s o p a y s needed,  light,  h e a t and w a t e r  a l t h o u g h t h e p r o v i n c i a l S o c i a l A i d m a n u a l does  g u i d e s f o r t h e amounts t o be p a i d  The  Edmonton o r R e g i n a .  s e t up  by m u n i c i p a l i t i e s .  s c h e d u l e used by the C i t y o f Winnipeg  complicated budget d e f i c i e n c y  as  i s a more  s c h e d u l e t h a n t h o s e used by  The f o l l o w i n g  table  i s the average monthly  rate paid  by the C i t y o f Winnipeg P u b l i c W e l f a r e  T a b l e 4.  A v e r a g e M o n t h l y A l l o w a n c e s by C a t e g o r y , D e p a r t m e n t P u b l i c W e l f a r e , Yifinnipeg  Status of Recipients  Food  $24.89  Adult  Clothing  15.00  Families  19.91  Adult Child,  5.00  ages  Number in Family  Department.  of  Commodities  Shelter  Heat L i g h t  1.  $20•11  2.  35.oo  $•..  3. 55.oo .... a  HWH  $•..  $.... $.0.  a  4.  Cook Water  1.66....  ....  1.66....  ....  1.77  ....  13-17  21.50  5.00  5.  45.00 1 L 5 0  .98  1.77  1.00  2.00  10-12  19.39  4.00  6.  50. o o 13.00 1.08  1.99  1.25  2.67  7-9  16.91  4.00  7.  50.00^13.00  1.08  1.99  1.25  2.67  4-6  13.74  3.25  8.  50.00^13.00 1.24  2.22  1.50  3.20  or under  11.72  2.90  3  b  b  t h i s i s r e n t f o r a p a r t m e n t s o r rooms h e a t , l i g h t included b. t h i s i s t h e a l l o w a n c e f o r houses a n d may v a r y HWH - h o t w a t e r h e a t i n g Note: Extras Pregnancy-$3.55, D i a b e t i c - $ 4 . 5 1 a.  Source:  From D e p a r t m e n t  of P u b l i c Welfare, Winnipeg.  and  water  66  The schedule drawn up by Winnipeg shows the average monthly allowances for families for food and clothing.  This allowance i s  calculated with adaptation, using the ages of the children and the number of persons i n the family unit to arrive at allowance rates. When studying the various schedules used by the f i v e  cities  the writers f e l t that i t would be h e l p f u l to know the monthly a l lowance a t y p i c a l family could receive.  To define a "Typical  Family Group" we used the d e f i n i t i o n used by the Community Chest 1  and Council of Vancouver i n the "Report on the Adequacy of S o c i a l Assistance Rates i n Vancouver."  Their d e f i n i t i o n of t y p i c a l  2  family groups have been very helpful i n this study, and cover "various situations ranging from single individuals to family groups of as many as eight persons."3 Group I  The following are their d e f i n i t i o n s .  - Single, unemployable male, over 4 5 .  Group I I - Man and Woman, unemployable and over 4 5 . Group III - Woman age 3 6 , with two dependent children: Boy 10 and G i r l 13 years. Group IV - Woman age 4 5 , with three dependent children: Child 2 , G i r l 5 and Boy 15 years. Group V  - Man and Woman (20-44 years) with three dependent children:  one infant, Boy 4 ,  G i r l 12 years. Group VI - Woman (over 45) with f i v e dependent children: Boy 6, G i r l 8 , G i r l 13, Boy 15, and Boy 17 years. 1  "Report on the Adequacy of S o c i a l Assistance Allowances  i n Vancouver." Community Chest and Council, Vancouver (1958), p. 1 0 . 2  Loc. c i t .  3 Ibid., p. 1 0 .  67  T  Group VII - Man and Woman (20-44 years) with f i v e dependents:  one infant, Child 1, Boy 3 ,  G i r l 3? G i r l 6 and Boy 1 1 years. Group VIII- Man and Woman (over 45) with six dependents: Child 1, G i r l 4, Boy 7, G i r l 1 0 , G i r l 13 and Boy 16 years o l d .  1  These are the groups for which we w i l l attempt to compute maximum monthly assistance rates f o r the f i v e c i t i e s studied. It i s not our purpose here to compare the rates of assistance of each of the c i t i e s , nor to discuss adequacy, but merely to gather into one table the allowance that each c i t y vrould grant to each of the "Typical Family Groups."  We are assuming i n a l l  these cases that there i s no income from any other source, as we are not considering family allowances, but S o c i a l Assistance rates only. The rates quoted for Winnipeg include u t i l i t i e s and f u e l rates for Groups V, VI, VII, and VIII, with the assumption these groups w i l l be occupying houses.  For these cases there  are three rates because of f u e l allowances. for  that  One allowance i s  the months June, July and August when no f u e l i s allowed.  The second i s f o r the months of September, October, November, A p r i l and May when the basic f u e l allowance i s allowed, and the t h i r d i s for the months of December, January, February and March when one and one-half times the basic f u e l allowance i s permitted.  "Report on the Adequacy of S o c i a l Assistance Allowances i n Vancouver." Community Chest and Council, Vancouver ( 1 9 5 8 ) ? page 10.  68  The rates computed for Edmonton do not include  utilities  and f u e l as these are paid for i n f u l l and are v a r i a b l e . Group I which i s the single adult , the rates are set i n each c i t y , and have no r e l a t i o n to the r e s t of the groups. They are paid an allowance v^hich i s less than the Old  Age  Assistance rates for a single person, because i f the rates were higher the r e c i p i e n t s of Old Age Assistance would be e l i g i b l e for  s o c i a l assistance i n the provinces  that do not provide a cost  of l i v i n g bonus, and Winnipeg states that they w i l l not  supple-  ment this allowance. To check further on the standards of assistance i n each c i t y , we asked i f they f e l t that assistance rates were adequate. Vancouver and Burnaby both f e l t that the rates were not adequate, and added that they had cooperated with a committee of Community Chest and Council i n a study of "The Adequacy of S o c i a l A s s i s tance Allowances i n the C i t y of Vancouver."  This i s a large  and comprehensive study that points out the gaps between the assistance rates and  the actual need, and recommends an increase  of approximately t h i r t y per cent.l Edmonton r e p l i e d to this question by stating, that they were recommending a f i v e per cent increase i n the food allowance. This i s based upon the Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s cost of food rates, and i n d i v i d u a l p r i c i n g . Regina however stated that they f e l t the present  allow-  "Report on the Adequacy of S o c i a l Assistance Allowances i n Vancouver." Community Chest and Council, Vancouver ( 1 9 5 8 ) , page 1 0 .  69 5»  Table  P u b l i c Assistance Allowances granted to " T y p i c a l Family Groups" i n Vancouver, Burnaby, Edmonton, R e g i n a , Winnipeg  "Typical Family Group"  Vancouver and Burnaby  $50.00  86.50  88.00  99.l5  III  104.50  118.00  a  133 . 53  IV  122.50  139.50  a  157.65  129.79  V  140.50  170.50  167.oo  161.83 167.58®  VI  158.50  186.50  219.65  VII  176.50  215.5o  203.55  VIII  194.50  244.00  243.35  II  u t i l i t i e s are  ° apartments  or  d  s p r i n g and f a l l  winter Jan.  Source:  -  April  rates Feb.  a  $50.00 9 4 . 4 4 b  b  122.54  b  b  b  a  b  150.332 d  a  a  192.19° 205.19  a  d  211.69 180.32° 193.32 199.82e 222.59° 237.59 e  a  a  a  rooms w i t h l i g h t  summer r a t e s  Nov.,  $55.00  d  d  a  245.09  e  extra  c  e  Winnipeg  $55.00  I  a  Regina  Edmonton  -  no f u e l rates  heat and water  allowance, -  basic  fuel  June,  July  allowance,  provided and  August  Sept.,  Oct.,  and May one a n d  one  half  basic  fuel  allowance,  Dec.  March  Schedule of assistance rates from Vancouver, Edmonton, Regina and W i n n i p e g .  Burnaby,  70 ances were food  adequate,  schedule  Division  of  is  the  based  Clothing  They  also  the m o n t h l y average Price Index increase  over  allowances,  is  are  special  being  diets  budget  deficiency  system  the  spent  other  may h a v e than  their  penses. Regina  need.  of  it  and Winnipeg are or  to  A 4.8  year  when  Consumer per  cent  1st, i960.  March  such items  as  to  the  A  food  like."  i t  because  compare  does  i n the  allowance for  other to  more a d e q u a t e l y  adequacy  that  a more  food  is  flat  appear  is  the  there  the w r i t e r s  the  adequate  allowance  provision for rate  system  to pay  a  higher  meeting  familyrents  miscellaneous  indicate  a l l  ex-  t h a t Edmonton,  need  than  either  Burnaby.  Special  Included assistance  i n 1956.  city,  or  any  i n the  unable  food  "Food and  point rise  watches  whereas  Nutrition  reasonably  end o f  computing rates  provides,  seems  the  effective  are  the  were  stating:  these reasons;  borrow from the allowance  by  and the  on food a l o n e ,  Thus  Vancouver  made  present  Health."  after  three  i n each  For  expenditures, to  a  the w r i t e r s rates  c a n be  further  "The  made b y  their rates  carefully  assistance  of meeting  that  established  the  way  Public  adjusted  shows  on s t a f f  Although of  felt  a base  i n food  nutritionist  of  elaborated  allowances  stating:  on recommendations  Department  Winnipeg adequate.  and c o n c l u d e d by  were  i n the the  Provisions  foregoing  basic  d i s c u s s i o n of  essentials  of  food,  actual rates  clothing,  of  shelter,  71  Fuel,  u t i l i t i e s and s u n d r i e s .  what e x t e n t  This  the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s  section  will  indicate  a r e a b l e and w i l l i n g  t o meet a  Table 6  client's  need a b o v e a n d b e y o n d  these e s s e n t i a l s .  outlines  the s p e c i a l p r o v i s i o n  p o l i c i e s of Vancouver,  Edmonton, R e g i n a and W i n n i p e g . now be s p e l l e d  o u t a n d examined."*  r e v i e w e d under a s p e c i a l heading to  s o c i a l assistance  Allowances as  recommended  the  other  provided  food  by a p h y s i c i a n .  or food  These d i e t  cod l i v e r  relationship  supplements  supplements a r e f o r  women a n d o i l , extra  convalescents. milk,  supplements but n o t m e d i c i n e s .  fruit In  e x t r a s and p r e - n a t a l a l l o w a n c e s a r e  instances.  The same a p p l i e s  by a m e d i c a l doctor  allowances.  to Burnaby.  i n Edmonton.  This  diets  sum  R e g i n a and W i n n i p e g p r o v i d e f o r s p e c i a l Winnipeg's  s p e c i a l amount was named a t  p e r month f o r p r e g n a n t women and $4.51 p e r month f o r  diabetic  clients.  Provision for  be  f o o d a l l o w a n c e i s made f o r p r e g n a n c y o r s p e c i a l  $4.30 p e r month.  $3.55  include  special dietary  when p r e s c r i b e d  dietary  will  due t o i t s s p e c i a l  should provide f o r s p e c i a l d i e t  i n certain  A dietary  services  will  grants.  s u p p l e m e n t s may  Vancouver  is  Health  -  briefly  Burnaby,  special provisions  undernourished, pregnant or nursing  Diet and  These  to  s h o u l d be made f o r s p e c i a l  i n the allowance f o r r e g u l a r l y  recurring  clothing  not provided  clothing  needs.  A great d e a l of r e l i a n c e f o r s p e l l i n g out the s p e c i a l p r o v i s i o n s has b e e n p l a c e d on t h e S a s k a t c h e w a n P r o v i n c i a l D e p a r t m e n t o f S o c i a l " W e l f a r e and R e h a b i l i t a t i o n S o c i a l A i d M a n u a l , J a n u a r y 1, 1958, p p . 4-8. 1  Table  6.  S p e c i a l P r o v i s i o n Allowances i n S o c i a l Assistance Edmonton, R e g i n a and W i n n i p e g  Vancouver Special diet allowances  On d r s . r e c o m mendations  Burnaby On d r s . r e c o m mendations  P o l i c y i n Vancouver,  Burnaby,  Edmonton  Regina  Winnipeg  On d r s . r e c o m mendations  W i l l provide for special diet allowances  W i l l provide diabetic allowance  W i l l provide for special diet allowances  $3.55 p e r  $4.5Vmo.  Pre-natal allowances  On d r s . r e c o m mendations  Special clothing  Need s p e c i a l Only through authorization special city f u n d . Red C r o s s S o c i e t y & CC&C s c h o o l shoes  Travelling expenses  Wo p r o v i s i o n  No p r o v i s i o n unless s p e c i a l approval  W i l l pay and p o l i c y re taxis and ambulances  W i l l pay costs  W i l l pay costs  Household equipment furniture  No  Special authorization i f n e e d demonstrated  On a p p r o v a l of supervisor  S t o v e s and washer o n l y  W i l l provide payment  or  comment  On d r s . r e c o m mendations  On d r s . r e c o m mendations  Flexible policy Rarely l a y e t t e s $20.00 v i d e d use o f community resources  pro-  month  W i l l pay costs  (continued)  T a b l e 6. (cont'd)  S p e c i a l P r o v i s i o n Allowances i n S o c i a l Assistance Edmonton, R e g i n a and W i n n i p e g  Vancouver School  books  Burnaby  P o l i c y i n Vancouver,  Burnaby  Edmonton  Regina  Winnipeg  No  provision  Depends on each case  W i l l pay costs of r e n t a l fees and o t h e r  W i l l pay costs  Supplied by Winnipeg school board  No  provision  No  No  No  W i l l provide payment  Incidental No expenses to b e g i n employment  comment  S p e c i a l authorization needed  Met t h r o u g h special req u e s t and authorization  Limited  Legal  comment  No  No  Provisions made  Use o f own department lawyers  Incidental educational expenses  fees  No  provision  comment  provision  comment  provision  use  W i l l pay costs  Ho us e k e e p i n g  Shares costs with prov. gov't  Shares costs with prov. gov't  W i l l pay costs  W i l l pay costs  W i l l pay costs  Back  No  No  No p r o v i s i o n u n l e s s emergency  No p r o v i s i o n u n l e s s emergency  No p r o v i s i o n u n l e s s emergency  bills  provision  provision  (continued)  T a b l e 6. (cont'd)  S p e c i a l P r o v i s i o n Allowances i n Social Edmonton, R e g i n a and W i n n i p e g  Personal necessities or sundries  Sources:  Vancouver  Burnaby  Included i n basic allowance  Included i n basic allowance  Questionnaire Correspondence C i t y P o l i c y Manuals  Assistance  Edmonton  $3.00  for one a d u l t for two a d u l t s  $9.00  Policy  i n Vancouver,  Burnaby  Regina  Winnipeg  Included i n food allowance  No p r o v i s i o n  75  Some examples o f s p e c i a l expensive, l e s s such as w i n t e r or a d d i t i o n a l the  clothing  frequently overcoats  replaced  garments n e c e s s i t a t e d  admission t o an i n s t i t u t i o n ,  (3)  hospital  layettes,  partial  Vancouver  Act,  provisions  F o r urgent  (2)  condition,  special on  garments r e q u i r e d f o r o r camp, ( 4 ) e s s e n t i a l depleted  f o r newborn  wardrobe,  infants.  c i t y does n o t make use o f a s p e c i a l  allowance per se. the  or t o t a l ,  clothing  as needed,  by a h e a l t h  garments f o r a r e c i p i e n t w i t h a s e v e r e l y (5)  t h e more  items o f e s s e n t i a l  s h o u l d be p r o v i d e d  recommendation o f a p h y s i c i a n ,  (1)  needs a r e s  clothing  cases r e s o u r c e s a r e used such as  s e t o u t i n the p r o v i n c i a l Emergency H e a l t h A i d  t h e Red C r o s s a n d a s p e c i a l f u n d  s e t a s i d e by t h e C i t y o f  Vancouver, hereby a c l i e n t requests a s p e c i a l a r t i c l e o f clothing for  s u c h as a c o a t o r a p a i r  children  upon a p p l i c a t i o n  Special  clothing  case s i t u a t i o n b a s i s  of pants.  through  Shoes a r e a v a i l a b l e  the s c h o o l  principal.1  needs a r e a s s e s s e d o n a n i n d i v i d u a l  i n the m u n i c i p a l i t y  o f Burnaby and the  f i n a l a p p r o v a l has t o come f r o m t h e R e g i o n a l A d m i n i s t r a t o r o f the  Department o f S o c i a l  Welfare.  Edmonton has a f l e x i b l e consideration  p o l i c y and s p e c i a l  i s g i v e n t o p a r t i c u l a r needs.  requested, an extra Use  clothing  c a s h a l l o w a n c e up t o  When l a y e t t e s a r e  $20.00  c a n be made o f t h e T h r i f t Shop a n d C e n t r a l  i s provided.  Volunteer  Bureau  A l t h o u g h c o n d i t i o n s have m o d i f i e d r e c e n t l y , c l o t h i n g i s one o f t h e w o r s t s i n g l e p r o b l e m s t h e s e f a m i l i e s have t o f a c e . This was shown i n t h e t h e s i s b y M a u r e e n E v a n s , L i v i n g on a M a r g i n a l B u d g e t (A T h e s i s f o r t h e D e g r e e o f M a s t e r o f S o c i a l Work i n t h e S c h o o l o f S o c i a l Work, 1953. The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ) x  76  operated  by the J u n i o r H o s p i t a l League,  v a t i o n Army C l o t h i n g D e p o t . the  special  Regina reports  clothing allowances.  c l o t h i n g needs t h r o u g h s o c i a l An allowance  member o f h i s  for:  any,  (2)  provided.  It  i t rarely  uses  special  transportation  s h o u l d be  enabling a recipient  returning a recipient  and t h e i r p o s s e s s i o n s  Sal-  assistance.  or  f a m i l y t o o b t a i n needed m e d i c a l ,  n u r s i n g home c a r e , if  (1)  that  the  Winnipeg w i l l pay  s h o u l d be p r o v i d e d f o r  e x p e n s e s when n o t o t h e r w i s e when e s s e n t i a l  as w e l l as  granted  dependent hospital  and h i s  to t h e i r normal place  or  dependents, of  residence  under a n arrangement  to which the m u n i c i p a l i t y or the  govern-  ment o f  the p r o v i n c e  to which they are being  has  agreed,  (3)  a recipient  family ment  enabling  t o o b t a i n employment  as  certified  Burnaby must f i r s t  approval.  The P o l i c y M a n u a l o f  states  that  his  by the N a t i o n a l Employ-  obtain provincial  of  the m u n i c i p a l i t y .  e x p e n s e s w i l l be p a i d a n d t h e r e of  taxis  the Department  travelling  government of S o c i a l  Welfare  e v i c t i o n a n d m o v i n g e x p e n s e s a r e a one h u n d r e d  cent r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  on  member o f  does n o t have s u c h a p r o v i s i o n f o r  expenses.  that  or a dependent  Service. Vancouver  use  returned  and ambulances.  they pay t r a v e l l i n g  is  I n Edmonton  s p e c i a l procedure  travelling for  R e g i n a and Winnipeg b o t h  expenses but  there  was no  per  the  report  elaboration  this. In a l i b e r a l social assistance  be made f o r  the i n i t i a l  purchase,  policy,  repair  provision  or replacement  should of  77  equipment and supplies for the home such as bedding, towels, dishes,  utensils,  essential a r t i c l e s of household furniture  and furnishings as required.  These should be provided only If  the r e c i p i e n t i s keeping house.  Vancouver did not report that  allowances were allowed for this s p e c i a l need.  Burnaby would  obtain permission i f such a need could be demonstrated.  Edmonton  w i l l grant such an allowance with the approval of the supervisor. Regina has p r o v i s i o n for such an allowance but i t s use  is  r e s t r i c t e d to the purchase of stoves, washers and the repairs for plumbing and furnaces.  Winnipeg provides for household  equipment or f u r n i t u r e . There are no special provision allowances for school books or i n c i d e n t a l education expenses i n Vancouver.  Such needs  are met through educational funds by the Kiwanis service  clubs  or by the Returned Veteran's Dependent Children's Educational Fund on the recommendation of a school p r i n c i p a l for books, fees and student clothing.  Burnaby assesses the s i t u a t i o n on an  i n d i v i d u a l basis and w i l l t r y to meet educational expenses. Rental fees are paid by the Welfare Department of Edmonton on school books for children of c l i e n t s .  Other schools books may-  be supplied with a supervisor's approval i f provision of books does not take away from the c h i l d ' s i n i t i a t i v e to provide his own books.  Edmonton does not provide for expenses i n c i d e n t a l to  education.  Regina w i l l only provide for school text books.  In  Winnipeg, school books may be supplied by the School Board for Winnipeg residents,  even where they are residing i n outside  municipalities and w i l l pay for expenses i n c i d e n t a l to education.  78 A s o c i a l assistance allowance should be provided expenses of children attending  to cover  school such as transportation,  school supplies, school a c t i v i t y fees, text books, locker fees and gymnasium clothing.  The cost of t u i t i o n or s p e c i a l tutoring  cannot be considered as s o c i a l assistance. An allowance should be provided for expenses necessary to getting started i n employment such as s p e c i a l clothing, mandatory l i c e n s e s , fees or permits, and minor, e s s e n t i a l t o o l s . An allowance for these items should be provided  only when other  arrangements for meeting the need cannot be made. not comment on this s p e c i a l provision.  Vancouver did  Burnaby considers  this  more as a part of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n rather than a regular available grant.  Edmonton did not comment on this aspect but such needs  can be met by s p e c i a l requests approved by the supervisor or by other community resources.  Regina makes l i m i t e d use of this  approved provision as stated i n their p o l i c y manual.  Expenses  i n c i d e n t a l to getting started i n employment w i l l be paid through s o c i a l assistance i n Winnipeg. Legal services required by a r e c i p i e n t i n obtaining from a deserting husband or parent should be provided.  help  The  amount of the allowance should be i n accordance with the l e g a l fees as prescribed by the court. did not comment on t h i s .  Vancouver, Burnaby and Edmonton  Regina reports that an allowance for  l e g a l services i s usad quite frequently.  I t i s necessary for  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of statutes and preparation of cases for the courts.  Winnipeg writes, " l e g a l fees are not paid to outside  79 lawyers but p r o v i s i o n i s made through our Law Department f o r l e g a l s e r v i c e i n connection maintenance orders  w i t h the o b t a i n i n g  of s e p a r a t i o n ,  and the l i k e . "  Housekeeping s e r v i c e s should  be allowed f o r a r e c i p i e n t  i n h i s own home when he i s unable to look a f t e r h i m s e l f for  or care  h i s f a m i l y and when the necessary s e r v i c e cannot be  without c o s t .  obtained  When any person i s w i l l i n g and a b l e t o p r o v i d e  r e q u i r e d housekeeping s e r v i c e s without payment or wages, the cost of items of b a s i c maintenance and s p e c i a l needs should be i n c l u d e d i n the budget estimate of the r e c i p i e n t . ments cannot be made w i t h any person to p r o v i d e  When a r r a n g e -  required  house-  keeping s e r v i c e s without payment or wages, the budget estimate of the r e c i p i e n t should  provide  wages a t a reasonable r a t e as  w e l l as the a d d i t i o n a l costs of m a i n t a i n i n g the home.  Such a housekeeper may be a. r e l a t i v e .  A l l the c i t i e s services.  the housekeeper i n  under study say they pay f o r housekeeping  I n B r i t i s h Columbia the p r o v i n c i a l Department of  Welfare shares i n the cost of p r o v i d i n g housekeeping w i t h the m u n i c i p a l i t y .  services  However, the m u n i c i p a l i t y , such as  Vancouver and Burnaby, must f i r s t r e c e i v e the a p p r o v a l p r o v i n c i a l regional administrator.  o f the  The Department o f S o c i a l  Welfare manual s t a t e s c o n s i d e r a t i o n should  be g i v e n  to the r a t e  of pay, t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c o s t , ( i f the housekeeper l i v e s o u t s i d e of the home), hours o f work i f l i v i n g living  i n , and h o l i d a y s  out,  l e i s u r e or f r e e time i f  i n long term p l a c e m e n t s .  1  Edmonton w i l l  Department of S o c i a l Welfare, P o l i c y Manual, p. 30  80  provide an allowance for housekeeping services.  Also emergency  homemaker w i l l be provided through Emergency Homemaker Service. The homemaker w i l l send her account for services to the Department i n Edmonton.  A l l homemaker requests are referred  a supervisor to the Assistant Superintendent.  through  Regina City's  p o l i c y i s similar to the outline at the beginning of this topic. Winnipeg had no comment other than i t does provide for housekeeping  services. No c i t y w i l l provide an allo?/ance for previous b i l l s .  I t i s not the intent that s o c i a l assistance be used to underwrite bad debts of the r e c i p i e n t .  However, i f during the period a  person i s i n receipt of s o c i a l assistance, he f a i l s to use his allowance to pay shelter or u t i l i t i e s costs that he has incurred, the arrears should be covered only i f the health and safety of the r e c i p i e n t or his family i s threatened.  With respect to  shelter, i f the recipient faces e v i c t i o n and suitable housing i s not obtainable, the minimum amount to prevent e v i c t i o n should be allowed.  With respect to u t i l i t i e s , i f a shut-off of u t i l i t i e s  w i l l r e s u l t because of non-payment of arrears, the minimum amount to ensure continuance of service should be allowed. Mention has already been made about personal necessities or sundries i n the section on actual rates of assistance.  This  allowance should cover incidentals e s s e n t i a l to personal care and to maintain a household.  The allowance for personal incidentals  i s based on age, sex and a c t i v i t y and should include provision for such items as hair cuts, t o i l e t a r t i c l e s , sanitary items,  81  shaving supplies, shoe p o l i s h and dry cleaning.  The allowance  for household incidentals i s based on l i v i n g arrangements and the size of the household.  I t should make provision for such  items as brooms, bandages, soaps, l i g h t bulbs, t o i l e t tissue, thread and mending materials. The f l a t - r a t e allowance i n Vancouver and Burnaby t h e o r e t i c a l l y includes personal necessity items.  However this  is not possible when the Community Chest and Council Report on S o c i a l Assistance Allowances came to the conclusion that thepresent scale of s o c i a l assistance allowances i s inadequate. In most instances, the deficiency i s of the order of t h i r t y per cent spent on food, shelter and clothing. allowance, according two adults and  In Edmonton, sundry  to scale ($3.00 for one adult to $9.00 for  ten children) i s provided for c l i e n t s for house-  hold items and incidentals and i s automatically issued along with the food allowance.  Allowances for household incidentals i n  Regina are r e s t r i c t e d to very s p e c i a l need.  Incidentals are  included i n the food allowance schedule and the Regina p o l i c y Is for incidentals to be issued regularly rather than i n t e r mittently.  Winnipeg does not make provisions for sundry items.  There are other s p e c i a l provisions that could be made i n s o c i a l assistance allowances which may c l i e n t ' s need and bring his standard what may  be termed adequate.  i n the questionnaire considered  more f u l l y meet a  of l i v i n g i n l i n e with  The following items were not  sent to the c i t i e s but they should  listed  be  i f a c i t y i s to develop a complete s o c i a l assistance  82 program.  Such items are:  laundry service, r e f r i g e r a t i o n ,  household moving expenses, property repairs, instalment payments on e s s e n t i a l household furniture, equipment and furnishings, b u r i a l services, telephones, or small loans.  and instalment payments on personal  The l a t t e r should be considered only a f t e r  every e f f o r t has been made to defer, cancel or reduce the payments and only i f the loan i s secured by a c h a t t e l mortgage on essential furniture and foreclosure i s threatened.  Obviously,  s p e c i a l needs should be assessed on i n d i v i d u a l merits. Before discussing the health services that each c i t y provides for their s o c i a l assistance c l i e n t s , l e t us now how  examine  continuing e l i g i b i l i t y i s determined and i f people must c a l l  at the c i t y o f f i c e to receive their s o c i a l assistance issue. Continuing  e l i g i b i l i t y for s o c i a l assistance grants i s  determined by declaration at each time of issue and by periodic re-inspection i n Vancouver, Edmonton and Regina.  For long term  r e c i p i e n t s , Burnaby checks on continuing e l i g i b i l i t y by periodic re-inspection, and this means every three months.  Continuing  e l i g i b i l i t y i s determined by declaration each time of issue i n Winnipeg. The p o l i c y question was posed:  do people c a l l at the  c i t y o f f i c e to receive their s o c i a l assistance issues? reply was:  "Yes.  People who  Vancouver's  are not able to c a l l at the o f f i c e  receive their cheques through the mail.  Workers v i s i t them at  three month i n t e r v a l s , at which time a "Declaration of Income'  83  form i s completed."  Burnaby replied i n the negative.  Edmonton  said no, except i n cases of alcoholics and inadequates  who  receive vouchers.  Winnipeg  Regina and Winnipeg  expanded their answer stating:  said they d i d .  "Not a l l persons c a l l at the  o f f i c e , as any case which can be controlled by the s o c i a l worker receives a monthly cheque.  Where there i s necessity for review  for any purpose, including employment placement, a c a l l i s made at the o f f i c e each fourteen days.  At the present time, approximately  f i f t y per cent of the case load c a l l f o r their allowance." We believe that i t i s undesirable for a r e c i p i e n t to have to come to the c i t y o f f i c e for his allowance.  None of the  c i t i e s are that large or unable to provide s o c i a l workers to make the necessary reinspections.  The c i t y o f f i c e s are not always  located i n r e l a t i o n to the residence of the c l i e n t e l and the r e c i p i e n t does not receive transportation allowance f o r this purpose.  There i s an element of humiliation attached to the  recipient who  has to c a l l at the o f f i c e for an allowance that  may be inadequate.  With such a p o l i c y a c i t y cannot claim to  f u l l y respect the dignity and the worth of each i n d i v i d u a l they serve. Health Services Table 7 shows the health services available f o r s o c i a l assistance recipients i n the c i t i e s of Vancouver, Burnaby, Edmonton, Regina and Winnipeg.  The various c i t y s o c i a l service  administrators were asked i f they paid for the costs of hospital  Table 7«  Health Services f o r S o c i a l Assistance Recipients i n Vancouver, Burnaby, Edmonton, Regina and Winnipeg  Vancouver  Burnaby  Edmonton  Regina  Winnipeg  Hospitalization  B.C.H.I.S. Benefits  BoC»H.l.S. Benefits  Prov. Health Services  S.H.S.P. Benefits  M.H.S.P. Benefits  Emergency medical care  Covered by health serv. plan  Covered by health serv. plan  Through outdoor c l i n i c  W i l l pay for care  Care given by c i t y health dep't. s t a f f •  Medical care e.g. corr e c t i v e surgery, treatment of chronic conditions  Covered by health serv. plan  Covered by health serv. plan  Prov. health services  W i l l pay for care  Care through out-patient dep'ts. of local hospitals  Drugs  Those provided through health services card  Those provided through health services card  Some drugs through outdoor c l i n i c  Drugs are provided for  Through c i t y health dep't.  Glasses  Limited provisions  Limited provisions  Services by outdoor clinic  Limited provisions  Through c i t y health dep t.  (continued)  1  T a b l e 7. (cont'd)  Health Services f o r S o c i a l Assistance R e g i n a and Winnipeg  Vancouver  Burnaby  Recipients  i n V a n c o u v e r , B u r n a b y , Edmonton,  Edmonton  Regina  Winnipeg M.H.S.P. Benefits  Hospitalization  B.C.H.I.S. Benefits  B.C.H.I.S. Benefits  Prov. Health Services  S.H.S.P. Benefits  Appliances  Limited provisions  Limited provisions  Weed s p e c i a l authorization  Need s p e c i a l T h r o u g h c i t y a u t h o r i z a t i o n health dep't.  Dental Services  Services conLimited fined to extra- services a c t i o n s and school c h i l d r e n care  Use o f A l t a . dental c l i n i c  Limited services  Provided a t out-patient departments  T.B. P a t i e n t Allowances  Provides diet b o a r d i n g home c o m f o r t s and contact allowances  Provides d i e t b o a r d i n g home comforts and contact allowances  Not  A provincial program  Not  Nutritionist  Have u s e o f metropolitan health nutr.  Have u s e o f metropolitan health nutr.  Not mentioned  N i l  One o n s t a f f  mentioned  mentioned  (Continued)  Table 7. (cont'd)  Health Services for S o c i a l Assistance Recipients i n Vancouver, Burnaby, Edmonton, Regina and Winnipeg  Vancouver  Burnaby  Edmonton  Regina  Winnipeg  Hospitalization  B,C,H.I»S, Benefits  B.C.H.I,S• Benefits  Prov. Health Services  S.H.S.P. Benefits  M.H.S.P. Benefits  Nursing home and institutional care  W i l l pay for maintenance and comforts allowances up to amount shared with prov, gov.  Pay maintenance and comforts allowances up to amount shared with prov. gov.  Maintenance paid  Maintenance paid and comforts allowances  Maintenance paid  Sources:  Questionnaire Correspondence City Policy Manuals Health Services for Public Assistance Recipients i n Canada Research and S t a t i s t i c s D i v i s i o n , Health Care Series No. 1 Department of National Health and Welfare, Ottawa, September, 1957.  87 care, medical and surgical services, dental services, o p t i c a l services, and drugs.. Very closely a l l i e d with these health services are the p o l i c y considerations with regards to tuberculosis patient allowances,  the services of n u t r i t i o n i s t consultants  and the increasingly important area of nursing home and utional care.  instit-  S o c i a l assistance r e c i p i e n t s frequently become  self-supporting i f they receive needed health care.  Further,  provision for health services i s , i n i t s e l f , a f i n a n c i a l protection, for the community.  The health services programs of each  of the f i v e c i t i e s w i l l now  be discussed i n t o t a l and the c i t i e s  w i l l be reviewed i n the same order as before. In B r i t i s h Columbia, a uniform province-wide program was  devised i n 194-9, whereby, under an agreement between Province  and the College of Physicians and Surgeons, complete medical care services were to be provided to the b e n e f i c i a r i e s and  their  dependents i n a l l public assistance categories on the basis of an annual per c a p i t a l prepayment.  These payments were made  into a fund administered by an agency called S o c i a l Assistance Medical Service (S.A.M.S.).  For such persons l i v i n g i n munici-  p a l i t i e s , the province assumes eighty per cent of the per capita payment, with the remaining  twenty per cent shared by the  municipalities i n the proportion that each municipality's population bears to the t o t a l population residing i n a l l municipalities.  1  Health Services for Public Assistance Recipients i n Canada, Health Care Series. Memorandum No. 1. Published by the Research and S t a t i s t i c s D i v i s i o n , Department of National Health and Welfare, Ottawa, September, 1957 > p. 7.  88 Medical coverage i n the past has usually been on the basis of the c l i e n t ' s need for medical care at the time of application for f i n a n c i a l a i d , exclusive of those cases receiving temporary grants.  As of September 1,  p o l i c y was put into e f f e c t .  1958,  however, a new  This policy involves a three  months' waiting period for medical coverage of a l l s o c i a l assistance r e c i p i e n t s . care may  During this three months period, medical  be provided by the patient's doctor on a private arrange-  ment basis.  I f assistance continues beyond a three month period,  S o c i a l Assistance Medical Services w i l l cover medical services rendered during the three months' waiting period.  I f , however,  the c l i e n t goes off s o c i a l assistance i n less than a threemonth period, the cost of medical care i s the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the patient, as with any other c i t i z e n who prepaid medical p l a n .  1  i s not covered by a  I t appears that this p o l i c y was adopted  i n l i e u of granting the medical profession an increase i n their service fees.  We believe this has been a poor concession.  In s o c i a l assistance i t i s necessary to stress the significance and e s s e n t i a l nature of health care to the i n d i v i dual's and family's medical and s o c i a l r e h a b i l i t a t i o n .  Any  p o l i c y which precludes or discourages early and e f f e c t i v e treatment of a disabling condition f a i l s to meet the need of the i n d i v i d u a l and thwarts the ultimate objective of f a c i l i t a t i n g 2  the individual's return to a productive place i n the community. The Adequacy of S o c i a l Allowances Committee: "Report to the Community Chest and Council on the Adequacy of S o c i a l Assistance Allowances i n the City of Vancouver." September, 1958, Vancouver, B. C. p. 77. 1  2  Ibid., p.  78.  89  In the municipalities of Vancouver and Burnaby, comprehensive medical and s u r g i c a l services, including medical attendance i n the home, o f f i c e , and hospital, s p e c i a l i s t care, and diagnostic and consultative services, are made available through the registered physicians.  Both c i t i e s have for the  c l i e n t s consultative help of n u t r i t i o n i s t s . are l a r g e l y confined to extractions. been introduced  Dental services  However, a scheme has  to provide prophylactic dental care to a l l  children under thirteen years of age, whose parents or guardian receive public assistance, and for whom no such service i s available under existing coverage through school dental .programs. Requests for other prophylactic dentistry, f i l l i n g s , and p a r t i a l dentures must be submitted to the Director of Medical  Services  through the regional o f f i c e s of the Department of S o c i a l Welfare. Dentures are supplied to those who have been edentulous f o r four months or less on the authorization of the D i s t r i c t Supervisor.  Authorization by the D i s t r i c t Supervisor  quired before i l l - f i t t i n g  i s also r e -  or worn out dentures are replaced.  Complete o p t i c a l services are available under an agreement between the College of Physicians and Surgeons and the Province. If glasses are l o s t or broken, the patient i s expected to pay for  replacements, unless this would impose undue hardship. A l l  the drugs on the B r i t i s h Columbia Formulary are provided of charge; other drugs require s p e c i a l approval.  free  Vancouver  wrote that drugs, glasses, appliances and dental services are available on the basis of need and the f i n a n c i a l a b i l i t y to pay. Vancouver and Burnaby provide their s o c i a l assistance  90 c l i e n t s with the benefits of the B r i t i s h Columbia Hospital Insurance Service.  The benefits generally include:  public  ward accommodation and nursing care; necessary operating and case-room f a c i l i t i e s ; x-ray, and laboratory diagnostic and therapeutic procedures; anaesthetics and casts, dressings, approved drugs and a l l other  (approved) services rendered by  persons receiving remuneration from a h o s p i t a l . Persons who receive s p e c i a l consideration are tuberculosis patients.  On the recommendation from the p r o v i n c i a l  D i v i s i o n of T. B. Control, an extra d i e t allowance of month may be granted to the patient. contacts of  $5.00  $7.50  per  Extra diet allowances f o r  per month may be granted f o r six months a f t e r  the patient has been removed from the home.  These grants, plus  boarding home care i n a supervised boarding home and a  $7.00  per  month comforts allowance f o r the patient, are shared expenses between the l o c a l and p r o v i n c i a l governments on the new "per capita" plan of a 90/10 basis. Boarding and nursing home care may be arranged  according  to the need and the accommodation available by the Vancouver and Burnaby s o c i a l service departments.  The maximum rate to  which the Department of S o c i a l Welfare w i l l contribute i s per month f o r boarding home care and private hospital care.  $165.00  $75.00  per month f o r  Transportation charges to boarding homes  or private hospitals are one hundred per cent on the responsible l o c a l area.  Comforts allowance may be granted to a person  resident i n a boarding home, nursing home, general h o s p i t a l , or  91 a government i n s t i t u t i o n who  has no other resources  various small items necessary to his wellbeing,  to buy  the.  such as writing  material, stamps, razor blades, tobacco, cosmetic a r t i c l e s , etc. The Comforts Allowance i s a shareable  cost with the p r o v i n c i a l  government up to the amount of $10.00 per month. to people i n receipt of s o c i a l assistance, Old Age  It is available Assistance,  Old Age Security, and B l i n d Person's Allowance. In 194-7, the Alberta p r o v i n c i a l government established the present program of comprehensive health services for persons i n most of the public assistance categories, financed from p r o v i n c i a l general revenues.  entirely  However, persons i n receipt of  pensions under the Disabled Persons Act, c h i l d wards, l o c a l s o c i a l assistance recipients or the resident medically do not come under this program.  indigent  These persons receive necessary  medical and h o s p i t a l services on an i n d i v i d u a l case basis as the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the l o c a l authority.  Under an agreement made  i n 194-9, up to sixty per cent, of the cost of such care i s assumed by the p r o v i n c i a l government and the remainder by the responsible l o c a l authority.' " 1  Since A p r i l 1, 1958  when the Alberta P r o v i n c i a l Govern-  ment Hospital Plan came into e f f e c t , patients are only l i a b l e for $2.00 on the ward rate.  Clients of the Edmonton Welfare  Department, unable to pay this charge inform the h o s p i t a l that they are i n receipt of public assistance.  No  financial  On. c i t . Health Services for Public Assistance Recipients i n Canada, p. 39.  92  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s assumed by the Department, as i t accepts Out Patient Treatment Accounts o n l y . Clients are encouraged  1  to use the University of Alberta  Outdoor C l i n i c for medical and surgical care.  When r e f e r r i n g a  c l i e n t to the Outdoor C l i n i c , a form l e t t e r i s mailed giving authorization for any care of treatment necessary.  During the  f u l l employment season, a medical report i s required on employability.  I f a c l i e n t or a member of his family requires medical  attention after C l i n i c hours, r e f e r r a l i s made to the Emergency Ward of the University Hospital.  Approved doctors accounts are  paid i n accordance with the Schedule of Fees as determined by the College of Physicians and Surgeons. Certain drugs are provided free-of-charge by the Outdoor C l i n i c i n Edmonton. at  Prescriptions for other drugs may be f i l l e d  the c l i e n t ' s l o c a l drug store, upon the s o c i a l worker's  authorization, and payment w i l l be made upon receipt of the account.  Diabetic c l i e n t s are e l i g i b l e for free i n s u l i n .  In  the f a l l of each year, vitamins are ordered by the Department and are available for c l i e n t s , upon request. Edmonton c l i e n t s needing an appliance l i k e l y to lead to r e h a b i l i t a t i o n , or necessary for health reasons, may be given consideration.  Physiotherapy treatments may be authorized by  this Welfare Department, upon the recommendation of a physician.  City of Edmonton, Public Assistance P o l i c y Manual.  93  Optical care i s provided  by the Outdoor C l i n i c , where a q u a l i f i e d  eye s p e c i a l i s t i s i n attendance.  School children are examined  by the School Health Services who  supply glasses when needed to  indigent cases.  The University of Alberta Dental C l i n i c w i l l  accept appointments from September to the end of the University term.  In an emergency, a c l i e n t may  provided  use a private dentist  the dentist has f i r s t received verbal authorization from  the Department.  School children receive free short term dental  treatment, such as repair of c a v i t i e s and  extractions.  Other medical resources available i n Edmonton are:  the  Rheumatoid A r t h r i t i s C l i n i c , Canadian A r t h r i t i s and Rheumatism Society f a c i l i t i e s ,  a free day-treatment centre of the Edmonton  Society for P h y s i c a l l y Handicapped and s p e c i a l counselling i s given for job placement, R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Services at the University Hospital, Canadian Diabetic Association, Cerebral Palsy C l i n i c , Oliver Mental I n s t i t u t e , Guidance C l i n i c and P s y c h i a t r i c Ward of the University of Alberta Hospital. I t w i l l be noted that there has not been any mention of s p e c i a l tuberculosis allowances as provided Columbia.  However such allowances may  in British  be issued upon medical  recommendation and Departmental decision.  Nursing home and  i n s t i t u t i o n a l care expenses are paid by Edmonton. Saskatchewan was  the f i r s t of the Canadian provinces  set up a p r o v i n c i a l l y administered health service program for public assistance b e n e f i c i a r i e s , thus removing the major part of the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for this type of care from the l o c a l  to  94  authorities.  This program originated i n 1945 following d i s -  cussions with the Saskatchewan College of Physicians and Surgeons and representatives of other health p r o f e s s i o n s .  1  Comprehensive health care services are provided by the l o c a l authority for persons i n various public assistance categories. These include the aged, b l i n d , dependent mothers, transients and indigent immigrants.  In regard to h o s p i t a l i z a t i o n , the  Saskatchewan Hospital Services Plan was introduced i n January of 1947 as a comprehensive prepaid public insurance scheme, universal i n character. The S o c i a l Service Department of the C i t y of Regina pays the p r o v i n c i a l h o s p i t a l i z a t i o n tax for their s o c i a l a s s i s t ance c l i e n t s .  The c i t y w i l l provide emergency medical care to  the r e c i p i e n t as well as non-emergency medical care such as corrective surgery and treatment of chronic conditions.  Regina  w i l l provide drugs, glasses, appliances, dental services and physicians fees.  For a patient i n a Nursing Home, G e r i a t r i c  Centre, or Sanitorium  i t has been the p o l i c y to allow $5.00  Incidental Allowance f o r their personal use i n addition to maintenance.  Maintenance i s a t o t a l p r o v i n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  i n a p r o v i n c i a l Sanitorium and i n many a case a patient i n the Nursing Home or G e r i a t r i c Centre i s i n receipt of Old Age Assistance, Old Age Security and i n some cases Old Age Security Supplementary Allowance or Disabled Persons Allowance.  Social  Health Services for Public Assistance Recipients i n Canada, op~ c i t . , p. 55« 2  Ibid.  95 assistance recipients do not have available a n u t r i t i o n i s t consultant from the c i t y administration. P r o v i n c i a l health services i n Manitoba are provided through divisions of health services and p s y c h i a t r i c services i n the Department of Health and Public Welfare, and several quasi-governmental  and voluntary agencies.  through Public health  and personal health care services have been developed  i n close  co-operation with l o c a l authorities under the Health Services Act which authorizes preventative medical services through l o c a l health units, diagnostic services through laboratory and X-ray units, and the establishment of medical care and organized hospital d i s t r i c t s .  1  The Winnipeg Public Welfare Department pays f u l l cost of h o s p i t a l i z a t i o n for the s o c i a l assistance recipient; this i s , i t pays the premium under the Manitoba Hospital Services Plan. Emergency medical care i s provided through the City Health Department s t a f f , or care can be obtained at h o s p i t a l outpatient departments of l o c a l hospitals.  Also provided to the  s o c i a l assistance r e c i p i e n t i s the non-emergency medical care such as corrective surgery and treatment of chronic conditions. Drugs, glasses and appliances are provided through the C i t y Health Department.  Dental services are available from the  Out-Patient Departments of two l o c a l hospitals, but that i s  Canada Year Book 1957-58, Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s . Ottawa, Queen's Printer and Controller of Stationery, 1958, p. 245. 1  96  p r i n c i p a l l y a matter of extractions.  Patients' maintenance  w i l l be given for those i n nursing homes and i n s t i t u t i o n s . I t can be r e a d i l y seen that each c i t y subscribes to a f a i r l y comprehensive health services p o l i c y program for their s o c i a l assistance c l i e n t s .  Dental and o p t i c a l care may  be considered to be the two areas where f u l l services are not l i b e r a l l y given.  CHAPTER IV REHABILITATION SERVICES Although there may he more than one d e f i n i t i o n for the term " r e h a b i l i t a t i o n " , that proposed by the National  Council  on Rehabilitation i n the United States seems' adequate f o r the purposes of t h i s discussion.  I t says:  R e h a b i l i t a t i o n i s the restoration of the handicapped to the f u l l e s t physical, mental, s o c i a l , vocational, and economic usefulness of which they are capable. 1  The primary purpose of modern public assistance programs i s to do just that; to help the needy person towards the best possible adjustment between himself and his environment.  This,  i t must be remembered, i s just one concept of s o c i a l welfare. The other major approach holds that s o c i a l welfare i n s t i t u t i o n s should come into play only when the normal structures of supply, the family and the market, break down. Because of i t s r e s i d u a l , temporary, substitute c h a r a c t e r i s t i c , s o c i a l welfare thus conceived often carries the stigma of "dole" or "charity".  The r e s i d u a l concept ?jas more popular  before the Great Depression of 1929 than i t i s now, because the dominant, influencing values held of economic individualism  Quoted i n Hooson, William, The R e h a b i l i t a t i o n of Public Assistance Recipients (Master of S o c i a l Work Thesis, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, 1953)* x  98  and free e n t e r p r i s e .  x  While these two views seem a n t i t h e t i c a l , i n practice North American s o c i a l work has t r i e d to combine them, and the current trends and practices i n s o c i a l welfare represents a middle course. In Canada, as i n the United States, the concept of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n had much of i t s beginnings within the Workmen's Compensation programs.  The return of the veterans of World  War I I , and the training programs developed to a i d i n their reestablishment, gave great impetus to this movement.  An  amendment to the Vocational Training Coordination Act of 194-2, dated May 1,  1951  and known as Schedule M, made possible the  issuance of retraining grants to handicapped persons i n Canada who had worked before, and were e l i g i b l e for Unemployment Insurance Benefits.  In August 1952  who had never worked before.  this was extended to persons  Persons on s o c i a l assistance could  be referred to a l o c a l committee on r e h a b i l i t a t i o n composed of s t a f f from the Special Placements Section, National Employment Service, and other agencies concerned with r e h a b i l i t a t i o n .  If  the person was found suitable for retraining on the basis of medical opinion, s o c i a l history information, and vocational counselling assessment, federal funds could be obtained for this purpose.  More recently an arrangement has been made whereby  Wilensky, Harold L. and Lebeaux: I n d u s t r i a l Society and S o c i a l Welfare, Russell Sage Foundation, New York, 1958, pp. 138-140. 1  99  the cost of r e t r a i n i n g s o c i a l assistance recipients i s being shared between the province and the responsible municipality. Rehabilitation Policy In the development of a r e h a b i l i t a t i o n programme for Canada the question arises as to the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of l o c a l public welfare departments to restore the r e c i p i e n t of public assistance, to the f u l l e s t physical, mental, vocational and economic usefulness of which he i s capable.  In the f i v e c i t i e s  studied there are a v a r i e t y of approaches to this  question.  Vancouver states that i t i s the function of the "City S o c i a l Service Department to a s s i s t needy c i t i z e n s , through i n d i v i d u a l i z e d service, to use resources within themselves and the community to achieve the greatest possible measure of s e l f dependence.  This i s done by the provision of cash allowances  and a v a r i e t y of supplementary services to c i t i z e n s i n need of, and e l i g i b l e for, f i n a n c i a l assistance"*.  The provision of  r e h a b i l i t a t i o n services to the c l i e n t i s not done d i r e c t l y by the C i t y but use i s made of other agencies such as the "G.  F.  Strong R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Centre, the Vancouver Vocational I n s t i t u t e , Youth Counselling Service, and Schedules " M " and "R" Federal Vocational Training Plan."*  The City and the  of the Province  share the cost of these services. The C i t y also provides  casework services to the r e c i p i e n t s  of s o c i a l assistance, except for the able-bodied who  unemployed,  receive f i n a n c i a l a i d and medical coverage only.  However,  100  the r a p i d l y increasing caseloads and the shortage' of trained s t a f f do l i m i t the use the C i t y i s able to make of both r e h a b i l i t a t i o n services and casework. The Burnaby S o c i a l Service Department states that r e h a b i l i t a t i o n as defined previously as the r e s t o r a t i o n of the i n d i v i d u a l to the f u l l e s t physical, mental, vocational and economic usefulness  of which he i s capable i s a necessary part  of s o c i a l assistance.  This i s not l i m i t e d to the unemployable  recipient, but includes the able-bodied  unemployed.  The Depart-  ment admits however that, because of l i m i t e d s t a f f and large caseloads,  i t i s unable to provide a l l the services needed.  As  a r e s u l t p a r t i c u l a r stress i s placed upon the unemployable c l i e n t s , with help given to employables with severe problems. Burnaby u t i l i z e s the same r e h a b i l i t a t i o n resources are used by the City of Vancouver, and work i n close  that  co-operation  with the agencies providing these resources. The C i t y of Edmonton states that "the purpose of public assistance should be to provide f i n a n c i a l assistance to a person and his family i n indigent circumstances, and to do so i n such a way  that this capacity for s e l f respect and s e l f dependence  are maintained or strengthened." The C i t y also provides 1  "case-  work services to a l l applicants where such service would f a c i l i t a t e the return of the i n d i v i d u a l or family to f u l l independence."^  1  p  City of Edmonton P o l i c y Manual, p. 2 . Ibid., p. 2 .  101  The City does not i t s e l f provide r e h a b i l i t a t i o n services, but does refer to several resources r e h a b i l i t a t i o n resources  include;  i n the community.  These  The R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Branch of  the P r o v i n c i a l Government, the University of Alberta Hospital Rehabilitation Services and P s y c h i a t r i c Ward, several private medical r e h a b i l i t a t i o n s o c i e t i e s , the Oliver Mental I n s t i t u t e , the Guidance C l i n i c , the National Employment Services, Schedules "M"  and "R"  of the Federal Vocational Training Plan.  These r e h a b i l i t a t i o n resources  are used mainly for the  unemployable c l i e n t s , but r e f e r r a l s are made of the unemployed to the p s y c h i a t r i c services and ment Service.  and  The c i t y and the province  able-bodied  the National Employ-  share the cost of pro-  viding these r e h a b i l i t a t i o n services. In Regina, the S o c i a l Service Department does not provide for the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n of the recipients of s o c i a l a i d . However, they do refer c l i e n t s to the P r o v i n c i a l Department of S o c i a l Welfare and R e h a b i l i t a t i o n .  This department does pro-  vide a r e h a b i l i t a t i o n program that the C i t y may  use.  The C i t y of Regina does not provide casework services to recipients of s o c i a l a i d , but only f i n a n c i a l assistance. C i t y stated that the "greatest obstacle to developing  The  an  e f f e c t i v e r e h a b i l i t a t i o n service i s that few people q u a l i f y because of the lack of education and the low i n t e l l i g e n c e of a l l of the c l i e n t s of the Department."* there was  They also mentioned that  a lack of finances to develop such a program.  102  The C i t y of Winnipeg defines the functions of the Public Welfare Department i n Municipal By-Law No. 16960; "Duties of the Public Welfare Department.... to give assistance to indigent or needy bona fide residents of the C i t y of Winnipeg i n the form of advice, care or r e l i e f i n cash or i n kind or both i n cash or i n kind, or give assistance by way  of providing  training so as to f i t the recipients to be self-supporting."* Thus the City of Winnipeg, i n the d e f i n i t i o n of function, provides for both casework and r e h a b i l i t a t i o n services for a l l recipients of f i n a n c i a l assistance. Both of these services are part of the f i n a n c i a l assistance program.  The r e h a b i l i t a t i o n services include a  Special Services D i v i s i o n that makes an evaluation of the employment p o t e n t i a l of p h y s i c a l l y or mentally  handicapped persons.  Referrals are made to the Society for Crippled Children and  Adults  which operates as a co-ordinating agency under the provisions of the Federal and P r o v i n c i a l program. are provided  Physio-therapy services  i n the Municipal Hospital and occupational training  and retraining are provided schools or i n industry."*  through public or private technical However the Department f e e l s the lack  of a r e h a b i l i t a t i o n h o s p i t a l and p s y c h i a t r i c services.  I t would  also l i k e the Special Placements D i v i s i o n of the National Employment Service strengthened to more adequately carry out their r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s for job placements. The major problem of a l l f i v e of the c i t i e s studied i s a shortage of trained s t a f f .  A l l of the c i t i e s have a number of  103  r e h a b i l i t a t i o n services to which c l i e n t s may  be referred for  help, and a l l except Regina share i n the costs of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . They also f e e l that i t i s an i n t e g r a l part of their p o l i c y . In Saskatche?/an the program and the costs of a l i m i t e d r e h a b i l i t a t i o n program are covered completely by the p r o v i n c i a l government. One aspect of the administration of welfare  services  that i s c l o s e l y connected to r e h a b i l i t a t i o n i s the " d i v i s i o n of the c l i e n t , "  1  that i s discussed by Bradley Buel i n his study  of the C i t y of St. Paul, Minnesota.  By this i t means that the  c l i e n t w i l l often have several workers and several agencies working with him and his family.  These are two of the c i t i e s  included i n this study that are trying to decrease this d i v i s i o n . The  c i t i e s are Edmonton and Burnaby, where public  assistance, c h i l d welfare, family court counselling, juvenile probations  and aid to the aged and i n f i r m are a l l concentrated  i n one department or agency. integrate and co-ordinate  Thus, an attempt i s being made to  the services that are given to the  "multiple problem" or so-called "hard case family", which i s the family that requires more than one service for i t s r e h a b i l itation. Studies Done i n the United  States  Canadian communities are searching for facts and  Wilensky and Lebeaux, op. c i t . , p. 25*2.  solutions  104  to their complex issues.  The problems of co-ordination of  services, of reaching r e s i s t a n t families with multiple problems, of attempting to prevent and/or treat delinquency have been scrutinized through extensive research and experimentation i n a number of United States communities.  Some are b r i e f l y out-  lined below. St. Paul.  A comprehensive study of 41,000 families  under the care of St. Paul agencies i n November, 1948, was made and the findings have been published.  1  The major finding was a  vicious c i r c l i n g of problems i n a group of 6,600 f a m i l i e s , about s i x per cent of the t o t a l , with this group absorbing well over half of the combined services of the community's dependency, health and adjustment agencies.  I t showed also that "the troubles  of humanity and the p a r t i c u l a r things professional workers seek to do to help are now divided into such small segments that the family framework fades quietly from view." A return to a family 2  approach to meeting needs was seen to be an urgent necessity. To meet these needs, Bradley Buel, favoured the public welfare department as the instrument to u t i l i z e and co-ordinate the services to meet the problems. New York C i t y .  Triggered by marked increase i n juvenile  crime, the New York Youth Board on a neighborhood basis, developed  B u e l l , Bradley and Associates, Community Planning for Human Services, New York, Columbia University Press, 1952. 2  Ibid., p. 9.  105 committees with c i t i z e n and s o c i a l work representation to d i s cuss and plan for i n d i v i d u a l f a m i l i e s .  These l o c a l committees  used the actual case workers, policemen, etc., who knew the family under discussion, rather than top-echelon personnel. was a "grass roots" approach. "softened  It  The New York C i t y Youth Board s t a f f  up" each family i n advance of r e f e r r a l to the agency  of choice by s k i l l e d casework and transferred the case only when i t was believed that the family was motivated towards accepting treatment.  I t must be c l e a r l y recognized  that only a very  small percentage of problem families are located and treated by this method.  From demonstration, and also from  dissemination  of .accurate information through committee members, i t i s hoped that public opinion w i l l be created and that a wider plan of action w i l l r e s u l t . Chicago.  1  To show the extent that c i t i e s such as Burnaby  and Edmonton could develop their multiple purpose departments for f u l l r e h a b i l i t a t i o n services, the C i t y of Chicago i s a good example.  The Department of Welfare of the C i t y of Chicago  provides a wide variety of co-ordinated  s o c i a l services to o  needy residents who are e l i g i b l e f o r general assistance. New York City Youth Board, Research Department, A Study of Some of the Characteristics of 150 Multiproblem Families. (Mimeographed, 1957). 1  Muller, Jonas N., M. D., "The R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Program of the Department of Welfare, C i t y of Chicago", Public Welfare, Vol. 13, No. 1, January, 1955. 2  106  Financing from c i t y and state sources allows a wide range of program development with, the return of needy people, "to independence through a p r e s c r i p t i o n of cash grants supplemented with coordinated professional services."  The c l i e n t s include  not only gross physical handicaps, but a variety of mental and emotional d i f f i c u l t i e s and such s o c i a l d i s a b i l i t i e s as i l l i t e r a c y , ignorance of English, and lack of job s k i l l s . d e f i n i t i o n of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n i s therefore a broad one,  The  extending  well beyond the administrative confines of a physical medicine unit or even a r e h a b i l i t a t i o n d i v i s i o n i n the Chicago department. The r e h a b i l i t a t i o n d i v i s i o n would appear to be similar to Winnipeg's Special Services D i v i s i o n . In mid 1954, with the department.  approximately 3 4 , 0 0 0 persons registered Approximately 4 , 0 0 0 persons were e l i g i b l e ,  medically and s o c i a l l y for some of the services.  The  1953  expenditures of the Department of Welfare t o t a l l e d almost $16,300,000. The Department points out that part of the cost i s d i r e c t l y returned to the c i t y i n the form of the earnings of the I n d u s t r i a l Training Centre.  Additional s i g n i f i c a n t proportions  of the cost are returned i n the form of services received from trainees i n the service course carried on outside the centre and from c l i e n t s i n the Yfork Assistance Program.  And the savings  i n assistance costs resulting from, successful placements i n private industry are estimated to range from $15,000 to $20,000 each month.  The Department has estimated an average cost of  107  roughly $30.00 per month for each person r e h a b i l i t a t e d , whether or not the specialized medical services of the convalescent home were required.  This figure does not appear to include  the services which are rendered under the general medical program. In this department there i s no set budget for r e h a b i l itation.  The attempt i s made to provide a l l of the services  needed by the c l i e n t s .  This i s , indeed, a broad approach to  rehabilitation. California.  The need for s k i l l f u l screening and s e l e c t i o n  for r e h a b i l i t a t i o n training was pointed up i n a p i l o t program inaugurated i n C a l i f o r n i a i n 1952 amongst families receiving Aid to Needy Children grants.  From a group of 4,000 families  842 were referred for assessment; of these 649 were rejected as unsuitable, and 193, or 4.8$,  were given t r a i n i n g .  By  spring of the following year, the saving to one county alone i n reduced assistance expenditures was $2,691.00 monthly."*"  This  project which was to l a s t eighteen months was financed through a grant of $33,000 from the Federal Security Agency.  If i t is  assumed that the one county mentioned had no relapses during the period of one year, the savings i n reduced  expenditure, v i z .  $32,292, would almost match the t o t a l grant invested, to say nothing of the income taxes paid by the persons r e h a b i l i t a t e d . Lefon quotes figures from a study done i n 1949 of 413 families receiving $619,500. yearly i n public assistance who were  Lefson, Leon, "Rehabilitating Public Assistance Recipients", Public Welfare. 1953, V o l . XI, No. 2, A p r i l 1953, pp. 49-50. 1  108 r e h a b i l i t a t e d a t a cost of $114,926.  By the following year  these families were earning s l i g h t l y less than annually and were receiving no a s s i s t a n c e .  1  $1,000,000  L i t t l e more need  be said for the value to the c l i e n t and the community of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n services i n public assistance. p  Marin County, C a l i f o r n i a .  The Marin study was p r i m a r i l y an  empirical study i n which busy county, state, federal, and private agency s t a f f co-operated i n p u l l i n g together observations and available s t a t i s t i c s , secured objective evaluation of case movement i n a sample of cases active i n 1956, and i d e n t i f i e d administrative actions and casework practices which contributed to the results achieved. The study was concerned with the work of the Family Care Unit and with o v e r a l l agency administrative changes from through 1956.  1951  The Family handles a l l General Assistance cases of  families with children and a l l Aid to Needy Children (which includes the federal program of Aid to Dependent Children and a state program which pays for the care of children i n foster homes or i n s t i t u t i o n s ) , and cases other than children i n foster care. An administrative review made by the State Department of S o c i a l Welfare early i n 1951 had shown many administrative  Lefson, op. c i t . , p. 47. A Study of Marin County, C a l i f o r n i a : Building Services Into A Public Assistance Program Can Pay Off. State of C a l i f o r n i a , Department of S o c i a l Welfare, George K. Wyman, Director, 1958. 2  109 problems. in  1952  2)  For  the 1)  were:  the  first the  assignment  transfer  of  the  Services  4)  establishment  Care  Unit  of  problems homes  each  Unit  6)  c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of  4) of  two  a  the  years  phase 1953  1)  of  to  staff  8)  3)  of  the  the  Family  dominant  better  rehabilitation  i f  pos-  development, 7)  and  the  controls.  changes  following  workers'  more  methods 2)  caseloads,  6)  securing  establishment  c o r r e l a t i o n of  duties  of  were  supervision,  5)  c o n s o l i d a t i o n of clerical  occurred  eight  program,  worker,  7)  in  provide  staff  the  thirty-five.  identify  p r o v i s i o n of  liaison  reduction  caseload  services,  development  Office,  specialized Child  administrative  of  3)  the  for  The  Unit.  worker.  to  central  1956.  staff,  medical  Attorney's  offices,  of  reduction  qualified  plan  clerical  more a d e q u a t e  second  p o s i t i o n of  District  initiation  of  Care  made  one  parents  economic  of  continuation  the  Family  changes  were around  c h i l d r e n , and  The  better  to  cases  f a m i l i e s , help  the  of  cases  chronic  5)  implemented:  only  experimental  an  sible.  between  to  a  of  their  establishment  of  caseloads  for  the  administrative  where  twenty-four  i n these  case  difficult  Welfare the  the  establishment  of  more  phase  the  work  department's  social  work  staff.  The from aid in  the  per  period  payments Marin  as  associated from  absent  capita of  to A i d did  with  the an  fathers  caseload  February to  1953  to  increase  grant  showed  February  Needy C h i l d r e n  average  and  rates  family  per  child.  in actual  income  increased  earnings  of  a  marked  decrease  1957.  The  groups  decreased  T h e s e may from  total  be  contributions  parents.  It  often  110  costs  money  investment costs  of  to  such  assistance a  money and  i n salaries  More  From  save  size  important  sample  100  of  known  cases  i n their  period  rated.  or  even  overall The  diagnosed  miscuity,  The  The  through  ation  cases  to  of  support  frequent  other  discipline's  Marin to  There  services be  casework p l a n s . emphasized.  community  and  limited  t o be  Unit  Direct  the  during  the  disturbance  support.  revalu-  interviews  helped  In  some on  cases  jointly of  i n clarifying  the  the made  casework  or  approaches  staff  and  whenever  diagnoses  practical  by  of  periodic  integration  project  pro-  lifelong  Continual interpretation  Department  and  identification  and  followup  and  Scale.  for  interagency conferences  helpful  in  intelligence,  and  early  situations.  by  i n  remarkable.  Frequent  an  situations.  t h e movements  personality  included  was  reduced  their  changed  experience,  appears  i n crisis  County Welfare  gain  or  s i x months.  they would  were  and  situation  intake procedures  referrals.  furthering  or  illness,  c o n t a c t s p e r m i t t e d prompt  and  problems  skills  practices  every  clients  appeared  judged  families  included  serious  good  plans  it  changes  assistance reduced.  H u n t - K o g a n Movement  99  the  in  significantly  the F a m i l y Care  functioning  success  agency  problems  of  the  increasing  decrease  i n families to  of  psychosis, alcoholism, illegitimacy  vocational  deprivation.  overall  workers  of  problems  desertion,  inadequate  use  75  indicated  better  social  the  period  organizational  cases  these  ratings  than  the  c o s t s were  changes  six professional through  total  an  the  1956,  The  t h e r e was  that  c o s t s were  during  of was  to  the needed  Ill  The evidence examined pointed consistently to the conclusion that the approach taken i n Marin County preserves human resources and saves public funds. Winona County, Minnesota.  1  This public welfare project has been  i n operation i n Minnesota since 1953,  and i s aimed at finding  and testing methods by which public welfare can control and prevent the basic s o c i a l problems of dependency, i l l - h e a l t h and maladjustment.  The project started with a s t a t i s t i c a l  cation of a l l the cases i n the county.  classifi-  Then an intensive  analysis, diagnosis and treatment plan was made.  The admini-  s t r a t i o n of assistance was systemized and the worker's load of required v i s i t s and reevaluation of e l i g i b i l i t y were lessened. The workers on this project were also provided with case aides to a s s i s t them. The cases had been divided into "Alpha" and "Beta" family groups.  The Alpha group were the cases where the diag-  noses indicated that these families were capable of improvement. The Beta group were the cases that only required or could use f i n a n c i a l assistance.  The project focused on the family as  against a focus on the i n d i v i d u a l receiving the service. The study showed that because of r e l a t i v e l y f u l l employment, the public welfare load was composed of persons severely  Globe, Donald B., F e i d l e r , Leo J . , and Page, Harry 0 . , "Reorientation for Treatment and Control", An Experiment i n Public Welfare Administration. Sponsored by the Minnesota_Department of Public Welfare and Community Research Associates, i n c . A Summary Report prepared as a Special Supplement for Public Welfare.  112  handicapped, mentally or p h y s i c a l l y .  The study also indicated  that due to a variety of s o c i a l insurance programs, the proportion of severely handicapped people on s o c i a l assistance caseloads increases. were:  1)  The measureahle gains from this experiment  Of the families selected for intensive treatment,  28 per cent have shown improvement i n their major problem. 2)  Of the same group of families, nearly 47 per cent are pre- ,  dieted to improve or maintain an already improved status.  These  improvements meant that the family was no longer dependent upon the state for f i n a n c i a l aid, but would have been i f the intensive treatment had not been given. Administrative r e o r i e n t a t i o n i s not easy.  The  families  i n public welfare case loads have many d i f f i c u l t problems and widely d i f f e r i n g p o t e n t i a l i t i e s for change.  These successful  American experiments have taken a great deal of planning, able leadership, and s k i l l e d , dedicated, professional s t a f f to overcome the varying problems encountered. There i s also a case for a l l agencies to co-ordinate and or integrate their s o c i a l services, either by setting up a separate agency or using one agency.  To help these families  there needs to be awareness of the importance of impact and timing.  The success of such programs i s best measured i n terms  of the high proportion of c l i e n t s returned to self-esteem and a r e a l i s t i c degree of s o c i a l independence.  CHAPTER  A  COMPARATIVE  Public  Before study  some r e f e r e n c e  assistance. she  was  the  should  be  These were w e l l  reviewing  a  ASSESSMENT  Welfare  considering  period  of  V  Principles  findings made  to  expressed attacks  and the by  on  implications p r i n c i p l e s of  Hilda public  B.  C.  of  this  public  Arndt  assistance.  when They  1. T h a t p e o p l e i n our c o u n t r y s h o u l d have the opportunity t o m e e t t h r o u g h t h e i r own e f f o r t s t h e i r b a s i c minimum n e e d s f o r l i v i n g and that t h e g o v e r n m e n t has a n o b l i g a t i o n t o make i t p o s s i b l e f o r them t o do s o w i t h i n i t s r e s o u r c e s , 2. T h a t f o r p e o p l e who l a c k means t o do so, money s h o u l d be p r o v i d e d t h r o u g h p u b l i c p r o g r a m s w h i c h e n a b l e them t o meet t h e i r b a s i c minimum needs — s u c h as s o c i a l i n s u r a n c e and public assistance, 3. the the  T h a t s u c h p u b l i c f u n d s s h o u l d be p r o v i d e d to p e o p l e o f our c o u n t r y on a b a s i s t h a t meets t e s t o f e q u a l t r e a t m e n t i n t h e e y e s o f t h e lav;,  4. T h a t p u b l i c f u n d s so g i v e n s h o u l d n o t be accompanied by c o n t r o l s t h a t l i m i t c h o i c e or c o n t r o l c o n d u c t i n ways d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h o s e w h i c h a p p l y t o o t h e r members o f t h e community. 5. T h a t f a c i l i t i e s a n d s e r v i c e s s h o u l d be d e v e l o p e d a n d made a v a i l a b l e t o a s s i s t p e o p l e i n f u n c t i o n i n g t o t h e i r maximum c a p a c i t y i n r e g a i n i n g their a b i l i t y t o meet t h e i r b a s i c minimum n e e d s t h r o u g h t h e i r own e f f o r t s whenever p o s s i b l e , 6. T h a t t h e f a m i l y u n i t s h o u l d be m a i n t a i n e d w h e r e v e r p o s s i b l e and r e c o n s t r u c t e d w h e r e v e r p o s s i b l e If. b r e a k down o c c u r s .  A r n d t , H i l d a , C. M., "An A p p r a i s a l o f What t h e Critics a r e S a y i n g a b o u t P u b l i c Assistance',", The S o c i a l S e r v i c e R e v i e w , V o l . X X V I , No. 4, D e c e m b e r 1952, p . A^T. '. 1  114  With the rights of a c i t i z e n there are also the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s on the applicants' part to recognize the l e g a l and f i n a n c i a l l i m i t a t i o n s of the agency; to supply the agency with pertinent information related to his a p p l i c a t i o n for a i d ; and to keep the agency informed of any changes i n his circumstances which might a f f e c t his grant.  In an i n d i v i d u a l  feels that he has been treated unfairly, he has the r i g h t to a f a i r hearing by another  jurisdiction.  The incorporation of these p r i n c i p l e s into public assistance i n the f i v e c i t i e s has been effected to a major extent.  The extent to which the programs i n these c i t i e s have  been concerned with meeting the needs of indigent people  adequately,  and assuring the well-being of r e c i p i e n t s , has been a focus of this study.  In this concluding chapter an assessment i s made  of the degree to which these p r i n c i p l e s have been incorporated. L e g i s l a t i o n •— The Foundation For A Comprehensive S o c i a l Assistance Program The r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of government to provide p u b l i c assistance should be stated i n l e g i s l a t i o n .  Such l e g i s l a t i o n  should among other things define e l i g i b i l i t y , provide f o r the establishment of e l i g i b i l i t y tests, and make p r o v i s i o n for the r i g h t of the applicant to appeal.  This would a i d i n securing  impartial administration and lessen the number of people who are unwilling to apply for assistance because they think i t i s begging.  115  The 1958  amendment to the Unemployment Assistance Act  enables the Dominion government to share the costs of p r o v i n c i a l s o c i a l assistance, with certain f e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l and prov i n c i a l programs excluded.  Such programs as mothers' allowances,  medical care to recipients of s o c i a l welfare benefits, and certain supplemental allowances are excluded under the terms of the Unemployment Assistance Act.  The passage of the Unemploy-  ment Assistance Act (1956) marked the entrance of the federal government p a r t i c i p a t i o n into the general assistance program, which was h i s t o r i c a l l y a l o c a l government r e s p o n s i b i l i t y .  This  has had some e f f e c t of improving general standards i n the s o c i a l assistance programs. The s o c i a l assistance l e g i s l a t i v e acts i n B r i t i s h Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba are similar i n principle.  With such l e g i s l a t i o n the foundation i s l a i d for a  comprehensive program of public assistance designed to give a i d on the basis of need. A p r i l 1,  1959,  The B r i t i s h Columbia Act, and as of  the Saskatchewan Act, has given the authority to  set standards established by the rules and regulations of the p r o v i n c i a l departments.  This i s possible because s o c i a l allow-  ances are shared on a per capita basis with the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . In accordance with the federal Unemployment Assistance Act agreements, B r i t i s h Columbia and Saskatchewan have eliminated r e s t r i c t i v e residence regulations within their respective province.  Alberta and Manitoba, although having signed the  Unemployment Assistance agreement, have not complied with the residence terms.  116  E l i g i b i l i t y Qualifications Residence The Unemployment Assistance Act, which has been discussed previously, provides i n the Dominion-provincial agreement that "the length of residence s h a l l not be a condition for the 1  receipt of assistance."  At the beginning of this study only  Vancouver and Burnaby were complying with this provision, but this p o l i c y only came into e f f e c t i n September 1 9 5 8 .  We have  also learned as this study neared completion that Saskatchewan has passed a new S o c i a l A i d Act which abolishes inter-municipal residence requirements  as of A p r i l 1, 1 9 5 9 .  Both B r i t i s h  Columbia and Saskatchewan however signed the agreement on July 1 , 1955,  and d i d not put i t into e f f e c t u n t i l the dates mentioned  above. Manitoba was another province that signed the agreement on July 1, 1 9 5 5 but i t has not enacted any l e g i s l a t i o n to abolish inter-municipal residence requirements. residence requirements  Even though  were rather lenient there i s s t i l l the  expenditure of time, money and e f f o r t that could be used to better advantage. With the study nearly complete we learned that Alberta has just recently signed the Dominion-provincial agreement under the Unemployment Assistance Act. some changes are expected.  4-5 Elizabeth I I , c. 26.  As a r e s u l t of t h i s ,  11.7  We submit that a l l of the provinces have been slow to accept and u t i l i z e the Unemployment Assistanct Act.  For even  when the Dominion-provincial agreements are signed, there i s no great haste to change l e g i s l a t i o n and p o l i c y to comply with the provisions of the Act. Assessment of Resources B a s i c a l l y a l l of the c i t i e s are similar i n their assessment of a c l i e n t ' s resources. have a clearer statement  Some of the c i t i e s however  of p o l i c y on this than do others.  For example Vancouver, Burnaby and Regina have a d e f i n i t e p o l i c y regarding l i f e insurance and annuities, whereas Edmonton and Winnipeg state that this i s decided on an i n d i v i d u a l basis. Another difference i s i n the amount of savings allowed. In Vancouver and Burnaby a c l i e n t may r e t a i n or  $500.00  i n the case of a family.  $250.00  i f single  This i s d e f i n i t e p o l i c y  stated by the S o c i a l Welfare Department of B r i t i s h Columbia. Edmonton, Regina and Winnipeg expect a l l savings to be before assistance i s granted.  exhausted  There are other differences i n  p o l i c y regarding the assessment of resources, which have been discussed at length i n Chapter I I , but they are of a r e l a t i v e l y minor nature. The aspect that appears s i g n i f i c a n t i s that some c i t i e s have a more c l e a r l y defined statement others.  of p o l i c y than do the  This may be due to the fact that Vancouver, Burnaby  and Regina have p o l i c y manuals and adhere to the p o l i c y set by  118  the  p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t , w h e r e a s Edmonton and  not  had  writing and  p o l i c y manuals, a l t h o u g h b o t h c i t i e s them.  find  that  We  e v e n t h o u g h t h e y s e t r u l e s and  a l l rules  can  ations,  with very  little  clearly  stated  i n V a n c o u v e r ' s and  greater  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y upon the  can  be  c a r e f u l not defined  be  difficulty.  of  i s applied  presently  the  to  a result policy is  Burnaby.  This  places  s o c i a l worker i n a s s e s s i n g  an  asset  j u d g e m e n t a l or is a  study  individual situ-  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of  b o t h a d a n g e r and t o be  As  have  regulations  changed t o a d a p t t o  for a better  p o l i c y there  application it  as  a l s o allows  This  are  have u s e d Edmonton's m a n u a l i n t h i s  follow,  but  Winnipeg  too  for  the w o r k e r must  lenient.  little  a need  i n d i v i d u a l need.  With a  t e n d e n c y t o become r i g i d  rules with very  not  be  clearly  in  the  flexibility,  unless  wisely.  Relatives Responsibility The matter. help  five  V a n c o u v e r and  as much as  tribute  withhold  married  is  home c a r e .  until  room, and  the  Otherwise,  w i t h them and  for regular  there  i s no  only  appear  asked  t o be  possible.  free rent  i f this w i l l  to  has  this to con-  much  the  indicated,  Regina  contributions.  much as  on  children  Yftnnipeg  case i s reviewed.  expects r e l a t i v e s to provide  living  c h i l d r e n are  i f contributions  e x p e c t s r e l a t i v e s t o a s s i s t as only  have d i f f e r e n t p o l i c i e s  Burnaby encourage unmarried  or n u r s i n g  can,  assistance  b o a r d and  studied  p o s s i b l e and  to boarding  same p o l i c y , b u t  for  cities  It  assesses also  Edmonton  i f the r e c i p i e n t  not  be  assessment of r e l a t i v e s '  any gifts  hardship. or  119  contributions.  Yiforking c h i l d r e n l i v i n g  certain portion  of  the  cities  also  found  these are  the  difficulties  not  responsibility  Able-Bodied All  used by of  board  a  i n a l l of  four  is s t i l l  provinces  British  Columbia,  M a n i t o b a have P a r e n t s M a i n t e n a n c e  Acts  P u b l i c W e l f a r e Departments because Thus,  present,  but  the  idea  i t i s not  of  of r e l a t i v e s  applied.  Unemployed of  able-bodied  the  the  enforcement.  the  cities  National  studied  unemployed who  Insurance b e n e f i t s . at  that  S a s k a t c h e w a n and  but  the  s a l a r y f o r room and  assessed  studied.  We Alberta,  their  a t home a r e  are  are  granting  ineligible  They a l l r e q u i r e  Employment S e r v i c e  the  and  assistance for  Unemployment  applicant  require  to  proof  to r e g i s t e r of  regular  reporting. V a n c o u v e r and able-bodied  R e g i n a do  unemployed  other  Edmonton, B u r n a b y and rehabilitative  and  but  large  because of  vices  not  p r o v i d e any  than f i n a n c i a l Winnipeg  casework s e r v i c e s caseloads,  to  i n the  to h e l p  the  to  goal  the  provide  able-bodied  a Special  P u b l i c W e l f a r e D e p a r t m e n t and  t o r e v i e w e a c h c a s e , Ytfith the placement  attempt  the  for  assistance.  they cannot p r o v i d e  f o r a l l . W i n n i p e g , however, has  Section  do  service  unemployed,  these  ser-  Services  some a t t e m p t  of r e t r a i n i n g or  r e c i p i e n t t o a g a i n become s e l f  i s made  job supporting.  120  Supplementary Income to Low Income Families In this section of the study we examined policy on supplements to public assistance or social insurance recipients and low income families.  A l l of the cities studied provide  supplements for assistance and insurance schemes up to the basic minimum rates of social assistance. For low income families who do not have sufficient income to meet their minimum requirements, there are a variety of policies.  Vancouver does not supplement low income workers.  Burnaby w i l l look for other areas of need, including vocational retraining or hospitalization which may then require social assistance as well.  Edmonton provides help for rent or food  in emergencies, but does not generally supplement.  Regina does  supplement low wages for the items essential to minimum living requirements.  Winnipeg provides a fuel allowance for nine  months to the f u l l time worker with low income, and the parttime worker's wages are supplemented to minimum requirements. In the view of some authorities, supplements to low income families is destined to become a real issue i n Canada. It should be recognized that there is not today the danger that there was i n England i n the early part of the nineteenth century when wages were supplemented.  The bargaining power of labour  w i l l tend to keep wages up and there w i l l not be the same problem. Moreover, i n a world of prosperity the community can take a chance on a residual group when the rewards of doing so are the prevention of additional problems.  121  Standards o f A s s i s t a n c e To determine need there a r e two methods that a r e used by the c i t i e s  studied.  p l u s supplements.  Vancouver and Burnaby use the f l a t - g r a n t  Edmonton, Regina and Winnipeg use the budget  d e f i c i e n c y method. The  f l a t - g r a n t p l u s supplement method i s a standard s e t  by l e g i s l a t i o n .  I t i s s a i d t o give a g r e a t e r sense of s e c u r i t y  to the c l i e n t because he w i l l know the exact amount of h i s allowance.  I t i s a l s o claimed  judgemental.  However, i t does not e l i m i n a t e the task of a s s e s s i n g  income and r e s o u r c e s , due  to be more o b j e c t i v e and non-  nor does i t e l i m i n a t e p e r i o d i c r e v i s i o n  to changed circumstances.  A major c r i t i c i s m i s t h a t  itcdoes  not measure i n d i v i d u a l need and i s a r a t h e r u n f a i r program, because higher  r a t e s than needed may be g i v e n i n some s e c t i o n s ,  whereas i n other p a r t s of the P r o v i n c e ,  p a r t i c u l a r l y the c i t i e s ,  the r a t e s may be too low and supplements a r e needed. The  budget d e f i c i e n c y method appears to be the s u p e r i o r  method of determining  need.  I t i s the most o b j e c t i v e method o f  meeting need, and the d e t a i l serves adequacy of the budget.  to keep i n sharp focus the  I t i s a l s o easy to make adjustments as  the r a t e s a r e a matter of p o l i c y not l e g i s l a t i o n .  The c r i t i c i s m s  of the budget d e f i c i e n c y method a r e t h a t i s complicated,  there  i s a l a c k of s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n from one month to the next and t h e r e f o r e there i s no s e c u r i t y f o r the r e c i p i e n t . :claimed  that many items a r e s u b j e c t to the p e r s o n a l  of the caseworker, and t h a t i t i s cumbersome.  I t i s also judgement  We f e e l , however,  122  that these disadvantages are far outweighed by the more adequate meeting of individual needs by the budget deficiency method. We feel that the system used in Edmonton is very simple and thus is probably easier to administer.  There is only one  variation i n budget for the ages of children and that is at ten years of age, whereas in Regina and Winnipeg there are special allowances for food and clothing for five different age groupings. This system as used in Regina and Winnipeg appears very cumbersome and complicated, and the simpler system used in Edmonton appears to be a better method. Rates of Assistance We asked the cities to state whether they f e l t that their rates of assistance (see table 5) were adequate.  Vancouver  and Burnaby stated that they were inadequate, and added that they had assisted i n a recent study on the adequacy of assistance i n Vancouver." " Edmonton f e l t that their rates required a five per 1  cent increase i n food allowances.  Regina stated that their  rates were adequate, and Winnipeg stated that their rates were reasonably adequate.  However Winnipeg is planning a 4 . 8 per  cent increase. It is our opinion that the reason the rates in Edmonton, Regina and Winnipeg are close to adequacy is because of the budget deficiency method of determining need.  This method takes into  The Adequacy of Social Assistance Allowances in the City of Vancouver, Community Chest and Council, September 1 9 5 8 . 1  123  account  most  of  to  meet  adequate  Special  supplied  As  needs  by  are  many  a l l  a'result, are  goes  without.  either  needs,  but  Social  Welfare  uses  for  small  makes rental  the  allowances  provided  are  needs.  the  i n  by  to  agencies  but  for  for  flexible of  the  for  larger  amounts  The  worker  has  school  books,  f u l l  sundry  else  of  the  Burnaby  special  needs.  considered  supervisor  the  client  special  so.  and  books,  the  for  do  allowance.  school  Administrator  resource  does  Theoretically  provide  a  approval  6).  or  to  is  coverage  Vancouver  clothing,  permission  policy  The  to  allowances  assistance  agencies,  Regional  as  that  table  special  and  adequate  social  attempt  for  the  (see  other  the  services  appears  basic as  an  Department  decision.  fees  the  such  Edmonton the  It  services  make  basis.  of  i n d i c a t i o n of  items  apply  items,  cities  assistance.  does  private  individual  the  provided  must  In  an  included  Burnaby  an  and  recipients  special  many  etc.  also  is  social  provide  these  the  p r o v i s i o n by  special  not  variables  Provisions  The for  the  Assistant  authority  allowances,  to  and  is  on  needed Superintendent  deal  with  transport-  ation.  Regina as  clothing  Winnipeg the  and  provides  for  sundries  provided  questionnaire  for  a l l  except  smallspecial  are the for  included special the  i n  needs the  needs  payment  of  but  such  items  allowances. that  were  debts.  covered  by  124  We found that Vancouver and Burnaby are r e s t r i c t e d by the p o l i c y of the S o c i a l Welfare Department and require s p e c i a l permission to grant these services.  This, of course, does not  stop them from providing these services at ..municipal expense but there i s great reluctance to depart from the p r o v i n c i a l scale. Continuing  Eligibility  E l i g i b i l i t y for assistance Is determined  each time of  issue i n Vancouver, Edmonton, Regina and Winnipeg. determines  Burnaby  continuing e l i g i b i l i t y by a periodic reinspection  every three months.  The determination of continuing e l i g i b i l i t y  i s done i n Vancouver and Regina when the r e c i p i e n t comes to the o f f i c e to receive his allowance. e l i g i b i l i t y i s determined  In Edmonton and Winnipeg,  by having the r e c i p i e n t return his  receipt for rent each month.  In this way Edmonton i s able to  send out cheques to a l l recipients except those on administrative allowances.  Winnipeg mails cheques to approximately f i f t y per  cent of i t s r e c i p i e n t s ; the rest are required to c a l l at the o f f i c e when a review i s e s s e n t i a l for any purpose. Health Services A l l of the c i t i e s have a f a i r l y comprehensive health service program for their s o c i a l assistance r e c i p i e n t s .  In  B r i t i s h Columbia, medical coverage i n the past has usually been on the basis of the c l i e n t s  1  need for medical care at the time  of application for f i n a n c i a l aid, exclusive of those cases receiving temporary grants.  As of September 1, 1958,  the  new  125 p o l i c y involves a three months waiting period f o r medical cover1  age of a l l s o c i a l assistance applicants.  I f the c l i e n t goes  off s o c i a l assistance i n less than a three month period, the cost of medical care i s the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the patient. Edmonton i s somewhat r e s t r i c t i v e i n requiring most c l i e n t s to go to the University Hospital Outdoor C l i n i c for service. Private doctors are paid only i n s p e c i a l cases. In the C i t y of Regina s o c i a l assistance r e c i p i e n t s are excluded from the Saskatchewan P r o v i n c i a l Health Services Plan. The C i t y of Regina i s t o t a l l y responsible for the health care of their c l i e n t s .  Long-term c l i e n t s are provided with the  services of a group medical plan.  The S o c i a l Service Department  pays the p r o v i n c i a l h o s p i t a l i z a t i o n tax for s o c i a l assistance r e c i p i e n t s , as well as providing emergency and  non-emergency  medical care, drugs, glasses, appliances, dental services and physician's fees. Winnipeg pays the premium under the Manitoba Hospital Services Plan.  I t provides emergency care through the C i t y  Health Department, as well as providing non-emergency care.  medical  The dental care provided i s similar to that i n a l l other  c i t i e s and i s l a r g e l y confined to extractions. Health services are a major and a necessary component i n a t o t a l s o c i a l assistance program. because the c l i e n t s need the care.  They should be provided  They should be provided i f  the departments desire to implement a comprehensive r e h a b i l i t a t i o n  126  program  to  develop  recipients. proaching the or  new  British  an a l l  three  condition. the  return  to  case  embracing  It  can f a i l  ultimate  care  for  cation  for  vinces  and the  place  the  a  is  considering  back  future  to  log  offer The  the  of  the  the  several  services  under  for  local  i n d i v i d u a l and individual's  but  are  nonetheless  to  share  such as  omission. of  health  There  federal  the  the  social  the  services,  to  the  include  and f a m i l y  public assistance, court  counselling.  pro-  recipients. experience  a national health  w i t h i n the  justifi-  of  would  valuable  insurance  for  scheme.  Services the  appears  Burnaby and Edmonton.  services  is  of the  provisions  the American experiences,  of  in  the  multiple-problem family  cities  cost  to  care  on R e h a b i l i t a t i o n  an  aid  i n f o r m a t i o n w h i c h w o u l d be most  of  precludes  disabling  the  recipients,  granting  Act  the  ap-  community.  failure  serious  the  better  light  of  by  probation,  a  implementation of  problems  attacked  costly,  municipalities  An Assessment In  i n the  are  of  a  to  However,  which  of  facilitating  assistance  Unemployment A s s i s t a n c e  give  of  a policy  need  their  scheme.  treatment  the  A province's  social  developing  is  of  i n structure  insurance  period  to meet  services  i n Saskatchewan,  Besides  health  objective  service.  nearest  and e f f e c t i v e  a productive  essential  human p o t e n t i a l i t i e s  Columbia i s  early  Health  health  full  month w a i t i n g  discourages  thwart  the  one  They  be  These  city  child  to  solution  cities  department.  welfare, are  best  able  juvenile to  127  coordinate and intensify the services with a family.  Both  c i t i e s are able to offer professional casework services to make their programs quite e f f e c t i v e .  Hov/ever, large caseloads per  worker hinder the attainment for the best r e s u l t s . The coordination of welfare services i s an important and urgent problem to be met i n Vancouver.  I t Is recommended that  the Vancouver C i t y S o c i a l Service Department reinstigate  the  "experiment of adequacy" carried out i n 1949-50, but broaden the focus from the granting of assistance on the basis of need to self support.  A careful screening p o l i c y , the use of  trained s t a f f  professionally  could be and i s available i n Vancouver to make t h i s  a p r a c t i c a l proposition. Winnipeg has the Special Services D i v i s i o n which acts as a r e f e r r a l and coordinating unit within the C i t y Public Welfare Department.  Since this Department i s undergoing reorganization  i t i s hoped that a comprehensive r e h a b i l i t a t i o n program w i l l receive major consideration. Regina only offers medical r e h a b i l i t a t i o n services for their c l i e n t s .  They do not offer casework services but r e f e r r a l s  are made to the P r o v i n c i a l R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Branch of the Department of S o c i a l Welfare and R e h a b i l i t a t i o n .  Regina needs to  examine the complete concept of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n i n terms of developing a program. The development of retraining programs i n public a s s i s tance has been rapid i n Western Canada since Y/orld War I I , and  128  the  standard  However,  service  governments  provisions crucial has  of  and seek  in  at to  the  financial, effective  advantage  of  are  are the  making t h e i r  the  provinces  the  is  a need  in  the  indications of  policies  services.  The which  the  environment  to  municipal  to  to  that  the  more  the  foster  governments  cities  liberal.  guarantee  the  rights  The a b o l i t i o n o f  residence  British  expand  the  the  client  taking  Assistance  Policy  of  of  are  Unemployment  responsibilities  study  leads  to  budget-deficit  enable  the  clients  flat-rate-plus-supplement needs  existing  stateof  and of  the  regulations  Columbia and Saskatchewan i s .both wise  the  and  and  thrifty.  rehabilitation services  for  public  clients.  The simplified  review  the F e d e r a l Government  participating provinces  assistance  would  with  which help  administration.  There  more and b e t t e r  f i n a n c i a l terms  available  the  to  Recommendations  healthy  and denote  between  need  commendable.  agencies.  and a r e  within  levels  a c t i o n by p r o v i n c i a l governments,  There  city  been  and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l  General  client  has  n a t i o n a l c o o r d i n a t i o n and can c r e a t e  legislative,  and p r i v a t e  ments  area  three  develop  responsibility lies  a program of  Act  this  better  met.  There  social assistance  a recommendation of method f o r  who a r e method  determining  receiving to  have  s h o u l d be more program.  the  under  a This  the  b a s i c minimum  effective  To d e v e l o p  of  grants.  grants  their  use  more  use  of  public  personnel  129 participation and understanding, there is place for advisorycommittee groups in public assistance.  The extended use of  research in public assistance i s the only means to approbriately utilize public resources and to develop the f u l l human potenti a l i t i e s of the clients that the public agencies serve.  APPENDIX A Policy  in Social  Assistance Date:  Eligibility 1.  What  2.  How m u c h , i f a n y , c a s h a s s e t s m a y p e o p l e r e t a i n s t i l l qualify for social assistance? a) Savings b) L i f e i n s u r a n c e , annuities c) A l l o w a b l e earned income  3.  4.  is  Qualifications your  policy  on residence  qualifications? and  How m u c h a n d w h a t k i n d , i f a n y . o f c o n v e r t i b l e a s s e t s . ( e . g . r e a l p r o p e r t y , c a r , e t c . ; may p e o p l e r e t a i n a n d s t i l l qualify for social assistance? Which, income paid?  i f any, of the i n determining a) b)  Family allowances Children's earnings State  c) d)  f o l l o w i n g items a r e a s s e s s e d as the amount o f s o c i a l assistance ) )  ( (  ) )  policy  Gifts Board and/or State  ( (  room  policy  5.  Please s t a t e your p o l i c y relatives responsibility  6.  Does your c i t y i s s u e bodied unemployed?  w i t h regard to assessment for financial support.  s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e to the Yes ( ) No ( )  of  able-  I f yes, please state other e l i g i b i l i t y requirements, i f any, ( e . g . r e g i s t e r i n g a t the N a t i o n a l Employment S e r v i c e s O f f i c e and r e p o r t i n g there a t r e g u l a r intervals, p r o o f of s a t i s f a c t o r y work r e c o r d , etc.)  131  7.  Does y o u r c i t y s u p p l e m e n t t h e e a r n i n g s o f lov^-income w o r k e r s w i t h l a r g e f a m i l i e s t o e n a b l e them t o m a i n t a i n a c e r t a i n maximum s t a n d a r d o f l i v i n g ? Yes ( ) No ( Please  8 .  briefly  Does y o u r c i t y s u p p l e m e n t o t h e r p u b l i c a s s i s t a n c e o r s o c i a l i n s u r a n c e programs such as O l d Age Assistance,. Workmen's C o m p e n s a t i o n o r U n e m p l o y m e n t I n s u r a n c e ? Yes ( ) No ( ) If  II.  comment  yes, please  Standards  elaborate  of Assistance  1.  Is social  a s s i s t a n c e granted on t h e b a s i s o f a: (a) f l a t r a t e ( ) (b) f l a t r a t e p l u s supplements ( ) (c) budget d e f i c i e n c y ( ) (d) Other  2.  F o r which be p a i d ?  of the following  (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g)  3.  items w i l l  social  food shelter clothing fuel utilities personal necessities) replacement of household articles  F o r which o f the f o l l o v a n g items of s p e c i a l s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e be p a i d ? (a) s p e c i a l d i e t a l l o w a n c e s (b) s p e c i a l c l o t h i n g (c) t r a v e l l i n g expenses (d) h o u s e h o l d equipment' or f u r n i t u r e (e) s c h o o l books ( f ) expenses incidental to e d u c a t i o n (g) expenses incidental to g e t t i n g started i n employment (h) l e g a l f e e s (i) housekeeping services ( j ) back b i l l s (k) others  assistance  ( ( ( ( ( (  ) ) ) ) ) )  (  )  need ( ( (  ) ) )  ( (  ) )  (  )  ( ( ( (  ) ) ) )  will  )  132  4.  I n determining the p a i d does the c i t y recommended b y t h e Welfare? Yes  amount o f s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e t o be f o l l o w a set schedule of allowances p r o v i n c i a l Department of S o c i a l (  )  No  (  )  I f n o , what s c h e d u l e i s used? (append a copy of schedule i f a v a i l a b l e or d e s c r i b e i t ) 5.  Do y o u f e e l t h a t t h e p r e s e n t a l l o w a n c e s a r e What h a v e s p e c i a l s t u d i e s , i f a n y , r e v e a l e d adequacy of the a l l o w a n c e s ?  6.  How i s  c o n t i n u i n g e l i g i b i l i t y determined? ( a ) by d e c l a r a t i o n e a c h t i m e of issue ( b ) by p e r i o d i c r e i n s p e c t i o n (c) o t h e r measures  adequate? on the  ( (  ) )  7.  Do p e o p l e c a l l a t social assistance Yes  8.  Does t h e c i t y p a y t h e c o s t s o f h o s p i t a l i z a t i o n the s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e r e c i p i e n t s f o r which i t responsible? (a) Pays f u l l c o s t ( (b) Pays p a r t of the c o s t ( (c) Other arrangements (specify)  9.  10.  Does t h e c i t y p r o v i d e emergency social assistance recipients? Yes ( )  medical care No  (  their  for is ) )  to  )  Does t h e c i t y p r o v i d e n o n - e m e r g e n c y m e d i c a l c a r e ( e . g . c o r r e c t i v e surgery, treatment of c h r o n i c c o n d i t i o n s , e t c . ) to the s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e r e c i p i e n t ? Yes ( ) No ( ) Additional  11.  the c i t y o f f i c e to r e c e i v e issues? ( ) No ( )  the  comments  Which o f the f o l l o w i n g s e r v i c e s does t h e c i t y p r o v i d e t o t h e s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e r e c i p i e n t f o r whom i t i s responsible? (a) drugs ( ) (b) g l a s s e s ( ) (c) appliances ( ) (d) d e n t a l s e r v i c e s ( ) ( e ) none o f t h e s e ( ) ( f ) Other  133 III.  P o l i c y or R e h a b i l i t a t i o n  Services  1.  What i s t h e f u n c t i o n a n d p u r p o s e o f t h e s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e p r o g r a m as s t a t e d i n t h e l e g i s l a t i o n o r a s expressed i n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n p o l i c y ?  2.  Does y o u r c i t y a s s i s t i n o c c u p a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g , r e t r a i n i n g or physio-therapy f o r i n d i g e n t persons and m e n t a l l y or p h y s i c a l l y handicapped persons i n r e c e i p t of s o c i a l assistance? Yes ( ) No ( ) If  3.  yes,  what a r e  A r e casework assistance?  the p r o v i s i o n s and  services Yes  (  offered )  facilities?  i n a d d i t i o n to No  (  financial  )  4.  What do y o u c o n s i d e r t o be t h e m a j o r o b s t a c l e s to the development of e f f e c t i v e r e h a b i l i t a t i o n s e r v i c e s f o r the i n d i v i d u a l or f a m i l y i n r e c e i p t of s o c i a l assistance?  5.  P l e a s e make a n y a d d i t i o n a l comments t o make.  t h a t y o u may w i s h  APPENDIX B Bibliography Books B u e l l , Bradley and Associates. Community Planning for Human Services, New York, Columbia University Press,  1952.  Burns, Eveline M. S o c i a l Security and Public P o l i c y , New McGraw-Hill Book Company Incorporated, 1 9 5 6 .  York,  Cassidy, Harry Morris. Public Health and Welfare Reorgani z a t i o n , Toronto, The Ryerson Press, 194-5. Dawson, R. MacGregor. The Government of Canada, Toronto, University of Toronto Press, F i f t h P r i n t i n g , 1 9 5 2 . England, Robert. Contemporary Canada; A Mid-Twentieth Century Orientation, The Educational Book Company of Toronto, Limited. Leyendecker, H i l a r y M. Problems and P o l i c y i n P u b l i c Assistance, New York, Harper and Brothers Publishers,  1955.  Miles, Arthur P. An Introduction to Public Welfare, Boston, D. C. Heath and Company, 194-9. Strong, Margaret K i r k p a t r i c k . Public Welfare Administration i n Canada, Chicago, The University of Chicago Press, 1 9 3 0 . Wilensky, Harold L. and Lebeaux, Charles N. I n d u s t r i a l Society and S o c i a l Welfare. New York, R u s s e l l Sage Foundation,  A r t i c l e s , Pamphlets and Theses Arndt, Hilda C. M. "An Appraisal of What the C r i t i c s Are Saying About Public Assistance", The S o c i a l Service Review. Volume XXVI, Number 4 , December, 1 9 5 2 . Canadian Welfare Council: F i n a n c i a l Assistance: Philosophy, P r i n c i p l e s and Practices i n the Giving of F i n a n c i a l Assistance, The Canadian Welfare Council, Ottawa, 1954-. Canadian Welfare Council. S o c i a l Security for Canada, The Canadian Welfare Council, Ottawa, June, 1958.  135 Canadian Welfare Council, Workbook for Conference on Certain Issues i n S o c i a l Security, June, 1958. City of Edmonton, P o l i c y Manual,  1958.  Community Chest and Council of Greater Vancouver. The Adequacy of S o c i a l Assistance Allowances i n the C i t y of Vancouver, B. C , The Community Chest and Council of Greater Vancouver, September, 1958. Dunlop, Edward. R e h a b i l i t a t i o n for the Disabled i n Canada: A Plan for National Action, Toronto, (Published by the Canadian A r t h r i t i s and Rheumatism Society), September, 1958. Evans, Maureen. Living on a Marginal Budget, Master of S o c i a l Work Thesis, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1953* Fowler, Douglas Weatherbee. The Unemployment Assistance Act (1956), Master of S o c i a l Work Thesis, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1958. Globe, Donald B., F e i d l e r , Leo J., and Page, Harry 0. "Reorientation for Treatment and Control. An Experiment i n Public Welfare Administration", sponsored by The Minnesota Department of Public Welfare, Morris Hurch, Commissioner. Community Research Associates, Inc. Bradley B u e l l , Executive Director. F i n a n c i a l l y aided by The Louis W. and Maud H i l l Family Foundation, The Grant Foundation. A Summary Report prepared as a Special Supplement for Public Welfare, 1958. Hart, George.  "The  Death of the Poor Law  i n Nova Scotia",  Canadian Yfelfare, Volume XXXIV, Number 5, December, 1958. Hooson, William. The R e h a b i l i t a t i o n of Public Assistance Recipients, Master of S o c i a l Work Thesis, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, 1953. Jackson, Douglas Lascelles. Public Assistance P o l i c y , Master of S o c i a l Y/ork Thesis, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1955. Lefson, Leon. "Rehabilitating Public Assistance Public Y/elfare, Volume XI, Number 2, A p r i l ,  Recipients", 1953.  Muller, Jonas N., M. D., "The R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Program of the Department of Welfare, C i t y of Chicago", Public Welfare, Volume 13, Number 1, January, 1955. New  York C i t y Youth Board, Research Department, "A Study of Some of the Characteristics of 150 Multiproblem Families", (Mimeographed, 1957).  136  R i c k i n s o n , E . R. " B r i t i s h Columbia's Per Capita Plan", C a n a d i a n W e l f a r e . Volume 34, Number 5 , D e c e m b e r , 1958. S o c i a l A i d M a n u a l ( J a n u a r y 1, 1958) P u b l i c Assistance Branch, Department o f S o c i a l W e l f a r e and R e h a b i l i t a t i o n , P r o v i n c e of Saskatchewan, Regina. Social Welfare Department  B r a n c h , A c t s and R e g u l a t i o n s for Field o f H e a l t h and W e l f a r e , Victoria.  Service,  Wallace, Elizabeth. "The O r i g i n of the S o c i a l W e l f a r e S t a t e i n Canada 1867-1900", Canadian J o u r n a l of Economics and P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e , V o l u m e 16, A u g u s t , 1950. Wyman, G e o r g e "Building Pay O f f " ,  K. A Study of M a r i n County C a l i f o r n i a : S e r v i c e s i n t o a P u b l i c A s s i s t a n c e Program Can Department of S o c i a l Welfare, S t a t e of C a l i f o r n i a ,  1957. Government  Documents 4-5  Canada.  Elizabeth II,  Canada  Year  Book,  Canada  Year  Book,  Great  Britain  House of 1943,  30,  Commons Report  26.  c.  1946. 1957-58. Victoria,  c.  3.  S p e c i a l Committee on S o c i a l S e c u r i t y , S e s s i o n , on the A d v i s o r y Committee on H e a l t h Insurance.  M a r s h , L e o n a r d C. Report Kings P r i n t e r , 1943.  on  Social  S e c u r i t y Canada,  Statutes Revised  Statutes  of A l b e r t a ,  Revised  Statutes  of  British  Revised  Statutes  of  Manitoba  Revised  Statutes  of  New  Statutes  of  1954,  Statutes  Ontario  c.  296.  1952.  1954-1957,  1952-57,  1948,  c.  1955-57.  Laws  268.  c.  Columbia  Brunswick  Newfoundland  Nova S c o t i a of  1955,  106.  c.  37.  c.  310.  Ottawa,  137  Revised Statutes of Prince Edward Island 1951. Statutes of Prince Edward Island 1952-57. Revised Statutes of Quebec 1941. Statutes of Quebec 1942-57. Revised Statutes of Saskatchewan 1953? c. 24-1.  

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