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The Little Mountain low-rental housing project : a survey of its welfare aspects (Vancouver, 1955-58) Fromson, Etta Elaine 1959

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i THE L I T T L E MOUNTAIN LOW-RENTAL HOUSING PROJECT A Survey of i t s Welfare Aspects (Vancouver, 1955-58). b y ETTA ELAINE FROMSON JOY KRISTINE HANSEN ROGER MADISON SMITH T h e s i s S u b m i t t e d i n P a r t i a l F u l f i l m e n t o f t h e R e q u i r e m e n t s f o r t h e Degree o f MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK i n t h e S c h o o l o f S o c i a l Work A c c e p t e d as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e s t a n d a r d r e q u i r e d f o r t h e d e g r e e o f M a s t e r o f S o c i a l Work S c h o o l o f S o c i a l Work 1959 The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i v ABSTRACT The L i t t l e M o u n t a i n H o u s i n g P r o j e c t i s n o t o n l y the f i r s t u n i t o f p u b l i c l y - o w n e d f a m i l y h o u s i n g i n V a n c o u v e r , b u t one o f t h e f i r s t e x a m p l e s o f l o w - r e n t a l h o u s i n g w h i c h i s n o t d i r e c t l y s l u m - c l e a r a n c e r e h o u s i n g ( i . e . , i t i s b u i l t o n a new s i t e , n o t a c l e a r e d down-town a r e a ) . The s o c i o - e c o n o m i c c i r c u m s t a n c e s o f t h e f i r s t a p p l i c a n t s f o r t h i s h o u s i n g , and t h e i r p o l i c y im-p l i c a t i o n s , have a l r e a d y b e e n t h e s u b j e c t o f an a n a l y t i c a l s t u d y ( t h e s i s b y Mr. M i c h a e l W h e e l e r : E v a l u a t i n g t h e Need f o r L o w - R e n a t l H o u s i n g ) . The p r e s e n t s t u d y f o l l o w s t h i s up b y s u r v e y i n g t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f t h e P r o j e c t a f t e r f o u r y e a r s o f o p e r a t i o n . T h i s s u r v e y i s d i r e c t e d p a r t i c u l a r l y t o f a m i l y w e l f a r e , r e c r e a t i o n , s o c i a l i n t e r e s t s , t h e r e l a t i o n o f t h e P r o j e c t t o t h e s u r r o u n d i n g community, and t h e admin-i s t r a t i v e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f a l l o f t h e s e . A s e r i e s o f s t r u c t u r e d i n t e r v i e w s was o r g a n i z e d w i t h a sample o f t e n a n t s who r e p r e s e n t e d p r o p o r t i o n a l l y t h e t y p e s o f f a m i l i e s ( " c o m p l e t e " f a m i l i e s , " b r o k e n " f a m i l i e s , and p e n s i o n c o u p l e s ) and m a i n i n c o m e - g r o u p s o f t h e t o t a l P r o j e c t p o p u l a t i o n . An o v e r a l l s t a t i s t i c a l f r a m e w o r k was d e r i v e d f r o m r e g i s t r a t i o n f i l e s o f t h e V a n c o u v e r H o u s i n g A u t h o r i t y . Most o f t h e f a m i l i e s were f o u n d t o be g e n e r a l l y s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e i r accommodation, b u t r e -a c t i o n s were i n v i t e d o n a wide ra n g e o f s u b j e c t s to a s s e s s t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f b e t t e r h o u s i n g f o r p a r e n t s and c h i l d r e n . Among d e f i c i e n c i e s i n t h e P r o j e c t , t h a t o f a p p r o p r i a t e m e e t i n g - p l a c e s f o r b o t h P r o j e c t and community a c t i v i t y came c o n t i n u o u s l y t o t h e f o r e . I m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h i s s t u d y , d i s c u s s e d i n two c o n c l u d i n g c h a p t e r s , i n c l u d e (a) r e a c t i o n s and s u g g e s t i o n s o n i m p r o v e m e n t s , (b) t h e s t e a d y i n c i d e n c e o f w e l f a r e p r o b l e m s , and ( c ) t h e p o s s i b l e c o n t r i b u t i o n s o f s o c i a l w o r k e r s i n l o w - r e n t a l h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s . In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of th i s thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It i s understood that copying or publication of this thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of School of S o c i a l Work The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver 8 , Canada. Date M a y 1> 1 9 5 9 -I i TABLE OP CONTENTS C h a p t e r I . H o u s i n g and S o c i a l W e l f a r e F a m i l y needs f o r d e c e n t h o u s i n g : t h e b u d g e t p r o b l e m , and t h e n a t u r e o f the s u p p l y . R e a s o n s f o r p u b l i c p r o v i s i o n : low-Income g r o u p s ; e f f e c t s o f sub-s t a n d a r d accommodation. L e g i s l a t i v e p r o v i s i o n s . P u r p o s e s and method o f t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y Page C h a p t e r I I . L i t t l e M o u n t a i n : The P r o j e c t and I t s P e o p l e Community a c t i o n and e a r l y d i f f i c u l t i e s . Con-s t r u c t i o n s t a r t s , 1955* A d m i n i s t r a t i v e a r r a n g e m e n t s . P h y s i c a l f a c i l i t i e s . P i c t u r e o f t h e o c c u p a n t s : c h i l d r e n ; f a m i l i e s , o r i g i n s . The new d i s t r i c t : a s s e t s and l i a b i l i t i e s 31 C h a p t e r I I I . F a m i l y W e l f a r e Incomes: t h e b u d g e t and r e n t s . The " p r o -g r e s s i v e " s c a l e and t e n a n t u n d e r s t a n d i n g . The new s u i t e . C h i l d r e n and the f a m i l y . R e c r e a t i o n , s c h o o l , and t h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d 57 C h a p t e r I V . R e c r e a t i o n , S o c i a l , and Community A c t i v i t i e s Home l i f e and r e c r e a t i o n . O u t s i d e c o n t a c t s . A s s o c i a t i o n s , P r o j e c t f a c i l i t i e s and n e i g h b o u r h o o d f a c i l i t i e s . O l d a s s o c i a t i o n s . I s t h e r e a "community"? 80 C h a p t e r V. A d m i n i s t r a t i o n and S o c i a l P o l i c y Management and " W e l f a r e . " R e n t s and e l i g i b i l i t y . The r e n t - s c a l e . L a n d l o r d - t e n a n t r e -l a t i o n s . M a i n t e n a n c e and a p p e a r a n c e 10if C h a p t e r V I . Human R e s o u r c e s Management and e d u c a t i o n . T e n a n t s u g g e s t i o n s . T e n a n t p a r t i c i p a t i o n . "Good" and " b a d " t e n a n t s . W e l f a r e p r o b l e m s . The c a s e f o r S o c i a l W o r k e r s . Im-p l i c a t i o n s f o r the f u t u r e 133 A p p e n d i c e s ; A. The " P r o g r e s s i v e " ( A d j u s t e d P r o p o r t i o n a l ) R e n t - S c a l e B. The Q u e s t i o n n a i r e C. V a n c o u v e r R e v i s e d R e n t - S c a l e D. The I n s p e c t i o n R e p o r t E . B i b l i o g r a p h y i i i TABLES AND CHARTS IN THE TEXT (a) Tables Page Table 1 . D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Income, i n R e l a t i o n to Housing... l o Table 2 . R e p r e s e n t a t i v e Income S i t u a t i o n s of Home Purchasers 17 Table 3 . Number, Age Groups and D i s t r i b u t i o n of C h i l d r e n i n L i t t l e Mountain P r o j e c t 1+.2 Table Family Composition: Residents o f L i t t l e Mountain P r o j e c t 1+.2 Table 5« D i s t r i b u t i o n of Tenant F a m i l i e s A c c o r d i n g to Income 58 Table 6 . Maintenance C a l l s During One Year I 2 I 4 . (b) Charts F i g . 1 . O r i g i n s of P r o j e c t ' s Tenants, 1955 27 F i g . 2 . O r i g i n s of P r o j e c t ' s Tenants, 1958 28 F i g . 3 . Sketch Map, Types of L i v i n g U n i t s 39 F i g . Ij.. Modern, Well-Planned K i t c h e n 52 F i g . 5 . I n t e r i o r o f S u i t e 52 F i g . 6 . C h i l d r e n P l a y i n g 53 F i g . 7 . An E x t e r i o r Scene 53 F i g . 8. A B l a c k t o p P l a y Surface Sh F i g . 9* P r o j e c t Driveway. Sh F i g . 10 . A Slack P e r i o d on a Busy S t r e e t 55 F i g . 1 1 . Sketch Map of L i t t l e Mountain D i s t r i c t 56 V ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS We w i s h t o e x p r e s s o u r t h a n k s and a p p r e c i a t i o n t o a l l t h o s e whose i n t e r e s t and a c t i v e h e l p h a v e made t h i s s t u d y p o s s i b l e . We p a r t i c u l a r l y a c k -nowledge w i t h g r a t i t u d e t h e d i r e c t i o n , c r i t i c i s m and c o u n s e l o f t h e f o l l o w i n g p e r s o n s and o r g a n i z a t i o n s : C e n t r a l M o r t g a g e and H o u s i n g C o r p o r a t i o n ; t h e V a n c o u v e r H o u s i n g A u t h o r i t y , and e s p e c i a l l y - Mr. S u t h e r l a n d , t h e S e c r e t a r y - M a n a g e r , and Mrs. Selman, t h e C h a i r m a n o f t h e B o a r d . I t h a s b e e n a g r e a t p r i v i l e g e t o have worked u n d e r t h e d i r e c t i o n o f D r . L e o n a r d C. Ma r s h o f the S c h o o l o f S o c i a l Work, U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , w i t h o u t whose p a t i e n t g u i d a n c e and g e n e r o u s a s s i s t a n c e t h i s s t u d y w o u l d n o t h a v e b e e n p o s s i b l e . v i THE L I T T L E MOUNTAIN LOW-RENTAL HOUSING'PROJECT Chapter I HOUSING AND SOCIAL WELFARE H a r d l y anyone w i l l not agree t h a t decent housing i s e s s e n t i a l f o r a l l f a m i l i e s i n a sound community, and thereby a sound n a t i o n . I t i s the t r a n s l a t i o n o f t h i s p r i n c i p l e i n t o s o c i a l p o l i c y t h a t has been a s t o r y o f c o n t r o v e r s y and o f de l a y s - - h a p p i l y a s t o r y a l s o o f achievements i n r e c e n t t i m e s — i n so many c o u n t r i e s . I n p u b l i c h o u s i n g — f o r l o w - r e n t a l purposes and f o r a l l f a m i l i e s r a t h e r than c e r t a i n groups--Ganada has been a v e r y l a t e s t a r t e r . Some c o u n t r i e s , such as B r i t a i n o r Sweden, have t h i r t y o r f i f t y years o f experience i n i t s v a r i o u s branches; the U n i t e d S t a t e s , In a hundred major urban c e n t r e s , has a t l e a s t one and sometimes two decades o f development, as w e l l as h i g h l y -informed p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s and a growing number o f s o c i o l o g i c a l and p l a n n i n g s t u d i e s to draw on. T h i s should l e s s e n the need to rake over the o l d e r and most worn-out arguments about the need f o r slum c l e a r a n c e , the a l l e g e d "dangers" o f s u b s i d i z e d developments, and the nature o f p u b l i c housing occupants; but i t should a l s o make i t e a s i e r to i n t e r p r e t and b u i l d on experience o f our own. The few examples o f p u b l i c h o u s i n g which we have, so f a r , are not i n anyway p r o p o r t i o n a l to the need. Housing l e g i s l a t i o n p e r m i t t i n g s u b s i d i z e d l o w - r e n t a l housing has e x i s t e d i n Canada s i n c e 1935 (with important v a r i a t i o n s i n the p r o v i s i o n s , I t i s t r u e ) , but o n l y three s u b s t a n t i a l p r o j e c t s have been b u i l t and none b e f o r e 1950—slum c l e a r a n c e proper In Toronto (Regent Park) and S t . John's, Newfoundland, and a low-rent p r o j e c t i n Vancouver which i s not s p e c i f i c a l l y slum-clearance ( i n the sense t h a t i t does not d e r i v e from d e m o l i t i o n and r e h o u s i n g on the s i t e ) . T h i s I s " L i t t l e Mountain," the s u b j e c t o f the p r e s e n t study, b u i l t i n 1955 and a d m i n i s t e r e d by a new form o f p u b l i c body, the Vancouver Housing A u t h o r i t y . M u n i c i p a l h o u s i n g a u t h o r i t i e s , although p r o j e c t e d i n the f i r s t n a t i o n a l housing l e g i s l a t i o n (1935 and 1937), are r a r e and u n f a m i l i a r i n Canada, though the number i s now growing. A f u r t h e r development ( a l s o p i o n e e r e d i n Toronto since the second u n i t o f the Regent Park reho u s i n g was s t a r t e d i n 1957) i s making i t s appearance i n Vancouver; a second i n s t a l m e n t o f l o w - r e n t a l housing i s under c o n s t r u c t i o n i n another p a r t o f the c i t y , and t h i s u n i t , to be named "Orchard Park," w i l l s i g n a l i z e the broadening o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f the Vancouver Housing A u t h o r i t y . I n these circumstances, a survey o f the L i t t l e Mountain f a m i l i e s , even a f t e r so s h o r t a h i s t o r y as the p r o j e c t has yet had, o b v i o u s l y recommends i t s e l f . Such a study i s s t i l l l i k e l y to be something o f an essay i n i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , however; and those p a r t s o f the background o f p u b l i c h o using which cannot be taken f o r granted should be set out f i r s t i n i n t r o d u c t i o n . The s p e c i a l housing needs of v e t e r a n s a f t e r the war were r e c o g n i z e d , not without e f f o r t , i n the middle " f o r t i e s , " and s e v e r a l p r o j e c t s have r e s u l t e d . The s p e c i a l h o using needs f o r o l d people have come to the f o r e i n the " f i f t i e s " — t o such an mt ^ tm e x t e n t , Indeed, t h a t the many l o c a l undertakings i n communities throughout Canada r a i s e the need f o r s t o c k - t a k i n g and c o o r d i n a t i o n o f p o l i c y . But g e n e r a l low-Income ho u s i n g i s another matter. R e c o g n i t i o n has been r e l u c t a n t , but s e v e r a l i n g r e d i e n t s have c r y s t a l l i z e d r e c e n t l y . F i r s t , the need o f housing a s s i s t a n c e f o r people whose b a s i c handicap Is low income co n t i n u e s to demand restatement. U n f o r t u n a t e l y f o r a l l e o n e e r n e d - - i n c l u d i n g s e n i o r governments, m u n i c i p a l c o u n c i l s , and t a x p a y e r s , as w e l l as the f a m i l i e s i n need--the concept o f "low Income" i s now b l u r r e d , because i t has been changed s t e a d i l y by u n r e l e n t i n g i n f l a t i o n i n p r i c e s , b u i l d i n g c o s t s , and r e a l e s t a t e v a l u e s from 19^5 to the p r e s e n t . There are many middle-income f a m i l i e s whose income i s now so "low" t h a t they cannot a f f o r d to make a down payment and take on a home-ownership mortgage. Who should be a r e n t e r r a t h e r than a home owner? Whatever the answer ( i t i s not i n any case the primary concern of the p r e s e n t s t u d y ) , there i s not much doubt t h a t i t i s a much l a r g e r p r o p o r t i o n o f the urban p o p u l a t i o n than i t used to be."^ What i s perhaps even more to the p o i n t i s t h a t there are l a r g e groups i n every major c i t y who have always been r e n t e r s o r t e n a n t s , and many w i l l continue to be. There i s 1 The comprehensive review o f the n a t i o n a l p i c t u r e undertaken by the " C u r t i s " subcommittee o f the A d v i s o r y Committee on P o s t -war R e c o n s t r u c t i o n (Housing and Community P l a n n i n g ; Report IV. Queen's P r i n t e r ; Ottawa; 1941)-). w i t h the prewar s i t u a t i o n as a s t a r t i n g p o i n t , suggested t h a t the b e s t working assumption would be t h a t 50 per cent o f urban f a m i l i e s c o u l d be regarded, and a i d e d , as p o t e n t i a l home owners. ( T h i s can be v a l i d a t e d f a i r l y e a s i l y from the s t a t i s t i c s o f income l e v e l s , p r e v a i l i n g p r i c e s and c o s t s , and N a t i o n a l Housing Act p r o v i s i o n s o f t h a t time.) C u r r e n t l y , few a u t h o r i t i e s p l a c e the p r o p o r t i o n of p o t e n t i a l home owners (urban) as h i g h as 30 p e r cent and some have put I t as low as 20 o r 15 per c e n t . need f o r good r e n t a l accommodation Indeed, not o n l y because i t i s r e a l i s t i c f o r low and middle urban i n c o m e - l e v e l s , but because i t i s b a s i c a l l y more convenient f o r many k i n d s o f people--workers who are not employed on r e g u l a r j o b s , couples without c h i l d r e n who are not ready to "take on" a l a r g e house (or even a s m a l l o r suburban one), u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s , "business g i r l s " and o t h e r w h i t e - c o l l a r c i t y workers, widows who cannot undertake the maintenance work of an owned " s i n g l e - f a m i l y " house, and so on. R e n t a l housing, i n s h o r t , must be f r e e d o f the s u g g e s t i o n which s t i l l c l i n g s to i t i n some q u a r t e r s t h a t i t i s "poverty h o u s i n g . " Urban and i n d u s t r i a l c e n t r e s — a n d these are becoming more and more the core o f Canada—need "good" l a n d l o r d s , r e s p o n s i b l e and e n t e r p r i s i n g l a n d l o r d s , even l a r g e - s c a l e l a n d l o r d s . And some p a r t , at l e a s t , of p u b l i c housing must be seen i n t h i s c o n t e x t . On the o t h e r hand, some p o v e r t y elements undoubtedly do remain i n low-rent housing. P u b l i c h o u s i n g , i n p a r t at l e a s t — whether l a r g e o r small p a r t must depend on s o c i a l p o l i c y developments o f the f u t u r e — i s a w e l f a r e measure; i t s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , I t s p l a c e i n the community, i t s c o n t r i b u t i o n f o r the t e n a n t s , i t s whole balance o f pros and cons, w i l l not be p r o p e r l y assessed u n l e s s t h i s i s f u l l y a p p r e c i a t e d . Whatever e l s e p u b l i c housing i s , i t shares c e r t a i n elements i n common w i t h h o s p i t a l s and s c h o o l s — a n d some, more u t i l i t a r i a n , w i t h good sewers, s t r e e t l i g h t i n g , s a n i t a t i o n , d e l i q u e n c y c o n t r o l , and parks E f f e c t s o f Sub-Standard Accommodation P u b l i c p r o v i s i o n i s needed, fundamentally, f o r three reasons. And I t i s f o r these reasons t h a t I t has developed as a branch o f government i n every u r b a n i z e d country i n the world; (a) because substandard housing i s d e t r i m e n t a l to human w e l f a r e , (b) because decent housing i s beyond the budget o f s e v e r a l groups, and (c) because o f the shortage of moderate and low-r e n t a l accommodations, n o t a b l y o f new b u i l d i n g but even o f new and o l d k i n d s under the impact o f r a p i d urban growth. These i n f e r e n c e s may o b v i o u s l y o v e r l a p , and they f r e q u e n t l y do; but i t I s h e l p f u l i n the I n t e r e s t s o f c l e a r e x p o s i t i o n to t r e a t them s i n g l y . Housing "environment" i s both the house i t s e l f i n which the f a m i l y l i v e s and the c h i l d r e n grow up, and the surroundings o f t h a t h o u s e — w h i c h take on more and more s i g n i f i c a n c e s as a c h i l d gets o l d e r and l e a r n s more from o t h e r c h i l d r e n and o t h e r a d u l t s . The consequences of a poor p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l e n v i r o n -ment have o f t e n been shown to extend beyond one g e n e r a t i o n o f a d u l t s . Although e a r l y i n v e s t i g a t o r s l o o k e d mainly at the Immediate and m a t e r i a l c o n d i t i o n s , l a t e r s t u d i e s have more and more emphasized the t o t a l i t y o f the home s i t u a t i o n , i n c l u d i n g the emotional atmosphere, and the e x t e n s i o n s o f the home, through the community, i n t o the n a t i o n . What are b a s i c f a m i l y needs f o r decent housing? They comprise a l o n g l i s t o f items, some of which are obvious and ot h e r s not; t h e y may be a l l too e a s i l y taken f o r gran t e d by those who have been f o r t u n a t e enough to have had t h e i r own needs met. Among the p h y s i c a l needs f o r adequate housing are sound - 6 -c o n s t r u c t i o n o f the accommodation w i t h s u i t a b l e p r o t e c t i o n a g a i n s t f i r e , e l e c t r i c a l o r gas d e f e c t s , some p r o t e c t i o n from home I n j u r i e s and t r a f f i c h a z a r d s . Proper temperature c o n t r o l , adequate n a t u r a l and a r t i f i c i a l l i g h t , and adequate space f o r p l a y and outdoor r e c r e a t i o n are a l s o e s s e n t i a l s . S a n i t a r y f a c i l i t i e s must a l s o be of a c e r t a i n c a l i b r e . I t i s important to have adequate pure water supply, f a c i l i t i e s f o r l a u n d r y and modern bathroom f a c i l i t i e s . Food storage f a c i l i t i e s as w e l l as o t h e r storage space are important. And l a s t l y , adequate and h e a l t h f u l s l e e p i n g and l i v i n g space i s necessa r y . The most important p s y c h o l o g i c a l need i n housing i s a l l o w i n g f o r the o p p o r t u n i t y f o r each f a m i l y to l e a d a normal f a m i l y l i f e and a normal community l i f e . The d i f f e r e n c e between the t i r e d mother and the happy mother, the mother who can "never f i n d a p l a c e to put anyth i n g " and the one who Is proud o f the neatness and appearance o f h e r l i t t l e s u i t e , needs no deep psychology to a p p r e c i a t e . Adequate p r i v a c y and p l e a s a n t s u r -roundings, not o n l y i n the house but i n the immediate d i s t r i c t , l i k e w i s e , are a v i t a l p a r t o f "mental h e a l t h . " From household to p l a y group, to s c h o o l , to gang o r community c e n t r e , "community" f o r the c h i l d i s a s u c c e s s i o n o f group e x p e r i e n c e s . A d e s i r a b l e community thus means one w i t h f a c i l i t i e s and s e r v i c e s , but a l s o with people f o r whom " w e l f a r e " and "community" have p r a c t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . I n urban c e n t r e s , convenience i n g e t t i n g to work, scho o l and shopping Is c l e a r l y a v i t a l t e s t o f a "good d i s t r i c t . " I n c u r r e n t t e r m s , t h e a u t o m o b i l e h a s become so p r e d o m i n a n t o n t h e s t r e e t s as w e l l as I n p e o p l e ' s m i n d s ( o r on t h e i r t e l e v i s i o n s e t s ) t h a t t h e v i e w i s a p t t o be h e l d t h a t t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p r o b l e m s d i s a p p e a r "so l o n g as p e o p l e have c a r s . " I t i s n o t n e c e s s a r y t o r e c a l l t h e m o r n i n g and e v e n i n g t r a f f i c j ams, and t h e d i s t a n c e s o f s u b u r b a n commuting, t o c o n f u t e t h i s ; i t i s more r e l e v a n t sometimes t o remember t h a t m o t h e r s and c h i l d r e n — a n d o l d p e o p l e — a r e s t i l l t h e most f r e q u e n t p e d e s t r i a n s . Good h o u s i n g and g o od n e i g h b o u r h o o d s mean a r e a s n o t o n l y where w a l k i n g t o s c h o o l o r s h o p p i n g i s s a f e , b u t d e s i r a b l y , where i t i s p l e a s a n t . T h e s e a r e s t i l l n e g l e c t e d i d e a s , l o s t i n t h e r e a l e s t a t e s c r a m b l e w h i c h p a r t i c u l a r l y n e e d c a r e f u l and i m a g i n a t i v e a p p r a i s a l f o r l o w r e n t a l h o u s i n g . O v e r c r o w d i n g , i t i s sometimes assumed, i s an u n p l e a s a n t f e a t u r e c o n f i n e d t o t h e d a r k t e n e m e n t s and l o n g s t r e e t - r o w s o f E u r o p e a n c e n t r e s , w i t h some r e m i n d e r s t h a t l a r g e r A m e r i c a n c i t i e s l i k e New Y o r k and C h i c a g o h a ve r e p r o d u c e d them. N o r t h A m e r i c a n c i t i e s a r e g e n e r a l l y s p r e a d more w i d e l y ; w e s t e r n c i t i e s — a n d i t I s t r u e o f V a n c o u v e r — p a r t i c u l a r l y h a v e much l o w e r d e n s i t i e s . B u t o v e r c r o w d i n g c a n be a m a j o r i l l , t h e moment a l a r g e o r s m a l l h o u s e i s d i v i d e d i n t o a number o f r e n t e d rooms; t h e p r e s s u r e o n s p a c e and f a c i l i t i e s and m a i n t e n a n c e i s a l w a y s c u m u l a t i v e and i t c a n become i n t o l e r a b l e . Of t h i s k i n d o f o v e r c r o w d i n g t h e r e i s p l e n t y , as e v e r y s o c i a l w e l f a r e a g e n c y h a s a b u n d a n t e v i d e n c e . I n t h e " S t r a t h c o n a " d i s t r i c t o f c e n t r a l V a n c o u v e r s u r v e y e d i n c o m p r e h e n s i v e d e t a i l i n I9U/7-8, t h e r a t e s o f o v e r c r o w d i n g w e r e : 28.1 p e r c e n t i n s h a r e d s i n g l e h o u s e s , 58.8 p e r c e n t i n rooms, and 7 2 . 6 p e r c e n t i n a p a r t m e n t s , a n d s u i t e s . H e a l t h and z o n i n g b y - l a w s mean l i t t l e i i i s u c h s u r r o u n d i n g s ; t h o u g h t y p i c a l l y t h e amount o f s a n i t a t i o n i n s p e c t i o n s , " t r o u b l e c a l l s , " f i r e r u n s , e t c . , a r e h i g h e r p e r c a p i t a h e r e t h a n anywhere e l s e . D i s t r i c t s w i t h d e t e r i o r a t e d o r s u b s t a n d a r d a c c ommodation a r e u s u a l l y s u b j e c t t o o t h e r s t r e s s e s and s t r a i n s . U g l i n e s s , n e g l e c t , and d e c a y e r o d e t h e s e n s e o f w e l l - b e i n g and p r i d e . I n a d e q u a t e h e a t , l a c k o f h o t w a t e r , t h e n e c e s s i t y o f s h a r i n g b a t h r o o m f a c i l i t i e s , c r e a t e f r i c t i o n s e v e n I n f a m i l i e s i n good c i r c u m s t a n c e s . Added t o b a d c o o k i n g f a c i l i t i e s , l a u n d r y o b s t a c l e s , d i f f i c u l t i e s i n k e e p i n g t h e p l a c e c l e a n o r t i d y , t h e y may be d i s a s t r o u s . I t i s n o t a l w a y s t h e o u t r i g h t s l u m t h a t d e p r i v e s p e o p l e p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y . The d i s t r i c t w h i c h h a s no u n i t y , w h i c h i s j u s t a s p r a w l o f i l l - s h a p e d h o u s e s and l o t s c a n be t h e human e q u i v a l e n t o f t h e weed p a t c h . I n d i v i d u a l g r o w t h i s h e a v i l y i n f l u e n c e d b y e n v i r o n m e n t . The " t r a n s i e n t " ( o r slum) a r e a o f o b v i o u s l y w r e t c h e d a c c ommodations most d i r e c t l y i n f l u e n c e s t h e c h i l d i n h i s s c h o o l p e r f o r m a n c e . B u t i n l e s s i l l - f a v o u r e d d i s t r i c t s , a t t i t u d e s t o s c h o o l may s t i l l be p r e j u d i c e d b y h o u s i n g d e f i c i e n c i e s . I t i s n o t uncommon f o r some c h i l d r e n t o a t t e n d t h r e e o r f o u r s c h o o l s i n one y e a r . T h i s may be one o f t h e 1 M a r s h , L . C , R e b u i l d i n g a N e i g h b o u r h o o d . U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ; V a n c o u v e r ; 195Q> Much o f c o u r s e depends o n t h e measurements o r i n d e x e s u s e d i n d e f i n i n g " o v e r c r o w d i n g . " T hese a r e e x p l a i n e d i n t h e r e p o r t , b u t s u b s t a n t i a l l y c o n c u r , w i t h t h e s t a t i s t i c a l methods w h i c h a r e now s t a n d a r d i n a l m o s t a l l c e n s u s e s . T h e r e a r e many p o s s i b l e i n d e x e s o f h o u s i n g d e f i c i e n c i e s o t h e r t h a n o v e r c r o w d i n g . f o r g o t t e n r e s u l t s o f the v a i n search f o r b e t t e r accommodation. L i k e h i s f a m i l y , such a c h i l d may f i n d i t Impossible to "belong" o r to accomplish enough i n h i s s c h o o l year. Again, p l a y i s i n h i b i t e d by l a c k o f p l a y space. I f the c h i l d i s allowed--or d i v e r t e d — I n t o d e s t r u c t i v e channels o u t s i d e , he i s endangered by t r a f f i c , d i r t , and o l d e r c h i l d r e n . I f he c o n s t a n t l y remains i n d o o r s , he and h i s b r o t h e r s and s i s t e r s and h i s parents ( p a r t i c u l a r l y h i s mother) can f i n d no r e l i e f from one another. Values i n such an u p b r i n g i n g are " i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c " i n the s e l f i s h sense o f the word; i n i t i a t i v e , l i k e w i s e , means " l o o k i n g out f o r o n e s e l f . " A n t i - s o c i a l p r a c t i c e i s e a s i l y condoned. " A u t h o r i t y " means t e a c h e r s , p o l i c e , i n v e s t i g a t o r s , and o t h e r a l i e n s . C i t i z e n s h i p , so f r e q u e n t l y h e l d up as an e d u c a t i o n a l i d e a l , i s much more at the mercy o f q u a r r e l l i n g households and a p a t h e t i c neighbourhoods than we have yet r e a l i s t i c a l l y r e c o g n i z e d . I r r e g u l a r i t y o f employment and tenancy may be b a s i c a l l y u n s e t t l i n g . R e s p o n s i b i l i t y has l i t t l e o p p o r t u n i t y o f de v e l o p i n g among the i n h a b i t a n t s o f substandard accommodation, f o r a l l these reasons as w e l l as from sheer l a c k o f time f o r a f f a i r s beyond the hand-to-mouth concern o f the family--economic d i f f i c u l t i e s , h e a l t h problems, m a r i t a l d i s c o r d . Slum areas have few spokesmen i n c i v i c a f f a i r s . I t i s no a c c i d e n t t h a t the champions o f b e t t e r housing f o r the whole community are people with enough i m a g i n a t i o n to see beyond t h e i r own d i s t r i c t s . 10 The B u d g e t A s p e c t s o f H o u s i n g F a m i l i e s do n o t l i v e i n t h e shadow o f s u c h i n f l u e n c e s b y p r e f e r e n c e — t r u e t h o u g h i t may be t h a t t h e y sometimes become a c c u s t o m e d t o them. M o s t l y t h e y l i v e i n i n a d e q u a t e q u a r t e r s — w h e t h e r a n i s o l a t e d u n i t ( s ometimes i n a " g o o d " d i s t r i c t ) , o r i n a whole d i s t r i c t c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y s u c h c o n d i t i o n s — b e c a u s e t h e y c a n n o t a f f o r d a n y t h i n g b e t t e r , o r c a n n o t f i n d a n y t h i n g b e t t e r a t r e n t s w h i c h a r e w i t h i n t h e i r b u d g e t . S t u d i e s w h i c h have i n v e s t i g a t e d t h e r e a s o n a b l e p r o p o r t i o n o f i t s income w h i c h a f a m i l y s h o u l d d e v o t e t o r e n t h a v e r a n g e d b a c k and f o r t h o v e r t h e " r u l e - o f - t h u m b " o f t w e n t y p e r c e n t f o r s h e l t e r . I t comes r e m a r k a b l y c l o s e t o b e i n g t h e s a f e t y r u l e f o r p r e w a r f a m i l i e s o f low o r e v e n m o d e r a t e i n c o m e s , s a y up t o |2500.00 u n d e r p r e w a r c o n d i t i o n s ; i t m i g h t w e l l be up t o $i}.000.00 u n d e r p r e s e n t t i m e s , i f the p r o p e r q u a l i f i c a t i o n s ( a s t o what i s " s h e l t e r , " and what a r e t h e c o n s e q u e n c e s o f d i v e r t i n g f r o m t h e s a f e r a t e , e t c . ) a r e k e p t i n f o c u s . I t does n o t f o l l o w t h a t a w e a l t h y f a m i l y s h o u l d o n l y s p e n d t w e n t y p e r c e n t f o r i t s h o u s i n g ; s u c h a f a m i l y m i g h t w e l l a f f o r d f i f t y p e r c e n t o f a l a r g e b u d g e t . What i s more r e l e v a n t i s t h a t p r e w a r s t u d i e s o f the l o w e s t income f a m i l i e s showed t h a t s o m e t h i n g much l e s s — p e r h a p s f i f t e e n p e r c e n t o r l e s s — m i g h t be i m p e r a t i v e f o r them i f t h e o t h e r e l e m e n t s o f h e a l t h a n d d e c e n c y were t o be m a i n t a i n e d . U n i t e d S t a t e s p u b l i c h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s were p i o n e e r s i n s e t t i n g a s t a t u t o r y p e r c e n t a g e o f e i g h t e e n f o r t h e l a r g e r f a m i l i e s I n s u c h p r o j e c t s . A t t h e o t h e r e n d o f t h e - 11 -s c a l e , C a n a d i a n p r a c t i c e f o r t h e a s s e s s m e n t o f m o r t g a g e c a p a c i t y f o r m i d d l e - i n c o m e p a y e r s u n d e r t h e H o u s i n g A c t h a s now e s t a b l i s h e d t w e n t y - t h r e e p e r c e n t as t h e s a f e w o r k i n g u n i t . Y e t t h e r e i s l i t t l e d o u b t t h a t many h o m e - p u r c h a s e r s o f t h e p r e s e n t d a y a r e p a y i n g more t h a n t h i s f o r t h e i r h o u s i n g - - v e r y commonly t h i r t y and t h i r t y - f i v e p e r c e n t o f a b u d g e t a l r e a d y s t r a i n e d b y o t h e r c r e d i t p u r c h a s e s . I n t h i s c o n t e x t , i t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t o r e a d f r o m a f a i r l y r e c e n t s u r v e y o f h o u s i n g b u d g e t s o f a g r o u p o f f a m i l i e s o n s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e I n V a n c o u v e r ! " F o r a l o w - i n c o m e f a m i l y , i f h o u s i n g s h o u l d c o s t much more t h a n t h e p r e s c r i b e d t w e n t y p e r c e n t o f t h e t o t a l i n c o me, t h e r e i s i n s u f f i c i e n t money l e f t t o meet t h e c o s t o f t h e r e m a i n i n g n e c e s s i t i e s . . . . The t w e n t y p e r c e n t s h e l t e r s p e c i f i c a t i o n i s a m o c k e r y t o f a m i l i e s who a r e s p e n d i n g up t o f o r t y t o f i f t y p e r c e n t o f t h e i r income f o r r e n t ; and y e t t h i s e x c e s s i v e e x p e n s e may be a p r e r e q u i s i t e i f t h e y a r e t o f i n d h o u s i n g s u i t a b l e f o r t h e i r f a m i l y o r i n many i n s t a n c e s h o u s i n g w h i c h , t h o u g h n o t s u i t a b l e , i s t h e o n l y t y p e a v a i l a b l e . The c o s t o f s h e l t e r h o l d s t h e r e a l k e y t o t h e e n t i r e f u n c t i o n i n g o f t h e f a m i l y , and i t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o manage e c o n o m i c a l l y w i t h o u t g e a r i n g t o t h i s b a s i c r e q u i r e m e n t . " 1 B e l o w c e r t a i n l e v e l s o f i n c o m e , i n s h o r t , a f a m i l y c a n n o t a f f o r d t o p a y e v e n t w e n t y p e r c e n t o f Income b e c a u s e t h e r e w i l l n o t t h e n be enough money l e f t t o b u y f o o d , c l o t h i n g , f u e l , and l i g h t . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , t w e n t y p e r c e n t o f t h e s e l o w i n c o m e s I s n o t enough t o g e t d e c e n t a c c ommodation b u i l t . I t was t h i s r e a l i z a t i o n w h i c h was p u t t o t h e measurement t e s t i n s e v e r a l 1 W i l s o n , W a r r e n Andrew, H o u s i n g ^ C o n d i t i o n s Among S o c i a l  A s s i s t a n c e F a m i l i e s . M a s t e r o f S o c i a l Work t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1955; PP« 5r6. 12 -prewar and post-war s t u d i e s i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s . Por the poor f a m i l i e s , the burden of h i g h r e n t (as i t must seem to them) i s sometimes assumed by the S o c i a l A s s i s t a n c e departments. I f e i t h e r the scheduled " r e n t allowance" i s not enough to cover the a c t u a l r e n t o r a s e l f - s u p p o r t i n g f a m i l y i t s e l f pays too h i g h a r e n t , the e f f e c t s are the same. Lack o f money f o r f o o d and f u e l may l e a d to p h y s i c a l h e a l t h problems. Poor h e a l t h i s made p a r t i c u l a r l y s e r i o u s i f there Is l a c k o f money to buy medical c a r e . Lack of adequate c l o t h i n g has s o c i a l and emotional consequences f o r everyone i n the f a m i l y . S u f f i c i e n t l y prolonged l a c k of money f o r the " l a c e s and g r a c e s " - -to say no t h i n g o f s e c u r i t y and s a v i n g s — i n c r e a s e s the l i k e l i h o o d o f t e n s i o n s between the v a r i o u s members o f the f a m i l y and may p u l l some below the human o r "normal" l e v e l . An item f o r the taxpayer to c o n s i d e r i s t h a t i f S o c i a l A s s i s t a n c e departments pay too much f o r wretched accommodations, p u b l i c funds are then s u b s i d i z i n g bad ho u s i n g , ^ which cannot h e l p t h e i r c l i e n t s and may indeed depress t h e i r morale f u r t h e r . I t i s 1 A good example i s quoted i n T h i s i s P u b l i c Housing, the 19i4-8-9 r e p o r t o f the S e a t t l e P u b l i c Housing A u t h o r i t y : An income survey made along w i t h the Real P r o p e r t y Survey ( S e a t t l e 1939) showed t h a t " o f the f a m i l i e s l i v i n g i n the substandard housing, 9,928 had Incomes so low i t would be im p o s s i b l e f o r them to o b t a i n anything t h a t c o u l d be d e s c r i b e d as a decent home without a s s i s t a n c e . " 2 Nathan S t r a u s , I n one o f the most important U.S. reviews o f p u b l i c h o using experience o f the " f o r t i e s (The Seven Myths o f  Housing. Knopf; New York; lyh^.)f made t h i s p o i n t f o r c i b l y : ."Welfare o f f i c i a l s r e p o r t e d t h a t i n every community i n which an i n v e s t i g a t i o n was made, the r e l i e f funds expended f o r s h e l t e r were, i n e f f e c t , a su b s i d y f o r the continued occupancy o f substandard d w e l l i n g s . " - 13 -i n t e r e s t i n g , t h e r e f o r e , t o see t h i s a s p e c t o f t h e m a t t e r p u t i n a more p o s i t i v e a s w e l l as a n u p - t o - d a t e manner i n a r e c e n t V a n c o u v e r r e p o r t , a r e v i e w o f t h e Ad e q u a c y o f S o c i a l A s s i s t a n c e A l l o w a n c e s r e c e n t l y c o m p l e t e d b y a s p e c i a l c o mmittee o f t h e G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r Community C h e s t and C o u n c i l . G r a p p l i n g w i t h the c o m p l e x i t i e s o f t h e p r e s e n t m a r k e t f o r t h e c h e a p e r k i n d s o f r e n t a l a ccommodation, i t h a d t o measure t h r e e k i n d s o f r e n t s : (a) t h e r e n t s c u r r e n t l y p a i d b y f a m i l i e s o n s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e ; (b) t h e p r e v a i l i n g r e n t s o f a p a r t m e n t s i n g e n e r a l , i n c l u d i n g new b u i l d i n g s ; and ( c ) t h e r e n t s o f p u b l i c h o u s i n g ( o f w h i c h , a t t h a t t i m e , L i t t l e M o u n t a i n was t h e o n l y e x a m p l e ) . T y p i c a l r e s u l t s a r e ( i n p a r t ) a s f o l l o w s (May 1958)i1 F a m i l y G r o u p s C u r r e n t R e n t s S o c i a l i l l o w a n c e f a m i l i e s L i t t l e f o u n t a i n C o u p l e , w i t h o u t c h i l d r e n Woman, two d e p e n d e n t c h i l d r e n Man and woman, t h r e e d e p e n d e n t c h i l d r e n ( e t c . ) #65-20 #81.30 #9545 #14.2.03 #1|.7.80 #55.65 #22.00 #26.00 #36.00 These a r e enough t o i l l u s t r a t e t h e m a i n i s s u e s : (a) h i g h r e n t s w h i c h a r e o u t o f t h e r e a c h o f p o o r f a m i l i e s ; (b) t h e s e a r c h f o r c heap a c c o m m o d a t i o n o n t h e p a r t o f t h e s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e f a m i l i e s , w h i c h i s o n l y i n p a r t s u c c e s s f u l , f o r , as t h e R e p o r t s a y s , t h e s e r e n t s "do n o t a l l o w f o r t h e f a c t t h a t much o f t h e e x i s t i n g a c c o mmodation i s i n a d e q u a t e , " ( a n d a t a n o t h e r p o i n t r e f e r s t o o v e r 1 A d e q u a c y o f S o c i a l A s s i s t a n c e A l l o w a n c e s I n t h e C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r ( l i t h o . . Community C h e s t and C o u n c i l . V a n c o u v e r . 1Q1?8) P» 14-3. - Ill- -900 c a s e s p a y i n g more f o r r e n t t h a n t h e i r a c t u a l r e n t a l l o w a n c e ) ; " ' and ( c ) t h e d i r e c t r e l e v a n c e o f L i t t l e M o u n t a i n r e n t s i n s o l v i n g t h e b u d g e t p r o b l e m o f t h e l o w e s t income f a m i l i e s as w e l l as p r o v i d i n g g o o d accommodation w h i c h i s n o t a v a i l a b l e i n any o t h e r way. I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o n o t e f u r t h e r t h a t t h e R e p o r t , i n s e e k i n g t o compute an a d e q u a t e minimum a l l o w a n c e f o r s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e f a m i l i e s , i s u n a b l e t o u t i l i z e t h e p u b l i c h o u s i n g r e n t a l s , n o t m e r e l y b e c a u s e o n l y a v e r y few s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e f a m i l i e s a r e h o u s e d i n t h e p r o j e c t , b u t b e c a u s e o f t h e h u n d r e d s on t h e w a i t i n g l i s t and the i m p o s s i b i l i t y o f a s s u m i n g "enough c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h i s t y p e . . . t o c l o s e t h e gap b e t w e e n demand and s u p p l y i n t h e f o r e s e e a b l e f u t u r e . " ^ F i n a l l y , t h e e x t e n s i v e s t a t i s t i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n s o f t h i s Committee g i v e i m p o r t a n t b a c k g r o u n d t o t h e s u b s i d y s i t u a t i o n as i t a p p l i e s c u r r e n t l y t o L i t t l e M o u n t a i n . B r o a d l y , minimum " e c o n o m i c r e n t a l " ( t o c o v e r c o s t s ) i s t a k e n a t $75*00 & month, w h i l e t h e a v e r a g e r e n t a l w h i c h L i t t l e M o u n t a i n h a s t o m a i n t a i n i s $ii-5.00 a month. The n e t s u b s i d y , i n o t h e r w o r d s , w h i c h must be a v e r a g e d o v e r a l l s u i t e s i s a r o u n d $25*00 a month. T h i s i s i m p o r t a n t as t h e f i n a n c i a l o r " b u s i n e s s " a s p e c t o f t h e r e n t s c a l e d i s c u s s e d f u r t h e r i n C h a p t e r I H and e l s e w h e r e ; b u t I t i s a l s o t h e measure o f t h e c o s t o f s u b s i d i z e d h o u s i n g . A f a i r e v a l u a t i o n 1 A d e q u a c y o f S o c i a l A s s i s t a n c e A l l o w a n c e s i n t h e C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r v i i t h o . , Community C h e s t and C o u n c i l , V a n c o u v e r , 1958) pp. "43, 3 7 . 2 i b i d , pp. 40. -15 -of this subsidy should take into account current commercial rents,^ as well as the welfare benefits which are not measurable in dollars. The Report may be referred to once more for i t s bearing on progress in social understanding with which this Chapter began. " A l l of these provisions and f i s c a l arrangements represent a commitment on the. part of government, to assist citizens of modest means to achieve an environment which has at least minimum amenities and f a c i l i t i e s for healthful l i v i n g and child raising. In the broadest sense, i t is an investment i n one particular aspect of human welfare, undertaken upon the request of a sufficient majority of Canadian citizens. It is apparent that no other agents could undertake such long-term, extensive commitments."2 Capacity to Pay Rent The distribution of income i s the basic information for understanding why so many families cannot begin to consider home ownership, why they cannot pay current rent for new apart-ments (which are high rents to them), and why they accept "second-hand" housing of a l l kind, ranging from moderately good to outright slum. In prewar terms, this was examined extensively in the "Curtis" Report, already referred to.^ Nathan Straus, 1 Adequacy . . . City of Vancouver. (Community Chest and Council) p. 42. Current rents for apartments, surveyed and computed according to age of buildings (for May, 1958) were as follows, apartment blocks 30 years old or more, #72.00; 11-29 years old, $90.00; 1-10 years old, #94.00. 2 Ibid., p. 39 (Italics added) 3 Housing and Community Planning, e.g., Chapter 5, which analyzes average incomes and rents of a l l wage-earner tenant families in urban Canada divided into three ("upper," "middle" and "lower") groups. In... 1931, the average incomes, of the. lower and middle groups were #703.00 and $1389.00; the typical rents were $17.00-120.00 a month, and $24.00-$26.00 a month. - 1 6 -s u m m a r i z i n g t h e U.S. s i t u a t i o n f o r t h e same e r a , ^ i n d i c a t e d how t w o - t h i r d s o f a l l h o u s i n g p r o d u c e d b y p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e . . . i s b u i l t f o r t h e u p p e r i n c o m e - t h i r d . O n l y o n e - t h i r d o f t h e new homes a r e w i t h i n t h e means o f f a m i l i e s i n t h e m i d d l e income g r o u p , and t h r e e - f o u r t h s o f t h e s e a r e c o n c e n t r a t e d i n t h e t o p h a l f o f t h a t g r o u p . " The m o s t i l l u m i n a t i n g f a c t s f o r t o d a y ( w h e t h e r t h i s means 1 9 5 9 , °r t h e l a s t d e c a d e ) a r e t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s t a t i s t i c s T a b l e 1 . D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Income, i n R e l a t i o n t o H o u s i n g (Heads o f F a m i l i e s , E mployee S t a t u s : Canada and B.C., 1951) A n n u a l E a r n i n g s C a n a d a B.C. Appro] p r l a t e Number p. c. p . c . R e n t (b) C o s t ( c ) U n d e r # 1 , 5 0 0 #1500 - 2 0 0 0 ( a ) #2000 - 3 0 0 0 #3000 and o v e r 3 0 1 , 8 0 0 2 8 2 , 4 0 0 8 5 0 , 7 0 0 1*49»100 1 6 . 0 1 5 . 0 4 5 . 2 2 3 . 8 1 1 . 3 1 1 . 9 4 9 . 1 2 7 . 6 U n d e r #25 #25 - 33 #33 - 50 O v e r #50 U n d e r #3750 # 3 7 5 0 - 5 0 0 0 # 5 0 0 0 - 7 5 0 0 #7500 & up T o t a l 1 , 8 8 4 , 0 0 0 1 0 0 100 - -( a ) S t r i c t l y , #1500 - #1999 and so o n ; (b) 20 p e r c e n t o f b u d g e t , o n m o n t h l y b a s i s ; and ( c J a t 2*5 t i m e s a n n u a l i n c o m e . SOURCEx E a r n i n g s f i g u r e s f r o m C a n a d i a n C e n s u s , 1 9 5 1 . F i g u r e s o f a p p r o p r i a t e r e n t s and c o s t s a d d e d f o r i l l u s t r a t i v e p u r p o s e s . f o r (a) t h e in c o m e s o f u r b a n wage and s a l a r y e a r n e r s ( i . e . , e m p l o y e e s ) o n t h e one h a n d , and (b) f a m i l i e s who a r e c u r r e n t l y a b l e t o t a k e a d v a n t a g e o f t h e a s s i s t e d h o m e-purchase p r o v i s i o n s o f t h e N a t i o n a l H o u s i n g A c t ( T a b l e s 1 and 2 ) . The s i g n i f i c a n c e 1 S t r a u s , S e v e n Myths o f H o u s i n g , p. l 4 l » - 17 -T a b l e 2. R e p r e s e n t a t i v e Income S i t u a t i o n s o f Home P u r c h a s e r s " ( N a t i o n a l H o u s i n g A c t L o a n s ) 195k~>o (a) A v e r a g e c o s t s . and inc o m e s 195k 1956 C o s t o f d w e l l i n g 12,335 13,366 Amount o f l o a n 9,3114 io,352 Down payment 3,08k 3,217 T o t a l f a m i l y income 5,382 5,78k Income o f h e a d o f f a m i l y k,962 5,312 (b) D i s t r i b u t i o n o f b o r r o w e r s - a c c o r d i n g : t o income ( h e a d o f f a m i l y ) 195k 1956 U n d e r #3,000 0.9 o.k #3,000 - Ik,000 20.6 154 #ij.,000 - #5,000 37-9 35.2 #5,000 - #6,000 20.1 29.0 #6,000 - #7,000 10.1 11.8 O v e r #7,000 10.k 13.2 A b s t r a c t e d f r o m C.M.H.C.: H o u s i n g S t a t i s t i c s , F i r s t Q u a r t e r , 1958, p . 20. T o t a l number o f b o r r o w e r s i n 195k» 26,982; i n 1956, k7,593. - 18 -o f f a c t s s u c h as t h e s e h a s b e e n c o n s i d e r e d I n r e l a t i o n t o t h e f a m i l i e s who were a p p l i c a n t s f o r L i t t l e M o u n t a i n when i t was i n a u g u r a t e d , i n a s e p a r a t e s t u d y a l r e a d y r e f e r r e d to.^- S i n c e t y p i c a l i n c o m e s o f t h e s e f a m i l i e s were #136.00 t o #203.00 f o r b r o k e n f a m i l i e s , a n d #200.00 t o #270.00 f o r c o m p l e t e f a m i l i e s , 2 i t i s r e a d i l y a p p a r e n t t h a t t h e y a r e n o t i n t h e h o me-ownership c l a s s , and t h a t a p p r o p r i a t e r e n t s w o u l d be n e a r e r t h e #25*00 t o #50.00 r a n g e t h a n t h e much h i g h e r p r e v a i l i n g r a t e s . I t i s h e l p f u l , f o r p r a c t i c a l p u r p o s e s , i n d e e d , t o a s k : what k i n d o f f a m i l i e s a r e most l i k e l y t o h a v e d i f f i c u l t y i n p a y i n g e v e n m o d e r a t e r e n t s ? One o f t h e s e i s t h e " b r o k e n f a m i l y . " O b v i o u s l y , i t i s more l i k e l y t o h a v e h o u s i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s b e c a u s e h e r e t h e r e i s o n l y one p a r e n t t o p e r f o r m t h e d u a l f u n c t i o n s o f homemaking and b r e a d w i n n i n g . A m a r r i e d woman i s n o t o n l y l e s s " f r e e " as a w o r k e r ; she may have no p a r t i c u l a r s k i l l s and e x p e r i e n c e t o o f f e r i n t h e l a b o u r m a r k e t . The f a m i l y r e l i e s o n I n a d e q u a t e s u p p o r t p a y m e n t s , c o m p e n s a t i o n payments ( f o r i n d u s t r i a l f a t a l i t y ) , a n d / o r i n t h e c a s e o f d e s e r t i o n , o n i n a d e q u a t e p u b l i c a s s i s t a n c e . I f t h e homemaking r o l e i s s u p p l i e d b y a h o u s e k e e p e r , h e r p a y l o w e r s t h e amount a v a i l a b l e t o t h e f a m i l y f o r o t h e r n e e d s . Whether t h e p a r e n t t a k e s t h e r o l e o f b r e a d w i n n e r o r homemaker, t h e b r o k e n f a m i l y i s a l w a y s s e a r c h i n g 1 W h e e l e r , M i c h a e l , E v a l u a t i n g t h e Need f o r _ L o w - R e n t a l H o u s i n g . M a s t e r o f S o c i a l Work t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1955* C h a p t e r 1 o f t h i s s t u d y c i t e s h o u s i n g , c o s t s f o r t h e owned and r e n t e d u n i t s (as i n T a b l e 2 i n t h e p r e s e n t t e x t ) ; and t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f income f o r V a n c o u v e r w a g e - e a r n e r s ( a n a l o g o u s t o T a b l e l ) i s d i s c u s s e d i n C h a p t e r 4 ( p p . 89-94). - 19 -f o r housing economies. And cheap r e n t u s u a l l y means poor accom-modation. As M i c hael Wheeler's study i n t i m a t e d , " . . . the r e l a t i v e l y low average r e n t ($36.00 a month) p a i d by broken f a m i l i e s may a l s o be regarded as an index o f the i n f e r i o r q u a l i t y o f t h e i r accommodation. Por such low-income f a m i l i e s as these, the choice i s s e v e r e l y l i m i t e d , and they tend f o r the most p a r t to occupy the p o o r e s t accommodation simply because i t i s the o n l y k i n d a v a i l a b l e at a r e n t which they can a f f o r d . " 1 Large f a m i l i e s are doubly i n d i f f i c u l t y , not o n l y because the p r e s s u r e on the f a m i l y income i s heavy, but a l s o because accommodation f o r l a r g e f a m i l i e s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y d i f f i c u l t to f i n d . The " C u r t i s " Report showed t h a t l a r g e f a m i l i e s were the worst o f f from s e v e r a l p o i n t s o f v i e w — o v e r -crowding, r e n t , d e t e r i o r a t i o n , s c a r c i t y . The review o f the L i t t l e Mountain a p p l i c a n t s i n Mr. Wheeler's study I n d i c a t e d t h a t the l a r g e f a m i l y ' s s p e c i a l needs keeps i t i n the c o n t i n u i n g market f o r o b s o l e s c e n t h o u s i n g : " C l e a r l y a minimum r e n t - p a y i n g c a p a c i t y i s n e c e s s a r y before the l a r g e f a m i l y can expect to f i n d accommodation s u i t e d to i t s needs, and a l l the evidence suggests t h a t t h i s Is c e r t a i n l y not l e s s than 160.00 a month." 2 D i s a b l e d persons are another group, whose reduced earning-power i s the obvious b a r r i e r between them and expensive housing. "A s i g n i f i c a n t p o r t i o n of the f a m i l i e s " (among the 1 Wheeler, E v a l u a t i n g the Heed . . . Housings p. 63 2 I b i d . , p. 6 2 . - 20 -a p p l i c a n t s f o r L i t t l e M o u n t a i n ) , w r o t e Mr. W h e e l e r i n 1955, " a r e h a n d i c a p p e d i n one way o r a n o t h e r . " And t h e s e , o f c o u r s e , shade i n t o t h e b r o k e n f a m i l y i f t h e h u s b a n d i s c o m p l e t e l y i n c a p a c i t a t e d . I n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , t h e m i n o r i t y g r o u p s , p a r t i c u l a r l y n e g r o e s , have a l w a y s b e e n among t h e w o r s t - h o u s e d b e c a u s e so many f a c t o r s r e d u c e t h e i r i n c o m e s o r t h e i r e a r n i n g - c a p a c i t y ; b u t s e g r e g a t i o n , one o f t h e marked f e a t u r e s o f slum d i s t r i c t s , h a s adde d i t s w e i g h t . Canada i s n o t f r e e e n o u g h o f p r e j u d i c e a n d d i s c r i m i n a t i o n t o be c o m p l a c e n t o n t h i s s c o r e ; and p u b l i c h o u s i n g I s a l w a y s a n a c u t e t e s t o f w h e t h e r n o n - d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i s g e n u i n e l y b e l i e v e d i n o r i s a m a t t e r o f l i p service,"'" F i n a l l y , t h e r e a r e t h e aged. As a l r e a d y i n d i c a t e d , t h e c l a i m o f o l d p e r s o n s as p r o p e r b e n e f i c i a r i e s f r o m a s s i s t e d o r s u b s i d i z e d h o u s i n g h a s come t o be a c c e p t e d more r e a d i l y t h a n a l m o s t any o t h e r " c a t e g o r y " ( t h o u g h i t s t i l l l a g s i n p r a c t i c a l p r o v i s i o n f o r s i n g l e p e r s o n s ) . F r e q u e n t l y , t h e i r i n c o m e s a r e l o w b e c a u s e e a r n i n g - p o w e r h a s c e a s e d a l t o g e t h e r ; b u t o t h e r s p e c i a l p r o b l e m s a r e t h e p r o d u c t o f i n f l a t i o n . P e n s i o n s , r e t i r e -ment a l l o w a n c e s , s a v i n g s , w h i c h may have once seemed s i z e a b l e i n d o l l a r t e r m s , have b e e n h a l v e d o r d e c i m a t e d b y s p i r a l l i n g c o s t s . O l d f o l k f o r s u c h r e a s o n s r e f l e c t a n o t h e r s p e c i a l f a c e t o f t h e h o u s i n g p r o b l e m : t h e y a r e f r e q u e n t l y f o u n d c l i n g i n g t o a n o l d and d e c a y i n g p r o p e r t y b e c a u s e " i t i s a l l t h e y h a v e . " M o u n t i n g 1 F o r t u n a t e l y , t h e n e g r o p o p u l a t i o n i n C a n a d a i s s m a l l , b u t o t h e r n o n - w h i t e g r o u p s a r e i m p o r t a n t i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , and t h e r e a r e s e v e r a l m i n o r i t i e s o f E u r o p e a n o r i g i n . B e c a u s e L i t t l e M o u n t a i n i s n o t a n o n - s i t e c l e a r a n c e p r o j e c t , t h e r e h a v e b e e n r e l a t i v e l y few a p p l i c a n t s o f m i n o r i t y r a c i a l o r i g i n s . 21 -m a i n t e n a n c e c o s t s and l o c a l t a x e s a r e g r o w i n g b u r d e n s o n t h e i r f r o z e n b u d g e t , a n d t h e y d a r e n o t s e l l b e c a u s e t h e newer p r o p e r t y t h e y w o u l d have t o a c q u i r e i s p r i c e d c o m p l e t e l y b e y o n d t h e i r r a n g e . ^ An e x c e p t i o n a l few h a v e p r o f i t e d f r o m t h e r e a l e s t a t e boom o f t h e p o s t - w a r d e c a d e , b u t t h e more c h a r a c t e r i s t i c p e n s i o n e r i s a p e r s o n who h a s a l w a y s d e p e n d e d o n r e n t e d accom-m o d a t i o n . R i s i n g r e n t s , i n c r e a s i n g s h o r t a g e o f good "rooms," a n d t h e c o n t i n u i n g d e m o l i t i o n o f o l d h o u s e s w h i c h h a d b e e n t h e p r i n c i p a l s o u r c e o f l o w - r e n t a l q u a r t e r s i n t h e p a s t , h a s b r o u g h t more and more o f them t o d e s p e r a t e s t r a i t s . F u n d a m e n t a l l y , as u n d e r l i n e d a b o v e , t h e a ged a r e n o t , o r s h o u l d n o t b e , a " c a t e g o r y . " T h e i r h o u s i n g n e e d s d e r i v e f r o m income d e f i c i e n c y , and t h e i r e l i g i b i l i t y s h o u l d be o n a l l f o u r s w i t h o t h e r f a m i l i e s . The p r a c t i c a l i s s u e i s n o t r e a l l y w h e t h e r t h e y s h o u l d be a d m i t t e d t o p u b l i c p r o j e c t s s u c h a s L i t t l e M o u n t a i n - - i n g e n e r a l , t h i s h a s b e e n c o n c e d e d , a l t h o u g h t h e r e was c o n f u s i o n o n t h e s u b j e c t a t f i r s t — i t i s w h e t h e r l o w - r e n t h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s s h o u l d - - o r some w o u l d s a y , c a n — b e d e s i g n e d so as t o be s u i t a b l e f o r a l l a g e - g r o u p s . I t was n o t p o s s i b l e i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y t o g i v e s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n t o t h i s , b u t some s i d e l i g h t s were i n e v i t a b l e , and t h e y demand f u r t h e r a t t e n t i o n . 1 A n g e l , J . H., and M c K i n n o n , D. F . , H o u s i n g Needs and  P r e f e r e n c e s Among S e n i o r C i t i z e n s . M a s t e r o f s o c i a l Work t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 195>7» T h i s t h e s i s , b a s e d o n West Vancouver, e x p e r i e n c e , i l l u s t r a t e s t h e h o u s i n g p r o b l e m s o f o l d p e o p l e o f t h i s t y p e ( a s w e l l as t h e p r o s and c o n s o f t h e i r r e a c t i o n s t o s e n i o r - c i t i z e n s h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s ) . - 22 -H o u s i n g L e g i s l a t i o n and t h e H o u s i n g S h o r t a g e I t may w e l l be a s k e d why, i f t h e n e e d i s so g r e a t , t h e r e h a s n o t b e e n a g r e a t e x p a n s i o n once n a t i o n a l l e g i s l a t i o n was p r o v i d e d . Why h a s t h e s h o r t a g e o f good l o w - r e n t a l h o u s i n g c o n t i n u e d ? The f u l l answer i s a l o n g and c o m p l i c a t e d one; b u t some p a r t s o f i t a r e c l e a r , i n t h e l i g h t o f a bundant e v i d e n c e . I t h a s n e v e r " p a i d " ( i . e . , b e e n a c o m m e r c i a l v e n t u r e , c o v e r i n g c o s t s , and m a k i n g a p r o f i t ) t o b u i l d new l o w - r e n t a l h o u s i n g . The g r e a t s u p p l y o f c h e a p r e n t a l u n i t s , a t l e a s t i n N o r t h A m e r i c a n c i t i e s , i n c l u d i n g V a n c o u v e r , i s f r o m c o n v e r s i o n s , t h e " f i l t e r i n g -down" o f o l d p r o p e r t i e s o f a l l k i n d s . O l d p r o p e r t i e s ( w i t h i n -c r e a s e d d e n s i t y o f o c c u p a t i o n ) c a n be p r o f i t a b l e - - i n t h e s p e c i a l c a s e o f t h e s l u m s , w i t h maximum d e n s i t y , minimum u p k e e p , and minimum t a x e s , n o t o r i o u s l y s o . B u t i f t h e c i t y p o p u l a t i o n g r ows, u r b a n and i n d u s t r i a l demands f o r wage e a r n e r s i n c r e a s e , and l i t t l e new r e n t a l h o u s i n g i s b u i l t , e v e n t h e r e n t s o f t h e o l d p r o p e r t i e s go up; and t h e b e t t e r u n i t s among them become s c a r c e . T h i s i s what h a s b e e n h a p p e n i n g t o V a n c o u v e r i n t h e p o s t - w a r w o r l d . T h e r e h a s , u n q u e s t i o n a b l y , i n t h e l a s t f i v e y e a r s o r s o , b e e n a much-needed boom i n a p a r t m e n t b u i l d i n g - - a boom i n d e e d o f s p e c t a c u l a r d i m e n s i o n s i n some i n s t a n c e s . B u t a t $80.00 t o $150.00 and $200.00 a month, t h i s i s " h i g h r e n t " h o u s i n g — f o r p r a c t i c a l p u r p o s e s i t m i g h t j u s t as w e l l n o t e x i s t f o r t h e p e o p l e who c a n o n l y a f f o r d t o p a y $20.00, $25.GO, $35.00, $1}.0.00, o r e v e n $60.00 a month f o r r e n t . Nor w i l l t h i s h o u s i n g " f i l t e r down": i t h a s i n d e e d b e e n a c c o m p a n i e d , o n an u n p r e c e d e n t e d s c a l e , - 2 3 -b y d e m o l i t i o n . ^ " The g r e a t m a j o r i t y o f u n i t s w h i c h a r e a v a i l a b l e f o r  r e n t , and a t l o w r a t e s , a r e o f t h e " l e s s e l i g i b l e " a n d o f t e n c o n v e r t e d t y p e — r o o m s o v e r s t o r e s , i n a t t i c s and b a s e m e n t s , s i n g l e rooms i n o l d h o u s e s w i t h s h a r e d b a t h r o o m f a c i l i t i e s . H e a t i n g , l i g h t i n g , l a u n d r y , b a t h r o o m f a c i l i t i e s , s t o r a g e s p a c e , a r e u s u a l l y i n s u f f i c i e n t . T h i s a c c o m m o d a t i o n i s s c a t t e r e d ; i t i s n o t a l w a y s i n p o o r n e i g h b o u r h o o d s , b u t i t may h a v e o t h e r d i s a d v a n t a g e s , s u c h as b e i n g c l o s e t o n o i s y i n t e r s e c t i o n s , i n d u s t r i a l d e v e l o p m e n t s , r a i l w a y y a r d s , v a c a n t l o t s , and so f o r t h . M o r e o v e r , i n o r d e r t o o b t a i n l o w e r c o s t a c commodation, f a m i l i e s may o f t e n " d o u b l e up" i n t h e b e t t e r u n i t s t o s h a r e t h e r e n t . E v e n i n a new o r w e l l - b u i l t r e s i d e n c e , t h i s may be u n -s a t i s f a c t o r y i n t h a t t h e o v e r c r o w d i n g r e s u l t s i n l a c k o f p r i v a c y , and o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r n o r m a l f a m i l y l i v i n g a r e f r u s t r a t e d . I f t h e s c a r c i t y and I n a d e q u a c y o f l o w - r e n t a l accom-m o d a t i o n was r e s t r i c t e d t o o n l y a f e w f a m i l i e s i n a community, a few c h a r i t a b l e v e n t u r e s m i g h t be enough t o meet t h e s i t u a t i o n . T h i s was a c t u a l l y t h e " s o l u t i o n " p i o n e e r e d h a l f a c e n t u r y o r more ago i n some c o u n t r i e s s u c h as B r i t a i n and Denmark. P r i v a t e v e n t u r e s s t i l l h a v e v a l u e , s u c h as c o n t r i b u t i o n s o f p r o j e c t s s u c h as t h o s e o f t h e s e r v i c e c l u b s , t h e c h u r c h e s , and Mr. W i nch a n d h i s a s s o c i a t e s i n V i s t a c o n t i n u e t o show i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . B u t e v e n h e r e , government f i n a n c i a l a i d i s i m p e r a t i v e . L o c a l 1 Most o f t h i s i s n o t e v e n a s e c o n d a r y k i n d o f " s l u m c l e a r a n c e " ; o f t e n ( e . g . , i n t h e "West End") m o d e r a t e l y g o o d a p a r t m e n t h o u s e s have b e e n r a z e d t o f r e e t h e s i t e s f o r t h e new d e v e l o p m e n t s . - 2k -government management is the "Keystone of the Arch" for modern provision: though fortunately, the employment of full-time salaried staff can be combined with the service of public-spirited citizens serving unpaid. As Regent Park concludes i n Its review of the need for rental housing for the lower income groups, the "only certain method is through the intervention of government or governments at different levels, as agents of the community. The numbers to be served are too great, the administration is too complex and the financial requirements are too vast for the operation to be carried on directly by citizens and their voluntary associations. Moreover, i t has become generally accepted that . . . the serious shortage of low-rental housing has become (a) problem of nation-wide scope. t A balanced addition to the housing supply requires a l l kinds of accommodation, and a l l kinds of "enterprise"—single houses, groups, apartments, limited dividend projects, small landlords, and large corporations. But It needs low-rental housing very badly i f the always underprivileged of housing are not to be, in the post-war c i t i e s of Canada, more underprivileged than ever. This requires a new kind of landlord, because good properties must be managed; and i f subsidies are required (as they certainly are i f rents are to be low enough to house the people for whom the accommodation is designed), the public interest is even more involved. 1 Rose, Albert* Regent Park. University of Toronto Press; Toronto; 1958; p. 25. - 25 -The L o c a l Housing A u t h o r i t y , i n t h i s c ontext, i s no more a r e v o l u t i o n than the Parks Board, as a device f o r managing and d e v e l o p i n g ; than the School Board i s now, though i t was r e v o l u t i o n a r y enough when compulsory e d u c a t i o n came to England a c e n t u r y ago. However, i t i s f a i r l y obvious i t i s a more d i f f i c u l t u n d e r t a k i n g , on i t s human s i d e , than e i t h e r parks o r s c h o o l s . I t w i l l need sympathetic as w e l l as c r i t i c a l study, and p r o b a b l y expansion and development as time goes on. The p r e s e n t study, i t i s hoped, w i l l be h e l p f u l i n i t s e l f , but a l s o as p o i n t i n g the way to o t h e r s t u d i e s of t h i s important w e l f a r e r e s o u r c e . Method and Procedure o f Recent Study This study i s a departure from the t r a d i t i o n a l t h e s i s p a t t e r n i n t h a t i t i s one o f the team p r o j e c t s , i n a u g u r a t e d i n the 1958-9 s e s s i o n , i n which the r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t i s d i r e c t l y sponsored by a member of the School o f S o c i a l Work f a c u l t y ( i n t h i s i n s t a n c e , Dr. Marsh, d i r e c t o r of r e s e a r c h o f the s c h o o l ) . A f u r t h e r circumstance i s t h a t two of the three students who worked i n t h i s p r o j e c t were r e c i p i e n t s o f Housing B u r s a r i e s awarded a n n u a l l y by the C e n t r a l Mortgage and Housing C o r p o r a t i o n f o r approved housing s t u d i e s d i r e c t e d by u n i v e r s i t y p e r s o n n e l . A c c o r d i n g l y , Dr. Marsh took more than u s u a l p a r t i n the d i r e c t i o n of the study and p r e p a r a t i o n o f the r e p o r t . Although at the o u t s e t , the t h e s i s c a l l e d f o r three r e -searchers to devote themselves p a r t i c u l a r l y to (a) w e l f a r e f a c t o r s , (b) r e c r e a t i o n and community c o n t a c t s , and (c) a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and - 26 -m a n a g e r i a l m a t t e r s , and t h i s " d i v i s i o n o f l a b o u r " was f o l l o w e d a t f i r s t ; t h e t h r e e s t u d e n t s c o n c e r n e d were t h e n a b l e t o p o o l t h e i r i n t e r e s t s and e n q u i r i e s i n c r e a s i n g l y a s t h e s t u d y d e v e l o p e d and s h a r e d e q u a l l y i n a l l p h a s e s o f t h e c o m p l e t e d s t u d y . ( D r . M a r s h , h o w e v e r , t a k e s p r i m a r y r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r v i e w s e x p r e s s e d i n t h i s i n t r o d u c t o r y c h a p t e r . ) A f t e r i n i t i a l d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h e V a n c o u v e r H o u s i n g A u t h o r i t y and t h e Manager o f t h e p r o j e c t (Mr. S u t h e r l a n d ) , a p l a n o f s t u d y was a g r e e d o n . R e l e v a n t q u e s t i o n s f o r a sample s e t o f t e n a n t i n t e r v i e w s were d i s c u s s e d , and a s t r u c t u r e d i n t e r v i e w t y p e q u e s t i o n n a i r e f i n a l l y e v o l v e d a f t e r c r i t i c a l s e s s i o n s , and a n i n i t i a l " t r y o u t " o n a few f a m i l i e s . (The f i n a l f o r m i s r e p r o d u c e d i n A p p e n d i x B.) B e f o r e t h i s was c o m p l e t e d , a s k e l e t o n c a r d I n d e x was made up f o r a l l t e n a n t s ( a n d l a t e r d e s t r o y e d ) t o (a) p r o v i d e a s e t o f p r i m a r y s t a t i s t i c s ( I n c l u d i n g t h e " O r i g i n a l " s p o t - m a p s , F i g u r e s 1 and 2), and (b) " a n c h o r " t h e b a s e o f t h e s t u d y and g u i d e t h e s t r a t i f i c a t i o n f o r t h e sa m p l e . C a r e f u l a t t e n t i o n was p a i d to e s t a b l i s h i n g t h e f a m i l y " t y p e s " ( s t a t i s t i c a l l y s p e a k i n g ) who a r e most c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e p r o j e c t p o p u l a t i o n . A sample o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y o n e - i n - f o u r was f i n a l l y d e c i d e d on and c h o s e n as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e l y as p o s s i b l e i n r e s p e c t o f (a) c o m p l e t e , (b) b r o k e n , and ( c ) p e n s i o n e r f a m i l i e s b u t a l s o t h e t y p e s o f accommodation, and (d) t h e g e o g r a p h i c a l s u b s e c t i o n s o f t h e p r o j e c t (shown i n F i g u r e 3 and T a b l e 4 o f C h a p t e r I I ) . S e v e r a l v i s i t s were made t o t h e t e n a n t s , t h e i n t e r v i e w s - 27 -- 28 -- 29 -( c o v e r i n g 6j? q u e s t i o n s , some w i t h a d d i t i o n a l s u b s e c t i o n s ) l a s t i n g f r o m o n e - h a l f t o more t h a n two h o u r s , d e p e n d i n g o n t h e I n t e r e s t o f t h e t e n a n t and a b i l i t y t o e x p a n d o n t h e q u e s t i o n s , w h i c h were u s e d o n l y as a g u i d e . T e n a n t s were a l w a y s g i v e n t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o r e f u s e t o be i n t e r v i e w e d o r t o make a r r a n g e m e n t s f o r a more s u i t a b l e t i m e . The m a j o r i t y o f p e r s o n s saw t h e r e s e a r c h e r s when f i r s t c a l l e d ; a few ( a p p r o x i m a t e l y f i f t e e n p e r c e n t ) made a p p o i n t m e n t s f o r a n o t h e r t i m e . O n l y one t e n a n t r e f u s e d o u t r i g h t , e v e n t o h e a r what t h e s t u d y was a b o u t . The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c r e c e p t i o n s were c o o p e r a t i v e , o f t e n o f c o n s i d e r a b l e i n t e r e s t i n t h e s t u d y . C o n t a c t s were made w i t h t h e s c h o o l p r i n c i p a l s , P.T.A. members, and r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h e S o u t h Cambie Community C e n t r e A s s o c i a t i o n i n t h e c o u r s e o f n e i g h b o u r h o o d e x p l o r a t i o n and a s s e s s m e n t . L i t e r a t u r e o n t h e management o f p u b l i c h o u s i n g ( p a r t i c u l a r l y i n B r i t a i n and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s ) was c o n s u l t e d f o r b a c k g r o u n d o r i e n t a t i o n , and i n s u g g e s t i n g q u e s t i o n s a n d i n i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f some o f t h e a n s w e r s . B u l l e t i n s o f t h e V a n c o u v e r H o u s i n g A s s o c i a t i o n , and a n n u a l r e p o r t s o f t h e V a n c o u v e r H o u s i n g A u t h o r i t y were o f g r e a t a i d a t many p o i n t s . One o f t h e members o f th e team was a b l e t o v i s i t t h e Y e s l e r T e r r a c e h o u s i n g p r o j e c t i n S e a t t l e and meet w i t h members o f t h e s t a f f o f t h e S e a t t l e H o u s i n g A u t h o r i t y . D i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n a n o l d - e s t a b l i s h e d p r o j e c t s u c h as t h i s , d a t i n g f r o m Itylil; t h e m a j o r C a n a d i a n s l u m -c l e a r a n c e p r o j e c t o f "Regent P a r k , " T o r o n t o ; and s p e c i a l f e a t u r e s o f " L i t t l e M o u n t a i n " h a v e b e e n k e p t i n mind t h r o u g h o u t . - 30 -I t was n o t i n t e n d e d t h a t t h i s s t u d y s h o u l d g i v e s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n t o ( a ) t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f L i t t l e M o u n t a i n , t h o u g h s u c h a " s o c i a l a c t i o n " a n a l y s i s d e s e r v e s t o be s e p a r a t e l y u n d e r t a k e n and compared w i t h t h a t o f R e g e n t P a r k and p u b l i c h o u s i n g campaigns I n o t h e r c i t i e s , s u c h a s W i n n i p e g ; (b) t h e f i n a n c i a l a s p e c t s ; o r ( c ) t h e a r c h i t e c t u r a l and p l a n n i n g a s p e c t s o f t h e p r o j e c t , t h o u g h t h e s e a r e e q u a l l y i m p o r t a n t , and demand s t u d y . E v e n t h i s a t t e m p t t o g i v e d e f i n i t i v e c o n t e n t t o t h e w e l f a r e a s p e c t s o f a p a r t i c u l a r k i n d o f p u b l i c h o u s i n g p r o j e c t h a s h a d t o s t o p s h o r t o f d e v e l o p m e n t s o f a n a l y s i s ( e . g . , c r o s s -a n a l y s i s o f r e s p o n s e i n r e l a t i o n t o t y p e o f h o u s i n g , p r e v i o u s r e s i d e n t i a l h i s t o r y , e t c . ) w h i c h w o u l d have b e e n d e s i r a b l e i f t i m e h a d p e r m i t t e d . I t i s h o p e d t h a t f o l l o w - u p and c o m p a r a t i v e s t u d i e s may be f e a s i b l e i n t h e f u t u r e . C h a p t e r I I L I T T L E MOUNTAIN: THE PROJECT AMD I T S OCCUPANTS The p r e l i m i n a r y p l a n s f o r a l o w - r e n t a l h o u s i n g p r o j e c t i n V a n c o u v e r were d r a f t e d i n 1950» t h a n k s t o t h e c o n t i n u e d a c t i v i t y o f t h e V a n c o u v e r H o u s i n g A s s o c i a t i o n , a c i t i z e n b o d y c o n c e r n e d w i t h h o u s i n g n e e d s . I t was a c c e p t e d p r o v i s i o n a l l y b y t h e C i t y C o u n c i l o f t h e day; s e v e n a c r e s o f l a n d were p u r c h a s e d f o r t h e d e v e l o p m e n t ; and c o n s t r u c t i o n was f i r s t p r o j e c t e d t o b e g i n i n t h e s p r i n g o f 1951* F i v e y e a r s were t o p a s s , however, b e f o r e " L i t t l e M o u n t a i n " p r o j e c t , as i t i s now known, became a r e a l i t y , a b l e t o r e p o r t o n i t s f i r s t y e a r o f o p e r a t i o n . T h e r e were many r e a s o n s f o r t h i s d e l a y ; and t h e f u l l s t o r y , o f t h e e f f o r t t o e q u i p V a n c o u v e r w i t h i t s p i o n e e r p i e c e o f p u b l i c l y -managed, p u b l i c l y - s u b s i d i z e d , l o w - r e n t a l h o u s i n g i s a c h a p t e r i n community o r g a n i z a t i o n and " s o c i a l a c t i o n " w h i c h w o u l d t a k e more r e s e a r c h and space t h a n i s p r o v i d e d f o r i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y . 1 The l a r g e r b a c k g r o u n d o f t h e l o w - r e n t a l h o u s i n g move-ment, a s s o c i a t e d i n e a r l i e r d a y s w i t h s l u m c l e a r a n c e ( t h e new c o n t e x t o f " u r b a n r e n e w a l " i s a p o s t - w a r i n n o v a t i o n ) g o e s b a c k t o a t l e a s t 1935* T h i s was t h e p e r i o d o f new H o u s i n g A c t s p a s s e d b y t h e D o m i n i o n P a r l i a m e n t , a House o f Commons Comm i t t e e ; and 1 Some o f t h e c o m p a r a b l e h i s t o r y i n T o r o n t o i s t o l d i n : R o s e , R e g e n t P a r k , C h a p t e r 5, " C i t i z e n s i n A c t i o n . " - 32 -many l o c a l s u r v e y s , t h e B r u c e R e p o r t i n T o r o n t o , t h e j o i n t r e p o r t o f t h e B o a r d o f T r a d e , and t h e C i v i c Improvement -^eague i n M o n t r e a l . V a n c o u v e r h a d i t s c o u n t e r p a r t i n t h e f i r s t e d u c a t i o n a l work o f t h e n e w l y - f o r m e d V a n c o u v e r H o u s i n g A s s o c i a t i o n , and e a r n e s t a t t e m p t s b y a s m a l l g r o u p o f c i t i z e n s t o l a u n c h a s l u m -c l e a r a n c e p r o j e c t u n d e r s e c t i o n s 3 and l\. o f t h e t h e n D o m i n i o n H o u s i n g A c t o f 1935* S i m i l a r e f f o r t s b e i n g made i n W i n n i p e g , T o r o n t o , and M o n t r e a l were f i n a l l y b r o u g h t t o n a u g h t b y t h e o u t -b r e a k o f war i n 1939* Renewed a t t e n t i o n , n o t o n l y t o s l u m c l e a r a n c e b u t t o th e a c c u m u l a t i n g s h o r t a g e o f d e c e n t l o w - r e n t a ccommodation, was d i r e c t e d t o t h e s u b j e c t i n 19k-&' n e e d f o r a s u r v e y to p r e s e n t b a s i c i n f o r m a t i o n and d e m o n s t r a t e c o n c r e t e p l a n s was met, when a d v a n t a g e was t a k e n o f t h e r e s e a r c h f u n d s made a v a i l a b l e u n d e r t h e p o s t - w a r r e v i s i o n o f t h e N a t i o n a l H o u s i n g A c t t o u n d e r -t a k e and c o m p l e t e t h e s o - c a l l e d " S t r a t h c o n a " s u r v e y i n 19i|-T~8« The a c t u a l p r o p o s a l s f o r c o n s t r u c t i o n , a d v o c a t i n g a t o t a l n e i g h b o u r h o o d d e v e l o p m e n t r a t h e r t h a n a s e t o f h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s p e r s e , 1 were n e v e r o f f i c i a l l y a c c e p t e d b y t h e C i t y ; t h o u g h i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o r e c o r d t h a t t h e most r e c e n t s u r v e y , c o m p l e t e d i n 1957 u n d e r t h e new " u r b a n r e n e w a l " c l a u s e s o f t h e H o u s i n g 2 - -A c t , c o n f i r m s t h e e s s e n t i a l s o f t h e p r o p o s a l s . The a r e a , b y i t s c h a r a c t e r and l o c a t i o n , i s recommended as s u i t a b l e f o r p a r t l y r e s i d e n t i a l r e b u i l d i n g ; and r e h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s ( l e s s e x t e n s i v e 1 P r e s e n t e d i n : M a r s h , L . C , R e b u i l d i n g a _ N e i g h b o u r h o o d . U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ; V a n c o u v e r ; 1950* 2 N a t i o n a l H o u s i n g A c t ; P a r t V I , S e c t i o n 36. - 33 -t h a n p r o p o s e d I n t h e " S t r a t h c o n a " r e p o r t , b u t c o m p r i s i n g n e a r l y J4.OO u n i t s ) a r e now a c t u a l l y o n t h e d r a w i n g b o a r d . The i m p o r t a n t f e a t u r e o f L i t t l e M o u n t a i n as a l o w -r e n t a l " r e h o u s i n g " p r o j e c t i s t h a t i t i s n o t p a r t o f a d i r e c t s l u m - c l e a r a n c e programme. The a c q u i s i t i o n a n d c l e a r a n c e o f e x i s t i n g s i t e s h a s a l w a y s b e e n the most d i f f i c u l t and u s u a l l y t h e most c o s t l y s t e p i n " t r a d i t i o n a l " s l u m c l e a r a n c e ; and t h e f a c t t h a t o t h e r s i t e s , n o t i n t h e o l d c e n t r a l , b u i l t - u p a r e a s b u t s t i l l f a r f r o m t h e s u b u r b s , have b e e n a v a i l a b l e i n s e v e r a l C a n a d i a n c i t i e s ( e v e n i n o l d m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a s l i k e M o n t r e a l , b u t more p a r t i c u l a r l y i n W e s t e r n Canada) h a s a l s o f a v o u r e d t h e i d e a o f s t a r t i n g p u b l i c h o u s i n g e l s e w h e r e t h a n " i n t h e s l u m s . " When c o n s t r u c t i o n o n some h i t h e r t o u n f a v o u r e d s i t e s i n t h e L i t t l e M o u n t a i n d i s t r i c t o f the c i t y was p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s c o n -t e x t , t h e C i t y C o u n c i l o f t h e day a c c e p t e d t h i s as a " p i l o t p r o j e c t . " The " p i l o t i n g " was f a i r l y e x p l i c i t l y r e c o g n i z e d as r e l a t i n g t o e x p e r i e n c e i n m a n aging l o w - r e n t a l h o u s i n g , and p e r h a p s i n f i n a n c i n g ; t h e r e was l e s s e x p l i c i t s u g g e s t i o n a t t h e t i m e t h a t downtown s l u m c l e a r a n c e c o u l d be f u r t h e r p o s t p o n e d u n t i l more was known o f t h e p r o s and c o n s o f t h i s " e x p e r i m e n t . " I n s p i t e o f t h i s s p e c i a l l o c a t i o n f a c t o r , t h e manage-ment, i n g e n e r a l , h a s h a d t o s e t up and a d m i n i s t e r a l l t h e a r r a n g e m e n t s and o p e r a t i o n s w h i c h have become f a m i l i a r i n a d o z e n c o u n t r i e s i n w h i c h p u b l i c h o u s i n g and s l u m c l e a r a n c e h a s a l o n g h i s t o r y . T e n a n t s have t o be s e l e c t e d , u s u a l l y f r o m a huge w a i t i n g l i s t . A p u b l i c a u t h o r i t y h a s t o a d m i n i s t e r p o l i c y and t o - 3k -c a r r y o u t t h e f u n c t i o n s o f a l a n d l o r d . S o o n e r o r l a t e r , t h e many "human" o r " w e l f a r e " a s p e c t s o f l a r g e g r o u p s o f o c c u p a n t s must r e c e i v e c o n s i d e r a t i o n . B u t what d i f f e r e n c e s w i l l a p p e a r i f t h e new o c c u p a n t s come f r o m a g r e a t r a n g e o f s c a t t e r e d a r e a s t h r o u g h -o u t t h e c i t y ? And i s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s i m p l e r i f i t i s n o t com-p l i c a t e d b y t h e n e c e s s i t y b a s i c t o s l u m c l e a r a n c e , o f g i v i n g some p r i o r i t y t o o r i g i n a l r e s i d e n t s i n t h e d e m o l i t i o n a r e a ? I s I t l i k e l y t o a p p e a r t h a t " t y p i c a l s l u m d w e l l e r s " ( i f t h e r e a r e s u c h p e o p l e ) w i l l n o t i n t h i s i n s t a n c e b r i n g t h e i r p r o b l e m s t o c o m p l i c a t e t h e l i f e o f t h e new u n i t s ? T h i s may be o f f s e t b y t h e f a c t t h a t a t r a d i t i o n a l s l u m - c l e a r a n c e p r o j e c t makes t h e c o n t r a s t b e t w e e n t h e o l d and t h e new--which p e r h a p s m i g h t be more f a i r l y c a l l e d t h e g o od and t h e b a d — m u c h more e v i d e n t , and a c c o r d i n g l y k e e p s t h e o b j e c t i v e o f t h e c i v i c d e v e l o p m e n t more k e e n l y I n t h e i r m i n d s . Q u e s t i o n s o f t h i s k i n d were k e p t i n m i n d i n f o r m u l a t i n g t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s f o r t h e p r e s e n t s u r v e y , b u t t h e y a r e d i f f i c u l t q u e s t i o n s t o answer, and i t may be w i s e r t o w a r n i n a d vance t h a t t h i s s u r v e y , t o o , h a s s o m e t h i n g o f a " p i l o t " q u a l i t y . O t h e r s u r v e y s may be n e c e s s a r y , t o f o l l o w up some o f t h e " l e a d s " o r t o e s t a b l i s h some o f t h e i n d i c a t i o n s more s e c u r e l y . A d m i n i s t r a t i o n W h i l e e s s e n t i a l l y a l o c a l a s s e t w h i c h i n e v e r y way i s an i m p o r t a n t p a r t o f V a n c o u v e r h o u s i n g , i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t b o t h t h e f i n a n c i a l a r r a n g e m e n t s and t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a u t h o r i t y f o r L i t t l e M o u n t a i n c o n s t i t u t e a p a r t n e r s h i p b e t w e e n a l l t h r e e l e v e l s o f C a n a d i a n g o v e r n m e n t . B e c a u s e o f t h i s p r o c e d u r e u n d e r w h i c h C e n t r a l M o r t g a g e and H o u s i n g C o r p o r a t i o n ( i n e f f e c t , - 35 -an a g e n t o f t h e D o m i n i o n g o v e r n m e n t ) must o p e r a t e , and s i n c e m u n i c i p a l a c t i o n c a n be t a k e n o n l y w i t h t h e s a n c t i o n o f t h e a p p r o p r i a t e p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t , t h e s t a t u t o r y b a s i s f o r t h e V a n c o u v e r H o u s i n g A u t h o r i t y i s p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n ; b u t t h e A u t h o r i t y i s t r u s t e e f o r t h e t h r e e - f o l d " p a r t n e r s h i p , " d e s c r i b e d as s u c h i n t h e t e c h n i c a l l i t e r a t u r e . " L o c a l H o u s i n g A u t h o r i t i e s a r e a p p o i n t e d b y t h e L l e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r - i n - C o u n c i l o f t h e P r o v i n c e , and a r e composed o f p u b l i c - s p i r i t e d c i t i z e n s o f t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y . The members o f t h e H o u s i n g A u t h o r i t y a c t w i t h o u t r e m u n e r a t i o n , as t r u s t e e s o f t h e p a r t n e r s h i p o f g o v e r n m e n t s w h i c h owns t h e h o u s i n g . T h e y s h o u l d be b r o a d l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e community, and t h e members s h o u l d b r i n g e n t h u s i a s m and u n d e r s t a n d i n g t o th e p r o b l e m s o f management. . . . The A u t h o r i t y i s e x -p e c t e d t o e x e r c i s e i t s own judgement i n d e a l i n g w i t h l o c a l q u e s t i o n s , b u t s h o u l d a s s i s t a n c e be r e q u i r e d o r m a t t e r s o f g e n e r a l p o l i c y a r i s e i n w h i c h c o n s i s t e n c y a s b e t w e e n A u t h o r i t i e s i s n e c e s s a r y , t h e n e n q u i r i e s s h a l l be a d d r e s s e d t o t h e p r o v i n c e f o r t h e P a r t n e r s h i p . " i The O r d e r s - i n - C o u n c i l , w h i c h s e t up t h e A u t h o r i t y , name t h e members, f i x t h e i r t e r m s o f o f f i c e a n d d e s i g n a t e w h i c h member i s t o a c t as c h a i r m a n . B y - l a w s a d o p t e d b y t h e A u t h o r i t y p r o v i d e f o r h i r i n g o f s t a f f , p r o v i d e f o r o f f i c e - s p a c e ( o f t e n o n th e p r o j e c t ) , and t h e f r e q u e n c y w i t h w h i c h m e e t i n g s w i l l be h e l d . The manager, o n b e h a l f o f t h e A u t h o r i t y , i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e l e g a l d e t a i l s o f s i g n i n g l e a s e a g r e e m e n t s w i t h t h e t e n a n t s ; t h e o r i e n t a t i o n o f t e n a n t s a s t o t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n r e g a r d s t o r u l e s , r e n t s and income r e v i e w s ; and p e r i o d i c I n s p e c t i o n . As e x p l a i n e d l a t e r , p e r i o d i c income r e v i e w s w h i c h a r e a n i m p o r t a n t p a r t o f t h e " p r o p o r t i o n a l r e n t " p o l i c y a r e a l s o h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . 1 C e n t r a l M o r t g a g e and H o u s i n g C o r p o r a t i o n , M a n u a l f o r G u i d a n c e o f H o u s i n g A u t h o r i t i e s . 1953• - 36 -To a s s i s t t h e H o u s i n g A u t h o r i t y and t h e manager i n t h e i r j o b s , t h e C e n t r a l M o r t g a g e an d H o u s i n g C o r p o r a t i o n h a s p r e p a r e d a manual,^" w h i c h c o v e r s most d e t a i l s o f (a) admin-i s t r a t i o n , (b) a c c o u n t i n g , and ( c ) m a i n t e n a n c e . I n e f f e c t , t h i s i s t h e g o v e r n i n g document f o r t h e l o c a l A u t h o r i t y . A l s o , t h e manual s e t s o u t a number o f recommended p r o c e d u r e s d e v e l o p e d f r o m e x p e r i e n c e and a s e r i e s o f l e g a l f o r m s and documents f o r t h e e v e r y d a y o p e r a t i o n o f t h e h o u s i n g p r o j e c t ( I n c l u d i n g a p p l i c a t i o n f o r m s , and n o t i c e s t o t e n a n t s t o q u i t t h e i r p r e m i s e s ) . P r o b a b l y th e two most i m p o r t a n t m a t t e r s o f p o l i c y o n w h i c h t h i s manual h a s c o n t r i b u t e d e x a c t and d e t a i l e d s t a t e r a e n t s - -w h i c h w o u l d o t h e r w i s e r a i s e many q u e s t i o n s f o r d e c i s i o n f o r a new a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , a n d w h i c h i n f a c t c o n t i n u e t o o d i f f i c u l t e v e n f o r l o c a l h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s c o n f i n e d t o o l d p e o p l e — a r e ( a ) t h e d e f i n i t i o n s o f what i s t o be i n t e r p r e t e d as a " f a m i l y " f o r l o w -r e n t a l o c c u p a n c y , and (b) t h e p r o p o r t i o n a l r e n t s c a l e . ( B o t h o f t h e s e r e c e i v e d i s c u s s i o n i n t h e c h a p t e r s w h i c h f o l l o w . ) The f i r s t s t a t u t o r y a u t h o r i t y , s e t up i n A u g u s t , 1953,^ was composed o f f i v e members w i t h d i f f e r e n t i a l t e r m s o f o f f i c e 1 C e n t r a l M o r t g a g e and H o u s i n g C o r p o r a t i o n , M a n u a l f o r  G u i d a n c e o f H o u s i n g A u t h o r i t i e s . 1953* 2 I t may be n o t e d i n p a s s i n g t h a t l o c a l H o u s i n g A u t h o r i t i e s were b r o u g h t b a c k i n t o t h e N a t i o n a l H o u s i n g A c t i n 1949* a f t e r b e i n g a s p e c i f i c p a r t o f t h e m a c h i n e r y f o r l o w - r e n t h o u s i n g and s l u m c l e a r a n c e i n t h e p r e w a r v e r s i o n s o f t h e A c t , and o m i t t e d i n t h e 1944 A c t . The A c t , f a c i l i t a t i n g a c t i o n b y t h e p r o v i n c i a l g overnment o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , was p a s s e d i n A p r i l , 1950* V a n c o u v e r a p p o i n t e d a t e m p o r a r y H o u s i n g A u t h o r i t y i n May, 1949, b u t i t s m a i n f u n c t i o n a t t h a t t i m e was t o c o n d u c t a s u r v e y i n t e n d e d t o e s t a b l i s h t h e s i z e and t h e n e e d f o r r e n t a l and owner-s h i p h o u s i n g i n t h e c i t y . - 37 -t o a i d c o n t i n u i t y . The p i o n e e r members were: Mr. S. E . C l a r k e , ( c h a i r m a n ) ; M r s . G o r d o n S. Selman, ( v i c e - c h a i r m a n ) ; Mr. H. A d a i r , ( a c t i n g s e c r e t a r y - t r e a s u r e r ) ; M a j o r O s c a r L . E r i c k s o n ; and Mr. P. R. U. S t r a t t o n ; and i t i s no a c c i d e n t t h a t a t l e a s t t h r e e o f t h e s e h a d b e e n a c t i v e members w i t h one V a n c o u v e r H o u s i n g A s s o c i a t i o n as w e l l as i n v o l v e d i n many o t h e r community w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s . Mr. ^. D o n a l d D a v i s became c h a i r m a n i n 1957 ( a f t e r two y e a r s as a member), and M r s . S e l m a n was r e c e n t l y a p p o i n t e d c h a i r m a n f o r 1959* D u e "b° some quorum d i f f i c u l t i e s w i t h a b o a r d as s m a l l as f i v e , t h e number was e n l a r g e d t o s e v e n t h i s y e a r . Mr. C. G. S u t h e r l a n d has b e e n t h e manager o f t h e h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s i n c e i t s o p e n i n g . H i s s t a f f i n c l u d e s a f u l l -t ime s e c r e t a r y and t h e r e s i d e n t c a r e t a k e r . I n i t i a l l y , Mr. S u t h e r l a n d i n t e r v i e w e d t h e a p p l i c a n t s f o r a d m i s s i o n t o t h e p r o j e c t and a l s o i n s p e c t e d t h e h o u s i n g t h e y l i v e d i n a t t h e t i m e . Prom t h e b e g i n n i n g , however, t h e f l o w o f a p p l i c a t i o n s h a s b e e n so h e a v y t h a t t h e s e r v i c e s o f o t h e r p e r s o n n e l t o v i s i t homes o f a p p l i c a n t s have b e e n n e c e s s a r y . From t i m e t o t i m e , s t a f f h a v e b e e n t a k e n on a p a r t - t i m e b a s i s t o cope w i t h t h e t i d e o f a p p l i c a n t s . F a c i l i t i e s The L i t t l e M o u n t a i n H o u s i n g P r o j e c t accommodates, i n a l l , 22i\. f a m i l i e s i n g r o u p s o f row h o u s e s and a p a r t m e n t s ; t h e r e a r e 48 t h r e e - b e d r o o m row h o u s e s ; and t h e a p a r t m e n t s a r e d i v i d e d i n t o ij.8 w i t h t h r e e bedrooms, 92 w i t h two b edrooms, and lj,0 o f one-bedroom s i z e . The l o t s , w h i c h were much more e f f e c t i v e l y - 38 -r e g r o u p e d f r o m t h e o r i g i n a l s o n t h e s i t e , f o r m a n L - s h a p e s t r u c t u r e o n t h e e a s t s i d e o f what i s now Queen E l i z a b e t h P a r k . T h ey e x t e n d f r o m 33rd Avenue t o 37th Avenue, bounded o n t h e w est b y O n t a r i o S t r e e t and o n t h e e a s t b y M a i n S t r e e t ( s e e F i g u r e 3)» A l l t h e b u i l d i n g s a r e o f s t u c c o and f r a m e c o n s t r u c t i o n , t h e e x t e r i o r s b e i n g p a i n t e d w h i t e o r a p a l e y e l l o w . The b u i l d i n g s t y l e i s "modern" b u t v e r y p l a i n . The u n i t s a r e s e t o n t h e p r o p e r t y i n a s p a c i o u s and p l e a s a n t manner w i t h p l e n t y o f g r a s s y a r e a s . From a p l a n n i n g p o i n t o f v i e w , i t i s a n i n t e r e s t i n g s i t e , b e c a u s e i t s t a n d s midway b e t w e e n a d i s t r i c t m a r r e d b y a maze o f i l l - d e v e l o p e d s t r e e t s ( i . e . , o f f M a i n S t r e e t ) and t h e Queen E l i z a b e t h P a r k a r e a , now c o m p l e t e l y t r a n s f o r m e d I n t o one o f t h e b e s t d e v e l o p e d and l a n d s c a p e d s e c t i o n s o f t h e c i t y . The L i t t l e M o u n t a i n p r o j e c t i t s e l f , h o w e v e r , h a s h e l p e d i m m e a s u r a b l y t o s t a b i l i z e and i m p r o v e t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e d i s t r i c t ; and t h e b a s i c p l a n was d e s i g n e d t o f r e e t h e g r o u p o f b u i l d i n g s f r o m t r a v e r s i n g s t r e e t s and l a n e s . I n p r a c t i c e , t h e b e s t e f f o r t s o f t h e a r c h i t e c t s have n o t p r e v e n t e d one o f t h e s t r e e t s f r o m b e i n g u s e d h a z a r d o u s l y b y d r i v e r s t r y i n g t o " b e a t t h e t r a f f i c " ( F i g u r e s 9 and 10 ) ; and t h e m a i n s t r e e t s a d j a c e n t t o t h e p r o j e c t a r e crowded w i t h s p e e d i n g c a r s a t t h e r u s h h o u r s . Some o f t h e l a n d s c a p i n g f e a t u r e s w h i c h were o r i g i n a l l y e n v i s a g e d d i s a p p e a r e d w i t h t h e b u d g e t " c u t s " i m p o s e d on t h e p l a n s d u r i n g t h e t h r e e y e a r s b e f o r e c o n s t r u c t i o n . So, a l s o , d i d t h e community c e n t r e w h i c h was r e g a r d e d as e s s e n t i a l b y some - 39 -LITTLE MOUNTAIN HOUSING PROJECT and Types of Accommodation 2 Bedroom3 3 Row Houses occupancy by Retired Couples Scale: 1 ° = 50' Bedrooms M R I N ST. - ko -a d v o c a t e s o f t h e p r o j e c t . P l a y f a c i l i t i e s have b e e n p r o v i d e d , however, and somewhat i m p r o v e d . S e c t i o n s a t t h e b a c k s o f t h e a p a r t m e n t s h a v e b e e n " h a r d - t o p p e d " f o r c h i l d r e n ' s p l a y s p a ce ( F i g u r e 8); a t f o u r p o i n t s t h e r e a r e s a n d b o x e s , and s t u r d i l y -b u i l t s w i n g s ( F i g u r e 6) . These were n o t i n t h e o r i g i n a l c o n -s t r u c t i o n b u t were p r o v i d e d b y t h e A u t h o r i t y t h r o u g h c a r e f u l b u d g e t i n g . The i n t e r n a l s t r e e t p a t t e r n i n c l u d e s p a r k i n g b a y s f o r c a r s , b u t i n i n s u f f i c i e n t number. T h e r e a r e no g a r a g e s , b u t some t e n a n t s r e n t g a r a g e - s p a c e f o r t h e i r c a r s f r o m n e i g h b o u r i n g homeowners. E a c h u n i t i s e q u i p p e d w i t h i t s own b a t h r o o m , e l e c t r i c s t o v e and r e f r i g e r a t o r . ( K i t c h e n s a r e i l l u s t r a t e d i n F i g u r e 4 . ) H e a t , c o l d and h o t w a t e r , a r e i n c l u d e d i n t h e r e n t . L a u n d r y f a c i l i t i e s a r e i n e v e r y b a s e m e n t , w h i c h i n t h e c a s e o f a p a r t m e n t s i s s h a r e d by a s e p a r a t e u n i t o f f o u r f a m i l i e s . F u r n a c e s a r e l o c a t e d w i t h i n some b a s e m e n t s , t h u s h e a t i n g a number o f u n i t s f r o m one l o c a t i o n ; b u t t h i s adds t o the s h o r t a g e o f e x t r a b a s e -ment s p a c e , w h i c h i s a t a premium. Some a s s i g n e d l o c k e r s p a ce i s p r o v i d e d f o r e a c h f a m i l y . The O c c u p a n t s I t s h o u l d n e v e r be f o r g o t t e n t h a t t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n o f p u b l i c h o u s i n g i s o n l y p r o p e r l y a s s e s s e d when c o m p a r i s o n i s made w i t h the l i v i n g a c c o m m o d a t i o n o f t h e r e s i d e n t s b e f o r e t h e y came t o t h e new p r o j e c t . M o r e o v e r , i t c a n u s u a l l y improve t h e l o t o f o n l y a f r a c t i o n o f t h o s e i n n e e d . P r i o r i t i e s h a v e t o be d e t e r m i n e d t o s i n g l e o u t t h e most u r g e n t f r o m t h e w a i t i n g l i s t . T h i s p a r t - 4i -o f t h e p i c t u r e h a s b e e n e x t e n s i v e l y r e v i e w e d i n a p r e v i o u s s t u d y . 1 When L i t t l e M o u n t a i n was i n a u g u r a t e d , t h e r e were o v e r 600 f a m i l i e s o n t h e l i s t . On J a n u a r y 1, 1958, t h e number o f a p p r o v e d a p p l i c a t i o n s a w a i t i n g c u r r e n t v a c a n c i e s was s t i l l o v e r I4.OO. B e c a u s e t h e r e i s some " t u r n o v e r , " t h e number o f p e o p l e who h a v e l i v e d i n L i t t l e M o u n t a i n i s a l r e a d y much l a r g e r t h a n t h e n o r m a l c a p a c i t y f i g u r e o f some 880 p e r s o n s i n t h e 22lj. u n i t s . From t h e t i m e o f o p e n i n g t i l l J a n u a r y , 1958, i t i s p o s s i b l e t o c o u n t 1600 as h a v i n g b e e n h o u s e d h e r e d u r i n g t h e f i v e y e a r s o r s o . T h e r e a r e v a r i o u s i m p o r t a n t ways o f t r y i n g t o h i g h l i g h t t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f t h i s s p e c i a l community. I t i s e s s e n t i a l l y a f a m i l y p r o j e c t — p e r h a p s more t h a n most p e o p l e r e a l i z e , t h o u g h t h i s was c e r t a i n l y i t s i n t e n t i o n . One o f t h e c o n s e q u e n c e s o f t h i s i s t h a t t h e r e a r e a v e r y l a r g e number o f c h i l d r e n . O b v i o u s as t h i s may b e , a r e m i n d e r i s i n o r d e r t h a t p r i v a t e l y - o w n e d a p a r t m e n t b l o c k s do n o t n o r m a l l y h o u s e many c h i l d r e n 2 — f a m i l i e s w i t h c h i l d r e n , and e s p e c i a l l y young c h i l d r e n , may e v e n be e x c l u d e d b y the l a n d l o r d . Many p r i v a t e a p a r t m e n t b l o c k s , l i k e -w i s e , c a t e r p r i m a r i l y t o s i n g l e p e r s o n s and c o u p l e s i n c l u d i n g r e t i r e d c o u p l e s . The i n f o r m a t i o n i n T a b l e 3, s h o w i n g t h e p r e s e n t d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e y o u n g e r t e n a n t s o f a l l ages f r o m i n f a n c y t o 1 W h e e l e r , M i c h a e l , E v a l u a t i n g t h e Need f o r Low-Cost H o u s i n g . M a s t e r o f S o c i a l Work t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1955* C h a p t e r 2 o f t h i s t h e s i s a n a l y z e s t h e h o u s i n g c o n d i t i o n s o f t h e f a m i l i e s a t t h e t i m e o f the f i r s t b a t c h o f a p p l i c a t i o n s . 2 T h e r e a r e a f e w n o t e w o r t h y e x c e p t i o n s s u c h as t h e " D o l p h i n C o u r t " e s p e c i a l l y d e s i g n e d f o r the p u r p o s e i n K e r r i s d a l e . - 1L2 ~ T a b l e 3» Number, Age G r o u p s and D i s t r i b u t i o n o f C h i l d r e n i n L i t t l e M o u n t a i n P r o j e c t (As o f 1958) A r e a Age G r o u p s 0 - 5 6 - 1 2 1 3 - 1 9 20-22 T o t a l A r e a I Complete f a m i l i e s B r o k e n f a m i l i e s A r e a I I Com p l e t e f a m i l i e s B r o k e n f a m i l i e s A r e a I I I Co m p l e t e f a m i l i e s B r o k e n f a m i l i e s A r e a IV Com p l e t e f a m i l i e s B r o k e n f a m i l i e s 62 59 13 9 fe 10 82 19 25 32 3fe 20 12 15 32 11 21 12 3 13 2 11 1 0 1 2 IS 2 2 2 0 2 0" 2 180 T8 91 6 4 101 13 6k 29 35 T o t a l , C o m p l e t e f a m i l i e s B r o k e n f a m i l i e s 35 202 TI2 70 50 2 2 5 F o r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f A r e a s I t o IV ( a d i v i s i o n made f o r c o n -v e n i e n c e o f d e s c r i p t i o n o n l y ) , see F i g u r e 3* T a b l e 4 . F a m i l y C o m p o s i t i o n  R e s i d e n t s o f L i t t l e M o u n t a i n P r o j e c t (1955 and 1958) 1955 1958 . Type o f F a m i l y Number P.C. Number P.C. " C o m p l e t e " F a m i l i e s 173 12k w i t h [a) 1 o r 2 c h i l d r e n (b) 3 o r more c h i l d r e n * •8-•» 68 2 .^2 29.9 " B r o k e n " F a m i l i e s l i 11.1 I f 28 29.0 w i t h (a) 1 o r 2 c h i l d r e n (b) 3 o r more c h i l d r e n # * 16.3 12.7 P e n s i o n e r C o u p l e s 18 8.0 21 13.3 T o t a l s * * 221 100 222 100 * D e t a i l f o r 1955 n o t s u f f i c i e n t t o g i v e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n b y f a m i l y s i z e . * » I n c l u d i n g f i v e " o t h e r f a m i l y " g r o u p s i n 1955, two i n 1958. T o t a l s e x c l u d e c a r e t a k e r , a l s o a f e w s u i t e s c h a n g i n g o c c u p a n c y a t t i m e o f c o u n t . - 43 -t w e n t y y e a r s s h o u l d be s e e n as much more t h a n mere f i g u r e s : t h e r e i s a g r e a t d e a l o f s o c i a l and w e l f a r e s i g n i f i c a n c e h e r e — i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r t h e a d u l t t e n a n t s o f t h i s n e i g h b o u r h o o d , t h e s c h o o l s , and t h e f u t u r e . Much i s a p t t o be made o f t h e " b r o k e n " f a m i l y i n p o p u l a r a c c o u n t s ; b u t , as a l r e a d y p o i n t e d o u t , many c o m p l e t e f a m i l i e s may have h o u s i n g p r o b l e m s b e c a u s e o f i n a d e q u a t e income. I t i s o n l y t o be e x p e c t e d t h a t L i t t l e M o u n t a i n h a s a l a r g e s h a r e o f " b r o k e n " f a m i l i e s , i . e . , f a m i l i e s w i t h o n l y one o f t h e p a r e n t s (more u s u a l l y t h e m o t h e r ) i n t h e home. The number c o u n t e d f o r 1955 was 65 o r a l i t t l e u n d e r t h i r t y p e r c e n t o f t h e t o t a l . I n 1958, a b o u t o n e - t h i r d o f t h e o c c u p a n t s were i d e n t i f i a b l e , as among the o r i g i n a l t e n a n t s when t h e P r o j e c t o p e n e d i n 1955» These a r e f a m i l i e s , t h a t i s t o s a y , who have l i v e d a t L i t t l e M o u n t a i n c o n t i n u o u s l y f o r f o u r y e a r s o r s o . Among t h e s e , t h e p r o p o r t i o n s as b e t w e e n c o m p l e t e f a m i l i e s , b r o k e n f a m i l i e s and p e n s i o n e r c o u p l e s were: 59, 30, 11. The g r e a t m a j o r i t y , t h e r e f o r e , a r e " o r d i n a r y f a m i l i e s . " T h i s i s s t i l l t r u e , e v e n t h o u g h the number o f b r o k e n f a m i l i e s i n r e s i d e n c e h a s i n c r e a s e d as t i m e h a s gone o n (31 i n 1955, kh i * 1 1957, a b o u t 70 t o d a y ) . Some o f t h e s e c h a n g e s w h i c h a r e c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e p u r p o s e s and c h a r a c t e r o f p u b l i c h o u s i n g , b u t have a l s o b e e n i n f l u e n c e d b y p o l i c y d e c i s i o n s , a r e a somewhat l a r g e r number o f (a) f a m i l i e s who have b e e n o r a r e d e p e n d e n t on s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e , and o f (b) p e n s i o n e r s . " S o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e f a m i l i e s " were r u l e d - kk -( b y t h e C i t y ) a s i n e l i g i b l e i n 1955 b u t a r e o f f i c i a l l y e l i g i b l e t o d a y . (The j u s t i c e o f t h i s p r o v i s i o n i s b e y o n d q u e s t i o n i f i t i s r e c o g n i z e d t h a t t h e p r i m e r e q u i s i t e f o r e l i g i b i l i t y i s n o t t h e s o c i a l s t a t u s o f t h e f a m i l y , b u t i t s income and c u r r e n t l y i n a d e q u a t e h o u s i n g . ) The d e v e l o p m e n t o f p o l i c y i n r e s p e c t o f a g ed c o u p l e s i s a l s o w o r t h y o f n o t e . U n f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h p u b l i c h o u s i n g ( a n d p e r h a p s t h e f a m i l i a r i t y t o d a y o f " o l d p e o p l e ' s h o u s i n g " ) h a s l e d some t o s u g g e s t t h a t p r o j e c t s s u c h as L i t t l e M o u n t a i n a r e n o t i n t e n d e d f o r p e n s i o n e r s . B u t o l d c o u p l e s a r e " f a m i l i e s " ( j u s t as young c o u p l e s a r e ! ) and t h e i r e l i g i b i l i t y i s due t o i n c o m e , n o t age. Of c o u r s e , w h e t h e r t h e f a c i l i t i e s a r e p r o p e r l y d e s i g n e d f o r o l d p e o p l e I s a n o t h e r and h i g h l y r e l e v a n t m a t t e r . The same a p p l i e s t o t h e s u r r o u n d i n g s and e n v i r o n m e n t o f t h e p r o j e c t - - w h i c h i n c l u d e s l a r g e r numbers o f c h i l d r e n t h a n u s u a l . E u r o p e a n p u b l i c h o u s i n g h a s accommodated i t s e l f t o t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s a g ood d e a l more t h a n N o r t h A m e r i c a , so f a r , b y d e s i g n w h i c h p r o v i d e s f o r t h r e e g e n e r a t i o n s r a t h e r t h a n t w o . 1 And, as i n d i c a t e d l a t e r , t h e r e I s m a t e r i a l a t L i t t l e M o u n t a i n f o r b o t h o f t h e two o p p o s i n g s c h o o l s o f t h o u g h t — t h e one, t h a t o l d p e o p l e l i k e t o see f a m i l i e s and c h i l d r e n a b o u t them; t h e o t h e r , t h a t t h e y want t o be " l e f t i n p e a c e . " From where h a s t h e new community o f L i t t l e M o u n t a i n b e e n drawn? T h i s i s so i m p o r t a n t , i n v i e w o f i t s d i f f e r e n c e f r o m 1 The argument f o r p r o v i d i n g h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s f o r a l l f a m i l y and age g r o u p s h a s b e e n c o g e n t l y p u t f o r w a r d b y L e w i s Mumford i n h i s a r t i c l e , " F o r O l d e r P e o p l e - - N o t S e g r e g a t i o n B u t I n t e g r a t i o n " ( A r c h i t e c t u r a l R e c o r d , May, 1956; p p . 191-226), a n d t h i s v i e w i s n o t i c e a b l y g a i n i n g more a t t e n t i o n f r o m w e l f a r e a g e n c i e s i n r e c e n t y e a r s . - ks -t r a d i t i o n a l s l u m - c l e a r a n c e , t h a t a s p e c i a l s t u d y h a s b e e n made, d i s t i n g u i s h i n g n o t o n l y t h e t h r e e d i f f e r e n t k i n d s o f " f a m i l i e s , " b u t a l s o t h e o r i g i n a l p a t t e r n o f d i s t r i b u t i o n a t t h e t i m e t h e p r o j e c t was o p e n e d and a more r e c e n t one (1955 and 1958)»" B o t h maps ( F i g u r e s 1 and 2) show a wide s c a t t e r , w i t h p e r h a p s s l i g h t l y w i d e r s c a t t e r f o r the 1958 map ( p e r h a p s due t o w i d e r knowledge o f t h e p r o j e c t ) . T e n a n t s o f the p r o j e c t h a v e come f r o m a l m o s t a l l o v e r t h e c i t y , t h o u g h p a r t i c u l a r l y f r o m t h e e a s t and n o r t h . The maps show some c l u s t e r s , a s f o r example Broadway t o F o u r t h Avenue b e t w e e n B u r r a r d and M a i n S t r e e t s . T h i s i s a d e t e r i o r a t i n g r e s i d e n t a l a r e a w h i c h i s b e c o m i n g i n d u s t r i a l i z e d . O t h e r p o i n t s r e p r e s e n t p i e c e s o f " s e c o n d - h a n d " r e n t a l h o u s i n g where f a m i l y d w e l l i n g s have b e e n d i v i d e d i n t o f u r n i s h e d rooms a n d s u i t e s , where z o n i n g l a w s p r o t e c t i n g o n e - f a m i l y d w e l l i n g s have n o t h a d any f o r c e , and so on. On t h e o t h e r h a n d , i t i s a s t o n i s h i n g a t f i r s t s i g h t t h a t t h e r e i s a t o t a l a b s e n c e o f p e o p l e f r o m t h e S t r a t h c o n a a r e a , where a s l u m - c l e a r a n c e p r o j e c t h a s b e e n mooted f o r t w e l v e y e a r s . One c a n o n l y s p e c u l a t e as t o t h e r e a s o n s . P o s s i b l y , p u b l i c i t y f o r th e p r o j e c t h a s n o t b e e n e f f e c t i v e i n t h a t a r e a j maybe l a n g u a g e b a r r i e r s have i n t e r f e r e d . T h e r e may have b e e n a p p l i c a t i o n s f r o m t h i s a r e a w h i c h h a d to be d e n i e d b e c a u s e t h e a p p l i c a n t d i d n o t have a h i g h enough i n c o m e . H o u s i n g may have b e e n so d e f i c i e n t t h a t t h e i n s p e c t o r s g o t t h e i m p r e s s i o n t h a t a p p l i c a n t f a m i l i e s c o u l d n o t a d j u s t t o new h o u s i n g . T h e r e a r e , o f c o u r s e , a l a r g e 1 E a c h map r e c o r d s p r e v i o u s r e s i d e n c e f o r a l l t e n a n t s f o r whom s u c h i n f o r m a t i o n was a v a i l a b l e . - 46 -number o f s i n g l e men i n t h e a r e a who w o u l d be i n e l i g i b l e . The most l i k e l y c o n s i d e r a t i o n , h o w e v e r , i s t h a t t h e r e s i d e n t s o f t h i s a r e a a r e n o t i n t e r e s t e d i n m a k i n g a p p l i c a t i o n u n l e s s t h e  r e n t s a r e l o w enough t o a t t r a c t them away. Prom t h e p r e v i o u s s u r v e y s i t i s known t h a t a l a r g e number o f S t r a t h c o n a r e s i d e n t s l i k e t h e a r e a and w i s h t o r e m a i n t h e r e . ^ The c o n c l u s i o n t o w h i c h t h i s seems t o p o i n t i s t h a t s l u m c l e a r a n c e i n s u c h an a r e a as S t r a t h c o n a c a n o n l y be a c h i e v e d b y c l e a r a n c e and r e -h o u s i n g o n t h e s i t e . The o t h e r s i d e o f t h e s t o r y i s t h a t a g o o d l o w - r e n t a l p r o j e c t c a n draw f a m i l i e s t o i t f r o m many a r e a s , i f i t h a s any r e a s o n a b l e l o c a t i o n . L i t t l e M o u n t a i n , i t c a n be s a i d , i s p a r t i c u l a r l y f a v o u r a b l e f o r t h i s b e c a u s e i t i s c e n t r a l and y e t c l o s e t o t h e e a s t e r n s i d e o f t h e c i t y . The New N e i g h b o u r h o o d : A s s e t s and L i a b i l i t i e s What o f t h e new n e i g h b o u r h o o d i n t o w h i c h L i t t l e M o u n t a i n h a s t o f i t , and w h i c h i t i s , i t s e l f , h e l p i n g t o c r e a t e ? As y e t , V a n c o u v e r i s , u n f o r t u n a t e l y , n o t v e r y " n e i g h b o u r h o o d m i n d e d . " T h e r e a r e some o u t s t a n d i n g e x c e p t i o n s ( s u c h as S h a u g h n e s s y and t h e West End, t h o u g h e v e n t h e s e a r e n o t as w e l l -d e f i n e d as some r e f e r e n c e s t o them a s s u m e ) ; b u t t h e r e h a s b e e n t o o much u n p l a n n e d and h a p h a z a r d d e v e l o p m e n t o f s e c t i o n s and s t r e e t s and l o t s i n t h e p a s t t o e s t a b l i s h c l e a r p a t t e r n s f o r t h e 1 M a r s h , R e b u i l d i n g a N e i g h b o u r h o o d , p . 11. " F o r t y p e r c e n t o f t h e f a m i l i e s , b o t h owners and t e n a n t s , were d e f i n i t e i n w a n t i n g t o r e m a i n i n t h e a r e a ; w h i l e o n l y t w e n t y - o n e p e r c e n t were e q u a l l y d e c i d e d t h a t t h e y wanted t o l i v e e l s e w h e r e . - kl -c i t y . T h i s r a i s e s a d i f f i c u l t y a t t h e o u t s e t . I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o f i n d o u t how p e o p l e l i k e t h i s new d i s t r i c t , p e r h a p s how t h e y " a d j u s t " t o i t — i f some m e a n i n g c a n be g i v e n t o t h i s t e r m . B u t i s t h e r e so l i t t l e o f e s t a b l i s h e d d i s t r i c t a m e n i t i e s i n t h e p l a c e s f r o m w h i c h t h e y h a v e come, t h a t t h e y h a v e l i t t l e o r no s t a n d a r d o f r e f e r e n c e b y w h i c h t o j u d g e t h e i r p r e s e n t " t r a n s -l a t i o n " ? A t l e a s t , a number o f e x p l o r a t o r y q u e s t i o n s have b e e n t r i e d o u t i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y . And a t l e a s t t h e r e i s one f i r m b a s i s f o r judgement o n t h e s e m a t t e r s , e v e n i f I t i s sometimes t r u e t h a t a d u l t s — e s p e c i a l l y h a r a s s e d o r " c o o p e d up" m o t h e r s - -" d o n ' t c a r e much, b e c a u s e t h e y h a r d l y g e t o u t s i d e t h e h o u s e . " 1  C h i l d r e n n e e d n e i g h b o u r h o o d s ; and i n one way o r a n o t h e r , f o r good o r f o r i l l , a l w a y s h e l p t o make them. T h i s i s one o f t h e l e s s f a m i l i a r r e a s o n s why r e c r e a t i o n i s so i m p o r t a n t f o r the f a m i l y . From an e a r l y age, c h i l d r e n go t o s c h o o l — i n o t h e r w o rds, t h e y l e a r n t o i n h a b i t t h e w o r l d b e y o n d t h e home. The s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h i s i s r e c o g n i z e d i n t h e g e n e r a l a p p r o v a l g i v e n t o d i s t r i c t community c e n t r e s . The gap, i n t h i n k i n g o r i n p l a n n i n g , w h i c h o f t e n s t i l l r e m a i n s i s t o make s u c h c e n t r e s s e r v i c e - u n i t s f o r t h e whole f a m i l y and f o r a l l age g r o u p s ( s e e a l s o C h a p t e r I V ) . A p u b l i c h o u s i n g p r o j e c t o p e n s up s p e c i a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s and some s p e c i a ! p r o b l e m s i n t h e s e d i r e c t i o n s . The p r e s e n t s t u d y c a n o n l y c l a i m t o be s e t t i n g up t h e f i r s t " r a d a r . " As p l a n n e r s and s o c i a l w e l f a r e e x p e r t s have come t o 1 The i n t e r v i e w s d i s c u s s e d l a t e r ( C h a p t e r s I I I and I V ) r e -v e a l e d t h a t t h e r e i s a s i z e a b l e number o f p a r e n t s who n e v e r h a ve moved much "be y o n d t h e i r f o u r w a l l s . " T h i s i s a k i n d o f " p r i v a c y " sometimes b r o u g h t a b o u t b y l i v i n g i n - s u b s t a n d a r d homes and d i s t r i c t s . - 48 -o b s e r v e them, w e l l - d e v e l o p e d n e i g h b o u r h o o d s s h o u l d h a v e s a f e s t r e e t s — w h i c h means a d i f f e r e n t i a l a p p r o a c h to k i n d s o f s t r e e t s , and t o b o u n d a r i e s — a s c h o o l o r s c h o o l s ; p l a y g r o u n d s o f more t h a n one k i n d ( f o r d i f f e r e n t age g r o u p s , e t c . ) ; s h o p p i n g f a c i l i t i e s ( n o t n e c e s s a r i l y c e n t r e d ) ; n u r s e r y , k i n d e r g a r t e n o r d a y - c a r e u n i t s f o r p r e - s c h o o l c h i l d r e n ; c h u r c h e s ; some h e a l t h f a c i l i t i e s ; a b r a n c h l i b r a r y ; and o t h e r v a r i o u s r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s w i t h a p p r o p r i a t e space o r b u i l d i n g s . Open s p a c e and g r e e n e r y o f a l l k i n d s a r e r e a l l y u r b a n e s s e n t i a l s ; b u t , o b v i o u s as t h i s may seem, t h e y a r e f r e q u e n t l y so r a r e o r n e g l e c t e d ( o r e x c l u d e d as e x -p e n s i v e " f r i l l s " ) a s t o a p p e a r t o be l u x u r i e s . The most s i g n i f i c a n t community r e s o u r c e i s a l w a y s the e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l , and i t i s g o o d f o r t u n e t h a t one i s c o n v e n i e n t l y a d j a c e n t t o t h e P r o j e c t . The d i s t r i c t h a s f o r t e n t o f i f t e e n y e a r s r e q u i r e d an a d d i t i o n t o t h i s s c h o o l ( G e n e r a l B r o c k E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l ) , b u t i t was n o t u n t i l t h e b u i l d i n g o f L i t t l e M o u n t a i n t h a t a c t i o n was t a k e n . I n June o f 1955, two months a f t e r t e n a n t s f i r s t t o o k o c c u p a n c y i n L i t t l e M o u n t a i n , f o u r p o r t a b l e c l a s s r o o m s were e r e c t e d a t G e n e r a l B r o c k ; and i n the c o u r s e o f 1956, t h e y were r e p l a c e d b y a new a d d i t i o n . I t c o n s i s t s o f s e v e n c l a s s r o o m s i n c o r p o r a t i n g a n a r t room and a l i b r a r y , a combined l u n c h - a c t i v i t y room and a gym a u d i t o r i u m . The c o n t r i b u t i o n t o w e l f a r e t h e s e f a c i l i t i e s make c a n n o t be o v e r -e s t i m a t e d . O n e - t h i r d o f t h e s t u d e n t s (191 o u t o f 6l8 c h i l d r e n ) a t t e n d i n g G e n e r a l B r o c k S c h o o l a r e f r o m L i t t l e M o u n t a i n , so t h a t - 49 -" t h e P r o j e c t " i s w e l l known t h e r e . The S c h o o l B o a r d and t h e l o c a l p r i n c i p a l were c o r d i a l l y c o o p e r a t i v e i n e x t e n d i n g hope i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y . And i t was e n c o u r a g i n g t o f i n d , i n c r e a s i n g l y as a c q u a i n t a n c e d e v e l o p e d , how l a r g e a c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e S c h o o l ' s P.T.A. h a s b e e n made b y m o t h e r s f r o m t h e L i t t l e M o u n t a i n f a m i l i e s . O l d e r c h i l d r e n have h a d t o go a f a i r d i s t a n c e t o K i n g Edward H i g h . B u t h e r e , t o o , t h e S c h o o l B o a r d h a s t a k e n c o g n i z a n c e o f i t s "new c o n s t i t u e n c y . " C h a r l e s T u p p e r H i g h S c h o o l , a t 2 3 r d Avenue and P r i n c e Edward, i s t o be r e a d y f o r o c c u p a n c y b y December, 1959* ^ 9 m a j o r i t y o f L i t t l e M o u n t a i n ' t e e n - a g e r s w i l l be a b l e t o a t t e n d t h e r e , a s w e l l a s g r a d e s s e v e n and e i g h t b o y s and g i r l s f r o m n e a r b y Van H o m e and G e n e r a l W o l f e s c h o o l s . T h e r e i s no n u r s e r y s c h o o l o r k i n d e r g a r t e n i n o r n e a r the P r o j e c t , t h o u g h a v o l u n t e e r e f f o r t t o p r o v i d e one ( r e f e r r e d t o l a t e r ) was k e p t up f o r a y e a r and a h a l f . The o b v i o u s n e e d f o r a community h a l l h a s b e e n i n many p e o p l e ' s m i n d s , and o p i n i o n o n t h i s s u b j e c t was c a n v a s s e d f r o m v a r i o u s a n g l e s . I n t h e p r o j e c t , t h e d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n o p e n s p a c e , p l a y s p a c e , ( a n d p e r h a p s e v e n p a r k i n g s p a c e ) i s n o t a l w a y s c l e a r . B a s e b a l l i s f r e q u e n t l y p l a y e d o n t h e l a w n s . The n e e d f o r s u p e r v i s i o n was e x p r e s s e d b y most f a m i l i e s w i t h s m a l l c h i l d r e n , p a r t i c u l a r l y t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e t h e p r e - s c h o o l e r s f r o m t h e s c h o o l a g e r s ( s i n c e t h e o l d e r o nes t e n d t o d o m i n a t e t h e y o u n g e r o n e s ) . L a r g e f e n c e d - i n a r e a s f o r two- and t h r e e - y e a r - o l d s h a v e b e e n s u g g e s t e d b y m o t h e r s who c o n s t a n t l y h a v e t o w a t c h t h i s a g e - g r o u p , who as y e t do n o t - 50 -u n d e r s t a n d t h e m e a n i n g o f t r a f f i c and d a n g e r . W i t h i n s h o r t t r a v e l l i n g d i s t a n c e s , t h e r e a r e , o f c o u r s e , t h e s p e c i a l r e s o u r c e s o f " L i t t l e M o u n t a i n " p r o p e r , t h e h i g h g r o u n d i n t h e g e o g r a p h i c a l c e n t r e o f the c i t y w h i c h gave i t s name t o t h i s d i s t r i c t . P r o t e c t e d f r o m e a r l y r e a l - e s t a t e d e v e l o p -ments b y i t s g r a d i e n t , and f u r t h e r b y b e i n g t h e s i t e o f one o f t h e c i t y ' s r e s e r v o i r s , I t h a s now become one o f t h e g r e a t s c e n i c and l a n d s c a p e a t t r a c t i o n s o f V a n c o u v e r , t h a n k s p a r t i c u l a r l y t o t h e t e n a c i o u s i n d u s t r y and f o r e s i g h t o f t h e P a r k s B o a r d p e r s o n n e l who have t r a n s f o r m e d an u g l y q u a r r y i n t o a d e l i g h t f u l g a r d e n . Queen E l i z a b e t h P a r k and t h e A r b o r e t u m , a t i m b e r e d a r e a , add f u r t h e r t o t h i s r e s o u r c e . I t must be remembered t h a t i t i s f a r more r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e t o t h e c a r - d r i v e r t h a n t o t h e p e d e s t r i a n ; and i t p r o v i d e s f o r a d u l t s r a t h e r t h a n c h i l d r e n who want b a l l g r o u n d s o r s p a ce f o r b o i s t e r o u s a c t i v i t i e s . T h i s , f o r t u n a t e l y , I s p r o v i d e d b y a n o t h e r n e a r b y a r e a , R i l e y P a r k ( s e e s k e t c h map, F i g u r e l l ) , w h i c h w i l l become an e v e n more welcome summer "Mecca" when a swimming p o o l , now p r o j e c t e d , i s c o m p l e t e . S h o p p i n g b y t h e r e s i d e n t s i s m o s t l y done a r o u n d M a i n , l o n g o v e r b u i l t w i t h a r i b b o n o f m i s c e l l a n e o u s s t o r e s , w i t h c l u s t e r s o f newer s t o r e s p a r t i c u l a r l y a t 28th and i j - l s t Avenue i n t e r s e c t i o n s . Newer, l a r g e - s c a l e , r e a l - e s t a t e d e v e l o p m e n t s i n t h e Gamble a r e a may o r may n o t a f f e c t t h e s h o p p i n g h a b i t s o f t h e L i t t l e M o u n t a i n community, d e p e n d i n g o n e a s e o f a c c e s s and t h e q u a l i t y o f goods t o w h i c h t h e new s t o r e s a r e o r i e n t e d . F o r t h e most p a r t , t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i s n o t c o n s i d e r e d a - 51 -p r o b l e m . A b u s r o u t e i s l o c a t e d a d j a c e n t t o t h e P r o j e c t . The p e r s o n s f i n d i n g i t a d i f f i c u l t y a r e u s u a l l y t h o s e r e t u r n i n g t o f o r m e r c h u r c h e s , s c h o o l s o r f r i e n d s on t h e weekend. A f a i r p r o p o r t i o n o f t e n a n t s have c a r s and many o f them h a v e worked o u t a r r a n g e m n e t s f o r " l i f t s " o r " c a r - p o o l s " f o r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n t o work. M a i n S t r e e t , i n any c a s e , i s c e n t r a l f o r much t r a v e l , e s p e c i a l l y n o r t h and e a s t ; I t was once l i t e r a l l y t h e m a i n s t r e e t b e f o r e g r e a t new r e s i d e n t i a l and c o m m e r c i a l a r e a s were opened up f u r t h e r and f u r t h e r w e s t . - 52 -F i g u r e if iybdern, wel l - p l a n n e d , k i t c h e n . F i g u r e 5 I n t e r i o r s can be comfortable and a t t r a c t i v e . - 53 -Figure 7 A crying need--outside c l o t h e s l i n e s . (Drying rack i s permitted.) - 5k ~ F i g u r e 8 Hop s c o t c h - - o r r o l l e r skates. (A b l a c k t o p p l a y surface.) - 56 -1- C \ T X 5OU^L Se« . « ic -e I t e O t T H U N I T /0- M O U N T " * V I < I O CErAcr^^v S H O P P I N G pto^eprt C h a p t e r I I I FAMILY WELFARE W e l f a r e b e g i n s w i t h i n c o m e , and a l l t o o o f t e n , l i m i t e d income c a n c i r c u m s c r i b e e v e n t h e a s p e c t o f w e l f a r e . To t h e p i c t u r e w h i c h h a s so f a r b e e n p r e s e n t e d o f t h e k i n d s o f f a m i l i e s who make up t h e new and m a t u r i n g L i t t l e M o u n t a i n community, i t i s now e s s e n t i a l t o add t h e income d i m e n s i o n s . To s i m p l i f y t h i s somewhat, and y e t s t i l l show an i m p o r t a n t d i f f e r e n t i a l , t h e f a m i l i e s a r e shown i n o n l y two g r o u p s r a t h e r t h a n t h e t h r e e f o l l o w e d o u t I n T a b l e 4. " N o r m a l " f a m i l i e s a r e , o f c o u r s e , f a m i l i e s w i t h two a d u l t s , b u t t h i s may i n s u c h a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i n c l u d e a p e n s i o n e r c o u p l e . I t may a l s o i n c l u d e a h o u s e h o l d w h i c h i s t a n t a m o u n t t o a b r o k e n f a m i l y — l a c k i n g t h e n o r m a l b r e a d w i n n e r b e c a u s e t h e f a t h e r i s d i s a b l e d o r i n some o t h e r way n o t a w a g e - e a r n e r . The r e s u l t i n g f a c t s a r e s i m p l y s t a t e d . The m e d i a n income o f a l l t h e t w o - p a r e n t f a m i l i e s i s $250.00 p e r month; o f the one p a r e n t f a m i l i e s , o n l y $175*00 p e r month. A t c u r r e n t c o s t o f l i v i n g , and e s p e c i a l l y f o r f a m i l i e s w i t h s e v e r a l c h i l d r e n , i t I s n o t h a r d t o v i s u a l i z e t h e i r g e n e r a l e l i g i b i l i t y f o r t h i s k i n d o f h o u s i n g . T h e r e a r e e x c e p t i o n a l c a s e s , o f c o u r s e . F o u r f a m i l i e s , a t t h e t i m e o f t h i s c o u n t , h a d i n c o m e s e x c e e d i n g #4.00.00 p e r month; one f a m i l y ( a n e l d e r l y c o u p l e ) , was l i v i n g on l e s s t h a n $100.00 p e r month. P r o b a b l y among t h e most i m p o r t a n t s t a t i s t i c t s a r e t h o s e o f a v e r a g e f a m i l y s i z e : t h r e e c h i l d r e n f o r b o t h t h e " u p p e r " and " l o w e r " g r o u p s ( e x c l u d i n g t h e - 58 -p e n s i o n e r c o u p l e s f o r t h i s p a r t i c u l a r f i g u r e ) ; 2.5 i n t h e m i d d l e g r o u p . T a b l e 5. D i s t r i b u t i o n o f T e n a n t F a m i l i e s  According t o Income ~ ( L i t t l e M o u n t a i n , 1958) M o n t h l y Income F a m i l i e s w i t h ! % D i s t r i L b u t i o n 2 a d u l t s 1 a d u l t 2 a d u l t s 1 a d u l t L e s s t h a n #150 #150 - #199 18 31 20 25 11.6 20.0 30.0 37.3 #200 - #299 55 19 354 28.3 #300 and o v e r 51 3 33.0 4 4 T o t a l 155 67 100.0 100.0 I n v i e w o f t h e p r o p o r t i o n a t e r e n t s c a l e ( d i s c u s s e d b e l o w ) and c e r t a i n o t h e r r e l a t e d c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , income d i f f e r e n c e s a r e more i m p o r t a n t i n a p r o j e c t s u c h as L i t t l e M o u n t a i n t h a n t h e y w o u l d be i n t h e k i n d o f s l u m - c l e a r a n c e h o u s i n g w h i c h i s most c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i n B r i t a i n i n i t s e a r l i e r s t a g e s o f p u b l i c h o u s i n g , and p r o j e c t s i n p u b l i c h o u s i n g i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s b e f o r e t h e War. A v e r y l o w income c e i l i n g ( e . g . , #1200.00 p e r y e a r i n some e a r l y U.S. e x a m p l e s ) c o n f i n e s t h e p r o j e c t i n e v i t a b l y t o m a r g i n a l o r v i r t u a l l y s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e g r o u p s , and i n d e e d amounts ( a s w i s e r o b s e r v a t i o n ' h a s p e r c e i v e d ) t o a f o r m o f s e g r e g a t i o n . Coming l a t e r i n t h e day, C a n a d i a n p u b l i c h o u s i n g h a s a v o i d e d t h i s common m i s t a k e ; and s u c h p r o j e c t s as have b e e n b u i l t so f a r ( t h e r e a r e s t i l l v e r y few b e s i d e s t h e T o r o n t o p i o n e e r , R e g e n t P a r k ) a r e p r o c e e d i n g w i t h a m o d e r a t e l y -wide income r a n g e . K e e p i n g t h i s i n m i n d , i t w i l l be c o n v e n i e n t - 59 -t o r e f e r t o " l o w - i n c o m e , " " m i d d l e - i n c o m e , " and " h i g h - i n c o m e " f a m i l i e s a t c e r t a i n p o i n t s i n t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f q u e s t i o n s e s p o u s e d , t h o u g h c l e a r l y t h e s e t e r m s must be u n d e r s t o o d i n a p u r e l y r e l a t i v e s e n s e , i . e . , i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e s t a t i s t i c s o f T a b l e 5. J u d g i n g f r o m t h e sample f a m i l i e s , t h e c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n income and f a m i l y t y p e i s m a r k e d . 1 O v e r 55 p e r c e n t o f t h e l ow-income f a m i l i e s were b r o k e n f a m i l i e s , and i n o n l y t h r e e o f t w e n t y - t h r e e o f t h e s e was s u p p o r t m a i n t a i n e d b y t h e e a r n i n g s o f a r e m a i n i n g p a r e n t . F o u r l o w - i n c o m e f a m i l i e s were r e t i r e d c o u p l e s o n p r i v a t e i n d u s t r i a l p e n s i o n s o r o l d age p e n s i o n s . I n h a l f o f the l o w - i n c o m e " c o m p l e t e " f a m i l i e s , t h e h u s b a n d ( t h e o n l y w a g e - e a r n e r ) , was u n employed and was d e p e n d e n t o n e i t h e r i n s u r a n c e o r s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e . The o t h e r " c o m p l e t e " f a m i l i e s were s u p p o r t e d b y h u s b a n d s w i t h v a r i o u s d i s a b i l i t i e s whose e a r n i n g a b i l i t i e s were t h e r e b y r e d u c e d . ^ T h e f i r s t two i n c o m e - g r o u p s a r e amalgamated as " l o w . " "~~ C o m p a r i s o n b e t w e e n t h e t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n and t h e sample, j u d g e d b y income d i s t r i b u t i o n , i s as b e l o w . The sample t h u s c o v e r s t h e low-income g r o u p s as a whole and t h e t h r e e f o l d d i f f e r e n t i a l r e -m a r k a b l y w e l l , b u t u n d e r - r e p r e s e n t s t h e v e r y p o o r e s t f a m i l i e s . M o n t h l y Income A l l F a m i l i e s Sample f a m i l i e s ( p e r c e n t ) Number - P e r C e n t L e s s t h a n $150 $150 - $199 38 56 17.2 25.0 ii $200 - $299 lk 33.3 30 $300 o r more 5a 2 i f 4 2k T o t a l 222 100.0 100 - 60 -I n t h e " m i d d l e " f a m i l i e s ( i n c o m e s f r o m $200.00 t o $300.00), o n e - t h i r d o f t h e f a m i l y h e a d s were i n some way d i s a b l e d . O n l y one b r o k e n f a m i l y was i n c l u d e d i n t h i s g r o u p . One f a m i l y h a d no income f r o m t h e h u s b a n d ' s e a r n i n g s , b u t h a d an e m p l o y e d s o n s u p p l e m e n t i n g t h e a l l o w a n c e r e c e i v e d b y b o t h p a r e n t s . The m a j o r i t y were " c o m p l e t e " f a m i l i e s , s u p p o r t e d b y t h e e a r n i n g s o f t h e f a t h e r ; b u t i t i s n o t i c e a b l e t h a t no m o t h e r s were e m p l o y e d ( p o s s i b l y b e c a u s e o f f a m i l y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s ) . I n t h e " u p p e r " g r o u p , a r e t y p i c a l l y c o m p l e t e f a m i l i e s , w i t h t h e m a i n s u p p o r t f r o m t h e e m p l o y e d f a t h e r . One b r o k e n f a m i l y ( o u t o f s e v e n t y - t w o ) was t h e e x c e p t i o n , r i s i n g above $300.00 o n l y b e c a u s e o f t h e g r a n d m o t h e r ' s p e n s i o n . A n o t h e r r e -v e a l i n g example was a f a m i l y w i t h two w a g e - e a r n e r s , t h e w i f e ' s e a r n i n g s b e i n g enough t o b r i n g t h e f i g u r e o v e r t h e $300.00 mark. T h r o u g h o u t a l l t h e g r o u p s , w o r k e r s a r e n o t c o n f i n e d t o manual w a g e - e a r n e r s , and t h e r e i s a f a i r s p r i n k l i n g o f w h i t e -c o l l a r o c c u p a t i o n . A l l o f t h e h e a d s o f f a m i l i e s work f u l l - t i m e e x c e p t I n t h e low-Income g r o u p , when one i n f o u r h a d p a r t - t i m e j o b s o n l y . Q u e s t i o n s were a s k e d a b o u t s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h p r e s e n t employment and t h e h o p e s o f improvement, b u t were n o t p u r s u e d s u f f i c i e n t l y t o be a b l e t o r e p o r t any m a r k e d p a t t e r n . A s m a l l m i n o r i t y f e l t t h e y were w o r k i n g i n t h e i r c h o s e n f i e l d : o n l y one ( a c i v i l s e r v a n t ) d e f i n i t e l y d i d n o t n e e d a b e t t e r j o b . Some wanted " s t e a d i e r " work, o r " b e t t e r p a y " ; one o r two l o n g e d f o r " a t r a d e " ; one o r two were p e s s i m i s t i c o f improvement b e c a u s e t h e y were aware o f t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a l d e f i c i e n c i e s . - 6 l -I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t o r e c o r d t h a t t h e g r e a t m a j o r i t y o f t h e f a m i l i e s h a v e n e v e r b e e n a b l e t o c o n s i d e r h o m e - o w n e r s h i p . The e x c e p t i o n s a r e m a i n l y among t h e r e t i r e d c o u p l e s , s e v e r a l o f whom c o m p l e t e d t h e p u r c h a s e o f a l o t and house i n t h e i r e a r l i e r y e a r s . A r e m i n d e r i s h a r d l y n e c e s s a r y t h a t p r o p e r t y p r i c e s were so much l o w e r " i n t h e i r d a y . " T h e r e were two i l l u s t r a t i o n s o f o t h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c e x c e p t i o n s — a widow (now a p e n s i o n e r ) , and a f a m i l y - h e a d whose p a r t i a l d i s a b i l i t y f o r c e d h i m t o d i s p o s e o f h i s m o r t g a g e . A b o u t h a l f among t h o s e who h a d a l w a y s l i v e d i n r e n t e d a c c ommodation c h e r i s h e d t h e d e s i r e t o "have a home o f t h e i r own," i n s p i t e o f t h e i r f a i r l y r e a l i s t i c v i e w s o f t h e i r f i n a n c i a l i n a b i l i t y t o do s o ; t h o u g h t h e r e i s a l s o some e v i d e n c e o f c o n f u s i o n ( w h i c h i s n o t c o n f i n e d t o p u b l i c h o u s i n g d w e l l e r s ) b e t w e e n "owning a home" and l i v i n g i n a s e p a r a t e s i n g l e f a m i l y u n i t ( i . e . , a house o r d u p l e x , n o t a n a p a r t m e n t ) . S e v e r a l o f th e women i n t h e b r o k e n f a m i l i e s , f o r e x a m p l e , v o i c e d t h e i r f e e l i n g t h a t t h e y " w o u l d n ' t be a b l e t o k e e p up a h o u s e w i t h o u t a h u s b a n d a r o u n d . " A few among t h o s e i n t e r v i e w e d were r e a l i s t i c and a r t i c u l a t e o n t h e u n l i k e l y h o o d o f t h e i r f i n d i n g a s good accommodation as t h e y now h a v e , anywhere e l s e . 1 The P r o p o r t i o n a l - R e n t S c a l e and F a m i l y B u d g e t "Low r e n t s , " w h a t e v e r t h e s e may b e , a r e o f c o u r s e , t h e v e r y e s s e n c e o f p u b l i c h o u s i n g . T h e i r r e c o g n i t i o n as a d i r e c t 1 I n t h e u p p e r - i n c o m e g r o u p , one i n t h r e e s a i d i n v a r i o u s ways t h a t t h e y were p l a n n i n g "as b e s t t h e y c o u l d " t o b u y a h o u s e e v e n t u a l l y . I n t h e m i d d l e - g r o u p , two o u t o f t h e f i f t e e n h a d a l -r e a d y l e a r n e d . f r o m e x p e r i e n c e t h a t t h e y c o u l d n o t a f f o r d i t , as t h e y f o u n d t h e y c o u l d n o t k e e p up t h e pa y m e n t s . - 62 -c o n t r i b u t i o n t o f a m i l y w e l f a r e i s u n d e r s c o r e d i n C a n a d i a n p u b l i c p o l i c y b y t h e a d o p t i o n o f t h e s o - c a l l e d " p r o f e s s i o n a l s y s t e m , " f i r s t w o r ked o u t i n a s p e c i a l s t u d y b y t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o S c h o o l o f S o c i a l Work i n I948. b y Mr. Humphrey C a r v e r and M r s . A l l i s o n Hopwood, 1 l a t e r a p p l i e d t o R e g e n t P a r k when t h i s became the f i r s t C a n a d i a n r e h o u s i n g d e v e l o p m e n t and s i n c e a d o p t e d b y C e n t r a l M o r t g a g e and H o u s i n g C o r p o r a t i o n f o r g e n e r a l a p p l i c a t i o n . The b a s i c s t u d y , f r o m w h i c h t h e s c a l e emerged, s u r v e y e d t h e m a j o r r e n t schemes e v o l v e d i n B r i t a i n , t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , A u s t r a l i a , and some o t h e r c o u n t r i e s ; a n d a d o p t e d t h e p r i n c i p l e s t o t a k e a c c o u n t n o t o n l y o f a wide income r a n g e , b u t a l s o o f f a m i l y s i z e . I n e f f e c t , t h e w e l l - k n o w n w o r k i n g r u l e o f "20 p e r c e n t f o r r e n t " ( t o w h i c h a number o f s t u d i e s gave g e n e r a l v a l i d i t y , a t l e a s t f o r p r e w a r l o w e r - i n c o m e g r o u p s ) i s b y t h i s s c a l e g i v e n d e t a i l e d , g r a d u a t e d f l e x i b i l i t y . I t s I m p o r t a n c e i s s u c h t h a t t h e S c a l e i t s e l f ( i n i t s most r e c e n t C e n t r a l M o r t g a g e a n d H o u s i n g v e r s i o n ) and some o f the m a j o r s e c t i o n s o f t h e Carver-Hopwood s t u d y a l r e a d y r e f e r r e d t o , a r e r e p r o d u c e d i n A p p e n d i c e s A and C. The b r o a d p r i n c i p l e s a r e w e l l - k n o w n t o t h e t e n a n t s , and o f c o u r s e , p e r i o d i c a l i n c o m e - c h e c k s a r e a n e c e s s a r y f e a t u r e o f t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . T e n a n t s u n d e r s t a n d t h a t t h e " A - f a m i l y , " w i t h #200.00 p e r month income and t h r e e c h i l d r e n w i l l p a y more r e n t t h a n t h e " B - f a m i l y " w h i c h h a s #200.00 p e r month b u t f o u r c h i l d r e n . A l s o t h e " B - f a m i l y " w i l l p a y more r e n t t h a n t h e "C-1 C a r v e r , Humphrey, and Hopwood, A l l i s o n , R e n t s f o r R e g e n t  P a r k ; "A R e n t S c a l e S y s t e m f o r a P u b l i c H o u s i n g P r o j e c t . T P u b l i s h e d b y C i v i c A d v i s o r y C o u n c i l , C i t y o f T o r o n t o , I9I+.8.) See A p p e n d i x A. . . . - 63 -f a m i l y " which, a l s o h a s f o u r c h i l d r e n , b u t o n l y #175*00 p e r month. However, t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f some o f t h e r e f i n e m e n t s i s n o t a l w a y s c l e a r , i t w o u l d a p p e a r f r o m some o f t h e r e s p o n s e s t o q u e s t i o n s . A l l t e n a n t s i n t e r v i e w e d were a s k e d i f t h e y c o n s i d e r e d th e r e n t - s c a l e f a i r : t h e d i f f e r e n t i a l i n t h e r e p l i e s i s p r o b a b l y s i g n i f i c a n t . A l l t h o s e i n t h e low-income g r o u p t h o u g h t the s c a l e was f a i r . O n e - f i f t h o f t h e m i d d l e - i n c o m e f a m i l i e s t h o u g h t i t was n o t f a i r ; as d i d o n e - t h i r d o f t h e u p p e r - i n c o m e f a m i l i e s . As a c r o s s - c h e c k on t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h i s q u e s t i o n , i t was a s k e d i f r e n t s s h o u l d be i n c r e a s e d when income g o e s up. I n t h e low-income g r o u p , f i v e o u t o f t w e n t y - t h r e e t h o u g h t n o t ; i n t h e m i d d l e - i n c o m e g r o u p , f i v e o u t o f f i f t e e n , a nd i n t h e h i g h - i n c o m e g r o u p , s e v e n o u t o f t w e l v e t h o u g h t i t s h o u l d n o t be i n c r e a s e d . I n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s i m p o r t a n t h e r e . The n e t c o u n t i s s t i l l t h a t t w o - t h i r d s o f t h e f a m i l i e s a c c e p t e d ( a n d p r e s u m a b l y must have u n d e r s t o o d ) t h e p r i n c i p l e o f r e n t i n c r e a s e o n a p r o -p o r t i o n a t e b a s i s . ( I t may be f a i r t o s u p p o s e , i n a d d i t i o n , t h a t a few who knew b e t t e r v o t e d "No" i n t h e hope t h a t t h i s was an o p i n i o n p o l l w h i c h m i g h t i n f l u e n c e l a t e r p o l i c y . ' ) A n o t h e r s i d e o f t h i s s t o r y i s t h a t t h e u p p e r - i n c o m e f a m i l i e s ' a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y w o r r i e d b y any i n c r e a s e s i n e x p e n d i t u r e s , a c t u a l o r p o t e n t i a l . These f a m i l i e s , p e r h a p s b e c a u s e o f t h e p r e s e n t h i g h e r - w a g e p i c t u r e , seem t o be i n c r e a s i n g i n numbers i n L i t t l e M o u n t a i n . Many o f them a r e s u b j e c t t o t h e s u r c h a r g e w h i c h i s t h o r o u g h l y e x p l a i n e d i n A p p e n d i x C. T h i s s u r c h a r g e i s r a t h e r " u n p o p u l a r " and may p a r t i a l l y e x p l a i n why some f a m i l i e s do n o t f e e l t h a t - bk -p r o p o r t i o n a l r e n t - i n c r e a s e i s f a i r . The most f r e q u e n t c o m p l a i n t a b o u t t h e r e n t - s c a l e was on the b a s i s t h a t i t d i d n o t a l l o w one t o save o r t o " g e t a l i t t l e a h e a d . " T h i s , o f c o u r s e , i s a r e f l e c t i o n o f t h e i m p r o v e -ment i n e a r n i n g s w h i c h h a s t a k e n p l a c e f o r many p e o p l e i n r e c e n t y e a r s — a n d o f c o n c e r n w i t h i n f l a t i o n . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h e c o u n t e r -p a r t o f t h e s c a l e - - a r e d u c t i o n when income d e c l i n e s — w a s n o t e q u a l l y d i s c u s s e d w i t h a l l f a m i l i e s i n t e r v i e w e d . ( I t was c l e a r l y u n d e r s t o o d b y some who h a d h a d r e c e n t unemployment.) A r e l a t e d i d e a w h i c h was p u t f o r t h many t i m e s was t h a t F a m i l y A l l o w a n c e s s h o u l d n o t be i n c l u d e d i n c o m p u t i n g n e t income f o r d e t e r m i n i n g t h e r e n t t o be p a i d . ( T h i s i s r e f e r r e d t o a g a i n i n t h e c o n -c l u d i n g c h a p t e r s . ) The f r e q u e n c y o f t h i s q u a l i f i c a t i o n d i d n o t r e l a t e t o t h e amount o f income; n e i t h e r d i d i t r e l a t e t o a g r e e -ment n o r d i s a g r e e m e n t w i t h t h e c o n c e p t o f t h e p r o g r e s s i v e r e n t -s c a l e . The f a c t s w o u l d seem t o f a v o u r two p o s s i b l e c o n c l u s i o n s : t h a t t h e t e n a n t s do n o t f u l l y u n d e r s t a n d t h e w o r k i n g s o f t h e r e n t - s c a l e ; o r t h a t t h e y d i d n o t f e e l f r e e t o o f f e r much c r i t i c i s m o f i t . To t h i s , i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o add t h a t e v e r y one o f t h e f i f t y f a m i l i e s I n t e r v i e w e d b e l i e v e d t h e y u n d e r s t o o d why the income i n v e s t i g a t i o n was n e c e s s a r y . And o n l y two f a m i l i e s o u t o f t h i s t o t a l (k P e r c e n t ) t h o u g h t i t was n o t c o n d u c t e d r e a s o n a b l y . T h e r e i s some e v i d e n c e t h a t b u d g e t i n g p r e s s u r e h a s grown so much f o r a l l " o r d i n a r y " f a m i l i e s t h a t t h e a b i l i t y t o judge t h e L i t t l e M o u n t a i n R e n t - S c a l e o b j e c t i v e l y s u f f e r s i n - 65 -c o n s e q u e n c e . The a b i l i t y t o s t r e t c h the i n c o m e s t o c o v e r e x p e n s e s was r e l a t e d t o income l e v e l . More lo w - i n c o m e f a m i l i e s f o u n d b u d g e t i n g t h e same as b e f o r e t h e y came t o L i t t l e M o u n t a i n , and more h i g h - i n c o m e f a m i l i e s s a i d i t was h a r d e r t o b u d g e t t h a n b e f o r e t h e y moved i n t o t h e P r o j e c t . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h e immediate p r o b l e m s o f s e t t i n g up t h e new home were d e c i d e l y more u r g e n t among t h e l o w e r - i n c o m e g r o u p s . I n t h e low-income f a m i l i e s , 55 p e r c e n t h a d h a d a s e r i o u s b u d g e t i n g p r o b l e m u p o n m o v i n g i n t o t h e P r o j e c t . R e a s o n s g i v e n f o r b u d g e t d i f f i c u l t i e s were i l l n e s s , t i m e - p a y m e n t s , h a v i n g t o b u y f u r n i t u r e , h a v i n g many b i l l s , h a v i n g no c r e d i t , and h a v i n g b e e n b u r n e d o u t o f t h e i r p r e v i o u s accommodation. I n t h e m i d d l e - i n c o m e f a m i l i e s , one i n f o u r h a d b u d g e t d i f f i c u l t i e s on m o v i n g i n and o f t h e h i g h -income f a m i l i e s , one i n t h r e e h a d h a d i n i t i a l budget p r o b l e m s . T h e r e was much l e s s v a r i e t y t h a n m i g h t have b e e n e x -p e c t e d i n what was c o n s i d e r e d t o be t h e "most d i f f i c u l t b u d g e t i t e m . " No l e s s t h a n ?6 p e r c e n t o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s plumped p r o m p t l y f o r f o o d o r g r o c e r i e s as t h e most d i f f i c u l t b u d g e t i t e m . S i x t e e n p e r c e n t o f the sample l i s t e d f o o d and c l o t h i n g t o g e t h e r as t h e i r b i g b u d g e t p r o b l e m s . O n l y one f a m i l y , i n t h e low-income g r o u p , s p e c i f i e d c l o t h i n g a l o n e as t h e most d i f f i c u l t i t e m ; a n o t h e r f e l t t h a t e l e c t r i c i t y was t h e i r m o s t d i f f i c u l t . Re-m a r k a b l y , o n l y one m i d d l e - i n c o m e f a m i l y and one h i g h - i n c o m e f a m i l y s a i d t i m e - p a y m e n t s were t h e b u d g e t i t e m s p r e s e n t i n g t h e g r e a t e s t p r o b l e m . When e v e r y a l l o w a n c e h a s b e e n made f o r the f a c t t h a t - 66 -m o t h e r s , w i t h l a r g e and g r o w i n g f a m i l i e s , o f a l l p e o p l e a r e most l i k e l y to v i e w m o u n t i n g g r o c e r y s l i p s w i t h alarm,"'' t h e r e w o u l d a p p e a r t o be e v i d e n c e h e r e t h a t t h e s e f a m i l i e s do n o t have much to s p a r e a f t e r the " i m m e d i a t e s " have b e e n p a i d f o r . When a s k e d t o compare t h e i r r e n t i n L i t t l e M o u n t a i n w i t h what t h e y h a d p a i d b e f o r e , t h e g r e a t m a j o r i t y o f low-income f a m i l i e s s a i d i t was l o w e r . One i n f i v e , h o w e v e r , f o u n d t h e P r o j e c t r e n t h i g h e r . I n b o t h t h e m i d d l e - i n c o m e and h i g h - i n c o m e g r o u p s more p e o p l e p a i d h i g h e r r e n t i n t h e P r o j e c t t h a n t h e y h a d p a i d b e f o r e . I n t h e m i d d l e - i n c o m e g r o u p , one i n f o u r were p a y i n g l e s s r e n t ; one i n s i x , a b o u t t h e same. I n t h e l o w - i n c o m e g r o u p o n l y was a p p r e c i a t i o n v o i c e d f o r t h e l o w n e s s o f r e n t o r f o r t h e c o m p e n s a t o r y v a l u e o f h i g h e r r e n t f o r good s h e l t e r ( " I t c o s t s m o r e — b u t i t ' s w o r t h i t " ) . More d e t a i l e d e n q u i r y and some e d u c a t i o n a l work w o u l d seem t o be i n d i c a t e d h e r e . To b e g i n w i t h , c o m p a r i s o n s o f r e n t s i s n o t a t a l l a c c u r a t e u n l e s s i t i s p r o p e r l y d e f i n e d . L i t t l e M o u n t a i n r a t e s I n c l u d e s t a n d a r d i z e d r a t e s f o r some o f t h e u t i l i t i e s ; a l s o , a p r o g r e s s i v e s c a l e i s a p p l i e d t o s e r v i c e c h a r g e s . I t i s l i k e w i s e r e a s o n a b l e t o make some a l l o w a n c e f o r t h e q u a l i t y o f a c c o m m o d a t i o n o b t a i n e d , e s p e c i a l l y as we know t h a t most o f t h e p r e v i o u s h o u s i n g o f t h e s e f a m i l i e s was s e r i o u s l y s u b - s t a n d a r d , i f n o t i n c o n s t r u c t i o n and f a c i l i t i e s , c e r t a i n l y i n s i z e . On t h e o t h e r hand, i t may w e l l be t h a t one o f th e r e s u l t s o f t h e c o n t i n u o u s upward r e v i s i o n o f c o s t s and r e n t 1 T h e r e i s p e r h a p s some room f o r t h e u n o r t h o d o x s u g g e s t i o n t h a t c h a i n - s t o r e s s e l l so many t h i n g s nowadays w i t h so much s t r o n g e r a p p e a l , t h a t " g r o c e r i e s " i s a much l a r g e r i t e m t h a n i t u s e d t o b e . - 6? -s c h e d u l e s w h i c h L i t t l e M o u n t a i n e x p e r i e n c e d b e f o r e i t was a c t u a l l y b u i l t was t h a t t h e r e n t s were s e t t o o h i g h t o o f f e r t h e optimum b e n e f i t f o r t h e p o o r e s t f a m i l i e s i n t h e c i t y . The $5*00 d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n a m e d i a n s h e l t e r r e n t o f , s a y fij.0.00 and lijJj.OO, may seem l i t t l e t o b u i l d up t h e r e n t r e v e n u e o f t h e P r o j e c t ; y e t i t may have d i s p o r p o r t i o n a t e e f f e c t i n k e e p i n g o u t some o f t h e most i l l - h o u s e d f a m i l i e s . R e a c t i o n s t o t h e New Accommodation A l t h o u g h L i t t l e M o u n t a i n i s a s t r i c t l y u t i l i t a r i a n p r o j e c t w i t h no " f r i l l s " o f any k i n d , t o f a m i l i e s who h a v e p r e v i o u s l y l i v e d i n s u b - s t a n d a r d h o u s i n g t h e new s u i t e o r row-h o u s e c o u l d h a r d l y be a n y t h i n g o t h e r t h a n a v a s t i m p r o v e m e n t . To some, i t s t i l l seemed a g o d s e n d , a " t o o good t o b e l i e v e . " Those who have l i v e d t h e r e f o r a y e a r o r two were a b l e t o make a more d e t a c h e d and sometimes c r i t i c a l a p p r a i s a l . I n answer t o t h e q u e s t i o n "Do y o u have more s p a c e t h a n i n y o u r p r e v i o u s a c c o m m o d a t i o n ? " , t h i r t y - n i n e t e n a n t s t h o u g h t t h i s was s o . P o u r f e l t t h e r e was t h e same amount and o n l y s e v e n t h o u g h t t h a t t h e r e was l e s s s p a c e . The m a j o r i t y o f the f a m i l i e s a l s o f e l t t h a t t h e r e was p l e n t y o f s p a c e f o r e v e r y -one. Those d i s s e n t i n g s t a t e d t h a t t h e r e h a d b e e n when t h e y f i r s t moved i n , b u t t h e y now r e q u i r e d a n o t h e r bedroom. Of the t h i n g s w h i c h th e t e n a n t s l i k e d b e s t i n t h e i r new accommodation, t h e a d e q u a t e and e f f i c i e n t s u p p l y o f h e a t r e -c e i v e d t h e most f r e q u e n t m e n t i o n . S p a c i o u s n e s s , c l e a n l i n e s s , and a d e q u a t e p l a y space f o r c h i l d r e n were n e x t . O t h e r f e a t u r e s t h a t - 68 -f a m i l i e s e n j o y e d were t h e h o t w a t e r , t h e b r i g h t n e s s and newness, and the "modern c o n v e n i e n c e s . " T e n a n t s were a l s o p l e a s e d w i t h the p r i v a c y o f s e l f - c o n t a i n e d u n i t s , t h e a d e q u a t e s t o r a g e s p a c e , and h a v i n g t h e i r own basement s p a c e . Two o t h e r t h i n g s w h i c h were m e n t i o n e d b y f a m i l i e s i n the low-income g r o u p were t h e " f e e l i n g o f s e c u r i t y t h a t a f a i r l a n d l o r d g i v e s " and an a d d r e s s o f w h i c h t o be p r o u d ( t h e y m i g h t h ave s a i d " o f w h i c h t h e y d i d n ' t n e e d t o be ashamed"). One t e n a n t , o n l y , r e p l i e d t h a t t h e y h a t e d t h e whole p r o j e c t b u t c o u l d a f f o r d n o t h i n g b e t t e r b e c a u s e o f i l l n e s s i n t h e f a m i l y . T h i s t e n a n t was a p r e v i o u s home-owner. T h e r e d i d n o t a p p e a r t o be any s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n the a p p r e c i a t i o n o f t h e new s u i t e s among t h e t e n a n t s when c o n s i d e r e d as income g r o u p s , o r as b e t w e e n t h e t h r e e k i n d s o f f a m i l y g r o u p s . 1 I t i s n o t e d , however, t h a t i n t h e income g r o u p o f l e s s t h a n #200.00 p e r month, 75 p e r c e n t o f t h o s e i n t e r v i e w e d m e n t i o n e d the g ood h e a t i n g s u p p l y . T h i s was m e n t i o n e d b y 50 p e r c e n t o f t h e m i d d l e - I n c o m e g r o u p and o n l y 31 p e r c e n t b y t h o s e i n t h e h i g h e s t income g r o u p . I n answer t o t h e q u e s t i o n "What t o o k t h e most g e t t i n g u s e d t o ? " , 22 p e r c e n t r e p l i e d t h a t i t was " a p l e a s u r e . " T h e r e were s e v e r a l o t h e r a n s w e r s , however, t h a t i n d i c a t e d p r o b l e m a r e a s i n p r o j e c t l i v i n g . F i r s t among t h e s e (24 p e r c e n t ) was t h e p l a y i n g ( s ometimes d e s c r i b e d as " f i g h t i n g " ) and n o i s e o f t h e many c h i l d r e n i n t h e P r o j e c t w h i c h made l i f e u n p l e a s a n t a t 1 Whole f a m i l i e s w i t h b o t h p a r e n t s and c h i l d r e n ; b r o k e n f a m i l i e s o r t h o s e w i t h one p a r e n t and c h i l d r e n ; and p e n s i o n c o u p l e s (as i n T a b l e 4 ) . •- 69 -t i m e s . S e c o n d l y (20 p e r c e n t ) , " l i v i n g so c l o s e t o so many p e o p l e " i s n o t t o o e a s y . C h i l d r e n p l a y i n g up and down the s t a i r w a y s , i n t h e b a s e m e n t s , and o u t s i d e c o n t r i b u t e l a r g e l y t o t h e d i s t u r b a n c e . Many t e n a n t s a r e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e n o i s e ; and some w i t h l a r g e r f a m i l i e s a r e u n d e r t h e s t r a i n o f c o n t i n u a l l y h a v i n g t o r e m i n d t h e i r c h i l d r e n t o be l e s s n o i s y . Some t e n a n t s c o n s i d e r e d t h e y a r e p r i v i l e g e d b e c a u s e t h e y l i v e i n a " b e t t e r " s e c t i o n o f t h e P r o j e c t among q u i e t e r , "good" p e o p l e ; o t h e r s a d m i t t e d t h e y were n o t so f o r t u n a t e . O n l y one m o t h e r a d m i t t e d t h a t h e r own b o y s were a d i s t u r b a n c e . A l a r g e number o f t h e t e n a n t s i n t h e a p a r t m e n t b l o c k s c l a i m t h e u n i t s a r e n o t s o u n d p r o o f . T hey s a y t h a t t h e n o i s e i s n o t b ad b e t w e e n s u i t e s o n t h e same f l o o r b u t i s d r e a d f u l b e t w e e n u p p e r and l o w e r s u i t e s . S e v e r a l wondered why money h a d n ' t b e e n s p e n t o n p r o p e r s o u n d p r o o f i n g , s i n c e t h i s w o u l d a l l e v i a t e t h e m a j o r i t y o f a n n o y a n c e s . Many f a m i l i e s f e e l t h e y h a v e more p r i v a c y a t L i t t l e M o u n t a i n t h a n p r e v i o u s l y , b u t t h a t t h e row h o u s e s a r e t h e b e t t e r a ccommodation w i t h r e g a r d t o t h i s . The n e i g h b o u r s a r e n o t so a p t t o h e a r " i f y o u have a f i g h t w i t h y o u r h u s b a n d o r r a i s e y o u r v o i c e t o y o u r k i d . " F a m i l i e s , o f t e n h a v i n g come f r o m l e s s crowded n e i g h b o u r h o o d s , c o m p l a i n e d o f t h e " g o s s i p i n g " and " j e a l o u s y , " and o f c o u r s e , t h e "crowds o f c h i l d r e n , " w h i c h make l i v i n g i n s u c h a l a r g e p r o j e c t l e s s q u i e t and p r i v a t e t h a n t h e y w o u l d p r e f e r . - 70 -Although 60 per cent of the f a m i l i e s f e e l t h a t there are no l o n g e r any t h i n g s they s t i l l f i n d strange o r d i f f e r e n t , there continue to be some th i n g s t h a t are annoying o r f r u s t r a t i n g . The o l d e r couples complained of the l a c k of a safe o r comfortable p l a c e f o r them to s i t outdoors, and the l a c k of any p r i v a t e garden from which the " u n r u l y " c h i l d r e n c o u l d be kept. T h i s i s a much-needed resource which every e x p e r i e n c e d o l d people's p r o j e c t has become aware o f . Some mothers, on the o t h e r hand, complained of the " f u s s i n e s s " of the o l d people who turned any harmless group o f c h i l d r e n i n t o a dangerous gang. And t h i s showed t h e i r i n s i g h t by suggesting that they encourage the mis-b e h a v i o r o f the c h i l d r e n by t h e i r open d i s a p p r o v a l . F u r n i s h i n g the new s u i t e p resented problems to more than one-half of the f a m i l i e s i n t e r v i e w e d . Some commented t h a t they had f e l t "crowded" i n t h e i r p r e v i o u s home, but found they d i d n ' t have enough to make the new s u i t e comfortable and a t t r a c t i v e . One In f o u r of a l l f a m i l i e s s t a t e d they had had v e r y l i t t l e f u r n i t u r e i n i t i a l l y , but have added to i t through purchases, whether o u t r i g h t o r on c r e d i t . Two f a m i l i e s i n the sample, and there are p r o b a b l y o t h e r s throughout the P r o j e c t , r e c e i v e d h e l p from t h e i r churches. Some of the purchases d e s c r i b e d were q u i t e l a r g e , such as bedroom o r l i v i n g room s u i t e s o r rugs; o t h e r s , q u i t e s m a l l , such as c u r t a i n s , l i n e n s , o r side t a b l e s . Three f a m i l i e s had been "burned out" o f t h e i r p r e v i o u s homes and had to purchase t o t a l f u r n i s h i n g s . Among those who had s a t i s f a c t o r y i n i t i a l f u r n i s h i n g s , - 71 -the p e r c e n t a g e s i n t h e two l o w e r income g r o u p s were j u s t u n d e r lj.8 p e r c e n t ; e v e n i n the h i g h e s t income g r o u p , o n l y 60 p e r c e n t h a d h a d enough t o f u r n i s h t h e i r u n i t f r o m t h e s t a r t . I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o n o t e t h a t t h e g r e a t m a j o r i t y o f t h e f a m i l i e s h a d t o s e l l o r s t o r e t h e i r own s t o v e s and r e f r i g e r a t o r s . When a s k e d a b o u t th e s p e c i a l p o i n t s o f t h e P r o j e c t a ccommodation, and t h e t h i n g s g e n e r a l l y r e f e r r e d t o as "modern c o n v e n i e n c e s " as compared w i t h t h e i r p r e v i o u s homes, 60 p e r c e n t o f t h e t e n a n t s were e n t h u s i a s t i c , d e s c r i b i n g L i t t l e M o u n t a i n as v e r y s a t i s f a c t o r y , much i m p r o v e d , o r e x c e l l e n t . Most o f the o t h e r s f o u n d t h e a c c o m m o d a t i o n l a r g e l y s a t i s f a c t o r y b u t h a d numerous s u g g e s t i o n s o f t h i n g s t h a t c o u l d be i m p r o v e d . The d i s s e n t e r s were s t a u n c h l y u p h e l d b y two f a m i l i e s , e a c h p r e v i o u s l y home-owners, who f e l t t h a t n o t h i n g i n t h e P r o j e c t was as good as b e f o r e . A l t h o u g h many d e t a i l s were m e n t i o n e d , t h e r e do n o t a p p e a r t o be any s i g n i f i c a n t v a r i a t i o n s i n t h e t y p e o r numbers o f t h i n g s r e g a r d e d as n o t s a t i s f a c t o r y , as b e t w e e n t h e t e n a n t s d i v i d e d i n t o income o r f a m i l y - t y p e g r o u p s . The f a u l t s t h a t t h e t e n a n t s c a n see I n t h e P r o j e c t accommodation d i v i d e i n t o t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s ; (a) p r o b l e m s w i t h e l e c t r i c a l a p p l i a n c e s , (b) m a t t e r s o f c l e a n l i n e s s , and ( c ) d e f i c i e n c i e s o f d e s i g n o r o f an a r c h i t e c t u r a l n a t u r e . T h e r e were a p a r t i c u l a r l y l a r g e number o f c o m p l a i n t s a b o u t t h e e l e c t r i c a l a p p l i a n c e s u s e d i n t h e P r o j e c t a p a r t m e n t s . The e l e c t r i c s t o v e i s r e g a r d e d b y many as b e i n g t o o s m a l l f o r f a m i l y n e e d s an d t o o s l o w f o r e f f i c i e n t c o o k i n g . N e x t i n o r d e r , f o r some t h e r e f r i g e r a t o r - 72 -i s c r i t i c i z e d as b e i n g t o o s m a l l , and t h e one t h i n g t h a t i s " a l w a y s n e e d i n g r e p a i r . " W i t h r e g a r d t o c l e a n l i n e s s , s e v e r a l m o t h e r s s t a t e d t h a t t h e y r e a l i z e d t h e c h i l d r e n c o m i n g i n and o u t i n c r e a s e s t h i s p r o b l e m , b u t t h e y d i d f e e l t h a t more f r e q u e n t r e d e c o r a t i o n w o u l d be h e l p f u l . I t was a l s o n o t e d t h a t a l t h o u g h t h e w a l l s g e t d i r t y v e r y q u i c k l y f r o m t h e d u s t i n t h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d , t h e y c a n n o t be washed as t h e q u a l i t y o f t h e p a i n t o n them i s t o o p o o r . Whether t h e a r c h i t e c t s , t h e b u i l d e r s , o r t h e c o s t -r e d u c t i o n p r e s s u r e i s t o b l a m e , some d e s i g n f a u l t s were c l e a r l y p i c k e d up b y enough t e n a n t s t o make t h e i r r e c o r d i n g i m p o r t a n t . The m a i n c o m p l a i n t s seem t o b e : ( a ) t h a t much o f t h e a c c ommodation i s t o o s m a l l , (b) t h e k i t c h e n i s t o o crowded when t h e f a m i l y i s e a t i n g , ( c ) t h e b a t h r o o m s and bedrooms a r e t o o s m a l l , and (d) more s t o r a g e and c u p b o a r d space i s b a d l y n e e d e d . T h e r e were s e v e r a l s u g g e s t i o n s , a l s o , t h a t b u i l t - i n i r o n i n g b o a r d s and broom c l o s e t s w o u l d be h e l p f u l , as w o u l d o u t - d o o r c l o t h e s l i n e s . N e i g h b o u r h o o d F a c i l i t i e s : The R e s i d e n t s ' V i e w p o i n t s T h e r e seems to be g e n e r a l s a t i s f a c t i o n t h a t t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s e r v i n g L i t t l e M o u n t a i n i s so c l o s e by, and t h o u g h t h e h i g h s c h o o l i s much f a r t h e r away, i t i s n o t c o n s i d e r e d i n c o n v e n i e n t . The c h i l d r e n who f i n d d i s t a n c e s i n c o n v e n i e n t a r e t h e few e x c e p t i o n s who a r e s t i l l a t t e n d i n g s c h o o l s i n t h e i r f o r m e r d i s t r i c t s . T h a t one new h i g h s c h o o l i s b e i n g b u i l t c l o s e r t o t h e P r o j e c t i s w e l l known and welcome. - 73 -The n e e d f o r n u r s e r y s c h o o l s and k i n d e r g a r t e n s i s w e l l known, e s p e c i a l l y t o t h o s e who h e l p e d t o s t a r t a n d m a i n -t a i n one i n t h e b e g i n n i n g . W h i l e i t e x i s t e d , i t s e r v e d the a r e a f r o m M a i n t o O n t a r i o , f r o m 30th t o 38th A v e n u e s , e v e n t h o u g h t h e m a i n p r o m o t e r s were f r o m t h e P r o j e c t ; and t h e r e was much d i s a p p o i n t m e n t when t h e minimum number o f c h i l d r e n , 25, c o u l d n o t be m a i n t a i n e d ; and due t o f i n a n c i a l d i f f i c u l t i e s , and l a c k o f c o o p e r a t i o n , i t c e a s e d o p e r a t i o n . G r o c e r y s h o p p i n g i s done p r i m a r i l y a t 28th and M a i n S t r e e t , where t h e l a r g e c h a i n - s t o r e s a r e e s p e c i a l l y p o p u l a r , o r a t t h e s m a l l e r s h o p p i n g c e n t r e a t i ^ l s t and M a i n . A f e w t e n a n t s , t h o s e w i t h c a r s , s a y t h e y t r a v e l as f a r as l i ^ t h and M a i n to do t h e i r g r o c e r y s h o p p i n g . One n o t a b l e e x c e p t i o n i s a f a m i l y who buy f r o m t h e i r r e l a t i v e s who f a r m o n L u l u I s l a n d and d e l i v e r f r o m t h e r e . Most f a m i l i e s r e p o r t t h a t g r o c e r y s h o p p i n g i s n e i t h e r f a r o f f n o r i n c o n v e n i e n t . A few u s e d e l i v e r i e s . S e v e r a l m o t h e r s s t a t e d t h e y e n j o y t h e w a l k ; a v e r y few, h o w e v e r , f i n d s h o p p i n g a t t h e s e d i s t a n c e s i n c o n v e n i e n t - - w i t h c h i l d r e n t h e p r o c e s s becomes u n c o m f o r t a b l y l o n g . O t h e r k i n d s o f s h o p p i n g a r e a c c o m p l i s h e d f o r the most p a r t I n downtown d e p a r t m e n t s t o r e s , t h e t h r e e o r f o u r m a i n o n e s i n the V a n c o u v e r a r e a a l l b e i n g s p e c i f i e d . D i s t r i c t s t o r e s a r e o c c a s i o n a l l y v i s i t e d o n M a i n and P r a s e r S t r e e t s . The new s h o p p i n g c e n t r e b e i n g b u i l t a t i j . l s t Avenue and Cambie S t r e e t e v i d e n t l y i n t e r e s t s many o f t h e t e n a n t s , as t h e y f e e l i t w i l l be n e a r f o r them. - Ik -The q u e s t i o n n a i r e a s k e d "How do y o u g e t o n f o r c h u r c h ? " , t o a v o i d any s u g g e s t i o n t h a t t h e q u e s t i o n was "Do y o u go t o c h u r c h ? " o r " S h o u l d y o u go t o c h u r c h ? " The r e s p o n s e showed t h a t c h u r c h o r r e l i g i o n i s b y no means remote f o r many o f them. A f a i r number o f t e n a n t s have f o u n d a c h u r c h c o n -v e n i e n t l y l o c a t e d f o r them. B u t many o t h e r s have n o t ; t h e y d o n ' t want t o s e e k a new c h u r c h and have t o r e t u r n many m i l e s t o t h e i r f o r m e r c h u r c h . Some f a m i l i e s a t t e n d r e g u l a r l y , o t h e r s o c c a s i o n a l l y ; a few p a r e n t s have a c c e p t e d t h e compromise o f s t a y i n g home w h i l e t h e i r c h i l d r e n go t o Sunday S c h o o l . One Sunday S c h o o l , a f l o u r i s h i n g one, i s h e l d r i g h t w i t h i n t h e P r o j e c t . I t h a s t o t a k e p l a c e i n t h e a p a r t m e n t o f one o f t h e f a m i l i e s . T h e y a r e w a i t i n g t o t r a n s f e r t o a n o t h e r a p a r t m e n t b l o c k w i t h a l a r g e basement, w h i c h w i l l t h e n be more s u i t a b l e f o r t h e now s m a l l b u t e x p a n d i n g c o n g r e g a t i o n . T r a n s p o r t a t i o n p r o b l e m s seem t o be r a t h e r few f o r a l l members o f t h e f a m i l i e s . The bus l i n e i s c o n v e n i e n t , and t h e s e r v i c e I s r e p o r t e d as g o o d . E x c e p t t h a t some men g e t l i f t s t o work, the c a r d r i v e r s were n o t f u l l y compassed i n t h e s u b j e c t . Two g r o u p s o f p e r s o n s h a n d i c a p p e d b y l o w i n c o m e s , p e n s i o n e r s and w o r k i n g m o t h e r s , c o m p l a i n o f t h e h i g h c o s t o f b u s f a r e s . F a m i l i e s a t t e n d i n g f o r m e r c h u r c h e s h a v e e x t r a t r a n s p o r t a t i o n e x -p e n s e s , as w e l l as the few s t u d e n t s who a t t e n d f o r m e r s c h o o l s . M o t h e r s sometimes c o m p l a i n e d t h a t bus t r a n s p o r t a t i o n was d i f f i c u l t w i t h s m a l l o r t i r e d c h i l d r e n . - 75 -The C h i l d r e n The s p e c i a l i m p o r t a n c e o f c h i l d r e n i n a f a m i l y p r o j e c t s u c h as L i t t l e M o u n t a i n h a s a l r e a d y b e e n p o i n t e d o u t . I t i s v a l u a b l e t o n o t e what d i f f e r e n c e s c h i l d r e n a n d t h e i r p a r e n t s f i n d i n l i v i n g i n t h e P r o j e c t as compared t o t h e i r p r e v i o u s r e s i d e n c e . M o t h e r s w i t h young c h i l d r e n seem t o manage q u i t e w e l l w i t h b a b y s i t t i n g when t h e y shop o r go o u t . Most m o t h e r s s t a t e d t h e y s h o p p e d when t h e c h i l d r e n were i n s c h o o l , t a k i n g t h e l i t t l e o nes w i t h them. Some s a i d t h e y t a k e t u r n s d o i n g t h e s h o p p i n g w i t h t h e i r h u s b a n d s , and o n l y two s a i d t h e y l e a v e t h e i r y o u n g e r c h i l d r e n i n the c a r e o f t h e i r o l d e r o n e s . The c o n s e n s u s o f o p i n i o n o n b a b y s i t t i n g was t h a t t h i s i s no p r o b l e m . I t w o u l d a p p e a r t h a t t h e n e i g h b o u r s w i l l i n g l y h e l p e a c h o t h e r i n t h i s ; f o u r women m e n t i o n e d t h e p a r t i c u l a r n e i g h b o u r w i t h whom t h e y s h a r e d b a b y s i t t i n g d u t y . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , two p e o p l e e x p r e s s e d t h e v i e w t h a t i t was d i f f i c u l t t o g e t a s i t t e r " i f y o u ' r e a t a l l p a r t i c u l a r " and s a i d t h e n e i g h b o u r -hood ' t e e n - a g e r s c o u l d n o t be t r u s t e d . S i g n i f i c a n t l y , o n l y one p e r s o n m e n t i o n e d t h a t h e r c h i l d r e n ' s g r a n d p a r e n t s were g l a d t o b a b y s i t a t any t i m e . S i g n i f i c a n t , t o o , t e n p e r c e n t o f t h e m o t h e r s s a i d t h e y "go o u t so r a r e l y " t h a t t h e y r e a l l y know n o t h i n g a b o u t t h e p r o b l e m o f l e a v i n g t h e c h i l d r e n . A change i n s c h o o l c a n be a s e r i o u s i t e m i n a c h i l d ' s l i f e , and q u e s t i o n s were a s k e d i n t h e hope o f f i n d i n g o u t w h e t h e r - 76 -most L i t t l e M o u n t a i n c h i l d r e n h a d d i f f i c u l t i e s , and a l s o w h e t h e r t h e y have g a i n e d f r o m t h e i r new s c h o o l ( a n d b y i m p l i c a t i o n , t h e i r new h o m e - s c h o o l r e l a t i o n s h i p ) . Among t h e f a m i l i e s whose c h i l d r e n l i k e t h e i r p r e s e n t s c h o o l b e t t e r t h a n t h e i r o l d one, t h e m a i n r e a s o n g i v e n f o r t h i s was t h a t t h e r e was a " g a n g " o f c h i l d r e n who g o t a l o n g w e l l t o g e t h e r , and o f whom t h e m o t h e r s a p p r o v e d . T h e r e was some m e n t i o n , however, o f t h e s u p e r i o r s c h o o l f a c i l i t i e s , c a f e t e r i a , gym, e t c . , (more p a r t i c u l a r l y s i n c e t h e new a d d i t i o n ) ; and one m o t h e r s t r e s s e d the f a c t t h a t s l o w l e a r n e r s were g i v e n s p e c i a l h e l p a t t h i s s c h o o l . A s m a l l m i n o r i t y d i d n o t l i k e t h i s p r e s e n t s c h o o l , and t h e r e was a g r e e -ment t h a t i t was b e c a u s e o f t h e " r o u g h g a n g s " o f c h i l d r e n i n . thera. One m o t h e r h a s p l a c e d a c h i l d i n a p r i v a t e s c h o o l b e c a u s e o f t h i s , a l t h o u g h she f i n d s t h e a d d i t i o n a l e x p e n s e v e r y d i f f i c u l t . I n t r y i n g t o e s t i m a t e w h e t h e r home l i f e h a d t a k e n o n more m e a n i n g s i n c e t h e change o f h o u s i n g , t h e q u e s t i o n s swung f r o m p l a y t o t i m e s p e n t i n t h e home, t h e c h i l d r e n a g a i n b e i n g r e g a r d e d as a s i g n i f i c a n t i n d e x . Q u e s t i o n s were a s k e d a b o u t home-work i n t h e hope t h e r e m i g h t be some r e s p o n s e i n d i c a t i n g w h e t h e r t h e home e n v i r o n m e n t h e l p e d . R a t h e r s u r p r i s i n g l y , many p a r e n t s d i d n o t seem t o t h i n k o f any homework d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e p r e s e n t and p r e v i o u s s c h o o l s . B u t o t h e r s d i d n o t a t t a c h any i m p o r t a n c e t o t h e q u e s t i o n , o r r e p l i e d t h a t t h e y t h o u g h t i t was t h e same. ( T h e r e i s t h e p o s s i b i l i t y h e r e t h a t homework i s n o t t a k e n v e r y s e r i o u s l y b y t h e c h i l d r e n l ) S e v e r a l p a r e n t s d i d comment t h a t t h e y t h o u g h t t h e homework s i t u a t i o n was b e t t e r i n t h e P r o j e c t - 77 -r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e amount o f i t , as t h e c h i l d r e n c o u l d h a v e a s e p a r a t e room i n w h i c h t o s t u d y . The m o t h e r s o f c h i l d r e n were v e r y r e s p o n s i v e o h t h e s u b j e c t o f p l a y s p a c e . P r a c t i c a l l y a l l a p p r e c i a t e d t h e " b l a c k -t o p p e d " a r e a s , the s w i n g s and s a n d b o x e s , and R i l e y P a r k as f a v o r i t e and s u i t a b l e p l a y p l a c e s . I n t h e P r o j e c t , h o w e v e r , t h e p r o b l e m s o f t h e c h i l d r e n ' s p l a y i n v o l v e s t h e l a c k o f f e n c e d - i n a r e a s , and t h e n o i s e and n u i s a n c e o f t h e c h i l d r e n i n t h e h a l l s and b a s e m e n t s , e s p e c i a l l y when l a u n d r y was b e i n g d r i e d . The f a c t t h a t t h e c h i l d r e n f i g h t a g r e a t d e a l , a n d t h a t t h e r e a r e many " r o u g h n e c k s " a r o u n d was m e n t i o n e d more t h a n o n c e . S c h o o l - a g e d c h i l d r e n were t h o u g h t t o h a v e ample o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r s p o r t s and o r g a n i z e d p l a y . A p a r t f r o m t h e s c h o o l s , i t seems t h a t t h e f a t h e r s t a k e a n i n t e r e s t i n o r g a n i z i n g games f o r t h e b o y s and t h a t t h e c h i l d r e n u s u a l l y " g e t w h a t e v e r t h e y want." However, some d i s s e n t i n g v i e w s were t h a t t h e s c h o o l d i d n o t p r o v i d e enough v a r i e t y h e r e o r , on t h e o t h e r h a n d , were to o i n t e r e s t e d i m e m p h a s i z i n g " t h e team." I t was s u g g e s t e d b y a l m o s t a l l t e n a n t s t h a t more s u p e r v i s e d p l a y i n t h e a r e a w o u l d be a g r e a t a s s e t . R e g a r d i n g th e c h a n g e s i n f a m i l y l i f e made b y d i f f e r e n t h o u s i n g , t h e f i r s t r e a c t i o n was t o s a y t h a t t h e c h i l d r e n s p e n d a b o u t t h e same amount o f t i m e i n t h e home now as t h e y d i d b e f o r e . Some o f t h e more t h o u g h t f u l r e s p o n d e n t s d e c i d e d t h a t t h e i r y o u n s t e r s d i d s p e n d somewhat more time a t home now; and s e v e r a l r e a s o n s , b o t h p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e , were g i v e n f o r t h i s . - 78 -S e v e r a l f e l t t h a t b e c a u s e t h e y a r e so c o m f o r t a b l e i n t h e i r p r e s e n t s u i t e s , and b e c a u s e t h e i r s u i t e s a r e s p a c i o u s and p l e a s a n t , t h e c h i l d r e n "do n o t f e e l t h e n e e d t o be o u t " so much. O t h e r o p i n i o n s , h o w e v e r , were t h a t t h e i r c h i l d r e n s t a y e d i n b e c a u s e o f f e a r o f t h e r o u g h and n o i s y gangs o f c h i l d r e n i n t h e a r e a , o r b e c a u s e t h e r e was "so l i t t l e t o do" r e c r e a t i o n a l l y i n t h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d . W i t h o u t knowing t h e c h i l d r e n , t h e s e f a c t s c a n n o t be f u l l y a s s e s s e d ; b u t t h e y d e s e r v e a t t e n t i o n . To be w e i g h e d i n t h i s b a l a n c e a l s o a r e the f a m i l i e s who thought t h e i r c h i l d r e n were home l e s s now t h a n i n t h e i r p r e v i o u s homes (12 p e r c e n t ) . T h e y b e l i e v e d t h i s t o be t h e r e s u l t o f t h e c h i l d r e n g e t t i n g o l d e r and f i n d i n g more f r i e n d s t o go o u t w i t h . These p a r e n t s m a i n t a i n e d t h e r e was "more t o do" i n t h i s n e i g h b o u r h o o d , and t h a t t h e c h i l d r e n were a b l e t o p l a y o u t d o o r s more b e c a u s e o f t h e " d e c e n t n e s s " o f t h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d . W h a t e v e r e l s e t h i s shows, i t i s a r e m i n d e r o f t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f age when g e n e r a l -i z a t i o n s a r e b e i n g made a b o u t " c h i l d r e n . " T h e r e d i d n o t a p p e a r t o be any g r e a t d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e amount o f a t t e n t i o n t h e c h i l d r e n r e c e i v e d f r o m t h e i r f a t h e r s I n t h e P r o j e c t as compared w i t h t h e i r p r e v i o u s h o u s i n g . O n l y n i n e f a t h e r s f e l t t h a t t h e y gave more a t t e n t i o n t o t h e c h i l d r e n now; and some e x p l a i n e d , r e a s o n a b l y enough, t h a t t h e y h a d l e s s t o do i n t h e way o f upkeep i n t h e P r o j e c t . E i g h t e e n m o t h e r s , however, f e l t t h e y were g i v i n g more a t t e n t i o n t o t h e i r c h i l d r e n now. The r e a s o n s f o r t h i s were p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e . A l t h o u g h some m o t h e r s f e l t t h a t t h e y were p r o b a b l y more p a t i e n t and l e s s " c r a n k y " t h a n t h e y u s e d t o be, due to t h e e a s i e r h o u s e k e e p i n g , - 79 -o t h e r s a g a i n e x p r e s s e d t h e t h o u g h t t h a t t h e c h i l d r e n n e e d e d more a t t e n t i o n b e c a u s e o f the many d i f f e r e n t " t y p e s " o f c h i l d r e n i n t h e P r o j e c t and t h e i r h a b i t o f j e o p a r d i z i n g e a c h o t h e r s ' w e l l -b e i n g . One m o t h e r was q u i t e s u r e t h a t s i n c e t h e y moved i n t o L i t t l e M o u n t a i n , b o t h she and h e r f a m i l y have b e e n i n " b e t t e r c o n d i t i o n " b e c a u s e o f t h e g r e a t improvement i n t h e i r p h y s i c a l s u r r o u n d i n g s . The t h o u g h t f u l a w a r e n e s s o f p r o s and c o ns o f t h e answers c e r t a i n l y r e f l e c t s the f a c t t h a t " w e l f a r e " t o t h e s e m o t h e r s i n c l u d e s v e r y c l e a r l y what i s h a p p e n i n g t o t h e i r c h i l d r e n . I n summary, t h e r e c a n h a r d l y be any d o u b t t h a t im-p r o v e d h o u s i n g i s a g r e a t p l a t f o r m i n f a m i l y w e l f a r e a r e a s , p u t t i n g p a r e n t s and c h i l d r e n i n " b e t t e r c o n d i t i o n . " E q u a l l y , h o w e v e r , t h e r e a r e many w e l f a r e n e e d s , some i n d i v i d u a l , some g r o u p , and some community o r i e n t e d , p r o b a b l y p r e s e n t t h a t c a n -n o t be met t h r o u g h i m p r o v e d h o u s i n g a l o n e , b u t t h i s may be a b r i d g e t o o t h e r Improvements. The n e x t s t e p i n t h e r e v i e w i s t o examine community a s p e c t s o f w e l f a r e f a c t o r s . C h a p t e r IV RECREATION, SOCIAL, AND COMMUNITY A C T I V I T I E S R e c r e a t i o n and t h e u s e o f l e i s u r e t i m e make up a v e r y l a r g e p a r t o f t o d a y ' s l i v i n g . T h e y a r e i m p o r t a n t i n the home and i n t h e community a t l a r g e . T h e y r a i s e q u e s t i o n s o f many k i n d s o f f a c i l i t i e s - - h o b b i e s w h i c h a r e p e r s o n a l and i n d i v i d u a l ; s p o r t s and " g e t - t o g e t h e r s " w h i c h a r e g r o u p m a t t e r s ; some a c t i v e o r o u t d o o r s , some p a s s i v e o r i n d o o r s ; some r e q u i r i n g b u i l d i n g s and e q u i p m e n t , some r e q u i r i n g l i t t l e more t h a n p e o p l e . A l o t o f t h e c o n t e n t o f "community" depends o n s o c i a l c o n t a c t s — w h e t h e r t h e y a r e r i c h o r f r e q u e n t , o r meagre o r r a r e . Much o f t h e f e e l i n g o f b e l o n g i n g , o r n o t b e l o n g i n g , to a n e i g h b o u r h o o d , and w h e t h e r t h e p r o j e c t i s i s o l a t e d o r i n s u l a t e d f r o m t h e d i s t r i c t i n w h i c h i t i s l o c a t e d , w i l l d e p e n d a l s o o n s o c i a l c o n t a c t s . F i n a l l y , r e c r e a t i o n i s a v a r i e d m a t t e r w i t h some m e a n i n g f o r e v e r y b o d y — t o d d l e r s , s c h o o l c h i l d r e n , ' t e e n - a g e r s , h u s b a n d s and w i v e s , o l d s t e r s — n e c e s s a r i l y w i t h u n a n i m i t y . B u t t h a t a l l t h i s i s p a r t o f p u b l i c h o u s i n g — a n d sometimes a n e g l e c t e d o r f o r g o t t e n p a r t - - i s c e r t a i n . A c c o r d i n g l y , q u e s t i o n s were a s k e d a b o u t r e c r e a t i o n i n t h e i n t e r v i e w s w i t h t e n a n t s w h i c h i n t e r w o v e b e t w e e n home l i f e and r e c r e a t i o n . - Home L i f e and R e c r e a t i o n H o b b l e s o r s p o r t s w i t h i n t h e f a m i l y c a n be e n g a g e d i n i n t h r e e p l a c e s w i t h o u t g o i n g f a r a f i e l d : t h e l i v i n g u n i t ; t h e b a s e m e n t s , m e n t i o n e d b y o n e - f i f t h o f t h e t e n a n t s ; and o n t h e l a w n - 81 -o r o p en s p a c e a r o u n d t h e h o u s i n g p r o j e c t . ( T h e r e i s no community b u i l d i n g i n t h e P r o j e c t . ) A d u l t a c t i v i t i e s w i t h i n t h e a p a r t m e n t o r h o u s e c o n s i s t o f s e w i n g , k n i t t i n g , and r e a d i n g , t o g e t h e r m e n t i o n e d by j u s t more t h a n o n e - f i f t h o f t h e t e n a n t s ; " m u s i c " ( o f v a r i o u s k i n d s ) , and p a r t i e s , the l a t t e r t h r e e b e i n g t h e most f r e q u e n t i n w h i c h b o t h h u s b a n d and w i f e p a r t a k e . M u s i c a l e v e n i n g s a r e s p e n t i n two a p a r t m e n t s i n p a r t i c u l a r , b o t h o f w h i c h have p i a n o s . C h i l d r e n ' s a c t i v i t i e s a l s o i n c l u d e p a r t i e s as w e l l as stamp c o l l e c t i o n s i n w h i c h one o r two f a t h e r s e ngage. F o r t h e most p a r t , c h i l d r e n p l a y w i t h one a n o t h e r ; s e c o n d l y , w i t h t h e i r t o y s w h i c h i n c l u d e " p l a y i n g h o u s e " ; and t o a l i m i t e d e x t e n t , c o l l e c t c o i n s , make s c r a p b o o k s , and b u i l d m o d el b o a t s and p l a n e s . Of s i g n i f i c a n c e i s t h e f a c t t h a t i n t e r e s t s s u c h as s e w i n g and h o u s e k e e p i n g become more o f a hobby and l e s s o f a n e e d w i t h the o l d age p e n s i o n e r , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e woman; she h a s no f a m i l y f o r w h i c h t o c a r e and h a s l o n g e r t i m e i n w h i c h t o p e r f e c t h e r a r t . O l d e r men, t o o , h a v e g r e a t e r t i m e t o e n j o y t h e m s e l v e s and t o t i n k e r w i t h t o o l s ; a l s o , stamp c o l l e c t i n g , r e a d i n g , and c a r p e n t r y t a k e on much more v a l u e . M o t h e r s w i t h no h u s b a n d s ( i . e . , widows) f r e q u e n t l y r e p o r t t h e y have no h o b b i e s o r s p o r t s . A few w o u l d l i k e t o p u r s u e s e w i n g , f o r i n s t a n c e , " i f t h e y h a d a s e w i n g m a c h i n e , " b u t f i n a n c i a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s make t h i s o u t o f the q u e s t i o n . F a t h e r s and c h i l d r e n a p p a r e n t l y u s e t h e b a s e m e n t s f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s more t h a n m o t h e r s , who use i t p r e d o m i n a n t l y f o r work, p a r t i c u l a r l y l a u n d r y . Dances f o r b o t h a d u l t s and ' t e e n -a g e r s a r e o c c a s i o n a l l y h e l d i n b a s ements as w e l l as w i t h i n t h e - 82 -l i v i n g q u a r t e r s ; o n e - t e n t h o f t h e t e n a n t s c o n f i r m e d t h i s . C a r p e n t r y i s c a r r i e d o u t on a s m a l l s c a l e b y some o f t h e more e n t e r p r i s i n g men. P i n g p o n g, i n two b a s e m e n t s ; r o l l e r - s k a t i n g , b o t h i n t h e basement and o u t s i d e ; a n d one o r two m odel t r a i n s e t s were m e n t i o n e d . O u t s i d e , y o u n g s t e r s p r e d o m i n a t e , t h e most n o t a b l e a c t i v i t y b e i n g b a s e b a l l . S e v e r a l t e n a n t s s a i d i t was d i f f i c u l t t o d i s c o u r a g e y o u n g e r c h i l d r e n f r o m d i g g i n g i n t h e f l o w e r b o x e s . O v e r h a l f o f t h e t e n a n t s a g r e e t h a t t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s c a n be c a r r i e d o u t a t L i t t l e M o u n t a i n P r o j e c t more e a s i l y , o r w i t h t h e same e a s e , as i n t h e i r p r e v i o u s homes. About a f i f t h d i s a g r e e , s a y i n g i t I s more d i f f i c u l t . V i s i t i n g , j u d g i n g f r o m the t e n a n t s 1 r e p o r t s , i s a w e l l - k n o w n p a s t i m e . A l m o s t a l l t e n a n t s have f r i e n d s o r f a m i l y who v i s i t them. Most h a v e o t h e r p e o p l e ' s y o u n g s t e r s as w e l l as t h e i r own f o r p a r t s o f t h e day. The o l d e r f o l k t e n d n o t t o have c h i l d r e n i n t o v i s i t u n l e s s t h e y a r e r e l a t i v e s , f o r t h e y do n o t a p p r e c i a t e t h e i r n o i s e . P r a c t i c a l l y a l l t e n a n t s l i s t e n t o t h e r a d i o ; s e v e n t y -f i v e p e r c e n t have TV s e t s , and n e a r l y h a l f have r e c o r d p l a y e r s . One r e s i d e n t h a s a c o l l e c t i o n o f 1,000 r e c o r d s . ' T e e n - a g e r s , c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y , have the " l a t e s t h i t s . " One o r two t e n a n t s l i s t e n t o r e c o r d s f o r t h e b l i n d , p r e f e r r i n g t o h e a r t h e " d i g e s t " t y p e o f m a g a z i n e . A few m o t h e r s p r e f e r t o h a v e t h e i r c h i l d r e n and t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s f r i e n d s a t home w a t c h i n g TV b e c a u s e " t h e n t h e y a r e a c c o u n t e d f o r . " TV, w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f t h e l a t e a f t e r -noon p r o g r a m s f o r c h i l d r e n , i s p r i m a r i l y w a t c h e d i n t h e e v e n i n g , - 83 -f r e q u e n t l y b y t h e whole f a m i l y . Some o f t h e o l d t i m e r s a r e u n a b l e t o a f f o r d t h i s l u x u r y , b u t , f o r t h o s e who c a n , i t i s a f a v o r i t e p a s t i m e . Those t e n a n t s w i t h o u t TV, p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e o l d e r r e s i d e n t s , r e l y c o n s i d e r a b l y o n t h e i r r a d i o s . O u t s i d e C o n t a c t s Most l e i s u r e t i m e a c t i v i t i e s a t t e n d e d b y t h e t o t a l f a m i l y t a k e p l a c e i n t h e summer. P i c n i c s and t r i p s t o L i t t l e M o u n t a i n , R i l e y P a r k , and t h e b e a c h t a k e t o p p r i o r i t y , b e i n g e n j o y e d b y a l m o s t t h e e n t i r e sample. V i s i t i n g , camping, f i s h i n g , and b o a t i n g a r e c a r r i e d o u t t o a l e s s e r e x t e n t , i . e . , o n e - f i f t h o f t h e sample. S t a n l e y P a r k a n d t h e n o r t h s h o r e m o u n t a i n s a r e v i s i t e d b y t h e o c c a s i o n a l f a m i l y . Bus t r i p s a r e a f a v o r i t e f o r a few. P r i m a r y weekend a c t i v i t i e s i n c l u d e shows and c h u r c h where c h i l d r e n a t t e n d Sunday S c h o o l . S p o r t s a r e c a r r i e d o u t t o a l i m i t e d e x t e n t among f a m i l i e s . More o f t e n i t i s b r o t h e r and s i s t e r who s k a t e , f a t h e r and s o n who p l a y b a l l , and h u s b a n d and w i f e who b o w l . Weekday f a m i l y r e c r e a t i o n i s p r a c t i c a l l y non-e x i s t e n t , w i t h f a t h e r s and some m o t h e r s w o r k i n g , and c h i l d r e n a t s c h o o l . E v e n i n g s a r e s p e n t a t home. A few f a m i l y v i s i t s a r e made, p r i m a r i l y e x c l u d i n g f a t h e r . A l s o , a few shows a r e a t t e n d e d . F a t h e r s a t t e n d c l u b s and g r o u p s l e s s f r e q u e n t l y t h a n m o t h e r s . B o w l i n g and c h u r c h a r e a t t e n d e d b y a f e w — o n e - t e n t h ; a l s o l e g i o n s , l o d g e s , u n i o n s , and d i s c u s s i o n g r o u p s , a l t o g e t h e r a c c o u n t i n g f o r a n o t h e r t e n t h . The f o l l o w i n g a r e c a r r i e d o u t b y f e w e r s t i l l : n i g h t s c h o o l c o u r s e s , a c c o u n t a n t s ' a s s o c i a t i o n , - 8 4 -p o s t a l c l u b , n a v y r e s e r v e , AAA, DVA; one t e n a n t a c t s as a s a f e t y c o u n s e l l o r . To a l i m i t e d e x t e n t , m o t h e r s and f a t h e r s a t t e n d t h e P.T.A., c h u r c h , and b o w l i n g t o g e t h e r . S p e c i a l g r o u p i n g s o f b o t h p a r e n t s i n c l u d e White Cane C l u b , S e n i o r C i t i z e n s ' A s s o c i a t i o n , J u n i o r Chamber o f Commerce, CCP Coop., and t h e C h i n e s e C l a n A s s o c i a t i o n ; j u s t o v e r one i n t e n c o u p l e s b e l o n g t o one o r more o f t h e s e a s s o c i a t i o n s . C h i l d r e n ' s g r o u p s a r e u s u a l l y s e p a r a t e d b y s e x , s u c h as Cubs, B r o w n i e s , and G u i d e s . M o s t b o y s p l a y some f o r m o f b a l l , p a r t i c i p a t e i n gym a c t i v i t i e s ; and a few, one i n t w e l v e , b e l o n g t o s u c h o r g a n i z a t i o n s as S u n s e t M e m o r i a l Community C e n t r e , Y.M.C.A., K i v a n B o y s ' C l u b , and S e a f o r t h C a d e t s . A s m a l l m i n o r i t y o f g i r l s , a b o u t f o u r , t a k e s k a t i n g and d a n c i n g l e s s o n s and, f e w e r s t i l l , p a r t i c i p a t e i n gym a c t i v i t i e s . B o t h s e x e s , t o a f a i r e x t e n t , a t t e n d S u n d a y S c h o o l , t o a l e s s e r d e g r e e , Young P e o p l e ' s , k i n d e r g a r t e n , and t h e s k a t i n g a r e n a . 'Teens go a r o u n d t o g e t h e r , e n j o y d a n c i n g and l i s t e n i n g t o r e c o r d s . S o c i a l c o n t a c t s a r e g a i n e d p r e d o m i n a n t l y t h r o u g h o l d f r i e n d s , many t h r o u g h c l u b s , some t h r o u g h c h u r c h and a number t h r o u g h work. P r o j e c t n e i g h b o u r s and l i b r a r y c o n t a c t s a c c o u n t f o r a few. Community C o m p a r i s o n s The d i s t r i c t s i n w h i c h t h e p r e s e n t t e n a n t s l i v e d p r i o r t o c o m i n g t o L i t t l e M o u n t a i n i n c l u d e p r e d o m i n a n t l y S o u t h and E a s t V a n c o u v e r , t h e West E n d , Broadway, e a s t o f G r a n v i l l e , and t o a l e s s e r e x t e n t K i t s i l a n o . A s c a t t e r e d f e w t e n a n t s once - 85 -l i v e d i n Dunbar, S h a u g h n e s s y , B u r n a b y , S u r r e y , and L u l u I s l a n d . F i v e ( r e p r e s e n t i n g t e n p e r c e n t ) d e c l a r e d t h e y h a d l i v e d " a l l o v e r t h e c i t y . " (See F i g u r e 2.) A p a r t m e n t l i v i n g a c c o u n t e d f o r w e l l o v e r h a l f o f t h e sample. Of t h e s e , basement s u i t e s numbered n e a r l y f i f t y p e r c e n t ; h o u s e s a c c o u n t e d f o r o n e - f i f t h , rooms f o r a m i n o r p e r c e n t a g e . Of t h e f a m i l i e s t h a t h a d p r e v i o u s l y r e s i d e d i n h o u s e s , t h e m a j o r i t y were t w o - p a r e n t f a m i l i e s ; t h e y b e i n g , g e n e r a l l y , the h i g h e r income f a m i l i e s , and s i n g l e - f a m i l y homes b e i n g t h e most e x p e n s i v e . H a l f o f the t e n a n t s were i n c l i n e d t o s t a t e , a t f i r s t , t h a t t h e y do n o t m i s s a n y t h i n g i n L i t t l e M o u n t a i n d i s t r i c t , b u t a s much as o n e - f o u r t h o f the p o p u l a t i o n were i m m e d i a t e l y aware t h a t t h e y " m i s s t h e i r f r i e n d s . " Some o f them p r e f e r r e d t h e f o r m e r n e i g h b o u r h o o d , t h o u g h t h e r e were n o t many c o m p r e h e n s i v e r e a s o n s . One r e f e r r e d t o " s c e n e r y , " a n o t h e r somewhat s u r p r i s i n g l y t o the f o r m e r n e i g h b o u r h o o d ' s g e n u i n e c o n c e r n f o r f a m i l y a n d c h i l d w e l f a r e . One m o t h e r e m p h a s i z e d h e r p r e f e r e n c e f o r t h e " O r i e n t a l f a m i l y u n i t y " t h a t e x i s t s i n t h e E a s t end o f t h e c i t y . A l m o s t o n e - f i f t h o f t h e t e n a n t p o p u l a t i o n m i s s e d t h e i r f o r m e r c h u r c h , e a s y a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o the b e a c h , o u t s i d e c l o t h e s l i n e s , a p r i v a t e p o r c h , o r a b a sement. A v a r i e t y o f answers a p p e a r f o r t h e t h i n g s t e n a n t s were g l a d t o l e a v e i n the o l d d i s t r i c t . R e c e i v i n g t h e most common a p p r o v a l was " t h e l e a v i n g o f t h e o l d p l a c e w i t h i t s d i r t , c o l d w a t e r , and l i t t l e o r no h e a t . " P o o r f a c i l i t i e s i n c l u d e d w o o d - b u r n i n g s t o v e s , s h a r e d b a t h r o o m s , crowded c o n d i t i o n s , - 86 -i n a d e q u a t e f i x t u r e s , and l a c k o f c u p b o a r d s p a c e . The n e i g h b o u r -h o o d s u r r o u n d i n g s were w e l l r e c o g n i z e d g r i e v a n c e s , b o t h p h y s i c a l l y , e . g . , p o o r s h o p p i n g a r e a , u n p l e a s a n t i n d u s t r i a l d e v e l o p m e n t , f i r e h a z a r d b u i l d i n g s , h e a v y t r a f f i c , a nd l a c k o f p l a y g r o u n d s ; and s o c i a l l y , e . g . , " t o u g h p e o p l e , " and "un-d e s i r a b l e s . " No l e s s t h a n h a l f r e p l i e d t h a t t h e y do n o t r e v i s i t t h e i r f o r m e r r e s i d e n t i a l d i s t r i c t . Y e t a p p r o x i m a t e l y t h r e e -q u a r t e r s o f t h e t e n a n t s have f r i e n d s i n t h e o l d d i s t r i c t . T wenty p e r c e n t go b a c k o c c a s i o n a l l y t o v i s i t a n e i g h b o u r o r one p a r t i c u l a r f r i e n d ; a n o t h e r t w e n t y p e r c e n t r e t u r n r e g u l a r l y t o v i s i t r e l a t i v e s and f r i e n d s . Most o f t h e f r i e n d s , on t h e o t h e r h a n d , v i s i t L i t t l e M o u n t a i n , h a l f o f them coming o c c a s i o n a l l y o r f r e q u e n t l y . N e a r l y a l l c h i l d r e n l i k e t h e d i s t r i c t , and a few " v e r y much s o . " One r e a s o n g i v e n was t h a t t h e r e a r e so many c h i l d r e n f r o m whom y o u c a n cho o s e y o u r f r i e n d s . H a l f o f t h e s e c h i l d r e n h a v e no c o m p l a i n t s : t h e o t h e r s add up a s f o l l o w s - -" m i s s e d f r i e n d s a t f i r s t , " "no b e a c h a r o u n d , " and t h e i n e v i t a b l e s t r a n g e n e s s o f new s u r r o u n d i n g s and t h e i n a b i l i t y o f a few c h i l d r e n to j o i n i n , o r s t a n d up f o r t h e i r own r i g h t s . Two l a r g e f a m i l i e s , composed m a i n l y o f g i r l s , c o m p l a i n e d o f two o r t h r e e " r o u g h b o y s " i n t h e P r o j e c t t h a t made t h e i r d a u g h t e r s w i s h t o s t a y i n s i d e most o f t h e t i m e . These m o t h e r s were a n x i o u s t o make i t c l e a r t h e i r c h i l d r e n " a r e n o t s i s s i e s . " The e x t e n t t o w h i c h new g r o u p s , c l u b s , e t c . , c o u l d a f f e c t t h e s e s i t u a t i o n s was n o t - 87 -d i s c u s s e d . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o f i n d t h a t t h e m a j o r i t y o f t e n a n t s f e e l t h e y b e l o n g t o a new n e i g h b o u r h o o d a t L i t t l e M o u n t a i n . R e a sons g i v e n f o r t h i s i n c l u d e t h e c o f f e e v i s i t s among some o f the m o t h e r s , and the a g r e e a b l e b a b y s i t t i n g a r r a n g e m e n t s . O t h e r s r e f e r t o t h e " s h a r i n g a way o f l i v i n g " w h i c h i s t o be f o u n d i n t h e use o f basement and l a u n d r y f a c i l i t i e s , and a l t e r n a t e c l e a n i n g s o f t h e h a l l w a y b y some t e n a n t s , as was f o u n d i n one a p a r t m e n t u n i t . The r e j e c t i o n i s t s d e c l a r e t h a t t h e P r o j e c t i s " j u s t a p l a c e t o l i v e , " t h a t t h e r e i s no n e i g h b o u r h o o d f e e l i n g o r t h a t f a m i l i e s "keep t o t h e m s e l v e s " and so do n o t communicate t o o r e a d i l y w i t h o t h e r t e n a n t s . I t i s , o f c o u r s e , r e a s o n a b l e t o remember h e r e t h a t much t h e same m i g h t be s a i d - - a n d e x p e c t e d — i n a p r i v a t e a p a r t m e n t b l o c k . A number o f t e n a n t s c o n s i d e r t h a t t h e y b e l o n g t o t h e P r o j e c t b e c a u s e t h i s i s where t h e y have t h e i r c l o s e s t f r i e n d s h i p t i e s . Those who l i v e c l o s e s t t o t h e P r o j e c t b o u n d a r i e s , however, f r e q u e n t l y f i n d t h e i r c l o s e s t f r i e n d s h i p t i e s c r o s s b o u n d a r y l i n e s . One f a m i l y a s s o c i a t e s p r i n c i p a l l y w i t h n e i g h b o u r s a c r o s s t h e s t r e e t ; a n o t h e r i s most h a p p y I n " b e i n g a b l e t o l o o k o u t a t r e a l h o u s e s . " A m a j o r i t y o f t e n a n t s c a l l L i t t l e M o u n t a i n a community. The r e m a i n d e r do n o t c o n s i d e r I t a community f o r a v a r i e t y o f r e a s o n s w h i c h i n c l u d e t h e f o l l o w i n g : " S h e l t e r i s t h e o n l y common t i e " ; " T e n a n t s do n o t f e e l f o r a n y t h i n g " ; " T h e r e i s no community as f a r as o r g a n i z e d a c t i v i t i e s g o . " I t may be n o t e d t h a t t h e c o m p l e t e f a m i l i e s t e n d t o be more o u t s p o k e n , b o t h - 88 -p o s i t i v e l y and n e g a t i v e l y ; i n many i n s t a n c e s , h u s b a n d s and w i v e s s u p p o r t one a n o t h e r i n t h e i r comments. A s s o c i a t i o n s and O r g a n i z a t i o n s The o u t s t a n d i n g l a r g e - s c a l e a c t i v i t i e s i n w h i c h t h e t e n a n t s h a v e b e e n i n v o l v e d a r e t h e L i t t l e M o u n t a i n C o - o p e r a t i v e K i n d e r g a r t e n , t h e f l o u r i s h i n g P.T.A. o f G e n e r a l B r o c k e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l , and t h e s e n i o r t e n a n t s ' l i b r a r y . The k i n d e r g a r t e n s t o r y i s a v e r y s i g n i f i c a n t o ne, w h i c h w o u l d w a r r a n t more s t u d y . I t was e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y o r g a n i z e d b y a few e n t e r p r i s i n g p a r e n t s ; o p e n i n g i n September o f 1955, i t r a n f o r a y e a r a n d a h a l f . An a p a r t m e n t basement was f u r n i s h e d w i t h c h i l d r e n ' s t a b l e s and c h a i r s ; a f u l l - t i m e t e a c h e r was e m p l o y e d ( f o r $100.00 a month) and two m o t h e r s a s s i s t e d e a c h d a y . U n f o r t u n a t e l y i n 1956, due t o l a c k o f f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t f r o m p a r e n t s and I n s u f f i c i e n t i n t e r e s t , t h i s v e n t u r e was f o r c e d t o c l o s e down. Such r e m a r k s as "Why s h o u l d I p a y t o s e n d my c h i l d t o k i n d e r g a r t e n when my n e i g h b o u r ' s c h i l d r e n who a r e n ' t g o i n g a r e f i n e and h a p p y ? " , and "Why s h o u l d I do a l l t h e work; nobody e l s e wants t o do t h e i r s h a r e l " , e x e m p l i f y why t h e k i n d e r g a r t e n v e n t u r e f a i l e d . A l s o , t h e f a c t t h a t t h e k i n d e r g a r t e n " o r g a n i z e r " moved away h a s a r e l e v a n t b e a r i n g o n i t s d i s c o n t i n u a n c e . G e n e r a l B r o c k S c h o o l h a s b e e n n o t e d i n the p a s t few y e a r s f o r i t s a c t i v e P.T.A. T h e r e a r e n e a r l y 200 members and a h i g h p e r c e n t a g e a t t e n d a l l m e e t i n g s w h i c h u s u a l l y have some f o r m o f e n t e r t a i n m e n t o r a l a r g e s p r e a d o f f o o d and sometimes b o t h . E n t h u s i a s t i c p r o j e c t l e a d e r s a c c o u n t f o r 35 p e r c e n t o r - 89 -s e v e n o u t o f t w e n t y e x e c u t i v e members. T e n a n t s r e p o r t t h a t 70 p e r c e n t o f t h e P.T.A. membership a r e P r o j e c t d w e l l e r s . Some o f t h e s e P r o j e c t d w e l l e r s , i t i s r e p o r t e d , a r e f o r m i n g a c l i q u e i n " s e l f - d e f e n s e " a g a i n s t P.T.A. home-owners whom t h e y f e e l a r e " l o o k i n g down o n them." A p r o u d f e a t u r e o f L i t t l e M o u n t a i n i s a l i b r a r y , o r g a n i z e d b y t h e o l d e r r e s i d e n t s , w h i c h o c c u p i e s one o f t h e a p a r t m e n t - h o u s e b a s e m e n t s . I t h a s b e e n i n o p e r a t i o n s i n c e May, 1955, e v e r y Monday a f t e r n o o n f r o m 2:00 u n t i l 3:00 e l d e r l y r e s i d e n t s may v i s i t the l i b r a r y a n d u s u a l l y do. A n n u a l l y i n May, a l a r g e t e a i s h e l d f o r t h e l i b r a r y p a t r o n s w i t h i n t h e b asement a d j a c e n t t o t h e l i b r a r y ; t h i s e v e n t i s l o o k e d f o r w a r d t o w i t h d e l i g h t b y a l l c o n c e r n e d . The l a d y , who r u n s t h e G r o u s e Walk l i b r a r y h a s a new p u r p o s e i n l i f e now. F i v e y e a r s ago she was a r e t i r i n g p e r s o n who f e l t t h a t l i f e h e l d n o t h i n g more f o r h e r ; t h e l i b r a r y h a s s u p p l i e d t h i s p u r p o s e . One unmet n e e d o f t h e t e n a n t s i s a n o r g a n i z e d p l a y -g r o u n d . T w o - t h i r d s o f t h o s e who were a s k e d t h o u g h t t h a t a n o r g a n i z e d p l a y g r o u n d w o u l d be a g r e a t a s s e t , a l t h o u g h i t was o f t e n s t i p u l a t e d t h a t t h e s u p e r v i s i o n w o u l d have t o be v e r y c l o s e and, i n d e e d , i t w o u l d be i m p o s s i b l e w i t h o u t i t . A n o t h e r m a i n -t a i n e d t h a t " m o t h e r s d o n ' t make good s u p e r v i s o r s , as t h e y a r e t o o p r e o c c u p i e d w i t h t h e i r own home d u t i e s . " Some b e l i e v e d t h a t as R i l e y P a r k I s so c l o s e , t h i s i s s u f f i c i e n t . I n t h i s c o n n e c t i o n , m o t h e r s w i t h p r e s c h o o l e r s , i n p a r t i c u l a r , e x p r e s s e d c o n c e r n a b o u t t r a f f i c h a z a r d s b o t h o n and o f f t h e P r o j e c t p r o p e r t y ; some - 90 -d r i v e r s c oming e a s t f r o m L i t t l e M o u n t a i n u s e t h e n o r t h e x t r a n c e o n O n t a r i o as a means o f c u t t i n g o f f t h e b u s y i n t e r s e c t i o n a t M a i n and 3 3 r d , and " p a r k t h e r e when t h e b a s e b a l l s e a s o n i s o n , too.'"; a number a p p e a r t o e x c e e d t h e s p e e d l i m i t i n a p p r o a c h i n g and P r o j e c t and M a i n S t r e e t . S i x t y p e r c e n t o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s t h o u g h t a v o l u n t e e r c o o p e r a t i v e p l a y g r o u p o r d a y - c a r e g r o u p w o u l d be an a s s e t t o t h e P r o j e c t . T h i s seemed t o be v e r y i n t e l l i g e n t l y u n d e r s t o o d : i t i s , o f c o u r s e , n e e d e d most by t h e m o t h e r s who have young c h i l d r e n t o l o o k a f t e r . I t was m e n t i o n e d t h a t m o t h e r s l i k e t o g e t t o g e t h e r f o r some u s e f u l p u r p o s e b u t t h a t a v o t e m i g h t be n e c e s s a r y t o I n s u r e t h e c o o p e r a t i o n o f a l l ; a l s o t h a t i t w o u l d have t o be w e l l o r g a n i z e d , and t h a t p e r h p s p r o f e s s i o n a l s u p e r -v i s i o n w o u l d be h e l p f u l . A l t h o u g h t h e r e s i d e n t s c a n see t h e n e e d , some a r e q u i t e p e s s i m i s t i c , n e v e r t h e l e s s , a b o u t t h i s t y p e o f o r g a n i z a t i o n b e i n g s u c c e s s f u l . They s t a t e t h a t t h e r e i s r e a l l y a l a c k o f i n t e r e s t and t h a t the b u r d e n w o u l d f a l l o n a few. The f a i l u r e o f t h e p r e v i o u s k i n d e r g a r t e n p r o b a b l y i n f l u e n c e s t h i s . I t does seem t h a t t h e n e e d f o r some o r g a n i z e d f a c i l i t i e s o f t h i s k i n d i s u n d e r s t o o d b y t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e m o t h e r s . The Need f o r a Community C e n t r e I n q u e s t i o n i n g t e n a n t s r e g a r d i n g t h e i r i n t e r e s t i n and n e e d f o r l a r g e r f a c i l i t i e s f o r m e e t i n g p u r p o s e s and f o r c a r r y i n g o u t c e r t a i n a c t i v i t i e s , the f o l l o w i n g i n f o r m a t i o n was o b t a i n e d . S i x t y p e r c e n t o f the t e n a n t s s t a t e d t h a t t h e y c o u l d do w i t h a - 91 -workshop o r h o b b y c e n t r e . Among t h e s e , a few w i v e s spoke f o r t h e i r h u s b a n d s and s o n s . A s m a l l p e r c e n t a g e saw s u c h a f a c i l i t y as b e i n g p a r t o f a community h a l l o r c e n t r e . Most t e n a n t s who a d v o c a t e s u c h a c e n t r e f a v o u r a s e p a r a t e u n i t b e c a u s e more f a c i l i t i e s w ould t h e n be a v a i l a b l e ; I t wo u l d be a g a t h e r i n g p l a c e f o r d i f f e r e n t k i n d s o f i n t e r e s t e d g r o u p s , and t h e r e w o u l d have t o be p r o v i s i o n a g a i n s t n o i s e . The few who p r e f e r a basement f a c i l i t y do so b e c a u s e o f c o n v e n i e n c e and s m a l l - s c a l e o p e r a t i o n . I n a few b a s e m e n t s , t h e r e a r e workshops a l r e a d y i n e x i s t e n c e . A p p r o x i m a t e l y n i n e t y p e r c e n t o f t h e t e n a n t s r e p l i e d t h a t t h e r e was a n e e d f o r a community c e n t r e o r h a l l . T h i s was one o f t h e h i g h e s t " v o t e s " i n any a s p e c t o f t h e e n q u i r y . The most f r e q u e n t l y r e c o g n i z e d n e e d was f o r a g r o u p f o r c h i l d r e n ; t h e n e e d f o r a g r o u p f o r ' t e e n - a g e r s f o l l o w e d c l o s e l y . Next came t h e re c o m m e n d a t i o n o f g r o u p s f o r a d u l t s w i t h a few s p e c i a l g r o u p s f o r t h e aged h i g h I n p r i o r i t y . C h i l d r e n ' s g r o u p s i n c l u d e p r e - s c h o o l and k i n d e r g a r t e n , Sunday S c h o o l , and s p o r t s . 'Teen-age a c t i v i t i e s r e q u e s t e d were d a n c i n g and swimming. A d u l t s p r e -f e r r e d t o have s o c i a l " g e t - t o g e t h e r s " i n c l u d i n g c a r d s , b i n g o , d a n c i n g and t a l k , d i s c u s s i o n g r o u p s c o n c e r n i n g P r o j e c t and f a m i l y c o n c e r n s , h a n d i c r a f t s s u c h as s e w i n g , and s p o r t s s u c h as b o w l i n g , p i n g pong and p o o l . Young m o t h e r s , i t i s to be n o t e d , a r e i n f a v o u r o f pr o g r a m s f o r t h e m s e l v e s , w h i l e t h e i r c h i l d r e n a r e b e i n g c a r e d f o r . When t h e f a m i l i e s were q u e r i e d a b o u t t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f t e n a n t s o r g a n i z i n g t h e i r own r e c r e a t i o n t h r o u g h s o m e t h i n g s u c h - 92 -as a " L i t t l e M o u n t a i n " S o c i a l C l u b , t h e i r o p i n i o n s were a l s o s o u g h t as t o w h e t h e r r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s s h o u l d be f o r t h e use o f t h e r e s i d e n t s o f t h e P r o j e c t o n l y , o r f o r t h e p e o p l e i n the w i d e r d i s t r i c t . T h i s q u e s t i o n t u r n e d up a v a r i e t y o f f e e l i n g s w h i c h r a n g e d f r o m e x t r e m e m i s a n t h r o p h y t o e x t r e m e g r e g a r i o u s n e s s . I n the sample o f f i f t y f a m i l i e s , t h e r e were f i v e who d i d n o t a p p r o v e o f a s o c i a l c l u b f o r t h e P r o j e c t and d i d n o t a p p r o v e o f a community c e n t r e f o r t h e w i d e r n e i g h b o u r h o o d e i t h e r . Comments w h i c h a c c o m p a n i e d t h e i r answers i n c l u d e d " P e o p l e a r e t o o n o s y , anyway," and " P e o p l e a r e f r i e n d l y enough, anyway"--w h i c h , i t m i g h t be a r g u e d , c a n c e l e a c h o t h e r o u t ! A c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c v i e w , however, was " I d o u b t i f a n y c o o p e r a t i v e v e n t u r e w o u l d s u c c e e d . " S e v e n r e s p o n d e n t s who d i s a p p r o v e d o f a s o c i a l c l u b f o r th e P r o j e c t t h o u g h t a c e n t r e f o r t h e d i s t r i c t " m i g h t work o u t . " F o l l o w i n g a r e sample - s t a t e m e n t s : " I t w o u l d do f o r t h e m a j o r i t y b u t n o t f o r u s . " "We n e e d o u t s i d e i n t e r e s t s t o a v o i d t h e t i g h t -k n i t f e e l i n g . " " I f i t was b u i l t i n t h e P r o j e c t , no one e l s e w o u l d come." "We g e t t o know e a c h o t h e r t o o much a l r e a d y . " " I ' d n e v e r go n e a r I t . " A l o t depends o n how t h e q u e s t i o n s a r e a s k e d and o n w h e t h e r one i s s p e a k i n g t o a m o t h e r h a r a s s e d w i t h two c h i l d r e n o r a l o n e l y o l d p e n s i o n e r . P e r h a p s one r e a s o n t h a t t h e t e n a n t s w i s h e d t o i n c l u d e t h o s e o u t s i d e t h e P r o j e c t was a f e a r o f b e c o m i n g t o o c l o s e l y i n -v o l v e d w i t h t h e i r i m m e d i a t e n e i g h b o u r s . " I t i s t o o e a s y , " t h e y s t a t e , " t o g e t i n v o l v e d i n o t h e r f a m i l y ' s a f f a i r s and t o g o s s i p . " - 93 -Most t e n a n t s c l a i m t h a t t h e y know as many t e n a n t s a s t h e y want t o know; y e t t h e newer r e s i d e n t s e x p r e s s a d e s i r e t o meet t h e o t h e r t e n a n t s . A l l t h e r e s i d e n t s a r e most w i l l i n g and a n x i o u s t o "meet" t h e t o t a l n e i g h b o u r h o o d . T h ey r e c o g n i z e t h e o p p o r t u n i t y h e r e f o r b e c o m i n g a p a r t o f t h e g r e a t e r community r a t h e r t h a n r e -m a i n i n g a s e p a r a t e e n t i t y . The l a r g e r n e i g h b o u r h o o d s w i l l , i n t u r n , be e n c o u r a g e d t o become a c q u a i n t e d w i t h t h i s " u s u s u a l " phenomenon. D e v e l o p i n g Community S t r e n g t h s R e c r e a t i o n i s a m a n y - s i d e d phenomenon. I t i s e s s e n t i a l t h a t i t be met b o t h i n the home and i n t h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d . The f a m i l y s e t t i n g i s where t h e c h i l d f i r s t l e a r n s a b o u t p e o p l e , d e v e l o p s s k i l l s and f o r m s a t t i t u d e s , a l l o f w h i c h go i n t o t h e m a k i n g o f r e c r e a t i o n . T h i s i s one g r e a t a s s e t i n g ood h o u s i n g . B u t f o r f u r t h e r d e v e l o p m e n t , t h e c h i l d must e x p a n d h i s knowledge o f h i s e n v i r o n m e n t ; t h i s means a s s o c i a t i o n s w i t h o t h e r c h i l d r e n i n s u c h s e t t i n g s as t h e p l a y g r o u n d , t h e s c h o o l , s p o r t s , c l u b s , e t c . , w h i c h u n i t e t o f o r m , f o r h i m , h i s " n e i g h b o u r h o o d . " F a c i l i t i e s f o r g r o u p a c t i v i t i e s have b e e n d i s c u s s e d as d e s i r e s and n e e d s o f t h e t e n a n t s , b o t h f o r t h e m s e l v e s as w e l l as t h e i r c h i l d r e n , t h o u g h c h i l d r e n , p e r h a p s t y p i c a l l y , g e t a l a r g e s h a r e o f t h i s a t t e n t i o n . Among t h e p r o j e c t s m e n t i o n e d were some f o r m o f o r g a n i z e d g r o u p f o r p r e - s c h o o l e r s , s u c h as a c o o p e r a t i v e p l a y g r o u p o r an o r g a n i z e d p l a y g r o u n d . One s u s p e c t s t h a t i f a k i n d e r g a r t e n were p r o p o s e d and g i v e n s u f f i c i e n t s u p p o r t b o t h e x t e r n a l l y and i n t e r n a l l y t h r o u g h s u c h means as f i n a n c e s and - 94 -p a r e n t e d u c a t i o n , i t w o u l d f l o u r i s h . S e c o n d i n i m p o r t a n c e was a hobby shop; t h i r d , a community c e n t r e ; and f o u r t h , a " L i t t l e M o u n t a i n " S o c i a l C l u b . I n s u p p o r t o f t h e l a t t e r two d e s i r e s , s u c h comments as "We n e e d o u t s i d e i n t e r e s t s to a v o i d t h e t i g h t - k n i t f e e l i n g " and "We d o n ' t want t o be i s o l a t e d ; we see t o o much o f P r o j e c t p e o p l e , " were g i v e n . T h i s shows t h e e x p r e s s e d w i s h o f t h e m a j o r i t y o f t e n a n t s f o r f a c i l i t i e s o p e n t o t h e t o t a l L i t t l e M o u n t a i n d i s t r i c t . Of c o u r s e , t h e r e a r e a few d i s t r u s t f u l comments, s u c h as "Rowdies w o u l d g e t i n and w r e c k i t . " And t h i s n o t e o f r e a l i s m h a s " c r o p p e d o u t " i n many o t h e r ways. The t e n a n t s o f L i t t l e M o u n t a i n have h a d some h a r d k n o c k s f r o m l i f e . I n s p i t e o f t h e p r e j u d i c e s w h i c h a r e s t i l l v o i c e d i n some q u a r t e r s , i t i s d o u b t f u l i f t h e y " e x p e c t p r i v i l e g e s . " Whose t a s k i s i t t o d e v e l o p r e c r e a t i o n a l r e s o u r c e s - -t h e g o v e r n m e n t ' s , t h e community's, o r t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s ? C i t y g o v e r n m e n t s sometimes p r o v i d e n e i g h b o u r h o o d r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s f o r p u b l i c h o u s i n g d i r e c t l y , o r b y a i d i n g community c e n t r e s . P r i v a t e e f f o r t s a r e sometimes h e l p e d b y s u c h o r g a n i z a t i o n s as t h e K i w a n i s C l u b w h i c h h a s o p e r a t e d i n V a n c o u v e r t h r o u g h i t s B o y s ' C l u b A s s o c i a t i o n . S o c i a l and r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s a r e sometimes a c q u i r e d b y n e i g h b o u r h o o d s t h r o u g h l o c a l s e l f - i n t e r e s t , a n d " s o c i a l a c t i o n . " A number o f r e s o u r c e s m i g h t be t a p p e d i n s u c h an e n d e a v o u r . The community c e n t r e p l a n f o r V a n c o u v e r i s s u c h a r e s o u r c e , b u t t h i s depends o n s t r o n g l o c a l i n t e r e s t and p a r t i c i p a t i o n - - a s w e l l as t h e r a i s i n g o f s u b s t a n t i a l f u n d s . T h i s - 95 -m i g h t be a s e v e r e t e s t o f w h e t h e r " P r o j e c t " and " d i s t r i c t " p o p u l a t i o n s c o u l d g e t t o g e t h e r f o r a community end. Two s c h o o l s o f t h o u g h t a r e a t odds h e r e : (a) P e o p l e s u c h as t h o s e now l i v i n g i n L i t t l e M o u n t a i n H o u s i n g P r o j e c t coming f r o m , i n l a r g e p a r t , u n o r g a n i z e d d i s t r i c t s o r s l u m a r e a s , d e v o i d o f i n d i v i d u a l I n i t i a t i v e and n eed f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n n e i g h b o u r h o o d o b j e c t i v e s , r e q u i r e c a r e and a s s i s t a n c e i n l e a d e r -s h i p t o g e t anywhere. (b) G i v e n s u f f i c i e n t e n c o u r a g e m e n t an d s u p p o r t i n p u r s u i n g p r o j e c t s d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o p e o p l e ' s n e e d s and i n t e r e s t s , l e a d e r s h i p w i l l a r i s e f r o m t h e i r own r a n k s . T h i s i s t h e d e m o c r a t i c a p p r o a c h to programming t h a t s o c i a l g r o u p w o r k e r s a r e t r a i n e d t o e n c o u r a g e , an d i t h a s n o t b e e n w h o l l y n o n - e x i s t e n t . Such p r o j e c t s as t h e c o o p e r a t i v e k i n d e r g a r t e n , and t h e s e n i o r t e n a n t s ' l i b r a r y , h a v e b e e n met b y l e a d e r s h i p f r o m w i t h i n t h e P r o j e c t . I n d i v i d u a l I n i t i a t i v e d e v e l o p e d a few s m a l l e r g r o u p s , s u c h as t h e s e w i n g c l u b and t h e Sunday S c h o o l c l a s s . However, t h e warmer a s s o c i a t i o n , t h r o u g h w h i c h b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g and g r e a t e r t o l e r a n c e d e v e l o p , r e q u i r e more " p u s h " t h a n i n d i v i d u a l i n i t i a t i v e c a n o r d i n a r i l y s u p p l y . R e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s and s o c i a l e v e n t s m i g h t h e l p t o p r o v i d e t h e s o r t o f " c l i m a t e " n e c e s s a r y . Minimum f a c i l i t i e s must f i r s t b e p r o v i d e d f o r t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h c a n d e v e l o p most e a s i l y a l o n g s i d e c u r r e n t i n t e r e s t s . The "community h a l l i s s u e " must a l s o be s e e n i n n e i g h b o u r h o o d - d e v e l o p m e n t t e r m s . A u t h o r i t i e s i n t h e f i e l d o f - 96 -H o u s i n g and Community P l a n n i n g a g r e e t h a t h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s c a n be i n t e g r a t e d i n t o the w i d e r community t h r o u g h s h a r e d s o c i a l and r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s . " T h e r e i s g e n e r a l a c c e p t a n c e i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and B r i t a i n o f the v i e w t h a t r e h o u s i n g d e v e l o p m e n t s s h o u l d be u t i l i z e d as an o p p o r t u n i t y to r a i s e t h e l e v e l o f s u c h f a c i l i t i e s i n t h e community any f a c i l i t i e s w h i c h a r e b u i l t i n t h e r e h o u s e d a r e a b e i n g , o f c o u r s e , made a v a i l a b l e f o r t h e r e s i d e n t s o f o t h e r a r e a s . B e c a u s e o f t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f d e v e l o p i n g l o w - r e n t a l p r o j e c t s on b a l a n c e d n e i g h b o u r h o o d p r i n c i p l e s , community h a l l s and s i m i l a r b u i l d i n g s a r e a l m o s t i n d i s p e n s a b l e i n t h e t o t a l plan."''" The S e a t t l e H o u s i n g A u t h o r i t y ' s a i m f o r s e v e r a l y e a r s h a s b e e n t o e n c o u r a g e a community f e e l i n g t h a t c r o s s e d p r o j e c t b o u n d a r i e s . T h e i r A n n u a l R e p o r t i n 19^ 1-5 d e c l a r e d t h a t " a l t h o u g h most r e s i d e n t s were new t o t h e c i t y and e x p e r i e n c e d a f e e l i n g o f i n s e c u r i t y , t h e y were a b l e t o f i n d s t a b i l i t y i n a community w h i c h o f f e r e d them the c hance to i n t e g r a t e i n t o t h e c i t y i t s e l f . " And a g a i n , " I t h a s n e v e r b e e n o u r d e s i r e t o s e t up an o r g a n i z a t i o n o r a c t i v i t y c o m p l e t e o r s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t w i t h i n a p r o j e c t . B u t i t was r a t h e r o u r v i e w t o p r o v i d e a d d i t i o n a l r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s i n c o m m u n i t i e s whose p o p u l a t i o n h a d s u d d e n l y grown b e y o n d t h e i r e x i s t i n g f a c i l i t i e s b e c a u s e o f t h e a d d i t i o n o f a h o u s i n g p r o j e c t . " 2 1 H o u s i n g and Community P l a n n i n g , R e p o r t o f A d v i s o r y Committee on R e c o n s t r u c t i o n ( t h e " C u r t i s " R e p o r t ) . K i n g ' s P r i n t e r ; O ttawa; 1914; P« 200. 2 H o u s i n g A u t h o r i t y o f t h e C i t y o f S e a t t l e , H o u s i n g t h e P e o p l e ; " S i x t h A n n u a l R e p o r t . r ' 1945. - 9 7 -A t Y e s l e r T e r r a c e , a l a r g e community b u i l d i n g w i t h g y m n a s i u m - a u d i t o r i u m , h o b b y and c r a f t rooms, m e e t i n g rooms, a k i t c h e n , and shower rooms, h a s b e e n i n e x i s t e n c e s i n c e the v e r y b e g i n n i n g o f t h e p r o j e c t i n 1942*1 O u t s i d e e q u i p m e n t i n c l u d e s s w i n g s , b a s k e t - b a l l c o u r t , n u r s e r y s c h o o l f a c i l i t i e s and s p a c e f o r l a r g e r games. These f a c i l i t i e s w h i c h were c o n s i d e r e d e s s e n t i a l , have p r o v e d t h e i r w o r t h a g a i n and a g a i n . I n t e g r a t i o n o f " p r o j e c t " and "community" i s e n c o u r a g e d b y h a v i n g l e i s u r e -t i m e f a c i l i t i e s a v a i l a b l e e q u a l l y f o r t e n a n t s a n d r e s i d e n t s o f t h e w i d e r n e i g h b o u r h o o d . E v e n a g e n c i e s , p e r s e , s u c h as t h e Boy S c o u t s and t h e Y.M.C.A., have b e e n i n v i t e d t o use t h e community b u i l d i n g s . L e i s u r e t i m e programmes i n h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s , i t i s f r e q u e n t l y r e p o r t e d , have a c c o u n t e d f o r a r e d u c t i o n o f a b s e n t e e i s m o n t h e j o b , l e s s damage o f d w e l l i n g u n i t s b e c a u s e o f b e t t e r t e n a n t m a i n t e n a n c e , d e c r e a s e i n j u v e n i l e d e l i q u e n c y , o b e t t e r h e a l t h f o r r e s i d e n t s , and b e t t e r c a r e f o r c h i l d r e n . The e x p e r i e n c e o f S e a t t l e ' s Y e s l e r T e r r a c e p r o j e c t i n r e c r e a t i o n and s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s i s a m o d e l . P r i o r t o 1956, t h e P a r k s D e p a r t -ment and the S c h o o l B o a r d p r o v i d e d some o u t l e t s i n n e i g h b o u r i n g f a c i l i t i e s . I n 1956, a c o m p l e t e " N e i g h b o u r h o o d House" was moved o n t o the p r o j e c t , so s e r v i c e s w i l l be o f f e r e d i n a much w i d e r r a n g e t h a n b e f o r e . S e r v i n g r e s i d e n t s w i t h i n and a d j a c e n t t o t h e 1 H o u s i n g A u t h o r i t y o f t h e C i t y o f S e a t t l e , T h i r d A n n u a l  R e p o r t . 1 9 4 2 ; p . 1S» 2 H o u s i n g A u t h o r i t y o f t h e C i t y o f S e a t t l e , H o u s i n g t h e  P e o p l e ; " S i x t h A n n u a l R e p o r t . " 1945, p . 23. - 98 -p r o j e c t , i t h a s b e e n a b l e t o e m p h a s i z e th e d e v e l o p m e n t o f i n t e r -p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s i n g r o u p s . F a m i l i e s and i n d i v i d u a l s a r e s e r v e d i n s u c h ways as f a m i l y c o u n s e l l i n g , j o b - r e f e r r a l s , and home-management c l a s s e s . C o o p e r a t i o n and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e work o f t h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d and community h a s b e e n s t i m u l a t e d g e n e r a l l y . Some o f the i n t e r e s t s a t N e i g h b o u r h o o d House i n c l u d e i t s b i - m o n t h l y newspaper and i t s B u l l e t i n B o a r d . Upon a r r i v a l a t Y e s l e r , t e n a n t s a r e p r e s e n t e d w i t h a f o l d e r d e s c r i b i n g n e i g h b o u r h o o d programmes, i n c l u d i n g an i n v i t a t i o n t o meet t h e i r Community C o u n c i l . T h i s s o r t o f welcome h e l p s new t e n a n t s t o f e e l " p a r t o f t h i n g s " i n a h u r r y . Most p l a n n e r s , a r c h i t e c t s , and w e l f a r e - m i n d e d c i t i z e n s (who h a v e b e e n a c t i v e i n most h o u s i n g c a m p a i g n s ) s t r o n g l y f a v o u r r e c r e a t i o n c e n t r e s as p a r t o f p u b l i c h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s , b u t c o s t - c u t t i n g , and sometimes u n e n t h u s i a s t i c l o c a l g o v e r n m e n t s have l e d t o i n a d e q u a t e p r o v i s i o n b e i n g made. E v e n i n w e l l - p l a n n e d R e g e n t P a r k ( T o r o n t o ) , f a c i l i t i e s have n o t b e e n a d e q u a t e t o t h e demand. B u t t h e R e g e n t P a r k p r o j e c t a r e a i s " a l i v e w i t h s u c h a c t i v i t i e s as p r e s c h o o l g r o u p s i n t h e T i n y T o t s ' P l a y g r o u n d s and t e e n a g e r s ' d a n c e s o n week-ends." By a r r a n g e m e n t s w i t h t h e A u t h o r i t y , a community c e n t r e i s o p e r a t e d b y t h e T o r o n t o D e p a r t m e n t o f P a r k s and R e c r e a t i o n . A l b e r t Rose comments, " T h e r e c a n be l i t t l e q u e s t i o n t h a t t h e r e s i d e n t s o f t h e a r e a and t h e i r f r i e n d s a r e m a k i n g a l m o s t c o n t i n u o u s u s e o f t h e f a c i l i t i e s o f t h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d . . . T h e r e i s , i n f a c t , s u c h a c o n s i d e r a b l e use o f community f a c i l i t i e s t h a t o u t s i d e g r o u p s o r p e r s o n s have h a d t o be e x c l u d e d f r o m t h e u s e o f t h e - 9 9 -p l a y g r o u n d and f r o m d a n c e s o r o t h e r s o c i a l f u n c t i o n s . . . . "^ The n e e d o f a d i s t r i c t c e n t r e o r b u i l d i n g h a s n o t gone e n t i r e l y u n n o t i c e d b y t h e l a r g e r community i n V a n c o u v e r . The B o a r d o f P a r k s and P u b l i c R e c r e a t i o n , r e s p o n s i b l e i n p a r t f o r Community C e n t r e s , h a s drawn up p l a n s f o r s u c h a r e s o u r c e w i t h i n t h e r e g i o n o f L i t t l e M o u n t a i n , t h a t o f S o u t h Cambie. T h i s i s p a r t o f a p l a n f o r a c i t y - w i d e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f community c e n t r e s , e a c h t o s e r v e , as n e a r l y as p o s s i b l e , a s i m i l a r s i z e d a r e a and p o p u l a t i o n . When t h e S o u t h Cambie Community A s s o c i a t i o n r a i s e s # 1 5 , 0 0 0 . 0 0 , t h e B o a r d o f P a r k s and P u b l i c R e c r e a t i o n w i l l m a t c h i t b y an e q u a l g r a n t ; "The r e s t o f t h e f u n d s r e q u i r e d a r e r a i s e d b y p l a c i n g a t a x b y - l a w b e f o r e t h e v o t e r s o f t h e p o l l i n g d i v i s i o n s to be i n c l u d e d i n the a r e a t o be s e r v e d b y t h e p r o p o s e d Community C e n t r e . " 2 C o n c e r n e d p e r s o n s b o t h i n s i d e and o u t s i d e o f t h e P r o j e c t a d v o c a t e R i l e y P a r k as t h e most s u i t a b l e s p o t f o r t h e l o c a t i o n o f a Community C e n t r e . Not o n l y i s t h e r e a l a r g e number o f f a m i l i e s n e a r b y , b u t R i l e y P a r k i s a n a l m o s t i d e a l p h y s i c a l s e t t i n g w i t h a p a r k a r e a and a swimming p o o l ( u n d e r c o n s t r u c t i o n ) . S w i n g s , sandbox, j u n g l e gym, and a w a d i n g p o o l now s e r v e t h e many c h i l d r e n o f t h e d i s t r i c t . Summer a c t i v i t i e s a r e s u p e r v i s e d b y t h e P a r k s B o a r d . H o u s i n g p r o j e c t t e n a n t s make good use o f R i l e y P a r k i n t h e summer. 1 Rose, A l b e r t , R e g e n t P a r k . U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o P r e s s ; T o r o n t o ; 1 9 5 9 ; p. 1597 ~ ~ ~ 2 P u b l i c and P r i v a t e R e s o u r c e s i n R e c r e a t i o n i n V a n c o u v e r . A R e p o r t o f the Committee a p p o i n t e d b y t h e Group Work D i v i s i o n , Community C h e s t and C o u n c i l . A p r i l 2 5 t h , 1 9 5 7 ; p. 1 1 . - 100 -I n V a n c o u v e r , g e n e r a l l y , t h e n e e d f o r m e e t i n g p l a c e s and r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s f o r e v e r y n e i g h b o u r h o o d i s w e l l r e c o g n i z e d and h a s a h i s t o r y o f a c h i e v e m e n t . One c e n t r e a f t e r a n o t h e r h a s b e e n f i n a n c e d and b u i l t i n t h e l a s t d e c a d e . B u t i t s p l a c e i n p u b l i c h o u s i n g - - a n d f o r t h a t m a t t e r , u r b a n r e n e w a l p l a n s - - i s b y no means s e c u r e . The V a n c o u v e r H o u s i n g A u t h o r i t y , w h i c h c a n now s p e a k f r o m f i v e y e a r s o f e x p e r i e n c e , i n e a c h o f i t s a n n u a l r e p o r t s , h a s r e i t e r a t e d t h e n e e d f o r some s o r t o f community b u i l d i n g . The L i t t l e M o u n t a i n d i s t r i c t I s d e f i c i e n t i n f a c i l i t i e s o f t h e " n e i g h b o u r h o o d h o u s e " t y p e . The t e n a n t s o f L i t t l e M o u n t a i n , t o o , e x p r e s s e d t h e i r v i e w w i t h e m p h a s i s . T h e r e i s a l i t t l e d i s a g r e e m e n t on w h e t h e r t h e f a c i l i t y s h o u l d be f o r use o f P r o j e c t t e n a n t s o n l y , o r f o r the community a t l a r g e ; b u t more p e o p l e seem t o f a v o u r t h e l a t t e r v i e w . T h e y s a y , " I t s h o u l d be f o r e v e r y o n e ; nobody w o u l d go i f i t was ' j u s t t h e P r o j e c t . ' " P r o b a b l y , two f a c i l i t i e s a r e n e e d e d ; o n e , a h a l l o n th e P r o j e c t b i g enough f o r most o f t h e a d u l t t e n a n t s t o meet t o g e t h e r a t one t i m e ( p a r t o f t h i s h a l l c o u l d , p e r h a p s , be a l s o u s e d as a s h e l t e r f o r c h i l d r e n ' s p l a y o n r a i n y d a y s ) . The o t h e r i s a n e i g h b o u r h o o d f a c i l i t y i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h R i l e y P a r k . I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o add, a g a i n , t h a t a s o c i a l w o r k e r w i t h a knowledge o f g r o u p work and r e c r e a t i o n w o u l d t u r n s u c h f a c i l i t i e s I n t o l o n g - r a n g e a s s e t s . A s o c i a l w o r k e r as a p a r t o f t h e s t a f f o f a n e i g h b o u r h o o d house would, o f c o u r s e , be a r e s o u r c e f o r t h e w i d e r community, b u t s u c h a w o r k e r s h o u l d c e r t a i n l y be p e r m i t t e d t o " c u l t i v a t e " t h e P r o j e c t p o p u l a t i o n p a r t i c u l a r l y . L a s t y e a r ' s r e p o r t o f t h e A u t h o r i t y d e s i r e d " a g a i n t o draw a t t e n t i o n t o t h e 101 -p r e s s i n g n e e d f o r a b u i l d i n g i n w h i c h a p r o g r a m o f c h a r a c t e r -b u i l d i n g , e d u c a t i o n a l and h e a l t h y s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s f o r a l l ages c o u l d be c a r r i e d o n . . . . The o n l y o r g a n i z e d t e n a n t g r o u p a c t i v i t y t h a t h a s s u r v i v e d t h e a l m o s t i m p o s s i b l e c o n d i t i o n s a r i s i n g f r o m t h e l a c k o f m e e t i n g space i s t h e G r o u s e Walk L i b r a r y , f l o u r i s h i n g (now) f o r a l m o s t f i v e y e a r s . " 1 I t w o u l d be u n f o r t u n a t e , however, i f t h i s gap were t o be v i s u a l i z e d as a l a c k o f a b u i l d i n g o n l y . The s e r v i c e s o f a q u a l i f i e d s o c i a l w o r k e r m i g h t have e n a b l e d some o f the o t h e r t e n a n t - o r g a n i z e d a c t i v i t i e s t o s u r v i v e , and m i g h t have h e l p e d I n t o b e i n g o t h e r g r o u p a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h a r e a t p r e s e n t o n l y d i m l y - p e r c e i v e d d e s i r a b i l i t i e s . I n s p e c i f i c a l l y s t a t i n g t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f r e c r e a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s f o r t h e P r o j e c t and d i s t r i c t , t h e r e a r e t h r e e t y p e s : (a) p r e f e r a b l y a s m a l l b u i l d i n g o n t h e s i t e , (b) a n e i g h b o u r h o o d h o u s e , and ( c ) a community c e n t r e . W i t h i n t h e P r o j e c t , a t O n t a r i o and O r i o l e Walk, i s a n a r e a o f l a n d most s u i t a b l e f o r t h e e r e c t i o n o f a s m a l l b u i l d i n g . Due t o t h e s l o p i n g t e r r a i n , t h i s g r o u n d i s d i f f i c u l t t o p l a y o n , and so i s se l d o m u s e d ; however, a b u i l d i n g w o u l d command a c e n t r a l p o s i t i o n , and accommodate c a r s b e n e a t h i t s m a i n room. Such a p l a n was drawn up b y t h e V a n c o u v e r H o u s i n g A u t h o r i t y p r i o r t o t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e P r o j e c t ; i t was t o I n c l u d e t h e c a r e t a k e r ' s q u a r t e r s and p a y f o r i t s e l f t h r o u g h h i s r e n t . However, t h e government h a s n o t g i v e n i t s a p p r o v a l . T h i s b u i l d i n g , t h o u g h 1 V a n c o u v e r H o u s i n g A u t h o r i t y , A n n u a l R e p o r t . 1958* - 102 -s m a l l , w o u l d a l s o be o p e n t o r e s i d e n t s n o t l i v i n g i n t h e P r o j e c t . 1 A s e c o n d t y p e o f f a c i l i t y r e q u i r e d a t o r n e a r L i t t l e M o u n t a i n , a l s o f o r t h e use o f t h e e n t i r e d i s t r i c t , i s t h a t o f a N e i g h b o u r h o o d House. H e r e , i n t e n s i v e s e r v i c e i n t h e f o r m o f i n d i v i d u a l a t t e n t i o n and s m a l l g r o u p a c t i v i t i e s w o u l d p e r f o r m a p r e v e n t a t i v e f u n c t i o n . The t h i r d r e q u i r e m e n t f o r t h e d i s t r i c t I s a Community C e n t r e , w h i c h u s u a l l y p r o v i d e s r e c r e a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s on a l a r g e s c a l e . S u ch f a c i l i t i e s as gymnasiums and b a d m i n t o n c o u r t s a r e b a s i c n e e d s f o r the g e n e r a l p u b l i c o f e v e r y community. S t a t i s t i c a l l y I n s i g n i f i c a n t b u t o f g r e a t s o c i a l i m p o r t a n c e i s the s u g g e s t i o n f r o m some t e n a n t s t h a t t h e y s h o u l d be p e r m i t t e d a d e g r e e o f d e m o c r a t i c s e l f - g o v e r n m e n t . T h i s s e l f -g o v e r nment m i g h t o r i g i n a t e t h r o u g h r e c r e a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s ; o r i t m i g h t be c o n s i d e r e d w i s e r t o have a s e p a r a t e g r o u p c o n c e r n e d w i t h n o n - r e c r e a t i o n a l m a t t e r s . S e l f - g o v e r n m e n t I s r e c o g n i z e d as a v a l u a b l e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e t o o l i n many f i e l d s . H i g h s c h o o l and c o l l e g e s t u d e n t b o d i e s a r e e n c o u r a g e d t o d e v e l o p s e l f -g o v e r nment. B r i t i s h and C a n a d i a n w a r - p r i s o n e r s have d e v e l o p e d t h e i r own g o vernment i n war p r i s o n s , a l m o s t a u t o m a t i c a l l y . When p e o p l e have some s a y i n t h e management o f a f f a i r s v i t a l t o them, t h e y i n v o l v e t h e m s e l v e s more d e e p l y and d e v e l o p f e e l i n g s o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . I n h i g h s c h o o l s , t h i s h a s h e l p e d t o i m p r o v e 1 I t i s n o t i n t e n d e d t o " t u r n t h e t e n a n t s i n o n t h e m s e l v e s , " b u t t o i n d u c e them i n t o f o r m i n g g r o u p s and " g e t t i n g o u t o f t h e i r s h e l l s . " T h u s , h e l p f u l d i s c u s s i o n s and c o n s t r u c t i v e a c t i v i t i e s c o u l d commence--a b e g i n n i n g must be made somewhere and sometime. - 103 -b e h a v i o r and c o n t r o l v a n d a l i s m ; and i n w a r - p r i s o n camps s e l f -g o vernment c a n h e l p t o improve t e n a n t c a r e o f p u b l i c p r o p e r t y i n h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s and "smooth o u t " i n t e r - f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s . A t e n a n t o r g a n i z a t i o n c a n be an a l l y o f management and p r o v i d e an e x c e l l e n t c h a n n e l f o r c o m m u n i c a t i o n . The o r g a n i z a t i o n s h o u l d n o t become a p r e s s u r e g r o u p , f i g h t i n g management o n e v e r y new m a t t e r o f p o l i c y . T h i s i s a n o t h e r a r e a where the s e r v i c e s o f a s k i l l e d s o c i a l w o r k e r a r e i n v a l u a b l e t o h e l p t h e g r o u p t o a c o n s t r u c t i v e o r i e n t a t i o n . X t m i g h t , w i t h f a v o u r a b l e f o r t u n e s , c o n s o l i d a t e t h e p r i n c i p l e t h a t g o od h o u s i n g i s n o t j u s t " p a y i n g t h e r e n t " b u t i s a c o n t r i b u t i o n t o c i t i z e n s h i p * C h a p t e r V ADMINISTRATION AND SOCIAL POLICY A l l g o o d h o u s i n g r e q u i r e s management. E v e n t h e s i n g l e f a m i l y h o u s e r e q u i r e s m a i n t e n a n c e , g a r d e n i n g , and m a k i n g d e c i s i o n s a r o u n d t h e c r i t i c a l s u b j e c t o f t h e b u d g e t . A p a r t m e n t s o b v i o u s l y r e q u i r e f a r more management and a r e t h o u g h t o f w i t h o u t q u e s t i o n as a b u s i n e s s , i . e . , r e q u i r i n g a l a n d l o r d . P u b l i c h o u s i n g i s much more t h a n any o f t h e s e . Who i s t h e " l a n d l o r d " ? And what s p e c i a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s a f f e c t t h e t e n a n t s ? I f t h e s e q u e s t i o n s a r e n o t s y m p a t h e t i c a l l y u n d e r s t o o d , t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f p u b l i c h o u s i n g f o r t h e l o c a l community and t h e n a t i o n c a n n o t be p r o p e r l y p e r c e i v e d . What i s r e a d i l y a p p a r e n t f r o m t h e p r e c e d i n g c h a p t e r i s t h a t "management" and " a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , " s o o n e r o r l a t e r , a r e t o u c h e d b y a l l t h e c o n c e r n s w h i c h have b e e n r e v i e w e d u n d e r t h e h e a d i n g , so f a r , o f " w e l f a r e " and " s o c i a l l i f e . " T h e r e i s a " b u s i n e s s s i d e " and a " s o c i a l s i d e " t o management o f c o u r s e ; and i t w i l l be w e l l , c e r t a i n l y f o r p u r p o s e s o f e x a m i n a t i o n and a n a l y s i s , t o keep them a p a r t i n i t i a l l y . I n d e e d , t h i s d i v i s i o n w i l l p e r m i t a number o f i m p o r t a n t m a t t e r s s t i l l n o t so f a r p r e s e n t e d t o be d e a l t w i t h a l i t t l e more s y s t e m a t i c a l l y . R e n t s and E l i g i b i l i t y To b e g i n t h i s a s s e s s m e n t o f " b u s i n e s s " and " w e l f a r e " i n p u b l i c h o u s i n g , i t i s as w e l l t o e n t e r t h e r e m i n d e r , a t t h e - 105 -s t a r t , t h a t p u b l i c h o u s i n g i s n e c e s s a r y . I t h a s b e e n l o n g de-l a y e d i n Canada and i n V a n c o u v e r . P e r h a p s we h a v e made a f e w g a i n s f r o m t h i s l a t e s t a r t . B u t t h e r e s t i l l seems t o be much t o l e a r n f r o m o t h e r c o m m u n i t i e s as w e l l as f r o m o u r own e x p e r i e n c e . The s t a r t i n g p o i n t - - t h a t p u b l i c h o u s i n g i s n e c e s s a r y b e c a u s e t h e r e i s n o t enough d e c e n t , h e a l t h f u l h o u s i n g f o r i m p o r t a n t s e c t i o n s o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n i f t h e y a r e l e f t " t o f i n d i t f o r t h e m s e l v e s " - - m e a n s t h a t t h i s k i n d o f h o u s i n g i s i n p a r t , a t l e a s t , a s o c i a l s e r v i c e : b y no means a s o c i a l s e r v i c e i n t h e same s e n s e as s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e , o r e v e n t h e o l d age p e n s i o n s , b u t a community s h a r i n g a t l e a s t o f some o f t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f s c h o o l s o r h o s p i t a l s . T o d a y i t i s w i d e l y r e c o g n i z e d t h a t a g r e a t many f o r c e s , b e y o n d t h e f a m i l y ' s power to i n f l u e n c e , a f f e c t t h e a b i l i t y o f t h e f a m i l y h e a d t o s u p p o r t h i s f a m i l y . I n t h e r e l a t e d w e l f a r e f i e l d s o f m e d i c a l c a r e , f i n a n c i a l s e c u r i t y i n o l d age, and o t h e r s , i t i s r e c o g n i z e d t h a t c o l l e c t i v i z a t i o n o f r i s k and s u b s i d i z a t i o n o f e c o n o m i c a l l y d i s a d v a n t a g e d p e r s o n s i s a d e -s i r a b l e way i n w h i c h e a c h c i t i z e n c a n t a k e some r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the w e l f a r e o f a l l t h e g r o u p . Government p a r t i c i p a t i o n and l e a d e r s h i p a r e a c c e p t e d i n t h e s e f i e l d s . P u b l i c h o u s i n g , h owever, i s n o t y e t as f a m i l i a r . P u b l i c , s u b s i d i z e d , l o w - r e n t a l h o u s i n g i s n o t m e r e l y a l o g i c a l n e c e s s i t y b u t a g r e a t e r one t o d a y b e c a u s e o f a n o t h e r f a c t : t h e r i s i n g c o s t o f h o u s i n g . D o u b t l e s s , p r o d u c t i o n t e c h n i q u e s t o d a y a r e more e f f i c i e n t ; u s e o f new m a t e r i a l s and - i o 6 -new u s e s o f f a m i l i a r m a t e r i a l s h a v e b e e n e x p e r i m e n t e d w i t h t o keep down the c o s t o f new home c o n s t r u c t i o n . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e c o s t o f a s i n g l e - f a m i l y d w e l l i n g i s b e y o n d t h e means o f most f a m i l i e s , and i t c o u l d w e l l be t w o - t h i r d s o f t h e u r b a n p o p u l a t i o n . A p a r t m e n t s and row h o u s e s a r e p a r t o f t h e answer and h e r e t h e answer h a s , i n f a c t , b e e n a c c e p t e d more r e a d i l y f o r s p e c i a l g r o u p s - - o l d p e o p l e , and p u b l i c p r o j e c t s l i k e L i t t l e M o u n t a i n — t h a n f o r " p r i v a t e f a m i l i e s . " T h e s e f a c t o r s (and o t h e r s ) r e s t r i c t t h e a b i l i t y o f a v e r a g e f a m i l i e s t o a f f o r d d e c e n t , h e a l t h f u l homes. T h r o u g h t h e a g e n c y o f g o v e r n m e n t , t h o s e who c a n a f f o r d i t a r e a b l e t o h e l p t h o s e who c a n n o t a f f o r d a d e q u a t e s h e l t e r . T h i s s o r t o f h e l p i s e s s e n t i a l t o t h e t a s k . However, some method o f r e l a t i n g e l i g i b i l i t y and r e n t to income i s n e c e s s a r y t o r e s t r i c t h e l p t o t h o s e who n e e d i t . S t a t e d d i f f e r e n t l y , t h o s e i n w o r s t n e e d o f h o u s i n g s h o u l d be h o u s e d f i r s t ; t h o s e who c a n a f f o r d t o h o u s e t h e m s e l v e s s h o u l d do s o ; t h e s u b s i d y must be k e p t s m a l l t o e n s u r e c o n t i n u i n g p u b l i c s u p p o r t o f t h e p u b l i c h o u s i n g c o n c e p t . P u b l i c h o u s i n g p o l i c y , t h e n , i s (a) t o l i m i t e l i g i b i l i t y b y e s t a b l i s h i n g minimum and maximum i n c o m e s f o r a p p l i c a n t s and (b) t o l i m i t s u b s i d y by r e l a t i n g r e n t t o income and need. L i m i t i n g e l i g i b i l i t y t o t h o s e w i t h a t l e a s t a "minimum Income" i s i n t e n d e d t o k e e p p u b l i c w e l f a r e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s c o m p a r t m e n t a l i z e d . T h a t I s , " s o c i a l a l l o w a n c e " s h o u l d be s u f f i c i e n t t o e n a b l e r e c i p i e n t s t o r e n t a d e q u a t e ( n o t l u x u r y ) - 107 -h o u s i n g f r o m p r i v a t e l a n d l o r d s . P u b l i c h o u s i n g s h o u l d n o t have to s u b s i d i z e i n a d e q u a t e " s o c i a l a l l o w a n c e " f i n a n c i n g . To p e r m i t i t t o do so c o n f u s e s two " w e l f a r e " a r e a s . L i m i t i n g e l i g i b i l i t y t o t h o s e w i t h n o t more t h a n a "maximum i n c o m e " i s i n t e n d e d t o r e s t r i c t p u b l i c h o u s i n g to t h o s e who need i t . "Maximum i n c o m e s " f o r p u b l i c h o u s i n g i s a n a l o g o u s t o "minimum i n c o m e s " f o r e l i g i b i l i t y f o r home b u i l d i n g l o a n s g u a r a n t e e d b y C.M.H.C. A l s o , k e e p i n g minimum and maximum income f a i r l y w e l l up t e n d s t o r e d u c e t h e c o s t t o t h e t a x p a y e r o f p u b l i c h o u s i n g . The more t e n a n t s who p a y a t l e a s t an "economic r e n t " ( r e n t c a l c u l a t e d as c o v e r i n g p e r u n i t s h a r e o f o p e r a t i n g a n d c o n s t r u c t i o n c o s t s ) , t h e l e s s t h e p r o j e c t as a whole makes a d e f i c i t o n a n n u a l o p e r a t i n g c o s t s . L i m i t i n g t h e amount o f s u b s i d y i s a c c o m p l i s h e d b y means o f v a r i o u s " r e n t s c a l e s " w h i c h u s u a l l y show a c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n r e n t and income and, more r e c e n t l y , a c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e i n c r e a s e o f n e e d w i t h t h e i n c r e a s e o f f a m i l y s i z e . I f L i t t l e M o u n t a i n h o u s e d o n l y t h o s e who a r e s m a l l income e a r n e r s o r who a r e r e c i p i e n t s o f one o r a n o t h e r f o r m o f p u b l i c a i d , t h e n p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s w o u l d be a s i m p l i f i e d t a s k . B o t h r e s i d e n t s o f t h e P r o j e c t and r e s i d e n t s o f t h e b r o a d e r community w o u l d u n d e r s t a n d e a s i l y t h a t t h o s e who l i v e d t h e r e were p e o p l e who n e e d e d p u b l i c h o u s i n g h e l p . However, f i f t y - t w o f a m i l i e s , o r a l m o s t o n e - f o u r t h o f the f a m i l i e s l i v i n g I n L i t t l e M o u n t a i n , have i n c o m e s o f $300.00 p e r month o r more. Some o f t h e s e f a m i l i e s have v o i c e d u n e a s i n e s s a b o u t l i v i n g i n L i t t l e - 108 -M o u n t a i n b e c a u s e t h e p u b l i c t h i n k s t h e y " a r e a l l p a u p e r s who p a y h a r d l y any r e n t . " On t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h e i r l e s s a f f l u e n t n e i g h b o u r s c o m p l a i n t h a t L i t t l e M o u n t a i n " s h o u l d n ' t be f o r p e o p l e who e a r n $2.00 p e r h o u r . " The f a m i l i e s w i t h more t h a n $300.00 income may r e t o r t t h a t t h e y " a r e s u b s i d i z i n g a l l t h o s e s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e f a m i l i e s . " And some have s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e y a r e " p a y i n g t w i c e f o r L i t t l e M o u n t a i n , once i n t a x e s and a g a i n i n h i g h e r r e n t s . " Many f a m i l i e s , b o t h p o o r and n o t so p o o r , c o m p l a i n t h a t " f a m i l y a l l o w a n c e i s f o r c h i l d r e n ' s s h o e s and m e d i c i n e s and s h o u l d n o t be c o n s i d e r e d i n f i g u r i n g r e n t s . " T h e s e v a r i o u s e x p r e s s i o n s e m p h a s i z e t h a t t h e " C a n a d i a n f o r m u l a " i s a c t u a l l y a good o n e — b e t t e r t h a n e x c l u d i n g m o d e r a t e l y h i g h e a r n e r s f r o m t h e b e n e f i t s o f community p r o v i s i o n ; i t , n e v e r t h e l e s s , p u t s a h i g h premium o n f u l l t e n a n t i n f o r m a t i o n . " P u b l i c " u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f p u b l i c h o u s i n g n e e d s t o be f u r t h e r e d so t h a t i t i s w i d e l y u n d e r s t o o d t h a t t h e h o u s i n g s h o r t a g e and t h e h i g h c o s t o f h o u s i n g a r e as i m p o r t a n t i n t h e s u b s i d i z e d b u i l d i n g o f h o u s i n g as i s l o w n e s s o f income. T h i s i s a d i f f i c u l t t a s k b e c a u s e many w i l l f e e l t h a t "anyone who e a r n s more t h a n I do c a n a f f o r d t o own a home." B u t i t i s n o t h o n e s t n o r p r o d u c t i v e t o "duck t h e q u e s t i o n , " "evade t h e i s s u e " b y l e t t i n g t h e t a x p a y e r s t h i n k t h e y h a v e b o u g h t h o u s i n g f o r p a u p e r s o n l y . I t i s n e c e s s a r y t o h e l p " l o w - i n c o m e " t e n a n t s see t h a t " h i g h - i n c o m e " t e n a n t s a r e n o t u n d e s e r v i n g i n t e r l o p e s b u t a p l a n n e d p a r t o f t h e p i c t u r e , r e d u c i n g o p e r a t i n g c o s t s and t h e r e b y m aking th e p r o j e c t f i n a n c i a l l y f e a s i b l e . P e r h a p s i f p r e s s u r e s o n " h i g h - i n c o m e " t e n a n t s f r o m b o t h s i d e s a r e r e d u c e d , t h e y w i l l - 109 -f e e l l e s s b i t t e r a b o u t t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h e y " s u b s i d i z e " l ow-income f a m i l i e s . C a r e f u l e x p l a n a t i o n t o them may h e l p them t o see t h a t t h o u g h t h e y e n j o y e d a v e r y f a v o u r a b l e and p r o t e c t e d s i t u a t i o n when t h e i r income was l o w e r and t h e y n e e d e d i t more, now t h a t t h e y a r e p a y i n g more r e n t , t h e y do g e t h o u s i n g c o m p a r a b l e to t h a t a v a i l a b l e o u t s i d e . Some l o w e r i n g o f c o s t o f p r i v a t e h o u s i n g f o r s a l e and r e n t may h e l p them, t o o , as s t i l l more p u b l i c h o u s i n g i s b u i l t . I t s h o u l d be f a i r l y e a s y t o e x p l a i n t o t e n a n t s t h a t F a m i l y A l l o w a n c e i s p a i d t o f a m i l i e s w i t h c h i l d r e n to h e l p them w i t h a l l c o s t s , i n c l u d i n g h o u s i n g . The "Carver-Hopwood" s c a l e does i n c l u d e F a m i l y A l l o w a n c e a n d does n o t p e r m i t d e d u c t i o n o f income t a x e s i n t h e c o m p u t a t i o n o f n e t in c o m e . Some o f t h e s e e x p l a n a t i o n s t o t e n a n t s m i g h t be made b y p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l . I t i s e s s e n t i a l t h a t t h e y be made. I t may a p p e a r t h a t t h e e l i g i b i l i t y a n d r e n t p o l i c y I s k e e p i n g some p e o p l e o u t who s h o u l d be i n w h i l e l e t t i n g i n some p e o p l e who s h o u l d be k e p t o u t . A c t u a l l y t h i s i s p r o b a b l y n o t th e c a s e . Many o f t h e o v e r #300.00 f a m i l i e s a r e l a r g e f a m i l i e s , and t h e p e r - p e r s o n income i s n o t h i g h a f t e r a l l . Owning t h e i r own home Would f o r many o f t h e s e p e o p l e . b e d i f f i c u l t o r i m p o s s i b l e . When i n s u r a n c e and t a x e s , r e p a i r s and u p k e e p , l a n d -s c a p i n g and f u r n i s h i n g a r e added o n t o payments o n p r i n c i p a l and i n t e r e s t , t h e r e a l c o s t o f home o w n e r s h i p s o o n a p p e a r s a s c o n -s i d e r a b l y h i g h e r t h a n o n e - f i f t h o f income. S e e n i n the p e r s p e c t i v e o f t h e whole P r o j e c t - p o p u l a t i o n , t h e e l i g i b i l i t y and r e n t p o l i c y i n u s e i n L i t t l e M o u n t a i n d o e s - 110 n o t o v e r e m p h a s i z e t h e h i g h e r i n c o m e s . A c t u a l l y , t h e numbers o f b r o k e n f a m i l i e s and f a m i l i e s w i t h a p a r t i a l l y d i s a b l e d wage-e a r n e r h a s b e e n , and s t i l l i s , i n c r e a s i n g . Some o f t h e r e a s o n p e r h a p s i s t h a t e l i g i b i l i t y m i n i ma and maxima have s t a y e d u n c h a n g e d i n a n i n f l a t i o n a r y p e r i o d so t h a t more o r d i n a r y w o r k i n g p e o p l e h a v e come t o e a r n m o n e t a r y wages h i g h e r t h a n t h e e n t r a n c e maximum f o r L i t t l e M o u n t a i n . A n o t h e r p a r t o f the r e a s o n i s t h a t b r o k e n f a m i l i e s t e n d more o f t e n t o s t a y i n L i t t l e M o u n t a i n w h i l e more o f t h o s e l e a v i n g a r e t w o - p a r e n t f a m i l i e s . I f t h e r e i s , i n f a c t , a t r e n d , i t c o u l d w e l l be a c c e p t e d as d e s i r a b l e . B u t f u r t h e r e x p e r i e n c e w i l l be n e e d e d t o e s t a b l i s h t h e f a c t s . A d m i s s i o n s P o l i c y A f t e r t h e a p p l i c a t i o n h a s b e e n made, an i n s p e c t i o n v i s i t i s made to t h e a p p l i c a n t ' s home. The home and s u r r o u n d i n g s a r e e v a l u a t e d i n r e g a r d t o s u c h f a c t o r s as o v e r c r o w d i n g , i n -a d e q u a c y o f h e a t i n g e q u i p m e n t , a b s e n c e o f s a f e and s u i t a b l e p l a y s p a c e f o r c h i l d r e n , o v e r l o n g d i s t a n c e f r o m p l a c e o f employment, p r e s e n c e o f smoke o r n o i s e n u i s a n c e s i n t h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d . 1 The i n s p e c t o r a s s i g n s p o i n t s t o t h e d w e l l i n g i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h i s e v a l u a t i o n , and i t i s t h i s p o i n t r a t i n g w h i c h p r o v i d e s t h e most s i g n i f i c a n t c r i t e r i o n f o r e n t r a n c e e l i g i b i l i t y . T h e s e a p p l i c a t i o n s , w i t h I n s p e c t i o n r e p o r t s , a r e c o n s i d e r e d b y t h e seven-member B o a r d o f H o u s i n g A u t h o r i t y and may be p a s s e d o n t o a w a i t i n g l i s t ( a b o u t J4.OO a p p l i c a t i o n s now). C r e d i t r a t i n g and 1 See A p p e n d i x D f o r c o p y o f t h e i n s p e c t i o n r e p o r t f o r m . 2 T h i s h a s b e e n d i s c u s s e d b y M i c h a e l W h e e l e r i n h i s t h e s i s , E v a l u a t i n g t h e Meed f o r L o w - R e n t a l H o u s i n g . M a s t e r o f S o c i a l Work t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1955* - I l l -e v a l u a t i o n o f h o u s e k e e p i n g a r e a l s o i m p o r t a n t c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . When a v a c a n c y o c c u r s , t h e H o u s i n g Manager c a n c o n s i d e r f o u r o f f i v e h i g h - p o i n t f a m i l i e s and i f t h e a p p l i c a t i o n s a r e n o t a y e a r o l d may g e t a new c r e d i t r a t i n g b u t o m i t a r e - i n s p e c t i o n . P r i o r i t y a s s i g n m e n t b y the H o u s i n g A u t h o r i t y I s a l w a y s done o n an i m p e r s o n a l b a s i s , a p p l i c a t i o n s and i n s p e c t i o n r e p o r t s b e i n g i d e n t i f i e d b y number o n l y . T h i s r u l e s o u t t h e p e r s o n a l , e m o t i o n a l f a c t o r and the n e c e s s i t y f o r B o a r d a c t i o n removes the p o s s i b i l i t y o f anyone b r i n g i n g p r e s s u r e to b e a r o n t h e manager o r i n d i v i d u a l b o a r d member f o r a d m i s s i o n o f a " p e t f a m i l y . " The R e n t - S c a l e As a l r e a d y e x p l a i n e d , t h e C a r v e r-Hopwood " p r o g r e s s i v e " r e n t - s c a l e i s b a s i c a l l y u s e d i n t h e L i t t l e M o u n t a i n P r o j e c t , and a d j u s t s r e n t a c c o r d i n g t o income and f a m i l y s i z e . 1 A f a m i l y o f t h r e e p e r s o n s and $300.00 p e r month income w i l l p a y more r e n t t h a n t h e same s i z e f a m i l y w i t h o n l y $200.00 income. And a f a m i l y o f t h r e e w i t h $200.00 p e r month w i l l p a y more r e n t t h a n a f i v Q - P Q r s o n f a m i l y w i t h t h e same i n c o m e . The C arver-Hopwood s c a l e i s r e l a t e d t o a C a n a d i a n s t a n d a r d o f l i v i n g s t u d y ; t h o u g h t h i s s t a n d a r d p r i m a r i l y was computed i n T o r o n t o , and t h e r e a r e c o n s t a n t p r o b l e m s i n t h e p o s t - w a r w o r l d i n c o n s i d e r i n g how f a r t h i s s h o u l d be k e p t u p - t o - d a t e w i t h c o n t i n u o u s l y r i s i n g p r i c e s . 1 The s c a l e now i n u s e d i f f e r s f r o m t h e o r i g i n a l C a r v e r -Hopwood s c a l e o n l y i n t h a t a r e v i s e d s e t o f minimum i n c o m e s f o r e n t r a n c e e l i g i b i l i t y a r e u s e d and a new s e t o f s e r v i c e c h a r g e c o m p u t a t i o n s a r e u s e d f o r t h e l o w e r income b r a c k e t s . " S e r v i c e c h a r g e " i s a misnomer f o r a c h a r g e l a i d a g a i n s t a p a r t m e n t - b l o c k t e n a n t s f o r h e a t , h o t w a t e r , and r e f r i g e r a t i o n . I t d o e s n o t a p p l y t o row-house t e n a n t s who must p r o v i d e t h e s e . " s e r v i c e s " t o t h e m s e l v e s . - 112 -I n g e n e r a l , t h i s a c c e p t s t h e w o r k i n g r u l e t h a t t h e amount a , f a m i l y c a n p a y f o r r e n t w i t h o u t r e d u c i n g i t s s t a n d a r d o f l i v i n g b e l o w a " d e c e n t and h e a l t h f u l " l e v e l i s a b o u t o n e - f i f t h o f i n -come. H i g h e r income f a m i l i e s c a n a f f o r d t o p a y a b i g g e r r e n t , b u t o n l y p r o p o r t i o n a l l y . T h i s i s t a k e n i n t o a c c o u n t i n t h e C a rver-Hopwood s c a l e t o t h e d e g r e e t h a t some r e n t s a p p r o a c h one-f o u r t h o f income w i t h f u r t h e r a l l o w a n c e f o r f a m i l y s i z e . C o n v e r s e l y , t h e r e a r e f a m i l i e s w i t h s u c h l o w i n c o m e s t h a t t h e y c a n n o t p a y o n e - f i f t h o f i t f o r r e n t w i t h o u t s u f f e r i n g o n f o o d and c l o t h i n g , e t c . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , f a m i l i e s who c a n a f f o r d t o p a y $75*00 o r more p e r month f o r r e n t ( i . e . , f a m i l i e s whose i n -come e q u a l s f i v e t i m e s s e v e n t y - f i v e o r more) c a n compete f o r r e n t a l h o u s i n g o n t h e p r i v a t e m a r k e t . U n d e r t h e p r e s e n t L i t t l e M o u n t a i n r e g u l a t i o n s , w h i c h a r e s t i l l b a s i c a l l y r e l a t e d t o t h e p r i n c i p l e s o f t h e C a r v e r -Hopwood s c a l e , t h e r e a r e b o t h minimum and maximum income l i m i t s f o r e l i g i b i l i t y t o e n t e r the P r o j e c t . P r e s e n t r e g u l a t i o n s f u r t h e r p r o v i d e t h a t t e n a n t s may s t a y i n t h e P r o j e c t i f t h e i r i n -comes s h o u l d r i s e b e y o n d the e n t r a n c e maximum. I n t h i s e v e n t t h e t e n a n t p a y s a r e n t s u r c h a r g e e q u a l t o t h i r t y p e r c e n t o f t h e amount b y w h i c h h i s income e x c e e d s t h e maximum. T h i s d e v e l o p m e n t i s one t h a t h a s b e e n n e c e s s i t a t e d b y t h e c o n t i n u o u s r i s e i n c o s t s and p r i c e s w h i c h h a s c h a r a c t e r i z e d t h e l a s t t e n o r t w e l v e y e a r s . The income c o n s i d e r e d i n u s i n g t h e C arver-Hopwood s c a l e i s t o t a l  n e t Income, and F a m i l y A l l o w a n c e must be i n c l u d e d . T h i s a p p e a r s t o be a s o r e s p o t w i t h many o f t h e f a m i l i e s l i v i n g i n L i t t l e M o u n t a i n . They a r g u e t h a t F a m i l y A l l o w a n c e i s s u p p o s e d t o be - 113 -s p e n t d i r e c t l y on t h e b e h a l f o f t h e c h i l d r e n o n s u c h i t e m s as c l o t h i n g and f o o d and i n s t e a d i s b e i n g " t a k e n away f r o m them" b y the H o u s i n g A u t h o r i t y . I t must be s a i d f l a t l y t h a t t h e r e was n e v e r any i n t e n t i o n t o e x c l u d e t h e u s e o f F a m i l y A l l o w a n c e f o r h o u s i n g ; and t h e o f f i c i a l v i e w o f t h e A u t h o r i t y t h a t F a m i l y A l l o w a n c e payments " a r e p r o v i d e d t o a s s i s t f a m i l i e s t o p a y f o r t h e i r h o u s i n g among o t h e r n e c e s s i t i e s , 1 , 1 i s q u i t e i n c o n t e s t a b l e . T h i s does n o t mean, however, t h a t t h e r e i s no n e e d f o r i n f o r m a t i o n , " i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , " and e d u c a t i o n . P e r h a p s more e f f o r t s h o u l d be t a k e n t o e x p l a i n t h e s t a n d a r d o f l i v i n g c o m p u t a t i o n o n w h i c h t h e r e n t - s c a l e was b a s e d and the i n c l u s i o n o f F a m i l y A l l o w a n c e . These a r e S o c i a l A d v a n t a g e s , m o r e o v e r , whose v a l u e s n e e d t o be k e p t a l i v e b y i n f o r m a t i o n and p e r h a p s d i s c u s s i o n . I t i s a d -v a n t a g e o u s t o have t e n a n t s w i t h a wide ra n g e o f i n c o m e s b e c a u s e i n t h i s r e s p e c t a t l e a s t , t h e t e n a n t s a r e n o t d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e p o p u l a t i o n i n t h e s u r r o u n d i n g p r i v a t e - f a m i l y h o u s i n g a r e a . From t h e t a x p a y e r s 1 p o i n t o f v i e w , i t i s a d v a n t a g e o u s t o h a v e r e a l t i v e l y h i g h - i n c o m e f a m i l i e s i n t h e P r o j e c t t o o f f s e t t h e l e s s t h a n " e c o n o m i c r e n t s " p a i d b y l ow-income f a m i l i e s . Pay-ments o f more t h a n an e c o n o m i c r e n t b y some r e d u c e s t h e amount r e q u i r e d t o s u b s i d i z e t h e o v e r a l l p u b l i c h o u s i n g o p e r a t i o n . However t h i s may b e , t h e " p r o g r e s s i v e " r e n t - s c a l e , c e r t a i n l y t h e s u r c h a r g e f e a t u r e d w i t h i t , a p p e a r as d i s a d v a n t a g e s t o t h e t e n a n t w i t h r e l a t i v e l y h i g h i n c o m e . He c o m p l a i n s t h a t he 1 C e n t r a l M o r t g a g e and H o u s i n g C o r p o r a t i o n , M a n u a l f o r  G u i d a n c e o f H o u s i n g A u t h o r i t i e s ; " A d m i n i s t r a t i o n T " 1953. - 1 1 4 -i s " s u b s i d i z i n g t h e s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e f a m i l i e s " o r t h a t he i s " p a y i n g t w i c e f o r p u b l i c h o u s i n g , once i n t a x e s and a g a i n i n h i g h r e n t . " A n o t h e r c o m p l a i n s he w i l l n e v e r be a b l e t o s a v e , o r " g e t a h e a d o f t h e game," b e c a u s e a f i v e d o l l a r r a i s e c a u s e s a t h r e e d o l l a r i n c r e a s e i n r e n t . " B u t t h e r e a r e a n a l o g u e s h e r e — b etween t h e home owner who p u t s i n i m p r o v e m e n t s , o n l y t o be a s s e s s e d w i t h h i g h e r m u n i c i p a l t a x e s , o r t h e e a r n e r whose s a l a r y h a s gone up, o n l y t o f i n d t h a t he must p a y more income t a x — w h i c h w o u l d a t l e a s t be w o r t h d i s c u s s i n g . I t s t i l l r e m a i n s t o be c r e d i t e d t h a t t h e t e n a n t g e t s e x c e l l e n t h o u s i n g f o r a p r i c e he c a n a f f o r d t o p a y . The A u t h o r i t y , i n t u r n , g e t s t h e g r e a t e s t p o s s i b l e income t h a t i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h a g ood s t a n d a r d o f l i v i n g f o r t h e t e n a n t s . 1 P e r h a p s i t n e e d s t o be r e - e m p h a s i z e d t h a t e l i g i b i l i t i e s and r e n t - s c a l e s , w h e t h e r i n r e l a t i o n to income o r f a m i l y s i z e o r b o t h , must be so managed as t o r e t a i n an e m p h a s i s o n l o w r e n t i n p u b l i c h o u s i n g . The f a c t s a r e t h a t t o o many p e o p l e e a r n too l i t t l e , and t o o many h o u s e s c o s t t o o much. L o w - r e n t h o u s i n g p o l i c y i s more n e c e s s a r y t h a n e v e r ; i n d e e d , c o n c e p t s o f "low r e n t " now a r e h i g h e r t h a n t h e y e v e r w e r e i B u t t h e o t h e r f a c e o f t h e p r o b l e m must be e x a m i n e d t o o . Low r e n t s a r e n o t e c o n o m i c r e n t s , do n o t p a y t h e l i v i n g u n i t s s h a r e o f c o s t s . As c o n c e i v e d a t p r e s e n t , s o - c a l l e d " l o w - r e n t " p r o j e c t s must i n c l u d e a f a i r 1 I t c a n be a r g u e d t h a t one o f the d i s a d v a n t a g e s o f t h e t r a d i t i o n a l r e n t - s c a l e i s t h a t t h e income o f t h e p r o j e c t c a n n o t be e a s i l y f o r e c a s t ( a s compared w i t h g r a d e d r e n t s , where e a c h u n i t h a s a f i x e d r e n t ) . O v e r a p e r i o d o f t i m e w i t h h o u s i n g ex-p e r i e n c e , however, i t i s d o u b t f u l i f t h i s p r o b l e m i s b e y o n d p r e s e n t - d a y b u d g e t i n g s k i l l s . - 115 -p r o p o r t i o n o f h i g h r e n t ( w h i c h may p a y more t h a n t h e l i v i n g u n i t ' s s h a r e o f c o s t s ) . T h e s e h i g h r e n t s ( r e l a t i v e l y ) h e l p t o b a l a n c e o f f t h e l o s s i n v o l v e d i n low r e n t s and r e d u c e t h e amount b y xvhich t a x p a y e r s must s u b s i d i z e t h e p r o j e c t . T h i s i s n e c e s s a r y f o r t a x p a y e r a c c e p t a n c e o f p u b l i c h o u s i n g , and i t may, nowadays, be u n f o r t u n a t e l y n e c e s s a r y f o r modern w e l f a r e p o l i c y i n h o u s i n g . I t d o e s , however, make p o s s i b l e more m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g s . N e a r l y e v e r y o n e , p u b l i c h o u s i n g t e n a n t s and g e n e r a l p u b l i c a l i k e , w o u l d u n d e r s t a n d and s y m p a t h i z e w i t h p u b l i c h o u s i n g w h i c h was r e s t r i c t e d t o s o c i a l a l l o w a n c e r e c i p i e n t s and e a r n e r s o f v e r y l o w wages. B u t i s t h i s f e a s i b l e ? And i s i t any l o n g e r r e a s o n a b l e ? When h i g h e r r e n t s and s e l f - s u p p o r t i n g c i t i z e n s a r e i n v o l v e d , i t becomes e s s e n t i a l f o r management t o g i v e a d e q u a t e e x p l a n a t i o n t o b o t h l o w - r e n t and h i g h - r e n t t e n a n t s and t o t h e p u b l i c as w e l l , so t h a t a l l w i l l u n d e r s t a n d h o u s i n g p o l i c y and a c c e p t t h e e x i s t e n c e o f h i g h r e n t s . The " C a n a d i a n f o r m u l a " ( a s t h e C a r v e r-Hopwood p r o g r e s s i v e r e n t - s c a l e may be c a l l e d ) I s r e a l l y s o m e t h i n g o f a n i n n o v a t i o n ; and L i t t l e M o u n t a i n and o t h e r V a n c o u v e r p r o j e c t s may n e e d t o c o l l a t e some o f t h e e x p l a n a t o r y s t a t e m e n t s f o r p u b l i c u s e . P o r example P r o f e s s o r R o s e ' s r e m a r k s , t h e c o m p r e h e n s i v e r e p o r t o n t h e R e g e n t P a r k P r o j e c t , a r e a p p r o p r i a t e : " T h e r e a r e some i n d i v i d u a l s o r f a m i l i e s i n e x t r e m e l y p o o r c i r c u m s t a n c e s , sup-p o r t e d e n t i r e l y by p u b l i c a s s i s t a n c e p a yments. T h e r e a r e some i n d i v i d u a l s o r f a m i l i e s who a r e r e l a t i v e l y w e l l o f f ; who c a n save s u f f i c i e n t money t o p u r c h a s e a home o r an a u t o m o b i l e I f t h e y w i s h . Most f a m i l i e s a r e i n more m o d e r a t e c i r c u m s t a n c e s . - 116 -A l l t h e s e f a m i l i e s o r i n d i v i d u a l s l i v e s i d e b y s i d e i n t h e accommodation t h e y r e q u i r e y e t p a y a r e n t i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e i r income and f a m i l y s i z e ; the r e n t s p a i d f o r a d j a c e n t d w e l l i n g s may, i n d e e d , v a r y c o n s i d e r a b l y . " 1 T h i s d i v e r s i t y o f f i n a n c i a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s may be a h e a l t h y t h i n g f o r t h e p r o j e c t , b u t o n l y i f i t i s c a r e f u l l y managed so t h a t h a r d f e e l i n g s a r e a v o i d e d . I n c l u s i o n o f h i g h - i n c o m e f a m i l i e s may r a i s e l o c a l q u e s t i o n s w i t h i n t h e p r o j e c t o r i n the n e i g h b o u r h o o d . I t may be f e l t t h a t h i g h - i n c o m e t e n a n t s o c c u p y h o u s i n g " t h e y d o n ' t r e a l l y n e e d , " t h e r e b y k e e p i n g o u t some t e n a n t s who s h o u l d be l e t i n . P r o b a b l y t h i s i s o n l y a c a s e o f d e c e p t i v e a p p e a r a n c e s as many o f t h e s e " h i g h - i n c o m e " t e n a n t s h a v e l a r g e f a m i l i e s . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e i r i n c o m e s a r e " h i g h " o n l y i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e " l o w n e s s " o f i n c o m e s common among t h e r e s t o f t h e p r o j e c t p o p u l a t i o n . I t i s e x c e p t i o n a l f o r t h e income to be l a r g e enough t o p e r m i t t h e i r u n d e r t a k i n g a home-ownership m o r t g a g e , when p r e s e n t c o s t s a r e b a r e l y w i t h i n t h e r e a c h o f t h e t o p income t h i r d o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n . A c t u a l l y " h i g h - i n c o m e " f a m i l i e s c o m p r i s e o n l y o n e -f i f t h o f t h e t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n o f t h e P r o j e c t . "Low-income" f a m i l i e s s t i l l p r e d o m i n a t e ; and among t h e s e , b r o k e n f a m i l i e s and f a m i l i e s w i t h a p a r t i a l l y d i s a b l e d w a g e - e a r n e r a r e o n the i n -c r e a s e . As a l r e a d y s u g g e s t e d , t h i s may be d e s i r a b l e b e y o n d 1 Rose, A l b e r t , R e g e n t P a r k . U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o P r e s s ; T o r o n t o ; 1958,* P» 189. ~" - 117 -argument. I t may b e , i n o t h e r w o rds, t h a t t h e s e f a m i l i e s , i f t h e y were f o r c e d t o depend o n "what t h e y c a n f i n d a r o u n d t h e c i t y " — m e a n i n g n a m e l y what t h e y c a n a f f o r d ( t h e v a r i o u s e x -p e d i e n t s and i n a d e q u a c i e s w h i c h have b e e n r e v e a l e d so c l e a r l y i n t h e e v i d e n c e o f t h e o r i g i n a l a p p l i c a t i o n s 1 ) — w o u l d be t h e most i l l - h o u s e d f a m i l i e s i n the community. I t i s t h i s s i t u a t i o n w h i c h L i t t l e M o u n t a i n i s d e s i g n e d t o a v o i d . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o c o n s i d e r i n an e n l i g h t e n e d v e i n t h e c l a i m o f l a r g e f a m i l i e s t o l o w - r e n t a l h o u s i n g p r i v i l e g e s . I n o t h e r words, t h e b a l a n c e o f t h e v a r i o u s l o w-income g r o u p s i n t h e community c o n t i n u e s t o demand r e v i e w . The f a c t s a r e r a r e l y s u f f i c i e n t l y a v a i l a b l e , b u t p u b l i c h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s a r e h i g h l y i m p o r t a n t b a r o m e t e r s . V a n c o u v e r i s n o t y e t a c c u s t o m e d t o t h e s o c i a l w e l f a r e r e s o u r c e s w h i c h i t h a s now e s t a b l i s h e d , and i s i n p r o c e s s o f e x p a n d i n g . The p r e s e n t s u r v e y i s o n l y a b e g i n n i n g i n what s h o u l d become a s e r i e s o f s t u d i e s , c o o r d i n a t e d w i t h t h e Community C h e s t ( j u s t a b o u t to e s t a b l i s h i t s own r e s e a r c h d e p a r t m e n t ) , t h e S o c i a l S e r v i c e s D e p a r t m e n t s o f t h e C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r and a d j a c e n t m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , and o t h e r h e a l t h a n d w e l f a r e a g e n c i e s . One s u g g e s t i o n i s c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o t h e r e n t - s c a l e and t o t h e a d m i s s i o n p o l i c y . G i v e n an e l i g i b i l i t y " f r a m e " o f minimum and maximum i n c o m e s , t h e r e i s s t i l l a l o t o f room f o r manoeuver w i t h i n t h e a d m i s s i o n s p o l i c y . I n t h e f i r s t y e a r s o f 1 W h e e l e r , M i c h a e l , E v a l u a t i n g t h e Need f o r L o w - R e n t a l H o u s i n g . M a s t e r o f S o c i a l Work t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1955. - 118 -t h e P r o j e c t , t h e p o l i c y was t o a d m i t l o w - i n c o m e f a m i l i e s i n r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l numbers, b u t n o t t o a d m i t f a m i l i e s who were s u p p o r t e d b y s o c i a l a l l o w a n c e . T h i s p o l i c y h a s b e e n c h a n g i n g t o a l l o w a h e a v i e r p r o p o r t i o n o f l ow-income t e n a n t s and t o a l l o w some s o c i a l a l l o w a n c e r e c i p i e n t s . The i n c r e a s e i n numbers o f b r o k e n homes ( o n l y one p a r e n t ) i s a n i n d i c a t i o n o f t h i s . Some p e o p l e b e l i e v e t h i s h a s l o w e r e d the t o n e o f t h e P r o j e c t . Some o f t h e h i g h e r income g r o u p s f a v o u r a r e t u r n t o t h e s t r i c t e r a d m i s s i o n p o l i c i e s t o "keep o u t the r i f f - r a f f . " The h i g h e r income g r o u p a l s o s e e s as d e s i r a b l e a downward r e v i s i o n o f r e n t s o r a t l e a s t t h e f i x i n g o f a maximum r e n t w h i c h w o u l d n o t i n c r e a s e b e y o n d a c e r t a i n amount e v e n i f income d i d i n c r e a s e . A number o f p e o p l e , b o t h r e t i r e d c o u p l e s and y o u n g e r c o u p l e s , o b j e c t e d t o a r u l i n g a f f e c t i n g m o s t l y o l d e r c o u p l e s . A c c o r d i n g t o t h i s r u l e , i f one o f t h e c o u p l e d i e s , t h e s u r v i v o r must move o u t b e c a u s e L i t t l e M o u n t a i n h a s no f a c i l i t i e s f o r s i n g l e p e r s o n s . The r e t i r e d c o u p l e s i n t e r v i e w e d i n t h i s s t u d y f e e l t h a t t h e i r p r e s e n t s u i t e i s "home," and t h e y want t o s t a y where t h e y a r e u n t i l t h e y d i e . R u l e s do n o t p e r m i t t h i s . The r a t i o n a l e f o r t h i s r u l i n g must be t h a t w i t h s u c h a s e v e r e h o u s i n g s h o r t a g e i t w o u l d be w a s t e f u l t o p e r m i t t h e s u r v i v o r t o o c c u p y l i v i n g s p a c e w h i c h c o u l d house two p e r s o n s . The l a t e s t r e n t -s c a l e r e v i s i o n f r o m C e n t r a l M o r t g a g e and H o u s i n g C o r p o r a t i o n i n c l u d e s income e l i g i b i l i t y f i g u r e s and r e n t amounts f o r s i n g l e p e r s o n s , so i t i s to be h o p e d t h a t a more humane p o l i c y w i l l become a c c e p t a b l e f o r O r c h a r d P a r k . - 119 -L a n d l o r d and T e n a n t R e l a t i o n s L a n d l o r d and t e n a n t " r e l a t i o n s " i n g e n e r a l i m p l i e s a c e r t a i n amount o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o n t h e p a r t o f b o t h . The r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n a p u b l i c H o u s i n g A u t h o r i t y and i t s t e n a n t s c l e a r l y r a i s e s p e c i a l a s p e c t s o f t h i s and a r e no e x c e p t i o n . I t may be w e l l , a t t h e o u t s e t , t o r e f e r s e p a r a t e l y t o m a t t e r s w h i c h a r e more d i r e c t l y t h e " b u s i n e s s s i d e " o f t h e e q u a t i o n , and t h o s e w h i c h b e l o n g to t h e "human s i d e . " B o t h , o f c o u r s e , a r e i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t s o f good management. P o r t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f b o t h p a r t i e s , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o d e f i n e i n d e t a i l t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f b o t h . T h i s i s done b y means o f t h e l e a s e , a l e g a l document r e q u i r i n g t h e s i g n a t u r e s o f t h e t e n a n t and r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h e H o u s i n g A u t h o r i t y . R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , however, b e g i n b e f o r e t h e s i g n i n g o f t h e l e a s e . I n c o m p l e t i n g an a p p l i c a t i o n f o r h o u s i n g i n c o m e - s t a t e m e n t , t h e p r o s p e c t i v e t e n a n t u n d e r t a k e s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e a c c u r a c y o f t h e i n f o r m a t i o n he i s g i v i n g . The A u t h o r i t y u n d e r t a k e s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the p r o p e r use o f t h a t c o n f i d e n t i a l i n f o r m a t i o n . I t i s t h e A u t h o r i t y ' s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o be s u r e t h a t t e n a n t s u n d e r s t a n d t h e terms and i m p o r t a n c e o f a l l documents t h e y s i g n , i n c l u d i n g t h e l e a s e a g r e e m e n t . The l e a s e i n c l u d e s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f t h e t e n a n t s to g i v e n o t i c e b e f o r e v a c a t i n g t h e d w e l l i n g and t e r m i n a t i n g t h e l e a s e . The amount o f r e n t and t h e p l a c e a n d t i m e o f payment a r e a l s o s p e l l e d o u t . Normal wear and t e a r i s o f f i c i a l l y r e c o g n i z e d and a p p r o v e d b y t h e l e a s e , e v e n t h o u g h i t i s n o t d e f i n e d . The t e n a n t i s f o r b i d d e n t o s u b l e t any p o r t i o n o f the d w e l l i n g o r t o t a k e i n l o d g e r s o r r o o m e r s . He - 120 -may n o t make a l t e r a t i o n s o r i m p r o v e m e n t s . He i s r e q u i r e d t o t a k e good c a r e o f p l u m b i n g , h e a t i n g , l i g h t i n g , and r e f r i g e r a t i n g e q u i p m e n t , and must p a y f o r r e p a i r s o t h e r t h a n t h o s e o c c a s i o n e d b y n o r m a l wear and t e a r . The t e n a n t i s h e l d r e s p o n s i b l e f o r window b r e a k a g e . To g i v e w e i g h t t o a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r u l i n g s , t o make i t p o s s i b l e t o e n f o r c e them, t h e A u t h o r i t y c o l l e c t s a de-p o s i t f r o m new t e n a n t s . When t h e t e n a n t g i v e s n o t i c e f o r t e r m i n a t i o n o f t e n a n c y , t h e d w e l l i n g i s i n s p e c t e d . I f t h e p r e m i s e s have n o t b e e n a b u s e d b u t show n o r m a l wear and t e a r o n l y , t h e d e p o s i t i s r e t u r n e d t o t h e t e n a n t . The A u t h o r i t y , t o o , must g i v e n o t i c e i f i t d e s i r e s t o t e r m i n a t e t h e l e a s e , t o e v i c t t h e t e n a n t . The A u t h o r i t y i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r " l a n d l o r d " r e p a i r . T h i s c o v e r s n o r m a l wear and t e a r , t h e b r e a kdown o f e q u i p m e n t f o r c a u s e s n o t t r a c e a b l e t o t e n a n t s ' abuse o r n e g l e c t , f o r b r e a k a g e n o t c a u s e d b y t e n a n t s . T e n a n t s may n o t k e e p dogs o r c a t s and may k e e p b i r d s o n l y w i t h t h e p e r m i s s i o n o f t h e manager. T h i s r u l i n g a b o u t p e t s u n d o u b t e d l y c a u s e s c o n c e r n and some h a r d s h i p . What i s t h e f a m i l y t o do w i t h i t s dog o r c a t when i t e n t e r s L i t t l e M o u n t a i n ? The s t e r e o t y p e r u n s , "what i s a b o y w i t h o u t a d o g ? " I t c o u l d be s a i d , "what i s a c h i l d w i t h o u t a k i t t e n ? " T h e r e a r e , o n t h e o t h e r hand, the o b v i o u s s a n i t a r y o b j e c t i o n s a g a i n s t t h e s h a r e d use o f t h e same la w n s by dogs and p e o p l e . I t i s to be n o t e d t h a t f o r b i d d i n g o f p e t s i s n o t a u n i v e r s a l r u l i n g I n p u b l i c h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s . W i t h a few d e f i n i t e r u l e s , t h e S e a t t l e H o u s i n g - 121 -A u t h o r i t y i s c o m p l e t e l y p e r m i s s i v e . T e n a n t s ' r i g h t s became a m a j o r i s s u e i n T o r o n t o ' s Regent P a r k 2 on the s u b j e c t o f t e l e v i s i o n . I t was p e r h a p s more o f a n o v e l t y i n 1950» A c c o r d i n g t o t h e R u l e s and R e g u l a t i o n s , o u t s i d e TV a n t e n n a e were p r o h i b i t e d ; t h e y made an u n s i g h t l y a p p e a r a n c e , and TV i t s e l f was n o t f o r t h e u n d e r p r i v i l e g e d , s u g g e s t e d some o f t h e c r i t i c s . I t was a r g u e d b y o t h e r s t h a t a f a m i l y ' s Income s h o u l d be a v a i l a b l e f o r any e x p e n d i t u r e t h e y wanted t o make p r o v i d i n g t h e i r r e n t was p a i d . The w h e e l s o f p r o g r e s s c o u l d n o t be h a l t e d , however; t e l e v i s i o n a n t e n n a e o f a l l d e s c r i p t i o n s s p r o u t e d f r o m r o o f s o v e r n i g h t l i k e mushrooms a f t e r a r a i n . I n t h e i n t e r e s t s o f s a f e t y and a p p e a r a n c e , t h e A u t h o r i t y d i d what h a d b e e n e a r l i e r r e q u e s t e d and p e r m i t t e d t h e i n s t a l l a t i o n o f a m a s t e r a n t e n n a t o w h i c h t e n a n t s i n e a c h b u i l d i n g c o u l d c o n n e c t . T h u s , t e l e v i s i o n came t o p u b l i c h o u s i n g . I n t h i s u n p l e a s a n t f a s h i o n t h e T o r o n t o H o u s i n g A u t h o r i t y 1 S e a t t l e H o u s i n g A u t h o r i t y , Y o u r G u i d e t o L i v i n g a t Y e s l e r  T e r r a c e , p . 5* "You may k e e p a dog o r c a t b u t f i r s t g e t a P e t P e r m i t f r o m t h e o f f i c e (as r e q u i r e d b y y o u r l e a s e ) , and be s u r e y o u r p e t i s l i c e n s e d as r e q u i r e d b y C i t y O r d i n a n c e . Keep y o u r p e t s i n d o o r a t n i g h t and remember t h a t S e a t t l e ' s L e a s h Law r e -q u i r e s a l l dogs t o be o n l e a s h when t h e y a r e o f f y o u r own p r e m i s e s . " 2 R o s e , A l b e r t , R e g e n t P a r k . U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o P r e s s ; T o r o n t o ; 1958? P« 173. 3 T h i s was s t i l l a s t i c k i n g p o i n t w i t h C.M.H.C. a t the t i m e o f L i t t l e M o u n t a i n c o n s t r u c t i o n and no m a s t e r a n t e n n a e were i n -s t a l l e d . L a t e r , however, t h e A u t h o r i t y c o n c l u d e d a c o n t r a c t w i t h a p r i v a t e f i r m , a g r e e i n g t h a t no o t h e r f i r m s h o u l d be p e r m i t t e d t o e r e c t a n t e n n a e and t h a t t e n a n t s w o u l d be p r e v e n t e d f r o m e r e c t i n g them p r i v a t e l y . E i g h t m a s t e r a n t e n n a e now s p r o u t f r o m L i t t l e M o u n t a i n r o o f s . Some t e n a n t s o b j e c t to hookup c h a r g e s b e c a u s e t h e y c a n g e t good r e c e p t i o n o f two o r t h r e e c h a n n e l s b y use o f s o - c a l l e d " r a b b i t e a r " a n t e n n a e . - 122 d i s c o v e r e d t h a t t h e r i g h t o f t e n a n t s t o d e c i d e how t o s p e n d t h e i r money c a n be c i r c u m s c r i b e d o n l y t o a n e x t e n t . M a i n t e n a n c e an d A p p e a r a n c e M a i n t e n a n c e i s a n i m p o r t a n t i s s u e i n p u b l i c h o u s i n g management, and t h e r e a r e two s c h o o l s o f t h o u g h t - - o n e , t h a t t o s e c u r e e f f i c i e n c y a l l work s h o u l d be done b y p a i d s t a f f ; t h e o t h e r , t h a t c o o p e r a t i o n i n some k i n d s o f m a i n t e n a n c e ( e . g . , c l e a n i n g , g a r d e n i n g ) d e v e l o p s th e i n t e r s t and " s e n s e o f b e l o n g i n g " o f t e n a n t s and a l s o h e l p s t o k e e p down c o s t s . I t may be a r g u e d t h a t p u b l i c h o u s i n g i s "on p a r a d e " c o n s t a n t l y ; i t s h o u l d be k e p t n e a t and c l e a n as p a r t o f p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s . P e r h a p s t h e p u b l i c shows l i t t l e d i r e c t i n t e r e s t i n p u b l i c h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s and i s unaware o f t h e l e v e l o f p r o j e c t " h o u s e k e e p i n g . " B u t t h i s c o u l d be d e v e l o p e d . Some p u b l i c h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s i n U.S. c i t i e s a r e p r o u d l y a d v e r t i s e d "show-p l a c e s " i n t h e community. N a t u r a l l y t h i s demands a b u d g e t and a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount o f c o o p e r a t i o n . The P a r k s B o a r d c o u l d be an i n v a l u a b l e a l l y i n s u p p l y i n g a d v i c e and p e r h a p s p l a n t i n g s t o make a h o u s i n g p r o j e c t a r e a l a d v e r t i s e m e n t . C e r t a i n l y , s u c h a programme c o u l d n o t hope t o be s u c c e s s f u l w i t h o u t t h e i n v o l v e m e n t o f t h e t e n a n t s . A t L i t t l e M o u n t a i n , b u d g e t m i n d e d n e s s p r e v a i l e d and o r i g i n a l l a n d s c a p i n g p l a n s were c u t b a c k a number o f t i m e s w i t h p r e s e n t l a n d s c a p i n g p r o v i d e d f o r i n t h e " s h o e - s t r i n g " c o n s t r u c t i o n b u d g e t . M a i n t e n a n c e o f the g r o u n d s i s h a n d l e d b y t h e r e g u l a r m a i n t e n a n c e crew, and t e n a n t i n v o l v e m e n t i s m i n i m a l l y r e p r e s e n t e d b y a few f l o w e r - b o x and d o o r - s t e p p l a n t i n g s . - 123 -A t L i t t l e M o u n t a i n , t h e r e s i d e n t m a i n t e n a n c e s t a f f t a k e s c a r e o f a n u m b e r o f r e p a i r s w h i c h a r e w i t h i n t h e i r s c o p e a s r e g a r d s t o o l s a n d s k i l l s . P l u m b i n g s t o p p a g e s , l o c k r e p l a c e -m e n t s , t h e r e p a i r o f b r o k e n w i n d o w s a r e t y p i c a l o f j o b s h a n d l e d b y t h e m a i n t e n a n c e s t a f f . C o m m e r c i a l r e p a i r c o m p a n i e s t a k e c a r e o f f u r n a c e a n d r e f r i g e r a t o r r e p a i r . N a t u r a l l y , t h e d e g r e e o f m a i n t e n a n c e v a r i e s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e k i n d o f a c c o m m o d a t i o n . T h e r o w h o u s e s c o m e c l o s e r t o b e i n g s e l f - c o n t a i n e d u n i t s . T h e s e a r e t w o s t o r y b u i l d i n g s w i t h b a s e m e n t t o a t t i c . E a c h r o w - h o u s e t e n a n t h a s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r h i s e n t i r e l i v i n g u n i t , i n c l u d i n g i t s o w n i n d e p e n d e n t h e a t i n g , p l a n t a n d r e f r i g e r a t o r . I n t h e a p a r t m e n t b l o c k s , f r o n t a n d r e a r e n t r a n c e h a l l s a r e c o m m o n t o a l l t e n a n t s i n t h e b l o c k . R e f r i g e r a t o r a n d h e a t i n g d e v i c e s b o t h r u n f r o m c e n t r a l u n i t s . B e c a u s e o f t h e s e f a c i l i t i e s i n c o m m o n , t h e A u t h o r i t y t a k e s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r m o r e o f t h e m a i n t e n a n c e , a n d t h e A u t h o r i t y ' s m a i n t e n a n c e c r e w s t a k e c a r e o f c l e a n i n g t h e b a s e m e n t s a n d e n t r a n c e h a l l s . T a b l e 6 s h o w s t h e m a i n t e n a n c e r e c o r d f o r a t y p i c a l y e a r o f P r o j e c t o p e r a t i o n . A v e r a g e d o u t , t h e s e 553 c a l l s r e p r e s e n t a b o u t t w o a n d o n e - h a l f c a l l s p e r l i v i n g u n i t ( o r o n e c a l l p e r u n i t e a c h f o u r a n d o n e - h a l f m o n t h s ) . O n t h e w h o l e , t h i s i s a v e r y g o o d r e c o r d a n d f a l l s d o w n o n l y i n r e g a r d t o w i n d o w b r e a k a g e f o r w h i c h a b o u t $20.00 p e r m o n t h m u s t b e b u d g e t t e d f o r g l a s s ( l a b o u r n o t i n c l u d e d ) . T h i s i s m u c h t h e s a m e s i t u a t i o n a s o b t a i n e d i n s c h o o l s , a l s o p l a c e s w i t h a h i g h c h i l d p o p u l a t i o n , - 12if -where g l a s s b r e a k a g e i s l o o k e d o n as a n a t u r a l c o n s e q u e n c e . Some o f t h i s g l a s s b r e a k a g e r e p r e s e n t s the s e e k i n g o f t h e n e g l e c t e d c h i l d f o r a t t e n t i o n . Some, t o o , r e p r e s e n t s t h e a g g r e s s i v e e x p r e s s i o n o f a w r a t h f u l c h i l d s t r i k i n g b a c k a t p l a y -mates who e x c l u d e him, p a r e n t s who dominate h i m , o r a u t h o r i t y i n >ar ( L i t t l e M o u n t a i n , 1958) I t e m Number P.O. E l e c t r i c s t o v e s I/48 26.7 P l u m b i n g 99 18.0 H e a t i n g 75 13.5 L o c k s ( r e p l a c e d ) 55 39 10.0 Windows ( c h a r g e d t o a c c i d e n t s ) 43 7.8 R e f r i g e r a t o r s 223 4 .1 L i g h t f i x t u r e s , e t c . 20 3.6 Hot w a t e r t a n k s 5 1.0 L a u n d r y t r a y c r a c k s 13 2.3 M i s c e l l a n e o u s 72 13.0 T o t a l 553 100 g e n e r a l . A s m a l l amount o f b r e a k a g e i s due t o c h i l d r e n who do n o t l i v e i n t h e P r o j e c t . The manager s t a t e s t h a t f r e q u e n t l y o l d e r c h i l d r e n b r e a k i n g a window d u r i n g b a l l p l a y i n g may t a k e up an o n - t h e - s p o t c o l l e c t i o n and b r i n g h i m t h i r t y - f i v e c e n t s . T h i s d o e s n o t c o v e r t h e c o s t , b u t i s a p p r e c i a t e d as an e x p r e s s i o n q u i t e i n c o n t r a s t t o w i l f u l b r e a k a g e . T h i s same r e m a r k a b l e c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s shown b y some ' t e e n - a g e r s who, i n s p r i n g t i m e , come t o a s k i f - 125 -a g r a s s y p l o t i s d r y enough n o t t o be m i r e d by t h e i r f i r s t b a s e -b a l l games. Mos t o f t h e w i l f u l d e s t r u c t i o n i s done b y s m a l l c h i l d r e n , f i v e t o e l e v e n y e a r s o l d , who a r e n o t w e l l s u p e r v i s e d . Sometimes, w i r e d g l a s s panes a r e u s e d to r e p l a c e p a n e s b r o k e n t o o o f t e n ; and when e v e n t h e s e a r e m e t h o d i c a l l y hammered o u t , a s h e e t o f p l y w o o d i s t r i e d . A d m i t t e d l y , t h i s s o r t o f t h i n g , t h o u g h t r o u b l e s o m e , i s r a r e . G e n e r a l F a c i l i t i e s I t was d i f f i c u l t f o r many o f t h e p e r s o n s i n t e r v i e w e d i n the s u r v e y t o v o i c e any o p i n i o n s t h a t sounded c r i t i c a l o f any a s p e c t o f t h e P r o j e c t . T h i s seemed t o be t r u e w h e t h e r t h e o p i n i o n h a d t o do w i t h t h e l i v i n g u n i t , t h e g r o u n d s , t h e n e i g h b o u r s , o r t h e management. A s k i n g f o r s u g g e s t i o n s f o r im-p r o v i n g any f u t u r e p r o j e c t s was a more s u c c e s s f u l t e c h n i q u e i n e l i c i t i n g u s a b l e c r i t i c i s m . R e p l i e s g r o u p , g e n e r a l l y , a r o u n d t h r e e a s p e c t s o f L i t t l e M o u n t a i n and p u b l i c h o u s i n g . These a r e (a) i n t e r i o r d e s i g n , (b) e x t e r i o r d e s i g n , and ( c ) p o l i c y . They w i l l be d i s c u s s e d b e l o w . (a) I n t e r i o r D e s i g n : T h i s s u b j e c t s e p a r a t e s i n t o two p a r t s , l i v i n g u n i t s n o t r e q u i r i n g s t r u c t u r a l change, and i mprovements to be i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o p l a n s f o r new p r o j e c t s . About h a l f (23 p e r s o n s ) s a y t h a t more f r e q u e n t i n t e r i o r r e d e c o r a t i n g i s n e c e s s a r y . Knowledge o f t h e ways i n w h i c h e f f i c i e n t h o u s e d e s i g n c a n s i m p l i f y h o u s e k e e p i n g i s e x p r e s s e d when h o u s e w i v e s s a y t h e y want a t r u l y w a s h a b l e enamel w a l l f i n i s h and l i n o l e u m o n c h i l d r e n ' s bedroom f l o o r s . Some h o u s e w i v e s who p r e f e r l a r g e - 1 2 6 -q u a n t i t y b u y i n g f e e l t h a t a l a r g e r r e f r i g e r a t o r i s d e s i r a b l e . Many t e n a n t s t h i n k t h a t e x t e r i o r d o o r s a r e d r a f t y b u t s a y t h a t a l i t t l e w e a t h e r s t r i p p i n g w o u l d s o l v e t h e p r o b l e m . One m o t h e r s u g g e s t s t h a t the u s e f u l n e s s o f b a s e m e n t s c o u l d be i n c r e a s e d b y a p a r t i t i o n b e t w e e n l a u n d r y and p l a y a r e a . D e s i g n a n d l a y o u t d e f i c i e n c i e s s e e n b y t h e m o t h e r s i n c l u d e t h e d e s i r e f o r more space and a d e s i r e f o r d i f f e r e n t room arangement. These p r o b l e m s i n t e r - r e l a t e and a l s o r e l a t e t o the n e e d f o r " c o s t - t r i m m i n g " w h i c h was u p p e r m o s t a t t h e t i m e the P r o j e c t was p l a n n e d . Where one room c a n be e n l a r g e d b y r e -d u c i n g the s i z e o f a n o t h e r , t h e r e l o c a t i o n o f a w a l l a t t h e p l a n n i n g s t a g e may n o t c o s t much. H o w e v e r > c o s t s w i l l be i n -c r e a s e d i f the s i z e o f a l l o r most rooms must be i n c r e a s e d and none may be made s m a l l e r . From r e s p o n s e s t o t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e i t i s e v i d e n t t h a t a n i n c r e a s e i n t o t a l s i z e o f l i v i n g u n i t s w o u l d be d e s i r a b l e . Many women s u g g e s t t h a t t h e y w o u l d p r e f e r l a r g e r basement s t o r a g e , l a r g e r bedrooms, l a r g e r b a t h r o o m s , and l a r g e r k i t c h e n s . The e x p r e s s e d n e e d f o r a l a r g e r k i t c h e n I s r e l a t e d t o t h e c u r i o u s d e s i r e o f many f a m i l i e s t o m a i n t a i n one room f o r company e n t e r t a i n i n g . The f a m i l y , l i v i n g i n a row h o u s e , e a t s i n the k i t c h e n a l t h o u g h room s i z e and l a y o u t do n o t p r o v i d e room f o r a k i t c h e n t a b l e and c h a i r s . The d i n i n g room i s s a v e d f o r company. T h i s i s r e m i n i s c e n t o f t h e New E n g l a n d " f r o n t p a r l o r " and t h e S c a n d i n a v i a n " f i n r u r a . " A n o t h e r " l a y o u t " d e f i c i e n c y i s s e e n , by many m o t h e r s , i n t h e l o c a t i o n o f the b a t h r o o m r e l a t i v e to f r o n t o r b a c k d o o r . - 127 -L i t t l e c h i l d r e n p l a y i n g o u t s i d e must t r a c k through the l i v i n g room, and i n row houses, must climb the s t a i r s , too. I d e a l d e s i g n , but q u i t e beyond reasonable d e s i r e In p u b l i c housing, would provide a second w a t e r - c l o s e t and wash b a s i n on the ground f l o o r c l o s e to the e n t r y . Choice and use of m a t e r i a l s i s Involved i n another group of suggestions. These a g a i n seem to r e l a t e to "economy" o r i e n t e d d e s i g n i n g . " D r y - w a l l " c o n s t r u c t i o n , l a c k of sound-p r o o f i n g , window-sash design, and absence of a l i v i n g - r o o m door are f r e q u e n t l y seen as u n d e s i r a b l e by tenants. P r e v e n t i n g the t r a n s m i s s i o n of n o i s e s through w a l l s (or f l o o r s ) r e q u i r e s a more c o s t l y method of c o n s t r u c t i o n . N e v e r t h e l e s s , the f a m i l y may have a r i g h t not to be d i s t u r b e d by the neighbour's n o i s e s . "Dry-xvall" or gypsum board c o n s t r u c t i o n with seams "taped and spackled" i s lower c o s t than "hard p l a s t e r " w a l l s . However, the d e t e r i o r a t e d appearance of these taped seams when they have cracked open i s one o f the housewives' most f r e q u e n t complaints because i t d e f i e s a l l e f f o r t s to "make the p l a c e l o o k n i c e . " The d i f f i c u l t y of c l e a n i n g the windows i s another housekeepers' p l a i n t . The metal window-sash i n use at L i t t l e Mountain open out i n a casement s t y l e ; and from i n s i d e , i t i s almost i m p o s s i b l e to c l e a n the o u t s i d e of the windows. (b) E x t e r i o r Design; E x t e r i o r to the l i v i n g u n i t s , the most freq u e n t e x p r e s s i o n concerns the need f o r o u t s i d e c l o t h e s l i n e s . Many housewives f e e l the l a c k of o u t s i d e d r y i n g l i n e s as a r e a l h a r d s h i p and say, "Clothes d r i e d o u t s i d e i n the sun s m e l l so - 128 -good." Many h o u s e w i v e s comment on t h e need f o r b e t t e r f a c i l i t i e s f o r d r y i n g c l o t h e s ; i n f a c t , t h i s l a c k i s v o i c e d more o f t e n t h a n any o t h e r and i n c l u d e s t h e n e e d f o r b e t t e r f a c i l i t i e s i n d o o r s as w e l l as o u t d o o r s . C l o t h e s hung i n t h e basement d r y e v e n t u a l l y , b u t two o r t h r e e d a y s i s t o o l o n g f o r a c h i l d ' s o v e r a l l s t o be d r y i n g when w a r d r o b e s a r e l i m i t e d . A d m i t t e d l y , l i n e s f u l l o f w a s h i n g may s p o i l t h e l o o k s o f a p l a c e , b u t t h e need i s t h e r e and c a n n o t be a n swered b y s a y i n g a r b i t r a r i l y t h a t no l a u n d r y i s t o be hung o u t s i d e . U m b r e l l a - t y p e c l o t h e s d r y i n g r a c k s and c o l l a p s i b l e c l o t h e s - h o r s e s a r e p e r m i t t e d o u t s i d e , b u t o b v i o u s l y c a n n o t f i l l t h e n e e d f o r a n a c t i v e f a m i l y . P l a y f a c i l i t i e s f o r o l d e r c h i l d r e n and l e i s u r e t i m e f a c i l i t i e s f o r a d u l t s a r e c o n s i d e r e d a l m o s t as i m p o r t a n t . D e f i n i t e r e c o g n i z e d n e e d s i n c l u d e s u c h i t e m s as s u p e r v i s e d p l a y g r o u n d s , b a l l f i e l d s f o r b o y s , s u n b a t h i n g r o o f , and a community h a l l w i t h games rooms and w o r k s h o p . A l t h o u g h n o t many p e o p l e saw them as n e e d s , c e r t a i n i t e m s seem t o be v e r y i m p o r t a n t and c o u l d and s h o u l d be e f f e c t e d a t L i t t l e M o u n t a i n . A g r o u p o f them i s e a s i l y s e e n as a r i s i n g f r o m a f e a t u r e o f t h e P r o j e c t d e s i g n w h i c h t h e a r c h i t e c t s ( a n d many h o u s i n g e x p e r t s ) see as a d i s t i n c t a d v a n t a g e . Un-q u e s t i o n a b l y , b u i l d i n g s c a n be g r o u p e d more a t t r a c t i v e l y and c h i l d r e n c a n be p r o t e c t e d more e a s i l y f r o m a u t o m o b i l e s i f ex-i s t i n g s t r e e t s a r e v a c a t e d and no s t r e e t s r u n t h r o u g h t h e P r o j e c t . T h i s i s a p l e a s a n t f e a t u r e o f L i t t l e M o u n t a i n d e s i g n , b u t i t does c r e a t e c e r t a i n p r o b l e m s . S t r e e t l i g h t i n g was - 129 -p r e v i o u s l y a c i t y r e s p o n s i b i l i t y ; b u t w i t h n o r m a l s t r e e t p a t t e r n s h a l t i n g a t P r o j e c t b o u n d a r i e s , t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r l i g h t i n g t h e m e a n d e r i n g " w a l k s " ( w h i c h r e p l a c e d s t r e e t s ) i s w i t h t h e A u t h o r i t y . Low l i g h t s t a n d a r d s were p r o v i d e d , a n d t h e s e s o o n f e l l p r e y t o v a n d a l i s m ; so some b e t t e r p r o v i s i o n i s n e e d e d . W i t h s t r e e t p a t t e r n s n o t h o l d i n g i n s i d e t h e P r o j e c t , i t i s v e r y d i f f i c u l t f o r g u e s t s and d e l i v e r y men t o f i n d a d d r e s s e s . More and b e t t e r s t r e e t s i g n s and b e t t e r - l o c a t e d h o u s e numbers w o u l d n o t c o m p l e t e l y s o l v e t h e p r o b l e m b u t w o u l d h e l p . C l o s e l y r e -l a t e d t o t h i s i s the need f o r r e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f p a r k i n g a r e a s and g a r b a g e f a c i l i t i e s . T h i s i s l a r g e l y a m o t o r i z e d c u l t u r e w i t h g u e s t s a r r i v i n g b y a u t o m o b i l e . B u t i t i s o f t e n o n l y t h e b a c k d o o r s t h a t a r e a c c e s s i b l e f r o m t h e a u t o m o b i l e . S t r e e t d i s r u p t i o n i n t h e P r o j e c t makes i t d i f f i c u l t f o r the g u e s t to d r i v e h i s a u t o m o b i l e c l o s e t o t h e home o f h i s h o s t . A s h o r t a g e o f p a r k i n g s p a c e s makes i t i m p o s s i b l e o r a t l e a s t d i f f i c u l t f o r t h e g u e s t t o p a r k a t t h i s n e a r e s t p o i n t ; and when he a l i g h t s f r o m h i s v e h i c l e , he h a s t o walk p a s t t h e g a r b a g e - c a n e n c l o s u r e s w h i c h a r e f r e q u e n t l y v e r y u n t i d y . O n l y one o f the sample f a m i l i e s s u g g e s t t h a t p r i v a t e y a r d s f o r row h o u s e s m i g h t be d e s i r a b l e . T h i s i s p e r h a p s one o f t h e most s a t i s f y i n g f e a t u r e s o f row h o u s e s and h a s b e e n i n -c r e a s i n g l y d e v e l o p e d b y B r i t i s h and S c a n d i n a v i a n p u b l i c h o u s i n g d e s i g n e r s . L i t t l e M o u n t a i n t e n a n t s a g r e e , a l m o s t u n a n i m o u s l y , t h a t row h o u s e s a r e more p r i v a t e and s o u n d p r o o f t h a n a p a r t m e n t s as r e g a r d s l i v i n g i n s i d e t h e u n i t . However, t h e y seem unaware t h a t t h r o u g h c a r e f u l f e n c i n g and p l a n t i n g , a s i m i l a r p r i v a c y - 130 -m i g h t be e x t e n d e d b e y o n d t h e house w a l l s . The one woman who s u g g e s t s a p r i v a t e y a r d does so b e c a u s e she w o u l d l i k e t o be a b l e t o h a v e g r a s s and f l o w e r s : " w i t h t h i n g s as t h e y a r e . " the c h i l d r e n t r a m p l e them. A few o f the s u g g e s t i o n s a b o u t " e x t e r i o r d e s i g n " a p p l y t o t h i n g s w h i c h a r e f i x e d i n the d e s i g n and l a y o u t o f t h e P r o j e c t . T h ey a r e s e e n , b y t e n a n t s , as r e q u i r i n g c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n t h e p l a n n i n g o f any new p r o j e c t s . A g a i n , some o f t h e s e d e f i c i e n c i e s seem t o a r i s e o u t o f "economy-mindedness." P r e s e n t l o c a t i o n s o f f u r n a c e rooms and i n c i n e r a t o r s i s u n d e s i r a b l e . I n s t e a d o f b e i n g h o u s e d i n a s e p a r a t e b u i l d i n g , t h e f u r n a c e rooms s e r v i n g a g r o u p o f b u i l d i n g s a r e b u i l t i n t o t h e b a s e m e n t s o f a p a r t m e n t b u i l d i n g s . About one i n t h i r t y s u i t e s i s l o c a t e d d i r e c t l y o v e r t h e f u r n a c e room and i s s u b j e c t e d t o t h e d i s c o m f o r t o f h i g h t e m p e r a t u r e s w h i c h c a n be c o n t r o l l e d o n l y b y o p e n i n g windows. I n c i n e r a t o r s , t o o , a r e l o c a t e d a d j a c e n t t o l i v i n g u n i t s . When t h e y a r e open ( w h i c h i s o f t e n ) f o r c h a r g i n g w i t h more g a r b a g e , the smoke and fumes f r e q u e n t l y f i n d t h e i r way i n t o t h e home s. S e v e r a l p e o p l e t h i n k t h a t the row h o u s e s a t L i t t l e M o u n t a i n a r e u g l y b u t w o u l d l o o k b e t t e r i f t h e y c o n f o r m e d t o t h e s t y l e o f t h e a p a r t m e n t b l o c k s . Some p e o p l e f e e l t h a t a new p r o j e c t s h o u l d i n c l u d e more row h o u s e s and f e w e r a p a r t m e n t b l o c k s . T h i s s u g g e s t i o n comes more f r e q u e n t l y f r o m f a m i l i e s w i t h c h i l d r e n . R e t i r e d c o u p l e s l i k e t h e a p a r t m e n t s b u t f e e l t h e y w o u l d r a t h e r l i v e o n a s e p a r a t e p r o j e c t where c h i l d r e n w o u l d n ' t annoy. Some - 131 -o f t h e f a m i l i e s w i t h c h i l d r e n a g r e e t h a t o l d e r p e o p l e s h o u l d be h o u s e d s e p a r a t e l y . The d e s i r e f o r p r i v a c y r e a c h e s an ext r e m e i n t h e s u g g e s t i o n t h a t more f u t u r e p r o j e c t s s h o u l d be s e p a r a t e h o u s e s l i k e t h e P r a s e r v i e w - V e t e r a n s P r o j e c t . P o l i c y ? I n c o n c l u s i o n , a few s u g g e s t i o n s w i t h m a n a g e r i a l i m p l i c a t i o n s may be b r o u g h t t o g e t h e r h e r e . One was t h a t t h e A u t h o r i t y s h o u l d have the a p a r t m e n t c l e a n e d a f t e r one t e n a n t v a c a t e s and b e f o r e a n o t h e r t e n a n t moves i n . A t p r e s e n t , t e n a n t s who v a c a t e a r e e x p e c t e d t o l e a v e the a p a r t m e n t " a s c l e a n a s t h e y f o u n d i t . " P e r h a p s t h i s b u s i n e s s o f c l e a n l i n e s s i s l a r g e l y s u b j e c t i v e , so t h a t t h e t e n a n t ' s judgment i s t h e o n l y c r i t e r i o n . T h i s i s t h e s e t t i n g , o u t o f w h i c h t h e c o m p l a i n t o r s u g g e s t i o n grew--a s u c c e s s i o n o f t e n a n t s e a c h one l e a v i n g t h e a p a r t m e n t s l i g h t l y d i r t i e r t h a n b e f o r e . I t i s a n i n t e r e s t i n g t r a i t o f c e r t a i n women when l e a v i n g a ny a p a r t m e n t , t o c l e a n m e t i c u l o u s l y so t h a t no one c a n c r i t i c i z e them i n t h e i r a b s e n c e . These women seem t o be t h e ones who c l e a n , w i t h e q u a l d e t e r m i n a t i o n , e v e r y s q u a r e i n c h o f any new h o u s i n g t h e y o c c u p y b e f o r e t h e y c a n s e t t l e down. T e l e v i s i o n a n t e n n a e p r o v o k e d one s u g g e s t i o n . T h i s f a m i l y s u g g e s t s t h a t e a c h f a m i l y s h o u l d be p e r m i t t e d t o e r e c t t h e i r own. A t p r e s e n t L i t t l e M o u n t a i n P r o j e c t p r o v i d e s a m a s t e r a n t e n n a t o w h i c h t h e t e n a n t may c o n n e c t . T h i s t e n a n t f e e l s t h e f e e i s t o o h i g h . The Regent P a r k e x p e r i e n c e , r e f e r r e d t o e a r l i e r , shows the d a n g e r i n v o l v e d i n a n e g a t i v e p o l i c y s i t u a t i o n . On t h e o t h e r hand t h e monopoly g i v e n b y t h e A u t h o r i t y t o some " a n t e n n a e - 132 -entrepreneur" may be f i n a n c i a l l y u n f a i r to te n a n t s . One person suggests t h a t a night-watchman i s needed to p a t r o l the grounds. T h i s may r e l a t e to the l a c k of adequate l i g h t i n g mentioned. I t may also have some con n e c t i o n w i t h the f a c t t h a t c l o t h i n g i s sometimes s t o l e n o f f the c l o t h e s l i n e , as mentioned by another tenant. Two r e t i r e d couples b e l i e v e that "rowdies from o u t s i d e " come i n t o the P r o j e c t to engage i n vandalism and " p e t t i n g p a r t i e s . " C e r t a i n l y , the P r o j e c t i s co n s i d e r e d as something "separate and a p a r t " from the neighbour-hood, and t h i s may c o n t r i b u t e to a t t i t u d e s o f groups of youths " o u t s i d e . " T h i s i s an aspect of community r e l a t i o n s which could be improved by a community f a c i l i t y o f the "neighbourhood house" v a r i e t y . Even without such a f a c i l i t y , a s o c i a l worker atta c h e d to the P r o j e c t might h e l p to l e s s e n " d i s t a n c e " between the " P r o j e c t " and the " o u t s i d e . " " P r o j e c t " a t h l e t i c teams meeting " o u t s i d e " teams i n league p l a y at parks, community c e n t r e s , o r schools might h e l p to break down the " s e g r e g a t i o n . " C h a p t e r V I HUMAN RESOURCES The p r e c e d i n g c h a p t e r d o e s n o t e x h a u s t a l l t h e a s p e c t s o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and s o c i a l p o l i c y w h i c h a r i s e when a p u b l i c h o u s i n g p r o j e c t i s r e v i e w e d . I n d e e d , as i s a l r e a d y e v i d e n t f r o m what h a s b e e n s e t o u t i n p r e c e d i n g c h a p t e r s , i t i s h a r d t o draw t h e l i n e b e t w e e n " a d m i n i s t r a t i o n " and " w e l f a r e . " T h e r e i s a l s o a n o t h e r o b l i g a t i o n i n p r e s e n t i n g the r e s u l t s o f a s u r v e y — e s p e c i a l l y t h e f i r s t i n a new p r o j e c t , s u c h as t h i s . T h i s i s the d i v e r s i t y r a t h e r t h a n a s i m p l e c o n s e n s u s o f v i e w s t o be g i v e n c o n s i d e r a t i o n . What r e m a i n s t o be p r e s e n t e d and d i s c u s s e d — f u r t h e r r e a c t i o n s and s u g g e s t i o n s o f t h e t e n a n t s , s o c i a l and community n e e d s , ways and means o f m e e t i n g t h e s e - -may w e l l be r e g a r d e d as m a t t e r s o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and s o c i a l p o l i c y . They a r e p r e s e n t e d u n d e r the p r e s e n t h e a d i n g , however, p a r t l y b e c a u s e t h e y a r e l e s s u n i f i e d , b u t p a r t i c u l a r l y b e c a u s e t h e y u n d e r l i n e i n c o n c l u s i o n t h e b a s i c l e s s o n o f a l l g ood h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s : t h a t p e o p l e a r e r e s o u r c e s as w e l l as t e n a n t s ; and t h a t p u b l i c h o u s i n g c a n be a n e l e m e n t i n c o m m u n i t y - b u i l d i n g as w e l l as a s o u r c e o f c o s t and e x p e n d i t u r e ( a s , o f c o u r s e , a l l " p u b l i c u t i l i t i e s " a r e ) . P u b l i c h o u s i n g i s more t h a n r e a l e s t a t e o p e r a t i o n , more t h a n j u s t r e n t i n g h o u s e s . A p a r t , a l t o g e t h e r , f r o m t h e q u e s t i o n s o f community l i f e r e f e r r e d t o e l s e w h e r e , p u b l i c h o u s i n g management ha s t o be more s e n s i t i v e t o t e n a n t s as p e o p l e . T h i s - 134 " i s w e l l r e f l e c t e d i n a b u l l e t i n s u m m a r i z i n g i m p o r t a n t B r i t i s h e x p e r i e n c e . T h i s r e p o r t s a y s : "Management must i n c l u d e f a r more t h a n r e n t c o l l e c t i o n and t h e o r d e r i n g o f r e p a i r s , f o r u n l e s s some s t e p s a r e t a k e n so t o e d u c a t e the t e n a n t as to s e c u r e h i s c o -o p e r a t i o n , t h e l a n d l o r d s t r i v i n g t o m a i n t a i n h i s p r o p e r t y , a n d t h e t e n a n t d e s t r o y i n g i t b y h i s n e g l e c t , w i l l r e m a i n w a r r i n g p a r t i e s . Hence good management a d d i t i o n a l l y p o s t u l a t e s t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f s k i l l I n t r e a t i n g the p e r s o n who i s p a y i n g f o r the use o f t h e commodity so t h a t h e , t o o , may do h i s s h a r e i n p r e -s e r v i n g i t s v a l u e ; i t i s i n e f f e c t a f o r m o f s o c i a l e d u c a t i o n and aims a t t e a c h i n g a new and i n e x p e r i e n c e d community t o be " h o u s i n g minded.'"1 R e a c t i o n s a n d S u g g e s t i o n s on Improvements One o f t h e ways t o engage t h e t e n a n t s ' i n t e r e s t i s t o i n v i t e h i m t o t a l k a b o u t t h e P r o j e c t , n o t o n l y a p p r e c i a t i v e l y b u t a l s o c r i t i c a l l y i f t h e l a t t e r c a n be e n c o u r a g e d . I t i s h a r d l y s u r p r i s i n g t h a t many t e n a n t s were r e l u c a n t t o e x p r e s s any a d v e r s e v i e w s a t a l l , o r t h a t many r e q u i r e d h e l p o r s u g g e s t i o n o f s p e c i f i c s b e f o r e t h e y c o u l d e n t e r i n t o d i s c u s s i o n o f "what e l s e m i g h t be done." P o r a p r o p e r p e r s p e c t i v e o n c o m p l a i n t s a n d s u g g e s t i o n s , i t i s o n l y f a i r t o r e c o r d t h a t t h e g r e a t m a j o r i t y o f t e n a n t s i n L i t t l e M o u n t a i n a r e p l e a s e d w i t h t h e h o u s i n g p r o j e c t . Some o f them a r e o v e r j o y e d w i t h i t . I t r e p r e s e n t s , f o r most, an o v e r -whelming improvement i n l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s . Such s u g g e s t i o n s , as came i n r e s p o n s e to c a r e f u l q u e s t i o n i n g , d e s e r v e c o n s i d e r a t i o n a t l e a s t f o r p o s s i b l e f u t u r e p r o j e c t s (on w h i c h V a n c o u v e r i s 1 The Management o f M u n i c i p a l H o u s i n g E s t a t e s . R e p o r t o f t h e House Management and H o u s i n g A s s o c i a t i o n s Sub-Committee o f t h e C e n t r a l H o u s i n g A d v i s o r y Committee, B r i t i s h M i n i s t r y o f H e a l t h . 1938. - 135 -a l r e a d y e m b a r k e d ) . They may be u s e f u l , a l s o , as g u i d e s t o where p r e s e n t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and s o c i a l p o l i c y c a n be s t e e r e d . A m a j o r i t y o f t h e p e o p l e q u e s t i o n e d s a y t h a t t h e " a p p e a r a n c e " o f t h e P r o j e c t i s s a t i s f a c t o r y . " A p p e a r a n c e , " how-e v e r , i s a r a t h e r i n c l u s i v e t e r m a n d i s made up o f f a c t o r s l i k e b u i l d i n g d e s i g n , l a n d s c a p i n g , c a r e o f g r o u n d s , e t c . B u i l d i n g d e s i g n h a s b e e n m e n t i o n e d , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e n o n - c o n f o r m i n g a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e row h o u s e s and t h e i r i n t r i n s i c u g l i n e s s . By s u c h a n swers many o f t h e " s a t i s f i e d " m a j o r i t y show t h e y a r e n o t r e a l l y s a t i s f i e d . The l a n d s c a p i n g c o n s i d e r a b l y c u t f r o m t h e o r i g i n a l r a t h e r l a v i s h p l a n , was, n e v e r t h e l e s s , " s a v e d " b y t h e A u t h o r i t y i n minimum f o r m , and p u t i n a t t h e t i m e o f c o n s t r u c t i o n . Young t r e e s were p l a n t e d and were p r o t e c t e d b y b r a c e s ; some o f t h e s e have b e e n d e s t r o y e d b y t h o u g h t l e s s c h i l d r e n . H e r e , t o o , the t e n a n t s show b y t h e i r a nswers t h e n a t u r e o f t h e i r c o n c e r n w i t h t h e " a p p e a r a n c e , " " I t w o u l d be n i c e t o have t r e e s and p l a c e s t o s i t , b u t what's t h e u s e ? The k i d s w o u l d t e a r i t up." A few t e n a n t s who l i v e a l o n g t h e u n p a v e d l a n e a d j a c e n t t o t h e p r i v a t e homes o n M a i n S t r e e t s a y " t h e p l a c e ( t h e l a n e ) i s a d u s t -bowl i n summer and a mud-hole i n w i n t e r . " Many t e n a n t s h a v e t r i e d to i m p r o v e t h e i r "own d o o r s t e p s " b y p l a n t i n g a l i t t l e g r a s s and a few f l o w e r s . T h e r e h a s b e e n no a t t e m p t t o d e v e l o p t e n a n t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r g r o u n d - k e e p i n g , e x c e p t b y t h e g i v i n g o u t o f a few p a c k e t s o f f l o w e r s e e d . P r o b a b l y some p o t e n t i a l e x i s t s h e r e , i f t h e i n t e r v i e w s a r e r e a d w i t h i n s i g h t . Many t e n a n t s , when q u e s t i o n e d , p r o f e s s t o b e l i e v e t h a t most p e o p l e w o u l d c o o p e r a t e and t a k e p r i d e i n t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e p l a c e - 136 -" i f t h i n g s w e r e n i c e r . " A t e n a n t o r g a n i z a t i o n m i g h t , t h r o u g h g r o u p d i s c u s s i o n s , h e l p I m p r o v e t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e P r o j e c t b y i n v o l v i n g t e n a n t s i n t h e c a r e o f t h e g r o u n d s . B e t t e r c o n t r o l o f t h e c h i l d r e n m i g h t a l s o g r o w o u t o f s u c h t e n a n t i n v o l v e m e n t . T h a t some p r o p o r t i o n o f t e n a n t s a r e m o t i v a t e d t o " s e l f -h e l p " was s h o w n b y e f f o r t s a t o r g a n i z a t i o n s u c h a s t h e c o -o p e r a t i v e k i n d e r g a r t e n (no l o n g e r i n o p e r a t i o n ) , t h e G r o u s e W a l k L i b r a r y , i n v o l v e m e n t i n P . T . A . a t G e n e r a l B r o c k S c h o o l a n d t h e f l o u r i s h i n g S u n d a y S c h o o l i n o n e o f t h e s u i t e s , a l r e a d y m e n t i o n e d . C o u l d t e n a n t s be m o r e i n v o l v e d i n i s s u e s w h i c h come c l o s e r t o m a n a g e m e n t r a t h e r t h a n s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s ? T h e r e i s a q u i d p r o q u o e l e m e n t h e r e , w h i c h i s n o t a l w a y s p e r c e i v e d . I n h e r b a s i c a r t i c l e s o n " S o c i a l Q u e s t i o n s i n H o u s i n g a n d C o m m u n i t y P l a n n i n g , " w r i t t e n i n 1951, C a t h e r i n e B a u e r sums u p t h i s i s s u e i n t h e f o l l o w i n g t e r m s ; " . . . some d e g r e e o f t e n a n t m a i n t e n a n c e i s o f t e n d e s i r a b l e t o k e e p r e n t s d o w n . B u t c a n t e n a n t s be p e r s u a d e d t o do s u c h w o r k , e v e n i n t h e i r o w n e c o n o m i c i n t e r e s t , i f t h e y a r e n o t g i v e n c o n s i d e r a b l e f r e e d o m a n d o v e r a l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y a t t h e same t i m e ? J u s t w h e r e i s t h e f i n e l i n e b e t w e e n r e g i m e n t a t i o n a n d t h e k i n d o f r e s t r i c t i o n o n I n d i v i d u a l f r e e d o m t h a t i s u n a v o i d a b l e i n a n y c l o s e - p l a n n e d d e v e l o p m e n t ? How c a n t e n a n t p a r t i c i p a t i o n a n d a n o r m a l d e m o c r a t i c c o m m u n i t y l i f e b e s t be e n c o u r a g e d ? E v e r y k i n d o f m a n a g e m e n t p o l i c y i s b e i n g t r i e d o u t i n o u r new b i g h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s , p u b l i c a n d p r i v a t e ; a n d we s h o u l d k n o w m o r e a b o u t t h e r e s u l t s . " 1 1 B a u e r , C a t h e r i n e . . S o c i a l Q u e s t i o n s i n H o u s i n g a n d C o m m u n i t y P l a n n i n g . " S o c i a l P o l i c y a n d S o c i a l R e s e a r c h i n  H o u s i n g . 1951 V o l . . V I I • N o s . 1 a n d 2. A s s o c i a t i o n P r e s s , New Y o r k . - 137 -T h e r e a r e i n d e e d many d i f f e r e n t a p p r o a c h e s t o t h i s i s s u e , and e x p e r i m e n t s s h o u l d n o t be b e y o n d t h e c a p a c i t y o f t h e L i t t l e M o u n t a i n t e n a n t s . The n e e d f o r a T e n a n t A s s o c i a t i o n i n t h e R e g e n t P a r k s l u m - c l e a r a n c e p r o j e c t o f T o r o n t o h a s b e e n v o i c e d f r o m s e v e r a l q u a r t e r s as a means o f b e t t e r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the r e n t p o l i c y , a l r e a d y r e f e r r e d t o ; f o r t h e b e t t e r ex-p a n s i o n o f r e c r e a t i o n a l and s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s ; f o r s h e e r " s e l f -h e l p " i n m o r a l e — t h e e n c o u r a g e m e n t o f f e e l i n g s o f i n d e p e n d e n c e and i n i t i a t i v e . L i t t l e M o u n t a i n does n o t have a T e n a n t A s s o c i a t i o n : h owever, i t c o u l d use one, and t h e r e a r e some s i g n s o f " s e l f -h e l p . " Whether i t c o u l d f u n c t i o n w i t h o u t a c l u b room i s d o u b t -f u l , b u t t h e i d e a d e s e r v e s e x p l o r a t i o n . I t w o u l d have d i f f i c u l t i e s t o surmount a t t h e s t a r t , and i t m i g h t w e l l n e e d some s k i l l e d g u i d a n c e . E x p e r i e n c e i n B r i t i s h and A m e r i c a n p r o j e c t s h a s shown t h a t t h e most v a l u a b l e r e s o u r c e i s a g r o u p w o r k e r who^ c a n h e l p t o e n c o u r a g e l o c a l l e a d e r s h i p ; the g r e a t e s t d a n g e r i s i t s d i s t o r t i o n i n t o a " p r e s s u r e g r o u p " ; and t h a t t h e answer t o t h i s i s t o be s u r e t h a t i t h a s r e a l and c o n s t r u c t i v e " j o b s t o do" and t h e good w i l l o f t h e management i f i t wants t o do them r e s p o n s i b l y . A g o od t e n a n t a s s o c i a t i o n c o u l d c r e a t e a means o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n b e t w e e n management and t e n a n t s . The A u t h o r i t y a l r e a d y has a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r one-way f l o w o f communiques o n v a r i o u s i m p o r t a n t p o l i c y m a t t e r s a t l e a s t . F l ow i n t h e o p p o s i t e d i r e c t i o n , f r o m t e n a n t to l a n d l o r d , i s d i f f i c u l t w i t h o u t th e a c t i v e e n c o u r a g e m e n t o f t h e A u t h o r i t y i n s e t t i n g up c h a n n e l s o r d e m o n s t r a t i n g a w i l l i n g n e s s t o l i s t e n . T h e s e - 138 -c h a n n e l s must be s u c h as to e n c o u r a g e t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n o f e v e n t h e most t i m i d . T h r o u g h a T e n a n t A s s o c i a t i o n , t e n a n t s c a n g a i n a c e r t a i n a n o n y m i t y w h i c h emboldens them t o make s u g g e s t i o n s . Newcomers t o t h e P r o j e c t P r o j e c t d w e l l e r s have a l l moved, and so r e q u i r e some time t o become s e t t l e d i n t h e i r new s u r r o u n d i n g s . As t e n a n t s r e p r e s e n t d i f f e r e n t s o c i o - e c o n o m i c g r o u p i n g s coming f r o m a l l o v e r t h e c i t y , t h e y have a d d i t i o n a l a d j u s t m e n t i n r e s p e c t t o n e i g h b o u r r e l a t i o n s h i p s , c u s t o m s , and a t t i t u d e s . W e l f a r e p r o b l e m s o f v a r i o u s k i n d s c l e a r l y do e x i s t o r may a r i s e . S u c h m a t t e r s as c h i l d c a r e o r s c h o o l r e l a t i o n s h i p s c o u l d be b e t t e r h a n d l e d w i t h p r o f e s s i o n a l h e l p . The i m p o r t a n c e o f o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r g r o u p " g e t - t o - g e t h e r s " and d i s c u s s i o n s , the u s e s t o w h i c h a h a l l o r b u i l d i n g c o u l d be p u t - - i t i s more t h a n a " p l a c e where p e o p l e c a n raeet"--need h a r d l y be s t r e s s e d . A l l t h e s e , and s i m i l a r c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , p o i n t to t h e d e s i r a b i l i t y o f a s o c i a l w o r k e r as a member o f t h e A u t h o r i t y s t a f f . "Welcoming t h e t e n a n t t o t h e P r o j e c t " and " t e a c h i n g h i m t o r e s p e c t the p r o p e r t y and c o n s e r v e i t " a r e p h r a s e s w h i c h r e c u r i n a number o f w r i t i n g s a b o u t p u b l i c h o u s i n g management. They a r e n o t so e a s y t o a p p l y as t h e y s o u n d . C o n n o t a t i o n s f o r t h e s e p h r a s e s may i n c l u d e images o f t h e g e n i a l manager m e e t i n g t h e t e n a n t a t t h e open d o o r o f the new s u i t e and u s h e r i n g h i m i n w i t h bows; s m i l i n g w h i t e - a p r o n e d home e c o n o m i s t s d e m o n s t r a t i n g r e c i p e s and h o u s e k e e p i n g s h o r t c u t s . I n p r a c t i c e , however, t h e - 139 -a n n u a l b u d g e t may be a c o n s t a n t c o n d e n s o r f o c u s i n g t h e s e vague b u t p l e a s a n t images i n t o a few r e a s o n a b l e e c o n o m i c a l p r o c e d u r e s . The n e c e s s i t y f o r h o l d i n g down c o s t s l i m i t s t h e s o r t o f w e l c o m i n g t h e l a n d l o r d c a n g i v e h i s t e n a n t . The A u t h o r i t y ' s f i r s t c h a n c e t o g i v e t e n a n t s a h e l p f u l o r i e n t a t i o n t o t h e P r o j e c t and p u b l i c h o u s i n g i s the a p p l i c a t i o n . T h o u g h t f u l w o r d i n g o f t h e a p p l i c a t i o n and an i n t r o d u c t o r y p a r a g r a p h o n i t s p u r p o s e m i g h t h e l p t h e a p p l i c a n t t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e r e a s o n s f o r t h e q u e s t i o n s and t h e v a l u e s o f p u b l i c h o u s i n g . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h e a p p l i c a n t h a s p l e n t y o f i n i t i a l m o t i v a t i o n , a d e s i r e t o g e t o u t o f h i s p r e s e n t h o u s i n g and i n t o t h e P r o j e c t . N o t h i n g i n the way o f a " s a l e s p i t c h " i s n e e d e d . P e r h a p s a l l t h a t i s n e c e s s a r y i s a minimum o f f a c t - e l i c i t i n g q u e s t i o n s i n a minimum o f words. The t e n a n t ' s e x c i t e m e n t may p r e v e n t h i m f r o m a b s o r b i n g a n y t h i n g more. The V a n c o u v e r H o u s i n g A u t h o r i t y f o l l o w s t h e l e a d o f C e n t r a l M o r t g a g e and H o u s i n g I n a s i m p l e and b u s i n e s s - l i k e a p p l i c a t i o n f o r m . The s e c o n d o p p o r t u n i t y i s the o c c a s i o n o f t h e i n -s p e c t i o n o f t h e a p p l i c a n t ' s e x i s t i n g h o u s i n g ( b e f o r e he became a V.H.A. t e n a n t ) . Many a u t h o r i t i e s b e l i e v e i t i s i m p o r t a n t t h a t t h e p e r s o n who makes the i n s p e c t i o n be t h e same p e r s o n who w i l l see t h e a p p l i c a n t a b o u t any s o c i a l p r o b l e m s a f t e r he e n t e r s t h e P r o j e c t . T h i s i s t o t a k e a d v a n t a g e o f the e a r l i e s t p o s s i b l e o p p o r t u n i t y f o r f u r t h e r i n g a h e l p f u l r e l a t i o n s h i p . The s e c r e t a r y - m a n a g e r o f t h e V a n c o u v e r H o u s i n g A u t h o r i t y h a s , i n t h e p a s t , made some i n s p e c t i o n s o f the h o u s i n g o f a p p l i c a n t s ; how-e v e r , w i t h s u b s e q u e n t a d d i t i o n s t o h i s d u t i e s and t h e i n c l u s i o n o f a s e c o n d h o u s i n g p r o j e c t u n d e r h i s management, he no l o n g e r - ll+O -does t h e s e i n s p e c t i o n s . The t h i r d o r i e n t a t i o n o p p o r t u n i t y i s t h e t e n a n t ' s a r r i v a l a t the P r o j e c t o n m o v i n g - i n day. The t e n a n t g o e s t o t h e A u t h o r i t y ' s o f f i c e , s i g n s the l e a s e , r e c e i v e s h i s k e y s , and a " T e n a n t ' s Handbook." To be s u r e , t h i s a p p r o a c h p r o t e c t s t h e t e n a n t ' s i n d e p e n d e n c e and i n d i v i d u a l i t y . He i s n o t s m o t h e r e d w i t h r e g u l a t i o n s and t i e d w i t h s t r i n g s o f d e p e n d e n c y t o t h e a p r o n o f management. However, t h i s a p p r o a c h does n o t t a k e i n t o a c c o u n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n b a c k g r o u n d n o r the p o s s i b i l i t y o f l a c k o f e x p e r i e n c e w i t h t h e modern f a c i l i t i e s f o r l i v i n g . I f some t e n a n t s " b r i n g t h e i r slums w i t h them" as i t I s s t i l l f r e q u e n t l y a l l e g e d , i t may be b e c a u s e t h e y were n e v e r h e l p e d t o " l e a v e t h e slum b e h i n d . " The " T e n a n t ' s Handbook" g i v e s some h e l p w i t h s u g g e s t i o n s f o r the t e c h n i q u e s o f a d e q u a t e h o u s e k e e p i n g . The p r i n t e d word, however, f a i l s t o g e t a c r o s s t o some p e o p l e . T h i s i s w e l l r e c o g n i z e d b y e d u c a t o r s and i t h a s come t o be i n c r e a s i n g l y r e c o g n i z e d b y some p u b l i c h o u s i n g e x p e r t s . B u t how i s i t t o be implemented? B y t h e same t o k e n , what s h o u l d be done f o r " t h e d i f f i c u l t t e n a n t " ? I t i s n o t s u f f i c i e n t t o warn t e n a n t s t h a t u n l e s s h o u s e k e e p i n g s t a n d a r d s i m p r o v e , he may be a s k e d t o l e a v e . T r u e , t h e t e n a n t ' s h o u s e k e e p i n g may i m p r o v e o n t h i s b a s i s , b u t t h e p r o p e r r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n l a n d l o r d and t e n a n t h a s n o t b e e n f u r t h e r e d . C a n c o n s t r u c t i v e h e l p be g i v e n ? T h e r e i s l i t t l e d o u b t t h a t i t c a n be o n l y i f (a) t h e r e i s some p e r s o n - t o - p e r s o n r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n a t e n a n t ( p r e f e r a b l y h i s f a m i l y ) and t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f the A u t h o r i t y ; o r (b) i f some k i n d o f g r o u p o r c o o p e r a t i v e e d u c a t i o n i s d e v e l o p e d . T h i s i s p a r t o f t h e - Ikl -argument f o r e m p l o y i n g s o c i a l w o r k e r s as p a r t o f a p u b l i c h o u s i n g s t a f f . The w e l f a r e a s p e c t s o f L i t t l e M o u n t a i n c a l l f o r some c h a l l e n g i n g t h i n k i n g o n a n o t h e r p o i n t , b e c a u s e t h i s " p i l o t p r o j e c t , " as i t was w i d e l y r e f e r r e d to a t t h e b e g i n n i n g , d i f f e r s f u n d a m e n t a l l y f r o m t r a d i t i o n a l s l u m c l e a r a n c e on t h e m a t t e r o f l o c a t i o n . L i t t l e M o u n t a i n P r o j e c t was n o t d i r e c t l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h d e m o l i t i o n o f s l u m s . L i t t l e M o u n t a i n t e n a n t s a r e n o t p e o p l e who were moved e n masse t o s t r a n g e new h o u s i n g i n t h e same o l d n e i g h b o u r h o o d when t h e i r o l d h o u s e s were d e s t r o y e d . E v e n s o , t h e y a r e p e o p l e who h a ve moved, who have l e f t b e h i n d a s s o c i a t i o n s and f r i e n d s , h o u s i n g and s t o r e s , e t c . , w h i c h , t h o u g h o f t e n i n a d e q u a t e , were n e v e r t h e l e s s f a m i l i a r . T h e r e I s t h e a l t e r n a t i v e p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t t h e y h a ve n e v e r e x p e r i e n c e d a de-f i n e d , h e l p f u l " n e i g h b o u r h o o d " a t a l l - - t h a t a n i s o l a t e d p o c k e t o f d e c r e p i t h o u s i n g , a room., a basement s u i t e , h a s b e e n t h e i r o n l y " u r b a n " e x p e r i e n c e ] T h e i r f i r s t i m p r e s s i o n o f t h e new l i f e i s the P r o j e c t r a t h e r t h a n a new n e i g h b o u r h o o d . 1 F o r t h e m o t h e r o f s m a l l c h i l d r e n , the w i d e - o p e n s p a c e s o f L i t t l e 1 The l a c k o f d e f i n e d and p l a n n e d n e i g h b o u r h o o d s c a n h a r d l y be blamed on the V a n c o u v e r H o u s i n g A u t h o r i t y . I t i s a l l t o o c h a r -a c t e r i s t i c o f V a n c o u v e r g e n e r a l l y ; i t h a p p e n s t o be p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e o f t h e s e c t i o n n e a r M a i n S t r e e t i n w h i c h t h e P r o j e c t i s l o c a t e d . The jumble o f s t r e e t s a r o u n d C a r t i e r P a r k and w e s t o f M o u n t a i n View C e m e t e r y I s a l m o s t t y p i c a l o f t h e " h i g g e l d y -p i g g e l d y " way V a n c o u v e r h a s grown. On t h e o t h e r h a n d t h e im-p r o v e m e n t s a r i s i n g f r o m t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a n o l d q u a r r y i n t o Queen E l i z a b e t h P a r k a r e a t r i b u t e t o t h e new a p p r o a c h t o c i t y a m e n i t i e s and a r e a l a s s e t f o r the P r o j e c t . - ll+2 -M o u n t a i n , t h e b e w i l d e r i n g s i m i l a r i t y o f t h e b u i l d i n g s , t h e d i s -r u p t i o n o f n o r m a l " b l o c k s and s t r e e t s " p a t t e r n m i g h t be t h r e a t e n i n g as she t r i e d t o k eep t r a c k o f a w a n d e r i n g t w o - y e a r o l d . I n t h e o l d n e i g h b o u r h o o d , f i l l e d as i t m i g h t have b e e n w i t h j u n k y a r d s , i n d u s t r i a l h a z a r d s , o r b u s y s t r e e t s , t h e d a n g e r s were a t l e a s t f a m i l i a r . The a b s e n c e i n the P r o j e c t o f f e n c e s o r b o u n d a r i e s o f any s o r t , t h e p r e s e n c e o f h o r d e s o f c h i l d r e n o f a l l a g e s , and t h e i m p o s s i b i l i t y o f s e q u e s t e r i n g o n e ' s own c h i l d r e n , a r e a l l f a c t s t h a t a r e e x p e r i e n c e d b y t h e n e w l y a r r i v e d m o t h e r as a s h o c k . She c a n n o t s e n d o t h e r c h i l d r e n away, n o r c a n she l i m i t h e r own t o " t h e i r own b a c k y a r d , " when no d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e b a c k y a r d e x i s t s . W i t h new t e n a n t s coming f r o m a v a r i e t y o f l o w - g r a d e r e n t a l s , t h e r e may be many w e l f a r e p r o b l e m s . The f a m i l i e s may n o t have any f u r n i t u r e . ( T h i s was a p r o b l e m f o r many o f t h e t e n a n t s , r e v e a l e d f r e q u e n t l y i n t h e s u r v e y . ) What f u r n i t u r e t h e r e i s may be i n f e s t e d w i t h v e r m i n ; t h e c h i l d r e n may have i n -a d e q u a t e c l o t h i n g ; h e a l t h p r o b l e m s may have b e e n i g n o r e d b e c a u s e o f the p r e s s u r e s o f l i v i n g i n s u b s t a n d a r d d w e l l i n g s . H a v i n g moved i n t o l a r g e r , b r i g h t e r , u n f u r n i s h e d h o u s i n g i n t h e m i d s t o f o t h e r p e o p l e now w e l l a d j u s t e d t o i t , may b r i n g many o f t h e f a m i l y ' s p r o b l e m s i n t o s u d d en s h a r p , p a i n f u l f o c u s . F o r many o f the f a m i l i e s i n t e r v i e w e d , r e n t was h i g h e r i n t h e P r o j e c t t h a n i t was where t h e y h a d l i v e d b e f o r e . T r u e , i t was b e t t e r h o u s i n g , b u t i t c o s t more, and t h i s was made e v e n more a p p a r e n t b y t h e sudden n e e d f o r new e q u i p m e n t o c c a s i o n e d b y t h e move. I f one has no windows, one needs no c u r t a i n s . M e r e l y r e h o u s i n g t h e s e - 1^ 3 -p e o p l e does n o t s o l v e a l l p r o b l e m s . 1 P o r o l d e r f a m i l i e s , t o o , t h e move meant d i s r u p t i o n o f f a m i l i a r p a t t e r n s o f l i v i n g . Much h a s b e e n s a i d , i n v a r i o u s w r i t i n g s a b o u t h o u s i n g , a b o u t the d e s i r a b i l i t y o f a h e t e r o g e n e o u s p r o j e c t p o p u l a t i o n ; a m i x e d o r b a l a n c e d community, i t m i g h t b e t t e r be t e r m e d . O l d p e o p l e , i t i s c l a i m e d , n e e d y o u n g e r p e o p l e and want t o be amongst them. The g a y s o u n d o f c h i l d r e n ' s v o i c e s , t h e v i t a l i t y o f ' t e e n - a g e r s , t h e v i g o r and p u r p o s e o f young m a r r i e d c o u p l e s a r e s a i d to h e l p the o l d t o r e t a i n an i n t e r e s t I n l i v i n g , a n i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h a v i t a l , p r o d u c t i v e w o r l d i n a way w h i c h adds " y e a r s t o t h e i r l i v e s , and l i f e t o t h e i r y e a r s . " A t L i t t l e M o u n t a i n , a l m o s t a l l t h e r e t i r e d c o u p l e s were g r o u p e d t o g e t h e r i n s e v e r a l b l o c k s o f one-bedroom a p a r t m e n t s . D e s p i t e t h i s g r o u p i n g , r e t i r e d f a m i l i e s who were q u e s t i o n e d s a i d t h e c h i l d r e n ' s n o r m a l n o i s e was a c o n s t a n t b o t h e r , some c h i l d r e n " d e l i b e r a t e l y a n n o y ed them" a t t i m e s , and some p u l l e d up t h e f l o w e r s i n t h e f l o w e r b o x e s . " D i f f i c u l t " F a m i l i e s A v e r y g r e a t d e a l depends upon how t e n a n t s a r e t r e a t e d , o r a t l e a s t o n what a s s u m p t i o n s a r e made a b o u t them. I f t h e y a r e t r e a t e d as " r i f f - r a f f " ( t h a t i s , as " i n f e r i o r " o r " i n s e n s i t i v e " ) 1 A r o n v i c i , C a r o l , H o u s e s f o r t h e M a s s e s , J . W i l e y and Sons; New Y o r k ; 1939, P* 2l|.3~ "The p o o r l i v e i n s l u m s , b u t slums a l o n e do n o t make t h e p o o r . Low-income i s c a u s e d b y o t h e r c o n d i t i o n s . These same p e o p l e moved t o p a l a c e s o r the most e x p e n s i v e e l e v a t o r a p a r t m e n t s i n any c i t y , w o u l d s t i l l r e m a i n p o o r and w i t h o u t t h e means o f c a r i n g f o r t h e i r s i c k , w i t h o u t t h e p r o p e r means f o r e d u c a t i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t o r r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s . They w o u l d s t i l l h a v e t o be s u p p l i e d w i t h t h e many s e r v i c e s f o r w h i c h t h e y c o u l d n o t p a y . " - Ikk -t h e y may r e s p o n d i n t h a t way. Most s e r i o u s w r i t i n g a b o u t p u b l i c h o u s i n g management h a s r e a l i z e d t h a t u n e d u c a b l e o r " u n d e s i r a b l e " t e n a n t s make up a v e r y s m a l l p e r c e n t a g e o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n , e v e n i n p r o j e c t s w h i c h a r e p a r t o f d i r e c t s l u m - c l e a r a n c e programmes.-*-The mere r e m o v a l o f f a m i l i e s f r o m d e f i c i e n t h o u s i n g i n t o a d e q u a t e h o u s i n g f r e q u e n t l y p r o d u c e s a g r e a t improvement i n l i v i n g p r a c t i c e s and h o u s e k e e p i n g s t a n d a r d s , g i v e n a l i t t l e t i m e f o r " s e t t l i n g down." P o r some h o u s e w i v e s t h e v e r y p o s s i b i l i t y o f b e i n g a b l e t o k e e p t h e h o u s e c l e a n i s s u f f i c i e n t e n c o u r a g e -ment t o do s o . B u t i t i s n o t enough f o r some. P o r them, t h e example o f n e i g h b o u r s who a r e c a r e f u l h o u s e k e e p e r s may n o t s u f f i c e t o t e a c h them what a d e s i r a b l e l e v e l o f h o u s e k e e p i n g i s . T h a t i s n o t t o s a y t h a t t h e y a r e d e l i b e r a t e l y d i r t y o r de-s t r u c t i v e ; b u t t h e y a r e n o t s u f f i c i e n t l y c o n s c i o u s o f o t h e r s t a n d a r d s o f s o c i a l p r e s s u r e t o r a i s e t h e i r own. 2 W i t h t h e s e f a m i l i e s , someone must t a k e time and p a t i e n c e and have a knowledge o f human b e h a v i o u r t o h e l p them t o d e v e l o p l i v i n g 1 B a u e r , C a t h e r i n e , A C i t i z e n ' s G u i d e t o P u b l i c H o u s i n g . V a s s a r C o l l e g e ; P o u g h k e e p s i e , N. -Y.; 194-0; p. 54* " I n E u r o p e a n c o u n t r i e s w i t h l o n g h o u s i n g e x p e r i e n c e , t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f "un-e d u c a b l e " t e n a n t s who e v e n t u a l l y h a v e t o be moved o u t o f h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s i s n e v e r q u o t e d a t h i g h e r t h a n f i v e p e r c e n t , and t h i s o n l y I n s p e c i a l c a s e s . C e r t a i n l y , one must e x p e c t t o f i n d a s m a l l p r o p o r t i o n o f s h i f t l e s s f a m i l i e s w i t h no i n s t i n c t f o r d e c e n t h o u s e k e e p i n g i n a l l income g r o u p s . " 2 M a c k i n t o s h , James M a c a l i s t e r , H o u s i n g and t h e F a m i l y . C a s s e l l ; L o ndon; 1952; p. 26. "When a l l i s s a i d and done, a. g r e a t many o f t h e s e t e n a n t s have n o t h a d a c h a n c e . They a r e i g n o r a n t , and no one t a k e s t h e t r o u b l e t o t e a c h them; t h e y a r e dumped i n t o c o u n c i l h o u s e s w h i c h a r e a l l s t r a n g e and new, and no one e x p l a i n s to them how the h o u s e s and t h e i r f i t t i n g s work." T h i s i s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y t r u e o f L i t t l e M o u n t a i n , b u t the wisdom b e a r s r e p e t i t i o n . - -h a b i t s w h i c h w i l l make them a c c e p t a b l e n e i g h b o u r s and t e n a n t s . The t e c h n i q u e s o f b e i n g a good n e i g h b o u r a r e n o t i n s t i n c t i v e e q u i p m e n t and a r e n o t a l w a y s e a s i l y l e a r n e d . A l a r g e p a r t o f the f a m i l i e s i n t h e sample s u r v e y e d showed t h a t r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n the f a m i l y ' s c h i l d r e n and n e i g h b o u r s ' c h i l d r e n were a v e r y s e n s i t i v e a r e a . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e m o t h e r s were f r e q u e n t l y drawn i n t o c o n f l i c t s w h i c h h a d s t a r t e d b e t w e e n c h i l d r e n . The b e h a v i o u r o f t h e c h i l d r e n i s most o f t e n a c r i t i c a l i s s u e i n the i n t e r - f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s i n a h o u s i n g p r o j e c t . I n t h i s m a t t e r , the a t t i t u d e o f management t o w a r d t h e c h i l d r e n and p a r e n t s i s i m p o r t a n t . I f c h i l d r e n were r e g a r d e d b y manage-ment as " p o o r l y b r o u g h t up," and i n n e e d o f s h a r p r e b u k e and c r i t i c a l c o r r e c t i o n , c o m m u n i c a t i o n b e t w e e n manager and p a r e n t c o u l d become i m p o s s i b l e , and n e i g h b o u r h o o d m o r a l e w o u l d d e t e r i o r a t e f u r t h e r . How t o d e a l w i t h t h e s i t u a t i o n c o n -s t r u c t i v e l y , h o w e v e r , i s n o t s i m p l e , n o r a r e t h e r e any o v e r n i g h t m i r a c l e s . I n the L i t t l e M o u n t a i n p r o j e c t , t h e r e a r e a c e r t a i n number o f " p r o b l e m " o r " d i f f i c u l t " f a m i l i e s and c h i l d r e n . T h e i r e x t e n t i s n o t t o o g r e a t : s e e m i n g l y l e s s t h a n f i v e p e r c e n t o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n p r e s e n t i n g t e m p o r a r y p r o b l e m s a t any one time b u t more t h a n two p e r c e n t w i t h more permanent t y p e s o f p r o b l e m s . Though c o n c e r n w i t h " p r o b l e m f a m i l i e s " i s o f t e n f a r o u t o f p r o p o r t i o n to t h e i r numbers, i t i s c e r t a i n t h a t t h e y do h a v e an e f f e c t o n P r o j e c t l i v i n g . The p r o b l e m s t h e s e f a m i l i e s have a r e n o t j u s t such t h i n g s as n o i s y p a r t i e s , p o o r h o u s e k e e p i n g o r - 146 -f a i l u r e t o a b i d e b y P r o j e c t r e g u l a t i o n s a l t h o u g h t h e s e c a n i r r i t a t e b a d l y ; b u t r a t h e r i n v o l v e a more s e r i o u s and r a m i f y i n g t y p e o f f a m i l y p r o b l e m . A l c o h o l i s m o f one o r b o t h p a r e n t s , d e s e r t i o n o f a b r e a d w i n n e r and m e n t a l i l l n e s s a r e e x a m p l e s . A l l o f t h e s e have f u r t h e r e f f e c t s on t h e c h i l d r e n i n t h e f a m i l y . These p r o b l e m s a r e i n e v i t a b l y d i r e c t e d t o t h e a t t e n t i o n o f the manager. When r e n t i s n o t p a i d , he must l o o k i n t o t h e s i t u a t i o n . He may be drawn i n b y a c a l l f r o m t h e s c h o o l p r i n c i p a l a b o u t one o f t h e P r o j e c t ' s c h i l d r e n . He may h e a r c o m p l a i n t s f r o m n e i g h b o u r s o r f r o m p e o p l e i n t h e a r e a s a r o u n d t h e P r o j e c t . To h a n d l e t h e s e p r o b l e m s , he n e e d s n o t o n l y a knowledge o f t h e w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s a v a i l a b l e i n a community and t h e p r o c e d u r e s o f r e f e r r a l t o them, b u t must c o n t i n u a l l y j u d g e w h e t h e r h e , h i m s e l f , c a n be o f s e r v i c e and t h e a p p r o p r i a t e e x t e n t o f t h i s s e r v i c e . I t i s w e l l known t h a t c h i l d r e n o f t e n r e f l e c t p r o b l e m s t h a t e x i s t i n t h e i r homes. T h i s may be t h r o u g h w i t h d r a w a l o r t h r o u g h a g g r e s s i o n . The q u i e t , w i t h d r a w n c h i l d may n e v e r come to a t t e n t i o n the way t h e a g g r e s s i v e one o f t e n does i n t h e P r o j e c t ; m o r e o v e r , i d e a l l y , s e r v i c e s s h o u l d be a v a i l a b l e t o h e l p t h e s e c h i l d r e n , b u t t h i s i s n o t a l w a y s p o s s i b l e . The a g g r e s s i v e c h i l d , l a c k i n g a r e s p o n s i b l e p a r e n t o r b e i n g u n d e r g r e a t t e n s i o n and n e e d i n g a t t e n t i o n h i m s e l f , may o f t e n become u n c o n t r o l l e d i n h i s p l a y and cause much p r o p e r t y damage. W h i l e young c h i l d r e n may r e a c t i n t h i s manner, the a d o l e s c e n t may g r a v i t a t e t o a gang w i t h t h e p o t e n t i a l f o r more s e r i o u s t y p e s o f d e l i n q u e n c y . C h i l d r e n - 347 -b e f o r e t h e c o u r t s a r e n o t unknown i n t h e P r o j e c t , and " n e a r -d e l i n q u e n c y " i s c e r t a i n t o come t o t h e manager's a t t e n t i o n f r o m t i m e t o t i m e . P u b l i c h o u s i n g e x p e r i e n c e h a s d e v e l o p e d s o l u t i o n s t o t h e s e m u l t i p l e p r o b l e m s b y e m p l o y i n g s o c i a l w o r k e r s — b o t h c a s e w o r k e r s and g r o u p w o r k e r s — a s p a r t o f t h e m a n a g e r i a l s t a f f . A good manager, p e r h a p s , w i l l a l w a y s be " p a r t s o c i a l w o r k e r , " b u t he must p r i m a r i l y be t h e b u s i n e s s manager. What i s n e e d e d i s a s s i s t a n c e to cope e f f i c i e n t l y w i t h th e l o a d . I t i s t h e c r i t i c a l m a t t e r o f i n t r a - f a m i l y a t t i t u d e s and i n t e r - f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s w h i c h i s t h e s p e c i a l s k i l l o f the s o c i a l w o r k e r . H o u s i n g management may r e q u i r e so much time t h a t the manager i s u n a b l e to f u n c t i o n i n a s o c i a l l y c o r r e c t i v e way. However, t h e manager needs some o r i e n t a t i o n i n s o c i a l p r o b l e m s as he i s a l w a y s b o u n d t o r e c e i v e some o f t h e m . 1 A s o c i a l w o r k e r c o u l d p e r f o r m many v e r y i m p o r t a n t s e r v i c e s i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h L i t t l e M o u n t a i n , r a n g i n g a l l t h e way f r o m r e f e r r a l s ( s c h o o l s , h o s p i t a l s , s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e , e t c . ) i n s e r i o u s c a s e s , t o p r o v i d i n g o u t l e t s f o r t e n a n t s who " j u s t want to t a l k t h i n g s o v e r . " Some needed f u n c t i o n s I t must be r e m embered--in r e c r e a t i o n and e d u c a t i o n , f o r e x a m p l e — h a v e b e e n 1 A m e r i c a n p r a c t i c e f a v o u r s s o c i a l work s t a f f as p r o f e s s i o n a l p e r s o n s i n t h e i r own r i g h t w h i l e B r i t a i n h a s d e v e l o p e d two s c h o o l s o f t h o u g h t . I n B r i t a i n , the S o c i e t y o f H o u s i n g Managers ( t h e O c t a v i a H i l l " s c h o o l " ) b e l i e v e s t h a t s o c i a l work and b u s i n e s s c a n be and s h o u l d be combined; t h a t r e n t c o l l e c t i o n i s a s o c i a l work jo b when the h e a d o f t h e house i s o u t o f work. The I n s t i t u t e o f H o u s i n g b e l i e v e s t h a t b u s i n e s s and s o c i a l s e r v i c e s h o u l d be s e p a r a t e d and t h a t s o c i a l s e r v i c e s h o u l d be e n t r u s t e d s o l e l y t o s o c i a l w o r k e r s where t h e s i z e o f t h e h o u s i n g o p e r a t i o n makes t h i s p o s s i b l e . O t h e r c o u r s e s o f s t u d y , h a v i n g c o n s i d e r a b l e c o n t e n t w i t h s o c i a l p r o b l e m s , have b e e n d e v e l o p e d f o r h o u s i n g managers. - 1I4-8 -l e f t u n f i l l e d . I t i s c l e a r t h a t a b u s i n e s s - l i k e a p p r o a c h i s e s s e n t i a l and t h a t u s e o f a b u s i n e s s a p p r o a c h h e l p s t o p r e v e n t some l i t t l e p r o b l e m s f r o m d e v e l o p i n g i n t o b i g o n e s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , i n p u b l i c h o u s i n g t h e r e a r e some p r o b l e m s w h i c h demand t h e a t t e n t i o n o f p r o f e s s i o n a l s k i l l s . T h e r e a r e a l s o many v e r y " n o r m a l " a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h c a n f l o u r i s h w i t h t h e l i t t l e g u i d a n c e t h a t c a n o n l y come b e c a u s e a h e l p e r i s " a l w a y s t h e r e . " P o l i c i e s change i n p u b l i c h o u s i n g , as i n o t h e r f i e l d s . Some o f t h e s e p o l i c y c h a n g e s c a n be communicated d i r e c t l y and w i l l n o t p r o d u c e much r e s i s t a n c e . O t h e r c h a n ges w i l l r e q u i r e some i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and some c h a n c e f o r " b l o w - b a c k , " o p p o r t u n i t y f o r e m o t i o n a l r e a c t i o n . Some o f t h e p o l i c i e s w h i c h have p r o v o k e d much e m o t i o n a l r e s p o n s e were t h e w i d e r e n t r a n c e e l i g i b i l i t y r e q u i r e m e n t s w h i c h p e r m i t t e d l o w e r income p e o p l e t o e n t e r ; r e q u i r i n g the s u r v i v i n g p a r t n e r o f the c h i l d l e s s c o u p l e t o move o u t a f t e r t h e d e a t h o f the s p o u s e ; and i n c l u s i o n o f F a m i l y A l l o w a n c e i n i n c o m e - r e n t c o m p u t a t i o n s . A s o c i a l w o r k e r c a n l e a r n f r o m t e n a n t s w h i c h o f t h e s e t h i n g s r e a l l y r a n k l e ; and b y l e t t i n g t h e t e n a n t e x p r e s s r e s e n t m e n t , the s o c i a l w o r k e r c a n h e l p p r e p a r e t h e t e n a n t t o a c c e p t t h e c o r r e c t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . Some c o m p l a i n t s , when r e l a t e d t o m a l f u n c t i o n s o f t h e p h y s i c a l e q u i p m e n t o f h o u s i n g , may p r o d u c e no e m o t i o n a l r e a c t i o n ; o t h e r s , when t h e y r e l a t e to t h e " f a m i l y n e x t d o o r " o r " t h o s e l i t t l e b r a t s o v e r on t h e o t h e r w a l k " may be h i g h l y c h a r g e d . P o o r " h o u s e -k e e p i n g " i s a s e n s i t i v e a r e a , and s l o v e n l y o r c a r e l e s s h o u s e -k e e p e r s may be e n t r e n c h e d and c o n f i r m e d i n c a r e l e s s ways b y an u n s k i l l e d a p p r o a c h . - 1I4.9 -The social worker—if he is not swamped by too much worki--can act as an enabler of community organization, to help tenants bring about some self-government or "association" efforts with a constructive orientation to management, and not only to the Project but to the neighbourhood and wider community. G-iven a chance to "feel i t s feet," such an "assoc-iation" might be able to handle matters such as volunteer staffing of a children's play-room, educational discussions of "how to bring up a 'teen-ager," or better cooking and furnishing. It could welcome "visitors" to help integrate the Project into the larger community. This is perhaps expecting too much from one social worker and perhaps two would be necessary--one for family welfare and one for group and community work. Implications for the Future L i t t l e Mountain is the f i r s t public housing project of the Vancouver Housing Authority; already Orchard Park i s .: a functioning reality; Strathcona redevelopment has been approved; projects w i l l , doubtless, be planned for Vancouver in the future. Can we learn enough from experience? There is a challenge here--to accept what has been abundantly evidenced here, that public housing is a v i t a l element i n social welfare i f we are willing to work to make i t so. - 1^0 -A p p e n d i x A The " P r o g r e s s i v e " ( A d j u s t e d P r o p o r t i o n a l ) R e n t - S c a l e E x t r a c t f r o m R e n t s f o r R e g e n t P a r k : A R e n t - S c a l e S y s t e m f o r a P u b l i c H o u s i n g P r o j e c t , b y Humphrey C a r v e r and A l i s o n Hopwood ( p u b l i s h e d b y C i v i c A d v i s o r y C o u n c i l , C i t y o f T o r o n t o , I9I4.8), pp. 38-lj.l. ". . * t h e r e a r e two b a s i c p r i n c i p l e s o n w h i c h a ra n g e o f r e n t s c a n be e s t a b l i s h e d . E i t h e r t h e r e n t s o f t h e d w e l l i n g u n i t s t h e m s e l v e s c a n be g r a d e d t o g i v e r e n t s a t a l l l e v e l s ( t h e E n g l i s h " s t a n d a r d " r e n t s ystem) o r e l s e r e n t s c a n be b a s e d on e a c h h o u s e h o l d ' s a b i l i t y t o p a y . The f o r m e r s y s t e m does n o t seem t o be a p p l i c a b l e w i t h i n a s i n g l e p r o j e c t ( s u c h as R e g e n t P a r k ) b e c a u s e t h e d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e q u a l i t y o f a c c o m m o d a t i o n o f t h e same s i z e a r e n o t s u f f i c i e n t t o j u s t i f y t h e f i x e d d i f f e r e n c e s i n r e n t , n o r does s u c h a s y s t e m p r o v i d e f o r s u f f i c i e n t f l e x i b i l i t y . I t seems i n e v i t a b l e , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t t h e r e n t o f e a c h d w e l l i n g w i l l have t o be a d j u s t e d t o t h e o c c u p a n t s ' a b i l i t y t o p a y . T h i s i s t h e E n g l i s h " d i f f e r e n t i a l " r e n t s y s t e m and t h e A m e r i c a n " p r o p o r t i o n a l " r e n t s y s t e m . O u r p a r t i c u l a r p r o b l e m i s to d e v i s e . a n a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h i s p r i n c i p l e w h i c h h a s t h e m e r i t s o f s i m p l i c i t y , j u s t i c e and i n t e l l i g i b i l i t y . To a c h i e v e t h e s e m e r i t s some compromises a r e n e c e s s a r y ; a s y s t e m w h i c h s o u g h t t o o b t a i n t h e v e r y f i n e s t a d j u s t m e n t s i n t h e i n t e r e s t o f j u s t i c e m i g h t become so c o m p l i c a t e d t h a t i t w o u l d be b e y o n d t h e c o m p r e h e n s i o n o f t h e t e n a n t s and t h e p u b l i c i n g e n e r a l and w o u l d become a n u i s a n c e t o t h e management o f a p r o j e c t . To o b t a i n t h e g r e a t e s t c o - o p e r a t i o n b e t w e e n t e n a n t s and management, e a c h t e n a n t must u n d e r s t a n d t h e b a s i s o n w h i c h he a n d h i s n e i g h b o u r s a r e a s s e s s e d . F u r t h e r m o r e t h e r e n t s y s t e m must be e x p l i c a b l e i n b r i e f and s i m p l e f o r m s to t h e t a x p a y e r s who s u p p o r t t h e p r o j e c t and to t h e members o f t h e C i t y C o u n c i l , t o whom t h e H o u s i n g A u t h o r i t y r e p o r t s . . . . . . . A f t e r a s t u d y o f r e n t s y s t e m s i n o t h e r c o u n t r i e s and w i t h a l l t h e f o r e g o i n g c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n m i n d , a r e n t s c a l e h a s b e e n d e v i s e d w h i c h i n c o r p o r a t e s t h e f o l l o w i n g f e a t u r e s : (1) A d j u s t m e n t t o f a m i l y s i z e and income, i n c o n -f o r m i t y w i t h t h e aims o f E n g l i s h and A u s t r a l i a n r e n t r e b a t e s and A m e r i c a n p r o p o r t i o n a l r e n t s . (2) The r e c o g n i t i o n o f a minimum s t a n d a r d o f l i v i n g , c o m p a r a b l e w i t h t h e " s u b s i s t e n c e minimum" u s e d b y some E n g l i s h a u t h o r i t i e s and t h e " b a s i c wage" i n A u s t r a l i a . - 151 -(3) The p r o g r e s S i v e a p p l i c a t i o n o f s u b s i d i e s so t h a t a g r e a t e r d e g r e e o f r e n t r e l i e f may be g r a n t e d i n t h e l o w e r r a n g e s o f income, i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h a s y s t e m u s e d b y t h e N a t i o n a l C a p i t a l H o u s i n g A u t h o r i t y ( W a s h i n g t o n , D. C ) . I n d r a w i n g up t h e r e n t s c a l e i t h a s b e e n n e c e s s a r y t o e s t a b l i s h some s t a r t i n g p o i n t . T h i s h a s b e e n p r o v i d e d b y t h e T o r o n t o W e l f a r e C o u n c i l ' s minimum f a m i l y b u d g e t as p u b l i s h e d f o r May, 1947* T h i s b u d g e t - f o r a f a m i l y , o f f i v e ( p a r e n t s and t h r e e c h i l d r e n ] t o t a l s $172.1j.8 and a l l o w s $33 f o r r e n t ; i t i s d e s i g n e d f o r a f a m i l y w i t h c h i l d r e n o f s t a t e d - a g e s , and a d j u s t e d t o t h e c u r r e n t l i v i n g c o s t s . P o r the p u r p o s e s o f a r e n t a l s c a l e no s u c h e x a c t i t u d e i s p o s s i b l e o r d e s i r a b l e . I t i s s u f f i c i e n t l y a c c u r a t e t o s a y t h a t a f a m i l y o f f i v e , w i t h a n income o f $175 a month, c a n a f f o r d t o p a y $35 f o r r e n t . T h i s i s e x a c t l y o n e -f i f t h o f the f a m i l y i n c o m e . Comparable f i g u r e s r e f e r r e d t o as "budget i n c o m e s " and "budget r e n t s " h a v e b e e n s e t f o r f a m i l i e s o f o t h e r s i z e s as f o l l o w s : M o n t h l y Income R e q u i r e d t o Meet Minimum S t a n d a r d o f L i v i n g o f t h e T o r o n t o W e l f a r e C o u n c i l B u d g e t Income B u d g e t R e n t F a m i l y o f 2 P e r s o n s $100 $20 F a m i l y o f 3 P e r s o n s 125 25 F a m i l y o f l\. P e r s o n s 150 30 F a m i l y o f 5 P e r s o n s 175 35 F a m i l y o f 6 P e r s o n s 200 ko F a m i l y o f 7 P e r s o n s 225 I t i s a c c e p t e d t h a t b e l o w t h e s e income l e v e l s f a m i l i e s c a n n o t p a y 20 p e r c e n t o f t h e i r income f o r r e n t and a l s o meet th e c o s t s o f a d e c e n t s t a n d a r d o f l i v i n g . T h e r e f o r e t h e f a m i l i e s w i t h i n c o m e s i n a d e q u a t e t o meet t h e p r e s c r i b e d s t a n d a r d o f l i v i n g a r e n o t r e q u i r e d t o p a y as much as 20 p e r c e n t o f t h e i r income f o r r e n t . The p r o p o r t i o n s o f t h e i r income t o be p a i d i n r e n t i s d e c r e a s i n g l y s m a l l e r , r e a c h i n g a p o i n t a t w h i c h the r e n t c h a r g e d b y the p u b l i c h o u s i n g a u t h o r i t y s h o u l d be m e r e l y n o m i n a l . I t i s p r o p o s e d t h a t t h i s s h o u l d be a c h i e v e d b y (1) s u b t r a c t i n g $1 f r o m t h e b u d g e t r e n t f o r e a c h $5 d e c r e a s e o f income, (2) s u b t r a c t i n g an a d d i t i o n a l $1 f o r e a c h $25 d e c r e a s e o f i n c o m e . I t w i l l be o b s e r v e d t h a t the f i r s t o f t h e s e two a d j u s t m e n t s a l o n e w o u l d m a i n t a i n a 20 p e r c e n t r a t i o b e t w e e n r e n t and income, w h i l e the s e c o n d a d j u s t m e n t makes t h e r a t i o o f r e n t and income i n -c r e a s i n g l y s m a l l e r as incomes f a l l f u r t h e r b e l o w t h e " b u d g e t i n c o m e " l e v e l s . . . . W h i l e i t i s g e n e r a l l y c o n t e n d e d t h a t a t any e c o n o m i c - 152 -l e v e l a f a m i l y s h o u l d n o t h a v e t o pay more t h a n 20 p e r c e n t o f income f o r r e n t , i t i s p r o p o s e d h e r e t h a t the p r o g r e s s i v e f e a t u r e o f the r e n t s c a l e s h o u l d o p e r a t e b o t h above and b e l o w t h e " b u d g e t i n c o m e " l e v e l s . I n o t h e r words i t i s s u g g e s t e d t h a t h i g h e r income f a m i l i e s i n t h e h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s h o u l d p a y an  i n c r e a s i n g l y l a r g e r p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e i r income f o r r e n t . T h i s i s i n t e n d e d t o meet c e r t a i n r e q u i r e m e n t s o f p u b l i c h o u s i n g . i n g e n e r a l and o f t h e R e g e n t P a r k p r o j e c t i n p a r t i c u l a r . I t must be c o n t i n u a l l y e m p h a s i z e d t h a t p u b l i c h o u s i n g , w i t h r e n t s r e d u c e d b y s u b s i d y , i s i n t e n d e d t o b e n e f i t f a m i l i e s w h i c h c a n n o t pay t h e c o m m e r c i a l r e n t s o f d e c e n t accommodation. On t h a t a c c o u n t t h e r e n t s y s t e m o f a p u b l i c h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s h o u l d i n c o r p o r a t e some f e a t u r e w h i c h w i l l e x c l u d e f a m i l i e s who c a n a f f o r d c o m m e r c i a l r e n t s , o r a t l e a s t e x c l u d e them f r o m t h e b e n e f i t o f s u b s i d i e s . I n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s t h i s h a s b e e n done b y t h e i m p o s i t i o n o f an income " c e i l i n g " ; b y t h i s means f a m i l i e s w i t h more t h a n a s p e c i f i e d income a r e n o t a d m i t t e d as t e n a n t s o r have t o l e a v e t h e p r o j e c t i f t h e i r income r i s e s above t h e c e i l i n g l e v e l . . . w h i l e no d e f i n i t e income c e i l i n g c a n be i m p o s e d i t i s t h o u g h t t h a t t h e r e n t s o f t h e h i g h e r income f a m i l i e s r e - h o u s e d s h o u l d a p p r o x i m a t e more and more c l o s e l y w i t h c o m m e r c i a l r e n t s . I t i s a l s o c o n s i d e r e d d e s i r a b l e t o e n c o u r a g e t h e s e f a m i l i e s to s e e k p r i v a t e h o u s i n g and l e a v e the p u b l i c h o u s i n g p r o j e c t f o r the o c c u p a t i o n o f f a m i l i e s w h i c h a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y i n need o f l o w - r e n t a l h o u s i n g . I t i s t h o u g h t t h a t t h e p r o g r e s s i v e f e a t u r e o f t h e r e n t s c a l e w o u l d i n t r o d u c e a k i n d o f " s o f t " c e l l i n g b y means o f w h i c h h i g h e r income f a m i l i e s w o u l d n o t be e x c l u d e d b y an a r b i t r a r y r e g u l a t i o n b u t w o u l d f e e l e c o n o m i c p r e s s u r e s p e r s u a d i n g them t o move o u t o f a p u b l i c h o u s i n g p r o j e c t . " t • • - 153 -A p p e n d i x B: The Q u e s t i o n n a i r e LITTLE MOUNTAIN SURVEY Please be assured that a l l information i s c o n f i d e n t i a l and nobody w i l l be quoted by name. This study i s being conducted by S o c i a l Work students from the U n i v e r s i t y , and is not an o f f i c i a l study of the Vancouver Housing Authority, or of the C e n t r a l Mortgage. (a) LIVING ACCOMODATION (YOUR SUITE) F i r s t of a l l , we want to know what you think about your new place, and how i t com-* pares with what you were l i v i n g i n before you cane here. 1. More space than before? . . . . . . . Enough f or everybody? 2 o What things do you l i k e best about i t ? (e.g., c l e a n l i n e s s , colour, l i g h t , w e l l -heated, space, etc.) 3« What took the most "getting used to"? kf Are there s t i l l some things you f i n d s trange/ 5. How diel things work out about furniture? Also c u r t a i n s , kitchen equipment etc.? • • • 6 3 Special Points about: (Compared with other place) (1) Cooking (stove etc.) « ( 2 ) Food storage (and r e f r i g . ) . . . . . . (3) Meal preparation (li) Eating space . . . . . . . . . . . . . • (5>) Hot water (washing, bathing) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (6) Bathroom, t o i l e t e t c . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (7) Bedr ooms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (8) House cleaning a * . . . . . . . . . . c . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (9) Storage (10) Other Do you f e e l you can r e a l l y take pride i n the place? - 15k -(b) FAMILY LIVING (a) Recreation, Hobbies, Entertaining, etc. (in your Apartment, or Within the Project 1. Any special hobbies or sports i n your family? (a) Adults (b) Youngsters 2. Can they be carried on here easily or not? Better than before?. . . . . . .(a) Adults . . . . . . . . . . . (b) Youngsters , . 3. Do your friends or family v i s i t you at your new place? . . . . . . . . . . (a) Adults (b) Youngsters (yours? other peoplete ) 4. Much radio? • record player T.V. , 5. Do neighbour's noises bother you? How soundproof are the units? , . 6. Do you have more privacy here than i n the previous place(s)? . . . . . . . . Do you l i k e i t , or do you f e e l a b i t "cut off"? (b) Social A c t i v i t i e s Outside the House 1. What recreations do you most do together (parents and children) Weekdays . . . weekends summer . . . . . . . . . (N.B.: other than T.V.) 2. Do you belong to any clubs, groups etc.: - (a) Mother (b) Father (c) youngsters < > . » • • « • • « 3» Do you get much of your social contacts through these clubs . . . . . . . or Church . . . . . . or other (old friends; work, etc.) . . . . . . . . . 4. Could you do with a workshop or hobby centre, etc.,. . . . . Where? (in the basement, or a separate unit?) • 5. Is there a need for a coranunity centre or club room or a h a l l , here? . . . • . . . . . . . « . . . Any particular groups? Need for a P.T.A.? „ . . . . „ . Would you l i k e to join? , 6. Would you l i k e to know your fellow-tenants better (e.g., other mothers, working, wives) ^ (Axe there things you ovght to get together about?) - 155 --3-(c) The Children 1. Do they spend more time at home than at the former place(s) . . . . . • . or less . 2. Do they get more attention from mother father . ... . . . • • • • . Comments? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. Any differences in school? . . . Like i t better? . . . . loss. . . • Different school mates? Other comments . ... . . . . . . 4. Any differences in homework? . . . . . . . . 5, Young children: how do you manage when shopping, etc Any "baby sitting" problems? . 6 . Is there enough play space for young children? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Where do_ they play? Problems? . . . . . . . . 7. Do the school-age children get enough sports etc., through school, Scouts, etc.? 8. Would an organized playground (e.g. with sandbox, "jungle gym", etc.) be well used here? • • • 9. What about a volunteers' cooperative play-group, or day-care group? . . . . . - 156 -M _F C (c) NEIGHBOURHOOD AND DISTRICT Present fa c i l i t i e s l i Are the schools convenient? Elementary High Nursery, kindergarten? . . . . . . . . . . . 2 . Whereabouts do you do most of your Krocery shopping? Is i t far? Convenient? 3. Other kinds of shopping? 4. How do you get on for church?  5. Any transportation problems? Father: work . other . . . . . Mother? „ Children? Comparisons a. Which districts did you live in (Vancouver) before coming-here? . . . . . b. Did you live in apt., rooms, house, other . 1. Are there things you miss in this (L.M.) district? . 2 . What things were you glad to leave in the old district (if any)? 3. Do you go back to the old district much? 4. Did you have many friends there? , i f so, do they v i s i t you here? often? . ... . . . . . 5. Do the children like this district? or have any complaints? 6. Would you say you feel part of a new neighbourhood here? . . . . . . . . . . . . Or that you belong mostly to the project?. (Would you call i t a "community"?) „ - 157 -THE BUDGET  Family and Earnings; (a) Size of your family (b) Any earners besides (yourself) (husband) . . . . . '. . . (c) Occupation of breadwinner (s) . . . « < (full time, part-time, or irregular) . . . . . . . . . . . . . (d) Like better employment, i f feasible? •< (e) Unemployment or non-wage-earner (SA) etc Budget Situation; 1, Is your rent higher or lower than you paid before? . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. Does i t make i t harder or easier to balance the budget (make both ends meet) 3. What would you say is your biggest or most d i f f i c u l t budget item (apart from rent)? . . 4. Did you have special problems with furniture, credit purchase etc. (or have now) which makes your budget situation a bad one? • • Rent and Income 1, Do you consider the rent scale here (so far.as you understand i t ) fair . . . . . o r not? (how) 2. Do you think your rent should be higher i f your income goes up? . . . . . . . . 3. Do you understand why the income check-up for tenants is necessary? . . . . , Do you feel i t is conducted reasonably? . 4. Have you ever been able to consider buying a house? . . . Could you have managed a down payment (say at least $500)? „„ , , /, . , , , r J J . . . . . Monthly payments (how much would be a maximum for you?) - 158 -~6-5>.- A n y r e a s o n s a g a i n s t home p u r c h a s e i n y o u r c a s e ? ( E . g . , a p a r t m e n t m o r e c o n -v e n i e n t ? . . . . . N o t a b l e t o c o p e w i t h m a i n t e n a n c e Work n o t a l w a y s i n one p l a c e ? . . . . , . P r e v i o u s a d v e r s e e x p e r i e n c e ? . • . 6. Db y o u t h i n k i t i s t r u e t h a t t e n a n t s a r e h a r d e r o n p r o p e r t i e s t h a n r w n e r s ? ••• • . • . . W h a t i s y o u r e x p e r i e n c e w i t h m a i n t e n a n c e , r e p a i r s , e t c . . h e r e ? GENERAL 1. - W h a t t h i n g s w o u l d y o u m o s t l i k e t o s e e i m p r o v e d i n t h i s p r o j e c t ? • . . . . 2 . H a v e y o u a n y s u g g e s t i o n s w h i c h y o u w o u l d l i k e t o make f o r a n y new p r o j e c t s i m i l a r t o L i t t l e M o u n t a i n , i n t h e f u t u r e ? . . . . . . 9 . . . . . . . . . 3. W o u l d y o u l i k e t o s e e more g r a s s , t r e e s , s h e l t e r e d w a l k s , o r hedges e t c . ? g a r d e n s . . . . . . . p l a c e s t o s i t i n t h e o p e n ( i n summer)? . . . . . . . . o r do y o u t h i n k e v e r y t h i n g i s f i n e as i t i s ? . . . . . . . u . A r e y o u s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e g e n e r a l a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e p r o j e c t ? . . . . . . . o C o u l d i t b e more p l e a s a n t ? t i d i e r ? . . • More s h e l t e r e d o r p r o t e c t e d ? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Do y o u t h i n k e v e r y b o d y w o u l d c o o p e r a t e and t a k e a p r i d e i n t h e p l a c e ? . • 5. Do y o u t h i n k a " L i t t l e M o u n t a i n S o c i a l C l u b " w o u l d b e a g o o d i d e a ? . . . • • P e r h a p s w i t h a b u l l e t i n b o a r d , c l u b r o o m , ' • .coffee b a r , " d o - i t - y o u r s e l f " n e w s p a p e r ? . . . . . O r do y o u l i k e t h e i d e a o f a C o m m u n i t y C e n t r e s e r v i n g t h e e n t i r e d i s t r i c t , n o t j u s t L i t t l e M o u n t a i n t e n a n t s ? . . . . . . . . . . . 6. Do y o u t h i n k t h e p u b l i c knows e n o u g h a b o u t h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s o f t h i s k i n d ? . . 7» Do y o u t h i n k t h e r e s h o u l d b e more s u c h p r o j e c t s as L i t t l e M o u n t a i n ? . . . . (Do y o u t h i n k t h e y s h o u l d be d i s t r i b u t e d a r o u n d t h e c i t y , p e r h a p s e v e n i n t h e s u b u r b s ? ) • <, (Or i n t h e o l d e s t d i s t r i c t s t o r e p l a c e some o f t h e s l u m s ? ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -- 159 -A p p e n d i x C V a n c o u v e r R e v i s e d R e n t - S c a l e The r e n t - s c a l e i n use i n t h e V a n c o u v e r A u t h o r i t y ' s p r o p e r t i e s i s d e r i v e d f r o m t h e C arver-Hopwood s c a l e ( a p p e n d i x A) b u t d i f f e r s s l i g h t l y f r o m t h a t s c a l e as s e t o u t i n R e n t s f o r  Regent P a r k 1 and i n t h e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n m a n u a l . 2 The d i f f e r e n c e s are i n t h e s e t t i n g o f new minimum i n c o m e s f o r e l i g i b i l i t y and t h e use o f new s e r v i c e c h a r g e c o m p u t a t i o n s f o r l o w e r income b r a c k e t s . The l o w e r minima were m o s t l y t o p e r m i t e n t r a n c e o f o l d age p e n s i o n e r s , b o t h c o u p l e s and s i n g l e s . S e r v i c e c h a r g e i s , p e r h a p s , somewhat c o n f u s i n g : i t a p p l i e s t o t h e c h a r g e l e v i e d a g a i n s t the a p a r t m e n t - b l o c k d w e l l e r f o r h i s s h a r e o f h e a t , h o t w a t e r , and r e f r i g e r a t o r c o s t s . I t does n o t a p p l y t o t h e o c c u p a n t o f a row h o u s e . A v e r y s i g n i f i c a n t i t e m i s t h e " s u r c h a r g e " w h i c h i s g r a f t e d o n t o the t o p o f t h e s t a n d a r d r e n t - s c a l e . D e s i g n e d t o p r o v i d e f o r f a m i l i e s whose income r i s e s above t h e maximum a f t e r t h e y have b e e n a d m i t t e d as r e s i d e n t s , i t h a s become i m p o r t a n t i n r e c e n t y e a r s . The maximum e n t r a n c e income v a r i e s f r o m $290 p e r month f o r a t w o - p e r s o n f a m i l y t o $325 p e r month f o r ' a s e v e n -p e r s o n f a m i l y . I f t h e income o f a t e n a n t - f a m i l y I n c r e a s e s beyond t h e maximum, t h e y c a n c o n t i n u e t o l i v e i n the P r o j e c t , b u t must pay an a d d i t i o n a l t h i r t y p e r c e n t o f t h e amount b y w h i c h income e x c e e d s t h e maximum. T h i s method i s l e s s a b r u p t and h a r s h t h a n w o u l d be t h e r e q u i r e m e n t t h a t t h e f a m i l y l e a v e when income r e a c h e d the maximum o r w i t h i n s i x months a f t e r . The s u r c h a r g e p r o v i d e s a s l i g h t p r o d f o r t h e " h i g h - i n c o m e " f a m i l y t o e n c o u r a g e I t t o move o u t i n t o o t h e r h o u s i n g . I t i s b a s e d o n the a s s u m p t i o n t h a t the f a m i l y w i t h over-maximum income i s a b l e t o a f f o r d c o m m e r c i a l a c c ommodation o r p e r h a p s home p u r c h a s e . T h i s a s s u m p t i o n may w e l l be q u e s t i o n e d as many c i r c u m s t a n c e s m i g h t make i t d e s i r a b l e f o r a f a m i l y to c o n t i n u e to r e n t e v e n when i t s income goes up. B u t t h e r e i s no a l t e r n a t i v e i f p r o j e c t s a r e t o h a v e a " c e i l i n g " a t a l l . 1 C a r v e r , Humphrey, and Hopwood, A l i s o n , R e n t s f o r R e g e n t  P a r k . C i v i c A d v i s o r y C o u n c i l o f T o r o n t o ; T o r o n t o ; 19*4.8. • 2 C e n t r a l M o r t g a g e and H o u s i n g C o r p o r a t i o n , Manual f o r  G u i d a n c e o f H o u s i n g A u t h o r i t i e s . O t t a w a ; 1953« - 160 -RENT SCHEDULE Monthly Family Rent by Number of Persons i n Family Service Income 1 2 3 k 5 6 7 Charge _ ^ 320 66 6IL 315 67 65 63 $13 310 66 64 62 305 67 6£ 63 61 300 66 64 62 60 295 66 64 62 60 58  "290 67 0 5 63 61 £9 57 285 66 6k 62 60 58 56 280 65 63 61 59 57 55 13 275 6k 62 60 58 56 54  -2T0 62 615 §5 tk 5J2 265 61 59 57 55 53 51 260 60 58 56 5k 52 50 .12 255 59 57 55 53 51 k9 250 58 56 54 52 50 IL8  - 2 5 5 §5 % "52 50"—p*~— k b 2I4-0 5  53 1 49 ^7 k$ 235 5k 52 50 48 46 kk 11 230 53 51 49 ^7 k5 kl _ 2 5 52 50 u k6 kk y -22$ -p p 46 mj: p T o 215 49 ki h$ 43 lp. 39 210 48 46 44 42 40 38 10 205 47 45 k3 lp. 39 3 200 46 44 k2 ko 38 3 T95 44~ 42" 4 ° 3 F 35 H j : 190 43 41 39 37 35 33 185 42 40 38 36 3 t 32 180 41 39 37 35 33 31 175 IfQ 38 36 34 32 30  "T70 I B JS % 32 30 ~ T B —8" 165 37 35 33 31 29 27 6 160 36 34 32 30 28 26 6 155 35 33 31 25 27 25 5 150 34 32 30 28 26 5 "143 : : "32 : W~ 28 25 24: 4 140 31 29 27 25 23 4 135 30 28 26 24 3 130 29 27 25 23 3 125 28 26 24 22 2 26 -If 22 23 2 115 25 23 21 2 " T I O 24" 22 20" 105 23 21 20 2 100 22 20  QO 20 20 85 20 80 20 20 2 75 20 20 65 20 50 20 #55 86.50 104.50 122.50 140.50 158.50 176.50 Minimum income with s o c i a l or o l d age pension assistance only. - 161 -A p p e n d i x D: THE VANCOUVER HOUSING AUTHORITY I N S P E C T I O N R E P O R T PRESENT HOUSING Name of Applicant... „ ....,*,.., = ... Addresso ........... ........... „ Number of persons i n household,. ,. • o * • • o o • • « c * • • Complete one copy and attach to a p p l i c a t i o n . When a re-check i s made complete a new form and mark p r i o r report can-c e l l e d . SUITABILITY AS A TENANT; (See paragraph 4,1 of the Administration manual) Comments are to be recorded on the reverse side of t h i s page. DEFECTS OF PRESENT HOUSING (bad conditions get high marks, see over) F A C T O R S D E S C R I P T I O N - MAX. POINTS SCORE 1. Overcrowding 6 2. Disrepair r e s u l t i n g i n hazards 5 3." Kitchen f a c i l i t i e s inadequate -or lack of private kitchen 5 A. Bathroom f a c i l i t i e s inadequate or not private.; laundry overtaxed. 5 5, Heating f a c i l i t i e s inadequate or unsafe 3 6. Inadequate natural l i g h t or v e n t i l a t i o n 3 7 Lack of safe children's play space 2 8, Location f a r from employment 2 Other unsatisfactory conditions 2 TOTAL 33 Rooms i n Dwelling: Check f o r t h i s family only?,.,, Kitchen shared with others? .„..„,'. f o r t h i s family only? ,-. .-. „. Bathroom shared with others?, .... ..... L i v i n g Room? i i . , . „ . . „ . „ . Dining Room (Separate)?.„,.. /. Bedrooms? 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 ( c i r c l e f o r c o r r e c t number of bedrooms) R E M A R K S (a) Suitability; (evidence of unsuitability such as unrealiability in payment of debts, or in s t a b i l i t y as reflected in intemperence and family trouble, w i l l disqualify the applicant)..... ,. o • c • . • * (b) Present Conditions; (including impressions of housekeeping, health of family, owner-ship of furniture, or any other special features)<..„.,,„..<...,..*.<,........ . . . o . . . . . *0100000««0 • p Inspection Date... „,. ,.,,..,.,.,,.,,,.,19.."" Inspector..,, „.,.,.„...,........... PRESENT HOUSING; SCORING PROCEDURE It i s suggested that the Inspector make notes in the description column during each i n -spection but not try to mark the score in a l l respects u n t i l he has completed several or a l l inspections, and can sort the applicants into groups on each factor according to the relative severity of the defects observed. The most severe shall be given the maximum points in the table, The following w i l l serve as a guide to scoring certain of the factors; (the numbers shown herein refer to the li s t e d factors in the table) 1, Overcrowding occurs unless there i s a bedroom for each two persons in the household, plus enough bedrooms so that no dependents of opposite sexes over 10 years old must share a room. 5* Score i f heating equipment i s unable to maintain comfortable temperatures or liable to f i r e hazard i f over-taxed. 6. Do not give f u l l marks i f conditions are easy to rectify; include inspection of base-ment or a t t i c i f any. 7. Score i f there i s neither a back yard nor play lot that i s easy and safe to go to, 8. Score i f journey to place of employment by public transit takes more than 30 minutes, or costs a zone fare plus the standard fare for the system, 9 . Score for unsatisfactory conditions, such as harmful surroundings, special atmospheric and noise hazards, etc. - 162 -A p p e n d i x E B i b l i o g r a p h y B ooks A r o n v i c i , C a r o l . H o u s e s f o r t h e M a s s e s . J . W i l e y and Sons, New Y o r k , 1939-B a u e r , C a t h e r i n e . A C i t i z e n ' s G u i d e t o P u b l i c H o u s i n g . V a s s a r C o l l e g e , P o u g h k e e p s i e , N. Y., I94O. M a c k i n t o s h , James M a c a l i s t e r . H o u s i n g and t h e F a m i l y . C a s s e l l , L o n d o n , 1952. M a r s h , L . C. R e b u i l d i n g A N e i g h b o u r h o o d . U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , V a n c o u v e r , 1950. • Rose, A l b e r t . R egent P a r k . U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o , T o r o n t o , 1958. S t r a u s , N a t h a n . S e v e n Myths o f H o u s i n g . K n o p f , New Y o r k , 1944* A r t i c l e s B a u e r , C a t h e r i n e . " S o c i a l Q u e s t i o n s i n H o u s i n g and Community P l a n n i n g . " S o c i a l P o l i c y and S o c i a l R e s e a r c h i n  H o u s i n g , vol". V I I , n o s . 1 and 2, 1951, A s s o c i a t i o n P r e s s , New Y o r k . . Mumford, L e w i s . " F o r O l d e r P e o p l e — N o t S e g r e a t i o n b y I n t e g r a t i o n . " A r c h i t e c t u r a l R e c o r d , May, 1956. T h e s e s A n g e l , J . H., and McKinnon, D. F. H o u s i n g Needs and P r e f e r e n c e s  Among S e n i o r C i t i z e n s . M a s t e r o f S o c i a l Work t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1957. W h e e l e r , M i c h a e l . E v a l u a t i n g t h e Need f o r L o w - R e n t a l H o u s i n g . M a s t e r o f S o c i a l Work t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1955. W i l s o n , W a r r e n Andrew. H o u s i n g C o n d i t i o n s Among S o c i a l A s s i s t a n c e F a m i l i e s , M a s t e r o f S o c i a l Work t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1955* - 163 -O t h e r S t u d i e s Canada, P a r l i a m e n t . H o u s i n g and Community P l a n n i n g . " C u r t i s " Sub-Committee o f A d v i s o r y Committee o n Post-War R e c o n s t r u c t i o n , R e p o r t I V , K i n g ' s P r i n t e r , O t t a w a , 1 9 4 4 -Canada, P a r l i a m e n t . N a t i o n a l H o u s i n g A c t . P a r t V I , S e c t i o n 36, C a r v e r , Humphrey, and Hopwood, A l i s o n . R e n t s f o r Regent P a r k , "A Rent S c a l e F o r a P u b l i c H o u s i n g P r o j e c t . " C i v i c A d v i s o r y C o u n c i l , C i t y o f T o r o n t o , I9I4.0. C e n t r a l M o r t g a g e and H o u s i n g C o r p o r a t i o n , H o u s i n g S t a t i s t i c s , F i r s t Q u a r t e r , 1958. C e n t r a l M o r t g a g e and H o u s i n g C o r p o r a t i o n , M a n u a l f o r G-uidance  o f H o u s i n g A u t h o r i t i e s , 1 9 5 3 . G r e a t B r i t a i n , B r i t i s h M i n i s t r y of H e a l t h . The Management o f  M u n i c i p a l H o u s i n g E s t a t e s . . R e p o r t . o f the Mouse Management and H o u s i n g A s s o c i a t i o n ' s Sub-Committee o f t h e C e n t r a l H o u s i n g A d v i s o r y C ommittee, 1 9 3 8 . S e a t t l e H o u s i n g A u t h o r i t y . Y o u r G u i d e t o L i v i n g a t Y e s l e r  T e r r a c e . S e a t t l e H o u s i n g A u t h o r i t y . T h i r d A n n u a l R e p o r t , I9I4.2. S e a t t l e H o u s i n g A u t h o r i t y . H o u s i n g t h e P e o p l e , S i x t h A n n u a l R e p o r t , I9I4.5-S e a t t l e H o u s i n g A u t h o r i t y . T h i s i s P u b l i c H o u s i n g . ( R e p o r t Made A l o n g w i t h R e a l P r o p e r t y S u r v e y i n S e a t t l e , 1 9 3 9 ) . 1 9 4 8 - 1 9 4 9 . V a n c o u v e r , Community C h e s t and C o u n c i l . P u b l i c and P r i v a t e  R e s o u r c e s i n R e c r e a t i o n i n V a n c o u v e r . A R e p o r t o f the Committee Appointed b y t h e Group Work D i v i s i o n , A p r i l 2 5 , 1 9 5 7 . V a n c o u v e r , Community C h e s t and C o u n c i l . A d e q u a c y o f S o c i a l  A s s i s t a n c e A l l o w a n c e s I n t h e C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r . L i t h o . , 1 9 5 8 . ~ — V a n c o u v e r H o u s i n g A u t h o r i t y . A n n u a l Re po r t , 1 9 5 8 . 

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