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A geographical investigation of development potential in the Squamish Valley region, British Columbia Stathers, Jack Kenneth 1958

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A GEOGRAPHICAL INVESTIGATION OF DEVELOPMENT POTENTIAL IN THE SQUAMISH VALLEY REGION, BRITISH COLUMBIA by JACK KENNETH STATHERS B.A. , University of Br i t i s h Columbia, 1 9 5 5 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT - OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in the Department of GEOLOGY AND GEOGRAPHY, GEOGRAPHY DIVISION We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA October, 1 9 5 8 i i ABSTRACT During the past five years the Squamish valley has been the center of attention of a large amount of public interest. The extension of the Pacific Great Eastern Railway from the village of Squamish to Vancouver has been the cause of much of this public interest. The tremendous recreational potential of the beautifully scenic alpine country north of Squamish in Garibaldi Park has been brought most vividly to the fore. Partly as a result of this the provincial government began construction of a modern highway to the Squamish area, which in spite of much p o l i t i c a l debate, had hitherto been completely without a road connection of any kind. Principally because of road and r a i l being extended to Squamish, politicians, financiers and industrialists have expressed the opinion that the vast expanse of vacant land of the Squamish river delta could be developed for industrial purposes. Some people have even suggested that a great sea port could be developed with the rugged and scenic valley providing the land for associated community areas. This thesis is a study of the Squamish valley with respect to the probability of this development occurring. Insofar as industrial development as a sea port is concerned the extent to which the area can develop seems to depend largely on a matter of timing. Not by coincidence but becausetheport f a c i l i t i e s of metropolitan Vancouver are rapidly becoming overtaxed, several proposals are beting aired i i i each of which seeks to develop further port f a c i l i t i e s and land adjacent to Vancouver. Such land at Squamish would be competitive with that in these other proposed areas, but since Squamish is geographically separated from Vancouver i t has some basic disadvantages. Conversely, however, due to the fact that the provincial government controls vast tracts of land at Squamish, port development on these lands may be f a i r l y readily accomplished. Squamish seems destined to expand f a i r l y rapidly regardless of its industrial future. Its rate and ultimate pattern of development, however, w i l l largely be determined by the extent of industrialization. Since some form of growth is immediately eminent and particularly since the valley must be protected from flood-waters, regional development planning is direly needed. Be-cause the prospects for industrial development are somewhat dependent on the nature of other local growth a regional plan is proposed which w i l l ensure adequate industrial land at the waterfront. EXAMINERS In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make i t freely available for reference and study. I further agree that per-mission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representative. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of Geology and Geography, Geography Division The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver 8, Canada. Date iv TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE I. THE PROBLEM AND A DISCUSSION OF THE STUDY . . . 1 The Problem 1 Reasons for Selection of the Study Area . . 1 The Scope of the Research 3 Method Used 4 The Contribution of the Study 5 II. THE REGION: LOCATION AND GENERAL SITUATIONAL FACTORS 7 The General Character of the Squamish Region 7 The Core Area . 10 III. LOCAL REGIONAL CONDITIONS . 16 Geological History and Evolution of the Topography 16 The geological history 16 The pre-glaeial period 16 The glacial period . 18 The post-glacial period 19 Climate . . 24 Precipitation 24 Winds 24 Sunshine and cloudiness 2 5 Frost-free period 2 5 Relative humidity and temperature . . . 2 5 V CHAPTER I I I (continued) PAGE Drainage C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 3 0 Watersheds and discharge c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 3 0 R i v e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 3 5 Flooding 41 Erosion and channel migrations 44 Vegetation 46 IV. SEQUENT DEVELOPMENT 48 The P e r i o d from 1870 to 1949 48 The Post 1949 P e r i o d . . 54 V. PRESENT STAGE OF DEVELOPMENT 60 Land Use 60 T r a n s p o r t a t i o n F a c i l i t i e s 61 Land Ownership 6 3 Land ownership w i t h i n Squamish V i l l a g e . 64 Land ownership i n unorganized t e r r i t o r y . 65 Present A g r i c u l t u r e 67 Present Industry 71 Commercial Conditions . . . 7 5 P r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e 7 5 Brackendale 7 5 Mamquam 76 Squamish V i l l a g e 76 Southridge 76 Community s e r v i c e s and i n s t i t u t i o n s . . 7 6 P u b l i c s e r v i c e s and i n s t i t u t i o n s . . . . 78 The character of commercial a c t i v i t y . . 78 v i CHAPTER V (continued) PAGE Village Zoning 82 Development Trends 84 VI. RESOURCES AND RESOURCE USE 9 0 Forest Resources 9 0 Mineral Resources 9 7 Power Resources 1 0 0 Commercial Fisheries 1 0 1 VII. AGRICULTURAL POTENTIAL 1 0 3 Economic Factors 1 0 3 Physical Factors 1 0 6 VIII. INDUSTRIAL POTENTIAL 1 1 0 Economic Factors 1 1 0 Potential deep-sea access 1 1 0 Availability of land I l l Transportation f a c i l i t i e s . I l l Power supply 1 1 2 Direct access to the hinterland of the Province 1 1 2 Proximity to a metropolitan area . . . . 1 1 2 Competitive industrial areas . 1 1 3 Physical Factors 118 Flooding hazard and river control . . . 1 1 8 Control of the Mamquam River . . . . 1 1 9 Control of the Squamish River . . . . 1 2 7 Foundation conditions 128 Wharfage requirements 1 5 0 v i i CHAPTER VIII. (continued) PAGE Dredging requirements . . 1 5 6 Water supply 157 IX. COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT 163 X. EXTRA-REGIONAL CONSIDERATIONS 168 XI. REGIONAL PLANNING 173 Preparation of a Master plan of Land Use. . 173 Re-location of the Residential Community. . 174 Control of the Mamquam River . f,.; . . . . . 176 Control of the Squamish River . . . . . . . 176 Preparation of Industrial Sites 177 Construction of a Water Supply System . . . 177 Allocation of an Area Suitable for Secondary Industry . . . . . . . . . . . 1 7 8 XII. LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY AND CONCLUSIONS . . . 180 Limitations of the Study . . . . . . 180 Conclusions 181 BIBLIOGRAPHY 184 APPENDIX A: List of Interviews . . . . . 186 B: List of Correspondence 188 C: Local Industrial Firms . . . . . . . . 190 D: Private Businesses in the Village of Squamish . . . 191 E: Public Services and Institutions . . . 193 • F: Community Services and Institutions . . 194 v i i i LIST OF MAPS MAP PAGE 1. The Geographic Location of the Squamish Region . 11 2. The Setting and Character of the Squamish Region 12 3. The Core Area of the Squamish Region 14 4„ Allu v i a l Deposits in the Lower Squamish Valley . 20 5. Drainage Pattern of Run-off Entering the Head of Howe Sound 4f_--p-eek-et- * 6. The Modern Delta of the Squamish River . . . . 39 7. River Characteristics 4e—^wkjet * 8. Channel Migrations of Major Rivers 4Mr~p'&ete&ti~¥ 9. Expansions of the Boundary of Squamish Village 5 5 1 0 . Land Use in the Lower Squamish Valley . . . . -in—p-ee-k-e-t ¥ 1 1 . Squamish in Relation to Major Rail Lines in Briti s h Columbia 62 12. Land Ownership in the Lower Squamish Valley . 4ria--p©43ke4.- X 1 3 . Valley Settlements 7 7 14. Village Zoning 83 1 5 . Forest Management Licenses "Applications Advertised" 1953 ' . 9 2 16. Indian Reserve Number 11 94 17. Regional Mines and Minerals 99 18. Land Capability in~pecke-t_ # s f r fAo^ > Cornet % ix MAP PAGE 19. Alternative Methods for Control of the Mamquam River 122 20. Physical Classification of Delta Land 130 21. Possible Sources of Water Supply . . . . . . . 160 22. Generalized Regional Development Plan for the Squamish Valley 4a=feck«4i-"top abinef * LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE PAGE 1 . The Setting of Squamish . 8 2 . Periods in the Evolution of the Topography . . 1 7 3 o Mean Monthly Discharge for the Average Year (Period Sept. 3 0 , 1 9 1 7 to Sept 3 0 , 1942) for the Cheakamus River at Garibaldi Railway Station . . . . . . . . . . . . o o . 3 2 4 „ Mean Monthly Discharge for the Average Year (Period Sept. 3 0 , 1 9 2 3 to Sept. 3 0 , 1 9 2 6 ) for the Squamish River at Brackendale . . . . 3 4 5 . Generalized Profiles of the Lower Portions of Major Rivers Entering Howe Sound through the Squamish Valley . . . . . . . . . 3 6 6 . Approximate Number of Homes Built During the Post-War Period 84 7 „ Ideal Section of Surface Material and Plant Transition in Squamish River Delta . . . . . 1 3 9 8. Successive Stages of Delta Growth . . . . . . „ 141 9 . Longitudinal Section of Delta Sediments . . . . 142 1 0 . Hypothetical Transverse Section of Delta Sod im6nts 0 o • » • o « <> e » « © « o o o » e X 4 5 1 1 . Profile Across Howe Sound 146 1 2 . Location of Profiles drawn from Canada, Plans in the Strait of Georgia - 1 9 2 3 - 3 1 148 x i LIST OF PHOTOGRAPHS PHOTOGRAPH 1. The Squamish Valley, looking north 2. View of the Squamish Valley from Watts Point . 3. Panorama View of the Squamish ( l e f t ) and Stawamus (right) River Valleys, Showing a portion of Squamish V i l l a g e on the Bxtr@ms Loft. o o * » * « » o » » o o o e o o 4. Gravel Terraces of G l a c i a l Origin (middle distance) on the Eastern Margin of the Lower Squamish Valley . . . 5 o D e l t a i c Deposits of the G l a c i a l Period found at Southridge between the Squamish and Stawamus River Valleys . 6 o G l a c i a l Gravels Exposed i n a Road Cut above the Mamquam River . 7. Abandoned Farm Land and Buildings at B3_* ci. C € (_! £11 6 o o ' o o e o o o o o o e o o o e 8. Abandoned Farm Land of the Former Hop Ranch at Brackendale . . . 9. Abandoned Land and Buildings of a Former Dairy Farm i n Squamish V i l l a g e . . „ . . « , . 10. A Portion of the P.G.E. Shops and C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Yards '. . 11. P.G.E. Barge S l i p at Squamish Dock x i i PHOTOGRAPH PAGE 1 2 . Small Shingle M i l l „ . . . 7 3 1 3 . . Empire Mills Limited Sawmill . . . . . . . . . 7 3 1 4 . Empire Mills Limited Bunkhouse, Shops, Log Dump and Barge Loading Area 7 4 1 5 . P.G.E. Siding and Anglo-Canadian Logging Company Log Dump . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 4 1 6 . View South Down the Main Street of Squamish Village . 8 0 1 7 . Small Commercial Area in the "better" Part of the Village 8 0 1 8 . New Buildings in the Downtown Business District . . . . . . . . . 8 1 1 9 o Swing Flood Gate in the Dyke Surrounding Squamish Village . . . . . 8 6 2 0 . A Portion of the Dyke Surrounding Squamish 2 1 . New Housing at Southridge „ 8 7 2 2 . Further View of New Housing at Southridge . . 8 7 2 3 . New Housing at Mamquam Settlement . „ • . . . 8 8 2 4 . New Housing in Brackendale . . . . . . . . . . 8 8 2 5 . New Housing in Brackendale on the Cheekye AX Xuv Xd>X I^ cin o o * « o e o « o o 0 o o o « o 8 9 2 6 o Slum Area in Squamish Village . . . . . . . . 8 9 2 7 . Three General Views of Logged Areas in the 2 8 o 2 9 . Squamish Region . . . . . . . . 9 6 x i i i PHOTOGRAPH PAGE 3 0 . The Mamquam River at its Entrance to the Squamish River Floodplain 1 2 0 3 1 . The Mamquam River near its Confluence with the Squamish River 1 2 0 3 2 . The Mamquam River at low water near its Confluence with the Squamish River 1 2 1 3 3 . The Squamish River south of Brackendale Settlement . 1 2 1 34. View of the Squamish River Delta showing Transition to Tidal Marsh at the Delta Front. 1 3 1 3 5 . Type I. Land along the East Branch of the Squamish River 1 3 2 3 6 . A General View of Type II. Land in the Squamish River Delta 1 3 3 3 7 . Transition from Type II. to Type I. Squamish River Delta Land 1 3 3 3 8 . Typical Type II. Squamish River Delta Land at Moderate Tide . 134 3 9 . Transition from Type II. to Type III, Land in the Squamish River Delta 1 3 5 40. Typical Type II. Land in the Squamish River Delta 1 3 5 41. A View west across the Broad Area of Type III Land in the Squamish River Delta . . . . . . 1 3 6 PHOTOGRAPH PAGE 42. A general view of Type III. Land in the Squamish River Delta 1 3 6 4 3 . Type III. Land at Moderately High Tide . . . . 1 3 7 44. Type III. Land at the Very Front of the Squamish River Delta . . . 1 3 7 4 5 . Fine Gravel Along a Squamish River Channel near the Delta Front 1 3 8 4 6 . Large Boulders found well above the River Channel Bottom near the Delta Front . . . . 1 3 8 4 7 . A Panorama View of the Stawamus River Delta Area 1 5 1 XV ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The S t a f f of the Geography D i v i s i o n and Dr. J . Ross Mackay i n p a r t i c u l a r , who su p e r v i s e d the w r i t i n g of t h i s t h e s i s , are most g r a t e f u l l y thanked f o r the i n t e r e s t they have shown i n the t o p i c . S i n c e r e a p p r e c i a t i o n i s expressed t o the many people who were i n t e r v i e w e d and provided s p e c i a l i n f o r m a t i o n : A.L. F a r l e y , Geographer, Geographic D i v i s i o n , Department of Lands and F o r e s t s , V i c t o r i a ; T. H i s l o p , Lands S e r v i c e , V i c t o r i a ; C.E. L e o n o f f , R i p l e y and A s s o c i a t e s , E n g i n e e r i n g C o n s u l t a n t s L i m i t e d ; Dr. W.H. Mathews, Geology D i v i s i o n , Department of Geology and Geography, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia; Hannah E. McCormack, V i l l a g e C l e r k , C o r p o r a t i o n of the V i l l a g e of Squamish; G. R i t c h i e , Right-of-way Agent, P a c i f i c Great E a s t e r n Railway Company; A. Smith, Land I n s p e c t o r , B r i t i s h Columbia Land S e r v i c e , New Westminster; and G.D. T a y l o r , Research A s s i s t a n t , Parks D i v i s i o n , B r i t i s h Columbia Department of R e c r e a t i o n and C o n s e r v a t i o n . S p e c i a l a p p r e c i a t i o n i s extended to Western Development and Power L i m i t e d , which, through i t s a c t i v e i n t e r e s t i n area development, became f a m i l i a r w i t h the t h e s i s t o p i c and made a generous f i n a n c i a l c o n t r i b u t i o n to a s s i s t i n an e a r l y completion of the r e s e a r c h . CHAPTER I THE PROBLEM AND A DISCUSSION OF THE STUDY I . THE PROBLEM The research problem is one of gathering information of a geographical nature, analyzing i t , and formulating con-clusions with respect to the nature and possibility of further economic development of the Squamish region. II. REASONS FOR SELECTION OF THE STUDY AREA The reasons for selection of the study area are two-fold. F i r s t , residence in the Squamish valley over a contin-uous period of eighteen years and repeated v i s i t s to the area since that time have enabled the writer to base his research on a maximum of f i e l d experience. The second and more important reason for selection of the area for study results from the fact that Squamish is of current general interest as a locality with a high potentiality for overall development. When research on the topic was started in September, 1 9 5 6 , Squamish seemed to have a promising although uncertain future. Attention had been directed to i t by newspaper reports dealing with the current construction of the Squamish-Vancouver highway, the completion of the Pacific Great Eastern Railway extension to Vancouver in hereafter referred to as the P.G.E. • Photograph No. 1. The Squamish Valley, looking north (Photo courtesy of W. Dennett -The Vancouver Sun). 3 1 9 5 6 j and the possibility of the development of Gsiribaldi Park. There had been no definite move towards the directed development of the area. Speculation on its future, however, was mounting. On March 3 0 , 1 9 5 7 , the provincial government made a public announcement that the P.G.E. was to be respon-sible for a vast development program for Squamish in which an approximate sum of $ 3 0 , 0 0 0 , 0 0 0 was to be spent over a period of twenty-five years. 1 Previous to this announcement there was a definite need for geographical study of the area. The announced intention of the government's concrete interest in Squamish further increased the need for research of the type presented in this thesis. III. THE SCOPE OF THE RESEARCH Since the purpose of the thesis is to evaluate the nature and extent of future economic development of the Squamish region from a geographic point of view only subjects of a geographic nature are pursued. This, of course, is the basic limitation of the thesis since the topic is sufficiently broad to warrent the s k i l l s of the planner, the engineer, and the economist as well as those of the geographer. Although the thesis does touch on matters commonly within the f i e l d of these f i r s t three professions, no attempt is made to produce authora-tative statements. A sincere attempt has been made to exclude a l l material even within the f i e l d of geographic study that does not pertain specifically to the central theme of the research. 1 News item in the Vancouver Sun, March 3 0 , 1 9 5 7 « 4 IV. METHOD USED Normally regional studies within the sphere of geo-graphy require many days of concentrated study of the problem area in the f i e l d . Since the writer had an intimate knowledge of the Squamish region at the outset of the research, a minimum amount of f i e l d study was required. Three f i e l d trips were made, however, primarily for the purpose of taking a c r i t i c a l look at the valley to dispel any undue sentimentality. As a result of these trips a new concept of the region evolved and subsequent study was placed on a more r e a l i s t i c foundation. Very l i t t l e has ever been written of the Squamish area and as a result of this l i t t l e time was required to review existing literature. In place of this, trips were made to government offices in New Westminster and Victoria and inter-views conducted to become familiar with a l l possible sources of information. In addition to these interviews, many more were conducted with a l l persons thought to have a prior interest in the valley. These interviews are liste d in Appendix A. The remainder of the time spent in research consisted of detailed map study in order to provide a knowledge of the regional geomorphology and associated problems. Throughout the entire research much original thought and study was required. 5 V, THE CONTRIBUTION OF THE STUDY The fundamental contribution of the study is that of providing a geographical analysis and description of the Squamish region. This in i t s e l f is a worthwhile pursuit be-cause there is a surprising lack of written material on the Squamish area. Publications such as the Transactions of the British Columbia Natural Resources Conference, the Regional and Industrial Index of Br i t i s h Columbia, the Annual Reports of the Forest Service, the Land Service Bulletin (The Lower Coast Bulletin Area Number 3)» and texts on the geography of Canada and Br i t i s h Columbia provide general information on the region. A land-use study of the area (Squamish Area Survey-Draft 1949)i other unpublished, and some confidential l i t e r -ature was consulted. An examination of the Brit i s h Columbia Land Service f i l e on Squamish provided further information applicable to detailed study. However, a l l this information is unrelated, and much of i t incomplete. Consequently, i t was not too valuable in the preparation of this thesis. Another important contribution is that the information gathered can be applied to specific problems. The thesis provides a valid basis for planning the organized development of the region. It might also afford a sound basis for the study of investment f e a s i b i l i t y . A further contribution is that i t provides an' example of the way in which geography can be applied to a specific problem. It is a case study in area development analysis and 6 associated regional planning, a f i e l d of research s t i l l on the fringe of geography, and yet to be considered as a primary fi e l d of endeavor for the geographer. CHAPTER II THE REGION: LOCATION AND GENERAL SITUATIONAL FACTORS I. THE GENERAL CHARACTER OF THE SQUAMISH REGION In areas where geographic regions are sometimes d i f f i c u l t to define, for example, in portions of the Great Plains of North America, i t is desirable and in fact at times necessary to resort to quantitative studies in order to arrive at a valid and meaningful definition of a region. Where settlement is sparse and the topography rugged there is less need of complex measures of the regional character of areas. This holds true particularly well in the case of the coastal region of B r i t i s h Columbia, for there, with mountainous terrain, settled areas are found in isolated valleys or pockets in the mountain system. The size and shape of geographic regions, the nuclei of which are such settlements, is dominantly con-trolled by the surrounding topography. Such is the case of the Squamish valley region, (see Figure 1 ) . The nature and extent of a geographic region is often best appreciated through an examination on the ground. At Squamish the mountains rise abruptly from the valley floor and the area which seems to belong to Squamish appears to be limited to that which can be seen from the valley bottom. The location of Squamish, latitude 4 9 ° 4 5 ' North, longitude 1 2 - 3 ° 1 0 ' West, is -shown in Maps 1 and 2 . Since the FIGURE I THE SETTING OF SQUAMISH Photograph No. 3 Panorama View of the Squamish ( l e f t ) and Stawamus ( r i g h t ) R i v e r V a l l e y s , Showing a P o r t i o n of Squamish V i l l a g e on the extreme l e f t 10 region l i e s at the head of Howe Sound, i t is a small portion of the larger coastal region of the province, which is char-acterized by a series of fiords separated by high and steep-sided mountain ranges. The Squamish region is one of many small, and to some extent, similar regions which could be recognized along the coastal mainland str i p . It can be noted, however, that Howe Sound, the f i r s t inlet north of Vancouver, ha§ the distinction of being rather dependent economically on the large and heavily populated lower mainland region. The village of Squamish is only thirty miles distant from Van-couver city centre. Although Squamish is close to Vancouver in miles i t has a strikingly different character, which to a large degree is due to the influence of topography. II. THE CORE AREA A geographic region is commonly defined with reference to its nucleus or core area. It is usually the core area that is the most significant part of the region. The maximum extent of the larger surrounding region is consequently determined by the sphere of influence of or similarity to the core area. The Squamish region has a distinct nucleus consisting of the flat land in the lower section of the Squamish river valley which is presently settled and has the greatest potentiality for future use (see Map 3). This nucleus or core area is bounded on the south by the head of Howe Sound, on the west by the base of the mountain slope, on the north by the Cheakamus and Cheekye T H E G E O G R A P H I C L O C A T I O N O F T H E S Q U A M I S H R E G I O N M A P 1 LEGEND THE CORE AREA - Lower Squamish Volley THE UPPER SQUAMISH VALLEY BOUNDARY of the Squamish Valley Region - the boundary is so placed as to include most of the watershed and forest land tributary to the core area - extends NW of the map area T H E S E T T I N G A N D C H A R A C T E R O F T H E S Q U A M I S H R E G I O N M A P 2 13 rivers, and on the east by the margin of the river floodplain and gravel terraces of the valley floor. The village of Squamish is situated approximately one mile inland from the head of the sound because of poor drain-age in the tid a l flats at the mouth of Squamish river. At present, this intervening strip of land is unused. It is con-sidered to be within the core area, however, because of the fact that i t may provide land for industrial sites and port f a c i l i t i e s . The western boundary of the core area is taken as the base of the mountain slope. The only exception to this occurs near the mouth of the Cheakamus river where the Squamish river constitutes the remainder of the western boundary. The core area terminates in its northward extent at the Cheakamus river. At this point the major valley divides. The Squamish river flows from the northwest in a long, straight, and steep-sided valley, hereafter referred to as the upper Squamish valley. The floodplain of the river in the upper valley is narrow and the channel is continually shifting. The river entirely dominates this section of the Squamish valley. There is no marked climatic change between the upper and lower sections of the valley, but the difference in climate is significant enough that the relative climatic severity of the upper valley contributes to its exclusion from the core region. Flat land in the upper valley is almost entirely taken up by Indian reserve thus precluding any significant development T H E C O R E A R E A O F T H E S Q U A M I S H R E G I O N M A P 3 15 similar to that possible for the lower Squamish valley. Overall contrast between the upper and lower Squamish valleys is sufficient to warrant the exclusion of the upper valley from the core area even though i t too is river floodplain. The eastern boundary of the core area is readily defined by the eastward extent of recent a l l u v i a l deposits which create the flat valley floor and gravel terraces. A l -though much of this land which has been included within the core area on the eastern side is presently devoid of settle-ment, there is a good possibility that this area w i l l be u t i l -ized before other and more inhospitable parts of the larger region w i l l experience development. Steep-sided mountains are found further to the east of the eastern boundary of the nucleus. The eastern boundary of the core area extends a short distance up the valley of the Stawamus river because of the existence of some settlement at the present time and the significance of this small area as a possible industrial s i t e . To summarize, the core area of the Squamish region is primarily the f l a t land of the valley bottom. It consists mainly of the settled portion of the region but does include additional lands that may also ultimately develop for industrial, residential and commercial use. The study is confined chiefly to this core area but does consider outlying portions of the larger region. CHAPTER III LOCAL REGIONAL CONDITIONS I. GEOLOGICAL HISTORY AND EVOLUTION OF THE TOPOGRAPHY The topography of the Squamish area plays a dominant role in the definition of the region. Similarly, this topo-graphy has greatly affected the pattern of development and w i l l perhaps determine, to a large degree, the pattern and ex-tent of future development. It is therefore desirable to account for the evolution of the topography in order to clearly understand the nature and significance of problems arising from the gaomorphology of the area. The Geological History The recent geological history of the Squamish region can be conveniently divided into three periods: (1) the pre-glacial period, (2) the glacial period, and (3) the post-glacial period (see Figure 2). The Pre-glacial Period. The valley system developed in the pre-glacial period to a large degree determined the pattern and extent of glacial erosion that followed. M.A. Peacock, who studied the fiord coast of B r i t i s h Columbia, states that "the fiords a-re--pre-61-%ei«i~--vaM=eys-----w-hos-e--- trbngiratit" and basined forms are due to powerful glacial excavation, and 2 M.A. Peacock, "Fiord-land of Brit i s h Columbia," Bu l l -etin of the Geological Society of America, Vol. 46,1935> pp 694, 17 pre-GLACIAL period 18 further, that a "close inspection of the coast shows that, as in other fiord lands, the bed rock is riven with fractures, forming a pattern which is closely related to the fiord pattern." Peacock implies that in the pre-glacial period valley systems were developed in accordance with the fracture pattern of the bedrock. The Glacial Period. In the glacial period the previously existing Squamish valley was f i l l e d with moving ice to an altitude which corresponds roughly to the present 6400 foot level. This mass of ice, in its southward movement, scoured the valley in such a manner that i t now exhibits steep walls, truncated spurs, and a generally straightened course characteristic of glacial erosion. It is not known how far be-low present sea-level glacial erosion occurred but presumably the bedrock has been eroded many tens or even hundreds of feet below the surface of the present valley floor. During the glacial period, and shortly after the Wis-consin climax, the volcano which is known as Mount Garibaldi came into existence. This volcano formed partially on the sur-face of the ice sheet with the remainder on the adjoining bed-rock surface. When the growth of the cone reached it s maximum a section of i t was supported by the ice which f i l l e d the valley. 3 W.H.Mathews, "Mount Garibaldi, A Supraglacial P l e i -stocene Volcano in Southwestern B r i t i s h Columbia", American  Journal of Science, Vol. 2 ^ 0 , 1 9 5 2 , p. 9 7 . 1 9 The ice retreated and this support was removed. A large por-tion of the volcanic material was carried away, leaving an over-steepened slope. This slope has been readily eroded since the time of its creation and some of the material removed has been deposited in the Squamish valley. 4 The Post-glacial Period. The events which occurred in the post-glacial period are of most interest because i t was during this period that the topography of the valley evolved to its present state. After the retreat of the glaciers, the present Squamish valley was presumably a fiord, assuming that glacial erosion occurred below present sea-level. The process of v a l l e y - f i l l i n g then began with the rivers bringing detritus to the fiord, creating deltas and floodplains. The process of v a l l e y - f i l l i n g has continued u n t i l , at the present, sediments have accumulated in the fqrmer glacial trough to depths of many hundreds of feet. This simplified pattern of events is complicated by successive ice advances and varying sea levels. Along the eastern side of the Squamish valley, between the Cheekye river and the head of Howe Sound, there are al l u v i a l deposits at elevations from 3 0 0 to 400 feet above the general level of the valley floor (see Map 4). These deposits were laid down during the retreat of the ice from the valley, when runoff from the east was prevented from reaching the valley bottom 4 Ibid. 20 after Mathews LEGEND Terraced fanglomerates a fluvioglaciol debris Recent al|uviurri A L L U V I A L D E P O S I T S IN T H E L O W E R S Q U A M I S H V A L L E Y M A P 4 21 by the presence of the retreating ice front. This runoff was consequently forced to flow along the eastern margin of the glacier and the material carried by meltwater was deposited be-tween the ice and the adjoining mountain-side.' These deposits remain to the present day and are identified from more recent river alluvium by their coarse nature. In summary, the major valley and its tributaries are ice-carved and have been partly f i l l e d with alluvium deposited since the glacial period. The coarse materials deposited by meltwater during the glacial period differ from the sediments of the river floodplain. 5 Ibid, pp. 95-96. 22 Photograph No. 5 Deltaic Deposits of the Glacial Period found at Southridge between the Squamish  and Stawamus River Valleys. 2 3 Photograph No. 6 Glacial Gravels Exposed in a Road Cut above the Mamquam River. 24 IIo CLIMATE Apart from those observations made by the forest service there are no weather records for the valley, R.A. 6 Baker discusses the climate of the Squamish valley, and to the best knowledge of the writer he arrives at values of the elements which seem to be substantiated by experience. The y following values have been paraphrased from Baker's reportr Precipitation - No accurate records kept but the precipitation is believed to average between 6 0 and 7 0 inches per year in the valley„ - adequate summer r a i n f a l l to ensure against summer drought. - snowfall rarely under four feet in the upper Squamish valley, but considerably less in the lower valley a l -though snow depths in some years are reputed to reach four feet six inches. Depths of snow in the lower valley are usually less than this, and snow does not normally remain on the ground for lengthy periods of time. - the f i r s t snowfall normally occurs about the end of November or f i r s t week of December, while by the end of March or the beginning of April the snow has usually disappeared. Winds - moist winds of medium velocity blow off Howe Sound and up the valley during the day, while the night breezes 6 R.A.Baker, Squamish Area Survey, Br i t i s h Columbia Columbia Division of Land Utilization Research and Survey, Lands Service, Department of Lands and Forests, Victoria, 1 9 4 9 . Unpublished report. 7 Ibid., pp. 2-4. 2 5 are reversed and blow from the valley to the sound. These breezes aid in maintaining a f a i r l y constant temperature dur-ing the summer months, and help to maintain comparatively warm day-time temperatures during the winter months. - north winds can occur in both the summer and winter months. In summer this wind results in high temper-atures and low humidity and in the winter, in low temperatures and heavy snowfall. Sunshine and Cloudiness - hours of sunshine are short compared to the lower mainland region of the province due to the high mountains and relatively heavy cloud cover even in summer. - continuous cloudiness, with or without rain, can usually be expected for three or four days at least once every three weeks. Frost-free Period - according to local inhabitants, the last k i l l i n g frost comes about the end of March, and the f i r s t k i l l -ing frost about the f i r s t of November, giving a frost-free period of about 2 1 5 days. Relative Humidity and Temperature - according to local forestry station records kept from May 1 until September 3 0 of any year, the relative humidity for this period reaches a high of 1 0 0 per-cent and rarely f a l l s below 6 5 percent. Humidity is usually recorded between 7 5 and 8 7 percent. temperatures taken daily over the same period at 8 : 0 0 A.M. and 4 : 0 0 P.M. showed temperatures as low as 5 0°F. and as high as 80°F. Values usually f a l l between 5 5 ° and 65GF<> - during this period temperatures are usually low and the relative humidity high. 2 6 There is l i t t l e that can be added to Baker's dis-cussion of climate that is applicable to this study other than a few qualitative statements on selected climatic conditions. Fog, which is not uncommon in the Vancouver area, is very rarely experienced at the head of Howe Sound. When i t does occur i t is usually not dense and does not remain long enough to cause any significant hazard to either sea or land travel. The north wind which occasionally blows down the Squamish valley in the winter months sometimes reaches speeds estimated to exceed thirty miles per hour in gusts. These winds, which result from the out-flow of cold air from the interior s p i l l i n g over the mountainous terrain of Garibaldi Park, at times bring temperatures down sufficiently to threat-en normal activity in the area. With high wind velocities the effective temperature is so reduced that i t is not uncommon to have the freezing of equipment and machinery so complete as to seriously cripple both the logging and railroad industries. Such occurrences, however, are not frequent and one might expect such adverse conditions to occur only once or perhaps twice each year. The north winter wind on Howe Sound is known to tug boat operators and fishermen as the "Squamish". The name is applied by some of these men to similar winds that occur in other coastal inlets. S t i l l another aspect of the climate of the Squamish valley is the occurrence of temperature inversions. This phenomenon is readily noticed in the winter when there is an ex-cessive amount of smoke in the atmosphere, at which time the 27 polluted air tends to settle over the valley at f a i r l y low altitudes. A similar atmospheric condition exists in the summer months i f there is a forest f i r e along Howe Sound or in the valley. The low-lying smoke layer at this time, however, does not result from a temperature inversion, but merely from the fact that the topography of the area w i l l not permit the removal of the polluted a i r . When this condition exists, the smoke makes a daily cycle of travel down the valley during the night and early part of the day and back up the valley in the afternoon and evening in accordance with the pattern of sea and land breezes. This continues until precipitation or strong winds occur to cleanse the atmosphere or force the polluted air out of the area. Although these conditions do not constitute a serious present threat they may do so in the future i f atmospheric pollution in the region is increased to any large degree. Due to the lack of weather readings in the Squamish region, only qualitative statements regarding the surrounding mountainous areas are justified. Whether or not the eastern side of the valley receives more precipitation than the western side is a conjectural point. Since the local movement of storms is from west or southwest to east or southeast i t might seem logical that the western side of the valley would be a rain-shadow area, relatively speaking, and that the east-ern side would receive a higher amount of precipitation due to the orographic effect of the mountain barrier. This may be true since i t is thought by some residents that more snowfall occurs 28 on the eastern than on the western side and that the eastern portion of the region has a heavier runoff throughout the year. Map evidence shows that there is a more dense and mature drainage system in the eastern portion of the region than in the west. This, however, may be more a result of geological structure and glacial erosion than climatic differences. Baker's notes on climate deal largely with the lower valley of the Squamish river and mentions the upper valley only with respect to snowfall. A greater depth of snow in the upper valley is not the only indication of a difference in climate between the two areas. A shorter growing season, as evidenced by a later tree-budding time, longer duration of snow on the ground, fewer hours of sunshine, and generally lower temper-atures in the upper valley are well known to long-time residents. A similar climatic change is found along the Cheakamus river although i t is not as marked as in the upper Squamish valley. Snowfall on the mountains of the Squamish region is heavy. At Diamond Head Chalet (altitude 5 2 0 0 feet) near Mount Garibaldi, i t is possible to find snow depths exceeding twenty-five feet during the months from January to A p r i l . Some snow remains at this altitude throughout most of the summer and net accumulation begins again in late September. It is reasonable to suppose that similar conditions exist in the remainder of the high mountainous areas of the region. Since the larger Squamish region, and particularly Garibaldi Park, has a certain potential as a recreational area, 29 a consideration of the recreational value of the climate is worthwhile. If f a c i l i t i e s were to be provided for a winter playground, the climate would in one instance be in its favour by assuring sufficient snow depths, and in the other, a detri-ment due to high amount of cloud cover, the resultant large amount of precipitation, and the wetness of the snow. Compar-ing Garibaldi Park as a potential ski resort with the north shore mountains of the Vancouver area, one would find the weather slightly more unfavourable and the snow conditions l i t t l e different from those on the Vancouver mountains. Snow depths are sufficiently great to provide reasonable assurance of good skiing throughout the year. This perhaps is the greatest factor of importance in the recreational value of the climate. Regarding the climate for summertime a c t i v i t i e s , one would find l i t t l e difference between conditions in the Squamish region and those of the Vancouver area. The only marked significance of the climate for recreational purposes is that of creating a possibility of skiing throughout the year and thereby attracting the sportsman to the area. In summary, the climate of the Squamish'region appears to be l i t t l e different from that of the Vancouver area. In general i t does not have any significant detrimental influence on the present use of the area. However, i f development of the region occurs certain aspects of local weather and associated phenomena may detract from the highest use of the area. These would be the strength of the winter north wind, its effect on 3 0 shipping and the operation of industry through the winter months, and the possibility of air pollution resulting from constricting topography, temperature inversions, and restricted air movements. III. DRAINAGE CHARACTERISTICS Of a l l aspects of the physical geography of the Squamish region that of drainage and associated characteristics is undoubtedly of greatest importance. The Squamish valley owes its existence to the very fact that rivers have created a usable landscape through deposition of detritus and the creation of floodplains and deltas. Watersheds and Discharge Characteristics The combined watersheds of rivers entering the head of Howe Sound through the Squamish valley cover an area of about 9 9 0 square miles (see Map.5). The main rivers are the Squamish, Elaho, Cheakamus, Mamquam and Stawamus. Except in the case of the Stawamus river, a l l runoff in these watersheds enters the Squamish river before i t reaches the sea at the western margin of the valley. In other words, runoff from roughly 9 6 5 square miles of the combined watersheds enters the Squamish river. The runoff from the remaining 24 square miles comprising the Stawamus river watershed empties into Howe Sound on the eastern side of the valley quite independently from the Squamish river. Discharge records are available for only two rivers in the region, the Squamish and the Cheakamus. Records for the 3 1 Cheakamus river are available for an almost continuous period from the year starting September 3 0 , 1 9 1 7 to the year ending September 3 0 , 1942. The recording station is at Garibaldi g railway station (station number 8 G k^y). Records for the Squamish river are available in f i n a l form for only a four-year period from the year starting September 3 0 , 1 9 2 3 to the year ending September 3 0 , 1 9 2 6 . ^ The gauging station in this case was located one mile above the confluence of the Squamish and Cheakamus rivers. An examination of the yearly records for the Cheakamus river shows a distinct maximum flow between May and August (see Figure 3 ) . During this period the mean monthly flow approaches four thousand cubic feet per second. During the remainder of the year mean monthly flow is in the neighborhood of two thousand cubic feet per second or less. Only on rare occasions is discharge much in excess of four thousand cubic feet per second. Low discharges are more common than excess-ively high ones. The maximum flow recorded on this river occurred in October, 1 9 2 1 , with a value of twenty-nine thousand cubic feet per second.-^ The lowest recorded minimum occurred in March, 1 9 2 8 with a value of 1 9 8 cubic feet per second, 8 Canada, Department of Mines and Resources, Dominion Water Power Bureau, Surface Water Supply of Canada^ Pacific Drain-age, Climatic Years 1^40-41 and 1941-42, Water Resources Paper No. 94, Ottawa, 1946, pp. 3 4 - 3 5 . 9 Canada, Department of Northern Affairs and Natural Resources, Water Resources Branch, letter to the writer, Ottawa, January 3 0 , 1 9 5 7 . ft this date corresponds to that when the Mamquam river changed its course to flow into the Squamish river. 32 Cubic feet per second - 4000 2000 M T A T S T 0 T N 1 — Jan. T F T " M I A I D MEAN MONTHLY DISCHARGE FOR THE AVERAGE YEAR (Period Sept. 3 0 , 1917 to Sept. 30 , 1942) FOR THE CHEAKAMUS RIVER AT GARIBALDI RAILWAY STATION FIGURE 3 3 3 The records for the Squamish river cover only a four-year period, water years 1 9 2 3 to 1 9 2 6 and 1 9 5 5 to 1 9 5 6 , They should not be accepted as an average since such a short record could not constitute a representative sample. The records, however, do show the general pattern of yearly discharge (see Figure 4). It is evident that there is a distinct maximum flow which occurs from May to August. During this period mean month-ly flow ranges from well above ten thousand cubic feet per second to seventeen thousand cubic feet per second. During the remainder of the year, mean monthly flow is less than six thou-sand cubic feet per second. The maximum recorded value of discharge occurred in October 1 9 2 5 , with a value 3 2 , 9 0 0 cubic feet per second. The lowest recorded minimum value occurred in January 1 9 2 3 , with a value of 5 3 2 cubic feet per second. For comparison, the average rate of discharge of the Fraser river at Hope is 9 2 , 3 0 0 cubic feet per second. A comparison of figures 3 and 4 shows that the Squamish river, north of its confluence with the Cheakamus, has a much higher yearly discharge than that of the Cheakamus. This is readily appreciated when one compares the respective drainage basin areas, with 5 6 0 square miles in this portion of the Squamish river watershed, and 314 square miles in the Cheakamus river watershed. However, on the basis of existing records, the mean yearly discharge per square mile of drainage basin are vastly different. For this portion of the Squamish river water-shed i t is 1 3 . 8 cubic feet per second per square mile, whereas for the Cheakamus river i t is 5 . 9 cubic feet per second per 34 i—_- , 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 r Jan. F M A M J J A S O N D J MEAN MONTHLY DISCHARGE FOR THE AVERAGE YEAR ( Period Sept. 30, 1923 to Sept. 30 ,1926) FOR THE SQUAMISH RIVER AT BRACKENDALE FIGURE 4 & 35 square mile. This difference may be explained in part by the fact that the greatest portion of the Squamish river watershed is near the coast and consequently receives more precipitation due to the orographic effect of the mountains immediately adjacent to the coast than the Cheakamus river watershed which is further away from the coast and so receives a smaller amount of precipitation. The difference may also be partially ex-plained by the short length of record for the Squamish river, because the record may have covered a period of years with un-usual discharge values. A third factor that may contribute to the higher flow per square mile for the Squamish may be because this watershed contains proportionately more glaciers than that of the Cheakamus. The progressive melting of the glaciers may contribute to the higher ratio of discharge. No discharge records are available for the Mamquam and Stawamus rivers. However, since the watersheds of these rivers have similar conditions of topography and climate to that of the Squamish and Cheakamus river watersheds, i t is reasonable to assume similar characteristics of seasonal pattern of discharge. River Characteristics Figure 5 illustrates generalized profiles of the lower portions of major rivers entering Howe Sound through the Squamish valley. The Squamish river, being the main or trunk river, flows at a relatively low gradient. The Cheakamus and Mamquam rivers enter the valley with much steeper gradients. The Cheekye river, in its course across the valley floor, flows GENERALIZED PROFILES OF THE LOWER PORTIONS OF MAJOR RIVERS ENTERING HOWE SOUND THROUGH THE SQUAMISH VALLEY 37 at an extremely steep gradient. An examination of the grad-ients and associated characteristics of these rivers offers an explanation of the topography of the valley floor. An under-standing of this is necessary to appreciate certain factors such as flooding which affect development potential. The Squamish river, from its mouth to its confluence with Ashlu creek, approximately 20 miles upstream, flows at an average gradient of 6 .2 feet per mile. This gradient is sufficiently low to allow some quiet stretches of river between sections of fast water and near-rapids. Figure 5 shows an irregular profile for this river, with steps in the profile corresponding to the entry of the Cheakamus river in one case, and the Mamquam in the other. The Squamish river is mainly in the stage of late maturity, with a f a i r l y regular profile. The Cheakamus river, flowing at a relatively steep gradient, brings more material to its mouth than the Squamish can carry away. Consequently, there is a damming effect on the Squamish above its confluence with the Cheakamus. This explains the old age characteristics of low velocity, large meanders, oxbow lakes, and broad floodplain, found along this portion of the Squamish river. Below the mouth of the Cheakmus, the Squamish river flows rather rapidly due to the steepend gradient caused by ex-cessive deposition from the Cheakamus river. This lower section of the Squamish changes its course only slightly and flows be-tween relatively high banks. Further downstream, however, the river again beings t© meander, lose velocity and drop material until the mouth of the Mamquam river is reached. 38 As in the case of the Cheakamus, the Mamquam river has a damming effect on the Squamish. The Mamquam brings down more material than the Squamish can carry away, thereby creating a second step in the profile of the main river. Below the mouth ©f the Mamquam, the Squamish again flows rather rapidly for about two miles until t i d a l influence becomes marked. From this point southward the present delta of the Squamish begins (see Map 6), and net deposition becomes the main characteristic of river activity. The irregular profile of the Cheakamus river is note-worthy (see Figure 5). The change in gradient is caused by the deposits of the Cheekye entering the Cheakamus river. The Cheekye, although only a small river, carries a large amount of detritus due to its steep gradient and the ease of erosion of the topography in its drainage basin. The Cheekye is eroding volcanic debris that slumped from the face of Mount Garibaldi during the glacial period. This material is being deposited on the valley floor in the form of an al l u v i a l fan built by the Cheekye r i v e r . 1 0 The creation of this fan has raised the base level of erosion for the Cheakamus river north of its confluence with the Cheekye and has forced the Squamish river against the western side of the main valley (see Map 4 ) . The gradient of the lower portion of the Mamquam river 10 Here the author is in disagreement with Mr. R.A„ Baker who refers to this feature as an area of glacial t i l l o An examination of i t on topographic sheets and on the ground substantiates its classification as an al l u v i a l fan„ 39 T H E M O D E R N D E L T A O F T H E S Q U A M I S H R I V E R M A P 6 40 as illustrated in Figure 5 is relatively steep. This river enters the Squamish valley after emerging from a canyon whose floor is considerably higher than the floodplain of the Squamish river. Consequently, the Mamquam is forced to flow at a steep gradient from this point to its confluence with the Squamish river. With such a steep gradient one might expect the Mamquam to flow in a well defined channel with few meanders and l i t t l e deposition. This is not the case, however, because even though the gradient is steep i t is not as great as that in the canyon above, and thus large amounts of material are dropped on the valley floor. Because the Mamquam is choked with detritus i t often s p i l l s over its banks in times of excessive runoff. The influence of the Cheakamus and Mamquam rivers on the Squamish and the resultant changes in gradient and amounts of deposition are evident through an examination of Map 7° This map shows the smooth and sinuous channel of the Squamish above its confluence with the Cheakamus river. Below the Cheakamus, as explained previously, the gradient of the main river is high i n i t i a l l y , but further downstream i t branches, loses velocity and deposits material near the mouth of the Mamquam. May 7 illustrates a similar condition of lessening gradient below the mouth of the Mamquam river. This is sig-nificant because where the gradient of the Squamish river is relatively high, channel migrations are not excessive, whereas where the gradient is low the river meanders across the valley floor with a continual shifting of channels and resultant ero-sion of valuable land. This situation is particularly noticeable 41 in the Brackendale area between the Mamquam river and Bracken-dale settlement. The excessive meandering and deposition of the Mamquam river are also shown in this i l l u s t r a t i o n . Flooding Flooding in the Squamish valley has been a continuous problem since the earliest days of settlement. The threat of flooding occurs every year, particularly from the Mamquam river. Most often this river has risen to a point on the verge of overflowing, but with a rapid change in weather con-ditions i t subsided. Usually there has been l i t t l e property damage. On occasion, however, roads and bridges were washed out. Major floods have not been too common, but may be ex-pected periodically particularly when the Squamish river is high. The following dates and damage of major floods have been recorded:*1 1. October 18, 1921. A severe flood resulting in the P.G.E. railway grade being submerged for several miles up the valley. The Mamquam river changed its course to its present channel. 2. October 27, 1937. Heavy damage to railroad grades and private property. Water to a height of four to five feet in the village stores. 3. October 18, 1940. Property damage was extremely heavy, with railroad grades submerged and eroded. 4. November 26, 1949. Serious flood hazard existed. No major flood occurred, but homes were evacuated within the northern part of the village. ft Source, confidential. 42 With three of these major f l o o d s , property damage has been extremely heavy. In the Brackendale area, houses were h a l f - f i l l e d w i t h water. Throughout the v a l l e y , houses had water depths above f l o o r l e v e l from s e v e r a l inches to as much as a few f e e t . U s u a l l y there was l i t t l e warning of the approaching f l o o d . Automobiles and machinery o c c a s i o n a l l y had to be l e f t where standing r e s u l t i n g i n serious damage. L i v e -s t o ck, farm produce, cordwood, wooden sidewalks, b a r r e l s , fences, s m a l l b u i l d i n g s , boxes, among other things were swept down the r i v e r , p i l e d up against b u i l d i n g s and e v e n t u a l l y c a r r i e d out to sea. Needless to say, the hazard of f l o o d i n g i s extremely d e t r i m e n t a l to development of the Squamish regi o n . A l l major floods have occurred i n the month of October. The f a c t o r s c o n t r i b u t i n g to e s p e c i a l l y hazardous c o n d i t i o n s during t h i s month are many. By October, the previous w i n t e r ' s snow has disappeared from the surrounding mountains and pre-c i p i t a t i o n f a l l i n g on these mountains drains away r a p i d l y . The presence of snow r e t a i n s moisture and checks the v e l o c i t y of r u n o f f . In the autumn, heavy r a i n s are common. Pre-c i p i t a t i o n at t h i s time of the year i s accompanied by g e n e r a l l y high temperatures, causing r a i n r a t h e r than snow to f a l l on the mountains. Consequently, runoff i s excessive. At t h i s time t i d e s can be extremely h i g h , and when accompanied by h i g h winds, can cause water to back up f a r i n t o the d e l t a area. When.there i s the unfortunate combination of high temperatures, heavy autumn r a i n s , high t i d e s , and strong winds, extremely hazardous con d i t i o n s p r e v a i l . 43 Flooding of the Mamquam river commonly takes place in the autumn at the same time the Squamish river is high or in flood. It can also occur in the spring when pacific storms with heavy r a i n f a l l and very high temperatures move over the region. The passage of one of these storms causes the melting of snow in the mountain areas. This, coupled with high pre-cipitation, causes hazardous conditions to exist along the Mamquam river. Due to the large drainage basin of this river and the high gradient associated with excessive amounts of detritus, the river-bed cannot accommodate the amount of run-off being received. Commonly, under these conditions, log jams form in the channel, damming portions of the flow and often providing the triggering action for a flood along this river. Since logging activity has been f a i r l y extensive in the Mamquam river watershed, the danger of flooding is enhanced by unpro-tected slopes. The hazard of flooding constitutes a serious threat to further economic development of the Squamish valley. Pre-cipitation in the region is high and drainage from the combined watersheds of major rivers and tributaries is forced to flow to sea through the narrow and constricted Squamish valley. Due to large volumes of runoff so concentrated and the nature of the topography, eroded material has been rapidly deposited in the valley as river floodplain, a feature which can be largely attributed to flooding. Since the origin of this land is at least in part a result of flooding, i t is reasonable tq suppose that flood waters w i l l always constitute a threat to development 44 i n the v a l l e y bottom. Unless considerable e f f o r t i s expended t h i s hazard w i l l not be overcome. I t i s a major undertaking t© upset the balance e x i s t i n g i n and created by nature. C e r t a i n a c t i v i t i e s of man, such as log g i n g the watersheds, have only served to endanger the v a l l e y even more. To hold normal runoff w i t h i n drainage channels would be a la r g e enough task. To hold increased volumes i n check may prove to be a task be-yond economic f e a s i b i l i t y . I f logging i s to continue i n the region and the i n d u s t r y i s to expand operations even f u r t h e r i n the watersheds, the danger of major floods i s bound to increase s i g n i f i c a n t l y . E rosion and Channel M i g r a t i o n s Map 8 i l l u s t r a t e s the former courses of r i v e r s i n the lower p o r t i o n of the v a l l e y . The former course of the Squamish r i v e r i s shown as i t e x i s t e d i n the 1889» when most of the 11 o r i g i n a l land survey of the area was conducted. The former course of the Mamquam r i v e r i s a l s o v a l i d f o r 1 8 8 9 . The Mam-quam, at t h i s time, flowed d i r e c t l y to the sea and remained f a i r l y w e l l confined to t h i s channel u n t i l the major f l o o d of 1 9 2 1 , when i t s flow was d i v e r t e d westward to the point of i t s present confluence w i t h the Squamish r i v e r . Channel migrations and erosi o n by the Squamish r i v e r have been most excessive i n the Brackendale area between the 11 B r i t i s h Columbia Legal Surveys D i v i s i o n , Surveys and Mapping Branch, Department of Lands and F o r e s t s , l e t t e r to the w r i t e r , V i c t o r i a , B r i t i s h Columbia, March 8 , 1 9 5 7 . 45 confluence of the Squamish and Mamquam r i v e r s and the toe of the Cheekye a l l u v i a l fan. The channel p o s i t i o n s as shown on Map 8 s u b s t a n t i a t e t h i s statement. E r o s i o n occurs by the mig r a t i o n of meander loops downstream i n a wave-like motion. A s e r i e s of mapped channel p o s i t i o n s during the period from 1889 to the present time would i l l u s t r a t e t h i s observation very c l e a r l y . A comparison of the former and present p o s i t i o n s alone shows that approximately the same number of major meanders i n the r i v e r which e x i s t at the present were to be found i n 1889. The tendency has been merely f o r them to move downstream. Because excessive amounts of sediment i s being introduced on the eastern s i d e of the v a l l e y by the Cheekye and Cheakamus r i v e r s i n the nor t h , and by the Mamquam r i v e r midway down the v a l l e y , the Squamish r i v e r i s forced to flow against the western s i d e of i t s f l o o d p l a i n . I f the Squamish r i v e r alone were re s p o n s i b l e f o r the d e p o s i t i o n ©f a l l v a l l e y sediments, one would expect to f i n d e r o s i o n and consequent channel migrations over the e n t i r e v a l l e y bottom. This i s a s i g n i f i c a n t con-s i d e r a t i o n i n the e v a l u a t i o n of parcels of land i n the lower v a l l e y s i n c e one can assume that land on the eastern s i d e of the v a l l e y , apart from that endangered by the Mamquam r i v e r , t© be l e a s t apt to s u f f e r e r o s i o n by the Squamish r i v e r . I t i s a l s o reasonable to suspect that excessive e r o s i o n i n the fut u r e by the Squamish r i v e r w i l l be confined roughly to the p o s i t i o n of the present meander b e l t . In summary, drainage i s a major c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n the a n a l y s i s of the Squamish r e g i o n . A l a r g e v a r i a b i l i t y i n d i s -46 charge throughout the year, the extremely hazardous conditions of flooding, and the influence of the major rivers on the evolution and modification of the landscape are factors highly pertinent to the evaluation of future possible use of the lower Squamish va l l e y . IV. VEGETATION The vegetation i n the Squamish region is comparable to that i n other parts of the Vancouver Forest D i s t r i c t . In the lower Squamish v a l l e y , and p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the floodplain areas, there i s a mixed forest of conifers and deciduous trees. Large spruce and cedar are common to this area. In most places they are interspersed with maple, alder and Cottonwood. In general, the growth rate i s high, p a r t i c u l a r l y for the deciduous trees. Undergrowth i s dense and continuous throughout the area. Before settlement came to the v a l l e y , the r i v e r f l o o d -p l a i n was covered with a continuous f o r e s t , dominantly spruce and cedar which commonly grew to a size of f i v e to s i x feet i n diameter, breast height. The greatest part of this forest was removed by hand-logging methods. A second growth of mixed coniferous and deciduous forest has since grown up. Many of the large stumps of the o r i g i n a l forest are s t i l l standing. They present an obstacle to clearing since they are deeply rooted and p a r t i a l l y covered with sand and s i l t deposited during recent floods. On the gravel terraces of the valley's eastern margin i s found a mixed forest, dominantly coniferous. This again i s 47 second growth since these areas were also logged during the period of i n i t i a l settlement. Due to excessive drainage and coarse s o i l the trees are generally small and not deeply rooted. •CHAPTER IV ' ' . V " -SEQUENT DEVELOPMENT The h i s t o r y of the Squamish re g i o n has been l i t t l e p u b l i c i z e d and as a r e s u l t documented in f o r m a t i o n i s obscure. However, the w r i t e r has been able to ob t a i n a few documents from l o c a l r e s i d e n t s d e a l i n g w i t h the per i o d of development kk between the years 1873 and 1919. These documents discuss the sequence of development during the period i n which the Squamish v a l l e y has experienced i t s i n i t i a l and subsequently i t s g reatest period of growth. I. THE PERIOD FROM 1870 TO 194-9 P r i o r to 1873 the Squamish v a l l e y was very l i t t l e known. I t was remote from the s e t t l e d areas bordering Burrard I n l e t and the Fraser r i v e r . In 1873 work was begun on a c a t t l e t r a i l from L i l l o o e t to Squamish. In the same year survey p a r t i e s set out to explore k According to Dr. M.A. Ormsby, P r o f e s s o r , Department of H i s t o r y , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, i n an i n t e r v i e w , A p r i l 30, 1957 > i n f o r m a t i o n on the h i s t o r y of the Squamish area i s extremely d i f f i c u l t to o b t a i n . Dr. Ormsby suggested^study of the S e s s i o n a l Papers of the B r i t i s h Columbia L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly and Pamphlets d e a l i n g w i t h the P a c i f i c Great Eastern Railway as being the best probable, yet even very d o u b t f u l source of i n f o r -mation. A study of these documents revealed nothing of s u f f i c -i e n t value to warrent recording i n t h i s t h e s i s . kk These documents have been made a v a i l a b l e t o the w r i t e r through the courtesy of the Squamish Centennial Committee. 49 12 a route f o r t h i s t r a i l from Squamish to Burrard I n l e t , The purpose of the t r a i l was to b r i n g f i n i s h e d beef from the L i l l o o e t - C l i n t o n d i s t r i c t of the i n t e r i o r to market i n the Vancouver area. In 1874, while work continued on the t r a i l , 400 acres were purchased at Squamish to provide pasture f o r c a t t l e . 1 ^ This i s the f i r s t reference to a c q u i s i t i o n of land i n the v a l l e y . By 1875 the c a t t l e t r a i l was completed through to Burrard I n l e t . In the f o l l o w i n g year work progressed to im-prove the route. Robert Carson of P a v i l l i o n i n 1877 conducted the f i r s t and only c a t t l e d r i v e over the route. Apparently the country was so rugged and the t r i p s© hard on the animals that the idea of b r i n g i n g c a t t l e to the coast by t h i s route was 14 abandoned. From 1875 to 1885 there was l i t t l e i n t e r e s t i n the v a l l e y . Meadows i n the Squamish r i v e r d e l t a area were being used as pasture by persons who came to Squamish mainly f o r the purpose of logging f i r and spruce along the banks of the Squamish r i v e r . 12 B.A. McKelvie, "Construction of the C a t t l e T r a i l from L i l l o o e t to Squamish," p. 1. (unpublished notes w i t h no date given) 13 Nina Anthony, "An E p i c , " p. 1. (unpublished poem w i t h no date given) 14 McKelvie, ©p. c i t . , p. 2 . 50 The f i r s t s e t t l e r s came t© the Squamish v a l l e y i n 1877? They took up land along the Mamquam r i v e r near the " ' 15 present l o c a t i o n of the P.G.E. r a i l w a y shops. The coming of these people marked the beginning of a slow but steady i n f l u x of permanent r e s i d e n t s . In 1885 a group of Norwegians came to Squamish and i n the same year that they a r r i v e d a severe f l o o d inundated t h e i r homesteads. 1^ They became discouraged and sub-sequently moved to B e l l a Coola. Regardless of the f l o o d hazard, people continued to move i n t o the v a l l e y . By 1889, i n t e r e s t i n 17 land was s u f f i c i e n t to warrant a l e g a l survey. The presence of surveyors i n the area and the s p e c u l a t i o n on subdivided land created the beginning of a new and more prosperous era. By 1892 a post o f f i c e had been e s t a b l i s h e d , 1 ^ The S.S. Saturna was making t r i p s twice weekly from Vancouver to Squamish, n a v i g a t i n g the former east branch of the Squamish r i v e r to a wharf l o c a t e d near the present commercial s e c t i o n of the v i l l a g e . 1 ^ 15 Minnie Armstrong, "A B r i e f O u t l i n e of People and Happenings i n the E a r l y Days of Squamish", (unpublished notes w i t h no date g i v e n ) , 16 Anthony, l o c . c i t , 17 B r i t i s h Columbia Legal Surveys D i v i s i o n , op. c i t . 18 Anthony, op_. c i t . , p. 2. 19 Anthony, l o c . c i t . 51 During the 1900's the Squamish v a l l e y was becoming known as a good a g r i c u l t u r a l area. I n t e r e s t turned to the growing of hops f o r s a l e i n Vancouver. C o n s t r u c t i o n of the 20 B e l l - I r v i n g hop ranch was s t a r t e d i n 1894. Competition from farms i n the C h i l l i w a c k area soon s e r i o u s l y a f f e c t e d the i n -dustry at Squamish. The ranch was not i n production many years before i t was abandoned. Much of the i n t e r e s t i n land had centered on the area along the banks of the Squamish and Mamquam r i v e r s , the remain-der of the v a l l e y being considered too h e a v i l y timbered or poorly drained to develop as farm l a n d . However, during the e a r l y 1900's a p o r t i o n of the d e l t a was dyked and used f o r pasture and the growing of hay. These dykes, which s t i l l e x i s t and some of which p r o t e c t the present v i l l a g e , were b u i l t by 21 Chinese labour under the d i r e c t i o n of l o c a l land owners. During the years that the v a l l e y was becoming s e t t l e d a g r i c u l t u r a l l y , logging by hand methods of small timber stands along the r i v e r banks became an i n c r e a s i n g l y more prominent a c t i v i t y . In 1909 the Howe Sound and Northern Railway Company constructed a l i n e extending about f i f t e e n miles from t i d e -22 water northward i n t o the v a l l e y of the Cheakamus r i v e r . This r a i l r o a d was b u i l t to open up l a r g e r timber t r a c t s and t o f a c i l -i t a t e t r a n s p o r t of logs t o the booming grounds l o c a t e d at the d e l t a . 20 Armstrong, op. c i t . , p. 3» 21 Armstrong, l o c . c i t . 22 Anthony, op. c i t . . p. 3. 52 In 1913 the Howe Sound and Northern Railway Company was forced by the p r o v i n c i a l government to s e l l out to the newly formed P a c i f i c Great Eastern Railway Company.23 This i n c i d e n t caused a great deal of l o c a l i l l - f e e l i n g . The Howe Sound and Northern Railway Company had taken considerable i n t e r e s t i n the development of Squamish. I t s management had renamed Squamish to Newport and had envisioned the growth of a great sea port community. In 1907 the company had discovered a route to the i n t e r i o r through the v a l l e y of the Cheakamus r i v e r . The d i r e c t -ors of the P.G.E. had learned of t h i s route and through p o l i t -i c a l pressure enabled a c q u i s i t i o n of the r i g h t s to construct a r a i l l i n e over i t . By 1919 they had not only acquired t h i s r i g h t but had a l s o purchased most of the land i n the lower v a l l e y that would lend i t s e l f to community and port development. Nearly a l l of the land p r e s e n t l y held by the P.G.E. was pur-chased at t h i s time. In 1918 the p r o v i n c i a l government took over c o n t r o l of the P.G.E. and v i r t u a l l y a l l of the land that i t had acquired. The Howe Sound and Northern Railway Company d i d not re g a i n any of i t s l o s s e s . The name Newport was dropped and the community i t had t r i e d so hard to promote continued to be c a l l e d Squamish. In 1914 the "Squamish I n c o r p o r a t i o n A c t " was passed f o r 24 proclamation by the Lieutenant-Governor i n Council,, The a c t , 23 A.McEvoy, " P e t i t i o n f o r I n c o r p o r a t i o n of the C i t y of Squamish," (a l e t t e r to the P r o v i n c i a l government) Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia, November 15» 1919» n. 1. 24 McEvoy, l o c . c i t . 53 however, was not proclaimed and Squamish continued to develop without the b e n e f i t of p r o v i n c i a l support. In 1915 the f i r s t t r a i n ran from Squamish to L i l l o o e t o The opening of the r a i l l i n k was expected to enable the be-ginning of tremendous development at Squamish, T h i s , however, was not forthcoming, and as a matter of f a c t , the r a t e of growth of the community subsequently d e c l i n e d . During the depression years of the 1930's, a c t i v i t y i n the Squamish v a l l e y , as i n many other p l a c e s , d e c l i n e d n o t i c e -ably. Logging continued at a very reduced production. However, the P.G.E. tended to provide a s t a b i l i z i n g a f f e c t on the community. Many employees were out of work, but the weekly t r a i n , both passenger and f r e i g h t , managed to take the time of the men w i t h highest s e n i o r i t y . The second world war again brought greater p r o s p e r i t y . Business increased f o r the logging companies and the r a i l r o a d . L a t e r , the tempo of development was heightened w i t h the r e t u r n of the war veterans. The favourable lumber market caused a very s i g n i f i c a n t increase i n l o g g i n g , which i n t u r n , b o l s t e r e d the general l e v e l of the l o c a l economy. Squamish, as was the case w i t h many other r u r a l areas of the province, was caught i n the up-swing of the North American economy. P r o s p e r i t y , however, brought problems w i t h i t , and the people of Squamish were soon faced w i t h the need to implement 25 McEvoy, op. c i t , , p. 3. 54 some form of l o c a l government. On May 18, 1948, i n an attempt to cope w i t h l o c a l growth, Squamish a t t a i n e d the status of a v i l l a g e . The boundary included only the commercial s e c t i o n and part of the r e s i d e n t i a l area. This boundary i s shown on Map 9 9 ft as are successive expansions of i t to the present. I I . THE POST 1949 PERIOD On the i n s t r u c t i o n s of the Premier of B r i t i s h Columbia i n May, 1949? the Squamish V a l l e y Development Committee was formed. The purpose of the committee was to "consider the present and f u t u r e development of the Squamish area i n r e l a t i o n to the d i s p o s a l of crown lands and the requirements of the P 0G oE. f o r t e r m i n a l purposes, present and f u t u r e , the proper planning and development of the area and the p o s s i b l e r e - s u b d i v i s i o n of s u b d i v i s i o n s considered outmoded to meet the modern r e q u i r e -ments of the present, and to conform to a planned development of the area,** The committee comprised r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from the P.G.Eo, B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Railways, Department of P u b l i c Works, Regional Planning D i v i s i o n of the Department of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s , and the Parks and Recreation D i v i s i o n of the B r i t i s h Columbia Forest S e r v i c e . Other r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s on the committee ft Some of the maps contained i n t h i s t h e s i s were d r a f t -ed before the boundary of the v i l l a g e was enlarged f o r a f o u r t h time. ftft Information from a c o n f i d e n t i a l source, February 22, 1957. E X P A N S I O N S O F T H E B O U N D A R Y O F S Q U A M I S H V I L L A G E M A P 9 56 were the Surveyor General, Chief Land Inspector, D i r e c t o r of Land U t i l i z a t i o n Research and Survey D i v i s i o n , D i r e c t o r of Conservation, Superintendent of Lands, and Deputy M i n i s t e r of ft Lands, a l l of the p r o v i n c i a l government. The committee was to meet p e r i o d i c a l l y to discuss a l l matters p e r t a i n i n g to the area. The f a c t o r s that stimulated the formation of t h i s committee were many and v a r i e d . In general i t can be s a i d that the Squamish v a l l e y was a problem area. Numerous requests had come to the Department of Lands f o r the a c q u i s i t i o n of land . Complaints had been received from v a l l e y r e s i d e n t s , regarding excessive r i v e r e r o s i o n and f l o o d i n g . The P.G.E. w i t h i t s i n t e r e s t i n the area due to i n s t a l l a t i o n s and ownership of lar g e t r a c t s of land and the p o s s i b i l i t y of greater space r e -quirements f o r expansion, presented a f u r t h e r problem. The need f o r highway right-of-ways and the inadequate p a t t e r n of s u b d i v i s i o n presented s t i l l more d i f f i c u l t i e s . The net e f f e c t was such that the area needed c o n s i d e r a t i o n as to i t s p o t e n t i a l by the highest a u t h o r i t i e s of i n t e r e s t e d groups i n the province. With the formation of the development committee a map reserve was placed over the e n t i r e lower v a l l e y . This meant that crown land was made un a v a i l a b l e i n a l l parts of the area. P.G.E. land was a l s o f r o z e n . The committee studied each a p p l i -c a t i o n f o r land i n terms of the proposed use and the l o c a t i o n ft Information from a c o n f i d e n t i a l source. 57 of the p a r c e l d e s i r e d . As a r e s u l t of t h i s "screening process" no a d d i t i o n a l land was made a v a i l a b l e f o r r e s i d e n t i a l development during the period which the committee functioned,, Development of the v a l l e y was hindered. As the years passed, attendance at the committee meetings decreased. No one appeared to know j u s t what was i n s t o r e f o r the area. The Squamish V a l l e y Development Committee was abolished on November 2 7 , 1 9 5 3 . A reserve on crown lands w i t h i n the v i l l a g e boundary had been put i n t o e f f e c t on February 2 3 , 1949. By November, 1954 no set p o l i c y had been formulated f o r the development of the area and sin c e the demands f o r land were s t e a d i l y i n c r e a s -i n g , i t was decided to l i f t t h i s reserve. The removal of the reserve d i d not mean that land was a v a i l a b l e f o r purchase s i n c e every a p p l i c a t i o n s t i l l had to be cleared w i t h the Land S e r v i c e i n which the p r e v a i l i n g a t t i t u d e was that land should not be s o l d . With pressure f o r land mounting, pa r c e l s of P.G.E. and crown land w i t h i n the v i l l a g e were to be put up f o r p u b l i c a u c t i o n i n 1 9 5 5 . The Land S e r v i c e assessed a l l P.G.E. and crown land i n the v i l l a g e i n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r the s a l e . At t h i s time, the Land Inspector f o r the New Westminster Land D i s t r i c t , i n h i s annual r e p o r t , suggested the need f o r an extensive planning study of the v a l l e y , and p a r t i c u l a r l y the need f o r a complete cost a n a l y s i s of dyking requirements f o r the prevention of f l o o d i n g i n the v i l l a g e area. As a r e s u l t of t h i s r e p o r t , the P r o v i n c i a l Dyking Commissioner was requested to 58 conduct a dyking requirement study. His v i s i t to the area r e -s u l t e d i n the estimate of $ 1 6 , 5 0 0 required f o r adequate dyking p r o t e c t i o n . This was to i n v o l v e the c l e a r i n g of a l l growth from e x i s t i n g dyke tops, and the r a i s i n g of a l l dykes by three f e e t w i t h a ten foot top and slopes of one to one. The Dyking Commissioner a l s o declared that no land should be s o l d u n t i l t h i s work was completed. The Commissioner's report was issued on February 2 1 , 1 9 5 6 . Immediately f o l l o w i n g t h i s , on the r e -quest of the M i n i s t e r of A g r i c u l t u r e , the s a l e of a l l crown l o t s i n the v i l l a g e was again r e s t r i c t e d , and the a u c t i o n of those p a r c e l s of land proposed f o r s a l e was prevented. C u r r e n t l y , no crown land i s a v a i l a b l e i n any p o r t i o n of the lower v a l l e y . Government p o l i c y has been one of w i t h -h o l d i n g from s a l e a l l lands w i t h i n t h e i r j u r i s d i c t i o n , and thereby preventing a p a t t e r n of land use from developing that would be incompatible w i t h f u t u r e plans f o r the area. The P.G.E. has followed a s i m i l a r p o l i c y , but has withheld land c h i e f l y f o r i t s own use. The s i g n i f i c a n c e of the degree of recent government c o n t r o l over the area cannot be underestimated, nor can the p o l i c y of the r a i l r o a d company be considered l i g h t l y . Of a l l f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g the extent of development, the land p o l i c y r e s u l t i n g from cooperation between the P.G.E., various govern-ment departments and the Land S e r v i c e i s of utmost importance. On March 3 0 , 1 9 5 7 ? Premier W.A.C.Bennett of B r i t i s h Columbia announced a government plan to promote the development 59 of the Squamish area as a sea-port. This i s the most import-ant f a c t o r yet i n i t s sequence of development. I f the plan i s c a r r i e d out as proposed, the v a l l e y w i l l be u l t i m a t e l y u t i l i z e d to i t s greatest extent, a wonderful climax to an otherwise discouraging process of development. CHAPTER V PRESENT STAGE OF DEVELOPMENT The present stage of development of the Squamish valley-is discussed i n such a way as to provide an inventory of the pattern and extent of i t s existing use. I. LAND USE Land use i n the lower Squamish v a l l e y i s - f u l l y i l l u s -trated on Map 10. The various uses of land are c l a s s i f i e d under f i v e major categories. 1. area used for buildings, townsites and industry 2. cultivated farm land 3. farm land abandoned or reverted to pasture 4. waste land - sand and gravel bars, t i d a l f l a t s and natural meadow 5. forest - v i r g i n f o r e s t , second growth or recently logged. The d i s t r i b u t i o n of used land presents an unusual pattern. As the v a l l e y i s r e s t r i c t e d on both sides by r i v e r s and steep mountains, development has occurred i n a l i n e a r pattern, for the most part, following the east bank of the Squamish r i v e r . The r i v e r delta remains larg e l y unused except for that portion within the v i l l a g e that has been reclaimed by dyking and draining. Most a g r i c u l t u r a l land i s found i n Brackendale, farming being i n i t i a l l y attracted there because land values were r e l a t i v e l y low for the v a l l e y . 6 1 In general only a small p o r t i o n of the v a l l e y i s put to i n t e n s i v e use. Many l a r g e areas of vacant f o r e s t or waste land e x i s t . Regardless of the f a c t that a great deal of land i s p o t e n t i a l l y a v a i l a b l e i n the area, the present p a t t e r n of use w i l l d i c t a t e or c e r t a i n l y i n f l u e n c e the p a t t e r n of f u t u r e use of remaining areas. I I . TRANSPORTATION FACILITIES Much of the recent a t t e n t i o n d i r e c t e d to the Squamish region has r e s u l t e d from the improvement of major t r a n s p o r t a -t i o n f a c i l i t i e s s e r v i n g the area. Improved means of t r a n s -p o r t a t i o n has meant the d i f f e r e n c e between the v a l l e y l y i n g economically dormant or showing promise f o r extensive develop-ment. Map 1 1 shows the p o s i t i o n of Squamish w i t h respect to major r a i l l i n e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia. The completion of the P.G.E. to North Vancouver i n 1 9 5 6 made the e n t i r e province a p o t e n t i a l h i n t e r l a n d to Squamish. Commodities moved over the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway main l i n e and those handled by the K e t t l e V a l l e y route as w e l l as Canadian N a t i o n a l Railways main l i n e f r e i g h t and Grand Trunk route t r a f f i c can a l l be d i r e c t e d to Squamish. United S t a t e s f r e i g h t from the Great Northern Railway can reach Squamish through the Canadian N a t i o n a l R a i l -way interchange. The Milwaukee Railway operates a r a i l barge s e r v i c e from Squamish south i n t o the S t a t e of Washington. I t can t h e r e f o r e be seen that Squamish i s i n a favorable p o s i t i o n w i t h respect to r a i l l o c a t i o n . The most s i g n i f i c a n t and h i g h l y 62 S Q U A M I S H IN R E L A T I O N T O M A J O R R A I L L I N E S IN B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A M A P 11 6 3 p u b l i c i z e d advantage of r a i l s e r v i c e to Squamish i s that of a d i r e c t connection w i t h the Peace E l v e r country. This may prove to be the most v i t a l r a i l l i n k s e r v i n g the Squamish r e g i o n . Major highways i n the province f o l l o w roughly the same routes as those taken by the r a i l l i n e s (see Map 1 1 ) . With the completion of the Squamish-Vancouver highway i n 1 9 5 8 , Squamish w i l l be a c c e s s i b l e by road to a l l important points i n the province. T r a n s p o r t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s w i t h i n the v a l l e y are ade-quate although somewhat l i m i t e d . Roads are a l l g r a v e l except i n the v i l l a g e where a few s t r e e t s have r e c e n t l y been hard-surfaced. One main road serves the v a l l e y as a through access route. I t i s a narrow g r a v e l road r a t h e r poorly maintained, and extends northward up the Squamish v a l l e y to the B r i t i s h Columbia E l e c t r i c Company power s t a t i o n at the Squamish r i v e r , some twenty miles from the head of Howe Sound. The P.G.E. serves l o c a l i n d u s t r i a l s i t e s and commercial areas w i t h spur l i n e s . R i v e r tugs operate on the Squamish r i v e r s o l e l y f o r the movement of logs downstream. I I I . LAND OWNERSHIP Land ownership i n the lower v a l l e y i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n Map 1 2 . * ' Ownership has been c l a s s i f i e d as to those lands held ft This map was compiled by the author and the Land I n -spector f o r the New Westminster D i s t r i c t d i r e c t l y from the tax assessment r o l l s . The stat u s i s v a l i d f o r 1 9 5 6 . For the sake of c l a r i t y on the s c a l e of the map, ownership has been s l i g h t l y g e n e r a l i z e d i n three areas: ( 1 ) w i t h i n the c e n t r a l p o r t i o n of 64 by: (1) the Crown; (2) the Department of C i t i z e n s h i p and Immigration, Indian A f f a i r s Branch; (3) The P.G.E., and (4) p r i v a t e owners. Land Ownership w i t h i n Squamish V i l l a g e The v i l l a g e c o n s i s t s of a t o t a l area of roughly 1240 acres. Of t h i s , about 210 acres are owned by the Crown and approximately 535 acres by the P.G.E. The remaining 495 acres are i n p r i v a t e ownership. The p o s i t i o n and l a r g e amount of P.G.E. land i s very s i g n i f i c a n t . The l a r g e t r a c t of railroad-owned land i n the southern p o r t i o n of the v i l l a g e i s w i t h i n the area zoned f o r i n d u s t r y . Of t h i s , the water l o t s are zoned f o r heavy i n -dust r y , whereas the remainder of t h i s property i s zoned f o r l i g h t i n d u s t r y , (see Map 14). A second l a r g e t r a c t of P.G.E. land w i t h i n the i n -corporated area c o n s i s t s of a continuous p a r c e l which e f f e c t -i v e l y d i v i d e s the v i l l a g e area i n t o two halves. This land i s i n an area zoned f o r r e s i d e n t i a l use, and i s s t r a t e g i c a l l y l o c a t e d f o r the continuous r e s i d e n t i a l development of the v i l l a g e . the v i l l a g e , (2) immediately adjacent to and west of the v i l l a g e by the omission of fo u r p r i v a t e l o t s , and (3) between the v i l l a g e and the Mamquam r i v e r , by the omission of two p r i v a t e l o t s . The author has possession of a l a r g e r s c a l e map w i t h the status c o r r e c t i n every d e t a i l , from which Map 14 was drawn. 65 Most of the crown land i s i n the Stawamus r i v e r v a l l e y and i s not s t r a t e g i c a l l y l o c a t e d so as to s e r i o u s l y a f f e c t the p a t t e r n of community development f o r s e v e r a l years hence. The greatest part of the p r i v a t e l y held land i n the v i l l a g e i s p r e s e n t l y developed. That which remains i s i n s m a l l u n i t s . I t may be concluded that the key to the development of the area p r e s e n t l y w i t h i n the v i l l a g e boundary l i e s i n the d e c i s i o n of the P.G.E. as to what land w i l l be s o l d and i n what q u a n t i t i e s . Land Ownership i n Unorganized T e r r i t o r y In the unorganized part of the lower Squamish v a l l e y , the ownership of land presents an i n t e r e s t i n g p a t t e r n . The area i s held i n l a r g e t r a c t s by three groups (1) the Crown; (2) the P.G.E., and (3) p r i v a t e owners. Each l a r g e p a r c e l g e n e r a l l y stands as a separate u n i t , perhaps capable of c o n t r o l l e d d e v e l -opment. In the unorganized area as i n the v i l l a g e , the P.G.E. holds one of the most va l u a b l e and c e r t a i n l y the most contro-v e r s i a l p o r t i o n s of the v a l l e y . This area i s a continuous /block of land comprising the d e l t a of the Squamish r i v e r between the v i l l a g e and the mountains on the western side of the v a l l e y . Here, the r a i l r o a d company holds a block of 1024 acres , 9 2 5 acres of which are f l a t a l l u v i a l land. Many i n d u s t r i a l i n q u i r -i e s concerning the v a l l e y have centred on t h i s area. I t i s evident that the r a i l r o a d c o n t r o l s the development of the d e l t a by i t s d e c i s i o n s regarding d i s p o s a l of t h i s l a n d . The Crown holds most of the area between the v i l l a g e 66 and the Mamquam r i v e r . Crown ownership of t h i s l a r g e area i s broken only by one block of land held by a consolidated group of owners. I t i s conceivable that t h i s area could become a r e s i d e n t i a l d i s t r i c t due to i t s p r o x i m i t y to the present v i l l a g e area. The development of t h i s p o r t i o n of the v a l l e y , however, i s improbable i n l i e u of the government's concern over the f l o o d i n g hazard of the Mamquam r i v e r . The l a r g e s t continuous t r a c t of p r i v a t e l y held land i n the v a l l e y bottom i s found i n the Brackendale area. Much of t h i s land i s abandoned farm land (see Map 10),. Some of i t i s a v a i l a b l e f o r purchase and could provide land f o r r e s i d e n t i a l requirements i f subdivided. Much of the area, however, i s not f i r s t c l a s s r e s i d e n t i a l land because of poor drainage, l i k e l i -hood of r i v e r e r o s i o n , and the f l o o d i n g hazard. The Cheekye a l l u v i a l fan i s almost e n t i r e l y a c o n t i n -uous block of crown-held land. This area i s not l i a b l e to f l o o d i n g , i s w e l l - d r a i n e d , has an e x c e l l e n t view and has longer hours of s u n l i g h t than any other part of the v a l l e y . I t has many a t t r i b u t e s of an e x c e l l e n t r e s i d e n t i a l area. Land ownership i n the Stawamus r i v e r v a l l e y has an un-usual p a t t e r n . A l a r g e p o r t i o n of the f l a t v a l l e y bottom i s s t i l l held by the Crown. This block of land comprises most of the area i n i t i a l l y subdivided. I t i s surrounded by land held by one p r i v a t e owner. Par t of the entrance to the v a l l e y i s held by the P.G.E. and the remainder by the Department of C i t i z e n s h i p and Immigration, Indian A f f a i r s Branch as Indian Reserve. This v a l l e y has received l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n as a 67 p o t e n t i a l r e s i d e n t i a l s i t e due to i t s p r o x i m i t y to the steep-r i s i n g mountainside and the r e s u l t a n t few hours of sunshine. There i s the p o s s i b i l i t y , however, that i t may be considered i n the f u t u r e as an i n d u s t r i a l s i t e . Land held by the Indian A f f a i r s Branch i n the form of reserves does not c o n s t i t u t e a l a r g e acreage. For the most p a r t , these p a r c e l s of land are adjacent to the Squamish r i v e r i n areas h i g h l y subject to both r i v e r e r o s i o n and f l o o d i n g . They are s c a t t e r e d and not s t r a t e g i c a l l y l o c a t e d so as to present an obstacle to the continuous development of the r e g i o n . Of a l l f a c t o r s p e r t a i n i n g to the development p o s s i b -i l i t i e s of the lower Squamish v a l l e y the matter of the p a t t e r n and extent of land ownership by s p e c i f i c groups i s one of the most s i g n i f i c a n t . F o r t u n a t e l y , much of the v a l l e y i s s t i l l held by the Crown and the Crown c o r p o r a t i o n , the P.G.E., both of which are anxious to see a w e l l - o r g a n i z e d development. One can t h e r e f o r e expect land to be more r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e to meet t h i s end, than i f p r i v a t e ownership were dominant. IV. PRESENT AGRICULTURE A g r i c u l t u r e has l e s s s i g n i f i c a n c e i n the Squamish v a l l e y than one might imagine. However, i t i s a f a c t o r i n the present stage of development. In the period from approximately 1900 to 1940, farming was a major economic a c t i v i t y . Some farm products such as potatoes and raw m i l k were shipped out of the r e g i o n , but not i n 68 l a r g e q u a n t i t i e s . Most farming was e i t h e r conducted at the subsistence l e v e l or concentrated on d a i r y products f o r l o c a l s a l e . In recent years, a g r i c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t y has d e c l i n e d . For various reasons, s e v e r a l farms have been abandoned. Per-haps t h i s i s p r i m a r i l y because the younger people have not been w i l l i n g to take over f a m i l y farms, p r e f e r r i n g to gain more l u c r a t i v e employment p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h the r a i l r o a d and logging companies. At present, only one farm u n i t remains i n economic production, a s m a l l d a i r y farm operated by a long-time r e s i d e n t . The minor q u a n t i t y of m i l k produced here competes w i t h the Fraser v a l l e y product f o r the l o c a l market. Due to the d e c l i n e i n a g r i c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t y over the past f i f t e e n to twenty years, l a r g e abandoned f i e l d s remain. These areas are standing unused or are p r o v i d i n g a source of n a t u r a l hay f o r the few horses and c a t t l e that graze, at most times unattended, i n the v a l l e y . 6 9 Photograph No. 7 Abandoned Farm Land  and B u i l d i n g s at Brackendale, Photograph No. 8 Abandoned Farm Land of the former Hop Ranch at Brackendale 70 Photograph No. 9 Abandoned Land and B u i l d i n g s of a former Dairy Farm i n  Squamish V i l l a g e 71 V. PRESENT INDUSTRY In contrast to a g r i c u l t u r e which i s on the d e c l i n e , i n d u s t r y i s becoming i n c r e a s i n g l y dominant as the major economic a c t i v i t y . Of the t h i r t e e n i n d u s t r i a l firms i n the v a l l e y , eleven are logging or lumbering concerns. The P.G.E. and the B r i t i s h Columbia E l e c t r i c Company Limited are the only exceptions, (see Appendix C). The firms connected w i t h the log g i n g i n ~ dustry employ a t o t a l of 250 to 275 men depending upon the season and the e x i s t i n g market c o n d i t i o n s . The P.G.E. employs approximately the same number s t a t i o n e d i n Squamish. The B r i t i s h Columbia E l e c t r i c Company's branch at Squamish has a s t a f f of about s i x permanent employees. The s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r concerning l o c a l labour f o r c e i s i t s composition. Many i n d u s t r i a l workers are t r a n s i e n t s . This i s p a r t i c u l a r l y true w i t h respect to those people employed i n the l o g g i n g i n d u s t r y . Generally speaking, only owners and operators of the logging companies are permanent or semi-permanent r e s i d e n t s i n the area. N e a r l y a l l others come and go r e g u l a r l y . Many r a i l w a y employees a l s o are t r a n s i e n t s . Mechan-i c s , permanent s t a f f i n the r a i l w a y shops, and men w i t h high s e n i o r i t y i n the operating trades are u s u a l l y the only r a i l w a y employees to take up residence i n the community. About h a l f of the labour f o r c e i n a l l l o c a l i n d u s t r y c o n s i s t s of young s i n g l e men l i v i n g only t e m p o r a r i l y i n the v a l l e y . The nature of the labour f o r c e presents many problems 0 72 Photograph No. 11 P.G.E. Barge S l i p at Squamish Dock Photograph No. 13 Empire M i l l s Limited Sawmill 74 Photograph No, 15 P.G.E.Siding and Anglo-Canadian Logging  Co. Log Dump. 75 I t s i n s t a b i l i t y creates an unsteady market f o r those engaged i n commerce. Much housing i s temporary, thereby c o n t r i b u t i n g to the u n t i d y nature of r e s i d e n t i a l areas. J u v e n i l e delinquency i s f u r t h e r e d by the presence of many i r r e s p o n s i b l e s i n g l e men. In g e n e r a l , the i n s t a b i l i t y of the labour force i s a d e t r i -mental f a c t o r i n the Squamish region at its., present l e v e l of development. Si n c e a l a r g e p o r t i o n of the l o c a l i n d u s t r y i s con-cerned w i t h the gathering of logs and t h e i r bulk shipment out of the v a l l e y , few i n d u s t r i a l plants have been e s t a b l i s h e d . The only i n d u s t r i e s r e q u i r i n g any l a r g e amount of land are Empire M i l l s L i m i t e d and i t s associated a c t i v i t i e s , and the P.G.E. VI. COMMERCIAL CONDITIONS Since settlement i n the Squamish v a l l e y i s found i n four main areas (see Map 13) » commercial conditions are d i s -cussed as they p e r t a i n to each area. Although community and p u b l i c s e r v i c e s and i n s t i t u t i o n s are not commonly associated w i t h commercial a c t i v i t y , they are included i n t h i s d i s c u s s i o n s i n c e they cater to the needs of the l o c a l p o p u l a t i o n j u s t as do p r i v a t e commercial e n t e r p r i s e s . They are l i s t e d and de-s c r i b e d s e p a r a t e l y from p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e . P r i v a t e E n t e r p r i s e Brackendale. This small settlement i s served, f o r the most p a r t , by the f a c i l i t i e s of Squamish v i l l a g e . However, a 76 general s t o r e and ass o c i a t e d gas s t a t i o n , which have been i n operation f o r many years, continue to meet the immediate needs of r e s i d e n t s i n the Brackendale area. No other p r i v a t e s e r v i c e s e x i s t i n t h i s s m a ll settlement. Mamquam. Recent l o c a l increase i n population has r e -s u l t e d i n the f u r t h e r development of a sm a l l r e s i d e n t i a l area near the r a i l w a y shops. This settlement has become known as Mamquam, d e r i v i n g i t s name from i t s p r o x i m i t y to the Mamquam r i v e r . The r e s i d e n t i a l d i s t r i c t supports no p r i v a t e enter-p r i s e other than a sm a l l grocery and con f e c t i o n e r y s t o r e . The res i d e n t s are almost completely r e l i a n t upon the s e r v i c e s of Squamish v i l l a g e . Squamish V i l l a g e . The v i l l a g e area f o r many years has had a f a i r l y complete commercial core o f f e r i n g b a s i c a l l y e s s e n t i a l s e r v i c e s and commodities to the l o c a l p o p u l a t i o n . In recent years many new businesses have been s t a r t e d . A l l p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e i s l i s t e d i n Appendix D„ Southridge, The new r e s i d e n t i a l d i s t r i c t of South-r i d g e has been developed r e c e n t l y . This area, overlooking the main s e c t i o n of the v i l l a g e and Howe .Sound, i s considered to be the b e t t e r c l a s s housing area i n the v a l l e y . As yet i t supports no p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e other than a l a r g e t r a i l e r park. Community S e r v i c e s and I n s t i t u t i o n s Community s e r v i c e s and i n s t i t u t i o n s are l i s t e d i n 77 VALLEY SETTLEMENTS MAP 13 78 Appendix F 0 A l l are lo c a t e d i n the v i l l a g e of Squamish except f o r the Farmer's I n s t i t u t e which meets at Brackendale 0 P u b l i c S e r v i c e s and I n s t i t u t i o n s P u b l i c S e r v i c e s and I n s t i t u t i o n s are l i s t e d i n Appendix E„ The Character of Commercial A c t i v i t y The preceding statements and appendices have provided a f a c t u a l account of commercial and community a c t i v i t y i n the regio n . A f u r t h e r and eq u a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t aspect i s that of the character of t h i s commercial a c t i v i t y . This d i s c u s s i o n of character p e r t a i n s to the v i l l a g e only s i n c e the commercial a c t i v i t y outside the municipal area i s n e g l i g i b l e . The commercial area of the v i l l a g e i s confined l a r g e l y to one main s t r e e t . Many of the b u i l d i n g s are o l d , having been constructed when settlement f i r s t began. Consequently, the main s t r e e t has a rather shabby appearance. New commercial c o n s t r u c t i o n has tended to improve the appearance of the s t r e e t , but not s u f f i c i e n t l y to detr a c t from i t s g e n e r a l l y u n t i d y con-d i t i o n . Logging companies, some of which have l e f t the v a l l e y , have b l i g h t e d the downtown area by l e a v i n g discarded machinery on vacant l o t s . Of a l l the f a c t o r s that d e t r a c t from the appearance of the commercial core, the i n d i f f e r e n c e of these companies i s perhaps the most signifleant» The a t t i t u d e of c e r t a i n businessmen does not enhance the character of the v i l l a g e . T h e i r shops l a c k the f a c i l i t i e s 79 that one would normally expect to f i n d w i t h t h e i r l e v e l of business. This r e s u l t s from a l a c k of competition. The s i z e of the v i l l a g e and the t r a n s i e n t nature of the p o p u l a t i o n i s such that few s e r v i c e s are d u p l i c a t e d . The m a j o r i t y of the businesses that do e x i s t dedicate the absolute minimum of expenditure f o r shop appearance. Only as r e c e n t l y as 1956 were e l e c t r i c signs i n s t a l l e d . S e r v i c e s such as h o t e l s and cafes o f f e r only the bare e s s e n t i a l s to the t r a v e l l e r . In b r i e f , the character of commercial a c t i v i t y i s d e t r a c t i n g rather than adding to the appearance of the v i l l a g e . 8 0 Photograph No. 17 Small Commercial Area i n the " b e t t e r " part  of the V i l l a g e 81 Photograph No. 18 New B u i l d i n g s i n the Downtown Business D i s t r i c t 82 V I I . VILLAGE ZONING To date there has been no community planning f o r the v i l l a g e of Squamish. Zoning r e s t r i c t i o n s , which are merely a r e g u l a t o r y aspect of plan n i n g , have c o n s t i t u t e d the only a c t i o n i n t h i s respect. These r e s t r i c t i o n s are set down i n By-law NOo 29, the purpose of which i s "to d i v i d e the v i l l a g e of Squamish i n t o d i s t r i c t s and to make r e g u l a t i o n s i n r e l a t i o n t h e r e t o , r e g u l a t i n g the l o c a t i o n , use and height of b u i l d i n g s , s i z e of yards and other open spaces; and the use of land pur-suant to the p r o v i s i o n s of the 'Town Planning Act' and the 26 ' V i l l a g e M u n i c i p a l i t i e s A c t ' . " The by-law d i v i d e s the v i l l a g e i n t o four d i s t r i c t s c l a s s i f i e d as r e s i d e n t i a l d i s t r i c t s , commercial d i s t r i c t s , l i g h t i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t s , and i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t s . These are shown as Schedule A of the Zoning By-law, and are l l l u s -t r a t e d on Map 14. The four d i s t r i c t s have been so designed as to c o i n c i d e w i t h the present p a t t e r n of development and to allow f o r growth of commercial and i n d u s t r i a l a c t i v i t y and i t s corresponding p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e . Since the zoning does allo w f o r expan-s i o n of commerce and i n d u s t r y , there i s a high p r o p o r t i o n of the v i l l a g e dedicated to t h i s f u t u r e use of land . Consequently, there i s a smaller amount of zoned r e s i d e n t i a l land than would seem necessary to support the p o t e n t i a l business and i n d u s t r i a l 26 The Corporation of the V i l l a g e of Squamish, "By-law No, 29," 1954. 8 3 VILLAGE ZONING HEAVY INDUSTRIAL LIGHT INDUSTRIAL COMMERCIAL RESIDENTIAL 1/4 J/2 mile NB. The remaining portion of the village Is not zoned. M A P 14 84 establishmentso The zoning, although l a c k i n g i n c e r t a i n re= finements associated w i t h complete community plan n i n g , does present the p o s s i b i l i t y of r e a d i l y adapting i t s e l f to increase i n the s i z e of the v i l l a g e . V I I I . DEVELOPMENT TRENDS P r Since the end of World War I I the Squamish valley?, as w i t h many other s m a l l r u r a l areas i n the province, has exper-ienced a g e n e r a l l y a c c e l e r a t i n g rate of development. Both the logging and r a i l r o a d i n d u s t r i e s have expanded, a t t r a c t i n g more workers to the area and c r e a t i n g the need f o r increased s e r -v i c e s . Consequently the population of the v a l l e y has increased n o t i c e a b l y . For various reasons the p a t t e r n or trend of development i s r a t h e r p e c u l i a r . In t h i s post-war p e r i o d , about 145 new homes have been b u i l t b r i n g i n g the t o t a l number to approximately 390. One would normally expect a high percentage of new home c o n s t r u c t i o n to take place w i t h i n the v i l l a g e s i n c e t h i s area has vacant land , provides water and a l l other necessary s e r v i c e s . Figure 6 shows that there are only 67 new homes w i t h i n the v i l l a g e compared to a t o t a l of 78 outside the v i l l a g e . FIGURE 6 APPROXIMATE NUMBER OF NEW HOMES BUILT DURING THE POST-WAR PERIOD Brackendale settlement 30 Mamquam 24 Squamish v i l l a g e 67 Southridge 24 T o t a l 145 85 This p e c u l i a r development trend l a r g e l y r e s u l t s from P.G.E. and crown land being withheld from s a l e i n the v i l l a g e and i n the area adjacent to the Mamquam r i v e r . The p r i v a t e l y owned land i n these areas e i t h e r has been developed already or els e the owners of vacant property a r e , f o r various reasons, u n w i l l i n g to s e l l . Consequently, new home c o n s t r u c t i o n i s forced out of these areas to Brackendale and Southridge. The settlement of Mamquam, although i n a flood-danger area which would be wi t h h e l d from s a l e i f i t were crown l a n d , has developed because the land was p r i v a t e l y held and a v a i l a b l e f o r purchase. The settlement of Southridge has developed on p r i v a t e l y owned land which was subdivided and made a v a i l a b l e i n the post-war p e r i o d . Because of poor drainage w i t h i n the dyked p o r t i o n of the v i l l a g e area (see photographs 19 and 20) many homes are without basements. In both Brackendale and Southridge, w i t h higher ground and r e s u l t a n t good drainage, basements are p o s s i b l e , thus c r e a t i n g a f u r t h e r i n c e n t i v e to l i v e i n these areas. S i n c e land has been more r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e o utside the v i l l a g e area than w i t h i n , and si n c e o u t l y i n g areas o f t e n pro-v i d e a more pleasant place to l i v e , the recent development i n the v a l l e y has followed a p a t t e r n that at f i r s t seems i l l o g i c a l . I t i s e n t i r e l y probable that the development of these o u t l y i n g areas w i l l continue i n the f u t u r e unless land i s made a v a i l a b l e and l i v i n g c onditions are improved w i t h i n and adjacent to the v i l l a g e area. 8 6 P h o t o g r a p h N o . 20 A P o r t i o n o f t h e D y k e S u r r o u n d i n g S q u a m i s h V i l l a g e 87 P h o t o g r a p h K o . 22 F u r t h e r V i e w o f New Housing ; a t S o u t h r i d g e 88 Photograph No. 24 New Housing i n Brackendale 89 Photograph No. 25 New Housing i n Brackendale on the Cheekye A l l u v i a l Fan Photograph No. 26 Slum Area i n Squamish V i l l a g e CHAPTER VI RESOURCES AND RESOURCE USE This t h e s i s i s composed of two major s e c t i o n s , f i r s t , the i n v e n t o r y aspect, i n which the character and present use of the region are assessed and second, the a n a l y s i s aspect, the determination of optimum use of land and the subsequent p o t e n t i a l f o r development of s p e c i f i c areas and p a r t i c u l a r aspects of the economy,, The d i s c u s s i o n of resources and t h e i r use f a l l s somewhat between these b a s i c d i v i s i o n s but should be r e l a t e d to both. I. FOREST RESOURCES The f o r e s t wealth i n the Squamish region i s not accur-a t e l y known. There has been no complete f o r e s t inventory to e s t a b l i s h e i t h e r the growth p o t e n t i a l or the amount of timber a v a i l a b l e by s p e c i e s . The f a c t that the f o r e s t resource i s great, however, cannot be denied. MacMillan and B l o e d e l L i m i t e d , i n i t s B r i e f to the Royal Commission on F o r e s t r y , discusses the area i n terms of the need to construct an access road: "This road w i l l make over 1,000,000,000 feet B.M. of Crown timber a v a i l a b l e to market loggers and to m i l l s i n the S t r a i t of Georgia r e g i o n . This area i s most important as a p o t e n t i a l P u b l i c Working C i r c l e f o r the very l a r g e and important logger and m i l l p o p u lation of Vancouver and the Fraser R i v e r . 9i The v a l l e y i s a l s o valuab le as a source of Douglas F i r . The Forest contains over 300,000,000 f e e t B.M. of Douglas F i r , a l l very near the sawmills of the Vancouver and Fraser R i v e r m i l l i n g centers."27 This statement tends to summarize the s i t u a t i o n f a i r l y w e l l i n terms of the advantage of the region from an economic poin t of view and i n terms of the value of the resource i t s e l f . Proposed Forest Management Licences i n the r e g i o n , the development of which would b r i n g the ray m a t e r i a l and p o s s i b l y the f i n i s h e d f o r e s t product through the Squamish region are shown i n Map 15« These l i c e n c e s are " A p p l i c a t i o n s A d v e r t i s e d " . They are not yet granted, awaiting the outcome of the Royal Commission study. The d e c i s i o n as to whether or not these l i c e n c e s w i l l be granted and to whom w i l l have a very d i r e c t e f f e c t on the development p o t e n t i a l of the Squamish regi o n . Map 15 shows two l i c e n c e s i n the area, one a p p l i e d f o r by Empire M i l l s L i m i t e d , a f i r m already operating i n the v a l l e y , and a second a p p l i e d f o r by MacMillan and B l o e d e l Limited who al s o conduct logging operations i n the r e g i o n . MacMillan and Bl o e d e l L i m i t e d , as i n d i c a t e d i n i t s B r i e f , presses f o r the c r e a t i o n of a P u b l i c Working C i r c l e i n t h i s area rather than a Forest Management Licence as ap p l i e d f o r by i t s o p p o s i t i o n . Empire M i l l s L i m i t e d . Yet, a few miles from t h i s proposed l i c e n c e area, i n the upper Pemberton v a l l e y , i t argues i n favour 27 MacMillan, H.R., B r i e f Submitted to Royal Commission on F o r e s t r y B r i t i s h Columbia, MacMillan and B l o e d e l L i m i t e d , Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia, November, 19559 PP» 14, I60 92 M A P 15 93 of the establishment of a Management Licence f o r which i t has a p p l i e d . C l e a r l y , i f area Number One goes to Empire M i l l s L i m i t e d , MacMillan B l o e d e l probably w i l l not b e n e f i t from i t i n any way. I f i t i s developed as a P u b l i c Working C i r c l e adjacent to t h e i r own p o s s i b l e Management Licence they could at l e a s t purchase logs to be processed i n t h e i r i n t e g r a t e d f o r e s t products p l a n t , which, i n a l l p r o b a b i l i t y , would be l o -cated at Squamish. R e s u l t i n g from t h i s c o n f l i c t over f o r e s t resources there i s the p o s s i b i l i t y o f , i n one case, one f o r e s t products plant being l o c a t e d i n the Squamish area, and i n the other, i f Empire M i l l s and MacMillan and B l o e d e l both are granted l i c e n c e s , the p o s s i b i l i t y of two plants l o c a t i n g i n the area. I t can t h e r e f o r e be seen that the d e c i s i o n of the Royal Commission on F o r e s t r y w i l l have a d i r e c t bearing on the manner i n which the f o r e s t resource of the area i s u t i l i z e d . A f u r t h e r point to consider regarding f o r e s t resources i s that of the p o s s i b i l i t y of tree farming. The upper Squamish v a l l e y supports a l u x u r i a n t cover of second growth deciduous t r e e s , c h i e f l y a l d e r , maple and cottonwood. According to one a u t h o r i t y , t h i s area has the p r e r e q u i s i t e s f o r productive tree farming, u t i l i z i n g c h i e f l y cottonwood because of i t s e x c e l l e n t ft pulping q u a l i t y and extremely high growth r a t e . Map 16 shows a p o r t i o n of the upper v a l l e y most of which i s w i t h i n the ft This o p i n i o n was obtained from Mr. D.O.L. Schon of the Powell R i v e r Company Li m i t e d i n an i n t e r v i e w w i t h the w r i t e r , Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia, Marclji 4, 1957 <> 94 I N D I A N R E S E R V E N U M B E R 11 M A P 16 95 boundaries of Indian Reserve Number 11, This area, c o n s i s t -ing mainly of r i v e r f l o o d p l a i n i s devoid of use at the present time. Since there i s l i t t l e l i k e l i h o o d of i t s u t i l -i z a t i o n f o r i n d u s t r i a l , r e s i d e n t i a l or a g r i c u l t u r a l purposes, i t could w e l l be put to use as a deciduous tree farm. This i s only one p o r t i o n of the Squamish re g i o n that could be de-voted to t h i s use. Other areas to the north i n the Squamish r i v e r v a l l e y , and to the east i n the Cheakamus r i v e r v a l l e y , could be e q u a l l y productive i n t h i s respect. 96 Photographs No. 27. 28. 29 Three General View of Lodged Areas i n the Squamish Region 97 I I . MINERAL RESOURCES The mineral resources of the Squamish region are few or have not yet been discovered. Mining has played a very minor part i n the development of Squamish. At B r i t a n n i a , however, a few miles south of Squamish, and j u s t outside the l i m i t s of the Squamish region as defined i n t h i s t h e s i s , mining has been the only economic a c t i v i t y . P r i o r t o 1930, B r i t a n n i a rated as the l a r g e s t copper mine i n the B r i t i s h Empire. I t operated continuously s i n c e about 1911 producing not only copper but the a s s o c i a t e d m i n e r a l s , gold, s i l v e r , and z i n c as w e l l . Due to d e c l i n i n g p r i c e s of base metals and the r i s i n g cost of labour, B r i t a n n i a has f i n a l l y been c l o s e d . Ore reserves are s t i l l s u f f i c i e n t to operate the mine, but only under more favourable economic c o n d i t i o n s . B r i t a n n i a has been almost e n t i r e l y a "Company town". Whether or not i t can prosper as a community independent from mining yet remains to be seen. Complete decay of the community would not have an adverse e f f e c t on Squamish to any degree. The two settlements have always been l a r g e l y economically independent. Map 17 shows mineral resources i n and adjacent to the Squamish regi o n . The B r i t a n n i a , Ray Creek, and McVicar-Manson p r o p e r t i e s are a l l copper bearing. Their close grouping suggests a s s o c i a t i o n one w i t h the other. Perhaps f u r t h e r ex-p l o r a t i o n and a b e t t e r market f o r copper at a l a t e r date could put these p r o p e r t i e s i n t o production. Gold, l e a d , z i n c , and s i l v e r m i n e r a l i z a t i o n are found 98 throughout the region. Many of the ores are of high value but are not i n workable q u a n t i t i e s . Apart from the l a r g e amount of gold recovered from B r i t a n n i a ore, Ashloo was the only major producer of gold i n the regi o n ; i t has not been worked f o r many years„ Non-metallic minerals have never received any p a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n . B r i c k i n g c l a y of no ex t r a o r d i n a r y q u a l i t y and sm a l l q u a n t i t i e s i s found i n many parts of the re g i o n . During the depression years a small b r i c k plant operated at D a r r e l l Bay, along Howe Sound two miles south of Squamish settlement. The prospects f o r f u r t h e r l o c a l development of the mining i n d u s t r y are d i f f i c u l t to p r e d i c t . Probably the past trend w i l l continue, w i t h Squamish becoming i n c r e a s i n g l y l e s s concerned w i t h mining as a se c t o r of i t s economy. 99 R E G I O N A L M I N E S A N D M I N E R A L S M A P 17 1 0 0 I I I . POWER RESOURCES Water i s the only present and p o t e n t i a l source of power i n the immediate region. Coal and n a t u r a l gas are n e i t h e r imported nor found l o c a l l y and the r e f o r e are not a v a i l a b l e f o r thermal power. Hydro power was f i r s t developed l o c a l l y by,the PoG„E. The Stawamus r i v e r was dammed and a p i p e l i n e was constructed about three miles to a powerhouse l o c a t e d near the settlement at t i d e w a t e r . Squamish l i e s w i t h i n the s e r v i c e area of the B r i t i s h Columbia E l e c t r i c Company and now obtains power from t h i s company through i t s s u b s t a t i o n at B r i t a n n i a . The recent development of the Cheakamus r i v e r as a h y d r o e l e c t r i c source has been the only major power development i n the r e g i o n . The waters of the Cheakamus are dammed at G a r i b a l d i and d i v e r t e d westward through a seven mi l e tunnel to a powerhouse i n the Squamish r i v e r v a l l e y twenty-seven miles north of Squamish v i l l a g e . The power plant,which i n l a t e 1 9 5 7 rated as the world's l a r g e s t remotely c o n t r o l l e d s t a t i o n , was extremely d i f f i c u l t and c o s t l y to construct due to i t s i s o l a -t i o n and the rugged nature of the country. I t produces 28 1 8 0 9 0 0 0 horsepower and generates 1 6 0 , 0 0 0 k i l o w a t t s . The Elaho, a n o r t h e r l y t r i b u t a r y of the Squamish r i v e r , has been surveyed as a p o t e n t i a l power source. I t a l s o would 28 W.J.W. McNaughton, ed., "Cheakamus," E l e c t r i c a l News  and Engineering, December, 1957» p. 61. 1G1 be d i f f i c u l t and c o s t l y to u t i l i z e , , G a r i b a l d i and Cheakamus lakes i n G a r i b a l d i Park provide n a t u r a l storage of g l a c i a l waters and could develop much needed power f o r the growing needs of Greater Vancouver. Their i n c l u s i o n i n the park and t h e i r r e s u l t a n t value f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l purposes, however, preclude t h e i r use as sources of h y d r o e l e c t r i c power. Further development of l o c a l power sources depends l a r g e l y on the manner i n which power requirements are met on a p r o v i n c i a l - w i d e b a s i s . Greater use of thermal power or the development of large-sources such as the Fraser and Columbia r i v e r s would probably mean a trend to u t i l i z e fewer s m a l l and expensive s i t e s such as those found i n the Squamish r e g i o n . IV„ COMMERCIAL FISHERIES The lower reaches of the Squamish, Cheakamus, and Mamquam r i v e r s , and some of t h e i r t r i b u t a r i e s provide e x c e l l e n t spawning grounds f o r p a c i f i c salmon,, Sockeye i s the only species that does not i n h a b i t these waters. The head of Howe Sound i s w e l l known f o r s u p e r i o r sport f i s h i n g during the salmon runs. The commercial f i s h e r y , although not l a r g e i n comparison to that i n other c o a s t a l waters, provides employment and income to some l o c a l fishermen. With i n c r e a s i n g governmental c o n t r o l of catches and the implementation of more technology, the value of the resource i s improving annually. Further h y d r o e l e c t r i c power development i n the Squamish re g i o n should have l i t t l e e f f e c t on the commercial f i s h e r y . P r o v i d i n g adequiate water 102 p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l i s e x e r c i s e d , i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n should not s e r i o u s l y a f f e c t t h i s resource,, In summary, the past trend of resource use should con-t i n u e , w i t h f o r e s t r y being by f a r the most valuable i n the l o c a l economy. With the eventual implementation of pro-v i n c i a l p o l i c y to put f o r e s t s on a perpetual y i e l d b a s i s , the f o r e s t resource should become i n c r e a s i n g l y more v a l u a b l e . Mining, being based on a non-renewable resource, should r e l a t i v e l y d e c l i n e . CHAPTER V I I AGRICULTURAL POTENTIAL I. ECONOMIC FACTORS With the recent extension of r a i l f a c i l i t i e s to Vancouver and the completion of the Squamish-Vancouver hi g h -way, one might expect to f i n d an increased i n t e r e s t i n l o c a l production of farm commodities 0 These new t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s should place the Squamish v a l l e y i n a more com-p e t i t i v e p o s i t i o n as a food producing r e g i o n 0 The increased i n t e r e s t that one might expect has not occurred. There are various reasons f o r t h i s , one of which i s the competition f o r lando The use of land f o r a g r i c u l t u r e i n t h i s area, as i n others, must compete w i t h the demand f o r land f o r other and perhaps higher uses. As has been p r e v i o u s l y e x p l a i n e d , i n the Squamish v a l l e y , much of which i s u n s e t t l e d , there i s a strong competition f o r lando In the past few years, even w i t h a moderate amount of development, farm land has already begun to concede to the higher use of r e s i d e n t i a l expansion. I t i s reasonable to suppose that i f a high degree of commercial and i n d u s t r i a l development i s to occur, a g r i c u l t u r a l land may continue to y i e l d to these higher uses. The only circumstances that would deter t h i s would r e s u l t from an ex-ceedingly high demand f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l products from l o c a l sources. With the demand f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l products p r e s e n t l y being met such as i t i s i n western North America, the n e c e s s i t y 104 of greatly increased local production cannot be immediately forseen. One would conclude, then, that i f the Squamish region experiences a significant increase in commercial and industrial activity, agricultural activity w i l l continue to de-cline,, However, i f by chance physical and economic conditions changed so as to be more favorable to agriculture, i t is possible that some local production would be warranted. Dairy farming would probably be favored due to physical conditions. If raw milk could be produced at prices competitive with those of the lower Fraser Valley, the greatly improved transportation f a c i l i t i e s of the region could conceivably permit Squamish to compete for a portion of Vancouver's raw milk market. Currently, milk produced in parts of the lower Fraser Valley, as much as sixty miles distant from Vancouver, is brought in by tank truck to distribution centres. The Squamish area is less than forty miles from Vancouver. The new hard-surfaced highway, now under construction, w i l l bring this area into what is now an economic distance for bulk milk transport. It is conceivable then that the costs of shipping milk from Squamish to Vancouver would be competitive with those incurred in the trucking of milk from more distant points„ If milk produced in the Squamish region could be marketed, i t is probable that other dairy products and perhaps poultry products could also be sold. The valley could expand the dairying industry through 1 0 5 the demand created within and immediately adjacent to Squamish. If i n d u s t r i a l and commercial development occurs and a corres-ponding population increase is experienced, undoubtedly there would be an increased demand for dairy and poultry products i n the area. It i s possible then, i f q u a l i t y of the l o c a l product is competitive with that produced outside the region, that the l o c a l producer would be able to meet the l o c a l demands The nearby communities of Britannia and Woodfibre together constitute a large market for dairy and poultry pro-ducts o Unfortunately, however, changing economic conditions have recently forced a temporary closure of the m i l l s i n both communities. The market for a g r i c u l t u r a l products i n these towns w i l l probably continue to be unstable u n t i l a general up-swing i n the p r o v i n c i a l economy carries the m i l l s back into f u l l production. The settlements along the P 0G 0E. presently served by the Vancouver outlets, might be supplied more e f f i c i e n t l y by the suggested Squamish dairy and poultry industry. The products, p a r t i c u l a r l y milk, would be fresher and transportation costs less i f this were the case. The question i s whether or not products from the Squamish area could compete i n terms of quality and production costs with the produce of the Fraser Valley. This question bears much investigation and should warrant research before suitable lands are completely disposed of for other uses. Many factors must be taken into consideration, some of which would be: 106 1 0 a l t e r n a t i v e uses of land 2. a v a i l a b i l i t y of land 3. f a c t o r s of s o i l 4. costs of land 5« costs of c l e a r i n g land 6. costs of feed production i n the area 7. amount of feed that could be l o c a l l y produced 8„ amount of n u t r i e n t a v a i l a b l e per u n i t of l o c a l feed 9. costs of s h i p p i n g feed to the area 10. costs of s h i p p i n g produce out of the area 11. f a c t o r s of climate These f a c t o r s and perhaps more must be considered before one could a r r i v e at a meaningful measure of the a g r i c u l t u r a l p o t e n t i a l of the v a l l e y . The f i r s t , and perhaps the most s i g -n i f i c a n t c o n s i d e r a t i o n , i s that of a l t e r n a t i v e uses of l a n d . I f land i s a v a i l a b l e i n terms of both p h y s i c a l and economic f a c t o r s , what i s the comparative advantage of t h i s area over other d a i r y and p o u l t r y producing regions? This i s another research problem and so i s not discussed i n t h i s t h e s i s . I I . PHYSICAL FACTORS Map 18 i l l u s t r a t e s the land c a p a b i l i t y r a t i n g of the lower Squamish v a l l e y . The i n f o r m a t i o n shown on t h i s map was prepared by the B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Lands and F o r e s t s , D i v i s i o n of Land U t i l i z a t i o n Research and Survey, the survey being conducted i n 1949 w i t h the c a p a b i l i t y r a t i n g designed to be p a r t i c u l a r l y p e r t i n e n t to a g r i c u l t u r a l poss-i b i l i t i e s . This survey included the upper Squamish v a l l e y and the lower Cheakamus v a l l e y which are excluded from the present d i s c u s s i o n . The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n uses four main c a t e g o r i e s ; (a) 107 arable land; (b) limited arable land; (c) non-arable land; and (d) wild land. The f i r s t three are shown on Map 18, while the fourth, wild land,,is omitted for the sake of c l a r i t y . Arable land is divided into two classes, and non-arable land into three. The best land in the valley is second-class arable land, land with moderate permanent limitations, and is found in only two small areas. The next best class of land, that defined as having severe permanent limitations, covers a f a i r l y large area roughly defined by the extent of the recent river sediments south of the Cheekye a l l u v i a l fan to as far south as the modern delta of the Squamish river. Class four is limited arable land and is found in very small amounts. The remainder of the lower valley is classed as non-arable. On the basis of this classification, i t is obvious that the possibility of extensive use of land for cropping would be severely limited by physical factors. These are particularly problems associated with drainage and flooding. According to Baker who conducted the survey, the soils are i n f e r t i l e and would require large quantities of f e r t i l i z e r 29 before stable production could be acquired. Clearing costs in the area are also high. Baker quotes a figure of $400 -$800 per acre for clearing, piling and burning 0 J This estim-ate is out of date but nevertheless the costs are sufficiently high to discourage clearing on many tracts of land. 29 Baker, OJJ^  cit., p. 24 30 Ibid., p. 16 108 Because of poor drainage i n many parts of the v a l l e y bottom, the water t a b l e i s high throughout the e n t i r e year* The excessive dampness of the ground keeps s o i l temperatures low causing a shortened growing season although a i r temper-atures may be s u f f i c i e n t l y high to al l o w growth. Many v a l l e y r e s i d e n t s do not plant t h e i r vegetable gardens u n t i l the end of May because of the p r o b a b i l i t y that seeds w i l l not begin to germinate before that time. Unless drainage co n d i t i o n s are improved t h i s could prove to be a severe l i m i t a t i o n to the p o s s i b i l i t y of s u c c e s s f u l t r u c k gardening. The climate of the area as discussed i n Chapter I I I i s not too severe to preclude a g r i c u l t u r a l development. In gen e r a l , i t might be considered as s i m i l a r to the c l i m a t e of the lower Fraser V a l l e y w i t h perhaps a tendency to be s l i g h t l y more extreme i n terms of temperatures and p r e c i p i t a t i o n . The l i m i t a t i o n s of c l i m a t e , however, cannot be considered as s i g -n i f i c a n t as the r e s t r i c t i o n s caused by the nature of the s o i l , poor drainage, and f l o o d i n g hazards. A f u r t h e r l i m i t a t i o n i s the danger of r i v e r erosion,, As p r e v i o u s l y mentioned, the Squamish r i v e r meanders excess-i v e l y i n i t s course between Brackendale and i t s confluence w i t h the Mamquam r i v e r . The area adjacent to t h i s p o r t i o n c f the r i v e r i s the most extensive t r a c t of c l a s s three ara b l e land. Unless t h i s s e c t i o n of the r i v e r i s brought under con-t r o l , i t i s p o s s i b l e that enough s o i l would be eroded to render the a f f e c t e d farms uneconomical a g r i c u l t u r a l u n i t s . This i s 109 the only section of the lower valley where this problem is a major consideration as far as farm land is concerned., The danger of flooding imposes a very severe limitation to agriculture,, The probability of future flooding cannot be overlooked since there has been no adequate precaution taken to prevent its recurrence. The valley bottom between Bracken-dale and Squamish village is most seriously threatened. Since the provincial government recognizes the fact that flooding is a hazard in this area, the sale of endangered crown land has been restricted. One could hardly expect the government to undertake the great expense of preventing flooding to make this small area more suitable for agricultural development, and one would not expect the land to be purchased, i f available, when flooding does constitute such a significant hazard. In summary, the physical limitations to agriculture in the Squamish valley are many. They include i n f e r t i l i t y of the s o i l 9 topographically limited arable land, drainage prob-lems resulting from the high water table, stoniness, flooding hazard of both the Squamish and Mamquam rivers, danger of excessive river erosion, high costs of clearing land, and severity of climate as a minor consideration. A certain demand for agricultural products exists now and potentially in s u f f i -cient volume to support dairying,in particular. With resid-ential, commercial and industrial growth and the resulting competition for land, agriculture may tend to be completely forced out of the valley even though certain forms of farming could be conducted economically i f land were available. CHAPTER V I I I INDUSTRIAL POTENTIAL I. ECONOMIC FACTORS As evidenced by s e v e r a l i n q u i r i e s to the P.G.E. by l a r g e concerns, the Squamish area i s a t t r a c t i v e to the i n -d u s t r i a l i s t , and may become more so because of c e r t a i n econ-omic c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . The area has developable deep-sea access, e x c e l l e n t t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s e x i s t i n g and under con-s t r u c t i o n , land a v a i l a b l e — presumably at low cost — f o r i n d u s t r i a l development, adequate h y d r o e l e c t r i c power developed and proposed, d i r e c t access to the h i n t e r l a n d of the p r o v i n c e , and the advantage of being c l o s e to a m e t r o p o l i t a n area. These f a c t o r s combined c o n t r i b u t e to a high p o t e n t i a l f o r i n d u s t r i a l development „ P o t e n t i a l Deep-sea Access A t t e n t i o n d i r e c t e d to the Squamish area as an i n -d u s t r i a l s i t e r e s u l t s from the f a c t that there i s undeveloped land a v a i l a b l e at low cost adjacent to deep water,, Heavy i n d u s t r y r e q u i r i n g deep-sea access i s f i n d i n g i t i n c r e a s i n g l y more d i f f i c u l t to o b t a i n s u i t a b l e land i n the Greater Vancouver area. P r a c t i c a l l y a l l a v a i l a b l e l a r g e t r a c t s of land on the waterfront are u t i l i z e d . The few that remain can be developed only at h i g h costs i n c u r r e d through the i n i t i a l p r i c e of the land and the heavy expenses involved i n the p r e p a r a t i o n of the I l l s i t e . On the basis of this consideration, one can expect areas such as Squamish to receive increasingly more attention in the future. Availability of Land The map of land use shows large tracts of vacant land adjacent to tide water in the Squamish river delta and at the mouth of the Stawamus river. These parcels of land are strategically located for industrial development, being access-ible from the sea. They are available not only because they are presently undeveloped, but also because they are held by the P.G.E. It is reasonable to suppose that industries that are most dependent upon the r a i l f a c i l i t i e s of the P.G.E. would have the best chance of obtaining portions of this industrial land. From an economic point of view, the factor of avail-a b i l i t y of land is extremely favourable. Transportation F a c i l i t i e s Increasing interest in the Squamish area as an i n -dustrial site has been stimulated in part by the improved trans-portation f a c i l i t i e s serving the region. There has always been land available at tide-water in Squamish. Its develop-ment as an industrial site has been hindered because, until the summer of 1956, Squamish had been relatively isolated. With the completion of the r a i l extension to Vancouver, the area has been made readily accessible. It w i l l become even "more accessible with the fi n a l completion of the Squamish-Vancouver highway. 112 Power Supply A f u r t h e r p o i n t i n favour of Squamish as an i n d u s t r i a l s i t e i s that the area i s p r e s e n t l y t r a v e r s e d by two major hydro-e l e c t r i c t r a n s m i s s i o n l i n e s , the B r i d g e R i v e r power-line and the r e c e n t l y completed S e c h e l t P e n i n s u l a power-line. I f a major i n d u s t r y were to l o c a t e i n the area, power i n s u f f i c i e n t q u a n t i t y i s r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e from e x i s t i n g f a c i l i t i e s . D i r e c t l i n e t r a n s m i s s i o n power could be e a s i l y brought i n t o the area u t i l i z i n g power from e x i s t i n g s i t e s or through the development of f u r t h e r s i t e s i n the immediate r e g i o n . The p o s s i b l e d e v e l -opment of the Moran power s i t e on the F r a s e r r i v e r would ensure adequate low cost power s i n c e Squamish i s w e l l w i t h i n economic t r a n s m i s s i o n d i s t a n c e . D i r e c t Access to the H i n t e r l a n d of the P r o v i n c e D i r e c t access to the h i n t e r l a n d of the p r o v i n c e i s a f u r t h e r but l e s s s i g n i f i c a n t p o i n t i n favour of Squamish as an i n d u s t r i a l s i t e . Through the e x i s t i n g and proposed r a i l f a c i l -i t i e s of the P.G.E. the Peace R i v e r and c e n t r a l Rocky Mountain Trench areas are d i r e c t l y a c c e s s i b l e v i a Squamish. P r o x i m i t y to a M e t r o p o l i t a n Area P r o x i m i t y to a m e t r o p o l i t a n area can be c o n s i d e r e d as a f u r t h e r f a c t o r i n favour of the Squamish area as a p o t e n t i a l i n d u s t r i a l s i t e . T h i s f a c t o r could be of importance dur i n g the c o n s t r u c t i o n of a major i n d u s t r i a l p l a n t . Labour f o r c e would tend to be more s t a b l e here than i n more remote ar e a s . 113 Competitive I n d u s t r i a l Areas The above d i s c u s s i o n p e r t a i n s to the economic ad-vantage of the region from a general p o i n t of view. With d e t a i l e d examination one can b r i n g to l i g h t other f a c t o r s that p o r t r a y a l e s s o p t i m i s t i c p i c t u r e . An important economic c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s the matter of f r e i g h t r a t e s . For p a r t i c u l a r i n d u s t r i e s , l o c a t i o n i n Squamish could be a d e f i n i t e advantage. On the other hand, f r e i g h t charges could c o n s t i t u t e a disadvantage f o r other types of manufacture. For i n s t a n c e , f o r i n d u s t r i e s importing l a r g e q u a n t i t i e s of raw m a t e r i a l from the p r o v i n c i a l h i n t e r -land served by the P.G.E., l o c a t i o n at Squamish might be an advantage. Whereas, i f the plant were lo c a t e d i n the lower mainland region interchange charges and perhaps a d d i t i o n a l f r e i g h t charges would be l e v i e d . However, i f the i n d u s t r y were shipping i t s f i n i s h e d product by r a i l to the lower mainland f o r d i s t r i b u t i o n , the f r e i g h t charges thus i n c u r r e d could o f f s e t the previous advantage i n l o c a t i o n . I t can t herefore be seen that the e n t i r e question of f r e i g h t rates i s exceedingly complex. The question as to whether or not l o c a t i o n i n Squamish would r e s u l t i n a d d i t i o n a l costs over competitive l o c a t i o n s i s one that would only be answered through d e t a i l e d i n v e s t i g a t i o n concerning p a r t i c u l a r products and raw m a t e r i a l s f o r s p e c i f i e d i n d u s t r i e s . This i s a subject q u i t e beyond the scope of t h i s t h e s i s . However, s i n c e a l l major i n d u s t r y must consider t h i s f a c t o r i n any l o c a t i o n , 114 i t may be surmised t h a t , i n general, i n d u s t r y should not be adversely a f f e c t e d by l o c a t i n g i n the Squamish v a l l e y . I t has been s t a t e d p r e v i o u s l y that Squamish has c e r t a i n gross economic advantages to o f f e r p o t e n t i a l i n d u s t r y . HoweveT, there are a l s o disadvantages. For many years to come only l a r g e i n d u s t r y w i l l be a t t r a c t e d to the Squamish v a l l e y . Such i n d u s t r y would probably r e q u i r e l a r g e q u a n t i t i e s of process water. I t i s u n l i k e l y that t h i s commodity would be supplied i n s u f f i c i e n t q u a n t i t y by the Railway company which p r e s e n t l y operates the water system, or by the v i l l a g e i f i t i s to e v e n t u a l l y take over t h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . Probably i n -dustry would have to provide i t s own supply, i n c u r r i n g costs that i t would not be presented w i t h i n such magnitude i f loca t e d w i t h i n the Greater Vancouver area. The cost of land i s a h i g h l y important matter for'many sm a l l i n d u s t r i e s . However, f o r a l a r g e i n d u s t r y that would spend many m i l l i o n s of d o l l a r s i n i t s development and con-s t r u c t i o n program, the costs of land amortized over the many years i t would expect to operate, becomes a r e l a t i v e l y i n s i g n i -f i c a n t f a c t o r . Land i n Squamish should not be that l e s s ex-pensive than i n competitive areas to be considered a t r u e - i n -centive f o r l o c a t i o n . F u r t h e r , concerning the matter of l a n d , there i s a l i k e l i h o o d that the r a i l w a y company may not wish to s e l l land o u t r i g h t but may p r e f e r to lease i n s t e a d . Most l a r g e i n d u s t r i e s want c l e a r t i t l e to l a n d , so i f l e a s i n g i s the p o l i c y to be adopted, the p o t e n t i a l f o r i n d u s t r i a l development may be lessened considerably. 115 For a l a r g e i n d u s t r y contemplating a new l o c a t i o n there are a d d i t i o n a l important f a c t o r s to consider such as the costs of t r a n s p o r t i n g the f i n i s h e d product to the market area, a v a i l a b i l i t y of s e r v i c e s of which water i s only one ex-ample, community ammenities, and p r o x i m i t y to secondary and a l l i e d i n d u s t r i e s . She Squamish v a l l e y does not have the fundamental advantage of n a t u r a l gas. B a s i c i n d u s t r y i s becoming i n -c r e a s i n g l y more dependent on n a t u r a l gas as a source of f u e l and a raw m a t e r i a l . The advent of n a t u r a l gas to many i n d u s t -r i a l areas i n eastern Canada and i n the United States has r e -s u l t e d i n t e c h n o l o g i c a l achievements very g r e a t l y to the advantage of the i n d u s t r i a l i s t and the consumer a l i k e . Com-p e t i t i o n i s becoming s u f f i c i e n t l y keen to n e c e s s i t a t e the implementation of a l l major t e c h n o l o g i c a l achievements. For c e r t a i n i n d u s t r i e s t h i s f a c t o r alone may r u l e out the p o s s i -b i l i t y of l o c a t i n g i n the Squamish area. E a r l i e r i n the d i s c u s s i o n mention was made of the f a c t that developable deep-sea access property was becoming very d i f f i c u l t to acquire i n the Greater Vancouver area. This how-ever, does not imply that a l l p o t e n t i a l property of t h i s type i s u t i l i z e d . The land that remains must be developed i n l a r g e r p a r c e l s , perhaps as i n d u s t r i a l e s t a t e s . Such develop-ment would be expensive and only warranted as a long-range investment. However, the Squamish v a l l e y i s l i t t l e d i f f e r e n t i n t h i s respect. I t s development cannot be considered as a s m a l l s c a l e p r o p o s i t i o n . 1 1 6 In the Greater Vancouver area there remains a s m a l l p o r t i o n of Burrard I n l e t i n the v i c i n i t y of P o r t Moody that could be made a v a i l a b l e f o r deep-sea shipping„ The banks of the Fraser r i v e r from the mouth upstream to and beyond New Westminster are so f a r not f u l l y developed„ Sturgeon Banks, the vast t i d a l lands at the mouth of the Fraser r i v e r west of Richmond and D e l t a m u n i c i p a l i t i e s are yet undeveloped. Bound-ary Bay f r o n t i n g the southern boundary of D e l t a m u n i c i p a l i t y has yet to be made a v a i l a b l e f o r i n d u s t r i a l purposes. In these l a t t e r three areas development problems are comparable to those i n the Squamish r i v e r d e l t a area. In a l l l o c a t i o n s r i v e r c o n t r o l i s i n v o l v e d , land must be f i l l e d , - w h a r v e s con-s t r u c t e d , and r a i l f a c i l i t i e s l a i d out. During 1 9 5 7 there was considerable t a l k of development of the Sturgeon Banks area o f f the Fraser r i v e r mouth. An a r t i c l e i n a l o c a l newspaper mentions the r e c l a i m a t i o n of 31 1 0 , 0 0 0 acres. Another a r t i c l e mentions the r e c l a i m a t i o n of 1 3 , 0 0 0 acres i n the Boundary Bay-Mud Bay area. In t h i s l a t t e r area the l a r g e i n d u s t r i a l r e a l estate f i r m of Boultbee Sweet and Co. L t d . , played a major r o l e . S e v e r a l surveys have already 3 2 been undertaken. I t i s obvious from these references that the Squamish area i s not the only s i t e that i s considered to have a 3 1 News item i n the Vancouver Sun, Tuesday, J u l y 2 3 , 1 9 5 7 o 3 2 News item i n the Vancouver Sun, F r i d a y , J u l y 14? 1 9 5 7 o 117 high p o t e n t i a l f o r development as a deep sea shipping p o r t . The government of B r i t i s h Columbia, i n i t s announced i n t e n t i o n to develop the Squamish d e l t a area added a f u r t h e r s e v e r a l hundred acres to the amount i n southwest B r i t i s h Columbia that was already being considered f o r s i m i l a r development. I f the development of a l l three of these major areas were to become a r e a l i t y , 20,000 to 30,000 acres would then be a v a i l a b l e f o r i n d u s t r i a l development. This q u a n t i t y of land would more than meet the deep-sea i n d u s t r i a l s i t e requirements f o r the e n t i r e south-western s e c t i o n of the province f o r many decades. Obviously there i s a high degree of competition involved i n the development of these three areas. The question as to which one or other may develop depends on s e v e r a l f a c t o r s the most important of which may be: (1) fundamental economic f a c t o r s , (2) p o l i t i c a l r a m i f i c a t i o n s , (3) the timing of the r e s p e c t i v e developments, (4) the p r i c e of f i n i s h e d l a n d . Squamish has c e r t a i n advantages and disadvantages. So have the other areas. Squamish may have an advantage by being a smaller s i t e and t h e r e f o r e more r e a d i l y developable from the point of view of the amount of i n i t i a l c a p i t a l r e q u i r -ed. However, i t may have a disadvantage because i t s c o n t r o l r e s t s i n the hands of the p r o v i n c i a l and f e d e r a l governments. This i s a f a c t o r that cannot be weighed l i g h t l y s i n c e govern-ment i s known to be i n f l e x i b l e at times and a l s o subject to" pressures which are not g e n e r a l l y experienced by p r i v a t e groups. This t h e s i s maintains that the Squamish area has a high 118 o v e r a l l development p o t e n t i a l and a reasonable chance of be-coming i n d u s t r i a l i z e d . I t i s the w r i t e r ' s c o n v i c t i o n that Squamish w i l l get a share of heavy deep-sea o r i e n t e d i n d u s t r y due to i t s obvious general economic advantages. When t h i s development w i l l come, and i n what q u a n t i t y i s g r e a t l y de-pendent on the f a c t o r s mentioned i n the immediately preceding remarks. I I . PHYSICAL FACTORS There are s e v e r a l s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r s p e r t a i n i n g to the p h y s i c a l character of p o t e n t i a l heavy i n d u s t r i a l s i t e s i n the lower Squamish v a l l e y region that must be considered before a t o t a l e v a l u a t i o n of the i n d u s t r i a l p o t e n t i a l of the area can be achieved. These f a c t o r s are f l o o d i n g hazard and r i v e r con-t r o l , foundation c o n d i t i o n s , wharfage requirements, dredging requirements, and water supply. Flooding Hazard and R i v e r C o n t r o l I t has been e s t a b l i s h e d that i n d u s t r i e s which most l i k e l y w i l l be a t t r a c t e d to the Squamish region w i l l be that r e q u i r i n g deep-sea access. This type of i n d u s t r y w i l l con-sequently be forced to consider the Squamish r i v e r d e l t a as a p o t e n t i a l s i t e . As p r e v i o u s l y mentioned, t h i s area i s subject to f l o o d i n g by both high wind-driven t i d e s and e x c e s s i v e l y l a r g e volumes of runoff c a r r i e d by the Squamish r i v e r 0 The problem of f l o o d i n g i s c r i t i c a l to the o v e r - a l l development of the Squamish regi o n . I t i s p a r t i c u l a r l y 119 c r i t i c a l i n the question of i n d u s t r i a l p o t e n t i a l of the d e l t a area. Since the p r o t e c t i o n of the e n t i r e v a l l e y from f l o o d i s a p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r general development, steps taken i n t h i s regard i n the d e l t a area by any i n d u s t r y would have to be com-p a t i b l e w i t h those undertaken f o r the r e s t of the v a l l e y . There i s a l s o the p o s s i b i l i t y that f l o o d prevention measures undertaken only i n the d e l t a area would not a l l e v i a t e the fl o o d hazard. In times of major f l o o d s , d i s a s t r o u s t o the e n t i r e v a l l e y , f l o o d water covering the complete v a l l e y bottom could s p i l l over i n t o the developed i n d u s t r i a l s i t e . In order to remove the danger of f l o o d i n g from any proposed i n d u s t r y i n the d e l t a area, the t i d a l f l a t s would have to be covered w i t h a considerable depth of f i l l , s u f f i c -i e n t to b r i n g the l e v e l of the area above extreme high-water mark f o r the s p e c i f i c l o c a l e . This a c t i o n would p r o t e c t the immediate area but i f the Squamish region i s to achieve co-ordinated development of i n d u s t r i a l , business, r e s i d e n t i a l and r e c r e a t i o n a l areas, as should be expected, f l o o d and r i v e r c o n t r o l measures must be taken throughout the e n t i r e v a l l e y . C o n t r o l of the Mamquam R i v e r . Concerning the problem of f l o o d and r i v e r c o n t r o l , i n the w r i t e r ' s o p i n i o n the f i r s t step that must be taken i s the c o n t r o l of the Mamquam r i v e r as i t i s very prone to f l o o d . In i t s present u n c o n t r o l l e d s t a t e i t i s a detriment to development of the e n t i r e r e g i o n . There are a l t e r n a t i v e ways i n which i t might be c o n t r o l l e d (see Map 19) 9 each being worthy of c o n s i d e r a t i o n . 120 Photograph Ko. 31 The Mamquam River near i t s Confluence with the Squamish River 121 Photograph No. 32 The Mamquam River at low water near its Confluence with the Squamish River Photograph No. 33 The Squamish River south of Brackendale Settlement 122 0 t— SCALE tn miles I 2 i i ALTERNATIVE METHODS FOR CONTROL OF THE MAMQUAM RIVER Control in its present channel @ Diversion Into its former channel (3) Dammed In its canyon and diverted into fhe Stawamus valley M A P 19 123 The f i r s t method and one which might seem to provide adequate c o n t r o l , i s that of c o n f i n i n g the r i v e r to i t s present channel by means of dyking and r i p - r a p . Although t h i s method might serve to c o n t r o l the r i v e r f o r a short time, i t would not i n any way solve the problem i n v o l v e d . I t would c o n s t i t u t e a temporary remedy rather than a cure because t h i s method would not increase the r i v e r gradient as i s required to overcome the problem of f l o o d i n g and l a t e r a l e r o s i o n . To confine the r i v e r to a d e f i n i t e channel confluent w i t h that of the Squamish r i v e r would only cause the Mamquam to b u i l d up i t s own f l o o d p l a i n w i t h i n the l i m i t s of i t s c o n f i n e s . F u r t h e r -more, t h i s method of r i v e r c o n t r o l would not remove the prob-lem of excessive amounts of m a t e r i a l being introduced to the channel of the Squamish r i v e r which cause i t to be dammed, meander and erode i t s banks. A second or a l t e r n a t i v e method of c o n t r o l of t h i s r i v e r would be to d i v e r t i t d i r e c t l y i n t o the head of Howe Sound as i t flowed previous to the f l o o d of October, 1921 (see Map 8). The theory supporting t h i s method of c o n t r o l would be that by sending the r i v e r d i r e c t l y to sea, the grad-i e n t would be increased by approximately four f e e t per m i l e . The Mamquam reaches i t s base l e v e l of e r o s i o n at i t s con-fluence w i t h the Squamish r i v e r , at a point roughly ten f e e t above mean sea l e v e l . D i v e r s i o n d i r e c t l y i n t o Howe Sourid would r e s u l t i n the gradient being increased by ten f e e t over the l e n g t h of i t s new channel. This increase i n gradient would undoubtedly cause the r i v e r to flow much more r a p i d l y and would 124 al l o w a constant channel to be maintained. In times of ex-c e s s i v e l y heavy runoff the new course could handle the e x t r a flow more r e a d i l y due to the u n c o n s t r i c t e d channel and i n -creased g r a d i e n t . There i s , however, one problem that could r e s u l t from the d i v e r s i o n of the Mamquam i n t h i s manner. I f the grad-i e n t were to be increased one could r a i s e the question as to whether or not excessive d e p o s i t i o n would occur at the mouth of the r i v e r . Presumably, i f the gradient were increa s e d , the r i v e r would be capable of t r a n s p o r t i n g more m a t e r i a l . I f t h i s were the case, a l a r g e amount of d e p o s i t i o n could r e s u l t . I f the amount were excessive, d i v e r s i o n of the r i v e r i n t o t h i s area of the d e l t a could c o n f l i c t w i t h plans to create wharfage i n the immediate v i c i n i t y . This would be p a r t i c u l a r l y c r i t i c a l to wharfage so located as to serve the p o t e n t i a l i n d u s t r i a l property at the mouth of the Stawamus v a l l e y . However, one might argue that d i v e r s i o n of the r i v e r i n t o i t s former channel would not threaten p o t e n t i a l wharfage. The basis f o r t h i s argument would be the c o n s i d e r a t i o n that when the r i v e r d i d flow i n t h i s former channel before i t s n a t u r a l d i v e r s i o n i n 1921 i t d i d not create excess deposits at i t s mouth. The prob-lem warrants d e t a i l e d engineering study s i n c e i t i s a s i t u a t i o n f a r too complex to be solved on theory alone. A t h i r d p o s s i b i l i t y f o r the c o n t r o l of t h i s r i v e r 125 would be to d i v e r t i t s flow i n t o the Stawamus v a l l e y (see ft Map 19) This would have to be accomplished through the con-s t r u c t i o n of a dam i n the Mamquam canyon at the point adjacent to the low pass le a d i n g i n t o the Stawamus v a l l e y . The ad-vantage of t h i s scheme would be to remove completely the r i v e r w i t h i t s problems from the major v a l l e y and, through i t s d i v e r s i o n , create a water supply s u f f i c i e n t to meet the dom-e s t i c and i n d u s t r i a l needs of the e n t i r e region. The Mamquam canyon at t h i s point c o n s i s t s of bedrock w a l l s . Above the canyon rim the topography l e v e l s o f f , the bedrock being cover-ed w i t h a mantle of permeable g l a c i a l outwash d e p o s i t s . I t might prove p o s s i b l e to construct a dam i n t h i s area s u f f i c -i e n t l y high to d i v e r t the r i v e r through a channel cut i n t o the g l a c i a l sediments mantling the pass i n t o the Stawamus v a l l e y . With t h i s accomplished, the flow would then be fre e to run un-i n h i b i t e d through the Stawamus v a l l e y to sea l e v e l . There a r e , however, c e r t a i n complications to a scheme such as t h i s . The d i v e r t e d flow down the Stawamus v a l l e y would t r a v e l at a gradient of roughly one hundred f e e t \per m i l e . I f the Stawamus v a l l e y f l o o r c o nsisted of bedrock, such a steep gradient would be of l i t t l e s i g n i f i c a n c e . However, the v a l l e y ft This t e n t a t i v e proposal has been put f o r t h without d e t a i l e d study of the area by M i n s h a l l , H.H., and A s s o c i a t e s , C o n s u l t i n g Engineers f o r the Area Development Study of Squamish under the j u r i s d i c t i o n of the P a c i f i c Great Eastern R a i l r o a d Company. 126 f l o o r c o n s i s t s of a l l u v i a l m a t e r i a l throughout the e n t i r e l e n g t h of what would be the new r i v e r channel. With such a steep gradient there i s no doubt that the r i v e r would scour down to bedrock over the Mamquam-Stawamus v a l l e y pass, and having accomplished t h i s would remove a l l a l l u v i a l m a t e r i a l i n i t s new channel u n t i l i t created a balance between maximum v e l o c i t y and amount of m a t e r i a l capable of t r a n s p o r t , d e t e r -mined by i t s base l e v e l of erosi o n at t i d e water. There i s l i t t l e doubt that such a scheme would r e s u l t i n a severe detriment to p o t e n t i a l harbour f a c i l i t i e s i n the e n t i r e east-ern p o r t i o n of the Squamish r i v e r d e l t a area. The amount of d e p o s i t i o n could exceed many times that which would r e s u l t from the d i v e r s i o n of the Mamquam i n t o i t s former channel on the eastern s i d e of the Squamish v a l l e y . One manner i n which t h i s problem of steepened gradient could t h e o r e t i c a l l y be overcome would be to construct a second ft dam near the entrance to the Stawamus v a l l e y . Water could be discharged from the bottom of t h i s second dam d i r e c t l y i n t o the sea, thereby removing the problem of excessive d e p o s i t i o n . However, i t i s not l i k e l y that a dam could be constructed i n t h i s area s i n c e the depth of h i g h l y permeable mantle i n the v a l l e y f l o o r , i n a l l p r o b a b i l i t y , i s i n excess of one hundred f e e t . P h y s i c a l l y , i t would be a stupendous task. ft This a l s o was a t e n t a t i v e suggestion of M i n s h a l l , H.H., and A s s o c i a t e s , L i m i t e d . 127 A f u r t h e r f a c t o r measured against any proposal t o u t i l i z e the Stawamus v a l l e y f o r e i t h e r a r e s e r v o i r or a channel i s that such a use would preclude the u t i l i z a t i o n of the vacant land i n the v a l l e y bottom f o r i n d u s t r i a l purposes. This i s an area of f l a t land adjacent to developable deep-sea property, and t h e r e f o r e , f o r t h i s reason alone, i s j u s t as valuable f o r i n d u s t r i a l development as i s the Squamish r i v e r d e l t a . D i v e r s i o n of Mamquam r i v e r flow d i r e c t l y i n t o Howe Sound i n approximately the p o s i t i o n of i t s former channel i s , i n the w r i t e r ' s o p i n i o n , the most s a t i s f a c t o r y s o l u t i o n to the problem. This proposal i s most sound not only from a p h y s i c a l point of view but a l s o from a c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the economic f e a s i b i l i t y . I t i s u n l i k e l y that the amount of development to be expected i n the region i n the immediate f u t u r e would warrant c o n s i d e r a t i o n of a scheme more grandiose than t h i s . C o n t r o l of the Squamish R i v e r . C o n t r o l of erosio n and f l o o d i n g by the Squamish r i v e r i s a problem that needs to be overcome before the highest use of the v a l l e y can be assured. The d i f f i c u l t i e s that would be encountered i n t h i s p r o j e c t are few compared to those which have been discussed concerning the Mamquam r i v e r . I f the Mamquam were d i v e r t e d such that i t no longer flowed i n t o the Squamish r i v e r , a great deal of the e r o s i o n a l problems connected w i t h the l a t t e r would be removed. The r i v e r would then have the opportunity of f l o w i n g t o sea-l e v e l i n an unobstructed channel and u l t i m a t e l y , through the 128 removal of former Mamquam d e p o s i t s , at a more uniform g r a d i e n t . The amount of meandering and consequent erosion would thereby be lessened considerably. Having accomplished t h i s i n i t i a l s t e p , the Squamish r i v e r could be held to a straightened channel w i t h r e l a t i v e ease through dyking and p r o t e c t i o n w i t h r i p - r a p from the Brackendale area to i t s mouth. Excessive r u n o f f of the Squamish r i v e r i s a hazard that cannot be c o n t r o l l e d unless storage r e s e r v o i r s are con-s t r u c t e d on the main r i v e r and i t s l a r g e t r i b u t a r i e s . Flooding by the r i v e r however, could be c o n t r o l l e d by the c o n s t r u c t i o n of high r i p - r a p r e i n f o r c e d dykes throughout the l e n g t h of the f l o o d p l a i n . Flooding by t h i s r i v e r has been infrequent but d i s a s t r o u s . The B r i t i s h Columbia E l e c t r i c Company d i v e r s i o n dam on the Cheakamus r i v e r w i l l tend to a l l e v i a t e the f l o o d i n g hazard of the Squamish r i v e r . However, increased l o g g i n g a c t i v i t y i n the Squamish r i v e r watershed, as w i l l c e r t a i n l y occur, w i l l tend to have an adverse e f f e c t . In any case, f l o o d i n g by t h i s r i v e r must be prevented and can be accomplished only by p r o t e c t i o n of the v a l l e y by dyking. Foundation Conditions No engineering study has been completed i n the Squamish r i v e r d e l t a area to determine i t s p h y s i c a l s u i t a b i l i t y f o r i n -d u s t r i a l p l a n t l o c a t i o n . The engineering f i r m of M i n s h a l l , r H 0 H., and Associates are p r e s e n t l y conducting such a survey but to date no r e s u l t s have been announced. In order to determine whether or not adverse foundation c o n d i t i o n s e x i s t the character 129 of the d e l t a and i t s sediments must be examined„ Map 20 shows the p h y s i c a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of land i n the Squamish r i v e r d e l t a area. The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s primar-i l y based on height of land above mean sea l e v e l s i n c e a l l other p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are ass o c i a t e d w i t h t h i s f a c t o r . Type I land i s that p r e s e n t l y under n a t u r a l f o r e s t cover. I t tends to be roughly ten f e e t above mean sea l e v e l and i s not l i a b l e t o f l o o d i n g except under severe c o n d i t i o n s p e r i l o u s to the e n t i r e v a l l e y . I t i s ther e f o r e the best land i n the d e l t a area on the basis of p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 0 Type I I land i s that which i s p r e s e n t l y n a t u r a l meadow. The greatest part of t h i s c l a s s i s flooded w i t h normal hig h t i d e s . P r a c t i c a l l y a l l of the Type I I land i s flooded w i t h high wind-d r i v e n t i d e s . Type I I I land i s t i d a l marsh and i s an area that i s flooded w i t h every t i d e . I t i s g e n e r a l l y at or below mean sea l e v e l . On the basis of p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , t h i s i s the l e a s t a t t r a c t i v e p o r t i o n of the d e l t a . C o n t r i b u t i n g a l s o to the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of these d e l t a lands i s a c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the types of al l u v i u m s i n c e t h i s has a fundamental bearing on the subject of foundation con-d i t i o n s . Figure 7 shows an i d e a l c r o s s - s e c t i o n of su r f a c e m a t e r i a l and plant t r a n s i t i o n i n the e n t i r e d e l t a area. A l s o included on t h i s diagram i s an estimate of height of r e s p e c t i v e areas above mean sea l e v e l . The gradual t r a n s i t i o n from r i v e r f l o o d p l a i n type land to d e l t a f r o n t i s very s t r i k i n g . Most s i g n i f i c a n t i s the gradation of surface m a t e r i a l from sand on 130 P H Y S I C A L C L A S S I F I C A T I O N O F D E L T A L A N D M A P 2 0 Photograph No. 34 View of the Squamish River Delta showing Transition to Tidal Marsh at the Delta Front 132 Photograph No. 35 Type I Land along the East Branch of the  Squamish R i v e r . 133 P h o t o g r a p h N o . 36 A G e n e r a l V i e w o f T y p e I I L a n d i n t h e S q u a m i s h R i v e r D e l t a P h o t o g r a p h N o . 37 T r a n s i t i o n f r o m T y p e I I t o T y p e I S q u a m i s h R i v e r D e l t a L a n d 134 P h o t o g r a p h N o . 38 T y p i c a l Type I I S q u a m i s h R i v e r D e l t a Land a t M o d e r a t e T i d e 1 3 5 Photograph No 0 3 9 T r a n s i t i o n from Type I I to Type I I I Land i n the Squamish Ri v e r D e l t a Photograph No„ 40 T y p i c a l Type I I Land i n the Squamish Riv e r D e l t a 136 Photograph No 0 42 A general view of Type I I I Land i n the Squamish River D e l t a 137 Photograph. No. 43 Type III Land at Moderately High Tide Photograph No0 44 Type III Land at the Very Front of the Squamish River Delta 1 3 8 Photograph No 0 46 Large Boulders found w e l l above the R i v e r  R i v e r Channel Bottom near the D e l t a Front IDEAL SECTION OF SURFACE MATERIAL 8k PLANT TRANSITION IN SQUAMISH RIVER DELTA 140 the Type I land to s i l t and clayloam, and on t o f i n e c l a y on the Type I I I land at the d e l t a f r o n t . These var y i n g . s u r f a c e m a t e r i a l s provide a guide to the types of a l l u v i u m that may u n d e r l i e the e n t i r e d e l t a area. Since the r e s u l t s of d r i l l -ing and boring i n t h i s area are not known, one must r e l y on a t h e o r e t i c a l estimate of the nature of underlying sediments. Figure !8 shiows stages i n the formation of a delta". The heaviest m a t e r i a l , that which i s c a r r i e d as the r i v e r ' s bed load remains as topset and f o r e s e t beds of the d e l t a . As the sediments b u i l d out to sea, t h i s coarser m a t e r i a l covers the s i l t s and f i n e sands that were c a r r i e d f u r t h e r out and de-po s i t e d as the bottomset beds of the d e l t a . F i g u r e 9 i s a diagram gene r a l i z e d from F i g u r e 8 and shows a h y p o t h e t i c a l l o n g i t u d i n a l s e c t i o n of the d e l t a . According to the theory of d e l t a formation, a l a y e r of sand and f i n e g r a v e l o v e r l i e s f i n e r m a t e r i a l deposited e a r l i e r . The uppermost l a y e r i s a t h i n mantle of very f i n e m a t e r i a l or c l a y that i s deposited much l a t e r and r e s u l t s from muddy r i v e r water being backed up i n t o the d e l t a w i t h high t i d e s . When the t i d e i s high and s l a c k , much of the very f i n e m a t e r i a l that has been c a r r i e d i n suspension i s deposited. This t h i n mantle i s so extensive on the Type I I I and Type I I land that one gets the impression that the e n t i r e d e l t a must be composed of t h i s m a t e r i a l . In a c t u a l i t y i t i s u n d e r l a i n by coarser a l l u v i u m . With a knowledge of the p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the d e l t a , i t i s p o s s i b l e to a r r i v e at some s i g n i f i c a n t con-s i d e r a t i o n s p e r t a i n i n g to the problem of foundation c o n d i t i o n s . 141 STAGES OF DELTA GROWTH sand and fine gravel silt and fine sand SUCCESSIVE FIGURE 8 t42 south ( north LONGITUDINAL SECTION OF DELTA SEDIMENTS G E N E R A L I Z E D F R O M F I G U R E 8 LEGEND $ t h i n m a n t l e o f c l a y s a n d a n d f i n e g r a v e l s i l t a n d f i n e s a n d EM3 EE3 FIGURE 9 143 I t should be emphasized that the d e l t a i s coinposed of recent sediments, c h i e f l y sandy i n nature, to a depth of many hundreds of feeto The e n t i r e area i s at or near mean sea l e v e l . W i t h s i m i l a r c o n d i t i o n s i n other areas, foundation conditions have 33 presented a problem i n major b u i l d i n g c o n s t r u c t i o n . There i s therefore the p o s s i b i l i t y that adverse s o i l c o n d i t i o n s could e x i s t i n the Squamish r i v e r d e l t a area. Frequently the problem of t o t a l depth of sediments enters i n t o a study of s o i l s p a r t i c u l a r l y when loads to be introduced to an area are l a r g e , the theory being that com-pa c t i o n of sediments may occur down to the l e v e l of a s t a b l e member or to bedrock. In the case of the Squamish r i v e r d e l t a area, the sediments may extend to a depth of two thousand f e e t , and i n a l l p r o b a b i l i t y exceed s e v e r a l hundreds of f e e t i n th i c k n e s s . This estimate i s derived from a study of a t r a n s -verse s e c t i o n of Howe Sound i n t h i s area. Knowing that the Squamish v a l l e y and Howe Sound i s a g l a c i a l f i o r d , and con-s i d e r i n g the f a c t that f i o r d s e x h i b i t a t y p i c a l U-shaped s e c t -i o n and are carved f a r below present sea l e v e l , t h i s estimate of thickness i s reasonable. There i s the p o s s i b i l i t y that the f l o o r of the f i o r d i n t h i s l o c a l i t y could be obstructed by a major g e o l o g i c a l f e a t u r e , a dyke or morain f o r example, there-by decreasing the p o s s i b l e depth of sediments. Even i f t h i s 33 H.M. Hardy and C F . R i p l e y , "Foundation I n v e s t i -g a t i o n f o r the K i t i m a t Smelter," The Engineering J o u r n a l , Montreal, November, 1954. 144 were the case, the depth of sediments would probably measure i n the hundreds of f e e t . Figure 11 i l l u s t r a t e s the pr o j e c t e d p r o f i l e of the v a l l e y w a l l s from which the estimate was made. I t i s d i f f i c u l t to estimate the r e l a t i v e thickness of the r e s p e c t i v e beds of d e l t a i c m a t e r i a l . One can be reason-ably sure that the top mantle of c l a y i s very t h i n , perhaps a matter of only a few f e e t . The l a y e r of f i n e g r a v e l and sand may be i n the order of many tens or even hundreds of feet t h i c k . The lower l a y e r of s i l t and f i n e sand would provide the remainder of the f i l l down to bedrock, except perhaps f o r a deposit of t i l l or t i l l - l i k e m a t e r i a l that may have been deposited d i r e c t l y on the bedrock of the v a l l e y f l o o r . I t would be unreasonable to suppose that the three l a y e r s or types of m a t e r i a l are continuous across the width of the d e l t a . Since the sand and f i n e g r a v e l i s deposited i n the bed of the channel and on the d e l t a f r o n t , i t i s most probable that t h i s coarser m a t e r i a l forms as lenses i n the l a r g e r body of f i n e r d e l t a i c sediments. Figure 10, which i s a h y p o t h e t i c a l transverse s e c t i o n of the d e l t a , i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s concept„ Because the d e l t a i c deposits are recent and t h e r e f o r e have not been compacted, the amount of s e t t l i n g might be n o t i c e a b l e . D i f f e r e n t i a l s e t t l i n g due to the lensed nature oT the coarser m a t e r i a l s could c o n s t i t u t e a problem. Various methods of s i t e p r e p a r a t i o n such as p r e l o a d i n g , p i l i n g and the use of spread f o o t i n g s might overcome foundation problems i n the area. 1 4 5 west east HYPOTHETICAL TRANSVERSE SECTION OF DELTA SEDIMENTS LEGEND $ ®mM thin mantle of clay t .1 sond and fine gravel silt and fine sand FIGURE 10 146 3 0 0 0 * „ S v  • T w •> i . vY : - ' "Pos t -G lac ia l depositsW&XfT* * *  .. ^ v k „ *±g~+£~K « . ^ v » ' . - »•»> v x-\v < r. • k V - t h e o r e t i c a l projection of bedrock prof i le Note: soundings along prof i le ' , ind icate mud bo t tom 2 MZ miles v e r t i c a l exaggerat ion 1.32 x PROFILE ACROSS HOWE SOUND SQUAMISH LOCATION OF PROFILE FIGURE II 147 According to one a u t h o r i t y , foundation settlement problems i n B r i t i s h Columbia are most commonly encountered w i t h three broad s o i l groups; (a) peats and peaty s o i l s , (b) organic s i l t s , and (c) s e n s i t i v e c l a y s . The organic s i l t s "occur most f r e q u e n t l y at the d e l t a s of our c o a s t a l r i v e r s and a l s o some of our l a k e s " . Organic s i l t may "vary i n com-p o s i t i o n from clayey s i l t s w i t h s c a t t e r e d organic matter throughout to a mixture of s i l t y sands and sandy s i l t s con-t a i n i n g s c a t t e r e d organic matter and perhaps the o c c a s i o n a l 34 t h i n organic l a y e r " . Organic s i l t being composed of sandy s i l t s w i t h s c a t t e r e d organic matter and the o c c a s i o n a l t h i n organic l a y e r seems to f a i r l y a c c u r a t e l y describe the character of the s u r -face deposits at the Squamish r i v e r mouth. The r a t e of depos-i t i o n of sediments at the Squamish r i v e r d e l t a i s unknown a l -though g e n e r a l l y considered to be h i g h . In g e n e r a l , a r a p i d r a t e of d e p o s i t i o n would decrease the p r o p o r t i o n of organic c o n s t i t u e n t s . I f development i s to take place up to the d e l t a f r o n t study may have to be devoted to the problem of s t a b i l i t y of the m a t e r i a l w i t h respect to slumping. The d e l t a f r o n t i s steep, l y i n g at an average angle of repose of approximately ten ft degrees, or roughly twenty percent. 34 E a r l e J . Klohn, "Foundation Settlement Problems, A D i s c u s s i o n of the S i t u a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia," The B.C. Pro-f e s s i o n a l Engineer, V o l . 8, No. 8, August, 1957» p. 17. ft This angle has been determined through a study of chart of the area, Canada, Plans i n the V i c i n i t y of the S t r a i t  of Georgia, Survey of 1923-31. 148 FIGURE 12 149 In general i t i s reasonable to suspect that there w i l l be c e r t a i n problems concerning foundation c o n d i t i o n s w i t h the development of the d e l t a area. Whether or not the ad-v e r s i t y of the s i t u a t i o n encountered w i l l be a s i g n i f i c a n t detriment to i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n would depend on the amount of money a v a i l a b l e f o r the purpose of s i t e p r e p a r a t i o n i n the development program. I f demand f o r the area as an i n d u s t r i a l s i t e i s s u f f i c i e n t , there i s no doubt that means would be found to overcome almost any adverse c o n d i t i o n . The Squamish r i v e r d e l t a area i s g e n e r a l l y considered to be most valuable as an i n d u s t r i a l s i t e . As i n d i c a t e d , there may be problems encountered i n the development of t h i s property. The lower Stawamus v a l l e y has received l e s s a t t e n -t i o n as a p o t e n t i a l i n d u s t r i a l s i t e . There i s s u f f i c i e n t acreage here to accommodate a l a r g e p l a n t l o c a t e d at the water-f r o n t . This small area seems to have an advantage over the Squamish r i v e r d e l t a w i t h respect to foundation problems. The Stawamus v a l l e y i s narrow and, i n a l l p r o b a b i l i t y , was not scoured to any great depth by g l a c i a l e r o s i o n . Depths of sediments here, and s p e c i f i c a l l y at the mouth of the v a l l e y , are not l i k e l y to exceed s e v e r a l hundred f e e t . Furthermore, the m a t e r i a l c o n s t i t u t i n g the a l l u v i a l f i l l i n the v a l l e y i s a l l of a very coarse nature, mostly heavy g r a v e l and sand. Li g h t sand and s i l t i s found only at the mouth of the Stawamus r i v e r . This comprises only a small p r o p o r t i o n of the sediments i n the immediate v i c i n i t y and r e s u l t s from d e p o s i t i o n by s i l t -laden Squamish r i v e r water c h i e f l y at periods of high t i d e . 150 During the g l a c i a l p e r i o d , drainage from a l a r g e area was d i v e r t e d down the Stawamus v a l l e y . This drainage, c h i e f l y meltwater, c a r r i e d a l a r g e amount of coarse m a t e r i a l which was deposited i n t h i s v a l l e y . Remnants of these deposits are found s e v e r a l hundred f e e t above mean sea l e v e l . Since the time that these extensive g l a c i a l sediments were deposited, they have i n t u r n been eroded by the Stawamus r i v e r down to a base l e v e l created by present sea l e v e l . The present f i l l of the Stawamus v a l l e y i s the remainder of t h i s g l a c i a l d e b r i s . I t has been preloaded by the p r e v i o u s l y o v e r l y i n g deposits which have si n c e been removed. This observation combined w i t h the f a c t that the remaining sediments are coarse leads one to b e l i e v e that foundation c o n d i t i o n s i n t h i s area would not con-s t i t u t e a problem. This o p i n i o n does not apply to the recent f i n e a l l u v i u m o f f - s h o r e from the Stawamus d e l t a where s o i l c o n d i t i o n s might be comparable to that of m a t e r i a l at the ex-treme f r o n t of the Squamish r i v e r d e l t a . Wharfage Requirements Of utmost s i g n i f i c a n c e to i n d u s t r i a l p o t e n t i a l i s the problem of wharfage requirements. As s t a t e d p r e v i o u s l y , per-haps the greatest s i n g l e f a c t o r c o n t r i b u t i n g to the comparative advantage of the Squamish region as an i n d u s t r i a l s i t e i s i t s l o c a t i o n w i t h respect t o developable d e e p - s e a f a c i l i t i e s . One could then expect considerable time and c a p i t a l to be devoted to the c o n s t r u c t i o n of wharfage. There appears to be two a l t e r n a t i v e means of c r e a t i n g Photograph No. 47 A Panorama View of the Stawamus R i v e r Delta Area 152 wharfage i n the Squamish d e l t a area. The f i r s t i s the con-s t r u c t i o n of wharves at the d e l t a f r o n t to p r o j e c t out to sea. The second or a l t e r n a t i v e method i s to construct the wharves or wharfage f a c i l i t i e s i n the r i v e r channel, or channels as the case may be. Looking at the Squamish r i v e r d e l t a and perhaps the whole lower v a l l e y from a broad point of view, one might be i n c l i n e d to consider the c o n s t r u c t i o n of wharfage out i n t o Howe Sound from the d e l t a f r o n t as the immediately obvious choice. Since the d e l t a f r o n t drops away r a p i d l y , deep water could be u t i l i z e d without a l a r g e amount of dredging being r e q u i r e d . Quite c l e a r l y , the immediate d e l t a f r o n t would have to be pre-pared f o r i n d u s t r y by f i l l i n g and dyking i f wharfage were to extend beyond the d e l t a f r o n t . There may be a problem of s t a b i l i t y and adverse con d i t i o n s p e r t a i n i n g to foundation mater-i a l s may e x i s t i n t h i s immediate area. The f u r t h e r an i n -dustry can keep away from the d e l t a f r o n t and s t i l l m aintain a proper balance of operating c o s t s , the b e t t e r . Therefore, i f i t i s p o s s i b l e to create wharfage i n the r i v e r channels i t i s worthy of c o n s i d e r a t i o n . Considering o v e r a l l development requirements f o r the v a l l e y , i t i s a foregone conc l u s i o n that r i v e r c o n t r o l must be i n i t i a t e d . This would mean dredging and c h a n n e l l i n g the Squamish r i v e r through the d e l t a area. With t h i s i n mind, there i s the p o s s i b i l i t y of b u i l d i n g wharves i n the channel, t a k i n g ad-vantage of development work required f o r a d i f f e r e n t purpose. 153 The use of the r i v e r channels f o r wharves would r e -quire dredging to accommodate vessels drawing about t h i r t y -feet of water at low t i d e p r o v i d i n g no abnormally l a r g e ships were to be handled. Apparently 85$ of the world's ships r e -quire t h i r t y feet of water or l e s s ; and 75% of the world's ft ports o f f e r 35 feet at h i g h t i d e or l e s s . Dredging to such a depth i n the immediate v i c i n i t y of wharves would probably r e q u i r e f u r t h e r deep dredging up-stream from the s i t e , otherwise the s m a l l area of deep water would f i l l i n w i t h m a t e r i a l c a r r i e d as bedload of the r i v e r . This seemingly l a r g e amount of dredging should not increase t o t a l development costs f o r the area s i n c e m a t e r i a l musir be found to provide f i l l f o r the p o t e n t i a l i n d u s t r i a l land of the d e l -t a . The sands of the r i v e r bed can be handled by s u c t i o n dredges. Therefore i t should provide low cost f i l l m a t e r i a l of h i g h q u a l i t y . The st r a i g h t e n e d channels would have to be h e a v i l y rip-rapped and dyked. The i n s t a l l a t i o n of a long wharfage area on the st r a i g h t e n e d channel would not too g r e a t l y increase o v e r a l l c o s t s , and i n f a c t might be l e s s c o s t l y than the con-s t r u c t i o n of wharfage out from the d e l t a f r o n t . In an area w i t h a p h y s i c a l character such as that of the Squamish r i v e r d e l t a , constant dredging could be expected. ft These f i g u r e s were quoted by Captain Jack Dennis of the New Westminster Harbour Commission i n an i n t e r v i e w w i t h Messrs. E.D. S u t c l i f f e and J.C. Ingram of Western Development and Power L i m i t e d , January 10, 1958. 1$4 However, the amount of dredging required to maintain wharfage i n the channel might be l e s s than that required to maintain wharfage o f f the d e l t a f r o n t s i n c e i n the channel there i s bound to be a c e r t a i n amount of scour due to r i v e r c u r r e n t s . A l s o , at a l l times i n the channel there would be a l a r g e de-gree of t u r b i d i t y , whereas away from the channel there would be more l i k e l i h o o d of s t i l l water. P r a c t i c a l l y a l l of the f i n e m a t e r i a l deposited by the r i v e r occurs as s t i l l water depos-i t i o n . M a t e r i a l c a r r i e d as bedload i n the r i v e r c o n s t i t u t e s only a part of the t o t a l amount deposited. Therefore, there might be an advantage to l o c a t i o n of wharves i n the channels due to t h i s f a c t o r alone. Concerning the other p o t e n t i a l i n d u s t r i a l s i t e i n the area, the Stawamus r i v e r d e l t a , the problem of a l t e r n a t i v e l o c a t i o n s f o r wharves i s not so great. In order to make best use of t h i s s i t e and obta i n maximum access to the p o t e n t i a l plant s i t e , a ship b e r t h might best be l o c a t e d i n a dredged channel i n the former r i v e r bed, adjacent to the s i t e . I f t h i s were not done, the dis t a n c e between the plant s i t e and the wharf might be too great. S t i l l another f a c t o r worth c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s that the handling of ships i n the channels would probably be no more d i f f i c u l t than at wharves p r o j e c t i n g from the d e l t a f r o n t . Due to the f a c t that the head of Howe Sound i s narrow i t i s most probable that ships of any s i z e would have to be handled i n the conventional manner by tug boats. With the p r o v i s o 155 that dredged r i v e r channels are wide enough, there i s l i t t l e reason to suppose that i t would be ap p r e c i a b l y more d i f f i c u l t to guide a ship to berth i n a channel than at a wharf con-s t r u c t e d at the d e l t a f r o n t . E a r l i e r i n the d i s c u s s i o n reference was made to the north w i n t e r winds that occur i n the Squamish v a l l e y . The s e v e r i t y of t h i s wind combined w i t h the nature of the pro-posed harbour area should be considered i n the l o c a t i o n and design of proposed wharves. Immediately o f f the d e l t a f r o n t the f l o o r of Howe Sound drops away to 50 fathoms and grad-u a l l y deeperts to 125 fathoms off Watts P o i n t . According to Captain Simpson depths i n excess of t h i r t y fathoms would not ft permit ships to obta i n secure anchorage at any time. During periods of high winds p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the w i n t e r , and at times during the summer w i t h strong s o u t h e r l y winds, i t would be v i r t u a l l y impossible to ob t a i n anchorage i n t h i s p o r t i o n of the sound. Captain Simpson suggests that ships could o b t a i n secure b e r t h at such times only i f they could be guided against the wind i n t o a harbour constructed i n a channel protected by breakwaters. Otherwise they would have t o stay c l e a r of the head of the sound and f i n d safe mooring elsewhere. These opinions c e r t a i n l y add to the arguments already mentioned i n favour of the c o n s t r u c t i o n of wharfage f a c i l i t i e s i n the r i v e r channels rather than at the d e l t a f r o n t . ft This o p i n i o n was obtained i n an i n t e r v i e w w i t h Captain Gordon H. Simpson, B r i t i s h Columbia P i l o t a g e A u t h o r i t y , February 23, 1958. 156 Regardless of whether wharves are constructed i n r i v e r channels or at the d e l t a f r o n t , primary c o n s i d e r a t i o n w i l l have to be given to the matter of booming l e a s e s . The Squamish r i v e r d e l t a has been a major booming ground s i n c e logging f i r s t began i n the regi o n . I t a l s o provides an im-portant storage area f o r booms w a i t i n g shipment to the Vancouver area. The logging i n d u s t r y i s c o n t i n u a l l y expand-ing l o c a l l y , c r e a t i n g an i n c r e a s i n g need f o r booming grounds. I f a f o r e s t management l i c e n s e i s granted t r i b u t a r y to the re g i o n , p r o v i s i o n w i l l have to be made f o r foreshore r e q u i r e -ments of the company concerned. In summary, i t may be s a i d that due to the character of the d e l t a i t may be d i f f i c u l t and i m p r a c t i c a l to con-s t r u c t wharves on the immediate d e l t a f r o n t . And sin c e r i v e r channels, i n any event, would have to be s t r a i g h t e n e d , dyked and ri p - r a p p e d , a d d i t i o n a l costs i n c u r r e d through the con-s t r u c t i o n of wharfage on the channel banks would probably be l e s s than costs i n c u r r e d i n the c o n s t r u c t i o n of wharfage at the d e l t a f r o n t . Dredging Requirements The matter of dredging requirements has been discussed i n the c o n s i d e r a t i o n of other aspects of development of the d e l t a area. To r e i t e r a t e , extensive dredging would have to be conducted i n order to s t r a i g h t e n r i v e r channels and create adequate depths f o r wharfage. 1 5 7 In a d d i t i o n to dredging required to meet these demands, i t i s conceivable that f u r t h e r dredging might be undertaken to provide f i l l f o r any proposed i n d u s t r i a l s i t e . In order to ensure t h i s p o t e n t i a l i n d u s t r i a l land to be free of f l o o d hazard, i t would be necessary to r a i s e the area s e v e r a l a d d i t i o n a l feet above mean sea l e v e l . To f i l l an extensive area of the d e l t a , perhaps seven hundred acr e s , which i s not an unreasonable f i g u r e , w i t h a depth of f i l l averaging s i x feet would r e q u i r e approximately 6,700,000 cubic yards of m a t e r i a l . The amount of f i l l that one could expect to be de-ri v e d from dredging f o r r i v e r c o n t r o l and c r e a t i o n of wharfage i n the immediate v i c i n i t y would amount to only approximately 4,000,000 cubic yards. Since t h i s i s only a p o r t i o n of the amount of f i l l r e q u i r e d , and sin c e i n t h i s area i t should be cheaper to pump f i l l r a t h e r than t r a n s p o r t i t by other means, extensive dredging i n the d e l t a area might u l t i m a t e l y be ex-pected. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note that a cost of about f i f t e e n thousand d o l l a r s per net acre has been t e n t a t i v e l y suggested as that r e q u i r e d to f i l l a s i m i l a r d e l t a area i n B r i t i s h ft Columbia. Water Supply A f u r t h e r and very s i g n i f i c a n t aspect of i n d u s t r i a l p o t e n t i a l i n the Squamish area i s that of water supply,. The ft Information obtained from a l o c a l engineering f i r m , wishing i t s name to be withheld u n t i l o f f i c i a l announcement of i t s study area has been made. 158 supply system i n existence at the present i s inadequate to meet any great f u r t h e r demand. In order to supply i n d u s t r y w i t h a s u f f i c i e n t volume of water, an extensive system would have to be developed. Since the supply system could provide a source of domestic as w e l l as i n d u s t r i a l water, supply f o r the whole v a l l e y f o r both purposes should be considered. The e n t i r e developed water supply f o r the Squamish v a l l e y i s taken from the Stawamus r i v e r through a system constructed and operated by the P.G.E. Stawamus r i v e r water i s c l e a r and s o f t , and probably not d i s s i m i l a r i n i t s pro-portions of chemical c o n s t i t u e n t s to the Greater Vancouver Water D i s t r i c t supply. The Stawamus, although a very s m a l l r i v e r , i s not f u l l y developed f o r water supply. The con-s t r u c t i o n of a l a r g e r dam and the i n s t a l l a t i o n of l a r g e r pipes would probably increase the amount of usable water to perhaps double that of the present. E v e n t u a l l y , w i t h the general development of the Squamish v a l l e y , the Stawamus r i v e r u t i l i z e d to i t s f u l l e s t extent w i l l not meet the demands f o r domestic and i n d u s t r i a l water. There i s no shortage of water i n the area both i n the form of l a r g e r i v e r s and sm a l l t r i b u t a r y streams, (see Map 21). Their u t i l i z a t i o n depends on t h e i r ease of development and the t o t a l demand f o r water. Some of the p o s s i b l e sources, however, even w i t h heavy demands, are not l i k e l y to be u t i l i z e d . These sources would be the major r i v e r s : the Squamish, Cheakamus and Mamquam. They are too l a r g e , too 159 d e b r i s - l a d e n , and too subject to f l o o d i n g to be developed economically. Shannon, Monmouth, Mashiter, and F r i e s creeks (see Map 21) are sources that should be considered f o r the develop-ment of an expanded water system. Due to t h e i r manageable s i z e and t h e i r a b i l i t y to provide an adequate pressure under g r a v i t y f l o w , they have obvious advantages over the l a r g e r rivers„ These creeks are ra t h e r small and t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l volumes of flow may not be too l a r g e , but combined they could p o s s i b l y provide an e x c e l l e n t source of water f o r both domestic and i n d u s t r i a l consumption. In each case, the water i s c l e a r and s o f t , having flowed over bedrock or coarse g r a v e l f o r the most of t h e i r courses. They could a l l be dammed q u i t e r e a d i l y to provide an even and c o n t r o l l e d rate of discharge throughout the year. They have the advantage of being f r e e of p o l l u t i o n problems p r e s e n t l y and p o t e n t i a l l y s i n c e they flow from i s o l a t e d a l p i n e areas. Fol l o w i n g the complete development of the Stawamus r i v e r source, Shannon and Mashiter creeks might be the f i r s t to a t t r a c t a t t e n t i o n . They are on the eastern side of the v a l l e y where p i p e l i n e s could be l a i d to the point of demand without excessive c o s t s . Monmouth and F r i e s creeks are on the western side of the v a l l e y , across the Squamish r i v e r . They could be economically developed only i f a p i p e - l i n e c r o s s i n g were pro-vided over a ^ s t r u c t u r e such as a highway bridge. Otherwise, 160 MAP 21 161 t h e i r development would n e c e s s i t a t e the c o n s t r u c t i o n of a s p e c i a l p i p e l i n e c r o s s i n g e i t h e r over or under the r i v e r . This could p o s s i b l y i n v o l v e such costs as to d e t r a c t from the u t i l i z a t i o n of these sources. Cheekye r i v e r , p r e v i o u s l y unmentioned i n t h i s d i s -c u s s i o n , has been considered as a p o t e n t i a l water source f o r the Brackendale area. The r e s i d e n t s of t h i s l o c a l i t y have a serious water problem. C u r r e n t l y , they r e l y upon w e l l s sunk i n t o the unconfined water body of the f l o o d p l a i n . People who l i v e on the Cheekye fan must s i n k w e l l s to considerable depths i n order to be assured of a s a t i s f a c t o r y supply. With the sharp increase i n the amount of b u i l d i n g c o n s t r u c t i o n i n t h i s area, the problem of o b t a i n i n g independent water supply from ground water sources w i l l become more acute. Consequently, there has been d i s c u s s i o n of u t i l i z i n g runoff from the Cheekye v a l l e y to supply t h i s area. I n t e r e s t i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r source of supply has been st i m u l a t e d by the f a c t that no a l t e r n a t i v e source i s c l o s e r to the point of demand. Regardless of t h i s f a c t , i t s t i l l might not u l t i m a t e l y prove to be the best source s i n c e the water i s of i n f e r i o r q u a l i t y due to i t s high s i l t content and p e c u l i a r t a s t e . The Cheekye r i v e r flows down a v a l l e y laden w i t h d e t r i t u s . The source of the r i v e r i s at the base of Mount G a r i b a l d i where i t i s eroding the slope of loose v o l c a n i c d e b r i s . The water derives i t s poor t a s t e from t h i s m a t e r i a l . T h i s , coupled w i t h the high s i l t content makes the r i v e r a 162 r e l a t i v e l y i n f e r i o r source. The c o n s t r u c t i o n of a s e t t l i n g r e s e r v o i r might a l l e v i a t e the s i t u a t i o n , but i t has obvious disadvantages p r a c t i c a l l y and f i n a n c i a l l y , , Mashiter creek, which i s c l o s e to the demand p o i n t , could provide a b e t t e r a l t e r n a t i v e source i n a l l r e s p e c t s , furthermore, i t could be developed as a supplementary supply to the d e l t a area. In general i t may be s a i d that there i s a f a i r l y abundant supply of high q u a l i t y water i n the lower Squamish v a l l e y , and enough to meet the demands of i n d u s t r y , commerce, and r e s i d e n t i a l areas developed to a high degree over a period of many years. The problem of water supply needs immediate a t t e n t i o n p a r t i c u l a r l y to accommodate i n t e r e s t e d i n d u s t r y . The creeks mentioned could be developed as r e q u i r e d , culmin-a t i n g i n a completely i n t e g r a t e d system to serve the e n t i r e r e g i o n . CHAPTER IX COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT An expansion of community f a c i l i t i e s accompanies i n d u s t r i a l growth of n e a r l y a l l communities. Only i f r e s i d -e n t i a l areas and commercial f a c i l i t i e s are p r o p e r l y planned and developed as w e l l as the i n d u s t r i a l s e c t i o n w i l l the t o t a l area achieve maximum growth. Therefore, the community aspect i s as important as the other f a c t o r s already discussed. Judging by the very r a p i d and haphazard r e s i d e n t i a l development i n some other B r i t i s h Columbia communities which have experienced sudden economic growth, i t i s d i f f i c u l t to v i s u a l i z e how the present v i l l a g e of Squamish could adequately accommodate a n t i c i p a t e d p o pulation growth. At the present, w i t h a r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n of t r a n s i e n t workers, l i v i n g accommodations are extremely l i m i t e d . Homes f o r rent or s a l e have been r a r e , and unless a company provides housing f o r i t s workers' f a m i l i e s , i t i s almost impossible f o r an employee on a short-term job to bri n g h i s f a m i l y to the area. The v i l l a g e of Squamish has many of the elements of a completely undesirable community l a y o u t . The p r i n c i p a l reason f o r t h i s i s that i t was unplanned and i t s growth l a r g e l y without r e g u l a t i o n . The l a c k of r e g u l a t i o n and c o n t r o l i s evidenced i n the absence of a pr o p e r l y c e n t r a l i z e d commercial area. R e s i d e n t i a l d i s t r i c t s are wid e l y separated. Much of the development i s located along the major road t r a v e r s i n g the 164 settlement causing great t r a f f i c hazards to p e d e s t r i a n s . C h i l d r e n o f t e n must cross r a i l r o a d tracks and walk along the main road to and from s c h o o l . Most of the v i l l a g e i s s i t -uated on land that i s b a r e l y above mean sea l e v e l , r e s u l t i n g i n poor drainage. The r e s i d e n t i a l areas are themselves poorly arranged. Lot s i z e s are f r e q u e n t l y too s m a l l . There i s general absence of lanes and there are many u n s i g h t l y vacant l o t s . While there are many well-kept homes and gardens i n c e r t a i n areas, there are an unusual number of shacks and lon g - u n f i n i s h e d houses. A program to b e t t e r the community would i n c l u d e r e -o r g a n i z a t i o n of the s t r e e t p a t t e r n and i n s t a l l a t i o n of proper drainage channels and pumps to d r a i n the l o w - l y i n g areas. In a d d i t i o n , i n s t i g a t i o n of regulated community growth would be d e s i r a b l e as would many other and l e s s important improve-ments. In t h i s way the v i l l a g e could u l t i m a t e l y be brought to a standard by which i t could adequately meet modern community requirements. To improve the community i n such a way would not be an insurmountable task from a governmental and p h y s i c a l point of view, but i t probably would not be economically f e a s i b l e due to the l a c k of funds a v a i l a b l e to undertake such a c o l o s s a l program. The present c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the v i l l a g e have been o u t l i n e d . They render the v i l l a g e l a r g e l y incapable of ade-quately accommodating f u t u r e p opulation growth. There are, however, more important f a c t o r s stemming from the p o t e n t i a l 1 6 5 use of the v a l l e y which f u r t h e r d e t r a c t from the f u t u r e value of the present v i l l a g e as the r e s i d e n t i a l area of the r e g i o n . The present l o c a t i o n of Squamish coincides w i t h land which may u l t i m a t e l y be i n demand f o r i n d u s t r y . I t i s c l o s e to deep water, the fundamentally important f a c t o r , and a l s o near major developed road and r a i l f a c i l i t i e s . The heavy i n d u s t r y w i l l probably tend to l o c a t e c l o s e to the d e l t a f r o n t , south of the v i l l a g e , and the l i g h t i n d u s t r y adjacent to or w i t h i n the v i l l a g e area. I t i s mutually disagreeable to have both i n d u s t r y and r e s i d e n t i a l f a c i l i t i e s l o c a t e d t o -gether, and of course, the h i g h l y v a l u a b l e i n d u s t r i a l purpose would r e c e i v e f i r s t c o n s i d e r a t i o n by the community. A i r p o l l u t i o n , which f r e q u e n t l y accompanies i n d u s t r i a l -i z a t i o n , would be a major threat to r e s i d e n t i a l areas l o c a t e d i n the r e l a t i v e l y narrow d e l t a s e c t i o n of the v a l l e y . Occas-i o n a l temperature i n v e r s i o n s , o c c u r r i n g mainly i n the winter months, would confine the p o l l u t e d a i r to lower l e v e l s . During the summer season the amount of p o l l u t e d a i r would increase d a i l y i n t r a v e l l i n g up and down the v a l l e y because of the pa t t e r n of sea and land breezes. The threat of a i r p o l l u t i o n , however, i s not so great i n the upper s e c t i o n of the v a l l e y where the surrounding mountains have a l e s s c o n s t r i c t i n g e f f e c t on the v a l l e y . ^The f a c t o r s mentioned so f a r and considered i n t o t a l should provide a strong argument against the use of the present v i l l a g e of Squamish as the major r e s i d e n t i a l area of the 166 region. To encourage and enable the complete development of the region with a l l land put to its highest use, a new community would have to develop. After thoroughly investigating the Squamish valley, the writer has come to the conclusion that the Brackendale-Cheekye area would provide the optimum location for such a new community. The gently-sloping a l l u v i a l fan at Cheekye and the elevated gravel terraces overlooking the Squamish river at Brackendale are ideal residential sites. A commer-c i a l core centrally located at the present settlement of Brackendale and a community park placed on the river flood-plain between the commercial core and the river would serve the area well. This scheme is illustrated in Map 22. The advantages of having the residential community located there are both physical and economic. The valley broadens considerably and divides into three parts, the Mamquam valley to the east, the Cheakamus valley to the north, and the upper Squamish valley to the northwest. Because the valley is not confined there air circulation is at a maximum for the region and the threat of air pollution at a minimum. Also, there are considerably more hours of sunshine than in any other section of the valley. Homes built on the a l l u v i a l fan and terraces could have basements and be provided with adequate sewer systems, both advantages which the present location of Squamish can not offer at reasonable cost. Furthermore, location of the resid-167 e n t i a l community at Brackendale-Cheekye should not c o n f l i c t w i t h present or f u t u r e plans to develop each part of the region to i t s highest p o s s i b l e use. Another argument f o r r e s i d e n t i a l development at Brackendale-Cheekye i s the f a c t that most of the land there i s held by the Crown. I t would seem l o g i c a l that i f the govern-ment wished to encourage the v a l l e y r e s i d e n t s to develop t h e i r community there i t would r e l e a s e i t s property f o r s a l e at lower p r i c e s than would p r e v a i l i n other parts of the v a l l e y where p r i v a t e ownership predominates. As i l l u s t r a t e d by the maps, no other s e c t i o n i n the v a l l e y i s s u i t a b l y l a r g e and at the same time combines the topographic, c l i m a t i c and economic advantages f o r community and p a r t i c u l a r l y r e s i d e n t i a l development as does t h i s area. The manner i n which a new community could- develop i s explained i n d e t a i l under the heading of Regional Planning. CHAPTER X EXTRA-REGIONAL CONSIDERATIONS In a detailed discussion of an area as small as the Squamish va l l e y i t i s very easy to consider the possible course of future development as determined by the r e l a t i v e merits of l o c a l conditions alone. However, as has been mentioned i n the discussion of economic factors a f f e c t i n g i n d u s t r i a l p o t e n t i a l , development outside the region can play a dominant role i n l o c a l economic expansion. To evaluate properly the region's p o t e n t i a l i t y for o v e r a l l growth one must consider the effect of events and circumstances which take place i n other areas'. Perhaps the most important single factor a f f e c t i n g development at Squamish i s the continued prosperity and accelerating economic growth of the lower mainland region,, Accompanying the growth of this area i s an increasing economic and s o c i a l interaction with adjacent and outlying regions. The lower mainland region i s exerting a pressure on i t s larger surrounding region. Areas do not usually develop independently but i n an integrated manner. The increased growth of areas adjacent to Squamish w i l l a f f e c t i t s mode and rate of develop-ment. A l o c a l example to i l l u s t r a t e this tendency i s the recently completed B r i t i s h Columbia E l e c t r i c Company Cheakamus ri v e r hydroelectric power development. The construction of this project has had a noticeable effect on the l o c a l i t y . It has 169 introduced more payrolls to the area and thereby contri-buted to an expanding local economy. The need for this power supply has not resulted from demands for electric energy in the immediate vic i n i t y . Energy requirements in the lower mainland region in general has made i t necessary, and there-fore the beneficial effect on Squamish is truly a consequence of extra-regional circumstances. The P.G.E. has recently experienced an increase in business. This trend has resulted from economic growth in the hinterland "of the province and in the lower mainland region. Squamish has been influenced by the economic forces existing between these two areas. A consequence of this development is the completion of the r a i l link to Vancouver. Here again is an example of the extra-regional forces that affect the locality. The potential effect of the Squamish-Vancouver high-way, and the improvement of Garibaldi Park are two specific examples of developments motivated primarily by extra-regional forces which undoubtedly w i l l alter the nature and economy of the Squamish valley. Since they are eminent they justly deserve detailed discussion. The completion of the highway link to Vancouver w i l l have a profound and far-reaching effect on the local economy. This effect w i l l become manifest i n i t i a l l y in a large number of persons vis i t i n g the area merely for the drive. These visitors w i l l spend a certain amount of money in local shops 170 and thereby bolster the economy slightly. Eventually, con-ditions permitting, a small portion of these visitors may wish to purchase land in the valley and make i t their place of residence. Retired folk in particular may consider this be-cause of a quiet atmosphere, scenic beauty and proximity to the metropolitan area of Vancouver. Other persons may wish to invest in local business, or introduce new enterprise to the economy, for example, gas stations, restaurants, novelty gift shops and other similar forms of business primarily cater-ing to a tourist trade. The foregoing remarks illust r a t e only some of the economic trends which w i l l result from the im-proved transportation link to the lower mainland region. Unfortunately there are no statistics to enable one to calculate the potential highway t r a f f i c to and from Squamish. One can assume, however, that t r a f f i c w i l l be extremely heavy for a short time after the highway is f i r s t opened. Since Squamish is not an important commercial center and is not in a heavily populated d i s t r i c t one can expect most t r a f f i c to originate in the Greater Vancouver area and to be largely recreational in nature. During the summer months there may be as many as 3 0 0 0 vehicles per week entering and leaving the Squamish area. This figure is estimated on the basis of Vancouver-Fraser Valley statistics prepared by the Technical Committee on Metropolitan Highway Planning (Vancouver), based on 1 9 5 5 t r a f f i c flows to and from the Burrard Peninsula. The figure used may be somewhat low considering the fact that the 171 highway to Squamish w i l l open a new r e c r e a t i o n a l area to the p o p u l a t i o n of Vancouver. The d r i v e along Howe Sound w i l l o f f e r scenery s u p e r i o r to that found along other routes l e a d i n g from the c i t y through congested s e m i - r e s i d e n t i a l areas. The eventual development of G a r i b a l d i Park w i l l undoubtedly cause t r a f f i c flows to increase so markedly that the f i g u r e of 3000 v e h i c l e s per week would be very c o n s e r v a t i v e . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note the high p o t e n t i a l t r a f f i c volume that could be expected from Greater Vancouver consider-ing a most conservative estimate of r e c r e a t i o n a l d r i v i n g f o r r e s i d e n t s of t h i s area. I f one f a m i l y out of ten i n Greater Vancouver drove to Squamish only once a year, t h i s would amount to an annual average of approximately 720 v e h i c l e s to and from Squamish per week. I t i s t h e r e f o r e not d i f f i c u l t to appreciate how t h i s volume could increase s e v e r a l times on a f i n e h o l i d a y weekend during the summer months. These high t r a f f i c volumes could be expected even though there i s l i t t l e to o f f e r the r e c r e a t i o n a l d r i v e r when he reaches Squamish. I t must be conceded, a l s o , that the eventual development of G a r i b a l d i Park w i l l create even greater volumes of t r a f f i c . During 1958 the B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Recreation and Conservation intends to develop a master plan f o r the improve-ment of r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s i n the park. C o n s t r u c t i o n i s 35 to f o l l o w as soon as p o s s i b l e . Therefore, i t would seem that the r e s i d e n t s of Squamish i n the next few years may expect 35 News item i n the Vancouver Sun. January 8, 1958. 172 v i s i t o r s amounting to many hundreds per week under o r d i n a r y c o n d i t i o n s . CHAPTER XI REGIONAL PLANNING The implementation of a w e l l conceived r e g i o n a l ,plan would very g r e a t l y a s s i s t development of the area as a p l e a s -ant and ammenable community. Map 22 shows a recommended p a t t e r n of land use f o r the v a l l e y . E s s e n t i a l l y , i t de-p i c t s seven major p o i n t s : (1) the pr e p a r a t i o n of a master plan of land use; (2) the for m u l a t i o n of a plan to r e -l o c a t e the r e s i d e n t i a l community; (3) the c o n t r o l of the Mamquam r i v e r ; (4) the c o n t r o l of the Squamish r i v e r ; (5) the p r e p a r a t i o n of i n d u s t r i a l s i t e s at the wa t e r f r o n t ; (6) the c o n s t r u c t i o n of a water supply system, and (7) the a l l o c -a t i o n of land s u i t a b l e f o r secondary i n d u s t r y , I. PREPARATION OF A MASTER PLAN OF LAND USE I n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n and consequent o v e r a l l development of the Squamish v a l l e y i n v o l v e s many complications that one might not normally expect w i t h the i n t r o d u c t i o n of i n d u s t r y to an area. Rugged topography and f a s t - f l o w i n g r i v e r s create p h y s i c a l obstacles to the l o c a t i o n and growth of i n d u s t r i a l and r e s i d e n t i a l areas. A f u r t h e r c o m p l i c a t i o n e x i s t s because the v a l l e y i s poorly developed as a community and i s not yet prepared to r e c e i v e the impact of i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n . As a r e s u l t of these two bas i c f a c t o r s there i s a desperate need f o r r e g i o n a l planning and the development of a major land use 174 p l a n before i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n occurs. Proper planning would a i d i n the harmonous development of a l l sectors of i n t e r e s t and would enable maximum use of the r e g i o n w i t h minimum p u b l i c expenditure. I I . RE-LOCATION OF THE RESIDENTIAL COMMUNITY One of the f i r s t steps that should be taken i n a r e g i o n a l development program i s the i n t r o d u c t i o n of a scheme to encourage the eventual movement of the main r e s i d e n t i a l community. As the area develops i t w i l l become d e s i r a b l e f o r r e s i d e n t s and c e r t a i n businesses to move away from the i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t . There i s a minor trend at the present f o r some r e s i d e n t i a l growth i n the Brackendale area. This has occurred without the b e n e f i t of planning or d i r e c t i o n . A scheme to promote the eventual r e - l o c a t i o n of the community could probably be implemented f a i r l y r e a d i l y s i n c e the Crown and the P.G.E. j o i n t l y c o n t r o l a great deal of l a n d . M a n i p u l a t i o n of land s a l e s could act as a method f o r e s t a b l i s h -ment of a new community. Since the m a j o r i t y of vacant land i n the v i l l a g e i s held by the Crown and the P.G.E., I f t h i s was held from s a l e r e s i d e n t i a l growth i n the v i l l a g e would be r e -s t r i c t e d . I f , at the same time, land under Crown j u r i s d i c t i o n was put on the market at low p r i c e s elsewhere, new r e s i d e n t i a l growth could be d i r e c t e d . For many reasons, p r e v i o u s l y i m p l i e d , such as problems of land ownership, f l o o d i n g and e r o s i o n , p r o b a b i l i t y of atmospheric p o l l u t i o n , p h y s i c a l q u a l i t y of s i t e , and land r e -175 quirements f o r Industry, the Brackendale-Cheekye area appears to be very d e s i r a b l e as a l o c a t i o n f o r a new community. Map 22 shows land recommended f o r r e s i d e n t i a l , commercial, and r e c r e a t i o n a l areas. R e s i d e n t i a l area A, the Cheekye f a n , i s the most de-s i r a b l e r e s i d e n t i a l s i t e . I t i s ther e f o r e recommended that t h i s area be the f i r s t to provide accommodation f o r r e s i d e n -t i a l expansion. With contour s t r e e t s , generous l o t s , and numerous s m a l l park areas i t could w e l l become a model home s i t e . As r e s i d e n t i a l expansion took p l a c e , a commercial nucleus could develop on the r i v e r f l o o d p l a i n south of the main r e s i d e n t i a l area between the v a l l e y w a l l and a road allowance u l t i m a t e l y to be u t i l i z e d f o r the highway to L i l l o o e t and the i n t e r i o r . The commercial core, s i t u a t e d t h ere, would be c l o s e v to the main r e s i d e n t i a l area and would be so loc a t e d as to serve a second r e s i d e n t i a l area which could develop l a t e r on the high g r a v e l terraces on the eastern s i d e of the v a l l e y n o rth of the Mamquam R i v e r , (shown as r e s i d e n t i a l u n i t B i n Map 22). To meet the r e c r e a t i o n a l needs of the community, a park and g o l f course w i t h a d d i t i o n a l features as required could be e s t a b l i s h e d between the new community and the r e -routed channel of the Squamish r i v e r . The r e c r e a t i o n a l r e -quirements of v a l l e y r e s i d e n t s would be f u r t h e r s a t i s f i e d through the use of a p r o v i n c i a l park at A l i c e Lake. 176 I I I . CONTROL OF THE MAMQUAM RIVER The problem of Mamquam r i v e r c o n t r o l has been d i s -cussed p r e v i o u s l y . I t has been shown that i t presents an ob-s t a c l e to the general development of the re g i o n . Therefore, i t can be seen that one of the f i r s t p r o j e c t s undertaken should be c o n t r o l of t h i s r i v e r . For various reasons the w r i t e r be-l i e v e s that i t would best be channelled d i r e c t l y to sea through the c o n s t r u c t i o n of a dredged course as i n d i c a t e d i n Map 22. With the p o s s i b i l i t y of f l o o d i n g and erosion by the Mamquam r i v e r made v i r t u a l l y i m p o s s i b l e , the way would be c l e a r to begin the simultaneous c o n t r o l of the Squamish r i v e r and the pre p a r a t i o n of i n d u s t r i a l land at the w a t e r f r o n t , both items p r e r e q u i s i t e to an i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n of the Squamish r i v e r d e l t a area. For i n d u s t r y demanding the immediate acquis-i t i o n of l a n d , a f t e r the Mamquam r i v e r has been put under c o n t r o l , the development and s a l e of land i n the Stawamus r i v e r d e l t a area could begin, (shown as un i t G i n Map 22) IV. CONTROL OF THE SQUAMISH RIVER C o n t r o l of the Squamish r i v e r should be undertaken to Insure that i n d u s t r y would not s u f f e r the consequences of a major f l o o d . Therefore, an e a r l y s t a r t should be made on t h i s aspect of r e g i o n a l development. This p r o j e c t , though c o s t l y , would be f a i r l y s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d since c o n t r o l would c o n s i s t of c o n s o l i d a t i n g and s t r a i g h t e n i n g the channels i n 177 roughly t h e i r present l o c a t i o n and preventing erosion and f l o o d by the c o n s t r u c t i o n of h e a v i l y rock-protected dykes. There i s no obvious a l t e r n a t i v e method of preventing f l o o d i n g by t h i s r i v e r . V. PREPARATION OF INDUSTRIAL SITES Since m a t e r i a l dredged from r i v e r channels i n the c o n s t r u c t i o n of a f i n a l course would be r e q u i r e d f o r f i l l on p o t e n t i a l i n d u s t r i a l property, i t would seem d e s i r a b l e to be-g i n c o n t r o l at the r i v e r mouths. This would permit a speedier p r e p a r a t i o n of i n d u s t r i a l property than i f r i v e r c o n t r o l were begun f u r t h e r upstream, and would thereby allow the government to r e c e i v e some income from t h e i r investment i n the e a r l i e s t stages of the development program. T h i s , of course, i s a f a c t o r of paramount importance since a p r o j e c t of t h i s magnitude must, as much as p o s s i b l e , prove and pay f o r i t s e l f as develop-ment progresses. VI. THE CONSTRUCTION OF A WATER SUPPLY SYSTEM In order to a t t r a c t i n d u s t r y to the Squamish v a l l e y and to prepare the area f o r o v e r a l l development, the con-s t r u c t i o n of a water supply system i s r e q u i r e d . The problems involved i n t h i s and the p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r u t i l i z a t i o n of various sources have been discussed. At the outset i t would not be necessary to construct a system capable of meeting a l l 'future needs. However, i t would be e s s e n t i a l to provide a 178 supply of domestic water to meet the requirements of the new townsite. This could be achieved by f u r t h e r development of thei Stawamus r i v e r and by tapping Mashiter creek w i t h new f a c i l i t i e s o Other sources could be developed l a t e r as r e -quir e d . V I . ALLOCATION OF AREAS SUITABLE FOR SECONDARY INDUSTRY Although i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n of the v a l l e y w i l l tend to take the form of that r e q u i r i n g access to the deep sea, there undoubtedly w i l l come a day when i n d u s t r y which i s not so dependent w i l l f i n d the area a t t r a c t i v e . Therefore, i t i s wise to consider the land requirements of t h i s type of i n -dustry w h i l e land i s s t i l l a v a i l a b l e f o r planning purposes. Such land should be capable of becoming f u l l y s e r v i c e d by r a i l and highway. Map 22 shows three u n i t s of land which would meet t h i s s p e c i f i c a t i o n . Of the three, u n i t D would seem l o g i c a l l y the f i r s t to develop being c l o s e to e x i s t i n g f a c i l i t i e s . Areas C and E could be developed l a t e r . In the i n t e r v e n i n g period they would provide a pleasant green b e l t between heavy i n d u s t r i a l plants and the new townsite. Implementation of the seven major points suggested i n the development planning of the region would a s s i s t i n an o r d e r l y development of the v a l l e y w i t h a l l land put to i t s optimum use w i t h the l e a s t p o s s i b l e cost to the developer. Well conceived development planning f o r the v a l l e y i s a 179 n e c e s s i t y . In order that Squamish may a t t r a c t deep-sea or i e n t e d i n d u s t r y i t must be competitive i n q u a l i t y as a p h y s i c a l s i t e w i t h other proposed areas f o r development of a s i m i l a r nature. CHAPTER X I I LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY AND CONCLUSIONS Before d i s c u s s i n g conclusions r e s u l t i n g from the r e -search conducted i n the p r e p a r a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s i t i s worthwhile to consider some of the important points that have received only passing mention and that deserve f u r t h e r study. I. LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY The b a s i c l i m i t a t i o n i s that research and study has been confined to the f i e l d of geography. A more complete e v a l u a t i o n of the p o t e n t i a l f o r f u r t h e r economic development i n the region would be derived from c o r r e l a t e d s t u d i e s from the p o i n t of view of the engineer, economist, a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t , planner and others. There are s e v e r a l s p e c i f i c s t u d i e s that could be con-ducted which would a i d the theme of the research. Perhaps one ©f the most important of these would be a study of s p e c i f i c o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r i n d u s t r i a l expansion i n the province, f o r example, the opportunity f o r a s t e e l m i l l to be constructed. A study of f r e i g h t rates as they apply to c e r t a i n commodities i n p a r t i c u l a r areas, and the a b i l i t y of Squamish to provide s i t e s where t r a n s p o r t a t i o n costs are minimized, would be of great value. A knowledge of the type of i n d u s t r y that might be expected to f i n d the area a t t r a c t i v e would be valuable i n land use planning. A comparative study of p o t e n t i a l deep-sea i n d u s t r i a l 181 land that could be competitive w i t h Squamish would provide valuable i n f o r m a t i o n t o enable more complete examination of the f u t u r e of Squamish as an i n d u s t r i a l a r e a 0 The question of foundation problems has been d i s -cussed r a t h e r a c a d e m i c a l l y 9 but s i n c e no engineering study e x i s t s to provide more concrete i n f o r m a t i o n , even the academic approach i s of some value. A complete foundation i n v e s t i -g a t i o n study would c e r t a i n l y be warranted. I I . CONCLUSIONS The conclusions that can be drawn from the research i n d i c a t e a f u t u r e f o r Squamish t h a t , although promising, w i l l be fraught w i t h major engineering problems and expenditures i n order to prepare the area f o r f u r t h e r economic development. However, the f u t u r e w i l l undoubtedly see the v a l l e y progress from an undeveloped r u r a l area to a f a i r l y modern community c l o s e l y i n t e g r a t e d w i t h the expansion of the lower mainland re g i o n . The i n d u s t r i a l f u t u r e of the v a l l e y seems to be very g r e a t l y i n the hands of the p r o v i n c i a l government. I f p r o v i n c i a l l y sponsored i n d u s t r i a l development f a i l s , i t appears that general development of the r e g i o n might be hindered. F a i l u r e to i n d u s t r i a l i z e the d e l t a land might delay major p u b l i c works p r o j e c t s such as r i v e r c o n t r o l which are e s s e n t i a l to the area i f maximum growth i s to be achieved. 182 I f the p r o v i n c i a l government does decide to f o s t e r i n d u s t r i a l development, the research conducted seems to i n d i c a t e that i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n would not take on such major proportions as has been proposed. D e t a i l e d economic and engineering study w i l l probably bear out t h i s c o n c l u s i o n . The i n d u s t r i a l f u t u r e of Squamish seems to be very g r e a t l y dependent upon the f a c t o r of s i m i l a r competitive i n d u s t r i a l land i n other areas, Squamish can undoubtedly o f f e r a s i t e f o r one or more s p e c i f i c i n d u s t r i e s over a long period of time, but i t w i l l always l a c k c e r t a i n q u a l i t i e s that competitive areas could o f f e r . I n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n at Squamish must be considered w i t h respect to developments i n other areas over time. Such c o n s i d e r a t i o n tends to d i s c r e d i t the high degree of optimism that has g e n e r a l l y been f e l t f o r Squamish, Whereas one l a r g e i n d u s t r y would be r e a d i l y absorbed i n the Greater Vancouver i n d u s t r i a l complex w i t h l i t t l e apparent e f f e c t on the c i t y and i t s r e g i o n , the establishment of the same Industry i n Squamish would immediately transform the area from a r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l settlement to a b u s t l i n g community. I t could w e l l be the case that one l a r g e i n d u s t r y w i t h i t s a s s o c i a t e d growth of a l l community f a c i l i t i e s would be a l l that the land of the v a l l e y could accommodate i n the short term and even perhaps f o r many years hence. Many m u n i c i p a l i t i e s clamour f o r the establishment of i n d u s t r y i n t h e i r areas, l i t t l e r e a l i z i n g that i n d u s t r y , w h i l e 183 sometimes b o l s t e r i n g the general l e v e l of the economy, can b r i n g w i t h i t many new problems and can increase the former d i f f i c u l t i e s to the point where no r e a l advantage f o r the m u n i c i p a l i t y has been gained. Squamish v i l l a g e , to date, has prospered more i n s p i t e of i t s e l f than because of i t s e l f . I f greater p r o s p e r i t y , a more s t a b l e economy and an improved community i s what i s d e s i r e d at the l o c a l l e v e l , i t might be w e l l to improve that which e x i s t s i n the v a l l e y at the present by the implementation of proper community and r e g i o n a l planning. Through t h i s , one could argue, true p r o s p e r i t y w i l l be achieved, and perhaps not through w a i t i n g f o r i n d u s t r y to s o l v e the problems. Squamish w i l l develop g r a d u a l l y because of i t s l o c a t i o n i n the province. The sooner t h i s i s r e a l i z e d and steps taken to f o s t e r o r d e r l y growth, the sooner a b r i g h t f u t u r e w i l l be forthcoming. 184 BIBLIOGRAPHY Anthony, Nina. "An E p i c " (unpublished poem w i t h no date given obtained from the Squamish Centennial Committee) Armstrong, Minnie. "A B r i e f O u t l i n e of People and Happen-ings i n the E a r l y Days of Squamish". (unpublished notes w i t h no date given obtained from the Squamish Centennial Committee). Baker, R.A. Squamish Area Survey, B r i t i s h Columbia D i v i s i o n of Land U t i l i z a t i o n Research and Survey, Lands S e r v i c e , Department of Lands and F o r e s t s , V i c t o r i a , B r i t i s h Columbia, 1949. (unpublished report) B r i t i s h Columbia Legal Surveys D i v i s i o n , Surveys and Mapping Branch, Department of Lands and F o r e s t s , l e t t e r to the w r i t e r , V i c t o r i a , B r i t i s h Columbia, March 8, 1 9 5 7 . Canada Department of Northern A f f a i r s and N a t u r a l Resources, Water Resources Branch, l e t t e r to the w r i t e r , Ottawa, January 3 0 , 1 9 5 7 . Canada Department of Mines and Resources, Dominion Water Power Bureau. Surface Water Supply of Canada, P a c i f i c  Drainage, C l i m a t i c Years 1940-41 and 1941-42, Water-Resources Paper No. 94, Ottawa: King's P r i n t e r , 1946. The Corporation of the V i l l a g e of Squamish. "By-law No. 2 9 , " Squamish, B r i t i s h Columbia, 1 9 5 4 . Hardy, R.M. and R i p l e y , C F . "Foundation I n v e s t i g a t i o n f o r the K i t i m a t Smelter," The Engineering J o u r n a l , Montreal, November, 1 9 5 4 . Klohn, E a r l e J . "Foundation Settlement Problems, A D i s c u s s i o n of the S i t u a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia,"The B.C. Pro- f e s s i o n a l Engineer, V o l . 8, No. 8, Augus't, "1957. MacMillan, H.R. B r i e f Submitted to Royal Commission on  F o r e s t r y B r i t i s h Columbia, MacMillan and B l o e d e l L i m i t e d , Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia, November, 1 9 5 5 . Mathews, W0H. "Mount G a r i b a l d i , A. S u p r a g l a c i a l P l e i s t o c e n e Volcano i n Southwestern B r i t i s h Columbia," American  J o u r n a l of Science, V o l . 2 5 0 , 1 9 5 2 . McEvoy, A. " P e t i t i o n f o r I n c o r p o r a t i o n of the C i t y of Squamish," (a l e t t e r to the P r o v i n c i a l government) Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia, November'15 9 1 9 1 9 (ob-tained from the Squamish Centennial Committee) 1 8 5 McKelvie, B.A. "Construction of the C a t t l e T r a i l " f r o m L i l l o o e t to Squamish". (unpublished notes w i t h no date given obtained from the Squamish Centennial Committee) McNaughton, W.J.W., ed. "Cheakamus," E l e c t r i c a l News and  Engineering. December, 1 9 5 7 . Peacock, M.A. "F i o r d - l a n d of B r i t i s h Columbia," B u l l e t i n of the G e o l o g i c a l S o c i e t y of America, V o l . 46, 1 9 3 5 . Vancouver Sun. March 3 0 , 1 9 5 7 J u l y 14, 1 9 5 7 J u l y 2 3 , 1 9 5 7 January 8 , 1958 186 APPENDIX A LIST OF INTERVIEWS The f o l l o w i n g i s a l i s t of major in t e r v i e w s conducted s p e c i f i c a l l y to obt a i n b a s i c i n f o r m a t i o n on the study-area. J.S. Broadbent, General Manager, P a c i f i c Great Eastern Railway Co., Vancouver, November 1 0 , 1956 A.L. F a r l e y , Geographer, Geographic D i v i s i o n , Surveys and Mapping Branch, B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Lands and F o r e s t s , V i c t o r i a , February 2 7 , 1 9 5 7 . T. H i s l o p , A s s i s t a n t C h i e f , Land S e r v i c e , B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Lands and F o r e s t s , V i c t o r i a , March 5 , 1 9 5 7 . J.F„ Jacobsen, Commissioner, V i l l a g e of Squamish, Squamish, February 9 , 1 9 5 7 . C y r i l E. Leonoff, R i p l e y and Associates L i m i t e d , Vancouver, March 1 5 , 1 9 5 7 . Messrs. W.C. Mearns, R.H. Gram and D.T. Thomson, Western Development and Power L i m i t e d , Vancouver, March 2 3 , 1 9 5 7 . Hannah E.McCormack, C l e r k , V i l l a g e of Squamish, Squamish, February 9 , 1 9 5 7 . H.H. M i n s h a l l , H.H. M i n s h a l l and Associates L i m i t e d , Vancouver, May 1 3 , 1 9 5 7 . Dr. M.A. Ormsby, Department of H i s t o r y , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, A p r i l 3 0 , 1957. G.L. R i t c h i e , Right-of-Way and Lease Agent, P a c i f i c Great Eastern Railway Co., Vancouver, October 28, 1 9 5 6 . Captain Gordon H. Simpson, B r i t i s h Columbia P i l o t a g e A u t h o r i t y , February 2 3 , 1 9 5 8 . A. Smith, Land Inspector, Land S e r v i c e , B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Lands and F o r e s t s , New Westminster, February 14, 1 9 5 7 . 187 H.L. Smith, H.H. M i n s h a l l and Associates L i m i t e d , Vancouver, May 22 , 1957. D. South, A s s i s t a n t D i r e c t o r , Regional Planning D i v i s i o n , B r i t i s h Columbia Department of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s , V i c t o r i a , February 27, 1957. G.D. T a y l o r , Research A s s i s t a n t , Parks and Recreation D i v i s i o n , . B r i t i s h Columbia Forest S e r v i c e , Vancouver, March 2, 1957. 188 APPENDIX B LIST OF CORRESPONDENCE B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Highways, L i l l o o e t , — October 1 5 , 1 9 5 7 , October 2 9 , 1 9 5 7 . Canada, Deputy M i n i s t e r of P u b l i c Works, Ottawa, — A p r i l 1 0 , 1 9 5 7 . Mr.. B i l l Dennett, The Vancouver Sun, Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia — A p r i l 2 5 , 1957 . Geographic D i v i s i o n , Surveys and Mapping Branch, B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Lands and F o r e s t s , V i c t o r i a — March 2 6 , 1 9 5 7 , March 2 9 , 1 9 5 7 , A p r i l 2 5 , 1 9 5 7 . Mr, Carles Jennings, The Vancouver P r o v i n c e , Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia — A p r i l 2 5 , 1 9 5 7 . Greater Vancouver T o u r i s t A s s o c i a t i o n , Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia — February 2 6 , 1 9 5 7 , February 2 7 , 1 9 5 7 . Legal Surveys D i v i s i o n , Surveys and Mapping Branch, B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Lands and F o r e s t s , V i c t o r i a — February 1 9 , 1 9 5 7 , February 2 2 , 1 9 5 7 , February 2 5 , 1 9 5 7 , March 8 , 1 9 5 7 , March 1 1 , 1 9 5 7 . N a t i o n a l Harbours Board, Canada Department of Transport, Ottawa ~ February 2 7 , 1 9 5 7 , March 5 , 1 9 5 7 . Dr. M.A. Ormsby, B r i t i s h Columbia P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s , V i c t o r i a — February 7 , 1 9 5 8 . Parks and Recreation D i v i s i o n , B r i t i s h Columbia Forest S e r v i c e , V i c t o r i a — February 26, 1 9 5 7 , February 2 7 , 1 9 5 7 . P r o v i n c i a l A i r Photo L i b r a r y , Surveys and Mapping Branch, B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Lands and F o r e s t s , V i c t o r i a ~ January 1 6 , 1 9 5 7 , February 1 8 , 1 9 5 7 , February 2 1 , 1 9 5 7 . Regional Planning D i v i s i o n , B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Mu n i c i p a l A f f a i r s , V i c t o r i a — January 3 1 , 1 9 5 8 , February 5 , 1 9 5 8 . 1 8 9 R i p l e y and Associates L i m i t e d , Engineering Consultants, Vancouver B r i t i s h Columbia — F e b r u a r y 2 7 , 1 9 5 7 , March 8 * 1 9 5 7 , March 1 5 , 1 9 5 7 . Mr. B.E. Valde, Chief Engineer, P a c i f i c Great Eastern Railway, Vancouver B r i t i s h Columbia — February 2 7 , 1 9 5 7 . Water Resources Branch, Canada Department of Northern A f f a i r s and N a t u r a l Resources, Ottawa — January 1 8 , 1 9 5 7 , January 3 0 , 1 9 5 7 . 190 APPENDIX C LOCAL INDUSTRIAL FIRMS (Valid to January 1, 1958) 1. B. & M. Logging 2. DeBeck Lumber 3. Empire M i l l s Limited 4. H. & W. Logging Company Limited 5. Squamish Valley Timber Limited (recently purchased by the H.R.MacMillan Company) 6. Squamish M i l l s Limited 7. Wray Mar Limited 8. Howe Sound Timber Company Limited 9. C. R. & B. Logging Company Limited 10. E o Watt Trucking 11o Minanty Bay Lumber Limited 12. P a c i f i c Great Eastern Railway Company Limited 13. B r i t i s h Columbia E l e c t r i c Company Limited 191 APPENDIX D PRIVATE BUSINESSES IN THE" VILLAGE OF SQUAMISH ( V a l i d to January 1 , 1 9 5 8 ) 1 . three s e r v i c e s t a t i o n s 2. three bulk o i l d i s t r i b u t i o n agencies 3. general hardware s t o r e 4. general gas and e l e c t r i c appliance s a l e s and r e p a i r shop 5» e l e c t r i c appliance and record s a l e s s t o r e 6 . e l e c t r i c a l c o n t r a c t i n g s a l e s and s e r v i c e company 7. t e l e v i s i o n i n s t a l l a t i o n , s a l es and s e r v i c e company 8. heating equipment c o n t r a c t i n g s e r v i c e and s a l e s company 9 . s e v e r a l b u i l d i n g contractors 1 0 . plumbing c o n t r a c t o r 1 1 . two p a i n t i n g and i n t e r i o r d e c o r a t i n g c o n t r a c t o r s 1 2 . b u i l d i n g supplies s t o r e 1 3 . laundry and dry clea n i n g establishment 14. general department s t o r e 1 5 . two grocery stores 1 6 . bakery 1 7 . men's shoe s t o r e 18. women's c l o t h i n g s t o r e 1 9 . c h i l d r e n ' s c l o t h i n g s t o r e 2 0 . beauty p a r l o r 2 1 . barber shop 2 2 . jewelry s t o r e 2 3 . medical c l i n i c 192 2 4 , general insurance agency 2 5 . C r e d i t Union 260 two banks 27o two t a x i companies 2 8 o two t r a n s f e r companies 2 9 . two wood f u e l agencies 30. two hotels 3 1 . motel 3 2 . three restaurants 3 3 . theatre 193 APPENDIX E PUBLIC SERVICES AND INSTITUTIONS ( v a l i d to January 1, 1958) 1. four elementary schools; l o c a t e d i n Brackendale, Mamquam, Squamish and Southridge 2„ Squamish High School 3. general h o s p i t a l 4. Royal Canadian Mounted P o l i c e 5. B r i t i s h Columbia Forest S e r v i c e 6» Game Warden 7. two post o f f i c e s ; l o c a t e d at Squamish and Brackendale 8„ government l i q u o r s t o r e 194 COMMUNITY SERVICES AND INSTITUTIONS ( v a l i d to January 1, 1958) 1 0 A n g l i c a n Church of Canada 2. Roman C a t h o l i c Church 3. United Church of Canada and P a r i s h H a l l 4. Masonic Order 5. Benevolent and P r o t e c t i v e Order of El k s 6. P a c i f i c Great Eastern Railway Company Community H a l l , owned and operated by i t s employees 1 a s s o c i a t i o n 7. Canadian Legion and Legion h a l l 8. Farmer's I n s t i t u t e and h a l l 

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