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Fuel balance and atomic energy in the USSR Solecki, Jan J. 1961

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FUEL BALANCE AND ATOMIC ENERGY IN THE USSR  by JAN  J . SOLECKI  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF  MASTER OF ARTS  i n t h e Department of Slavonic  Studies  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e standard  r e q u i r e d from c a n d i d a t e s  f o r the  degree o f MASTER OF ARTS.  Members o f t h e Department o f Slavonic  Studies.  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA May,  1961  In p r e s e n t i n g  t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of  the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree a t the  University  o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I agree t h a t the  L i b r a r y s h a l l make  it  study.  freely  a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and  agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may  I further  c o p y i n g of t h i s  be g r a n t e d by the Head o f  Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s .  Department o f  be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n  Slavonic  Studies  The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver 8, Canada. Date  9 t h May,  1961.  my  I t i s understood  t h a t c o p y i n g or p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r g a i n s h a l l not  thesis  financial  permission.  A B S T R A C T  The  t o p i c f o r t h i s study i n i t s p r e s e n t form was  suggested t o t h e w r i t e r by Dr. Hans E r n e s t Ronimois, who t h a t t h e problems c o n c e r n i n g f u e l b a l a n c e  felt  i n t h e USSR a r e o f  particular  interest  a t t h e p r e s e n t time, when t h e p r i o r i t y  allocation  pattern i s being reorganized to give greater pro-  minence t o o i l and gas and when a new form o f energy, d e r i v e d from n u c l e a r r e a c t i o n s , i s b e i n g i n t r o d u c e d p a r a l l e l w i t h t h e o l d forms. I n a f r e e market economy t h e e x t e n t t o which v a r i o u s t y p e s o f f u e l a r e used i n a g i v e n a r e a a t any p a r t i c u l a r i s d e t e r m i n e d by t h e demand f o r them.  time  I n t h e S o v i e t U n i o n , on  the o t h e r hand, i t i s a r b i t r a r i l y d e c i d e d by t h e p l a n n e r s . I n p a r t one t h e s t u d y d e a l s w i t h t h e p r i o r i t y a l l o c a t i o n i n t h e f u e l economy o f t h e S o v i e t Union d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d o f War Communism, NEP  }  and t h e s u c c e s s i v e F i v e Year P l a n s .  Special consideration i s given to the recent s h i f t i n p r i o r i t y allocation  from c o a l t o o i l and gas and t o t h e r e a s o n s which l e d  to t h i s s h i f t . P a r t two i s devoted t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n s o f a t o m i c energy. The f i r s t c h a p t e r i s an'assessment o f t h e r e s o u r c e s t i o n a l f u e l s i n t h e U.S.A.  f  o f conven-  U.K. and Canada and t h e a t o m i c  programs u n d e r t a k e n i n t h e s e c o u n t r i e s .  The r e s t o f p a r t two i s  devoted t o t h e s u b j e c t o f n u c l e a r r e s e a r c h f a c i l i t i e s ,  reactor  ii development program and atomic energy power s t a t i o n s i n t h e USSR. In  the course of the study a r e exposed the econom-  i c a l l y d i s r u p t i v e e f f e c t s a r i s i n g from the a r b i t r a r y  allocation  of  p r i o r i t i e s w i t h i n t h e S o v i e t f u e l and power economy.  Some  of  t h e s e have been brought t o l i g h t by S o v i e t economists  t h r o u g h t h e r e c e n t p r e p a r a t i o n of t h e u n i f i e d f u e l and power b a l a n c e i n the USSR. The p r i o r i t y mix d e c i d e d upon on the b a s i s o f a f o r m a l l y p r e p a r e d f u e l b a l a n c e i s a s t a t i c form, i n c a p a b l e of s e l f adjustment i n consequence of c u r r e n t t e c h n o l o g i c a l  developments  d u r i n g t h e p l a n o r i n response t o changes i n demand.  Consequent-  l y i t cannot have the r e g u l a t i n g p r o p e r t i e s of " v a l u e " i n t h e f r e e market economy. The absence of a "dynamic r e g u l a t i n g c r i t e r i o n " i n a planned economy i s concluded t o be a grave handicap which i s bound t o c o n t i n u e t o have a d i s l o c a t i n g e f f e c t on t h e d e v e l o p ment o f f u e l and power r e s o u r c e s o f t h e S o v i e t Union.  Without  the c r i t e r i o n of " v a l u e " t o r e g u l a t e economic a c t i v i t y a r b i t r a r y d e c i s i o n s by the p l a n n e r s w i l l c o n t i n u e t o be n e c e s s a r y for  t h e w o r k i n g of the economy and so, even w i t h the u n i f i e d  f u e l and power b a l a n c e , the l i k e l i h o o d of m i s a l l o c a t i o n s , to  t h o s e which o c c u r r e d i n t h e p a s t i s not e l i m i n a t e d ,  similar  though  t h e i r presence w i l l p r o b a b l y be d i s c o v e r e d e a r l i e r . With r e g a r d t o the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f atomic energy, i t i s f e l t t h a t t h e S o v i e t Union i s n o t as y e t ready t o c o n s i d e r i t  iii t o t h e same degree as i s b e i n g done i n t h e U.S.A. and Canada, and  t h i s i n s p i t e of the f a c t that greater opportunities f o r  the use o f atomic power appear t o e x i s t i n t h e USSR.  The  r e a s o n f o r t h i s t a r d i n e s s i s thought t o be s h o r t a g e o f n u c l e a r f u e l s i n t h e USSR a l s o , p r o b a b l y , f u e l u t i l i z a t i o n i n the reactors.  i n s u f f i c i e n t mastery o f  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS.  I w i s h t o e x p r e s s my s i n c e r e t h a n k s and a p p r e c i a t i o n t o D r . J.O. S t . C l a i r - S o b e l l f o r making i t p o s s i b l e f o r me t o pursue my s t u d i e s and t o w r i t e t h i s work.  I am g r a t e f u l t o  P r o f e s s o r Hans E. Ronimois f o r h i s k i n d l y i n t e r e s t and s c h o l a r l y a d v i c e , w h i c h has been i n v a l u a b l e t o me i n t h e course o f my s t u d i e s and i n t h e w r i t i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s .  TABLE OF CONTENTS  P a r t One Page Conventional  Sources o f F u e l and Power  Chapter I .  S o v i e t B a l a n c e o f F u e l and Power  Chapter I I .  S o v i e t F u e l B a l a n c e 1918-1953  (I)  1 11  Starting Point  11  ( I I ) The P e r i o d 1918 - 1921  12  ( I I I ) The P e r i o d 1921 - 1928  15  (IV) The P e r i o d 1928 - 1953  17  Chapter I I I . Emergence o f t h e New P r i o r i t y  Pattern  S i n c e 1953.  24  Part  Two  Atomic Power Chapter I V .  The P l a c e o f N u c l e a r F u e l s i n t h e O v e r a l l F e l Balance Atomic Power Development i n t h e Main  65  Western C o u n t r i e s  70  u  Chapter V.  (1)  The E x p e r i e n c e of t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s  70  (i)  The Abundance o f C o n v e n t i o n a l  Fuels  (ii)  Atomic Power Development and Research  70 73  ( i i i ) A n t i c i p a t e d c o s t s o f Atomic Power  76  (iv)  82  Conclusion  vii Table o f C o n t e n t s (cont'd) Chapter V. (2)  The E x p e r i e n c e o f t h e U n i t e d Kingdom (i)  (ii)  (3)  (Cont'd):  Page #5  Imports o f o i l and t h e Growing Demand f o r F u e l and Power  $5  Atomic Power Development  90  ( i i i ) Atomic R e s e a r c h ,  96  (iv)  97  Conclusion  The E x p e r i e n c e o f Canada  100  The P r e s e n t F u e l and Power B a l a n c e  100  (i)  Coal  100  (ii)  Oil  101  ( i i i ) N a t u r a l Gas  103  (iv)  Wood  104  (v)  E l e c t r i c Power  106  (vi)  Atomic Power Development and R e s e a r c h  106  I.  Reserves  107  II.  Power P r o d u c t i o n  107  I I I . Research ( v i i ) Conclusion Chapter V I .  109 111  Atomic Development i n t h e USSR  (1)  S o v i e t A t t i t u d e t o Atomic Power  11$  (2)  H i s t o r i c a l Outline  121  Atomic R e a c t o r Development i n t h e USSR  125  S o v i e t R e a c t o r Programme  130  Uranium Reserves  131  Heavy Water  132  Isotopes  134  viii  APPENDICES Page Appendix A.  F u e l Resources o f the USSR  167  Appendix B.  Coal  172  Appendix C.  Gil  179  Appendix D.  N a t u r a l Gas  1SS  Appendix E .  O i l Shale  196  Appendix F.  Peat  197  Appendix G.  Wood  201  Appendix H.  Water Power  204  BIBLIOGRAPHY  C o n s t r u c t i o n o f Thermal Power S t a t i o n s  211  E l e c t r i c Energy i n A g r i culture  21S  231  LIST OF TABLES Page I.  F u e l B a l a n c e o f t h e USSR.  3  II.  F u e l and Power B a l a n c e of the USSR.  7  III.  Development o f Thermal and Weight E q u i v a l e n t of the F u e l and Power B a l a n c e of t h e USSR  IV.  V.  VI.  VII.  1913-1958.  43 44  Changes i n Heat and Weight E q u i v a l e n t s of Resources E n t e r i n g F u e l and Power B a l a n c e s o f the USSR.  48  S t r u c t u r a l Changes i n the F u e l B a l a n c e and Labour Requirements t o Produce 1 Ton o f C o n v e n t i o n a l F u e l i n 1958-1965  51  S t r u c t u r a l S h i f t s i n t h e F u e l B a l a n c e and C o s t s of P r o d u c t i o n o f 1 Ton of C o n v e n t i o n a l F u e l i n 1958-1965.  54  Energy Consumption by P r i m a r y 1955 and 1980  83  &  Sources i n  VIII.  F u e l Consumption i n the E l e c t r i c i t y D u r i n g t h e P e r i o d 1950-1954.  Industry  IX.  Atomic Power S t a t i o n s Under C o n s t r u c t i o n or P l a n n e d , as o f November, 1959.  £8 94  X.  H y d r o e l e c t r i c Power i n Canada.  105  XI.  F u e l and Power Resources o f the USSR.  169  XII.  E x t r a c t i o n of C o a l by  175  XIII.  E x t r a c t i o n of O i l Shale  184  XIV.  E x t r a c t i o n of O i l By Union R e p u b l i c s  185 186  XV.  E x t r a c t i o n of N a t u r a l  192  XVI.  E x t r a c t i o n of Gases.  XVII.  P e a t E x t r a c t i o n A c c o r d i n g t o Union and Economic Regions of RSFSR.  Areas.  Gas.  193  Republics 199  &  X  L i s t o f T a b l e s (Cont'd.) XVIII.  Page  F u e l Consumption i n Thermal Power S t a t i o n s of t h e USSR  220  Data on t h e Water Power P o t e n t i a l o f European and A s i a t i c T e r r i t o r i e s o f t h e USSR.  221  XX.  Twenty-one L a r g e s t R i v e r s o f t h e USSR P o t e n t i a l Water Power R e s o u r c e s .  222  XXI.  C a p a c i t y o f Power S t a t i o n s and Output o f E l e c t r i c Power.  223 & 224 & 22$  XXII.  Power S t a t i o n s o f USSR Grouped a c c o r d i n g F u e l Used - i n 1955.  XXIII.  C a p i t a l Investments i n V a r i o u s S i z e Power Stations.  XIX.  to  226 & 227 228  P R E F A C E  The  c h a r a c t e r o f t h e f u e l economy i n t h e USSR  i s b e i n g changed a t p r e s e n t w i t h a l l t h e h a s t e t h a t a c e n t r a l l y c o n t r o l l e d system can e n f o r c e .  The d e c i s i o n s t h a t l e d t o  the p e r p e t u a t i o n o f an e c o n o m i c a l l y unsound f u e l b a l a n c e i n t h e face of t e c h n o l o g i c a l progress, the recent r e a l i z a t i o n of past e r r o r s and t h e measures which a r e b e i n g u n d e r t a k e n t o reshape the f u e l b a l a n c e , make t h e study o f t h e f u e l economy o f t h e USSR o f g r e a t  interest.  The g r e a t e r freedom o f d i s c u s s i o n now p e r m i t t e d by the S o v i e t a u t h o r i t i e s r e s u l t e d i n a f l o w o f books and a r t i c l e s devoted t o t h e problems o f c o n v e n t i o n a l f u e l s , c o n t a i n i n g v a l u a b l e s t a t i s t i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n w i t h o u t which t h i s c o u l d n o t have been  study  undertaken.  The a v a i l a b i l i t y o f d a t a i n a Communist system o f t e n depends on t h e r e a d i n e s s o f t h e a u t h o r i t i e s t o t a k e a d e f i n i t e s t a n d on t h e g i v e n s u b j e c t .  T h i s i s t h e case w i t h t h e p r o d u c t i  and use o f c o n v e n t i o n a l f u e l s .  B u t as t h e S o v i e t p l a n n e r s a r e  not y e t ready t o make a c l e a r d e c i s i o n w i t h r e g a r d t o atomic energy, t h e r e has been l i t t l e i n f o r m a t i o n p u b l i s h e d on t h i s subject.  N e v e r t h e l e s s , i t i s f e l t t h a t t h e r e c e n t changes  o f approach i n t h e f u e l economy b r o u g h t about through p a r a t i o n o f t h e u n i f i e d f u e l and power b a l a n c e  the pre-  ensure a p l a c e  f o r atomic power i n t h e S o v i e t economy i n t h e f u t u r e . T h i s work d e a l s w i t h t h e r o l e t h a t v a r i o u s forms o f  V  f u e l p l a y i n the f u e l balance  o f the USSR.  Information  on  the a v a i l a b i l i t y of v a r i o u s t y p e s o f f u e l r e s o u r c e s and on t h e i r p r o d u c t i o n i s i n c l u d e d s e p a r a t e l y i n a p p e n d i c e s a t the end. E x c e p t f o r the s e c t i o n d e a l i n g w i t h t h e f u e l economies o u t s i d e R u s s i a , t h e p r e s e n t work i s based on S o v i e t Sources and s t a t i s t i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n .  A l l the t r a n s l a t i o n s of  R u s s i a n t e x t s , except where s p e c i f i c a l l y s t a t e d t o t h e cont r a r y , have been prepared  by t h e a u t h o r .  PART ONE:  CONVENTIONAL SOURCES OF FUEL AND POWER  CHAPTER I SOVIET BALANCE OF FUEL AND POWER - I The b a s i c f e a t u r e o f a c o n t r o l l e d economy i s t h e a l l o c a t i o n o f p r i o r i t i e s from t h e c e n t r e .  To cause t h e economy  t o d e v e l o p a l o n g such l i n e s as are c o n s i d e r e d  desirable,  g r e a t e r emphasis i s g i v e n t o s e l e c t e d f i e l d s o f the economy, w i t h t h e consequent r e s u l t t h a t t h e o t h e r s r e c e i v e  less.  On coming t o power i n R u s s i a the Communists s e t t h e m s e l v e s the t a s k o f c r e a t i n g a c e n t r a l l y c o n t r o l l e d economy. Though f o r c e d t o r e t r e a t t e m p o r a r i l y d u r i n g the NEP p e r i o d t h e y r e t u r n e d t o t h i s p o l i c y w i t h t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f the f i r s t F i v e Tear P l a n i n 1928 and have pursued i t e v e r s i n c e . I n p r e p a r i n g t h e f i v e y e a r p l a n s o f development t h e y f i x e d t h e o r d e r o f p r i o r i t y f o r each b r a n c h o f t h e economy as w e l l as t h e p r i o r i t i e s w i t h i n them and by t h i s d e t e r m i n e d t h e i n v e s t m e n t as w e l l as the p r o d u c t i o n p a t t e r n .  The a i m o f t h e s e  p r i o r i t y a l l o c a t i o n s was t o a c c e l e r a t e t h e i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n o f the S o v i e t Union and t o make t h e n a t i o n a l economy b o t h s u f f i c i e n t , and p o w e r f u l  self-  enough t o p r o v i d e t h e armed f o r c e s w i t h  t h e equipment t h e y r e q u i r e d .  Thus, the machine i n d u s t r y and t h e  2 other b a s i c i n d u s t r i e s - i r o n and  s t e e l , f u e l and e l e c t r i c  power - were g i v e n the h i g h e s t p r i o r i t y . T h i s study d e a l s w i t h the p r i o r i t y p o l i c i e s of one particular  segment of the S o v i e t economy - the f u e l and power  industry.  In the f u e l i n d u s t r y d i f f e r e n t  allocated  p r i o r i t i e s were  t o v a r i o u s forms of f u e l s at d i f f e r e n t p e r i o d s .  These are r e f l e c t e d  i n Table I, below, g i v i n g the f u e l balance  of the S o v i e t Union from 1928  t o 1958  and t o  1972.  (See Table I, p. 3) From the above t a b l e i t can be seen t h a t : (i)  The h i g h e s t p r i o r i t y has been a l l o t e d t o c o a l i n d u s t r y .  The p r o d u c t i o n of c o a l i n c r e a s e d s t e a d i l y from 1928 1950  i t s share i n the f u e l balance reached 66.1  compared w i t h 50.3 tons produced  per cent i n 1913o  i n 1950  on, and  per cent,  However out of 261  n e a r l y a t h i r d was  by  made up of low  million quality  c o a l s , mined i n the Moscow B a s i n , U r a l s , E a s t S i b e r i a and o t h e r places. (ii) 1.7  D u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d the p r o d u c t i o n o f peat i n c r e a s e d from m i l l i o n tons i n 1913  t o 36 m i l l i o n tons i n 1950.and i t s  share i n the f u e l balance i n c r e a s e d from 1.5 As a r e s u l t  o f the government p o l i c y  t o 4.8  per c e n t .  encouraging development of  (x)  local fuels,  these f u e l s  continued t o p l a y an important p a r t  and t h e i r combined share i n the f u e l balance i n 1950 was  14.2  per c e n t . (iii)  T h i s p o l i c y of f a v o u r i n g c o a l and l o c a l f u e l s was  accom-  panied by n e g l e c t o f the more economic forms of f u e l , namely o i l and gas.  The  share of o i l i n the f u e l balance d e c l i n e d  from  Table I F u e l Balance o f the USSR ( i n p h y s i c a l u n i t s and percentages of the t o t a l ) Year  Coal M i l . t ,.  %  Oil M i l . t ,.  %  Gas Mil.m.3. fo  Peat Mil.t.  %  . Shale Mil.t.  Wood Mil.t.  %  -  20.7  19.4  4.1  -  -  15.9  12.5  33.2  5.7  1.7  0.3  79.3  14.3  3278.0 2.3  22.4  5.0  1.4  0.2  66.0  15.3  37.9 17.4  5760.9 2.3  36.0  4.8  4.7  0.4  64.9  9.0  391.3 64.8  70.8 21.1  8980.9 2.4  50.8  4.3  10.8  0.7  75.3  6.7  495.8 59.6  113.2 25.7  28084.5 5.4  52.8  3.4  13.2  0.7  76.5  5.2  32.6  I5OOOO.OI7.6  71.0  3.1  37.5  23.5  1913  29.1 50.3  9.2 28.8  1928  35.5 52.0  11.6 30.8  1940  165.9 59.1  1945  -  1.7  1.5  304.0 0.6  5.3  31.1 18.7  3219.1 1.9  149.3 62.2  19.4 15.0  1950  261.1 66.1  1955 1958  600 1965 (2) 612  43.1  1972 (4)  32.0  230  240  0.6  3.0  4 3 0 . 8 p e r cent i n 1928 t o 17.4  p e r cent i n 1950, w h i l e no  a t t e n t i o n a t a l l was p a i d t o gas u n t i l  1943.  - II -  This p a t t e r n of p r i o r i t y a l l o c a t i o n continued from 1928 t o a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1953.  D u r i n g t h e F i f t h F i v e Year P l a n  (1950-55) a change o c c u r r e d i n t h e system o f p r i o r i t y  allocation  i n the f u e l i n d u s t r y , r e s u l t i n g i n a s h i f t i n the f u e l balance. The change has been i n t r o d u c e d g r a d u a l l y and can be s a i d t o be s t i l l i n progress.  The f i r s t s t e p was t o g i v e h i g h e r p r i o r i t y  t o gas and o i l , l e a v i n g t h e p r i o r i t y system w i t h i n t h e hard f o s s i l e f u e l group g e n e r a l l y u n a l t e r e d .  The second s t e p was t o  r e a s s e s s t h e p r i o r i t i e s w i t h i n t h e l a t t e r group.  I n t h e Euro-  pean p a r t o f t h e c o u n t r y t h i s reassessment has been i n f a v o u r o f b e t t e r q u a l i t y c o a l s and a g a i n s t t h e low q u a l i t y brown c o a l s and peat. The p o s i t i o n o f atomic at present.  energy i s not c l e a r l y d e f i n e d  Atomic power development was accorded h i g h p r i o r i t y  i n the plans of e a r l i e r years  (from 1954 t o 1958) b u t w i t h t h e  development o f t h e gas and o i l i n d u s t r i e s i t became c l e a r t h a t i n t h e immediate f u t u r e e l e c t r i c power c o u l d be o b t a i n e d more e c o n o m i c a l l y f r o m gas and o i l f u e l l e d t h e r m a l power s t a t i o n s t h a n from atomic development. atomic  power s t a t i o n s i n t h e i r p r e s e n t s t a t e o f  As a r e s u l t t h e p r i o r i t y f o r t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f  power s t a t i o n s has been s c a l e d down. As can be seen from Table I , by 1955 t h e share o f c o a l  i n t h e f u e l b a l a n c e d e c l i n e d t o 6 4 . 8 p e r cent and t o 59.6 p e r  5 cent by 1958.  I t i s planned t h a t by 1965  o n l y t o 43.1 per c e n t . d e c l i n e d t o 11.7  i t s share w i l l amount  S i m i l a r l y , the share o f l o c a l f u e l s  per cent i n 1955, 9.3  expected t o account f o r 6.7  per cent i n 1958 and i s  per cent i n 1965.  In absolute  t e r m s , however, t h e o u t p u t o f c o a l and l o c a l f u e l s w i l l to increase.  continue  The c u r r e n t 7-year p l a n , as o r i g i n a l l y p r e s e n t e d ,  p r o v i d e d f o r a c o a l o u t p u t i n 1965 o f 600 t o 612 m i l l i o n t o n s , compared w i t h 495.8 m i l l i o n t o n s f o r 1958,  and the e x t r a c t i o n o f  peat was t o be i n c r e a s e d by 1965 t o 71 m i l l i o n t o n s , compared w i t h 52.4 m i l l i o n t o n s i n 1958. of very recent d i s c u s s i o n s  K  I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t as a  result  ' some r e d u c t i o n w i l l t a k e p l a c e  even i n t h e a b s o l u t e o u t p u t o f t h e s e f u e l s , p a r t i c u l a r l y where p r o d u c t i o n o f low q u a l i t y c o u n t r y i s concerned.  c o a l s i n t h e Western p a r t o f t h e  A c c o r d i n g t o a r e c e n t statement,(7)  d u r i n g 1961 t h e output o f c o a l i s , f o r t h e f i r s t time s i n c e the e a r l y days o f t h e regime, not t o exceed t h e l e v e l f o r t h e p r e v i o u s y e a r , i . e . 511.7  m i l l i o n tons.  The t a b l e a l s o shows t h a t f o l l o w i n g t h e change i n p r i o r i t y a l l o c a t i o n t h e share o f o i l i n t h e f u e l b a l a n c e i n c r e a s e d from 17.4 25.7  per cent i n 1950 t o 21.1 per cent i n 1955  per cent i n 1958.  and  The p r e s e n t 7-year p l a n p r o v i d e s t h a t  t h e share o f o i l i n t h e f u e l b a l a n c e i s t o be i n c r e a s e d t o  32.6  p e r cent by 1965 and t h e output i n a b s o l u t e terms i s t o i n c r e a s e f r o m 113.2  t o 230-240 m i l l i o n t o n s .  The  increase i n the import-  ance o f n a t u r a l gas w i l l be even g r e a t e r . b a l a n c e grew from n o t h i n g i n 1943 t o 2.4  I t s share i n t h e f u e l  per cent i n 1955,  per cent i n 1958 and i s t o i n c r e a s e t o 17.6  5.4  per cent i n 1965.  6 I n a b s o l u t e terms the o u t p u t o f gas i n 1955 was cubic metres.  $,980.9 m i l l i o n  By 1958 i t r o s e t o 28,06*4.5 m i l l i o n c u b i c m e t r e s .  The planned output f o r 1965  i s 150,000 m i l l i o n c u b i c m e t r e s .  Thus, a c c o r d i n g t o t h e p r e s e n t p l a n , t h e combined s h a r e o f c o a l and l o c a l f u e l s i n t h e f u e l b a l a n c e w i l l from 80.3  decline  per c e n t i n 1950 t o 49.8 p e r c e n t i n 1965, w h i l e t h a t  of  o i l and gas t o g e t h e r w i l l i n c r e a s e from 19.7 per c e n t i n 1950  to  50.2  p e r c e n t i n 1965© The f u t u r e d e c l i n e i n t h e importance o f c o a l and  local  f u e l s can be seen even b e t t e r from the o v e r a l l f u e l and power b a l a n c e (see T a b l e I I ) .  The  combined share o f c o a l and  local  f u e l s i s t o d r o p from 69.7 per c e n t i n 1957 t o 36.5 p e r cent i n 1972, w h i l e t h a t o f o i l and gas, t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e h y d r o - e l e c t r i c and atomic power, are t o i n c r e a s e from 30.3 per c e n t i n 1957 t o 63.5  p e r cent i n 1972.  The share o f c o a l i s t o d e c l i n e d u r i n g  t h e same p e r i o d from 60.8 t o 32.2 p e r c e n t , w h i l e t h e combined share o f o i l and gas i s t o i n c r e a s e from 27.4 t o 57o7 per cento By 1972 t h e share o f o i l a l o n e i n the f u e l and power b a l a n c e i s t o be g r e a t e r t h a n t h a t o f c o a l . The re-arrangement  o f p r i o r i t y a l l o c a t i o n s , which r e -  s u l t e d i n t h e s t r u c t u r a l s h i f t i n the f u e l b a l a n c e was made i n a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1953; t h a t i s , n e a r l y 6 y e a r s b e f o r e the p r e p a r a t i o n of  a u n i f i e d f u e l and power b a l a n c e f o r the c o u n t r y as a whole.  T h i s b a l a n c e was completed a t the end o f 1959 o r the b e g i n n i n g o f I960.  As a r e s u l t o f t h i s u n i f i e d f u e l and power b a l a n c e f u r t h e r  a d j u s t m e n t s w i l l p r o b a b l y be made.  The output o f peat and o f low  q u a l i t y c o a l i n the Moscow B a s i n , i n t h e U r a l s and even i n the l e s s p r o d u c t i v e mines i n the Donbass i s l i k e l y t o be  curtailed,,  Table I I 1957  and 1972  F u e l and Power Balance of the USSR Coal  Oil  Gas  1957  60.8  23.4  4.0  1972  32.2  34.4  23.3  -  i n percentages  Peat  Shale  Wood  Hydr.E.P.  Atomic P.  3.8  0.7  4.4  2.9  -  2.4  0.6  1.3  2.6  3.2  -0  8  - I l l The i s s u e o f f u e l p r i o r i t i e s i s o f g r e a t s i g n i f i c a n c e t o t h e S o v i e t economy.  I n t h e USSR over 19 p e r cent o f a l l  c a p i t a l i n v e s t m e n t s i s a l l o c a t e d t o t h e f u e l and power i n d u s t r i e s . One t h i r d o f b a s i c c a p i t a l equipment (osnovniye  proizvodstvennie  f o n d i ) i s i n f u e l and power and 9.5 p e r cent o f t h e t o t a l f o r c e i s engaged i n t h i s f i e l d . ( 9 )  Annual e x p e n d i t u r e  labour  on e x t r a c -  t i o n , t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and p r e p a r a t i o n o f f u e l s amounts t o 100 billion r o u b l e s . O v e r  36 p e r cent o f t h e e n t i r e c o s t o f t h e  p r o d u c t i o n o f cement goes t o c o v e r t h e c o s t o f f u e l s .  In the  b u i l d i n g i n d u s t r y t h i s share i s 13.8 per c e n t , i n t h e i r o n and s t e e l i n d u s t r y 17.1 p e r cent, i n o n o - f e r r o u s  m e t a l s 19.1 p e r  c e n t , i n r a i l w a y t r a n s p o r t a t i o n 22.4 p e r c e n t , i n road 17.3 per c e n t .  transport  By a l t e r i n g t h e p r i o r i t y mix i n f a v o u r o f  t h e more economic t y p e s o f f u e l s , t h e p r o d u c t i v i t y i n t h e f u e l economy as a whole can be r a i s e d w i t h o u t ments.  any a d d i t i o n a l i n v e s t -  As l o n g as t h i s was not done, t h e S o v i e t economy  was  being provided w i t h expensive f u e l s . The p a t t e r n o f S o v i e t p r i o r i t i e s i n f u e l and power, t h e r e f o r e , deserves c l o s e r a t t e n t i o n .  I n t h i s study i t i s  proposed t o d e a l w i t h the S o v i e t p r i o r i t y p o l i c y i n two p a r t s . P a r t one w i l l c o n s i d e r how p r i o r i t i e s were d e c i d e d i n t h e S o v i e t Union, how i t came about t h a t c o a l r e c e i v e d t h e h i g h e s t p r i o r i t y and how t h e p r i o r i t y s h i f t e d t o o t h e r f u e l s around  1950-1953. I n t h e course o f t h e s t u d y t h e p r i o r i t y - d e t e r m i n e d f u e l b a l a n c e o f t h e USSR w i l l be compared w i t h t h e b a l a n c e s o f  9 f r e e l y c o m p e t i t i v e f u e l s o f t h e USA, UK and Canada. P a r t two o f t h e study w i l l d e a l w i t h t h e e x p e c t e d r o l e o f t h e new source o f energy - atomic power.  I t presents f i r s t  a summary v i e w o f atomic development programs i n t h e USA, UK and Canada and t h e n s e t s out t h e atomic power development and r e s e a r c h f a c i l i t i e s o f t h e USSR.  A c o n c l u s i o n i s t h e n drawn  t h r o u g h a n a l y s i s o f t h e S o v i e t atomic power development and r e s e a r c h program and by comparison w i t h t h e s i t u a t i o n i n t h e t h r e e Western c o u n t r i e s .  R E F E R E N C E S 1. S.Feld, The Power Balance o f the N a t i o n a l Economy /Ob Energeticheskom Balanse Narodnogo K h o z y a i s t v a / . Voprosy Ekonomiki,I960.III, p.23. 2. Yu.Bokserman and A.Kortunov, Some Problems o f Gas Supply f o r the N a t i o n a l Economy /Nekotorie Voprosy Gazosnabzhenia Narodnogo K h o z y a i s t v a / . Planovoye Khozyaistvo,I960.Ill.pp.27-36. 3. 1958-1965 P l a n f i g u r e s . 4. Long Term P l a n f i g u r e s . 5. By l o c a l f u e l i s meant wood,shale,peat and low coal.  quality  6. A.F.Zasyadko, F u e l and Power I n d u s t r y o f the USSR./Topl i v n o - e n e r g e t i c h e s k a y a Promishlennost' SSSR/.Gosplanizdat.1959. Review of the book by A.Boyko and l a . Z e n k i s i n Voprosy Ekonomiki,I960.VII. and by N.Melnikov i n Planovoye K h o z y a i s t v o , I 9 6 0 . I l l . p p . 8 5 - 8 8 . 7. V.N.Novikov, On the S t a t e Plan f o r the Development of the N a t i o n a l Economy i n 1961 /0 Gosudarstvennom Plane R a z v i t i a Narodnogo K h o z y a i s t v a na 1961 god/.Pravda 21.12.1961. 8. E.Sokolova, The S t r u c t u r e o f the F u e l Balance o f the USSR. /0 S t r u k t u r e Toplivnogo Balansa SSSR/. Voprosy Ekonomiki. 1958.V. p.65. 9. A.F.Zasyadko, F u e l and Power I n d u s t r y of the USSR. Voprosy E k o n o m i k i , I 9 6 0 . I l l . p . 8 5 . 10. Z.Chukhnov, The Economic Advantages of the Development o f the Moscow C o a l B a s i n / E f f e k t i v n o s t ' R a z v i t i a Podmoskovnogo Ugolnogo B a s s e i n a / . Voprosy Ekonomiki,1958. IX.pp.39-49. ll.M.G.Shkol'nikov, The A n g a r a - Y e n i s e i Problem /AngaroY e n i s e i s k a y a Problema/. G o s p l a n i z d a t . Moscow, 1958. pp.42-43.  CHAPTER I I SOVIET FUEL BALANCE 1918-1953  (I)  The S t a r t i n g Point The  f u e l i n d u s t r y was among the f i r s t t o be a f f e c t e d  by n a t i o n a l i z a t i o n and p r i o r i t y p o l i c i e s . the  By the decree o f  28th June, 1918 a l l major e n t e r p r i s e s i n key i n d u s t r i e s  were n a t i o n a l i z e d .  Paragraph 1 o f the decree  read:-  " A l l j o i n t stock e n t e r p r i s e s e x t r a c t i n g f u e l s ( c o a l , brown c o a l , l i g n i t e , o i l s h a l e , a n t h r a c i t e , etc.) f o r the purpose o f d e c i s i v e s t r u g g l e w i t h economic and supply d i s l o c a t i o n and of s t r e n g t h e n i n g the d i c t a t o r s h i p of the working c l a s s and the v i l l a g e poor, are d e c l a r e d by the C o u n c i l o f People's Commissars t o be the p r o p e r t y of t h e s t a t e " . ( 1 ) The.same decree provided  f o r the n a t i o n a l i z a t i o n o f ,  among o t h e r s , the e n t e r p r i s e s o f the e l e c t r i c a l  industry.  N a t i o n a l i z e d f u e l e n t e r p r i s e s were administered  by the  VSNKh as though they were a l l branches o f one f i r m , and i n some isolated the  cases,  d i r e c t l y by l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s .  To  co-ordinate  a c t i v i t y o f s c a t t e r e d n a t i o n a l i z e d e n t e r p r i s e s , Committees  were c r e a t e d  - t h e Peat Committee, the Firewood Committee, the  O i l Committee and o t h e r s . On the 4 t h March, 1919, on the i n i t i a t i v e of Lenin, who attached  p a r t i c u l a r importance t o e l e c t r i f i c a t i o n , the C e n t r a l  E l e c t r i c a l Committee  (Ts.E.K.) was c r e a t e d .  A year l a t e r , on the  24th March, 1920, the Ts.E.K. was r e - o r g a n i z e d  into a special  State Commission f o r the E l e c t r i f i c a t i o n o f R u s s i a ( 2 )  12 (Gosudarstvennaya Komissia po E l e k t r i f i k a t s i i R o s s i ! - GOELRO) whose work had z a t i o n and  an important b e a r i n g  on the  on the development of the f u e l  During the w i n t e r R u s s i a was  described  were the g e n e r a l by the war  subsequent  industriali-  industry.  of 1918-1919 the f u e l s i t u a t i o n i n  as c a t a s t r o p h i c . ( 3 )  The  reasons f o r t h i s  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d i s o r g a n i z a t i o n brought about  and the r e v o l u t i o n , the f a c t t h a t p a r t s of the  country  were i n the hands of groups h o s t i l e to the regime, d i s o r g a n i z a t i o n of t r a n s p o r t , shortage of r o l l i n g stock to t r a n s p o r t a v a i l a b l e r e s e r v e s o f f u e l s , and ment funds.  shortage o f working and  These d i f f i c u l t i e s were made worse through l a c k of  t r a i n e d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e personnel i n matters of economic The one  invest-  and the ignorance of the  leaders  administration.  t o t a l production  of b a s i c i n d u s t r i e s d e c l i n e d t o  seventh of the pre-war l e v e l , while the number of workers  d e c l i n e d by 36 per c e n t . s i t u a t i o n was  even worse.  In some branches of i n d u s t r y Due  the  t o government e f f o r t s the s i t u a t i o n  i n f u e l i n d u s t r y , although c r i t i c a l , was Given-below are output f i g u r e s f o r 1913  b e t t e r than elsewhere. and  1920, (4) ( i n m i l l i o n s  of t o n s ) : -  (II)  1913  1920  1920/1913  Coal  29.1  8.6  23.4  Oil  9,243,234  3,831,282  41.4  Peat  1,556,100  1,520,064  97.7  The  P e r i o d 1918-1921 During the p e r i o d of war  Communism the p r i o r i t y mix  for  13 the f u e l i n d u s t r y was f o r c e d upon t h e government by c i r c u m stances.  Lack of. funds b r o u g h t about a d e c l i n e i n c o a l p r o -  d u c t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y where mines were damaged and r e q u i r e d investments.  The same was t r u e o f t h e o i l i n d u s t r y .  capital  The f u e l s  w h i c h c o u l d be produced w i t h o u t much c a p i t a l e x p e n d i t u r e and c o u l d be b r o u g h t t o t h e urban c e n t r e s , were peat and wood and i t i s upon t h e s e t h a t t h e government c o n c e n t r a t e d The considered  h i g h p r i o r i t y g i v e n t o peat and wood, however, was  a temporary e x p e d i e n t  GOELRO P l a n s u b m i t t e d Soviets.  i t s attention.  I t envisaged  o n l y , as can be seen from t h e  t o t h e V I I I A l l R u s s i a n Congress o f t h e that during the following t e nt o f i f t e e n  y e a r s t h i r t y power s t a t i o n s o f a t o t a l c a p a c i t y o f 1.5 m i l l i o n kw. would be c o n s t r u c t e d i n t h e S o v i e t Union and t h a t , compared w i t h 1913, t h e r e would be an i n c r e a s e i n t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f b a s i c i n d u s t r i e s 1.8 t o 2 t i m e s . " P l a n GOELRO was n o t c o n f i n e d t o g e n e r a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s o f t h e d i r e c t i o n s o f development o f n a t i o n a l economy, but f o l l o w e d i t s proposals t o the f i n a l i z e d b l u e p r i n t c a l c u l a t i o n s o f power s t a t i o n s , t o m e c h a n i z a t i o n and e l e c t r i f i c a t i o n of production processes, t a k i n g i n t o a c c o u n t , f o r example, t h e comparative advantages o f u s i n g v a r i o u s t y p e s o f f u e l and h y d r o e l e c t r i c power, a t t h e same t i m e w o r k i n g out t h e most u p - t o - d a t e methods f o r t h e b e s t u t i l i z a t i o n o f v a r i o u s f u e l r e s o u r c e s , e t c . Thus t h e P l a n GOELRO was a g e n e r a l , and a t t h e same t i m e , a c o n c r e t e , n a t i o n a l economic p l a n , a l l i t s s e c t i o n s were i n t e g r a t e d and b a l a n c e d , c a l c u l a t i o n s were made o f m a t e r i a l and f i n a n c i a l exp e n d i t u r e s f o r t h e r e a l i z a t i o n o f t h e planned measures"(5) The  main o b j e c t i v e o f t h e p l a n was t o d e v e l o p ,  on t h e  b a s i s o f e l e c t r i f i c a t i o n , heavy i n d u s t r y i n g e n e r a l and f e r r o u s and m e t a l l u r g i c a l i n d u s t r i e s i n p a r t i c u l a r i n d u s t r i e s needed f o r them.  as w e l l as t h e f u e l  The main GOELRO t a r g e t s were:(6)  14  1913  1920  Goelro  Production of P i g I r o n Mil.Tons  4.2  0.116  8.2  Production of S t e e l  "  "  4.2  0.194  6.5  Production of Coal  "  "  29.1  Capacity of Regional power S t a t i o n s (thousand kw.)  a.6  62.3  1750  177  I t should be remembered, however, that u n l i k e the f u t u r e Five Year Plans, GOELRO was much l e s s r e s t r i c t e d by f i x e d time limits.  The d u r a t i o n of the plan was designated by a vague "during  the f o l l o w i n g 10-15 years".  I t was, t h e r e f o r e , i n f a c t a broad  o u t l i n e of a f u t u r e programme. In the absence of the automatic r e g u l a t i n g f o r c e s present under market economy, a l l o c a t i o n of resources was made on the b a s i s of a r b i t r a r y d e c i s i o n s by the- l e a d e r s .  E l e c t r i f i c a t i o n be-  came the main o b j e c t i v e . Speaking at the Moscow Regional Party Conference on 20th January 1920, Lenin introduced h i s famous slogan - "Communism i s the Soviet Government plus e l e c t r i f i c a t i o n of the e n t i r e country". (7)  Commenting on the GOELRO Plan i n  1921 S t a l i n said "We must at once get down t o work.  We must  a l l o c a t e t o t h i s undertaking one t h i r d of our e f f o r t - two-thirds w i l l go t o our current needs".(8) During the f i r s t two years of the Communist regime, the economic a c t i v i t y of the country was r a p i d l y d e c l i n i n g .  Being  aware of the growing unrest i n the country Lenin decided on a new course, which meant at l e a s t p a r t i a l r e t u r n t o the t r a d i t i o n a l market economy.  The new course he c a l l e d New Economic P o l i c y - NEP.  15 I t was  introduced  at the 10th  Congress of the  Communist P a r t y h e l d i n March, (Ill)  The  All-Russian  1921.  P e r i o d 1921-1928  Re-introduction  of the money system, t r a d i n g and  taxation,  coupled w i t h e n e r g e t i c measures t o a r r e s t i n f l a t i o n l e d to establishment and  of a degree of s t a b i l i t y and  accumulation of working  investment funds i n government hands. Return to market economy d u r i n g  The  the  NEP  government r e t a i n e d c o n t r o l of the key  was  only  industries.  partial. In the  f u e l i n d u s t r y the l a r g e s c a l e i n d u s t r i a l e n t e r p r i s e s were l e f t i n government hands. "During the e a r l y years of r e c o n s t r u c t i o n , the c a p i t a l expenditures were d i r e c t e d t o the f u e l and l i g h t i n d u s t r i e s , as was necessary f o r t h e i r r a p i d reconstruction. P a r t i c u l a r l y vigorous was the cons t r u c t i o n work i n the o i l i n d u s t r y , which d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d r e c e i v e d approximately o n e - t h i r d of a l l c a p i t a l investments i n the s t a t e i n d u s t r y of the USSR"(9) As  soon as the f u e l c r i s i s was  towards f u e l i n d u s t r y changed.  The  surmounted the a t t i t u d e  government now  main a t t e n t i o n to the r e - e s t a b l i s h m e n t  shifted i t s  of m e t a l l u r g i c a l and  machine b u i l d i n g i n d u s t r i e s . "Without c r e a t i n g i n our c o u n t r y the necessary r e s e r v e s of raw m a t e r i a l s and f u e l we could not even t h i n k of r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of i n d u s t r y . T h i s n e c e s s i t a t e d f i r s t of a l l s u b s t a n t i a l tempos of development i n c o a l and o i l i n d u s t r i e s , i n e x t r a c t i o n of i r o n ores, p r o d u c t i o n of e l e c t r i c a l power and r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of i r o n and s t e e l i n d u s t r i e s " ( 1 0 ) The  p r i o r i t y a l l o c a t i o n i n the f u e l i n d u s t r y d u r i n g  e a r l y p a r t of the NEP  the  p e r i o d i s r e f l e c t e d i n the output f i g u r e s  f o r v a r i o u s types of f u e l s given  i n the t a b l e  overleaf.(H)  16  E l e c t r i c Power  (bil.kwh.)  1913  1925  1925/1913  1.94  2.9  149.4  Coal  (Mil.tons)  29.1  17.0  59.1  Oil  (Mil.tons)  9.2  7.5  81.5  1.7  2.7  160.0  Peat(12)  (Mil.tons)  I t must be remembered, however, t h a t t h e growth i n t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f peat was t o a c o n s i d e r a b l e degree due t o t h e p r e sence o f s m a l l s c a l e e n t e r p r i s e s , w h i c h grew as a r e s u l t o f NEP. U n t i l 192$ i n v e s t m e n t s  i n s t a t e i n d u s t r y c o n s t i t u t e d an  attempt a t i n f l u e n c i n g t h e development o f t h e n a t i o n a l economy r a t h e r t h a n c o n t r o l l i n g i t , as came l a t e r .  d u r i n g 1923/24 - 1927/28 p e r i o d amounted t o  c a p i t a l investments o n l y 11.1  The c e n t r a l i z e d  b i l l i o n r o u b l e s , as a g a i n s t 15.4 b i l l i o n r o u b l e s i n -  v e s t e d by e n t e r p r i s e s , t h e b u l k o f which came from a g r i c u l t u r a l farms and p r i v a t e i n d u s t r i a l and t r a d i n g e n t e r p r i s e s . (13) D u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d government p o l i c y w i t h r e g a r d t o economic development was s t i l l based on c o n s i d e r a t i o n s o f a g e n e r a l r i s e i n t h e l e v e l o f p r o d u c t i o n , though, as can be seen from f i g u r e s g i v e n o v e r l e a f , c e n t r a l i z e d i n v e s t m e n t s finitely  were de-  channelled i n t o basic i n d u s t r i e s , which included f u e l  i n d u s t r y as w e l l .  W i t h t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f t h e f i r s t F i v e Year  P l a n t h e p o l i c y changed t o ensure a r e s t r i c t e d r i s e o f t h e l e v e l of productions  only.  17 Centralized  Investments 1925/26 1925/26 in % In m i l Ro  (IV)  100  1927/281 *) 11  1926/27  In m i l . R,  in %  100  1927/28 In m i l R. 100  Total  781.5  Group A : Metal Oil Coal El.Techn.  181.6 136.0 76.4 31.6  23.2 17.4 9.8 4.0  256.9 174.0 }46.9 81.7  23.5 15.9 13.4 7.5  338.6 206.1 140.9 168.3  23.1 14.1 9.6 11.5  Group B : T e x t i l e s Food  123.7 65.7  15.8 8.4  162.3 59.8  14.8 5.5  220.0 91.2  15.0 6.2  The P e r i o d  1094.9  1928-1953  With the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f the f i r s t government a t t i t u d e t o p l a n n i n g changed. successful  1464.4  i n gathering  F i v e Year Plan, the  S t a l i n , who was b e i n g  power i n h i s hands favoured complete con-  t r o l o f economic l i f e by the government and t h e e l i m i n a t i o n o f the  l i m i t e d market economy p e r m i t t e d s i n c e the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f  NEP.  The a b s o l u t e c o n t r o l o f t h e government was t o be used i n  o r d e r t o c a r r y through the i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n o f the country. S t a l i n a l s o l a i d down t h e l i n e s along which i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n was t o be c a r r i e d o u t . "Not every type of i n d u s t r i a l development r e p r e s e n t s industrialization. The task o f i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n i s not only t o i n c r e a s e the share o f i n d u s t r y i n our economy as a whole, but a l s o , i n the course o f such an i n c r e a s e assure our country, surrounded by c a p i t a l i s t s t a t e s , o f economic independence and safeguard i t from becoming an economic appendage of world c a p i t a l i s m . "(15) T h i s meant t h a t according to p o l i t i c a l be  defined  from then on i n d u s t r y was t o be developed  considerations  which, n a t u r a l l y , were t o  by t h e p o l i c y makers.  For t h e f u e l i n d u s t r y ,  and f o r the p r i o r i t y mix w i t h i n  18 it,  t h i s had a very  ordinated  important consequence, f o r i t was t o be sub-  i n the f u t u r e not t o t h e needs o f t h e n a t i o n a l economy  as a whole, but t o the needs of t h a t p o r t i o n of i t which t h e leaders  considered  important, t h a t i s - t o the heavy i n d u s t r y .  From t h a t time on i t was h e l d t h a t "the f u e l and power branches o f i n d u s t r y are important branches o f heavy i n d u s t r y f o r they determine t o a great degree the tempo and the l e v e l o f development o f t h e S o c i a l i s t economy, i n p a r t i c u l a r o f Besides subordinating  industry".(16)  the f u e l i n d u s t r y t o the r e q u i r e -  ments o f heavy i n d u s t r y , the l e a d e r s took another d e c i s i o n which had  an important b e a r i n g  to give f i r s t  on the f u t u r e development.  decided  p r i o r i t y t o c o a l , r a t h e r than o i l .  With the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f r i g i d planning, p r e c i s e l y estimated i n d u s t r i a l r e s e r v e s , as f u e l ,  They  compared t o o i l .  coal, with  appeared more r e l i a b l e  I t a l s o was cheaper t o produce, a l -  though t h i s advantage was soon l o s t . Once t h e p r i o r i t y mix f o r the f u e l had been upon i n the course o f p r e p a r a t i o n it  decided  f o r the f i r s t F i v e Tear Plan,  remained unchanged u n t i l a f t e r S t a l i n ' s death.  During the  succeeding plans the share o f o i l i n the f u e l balance d e c l i n e d w h i l e t h a t of c o a l i n c r e a s e d as a r e s u l t o f d e l i b e r a t e  as new c o a l b a s i n s  were developed  policy.  A d d r e s s i n g the XVI Congress o f the A l l Union Communist Party  (b) i n June 1930, S t a l i n  said:-  "At present our i n d u s t r y and our economy are based mainly on the coal-metal base i n the U r a l s . Naturally, without such a base i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n of the country i s unthinkable. The U k r a i n i a n coal-metal base serves us as an i n d i s p e n s a b l e base. But can t h i s base i n the f u t u r e s a t i s f y a l l , the South and the C e n t r a l p a r t s o f  19 the USSR, the N o r t h , the North-West, the F a r E a s t and T u r k e s t a n ? A l l the d a t a t e l l us t h a t i t cannot. The new f a c t o r i n the development o f our n a t i o n a l economy i s t h a t t h i s base has a l r e a d y become inadequate f o r our needs. Thus, w h i l e c o n t i n u i n g t o expand t h i s base, we s h o u l d at t h e same time s t a r t t o c r e a t e a new c o a l - m e t a l base. The U r a l - K u z n e t s k combine s h a l l become such a base - the comb i n a t i o n of Kuznetsk c o k i n g c o a l w i t h U r a l ore".(17) I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o imagine what the r e s u l t would have been i f S t a l i n , f a c e d w i t h i n a d e q u a t e s u p p l i e s of c o a l from Donbass, had  decided,  instead, to give higher p r i o r i t y to o i l  i n d u s t r y - p r o b a b l y l e a d i n g t o a much e a r l i e r development o f as w e l l .  The  repercussions  gas  of such a s t e p on r o a d c o n s t r u c t i o n ,  r a i l w a y t r a n s p o r t , chemical i n d u s t r y , engineering  and  other  branches of the economy would have been i n c a l c u l a b l e . The  development of the Kuznetsk c o a l b a s i n was  followed  by the development of the Karaganda c o a l b a s i n and o t h e r s .  De-  c i s i o n s as t o the s i z e o f i n d u s t r i a l e n t e r p r i s e s were made by p o l i t i c a l leaders a r b i t r a r i l y .  Ordzhonikidze described  the  pro-  c e s s o f d e c i s i o n as f o l l o w s : "Comrade S t a l i n asked about t h e c a p a c i t y of m e t a l p l a n t s i n the U.S.A. He was t o l d t h a t l a r g e p l a n t s i n the U.S.A. produced 2\ m i l l i o n t o n s of p i g i r o n a y e a r . Comrade S t a l i n s a i d - 'We must b u i l d such a p l a n t h e r e , f i r s t o f a l l f o r 2\ m i l l i o n t o n s and t h e n f o r 4 m i l l i o n tons.' The P a r t y and the c o u n t r y d e c i d e d t o b u i l d such a plant."(18) The  newly developed c o a l b a s i n s were s i t u a t e d f a r f r o m  e x i s t i n g i n d u s t r i a l c e n t r e s , r e s u l t i n g i n an i n c r e a s e i n the t a n c e o f c o a l h a u l a g e s , w h i c h put an u n d u l y heavy s t r a i n on r a i l w a y s c a r r y i n g t h e b u l k o f i t , and  disthe  at t h e same time r e s u l t e d  i n an i n c r e a s e i n c o s t s . C o a l from the Kuznetsk b a s i n had t o be c a r r i e d over d i s  20 tances of 2500 km. over 1200  km.  Donetz was and 1500  t o U r a l s , and from the two Karaganda b a s i n s  t o U r a l s and 3000 km.  to Central Asia.  being c a r r i e d over a d i s t a n c e of 1700  km.  t o the Volga Region.  t o Leningrad  Pechora B a s i n c o a l was  to Leningrad over a d i s t a n c e of 1700 To reduce  km.  C o a l from  carried  km.  enormous, and r a p i d l y growing, c o s t s o f t r a n s  p o r t a t i o n the government advocated  g r e a t e r use of l o c a l  peat, brown c o a l and l i g n i t e , wood and o i l s h a l e .  fuels -  As a r e s u l t  the p r o d u c t i o n of these l o c a l f u e l s i n c r e a s e d very r a p i d l y . t a b l e below.)  No e f f o r t ,  however, was  (See  made t o develop the o i l  industry. In the t a b l e below are g i v e n the outputs of peat, wood, shale and Moscow B a s i n c o a l f o r 1928, one  1940  and 1950.  The  last  Is the most important b a s i n of low q u a l i t y c o a l developed  the government to reduce haulages of c o a l to the Moscow  Peat  1928  mil. tons 5.3  Wood (20) % of mil. % of F.B. tons F.B. 4.1 15.9 12.5  1940  33.2  5.7  79.3  1950  36.0  4.8  64.9  Moscow B a s i n Coal (21) mil. % of tons CO. 1.3 3.2  % of F.B. -  14.3  1.7  0.3  10.1  6.1  9.0  4.7  0.4  30.9  11.8  - F u e l Balance  CO.  - Coal Output  The b u l k of the wood s u p p l y i n g was handled by s m a l l s c a l e e n t e r p r i s e s o u t s i d e the s o c i a l i z e d In the U.S.A. a s h i f t was  liquid  area.(19)  mil. tons -  F.B. a.  Shale  by  sector.  t a k i n g place from s o l i d  and gas f o s s i l f u e l s w i t h a h i g h e r c a l o r i f i c content  to and  21 and lower cost of extraction.  In the USSR the trend was towards  the greater use of s o l i d and more expensive f u e l s .  Given below  are the figures of mineral f u e l balances i n the USSR and U.S.A. (in % of t o t a l ) for the period 1913 to 1955 ( i . e . without wood). The opposite trends of f u e l consumption  of the two countries are  represented i n the table below.(22) Coal  Oil  Nat. Gas  Peat  Shale  USSR  USA  USSR  USA  USSR  USA  USSR  65.3  67.9  32.8  8.3  -  3.8  1.9  -  1927/28 6 2 . 3  71.0  34.4  21.7  0.8  7.3  2.5  -  1932  59.7  62.5  32.2  27.0  1.3  10.5  6.7  -  0.1  1937  67.1  56.8  2 5 . 0 31.3  1.6  11.9  6.2  -  0.1  1940  70.1  58.4  21.7  29.3  1.9  12.3  6.0  -  0.3  1950  73.2  3 8 . a 18.9  36.4  2.2  24.8  5.0  -  0.7  1955b  70.4 32.7  3$.7  2.2  28.6  4.2  -  0.7  1913  b.  22.5  USA USSR  USA  U.S.A. figures f o r 1 9 5 4 . < 3 ) 2  As can be seen from the figures above, the combined share of hard f o s s i l fuels increased from 6 7 . 2 per cent to 7 8 . 9 per cent between 1913 and 1950 i n the USSR and declined from 8 7 . 9 to 3 8 . 8 per cent i n the U.S.A.  R E F E R E N C E S 1. N a t i o n a l i s a t i o n o f I n d u s t r y i n t h e USSR / N a t s i o n a l i s a t s i a P r o m i s h l e n n o s t i v S S S R / . G o s p o l i t i z d a t . 1954. p . 3 2 7 . 2. I b i d . ,  p.517.  3. I b i d . ,  pp.777-778.  4. H i s t o r y o f N a t i o n a l Economy o f t h e USSR / I s t o r i a N a r o d nogo K h o z y a i s t v a S S S R / . G o s p o l i t i z d a t . 1956.p.77. 5. I b i d . ,  p.90.  6. I b i d . ,  p.91.  7. F . V e i t k o v , How t h e E l e c t r i f i c a t i o n o f o u r C o u n t r y was Undertaken /Kak Sozdavalas' E l e k t r i f i k a t s i a S t r a n i S o v i e t o v / . O g i s . G o s p o l i t i z d a t . Moscow,1947.p.42. 8. I b i d . , p p . 7 0 - 7 1 . See p h o t o s t a t i c r e p r o d u c t i o n o f w r i t t e n by S t a l i n , i n c l u d e d i n t h e b o o k .  a  note  9. E . Y u . L o k s h i n , O u t l i n e o f t h e H i s t o r y o f I n d u s t r y o f t h e USSR / O c h e r k i I s t o r i i P r o m i s h l e n n o s t i S S S R / . G o s p o l i t i z d a t . 1956.p.125. 10.Ibid.,  p.111.  11.lbid.,  p.129.  12.Including  small scale  enterprises.  1 3 . P . I . L y a s h c h e n k o . H i s t o r y o f N a t i o n a l Economy o f t h e USSR. / I s t o r i a Narodnogo K h o z y a i s t v a SSSR/.Gospolitizdat.p.215. 1 4 . S . N . P r o k o p o v i c h , N a t i o n a l Economy o f t h e USSR / N a r o d n o y e K h o z y a i s t v o SSSR/. I z d a t e l ' s t v o Imeni hekhova.New Y o r k , 1952.p.338. G  1 5 . I . V . S t a l i n , C o l l e c t e d Works / S o c h i n e n i a / . Gosudarstvennoye I z d a t e l ' s t v o P o l i t i c h e s k o y L i t e r a t u r y , Moscow,1949.Vol.VIII. pp.120-121. 1 6 . E c o n o m i c s o f I n d u s t r y o f t h e USSR / E k o n o m i k a P r o m i s h l e n n o s t i S S S R / . G o s p o l i t i z d a t . M o s c o w , 1 9 5 8 . C h a p t e r X I I - F u e l and Power B a s e i n t h e S o c i a l i z e d Industry/Toplivno-Energeticheskaya Baza S o t s i a l i s t i c h e s k o y P r o m i s h l e n n o s t i / by D r . G . D . B a k u l ' y e v . pp.297-315.  23  17. I . V . S t a l i n , C o l l e c t e d Works / S o c h i n e n i a / . V o l . X I I . pp.324-325. 18. V . M i k h a i l o v a , S t a l i n - I n s p i r a t i o n and O r g a n i z e r o f t h e Second C o a l - m e t a l l u r g i c a l Base o f the USSR / S t a l i n V d o k h n o v i t e l i O r g a n i z a t o r Sozdania V t o r o i Ugol'noM e t a l l u r g i c h e s k o y Bazy SSSR/. Voprosy Ekonomiki, 1949. XII.p.81. 1  19. Compiled  from Table I . Chapter  20. Overall f u e l  output.  21. Overall coal  output.  I . p.3.  22.  A.Probst. The Problems o f the Development o f F u e l Economy o f the USSR /Voprosy R a z v i t i a Toplivnogo K h o z y a i s t v a SSSR/. Voprosy Ekonomiki. 1 9 5 6 . I . p . 2 7 .  23.  Ibid., F i g u r e s c a l c u l a t e d from Bureau o f M i n e s . M i n e r a l Year Book. USA.  CHAPTER  III  EMERGENCE OF THE NEW PRIORITY PATTERN SINCE  -  I  -  I n a c o u n t r y where  decisions  ment a r e a r b i t r a r i l y made b y t h e political  grounds,  the  or administrators  proposition.  Immediately  the  war,  there  signs  o f awareness  that  natives , the  question  one and t h a t  i n the  various  economic  Strumilin, others  place  did  not  various  called  the  effect  the  of  choice  into  This,  The d e c i s i o n t o and t o d e v e l o p  o f the to  local  o i l and gas  free  But the  was  a  policy fuel  had b e e n  in fuel  industry  discussions  to  of  T.S. take far  level  as  to  policies was  not  in  possible.  more  had b e e n s u p p o r t e d b y S t a l i n and t h e  have  pursued  r a t h e r than to  r a t h e r than the  and  industry.  p r i o r i t i e s would  conditions,  and  effective  o r any o t h e r  coal  to  S.G.  E a r l y i n 1952  c r i t i c i s m the  resources  paid  V . V . Novozhilov  question  high p r i o r i t y to  alter-  complicated  r a i s e d on a t h e o r e t i c a l  submit t o  fuel  press  between is  risky  particularly  " V o p r o s y E k o n o m i k i " went as  under p r e v a i l i n g give  c a n be a  calculations.  new a p p r o a c h e s .  and t h e  mistakes  R u s s i a n economic  enough a t t e n t i o n  entering  on  or present  war and more  i n the  develop-  Party  a lower l e v e l  a number o f  allocation  necessary  past.  mical  for  of resources  Any r e - e x a m i n a t i o n made i t  past  priority allocation,  such a d i s c u s s i o n .  utilization  and t h e  B . Chernomordik, P. M s t i s l a v s k y ,  d u r i n g 1952,  promise  of  question  past not  factors  advocated  Khachaturov  the  of  at  before  appeared  on p r o s p e c t i v e  leaders  p o i n t i n g out  by economists  after  1953  oil econo-  Party  25  since the introduction of the F i r s t Five Year Plan, and changes could only be made very gradually, without  castigating past  policies. It was, therefore, due to the p o l i t i c a l atmosphere described above and not to any lack of l i q u i d fuels that the coal p r i o r i t y p o l i c y was continued for so long.  - II The p r i o r i t y allocated during S t a l i n s l i f e t i m e to T  coal was not imposed on the Soviet economy by uncertainty as to available deposits of l i q u i d f u e l s .  Russian planners were f u l l y  aware that the USSR share i n world f u e l resources amounted to 55 per cent i n peat, 54.8 per cent i n o i l , 28 per cent i n water power and 20.7 per cent i n coal.  In 1950, at the end of the  5th Five Year Plan, USSR produced 261.1 m i l l i o n tons of coal (which constituted 66.1 per cent of the country's f u e l balance), 37.9 m i l l i o n tons of o i l (constituting 17.4 per cent of the f u e l balance), 5,760.9 m i l l i o n cubic metres of gas ( 2 . 3 per cent of the f u e l balance), 3 6 m i l l i o n tons of peat (4«8 per cent of the f u e l balance), 4.7 m i l l i o n tons of o i l shale (0.4 per cent of the f u e l b a l a n c e ) . ^  In 1950 hydro-electric  power stations contributed 12,961 m i l l i o n kwh. of e l e c t r i c power. In spite of the fact that considerable l i q u i d f u e l resources were a v a i l a b l e , i t was the s o l i d fuels that were used. Neither did the Soviet attempt to reduce costs through complex  26 u t i l i z a t i o n o f f u e l s t a c k l e the b a s i c q u e s t i o n o f balanced u t i l i z a t i o n of a l l available resources. As a r e s u l t o f the c o n t r o l l e d development o f the f u e l i n d u s t r y , which took p l a c e d u r i n g the p e r i o d o f i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n , t h e s t r u c t u r e o f the f u e l balance f a v o u r o f hard m i n e r a l f u e l s . f u e l s by themselves,  r a d i c a l l y changed i n  I n the t o t a l output o f m i n e r a l  c a l c u l a t e d i n c o n v e n t i o n a l f u e l u n i t s , the  share o f c o a l i n c r e a s e d from 65.3 per cent i n 1 9 1 3 t o 73•2 per cent i n 1950, due t o the c o a l i n d u s t r y b e i n g g i v e n f i r s t  prior-  The share o f o i l d e c l i n e d from 3 2 . 8 per cent t o 18.9 per  ity.  cent, t h a t o f n a t u r a l gas i n c r e a s e d from n o t h i n g t o 2.2 per cent, the share o f peat i n c r e a s e d from 1.9 t o 5 per cent and o f s h a l e (2) from n o t h i n g t o 0.7 per c e n t . The 1958, its  o i l i n d u s t r y was n e g l e c t e d so b a d l y t h a t even i n  f i v e years a f t e r i t had been g i v e n the h i g h e s t  share i n the o v e r a l l f u e l balance was s t i l l  1913.  priority,  lower than i n  The share o f c o a l , when considered as a furnace f u e l was  even h i g h e r .  As l a t e as 1955 i t was s t i l l more than 77 per cent,  while t h a t o f o i l was 7 per cent, wood 7 per cent, peat 6 per cent, n a t u r a l gas 2 per cent, and shale 1 per c e n t . due in  T h i s was  t o t h e f a c t t h a t o i l was used e x t e n s i v e l y as raw m a t e r i a l t h e chemical i n d u s t r y , as b a s i c f u e l f o r t r a c t o r s and f o r  lighting  (3)  purposes.  v>  - I l lIt  was o n l y a f t e r S t a l i n ' s death t h a t the problem o f  e f f i c i e n t u t i l i z a t i o n o f a l l a v a i l a b l e a l t e r n a t i v e f u e l s was  27 p l a c e d on t h e agenda o f t h e S o v i e t p l a n n e r s .  This revealed  great p o s s i b i l i t i e s of cost reduction of f u e l s ,  particularly  by comparison w i t h t h e f u e l economy o f t h e USA.  A. P r o b s t  and o t h e r R u s s i a n economists  suggestions  came out w i t h t h e i r  f o r improvements, which, however, g i v e an i m p r e s s i o n t h a t a l t h o u g h t h e y r e a l i z e d t h a t t h e c o s t s t r u c t u r e was wrong, t h e y d i d not know what r e a l l y were t h e causes o f d i f f i c u l t i e s . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o observe t h a t i t was mere conf r o n t a t i o n o f t h e two f u e l b a l a n c e s t h a t l e d P r o b s t and o t h e r s t o recommend a s e r i e s o f measures b e f o r e they compiled a u n i f i e d f u e l b a l a n c e f o r t h e i r economy.  These p r e l i m i n a r y  s o l u t i o n s c e n t e r e d around t h e t a s k o f r e d u c i n g t h e e x c e s s i v e c o s t s o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n t h r o u g h development o f l o c a l f u e l s and not y e t t h r o u g h s u b s t i t u t i o n o f c o a l by o i l and gas.  For  example A. P r o b s t s t a t e d : , "To e l i m i n a t e l o n g d i s t a n c e , i r r a t i o n a l haulage o f f u e l i t i s n e c e s s a r y f i r s t o f a l l t o work out a c o r r e c t schedule o f g e o g r a p h i c a l l o c a t i o n s o f a l l b r a n ches o f t h e f u e l i n d u s t r y , c o n s i d e r e d from a l o n g term p o i n t o f view, and a schedule f o r r e g i o n a l i z i n g t h e consumption o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l t y p e s o f f u e l s . Partic u l a r a t t e n t i o n s h o u l d be p a i d t o improvement i n t h e compilation of f u e l balances, presenting the foundation f o r planning the f u e l supply f o r the e n t i r e country. I n t h i s c o n n e c t i o n i t i s e s s e n t i a l t o note t h a t we not o n l y have no u n i f i e d f u e l - p o w e r b a l a n c e , but t h a t we even l a c k a u n i f i e d f u e l b a l a n c e by i t s e l f , s i n c e d u r i n g r e c e n t y e a r s t h e b a l a n c e s o f hard f u e l s and l i q u i d f u e l s ( l i g h t p r o d u c t s ) have been compiled s e p a r a t e l y , w i t h o u t s u f f i c i e n t l y r e l a t i n g them w i t h one another.(4) B e s i d e s , t h e s e b a l a n c e s , d i d not i n c l u d e s c o r e s o f m i l l i o n s o f t o n s o f f u e l consumed by t h e p o p u l a t i o n and d i d not t a k e i n t o account secondary sources o f f u e l . ( 5 ) D e t a i l e d remedies o f t h i s p r e l i m i n a r y nature i n c l u d e d the  following:-  28  (i)  t o expand p r o d u c t i o n o f l o c a l f u e l s t o e l i m i n a t e  l o n g d i s t a n c e haulage o f h i g h q u a l i t y c o a l s .  I n t h i s connec-  t i o n f u r t h e r development o f the peat i n d u s t r y was  particularly  s t r o n g l y recommended i n o r d e r t o s a t i s f y the needs of the p o p u l a t i o n and brushwood and  local  i n d u s t r y , and reduce consumption o f wood, dung, s t r a w , w h i c h were r i g h t l y c o n s i d e r e d the most  c o s t l y of f u e l s I h ' t e r m s o f l a b o u r F o r t h i s r e a s o n i t was  expenditure.  recommended t h a t i n the  immediate f u t u r e a c o n s i d e r a b l e p r o p o r t i o n o f wood, used by  the  town p o p u l a t i o n ( i n the f i r s t i n s t a n c e , o f t h e European p a r t o f the USSR), s h o u l d be r e p l a c e d w i t h l o c a l m i n e r a l f u e l s - c o a l and  peat. I t was  a l s o recommended t h a t the r a p i d l y expanding  demand f o r f u e l f o r a g r i c u l t u r e , MTS, r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n , s h o u l d be met  and the needs o f t h e  by w i d e r u t i l i z a t i o n o f  w h i c h s h o u l d be p r o v i d e d f o r s e v e r a l thousands o f power s t a t i o n s soon t o be c o n s t r u c t e d t o serve These s t a t i o n s were expected peat a n n u a l l y .  thermal  agriculture.  t o r e q u i r e 10 m i l l i o n tons  I n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h i s i t was  peat,  of  said:-  "One o f the r e a l achievements i n the f u e l economy o f the USSR i s the e x t e n s i v e development o f t h e peat i n d u s t r y . W i t h i n a c o n s i d e r a b l e p a r t o f the c e n t r a l r e g i o n peat can be used e c o n o m i c a l l y more e f f e c t i v e l y t h a n Moscow B a s i n c o a l . I n t h i s a r e a c o s t o f p r o d u c t i o n o f peat (average o f a l l t y p e s o f p r o d u c t i o n ) i n 1 9 5 3 was 2 5 . 7 per cent l o w e r t h a n the c o s t o f t h e e q u i v a l e n t amount, i n terms o f c a l o r i f i c v a l u e , o f Moscow c o a l , w h i l e the c o s t o f m i l l i n g - p e a t was 3 4 . 6 per cent l o w e r . Compared w i t h f i r e w o o d , peat i s 2 - 3 t i m e s cheaper. F u r t h e r m i n e r a l i z a t i o n o f the f u e l b a l a n c e o f the European p a r t of the USSR and r e d u c t i o n i n t h e consumpt i o n o f wood r e q u i r e s development o f peat e x t r a c t i o n . " ( ° J And  again -  29  " D u r i n g t h e 6th FYP peat e x t r a c t i o n s h o u l d be i n c r e a s e d b o t h f o r i n d u s t r i a l purposes and t o s a t i s f y t h e needs o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n and a g r i c u l t u r e . F o r t h i s r e a s o n i t i s e s s e n t i a l f i r s t o f a l l t o o r g a n i z e p r o d u c t i o n o f peat b r i q u e t t e s . T h i s would p r o v i d e on t h e one hand a h i g h q u a l i t y f u e l f o r everyday needs and on t h e o t h e r u t i l i z e m i l l i n g ^ p e a t , the p r o d u c t i o n o f w h i c h i s most mechanized and t h e r e f o r e least c o s t l y " ( 7 ) (ii)  While a d v o c a t i n g development o f l o c a l  r e s o u r c e s and i n p a r t i c u l a r p e a t , i t was  fuel  a l s o urged t h a t  e f f o r t s s h o u l d be made t o d e v e l o p t h e n a t u r a l gas i n d u s t r y , w h i c h p r o v i d e s t h e most e c o n o m i c a l f o r 1953  fuel.  According to data  t h e c o s t o f t h e n a t u r a l gas i n t h e C e n t r a l R e g i o n ,  b r o u g h t t h e r e over a d i s t a n c e o f 1200  km. was  1.5  to 2 times  lower t h a n e i t h e r Donbass c o a l , brought f r o m j u s t as f a r , o r t h e l o c a l f u e l , such as Moscow B a s i n c o a l o r p e a t .  To prove  t h i s t h e f o l l o w i n g f i g u r e s were g i v e n : Comparative C o s t s o f V a r i o u s Types o f F u e l s i n t h e C e n t r a l R e g i o n o f USSR.(8) (Calculated i n conventional f u e l units) Cost a t p l a c e of E x t r a c t i o n  N a t u r a l Gas Donbass C o a l Moscow B a s i n c o a l Peat (average a l l methods o f e x t r action) M i l l i n g peat I t was  Distance transported kms.  Cost at t h e p l a c e o f use, i n c l u d i n g transport cost, i n % of cost of n a t u r a l gas.  100 730 1066.5  1200 1300 1200 200  100 172.5 207  644.7 446.6  20 20  153.4 123  p o i n t e d out t h a t :  " I n s p i t e o f t h e u n d e n i a b l e economic enormous g e o l o g i c a l r e s e r v e s o f n a t u r a l ment i n the USSR was not s a t i s f a c t o r y . o f n a t u r a l gas i n t h e o v e r a l l output o f  advantage and t h e gas, i t s d e v e l o p I n 1950 the share mineral f u e l  30 ( c a l c u l a t e d i n terms o f c o n v e n t i o n a l f u e l ) amounted o n l y t o 2 2 per c e n t . D u r i n g t h e 5 t h FYP the share o f n a t u r a l gas d i d not i n c r e a s e . The d i r e c t i v e s o f t h e XIX Congress o f CPSU, h e l d i n October 1952, t o i n c r e a s e the o u t p u t o f n a t u r a l gas by 80 per c e n t , were not complied w i t h " (9) e  I t must be added t h a t r i g h t up t o 1955  the  gas  i n d u s t r y d i d not r e c e i v e enough a t t e n t i o n . I n o r d e r t o expand t h e output o f the gas i n d u s t r y i t was  advocated  t h a t p r o s p e c t i n g f o r o i l and gas s h o u l d be under-  t a k e n on a much w i d e r s c a l e than had been h e r e t o f o r e , " I t i s n e c e s s a r y t o emphasize t h a t e x c e s s i v e f e a r o f t h e r i s k i n d r i l l i n g and the d e s i r e t o a v o i d a l t o g e t h e r e x p e n d i t u r e on d r y * ( u n p r o d u c t i v e ) d r i l l i n g s o f t e n r e s u l t s i n l a r g e l o s s e s f o r the n a t i o n a l economy, e x c e e d i n g many t i m e s e x p e n d i t u r e s on such d r i l l i n g s . As a r e s u l t o f i t the economy i s b e i n g d e p r i v e d o f the cheapest and the most e f f e c t i v e f u e l " . (101 ?  (iii)  I n c r e a s e d p r o d u c t i o n o f o i l was  To j u s t i f y t h i s i t was  s a i d t h a t t h e d e c i s i o n t o f a v o u r the  p r o d u c t i o n o f c o a l as a g a i n s t o i l was o f i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n when i t was than coalo  a l s o urged.  t a k e n i n the e a r l y y e a r s  more e x p e n s i v e t o produce o i l  S i n c e t h e n t h e c o s t o f o i l p r o d u c t i o n has d e c l i n e d  f a s t e r t h a n the c o s t o f c o a l p r o d u c t i o n and by 1956  i t was  2.6  t i m e s l o w e r t h a n t h e c o s t o f p r o d u c i n g c o a l ( c a l c u l a t e d i n terms of conventional f u e l ) .  Yet from a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1932  t o 1953  the  share o f o i l i n t h e b a l a n c e o f m i n e r a l f u e l s s t e a d i l y d e c l i n e d . The  f o l l o w i n g f i g u r e s were g i v e n t o compare the c o s t s o f pro-  ducing 1 ton of o i l i n  percentages  of the cost o f p r o d u c t i o n  o f 1 t o n o f Donetz c o a l (Average f o r U S S R j . d ^ 1927/8 107 1940 58 1954 55 1  31  During the period of i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n the demand by branches  growing  o f the n a t i o n a l economy, and t r a n s p o r t i n  p a r t i c u l a r , f o r l i q u i d f u e l was met by improved  methods o f p r o -  c e s s i n g crude o i l and by r e s t r i c t i o n s and r e d u c t i o n s i n the use o f l i q u i d f u e l and r e p l a c i n g i t w i t h c o a l . Kaganovich  " I n 1936  i s c r e d i t e d w i t h h a v i n g c o n v e r t e d 1400  alone,  locomotives  (12)  from l i q u i d t o s o l i d f u e l b u r n i n g . "  For the s h i p p i n g  i n d u s t r y , w h i l e i n c o u n t r i e s o u t s i d e R u s s i a c o a l was  being  r e p l a c e d by o i l , R u s s i a c o n t i n u e d t o b u i l d c o a l b u r n e r s . i n d u s t r y t o o , o i l as a t e c h n o l o g i c a l f u e l was  In  o f t e n r e p l a c e d by  coal. " I t i s n e c e s s a r y t o check t h o r o u g h l y t h e comparative advantages o f u s i n g o i l and c o a l as t e c h n o l o g i c a l f u e l i n e v e r y b r a n c h , e v e r y r e g i o n and e v e r y t y p e o f e q u i p ment o r p r o c e s s . The proposed a b s o l u t e i n c r e a s e and r e l a t i v e growth i n t h e use o f o i l i n many f i e l d s would l e a d t o t h e i n c r e a s e o f i t s share i n the f u e l b a l a n c e and r e s u l t i n an improvement o f p r o d u c t i v i t y i n t h e e x t r a c t i o n o f f u e l as a whole."(13) These recommendations t o i n c r e a s e p r o d u c t i o n o f n a t u r a l gas and o i l were s u p p o r t e d by r e f e r e n c e s t o c o s t s o f p r o d u c t i o n and t o p a s t e x p e r i e n c e i n the USA.  Examples and s t a t i s t i c s  from  t h e American f u e l b a l a n c e , p r o v i n g t h e advantages o f the c o u r s e advocated were f r e e l y c i t e d i n the R u s s i a n economic l i t e r a t u r e . T h i s i s not the case w i t h t h e o t h e r t y p e s o f f u e l , namely wood, p e a t , c o a l and s h a l e , where o n l y e x p e r i e n c e i n R u s s i a i s c i t e d . (iv) accounted  I t was  f o r 70.4  assumed t h e n t h a t c o a l , w h i c h i n  per c e n t o f m i n e r a l f u e l produced  1955  i n the coun-  t r y , would c o n t i n u e t o p l a y the dominant r o l e i n the R u s s i a n f u e l economy, even though i t s s h a r e i n t h e f u t u r e b a l a n c e would some-  32 what d e c l i n e .  T h i s i s p a r t l y due t o t h e f a c t t h a t t h e r m a l and  t h e r m i f i c a t i o n power s t a t i o n s were expected mainly  t o c o n t i n u e t o use  coalo The dominant p o s i t i o n w h i c h c o a l was t o c o n t i n u e t o  occupy was a l s o p a r t l y a s c r i b e d t o t h e l o c a t i o n o f f u e l i n the USSR.  reserves  I n t h e E a s t o f t h e USSR t h e r e a r e l a r g e r e s e r v e s o f  coal o f t e n c l o s e to the s u r f a c e , but l i t t l e o i l .  Thus i t was  assumed t h a t t h e a b s o l u t e volume o f c o a l p r o d u c t i o n would i n c r e a s e considerably.  The 6 t h FYP p r o v i d e d f o r a I960 c o a l output o f 593  m i l l i o n t o n s - 122 m i l l i o n tons o f w h i c h was t o be o b t a i n e d  from  open c a s t mines (The t o t a l output i n 1958 was 495.8 m i l l i o n t o n s , ^ and  i n 1959 - 522.7 m i l l i o n t o n s ! ^ ). 1 5  As w e l l as s u g g e s t i o n s f o r t h e a l t e r a t i o n o f t h e f u e l balance  s t r u c t u r e , t h e r e was c r i t i c i s m o f t h e p r i c i n g o f v a r i o u s  fuels. "At t h e r m a l power s t a t i o n s working on Moscow B a s i n c o a l , t h e e x p e n d i t u r e o f f u e l p e r 1 kwh. o f energy produced i s 2.5 t o 2.8 times more t h a n i n power s t a t i o n s where Donbass c o a l i s u s e d . Using t h i s c o a l n e c e s s i t a t e s l a r g e r s u p p l i e s o f f u e l , a d d i t i o n a l e x p e n d i t u r e t o remove ashes and o t h e r expenses. A c c o r d i n g t o d a t a from t h e A l l - U n i o n T e c h n i c a l I n s t i t u t e g i v e n i n t h e t a b l e below t h e c o s t o f power p r o d u c t i o n by a power s t a t i o n o f 600,000 kw. a t t h e p i t h e a d i s 60 p e r cent h i g h e r when w o r k i n g on Moscow c o a l , t h a n on Donbass c o a l . Over a p e r i o d o f f i v e y e a r s such a power s t a t i o n s u f f e r s a l o s s o f 800 m i l l i o n Roubles which i s enough t o c o n s t r u c t a new power s t a t i o n o f t h e same c a p a c i t y w o r k i n g on Donbass coal."( > 1 6  Cost o f p r o d u c t i o n o f 1 kwh. i n k o p e c s . On Donbass coal Fuel A m o r t i s a t i o n and r e p a i r s Energy f o r own use Wages and a l l o w a n c e s Other expenses  3.860 1.141 0.808 0.330 0.427  l~75SS  On Moscow B a s i n coal 7.710 1.168 1.025 0.337 0.435 107675  33 B. Naymanov p o i n t e d out t h a t t h e p r i c e s were f i x e d i n c o r r e c t l y and t h a t Kuzbass c o a l , compared t o Donbass and Moscow B a s i n c o a l s was  u n d e r p r i c e d by 35 t o 40 per  cent.^ ^ 1  S p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n was drawn t o the advantages o f opencast mining. as  The s i t u a t i o n i n the c o a l i n d u s t r y was  summed up  follows: "The E a s t e r n r e g i o n , w h i c h commands over 90 per cent of a l l p o t e n t i a l f u e l reserves (including c o a l ) , at p r e s e n t consumes 23.2 per c e n t o f o v e r a l l c o a l p r o d u c t i o n and produces 34.4 per c e n t . T h i s d i v e r g e n c e between the l o c a t i o n o f c o a l r e s e r v e s and the l o c a t i o n o f c o a l e x t r a c t i o n as w e l l as d i v e r g e n c e between the p l a c e s o f e x t r a c t i o n and consumption o f f u e l r e s u l t s i n l a r g e l o s s e s w i t h i n the n a t i o n a l economy. I t i s n e c e s s a r y t o l i q u i d a t e t h e d i s a d v a n t a g e s o f the p r e s e n t l o c a t i o n s o f p r o d u c t i o n and consumption o f f u e l by more e n e r g e t i c t r a n s f e r o f new i n d u s t r i a l c o n s t r u c t i o n Eastwards. I t i s e s s e n t i a l t o combat d e c i s i v e l y the l a c k o f a p p r e c i a t i o n o f the c o l o s s a l l o s s e s r e s u l t i n g from s u p p l y i n g European t e r r i t o r i e s . w i t h f u e l s w h i c h a r e here more c o s t l y than i n the East."'-'-"' (v)  F i n a l l y , the 6th FYP p r o v i d e s f o r an i n c r e a s e i n  the output o f s h a l e o f not l e s s than 76 per c e n t . I n c o n c l u s i o n , these p r e l i m i n a r y measures advocated i n c r e a s e i n the p r o d u c t i o n o f a l l t y p e s o f f u e l s , w i t h the e x c e p t i o n o f wood, s t r a w and s i m i l a r f u e l s .  The S o v i e t econo-  m i s t s found i t d i f f i c u l t t o make up t h e i r minds what f u e l t o choose i n p r e f e r e n c e t o o t h e r s . "The S o v i e t Economists a r e f a c e d w i t h a number o f problems i n the f u r t h e r development o f the f u e l economy o f t h e USSR. To determine the economic advantages o f v a r i o u s t y p e s o f f u e l s , now and f o r the f u t u r e , i t i s e s s e n t i a l t o determine the q u e s t i o n o f i n i t i a l economic i n d i c e s f o r e x t r a c t i o n , t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and u t i l i z a t i o n o f f u e l , on what method t h e s e i n d i c e s are t o be d e t e r mined and compared, how t o a n a l y z e t h e i r changes, and so o n " / ' 1 9  I t was t h e s e d i f f i c u l t i e s t h a t l e d them t o the unified fuel  balance.  an  34 In 1957 was  the 6th FIP was  i n t r o d u c e d the 7-year p l a n .  d i s c o n t i n u e d and  i n i t s place  I n t r o d u c i n g t h i s p l a n a t the  S p e c i a l 21st Congress o f CPSU, h e l d i n January 1959,  N.S.  Khrushchev s a i d : "In the f u e l i n d u s t r y we have adopted the l i n e o f g i v i n g p r i o r i t y to the development o f o i l and gas e x t r a c t i o n and refining. In 1965 the pro d u c t i o n of o i l w i l l r i s e t o 230240 m i l l i o n tons, or more than t w o f o l d , and the output o f gas w j l l l i n c r e a s e approximately f i v e times, r e a c h i n g 150,000 m i l l i o n cubic metres per y e a r . The share of o i l and gas i n the t o t a l output o f f u e l w i l l grow from 31 to 51 per cent, w h i l e t h a t o f c o a l w i l l c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y decrease t o 43 per cent." He a l s o added, however, t h a t "While developing the o i l and gas i n d u s t r y we must not l o s e s i g h t o f the c o a l i n d u s t r y . Although the r a t e o f growth i n c o a l p r o d u c t i o n w i l l be much slower than i n the preceding 7 y e a r s , output w i l l , n e v e r t h e l e s s , r i s e 21 to 23 per cent, m a i n l y due t o the i n c r e a s e i n the e x t r a c t i o n o f coking c o a l s i n the Donbass, Kuzbass and Karaganda b a s i n s , and a l s o the cheap i n d u s t r i a l c o a l s i n the E a s t e r n areas"(20) K h r u s h c h e v ^ statement was  a l r e a d y a f a r c r y from  a s s i g n i n g t o c o a l a s p e c i a l p l a c e i n the f u e l balance, was  c l e a r t h a t the new  Russian United  and i t  p o l i c y would b r i n g the s t r u c t u r e o f the  f u e l economy v e r y much nearer t o the one  seen i n the  States.  - IV Recognition  o f the Importance of the Cost  The ficance.  Element.  change i n t r o d u c e d by Khrushchev was  I t marked a d e f i n i t e break with the  o f great  signi-  traditional  p r a c t i c e o f measuring economic e f f i c i e n c y through the  comparison  35 A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e USSR) w i t h t h e t a s k o f " c o m p i l i n g planned and r e a l i z e d f u e l and power b a l a n c e s f o r t h e c o u n t r y as a whole and f o r i n d i v i d u a l economic r e g i o n s w i t h i n  it".  Such a p l a n was d u l y produced. The U n i f i e d B a l a n c e o f Power Resources was based on: a)  i n t e r c h a n g e a b i l i t y o f v a r i o u s t y p e s o f s o u r c e s o f power when i n use,  b)  t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f c o n v e r t i n g one form o f energy i n t o a n o t h e r ,  c)  t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f combined p r o d u c t i o n from a s i n g l e s o u r c e o f v a r i o u s forms o f energy ( f o r example - s i m u l t a n e o u s p r o d u c t i o n o f heat and power a t t h e t h e r m i f i c a t i o n power s t a t i o n s ) and  d)  u s i n g t h e same s o u r c e o f energy f o r v a r i o u s purposes ( f o r example - use o f e l e c t r i c i t y as prime mover and f o r t e c h n o l o g i c a l needs). I t was r e a l i z e d t h a t t o prepare a u n i f i e d b a l a n c e i t i s  n e c e s s a r y i n a l l cases t o choose one o r a n o t h e r s o u r c e o f power t o s a t i s f y needs, and t o d e c i d e on the c o r r e c t a l l o c a t i o n o f power r e s o u r c e s between v a r i o u s u s e s .  As t h e number o f s o u r c e s  and t h e range o f uses i s i n c r e a s e d t h e problem becomes more and more c o m p l i c a t e d .  An e f f e c t i v e s o l u t i o n c o u l d o n l y be found by  t a k i n g an a l l s i d e d account o f a l l t h e a v a i l a b l e r e s o u r c e s on t h e one hand and a l l t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s on t h e o t h e r - i . e . on t h e b a s i s o f a u n i f i e d power b a l a n c e f o r t h e e n t i r e n a t i o n a l  economy.  I t was c l a i m e d t h a t w i t h t h e a i d o f such a b a l a n c e an i n t e r - i n d u s t r y and i n t e r - r e g i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p i n t h e f i e l d o f p r o d u c t i o n and consumption  c o u l d be worked o u t , which  would  36  a l l o w f o r o p t i m a l s a t i s f a c t i o n o f power needs combined w i t h maximum economy o f p r o d u c t i v e r e s o u r c e s i n power i n d u s t r y branches.  T h i s would i n s u r e a h i g h r a t e o f economic  ment on t h e b a s i s o f economical  power b a l a n c e s .  develop-  Due t o i n t e r -  c h a n g e a b i l i t y and m o b i l i t y o f power r e s o u r c e s t h e u n i f i e d  power  b a l a n c e r e p r e s e n t s t h e u n i t y i n p r o d u c t i o n , d i s t r i b u t i o n and use o f a l l r e s o u r c e s and t y p e s o f power, reduced w i t h t h e a i d o f c o e f f i c i e n t s t o a common e v a l u a t i o n .  The power b a l a n c e o f t h e  n a t i o n a l economy can be r e p r e s e n t e d as i n s c h e d u l e s A and B a t t a c h e d below. I n s c h e d u l e A , s u b d i v i d e d i n t o s o u r c e s , we see t h e unified  power b a l a n c e l i n k e d up w i t h the n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s o f  t h e c o u n t r y and i t s v a r i o u s r e g i o n s ( t h e r e s e r v e s o f f u e l , e l e c t r i c r e s o u r c e s and o t h e r s ) .  Schedule  the forms a c q u i r e d by i t t o determine  hydro-  B: c l a s s i f i e s power i n  t h e needs o f t h e n a t i o n a l  economy i n h e a t , m e c h a n i c a l , e l e c t r i c a l e n e r g i e s inasmuch as t h e power i s used i n these forms i n p r o d u c t i o n o r f o r g e n e r a l purposes.  The schedule B c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s a l s o n e c e s s a r y t o  e s t i m a t e t h e amount o f equipment (steam and i n t e r n a l  combustion  e n g i n e s , t u r b i n e s , and so on) w h i c h i s n e c e s s a r y t o produce t h e a p p r o p r i a t e form o f energy.  Through t h e i n t e r m e d i a r y o f schedule  B t h e b a l a n c e o f power i s a l s o c o o r d i n a t e d w i t h t h e b a l a n c e o f i n s t a l l e d c a p a c i t y o f power. The columns i n t h e e x p e n d i t u r e s e c t i o n o f t h e b a l a n c e r e f l e c t d i s t r i b u t i o n o f power a c c o r d i n g t o : a)  Economic purposes  b)  Branches o f economy  37 o f t h e r a t e o f i n c r e a s e o f the p r o d u c t i v i t y o f l a b o u r w i t h i n a g i v e n branch o f i n d u s t r y over a p e r i o d o f time.  For the  f i r s t time the problem was faced s q u a r e l y and a new approach was  made through  the c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f maximum e f f e c t a t a m i n i -  mum cost f o r the e n t i r e f u e l economy.  I t i s obvious, however,  t h a t only approximate estimates o f comparative  c o s t s could be  made a t t h a t time as no combined f u e l and power balance had as y e t been prepared.  The new approach was o f f i c i a l l y summarized  by S. F e l d i n V o p r o s y Ekonomiki i n March I960.  The author  s t r e s s e d the need f o r a u n i f i e d , c o o r d i n a t e d f u e l balance f o r the country as a whole, a p o i n t made by A. Probst f o u r years b e f o r e , but about which, a p p a r e n t l y n o t h i n g was done. "The c r i t e r i o n f o r the l o n g range p l a n n i n g i n v a r i o u s branches o f the economy and f o r the economic r e g i o n s o f the country should be, t o a c o n s i d e r a b l e degree, based on the n e c e s s i t y o f u t i l i z i n g a l l power resources i n t h e i r most r a t i o n a l combination. I n the course o f i n t e r b r a n c h s u b d i v i s i o n o f power r e s o u r c e s and constant changes i n the r a t e o f growth o f the i n d i v i d u a l branches, the problems o f c o o r d i n a t i o n o f p r o d u c t i o n and o f i t s power r e s o u r c e s becomes v e r y complicated. The problem cannot be s o l v e d by means o f i s o l a t e d power b a l a n c e s , s i n c e i n the i s o l a t e d power balances the p r o d u c t i o n , d i s t r i b u t i o n and u t i l i z a t i o n o f v a r i o u s power r e s o u r c e s are considered s e p a r a t e l y from one another. To s o l v e t h i s problem i t i s necessary t o prepare a s i n g l e power balance f o r the n a t i o n a l economy. The p r e p a r a t i o n o f a s i n g l e power balance i s the way t o u n i f y and i n t e r r e l a t e separate balances prepared a c c o r d i n g to t h e types o f power resources (balances of c o a l , o i l , e l e c t r i c power, e t c . ) . On the b a s i s o f an a l l s i d e d i n n e r i n t e r r e l a t i o n o f these b a l a n c e s , the necessary c o o r d i n a t i o n i n t h e development o f v a r i o u s branches o f power r e s o u r c e s f o r the country as a whole, and f o r i n d i v i d u a l economic r_egions can be a t t a i n e d . " ' ^1) S. F e l d then says t h a t i n response  t o the need f o r the  o v e r a l l f u e l balance, a t the b e g i n n i n g o f 1959 the Government had  e n t r u s t e d the Gosplan  and Ts.S.U.SSSR ( C e n t r a l S t a t i s t i c a l  M <5 M H <J  H ,H H  H  H H H < ! < ! H  Vjj ro f—  1  o » c+ H- O > H-  H  o <! H >-s  o 3 3 ct o ^O CD  H" C+  l—  1  Co CO CO  co  P O  a  ,l  1  1  1  CO  ro  CD  VJJ  tr co  Stocks at the beginning of the period Production Imports  Hj  H-  4 O CD  H 4 H fD  Co to  .  Co 3 M o --J tr  ON  o tr c o  o»  cr Co  v£>  I—'  CX ct  CD  ct  tr  CD  4  (D  .  +  H' 3ct  a  Total I n c l u d i n g used e v e n t u a l l y as mechanical energy  Whole  H VO  CD  M VO  O  H3  CD  generating  co 3 3 ct H- O  o M »-"-< 2 Xi  CD CO  o  + + i—•  ON  +  H  Total expenditure  a  Cfl  CD  4 0Q  .—-  3 H* (-•  lad s: tr IS — '  I-i  o  CO Cfl  CD CO  M cr  Hj 1-9 CD c j 3  ro co  i_, S t o c k s a t t h e end o f ON t h e p e r i o d  +  &  CD  o  Co ct  Export  t—' I—' — 3 vn-f> H  *  O O o tr H - M £  II  H  P  o  CD  Ct 3 CD CD f i t f l  Total  3 H-  o CD  TI o  3 3 Co < M CD  I n t h e course o f e x t r a c t i o n , proc e s s i n g and transporting  ro  CO era 3 ct Co o 3 > o CD Co 4 p-  H  Hj  „ O CD O s: 4 O CD  i—•  tr H3  o  Co 3  w  T o t a l (without M - O double c o u n t i n g )  ro > o O  Co  tr  I n c l u d i n g used e v e n t u a l l y as heat  Co  O  ct  Total  o  CO ct  W dd  v*> <i T o t a l p- 4^ Resources  •i s; o o m P-  H-  Co  ooco^s;s;H5t-<ctffi 4 CD £ H- d CO £ H < ! CO O O 3 H- CD I— £ CD P> P ct CD ^ 01 H- CQ tr CD tr co 0 CD 3 4 T3 C+ l-J ( [)CD O C+CP , <CiD $ «<! CO H-i 3 4 4 C-D 'T-j CO o ^ era M, CD Co vJ<j Cfl C D ct ^ ct 4 ro ICD  C+  c+  c+  38 i—i  Hj  MD OCD O 3 H  CO  3 Co 13 C+ CD C Co 4 c+  CO co  S  1  H  w o cc t?d a ci tr  1  3  !«=> >* **  39 SCHEDULE »B  tt  B a l a n c e o f Types o f Energy ( i n b i l . kwh). Thermal Mechani- E l e c t r i T o t a l Energy 2 c a l cal Energy Energy A.  Production" ' 1  B. E x p e n d i t u r e a) . G a i n f u l l y u t i l i z e d energy I . 1) F o r p r o d u c t i o n purposes Including I n i n d u s t r y and b u i l d i n g o f which t e c h n o l o g i c a l purposes prime mover power h e a t i n g and l i g h t i n g 2) I n goods t r a n s p o r t I n c l u d i n g as prime mover 3) I n a g r i c u l t u r e I n c l u d i n g as prime mover 4) I n o t h e r branches Total Including F o r t e c h n o l o g i c a l purposes As prime mover As h e a t i n g and l i g h t i n g I I . F o r n o n - p r o d u c t i o n needs I n c l u d i n g : f o r p o p u l a t i o n needs f o r passenger t r a n s p o r t Total I n c l u d i n g : prime mover h e a t i n g and l i g h t i n g T o t a l o f g a i n f u l l y u t i l i z e d energy I n c l u d i n g : t e c h n i c a l needs prime mover h e a t i n g and l i g h t i n g b) .  L o s s e s o f energy i n t r a n s m i s s i o n T o t a l used  1.  W i t h o u t double c o u n t i n g i . e . columns 7,9,10 and 11 Schedule A. V o p r o s y E k o n o m i k i I960 I I I p. 16  2.  Could be f u r t h e r s u b d i v i d e d i n t o h i g h and l o w p o t e n t i a l .  40 c)  T e c h n i c a l uses (as a prime mover, f o r t e c h n o l o g i c a l p u r p o s e s , and o t h e r s ) .  Care must be t a k e n i n t r e a t i n g energy a p p e a r i n g s e v e r a l t i m e s , when t r a n s f o r m e d from one form t o a n o t h e r .  The r e p e a t e d o r  s e c o n d a r y forms must be i n c l u d e d f o r c a l c u l a t i o n s n e c e s s a r y t o e s t i m a t e equipment needs, w h i l e o n l y o r i g i n a l ( n e t t ) output s h o u l d be t a k e n f o r measuring  p r o d u c t i v i t y , t o t a l o u t p u t and so f o r t h .  _ V One o f t h e c o n t r o v e r s i a l p o i n t s i n t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f a u n i f i e d power b a l a n c e i s t h e q u e s t i o n o f r e d u c i n g v a r i o u s r e s o u r c e s and forms o f energy t o a common measurement. As t h e o v e r a l l e q u i v a l e n t o f energy i n t h e f i n a l  calcu-  l a t i o n e i t h e r a t h e r m a l o r e l e c t r i c a l measurement u n i t c o u l d be selected.  The e l e c t r i c a l e q u i v a l e n t possesses a number o f advan-  t a g e s , e x p l a i n e d by t h e u n i v e r s a l i t y o f e l e c t r i c i t y .  For this  r e a s o n kwh. p o t e n t i a l l y more t h a n any o t h e r u n i t answers t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s as a u n i v e r s a l e q u i v a l e n t o f energy and i t a l s o has a common base w i t h t h e measurements o f t h e c a p a c i t y o f e l e c t r i c a l equipment and motors.  This gives i t a s i n g l e standard f o r  d e f i n i n g power c a p a c i t i e s and the degree o f t h e i r e x p l o i t a t i o n . A d d i t i o n a l l y t h e same e l e c t r i c s t a n d a r d s a r e a c c e p t a b l e i n a l l c o u n t r i e s , w h i c h i s n o t t h e case w i t h t h e r m a l u n i t s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , whether t h e r m a l o r e l e c t r i c a l a r e t o be used depends on t h e p r o c e s s e s and purposes gations.  standards of investi-  When a n a l y s i n g t h e heat p r o d u c i n g c a p a c i t y o f the combined  power b a l a n c e i t i s p r e f e r a b l e t o use a c o n v e n t i o n a l f u e l u n i t  41 or  "kg/calory". To reduce v a r i o u s s o u r c e s and forms o f energy t o a  common measurement t h e f o l l o w i n g i n d i c e s a r e t a k e n : io  The w e i g h t e q u i v a l e n t o f a u n i t o f energy r e s o u r c e i s meas-  u r e d i n number o f k i l o g r a m s o f e x t r a c t e d f u e l w h i c h on t h e average are  r e q u i r e d f o r the p r o d u c t i o n o f 1000 kwh. o f p o t e n t i a l energy  c o n t a i n e d i n a l l power r e s o u r c e s (kg/1000 ii.  kwh.).  Average l a b o u r e q u i v a l e n t o f a u n i t o f energy i s measured i n  terms o f average e x p e n d i t u r e o f man/labour days n e c e s s a r y t o produce 1000 kwh. o f p o t e n t i a l energy c o n t a i n e d i n power r e s o u r c e s (man l a b o u r days/1000 kwh - man l . d . / k w h ) . 111.  Average c o s t o f the u n i t o f energy i s measured  i n terms o f  average e x p e n d i t u r e i n money n e c e s s a r y f o r the p r o d u c t i o n o f 1000 kwh. o f energy c o n t a i n e d i n power r e s o u r c e s - Rouble/1000 For  kwh.  t h e q u a l i t a t i v e d e s i g n a t i o n o f the b a l a n c e o f f u e l  i t i s more c o n v e n i e n t t o use i n d i c e s based not on t h e u n i t o f l a b o u r / k w h , but on heat p r o d u c i n g c a p a c i t y o f 1 k g . o f e x t r a c t e d fuel. a) fuel b)  Such i n d i c e s c o u l d be:-  Amount of heat produced on an average by 1 k g . o f e x t r a c t e d (kcal/kg.) The average r e q u i r e m e n t o f l a b o u r f o r one c o n v e n t i o n a l t o n  o f e x t r a c t e d f u e l (man l . d . / l ton) o r l a b o u r e q u i v a l e n t f o r 1 m i l l i o n c a l o r i e s (man l . d . / 1 m i l l i o n c a l . ) c)  Average c o s t o f 1 c o n v e n t i o n a l t o n o f f u e l e x t r a c t e d ( R o u b l e /  1 c o n v e n t i o n a l t o n ) o r c o s t o f one m i l l i o n c a l o r i e s ( R / l m i l . calories). The w e i g h t o f f u e l r e s o u r c e s c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o 1000 o f energy v a r i e s g r e a t l y i n d i f f e r e n t branches o f the power  kwh  42 industry.  The  f u l l e l e c t r i c a l e q u i v a l e n t of 1 kg. o f c o a l i s  a p p r o x i m a t e l y 8 kwh.,  c o n s e q u e n t l y 1000 (22)  ponds t o 125 k g . o f t h i s f u e l .  '  The  kwh.  o f energy c o r r e s -  corresponding  electri-  c a l e q u i v a l e n t o f o i l i s 12 kwh/kg. and the weight e q u i v a l e n t i s 83 kg./1000 kwh; 3 kwh and 333  o f peat 4 kwh/kg and 250 kg./lOOO; o i l s h a l e  kg/1000 kwh;  wood 4 kwh/kg and 250 kg/1000;  n u c l e a r f u e l 22850000 kwh/kg. and 0.0000438 kg/1000 Having  prepared a u n i f i e d f u e l b a l a n c e  kwh.  (See t a b l e o v e r -  l e a f ) t h e R u s s i a n s noted t h a t the s t r u c t u r a l c h a r a c t e r o f t h e i r f u e l and power b a l a n c e was moving i n a d i r e c t i o n o p p o s i t e t o the r e s t o f the w o r l d . Due  t o t e c h n o l o g i c a l improvements i n the  utilization  o f f u e l s and a s h i f t from low c a l o r y c o n t e n t t o h i g h c a l o r y c o n t e n t , f o r the w o r l d as a w h o l e , the average amount o f f u e l n e c e s s a r y t o produce 1000 kwh. from 211.7  k g . t o 112.3  kg.  d e c l i n e d between I860 and  1953  The g a i n due t o the s h i f t from low  t o h i g h c a l o r i f i c v a l u e f u e l s amounted i n 1953 o f 2391.6 m i l . t o n s o f c o n v e n t i o n a l f u e l .  t o the e q u i v a l e n t  During t h i s period  the w o r l d f i r s t moved away from u s i n g wood t o u s i n g hard m i n e r a l f u e l and i s a t p r e s e n t moving away from hard m i n e r a l f u e l s t o the preponderent  use o f s o f t m i n e r a l f u e l s .  The R u s s i a n s them-  s e l v e s e s t i m a t e t h a t the peak o f t h i s phase w i l l o c c u r sometime i n 1 9 7 0 i e s , when the w o r l d w i l l move t o t h e n e x t stage - t h e predominant use o f n u c l e a r e n e r g y .  S o v i e t Union however, i n  t h e i r past f u e l p o l i c y , d i d not f o l l o w t h i s  course.  C o n t r a r y t o t e n d e n c i e s i n the development o f f u e l power i n d u s t r y i n the r e s t o f the w o r l d , i n the USSR t h e  and  share  TABLE I I I DEVELOPMENT AND  O F T H E R M A L AND W E I G H T E Q U I V A L E N T O F T H E POWER B A L A N C E O F T H E U S S R , 1 9 1 3 - 1 9 5 8  •H  H •H  c »  •H P  1913 1928  1940 1945 1950 1955 1958  a •H  • P  rH • Cd rH O -H O 6  rH rH •H -H O E  2  3  29.1 35.5 165.9 149.3 261.1  391.3 495.8  CD rH  O  9.2  11.6 31.1 19.4 37.9 70.8 113.2  cd  •H  -H • d o  c«  O  4  -  304.0 3219.1 3278.0 5760.9 8980.9 '28084.5  •H P P  • rH CD -H  Cd  5 1.7 5.3 33.2 22.4 36.0 50.8 52.8  TOTAL  FUEL  FUEL  •  si -P co • rH rH •H -H  oe 6  1.7  1.4 4.7 10.8 13.2  o o 7 20.7 (15.9) 79.3 66.0  64.9 75.3 76.5  in mil. t. 8 = 2*3 +•5+6+7 60.7  (68.3) 311.2 258.5 404.6 599.0 751.5  CM rH O rH  C  rH cd  •H O  321.3 (379.4) 1663.9 1295.0 2178.4 3359.3 4408.0  TABLE I I I DEVELOPMENT OF THERMAL AND WEIGHT EQUIVALENT OF THE FUEL AND POWER BALANCE OF THE USSR, 1913 - 1958 (continued) 1  o u >>  WEIGHT EQUIVALENT  PH-P  •H  •P o CO Cti r H CD ft 0)  xi rs 0  •H  O <+H  rH  CD  hQ b£) CD bS  (BO  rH  > 3 ' H cd  •=tj XS O O  c  >>Xi  d  rH  O  •H  xi  J5  rH •H  Q) X a CD « Q•H U t^. d  u to CD  o  w ,d a, e rH  r-i  o o o £  o •  1913 1928 1940 1945 1950 -1955 1958  11  5293 (5555). 5345 5010 5384 5608 5866  373.6 441.2 1934.9 1505.9 2533.0 3906.4 5125.6  o d  03 r H  10=9:8  «H  12  13=11+12 co - H  14=8:3  15  0.035 0.4 5.1 4.8 12.7 23.2 46.5  373.6 (441.6) 1940.0 1510.7 2545.7 3929.6 5172.1  162.4 (154.7) 160.4 171.1 158.9 152.4 145.3  100.0 95.3 98.7 105.4 97.7 93.8 89.5  •H  Sources: Voprosy Ekonomiki I960. I I I . p. 2 3 . based on Promishlennost' SSSR. 1957- PP- 133, 140, 153, 1 6 5 , 166, 171. Pravda 16.11959. On the r e s u l t s o f the f u l f i l m e n t o f the S t a t e Plan f o r the Development o f N a t i o n a l economy during 1958. Column 9 . Obtained by computing c o n v e n t i o n a l f u e l I t . = 7000 c a l . Column 11. Data on f u e l i n e l e c t r i c u n i t s ( c o l . 11) were obtained by recomputing f u e l c a l c u l a t e d i n thermal u n i t s ( c o l . 9) a t 1 kwh = §60 K c a l . Weight o f wood i n n a t u r a l form ( c o l . 7) was c a l c u l a t e d assuming that 1 t . o f wood i n natura = approx. 0.43 t . o f c o n v e n t i o n a l f u e l .  45 o f c o a l and l o c a l m i n e r a l f u e l s i n the t o t a l e x t r a c t i o n o f f u e l not o n l y d i d not d e c l i n e , but on the c o n t r a r y , i n c r e a s e d from 5108 per cent i n 1913 t o 69  per cent i n 1955. At the same  time t h e share o f the high c a l o r i f i c value f u e l s - o i l and gas d e c l i n e d i n the f u e l balance o f the USSR from 28.8 per cent ( i n 1928 i t even reached 3 0 . 8 per cent) t o 23.5 per c e n t .  Thus the S o v i e t t r e n d i n the f u e l i n d u s t r y f o l l o w e d the world t r e n d o n l y i n s o f a r as i t moved away from t h e use o f wood, but while the r e s t o f the world was changing t o o i l and gas, R u s s i a f o l l o w e d a d e l i b e r a t e p o l i c y o f b o o s t i n g up the c o a l industry.  U n t i l 1953 the share o f c o a l and peat i n the n a t i o n a l  balance o f f u e l continued t o grow, w i t h the r e s u l t t h a t while the world average heat-producing  c a p a c i t y i n c r e a s e d from 5812 c a l o r i e s  per k g . i n 1913 t o 7520 i n 1953, an i n c r e a s e o f 29 per cent, the (23)  f i g u r e s f o r the USSR were 5293 and 5608, than 6 per cent.  an i n c r e a s e o f l e s s  Weight e q u i v a l e n t i n the USA d e c l i n e d between  1913 and 1953 from 147o5 t o 112.3 while i n the USSR the change was from 162.4 t o 152.4.  (See t a b l e below)  Average Weight E q u i v a l e n t s i n F u e l and Power B a l a n c e ^ ) o f the USSR and USA i n kg. per 1000 kwh. Year  USSR (b) USA Excess o f the USSR Weight e q u i v a l e n t over t h a t i n the USA  1913  1953  Reduction i n no. o f kg. r e q u i r e d t o produce 1000 kwh.  162.4  152.4  10  147.5  112.3  35.2  14.9  40.1  2 5 . 2 Increase i n d i f f e r ence between the weight e q u i v a l e n t i n the two countries.  46 (a)  Prepared on the b a s i s o f Table I I I  (b)  S o v i e t f i g u r e s f o r 1913  and  The reason f o r t h i s was  1955 the slowness  to move t o the  more economical n o n - s o l i d f u e l s , the tendency t o r e p l a c e wood w i t h c o a l , peat and o t h e r f u e l s of low c a l o r i f i c  content.  What were the causes o f t h i s development? S. F e l d g i v e s the f o l l o w i n g answer. I t was caused by the f a c t t h a t f o r many years the development o f the f u e l balance o f the USSR was o r i e n t a t e d on the predominant use o f c o a l , i n c l u d i n g brown c o a l of low c a l o r i f i c content, and a l s o t o a c e r t a i n extent o f peat. At the time the l i n e was j u s t i f i e d on grounds that i t was n e c e s s a r y i n every way t o develop l o c a l f u e l r e s o u r c e s ; t h i s however, without proper economic c a l c u l a t i o n s of the expenditure o f l a b o u r and m a t e r i a l and money spent on the e x p l o i t a t i o n of these r e s o u r c e s . The r e s u l t i n g economy i n t r a n s p o r t c o s t s r e p a i d o n l y t o a s m a l l degree the e x t r a c o s t s and investments n e c e s s i t a t e d by the unfavourable n a t u r a l c o n d i t i o n s and most of a l l by the low c a l o r i f i c content o f the l o c a l f u e l s . These mistakes would not have occured i f the order o f p r i o r i t i e s f o r f u e l consumption w i t h i n the country as a whole was always prepared on the p r i n c i p l e o f p r i o r i t y o f n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t over l o c a l . The b a s i c c r i t e r i o n o f t h i s , a l l - n a t i o n a l , approach, both i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r case and elsewhere, i s the need t o safeguard i n c r e a s e s i n the p r o d u c t i v i t y of p r o d u c t i v e f o r c e s as a whole, the a l l - s i d e d e v a l u a t i o n of , a l l l a b o u r expenditures both on p r o d u c t i o n and on t r a n s p o r t " * ^ w  To put i t i n another way,  the author advocated  need t o c o n s i d e r o v e r a l l minimum c o s t s f o r the e n t i r e  the  fuel  economy. I t i s sometimes claimed t h a t the o r i g i n a l d e c i s i o n to develop the c o a l i n d u s t r y was  based on i n s u f f i c i e n t i n f o r m a t i o n  about the extent o f a v a i l a b l e n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s o f o i l . b e f o r e the war  Yet even  i t had been s t a t e d by the Russian experts t h a t  the USSR had the l a r g e s t r e s e r v e s of both o i l and gas i n the world.  47 "The s h o r t a g e o f i n v e s t i g a t e d r e s o u r c e s o f i n d u s t r i a l type was due t o slow development o f g e o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h i n o i l and gas, p r o b a b l y caused by i n c o r r e c t d e c i s i o n s w i t h r e g a r d t o f u e l consumption i n the c o u n t r y , A cons i d e r a b l e p a r t was p l a y e d i n t h i s by t h e b u r e a u c r a t i c a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f i n d u s t r y . I t i s a known f a c t t h a t i n the p a s t the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f f u e l and power was s p l i t between a number o f m i n i s t r i e s , each p r i n c i p a l l y i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e development o f the b r a n c h s u b o r d i n a t e t o i t . I n the course o f t h i s the need t o d e v e l o p the f u e l and power i n d u s t r y as a whole was c o n s i d e r e d t o a l e s s e r degree t h a n the development o f i n d i v i d u a l s e c t o r s . I n many c a s e s , t h e d i v i s i o n o f l a b o u r between branches o f the f u e l i n d u s t r y d i d not f a v o u r the growth i n p r o d u c t i v i t y o f t h e p r o d u c t i v e r e s o u r c e s . The overwhelming p r o p o r t i o n o f the l a b o u r f o r c e even t o d a y i s c o n c e n t r a t e d i n the c o a l , peat and wood i n d u s t r i e s - i . e . i n those branches where the p r o d u c t i v i t y o f l a b o u r i s the l o w e s t . " ' 5 ) 2  The S o v i e t economists were o b v i o u s l y s t a r t l e d by what t h e y d i s c o v e r e d when t h e y compiled the c o u n t r y as a w h o l e .  the u n i f i e d f u e l b a l a n c e f o r  I n t h i s c o n n e c t i o n i t was  said that:-  "The t h e o r e t i c a l v a l u e o f the d e c i s i o n t o r e o r g a n i z e the f u e l b a l a n c e l i e s i n the f a c t t h a t i t makes i t p o s s i b l e t o uncover on the example o f one o f the l e a d i n g branches o f n a t i o n a l economy the o r g a n i c , i n t e r n a l l i n k between the d i v i s i o n o f l a b o u r and the l e v e l o f i t s p r o d u c t i v i t y . As a r u l e t h i s l i n k i s c o n s i d e r e d i n our l i t e r a t u r e from one a n g l e o n l y ; namely — t h a t the r e l a t i o n o f the r a t e s o f growth i n the p r o d u c t i v i t y o f l a b o u r i n v a r i o u s i n d i v i d u a l branches i s one o f the d e c i d i n g f a c t o r s o f t h e i n t e r - b r a n c h d i v i s i o n o f l a b o u r . But t h e r e i s the o t h e r a s p e c t o f t h i s problem: d i s t r i b u t i o n o f p r o d u c t i v e f o r c e s between the branches o f economy and areas o f the c o u n t r y i n i t s t u r n determines t h e a c h i e v e d l e v e l o f the p r o d u c t i v i t y o f the p r o d u c t i v e f o r c e s . To put i t i n a n o t h e r way, the e x p e n d i t u r e o f l a b o u r nece s s a r y t o produce a g i v e n volume o f goods depends a l s o upon the s u b d i v i s i o n o f l a b o u r between the branches o f p r o d u c t i o n and the economic r e g i o n s . T a k i n g f u e l economy as an example i t has been shown above t h a t under c e r t a i n h i s t o r i c a l c o n d i t i o n s the r e s h a p i n g o f b r a n c h s t r u c t u r e can be a p o w e r f u l f a c t o r i n reducing expenditure.of labour, i . e . i n r a i s i n g i t s l e v e l of p r o d u c t i v i t y . " * " ' 2  The  r e c e n t l y s t a r t e d r e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f the  economy o f the USSR, expressed  m a i n l y i n the h i g h  fuel  priority  awarded t o the development o f gas and o i l i n d u s t r i e s , has  caused  48 T A B L E  I V  CHANGES IN HEAT AND WEIGHT EQUIVALENTS OF RESOURCES'; ENTERING FUEL AND POWER BALANCE OF THE USSR IN 1958-1965 Q u a n t i t a t i v e and q u a l i t a t i v e i n d e x e s o f f u e l and power Balance  Unit of measure  1958  1965 Plan  1.  E x t r a c t i o n of f u e l p h y s i c a l quantities  mil. t  751.5  1030.7  2.  The same c o n v e r t e d i n t o calories  3.  Average heat p r o d u c i n g . capacity of f u e l ( 2 : l J  10  12  4408  7620  172.9  kcal/kg  5866  7393  126.0  5125.6 8859.9  E x t r a c t i o n o f f u e l conv e r t e d i n t o kwh.  bil.  kwh  5.  Production power  bil.  kwh  6.  T o t a l power (4+5)  7.  Weight e q u i v a l e n t o f power r e s o u r c e s (1:6)  resources  137.2  kcal  4.  of water  1965 P l a n as % o f 1958  b i l . kwh  46.5  172.9  91.6  197.0  5172.1 8951.5  173.1  kg/1000 kwh. 145.3  115.1  79.2  49 t h e average h e a t - g i v i n g c a p a c i t y o f S o v i e t F u e l t o i n c r e a s e between 1955 and 1958 from 5,608 c a l / k g . t o 5,866 c a l / k g . , w h i l e the weight e q u i v a l e n t c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y dropped from to  145.3  kwh.  kg./lOOO kwh.  i . e . b y 7.1  a c h i e v e d between 1928  k g . as a g a i n s t 2.3 kg./lOOO  and 1955.  (See t a b l e m  Develop-  ment o f t h e r m a l and w e i g h t e q u i v a l e n t o f the f u e l and balance  o f the USSR, 1913  - 1958.)  power  As can be seen from the  t a b l e below even g r e a t e r changes i n the s t r u c t u r e o f the balance  152.4  fuel  are t o t a k e p l a c e d u r i n g the next 7 y e a r s .  S t r u c t u r e o f the F u e l B a l a n c e o f t h e USSR 1958-1965 Coal  Oil  Gas  1958  59.6  25.7  1965  43.1  32.6  The  (in%).( ) 2 7  Peat  Shale  Wood  Total  5o4  3.4  0.7  5o2  100$  17.6  (3.1)  0.6  3.0  100$  s h a r e o f o i l and gas i n the f u e l b a l a n c e  amount i n 1 9 6 5  to 5 0 . 2  per c e n t , and as a r e s u l t the  will  increase  i n the e x t r a c t i o n measured i n c a l o r i e s w i l l be g r e a t e r t h a n i n the p h y s i c a l volume. The reach  7,393  average heat g i v i n g c a p a c i t y o f f u e l i n 1 9 6 5  c a l / k g . , an i n c r e a s e o f  26  per cent o v e r  a g a i n s t 6 per cent a c h i e v e d between 1 9 1 3 e q u i v a l e n t w i l l drop t o 1 1 5 . 1 between 1 9 5 8  and 1 9 6 5 .  -  k g . - a drop o f 2 0 . 8  power r e s o u r c e s  years,  and the weight per  (See t a b l e on Changes i n heat  w e i g h t e q u i v a l e n t s o f f u e l and 1958  and 1 9 5 5 ,  7  will  cent and  o f the USSR,  1965).  Improved i n d i c e s o f heat g i v i n g c a p a c i t y w i l l be r e f l e c t e d i n the i n c r e a s e d p r o d u c t i v i t y o f l a b o u r i n the  pro-  50  d u c t i o n o f power r e s o u r c e s .  I n 1956, average l a b o u r  expendi-  t u r e i n t h e USSR t o produce 1 t o n o f o i l was 0.334 d a y s , 0.728 days f o r 1 t o n o f c o a l .  B e a r i n g i n mind t h a t t h e average  h e a t - g i v i n g c a p a c i t y o f o i l i s 10,000 k c a l / k g . and o f c o a l ' 5560 k c a l / k g . t h e heat g i v i n g c a p a c i t y o f 1 t o n o f c o n v e n t i o n a l f u e l e x t r a c t e d i n o i l i n d u s t r y equals 0 . 2 3 4 l a b o u r days and i n t h e c o a l i n d u s t r y - 0.917 l a b o u r days. labour requirements 1956  Thus, c o n s i d e r i n g  a l o n e , t h e c o s t o f p r o d u c i n g c o a l was i n  more t h a n 2 t i m e s g r e a t e r t h a n t h e c o s t o f p r o d u c i n g  oil,  w h i l e t h e number o f c a l o r i e s o b t a i n e d from b u r n i n g one kg o f o i l was n e a r l y t w i c e as l a r g e as c o u l d be o b t a i n e d from 1 k g of coal.  Consequently  i n terms o f l a b o u r r e q u i r e m e n t s  was a p p r o x i m a t e l y 4 times d e a r e r t h a n o i l .  coal  T h i s i s why t h e  r e o r g a n i z a t i o n of the s t r u c t u r e of the f u e l balance t o g i v e more weight  t o l i q u i d and gas f u e l s w i t h h i g h e r heat g i v i n g  c a p a c i t y would l e a d t o a r e d u c t i o n i n l a b o u r  requirements  n e c e s s a r y t o produce a g i v e n amount o f f u e l i n terms o f c a l o ries.  (See t a b l e  V  on S t r u c t u r a l changes i n t h e F u e l  Balance  and l a b o u r Requirements t o produce 1 t o n o f c o n v e n t i o n a l f u e l , 1958  - 1965). As can be seen from t a b l e  V  due t o r e o r g a n i z a -  t i o n o f the f u e l balance a l o n e , the l a b o u r requirements t o produce 1 t o n o f c o n v e n t i o n a l f u e l w i l l d e c l i n e over 7 y e a r s by 0.248 l a b o u r d a y s , i . e . almost  25.9 p e r c e n t .  I n 1965 t h e f u e l e x t r a c t i o n o f t h e USSR i n t h e r m a l 1  u n i t s i s expected  t o reach  a p p r o x i m a t e l y 7620 x 10  x,c  2  kcal.,  TABLE V STRUCTURAL CHANGES IN THE FUEL BALANCE AND LABOUR REQUIREMENTS TO PRODUCE 1 TON OF CONVENTIONAL FUEL IN 1958-1965. Fuel Resources  Labour r e quired t o produce v a rious fuels i n 1956  19 5 8 Structure of Extraction %  19 6 5  Average l a b o u r requirement f o r a l l types o f f u e l s and i t s components  Structure of Extraction %  2x3  Average l a b o u r r e q u i r e ment f o r a l l t y p e s of f u e l and i t s components 6 = 2x5  Coal  0.917  59.6  0.547  43.1  0.394  Oil  0.234  25.7  0.060  32.6  0.076  Gas  0.000  5.4  0.004  17. o  0.U12  Peat  2.237  3.4  0.07b  (3.D  (0.069)  Shale  1.559  0.7  0.011  0.6  0.009  Wood  5.000  5.2  0.260  13.0)  0.150  100.0  0.958  Total  100.0  0,710  t—  1  52 o r 1090 m i l l i o n t o n s o f c o n v e n t i o n a l f u e l . ^ ^ 2  The s a v i n g  i n l a b o u r days due t o t h e drop i n l a b o u r r e q u i r e m e n t s  will  amount t o (1090 m i l l i o n tons x 0.248 l a b o u r days) n e a r l y 27 m i l l i o n l a b o u r days, o r c o u n t i n g 270 days as a w o r k i n g  year,  e q u i v a l e n t t o a s a v i n g i n t h e l a b o u r f o r c e o f almost one million  people.  - VI At p r e s e n t t h e f u e l i n d u s t r y employs n e a r l y 1,300,000 workers and another 600,000 a r e engaged i n t h e wood i n d u s t r y . A d r o p i n l a b o u r requirement the planned  as i n d i c a t e d above, coupled  with  i n c r e a s e o f 72.9 p e r cent i n t h e p r o d u c t i v i t y o f  l a b o u r would make i t p o s s i b l e t o r e a l i z e t h e planned  increase  i n t h e output o f f u e l w i t h p r a c t i c a l l y no i n c r e a s e i n t h e labour f o r c e . The n e g a t i v e p o i n t o f t h e p r e s e n t f u e l b a l a n c e i s n o t o n l y t h e l a r g e r o l e p l a y e d i n i t by c o a l , b u t a l s o t h e e x t r e m e l y i m p o r t a n t p o s i t i o n o c c u p i e d by peat and wood.  The i n f l u e n c e o f  peat and wood on t h e i n d e x o f average l a b o u r requirement f o r f u e l e x t r a c t i o n as a whole i s much g r e a t e r than t h e i r share i n the f u e l b a l a n c e .  Sharp d i f f e r e n c e s i n l a b o u r  requirements  f o r t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f g a s , o i l , c o a l and o t h e r f u e l s ,  result  i n t h e f a c t t h a t t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f l a b o u r consumption between t h e branches o f t h e f u e l i n d u s t r y does not correspond p r o p o r t i o n s these branches occupy i n t h e t o t a l f u e l  t o the production.  53  In 1958  the c o a l i n d u s t r y accounted  cent o f t o t a l f u e l p r o d u c t i o n and expenditure. 25.7  and 6 . 3 ,  57ol  for 59.6  per cent o f a l l  F o r the o i l i n d u s t r y c o r r e s p o n d i n g f o r gas 5 . 4 and 0 . 4 ,  per labour  f i g u r e s were  f o r peat 3 . 4 and 7 o 9 ,  o i l - s h a l e 0 . 7 and 1 . 1 and f o r wood 5.2 and 2 7 . 2  for  per c e n t . The  o i l and gas i n d u s t r i e s j o i n t l y employed 6 . 7 per cent o f the t o t a l l a b o u r f o r c e and  produced more t h a n 3 0 per cent o f a l l  f u e l , w h i l e peat and wood i n d u s t r i e s employed over 3 5 per  cent  o f the l a b o u r f o r c e and produced o n l y 8 . 6 per c e n t o f f u e l . T h i s means t h a t a p p r o x i m a t e l y  150,000  o i l and gas i n d u s t r i e s i n 1 9 5 8 t i o n a l f u e l than n e a r l y  700,000  workers employed i n the  produced 3 o 4 t i m e s more convenworkers employed i n the peat  and wood i n d u s t r i e s . " I n t h i s c o n n e c t i o n the q u e s t i o n a r i s e s whether t h e r e i s any sense i n c o n t i n u i n g t o use wood and, i n many c a s e s , peat a s f u e l s . Compared w i t h o i l and gas, expend i t u r e o f l a b o u r i n these branches l o o k s more l i k e a s q u a n d e r i n g o f n a t i o n a l p r o d u c t i v e f o r c e s , w h i c h amounts t o s c o r e s o f m i l l i o n s o f l a b o u r day u n i t s e v e r y year.(29) The output o f wood s h o u l d be r e d u c e d . I t i s better to use t i m b e r i n d u s t r y b y - p r o d u c t s f o r the p r o d u c t i o n o f c e l l u l o s e . Peat s h o u l d be produced o n l y under the most f a v o u r a b l e c o n d i t i o n s , t o be used i n power s t a t i o n s s p e c i a l l y c o n s t r u c t e d f o r t h e purpose. L o c a l peat i n d u s t r i e s s h o u l d be used t o produce f e r t i l i z e r s . " ( 3 0 ; The  s t r u c t u r a l s h i f t i n t h e f u e l and power i n d u s t r y  s h o u l d make i t p o s s i b l e not o n l y to i n c r e a s e t h e  productivity  o f l a b o u r , w h i c h can be seen from the r e d u c t i o n i n the amount o f l a b o u r u s e d , b u t a l s o t o economize i n t h e o v e r a l l  expendi-  t u r e o f p r o d u c t i v e f o r c e s , measured t o a c e r t a i n degree b y t h e i n d e x o f the c o s t s o f p r o d u c t i o n .  Improvement i n t h i s  index  would e x p r e s s the second i m p o r t a n t r e s u l t o f the growth i n t h e h e a t - g i v i n g c a p a c i t y o f the e x t r a c t e d f u e l and the  corresponding  n  ro  o M CD Hj • CO J O C CD  • •#  O  . (-(-•> ct H O  JO  e  ro  to o  O CD •»  Hj CD W CO CL • 01 O H ' 3  <  0 o O CD Ct 1—' ct CO O vO C  •  cr  H CO CO  O  o  «  CO  o  CD  O 3 H-  cn  CD CQ  1  etc  3  O ' i —-a  v n fu H - fu H 3 H  -  tlf > CO  Cost o f p r o d u c t i o n o f various types o f f u e l s ro i n 1956 ( i n R. and K. per 1 t . o f c o n v e n t i o n al fuel)  ro (—  •P- -p- oj. M ro O J v n 05. ro oo (—1  « • » » . . O V J O V / I Vo  < M  vO 00  O M M O f O H  o o c;  03  to  C3  O  t-3  C~S  >  H- O M  o o  o  CD (CO CD O H  O 3 " CD Cu H - O O 05 CU CO | — i CD &Ct M CD  c  c r CD (n o  «<S  co  ro H H 3 o  tr f—  o  o •xs ro vO  03  • 3" M CD fU CL CB • 3 H - ct  ro ct "^tr  CD  s co  s; cu c+CT CD ^ ^ ct Xi 3* O CD  pi CD CO CD 4 CD 1— ' B CD 1  vn  •  ro v n OVjOUivnvO  o  ro -<j -P- -p-  M  -P~  ro i - ro j  o -o  oa  -0 O v O O - P - - 0 •p- -p- -p- - o VO  ^ e  o  3  VO  • • • • •  *~ II ro &  H CC 1—1  Structure of extraction %  Average c o s t f o r a l l t y p e s o f f u e l and i t s components ( i n R. and K. p e r 1 t . o f c o n ventional fuel)  •-a •x)  H vO vn  OO-  o sc  w g M tO 3  1  CO  > >  ct  o  H t r BOO << G 1  aK H o  O  -?tvtr o s; CD  vo OCJ-^O rovo  ^  >  Structure of extraction -in  H 2! S3 O  °L  t— o  CD  MD  H  O  1  s; <!  H" vO  (->• CD  fO I— *-j 1  * ^ct* ^ororovov^ oo • WHO wc»CM-'-p-ro • H-.w vnvo 05 ojvo cr.§ ^ 3 o o H> vO H f l vn*<S "-J o i | i +• ! ct co 0 ". ° a) [+ S " Cv oo vMnrcoM vVov. 3 -'oo H  +  Average c o s t o f p r o d . „ ^ ° and i t s components ro / • ,, ^ £ -, +. x v m i t . anaft.,t o r l t . ^ of conventional f u e l )  a  a  1  1  t  y  P  S  S  f  f  U  e  l  n  O  vn  vO O vn CO 00-1-3  1 03 o  O vn  to o a cs o i-3  M  Difference i n costs II between 1958 - 1965 o*. caused by S t r u c t u r a l R . shifJ (* a n d K' p e r 1 t . o f conventional fuel  o  55 r e d u c t i o n i n t h e average w e i g h t e q u i v a l e n t o f power r e s o u r c e s . (See t a b l e VI  - S t r u c t u r a l S h i f t i n f u e l Balance  and c o s t o f  p r o d u c t i o n o f 1 t o n o f c o n v e n t i o n a l f u e l 1958-1965.) I f we t a k e as a base f o r o u r c a l c u l a t i o n s t h e f u e l c o s t s p r e v a i l i n g i n 1956, t h e average e x p e n d i t u r e  for 1 ton  o f c o n v e n t i o n a l f u e l w i l l d e c l i n e from 73.58 Roubles i n 1958 to  57.79 Roubles i n 1965, i . e . by 15.59 R o u b l e s ,  o r 21.5 p e r  cent over 7 years. A c c o r d i n g t o p r e l i m i n a r y c a l c u l a t i o n s , t h e output o f a l l t y p e s o f f u e l i n 1965 w i l l r e a c h a p p r o x i m a t e l y  1090  m i l l i o n tons o f c o n v e n t i o n a l f u e l , and t h e r e f o r e t h e s a v i n g r e s u l t i n g d i r e c t l y from t h i s s t r u c t u r a l change w i l l be (1090 x 15.79) 17.2 b i l l i o n Roubles i n 1965 a l o n e . S o v i e t p u b l i c a t i o n t h i s saving i s presented  I n a recent  i n the f o l l o w i n g  way. "The t o t a l s a v i n g s f o r t h e n a t i o n a l economy t h a t would r e s u l t from t h e measures t h a t a r e b e i n g t a k e n d u r i n g t h e c u r r e n t 7 y e a r p l a n t o improve t h e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e f u e l balance would, according t o p r e l i m i n a r y estimates, amount t o a p p r o x i m a t e l y 125 b i l l i o n R o u b l e s , i . e . e q u a l to t h e t o t a l amount earmarked f o r t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f power s t a t i o n s and e l e c t r i c and t h e r m a l networks,"v31) A p a r t from t h e r e d u c t i o n o f p r o d u c t i o n expenses, a c c e l e r a t e d development i n t h e gas and o i l i n d u s t r i e s w i l l make i t p o s s i b l e t o save energy i n consumption, m a i n l y s m a l l e r l o s s e s o f energy. way  through  Thus, f o r example, s w i t c h i n g r a i l -  l i n e s t o d i e s e l and e l e c t r i c t r a c t i o n i n s t e a d o f c o a l  b u r n i n g steam l o c o m o t i v e s , w i l l make p o s s i b l e a f i v e f o l d i n c r e a s e i n t h e c o e f f i c i e n t o f u t i l i z a t i o n o f power r e s o u r c e s . C o n s i d e r a b l e i n c r e a s e s i n t h e c o e f f i c i e n t o f u t i l i z a t i o n can  56 a l s o be a t t a i n e d i n s h i p p i n g and o t h e r  -  VII  fields.  -  D i s p r o p o r t i o n s w h i c h have d e v e l o p e d i n t h e f u e l i n d u s t r y over the t w e n t y - f i v e years  preceding  1955 have now  been a s c r i b e d t o t h e l a c k o f a u n i f i e d f u e l b a l a n c e , t o b u r e a u c r a c y and t o t h e development o f t h e f u e l i n d u s t r y by m i n i s t r i e s r a t h e r t h a n f o r t h e c o u n t r y as a w h o l e .  I t must,  however, be p o i n t e d o u t t h a t i t i s d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d t h a t p l a n n i n g from the c e n t r e was d e v e l o p e d .  I t i s d i f f i c u l t to  b e l i e v e t h a t G o s p l a n , a body t h a t has prepared P l a n a f t e r a n o t h e r has been prevented l i s m from p r o d u c i n g  a u n i f i e d balance.  A. Probst(3%) no such b a l a n c e  one F i v e Y e a r  by m i n i s t e r i a l s e c t i o n a Y e t as s t a t e d by  e x i s t e d i n 1956 and i t was o n l y (33)  i n 1959 t h a t a commission was s e t up t o prepare one. One might a s k what was t h e r e a s o n f o r t h e slowness i n d e v e l o p ing  the o i l i n d u s t r y .  A probable  answer t o t h i s i s t h a t l o n g  range p l a n n i n g , though a v a l u a b l e t h i n g f o r g u i d a n c e , w i t h i n i t s e l f , under a system o f r i g i d l y d e t e r m i n e d  priorities,  an element o f r e s t r a i n t w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e p r o g r e s s i v e t i o n b r o u g h t about by t h e c o n s t a n t i n various industries.  contains  evolu-  i n t e r p l a y of r e l a t i v e  costs  These c o s t s i n t h e past have been  c o n t i n u o u s l y reduced by t e c h n i c a l improvements and c o m p e t i t i o n . This r e s t r a i n t i s p a r t i c u l a r l y s t r o n g l y manifested  i n an  a b s o l u t e d i c t a t o r s h i p as e x i s t e d i n t h e USSR towards t h e end o f S t a l i n s l i f e , when a c a l l f o r t h e r e v i s i o n o f p r e v i o u s l y 1  57 approved p o l i c y c o u l d have been i n t e r p r e t e d as c r i t i c i s m o r even o p p o s i t i o n .  F o r example, how c o u l d anyone c r i t i c i s e t h e  e x i s t e n c e o f l o c a l basins producing  h i g h c o s t c o a l and peat  when L e n i n , S t a l i n and t h e P a r t y have r e p e a t e d l y c a l l e d f o r t h e i r development. There i s ample evidence t o show t h a t s i n c e 1953 c o n d i t i o n s a l l o w i n g f o r g r e a t e r freedom o f d i s c u s s i o n have been created, which permitted the d i s c l o s u r e o f e x i s t i n g disproportions w i t h i n the fuel industry.  The e x i s t e n c e o f t h e d i s p r o -  p o r t i o n s was c o n c l u s i v e l y demonstrated t h r o u g h t h e r e d u c t i o n o f a l l t y p e s o f f u e l t o a common denominator - a c o n v e n t i o n a l fuel unit.  But t h e d i s c o v e r y o f d i s p r o p o r t i o n s i n t h e p a s t i s  not a g u a r a n t e e f o r a c o r r e c t s t r u c t u r e o f economy i n t h e future.  B e s i d e s , f u e l economy i s o n l y one o f many f i e l d s , and  i t i s a f f e c t e d by t h e s i t u a t i o n i n other branches. Can a u n i f i e d b a l a n c e be prepared  f o r other  industries,  such as ,iron and s t e e l , t r a n s p o r t , c h e m i c a l , machine b u i l d i n g , and o t h e r s , and f i n a l l y can a l l t h e s e i n d u s t r i e s be reduced t o a common y a r d s t i c k f o r t h e purpose o f comparison? The  answer i s no. I f , however, i t c o u l d be done,  t h e n i n d u s t r i e s c o u l d be s e t s i d e by s i d e as has been done w i t h t h e branches o f t h e f u e l i n d u s t r y and t h e ones t h a t r e q u i r e c a p i t a l and l a b o u r e x p e n d i t u r e  l e a s t c o u l d be made t o expand,  as i s b e i n g done w i t h o i l and gas, w h i l e t h e o t h e r s might be a l l o w e d t o d e c l i n e ; p r o v i d e d o f course  t h a t t h e economic  f a c t o r s are allowed t o operate, which i s not n e c e s s a r i l y the case, despite the r e a l i z a t i o n o f the d i s p r o p o r t i o n s .  The p r i o r -  i t y m i x under a c e n t r a l l y c o n t r o l l e d economy i s d e t e r m i n e d n o t  58 not o n l y by economic but a l s o by p o l i t i c a l considerations„ I n a c e n t r a l l y planned  economy the p r i c e s are s e t by  p l a n n e r s and so a r e s u p p l y and demand.  Where p r i c e s are t h u s  f i x e d , and because the bulk o f p r o f i t goes t o t h e s t a t e , the i n d u s t r i e s w i t h low c o s t s (as f o r example o i l and gas  industries  i n the USSR i n t h e p a s t ) would not be a b l e t o make use o f t h e i r advantageous p o s i t i o n t o expand.  The  change i n output i s  d i c t a t e d not by an i n c r e a s e i n demand m o t i v a t e d by l o w e r  prices,  but by government d e c i s i o n based on o t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n s .  Low  c o s t s would l e a d p r i m a r i l y t o an i n c r e a s e d government revenue and not t o an e x p a n s i o n of the g i v e n i n d u s t r y , t h e s i z e o f which i s determined  by the p l a n  beforehand.  I n d e r c o n d i t i o n s where, through d e l i b e r a t e p o l i c y , the government d i s r u p t s the n a t u r a l b a l a n c e o f p r i c e s , i t i s f a c e d w i t h the i m p o s s i b l e t a s k o f d e t e r m i n i n g f o r e v e r y commod i t y t h e s u p p l y , demand and p r i c e as w e l l as c o s t and  profit.  I n the absence o f a f r e e market t h e r e are no f o r c e s t o p o i n t out the wrong d e c i s i o n s , and wrong d e c i s i o n s become m u l t i p l i e d as t h e i r r e p e r c u s s i o n s a r e i n c o r p o r a t e d i n the  succeeding  planso To-day R u s s i a n economists how much and f o r how  must d e c i d e a t what r a t e ,  l o n g the o i l and gas i n d u s t r i e s a r e t o  be a l l o w e d t o expand and o t h e r f u e l i n d u s t r i e s t o d e c l i n e o r mark t i m e . planned  O u t p u t s , demands, c o s t s and p r i c e s must be a l l  i n advance.  Who  i s t o make the d e c i s i o n as t o what  t h e s e s h o u l d be and on what b a s i s ?  59  - VIII A, new form o f energy - n u c l e a r energy - has come into existence.  I n the f r e e market economy, a p a r t from the  i n i t i a l s t a g e s where r e s e a r c h and development  o f atomic  energy have been sponsored by t h e government f o r s t r a t e g i c  and  p o l i t i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , t h e p o s i t i o n o f n u c l e a r energy would be d e t e r m i n e d by t h e i n t e r p l a y o f f o r c e s i n t h e economy, i . e . by i t s v a l u e . I n t h e 'Economic S t a l i n , who  is still  Problems o f S o c i a l i s m i n the USSR'  c o n s i d e r e d an o u t s t a n d i n g t h e o r e t i c i a n ,  s a i d :"The sphere o f o p e r a t i o n o f the law o f v a l u e i n our c o u n t r y i s s t r i c t l y l i m i t e d , and t h u s under our system the law o f V f l u e cannot f u n c t i o n as the r e g u l a t o r o f production"'34) and a g a i n "the law of v a l u e i s l i m i t e d by s o c i a l ownership o f the-means o f p r o d u c t i o n , and by t h e law o f b a l a n c e d development o f the n a t i o n a l economy, and i s c o n s e q u e n t l y a l s o l i m i t e d by our y e a r l y and f i v e - y e a r l y p l a n s , which a r e an foci a p p r o x i m a t e r e f l e c t i o n o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h i s law"^35; " I n b r i e f , t h e r e can be no doubt t h a t under our p r e s e n t s o c i a l i s t c o n d i t i o n s o f p r o d u c t i o n , the l a w o f v a l u e cannot be a ' r e g u l a t o r o f p r o p o r t i o n s ' o f l a b o u r d i s t r i b u t i o n among t h e v a r i o u s branches o f production"'3°' There a r e a number o f ways i n which t h e government can c o n t r o l p r o d u c t i o n , consumption, o r b o t h .  F o r example, i n t h e  p a s t , t o d i s c o u r a g e consumption o f o i l p r o d u c t s t h e government r a i s e d t h e p r i c e and a t t h e same time t o o k o t h e r measures t o r e s t r i c t t h e consumption.  The f i r m s a l l o c a t e d o i l p r o d u c t s  r e c e i v e d them whatever t h e p r i c e , and t h e ones which d i d not get  an a l l o c a t i o n had t o s w i t c h t o o t h e r f u e l s .  The o i l i n d u s t r y  on t h e o t h e r hand d i d not e n j o y t h e b e n e f i t s o f t h e h i g h p r i c e ,  60 f o r the d i f f e r e n c e between the c o s t o f p r o d u c t i o n and  the  s e l l i n g p r i c e went t o the government t o be used - more t h a n l i k e l y - t o s u b s i d i z e development o f the c o a l and industries.  The  peat  growth or d e c l i n e o f any branch o f economy was  c o n d i t i o n e d not by the demand f o r i t s p r o d u c t s from the consumers, i n d i c a t i n g t h e i r p r e f e r e n c e f o r i t compared t o o t h e r a l t e r n a t i v e p r o d u c t s a v a i l a b l e , but by the d e c i s i o n o f the p l a n n e r s , based on t h e d a t a o f t h e p r e c e d i n g p e r i o d o r p e r i o d s and on c o n s i d e r a t i o n s o f o t h e r , non-economic f a c t o r s . I n the p a s t t h e i n c r e a s e i n the e f f i c i e n c y i n a g i v e n i n d u s t r y was  judged by t h e i n c r e a s e i n t h e p r o d u c t i v i t y o f  labour i n i t .  As l o n g as the e x p e n d i t u r e o f l a b o u r kept  d e c l i n i n g i n consequence of i n v e s t m e n t s more or l e s s e q u a l t o t h o s e i n o t h e r b r a n c h e s , a l l was  c o n s i d e r e d t o be w e l l .  I n the maze o f i n f l a t i o n a r y p r e s s u r e s , s h o r t a g e s d i s p r o p o r t i o n s , p r i c e s were changed from time t o t i m e ,  and  pri-  m a r i l y t o reduce s u b s i d i e s o r t o i n c r e a s e government r e v e n u e . No comparison was made, o r c o u l d be made, betx^een branches o f the economy because o f the a r b i t r a r y p r i c e T h i s i s why,  fixing.  as l o n g as p r o d u c t i v i t y o f l a b o u r  c o n t i n u e d t o i n c r e a s e i n t h e c o a l and peat i n d u s t r i e s (and i t was  bound t o do so w i t h m e c h a n i z a t i o n and i n t r o d u c t i o n o f modern  methods) the p l a n n e r s were c o n t e n t . A u n i f i e d f u e l and power balance p o i n t e d out t h a t , had the c a p i t a l and l a b o u r employed i n c o a l and  clearly peat  i n d u s t r i e s been t r a n s f e r r e d t o o i l and gas, i t s output i n terms  61 o f t h e r m a l u n i t s would have been i n c r e a s e d and t h u s t h e economy would have b e n e f i t e d .  The  same can be s a i d f o r o t h e r  f i e l d s - f o r example r a i l w a y s and s h i p p i n g , where i t was p o s s i b l e t o show t h a t use o f a l t e r n a t i v e sources have r e s u l t e d i n a c o n s i d e r a b l e  o f power would  savingo  I n t h e f u e l i n d u s t r y o f the USSR the way economic u t i l i z a t i o n was  t o the most  i n d i c a t e d t h r o u g h the use of a u n i f i e d  f u e l b a l a n c e , w h i c h made i t p o s s i b l e t o compute a u n i v e r s a l standard f o r the f u e l i n d u s t r y The  B  u n i v e r s a l s t a n d a r d f o r an economy as a whole i s  " v a l u e " , w h i c h e v o l v e s as a r e s u l t o f the i n t e r a c t i o n of econo1  mic  f o r c e s i n a f r e e economy.  I n an economy where f a c t o r s are  d e t e r m i n e d i n an a r b i t r a r y manner, t h e r e can be no  'value*  to  serve as a medium w i t h the a i d of which p r o j e c t s i n v a r i o u s f i e l d s c o u l d be reduced t o a s i n g l e s t a n d a r d f o r the purpose of comparison and One  evaluation. o f the r e s u l t s o f the r e c e n t s t r u c t u r a l changes i n  the f u e l b a l a n c e  of t h e USSR appears t o be a r e d u c t i o n i n the  importance t h a t i s b e i n g a t t a c h e d t o the development o f atomic power.  This  ' s h e l v i n g ' of the atomic power has been brought  about by the r e d u c t i o n i n power g e n e r a t i o n c o s t s r e s u l t i n g from t h e w i d e - s p r e a d use o f n a t u r a l gas and f u e l o i l . No f i n a l e x a m i n a t i o n  of the S o v i e t p o l i c y w i t h  t o f u e l and power can be made w i t h o u t examination (37)  power.  regard  f i r s t subjecting to c l o s e r  the S o v i e t programme f o r the development of a t o m i c  R E F E R E N C E S 1. S . F e l d , The Power Balance o f the N a t i o n a l Economy /Ob Energeticheskom Balanse Narodnogo Khozyaistva/.Voprosy Ekonomiki. I960.III.p.23. 2. Economics o f I n d u s t r y o f the USSR/Ekonomika P r o m i s h l e n n o s t i SSSR. Gospolitizdat,1956.p.305. 3. I b i d . , p.305. 4.  I t a l i c s author's.  5. A.Probst, Problems o f the Development o f the F u e l I n d u s t r y o f the USSR /Voprosy R a z v i t i a Toplivnogo K h o z y a i s t v a SSSR/.  6. I b i d . , p.21. 7. I b i d . , p.28. 3 . I b i d . , p. 2 4 .  9. I b i d . , p.25. 10.  I b i d . , p.25.  11.  I b i d . , p.25.  12. S t e f a n Lament, S o v i e t F u e l and Power. S o v i e t 1952/53.Vol.IV.p.10.  Studies.  13. A.Probst. Problems of the Development o f the ^ u e l I n d u s t r y of the USSR /Voprosy R a z v i t i a Toplivnogo K h o z y a i s t v a SSSR/. Voprosy ^konomiki.l956.I.p.27. 14. S . F e l d , The Power Balance o f the N a t i o n a l Economy /Ob Energeticheskom Balanse Narodnogo Khozyaistva/.Voprosy Ekonomiki. I960.III.p.23. 15. V.Starovsky, Comparison o f Economic Indexes o f USSR and USA / S o p o s t a v l e n i e Ekonomicheskikh Pokazateley SSSR.i S.Sh.A./ Voprosy Ekonomiki.I960.IV.p.110. 16. Z.Chukhnov, The Economic Advantages o f the Development o f the Moscow C o a l B a s i n / E f f e k t i v n o s t ' R a z v i t i a Podmoskovnogo Ugol'nogo Basseina/.Voprosy Ekonomiki. 1958.IX.p.39.  63 17. B.Naymanov, The Need t o M o d e r n i z e Methods o f P l a n n i n g and Accounting i n I n d u s t r i a l Production /Sovershenstvovat' Metody P l a n i r o v a n i a i Ucheta P r o m i s h l e n n o i P r o d u k t s i i / . Planovoye K h o z y a i s t v o . I960. Vol.V.p.84. 18. A . P r o b s t , Problems o f the Development o f the F u e l I n d u s t r y o f t h e USSR /Voprosy R a z v i t i a T o p l i v n o g o K h o z y a i s t v a SSSR/. Voprosy Ekonomiki.1956.I.p.30. 19. I b i d . , 20.  p.31.  N.S.Khrushchev, 7-Year P l a n T a r g e t F i g u r e s . R e p o r t t o t h e S p e c i a l 21st Congress o f CPSU, h e l d on 27th January,1959. S o v i e t B o o k l e t No.47. London.1959.  21. S . F e l d , The Power B a l a n c e o f t h e N a t i o n a l Economy /Ob E n e r g e t i c h e s k o m B a l a n s e Narodnogo K h o z y a i s t v a / . V o p r o s y Ekonomiki,I960.III.p.15. 22. The f u e l e l e c t r i c a l e q u i v a l e n t does not show l o s s e s t h a t o c c u r on c o n v e r t i n g t h e r m a l energy i n t o e l e c t r i c a l . 23. 1955  figure.  24. S . F e l d , The Power B a l a n c e o f t h e N a t i o n a l Economy /Ob E n e r g e t i c h e s k o m B a l a n s e Narodnogo K h o z y a i s t v a / . V o p r o s y E k o n o m i k i . I960.III.p.24. 25. I b i d . ,  p.25.  26. I b i d . ,  p.25.  27. I b i d . ,  p.29.  28. I b i d . ,  p.25.  29. Emphasis mine. 30. S . F e l d , *he Power B a l a n c e o f t h e N a t i o n a l Economy. Voprosy E k o n o m i k i . I960.III.p.29. 31.  D.I.Maslakov, F u e l B a l a n c e o f t h e USSR / T o p l i v n i i B a l a n s SSSR/. G e s p l a n i z d a t . 1 9 6 0 . Moscow.  32. A . P r o b s t , Problems o f t h e Development o f t h e F u e l I n d u s t r y o f t h e USSR. Voprosy Ekonomiki.1956.I.p.3?. 33. S . F e l d . The Power B a l a n c e o f the N a t i o n a l Economy. Voprosy Ekonomiki. I960.III.p.15.  6 4  3 4 . J.V.Stalin, Economic Problems o f S o c i a l i s m G o s p o l i t i z d a t . Moscow,1952. p . 2 6 . 3 5 . Ibid.,  i n t h e USSR.  p.2a.  3 6 . I b i d . , p.29. 3 7 . F o r t h e o u t l i n e o f atomic r e s e a r c h , r e a c t o r development programme and t h e p o s s i b l e use o f n u c l e a r energy i n t h e USSR, see Part Two, Chapter V I .  PART TWO:  ATOMIC POWER  CHAPTER IV THE PLACE OF NUCLEAR FUELS I N THE OVERALL FUEL BALANCE N u c l e a r f u e l s a r e , a f t e r a l l , new t y p e s o f f u e l and as such t h e i r e v e n t u a l p l a c e i n t h e o v e r a l l B a l a n c e o f F u e l w i l l be d e t e r m i n e d by t h e i r c o s t s o f p r o d u c t i o n (1) and e x p l o i t a t i o n and c o n s e q u e n t l y  by r e l a t i v e c o s t s of a l l t y p e s o f f u e l p e r u n i t  of energy produced.  T h i s i s t r u e f o r t h e economies b o t h o f t h e  West and o f t h e USSR.  B u t w h i l e i n t h e f r e e market economies  c o s t s determine t h e r a t e s and d i r e c t i o n s o f development, i n t h e USSR t h i s i s n o t t h e c a s e .  There, t h e r a t e s and d i r e c t i o n s o f  development a r e determined by t h e p l a n n e r s , who, by i n t e r f e r i n g , w i t h market f o r c e s , make p r o p e r c a l c u l a t i o n s o f c o s t s i m p o s s i b l e . At t h e p r e s e n t  stage o f atomic power development t h e  most e f f i c i e n t and l e a s t c o s t l y p r o d u c t i o n t e c h n i q u e s power a r e s t i l l unknown. engineers  o f atomic  I t i s t h e t a s k o f t h e s c i e n t i s t s and  t o improve t h e s e t e c h n i q u e s  and t o pursue t h e i r i n v e s -  t i g a t i o n s u n t i l t h e most e f f i c i e n t can be s e l e c t e d f o r f u t u r e use.  On t h e o t h e r hand a p p l i c a t i o n o f atomic power depends a l s o  on p r i c e s o f c o n v e n t i o n a l f u e l s , and i t i s t h e r e f o r e c o u n t r i e s w i t h h i g h c o s t s o f f u e l which a r e t h e most i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e new f o r m o f f u e l and t h e r e f o r e have a g r e a t e r m a t e r i a l i n c e n t i v e t o  66  u n d e r t a k e r e s e a r c h and t o put t o p r a c t i c a l t e s t these new forms of f u e l . T h i s p a r t o f t h e study d e a l s , a c c o r d i n g l y , w i t h t h o s e developments w h i c h a r e a t p r e s e n t under way, t h e i n c e n t i v e s i n v o l v e d i n i n t r o d u c i n g t h e s e new developments and t h e s h i f t s i n f u e l b a l a n c e s which may be expected  as a r e s u l t , f i r s t i n t h e  l e a d i n g Western c o u n t r i e s - U.S.A., U n i t e d Kingdom and Canada and t h e n i n t h e S o v i e t U n i o n . In  each case a study i s made o f c o n v e n t i o n a l r e s e r v e s  o f f u e l s and o f t h e demand f o r f u e l and power. made o f t h e atomic  Then a survey i s  power development and r e s e a r c h programmes,  w h i c h made i t p o s s i b l e t o approach t h e problem o f a n t i c i p a t e d c o s t s o f atomic  power.  F i n a l l y , t h e s e c o s t s o f atomic power a r e  compared w i t h t h e c o s t s o f power from c o n v e n t i o n a l f u e l s .  Con-  s i d e r a t i o n o f r e s e r v e s o f c o n v e n t i o n a l f u e l s and t h e i r c o s t s o f e x t r a c t i o n on one s i d e and o f p r o b a b l e  f u t u r e c o s t s o f atomic  power on t h e o t h e r l e a d s t o a c o n c l u s i o n on t h e l i k e l y s h i f t s i n the f u t u r e f u e l  balances.  I n t h e case o f t h e S o v i e t Union, t h i s p a r t d e a l s w i t h n u c l e a r atomic development.  The q u e s t i o n o f f u e l  mainly  balance  has been d e a l t w i t h i n P a r t I , w h i l e t h e d e t a i l e d summary o f t h e r e s e r v e s o f v a r i o u s forms o f c o n v e n t i o n a l f u e l s i s g i v e n s e p a r a t e l y i n appendices.  As i n t h e case o f t h e W e s t e r n c o u n t r i e s an e f f o r t  i s made t o o u t l i n e t h e l i k e l y s h i f t s i n t h e f u t u r e f u e l  balances.  P a u c i t y o f p u b l i s h e d d a t a and u n c e r t a i n t y o f f u t u r e p r o grammes have no doubt l e f t a s t r o n g i m p r i n t on t h e f o l l o w i n g pages  67  and r e n d e r e d them o v e r l y d e s c r i p t i v e .  S t i l l , the Soviet  fuel  b a l a n c e o f t h e f u t u r e w i l l be a f f e c t e d by atomic power and therefore  even a c u r s o r y  r e v i e w o f what i s g o i n g on i n t h i s f i e  seems t o have a u s e f u l purpose.  R E F E R E N C E S 1. The  c o s t s o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n the case o f n u c l e a r f u e l s  a r e so s m a l l t h a t t h e y can be d i s r e g a r d e d  altogether.  CHAPTER V ATOMIC POWER DEVELOPMENT IN THE MAIN WESTERN COUNTRIES 1.  The Experience of the United S t a t e s  (i)  The Abundance of C o n v e n t i o n a l F u e l s . The r e s e r v e s of c o n v e n t i o n a l f u e l s and of water power  i n the United S t a t e s are p l e n t i f u l .  First  of a l l , the United  S t a t e s are b l e s s e d w i t h abundant r e s e r v e s of c o a l - estimated at 524,  729 m i l l i o n short tons of bituminous c o a l , 186,467 m i l l i o n  short tons o f semibituminous,  231,678 m i l l i o n short tons of  lig-  n i t e and 6,996 m i l l i o n short tons o f a n t h r a c i t e and s e m i a n t h r a c i t e ; a t o t a l o f 949,870(D m i l l i o n short t o n s , w h i l e the consumption i s about h a l f a b i l l i o n tons a year at p r e s e n t , expected t o i n crease t o 750 m i l l i o n tons per y e a r .  Without the advent o f atomic  energy the f i g u r e would have reached 820 m i l l i o n tons by  1980,  p l u s 100 m i l l i o n tons f o r e x p o r t . (2) Of the 950 h i l l i o n tons of c o a l d e p o s i t s found i n the U.S.A. approximately 237 b i l l i o n tons could be mined at or near 1954  p r i c e s , another 280 b i l l i o n tons could be produced at p r i c e s  25 per cent above 1954  and the r e s t at p r i c e s ranging between one  and a h a l f t o f o u r times the 1954  prices.(3)  I t i s expected t h a t i n f u t u r e the percentage of c o a l mined from open cast mines w i l l for  increase.  10 per cent of output i n 1940  of the n i n e t e e n f i f t i e s .  Open cast mining accounted  and f o r 25 per cent by the end  P r o d u c t i v i t y i n the open cast mines i s  70  t h r e e t i m e s h i g h e r t h a n i n underground  mines.  Out o f h a l f a b i l l i o n t o n s o f c o a l mined a n n u a l l y , LLO m i l l i o n t o n s go f o r t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f e l e c t r i c i t y and a n o t h e r  140  m i l l i o n t o n s are t a k e n by t h e i r o n and s t e e l i n d u s t r y . The U.S.A. c o a l r e s e r v e s are g e o g r a p h i c a l l y d i s p e r s e d , are o f good q u a l i t y and are l e s s t h a n 1,000 face.  f e e t below t h e s u r -  The r e s e r v e s s u i t a b l e f o r open c a s t m i n i n g are a l s o con-  siderable.  From the p u r e l y p h y s i c a l s t a n d p o i n t o f g e o l o g i c a l  r e s e r v e s t h e r e i s no e n g i n e e r i n g b a s i s f o r a " h i g h e r c o s t of c o a l r e c o v e r y t h a n i t i s now  d u r i n g the next two  decades."(5)  S e c o n d l y , t h e proved r e s e r v e s of o i l i n t h e U.S.A. are t w e l v e t o f i f t e e n t i m e s the annual o u t p u t .  They have  remained  so s i n c e t h e n i n e t e e n t w e n t i e s and one can deduce from t h i s t h a t t h e o i l companies do not w i s h t o engage i n a thorough s t u d y o f r e s e r v e s which t h e y are not l i k e l y t o use w i t h i n the next twelve to  f i f t e e n years.  The f a c t t h a t t h e o i l companies are u n w i l l i n g  to  devote more t h a n 0.5  per cent o f the v a l u e of crude o i l p r o -  d u c t i o n t o s o l v i n g t h e problem o f secondary r e c o v e r y , w h i c h would r e s u l t i n t h e r e c o v e r y o f some of the tremendous amount o f o i l l e f t underground,  shows t h a t t h e y a r e c o n f i d e n t t h a t t h e y w i l l  f i n d more o i l when t h e y need i t . ^ ^ B e s i d e s the crude o i l r e s e r v e s , e s t i m a t e d a t 272 barrels,(7)  0  billion  f w h i c h a p p r o x i m a t e l y $8 b i l l i o n can be produced  p r e s e n t p r i c e s by p r e s e n t methods, t h e U.S.A. has d e p o s i t s o f C o l o r a d o s h a l e , from which g a s o l i n e c o u l d be s u p p l i e d i n Los Angeles o r on t h e G u l f Coast at a p r i c e o n l y 10 per cent above  at  71 t h e c o s t o f g a s o l i n e from crude o i l a t l o c a l r e f i n e r i e s .  These  d e p o s i t s a r e e s t i m a t e d a t no l e s s t h a n 900. b i l l i o n b a r r e l s o f l i q u i d h y d r o c a r b o n s i n s h a l e o f a c o n t e n t 11 t o 50 g a l l o n s p e r ton.(^) and c o a l .  S y n t h e t i c f u e l c o u l d a l s o be o b t a i n e d from t a r sands Thus, as i n t h e case o f c o a l , t h e r e i s l i t t l e  fear  t h a t t h e r e s e r v e s o f o i l w i l l be r u n n i n g out i n t h e immediate f u t u r e , a l t h o u g h i n t h e l o n g r u n t h e y a r e much s m a l l e r t h a n those of c o a l .  With o i l ,  as w i t h c o a l , t h e r e i s no r e a s o n why  p r i c e s s h o u l d undergo any a p p r e c i a b l e i n c r e a s e i n t h e near future. F i n a l l y , t h e u l t i m a t e gas r e s e r v e s o f t h e U.S.A. a r e e s t i m a t e d a t 3000-6000 t r i l l i o n c u b i c f e e t ( c f . ) Proved r e s e r v e s o f n a t u r a l gas as o f December 31st 1955, were 223.7 t r i l l i o n c f . , t h a t i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y twenty two t i m e s t h e annual p r o d u c t i o n . (9) Over t h e p a s t decade, t h e r a t i o o f proved r e s e r v e s t o p r o d u c t i o n has d e c l i n e d s t e a d i l y f r o m 32.3 t o 2 2 . 1 y e a r s , b u t t h i s does n o t n e c e s s a r i l y mean t h a t r e s e r v e s a r e g r o w i n g h a r d e r to f i n d .  U n t i l l a r g e t r a n s - c o n t i n e n t a l gas p i p e l i n e s were  b u i l t a f t e r World War I I , opening up major markets i n t h e N o r t h and E a s t , gas was a waste p r o d u c t consumed l o c a l l y . I t can t h u s be seen f r o m t h e above summary o f t h e n a t u r a l f u e l r e s o u r c e s o f t h e U.S.A. t h a t f o r t h e next twenty t o t w e n t y f i v e y e a r s t h e r e i s no l i k e l i h o o d o f a f u e l c r i s i s , o r o f considerable price increases.  The p r i c e s o f c o a l are not l i k e l y t o  r i s e , f i r s t , because o f t h e abundant  s u p p l y o f e a s i l y mined  coal  72  and second, because o f c o m p e t i t i o n from o i l and more r e c e n t l y from gas and n u c l e a r energy a l s o .  The  p r i c e of o i l , on the  other  hand, i s not l i k e l y t o r i s e because of c o m p e t i t i o n f r o m M i d d l e E a s t o i l , s h a l e and t o some e x t e n t from gas and c o a l , as w e l l as from n u c l e a r energy.  The  p r i c e o f gas i s l i k e l y t o r i s e a  l i t t l e t o come i n t o l i n e w i t h o t h e r t y p e s o f f u e l s when access has been gained t o b e t t e r markets through f u r t h e r l o n g d i s t a n c e pipe l i n e c o n s t r u c t i o n .  The  c o s t o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and t h e cost  o f p r o d u c t i o n and p r o s p e c t i n g once the e a s i l y a v a i l a b l e r e s e r v e s are exhausted would r e s u l t i n the p r i c e o f gas becoming s t a b i l i z e d as w e l l . The  c o m p e t i t i v e p r i c e s of f u e l s i n the U.S.A. are d e t e r -  mined by t h e p r i c e o f b i t u m i n o u s  c o a l and c o s t of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n .  C o a l i s the predominant f u e l i n t h e b o i l e r - f u e l market for  except  c e r t a i n a r e a s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the Southwest and West c o a s t ,  where o i l and gas have l o c a t i o n a l advantages.  I n 1 9 5 5 the  market consumed 2 5 0 m i l l i o n t o n s of b i t u m i n o u s  c o a l , compared w i t h  n e a r l y 1 0 0 m i l l i o n t o n s of c o a l - e q u i v a l e n t i n f u e l o i l . portance  boiler  The  im-  o f gas i n the b o i l e r f u e l market i s s m a l l and i s l i k e l y  to d e c l i n e s t i l l f u r t h e r .  The  b o i l e r - f u e l market i n c l u d e s most  o f t h e t h e r m a l power s t a t i o n s and much o f the i n d u s t r i a l energy consumption f o r p r o c e s s h e a t . t e m p e r a t u r e heat r e q u i r e m e n t s The  To t h i s may  be added some h i g h  as f o r example, cement p r o d u c t i o n .  s i z e and t h e l i m i t s o f t h e r e s p e c t i v e areas where  d i f f e r e n t f u e l s are used as b o i l e r - f u e l depend p r i m a r i l y on c o s t o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , w h i c h i s r e l a t i v e l y h i g h e s t i n the case o f c o a l .  73  (ii)  Atomic Power Development and R e s e a r c h . I n the U n i t e d S t a t e s the consumption o f energy  has  been i n c r e a s i n g a t t h e r a t e o f seven per cent per annum and e l e c t r i c power, t h r e e per c e n t per annum.( ^ 1(  Although  of  the  p r i c e s o f c o n v e n t i o n a l f u e l s are l i k e l y t o r e m a i n s t a b l e f o r t h e next f i f t e e n t o twenty y e a r s , i t i s g e n e r a l l y c o n s i d e r e d d e s i r a b l e t o develop  low c o s t n u c l e a r power t o be r e a d i l y  avail-  a b l e when c o n v e n t i o n a l f u e l p r i c e s show a tendency t o c l i m b But even b e f o r e then atomic  up.  power w i l l f i n d a p p l i c a t i o n i n areas  where t h e s u p p l i e s of c o n v e n t i o n a l f u e l a t low c o s t are absent or i n a d e q u a t e ,  as f o r example i n New  England, F l o r i d a ,  and  C a l i f o r n i a , where p r e s e n t energy r e s o u r c e s are i n s u f f i c i e n t f o r expanding needs.  I n a d d i t i o n t h e U.S.A. i s i n t e n t on r e t a i n i n g  i t s p o s i t i o n of l e a d e r s h i p i n the f i e l d o f n u c l e a r r e s e a r c h . The  p r e s e n t programme a c c o r d i n g l y aims a t a c h i e v i n g  economically  c o m p e t i t i v e n u c l e a r power f o r t h e h i g h c o s t areas o f the U.S.A. and f o r e x p o r t t o o t h e r c o u n t r i e s l a c k i n g cheap n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s f o r power p r o d u c t i o n .  I n t h e l o n g r u n the aim i s t o  develop  n u c l e a r power u n i t s w h i c h w i l l be s u i t a b l e f o r u s e s o t h e r e l e c t r i c power p r o d u c t i o n , such as p r o v i d i n g p r o c e s s and h e a t , as a means of p r o p u l s i o n f o r s h i p s , a i r c r a f t , and v e h i c l e s , and i n g e n e r a l p r o v i d i n g a cheap source  than space  land  of power t h a t  c o u l d be w i d e l y used t o r a i s e the s t a n d a r d o f l i v i n g . The  U n i t e d S t a t e s i s i n t h e happy p o s i t i o n of not  p r e s s e d by a s h o r t a g e  being  o f c o n v e n t i o n a l f u e l s t o make an e a r l y  d e c i s i o n on t h e type of r e a c t o r t o be developed  on an  industrial  74 scale.  The p r e s e n t programme i s d e s i g n e d t o embrace b o t h t h e s h o r t  and t h e l o n g t e r m needs and i s b e i n g developed on a broad s c a l e . Atomic power s t a t i o n s a r e b e s t u t i l i z e d as base l o a d power s t a t i o n s because o f t h e i r h i g h c o n s t r u c t i o n c o s t s and low operating  costs.  They c o u l d be supplemented by t h e r m a l o r h y d r o -  e l e c t r i c power s t a t i o n s a t peak p e r i o d s .  The economics o f s c a l e  o p e r a t e v e r y s t r o n g l y i n atomic power s t a t i o n c o n s t r u c t i o n , t h u s the power s t a t i o n w i l l have t o be o f a c e r t a i n s i z e t o be competitive.  An i m p o r t a n t i t e m i n t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f atomic power  s t a t i o n s i s s h i e l d i n g , w h i c h does not i n c r e a s e  proportionately  w i t h t h e i n c r e a s e i n s i z e o f t h e power s t a t i o n .  I t can be s a i d ,  t h e r e f o r e , t h a t a t p r e s e n t and f o r some time t o come, n u c l e a r power w i l l have a r e l a t i v e advantage i n s i t u a t i o n s where v e r y l a r g e s i n g l e power r e a c t o r s , i n s t a t i o n s o f s e v e r a l , can be a c c e p t e d on a u t i l i t y system, e.g. r e a c t o r s o f 300,000 kw. t o 700,000 kw. grouped t o g e t h e r kilowatt capacity. before  i n s t a t i o n s o f one t o t h r e e  Seen i n t h i s l i g h t a l l r e a c t o r s  million  constructed  1958 have e s s e n t i a l l y been development p r o t o t y p e s  f o r the  v e r y much l a r g e r u n i t s which w i l l f o l l o w . I t i s hoped t h a t t h e r e s e a r c h w i l l l e a d t o p r o d u c t i o n o f power a t c o s t s l o w e r than can be a t t a i n e d w i t h fuels. being  conventional  F o r example, a t p r e s e n t a p r e s s u r i z e d w a t e r r e a c t o r i s i n s t a l l e d on N.S. 'Savannah'.  Although operation o f t h i s  v e s s e l i s not expected t o be c o m p e t i t i v e ,  compared w i t h t h e  e x i s t i n g methods o f s h i p p r o p u l s i o n , i t i s hoped t h a t f u r t h e r advance i n n u c l e a r study w i l l make i t p o s s i b l e t o i n s t a l l  com-  75 p e t i t i v e b o i l i n g - w a t e r r e a c t o r s a t f i r s t i n t a n k e r s and l a t e r on i n o t h e r t y p e s o f v e s s e l s . Low temperature p r o c e s s heat f r o m atomic r e a c t o r s w i l l probably  come f i r s t .  I t w i l l be o b t a i n e d from w a t e r - c o o l e d r e -  actors.  Other t y p e s o f r e a c t o r s w i l l have t o be used far h i g h -  temperature process heat.  The l o n g - t e r m programme a l s o has i n  v i e w t h e c o n s e r v a t i o n o f f o s s i l f u e l s , and t h r o u g h r e s e a r c h , o f nuclear f u e l s also. The organic-cooled  r e a c t o r s , such as p r e s s u r i z e d w a t e r , b o i l i n g w a t e r , and g a s - c o o l e d ,  g i v e promise o f p r o v i d i n g  nuclear  power a t a r a t e t h a t i n t h e v e r y near f u t u r e would make i t comp e t i t i v e i n some areas where c o n v e n t i o n a l The  power c o s t s a r e h i g h .  l o n g - t e r m p r o j e c t a l s o i n c l u d e s work on r e a c t o r s , such as  f a s t - b r e e d i n g r e a c t o r s , homogeneous r e a c t o r s ,  thermal-breeding  r e a c t o r s , and o t h e r s , w h i c h , i t i s hoped, w i l l be able t o produce n u c l e a r power and heat a t s u b s t a n t i a l l y l o w e r c o s t s than can be a c h i e v e d  by u s i n g f o s s i l f u e l s .  The f a s t r e a c t o r s o f t h e  f u t u r e , being breeder r e a c t o r s , w i l l contribute t o the conservation of nuclear  fuels. To t h i s must be added t h e r o l e o f n u c l e a r development  i n modern w a r f a r e .  Nuclear  duce p r i m a r i l y p l u t o n i u m , n u c l e a r weapons.  power s t a t i o n s can be b u i l t t o p r o -  n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e manufacture o f  F i n a l l y , i n the present  East-West c o n t e s t t h e  U.S.A., as l e a d e r o f t h e Western b l o c , c o u l d not a f f o r d not t o engage i n r e s e a r c h i n t h e n u c l e a r f i e l d  on account o f t h e p o s s i -  b i l i t y o f new t e c h n o l o g i c a l and t e c h n i c a l developments w h i c h  76 might g i v e w h i c h e v e r b l o c i s the more s u c c e s s f u l i n t h e i r p l o i t a t i o n an advantage o v e r the (iii)  ex-  other.  A n t i c i p a t e d c o s t s o f Atomic Power. The  main f a c t o r d e t e r m i n i n g t o what e x t e n t  nuclear  energy c o u l d r e p l a c e c o n v e n t i o n a l f u e l i n a g i v e n area i s the cost of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n of conventional f u e l s t o that area.  The  particular  c o s t of t r a n s p o r t i n g n u c l e a r f u e l s i s so s m a l l t h a t  i t can be d i s r e g a r d e d .  Transportation costs represent  a  t i a l f a c t o r i n c o s t s o f energy i n most l o c a t i o n s . Due  substan-  to  im-  provement i n t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and a s h i f t t o cheaper forms of t r a n s p o r t t h e c o s t of t r a n s p o r t i n g energy has tended t o d e c l i n e over t h e p a s t q u a r t e r c e n t u r y and so i n t h e near f u t u r e .  i t i s l i k e l y to continue  doing  I n t h e c o a l i n d u s t r y the s h i f t i s away  f r o m r a i l t r a n s p o r t and towards t r u c k and b a r g e s as w e l l as c o a l p i p e - l i n e s and  conveyor b e l t s .  Improvements i n l o n g d i s t a n c e  power t r a n s m i s s i o n o f t e n p e r m i t energy t o be c a r r i e d cheaper i n the form o f e l e c t r i c i t y t h a n i f f u e l had t o be t r a n s p o r t e d t o the consumer and t h e r e burned t o y i e l d t h e r e q u i r e d energy.  The  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n of crude o i l i n l a r g e t a n k e r s and by p i p e - l i n e s had a s i m i l a r e f f e c t i n the o i l i n d u s t r y .  The  p o s s i b i l i t y of t r a n s -  p o r t i n g gas i n l i q u i d f o r m by barges up t h e M i s s i s s i p p i t o C h i c a g o or by t a n k e r t o o t h e r d e s t i n a t i o n s c o u l d make gas t r a n s p o r t a t i o n cheaper where l o n g d i s t a n c e s are i n v o l v e d .  Over s h o r t  d i s t a n c e s gas p i p e - l i n e s p r o v i d e a cheap enough method of t r a n s port. I n t h e p r o d u c t i o n of e l e c t r i c energy at  competitive  77  p r i c e s , t h e atomic i n d u s t r y w i l l f i r s t e n t e r w i t h l a r g e c e n t r a l p l a n t s , w o r k i n g a t 75-80 p l a n t f a c t o r , b u i l t i n areas where  con-  v e n t i o n a l f u e l p r i c e s a r e s w e l l e d by h i g h t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c o s t s . In  e s t i m a t e s prepared  i n May, 1 9 5 7 , f o r n u c l e a r power s t a t i o n s  o f t h i s t y p e , w i t h f i x e d charges the by-product 25  o f 13 per c e n t , a l l o w i n g f o r  f u e l v a l u e o f r e c o v e r e d p l u t o n i u m and i n c l u d i n g  per cent c o n t i n g e n c y f a c t o r , t h e t o t a l g e n e r a t i n g c o s t i s  shown f o r t h r e e d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f "second g e n e r a t i o n " p l a n t s as f o l l o w s : ( i n m i l l s p e r kwh.) R e a c t o r type  M i l l s p e r kwh. 50% p l a n t f a c t o r  80% plant f a c t o r  P r e s s u r i z e d Water (U.S.)  15.0 - 18.8  11.3 - 14.1  B o i l i n g Water (U.S.) Gas c o o l e d G r a p h i t e moderated (U.K.) C o n s t r u c t e d i n U.S.A. C o n s t r u c t e d i n U.K.  13.7 - 17.1  10.5 - 13.1  18.2 - 22.3 15.4 - 19.2  12.7 - 15.9 10.8 - 13.6  The above c o s t s a r e based on t h e a s s u m p t i o n s o f p r e s e n t technology.  I t i s g e n e r a l l y b e l i e v e d , however, t h a t w i t h more  e x p e r i e n c e t h e s e c o s t s w i l l be s u b s t a n t i a l l y reduced  and w i l l  r e a c h , a t 50 p e r cent p l a n t f a c t o r , 12 m i l l s p e r kwh. by 1965. A l t h o u g h i t i s not expected t h a t s m a l l atomic  power  p l a n t s w i l l be a b l e t o compete w i t h t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l ones f o r a l o n g time t o come, n e v e r t h e l e s s t h e y a r e of i n t e r e s t because o f t h e i r s p e c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ( t h e v e r y s m a l l amount o f f u e l r e q u i r e d once t h e s t a t i o n has been c o n s t r u c t e d . )  They a r e con-  s i d e r e d as p o s s i b l e s m a l l power p l a n t s i n remote a r e a s , such as  78  p o l a r r e g i o n s , where f u e l d e l i v e r y would be e x t r e m e l y  costly,  and as p r o p u l s i o n power s u p p l i e r s on submarines and s h i p s , where h i g h c o s t s are a c c e p t a b l e f o r s p e c i a l  reasons.  I n c o n s i d e r i n g the economic a s p e c t s o f n u c l e a r energy i t i s necessary  t o b e a r i n mind p r o j e c t s u n d e r t a k e n f o r m i l i t a r y  and p r e s t i g e r e a s o n s .  Although nuclear p r o p u l s i o n i n s t a l l e d i n  submarines and e x p e r i m e n t a l l a n d v e h i c l e s w i l l not l e a d t o the b u s i n e s s w o r l d f o l l o w i n g s u i t as l o n g as c o s t s are above those t h a t are o b t a i n e d by u s i n g c o n v e n t i o n a l f u e l s , the  experience  gained i n t h e course o f o p e r a t i n g such s p e c i a l - p u r p o s e u n i t s i s l i k e l y to lead to a r e d u c t i o n i n costs of nuclear p r o p u l s i o n t h r o u g h development o f more economical o t h e r w i s e be p o s s i b l e .  The  models sooner t h a n would  same i s t r u e of t h e s m a l l power  p l a n t s , the s o - c a l l e d "package r e a c t o r s " .  Where atomic  s t a t i o n s a r e used t o produce e l e c t r i c i t y and p l u t o n i u m  power - the  l a t t e r f o r m i l i t a r y purposes - and where the p l a n t i s geared t o produce amounts o f t h e s e p r o d u c t s not i n t h a t p r o p o r t i o n where . m a r g i n a l c o s t s are e q u a l i z e d , but where economy i n o p e r a t i o n i s s a c r i f i c e d t o o b t a i n g r e a t e r output o f p l u t o n i u m ,  t h e n the  dif-  f e r e n c e between the maximum p o s s i b l e t o t a l r e t u r n and the a c t u a l r e t u r n may  s i m p l y be c o n s i d e r e d as a p r i m a r y s u b s i d y and  the  d i f f e r e n c e between t h e t o t a l r e t u r n s and c o s t s of the same commodity on the market ( i . e . e l e c t r i c c u r r e n t ) may secondary s u b s i d y . and  The  be c o n s i d e r e d  same i s t r u e of e x p e r i m e n t a l ,  research  s p e c i a l - p u r p o s e r e a c t o r s where h i g h c o s t s per u n i t o f  are a c c e p t e d of experience  f o r s p e c i a l reasons.  a  output  As time goes on and the amount  and i n f o r m a t i o n i n the f i e l d of n u c l e a r energy  79  s t u d i e s i n c r e a s e s , t h e share in the t o t a l production  of research  plant construction w i l l  of plutonium  and t h e s h a r e  decline.  stand  The  t a b l e below g i v e s  power g e n e r a t i o n 1980:  ( 1 2  military  capital invest-  also decline.  estimates  of nuclear  costs f o r  i n l a r g e and s m a l l r e a c t o r s i n 1965 and  ) Large P l a n t Short  Long t e r m  costs  The  4.6  10.3  5.7  2.0  0.5  2.5  1.5  3.0  QJS  4.7  2.5  11.9  5.9  18.0  9.9  estimates  take  r e a c t o r s , the a r r i v a l  i n extensive  economies o f f u e l ,  plants  and a h i g h e r  rate of u t i l i z a t i o n .  petroleum and  energy could  i n low-temperature  pulp  Although  $190  will  i n the size o f  fuels i n  but only i n those  a r e r e q u i r e d , such as  and p a p e r p r o d u c t i o n ,  manufacturing.  o f which  conventional  generation,  large quantities of fuel  refining,  chemicals  a decrease  compete w i t h heat  (1930)  i n t o account the i n t r o d u c t i o n  result  f i e l d s where v e r y  terc  6.9  o f h i g h - t e m p e r a t u r e and b r e e d e r  some a r e a s  Long  $350  (incl.stocks)  Nuclear  term  Short  |150  & Maintenance  long-term  Plant  (1965)  G e n e r a t i n g c o s t s a t 50% plant f a c t o r mills/kwh. Fixed charges Operation  Small  (19801  |225  p e r kw  Fuel  term  (1965)  C o s t Item Plant  as the  more and more on i t s  of subsidies i n the t o t a l  ments i n t h e n u c l e a r d e v e l o p m e n t w i l l  plants  Similarly,  i n c r e a s e s and t h e r e s e r v e s f o r  p u r p o s e s a r e met, t h e i n d u s t r y w i l l own f e e t  and e x p e r i m e n t a l  food  preparation  high-temperature  heat  80 g e n e r a t i o n i s not f e a s i b l e a t p r e s e n t because of t h e  various  t e c h n i c a l problems t h a t must be overcome, i t i s g e n e r a l l y b e l i e v e d t h a t i t w i l l be p o s s i b l e t o use i t c o m p e t i t i v e l y b e f o r e The  prospect  o f u s i n g h i g h - t e m p e r a t u r e heat i n the i r o n and  i n d u s t r y , and i n cement, b r i c k and g l a s s m a n u f a c t u r i n g to  1980.  stimulate l i v e l y  research i n these f i e l d s .  of heat r e q u i r e d i n b l a s t f u r n a c e s bined w i t h the round-the-clock  The  and cement p r o d u c t i o n , com-  a c t i v i t y of t h e s e b r a n c h e s would  the average c o s t per m i l l i o n BTU  sumed a t t h e b l a s t f u r n a c e s was of a l l f u e l s averaged 38^.  likely  l a r g e amount  make n u c l e a r heat o b t a i n e d from r e a c t o r s p a r t i c u l a r l y I n 1954  is  steel  60^.  suitable.  of coke con-  At cement m i l l s the  per m i l l i o n BTU,  cost  w h i l e the p r o j e c t e d  n u c l e a r f u e l c o s t i n e l e c t r i c power g e n e r a t i o n shown i n the t a b l e above, c o r r e s p o n d s t o 2 3 / . 6^. 30^.  per m i l l i o n BTU  i n 1980.(!3) (3 m i l l s per 1 kwh per 1,000,000 BTU,  i n 1965  or 10,000 BTU,  therefore  including stocks).  The use o f n u c l e a r p r o p u l s i o n i n s h i p s w i l l be a t c o m p e t i t i v e c o s t a f t e r 1965, marines and  and  feasible  though i t i s a l r e a d y used i n sub-  s h i p p r o p u l s i o n under c o n d i t i o n s where c o s t s are a  minor c o n s i d e r a t i o n .  W i t h r e g a r d t o t h e use o f atomic power  i n t h e p r o p u l s i o n of l a n d v e h i c l e s , t h i s w i l l p r o b a b l y  come at  a much l a t e r date because of the s i z e o f the u n i t i n v o l v e d the p o s s i b i l i t y o f The  and  collision.  l o c a t i o n s where n u c l e a r energy w i l l be  w i l l be c l o s e l y connected w i t h t h e p r e s e n t p r i c e s of b o i l e r - f u e l s .  and  introduced  prospective  I n t h e t a b l e o v e r l e a f are  given:  81 A - p r o j e c t e d growth o f power g e n e r a t i o n 1975-80 prepared  by t h e  F u e l Power Commission a c c o r d i n g t o t h e Power Supply R e g i o n s and t h e t y p e o f prime mover, and B - E l e c t r i c U t i l i t y  boiler-  f u e l c o s t s i n 1954 and p r o j e c t e d t o 1980 a c c o r d i n g t o t h e same F u e l Power Commission R e g i o n s . obvious.  From t h e t a b l e two t h i n g s a r e  One - t h a t n u c l e a r power w i l l be i n t r o d u c e d where t h e  p r i c e o f c o a l i s a l r e a d y h i g h and where a f u r t h e r i n c r e a s e i n t h o s e p r i c e s i s expected. new sources  Two - due t o t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e  o f energy and t h e use o f cheaper means o f t r a n s -  p o r t a t i o n t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e p r i c e of c o a l f r o m r e g i o n t o r e g i o n w i l l d i m i n i s h f r o m 20.2 d o l l a r s i n 1954 t o 13 d o l l a r s i n 1980. F.P.C. Region  I n c r e a s e i n G e n e r a t i o n - 1 0 kwh Coal P r i c e s . T o t a l Nuclear Steam Hydro Int.Comb. 1954 1980 9  1.  36.0  41.2  2.  45.5  40.1  3.  53.5  4.  0  0  31.9  38.5  5.3  0  0.1  22.5  27.9  28.9  21.9  3  - 0.3  26.0  32.2  39.3  38.1  1.4  0  - 0.2  25.6  28.7  5.  27.3  12.5  14.4  0.9  0.4  11.7  25.5  6.  5.1  2.5  1.0  1.9  - 0.3  24.7  29.7  7.  29.6  10.2  9.9  9.5  0  24.4  29.9  8.  35.7 272.0  34.4  1.3 50.2  0  0  24.3  31.5 30.8  207.9  - 5.2  14.4  - 0.3Aver—24 »4 age  I n r e g i o n 1, where c o a l p r i c e s a r e v e r y h i g h and a r e expected t o i n c r e a s e s t i l l f u r t h e r , a decrease w i l l o c c u r i n t h e amount o f power g e n e r a t e d from c o a l .  actually I n r e g i o n 5,  82 on the o t h e r hand, where t h e p r i c e o f c o a l w i l l remain  relatively-  low, more t h a n h a l f o f the f u t u r e i n c r e a s e o f power p r o d u c t i o n will  come from c o a l b u r n e r s .  (iv) balance.  C o n c l u s i o n - A n t i c i p a t e d s h i f t s i n the f u t u r e f u e l Because of t h e way  i t i s produced,  n u c l e a r energy i s  l i k e l y t o f i n d i t s l a r g e s t market i n the g e n e r a t i o n o f e l e c t r i c power ( a p p r o x i m a t e l y 60 per cent i n BTU p r o c e s s and f u r n a c e h e a t .  i n 19&0),^-')  a n c  j  ^  n  To b e g i n w i t h n u c l e a r energy w i l l  u t i l i z e d i n areas w i t h the highest furnace f u e l p r i c e s ,  then,  as t h e p r i c e s o f n u c l e a r power drop, i t w i l l move n e a r e r n e a r e r t o t h e sources of f o s s i l f u e l s .  be  and  The e n t r y o f n u c l e a r  energy w i l l have a r e t a r d i n g e f f e c t on t h e growth o f c o a l o u t put and w i l l  a l s o prevent any r i s e i n c o a l p r i c e s .  The  com-  b i n a t i o n o f n u c l e a r energy and c o a l f u e l p o s i t i o n w i l l , t o a c e r t a i n degree,  sumption 1955  e f f e c t o i l and gas  industries.  I t i s e s t i m a t e d t h a t by 1980 t h e t o t a l energy ic,  con-  i n t h e U.S.A. w i l l i n c r e a s e from 40.3 x 10 ^BTU  in  t o 80 x 10  BTU,  t h a t i s - i t w i l l almost d o u b l e .  In  t h e t a b l e o v e r l e a f are g i v e n energy consumption f i g u r e s by p r i m a r y s o u r c e s i n 1955  and 1980,  the l a t t e r p r o j e c t e d i n  column A - based on c o n v e n t i o n a l s o u r c e s o n l y , and i n column B - a l l o w i n g f o r the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f n u c l e a r energy.  As  can  be seen from t h e t a b l e t h e share of n u c l e a r energy by t h a t t i m e w i l l amount t o a p p r o x i m a t e l y 8.7  per cent o f t h e t o t a l .  e s t i m a t e d t h a t n u c l e a r energy w i l l d i s p l a c e 3,025 x 1 0  1 2  It i s BTU  TABLE V I I Energy Consumption by Primary Source i n 1955 and 1980 ( P r o j e c t i o n Based on C o n v e n t i o n a l Sources E x c l u s i v e l y (A) and a l l o w i n g f o r the development o f n u c l e a r energy (B) ) A 1980  1955 Prime Energy Source  Convent. Units  Bituminous Goal & Lignite (mil.t.) Anthracite  (mil.t.)  L i q u i d Petroleum products ( b i l . (1) bbls) Wet N a t u r a l  l O ^ % of BTU Total 1  B 1980  Convent. Units  10^ BTU  % of Total  Convent. Units  l O ^ % of BTU Total 1  423.4  11.1  27.5  826.0  21.6  27.0  710.0  18.6  23.0  23.6  0.6  1.5  25.0  0.6  0.8  25.0  0.6  0.7  16.3  40.5  6.2  36.0  45.0  5.8  33.6  41.5  10.1  10.9  27.0  18.0  19.3  24.1  17.4  18.7  23.1  120.0  1.4  3.5  277.0  2.5  3.1  271.0  2.4  3.0  -  -  -  -  7.0  8.7  80.9  100.0  2.81  Gas  (trillion c f . ) Hydro ( b i l . kwh) Nuclear Energy (1015 BTU) TOTAL  (1)  May i n c l u d e  40.3  100.0  -  80.0  100.0  l i q u i d hydrocarbons i n 1980 from o i l shale  -  as w e l l as from crude oil.  84 e q u i v a l e n t of c o a l , 2,459 x 1 0 557 x 1 0  1 2  BTU  1 2  BTU  e q u i v a l e n t of gas and  h y d r o e l e c t r i c power.  e q u i v a l e n t of o i l , 51 x 1 0  1 2  BTU  e q u i v a l e n t of  The h e a v i e s t l o s e r s t o n u c l e a r energy  will  be c o a l and o i l , and t h e i r main l o s s e s w i l l be i n the areas f a r removed from the p l a c e of o r i g i n of the m i n e r a l f u e l s .  One  can  say, t h e r e f o r e , t h a t the d e c i d i n g f a c t o r w i l l be the cost of transport. As can be seen from the f o r e g o i n g t a b l e , i t i s estimated t h a t due t o the e n t r y of n u c l e a r energy the output of bituminous c o a l w i l l expand by 116 m i l l i o n tons l e s s than i t would have done otherwise, and the share of c o a l i n the f u e l balance w i l l to  23.7  per cent as a g a i n s t 27.8  per c e n t .  decline  The e f f e c t o f n u c l e a r  energy on the output of l i q u i d petroleum products w i l l not be so g r e a t .  Here the output i n 1980  e q u i v a l e n t of 33.6  x 1015 BTU  i s expected t o r i s e to the  i n s t e a d of 36 x 1015  share of o i l i n the f u e l balance w i l l be 41.5 of 45 per cent.  BTU,  and the  per cent i n s t e a d  The e f f e c t of the i n t r o d u c t i o n of n u c l e a r energy  on n a t u r a l gas and h y d r o e l e c t r i c power w i l l be t o reduce share i n the f u e l balance by 1.0  and 0.1  their  per cent r e s p e c t i v e l y .  35  2.  The E x p e r i e n c e (i)  o f t h e U n i t e d Kingdom.  Imports o f o i l and t h e Growing Demand f o r F u e l and Power. The U n i t e d Kingdom depends on c o a l as i t s main source  o f energy.  As can be seen f r o m t h e t a b l e below, B r i t i s h  reserves  of f u e l are r a t h e r one-sided. I n d i g e n o u s Energy R e s o u r c e s o f t h e U n i t e d Kingdom.(1°) Resource T o t a l e s t i m a t e d r e s e r v e s , as c o a l e q u i v a l e n t , i n m i l l i o n s of tons• Coal  21,950 130,900 43,000  mineable i n 100 y e a r s t o t a l proved r e s e r v e s a d d i t i o n a l probable reserves  195,350 500  C o a l s u i t a b l e f o r underground  2 1 5 0.3 2-5 23 110 ? 1 negligible not known 500  -  per per per per per  annum annum annum annum annum  gasification.  -  C o a l methane, mine u p c a s t s / p o s s i b l y / - mine d r a i n a g e Water power methane from f e r m e n t a t i o n Wind power, i f a l l s u i t a b l e s i t e s were u t i l i z e d Scotland only - O i l shale Cannel Lignite p e r annum, t i d a l power f r o m Severn E s t u a r y petroleum n a t u r a l gas peat, i n Scotland o n l y .  U n i t e d Kingdom c o a l r e s e r v e s a r e e x t e n s i v e .  However,  " i r r e s p e c t i v e o f t h e q u a n t i t y o f c o a l r e m a i n i n g i n t h e ground the prospects of i n c r e a s i n g p r o d u c t i o n s u f f i c i e n t l y t o overtake the r a p i d l y i n c r e a s i n g demand a r e f a r from h o p e f u l .  In the l a s t  f o u r y e a r s deep mined output has been b a r e l y m a i n t a i n e d 215 m i l l i o n t o n s . " j  n  a t around  1956 t h e B r i t i s h Government approved  86 an i n v e s t m e n t o f £1,000 m i l l i o n i n t h e c o a l i n d u s t r y i n o r d e r t o r a i s e t h e l e v e l o f o u t p u t from 220 m i l l i o n t o n s per y e a r t o 250.  A l t h o u g h t h e output of c o a l can be i n c r e a s e d t o some ex-  t e n t , t h e p o s i t i o n o f c o a l v i s - a - v i s o t h e r forms of power s o u r c e s i s l i k e l y to deteriorate. " D u r i n g t h e p e r i o d between 1950 and 1956 t h e average p i t h e a d p r i c e o f c o a l i n t h e U n i t e d Kingdom has gone up by no l e s s t h a n t w o - t h i r d s . The l a n d e d p r i c e o f f u e l o i l has gone up by over a q u a r t e r . Thus, measured i n terms o f t h e p r i c e of o i l , t h e p r i c e o f c o a l i n t h e U n i t e d Kingdom has gone up by t h i r t y per cent i n s i x year" (18) " I n t h e f a c e o f t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s i n expanding c o a l o u t put t h e U n i t e d Kingdom has had t o r e c o u r s e more and more t o imp o r t e d o i l and o i l p r o d u c t s . G i v e n below a r e t h e f i g u r e s f o r t h e P e t r o l e u m t r a d e o f t h e U n i t e d Kingdom i n 1938, 1948 and 1954. ( I n m i l l i o n Imports o f :  tons.)^ ^  Caribbean  USA  Exports & Reexports.  2.8  4.$  2.0  0.6  13.4  6.7  8.1  2.0  0.3  7.0  25.2  4.5  1.5  7.8  Crude oil  Refined Products  1938  2.3  9.5  1948  4.7  1954  28.4  P r i n c i p a l Sources o f I m p o r t s .  1 9  Middle East  I n o r d e r t o reduce t h e volume o f i m p o r t e d f u e l t h e U n i t e d Kingdom t r i e d t o d e v e l o p c o a l g a s i f i c a t i o n , p r o d u c t i o n o f methane from c o a l mine v e n t i l a t i n g u p c a s t s and c o a l mine d r a i n a g e and a l s o from t h e f e r m e n t a t i o n o f sewage.  A l l t h e s e s o u r c e s , however,  can o n l y p r o v i d e such s m a l l amounts t h a t t h e y c o u l d not i n f l u e n c e  87 the o v e r a l l s i t u a t i o n i n the f u e l i n d u s t r y . The  i n c r e a s i n g i m p o r t s o f o i l and o i l p r o d u c t s  con-  s t i t u t e a heavy d r a i n on t h e f o r e i g n exchange r e s o u r c e s U n i t e d Kingdom and i t i s t h e c o m b i n a t i o n  of the  o f t h e s e two f a c t o r s  p l u s t h e absence o f any a p p r e c i a b l e r e s e r v e s o f h y d r o - e l e c t r i c power t h a t f o r c e d B r i t a i n t o take d e c i s i v e s t e p s towards t h e r a p i d development o f n u c l e a r power.  I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o observe t h a t  b e f o r e a d e f i n i t e d e c i s i o n t o d e v e l o p atomic energy was t a k e n , a c e r t a i n amount o f a t t e n t i o n was g i v e n t o t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f u s i n g peat as a source  o f e l e c t r i c power.  I t was, however, d e c i d e d  t h a t t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f p e a t - f i r e d power s t a t i o n s would be j u s t as expensive  as t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f atomic s t a t i o n s .  There was,  i n f a c t , a r a c e between peat and n u c l e a r energy and i t may now be c o n s i d e r e d t h a t peat has l o s t .  P e a t - f i r e d power s t a t i o n s a r e  l i k e l y t o be c o n s t r u c t e d o n l y w i t h i n t h e schemes o f l a n d The  reclamation.  d e c i s i o n t o d e v e l o p atomic energy was f u r t h e r  a f f e c t e d by t h e t h r e a t e n i n g f u e l b o t t l e n e c k i n B r i t i s h  electric  power p r o d u c t i o n , as one o f t h e l e a d i n g consumers o f f u e l i n t h e U n i t e d Kingdom i s t h e E l e c t r i c I n d u s t r y .  In the table overleaf  are g i v e n E l e c t r i c i t y I n d u s t r y s t a t i s t i c s showing t h e f u e l consumption i n 1950-1954. I t i s g e n e r a l l y b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e demand f o r energy i n the U n i t e d Kingdom w i l l i n c r e a s e much more r a p i d l y than t h e f u e l i n d u s t r y (which i n t h e case o f t h e U n i t e d Kingdom means m a i n l y c o a l ) c o u l d be expanded.  I t i s estimated  U n i t e d Kingdom w i l l need a p p r o x i m a t e l y  t h a t by about 1975 t h e  t h r e e and a h a l f t i m e s as much  TABLE V I I I  F u e l Consumption i n the E l e c t r i c i t y Industry During the P e r i o d 1950 - 1954 P e r i o d .  Year:  Total I n s t a l l e d Capacity Hydro Others Steam  TOTAL  U n i t s sent out M i l . kwh  F u e l Used - m i l . tons.(20) C o a l Coke Oil  1950  14,436  542  105  15,083  51,911  32.2  0.393  0.073  1951  15,593  625  109  16,332  56,539  34.7  0.773  0.036  1952  17,049  649  125  17,323  53,302  35.1  0.352  0.065  1953  18,477  656  123  19,256  62,094  36.2  0.916  0.097  1954  19,816  704  124  20,644  62,042  39.1  1.124  0.173  00-  oa  9G  e l e c t r i c i t y as was b e i n g produced when t h e atomic programme was planned i n 1954, m i l l i o n kwh.  i . e . 223,000 m i l l i o n kwh.  as a g a i n s t 6 9 , 0 0 0  T h i s means t h a t a t t h e p r e s e n t r a t e of  consumption  the c o u n t r y would need t o s e t a s i d e , f o r the use of power s t a t i o n s , 43 m i l l i o n t o n s o f c o a l i n 1954, 100 m i l l i o n t o n s i n 1975.  70 m i l l i o n t o n s i n 1965,  The p r e s e n t output of c o a l ,  and  including  e x t r a Saturday s h i f t s and open c a s t m i n i n g , amounts t o a p p r o x i m a t e l y 225 m i l l i o n t o n s per y e a r w i t h o u t becoming i n v o l v e d i n e x c e s s i v e l y heavy c a p i t a l i n v e s t m e n t s .  Imports o f c o a l and o i l  from abroad would i n v o l v e huge e x p e n d i t u r e s o f f o r e i g n exchange. (ii)  Atomic Power Development. Faced w i t h the s i t u a t i o n where the demand f o r f u e l  and  power was g r o w i n g , w h i l e t h e e x p a n s i o n o f c o a l output p r e s e n t e d s e r i o u s d i f f i c u l t i e s , the U.K.  government was v e r y i n t e r e s t e d  i n t h e use o f atomic energy f o r the g e n e r a t i o n of e l e c t r i c power and as an a l t e r n a t i v e source o f energy i n g e n e r a l . E a r l y r e s e a r c h c a r r i e d out by the Atomic Energy  Es-  t a b l i s h m e n t i n d i c a t e d c l e a r l y t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f u s i n g atomic energy.  I n 1953  the government c o n c l u d e d t h a t the growing  im-  p o r t a n c e o f t h e i n d u s t r i a l a p p l i c a t i o n o f atomic energy, and the need f o r an o r g a n i z a t i o n a k i n t o t h a t of a l a r g e  industrial  u n d e r t a k i n g , r e q u i r e d t h a t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r atomic  energy  development s h o u l d be t r a n s f e r r e d t o a non-departmental zation. 1954, on 1st  As a r e s u l t t h e Atomic Energy A u t h o r i t y was  created i n  and assumed r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e Atomic Energy August, 1954.  organi-  project  I t s powers embraced t h e p r o d u c t i o n , use,  d i s p o s a l o f , and a l l forms o f r e s e a r c h i n t o atomic energy  and  91  r a d i o - a c t i v e substances, but not d e c i s i o n s w i t h regard t o the production  o f atomic weapons. In 1955 the f i r s t  was prepared.  I t provided  U.K. p l a n f o r n u c l e a r power  production  f o r the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f :  2 power s t a t i o n s o f 100,000 and 200,000 kw. c a p a c i t y t o be s t a r t e d i n 1957 and completed i n 1960/61. 2 power s t a t i o n s t o be s t a r t e d i n 1958/59 and completed i n 1963. 4 power s t a t i o n s t o be s t a r t e d i n I960 and completed i n 1965. 4 power s t a t i o n s t o be s t a r t e d i n 1961/62 and completed i n 1965. The  t o t a l investment was t o amount t o £300 m i l l i o n and  the t o t a l c a p a c i t y o f the atomic power s t a t i o n s was t o be  equal  t o 1.5 t o 2 m i l l i o n kw, i n c r e a s i n g t o 10-15 m i l l i o n kw. by 1975. T h i s p l a n underwent two changes even b e f o r e when c o n s t r u c t i o n was t o be s t a r t e d on t h e f i r s t station. plan.  the date  atomic power  The f i r s t was caused by the entry of Scotland  i n t o the  The second r e s u l t e d from the d i s c o v e r y t h a t the t h i c k -  ness o f s t e e l t h a t c o u l d be welded together  could be i n c r e a s e d  from the p r e v i o u s l y estimated  T h i s made i t p o s s i b l e  2-2g" t o 4".  to more than double t h e c a p a c i t y o f t h e power s t a t i o n s and the programme was i n c r e a s e d t o 4 m i l l i o n  kw.  In 1955 B r i t i s h c o a l p r o d u c t i o n  fell  short by 3 m i l l i o n  tons and $200 m i l l i o n had t o be spent abroad f o r the purchase o f foreign coal.  As a r e s u l t o f t h i s , and the o i l c r i s i s r e s u l t i n g  from the Suez Canal c o n f l i c t i n October 1956, the p l a n was changed once more.  I t was planned t o i n c r e a s e the i n s t a l l e d  c a p a c i t y t o 6 m i l l i o n kw. i n 1965, t h a t i s three  times the o r i g i n a l  92 estimate.  The t h i r d programme p r o v i d e d f o r t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f :  8 power s t a t i o n s , work on w h i c h was t o be s t a r t e d by I960. 6 power s t a t i o n s t o be s t a r t e d i n I 9 6 0 . 6 power s t a t i o n s t o be s t a r t e d i n 1 9 6 2 . ( ) 2 2  The investment funds f o r t h e Atomic I n d u s t r y were r a i s e d t o £900 m i l l i o n . The r a i s e d i n s t a l l e d  c a p a c i t y was expected t o be equal  t o about 15 p e r cent o f t h e c o u n t r y ' s g e n e r a t i n g c a p a c i t y and t o s u p p l y about a q u a r t e r o f t h e c o u n t r y ' s e l e c t r i c i t y .  I t was ex-  p e c t e d t h a t by 1970 atomic power s t a t i o n s would p r o v i d e a p p r o x i m a t e l y 40 p e r cent o f t h e c o u n t r y ' s e l e c t r i c i t y and 10 p e r cent of a l l energy used.  A c c o r d i n g t o S i r John C o c k r o f t , n u c l e a r  power would be d o i n g t h e work o f 150 t o 200 m i l l i o n t o n s o f c o a l by t h e y e a r 2 0 0 0 . ( 3 ) 2  I t was proposed  t o reduce g r a d u a l l y t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n  of c o n v e n t i o n a l power p l a n t s and t o i n t r o d u c e atomic power s t a t i o n s , G i v e n below i s a t a b l e o f new g e n e r a t i n g p l a n t expected t o come i n t o o p e r a t i o n i n t h e y e a r s 1960-1964, t h e t o t a l output c a p a c i t y at t h e end o f each y e a r and t h e share o f n u c l e a r p l a n t g e n e r a t i n g capacity i n i t : Year:  Conventional Plant b u i l t  Nuclear Plant built  Total Addition  Total Capacity  I960  2263  -  2,263  27,130  1961 1962 1963 1964  1978 1846 1569 1877  575 250 500 500  2,553 2,096 2,069 2,377  29,359 31,143 32,799 34,833  9,533  1,825  11,358  Per cent o f N u c l e a r energy  2.0 2.6 4.0 5.2(24)  93 L i s t e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g t a b l e are the atomic s t a t i o n s under c o n s t r u c t i o n or planned,  as o f November  D u r i n g 1964/65 n u c l e a r energy was  power 1959.  expected t o con-  s t i t u t e 8 per cent of a l l the e l e c t r i c i t y produced i n the r e p l a c i n g 4-5  m i l l i o n tons of c o a l or i t s e q u i v a l e n t , out o f  the t o t a l 64 m i l l i o n tons r e q u i r e d . ( 5 )  According t o the plan  2  for  U.K.,  expanded atomic development the Commission was  t o have  p l a c e d l a r g e o r d e r s f o r n u c l e a r c a p a c i t y d u r i n g the e a r l y n i n e t e e n - s i x t i e s f o r completion before  1965.  On 20th June, I960 the M i n s t e r of Power made a s t a t e ment t h a t : " S i n c e t h e 1957 programme was p u b l i s h e d i t has been kept under c o n t i n u o u s r e v i e w , and what has now been dec i d e d i s t h a t t h e h i g h e r r a t e o f o r d e r i n g t h i s y e a r and t h e n e x t , w h i c h the 1957 programme e n v i s a g e d , i s no l o n g e r j u s t i f i e d because o f the changes i n the f u e l s u p p l y p o s i t i o n and i n r e l a t i v e c o s t s . I n r e l a t i o n t o the 1957 programme o n l y t h i s means a s l o w i n g down but the r a t e o f o r d e r i n g w i l l be about t h e same as over the past f i v e y e a r s . The r e s u l t i n g a d d i t i o n s to c a p a c i t y are expected t o be g r e a t e r because the output per s t a t i o n i s expected t o i n c r e a s e . ( 2 6 ) ,,  A c c o r d i n g t o the new  programme, power s t a t i o n s at  Berkeley, B r a d w e l l , Hunterston,  H i n k l e y P o i n t , Trawsfynydd  Dungeness are t o be completed as p l a n n e d .  The  and  S i z e w e l l power  s t a t i o n , t o be completed d u r i n g 1965/1966 w i l l have a c a p a c i t y o f 550,000 kw. 2,9250,000  kw. The  two  T h i s w i l l b r i n g the t o t a l i n s t a l l e d c a p a c i t y t o  causes.  s c a l i n g down o f t h e atomic S i n c e 1957  programme was  due  to  c o a l has become p l e n t i f u l , and the o i l  s u p p l y p r o s p e c t s have a l s o improved. sudden a c c e l e r a t i o n o f atomic  The  need f o r a sharp  power development on f u e l  and  supply  TABLE IX  Atomic Power S t a t i o n s Under C o n s t r u c t i o n or Planned, as o f November, 1959.  Stations  T o t a l Output Capacity-  Number of Reactors  Number o f Turbo A l ternators  Date Work Started  Anticipated 1st Reactor  Completion 2nd Reactor  Berkeley (Glos.)  2  275  4  Jan. 1957  Dec. I960  July,1961  Bradwell (Essx.)  2  300  6  Jan. 1957  Dec. I960  June,1961  Hunterston (Ayrsh.)  2  300  6  Oct. 1957  Aug. 1961  Sept.1962  Hinkley Pt. (Som.)  2  500  6  Dec. 1957  Mar. 1962  Dec. 1962  Trawsfynydd (N. Wales)  2  500  June, 1959  Planned: Dungeness (Kent) Sizewell (Suffolk) Oldbury-onSevern  500,000 kw  -  M i n i s t e r i a l consent o b t a i n e d .  650,000 kw  -  A p p l i c a t i o n f o r consent under c o n s i d e r a t i o n . (Note: c a p a c i t y subsequently reduced t o 550,000 kw.)  1,000,000 kw  -  A p p l i c a t i o n t o be made t o the M i n i s t e r o f Power and L o c a l Planning authorities. ( P r o j e c t shelved.)(27)  output  vO  95 grounds has d i s a p p e a r e d .  The other c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r i s t h e  s u b s t a n t i a l drop which has taken p l a c e i n the costs of convent i o n a l power from the new thermal power s t a t i o n s .  The develop-  ment o f l a r g e r g e n e r a t i n g s e t s has reduced t h e c a p i t a l c o s t s o f the new s t a t i o n s , the use of h i g h e r steam temperatures and p r e s s u r e s has i n c r e a s e d t h e i r e f f i c i e n c y , and c a r e f u l  siting  near t o l o w - p r i c e d c o a l sources has reduced the d e l i v e r y c o s t s of c o a l t o them.  But i t i s noted t h a t the n u c l e a r c o s t s are  f a l l i n g even f a s t e r .  Although n u c l e a r power c o s t s are at present  25 per cent above those i n c o n v e n t i o n a l power s t a t i o n s i t i s expected t h a t by 1970 n u c l e a r g e n e r a t i o n f o r base l o a d  purposes  i s l i k e l y t o become cheaper than c o n v e n t i o n a l generation.(28) Although the f u e l c r i s i s i n t h e U.K. i s at the moment under c o n t r o l t h i s i s o n l y a temporary  situation.  By 1975  power s t a t i o n s w i l l be consuming the e q u i v a l e n t o f 1 2 5 m i l l i o n tons of c o a l and by 1980 the requirements are l i k e l y t o r e a c h 200 m i l l i o n t o n s . ^ ^ 2 9  Notwithstanding the f a c t that o i l i s  l i k e l y t o remain p l e n t i f u l on the i n t e r n a t i o n a l market f o r many years, the U.K. cannot r e l y t o such an extent on imports both f o r reasons o f n a t i o n a l s a f e t y and i n view o f the enormous d r a i n on f o r e i g n exchange r e s o u r c e s . At present, thanks t o the f a v o u r a b l e f u e l B r i t a i n i s able t o postpone  the planned atomic  situation,  station construc-  t i o n by a few years and thus t o make use o f the l e s s o n s l e a r n e d from the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f the f i r s t  power s t a t i o n s and t o i n c o r -  porate the new developments and improvements i n t o l a t e r  ones.  96 The 5,000,000 kw. l e v e l , planned o r i g i n a l l y t o be a c h i e v e d i n 1965, w i l l under t h e new programme, be a c h i e v e d by 1968. (iii)  Atomic  Research.  As i t i s a t p r e s e n t e n v i s a g e d , t h e r e w i l l be a t any time i n t h e near f u t u r e f i v e o r s i x atomic power s t a t i o n s i n v a r i o u s s t a g e s o f development, from d e s i g n t o commissioning. T h i s s h o u l d be s u f f i c i e n t t o m a i n t a i n t h e r a t e o f development of n u c l e a r t e c h n o l o g y and t o s u s t a i n a n u c l e a r p l a n t i n d u s t r y capable o f competing f o r overseas b u s i n e s s , f o r t h e atomic i n d u s t r y i s s e r i o u s l y c o n s i d e r e d i n B r i t a i n as a branch o f t h e economy t h a t c o u l d p r o v i d e a v a l u a b l e c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e e x p o r t trade. The r e a c t o r development programme undertaken by t h e U.K. i s not as wide as t h a t o f t h e U.S.A. reasons.  T h i s i s f o r two  F i r s t , England, b e i n g p r e s s e d f o r time by t h e s i t u a t i o n  i n t h e c o a l i n d u s t r y and r i s i n g c o s t s o f o i l i m p o r t s had t o embark on t h e n u c l e a r energy programme as e a r l y as p o s s i b l e , hoping t o a c h i e v e economies i n t h e course o f o p e r a t i o n o f t h e f i r s t power s t a t i o n s and improve upon them a t a l a t e r d a t e . Second, s i n c e England  had no ready s u p p l y o f heavy water and o f  e n r i c h e d uranium, i t c o n c e n t r a t e d on g a s - c o o l e d r e a c t o r s , w h i c h , u s i n g n a t u r a l uranium, a r e i n h e r e n t l y s a f e r and s u i t t h e cong e s t e d c o n d i t i o n s i n B r i t a i n v e r y much b e t t e r , a t l e a s t d u r i n g the i n i t i a l p e r i o d . Great B r i t a i n has u n d e r t a k e n t h e s t u d y o f t h e f o l l o w i n g types of r e a c t o r s :  9 7  a.  Gas C o o l e d G r a p h i t e R e a c t o r ;  U 235 or  e n r i c h e d Uranium,  U 233  u s i n g normal uranium, o r  o r P l u t o n i u m i n t h e form o f rods  s l u g s c o n t a i n e d i n a g r a p h i t e moderator.  Carbon  dioxide  or some o t h e r s u i t a b l e gas i s c i r c u l a t e d t h r o u g h t h e r e a c t o r under p r e s s u r e t o remove h e a t . b.  Fast Breeder Reactor;  w i t h p l u t o n i u m o r U 235, metal.  h a v i n g an unmoderated core f u e l l e d c o o l e d w i t h sodium o r o t h e r l i q u i d  The core i s surrounded w i t h a uranium b l a n k e t t o u t i l i z e  the  neutrons w h i c h escape t h e c o r e .  c.  Liquid Metal Fuel Reactor;  i n w h i c h a f u e l o f U 235  or U  i n m o l t e n b i s m u t h c i r c u l a t e s t h r o u g h a g r a p h i t e moderator.  233  The  heat i s removed from t h e l i q u i d m e t a l f u e l s o l u t i o n and used t o g e n e r a t e steam.  A l i q u i d b l a n k e t o f uranium o r t h o r i u m - b i s m u t h  s l u r r y surrounds t h e r e a c t o r , and u t i l i z e s n e u t r o n s f r o m t h e core t o make f i s s i o n a b l e m a t e r i a l . d.  P r e s s u r i z e d Water R e a c t o r ;  i n w h i c h w a t e r o r heavy water i s  c i r c u l a t e d through a v e s s e l or tubes containing s o l i d f u e l of  s l i g h t l y e n r i c h e d or n a t u r a l uranium.  elements  The w a t e r i s t h e n passed  t h r o u g h a b o i l e r i n w h i c h steam i s produced t o d r i v e a t u r b o generator. e.  Sodium G r a p h i t e R e a c t o r ;  using s l i g h t l y  enriched f u e l ;  the  moderator i s g r a p h i t e and t h e c o o l a n t i s sodium, w h i c h can be used w i t h h i g h t e m p e r a t u r e . (iv)  Conclusion. The U n i t e d Kingdom atomic power s t a t i o n programme i s  based on t h e C a l d e r H a l l type r e a c t o r , w h i c h i s c o o l e d by carbon  98  d i o x i d e w i t h g r a p h i t e as a moderator and n a t u r a l Uranium as fuel.  "Under U.K. c o n d i t i o n s a power s t a t i o n o f t h i s  i f o p t i m i s e d f o r power p r o d u c t i o n , would generate  type,  electricity  a t a c o s t comparable w i t h t h a t o f power from a modern c o a l f i r e d station."(30)  si  r  C h r i s t o p h e r H i n t o n p r e d i c t e d t h a t by  1970 power from g a s - c o o l e d  r e a c t o r s w i l l f a l l i n p r i c e t o about  5.5 m i l l s p e r kwh. and i n t h e f o l l o w i n g decade t o under 5 m i l l s , as a g a i n s t 7 m i l l s f o r c o n v e n t i o n a l power.(31) The p r e s e n t  comparison o f c o s t s p e r u n i t sent out by  n u c l e a r and c o n v e n t i o n a l power s t a t i o n s i s as f o l l o w s : -  (mills  per kwh.) I n t e r e s t and D e p r e c i a t i o n I n i t i a l f u e l charge  Conventional 0.12  0.06  —  0.43  0.12  0.24  0.44  costs  0.06  0.06  Gross c o s t s  0.73  0.62  T o t a l c a p i t a l charges Fuel  Nuclear 0.37  supply  Operating  Plutonium Nett  credit  0.07  costs  0.66  —  0.62  <32)  As i n t h e U.S.A., t h e U.K. Atomic Energy A u t h o r i t y conducts s t u d i e s i n o t h e r uses o f atomic energy, such a s s h i p and a i r c r a f t p r o p u l s i o n and o t h e r s , and a l s o as i n t h e U.S.A. no immediate f u t u r e p r o s p e c t s as e c o n o m i c a l l y  a r e seen i n t h e s e f i e l d s so f a r  j u s t i f i a b l e p r o j e c t s are concerned.  most p r o m i s i n g f i e l d  I n the  - s h i p p r o p u l s i o n - i t was e s t i m a t e d  "the c o s t o f power d e l i v e r e d from a n u c l e a r p l a n t would be  that  99 about 40 p e r cent h i g h e r than d i e s e l power, and t h e s h i p ' s o p e r a t i n g c o s t s would be i n c r e a s e d by a t l e a s t 20 p e r cent."(33) I t must be noted f i n a l l y t h a t w h i l e i n t h e U.S.A. the p o s s i b i l i t y o f n u c l e a r power s t a t i o n s i s b e i n g  considered  o n l y i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h areas s h o r t o f c o n v e n t i o n a l f u e l , i n the U.K. t h e programme i s b e i n g c o n s i d e r e d f o r t h e c o u n t r y as a whole and t h e r e i s no evidence  t o show t h a t t h e c o s t o f c o a l  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n had a d e c i d i n g i n f l u e n c e on s i t i n g . decided  T h i s was  on t h e b a s i s o f s a f e t y f a c t o r s and o f a v a i l a b i l i t y o f  the r e q u i r e d amounts o f w a t e r . A l s o , u n l i k e t h e U.S.A., t h e U.K. has no d e p o s i t s o f uranium a t home and has t o depend on i m p o r t s from abroad. s i t u a t i o n , however, i s d i f f e r e n t from t h a t o f o i l .  The  While o i l  i s b u l k y and comes from t h e M i d d l e E a s t , where due t o t h e p o l i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n c o n d i t i o n s can be expected  t o remain u n s e t t l e d  f o r a c o n s i d e r a b l e time t o come, Uranium can be imported  i na  pure form, p a r t i c u l a r l y from Canada where c o n d i t i o n s can be assumed t o remain f a v o u r a b l e t o B r i t a i n .  100  3.  The Experience of Canada. The Present F u e l and Power Balance. Energy  consumed i n Canada i n 1954  following sources:  33 per cent from c o a l  which came from imports from abroad), 7.8 39.4  per cent from petroleum,  and 9.5.  came from the  (more than h a l f o f per cent from wood,  5.3. per cent from n a t u r a l  per cent from e l e c t r i c i t y . ^ 4 )  u  s  r e v  i w e  gas  these  c o n v e n t i o n a l sources of energy more c l o s e l y before proceeding to atomic power development i n Canada. (i)  Coal. The Canadian 2,158  c o a l r e s e r v e s were estimated i n 1935  at:  m i l l i o n m e t r i c tons o f A n t h r a c i t e  284,161 m i l l i o n m e t r i c tons of bituminous  coal  948,450 m i l l i o n m e t r i c tons of sub-bituminous brown c o a l and l i g n i t e .  and  T o t a l : 1,234,769 m i l l i o n m e t r i c tons.(35) The output of c o a l reached 17,363,002 tons i n 1950 and has s i n c e d e c l i n e d t o 13,920,307 tons i n 1954.  Although  the r e s e r v e s of c o a l i n Canada are very r i c h the d e c l i n e i n r e quirements f o r c o a l does not o f f e r much inducement f o r f u r t h e r e x p l o r a t i o n at the present time.  The i n c r e a s i n g c o m p e t i t i o n  from o i l and gas f o r house h e a t i n g and f o r i n d u s t r i a l use combined w i t h the c o n v e r s i o n of r a i l w a y s t o d i e s e l have a l l r e s u l t e d i n a s e r i o u s d e c l i n e i n the market.  T h i s change t o other f u e l s  been p a r t i c u l a r l y marked i n Western Canada, where the g r e a t e s t p r o p o r t i o n of Canadian  c o a l r e s e r v e s are l o c a t e d .  has  101 F o r g e o g r a p h i c a l r e a s o n s , a l t h o u g h abundantly s u p p l i e d w i t h c o a l r e s e r v e s , Canada i m p o r t e d more t h a n h a l f o f her c o a l r e q u i r e m e n t s from t h e U.S.A.  I n 1954 i m p o r t s amounted t o  1 6 , 8 5 5 , 7 6 6 t o n s as a g a i n s t the dometic output o f n e a r l y 14  million  t o n s ; ( 3 7 ) but t h e volume of c o a l i m p o r t s i s a l s o on the d e c l i n e f o r t h e same r e a s o n t h a t i s c a u s i n g the f a l l i n home p r o d u c t i o n . I n t h e p a s t t h e demand f o r prime mover has been s a t i s f i e d m a i n l y from h y d r o - e l e c t r i c s o u r c e s .  As, however,  t h e s e are u t i l i z e d , i t i s l i k e l y t h a t a g r e a t e r demand w i l l d e v e l o p f o r c o a l as a prime mover and as i n d u s t r i a l f u e l i n power s t a t i o n s and (ii)  industry.  Oil. I n 1954  the Canadian  of w h i c h 1 5 , 3 9 2 , 0 0 0 k l . (46  consumption  o f o i l was 3 3 , 4 5 8 , 0 0 0 k l .  per c e n t ) came from Canadian  wellspS)  Only f o u r y e a r s e a r l i e r Canadian w e l l s s u p p l i e d o n l y 22 per cent of home consumption.  The volume of home p r o d u c t i o n c o u l d have  been as h i g h as 2 4 , 0 0 0 , 0 0 0 k l . b u t was kept down by government r e g u l a t i o n s t o f i t i n w i t h t h e a v a i l a b l e r e f i n e r y and  distribution  capacity. The advance has been due t o new  d i s c o v e r i e s o f major  o i l f i e l d s i n t h e P r a i r i e r e g i o n s of Western Canada.  In  proven r e s e r v e s were a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1 1 , 0 6 0 , 0 0 0 k l . , by 1950 amount was  i n c r e a s e d t o 1 9 1 , 0 0 0 , 0 0 0 k l . , i n 1952  2 5 4 , 4 0 0 , 0 0 0 k l . , and i n 1954  1945 the  i t was  3 8 5 , 0 0 0 , 0 0 0 k l . , o r t w i c e the amount  r e p o r t e d o n l y f o u r y e a r s p r e v i o u s l y and almost t h i r t y f i v e the amount e s t i m a t e d t e n y e a r s p r e v i o u s l y .  times  I t i s reasonable t o  102 suppose t h a t t h e r e s e r v e s w i l l  c o n t i n u e t o grow f o r some time  t o come. I n 1951, i n 1952  1,500  o i l w e l l s were d r i l l e d i n t h e c o u n t r y ,  t h e number was 2 , 0 0 0 .  D u r i n g the p e r i o d of 1946-1951  $ 1 , 2 0 0 m i l l i o n was i n v e s t e d i n t h e o i l i n d u s t r y .  I n 1952  the  amount was $300 m i l l i o n . The p o t e n t i a l o i l r e s e r v e s o f Canada were e s t i m a t e d i n 1952  a t 800 t o 8 , 0 0 0 m i l l i o n k l . , t o w h i c h must be added A l b e r t a ' s  McMurray's t a r sands a l o n g t h e Athabaska R i v e r , e s t i m a t e d a t 15-30,000 m i l l i o n  kl.  (  3  9  )  P r i o r t o the d i s c o v e r y of o i l i n the p r a i r i e s ,  refineries  were c o n c e n t r a t e d i n O n t a r i o , w h i c h o p e r a t e d on o i l b o t h from the  O n t a r i o f i e l d s and i m p o r t e d from t h e U.S.A., and i n t h e  M o n t r e a l a r e a o f t h e S t . Lawrence v a l l e y , South A m e r i c a and the M i d d l e E a s t .  p r o c e s s i n g o i l from  Other r e f i n e r i e s were l o c a t e d  i n Vancouver, t a k i n g o i l from C a l i f o r n i a and South America by sea.  T h i s d i s t r i b u t i o n o f o i l r e f i n i n g c a p a c i t y was not s u i t e d  t o handle t h e newly d i s c o v e r e d A l b e r t a o i l , F o l l o w i n g t h e d i s c o v e r y , a p i p e l i n e was b u i l t l i n k i n g t h e A l b e r t a o i l source w i t h t h e Vancouver r e f i n e r i e s , w h i c h by 1954  operated e n t i r e l y  on home o i l . A p i p e l i n e was a l s o b u i l t from t h e A l b e r t a f i e l d s t o S a r n i a and T o r o n t o , which c a r r i e d n e a r l y 11 o i l i n 1954  and s a t i s f i e d n e a r l y a l l t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s of the r e -  f i n e r i e s i n the area. and r e f i n i n g  m i l l i o n k l . of  The p r o j e c t e d i n c r e a s e s i n d i s t r i b u t i n g  c a p a c i t i e s w i l l reduce and p o s s i b l y e l i m i n a t e  alto-  g e t h e r t h e demand f o r i m p o r t e d p r o d u c t s , a l t h o u g h t h e need f o r i m p o r t e d crude o i l f o r t h e r e f i n e r i e s  on t h e A t l a n t i c  and S t .  103  Lawrence w i l l remain f o r some time t o come. (iii)  N a t u r a l Gas. The expanding programme o f e x p l o r a t i o n f o r o i l i n  Western Canada r e s u l t e d i n t h e d i s c o v e r y o f gas r e s e r v e s b o t h a s s o c i a t e d w i t h o i l and independent f r o m i t . gas was r e s t r i c t e d by t h e s m a l l n e s s  The o u t p u t o f  o f m a r k e t s , and t h e i n c r e a s e  i n p r o d u c t i o n has been accompanied by a much g r e a t e r i n reserves. cubic metres. 5.5 x 1 0  1 / f  I n 1946 t h e r e s e r v e s were e s t i m a t e d  increase  a t 153 x l O ^ 1  The a n n u a l i n c r e a s e i n r e s e r v e s i s 4 . 2 x 10 ^ t o x  cubic metres. (4°)  The main problem has been how t o f i n d a market f o r t h i s v a s t s t o r e o f energy. has a l s o abundant  Western Canada, where gas i s abundant,  s u p p l i e s o f cheap c o a l , o i l and r e l a t i v e l y i n -  e x p e n s i v e h y d r o - e l e c t r i c power. The l a r g e energy consuming  areas o f t h e P a c i f i c Coast  and C e n t r a l Canada, as w e l l as t h e a d j o i n i n g a r e a s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , are t h e p o s s i b l e markets and p i p e l i n e s are b e i n g  built  t o serve t h e s e m a r k e t s . The p r o d u c t i o n o f gas d u r i n g 1950-1954 was as f o l l o w s : - ^ 1950  1,920,495  x 10  1951  2,250,073  x 103 c u b i c metres  1952  2,511,295  x 103 c u b i c metres  1953  2,859,590  x 10  1954  3,424,593  x lCp c u b i c metres  3  3  c u b i c metres  c u b i c metres  The 1954 o u t p u t was s o l d t o t h e f o l l o w i n g consu mers: ^ ) 2  104  Domestic  1,050,550 x I O  Industrial  857,996 x I O  Commercial  560,671 x I O  c u b i c metres  3  c u b i c metres  3  c u b i c metres  8,495 x 10^ c u b i c metres  Miscellaneous Total  3  2,477,712 x 1 0  3  c u b i c metres  The r e m a i n i n g 946,481 x 103 i s not accounted f o r i n s t a t i s t i c s and i s p r o b a b l y l a r g e l y d i s t r i b u t i o n l o s s , and l o s s e s due t o o t h e r c a u s e s , (iv)  Wood. A l t h o u g h wood i s used m a i n l y i n domestic h e a t i n g , i t  i s n e v e r t h e l e s s an i m p o r t a n t source o f h e a t . consumption a r e l a r g e l y  S t a t i s t i c s o f wood  i n c o m p l e t e as a g r e a t p r o p o r t i o n o f wood  i s c u t and used by i n d i v i d u a l s .  G i v e n below a r e e s t i m a t e s made  f r o m census r e c o r d s o f t h e wood consumption f o r t h e p e r i o d t o 1954.  1945  I t i s r e a s o n a b l e t o assume t h a t t h e f a l l i n t h e con-  sumption o f wood as a f u e l i s c o n t i n u i n g , p a r t i c u l a r l y  since  n a t u r a l gas became w i d e l y used f o r dometic h e a t i n g . Year  Cords o f Wood  B i l . BTU. (at 20 m i l . BTU/cord)  1945 1946 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954  11,220,000 11,000,000 10,780,000 10,560,000 10,340,000 10,120,000 9,876,000 9,520,000 9,170,000 8,820,000  224,400 220,000 215,600 211,200 206,800 202,400 197,512 190,400 183,400 176,400  B i l . kcal. ( a t 5,040 kcal/cord) • 56,548 55,440 54,331 53,222 52,114 51,005 49,773 47,981 46,217 44,453  , (4-3) %  TABLE X  Province B r i t i s h Columbia Alberta Saskatchewan Manitoba  A v a i l a b l e Gross C a p a c i t y (100$ efficiency) At Q 9 5 At Q 5 0 6,549  12,101  1,676.2  474  1,384  193.0  513  1,232  81.9  3,108  6,120  564.6  5,042  7,990  3,614.7  Ontario Quebec 10,160  New B r u n s w i c k  Developed C a p a c i t y Turbine s h a f t .  115  22,497  5,799.3  368  1 2 2 . 4  1 7 2  1 2 7 . 5  3  1.4  Nova S c o t i a 24  P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d Newfoundland  894  3,030  241.1  357  8 9 5  24.2  Yukon and N.W. T e r r i t . TOTAL  127,236  55,792  12,446.3  106 (v)  Electric  Power.  A l t h o u g h t h e r e has been a c o n s i d e r a b l e i n c r e a s e i n the p r i m a r y p r o d u c t i o n o f e l e c t r i c i t y from f u e l - p o w e r e d p l a n t s , and t h e r e i s a t r e n d i n O n t a r i o towards a u x i l i a r y steam p l a n t s f o r peak l o a d s , water power remains t h e p r i n c i p l a source o f e l e c t r i c i t y for  c e n t r a l power s t a t i o n s w h i c h produce power f o r s a l e i n Canada  or f o r e x p o r t t o t h e U.S.A.  In 1954,  9 5 per cent o f c e n t r a l  s t a t i o n s power was g e n e r a t e d from water power and t h e t o t a l hyd r a u l i c p r o d u c t i o n amounted t o of  5 2 per cent s i n c e 1948. ( 4 4 )  65,846  m i l l i o n kwh., an i n c r e a s e  T o t a l p o t e n t i a l and developed  s o u r c e s o f w a t e r power i n Canada, as o f t h e end o f 1 9 5 4 are shown i n the t a b l e f o l l o w i n g  ( i n thousand k i l o w a t t s . ) ( 4 5 )  j  n  1954  Canada was exceeded o n l y by t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s i n t o t a l w a t e r power i n s t a l l a t i o n and o n l y by Norway i n average per  installation  c a p i t a - t h e Canadian r a t e b e i n g 0.82 kw. per head o f popu-  lation.  ( 4 b  (vi)  ^ Atomic Power:  Development and R e s e a r c h .  As t h e s e o b s e r v a t i o n s i n d i c a t e , Canada w i l l not s u f f e r any f u e l s h o r t a g e s f o r many g e n e r a t i o n s t o come. are  However, t h e r e  a r e a s where, due t o t r a n s p o r t c o s t s , f u e l p r i c e s a r e v e r y  high.  A v e r y good example o f t h i s i s t h e F a r N o r t h .  I n such  a r e a s atomic power s t a t i o n s c o u l d be e c o n o m i c a l l y b u i l t and o p e r a t e d . These w i l l have t o be s m a l l power s t a t i o n s , easy t o put up, c a p a b l e o f s a t i s f y i n g t h e needs o f s m a l l communities.  The o t h e r  p o s s i b i l i t y f o r atomic power s t a t i o n s i s i n a r e a s r e q u i r i n g  large  q u a n t i t i e s o f e l e c t r i c power, w h i c h a r e f a r f r o m s o u r c e s of con-  107 ventional fuel.  Atomic power s t a t i o n s i n such a r e a s are l i k e l y  t o be the same s i z e as t h o s e b e i n g b u i l t i n t h e U.S.A., t h e  U.K.  and, as we w i l l p r e s e n t l y see, a l s o i n t h e USSR. I.  Reserves. Canada i s f o r t u n a t e i n t h a t i t has l a r g e n a t u r a l r e -  s o u r c e s o f n u c l e a r as w e l l as c o n v e n t i o n a l f u e l s . The main Uranium D e p o s i t s a r e : Ia)  Beaverlodge  Lake a r e a , d i s c o v e r e d i n 1948,  N o r t h shore of Lake Athabaska,  lb)  l o c a t e d on t h e  known as Ace ore-body, p r o -  d u c i n g 2000 t o n s per day s i n c e  1957-  Gunnar D e p o s i t s , Saskatchewan.  D i s c o v e r e d i n 1952.  at C r a c k i n g s t o n e P e n i n s u l a ; j u t t i n g i n t o Lake S.W. Ic)  of Beaverlodge,  i t produced  1,250  B l i n d R i v e r a r e a , d i s c o v e r e d i n 1953.  Situated  Athabaska  t o n s per  day.  S i t u a t e d i n the pro-  v i n c e o f O n t a r i o on the N o r t h e r n shore of Lake Huron, i t i n c l u d e s Mines P r o n t s o l i d a t e d Denison  (commissioned  (1956).  Algom and Con-  T o t a l output f o r t h e a r e a  amounts t o 25-30,000 t o n s per Id)  i n 1955)  day.  Great B e a r Lake, d i s c o v e r e d i n 1930 and owned by Gold Mines L i m i t e d , i t was  to-day  Eldorado  t a k e n over by t h e Canadian  Govern-  ment i n 1942. The Canadian  o r e s are r e f i n e d a t P o r t Hope on Lake  O n t a r i o , and t h e f i n a l c o n c e n t r a t e goes t o t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s t o be c o n v e r t e d i n t o Uranium m e t a l . II.  Power P r o d u c t i o n . At t h e p r e s e n t t i m e t h e s e atomic energy r e s o u r c e s are  b e i n g u t i l i z e d i n Canada by t h e f o l l o w i n g f o u r p r o j e c t s .  108 The  f i r s t i s Canada's f i r s t Atomic Power S t a t i o n ,  the N u l c e a r Power D e m o n s t r a t i o n l o c a t e d a t t h e power s t a t i o n o f the H y d r o - E l e c t r i c Power Commission o f O n t a r i o  a t R a l p h t o n near  the v i l l a g e o f Des Joachims on t h e Ottawa r i v e r , 150 m i l e s N.W. o f Ottawa. generating  10-20,000 kw.  approximately  Essentially this i sa pilot  plant  I t was s c h e d u l e d t o be completed a t  the end o f I960 and t o s t a r t o p e r a t i n g  e a r l y i n 1961.  It will  use n a t u r a l uranium f o r f u e l , p o s s i b l y s l i g h t l y e n r i c h e d p l u t o n i u m , and heavy water as moderator.  with  The f u e l w i l l be i n  the f o r m o f n a t u r a l uranium o x i d e r o d s sheathed i n z i r c o n i u m and  numbering about two hundred.  The p r o j e c t i s under t h e  N u c l e a r Power P l a n t D i v i s i o n and w i l l be used f o r s t u d y i n g t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r l a r g e base l o a d s t a t i o n s . The  second i s CANDU.  T h i s p r o j e c t i s a l s o under t h e  N u c l e a r Power P l a n t D i v i s i o n , and has a l s o been s e t up f o r s t u d y i n g r e q u i r e m e n t s o f l a r g e base l o a d s t a t i o n s . c a p a c i t y o f 200,000 kw.  CANDU has a  I t i s f i l l e d w i t h n a t u r a l uranium and  moderated w i t h heavy w a t e r .  A t 80 p e r c e n t l o a d f a c t o r i t c o u l d  produce e l e c t r i c i t y a t 6 m i l l s p e r kwh. The f u e l elements w i l l not be r e - p r o c e s s e d of no v a l u e .  b u t s t o r e d away as t h e y a r e , b e i n g  considered  The c o s t o f t h e power g e n e r a t e d t h e r e f o r e ,  not depend on t h e v a l u e  assigned  t o plutonium contained  will  i n spent  fuel. The  t h i r d i s t h e OCDRE d u a l r o l e r e a c t o r ,  considered  t o be t h e b e s t a l t e r n a t i v e o f n a t u r a l uranium f u e l l e d r e a c t o r s t o be used i n s m a l l power s t a t i o n s , o r i n s t a t i o n s o f up t o  109 100,000 kiv. Division.  T h i s p r o j e c t i s a l s o under t h e N u c l e a r  A study i s b e i n g made o f a p l a n t o f  40,000 kw.  Power P l a n t  approximately  I t w i l l use n a t u r a l uranium as f u e l , and o r g a n i c  l i q u i d as c o o l a n t .  I t w i l l have h i g h r e l i a b i l i t y  Designed t o p r o v i d e  steam s u i t a b l e f o r t h e t u r b i n e s and h e a t i n g  system o f a c o n v e n t i o n a l for  of operation.  power s t a t i o n , i t i s c o n s i d e r e d  mainly  p o s s i b l e use i n t h e F a r N o r t h . The  f o u r t h i s t h e study o f s m a l l p l a n t s u s i n g  enriched  uranium f u e l ; t h i s p r o j e c t i s under t h e R e a c t o r R e s e a r c h and Development D i v i s i o n a t C h a l k R i v e r .  Under t h i s p r o j e c t a s t u d y  i s b e i n g made o f s m a l l power s t a t i o n s p r o v i d e d w i t h a p r e s s u r i z e d l i g h t w a t e r o r b o i l i n g l i g h t water r e a c t o r , u s i n g uranium f u e l s .  enriched  These r e a c t o r s a r e expected t o be more e c o n o m i c a l  t h a n t h e ones u s i n g n a t u r a l uranium as f u e l and moderated by heavy w a t e r , and they are i n t e n d e d  f o r use i n t h e F a r N o r t h .  As i n t h e U.S.A. t h e l o c a t i o n and t h e e x t e n t o f u t i l i z a t i o n o f t h e atomic energy i n Canada w i l l be determined p r i m a r i l y by t h e c o s t o f t r a n s p o r t f o r c o n v e n t i o n a l Ill  fuels.  Research. Canada's r e s e a r c h and development a c t i v i t i e s i n t h e  atomic i n d u s t r y a r e c o n c e n t r a t e d  at Chalk R i v e r .  t h i s was a j o i n t U.K. - Canada u n d e r t a k i n g , Canadian N a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h C o u n c i l (CNRC) for  it.  D u r i n g t h e war  b u t i n 1947 t h e assumed r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  I n 1952 a Crown company - Atomic Energy o f Canada L i m i t e d ,  t o o k o v e r from t h e CNRC.  I n June, 1954 t h e name o f t h e Crown  company was changed t o N u c l e a r Research L i m i t e d , and a h o l d i n g  110 company - Atomic Energy of Canada L i m i t e d - was  formed t o h o l d  the s t o c k o f the N u c l e a r R e s e a r c h L i m i t e d , and of M i n i n g and R e f i n i n g L i m i t e d .  The  Eldorado  l a t t e r , among o t h e r t h i n g s ,  buys a l l Uranium ores and c o n c e n t r a t e s produced by p r i v a t e comp a n i e s i n Canada. Canadian Atomic Energy E s t a b l i s h m e n t  i s engaged i n  f o u r main a c t i v i t i e s : a)  Development of economic atomic  power  b)  Fundamental r e s e a r c h  c)  O p e r a t i o n of n u c l e a r r e a c t o r s and s e p a r a t i o n o f n u c l e a r f u e l s ( P l u t o n i u m and Uranium 233.)  d)  P r o d u c t i o n o f R a d i o a c t i v e I s o t o p e s and a s s o c i a t e d equipment, such as t h e r a p y u n i t s f o r cancer t r e a t ment .  Canada has at Chalk R i v e r : 1)  The  ZEEP R e a c t o r , which went i n t o o p e r a t i o n i n 1945.  a power o f 10 w a t t s .  I t has  I t i s a r e s e a r c h r e a c t o r , u s i n g uranium as  f u e l and heavy water as moderator. 2)  The  NRK  R e a c t o r , which went i n t o o p e r a t i o n i n 1947.  a power c a p a c i t y o f 4 0 , 0 0 0 kw.  I t has  This i s a research reactor,  uranium f u e l l e d , u s i n g heavy w a t e r as moderator.  In r e a c t o r s of  t h i s t y p e , when the f u e l i s i n the form o f n a t u r a l uranium r o d s , the c o o l a n t used i s o r d i n a r y w a t e r . 3)  The  NRU  R e s e a r c h R e a c t o r o f 200,000 kw.  n a t u r a l uranium i n r o d f o r m as f u e l . moderator and as the c o o l a n t .  T h i s r e a c t o r uses  Heavy w a t e r i s used as a  I t i s c i r c u l a t e d through  eight  17-ton exchangers o u t s i d e t h e r e a c t o r . I t must be noted t h a t Canada's c o n s i d e r a b l e  achieve-  Ill ments i n t h e atomic f i e l d causes.  Because i t was  are t o a g r e a t e x t e n t due t o h i s t o r i c a l f a r removed from the war  a r e a , Canada  chosen as a base f o r the Commonwealth R e s e a r c h C e n t r e . end o f the war  was  At the  i t found i t s e l f w i t h a v e r y l a r g e r e s e a r c h e s t a b -  l i s h m e n t and f i r s t - h a n d a p p r e c i a t i o n o f the p o s s i b i l i t i e s n u c l e a r development.  Canada s e i z e d the o p p o r t u n i t y t o  of  continue  w i t h t h e r e s e a r c h , but w h i l e i n the U.S.A. and e s p e c i a l l y the U.K.,  the main emphasis was  on atomic  power s t a t i o n s , Canada con-  c e n t r a t e d on o t h e r a s p e c t s , p a r t i c u l a r l y the m e d i c a l o f atomic  industry products.  So f a r as the atomic  are concerned, Canada i s i n t e r e s t e d i n t h i s f i e l d  application  power s t a t i o n s from the l o n g -  term p o i n t of v i e w r a t h e r than the immediate f u t u r e . (vii) The  Conclusion. r o l e which n u c l e a r power i s l i k e l y t o p l a y e v e n t u a l l y  i n the Canadian economy has been summarized as f o l l o w s by  the  P r e s i d e n t o f Atomic Energy of Canada L i m i t e d : "The growth i n power demand over the next twenty f i v e y e a r s i s l i k e l y t o c o n t i n u e at the r a t e o f about 5 per cent a y e a r . On t h i s b a s i s , the t o t a l i n s t a l l e d c a p a c i t y i n 1981 w i l l be a p p r o x i m a t e l y 48 m i l l i o n kw. as compared w i t h the p r e s e n t c a p a c i t y o f 16 m i l l i o n kw. S i n c e Canada has l a r g e untapped hydro r e s o u r c e s and an abundance o f cheap c o n v e n t i o n a l f u e l s i n some r e g i o n s , a s u b s t a n t i a l p a r t of the f u t u r e power demand w i l l be s u p p l i e d by new hydro s t a t i o n s or t h e r m a l s t a t i o n s u s i n g c o n v e n t i o n a l f u e l s . To be more p r e c i s e , i t i s e s t i m a t e d t h a t out o f the 48 m i l l i o n kw. t o t a l i n s t a l l e d c a p a c i t y i n 1981, 33 m i l l i o n w i l l be s u p p l i e d f r o m hydro s t a t i o n s , between 8 and 11 m i l l i o n from c o n v e n t i o n a l t h e r m a l s t a t i o n s and between 4 and 7 m i l l i o n from n u c l e a r s t a t i o n s . T h i s f o r e c a s t i s based on the assumption t h a t i t w i l l be p o s s i b l e t o produce n u c l e a r power a t a c o s t not h i g h e r t h a n the c o s t o f p r o d u c i n g power i n a c o n v e n t i o n a l t h e r m a l s t a t i o n u s i n g c o a l a t $8.00 a t o n . To the e x t e n t t h a t the c o s t o f n u c l e a r power i s l e s s t h a n t h i s t h e r e w i l l be a c o r r e s ponding i n c r e a s e i n the percentage o f new.power, w h i c h w i l l be s u p p l i e d by n u c l e a r s t a t i o n s . " ( 4 8 )  112 C o n s e q u e n t l y , n u c l e a r power might be used t o s a t i s f y the needs f o r e l e c t r i c power i n Canada under t h e f o l l o w i n g cond i t i o n s :1)  Where t h e r e i s a demand f o r l a r g e b l o c k s o f base l o a d  power and where no source o f c o n v e n t i o n a l power i s c l o s e a t hand t o meet t h e demand. 2)  Where t h e r e i s a growing demand f o r power t h a t  justifies  c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a medium s i z e power s t a t i o n and where c o n v e n t i o n a l f u e l c o s t s are high. 3)  I n t h e F a r N o r t h where t h e r e i s a demand f o r s m a l l s i z e  power u n i t s , but where due t o h i g h c o s t o f t r a n s p o r t , c o n v e n t i o n a l power c o u l d not compete w i t h t h a t coming from n u c l e a r power stations.  R E F E R E N C E S 1. N a t u r a l Resources. E d i t e d by M a r t i n R.Hubert and Warren L.Flock. McGrow-Hill. New York. 1959. 2.  Perry D.Teitelbaum, Nuclear Energy and the U.S.Fuel Economy. N a t i o n a l Planning A s s o c i a t i o n . Washington D.C. 1958.p.11. (Henceforth r e f e r r e d to as P.D.Teitelbaum, Nuclear Energy and the U.S.Fuel Economy).  3. I b i d . ,  p.11.  4. I b i d . ,  p.23.  5. I b i d . ,  p.12.  6. I b i d . . pp.12-13. 7. 1 b a r r e l e q u a l l s 159 l i t r e s or 89 kg. 8. P.D.Teitelbaum, Nuclear Energy and the U.S.Fuel Economy, pp.12-15. 9. I b i d . , pp.14-16. 10. W.K.Davis and U.M.Staebler, H i g h l i g h t s of Nuclear Power Development i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s . The Economics o f Nuclear Power. Pergamon P r e s s . New York. 1958. p.392. 11. P.D.Teitelbaum, N u c l e a r Energy and the U.S.Fuel Economy, p.50. 12. I b i d . ,  p.51.  13. I b i d . ,  p.54.  14. I b i d . , p.39 and 15. I b i d . ,  54.  p.86.  16. Energy Resources o f the U n i t e d Kingdom and Trends i n t h e i r U t i l i z a t i o n . Report 59 A/13,prepared by The C h i e f S c i e n t i s t ' s D i v i s i o n , M i n i s t r y of F u e l and Power ( U . K . ) . F i f t h World Power Conference.Vienna, 1956. e n e r a l Report.Volume II.p.228. (Henceforth r e f e r r e d t o as Energy Resources o f the U.K.). u  17. I b i d . , p.229.  114 18„ G.Daniel, U n d e r s e c r e t a r y o f F u e l and Power - Great B r i t a i n . Proposals f o r the drawing up o f papers f o r S e c t i o n A o f the Future P l e n a r y S e s s i o n o f W.P.C. F i f t h World Power Conference.Vienna 1 9 5 6 . G e n e r a l Report. V o l . I I I . p . 7 5 7 . 19. Energy Resources o f the U.K. 20. I b i d . ,  p.228.  p.242.  21. Mary S . G o l d r i n g , Economics o f Atomic Energy. London P.117.  1957.  22. I b i d . , p.117-118. 23.  I b i d . , p.122.  2 4 . N u c l e a r Marine P r o p u l s i o n . Atom No.43. May,1960. p.10. 25. C e n t r a l l e c t r i c i t y Generating Board O f f i c i a l Report. Atom No.43. May I960.p.5. E  26. The Nuclear Power Programme. Atom No.43 p.12 and No.45 p.2. May and J u l y I960. 27. Nuclear ^nergy i n B r i t a i n . U n i t e d Kingdom I n f o r m a t i o n S e r v i c e . Nov. 1959. London 1959. p.20. 28. P . T . F l e t c h e r , Deputy Managing D i r e c t o r of the U.K. Atomic Energy A u t h o r i t y ' s Development and E n g i n e e r i n g Group. The P o t e n t i a l i t i e s o f Nuclear Power. Atom No.43. May I960, pp.12-18. 29. The Nuclear Power Programme. Atom No.45. J u l y  I960.p.2.  30. E n g i n e e r i n g Aspects o f the U.K. Nuclear Power Programme. U.K.AEA P u b l i c a t i o n DPR/INF/246, London 1959. 31. S i r John C o c k r o f t , Address to t h e T w e l f t h American Assembly, Columbia U n i v e r s i t y , New York, December 1957. P u b l i s h e d i n Atoms f o r Power. New York. 1957. 32. P . T . F l e t c h e r , Commercial Prospects o f Atomic Energy. Atom No.40. February I960, p.17. 33. I b i d . ,  p.20.  34. Progress i n the Development o f the Energy Resources o f Canada. Water Research Branch, Department o f N a t i o n a l Resources and Dominion C o a l Board. F i f t h World Power Conference,1956.Vienna. General Report V o l . I I I . p . 4 ^ 5 .  114a  35. John R . B r a d l y , F u e l and Power i n t h e B r i t i s h Empire. U,S.Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e . Washington, 1935. 36. P r o g r e s s i n t h e Development Canada, p.491.  37.  Ibid.,  p.491.  38.  Ibid.,  p.492.  o f t h e Energy Resources o f  39. S p r i n g s o f Canadian Power. R o y a l I n s t i t u t e o f I n t e r n a t i o n a l A f f a i r s . London 1953. 40. P r o g r e s s i n t h e Development Canada, p.493.  41.  Ibid.,  42.  I b i d . , p.493.  43.  Ibid.,  p.493.  44.  Ibid.,  p.489.  45.  Ibid.,  p.487.  46.  Ibid.,  p.485.  o f t h e Energy Resources o f  p.493.  47. Wendt,Gerald. h e P r o s p e c t s o f N u c l e a r Power and Technology. D.Van N o s t r a n d Co. New Y o r k . 1957. T  43. h e Commonwealth and N u c l e a r Development. R e f e r e n c e D i v i s i o n , C e n t r a l O f f i c e o f I n f o r m a t i o n . L o n d o n . J u l y 1956. T  CHAPTER V I  ATOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN THE USSR.  1.  S o v i e t A t t i t u d e t o Atomic Power.  I n t h e USSR t h e change i n t h e a t t i t u d e towards v a r i o u s t y p e s o f f u e l brought about by t h e c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e opportunity  costs, following the preparation  of a u n i f i e d f u e l  and power b a l a n c e , appears t o have been extended t o t h e atomic i n d u s t r y as w e l l .  A l t h o u g h no c l e a r statement on t h e p r e s e n t  a t t i t u d e o f t h e Schviet A u t h o r i t i e s t o atomic power i s a v a i l a b l e , from v a r i o u s t h i n g s t h a t have been s a i d and w r i t t e n i t can be g a t h e r e d t h a t up t o about t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f t h e 7 Year P l a n t h e y were p r e p a r e d t o back t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f atomic power stations.  The s i x t h F i v e Year P l a n  (1955-1960) p r o v i d e d f o r  the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f atomic power s t a t i o n s w i t h a t o t a l o f 2-2.5 m i l l i o n kw. by I 9 6 0 .  The programme i n c l u d e d  capacity construction  o f f i v e l a r g e power s t a t i o n s o f 4 0 0 t o 600,000 kw. each, t o be brought i n t o commission s t a r t i n g from 1958. programme were t o s u p p l y  The aims o f t h e  power t o a r e a s s h o r t o f c o n v e n t i o n a l  f u e l and t o s e l e c t t h e most c o n v e n i e n t and economic r e a c t o r for further development.(^ However, a f t e r t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h e f u e l and power b a l a n c e a statement was made i n a book p u b l i s h e d by t h e Gosp l a n i z d a t (Gosplan P u b l i s h i n g O f f i c e ) t h a t " d u r i n g t h e coming  116 f i f t e e n y e a r s t h e e l e c t r i c power from t h e atomic power s t a t i o n s w i l l p r o b a b l y not p l a y a s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e i n t h e f u e l and power balance  of the c o u n t r y . " O t h e r  prospects  w r i t e r s dealing with the future  o f f u e l and power s u p p l y f o r t h e c o u n t r y do n o t i n c l u d e (3)  atomic power w i t h i n t h e scope o f t h e i r c a l c u l a t i o n s . N o new p r o j e c t s f o r t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f atomic power s t a t i o n s have been announced d u r i n g t h e l a s t 2-3 y e a r s . When t h e s p e c i a l commission prepared balance  they must have c o n s i d e r e d  t h e f u e l and power  the economic a s p e c t s o f t h e  atomic power p r o d u c t i o n s i d e by s i d e w i t h t h e c a l c u l a t i o n s f o r the p r o d u c t i o n o f power from f o s s i l  fuels.  The a v a i l a b l e date  of t h e i r r e s e a r c h can be summed up as f o l l o w s : Coal Oil Fuel e l e c t r i c equivalent 8.0 12.0 kwh/kg (5) Labour i n p u t p e r t o n  0.7  0.3  Uranium 22,850,000 ?  S i n c e t h e commission s t r o n g l y advocated development o f o i l ahd gas and s i n c e i t i s s t a t e d i n a G o s p l a n p u b l i c a t i o n t h a t the atomic power w i l l p r o b a b l y not p l a y a s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e i n the f u e l and power b a l a n c e  o f t h e c o u n t r y f o r t h e next f i f t e e n  y e a r s , i t must be assumed t h a t i n s p i t e o f such a v e r y h i g h e l e c trical  e q u i v a l e n t , uranium as a source  o f power compares un-  f a v o u r a b l y w i t h t h e o t h e r s under t h e p r e s e n t t e c h n o l o g i c a l cond i t i o n s , and t h a t t h e p r e s e n t d i f f e r e n c e i s wide enough f o r a n e g a t i v e f o r e c a s t t o be made f o r such a l o n g p e r i o d o f time ahead. I t must a l s o be p o i n t e d out t h a t i n t h e l i g h t o f t h e p r e s e n t knowledge t h e c o m p a r a t i v e c o s t s o f t h e atomic power a r e expected to  remain c o n s i d e r a b l y h i g h e r t h a n o f c o n v e n t i o n a l t y p e s , f o r a  117 l o n g time as i t i s planned t h a t even a f t e r 1965, 10 m i l l i o n tons o f low q u a l i t y c o a l w i l l be brought t o U r a l s from S i b e r i a t o be used f o r the p r o d u c t i o n  Eastern  o f e l e c t r i c power i n t h e r -  mal power s t a t i o n s . ( 6 ) Some o f the p o s s i b l e r e a s o n s f o r t h i s s t a t e o f a f f a i r s could a)  be:That the uranium raw m a t e r i a l i s e i t h e r u n a v a i l a b l e  t h a t i t i s o f a poor q u a l i t y , and t h e r e f o r e c o s t s o f of uranium are h i g h .  or  production  There are reasons t o b e l i e v e t h a t i n d e e d  t h i s i s one o f t h e c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r s . b)  That due t o t h e n a t u r e o f Uranium raw m a t e r i a l , o r i n -  s u f f i c i e n t mastery o f t e c h n i q u e s the e x t r a c t i o n of Uranium from raw m a t e r i a l i s c o s t l y o r low. c)  That l o s s e s i n the c o u r s e o f the p r e p a r a t i o n  of f u e l e l e -  ments and i n the course o f t e s t i n g p r i o r t o use i n power s t a t i o n s are d)  high. That the b u r n up o f f u e l elements i s low, o r t h a t the amount  o f heat t h a t can be g a i n f u l l y o b t a i n e d  from t h e f u e l b u r n up i s  low due t o i n e f f i c i e n t o p e r a t i o n o f heat exchangers. e)  That t h e p r o d u c t i o n  of equipment and c o n s t r u c t i o n o f p l a n t s  i s t o o c o s t l y compared w i t h t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l  power s t a t i o n s .  S i n c e t h e S o v i e t A u t h o r i t i e s do not p u b l i s h  information  which would i n d i c a t e which o f t h e above r e a s o n s i s v a l i d , d e f i n i t e c o n c l u s i o n can be drawn a t the p r e s e n t t i m e . l e s s i t can be p o i n t e d  no  Neverthe-  out t h a t c o s t s of c o n s t r u c t i o n o f the  power s t a t i o n s do not appear t o d i f f e r much from t h o s e i n Western  118  c o u n t r i e s , and t h a t t y p e s of r e a c t o r s r e f l e c t c l o s e l y t h e t h a t have been d e v e l o p e d abroad.  I t i s reasonable  types  t o assume,  t h e r e f o r e , t h a t t h e c o s t s w h i c h compare so u n f a v o u r a b l y  with  t h o s e i n t h e West are i n the f i e l d of g a t h e r i n g , p r e p a r i n g u t i l i z i n g nuclear f u e l s .  The  s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t which t h e  show i n t h e development o f b r e e d i n g  and  Soviets  reactors points i n t h i s  d i r e c t i o n , though the problem o f t h e s e r e a c t o r s i s o f such an i m p o r t a n c e t h a t almost any amount of i n t e r e s t i n i t i s j u s t i fiable . I t must be borne i n mind t h a t under S o v i e t c o n d i t i o n s t h e r e are two  o t h e r f a c t o r s w h i c h might be c o n t r i b u t i n g t o  r e l u c t a n c e t o g i v e h i g h p r i o r i t y t o the atomic power. stems from t h e i n h e r e n t r e l u c t a n c e on the p a r t o f t h e to  the  First planners  take r i s k s and t o base a s e c t i o n o f t h e i r programme on some-  t h i n g as u n p r e d i c t a b l e as atomic power i s at the p r e s e n t o f development, and c o n s e q u e n t l y ,  a r e l u c t a n c e by the  and groups t o t a k e t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f a d v o c a t i n g undertaking,  and  secondly  d e v e l o p i n g t h e new  The  individuals  such  an  - l a c k of i n c e n t i v e to take r i s k s i n  forms of f u e l , s i n c e abundant s u p p l i e s o f con-  v e n t i o n a l f u e l s are a v a i l a b l e . the U.S.A. and  stage  The  second the USSR shares  with  Canada. unfavourable  s i t u a t i o n i n which Great B r i t a i n f i n d s  i t s e l f w i t h r e g a r d s t o the c o n v e n t i o n a l f u e l s u p p l y i s a v e r y s t r o n g i n c e n t i v e t o t r y out new o t h e r s the n u c l e a r energy.  sources  of energy - and among  Once b e f o r e B r i t a i n has been i n a  s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n d u r i n g the second h a l f o f the 13th  century,  when f i n d i n g i t s e l f w i t h i n a d e q u a t e r e s e r v e s of c h a r c o a l f o r i r o n  119  and s t e e l p r o d u c t i o n , t h e B r i t i s h i n d u s t r y s w i t c h e d t o t h e use of c o a l i n smelting.  The new form o f f u e l t u r n e d out t o be more  e f f i c i e n t and p l a c e d t h e B r i t i s h i n an advantageous p o s i t i o n . On t h e o t h e r hand, t h e i r o n and s t e e l i n d u s t r y o f R u s s i a , w h i c h b e f o r e t h a t had t h e h i g h e s t output i n t h e w o r l d e n t e r e d t h e period of stagnation. "An i m p o r t a n t cause o f t h i s s t a g n a t i o n was t h e f a c t t h a t t h e i r o n and s t e e l i n d u s t r y o f t h e U r a l s c o n t i n u e d t o d e v e l o p i n t h e p r e - r e f o r m p e r i o d o f t h e XIX c e n t u r y m a i n l y based on compulsary l a b o u r o f t h e s e r f s a s s i g n e d t o t h e i r o n works and t h e a l l o t e d l a n d g r a n t s . (In the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y every newly c o n s t r u c t e d i r o n p r o d u c i n g p l a n t i n t h e U r a l s was g r a n t e d a l l t h e l a n d w i t h i n t h e r a d i u s o f 64 km.(7) As a r e s u l t o f these g r a n t s almost the e n t i r e huge U r a l s area became t h e p r o p e r t y o f s e v e r a l u n d e r t a k i n g s . The m e t a l l u r g y worked on c h a r c o a l and t h e s i z e o f t h e f o r e s t s b e l o n g i n g t o t h e p l a n t s a l s o determined t h e i r production. The p l a n t s were p r o v i d e d w i t h cheap l a b o u r , cheap raw m a t e r i a l s and f u e l from t h e f o r e s t s a s s i g n e d t o them. At the same time c o m p e t i t i o n from abroad was absent on t h e R u s s i a n market. M e t a l s imported from abroad were dear, s i n c e they were s u b j e c t t o p r o h i b i t a t i v e d u t i e s . B e i n g a b l e t o m a i n t a i n h i g h p r i c e s due t o t h e absence o f comp e t i t i o n t h e U r a l s m a n u f a c t u r e r s made l a r g e p r o f i t s even w i t h t h e v e r y low s t a t e o f t e c h n i c a l and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l structure."(°) S i m i l a r l y to-day, being w e l l s u p p l i e d w i t h c o n v e n t i o n a l f u e l s R u s s i a does not have t h e same s t r o n g i n c e n t i v e t o t r y out new forms o f f u e l s as England  must.  A l t h o u g h t h e a u t h o r i t i e s i n t h e S o v i e t Union a r e not p r e p a r e d t o commit themselves atomic  t o a l a r g e s c a l e development o f  power, t h e y n e v e r t h e l e s s c o n t i n u e t o g i v e h i g h  priority  t o s c i e n t i f i c study and r e s e a r c h development i n t h e f i e l d . S i m i l a r l y as i n t h e U.S.A. t h e reasons f o r s u p p o r t i n g t h e r e s e a r c h a r e p r e s t i g e , p o l i t i c a l and t o i n s u r e t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y 1  120  o f atomic when i t becomes c o m p e t i t i v e w i t h t h a t from c o n v e n t i o n a l power  stations. I t would appear, however, t h a t even by comparison w i t h  the U.S.A. and Canada t h e R u s s i a n r e a d i n e s s t o experiment w i t h t h e new power l a g s b e h i n d ,  although greater o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r  u s i n g atomic power seem t o e x i s t t h e r e because o f c l i m a t i c  con-  d i t i o n s and t h e e x i s t e n c e o f l a r g e i n d u s t r i a l i z e d and u n i n d u s t r i a l i z e d regions lacking i n conventional f u e l  resources.  121  2.  Historical Outline. The b e g i n n i n g o f n u c l e a r r e s e a r c h i n t h e S o v i e t Union  d a t e s back t o t h e e a r l y days a f t e r t h e r e v o l u t i o n . From t h e formation of the Soviet s t a t e t o approximately  1929, n u c l e a r  r e s e a r c h was c a r r i e d out by i n d i v i d u a l s such as P.L. K a p i t s a , a l e c t u r e r at Leningrad P o l y t e c h n i c a l I n s t i t u t e ,  ( f o r a time  he c o l l a b o r a t e d i n 1921-22 w i t h L o r d R u t h e r f o r d a t t h e C a v e n d i s h L a b o r a t o r i e s i n Cambridge).  Another R u s s i a n s c i e n t i s t i n t e r e s t e d  i n n u c l e a r r e s e a r c h was V . I . V e r n a d s k i , founder Radium I n s t i t u t e i n L e n i n g r a d  i n 1922.  of the State  He stayed i n P a r i s i n  1923 t o do some e x p e r i m e n t a l work a t Mme.  C u r i e ' s Radium I n s t i t u t e .  Among o t h e r s i n t h i s f i e l d were D i m i t r i V. S k o b e l t s i n and V i t a l i i G. K h l o p k i n . I n May 1930, Abram F. I o f f e succeeded i n i n t e r e s t i n g t h e Chairman o f t h e Supreme C o u n c i l o f N a t i o n a l Economy, Serge Ordzhonikidze,  i n t h e problem, w i t h t h e r e s u l t t h a t s u b s t a n t i a l  funds were g r a n t e d f o r n u c l e a r r e s e a r c h and t h e f i e l d was p l a c e d under t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e care o f t h e People's Commissariat o f Heavy I n d u s t r y , where i t remained u n t i l o f 1936-38.  a f t e r t h e g r e a t purges  I t was t h e n t r a n s f e r r e d t o t h e S o v i e t Academy o f  Sciences which - a f t e r years of non-co-operation  w i t h t h e regime -  by t h e end o f t h e purges was f i n a l l y brought c o m p l e t e l y under government c o n t r o l . In 1938 t h e L e n i n g r a d P h y s i c s - T e c h n i c a l I n s t i t u t e , the L e n i n g r a d Radium I n s t i t u t e , t h e L e n i n g r a d  State O p t i c a l  I n s t i t u t e and t h e P h y s i c s - T e c h n i c a l I n s t i t u t e i n Kharkov were  122 doing s e r i o u s research i n nuclear physics. f i e l d at L e n i n g r a d  Working i n t h i s  P h y s i c s - T e c h n i c a l I n s t i t u t e at t h i s  were I g o r Kurchatov,  A . I . A l i k h a n o v , A.L.  time  Artsimovich,  D. - S k o b e l t s i n and o t h e r s whose names to-day  stand f o r nuclear  r e s e a r c h i n the USSR. h  "By the end o f the t h i r t i e s , the USSR had a f u l l complement o f w e l l - e q u i p p e d and w e l l s t a f f e d n u c l e a r l a b o r a t o r i e s , comparable w i t h t h o s e of any o t h e r major c o u n t r y . "(9) I n November 1939  a conference  on the P h y s i c s o f t h e  Atomic Nucleus was  h e l d i n Kharkov, t h e p u b l i s h e d r e s u l t s o f  w h i c h show t h a t new  developments i n n u c l e a r r e s e a r c h t a k i n g  p l a c e o u t s i d e the S o v i e t Union were w e l l a p p r e c i a t e d by Russians  the  and t h a t t r a n s l a t i o n s o f the l i t e r a t u r e p u b l i s h e d i n  the West were a v a i l a b l e t o R u s s i a n I n 1939 o f S c i e n c e s was  scientists.  the Commission f o r I s o t o p e s o f the USSR Academy  formed under t h e C h a i r m a n s h i p o f V . I . Vernadsky.  T h i s i n i t i a t e d p r a c t i c a l work on the p r o d u c t i o n of heavy w a t e r and the s e p a r a t i o n o f uranium i s o t o p e s .  I n the s p r i n g o f  1940,  under no l e s s a body than t h e P r e s i d i u m o f the Academy o f S c i e n c e s o f the USSR, a s p e c i a l committee f o r the Problems o f Uranium was men  formed; t h i s committee i n c l u d e d some o f the foremost  of s c i e n c e o f the S o v i e t U n i o n .  Chairman o f t h e Committee: V.G. V . I . Vernadsky, A.F. P . I . L a z a r e v , A.N. P.L. A.P.  I o f f e , A.Y.  I t s composition  K h l o p k i n ; members:  Academicians  Fersman (a g e o l o g i s t ) , S . I . V a v i l o v ,  Frumkin, L . J . Mandelstam, G.M.  K a p i t s a and P r o f e s s o r s : I.V. Kurchatov, V i n o g r a d o v and Y.B.  was:-  Khariton.  Krzhizhanovsky,  D . I . Shcherbakov,  123  o  The 1.  t a s k o f t h e Committee was t o : -  P r e p a r e a s c i e n t i f i c r e s e a r c h programme f o r t h e s t u d y o f  uranium and t o a s s i g n p a r t s o f i t t o t h e v a r i o u s i n s t i t u t e s o f t h e Academy o f S c i e n c e s . 2.  O r g a n i z e t h e development o f methods f o r s e p a r a t i n g t h e  f i s s i o n a b l e uranium i s o t o p e s , and pursue r e s e a r c h on corb r o l l i n g the p r o c e s s o f r a d i o a c t i v e d i s i n t e g r a t i o n ( i . e . c o n t r o l l i n g a chain r e a c t i o n ) . 3.  Co-ordinate  and g e n e r a l l y s u p e r v i s e  j e c t s o f t h e Academy o f S c i e n c e s The  Presidium  s c i e n t i f i c research  pro-  on t h e problem o f Uranium.  o f t h e Academy o f S c i e n c e s  recognized  "the n e c e s s i t y o f u s i n g p o w e r f u l  c y c l o t r o n s f o r work on the  problems o f Uranium" and ordered  that:-  1; The Radium I n s t i t u t e C y c l o t r o n , w h i c h was put i n t o  limited  o p e r a t i o n i n 1937, be b r o u g h t up t o f u l l c a p a c i t y by the end o f 1940. 2.  That t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a c y c l o t r o n f o r t h e P h y s i c s - T e c h -  n i c a l I n s t i t u t e be completed "not l a t e r t h a n t h e f i r s t  quarter  of 1941". 3.  That t h e Lebedev P h y s i c s I n s t i t u t e i n Moscow prepare by  October, 1940 t h e p l a n s f o r t h e d e s i g n and c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a "new,  powerful  c y c l o t r o n i n Moscow" t o be i n c l u d e d i n t h e  Academy budget f o r t h e c a p i t a l c o n s t r u c t i o n p l a n f o r 1 9 4 1 . ^ ^ A s p e c i a l e x p e d i t i o n was sent t o C e n t r a l A s i a t o l o o k f o r Uranium d e p o s i t s .  P l a n s were d i s c u s s e d f o r  producing  heavy water a t C h i r c h i k i n C e n t r a l A s i a a t t h e r a t e o f 15 k g .  124  per year.  At t h e Radium I n s t i t u t e , methods were developed f o r  s e p a r a t i o n o f i s o t o p e s by l i n e a r a c c e l e r a t i o n o f uranium i o n s . The main e f f o r t s were t h u s d i r e c t e d towards d i s c o v e r i n g methods for  q u a n t i t y p r o d u c t i o n o f t h e f i s s i o n a b l e m a t e r i a l and moderator. " I n g e n e r a l , t h e r e f o r e , i t would appear t h a t t h e S o v i e t Union and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s were p r o g r e s s i n g towards i m p o r t a n t achievements i n n u c l e a r p h y s i c s a t about t h e same pace".'11' o  When Germany a t t a c k e d t h e USSR, R u s s i a n r e s e a r c h i n the n u c l e a r f i e l d  stopped  f o r over two y e a r s .  Only towards t h e  end o f 1 9 4 3 were t h e Moscow w o r k e r s o f t h e Academy o f S c i e n c e s a b l e t o r e t u r n from temporary p o s t s i n t h e E a s t e r n p a r t o f t h e country.  Kurchatow, a l t h o u g h he was a L e n i n g r a d man, was  then  made a f u l l member o f t h e Academy o f S c i e n c e s and r e t u r n e d w i t h them. In t h e pre-war y e a r s S o v i e t s c i e n t i s t s p u b l i s h e d  freely  the r e s u l t s o f t h e i r work i n t h e f i e l d o f n u c l e a r r e s e a r c h , and t h e y c o n t i n u e d t o do so d u r i n g t h e e a r l y war y e a r s , when i n f o r m a t i o n i n t h i s f i e l d was a l r e a d y c l a s s i f i e d i n t h e U.S.A., t h e U.K. and Canada. D u r i n g t h e f i r s t t h r e e y e a r s o f t h e war, t h e R u s s i a n s were a b l e t o do v e r y l i t t l e i n t h e U.S.A.  compared t o what was b e i n g  achieved  Most o f t h e n u c l e a r r e s e a r c h e s t a b l i s h m e n t s were  s i t u a t e d i n t h e European p a r t o f t h e c o u n t r y and had t o be evacuated.  S c i e n t i s t s were put t o work on p r o j e c t s  concerned w i t h t h e waging o f war. 1943,  immediately  As a r e s u l t , by t h e end o f  R u s s i a was a l o n g way b e h i n d t h e U.S.A.  At about t h i s  the m i l i t a r y i m p l i c a t i o n s o f n u c l e a r power were p r o b a b l y  time  appre-  125  d a t e d i n t h e USSR and t h e a t t i t u d e o f t h e government towards t h e new s c i e n c e changed.  I n September 1943, a t t h e G e n e r a l  M e e t i n g o f t h e Academy o f S c i e n c e s o f t h e USSR, A. B a i k o v i n augurated a p o l i c y o f s e c r e c y on t h e s u b j e c t o f atomic r e s e a r c h i n t h e USSR 1955.  (12)  which was o n l y p a r t l y removed a t Geneva i n  I t can be assumed t h a t by 1 9 5 5 m i l i t a r y  requirements  were a l r e a d y s a t i s f i e d and t h e q u e s t i o n o f t h e p e a c e f u l u t i l i z a t i o n o f t h e new s o u r c e s o f energy came t o t h e f o r e f r o n t .  It  must not be f o r g o t t e n t h a t t h e F i r s t Geneva Conference on t h e P e a c e f u l Uses o f Atomic Energy took p l a c e almost two y e a r s a f t e r hydrogen bombs had been exploded by b o t h t h e U.S.A. and t h e USSR. Atomic R e a c t o r Development i n t h e USSR. I t i s u s e l e s s t o s p e c u l a t e how much R u s s i a n s c i e n t i s t s were a s s i s t e d by S o v i e t I n t e l l i g e n c e o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n t h e i r e f f o r t s t o c a t c h up w i t h t h e Western Powers.  The f i r s t R u s s i a n  R e a c t o r PSR, which went i n t o o p e r a t i o n a t about t h e b e g i n n i n g of 1 9 4 7 was f u e l l e d by n a t u r a l uranium moderated by g r a p h i t e and c o o l e d by w a t e r .  The u n i t b e a r s a s t r i k i n g resemblance  t o the  Hanford R e a c t o r 3 0 5 , b u i l t i n t h e USA b e f o r e March, 1 9 4 4 . below a r e comparative  figures:Hanford 3 0 5  Power Diameter L a t t i c e spacing Loading Rod  diameter  Given  10 w a t t s 18-20 f t . 85 i n c h e s 27 tons o f Uranium 1.448 i n c h e s  PSR 1 0 watts 19 feet 8 inches 2 5 - 5 0 tons of Uranium 1 . 2 - 1 . 6 inches  126  The d e l a y i n c o n s t r u c t i o n i s not d i f f i c u l t  to explain.  Even i f t h e R u s s i a n s had o b t a i n e d d e t a i l s o f t h e r e a c t o r d e s i g n as soon as i t was b u i l t i n t h e U.S.A. t h e i r i n d u s t r y r e q u i r e d some time t o manufacture t h e n e c e s s a r y g r a p h i t e o f r e q u i r e d p u r i t y and produce t h e n e c e s s a r y amount o f Uranium.  Judging  from s t a t e m e n t s by R u s s i a n s c i e n t i s t s , t h e i n d u s t r y d i d not f i n d e i t h e r t a s k easy. From t h i s p i l e t h e P l u t o n i u m R e s e a r c h R e a c t o r and i t s s u c c e s s o r s were p r o b a b l y d e v e l o p e d .  Form i t was a l s o d e v e l o p e d ,  i n about 1 9 5 2 , t h e p l u t o n i u m b r e e d e r power r e a c t o r , t h e RFT, an e n r i c h e d u r a n i u m - g r a p h i t e , water-moderated  reactor f o r  p h y s i c a l e x p e r i m e n t s and f o r f u e l elements t e s t i n g , w h i c h i n t u r n was t h e p r e c u r s o r o f t h e f i r s t S o v i e t Atomic Power S t a t i o n of t h e USSR Academy o f S c i e n c e s b u i l t under t h e d i r e c t i o n o f D.I. B l o k h i n t s e v . is likely  The next s t e p a f t e r t h e Atomic Power S t a t i o n  t o be a Uranium G r a p h i t e power r e a c t o r i n w h i c h w a t e r  c o o l a n t w i l l be r e p l a c e d by  sodium.  The f i r s t Uranium G r a p h i t e p i l e a l s o s e r v e d as a s t a r t i n g p o i n t f o r t h e s t u d y o f w a t e r - c o o l e d , water-moderated r e a c t o r s (Water-water r e a c t o r s VVR)  developed by K u r c h a t o v ' s  I n s t i t u t e , which w i l l lead t o the c o n s t r u c t i o n of l a r g e waterc o o l e d , water-moderated  power p l a n t s d u r i n g t h e next few y e a r s .  An e x p e r i m e n t a l b o i l i n g r e a c t o r , sponsored by K u r c h a t o v , w i l l be a f u r t h e r development  o f t h i s system.  The r e a c t o r o f t h e atomic  ice-breaker Lenin i s also of t h i s type. During  1956-57,  t h e S o v i e t Union s o l d seven  Water-water  r e a c t o r s t o t h e s a t e l l i t e c o u n t r i e s and Egypt, f o r i n s t a l l a t i o n  127 at t h e i r r e s e a r c h i n s t i t u t e s . The f i r s t 1947  S o v i e t heavy-water r e a c t o r was  and commissioned  in April,  1949-  T h i s was  r e a c t o r of the Academy of Science of the USSR. water both as a moderator and as a c o o l a n t .  designed i n  the experimental I t uses heavy  The f u e l used i s  2 per cent e n r i c h e d Uranium. The r e a c t o r was V.V.  Vladimirski.  designed under A . I . Alikhanov and  In c o n c e p t i o n i t i s c l o s e t o the  Canadian  NRX  and the Chicago CPS,  which suggests t h a t the R u s s i a n  scientists  may  have used m a t e r i a l p r o v i d e d f o r them by the i n t e l l i g e n c e net-  work. On the b a s i s of experience gained from t h i s  reactor  i n f u t u r e l a r g e heavy-water power s t a t i o n s w i l l be b u i l t .  One  such power s t a t i o n i s being b u i l t by S o v i e t experts i n Czechoslovakia. Another power r e a c t o r to be developed from the heavy water prototype w i l l be a homogeneous thorium-breeding  pilot  power r e a c t o r . The  S o v i e t Union s o l d t o China and Y u g o s l a v i a e x p e r i -  mental r e a c t o r s moderated and c o o l e d by heavy water, f u e l 2 per cent U-235 e n r i c h e d uranium  u s i n g as  rods.  Given below i s the diagram of S o v i e t r e a c t o r s  (see  Appendix A ) . In a d d i t i o n to the above the Russians have r e c e n t l y developed a high-neutron "impulse" or " p u l s e d " r e a c t o r . r e a c t o r was  developed i n the J o i n t I n s t i t u t e of NucJLear  at the end of 1958.  I t i s s a i d t o be compact and  The Research  economical.  128  Though i t s average  c a p a c i t y i s not g r e a t at the moment of  p u l s e , i t produces a tremendous f l u x o f neutrons  im-  and d u r i n g t h i s  p e r i o d i t develops the power of tens of m i l l i o n s o f k i l o w a t t s . The  design of t h i s r e a c t o r i s b e i n g f u r t h e r e l a b o r a t e d and  are i n d i c a t i o n s t h a t i t may  be developed  there  as a power u n i t .  The  r e a c t o r uses e n r i c h e d uranium f u e l and o r d i n a r y water. S o v i e t Reactor  Programme.  Late i n 1949 demonstration 1954.  the Russians  s t a r t e d work on a power  r e a c t o r , which came i n t o o p e r a t i o n on 2 7 t h June,  T h i s was  the f i r s t  r e a c t o r to contribute e l e c t r i c i t y f o r  g e n e r a l p u b l i c consumption.  The Russians brought  a model of  t h i s power s t a t i o n w i t h them t o the F i r s t Geneva Conference the P e a c e f u l Uses o f Atomic Energy. by D.I. B l o k h i n t s e v , N.A. who  The  D o l l e z h a l , A.K.  were awarded L e n i n p r i z e s i n 1957  s t a t i o n was  on  developed  K r a s i n and V.A.  Malikh,  f o r t h e i r work on i t .  T h i s s t a t i o n i s l o c a t e d approximately  seventy m i l e s  South-west of Moscow at a place c a l l e d Obninsk.  The c a p a c i t y  of the s t a t i o n i s 5000 kw.  Because of i t s s i z e the u n i t i s  r e a l l y more of a t e s t i n g p i l o t p l a n t than a power s t a t i o n .  It  uses 550 kg. of Uranium metal e n r i c h e d 5 per cent w i t h Uranium 235. little  Only 15 per cent of U 235 p r o d u c t i o n of plutonium.  i s burnt up and t h e r e i s r e l a t i v e l y Graphite i s used  and p r e s s u r i z e d water as a c o o l a n t .  as a moderator  Heat i s d e l i v e r e d  through  a heat exchanger to a secondary water c i r c u i t , which takes i t to the t u r b o - g e n e r a t o r .  The r e a c t o r i s r a t e d at 30,000 kw.  but at a pressure of 1500  l b . p . s . i . the o p e r a t i n g  thermal,  temperature  129  i s o n l y 5$0°F (300°C) and c o n s e q u e n t l y e f f i c i e n c y i s low.  The  s h i e l d i s a g r a p h i t e r e f l e c t o r , t h r e e f o o t of water and t e n f e e t The s t a t i o n uses l e s s t h a n 5kg.  o f cement.  20 m i l l i o n kwh.  of e l e c t r i c i t y a y e a r , a t a c o s t  i n excess o f t h e average i n 1953  was  o f U 235  t o produce  considerably  i n l a r g e c o a l b u r n i n g s t a t i o n s (which  10 kopecks per kwh.)  but comparable t o t h a t o f c o a l  b u r n i n g p l a n t s o f the same s i z e . I n June 1955  A. Malenkov t o l d Western j o u r n a l i s t s t h a t  a n o t h e r power r e a c t o r was under c o n s t r u c t i o n at the time i n R u s s i a , and t h a t i t would be completed b e f o r e the c o m p l e t i o n o f r e a c t o r s i n England.  Two  months l a t e r D.I. B l o k h i n t s e v  Malenkov's statement and s a i d t h a t t h e r e a c t o r was t o be  confirmed completed  i n about t h e middle o f 1956.  He a v o i d e d g i v i n g any d e t a i l s  t o the t y p e o f t h e r e a c t o r .  I n t h e autumn o f t h e same y e a r  V.V. New  as  V l a d i m e r o v s k y , s p e a k i n g a t the i n d u s t r i a l c o n f e r e n c e i n York d e s c r i b e d t h e r e a c t o r as 100,000 kw.  carbon d i o x i d e  c o o l e d , heavy water moderated, u s i n g n a t u r a l uranium as f u e l . Work on the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h i s r e a c t o r was  a l s o c o n f i r m e d by  the F i n a n c e M i n i s t e r Zverev i n Pravda on t h e 27th December The  1955.  c o m p l e t i o n of t h i s r e a c t o r was never announced and i t was  e i t h e r abandoned i n f a v o u r o f a more advanced v e r s i o n , o r comp l e t e d f o r m i l i t a r y purposes and kept s e c r e t f o r t h i s r e a s o n . The 6th  F i v e Year P l a n (1655-60) p r o v i d e d f o r t h e  c o n s t r u c t i o n o f Atomic power s t a t i o n s o f a t o t a l c a p a c i t y of between 2-2.5  m i l . kw.  programme mentioned  I n t h e f i e l d of r e a c t o r development the  c o n s t r u c t i o n of t e n t y p e s o f atomic power  r e a c t o r s r a n g i n g from 50,000 t o 200,000 kw.  Some o f them were  130  t o be d e s i g n e d f o r use i n d e s e r t plan provided  and p o l a r regions.*-*-^'  The  f o r t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f f i v e l a r g e atomic power  s t a t i o n s o f 400,000 - 600,000 kw. c a p a c i t y each, w h i c h were t o be b r o u g h t i n t o commission s t a r t i n g f r o m 1958.  The c o n s t r u c t i o n  of t h e s e l a r g e power s t a t i o n s had a d u a l purpose; t o improve t h e supply  o f e l e c t r i c power t o some r e g i o n s  to those t h a t lacked conventional  - i n the f i r s t  resources  instance  o f t h e i r own - and  t o make p o s s i b l e t o s e l e c t t h e most c o n v e n i e n t and economic r e a c t o r f o r f u r t h e r development o f atomic power s t a t i o n s i n s u c c e e d i n g F i v e Year P l a n s .  As w e l l as t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f  l a r g e power s t a t i o n s t h e p l a n p r o v i d e d  f o r s e v e r a l expert mental  atomic p l a n t s o f an e l e c t r i c a l c a p a c i t y o f 50,000 - 70,000 kw. The f i v e Power s t a t i o n s t o be c o n s t r u c t e d bably:-  were  pro-  ( f o r d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n o f p r o j e c t s see end o f Ch.VI) near Moscow, o f 400,000 kw.  Power S t a t i o n I  t o be c o n s t r u c t e d  Power S t a t i o n I I  one o f t h e two power s t a t i o n s t o be cons t r u c t e d i n t h e U r a l s ; i t i s l o c a t e d near Sverdlovsk, at Byeloretsk. For d e t a i l s see Appendix I I A .  Power S t a t i o n I I I second power s t a t i o n t o be the U r a l s ; i t s l o c a t i o n i s j o i n t capacity of the Ural s t a t i o n s was planned t o be  constructed i n unknown. The atomic power one m i l l i o n kw.  Power S t a t i o n IV  l o c a t e d a t Voronyezh, on t h e r i v e r Don.  Power S t a t i o n V  t h e proposed l o c a t i o n o f t h i s t y p e o f power s t a t i o n i n t h e USSR i s not known, but a s t a t i o n o f t h i s t y p e i s under c o n s t r u c t i o n at Banska B y s t r i c a i n C z e c h o s l o v a k i a .  P r o j e c t s o t h e r t h a n Atomic Power  Production  A p a r t from t h e i r i n t e r e s t i n atomic energy as a source  131 o f e l e c t r i c power, t h e S o v i e t s a r e a l s o i n t e r e s t e d i n i t as an explosive force i n the engineering industry f o r large scale e x c a v a t i o n p r o j e c t s , as a means o f p r o p e l l i n g s h i p s , submarines, land v e h i c l e s , locomotives, a i r c r a f t ,  and o t h e r machinery, as  w e l l as u t i l i z i n g i t as a source o f i s o t o p e s f o r use i n i n d u s t r y , medicine  and s c i e n t i f i c  research.(42)  Uranium r e s e r v e s The R u s s i a n s have not d i s c l o s e d t h e s i z e nor t h e whereabouts o f t h e i r uranium r e s e r v e s .  S i n c e t h e war, however, i n -  t e n s i v e s e a r c h by v o l u n t e e r s and by s c i e n t i f i c c o n t i n u e d throughout  t h e S o v i e t Union.  The R u s s i a n s have made  e x t e n s i v e use o f AN-2 type p l a n e s equipped flying  a t 3 6 0 f e e t above ground.  e x p e d i t i o n s has  with  aeroradiometers,  I n charge o f t h e a e r o r a d i o (U3)  m e t r i c a l r e s e a r c h i s V l a d i m i r I l ' i c h Baranov. I t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t t h e R u s s i a n s succeeded i n l o c a t i n g s a t i s f a c t o r y d e p o s i t s u n t i l r e c e n t l y (end o f 1959) s i n c e t h e y c o n t i n u e t o use uranium o r e s mined i n t h e s a t e l l i t e c o u n t r i e s E a s t Germany, C z e c h o s l o v a k i a , Hungary, Poland and Roumania. A p a r t f r o m t h e c o s t o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , t h e R u s s i a n s must be aware o f t h e f a c t t h a t s i n c e t h e s e c o u n t r i e s a r e d e v e l o p i n g t h e i r own atomic i n d u s t r i e s , t h e y begrudge t h e ores l e a v i n g f o r t h e USSR.  T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e o f P o l a n d , where r e s e r v e s a r e  b o t h s c a r c e and o f low grade.  Another i n d i c a t i o n t h a t t h e  R u s s i a n s a r e s h o r t o f uranium o r e i s t h e i r s e r i o u s c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f a p r o j e c t t o e x t r a c t uranium from Lake M i a s s i n t h e C h e l y a b i n s k a r e a , c o n s i d e r e d t o be a v e r y expensive way o f o b t a i n i n g i t .  132 I n R u s s i a i t s e l f t h e r e a r e known d e p o s i t s i n t h e Fergana V a l l e y i n K i r g i z and T a j i k SSR.  I n pre-war days,  uranium b e a r i n g ores were mined here a t Tyuya-Muyuan and Tabashar for  t h e i r radium c o n t e n t . In E a s t e r n Germany t h e main uranium m i n i n g r e g i o n i s  i n Saxony.  The e x p l o i t a t i o n o f these r e s e r v e s was s t a r t e d  immediately  a f t e r World War I I .  The programme was expanded under  the code name Wismut A.G. i n 1946, when Major G e n e r a l M o t r f a n o v i c h M a l t s e v was a p p o i n t e d head o f i t .  Nikolai  On t h e 17th  J u l y , 1947 t h e E a s t German c o r p o r a t i o n "Wismut" was o f f i c i a l l y established. The Czech d e p o s i t s a r e i n t h e J o a c h i m s t h a l i n Western Czechoslovakia.  The mines here a r e 600 y e a r s o l d and have been  e x p l o i t e d as s o u r c e s o f l e a d and s i l v e r .  A f t e r radium was d i s -  covered t h e mines became a source o f radium. The  o t h e r r e s e r v e s i n C z e c h o s l o v a k i a a r e found i n t h e  P r i b r a m r e g i o n o f c e n t r a l Bohemia. Heavy Water. R u s s i a n s have p a d i s e r i o u s a t t e n t i o n t o t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f heavy water,  and a c c o r d i n g t o Academician  Kurchatov,  several  methods a r e used t o produce i t . B e f o r e t h e war, p l a n s were made f o r t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f heavy w a t e r a t C h i r c h i k i n C e n t r a l A s i a .  I t was proposed t o  o b t a i n heavy w a t e r by t h e p r o c e s s o f e l e c t r o l y s i s . Heavy water was a l s o o b t a i n e d i n s m a l l q u a n t i t i e s , f o r e x p e r i m e n t a l purposes,  a t Dnyepropetrovsk.  r e s e a r c h on l o w temperature  distillation  The R u s s i a n s  started  as e a r l y as 1946.  133  The  p r o d u c t i o n o f heavy w a t e r i s a v e r y heavy d r a i n  on e l e c t r i c power.  To produce one t o n o f heavy w a t e r up t o  100 m i l l . kwh. i s n e c e s s a r y .  I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t one o f t h e  r e a s o n s f o r t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f l a r g e s i z e h y d r o - e l e c t r i c and t h e r m a l power s t a t i o n s i n S i b e r i a , where t h e demand f o r such q u a n t i t i e s o f e l e c t r i c i t y w i l l not a r i s e f o r a number o f y e a r s , i s the need t o s a t i s f y t h e demand o f t h e heavy w a t e r  producing  p l a n t s , as w e l l as o t h e r r e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e atomic i n d u s t r y research l a b o r a t o r i e s . The R u s s i a n s "Lenin" type.  p l a n t o b u i l d more i c e - b r e a k e r s o f t h e  Apart f r o m i c e - b r e a k e r s t h e y a r e a l s o i n t e r e s t e d  i n t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f atomic t a n k e r s and cargo s h i p s .  It is  g e n e r a l l y agreed t h a t atomic p r o p u l s i o n c o u l d o n l y be used under present  c o n d i t i o n s on l a r g e s i z e t a n k e r s  (over 20,000 t o n s ) o r  on cargo s h i p s o f over 1 5 , 0 0 0 t o n s i n t e n d e d f o r l o n g runs - a s , for  example, t o China o r V l a d i v o s t o k v i a t h e Northern r o u t e . ( ? )  The R u s s i a n s  p o i n t out t h a t t h e d i s t a n c e from V l a d i s v o s t o k t o  Odessa i s 17,400 km. and t o cover i t r e q u i r e s 3 , 2 0 0 t o n s o f o i l . The  same voyage c o u l d be made on 2.4 k g . o f U 235.  atomic p r o p u l s i o n , c a l l i n g a t N o r t h e r n be avoided  By u s i n g  ports f o rr e f u e l l i n g  could  and t h u s b o t h t h e time and t h e l e n g t h o f t h e voyage  considerably shortened.  The same i s t r u e f o r u n i t s o f t h e  w h a l i n g f l e e t and f o r f a c t o r y s h i p s o f t h e f i s h i n g i n d u s t r y . F l o a t i n g atomic power s t a t i o n s are c o n s i d e r e d f o r P o l a r r e g i o n s , t o s u p p l y power f o r new p r o j e c t s under development i n their i n i t i a l  stages.  Because o f t h e N o r t h e r n l y l o c a t i o n , atomic submarines  134  are o f g r e a t e r s i g n i f i c a n c e t o t h e USSR t h a n t h e y a r e t o t h e U.S.A., f o r s t r a t e g i c r e a s o n s , and because o f t h e p o s s i b i l i t y of t h e i r use f o r r e g u l a r u n d e r - i c e p a c k t r a v e l t o E a s t e r n The considered.  use o f atomic power i n a i r c r a f t i s a l s o  ports.  being  The l o n g d i s t a n c e s t h a t t h e i r a i r c r a f t have t o f l y  t o r e a c h f o r e i g n t a r g e t s o r d i s t a n t a i r f i e l d s i n s i d e t h e i r own c o u n t r y make t h e R u s s i a n s c o n s i d e r s e r i o u s l y t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f an a i r c r a f t t h a t c o u l d f l y f o r s e v e r a l thousand m i l e s w i t h o u t interrupting i t s flight for refuelling. I n R u s s i a t h e b u l k o f goods i s t r a n s p o r t e d by r a i l . Some o f t h e haulage i s done over v e r y l o n g d i s t a n c e s , as f o r example on t h e T r a n s - S i b e r i a n  r a i l w a y , and atomic l o c o m o t i v e s  f o r heavy d u t y f r e i g h t t r a i n s a r e b e i n g m o t i v e s c o u l d a l s o be used t o s u p p l y and  considered.  Such l o c o -  e l e c t r i c power t o new towns  p r o j e c t s under c o n s t r u c t i o n . I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t atomic power c o u l d be u t i l i z e d f o r  d r i v i n g t h e l a r g e s i z e m i n i n g equipment used i n open c a s t o r e m i n i n g l o c a t i o n s f a r removed from cheap s o u r c e s o f f u e l . The R u s s i a n s are a l s o c o n s i d e r i n g s m a l l , m o b i l e atomic power u n i t s mounted on c a t e r p i l l a r t r u c k s o r wheels t o be used i n a manner s i m i l a r t o t h e U.S. Army Package power r e a c t o r .  Use  f o r them c o u l d be found i n t h e F a r N o r t h , i n t h e newly developed t e r r i t o r i e s , i n v i r g i n s o i l l a n d s , and d e s e r t  areas.  Isotopes. R u s s i a n s c l a i m t h a t t h e y have made a v e r y use  extensive  o f i s o t o p e s , t h u s a f f e c t i n g enormous s a v i n g s t o t h e i r economy.  I n 1955 t h e y c l a i m t o have shipped 1,500 packages p e r month (as  135;  a g a i n s t 9 0 0 p e r month by t h e AEC i n t h e U.S.A.)  By t h e f i r s t  q u a r t e r o f 1 9 5 7 t h e R u s s i a n monthly average had c r e p t up t o 2,250 packages. The o v e r a l l t e c h n i c a l aspect o f t h e S o v i e t I s o t o p e programme i s s u p e r v i s e d by t h e C h i e f D i r e c t o r a t e f o r t h e U t i l i z a t i o n o f Atomic Energy, w h i c h i s a body i n t h e C o u n c i l o f M i n i s t e r s o f t h e USSR.  But day-by-day d i s t r i b u t i o n i s handled  by t h e A i l - U n i o n T r u s t o f t h e M i n i s t r y o f Chemical  Industry -  Soyuzreaktiv. The R u s s i a n s tend t o s t r e s s t h e use o f i s o t o p e s i n i n d u s t r y r a t h e r t h a n i n medicine  as i s done i n t h e West.  Industry,  and i n p a r t i c u l a r heavy i n d u s t r y , i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be t h e most i m p o r t a n t s e c t o r o f t h e R u s s i a n economy and as can be expected, i s o t o p e s have been w i d e l y used i n m e t a l l u r g y , e n g i n e e r i n g and c o n t r o l of t e c h n i c a l processes.  I s o t o p e s a r e used i n d e t e r m i n i n g  the r a t e o f wear o f f u r n a c e s , machine t o o l s , measuring temperat u r e s i n b l a s t f u r n a c e s , c o n t r o l l i n g h e a r t h o p e r a t i o n s and s o r t i n g metal  strips. I n t h e e n g i n e e r i n g and b u i l d i n g i n d u s t r i e s , d e f e c t o -  scopes produced i n g r e a t numbers and v a r i e t i e s must be used i n accordance w i t h t h e s t a t e i n s p e c t i o n r u l e s t o check a l l welded b o i l e r s , s h i p h u l l s , b r i d g e s , gas p i p e s , and o t h e r seams. t o p e s a r e a l s o used f o r gauging  Iso-  the thickness of coating, f o r  r e c o r d i n g t h e l e v e l o f l i q u i d s i n s e a l e d v e s s e l s , such as s t o r a g e t a n k s and o t h e r t y p e s o f c o n t a i n e r s . I s o t o p e s a r e a l s o used t o p r o v i d e a v e r y s m a l l amount of current t o d r i v e s p e c i a l e l e c t r o n i c apparatus.  Because o f t h e  136  l o n g l i f e o f i s o t o p e s , these could be used f o r i l l u m i n a t i n g marker bouys i n Northern waters, and f o r d r i v i n g b a t t e r i e s i n missiles. A c c o r d i n g t o data o f t h e I n s t i t u t e of Economics o'f the  Academy of S c i e n c e s of the USSR, the use of r a d i o - a c t i v e  t r o l equipment  and a u t o m a t i z a t i o n o f the I n d u s t r i a l  con-  enterprises  i n t h e USSR had even by 1958 saved the S o v i e t economy approximately 500 m i l l i o n r o u b l e s .  I t has been estimated t h a t wider  of the r a d i o - a c t i v e equipment the  a l r e a d y developed would  application alone save  country as much as f o u r b i l l i o n r o u b l e s a y e a r . ^ ^  C o n t r o l l e d F u s i o n Research. The  c o n t r o l l e d f u s i o n r e s e a r c h can be s a i d t o be t o a  great extent a bye-product o f the arms r a c e . and i n the USSR the development  Both i n the U.S.A.  o f thermo-nuclear weapons was  soon f o l l o w e d by e f f o r t s t o harness f o r p e a c e f u l uses the enormous power r e l e a s e d i n the f u s i o n of l i g h t would  element p a r t i c l e s .  appear t h a t the B r i t i s h r e s e a r c h i n the c o n t r o l l e d  It fusion  was inaugurated even b e f o r e the country embarked s e r i o u s l y on the p r o d u c t i o n o f a hydrogen bomb. From the time the f i r s t the  Americans  1953,  hydrogen bomb was s e t o f f by  i n September, 1952 and by the Russians i n August,  both c o u n t r i e s worked i n secrecy on f u s i o n c o n t r o l . A l -  though the e x i s t e n c e o f the r e s e a r c h ceased t o be a s e c r e t  after  1955, when t h e three major atomic pov^ers, the U.S.A., the U.K., and the USSR admitted t h a t they were engaged i n c o n t r o l l e d  fusion  r e s e a r c h , the d e s i r e on the part o f each t o reap the b e n e f i t s o f being the f i r s t t o enjoy t h e advantage  o f having an almost u n l i m i t e d  137 amount o f cheap power, keeps t h e i r e f f o r t s a p a r t . At Geneva, and i n p a r t i c u l a r d u r i n g K u r c h a t o v ' s v i s i t to  H a r w e l l i n 1956, the R u s s i a n s demonstrated t h a t t h e y have had  c o n s i d e r a b l e s u c c e s s i n t h i s f i e l d , and t h a t w o r k i n g w i t h  plasma  they have a t t a i n e d t e m p e r a t u r e s of o v e r a m i l l i o n degrees  centi-  grade, w h i c h t h e y c l a i m was the h i g h e s t a t t a i n e d under c o n d i t i o n s at the time. I.V. K u r c h a t o v I n s t i t u t e . and M.A.  R u s s i a n r e s e a r c h was done at the I n charge o f work was L.A.  Artsimovich,  L e o n t o v i c h was i n charge o f the t h e o r e t i c a l q u e s t i o n s . The d i f f i c u l t y  to  laboratory  w i t h t h e t h e r m o - n u c l e a r r e a c t i o n i s how  s u s t a i n and e x p l o i t the h i g h temperature a t t a i n e d .  For a.  w h i l e t h e r e was i n evidence a degree o f o p t i m i s m on t h i s but as d i f f i c u l t i e s for  became more apparent a s e a r c h was  a l t e r n a t i v e ways f o r u t i l i z i n g  plasma a t t e n t i o n was  fusion.  account,  started  Thus from work w i t h  s w i t c h e d t o " s t a t i o n a r y " p r o c e s s e s , such as  o b t a i n i n g t h e r m o - n u c l e a r r e a c t i o n s t h r o u g h t h e use o f p e r i o d i c a l l y r e c u r r i n g shock-waves caused by a s m a l l c o n t r o l l e d e x p l o s i o n o r by a c c e l e r a t o r s . in a wire.  Another method i s t o cause an e l e c t r i c  explosion  I n t h e U.S.A. a s t u d y i s b e i n g made o f Dr. A l v a r e z ' s  " c o l d " r e a c t i o n , i n v o l v i n g t h e use o f mu-meson bombarding  hydrogen.  The R u s s i a n s c l a i m t h a t A c a d e m i c i a n Z h e l d o v i c h had some s u c c e s s i n t h i s f i e l d as e a r l y as 1954, i . e . n e a r l y two y e a r s b e f o r e Dr. A l v a r e z came out w i t h h i s i d e a . A l t h o u g h n o t h i n g d e f i n i t e has been a c h i e v e d i n c o n t r o l l e d f u s i o n so f a r , t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s here are so enormous t h a t the amount o f a t t e n t i o n g i v e n t o t h i s f i e l d i s not l i k e l y t o d e c l i n e i n the near f u t u r e .  138 Nuclear Power and Experimental Plants. Power Plant Type I. - Graphite Moderated Water Cooled Reactor. This power station was planned to be of the same type as  Obninsk one, i . e . graphite moderated and water and steam  cooled. The steam i n the secondary c i r c u i t , heated to 480-500°C, under pressure of 90 atmospheres w i l l feed turbines of 200,000 kw. e a c h [ ^ ( I n February 1953 N.Nikolayev, Deputy Head of the 16  Main Administration f o r the U t i l i z a t i o n of Atomic  Power,attached  to the Council of Ministers of the USSR, stated that the turbines w i l l be of 100,000 kw. capacity). Superheating w i l l be done within the reactor i t s e l f and consequently there w i l l be no (17) need f o r a heat exchanger, which i s the most costly part; ' Because high parameters of steam can be used, the e f f i c i e n c y of t h i s atomic power station can be f a i r l y high more than 35 per cent. This i s more or less the same as the e f f i c i e n c y of large modern thermal power stations working on (18) high and super high steam parameters.  '  It was planned ultimately to have a power station with a thermal capacity of 1,150,000 kw. and gross e l e c t r i c a l capacity of 400,000 kw. of which 25,000 kw. would go to s a t i s f y the requirements of the power station i t s e l f . To begin with t h i s power s t a t i o n was t o have been constructed at Obninsk, where i t was to have been joined to the already existing 5000 kw. s t a t i o n . However, at present a plant of t h i s type i s under construction at the v i l l a g e of Byeloretsk, 56  km.  East of Sverdlovsk. This s i t e was v i s i t e d i n July 1959 by  139 US V i c e P r e s i d e n t and h i s p a r t y . They were t o l d t h a t by 1961 the f i r s t p a r t o f t h e power s t a t i o n - 200,000 kw. - would be ready f o r o p e r a t i o n . A f t e r K u r c h a t o v ' s d e a t h t h i s s t a t i o n was named a f t e r him. I t s f u l l name i n f u t u r e w i l l be "Kurchatov B e l o y a r s k Atomic Power S t a t i o n " / B e l o y a r s k a y a s t a n t s i a Imeni K u r c h a t o v a / .  Atomnaya E l e k t r o -  140  Power P l a n t Type I I  -  Water-Water Reactor  (WR).  Atomic Power S t a t i o n s r e f e r r e d t o i n the S o v i e t press as Number Two  and Three w i l l use o r d i n a r y water as moderator  and a l s o as a c o o l a n t . D o u b l e  c i r c u i t w i l l be  installed;  the f i r s t b e i n g water under pressure and the second,water changed i n t o superheated  steam i n the steam g e n e r a t o r s ,  the condenser o f t h e t u r b i n e . The  and  steam producing p l a n t w i l l  be made up o f s e v e r a l separate b l o c k s o f 210,000 kw.,  each con-  s i s t i n g o f a r e a c t o r and t h r e e coolant l o o p s w i t h t h e i r  own  steam g e n e r a t o r s , c i r c u l a t i n g pumps, o f primary c i r a u i t , 3 turbo g e n e r a t o r s o f 70,000 kw.  and  each. Approximately  10,000  c u b i c metres o f water a t 275 C under pressure of 100  atmos-  G  pheres w i l l f l o w from each r e a c t o r i n t o each o f the t h r e e steam g e n e r a t o r s . On e n t e r i n g the steam g e n e r a t o r the water w i l l impart i t s heat t o the secondary  circuit,  c o o l i n g i n the  process t o 250°C and w i l l be pumped back i n t o the r e a c t o r . The f e e d pumps o f the secondary  c i r c u i t w i l l send water i n t o  the steam g e n e r a t o r , from which s a t u r a t e d steam under pressure of  30 atmospheres w i l l enter the t u r b i n e s . The d e s i g n makes i t p o s s i b l e t o s h u t ; o f f any one  the steam g e n e r a t i n g l o o p s without  of  s t o p p i n g the r e a c t o r ,  t h e r e f o r e the r e a c t o r w i l l be able to operate a t a  reduced  output. T h i s i n c r e a s e s the s a f e t y of the power s t a t i o n d u r i n g the o p e r a t i o n and f a c i l i t a t e s  i t s maintenance and i n s p e c t i o n  of the components of the primary  circuit.  141 The the  form  of  reactor  Uranium  will  use  dioxide,  slightly  contained  enriched in  uranium,  zirconium  in  alloy  (22) casxngs. The  advantages  extensive  burn-up  Estimated  costs  of  of  of  uranium  producing  this and  reactor  are  simplicity  of  possibility  of  construction.  e l e c t r i c i t y i n atomic  power  sta-  (23 ) tion  of  this An  ted nezh  at on  station type  the  type  Atomic  village  the  river  will  be  described A  Leningrad,  are  comparable  Power of  Don  i n thermal i s to  Novovoronezhskaya,  near  the  i n the  capacity  kw.,  of  those  II  420,000  station  to  Ukrain. that  Type  The  i s two  reactor  stations.  be  construc-  town o f  Voro-  of  power  this  blocks  of  the  above.  similar though  no  power  station  further  i s to  details  be  have  constructed as  yet  been  near released^. ''^ 2  142  Atomic Power S t a t i o n Type I I I - Heavy Water Moderated Cooled Reactor.  Gas  The t h i r d t y p e o f power s t a t i o n w i l l be a heavy w a t e r r e a c t o r , w o r k i n g on t h e r m a l n e u t r o n s , and u s i n g heavy water as moderator. A c c o r d i n g t o i n f o r m a t i o n g i v e n out i n 1956  carbon d i o x i d e c i r c u l a t i n g a t 500°C, p r o d u c i n g steam a t  30 a t m o s p h e r i c p r e s s u r e s , w i l l be used as c o o l a n t i n t h i s r e a c t o r . The t e m p e r a t u r e o f w a t e r i n t h e secondary  circuit  w i l l be 400°C. The secondary c i r c u i t w i l l a c t i v a t e t u r b i n e s of  200,000 k w . ^ ^ Two y e a r s l a t e r , i n T e k h n i k a M o l o d y e z h i , 2  i t was  s t a t e d t h a t the t u r b i n e s would be o f a medium p r e s s u r e  and o f 50-100,000 kw.  capacity.^ ^ 2 7  N a t u r a l uranium w i l l be used, as f u e l . T h i s i s much cheaper t h a n u s i n g e n r i c h e d uranium, w h i c h i s t h e main advantage o f t h i s t y p e o f r e a c t o r . T h i s r e a c t o r has been d e v e l o p e d by t h e  Thermonuclear  L a b o r a t o r y w o r k i n g under t h e d i r e c t i o n o f A . I . A l i k h a n o v . There i s no d e f i n i t e i n f o r m a t i o n t o d a t e t h a t such a power s t a t i o n w i l l be b u i l t i n t h e USSR i t s e l f , a l t h o u g h t h e r e i s one b e i n g c o n s t r u c t e d by S o v i e t e x p e r t s i n Czechos l o v a k i a . The s t a t i o n w i l l be a 150,000 kw. u n i t l o c a t e d on (28) the  r i v e r Hron, near Banska B y s t r i c a .  '  The r e a c t o r i s a s t e e l c y l i n d e r 4 m. i n d i a m e t e r , 19 metres h i g h . The a c t i v e zone i s c o n t a i n e d i n an aluminium t a n k f i l l e d w i t h heavy w a t e r . Gas i s c i r c u l a t e d t h r o u g h t h e r e a c t o r under p r e s s u r e o f 60 atmospheres  i n an e n c l o s e d c i r -  c u i t , pumped i n by gas b l o w e r s . The heavy w a t e r i s k e p t under  143  the same p r e s s u r e . The a c t i v e zone c o n s i s t s o f f u e l elements made up o f uranium rods 4 m. l o n g and 4 mm.  assemblies,  i n diameter,  cove-  r e d w i t h a p r o t e c t i v e l a y e r o f magnesium a l l o y . The power arrangement i s s i m i l a r t o t h a t i n c o n v e n t i o n a l power s t a t i o n . ^  2  144  Atomic Power S t a t i o n - Type I V ; G r a p h i t e Moderated Water C o o l e d . T h i s power s t a t i o n has a r e a c t o r w h i c h i s g r a p h i t e moderated, c o o l e d w i t h o r d i n a r y w a t e r , h e a t e d t o v e r y l o w t e m p e r a t u r e o n l y . The e f f i c i e n c y o f c o n v e r s i o n o f heat t o e l e c t r i c i t y i s v e r y l o w . The f u e l i s n a t u r a l uranium. The p l a n t appears t o be s i m i l a r t o a d u a l purpose p l u t o n i u m e l e c t r i c c u r r e n t producing  and  p l a n t a u t h o r i s e d by t h e US 85th  Congress a t t h e H a n f o r d P l u t o n i u m  P l a n t , t o be c o n s t r u c t e d  by O c t o b e r 1962. The c a p a c i t y o f t h e power s t a t i o n i s t o be 600,000 kw. I t w i l l produce o v e r 1 t o n o f p l u t o n i u m  per year.  The l o c a t i o n o f t h e p l a n t has n o t been d i s c l o s e d but i t i s v e r y l i k e l y pjfcaced on t h e s i t e o f some R u s s i a n atomic weapons production  centre. The f i r s t p a r t o f t h i s power s t a t i o n , a u n i t o f  100,000 kw. was put i n commission i n September 1958.  145  E x p e r i m e n t a l R e a c t o r P l a n t I - B o i l i n g Water R e a c t o r On t h e V o l g a near U l ' y a n o v s k . E x p e r i m e n t a l R e a c t o r P l a n t I (planned  capacity  70,000 kw) w i l l work on t h e r m a l n e u t r o n s . A b o i l i n g water r e a c t o r , i t w i l l use o r d i n a r y w a t e r as moderator and c o o l a n t and make i t o p e r a t e g e n e r a t o r s .  T h i s means t h a t t h e secondary  c i r c u i t w i l l be e l i m i n a t e d . S a t u r a t e d  steam o b t a i n e d  i n the  r e a c t o r w i l l be d i r e c t e d i n t o t u r b i n e s a t a 29 atmospheres pressure.  S i n c e t h e steam w i l l be r a d i o - a c t i v e i t w i l l be  necessary t o operate the e n t i r e p l a n t , i n c l u d i n g t u r b i n e s , by remote c o n t r o l . On t h e o t h e r hand t h e e l i m i n a t i o n o f t h e secondary c i r c u i t w i l l c o n s i d e r a b l y reduce c o s t s . T h i s t y p e o f r e a c t o r arrangement c o u l d be used i n m o b i l e power s t a t i o n s and t o p r o p e l The  ships.  E x p e r i m e n t a l R e a c t o r P l a n t I w i l l be used t o  s t u d y t h e s t a b i l i t y o f o p e r a t i o n and c o n t r o l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h i s type o f r e a c t o r s and t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e problems i n v o l v e d i n o p e r a t i n g a t u r b i n e on r a d i o - a c t i v e steam.  146  E x p e r i m e n t a l R e a c t o r P l a n t IA - B l o c k  Type.  A n o t h e r t y p e o f b o i l i n g r e a c t o r i s t h e one where the a c t i v e zone i s p l a c e d i n a c o n t a i n e r under Moderator and  coolant  pressure.  i s o r d i n a r y w a t e r . I n such a r e a c t o r  i n o r d e r t o o b t a i n a h i g h c a p a c i t y , steam s e p a r a t o r s  are  placed i n s p e c i a l drum-separators o u t s i d e the r e a c t o r  and  i n d u c e d c i r c u l a t i o n o f w a t e r i n t h e a c t i v e zone i s a r r a n g e d f o r w i t h the p r e - s e t and  steam p o r o s i t y , t h a t i s t h e  frequency  t h e s i z e o f b u b b l e s are p r e - a r r a n g e d . A change i n t h e  s i z e o f b u b b l e s i s accompanied by a change i n t h e ness o f t h e w a t e r moderator. The  i n i t i a l a c t i v i t y , permissa-  b l e f o r the c a p a c i t y of r e g u l a t i n g rods i s to a degree compensated by the n e g a t i v e of the  effective-  considerable  steam a c t i v i t y . The  limits  ' b o i l i n g ' a r e a i n the a c t i v e zone o f t h e r e a c t o r change  i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e n a t u r e and amount o f c o o l i n g w a t e r c i r c u l a t i n g through the r e a c t o r . For t h i s reason a c e r t a i n amount o f v a r i a t i o n can be  observed.  I n t h e USSR, i n t h e Ulyanovsk a r e a a b o i l i n g water r e a c t o r o f b l o c k t y p e o f e l e c t r i c c a p a c i t y o f 50,000 kw.  is  under c o n s t r u c t i o n . I t w i l l be used t o study o p e r a t i o n a l d a t a o f t h i s t y p e o f r e a c t o r s i n g e n e r a l and a l s o i n t h e dy o f the problems connected w i t h the s t a b i l i t y o f t h e  stu-  reactor!  147 E x p e r i m e n t a l R e a c t o r P l a n t IB - Channel Type. T h i s r e a c t o r , a l s o r e f e r r e d t o as U r a l s r e a c t o r , has two groups o f channels w i t h f u e l elements o f e n r i c h e d uranium, s i m i l a r i n c o n s t r u c t i o n to those used i n the f i r s t atomic power s t a t i o n i n the USSR. In one group o f working channels, number i n g 730, the water c i r c u l a t i n g under pressure o f 160  atmospheres  i s heated and p a r t l y converted i n t o steam. The steam-water mixt u r e enters the drum o f the s e p a r a t o r , where steam i s separated from the water and e n t e r s the v a p o r i z e r where i t c o n v e r t s the water of. the secondary c i r c u i t  into  steam.  From t h e v a p o r i z e r the steam o f t h e secondary c i r c u i t , under p r e s s u r e o f 100 atmospheres enters the group o f steam h e a t i n g channels, numbering  268, i n the a c t i v e zone, where i t  i s superheated t o 450-500°C and then d i r e c t e d t o the steam t u r b i n e . The condensed water from the v a p o r i z e r mingles w i t h the water from t h e drum s e p a r a t o r and moves to the c i r c u l a t i n g pumps and then i n t o t h e r e a c t o r . The problems connected with t h e f o r m a t i o n o f a two phase s t a t e o f l i q u i d i n the working channels ( i n s t a b i l i t y r e s u l t i n g from p o s s i b l e p u l s a t i o n i n the l i q u i d  expenditure  through channels and the process o f steam h e a t i n g i n the a c t i v e zone) have been s u f f i c i e n t l y s t u d i e d i n the r e a c t o r o f the F i r s t Atomic Power S t a t i o n a t Obninsk. P u l s a t i o n s and d i s t o r t i o n s i n the expenditure o f water through the channels c o n s t i t u t e a g r e a t danger, as unequal removal o f heat might r e s u l t  148  i n t h e b u r n i n g out of t h e c a s i n g s of the f u e l elements. P r a c t i c e has  shown, however, t h a t t h e u n i f o r m i t y of  work o f the r e a c t o r i n t h e s t a t e of b o i l i n g can be a t t a i n e d t h r o u g h the i n s t a l l a t i o n o f t h r o t t l e washers i n the zone of the  entry  channels.  I n t h e " B l o c k R e a c t o r s " o f t h i s t y p e the o f steam t a k e s p l a c e not i n c h a n n e l s ,  formation  but i n the space o f  t h e a c t i v e zone, which i s p r o v i d e d w i t h an e v a p o r a t i o n  mirror  / z y e r k o l o i s p a r e n i a / , an i n c r e a s e i n the g e n e r a l c a p a c i t y r e q u i r e s an i n c r e a s e i n t h e d i a m e t e r o f the b l o c k , w h i c h b r i n g s i n s e r i o u s t e c h n o l o g i c a l d i f f i c u l t i e s . The r e a c t o r d e s c r i b e d here a v o i d s t h e s e The  6 m.  and  difficulties.  a c t i v e zone o f t h i s r e a c t o r w i t h a  c a p a c i t y o f 285,000 kw,  channel  has t h e d i a m e t e r of 7.2  thermal m.,  height  i t i s surrounded by a g r a p h i t e r e f l e c t o r 0.8  m.  t h i c k . The whole g r a p h i t e assembly, c o n t a i n e d i n a s t e e l muff, i s 9 m.  h i g h and 9.6  m.  i n diameter.  The  efficiency  o f an a t o m i c power s t a t i o n w i t h the u r a n i u m - g r a p h i t e  reactor  i s expected t o be a p p r o x i m a t e l y  design  36 per c e n t . I n t h i s  of a b o i l i n g water reactor t e c h n o l o g i c a l d i f f i c u l t i e s  are  not l i k e l y t o c r o p up even i f the c a p a c i t y o f i t i s i n c r e a s e d one and h a l f t o two  times.  I t i s reasonable  t o expect t h a t the r e a c t o r assembly  " r e a c t o r b l o c k - steam g e n e r a t o r " d e s c r i b e d above c o u l d  equal  i n c a p a c i t y a c o a l b u r n i n g power s t a t i o n w i t h a steam g e n e r a t i n g c a p a c i t y of 900 - 1000  t o n s o f steam per h o u r . Steam b o i -  149  l e r s o f such c a p a c i t y a r e s t i l l t o be produced. The danger i n t h i s t y p e o f atomic power s t a t i o n i s from r a d i a t i o n and c o n t a m i n a t i o n o f t h e s u r r o u n d i n g a r e a . The e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h e s e can be overcome w i l l d e t e r m i n e t h e a p p l i c a b i l i t y o f t h e r e a c t o r t o power p r o d u c t i o n . The n o v e l d e s i g n o f t h e c h a n n e l s i n t h e a c t i v e zone o f t h i s r e a c t o r d e s e r v e s a t t e n t i o n from t h e p o i n t o f v i e w o f s a f e t y . The c h a n n e l s a r e c o n s t r u c t e d i n such a way t h a t i n case o f breakage i n t h e c h a n n e l t h e f i s s i o n a b l e m a t e r i a l e n t e r s the g r a p h i t e assembly, but does not e n t e r w a t e r o r steam  sys-  tem. Water o r steam, w h i c h i n a case o f an a c c i d e n t might e n t e r t h e g r a p h i t e assembly cannot do n o t i c e a b l e damage because i n such a case a s p e c i a l v a l v e a u t o m a t i c a l l y reduces t h e f l o w o f heat c a r r i e r almost t o n o t h i n g . A c c o r d i n g t o e x p e r i m e n t a l d a t a , on l e a v i n g t h e r e a c t o r , t h e oxygen a c t i v i t y o f t h e s u p e r h e a t e d steam i n t h e uranium g r a p h i t e r e a c t o r amounts t o 6.8 x 10"^ c u r i e s / k g . The r a d i o a c t i v i t y caused by t h e c o n t a i n e d i n t h e steam sodium, c a l c i u m , manganese and o t h e r a d m i x t u r e s , w h i c h b r i n g t h e s a l t c o n t e n t -8 o f t h e s u p e r h e a t e d steam t o 0 . 1 mg/kg. i s o n l y 3 x 10~ k g . The r a d i o a c t i v i t y o f t h e s u p e r h e a t e d steam w i l l ,  curies/  therefore,  be d e t e r m i n e d by t h e a c t i v i t y o f oxygen. The n u c l e a r - p h y s i c a l q u a l i t i e s o f t h e U r a n i u m - g r a p h i t e r e a c t o r w i t h t h e steam h e a t e r i s not b e t t e r t h a n t h e b o i l i n g w a t e r r e a c t o r o f t h e b l o c k t y p e , where o r d i n a r y w a t e r a c t s b o t h  150  as moderator and c o o l a n t , and where c a s i n g f o r the f u e l  ele-  ments i s made o f z i r c o n i u m . But the p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f improving the nuclear-physical c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  of the  Uranium-  g r a p h i t e r e a c t o r w i t h s u p e r h e a t e d steam a r e not y e t exhausted. The i d e a c o n t a i n e d  i n t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f the u r a n i u m - g r a p h i t e  r e a c t o r , where steam i s superheated i n t h e a c t i v e zone, met w i t h the a p p r o v a l According  has  of s p e c i a l i s t s .  t o Western e x p e r t s two t h i n g s about  r e a c t o r a r e s i g n i f i c a n t . F i r s t , t h a t i t produces steam  this which  i s s u p e r h e a t e d i n t h e r e a c t o r , and the second, t h a t i t can (35)  o p e r a t e on an enrichement o f o n l y 1.8  per  cent.  151  E x p e r i m e n t a l R e a c t o r P l a n t I I - Sodium G r a p h i t e R e a c t o r Ulyanovsk).  (near  E x p e r i m e n t a l R e a c t o r P l a n t I I w i l l a l s o work on slow ( t h e r m a l ) n e u t r o n s . I t w i l l have a c a p a c i t y o f 50,000 kw. The r e a c t o r w i l l use l i q u i d sodium (which s o l i d i f i e s a t 98°C) as c o o l a n t . G r a p h i t e w i l l be used as m o d e r a t o r , as i t r e a c t s o n l y s l i g h t l y w i t h sodium, and i s a l s o r e l a t i v e l y  cheap.  The r e a c t o r w i l l be c o o l e d by f o u r p r i m a r y  liquid  sodium c i r c u i t s , w i t h i n t e r m e d i a t e heat exchangers and pumps, two  secondary  sodium c i r c u i t s w i t h steam g e n e r a t o r s and pumps  and a t u r b o g e n e r a t o r , condenser and w a t e r f e e d pumps. U s i n g l i q u i d sodium i t w i l l be p o s s i b l e t o o p e r a t e w i t h h i g h temper a t u r e s a t l o w p r e s s u r e i n t h e p r i m a r y and secondary  circuits,  t h u s o b t a i n i n g h i g h parameter steam i n t h e steam g e n e r a t o r , which w i l l mean a h i g h r a t e o f e x p l o i t a t i o n . The temperature  o f t h e sodium l i q u i d on l e a v i n g t h e  r e a c t o r w i l l be 560°C and i n t h e secondary  circuit  which would make i t p o s s i b l e t o o b t a i n superheated 500°C a t 90 a t m o s p h e r i c  540 C, G  steam o f  pressures.  I t i s n e c e s s a r y t o use i n t h i s case a t h r e e  circuit  system o f h e a t removal from t h e r e a c t o r s i n c e p e r f o r a t i o n o f t h e t u b e s i n t h e sodium - t o - w a t e r heat exchanger might g i v e r i s e t o a v i g o r o u s r e a c t i o n between w a t e r and r a d i o - a c t i v e sodium, r e s u l t i n g i n t h e f o r m a t i o n o f h i g h l y r a d i o a c t i v e steam. Use o f an i n t e r m e d i a t e n o n - r a d i o a c t i v e c i r c u i t a l s o maintenance o f t h e steam g e n e r a t o r .  facilitates  152  The r e a c t o r c o n s i s t s o f a c y l i n d r i c a l g r a p h i t e  stack  p i e r c e d by v e r t i c a l h o l e s i n t o w h i c h a r e i n s e r t e d t h e f u e l elements a s s e m b l i e s . The f u e l elements c o n s i s t o f s l i g h t l y e n r i c h e d uranium c l a d i n s t a i n l e s s Development  steel.  of t h i s s t a t i o n w i l l provide a c o n s i -  d e r a b l e amount o f e x p e r i e n c e  i n operating reactor plants with  sodium c o o l a n t . I t w i l l a l s o i n d i c a t e t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f deve(  l o p i n g s t a t i o n s o f a h i g h e r power w i t h r e a c t o r s o f t h i s  type.  153  E x p e r i m e n t a l R e a c t o r P l a n t I I I - F a s t B r e e d e r Sodium C o o l e d R e a c t o r near Ulyanovsk ( S o v i e t Code BR-50). T h i s i s a f a s t b r e e d e r r e a c t o r w o r k i n g on f a s t neut r o n s w i t h o u t a moderator/Rasshiryennoye V o s p r o i z v o d s t v o / . I t s p r e c u r s o r s were: a)  BR-1 The f i r s t R u s s i a n p h y s i c a l r e a c t o r on f a s t n e u t r o n s ( B R - l )  was  commissioned  i n A p r i l 1955.  I t r e a c h e d a c a p a c i t y o f seve-  r a l dozen w a t t s . I t was used f o r t h e s t u d y o f n e u t r o n s p e c t r a and f o r r e s e a r c h work on the f a t n e u t r o n system. The was  reactor  l o c a t e d on the s i t e o f t h e F i r s t Atomic Power S t a t i o n a t  t h e I n s t i t u t e o f P h y s i c s o f Glavatom a t Obninsk. The a c t i v e zone o f the r e a c t o r BR-1, 100 mm.  130 mm.  h i g h and  i n diameter, c o n s i s t s of plutonium rods, contained i n  s t a i n l e s s s t e e l c a s i n g s and o f r o d s o f uranium a l l o y /obednyennogo u r a n a / . These p l u t o n i u m r o d s and uranium a l l o y r o d s a r e assembled  i n a c y l i n d e r which i s surrounded by a r e f l e c t o r .  The r e a c t o r i s p r o v i d e d w i t h a r e g u l a t i n g system. There i s no s p e c i a l p r o t e c t i n g s c r e e n around i t . No p r o v i s i o n i s made f o r heat b)  extraction. BR-2 To f o l l o w BR-1,  BR-2  (a r e a c t o r f o r r e s e a r c h i n t h e f i e l d  o f n u c l e a r p h y s i c s and m a t e r i a l s t u d y ) was  constructed i n  1956.  154 I t s t h e r m a l c a p a c i t y i s up t o 100 kw. 14 2 n e u t r o n s o f 10 ^ x H/cm  with a flow of f a s t  per second. The  a c t i v e zone o f t h i s  r e a c t o r c o n s i s t s o f p l u t o n i u m rods o f the same s i z e as i n A p a r t from p l u t o n i u m rods t h e r e are a l s o uranium a l l o y Mercury i s c i r c u l a t e d i n the a r e a between the r o d s ,  BR-1.  rods.  taking  heat out o f t h e r e a c t o r . The r e f l e c t o r has a m o b i l e s e c t i o n , o f uranium r o d s , w h i c h s e r v e s as a r e g u l a t o r and t o s t o p the r e a c t o r i n case o f a c c i d e n t , and  an  m o b i l e s e c t i o n i n the form o f a c y l i n d e r - s h a p e d  can be used external s c r e e n 700  h i g h and o f t h e same d i a m e t e r . O u t s i d e the e x t e r n a l s c r e e n p l a c e d a l a y e r o f copper 150 mm. c)  mm. is  thick.  BR-5 As an i n t e r m e d i a r y  s t a g e between r e a c t o r BR-2  and  t h e r e a c t o r f o r atomic power s t a t i o n s w h i c h w o u l d work on f a s t neutrons, a prototype was  constructed  r e a c t o r BR-5  o f 5000 kw t h e r m a l c a p a c i t y  and  commissioned i n J u l y 1958. T h i s r e a c t o r 15 2 (38)(39) has a n e u t r o n f l o w of 10 x H/ cm per second. > > K:>y  T h i s r e a c t o r somewhat resembles the US  reactor  ( u s i n g e n r i c h e d uranium) which came i n t o o p e r a t i o n  in  1951.  155 Atomic Power P r o p e l l e d Ice-breaker  "LENIN".  The work on t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f "LENIN" was s t a r t e d on 17.7.1956.  On 5.12.1957 t h e i c e - b r e a k e r was launched and  the p e r i o d o f f i t t i n g out was s t a r t e d . On 20.12.1958 t e s t s i n b e r t h were c a r r i e d out next to the c o n s t r u c t i o n p l a n t . On 19.9.1959 the i c e - b r e a k e r r e c e i v e d power from the atomic r e a c t o r s f o r the f i r s t time. The l e n g t h of the v e s s e l i s 440 f t , beam 90 f t and displacement 16,000 tons. The  construc-  (40) t i o n o f the v e s s e l l a s t e d three years and two months. The  "LENIN" i s powered by three p r e s s u r i z e d water  r e a c t o r s , which g i v e to the main generators  t h e maximum capa-  c i t y o f 44,000 hp. The steam from the r e a c t o r s i s a l s o forward under pressure northern  expelled  t o melt i c e . I t w i l l be a b l e t o p l y i c y  seas f o r p e r i o d s o f about one year without  refuelling.  Normally the i c e - b r e a k e r w i l l operate on two r e a c t o r s , the third  one being used o n l y when the h e a v i e s t  conditions are  encountered. The  v e s s e l has a double h u l l ; the space between i s  used as a storage  space f o r d r i n k i n g water. I t c a r r i e s two  h e l i c o p t e r s f o r a i r c o n d i t i o n s and i c e f i e l d The  reconnaissance.  p r e s s u r i z e d r e a c t o r s on the "LENIN" are almost  the same as those powering the US submarine  "NAUTILUS".^ ^ x  R E F E R E N C E S 1. N.Nikolayev, Deputy Head o f the Main A d m i n i s t r a t i o n f o r the U t i l i z a t i o n o f Atomic Power i n the C o u n c i l o f M i n i s t e r s o f the USSR. Atomic Power/Atomnaya E n e r g e t i k a / . Tekhnika M o l o d y e z h i . February,1958.p.15. 2. D.I.Maslakov. F u e l Balance of the USSR / T o p l i v n i Balans SSSR/.Gosplanizdat. I960.p.3. 3. S.Feld, The Power Balance of the N a t i o n a l Economy /Ob Energeticheskom Balanse Narodnogo Khozyaistva/.Voprosy Ekonomiki.I960.Ill.pp.15-30. 4.  A.F.Zasyadko, u e l and Power I n d u s t r y of the USSR /Topl i v n o - e n e r g e t i c h e s k a y a Bromishlennost' SSSR/.Gosplanizdat. 1959. Review of t h e book by A.Boyko and Ya.Zenkis i n Voprosy Ekonomiki,I960.VII.pp.85-88.  5.  The t a b l e does not a l l o w f o r l o s s e s which occur i n the course o f c o n v e r t i n g thermal energy i n t o e l e c t r i c a l .  F  6. D.I.Maslakov,  F u e l Balance o f the USSR.p.l62.  7. L i t e r a l t r a n s l a t i o n - w i t h i n the r a d i u s of 30 v y o r s t , which a t t h a t time were o f 1000 sazhens of 2.14 m. (30 x 1000 x 2.14). 8 . R . S . L i v s h i t z , L o c a t i o n o f I n d u s t r y i n the P r e - r e v o l u t i o n a r y R u s s i a /Razmeshchenie P r o m i s h l e n n o s t i v D o r e v o l u t s i o n n o i R o s s i i / . P u b l i s h i n g house o f the Academy of Sciences o f the USSR, Moscow,1955. p.124. 9 . G.Modelski, Atomic Energy of the Communist B l o c k . Melbourn U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . 1959.p.25. 10. A r n o l d Kramish, Atomic ^ e r g y i n the S o v i e t S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . 1959 p.24. n  11.  Ibid.,  Union.  p.30.  12. Baikov A. General O r i e n t a t i o n of the Plan of Work o f the Academy o f S c i e n c e s of the USSR f o r 1944. Obshcheye Sobran i e Akademii Nauk SSSR. September 25-30, 1943. 13. G.Modelski, Atomic Energy o f the Communist Block. Melbourn U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1959 p.43.  157 14. N.Nikolayev. Atomic Power. Tekhnika M o l o d y e z h i . February,1958.p.15. 15. I b i d . , p.15. 16. B.Stepanov. The Age o f Atomic Power / Vek Atomnoi E n e r g i i / . Znanie S i l a . 1956.VIII.p.8. 17. N.Nikolayev. Atomic Power. Tekhnika M o l o d y e z h i . February, 1958.p.15. 18. A r n o l d Kramish. Atomic Energy i n the S o v i e t Union. S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . 1959. p.148. 19. V e s t n i k Akademii Nauk. I960.III.p.55. 20. B.Stepanov. The Age o f Atomic Power /Vek Atomnoi E n e r g i i / . Znanie S i l a . 1956.VIII.p.8. 21. N.Nikolayev. Atomic Power. Tekhnika M o l o d y e z h i . February, 1958.p.15. 22. On another o c c a s i o n N i k o l a y e v s t a t e d t h a t t h e Uranium w i l l be c o n t a i n e d i n s t a i n l e s s s t e e l . I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t he was speaking about a d i f f e r e n t r e a c t o r o f t h e same t y p e . J o u r n a l o f Nuclear Energy.Part 11.1958. Vol.VII.pp.103-108. 23. N.Nikolayev. Atomic Power. Tekhnika Molodyezhi. February 1958.p.15. 24. M . V i l e n s k y . Some Problems o f Power Balance / N e k o t o r i e Problemy Balansa E l e k t r o e n e r g i i / . Voprosy Ekonomiki. 1958.X.p.58. 25. A.Kramish, Atomic Energy i n the S o v i e t Union. S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . 1959.p.149. 26. B.Stepanov. The Age o f Atomic Power. Znanie S i l a . 1956.VIII.p.8. 27. N.Nikolayev. Atomic Power. Tekhnika M o l o d y e z h i . February 1958.p.15. 28. A.Kramish. Atomic Energy i n the S o v i e t Union. S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . 1959. p. 149. 29. E.P.Ananyev. Problems o f Atomic Power /Voprosy Atomnoi E n e r g e t i k i / . V e s t n i k Akademii Nauk SSSR. I960.III.pp.5-8. 30. A.Kramish. Atomic Energy i n t h e S o v i e t Union. S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . 1959. p. 147.  158 31. Pravda, 14.8.1959. 32.  N.Nikolayev. Atomic Power. Tekhnika Molodyezhi. February, 1958.p.15.  33.  Ananyev,E.P. Problems of Atomic Power. V e s t n i k Akademii Nauk SSSR. I960. I I I . p . 8 .  34.  Ibid.,  35.  W.H.Zinn. R u s s i a n Reactor Progress..- N u c l e o n i c s . 1959. I I I . pp.104-107.  36.  N.Nikolayev. Atomic Power. Tekhnika Molodyezhi. February, 1958. p.15.  37.  N.Nikolayev. Development o f Atomic Energy i n the S o v i e t Union. J o u r n a l o f Nuclear Energy.Part I I . 1 9 5 8 . V I I . pp.103-108.  pp.5-8.  3 8 . V.S.Emel'yanov. C o o p e r a t i o n i n the F i e l d o f Atomic Research /K Tesnomu Mezhdunarodnomu Sotrudnechestvu v O b l a s t i Atomnikh I s s l e d o v a n i i / . V e s t n i k Akademii Nauk SSSR. I 9 6 0 . I I . p.14. 3 9 . E.P.Ananev. Problems o f Atomic Power. V e s t n i k Akademii Nauk SSSR. I 9 6 0 . I I I . p p . 5 - 8 . 4 0 . Pravda. 2 0 . 1 2 . 1 9 5 9 . 41. A r n o l d Kramish. Atomic Energy i n the S o v i e t S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . 1959.p.159.  Union.  42.  A . V . V i n t e r and A.B.Markin. E l e c t r i f i c a t i o n o f Our Country. Gosenergoizdat. L e n i n g r a d . 1956. pp.253-263.  43.  A . S i n e l ' n i k o v . The A i r Reconnaissance o f the E a r t h ' s Depths /Vozdushnie Razvedki Zemnikh G l u b i n / . Znanie S i l a . 1956.VIII.pp.14-16.  44.  N.N.Shumilovsky and L.B.Meltzer. Development o f the Automatic Methods o f C o n t r o l Through U t i l i z a t i o n o f Atomic R a d i a t i o n . / R a z v i t i e Avtomaticheskikh Metodov K o n t r o l a s Ispolzovaniem Yadernikh I z l u c h e n i i / . V e s t n i k Akademii Nauk SSSR. I 9 6 0 . I I I . p . 4 2 .  45.  B.Stepanov. The Age of Atomic Power. Znanie S i l a . 1956.VIII.pp.6-12.  CHAPTER  VII  CONCLUSION The comparison o f f u e l economies o f t h e USSR, U.S.A., U.K.,  and Canada l e a d s t o an o v e r a l l c o n c l u s i o n t h a t so f a r  t e c h n o l o g i c a l changes i n t y p e s o f f u e l s have been b e t t e r u t i l i z e d by t h e f r e e market economies than by t h e planned economy. Whereas t h e f r e e market economies have been s h i f t i n g over t o more economic t y p e s o f f u e l s , t h e USSR has been s a d d l e d  with  an uneconomic t y p e o f f u e l - c o a l - f o r a v e r y l o n g t i m e , namely u n t i l t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f the u n i f i e d f u e l and power b a l a n c e , f o r i t was o n l y t h e n t h a t a c o n s c i o u s d e c i s i o n has been taken t o e f f e c t t h e s h i f t t o more economic f o r m s . The avowed aim o f a f r e e economic system and o f a c e n t r a l l y c o n t r o l l e d one i s t o s a t i s f y t h e needs and wants o f the p e o p l e .  I n a f r e e economic system those needs a r e mani-  f e s t e d through t h e p e o p l e ' s demand.  Under c o n t r o l l e d economy  the needs and wants o f t h e p e o p l e a r e determined by t h e government, w h i c h , a p a r t f r o m any o t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n s can o n l y determine p r i o r i t y mix f o r v a r i o u s p r o d u c t s i t s own p o i n t o f v i e w .  i n accordance w i t h  P l a n n i n g o f t h i s k i n d p r o p e l s t h e econ-  omy a l o n g p r e d e t e r m i n e d l i n e s , and i s o f t e n b l i n d t o t e c h n o l o g i c a l changes b r o u g h t about by p r o g r e s s .  Under such  c o n d i t i o n s p r i o r i t y mix, e n f o r c e d by b u r e a u c r a t i c machine, d i s r e g a r d s r e l a t i v e c o s t s under s p e c i f i c c o n d i t i o n s and o f t e n prevents  e f f e c t i v e e x p l o i t a t i o n of innovations.  Since the  160 production  t a r g e t s a r e f i x e d and  the s t a t e , the i n d u s t r i e s and costs  the b u l k of p r o f i t goes t o  i n d i v i d u a l enterprises with  low  (as f o r example o i l and gas i n the p a s t ) are not a b l e  make use  o f t h e i r advantageous p o s i t i o n .  The  change i n o u t p u t  i s d i c t a t e d not by a spontaneous change i n demand but by ment d e c i s i o n based on i t s own  considerations.  to  Low  govern-  costs lead  p r i m a r i l y t o a government revenue and not t o an e x p a n s i o n of the g i v e n i n d u s t r y , t h e s i z e o f which i s determined b e f o r e h a n d by the p l a n .  I f the new  s h i f t comes about, i t w i l l come as a  r e s u l t o f a b e l a t e d government d e c i s i o n t o a l t e r the o r d e r p r i o r i t y w i t h regard to t h i s  of  sector.  I n an economy where b a s i c v a r i a b l e s a r e d e t e r m i n e d i n such an a r b i t r a r y manner, t h e r e can be no v a l u e t o s e r v e as a medium w i t h the a i d o f w h i c h p r o j e c t s i n v a r i o u s f i e l d s be reduced to a s i n g l e s t a n d a r d and  evaluation.  economy was  W r i t i n g i n 1920,  could  f o r the purpose of comparison when the c e n t r a l l y c o n t r o l l e d  b e i n g e s t a b l i s h e d i n the USSR, P r o f e s s o r L u d v i g  von  Mises s a i d : " I n the S o v i e t Commonwealth every economic change becomes an u n d e r t a k i n g whose s u c c e s s can be n e i t h e r a p p r a i s e d i n advance nor l a t e r r e t r o s p e c t i v e l y d e t e r m i n e d . There i s o n l y g r o p i n g i n the d a r k " " f o r where t h e r e i s no f r e e mark e t , t h e r e i s no p r i c i n g mechanism, w i t h o u t a p r i c i n g mechanism t h e r e i s no economic c a l c u l a t i o n . " ' ! ' T h i s a n a l y s i s i s as t r u e to-day as i t was  then.  In  p l a n n i n g r i g i d l y ahead w i t h o u t the b e n e f i t of the f r e e market t o p o i n t out r e l a t i o n s of c o s t s i n v a r i o u s i n d u s t r i e s and them when t e c h n o l o g i c a l p r o g r e s s r e q u i r e s i t ,  to  the S o v i e t  adjust planners  161  are c a l l e d upon t o p e r f o r m an i m p o s s i b l e t a s k - t o p r e p a r e a p l a n based on the " c o r r e c t l y g u e s s e d " r e l a t i v e c o s t s t r u c t u r e i n v a r i o u s i n d u s t r i e s and a t the same time t o a l l o w f o r the f l e x i b i l i t y necessary economy.  f o r the p r o g r e s s i v e development o f  the  F a i l u r e t o do t h a t i n v o l v e d the S o v i e t economy be-  tween 1928  and I960 i n g r e a t l o s s e s . A f t e r the p r e p a r a t i o n of the u n i f i e d f u e l and power  balance  i t i s c l e a r t h a t compared w i t h gas and o i l c o a l i s  l e s s economic as a source of heat and as a r e s u l t a s h i f t took p l a c e , which aims a t r e p l a c i n g c o a l w i t h o i l and gas wherever t h e i r c o s t s of p r o d u c t i o n and  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n are lower  than  those of c o a l . From I 9 6 0 , the t i m e of p r e p a r a t i o n of the F u e l  and  Power B a l a n c e f o r the e n t i r e S o v i e t economy the s t o r y of the p a s t seems about t o r e p e a t i t s e l f .  Now  i t i s the r e l a t i v e  un-  c e r t a i n t y of the l o n g term u n i t c o s t s o f o i l and gas as w e l l as c o a l on the one hand, and atomic power on the o t h e r , w h i c h the S o v i e t p l a n n e r s must somehow t r a n s l a t e i n t o the l o n g t e r m p l a n s of t h e f u e l and power i n d u s t r y , and i t cannot w i t h o u t extensive m i s a l l o c a t i o n of  risking  resources.  I n the West, t h i s t r a n s i t i o n w i l l be determined by r e l a t i v e market p r i c e s of a l l f u e l s .  I n U.K.  a l t e r n a t i v e t o h i g h p r i c e c o a l o r imported  atomic power i s an  o i l , w h i l e i n U.S.A.  and Canada a t o m i c power must compete w i t h abundant r e s e r v e s  of  f o s s i l f u e l s , t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f w h i c h can be i n c r e a s e d s u b s t a n t i a l l y w i t h o u t any a p p r e c i a b l e i n c r e a s e i n the c o s t s of e x t r a c t i o n .  162 The f a c t o r t h a t makes a p p l i c a t i o n of atomic energy a t t r a c t i v e i n t h e s e c o u n t r i e s i s the c o s t of t r a n s p o r t , which i s n e a r l y zero so f a r as a t o m i c f u e l s a r e concerned.  Transport  c o s t s a t power s t a t i o n s f u e l l e d w i t h c o n v e n t i o n a l f u e l s a r e s m a l l when these a r e l o c a t e d d i r e c t l y a t the mines, but mount r a p i d l y w i t h the i n c r e a s e i n d i s t a n c e between the mines, o i l w e l l s or gas h o l e s and the power s t a t i o n s .  Because o f the h i g h  c o s t of c o n s t r u c t i o n and v e r y e f f e c t i v e economies of s c a l e a t o m i c power s t a t i o n s can be b e s t u t i l i z e d as base l o a d power stations. Assuming t e c h n i c a l l e v e l and  the a v a i l a b i l i t y  of  raw m a t e r i a l s e q u a l t o those f o u n d i n the Western c o u n t r i e s t h e r e are r e a s o n s t o b e l i e v e t h a t i n the S o v i e t Union atomic power c o u l d be u t i l i z e d e c o n o m i c a l l y  i n many a r e a s where con-  v e n t i o n a l f u e l r e s o u r c e s a r e l o c a t e d f a r from consumption centres.  I n the course of the survey i t was  n o t e d t h a t the U r a l s ,  the Western and the C e n t r a l r e g i o n s and the N o r t h West of  the  European p a r t o f the c o u n t r y a l l have to i m p o r t f u e l from o t h e r p a r t s of R u s s i a and t h a t even i n the a r e a s of t h e E a s t , cont a i n i n g 80 per cent of R u s s i a ' s  c o a l , t h e r e are p l a c e s where  c o a l p r i c e s are v e r y h i g h because of the d i s t a n c e over which i t has t o be t r a n s p o r t e d t o i s o l a t e d development a r e a s . The  study of the S o v i e t a t t i t u d e to gas and o i l l e a d s  one t o the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t the c o u n t r y has embarked upon the p e r i o d of "Gas  p r i o r i t y " which i s r e p l a c i n g " c o a l p r i o r i t y " .  The p r e p a r a t i o n o f the f u e l and power b a l a n c e w i l l p r o b a b l y  pre-  163 v e n t the development o f a s i t u a t i o n as out of hand as e x i s t e d d u r i n g the " c o a l p r i o r i t y " p e r i o d , which caused such huge l o s s e s t o the economy. How  But a t p r e s e n t the problem a r i s e s -  t o r e c o n c i l e n u c l e a r power on the one hand and o i l and  on the  gas  other? The S o v i e t Union i s b u i l d i n g a t p r e s e n t an o i l p i p e -  l i n e from Kubishev a r e a p a s t Moscow, a c r o s s Poland and C z e c h o s l o v a k i a ,  a d i s t a n c e of o v e r . 3 , 0 0 0 . km.  l i n e be an economic u n d e r t a k i n g ? According  Can  such a  And under what c o n d i t i o n s ?  t o S o v i e t sources n a t u r a l gas compared w i t h Donbass  c o a l i s 7«3 1.8  t o Germany  t i m e s cheaper a t the p l a c e of e x t r a c t i o n and  t i m e s cheaper when d e l i v e r e d t o a consumer 1,200  km.  only away.  T a k i n g the c o s t o f n a t u r a l gas a t 10 Roubles and Donbass c o a l a t 73 Roubles per c o n v e n t i o n a l t o n of f u e l the f o l l o w i n g t a b l e (2)  can be compiled.  '  Cost of f u e l a t place of Extraction  Cost of f u e l a t p l a c e of use  Cost of t r a n s p o r t over 1200 km.  Cost of Transp. over 100 km.  10  58.53  48.53  4.04  73  98.55  2$.55  2.13  I t must be added t h a t i n the case o f c o a l , c o s t s km.  d e c l i n e w i t h the i n c r e a s e i n d i s t a n c e , as the  per  handling  charges are the same whatever the d i s t a n c e of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . I n the case of gas, on t h e o t h e r hand, the i n i t i a l advantage  due  t o the f a c t t h a t gas i s found underground under p r e s s u r e , i s l o s t w i t h t h e d i s t a n c e and w i t h the p e r i o d of time d u r i n g w h i c h  164  gas r e s e r v e s  a r e used.  I t i s l i k e l y , t h a t w i t h the  use o f gas the c o s t s of both p r o d u c t i o n l i k e l y to increase.  increased  and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n a r e  And how t o f i t i n t o t h i s t a b l e t h e atomic  power, t h e u n i t c o s t s o f which a r e as y e t  uncertain?  The f u e l b a l a n c e has shown the e r r o r s of t h e p a s t . I t remains t o be seen, whether i t w i l l l e a d t o t h e avoidance of e r r o r s i n t h e f u t u r e as w e l l .  R E F E R E N C E S  1. Ludwig von M i s e s . Die W i r t s c h a f t s r e c h n u n g i n S o c i a l w i s s e n s c h a f t und S o c i a l p o l i t i k . Vol.47. 1 , A p r i l 1920. R e p r i n t e d i n F.A.Hayek's " C o l l e c t i v i s t Economic P l a n n i n g " . George Routledge and Sons. London. 1938. 2. See Chapter III.p.29 Comparative Costs o f V a r i o u s Types o f F u e l s i n the C e n t r a l Region o f USSR.  A P P E N D I C E S  APPENDIX A  FUEL RESOURCES OF THE USSR. The R u s s i a n s c l a i m t h a t by 1956 d e p o s i t s o f h a r d f u e l s , o i l , n a t u r a l , gas and h y d r o e l e c t r i c power d i s c o v e r e d w i t h i n t h e USSR b o r d e r s , when c o n v e r t e d i n t o c o n v e n t i o n a l f u e l u n i t s , amounted t o 1,590 b i l l i o n t o n s , compared w i t h 1,550 b i l l i o n t o n s f o r U.S.A. and 730 b i l l i o n t o n s f o r Europe ( w i t h o u t USSR.). They a l s o p o i n t o u t t h a t t h e n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s o f t h e USSR have n o t been i n v e s t i g a t e d as t h o r o u g h l y as i n t h e U.S.A. o r Western E u r o p e . ^ The t o t a l water power r e s o u r c e s o f t h e USSR a r e e s t i m a t e d a t 340 m i l L kw. o r 2978 b i l l i o n kwh. p e r y e a r .  The  t h e o r e t i c a l l y p r o b a b l e g r o s s water power p o t e n t i a l o f t h e USSR was determined  a t 420 m i l l . kw. o r 3680 b i l l i o n kwh. p e r y e a r .  More than h a l f o f t h e water power r e s o u r c e s o f t h e USSR b e l o n g to t h e A r c t i c ocean ( i n c l u d i n g B e r e n t s Sea, Kara Sea, L a p t y e v and E a s t S i b e r i a n S e a ) , w h i l e l a k e s w i t h o u t o u t l e t s , which i n c l u d e t h e C a s p i a n and t h e A r a l s e a s , account f o r 26.7 p e r c e n t . In  t h e USSR t h e r e a r e f i f t y r i v e r s w i t h a p o t e n t i a l power  c a p a c i t y o f more than 10 b i l l i o n kwh., and twenty-one r i v e r s w i t h a p o t e n t i a l power c a p a c i t y o f more than 20 b i l l i o n kwh. I t i s e s t i m a t e d on t h e b a s i s o f s u r v e y s , however, t h a t o n l y h a l f o f t h e water power p o t e n t i a l i s e x p l o i t a b l e , t h e r e s t must be l o s t f o r t e c h n o l o g i c a l and o t h e r In  reasons.^  s p i t e of the extensive h y d r a u l i c resources the bulk  168  of power i n t h e USSR i s o b t a i n e d from t h e r m a l power s t a t i o n s u s i n g c o a l or peat;  i n 1955 2 2 , 7 0 7 , 0 0 kw. i n s t a l l e d  capac-  i t y out o f 3 7 , 2 3 0 , 0 0 0 kw. used t h e s e f u e l s . ^ A c c o r d i n g t o e s t i m a t e s made by the a c a d e m i c i a n G.M.  K r z h i z h a n o v s k y i n 1937,  c o n s t i t u t e d 21.0  known d e p o s i t s o f c o a l i n R u s s i a  per cent o f w o r l d r e s e r v e s and were t h e  second l a r g e s t a f t e r t h e U.S.A. s t i t u t e d 58.8  R u s s i a n d e p o s i t s o f o i l con-  per cent o f known w o r l d r e s o u r c e s , of peat  per c e n t , o f water power 28 per c e n t .  Dr. Voznesensky,  o t h e r hand, g i v e s t h e l a t e s t f i g u r e s f o r t h e USSR as  60 on the  compris-  i n g 11.4 per cent o f w o r l d r e s e r v e s o f c o a l , compared w i t h f o r Europe, 35.7 18.7  per cent f o r A s i a , 1 8 . 7  per cent f o r A f r i c a ,  per cent f o r N o r t h A m e r i c a , 16 per cent f o r South  and 4 . 5  per cent f o r A u s t r a l i a . ^ ^  6.4  America  A.F. Zasyadko g i v e s R u s s i a n  c o a l r e s e r v e s a t 7765.3 b i l l i o n t o n s o f which h a l f a r e a t a depth o f l e s s t h a n 600 m e t r e s . ( 3 ) The s i z e and t h e c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s of f u e l and power i n t h e USSR a r e g i v e n i n the t a b l e  overleaf.  169 TABLE X I  F u e l and Power Resources o f t h e USSR. (1)  Sources o f Power  Unit of Measure  Anthracite and c o a l  b i l . t.  Brown c o a l  "  1913 230,000  b i l . t.  N a t u r a l Gas  b i l . m3  O i l Shale  b i l . t.  Peat  b i l . m?  Wood  b i l . m?  0.9  T o t a l i n b i l . tons of c o n v e n t i o n a l f u e l Water power Resources m i l l . kw.  1,443  in % 94.7  211  "  Oil  1937  Minimum e s t i m a t e Maximum e s t i m a t e  6.4  0.7  986  0.1  55  0.9  145  3.4  24  0.2  1,427.4  100.0  58 280 r e v i s e d t o 3 0 0 ^ ^ and t o 340^3)  1.  Economics o f I n d u s t r y o f t h e USSR /Ekonomika P r o m i s h l e n n o s t i SSSR/. G o s p o l i t i z d a t . Moscow 1956. p.298.  2. A . V . V i n e t e r and A.B.Markin. E l e c t r i f i c a t i o n o f Our Country / E l e k t r i f i k a t s i a Nashei Stra.nl/. Gosenergoizdat. Leningrad, 1956. p.78. 3 . Voznesensky A.N. Water Resources o f t h e USSR, and t h e i r E x p l o i t a t i o n . F i f t h World Power C o n f e r e n c e . V i e n n a 1956. General Report. Vol.XIII.p.4693.  R E F E R E N C E S IB. 167. 1. Economics o f I n d u s t r y o f t h e USSR /Ekonomika Promishl e n n o s t i S S S R / . G o s p o l i t i z d a t . Moscow, 1958. 2. A.N.Voznesensky. Water Power Resources o f t h e USSR and t h e i r E x p l o i t a t i o n . F i f t h World Power C o n f e r e n c e . V i e n n a 1956. G e n e r a l R e p o r t . V o l . XIII.p.4-693. P. 168. 1. See Table A t t a c h e d - C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f Power S t a t i o n s A c c o r d i n g t o F u e l s Used. 2. A.N. Voznesensky. Water Power Resources o f t h e USSR and t h e i r E x p l o i t a t i o n . F i f t h World Power C o n f e r e n c e , V i e n n a , 1956. G e n e r a l R e p o r t . V o l . X I I I . p.4693. 3. A.F. Zasyadko. Review o f h i s book " F u e l and Power I n d u s t r y o f t h e USSR" by A.Boyko and Y a . Z e n k i s i n Voprosy E k o n o m i k i . 1 9 6 O . V I I .  APPENDIX B  Goal. The p r i n c i p a l c o a l d e p o s i t s o f t h e USSR a r e : Donbass - amounting t o 90 b i l l i o n t o n s , s i t u a t e d i n t h e Donetz ridge. The  H i s t o r i c a l l y t h i s i s t h e most i m p o r t a n t  calorific  coal basin.  v a l u e o f t h e d e p o s i t s i s s a i d t o be 6,800  c a l o r i e s per kg. Although  i t does s u p p l y a c e r t a i n amount o f  c o a l t o Moscow and t h e Moscow r e g i o n , t h e d i s t a n c e t h a t sepa r a t e s i t from t h e c a p i t a l i s 800 m i l e s , which has an a p p r e c i a b l e e f f e c t on t h e c o s t a t t h e p l a c e o f consumption.  The  Donetz b a s i n c o a l d e p o s i t s a r e b e i n g d e p l e t e d and c o s t s o f production are high.  I n t h e case o f 10.5 p e r cent o f t h e mines  t h e c o s t s a r e two t o t h r e e times h i g h e r than t h e average f o r the i n d u s t r y , and i t has been urged t h a t t h e e x p l o i t a t i o n o f t h e s e mines s h o u l d be Kuznetsk B a s i n .  discontinued.(1)  The Kuzbass r e s e r v e s a r e e s t i m a t e d a t 450  b i l l i o n t o n s o f h i g h grade c o a l , o f c a l o r i f i c c a l o r i e s per kg.  v a l u e o f 7,000  The b a s i n i s l o c a t e d i n t h e Kuznetsk between  the A l a - T a u range and t h e S o l a i r Range, a l o n g t h e r i v e r  Tom.  The b a s i n was developed r a p i d l y a f t e r 1931 as a p a r t o f t h e scheme t o d e v e l o p t h e m e t a l l u r g i c a l i n d u s t r y o f t h e U r a l s based on M a g n i t o g o r s k i r o n o r e and Kuznetsk c o a l . t h e s e two sources  The d i s t a n c e between  o f raw m a t e r i a l i s 1,200 m i l e s .  Karaganda D e p o s i t s a r e e s t i m a t e d a t 53 b i l l i o n t o n s .  The c o a l  here i s n o t a s good as i n t h e Kuznetsk b a s i n , as i t s c a l o r i f i c v a l u e i s o n l y about 6,000 c a l o r i e s p e r k g . b u t t h e b a s i n i s  172 n e a r e r t o t h e U r a l i r o n and s t e e l c e n t r e s .  Karaganda c o a l  has r e p l a c e d Kuznetsk c o a l i n M a g n i t o g o r s k ,  b u t n o t i n t h e cen-  t r a l U r a l s , where N i z h n i T a g i l and C h e l y a b i n s k Kutznetsk  continue t o use  coal.^^  U r a l Deposits, which i n c l u d e t h e c o a l deposits o f K i z y l , Bogoslavsky  (Ugolny) Y e g o r i s h n o ,  Chelyabinsk  ( A n t h r a c i t e ) Dombrovsky and others„  ( L i g n i t e s ) , Bredy  The c o a l s here have t h e  c a l o r i f i c c o n t e n t o f o n l y 5,200 c a l o r i e s p e r kg., and some o f the d e p o s i t s a r e near  exhaustion.  Moscow B a s i n , the reserves  of w h i c h a r e e s t i m a t e d a t 12  tons, c o n s i s t s mostly of l i g n i t e s .  billion  These a r e o f poor q u a l i t y ,  w i t h c a l o r i f i c content of approximately  4,000 c a l o r i e s per kg.  Moscow b a s i n c o a l i s used a s d o m e s t i c f u e l and a s f u r n a c e i n power s t a t i o n s i n t h e Moscow a r e a .  fuel  The c o s t o f p r o d u c t i o n o f  Moscow c o a l i s 222.2 p e r cent h i g h e r than t h e average c o s t o f p r o d u c t i o n f o r t h e USSR.  The c o a l i s t h r e e times d e a r e r  than  c o a l from Donetz b a s i n . Tungus B a s i n i n S i b e r i a , e s t i m a t e d a t 440 b i l l i o n t o n s , s i t u a t e d i n t h e b a s i n o f t h e Upper, M i d d l e and Lower Tunguska r i v e r s . E s p e c i a l l y i m p o r t a n t here a r e t h e r i c h c o a l d e p o s i t s o f Cheremkhovo B a s i n , near I r k u t s k , e s t i m a t e d a t 80 b i l l i o n  tons,  s u i t a b l e f o r m e t a l l u r g y , g a s i f i c a t i o n and e x t r a c t i o n o f l i q u i d fuels. A p a r t from t h e above t h e r e a r e a l s o found i n S i b e r i a l a r g e d e p o s i t s o f l i g n i t e i n t h e Lena and C h u l y m o - Y e n i s e i b a s i n s , e s t i m a t e d a t 203 and 43 b i l l i o n t o n s r e s p e c t i v e l y . C o a l i s a l s o  173 found i n Minusinsk  (20 b i l l i o n  t o n s ) , and Kansk (42  billion  tons). In the T r a n s b a i k a l area of S i b e r i a are l o c a t e d the c o a l d e p o s i t s of Bukachacha, Gusinoye Ozero and Kopii.  Chernovskie  A l t o g e t h e r , S i b e r i a n c o a l d e p o s i t s a r e estimated a t  800 b i l l i o n  tons, which i s approximately  50 per cent of t o t a l  Soviet reserves. In the Far E a s t , c o a l i s found i n S a k h a l i n , Kamchatka, the Bureya B a s i n  (estimated a t 26 b i l l i o n t o n s ) , the K i v d a -  R a i c h i k h i n s k , the Suchan and the S u i f u n b a s i n s , which i n  1955  together c o n t r i b u t e d over 4 per cent of c o a l mined i n the USSR. Pechora B a s i n , s i t u a t e d i n the European North Donbass r e s e r v e s i n s i z e . 1937)  i t s output i n 1955  T k r a r c h e l i and  approximates  Opened d u r i n g the second FYP was  over 14 m i l l i o n  T k i b u l i d e p o s i t s i n Georgia,  (1933-  tons. estimated a t  200  m i l l i o n tons, are of l o c a l importance o n l y . In C e n t r a l A s i a t h e r e are a number of c o a l b a s i n s estimated l y a t 18 b i l l i o n  tons.  joint-  The r i c h e s t among them are the Fergana  V a l l e y d e p o s i t s of Sulyukta, K y z y l - K i y a , Shurab, and Kok-Yangak. E k i b a s t u z b a s i n i n Kazakhstan, c o n t a i n s approximately cent of a l l Russian r e s e r v e s .  7 per  Here, from open c a s t mines the  c o a l i s loaded d i r e c t l y onto the r a i l w a y wagons by enormous excavators a t the r a t e of one t r a i n l o a d every 10 minutes. The p r i n c i p a l u s e r s of c o a l are r a i l w a y s , m e t a l l u r g i c a l i n d u s t r i e s and e l e c t r i c power s t a t i o n s , which t o g e t h e r consume t w o - t h i r d s of the t o t a l output.  The  consumption of c o a l i n  174  i r o n and million  s t e e l i n d u s t r y and  as f o l l o w s ( i n  tons):-  Railway and Iron and  i n t r a n s p o r t was  r i v e r transport  steel industry The  1932  1940  1950  25  49  65  12  39  60  S o v i e t government attached  a g r e a t d e a l of  portance to the mechanization of the c o a l i n d u s t r y .  By  im1940,  95 per cent of c u t t i n g and hewing, 90 per cent of conveying, and  60 per cent of underground haulage was  means.  Due  done by mechanical  to mechanization, o r g a n i z a t i o n and  c e n t i v e s , output per worker i n c r e a s e d from 11.8 28 to 14.1  tons i n 1932,  23.7  tons i n 1936  and  the use tons i n 30.6  of i n 1927/  tons i n  1940.(D See  Table o v e r l e a f ,  ( E s t i m a t i o n of Coal by  Areas).  TABLE X I I  ^ E x t r a c t i o n o f C o a l by A r e a s 1913  Total 1. Donetz Basin K u s netsk 2. Basin 3. Ural Basin 4 . Moscow Basin 5. Karanganda Basin E o S iberian 6. Output 7. F a r East Pechora 8. Basin C e ntral 9. Asia 10 .Georgian SSR 11 . E k i b a s t u z  (1)  1928  193_2  19J7  1940  29,117  100  35,510 100  64,360  100  25,288  86.9  27,330 77.0  44,716  69.5  77,466  60.5  94,319  56.8  774  2.7  2,618  7.4  7,255  11.3  17,813  13.9  22,487  13.6  1,217  4.2  1,989  5.6  3,166  4.9  8,085  6.3  11,956  7.2  300  1.0  1,135  3.2  2,613  4.1  7,506  5.9  10,093  6.1  722  1.1  3,937  3.1  6,298  3.8  Promishlennost'  -  -  •-  -  127,968  100  165,923  100  847  2.9  1,009  2.8  2,456  3.8  5,800  4.5  9,229  5.6  373  1.3  1,073  3.0  2,261  3.5  4,845  3.8  7,217  4.3  9  0.0  120  0.1  273  0.2  -  -  -  -  158  0.5  234  0.7  743  1.2  914  0.7  1,685  1.0  70  0.2  85  0.2  205  0.3  400  0.3  625  0.4  SSR. G o s t a t i s d a t Moscow. 1957 p. 142 - 1 4 3 .  continued/  (1) ontinuedJ 1950  1945 T o t a l 149,333  1958  1955  100  261,089  100  391,259  100  495.8  1.  38,403  25.7  94,645  36.3  140,958  36.0  181.7  2.  30,027  20.1  38,526  14.8  58,539  15.0  75.3  3.  2$,667  17.2  32,487  12.4  47,058  12.0  61.0  4.  20,253  13.6  30,881  11.8  39,494  10.1  47.2  5.  11,340  7.6  16,440  6.3  24,710  o.3  24.3  6.  9,206  6.2  17,523  6.7  26,631  6.8  36.1  7.  7,858  5.3  13,140  5.0  17,355  4.4  20.0  8.  3,349  2.2  8,688  3.3  14,153  3.6  16.8  9.  1,413  0.9  3,777  1.4  5,870  1.5  7.7  661  0.4  1,725  0.7  2,712  0.7  3.0  2,282  0.6  6.15  10. 11.  196$  ON  R E F E R E N C E S  P.171. 1. A.F.Zasyadko. F u e l and Power Industry of the USSR / T o p l i v n o Energeticheskaya Proinishlennost SSSR/. G o s p l a n i z d a t . 1959, Review of the book by N.Melnikov i n Planovoye Khozyaistvo.1960.111. p.85 1  P.172. 1. S t e f a n Lament. S o v i e t F u e l and Power. S o v i e t S t u d i e s . 1952/53. V o l . I V . p. 1-14. 2. A.F.Zasyadko. F u e l and Power Industry of the USSR / T o p l i n o Energeticheskaya Promishlennost SSSR/. G o s p l a n i z d a t . 1959. Review of the book by N.Melnikov i n Planovoye K h o z y a i s t v o . 1 9 6 0 . H I . p.85. 1  P.174. 1. S t e f a n Lament. S o v i e t F u e l and Power. S o v i e t S t u d i e s . 1952/53. V o l . I V . p.6.  APPENDIX C  Oil By 1972 t h e o u t p u t o f o i l , which i n 1959 was 144 m i l l i o n tons and c o n s t i t u t e d 35.4 p e r cent o f t h e n a t i o n a l f u e l b a l a n c e w i l l i n c r e a s e t o between 350-400 m i l l i o n t o n s , and i t s share i n t h e b a l a n c e w i l l r i s e t o 37.5 p e r cent a s a g a i n s t 3 2 p e r cent f o r c o a l and 23.5 p e r cent f o r g a s . The most i m p o r t a n t o i l c e n t r e o f t h e USSR i n t h e p a s t was t h e Caucasus,  i n c l u d i n g t h e a r e a s i t u a t e d on t h e  Apsheron P e n i n s u l a on t h e s o u t h west shore o f t h e C a s p i a n sea a d j o i n i n g t h e c i t y o f Baku. per cent o f o i l i n R u s s i a .  I n 1941 A z e r b a i j a n produced  71.5  The o u t p u t was reduced by h a l f  d u r i n g t h e war and, p a r t l y due t o t h e f a c t t h a t t h e d e p o s i t s a r e b e i n g d e p l e t e d and p a r t l y because o t h e r o i l b e a r i n g a r e a s have been d e v e l o p e d , by 1955 t h e importance o f A z e r b a i j a n had d e c l i n e d t o 21.6 p e r c e n t .  Other i m p o r t a n t o i l b e a r i n g c e n t r e s  b e l o n g i n g t o t h i s group a r e Grozny and Maikop. Second Baku i s a name g e n e r a l l y a p p l i e d t o t h e Perm (Molotov), Syzran (Kuibishev), Boguruslan  (Chkalov) a r e a s o f  the M i d d l e V o l g a Region and t h e I s h i m b a i and Tuimaza d i s t r i c t s of  t h e B a s h k i r ASSR.  I t i s becoming an i n c r e a s i n g l y i m p o r t a n t  supplier of Russian o i l .  The o i l was d i s c o v e r e d here i n t h e  m i d d l e o f t h e t h i r t i e s and t h e i n d u s t r y developed r a p i d l y due to  t h e war-time s h i f t t o t h e E a s t . The E b a o i l b e a r i n g a r e a i s l o c a t e d p r i n c i p a l l y i n m  179 W. Kazakhstan,,  I t y i e l d s o i l of e s p e c i a l l y high q u a l i t y .  The most i m p o r t a n t o i l d e p o s i t s i n t h i s a r e a a r e Dossor, Makat, I s k i n e , K o s c h a g i l and  Baichunas.  The i n d u s t r i a l o i l r e g i o n s o f C e n t r a l A s i a a r e l o c a t e d i n t h e Fergana V a l l e y and t h e b a s i n of t h e upper Darya.  The Fergana o i l r e g i o n i n c l u d e s the Andizhan  Amu-  and  Namangan d e p o s i t s as w e l l as newly d i s c o v e r e d d e p o s i t s i n t h e South West, the Novaya Bukhara  (Kagan) near t h e c i t y of Bukhara..  I n the b a s i n of the upper Amu-Darya, o i l r e s e r v e s are i n t h e Khandak and U c h - K y z y l r e g i o n s o f t h e Uzbek SSR. l a r g e o i l - b e a r i n g a r e a s i n Turkmen SSR, Eastern.  There a r e two  the Western and t h e  The f i r s t i n c l u d e s the i m p o r t a n t Nebit-Dag o i l b e a r -  i n g r e g i o n and the second i n c l u d e s the b a s i n of the l o w e r  Amu-  Darya, the Karakum sands, t h e b o r d e r l a n d of t h e e a s t e r n Kopet Dag and the  Paropamiz. O i l d e p o s i t s a r e a l s o found i n S a k h a l i n , Kamchatka,  and a t t h e f o o t o f t h e C a r p a t h i a n mountains. On A p r i l 30th I960 Pravda c a r r i e d an a r t i c l e  stating  t h a t a t the Tyumen f o r e s t N o r t h o f N o v o s i b i r s k , 350 km. N o r t h o f Tyemen and 200 km.  East of I v d e l s t a t i o n , a Russian d r i l l i n g  team s t r u c k o i l a t a depth of 1428-1436 m. w e l l was g i v e n as 2 5 - 3 0 t o n s p e r day. w e l l was  The o u t p u t of t h e  I n June I960 a  second  sunk, p r o d u c i n g 350 t o n s per 2 4 h o u r s , and the t h i r d  one, opened s i n c e t h e n , has an o u t p u t o f 60 t o n s per 24 h o u r s , i n a d d i t i o n t o which i t p r o v i d e s 5,000 m  3  The o i l c o n t e n t o f t h e new w e l l s i s 0.831 t e n t i s 0.4  of n a t u r a l g a s . ( l ) of o i l .  S u l p h u r con-  per c e n t , which p u t s i t i n the c a t e g o r y o f h i g h -  180  grade o i l o f t h e type found i n t h e a r e a s o f B a s h k i r i a and Checheno-Inguish.  The s i z e o f t h i s S i b e r i a n o i l - b e a r i n g  i s b e l i e v e d t o be equal t o t h e o i l a r e a o f B a s h k i r i a .  area  Should  t h i s prove t o be t h e case t h e p r e s e n t o i l s i t u a t i o n i n S i b e r i a would be r a d i c a l l y changed. Changes i n l o c a t i o n o f o i l e x t r a c t i o n i n USSR a r e g i v e n i n t a b l e below.  Caucasus Volga-Ural C e n t r a l A s i a and Kazakhstan During the  1913  1940  1955  1956  1957  97.0  87.1  56.7  30.0  27.0  -  6.0  29.0  58.0  62.8  2.9  4.8  11.8  8.0  7.1^  p e r i o d t h e share o f v a r i o u s r e -  1951-57  g i o n s i n t h e growth o f t h e o i l i n d u s t r y was as f o l l o w s : T a r t a r SSR - 3 7 p e r c e n t , B a s h k i r - 2 7 p e r c e n t , K u i b i s h e v 14 per cent, S t a l i n g r a d - 6 per cent, Saratov - 4 per cent. The  t a b l e below g i v e s t h e p l a c e s o c c u p i e d by t h e more i m p o r t a n t (2)  c e n t r e s i n t h e USSR o i l p r o d u c t i o n : * ' 1940  1950  1956  1957  Azerbaijan  1  3  3  3  T a r t a r SSR  -  2  2  1  Bashkir  4  1  1  2  7  4  4  4  -  7  7  7  8  8  8  Kuibishev Stalingrad Saratov  district n  181 The l e v e l o f e x p e n d i t u r e p e r one t o n o f o i l ( i n c l u d i n g i t s heat p r o d u c i n g c a p a c i t y ) i s on t h e average t h r e e t i m e s l o w e r t h a n t h e c o s t o f one t o n o f c o a l .  I n the future  t h i s i m p o r t a n t economic s u p e r i o r i t y o f o i l e x t r a c t i o n  will  increase since the l e v e l of costs per ton of o i l i n the VolgaU r a l r e g i o n , whose share i n t h e t o t a l o i l e x t r a c t i o n i s s t e a d i l y growing, i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y t h r e e times l o w e r t h a n t h e average f o r t h e o i l i n d u s t r y as a whole.  O i l compares f a v o u r -  a b l y w i t h c o a l i n e x p e n d i t u r e o f l a b o u r t o prepare t h e r e s e r v e s f o r e x p l o i t a t i o n and i n c o n d i t i o n s o f work.  Product-  i v i t y o f l a b o u r i n t h e o i l i n d u s t r y ( c a l c u l a t e d i n terms o f c o n v e n t i o n a l f u e l ) i s f o u r t i m e s h i g h e r than i n t h e e x t r a c t i o n of  coal. The t a b l e below g i v e s t h e average 1946-54 share o f  the v a r i o u s regions i n c a p i t a l investments i n o i l e x t r a c t i n g a r e a s and t h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e i n c r e a s e i n o i l e x t r a c t i o n ! C a p i t a l investments in o i l extraction  Share i n t h e i n c r e a s e in o i l extraction  Caucasus  47.2  20.4  Volga-Ural  30.3  69.1  Central Asia  13.1  8.6  Far East  5.7  0.3  Ukrain  2.5  0.8  By t h e b e g i n n i n g o f 1957 t h e o i l i n d u s t r y o f t h e USSR had 31 p i p e - l i n e s o f t h e aggregate  l e n g t h o f 11,500 km. o f  t h e s e 6 p r o d u c t - p i p e - l i n e s had t h e l e n g t h o f 4,000 km.  Of t h e  182 11,500 km. 5,000 km. were c o n s t r u c t e d d u r i n g t h e 1950-55 period.  (Compared w i t h 180,000 km. o f p i p e l i n e s i n c l u d i n g  50,000 km. o f p r o d u c t - p i p e - l i n e s i n t h e U . S . A . T h e 6 t h FYP  and t h e Seven Y e a r P l a n , w h i c h superseded i t , a l s o p r o v i d e  for  the construction of long p i p e - l i n e s .  ned a r e :  v  The main l i n e s p l a n -  (2) '  Tuymazy - Omsk (Second L i n e ) - Completed by 1957 Omsk - I r k u t s k Al'metyevsk - G o r k i - Completed by 1957 Al'metyevsk - Perm / M o l o t o v / - Completed by 1957 G o r k i - Ryazan - Moscow Gorki - Y a r o s l a v l I s h i m b a i - Orsk Omsk - N o v o s i b i r s k Ufa - Omsk - N o v o s i b i r s k - I r k u t s k K u i b i s h e v - Bryansk / P r o d u c t s  pipe-line/  Ufa - Omsk - N o v o s i b i r s k / P r o d u c t s  line /  An i n t e r n a t i o n a l o i l p i p e - l i n e i s t o be b u i l t t o l i n k up t h e USSR w i t h C z e c h o s l o v a k i a , man Democratic R e p u b l i c .  The l i n e w i l l s t a r t n e a r K u i b i s h e v ,  on t h e l e f t bank o f t h e V o l g a .  I t w i l l be one metre i n d i a -  meter and w i l l f i r s t r u n t o M o z i r 1,600  Hungary, P o l a n d and Ger-  ( i n the Ukrain) a distance o f  km. l o n g , from where one l i n e w i l l r u n t o Ushgorod and  from t h e r e a c r o s s C z e c h o s l o v a k i a  t o Hungary.  The second l i n e  w i l l c r o s s t h e R u s s i a n - P o l i s h f r o n t i e r near B r e s t L i t o v s k , r u n a c r o s s P o l a n d a d i s t a n c e o f 675 km. and e n t e r t h e German Demo-  183 c r a t i c R e p u b l i c on the l a t i t u d e The l i n e i s t o be completed by  s l i g h t l y N o r t h of 1962.  Berlin.  TABLE X I I I E x t r a c t i o n of O i l Shale ( i n 1928  1932  1937  (1) thousands of tons) • 1940  1945  1950  1955  USSR  0.6  318.2  515.0  1682.9  1387.1  4716.2  10,793.2  R.S.F.S.R.  0.6  318.2  515.0  734.1  514.0  1156.4  3,782.5  73.0  254.0  403.5  347.3  2,068.2  2.0  23.0  259.0  306.8  N.W.  Region  C e n t r a l Region  -  -  Volga  Region  0.6  Ural  Region  -  -  Kazakh  SSR  -  -  -  -  E s t o n i a n SSR  (1)  Promishlennost' SSR.  245.2  -  0.8  514.0  -  809.1  -  1,714.3  -  1.8  12.1  16.8  1.0  947.0  861.0  3543.0  7,009.7  G o s p o l i t i z d a t . Moscow, 1957. p. 166.  Output of O i l - by Union R e p u b l i c s . (000 t . ) 1913 d ) 10,281 100  USSR RSFSR Ukranian SSR Uzbed SSR Kazakh SSR Georgian SSR Azerbaijan SSR Kirgiz SSR Tajik SSR Turkmen SSR  Source:  1928  1932  1937  1940  11,625 100  21,414 100  28,501 100  31,121 100  1,295 1 2 . 6  3,682  1,047 1 0 . 2  -  5,746  8,841  -  194! 19,436  7,039 22.6  5,657  0.7  353  1.1  250  13  0.1  17  44  362  119  0.4  478  118  1.1  250  247  490  697  2.2  788  3  9  41  0.1  36  12,228  21,414  22,231 71.5  11,541  -  _  7,669 7 4 . 6  7,657  -  _  -  0.8  24  0.1  19  10  0.1  11  17  27  30  0.1  20  129  1.3  8  34  452  587  1.9  629  (1)  Within present f r o n t i e r s .  (2)  P r o m i s h l e n n o s t ' SSSR. p. 155  (continued)  Output o f O i l - by Union R e p u b l i c s (000 t.) 1950  1955  USSR  37,879 100  70,793 100  RSFSR Ukranian SSR Uzbek SSR Kazakh SSR Georgian SSR Azerbaijan SSR Kirgiz SSR Tajik SSR Turkmen SSR  18,231 48.2  49,263 69.6  293  0.8  531  0.7  1,342  3.5  996  1.4  1,059  2.8  1,397  2.0  43  0.1  43  0.1  14,822 39.1  (continued).  15,305 21.6  47  0.1  115  20  0.1  17  2,021  5.3  3,126  0.2 0.02 4.4  H  00-  o>  R E F E R E N C E S P.179. 1. P r a v d a . H . 9 . I 9 6 0 . P.180. 1. M.Brenner. Problems o f t h e O i l I n d u s t r y i n t h e P e r s p e c t i v e o f t h e Development o f N a t i o n a l Economy • o f t h e USSR /Problemy N e f t i v P e r s p e k t i v e R a z v i t i a Narodnogo K h o z y a i s t v a SSSR/.Voprosy E k o n o m i k i . 1958.II.p.21. 2. I b i d . ,  p.21.  P.l£l. 1. I b i d . ,  p.16.  2. I b i d . ,  p.28.  P.182. 1. K.V.Dolgopolov, A.V.Sokolov and E.F.Fyodorova. O i l and Gas i n t h e USSR / N e f t i Gazy SSSR/. U c h p e d g i z . Moscow. I 9 6 0 . 2. I b i d . , P.183. 1. P r a v d a . 27.7.1960.  APPENDIX D  N a t u r a l Gas Russian l a t e s t estimates of p o t e n t i a l reserves of n a t u r a l gas a r e s t a t e d a t 50-60 t r i l l i o n  cubic metres.  E s t i m a t e d r e s e r v e s a r e s t a t e d t o be 19-20  trillion  cubic  m e t r e s , and t h e p r e s e n t i n d u s t r i a l r e s e r v e s - as o f 1.5  trillion  a t e d a t 15 b i l l i o n to 389 b i l l i o n trillion.  I n 1940  cubic metres.  I n 1958  t h e r e s e r v e s were e s t i m -  c u b i c m e t r e s , by 1953  c u b i c m e t r e s , by 1956  1959-  t h e f i g u r e was r a i s e d  i t was n e a r l y h a l f a  a l o n e were d i s c o v e r e d 17 major gas r e s e r v e s  and t h e i n c r e a s e i n t h e i n d u s t r i a l r e s e r v e s d u r i n g t h a t y e a r amounted t o 3 0 0 b i l l i o n .  I n 1959  t h e i n c r e a s e was 500  and t h e t o t a l i n d u s t r i a l r e s e r v e s reached  billion,  one and a h a l f  tril-  l i o n cubic m e t r e s . ^ The main gas r e s e r v e s o f t h e USSR a r e : a)  S t a v r o p o l K r a i r e s e r v e s and t h e Krasnodar  Krai reserves  i n t h e N o r t h Caucasus, which w i l l p r o b a b l y be made i n t o a s i n g l e u n i f i e d gas p r o d u c i n g  area.  b)  Kalmik ASSR r e s e r v e s .  c)  G a z l i reserve i n Bukhara-Khivinsk  e s t i m a t e d a t over 4 0 0 b i l l i o n d)  region i n Uzbekistan,  cubic metres.  Shebelinsk deposits i n the Ukrain, estimated a t 4 0 0 b i l -  l i o n cubic metres. e)  Beryozovo-Tyumen O b l a s t d e p o s i t s .  f)  Yakutia deposits.  g)  Saratov Oblast d e p o s i t s .  189  h)  Stepnovskoye R e s e r v e s i n  Trans-Volga.^  D u r i n g t h e p r e s e n t 7-year p l a n i n t h e European p a r t of t h e USSR t h e o u t p u t o f gas i s t o be i n c r e a s e d 3 . 8  times,  compared w i t h t w o f o l d i n c r e a s e f o r o i l and 7 p e r cent  increase  I n 1965 t h e r e w i l l be e x t r a c t e d  i n the production of c o a l .  150 b i l l i o n c u b i c metres o f gas o f which 100 b i l l i o n s h a l l be used up i n t h e European p a r t o f t h e USSR. of gas i n t h e b a l a n c e  I n 1965 t h e share  o f t h e f u e l economy s h a l l be 27 p e r c e n t ,  and by 1972 - 23.5 p e r c e n t . I n t r o d u c t i o n o f n a t u r a l gas a s i n d u s t r i a l and noni n d u s t r i a l f u e l i n t h e USSR was s t a r t e d d u r i n g t h e war when were c o n s t r u c t e d Y e l s h a n k a - S a r a t o v gas p i p e - l i n e s .  and  Boguruslan-Kuibishev  Though a s h o r t l i n e from I z b e r b a s h  t o Mahachka-  l a o f 65 km. was c o n s t r u c t e d p r i o r t o t h a t i n 1940. D u r i n g t h e F o u r t h FYP (1945 - 1950) was c o n s t r u c t e d gas p i p e - l i n e  Saratov-  Moscow, 843 km. l o n g , which r e s u l t e d i n an a n n u a l s a v i n g o f 1 m i l l i o n c u b i c metres o f wood, 650,000 tons o f Moscow B a s i n c o a l , approximately  150,000 tons o f K e r o s i n e , and more than  100,000 t . o f crude o i l .  The p i p e - l i n e i s o f a s m a l l  I t has 6 compressor s t a t i o n s . a l o n g i t equals a p p r o x i m a t e l y veyed.  ( 2 )  diametre.  The c o s t o f t r a n s p o r t i n g g a s 50 R o u b l e s f o r 1000 m3 o f gas con-  <3> D u r i n g t h e same p e r i o d was c o n s t r u c t e d gas p i p e - l i n e  Dashava-Kiev o f 513 km. made up o f 36 m. segments, which was l a t e r extended t o Moscow. Yarve t o Leningrad,  The t h i r d i m p o r t a n t  o f 203 km.  l i n e was K o h t l a -  I n 1957 was commissioned  190 S h e b e l i n k a - D n e p r o p e t r o v s k l i n e and S h e b e l i n k a - K h a r k o v . c o s t o f t r a n s p o r t i n g as o v e r t h e s e two l i n e s i s o n l y Roubles p e r 1000 m3.  The  3-4  T h i s i s due t o t h e f a c t t h a t t h e gas  found here i s under h i g h p r e s s u r e , which e l i m i n a t e s t h e use o f compressor  stations. The c u r r e n t Seven Year P l a n p r o v i d e d f o r t h e con-  s t r u c t i o n o f 26,000 km.  o f gas p i p e - l i n e s ,  S t a v r o p o l - Moscow (second l i n e ) o f 1,300  including: k. - now  completed.  S t a v r o p o l - Nevinnomissk - M i n e r a l n i e Vody - Drozny. Serpukhov - L e n i n g r a d - now  completed.  Al'matyevsk - Kazan - G o r k i - - completed by  1957.  Under c o n s t r u c t i o n a t p r e s e n t a r e : K r a s n o d a r s k y K r a i - Rostov-on-Don - Serpukhov - K a l i n i n L e n i n g r a d p i p e - l i n e of 1,020  mm.  i n diametre.  S h e b e l i n k a - Dnepropetrovsk - Odessa - K i s h i n e v  line.  S h e b e l i n k a - Kharkov - Kursk - O r e l - Bryansk. S a r a t o v - Ivanovo - C h e r e p o v e t z . Kazan - G o r k i . Dashava - Minsk - V i l n i u s - R i g a . Karadag - A k s t a f a -  Tbilisi.  A k s t a f a - Erevan. G o z l i - U r a l s (a double l i n e o f 1,020  mm.  i n diametre).  Minsk - Leningrad. Tashkent - Chikment - Dzhambul - Frunze - Alma-Ata. Beryozovo - S v e r d l o v s k . Grozny -  Tbilisi. G e n e r a l l y the t h i c k n e s s of t h e p i p e s i s 720 - 820  mm.  191 i n d i a m e t r e , except where s t a t e d o t h e r w i s e . Under c o n s t r u c t i o n near Moscow i s t h e f i r s t  season-  a l gas s t o r a g e space. I t i s e s t i m a t e d t h a t by 1965 a p p r o x i m a t e l y one q u a r t e r o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n s h a l l use gas coming from gas n e t works o r i n compressed form i n g a s - t a n k s . In 1957 t h e t o t a l l e n g t h o f gas l i n e s i n t h e USSR amounted t o 6,600 km. o f which 77 p e r cent (5,000 km.) were used f o r t r a n s p o r t i n g n a t u r a l gas and 23 p e r cent - f o r synt h e t i c gas. The l a r g e s t gas p i p e s i n t h e USSR a r e 3-4 s m a l l e r than i n t h e U.S.A.  times  The l a r g e s t R u s s i a n p i p e - l i n e s a r e  of up t o 5 m i l l , c u b i c m e t r e s , w h i l e those i n t h e U.S.A. a r e 14.3 m i l l , c u b i c metres (Texas - N.Y.) o r even 20.9 m i l l , c u b i c metres (Texas - P e n n s y l v a n i a - New Y o r k ) . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e c u r r e n t Seven Year P l a n t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f gas i n 1965 i s t o be as f o l l o w s : 10 p e r cent f o r consumers' needs. 6 p e r c e n t - raw m a t e r i a l f o r c h e m i c a l i n d u s t r y . 34 p e r cent - f o r use a t power s t a t i o n s and as b o i l e r 43 p e r cent f o r t e c h n o l o g i c a l purposes i n cement, i r o n and s t e e l and machine b u i l d i n g  industries.  7 p e r c e n t f o r t h e use i n gas i n d u s t r y  itself.^)  fuel.  TABLE XV Extraction of Natural G a s .  ( l )  ( m i l . cub. m ) . ^ ^  1928  1932  1937  1940  1945  1950  1955  USSR  304.0  1049.0  2178.9  3219.1  3278.0  5760.9  8980.9  RSFSR N o r t h Region V o l g a Region N. Caucasus Ural Far East U k r a n i a n SSR Uzbek SSR Kazakh SSR Azerbaijan SSR Kirgiz SSR T a j i k SSR Turkmen SSR  126.9  519.8  180.0  209.9  519.8  156.3 27.3  195.0 14.9  1494.8 447.0 728.3 120.2 130.9 68.4 776.9 8.9 4.9  2867.3 1076.4 964.7 322.2 418.9 85.1 1536.5 52.2 7.4  4291.0 1075.9 1627.2 595.3 799.8 192.8 2927.6 103.0 24.7  1232.8  1493.8  126.9 --  -1.3 175.5  0.3 -  -  -• -  --  -  -  -  3.0 2.3  1.0 3.7  495.1 0.7 3.9  522.0  1991.0  2498.1  976.7  - 2.2  0.1 0.8 14.9  -  1.9  —  -  3.2  9.2  -  0.2 64.5  -  I960 53 b i l . m3 ( P I  1965 150,000 ( P l a n )  1972 280-320 ( P l a n )  -  140.8 1975 400-425 b i l . m3  Source: (1)  I n c l u d i n g by-product g a s .  (2)  Promishlennost'  (3)  Maslakov D.I. F u e l Balance o f t h e USSR.  SSR. p. 156. G o s p l a n i s d a t . I960.  (3)  TABLE XVI E x t r a c t i o n of Gases i n USSR ( i n m i l l i o n R e p u b l i c s and Regions  N a t u r a l Gases  1928  RSFSR - I n c l . 126.9 Volga Region North " Ural » N.Caucasus Region 126.9 Far East Region Central Region N.W. Region Ukranian SSR A z e r b a i j a n SSR 175.5 Turkmen SSR Uzbek SSR Kozakh SSR 1.3 T a d j i k SSR 0.3 K i n g i z SSR E s t o n i a SSR L a t v i a SSR  -  -  --  -  Total  304.0  cubic metres).  (1)  Coal and Shale Gases  1940  1945  1955  1923  1940  1945  1955  209.9  167.0  129.0  961.0  —  —  -  4291.0 1627.2 1075.9 799.8  26.3  14.9  1494.8 728.3 447.0 130.0  195.0  120.2 68.4  -  -  495.1 2498.1 9.2 0.7 3.9 2.2  -  3219.1  776.9  976.7 14.9 8.9 4.9 0.8 0.1  -  3278.0  -  -  595.3  —  —  —  192.8  —  -  -  _  118.3 48.2  129.0  578.0 383.0 9.6  -  —  26.3  -  2927.6 1493.8 140.3  103.0 24.7  -  -  -  -  8980.9  —  -  26.3  —  -  —  —  0.03  0.3 —  —  —  —  _  —  —  -  —  4.7  1.0 2.5  387.9 16.7  133.3  1375.2  0.9 172.63  -  —  Source: (1) Dolgopolov K.V., Sokolov A.V. and Fyeodorova E.F. O i l and Gas i n the USSR. Uchpedgiz. Moscow. I960.  E x t r a c t i o n of Gases i n USSR ( i n m i l l i o n cubic metres). R e p u b l i c s and Regions RSFSR - I n c l . V o l g a Region North Region U r a l Region N. Caucasus Region Far East Region Central Region N.W. Region Ukranian SSR A z e r b a i j a n SSR Turkmen SSR Uzbek SSR Kozakh SSR T a d j i k SSR K i n g i z SSR E s t o n i a SSR L a t v i a SSR Total  (continued).  A l l - Gases 1928  1940  1945  153.7  376.9  14.9  1624.3 723.3 447.0 130.9  5252.0 1627.2 1075.9 799.8  126.9  195.0  120.2  595.3  68.4  192.8  129.5  578.0 383.0 2937.2 1493.8 140.8 103.0 24.7  -  26.8  175.5 --  1.3 0.3  -  330.8  118.8 48.2 495.13 2498.1 9.2 0.7 3.9 2.2  -  0.9 4.7 3391.73  -  777.2 976.7 14.9 8.9 4.9 0.8 0.1 1.0 2.5 3411.3  1955  3 8-7 . 9 16.7  10356.1  R E F E R E N C E S P. 188. 1. A . F . Zasyadko. F u e l and Power I n d u s t r y o f t h e USSR / T o p l i v n o - e n e r g e t i c h e s k a y a P r o m i s h l e n n o s t SSSR/. G o s p l a n i z d a t . 1959. Review o f t h e book by N . M e l n i kov i n Planovoye K h o z y a i s t v o . I 9 6 0 . I l l . p . 8 5 . 1  P. 1$9. 1. I b i d . , p.85. 3 2. 1000 m o f gas i s e q u a l t o a p p r o x i m a t e l y 3 t o n s of coal. .. 3. K.V.Dolgopolov, A.V.Sokolov and E.F.Fyedorova. O i l and Gas i n t h e USSR / N e f t i n Gazy SSSR/. Uchpedgiz. Moscow. I960. P. 191. 1. I b i d .  APPENDIX E  Oil  Shale The most i m p o r t a n t o f developed R u s s i a n d e p o s i t s o f  O i l s h a l e a r e i n t h e E s t o n i a n SSR, which i n 1955 accounted f o r 65 p e r c e n t o f a l l s h a l e e x t r a c t i o n i n t h e USSR.  Besides  ^.these, t h r e e a r e r i c h d e p o s i t s i n t h e Southern p a r t o f t h e Timan r i d g e , a l o n g t h e Ukhta r i v e r , a l o n g t h e r i g h t bank o f t h e V o l g a n e a r Ulyanovsk, near S y z r a n , and i n t h e r e g i o n o f Obshchy Sirt. U t i l i z a t i o n o f s h a l e i s o f p a r t i c u l a r importance t o r e g i o n s t h a t a r e poor i n o t h e r t y p e s o f f u e l ( E s t o n i a n SSR, L e n i n g r a d d i s t r i c t , and o t h e r s ) .  The c o m b u s t i b l e s h a l e mass con-  t a i n s 70 - 80 p e r cent o f v o l a t i l e s u b s t a n c e s , which makes i t i d e a l f u e l f o r g a s i f i c a t i o n and f o r d i s t i l l a t i o n o f l i q u i d  fuel.  D u r i n g t h e F i f t h FYP a gas p i p e - l i n e , K o h t l a - Y a r v e - T a l l i n , was c o n s t r u c t e d . The S i x t h FYP 1955 - I960 p r o v i d e d f o r an i n c r e a s e o f 67 p e r cent i n t h e o u t p u t o f s h a l e .  ^  1. P r o m i s h l e n n o s t ' SSSR. S t a t e s t i c h e s k i S b o r n i k . G o s p o l i t i z d a t . Moscow, 1957. p.304.  APPENDIX F  Peat As can be seen from the g e n e r a l o u t l i n e i n Chapter I the S o v i e t Government a t t a c h e d a g r e a t d e a l of i m p o r t a n c e t o t h e development o f t h e peat i n d u s t r y .  I n many p a r t s of  Russia Peat i s the only l o c a l f u e l a v a i l a b l e .  In 1 9 3 8 reserves  o f peat were e s t i m a t e d a t 150,600 m i l l . t o n s .  Peat i s used  e x t e n s i v e l y i n t h e C e n t r a l and n o r t h west p a r t of R u s s i a . I n 1 9 5 5 t h e r m a l power s t a t i o n s o f aggregate power c a p a c i t y o f 2 , 2 3 4 , 0 0 0 kw. used peat as f u e l t o produce 12,422 b i l l i o n kwh.  of e l e c t r i c i t y .  (Compared w i t h 1 5 , 2 9 0 . b i l l i o n kwh.  produced i n power s t a t i o n s b u r n i n g o i l ) . Peat e x t r a c t i o n i n 1958  amounted t o 52.8 m i l l . t o n s .  A l t h o u g h t h e S o v i e t e x p e r t s t a k e a much more c r i t i c a l t o peat now,  attitude  t h i s i s a v e r y r e c e n t i n n o v a t i o n , as can be  seen  from the f o l l o w i n g statement "The e x t r a c t i o n o f peat i n t h e USSR by 1956 has grown 30 times compared w i t h 1913. Y e t t h e share of p e a t i n the f u e l b a l a n c e of t h e c o u n t r y (6 per c e n t i n 1940, 5 per c e n t i n 1950, 4 . 2 per cent i n 1955) does not c o r r e s p o n d t o the c o l o s s a l r e s e r v e s , t o the h i g h power q u a l i t i e s o f p e a t , nor t o i t s p a r t i c u l a r i m p o r t a n c e as a w i d e l y spread l o c a l f u e l . F o r a number o f a r e a s and r e p u b l i c s ( B y e l o r u s s i a n SSR, L i t h u a n i a n SSR, L a t v i a n SSR, K o r e l o - F i n i s h SSR (since l o s t i t s s t a t u s as t h e S o c i a l i s t R e p u b l i c ) , M o r d v i n ASSR, Chuvash ASSR, K a l i n i n , V o l o g d a , Ivanovo, V l a d i m i r , Novgorod, P s k o v . r e g i o n s and o t h e r s ) peat i s t h e o n l y l o c a l m i n e r a l fuel.I ' 1  The S i x t h FYP p r o v i d e d f o r an i n c r e a s e o f 44 per c e n t i n t h e o u t p u t o f peat i n g e n e r a l and o f 7 3 p e r c e n t i n m i l l i n g ( f r e z e r n i ) peat.  198  E l e c t r i c Power Produced  from Peat and other l o c a l  fuels^^  1932  1937  1940  1950  Total production of e l e c t r i c energy i n b i l l i o n kwh.  13.5  36.4  48.3  90.3  Per cent produced from l o c a l fuels  55.6  Of which peat  20.9  26.0  72.0 20.0  X  x - M i n i s t r y of E l e c t r i c Power o n l y . The seven year p l a n p r o v i d e s f o r an output of peat i n 1965 o f 71 m i l l i o n milling  peat.  t o n s , o f which 55 m i l l i o n  tons w i l l be  C a p i t a l investments per 1 t . o f p r o d u c t i o n  c a p a c i t y i s a t p r e s e n t equal t o 200 Roubles but can p r o b a b l y be reduced t o 140 Roubles by 1965.  Cost of peat i n 1965 i s  expected t o be 11.7 Roubles per ton as a g a i n s t 20 Roubles per ton  i n 1958.  ( 2 )  TABLE X V I I P e a t E x t r a c t i o n a c c o r d i n g t o Union R e p u b l i c s and Economic Regions o f RSFSR. 1940  1950  1955  1958 mil.t.  1965 mil.6. 71  33229.4  35998.7  50776.9  52.4  25569.2 RSFSR N o r t h Region 57.5 3372.6 N.W. Region C e n t r a l Region 19275.0 V o l g a Region 616.4 N.Caucasus 2.9 2086.0 Ural 158.0 W.Siberia E.Siberia Far East Region U k r a n i a n SSR 3544.0 3361.0 B y e l o r u s SSR Uzbek SSR 4.7 Kazakh SSR 97.8 Georgian SSR 102.1 L i t h u a n i a n SSR L a t v i a n SSR 212.9 K i r g i z SSR 42.7 T a j i k SSR 4.1 8.0 Armenian SSR Estonian 282.9  27490.1 274.1 3571.1 20546.3 408.7 4.0 2582.9 97.8 0.7  36069.3 399.7 4425.0 27943.9 245.7  35.6  3008.1 46.7  3.5  4.5 2927.9 3912.3  0.2 4119.2 7190.8  USSR  Source:  (1)  4.0  . -  505.4 623.4 31.9 -  34.0 469.7  -  3.6 27.5  -  -  1.1 1.8 1594.5 1265.8 12.5 0.1 19.3 502.5  4.1 8.7  1.9 1.7  0.4  P r o m i s h l e n n o s t ' SSR. G o s p o l i t i s d a t .  (1)  Peat E x t r a c t i o n 19131913 1914 1915 1916 1917 1918 1919 1920 1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937  Moscow. 1957.  1.7 1.9 1.7 1.6 1.4 1.1 1.2 1.4 2.0 2.2 2.4 2.9 2.7 3.6 4.9 5.3 6.9 8.1 12.4 13.5 13.8 18.3 18.5 22.5 24.O  1938 1939 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 1946 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 I960  26.5 29.9 33.2  22.4 27.3 30.6 34.4 36.0 36.0 39.8 37.2 38.6 45.0 50.8 52.8  I  1965  71.0 \o  R E F E R E N C E S  P. 197. 1. Economics o f Industry o f t h e USSR /Ekonomika P r o m i s h l e n n o s t i SSSR/. G o s p o l i t i z d a t . Moscow, 1958. p.308. P. 198. 1. S t e f a n Lament. S o v i e t F u e l and Power. S o v i e t S t u d i e s . 1952/53. Vol.IV. p.12. 2. D.I.Maslakov. F u e l Balance o f the USSR / T o p l i v n i Balans SSSR/. G o s p l a n i z d a t . I960, p.105.  APPENDIX G  Wood. I n t h e Western w o r l d wood as a f u e l i s l a r g e l y a r e l i c of p a s t economy, b u t i n R u s s i a i t s t i l l o c c u p i e s an portant p o s i t i o n .  I n 1955 wood c o n s t i t u t e d 6.7  the R u s s i a n f u e l b a l a n c e , as a g a i n s t 2.4 1958  the share o f wood d e c l i n e d t o 5.2  gas i n c r e a s e d t o 5.4). in  im-  per cent o f  per cent f o r gas.  In  per c e n t , ( w h i l e t h a t o f  A c c o r d i n g t o t h e p r e s e n t Seven Year P l a n  1965 wood w i l l s t i l l account f o r 3 per cent o f t h e R u s s i a n  f u e l b a l a n c e . (See T a b l e : I n 1955  F u e l B a l a n c e of the USSR).  i n d u s t r i a l t h e r m a l power s t a t i o n s of t o t a l  c a p a c i t y of 528,000 kw.  (compare t h a t w i t h 591,000 kw.  n a t u r a l gas) used f i r e w o o d t o produce 1,091 electricity.  run on  b i l l i o n kwh.  of  I n the r u r a l a r e a t h e r e were 2,443 e l e c t r i c power  s t a t i o n s of j o i n t c a p a c i t y amounting t o 100,200 kw. b u r n i n g wood t o produce 89 m i l l i o n kwh.  of e l e c t r i c i t y . ^  (See  Table:  Power S t a t i o n s of USSR grouped a c c o r d i n g t o f u e l used - f o r 1955). C h a r c o a l i s s t i l l used i n U r a l s f o r making v e r y h i g h grades of i r o n .  Large numbers of l o r r i e s and t r a c t o r s use p r o -  d u c t s o f wood d i s t i l l a t i o n as f u e l .  But a p a r t from  industrial  uses wood s e r v e s t o supplement s o l i d f u e l s f o r h e a t i n g in  purposes  towns and i s almost t h e u n i v e r s a l f u e l of the c o u n t r y s i d e .  1935  i t was  e s t i m a t e d by e x p e r t s t h a t the consumption i n the  r u r a l a r e a s amounted t o 220 m i l l , c u b i c metres, which was as much as used by i n d u s t r y and by t h e town p o p u l a t i o n . (2)  twice  In  202  The t o t a l r e s e r v e s o f f i r e w o o d i n t h e USSR a r e e s t i m a t e d a t 24.2 b i l l i o n c u b i c metres, which corresponds t o a p p r o x i m a t e l y 10 b i l l i o n tons o f c o n v e n t i o n a l f u e l .  About % o f  the t o t a l r e s e r v e s o f f i r e w o o d o f t h e c o u n t r y a r e c o n c e n t r a t e d i n t h e r e g i o n s o f Western and E a s t e r n S i b e r i a  and t h e F a r E a s t ,  y e t t h e s e r e g i o n s y i e l d o n l y a p p r o x i m a t e l y 16 p e r cent o f firewood.  The r e g i o n s o f t h e Centre N o r t h West and V o l g a ,  though p o s s e s s i n g o n l y 5.4 o f a l l t h e wood r e s e r v e s of t h e c o u n t r y produce and s h i p a n n u a l l y 42 p e r cent o f a l l t h e f i r e wood o f t h e USSR.  The C e n t r a l I n d u s t r i a l  r e g i o n alone w h i l e  a c c o u n t i n g o n l y f o r 2 p e r cent o f t h e n a t i o n a l r e s e r v e s , p r o duces and s h i p s more than 20 p e r cent o f t h e t o t a l .  The  European N o r t h produces a g r e a t d e a l o f f i r e w o o d which i s m a i n l y t r a n s p o r t e d t o the centre, w h i l e the U r a l s use the g r e a t e r p a r t of t h e i r firewood f o r the c h a r c o a l m e t a l l u r g y .  R E F E R E N C E S P. 201. 1. P r o m i s h l e n n o s t SSSR. S t a t i s t i c h e s k i G o s p o l i t i z d a t . Moscow. 1957. p.195. T  Sbornik.  2. S t e f a n Lament. S o v i e t F u e l and Power. S o v i e t S t u d i e s . 1952/53. V o l . I V . p.9.  APPENDIX H  ELECTRIC POWER GENERATING CAPACITY OF THE USSR Water Power The water power r e s o u r c e s o f t h e USSR were r e c e n t l y e s t i m a t e d by t h e R u s s i a n s t o be 300 m i l l . kw. compared w i t h 82 m i l l . kw. i n t h e U . S . A . S i n c e coming t o power t h e p r e s ent government has c o n s i s t e n t l y a t t a c h e d a g r e a t d e a l o f imp o r t a n c e t o e l e c t r i f i c a t i o n and, i n p a r t i c u l a r , t o t h e development of h y d r o e l e c t r i c power r e s o u r c e s . W i t h i n USSR t h e r e a r e 108,500 named and mapped  rivers.  The h y d r o e l e c t r i c c a p a c i t y o f j u s t t h e f i f t e e n hundred l a r g e s t was e s t i m a t e d a t t h e above quoted f i g u r e o f 300 m i l l .  kw.,  c a p a b l e o f p r o d u c i n g 2,000 b i l l i o n kwh. o f e l e c t r i c i t y p e r annum, w h i l e t h e p r o b a b l e t o t a l r e s e r v e s a r e e s t i m a t e d a t 3,700 b i l l i o n kwh. a y e a r . ( ) 2  V a r i o u s p l a n n i n g b o d i e s have p u t f o r w a r d  schemes f o r c o n s t r u c t i o n on t h e r i v e r s o f t h e USSR o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1,800 h y d r o e l e c t r i c power s t a t i o n s w i t h a t o t a l c a p a c i t y o f 100 m i l l i o n kw.  installed  A t some f u t u r e date t h e s e power  s t a t i o n s s h o u l d be a b l e t o produce 700 b i l l i o n kwh. o f power and thus save t h e c o u n t r y 700 m i l l , t o n s o f n a t u r a l f u e l year.  every  A p a r t from t h e s e i t i s proposed t o b u i l d up t o 20,000  h y d r o e l e c t r i c power s t a t i o n s f o r a g r i c u l t u r e . ' w  During the p e r i o d of r e c o n s t r u c t i o n a f t e r the F i r s t World War, t h e R e v o l u t i o n and t h e C i v i l War, h y d r o e l e c t r i c power s t a t i o n s o f j o i n t i n s t a l l e d c a p a c i t y o f 100,000 kw. were con-  205 structed.  These i n c l u d e d V o l k h o v h y d r o e l e c t r i c power s t a t i o n  of 58,000 kw. n e a r L e n i n g r a d , completed i n 1926.  T h i s was t h e  f i r s t l a r g e h y d r o e l e c t r i c power s t a t i o n HEPS completed under the S o v i e t s . The  A f t e r t h a t t h e Zemo-Avchalskaya HEPS, i n T b i l i s i ,  B e z u i s k a y a i n Tashkent, t h e Y e r e v a n on t h e Razdan and t h e  Kontopazhskaya on Kontopaga were p u t i n commission. D u r i n g t h e f i r s t F i v e Year P l a n  (FYP) 1928-1932,  c o n s t r u c t i o n was s t a r t e d on t h e l a r g e s t HEPS i n Europe - t h e Dnepr HEPS o f 500,000 kw.  I n a d d i t i o n t h e Nizhne S v i r s k a y a ,  R i o n s k a y a , G i z e l d o n s k a y a and o t h e r power s t a t i o n s were s t a r t e d . The  t o t a l newly i n s t a l l e d c a p a c i t y was a p p r o x i m a t e l y 350,000 kw. I n t h e c o u r s e o f t h e 2nd FYP (1932-1937) Nizhne S v i r s k a y a ,  N i v a I I , I v a n o v s k a y a (the f i r s t on t h e V o l g a ) .  Gizeldonskaya  and o t h e r l e s s i m p o r t a n t HEPS were commissioned. 578,000 kw. was i n s t a l l e d d u r i n g t h i s The Uglicheskaya  A t o t a l of  period.  T h i r d FYP (1937-1940) saw t h e commission o f HEPS on t h e V o l g a , Konsomolskaya i n Tashkent and  a few s m a l l e r ones.  By 1940 t h e t o t a l i n s t a l l e d c a p a c i t y o f  the h y d r o e l e c t r i c power s t a t i o n s o f t h e USSR amounted t o 1,587,000 kw. The  Second World War c o s t t h e R u s s i a n s a l m o s t one m i l -  l i o n kw. o f i n s t a l l e d c a p a c i t y i n h y d r o e l e c t r i c power s t a t i o n s . But a t t h e same time c o n s t r u c t i o n was s t a r t e d on 40 s m a l l e r power s t a t i o n s i n t h e E a s t e r n p a r t o f t h e c o u n t r y .  Neverthe-  l e s s t h e i n s t a l l e d c a p a c i t y i n 1946 amounted t o o n l y 1,427,000 kw. i . e . 160,000 kw. below t h e 1940 l e v e l . I n t h e F o u r t h FYP (1945-1950) s i x l a r g e HEPS were r e -  206 constructed  and t h i r t y new ones b u i l t , i n c l u d i n g Khramskaya,  Ozyernaya, F a r k h a n d s k a y a , Shcherbakovskaya and o t h e r s . Dneproges, d e s t r o y e d by t h e Germans, t h e o l d t u r b i n e s , 91,000 hp. were r e p l a c e d installed  capacity The  In each o f  by o t h e r s o f 108,000 hp. and t h e  o f t h e s t a t i o n t h u s r a i s e d t o 650,000 kw.  F i f t h FYP (1950-1955) saw t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f an  a m b i t i o u s p l a n o f h y d r o e l e c t r i c power c o n s t r u c t i o n , w i t h t h e K u i b i s h e v HEPS as t h e main p r o j e c t .  P l a c e d i n commission dur-  i n g t h e FYP p e r i o d were t h e T s i m l a n s k a y a HEPS o f 164,000 kw., Gyumushskaya o f 224,000 kw., V e r k h n e - S v i r s k a y a o f 160,000 kw. and M i n g e c h a u r s k a y a o f 357,000 kw. construction  Work was s t a r t e d on t h e  of Stalingrad, Novosibirsk,  Angara and o t h e r HEPS p r o j e c t s .  Bukhtarma, V o t k i n s k ,  By 1955 t h e share o f hydro-  e l e c t r i c power s t a t i o n s i n t h e e l e c t r i c b a l a n c e o f t h e USSR amounted t o 1 3 . 6 p e r c e n t . D u r i n g t h e f i r s t 10 y e a r s a f t e r t h e Second World War the c a p a c i t y  o f h y d r o e l e c t r i c power s t a t i o n s i n c r e a s e d  1,427,000 kw. t o 5,986,000 kw.  from  By 1955 t h e r e e x i s t e d i n t h e  USSR 390 l a r g e power s t a t i o n s o f w h i c h 90 were h y d r o e l e c t r i c . I n a d d i t i o n i n 1955 t h e r e was a f u r t h e r 140 power s t a t i o n s under construction. The 1957,  S i x t h FYP (1955-1960), w h i c h was d i s c o n t i n u e d i n  provided that the t o t a l capacity  s t a t i o n s would i n c r e a s e  o f t h e t h e r m a l power  2.2 t i m e s (from 3 7 , 2 3 6 , 0 0 0 kw. i n 1955  t o 81,919,000 kw. i n I960) and o f h y d r o e l e c t r i c 2.7 t i m e s (from 5,986,000 kw. t o 16,162,000 kw.). The t o t a l o u t p u t o f e l e c t r i c  207 power was t o be i n c r e a s e d from 170, b i l l i o n kwh. t o 320 b i l l i o n kwh. o f w h i c h 1 8 . 5 p e r cent (59 b i l l i o n kwh.) was t o be produced i n HEPSs. The  f o l l o w i n g i m p o r t a n t l a r g e s c a l e p r o j e c t s were i n -  c l u d e d i n t h e S i x t h FYP:I n t h e European P a r t o f t h e RSFSR Complete t h e K u i b i s h e v  HEPS ( 2 , 1 0 0 , 0 0 0 kw.), S t a l i n g r a d HEPS  (planned o r i g i n a l l y a t 1 , 7 0 0 , 0 0 0 and r e - p l a n n e d a t 2 , 3 1 0 , 0 0 0 kw.) and V o t k i n s k  HEPS (540,000 kw.  1 , 0 0 0 , 0 0 0 kw. ) ^  Subsequently r a i s e d t o  S t a r t t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e S a r a t o v HEPS  ( 1 , 0 0 0 , 0 0 0 kw.), t h e Nizhne-Kamskaya HEPS ( a p p r o x . 9 0 0 , 0 0 0 kw.) and  o f t h e Cheboksarayskaya HEPS (approx. 800,000 kw.).  I n t h e U k r a n i a n SSSR. Complete t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f Khakhovka h y d r o e l e c t r i c power centre  (planned a t 2 , 5 0 0 , 0 0 0 kw. and r e - p l a n n e d a t 3 , 3 6 0 , 0 0 0 kw.) Construct  Kremenchug HEPS (450,000 kw., s u b s e q u e n t l y  r a i s e d t o 625,000 kw. ) / ^ D n e p r o d z e r s h i n s k HEPS (250,000 kw.), 2  Nevskaya I I I (Nevskaya I I was b u i l t i n 1934) and Knyazhegubskaya HEPS.  The l a s t two i n t h e N o r t h e r n P a r t o f European R u s s i a .  S t a r t c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e Kanyevskaya HEPS i n t h e U k r a i n and Vetibeskaya  HEPS, i n B y e l o r u s s i a .  I n G e o r g i a n SSR. B r i n g i n t o commission t h e Landazhurskaya, Khraraskaya, and  Tkibulskaya  Gumatskaya HEPS, as w e l l a s s t a r t c o n s t r u c t i o n o f D a r y a l -  skaya HEPS on t h e Terek. HEPS on t h e R i o n i .  Also s t a r t c o n s t r u c t i o n o f another  I n A z e r b a i j a n S3SR  2 0 8  S t a r t t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a n o t h e r HEPS on t h e K u r a . I n M o l d a v i a SSSR S t a r t t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e Kamenskaya HEPS on t h e D n e s t e r . In the B a l t i c  States  B r i n g i n t o commission t h e Kaunas HEPS on t h e Nemen and s t a r t on t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f the P l a v i n s k a y a  HEPS (120,000 kw.).  I n K i r g h i z SSSR S t a r t t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e Uch-Kurganskaya HEPS on t h e Naryn (112,000 kw.). S t a r t t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a n o t h e r P a a r i k h a n s k a y a HEPS;  and o f  two HEPS on t h e C h i s k i c a n a l . I n t h e Ta.jik SSSR Complete t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n of the Kara-Kum HEPS on t h e S y r Darya and o f t h e Perepadnaya HEPS on t h e V a k h s h s k i c a n a l on t h e Vakhsh. I n t h e Armenia SSSR Complete t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e Seven Razdan cascade HEPSs and s t a r t c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e T a t y e v s k a y a HEPS o f 100,000 kw. I n t h e K a r e l o - F j n n i s h Autonomous Area B r i n g i n t o commission t h e Ondskaya HEPS (80,000 kw.) and t h e Kumskaya HEPS.  B r i n g i n t o commission t h e V i g o s t r o v s k a y a  the P a l i e s a n d a l s k a y a  HEPS.  and  S t a r t the c o n s t r u c t i o n of the  I o v s k a y a HEPS (80,000 kw.). I n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e d e c i s i o n by t h e P a r t y t o d e v e l o p t h e E a s t e r n r e g i o n s , power development i n t h e E a s t e r n the USSR i s g a i n i n g i n c r e a s i n g l y g r e a t e r momentum.  part of  On t h e  I r t i s h , t h e "Dneproges o f K a z a k h s t a n " - t h e Ust-Kamenogorsk  HEPS -  has a l r e a d y been brought i n t o commission, w h i l e t h e f o l l o w i n g p r o j e c t s were t o be u n d e r t a k e n  209 S t a r t the construction  o f t h e S h u l b i n s k a y a and t h e  K a p c h a g a i s k a y a HEPS and b r i n g i n t o commission t h e h y d r o e l e c t r i c centre of the 0b  T  o f 400,000 kw  c  S t a r t on t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n  o f Kamenskaya HEPS on t h e  Ob' (500,000 kw.). The above two p r o j e c t s a r e t o be t h e beg i n n i n g o f t h e p o w e r f u l HEPS on t h e Ob'. Start the construction Yenisei  (3,200,000 kw.  o f t h e K r a s n o y a r s k HEPS on t h e  S u b s e q u e n t l y r a i s e d t o 4,200,000 kw.  )(D  T h i s i s t o be t h e f i r s t o f t h e HEPS u t i l i z i n g t h e power r e sources of t h i s  river.  B r i n g i n t o commission t h e I r k u t s k a y a  HEPS on t h e  Angara (660,000 kw.) and b r i n g i n t o commission t h e f i r s t o f t h e B r a t s k HEPS on t h e Angara. been 3,200,000 kw. t o 4,500,000 k w .  stage  B r a t s k c a p a c i t y was t o have  I t was r a i s e d t o 3,600,000 k w . ^  and l a t e r  ( 3 )  In s p i t e of the large scale construction  planned f o r  h y d r o e l e c t r i c power s t a t i o n s t h e i r share i n t h e t o t a l volume o f e l e c t r i c i t y produced was t o remain s m a l l . "However h i g h may be t h e tempo o f c o n s t r u c t i o n o f hydroe l e c t r i c p r o j e c t s , i n I960 81.5 p e r c e n t o f e l e c t r i c i t y w i l l be produced i n t h e r m a l power s t a t i o n s , and t h i s p e r centage w i l l d e c l i n e v e r y s l o w l y i n subsequent y e a r s . The d i r e c t i v e s o f t h e XX Congress o f t h e CPSU i n d i c a t e a huge program o f c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e r m a l power s t a t i o n s . These w i l l be c o n s t r u c t e d i n t h e European p a r t o f t h e USSR though the l a r g e s t i n d i v i d u a l p r o j e c t s w i l l be i n t h e A s i a t i c p a r t . For u s e i n t h e r m a l power s t a t i o n s t h e r e a r e i n S i b e r i a c o a l d e p o s i t s o f w o r l d magnitude a s w e l l as c o l o s s a l r e s e r v e s o f n a t u r a l g a s . There, on t h e c o a l d e p o s i t s s p r e a d i n c o l o s s a l m a s s i f s from t h e U r a l mountains t o t h e P a c i f i c Ocean, t h e l a r g e s t power s t a t i o n s can be c o n s t r u c t e d . ( 4 ) To be completed d u r i n g  t h e S i x t h FYP was t h e f i r s t  s t a g e o f a s i n g l e power system f o r European USSR.  T h i s was t o  210  consist of: a)  The C e n t r a l V o l g a s e c t i o n - c o v e r i n g t h e Moscow, Upper  V o l g a , Kazan, K u i b i s h e v , S a r a t o v , S t a l i n g r a d , A s t r a k h a n r e g i o n s and t h e C e n t r a l Chernozyom a r e a s o f Voronezh, L i p e t s k , Tambov, K u r s k , O r y o l . b)  The S o u t h e r n S e c t i o n - c o v e r i n g t h e Donetz b a s i n , R o s t o v ,  Dnepr a r e a , K i e v and Odessa systems. c)  The U r a l s S e c t i o n - c o v e r i n g t h e M o l o t o v ,  Chelyabinsk,  Sverdlovsk,  Chkalov r e g i o n s as w e l l a s t h e o i l p r o d u c i n g r e -  g i o n o f B a s h k i r and T a r t a r SSSRs. The system was expected t o cover an a r e a o f 2.2 square m i l e s and t o be t h e l a r g e s t i n Europe.  million  Subsequently i t  would i n c l u d e t h e N o r t h West S e c t i o n embracing t h e systems o f Leningrad,  L i t h u a n i a n SSSR, L a t v i a n SSSR, E s t o n i a n SSSR,  B y e l o r u s s i a n SSSR, K a r e l o - F i n n i s h a r e a , Murmansk d i s t r i c t and a l s o t h e C a u c a s i a n s e c t i o n , c o v e r i n g Armenian SSSR, A z e r b a i j a n SSSR, G e o r g i a n SSSR, and t h e N o r t h C a u c a s i a n system.  The s y s -  tem was t o be i n t e r c o n n e c t e d by means o f h i g h t e n s i o n l i n e s . I t was a l s o p l a n n e d a t a l a t e r d a t e t o l i n k t h e European system w i t h t h e S i b e r i a n , c o n s i s t i n g o f t h e K r a s n o y a r s k B r a t s k - I r k u t s k power system. I n t h i s c o n n e c t i o n i t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t i n 1956 a h i g h t e n s i o n l i n e o f 400 km. f r o m V o l g a HEPS t o Moscow was cons t r u c t e d , and i n 1958 a t r a n s m i s s i o n l i n e o f 500 km. was cons t r u c t e d from t h e V o l g a HEPS t o t h e U r a l s .  The h i g h t e n s i o n  l i n e l i n k i n g S t a l i n g r a d HEPS w i t h Moscow, a l s o 500 km. l o n g , has  211 been completed as w e l l .  This brings t o r e a l i z a t i o n the f i r s t  stage o f t h e f o r m a t i o n o f t h e European Power System Energeticheskaya  (Evropeiskaya  S i s t e m a - E.E.S.).  When t h e S i x t h FYP was abandoned and t h e Seven Year P l a n i n t r o d u c e d i n s t e a d (1958-1965) t h e new t a r g e t s d i d n o t d e p a r t i n p r i n c i p l e f r o m t h e o l d ones.  While addressing the  S p e c i a l 2 1 s t Congress o f t h e CPSU i n January 1959 N.S. Khrushchev s a i d : "Towards t h e c l o s e o f t h e coming Seven y e a r p e r i o d t h e o u t p u t o f e l e c t r i c power must r i s e t o 500-520,000 m i l l i o n kwh. a y e a r , w h i l e t h e r a t e d c a p a c i t y o f t h e power s t a t i o n w i l l be d o u b l e d . W i t h an 80 p e r cent r i s e i n i n d u s t r i a l o u t p u t , power consumption i n i n d u s t r y w i l l i n c r e a s e 120 per cent and e l e c t r i c power p e r worker w i l l n e a r l y d o u b l e . To w i n time and t o use c a p i t a l i n v e s t m e n t s f i c i e n t l y t h e Seven Y e a r P l a n c a l l s f o r t h e p r i o r i t y  most e f construc-  t i o n o f t h e r m a l power s t a t i o n s o p e r a t i n g on n a t u r a l gas, o i l and l o w grade c o a l s .  crude  P a r a l l e l w i t h p u t t i n g the thermal  power s t a t i o n s i n t o o p e r a t i o n p r o v i s i o n i s b e i n g made f o r t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f h y d r o e l e c t r i c power s t a t i o n s such as B r a t s k , Krasnoyarsk, and  Kremenchug, Bukhtarma ( o f 525,000 kw.),  Votkinsk,  others.  C o n s t r u c t i o n o f Thermal Power S t a t i o n s I n 1955,  o u t o f 170,225 m i l l i o n kwh. o f e l e c t r i c i t y  produced i n t h e USSR 147,060 m i l l i o n kwh. was produced i n t h e r mal power s t a t i o n s o f v a r i o u s t y p e s .  Besides  e l e c t r i c i t y , many  of t h e s e t h e r m a l power s t a t i o n s a l s o s u p p l i e d steam o r h o t water to be used f o r h e a t i n g purposes - t h i s t h e R u s s i a n s  call  " t y e p l i f i k a t s i a " which can be t r a n s l a t e d as " t h e r m i f i c a t i o n " .  212  T h i s secondary u s e o f b y - p r o d u c t heat r e s u l t e d i n a h i g h e r u t i l i z a t i o n o f f u e l , which i n t h e t h e r m i f i c a t i o n power s t a t i o n s i s 2 t o 2 . 5 t i m e s h i g h e r than i n o r d i n a r y  t h e r m a l power  stations. The  movement f o r mass t h e r m i f i c a t i o n was s t a r t e d i n  the USSR i n t h e e a r l y  3 0 i e s .  S i n c e then a l l major new e n t e r -  p r i s e s have t h e i r energy and heat from t h e t h e r m i f i c a t i o n stations. plants  A l l motor works (Moscow, Gorky, Y a r o s l a v l ' ) , t r a c t o r  (Kharkov, S t a l i n g r a d , A l t a i ) , the main heavy machine-  b u i l d i n g works ( U r a l , Donbass, S i b e r i a ) , p a p e r  combines  ( B a l a k h i n s k y , M a r r s k y , Syassky) t h e m a j o r i t y  o f t e x t i l e and  m e t a l l u r g i c a l combines - a l l have t h e i r own t h e r m i f i c a t i o n stations. The o n l y 14,  number o f t h e r m i f i c a t i o n s t a t i o n s i n 1930 was  and t h e i r a g g r e g a t e c a p a c i t y was  125,000  kw.  By  1940  the number grew t o 1 0 0 w i t h 2 . 5 m i l l i o n kw. and by 1 9 5 5 t o 2 0 0 w i t h 8 m i l l . kw.  Annual s u p p l y o f h e a t by t h e r m i f i c a t i o n  s t a t i o n s amounted i n 1 9 5 5 / 5 6 t o a p p r o x i m a t e l y 50 m i l l , megac a l o r i e s o r equal t o 3 m i l l i o n tons o f conventional f u e l . ^ * ^ Another source gave a n n u a l heat s u p p l i e d  as 1 0 0 m i l l i o n mega-  c a l o r i e s and an a n n u a l s a v i n g o f f u e l e q u a l t o 16.7 m i l l i o n t o n s of  fuel.  ( 2 )  In the majority turbines  o f t h e r m a l power s t a t i o n s steam from  a t a p r e s s u r e o f 1 . 2 t o 2 . 5 atmospheres i s used f o r  space h e a t i n g , w h i l e steam e x t r a c t e d atmospheres i s used f o r t e c h n o l o g i c a l I n Moscow t h e l e n g t h  a t high pressure of 8 - 1 5 purposes.  o f t h e h e a t d i s t r i b u t i n g network  213 exceeds 300 km. w h i l e i n s m a l l e r towns i t v a r i e s from 100 t o 150 km.  The r a d i u s o f d i s t r i c t s s u p p l i e d w i t h heat from t h e  s t a t i o n s v a r i e s from 6 - 8 greater.  km. and i n some cases i t i s even (1)  F o r example i n Kharkov t h e r a d i u s i s 12 km. Thus w h i l e t h e r m a l power s t a t i o n s c o n v e r t o n l y 30  p e r cent o f f u e l i n t o e l e c t r i c energy, t h e r m i f i c a t i o n s t a t i o n s u t i l i z e 60 - 70 per c e n t . From t h e time o f t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f Communism i n R u s s i a u n t i l a few months ago t h e o f f i c i a l p o l i c y was: a)  to u t i l i z e l o c a l f u e l s  b)  wherever p o s s i b l e , t o use l o w q u a l i t y f u e l s i n power s t a t i o n s . The f i r s t a r o s e from t h e d i s l o c a t i o n i n t r a n s p o r t  d u r i n g t h e e a r l i e r y e a r s and consequent s h o r t a g e o f f u e l i n t h e a r e a s away from t h e f u e l r e s o u r c e s , t h e second was a d e l i b e r a t e p o l i c y pursued by t h e l e a d e r s . "Our p l a n n e d economy used h i g h q u a l i t y f u e l s w i t h utmost c a r e . L i q u i d f u e l s go t o a v i a t i o n , motor t r a n s p o r t , c h e m i c a l i n d u s t r y . Good q u a l i t y c o a l i s used i n c o k i n g p l a n t s , i n c h e m i c a l i n d u s t r y and i n m e t a l l u r g y . C o a l o f i n f e r i o r q u a l i t y , r e j e c t s from c o a l i n d u s t r y , p e a t , o i l s h a l e , e t c . a r e used i n power s t a t i o n s . Such major t h e r m a l power s t a t i o n s K a s h i r s k a y a , Cherepetskaya near Moscow, C h e l y a b i n s k a y a , S v e r d l o v s k a y a , and o t h e r s burn l o c a l brown c o a l , w h i l e S h a t u r s k a y a , Gorkovskaya, Ivanovs k a y a , L e n i n g r a d s k a y a (Krasny O k t y a b r ) , Dubrovskaya and o t h e r s b u r n p e a t . How r a t i o n a l t h i s i s can be seen from t h e f a c t t h a t K a s h i r s k a y a power s t a t i o n s by u s i n g Moscow B a s i n brown c o a l , over t h e p e r i o d of i t s e x i s t e n c e has r e f r a i n e d from u s i n g more than a m i l l i o n wagons o f f u e l from t h e Donetz b a s i n . " ( 2 ) s  a  I n o r d e r t o make use o f t h e s e l o w q u a l i t y f u e l s "Our e n g i n e e r s succeeded i n d e s i g n i n g b o i l e r - a g g r e g a t e s w h i c h u t i l i z e d v e r y w e l l such f u e l s t h a t have been r e j e c t e d by a l m o s t a l l o t h e r branches o f t h e n a t i o n a l economy - f u e l s  214 w i t h a m o i s t u r e c o n t e n t o f 50 - 60 p e r cent ( U k r a n i a n l i g n i t e s , m i l l i n g peat ( f r e z e r n i i t o r f ) and a n t h r a c i t e d u s t ) . A t p r e s e n t a s o l u t i o n i s b e i n g found t o t h e problem o f b u r n i n g t h e c o l o s s a l d e p o s i t s o f c o a l t h a t o f t e n come t o t h e v e r y s u r f a c e w i t h a m o i s t u r e c o n t e n t o f $0 per cent and ash c o n t e n t o f 25 p e r cent - c o n t a i n i n g o n l y up t o £ o f c o m b u s t i b l e substance."(1) A l r e a d y i n 1940, 72 p e r cent o f t h e e n t i r e o u t p u t o f t h e major power s t a t i o n s was o b t a i n e d from l o c a l , l o w quality fuels.  Twenty p e r c e n t o f t h i s was o b t a i n e d from p e a t .  The p o l i c y o f u t i l i z i n g l o w q u a l i t y f u e l s remained a f t e r t h e war.  i n force  The F i f t h FYP saw t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n i n Donbass  of t h e M i r o n o v power s t a t i o n o f 400,000 kw., w o r k i n g on byp r o d u c t s o f c o a l p r o c e s s i n g p l a n t s and a n t h r a c i t e d u s t , g i v i n g t h e cheapest power i n Donbass.  I t was f o l l o w e d by t h e  S l a v y a n s k a y a r e g i o n a l power s t a t i o n o f 200,000 kw.  Commissioned  i n t h e South Kuzbass a r e a was t h e South Kuzbass r e g i o n a l power s t a t i o n o f 400,000 kw. o p e r a t i n g on t h e b y - p r o d u c t s o f t h e coal enriching plants.  Near Moscow t h e l a r g e  Cherepetskaya  R e g i o n a l Power S t a t i o n o f 600,000 kw. was c o n s t r u c t e d . By t h e end o f t h e F i f t y FYP t h e l a r g e s t  installed  c a p a c i t y o f any t h e r m a l power s t a t i o n d i d n o t exceed kw.  The XX Congress  600,000  o f t h e CPSU h e l d on 14 - 25 F e b r u a r y  1956  i n d i c a t e d t h a t i n c r e a s e s i n t h e c a p a c i t y o f r e g i o n a l power s t a t i o n s s h o u l d be a t t a i n e d t h r o u g h c o n s t r u c t i o n o f l a r g e power s t a t i o n s and i n s t a l l a t i o n o f a g g r e g a t e s o f 1 0 0 , 150 and 200,000 kw. and t h a t such power s t a t i o n s s h o u l d be p l a c e d i n t h e r e g i o n s where t h e f u e l i s e x t r a c t e d . The Seven Year P l a n p l a c e s even g r e a t e r emphasis on t h e  215 development o f t h e r m a l power s t a t i o n s o f l a r g e c a p a c i t y t u r b i n e c a p a c i t y o f up t o 600,000 kw. each.  with  By i n s t a l l i n g  l a r g e s i z e t u r b i n e s i t i s e x p e c t e d t o g a i n l a r g e s c a l e economies i n c a p i t a l i n v e s t m e n t s and a r e d u c t i o n i n f u e l and labour expenditures. I t has been suggested t h a t f o u r t y p i c a l models s h o u l d be used i n t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e r m a l power s t a t i o n s .  The  b e s t one i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be a t h e r m a l power s t a t i o n o f 2,400,000 kw. c o n s i s t i n g o f e i g h t a g g r e g a t e s o f 300,000 kw. each.  The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h i s power s t a t i o n i s t h a t t h e  p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h e c o a l d u s t t o be b u r n t i n the power s t a t i o n can be u n d e r t a k e n o u t s i d e t h e power s t a t i o n .  The p r e p a r e d d u s t  i s pumped i n t o bunkers and thence i n t o t h e f u r n a c e .  The b o i l e r  i s n o t b u i l t b u t assembled from p r e f a b r i c a t e d r e i n f o r c e d conc r e t e components, which r e d u c e s t h e c o s t o f c o n s t r u c t i o n . The second model i s o f 1,200,000 kw. c a p a c i t y s i x a g g r e g a t e s o f 200,000 kw. each;  with  the t h i r d type, p a r t i c u l -  a r l y s u i t a b l e f o r the southern r e g i o n s of the country i s of 600,000 kw. c o n s i s t i n g o f f o u r a g g r e g a t e s o f 150,000 kw. each, mounted i n t h e open a i r under awnings.  The f o u r t h model i s  a c o m p l e t e l y assembled t h e r m a l power s t a t i o n o f 400,000 kw. P r e l i m i n a r y c a l c u l a t i o n s show t h a t t h e c o s t o f cons t r u c t i o n o f such power s t a t i o n s s h o u l d n o t exceed 800 Roubles per kw. and t h a t t h e p e r i o d o f c o n s t r u c t i o n c o u l d be h a l v e d compared t o p r e s e n t r a t e s . ^  Another s o u r c e s t a t e s t h a t t h e  c o s t s o f c o n s t r u c t i o n i n t h e f i r s t t y p e o f power s t a t i o n c o u l d be reduced t o 620 Roubles p e r kw. (See t a b l e below - C a p i t a l  216 Investments  i n V a r i o u s S i z e Power S t a t i o n s ) .  I n the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f l a r g e s i z e t h e r m a l power s t a t i o n s the R u s s i a n s a r e a t p r e s e n t f o l l o w i n g the American example, though on a l a r g e r s c a l e , of b u i l d i n g b l o c k systems c o n s i s t i n g o f a b o i l e r , t u r b i n e , g e n e r a t o r and  transformer,  which makes the p r o d u c t i o n o f e l e c t r i c power b o t h cheaper and simpler. A c l e a r i n d i c a t i o n o f the improvement i n t h e work of t h e r m a l power s t a t i o n s i s t h e s y s t e m a t i c r e d u c t i o n i n the amount o f f u e l used t o produce one kwh. kg.  By 1954  I n 1913  t h i s amounted t o  i t was more than h a l v e d , amounting t o 497  (as a g a i n s t 432  gramms i n the U.S.A.).  1.06  gramms  (See Table below f o r  the d a t a on the r e d u c t i o n o f f u e l consumption i n E l e c t r i c Power S t a t i o n s i n the USSR). The d i r e c t i v e s o f XX Congress o f the CPSU s e t p r e c i s e t a s k s f o r the S i x t h FYP, w h i c h were l a t e r i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t h e p r e s e n t Sev'en Year P l a n . "In order to continue the i n c r e a s e i n the e f f i c i e n c y of o p e r a t i o n o f t h e power s t a t i o n s and t o reduce c o s t s , i t i s e s s e n t i a l t o use a t t h e l a r g e s i z e t h e r m a l power s t a t i o n s equipment f o r a steam p r e s s u r e o f 130 atmospheres a t a temperature of 565 C°, w i t h an i n t e r m e d i a r y s u p e r h e a t i n g o f steam b o i l e r - t u r b i n e s ; t o master the method of i n d u s t r i a l use o f t u r b i n e b l o c k s of 200,000 kw. f o r the steam p r e s s u r e o f 220 atmospheres a t 600 C°; to i n t r o d u c e t u r b i n e - b l o c k s o f 300,000 kw. f o r steam p r e s sure o f 300 atmospheres a t a temperature o f 65O G° as w e l l as a number o f e x p e r i m e n t a l and i n d u s t r i a l gas t u r b i n e power s t a t i o n s . " ( 1 ) I n a d d i t i o n the XX Congress a l s o advocated d u c t i o n of automation.  I t was  the  intro-  s t a t e d t h a t t h e t h e r m a l power  217  s t a t i o n s w o r k i n g d i r e c t l y on open c a s t c o a l mines can produce e l e c t r i c i t y a t 3-4 kopecks p e r k w h . ^  The l a t e s t p o l i c y i s  t o b u i l d power s t a t i o n s o f 600,000 t o 2,400,000 kw. a t t h e c o a l mines.  I t i s estimated  now t h a t e l e c t r i c i t y c o u l d be produced  i n S i b e r i a i n such l a r g e power s t a t i o n s a t 1-2 kopecks p e r kwh., and t h a t t h e c o s t o f e l e c t r i c i t y even when t r a n s m i t t e d t o t h e (2) U r a l s would n o t exceed 3 k o p e c k s . In connection w i t h the formation  o f power systems,  t r a n s m i s s i o n l i n e s l i n k i n g l a r g e s i z e power s t a t i o n s w i l l be constructed.  The t a b l e below g i v e s t h e p l a n n e d l e n g t h o f t r a n s -  m i s s i o n l i n e s and t h e l e n g t h p e r 1,000 kw.  Length of transmission i n thousands o f km. Ratio length  lines  (KM/1000 kw.)  1958  1965  1970  1975  1980 >  88.4  296  516  1000  1500  1.7  2.6  2.7  3.1  3.2  (3  The 1959-65 P l a n p r o v i d e s f o r t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f (4)  a p p r o x i m a t e l y 200,000 km. o f t r a n s m i s s i o n l i n e s , o f w h i c h 7,000 km. o f 400,000 - 500,000v. 3,700 km. o f 330,000 v. 32,000  km. o f 220,000 v.  77,000  km. o f 154 - 110,000 v.  35,000  km. o f  35,000 v.  I n t h e f u t u r e can be e x p e c t e d a s h i f t from l i n e s o f 400,000 -  5 0 0 , 0 0 0 v. o f t r a n s m i t t i n g c a p a c i t y  o f 1 m i l l . kw. and  218  1,000 of  km. l o n g t o t r a n s m i s s i o n l i n e s o f a l t e r n a t i n g c u r r e n t  600,000 v. and d i r e c t c u r r e n t o f 800 - 1,200,000 v. o f  t r a n s m i t t i n g c a p a c i t y o f s e v e r a l m i l l i o n kw. and 2 - 3,000 km. long.  1 1 1  The d a t a g i v e n above r e f e r t o t h e s o c i a l i z e d s e c t o r o n l y , and c o n s e q u e n t l y do not i n c l u d e a g r i c u l t u r e , f o r which s e p a r a t e f i g u r e s a r e g i v e n below. Electric  Energy i n A g r i c u l t u r e Up t o the p r e s e n t time a l l S o v i e t programs o f e l e c -  t r i f i c a t i o n have been m a i n l y concerned w i t h i n d u s t r y .  In  1940  a l l the K o l k h o z e s , Sovkhozes and MTSs consumed 425 m i l l . of  kwh.  e l e c t r i c i t y , which was l e s s than one per cent o f t h e  total.  K  In 1955 a g r i c u l t u r e used two per cent of t h e t o t a l s u p p l y o f electricity stalled  (3.5 b i l l i o n kwh.  out o f 170,225).  I n 1954  the i n -  c a p a c i t y o f the a g r i c u l t u r a l power s t a t i o n s amounted t o  1.5 m i l l . kw. and a g r i c u l t u r e consumed 1.5 b i l l i o n kwh.  In  o n l y 20 per c e n t o f K o l k h o z e s i n t h e USSR had e l e c t r i c i t y . t h a t time 10 per cent o f Sovkhozes and 5 per c e n t o f MTS, enjoyed s p e c i a l government s u p p o r t , s t i l l had no I t i s estimated that only f o r e l e c t r i f i c a t i o n a g r i c u l t u r e w i l l be r e q u i r e d 20 b i l l i o n Electric  1954 At  which  electricity.  of s t a t i o n a r y  kwh.  power f o r K o l h o z e s comes from t h e i r own  small  power s t a t i o n s and the c o s t o f power t o K o l k h o z e s reaches 1 Rouble per kwh.,  compared w i t h 10 kopecks per kwh.  i n regional  t h e r m a l power s t a t i o n s and l e s s than 1 kopeck i n the l a t e s t type h y d r o e l e c t r i c power s t a t i o n s .  219 I n 1956  o f 21,000 k o l k h o z e s u s i n g e l e c t r i c power f o r  p r o d u c t i o n purposes o n l y 25 p e r cent used e l e c t r i c power f o r m e c h a n i z a t i o n o f p r o c e s s e s on f a r m s . ^  A l t h o u g h more a t t e n -  t i o n i s being paid t o supplying a g r i c u l t u r e w i t h the necessary e l e c t r i c power c a p a c i t y t h e l a g , accumulated  over t h e e n t i r e  p e r i o d o f t h e S o v i e t r u l e , w i l l t a k e a l o n g t i m e t o make up.  220  TABLE X V I I I  F u e l Consumption i n Thermal Power S t a t i o n s i f t h e USSR. i n grammes p e r kwh. 1060  1913  (  1  )  1932  76l< >  1935  7 0 0 ^  1940  596<  1941  5*0  1944/45  572  2  ^ (  1  )  539(2)  1950  4 9 7  1954 I960  2 )  (planned)  (  1  )  420* ) 1  1.  A.V. V i n t e r and M a r k i n , A.B. S t r a n i pages 3 9 , 6 7 .  2.  S o v i e t S t u d i e s , Volume I V ,  Elektrifikatsia  1952-1953.  Nashei  221  TABLE XIX  Data on the Water Power P o t e n t i a l o f European and A s i a t i c T e r r i t o r i e s o f the USSRvU Method o f Estimate  T h e o r e t i c a l probable gross p o t e n t i a l (Approximate estimate) T h e o r e t i c a l gross p o t e n t i a l (taking i n t o account 1477 rivers)  Territory  10 kw.  10 kwh  USSR  420  3680  USSR  340  2978  100  133.7  60  528  17.7  104.6  280  2450  82.3  143.0  Europe & the Caucasus Asia  1. Source:  %  Thous.kwh. per sq.km.  Dr. A.N. Voznesensky, Water Power Resources o f the USSR and T h e i r E x p l o i t a t i o n . F i f t h World Power Conference, 1956. Vienna. Volume 13. p.4693  2.22  Twenty-one Largest R i v e r s o f the USSR P o t e n t i a l Water Power Resources Basin  River  10 kw. 6  10 kv 9  Laptev Sea  18358  161  Enysei  Kara Sea  18213  160  Angara  Yenisei  9879  86  Amur  Sea o f Okhotsk  6432  56  Indigirka  Eastern S i b e r i a  6199  54  Volga  Caspian Sea  6196  54  Narin  Syr Darya  5944  52  Pyrandj  Amu Darya  5822  51  Ob  Kara Sea  5735  50  Aldan  Lena  5510  48  Vitim  Lena  5425  48  Kolima  E a s t e r n S i b e r i a n Sea  5248  46  Lower Tungu  Enisei  4146  36  Hatanga  Laptev Sea  4106  36  Vakhsh  Amu Darya  4072  36  Olekma  Lena  4007  35  Amu Darya  A r a l Sea  3834  34  Katun  Ob  3753  33  Irtish  Ob  3177  28  Bartang  Amu Darya  2429  21  Vilui  Lena  2425  21  Lena  2.23 TABLE XXI, C a p a c i t y o f Power S t a t i o n s and Output o f E l e c t r i c Power 1913 - I960(3) A l l Power S t a t i o n s Year 1913 J ! 1913^2) 1916 1917 1918 1919 1920 1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938 1939 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 1946 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1  Hydro-elec.Power S t .  000 kw.  rail.kwh.  000 kw.  1,H1 1,098 1,192  2,039 1,945 2,575  16 16 16  35 35 37  1,228 1,247 1,279 1,308 1,397 1,586 1,698 1,905 2,296 2,875 3,972 4,677 5,583 6,315 6,923 7,529 8,235 8,941 9,894 11,193  520 775 1,146 1,562 2,925 3,508 4,205 5,007 6,224 8,368 10,686 13,540 16,357 21,011 26,288 32,837 36,173 39,366 43,203 48,309  18 19 21 23 26 89 103 121 126 128 130 504 740 840 896 956 1,044 1,173 1,295 1,587  10 12 20 30 40 50 256 430 462 555 592 812 1,250 2,376 3,676 4,013 4,184 5,084 4,705 5,133  12,338 13,677 15,157 17,149 19,614 22,117 25,250 28,602 32,815 37,236  48,571 56,491 66,341 78,257 91,226 104,002 119,116 134,325 150,695 170,225  1,427 1,857 2,191 2,798 3,218 3,338 3,814 4,520 5,135 5,986  mil.kwh.  . 6,046^) 7,283 9,369 11,512 12,691 13,722 14,908 19,201 18,561 23,165 (continued)  224  C a p a c i t y o f Power S t a t i o n s and Output o f E l e c t r i c Power 1913 - I 9 6 0 ( 3 ) ( c o n t i n u e d ) . A l l Power S t a t i o n s 000 kw.  Year 1956 1957 1958 1959 I960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1975 1980 1990 2000  Hydro-elec.Power S t .  mil.kwh.  000 kw.  53,000 (6)  233,000  81,919  320,000 (9)  mil.kwh.  46,500(7) 16,162  (6P) 59,000 (5)  (10) 500-520 ( )/55p_7 6  1000(900)  ( 8 )  91,600  (7)  (940)  2300(8)(2400)(ID 10-15000 kwh - 40 - 50000 kwh p e r inhabitant  Source:(1)  Within present  frontiers.  (2)  W i t h i n f r o n t i e r s p r i o r t o S e p t . 1917.  (3)  Promishlennost'  (4)  P r o m i s h l e n n o s t ' SSSR. S t a t i s t i c h e s k i G o s p o l i t i z d a t . 1957. Moscow.  (5)  Compiled on t h e b a s i s o f i n f o r m a t i o n g i v e n i n P r o m i s h l e n n o s t ' SSSR, p. 171 and i n E l e k t r i f i k a t s i a N a s h e i S t r a n i - p. 171.  (6)  Yageman D. struction.  (7)  P r o b s t A. Problems o f Development o f t h e F u e l Economy of t h e USSR. Voprosy Ekonomiki I 9 6 0 . I I I . p. 23.  SSSR. G o s p o l i t i z d a t . Moscow 1957. Sbornik.  Economic Problems o f Power P r o j e c t s ConVoprosy Ekonomiki I 9 6 0 . I I . p. 9 6 .  (continued)  225  (8)  Neporozhni P. The Problems o f Power I n d u s t r y C o n s t r u c t i o n s . Planovoye K h o z y a i s t v o . I960. I I I .  (9)  The P l a n o f Development o f t h e N a t i o n a l Economy o f t h e USSR f o r I 9 6 0 . Planovoye K h o z y a i s t v o 1959. X I . p. 14.  (10)  Neporozhni P.S. S p e a k i n g a t B r a t s k on 24.8.1960. P r a v d a 25.8.1960.  (11)  P o s p e l o v P.N. V . I . L e n i n and t h e B u i l d i n g o f Communism i n t h e USSR. V e s t n i k Akademii Nauk. June. I 9 6 0 , pp. 7-21.  TABLE XXII  Power S t a t i o n s o f USSR grouped a c c o r d i n g t o f u e l used - i n 1 9 5 5 . ^  No. o f power s t a t i o n s . 107.805 A l l power s t a t i o n s s t a t i o n a r y and m o b i l e : o f which H y d r o e l e c t r i c power Oil fuel Coal Peat Shale Firewood N a t u r a l Gas Gas g e n e r a t o r Other gas f u e l s Other s o u r c e s o f power M o b i l e power s t a t i o n s o f which Oil fuel Coal Wood N a t u r a l gas Generator Gas Other s o u r c e s o f power  Capacity 000.kw.  Output o f E l . power b i l . k w h ,  37,236 5,986 6,233 20,473 2,234 274 528 591 67 541 309  170,225 23,165 15,290 109,139 12,422 1,3U 1,091 3,066 77 3,748 913  1,318  2,273  1,021 205 49 29 11 3  1,341 730 45 132 8 17 (continued)  Source:  (1)  P r o m i s h l e n n o s t ' SSSR. G o s p o l i t i z d a t . Moscow 1957. pp. 178, 186.  i M  Power S t a t i o n s of USSR grouped according t o f u e l used - i n 1955. R u r a l Power S t a t i o n s No. o f power s t a t i o n s  Capacity  (continued).  Output of E l e c t r i c power m i l . kwh.  40,843  1905.1  2626.0  5,818  410.4  686.3  31,082  1306.0  1749.5  W od  2,443  100.2  89.0  Coal  791  55.1  73.5  Peat  250  12.6  10.4  5  0.3  0.3  12  0.5  0.9  390  18.2  14.1  5  0.2  0.1  47  1.6  1.9  Total of which Hydro E l e c t r i c Oil  burning  0  Shale N a t u r a l Gas Generator Gas Wind-drive Other  sources  TABLE  XXIII  C a p i t a l Investments i n V a r i o u s S i z e Power S t a t i o n s .  (1)  C a p a c i t y of t h e Station i n t h o u s . kw.  No. of Turbines  Turbine Capacity in 100 kw.  100  2  50  1,408  450  5.40  300  3  100  1,170  372  2.06  600  3  200  925  361  0.85  1,200  4  300  850  331  0.48  1,800  3  600  655  324  0.36  2,400  4  600  620  324  0.30  Source:  (1)  Cpt. i n v e s t , i n R. per kw.installed  F u e l expend, ( i n gr/kwh of c u r r e n t Fuel).  Labour Coe f f . 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