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A survey of British Columbia penitentiary Matheson, Malcolm Angus 1958

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A SURVEY OF THE BRITISH COLUMBIA PENITENTIARY by MALCOLM ANGUS MATHESON B.A., University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1953 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the Department of ANTHROPOLOGY, SOCIOLOGY AND CRIMINOLOGY We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l 1958 ABSTRACT The thesis i s an appraisal of the plant, inmate training programme, and administration of the B r i t i s h Columbia Penitentiary. A primary emphasis i s placed upon the r e h a b i l i t a t i v e implications of inherent problems. An h i s t o r i c a l view of the penitentiary system i s followed by descriptive data and an evaluation of the physical structure of the i n s t i t u t i o n . A survey of the inmate t r a i n i n g programme i s presented i n Chapter IV. S p e c i f i c material i s included regarding s t a f f , f a c i l i t i e s , and basic p o l i c i e s and procedures. An evaluation i s made i n r e l a t i o n to modern practices i n t h i s area. -: Chapter V contains a description and evaluation of the administrative organization and practices within the i n s t i t u t i o n . These factors are .measured against accepted pr i n c i p l e s of administration. Chapter VI restates the problem and procedures employed i n t h i s study with sections devoted to a summary of the c r i t i c i s m s , merits, and recommendations for reform. I t i s fundamentally concluded that the B r i t i s h Columbia Penitentiary has demonstrated a noteworthy capacity for growth i n terms of inmate r e h a b i l i t a t i o n , but that numerous s p e c i f i c improvements are prerequisite to the attainment of optimal inmate r e h a b i l i t a t i v e service. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The writer i s indebted to several persons for th e i r assistance i n the preparation of thi s t h e s i s . Mr. Elmer K. Nelson, Associate Professor of Criminology, edited a l l chapters and suggested many corrections and numerous additions which contributed greatly to the thoroughness of research and continuity of organization. The writer i s also indebted to the Warden and s t a f f of the B r i t i s h Columbia Penitentiary who acquainted the writer with the intimate d e t a i l s of the operation of the i n s t i t u t i o n without which the findings of t h i s study would lack v a l i d i t y . A spe c i a l obligation i s owed to Major-General R.B. Gibson, Commissioner of P e n i t e n t i a r i e s , f o r his permission to allow t h i s study to be made. TABLE OF CONTENTS. CHAPTER PAGE I. FORMULATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE PROBLEM . . . 1 Purpose of the Study 1 Statement of the Problem 3 Sources of Data 5 The Method Employed i n the Study . 6 Limitations of the Study 9 I I . ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE CANADIAN PENITENTIARY SYSTEM 12 Pre-Confederation Era 12 Second Period, 1867-I875 14 Third Period, I875-I918 17 Fourth Period, 1918-1946 20 F i f t h Period, 1946-1957 24 I I I . PENITENTIARY PLANT 30 Description of the Penitentiary 30 Acreage 30 Prison Building 30 Wall 31 Administration Building . . 32 Housing and F a c i l i t i e s . . . 33 Close Confinement Area 37 Kitchen 38 Garbage and Sewage Disposal . . . . . . . . 39 V CHAPTER PAGE Shops 39 Hospital 40 School . 40 Library 40 Chapels 41 Gymnasium and exercise yard 41 Storage 42 Power and Water supply 43 F i r e protection 43 Motor Transport 44 Evaluation and Recommendations 44 Present Housing 44 New Housing . . 50 Kitchen . . 56 Shops 56 Hospital 58 Floor space and reconstruction 59 Power plant 62 Penitentiary reserve . . 62 Synopsis . . . . . . . . . 64 IV. INMATE TRAINING PROGRAMME 66 C l a s s i f i c a t i o n 66 Personnel 66 C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Process 67 Psychological and Psych i a t r i c Services . . . 69 v i CHAPTER PAGE Personnel 69 Psychological services 69 P s y c h i a t r i c services 70 Transfer to Mental Hospital 71 Medical and Dental Services 72 Personnel 72 Hospital service 73 Deaths i n the i n s t i t u t i o n 74 Physical Examinations . . . . 75 Sick c a l l 75 Medication 76 Secondary physical examination 77 Venereal disease programme 77 Surgical programme 77 Tuberculosis programme 78 Dental programme 78 Provision of Orthopedic and Prosthetic appliances 79 I n s t i t u t i o n a l sanitation 79 D i s c i p l i n e 79 Outside consultation 80 Expenditures 80 Educational Programme 80 Personnel . . . . 80 Objectives, methods and programme of the academic school 82 v i i CHAPTER PAGE Studies outside of the classroom 86 Library service 86 A f f i l i a t i o n s of the school 89 Correspondence courses 89 Specialized Adult education 9! Leisure time a c t i v i t i e s 92 Inmate organizations 94 Religious Programme 94 Personnel 94 Religious services 96 Inmate D i s c i p l i n e 96 Rights of an inmate . 96 I n s t i t u t i o n a l rules 97 Offences and punishments 97 S i l e n t periods . 100 Remission and remuneration 100 Remission 100 Ticket-of-leave 101 Remuneration 102 Community Contacts 102 Mail p r i v i l e g e s 102 V i s i t i n g p r i v i l e g e s 105 Vocational Training 108 Programme 108 Selection of trainees 110 Courses 113 v i i i CHAPTER PAGE Ind u s t r i a l Programme . . . . 115 Personnel 115 Industries 118 Assignment to industries 119 Training 119 Wages 120 Accident prevention 120 Farm 121 Personnel 121 Acreage 122 Farm operations 122 Assignment of inmates . . 123 Training 124 Wages _ 124 Purchases 124 Evaluation and Recommendations 125 C l a s s i f i c a t i o n 127 C l a s s i f i c a t i o n process . 127 Reception programme . 130 C l a s s i f i c a t i o n summary 130 C l a s s i f i c a t i o n meeting 131 R e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n 132 Psychological and Psych i a t r i c Services . . . . 132 Psychological services . . . 132 P s y c h i a t r i c services 133 i x CHAPTER PAGE Medical and Dental Services 134 Educational Services . . . . 135 Academic education 135 Library . * . 138 Vocational t r a i n i n g 141 Training at work 148 Vocational a g r i c u l t u r e 15° Religious services 151 Correctional Industries 151 Inmate D i s c i p l i n a r y Programme 153 Remission and Remuneration 155 Remission 155 Remuneration 155 Community Contacts 156 Mail p r i v i l e g e s 156 V i s i t i n g p r i v i l e g e s 156 Guidance and Counselling Programme 157 Professional counselling 157 Lay counselling 158 S o c i a l Education Programme 160 Personnel 161 Inmate advisory council l 6 l Research 165 Synopsis 1&5 X CHAPTER PAGE V. ADMINISTRATION I67 Organization 167 Authority 167 Warden 168 Deputy Warden 168 Chief Keeper 170 P r i n c i p a l Keeper . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171 Keeper 171 Guard 172 Plant Engineer 173 Storekeeper 173 Steward 174 Appointments 175 Recruitment of s t a f f 175 Training 175 Promotion—policies and procedures . . . . l 8 l D i s c i p l i n a r y action against o f f i c e r s . . . 184 Personnel , 185 S h i f t s 186 F i s c a l Management 187 Personnel , 187 Purchasing, auditing, and paying 187 The budget procedure 188 Bookkeeping and records 188 Requisitions 188 x i CHAPTER PAGE Inmate tr u s t fund 188 Petty cash fund 190 Reports 190 Costs of operation 191 Survey Board 191 Inmate Population 192 Number 192 Duration of sentence 192 Age of inmates 194 Previous convictions . . . . 194 Admission and quarantine 198 Housing assignment 201 Daily Routine 201 Discharge 202 Juvenile offenders 204 Evaluation and Recommendations 204 Structure of Organization 205 Grouping a c t i v i t i e s 205 Span of control 210 Unity of command 211 Line and,staff relationships 213 Plan and Description of organization . . . . 2l6 Dynamics of Organization and Management . . . . 217 Delegation of authority 217 Decentralization 218 x i i CHAPTER PAGE Factors to be considered f o r further research 222 Synopsis 224 VI. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS . . . ... . . . . 226 Problem and Procedures . . . . . . 226 Conclusions 227 Penitentiary plant . 227 Inmate t r a i n i n g programme . 228 Administration . 228 Recommendations • 229 Penitentiary plant . . . . . . . 229 Inmate t r a i n i n g programme . . . . . 230 Administration 231 Problems for Further Study 232 BIBLIOGRAPHY 234 x i i i LIST OF TABLES TABLE PAGE I. Farm Production of the B r i t i s h Columbia Penitentiary for the f i s c a l year 1955-1956 126 I I . Duration of Sentences Among Inmate Population of the B r i t i s h Columbia Penitentiary on March 31, 1956 193 I I I . Ages of the Inmate Population of the B r i t i s h Columbia Penitentiary on March 31, 1956 195 IV. Number of Previous Convictions Among Inmate Population of the B r i t i s h Columbia Penitentiary on March 31, 1956 196 V. Recidivism of B r i t i s h Columbia Penitentiary Inmate Population 197 x i v LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE PAGE I. Present Organization Chart of the B r i t i s h Columbia Penitentiary 208 I I . Proposed Organization Chart of the B r i t i s h Columbia Penitentiary 209 CHAPTER I FORMULATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE PROBLEM Purpose of the Study The operation of federal penitentiaries has, i n past years, been made the subject of a number of studies and i n q u i r i e s . A l l of these, however, were made of the system as a whole and, consequently, any conclusions reached or recommendations made were broad and general i n nature. Valuable as these studies proved to be i n providing guidance on matters of general p o l i c y , t h e i r broad scope made i t impossible to make recommendations taking into account the l i m i t a t i o n s , or problems, which are peculiar to an in d i v i d u a l i n s t i t u t i o n such as the B r i t i s h Columbia Penitentiary. It was f e l t that a study, to be useful as a guide to a s s i s t i n the future development of an i n s t i t u t i o n , must take into account the i n d i v i d u a l i t y of that i n s t i t u t i o n and the extent to which i t d i f f e r s from others i n i t s purpose, personnel, types of inmate, and human and material resources. Accordingly, i n October, 1954» permission was obtained from Major-General R.B. Gibson, Commissioner of Pe n i t e n t i a r i e s , to have a survey made of the B r i t i s h Columbia Penitentiary, the purpose of which was to study the operation of the penitentiary, to consider i t s sp e c i a l problems and, i n t h i s way, to offer recommendations to the Warden regarding i t s 2 future development. Thus, the thesis was planned primarily to provide i t s writer with a learning experience and secondarily to provide an objective appraisal of the prison programme i n terms of standards i n the correctional f i e l d . The views and opinions expressed are those of the writer and not necessarily the penitentiary a u t h o r i t i e s . It i s also hoped that t h i s survey, by providing a detailed description of the operation of a maximum security prison, w i l l make a contribution to the general l i t e r a t u r e of penology. This study provides a record which may be of some value to those making s i m i l a r studies and may also supply some insights and material to the student of penology i n a f i e l d where there are few comprehensive accounts of the operation of an i n s t i t u t i o n . Furthermore, i t i s hoped that t h i s survey may be repeated at a l a t e r date to provide a basis f o r comparison by noting and evaluating the d i r e c t i o n of change. Such surveys, i f repeated over a period of years, may also be useful i n showing trends, and thus form a basis for the prediction of future growth or development. If we c l a s s i f y the previous broad studies of the penitentiary system as being on the f i r s t l e v e l of analysis, we may think of the present study of an i n d i v i d u a l i n s t i t u t i o n as carrying the process of analysis a step further to the second l e v e l . This i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n of analysis i s not only of value i n i t s e l f , but may also outline, define, or indicate areas i n which an even more intensive analysis, which we may c a l l the t h i r d l e v e l , would be advisable. 3 Statement of the Problem With regard to the foregoing statement of purpose, i t was the aim of t h i s study (1) to describe the present physical plant, inmate t r a i n i n g programme, and administrative organiza-t i o n and procedures of the B r i t i s h Columbia Penitentiary; (2) to compare the plant, programme, and administration with authoritative modern standards i n each of these areas; (3) and on the basis of that comparison to evaluate the present operation of the penitentiary with a view to presenting constructive recommendations to the Warden for the future development of the i n s t i t u t i o n . In terms of the above problem the f i r s t area selected for study was the physical plant of the i n s t i t u t i o n , as a l l other aspects of the organization must operate i n terms of the actual plant and f a c i l i t i e s a v a i l a b l e . Thus, Chapter III contains a description and evaluation of the penitentiary reserve; housing f a c i l i t i e s ; administrative area; service f a c i l i t i e s such as the kitchen, h o s p i t a l , power plant; and inmate t r a i n i n g f a c i l i t i e s which include the school, l i b r a r y , shops, chapels, and exercise yard. In the consideration of these f a c t o r s , c e r t a i n aspects and problems were uppermost i n the study. In dealing with the penitentiary reserve, i n t e r e s t was focused on i t s s i z e , topography, location, and adequacy to serve the i n s t i t u t i o n ' s needs. In studying the housing f a c i l i t i e s , emphasis was placed upon t h e i r a b i l i t y to accommodate the inmate population, 4 t h e i r maintenance, v e n t i l a t i o n , heat, l i g h t , and eff e c t on the in d i v i d u a l inmate from a r e h a b i l i t a t i v e standpoint. Administra-t i o n of the penitentiary was examined with p a r t i c u l a r regard to the location of administrative a c t i v i t y , the area a l l o t t e d to various aspects of the administrative programme, and the f a c i l i t i e s available to the administrative s t a f f . The service and inmate t r a i n i n g f a c i l i t i e s were viewed from the standpoint of capacity, l o c a t i o n , standards observed, and equipment a v a i l a b l e . This led into a study of the inmate tr a i n i n g and r e h a b i l i t a t i v e programme operating within the i n s t i t u t i o n . Chapter IV contains a description of the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n process, psychological and psychiatric services, medical and dental services, educational programme for inmates, r e l i g i o u s services, inmate d i s c i p l i n a r y programme, remission and remuneration, community contacts with inmates, vocational t r a i n i n g , and the I n d u s t r i a l and farm programme. In the evaluation of t h i s t r a i n i n g and r e h a b i l i t a t i v e programme, int e r e s t was focused on the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n process with respect p a r t i c u l a r l y to i t s procedures and available f a c i l i t i e s ; on the psychological and psychiatric services as to the scope and means of providing services i n these areas; on the medical and dental services as to t h e i r capacity to meet the needs of the i n s t i t u t i o n , and the most e f f e c t i v e means of coping with d i f f i c u l t medical problems; on a l l educational services as to the adequacy of s t a f f , f a c i l i t i e s and methods employed; on the d i s c i p l i n a r y programme as to i t s effectiveness; and on the 5 guidance and counselling, s o c i a l education, and research programmes as to th e i r adequacy and th e i r p o s s i b i l i t i e s for expansion. F i n a l l y i n Chapter V, the administrative organization of the i n s t i t u t i o n i s described and evaluated. This chapter describes the duties of various administrative positions i n the i n s t i t u t i o n , f i s c a l management procedures, and the composition and processing of the inmate population. In the evaluation of t h i s area, int e r e s t was focused on both the structure and dynamics of organization and management. From the standpoint of structure, we examined the grouping of a c t i v i t i e s , span of control, unity of command, l i n e and s t a f f r e l a t i o n s h i p s , and f i n a l l y the plan and description of the organization. In considering the dynamics of organization, delegation of authority and decentralization were assessed, and some comments made on control, co-ordination and communica-t i o n . Chapter VI contains a restatement of the problem and procedures of the study, a summary of the conclusions and recommendations, and some suggestions as to problems considered to be s i g n i f i c a n t f or future study. Sources of Data The annual reports of the Penitentiary Service proved to be a r i c h source of data. In addition to these reports, much valuable material was provided by the Report of the Committee to Advise Upon the Revision of the Penitentiary Regulations and Amendment of the Penitentiary Act 1921, 6 Penitentiary Regulations 1933? Report of the Royal Commission to Investigate the Penal System of Canada 1938, Penitentiary Act 1939> Penitentiary O f f i c e r s ' Handbook 1952, and the c i r c u l a r s of the Penitentiary Service. With respect to the B r i t i s h Columbia Penitentiary i n p a r t i c u l a r , sources of data included: f i l e s , reports and d i r e c t i v e s ; interviews with o f f i c e r s i n charge of s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t i e s ; and recorded notes taken on observations i n and about the i n s t i t u t i o n . The Method Employed i n the Study This was a general descriptive-evaluative survey which covered the three main areas of the study i n a broad fashion. The f i r s t step, i n the information-gathering phase, was the analysis of the problem i n the form of a questionnaire-schedule. Such a schedule was taken l a r g e l y from volume f i v e "Prisons," of the "Attorney General Survey of Release Procedures." This schedule presented c e r t a i n d i r e c t advan-tages i n that i t (1) assisted i n "thinking c l e a r l y and uniformly as to the minimum essentials of the ques-'1 t i o n (under) study"; (2) made ce r t a i n that "The observation (was) s p e c i f i c , not just looking around for general impressions, with c a r e f u l l y defined things to 1 Wilson Gee, S o c i a l Science Research Methods (Appleton Century-Crofts Inc., New York, 1950), p. 302. 7 2 look f o r , " (3) and " i t (was) assumed that better judgement (could) be obtained concerning the s i g n i f i c a n t aspects of an object or s i t u a t i o n by centering attention on one aspect at a 3 time." Although the text "Methods of Research" was read a f t e r the f i e l d work was completed the points taken from i t are presented here to express the intentions which were i n the mind of the writer when he undertook the survey. The next step was the gathering of the data outlined i n the schedule. For t h i s purpose, f i e l d work was ca r r i e d out at the i n s t i t u t i o n for a period of seven months, from October 1954 to A p r i l 1955. During t h i s period, observations were made and recorded by means of notes taken on the scene. Such observations covered the physical plant, the inmate tr a i n i n g programme, aspects of administration, and such service a c t i v i t i e s as maintenance, feeding and sick l i n e . Next came the interviewing of key personnel i n the i n s t i t u t i o n , who were able to describe the operations for which they were responsible. Such personnel included the Warden, Deputy Warden, C l a s s i f i c a t i o n O f f i c e r , Chief Vocational O f f i c e r , Chief Trade Instructor, Chief Engineer, Accountant, P r i n c i p a l Keeper, Protestant Chaplain, 2 C.V. Good and D.E. Scates, Methods of Research (Appleton Crofts Inc., New York, 1954), p. 64«3. 8 Schoolmaster-Librarian, Hospital O f f i c e r and others. The information, obtained from these o f f i c i a l s i n response to the items on the survey schedule, was recorded at the time of the interview. Much additional information was gained from informal talks with o f f i c e r s who were on the job performing s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t i e s . The interview technique was used extensively, and along with the observation of f a c i l i t i e s and a c t i v i t i e s , was the major source of information. To obtain more detailed information i n c e r t a i n areas the questionnaire technique was u t i l i z e d . Such was the case i n the area of medical services, vocational t r a i n i n g , and i n d u s t r i a l a c t i v i t i e s . Question-naires, asking for detailed facts and fi g u r e s , which could not be r e a d i l y obtained i n an interview, were sent to the Chief Vocational O f f i c e r , Chief Trade Instructor, and Hospital O f f i c e r . These questions were part of the survey schedule u t i l i z e d f or t h i s study. A l l of these o f f i c e r s were kind enough to return complete reports with a l l of the requested information. This data was incorporated into the body of the the s i s , along with the other data gained from observation and interviews. Once the information gathering phase was completed and recorded, a study was made of the accepted p r i n c i p l e s of correc t i o n a l administration which, together with the impressions gained during the f i e l d work, formed the basis for the evaluation and recommendations presented. 9 Limitations of the Study In carrying out a survey of this nature, there are no instruments which provide objective measurements, or processes by which the accuracy of the phenomena observed may be judged. Rather, one must depend on the subjective judgement of the observer, and because of t h i s , must be aware of the l i m i t a t i o n s involved i n t h i s technique. F i r s t , there i s the question as to the accuracy of observation and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . A person makes a judgement, not from a s p e c i f i c observation of a p a r t i c u l a r item, but from the impact of a whole system of thought upon that p a r t i c u l a r f a c t , not by i t s e l f , but as an item i n a background s i t u a t i o n , and also as one of many facts that belong to a cert a i n c l a s s . Observation i s thus conditioned heavily by expectancy. Observation i s predominantly the functioning of a pattern that has been established i n the mind, th i s pattern being aroused by something In the objective s i t u a t i o n which suggests that i t i s the appropriate mental pattern to f i t the situation.4 Thus, there i s a tendency for one's observations and judgements to be conditioned, or influenced, by pre-established conceptions and thought patterns. Therefore, the s i t u a t i o n being observed may be perceived i n d i f f e r e n t ways by d i f f e r e n t observers, and i t may vary with the same in d i v i d u a l from time to time. Secondly, i n the construction of a survey schedule, "A question arises concerning the i s o l a t i o n of elements that are the c r u c i a l ones. It i s possible that i n evaluating 4 Ibid., p. 662. 1 0 complex situations the . . . observation and appraisal 5 schedules may have omitted cer t a i n c r u c i a l intangibles." Thus, the v a l i d i t y of the results w i l l depend i n a large part on how accurate the survey has been i n the i n c l u s i o n of c r u c i a l intangibles which have a s i g n i f i c a n t influence. T h i r d l y , the survey, though broad i n nature, was l i m i t e d , and c e r t a i n s i g n i f i c a n t factors were not f u l l y studied or evaluated. Chief among these was the composition of the inmate population, and the effectiveness of the programme i n terms of successfully r e h a b i l i t a t e d inmates. Other less s i g n i f i c a n t factors not studied are indicated i n the body of the t h e s i s . The type of inmate population i s e s p e c i a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t , i n that i t determines the programme that i s required, and the r e s t r i c t i o n s and safeguards that must accompany such a programme. Also, i n the f i n a l analysis, I t i s the number of successfully r e h a b i l i t a t e d inmates which determines the effectiveness of the i n s t i t u t i o n i n protecting society, and t h i s was beyond the scope of the present study. F i n a l l y , the material obtained varies to some extent i n amount and depth. This v a r i a t i o n i s due, not only to the construction of the survey schedule, but also to the ease with which material i n c e r t a i n areas could be obtained, the interests of the observer, and the l i m i t a t i o n s of the research methods employed. 5 Ibid., p. 683. 1 1 While i t i s true that there are d e f i n i t e l i m i t a t i o n s i n the research methods involved, every e f f o r t was made to be as objective as possible, and to include i n the survey most of the s i g n i f i c a n t factors a f f e c t i n g the operation of an i n s t i t u t i o n . As to the l i m i t a t i o n s of the study concerning s i g n i f i c a n t areas not covered, a corrective i s included at the end of the report, where the problems we think most deserving of ad d i t i o n a l study are set out. CHAPTER II ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE CANADIAN PENITENTIARY SYSTEM This chapter presents the h i s t o r i c a l background essential to an understanding of the operation of the Penitentiary Service, of which the B r i t i s h Columbia Peni-tentiary i s a part. Through tracing the development of the service, i t provides some understanding of the setting i n which the B r i t i s h Columbia Penitentiary operates today. There appear f i v e main administrative stages through which the system has evolved. The f i r s t of these periods may be considered as the pre-confederation era; the second from Confederation, i n 1867, to the a b o l i t i o n of the Board of Commissioners and the establishment of an Inspector of Penitentiaries i n 1875; the t h i r d from 1875 to the appointing of a Superintendent of Penitentiaries i n 1918; the fourth from 1918 to the appointment of a Commissioner of Penitentiaries i n 1946; and f i n a l l y from the appointment of the present Commissioner of P e n i t e n t i a r i e s , Major-General R.B. Gibson, In 1946 to the present time as the f i f t h period of development. Pre-Confederation Era "In 1832, money was voted by the L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly of Upper Canada for the establishment of a penitentiary near Kingston. Land was purchased i n the following year and the construction of the f i r s t b u i l d i n g , the o r i g i n a l south wing, 13 • 1 was commenced." In 1840, with the passing of the Act of Union, t h i s prison also became the prison for Lower Canada. During t h i s pre-confederation era there were three prisons constructed, with the above-mentioned Kingston Penitentiary being the e a r l i e s t and commencing i n 1833. "In 1854 a two storey granite structure, . . . containing eighty 2 c e l l s , was erected at H a l i f a x , Nova Scotia." New Brunswick also constructed a si m i l a r prison at St. John during t h i s period. This era was one of the most prim i t i v e and repressive regimes of penal treatment to be found i n h i s t o r y . "The general p r i n c i p l e appeared to be that incarceration meant punishment only, and that i f an in d i v i d u a l could be reformed 3 i t was only by repressive and barbaric techniques." Through the flagrant abuses of the inmates, on which t h i s system was based, a series of disturbances and complaints occurred at Kingston Penitentiary. "In 1848 a Royal Commission was appointed to investigate certai n complaints at Kingston Penitentiary with a view to making constructive recommendations 4 concerning that i n s t i t u t i o n . " This Royal Commission 1 Repor of he Royal Commis ion to Investigate the  Penal System of Canada (King 1s P r i n t e r , Ottawa, 193$)> P» 13' 2 C.W. Topping, Canadian Penal I n s t i t u t i o n s (Ryerson Press, Toronto, 1929), p. 4. 3 W.F. Johnstone and B.W. Henheffer, "History of Treat-ment i n Canadian P e n i t e n t i a r i e s , " Canadian Welfare. September 15» 1953, Vol. XXIX, No. 34. 4 Report of the Royal Commission to Investigate the  Penal System of Canada (King's P r i n t e r , Ottawa, 1939), p. 1. 14 submitted a report i n 1849 which pointed out many of the abuses to which inmates were subjected: Corporal punishment was widely used. Of 2,102 punishments i n Kingston Penitentiary during the year I845, 1,877 were floggings with a rawhide or "cat" consisting of a number of strands of twine. With the population then numbering about 480, each prisoner, on the average, was flogged four times that year. This, coupled with the complete lack of segregation, paints a very black page i n the annals of Canadian penal h i s t o r y . This report shows boys as young as eight years f r e e l y associating with older criminals and subject to those b r u t a l i t i e s for the most t r i v i a l offences, such as t a l k i n g , shouting, laughing, whistling, and quarrelling.5 Corporal punishment was supplemented by other cruel measures, such as extensive use of bread and water d i e t s , ducking the convicts i n cold water, and i s o l a t i o n i n dark c e l l s . P o l i t i c a l patronage and graft were also reported to be rampant during t h i s era of prison development. Second Period, I867-I875 With Confederation i n 1867, and the passing of the B r i t i s h North America Act, the administration of the penitentiaries became the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the Federal Government. Section 91 of the B r i t i s h North America Act declared that the establishment, maintenance, and management of pe n i t e n t i a r i e s s h a l l be within the exclusive l e g i s l a t i v e authority of the Parliament of Canada. At the time of Confederation, there were the three previously mentioned prisons, respectively located at Kingston, Ontario; St. John, 5 Johnstone and Henheffer, l o c . c i t . 15 New Brunswick; and H a l i f a x , Nova Scotia. These prisons then became the f i r s t f e deral p e n i t e n t i a r i e s . A Board of Commissioners was appointed as the administrative head of the penitentiary system. This Board consisted of three commissioners: King, Prieur, and Moylan, with Moylan acting as Secretary of the Board. "The f i r s t 6 Penitentiary Act was assented to on May 22nd, 1868." The f i r s t Penitentiary Act (1868, 31 V i c t o r i a , chap. 35) provided for a regimen of the same general character as that then i n force i n England and known as the " s i l e n t associated system". Labour, at which convicts were directed to be constantly kept, was.carried on i n association, but that there should be no conversation between a convict and another convict or a guard, "except with respect to the work at which he i s employed and then only i n the fewest words", was made a cardinal r u l e , and each prisoner was directed to be kept " i n a c e l l by himself at night and during the day when not employed, except i n the case of sickness" . 7 There was some progress made towards a more humane system of treatment, but corporal punishment, though not so frequent as before, was s t i l l l i b e r a l l y employed, as were many of the other e a r l i e r schemes of punishment. "Although many amenities came with the change i n trend, emphasis was s t i l l focused upon close confinement with rules of silence and the ever present conformance demanded by the threat, and use of, 6 Annual Report of the Superintendent of Penitentiaries  for the f i s c a l year ended March ^1. 1945 ^King's P r i n t e r , Ottawa), p. 35. 7 Reprint of the Report of the Committee to Advise upon  the Revision of the Penitentiary Regulations and Amendment of  the Penitentiary Act 1921 (Jackson Press, Kingston, Ontario, 1946), p. 8. 16 8 corporal punishment." This f i r s t Penitentiary Act, i n 1868, provided that those offenders, who had been convicted of a crime before the courts of criminal j u r i s d i c t i o n of the province and sentenced to l i f e imprisonment, or any term not less than two years, s h a l l be incarcerated i n the penitentiaries provided for that purpose. This provision remains i n the present Penitentiary Act. In I873, the St. Vincent de Paul Reformatory became a federal penitentiary. P r i o r to t h i s time, i t was used as a p r o v i n c i a l reformatory for boys. On May 19> l873> 119 inmates were transferred from the Kingston Penitentiary to this i n s t i t u t i o n , along with a group of^ o f f i c e r s . These convicts were transferred by boat and were secured by leg irons to prevent any escapes en route. "This i n s t i t u t i o n i s situated on the north bank of the Back River, i n the v i l l a g e of St. Vincent de Paul, Quebec, about eleven miles from the c i t y of 9 Montreal." Over the years, numerous additions have been made and the grounds greatly enlarged. I t now serves as the federal penitentiary for the province of Quebec, with i t s population as of March 31, 1954 > numbering 1,196 inmates. In 1875 "the Manitoba Penitentiary was established as the federal penitentiary for the province of Manitoba, a portion of Ontario, and the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s . This 8 Johnstone and Henheffer, op,, c i t . . p. 7« 9 Royal Commission 1939, l o c . c i t . 17 i n s t i t u t i o n i s situated sixteen miles north of the c i t y of Winnipeg. Its population as iof March 31, 1954, numbered 441 inmates. Third Period, 1875-1918 During the year 1887? the Board of Commissioners was abolished and, t h e i r powers;and duties were vested i n the Secretary of the Board under the t i t l e of Inspector of Pe n i t e n t i a r i e s . This move came about due to the unsatisfactory performance of the Board of Commissioners: The system adopted i n 1867 was a board of commissioners, but i t was soon found that?" there was no concerted action or inte r e s t taken, and that the whole work devolved on the secretary, who, by frequently v i s i t i n g the prisoners, conferring with the wardens and other o f f i c e r s and generally studying conditions, obtained a p r a c t i c a l knowledge of prison matters that served as a substitute for similar action by the commissioners. On the occasion of t h e i r p e r i o d i c a l meetings the commissioners did the only sensible thing they could do by "rubber-stamping" the suggestions of th e i r secretary.10 With th i s move, Moylan, who was Secretary of the Board of Commissioners, became Inspector of P e n i t e n t i a r i e s . In I876, due to alleged abuses, a Royal Commission was appointed to investigate prison labour and the remuneration of o f f i c e r s i n Canadian penal i n s t i t u t i o n s . The systems of treatment of convicts during t h i s period was unaltered from that of the previous period. "There has been a certain loosening i n the r i g i d i t y of the app l i c a t i o n of some of the 10 Annual Report of the Inspector of Penitentiaries for the f i s c a l year ende& March jl% 1917 (King's P r i n t e r , Ottawa), p. 10. 18 r u l e s , f or example, the rule as to silence, but none In the " 11 p r i n c i p l e s upon which the punishment was applied." The B r i t i s h Columbia Penitentiary was opened i n 1878 near the c i t y of New Westminster. The o r i g i n a l prison opened at t h i s time i s now the South Wing of the present i n s t i t u t i o n . An enclosing wall was added, as well as numerous additions over the years, as the population expanded. As of March 31> 1954, the population numbered 638. "As from l 8 8 l , Saint John and Halifax Penitentiaries ceased to exist and Dorchester was established as the Penitentiary for the Provinces of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick 12 and Prince Edward Island, including the Magdalen Islands." "This i n s t i t u t i o n i s situated near the v i l l a g e of Dorchester, New Brunswick, about twenty-eight miles from the c i t y of 13 Moncton." As of March 31, 1954, the inmate population of th i s i n s t i t u t i o n numbered 597 • During t h i s year of 1881, a spe c i a l ward was opened at Kingston Penitentiary for insane convicts. In 1886 a new Penitentiary Act was assented to with the Penitentiary Regulations made under the Penitentiary Act being printed on the back of th i s Act. In I889, the Penitentiary 11 Report of the Committee to Advise upon the Revision of the Penitentiary Regulations and Amendment of the Penitentiary Act 1921, l o c . c i t . 12 Annual Report of the Superintendent of Penitentiaries  for the f i s c a l year ended March 31. 1945 (King's P r i n t e r , Ottawa!, p. 34. 13 Royal Commission 1939, op., c i t . . p. 12. 19 Regulations included 398 sections. These regulations formed a system of detailed and s p e c i f i c instructions for the uniform administration of the p e n i t e n t i a r i e s . They were modelled a f t e r the regulations governing: the English prison system. In England i n I895 the report of the Gladstone Committee appointed to investigate the English c o r r e c t i o n a l system was presented. This report contained many c r i t i c i s m s of the system i n operation at that time and resulted i n a r e v i s i o n of the administration of the English correctional system and a subsequent reduction i n the number of regula-t i o n s . The e f f e c t of the report was f e l t i n Canada when, i n l899> the Penitentiary Regulations were revised, r e s u l t i n g i n a reduction to 186 sections as compared to the 398 previous sections. During the year 1901, a second po s i t i o n of Inspector of Penitentiaries was approved, such o f f i c i a l to a s s i s t i n the administration of the Penitentiary Service. The year 1906 saw not only a new Penitentiary Act being assented to, but also the opening of the Alberta Penitentiary as the federal penitentiary for the province of Alberta. This, i n s t i t u t i o n was i n use u n t i l 1920, when i t was closed due to the small inmate population "remaining at mid-14 night, March 31, 1920, 34." These inmates were transferred to the Manitoba and Saskatchewan Penitentiaries and the 14 Annual Report of the Superintendent of Penitentiaries  for the f i s c a l year ended MarchTl , 1920 (King's P r i n t e r , Ottawa), p. 20. 20 o f f i c e r s d i s t r i b u t e d amongst the Saskatchewan, Manitoba, and Kingston P e n i t e n t i a r i e s . The Saskatchewan Penitentiary was opened i n 1911 to serve the provinces of Saskatchewan and Alberta and the remaining portion of the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s not covered by the Manitoba Penitentiary. "The Saskatchewan Penitentiary i s situated on the outskirts of the c i t y of Prince Albert, 15 Saskatchewan." The present inmate population as of March 31> 1954, numbered 556 inmates. During t h i s period, the abuses so prevalent i n former years remained, but to a lesser degree. The convicts were s t i l l being subjected to a punitive regime and trouble and unrest were s t i l l apparent i n the system of p e n i t e n t i a r i e s . "In 1913 a Royal Commission, . . . , was appointed to investigate, and report upon, the conduct and administration of p e n i t e n t i a r i e s , and p a r t i c u l a r l y the conduct of the 16 o f f i c e r s of Kingston Penitentiary." Fourth Period, 1918-1946 There were formerly two Inspectors of P e n i t e n t i a r i e s , but on May 24, 1918? the Penitentiary Act was amended to create a Superintendent of P e n i t e n t i a r i e s , "who s h a l l , under the Minister, d i r e c t and superintend the administration and business of the p e n i t e n t i a r i e s , and perform such other duties 15 Royal Commission 1939, op., c i t . , p. 15. 16 Ibid., p. 1. 21 17 as may from time to time be assigned to him by the Minister." William St. Pierre Hughes, D.S.O., who had been with the Penitentiary Service since l893> was appointed as Superinten-dent of P e n i t e n t i a r i e s . He was assisted i n t h i s role by three Inspectors of P e n i t e n t i a r i e s . Superintendent Hughes, i n his annual reports, con-s i s t e n t l y made recommendations for improvements i n the t r e a t -ment of convicts and administration of the p e n i t e n t i a r i e s . However, no d e f i n i t e action was taken on these recommendations, as with those of the previous commissions appointed for the improvement of the penitentiary system. Speaking at the Canadian Penal Congress i n May, 1942, Judge F.A.E. Hamilton, of the Winnipeg Juvenile Court, stated that "the major developments i n Canada have consisted of enlightened state-ments by administrators and commissioners rather than i n the 18 a p p l i c a t i o n of enlightened p o l i c y to curative treatment." In 1920, a committee was appointed by the Minister of Justice to investigate the penitentiary system and advise upon the r e v i s i o n of the Penitentiary Regulations and amendment of the Penitentiary Act. A portion of th e i r recommendations were carried out with the cancelling of the Penitentiary Regulations 1899, and the replacement of them by the Penitentiary Regulations 1933, which include a t o t a l of 724 regualtions and are s t i l l i n force. Also, a new Penitentiary 17 Topping, op., c i t . , p. 23. 18 Johnstone and Henheffer, l o c . c i t . 22 Act was assented to i n 1927. During Superintendent Hughes1 reign from 1919 u n t i l 1932, we f i n d an advancement made i n the establishment of a separate i n s t i t u t i o n f o r the youthful f i r s t offender, and the commencement of construction for a women's prison. In 1930, land for C o l l i n ' s Bay Penitentiary was purchased. It i s situated a few miles west of the c i t y of -Kingston, Ontario. This i n s t i t u t i o n , as with a l l i n s t i t u t i o n s i n the penitentiary system, was b u i l t with an enclosing w a l l . Collin'-s Bay Penitentiary, . . . , was established i n 1930 for the s p e c i f i c purpose of receiving from Kingston the more reformable type of convicts, namely, the f i r s t o f f e n d e r s — c o n v i c t s under twenty-one years of age and other convicts whose crime record and conduct indicated that t h e i r segregation from hardened criminals of the r e c i d i v i s t type was desirable. The same rules and regulations i n force i n other Canadian Penitentiaries also apply to C o l l i n ' s Bay. The only difference, therefore, i s that convicts transferred there are ca r e f u l l y selected. No hardened criminal i s sent to C o l l i n ' s Bay, nor convicts serving long sentences, nor those who have committed a crime involving extreme violence. Those serving sentence i n that i n s t i t u t i o n cannot, therefore, be contaminated by depraved and experienced criminals . 1 ° The inmate population of t h i s i n s t i t u t i o n as of March 31» 1954 numbered 396. "During 193°) land was also purchased adjacent to the St. Vincent de Paul Penitentiary for the establishment of a 20 Preferred Class Penitentiary for the province of Quebec.1' 19 Annual Report of the Superintendent of Penitentiaries  for the f i s c a l year ended March~Tl, 1946 (King' s P r i n t e r , Ottawa), p. 44. 20 Annual Report of the Superintendent of Penitentiaries  f o r the f i s c a l year ended March 31, 1930 (King's P r i n t e r , Ottawa), p. 12. 23 The construction of t h i s i n s t i t u t i o n , which was known as the Laval Penitentiary, started i n 1932 and continued on u n t i l 1945> when i t was discontinued because of the war. This i n s t i t u t i o n was put into operation i n 1952 and now serves as a vocational t r a i n i n g establishment f o r selected inmates. As of March 31> 1953» "the inmate population of this i n s t i t u t i o n numbered 288. During h i s tenure of o f f i c e as Superintendent, General Hughes made many repeated recommendations for improvements i n the Penitentiary Service. However, these recommendations were not carried out to any considerable extent by the govern-ment. The, r e s u l t was that, on August 1, 1932> when General D.M. Ormond assumed o f f i c e as the new Superintendent of Pe n i t e n t i a r i e s , the penitentiary system was s t i l l f a r from a stage at which i t could provide constructive treatment and tr a i n i n g for i t s inmates, even though the previous Superinten-dent had made repeated recommendations for improvement i n prison personnel and the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , education, and a f t e r -care of inmates. With the appointment of Superintendent Ormand, a new era of policy was introduced into the Penitentiary Service. When the Superintendent assumed o f f i c e , he introduced into the penitentiary system a more dr a s t i c p o l i c y of m i l i t a r i s t i c control than had prevailed during the previous administrations . . . . The action taken to divest experienced wardens of authority, even i n the most t r i v i a l and inconsequential matters, and to subject them to a minute d i r e c t i o n i n d e t a i l , and the profusive issue from day to day of new regulations and lengthy c i r c u l a r s , explaining, countermanding, and amending 24 previous ones, soon threw the whole penitentiary system into a state of confusion.21 ~ 22 The r e s u l t of thi s repressive regime was a series of sixteen r i o t s from the time Superintendent Ormand assumed o f f i c e to 1936, when a Royal Commission was appointed to investigate the penal system of Canada. This Commission submitted i t s report i n 1938 a f t e r conducting a survey of penal treatment i n England and Europe, and an intensive investigation of the penitentiary system. "Its 388 page report indicated the gross error i n assuming that reformation can be brought about by fear of harsh, punitive treatment, while the eighty-eight recommendations of the report could be the blueprint for 23 e f f e c t i v e prisons and prison treatment." One of the immediate re s u l t s of the Commission Report was the replacement of Superintendent Ormand by the then Inspector G.L. Sauvant, who became Acting Superintendent of Penitentiaries i n 1939. However, the outbreak of ?/orld War II lead to the shelving of the recommendations of the Commission. F i f t h Period, 1946-1957 In A p r i l of 1946, Major-General Ralph B. Gibson was appointed as Commissioner of Pe n i t e n t i a r i e s . As one of the f i r s t major steps towards implementation of the recommendations 21 Royal Commission 1939> PH* d t . ? p. 44. 22 Ibid., p. 51. 23 Johnstone and Henheffer, op_. c i t . , p. 8. 25 of the Royal Commission of 1938, Commissioner Gibson was appointed to inquire into the penitentiary system for the 24 following purposes: (a) to consider the several recommendations contained i n a c e r t a i n report of a Royal Commission to investigate the penal system of Canada made on the fourth day of A p r i l 1938 . . . ; (b) to make inquiry, subject to the d i r e c t i o n of the Minister, into matters r e l a t i v e to the aforesaid recommendations; (c) to report the r e s u l t s of such consideration and inquiry and to recommend to the Minister what i s advisable or expedient to be done to implement the aforesaid recommendations; and (d) to perform such other duties as may be assigned by the Minister. Out of t h i s inquiry came recommendations for the reorganization of the administration of the Penitentiary Service, expansion and development of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , reorganization of the reformative and treatment services, development of prison employment, changes i n prison d i s c i p l i n e , and the e s t a b l i s h -ment of after-care procedures and f a c i l i t i e s . As a r e s u l t of these recommendations i n September, 1947 > two Deputy Commis-sioners and. three Assistant Commissioners were appointed. One Deputy Commissioner " i s primarily charged.with the t r a i n i n g , assessment and reconstruction of the s t a f f s of the penitentiaries and with the organization and supervision of a tr a i n i n g school for penitentiary o f f i c e r s . He i s also 24 Report of General R . B . Gibson, a Commissioner  appointed under Order i n Council P.C. ijl^, regarding the  Penitentiary System of Canada (King's P r i n t e r , Ottawa), 1947 > P. 3. 26 responsible f o r supervision and development of the educational, r e c r e a t i o n a l , and r e l i g i o u s f a c i l i t i e s i n the i n s t i t u t i o n s •' 25 under the control of the Dominion Government." The other Deputy Commissioner " i s primarily charged with supervision and development of the medical and psychiatric services i n the penitentiaries and with the development of research and s t a t i s t i c s to assess the adequacy and re s u l t s of present and 26 proposed methods of corre c t i o n a l treatment." The Senior Assistant Commissioner "acts as assistant to the Commissioner i n the general administrative duties 27 r e l a t i n g to the p e n i t e n t i a r i e s . " The second Assistant Commissioner i s " i n charge of the i n d u s t r i a l and vocational 28 t r a i n i n g programs car r i e d out i n i n s t i t u t i o n s . " The t h i r d Assistant Commissioner was appointed "to supervise methods of accounting and control of expenditures i n the Penitentiary 29 Service." C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Officers f o r each i n s t i t u t i o n were also appointed at t h i s time, as well as vocational t r a i n i n g instructors and ad d i t i o n a l custodial s t a f f , so as to r e l i e v e o f f i c e r s to attend the s t a f f t r a i n i n g school. In general, 25 Annual Report of the Commissioner of Penitentiaries  for the f i s c a l year ended March 31, 1948 (King's P r i n t e r , Ottawa), p. 7' 26 Ibid., p. 8. 27 Loc. c i t . 28 Loc. c i t . 29 Loc. c i t . 27 there was an o v e r a l l expansion of inmate t r a i n i n g and educational f a c i l i t i e s at this time. During the following year, 1948, there was a s t i l l further strengthening of the headquarters s t a f f with the appointment of a Supervisor of Training for the d i r e c t i o n and development of s t a f f t r a i n i n g courses. The position of Supervisor of Penitentiary Industries was also established at t h i s time for "the supervision and development of i n d u s t r i a l contracts undertaken fo r other Government Departments and with the further development of manufactures i n the Penitentiaries 30 . . . ." Following t h i s the p o s i t i o n of Supervisor of Stores and Internal Audits was established with this o f f i c e r being "charged with the detailed audit of penitentiary operations and the promotion of economies i n methods of 31 operation.'.' The Supervisor of Penitentiary Farms and the Supervisor of Stewards were also appointed during t h i s period. The remaining headquarter 1s p o s i t i o n , that of Chief Penitentiaries Engineer, existed p r i o r to t h i s period. The Supervisor of Penitentiary Farms was appointed "to supervise a l l farm operations and to advise and a s s i s t the Farm Instructors to increase production and provide further opportunity for the 30 Annual Report of the Commissioner of Penitentiaries  for the f i s c a l year ended MarchTL. 1949 ([King's P r i n t e r , Ottawa), p. 8. 28 • • • , 32 t r a i n i n g of convicts i n a g r i c u l t u r a l work." The Supervisor of Stewards i s responsible f o r the supervision of "the methods of food preparation, diets and menus, and the e f f i c i e n c y of 33 the kitchens generally." The Chief Penitentiaries Engineer assumes r e s p o n s i b i l i t y "for the planning and execution of a l l construction and maintenance work as well as supervision of the operation and maintenance of the heating and power plants, water f i l t r a t i o n and sewage disposal systems of the various 34 i n s t i t u t i o n s . " The purpose for t h i s expansion of the headquarters s t a f f was to provide f o r "much closer supervision of the varied 35 a c t i v i t i e s i n the penitentiaries . . . ." The Penitentiary S t a f f College, known as Calderwood, was opened i n 1952 and a r e v i s i o n and summary of the Peni-tentiary Regulations 1933 issued as the Penitentiary O f f i c e r s ' Handbook 1952. In view of the developments since the appointment of the present Commissioner of P e n i t e n t i a r i e s , i t i s now apparent that the philosophy of the Penitentiary Service has advanced to the stage recommended by the Royal Commission of 1938. This philosophy (of the Royal Commission I938) of the purpose of imprisonment has been accepted as the basis 32 Report of General R.B. Gibson, 1947, op_. c i t . , p. 4 . 33 Loc. c i t . 34 Major-General R.B. Gibson, "Treatment i n Federal I n s t i t u t i o n s , " Canadian Bar Review. 1949} P« 4 . 35 Loc. c i t . 29 for the present programme In the Canadian P e n i t e n t i a r i e s . It involves three main p r i n c i p l e s : f i r s t , that those committed to penal i n s t i t u t i o n s be kept i n safe custody u n t i l they have served t h e i r sentences or are otherwise properly released according to law; secondly, that, to the utmost extent possible, the period of imprisonment should be u t i l i z e d to change and correct the a n t i - s o c i a l habits that resulted i n the sentence of imprisonment, and to provide the prisoner with knowledge, s k i l l s and habits that w i l l enable him to,make his way i n society upon release without reverting to crime; and, t h i r d l y , that as an a i d to the second objective, the prisoner should be treated humanely and f a i r l y and be permitted such p r i v i l e g e s as may reasonably be allowed with due regard to d i s c i p l i n a r y and administrative requirements . 3° 36 Ibid., p. 3. CHAPTER III PENITENTIARY PLANT Description of the Penitentiary Acreage. The entire area of the Penitentiary Reserve i s 128.99 acres, including the farm and buildings. There are 9.25 acres within the walled area. The i n s t i t u t i o n a l farm i s adjacent to the prison, bordering i t s west and north walls. Prison Buildings. The penitentiary building follows a d i v e r s i f i e d style of prison architecture. The administrative f a c i l i t i e s are centered i n two separate locations, the Administration Building .and the South Wing. The Administration Building, B o i l e r House, Shops Building, and the maximum security c e l l block are each located i n separate buildings. The remainder of the prison buildings are i n one structure, which has several wings, radiating from a central dome. The South Wing i s the o r i g i n a l prison which was opened i n 1878. The remainder of the c e l l blocks, with the exception of the maximum security c e l l block, (hereafter i d e n t i f i e d as B-7) were constructed i n the early nineteen hundreds. The North Wing was erected i n 1904, the Shops Building i n 1906, and the East Wing i n 1914. The o r i g i n a l .wall of.the prison was of brick construction and enclosed approximately h a l f of the present walled area. A portion of t h i s wall, extending between the two old towers of the West Wall, remains i n use. 31 These two towers, l i k e the wal l , are of the o r i g i n a l brick construction. The present concrete wall and Administration Building were completed i n 1929, the B o i l e r House i n 1931» a*^ the B-7 C e l l Block i n 1939. A Shower and Change Room was completed i n 1953* Dormitory or "H-Huts" were introduced i n 1954. There are a number of buildings outside the wa l l . These include two large brick houses which are provided as residences for the Warden and Deputy Warden. Five duplexes and two separate houses are provided as housing for a portion of the s t a f f members. In addition there are the wharf, ware-house and the various farm buildings, which include a piggery, poultry house, poultry shelters and barn. These outside buildings were constructed between the early nineteen-hundreds and the nineteen-twenties except f o r the recently completed concrete block residence for the Chief Keeper. Also located on the reserve are two long wooden houses, enclosed by a wooden fence, which were b u i l t as the Doukhobors 1 Camp. The Doukhobors* attempts to burn down these buildings required the removal of these prisoners to a section of the B-7 C e l l Block, so that t h i s camp i s unoccupied at present. Wall. The enclosing wall Is of poured reinforced concrete except for one section, which i s of brick construc-t i o n . The wall i s f i f t e e n inches i n thickness, while the height varies from f o r t y feet i n th i s concrete section to twenty-seven feet i n the brick section. The wall i s embedded i n the ground to a depth of ten feet and has buttresses every 32 twenty feet on the outside surface. The Administration Building forms a part of the frontage of the prison, as the wall adjoins both ends of t h i s b u i l d i n g . There are four wall towers, one at each corner. Each tower has a glass enclosed shelter on top and an inside stairway, the entrance to which has a wooden door and barred gate. Catwalks extend along the top of the wall i n both directions from each of the wall towers for approximately t h i r t y f e e t . Floodlights are spaced along the top inside edge of the w a l l . There are three outlets i n the wall; the main gate at the front of the prison; the gate at the Southwest tower for passage to the farm; and a small barred door i n the west wall for passage of inmates to the exercise area. The exercise area i s surrounded by a fence b u i l t of chain l i n k wire mesh and topped by barbed wire. It stands about f i f t e e n feet high and i s set i n a concrete base to prevent inmates from tunnelling underneath i t . A fence of si m i l a r construction, but only about ten feet high, encloses the area from the north-east corner of the prison to o Cumberland Street, and along Cumberland to Richmond Street. The remaining sides of the reserve are enclosed by a low wire fence attached to wooden posts which provides no r e s t r a i n t against escapes. Administration B u i l d i n g . The administrative o f f i c e s of the i n s t i t u t i o n , as mentioned previously, are located i n two centres, the front Administration Building and the South Wing. 33 The Administration Building i s a two story structure i n the centre of which i s located the main gate. The south h a l f contains the telephone switchboard, v i s i t i n g f a c i l i t i e s , o f f i c e s f o r the Warden and h i s s e c r e t a r i a l s t a f f , and others for the Censor, Accountant, and Commissioner of P e n i t e n t i a r i e s . The Commissioner's o f f i c e i s used by the Inspectors, Deputy Commissioners, and Commissioner of the Penitentiary Service while they are v i s i t i n g the i n s t i t u t i o n . The north h a l f contains the stores for the i n s t i t u t i o n and o f f i c e space for the storekeeper. The basement i s used f o r the storage of out-of-date f i l e s and records. The South Wing i s a four story structure containing on the main f l o o r the o f f i c e s of the Deputy Warden, C l a s s i f i c a t i o n O f f i c e r , Chief Keeper and Schoolmaster-L i b r a r i a n , together with the key safe and the Warden's courtroom. The remainder of the wing includes the o f f i c e r s ' lounge, l i b r a r y , bookblndery, dentist's o f f i c e , h o s p i t a l , school, and the inmate reception and discharge centre. Housing and F a c i l i t i e s . A l l inmates are housed inside the walls. The majority are i n c e l l blocks, the remainder i n dormitories. At the time of t h i s writing there were two dormitories i n operation, while two more were under construction. These dormitories are located i n the "H-Huts" which are of s i n g l e -story, wooden construction. Each set of huts contains two dormitories joined at one end by a room containing inmate 34 t o i l e t f a c i l i t i e s and a supervision area f o r the o f f i c e r , thus explaining the coined term "H-Huts." These were each designed for twenty-five men, but due to the overcrowding of the i n s t i t u t i o n must house twenty-nine. The extra men are accommodated i n double t i e r e d bunks. One o f f i c e r supervises both dormitories by means of an enclosed cage traversing the room joining these dormitories. The o f f i c e r , being enclosed i n t h i s observation cage, has no physical contact with the inmates. In the event of an emergency the o f f i c e r sounds an alarm which re g i s t e r s i n the centre h a l l of the South Wing. There are three c e l l blocks, the East Wing, North Wing, and B-7 C e l l Block. A l l c e l l construction throughout the i n s t i t u t i o n i s of the inside c e l l pattern i n which c e l l s are b u i l t back to back, several t i e r s high i n the centre of the c e l l block. There i s an open space between the outside of the c e l l and the c e l l - b l o c k w a l l . The East Wing contains f i v e t i e r s of c e l l s with accommodation for 274 men i n c e l l s approximately s i x feet wide, ten feet long, and eight feet high. The B-7 C e l l Block, which i s joined to the North Wing by means of an enclosed corridor, i s the most recently constructed c e l l - b l o c k and has accommodation for 184 inmates This block i s divided into four sections, separated from one another by a concrete w a l l , and with an administrative area i n the central portion. Each section contains two t i e r s and each tier, has twelve c e l l s . One c e l l i n each section i s equipped with shower f a c i l i t i e s . The Doukhobor prisoners 35 are kept i n one section of t h i s block, the Reception Area i s i n a second, and the t h i r d section houses inmates who are considered serious security r i s k s . The remainder of the B-7 Cell-Block i s used f o r a variety of types of prisoners. Two sections of t h i s block have cots on the f l o o r because of the overcrowded condition of the prison at the time of th i s study, and i t i s our understanding the f a c i l i t i e s have become even more overloaded since that time. Only one inmate i s permitted to occupy each c e l l as i s required i n the Penitentiary Act, 1939, section 66 (4) , which reads as follows: "He s h a l l , except i n case of sic k -ness, be kept i n a c e l l by himself at night." The c e l l s are of the open front type with s t e e l bar c e l l gates being located approximately twelve to f i f t e e n feet from the outside wall of the c e l l - b l o c k . Natural l i g h t comes into the c e l l - b l o c k through long barred windows i n the outside w a l l . In the majority of the c e l l s there i s a forty-watt bulb on an extension cord with a shade, and i t was planned that i n the near future a l l regular c e l l s i n the i n s t i t u t i o n would be so equipped. A few c e l l s s t i l l are provided only with a forty-watt bulb i n the c e i l i n g of the c e l l . In special cases, on the orders of the doctor, a six t y or one hundred watt bulb may be provided. The i n s t i t u t i o n i s heated by steam radiators. In the c e l l - b l o c k s , these radiators are located on the bottom t i e r l e v e l next to the wal l , and are spotted along the length of the c e l l block. 36 V e n t i l a t i o n i s provided by windows i n the walls of a l l the buildings. The c e l l - b l o c k s have windows placed i n the outside wall from the l e v e l of the second to the top t i e r . Portions of these windows open, thereby allowing the c i r c u l a t i o n of fresh a i r . There are no fans or blowers for forced v e n t i l a t i o n and heating. The windows are of glass and s t e e l sash., with bars being embedded i n the wall out-side of each window. Plumbing f a c i l i t i e s are spaced throughout the i n s t i t u t i o n . Each c e l l i s equipped with a porcelain t o i l e t , and a wall basin which has cold running water. A l l of the shops have separate t o i l e t f a c i l i t i e s for inmates and s t a f f . In addition, f u l l y equipped lavatories f o r s t a f f and inmates are located i n the South Wing. The porcelain wall basins i n the c e l l s have a single faucet which provides cold water suitable for drinking as well as washing. Drink-ing fountains are c e n t r a l l y located to provide the inmates with water when out of t h e i r c e l l s . A separate shower and change room i s located at the south end of the shops b u i l d i n g . A l i n e of twelve shower heads i s provided here and these are the showering f a c i l i t i e s used by the majority of the inmates. Separate bathing and t o i l e t f a c i l i t i e s are provided i n the h o s p i t a l for those with contagious diseases. As mentioned previously, the B-7 C e l l Block has one c e l l i n each of i t s four sections for use as a shower cubicle, these f a c i l i t i e s serving the inmate population housed i n that block. 37 There are separate showers, situated close to the kitchen, for the use of inmate kitchen workers. The shower and change room also has a barber shop which employs inmates f o r the barbering of s t a f f and prisoners. The Laundry, which i s located i n the Shops Building, i s equipped with power washing machines and dryers f o r the laundering of inmate clothing, sewing machines for repairing clothing, hand irons f o r pressing, and a k n i t t i n g machine for the manufacture of inmate woolen socks. Bundles of clean clothing are made up fo r the Individual inmate so that, upon turning i n hi s clothing, he receives a bundle of clothing that w i l l f i t him. Provision i s made i n the ho s p i t a l for the laundring of clothing used by persons with contagious diseases. Close Confinement Area. The i s o l a t i o n or punishment c e l l s are located i n the basement of the East Wing, known as the close confinement area. There are eighteen such c e l l s , of i n s i d e - c e l l construction, with barred windows i n the wall of the c e l l - b l o c k for l i g h t and v e n t i l a t i o n . One c e l l i s equipped with a wooden door which closes over the regular c e l l gate. This door has a small observation window for the o f f i c e r to check the inmate confined within the c e l l . This c e l l i s used for the most aggressive inmates whose actions disrupt the a c t i v i t i e s of the i n s t i t u t i o n and has had to be used only once i n the l a s t twenty years. The equipment of the c e l l s i n t h i s area consists of a wooden plank bed and a 38 t o i l e t ; The inmate i s given blankets, which must be placed outside the c e l l during the day. Washing and shaving i s done at a communal sink under"the supervision of an o f f i c e r . There i s a segregation area adjoining t h i s close confinement area which contains nine c e l l s . This area i s shut off from the remainder of the close confinement area by a s t e e l b a r r i e r and gate, and i s used as a segregation area for any inmate who may present a danger to the i n s t i t u -t i o n , or be i n danger himself from other members of the inmate population. Kitchen. The combined Kitchen and Bakery i s located i n the lower h a l f of the North Wing Extension. It i s approximately 130 feet i n length, 70 feet wide, and has a 30 foot high c e l l i n g . The major equipment includes: Five eighty-gallon steam k e t t l e s , one o i l - f i r e d rotary oven, one three-oven c o a l - f i r e d cook range, one three-bag dough mixer, two eighty-quart cake mixers., one large e l e c t r i c range, two vegetable peeling machines, one dishwashing machine, and one bread s l l c e r . O ffice f a c i l i t i e s for the steward and h i s s t a f f are provided on the top h a l f f l o o r of the kitchen. Alte r a t i o n s were being made i n the kitchen at the time of t h i s survey. A new t i l e - l i n e d dishwashing room was being completed, t i l e l i n i n g was being put on the kitchen walls, a new t i l e - l i n e d area was being constructed for the steam k e t t l e s , and flues were being i n s t a l l e d to draw away cooking odors. 39 The O f f i c e r s ' Mess, located i n the West Wing, i s also the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the Steward. I t i s here that the o f f i c e r s are supplied with a noon hour meal. This mess has a separate kitchen and inmate s t a f f supervised by an o f f i c e r . Garbage and Sewage Disposal. Garbage i s disposed of through sewer ducts, or i n the inc i n e r a t o r . The ashes and residue are taken out of the i n s t i t u t i o n by truck f o r disposal. S w i l l from the kitchen goes to the piggery. A system of sewer pipes from the various parts of the i n s t i t u -t i o n leads to a main sewage disposal duct which empties into the Fraser River. Shops. The major portion of the shop area i s located i n the Shops Building which contains the t a i l o r shop, carpenter shop, blacksmith's shop, machine shop, upholstery-canvas shop, shoe shop, paint shop, vocational carpenter's shop, and drafting school. The e l e c t r i c a l and engineering department, and the garage, are both located i n the B o i l e r House. The mason's shop i s located i n a hut adjacent to the shops bui l d i n g , while the bookbindery i s situated i n the South Wing. Small classrooms, most of which are also used as o f f i c e s for the i n s t r u c t o r s , are available for vocational t r a i n i n g classes. A l l shops are equipped with power equip-ment and hand tools for the production of goods and t r a i n i n g of inmates. 40 Hospital. The h o s p i t a l i s located on the t h i r d f l o o r of the South Wing. This area o r i g i n a l l y was b u i l t as a h o s p i t a l and has been expanded as new f a c i l i t i e s have been added. There are two wards, each with f i v e c e l l s of regular c e l l construction. The west ward i s used for general medical purposes. The east ward i s divided into an i s o l a t i o n ward and a ps y c h i a t r i c ward. There are three beds outside the c e l l s i n each ward, which, i n addition to the c e l l accommoda-t i o n , give a t o t a l h o s p i t a l capacity of twenty-two beds. Each c e l l contains a v e a l l button for inmate use, a t o i l e t , washbasin, locker, and h o s p i t a l bed.-The h o s p i t a l includes an operating room equipped to carry out minor surgery, a dispensary, diet kitchen, dental unit, and X-ray f a c i l i t i e s . There are also laboratory f a c i l i t i e s for diagnostic purposes and the preparation of simple p r e s c r i p t i o n s . Electro-stimulus equipment i s provided for use by the P s y c h i a t r i s t . School. The i n s t i t u t i o n a l school i s located i n the top f l o o r of the South Wing and consists of one large c l a s s -room equipped with fluorescent l i g h t i n g . This room has accommodation for t h i r t y - f i v e students. Library. The l i b r a r y i s housed on the main f l o o r of the South Wing. It consists of a single room approximately t h i r t y feet square. The books are stacked i n seven-foot high shelves which occupy the major portion of the room. The Schoolmaster-Librarian has a small glass enclosed o f f i c e 41 i n the l i b r a r y , while h i s assistant has a desk outside t h i s o f f i c e . Chapels. The i n s t i t u t i o n has separate chapels for Roman Catholic and Protestant services. The Roman Catholic Chapel, which has a seating capacity of 150, i s located i n the upper h a l f of the West Wing above the o f f i c e r s ' mess. A l l the necessary equipment f o r conducting services i s provided. This West Wing was used as a ce l l - b l o c k f o r the accommodation of younger offenders before being converted to i t s present use. The Protestant Chapel i s located on the upper f l o o r of the North Wing Extension of which the kitchen occupies the lower f l o o r . This extension was designed for i t s present use as kitchen and chapel. The Protestant Chapel has a seating capacity of 450 but may accommodate as many as 500 by crowding the inmates i n the pews. A vestry for interviewing and counselling i s provided for the Protestant Chaplain. This Chapel i s also used as the auditorium of the i n s t i t u t i o n , and i t i s here that the shows, concerts, and lectures take place. Gymnasium and Exercise Yard. There i s no gymnasium which has been designed as such but the f l o o r of the Dome i s used as a gymnasium area. P r i o r to any boxing event, a rin g i s set up i n t h i s area to give an opportunity for the necessary t r a i n i n g . At other times, t h i s ring i s dismantled, leaving the Dome area c l e a r . 42 Approximately one-third of the area inside the walls i s free space. The largest part of t h i s space i s located i n the front h a l f of the walled area consisting of two garden plots and an area of lawn. There i s a small exercise yard within the walls adjacent to the south side of the East Wing. This yard i s surrounded by a wire fence and contains two tennis courts, an area for checkers, and a flowered bank. The main exercise yard i s located outside of, and adjacent to the West Wall. This yard contains the soccer f i e l d and space f o r the other sports a c t i v i t i e s engaged i n by the inmates. A wire fence topped by barbed wire surrounds t h i s yard and a gun tower i s situated on the west side of i t which supplements the coverage provided by the main wall towers. Storage. Storage f a c i l i t i e s for the kitchen are located below the kitchen i n the basement of the North Wing Extension. Vegetable rooms, dry storage rooms, and a cold storage vault are located here. The north h a l f of the front Administration Building houses i n d u s t r i a l supplies and has space provided f o r the storage of dry kitchen supplies. The necessary shop materials are kept i n small stock rooms located i n the various shops. The f i n i s h e d products of the shops are shipped out immediately upon completion so that there i s no need to store them. Storage room i s provided i n the laundry for i n s t i t u t i o n a l clothing which i s not i n use. 43 Power and Water Supply. Steam for the central heating system comes from the B o i l e r House, the furnaces of which are o i l - f i r e d . This plant i s located inside the walls, and from i t a network of tunnels c a r r i e s service l i n e s throughout the I n s t i t u t i o n . E l e c t r i c i t y i s bought from outside sources and no provision i s made for an emergency<power supply. In the event of a power f a i l u r e , c o a l - o i l lanterns are used for l i g h t i n g . Water i s obtained through ducts supplying the i n s t i t u -t i o n . This water comes from the regular supply of the c i t y of New Westminster, and i s subject to the precautions against contamination which are taken by the Water Board supplying the water. F i r e Protection. The i n s t i t u t i o n being constructed of concrete and brick, i s a r e l a t i v e l y f i r e - p r o o f structure with the greatest danger being from the painted surfaces. Inside the walls there are ten f i r e hydrants, fourteen hoses, and twenty-three f i r e extinguishers i n addition to ladders, axes and other pieces of equipment which are kept locked i n a storage shed due to the custodial hazard which they present. This storage shed i s located at the west end of the North Wing. Inspections of f i r e f i g h t i n g equipment are made by the Plant Engineer. 44 Motor Transport. Two passenger cars and s i x trucks are u t i l i z e d i n the administration and maintenance of the i n s t i t u t i o n . Evaluation and Recommendations Present Housing. In general, i t can be said that the prison i s kept i n an excellent state of preservation by constant attention to r e p a i r s , maintenance, and cleaning. These matters could, however, e a s i l y become a serious problem because of the age of the buildings, some of which date back to I 8 7 8 . The prisons's t o i l e t f a c i l i t i e s are adequate i n number and are i n good condition. The c e l l -blocks have many windows which seem to provide an adequate amount of v e n t i l a t i o n . However, the blocks do suffer from a f a u l t which i s general i n a l l construction of the inside c e l l type, namely that the heat r i s e s to the top of the block, seriously overheating the top t i e r s while leaving the bottom ones quite cold. Another f a u l t i s that an i n s u f f i c i e n t amount of natural l i g h t reaches the c e l l s from the windows. This too, i s a general c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the i n s i d e - c e l l type of construction. The prisoners are kept i n i n d i v i d u a l c e l l s which are w e l l equipped and comfortable, but the system of i n d i v i d u a l confinement presents serious d i f f i c u l t i e s from the viewpoint of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . The constant i s o l a t i o n does not provide opportunity for s o c i a l development, but rather i t tends 45 toward excessive " i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n " of the i n d i v i d u a l , a condition which makes i t d i f f i c u l t f or him to adjust to normal s o c i a l l i v i n g a f t e r h is release. A sense of dependency sometimes i s developed, while such s o c i a l s k i l l s as he may already have had are diminished. It i s only within a group that the i n d i v i d u a l can f i n d the means to s a t i s f y c e r t a i n basic needs, and gain the opportunity to achieve a healthy adjustment and an a b i l i t y to conform i n the society to which he eventually w i l l return. Group l i v i n g , together with the p r i n c i p l e of d i v e r s i -f i c a t i o n of housing by degree of custody, appear to be among the most s i g n i f i c a n t trends i n corrections today. Authorities i n the f i e l d of penology are i n general agree-ment that maximum security housing of the i n s i d e - c e l l type i s not necessary for a l l of the prison population. The recent publication authored by a group of experts and e n t i t l e d "A Manual of Correctional Standards," makes the following statements: I f a prison system maintains an adequate program of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , i t i s possible to maintain approximately one-third of the unselected adult prison population i n open, or minimum security, f a c i l i t i e s . I t i s doubtful i f r e a l maximum security f a c i l i t i e s are needed for more than 15 per cent of an unselected prison population. About two per cent of an unselected prison population w i l l consist of i n c o r r i g i b l e , i n t r a c t a b l e , and dangerous persons who are so d i f f i c u l t to manage that they are a source of constant disturbance and d i f f i c u l t y even i n 46 1 the t y p i c a l maximum security i n s t i t u t i o n . On the basis of these opinions, i t i s reasonable to suggest that only about one-third of the present penitentiary population may require maximum se'curity f a c i l i t i e s ; that one-third could safely be kept i n medium security f a c i l i t i e s and one-third i n minimum security settings. Therefore, i t i s suggested that part of the present c e l l accommodation be converted into a medium security unit. Such a system of housing would u t i l i z e i n d i v i d u a l c e l l s , but would have a common enclosed f l o o r space for group a c t i v i t i e s i n front of a series of c e l l s . The conversion of penitentiary housing to such a system of medium security group l i v i n g f a c i l i t i e s was suggested as early as 1935> by Warden P.A. Puize of the St. Vincent de Paul Penitentiary. Warden Puize was sent to Europe i n 1935 to make a survey of the penal systems i n operation there. He submitted a report on prison management i n England, France and Belguim, and on the International Prison Congress which was held i n B e r l i n i n August, 1935» Part of his report reads as follows: It i s strongly recommended that a l l c e l l blocks at Laval buildings and other similar new construction be made on the "closed door" p r i n c i p l e . It would not be possible, for the present at l e a s t , and i n view of the expenses i t would incur, to remodel our existing c e l l blocks as suggested above; but to remedy the si t u a t i o n , i t i s recommended that a l l wings be closed by means of a concrete w a l l , instead of b a r r i e r s , and 1 A Manual of Correctional Standards (American Prison A s s o c i a t i o n , New York, 1954), pp. 173-174. 47 that the f l o o r s of each range be extended to the wall thus segregating each wing, and even each range. This could be done at a comparatively low cost.2 The East Wing appears to be the ce l l - b l o c k which i s best adapted f o r a l t e r a t i o n i n the manner suggested by Warden Puize. A concrete wall could be constructed inside the c e l l - b l o c k at the west end, thereby cutting off the wing from the Dome. Such an a l t e r a t i o n would appear to be necessary to prevent the a c t i v i t y and noise involved i n group l i v i n g from disturbing the remainder of the inmate population. A door could be b u i l t i n the new wall to permit passage t.o the close confinement area i n the East Wing base-ment. I t would be advisable to b u i l d an enclosed passageway from t h i s door to the door leading d i r e c t l y into the close confinement area, i n order that o f f i c e r s and inmates could pass through the East Wing without coming into contact with i t s population. In determining the size of these medium security groups, the advantages of group treatment must be weighed against the administrative problems involved i n the operation of a programme of t h i s nature. F i f t e e n inmates i n each group would appear to be the most reasonable compromise between these two f a c t o r s . The administrative area could be i n the centre of the c e l l - b l o c k and would occupy an amount of space about equal i n width to from f i v e to eight c e l l s . This area 2 Annual Report of the Superintendent of Penitentiaries  for the f i s c a l year ended March 31. 1936 (King's P r i n t e r , Ottawa), p. 37. 48 would be divided off by concrete walls on either side, but would have barred doorways leading to each, section of the c e l l - b l o c k . One c e l l i n each section could be used as a shower room. The provision of shower f a c i l i t i e s i n each section would enable the inmates to shower frequently, but s t i l l permit more time f o r work. At present a great deal of time i s consumed i n showering because there i s only the one main shower room fo r the bulk of the population. The laundry could be brought to the l i v i n g units as i s now done i n the B-7 C e l l Block. Thus, the c e l l - b l o c k , would have to be of s u f f i c i e n t length to accommodate t h i r t y c e l l s , an administrative area, and two shower c e l l s . This would require; an extension on the East Wing from i t s present twenty-six c e l l length to a length of thirty-seven c e l l s . I t would also be necessary to construct a corridor, s i m i l a r to the B-7 corridor, from the administrative area of the c e l l block to the Dome. This would permit the passage of inmates to the kitchen, shops, chapel, l i b r a r y , school and o f f i c e s . The c e l l ranges, which are the narrow platforms extending out from each t i e r of c e l l s , could be extended to the c e l l - b l o c k walls to form f i v e f u l l f l o o r s . This change would provide adequate f l o o r space i n front of each group of sixteen c e l l s to carry on group a c t i v i t i e s . These a l t e r a t i o n s would necessitate rearrange-ments of the windows and bars i n the outside wall of the c e l l -block to permit s u f f i c i e n t l i g h t and v e n t i l a t i o n for each 49 section. Radiators should be i n s t a l l e d on each f l o o r ; an arrangement which would reduce the present problem of uneven heating. This system of construction would provide a basis for c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and segregation, as each section would be independent of the other. The East Wing would then have accommodation of a medium custody type f o r 300 inmates. Included i n these groups could be the majority of the inmates, with the exception of drug addicts, mentally disturbed i n d i v i d u a l s , offenders of a confirmed c r i m i n a l i s t i c type, and those who present maximum security r i s k s . Those inmates who require maximum custody are housed i n the B-7 c e l l - b l o c k , as the custodial features of t h i s block are of a more advanced design than those of the remainder of the prison. As the Reception Area, which i s located i n t h i s block receives a l l types of prisoners, i t i s well situated i n i t s present l o c a t i o n . Excluding the Reception Area there would s t i l l be accommodation for approximately 138 inmates i n t h i s block. This number i s far i n excess of the f i f t e e n per cent of the prison population that expert opinion believe require maximum security housing. The inmate drug addicts are housed throughout the i n s t i t u t i o n , but i t Is our opinion that they should be segregated, together with the remainder of the least amenable inmates, i n the North Wing and the B-7 C e l l Block. I t i s only r e a l i s t i c to recognize that the treatment afforded i n the 50 prison setting does not cure drug addiction. The best solution, for the present, i s to keep these persons segregated, i n order to prevent t h e i r having contact with other inmates, on whom they are l i k e l y to have an adverse influence. The present treatment resources should be used primarily for the group with which there i s the greatest l i k e l i h o o d of success. At present the addicts and confirmed criminals are allowed-to associate at times with the remainder of the inmate population. The r e s u l t i s not a transfer of some acceptable values to t h i s hardened group, but rather the opposite transfer of a n t i - s o c i a l values to the less c r i m i -n a l i s t i c group. The present treatment programme has l i t t l e influence on the confirmed or addict group, and furthermore t h e i r influence tends to counteract the good ef f e c t s the programme has on the remainder of the population. The majority of the custodial o f f i c e r s recognize t h i s s i t u a t i o n . One guard remarked, " U n t i l they move the addicts out of here there i s not much you can do." I t i s , however, obvious that the i d e a l solution of moving the addicts and more confirmed criminal groups out i s not f e a s i b l e at the present time. Therefore, the immediate solution should be the segregation of t h i s group within the i n s t i t u t i o n . Hew Housing. The major problem which the i n s t i t u t i o n has to face i s i t s present overcrowded condition. The inmate population i s at least two hundred i n excess of the number for which the i n s t i t u t i o n was designed. The population of B r i t i s h 51 Columbia has increased s t e a d i l y , and undoubtedly w i l l increase s t i l l further i n future years. As the population of the Province has increased, so has the prison population, and i t i s reasonable to expect that the population of the B r i t i s h Columbia Penitentiary w i l l increase r a p i d l y i n future years. Moreover, prison terms for many offenses have been longer i n recent years, and the number of discharges has stead i l y f a l l e n behind the number of admissions. In view of thi s conclusion, i t i s suggested that consideration be given to expanding the i n s t i t u t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s of B r i t i s h Columbia i n conjunction with the plan-ning for the whole Penitentiary system. Such expansion i s not merely a l o c a l decision, but should form part of the planning for a co-ordinated Penitentiary system, b u i l t to meet not only the demands now being placed upon i t , but also able to f u l f i l l i t s future commitments. Such considerations are only p a r t l y within the scope of thi s thesis which i s intended to deal primarily with one i n s t i t u t i o n . In considering the solution to the present problem of overcrowding, four alternatives present themselves. The f i r s t i s the transfer of inmates to other i n s t i t u t i o n s of the Penitentiary System. One objection to t h i s scheme, i s the danger of uprooting a man from the area i n which he must eventually adjust, and cutting o f f his contacts with family and f r i e n d s . An ad d i t i o n a l problem i s that overcrowding i s not r e s t r i c t e d to the B r i t i s h Columbia Penitentiary but rather i s common throughout the majority of the federal i n s t i t u t i o n s . 52 A second a l t e r n a t i v e i s the construction of a new penitentiary i n or near B r i t i s h Columbia. While i t i s advisable that some planning should be begun i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n , i t i s obvious that such a project must be of a long term nature, and would do nothing to r e l i e v e the present over-crowding for some time. The t h i r d a l t e r n a t i v e i s the expansion of the present housing f a c i l i t i e s . This would commend i t s e l f as a l o g i c a l move were i t not for the rather severe space lim i t a t i o n s presented by the enclosing w a l l . The addition of more accommodation to the i n s t i t u t i o n would cause congestion within the walled area, which would be l i k e l y to create health and administrative problems. A fourth a l t e r n a t i v e , i s the construction of minimum .security f a c i l i t i e s p h y s i c a l l y separate from the present prison, but subject to i t s administrative c o n t r o l . Such f a c i l i t i e s could be constructed quickly, thus providing a fa s t solution to the problem of excess population. I t i s therefore, suggested that consideration be given to the s e l e c t i o n of a s i t e for use as a f o r e s t r y camp or farm colony. Such a camp could be operated as an open i n s t i t u t i o n for a selected group of inmates. As mentioned previously, penologists are i n agreement that, with an adequate c l a s s i f i c a t i o n programme,' approximately one-third of most inmate populations- may be housed i n minimum security f a c i l i t i e s . Therefore, i t i s suggested that a group of f i f t y inmates might be chosen to 53 i n i t i a t e such a project, with the remaining suitable inmates being transferred as f a c i l i t i e s are expanded. An open i n s t i t u t i o n would permit e f f e c t i v e segregation of the reformable type of inmate. It would then be possible to prevent these inmates from having any contact or association with the confirmed criminal group. In addition, such a camp or colony could be used as a pre-release centre. The inmate, whose release i s imminent, could be " d e i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d " here. His return to freedom would be a gradual process so that he would gain the confidence and s e l f understanding necessary to return to the free society and remain there. Moreover, through the use of minimum- security f a c i l i t i e s employment could be provided for a larger number of inmates, thereby making available more jobs within the penitentiary for those who cannot be trusted outside the walls. In an overcrowded i n s t i t u t i o n , i t i s d i f f i c u l t , i f not impossible, to provide s u f f i c i e n t employment of.a constructive nature for a l l inmates. I n s t i t u t i o n a l shops, and other work f a c i l i t i e s , can only employ a l i m i t e d number. As a consequence, many inmates are assigned "makework" tasks, and are given f a r too much time i n which to carry them out. In these circumstances, i t i s impossible to develop the good work habits which w i l l a s s i s t the inmate to obtain, and hold, employment upon his. release. In f a c t , the r e s u l t i s often that inmate work habits degenerate during incarceration. One of the most important advantages to be gained from 54 the use of camp f a c i l i t i e s i s the reduction i n the r i s k of r i o t by a l l e v i a t i n g overcrowded conditions. Overcrowding, with resultant idleness, has been recognized as one of the major factors i n prison r i o t s . Austin H. MacCormick, a leading present day penologist, recognized these two factors i n h i s study of prison r i o t s and remarked: "At both prisons, overcrowding and idleness accentuated the problems presented by these unstable elements i n the population and produced tensions and pressures i n the more stable prisoners that made 3 them po t e n t i a l r e c r u i t s f o r a r e v o l t . " The inmate transferred to such a camp or colony could be employed on public works projects such as f i r e c o n t r o l , cutting right-of-way f o r roads, and re f o r e s t a t i o n . I f a farm were operated i n conjunction with the camp, i t could provide produce to be used both i n the camp and the penitentiary proper, and thus would reduce the operating cost of these organizations. S i m i l a r l y a logging and sawmill operation could supply lumber for i n s t i t u t i o n a l use. The B r i t i s h Columbia Penitentiary has been faced with an acute overcrowding problem once before i n i t s h i s t o r y . This was i n 1932 when a large number of Doukhobors were sentenced simultaneously a f t e r being convicted of parading i n the nude. On that occasion, the use of separate minimum security . f a c i l i t i e s , under the administrative control of the peni-t e n t i a r y , was found to be a sa t i s f a c t o r y solution. These 3 Austin H. MacCormick, "Behind the Prison Riots," The jAhhfti& of the American Academy of P o l i t i c a l and So c i a l Science, May 1954, p. 20. 55 f a c i l i t i e s were i n the form of a temporary penitentiary on Piers Island i n the Gulf of Georgia. It was also decided that the temporary penitentiary, to be c a l l e d Piers Island Penitentiary, should be under the wardenship of the Warden of B r i t i s h Columbia Penitentiary, the c l e r i c a l and accounting work being performed at the B r i t i s h Columbia Penitentiary, thus eliminating the expense of providing s a l a r i e s and quarters f o r a large overhead s t a f f . While this added very considerable r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to the Warden of B r i t i s h Columbia Penitentiary, the r e s u l t s have been s a t i s f a c t o r y and warranted malting the experiment. An acting deputy warden was put i n charge.4 As the accommodation was completed at the Piers Island Penitentiary, inmates were transferred there. The average 5 d a i l y population of the penitentiary was 5?Q. This peni-tentiary was In operation for three years, u n t i l the expiration of the sentences of most of this group. An e a r l i e r experiment with minimum security housing was made i n 1906 when a number of inmates were taken out of the i n s t i t u t i o n and formed into a work colony. Mention of t h i s i s made i n the report of Y/arden J.C. Whyte for the year 1906: We have opened up Wright Island quarry, P i t t Lake, situated twenty-seven miles from here by water. We have there f i f t e e n convicts under a trade i n s t r u c t o r , and expect before the season closes, about the 1st of September, to have about two hundred cords of wood, and f i v e hundred tons of rock f o r foundations. Next season we hope to do better as i t has taken about six weeks to erect log houses, wharf, etc. This quarry, w i l l only be worked about three months a 4 Annual Report of the Superintendent of Penitentiaries  for the f i s c a l year ended March 31, 1933 (King's P r i n t e r , Ottawa), p. 31. 5 I b i d . , p. 35. 56 year, and w i l l supply a long f e l t want i n wood for the brick k i l n and rock for foundations of new buildings.6 Thus the use of minimum security f a c i l i t i e s would not be an e n t i r e l y new development i n the his t o r y of the B r i t i s h Columbia Penitentiary. From reports, i t has been proven to be a successful experiment, and therefore, i t s consideration i s strongly recommended as a possible solution to the present problem of overcrowding. Kitchen. The execution of the s t r u c t u r a l changes which have been suggested for the East Wing would allow the i n i t i a t i o n of a group feeding plan by means of a common table for each section of the wing. I t i s suggested that the food might be transported i n large vacuum cannisters from the kitchen to each section of the wing, a plan which would solve the present problem of food becoming cold while being carried i n trays from the kitchen to the c e l l s . Shops. The i n s t i t u t i o n a l shops appear to be w e l l -equipped with power and hand t o o l s . The heating, l i g h t i n g and v e n t i l a t i o n of the shops seem to be adequate except i n the case of the garage, which may need additional l i g h t i n g . The shop programme presents a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n problem because the benefits gained from the segregation of inmate i n housing are somewhat negated i f the inmates are permitted to associate 6 Report of the Minister of Justice as to Penitentiaries  of Canada for the Year Ended June 30. 1906 (King's P r i n t e r , Ottawa), p. 31. 57 f r e e l y with each other during working hours. The present west wall between, and including the two old towers, i s of the o r i g i n a l brick construction which dates back to the turn of the century. There are some indications that sections of t h i s wall are beginning to disintegrate. While t h i s condition i s by no means serious as yet, i t suggests that the West wall w i l l have to be replaced before any work w i l l be required on the concrete walls. In view of t h i s s i t u a t i o n , i t i s suggested that the present walled area be expanded to include the outside exercise area adjacent to the West wal l , that the present West wall be demolished, and the exercise area relocated outside the new w a l l . This change would provide space i n which to b u i l d additional shop f a c i l i t i e s which are needed both to r e l i e v e the "cramped" conditions i n the present shops, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the machine shop. Such a step would also permit expansion of the vocational t r a i n i n g programme by making i t possible to teach more trades and to have proper classrooms adjoining the shops. A greater d i v e r s i t y of shop f a c i l i t i e s would permit more e f f e c t i v e segregation of inmates i n the i n d u s t r i a l programme. For example, shops used primarily for maintenance could employ the addict and confirmed criminal groups. Again t h i s would involve some s a c r i f i c e of the interests of the addict and c r i m i n a l i s t i c group, i n that r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e t r a i n i n g would be provided for them, but e f f o r t s at r e h a b i l i t a -t i o n must be concentrated upon those with whom the chance of 58 success i s greatest. Such a system of segregation would, of course, necessitate thorough control of the shops and housing occupied by the addict and c r i m i n a l i s t i c groups. Hospital. It has already been mentioned that the h o s p i t a l c e l l s are of i n s i d e - c e l l construction, which means that they are cut off from d i r e c t access to f r e s h a i r and sunlight. C r i t i c i s m of t h i s plan was registered as long ago as 1921, by a committee appointed to advise upon the r e v i s i o n of the Penitentiary Act and regulations then i n force. 72. The committee also recommends that the attention of the Penitentiary Board should also be p a r t i c u l a r l y directed to the question of h o s p i t a l accommodation i n the several p e n i t e n t i a r i e s . In a l l of them v i s i t e d by the Committee the hospitals follow the general type of construction adopted for the main . portion of the penitentiary and have therefore what are known as "inside c e l l s " opening on a wide -corridor which intervenes between t h e i r barred doors and the windows of the b u i l d i n g , these being of course also barred. The r e s u l t i s that the sick convicts cannot e a s i l y receive sunlight or adequate fresh a i r and are generally so placed that while i n bed they face the c e l l door and the windows beyond, a p o s i t i o n which i n a case of many diseases must be p a r t i c u l a r l y i r r i t a t i n g to the patient. I t i s suggested that such a type of construction i s quite unnecessary and that, even before any new scheme of penitentiary construction i s adopted, the present hospitals should be reconstructed on modern s c i e n t i f i c p r i n c i p l e s . The attention of the Peni-tentiary Board should be immediately directed to the h o s p i t a l c e l l s now under construction at the Prince Albert and New Westminster p e n i t e n t i a r i e s , which should not be completed according to the present plans.7 7 Reprint of the Report of the Committee to Advise  Upon the Revision of the Penitentiary Regulations and  Amendment of the Penitentiary Act 1921 (Jackson Press. Kingston, Ontario, 1946), p. 60. 59 Despite the recommendation of thi s committee the o r i g i n a l plan of i n s i d e - c e l l construction was followed. The reason for t h i s p o l i c y was probably the fear that a dangerous inmate would feign i l l n e s s , so as to gain accommodation i n a hos p i t a l c e l l , and be able to make good hi s escape i f a supposedly less secure type of c e l l was i n s t a l l e d . However, i t i s f e l t that with the recent advances i n prison design, a modern o u t s i d e - c e l l , which would have d i r e c t access to fresh a i r and sunlight, could be made as secure as any of the present i n s i d e - c e l l s through the use of modern tungsten core bars. It i s the opinion of two prominent (though controversial) criminologists, Professors Barnes and Teeters that, "Outside 8 c e l l s can be made secure enough to hold any type of inmate." It i s suggested, therefore, that the present h o s p i t a l be reconstructed with o u t s i d e - c e l l s , employing modern detention sashes. I t i s believed -that the custodial features of the h o s p i t a l could be made less conspicuous and the area made more bright and a i r y . i . • . . . . . . . . . Floor Space and Reconstruction. It i s suggested, that a space-layout analysis might be carried out to insure that maximum e f f i c i e n c y i s obtained from the limited f l o o r space. It i s f e l t that c e r t a i n functions i n the i n s t i t u t i o n such as c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , are seriously handicapped by a lack 8 H.E. Barnes and N.K. Teeters, New Horizons i n  Criminology (New York, Prentice H a l l , 1952), p. 512. 6o of space, and i t i s believed that the advance of the i n s t i t u -t i o n a l programme i n these areas w i l l greatly depend upon such functions being provided with adequate space for t h e i r operations. The following recommendations, based on personal observation, are put f o r t h as tentative suggestions for the more e f f e c t i v e use of the e x i s t i n g f l o o r space. It i s recommended that a d d i t i o n a l space should be provided to the h o s p i t a l to allow for expansion, especially of the p s y c h i a t r i c services. I f the present school room space were to be converted into an additional p s y c h i a t r i c ward, there would be s u f f i c i e n t space to permit the i s o l a t i o n of p s y c h i a t r i c patients, the I n s t a l l a t i o n of f a c i l i t i e s for group therapy or counselling on a f a i r l y large scale, the setting up of more extensive psychiatric treatment f a c i l i t i e s such as electro-stimulus and convulsive therapy, and, most pressing of a l l these needs, the expansion of o f f i c e f a c i l i t i e s for the p s y c h i a t r i s t s u f f i c i e n t to provide space i n which to hold interviews and give i n d i v i d u a l psychotherapy. In addition to the expansion of the h o s p i t a l , i t i s recommended that the Dentist's o f f i c e be moved from the main f l o o r of the South Wing to the h o s p i t a l area. This move would f a c i l i t a t e the use of medical supplies and equipment which the dentist may require. Moreover, t h i s space being i n the center of i n s t i t u t i o n a l a c t i v i t y , i s more valuable for administrative purposes. With the suggested expansion of the h o s p i t a l into the 61 present school area, and i n view of the inadequate space allowed to the l i b r a r y and Its o f f i c e s ; there would aris e the need for construction of a new school and l i b r a r y . I t i s suggested that these f a c i l i t i e s could be combined i n a new building located i n the area now occupied by one set of the H-Huts. I t i s also recommended that the Bookbindery be located i n t h i s new building so as to maintain easy access to the l i b r a r y . The construction of the additional housing recommended would render the H-huts unnecessary, and so make the space they presently occupy available for ad d i t i o n a l construction. The entrance to t h i s building could be from the B-7 corridor, which i s e a s i l y accessible from a l l parts of the i n s t i t u t i o n . The present c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f f i c e i s not large enough to accommodate the number of interviews now being given. More space i s needed for c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , and i t i s recommended that the present l i b r a r y space be u t i l i z e d for t h i s purpose. Four separate o f f i c e s could be b u i l t within t h i s space, one for the C l a s s i f i c a t i o n O f f i c e r , one which would be available for the psychologist, and one as an additional o f f i c e to be used for interviews by representatives of such outside agencies as the Salvation Army and the John Howard Society. It i s suggested that the In-Service Training O f f i c e r be provided with o f f i c e f a c i l i t i e s . The present Dentist's o f f i c e might well serve t h i s purpose i f the Dentist were accommodated i n the h o s p i t a l as has been suggested. 62 The o f f i c e space which would be freed by the suggested move of the C l a s s i f i c a t i o n O f f i c e r and the bookbindery, could be put to good use to provide o f f i c e f a c i l i t i e s for the additional professional workers who w i l l be necessary for the development of a f u l l treatment programme. As space i s at a premium within a l l prisons, i t i s an accepted practice to use one area as chapel, auditorium, and gymnasium. The i n s t a l l a t i o n of foldi n g chairs i n the Protestant Chapel would permit i t to serve t h i s t r i p l e purpose. This would then allow the development of an evening recrea-t i o n a l programme. Power Plant. At present, coal o i l lamps are used i n case of an e l e c t r i c a l f a i l u r e . Such an emergency measure i s adequate under the present programme of the penitentiary, i n which a l l inmates are locked i n t h e i r c e l l s before n i g h t f a l l . However, should the i n s t i t u t i o n develop an evening programme, such an emergency l i g h t i n g system would be inadequate to meet custodial needs. Therefore, i t i s recommended that provision should be made for an emergency e l e c t r i c a l supply. A d i e s e l generator, which would go into operation i n the event of a power f a i l u r e , would f i l l t h i s need. Penitentiary Reserve. The Penitentiary i s located on a rather unfortunate s i t e , i n that a large ravine passes through the reserve. Objections have been made to suggestions of f i l l i n g i n the ravine because of a duct which runs through 63 the bottom of i t . The d i f f i c u l t i e s should not, however be insuperable, and i t i s suggested that engineering assistance be obtained to investigate p o s s i b i l i t i e s of f i l l i n g i n t h i s ravine. Mention was made, i n the reports of the Superintendent of Penitentiaries for the years 1919 and 1928, of e f f o r t s being made to do so and It i s f e l t that t h i s project should be revived as i t s successful completion would provide a considerable area of land adjacent to the penitentiary, and not traversed by public roads. The addition of t h i s acreage would allow for the disposal of the two west sections of the farm, which are traversed by public roads, and are suitable only for inmates c l a s s i f i e d as minimum security r i s k s . I f a separate camp were added to the penitentiary, the greatest part of the farming a c t i v i t i e s might well be carried on there by inmates c l a s s i f i e d as suitable for an "open" s e t t i n g . Upon the completion of"the recommended f i l l , the present wire fence, with barbed wire on top, which borders a portion of the reserve, could be extended to enclose a l l the farm land adjacent to the penitentiary walls. Suitable towers could then be located along t h i s fence to provide good perimeter security. I t i s believed that the farm would then have a moderate degree of security, which would make i t more useful f o r t r a i n i n g purposes than i t i s now. Inmates interested i n farming, but c l a s s i f i e d as doubtful security r i s k s , could then be employed on the farm and so engage i n a 64 t r a i n i n g programme suited to t h e i r needs. It i s also recommended that two ..-.separate enclosed exercise areas be considered, one for the addict and confirmed criminal group, the other for the remainder of the population. At present the entire population can mingle during exercise periods; a condition which acts to n u l l i f y the advantages gained by segregation elsewhere. Synop^sis The penitentiary plant i s an example of the maximum security housing which characterized prison construction u n t i l recent years. From a custodial viewpoint, the plant i s secure, clean, and i n good r e p a i r , with a layout that lends i t s e l f to e f f e c t i v e supervision and control of inmates. From the standpoint of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n however, d e f i c i e n c i e s are apparent. Treatment services, such as the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and psychiatric programmes, are cramped for space, a s i t u a t i o n which renders further development i n these areas d i f f i c u l t . The i s o l a t i o n of the i n d i v i d u a l as a r e s u l t of the lack of group l i v i n g f a c i l i t i e s contributes to h i s i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a -t i o n . Inmate t r a i n i n g f a c i l i t i e s also suffer from i n s u f f i c i e n t space. To achieve e f f e c t i v e expansion of a t r a i n i n g and t r e a t -ment programme, there must be a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of housing f a c i l i t i e s for p a r t i c u l a r categories of offenders, an increase i n treatment and t r a i n i n g f a c i l i t i e s , and an expansion of 65 housing outside of the walls to permit needed developments. While i t i s a truism that a modern plant does not make a treatment i n s t i t u t i o n , i t i s an equally v a l i d point that the lack of suitable physical f a c i l i t i e s can seriously c u r t a i l the operation of an otherwise excellent programme. CHAPTER IV INMATE TRAINING PROGRAMME C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Personnel. The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n programme, as well as case work services and counselling are under the d i r e c t i o n of the C l a s s i f i c a t i o n O f f i c e r and the Assistant C l a s s i f i c a t i o n O f f i c e r . The present C l a s s i f i c a t i o n O f f i c e r i s a graduate i n s o c i a l work, and the Assistant C l a s s i f i c a t i o n O f f i c e r a graduate i n psychology. It i s the duty of the C l a s s i f i c a t i o n O f f i c e r to prepare case h i s t o r i e s of a l l the inmates received i n the i n s t i t u t i o n and to make recommendations to the C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Board for t h e i r education, prison employment and general treatment. The C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Board i s composed of the Warden, who acts as chairman, the Deputy Warden, Chief Keeper, Chief Trade Instructor, Chief Vocational O f f i c e r , P s y c h i a t r i s t , Roman Catholic and Protestant Chaplains, Schoolteacher-L i b r a r i a n , Plant Engineer, C l a s s i f i c a t i o n O f f i c e r , and Assistant C l a s s i f i c a t i o n O f f i c e r . The Board meets every Wednesday, and each inmate appears before i t during the fourth week af t e r h i s admission. This Board attempts to plan the i n s t i t u t i o n a l programme of the inmate i n terms of his needs, as shown by interviews with the members of the Board. 67 Provision for r e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s made through the establishment of a Work Board. This Board i s composed of the Deputy Warden, who acts as chairman, the Chief Keeper, Chief Trade Instructor, Chief Vocational O f f i c e r , C l a s s i f i c a t i o n O f f i c e r , and Assistant C l a s s i f i c a t i o n O f f i c e r . This Board meets to make changes i n the inmate's work programme. To a s s i s t the Board i n r e c l a s s i f y i n g inmates, the C l a s s i f i c a t i o n O f f i c e r compiles six-month summary reports on the inmate, which indicate his progress i n the i n s t i t u t i o n . C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Process. The C l a s s i f i c a t i o n O f f i c e r interviews each inmate upon admission, and follow-up interviews are held every six months, upon the inmate applying for a t i c k e t - o f - l e a v e , or at the inmate's request. During the i n i t i a l interview, the C l a s s i f i c a t i o n O f f i c e r compiles a s o c i a l h i s t o r y of the inmate. A f i l e i s then started for each man, to which the reports of the other members of the C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Board are attached. Should a pre-sentence or probation report have been completed on the i n d i v i d u a l , t h i s i s also placed i n his f i l e . I f the inmate was arrested by the R.C.M.P., a questionnaire i s sent to the arresting o f f i c e r which, when completed and returned, forms a part of his f i l e . A l i s t of admissions i s sent to the S o c i a l Service Index, the Department of Veterans A f f a i r s , the John Howard Society, and the National Employment Service, to gain any available information these agencies might have concerning newly admitted inmates. During his stay i n the i n s t i t u t i o n , 68 a l l material of consequence i s included i n his f i l e , including such items as i n s t i t u t i o n a l offence reports. The newly admitted inmate i s also interviewed i n d i -v i d u a l l y by members of the C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Board during his stay i n the Reception Area. The Board members who interview the inmate, and submit reports to the C l a s s i f i c a t i o n O f f i c e r , include the P s y c h i a t r i s t , Chaplains, Schoolteacher-Librarian, Chief Vocational O f f i c e r and Chief Trade Instructor. Upon receiving a l l the reports from the other workers who Interview the inmate, the C l a s s i f i c a t i o n O f f i c e r consolidates the material into one report for the review of the C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Board. A report of the inmate's i n i t i a l physical examination and a copy of the criminal record received from the R.C.M.P. Fingerprint Section i n Ottawa are also submitted for the Board's use. The Physician's report includes an evaluation of the indi v i d u a l ' s f i t n e s s to undertake i n d u s t r i a l labour as well as p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n sports. Each inmate's f i l e i s kept i n the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f f i c e , and only personnel d i r e c t l y connected with c l a s s i f i c a t i o n have access to i t . Should an o f f i c e r desire information concerning an inmate, he sees the C l a s s i f i c a t i o n O f f i c e r , who discusses the inmate with him. No inmates are allowed access to these f i l e s , and precautions are taken;to ensure that t h i s r u l e i s observed. 69 Psychological and P s y c h i a t r i c Services Personnel. There i s a f u l l time psychologist on the s t a f f of the i n s t i t u t i o n . Such a p o s i t i o n had been authorized for some time but budget l i m i t a t i o n s have not permitted i t to be f i l l e d u n t i l recently. At the time of th i s survey the Assistant C l a s s i f i c a t i o n O f f i c e r , who has had graduate t r a i n -ing i n psychology from the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, was administering and evaluating the psychological t e s t s . A p s y c h i a t r i s t i s attached to the i n s t i t u t i o n on a part time basis. He spends the mornings i n the i n s t i t u t i o n , where he i s as s i s t e d by an Assistant Hospital O f f i c e r who i s a q u a l i f i e d p s y c h i a t r i c nurse. Psychological Services. There was no regular psycho-l o g i c a l t esting programme i n operation at the time of this research, but the C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Department was i n the process of i n i t i a t i n g a group testing programme for a l l new admissions. The only tests used were those administered to inmates referred for testing by the Educational, Vocational, and Psych i a t r i c Departments. These test r e s u l t s are used i n planning the i n s t i t u t i o n a l programme fo r the inmate, that i s i n making decisions regarding vocational-training, and i n the evaluation of achievement levels i n academic studies. The test data also a s s i s t the P s y c h i a t r i s t i n his evaluation of the inmate. Intelligence, interest-aptitude, and personality tests 70 are given i n varying combinations to inmates referred for t e s t i n g . The major tests used are the Wesrchler-Bellevue Intelligence Scale, the Revised Beta Examination, the Kuder Preference Record Forms AH and CH, the Bennet Mechanical Comprehension Forms AA and BB, and the Revised Minnesota with the P s y c h i a t r i s t at the time of his admission to the Penitentiary. The P s y c h i a t r i s t then submits a report to the C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Department giving his evaluation of the inmate. As mentioned previously, some inmates are referred to the C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Department by the P s y c h i a t r i s t for psychological t e s t i n g . P a r t i c u l a r attention i s paid to young inmates who may be e a s i l y influenced, or who have a h i s t o r y of sexual deviations. Follow-up interviews are car r i e d out with ce r t a i n younger inmates selected by the P s y c h i a t r i s t . He also sees those who present problems i n the i n s t i t u t i o n and those who request to see him. A small number of inmates receive i n d i v i d u a l psychotherapy. Usually between f i v e and ten inmates are under such treatment, being seen at weekly or monthly i n t e r v a l s , depending upon the nature of the problem involved. The f a c i l i t i e s f o r psychiatric treatment include a small o f f i c e for the P s y c h i a t r i s t , a section of the East Ward i n the h o s p i t a l which contains three h o s p i t a l c e l l s , and room for three more beds i n the co r r i d o r . Equipment i s available Paper Form Board Test Series AA. Psy c h i a t r i c Services. Each inmate has an interview 71 for electro-stimulus and convulsive therapy, with treatment being given to approximately ten inmates at the time of this study. Sodium pentathol and methedrine injections are also used by the P s y c h i a t r i s t i n connection with his treatment of inmates. A programme of group therapy i s carried on i n the Ps y c h i a t r i s t ' s o f f i c e to meet requests from the inmate population for such services. Due to the r e s t r i c t e d size of the P s y c h i a t r i s t ' s o f f i c e , where the weekly one-hour sessions are held, and the li m i t e d time during which the P s y c h i a t r i s t i s a vailable to the i n s t i t u t i o n , t h i s group had to be r e s t r i c t e d to nine inmates. Transfer to Mental Hospital. A l l inmates who are diagnosed as psychotic and who do not respond to treatment i n the i n s t i t u t i o n , are transferred to the P r o v i n c i a l Mental Hospital at Essondale by authority of the Penitentiary Act of 1939? Section 6 l . The major provisions of t h i s section are paraphased as follows: When the medical o f f i c e r reports to the Warden that an inmate i s insane, the Warden reports the facts to the Commissioner of Penitentiaries who authorizes the transfer to a mental i n s t i t u t i o n . I f an inmate so detained i n a mental i n s t i t u t i o n recovers to such an extent that he may be released from the mental h o s p i t a l , he i s transferred back.to the Penitentiary by authority of the Commissioner of Penitentiaries provided his sentence has not expired. Section 58 of the Penitentiary Act of 1939, provides for the transfer of inmates, who are diagnosed as being dmbeciles or insane within three months af t e r the date of 72 t h e i r admission to the Penitentiary, back to t h e i r place of custody p r i o r to admittance to the Penitentiary. In most cases t h i s means transfer back to the P r o v i n c i a l Gaol which held the inmate p r i o r to h i s being placed i n the Penitentiary. Due to the overcrowded conditions at the P r o v i n c i a l Mental Hospital however, the inmates transferred there for treatment are often returned to the i n s t i t u t i o n while s t i l l emotionally disturbed. 1 As of March 31» 1956> there were three inmates confined at the P r o v i n c i a l Mental Hospital, two under Section 58 and seven under Section 6l of the Penitentiary Act. Medical and Dental Services Personnel. The provision of medical services for the i n s t i t u t i o n i s the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the Physician-Surgeon who i s engaged on a f u l l time basis. The Physician has complete charge of the administration of the h o s p i t a l , being responsible for the medical care and treatment of the inmate population. He i s assisted by a Hospital O f f i c e r and four Assistant Hospital O f f i c e r s . The Hospital O f f i c e r i s responsible to the Physician f o r the general administration of medical services, including the ordering of supplies, pharmaceutical and laboratory work, and the general nursing of patients. He i s assisted i n these 1 Annual Report of the Commissioner of Penitentiaries  for the f i s c a l year ended March 31. 1956 (Queen's P r i n t e r , Ottawa), p. 94. 73 duties by the assistant h o s p i t a l o f f i c e r s who perform general nursing duties. One assistant h o s p i t a l o f f i c e r i s an X-Ray technician and performs a l l necessary X-Ray work. Six inmates are employed as orderlies under the super-v i s i o n of the assistant h o s p i t a l o f f i c e r s . Inmates help with c l e r i c a l functions i n the h o s p i t a l . A l l of the seven inmates working i n the h o s p i t a l are paid the same rates as the remainder of the inmate population. A Dentist i s engaged on a part-time basis, coming i n twice a week and making special v i s i t s i f he i s needed urgently. Hospital Service. An inmate i s admitted to the h o s p i t a l when, a f t e r examination by the Physician or Hospital O f f i c e r s , such action i s deemed necessary. The other departments d i r e c t l y concerned with the inmate are then n o t i f i e d of h i s h o s p i t a l i z a t i o n , the most important of these being the Chief Keeper's Department which i s responsible for the custody of the inmate. The special diets required by the h o s p i t a l from the kitchen include l i q u i d , d i a b e t i c , soft and dental (post extraction) d i e t s . The food for the h o s p i t a l , including these s p e c i a l d i e t s , i s transported from the kitchen and placed i n warming closets u n t i l consumed. Special diets are sometimes ordered by the Physician for inmates who are not h o s p i t a l i z e d . During the time of t h i s survey there were sixty-four cases which required temporary h o s p i t a l i z a t i o n , and one which 74 required permanent h o s p i t a l i z a t i o n , (an addict whose condition was a r e s u l t of his drug h a b i t ) . There were ten chronic and phys i c a l l y handicapped inmates not housed i n the h o s p i t a l but receiving treatment, while there were f i f t e e n such inmates not under treatment. During the f i s c a l year ending March 31> 195& the-following numbers of inmates received medical attention: Medications were dispensed and i l l inmates received attention, t o t a l l i n g 18,250 during the d a i l y morning sick parade, averaging about 50 P©** day. Daily dressings accounted f o r a t o t a l of 2,300 i n the year. The Eye, Ear, Nose and Throat S p e c i a l i s t examined 120 inmates. . . . 314 X-Rays were taken by the X-Ray Department. 2 Deaths i n the I n s t i t u t i o n . Four inmates have died while under sentence i n the Penitentiary during the three years p r i o r to t h i s study, one by suicide through hanging, the remainder from natural causes. Upon the death of an inmate, i t i s necessary to n o t i f y the coroner as required by section 80 of the Penitentiary Act 1939 i n order that an inquest may be held. The procedure f o r disposal of the body i s governed by section 8l of the Penitentiary Act 1939* This section allows for giving up the body to r e l a t i v e s i f claimed by them, to an inspector or professor of anatomy i f the r e l a t i v e s do not claim i t , or to be decently interred at the expense of the Penitentiary i f neither of the above courses of action are followed. 2 I b i d . , p. 95. 75 Physical Examinations. Every inmate, upon admission to the i n s t i t u t i o n , i s given a complete physical examination. The r e s u l t of t h i s examination i s reported to the C l a s s i f i c a -t i o n O f f i c e r to a s s i s t i n the development of the inmate's i n s t i t u t i o n a l programme. A medical f i l e i s opened on each inmate at the time he i s admitted, i n which the re s u l t s of a l l examinations, t e s t s , and treatments, are recorded. Blood tests are given routinely to newly admitted inmates, while other tests are used when necessary. No vaccinations or immunizations are given. The major portion of the laboratory work connected with these tests i s done i n the i n s t i t u t i o n by the Hospital O f f i c e r s , with the exception of blood tests which are sent for analysis to the Department of Health and Welfare i n Vancouver. Sick C a l l . Sick c a l l i s held d a i l y at 7:10 a.m. A medical desk i s set up i n the Dome where the inmates pass a f t e r picking up breakfast from the kitchen. Here an inmate may receive routine treatment for minor ailments such as colds, and prescriptions or treatment already prescribed by the Physician. Should he wish to see the Physician, his name and number are taken for the Physician's parade. Any inmate i s free to appear on the sick c a l l , including those i n close confinement. The average number of inmates who see the Physician i s nine or ten a day. In the case of emergency, the inmate i s given immediate medical attention, the Physician being on c a l l for such cases. 76 A "dressing parade" i s also held d a i l y i n the h o s p i t a l between 8:30 a.m. and 10:00 a.m. Here, treatment of minor i n j u r i e s and follow-up instructions of the Physician are carri e d out as the case requires. The Hospital O f f i c e r i s of the opinion that there i s very l i t t l e malingering amongst the inmates. Should an inmate be suspected of malingering, he i s placed on the dressing parade and i s examined by the Hospital O f f i c e r who, i f he thinks i t necessary, places the inmate on the Physician's l i s t . Even though an inmate may be suspected of malingering, his case i s not ignored. When i t i s considered necessary, such an i n d i v i d u a l i s referred to the Warden or to the P s y c h i a t r i s t . Medication. Medicine i s dispensed by the Hospital O f f i c e r at the medicine desk i n the Dome, to the inmate i n his c e l l , or i n the h o s p i t a l , depending upon the nature of the malady and the medication. There are no medicines dispensed by inmates. Simple prescriptions are compounded at the i n s t i t u t i o n , with the remainder being prepared by a licensed pharmacist outside the prison. Stock prescriptions such as tonics, cough medicines and common cold remedies are kept on hand. Such commonly used stock prescriptions include aluminum hydroxide, a vari e t y of cough medicines, common cold remedies and vitamin capsules. Narcotic or pain-rel i e v i n g drugs are dispensed by the Hospital O f f i c e r , or Assistant Hospital O f f i c e r s , upon the written p r e s c r i p t i o n of the 77 Physician. The recording, purchasing, storing and dispensing of narcotic drugs i s carr i e d out i n accordance with a system established by the R.C.M.P., who make periodic inspections to insure conformity.. Secondary Physical Examinations. Routine medical re-examinations are held with cases found i n need of medical care on the entrance examination. A l l of those who have been under treatment are given a thorough medical examination p r i o r to t h e i r departure from the i n s t i t u t i o n , at which time recommendations and advice are given, i f necessary, with respect to the appropriate treatment programme to follow a f t e r release. Venereal Disease Programme. A l l cases which show evidence of venereal disease are referred to the D i v i s i o n of Venereal Disease Control, Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia, which gives instructions as to treatment. Should the inmate be released before a number of successive negative laboratory tests have been obtained, he i s instructed to report to the Venereal Disease c l i n i c closest to h i s residence, and the directo r of the c l i n i c i s n o t i f i e d by the penitentiary of the inmate's return and condition. Surgical Programme. The I n s t i t u t i o n i s not equipped for major su r g i c a l operations and therefore outside f a c i l i t i e s must be u t i l i z e d . The hospitals that are available to the i n s t i t u t i o n for major operations and specialized services 78 include the Royal Columbian Hospital, New Westminster, B r i t i s h Columbia, and Shaughnessy Hospital, Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia. In case of major operations, consultants may be c a l l e d i n at the d i s c r e t i o n of the Physician. Surgery i s not only employed for the r e l i e f of acute conditions but also for r e h a b i l i t a t i v e purposes, i n ce r t a i n cases i n which the Physician believes that corrective surgery may be b e n e f i c i a l . Waivers of l i a b i l i t y are obtained from a l l inmates before any operation takes place. A l l minor operations, such as tonsillectomies and circumcisions, are performed i n the i n s t i t u t i o n . Tuberculosis Programme. One ward of the h o s p i t a l i s used as an i s o l a t i o n ward for those with contagious diseases. A l l tuberculosis cases are referred to the New Westminster Chest C l i n i c , and the instructions for treatment of the s p e c i a l i s t there are followed. The majority of the patients i n the Is o l a t i o n Ward spend t h e i r time reading and l i s t e n i n g to the radio. Hobby supplies are made available to men desiring them. Instructions regarding the patient's d i e t , exercise, and therapy come from the Chest C l i n i c , and the patients are r e s t r i c t e d to the I s o l a t i o n Ward to prevent the spread of i n f e c t i o n to others. Dental Programme. I f the inmate i s found i n need of dental treatment on his i n i t i a l physical examination, he i s referred to the Dentist. Dental treatment i s made available to a l l inmates without cost within the l i m i t s set by the 79 Penitentiary Regulations which state that the inmate i s to be capable of masticating the ordinary prison r a t i o n . Anything above and beyond t h i s i s to paid for by the inmate from his: trust fund. During h i s stay i n the i n s t i t u t i o n , the inmate may request to see the dent i s t , but periodic dental examinations are not given as a matter of routine. Provision of Orthopedic and Prosthetic Appliances. Should there be any p o s s i b i l i t y of the inmate's health being impaired by the lack of glasses or f a l s e teeth, or other appliances of that type, they are supplied at penitentiary expense. In other cases the inmate purchases such appliances at his own expense. I n s t i t u t i o n a l Sanitation. Routine checks of the i n s t i t u t i o n , and p a r t i c u l a r l y of feeding f a c i l i t i e s , are made by the Physician to ascertain that the approved standard of sanitation i s maintained. D i s c i p l i n e . The Physician makes regular v i s i t s to the close-confinement quarters i n addition to any t r i p s he may make there to give medical attention to an inmate. The Physician has authority to free an inmate from close-confinement, or to countermand other d i s c i p l i n a r y measures, i f he considers that such punishment i s having a detrimental e f f e c t on the. health of the i n d i v i d u a l . When f u l l meals have been denied for d i s c i p l i n a r y reasons, the Physician may restore them i f he sees f i t . 80 Outside Consultation. Inmates may be taken outside the prison for X-Rays and consultation. The main agencies used are the Local Chest C l i n i c , Shaughnessy Hospital, the Royal Columbian Hospital, and the B.C. Cancer I n s t i t u t e . In addition, an Eye, Ear, Rose and Throat S p e c i a l i s t v i s i t e d the I n s t i t u t i o n once each month. Expenditures. The expenditures for medical services for the f i s c a l year of 1955-1956 amounted to $701.50 for medical and s u r g i c a l fees and for X-Rays, etcetera; $600.00 for the services of the Eye S p e c i a l i s t s ; $704.38 for o p t i c a l supplies, and $148.80 for dental supplies and services. The t o t a l expenditures f o r medical and a l l i e d services f o r t h i s period amounted to $1,654.68. Educational Programme Personnel. The educational services are under the d i r e c t i o n of the Schoolmaster-Librarian whose major duties are l a i d out i n the Penitentiary Regulations 1933 a s follows: 396 - The teacher s h a l l conduct school during the hours that the shops of the Penitentiary are i n operation, as directed by the Warden. 397 - He s h a l l be available to, and s h a l l a s s i s t , such convicts as desire h i s assistance i n educational matters, at the several c e l l gates, as directed by the Warden. 398 - He s h a l l perform L i b r a r i a n duties generally, and s h a l l cause to be delivered to the c e l l gates of 3 I b i d . , p. 56. 81 convicts such l i b r a r y books or periodicals as they may be e n t i t l e d to the use of under the Regulations. In general, the teacher i s responsible for the academic education of the inmate. His duties include: Supervision of the l i b r a r y , school, bookbindery and the inmates employed therein; writing of l e t t e r s for i l l i t e r a t e s ; reports to the C l a s s i f i c a t i o n O f f i c e r on newcomers, dischargees, and parolees as a member of the C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Committee; supervision of special educational classes such as the Dale Carnegie class; purchase of a l l supplies and equipment for the school, l i b r a r y , and bookbindery; purchase of books and magazines; arrangement of private subscriptions f o r inmates to magazines and news-papers; lectures to the o f f i c e r s ' i n service t r a i n i n g class; and serving as Chairman of the Hobby Committee. In.addition to the Schoolmaster-Librarian, there i s one f u l l - t i m e academic teacher with the t i t l e of Assistant School-master L i b r a r i a n . He i s responsible f o r the actual i n s t r u c t i o n of the inmates and a s s i s t s i n the l i b r a r y . The present Schoomaster-Librarian and Assistant Schoolmaster-Librarian are both university graduates with a further year of teacher's t r a i n i n g . There are no part-time teachers other than c e r t a i n lecturers who come into the i n s t i t u t i o n at i n t e r v a l s , as for example the dire c t o r of the Dale Carnegie courses who.is a voluntary non-paid teacher. There are four inmate teachers, one f o r the school, and three f o r the Dale Carnegie Course. The inmate teacher i n the school provides academic i n s t r u c t i o n 82 for those enrolled i n the primary grades. He i s well q u a l i f i e d by h i s academic studies, having taken university courses, has a keen in t e r e s t i n the class and i s able to establish rapport with them. The three inmate teachers i n the Dale Carnegie Course are graduates of that course and a s s i s t the dir e c t o r with the teaching and supervision of the c l a s s . These inmate teachers are not paid or rewarded by any special p r i v i l e g e s , but give assistance because of the interest they have i n the courses. Objectives. Methods and Programme of Academic School. The goal of the academic school i s to enable the inmate to acquire, so f a r as possible, the education necessary for a better vocational and s o c i a l adjustment, rather than merely giving him the "three R's." With the i l l i t e r a t e s , the aim i s to teach them to read and write which, i n turn, i s thought to aid t h e i r s o c i a l adjustment. The academic t r a i n i n g provided i s cl o s e l y coordinated with the vocational t r a i n i n g available i n the i n s t i t u t i o n . Such a connection e x i s t s , for instance, with the t r a i n i n g given inmates i n the b o i l e r house by the Plant Engineer. Inmates are able to q u a l i f y for t h e i r fourth-class steam engineering t i c k e t because the school provides them with the necessary background t r a i n i n g i n such subjects as mathematics and physics. A similar arrangement exists between the school and other vocational shops i n the i n s t i t u t i o n , providing the inmate with 83 the appropriate theory f o r motor mechanic t r a i n i n g and mathematics for machine-shop p r a c t i c e . Any necessary academic tr a i n i n g beyond the eighth grade l e v e l i s provided by correspondence courses. The educational methods used include formal class i n s t r u c t i o n , i n d i v i d u a l and group projects, and educational films and f i l m s t r i p s . The text books used i n the school are prescribed by the Department of Education and, wherever possible, are designed for adult use. They are c a r e f u l l y selected and adapted to the needs of the p u p i l s . As many as possible of the exercises used i n the school are designed s p e c i f i c a l l y for adult students with adult i n t e r e s t s . The Schoolmaster-Librarian interviews each inmate upon admission to the i n s t i t u t i o n , gathering material on his academic background, determining his s u i t a b i l i t y for school should he desire to attend, and f i x i n g the l e v e l he should sta r t at i n the academic programme. The assignment of students i s based on the needs, a b i l i t i e s and interests of the i n d i v i d u a l . The teacher has access to the individual's case h i s t o r y to a s s i s t him i n making such decisions. There i s a p o l i c y that there s h a l l be no more than t h i r t y students at any one time i n a given c l a s s . The actual size of the classes i s usually less than t h i r t y , averaging from twenty-two to twenty-five. A r e l a t i v e l y small class i s considered desirable because the teacher i s thus able to provide better i n s t r u c t i o n and more personal attention. 84 Mental and achievement tests are used i n determining the s u i t a b i l i t y of the inmate f o r the various courses, the l a t t e r being provided by the B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Education. The tests are used for assignment to courses, together with the teacher's personal tests and observations. Intelligence testing i s carried out by the Assistant C l a s s i f i -cation O f f i c e r . The P s y c h i a t r i s t interviews a l l inmates upon admission and also gives his opinion as to the s u i t a b i l i t y of the inmate for school. Tests designed by the teachers are used for the grades from one to eight to determine promotion. The i n s t r u c t i o n beyond grade eight i s on a correspondence course basis, such courses being furnished by the B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Education, and therefore i t i s necessary f o r the inmate to pass the tests set by t h i s Department for advancement beyond the eighth grade l e v e l . School attendance i s almost completely voluntary. Compulsion i s used very infrequently and then only i n cases i n which success i s anticipated and the i n d i v i d u a l i s d e f i n i t e l y i n need of further education. Such a s i t u a t i o n might a r i s e i n the case of an i l l i t e r a t e , with above average i n t e l l i g e n c e , who had an obvious need of schooling for the improvement of h i s s o c i a l adjustment, but who showed l i t t l e i n t e r e s t i n attending school. Progress records are kept on the educational achieve-ments of a l l inmates. A complete record of correspondence courses undertaken, and of the progress, made i n them, i s 85 maintained, as well as a record of class achievements. The information i n these progress records i s referred to the C l a s s i f i c a t i o n O f f i c e r to a s s i s t i n building the t o t a l record of the indi v i d u a l ' s behaviour i n the i n s t i t u t i o n . This, information i s also sent to headquarters i n Ottawa upon the discharge of the i n d i v i d u a l from the i n s t i t u t i o n . The academic school i s i n session every morning, Monday through Friday. It provides i n s t r u c t i o n , largely i n basic subjects, up to the grade eight l e v e l . On Monday, Wednesday, and Friday mornings, the elementary groups from grades one to six receive i n s t r u c t i o n from the Teacher and an inmate ass i s t a n t , the l a t t e r i n d i v i d u a l teaching the primary grades. On Tuesday and Thursday morning the intermediate group (grades s i x to eight) receives i n s t r u c t i o n from the Teacher. There are no academic courses given i n the a f t e r -noon or evening. The academic school i s i n session for three and one-h a l f hours i n the morning, making a t o t a l of seventeen'and one-half hours per week. The school session follows the regular schedule set by the public schools of the Province. There are no graduation ceremonies from the i n s t i t u t i o n a l school, but those who complete t h e i r correspondence courses have a c e r t i f i c a t e presented to them by the Warden before the C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Board. At the time of t h i s survey there was one inmate taking correspondence courses from Queens University, one from the 86 University of B r i t i s h Columbia, and 136 from the B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Education. In addition, twenty-five inmates were engaged i n f u l l - t i m e studies i n the i n s t i t u t i o n a l school, making a t o t a l of 163 inmates, or approximately one-t h i r d of the inmate population, engaged i n academic educational courses. Studies Outside of the Classroom. Study outside of the classroom i s carried on i n the c e l l s . As much material as possible i s covered i n the classroom and supplementary material assigned to be done i n the c e l l s , which are equipped with a wooden desk and chair, and an extension l i g h t . These l i g h t s consist of an extension cord, shade, and 40 watt bulb, and are supplied to each student upon the recommendation of the school. Should a student desire to see a member of the educa-t i o n a l s t a f f f or i n d i v i d u a l assistance, he may submit a request to go to the o f f i c e of the educational s t a f f during an afternoon hour. Library Service. The l i b r a r y i s under the d i r e c t i o n of the Schoolmaster-Librarian who i s assisted i n thi s function by the Teacher and an inmate s t a f f of ten. Three catalogues are ci r c u l a t e d among the inmates. These include a short resume of the contents of each book i n the l i b r a r y , as well as the t i t l e and author. The inmate may scan the catalogue while i n his c e l l and make h i s choice of 87 books from i t . A card i s provided on which he f i l l s i n his choice of books. The card i s then returned to the l i b r a r y , and the book chosen i s taken to the c e l l by an inmate runner. F i c t i o n and n o n - f i c t i o n books are issued as often as four times weekly while magazines are d i s t r i b u t e d d a i l y . Reference books, school texts, and books a l l i e d to inmates' studies are available on request. The magazines available for d i s t r i -bution are l i s t e d and, at the time of h i s a r r i v a l i n the i n s t i t u t i o n , each inmate selects from t h i s l i s t the magazines which he desires to read. A copy of his s e l e c t i o n i s kept i n the l i b r a r y , and each week the magazines he has requested are delivered to h i s c e l l . The i n s t i t u t i o n subscribes to approximately twenty-five general inte r e s t magazines and twenty trade journals, of which several copies of each are obtained. This supply i s augmented by the private subscrip-tions of inmates. An inmate may subscribe to suitable news-papers, magazines, or books d i r e c t l y from the publishers, providing he has money i n his trust fund. An inmate having a private subscription i s allowed to r e t a i n a magazine for two weeks, af t e r which period i t i s turned into the l i b r a r y and made available f o r d i s t r i b u t i o n to other inmates. The Library contains reference volumes and sets of the Encyclopedia Britannica as well as other materials i n con-nection with the educational courses. Each of the vocational shops has a l i b r a r y of some ten to t h i r t y books pertaining to 4 the trade being taught. On'March 3!st, 1956, there were 4 Ibid . , p. 96. 88 5,078 volumes i n the l i b r a r y , of which 3,495 were ficjbion, 975 n o n - f i c t i o n , and 608 were reference volumes. The e i r c u -l a t i o n f or the f i s c a l year ending March 31st, 195© amounted to 34,761 volumes of f i c t i o n and non- f i c t i o n and 189,103 magazines. The c i r c u l a t i o n of private subscriptions which includes newspapers and magazines, t o t a l l e d to 38,112 copies. The books are well maintained and the i n s t i t u t i o n has i t s own book binding and repair services which are adequate to preserve the l i b r a r y c o l l e c t i o n . The books for the l i b r a r y are purchased by the Schoolmaster-Librarian on the authority of the Commissioner, from funds supplied by the Federal Government and set aside i n the annual estimates. During the f i s c a l year ending March 31st, 1956, $524.28 was spent on l i b r a r y books for the 6 i n s t i t u t i o n . The books coming into the i n s t i t u t i o n are selected by the l i b r a r y board which consists of the Roman Catholic Chaplain, the Protestant Chaplain, and the Schoolmaster-Librarian. Books which are considered sexually stimulating, which r i d i c u l e the forces of law and order, or degrade existent s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s are barred. The i n s t i t u t i o n a l l i b r a r y i s not d i r e c t l y a f f i l i a t e d with the l o c a l or P r o v i n c i a l l i b r a r i e s , but receive co-operation from them. The Open Shelf D i v i s i o n of the Pr o v i n c i a l Public Lihrary sends books to those inmates who ' 5 Loc. c i t . 6 Loc. c i t . 89 request them, usually i n connection with correspondence courses. Such requests are screened to avoid requests for volumes available i n the prison l i b r a r y or unsuited for prison use. The Schoolmaster goes to the New Westminster Public Library to borrow books for inmates on his own card. This l i b r a r y has been very co-operative i n giving assistance. The resources of the University of B r i t i s h Columbia Library may be used through contact with the Extension Department to obtain special books which cannot be found elsewhere. A f f i l i a t i o n s of the School. The educational system of the i n s t i t u t i o n receives assistance from the University of B r i t i s h Columbia,. Queens.. University, and the B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Education. The Extension Department of the University of B r i t i s h Columbia has arranged a series of general i n t e r e s t lectures, occurring about once a month, as well as correspondence courses at the university l e v e l . Correspondence courses are also made availa b l e by Queens University. The B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Education makes available both high school and elementary school correspondence courses for those who wish to further t h e i r education but are unable to attend school i n the mornings, as i n the,case of inmates working i n the kitchen and on other f u l l - t i m e jobs. Correspondence Courses. Correspondence courses of both an academic and a vocational nature are available to inmates. 90 At the time of th i s study there was one inmate working on a correspondence course from the University of B r i t i s h Columbia. Another inmate has now completed a l l the correspondence courses available for cred i t towards his Bachelor of Arts degree. As mentioned previously, there were approximately 136 students studying correspondence courses given by the B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Education. F i f t y - e i g h t courses were completed with twelve students succeeding i n completing t h e i r courses, while eighty-three others were discharged before completing t h e i r courses, and only two courses were dropped because of lack of i n t e r e s t . A high degree of success i s claimed for these courses. Inmates on occasion complete grade twelve, and i t i s possible for them to gain senior matriculation standing. The members of the educational s t a f f o f f e r as much assistance as the i r time permits to those enrolled i n correspondence courses. However, the primary concern of the educational s t a f f i s to bring those inmates i n the lower grades up to a grade eight l e v e l and to provide the necessary i n s t r u c t i o n to those engaged i n vocational t r a i n i n g . Therefore, only rather lim i t e d help can be given to the inmates who wish more advanced t r a i n i n g . Those inmates who take correspondence courses from the u n i v e r s i t i e s must pay for them, but a l l courses from the B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Education are supplied at no, cost either to the inmate or the Federal Government. I f the inmate i s unable to buy the necessary text books, they are 91 loaned to him by the Department's Correspondence Branch. Books from the Open Shelf D i v i s i o n of the P r o v i n c i a l Library at V i c t o r i a are also made available to inmates taking correspondence courses. No inmate i s deprived of any opportunity for education through the lack of adequate finances. In the past there have been four inmates enrolled with the International Correspondence School. Those who e n r o l l with t h i s school pay th e i r own fees. Those engaged i n correspondence courses from the B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Education receive c r e d i t toward whatever c e r t i f i c a t e they may be aiming for upon successfully completing the necessary examinations. The examinations are sent by the Department of Education to the i n s t i t u t i o n , and the writing of the examina-t i o n i s i n v i g i l a t e d by the educational s t a f f of the Penitentiary. Upon completion, the examinations are sent back for grading. The i n s t i t u t i o n a l school i s not recognized by the B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Education because the classes do not operate on a f u l l - t i m e basis. However, should an inmate reach the eighth grade l e v e l and wish to gain recogni-t i o n for t h i s work, he may e n r o l l i n the Department's correspondence courses and write an examination, receiving a c e r t i f i c a t e i f he passes. Specialized Adult Education. An e f f o r t i s made to conduct an educational programme on an "adult education" basis by means of v i s i t i n g lecturers from the University of B r i t i s h Columbia and the Dale Carnegie course. The l a t t e r course i s 92 a series of sessions on e f f e c t i v e speaking, human r e l a t i o n s , and memory t r a i n i n g . The aim of the course i s to develop a sense of confidence within the in d i v i d u a l and to increase his a b i l i t y to get along with other people. The course was introduced into the i n s t i t u t i o n i n 1951• It consists of sixteen a l l day sessions held on Saturdays i n the school room. In the mornings i t i s led by three inmate directors who are graduates of the previous courses given i n the i n s t i t u t i o n . In the afternoon, Mr. W.C. Angus, the direct o r of Dale Carnegie courses for ?/estern Canada, leads the c l a s s . The fourth class was taking the course at the time of this research. The number of inmates i n each class i s r e s t r i c t e d to t h i r t y - f i v e by the small size of the school room. At the end of the course the students have a graduation banquet. The purpose of these lectures and courses from outside sources i s to broaden the experience and perspective of the inmates, to stimulate t h e i r thinking and i n t e r e s t s , and to give them a f e e l i n g of i d e n t i t y with the larger society. This a c t i v i t y seems to provide a healthy outlet for emotional tension, thus combatting the degenerative effects of i n s t i t u t i o n a l l i f e . Leisure Time A c t i v i t i e s . During t h e i r l e i s u r e time i n the evenings, inmates may devote themselves to hobby work, reading, w r i t i n g , studying, or merely l i s t e n i n g to the radio over the earphones i n t h e i r c e l l s . After the inmates are locked i n t h e i r c e l l s i n the la t e afternoon they are allowed 93 to t a l k to each other for one hour, aft e r which they must remain s i l e n t . It i s believed by s t a f f that the inmates enjoy t h i s quiet period and therefore, a separate area of forty-four c e l l s has been set aside for those with noisy hobbies to prevent them from disturbing the whole i n s t i t u t i o n . However, because of the overcrowded conditions existing i n the ; i n s t i t u t i o n , there are no more c e l l s available for t h i s purpose, a fact which somewhat r e s t r i c t s the choice of hobbies for new inmates. Otherwise, there i s no l i m i t on the hobbies an inmate may have so long as they can be done i n the c e l l s and do not endanger the security of the prison. During the day a l l inmates are assigned to some occupation or a c t i v i t y such as work, exercise, interviews or school. Therefore, there are no leisure-time a c t i v i t i e s during these hours. On holidays and Sundays, i n addition to the usual c e l l recreation, there are motion pictures, l i v e concerts, indoor and outdoor sports, as well as church on Sunday mornings. No sports or concerts are allowed while church i s i n progress. For the less active inmates, cards and card tables are available i n the Dome during the time a l l o t t e d f o r sports on holidays and Sundays. The convalescent patients i n the hospitals have f u l l hobby p r i v i l e g e s , with the majority engaging i n reading, l i s t e n i n g to the radio, and playing cards. The radio i s kept on during the day i f the patients 94 i n the ho s p i t a l are l i s t e n i n g to i t . Inmate Organizations. The main inmate organization i s the Inmate Welfare Committee. This committee appoints sup-committees to handle such matters as sports, radio, hobby, music and the i n s t i t u t i o n a l inmate paper. The function of these committees are advisory. They have no authority, but thei r recommendations, i f reasonable, are followed by the administration. F a c i l i t i e s are provided for committee meetings i n the Deputy Warden's o f f i c e , O f f i c e r s ' Lounge, or the Roman Catholic Chaplain's o f f i c e . At these meetings, supervision i s provided by a member of the penitentiary s t a f f . Religious Programme Personnel. There are two f u l l - t i m e chaplains assigned to the i n s t i t u t i o n , one Protestant and one Roman Catholic. Their main duties are described i n the Penitentiary Regula-tions of 1933 > as follows: Section 341. The Roman Catholic Chaplain s h a l l have the s p i r i t u a l charge, and be responsible for the r e l i g i o u s i n s t r u c t i o n , of a l l convicts who are reported to him by the Warden as being adherents of the Roman Catholic Church, and the Protestant Chaplain s h a l l have the s p i r i t u a l charge, and be responsible for the r e l i g i o u s i n s t r u c t i o n of a l l convicts who are reported to him by the Warden as being adherents of the Protestant Churches or denominations. Religious a c t i v i t i e s by part-time and voluntary personnel include services by the Salvation Army on one Sunday i n each month, by the Gideons every f i f t h Sunday, and 95 the assistance of a Jewish Canon and a voluntary organist and choir leader. Services are held for the Jewish inmates two or three times during the year at the time of t h e i r r e l i g i o u s holidays. Authority f o r such n o n - i n s t i t u t i o n a l r e l i g i o u s personnel to v i s i t the i n s t i t u t i o n i s given by the Penitentiary Regulations 1933: Section 347. Regularly ordained clergymen of any r e l i g i o u s denomination, or other persons who i n t h e i r own r e l i g i o u s denomination have the same standing as a regularly ordained clergyman, s h a l l be permitted, at times to be fixe d by the Warden, to v i s i t the Penitentiary for the r e l i g i o u s i n s t r u c t i o n of such convicts as may be adherents of the same denomination as the clergymen or other persons so v i s i t i n g . Over the c e l l door i s painted the inmate's name and number, the colour red designating that a Roman Catholic occupies the space and black l e t t e r i n g indicating that the occupant i s a Protestant or belongs to some other denomination. The duties of the Chaplains, i n addition to providing regular r e l i g i o u s services, include d i r e c t i o n of the inmate choir and Bible classes, arranging for outside choirs, showing of r e l i g i o u s f i l m s , d i s t r i b u t i o n of r e l i g i o u s magazines, interyiewing inmates i n connection with the c l a s s i -f i c a t i o n studies, giving personal guidance and assistance to inmates, attending the Alcoholics Anonymous meetings, v i s i t i n g the home of inmates, and writing to the r e l a t i v e s of inmates concerning problems which a r i s e . 96 Religious Services. The Roman Catholic services are held i n a Chapel designed for that purpose every Sunday and on s p e c i a l r e l i g i o u s occasions. The Protestant services are held i n a separate Chapel on a similar schedule, with both services being of approximately three-quarters of an hour i n duration. Attendance i s voluntary, and about fo r t y per cent of the inmate population take advantage of the opportunity to p a r t i c i p a t e . Inmates who are neither Protestant nor Catholic i n f a i t h , e.g. Hebrew, Oriental and Doukhobor are considered the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the Protestant Chaplain and may attend his services i f they so desire. The Chaplains act as members of the C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Board, submitting reports on each inmate,, and attending the meetings of the Board. Inmate D i s c i p l i n e Rights of an Inmate. The Penitentiary Act 1939 > describes the ri g h t s of an inmate: Section 66 (1) Every convict s h a l l , during the term of hi s confinement, be clothed, at the expense of the penitentiary, i n suitable prison garments. (2 ) He s h a l l be supplied with a s u f f i c i e n t quantity of wholesome food. (3) He s h a l l be provided with a bed and s u f f i c i e n t covering varied according to the season. (4) He s h a l l , except i n case of sickness, be kept i n a c e l l by himself at night. Anything awarded over and above such r i g h t s , i s 97 considered a p r i v i l e g e , and may be withheld for d i s c i p l i n a r y purposes. I n s t i t u t i o n a l Rules. A copy of the Rules of Conduct and Prison Offences i s given to each inmate upon admission. The Warden sees the inmate shortly a f t e r admission, and discusses these regulations with him. These rules are formulated by the Warden, and are subject to the approval of the Commissioner of P e n i t e n t i a r i e s . Every s t a f f member i s responsible for the enforcement of the r u l e s , although t h i s function i s primarily the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the custodial s t a f f . The major requirements of these rules are paraphrased below. Inmates s h a l l promptly obey a l l orders, r e f r a i n from damaging property, s h a l l not leave h i s appointed lo c a t i o n without permission, treat a l l o f f i c e r s with respect, and s h a l l not have i n his possession unauthorized a r t i c l e s . He may request to see the Physician, Warden, or a Commissioner upon his v i s i t to the penitentiary. For escape or assault upon an o f f i c e r , or attempting the same, the inmate loses a l l remission and may be awarded additional punishment. Offences and Punishments. Punishments are imposed by the Warden only a f t e r a hearing i n Warden's Court. Of f i c e r s are not allowed to administer punishment except on authority of the Warden. Upon an i n f r a c t i o n of the rules by an inmate, the O f f i c e r i n charge f i l l s out a report which i s submitted to , the Deputy Warden. The inmate then appears i n Warden's Court, where the Warden hears evidence concerning the 98 complaint, and makes a decision from which there can be no appeal. The inmate i s allowed to present witnesses to the Court, and may conduct h i s own defence. In certain cases, the Warden consults with the P s y c h i a t r i s t regarding the offence and the determination of a suitable penalty. -Should corporal punishment be proposed by the Warden for an offence, the approval of the Commissioner of Penitentiaries must be obtained before that penalty i s carried out. A report of a l l punishments awarded to an inmate must also' be forwarded to the Commissioner for review. The following r u l e s , paraphrased from the Penitentiary Regulations 1933? give an outline of offences and punishments: An inmate s h a l l be g u i l t y of an offence i f he: assaults an o f f i c e r ; disobeys an order; i s i d l e or refuses to work; leaves his location without permission; damages property; commits any nuisance; has unauthorized a r t i c l e s i n h i s possession; has unauthorized contact with a v i s i t o r , o f f i c e r , or another inmate, or neglects to keep himself and his c e l l clean. For any of the foregoing offences the Warden may award any one of the following punishments? f o r f e i t u r e of smoking, conversational, or l i b r a r y p r i v i l e g e s ; f o r f e i t u r e of remission of sentence; hard bed, r e s t r i c t e d d i e t ; confinement i n an i s o l a t i o n c e l l ; or a deduction from the remuneration the inmate may have earned. The Warden may have an inmate flogged or strapped f o r : violence to.an o f f i c e r or another inmate; escaping; gross insubordination; r e v o l t , mutining, or incitement to the same; damaging or destroying property; or attempting to do any of the foregoing things. The r e s t r i c t e d d i e t s , given as a means of punishment are governed by the Penitentiary Regulations 1933? Appendix 111, which reads as follows: 99 No. 1 Diet (a) This d i e t , when given f o r a period of three days, or l e s s , s h a l l consist of:-1 l b . of bread per diem with water (b) This diet when given for more than three days s h a l l consist for alte r n a t i v e periods of three days of:- '. (1) 1 l b . of bread per diem with water (2) The diet prescribed for convicts employed on ordinary i n d u s t r i a l labour according to sex. (c) No task of labour s h a l l be enforced on any onejof the days on which bread and water constitutes the sole food supplied to the convict, who may nevertheless, be allowed the option of performing suitable labour i n the c e l l . (d) No convict who has been on No. 1. Diet s h a l l be placed upon th i s diet for a fresh offence u n t i l an i n t e r v a l has elapsed equal to the period already passed by the convict on No. 1 d i e t . No. 2 Diet (a) This diet when given f o r a period of twenty-one days, or l e s s , s h a l l consist of:-Breakfast - Bread 8 oz. with water. Dinner - 1 pint of porridge containing 3 oz. of oatmeal. - Potatoes, 8 oz. Bread, 8 oz. with water. Supper - Bread, 8 oz. with water. (b) This diet when given for a period of more than twenty-one days s h a l l consist of:-(1) For the f i r s t twenty-one days, the d i e t as at 2(a) (2) For the next seven days the diet prescribed for convicts employed on ordinary i n d u s t r i a l labour according to sex. (3) For the remainder of the period, the diet as at 2(a) (c) I f a convict while on No. 2 diet should be g u i l t y of misconduct, No. 2 diet may be temporarily interrupted, and the convict may be placed on 100 No. 1 diet f o r a period not exceeding three days: on the expiration of the period awarded on No. 1 diet the convict s h a l l resume the diet o r i g i n a l l y ordered, and the period passed on the No. 1 diet s h a l l count as part of the period o r i g i n a l l y awarded'on No. 2 d i e t . Provided that no convict who has been on No. 2 diet for a period of twenty-one days continuously s h a l l be again placed on either No. 1 or No. 2 diet u n t i l a f t e r the expiration of one week. Corporal punishment i s given by the paddle or lash. Such punishment may also be administered as a part of the sentence i f the Court so orders. S i l e n t Periods. Certain silence requirements are i n operation at i n t e r v a l s . These requirements are printed i n c i r c u l a r s , f or d i s t r i b u t i o n to the inmates. The major elements of these regulations are to the effe c t that inmates may not talk when out of th e i r c e l l s and proceeding to and from Churches, the kitchen, or any other place i n the i n s t i t u t i o n . In the evenings they may t a l k for one hour a f t e r they are locked i n t h e i r c e l l s , but remain s i l e n t a f t e r the close of t h i s talking period which i s signa l l e d by two long rings of a b e l l . Remission and Remuneration Remission. The major p r i v i l e g e to be earned by the inmate i s that of statutory remission or "good time," which may be deducted from his sentence. Remission may be earned at the rate of six days per month, except that a f t e r an inmate has earned seventy-two such days, he receives ten days 101 remission for every subsequent month during which his conduct and industry are s a t i s f a c t o r y . The awarding of remission time i s governed by the Penitentiary Act and the Warden does not have power to award extra remission, although t h i s i s done i n some p r o v i n c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s where i t i s known as "Warden's time." Ticket of Leave. The inmate may apply to the Remissions Service of the Department of Justice at any time for release from the i n s t i t u t i o n on a t i c k e t - o f - l e a v e , or some-one else may make such an a p p l i c a t i o n on behalf of the inmate. Each case i s investigated by a representative of the Remissions Service, and the deserving cases are extended the royal prerogative of mercy, and are released under stated conditions before the f u l l expiration of t h e i r sentence. During the f i s c a l year 1955-56 ninety-two inmates were released on t i c k e t - o f - l e a v e . The inmate released under the authority of the Ticket-of-Leave Act i s governed by the following conditions which are 'printed on h i s l i c e n c e : 1. The holder s h a l l preserve h i s licence and produce i t when c a l l e d upon to do so by a Magistrate or Peace O f f i c e r . 2. He s h a l l abstain from any v i o l a t i o n of the law. 3. He s h a l l not h a b i t u a l l y associate with notoriously bad characters, such as reputed thieves and p r o s t i t u t e s . 4. He s h a l l not lead an i d l e and dissolute l i f e , without v i s i b l e means of obtaining an honest l i v e l i h o o d . 7 I b i d . , p. -94. 102 In addition to the above conditions, the Remmissions Service may impose any others which are thought to be i n the best interests of the inmate. Remuneration. The inmates are graded through a system which relates the pay which they receive to th e i r behaviour and conduct. A copy of the rules governing remuneration i s given to the inmate upon admission, explaining to him the d e t a i l s of t h i s plan. Certain excerpts from th i s document are summarized below: Everyone, upon admission, w i l l s t a r t at Grade 1 and spend not less than three months i n that grade. I f at any time a f t e r that period you q u a l i f y for Grade 2 and are upgraded accordingly, you w i l l spend at least three months i n that grade before being considered for Grade 3« In cases of breaches of prison d i s c i p l i n e by inmates i n Grade 3 or. 2 the Warden w i l l d i r e c t immediate down-grading i f i n his opinion such downgrading i s warranted by reason of the nature of the offence, and anyone so downgraded s h a l l not be considered for up-grading u n t i l a period of at least three months has elapsed. Community Contacts Mail P r i v i l e g e s . Inmates are permitted to receive mail i n the form of l e t t e r s , books, magazines and papers. There are no l i m i t s on the amount of mail an inmate may receive and, i n f a c t , the only major requirement i s that the books, magazines, and papers must be of a type judged suitable f o r the inmate. A further l i m i t a t i o n i s that the inmate may receive l e t t e r s only from those to whom he i s permitted to write l e t t e r s . Inmates are allowed to write four l e t t e r s each month. 103 In addition, a l e t t e r may be written and a reply received i n l i e u of a v i s i t . The rules governing l e t t e r writing are the -same for a l l inmates, i r r e s p e c t i v e of conduct, grade, marital status, or number of r e l a t i v e s . There are certai n r e s t r i c -tions as to the persons to whom an inmate may write. Correspondence i s permitted with wives, children and members of his immediate family. Upon a r r i v a l at the i n s t i t u t i o n the inmate i s given a copy of the instructions concerning correspondence and v i s i t s and i s required to enter on a.form supplied to him, the names and addresses of the people, with whom he wishes to correspond. In addition, the inmate may submit a request to the Warden for permission to write to a fr i e n d or to send a business l e t t e r . The Warden, who hears a l l such requests i n Warden's Court, may permit correspondence with a male fr i e n d providing that the inmate i s not also writing to a r e l a t i v e . The inmate may also correspond with h i s fiancee providing the engagement i s bona-fide and approval i s given by the Warden. An inmate may also write his common-law wife, i f he has been supporting her for a year p r i o r to h i s admittance to the penitentiary. Inmates may write to the Prison Commissioners on permission of the Warden, such l e t t e r s being censored i n the usual manner. The i n s t i t u t i o n provides the inmate with supplies for l e t t e r w r i t i n g , namely one sheet of rule paper (on which he may write on one side) and postage. Attached to the top of 104 the paper i s a form for use by the censor's o f f i c e , on which the inmate f i l l s i n his number, name and address, and r e l a t i o n -ship to the correspondent. This form i s retained by the Censor and constitutes the record of correspondence of the inmate. The envelopes supplied have no. penitentiary markings, and the return address printed on the envelope i s merely, "P.O. Box M, New Westminster, B.C., Canada." Letters addressed to inmates which are written i n a foreign language are sent to Ottawa for t r a n s l a t i o n and censoring before being given to the inmate. Any l e t t e r written by an inmate i n a foreign language i s s i m i l a r l y processed before being released for mailing. The only packages the inmate may receive are those which contain materials to be used i n his studies, hobby, or other authorized a c t i v i t y , and a l l packages are searched to detect possible attempts to smuggle i n contraband. A l l material which i s sent to the i n s t i t u t i o n i s noted by the Censor i n the inmate's f i l e . No food may be sent to the i n s t i t u t i o n for an inmate, and any clothing received i s held u n t i l i t s r e c i p i e n t i s released. A l l cheques received f o r an inmate are deposited i n h i s trust fund account. A l l inmate mail, both outgoing and incoming, i s censored under the power given by the Penitentiary Act, section 79: The Warden of a penitentiary, or any o f f i c e r thereof deputed by him for the purpose, may -105 (a) Open and examine any l e t t e r , parcel or mail matter received at the penitentiary, through the mail or otherwise, addressed to or intended for any convicts; (b) open and examine any l e t t e r , parcel or mail matter which any convict desires to have sent out by mail or otherwise; (c) withhold from a convict any such l e t t e r , parcel or mail matter addressed to him or intended for him, or destroy i t , or otherwise deal with i t as required or authorized by the rules and regulations; (d) detain or destroy, or remove or o b l i t e r a t e objection-able contents of, or otherwise deal with, any l e t t e r , parcel or mail matter, which a convict desires to have sent out from the penitentiary. The Censor's o f f i c e i s located i n the top f l o o r of the front administration b u i l d i n g . Sometimes the contents of l e t t e r s are reported to the Warden, Deputy Warden, C l a s s i f i c a -t i o n O f f i c e r or Chaplain, depending upon the nature of the material. Mail may be withheld from the inmate e n t i r e l y , or objectionable items o b l i t e r a t e d , such contents including reference to the penitentiary and i t s s t a f f , criminal a c t i v i t y , and other matters adversely a f f e c t i n g the public i n t e r e s t . V i s i t i n g . There are two v i s i t i n g rooms, one i n which the inmate s i t s with a wire mesh between him and his v i s i t o r , the other with a table which has center p a r t i t i o n s above and below, and at which the inmate and his v i s i t o r s i t on opposite sides. Careful precautions are taken to prevent the introduc-t i o n of contraband. E l d e r l y people, or those who are hard of hearing, are given preference i n having table v i s i t s , though t h i s i s not always possible because of security problems and overcrowding. The inmate i s allowed one v i s i t per month and one additional v i s i t every three months i f , i n the Warden's opinion, t h i s i s i n the best interests of the inmate. V i s i t s are held every day except Sundays and l e g a l holidays between the hours of 9*00 and 11:00 a.m., and 1:30 and 4 : 0 0 p.m., with each v i s i t l a s t ing for one-half hour. The Warden has authority to extend or r e s t r i c t v i s i t i n g p r i v i l e g e s and may, providing the circumstances warrant i t , permit an extra v i s i t or a v i s i t of longer duration than one-half hour. Those who are allowed to v i s i t the inmate i n the i n s t i t u t i o n , are the previously mentioned family members, or i f none, friends of the inmate who are approved by the Warden. An ex-prison inmate may v i s i t an incarcerated r e l a t i v e upon permission being granted by the Warden. If the family knows that the i n d i v i d u a l i s i n prison, a copy of the v i s i t i n g regulations i s sent i n the f i r s t l e t t e r the inmate writes home. A l l inmates have v i s i t i n g p r i v i l e g e s , including those undergoing d i s c i p l i n a r y action i n close confinement. Special v i s i t s are allowed, upon permission being granted by the Warden, i n the case of i l l n e s s or emergency. In the case of inmates who are seriously i l l , permission i s granted for sp e c i a l v i s i t s to take place i n the h o s p i t a l , such v i s i t s being permitted for r e l i g i o u s advisors, lawyers and business c a l l e r s . V i s i t s are permitted only under the surveillance of an o f f i c e r . The conversation during the v i s i t i s required to be 107 i n English and must be loud enough to be heard by the super-v i s i n g o f f i c e r . The C l a s s i f i c a t i o n O f f i c e r or Chaplain may supervise an inmate's v i s i t should there be some personal problem involved, but Censor O f f i c e r s o r d i n a r i l y supervise the v i s i t s . Inmates are not permitted to embrace t h e i r v i s i t o r s due to the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of contraband being passed i n such contacts. The v i s i t o r s must have some i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and, i f the Warden believes i t i s necessary, the v i s i t o r may be searched, but this i s not usually done. Should the v i s i t o r refuse to be searched, the Warden may deny admission, or suspend the v i s i t i f i t i s already i n progress. I t i s not e s s e n t i a l that the v i s i t o r make p r i o r arrange-ments fo r a v i s i t , although some do. A record i s kept of the date and hour of a l l v i s i t s and the names of the v i s i t o r s . Not more than three v i s i t o r s are permitted at the same time, but children are allowed to v i s i t . Inmates have an opportunity to v i s i t each other during the regular recreational periods on the week ends. Should an inmate confined i n the h o s p i t a l have r e l a t i v e s i n the i n s t i t u -t i o n , they are allowed to v i s i t the inmate, with the permission of the Warden. 108 Vocational Training Programme. The vocational t r a i n i n g programme of the i n s t i t u t i o n i s under the d i r e c t i o n of the Chief Vocational O f f i c e r , who i s responsible to the Deputy Warden. Vocational t r a i n i n g i s ca r r i e d on i n some shops of the i n s t i t u t i o n and i s supplemented by an academic programme. P r a c t i c a l i n s t r u c t i o n i s given i n the shop conducting the vocational t r a i n i n g , while the academic work i s furnished through the i n s t i t u t i o n a l school and correspondence courses. E f f o r t s are made to integrate theory with p r a c t i c e , and the aim of the vocational programme i s to fo s t e r a proper attitude toward society on the part of the inmate, as well as providing him with technical t r a i n i n g i n trades equivalent to that received by those under-going apprentice t r a i n i n g outside of the i n s t i t u t i o n . Vocational t r a i n i n g i s combined with the i n d u s t r i a l and maintenance a c t i v i t i e s of the i n s t i t u t i o n . Certain shops have vocational t r a i n i n g programmes i n operation, namely the Drafting Shop, Garage, Machine Shop, and Vocational Carpenters Shop. In the Canvas Shop, Shoe Shop, Masonry Shop and Paint Shop, a programme of "control t r a i n i n g " has been inaugurated. The remaining shops are i n d u s t r i a l and maintenance operations, i n which the only t r a i n i n g given i s on an "on-the-job" basis. The work a c t i v i t y of the i n s t i t u t i o n may be divided into four main areas: i n d u s t r i a l , farming, engineering and vocational. The i n d u s t r i a l shops function primarily for the physical needs of the i n s t i t u t i o n and the manufacture of 109 revenue producing goods. However, "control t r a i n i n g " i s carri e d on by the shop Instructors who work with small numbers of inmates, teaching them the rudiments of the trade. This i s not allowed to i n t e r f e r e with the work being done i n the shop as i n s t i t u t i o n a l work requirements are given p r i o r i t y . A course i n upholstery has been i n operation i n the Canvas Shop for the past two years on a control t r a i n i n g basis. A syllabus covering various phases-of the trade i s .used, and an e f f o r t i s made to follow t h i s outline by c l a s s i -fying revenue projects on the basis of the type of tr a i n i n g involved i n th e i r manufacture, and using them for t r a i n i n g purposes. The assignments of inmate trainees are rotated i n connection with the various a r t i c l e s manufactured, so that they receive i n s t r u c t i o n i n as many of the phases of upholstering as possible. The Canvas Shop Instructor prepares and submits i n d i v i d u a l reports on trainees at the- end of each month. One inmate was receiving i n s t r u c t i o n i n shoe repairing on a control t r a i n i n g basis at the time of t h i s study and a syllabus f o r t h i s t r a i n i n g was i n the process of being prepared. Moreover, a course i n Bricklaying has been started by the Mason Instructor with seven inmates, and a syllabus had been approved for the course It was hoped that a course i n paper-hanging would be given by the Paint Shop Instructor, and a syllabus had been prepared and approved, but the pressure of i n s t i t u t i o n a l work projects had not permitted time f o r such a course at the date of t h i s w r i t i n g . 110 The i n s t i t u t i o n a l farm was not used as a basis for either vocational or control t r a i n i n g , but the farm s t a f f expressed a desire to i n i t i a t e such a programme at some future time. The Chief Engineer had a vocational t r a i n i n g programme i n operation, and arrangements had been made so that the inmates employed i n the B o i l e r House could q u a l i f y as fourth-class engineers. Correspondence courses i n engineering were available with guidance and i n s t r u c t i o n being provided by the engineering s t a f f . The regular examinations f o r q u a l i f i c a t i o n as a fourth-class engineer are given by P r o v i n c i a l authorities i n the i n s t i t u t i o n . Approximately t h i r t y inmates passed these examinations during the time of t h i s study. Selection of Trainees. Trade-training i s carr i e d out by the vocational t r a i n i n g s t a f f . Any inmate can request vocational t r a i n i n g upon his reception i n the i n s t i t u t i o n . While i n the reception area, the inmate i s interviewed by the Chief Vocational O f f i c e r , who notes a l l who may be suited for vocational t r a i n i n g . The inmate i s again interviewed a f t e r discharge from the admission area to confirm his tr a i n i n g plans and may then p a r t i c i p a t e i n the tr a i n i n g a c t i v i t i e s . A f i l e i s started on each inmate who enters the vocational t r a i n -ing programme. Upon admission to vocational t r a i n i n g , the inmate begins a drafting course which i s used as an orientation to vocational t r a i n i n g . This course allows an assessment of the I l l man and, when he applies for a more specia l i z e d course of his choice, the s t a f f can better judge his s i n c e r i t y and the s u i t a b i l i t y of the t r a i n i n g for him. Admission to the vocational courses i s limited therefore, to those whom the s t a f f believe would derive the-greatest benefit from the t r a i n i n g . No tests are given for admission to the drafting course, but the Drafting Instructor keeps a record of each inmate's progress and t r i e s to d i r e c t the trainee's i n t e r e s t along constructive l i n e s . A c t u a l l y , there are two drafting courses, a f u l l - t i m e vocational drafting course, and a part-time course which i s used as a screening device for candidates. At the time of t h i s study, there were eight students enrolled i n the f u l l - t i m e course and f i f t y - f o u r i n the part-time course. The syllabus of the part-time course i s divided into phases designed to cover part of the related t r a i n i n g i n drafting for draftsmen, carpenters, tinsmiths, machinists, and motor mechanics, these being the vocational courses available to the inmate. The eight inmates engaged i n the f u l l - t i m e d r a f t i n g course were following a syllabus generally required by the apprenticeship board of the Province. An inmate instructor i s used for teaching mechanical drawing, the remainder of the i n s t r u c t i o n being ca r r i e d out by the Drafting Instructor. Inmates i n Grade 1 may earn twelve cents per day; Grade 2, eighteen cents; and Grade 3, twenty-four cents. Out of t h i s the inmate must save a minimum amount, per week. For those inmates i n Grade 1 t h i s minimum i s eighteen cents, Grade 2 twenty-four cents, and Grade 3, t h i r t y cents. The rest may be spent i n the inmate commissary, 112 The following factors are_ taken into account i n grading inmates; work habits, co-operation and responsiveness, e f f o r t s of perseverance, personal habits, and attitude towards other inmates. A grading chart i s prepared for each inmate by the O f f i c e r i n charge of his work. Such charts are checked by a Screening Committee composed of members of the Work Board, who decide the grade to be awarded to the inmate. The number of inmates allowed i n each grade i s limited i n accordance with the following schedule: f o r t y per cent of the inmates may be i n grade one., f o r t y - f i v e per cent i n grade two, and f i f t e e n per cent i n grade three. A promotion to a higher grade occurs when a vacancy exists i n the proportion of the population a l l o t e d to that grade. When a vocational t r a i n i n g course i s about to commence, an announcement i s broadcast through the loud speakers located i n the i n s t i t u t i o n , describing the d e t a i l s of the course and the procedure for a p p l i c a t i o n . This scheme informs the entire inmate population of vocational t r a i n i n g opportuni-t i e s . A l l candidates for the course are then interviewed by the Chief Vocational O f f i c e r , to afford i n i t i a l screening and eliminate applicants who lack interest or the time or competence to complete the course. A l l relevant data are used i n the process of s e l e c t i o n , and those who s i g n i f i e d t h e i r desire for vocational t r a i n i n g upon reception and who were placed i n the part-time drafting course are given preference, providing that they have exhibited inte r e s t and competence through t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n to t h i s course. 113 A f t e r the i n i t i a l interviewing process, tests of intelligence, and-aptitude are administered to the remaining candidates by the C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Department. Trainees are selected on the basis of the following c r i t e r i a : Individual needs for r e h a b i l i t a t i o n , r e s u l t s of the psychological t e s t s , reports from members of the s t a f f , nature of t h e i r offence, work habits and behaviour pattern. The f i n a l s e l e c t i o n of the candidates for the course i s a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the Vocational Training Committee. This Committee i s composed of the Deputy Warden (Chairman), Chief Trade Instructor, C l a s s i f i c a t i o n O f f i c e r , Schoolmaster-L i b r a r i a n , and the Chief Vocational O f f i c e r . The Instructor giving the course i s also consulted on the selection of candidates. The making of any changes i n the assignment of trainees, or the discontinuance of the t r a i n i n g of a p a r t i c u l a r inmate, i s also done by t h i s committee. Courses. A Motor Mechanics Course i s available and i s divided into " t h e o r e t i c a l " and " p r a c t i c a l " sections, the t h e o r e t i c a l part consisting of classroom i n s t r u c t i o n for f i v e months, the p r a c t i c a l part, which also l a s t s for f i v e months, involves work on such garage projects as maintenance of i n s t i t u t i o n a l vehicles and repairing of automobiles owned by members of the s t a f f . At the time of t h i s writing thirteen inmates were i n t h i s course, with six receiving t h e o r e t i c a l i n s t r u c t i o n and seven engaged i n p r a c t i c a l projects. A record i s kept of the nature of the p r a c t i c a l work, and the 114 time taken to complete each project. Thus, each trainee i s given a well balanced programme of work i n motor mechanics, thereby providing as f r u i t f u l an experience as possible. Inmates are also assigned the task of looking a f t e r tools, p a r t l y with the aim of helping them to develop a sense of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n such functions. The machine shop has a Vocational Course for the teaching of machine shop s k i l l s . I n s t i t u t i o n a l projects receive a p r i o r i t y , but a l l possible time i s devoted to t r a i n -ing. At the time of t h i s writing ten inmates were engaged i n t r a i n i n g i n t h i s shop, eight of them i n machine shop practice, and two i n metal spinning. Trainees are rotated among work bench, lathe, grinder, m i l l e r and shaper, with a record being kept to show the projects which have been completed by each i n d i v i d u a l , and the time spent on various jobs. The trainees progress to more complex assignments and machines according to t h e i r a b i l i t y , s k i l l and knowledge. Scrap material i s recast and u t i l i z e d as practice material. The machine shop instructor's o f f i c e i s used as a class-room where he gives i n s t r u c t i o n to the trainees when time i s available; The greatest part of the t r a i n i n g i s on a "learn-by-doing" basis. The most recent addition to the curriculum i s the Vocational Carpenter's Course which started December 9th, 1954. There are two carpenter shops i n the I n s t i t u t i o n , one a purely i n d u s t r i a l shop and the other designed for vocational t r a i n i n g . A syllabus f o r the t r a i n i n g of apprentice 115 carpenters i s ; f o l l o w e d under the d i r e c t i o n of the Vocational Carpenter Instructor. At the time of t h i s writing eleven inmates had been selected f o r th i s t r a i n i n g , ten being assigned to general carpentry and one to saw f i l i n g * The necessary machinery was scheduled for i n s t a l l a t i o n to be ready f o r use by the time the inmates advance beyond a stage i n which only hand tools are required. Monthly reports are submitted by the Shop Instructors on a l l vocational trainees, providing a description of each inmate's progress i n the course, with an assessment of his workmanship, aptitude, related knowledge, care of t o o l s , use of equipment, and shop habits. I n d u s t r i a l Programme Personnel. The i n d u s t r i a l a c t i v i t i e s of the peni-tentiary are under the management and control of the Chief Trade Instructor, who i s responsible to the Warden f o r the d i r e c t i o n of the various shops as well as the construction, re p a i r , and maintenance work i n the i n s t i t u t i o n . The remainder of the i n d u s t r i a l s t a f f includes an Assistant Chief Trade Instructor, two Instructor Carpenters (one vocational, one construction), one Ins t r u c t o r - T a i l o r , one Instructor-Laundryman, one Instructor-Blacksmith, one Instructor-Tinsmith, one Instructor-Machinist, one Instructor-Canvas Work, one Instructor-Painter, one Instructor-Showmaker, one Instructor-Garage, one Assistant to the Garage Instructor, one Instructor-Mason, one I n s t r u c t o r - P l a s t e r e r o n e Instructor-Plumber, and one I n s t r u c t o r - E l e c t r i c i a n . There are also two 116 custodial o f f i c e r s , one of whom i s attached to the Carpenter Shop and the other to the T a i l o r Shop. These shop instructors are chosen for a b i l i t y and knowledge i n t h e i r respective trades and i n terms of t h e i r attitude and effectiveness i n the teaching and management of inmates. A special branch of the Penitentiary System controls the administration of Canadian Penal Industries for the purpose of encouraging useful and needed work i n a l l of the Canadian P e n i t e n t i a r i e s . Therefore new construction, as well as a l t e r a t i o n s to existing buildings, are controlled by the Engineering Branch of the headquarters s t a f f i n Ottawa. No penitentiary products are sold on the open market, nor may any sales be made other than to some branch of the Federal Government. Moreover, no convict may be employed on any labour which i s not under the control of the Crown. Production i s e n t i r e l y on a contract basis, with approximately ninety per cent of the contracts being procured by the I n d u s t r i a l D i v i s i o n i n Ottawa and the remaining ten per cent consisting of l o c a l arrangements which are approved by Ottawa. The revenue production f o r government use includes the manufacture of c e l l s for the Royal Canadian Mounted P o l i c e , trash baskets for national parks, metal spinning products, shoes, clothing, road signs, repair of mail bags and the maintenance and repair of post o f f i c e boxes. Production for i n s t i t u t i o n a l use includes o f f i c e r s ' uniforms as well as inmate work and discharge clothing. 117 The purchase price of the goods produced i s regulated through tenders submitted to Headquarters i n Ottawa before the work i s commenced. The s t y l e and quality of goods i s determined through plans and s p e c i f i c a t i o n s sent by the In d u s t r i a l Branch i n Ottawa to the i n s t i t u t i o n . The o f f i c e r s of the i n s t i t u t i o n may purchase prison made products, but no inmate.may be otherwise employed for the personal benefit of any o f f i c e r . In November, 1954, the t o t a l number of inmates i n the i n s t i t u t i o n was 6 l 6 . Of these 6 l6 inmates 74 were considered un-employable, t h i s l a t t e r group including the Doukhobors as well as the sick and i n f i r m . The t o t a l number of inmates unemployed because no work was avai l a b l e f o r them was 102. As of May 31» 1956, the population had shown a r i s e to 711 inmates which has further aggravated the problem of finding suitable employ-ment fo r inmates. The Chief Trade Instructor acts as the dire c t o r of the work programme of the i n s t i t u t i o n . He organizes and co-ordinates the production of the shops and insures f u l f i l -ment of the i n s t i t u t i o n a l requirements. He acts i n the capacity of a production manager i n meeting production dead-li n e s f o r any contracts the penitentiary may have undertaken to f u l f i l . A l l buying i s done through the Purchasing Agent i n Ottawa, to whom are sent r e q u i s i t i o n s for the materials required for industry, construction and maintenance. The Shop-Instructors are responsible for the e f f i c i e n t functioning of t h e i r respective shops and, i n shops where 118 there are no custodial o f f i c e r s , they are responsible for the conduct and d i s c i p l i n e of the inmates under th e i r control. In the Carpenter Shop and T a i l o r Shop custodial o f f i c e r s are responsible for the conduct and d i s c i p l i n e of the inmates. Industries. The following industries are i n operation at the penitentiary: t a i l o r i n g , carpenter and cabinet work, tinsmith work, machine shop and metal spinning, canvas work and upholstery, painting and sign making, shoemaking and r e p a i r i n g , bookbinding, garage work, masonry work, and brick and cement block manufacturing. The shops are equipped with such custodial features as bars on the windows, "shadow boards" for.the t o o l s , and locked gates to each shop. The following regulations from the Warden's Standing Orders apply to rest periods and smoking: 1. Work gangs may take a rest period during the morning and afternoon periods of labour. 2. Smoking may be permitted during working periods for gangs working outside the walls at such time as the O f f i c e r i n charge d i r e c t s , once i n the morning and once i n the afternoon. 3. The duration of such rest periods w i l l be f i v e minutes, except for gangs who have to leave t h e i r shops, or locations of labour, f o r such periods. These gangs w i l l be permitted periods of ten minutes, such periods to Include time laying off and recommencing work, and moving to and from the rest l o c a t i o n . 4 . The rest period may be taken at the conclusion of physical exercise. 5. Smoking may be permitted during exercise periods. A l l the inmates return to t h e i r c e l l s at noon for t h e i r lunch, an a c t i v i t y which occupies about two hours of every day. 119 Indeed the amount of time required for feeding, exercise and rest periods, together with the early hour at which the inmates return to th e i r c e l l s i n the afternoon, r e s t r i c t the working day to an average duration of f i v e hours. Assignment to Industries. The C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Board i s responsible for making assignments of inmates to the shops. Assignments are made only a f t e r the inmate has been interviewed by the members of the C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Board. F i r s t considera-t i o n i s given to men with no previous criminal record. The psychometric testing c a r r i e d out by the C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Depart-ment, and the reports from members of the Board, form the basis for the assignment of the inmate. A l l inmates must be c e r t i f i e d by the Physician for- each work assignment made. Some consideration must be given to the immediate needs of the i n s t i t u t i o n for maintenance, but generally t h i s i s taken care of through inmates who have had previous work experience i n one of the p e n i t e n t i a r i e s . Training. Control Training i s part of the In d u s t r i a l programme, and Instructors are expected to carry i t out i n a l l shops. Such t r a i n i n g i s on an i n d i v i d u a l basis and, while i t cannot be considered the teaching of a trade, every attempt i s made to develop i n the inmate worker a variety of s k i l l s and work habits which w i l l a s s i s t him i n the obtaining and r e t a i n -ing of employment upon release. 120 Wages. The inmates, as mentioned previously, are paid for t h e i r work at a basic rate of twelve cents per day, and can progress, by good industry and behaviour, f i r s t to eighteen arid then to twenty-four cents per day, the l a t t e r amount being the top wage paid. These wages are not paid to the inmate d i r e c t l y but are credited to his remuneration account. The inmates are recommended by t h e i r respective Instructors for increases i n pay, and the Grading Board rules upon a l l such recommendations. There are no special p r i v i l e g e s or extra compensation awarded any inmate, nor are inmates who are assigned to p a r t i c u l a r tasks, or who show exceptional e f f o r t and s k i l l , given any p r i v i l e g e s which are not available to the inmate population as a whole. Accident Prevention. Rules and regulations regarding accident prevention are the same as those recommended by the Workmen's Compensation Board i n outside industry. The safety regulations apply to a l l departments of the i n s t i t u t i o n and there are numerous safety devices to minimize danger, e.g. safety guards on machines. The shops are inspected by a Safety Committee and a l l accidents are reported to that committee. Safety notices are posted and inmates are i n d i v i d u a l l y instructed on safety r u l e s . Regulation number f i f t y - f i v e of the Penitentiary Regulations of 1933 describes the procedures to be followed when an inmate worker i s injured, t h i s regulation says: 121 "In the event of an accident to a convict, the Warden s h a l l hold an in v e s t i g a t i o n , and s h a l l report to the Superintendent (Commissioner), accompanying his report by a copy of the evidence taken by him on such investigation." Should an inmate be severely injured a Board of Enquiry i s held and i t s findings are forwarded to the Commissioner of P e n i t e n t i a r i e s . Minor i n j u r i e s are not reported to the Commissioner unless such a report i s requested by the Doctor. A l l inmates receiving i n j u r i e s of any nature are sent, or escorted, to the Penitentiary Hospital f o r immediate treatment. Injuries of a serious nature, requiring treatment which cannot be given i n the Penitentiary Hospital, are transferred to an outside h o s p i t a l f o r treatment. Farm Personnel. The i n s t i t u t i o n a l farm i s under the charge of the Farm Instructor who i s assisted by two Guard-Herdsmen, one of whom i s the Assistant to the Farm Instructor while the other i s i n charge of the Piggery. There are four custodial o f f i c e r s assigned to the farm for security purposes during the summer, and three i n the winter. These o f f i c e r s are used to man the elevated towers on the farm, providing custodial supervision of those inmates working there, and a s s i s t the farm s t a f f i n the management and control of their charges. The farm personnel are chosen both lfor t h e i r competence as farmers and t h e i r a b i l i t y as i n s t r u c t o r s . Their performance i s judged not only by the p r o f i t r e a l i z e d by the farm, but 122 through the tra i n i n g provided for the inmates. The Farm Instructor i s responsible d i r e c t l y to the Warden for the management and control of the farm. He has charge of the d i s p o s i t i o n and sale of farm products, subject to the d i s c r e t i o n of the Warden. The farm s t a f f has f u l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for the d i s c i p l i n e and control of the inmates i n t h e i r charge although, i n pra c t i c e , matters requiring d i s c i p l i n a r y actions are referred to the Warden. Farm finances are controlled through the Accountant's Office with records being maintained i n the farm o f f i c e . Yearly estimates of expenditures, together with monthly and yearly reports covering a l l phases of the farm finances, are sub-mitted to the Warden and subsequently forwarded to headquarters i n Ottawa. Acreage. The t o t a l of the B r i t i s h Columbia Penitentiary reserve i s 128.99 acres, of which there are 43.208 acres of farm land available for c u l t i v a t i o n , including the orchard, and the garden inside the walls. The t o t a l amount of waste land not available for c u l t i v a t i o n i s 53*812 acres, this land being located at the back of the reserve and around a ravine. Farm Operations. ' The farm operations include pig r a i s i n g , chicken r a i s i n g , and market gardening. A greenhouse i n which plants are started and flowers grown i s located inside the walls. The products of the farm include a l l the f r u i t s and vegetables normally grown i n the area, as well as pork and eggs. No dairy farming i s carried on at this i n s t i t u t i o n . 123 A l l farm produce Is consumed at the i n s t i t u t i o n , although occasional surpluses of a p a r t i c u l a r item may be sold to the s t a f f of the prison. There i s no sale of farm produce on the open market or to other tax-supported i n s t i t u -t i o n s . At the time of t h i s w riting, the livestock consisted of ,240 pigs, 700 chickens, and one horse. The farm machinery i n use included one power lawn mower, two farmall t r a c t o r s , two wagons, one c u l t i v a t o r s e e d - d r i l l , one dis c , and varied small machinery and t o o l s . A l l of th i s equipment appeared to be i n good working condition at the date of t h i s study. The farm i s worked by about eighteen inmates i n the winter months and by as many as t h i r t y men during the summer, while s i x others are assigned permanently to the piggery, and one to the chicken house. The hours of labour i n the summer months are from 8:30 a.m. to noon and 1:30 p.m. to 4:30 p.m. During the winter, the working day ends at 4:00 p.m., but otherwise the schedule i s the same. In event of fog, no work i s carried on, as no inmates can then be permitted to go outside of the walls. Assignment of Inmates. The work board i s responsible for assigning inmates to the farm, basing t h e i r decisions mainly on considerations of custodial r i s k , i n s t i t u t i o n a l need, and the physical f i t n e s s of the inmate. The inmates assigned to the farm are a l l nearing the completion of their sentence, so that the security r i s k i s minimal. A l l inmates who work on the farm go to the i n s t i t u t i o n proper for housing and feeding. There are no farm camps i n operation and i t i s 124 believed that the r e l a t i v e l y small size of the farm makes them unnecessary. Training. The Farm Instructor and h i s s t a f f do a l l that i s practicable to teach proper farming methods to interested inmates, and there i s available i n the Farm Office a l i b r a r y of text books r e l a t i v e to farming. However, lim i t a t i o n s i n f a c i l i t i e s and s t a f f prevent the operation of any extensive a g r i c u l t u r a l t r a i n i n g programme, and farming i s not included i n the present vocational t r a i n i n g organiza-t i o n of the i n s t i t u t i o n . There i s no o f f i c i a l connection between the prison farm and the P r o v i n c i a l Department of Ag r i c u l t u r e , but the Farm Instructor has informal dealings with that organization, and assistance i s given through t h i s source to any inmate who requests technical information which they can f u r n i s h . Wages. The inmates are rated for t h e i r work by the Farm Instructor whose recommendations subsequently are acted on by the grading committee. The inmates on the farm are paid a per diem rate according to th e i r grade, as i s done throughout the i n s t i t u t i o n . Purchases. The i n s t i t u t i o n purchases from outside sources large quantities of a g r i c u l t u r a l produce to supplement the output of the farm. In 1953 the penitentiary procured about seventeen tons of oats, one ton of rye, eight tons of barley, two and a h a l f tons of peat moss, 125 tons of beef, 125 f i f t e e n tons of straw, 500 pounds of a l f a l f a , one ton of hay, and s i x t y - f i v e tons of potatoes. About 700 dozen eggs are purchased each month, and six one {lundred-pound cans of milk are brought each day. The farm saves the prison approximately $3,000 to $3?500 per month as may be seen i n the i l l u s t r a t i v e month of November, 1954, when the cost of food provided by the farm price amounted to $1,307.52 while at outside prices the Farm Instructor estimates t h i s would have cost $4,550.60. In planning future crops, the Farm Instructor consults with the Steward as to his requirements and an attempt i s made to f i l l them as e f f e c t i v e l y as possible. Table I, page 126, extracted from the Annual Report of the Commissioner of Penitentiaries for 1956, gives the amount of farm production for the f i s c a l year 1955-1956. Evaluation and Recommendations "Rehabi l i t a t i o n i s not a vague, haphazard and loosely 8 defined process." There are d e f i n i t e and essential elements and procedures which combine to make an adequate programme of correc t i o n a l treatment. They include the following: s c i e n t i f i c c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and program-planning on the basis of complete case h i s t o r i e s , examinations, tests and studies of the i n d i v i d u a l prisoners; adequate medical services, having corrective as well as creative treatment as their aim, and making f u l l use of psychiatry, psychological and s o c i o l o g i c a l services, properly related to,the problems 8 A Manual of Correctional Standards (American Prison Association, New York, 1954), p. 11. 126 TABLE I FARM PRODUCTION OF THE BRITISH COLUMBIA PENITENTIARY FOR THE FISCAL YEAR 1955-1956* Amount 107,108 34 ,000 136,025 58,499 6,000 48,000 242 11,410 2,970 Pounds Pounds Pounds Pounds Pounds Pounds Dozen Dozen Pounds Product Vegetables Roots Potatoes Pork Hay Manure Plants Eggs Poultry •Extract from the Annual Report of the Commissioner of Penitentiaries for the year ended March 3 1 , 1956, p. 3 4 . 127 of education, work assignment, d i s c i p l i n e and p r e p a r a t i o n f o r p a r o l e ; i n d i v i d u a l and group therapy under the d i r e c t i o n of p s y c h i a t r i s t s , p s y c h o l o g i s t s , ' o r t r a i n e d s o c i a l t h e r a p i s t s ; employment at tasks comparable i n v a r i e t y , type and pace t o the work of the world outside and e s p e c i a l l y tasks w i t h v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g value; education planned i n accordance w i t h the i n d i v i d u a l ' s needs and i n t e r e s t , w i t h heavy emphasis on v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g ; l i b r a r y s e r v i c e s , designed to provide wholesome r e c r e a t i o n and i n d i r e c t education; d i r e c t e d r e c r e a t i o n , both indoors and outdoors, so organized as to promote good morale and sound mental and p h y s i c a l h e a l t h ; a r e l i g i o u s program so conducted as to a f f e c t the s p i r i t u a l l i f e of the whole group; d i s c i p l i n e that aims at the development of s e l f c o n t r o l and p r e p a r a t i o n f o r f r e e l i f e , not merely conformity to i n s t i t u t i o n a l r u l e s ; adequate b u i l d i n g s and equipment f o r the v a r i e d program and a c t i v i t i e s of the i n s t i t u t i o n ; and above a l l , adequate and competent personnel, c a r e f u l l y s e l e c t e d , w e l l t r a i n e d , and s e r v i n g under such c o n d i t i o n s as to promote a hi g h degree of morale and e f f i c i e n c y . 9 The purpose of t h i s s e c t i o n i s to evaluate the inmate t r a i n i n g programme at the B r i t i s h Columbia P e n i t e n t i a r y i n terms of the above d e f i n i t i o n of an adequate r e h a b i l i t a t i o n programme. C l a s s i f i c a t i o n C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Process. " I n the f i e l d of c o r r e c t i o n s , c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s the term used to designate the organized procedure by which d i a g n o s i s , p l a n n i n g , and execution of the 10 treatment program i s coordinated on the i n d i v i d u a l case." In t h i s process the inmate's case i s s t u d i e d by a group of s p e c i a l i s t s who, through t h e i r diagnoses, c o l l a b o r a t e i n 9 l o c . c i t . 10 I b i d . , p. 26l. 128 planning an i n s t i t u t i o n a l programme for the i n d i v i d u a l offender. However, i n the B r i t i s h Columbia Penitentiary the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n panel, which i s responsible for the individual's programme, i s confined to that i n s t i t u t i o n i n terms of planning an individual's programme since there i s no provision for transfers from one i n s t i t u t i o n within the service to another. There i s a c l e a r l y evident need for more d i v e r s i f i e d resources i n order to e f f e c t i v e l y meet .the varied needs of i n d i v i d u a l inmates. It i s therefore suggested that considera-t i o n be given to means whereby the placement resources of the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n panel could be expanded. One method of increasing the d i v e r s i t y of resources available for the placement of inmates would be to s p e c i a l i z e the various i n s t i t u t i o n s i n the system by having each offe r a programme designed to meet the needs of a certain type of inmate. Because of the geographical i s o l a t i o n of the B r i t i s h Columbia Penitentiary however, the expense involved i n trans-f e r r i n g prisoners to and from other Federal i n s t i t u t i o n s would probably prove to be a prohibiting f a c t o r . A second, and perhaps more advantageous a l t e r n a t i v e , would be to co-ordinate the e f f o r t s of the Federal i n s t i t u t i o n s with those of the i n s t i t u t i o n s administered by the p r o v i n c i a l governments. Such co-ordination would make possible the elimination of the duplication of i n s t i t u t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s i n the province and i n turn, would allow for the s p e c i a l i z a t i o n of the i n s t i t u t i o n s concerned. 129 The problem-then becomes one of developing a pla n most l i k e l y to b r i n g about the achievement of t h i s d e s i r e d c o - o r d i n a t i o n of resources. The Fauteux Commission Report has d e a l t w i t h t h i s problem, and has recommended that a l l sentences of s i x months d u r a t i o n , or over, be served i n f e d e r a l i n s t i t u t i o n s . Although t h i s idea has much to recommend i t , c e r t a i n l e g i s l a t i v e and j u r i s d i c t i o n a l problems are i n v o l v e d which could not only delay the implementation of the p l a n but prevent i t a l t o g e t h e r . I t i s f e l t ' , t h e r e f o r e , that much thought must be devoted'to developing a, ;plan which would not only be more acceptable to a u t h o r i t i e s a t ' t h i s time but which would a l s o f a c i l i t a t e the adoption of the Fauteux Commission's recommendations through p r o v i d i n g an opportunity to demonstrate the b e n e f i t s to be gained from c o - o r d i n a t i o n . One such pl a n here presented f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n , i n v o l v e s the establishment of a c e n t r a l supervisory c l a s s i -f i c a t i o n board i n each province. Representatives from both the F e d eral and the P r o v i n c i a l j u r i s d i c t i o n s would s i t on t h i s board and would, study the cases of a l l those inmates sentenced t o penal s e r v i t u d e by the courts of the province concerned. Eventual commitment to an i n s t i t u t i o n would be based on the board's d e c i s i o n as to which f a c i l i t y , p r o v i n c i a l or f e d e r a l , was best s u i t e d to meet the inmate's needs. The p r i s o n system to which the inmate would normally be committed, i f l e n g t h of sentence were the determining f a c t o r , would pay the system a c t u a l l y r e c e i v i n g the inmate on a per c a p i t a fee b a s i s i n the maintenance and keep of the pr i s o n e r s concerned. 130 Inmates would thus be committed to the I n s t i t u t i o n best s u i t e d to handling t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r problems, and the i n s t i t u t i o n s would r e c e i v e homogeneous groups of inmates upon which to d i r e c t t h e i r e f f o r t s . Reception Programme. I t i s d e s i r a b l e that the newly-admitted inmate be segregated from the remainder of the p r i s o n p o p u l a t i o n , not only f o r study and obser v a t i o n , but a l s o f o r proper o r i e n t a t i o n t o the i n s t i t u t i o n and i t s programme. To the man who has never before been i n a p r i s o n , confinement i s a shock and there i s much he needs to know, not only about p r i s o n r e g u l a t i o n s , p r a c t i c e s and o r g a n i z a t i o n , but about the treatment and t r a i n i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s a v a i l a b l e . To the man who has been p r e v i o u s l y c o n f i n e d , h i s past i n s t i t u t i o n experiences i n other i n s t i t u t i o n s may have e s t a b l i s h e d uncooperative a t t i t u d e s which must be broken down before he w i l l accept a s s i s t a n c e or enter i n t o a c o n s t r u c t i v e program.11 Therefore, i t i s suggested that a study be made w i t h a view to f i n d i n g ways to replace w i t h a more a c t i v e programme the present p r a c t i c e of employing the inmate i n j a n i t o r i a l work during h i s term i n the r e c e p t i o n center. Such a programme might inc l u d e l e c t u r e s , d i s c u s s i o n s , c o u n s e l l i n g , f i l m s , p h y s i c a l education, hobbies, and other a c t i v i t i e s . C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Summary. Reports from a l l of the s p e c i a l i s t s who i n t e r v i e w the inmate during the r e c e p t i o n process are compiled i n a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n summary, a technique which appears to be most e f f e c t i v e i n presenting a l l sides of 11 I b i d . , p.- 264. 131 the case to the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n panel. However, i t would be advisable to make a greater e f f o r t to obtain information about the inmate from outside sources. Although some information i s now obtained from various community agencies, i n several of the cases examined i t appeared that the only source of ''outside" information was a b r i e f questionnaire completed by the Royal Canadian Mounted P o l i c e . I t would be advisable to give consideration to the adoption of a procedure similar to that used i n the C a l i f o r n i a c o r r e c t i o n a l system which sends out a form to parents, clergymen, teachers, physicians or any other responsible c i t i z e n s who might have knowledge of the inmate and his background. Provision of a more complete s o c i a l h i s t o r y of each inmate would bring about an improvement i n the prison t r e a t -ment programme by making possible a more e f f e c t i v e u t i l i z a t i o n of a v a i l a b l e treatment resources. C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Meeting. Cases are presented and discussed i n the meetings of the C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Board. This Board however, i s r e s t r i c t e d i n possible placements by over-crowded conditions, security r e s t r i c t i o n s , needs of the i n s t i t u t i o n , and the lack of an extensive and d i v e r s i f i e d programme. I t i s therefore suggested that the previous suggestions, made i n r e l a t i o n to the u t i l i z a t i o n of other i n s t i t u t i o n s , be considered, i n order to increase the a b i l i t y of the C l a s s i f i c a -t i o n Board to put into e f f e c t a programme suited to the 132 individual's needs. R e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . The need to change the individual's programme as h i s needs change i s recognized by the Peni-tentiary s t a f f . Provision f o r changes i n the individual's work placement i s made through the establishment of a Work Board and the C l a s s i f i c a t i o n O f f i c e r compiles summary progress reports every s i x months on each inmate. However, with a l i m i t e d number of resources, the u t i l i t y of r e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s lim i t e d mainly to modifica-tions i n the work assignment, and the pressure of other work i s such that, the C l a s s i f i c a t i o n O f f i c e r can do l i t t l e follow-up work. This adds weight to our suggestion that the treatment and t r a i n i n g resources of the i n s t i t u t i o n be expanded. Psychological and Psych i a t r i c Services Psychological Services. A commendable step has been taken i n the expansion of psychological services by the recent appointment of a f u l l - t i m e psychologist. I t i s now possible to e s t a b l i s h a f u l l - s c a l e psychological testing programme which tests a l l newly admitted inmates as to i n t e l l i g e n c e , aptitudes, i n t e r e s t s , achievement, and personality f a c t o r s . I t i s also now possible to do more sp e c i a l testing than before, f o r example, the giving of tests to inmates referred by the P s y c h i a t r i s t , and to a s s i s t i n the pre-release 133 planning for those who are being considered for t i c k e t - o f -leave. Psyc h i a t r i c Services* I t i s suggested that considera-t i o n be given to the expansion of the present psychiatric services by the appointment of a f u l l - t i m e p s y c h i a t r i s t . I f a f u l l - t i m e p s y c h i a t r i s t were to be appointed, i t would be necessary to consider how his time could be most e f f e c t i v e l y used for i t i s obvious, i n view of the size of the inmate population, that he could not possibly deal properly with each i n d i v i d u a l case. I t i s p a r t l y because of this problem that group therapy has come to be widely used i n prisons, but t h i s method, useful as I t may be i n some circum-stances, s t i l l does not provide i n d i v i d u a l counselling for each inmate. I t i s , therefore, suggested that the Psychia-t r i s t ' s p r i n c i p a l task should be to t r a i n , guide and advise the personnel of the i n s t i t u t i o n to enable an adequate number of them to carry out the actual counselling of inmates. The P s y c h i a t r i s t could then be available for assistance i n d i f f i c u l t cases. For an analysis of the problems involved i n conducting a programme of p s y c h i a t r i c treatment within a maximum security prison one may refer to H. Powelson's and R. Bendix's a r t i c l e 12 "Psychiatry i n Prison." 12 H. Powelson and R. Bendix, "Psychiatry i n Prison," Psychiatry. February, 1951* 134 Medical and Dental Services Consideration should be given to making c e r t a i n improvements i n the medical services of the Penitentiary System. The most basic of these would be the establishment of a central medical i n s t i t u t i o n to house a l l inmates i n the system who present medical or psychiatric problems. Including tuberculars, pre-psychotics, narcotic addicts, and sex deviates. Admittedly, the transportation of such inmates to a central medical i n s t i t u t i o n would present problems, but we believe that these are outweighed by the advantages which are not f e a s i b l e under the present decentralized system, Including a programme of treatment for sex deviates and narcotic addicts. Although such a programme would be experimental, i t might enable a higher proportion of such inmates to be r e h a b i l i t a t e d and thus j u s t i f y i t s cost, i n view of the great expense of incarcerating these men time afte r time. Furthermore, the i n d i v i d u a l i n s t i t u t i o n s would benefit greatly by being r e l i e v e d of these problem-inmates. The influence such men exercise on other inmates would be removed, and the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n programmes could be extended into c e r t a i n areas which now are r e s t r i c t e d by the problems such types present. I t i s recognized that problem-inmates, such as the above mentioned pre-psychotic, sex deviate, and addict, are not confined to penitentiaries alone but are common to a l l 135 prisons i n the nation. Therefore, i f a central medical i n s t i t u t i o n f o r the Penitentiary Service did not prove to be f e a s i b l e , i t i s f e l t that i t might be established on a regional or i n t e r - p r o v i n c i a l basis. These units could be j o i n t l y financed by the Federal Government and the province or provinces which would be served by such f a c i l i t i e s . On the i n s t i t u t i o n a l l e v e l , i t i s recommended that further courses be made available on a continuous basis to h o s p i t a l personnel, to enable them to increase t h e i r s k i l l s and keep abreast of developments i n t h e i r f i e l d . Other recommendations are that a f u l l - t i m e dental service be set 13 up to meet the recommended standard of one dentist for every f i v e hundred inmates. Also that a programme of corrective surgery be undertaken to a s s i s t those inmates whose physical disfigurements may have contributed to t h e i r criminal propensities. Educational Services Academic Education. Academic education i s each day becoming more of a necessity due to economic and technological advances. Therefore, i t i s f e l t that an increasing emphasis should be placed on t h i s phase of the inmate's t r a i n i n g , i n order "to a s s i s t the student to develop h i s i n d i v i d u a l capacities, to increase h i s effectiveness i n human 13 A Manual of Correctional Standards, op., c i t . . p. 223. 136 r e l a t i o n s h i p s , to a t t a i n economic e f f i c i e n c y , and to develop 14 his c i v i c r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . " Towards accomplishing t h i s goal the information of an educational advisory committee i s recommended. I t should include representatives from the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, the P r o v i n c i a l Department of Education, and others, with the s t a f f of the Penitentiary being well represented. In general, the function of t h i s committee would be to provide advice, guidance, and resources for the develop-ment of the i n s t i t u t i o n a l educational programme. S p e c i f i -c a l l y , i t could a s s i s t i n the selection of teachers by encouraging q u a l i f i e d teachers to enter the services, recommend courses of study, ensure the proper i n s t r u c t i o n of inmates by modern methods., report to the Warden t h e i r rating of the educational programme, and bring to the attention of the educational s t a f f any educational f a c i l i t i e s which might be available to the i n s t i t u t i o n . To be e f f e c t i v e a school must be well staffed: "Much of the i n s t r u c t i o n should be i n d i v i d u a l i n nature and provisions made for rapid acceleration, depending upon the 15 i n t e r e s t and capacity of the student." In view of the t r a i n -ing needs of inmates, i t i s f e l t that the present teaching 14 Announcement of Courses (Education Department, C a l i f o r n i a State Prison at Soledad, 1957)> P. 2. 15 Programme and Philosophy of a New I n s t i t u t i o n , Ionia, Michigan (Department of Corrections, State of Michigan, 1956), p. 6. 137 s t a f f i s inadequate to carry out e f f e c t i v e l y the academic and l i b r a r y programmes. I t i s , therefore,, suggested that one or more f u l l - t i m e teachers be added to the s t a f f of the Penitentiary and that a f u l l - t i m e L i b r a r i a n be appointed to r e l i e v e the teaching s t a f f of a l l l i b r a r y duties. I f the teaching s t a f f were enlarged, consideration could be given to expanding the academic programme i n the following ways. (1) Full-time classroom i n s t r u c t i o n for those cases i n which such a programme i s recommended by the C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Board. This group could well include a l l those whose education has f a l l e n short of the grade eight l e v e l . (2 ) As a prerequisite to vocational t r a i n i n g i n the various trades, a c e r t a i n l e v e l of education, varying with the needs of each trade, should be established. This p o l i c y i s already being followed i n many i n s t i t u t i o n s i n North America today. (3) The teaching of trade subjects related to vocational t r a i n i n g could be undertaken. "Related trade subjects are those courses not d i r e c t l y related to the trade, but e s s e n t i a l i n a well-rounded program. They should be cl o s e l y correlated with the trade and t a i l o r e d to f i t the needs of the i n d i v i d u a l , his c a p a b i l i t i e s and his 16 t r a i n i n g . " Such subjects include mathematics, physics, 16 Ibid., p. 4 . 138 chemistry, English, drafting and blueprint reading. (4) Although much has been done i n the way of business education courses additional teaching s t a f f would allow further development i n thi s area. "Many young men with high i n t e l l e c t u a l a b i l i t y have not the aptitudes to become good craftsmen, but can perform i n positions requiring c l e r i c a l , managerial, sales and business 17 a b i l i t y . " (5) The l e v e l of classroom i n s t r u c t i o n could be raised to the senior matriculation l e v e l . (6) Evening classes could be established for those inmates who are unable to attend classes during the day or as part of t h e i r t r a i n i n g programme. (7) The amount of teacher assistance available to students engaged i n correspondence courses could be increased. F i n a l l y , to ensure that the inmate i s aware of the educational opportunities a v a i l a b l e to him, i t i s recommended that an i l l u s t r a t e d announcement of courses be published and that other media be used to communicate information concern-ing every academic and vocational course offered by the i n s t i t u t i o n . L ibrary. Because of the s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e the l i b r a r y can play i n the i n s t i t u t i o n a l programme, i t i s suggested that consideration be given to the appointment of a f u l l - t i m e 17 Loc. c i t . 139 L i b r a r i a n . The C a l i f o r n i a Department of Corrections, i n i t s Manual on Library Procedures, summarizes the duties of a 18 prison L i b r a r i a n as follows: He s h a l l be responsible for the management of the l i b r a r y , budget making, compiling reports; supervision of the l i b r a r y operation which includes: hours, arrangement and binding material, organization of stacks, c o l l e c t i o n s of pictures, pamphlets, prepare : the shelf l i s t i n g , catalog, and indexing of materials. He s h a l l give guidance to inmates i n t h e i r reading, make them more f a m i l i a r with the l i b r a r y , and a s s i s t clubs, debating or discussion groups or forums. He s h a l l also prepare bibliographies or spe c i a l reference materials to a s s i s t s t a f f i n connection with t h e i r own studies. Inmate assistants are employed i n the l i b r a r y but, because of the many demands on the s t a f f ' s time, can at present be given r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e i n s t r u c t i o n i n l i b r a r y procedures. The addition of a f u l l - t i m e l i b r a r i a n would make i t possible to give adequate i n s t r u c t i o n . This development would be most desirable because i t would provide a number of inmates with s k i l l s which would a s s i s t them i n securing jobs upon discharge. I f a s u f f i c i e n t l y high standard could be achieved, i t i s even possible that educational c r e d i t s could be given f o r l i b r a r y t r a i n i n g . Expert opinion as to the number of books which the l i b r a r y should possess, per i n d i v i d u a l inmate varies from ten to f i f t e e n but the consensus of opinion appears to be that a r a t i o of f i f t e e n books for each inmate i s desirable i n 18 Manual of Procedures f o r the I n s t i t u t i o n a l Library (The State of C a l i f o r n i a Department of Corrections, Sacremento, C a l i f o r n i a , 194-9), PP. 2-3. 140 a maximum custody i n s t i t u t i o n holding long term prisoners. In the State of C a l i f o r n i a Department of Corrections the following standards are recommended. "The c o l l e c t i o n s h a l l number at least ten books per inmate with at lea s t one-h a l f , but not more than three-fourths, suitable f i c t i o n . Where there are large groups of long term prisoners, more 19 books per capita w i l l be needed." The Manual of Correc-t i o n a l Standards recommends that: "A maximum custody i n d u s t r i a l type of i n s t i t u t i o n should be allowed, for example, 20 15 books per capita." At the time of t h i s research, the Penitentiary had a l i b r a r y c o l l e c t i o n of 4,922 volumes and an inmate count of 622, a r a t i o of 7.9 books per inmate. Of the t o t a l , 3,427 volumes or sixty-nine per cent were f i c t i o n , 890 n o n - f i c t i o n , and 605 were reference volumes. The r a t i o of f i c t i o n to non-f i c t i o n would, therefore, appear to be s a t i s f a c t o r y but i t i s f e l t that an e f f o r t should be made to increase the t o t a l number of volumes to at least ten per inmate. 21 Authorities suggest that at least one d o l l a r per inmate be spent on new books i n order to keep the l i b r a r y up-to-date and that about two d o l l a r s i s a more adequate expenditure for th i s purpose. In the f i s c a l year ending 19 Ibid., p. 9. 20 A Manual of Correctional Standards, op., c i t . , p. 311. 21 Loc. c i t . 141 March 31, 1956, $544.28 was spent by the Penitentiary for new books. As the inmate population i s over 700 t h i s expenditure f a l l s short of the suggested minimum of one d o l l a r per prisoner per year and i t i s recommended that the l i b r a r y budget be increased to that minimum f i g u r e . The d i s t r i b u t i o n of l i b r a r y materials to inmates i n the housing units and ce l l - b l o c k s would appear to be quite adequate, d e l i v e r i e s being made as often as four times weekly. The minimum recognized standard i s "Two d e l i v e r i e s a week, 22 where books are chosen from a printed catalog." I t would also appear that the inmate population i s taking advantage of the l i b r a r y services. The c i r c u l a t i o n f o r the f i s c a l year ending March 31, 1954 t o t a l l e d 42,977 volumes of f i c t i o n and non - f i c t i o n material. However, i t i s f e l t that, the addition of a l i b r a r i a n to the s t a f f would do more to encourage the inmates to make adequate use of the l i b r a r y . He could set up displays and exhibits, i n s t r u c t i n l i b r a r y routines, give guidance i n reading and discussion groups. Vocational Training. I t i s generally recognized that the majority of prison inmates lack i n marketable work s k i l l s , although "analysis of the f a c t s , reveals that many vocationally competent individuals get into trouble because of personality 22 Manual of Procedures f o r the I n s t i t u t i o n a l Library, op. c i t . . p. 4 . 142 23 d i f f i c u l t i e s and i n a b i l i t y to use l e i s u r e time wisely." Nevertheless, i t i s recognized that " S p e c i f i c t r a i n i n g of inmates for occupations i n which they can engage upon release may become one of the most v i t a l means of bringing about 24 25 t o t a l adjustment." In fact a recent study of one hundred inmates selected at random from the C a l i f o r n i a I n s t i t u t i o n for men at Chino revealed that the parole v i o l a t i o n rate for vocational trainees of acceptable competency was one-half the v i o l a t i o n rate for untrained parolees. I t i s therefore, suggested that consideration be given to establishing an enlarged vocational t r a i n i n g programme i n the Penitentiary. It i s further suggested that there be established a vocational advisory committee which would include representa-tives from the apprenticeship board, P r o v i n c i a l and other vocational t r a i n i n g authorities and i n d u s t r i e s . It i s f e l t that the f i r s t objective of t h i s committee should be to establish the standards of t r a i n i n g and i n s t r u c t i o n necessary to q u a l i f y inmates as journeymen i n the various trades, and to determine the q u a l i f i c a t i o n s necessary for vocational i n s t r u c t o r s . The next step would be a survey of employment opportunities i n the various trades. The aim of t h i s survey 23 Paul W. Tappan, Ed i t o r , Contemporary Correction. Chapter 15 "Education" Price Chevault, McGraw H i l l Book Co. Inc., N.Y., 1951, P. 233. 24 Loc. c i t . 25 Robert P. Feigen, Study submitted i n f u l f i l l m e n t of Masters Degree requirements, University of C a l i f o r n i a , Los Angeles, C a l i f o r n i a , 1955. 143 would be to determine which trades the i n s t i t u t i o n should teach i n order to provide the greatest opportunities for inmates to obtain employment upon release. However, there should be some f l e x i b i l i t y as to which trades w i l l be taught so as to allow for changes i n the employment s i t u a t i o n . I t i s also suggested that the p o s i t i o n of vocational instructor be established i n accordance with a job description approved by the Advisory Committee. These positions would be i n addition to, and would not replace, the present po s i t i o n s . It i s f e l t that the present Trade Instructor positions should remain but be exclusively considered with prison industries while the Vocational Instructors would focus on vocational training:. To avoid any confusion perhaps the Trade Instructor positions could be more appropriately t i t l e d Prison Industry Supervisors. Once these suggestions were implemented, trades advisory committees could be formed for each f i e l d of i n s t r u c t i o n . Such committees would be composed of both labour and management representatives. The State of C a l i f o r n i a Department of Corrections has used similar committees to good advantage i n developing vocational t r a i n i n g programmes. One of the safe-guards i n the development of trade and i n d u s t r i a l vocational t r a i n i n g program has been found to be the organization and u t i l i z a t i o n of trade advisory committees. Therefore i t i s the p o l i c y of the Department of Corrections, for the Warden or Superintendent of each I n s t i t u t i o n , where possible, to e s t a b l i s h a representative trade advisory committee f o r each trade or occupation i n 144 26 which a vocational t r a i n i n g program has been established. As to the s p e c i f i c function of these committees the 27 following suggestions are presented: (1) . . . a s s i s t i n the selection of vocational instructors within C i v i l Service procedures by encouraging q u a l i f i e d tradesmen to take C i v i l Service examinations. (2) . . . recommend the course of study to assure proper i n s t r u c t i o n of the inmates i n contemporary trade methods. (3) . . . may a s s i s t i n the parole placement of inmates by review of the approved course of study and c e r t i f y i n g the l e v e l of competence of the inmate trainee. (4) . . . may recommend . . . s t r u c t u r a l changes i n vocational t r a i n i n g areas that would improve the vocational service. (5) • • • approve addi t i o n a l or replacement equipment i n a vocational t r a i n i n g shop as a means of assuring proper trade t r a i n i n g . (6) . . . recommend the purchase of contemporary materials and hand tools to assure proper trade t r a i n i n g . (7) . . . report yearly to the Warden t h e i r r a t i n g of the trade t r a i n i n g , safety i n s t r u c t i o n , and trainee and instru c t o r p r o f i c i e n c y . (8) . . . recommend to the Warden areas of i n s t i t u t i o n a l ^ work available i n the i n s t i t u t i o n which would be valuable for the manipulative requirements of t r a i n i n g . (9) . . . as a part of curriculum guidance, sponsor and promote a regulated and approved schedule of daytime c l i n i c s f or i t s trade. The personnel of the c l i n i c s h a l l be recognized experts i n t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r phase of the trade. , 26 Local Trade Advisory Committees, Administration Manual (State of C a l i f o r n i a , Department of Corrections, October 1956), paragraph 240.06, section 240. 27 Proposed Integration of Instructional and Operational  Functions of Vocational Instructor Positions at the C a l i f o r n i a  State Prison San Quentin (State of C a l i f o r n i a , Department of Corrections, May 1956), pp. 10-12. 145 (1G) . . . c a l l a yearly meeting of the chairman and/or co-chairman of each committee to meet with the Warden of the i n s t i t u t i o n to a s s i s t him i n planning and guiding the vocational program. As to the trade t r a i n i n g i t s e l f , i t i s generally recognized that there should be three broad f i e l d s of in s t r u c t i o n ; shop pra c t i c e , related trade information, and related trade subjects. Shop practice should be given i n shops designed to enable the trainee to progress from the simpler to the more 28 d i f f i c u l t operations. Layout of these shops should emphasize t h e i r t r a i n i n g function rather than production. -It i s also recommended that a careful study be made of each trade to determine the maximum number of trainees that should be assigned to one i n s t r u c t o r . The Vancouver Vocational I n s t i t u t e allows a maximum of twelve trainees to one Instructor i n order to ensure a degree of in d i v i d u a l i z e d i n s t r u c t i o n . Related trade information refers to the theory elements of the trade. I t i s generally recognized that t h i s theory can best be taught by the vocational instructor on an 29 i n d i v i d u a l i z e d basis. As each trainee has a d i f f e r e n t rate of learning, i t i s important that the teaching of theory be related to his p a r t i c u l a r capacity for advancement, otherwise, 28 A Manual of Correctional Standards, op_. c i t . . p. 298. 29 Report of Planning Committee. Michigan Reformatory (State of Michigan, Department of Corrections, Ionia, Michigan, 1956), p. 3. 146 the theory w i l l be above hi s p a r t i c u l a r l e v e l and therefore would be a waste of teaching time. However, i t i s l i k e l y that there would be some aspects of the theory connected with a p a r t i c u l a r trade that could be taught on a group basis so that a c e r t a i n amount of f l e x i b i l i t y should be used. I t i s also recommended that every vocational shop be equipped with an adjacent classroom for the use of the instructor i n teaching related trade information. The related trade subjects are such courses as mathematics, dr a f t i n g , physics, English, and blueprint reading i n connection with which recommendations have been previously made i n the evaluation of the academic programme. A f i n a l problem i s the actual s e l e c t i o n of inmates for the various trades, i n dealing with this problem the following suggestions are made. F i r s t , . t h a t each i n d i v i d u a l assigned to t r a i n i n g be c e r t i f i e d as suitable for vocational i n s t r u c t i o n by the C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Committee on the basis of interviews and t e s t s . Second, that he have at least a grade eight standing before commencing his vocational t r a i n i n g programme. I f he lacks t h i s standing we believe that he should be placed i n the school on a f u l l - t i m e basis u n t i l he has completed t h i s requirement, which should be regarded as a necessity for a l l inmates i f they are to have any chance of competing success-f u l l y i n our increasingly complex society, or of meeting the ever greater demands of industry by industry upon the i n d i v i d u a l worker. If the trade concerned requires a higher 147 educational standing i t i s f e l t provision should be made f o r such t r a i n i n g i n the planning of the inmate's o v e r a l l programme. Third, that he be placed i n an exploratory shop for at least s i x weeks. This shop would provide f o r a vocational tryout not only to determine f o r which trade the inmate is, best suited, but also to ascertain whether he i s at a l l suitable for vocational t r a i n i n g . A sim i l a r scheme i s i n operation at the Elmira Reception Center of the State of New York's Department of Corrections, and i s described as follows. The f i r s t week i n the program JLs used as an orientation period, during which the inmates are advised as to the occupation f i e l d s , a b i l i t y levels required i n di f f e r e n t jobs etc. Occupational f i l m s , depicting various tradesmen at work on the job, are shown as well as a general information f i l m that c l e a r l y describes the steps necessary f o r planning an e f f e c t i v e vocational program. . The f i n a l f i v e weeks i n the shop are spent i n the actual work s i t u a t i o n . Notations are made on the various c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and a b i l i t i e s as evidenced by the inmate.30 Fourth, when the trade or trades f o r which the inmate i s best suited have been generally determined, he should be interviewed by the instructors teaching those trades. Then, as a part of the process of determining which s p e c i f i c trade the i n d i v i d u a l should follow,' the instructors would submit t h e i r recommendations to the supervisor of vocational t r a i n i n g . F i n a l l y , on the basis of a l l the above information, 30 Leroy R. Weaver, "The Vocational Guidance Program at the Elmira Reception Centre," Journal of Correctional Education. Baltimore, Md., A p r i l , 1956, p. 4-5. 148 each man's case would be reviewed by the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n committee for a f i n a l decision as to h i s vocational t r a i n i n g programme. It i s recommended that, while the inmate i s i n t r a i n -ing, periodic progress reports be submitted by his i n s t r u c t o r . These reports would not only indicate h i s continued s u i t a b i l i t y for the trade but also be available for perusal by prospective employers. Training at Work. I t i s recognized that not every inmate i s suitable for vocational t r a i n i n g , and that a c e r t a i n proportion of the inmate population must be employed i n maintenance and service jobs. However, many of the a c t i v i t i e s involved i n servicing the i n s t i t u t i o n a fford valuable t r a i n i n g opportunities. An example of t h i s i s the opportunity now available to inmates employed i n the B o i l e r House who may q u a l i f y f o r c e r t i f i c a t e s as fourth class stationary engineers. Therefore i t i s suggested that consideration be given to expanding and developing the present programme of "on-the-job" t r a i n i n g . As the f i r s t step i n this d i r e c t i o n i t i s f e l t that a study should be made of employment opportunities i n the community, with special attention to r e s t r i c t i o n s on the employment of ex-inmates. I t i s also suggested that there should be a "job analysis of a l l the inmates' jobs i n the industry and mainte-nance departments c l a s s i f y i n g jobs i n terms of s k i l l , custody, 149 31 i n t e l l i g e n c e , education, and s p e c i a l aptitudes . . . ." From the r e s u l t s of such a study a- planned and co-ordinated programme of t r a i n i n g can be set up for each inmate assigned to on-the-job t r a i n i n g . The following a c t i v i t i e s are considered to be e s p e c i a l l y suitable f o r further development of t r a i n i n g opportunities. (1) The culinary department, which already provides some tr a i n i n g , could be further developed to provide complete t r a i n i n g for cooks and food managers. "Trainees . . . should learn a l l the d e t a i l s r e l a t i v e to the business of conducting a food service establishment. They should be taught the making of menus, the purchasing of food, cost and p r o f i t s , and the preparation of more complicated foods, such as salads, p a s t r i e s , casseroles, and 32 balanced d i e t s . " (2) The laundry provides some tr a i n i n g opportunities and i t i s f e l t should serve as a t r a i n i n g source i n a l l aspects of laundering and dry-cleaning, and would, of course, require equipment comparable to a laundry i n the community. (3) The barber shop presents an opportunity to t r a i n inmates as q u a l i f i e d barbers. It i s therefore, recommended that an inves t i g a t i o n be made of the p o s s i b i l i t y of employing 31 "What's New In Prison I n d u s t r i e s C o r r e c t i o n a l  Research. United Prison Association of Massachusetts, Boston, Massachusetts, B u l l e t i n No. 6, A p r i l , 1955? P» 9. 32 Report of Planning Committee Michigan Reformatory, op. c i t . , p. 6. 150 a licensed barber to establish a barbering school. However, experience indicates that the placement problems i n t h i s area are e s p e c i a l l y d i f f i c u l t and would require a great deal of e f f o r t . (4) "As menial as the housekeeping service may seem to many i t i s ra p i d l y growing into a semi-skilled occupation. . . . The use of detergents, sanitation, v e n t i l a t i o n , and learning to anticipate the needs and comforts of guests and occupants encompasses some rather extensive 33 t r a i n i n g . " I t i s therefore, suggested that a super-visor should be trained for the purpose of conducting classes i n j a n i t o r i a l services. This area of t r a i n i n g would be p a r t i c u l a r l y suited to those inmates i n the lower i n t e l l i g e n c e groups, and to those who lack any mechanical, c l e r i c a l , or academic a b i l i t y . Vocational A g r i c u l t u r e. At present, i t would appear that the farm i s being used primarily as a source of food for the i n s t i t u t i o n , and although i t i s true that some tr a i n i n g takes place, only those inmates nearing the end of t h e i r sentences are allowed to work on the farm. It i s f e l t that the p o s s i b i l i t y of providing more extensive t r a i n i n g i n th i s area should be examined. If the farm area was enclosed by a chain-link wire fence, and i f towers were placed at i t s perimeter, as previously recommended, the farm could be used for the 33 Ibid., P. 9 151 t r a i n i n g of inmates c l a s s i f i e d f or medium, as well as minimum security. Therefore, i t i s suggested that consideration be given to establishing the farm as a vocational tr a i n i n g enterprise with approved courses and in s t r u c t o r s . Such i n s t r u c t i o n i n some i n s t i t u t i o n s takes the form of scheduled classes i n a g r i c u l t u r a l theory during the off-season, winter assignments to farm machinery re p a i r , a sequence of short courses i n the building trades, lectures and demonstrations by v i s i t i n g agriculture s p e c i a l i s t s , correspondence courses from colleges of agr i c u l t u r e , and cl o s e l y supervised i n d i v i d u a l farm projects.34 Religious Services. The i n s t i t u t i o n i s fortunate i n having two f u l l - t i m e Chaplains and two chapels. There appears to be an active programme of services for a l l inmates, i n addition to counselling by both Chaplains. The i n s t i t u t i o n has also adopted a commendable p o l i c y i n having services at times which do not c o n f l i c t with other a c t i v i t i e s of the i n s t i t u t i o n . Correctional Industries Correctional industries provides valuable on-the-job t r a i n i n g , as well as production of useful goods. Unfortunately the present shops are overmanned due to the excessive population, a s i t u a t i o n which tends to r e s t r i c t the tra i n i n g programme i n these shops. Should the previous suggestions f o r the establishment 34 A Manual of Correctional Standards, op_. c i t . , p. 299. 152 of vocational shops be followed, the present f a c i l i t i e s could be devoted e n t i r e l y to i n d u s t r i a l a c t i v i t i e s , and further development could be made i n the f i e l d of correctional i n d u s t r i e s . With regard to the future development of the industries programme, i t i s suggested that consideration be given to the following points paraphrased from the State of C a l i f o r n i a , Department of Correction's administrative manual: (1) Establishing a Correctional Industries Committee composed of the Warden, two members from organized labour, two from industry management, and one from the general p u b l i c . The committee would be an agency to aid i n the development of work programs . . . which would contribute to r e h a b i l i t a t i o n , t r a i n i n g , and support with minimum competition with private industry and free labor, and to e s t a b l i s h and f a c i l i t a t e better understanding between the administration of the Department and the general p u b l i c . (2) That a study be made i n r e l a t i o n to potential markets and the attitude of free industries i n the area. (3) On the basis of these studies, the i n d u s t r i a l programme should be expanded .wherever-' f e a s i b l e . (4) On the basis of the advice and guidance rendered by the Correctional Industries Committee, there should be established i n the shops operations which are patterned, as f a r as possible, upon those i n outside industry. (5) A study should be made with a view to finding means of lengthening the working day, and to ensure that the inmate performs a regular week's work at a pace that w i l l prepare him for a job upon release. 153 Inmate D i s c i p l i n a r y Programme To be e f f e c t i v e a d i s c i p l i n a r y programme must have certain elements which Include; uniformity and consistency of administration, clear and decisive a p p l i c a t i o n , quickness of action, certainty, and j u s t i c e . Gresham Sykes, i n his 35 "Crime and Society" has made some v a l i d comments with regard to the problems faced by prison s t a f f i n t h e i r e f f o r t s to maintain authority i n the prison. In general, the d i s c i p l i n a r y programme of the B r i t i s h Columbia Penitentiary appears to be administered i n a firm, just manner and to be characterized by uniformity and ce r t a i n t y . Other commendable features i n the inmate d i s c i p l i n a r y programme include: the explanation by the Warden of the rules and regulations to a l l newly admitted inmates, the use of i s o l a t i o n rather than corporal punishment i n many cases, and allowing a l l inmates i n i s o l a t i o n the p r i v i l e g e of regular v i s i t s . However, i t i s f e l t that the administration of the d i s c i p l i n a r y programme could be further improved. Towards thi s end, i t i s recommended that a review be made of the Inmate rules and regulations for the purpose of establishing a l i s t of rules designed to place more r e s p o n s i b i l i t y on the inmate, encourage him to act according to the dictates of common sense, and to supply him with more information as to 35 Gresham Sykes, Crime and Society. Random House short series i n Sociology, 1956. 154 what i s expected of him. With regard to the processing of d i s c i p l i n a r y i n f r a c t i o n s , i t i s recommended that consideration be given to the setting up of a d i s c i p l i n a r y panel upon which would s i t the Deputy Warden, C l a s s i f i c a t i o n O f f i c e r , and one Keeper. Each keeper i n the i n s t i t u t i o n would be required to serve on the panel i n a rot a t i o n basis. The Warden would exercise appellate authority, with a l l decisions of the d i s c i p l i n a r y panel involving serious i n f r a c t i o n s being reviewed by him before any punishment was car r i e d out. This panel would be i n a p o s i t i o n to spend more time on the hearing of i n f r a c t i o n s and would therefore be able to adopt a more " c l i n i c a l approach" to the problems brought before i t f o r hearing. This approach would involve not only a thorough study of the inmate and his problems, but also a d i s p o s i t i o n f i t t e d to the in d i v i d u a l ' s needs. In addition, i t i s suggested that a study of a l l offences and punishments be made, i n order to c l a s s i f y them on the basis of t h e i r gravity, with the less serious offences being dealt with by the Chief Keeper and s t i l l less serious ones, being handled by the Keepers. In a l l such cases however, the inmate should be allowed to appeal the action taken to the D i s c i p l i n a r y Panel. In summary then, i t i s f e l t that a more i n d i v i d u a l i z e d d i s c i p l i n a r y programme could be established by the use of a D i s c i p l i n a r y Panel. By delegating some d i s c i p l i n a r y power to the senior o f f i c e r s the handling of routine cases could be 155 speeded up while those cases requiring more c a r e f u l study-could be investigated thoroughly by the D i s c i p l i n a r y Panel. Remission and Remuneration Remission. It i s f e l t that the p o l i c y of allowing the inmate to reduce h i s sentence by earning statutory remission i s most valuable, and th,at enabling him to increase his rate of remission does much to encourage him i n h i s i n s t i t u t i o n a l programme. While t h i s scheme i s often c r i t i -cized, i t i s f e l t that i t should be retained as i t not only encourages the inmate, but also provides a useful d i s c i p l i n a r y device which i s free of many of the punitive aspects involved i n other d i s c i p l i n a r y measures. The Fauteux Committee, points out some anomalies and inequities i n the system of statutory remission, and suggests that the entire question should be reviewed. While i t i s true that the difference between the r a t i o of remission awarded i n the p r o v i n c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s and those awarded i n the penitentiary does r e s u l t i n i n e q u i t i e s , i t i s f e l t that t h i s s i t u a t i o n could best be r e c t i f i e d by bringing the p r o v i n c i a l rates up to the present penitentiary rates, which appear to be quite s a t i s f a c t o r y . Remuneration. The system of inmate remuneration has several commendable features. Inmates may increase t h e i r earnings by t h e i r good conduct and industry, and as they are required to save a ce r t a i n percentage of such earnings they 156 are afforded a sum of money to support them for a time a f t e r discharge. Also each inmate has h i s case reviewed by a Screening Committee which decides the l e v e l of pay to be awarded to him. From an accounting standpoint, problems may exist i n the administration of thi s plan, but the information gathered i n t h i s research i s i n s u f f i c i e n t to evaluate t h i s area f u l l y . Community Contacts Mail P r i v i l e g e s . The processing of inmate mail appears to be handled i n a f a i r and e f f i c i e n t manner. The only suggestion one might make i n t h i s area i s that i t would be desirable to increase the amount of mail contact as much as possible between inmate and the families to whom they w i l l eventually return. V i s i t i n g P r i v i l e g e s . While some increase has been made i n the number of v i s i t s permitted, i t i s believed that further use of t h i s contact i s desirable. It i s suggested that an informal v i s i t i n g area be established, and that the present v i s i t i n g f a c i l i t i e s be used only f o r maximum security inmates, or inmates who have abused t h e i r v i s i t i n g p r i v i l e g e s . In addition, i t i s recommended that an ^ "Inspectoscope" be i n s t a l l e d f o r the searching of a l l v i s i t o r s having contact with inmates. "The Inspectoscope i s an electronic machine which enables an observer to v i s u a l l y detect and i d e n t i f y any o b j e c t — m e t a l l i c , non-metallic, or l i q u i d — c o n c e a l e d i n or 157 36 under an individual's clothing . . . ." The use of such a device would render i t safe to permit c e r t a i n inmates to enjoy p i c n i c v i s i t s on the lawn area inside the walls. Guidance and Counselling Programme Professional Counselling. At present the counselling programme i s , i n the main, car r i e d out by the C l a s s i f i c a t i o n O f f i c e r , his a s s i s t a n t , the P s y c h i a t r i s t , and the Chaplains. While i t i s true that the other members of the professional s t a f f do a s s i s t i n t h i s function, the size of the inmate population, and the many other duties which the professional s t a f f must carry out, would appear to make i t v i r t u a l l y impossible f o r most inmates to receive adequate guidance and counselling. Therefore, i t i s suggested that thought be given to the p o s s i b i l i t y of adding to the present s t a f f a group of f u l l - t i m e counsellors, who should be university graduates with t r a i n i n g i n criminal psychology or s o c i a l work, and one of whom should be q u a l i f i e d , by a d d i t i o n a l experience and t r a i n i n g , to supervise the work of the group. For insight into the problems involved i n casework interviewing within a prison where there i s antagonism towards s t a f f one should r e f e r to N. Johnston's a r t i c l e "Sources of 36 Technical Manual for the Inspectoscone. S i c u l a r Inspectoscope Company, San Francisco, C a l i f o r n i a , U.S.A., 1952, p. 1. 158 37 D i s t o r t i o n and Deception i n Prison Interviewing." Lav Counselling. I t i s generally recognized that i t i s the custodial o f f i c e r who has the greatest contact with, and perhaps the greatest influence upon the inmate. Just as a c h i l d learns from a l l the influences that play upon him, so prisoners are greatly affected for good or i l l by the d a i l y contacts with cor r e c t i o n a l o f f i c e r s i n work, i n recreation and at meal times. Here the close contacts of the c o r r e c t i o n a l o f f i c e r can be important forces i n modifying the attitudes of the prisoners.38 For t h i s reason, and because of the fact that a professional s t a f f large enough to provide an i d e a l counselling service f o r a l l inmates does not seem to be f e a s i b l e , i t i s recommended that a scheme of lay counselling by custodial o f f i c e r s be considered. These o f f i c e r s could conduct interviews and group counselling sessions with inmates, and be provided with t r a i n i n g , supervision, and advice i n t h i s area by the professional counsellors. The idea of a lay counselling scheme i s not r e a l l y an innovation for i t has long been known that some o f f i c e r s do, i n a very informal way, develop a h e l p f u l r e l a t i o n s h i p with t h e i r charges, which enables them to provide some counselling. What i s r e a l l y being recommended i s an improvement and systematic extension of such approaches through t r a i n i n g and 37 Norman Johnson, "Sources of D i s t o r t i o n and Deception i n Prison Interviewing," Federal Probation. March, 1956. 38 S.A. Laycock, "Keys to Prisoners R e h a b i l i t a t i o n , " Canadian Welfare. November 1, 1956, p. 183. 159 supervision which would increase the effectiveness of o f f i c e r s as lay counsellors. The State of C a l i f o r n i a Department of Corrections has introduced a system of lay counselling i n i t s i n s t i t u t i o n s as has the Elmira Reformatory i n the State of New York which introduced such a programme i n 1950. Col. Leroy Weaver, Superintendent of Elmira Reformatory, believed that members of his s t a f f , both custodial and c i v i l i a n personnel, could e s t a b l i s h a rapport between inmate and an i n d i v i d u a l s t a f f member through which guidance and counselling could be done e f f e c t i v e l y to a l t e r the misbehavior habits of an inmate and provide s u f f i c i e n t encouragement to enable the inmate to f i t himself for l i f e i n a free community and to make a sat i s f a c t o r y i n s t i t u t i o n a l adjustment .39 The following figures have been published i l l u s t r a t i n g the success experienced at the Elmira Reformatory. From the inception of the counselling service i n 1950 u n t i l 1954 t o t a l of four hundred and seven (407) men were assigned to counselors. Of t h i s group two hundred and f i f t y - t h r e e (253) were released on parole during t h i s period. Analysis of the parole outcome of the two hundred and f i f t y - t h r e e men who were released on parole from 1950-1954 indicated that 29$ committed new crimes or viola t e d t h e i r parole. More s i g n i f i c a n t i s the f a c t that the parole v i o l a t i o n rate for paroled inmates from Elmira Reformatory had dropped from 28$ i n 1950 to Q% i n 1954.40 The D i s t r i c t of Columbia, Washington, United States of America, has also u t i l i z e d custodial o f f i c e r s as counsellors "In an e f f o r t to supply the services o r d i n a r i l y performed by 39 John A. Davis, "Individual Counselling Program at Elmira Reformatory," Journal of Correctional Education, Baltimore, Md., July, 1956, p. 2]T 40 Ib i d , p. 26. i6o 41 professional r e h a b i l i t a t i v e personnel . . . ." Although there has been no s c i e n t i f i c evaluation of t h i s programme certai n improvements i n the prison s i t u a t i o n have been noted. These are summarized b r i e f l y to i l l u s t r a t e the values such a programme can present. I t i s believed that the counselling . . . has contributed to the orderliness and s t a b i l i t y of i n s t i t u t i o n a l operation. Some intangible forces-have been at work to make four seriously crowded i n s t i t u t i o n s operate without d i f f i c u l t y . Custodial supervisors show insight and understanding. C l a s s i f i c a t i o n and admission summaries are being studied by custodial supervisors for the f i r s t time. Custodial supervisor's reports contain much data of value to research. Improved r e l a t i o n s found between professional and custodial s t a f f . Improvement observed i n character and behavior of inmates.42 S o c i a l Education Programme Through the s k i l f u l use of inmate a c t i v i t i e s and p r i v i l e g e s , the prison administrator has an opportunity to develop within the i n d i v i d u a l prisoner new habits of good sportsmanship and f a i r play and to af f o r d the inmate the opportunity to accept the same kind of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y he w i l l be expected to assume i n the free world outside the prison walls.43 Thus a programme of s o c i a l education, through the use of inmate a c t i v i t i e s and p r i v i l e g e s , should be regarded as another aspect of the t o t a l r e h a b i l i t a t i v e process rather than merely 41 Donald Clemmer, "Use of Supervisory Custodial Personnel as Counselors. An Expedient," Federal Probation, December, 195&, P. 39-42 Loc. c i t . 43 A Manual of Correctional Standards, op., c i t . . p. 332. 161 as a function of granting or withholding p r i v i l e g e s . Personnel. At present, the majority of inmate a c t i v i t y i s handled hy the Schoolmaster-Librarian and the Physical Training O f f i c e r . We believe that t h i s part of the programme i s s u f f i c i e n t l y important to warrant some s t a f f members being assigned to i t on a f u l l - t i m e basis, and there-fore suggest that there might be established positions for a Supervisor of Group Work, and at least eight Group Work O f f i c e r s . The Supervisor of Group Work would preferably be a graduate i n s o c i a l group work. The Group Work Offi c e r s could be regular custodial o f f i c e r s who have been selected for t h i s assignment and provided with spec i a l i z e d t r a i n i n g . These s t a f f members would be responsible together with the present Physical Training O f f i c e r for organizing and dir e c t i n g a programme of inmate a c t i v i t i e s and p r i v i l e g e s . In t h i s way the Schoolmaster-Librarian could be re l i e v e d of his duties i n t h i s area and thus be freed for his more academic tasks. Such a programme could include special i n t e r e s t groups, dramatic and musical a c t i v i t i e s , the present inmate newspaper publication, hobbies, inmate advisory co u n c i l , a t h l e t i c a c t i v i t i e s and any other a c t i v i t i e s deemed to be sui t a b l e . Inmate Advisory Council. The present Inmate's Welfare Committee i s comparable i n purpose and organization to what i s known elsewhere as the Inmate Advisory Council. Time did 162 not permit the observation of t h i s committee i n action. The evaluation of i t i n t h i s study w i l l deal only with i t s organization and i s based on an interview with a s t a f f member who was responsible for the supervision of t h i s committee. This committee has a number of sub-committees each of which reports back to the central body. This i s of course a usual plan of organization for a large committee but i t i s questionable whether i t i s wise i n a prison setting to leave the appointments to the sub-committees i n the hands of the main committee, a procedure which opens the door to the p o s s i b i l i t y of a small group of inmates taking advantage of th e i r authority for personal advantage. For an analysis of the prison community which would provide some insight into the problems of investing authority i n inmates, one may refer 44 to Clarence Schrag's "Social Types i n the Prison Community," "Crimeville: A Sociometric Analysis of the Prison Community." Other works along these same l i n e s include 46 Donald Clemmers "The Prison Community," W. Fauquier's and 47 J . G i l c h r i c t ' s "Some Aspects of Leadership i n an I n s t i t u t i o n , " 44 Clarence Schrag, " S o c i a l Types i n the Prison Community," (unpublished Master's t h e s i s , The University of Washington, 1947). 45 , "Crime v i l l e : A Sociometric Analysis of the Prison Community," (unpublished Doctoral d i s s e r t a t i o n , University of Washington, 1950)* 46 Donald Clemmer, The Prison Community. Boston, Christopher son Publishing__House, 1940. 47 W. Fauquier and J . G i l c h r i c t , "Some Aspects of Leadership i n an I n s t i t u t i o n , " C hild Development, March, 1942. 163 and F.E. Haynes, "The S o c i o l o g i c a l Study of the Prison 48 Community." The State of C a l i f o r n i a , Department of Corrections, has experienced much success i n the use of inmate advisory councils. In view of th e i r r e s u l t s , i t i s f e l t that considera-t i o n should be given to the following comments which are paraphrased from t h e i r d i r e c t i v e on councils: The inmates functions s h a l l always remain advisory. Each inmate s h a l l be elected i n a free e l e c t i o n . The length of term s h a l l be short to avoid any group taking over the council, s i x months has been used as the l i m i t i n some i n s t i t u t i o n s . The most successful councils have been those which have been c l o s e l y and continuously supervised by the top management of the prison, and where the Warden has been sympathetic, interested, and open-minded. There s h a l l be no actual administrative responsi-b i l i t i e s delegated to the council even a f t e r approval of a recommendation. The r a i s i n g of a subject which does not f a l l within the scope of the p r a c t i c a l and approved concern of the council s h a l l be followed by an explanation of why the topic i s not to be considered rather than by an abrupt and d i c t a t o r i a l change of subject. There s h a l l be no discussions of i n d i v i d u a l inmates or members of s t a f f . The council s h a l l not be an agency to originate requests or suggestions regarding p o l i c i e s or procedures outside of i n s t i t u t i o n a l matters. There s h a l l be no authority given to the member of the council at any time or under any circumstances to order other inmates to carry out projects i n i t i a t e d by them, not even those which have the o f f i c i a l approval of the Warden. They may, through the intercession of a s t a f f member, obtain assistance from other inmates.49 48 F.E. Hayes, "The S o c i o l o g i c a l Study of the Prison Community," Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, November-December, 1948. 49 Inmate Advisory Councils. The State of C a l i f o r n i a Department of Corrections, Sacramento C a l i f o r n i a . 164 In addition to the large central committee with sub-committees reporting to i t , the State of C a l i f o r n i a Depart-ment of Corrections has introduced the idea of an executive committee. This executive committee meets with the Warden to discuss t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s and present points for consideration. This committee then reports back to the council which develops plans on the basis of the discussions held with the Warden. In considering the Inmate Welfare Committee at the B r i t i s h Columbia Penitentiary i n terms of the above c r i t e r i a c e r t a i n recommendations can be made. The members of the sub-committees could be elected rather than appointed by the Inmate Welfare Committee. The term of o f f i c e of a l l members might be r e s t r i c t e d , and an executive committee be elected which would meet regul a r l y with the Warden. F i n a l l y , a l l s t a f f and inmates could be made more f u l l y aware of the objectives, purpose and values of an inmate council. It would also be desirable to provide the council with a permanent place i n which to hold meetings, conduct business and prepare materials. The Penitentiary i s at present too overcrowded to make provision of such accommodation f e a s i b l e , but t h i s i s something which could be kept i n mind when planning for future expansion. 165 Research To ensure the development of the most e f f e c t i v e r e h a b i l i t a t i v e methods, i t i s necessary to be constantly evaluating, examining, and testing these methods i n order to determine the extent to which they do produce p o s i t i v e benefits. To t h i s end, i t i s recommended that consideration be given to the appointment of q u a l i f i e d research personnel to the headquarters s t a f f , who would be authorized to e n l i s t the cooperation and p a r t i c i p a t i o n of i n s t i t u t i o n a l s t a f f , as needed, on p a r t i c u l a r projects. The Pauteux Committee i n t h e i r report has also recommended the establishment of a research section i n the Department of J u s t i c e . For a discussion of research methodogy i n penology one may r e f e r to M.F. Farber's a r t i c l e "Prison Research: 50 Techniques and Methods." Lloyd Ohlin i n h i s text "Sociology 51 and the F i e l d of Corrections," presents a summary of research findings on the prison community as well as valuable suggestions for further i n v e s t i g a t i o n which would be of inte r e s t to personnel i n t h i s area. Synopsis The rudiments of an e f f e c t i v e t r a i n i n g scheme are embodied i n the present programme of the Penitentiary. This 50 M.F. Farber, "Prison Research: Techniques and Methods," S o c i a l Psychology. November, 1941. 51 Lloyd Ohlin, Sociology and the F i e l d of Corrections, R u s s e l l Sage Foundation, 1956. 166 i s evidenced by the existence of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , r e l i g i o u s , academic, vocational, p s y c h i a t r i c , medical, and recreational a c t i v i t i e s . However, the s t a f f members involved are r e l a t i v e l y few and while having an appreciable degree of success, i t i s f e l t t h e i r o v e r - a l l e f f e c t on the inmate population would be much larger with additional s t a f f . In addition, the overcrowding of the Penitentiary and the amount of f a c i l i t i e s available tend to r e s t r i c t any i n d i v i d u a l i z e d planning of a r e h a b i l i t a t i v e programme for inmates. Therefore, i n order to permit the development of the present programme into a more e f f e c t i v e system of t r a i n i n g , i t i s recommended that a l l possible e f f o r t s be made to increase the t r a i n i n g s t a f f and expand the resources for the p o s i t i v e treatment of inmates. Certain suggestions have been made with t h i s objective i n mind, most of them based upon accepted p r i n c i p l e s of c o r r e c t i o n a l administration, but i t i s emphasized that the development of s p e c i f i c programme areas should be preceded by careful and s p e c i f i c studies of the functions and needs which are involved. CHAPTER V ADMINISTRATION Organization Authority. The Penitentiary i s administered under the Penitentiary Act of 1939 and the rules and regulations made thereunder. A separate administrative manual, known as the Penitentiary Regulations, 1933, gives detailed guidance on administrative procedures for a l l departments of the i n s t i t u t i o n . The e s s e n t i a l parts of these regulations were summarized and published as the Penitentiary O f f i c e r s 1 Hand-book 1952. These regulations, together with various c i r c u l a r s , orders, and b u l l e t i n s received from headquarters, guide the administration of the i n s t i t u t i o n . The Warden issues Standing Orders for the detailed guidance of o f f i c e r s and for the assignment of duties. These orders describe the duties and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of each s t a f f p o s i t i o n and e s t a b l i s h the routines of the prison. In addition to the Penitentiary Act and the Regulations, cer t a i n sections i n the Criminal Code 1953-54- (Can.) Ch. 51 are s i g n i f i c a n t i n a f f e c t i n g the duties of penitentiary o f f i c e r s . These include the sections on Protection of Persons Administering and Enforcing the Law (sections 25, 26, 27) Suppression of Riots (section 32), and Escapes and Rescues (sections 124, 125, 126 and 127). 168 Warden. The i n s t i t u t i o n i s under the di r e c t control of the Warden who acts as the chief executive o f f i c e r of the prison and i s , i n turn, responsible to the Commissioner of Pe n i t e n t i a r i e s . Authority i s vested i n the Warden by the Penitentiary Act of 1939. Section 31• ( D The Warden of a penitentiary s h a l l be the chief executive o f f i c e r of the same, and as such s h a l l have the entire executive control and management of a l l i t s concerns, subject to the rules and regulations duly established, and the written instructions of the Commissioner. (2) In a l l cases not provided f o r , and where the Commissioner cannot r e a d i l y be consulted, the Warden s h a l l act i n such manner as he deems most advantageous i n the public i n t e r e s t . (3) He s h a l l be responsible for the f a i t h f u l and e f f i c i e n t administration of the a f f a i r s of every department of the penitentiary, and he s h a l l reside at the penitentiary. The Penitentiary Regulations of 1933» made under the power granted by the Penitentiary Act, describe the major r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and duties of the Warden. Such regulations provide for the inspection of the plant and s t a f f , the control and care of inmates, and reports to be made to the Commissioner of P e n i t e n t i a r i e s . Deputy Warden. Second i n command to the Warden i s the Deputy Warden who, i n the absence of the Warden, assumes the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of that p o s i t i o n as stated i n the Penitentiary Act of 1939. 169 Section 32. In the absence or during the incapacity of the Warden, the Deputy Warden s h a l l exercise a l l the d i s c i p l i n a r y powers and perform a l l the necessary duties of the Warden . . . . The Deputy Warden acts as the supervisor of the t r e a t -ment or r e h a b i l i t a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s of the i n s t i t u t i o n , and at the same time retains supervisory r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n matters . of security and custody. His p o s i t i o n i s somewhat s i m i l a r to that of the Deputy Warden i n Charge of Treatment, who i n many modern American prisons or reformatories, supervises the treatment personnel of the i n s t i t u t i o n . In 1952 the Deputy Wardens of the Penitentiary Service were brought together i n a conference to enable them to discuss the changing nature of t h e i r p o s i t i o n , and the p o s s i b i l i t y of developing a r e h a b i l i t a t i o n programme for a l l I n s t i t u t i o n s . As a r e s u l t of t h i s conference, the following 1 duties were suggested for t h i s p o s i t i o n . Treatment Areas f o r The Deputy Warden's Supervision: 1. P r e - c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , orientation and employment of newcomers. 2. C l a s s i f i c a t i o n 3. Work assignment ( i n collaboration with the chief keeper and other senior o f f i c e r s ) . 4. Vocational and Controlled Training assignments. 5. Educational and C u l t u r a l Training, Avocational Studies. 0 . Entertainment, Recreation, Sports. . Hobbies, Inmate publications, Canteen. . Moral and e t h i c a l t r a i n i n g , r e l i g i o u s and a l l i e d a c t i v i t i e s , Alcoholics Anonymous, Narcotics Anonymous, and Salvation Army. 9. Occupational supervision (work, grading, remuneration. 10. Physical needs (accommodation, messing, medical, dental, psychological and p s y c h i a t r i c s e r v i c e s ) . 1 Deputy Warden's Conference Proceedings, A p r i l , 1952, p. 4. 170 11. S o c i a l counselling (adjustment of personal problems, a c t i v i t i e s of the National Employment Service, John Howard Society, Salvation Army, e t c . ) . 12. Pre-release orientation, employment, etc. 13. Investigation. It was further agreed that the following additional matters should be the personal r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of the Deputy Warden: 1. A major r o l e i n the screening of applicants for employment. 2. Local Training of O f f i c e r s . 3. Recommendation of candidates f o r Penitentiary S t a f f College. 4 . Membership i n committee on estimates. 5. Economy. 6. Periodic review of expenditures (monthly unencumbered balances). 7. Offleers'dress and general deportment. 8. General supervision of duties re-allocated to chief keeper. The remaining duties to be performed by the Deputy Warden are i n the Penitentiary Regulations 1933. Of those s t i l l i n force, the most important are those which state that he s h a l l be responsible f o r the custody and d i s c i p l i n e of the Penitentiary, and that i n the Warden's absence he s h a l l assume contr o l . Chief Keeper. The Chief Keeper i s responsible for maintaining the security of the i n s t i t u t i o n . This p o s i t i o n c a r r i e s the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and duties which, i n some prisons, would be assigned to a Deputy Warden i n charge of Custody. He supervises, and assigns duties to, the custodial o f f i c e r s and maintains s t a f f d i s c i p l i n e generally. He i s also responsible for the inspection of security f a c i l i t i e s , 171 and the servicing of firearms. In the absence of the Deputy-Warden he assumes the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of that p o s i t i o n , and should both the Deputy Warden and Warden be absent, he must assume control of the Penitentiary. P r i n c i p a l Keeper. This p o s i t i o n was created i n 1952, p r i n c i p a l l y to supersede the p o s i t i o n of Senior Keeper. The P r i n c i p a l Keeper acts as an assistant to the Chief Keeper i n maintaining the security of the i n s t i t u t i o n , and i s also responsible for the maintenance of the Penitentiary and inmate population. He i s responsible for the receiving and discharging of inmates, for issuing t h e i r clothing and keeping them clean, and for assigning work to them before they go through the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n procedure. In the absence of the Chief Keeper he assumes the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of that p o s i t i o n . Keeper. Keepers act as the senior custodial o f f i c e r s of the Penitentiary under the d i r e c t i o n of the Chief Keeper and, through him, the Deputy Warden. They are employed i n a supervisory capacity over the main body of custodial o f f i c e r s , being i n charge of the evaluation of s t a f f and the t r a i n i n g of new personnel. During the night and morning s h i f t s , one Keeper, assisted by a s t a f f of guards, has charge of the prison and has the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of i n i t i a t i n g emergency action i n the event of escape, r i o t or other disturbance. There are, at present, f i v e Keepers on the s t a f f , with one performing i n addition to his regular duties, those of 172 In-Service Training O f f i c e r . The number of Keepers a l l o t t e d to the i n s t i t u t i o n i s determined by the size of the prison population on the basis of one Keeper for every one hundred inmates. Thus, the inmate population at the time of t h i s study, of over 600 c a l l s for six Keepers, including the P r i n c i p a l Keeper. Guard. Guards act i n a d i r e c t supervisory capacity over the inmate population and are responsible for the d i s c i p l i n e , safe custody, work supervision, and needs of the inmates. In addition to purely custodial duties, the o f f i c e r s are expected to consider the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n of the inmates. Guidance i n t h i s matter i s supplied by the Treatment Regula-tions of the Penitentiary O f f i c e r s ' Handbook, 1952, which apply to a l l s t a f f members. The most s i g n i f i c a n t of these regulations state: Section 40. In the control of inmates, o f f i c e r s s h a l l seek to influence them through t h e i r own example and leadership and to e n l i s t t h e i r w i l l i n g co-operation. Section 41. The treatment of inmates s h a l l , at a l l times, be such as to b u i l d up t h e i r s e l f respect and to encourage a sense of personal dignity and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . Within the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of guard there are two grades, Guard 1 and Guard 2, the l a t t e r being the senior rank. There were at the time of t h i s study seventy-six Guards, grade 1, and seventeen Guards, grade 2. The number of Guards, l i k e the number of Keepers, i s determined by the inmate population. The allotment i s made on the basis of one 173 guard for every ten inmates i n addition to the number of guards required to man a ce r t a i n number of posts i n the prison. Guards, grade 2, occupy the more responsible custodial positions. For example, each c e l l block i s manned by a number of Guards, Grade 1, who are under the charge of a Guard Grade 2. The t o t a l number of Guards, grade 2, may not exceed twenty per cent of the authorized custodial personnel. Plant Engineer. The major duties of this p o s i t i o n , set f o r t h i n the Penitentiary Regulations of 1933» are as follows: Section 361. The Plant Engineer s h a l l , under the Warden, be responsible f o r the steam and e l e c t r i c service, heating, plumbing, v e n t i l a t i n g , l i g h t i n g , water and f i r e protection service and sanitary system of the Penitentiary, and the trades connected with his department. To a s s i s t the Plant Engineer i n the f u l f i l l i n g of these r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , there are three Assistant Plant Engineers, f i v e Guard-Firemen, a Steam Fitter-Plumber, and an E l e c t r i c i a n . Storekeeper. The major duties of this p o s i t i o n , as stated i n the Penitentiary Regulations of 1933 are as follows: Section 371* He s h a l l receive a l l goods, wares, and supplies purchased for the Penitentiary, and s h a l l have the care and custody of the same u n t i l issued by him f o r actual consumption or use on proper r e q u i s i t i o n furnished to him. Section 373. He s h a l l on emergency, purchase goods, wares and supplies as directed by the Warden and when furnished with a r e q u i s i t i o n signed by the Warden. 174 Section 377. When a r t i c l e s for sale are manufactured or produced by the Penitentiary, they s h a l l be transferred to the Storekeeper, who s h a l l be the custodian of the same pending shipment. Steward. The Steward's r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s include the management and cleanliness of the kitchen and the preparation of food, i n a clean and palatable manner for the entire i n s t i t u t i o n . He i s assisted by the Assistant Steward and Kitchen o f f i c e r s who function i n a supervisory custodial role over the inmates employed i n the kitchen. The Steward's duties, as stated i n the Penitentiary Regulations of 1933? consist of the following: Section 406. The Steward s h a l l have charge of the v i c t u a l l i n g department, including the kitchen, c e l l a r s , and other places where provisions are kept and a l l passages leading thereto, and s h a l l see that the same are at a l l times kept clean and i n good order. Section 407. He s h a l l keep detailed accounts of the quantities and values of a l l supplies requisitioned for and received by him, and of a l l supplies used by him. Section 408. He s h a l l see that a l l provisions received by him are kept i n such condition as to prevent them becoming injured i n q u a l i t y . He s h a l l take care that no bad or unsound provisions are cooked or furnished to the convicts, and that a l l meals are served i n a palatable manner. Section 409. He s h a l l prepare the Weekly Diet sheets for the O f f i c e r s Mess and the convicts, for the approval of the Warden. The duties of the remaining positions i n the organiza-t i o n of the Penitentiary are described i n the sections which deal with t h e i r respective functions. 175 Appointments. The Warden, Deputy "Warden, Chief Keeper, and other senior executive o f f i c e r s are appointed to t h e i r positions by order-in-council of the Governor General, who acts upon the recommendation of the Minister of J u s t i c e . The P r i n c i p a l Keeper, and the s t a f f positions subordinate to him, are appointed by the Commissioner of P e n i t e n t i a r i e s . Thus, appointments to positions are originated by the recommendation of the Commissioner of Penitentiaries and are not subject to c i v i l service regulations. Recruitment of S t a f f . Certain minimum q u a l i f i c a t i o n s must be met by an applicant for employment i n the Penitentiary Service. He must be a Canadian c i t i z e n , resident i n the area served by the Penitentiary, twenty-one years of age or over, and have no criminal record. He must be p h y s i c a l l y f i t , of good character, never have been previously dismissed from the Penitentiary Service, not have an immediate family r e l a t i v e on the s t a f f , and i f over t h i r t y - f i v e years of age, must have had previous overseas m i l i t a r y service. A l l s t a f f vacancies are p u b l i c l y advertised i n the area served by the Penitentiary through l o c a l newspapers. ' Training. A new o f f i c e r , upon appointment, i s put under the d i r e c t i o n of the In-Service Training O f f i c e r for a ten day orientation period. The schedule for t h i s t r a i n i n g period i s as follows: 176 Training Schedule for Mew O f f i c e r s . 1st day A.M. Interviewed by the Warden and sworn In. Issued with Regulation book and Escape Instructions. Interviewed by the Deputy Warden regarding h i s t r a i n i n g duties and what i s expected of him as a Penitentiary O f f i c e r . P.M. Accompanies the Deputy Warden on his tour of inspection so that the new o f f i c e r learns the geographical layout of the Prison. 2nd day A.M. Accompanies the Plant Engineer to become acquainted with the f i r e f i g h t i n g equipment and the location of the f i r e hydrants. P.M. Accompanies the Farm Instructor, v i s i t s the back f i e l d s , i s shown the locations of the stands and the extent of t h e i r supervision. 3rd day A.M. Receive® instructions on Front Gate Duties during which time he also receives instructions i n operating the switchbbard. P.M. Receives i n s t r u c t i o n on Main H a l l Duties. 4th day A.M. Receives instructions on Tower Duties. P.M. Receives instructions on Stand Duties. 5th day A.M. and P.M. Receives i n s t r u c t i o n on Vestibule Duties. 6th day A.M. and P.M. East Wing, Forth Wing, C e l l Block B-7, receiving instructions from the Senior O f f i c e r i n charge of the Wings. 7th day A.M. and P.M. On Duty th i s day with gang o f f i c e r s to gain knowledge of the duties performed. 8th day A.M. and P.M. On duty t h i s day with the Yard Keeper. He w i l l v i s i t Close Confinement and w i l l a s s i s t the yard o f f i c e r s with the Doctor's and Chaplain's parades. 9th day A.M. and P.M. Read Standing Orders. He w i l l attend the Warden's Court t h i s day. He w i l l be on duty on the night s h i f t from 1700 to 2100 hours during which time he w i l l receive i n s t r u c t i o n on a l l night posts. 10th day A.M. Yard Duty. He w i l l v i s i t the ranges during the noon hour, and w i l l be tested for both r i f l e and revolver shooting under the supervision of the Yard O f f i c e r . 177 P.M. W i l l be issued with spare ammunition, ho l s t e r , b i l l i e , and whistle from the Chief Keeper's department. He w i l l again be interviewed by the Deputy Warden who w i l l i n s t r u c t the o f f i c e r concerning the administering of corporal punishment, the proper way to make out crime reports, and handling convicts, Should the new o f f i c e r f e e l he needs further t r a i n i n g , t h i s w i l l be granted. Additional t r a i n i n g i s provided by the i n s t i t u t i o n through the In-Service Training Course. This i s a two week course under the d i r e c t i o n of the In-Service Training O f f i c e r , who i s responsible to the Deputy Warden for the preparation of class schedules and the co-ordination of the tra i n i n g plan. Various s p e c i a l i s t s present lectures on the i r p a r t i c u l a r role and a c t i v i t i e s i n the i n s t i t u t i o n , i n addition to i n s t r u c t i o n i n the p r i n c i p l e s of human behavior, f i r s t a i d , and custodial p r a c t i c e s . The syllabus for the class which ran from January 10, 1955 to January 22, 1955 Is as follows: B r i t i s h Columbia Penitentiary In-Service Training For O f f i c e r s , January 1955 Training Schedule for Class #3 Jan. 10th to Jan. 22nd, 1955 January 10th O80O-O83O Objectives of In-Service Training I.S.T.O. O83O-O93O O f f i c e r s ' Handbook I.S.T.O. 093O-IO3O Penitentiary Act (Laws and Code) Keepers Reed 1030-1200 Psychiatry Dr. McDonald I33O-I50O Tour of Vocational F a c i l i t i e s 1500-1630 F i r s t Aid A.H.O. Turner 178 January 11th 0800-0900 0900-1030 1030-1300 I33O-150O 1500-1630 O f f i c e r s ' Handbook Duties of the C.V.O. Psychiatry National Employment Service F i r s t A i d January 12th 0800-0900 0900-1030 1030-1200 1330-1500 1500-1630 O f f i c e r s ' Handbook School and Library Functions (inmate) Psychiatry (Film, Emotional Health) Duties of the Accountant F i r s t A i d January 13th 0800-0900 0900-1030 1030-1200 1330-1500 1500-1630 O f f i c e r s ' Handbook Functions of the Dept. of Remission Psychiatry Duties of the Censor's Dept. F i r s t Aid January 14th 0800-0900 0900-1030 1030-1200 1330-1500 1500-1630 January 15th Film (Children of the City) Discussion Part 1. S e c u r i t y — F i r e — R i o t -Escape Psychiatry (Films Understand and Control your Emotions) The Salvation Army i n the Penal F i e l d Duties of the Steward 0800-0900 Report Writing—Procedure i n Warden's Court 0900-1000 S e l f Improvement 1000-1100 Film (The Conners Case) 1100-1200 Escort Procedures I.S.T.O. C.V.O. Halfhide Dr. McDonald Mr. H. MacKay A.H.O. Turner I.S.T.O. S/C Fleck Dr. McDonald Acct. Thompson A.H.O. Turner I.S.T.O. Ward Cook Dr. McDonald C C . S taught on A.H.O. Turner Chief Keeper Dr. McDonald B r i g . Nyerod Steward Dirks I.S.T.O. A/S/L Helmer Guard 2 Lockhead 179 January 17th 0800-0900 O f f i c e r s ' Handbook 0900-1030 Duties of the Wing Of f i c e r 1030-1200 Psychiatry, Film (over-dependency) 1330-1500 Duties of the Storekeeper 1500-1630 F i r s t Aid January l8th 0800-0900 0900-1030 1030-1200 1330-1500 1500-1630 O f f i c e r s ' Handbook Problems on Night Duty Psychiatry Functions of the John Howard Society F i r s t Aid January 19th 0800-0900 0900-1030 1030-1200 I33O-150O 1500-1630 O f f i c e r s * Handbook F i r e Protection Psychiatry, Film (Feeling of Depression) Duties of the Chaplains F i n a l Tests, F i r s t Aid Course January 20th 0800-0900 0900-1030 1030-1200 1330-1500 O f f i c e r s ' Handbook Part II School and Library Psychiatry, Film (Shyness) Remission and Remuneration 1500-1630 Duties of the Executive January 21st 0800-0900 0900-1030 1030-1200 1330-1500 1500-1630 Organization of Justice Dept. Initiative-Leave Regulations Psychiatry Part 2. Security, F i r e , Escape, Riot .-• FINAL TESTS Deputy Warden Gd. Gr. 2 Co l l i n s Dr. McDonald Strkpr. Welsford A.H.O. Turner Deputy Warden Keeper Wilson Dr. McDonald Dr. Hobden A.H.O. Turner Deputy Warden Chief Engineer Dr. McDonald The Chaplains A.H.O. Turner Deputy Warden S/L Fleck Dr. McDonald Sr. CI. Bultitude Deputy Warden Deputy Warden Deputy Warden Dr. McDonald Chief Keeper January 22nd 0800-1200 FINAL TESTS CONTINUED 180 Since February 194-8, a l l new guards who have successfully completed t h e i r six month probationary period have been sent to the Penitentiary S t a f f College, which i s adjacent to Kingston Penitentiary, for a further t r a i n i n g period of from f i v e and one-half to six weeks. The curriculum at the S t a f f College includes c o r r e c t i o n a l h i s t o r y , contemporary penal practices, psychology and psychiatry, modern s o c i a l problems, duties . and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of the Penitentiary O f f i c e r , remission and " t i c k e t - o f - l e a v e , " physical t r a i n i n g , and the use of small arms and tear gas. Training for higher positions i s also gained through p r a c t i c a l , "on the job" i n s t r u c t i o n . When an o f f i c e r i s absent, he i s r e l i e v e d by his immediate junior. This p o l i c y applies to every p o s i t i o n from Warden to Guard. In the event of the Warden's absence, the Deputy Warden acts as Warden f o r the duration of such absence, the Chief Keeper acts as Deputy Warden, the P r i n c i p a l Keeper as Chief Keeper, and so on down the l i n e of authority. Guards, grade 2, r e l i e v e Keepers and so gain experience i n that p o s i t i o n . S p e c i a l i s t s ' conferences are held at the Penitentiary S t a f f College at which homogeneous groups of workers from the various Penitentiaries gather for a discussion of problems and an evaluation of programmes. Such conferences include those of the Wardens, Deputy Wardens, Chief Keepers, C l a s s i f i c a t i o n O f f i c e r s , Chief Trade Instructors and Chief 181 Vocational O f f i c e r s , Accountants and Storekeepers, Plant Engineers, Stewards, Executive Secretaries and Senior Clerks, Schoolteacher-Librarians, Chaplains, Censor Clerks, In-Service Training O f f i c e r s , and Hospital O f f i c e r s . New methods are learned through these conferences and problems are discussed, so that the conferees may increase t h e i r knowledge and under-standing of t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r p ositions. Promotion—Policies and Procedures. Upon joining the Penitentiary Service, the new o f f i c e r serves six months as a Probationary Guard. Upon the completion of t h i s period, an evaluation i s made of his a b i l i t y to supervise and d i r e c t inmates. Should he prove acceptable, he i s appointed to the pos i t i o n of Guard, grade one. The Warden may extend this probationary period for a further s i x months should there be some doubt concerning the individual's f i t n e s s . The r e s u l t s of the examinations given i n connection with the In-Service t r a i n i n g and at the Penitentiary S t a f f College, along with the appraisals made by the College i n s t r u c t o r s , are taken into consideration i n selecting o f f i c e r s f o r advancement. No o f f i c e r i s considered for promotion u n t i l he has completed the tr a i n i n g given at the Penitentiary Staff College. An e l i g i b i l i t y l i s t for promotions i s established under regulation 493 o f the Penitentiary Regulations. 493. The Warden s h a l l establish a l i s t of persons q u a l i f i e d to f i l l each class of po s i t i o n on the establishment of a Penitentiary. The l i s t so 182 established s h a l l be known as and c a l l e d " Q u a l i f i e d L i s t " and such l i s t may be added to from day to day as suitable applicants are approved as q u a l i f i e d for appointment. C i v i l Service Commission e f f i c i e n c y rating forms are completed on every s t a f f member during the f i f t h month of the probationary period and annually thereafter. This form i s completed by at least two supervisory o f f i c e r s and i s then discussed with, and signed by, the o f f i c e r being rated. . 1 . . . . S i x t y - f i v e per cent i s the minimum requirement for promotion from Guard, grade one, to Guard, grade two, and seventy-five per cent i s the minimum requirement for promotion to Keeper. Also considered i n the selection for promotion are the o f f i c e r ' s s e n i o r i t y , service record, education, and demon-strated a b i l i t y oh the job. The Penitentiary O f f i c e r s ' Handbook, 1952, states the general conditions of promotion: Section 14- (a) Promotion within the establishment of Peni-t e n t i a r i e s s h a l l be made for merit, upon the recommendation of the Warden approved by the Commissioner a f t e r such examination, reports, t e s t s , records, or recommendations as may be prescribed by the Commissioner. (b) A l l other conditions and circumstances being equal, length of service s h a l l count towards promotion. The Veteran's preference i s , by Statute applicable only to those joining the Service. (c) No promotion, or change of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , designation or p o s i t i o n w i l l be made u n t i l a f t e r the approval of the Commissioner has been obtained. Before an o f f i c e r may be promoted to Guard grade two, he must have served three years as a Guard grade one, have 183 f u l f i l l e d the various requirements mentioned e a r l i e r , and have been recommended by the Warden. Aft e r f i v e years service as a Guard, grade one, the o f f i c e r i s allowed to write the Keeper's examination, which i s sent to the i n s t i t u t i o n from headquarters i n Ottawa, and returned upon completion for grading. Upon successful completion of t h i s examination, the o f f i c e r ' s name i s placed upon an e l i g i b i l i t y l i s t ; h is p o s i t i o n on the l i s t i s determined by h i s general a b i l i t y and his standing measured by a l l examinations. Because of the small number of vacancies which occur, the majority of Keepers serve for f i f t e e n or more years before being appointed to that p o s i t i o n . The next p o s i t i o n i n the custodial hierarchy i s that of P r i n c i p a l Keeper. For promotion to th i s p osition the o f f i c e r must have demonstrated his a b i l i t y as a Keeper, and have successfully completed the Keeper's examination. The P r i n c i p a l Keeper i s usually an o f f i c e r with over twenty years of custodial experience. For promotion to Chief Keeper the o f f i c e r must have successfully completed the Chief Keeper's examination, which q u a l i f i e s him, not only for promotion to Chief Keeper, but also to Deputy Warden and Warden. He must also have demonstrated, i n the performance of his duties, the admini-s t r a t i v e a b i l i t y required for the po s i t i o n of Chief Keeper. In order to q u a l i f y for promotion to the position of Deputy Warden, an o f f i c e r must have successfully completed the 184 Chief Keeper's examination and have exhibited outstanding administrative q u a l i t i e s . The same, or even more, rigorous requirements apply to the p o s i t i o n of Warden. Promotion may come from anywhere i n the Penitentiary Service to the p o s i t i o n of Chief Keeper, Deputy Warden, and Warden. Promotion to a l l positions below, that of Chief Keeper are made from within the ranks of the i n s t i t u t i o n . Instructors, professional, and c l e r i c a l s t a f f are often appointed from outside. D i s c i p l i n a r y Action Against O f f i c e r s . The main rules and regulations governing d i s c i p l i n a r y action against personnel of the Penitentiary Service are stated i n sections 16, 17, and 18 of the Penitentiary O f f i c e r s ' Handbook 1952. These are to the e f f e c t that an o f f i c e r may be fined up to one month's pay, dismissed, or prosecuted under section 72 of the Penitentiary Act, with or without suspension from duty, i f he: Is absent without le$ve, l a t e , makes f a l s e representations, comes on duty under the influence of l i q u o r , f a l l s asleep, has unauthorized dealings with inmates, or unauthorized persons, i s i n e f f i c i e n t , refuses to obey orders, engages i n e l e c t i o n a c t i v i t i e s , s o l i c i t s influence from outside the Penitentiary Service, or i s i n any way immoral, intemperate or conducts himself so as to bring d i s c r e d i t to the Penitentiary Service. In addition any o f f i c e r may be r e t i r e d to promote e f f i c i e n c y i f h i s performance of duties i s below an acceptable standard. 185 Any o f f i c e r charged with a breach of regulations appears before the Warden on a s p e c i f i c charge. The Warden then forwards h i s recommendation for d i s c i p l i n a r y action, i f any, to the Commissioner of Penitentiaries for confirmation. Upon such confirmation being obtained, the d i s c i p l i n a r y action i s car r i e d out. The regulations permit any o f f i c e r to submit i n writing, to the Commissioner of Pe n i t e n t i a r i e s , any complaint or grievance he may have concerning d i s c i p l i n a r y action or charges l a i d against him. It i s the p o l i c y of the Penitentiary Service to fi n e or dismiss an o f f i c e r for an i n f r a c t i o n of regulations rather than demote him. It i s thought that an o f f i c e r who suffers a demotion also suffers a reduction i n status among the inmate population, a s i t u a t i o n which would make i t d i f f i c u l t , and perhaps impossible, for him to control inmates under his charge. Personnel. The s t a f f numbered 171 at the time of thi s study, giving a s t a f f to inmate r a t i o of 1 to 3 '6. The turnover of s t a f f i s not excessive; averaging twelve annually, nearly a l l of whom were i n the lower ranks. There are many long-service o f f i c e r s on s t a f f , some of whom w i l l be e l i g i b l e f or retirement i n the next few years. The s t a f f work a fo r t y hour week, and receive three weeks holidays with pay annually after one year of service. At the end of twenty years service, one month long-service leave i s given i n addition to the regular annual leave, which 186 continues to be three weeks u n t i l retirement. For every f i v e years service, one month retirement leave i s granted, up to a maximum of six months. Retirement i s optional at s i x t y , and mandatory at s i x t y - f i v e , unless an extension i s granted by the Commissioner of P e n i t e n t i a r i e s . A pension scheme i s i n operation for a l l employees of the Penitentiary Service. The annual pension i s calculated on the basis of two per cent of the individual's salary during the ten year period i n which he was paid at h i s highest scale, added to a percentage, equal to the number of years he has served, of that same ten years t o t a l . Six per cent of the employee's gross pay i s deducted for pension purposes. Workmen's compensation i s provided to employees for d i s a b i l i t i e s incurred i n the l i n e of duty; and sick leave with pay i s granted for the duration of the i l l n e s s unless i t proves to be a chronic condition. S h i f t s . The night s t a f f reports at 4:00 p.m. and i s r e l i e v e d at 11:45 P» m» °y the morning s h i f t which i s , i n turn, r e l i e v e d at 8:00 a.m., at which hour the main body of the day s t a f f comes on duty, although some custodial o f f i c e r s a r r i v e at 7:00 a.m. to a s s i s t the morning s h i f t i n breakfast arrangements. The day s h i f t remains on duty u n t i l a l l inmates have been locked i n t h e i r c e l l s and the count taken, i t s normal hours are from 8:00 a.m. to 4:30 p.m. i n the winter months.and 8:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. i n the summer when, 187 because of the longer days, the lock-up time is. somewhat l a t e r than i n winter. The night and morning s h i f t s of custodial o f f i c e r s rotate every two weeks. Approximately three-quarters of the s t a f f are on duty during the day s h i f t , as t h i s i s the time when the inmates are out of t h e i r c e l l s and there i s consequently the greatest degree of a c t i v i t y . F i s c a l Management Personnel. This d i v i s i o n i s under the d i r e c t i o n of the Accountant who i s assisted by the Assistant Accountant, the Bookkeeper, and three inmates. Purchasing. Auditing, and Paying. The purchasing, auditing and paying, for a l l federal penal i n s t i t u t i o n s i s highly c e n t r a l i z e d , being done almost wholly at Penitentiary Headquarters i n Ottawa. The central purchasing agent at headquarters i s i n charge of a l l purchasing, so that the greatest possible advantage may be taken of the benefits which are attached to buying i n quantity. The i n d i v i d u a l i n s t i t u t i o n may purchase l o c a l l y , where that procedure holds obvious advantages, but even these purchases must be author-ized by the Central O f f i c e . The only exception to t h i s rule i s a provision i n case of emergency, making l o c a l purchases up to the value of twenty-five do l l a r s without receiving advance authorization. In such cases there must be a report submitted j u s t i f y i n g the purchase. 188 The Budget Procedure. Conferences are held within the i n s t i t u t i o n for the purpose of drawing up estimates for the coming f i s c a l year. These estimates are then submitted to headquarters. Upon approval of the i n s t i t u t i o n ' s budget by head-quarters, an allotment i s made to each department. Money can be transferred between the departments or shops of the i n s t i t u t i o n for repairs and si m i l a r expenditures but not for new equipment. Any request f o r a new or replacement item over the value of f i t y d o l l a r s , or for any item c l a s s i f i e d i n the miscellaneous category of the departmental allotment, must be accompanied by a l e t t e r of explanation. Bookkeeping and Records. Each department and shop within the i n s t i t u t i o n has an inmate cle r k , who does the bookkeeping and keeps the records pertinent to that depart-ment. Each month, these records are submitted to the accountant's o f f i c e for the purpose of consolidation. Requisitions. A l l requests for a r t i c l e s from within the i n s t i t u t i o n are completed on a r e q u i s i t i o n basis. Regulation 621 of the Penitentiary Regulations of 1933 states that, "Every r e q u i s i t i o n s h a l l state c l e a r l y what the a r t i c l e i s required for and where i t i s to be used, and, i f necessary, why i t i s needed." Inmate Trust Fund. There i s an Inmate Trust Fund which i s deposited i n a l o c a l Chartered Bank, and has a 189 personal account for each inmate. This fund, consists of money i n the possession of the i n d i v i d u a l on reception, money l e f t with, or sent to the Warden by r e l a t i v e s or v i s i t o r s on behalf of the inmate, and money remitted through the mails by r e l a t i v e s or friends for an inmate. An account i s kept of the in d i v i d u a l inmate's deposits, savings, and expenditures and withdrawals. This money i s held for the inmate and returned to him upon h i s release from the i n s t i t u t i o n . The transfer of money from the account of one inmate to that of another i s permitted only with the approval of the Commissioner of P e n i t e n t i a r i e s . The inmates are allowed to purchase, from the finances i n t h e i r personal trust fund, hobbycraft supplies, approved publications, necessary educational supplies, spectacles, hearing aids, dentures, and similar items required for personal use, as well as other items s p e c i f i -c a l l y approved by the Warden. The inmates may buy a r t i c l e s from the Canteen with the funds they have earned through employment i n the Penitentiary. The inmate makes purchases with canteen purchase s l i p s and the amount spent i s deducted from his earnings. No inmate i s permitted to have money i n his possession because i t i s thought to create a major security r i s k . Money i s an incalculable asset to an escapee since i t allows him access to transportation, clothing, and the purchase of assistance from other inmates. Furthermore, the inmate drug addict i s more l i k e l y to have 190 narcotics smuggled to him i f he has money to pay for them. Petty Cash Fund. A fund i s kept i n a l o c a l chartered bank consisting of sums received from Ottawa from time to time for the operation of the i n s t i t u t i o n . I t i s from t h i s fund that petty cash expenditures are made. These expendi-tures are made for stamps, telegrams, long distance phone c a l l s , sacramental wine, t r a v e l l i n g expenses of o f f i c e r s on o f f i c i a l business, minor medical supplies, scale inspections, parts required on short notice for machinery, and t r a v e l l i n g expenses of inmates. Reports. Annual, semi-annual, and monthly reports are made to Headquarters. Such monthly statements cover the canteen, inmate earnings, expenditures, f u e l consumption, and bonds or s e c u r i t i e s received or delivered on the behalf of inmates. Semi-annual reports submitted on March 31> and September 30, include the auto repair report and t r i a l balances. On March 31 the annual reports from a l l the departments of the i n s t i t u t i o n are combined into the Warden's Annual Report which i s submitted to the Commissioner of P e n i t e n t i a r i e s . This report covers a l l of the i n s t i t u t i o n ' s a c t i v i t i e s f or the preceding year. The Accountant, on March 31, submits a report on the unspent balances of the year's appropriation, a report on the general ledger showing balances and a p r o f i t and loss statement, and a statement covering a l l money funds of the i n s t i t u t i o n . 191 Cost of Operation. The approximate per capita operating cost of the i n s t i t u t i o n i s $1,500 per year, based on the t o t a l expenditures for the year divided by the average d a i l y inmate population. The average yearly expenditure for the basic administration and maintenance of the Penitentiary i s $717,200.00. Survey Board. A Survey Board, composed of the Deputy Warden, Chief Trade Instructor, one other superior o f f i c e r as directed by the Warden, and an o f f i c e r from the department concerned, makes an annual survey of the various departments of the i n s t i t u t i o n f o r the examination of stores and equipment. The recommendations of t h i s Board as to the need for destruc-t i o n or replacement of a r t i c l e s are submitted to the Commissioner of Penitentiaries and, upon confirmation by him, are c a r r i e d out. The Penitentiary Regulations of 1933 describe the function of t h i s board: 667 (A) Before the yearly balances of the ledgers of the Penitentiary are struck, either i n the Store-Keeper's Department or shop, a Board of Survey s h a l l be held i n each store, department, or shop, on the following: 1. A l l clothing and equipment which requires a reduction i n condition. 2. A l l unserviceable a r t i c l e s of any kind i n use or on charge. 3. Such a r t i c l e s as may have been ordered for Board of Survey on the authority of the Department of J u s t i c e . 669 (A) Board of Survey s h a l l examine the stores and a r t i c l e s placed before them by the Accounting O f f i c e r s , and s h a l l consider whether the same s h a l l remain i n use, be ordered to be,converted for use f o r any other purpose, or condemned. 192 Inmate Population Number. As of March 31, 195&, the inmate population t o t a l l e d 692. For the period of March 31, 1955 to March 31, 1956, there were 340 admissions, 326 discharges and two deaths. The following f i g u r e s , extracted from tables contained i n the Annual Report of the Commissioner of Penitentiaries for the year ended March 31st, 195&> present a s t a t i s t i c a l summary of data concerning the inmate population. There was a t o t a l of 340 inmates admitted during the year, of which 139 had previous prison terms. A t o t a l of 326 inmates were discharged, 192 by expiration of sentence, two by death, 92 by ticket-of-leave, and fourteen by transfer to other p e n i t e n t i a r i e s . Three inmates were confined at the P r o v i n c i a l Mental Hospital at Essdndale. The t o t a l population on March 31st, 195&? was 692. Duration of Sentence. A l l inmates admitted to the Penitentiary have a sentence of two years or more. Those individuals receiving a sentence of less than two years are confined i n the p r o v i n c i a l prisons. This d i v i s i o n of prisoners by length of sentence i s stipulated by the B r i t i s h North America Act. From a study of Table I I , page 193, showing the frequency and duration of sentence i t can be seen that almost eighty-six per cent of the inmate population are serving sentences between two and eight years. Those inmates serving a l i f e sentence are committed for the rest of t h e i r natural l i f e , while those on indeterminate sentences, who have been convicted as habitual criminals or criminal sexual 193 TABLE II DURATION OP SENTENCES AMONG INMATE POPULATION OF THE BRITISH COLUMBIA PENITENTIARY ON MARCH 31, 1956* Duration of Sentence No. of Inmates Two Years 195 Over Two and Under -Three Years 52 Over Three and Under Four Years 130 Over Four and Under Five Years 5§ Over Five and Under Eight Years 158 Over Eight and Under Ten Years 13 Over Ten and Under Twelve Years 27 Over Twelve and Under F i f t e e n Years 8 Over F i f t e e n and Under Twenty Years 14 Over Twenty and Under Twenty-Five Years 6 Twenty-Five Years and Over 2 L i f e 10 Indeterminate Sentence 17 During Her Majesty's Pleasure 0 TOTAL 692 •From the Annual Report of the Commissioner of Penitentiaries for the year ended March 31, 1956, p. 49. 194 psychopaths, have t h e i r cases reviewed every three years as to the p o s s i b i l i t y of a conditional release. Those inmates sentenced "During Her Majesty's Pleasure" are usually confined within a mental ho s p i t a l as they are committed on grounds of i n s a n t i t y . Age of Inmates. From a study of Table I I I , page 195, showing the age d i s t r i b u t i o n of the inmate, population i t may be seen that the majority of the inmates are between the ages of twenty-one and t h i r t y - n i n e years with the average age being t h i r t y years. I t i s to be expected that the average age of penitentiary inmates would be higher than the average of the criminal population, as the courts are generally reluctant to give a penitentiary term to a young f i r s t offender. Therefore, the Penitentiary, having longer sentences, has a large population of inmates i n the confirmed criminal group, most of whom have served previous sentences i n p r o v i n c i a l prisons. Previous Convictions. From a study of Table IV, page 196, showing the frequency d i s t r i b u t i o n of previous convictions of a l l types, whether they warranted a peni-tentiary sentence or not, i t i s seen that 85.9 per cent of the inmate population had previous convictions with the average number of previous convictions being s i x . 195 TABLE III AGES OF THE INMATE POPULATION OF THE BRITISH COLUMBIA PENITENTIARY ON MARCH 31, 1956* Age Number of Inmates Under Twenty-one Years 57 Twenty-one to Twenty-Four Years 109 Twenty-Five to Twenty-Nine Years 148 Thir t y to Thirty-Nine Years 304 Forty to Forty-Nine Years 122 F i f t y to Fifty-Nine Years 32 Sixty Years and Over 20 TOTAL 692 •From the Annual Report of the Commissioner of Penitentiaries for the year ended March 31» 195&? p. 49• 196 TABLE IV NUMBER OF PREVIOUS CONVICTIONS AMONG INMATE POPULATION OF THE BRITISH COLUMBIA PENITENTIARY ON MARCH 31, 1956* Number of Previous Convictions Number of Inmates None 97 One 1$ Two 86 Three 61 Four £ 4 Five 67 Six 44 Seven 37 Eight 27 Nine 27 Ten 16 Eleven 14 Twelve 13 Thirteen 18 Fourteen 12 F i f t e e n 6 Sixteen 4 Seventeen Nineteen 8 Twenty 3 Twenty-one 4 Twenty-Two 2 Twenty-Three 1 Twenty-Four 1 Twenty-Six 1 Twenty-Eight 1 Twenty-Nine l Thirty-Two. 1 Thirty-Five 1 Forty-Two 1 TOTAL 692 •From the Annual Report of the Commissioner' of Penit e n t i a r i e s for the year ended March 31, 1956, p. JO. 197 TABLE V RECIDIVISM OF BRITISH COLUMBIA PENITENTIARY INMATE POPULATION* Population No. Previous • March 31, Penitentiary Total Previous Penitentiary 1953 Commitments R e c i d i v i s t s Commitments 1 2 3 4 or more Total 692 376 316 146 75 95 42 *From the Annual Report of the Commissioner of Penitentiaries for the year ended March 31, 1956, p. 178. From the above table i t can be seen that approximately f o r t y - s i x per cent of the inmate population as of March 31, 1956 have served previous penitentiary terms with twenty-three per cent having served two or more previous peni-tentiary terms. The Penitentiary has a r e c i d i v i s t i c criminal group to deal with. The majority are beyond what i s usually considered the reformable age, and have served previous sentences, both i n p r o v i n c i a l prisons and federal peni-t e n t i a r i e s . Furthermore, of the 325 admissions f o r the year ended March 31, 1956, 194 were unemployed p r i o r to commit-ment. The only bright spot i n t h i s picture, from the point of view of reformation, i s that the majority of sentences are of s u f f i c i e n t length to permit an extensive r e h a b i l i t a -tion programme to be carried out with some hope of success. 198 Admission and Quarantine, The prisoner, upon admission, i s accompanied by a warrant of commitment stating the term to which he has been sentenced; a medical c e r t i f i c a t e declaring that he i s free from any "putri d , i n f e c t i o u s , or-contagious disease"; and a waiver of appeal i f the t h i r t y - • day appeal period has not ended. Should the prisoner not be free from disease, he w i l l not be accepted by the Penitentiary and must remain i n a p r o v i n c i a l gaol u n t i l he i s declared free from disease. Nor i s any prisoner who i s c e r t i f i e d by the Penitentiary Surgeon to be insane or an imbecile admitted to the Penitentiary. A l l inmates sentenced to imprisonment i n a Penitentiary are subject to hard labour, whether or not t h i s was s p e c i f i -c a l l y directed i n the sentence by the court. The reception of inmates i s governed by the Penitentiary Regulations of 1933; the major regulations are paraphrased as follows: Every inmate i s to be searched upon admission and every a r t i c l e found upon h i s person to be taken from him. A r t i c l e s worth keeping are entered i n the "Convict's E f f e c t s Book" and are kept u n t i l the day of his discharge. A l l cash taken from the inmate i s delivered to the Accountant to be placed i n the "Inmate's Trust Fund." . Every inmate upon reception i s examined by the penitentiary physician to determine whether he i s affected by an infectious or contagious disease whether he has any mental or bodily defect, and whether he has been vaccinated. Every inmate i s photographed and his fingerprints are taken upon reception. 199 The prisoner i s received at the front Administration Building where the warrant of commitment, medical c e r t i f i -cate, and waiver of appeal i f present, are checked, and the man i s i d e n t i f i e d as the one to be committed for imprison-ment. His valuables are then taken from him and recorded by the Accountant. A form giving the personal data concerning the in d i v i d u a l i s f i l l e d i n for use by the P r i n c i p a l Keeper. These data include; physical description, length of sentence, r e l i g i o n , addiction to alcohol or drugs, and other informa-t i o n . He i s then taken to the Reception and Discharge Centre i n the basement of the South Wing, where he i s photographed, both f u l l face and p r o f i l e , and assigned a penitentiary number. The numbers of prisoners under twenty-one years of age have the p r e f i x Y. The inmate then goes to the laundry where prison c l o t h i n g , which he must wear unless the Physician recommends otherwise, i s issued to him; a f t e r which he returns to the centre. Here he undresses and his personal clothing i s stored, a record being made i n the Eff e c t s Book of the clothing to be kept for him. He may give written permission for the Penitentiary authorities to dispose of any a r t i c l e s of clothing he does not wish to keep. He then receives a hair-cut and i s taken to the disinfectant bath, i n which he must completely immerse himself, a f t e r which he i s permitted to shower i n fresh water. His height, weight, and i d e n t i f i c a -t i o n marks are then recorded, and an examination i s made to 200 insure that he does not succeed i n carrying any contraband, espe c i a l l y drugs, into the prison by secreting i t under his tongue or i n some recess of his body. Af t e r this search, the inmate dresses i n prison clothing and a clerk takes his employment hi s t o r y and criminal record and notes any p e c u l i a r i t i e s , such as a limp, hearing defect, f a c i a l t i c , or anything at a l l which might be of value i n i d e n t i f y i n g him i n the event of escape. He i s then fingerprinted and copies of these prints are sent to the l o c a l Royal Canadian Mounted P o l i c e , and to the C i t y P o l i c e Departments i n Vancouver, New Westminster, and V i c t o r i a . Fingerprints are also sent to the Royal Canadian Mounted Police Fingerprint Section i n Ottawa, from where a copy of h i s previous criminal record i s sent to the Peni-tentiary a f t e r his i d e n t i f i c a t i o n has been checked. Following f i n g e r p r i n t i n g , he i s issued bedding and placed i n the Reception Area i n the B-7 C e l l Block for a period of t h i r t y days. During t h i s time a l l new admissions are segregated from the remainder of the inmate population. The purpose of t h i s procedure i s to provide a quarantine period as well as an opportunity for c l a s s i f i c a t i o n study. During t h i s period diagnostic interviews are held and a physical examination i s given by the Penitentiary Physician. This segregation period may be less than t h i r t y days for those inmates with previous terms i n the i n s t i t u t i o n , as most of the information gathered during the e a r l i e r confinements w i l l s t i l l be a v a i l a b l e . 201 Housing Assignment. After the completion of his reception period, the inmate i s assigned a permanent c e l l within the Penitentiary by the Chief Keeper. The most dangerous security r i s k s are placed i n a separate portion of the B-7 C e l l Block. The remainder of the inmates are di s t r i b u t e d throughout the i n s t i t u t i o n . These include a few homosexuals and other sex deviates, drug addicts, young inmates, f i r s t offenders, habitual criminals, and those who are emotionally unstable but not act u a l l y psychotic. Daily Routine. The a r i s i n g b e l l for inmates sounds at 6:30 a.m. The serving of breakfast s t a r t s at 7'15 a.m. At 11:50 a.m. the gangs working outside of the walls st a r t to return and the " c a l l i n g - i n " b e l l i s rung at 12:00 noon when a l l inmates l i n e up for lunch. At 1:30 p.m. they are released from t h e i r c e l l s to return to work. The time when work ceases i n the afternoon varies from 3:15 to 4:30 according to the season. A l l inmates must be locked i n th e i r c e l l s and the count taken i n natural l i g h t as a security measure. Supper i s picked up by the inmates upon q u i t t i n g work i n the afternoon and they a l l return to t h e i r c e l l s where they are allowed to ta l k among themselves u n t i l the silence b e l l rings at 6:00 p.m. "Lights-Out" i s at 10:00 p.m., and the radio i s turned off at 11:00 p.m. There i s one central radio, and each c e l l has a set of headphones to permit the inmates to l i s t e n to the programmes. During summer evenings, the inmates are allowed out i n the main exercise yard from 5*00 p.m. to 202 7:00 p.m. Discharge. Every inmate, upon discharge i s given a complete su i t of clothing at the,expense of the Government, whether his release be by expiration of sentence, conditional l i b e r a t i o n or otherwise. Shoes are issued a week before release to give the inmate an opportunity to break them i n . The inmate has his choice of color and sty l e i n the.clothing given to him. A l l discharge clothing i s made within the i n s t i t u t i o n and i s t a i l o r e d to f i t the i n d i v i d u a l . The Penitentiary Regulations of 1933 describe the clothing to be furnished an inmate upon discharge, as follows: SCALE OF CLOTHING TO BE FURNISHED TO A CONVICT  UPON DISCHARGE OR RELEASE (a) One three piece s u i t . One s u i t of underwear. One s h i r t . One necktie. One f e l t hat or cap. One pair of boots or shoes. One pair of socks. One pair of braces or b e l t . One cotton handkerchief. (b) During the winter months, the following a r t i c l e s s h a l l be added to those mentioned i n (a) above. One clot h overcoat. One pair woolen gloves. In addition to these items, the released man i s given transportation to the place of hi s sentence or another place of his choice, whichever i s closer, and i s paid the remuneration he may have earned while i n the Penitentiary, from which sum 203 i s deducted a portion of the cost of tobacco issued to him, and payment i s made for any w i l f u l destruction of government property. Should the amount of money to which he i s e n t i t l e d amount to less than ten d o l l a r s , the Warden i s authorized to increase the payment to that amount. Upon the day of discharge, the inmate showers, shaves, and i s given a h a i r c u t . He picks up h i s discharge clothing and i s taken to the Reception Discharge Centre where he changes hi s clothing, receives whatever may be indicated for him i n the "Convicts E f f e c t s Book" and has h i s picture taken. Then he i s escorted to the front Administration Building. Here he receives his valuables from the Accountant and, upon completion of the necessary c l e r i c a l routine, i s released from the main gate. The Royal Canadian Mounted Police i s then n o t i f i e d of h i s release as they are of a l l discharges from Federal P e n i t e n t i a r i e s . Section 77 of the Penitentiary Act of 1939 governs the release of inmates. The important features of t h i s section are paraphrased as follows: An inmate, due f o r .discharge during the months of December, January or February may, on h i s own request remain i n the penitentiary u n t i l March under the same conditions as i f h i s sentence were s t i l l unexpired. I f the inmate i s suffering from an acute or dangerous disease he may be held u n t i l i n the. opinion of the •Warden .such discharge may safely be made. I f the inmates discharge date i s on a Sunday or statutory holiday hie s h a l l be discharged the day preceding unless he desires to remain. Every inmate upon discharge i s furnished with a s u i t of clothing and transportation to the place of sentence, or a place of his choice, whichever i s c l o s e s t . 204 Juvenile Offenders. Although the Penitentiary i s designed for adults there were approximately ten juveniles serving terms during the time of this study. In B r i t i s h Columbia, anyone under eighteen i s considered a juvenile and so appears i n Juvenile Court when charged with an offence. The Juvenile Court may, however, transfer the offender to an adult court where i t i s then possible for him to receive a penitentiary term of two years or more. There i s provision, i n section 56 of the Penitentiary Act of 1939? for the transfer of a juvenile from a "reformatory prison" to a penitentiary should he prove i n c o r r i g i b l e . On the other hand, a juvenile sentenced to a penitentiary may be transferred, by v i r t u e of section 57, to a reformatory prison should he be under sixteen years of age and susceptible of reformation. Evaluation and Recommendations A good prison, or c o r r e c t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n of any type can be successfully operated over a period of time only i f c a r e f u l attention i s given to.the development of a sound organizational structure based on recognized p r i n c i p l e s of administration as well as upon the special p e c u l i a r i t i e s of c o r r e c t i o n a l management.2 Therefore, the purpose of this section i s to consider, these p r i n c i p l e s and evaluate the extent to which they are employed i n the administration of the B r i t i s h Columbia Penitentiary. 2 A Manual of Correctional Standards, American Prison Association, New York, 1954, p. 49. 205 Structure of Organization The organization structure must be designed with the aims and objectives of the i n s t i t u t i o n i n view. Thus, i t i s necessary to c l e a r l y define the objectives of the i n s t i t u t i o n p r i o r to the setting up of an organizational structure. "To-day there i s an increasing r e a l i z a t i o n that the true purpose of the prison i s not only to keep i n safe custody those committed to i t s care but to t r a i n , u p l i f t and 3 educate Its inmates fo r better and future c i t i z e n s h i p . " Thus,'custody and the t r a i n i n g of offenders emerge today as the basic objectives of the Penitentiary, and should determine the form of the organization. One problem of importance i n prison management i s the d i v i s i o n between the administration and inmates i n the prison. This t h e s i s , though recognizing t h i s problem i s limited to a study of the organizational structure. However, for a discussion of t h i s s i t u a t i o n one may r e f e r to S. Weinberg's 4 '•Aspects of the Prison's S o c i a l Structure." Grouping A c t i v i t i e s In a large organization i n which many a c t i v i t i e s are taking place simultaneously, there must be a grouping of such 3 Penitentiary O f f i c e r s ' Handbook 1952, Queen's Pr i n t e r , Ottawa, 1952, p. 32. 4 S. Kirson Weinberg, "Aspects of the Prison's S o c i a l Structure," American Journal of Sociology, July, 1939* 206 a c t i v i t i e s according to some l o g i c a l plan, i n order that r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and authority may be c l e a r l y defined, and over-lapping and duplicated e f f o r t s be avoided. "In business enterprises the patterns- most commonly found are grouping by 5 products, t e r r i t o r i e s , time, customers, and functions." In considering the i n s t i t u t i o n one sees function, people dealt with, and product as the major basis for grouping. From the standpoint of function the following appear as the major objectives of the i n s t i t u t i o n ; the security of the i n s t i t u t i o n , r e h a b i l i t a t i o n of inmates, care of the inmate, production of goods to f i l l contracts, and the operation of the i n s t i t u t i o n . Product, and people dealt with, as factors to be considered, are incorporated, for the purpose of the i n s t i t u t i o n , i n the functional grouping. This functional grouping, i n turn suggests the follow-ing administrative d i v i s i o n s : custody; inmate t r a i n i n g ; business; production; and medical. The duties^of the d i v i s i o n a l heads of these units could well be as follows: (a) An associate warden i n charge of security, custody, and d i s c i p l i n e . (b) An associate warden i n charge of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n records, general education, vocational t r a i n i n g , l i b r a r y , r e l i g i o u s programmes, and recreational and a t h l e t i c a c t i v i t i e s . 5 William H. Newman, Administrative Action, The  Techniques of Organization and Management TNew York, Prentice H a l l Inc., 1955), p. 125. 6 A Manual of Correctional Standards, op., c i t . , pp. 51-52. 207 (c) A business manager responsible for budget planning, f i s c a l controls, and such general housekeeping functions as feeding, clothing stores, plant maintenance, and the l i k e . (d) A chief medical o f f i c e r responsible for the administration of the h o s p i t a l , c l i n i c s , general health programme, psy c h i a t r i c treatment, p a r t i c i p a -t i o n i n the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n process. (e) A superintendent of production responsible for productive i n d u s t r i a l and a g r i c u l t u r a l enterprises. Figure I, page 208, i l l u s t r a t e s the present organization of the Penitentiary, while Figure I I , page 209, i s presented as a proposed organization. In Figure I I , we see a functional grouping that places together the personnel concerned with a p a r t i c u l a r objective, f a c i l i t a t e s co-ordination of e f f o r t , defines r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , and avoids duplication of a c t i v i t y . In addition, the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n of the inmate, which i s one of the basic objectives of the i n s t i t u t i o n , gains status as a separate d i v i s i o n , rather than being appended to the custodial d i v i s i o n where there i s the danger of i t being overlooked as an objective of the Penitentiary. The present organization, as depicted by Figure I, i s that of a maximum security i n s t i t u t i o n with an emphasis on prison i n d u s t r i e s . The main objectives of the i n s t i t u t i o n are the custody of the inmates, and the operation of a work programme which includes some trade i n s t r u c t i o n . I f the i n s t i t u t i o n wished to carry on t h i s programme alone, i t s present organization structure would be l a r g e l y s a t i s f a c t o r y , but the expressed aim of the Penitentiary service i s to develop WARDEN Warden's Secretary Chief Trade Instructor Assistant Engineer Assistant Chief Trade Instructor Instructor Blacksmith Instructor Carpenter (Shop). Instructor Carpenter Construction Instructor Machinist Instructor Canyas Instructor Painter Instructor Tailor Instructor Laundry-man Instructor Tin-smith Instructor Shoemaker Instructor Garage Instructor Mason Asst. Instr. Garage Instructor Plasterer Instructor Plumber Instructor Electrician Storekeeper Accoi jntant Assists , Accour nt tant , — , — — — , Assistant Storekeeper ^2) Deputy Warden r Physical Training , Officer Chief Vocation Officer Drafting Instructor Psychiatrist Part-Time Chief Keeper In-Service Training Officer Classification Officer Principal Keeper Protestant Chaplain Roman Catholic Chaplain Schoolmaster Librarian Asst. Class, Officer Asst. S choolmaster-Librarian Canteen Hobby Officer Keeper Guard U Z L . Guard Steward Physician Assistant Steward Hospital Officer Dentist Part Time Bookkeeper C2> Asst. Hospital Officer Fs Instrv irm ictor Guard Herdsmen (2) c ensor Guard Censor Clerk (2) FIGURE I. Present Organization Chart of the British Columbia Penitentiary 209 Superintendent of Production Faun Supervisor Ast. Farm Supervisor Industry Supervisors Accountant Assistant Accountant Clerk Personnel Bookeeper (2) WARDEN Warden's Secretary Business Manag Personnel and Training Officer Store] ceeper Assistant Storekeeper Laundry Officer Senior Ctaxks Steward Chief Engineer •Assistant Steward Asst. Enqr. Plum-ber Black-smith Fire-man Electr-ician Carp-enter Deputy Warden Custody Correctional Captain Correctional Lieutenant Correctional Sergeant Correctional Officer Director of Education Teacher P . T . O . 1 Group Workers Hobby Officer Librarian Deputy Warden Training Director Classification and Counselling Psychiatrist Counsellors B . C . Prot. Chaplain Chaplain liefMedic Ch  Medical Officer X Vocational Training Director Vocational Training Instructors Dentist FIGURE II. Proposed Organization Chart of the British Columbia Penitentiary 210 a r e h a b i l i t a t i o n programme, and for thi s purpose a re-organization of the i n s t i t u t i o n along the li n e s shown i n Figure II i s desirable i n our opinion. Span of Control. The term "span of control" describes the number of individuals who report to any one supervisor, and r e l a t e s to the physical and psychological l i m i t s upon an individual's a b i l i t y to supervise subordinates. Thus, the number of o f f i c e r s who report to any one person should not exceed the number he can e f f e c t i v e l y supervise. "This number varies with the nature of the function, s t a f f services a v a i l a b l e , degree of standardization and various other 7 f a c t o r s . " However, a good p r i n c i p l e to observe i n setting up the chart of command i s that when more than s i x persons doing d i f f e r e n t types of work report d i r e c t l y to one supervisor, an e f f o r t should be made to r e d i s t r i b u t e the supervisory and administrative controls so as to maintain the span of supervision within e f f i c i e n t limits.° The number of persons reporting d i r e c t l y to the Warden should be kept small to allow him s u f f i c i e n t time for planning, formulation and d e f i n i t i o n of p o l i c y , co-ordination and c o n t r o l . In the case of the Penitentiary, there are ten persons.reporting d i r e c t l y to the Warden. Therefore, i t i s suggested that a study be made with a view to reducing the number reporting to the Warden, and deciding which s t a f f 7 Essentials of Good Management (United States Department of Agri c u l t u r e , 1955)V P' 1 4-. 8 A Manual of Correctional Standards, op., cit.-, p. 53* 211 might best supervise those removed from the d i r e c t control of the Warden. A si m i l a r s i t u a t i o n exists i n the case of the Deputy Warden, who has a t o t a l of ten s t a f f members reporting to him from the treatment and custodial d i v i s i o n s . I t i s suggested that a study be made of t h i s supervisory burden of d i r e c t i n g a group of treatment s p e c i a l i s t s , as well as the custodial programme of the i n s t i t u t i o n , to see i f more p r o f i t would be gained from a d i v i s i o n of labour. The remainder of the administrative and supervisory s t a f f of the i n s t i t u t i o n appear to have a resonable span of c o n t r o l . Unity of Command. "The concept of unity of command requires that every member of an organization should report to one, and only one leader; and this presumably applies at 9 a l l h i e r a r c h i c a l l e v e l s . " This requires that every o f f i c e r know to whom he i s responsible, and that every supervisor know who he i s responsible f o r , thus avoiding any confusion i n having one person "serving two masters," or not having any "master" at a l l . This r u l e also requires that the i n s t i t u t i o n be headed by a single administrative o f f i c e r who i s responsible for the entire operation of the prison* In the absence of a detailed organizational chart for 9 John M. P f i f f n e r and R. Vance Presthus, Public  Administration (The Ronald Press Co., New York, 3rd E d i t i o n , 1953), P. 212. 212 the i n s t i t u t i o n , the information which i s the basis for the chart Included i n t h i s thesis was compiled from interviews with senior o f f i c e r s within the Penitentiary. This method, though the best one av a i l a b l e , i s not e n t i r e l y s a t i s f a c t o r y i n that, by i t s very nature, i t i s l i a b l e to a ce r t a i n amount of inaccuracy., The chart may tend to present the informal organization of the i n s t i t u t i o n rather than the formal l i n e of command as l a i d down i n the rules and regulations. The chart nevertheless indicates that the p r i n c i p l e of unity of command i s well observed i n the custodial d i v i s i o n , i n which there i s a clear l i n e of authority from the Warden of the Penitentiary to the most junior guard. The s t a f f i n the t r a i n i n g , counselling, and administrative areas a l l appear to have a d i r e c t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to some single person, although as mentioned previously, i n a very large number of cases that person i s the Warden or Deputy Warden. One questions, whether i n actual practice, these two senior o f f i c e r s are able to exercise d i r e c t supervision i n a l l of these cases, due to the demands imposed upon them by other administrative requirements. It might be advisable to c l a r i f y the chain of command i n these d i v i s i o n s and possibly to e s t a b l i s h an intermediate supervisory l e v e l . In the production and maintenance area, there appears to be a d e f i n i t e departure from the concept of unity of command. The trade i n s t r u c t o r s , i n many cases were reported to be responsible both to the Chief Trade Instructor and the 213 Chief Vocational Officer,, while the Plumber and E l e c t r i c i a n were responsible to the Plant Engineer as w e l l . In this branch, i t i s f e l t there may be need for c l a r i f i c a t i o n of the l i n e of authority so that each subordinate would have only one supervisor to whom he i s responsible. Line and Staff Relationships "Among most executives, l i n e personnel are considered to be doers and decision makers within the l i m i t s of t h e i r prescribed r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and authority. Staff personnel, on the other hand, are engaged i n s p e c i a l i z e d advisory 10 a c t i v i t i e s . " However, i n actual practice both l i n e and s t a f f people may each perform i n an advisory capacity. Conversely, s t a f f people may at times act i n a l i n e capacity. "For example, the head of each l i n e a c t i v i t y reporting to a chief executive serves him as a s t a f f advisor i n addition to 11 being the leader of some segment of the l i n e organization." 12 P f i f f n e r divides such s t a f f work into three types, general s t a f f , technical s t a f f , and a u x i l i a r y s t a f f . "The general s t a f f consists of the people who work on o v e r - a l l 13 plans and p o l i c i e s . " These people may be i n a l i n e p o s i t i o n 10 Edmund P. Learned, David N. U l r i c h , and Donald R. Booz, Executive Action (Harvard University, Boston, 195D> P. 155^ ~~ 11 I b i d . , p. 156. 12 John P f i f f n e r , Public Administration (The Ronald Press Company, New York, 1956), p. 143. 13 L o c . . c i t . 214 but when they are i n an advisory capacity to the chief executive, i n the planning of over a l l p o l i c y , they are then performing a general s t a f f function. "Technical s t a f f are s p e c i a l i s t s . . . they possess s k i l l s not the property of the l i n e or program units, and that they have been set up primarily with the mission of thinking, developing, and 14 spreading t h e i r unique knowledge to the l i n e organization." The a u x i l i a r y s t a f f are those d i v i s i o n s which have been set up on a centralized basis with decentralized units at each f i e l d operation. "This includes organization control, budgeting and accounting, personnel and i n d u s t r i a l r e l a t i o n s , 15 management planning and administrative analysis." The headquarters s t a f f of s p e c i a l i s t s who t r a v e l and v i s i t i n the f i e l d , as d i s t i n c t from the s t a f f s p e c i a l i s t s at the i n s t i t u t i o n a l l e v e l , are referred to as functional supervisors. These functional s p e c i a l i s t s " t r a v e l i n a s t a f f capacity rather than i n the l i n e of command when contacting workers i n -the f i e l d . In the event of a clash between the l i n e authority and the s t a f f s p e c i a l i s t s the l i n e predominates. However, the s t a f f person may seek recourse by going back to 16 the superior l i n e authority." The aim of such functional supervision should be to " b u i l d and f o r t i f y l i n e supervisors" 14 Loc. c i t . 15 Ibid., p. 144. 16 I b i d . , p. 154. 17 I b i d . , p. 91. 215 and "to i n s t i l l the workers i n the f i e l d with the idealogy and sentiments of progressive thought i n the technical f i e l d s " i n general, "the p r i n c i p a l duties of functional supervisors center around t r a i n i n g , counselling, guidance, 19 inspection, and dissemination of technical information." In the Peni t e n t i a r i e s Branch central o f f i c e there are s p e c i a l i s t s i n the following areas: medical; accounting; i n d u s t r i a l ; stewardship; t r a i n i n g ; farming; and engineering. These s p e c i a l i s t s would appear to exercise functional super-v i s i o n over t h e i r counterparts on the i n s t i t u t i o n a l l e v e l . Although there did not appear to be any evidence of c o n f l i c t between these s t a f f s p e c i a l i s t s and the i n s t i t u t i o n a l administration, i t might be desirable to formulate a d e f i n i t e statement of the re l a t i o n s h i p of headquarters s t a f f s p e c i a l i s t s to the s p e c i a l i s t s on the i n s t i t u t i o n a l l e v e l . Such a statement would indicate that the i n s t i t u t i o n a l s t a f f s p e c i a l i s t s are administratively responsible to the l o c a l authority and are only subject to functional supervision by the headquarters s t a f f . On the i n s t i t u t i o n a l l e v e l , one f e e l s there i s some need for c l a r i f i c a t i o n of the Chief Vocational Officers p o s i t i o n . Presently, some of the shop instructors appear to be accountable both to the Chief Trade Instructor and the 18 Ibid., p. 90. 19 I b i d . , p. 156. 216 Chief Vocational O f f i c e r , a s i t u a t i o n which might well be c l a r i f i e d to avoid any f r i c t i o n i n this area. Perhaps the Chief Vocational O f f i c e r would make his greatest contribution as a s t a f f a i d to the Deputy Warden, and as such would not exercise l i n e authority over the shop i n s t r u c t o r s . The remaining o f f i c e r s performing a s t a f f function appeared to have e f f e c t i v e relationships with the l i n e s t a f f . Plan and Description of the Organization. The use of organizational charts and manuals appear as an aid to the most e f f e c t i v e development of the organization. Such devices are often h e l p f u l i n bringing c l a r i t y to some operations by pin pointing authority and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , avoiding duplica-t i o n , and c o n f l i c t of command. However, the mere setting up of charts and manuals i s not a guarantee of an e f f e c t i v e organization. " I t i s not a question of whether formal planning i s used but how formal 20 and informal planning are t i e d into the operation." I t i s essen t i a l that the s t a f f are brought into the planning phase. "They are the ones who are confused and can l i k e l y put the i r finger on the trouble, and they are the ones who undergo the 21 change and can put up resistance." Therefore, to set up an ef f e c t i v e organizational plan, the administration should discuss i t with the s t a f f involved and s o l i c i t t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n . 20 Ibid., p. 138. 21 I b i d . , p. 140. 217 Although i t has been found.that some organizations are able to operate without the use of organizational charts and manuals, i t i s nevertheless suggested that a detailed organizational chart be established f o r the Penitentiary. Such a chart might c l a r i f y and supplement the organizational material presently contained within the Penitentiary Regulations, 1933? and the Warden's Standing Orders. In addition, i t i s f e l t that a more un i f i e d organization would be created by the establishment of a detailed administrative manual for the i n s t i t u t i o n . Such a manual could contain current job descriptions for every p o s i t i o n , stating duties, r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , r e l a t i o n s h i p s , authority, and standards of job performance. Dynamics of Organization and Management Delegation of Authority. It i s a, basic precept of administration that an i n d i v i d u a l who i s assigned a task should be given the authority necessary to perform that task, and be held accountable for the r e s u l t s . I f a top l e v e l administrator f a i l s to delegate, he w i l l become burdened by routine operating decisions and w i l l f i n d i t impossible to give the necessary amount of time to the planning, creation and co-ordination of p o l i c y . Furthermore, i t i s possible to stimulate or inspire the s t a f f members to take an active and vigourous part i n the administration only i f they are given r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and the authority to 218 execute these r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s e f f e c t i v e l y . This concept of delegation of authority appeared to be f a i r l y well applied within the organization studied. Each department head was held responsible f o r the administra-t i o n of the functions assigned him and was given s u f f i c i e n t authority to f u l f i l l t h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . However, t h i s matter must be considered not only from an i n s t i t u t i o n a l point of view, but also i n terms of the Penitentiary Service as a whole, for the question of delegation of authority i n t h i s broader context has a very r e a l e f f e c t on the i n s t i t u -t i o n . Decentralization. Decentralization i s the process of delegating, authority from the center of a system to the various f i e l d operations or units. ?'It i s often used as a synonym for democratic or grass roots administration which seeks to strengthen l o c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s and avoid a dangerous 22 and s t u l t i f y i n g concentration of power at the center." In the absence of decentralization, an excessively large number of matters must be referred to headquarters for decision; a s i t u a t i o n which causes delay and inconvenience. In addition to t h i s , the decisions would l i k e l y be made by a person who may not be f a m i l i a r with l o c a l conditions, and i s therefore not aware of a l l the immediate surroundings, circumstances or implications Involved. This r e f e r r a l of 22 John M . P f i f f n e r and R . Vance Presthus, op_. c i t . . p. 212. 219 decisions to headquarters also tends to l i m i t the scope of the administrative heads of the various i n s t i t u t i o n s , and so r e s t r i c t s t h e i r development and effectiveness as administrators. Over-centralization has the general effect of dampening i n i t i a t i v e and reducing the l i k e l i h o o d of vigourous action being taken on the spot even when i t i s necessary. The stronger, more vigourous, and highly motivated person becomes impatient with the slower pace, which i s t y p i c a l where there i s a large degree of c e n t r a l i z a t i o n , and so becomes fru s t r a t e d . Therefore, to develop a system i n which there i s strong, vigourous, leadership i n each of the units, authority must be delegated to these units i n order that they w i l l not be r e s t r i c t e d or retarded i n the operation of th e i r programmes. 23 Drucker relates the story of the development of the Ford Motor Company from the brink of bankruptcy, to one of the leading automotive concerns i n the United States of America. The o r i g i n a l Henry Ford i n s i s t e d on a highly centralized system, refusing to share any management r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s with his executives, who were to execute his decisions but never make any use of t h e i r own. The re s u l t of th i s highly centralized system was that the company gradually stagnated. The task of d i r e c t i n g every operation was too complex for one i n d i v i d u a l and the system 23 Peter F. Drucker, The Practice of Management (Harper and Brothers Publishers, New York, 1954), p. 116. 220 had created individuals who were incapable of managing as they had not been allowed to develop s k i l l s of t h i s kind. However, upon the death of the o r i g i n a l Henry Ford his grandson assumed control of the company. "By contrast Ford to-day i s decentralized into f i f t e e n autonomous d i v i -sions, each with i t s own complete management f u l l y responsible for the performance and r e s u l t s of i t s business and with f u l l authority to make a l l decisions to a t t a i n these 24 r e s u l t s . " The r e s u l t of t h i s decentralization incorporated by the second Henry Ford was. a r i s e i n the company's pos i t i o n from the point of bankruptcy to the p o s i t i o n which i t occupies today. The Penitentiary System may continue to suffer from some degree of over-centralization which was f i r s t recognized by the Royal Commission to Investigate the Penal System of Canada, although our study of t h i s point i s f a r from complete. The commissioners make the following comments on the degree of c e n t r a l i z a t i o n present i n the Penitentiary System as of 1938: The law i s c l e a r l y expressed, and there need be no speculation regarding i t s true i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , yet, after a very thorough examination of the administration of the Canadian penitentiary system, your commissioners have come to the conclusion that, since 1932, extreme d i c t a t o r i a l methods have been followed i n the Penitentiary Branch. Instead of responsible resident management by the Wardens, as the law contemplates and a successful penal system requires, a centralized control of minor and even t r i v i a l matters of administration i n i n d i v i d u a l 24 I b i d . , p. 117. 221 penitentiaries has been set up, destroying the authority, the power of I n i t i a t i v e , and the effectiveness of the wardens and inspectors .25. Under the leadership of Major-General Gibson, the present Commissioner of P e n i t e n t i a r i e s , there has been a substantial advance i n the decentralization of decision making. However, i t i s f e l t that t h i s process should be continued s t i l l further into additional areas of i n s t i t u -t i o n a l management. "High administrative, p o l i t i c a l , and strategic decisions should be centralized i n order to maximize administrative r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to p o l i t i c a l leaders; but operating decisions should be decentralized to the lowest 26 appropriate l e v e l . " Such an appropriate l e v e l would be the lowest one consistent with o v e r - a l l co-ordination. These high administrative decisions are those which have an o v e r - a l l e f f e c t on the entire system, and set up the guide-li n e s or framework within which the various i n s t i t u t i o n s may operate. Operating decisions are those which concern the in d i v i d u a l unit or i n s t i t u t i o n and do not have service-wide implications. An example of an operating decision which v could be delegated to the i n s t i t u t i o n s i s the confirmation of corporal punishment awarded to an inmate. While i t i s recognized that there should be a reviewing authority on the 25 Report of the Royal Commission to Investigate the  Penal System of Canada (King's P r i n t e r , Ottawa, 1939)> P« 320. 26 P f i f f n e r and Vance Presthus, op_. c i t . , p. 214. 222 imposition of corporal punishment, i t i s f e l t that the confirmation of punishment i s b a s i c a l l y an I n s t i t u t i o n a l matter, and that r e f e r r a l i n t erferes with e f f e c t i v e d i s c i p l i n e by a lack of swift action. In general, one fe e l s there i s more p r o f i t to be gained i n the administration of the penitentiary, by delegating to the i n s t i t u t i o n a l head, s u f f i c i e n t authority for a l l operating decisions. It i s f e l t that t h i s would assure stronger and more vigourous administration on the i n s t i t u t i o n a l l e v e l , by allowing executive o f f i c e r s to assume greater r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and so increase t h e i r own capacity for management. Factors to be Considered for Further Research. Certain of the dynamics of management were not evaluated i n t h i s study, but may be mentioned here as possible topics for further research. Decentralization, as previously discussed, requires the delegation of authority but t h i s does not mean the relinq u i s h i n g of control of the penitentiary. Rather, i t requires a control through which the central authority establishes objectives and standards that embody a clear statement of the goals and purpose of the penitentiary. The head of the i n s t i t u t i o n i s then allowed freedom to operate within the boundaries imposed by such objectives and standards. Such a "Control consists i n seeing that everything i s carried out i n accordance with the plan which has been adopted, the 223 organization which has been set up, and the orders which 27 have been given . . . ." The means used for control include, follow-up action, reports of attainments, inspection, and written procedures which act as guides toward co-ordination and uniform practice without becoming r e s t r i c t i v e . Therefore, i t i s recommended that some investigation be made of the problem of objectives and standards established by the central authority for the i n s t i t u t i o n a l head and t h e i r effectiveness i n control. "Co-ordination i s an a l l - i n c l u s i v e term embracing a wide variety of a c t i v i t i e s , the central purpose of which i s to have people and groups work harmoniously and e f f e c t i v e l y 28 together." The means of obtaining co-ordination include such techniques as; an organizational structure characterized by clear l i n e s of authority, consultative s t a f f meetings, and promotion of s t a f f across departmental l i n e s . However, the most fundamental means of gaining co-ordination of i n s t i t u t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s i s to insure that a l l s t a f f members have a clear "knowledge of objectives to be won, attachment 29 to the ends to be achieved, and the w i l l to work as a team." It i s f e l t that a study could be made of co-ordination not only i n the usual sense, but through evaluating the extent to 27 Luther Culick, Papers on the Science of Administra-t i o n ( I n s t i t u t e of Public Administration, New York, 1937)? P« 78. 28 P f i f f n e r , op., c i t . , p. 47. 29 Leonard D. White, Introduction to the Study of Public Administration (The MacMillan Co., New York, 3rd E d i t i o n , 1949), p. 2 l 6 . 224 which inmate t r a i n i n g and counselling are accepted by the' i n s t i t u t i o n a l s t a f f . In view of the fact that the peni-tentiary has, since i t s o r i g i n , been an i n s t i t u t i o n whose primary purpose i s the safe keeping of long term prisoners, i t i s to be expected that the incorporation of a new philosophy w i l l encounter many problems. As an organization grows i t develops various specialized d i v i s i o n s and, because of t h i s increase i n complexity, the problem of communication becomes more acute. Because of the importance of communication i n the e f f e c t i v e -ness of the i n s t i t u t i o n ' s administration i t i s f e l t i t warrants study of both upward and downward communication i n the prison. Synopsis The B r i t i s h Columbia Penitentiary i s one unit of a centralized system of federal p e n i t e n t i a r i e s , and i s governed to a great extent i n i t s operating decisions by the rules and regulations set down by the headquarters of the system. The r e s u l t i s that many operating decisions have to be referred to the center of the system and the scope of the i n s t i t u t i o n a l administration tends to be r e s t r i c t e d . The administration of the Penitentiary has, since i t s inception, been geared to a custodial function, and presently operates a most e f f e c t i v e custodial programme. In recent years inmate t r a i n i n g and r e h a b i l i t a t i o n have been added to 225 the goals of the Penitentiary. However, the i n s t i t u t i o n a l administration might more e f f e c t i v e l y adapt i t s e l f to this new purpose so that the new t r a i n i n g and counselling s t a f f would become more cl o s e l y integrated with the remainder of the organization. Therefore, i t i s suggested that consideration be given to re v i s i n g the administrative organization and that the i n s t i t u t i o n be granted a wider scope of authority within the framework of po l i c y established by the headquarters of the penitentiary systems. CHAPTER VI CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS The aim of thi s chapter i s to present for convenience of reference, a short summary of the problem, procedures, conclusions, recommendations, and problems to be considered for further study. Such a summary i s of necessity incomplete and reference should be made to the text for a f u l l e r explanation of p a r t i c u l a r points. Problem and Procedures The aim of t h i s study was (1) to describe the present physical plant, the inmate t r a i n i n g programme, and the administrative organization and procedures of the B r i t i s h Columbia Penitentiary; (2) to compare the plant, programme and administration with authoritative modern standards i n each of these areas; (3) and on the basis of such comparison, to evaluate the present operation of the Penitentiary with a view to presenting recommendations for the future development of the i n s t i t u t i o n . These recommendations may or may not be f e a s i b l e , but perhaps they w i l l have the value of being a "fresh" outlook of one not intimately involved i n the s i t u a t i o n . Sources of information included; the annual reports of the Penitentiary Service, various o f f i c i a l publications such 227 as the Penitentiary Act 1939 > Penitentiary Regulations 1933, Penitentiary Service b u l l e t i n s , the Warden's Standing Orders, and data gathered from observation, questionnaires, and interviews with penitentiary o f f i c i a l s . Questionnaire schedules were developed to guide the information gathering phase of t h i s studyi Answers to these schedules were obtained through personal observations, interviews with penitentiary o f f i c i a l s , and from written statements of contributors. In considering the conclusions of this study there are cert a i n l i m i t a t i o n s which should be kept i n mind. F i r s t , there arises a question as to the accuracy of the observations made since they were larg e l y of a subjective nature. Second, i t i s l i k e l y that i n the construction of the survey schedule certa i n important variables were omitted. Third, c e r t a i n s i g n i f i c a n t f actors, such as the ch a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the inmate group, were not studied, and therefore the conclusions and recommendations were made without consideration of these f a c t o r s . F i n a l l y , because the material obtained varied i n depth and qu a l i t y , some factors were studied c l o s e l y while others received comparatively l i t t l e attention. Conclusions Penitentiary Plant. 1. The Penitentiary plant i s an example of the maximum security housing which characterized prison construction u n t i l recent years. From a custodial viewpoint, the plant i s secure, clean, and i n good repair, 228 with a layout that lends i t s e l f to e f f e c t i v e supervision and control of inmates. However, from a r e h a b i l i t a t i v e viewpoint, weaknesses are apparent. Treatment services, such as the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and psy c h i a t r i c programmes, are cramped for space, a s i t u a t i o n which renders further development i n these areas d i f f i c u l t i f not impossible. 2. The i s o l a t i o n of the i n d i v i d u a l as a re s u l t of the lack of group l i v i n g f a c i l i t i e s contributes to i n s t i t u -t i o n a l i z a t i o n . 3. Inmate t r a i n i n g f a c i l i t i e s are suffering from a lack of s u f f i c i e n t space. Inmate Training Programme. 1. The rudiments of an ef f e c t i v e t r a i n i n g scheme are embodied i n the present programme of the Penitentiary. This i s evidenced by the existence of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , r e l i g i o u s , academic, vocational, p s y c h i a t r i c , medical, and recreational a c t i v i t i e s . However, there are not s u f f i c i e n t s t a f f members involved i n the programme to meet the needs of the inmate population. Administration. .1. The B r i t i s h Columbia Penitentiary i s one unit of a centralized system of federal p e n i t e n t i a r i e s , and i s governed to a great extent i n i t s operating decisions by the rules and regulations set down by the headquarters of the system. The r e s u l t i s that many operating decisions have to be referred to the center of the system and the scope of the i n s t i t u t i o n a l administration tends to be r e s t r i c t e d . 229 While there are virtues to c e n t r a l i z a t i o n i n the way of co-ordinating services i t i s f e l t there are c e r t a i n decision making aspects of administration which should he decentral-ized. These include a l l operating decisions not of a p o l i c y making nature. 2 . The administration of the Penitentiary has, since i t s inception, been geared to a custodial function, and presently operates a most e f f e c t i v e custodial programme. In recent years Inmate t r a i n i n g and r e h a b i l i t a t i o n have been added to the goals of the Penitentiary. However, the i n s t i t u t i o n a l administration might more e f f e c t i v e l y adapt i t s e l f to t h i s new purpose so that the new t r a i n i n g and counselling s t a f f would become more clos e l y integrated with the remainder of the organization. Recommendations Penitentiary Plant. In connection with the housing of inmates i t i s suggested that part of the present c e l l accommodation be converted to group housing, that separate minimum security f a c i l i t i e s be constructed, and that additional space be provided for the h o s p i t a l . To allow f o r a d d i t i o n a l space, i t i s suggested that the present wall area be expanded, and a school-library building be constructed inside the walled area as well as further shop f a c i l i t i e s . It i s also suggested that the space inside the i n s t i t u t i o n which would be released by t h i s 230 new construction, be u t i l i z e d for the expansion of c l a s s i f i -cation services, inmate t r a i n i n g f a c i l i t i e s , and in-service t r a i n i n g f o r s t a f f . In reference to the Penitentiary Reserve i t i s suggested that engineering assistance be obtained with a view to f i l l i n g i n the ravine, and that the land adjacent to the Penitentiary walls be enclosed by a chain l i n k fence with suitable towers constructed along i t s perimeter. Inmate Training Programme. It i s suggested that further attention be given to the co-ordination of federal and p r o v i n c i a l c o r r e c t i o n a l resources for the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of inmates and the, c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of medical f a c i l i t i e s on a i regional or i n t e r - p r o v i n c i a l basis. In the matter of additional s t a f f , the need i s seen for a f u l l - t i m e p s y c h i a t r i s t , l i b r a r i a n , an additional teacher, approximately s i x professional counsellors, vocational i n s t r u c t o r s , a s o c i a l education d i r e c t o r , and a number of recreation supervisors. To a s s i s t i n the future development of the t r a i n i n g programme i t i s suggested that Trades Advisory Councils, and a Correctional Industries Committee be established, that Vocational Instructors be appointed, and that the present scheme of "on-the-job" t r a i n i n g be expanded. From the d i s c i p l i n a r y standpoint i t i s suggested that a d i s c i p l i n a r y board be formed to act on inmate in f r a c t i o n s of rules and regulations and that an investigation be made 231 of the p o s s i b i l i t y of establishing a programme of re t r a i n i n g and counselling i n the i s o l a t i o n unit. As to the counselling of inmates, i t i s suggested that a lay counselling plan involving many s t a f f members should be established under the supervision of the professional counsellors. Administration. In connection with the administration of the i n s t i t u t i o n , i t i s suggested that the organization be grouped into f i v e d i v i s i o n s ; prison i n d u s t r i e s , business, custody, t r a i n i n g and medical, each with i t s own d i v i s i o n a l head responsible d i r e c t l y to the Y/arden. This would then allow for the suggested reduction i n the span of supervision for the Warden and Deputy Warden. A detailed organization chart could then be established showing the l i n e of command and s t a f f r e l a t i o n s h i p s for every p o s i t i o n i n the i n s t i t u t i o n . I t i s f e l t that t h i s move would help t o c l a r i f y the chain of command i n the voc a t i o n a l , i n d u s t r i a l , and maintenance areas. It. i s f e l t the process of decentralization i n the Penitentiary system should be continued s t i l l further into additional areas of i n s t i t u t i o n a l management. In connection with t h i s matter i t i s suggested that a statement of p o l i c y should be made, and widely c i r c u l a t e d , to the effect that i n s t i t u t i o n a l s t a f f s p e c i a l i s t s are administratively responsible to l i n e authority at the i n s t i t u t i o n a l l e v e l , and are only subject to functional supervision by the 232 headquarters s t a f f . Problems for Further Study This survey was of a broad nature and did not penetrate f a r below the surface i n any one area. It i s f e l t that the next step would be to carry the analysis a step further and focus i n on more s p e c i f i c problems. The following are examples of f r u i t f u l research p o s s i b i l i t i e s a r i s i n g from th i s study: 1. A space layout analysis of the i n s t i t u t i o n a l plant. 2. Evaluation of the effectiveness of the r e h a b i l i t a -t i o n programme by means of a follow-up study of released inmates. 3. A s o c i o l o g i c a l analysis of the inmate population and of the prison as a community. 4. An administrative analysis of the i n s t i t u t i o n and i t s formal organization. The B r i t i s h Columbia Penitentiary which was activated i n 1878, has operated under a philosophy i n which the aim i s the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n of the inmate f o r only the l a s t eleven years. However, i t i s believed that the i n s t i t u t i o n has accepted t h i s philosophy, and i n spite of physical r e s t r i c -t i o n s , has made an impressive beginning on the formidable task of incorporating and developing an e f f e c t i v e programme of inmate r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . Although there s t i l l remain many 233 areas of programme i n which development i s required, i t i s f e l t the administration are cognizant of these needs, and are doing t h e i r best to f u l f i l l them within the l i m i t s of budget, space, and time. However, future development i s necessary, I f the correct i o n a l programme of the i n s t i t u t i o n i s to r e a l i z e i t s goals, and i t i s hoped that this thesis w i l l be some assistance i n bringing about that development. BIBLIOGRAPHY 234 BIBLIOGRAPHY "The entries l i s t e d here are those which were consulted and found useful, and Is i n no way an attempt to give a comprehensive bibliography related to correctional administration. A. BOOKS A Manual of Correctional Standards. New York: American Prison Association, 1954. Attorney-General Survey of Release Procedures. Volume Five' Prisons. Washington, D.C., Government Prin t i n g O f f i c e , 1940. Barnes, H.E., and Teeters, N.K., New Horizons i n Criminology. New York: Prentice H a l l , Inc., 1952. Clemmer, Donald, The Prison Community, Boston, The Christopherson Publishing House, 194-0. Drucker, Peter F., The Practice of Management. New York: Harper and Brothers, 1954. Gee, Wilson, S o c i a l Science Research Methods, New York: Appleton Century Crofts Inc., 1950. Good, C.V., and Scates, D.E., Methods of Research. New York: Appleton Century Croft Inc., 1954. Gulick, Luther, Paper on the Science of Administration, New York: I n s t i t u t e of Public Administration, 1937. Learned, Edmund P.., U l r i c h , David N., Booz, Donald R., Executive Action, Boston: Harvard University, 1951. Newman, William H., Administrative Action, The Techniques of  Organization and Management, New York: Prentice H a l l Inc., 1955. Ohlin, Lloyd, Sociology and the F i e l d of Corrections, Russell Sage Foundation, 1956. P f i f f n e r , John M., Public Administration. New York: The Ronald Press Company, 1956. 235 P f i f f n e r , John M., and Presthus, R.V., Public Administration, New York: The Ronald Press Company, 1953-Tappan, Paul W., E d i t o r , Contemporary Corrections, New York: McGraw H i l l Inc., 1951. Technical Manual for the Inspectoscopey San Francisco: S i c u l a r Inspectoscope Company, 195°• Topping, C.W., Canadian Penal I n s t i t u t i o n s , Toronto: Ryerson Press, 1929. United States Department of Agriculture, Essentials of Good  Management, Washington, D.C.: Government Pr i n t i n g Office 1955. White, Leonard D., Introduction to the Study of Public Administration, New York: The MacMillan Company, 1949. B. PERIODICAL LITERATURE Clemmer, Donald, "Use of Supervisory Custodial Personnel as Counsellors, An Expedient," Federal Probation, December, 1956. Davis, John A., "Individual Counselling Program at Elmira Reformatory," Journal of Correctional Education, July, 1956. Farber, M.F., "Prison Research: Techniques and Methods," So c i a l Psychology, November, 1941-Fauquier, W., and G i l c h r i s t J . , "Some Aspects of Leadership i n an I n s t i t u t i o n , " Child Development, March, 1942. Gibson, R.B. Major-General, "-Treatment i n Federal I n s t i t u t i o n s , " Canadian Bar Review, 1949• Haynes, F.E., "The S o c i o l o g i c a l Study of the Prison Community," The Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, November-December, I94B. Johnson, Norman, "Sources of D i s t o r t i o n and Deception i n Prison Interviewing," Federal Probation, March, 195&. Johnstone, W.F., and Henheffer, B.W., "History of Treatment i n Canadian P e n i t e n t i a r i e s , " Canadian Welfare, September 15, 1953. Laycock, S.A., "Keys to Prisoners' R e h a b i l i t a t i o n , " Canadian  Welfare, November 1, 1956. 236 MacCormick, Austin H., "Behind the Prison Riots," The Annals  of the American Academy of P o l i t i c a l and S o c i a l Science, May, 1954. Powelson, H., and Bendix, R., "Psychiatry i n Prison," Psychiatry., February, 1951. United Prison Association of Massachusetts, "What's New i n Prison Industries," Correctional Research, B u l l e t i n Number 6 , A p r i l , 1955. Weaver, Leroy R., "The Vocational Guidance Program at the Elmira Reception Centre," Journal of Correctional Education, A p r i l , 1956. Weinberg, S. Kirson, "Aspects of the Prison's Social Structure," American Journal of Sociology, July, 1939. C. PARTS OF SERIES Sykes, Gresham, Crime and Society, Random House short series i n Sociology, 1956. D. PUBLICATIONS OF LEARNED. ORGANIZATIONS Annual Report of the Commissioner of Penitentiaries for the  f i s c a l year ended March 31, 1956", Ottawa: Queen's Pr i n t e r , 1957. Annual Report of the Commissioner of Penitentiaries for the  f i s c a l year ended March 3 1 , 1954, Ottawa: Queen's Pr i n t e r , 1955^ Annual Report of the Commissioner of Penitentiaries for the  f i s c a l year ended March 31, 1953* Ottawa: Queen's Pr i n t e r , 19$4~. Annual Report of the Commissioner of Penitentiaries for the  f i s c a l year ended March 31, 1949, Ottawa: King's P r i n t e r , 1950. Annual Report of the Commissioner of Penitentiaries for the  f i s c a l year ended March 31, 1948, Ottawa: King's P r i n t e r , 1949. Annual Report of the Superintendent of Penitentiaries for the  f i s c a l year ended March 3 1 , 1946, Ottawa: King's P r i n t e r , 1947. 237 Annual Report of the Superintendent of Penitentiaries for the  f i s c a l year ended March 3 1 , 1 9 4 5 7 ~ 0 t t a w a : King's P r i n t e r , 1946. Annual Report of the Superintendent of Penitentiaries for the  f i s c a l year ended March 3 1 , 1 9 3 6 , Ottawa: King's P r i n t e r , 1 9 3 7 . Annual Report of the Superintendent of Penitentiaries for the  f i s c a l year ended March 3 1 , 1 9 3 3 , Ottawa: King's Pri n t e r , 1 9 3 4 . Annual Report of the Superintendent of Penitentiaries for the  f i s c a l year ended March 3 1 , 1 9 3 0 , Ottawa: King's P r i n t e r , 1 9 3 1 . Annual Report of the Commissioner of Penitentiaries for the  f i s c a l year ended March 3 1 , 1 9 2 0 , Ottawa: King's P r i n t e r , 1 9 2 1 . Annual Report of the Inspector of Penitentiaries for the f i s c a l year ended March 3 1 , 1917 , Ottawa: King's P r i n t e r , 191b . Penitentiary O f f i c e r s ' Handbook. Ottawa: Queen's Pr i n t e r , 1 9 5 2 . Report of General R.B. Gibson, a Commissioner appointed under  Order i n Council P.C. 1313, regarding the Penitentiary  System of Canada. Ottawa: King's P r i n t e r , 1 9 4 7 . Report of the Minister of Justice as to the Penitentiaries of  Canada f o r the year ended June 30, 190b, Ottawa: King's P r i n t e r , 19O6T Reprint of the Report of the Committee to Advise Upon the Revision of the Penitentiary Regulations and Amendment of  the Penitentiary Act 1921, Kingston: Jackson Press, 1 9 4 6 . E. UNPUBLISHED MATERIALS Administrative Manual, Sacramento: State of C a l i f o r n i a , Department of Corrections, 195&. Announcement of Courses, Soledad: Education Department, C a l i f o r n i a State Prison at Soledad, 1957 . Deputy Wardens' Conference Proceedings, Kingston: A p r i l , 1 9 5 2 . 238 Inmate Advisory Councils, Sacramento: State of C a l i f o r n i a , Department of Corrections, 1957. Manual of Procedures f o r the I n s t i t u t i o n a l Library, Sacramento; State of C a l i f o r n i a , Department of Corrections, 1949. Programme and Philosophy of a New I n s t i t u t i o n , Ionia, Michigan, Ionia: State of Michigan, Department of Corrections, 1956. Proposed Integration of Instructional and Operational  Functions of Vocational Instructor Positions at the  C a l i f o r n i a State Prison San Quentin, Sacramento: State of C a l i f o r n i a , Department of Corrections, 1956. Report of Planning Committee Michigan Reformatory, Ionia: State of Michigan, Department of Corrections, 1956. Schrag, Clarence, " S o c i a l Types i n the Prison Community," Unpublished Master's thesis, The University of Washington, 1947. Schrag, Clarence, " C r i m e v i l l e , A Sociometric Analysis of the Prison Community," Unpublished Doctor's d i s s e r t a t i o n , The University of Washington, 1950. 

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