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Folk entertainment and ritual in Shakespeare's early comedies Thorne, W. Barry 1961

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FOLK ENTERTAINMENT AND RITUAL IN SHAKESPEARE'S EARLY COMEDIES by W. Barry Thorne B.A., U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1957 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF Master of A r t s IN THE DEPARTMENT OF E n g l i s h We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September, I960 In presenting t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference and study. I f u r t h e r agree that permission f o r extensive copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n permission. Department of English The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver 8, Canada. ABSTRACT The purpose of t h i s thesis i s to examine the elements of folk entertainment, pastime, and r i t u a l i n four of Shakespeare's early comedies, The Taming of the Shrew, The Two Gentlemen of  Verona, Love's Labor's Lost, and A Midsummer Night's Dream, with a view to determining the pattern into which the playwright's use of these elements evolved, and to demonstrate t h e i r importance i n the development of the sophisticated comedies,. This i n v e s t i g a t i o n considers these elements i n t h e i r significance to the Elizabethan society and i n t h e i r r e l a t i o n to the play i n which they appear© The introduction defines those elements of s o c i a l r i t u a l and play which are l a t e r elaborated upon i n t h e i r order of appearance i n the plays examined. The s i g n i f i c a n c e of the evidence derived from such a detailed examination i s cumulative, and the reappearance of c e r t a i n elements i n the four plays examined lends weight to the conclusions drawn i n each chapter. These conclusions evaluate the role which r i t u a l and entertainment play i n each comedy, and the concluding chapter bases on the r e s u l t s of the entire study a more general account of t h i s influence and i t s significance to Shakespeare's l a t e r career. The frequency of references to t r a -d i t i o n a l folk-drama and the s t r u c t u r a l use of i t s formal elements indicates the extent of Shakespeare's debt to the popular culture of his time and to a dramatic t r a d i t i o n which derives ultimately from primitive pagan r i t u a l a The basic elements of the t r a d i t i o n a l folk-drama most f r e -quently met with i n the early comedies centre on the motifs the Maying theme, the " f l i g h t to the woods", misrule, and the celebra-t i o n of the r e b i r t h of the year e In The Taming of the Shrewa s i t u -ations analogous to those of the Mummers' Wooing sequences further the main action, and The Two Gentlemen of Verona weds the courtly and popular t r a d i t i o n i n i t s use of the " f l i g h t to the woods" theme* Maying themes become thematic and s t r u c t u r a l i n Love's Labor's Lost and A Midsummer Night's Dream, where they supply the pattern of the a c t i o n 0 In these, as i n l a t e r plays, Shakespeare uses p o l a r i t y , e.g. everyday-holiday, to provide a dramatic perspective f o r the examination or revaluation of actions, concepts, or i d e a l s * The use of misrule or holiday allows the dramatist to create an action, apart from the ordinary, i n which to l i m i t his approach at h i s discretion,, I have used the term " f e r t i l i t y " to indicate a state of ordered harmony i n both macrocosm and microcosm which, i n the Elizabethan view of nature, was considered favourable to life© This i n v e s t i g a t i o n corroborates previous studies i n d i c a t i n g that Elizabethan drama i s a hybrid growth blending the more consciously a r t i s t i c elements of the c l a s s i c a l drama with the mimetic aspects of a long standing popular tradition.. The v i t a l i t y as well as the u n i v e r s a l i t y of Shakespeare's comedy may owe, perhaps, a great deal to the extent of his use of such t r a d i t i o n a l themes and r i t u a l s , TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION Page 1 I I CHAPTER ONE: The Taming of the Shrew and Mummers' 20 Wooing Sequences. I l l CHAPTER TWO: The Two Gentlemen of Verona and the 42 Popular T r a d i t i o n . IV CHAPTER THREE: Love's Labor's Lost and a R i t u a l i s t i c 57 S t r u c t u r e . V CHAPTER FOUR: A Midsummer Night's Dream and "May and December", 110 VI CONCLUSION 165 F O L K E N T E R T A I N M E N T AND R I T U A L I N S H A K E S P E A R E ' S E A R L Y COMEDIES The purpose of this thesis i s to make some assessment of the r i t u a l and play elements i n the Elizabethan drama, and to draw attention to the influence of r i t u a l , pastimes, and entertain-ment i n Shakespeare's early plays* I have limited the thesis to a discussion of the early comedies, i n particular, The Taming of  the Shrew, The Two Gentleman of Verona, Love's Labor's Lost, and A Midsummer Night's Dream. C.L. Barber, Enid Welsford, CR. Baskervill, E.K. Chambers, and several other scholars have recog-nized the importance of r i t u a l and play elements in Elizabethan drama, and their researches reveal that, during the Renaissance period and earlier, there was much interplay between drama and the other forms of entertainment which often bore mimetic qual-i t i e s . Their studies indicate that the English folk-play and church r i t u a l , between which there was a reciprocal influence, morality plays, miracle plays, and also the popular pageantry of civic processions significantly influenced the growing profess-ional drama of the London stage during the last quarter of the sixteenth century, Because these forms had never remained static, 2. the influence was never a one-way reaction. In the beginning, as the church, with i t s progressive missionary t a c t i c s , had changed and adapted ancient pagan r i t u a l , i t had also been stamped i n -d e l i b l y by the b e l i e f s and actions which i t had assimilated. The same c u l t u r a l e l a s t i c i t y prevailed i n the moralities, miracles, and pageants which attended the l a t e r years of the church. These forms borrowed from and influenced one another so that, as i n the f a m i l i a r Mummers' play, i t i s often hard to s i f t out the various components, or even to att r i b u t e them to one o r i g i n a l source. In many cases, however, the observations of the scholars have not been d i r e c t l y related to the drama of Shakespeare. This i s one of the tasks that I have undertaken i n t h i s t h e s i s . The constant i n t e r a c t i o n between plays and entertainment i n the Tudor Court was c e r t a i n l y a factor contributing to the growth and development of professional drama. As Miss Welsford observes, Hall's Chronicle indicates the juxtaposition of court masque and folk morris dances i n morality plays, the close r e l a t i o n between plays and disguisings, and, f i n a l l y , the fact that the d i s t i n c t i o n 1 between dramatic performances and revels was very s l i g h t . Just as the r i t u a l and drama of the church influenced the professional stage, the dramatic revels and masques of the Court had a 1 Hall's Chronicle; Containing the History of England, during  the Reign of Henry the Fourth and the Succeeding Monarchs, to the  End of the Reign of Henry the Eighth, i n Which a r e - P a r t i c u l a r l y Described the Manners and Customs of those Periods, London, Printed f o r J . Johnson, 1809, Bk XVIII, p. 719, cited i n Enid Welsford, The Court Masque, A Study i n the Relationship between  Poetry & the Revels, Cambridge, At the University Press, 1927, p. 276, 3o s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t upon the p l a y e r s . Children's companies, the a c t o r s i n the p r i v a t e t h e a t r e s , and the common pl a y e r s were f r e -quently at Court, performing both o r d i n a r y plays and the more d i f -f i c u l t p a r t s of the Court masques 0 Probably because of t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n , the p l a y e r s took to i n s e r t i n g masques and masque-like episodes i n t o o r d i n a r y stageplays, and, because of the audience's n a t u r a l c u r i o s i t y about Court f u n c t i o n s , and the beauty and i n t e r -est of the new inn o v a t i o n s , these spectacular i n t e r l u d e s proved very popular,, Furthermore, the t r a d i t i o n a l l y c l o s e a s s o c i a t i o n of music, dance, song, and the drama, as w e l l as the u n i v e r s a l pop-u l a r i t y of the spe c t a c u l a r , whether i t be i n pageantry or c r i m i n -a l executions, e x p l a i n s the s t i m u l a t i n g v a r i e t y of v i s u a l and a u d i t o r y e f f e c t to be found i n E l i z a b e t h a n drama. R i t u a l , pageantry, and the d r a m a t i z a t i o n of l i f e and i t s ex-periences were an important aspect of the people's l i v e s , and the tendency t o regard l i f e as a drama and the i n d i v i d u a l as an a c t o r on a great stage or a f i g u r e i n a tremendous t a b l e a u was manifested i n a l l l e v e l s and areas of l i f e . Furthermore, the period under survey was a time when the s i g n i f i c a n c e of r i t u a l and b e l i e f was s t i l l v e ry g r e a t , a time when r i t u a l observances and t h e i r meanings were not merely a n a c h r o n i s t i c s u r v i v a l s but were s t i l l i n the blood of the people. The d e l i g h t i n pageantry and the b e l i e f i n the e f f i c a c y of r i t u a l , were not confined s o l e l y to the lower 4. c l a s s e s , but a l s o played an important r o l e i n the l i v e s of the a r i s t o c r a c y . As Chambers e x p l a i n s : Tudor kings and queens came and went about t h e i r pub-l i c a f f a i r s i n a constant atmosphere of make-believe, w i t h a s i b y l l u r k i n g i n every court-yard and gateway, and a s a t y r i n the boscage of every park, t o t u r n the ceremonies of welcome and f a r e w e l l , without which sovereigns must not move, by the a r t of song and dance and mimetic dialogue, to favour and p r e t t i n e s s . 2 I t i s the intense v i t a l i t y of r i t u a l and f o l k entertainment i n Shakespeare's drama t h a t I propose to examine i n t h i s t h e s i s . Work has already been done by CR. B a s k e r v i l l on the j i g and on the prevalence of romantic drama before the Renaissance, by Enid Welsford on the o r i g i n s i n f o l k entertainment of the Court masque, and, f i n a l l y , by C L . Barber on the importance of Maying and mis-r u l e c e l e b r a t i o n s i n the " f e s t i v e comedies.',' My own researches have i n d i c a t e d t h a t Shakespeare's indebtedness to the c u l t u r e of h i s time i s even l a r g e r than has h i t h e r t o been suspected. A l -though I acknowledge g r a t e f u l l y my indebtedness t o Mr. Barber's e x c e l l e n t book, I should point out t h a t the emphasis of my ap-proach i s d i f f e r e n t from h i s . Mr. Barber s t r e s s e s the dramatic formula, "through r e l e a s e t o c l a r i f i c a t i o n , ' ; ' i n those comedies which he examines. My own approach has been to survey, without any preconceived concepts, the dramatic purposes f o r which Shake-speare uses r i t u a l and f o l k entertainment, and to d i s c o v e r the 2 E.K. Chamber^ The E l i z a b e t h a n Stage. Oxford, At the C l a r e n -don P r e s s , 1903, v o l . 1, p. 107. See a l s o A l i c e S. Venezky ?  Pageantry on the Shakespearean Stage. New York, Twayne P u b l i s h -e r s , 1951, passim. patterns, i f any, into which these elements may arrange themselves The bulk of the present examination of Love's Labor's Lost had been completed before I read Mr. Barber, and therefore my f i n d -ings are independent of h i s . Mr. Barber does not examine The  Taming of the Shrew or The Two Gentlemen of Verona, and the ap-proach of the present thesis to Love's Labor's Lost and A Mid-summer Night's Dream (which he also discusses) emphasizes an en-t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t area. The o r i g i n a l research done on the Mum-mers' play by E.K0 Chambers, C.R. B a s k e r v i l l , R.J.E. Tiddy, and others has been of immense aid to me i n discovering evidence of f o l k r i t u a l i n Shakespeare which has not, to my knowledge, receiv-ed c r i t i c a l notice* The method I have used i n conducting t h i s analysis has been to survey Shakespeare's uses of f o l k entertainment and r i t u a l i n the four early comedies, The Taming of the Shrew. The Two Gentle-men of Verona. Love's Labor's Lost, and A Midsummer Night's Dream. I have found these elements used to dramatic advantage i n language character, incident, setting, structure, and theme i n the plays surveyede Even when Shakespeare has borrowed his plot s i t u a t i o n from an e a r l i e r source or, i n d i r e c t l y , from a remote one, he has often given i t a l o c a l habitation f o r Elizabethan audiences by all u d i n g to the community r i t u a l s and entertainments of his own periode Often, i n the f i f t e e n t h and sixteenth centuries, forms of 6 r i t u a l and b e l i e f which had l o s t t h e i r o r i g i n a l meaning took on new l i f e as art forms or merely as f o l k entertainment 9 The or-i g i n s of the Court masque i t s e l f are rooted i n the r i t u a l s of the people* The masque draws on elements of the f o l k f e r t i l i t y cele-brations, the King-game involving the election of a r u l e r , the sword-dance which i s , i n i t s o r i g i n s , a momic rhythmic combat re-lated to the s a c r i f i c e of a scapegoat, and, f i n a l l y , the a c t i v i t -3 i e s of the mummers who p a r t i c i p a t e i n these age-old r i t u a l s . The masque was also affected by the haphazard and gradual combin-ation and fusion of various other pastimes, some of which were of foreign o r i g i n . With the accession of the f i r s t Tudor king, the contact between the r i t u a l and play s p i r i t of the people and the art and pastimes of the n o b i l i t y , which had always been close, be came even more intimate. Developing into a l i v e l y centre of nat-i o n a l drama and revelry, the Court added to i t s roster a new o f f i i a l , the Master of the Revels, who was concerned with dramatic productions designed f o r the entertainment of the Court. Similar l y , the annual appearance of an Abbot or Lord of Misrule at Court during the Christmas season, became customary i n the reign of Henry VH<» Later, these two q u a s i - o f f i c i a l s came into c o n f l i c t , and the Master of the Revels, outstripping the Lord of Misrule, became an important and powerful o f f i c i a l . The f i r s t permanent Master of the Revels, S i r Thomas Cawarden, one of the gentlemen 3 Welsford, Masque, p. 20. 7. 4 of the p r i v y chamber, was appointed i n 1 5 4 5 . Before h i s ap-pointment, the o f f i c e had been a temporary one given to v a r i o u s o f f i c i a l s of the Court. "The c a t h o l i c t a s t e of the Tudors", Miss Welsford e x p l a i n s , " l e d them to make t h e i r Court an a t t r a c t i v e centre f o r humanism, n a t i o n a l drama, folk-custom, and f o r e i g n f a s h i o n ; so that a l l these v a r i o u s a c t i v i t i e s were kept i n continuous and f r u i t f u l 5 contact w i t h one another." As a r e s u l t of t h i s r o y a l patronage, much of the l i t e r a t u r e of the time was permeated by the i n f l u e n c e of the poe t i c masque and entertainment. During the period from the r e i g n of Henry V I I to the f a l l of Charles I , r e v e l r y and a r t i n E n g l i s h c u l t u r e were i n an e x c e p t i o n a l l y close contact, and r e v e l r y w i t h a r t i s t i c and mimetic q u a l i t i e s played an important r o l e i n s o c i a l e x i s t e n c e . Apparently there was not much d i s t i n c t i o n made between a r t and r e v e l r y , and, i n the f i f t e e n t h century, "game" was a f a v o u r i t e term f o r drama. In E l i z a b e t h a n and Stuart times, the words "rev-e l s " and " r e v e l l e r s " were a p p l i e d r a t h e r l o o s e l y to a l l games or s o c i a l p r a c t i c e s that had a e s t h e t i c q u a l i t y , and to.the par-t i c i p a n t s i n a c t i v i t i e s that o b v i o u s l y had t h e i r o r i g i n s i n r i t -u a l and folk-customs which had not a l t e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y f o r 4 E.K. Chambers, The Mediaeval Stage, Oxford, At the Clarendon Press, 1 9 0 3 , v o l . 1 , p. 4 0 5 . 5 Welsford, Masque, p. 1 6 7 . 6 hundreds of years. Miss Welsford a l s o p o i n t s out that the root meaning of " r e v e l " i s b o d i l y movements made by a group of people i n a s t a t e of excitement. Here l i e s the i n t i m a t e connect-i o n between ord i n a r y r e v e l r y and r i t u a l . I n both r i t u a l and rev-e l r y there i s some degree of b o d i l y movement, an atmosphere sup-p l i e d by the spontaneous overflow of powerful f e e l i n g s , and the sense of a s p e c i a l and c a r e f u l l y s t r u c t u r e d s i t u a t i o n . Both s t r e s s the cohesiveness and i n t e r a c t i o n of the group, and i n v o l v e a c t i v i t i e s t h a t are co-ordinated i n a t r a d i t i o n a l l y patterned way Because of t h i s i n t i m a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p , r i t u a l may e a s i l y d i s s o l v e i n t o r e v e l r y , Holy days e a s i l y become h o l i d a y s , and, f i n a l l y , r e v e l r y may sometimes become r i t u a l . Thus i t i s t h a t , i n E l i z a -bethan c u l t u r e , p l a y s and dramatic spectacles were regarded as belonging to the realm of the r e v e l only i f they were part of a s o c i a l f u n c t i o n . Because r e v e l and r i t u a l f unctioned as adjuncts to o r d i n a r y s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s , they had not only a e s t h e t i c value but a l s o s o c i a l u t i l i t y f o r the E l i z a b e t h a n communal observances. I t i s by no means unusual to f i n d the a r t i s t i c entertainments of the Court accompanied by the ruder forms enjoyed by the peasants. S i m i l a r l y , E l i z a b e t h a n dramatists o f t e n , l i k e the anonymous authors of the m o r a l i t i e s , combine tragedy and comedy, d i s p l a y peasants honouring r o y a l t y , present the t r a d i t i o n a l pageant of 6 Welsford, Masque, p. 360. 9 . the b a t t l e between summer and w i n t e r , and even stage s t r e e t tab-leaux i n t h e i r own p l a y s . A l l r i t u a l succeeds i n promoting group-consciousness, the r e c o g n i t i o n of the u n i t y and c o n t i n u i t y of the group, and E l i z a b e t h a n England placed immense s i g n i f i c a n c e i n the value of the group s p i r i t . The most s i g n i f i c a n t f u n c t i o n of r e v e l r y i s i t s c a p a c i t y f o r the expression of achievement and s a t i s f a c t i o n , the outward m a n i f e s t a t i o n of surplus energy and inner j o y . Apparently the value of r e v e l r y had long been r e -cognized i n England, e s p e c i a l l y during the Christmas and May c e l e b r a t i o n s , and i t was accorded a d e f i n i t e place i n the E l i z a -bethan scheme of t h i n g s . Escape from the dread tyranny of empir-i c a l f a c t and the i n e v i t a b l e chain of cause and e f f e c t can be a t t a i n e d through the gates of humour and magic. R i t u a l and rev-e l r y make use of these two escape mechanisms i n much the same way, because both a r t and the r e v e l are s t r u c t u r e d m a n i f e s t a t i o n s of the impulse t o express the joy and value of experience. A l -though, i n i t s crudest form, the " m i s r u l e " aspect of E l i z a b e t h a n c u l t u r e i s an outburst of high s p i r i t s and superfluous energy, i t i s a l s o an attempt to a t t a i n a sense of freedom from circum-stance by an adjustment of p o i n t of view, to "win f o r once over 7 the world's weight.'.* M i s r u l e o f f e r e d the s o c i e t y a s a f e t y - v a l v e f o r superfluous energies and repressed impulses dangerous to the p e r s o n a l i t y ; i t 7 Welsford, Masque, p. 392 10. provided a co n t r a s t to the normal, a temporary h o l i d a y from r e s t r a i n t , a suspension of b e l i e f i n normal law, and an opport-u n i t y f o r s a t i r i z i n g s o c i e t y . Burlesque and misrule can have a p o s i t i v e s o c i a l value as a v e h i c l e f o r expressing and thereby r e l e a s i n g impulses which must otherwise, according to the d i c -8 t a t e s of s o c i e t y , be repressed. M i s r u l e a l s o provides a glimpse of the other side of the c o i n , a c l a r i f i c a t i o n of l i m i t s which comes from going beyond the l i m i t . I n The Court Masque. Miss Welsford t r a c e s the a e s t h e t i c development of mis r u l e from s o c i a l custom to i t s dramatic use on the p r o f e s s i o n a l stage. The lowest stage of comedy, laughter provoked by sheer grotesque-ness and abnormality, i s i n some ways p a r a l l e l to the rowdier forms of m i s r u l e , the buffoonery and horseplay of the f o l k f e s t i v a l . The r e v e l s of E l i z a b e t h a n s o c i e t y are s i g n i f i c a n t be-cause they were maintained w i t h i n a s o c i e t y that recognized c o n s t a n t l y the m o r t a l i t y which i s i m p l i c i t i n l i f e i t s e l f . The death's head behind the f o o l i s always somewhere i n the conscious-ness of even the most carefree E l i z a b e t h a n . Although the E l i z a b e t h a n Twelfth Night i s the best-known f o l k c e l e b r a t i o n f e a t u r i n g f o l l y and m i s r u l e , almost any time ap-p r o p r i a t e to do honour to the f o r c e s of nature might be made the occasion f o r a f e s t i v a l of misrule or f o l l y . Students today are 8 Observers of the contemporary p o l i t i c a l scene i n d i c a t e that i n Russian s a t e l l i t e c o u n t r i e s such as Poland, the necessary r e -lease from the d e s t r u c t i v e tensions and i n h i b i t i o n s imposed upon P o l i s h p e r s o n a l i t i e s under the Communist regime i s found i n hum-our and s a t i r e d i r e c t e d s u b t l y and i n d i r e c t l y toward the s t a t e and i t s tyranny. In t h i s way, the people experience a r e l i e f and r e l e a s e denied to them through o r d i n a r y channels. 11 o f t e n confused by the p r o f u s i o n of s i x t e e n t h century f e s t i v a l s c e l e b r a t i n g the New Year, found at any time from September to May, This confusion, which e x i s t e d even i n the minds of the c e l -ebrants themselves, a r i s e s from the f a c t that e a r l y pagans con-ceived of the year as beginning w i t h w i n t e r ; l a t e r , however, the encroaching C h r i s t i a n r e l i g i o n a s s i m i l a t e d these ancient celeb-r a t i o n s and s h i f t e d them t o conform w i t h already e x i s t i n g c e l -e b rations recognized and encouraged by the Church. For in s t a n c e , Twelfth Night, the Feast of the Magi, i s a C h r i s t i a n o v e r l a y on a t r a d i t i o n a l pagan f e s t i v a l , marking the culmination of a period 9 of r e j o i c i n g over the r e t u r n of the sun a f t e r the w i n t e r s o l s t i c e . Seasonal f e a s t s c e l e b r a t i n g the rhythm of the year were exceeding-l y s i g n i f i c a n t to the pagans, f o r they were o r i g i n a l l y landmarks framing the cy c l e of the year, and were observed i n varying deg-rees of s o p h i s t i c a t i o n by most elements i n the s o c i e t y . Customs appropriate to f e s t i v a l s ushering i n the New Year and promoting f e r t i l i t y are t h e r e f o r e t o be found from Christmas to Midsummer - on Twelfth Night, Plough Monday, V a l e n t i n e ' s Day, Easter , and at Whitsuntide. These f e s t i v a l s have t h e i r r o o t s i n one ancient f e a s t f o r which the Roman S a t u r n a l i a seems to be the prototype. Concerning t h i s f e a s t , Miss Welsford observes: The Kalends of January was a New Year f e s t i v a l which spread a l l over the Roman Empire. I t was celebrated by the r e l a x a t i o n of a l l o r d i n a r y r u l e s of conduct, 9 For t h i s i d e a and others i n t h i s paragraph I am indebted t o an unpublished paper, "Twelfth Night i n Twelfth Night", by Marion B. Smith, Associate Professor of E n g l i s h at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. 12. and the i n v e r s i o n of customary s o c i a l s t a t u s . Masters and slaves changed p l a c e s , feasted and played at d i c e together. 10 During t h i s time, the Romans a l s o decorated t h e i r houses w i t h greenery to ensure a year of wealth and f e r t i l i t y . The Roman S a t u r n a l i a always i n v o l v e d the overturning of e s t a b l i s h e d v a l -ues, a conscious r e t u r n to nature, to the golden age of Saturn, when n a t u r a l behavior, untrammelled by the a r t i f i c i a l conventions of s o c i e t y , had not only been the norm but had no unpleasant consequences. This p r i n c i p l e of g a i n i n g rapport w i t h e s s e n t i a l nature was not l o s t , and i s t o be found i n a l l c e l e b r a t i o n s of the seasons and e s p e c i a l l y i n May, the month of Venus. The Christmas c e l e b r a t i o n s of E l i z a b e t h a n England o f t e n l a s t e d two weeks, and i n v o l v e d considerable r i t u a l and horse-p l a y . The m i s r u l e to be found i n most s i g n i f i c a n t r e v e l r y i s focussed during the twelve days of Christmas on the person of the o f f i c i a l Lord of M i s r u l e or King of the Bean, who superin-tended the c e l e b r a t i o n and acted as a mock King or M a g i s t r a t e . As i n the Roman S a t u r n a l i a , i n m i s r u l e a t r a n s f e r of a u t h o r i t y was e f f e c t e d , the s o c i a l order was i n v e r t e d , and, f o r a short time, s l a v e s became masters, and l o r d s served as lackeys to t h e i r own servants. In a d d i t i o n , the pageantry and games assoc-i a t e d w i t h Twelfth Night are f u l l of l o v e m o t i f s , and even the Mummers' P l a y s , which celebrated the death and r e v i v a l of the old season, o f t e n present a wooing sequence or a r i t u a l marriage. 10 Welsford, Masque, p. 9. 13. The f o l k games and r i t u a l s of Twelfth Night and s i m i l a r celeb-r a t i o n s tended u s u a l l y to take on a dramatic form, and the Mum-mers' play serves as an e x c e l l e n t example of the tendency f o r r i t u a l to become drama or entertainment. The Mummers' play, which i n v o l v e d a mock combat between a C h r i s t i a n and a pagan knight, as w e l l as the s l a y i n g of the dragon or of one of the combatants, and the appearance of a mock doctor who healed St. George (or the f a l l e n hero) of h i s wound, p e r s i s t e d as a Christmas custom i n r u r a l areas u n t i l the time of Thomas Hardy at the end of the nineteenth century. S i m i l a r l y , both the s p r i n g and summer f e s t i v a l s of the f o l k s u r v i v e to mod-ern times i n v a r i o u s l o c a l c e l e b r a t i o n s , w i t h arbors, pageantry, mimetic dances, song, and games. The Mummers' Wooing Play can be seen to t r a c e i t s o r i g i n s to pagan r i t u a l s c e l e b r a t i n g the r e v i v i f i c a t i o n of the year i n the s p r i n g , to c e l e b r a t i o n s i n which the sexual motif was paramount, and some elements i n them seem to be s u r v i v a l s of medieval dramatic conventions that are i n part l i t e r a r y but i n l a r g e r part popular and of some a n t i q u i t y . In the s p r i n g , there were s e v e r a l c e l e b r a t i o n s designed e x p r e s s l y to p r o p i t i a t e the goddess of f e r t i l i t y and to i n s u r e the l u c k and f e c u n d i t y of the new year. In England, May seems to have been the favoured month f o r such c e l e b r a t i o n s , and m i r t h , excessive e a t i n g and d r i n k i n g , and m i s r u l e were the order of the day. Masquerading, p l a y - a c t i n g , amateur s k i t s u s u a l l y d i r e c t e d 14. at authority, and almost any kind of mockery, singing, and danc-ing were always a part of the f e s t i v a l . Like the Christmas c e l -ebrations, the May games gave participants license to " f l o u t and F l e e r " at customary objects of respect. These revels of May Day centred around a young tree or a "May-pole" set up i n some open space i n the v i l l a g e and adorned for the occasion with fresh gar-11 lands and boughs brought from the woods. E s p e c i a l l y the Pur-itans recognized the p h a l l i c symbolism of the May-pole, and t h e i r attacks on May celebrations and what they stood f o r , and on the popular drama and poetry and what they stood f o r , were connected on deeper l e v e l s . Of course, Puritans objected v i o l e n t l y to the sexual license which sometimes accompanied these ceremonies, espe c i a l l y to the " f l i g h t to the woods" i n which the young people, i n groups and pairs, s a l l i e d f o r t h to the woods the night before the celebration i n order to "bring summer i n " with the flowers and boughs that they gathered there. As Stubbes complains, many 12 a maid returned a maid no longer. F e r t i l i t y r i t e s and symbolic contests between winter and summer played a large role i n the celebrations. Plough Monday as an ancient feast i s c l o s e l y connected with the f e r t i l i z a t i o n r i t e s of early spring, and Valentine's Day also represents an ancient love f e s t i v a l . Ancient pagan r i t u a l s had, by t h i s time, become 11 Chambers, Mediaeval Stage, v o l . 1, p. 117. 12 Frederick J . F u r n i v a l l , ed., P h i l l i p Stubbes's Anatomy of  the Abuses i n England i n Shakspere's Youth, London, N. Triibner & Co., 1879, P. 149. 15. adapted to s u i t the needs of a s o c i e t y i n which the p l a y s p i r i t was strong, and, as a consequence, the s e c u l a r i z a t i o n and s o p h i s t -i c a t i o n of pagan m o t i f s occurred as w e l l among the a r i s t o c r a c y i n whose games and entertainments ancient f e s t i v a l m o t i f s were fo r m a l i z e d and presented. Drawing our a t t e n t i o n to the e a r l y d r a m a t i z a t i o n of ancient r i t u a l , B a s k e r v i l l remarks: On the whole, the assumption seems warranted t h a t the process by which pagan r i t u a l became f o l k pastime or drama had reached i t s f i n a l stage by 1200„ In the p e r i o d from 1200 to the middle of the s i x t e e n t h cen-t u r y , folk-drama f l o u r i s h e d i n England, developing those f e a t u r e s which l a t e r c o ntributed to popular f a r c e and the E l i z a b e t h a n stage j i g , and t a k i n g on much the form i n which i t has survived i n modern times i n s i n g i n g games and Mummers' p l a y s . 13 P u b l i c processions and pageants of a l l great f e s t i v a l s ended i n evening f e a s t s which were accompanied by the games of the f o l k . Frequently Court entertainments, l i k e the Masque,were merely s o p h i s t i c a t e d adaptations of f e s t i v a l m o t i f s , and the Court was u s u a l l y amused by r u s t i c performances presented i n i t s honor. S i m i l a r l y , Court dances were o f t e n embellishments of r u s t i c ones o r i g i n a l l y part of f e s t i v a l c e l e b r a t i o n s . Even i n the customary entertainments presented t o E l i z a b e t h during her summer progress-es, t r a d i t i o n a l f e s t i v a l observances were developed i n masque, pageant, or p l a y . Even i n recent l i t e r a t u r e we can see the conscious use of myth and r i t u a l to organize meaningfully the l i f e of our t i m e s 0 13 C„R. B a s k e r v i l l , "Dramatic Aspects of Medieval Folk F e s t -i v a l s i n England", Studies i n P h i l o l o g y , v o l . 17 (Jan. 1920), p© 32. T r a d i t i o n a l and symbolic values come to a writer from the society i n which he operates, and i t should not surprise us that Shake-speare, with his intimate knowledge of his own society, should make dramatic use of the r i t u a l s and the play s p i r i t with which he was so f a m i l i a r . He was able to draw upon a body of sentiment, sub-rational opinion and emotion, which could appeal to a l l l e v e l s of society. This frame of reference possessed by a l l classes i s one reason f o r the more or l e s s universal appeal of the plays to an apparently extremely d i v e r s i f i e d audience. As Barber has pointed out, Shakespeare's gay comedy i s saturnalian rather than 14 s a t i r i c . It dramatizes d i r e c t l y or i n d i r e c t l y the healthy release from normal l i m i t a t i o n s to be gained from the p r i n c i p l e of the Roman Saturnalia. In t h i s respect, the use of the theat-r i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n of clowning was not a new thing; i n fact the clown or vice was a recognized rebel, who carried misrule to ab-surd extremes. The r i t u a l or f e s t i v a l occasion thus supplies a means f o r the organization of dramatic experience comprehensible to a l l members of his audience. In the plays with a d i r e c t h o l -iday motif, and other early ones, elements of r i t u a l and f o l k entertainment are metamorphosed into conscious a r t . Sometimes the experience of the whole play i s presented i n the form of a r e v e l . The atmosphere and the dramatic experience i s presented through the d i r e c t staging of pastimes such as dances, songs, 15 masques, and plays. The fundamental method i s to arrange 14 C . L . Barber, Shakespeare's Festive Comedy, A Study of Dram- a t i c Form and i t s Relation to Social Custom, Princeton, Prince-ton University Press, 1959, pp. 5-8. "~ 15 C . L . Barber, "The Saturnalian Pattern i n Shakespeare's Com-edy", Sewanee Review, v o l . 59 (Autumn, 1951), p« 597« 17 the plot so as to place the characters i n the p o s i t i o n of f e s t i v e celebrants. At other times the plays employ metaphors, situations, and scenes drawn from Elizabethan r i t u a l and f o l k entertainment. Often the plays r i d i c u l e the unnatural, but they also put holiday into perspective with l i f e as a whole. By juxtaposing the f e s t i v a l and. the everyday world, they c l a r i f y ideas, the love emotion, and natural actions, and recognize the important ro l e that the seasons of the year play i n the a c t i v i t i e s of man. Expressing the influence of love and the spring season as a com-p e l l i n g force i n both man and nature, t h e i r mirth and exuberance carry with them the recognition of nature's beneficence but also of i t s l i m i t a t i o n s . I f , i n f o l k r i t u a l and entertainment, Shake-speare could draw upon a valuable background of knowledge and ex-perience common to a l l strata of society, then, through the use of these r i t u a l patterns and the play element, i t was possible to achieve a heightened awareness of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between man and nature, between man and society, and between man and man. In a sense, Shakespeare's drama was taking over s o c i a l functions which had been previously limited to f o l k celebrations, to fam-i l i e s , and to c i v i c groups, the expression of the r i t u a l s p i r i t . Usually revelry and r i t u a l had been organized under leaders, and had been presented by a special group of entertainers represent-ing the t a l e n t of the community. Group dances or plays were prep-ared and were presented i n the surrounding towns. That t h i s struc-turing of the holiday experience was taken up by the stage i s one IS. more in d i c a t i o n that, i n Elizabethan culture, the d i s t i n c t i o n s between l i f e and a r t , the stage and the world, were not yet set-tledo Semi-dramatic folk-games or folk-drama provided an immense background of material upon which the professional dramatist could draw, but also conditioned, to a certain extent, the type of material which he could present. Because of the long drama-t i c t r a d i t i o n i n English entertainment, audiences demanded a good deal of song, music, and dance, to leaven the dramatic f a r e . Dramatists were expected to divert t h e i r audiences with i n t e r -ludes of music and dancing interspersed throughout t h e i r plays, and the i n t e r v a l s between presentations were enlivened by stage j i g s , acrobatics, animal acts, and many of the f a m i l i a r techiques of modern circuses. The influence of f o l k f e s t i v a l s upon the professional drama was to be f e l t f o r some time. B a s k e r v i l l con-cludes that: F e s t i v a l customs of the f o l k affected English drama greatly even a f t e r the forces of the Renaissance were tending to divorce i t from the merely popular and ephemeral and give i t a t r u l y l i t e r a r y character. 16 Even the dramatic experiments of the University wits owe much to the influence of the revels i n general and to the continued i n -17 t e r a c t i o n between the play and f o l k entertainment. In masques and mythological plays presented during the seventies and eighties of the sixteenth century, there i s considerable development of 16 CR. B a s k e r v i l l , "Mummers' Wooing Plays i n England", Modern  Philology, v o l . 21 (Feb. 1924), -p. 230. 17 Welsford, Masque, p. 277o 19. pastoral and sylvan scenes employing local traditions of fest-18 iv a l pageantry in the classical Renaissance pastoral setting. As Northrop Frye indicates: The earlier tradition established by Peele and devel-oped by Lyly, Greene, and the masque writers, which uses themes from romance and folklore and avoids the comedy of manners, i s the one followed by Shakespeare. •These themes are largely medieval in origin, and derive, not from the mysteries or the moralities or the inter-ludes, but from a fourth dramatic tradition^ This i s the drama of folk r i t u a l , of the St. George play and the mummers' play, of the feast of the ass and the Boy Bishop, and of a l l the dramatic activity that punctuated the Christian calendar with the rituals of an immemorial paganism. We may c a l l this the drama of the green world, and i t s theme i s once again the triumph of l i f e over the waste land, the death and revival of the year impersonated by figures s t i l l human, and once divine as well. 19 l£ C.R. Baskervill, "Some Evidence for Early Romantic Plays in England", Modern Philology, vol. 14 (August, 1916), p. 244. 19 Northrop Frye, "The Argument of Comedy", in Leonard F a Dean, Shakespeare: Modern Essays in Criticism. New York, Oxford University Press, 1957, p. 85. CHAPTER ONE  The Taming of the Shrew and Mummers' Wooing Sequences In beginning t h i s study, I have chosen to survey s w i f t l y two of what are considered to be Shakespeare's e a r l i e r comedies, The Taming of the Shrew, and The Two Gentlemen of Verona, i n order to trace the tendencies to be examined i n some d e t a i l i n two other comedies, Move's Labor's Lost and A Midsummer Night's Dream0 Analysis of another early play, The Comedy of Errors, reveals l i t t l e or no references to the r i t u a l , pastimes, and en-tertainment of Elizabethan England, probably because of i t s great s i m i l a r i t y to i t s source, theMenaechmi of Plautus. The doctor of the t y p i c a l Mummers' play seems to appear i n the person of Pinch, the schoolmaster, and there are c e r t a i n l y r e f l e c t i o n s of the conventions of folk-drama, but nothing so f u l l y developed as those i n Love's Labor's Lost and A Midsummer Night's Dream0 For t h i s reason i t has been excluded from consideration i n t h i s study,, The Taming of the Shrew i s much more rewarding f o r t h i s study, even though the Induction, t y p i c a l of interludes and s i m i l a r plays presented before the n o b i l i t y , i s soon dropped,, The play opens witha.number of references to Elizabethan drinking habits, as the "dronken S l i e " i s ejected from his a l e -house f o r refusing to pay f o r the glasses that he has shattered, and i t continues with the pastimes and entertainments popular 21. among the n o b i l i t y of the time. After Sly has f a l l e n asleep outside the alehouse, a Lord enters, just returned from hunting with his hounds. In the ensuing dialogue between the master and his huntsman on the breeding and selection of hounds, the terms and practises of hunting are revealed. In presenting the Lord devising a jest to play on " t h i s drunken man", the dramatist paints a comprehensive picture of contemporary customs, pastimes, and means of entertainment: What think you, i f he were conveyed to bed, Wrapped i n sweet clothes, rings put upon his fingers, A most d e l i c i o u s banquet by his bed, And brave attendants near him when he wakes, Would not the beggar then forget himself? (Induction, i , 37-41) The Lord's di r e c t i o n s to his attendants concerning the handling of the jest continue to reveal the d a i l y l i f e of the nobleman. Carry him gently to my f a i r e s t chamber And hang i t round with a l l my wanton pictures. Balm his f o u l head i n warm d i s t i l l e d waters And burn sweet wood to make the lodging sweet. Procure me music ready when he wakes, To make a dulcet and a heavenly sound; (Induction, i , 46-51) A l l these arrangements are made i n order to produce a "pastime passing excellent". Sly, as the butt of a je s t , has become i n r e a l i t y a sort of King of Misrule. At the order of the anonymous "Lord" with the sense of humour, the everyday r e a l i t i e s and "considerations" of Sly's l i f e have been turned upside down temporarily. The humble tinker has been given " l i c e n s e " to f r o l i c f o r a short while, and t o e n j o y t h e b e n e f i t s o f a much h i g h e r s t a t i o n i n l i f e . Though he i s a l a u g h i n g - s t o c k , he i s , f o r t h e moment, i n c o n t r o l o f a number o f s e r v a n t s who s a t i s f y h i s e v e r y d e s i r e . T h i s i s t h e e s s e n c e o f t h e t r a d i t i o n a l p e r i o d o f M i s r u l e . The L o r d o f M i s -r u l e i s a humorous f i g u r e whose commands c a r r y no w e i g h t u n l e s s t h e crowd a c c e d e s t o h i s w i s h e s i n a h o l i d a y s p i r i t . H i s i s a t e m p o r a r y r e i g n c h a r a c t e r i z e d by l i c e n s e and d r u n k e n n e s s , and h i s p e r i o d o f sway ends r a t h e r a b r u p t l y a t t h e end o f t h e s e a s o n . When S l y i s c a r r i e d o u t , a t r u m p e t i s sounded t o h e r a l d t h e a p p r o a c h o f a g r o u p o f p l a y e r s . What f o l l o w s n e x t i s a r e f e r e n c e t o t h e t r a d i t i o n a l Mummers' Wooing p l a y i n w h i c h t h e r e i s a sym-b o l i c c o u r t i n g o f a f a i r m aid by a g e n t l e m a n and a f o o l , t h o u g h S h a k e s p e a r e may have been d e s c r i b i n g t h e p l a y s o f t h e v i l l a g e s l i k e B a r t o n - o n - t h e - H e a t h and W i l n e c o t e f r o m w h i c h t h e c h a r a c t e r s 1 o f h i s I n d u c t i o n h a i l . T h i s b r i e f r e f e r e n c e a n t i c i p a t e s t h e r o l e s o f Gremio and T r a n i o i n t h e p l a y t o f o l l o w . The L o r d ex-c l a i m s : . . . . T h i s f e l l o w I remember, S i n c e o nce he p l a y e d a f a r m e r ' s e l d e s t s o n . 'Twas where you wooed t h e gentlewoman so w e l l . . I have f o r g o t y o u r name, b u t , s u r e , t h a t p a r t Was a p t l y f i t t e d and n a t u r a l l y p e r f o r m e d . ( I n d u c t i o n , i , 84-88) The p l a y e r f e r e p l y , " I t h i n k 'twas S o t o t h a t y o u r Honor means", i n d i c a t e s t h a t he may have p l a y e d t h e r o l e o f t h e f o o l . The L o r d ' s r e c e p t i o n o f t h e p l a y e r s g i v e s u s an i d e a o f t h e customs i n v o l v e d i n t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f p l a y s and i n t e r l u d e s b y g r o u p s 1 B a s k e r v i l l , "Mummers' Wooing P l a y s " , p . 230. 23. of t r a v e l l i n g p l a y e r s . Both amateur and p r o f e s s i o n a l medieval f o l k - p l a y e r s t r a v e l l e d from place to place presenting t h e i r dram-a t i c f a r e . The i n t e r - p a r o c h i a l and i n t e r - v i l l a g e performances of the amateurs are a unique development of the f o l k games. As B a s k e r v i l l informs us, " V i s i t s of t r a v e l i n g p l a y e r s are d e f i n i t e -l y recorded f o r Reading toward the end of the fourteenth cen-2 t u r y . " I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to discover t h a t p r o f e s s i o n a l s were a l s o performing t r a d i t i o n a l p l a y s . This i s the intermediary stage between the t r a d i t i o n a l folk-drama presented by the com-munity i t s e l f , and the use of the elements of folk-drama by London p r o f e s s i o n a l s to e m b e l l i s h or frame t h e i r own p l a y s . The advance toward the s o p h i s t i c a t i o n of p r i m i t i v e r i t u a l i n t o s o c i a l pastime proceeded i n three stages. The f i r s t stage i s t h a t of the a c t u a l pagan r i t u a l , which i s s t i l l preserved i n c e r t a i n f o l k customs; the second i s that i n which f e s t i v a l customs, s o p h i s t i c a t e d as a r e s u l t of advancing c u l t u r e and the m o d i f i c a t i o n of pagan f e s t i v a l s by the church, developed among the f o l k as s o c i a l pastimes; and the t h i r d i s a stage i n which the d i v e r s i o n s of the f e s t i v a l c e l e b r a t i o n became pro-f e s s i o n a l i z e d through passing i n t o the hands of v i l l a g e perform-3 e r s , m i n s t r e l s , and p l a y e r s . The p l o t s i t u a t i o n of the Induc-t i o n i t s e l f borrows from the Mummers' pla y i n that i t presents a drama of marriage, has a young boy dressed as a woman, and has a f o o l wooing her. The a c t u a l play, the "play w i t h i n a p l a y " , has a l s o humorous a f f i l i a t i o n s w i t h folk-drama, e x p e c i a l l y w i t h 2 "Dramatic Aspects", p. 84. 3 I b i d . . p. 20. wooing sequences. The boasting by one wooer of h i s conquest of v a r i o u s women, love pleas of two or more r i v a l s , d i s c u s s i o n e i t h -er of a dowry by the g i r l and a wooer or of t h e i r possessions, a charge of i n s i n c e r i t y brought by one s u i t o r against another and the l a t t e r ' s defense, bawdy innuendo, j e e r i n g and mockery on the part of the g i r l and the wooers, a. contest f o r the g i r l , and her s c o r n f u l r e j e c t i o n of at l e a s t one s u i t o r are a l l fam-i l i a r elements of f o l k wooing sequences found, i n one form or 4 another, i n t h i s play and i n the other three under a n a l y s i s . Scene two opens w i t h S l y surrounded by a l l the l u x u r y of the Great H a l l . Servants courteously o f f e r him the d e l i c a c i e s of E l i z a b e t h a n England, sack and conserves, and any amusement he d e s i r e s . Lord. ....Harkl A p o l l o p l a y s , And twenty caged n i g h t i n g a l e s do s i n g . Or w i l t thou sleep? We'll have thee to a couch S o f t e r and sweeter than the l u s t f u l bed On purpose trimmed up f o r Semiramis. Say thou w i l t walk; we w i l l bestrew the ground. Or w i l t thou r i d e ? The horses s h a l l be trapped, T h e i r harness studded a l l w i t h gold and p e a r l . Dost thou love hawking? Thou hast hawks w i l l soar Above the morning l a r k . Or w i l t thou hunt? Thy hounds s h a l l make the w e l k i n answer them And f e t c h s h r i l l echoes from the hollow e a r t h . 1. serv. Say thou w i l t course. Thy greyhounds are as s w i f t As breathed stags, aye, f l e e t e r than the roe. 2. serv. Dost thou love p i c t u r e s ? (Induction, i i , 37-51) The passage continues w i t h references to the p o p u l a r i t y of the d i s p l a y i n g of p a i n t i n g s as a form of amusement or d e l i g h t . Sly's wonderment at h i s t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l s o r e v e a l s f u r t h e r d e t a i l s about d r i n k i n g i n taverns, and the measurement of d r i n k , 4 CR. B a s k e r v i l l , "Conventional Features of Fulgens and Lucres" Modern P h i l o l o g y , v o l . 24 (1926-27), p. 429. 25. "Because she brought stone jugs and no sealed quarts". When Sly i s f u l l y convinced t h a t he i s indeed a "Lord", a messenger en-t e r s to announce t h a t h i s play e r s are awaiting h i s pleasure to present "a pleasant comedy". Sly's r e p l y , " I s not a comonty a Christmas gambold or a tumbling t r i c k ? " , c a s t s some l i g h t on the i n d e f i n i t e n e s s of terms r e l a t i n g to drama and entertainment. The country bumpkin would not be f a m i l i a r w i t h any drama more s o p h i s t i c a t e d than the folk-drama and games connected w i t h f o l k f e s t i v a l s and c e l e b r a t i o n s . The page's r e p l y t h a t a comedy i s "a kind of h i s t o r y " i s r e v e a l i n g i n i t s e l f . With the Induction completed, the dramatist begins the ac-t u a l comedy. The subjedt of the play, the breaking of the s p i r i t of a woman, or man who has an e v i l d i s p o s i t i o n , seems to have been a popular one during the l a s t quarter of the century. In 1598, a b a l l a d c a l l e d Robin and Kate was published, w i t h the s u b - t i t l e of "a bad husband converted by a good w i f e , i n a d i a -5 logue between Robin and Kate". I t may w e l l be that there i s some connection between the two, e s p e c i a l l y when the names of the women are the same. Scene one of the play opens with the a r r i v a l i n Padua of a young man from P i s a , journeying f o r t h to study and to gain experience of the world. As i s the case i n Love's Labor's Lost, the pr o t a g o n i s t ' s plan i s to f o l l o w the Renaissance course of study, to "haply i n s t i t u t e / A course of l e a r n i n g and ingenious s t u d i e s " . His servant and l o y a l f o l l o w e r , 5 C R . B a s k e r v i l l , The Eliz a b e t h a n J i g and Related Song Drama, Chicago, The U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago Press, 1929, p. 174» 26 o Tranio, tempers the program of study with the suggestion that the other delights of the body and mind must not be ignored: Only, good master, while we do admire This vir t u e and t h i s moral d i s c i p l i n e , Let's be no stoics nor no stocks, I pray, Or so devote to A r i s t o t l e ' s checks As Ovid be an outcast quite abjured„ Balk l o g i c with acquaintance that you have, And practice rhetoric i n your common t a l k . Music and poesy useto quicken you. The mathematics and the metaphysics F a l l to them as you f i n d your stomach serves you. No p r o f i t grows where i s no pleasure ta'en. In b r i e f , s i r , study what you most a f f e c t . (I, i , 29-40) In other words, Tranio i s counselling Lucentio not to be a k i l l -joy, not to make the mistake of the King of Navarre, of feeding the mind at the expense of the body, or of denying the c a l l of the spring season. This i s e s s e n t i a l l y the philosophic j u s t i f -i c a t i o n of the re v e l , and, consequently, we are not surprised that, when Lucentio f i r s t sees Bianca, a l l thoughts of study and philosophy f l e e his mind, nor that the remainder of the play takes the form of a period of misrule apart from the responsib-i l i t i e s and "considerations" of everyday l i f e . I t may well be that the Induction and Tranio's remarks, as well as the misrule that pervades the body of the play, serve a conscious dramatic purpose. The atmosphere of "misrule" may, perhaps, take the edge o f f Petruchio's avowed fortune-hunting, the callousness of his remarks about Kate i n the early scenes, and the rudeness and b r u t a l i t y of his l a t e r treatment of her. The dramatist may be, i n a sense, asking us to disregard some 27o of the normal emotional r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and i n h i b i t i o n s demand-ed of the i n d i v i d u a l i n the world of everyday, and to enter i n -to a s p i r i t of r i o t and license i n which the laws of cause and immediate e f f e c t , and of ordinary morality, are repealed f o r a short time,. One could imagine that the plot s i t u a t i o n of the play i s more p a i n f u l f o r the audience with the Induction omitted, as i t i s i n most modern productions. As Bianca and Katharina enter, the plot complication i s soon revealed to the audience. Two men, an old and a young s u i t -or, are vying f o r the hand of the f a i r and gentle Bianca, but "no one cared f o r Kate", her elder s i s t e r , f o r she i s a vixen and a shrew, discouraging a l l suitors with her nasty disposition,, She stands between her s i s t e r and the sexual consummation of marriage which insures the f e r t i l i t y of the coming year. Thus, i n terms of the Elizabethan r i t u a l of Maying and misrule, she presents a challenge to the young r e v e l l e r s who wish to p a r t i c -ipate i n the delights of the season,. The bickering between Kath-arina and the suitors i s likened to a pastime by Tranio, who f i r s t mistakes t h e i r procession f o r a "show" designed to welcome him and his master to Padua. Here Shakespeare i s alluding to the ludicrous v i s u a l effect of some of the amateurish shows pres-ented f o r c i v i c or state occasions. In a fashion somewhat l i k e the burlesquing of the scornful lady r e j e c t i n g wooers, Katharina threatens Hortensio, To comb your noddle with a three-legged s t o o l , And paint your face, and use you l i k e a f o o l . (I, 1, 64-65) 28 The e s s e n t i a l s i t u a t i o n i n t h i s p lay i s s i m i l a r to that i n A Midsummer Night's Dream, i n which a young woman i s condemned t o c h a s t i t y or death unless she chooses t o marry a s u i t o r whan she does not l i k e but who has been chosen f o r her by her f a t h e r . The obs t a c l e which "mews up" Bianca i s Katharina, who i s w e l l nigh an o l d maid, and whose prospects of becoming anything e l s e are indeed very s l i m . I n order to get a husband f o r K a t h a r i n a , B a p t i s t a , her long-s u f f e r i n g f a t h e r , has determined that the young Bianca s h a l l not marry u n t i l her elder s i s t e r has found h e r s e l f a husband. This decree leaves Bianca's two s u i t o r s i n somewhat of a quandary, and, i n consequence, they r e l u c t a n t l y j o i n f o r c e s to procure a husband f o r K a t h a r i n a . Though they l i k e n Katharina to the d e v i l i n c a r n a t e , they consider Bianca to be a p r i z e w e l l worth the troub-l e of winning. The metaphor of winning a p r i z e i s continued as Hortensio exclaims that he who runs f a s t e s t i n the race f o r Bianca wins the t r a d i t i o n a l r i n g , which, i n the May games, was u s u a l l y fashioned of rushes, and, i n f o l k f e s t i v a l s , was always the p r i z e f o r dancing wooers. Also smitten w i t h love f o r Bianca, Lucentio, who has overheard the conversation, begs advice from h i s servant-companion, Tranio, a r e a l i s t who attempts to gauge the depth of h i s l o v e . Between them, they concoct a plan by which Lucentio i s to d i s g u i s e himself as a schoolmaster i n order to gain access to the f a i r Bianca, and Tranio i s to pass himself o f f as h i s master, i n order t o delude the f r i e n d s and acquaintances of h i s master's f a m i l y i n Padua. 2 9 Thus, as i s customary i n the r e v e l r y of mi s r u l e and Maying, servant and master have exchanged r o l e s f o r the purpose of im-proving the s t a t e of the community. They have entered i n t o the s p i r i t of mis r u l e i n which "anything goes", and w i l l attempt a l s o to win the p r i z e f o r Lu c e n t i o . I n the e a r l y comedies, o f -ten the women are f e r t i l i t y symbols which represent the w e l l -being of the community as a whole. In t h i s case, the f i n d i n g of a husband f o r Ka t h a r i n a , and the f r e e i n g of Bianca from her c a p t i v i t y , w i l l r e s o l v e an unhealthy s i t u a t i o n i n the f a m i l y and a l s o , s y m b o l i c a l l y , i n the community i t s e l f . Scene two introduces Petruchio who, l i k e L u centio, has j o u r -neyed to Padua to "wive and t h r i v e as best I may". He a l s o has gone abroad t o seek experience and to "see the world", and, reaching Padua, immediately goes to v i s i t h i s o l d f r i e n d Horten-s i o . Grumio, h i s servant, who has j u s t r e c e i v e d a beating f o r w i l f u l disobedience, complains i n a metaphor from the card game of one and t h i r t y , ....Well, was i t f i t f o r a serv-ant t o use h i s master so, being perhaps, f o r aught I see, two and t h i r t y , a p i p out? ( I , i i , 30-33) In j e s t , Hortensio suggests t h a t Petruchio seek a p r o f i t a b l e marriage w i t h the shrew, Ka t h a r i n a . Much to h i s s u r p r i s e , Pet-r u c h i o leaps at the opportunity of e n r i c h i n g h i s c o f f e r s , and determines t o "woo her, wed her, and bed her, and r i d the house of her!" He says, "As wealth i s burden of my wooing dance,.... I come to wive i t w e a l t h i l y i n Padua: / I f w e a l t h i l y , then hap-30„ p i l y i n Padua.", and cares not i f h i s wife be a shrew. Recol-l e c t i o n s of the conventions of Mummers' plays recur f a i r l y r eg-u l a r l y as Petruchio takes on some of the aspects of the f o o l or of one of the s u i t o r s i n the t y p i c a l Mummers' Wooing p l a y s . With the bargain made, Petruchio agrees to "board" Katharina, and t o introduce Hortensio, d i s g u i s e d as a "schoolmaster w e l l seen i n music", to her f a t h e r . Seeing t h i s plan a f o o t , Grumio, the br u i s e d servant of Pet-r u c h i o , expresses one of the main themes of the pl a y , saying, Here's no knavery. See, to beguile the o l d f o l k s , how the young f o l k s l a y t h e i r heads together. ( I , i i , 139-41) L a t e r , i n r e p l y to Gremio's outspoken s u r p r i s e concerning h i s d e s i r e to woo Katharina, Petruchio r e p l i e s i n terms reminiscent of the boasting of the f o o l i n the Mummers' Wooing p l a y s : Have I not i n my time heard l i o n s roar? Have I not heard the sea, puffed up w i t h winds, Rage l i k e an angry boar chafed w i t h sweat? Have I not heard great ordnance i n the f i e l d , And Heaven's a r t i l l e r y thunder i n sk i e s ? Have I not i n a pi t c h e d b a t t l e heard Loud 'larums, neighing steeds, and trumpets' clang? And do you t e l l me of a woman's tongue, That g i v e s not h a l f so great a blow to hear As w i l l a chestnut i n a farmer's f i r e ? Tush, tushS Fear boys w i t h bugs. ( I , i i , 201-211) The theme of the p l o t s i t u a t i o n up to the moment i s the age-ol d s t r u g g l e between the young and the o l d . I n the Mummers' p l a y s , the o l d and young s u i t o r s were t r a d i t i o n a l elements, and 31, were r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the o l d and the new seasons i n f e r t i l -i t y r i t e s . Both Lucentio and Hortensio, as young men, are a t -tempting to b e g u i l e an unreasonable o l d f a t h e r i n t o r e l e a s i n g a young, d e s i r a b l e v i r g i n from her c a p t i v i t y . This p l o t s i t u a t i o n i n i t s essence i s s i m i l a r t o t h a t of The Two Gentlemen of Ver-ona, Love's Labor's L o s t , and A Midsummer Night's Dream, i n t h a t the p l o t c o n f l i c t i n v o l v e s an unnatural r e s t r i c t i o n placed on the young by the o l d or by k i l l - j o y s . The s i t u a t i o n i s as o l d as the p r i m i t i v e r i t u a l u n d e r l y i n g the May f l i g h t to the woods, and a l l the many forms of S a t u r n a l i a or m i s r u l e . In the case of the f o u r comedies under study, Gremio, B a p t i s t a , the Duke of M i l -an, S i r Thurio, the King of Navarre and h i s men, and, f i n a l l y , o l d Egeus and Demetrius are a l l hindering i n some way the smooth course of t r u e l o v e . They are the k i l l - j o y f i g u r e s who refuse to recognize love or the s p r i n g season as an i n t e g r a l part of l i f e i t s e l f , and, i n doing so, run counter to t h e i r nature as men. In each p l a y , t h i s e s s e n t i a l c o n f l i c t i s presented by draw-in g upon s p r i n g r i t u a l c e l e b r a t i o n s , f a m i l i a r t o the E l i z a b e t h a n audience, and imposing a d d i t i o n a l meanings on the b a s i c p l o t a c t i o n . As Northrop Frye observes, i n connection w i t h a l l the comedies, those who impede the progress of the comedy are always people who are i n some kind of mental bondage, who are h e l p l e s s l y d r i v e n by r u l i n g passions, n e u r o t i c compulsions, s o c i a l r i t u a l s , and s e l f i s h n e s s . The es-s e n t i a l comic r e s o l u t i o n , t h e r e f o r e , i s an i n d i v i d u a l r e l e a s e which i s a l s o a s o c i a l r e c o n c i l i a t i o n . 6 L a t e r i n the p l a y , i n Act Two, scene one, when the f u t u r e of 6 Frye, "The Argument of Comedy", p. 81. 32 . Katharina i s assured and there i s no longer any n e c e s s i t y f o r c o n t i n u i n g the r e l u c t a n t peace t r e a t y between them, the s u i t o r s resume t h e i r r i v a l r y i n the t r a d i t i o n a l form of the young and o l d s u i t o r i n the Mummers' Wooing p l a y s , Gre. Youngling, thou canst not love so dear as I . Tra, Greybeard, thy love doth f r e e z e . Gre. But t h i n e doth f r y . Skipper, stand back. 'Tis age tha t nourisheth. Tra. But youth i n l a d i e s ' eyes that f l o u r i s h e t h . ( I I , i , 339-41) This b i c k e r i n g serves to r e i n f o r c e the theme of the c o n f l i c t be-tween the young and the o l d . In Mummers' p l a y s , the abuse of the o l d wooer and h i s o f f e r s of g i f t s or possessions i s conv e n t i o n a l , and Gremio proceeds to "top" h i s r i v a l ' s " b i d s " as do the o l d s u i t o r s i n these p l a y s . L i k e Lysander and Demetrius, the con-tenders enumerate t h e i r possessions and q u a l i t i e s , and t h e i r contest i s a burlesque, p a r a l l e l i n g the clown's conventional boasting of h i s wealth. L i s t i n g h i s gold and lands, Gremio de-c l a r e s that a l l t h i s s h a l l be Bianca's a f t e r h i s death; Tranio r e p l i e s i n k i n d , and h i s boasting speech smacks of the speech of the e l d e s t son i n the Revesby Mummers' play. I am my f a t h e r ' s h e i r and only son. I f I may have your daughter to my w i f e , I ' l l leave her houses three or four as good W i t h i n r i c h P i s a w a l l s as any one Old S i g n i o r Gremio has i n Padua, Besides two thousand ducats by the year Of f r u i t f u l l a n d , a l l which s h a l l be her j o i n t u r e . What, have I pinched you, S i g n i o r Gremio? ( I I , i , 366-73) The f o l l o w i n g quotations are e x t r a c t s from the Revesby p l a y , spoken by Pepper B r i t c h e s , P i c k l e Herring, and C i c e l y , r e v e a l i n g 33. the p a r a l l e l s between the two. P.B. I am my f a t h e r ' s e l d e s t son, And h e i r of a l l h i s l a n d , And i n a short time, I hope, I t w i l l f a l l i n t o my hands. P.H. Sweet C i s s , i f thou w i l t be my l o v e , A thousand pounds I w i l l give thee. C i c . No, you're too o l d , s i r , and I am too young, And a l a s ! o l d man, that must not be. 7 C i c . Your gold may gain as good as I , But by no means i t s h a l l tempt me; For y o u t h f u l years and frozen age Cannot i n any wise agree. 8 Outbidding Gremio, I r a n i o i s forced to submit proof that h i s f a t h e r w i l l endorse the o f f e r e d dowry, as assurance that the b r i d e w i l l not be l e f t p e n n i l e s s at Tranio's death. The o l d -young antipathy i s continued as the scene ends, and Gremio ex-claims : .... Now I f e a r thee not S i r r a h young gamester, your f a t h e r were a f o o l To give thee a l l , and i n h i s waning age Set f o o t under thy t a b l e , Tut, a toy! An o l d I t a l i a n fox i s not so k i n d , my boy. ( I I , i , A02-406) In d e f i a n t r e p l y to old Gremio's ephemeral triumph, Trania makes use of a gaming metaphor, to i n d i c a t e that he has s u c c e s s f u l l y b l u f f e d him, and says, "Yet I have faced i t w i t h a card of t e n . " He i s l e f t w i t h the problem of supplying a f a t h e r or l o s i n g Bianca f o r h i s master. He expresses the dilemma i n terms of the wooing p l a y , 7 E.K. Chambers, The E n g l i s h F o l k - P l a y . Oxford, At the C l a r -endon Press, 1933, p. 117. 8 I b i d . . p. 119. 34 Must get a f a t h e r , c a l l e d - supposed V i n c e n t i o . And t h a t ' s a wonder. Fathers commonly Do get t h e i r d h i l d r e n , but i n t h i s case of wooing, A c h i l d s h a l l get a s i r e , i f I f a i l not of my cunning. ( I I , i , 410-13) Often i n the Mummers' play there i s some confusion concerning the ages and r e l a t i o n s h i p s of the c h a r a c t e r s . Sometimes the f o o l , who i s nominally the " f a t h e r " of the others, claims to be younger than they are, t h e r e f o r e t h e i r son, and boasts of h i s sexual prowess. Claiming that he begets f u l l - g r o w n c h i l d r e n before lunch, he f i n a l l y ends by winning the l a d y . Despite the confidence of the e l d e r l y Gremio, and the temptation of h i s o f -f e r , Bianca, l i k e the t r a d i t i o n a l Mummers' "l a d y " , i n the end marries f o r love not gold. Act Two begins w i t h proof of Katharina's shrewishness, which a l s o symbolizes the t r a d i t i o n a l a n t i p a t h y between younger and o l d e r s i s t e r s . She has t i e d Bianca's hands behind her back, and s t r i k e s her when she does not admit to l o v i n g e i t h e r the aged but wealthy Gremio or the y o u t h f u l Hortensio. The appear-ance of B a p t i s t a prevents any f u r t h e r t o r t u r e , and Katharina c r i e s i n f r u s t r a t i o n , I must dance barefoot on her wedding day And f o r your love to her lead apes i n H e l l . ( I I , i , 33-34) " I t was an o l d (and humiliating)custom f o r an e l d e r unmarried s i s t e r to dance barefooted at the wedding of her younger s i s -9 t e r . " Thus, the c o n f l i c t between Katharina and Bianca i s 9 G.B. Harrison, Shakespeare, The Complete Works, New York, Harcourt, Brace and Company, 1952, p. 343• 35 e motivated by t r a d i t i o n a l j e a lousy, which s u p p l i e s a d d i t i o n a l motive f o r Katharina's shrewishness. I t a l s o makes i t seem l e s s "un-natural", and perhaps suggests t h a t i t i s not i n c o r r i g -i b l e , being i n part c i r c u m s t a n t i a l r a t h e r than c o n g e n i t a l . Upon the a r r i v a l of the group of s u i t o r s , accompanied by the f a l s e t u t o r s , Petruchio broaches the subject of h i s marriage s u i t immediately. The bluntness of h i s approach i s very much i n character, and foreshadows h i s methods and h i s success i n break-in g Katharina's s p i r i t . In t r a d i t i o n a l wooing sequences, there i s o f t e n a comic wooing scene which p a r a l l e l s the main one, and the wooing scene sequence between Katharina and Petruchio seems to be a burlesque. Furthermore, Petruchio's speech i n c l u d e s l i n e s and r e f r a i n s from popular b a l l a d s and wooing songs. The l i n e , "And every day I cannot come to woo" ( I I , i , 116) was a 10 popular r e f r a i n i n the B a l l a d of John and Joan. The l i n e , "we w i l l be married o' Sunday", ( I I , i , 326) i s a l s o a popular 11 " t a g " of the contemporary b a l l a d . His wooing technique i s indeed an ingenious one, f o r he p r a i s e s a l l of Katharina's v i r -tues, and ignores her shrewishness, much to her own vexation and the astonishment of the others. In t h i s scene, as the r e s -p e c t i v e wooers present t h e i r g i f t s of t u t o r s , and o f f e r t h e i r s e r v i c e s and l o v e , we see a p i c t u r e of wooing techniques i n gener a l , and the customs associated w i t h the marriage ceremony and i t s c e l e b r a t i o n . Petruchio l o s e s no time i n a s c e r t a i n i n g 10 B a s k e r v i l l , J i g , p. 194. 11 I b i d . , p. 214. 36. the amount of K a t h a r i n a f s dowry, and i n ent e r i n g i n t o an agree-ment w i t h her f a t h e r . The marriage contract r e f l e c t s contemp-orary values and customs, f o r i t was the custom i n E l i z a b e t h a n England f o r the f a t h e r to endow h i s daughters w i t h a c e r t a i n sum against t h e i r marriage. In t h i s case, B a p t i s t a has to pay de a r l y f o r the p r i v i l e g e of l o s i n g a daughter and g a i n i n g a son, who intends to woo "not l i k e a babe", but t o use p o l i c y and subterfuge i n order almost to brainwash the g i r l . Say that she r a i l ; why, then I ' l l t e l l her p l a i n She sings as sweetly as a n i g h t i n g a l e . Say t h a t she frown; I ' l l say she looks as c l e a r As morning roses newly washed w i t h dew. ( I I , 1, 171-74) The i n s u l t and badinage that passes between the two i s a l s o reminiscent of the burlesque scenes i n Wooing plays i n which a main character i s rebuffed by the maiden u n t i l he determines to leave; then, humbled, she c a l l s him back. When her f a t h e r a r -r i v e s to see how the s u i t has sped, Katharina r a i l s at him, accusing him of wishing t o wed her t o , ...one h a l f - l u n a t i c , A mad-cap r u f f i a n and a swearing Jack That t h i n k s w i t h oaths to face the matter out. ( I I , i , 289-91) However, Petruchio ignores her bad temper, and arranges f o r the marriage t o take place on the next Sunday. Act Three opens w i t h a wooing contest between the two f a l s e t u t o r s , Lucentio and Hortensio i n d i s g u i s e , which p a r a l l e l s t h a t between Tranio and Gremio. The " f l y t i n g c ontest" between the two develops i n t o an argument concerning the r e l a t i v e m e r i t s of philosophy and music. T h e i r b i c k e r i n g i s i n t e r s p e r s e d w i t h comments which draw upon the terms and p r a c t i c e s of music and musical instruments. Scene two introduces Katharina, awaiting the a r r i v a l of her fiance', who i s extremely t a r d y . Petruchio's delay i s but another element i n h i s elaborate scheme to "break" K a t h a r i n a . His a r r i v a l , dressed i n a desreputable f s s i i o n , and r i d i n g a nag to match the i l l assortment of h i s dress, burlesques the r i t u a l solemnity of the marriage ceremony. His speech, But what a f o o l am I to chat w i t h you When I should b i d good morrow to my b r i d e And s e a l the t i t l e w i t h a l o v e l y k i s s l ( I I I , i i , 1 2 3 - 2 5 ) r e f l e c t s the f i r s t of the ceremonies i n a wedding i n which the husband-to-be awakens h i s b r i d e on the morning of t h e i r mar-r i a g e , and a l s o burlesques the magic k i s s of love which breaks the s p e l l of bewitchment i n f o l k t a l e s . As the marriage proceeds, Lucentio and Tranio decide t o s t e a l Bianca away from the wa t c h f u l s c r u t i n y of her f a t h e r , so that she may s e c r e t l y marry Lucentio. Tra. W e ' l l overreach the greybeard, Gremio, The narrow-prying f a t h e r , Minola, The quaint musician, amorous L i c i o , ( I I I , i i , 147-49) Th e i r plans r e i n f o r c e and make c l e a r the theme of the i n e v i t a b l e c o n f l i c t between the o l d and the young, between the demands of 3d. w i n t e r and of s p r i n g . Their dialogue l a b e l s them as r e v e l l e r s who are p l o t t i n g t o confound the k i l l - j o y s , and to c o n s o l i d a t e and strengthen the m i s r u l e i n which they are engaged. When the wedding company a r r i v e s , Petruchio very d i s c o u r t e o u s l y r e f u s e s to p reside at the wedding f e a s t , and takes h i s b r i d e away on an arduous journey to h i s home. In E l i z a b e t h a n England, such an act was extremely rude, f o r the major part of a wedding was the ceremonial f e a s t that followed i t , symbolizing and c e l e b r a t i n g the new union. Obey the b r i d e , you that attend on her. Go to the f e a s t , r e v e l and domineer, Carouse f u l l measure to her maidenhead, Be mad and merry, or go hang yourselves. ( I l l , i i , 225-28) Using the pretence t h a t they are beset w i t h t h i e v e s , Petruchio h u s t l e s Katharina away, v o i c i n g the d o c t r i n e that the w i f e i s part of her husband's " c h a t t e l s " . I w i l l be master of what i s mine own. She i s my goods, my c h a t t e l s ; she i s my house My household s t u f f , my f i e l d , my barn, My horse, my ox, my ass, my anything; ( I I I , i i , 231-34) Act Four opens w i t h the p r e p a r a t i o n of Petruchio's country house to r e c e i v e the b r i d e , and Grumio's v e r s i o n of the hard-ships of the t r i p . His conversation w i t h C u r t i s r e v e a l s the kinds of p r e p a r a t i o n involved i n the upkeep of an E l i z a b e t h a n country house, and the c l o t h i n g and d u t i e s of household servants. Grumio's r e p l y t o C u r t i s ' demand f o r the news i s a quotation of a conventional l i n e from a "news" b a l l a d . B a s k e r v i l l remarks, 3 9 . "A round from Ravenscroft's Pammelia. (No. 56) begins "Jacke boy, 12 ho boy newes". The scene ends w i t h Petruchio's s o l i l o q u y concerning h i s methods, i n which he draws upon the metaphor of hawking, and l i k e n s h i s treatment of h i s new w i f e to the t r a i n -i n g of a hawk. My f a l c o n now i s sharp and passing empty, And t i l l she stoop, she must not be f u l l - g o r g e d , (IV, i , 193-94) In scene t h r e e , references to contemporary terms and customs i n c l o t h i n g abound, and scene f i v e presents the v i c t o r y of Pet-r u c h i o when Katharina bows to h i s w i l l saying, What you w i l l have i t named, even th a t i t i s , And so i t s h a l l be so f o r Katharine. (IV, v, 2122) He r e p l i e s borrowing a metaphor from the sport of bowling, W e l l , forward, forward I Thus the bowl should run, And not u n l u c k i l y against the b i a s . (IV, v, 24-25) The short l a s t act of the p l a y presents the denouement, i n which the deceivers are unmasked and f o r g i v e n . Lucentio and Bianca have flown to a c l a n d e s t i n e marriage, "while c o u n t e r f e i t supposes b l e a r e d " the eyes of B a p t i s t a . Thus, t h e i r deception i s somewhat l i k e the Maying f l i g h t to the woods which c e l e b r a t e s the s p r i n g season, and f a c i l i t a t e s the independence of youth from the commands and d i s c i p l i n e of age. The play ends w i t h a l l r e c o n c i l e d at a banquet given by Lucentio i n honour of the three new marriages. The grouping by three was conventional i n 12 B a s k e r v i l l , J i g , p. 68 40 e popular games, dances, and Mummers' p l a y s . Badinage between the widow and Kate develops bawdy i m p l i c a t i o n s , and Bianca, using the metaphor of hunting w i t h the bow and arrow, withdraws w i t h the other women f o l l o w i n g . The conversation continues between the men who pursue the hunt i n g metaphor, Pet. This b i r d you aimed a t , though you h i t her not. Therefore a h e a l t h t o a l l that shot and missed. Tra. Oh, s i r , Lucentio s l i p p e d me l i k e h i s grey-hound, Which runs himself and catches f o r h i s master. Pet. A good s w i f t s i m i l e , but something c u r r i s h . Tra. 'Tis w e l l , s i r , t hat you hunted f o r y o u r s e l f . 'Tis thought, your deer does hold you at a. bay. Bapt.Oh, ho, PetruchioI Tranio h i t s you now. Luc. I thank thee f o r that g i r d , good Tranio. Hor. Confess, confess, hath he not h i t you here? Pet. A' has a l i t t l e g a l l e d me, I confess; In order to t e s t the obedience of t h e i r wives, and t o shame Pe t r u c h i o , Lucentio and Hortensio arrange a wager. A l l three summon t h e i r wives, but only Katharina appears. The play ends as Petruchio uses a term from the sport of archery t o have the l a s t word over the l o s e r s of the wager. Am I your b i r d ? I mean to s h i f t my bush, And then pursue me as you draw your bow. You are welcome a l l . (V, i i , 46-48) Come, Kate, w e ' l l to bed. We three are married, but you two are sped. •Twas I won the wager, though you h i t the white, And, being a winner, God give you good, night I (V, i i , 184-88) The Taming of the Shrew, adapted as i t i s from an e a r l i e r 41. play, c l e a r l y i l l u s t r a t e s how deeply rooted i n f o l k t r a d i t i o n were Shakespeare's e a r l i e r comedies. The choice of metaphor, and even character and p l o t , has been s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n f l u e n c e d by the folk-drama, the r i t u a l , and the pastimes of the s i x t e e n t h century. In t h i s p l a y, Shakespeare has drawn upon wooing se-quences i n Mummers' pl a y s , May games, pastimes, and popular b a l -l a d s , and has used the r i t u a l of h i s time to lend a d d i t i o n a l meaning to a f a m i l i a r p l o t . As a r e s u l t of the p a r a l l e l s w i t h f o l k wooing sequences, the characters of both Petruchio and Tranio acquire a d d i t i o n a l s i g n i f i c a n c e , and even the a c t i o n of the p l o t i t s e l f has connotations which the E l i z a b e t h a n audience could not help n o t i c i n g . However, the adaptation of popular m a t e r i a l s on the p r o f e s s i o n a l stage becomes even more evident i n the plays to f o l l o w . Though the references to contemporary customs and sports are indeed numerous i n t h i s p l a y, they tend to become more c o n s c i o u s l y f u n c t i o n a l and dramatic i n the plays to be d e a l t w i t h l a t e r . CHAPTER TWO  The Two Gentlemen of Verona and the Popular T r a d i t i o n Drawing h e a v i l y f o r theme and i n c i d e n t upon the l i t e r a r y t r a d i t i o n s of I t a l i a n romantic comedy, and l e s s h e a v i l y on the r i t u a l s of c o u r t l y l o v e , The Two Gentlemen of Verona does not • present as f e r t i l e a f i e l d f o r study of f o l k elements i n the drama as do most of the other e a r l y comedies. I t would seem, however, t h a t , i n t h i s p l a y , Shakespeare i s presenting A Mid-summer Night's Dream i n swaddling c l o t h e s , since most of the b a s i c p l o t elements of the l a t t e r are present. The most ob-vious d i f f e r e n c e between the two i s , of course, t h a t i n A Mid-summer Night's Dream Shakespeare has s u p p l i e d a supernatural j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r the f i c k l e n e s s and i n f i d e l i t y of the l o v e r s . Nevertheless, i n The Two Gentlemen of Verona, Shakespeare i s presenting the b a s i c s i t u a t i o n of the f l i g h t t o the woods though without l a b e l l i n g i t as he does i n A Midsummer Night's Dream. In both p l a y s , young love i s balked by Age and by the " c o n s i d -e r a t i o n s " of c i v i l i z e d behaviour. R e f l e c t i n g the contemporary i d e a l of the supremacy of f r i e n d s h i p over l o v e , the p l o t s i t -u a t i o n of the p l a y i s somewhat s i m i l a r to John L y l y ' s novel, 1 Euphues. The marriage of these d i s t i n c t l y d i f f e r e n t elements presents an e x c e l l e n t example of the c o u r t l y and popular t r a d -1 In L y l y ' s n o v e l , Euphues, the hero f a l l s i n love w i t h h i s f r i e n d ' s f i a n c e e . She, u n l i k e S i l v i a , r e t u r n s h i s l o v e , and laments her predicament i n much the same way t h a t Proteus r e -proaches himself f o r h i s s i n against sacred f r i e n d s h i p . In i t are a l s o t o be found w i t t y d i s c u s s i o n s of the c o n f l i c t between the e g o t i s t i c a l r e c k l e s s n e s s of youth and the sober prudence of o l d age, and the r i v a l claims of f r i e n d s h i p and l o v e . 4 3 . i t i o n s being used together f o r the same purpose. The opening speech of the play i n d i c a t e s to the audience th a t i t s a c t i o n w i l l d e a l w i t h maturing of youth, and w i t h the contest between love and the everyday world. V a l e n t i n e i s a t y p -i c a l Shakespearian character i n that he scorns i d l e and f i c k l e love and t h a t , l i k e Berowne, Benedict, and T r o i l u s , he w i l l repent of h i s scorn l a t e r i n the play. In c o n t r a s t , Proteus, h i s f r i e n d and l a t e r h i s r i v a l , represents f i c k l e n e s s i n love and d e s t r u c t -i o n of f r i e n d s h i p . The play a l s o touches on the e f f e c t of love upon the i n d i v i d u a l , how he i s set i n o p p o s i t i o n to the d i c t a t e s of h i s s e t t l e d s o c i e t y , and l i v e s i n a world of h i s own. As i n The Taming of the Shrew, the sending o f f of Va l e n t i n e t o M i l a n t o seek h i s fortune and g a i n experience of the ways of the world, r e -f l e c t s the Medieval and Renaissance custom of sending young noble-men to the wars, the u n i v e r s i t i e s , the court, or the household of a great l o r d t o l e a r n the ways of c o u r t i e r s h i p . There s h a l l he p r a c t i c e t i l t s and tournaments, Hear sweet d i s c o u r s e , converse w i t h noblement, And be i n eye of every e x e r c i s e Worthy h i s youth and nobleness of b i r t h ( I , i i i , 30-33) In the f i r s t two a c t s , references to current pastimes are con-f i n e d to i s o l a t e d passages such as the dialogue between J u l i a and L u c e t t a ( I , i i , 79-96) which draws on contemporary musical 2 terms, and afterwards r e f e r s to the game of P r i s o n e r ' s Base. Just as h i s f a t h e r and uncle are determining to send him to the court of the Emperor, Proteus a r r i v e s , having newly p l i g h t e d 2 See I I , i v , 33-34; I I , v, 60-61 ; I I , v i i , 34-35; I I , v i i , 45-48 44. mutual t r o t h w i t h J u l i a . Unaware of h i s son's love a f f a i r , Ant-onio i n a d v e r t e n t l y comes between the young l o v e r s by sending him away. Thus the play s e t s up a dichotomy s i m i l a r to that which ap-3 pears i n pageant form i n A Midsummer Night's Dream. Proteus' d e s i r e to conceal h i s love l e t t e r from J u l i a only serves to con-f i r m the arrangements of h i s f a t h e r , who i s adamant i n h i s des-i r e to put f o r t h h i s son "to seek preferment out". The imagery of Proteus' lamentation over h i s f a t e glances at the t r a d i t i o n a l pageant contest between summer and w i n t e r : Oh, how t h i s s p r i n g of love resembleth The u n c e r t a i n g l o r y of an A p r i l day, Which now shows a l l the beauty of the sun, And by and by a cloud takes a l l awayj ( I , i i i , 84-87) Thus Proteus i s faced w i t h the dilemma of Hermia, but, u n l i k e her, he accedes to p a r e n t a l demands, and "the sweetest bud" of h i s love i s b l i g h t e d by the " e a t i n g canker" of s e p a r a t i o n . Act Two commences w i t h a c o u r t l y love convention, the young l o v e r ' s worship of an a r t i c l e of h i s m i s t r e s s ' s c l o t h i n g . The byplay concerning S i l v i a ' s glove i s followed by a conventional " c h a r a c t e r " or "blazon" of the melancholy l o v e r . There i s a l s o a p a r a l l e l use of c o u r t l y love conventions l a t e r i n the scene i n the V a l e n t i n e - S i l v i a l e t t e r episode, a recognized gambit i n the wooing r i t u a l where the l o v e r i s s o c i a l l y i n f e r i o r to h i s m i s t r e s s and i s t h e r e f o r e prevented from t a k i n g the i n i t i a t i v e . Scene two i s the s o u l of b r e v i t y , s e r v i n g the requirements of 3 L i k e Egeus, Antonio prevents h i s c h i l d ' s marriage (but, of course, unknowingly). L a t e r the c o n f l i c t between youth and age, love and s o c i e t y , becomes c l e a r e r i n V a l e n t i n e ' s s t r u g g l e w i t h the Duke, S i l v i a ' s f a t h e r . 45 the p l o t by d i s p a t c h i n g Proteus to M i l a n as s w i f t l y as p o s s i b l e . I t i s followed by a comic i n t e r l u d e of Launce and h i s dog, i n which Launce 1s s o l i l o q u y makes use of humorous devices remin-i s c e n t of the topsyturvy humour commonly used i n t y p i c a l Mummers1 p l a y s . B a s k e r v i l l remarks about t h i s monologue: In connection w i t h the song and dance s p e c i a l i t i e s of the clown i t i s worth remembering that the a r t of the o l d mimus was very h i g h l y developed i n the Renaissance. Comic d e s c r i p t i o n s and n a r r a t i v e pieces are f r e q u e n t l y broken by dialogue i n djLts, sermons joyeux. e t c . The device s u r v i v e s i n the monologues of v i c e s i n E n g l i s h m o r a l i t i e s , and reaches i t s f i n e s t development i n the two monologues of Launce on h i s "Curre". 4 S i l v i a ' s speech ending the a l t e r c a t i o n between the r i v a l l o v e r s i n scene f o u r draws upon the metaphor of shooting, "A f i n e v o l l e y of words gentlemen, and q u i c k l y shot o f f . " As the scene continues, the a r r i v a l of Proteus i s announced, and the conversation concerning h i s merits leads i n t o a d i s c u s s i o n of the senses of the l o v e r and the b l i n d n e s s of l o v e , which appears to be one of the c e n t r a l ideas i n the p l a y . The conversation between the r e u n i t e d f r i e n d s turns once more to the idea of the penance r e q u i r e d of the cynic who had scorned l o v e . V a l . Aye, Proteus, but that l i f e i s a l t e r e d now. I have done penance f o r contemning Love, Whose high imperious thoughts have punished me With b i t t e r f a s t s , w i t h p e n i t e n t i a l groans, With n i g h t l y t e a r s , and d a i l y heart-sore s i g h s ; For, i n revenge of my contempt of l o v e , Love hath chased sleep from my e n t h r a l l e d eyes, And made them watchers of mine own heart's sorrow. 0 g e n t l e Proteus, Love's a mighty l o r d , And hath so humbled me, as I confess There i s no woe to h i s c o r r e c t i o n , Nor to h i s s e r v i c e no such joy on e a r t h . 4 B a s k e r v i l l , J i g , p. 86. 46, Now no di s c o u r s e , except i t be of l o v e . Now can I break my f a s t , dine, sup and sleep, Upon the very naked name of l o v e . ( I I , i v , 128-43) V a l e n t i n e ' s p r a i s e of h i s lady r e f l e c t s the t r a d i t i o n a l pageant b a t t l e between summer and w i n t e r . She s h a l l be d i g n i f i e d w i t h t h i s high honor -To bear my lady's t r a i n , l e s t the base e a r t h Should from her vesture chance to s t e a l a k i s s , And, of so great a fa v o r growing proud, D i s d a i n to root the summer-swelling f l o w e r , And make rough w i n t e r e v e r l a s t i n g l y , ( I I , i v , 158-63) V a l e n t i n e r e v e a l s that the Emperor p r e f e r s S i r Thurio as a s u i t o r because " h i s possessions are so huge". Thus the play begins to take on some of the q u a l i t i e s of the humanistic debate as t o whether wealth or l e a r n i n g , m i l i t a r y prowess, l i b e r a l i t y , or c o u r t l i n e s s i s p r e f e r a b l e i n a l o v e r . The presence of a Knight and a Clerk as r i v a l s u i t o r s i s common i n Medieval rom-ance and i n Mummers' Wooing plays i n which a gentleman and a 5 f o o l v i e f o r the lady's favours. In emphasizing the worth of n o b i l i t y , the pla y again r e f l e c t s the p r a c t i c e of e a r l y s i x t e e n -t h century wooing drama. The scene ends w i t h Proteus' s o l i l o q u y on h i s l o s s of " l o v e " f o r V a l e n t i n e , and h i s determination to woo S i l v i a h i m s e l f . Scene f i v e contains a reference to the cus-6 torn of "church A l e s " . 5 On t h i s p o i n t see a l s o L.L.L., Chapter Three, p. 7-5• 6 B a s k e r v i l l p o i n t s out that the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f e a s t of the f o l k from Easter to autumn seems to have been the a l e . O r i g i n -a l l y , an " A l e " was a f e s t i v a l or banquet at which much a l e was drunk. The widespread use of the term i s i n d i c a t e d i n the term " b r i d a l " s t i l l used as a name f o r the marriage f e a s t . The sum^ mer f e a s t of the f o l k , p a r t i c u l a r l y that of Whitsun, i s of t e n c a l l e d an a l e - a whitsun a l e , a king a l e , a play a l e , or even a Robin Hood a l e . The "Church A l e " i n v o l v e d the custom whereby the o f f i c e r s of the church c o l l e c t e d c o n t r i b u t i o n s of malt from 47* Scene s i x i s very s i m i l a r t o Act Four, scene three of Love 1s  Labor's Lost i n t h a t i t r e v e a l s the forsworn l o v e r Proteus searching f o r a r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n to support him i n the b e t r a y a l of h i s best f r i e n d and h i s m i s t r e s s . His speech p a r a l l e l s Ber-owne's r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n which enables the King and h i s party to ignore t h e i r previous oaths of abstinence and study. Proteus r e -v e a l s himself to be a Machiavel i n the presence of innocents as he decides, l i k e Helena, to r e v e a l the l o v e r s ' plans to f l e e the r i g o r s of the Emperor's commands. The next scene introduces J u l i a planning to f o l l o w Proteus, to make a love-journey which she l i k e n s to a pilgrimage and a pastime. In a speech which comments on contemporary male f a s h i o n s , J u l i a s t a t e s her i n t e n t -i o n of d i s g u i s i n g h e r s e l f as a man i n order t o p r o t e c t h e r s e l f along the way. In Act Three, Proteus d i v u l g e s the plans of the l o v e r s to the angry f a t h e r , who decides to catch V a l e n t i n e i n the act and banish him from the court. The Duke's c l e v e r speech to the un-suspecting V a l e n t i n e r e f l e c t s the symbolic b a t t l e between Age and Youth, and p a r a l l e l s the complaint of Egeus i n A Midsummer  Night's Dream: No, t r u s t me. She i s peevish, s u l l e n , froward, Proud, d i s o b e d i e n t , stubborn, l a c k i n g duty, Neither regarding t h a t she i s my c h i l d , Nor f e a r i n g me as i f I were her f a t h e r . And, may I say to thee, t h i s p r i d e of hers, Upon advice, hath drawn my love from her; And, where I thought the remnant of mine age Should have been cherished by her c h i l d l i k e duty, I now am f u l l r e s o lved t o take a w i f e , And t u r n her out to who w i l l take her in„ ( I I I , i , 68-76) the p a r i s h i o n e r s , from which a q u a n t i t y of a l e was brewed and sold at p e r i o d i c f e s t i v e gatherings f o r payment of church expenses. ("Dramatic Aspects of Medieval Folk F e s t i v a l s " , p. 75 • ) 4 8 . The enforced chastity of the maid, and the unnaturalness of the father's actions, are emphasized in his remarks that ost-ensibly concern the woman he wishes to woo. But she I mean i s promised by her friends Unto a youthful gentleman of worth, And kept severely from resort of men, That no man hath access by day to her. ( I l l , i , 106-12) Valentine's reply to the Duke's query on how to win a lady reveals contemporary wooing customs as well as his own methods and plans with regard to S i l v i a . The Duke's condemnation of Valentine repeats the complaint that he i s wooing a woman above his station in l i f e , and reinforces the plot's similarity to Mummers' Wooing plays. Launce's statement that, "There's not a hair on's head but 'ti s a Valentine.", emphasizes the sym-bolic connotations of true love that appear in Valentine's name. After the departure of Proteus and Valentine to the North gate of the city, Launce's revelation that he, too, i s in love smacks of the burlesque wooing scenes of folk-drama. The clown's des-cription of his lady with i t s burlesque note i s common in Mum-7 mers' Wooing plays. ....yet I am in love. But a team of horse shall not pluck that from me, nor who 'ti s I love. And yet ' t i s a woman, but what woman, I w i l l not t e l l myself. And yet 'tis a milkmaid. Yet 't i s not a maid, for she hath had gossips. Yet 't i s a maid, for she i s her master's 7 Baskervill, "Conventional Features of Fulgens and Lucres", p. 430. See also L.L.L.. IV, i , 60-86; I, i , 284-316; and the comments of Touchstone in A.Y.L.I., III, i i ; and V, iv, 56-64. 4 9 . maid, and serves for wages. She hath more q u a l i t i e s than a water spaniel- 8 ( I I I , i , 264-71) In scene two, the conversation between the Duke and Proteus concerning S i l v i a ' s love for Valentine sets up S i r Thurio and Valentine almost as t r a d i t i o n a l pageant figures i n opposition to one another. Proteus' advice to Thurio concerning the win-ning of S i l v i a ' s love draws on contemporary courting practices i n which the young man composes sonnets, and v i s i t s "by night your lady's chamber window / With some sweet consort." Act Four introduces the f l i g h t to the woods, and the Robin Hood motif of the play. Though Shakespeare does not emphasize t h i s Maying theme, i t i s evident that Valentine's f l i g h t to the woods p a r a l l e l s Hermia's and Lysander's f l i g h t from the "sharp Athenian law" i n A Midsummer Night's Dream. As i s usual i n the Robin Hood Mummers' plays, a t r a v e l l e r i s accosted by a number of 8 The following excerpt from Fulgens and Lucres i s t y p i c a l of the clown's conventional analysis of his lady love. I t r u s t that within a l y t y l l space That wenche s h a l l be myne. I t e l l you i t i s a t r u l l of t r u s t A l l to quenche a mannes thrust Bettyr then ony wyne. I t i s a l y t y l l praty moucet, And her voyce i s as doucett And as swete as resty porke; Her face i s somewhat browne and yelow, But f o r a l l that she hath rioAfelow In syngynge hens to yorke Fulgens and Lucres ( I I , 834-63), c i t e d i n B a s k e r v i l l , "Con-ventional Features of Fulgens and Lucres", pp. 429-30. 50. outlaws i n the f o r e s t , and i s i n v i t e d to j o i n t h e i r band because of h i s comeliness, courage, and accomplishments. V a l e n t i n e i s given the choice of j o i n i n g the outlaw band as i t s l e a d e r , or s u f f e r i n g death at the hands of the outlaws f o r r e f u s i n g t h e i r courtesy. The speech of the t h i r d outlaw, By the bare s c a l p of Robin Hood's f a t f r i a r , This f e l l o w were a king f o r our w i l d f a c t i o n I (IV, i , 3 6 - 3 7 ) serves to u n d e r l i n e the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the p l o t s i t u a t i o n . As i t t u rns out, t h e i r s i s an "honorable k i n g of t h i e v e r y " , f o r , l i k e Robin Hood and h i s merry men, and V a l e n t i n e h i m s e l f , they are a l l men banished f o r p e t t y offenses, and do no harm to " s i l -l y women or poor passengers". The f o r e s t scenes seem to be based almost e n t i r e l y on Robin Hood plays and the legends surrounding the myth. Most of the f a m i l i a r elements of the legend, the com-radeship and the gentlemanliness of the outlaws, the treasure concealed away, the waylaying of t r a v e l l e r s , the presence of a F r i a r , the respect f o r c o u r t l i n e s s and f o r womanhood, the young man, whose fort u n e s have f a l l e n , followed to the wood by h i s l a d y l o v e , and the pardon given to a l l by the r u l e r who a l s o j o u r n i e s to the f o r e s t , appear to be present i n the p l a y . The p l o t s i t u a t i o n i t s e l f i s very l i k e one of the popular i n c i d e n t s i n the l i f e of Robin, the r e s t o r i n g to A l l a n a Dale of h i s l a d y l o v e . The f o l l o w i n g are e x t r a c t s from a b a l l a d "Rob-i n Hood and A l l i n a Dale Or, a pleasant r e l a t i o n how a young gentleman, being i n love with.a young damsel, she was taken from him to be an o l d k n i g h t ' s b r i d e : and how Robin Hood, p i t t y i n g 51. the young man's case, took her from the old knight, when they were going to be marryed, and restored her to her own love again. 9 To a pleasant northern tune, Robin Hood i n the green-wood stood." Robin and his men spy a youth dressed i n sc a r l e t cavorting i n the woods; l a t e r they see the same young man transformed into a t r a d i t i o n a l melancholy lover. They accost him, and the young man c r i e s , Stand o f f , stand o f f , the young man said, What i s your w i l l with me? "You must come before our master straight, Under yon green-wood tr e e . " And when he came bold Robin before, Robin askt him courteously, 0, hast thou any money to spare For my merry men and me? I have no money, the young man said, But f i v e s h i l l i n g s and a ring; And that I kept t h i s seven long years, To have i t at my wedding. Yesterday I should have married a maid, But she from me was tane, And chosen to be an old knight's delight, Whereby my poor heart i s s l a i n . (25-40) When asked how much gold he w i l l give f o r the return of his true love, A l l i n a Dale r e p l i e s , I have no money, then quoth the young man, No ready gold nor fee, But I w i l l swear upon a book Thy true servant for to be. (49-52) Pleased by the young man's character, Robin speeds to the church with his men, sees the lovely maiden and the wealthy old knight, and exclaims, 9 John Mathew Gutch, A L y t e l l Geste of Robin Hode With Other  Ancient & Modern Ballads and Songs Relating to t h i s Celebrated  Yeoman, London, Longman, Brown, Green & Longmans, 1847, p. 259. 52 This i s not a f i t match, quod bold Robin Hood, That you do seem to make here, For since we are come into the church, The bride s h a l l chuse her own dear. Then Robin Hood put his horn to his mouth, And blew bl a s t s two or three; When four and twenty bowmen bold Came leaping over the l e e . (73-80) The ballad ends with Robin and A l l i n and his wife returning to the "merry green-wood, / Amongst the leaves so green." The sim-i l a r i t y between Valentine's banishment and the Allan a Dale l e g -end serves to underline the Age-Youth antipathy inherent i n the play. In the next scene, J u l i a ' s conversation with the Host takes place against a background of music and song. The dramatic presentation of the circumstances which force J u l i a to stand and watch her lover wooing another woman glances at the f a m i l i a r children's and adults' singing and wooing games i n which one mem-ber must stand aside without a partner, the target f o r scorn and 10 j e s t . Later t h i s p a r a l l e l becomes clearer i n Act Four, scene four and, f i n a l l y , i n the l a s t scene of the play when J u l i a , l i k e Helena and, l a t e r , Hermia of A Midsummer Night's Dream, must stand aside unhappily to watch her lover making love to another woman. Scene three introduces S i r Eglamour, who w i l l guide S i l -v i a away from the harshness of her father's w i l l , i n the hope that she may eventually f i n d Valentine. The name of "Eglamour" 10 See also The Shrew. Chapter One, p. 27, and M.N.D.. Chapt-er Four, pp. 141-42. 53. was popular i n E l i z a b e t h a n plays and there i s evidence of a 11 considerable vogue of the Eglamour theme among the f o l k . Tales of the gentle hero who braves a l l obstacles to claim h i s b r i d e , and of the innocent maiden, the Constance who f l e e s from an unnatural f a t h e r , are common among the f o l k . They f i n d l i t -e r ary expression i n such romances as S i r Eglamour and S i r Tor-r e n t of Portyngale. L i k e J u l i a and Hermia, she, too, plans a pilgrimage to meet her l o v e , a f l i g h t to the woods, To keep me from a most unholy match, Which Heaven and Fortune s t i l l rewards w i t h plagues. IV, i i i , 30-31) Sent to d e l i v e r to S i l v i a the r i n g which she had given to Proteus, J u l i a , i n d e s c r i b i n g h e r s e l f to the sympathetic S i l v i a , r e v e a l s the p r a c t i c e of superimposing c l a s s i c a l m o t i f s on the May games: S i l . How t a l l was she? J u l . About my s t a t u r e ; f o r a t Pentecost, When a l l our pageants of d e l i g h t were played, Our youth got me t o play the woman's p a r t , And I was trimmed i n Madam J u l i a ' s gown, Which served me as f i t , by a l l men's judgments, As i f the garment had been made f o r me. Therefore I know she i s about my height. And at that time I made her weep agood, For I d i d play a lamentable p a r t . Madam 'twas Ariadne passioning For Theseus' p e r j u r y and unjust f l i g h t , Which I so l i v e l y acted w i t h my t e a r s That my poor m i s t r e s s , moved t h e r e w i t h a l , Wept b i t t e r l y ; and would I might be dead, I f I i n thought f e l t not her very sorrow! (IV, i v , 162-77) Her speech glances at the plays which the f o l k o f t e n presented 11 B a s k e r v i l l , " E a r l y Romantic P l a y s " , p. 501 54* on f e s t i v a l occasions, i n t h i s case on WhitSunday, i n which boys played the part of women. The passage also reveals that, i n addition to the t r a d i t i o n a l mimetic performances based on ancient r i t u a l s , the f o l k had also taken to borrowing c l a s s i c a l 12 themes and plots for th e i r dramatic entertainments. Act Five presents S i l v i a ' s f l i g h t to the woods, accompanied by the f a i t h f u l S i r Eglamour. Discovering her escape, her enraged father and S i r Thurio, her wealthy suitor, determine to pursue her i n order to bring her back to the law of society. In t h i s t y p i c a l contest between the knight and the clerk f o r the hand of the lady, i t appears as i f the knight w i l l again come o f f second best. After the capture of S i l v i a by the outlaws, scene four presents a soliloquy spoken by Valentine praising the merits of the wood and of the pastoral existence. He draws aside to l i s t e n as Proteus appears, pleading with S i l v i a for her favour. The plea and struggle f o r a kiss i s the theme of a number of dialogue 13 songs i n the sixteenth century. S i m i l a r l y , the ref u s a l of a pretty woman to k i s s a suitor, and her avowal of her f i d e l i t y 14 to an absent lover are conventional elements of wooing j i g s . Valentine bursts from the thicket when he sees Proteus o f f e r to "force" S i l v i a , and matters are resolved i n a f a n t a s t i c a l l y short time when the erring Proteus repents. With the appearance of the Duke, captured by Valentine's men, and S i r Thurio's cow-12 See also M.N.D.. Chapter Four, p. 150. 13 B a s k e r v i l l , "Conventional Features", p. 431. 14 B a s k e r v i l l , J i g , p. 263o ardly r e f u s a l to fi g h t f o r S i l v i a ' s hand, a l l i s resolved. The Duke pardons Valentine and his band, promising to "include a l l jars / With triumphs, mirth, and rare solemnity". The play ends with the suggestion of a double marriage and happiness i n the community. Close analysis of The Two Gentlemen of Verona and The Tam-ing of the Shrew leads one to recognize that Shakespeare used very early i n his career the dramatic p o t e n t i a l of the body of material available i n the r i t u a l , pastimes, and entertainments of his time. I t i s evident that, i n these two plays, he has already drawn upon the folk-drama to supply conventions, themes characters, and plot devices, and t h i s tendency i s to become increasingly evident i n the plays to come. This adaptation of old f e s t i v a l motifs i n general, the in s e r t i o n of references to games and pastimes, and the use of song and music i n both plays discussed can be seen to increase and to fi n d dramatic f u l -f i l l m e n t i n Love's Labor's Lost and A Midsummer Night's Dream. It i s obvious that The Two Gentlemen of Verona contains i n essence the elements of the Maying f l i g h t to the woods, and the t r a d i t i o n a l opposition between Youth and Age. The plot i s sim i l a r to that of A Midsummer Night's Dream i n that i t contains parental opposition to two love matches, the successful f l i g h t to evade the "law" of the parent's w i l l , and a plot s i t u a t i o n of two men loving or wooing the same woman, with one woman, 56, j i l t e d , forced t o stand and watch. However, t h i s time the men, i n s t e a d of the women, are f r i e n d s , and t h e i r f r i e n d s h i p i s s t r a i n e d by l o v e . Furthermore, a f a t h e r promises h i s daughter to h i s f a v -o u r i t e , who i s wealthy but whom she despises. The f a t h e r and the unwelcome s u i t o r f o l l o w the symbolic f l i g h t to the woods, where a l l are r e c o n c i l e d as the Duke welcomes V a l e n t i n e , recog-n i z i n g h i s worth, and promising a f r e s h s t a r t , a "new" year. Mr. Northrop Frye draws our a t t e n t i o n t o the p l a y ' s i n d e b t -edness to the r i t u a l of the f l i g h t t o the woods, but he uses an o r i g i n a l term, "the green world", f o r what I s i n essence the p r i n c i p l e of r e l e a s e o f f e r e d by m i s r u l e , Maying, and the r e v e l i n g e n e r a l . Recognizing the hero's r o l e as banished outlaw, he ex-p l a i n s that a l l the other characters are r e c o n c i l e d and "convert-ed" i n the wood. The movement of the a c t i o n begins i n the "norm-a l " world then t r a n s f e r s to the "green world" where i t goes i n -to a metamorphosis to achieve the r e s o l u t i o n , and then r e t u r n s 15 once more to the normal world. N o t i c i n g the i m p l i c i t p a r a l l e l between the p l a y ' s a c t i o n and the t r a d i t i o n a l c o n f l i c t between the seasons, he concludes: The green world charges the comedies w i t h a symbolism i n which the comic r e s o l u t i o n contains a suggestion of the o l d r i t u a l p a t t e r n of the v i c t o r y of summer over w i n t e r . T h i s i s e x p l i c i t i n Love's Labor's L o s t . In t h i s very masque-like p l a y , the comic contest takes the form of the medieval debate of w i n t e r and s p r i n g . 16 15 16 Northrop Frye, "The Argument of Comedy", p. 81. I b i d . , p. 86. 57 < CHAPTER THREE  Love's Labor's Lost, and a R i t u a l i s t i c S t r u c t u r e In Love's Labor's Lost. Shakespeare draws upon the play s p i r -i t and the r i t u a l element of E l i z a b e t h a n c u l t u r e to f a s h i o n a p l a y intended f o r the entertainment of the Court, or p o s s i b l y f o r a s e l e c t group of c o u r t i e r s at a Christmas house pa r t y . On the p l o t l e v e l , the pastimes w i t h which the French P r i n c e s s ' s embassy i s e n t e r t a i n e d , the dances, the Masque of the Muscovites, the show of the Nine Worthies, the pageant of winter and summer, a l l r e f l e c t the h o l i d a y s p i r i t of the s o c i e t y as a whole, and g i v e us a remarkable opportunity to observe i t s r e v e l s i n a c t i o n 8 The s o c i a l gamut of the "play and r i t u a l " element of E l i z a b e t h a n England i s a l s o being used as the b a s i s of s t r u c t u r e and a l l u s i o n i n the p l a y ' s a c t i o n . Though i t draws upon t r a d i t i o n a l e n t e r t a i n -ments of a l l l e v e l s of s o c i e t y , the p l a y has a l s o an i n t e l l e c t u a l focus d i r e c t e d t o a p a r t i c u l a r c l a s s . As Mr. Barber observes: The whole character of the piece marks i t as something intended f o r a s p e c i a l group, people who could be ex-pected to enjoy recondite and modish play w i t h language and to be f a m i l i a r , to the verge of boredom, w i t h the " r e v e l s , dances, masques, and merry hours" of c o u r t l y c i r c l e s . 1 Seemingly designed to convey the experience of a r e v e l , the play dramatizes r i t u a l s , pastimes, and entertainments f a m i l i a r t o a c o u r t l y audience, and e x h i b i t s the a r i s t o c r a c y ' s own s p e c i a l i n -1 Barber, Sh.'s F e s t i v e Comedy, p. 8 7 o t e r e s t s , and a l l of s o c i e t y ' s h o l i d a y p u r s u i t s , placed i n proper p e r s p e c t i v e w i t h regard to l i f e as a whole. The "movements" of the play are l i k e those of an elaborate b a l l e t . The s t r u c t u r e i s rhythmic and seems t o be patterned a f -t e r the measured groupings of.an E l i z a b e t h a n dance, p a r t i c u l a r l y the g a l l i a r d , a c o u r t s h i p dance. The f i r s t movement comprises the t a k i n g of the oath, the i n t r o d u c t i o n of the theme of the de.--r i a l of nature, and the f i r s t comic i n t e r l u d e , which introduces Armado, Moth, Costard, and Jaquenetta. The second movement i n -cludes the a r r i v a l of the women, and t h e i r r e a c t i o n to the s i t -u a t i o n e x i s t i n g at the Court of Navarre. The t h i r d a l s o presents an i n t e r l u d e i n t r o d u c i n g Holofernes and N a t h a n i e l , and a dance-l i k e r e v e l a t i o n of the forswearing of the l o v e r s ; and the f o u r t h presents another i n t e r l u d e of the pedant and the curate, and con-2 eludes w i t h the Masque of the Muscovites. The "dance p a t t e r n " i n the play's s t r u c t u r e places the r e v e l i n i t s pers p e c t i v e by imposing upon i t beauty, grace, s t a t e l i n e s s , and, f i n a l l y , un-r e a l i t y . When brought i n t o contact w i t h the world outside i t s framework, the a c t i o n , which i s so g r a c e f u l l y ordered and det e r -mined by the code and atmosphere of a r e v e l , d i s s o l v e s l i k e "an i n s u b s t a n t i a l pageant faded", and s w i f t l y r e t u r n s to r e a l i t y and to the r e c o g n i t i o n of the proper place of the ho l i d a y s p i r i t i n the t o t a l i t y of human experience. In t h i s p l a y , Shakespeare i s dramatizing a sp r i n g f e s t i v a l , 2 H a r r i s o n , Works, p. 394» and i s expressing t o h i s audience the s p i r i t of freedom and joy ousness which f o l l o w s the r e l e a s e from the r e p r e s s i o n s imposed by w i n t e r , s o c i e t y , and study. In both Love's Labor's Lost and A Midsummer Might's Dream, as Mr. Barber p o i n t s out: The whole a c t i o n i s shaped to express the psycholog-i c a l r e l e a s e to be gained from p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a rev-e l , and to provide occasion f o r comic c l a r i f i c a t i o n of the r e l a t i o n between man's v i t a l energies and the r e s t of h i s experience. 3 The f e s t i v a l s i n E n g l i s h f o l k l i f e s u p p l i e d the opportunity f o r communication across c l a s s l i n e s and f o r a r e a l i z a t i o n of the c 4 mon humanity of every l e v e l of s o c i e t y . This communication i s p a r a l l e l e d i n the drama by the i n t i m a t e connection between audience and p l a y e r s , a t r a d i t i o n of long standing i n both c o u r t l y and popular entertainments. B a s k e r v i l l informs us that In e a r l y drama and i n mummers' pl a y s , the j e s t e r s and presenters formed a l i n k between the audience and the more formal dramatized a c t i o n . In f e s t i v a l p l a y s , the sense of the u n i t y of the whole assemblage was doubt-l e s s more s i g n i f i c a n t so t h a t the occasion and the audience were f r e q u e n t l y dramatized. I n presenting the King's p a r t y , Armado, and Costard i n l o v e , Shakespeare i s presenting a s e r i e s of wooing games, and, as a r e s u l t , the emphasis i n the a c t i o n l i e s mainly i n the f i g -ured a c t i v i t i e s of the group as a whole, not i n the a c t i o n s of i n d i v i d u a l s . The o v e r r i d i n g impression the audience r e c e i v e s of the a c t i o n i s the e f f e c t upon a group of people of a f o r c e 3 C.L. Barber, " S a t u r n a l i a i n the Henriad", i n Leonard F. Dean, Shakespeare: Modern Essays i n C r i t i c i s m , New York, Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1957, p. 171. 4 Barber, Sh.'s F e s t i v e Comedy, p. 111. 5 B a s k e r v i l l , "Conventional Features", p. 438. 60e 6 of nature greater than their individual w i l l s . This i s the situation that underlies most celebrations, especially those which commemorate the rhythm of the year. The sociological function of revelry i s examined in the play. In the opening scenes, the asceticism of "anti-revel" i s in the ascendancy. However, with the arrival of the women, a movement toward the restoration of balance begins, and the play swings into the s p i r i t of revelry. As i s frequent in Shakespeare, a dialectic has been set up, revealing the two extremes, and the play moves toward a mean, a compromise founded in "sweet reason-ableness". A holiday group asserts i t s liberty from the respon-s i b i l i t i e s of everyday and promotes i t s solidarity by p a r t i c i -pating in group revels. The period of misrule, the epitome of the revel and a l l that i t implies, involved a transfer of author-i t y rather than anarchy, an overturning of established values, and a momentary return to what was considered to be a more nat-ural l i f e . In the Saturnalian pattern, rulers are dethroned, priests unfrocked, and fools set in their places. A l l normal harmony becomes cacophony, the servant becomes the master, men wear skirts and women trousers, virtue i s spurned and unchastity honoured, drunkenness i s a virtue and sobriety a crime, and sleep 7 is for the day„ By acting as a safety-valve to relieve the frustrations and inhibitions of ci v i l i z e d behaviour, the revel served to insure the health of the individual and of the commun-6 Barber, Sh.'s Festive Comedy, p. 88. 7 M. Wilson Disher, Clowns and Pantomimes, London, Constable & Co. Ltd., 1925, p. 41. 61. i t y . Because of t h e i r pagan r o o t s , f o l k c e l e b r a t i o n s centered around the enjoyment of the v i t a l pleasure of those moments i n the c y c l e of human l i f e and of the seasons when nature and soc-8 i e t y were h o s p i t a b l e to l i f e . As leaders of community r e v -e l s , Kings of M i s r u l e were s e l e c t e d not only f o r the Christmas c e l e b r a t i o n s , but a l s o f o r the Spring and e s p e c i a l l y the May c e l -e b r a t i o n . In t h i s p l a y , Shakespeare i s using f o r h i s a c t i o n the model of games and pastimes, i n f a c t , the whole a c t i o n i s made up, l i k e Medieval pageants of the besieged c a s t l e s of maidens, so that i t can be swept away. The inopportune vow imposed by the King i s no sooner made than i t i s mocked, no sooner mocked than marred, and both the speakers and the audience r e a l i z e t hat i t i s one impossible to keep. The f i r s t scene of Love's Labor's Lost opens w i t h a l l the d i g n i t y and solemnity of the r i t u a l of oath-taking, a business of no l i t t l e import t o the E l i z a b e t h a n s . This p a r t i c u l a r oath, how-ever, a vow t o a b s t a i n from a l l the d e l i g h t s of sensual l i f e , i s t r e a t e d i n a humorous, and o f t e n i n a mock-heroic f a s h i o n , espec-i a l l y i n the comments of Berowne. A c t u a l l y , the King and h i s men are d e d i c a t i n g themselves to a c h i e v i n g through s c h o l a r s h i p the triumph of fame over time, a popular theme during the Renaissance. In the r i t u a l s e t t i n g , the three companions of the King, L o n g a v i l l e , Dumain, and Berowne, become k n i g h t l y n o v i t i a t e s swearing f e a l t y 8 Barber, Sh.'s F e s t i v e Comedy, p. 7. 62 to t h e i r l o r d , and r e s o l v i n g to devote t h e i r l i v e s to h i s "quest", to study and t o value the t h i n g s of the mind. A l l f o u r commit the f o l l y of underestimating the power of nature and of the seas-on; i n f a c t , they o b l i g a t e themselves to f o l l o w a course of a c t i o n , which, i t i s obvious, w i l l lead them to disaster,. Though the r i t -u a l i s medieval, the proposal made by the King r e f l e c t s the s i x -teenth century's i n t e r e s t i n l e a r n i n g , s c h o l a r s h i p , and reading,, Because the medieval mind fastened upon the i d e a l r a t h e r than the r e a l , the humourist's n a t u r a l recourse was to burlesque the pag-eant of p e r f e c t i o n . Berowne's r e f r a i n , "Which I hope w e l l i s not e n r o l l e d t h e r e ; " ( I , i , 3 $ ) , casts the oath i n t o i t s humorous p e r s p e c t i v e , and prepares the audience to take the proceedings very l i g h t l y , , The f a c t that Love's Labor's Lost was intended as a piece of entertainment f o r the Court adds a new p e r s p e c t i v e to the humour, and the f a c t that such vows c l a s h v i o l e n t l y w i t h the t r a d i t i o n a l s p i r i t of the spring c e l e b r a t i o n s adds a note of ex-pectancy to the E l i z a b e t h a n audience's r e a c t i o n s to the s i t u a t i o n , , Berowne's attempted r e f u t a t i o n of the King's i n t e n t i o n , to "know which e l s e we should not know" ( I , i , 56), expresses the s p i r i t of the springtime f e s t i v a l s , the May c e l e b r a t i o n , and the S a t u r n a l i a n r e v e l s of the w i n t e r and the e a r l y s p r i n g , because he reverses t h e i r accepted values, makes black white, and f i n d s a c l e v e r r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n to circumvent each a r t i c l e of the oath. H e i s , thus, f o r the moment, Spring r e b e l l i n g against the r i g o u r s of Winter and i t s harsh r e s t r i c t i o n s . In t h i s scene, we see prepared 63 o a c o n f l i c t between the demands of winter and summer, of t h i n g s as s o c i a t e d w i t h age and youth, and we see c l e a r l y foreshadowed the u l t i m a t e and t r a d i t i o n a l defeat of Winter at the hands of v i r i l e and joyous Spring. In f o l k c e l e b r a t i o n s , the r i t u a l con-t e s t between Summer and Winter champions u s u a l l y appears on a date near St. George's Day, the t w e n t y - t h i r d of A p r i l , and i s followed by May games c e l e b r a t i n g the v i c t o r y of Summer. E v e n t u a l l y i n 9 the folk-drama, the Summer champions became St. George. The g i s t of Berowne's speech p a r a l l e l s the e t h i c of the C h r i s t -mas season, i n which v i c e i s transformed i n t o v i r t u e , d i s o r d e r i n -to order, and chaos i n t o harmony. Berowne r e p l i e s , s i g n i f i c a n t l y enough, to the s a l l i e s of h i s comrades, "The sp r i n g i s near when green geese are a-breeding". ( I , i , 97) This comment i s a r e f -erence to the young goose or g o s l i n g . May i s the time f o r a green or g rass-fed goose. " A f t e r a g o s l i n g i s a month or s i x weeks o l d , you may put i t up to feed f o r a green goose, and i t w i l l be 10 p e r f e c t l y fed i n another month f o l l o w i n g . " At t h i s , the others accuse Berowne, whose t e x t i s the o l d dictum t h a t there i s a seas-on f o r a l l t h i n g s , and who i s the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of reason, of be-in g " l i k e an envious sneaping f r o s t t h a t b i t e s the f i r s t - b o r n i n f a n t s of the s p r i n g . " ( I , i , 99) The i r o n y of t h i s accusation l i e s i n the f a c t t h a t they themselves are the f r o s t t h a t would nip i n the bud the f i r s t m a n i f e s t a t i o n s of s p r i n g . Berowne's r e -p l y p a r a l l e l s h i s previous snub to Dumain, " F i t i n h i s place and time". ( I , i , 98) His; p o s i t i o n seems to be one of "sweet reason-ableness". At the moment, he i s the only member of the King's 9 T. Fairman Ordish, " E n g l i s h Folk-Drama", F o l k - l o r e , v o l . 4 (June, 1893) , p. 159. 10_ The_Oxford E n g l i s h D i c t i o n a r y . Oxford, At the Clarendon Press. 64. p a r t y who recognizes the i n d i v i d u a l demands of each season, and knows th a t everything i s part of a l a r g e r rhythm. In j u s t i f y i n g h i s p o s i t i o n t o h i s accusers, Berowne r e p l i e s , W e l l , say I am. Why should proud summer boast Before the b i r d s have any cause to sing? Why should I joy i n any a b o r t i v e b i r t h ? At Christmas I no more d e s i r e a rose Than wish a snow i n May's newfangled shows, But l i k e of each t h i n g that i n season grows. So you, to study now i t i s too l a t e , Climb o'er the house to unlock the l i t t l e gate. ( I , i , 102-109) This r e p l y i n i t s context c e r t a i n l y smacks of the a l l e g o r i c a l contests between Summer and Winter so popular i n the Christmas and springtime f e r t i l i t y c e l e b r a t i o n s of the country f o l k , and o f t e n presented f o r the entertainment of the Court. F e r t i l i t y r i t e s and f l y t i n g contests or dramatic b a t t l e s between charact-ers symbolizing the seasons date from a very e a r l y p e r i o d i n E n g l i s h f e s t i v a l . Moreover, up to and during the per i o d of the Renaissance, love games and the symbolic marriage of seasonal Kings and Queens were c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the " l u d i " from Christmas to E a s t e r . The King's r e p l y t o Berowne's o b j e c t i o n s i s couched i n language reminiscent of a card game. "Well, s i t you out. Go home, Berowne, Adieu." This command l a b e l s him a s p o i l sport who w i l l not continue w i t h the game because he does not agree w i t h i t s r u l e s , and i t c e r t a i n l y has i t s e f f e c t i n shaming him to r e j o i n the others. The p l o t c o m p l i c a t i o n of the embassy of the French King's 65. daughter i s introduced e a r l y i n the play as Berowne mentions i t to prove that one a r t i c l e of the oath i s "made i n v a i n " . However, a f t e r Berowne agrees to the vow, the King suggests Armado, the t r a d -i t i o n a l l y comic f o r e i g n e r , as a meet t a r g e t f o r "quick r e c r e a t i o n " , and a l s o as a source of a p p r o p r i a t e l y i n t e l l e c t u a l refreshment. The King's c r i t i c i s m of Armado as, One whom the music of h i s own va i n tongue Doth r a v i s h l i k e enchanting harmony; ( I , i , 167-68) can l a t e r be a t t r i b u t e d to himself and h i s f o l l o w e r s when they f a l l i n love w i t h love i t s e l f and make use of " T a f f e t a phrases, s i l k e n terms p r e c i s e . " Despite the a s c e t i c avowals of the King and h i s company, r e f -erences to pastimes and entertainments are kept c o n s t a n t l y before the audience. As was p r e v i o u s l y suggested, no sooner i s the vow completed than i t i s put i n i t s proper pe r s p e c t i v e by the g u i l t of Costard who i s taken w i t h a wench. In genera l , the r o l e s of the commoners appear to be intended to place the a c t i o n and the f e s t i v i t i e s i n t h e i r proper p e r s p e c t i v e . Costard's q u i b b l i n g e f -f o r t s to avoid the charges against him act as a parody of the l a t -er s o p h i s t r i e s of Berowne when he t r i e s to prove that he and h i s companions are not forsworn. The device of h i s c a p i t u l a t i o n to the "ancient pulse of germ and b i r t h " a l s o serves as an i n t r o d u c t -i o n to the humorous f i g u r e of Armado, who i s a l s o i n l o v e . Scene two provides an i n t e r l u d e i n t r o d u c i n g t h i s humorous gentleman and h i s spry, w i t t y page, both of whom are stock char-66. a c t e r s on the E l i z a b e t h a n stage, but who a l s o appear to bear a t o p i c a l reference to the lumbering, clumsy Armada, and i t s des-t r u c t i o n by the t i n y , l i g h t B r i t i s h v e s s e l s . Some c r i t i c s b e l i e v e the c a r i c a t u r e s of Armado and Moth to burlesque a c e r t a i n " f a n -t a s t i c a l Spaniard", r e s i d e n t at the court of the Queen, and a 11 French Ambassador, De l a Mothe, long popular i n England. As B a s k e r v i l l p o i n t s out, "Strange f i g u r e s from f o r e i g n lands are 12 popular, however, i n E n g l i s h wooing songs." There was a strong convention operating of g r o s s l y l a s c i v i o u s f o r e i g n e r s w i t h amus-i n g d i a l e c t s , bent on winning E n g l i s h women to t h e i r purposes. This convention i s a l l i e d to t h a t of the f a m i l i a r comic l u s t f u l wooer. Armado i s soon shown up i n h i s r o l e as the dupe and the butt of h i s d i m i n u t i v e page, whose quick-witted repartee soon c o r -roborates f o r the audience the opinions of the King concerning Armado's cha r a c t e r . In t h i s scene ( I , i i , 4 5 - 5 7 ) , there i s pre-sented one of Shakespeare's numerous references to d i c e and sim-i l a r occupations of gentlemen. Next, Armado " d i s c o v e r s " to the audience t h a t he, too, i s i n l o v e , and w i t h a base wench. The d i s c u s s i o n which f o l l o w s ( I , i i , 105-130) concerning the merits of the maid r e f l e c t s the popular appeal of the b a l l a d i n E l i z a b e t h a n England i n a l l i t s many forms, and foreshadows the b a l l a d s and sonnets w r i t t e n by the l o v e - s i c k King and h i s cohorts. The scene ends w i t h a reference to " f a s t and l o o s e " , a cheating game, and to the p o p u l a r i t y of the g e n t l e -11 Hardin C r a i g , Shakespeare: A H i s t o r i c a l and C r i t i c a l Study  w i t h Annotated Texts of Twenty-one F l a y s . Toronto, W.J. Gage & Company L t d . , 1931, p. 9 0 . 12 B a s k e r v i l l , J i g , p. 274 man's sport, d u e l l i n g : Arm. ....Cupid's butt shaft i s too hard f o r Hercules' c l u b , and th e r e -f o r e too much odds f o r a Spaniard's r a p i e r . The f i r s t and second cause w i l l not serve my t u r n ; the passado he respects not, the d u e l l o he regards not. His disgrace i s to be c a l l e d boy, but h i s g l o r y i s to subdue men. Adieu, v a l o r ! Rust, r a p i e r ! (I, i i , 180-87) This passage i s made up of t e c h n i c a l terms f o r the procedure of d u e l l i n g . Shakespearian commentators point out tha t Jaquenetta's speech i n mocking Armado's wooing has s i m i l a r i t i e s to the stock 13 speech of clowns i n E l i z a b e t h a n drama. B a s k e r v i l l p o i n t s out t h a t : The p r i n c i p l e of burlesquing the serious characters and p l o t seems fundamental i n the technique of e a r l y drama as w e l l as i n f o l k p lays wherever the comic Presenter or i n t r i g u e r appear. In winter games and play s where the leader or presenter was u s u a l l y a f i g u r e symbolizing m i s r u l e , as i n monastic, academic, and r o y a l households, the tendency to emphasize the burlesque element would i n e v i t a b l y be the stro n g e s t . 14 C e r t a i n l y i n t h i s p l a y , the r o l e played by the commoners i s gen-e r a l l y a dramatic burlesque of the main a c t i o n , and i t i s a l s o one means of p l a c i n g t h i s a c t i o n i n i t s c o r r e c t p e r s p e c t i v e . Act Two- introduces the second movement of the b a l l e t , the a r -r i v a l of the women, escorted by Boyet, who i s sent by the P r i n c e s s as an ambassador to the King. Her commands to Boyet p i c t u r e her and her women as "humble-visaged s u i t o r s " , almost as t r a d i t i o n a l mummers bearing w i t h them the luck and f e r t i l i t y of the coming 13 B a s k e r v i l l , " E a r l y Romantic P l a y s " , p. 433. 14 B a s k e r v i l l , "Conventional Features", p. 437. 63 year. But t h i s p i c t u r e i s soon to be changed. The scene begins to take on a d a n c e - l i k e q u a l i t y as the P r i n c e s s ' s attendants des-c r i b e the King's v o t a r i e s i n r e f r a i n . Already the men and women are being paired o f f l i k e couples a w a i t i n g t h e i r cue to enter the dance. Moreover, the play begins t o r e f l e c t , more an more, c o u r t l y d e l i g h t i n l i g h t and w i t t y conversation, f l i r t a t i o n s , and the c l e v e r manipulation of word meanings. The male dancers who are about to besiege the f o r t r e s s of love are epitomized i n the women's d e s c r i p t i o n s of them as possessing masculine charm but too much c u t t i n g w i t and i n s i n c e r i t y . T h e i r s , apparently, i s the f o l l y of w i t which t h i n k s i t s e l f too wise. A f t e r an ambig-uous i n t r o d u c t i o n , i n which the women act almost as Presenters i n a Mummers' play, the gentlemen and t h e i r attendants a r r i v e ceremoniously w i t h a r i t u a l welcome to the f a i r v i s i t o r s which i s doomed to f a i l u r e because of t h e i r i n s i n c e r i t y and t h e i r f a i l -ure to acknowledge the P r i n c e s s ' s embassy pr o p e r l y . Thus, we f i n d presented, i n a r i t u a l p a t t e r n , the beginning of the s a l l i e s betwe the men and the women. The r e p l i e s and t h e i r r e t u r n s begin t o assume, more and more, the p a t t e r n i n g of an elaborate group dance, as w e l l as the connotations of the symbolic c o n f l i c t between two groups. I t i s my o p i n i o n t h a t , at the symbolic l e v e l of the a c t i o n , the P r i n c e s s ' s r e a c t i o n to the oath of the King i s not provoked and determined s o l e l y by h i s d e n i a l of h o s p i t a l i t y , but by h i s r e f u s a l to share i n the nature of the season, to acknowledge the s i g n i f i c a n c e of love and the s p r i n g season as an i n t e g r a l part 69, of l i f e . Thus, the play becomes, to a c e r t a i n extent, a drama-t i z a t i o n of the punishment, i n s p r i n g c e l e b r a t i o n s and periods of r e v e l and m i s r u l e , of a l l those who deny the demands of the season, i t s regenerative q u a l i t i e s , and the emotional r e l e a s e t r a d i t i o n a l l y a s s o ciated w i t h the defeat of w i n t e r . Thus, i n t a k i n g a vow such as they have sworn, the gentlemen are denying an e s s e n t i a l part of t h e i r nature as men. What f o l l o w s l a t e r i n the p l a y i s a " c i v i l war of w i t s " , the encounters of which , des-c r i b e d i n m i l i t a r y terms, observe the r i t u a l of c o n f l i c t . Ber. Here stand I . Lady, dart thy s k i l l at me, B r u i s e me w i t h scorn, confound me w i t h a f l o u t , Thrust thy sharp w i t q u i t e through my ignorance, Cut me to pieces w i t h thy keen c o n c e i t , And I w i l l wish thee never more to dance. (V, i i , 396-400) The approach of the young men to the women of the P r i n c e s s ' s entourage i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by questions and r e j o i n d e r s t h a t take on, i n the dramatic p r e s e n t a t i o n of the play, a l l the c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c s of part songs, or b a l l a d s w i t h r e f r a i n s and balanced group-i n g s . S i m i l a r l y , t h e i r questioning of Boyet about the women has i t s d a n c e - l i k e s t r u c t u r i n g which preceded the pleasant banter when Boyet informs h i s m i s t r e s s of the r e a c t i o n s of the King and h i s company. In r e p l y t o B o y et Ts j e s t i n g , the P r i n c e s s says, Good w i t s w i l l be j a n g l i n g , but, g e n t l e s , agree. This c i v i l war of w i t s were much b e t t e r used On Navarre and h i s bookmen, f o r here ' t i s abused. ( I I , i , 2 2 5 - 2 7 ) The men's questioning of Boyet, which foreshadows the coming wooing of the women, and t h e i r s o c i a l amenities are received humorously, w i t h badinage, l i v e l y w i t , and scorn. The s e t t i n g i s now l a i d f o r 70 o the storming of the Cas t l e of Love by the young g a l l a n t s who w i l l r e a d i l y succumb to the d e l i g h t s and demands of the sp r i n g season. The love-game comedy of the encounters between the men and the women soon becomes of foremost i n t e r e s t i n the p l a y , and seems to be a r e f l e c t i o n of the p o p u l a r i t y of the wooing game, the storming of the Cas t l e of Love, and the abundant pageantry of the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Such a subject was indeed popular i n pageantry presented w i t h i n the great h a l l , and the spectacle of a number of knights b e s i e g i n g a c i t a d e l defended by l o v e l y young women was a f a v o u r i t e and a well-known one. From .as f a r back as the t w e l f t h century, t h i s siege of the c a s t l e s of maidens can be tra c e d i n European pageantry, and i t enjoyed an ext r a o r d i n a r y p o p u l a r i t y that l a s t e d through the Renaissance. S i m i l a r l y , the r i t u a l use of t e n t s and c a s t l e s has an i n t e r e s t i n g and s i g n i f i c a n t h i s t o r y , In the Middle Ages, t e n t s and c a s t l e s had been erected i n the f i e l d s i n connection w i t h midsummer f e s t -i v a l s and w i t h church e e l e b r a t i o n s . At some time these apparent-l y had been s u b s t i t u t e d f o r arbors, bowers, or c a s t l e s of immem-o r i a l a n t i q u i t y placed by pagans i n f i e l d s , on h i l l s , or at t r e e s and w e l l s where they might perform sacred marriages or celeb r a t e 15 the death of w i n t e r . The presence of the P r i n c e s s and her l a d i e s encamped i n the f i e l d s before the Court of Navarre would remind an E l i z a b e t h a n audience of a l l the connotations of te n t s r a i s e d i n the f i e l d s , and, consequently would tend to cause i t s members to regard them as connected, i n some way, w i t h r i t u a l , and 15 B a s k e r v i l l , "Dramatic Aspects", p. 32 probably w i t h mummers. That a play intended f o r n o b i l i t y should draw upon popular f e s t i v a l m o t i f s should by no means s u r p r i s e us. The formal o r g a n i z a t i o n of the E l i z a b e t h a n c o u r t l y c e l e b r a t i o n of May i s u s u a l l y simply an overlay upon a b a s i c s t r u c t u r e borrowed from the popular t r a d i t i o n . B a s k e r v i l l makes t h i s i n f l u e n c e q u i t e c l e a r : The pageantry and d i s g u i s i n g of the c o u r t l y groups o f t e n took some of the popular forms....But apparent-l y very e a r l y the a r t of love a l l e g o r y w i t h i t s elab-o r a t i o n and imaginative splendour, separating c o u r t l y l i t e r a t u r e from popular, wooing dialogues of s p r i n g f e s t i v a l s , from simple V a l e n t i n e customs e t c . . changed the May day bower i n t o paradise or c a s t l e w i t h i t s p r e s i d i n g god or goddesses, and brought formal organ-i z a t i o n s of the nobles f o r the c e l e b r a t i o n s of May and other s p r i n g f e t e s . 16 In a d d i t i o n , both the E l i z a b e t h a n entertainment and the masque represent a gradual s o p h i s t i c a t i o n of medieval f e s t i v a l dance. This was the case w i t h most of the pageantry and d i s g u i s i n g s of the c o u r t l y groups. As t h i s play i t s e l f r e v e a l s , the tend-ency to borrow from the popular i s a l s o evinced on the p r o f e s s -i o n a l stage. Old F e s t i v a l m o t i f s were adapted and used frequent-l y i n popular E l i z a b e t h a n drama. The Robin Hood plays which were so popular on the London stage at the end of the s i x t e e n t h century provide an e x c e l l e n t example of the p r o f e s s i o n a l stage's tendency to adapt and develop themes of o l d f o l k - p l a y s . Of course, the Court-of-Love type of d i s g u i s i n g and the g u i l d play 17 on c l a s s i c a l themes may a l s o have f u r n i s h e d conventions. 16 B a s k e r v i l l , " E a r l y Romantic P l a y s " , p. 467 17 Welsford, Masque, p. 482. In the period with which we are dealing, the selection and i d e a l -i z a t i o n by Shakespeare of midsummer celebrations seems to be the rule rather than the exception. B a s k e r v i l l c i t e s evidence f o r a great impetus, i n the decade 1570-1580, toward the production of romantic plays, and t h i s burst of romantic drama seems to have followed a customary pattern of presentation. There was usual-l y a f e s t i v a l performance, some or a good deal of r i t u a l para-phernalia, frequency of sung parts and of interspersed and f i n a l dances, a semicircle or l i n e from which actors advanced, some type of marching, the presence of d e v i l s and clowns, buffoonery and d r o l l e r i e s , a closing song or sung epilogue with a request 18 fo r g i f t s , and, f i n a l l y , a feast of the f o l k at the close. Even the contest between r i v a l s , l i k e the r i v a l r y between Cos-tard and Armado which appears i n t h i s play, was c e r t a i n l y an old formula of popular drama in England. In essence, B a s k e r v i l l sees an evolution from the simple song and wooing drama of the May games and f o l k f e s t i v a l s through the r e l i g i o u s drama of the miracles and moralities, to the drama developed from other f e s t -i v a l t r a d i t i o n s , and, l a s t l y , among the upper classes, to the love allegory and. mythological motifs i n dramatic form. Thus, derived as i t i s from the r i t u a l s associated with the spring games, the Mummers' wooing dialogues, and so forth, such an a l -l e g o r i c a l presentation as takes place i n Love's Labor's Lost i s e n t i r e l y i n the t r a d i t i o n of English drama. According to Enid Welsford, the theme of the Court Masque 18 Welsford, Masque, p. 506 was always b a s i c a l l y the same, a theme of s o c i a l harmony g l o r -i f y i n g marriage as a s o c i a l function, and i d e a l i z i n g a united 19 nation under a strong centralized government. The i d e a l of the harmony i n nature being p a r a l l e l e d and r e f l e c t e d i n the har-mony i n the state was strong i n Elizabethan culture, and recurs frequently i n Shakespearian drama, notably i n Macbeth and King  Lear though i t can also be seen i n the comedies. Disruptions i n the one are often seen r e f l e c t e d symptomatically i n the other. Apparently, i n the plot s i t u a t i o n up to the beginning of Act I I I , we have the t r a d i t i o n a l ingredients f o r a Court masque and i t s s o c i a l theme: the women's pa v i l i o n erected upon the green, the opposing factions defined and presented almost a l l e g o r i c a l l y , the presence of a representative of Cupid, Boyet; some form of the Court-of-Love symbolism, and, f i n a l l y , the s p i r i t of part-i c i p a t i o n i n a common cause so i n t r i n s i c to a l l revels -whether they be those of Christmas misrule or spring f e r t i l i t y r i t e s . The main underlying theme of the confounding, by the experience of r e a l l i f e , of the men's f a l s e idealism and denial of nature has been presented, and three wars have been defined: the group of scholars dedicated to warring against t h e i r own af f e c t i o n s i n t h e i r l i t t l e "Academe", the war of the men upon the women i n the cause of love, and, f i n a l l y , the defence made, by the wits of the women i n t h e i r determination to punish the k i l l - j o y s , against the wounding wit of the men. The vic t o r y t r a d i t i o n a l l y goes to the champions of spring, the upholders of the rhythm of nature. Act Three introduces another interlude concerning the fan-19 Welsford, Masque, p. 389 t a s t i c Armado and h i s page. Moth fs comments on the "brawl", the French dance, serve to i l l u s t r a t e the p o p u l a r i t y of dancing, and to keep before the audience's eyes the s i m i l a r i t i e s between the p l a y they are seeing and the dance i t s e l f . What i s more, these comments serve as a concomitant to the masque of the King, and give i t an a d d i t i o n a l p e r s p e c t i v e . Moth. Master, w i l l you win your love w i t h a French brawl? Arm. How meanest thou? Brawling i n French? Moth. No, my complete master; but to j i g o f f a tune at the tongue's end, canary t o i t w i t h your f e e t , humor i t w i t h t u r n i n g up your e y e l i d s , s i g h a note and s i n g a note, sometime through the t h r o a t as i f you swallowed love w i t h s i n g i n g l o v e , sometime through the nose as i f you snuffed up love by s m e l l -i n g l o v e ; w i t h your hat penthouse-like o'er the shop of your eyes; w i t h your arms crossed on your t h i n -b e l l y doublet l i k e a r a b b i t on a s p i t ; or your hands i n your pocket l i k e a man a f t e r the o l d p a i n t -i n g ; and keep not too long i n one tune, but a snip and away. These are complements, these are hu-mors. These betray n i c e wenches that would be be-trayed without these, and make them men of note - do you note me? - t h a t most are a f f e c t e d to these. ( I l l , i , 9-26) In t h i s speech, Moth i s poking fun at the t r i c k s and fashions of wooing i n g e n e r a l , and i s a l s o i n d i r e c t l y a n t i c i p a t i n g the l a t e r a t t i t u d e s and a c t i o n s of the King and h i s men when they determine to "woo these g i r l s of France". L a t e r , Moth r i d i c u l e s Jaquenetta by l i k e n i n g her to the "hob-byhorse", the i m i t a t i o n horse worn by mummers, a l s o the slang term f o r a jaded p r o s t i t u t e . This scene serves as a minor b u r l -esque of and prelude to the main a c t i o n i n which the King and h i s 75 company attempt t o storm the Castle-of-Love, and the minor char-a c t e r s are i n c r e a s i n g l y burlesquers of t h e i r immediate s u p e r i o r s . Jaquenetta, Costard, and Moth r i d i c u l e the pretensions of Armado, and, i n t u r n , the f i g u r e and weaknesses of Armado as a wooer burlesque the romantic siege of the gentlemen. Costard's and Armado's wooing of Jaquenetta parodies the romantic posturings of the King and h i s comrades, and serves as an a d d i t i o n a l perspect-i v e by which to evaluate t h e i r s i n c e r i t y . Furthermore, Armado's wooing l e t t e r p a r a l l e l s Berowne's and serves l a t e r as a p l o t de-v i c e to r e v e a l Berowne's own g u i l t i n breaking h i s oath. The com-p e t i t i o n between Costard and Armado f o r the hand of the maid i s a l s o a f a m i l i a r element of the Mummers' p l a y . Often i n the Mum-mers' play, r i v a l s r epresenting d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l c l a s s e s woo the same lady. U s u a l l y the f o o l , one of the s u i t o r s , i s accused of begettin g a bastard c h i l d . In wooing scenes i n the folk-drama, there i s o f t e n a l s o a comic wooing scene which p a r a l l e l s the main one. In a d d i t i o n , the kind of humour that c h a r a c t e r i z e s the by-play between Moth and Armado i s to be found i n the Mummers' pl a y i n the episode of r u s t i c humour i n v o l v i n g the Doctor and Jack F i n -ney. A common c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of t h e i r dialogue i s Jack's impudence to the doctor,which he conceals by s w i f t l y withdrawing h i s i n -solence and modifying i t to a form of re s p e c t . Doctor. Fetch me my pinchers, John Finney. John. Fetch them y e r s e l f , s i r . Doctor. What's t h a t , you saucy young r a s c a l ? John. Oh, I f e t c h them, s i r . 76. Doctor. What's throw, them down there f o r ? John. Ah, f o r thee to p i c k them up agen, s i r . Doctor. What's tha t you saucy young r a s c a l ? John. Oh, f o r me to pick them up agen, s i r . 20 Berowne's s o l i l o q u y r e v e a l i n g to the audience h i s love f o r Rosaline a l s o serves to e n l i s t him i n the ranks of those compet-in g i n Cupid's tournament. He invokes the power of the son of Venus, This wimpled, whining, p u r b l i n d , wayward boy, This s e n i o r - j u n i o r , giant-dwarf, Dan Cupid, Regent of love rhymes, l o r d of f o l d e d arms, The anointed sovereign of sighs and groans, Liege of a l l l o i t e r e r s and malcontents, Dread p r i n c e of p l a c k e t s , k i n g of codpieces, Sole imperator and great general Of t r o t t i n g p a r i t o r s . — Oh, my l i t t l e heart.'r-And I t o be a c o r p o r a l of h i s f i e l d , And wear h i s c o l o r s l i k e a tumbler's hoop! ( I l l , i , 181-90) Act Pour r e t u r n s to the p a v i l i o n of the P r i n c e s s and her t r a i n , and immediately launches i n t o a c r i t i c i s m of hunting. The method of hunting to be used by the women i s the same as th a t p r a c t i s e d by Queen E l i z a b e t h and her l a d i e s . The l a d i e s were escorted to a s u i t a b l e " b l i n d " , or p r o t e c t i o n , where they took a stand and 21 shot as the deer were d r i v e n by them. P r i n . Then, f o r e s t e r , my f r i e n d , where i s the bush That we must stand and play the murderer i n ? F o r e s t e r . Hereby, upon the edge of yonder coppice, A stand where you may make the f a i r e s t shoot. (IV, i , 7-10) A f t e r t e a s i n g her f o r e s t e r i n a play on words, the P r i n c e s s exclaims, But come, the bow. Now mercy goes t o k i l l , And shooting w e l l i s then accounted i l l . Thus w i l l I save ray c r e d i t i n the shoot — Not wounding, p i t y would not l e t me do't. 20 Chambers, The E n g l i s h F o l k - P l a y , p. 45 21 H a r r i s o n , Works, p. 408. 77 I f wounding, then i t was to show my s k i l l , That more f o r p r a i s e than purpose meant t o k i l l . And, out of question, so i t i s sometimes Glory grows g u i l t y of detested crimes, When, f o r fame's sake, f o r p r a i s e , an outward p a r t , We bend t o that the working of the heart -As I f o r p r a i s e alone now seek to s p i l l The poor deer's blood, t h a t my heart means no i l l . (IV, i , 24-35) The P r i n c e s s ' s comments about the b r u t a l i t y of the sport of hunt-i n g , and her r e p l y to Boyet, "And p r a i s e we may a f f o r d / To any lady t h a t subdues a l o r d . " , are broad enough that they may a n t i c -i p a t e the forswearing of the oath of the King and h i s party and the subsequent i n s i n c e r i t y of the men when they present t h e i r masque f o r the purpose of d e c e i v i n g the women. The a r r i v a l of Costard w i t h a l e t t e r f o r Rosaline, which he has confused w i t h one f o r Jaquenetta from Armado, s u p p l i e s a f u r t h -er p l o t c o m p l i c a t i o n , and a l s o r e f l e c t s a convention of the typ-i c a l Mummers' p l a y . The wooer's o f f e r of g i f t s as an inducement to h i s lady i s the most constant f e a t u r e of the comic wooing found i n both Mummers' plays and broadsides during the s i x t e e n t h 22 century. In h i s l e t t e r , Armado's comments about h i s "love",as he o f f e r s her robes, r i c h e s , and t i t l e s , p a r a l l e l the clown's t r a d i t i o n a l d e n i g r a t i o n of h i s "lady f a i r " . Using as h i s cue the P r i n c e s s ' s remarks concerning mer^cy and the hunting of deer, Boyet begins to warp the conversation to a d i s c u s s i o n of cuckoldry. The images progress from the horns of the deer to the weapon used to s l a y i t , and take on b l u n t l y sexual 22 B a s k e r v i l l , "Mummers' Wooing P l a y s " , p. 239. 78 0 overtones. Technical terms used i n the sport of archery abound here as Boyet's r e t o r t s become increasingly bawdy. The a l t e r c a t i o n ends with Costard's naive advice that, "She's too hard f o r you at pricks, s i r . Challenge her to bowl". (IV, i , 11+0) Boyet r e p l i e s , s t i l l i n the previous vein, "I fear too much rubbing", drawing the l i t e r a l s ignificance of his remark from the sport of bowling, and i n d i c a t i n g that he fears that there w i l l be too much uneven-ness on the green, and therefore an unfair match. Scene two introduces an interlude revealing the mutual ego-tism and foolishness of Holofernes and S i r Nathaniel. The sub-ject matter continues to be the technical terms used i n the hunt-ing of the deer, but t h i s time with a switch, for the two "learn-ed" gentlemen continue the discussion i n pompous Latinate and ped-a n t i c a l terms. Once again there i s a na'ive observer, D u l l , whose humorous misinterpretations of the main action p a r a l l e l those of Costard i n the previous scene. As Miss Venezky notices i n her book, Pageantry on the Shakespearean Stage. A l l too numerous are the progress prototypes of Holo-fernes' verse which commemorates a minutia of the P r i n -cess' pastime, the k i l l i n g of the "pretty pleasing pricket". The hunt, of course, was a favourite diver-sion of Elizabeth on progress v i s i t s . Just as they did at Warwick, Cowdray, Althorp, and Kenilworth, the country people come to the estate to present some entertainment before the v i s i t i n g r o y a l t y . . . . " 23 The humour of t h i s scene i s interrupted f o r a moment by the ap-pearance of Jaquenetta, who c a r r i e s a l e t t e r intended for Rosaline but delivered to her i n error. In t h i s l e t t e r , which takes the 23 Venezky, Pageantry on the Shakespearean Stage, p. 139. 79-form of a sonnet, Berowne i s praising the pursuit of love, and i s r a t i o n a l i z i n g i t as the chief end of l i f e , even the end of know-ledge and study. The scene ends as Holofernes c r i e s , "Away! The Gentles are at t h e i r game, and we w i l l to our recreation." (IV, i i , 173-74) And so the gentles are at t h e i r game, and apparently i t i s the game of love. Scene three opens with a soliloquy from Ber-owne employing once more the terminology and metaphors from the chase. The King he i s hunting the deer, I am cours-ing myself. They have pitched a t o i l , I am t o i l i n g i n a p i t c h - p i t c h that d e f i l e s . D e f i l e ! A f o u l word. (IV, i i i , 1-3) With t h i s revealing introduction, the scene presents a humorous tableau as the respective lovers enter and disclose t h e i r emotions to the audience and t h e i r hidden partners i n perjury. Thus the scene dramatizes the f o l l y of release taking over from the f o l l y 24 of resistance. Each lord i s mocked i n turn by his fellows, as Shakespeare makes use of a technique of discovery reminiscent of scenes of foolery i n which characters are discovered to be wearing masks and garments of Pretension. Stultorum numerus est  i n f i n i t u s . Berowne's comments proceed to l a b e l the King, Longaville, and Dumain as the victims of a hunt. Shot, by Heaven! Proceed, sweet Cupid. Thou hast thumped him with thy b i r d b olt under the l e f t pap. In f a i t h , secrets! (IV, i i i , 23-25) 24 Barber, Sh.'s Festive Comedies, p. 89 80. The King proceeds to read, w i t h i n earshot of the concealed Berowne, a verse addressed to the Pr i n c e s s which l i k e n s her e f f e c t upon him to the e f f e c t of the sun on the morning rose. With both the King and L o n g a v i l l e hidden to watch the approach of the unsuspecting Dumain, Berowne exclaims, Ber. A l l h i d , a l l h i d , an o l d i n f a n t p l a y . L i k e a demigod here s i t I i n the sky, And wretched f o o l s ' s ecrets h e e d f u l l y o'ereye. More sacks t o the m i l l ! Oh, Heavens, I have my wish! Dumain transformed! Four woodcocks i n a d i s h ! Dum. 0 most d i v i n e Kate! Ber. 0 most profane coxcomb! (IV, i i i , 78-84) Recognizing the elements which the scene t r a n s p i r i n g before the eyes of the audience shares i n common w i t h "an o l d i n f a n t p l a y " , t h i s passage of course serves to place the scene i n the continuum. I t was customary i n f o l k games t o have serving men i n s a c k s . " A l l h i d " i s of t e n a c h i l d r e n ' s pastime. When a d u l t s p l a y , however, a w i f e persuades her husband t o creep i n t o a sack, and she and 25 her gossips t i e and beat him. Thus Berowne's l i k e n i n g of the scene t r a n s p i r i n g before him t o a c h i l d r e n ' s game w i t h d i s a s t r o u s r e s u l t s foreshadows the f a t e which awaits the fo u r at the hands of the P r i n c e s s of France and her women. The reference to "sacks" and "woodcocks" i s a reference to f o o l s , t h e i r motley, and the sack, worn t r a d i t i o n a l l y by the pro f -e s s i o n a l f o o l , that enables him to be e a s i l y c a r r i e d o f f the stage when the audience wearies of h i s f o o l e r y . Thus each l o v e r ' s d e f e c t i o i 25 B a s k e r v i l l , J i g , p. 246. Bl. from the a s c e t i c requirements of h i s oath i s revealed i n a s e r i e s of c h o r i c - l i k e statements, and r e p l i e s i n s a r c a s t i c asides by the concealed. Berowne. For the moment Berowne i s p l a y i n g the r o l e of "sneaping f r o s t " i n r i d i c u l i n g the pretensions, the l o v e - s i c k n e s s , and the new f o l l i e s of the other three, but, as i s usual i n Shake-speare, he himself i s smitten though he c r i t i c i z e s h i s own passion i n o t h e r s . "The whippers are i n l o v e , too." (A.Y.L.I., I I I , i i i , 424) The'bde" which Dumain reads aloud i s very much w i t h i n the theme of the p l a y , the sovereignty of love and passion i n the sprin g season. In i t , the smitten l o v e r acknowledges the unnat-u r a l q u a l i t y of the oath which he has taken, and i t s u n s u i t a b i l i t y to the demands of the season. Wishing the company of others i n h i s d e f e c t i o n , h i s remarks r e f l e c t the atmosphere and sentiment of both the r e v e l of mis r u l e and the sp r i n g f e r t i l i t y c e l e b r a t i o n s . Oh, would the King, Berowne, and L o n g a v i l l e Were l o v e r s too! I l l , t o example i l l , Would from my forehead wipe a perjured note, For none offend where a l l a l i k e do dote. (IV, i i i , 123-26) The theme of the triumph of the Court-of-Love becomes increa s -i n g l y evident as the scene progresses. The King and h i s f o l l o w -ers have now taken on a l l the a t t r i b u t e s of the t r a d i t i o n a l young man i n l o v e , from whom "sighs reek". The r e v e l a t i o n of the de-ceptio n p r a c t i s e d by each of the fo u r i s a l l but complete, except f o r Berowne, who s t i l l maintains the pose of the s t a l w a r t c r i t i c of love's i m p e r f e c t i o n s . Dramatic i r o n y has played a l a r g e r o l e i n t h i s scene, and now, i n b e r a t i n g the others f o r t h e i r s i n s i n breaking t h e i r oaths and concealing the f a c t from t h e i r brethren, 82* Berowne r e t u r n s to h i s o r i g i n a l metaphor of an " o l d i n f a n t p l a y . " Oh, what a scene of f o o l e r y have I seen, Of s i g h s , of groans, of sorrow and of teen. Oh me, w i t h what s t r i c t patience have I sat To see a king transformed to a gnat I To see great Hercules whipping a g i g , And profound Solomon to tune a j i g , Nestor play at pushpin w i t h the boys, And c r i t i c Tlmon laugh at i d l e t o y s ! Where l i e s thy g r i e f , oh, t e l l me, good Dumain? And, g e n t l e L o n g a v i l l e , where l i e s thy pain? And where my l i e g e ' s ? A l l about the brea s t . A caudle, ho! (IV, i i i , 163-73) The spectacle t o which Berowne r e f e r s has in c l u d e d a s e r i e s of popular c h i l d r e n ' s pastimes, and a l l end i n a l o s s of d i g n i t y on the part of the p l a y e r s . The theme of the discourse i s the f o l l y of the wise and great. But Berowne's triumph i s s h o r t - l i v e d . The a r r i v a l of Jaquenetta and Costard on the scene of the l i s t s of love r e v e a l s the d e f e c t i o n of the l a s t "unnatural" man. Berowne's confession draws once more on the image of the fo u r woodcocks i n a d i s h . Berowne confesses t h a t , "you three f o o l s lacked me f o o l to make up the mess". (IV, i i i , 207) Immediately afterward, as the spokesman f o r springtime, he c r i e s out i n a f f i r m a t i o n of the season and i t s hold on the blood. Sweet l o r d s , sweet l o v e r s , oh, l e t us embrace! As t r u e we are as f l e s h and blood can be. The sea w i l l ebb and flo w , Heaven show h i s f a c e , Young blood doth not obey an o l d decree. We cannot cross the cause why we were born, Therefore of a l l hands must we be forsworn. (IV, i i i , 214-19) This scene makes even c l e a r e r the r e l a t i o n s h i p of the play to the sprin g c e l e b r a t i o n s of the rhythm of the year, which acknowledge through r i t u a l the power of nature over the i n d i v i d u a l , and a f f i r m love and the s p r i n g season to be an i n t e g r a l part of man's l i f e . Beauty doth v a r n i s h age as i f newborn, And g i v e s the c r u t c h the c r a d l e ' s i n f a n c y . Oh, ' t i s the sun that maketh a l l t h i n g s shine. (IV, i i i , 244-46) A f t e r a b r i e f passage of bantering between the f o u r , Berowne i s requested to supply some r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n to support t h e i r def-e c t i o n from the ranks of Athena to those of Cupid. In presenting h i s " P r a i s e of F o l l y " , Berowne commences by addressing h i s compeers as " a f f e c t i o n ' s men-at-arms", and Shakespeare keeps before the audience's c o l l e c t i v e mind the a l l e g o r i c a l s i t u a t i o n which i s im-p l i c i t i n the a c t i o n . Berowne shows that the oath which they had taken was " F l a t treason 'gainst the k i n g l y s t a t e of youth." A l l that i s n a t u r a l to youth abhors the a r t i c l e s of the oath, f a s t i n g , abstinence, study, and f l i g h t from the beauty of a woman's face. . From women's eyes t h i s d o c t r i n e I d e r i v e : They are the ground, the books, the academes, From whence doth s p r i n g the t r u e Promethean f i r e . (iv, i i i , 302-304) In t h e i r b l i n d n e s s , they have forsworn the use of t h e i r f a c u l t i e s , and Berowne p r a i s e s the i n v i g o r a t i n g , the regenerative power of nature which, l i k e spring's a c t i o n upon the deadened winter world, "gives to every power a double power". (IV, i i i , 331) Love con-quers a l l , the a r t s , v a l o r , i n t e l l i g e n c e , even the t y r a n t or the savage ear. He ends by suggesting, "Let us once l o s e our oaths to f i n d o u r s e l v e s . " (IV, i i i , 36I) With t h i s speech, the play swings i n t o h o l i d a y a c t i o n , and 84. a l l r e a l i z e that at t h i s season i t i s f o l l y not to be a f o o l . Berowne Ts speech i s a p e r f e c t a n t i d o t e to the a s c e t i c r e s o l u t i o n s w i t h which the play began. I t draws upon the d o c t r i n e of the Ren-aissance c u l t of love which p r a i s e d love as a medicine and an ed-u c a t i o n a l f o r c e , e s p e c i a l l y f o r the c o u r t i e r . Furthermore, Ber-owne i s apparently not concerned w i t h the r e c i p r o c a l e f f e c t of love as an experience between two people, but r a t h e r w i t h what happens w i t h i n the l o v e r , presumably the male l o v e r . The a t t i t u d e here does not envisage consummation i n p h y s i c a l terms, and the lady i s merely a sense stimulus which turns the men i n t o t r a d i t i o n a l moody l o v e r s . A l l the emphasis on t h e i r own f e e l i n g s i s to l a y the men open to being made f o o l s of once again. I t w i l l soon become evident t h a t they have overcome one kind of f o l l y only to sink i n t o anoth-er, and t h i s i s the f o l l y of a c t i n g and t a l k i n g love without a c t u -a l l y being i n l o v e . The d e l i g h t which they take i n making the motions of l o v e , and p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n wooing games or love t a l k , i s soon to be put i n t o i t s c o r r e c t p e r s p e c t i v e . Though Berowne enters nature's r e v e l c o n s c i o u s l y , w i t h humour that recognizes i t as only part of l i f e , and assesses h i s own extravagance by moving back and f o r t h between h o l i d a y and everyday p e r s p e c t i v e s , he, and u l t i m a t e l y a l l the others, makes the e r r o r of co n s i d e r i n g love t o 26 be a s o c i a l game which can be learned and studied l i k e a theory. As the scene ends, the men swear a l l e g i a n c e to the god of l o v e , and hasten to b a t t l e w i t h the maidens. King. Saint Cupid, then! And, s o l d i e r s , t o the f i e l d ! Ber. Advance your standards, and upon them, l o r d s , P e l l - m e l l , down w i t h them! But be f i r s t advised In c o n f l i c t that you get the sun of them. (iv, i i i , 366-69) 26 Barber, Sh. Ts F e s t i v e Comedies, p. 239 85. The sexual overtones of t h i s passage are inescapable, and the p h a l l i c symbolism of the "advancing of standards" seems to be sim-i l a r to that of the May pole and i t s attendant r i t e s . The cry, " P e l l - m e l l down w i t h them!", and the sun-son pun makes the ancient c o n f l i c t between men and,women only the more obvious. Now t h a t they have r e s o l v e d to court the v i s i t o r s , the gentlemen next de-cide t o prepare, some entertainment f o r the l a d i e s i n t h e i r t e n t s , as i s customary i n wooing sequences. Ber. F i r s t , from the park l e t us conduct them t h i t h e r , Then homeward every man a t t a c h the hand Of h i s f a i r m i s t r e s s . In the afternoon We w i l l w i t h some strange pastime solace them, Such as the shortness of the time can shape; For r e v e l s , dances, masques, and merry hours Forerun f a i r Love, strewing her way w i t h f l o w e r s . (IV, i i i , 374-78) In the t r a d i t i o n a l wooing games, and i n many s i n g i n g games of c h i l d r e n , i t i s customary f o r a group of boys as a u n i t to woo e i t h e r a group of g i r l s or a s i n g l e g i r l . I t i s important to no- -tice t h a t now the l a d i e s are to be admitted properl ^ r t o the Court of Navarre, but i t i s too l a t e to m i t i g a t e the offense of having excluded them. This passage foreshadows the d a n c e - l i k e q u a l i t y of the F i f t h Act and i t s heavy emphasis upon c o u r t l y c e l e b r a t i o n s and r e v e l r y . The second l a s t l i n e of the a c t , " L i g h t wenches may prove plagues to men forsworn;", foreshadows the f a i l u r e of the men's onslaught i n the name of Love. Act V introduces once more the i n t e r l u d e of the pedant and the curate. These two combine to render the appearance and per-86. s o n a l i t y of Don Armado r i d i c u l o u s and " t h r a s o n i c a l " . References to d r i n k i n g and f e n c i n g bouts recur as Costard says to Moth, "Thou a r t e a s i e r swallowed than a flapdragon", and Armado r e f e r s to the a r t of f e n c i n g as he exclaims, Now, by the s a l t wave of the Mediterraneum, a sweet touch, a quick venue of w i t - s n i p , snap, quick and home-! I t r e j o i c e t h my i n t e l l e c t - t r u e w i t ! (V, i , 61-4) The term snap-dragon or flap-dragon probably o r i g i n a t e s from the snapping head of a dragon c a r r i e d by mummers. Costard i s a c t u a l l y r e f e r r i n g to the then current use of the term to connote a c h i l d -ren's Christmas game i n which they snatch r a i s i n s out of burning 27 brandy, and, e x t i n g u i s h i n g them by c l o s i n g the mouth, eat them. As Spurgeon recognizes i n her Shakespeare's Imagery and What I t  T e l l s Us. such references as Armado's to the weapons and man-oeuvres of war form a dominating s e r i e s of running sy m b o l i c a l 28 imagery. This body of images serves to support the idea of the c o n f l i c t w i t h i n the Court-of-Love. P l a y and pastime imagery a l s o abound as Holofernes s c o r n f u l l y c r i e s to Moth, "Thou d i s p u t e s t l i k e an i n f a n t . Go whip thy g i g . " The tender juvenal r e p l i e s , "Lend me your horn t o make one, and I w i l l whip about your i n -famy circum c i r c a - a g i g of a cuckold's horn." In a d d i t i o n , the speeches of Armado become an i m p l i c i t parody of the mannerisms of the conceited, t r a v e l l e d fop. At t h i s , Armado mentions once more the i n t e n t i o n of the King 27 O.E.D.. v o l . 4 , p. 287. 28 C a r o l i n e F.E. Spurgeon, Shakespeare's Imagery and What I t  T e l l s Us, Beacon H i l l Boston, Beacon Press, 1958, p. 271. to present to the P r i n c e s s , "some d e l i g h t f u l o s t e n t a t i o n , or show, or pageant, or antique, or f i r e w o r k . " , and he e n l i s t s t h e a i d of Holofernes and N a t h a n i e l , who determine to present "the Nine Worthies". As i n A Midsummer Night's Dream. Shakespeare i s here c a s t i n g g e n t l e humour upon the sometimes d e l i g h t f u l l y incon-gruous attempts of the country f o l k to present t h e i r pageants or mumming pla y s to honour some r o y a l or honorable personage. The na'ive e f f o r t s to cast the p r e s e n t a t i o n are very s i m i l a r to those t h a t occur under Quince's l e a d e r s h i p i n the l a t e r p l a y . The pres-e n t a t i o n of the Nine Worthies suggested by Holofernes i s i n the t r a d i t i o n of country presentations on most important occasions. D u l l , d e s p i t e h i s f a i l u r e to comprehend the pseudo-sophisticated byplay between Armado and Holofernes, o f f e r s to accompany the p r e s e n t a t i o n by p l a y i n g the drum, and dancing i n the hay, the country dance popular at f e s t i v a l occasions. As i n the s i m i l a r p r e s e n t a t i o n by Bottom and h i s mechanicals, the humour i n t h i s scene l i e s i n the seriousness of i t s simple presenters. Scene two s e t s the stage i n the opposing camp of the maidens who are about to be besieged. There love's damsels are p l a y f u l l y comparing the g i f t s which they have j u s t r e c e i v e d from the prep-a r i n g b e s i e g e r s . A minor siege of wit w i t h bawdy overtones i s commented upon by the P r i n c e s s as she l i k e n s her women to t e n n i s p l a y e r s . "Well bandied both, a set of w i t w e l l played." (V, i i , 2 9 ) The l a d i e s ' d e c i s i o n to make t h e i r l o v e r s r e g r e t t h e i r hyp-o c r i s y and i n s i n c e r i t y i n c o u r t s h i p foreshadows the penance to be imposed upon them at the end of the p l a y . Once more i n p a r a l l e l 88« form t o the r e v e l a t i o n s of the male s u i t o r s , the P r i n c e s s and her women each i n t u r n r e v e a l the nature of t h e i r g i f t s , a l l the while commenting on the i n s i n c e r i t y of the g i v e r . F u r t h e r -more, the scene r e f l e c t s the r i t u a l sequence of events i n E l -izabethan c o u r t s h i p s . The forsworn l o v e r s p l y the obj e c t s of t h e i r a f f e c t i o n w i t h g i f t s and rhymes, and then propose to con-f r o n t them i n person. However, the new f o l l y of the men w i l l not run i t s course unhindered, f o r the women plan t o make f o o l s of them, and to become t h e i r " f a t e " . The P r i n c e s s ' s remarks c a s t i g a t e the f o l -l y of the wise, and place the turnabout of the King's party i n another p e r s p e c t i v e which prepares the audience to accept the f i n a l events of the a c t i o n ; Rosaline and Maria complete the de-n u n c i a t i o n : P r i n . None are so s u r e l y caught, when they are catched, As w i t turned f o o l . F o l l y , i n wisdom hatched, Hath wisdom's warrant and the help of school, And w i t ' s own grace to grace a learned f o o l . Ros. The blood of. youth burns not w i t h such excess As g r a v i t y ' s r e v o l t to wantonness. Mar. F o l l y i n f o o l s bears not so strong a note As f o o l e r y i n the wise when wit doth dote, Since a l l the power th e r e o f i t doth apply To prove, by w i t , worth i n s i m p l i c i t y . (V, i i , 6 9 - 7 8 ) Upon the a r r i v a l of Boyet, who c a l l s them e x c i t e d l y to arms, the pageant of the besieged l a d i e s becomes c l e a r e r . The imagery of h i s warning p a r a l l e l s the c a l l to arms of the men, and i s reminiscent of many of the a l l e g o r i c a l p r e s e n t a t i o n s at Court i n which a group of women i n a c a s t l e or p a v i l i o n are a s s a i l e d by an equal number of men. £9. Boy Prepare, madam, prepare! Arm, wenches, arm! Encounters mounted are Against your peace. Love doth approach d i s g u i s e d , Armed i n arguments - y o u ' l l be s u r p r i s e d . Muster your w i t s , stand i n your own defense, Or hide your heads l i k e cowards and f l y hence. P r i n . Saint Denis to Saint Cupid! What are they That charge t h e i r breath against us? Say, scout, say. The plans of the King are a l l revealed i n a t r i c e , and Boy-et's account of t h e i r embassage compares i t n i c e l y to the intend ed p r e s e n t a t i o n of the Nine Worthies. They come to v i s i t , as Boyet says, L i k e Muscovites or Russians, as I guess. T h e i r purpose i s t o p a r l e , to court and dance; And everyone h i s love f e a t w i l l advance Unto h i s s e v e r a l m i s t r e s s , which t h e y ' l l know By f a v o r s s e v e r a l which they d i d bestow. Knowing the i n t e n t i o n and costume of the King's p a r t y , the women propose to meet st r a t e g y w i t h s t r a t e g y , and to be a l s o masked when t h e i r v i s i t o r s a r r i v e . Here Shakespeare reverses the t r a d i t i o n a l s i t u a t i o n which attends the appearance of masked or d i s g u i s e d r e v e l l e r s or mum-mers. The sp e c t a t o r s , too, are masked, so that they they become part of the p r e s e n t a t i o n f o r the purpose of f r u s t r a t i n g i t . Furthermore, the masking of the l a d i e s r e - i n t r o d u c e s t h e i r o r i g -i n a l symbolic s i g n i f i c a n c e as "humble-visaged s u i t o r s " , and wreaks p o e t i c j u s t i c e on those who had p r e v i o u s l y refused to recognize them. Instead of presenting a woman-man f i g u r e , as i s customary i n the m a j o r i t y of f e r t i l i t y mumming p l a y s , Shakespeare has the women exchange f a v o r s f o r the purpose of decei v i n g the d e c e i v e r s , (V, i i , 121-25) and t u r n i n g t h e i r j e s t i n g approach back upon them. P r i n c . The e f f e c t of my i n t e n t i s to cross t h e i r s . They do i t but i n mocking merriment, And mock f o r mock i s only my i n t e n t . (V, i i , 138-40) They intend t h e i r r e c e p t i o n of the r e v e l l e r s to be so unexpected that i t w i l l confuse the men and render them speechless and. s i l -l y . The P r i n c e s s comments: There's no such sport as sport by sport o'erthrown, To make t h e i r s ours, and ours none but our own. So s h a l l we stay, mocking: intended game, And they, w e l l mocked, depart away w i t h shame. (V, i i , 153-56) At t h i s , a b l a s t of trumpets s i g n a l s the approach of the g e n t l e -men, who a r r i v e i n ceremony, masked and attended by Blackamoors and music. I t was customary f o r the approach of masked mummers to be heralded by trumpet b l a s t s ; at Rogate, before the present-a t i o n , the Presenter blows a cow-horn t o announce the approach 29 of the mummers. T r a d i t i o n a l l y masked, the King and h i s cohorts are costumed s u i t a b l y i n "Russian h a b i t s " . The entertainment they plan to o f -f e r the P r i n c e s s and her l a d i e s i s r e a l l y a masquerade, or masked dance, r a t h e r than a masque. "When we consider t h i s Mask of the Muscovites", Mr. Long remarks, "the f i r s t t h i n g we n o t i c e i s i t s s i m p l i c i t y . In c o n t r a s t to the l a t e r Stuart masques, such as those w r i t t e n by Jonson and Campion, the l i t t l e masque of Love's 30 Labor's Lost contains i n i t s e l f no dramatic elements." Often 29 Chambers, F o l k - P l a y , p. 13. 30 John H. Long, Shakespeare's Use of Music: A Study of the  Music and i t s Performance i n the O r i g i n a l Production of Seven Comedies, G a i n e s v i l l e , U n i v e r s i t y of F l o r i d a Press, 1955, p. 67 . 91. the term masque i s used p r i m a r i l y to r e f e r to the masked process-i o n . The court masque i t s e l f was an e x c l u s i v e and a r i s t o c r a t i c , a r t i f i c i a l and s o p h i s t i c a t e d form of entertainment, yet i t was al s o p r i m i t i v e and popular i n tha t i t was of t e n the dance of the seasonal f e s t i v a l s . I t i s a rudimentary form of a r t , whose s t i r -r i n g s are seen whenever people express an emotional a t t i t u d e to l i f e by means of t h e i r own bodies, or perform any d i r e c t emotional expression by rhythmic or i m i t a t i v e movement, by dance or song 31 or d r e s s i n g up. Characterized by a l a c k of p r a c t i c a l purpose, an i n t e n t i o n a l l o s s of contact with o r d i n a r y l i f e , i t could take the form of a r t , or play, or r i t u a l . As Miss Welsford draws to our a t t e n t i o n i n The Court Masque, the court masquerade was more p r i m i t i v e than the drama o f the rough E l i z a b e t h a n playhouses. I t was clo s e to ancient and world-wide r i t u a l because i t drew upon the s i t u a t i o n of the a r r i v a l of persons masqued to dance a dance or present an o f f e r i n g , and was hence r e a l l y a s o p h i s t i c a t e d form of mumming. The group of mummers i s c o r r e c t l y defined as a set of d i s g u i s e d persons who perform some a c t i o n which i s of r i t -ual, o r i g i n , and thus, at t h i s point i n the play, the King's party has taken on a s i m i l a r i t y to such a group. Mummers dance so that the crops may grow, and the a r i s t o c r a t i c mummers of Love* s Labor's Lost dance so tha t they may advance t h e i r s u i t s and 32 p a r t i c i p a t e i n the joys of the season. I t i s an a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l t r u i s m that the lower s t r a t a of r i t u a l and b e l i e f p e r s i s t i n a 31 Welsford, Masque, p. 356. 32 I b i d . , p. 3 . s o c i e t y o f t e n almost unchanged, though i n t e l l e c t u a l and p o l i t i c a l 33 systems r i s e and f a l l . The contest which f o l l o w s between the men and the women i s a l s o suggestive of Easter and Hocktide abuse and contests between the sexes. Hocktide i s a pagan f e s t i v a l whose c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f e a t u r e was a contest between the men and the women of a community as opposing groups. Such a c t i v i t i e s as are r e f e r r e d to here s t i l l held immense s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r the m a j o r i t y of Shakespeare's audience. In ad-d i t i o n to the lower c l a s s e s , the more educated and s o p h i s t i c a t e d l e v e l s of s o c i e t y seem to have valued the o l d r i t u a l s and games because they could be made amusing. During the l a t e Middle Ages, there was apparently a gradual transformation of folk-games sur-v i v i n g from p r i m i t i v e r i t u a l i n t o bourgeois, s c h o l a s t i c , and a r -i s t o c r a t i c r e v e l l i n g s . The f i n a l amalgam, which of t e n appears i n the works of Shakespeare and other d r a m a t i s t s , i s the product of the absorption of various c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the r e l i g i o u s 34 drama, the c i v i c pageant, and the i n s t i t u t i o n s of c h i v a l r y . Shakespeare i s expressing the tru e character of the o r i g i n s of the masque when he presents i t as an impromptu s o c i a l a f f a i r . The f a c t t h a t E l i z a b e t h ' s habit of making progresses through England, spending her summer v i s i t i n g the country houses of the n o b i l i t y , encouraged the masque i s of some i n t e r e s t i n t h i s a n a l -y s i s because of the obvious r e l a t i o n between the gentlemen's masque and the p r e s e n t a t i o n of the Nine Worthies which was a l s o a humble means of doing honor to the King, h i s company, and 33 34 Welsford, Masque, p. 9. I b i d . . p. 20. 93. h i s guests. Moth, coached i n the r o l e of presenter of the Mummers' pl a y , as Boyet has already reported, stumbles through the beginning of h i s speech but he i s s w i f t l y overcome by the s t a l w a r t s i l e n c e of the l a d i e s and t h e i r p e r s i s t e n t r e f u s a l to "mark" him. Get t i n g o f f to a bad s t a r t , the r e v e l l e r s soon f i n d themselves i n even h o t t e r water. The l a d i e s s k i l l f u l l y a f f e c t wide-eyed naivete', and pretend not to recognize the v i s i t o r s . Of course such a pretense i s e n t i r e l y i n keeping w i t h the customs of mumming. The i d e n t i t y of the masked v i s i t o r s i s u s u a l l y known, but the cere-mony i s kept i n t a c t by the feigned s u r p r i s e and constern a t i o n of those r e c e i v i n g the v i s i t . When the l a d i e s are i n v i t e d to "tread a measure", they refuse u n g r a c i o u s l y . However, at the completion of some s p a r k l i n g repartee, the couples j o i n hands b r i e f l y i n what appears to be a dramatic dumb show r e n d i t i o n of the dance. The couples draw apart g r a c e f u l l y , each p a i r moving aside to converse. Immediately the conversation takes on the balance and measure of the dance as each couple draws forward, completes i t s word f e n c i n g , and draws back t o converse apart, making room f o r the next. The charming j o i n i n g of hands mimicking the dance i s made even more e f f e c t i v e by a musical accompaniment which l a s t s u n t i l the P r i n c e s s ' s words, "and so the measure ends". In a d d i t i o n to the emphasis upon the dance as both pastime and entertainment, references to other pastimes continue to r e -cur. Berowne r e p l i e s to the P r i n c e s s ' s s a l l i e s : 94 B Nay then, two t r e y s , an i f you grow so n i c e , Metheglin, wort, and Malmsey. Well run, dice I There's h a l f a dozen sweets. (v, i i , 232-35) To which the P r i n c e s s r e p l i e s , "Seventh sweet adieu. / Since you can cog, I ' l l p l a y no more w i t h you." At t h i s , they draw aside and converse away from the centre of i n t e r e s t . The three remain-ing couples f o l l o w s u i t r e s p e c t i v e l y , and, at the completion, i t i s almost as i f the couples had danced together a f t e r a l l . The b a t t l e s of w i t are transmuted i n t o r e a l c o n f l i c t s by Boyet's s t a t e -ment t h a t , The tongues of mocking wenches are as keen As i s the r a z o r ' s edge i n v i s i b l e , C u t t i n g a smaller h a i r than may be seen, Above the sense of sense. So s e n s i b l e Seemeth t h e i r conference, t h e i r c o n c e i t s have wings F l e e t e r than arrows, b u l l e t s , wind, thought, s w i f t e r t h i n g s * (V, i i , 256-61) A f t e r the embarrassed departure of the gentlemen, the l a d i e s r i d -i c u l e t h e i r vows of love u n t i l they r e t u r n , t h i s time unmasked. The d i s g r u n t l e d Berowne's c r i t i c i s m of Boyet i s the customary c r i t i c i s m of the p o l i s h e d fop, and i t i s couched i n terms approp-r i a t e t o the pastimes of the a f f e c t e d g a l l a n t . ....Why, t h i s i s he That k i s s e d h i s hand away i n courtesy; This i s the ape of form, monsieur the n i c e , That, when at t a b l e s , chides the d i c e In honorable terms. Nay, he can sing A mean most meanly, and i n ushering, Mend him who can. (V, i i , 323-29) At the attempts of the men to i n g r a t i a t e themselves w i t h the women, the P r i n c e s s acknowledges t h a t , We have had pastimes here and pleasant game. A mess of Russians l e f t us but of l a t e (V, i i , 3 5 9 - 6 0 ) 95* However, by s t a t i n g b l u n t l y t h a t the v i s i t o r s had been a p a r t y of f o o l s , Rosaline soon d i s p e l s any i l l u s i o n s they may have e n t e r t a i n -ed concerning the success of t h e i r venture. At t h i s j uncture, Berowne drops a l l pretense and admits h i s g u i l t . He even abjures masking and the f l o u t i n g of w i t , and makes an oath t o no more . . . t r u s t to speeches penned, Nor to the motion of a schoolboy's tongue, Nor never^come i n v i z a r d to my f r i e n d , Nor woo i n rhyme, l i k e a b l i n d harper's songI (v, i i , 402-405) The l e s s o n has been d e a r l y bought, and he determines to forswear "maggot o s t e n t a t i o n " . However, the discomfort of the unfortunate s u i t o r s i s not to end here, and a f t e r the r e v e l a t i o n of the exchange of favours, Berowne exclaims b i t t e r l y : I see the t r i c k on't. Here was a consent, Knowing aforehand of our merriment, To dash i t l i k e a Christmas comedy. Some c a r r y t a l e , some pleaseman, some s l i g h t zany, Some mumblenews, some trencher k n i g h t , some Dick That smiles h i s cheek i n years, and knows the t r i c k To make my lady laugh when she's disposed, Told our i n t e n t s before. (V, i i , 460-67) Turning to Boyet, he accuses him of d e s t r o y i n g t h e i r j e s t , saying, You put our page out. Go, you are allowed. Die when you w i l l , a smock s h a l l be your shroud. You l e e r upon me, do you? There's an eye Wounds l i k e a leaden sword. (V, i i , 478-81) In t h i s b i t t e r speech, Berowne l i k e n s Boyet to the p r i v i l e g e d f o o l who w i l l be b u r i e d i n h i s motley long coat or a lady's n i g h t -dress. The weapons c a r r i e d by f o o l s , fashioned of e i t h e r l a t h or l e a d , were incapable of wounding. The comment a l s o serves to r e -mind the student of the E l i z a b e t h a n p e r i o d of the o f t e n l a v i s h and somewhat e c c e n t r i c f u n e r a l s accorded t o Court and house f o o l s who continued to play t h e i r r o l e s even i n death. W i l l Summers and others of h i s i l k enjoyed a very p e c u l i a r p o s i t i o n i n s o c i e t y and seem to have been the object of a good d e a l of a f f e c t i o n as w e l l as d e r i s i o n . In r e p l y to Berowne's comment, and to f u r t h e r b o l s t e r up the c e n t r a l idea of c o n f l i c t between opposing groups, Boyet l i k e n s the confounding of the King's f o r c e s t o a d i s p l a y of horsemanship on the t i l t i n g ground. " F u l l m e r r i l y / Hath t h i s brave manage, t h i s career, been run." (V, i i , 481-82) The main a c t i o n being complete, and the King's a b o r t i v e masque d i s p l a y e d and dashed, Shakespeare now introduces the pageant of the Nine Worthies, presented by the pedant, the curate, and Don Armado. During the Middle Ages and the Renaissance, i t was customary f o r the Nine Worthies to be shown at the May games and other popular c e l e b r a t i o n s . The climax of the low comedy, the burlesque " a n t i c " of the Nine Worthies, because i t i s present-ed before the assembled n o b i l i t y , a l s o serves to draw the p a r a l l e l 35 p l o t s together f o r the end of the p l a y . This p r e s e n t a t i o n serves as a f i n a l example of the p l a y ' s d r a m a t i z a t i o n of the r i t -u a l c e l e b r a t i o n of the rhythm of the year by both the simple f o l k and the r o y a l t y a l i k e . R e f e r e n c e s o b l i q u e , i m p l i e d , and d i r e c t 7 t o the pastimes, entertainments, and customs of E l i z a b e t h a n Eng-land abound i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r p l a y and i n those to f o l l o w i t . The a c t u a l p r e s e n t a t i o n of the "Worthies" seems to r i d i c u l e 35 Long, Sh.'s Use of Music, p. 67. 97, one of the pageant's stock s u b j e c t s . Miss Venezky b r i n g s to our a t t e n t i o n t h a t : Such hardy p e r e n n i a l s as the V i r t u e s , the Nine Worthies, and the Labours of Hercules were as standard at the time of Love's Labor's Lost as they had been i n 1578....the s t y l e or the pageant verses i s unmistakeably mirrored i n Pompey's speech i n septameter l i n e s which are more i n t e n t upon rime than reason. With the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c d i s t r a c t i o n of the amateur arranger, Holofernes confuses the show of the labours of Hercules w i t h that of the Nine Worthies, and e x h i b i t s Hercules as one of the h i s -t o r i c a l w orthies. By concession to the a v a i l a b l e , t h i s hero i s presented at one of h i s i n f a n t labours. Strang-l i n g the snake, the boy Moth stands mute, while the school-master-presenter d e l i v e r s an explanation embel-l i s h e d w i t h the classroom L a t i n so t y p i c a l of the s t r e e t shows....Far from Ben Jonson's i d e a l pageant where " ' T i s a l l i n every p a r t , " t h i s show of the Nine Worthies par-odies not only the hackneyed subjects of the amateur shows, but the f o o l i s h props, the poor speakers, the forced rime, l i m p i n g metre and needless explanation t h a t "This i s a Dog". 36 Although the King f e a r s t h a t the p r e s e n t a t i o n w i l l shame him, • both the P r i n c e s s and Berowne o f f e r reasons or j u s t i f i c a t i o n s f o r i t s acceptance, both of which r e f e r o b l i q u e l y to the f i a s c o of the masque of the Muscovites. Ber. We are shameproof, my l o r d , and ' t i s some p o l i c y To have one show worse than the King's and h i s company. King. I say they s h a l l not come. (V, i i , 513-15) In r e p l y , the P r i n c e s s comments on the nature of the f a l t e r i n g , humorous r e s u l t s of some unrehearsed r u s t i c performances. Nay, my good l o r d , l e t me o ' e r r u l e you now. That sport best pleases that doth l e a s t know how, Where z e a l s t r i v e s to content, and the contents Dies i n the z e a l of that which i t presents. Their form confounded makes most form i n m i r t h When great t h i n g s l a b o r i n g p e r i s h i n t h e i r b i r t h . (V, i i , 516-21) 36 Venezky, Pageantry, pp. 159-60. 9 a . A reference to d i c i n g appears once more as Berowne exclaims, Abate throw at novum and the whole world again Cannot p i c k out f i v e such, take each one i n h i s v e i n . (V, i i , 547-48) Such a f a n t a s t i c a l set of mummers as "the pedant, the braggart, the hedge p r i e s t , the f o o l , and the boy" are to be seen again i n A Midsummer Night's Dream, i n Shakespeare's next p i c t u r e of the c o u n t r y f o l k ' s welcome to r o y a l t y on an important occasion. However, u n l i k e Theseus and h i s t o l e r a n t acceptance of the humble e f f o r t s of h i s l o y a l s u b j e c t s , the King and h i s party proceed to confound the simple p r e s e n t a t i o n i n much the same manner th a t the P r i n c e s s and her f o r c e s dashed t h e i r own masque " l i k e a Christmas comedy". Costard's speech f o l l o w i n g Nathaniel's embarrassed depart-ure serves as e x p l i c i t comment on the good i n t e n t i o n s of the r u s t i c s i n presenting t h e i r p l a y s . ....There, an't s h a l l please you, a f o o l i s h mild man - an honest man, look you, and soon dashed. He i s a marvelous good neighbor, f a i t h , and a very good bowler. But f o r A l i s a n d e r - a l a s , you see how ' t i s - a l i t t l e o'er-parted. (V, i i , 583-89) Thus gentle i r o n y i s cast upon the e f f o r t s of the performing r u s t i c s . However, the z e a l of the King and h i s f o l l o w e r s lead them to dash the comedy w i t h a l i t t l e more c r u e l t y than i s a b s o l -u t e l y necessary, and t h e i r penance l a t e r takes t h i s i n t o account. Armado's declamations i n the person of Hector of Troy are i n t e r -rupted by the i n t e r j e c t i o n of Costard, the clown, that Jaquenetta i s pregnant by him. Costard's a c t i o n of accusing Armado of be-g e t t i n g a bastard son on Jaquenetta seems to have i t s o r i g i n s also 99. i n the Mummers' Wooing play where i t i s customary f o r an o l d woman or one of the supernumary characters to present the f o o l or one of the s u i t o r s w i t h a bastard c h i l d . He i s incensed, r e p l i e s w i t h i n v e c t i v e , and u s u a l l y enters i n t o a b a t t l e w i t h one of the other c h a r a c t e r s . Thus the pageant of Holofernes has some s i m i -l a r i t y t o the Mummers' pla y i n that i t contains presenters and has a general melee at the end. Armado puts on a great show of being "infamonized" i n f r o n t of "potentates", but the contest t h a t i s threatened between them i s i n t e r r u p t e d a l s o by the a r r i v a l of Mercade, a messenger from France, bearing the sad news of the death of the P r i n c e s s ' s f a t h e r . With t h i s news, the atmosphere of merriment and r e v e l r y i s shattered, and the grim r e a l i t i e s of l i f e obtrude. Berowne sug-gests once more t h a t t h e i r a c t i o n s have been merely d i c t a t e d by the demands of the season and of Love, but the P r i n c e s s r e p l i e s t h a t she and her^-women have not i n t e r p r e t e d them i n t h a t f a s h i o n . We have re c e i v e d your l e t t e r s f u l l of l o v e , Your f a v o r s , the ambassadors of l o v e , And i n our maiden c o u n c i l r a t e d them At c o u r t s h i p , pleasant j e s t and courtesy, As bombast and as l i n i n g to the time. But more devout than t h i s i n our respects Have we not been, and t h e r e f o r e met your loves In t h e i r own f a s h i o n , l i k e a merriment. (V, i i , 787-94) Her speech places the a c t i o n once more i n the form f a m i l i a r to a c o u r t l y audience, and serves a l s o to remind us of the s i m i l a r i t i e s of the present a c t i o n to the a l l e g o r i c a l presentations of c o u r t l y i n t e r l u d e s and m o r a l i t i e s i n which the C a s t l e of Love i s besieged by k n i g h t l y s u i t o r s . The imagery of her r e p l y r e t a i n s the 100. connotations of b a t t l e and warfare, and r e i n f o r c e s the suggestion t h a t t h i s has been a " c i v i l war of w i t s " . In order to t e s t h i s l o v e , the P r i n c e s s demands of the King a penance even more severe than that demanded by h i s o r i g i n a l vow. However, i n t h i s case, she i s r e a l l y r e q u i r i n g him to t e s t h i s emotion outside the framework of the f e s t i v i t y . To put the King and h i s men "on t r i a l " , to give them a pen-ance which f o r c e s them to t e s t t h e i r motives i n the l i g h t of everyday, i s very s i m i l a r to the f o l k custom of p l a c i n g C a r n i v a l on t r i a l . In f o l k custom, to do t h i s i s a way of l i m i t i n g , by r i t u a l , the a t t i t u d e s and impulses set loose by r i t u a l . Just as misrule can become a source of d e s t r u c t i v e consequences f o r s o c i e t y , so can the r i t u a l wooing attempts of the King and h i s party, when i n s i n c e r e l y undertaken, cause a c e r t a i n element of d i s r u p t i o n to enter i n t o the s i t u a t i o n . The l a d i e s ' punishment of t h e i r wooers, and t h e i r b e l i e f t h a t a l l the c o u r t i n g and mum-ming has been prompted not e n t i r e l y by s i n c e r i t y i s completely understandable, and t h e i r subsequent squelching of the h o l i d a y s p i r i t , i f seen i n the l i g h t of C a r n i v a l on t r i a l , seems only appropriate, as does Prince Hal's symbolic e x p u l s i o n of the King of M i s r u l e , F a l s t a f f , i n Henry IV", part I I . The group must be made to recognize the place of r i t u a l and the joy of the s p r i n g season w i t h i n the l a r g e r rhythm of i t s c o n t i n u i n g s o c i a l e x i s t -ence. The P r i n c e s s once more takes the hand of the King i n a g r a c e f u l l e a v e t a k i n g which bears w i t h i t promise of f u r t h e r 101. reward and consummation i f her co n d i t i o n s are f u l f i l l e d . She intends to perform a r i t u a l mourning f o r the per i o d of one year, expect-i n g the King to seek the r e a l i t i e s of l i f e i n order to l e a r n i f they, l i k e the sneaping f r o s t , w i l n i p the blossoms of h i s l o v e . Thus, apparently, l o v e ' s l a b o r s w i l l not be e n t i r e l y l o s t . In The Jew of Venice ( I I , i ) , an E n g l i s h play r e l a t e d to The Merch-ant of Venice, A n c i l l e t t a r e f u s e s to decide between two l o v e r s u n t i l a year has passed, i n s p i t e of the urging of her f a t h e r , who i s present at the debate. This deferment of a d e c i s i o n con-cerning a l o v e r u n t i l the passage of a year's time, which a l s o ap-pears i n Chaucer's Parliament of Fowls, i s apparently a common mot i f of f e s t i v a l wooing p l a y s . Armado's vow of f a i t h f u l n e s s to Jaquenetta at the end of the pl a y p a r a l l e l s the promises of h i s b e t t e r s t o earn the loves of t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e m i s t r e s s e s . At t h i s p o i n t , the dialogue takes on the aspects of a b a l -l a d w i t h i t s testamentary r e f r a i n o f , "And what to me, my love? And what to me?", which Berowne demands of R o s a l i n e . However, the P r i n c e s s ' s l a d i e s a l s o demand penance or proof of the men's s i n c e r i t y . Berowne i s t o become the doctor of s i c k souls, "To enforce the pained impotent to s m i l e . " (V, i i , 864) As Rosaline e x p l a i n s , A j e s t ' s p r o s p e r i t y l i e s i n the ear Of him that hears i t , never i n the tongue Of him t h a t makes i t . (V, i i , 871-73) A f t e r agreeing to j e s t a twelvemonth i n a h o s p i t a l , Berowne can only regret t h a t : 37 B a s k e r v i l l , "Conventional Features", p. 427 102. Our wooing doth not end l i k e an o l d p l a y . Jack hath not J i l l . These l a d i e s ' courtesy Might w e l l have made our sport a comedy. (V, i i , 884-86) Berowne's r e j o i n d e r to the King places the a c t i o n once more i n i t s focus as a r e v e l , a d r a m a t i z a t i o n of a r t i f i c i a l and intense a c t i v i t y so f a m i l i a r to i t s c o u r t l y audience, and hence not expected to r e c e i v e a f i n a l c u l m i n a t i o n i n the world of r e a l -i t y . The period of misrule has had i t s r e i g n and now the " c o n s i d -e r a t i o n s " of the workaday world must take precedence. The pen-ance of the l o v e r s , which r e q u i r e s t h e i r immediate though r e l u c -tant, r e t u r n t o p r o s a i c r e a l i t y , serves to u n d e r l i n e the f l e e t i n g q u a l i t y of t h i s b r i e f i n t e r l u d e , and to foreshadow i t s c y c l i c a l r e t u r n one year hence. The imposed penance of a year's a u s t e r i t y i s , as Berowne says, too long f o r a p l a y , and the b a t t l e between the represent-a t i v e s of a u s t e r i t y and s p r i n g i s ended once more on a t r a d i t i o n -a l note w i t h the p r e s e n t a t i o n by the country f o l k of two songs re p r e s e n t i n g the owl and the cuckoo, and symbolizing the b a t t l e between winter and summer. Chambers n o t i c e s that i n one of the most i n t e r e s t i n g forms of the summer and winter b a t t l e , the e i g h t h or n i n t h century C o n f l i c t u s V e r i s et Hiem-i s , the subject of dispute i s the cuckoo, which sp r i n g p r a i s e s and winter chides, w h i l e the shepherds de-c l a r e that he must be drowned or s t o l e n away, be-cause summer cometh not. The cuckoo i s everywhere a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c b i r d of s p r i n g , and h i s coming was probably, a p r i m i t i v e s i g n a l f o r the high summer f e s t i v a l . 38 38 Chambers, Mediaeval Stage, v o l . 1, p. 188 103. The song of Spring b r i n g s w i t h i t the i d e a of f e r t i l i t y , t h a t "wedlock would be n i b b l i n g " , and the r e p l y by V7inter p r a i s e s the c o l d season,, These two songs c o n t r a s t s h a r p l y w i t h the a r t i f i c i a l i t y of the a c t i o n , and s u b s t i t u t e the everyday r e a l i t i e s of the low-er c l a s s i n place of the a r i s t o c r a t i c r e v e l l i n g s of the a c t i o n . In a d d i t i o n , they shed l i g h t on the a c t i o n f o r i t i s an accepted f a c t that the pastimes and entertainments, even the r i t u a l l y s t r u c t u r e d events and a c t i v i t i e s , of the upper c l a s s e s are ofte n merely those of the lower c l a s s e s r e f i n e d and transmuted i n t o r e v e l r y by the touchstone of c l a s s i c i s m , c h i v a l r y , or other out-side i n f l u e n c e s . Mr. Long po i n t s out that music, both instrument-a l and v o c a l , was used by the Eli z a b e t h a n s as a dramatic d e v i c e , as an a i d not only t o the i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n of the impact of the language, but a l s o to the forward-i n g of the a c t i o n , the p o r t r a y a l of cha r a c t e r , the d e l i n e a t i o n of s e t t i n g s , and the c r e a t i o n of ap-p r o p r i a t e atmosphere, such as a mood of mystery or awe. In usi n g the current musical t r a d i t i o n , Shakespeare was a l s o able t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e be-tween the manners and t a s t e s of a l l s t a t i o n s of h i s s o c i e t y . 39 I t was customary f o r r u s t i c s to s i n g f o l k songs and b a l l a d s of the c o u n t r y s i d e , and townsmen to s i n g popular s t r e e t b a l l a d s , but never f o r a gentleman to perform m u s i c a l l y i n p u b l i c . Although a l l songs were popular w i t h both the groundling and the s o p h i s t -i c a t e d play goer, these p a r t i c u l a r songs are introduced i n t o the play i n order to emphasize the pageant of winter and summer which has been i m p l i c i t i n i t s a c t i o n . 39 l o n g , Sh.'s Use of Music, p. 1. 104. The songs i n Shakespeare's e a r l y comedies often make e x p l i c -40 i t or i m p l i c i t reference to a h o l i d a y occasion. Instead of a wedding dance or masque, Shakespeare uses these songs as a f i n a l e , as an expression of the c o n t r o l l i n g f e e l i n g f o r community and season. Armado's p r e s e n t a t i o n i s a l s o a pageant of a kind i n t h a t he i s i n a l l p r o b a b i l i t y ushering i n d i s g u i s e d pageant f i g u r e s , r e p r e s e n t i n g w i n t e r , summer, the owl, and the cuckoo. The "de-bat" i s presented by means of " p r a i s e of the owl and the cuckoo", and seems to catalogue the pleasures to be gained from the r e s p e c t -i v e seasons. Mr. Barber says of Armado's p r e s e n t a t i o n , Of course these songs are not simply of the world they d e s c r i b e , not f o l k songs; they are a r t songs, conscious-l y p a s t o r a l , s o p h i s t i c a t e d enjoyment of s i m p l i c i t y . Their elegance and humor convey pleasure i n l i f e ' s be-ing reduced to so few elements and yet being so d e l i g h t -f u l . Each centers on v i t a l i t y , and moves from nature to man. The s p r i n g song goes from lady smocks to the maidens' summer smocks, both showing white against the green of the season, from t u r t l e cocks who " t r e a d " to i m p l i c a t i o n s about people....In the winter song, the center of v i t a l i t y i s the f i r e . . . . E v e n the k i t c h e n wench, greasy Joan, k e e l i n g the pot to keep i t from b o i l i n g over, i s one of us, a f i g u r e of a f f e c t i o n . The songs evoke the d a i l y enjoyments and the d a i l y com-munity out of which s p e c i a l f e s t i v e occasions were shaped. And so they provide f o r the c o n c l u s i o n of the comedy what marriage u s u a l l y provides; an express-i o n of the going-on power of l i f e . 41 The play ends very a p p r o p r i a t e l y on Armado's observation* that there i s nothing more to be s a i d . In a s sessing the r e s u l t s of the foregoing a n a l y s i s of the r i t u a l and play elements of Love's Labor's Lost, we can recognize immediately the emphasis upon these elements both i n p l o t mater-40 41 Barber, Sh.'s F e s t i v e Comedy, p. 114. I b i d . . pp. 117-18. i a l and a c t i o n , and i n the s e l e c t i o n of images and metaphors. We a l s o d i s c o v e r the play to possess a l l the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the r i t u a l c e l e b r a t i o n s of the r e b i r t h of the year, the c o n f l i c t between the two seasons, summer and w i n t e r , the punishment of those who re f u s e t o recognize the demands of the season, the sym-b o l i c death of a p a r t i c i p a n t , the a r r i v a l of mummers, the g i f t g i v i n g of the mummers, the attempt to dance, the presence of a f o o l , the contest between a f o o l and a gentleman f o r the a f f e c t -ions of a maid, some i n d i c a t i o n of the c y c l i c a l nature of the event, and, f i n a l l y , the acknowledgement of the l a r g e r rhythm of the year. In upholding the s p i r i t of s p r i n g , t h i s comedy c r i t -i c i z e s the King's d e l i b e r a t e s t i f l i n g of the pl a y s p i r i t i n o r -der to c u l t i v a t e study and s o b r i e t y . However, i t dramatizes not only the h o l i d a y or pl a y s p i r i t but a l s o the need f o r r e v e l r y and the need t o l i m i t i t . The s p r i n g c e l e b r a t i o n s are presented i n c o n f l i c t w i t h everyday and w i t h a s c e t i c i s m , and t h i s j u x t a p o s i t i o n enhances the meaning of the a c t i o n . Mr. Barber comments on t h i s e f f e c t : I n the i d y l l i c p l ays there i s a humor of perspect i v e which recognizes the l i m i t a t i o n s of the r e i g n i n g f e s t -i v e moment by l o o k i n g outward, from i t , to the work-a-day world beyond, 42 As mummers themselves, the King and h i s party become mem-bers of a group f u l l of the enhanced v i t a l i t y t h a t comes from shared enjoyment. Both the women and the men experience the sense of s o l i d a r i t y , of communion, and recognize a power of l i f e g r e a t -er than the i n d i v i d u a l . In a sense, too, the audience a l s o p a r t -i c i p a t e s i n t h i s f e e l i n g . H i t h e r t o , the men had been unnatural 42 Barber, " S a t u r n a l i a i n the Henriad", p. 173 106. k i l l - j o y s , M a l v o l i o s who refused t o comply w i t h the n a t u r a l demands of the new year. Refusing to admit the mumming embassy of the P r i n c e s s , and almost r e f u s i n g to accept the opportunity to set t h i n g s r i g h t i n the community, they commit a c a r d i n a l s i n . The women, appearing as guests at the Court of Navarre, bear w i t h them the o f f e r of a g i f t of money and the opportunity to s e t t l e the a f -f a i r s of the community. The f a i l u r e of the King to acknowledge them s u i t a b l y i s on a plane with the s i n of those who f a i l to welcome mummers, and, hence, by t h e i r a c t i o n s place i n jeopardy t h e . f u t u r e w e l f a r e of the community. The r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of r e -generation and luck are thus being ignored and i n s u l t e d . As do most k i l l - j o y s i n the f e s t i v e comedies, and i n other p l a y s , the men become the b u t t s of the comic a c t i o n , and are c l e a r l y punished f o r t h e i r unnatural r e a c t i o n s . Their punishment a l s o c a r r i e s w i t h i t connotations of the scapegoat who s u f f e r s so that the community as a whole may prosper. The reason f o r the P r i n c e s s ' s embassy to Navarre i n v o l v e s the u n i t y and s a f e t y of the community, and s u p p l i e s opportunity f o r the re-establishment of the p o l i t i c a l e q u i l i b r i u m . I t i s only the death of her f a t h e r t h a t s e t t l e s the matter by inducing the King of Navarre to accede amicably to her demands and so r e c t i f y a s i t u a t i o n p o t e n t i a l l y dangerous to the welfare of the commun-i t y . This death becomes s y m b o l i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t , and thus smacks of the s a c r i f i c i a l atonement supposed necessary to insure the f e r t i l i t y and success of the new year. This death a l s o serves as the p l o t device to b r i n g the h o l i d a y atmosphere to an end, 107. and places i t i n per s p e c t i v e w i t h the r e a l i t i e s of everyday l i f e . What i s more, i n presenting what amounts t o a c r o s s - s e c t i o n of the pastimes and entertainments of the E l i z a b e t h a n p e r i o d , the p l a y expresses i m p l i c i t l y the d e l i g h t which the n o b i l i t y took i n the pastime of word p l a y . The use of the pun appears as a game i n t h i s p l a y , as i n most of the e a r l y p l a y s , a c o u r t l y s o c i a l d i v e r s i o n i n which everyone engages. The Eli z a b e t h a n s took great pleasure i n the wealth and ambiguity of t h e i r language, and played the game of wordplay very s e r i o u s l y . Mr. Clemen ob-serves: The extensive and prolonged p l a y i n g w i t h words and im-ages w i t h which we meet i n the e a r l y comedies i s f u r -t h e r of great s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r the dialogue. The pun was of r e a l importance i n the development of the quick and w i t t y dialogue by means of which the s t i f f -ness of the encounters of characters on the stage was overcome. 4 3 In the l a s t act of both Love's Labor Ts Lost and A Midsummer Night's Dream, Shakespeare uses the l i n g u i s t i c abuses of the clowns and p s e u d o - i n t e l l e c t u a l s to d i s t i n g u i s h them from the c o u r t i e r s and 4 4 t h e i r r i c h punning v i r t u o s i t y . Some such awareness seems to be behind Barber's statement: The a r i s t o c r a t i c pastimes w i t h language are set against the f a n t a s t i c e l a b o r a t i o n s of the braggart and the schoolmaster, Armado p u f f i n g up versions of E u p h u i s t i c t a u t o l o g y and p e r i p h r a s i s , Holofernes complacently showing o f f h i s inkhorn terms, r h e t -o r i c a l and grammatical terminology, even declens-ions and a l t e r n a t e s p e l l i n g s . 4 5 4 3 Wolfgang H. Clemen, The Development of Shakespeare's Imag-ery. London, Methuen & Co. L t d . , 1 9 5 9 , p. 3 2 . 4 4 M.M. Mahood, Shakespeare's Wordplay. London, Methuen & Co. L t d . , 1 9 5 7 , p. 1 6 6 . 4 5 Barber, Sh.'s F e s t i v e Comedy, p. 9 6 . Moth comments s a r c a s t i c a l l y i n an aside to Costard, "They have been at a great f e a s t of languages and s t o l ' n the scraps." (V, i , 3 9 ) In Love's Labor's Lost, the game w i t h words i s conducted w i t h zest and i n t e r e s t , e s p e c i a l l y i n the area of the s e x u a l . Of course, the sexual overtones of the j e s t s and double-entendres are very apt i n a play which draws so c l e a r l y upon f e r t i l i t y themes and r i t u a l s . The punning and t e a s i n g which goes on between the men and women serve as an i n d i c a t i o n of the sexual a t t r a c t i o n which e x i s t s between them. In manyof the c o u r t i n g scenes between Shakespeare's l o v e r s , sexual puns and bawdy j e s t s i n d i c a t e drama-t i c a l l y the s t r e n g t h of the undercurrent of f e e l i n g beneath the w i t of the dialogue. The d e l i g h t i n word play i s equalled only by the d e l i g h t i n w i t and i n sonneteering to be observed i n the p l a y , but, though the b r i l l i a n t b a t t l e s of w i t are savored to the f u l l , e v e n t u a l l y even w i t i s put i n i t s proper place i n human ex-perience. One i s almost tempted to a s s e r t t h a t Shakespeare hi m s e l f has been at a "great f e a s t " of r i t u a l s , pastimes, and e n t e r t a i n -ments, and has " s t o l ' n the scraps". In the p l a y , the conscious-l y f u n c t i o n a l and dramatic use of these m a t e r i a l s , e s p e c i a l l y of the f a m i l i a r f e r t i l i t y and May c e l e b r a t i o n s , s u p p l i e s an a d d i t -i o n a l l e v e l of symbolic meaning surrounding the main a c t i o n . I t i s evident t h a t , b a s i c a l l y , the play performs the same f u n c t -i o n as does the r e v e l ; i t serves to place the h o l i d a y experience i n i t s proper p e r s p e c t i v e w i t h regard to l i f e as a whole. The e c s t a t i c submission t o the demands of the s p r i n g season, as an 109« i n t e g r a l part of l i f e , i s seen to have i t s v a l i d i t y , but the play a l s o recognizes the v a l i d i t y and importance of the everyday world and i t s demands upon the p e r s o n a l i t y . At the end of the play, a u t h o r i t y , order, and harmony have been imposed once more upon the community, and the h o l i d a y experience i s seen i n i t s proper place i n the continuum of E l i z a b e t h a n l i f e . For an E l i z -abethan audience, because of the p a r a l l e l s w i t h elements of f o l k -drama and r i t u a l , the p l o t l e v e l of the a c t i o n , the f o o l i s h oath and the r e s u l t i n g treatment of the P r i n c e s s ' s embassy, takes on a d d i t i o n a l meaning complementary to the p s y c h o l o g i c a l m o t i v a t i o n supplied f o r i t by the maturing dramatist. S i m i l a r l y , other r i t u a l s , pastimes, and entertainments drawn upon are a r t i s t i c a l l y subordinated t o the dramatic purpose, and exemplify the d e v e l -opment and improvement of Shakespeare's a r t . In the next play under a n a l y s i s , A Midsummer Night's Dream, the tendency f o r the dramatist to use the m a t e r i a l s of folk-drama and r i t u a l as the b a s i s of h i s a c t i o n reaches i t s c u l m i n a t i o n . The t r a g e d i e s and other plays t o f o l l o w (except f o r Cymbeline, The Winter's Tale, and The Tempest) owe l e s s to the r e v e l or r i t u a l , and subordinate such f o l k elements to c o n t r o l l i n g purposes which d i f f e r markedly from those of e a r l i e r p l a y s . 110. CHAPTER FOUR A Midsummer Night's Dream and "May and December" Like Love's Labor's Lost, with i t s r i t u a l i s t i c structure, A Midsummer Night's Dream i s also f i r m l y shaped i n the form of a r e v e l , and draws heavily upon the r i t u a l , pastimes, and enter-tainments of Elizabethan England. Containing a profusion of dance and song, a s p r i n k l i n g of courtly compliment, and a sharp contrast of poetry and clowning, the play i s "a blend of low com-edy and high comedy", developed through the mingling of prose, 1 poetry, and music with the supernatural and the masque form. Although i t i s so f u l l of marriage preparations that many c r i t -i c s believe i t was composed for a p a r t i c u l a r wedding, the play also embodies r i t u a l s and revels of the May celebrations, with a l l t h e i r attendant r i t e s directed to insuring the f e r t i l i t y of the coming year. For the community, these are bound up inex-t r i c a b l y with the beneficent r e s u l t s of marriage and the phys-i c a l consummation of love. The May game, a folk-custom and pastime common to a l l l e v e l s of society, supplies the pattern 1 Long, Sh.'s Use of Music, p. 82. I l l * for the action of the plot, which moves from the town to the 2 wood and back again. The supernatural atmosphere pervading the "wood" scenes i s very closely akin to that of the revel, which demands that the usual considerations of everyday fade, giving place to the holiday mood. This awareness i s behind Barber's comment: In making Oberon, prince of f a i r i e s , into the May King, Shakespeare urbanely plays with the notion of a supernatural power at work i n holiday: he presents the common May game presided over by an aristocratic garden god. 3 The emphasis of the action i s lai d upon the fl i g h t to the woods and i t s benefits to the community as a whole. In ad-dition, the interlude of Bottom and company supplies the nec-essary elements of the Mummers' play to celebrate both the marriage and the season, and allows, albeit on the level of low comedy, for the symbolic death and revival necessary for the well-being of individuals and the community i t s e l f . As in the traditional May celebrations, the lovers go to the woods to escape harsh reality, and, upon their return, distribute the mystic results of their communion with Nature to the community also. The Maying sequence ends only after Oberon and Titania lead their train into the great hall to bring the blessings of f e r t i l i t y to the three marriages and the community at large. Like Love's Labor's Lost, the play, with i t s balanced 2 Barber, Sh.'s Festive Comedy, p. 119. 3 Loc. c i t . 112, entrances and ex i t s , has a structure which resembles the court-l y Elizabethan dance. Miss Welsford makes the point: The plot i s a pattern, a f i g u r e , rather than a series of human events occasioned by character and passion, and t h i s pattern, e s p e c i a l l y i n the moonlight parts of the play, i s " t h e pattern of a dance. The appearance and disappearance and reappearance of the various lovers, the will-o'-the-wisp movement of the elusive Puck, form a kind of figured b a l l e t . The lovers quarrel i n a dance pattern: f i r s t there are two men to one woman and the other woman alone, then a b r i e f space of c i r c u l a r movement, each one pursuing and pursued, then a return to the figure with the po s i t -ion of the woman reversed, then a cross-movement, man q u a r r e l l i n g with man and woman with woman, and then, as f i n a l e , a general setting to partners, including not only the lovers but f a i r i e s and royal personages as we l l . 4 This pattern, as Miss Welsford describes i t , has a f a m i l i a r r i n g , f o r i t i s r e f l e c t e d i n the twentieth century "square dance" which sends runners f a r back to old roots i n the Middle Ages. The f a m i l i a r square-dancing figures, "three hands round", the "dip and dive", the "a l a main l e f t " , and "grand chain a l l " (often "grand change a l l " ) , have the i r o r i g i n s i n the ancient procession and round dance of primitive ceremonies. The appearance of the pattern on stage i s also reminiscent of wooing songs or singing games i n which one adult, who has not a partner, i s forced to stand apart, often the target of j e s t s u n t i l he or she obtains a 5 partner. The "dance" movement of the play's structure i s reinforced 4 Welsford, Masque.p. 331-32. 5 Cf. The Taming of the Shrew, i n which Kate i s the target, Much Ado About Nothing. I I , i , 330-33> and The Two Gentlemen of  Verona, i n which J u l i a must stand and watch as Proteus woos S i l v i a . 113 by the songs and the dance sequences of the plot. Similarly, the music appropriate to enchantment and nocturnal occasions i s s k i l l -f u l l y woven into the general pattern to produce an atmosphere of both r i t u a l and revel. In order to dramatize the May experience, and to express the demands of the season by glorifying the mar-riage ceremony and i t s significance, the play i s organized by pol-arities everyday-holiday, day-night, waking-dreaming, winter-sum-mer, and age-youth - which are calculated to produce and heighten the awareness, on the part of the audience, of the holiday and the 6 creative ambivalence of the birth-death cycle. In Elizabethan England, Midsummer's Day was traditionally a general holiday and a time of merrymaking, and, as Dyer points out, "The festival.•.has existed i n England, though i t s form has often 7 changed, from the earliest times." It seems to have been a rep-etition of the phallic festivals of India and Egypt, for i t cele-brates nature's renewed f e r t i l i t y . Phallos i n Greek signifies a pole, and the dancing around the May pole plays a significant role i n the May celebrations, as did dancing about bonfires on Midsum-mer eve. Furthermore, the May games gave the participants license to "flout and fleer" at objects of customary respect, and the spring celebrations were consequently a period of misrule compar-able to that of the Christmas season. Midsummer Night was the grand fes t i v a l of witches and f a i r i e s , 6 Barber, Sh.'s Festive Comedy,p. 161. 7 T.F. Thiselton Dyer, British Popular Custom, Present and Past;  Illustrating the Social and Domestic Manners of the People. London, George Bell and Sons, 1876, p. 223. 114. and at midnight the youths r e p a i r e d to the f o r e s t to bedeck them-selv e s w i t h f l o w e r s , and to sport and spend the whole night i n "pleasant pastimes". The procession to the wood drew upon ancient r i t u a l u l t i m a t e l y connected w i t h the s a c r i f i c e s and sympathetic magic of pagan times. On r i t u a l days, Mummers passed through the v i l l a g e , c a r r y i n g w i t h them some symbol of good luck f o r the year which they had obtained from nature, often from the "sacred tree"*, Their procession a l s o bore w i t h i t branches or the heads, horns, or s k i n s of animals, u s u a l l y domestic animals, which were somehow connected w i t h the p r i m i t i v e i d e a of s a c r i f i c i a l atonement. In t h e i r progress throughout the v i l l a g e , the Mummers brought w i t h them the f e r t i l i t y of the coming year, and drove away e v i l s p i r i t s 8 and bad l u c k . In g e n e r a l , Shakespeare's comedies present l o v e ' s e f f e c t s on a group, and t h i s play i s no exception, because i n i t the l o v e r s are e x h i b i t e d as being h e l p l e s s l y tossed about by a f o r c e greater than themselves, and beyond t h e i r c o n t r o l . The comedy's i r o n y about l o v e ' s motives and choices expresses love's power not as an a t t r i b u t e of p a r t i c u l a r p e r s o n a l i t i e s , but as an impersonal f o r c e 9 beyond the understanding and command of the persons concerned. The p l a y draws p a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n t o the lunacy of the l o v e r , The l u n a t i c , the l o v e r , and the poet Are of imagination a l l compact. (V, i , 7-8) 8 For f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n see F r a z e r , The Scapegoat, chapters VI and V I I I , and Chambers, Mediaeval Stage, v o l . I , chapters V - X I I . 9 I , 1, 141-55; I , i , 226-51; IV, i , 150-203. 115. Furthermore, even Theseus confesses to Hippolyta t h a t he had, "won thy love doing thee i n j u r i e s " . The p a r a d o x i c a l nature of the emotion and a l s o of the r e v e l becomes an object of a t t e n t i o n i n the p l a y . The s i g n i f i c a n c e of the r o l e s of the f a i r y - c r o s s e d l o v e r s l i e s not i n i n d i v i d u a l speeches but i n the whole e v o l u t i o n o f the f a r c e i n the form of a g r a c e f u l dance. As i s common i n E l i z a b e t h a n comedies, the main p l o t i s composed of s e v e r a l strands: the wedding of Theseus and H i p p o l y t a , the t r i b u l a t i o n s of the Athenian l o v e r s , the q u a r r e l of T i t a n i a and Oberon, the attempt of the hempen homespuns to produce an i n t e r l u d e , and, f i n a l l y , the s t o r y of Pyramus and Thisbe. The p l a y opens w i t h the scene of an e n t i r e community preparing to observe the r i t e s of May and p a r t i c i p a t e i n the customary r i t u a l s and r e v e l s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h an important marriage. As e a r l y as t h i s opening scene, i t becomes obvious to the audience t h a t Theseus and Hip p o l y t a , though p r i n c i p a l s i n the a c t i o n , are not r e a l l y p r o t a g o n i s t s , but r a t h e r the observers and focus of the a c t i o n . They appear to be at l e a s t one remove from the main a c t i o n , and y e t , as i s usual w i t h Shakespeare, they are a l s o s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n v o l v e d i n i t . T h e i r comments about and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of that a c t i o n serve t o supply a f u r t h e r p e r s p e c t i v e to the play's exper-ience, and give us another vantage point from which to evaluate i t . Scene one sets the a c t i o n f i r m l y w i t h i n the bounds of a r e v e l , and i n d i c a t e s the imminence of an important marriage i n the 116. community, and i t s e f f e c t upon i t . The imagery i n v o l v i n g the moon, and the dichotomy between passion and c h a s t i t y , or a l l t h a t the " c o l d f r u i t l e s s " moon represents, i s incorporated i n t o Duke Theseus' opening speech, i n which he determines to set aside the s e v e r i t i e s and co n s i d e r a t i o n s of everyday and give f r e e r e i g n t o the h o l i d a y s p i r i t . T h i s imagery draws upon the i m p l i c i t ' hos-t i l i t y between young and o l d , between the demands of the moon and those of passion, and between those of s p r i n g and w i n t e r . The moon i s described as " o l d " and i s l i k e n e d to a stepdame or a dow-ager, a symbol of i n f i r m i t y and i n f e r t i l i t y . The antipathy between the d e s i r e s of youth and the l i n g e r i n g a u t h o r i t y of o l d age can e a s i l y be seen as a reference to w i n t e r l i n g e r i n g " i n the l a p of summer" to d r a i n away the v i t a l i t y and f e r t i l i t y of s p r i n g . Furthermore, as the scene moves on, one i s reminded, as i n The  Taming of the Shrew, pp. 32-33, of the Mummers' pla y s i n which a young and an o l d s u i t o r compete f o r the a f f e c t i o n of a young maid, though here, the o l d Egeus acts as proxy f o r the young unwanted s u i t o r , Demetrius. CR. B a s k e r v i l l ' s s t u d i e s of folk-drama have i n d i c a t e d t h a t : The constant element i n the wooing plays of England i s the wooing of the "Lady" by a man who i s u s u a l l y represented as old....He i s r e j e c t e d f o r another s u i t -or, who i s u s u a l l y a young man and the leader of the games, o f t e n i n the r o l e of the "Fool"....The r e j e c t -i o n and marriage symbolize the v i r g i n union of the re p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the new season and the d i s p l a c e -ment of the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the o l d . With the wooing, a renouveau, or s l a y i n g and r e v i v i n g of one of the c h i e f c h a r a c t e r s , i s o f t e n found i n a form 1 1 7 . that seems to be an i n t e g r a l part of the symbolism of the wooing plays. 1 0 T r a d i t i o n also has two wooers, the Gentleman and the Fool, danc-ing i n contest f o r the hand of a maid. These elements are e v i -dent i n one form or another throughout the play, and w i l l be analyzed i n t h e i r order of appearance. The Duke's commands to Phil o s t r a t e serve to counterbalance the theme of hi s opening remarks, and usher i n the sentiments of the reve l and of misrule. Like the pe r s o n i f i c a t i o n of age, Melan-choly, the pale companion, i s relegated to funerals, well outside the boundaries of the r e v e l . The r e a l i t i e s of the sword and of conquest are to be superseded by those of another key, "with pomp, with triumph, and with re v e l i n g " . "Go", hejcries to hi s Master of the Revels, P h i l o s t r a t e , commanding that the entire community pa r t i c i p a t e i n the nup t i a l f e s t i v i t i e s , S t i r up the Athenian youth to merriments, Awake the pert and nimble s p i r i t of mirth. Turn melancholy f o r t h to funerals. The pale companion i s not for our pomp. Hippolyta, I wooed thee with my sword, And won thy love, doing thee i n j u r i e s ; But I w i l l wed thee i n another key, With pomp, with triumph, and with reveling. (I, i , 1 2 - 1 9 ) However, the essential c o n f l i c t , which has been foreshadowed i n the opening imagery, i s reinforced by the ceremonial appearance of Egeus, the enraged father, who complains b i t t e r l y about the 1 0 B a s k e r v i l l , "Mummers Wooing Plays", p. 2 2 7 . 118. unwelcome!, wooing of his daughter by Lysander, a young noble-man of Athens. As a righteous father, he invokes the support of the Duke, and the authority of Athenian law, to preserve h i s ri g h t of "consent" concerning his daughter's marriage, h i s " r i g h t " to i n t e r f e r e i n the arranging of her future. Like a Shylock, a t y p i c a l k i l l - j o y , bidding h i s daughter to shut he r s e l f from a l l "resort", he demands that she submit to his command upon pain of death or enforced chastity as a nun. In general, the k i l l - j o y figure i n a f e s t i v a l serves to consolidate f e e l i n g i n support of the f e s t i v e s p i r i t , and, i n t h i s case, Egeus only suc-ceeds i n strengthening Hermia's resolve not to give up Lysander, but to f l e e with him. Referring to a series of f a m i l i a r wooing techniques, Egeus accuses Lysander of a l i e n a t i n g his daughter's affe c t i o n s , and demands "the law". Thus the play i s setting up a dichotomy bet-ween natural love and the a r t i f i c i a l dictates of society, between youth and "law", between desire and obligation, and between 11 "sense" and reason. This man hath bewitched the bosom of my c h i l d . Thou, thou, Lysander, thou hast given her rhymes, And interchanged love tokens with my c h i l d . Thou hast by moonlight at her window sung, With feigning voice, verses of feigning love; And stolen the impression of her fantasy With bracelets of thy hair, rings, gawds, conceits, Knacks, t r i f l e s , nosegays, sweetmeats, messengers Of strong prevailment i n unhardened youth. With cunning hast thou f i l c h e d my daughter's heart, Turned her obedience, which i s due to me, To stubborn harshness. (I, i , 27-38) 11 I, i , 56-57 119 In t h i s speech, the power of love i s likened to bewitchment, de-12 ception, cunning and to betrayal. Furthermore, the speech refe r s to the r i t u a l of Elizabethan courtship, and rests i t s case upon the customary obedience due to a father. Egeus, as a person-i f i c a t i o n of age and winter, begs the ancient p r i v i l e g e of Athens to bestow his daughter upon whom he chooses, ignoring the demands and force of love. Turning to the r e c a l c i t r a n t daughter, Theseus admonishes her, reminding her of her duty, respect, and subser-vience due to her father and h i s judgment. Her reply seems to acknowledge the presence of some supernatural power which heigh-tens her courage and awareness, and prepares her to accept the consequences of her support of the goddess of love. Theseus 1 re-ply to Hermia's anxious inquiry about the possible r e s u l t s of d e f i -ance of her father's w i l l serves to place the play well within the bounds of a r e v e l , and, by praising marriage and natural i n t e r -course between the sexes, obliquely extols the demands of the season. There i s no question that the Duke i s an exponent of the May season and a l l that i t connotes. Either to die the death, or to abjure Forever the society of men. Therefore, f a i r Hermia, question your desires. Know of your youth, examine well your blood, Whether, i f you y i e l d not to your father's choice, You can endure the l i v e r y of a nun -For aye to be i n shady c l o i s t e r mewed, To l i v e a barren s i s t e r a l l your l i f e , Chanting f a i n t hymns to the cold f r u i t l e s s moon. Thrice blessed they that master so t h e i r blood, To undergo such maiden pilgrimage; 12 Cf. Hamlet, Polonius on lovers' oaths, (I, i i i , 114-35)• OthelloT Brabantio on the presumed "bewitching" of Desdemona, (I, i i , 69-64). 120 But e a r t h l i e r happy i s t h e r o s e d i s t i l l e d , Than t h a t w h i c h , w i t h e r i n g on t h e v i r g i n t h o r n , Grows, l i v e s , a n d d i e s i n s i n g l e b l e s s e d n e s s . Herm.So w i l l I grow, so l i v e , so d i e , my l o r d , E r e I w i l l y i e l d my v i r g i n p a t e n t up Unto h i s l o r d s h i p , whose unwished yoke My s o u l c o n s e n t s n o t t o g i v e s o v e r e i g n t y . (I, i , 65-82) T h i s pronouncement by Theseus i s a l m o s t i n the f o r m o f a s p r i n g - t i m e m a n i f e s t o , i d e n t i f y i n g s u p e r n a t u r a l w i t h u n n a t u r a l c h a s t i t y and a c k n o w l e d g i n g t h e o p e r a t i o n o f n a t u r e w i t h i n man, the h e a l t h y n e c e s s i t y o f y i e l d i n g the " v i r g i n p a t e n t u p " . Of c o u r s e i t i s p a r t i c u l a r l y a p t t h a t Theseus s h o u l d l a u d m a r r i a g e and n a t u r a l i n t e r c o u r s e between the s e x e s . He i s a t once an i n t e l l i g e n t , s o p h i s t i c a t e d , and e x p e r i e n c e d a r i s t o c r a t , and a " l o v e r " p l e d g e d t o m a r r y i n f o u r d a y s 1 t i m e . He has had h i s way-ward y o u t h , a n d , as a r e s u l t , he can b o t h e n t e r s y m p a t h e t i c a l l y i n t o the a c t i o n w h i c h w i l l f o l l o w , and a l s o view i t o b j e c t i v e l y and r e a l i s t i c a l l y from the v a n t a g e p o i n t g a i n e d by a man who has e x p e r i e n c e d romance and p a s s e d beyond i t . The i m a g e r y o f h i s s p e e c h p r e p a r e s the way f o r t h e i m a g e r y t o come, w h i c h e q u a t e s t h e moon w i t h w i n t e r , age, and c h a s t i t y , and the r o s e w i t h s p r i n g , y o u t h , and l o v e . A g a i n i n d i r e c t l y , he emphasizes the c o l d , u n w o r l d -l y q u a l i t y o f e n f o r c e d c h a s t i t y , " i n g r o w n v i r g i n i t y " , and d e n i -g r a t e s " a u s t e r i t y and s i n g l e l i f e " . The f o r m a l i t y o f the b e g i n n i n g o f t h e p l a y i s a c h i e v e d by the o p e n i n g l i n e s w h i c h s e t the scene a r o u n d t h e r o y a l p r e s e n c e o f the D u k e , i s s u i n g h i s commands t o t h e o f f i c e r s o f t h e c o u r t . The a p p e a r a n c e o f Egeus s u p p l i e s f u r t h e r f o r m a l i t y i n the form o f an 121, almost r i t u a l request f o r j u s t i c e and f o r the Duke's support. Egeus' statements r e i n f o r c e the idea of l e g a l r i g h t as opposed to the n a t u r a l r i g h t of d e s i r e and youth, and, as a r e s u l t , Theseus becomes an a r b i t e r whose job i t w i l l be to decide be-tween, i f he cannot r e c o n c i l e , the " r i g h t s " of w i n t e r and s p r i n g . The l e g a l terminology continues i n Lysander's speech as, l i k e the t y p i c a l s u i t o r f o r the " l a d y ' s " hand i n the Mummers' play, he enumerates h i s q u a l i t i e s , accomplishments, and wealth, which are poi n t s out h i s most cogent r i g h t , which i s the f a c t that Hermia re t u r n s h i s l o v e , and concludes, "Why should not I then prosecute my r i g h t ? " Thus t h i s a c t i o n has set the l o v e r s under the j u r i s d i c t i o n of the r i g i d law of Athens, which brooks no abrogation, and, l i k e the f o o l i s h oath of the King of Navarre, f a i l s to recognize the for c e of s p r i n g and l o v e . In Athens, Theseus has no choice; he renders judgment according to the law: Hermia, look you arm y o u r s e l f To f i t your f a n c i e s to your f a t h e r ' s w i l l , Or e l s e the law of Athens y i e l d s you up -Which by no means we may extenuate -To death, or to a vow of s i n g l e l i f e . The Duke b i d s Hermia ponder the s i t u a t i o n , and gives her u n t i l the next new moon, "the s e a l i n g day betwixt my love and me", to make her d e c i s i o n . I n t e r e s t i n g l y enough, i t was a medieval t r a d i t i o n 13 c e r t a i n l y the equivalent of Demetrius's. F i n a l l y , Lysander 13 See The Shrew, p. 32. 122. t o r e f e r to the r i t u a l days of a r b i t r a t i o n of community disputes as "lovedays". However, the r i g o r of the Duke's pronouncement has f i x e d t h e i r determination to f l e e . Furthermore, i t has set the a c t i o n i n the form of the pageant of w i n t e r and summer, the sym-b o l i c c o n f l i c t of the seasons. Lysander's s o l i c i t o u s questioning of Hermia recognizes that the f l u s h of s p r i n g i n her cheeks i s f a d i n g and dying f o r want of sustenance. His speech a l s o shapes the a c t i o n i n the form of a pageant as he exclaims t h a t l o v e , whose course "never d i d run smooth", i s being l a i d siege t o by age and p a t e r n a l r i g h t . Both Hermia and Lysander see themselves as devoted f o l l o w e r s of Venus and her b l i n d son, and i n t e r p r e t t h e i r misfortunes as the penance due t o those who j o i n t h e i r p a r t y . Their vow t o escape the "sharp Athenian law", which demands Hermia's l i f e or perpetual c h a s t i t y , leads them to plan to meet i n a wood at a place-where, a p p r o p r i a t e l y enough, they had once met "to do observance to a morn of May". In the wood where once Hermia and Helena had played as g i r l s , both are t o become women and o b t a i n the men of t h e i r choice, a l l i n the customary Maying f a s h i o n . The proposed f l i g h t to the woods i s thus s i m i l a r to the r i t -u a l escape through m i s r u l e from the i n h i b i t i o n s imposed by parents and the organized community. Shakespeare i s g i v i n g the l o v e r s a temporary permission t o embrace a view of l i f e which questions s o c i a l conventions, and t e m p o r a r i l y suspends them i n s o f a r as they apply to accepted behaviour between the sexes. U n l i k e Helena, Hermia and Lysander make a point of observing the moral code -wood or no wood. In the play, as i n the world, the r i t u a l of 123 society i s governed by law, and the s o c i a l order depends on the f u l f i l l m e n t of s o c i a l obligations. Under Athenian or Elizabethan law, Hermia i s obliged to obtain the "consent" of her father be-fore selecting a mate, and she owes her father f i l i a l devotion, duty, and the humble submission to the authority of a parent. However, as Richard Hooker points out i n his Of the Laws of Eccles-i a s t i c a l P o l i t y . Book I, the laws of nature are always binding, but such i s not the case with the laws of men and society, the v a l i d i t y of which rests upon the general consent of the governed and upon conformity with natural law and r i g h t reason. I t i s such doctrines as these which, i n general, govern Shakespeare's approach to love and the demands of the spring. Thus the lovers p a r t i c i p a t e n a t u r a l l y and unconsciously i n a May f e s t i v a l of misrule which leads them to defy the rules and law of society to achieye a higher harmony with nature. But, at the end of the play, t h i s period of misrule i s placed i n i t s perspective, i s seen to be a part of the rhythm of nature, and i s a c t u a l l y embraced by the structure of society as a whole since the lovers are returned s o l i d l y i n t o the s o c i a l frame of reference through the consummation and s a n c t i f i -cation of the aberrant impulse i n the r i t u a l of marriage. E.K. Chambers has t h i s to say of the play: Love, as interpreted by the comic s p i r i t , i s a certain f i n e lunacy i n the brain of youth; not an i n t e g r a l part of l i f e , but a disturbing element i n i t . The lover i s a being of strange caprices. He i s at odds f o r the time with a l l the established order of things, a rebel against the authority of parents, a rebel against friendship, a rebel against his own vows. 14 14 E.K. Chambers, " A Midsummer Night's Dream", i n Leonard F. Dean, Shakespeare: Modern Essays i n C r i t i c i s m , New York, Oxford Unive r s i t y Press, 1957, p. 92. 124. Thus, according to Chambers, the central idea of the play i s the "lawlessness and laughableness" of love. Furthermore, he says: When we turn to the f a i r i e s , we f i n d that what enters into human l i f e only as a t r a n s i t o r y disturbing element, i s i n them the normal law of t h e i r being. They show no trace of the sense of law and the i n s t i n c t of s e l f - c o n t r o l . 15 Although t h i s l a s t statement i s something of an exaggeration, since the f a i r y world also returns to a state of order i n the end, and the f i r s t statement f a i l s to recognize that love i s f i n a l l y recog-nized as an " i n t e g r a l " part of l i f e , the play does become, to a certain extent, an expression of the psychology of misrule, and we are allowed to parti c i p a t e v i c a r i o u s l y i n i t s experience. As they plan to f l e e , the imagery of the lovers' oath of f i d -e l i t y draws t h i s time not upon the bow shape of the moon but upon Cupid's strongest bow and his best arrow. However, the appear-ance of Helena reminds the audience that just such an oath has already been broken by Demetrius, who had won Helena's heart and then spurned her for another. The picture of the doting Helena presents an objective substantiation that the course of true love never did run smooth, and foreshadows the "jangling" of Act Three, scene two. The transmuting power of love i s drawn upon as Hermia bids farewell to the Eden of her Athenian childhood. Oh then, what graces i n my love do dwell, That he hath turned a Heaven unto a H e l l . (I, i , 206-207) 15 Chambers, "A Midsummer Night's Dream", p. 95. 125. Helena's w i s t f u l and admittedly j e a l o u s s o l i l o q u y on the b l i n d n e s s of love develops i n t o a complete d i s c u s s i o n of the transmuting power of l o v e , and s u b s t a n t i a t e s Lysander's c l a i m t h a t Demetrius has a p r i o r vow to another, and hence has no r e a l c l a i m to Hermia. The E l i z a b e t h a n marriage ceremony i n v o l v e d two steps, each as important as the other. The f i r s t step was the formal b e t r o t h a l which could take the form merely of a v e r b a l promise to wed, given before witnesses. Such a promise of marriage was t a n t -amount to marriage, and was often considered to give the fiance"' "bed r i g h t " . Thus, i n E l i z a b e t h a n eyes, Demetrius' b e t r a y a l and abandonment of Helena i s an evem more heinous crime t h a t i t i s l i k e -l y to be i n ours, and, i f r e t r i b u t i v e j u s t i c e operates i n the scheme of t h i n g s , then Demetrius i s the most l i k e l y to r e c e i v e condem-na t i o n i n t h i s p l a y . In the end of t h i s s o l i l o q u y , Helena de t e r -mines to hurry to Demetrius t o inform him of the new t u r n of events, i n the hope of i n g r a t i a t i n g h e r s e l f once more i n t o h i s favour. In doing so, however, she v i o l a t e s the a u t h o r i t y of f r i e n d s h i p . Thus, a l l the l o v e r s , l i k e f o l k c elebrants on the eve of Mayday, hurry t o the wood, but f o r very d i f f e r e n t reasons. There they take leave of o r d i n a r y judgment, and become subjiect to i r r a t i o n a l impulse under 16 the c o n t r o l of a Summer Lord and Lady, Oberon and T i t a n i a . Scene two introduces the comic i n t e r l u d e of the "hempen home-spuns" preparing f o r t h e i r own i n t e r l u d e , w i t h which they i n t e n d to honor the approaching marriage of the Duke and the Duchess. As Miss Welsford p o i n t s out, "Bottom and company serve the same purpose as 16 On t h i s point see Barber, "The S a t u r n a l i a n P a t t e r n " , p. 603. 126, 17 the antimasque i n the c o u r t l y r e v e l s * These simple men have the s p i r i t u a l freedom of c h i l d i s h imagination, and present a "temporary r e l i e f from the tyranny of reason and from the pressure of the extern-18 a l world," The s t o r y of t h e i r e f f o r t s i s r e q u i r e d p a r t l y to i n -troduce the i n t e r l u d e , but s t i l l more t o provide the element of comic c o n t r a s t , the "antimasque", which was always an e s s e n t i a l f e a t u r e of a masque, or a p l a y w r i t t e n on the l i n e s of a masque* The s t o r y of Pyramus and Thisbe burlesques the main l o v e - p l o t , and the Bottom sequences, i n p a r t i c u l a r Bottom as Thisbe, supply most of the e l e -ments of a t y p i c a l Mummers' play* Shakespeare's s e l e c t i o n of the s t o r y of Pyramus and Thisbe s u p p l i e s a d d i t i o n a l u n i t y t o an already well-rounded p l a y , complementing the main a c t i o n , r e v e a l i n g the pos-s i b l y t r a g i c r e s u l t s of p a r e n t a l o p p o s i t i o n to young l o v e , and con-t r i b u t i n g t o the "topsyturvy" theme because i n i t comedy a r i s e s from tragedy, "very t r a g i c a l m i r t h " . Thus, the t r a d i t i o n a l b a t t l e of summer and winter i s given a d d i t i o n a l p o i n t i n the world of r e a l i t y , though i t , t o o , has i t s comic side and su p p l i e s the t r a d i t i o n a l comic r e v i v a l of the f a l l e n hero i n the Mummers' p l a y . When the " a c t o r s " have assembled, Quince, the d i r e c t o r of the intended drama, at once announces the purpose of t h e i r meeting: Here i s the s c r o l l of every man's name which i s thought f i t , through a l l Athens, t o pl a y i n our i n t e r l u d e before the Duke and the Duchess on h i s wedding day at n i g h t , ( I , i i , 4-7) In j u x t a p o s i t i o n to the serious consequences of the r e b e l l i o n of the l o v e r s , the d e l i g h t f u l i n c o n g r u i t y of the humble thespians' humorously s e r i o u s attempts introduces an e n t i r e l y new element t o 17 Welsford, Masque, p, 331. 18 I b i d * , p» 332, 127. the play, i n d i c a t i n g to the audience i t s nature as a comedy, and the fa c t that the ordinary sequence of cause and e f f e c t i s to be superseded by the psychological release of a r e v e l . Miss Venezky remarks about t h e i r preparations, Here are humorously represented a l l the d e t a i l s of such amateur rehearsals which so harass a d i r e c t o r : improvised properties, inadequate settings, the need fo r additional dialogue, f a u l t y readings, and the i n -evitable s e l f - s t y l e d genius. 1 9 This scene allows us to observe a s l i c e of Elizabethan country r i t u a l unaltered by the passage of time. We know from numerous accounts that i t was the custom for humble people to do honor to royal per-sonages on important occasions by presenting f o r t h e i r pleasure or e d i f i c a t i o n pageants, complimentary speeches, interludes, crude masques, or dances, which had often a history or ancient r i t u a l associated with them. The humour of the Bottom scenes l i e s i n the naive attempts of himself and his companions to accomplish something which they f i r m l y believe to be remarkable and o r i g i n a l . I t follows then that, i f t h i s burlesque of country presentations i s at a l l authentic, the Elizabethan r e c i p i e n t s of the "honour" had much more patience and kindliness than i s possessed by twentieth century aud-iences (or by some of those also present at t h i s performance). In the process of presenting t h i s sympathetic burlesque, Shake-speare also manages to hurl pointed j i b e s at ham acting, and i s perhaps c r i t i c i z i n g i n d i r e c t l y the very performers who are taking the roles of Theseus, Bottom, and the F a i r i e s . The l i t e r a l - m i n d -edness of the "mechanicals" produces much humour as they themselves are deceived in t o thinking that t h e i r performances of t h e i r parts 19 Venezky, Pageantry on the Shakespearean Stage, p. 158. 128 w i l l be construed as a c t u a l i t y . As the scene unfolds, the tact and diplomacy of Quince become apparent as he manoeuvres Bottom in t o accepting his role as "Pyramus" without further question. The scene also serves to r e f l e c t the problems experienced by an amateur group preparing just such a presentation i n any small v i l l a g e or hamlet. "There w i l l we rehearse, f o r i f we meet i n the c i t y , we s h a l l be dogged with company, and our devices known." Act Two introduces the t h i r d strand of the plo t , the f a i r y world and i t s problems and duties regarding the imminent mar-riage i n the world of mortals. Reflecting the r i t u a l s , customs, and superstitions of Elizabethan England, the f a i r y sequences lend beauty and mystery to the action, as well as complementing the Maying theme. The f a i r i e s themselves are a unique Shakes-pearian invention produced by a complex fusion of f o l k c u l t , s u p e r s t i t i o n , pageantry, and popular game, and are embodiments of the f e r t i l i t y or love s p i r i t believed by the pagans to reside i n trees, flowers, and i n men and women during the spring season. The poetry of the play serves to make tangible f o r us the love tendency diffused i n nature i n the spring, and the f a i r i e s serve dramatically to symbolize the i r r a t i o n a l impulse connected with love, and i t s complete and seemingly almost supernatural control over the personality. Apparently there i s dissension i n the f a i r y world also, and 20 As Barber notes i n Sh. *s Festive Comedy, p. 124. 129. the bonds of matrimony are being temporarily annulled as Oberon and T i t a n i a b a t t l e , for a l l the world l i k e today's antagonists i n tawdry divorce contests, f o r the custody of a changeling c h i l d . As the consummation of a love match i s being hindered i n the r e a l world, so has the love of the royal f a i r i e s reached an impasse, and the disturbance r e s u l t i n g from both disorders can be seen r e f l e c t e d symptomatically i n the universe. The predicament of the royal couple may be patterned on Mummers' Wooing plays, i n which i t i s customary for an old and previously mated pair to 21 play some part i n connection with new symbolic marriage. Scene one introduces the henchman of Oberon, Puck, who plays, i n general, the role of Jester or Fool i n the Fairy King's court, and has some a f f i n i t i e s with "the roguish l i t t l e Cupid of Ovid, the ir r e s p o n s i b l e c h i l d god, with his blinded eyes and h i s erring 22 arrows". His c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , as they are enumerated, l a b e l him as a r e f l e c t i o n of the Warwickshire f a i r i e s who were, i n gen-e r a l , p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n s of perpetrators of domestic accidents or hindrances to d a i l y l i f e . The superstitious minds of the humble country f o l k contrived to see s p i r i t s i n the dusk of evening and the p i t c h black of night, and they believed that the ghosts of the departed haunted t h e i r previous environment both sympathetic-a l l y and an t a g o n i s t i c a l l y , and must be propitiated at a l l costs. In conversation with another f a i r y , the mischievous Puck reveals that, as i n the r e a l world, "The King doth keep his revels here tonight", and informs the audience of the antipathy between the 21 22 Ba s k e r v i l l "Mummers' Wooing Plays", p. 228. Chambers, "M.N.P.", p. 92. 130. F a i r y King and h i s Royal Wife. The wrangle over the custody of the changeling i s based on the common b e l i e f t h a t the f a i r i e s could t r a n s p o r t p a r t i c u l a r l y d e s i r a b l e c h i l d r e n to t h e i r own domain, l e a v i n g a l e s s d e s i r a b l e exchange i n t h e i r stead. L i k e the Court of Theseus, and u l t i m a t e l y the Court of E l i z a b e t h , the F a i r y Court i s bound up i n r i t u a l and customs which become immensely s i g n i f i c a n t . The Royal F a i r y couple i s accompanied by a r e t i n u e of attendants and court o f f i c e r s , the most important of which i s Puck, an amalgam of J e s t e r , Master of the Revels, Presenter, and L i t t l e D e v i l Doubt, a l l r o l l e d i n t o one. Puck i s the p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n of a l l those mischievous supernatural agencies which conspire against the success of man's endeavours, but he a l s o bears, i n h i s name Robin Good-f e l l o w , the connotations of the f a i r y agencies which b r i n g good l u c k to those mortals w i t h whom they are sy m p a t h e t i c a l l y attuned. His r e p l y to the i n q u i r y of the f a i r y i d e n t i f i e s him as Oberon's j e s t e r . I am that merry wanderer of the n i g h t . I j e s t to Oberon, and make him sm i l e , ( I I , i , 43-44) His speech a l s o i n c l u d e s a reference to the custom of f l o a t i n g roasted apples i n d r i n k s to supply a d d i t i o n a l f l a v o r . And sometime l u r k I i n a gossip's bowl, In very l i k e n e s s of a roasted crab; And when she d r i n k s , against her l i p s I bob And on her withered dewlap pour the a l e . ( I I , i , 47-50) The appearance of T i t a n i a and Oberon, "111 met by moon-131. l i g h t " , confirms Puck Ts announcement of the disruption of marital b l i s s i n the f a i r y world, a c o n f l i c t which also f a i l s to observe the demands of the season. Titania's jealous reply to Oberon, "and you come to give t h e i r bed joy and prosperity?", r e f e r s to the r i t u a l of the marriage f e s t i v i t y i n which f a i r i e s and benevolent s p i r i t s were invoked to supply f e r t i l i t y to the marriage bed and to the new year. The customs and b e l i e f s of Elizabethans i m p l i c i t l y postulated that royal and fa v o r i t e per-sonages had, i n the other world or the f a i r y world, benevolent patrons who labored sympathetically f o r t h e i r well-being and success. Apparently both the f a i r y world and that of f o o l i s h mortals can supply the "forgeries of jealousy", and Oberon com-plains that "never, since the middle summer's spring" have they met but that there have squabbles and dissension, which have been accompanied, i n the world of mortals, by disturbances i n the form of fogs, heavy rain s , floods, and a general f a i l u r e i n f e r -t i l i t y . Thus, the consequences of a f a i l u r e i n the f e r t i l i t y of human intercourse and marriage are demonstrated to be serious and severe, not to say cosmic. Even the nine men's morris, a popular outdoor game played on a large board, l a i d out on the v i l l a g e green, i s " f i l l e d up with mud" i n the general inundation. The im-agery presents a composite pageant picture of a society suffering a general famine and flood symbolic of the f a i l u r e of the f e r t i l -i t y of the new year. The moon, symbol i n the play of chastity and asceticism, seems to be ascendant i n the universe. Therefore the moon, the governess of floods, Pale i n her anger, washes a l l the a i r , That rheumatic diseases do abound. 132 And thorough t h i s distemperature we see The seasons a l t e r . Hoary-headed f r o s t s F a l l i n the fresh lap of the crimson rose, And on old Hiems' thin and i c y crown An odorous chaplet of sweet summer buds Is, as i n mockery, set. The spring, the summer, The c h i l d i n g autumn, angry winter, change Their wonted l i v e r i e s , and the mazed world, By t h e i r increase, now knows not which i s which. And t h i s same progeny of e v i l s comes From our debate, from our dissension. We are t h e i r parents and o r i g i n a l . ( I I , i , 103-17) Thus, the c o n f l i c t i n both worlds i s summed up i n a r e f e r -ence to the t r a d i t i o n a l battle between summer and winter, but t h i s time the symbolic c o n f l i c t has become extended in t o the r e a l world, and becomes extremely serious because i t brings with i t unwonted re s u l t s i n human experience. The war i s so f i e r c e that mortals are confounded by a combination of the two opposed seasons. T i t -ania' s description refers to what amounts to a pageantry p e r s o n i -fication of winter, an old man with a wreath of summer buds sur-rounding h i s temples, i n juxtaposition with summer, as represented by the metaphor of the newly opened rose, struck by the "sneaping" f r o s t s of resurging winter. The personified seasons, i n b i t t e r dispute, change t h e i r accustomed l i v e r i e s to the consternation of an already amazed world. A l l these r e s u l t s stem from the dissension i n the f a i r y world. As often occurs i n Shakespearian drama, unus-ual disturbances i n the natural world indicate that something i s rotten i n the state, and portend e v i l to both states and i n d i v i d -23 u a l s . As Barber points out, Titania's speech to j u s t i f y her 23 E.g. Macbeth, I I , i v , 1-19. Hamlet, I, i i , 112-25. J u l i u s Caesar, I, i i i , 1-39. See also E.M.W. T i l l y a r d , The Elizabethan World Picture. London, Chatto & Windus, 1952, p. 84o 133. a c t i o n i n keeping the changeling boy, conveys as w e l l as the im-age of commercial f e r t i l i t y , "a wanton j o y i n achieved s e x u a l i t y ...and a gay acceptance of the waxing of the body ( l i k e j o y i n the 24 v a r y i n g moon)". Thus, t h i s passage serves t o r e i n f o r c e the dominant i d e a i n the play t h a t the f a i r i e s are f e r t i l i t y s p i r i t s able t o i n s u r e the success, good l u c k , and f e r t i l i t y of the coming year. The a l t e r c a t i o n between the two ends w i t h T i t a n i a * s i n v i t -a t i o n t o j o i n i n the r e v e l s , and Oberon's peevish r e f u s a l . T i t a . I f you w i l l p a t i e n t l y dance i n our round, And see our moonlight r e v e l s , go w i t h us; I f not, shun me, and I w i l l spare your haunts. ( I I , i , 1 4 0 - 4 2 ) I t i s g e n e r a l l y b e l i e v e d by most c r i t i c s t h a t Oberon !s next speech to Puck i s a reference to a famous entertainment presented f o r Queen E l i z a b e t h , i n which she was throned by the west, and music was played from the water. I f t h i s i s so, then t h i s speech i s i n the form of an elaborate compliment t o the great Queen her-s e l f , and a l s o draws upon the i d e a t h a t important personages have t h e i r supernatural f o l l o w i n g , and can exert beneficent i n f l u e n c e upon t h e i r environment. The imagery of the speech c o n t r i b u t e s to the general dichotomy between the moon and Cupid, and draws upon the b e l i e f that Cupid's arrows c a r r i e d w i t h them instantaneous i n -f a t u a t i o n which has been tra n s m i t t e d t o Oberon's love p o t i o n . Oberon's p l o t to delude the senses of the F a i r y Queen p a r a l l e l s Helena's speech concerning the biased senses of the l o v e r , and the 24 Barber, Sh.'s F e s t i v e Comedy, p. 1 3 7 . 134. transmuting power of l o v e . The appearance of Helena and Demet-r i u s , and Oberon Ts r e c o g n i t i o n of and sympathy f o r Helena's p l i g h t , s u p p l i e s a f u r t h e r necessary p l o t c o m p l i c a t i o n . Miss Weisford draws i t to our a t t e n t i o n t h a t Oberon's speech i s an i d e a l i z e d account of a t y p i c a l Court entertainment. Oberon r e l a t e s h i s v i s i o n to Puck immediately before despatching him on t h a t errand which sets i n motion a l l the co m p l i c a t i o n of the p l o t . The v i s i o n i s d i v -i d e d i n t o two p a r t s . F i r s t of a l l , there i s the des-c r i p t i o n of what both Oberon and Puck saw, and that i s simply an i d e a l i z e d account of what Oberon alone could see, and i s the a l l e g o r i c a l meaning of the performance, a meaning which i s expressed i n c l e a r -cut p i c t o r i a l imagery, which has a complimentary reference t o Queen E l i z a b e t h , and i s p o s s i b l y connect-ed w i t h a d e f i n i t e piece of Court i n t r i g u e . Oberon's v i s i o n i s no mere i s o l a t e d compliment, but an ingen-i o u s device f o r t u r n i n g the main theme of the p l a y i n t o a piece of s u b t l e f l a t t e r y and connecting the potency of Cupid's flower as w e l l as Dian's bud w i t h the charm and c h a s t i t y of the V i r g i n Queen. 25 Shakespeare has arranged t h a t , w i t h i n a play which c e l e b r a t e s a May marriage, the Maying "observances" which P h i l o s t r a t e would have arranged to be performed i n honour of Theseus' wedding appear n a t u r a l l y and i n a d v e r t e n t l y without h i s help, as the l o v e r s p a r t i c -i p a t e i n a general melee which ends i n the usual r e s u l t s of a May-i n g ceremony, marriage, consummation, and eventual f e r t i l i t y i n the community. What otherwise might have appeared as pageant f i c t -i o n s occur n a t u r a l l y and are presented as a c t u a l l y happening, be-26 cause the l o v e r s walk i n t o them unsuspecting. Helena's remarks, 25 26 Weisford, Masque, p. 341. Barber, Sh.'s Festive- Comedy, p. 126. 135. as she appears following Demetrius, support the Maying theme, and bring to the attention of the audience once more the f a c t that the lovers are to meet i n the wood i n the time of the May celeb-r a t i o n . In her despair, Helena trusts "the opportunity of night / And the i l l counsel of a desert place" with the " r i c h worth" of her v i r g i n i t y . V i r g i n i t y i n t h i s play i s prized c e r t a i n l y , but marriage, the "rose d i s t i l l e d " , i s prized more highly. With re-gard to Helena, Demetrius i s denying the demands of the season, and his betrayal of her i s not merely a betrayal of one woman, but i s a scandal on her sex as a whole. As she explains, We cannot f i g h t for love, as men may do; We should be wooed, and were not made to woo. (II, i , 241-42) Scene two re-introduces the retinue of Tit a n i a , and the rev-els of her t i n y court. She i s seen bidding her followers to present a roundel, a c i r c u l a r dance, and a song to speed her to a dreamy sleep, "Come, now a roundel and a f a i r y song,". A song follows, i n two stanzas, presented by a single voice answered by a chorus i n r e f r a i n . The song, which i s intended i n the plot to put the Fairy Queen to sleep and to protect her from disturbance and marauders, seems also to be intended as a pretty compliment to Elizabeth. I t i s an "ayre" i n the form of a l u l l a b y , a type of song quite popular during the period; the language appropriate to the subject and si t u a t i o n , and the p a r a l l e l l i n e structure suggest 27 that i t i s an " a r t " song. With the completion of the song, Ob-eron annoints Titania's eyes, and Lysander and Hermia enter upon the scene, and prepare to sleep u n t i l daybreak permits the contin-27 long, Sh.'s Use of Music, p. 8 5 . 136. uance of t h e i r f l i g h t away from the "sharp Athenian law". Hermia's p u r i t y of heart i s evinced by her gentle reprimand t h a t , ... i n human modesty, Such separation as may w e l l be sa i d Becomes a v i r t u o u s bachelor and a maid, So f a r be d i s t a n t . ( I I , i i , 57-60) Puck's condemnation of the s l e e p i n g , innocent Lysander, whom he mistakes f o r Demetrius, connotes the punishment u s u a l l y a l l o t t e d to the k i l l - j o y of the r e v e l s . P r e t t y soul I She durst not l i e Near t h i s l a c k l o v e , t h i s k i l l - c o u r t e s y . C h u r l , upon thy eyes I throw A l l the power t h i s charm doth owe. ( I I , i i , 76-79) Eye imagery becomes i n c r e a s i n g l y more s i g n i f i c a n t as two p a i r s of eyes are smeared w i t h the love p o t i o n , and Helena a r r i v e s to p r a i s e Hermia's eyes which have bewitched her Demetrius, not r e a l i z i n g t hat the object of her complaint l i e s asleep w i t h i n a few f e e t of her. I n a d v e r t e n t l y , she awakens Lysander, who immediately, much to her c o n s t e r n a t i o n , f a l l s f e r v e n t l y i n love w i t h her. Dramatic i r -ony becomes the major device i n t h i s scene as Helena refuses to b e l i e v e that Lysander's sudden passion i s anything other than a " f a l s e s p o r t " . Lysander's p r o t e s t a t i o n s of s i n c e r i t y draw a l s o upon the metaphor of the seasons as he exclaims, Things growing are not r i p e u n t i l t h e i r season. So I , being young, t i l l now r i p e not to reason. ( I I , i i , 117-18) The end of Act Two leaves Helena and Lysander to t h e i r own de-137. v i c e s , and re i n t r o d u c e s the preparations of Bottom and crew to pre-sent an i n t e r l u d e f o r the entertainment of the Duke's wedding par t y . With a green p l o t f o r a stage, and a hawthorn brake f o r a t i r i n g house, the mechanicals prepare t o run through a "dress r e h e a r s a l " . Further humour abounds i n t h e i r confusing of a r t w i t h r e a l i t y , and t h e i r naivete leads them to suggest the w r i t i n g of a prologue that w i l l inform t h e i r audience t h a t a l l the a c t i o n i s but an " i n s u b s t a n t i a l pageant", and that "we w i l l do no harm w i t h our swords". A f t e r d e l v i n g i n t o Mummers' plays and the r i t u a l surrounding them, one d i s c o v e r s many s i m i l a r i t i e s between them and the Bottom i n t e r l u d e . F i r s t , the i n t e r l u d e i s presented i n order t o "honour" the marriage of the Duke. Second, the pl a y e r s wish the audience to r e a l i z e t h a t the symbolic death t h a t occurs i n i t i s not r e a l and c a r r i e s no harmful consequences. I n p o i n t of f a c t , there would appear t o be two "deaths" and " r e v i v a l s " i n the p l a y . From the poi n t of view of Bottom's companions, h i s t r a n s l a t i o n and h i s mir-aculous r e t u r n would seem l i k e a death and a r e v i v a l , and h i s l a -t e r "death" as Thisbe i s followed by h i s immediate s p r i n g i n g back to l i f e . Furthermore, i n g e n e r a l , the troup of mummers was ac-companied by one or two i n d i v i d u a l s wearing the horns, s k i n s , or heads of animals as f e s t i v a l t rappings designed to spread the f e r -t i l i z a t i o n s p i r i t , and, t h e r e f o r e , Bottom's appearance w i t h the head of an ass on h i s shoulders i s appropriate t o the custom. Quince suggests t h a t the proposed prologue should be w r i t t e n i n " e i g h t and s i x " , a common b a l l a d meter, but impetuous Bottom 138* o v e r r u l e s him by decreeing t h a t i n s t e a d i t s h a l l be i n "eight and e i g h t " . The humble mummers ca r r y t h e i r l i t e r a l n e s s to r i d i c u l o u s extremes, and present an even more l u d i c r o u s p i c t u r e as the rehear-s a l proceeds. The p r a c t i c a l producer, Quince, i s worried by the need f o r moonlight i n the p r e s e n t a t i o n , f o r , l i k e Oberon and T i t -a n i a , Pyramus and Thisbe meet by moonlight. Their w orries over the l i g h t i n g problem serve t o r e f l e c t the custom of presenting l i t t l e i n t e r l u d e s such as t h i s i n the h a l l of the great house. The penchant f o r pageantry, and the tendency f o r Elizabethans to t h i n k i n terms of p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n s i s revealed i n Quince's suggest-i o n that moonshine may be " d i s f i g u r e d " by a f i g u r e bearing a bush of thorns and a l a n t e r n . Furthermore, Snout's avowal t h a t , "You can never b r i n g i n a w a l l " , gives us a d d i t i o n a l i n s i g h t i n t o the problems and the psychology of the rough mummers, and might have reference to the r u s t i c a c t o r s i n any Whitsun p a s t o r a l . Their humorous attempts are overheard by the mischievous Puck who c r i e s , What, a play toward!, I ' l l be an a u d i t o r -An a c t o r too perhaps, i f I see cause. ( I l l , i , 81-82) The burlesque continues as the a c t o r s confuse t h e i r l i n e s and speak t h e i r parts a l l at once, u n t i l Puck intervenes and places an ass's head on the shoulders of Bottom. With the reappearance of Bottom from the brake, conste r n a t i o n i n the ranks of the mummers re i g n s supreme, and the dramatic i r o n y of Bottom's next speech, " I f I were f a i r , Thisby, I were only t h i ne," adds tremendously to the humour of the passage. His song to b o l s t e r up h i s f l a g g i n g s p i r i t s c o n t r a s t s markedly w i t h the 1 3 9 . beauty of the f a i r y songs, and adds another note of incongruity to the humour of the scene. Bottom's sensible reply to the voiced admiration of T i t a n i a , who has just awakened to be smitten with love f o r the "translated" Bottom, i s d i r e c t l y at odds with the lo v e r s 1 claims that reason guides love, and adds a further per-spective to the action occurring i n the other strand of the p l o t . Her r e f u s a l to allow him to elude her charms serves also to ident-i f y her as a f e r t i l i t y s p i r i t who controls the fate of summer and of mortals. I am a s p i r i t of no common rate. The summer s t i l l doth tend upon my state; ( I I I , i , 1 5 7 - 5 8 ) The scene ends as Bottom i s led, with h i s tongue t i e d , to the bow-er of the Fairy Queen, and she exclaims, i n imagery which r e f l e c t s the moon's rel a t i o n s h i p to chastity, The moon methinks looks with a watery eye, And when she weeps, weeps every l i t t l e flower, Lamenting some enforced chastity. ( I l l , i , 203-206) Scene two returns once more to Oberon and the mad s p i r i t Puck, who, as j e s t e r , promotes the "night-rule" version of misrule over which Oberon i s superintendent and lord i n the "haunted grove". As a representative of misrule, he has done his work well, f o r T i t -D ania now loves a mechanical with an ass's head, and the two pairs of Athenian lovers are hopelessly crossed. His speech l a b e l s Bot-tom and his cohorts "a crew of patches", t y p i c a l clowns with thick skins and heads, and having the usual assortment of superstitious f e a r s . Upon her appearance, Hermia comments on Lysander's f i d e l i t y 2 8 Barber, Sh.'s Festive Comedy, p. 1 2 0 . 140. i n imagery which makes us aware once more of the moon and i t s con-n o t a t i o n s . . . . . I ' l l b e l i e v e as soon This whole earth may be bored, and that the moon May through the center creep, and so d i s p l e a s e Her brother's noontide w i t h the Antipodes.. ( I l l , i i , 52-55) D i s c o v e r i n g Puck's e r r o r , Oberon upbraids him, d e c l a r i n g t h a t h i s mistake has caused some t r u e love to t u r n f a l s e , and not some f a l s e love t o t u r n t r u e . The cynic Puck r e p l i e s l i g h t l y t o t h i s a c c u s a t i o n , Then f a t e o ' e r r u l e s , t h a t , one man h o l d i n g t r o t h , A m i l l i o n f a i l , confounding oath on oath. ( I l l , i i , 92-93) The recurrence of imagery drawn from the sport of archery serves to support the conception of Cupid as a b l i n d archer, whose s h a f t s have the power t o cause t h e i r v i c t i m s t o f e e l immediately the pangs of l o v e . Leading the missing members of the pageant, Puck asks, S h a l l we t h e i r fond pageant see? Lord, what f o o l s these mortals be! ( I l l , i i , 114-15) His p o s i t i o n as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of m i s r u l e i s a l s o r e f l e c t e d by h i s next statement, Then w i l l two at once woo one, That must needs be sport alone. And those t h i n g s do best please me That b e f a l l p reposterously. ( I l l , i i , 118-21) Helena, d i s c o v e r i n g h e r s e l f t o be wooed simultaneously by two men, the one betrothed to her best f r i e n d , and the other, the man who had j i l t e d her to woo her best f r i e n d , i s understandably dismayed, and, l i k e the P r i n c e s s of France and her women i n Love's 141. Labor's Lost, believes that "you a l l are bent / To set against me for your merriment". When Hermia arrives upon the scene, also confused by the night's happenings, Helena construes the predic-ament to be a general conspiracy. Lo, she i s one of t h i s confederacy! Now I perceive they have conjoined a l l three To fashion t h i s f a l s e sport, i n spite of me. ( I l l , i i , 192-94) Such an accusation of mockery or jeering on the part of the su i t o r i s a common element i n the wooing plays. In chiding Hermia f o r her betrayal of her own sex, Helena makes reference to a popular pastime i n which two young g i r l s sew on a sampler, a piece of em-broidery, to produce a single design. Furthermore, her accusation draws upon the r i t u a l procedure of heraldry concerning the mar-riage between those who bear d i f f e r e n t coats of arms, f o r , af t e r marriage, the coats of arms of husband and wife are united i n one coat under one crest. So, with two seeming bodies, but one heart, Two of the f i r s t , l i k e coats i n heraldry, Due but to one, and crowned with one crest. ( I l l , i i , 212-14) The b i t t e r a l t e r c a t i o n which ensues between the two erstwhile friends brings them almost to blows. After the meaningful epi-thets of " d o l l " and "puppet" have been hurled back and f o r t h , Her-mia c a l l s Helena a "painted maypole" because of her stature. The mock battle between the two serves to characterize them as almost d i r e c t l y opposite both i n stature and i n personality. In addition, the f e r o c i t y of t h i s " f l y t i n g contest" between the two women i s equalled only by that of the men. The " f l y t i n g contest" was ap-parently so popular a pastime i n the sixteenth century that i t 142. was banned by o f f i c i a l s of church and s t a t e . The mutual and r e c i p -r o c a l i n s u l t s hurled back and f o r t h seem to r e f l e c t the defiance and mockery common t o "swaggering" characters of medieval drama, l i k e Herod, and the combatants of f o l k - p l a y s . In most Mummers' plays that c e l e b r a t e the f e r t i l i t y of the New Year, i t i s custom-ary to stage a contest between two men f o r the hand of a f a i r maid. In t h i s case, the contest i s f o r the hand of Helena, d e s p i t e the f a c t that she b e l i e v e s i t t o be " f a l s e s p o r t " . The f l y t i n g contest between the two men, and between the two women, i s a l s o r i c h l y imbued w i t h connotations of springtime f e s t i v i t i e s i n which co n t e s t s , both p h y s i c a l and v e r b a l , play a l a r g e p a r t . Mr. Bask-e r v i l l remarks t h a t : Numerous s i n g i n g games of c h i l d r e n represent an un-chosen g i r l or boy as s i t t i n g apart i n sorrow u n t i l a wooer comes. In games of a d u l t s the r e j e c t e d man or woman seems t o have been compelled to stand apart crowned with a w i l l o w garland. Such a game i s r e -f l e c t e d i n B e a t r i c e ' s remark, i n Much Ado About Noth-i n g . ( I I , i , 330-32), Good Lord, f o r a l l i a n c e I Thus goes every-one to the world but I , and I am sunburned, I may s i t i n a corner and cry heigh-ho f o r a husbandl 29 Poor Helena inte-rprets the s i t u a t i o n as one of these games, a "sweet j e s t " . I n t y p i c a l j e s t e r f a s h i o n , Puck takes great pleasure i n the d i s c o m f i t u r e of the l o v e r s , saying, And so f a r am I glad i t so d i d s o r t , As t h i s t h e i r j a n g l i n g I esteem a s p o r t . ( I l l , i i , 352-53) However, he does h i s F a i r y master's b i d d i n g , and leads the " t e s t y r i v a l s " a s t r a y , i n the b e l i e f that they are f o l l o w i n g one another 29 B a s k e r v i l l , J i g , p. 254. 143. to pursue the b a t t l e . Thus, Shakespeare i s r e a l l y p resenting a mock b a t t l e and f l y t i n g contest which i s undertaken s e r i o u s l y but bears no p h y s i c a l consequences f o r e i t h e r of the combatants. L i k e the e n t i r e "woods" scene, i t , too, i s divorced from the r e a l i t y of everyday and the sharp Athenian law, and becomes u l t i m a t e l y on-l y an element of the play's elaborate p i c t u r e of the May celeb-r a t i o n t h a t Shakespeare i s presenting f o r our enjoyment and e d i f -i c a t i o n . Furthermore, on stage the s p e c t a c l e of two young men rushing about i n d i s c r i m i n a t e l y w i t h drawn swords would probably remind an E l i z a b e t h a n audience of the well-known Sword Dance, the r i t u a l s a c r i f i c i a l dance performed by men on s p e c i a l occasions to i n s u r e the f e r t i l i t y of the year. The dance terminates w i t h the mock death of one of the p a r t i c i p a n t s , u s u a l l y the f o o l , and some-times i n c l u d e s h i s r e v i v a l . L i k e the Sword Dance, the b a t t l e be-tween the two i n f a t u a t e d men bears no r e a l consequences, and the s i g h t of them f a l l i n g to the ground i n exhaustion i s somewhat rem-i n i s c e n t of the mock death. Wooing contests between l o v e r s have a long h i s t o r y and were an o l d formula of popular romantic drama, and wooing dances are c h i e f l y connected w i t h the May game, m o r r i s , 30 or p a s t o r a l f e s t i v a l belonging to summer. As the r i v a l s s l e e p , Oberon s u p p l i e s a new drug t h a t w i l l c l e a r the v i s i o n of Lysander and r e s t o r e h i s true l o v e f o r Hermia. He p r e d i c t s t h a t , When they next awake, a l l t h i s d e r i s i o n S h a l l seem a dream and f r u i t l e s s v i s i o n , ( I I I , i i , 370-71) A f t e r Oberon has given h i s commands to Puck, and i n d i c a t e d that a l l 30 B a s k e r v i l l , "Conventional Features", p. 426 1 4 4 . the problems of the l o v e r s w i l l be res o l v e d i n marriage, "With league whose date t i l l death s h a l l never end," a conversation en-sues between the two which draws on the popular b e l i e f that at night the souls or ghosts of the dead leave t h e i r graves t o wander over the face of the e a r t h , but must, at the f i r s t signs of r e t u r n -i n g day, " w i l l f u l l y themselves e x i l e from l i g h t " . But, as Oberon poi n t s out, "We are s p i r i t s of another s o r t " . As Act I I I ends, the l o v e r s are l e f t asleep on the ground t o await the coming morn-i n g , and Puck presses the new l i q u i d to the eyes of the s l e e p i n g Lysander, a l l the wh i l e chanting what amounts t o a piece of country doggerel. His charming i n v o c a t i o n , and the act of r e s t o r i n g Ly-sander' s t r u e v i s i o n , which has been t e m p o r a r i l y clouded, smacks of the S t . George Mummers' plays which feature a bragging scene, mutual r e c r i m i n a t i o n and i n s u l t between two r i v a l s , a b a t t l e and a s l a y i n g , and, f i n a l l y , a r e s t o r a t i o n to l i f e . Such a s l a y i n g and renouveau c a r r i e s w i t h i t the background of ancient s a c r i f i c e to i n s u r e the welfar e and f e r t i l i t y of the new year. S i m i l a r l y , as Puck's speech points out, h i s .anointing of the s l e e p i n g youth's eyes a l s o c a r r i e s w i t h i t the welfare of the l o v e r s and the commun-i t y as a whole because the play dwells on the beneficent e f f e c t of marriage upon the community a l s o . On the ground Sleep sound. I ' l l apply To your eye, Gentle l o v e r , remedy. When thou wakest, Thou t a k e s t True d e l i g h t I n the s i g h t Of the former lady's eye. And the country proverb known, That every man should take h i s own, Jack s h a l l have J i l l , Nought s h a l l go i l l , The man s h a l l have h i s mare again, and a l l s h a l l be w e l l . ( I l l , i i , 4 4 8 - 6 3 ) 145. Puck's a c t i o n i n appl y i n g the "remedy" c e r t a i n l y seems p a r a l l e l to that of the "doctor" i n the Mummers' pl a y , whose remedies r e s t o r e to l i f e the s l a i n hero, and a l s o r e s t o r e the h e a l t h of the commun-ity, , Seeing the importance of the r o l e of the "doctor", Ordish n o t i c e s t h a t the element of the doctor and h i s cure of the wounded or s l a i n combatant i s common to the Sword Dance pl a y , the Plough Monday p l a y , and the f i r s t p o r t i o n of the Easter p l a y , as w e l l as 31 the S t o George p l a y . In h i s r o l e , the doctor u s u a l l y b r i n g s i n some l i q u i d which i s a p p l i e d to the f a l l e n w a r r i o r , sometimes to h i s eyes, which r e v i v e s him„ I n t e r e s t i n g l y enough, i n the Mum-mers' plays at I s l i p and Berks, the doctor i s a l s o c a l l e d "Dr, 32 Good", At any r a t e , Puck's speech serves t o express confidence 33 i n common humanity and i n what humanity have i n common„ Act lour r e t u r n s to T i t a n i a who s t i l l dotes on the mechanical w i t h the ass's head on h i s shoulders. As they r e c l i n e i n the bow-er of the F a i r y Queen, T i t a n i a speaks: T i t , What, w i l t thou hear some music, my sweet love? Bot. I have a reasonable good ear i n musico Let's have the tongs and the bones. (IV, i , 29-31) Bottom r e f e r s to country instruments t h a t s u p p l i e d rough rhythm at f e s t i v a l and r i t u a l occasions. T i t a n i a , as Barber n o t i c e s , i n embracing Bottom, describes h e r s e l f i n terms th a t s u i t her sur-roundings and connote the a s s o c i a t i o n between women and i v y i n 34 the songs t r a d i t i o n a l at Christmas. I t was the custom at 31 Ordish, " E n g l i s h Folk-Drama", p. 159. 32 Chambers, The E n g l i s h F o l k - P l a y , p. 50. The Mediaeval Stage, v o l . 1, p. 213. 33 Barber, Sh.'s F e s t i v e Comedy, p. 131. 34 I b i d . , p. 136. 146. Christmas f o r the men to s i n g songs i n p r a i s e of h o l l y , t h e i r em-blem, against songs by the women i n p r a i s e of i v y . H o l l y and Ivy seem to have been used f r e q u e n t l y i n the period before the Ren-aissance as symbols of r i v a l groups of c e l e b r a n t s , and probably have some correspondence to such symhols as the Flower and the 35 l e a f . As they sl e e p , Oberon and Puck a r r i v e t o remove the en-chantment from the eyes of T i t a n i a . F a i r y music i n s u r e s t h a t the sleepers f a l l i n t o an even deeper s l e e p , as Oberon and T i t a n i a take hands i n a dance of reunion. I n t h i s case, music and dance are used t o symbolize the concord r e - e s t a b l i s h e d between Oberon and T i t a n i a , and t o foreshadow the r e s u l t i n g harmony between the m o r t a l s . The end of f a i r y s t r i f e and the disenchantment of the m o r t a l s , 36 c l e a r l y mark the t u r n i n g p o i n t of the comedy. What i s more, the emphasis upon music i n the play r e f l e c t s the E l i z a b e t h a n be-l i e f i n the c u r a t i v e powers of music f o r human i l l s , both mental and p h y s i c a l . Sound music. Come, my Queen, take hands w i t h me, And rock the ground whereon these sle e p e r s be. Now thou and I are new i n amity, And w i l l tomorrow midnight solemnly Dance i n Duke Theseus* house triumphantly, And b l e s s i t t o a l l f a i r p r o s p e r i t y . There s h a l l the p a i r s of f a i t h f u l l o v e r s be Wedded, w i t h Theseus, a l l i n j o l l i t y . (IV, i , 89-96) At the completion of the dance, suddenly the horns of Theseus' hunting party are sounded t o s i g n a l the approach of a new day. 35 36 B a s k e r v i l l , " E a r l y Romantic P l a y s " , p. 250. lo n g , Sh.'s Use of Music, p. 93o 147. The f a i r y world vanishes i n s t a n t l y , and the l o v e r s a r e l e f t gent-l y asleep on the ground. The Duke and h i s party have r i s e n e a r l y to perform an observance to May, and a l l intend t o enjoy the sound of the loosed hounds coursing through the v a l l e y . Go, one of you, f i n d out the f o r e s t e r , For now our observation i s performed. And s i n c e we have the vaward of the day, My love s h a l l hear the music of my hounds. Uncouple i n the western v a l l e y , l e t them go. D i s p a t c h , I say, and f i n d the f o r e s t e r . (IV, i , 107-12) This passage takes the form of an extended reference to the sport of hunting which was extremely popular at the time. Wealthy gentlemen bred hounds f o r the sole purpose of matching t h e i r v oices to produce a musical " c r y " capable of competition w i t h t h e i r neigh-bours and others i n t e r e s t e d i n the s p o r t . In a well-balanced pack, each hound u t t e r e d a d i f f e r e n t note, the whole e f f e c t being 37 a harmony. Hip. I was w i t h Hercules and Cadmus once When i n a wood of Crete they bayed the bear With hounds of Sparta. Never d i d I hear Such g a l l a n t c h i d i n g ; f o r , besides the groves, The s k i e s , the f o u n t a i n s , every r e g i o n near Seemed a l l one mutual c r y . I never heard So musical a d i s c o r d , such sweet thunder. Thes. My hounds are bred out of the Spartan k i n d , ^o flewed, so sanded; and t h e i r heads are hung With ears t h a t sweep'away the morning dew; Crook-kneed, and dewlapped l i k e Thessalian b u l l s ; Slow i n p u r s u i t , but matched i n mouth l i k e b e l l s , Each under each. A cry more tunable Was never h o l l o e d t o , nor cheered with horn, I n Crete, i n Sparta, nor i n Thessaly. (IV, I , 116-30) At t h i s , the hunting party d i s c o v e r the four "nymphs" asleep amicably together at t h e i r f e e t . Theseus immediately assumes th a t 37 H a r r i s o n , Works, p. 534. 148. they rose up e a r l y "to observe the r i t e of May," and came i n com-pliment t o h i s marriage. The day f o r Hermia's choice, the " l o v e -day", has a r r i v e d , and the sound of the horns, mortal music, awak-ens sleepers who had dozed because of f a i r y music. When they a-waken, Theseus i n q u i r e s how i t i s they s l e e p together i n gentle concord. The l o v e r s a r i s e amazed and confused, unable t o determine whether they are yet s l e e p i n g or are waking. When Lysander con-fesse s t h a t he and Hermia had o r i g i n a l l y come to the wood t o es-cape the tyranny of the Athenian law, Egeus, l i k e Shylock, a l a t e r k i l l - j o y , begs the law on t h e i r heads. But the r e s u l t s of t h e i r journey t o the wood are i n keeping w i t h the season, f o r , i n the wood, Theseus overr u l e s the "consent" of Egeus, and commands tha t they s h a l l a l l be married w i t h him i n the temple. S t i l l dazed by the n i g h t ' s proceedings, the happy l o v e r s wend t h e i r way a f t e r the Duke and h i s t r a i n . The noise of these events has a l s o awakened another s l e e p e r , the mighty Bottom, who awakens ready t o continue p l a y i n g h i s part which had been i n t e r r u p t e d by the appearance of the F a i r y Queen. Overwhelmed by the wonder of the past n i g h t , the i n d e f a t i g a b l e Bottom determines t o have Quince w r i t e a b a l l a d t o expound h i s dream. Bottom's speech i n d i c a t i n g h i s amazement over the n i g h t ' s happenings i s c u r i o u s l y s i m i l a r t o the usual speech of the r e v i v e d combatant of the Mummers' plays who often exclaims about the remarkable sleep he has had. The tenor of h i s speech i n d i c a t e s to the audience renewed v i g o r and v i t a l i t y on h i s p a r t . I t would seem tha t the tone of Bottom's speech i s much the same, and would remind an E l i z a b e t h a n audience of the r i t u a l s l a y i n g and renouveau. 1 4 9 The l a s t scene of t h i s act leads Bottom back to h i s r e l i e v e d thespians who welcome him i n wonder and admiration. This scene r e f e r s i n d i r e c t l y t o f u r t h e r d e t a i l s concerning the r u s t i c s ' p resentations of mumming plays and i n t e r l u d e s . Snug c r i e s , " I f our sport had gone forward, we had a l l been made men," and F l u t e r e p l i e s d i s c o n s o l a t e l y , "Oh, sweet b u l l y Bottom! Thus hath he l o s t sixpence a day during h i s l i f e , " f o r the chances were th a t such a remarkable a c t o r as they imagined him to be could not es-cape r e c e i v i n g a handsome pension from the Duke f o r h i s performance. Upon h i s a r r i v a l , the i r r e p r e s s i b l e Bottom wastes no time, takes over the d i r e c t i o n of the performance from Quince, and g i v e s h i s eager admirers t h e i r l a s t minute i n s t r u c t i o n s . ....Get your apparel t o -gether, good s t r i n g s t o your beards, new ribbons to your pumps. Meet p r e s e n t l y at the palace. Every man look o'er h i s p a r t , f o r the short and the long i s , our play i s p r e f e r r e d . In any case, l e t Thisby have clean l i n e n , and l e t not him t h a t plays the l i o n pare h i s n a i l s , f o r they s h a l l hang out f o r the l i o n ' s claws. And, most dear a c t o r s , eat no onions nor gar-l i c , f o r we are to u t t e r sweet breath, and I do not doubt but t o hear them say i t i s a sweet comedy. (IV, i , 3 5 - 4 5 ) The opening of Act V places the events of the previous n i g h t i n t h e i r proper p e r s p e c t i v e , and r e l a t e s s u p e r s t i t i o n , magic, and 3 8 passionate d e l u s i o n as "fancy's images". Thes. . . . . I never may b e l i e v e These antique f a b l e s , nor these f a i r y t o y s . Lovers and madmen have such seething b r a i n s , Such shaping f a n t a s i e s , that apprehend More than cool reason ever comprehends. The l u n a t i c , the l o v e r , and the poet Are of imagination a l l compact. (V, i , 2 - 8 ) 3 8 Barber, Sh.'s F e s t i v e Comedy, p. 1 2 3 . 150. Theseus c a l l s h i s Master of the Revels to demand what " r e v e l s are at hand", and P h i l o s t r a t e presents to h i s master a l i s t of the v a r -ious entertainments which have been prepared. The Duke r e j e c t s "The b a t t l e w i t h the Centaurs", because he has already t o l d t h a t to h i s l o v e . He a l s o r e j e c t s "the r i o t of the t i p s y Bacchanals" on the grounds th a t i t i s an o l d device which he has already seen, and r e j e c t s , l a s t l y , a pageant of the nine Muses mourning the de-cease of Learning, because i t i s probably "some s a t i r e , keen and c r i t i c a l , / Not s o r t i n g w i t h a n u p t i a l ceremony". However, he de-l i g h t s i n the announcement of the p r e s e n t a t i o n of Bottom and crew, "A t e d i o u s b r i e f scene of young Pyramus / And h i s l o v e Thisbe, very t r a g i c a l m i r t h . " The t i t l e i s r a t h e r r e v e a l i n g , f o r at that time "Lamentable t r a g e d i e s mixed f u l l of pleasant m i r t h " were what 39 the p u b l i c wanted. Furthermore, the s t o r y of Pyramus and Thisbe had a long record of p o p u l a r i t y i n medieval poetry and drama, and, as B a s k e r v i l l e x p l a i n s , "both simple romantic s t o r i e s and mytho-l o g i c a l s t o r i e s from the c l a s s i c s seem to have been popular i n 40 dramatic form among the f o l k of E l i z a b e t h a n England." The conversation between Theseus and P h i l o s t r a t e r e v e a l s the p i t i f u l inadequacies of the p r e s e n t a t i o n , and P h i l o s t r a t e * s c r i t -i c i s m s would seem to be a p p l i c a b l e to most amateur productions of t h i s k i n d . A play there i s , my l o r d , some ten words long, Which i s as b r i e f as I have known a play. But by ten words, my l o r d , i t i s too long, Which makes i t tedi o u s ; f o r i n a l l the play There i s not one word apt, one player f i t t e d . And t r a g i c a l , my noble l o r d , i t i s , 39 Disher, Clowns, p. x i x . This t i t l e i s taken from the t i t l e page of Preston* s Lamentable Tragedy, Mixed F u l l of Pleasant M i r t h , Containing the L i f e of Cambises, King of P e r s i a . 40 B a s k e r v i l l , - J i g , p. 485. 151. For Pyramus t h e r e i n doth k i l l h i m s e l f . Which, when I saw rehearsed, I must confess Made mine eyes water, but more merry t e a r s The passion of loud l a u g h t e r never shed. (V, i , 61-70} As he p o i n t s out, i t i s a play put on by, Hardhanded men that work i n Athens here, Which never labored i n t h e i r minds t i l l now, (V, i , 72-73) Theseus commands that the play be shown, but P h i l o s t r a t e attempts to dissuade him by e x p l a i n i n g that the play i s i n s i g n i f i c a n t , un-l e s s the company can f i n d " s p o r t " i n the " i n t e n t s " of the country mummers, "Extremely s t r e t c h e d and conned w i t h c r u e l p a i n , / To do you s e r v i c e . " Theseus c r i e s , ....I w i l l hear t h a t p l a y , For never anything can be amiss, When simpleness and duty tender i t . (V, i , 81-33) The gracious Duke accepts the play i n the s p i r i t i n which i t i s tendered, and h i s comments i n d i c a t e t o a t w e n t i e t h century reader the extent of a custom which demands of a King's subjects that they i n d i c a t e t h e i r devotion and duty t o him i n a ceremonial f a s h i o n . Our sport s h a l l be t o take what they mistake. And what poor duty cannot do, noble respect Takes i t i n might, not m e r i t . Where I have come, great c l e r k s have purposed To greet me w i t h premeditated welcomes, Where I have seen them s h i v e r and look p a l e , Make periods i n the midst of sentences, T h r o t t l e t h e i r p r a c t i c e d accent i n t h e i r f e a r s , And, i n c o n c l u s i o n , dumbly have broke o f f , Not paying me a welcome. Trust me, sweet, Out of t h i s s i l e n c e yet I picked a welcome, And i n the modesty of f e a r f u l duty I read as much as from the r a t t l i n g tongue Of saucy and audacious eloquence. (V, i , 90-103) With a f l o u r i s h of trumpets, Quince enters as the Prologue or 152. Presenter of the play, but garbles h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n h o r r i b l y by not f o l l o w i n g the punctuation of h i s declamation, and makes, "per-i o d s i n the midst of sentences". As Hipp o l y t a humorously d e c l a r e s , "Indeed he hath played on h i s prologue l i k e a c h i l d on a recorder - a sound, but not i n government". A recorder was a simple f l u t e popular at the time, and was used i n harmony w i t h other instruments to produce a consort, what amounts t o a small o r c h e s t r a . Quince proceeds t o introduce the a l l e g o r i c a l pageant f i g u r e s and the main c h a r a c t e r s , i n a f a s h i o n much the same as that of the Sum-mers' p l a y s . I n f a c t , almost h a l f of the. i n t e r l u d e of "Pyramus and Thisbe" i s taken up with mumming prologues i n t r o d u c i n g the various personages. N e x t } h e begs the indulgence of the assemblage, and then e x p l a i n s the d e t a i l s of the pl a y . Shakespeare burlesques the i l l i t e r a c i e s and gaucheries of the amateur productions by emphasizing the heavy a l l i t e r a t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y the b's i n the l i n e , Whereat, with blade, w i t h bloody blameful blade, He bra v e l y broached h i s b o i l i n g bloody b r e a s t . (V, i , 147-48) Next, Snout introduces himself as W a l l , and a f f o r d s eminent opportunity f o r the Duke's party to r i d i c u l e h i s d i s c o u r s e . The dialogue between Pyramus and Thisbe i s fraught w i t h r i d i c u l o u s warpings of l i n e s , c l a s s i c a l r e f e r e n c e s , and s e v e r a l bawdy i m p l i -c a t i o n s . One by one, the performers introduce themselves i n true mumming f a s h i o n , speak t h e i r p i e c e , and depart, a l l t o a chor-us of j e s t s and r i b a l d r i e s from the audience. The l i o n and the moon are soon dispensed w i t h , Pyramus di s c o v e r s Thisbe's bloody mantle, and, i n a paroxysm of passio n , bewails her l o s s and d i e s 153. at l e n g t h . At t h i s Demetrius makes a poor pun on the game of d i c e . Dem. No d i e , but an ace, f o r him, f o r he I s but one. Lys. Less than an ace, man, f o r he i s dead, he i s nothing. (V, i , 313-15) Theseus' r e p l y t o t h e i r w i t t i c i s m s places the a c t i o n of the play Pyramus and Thisbe w e l l w i t h i n the framework of the S t . George Mummers' play i n which i t i s customary f o r St. George to k i l l an opponent, u s u a l l y a Turk or Bold S l a s h e r , and then c a l l f o r a doc-t o r or surgeon who goes through some t r a d i t i o n a l byplay, of t e n humorous, and then r e v i v e s the f a l l e n hero. I t i s postulated t h a t such a r i t u a l s l a y i n g and r e v i v a l hearkens back t o ancient s a c r i -f i c e s of a scapegoat t o i n s u r e the s t a b i l i t y and f e r t i l i t y of the community f o r another year. Thes. With the help of a surgeon he might yet recover, and prove an ass. (V, i , 316) Mr. Barber has a l s o n o t i c e d the s i m i l a r i t i e s between Bottom and the s l a i n combatant i n the Mummers' p l a y s , though he has i n -cluded i t i n h i s book i n the form of a foo t n o t e . I reproduce t h i s footnote i n order t o provide some s u b s t a n t i a t i o n f o r my own cla i m s , and a l s o t o draw a t t e n t i o n t o the d i f f e r e n c e s i n our approaches. The s e c t i o n of the footnote which i s p e r t i n e n t goes as f o l l o w s : Perhaps when Bottom s t a r t s up, very much a l i v e d e s p i t e h i s emphatic death, to c o r r e c t the Duke i n the matter of the w a l l , h i s comic r e s u r r e c t i o n owes something, d i r e c t l y or v i a the j i g , t o the f o l k p l a y . When the St. George, or F o o l , or whoever, s t a r t s up, a l i v e again, a f t e r the miraculous cure, the r e v e r s a l must have been played as a moment of comical triumph, an upset, more or l e s s grotesque or absurd, no doubt, but s t i l l e x h i l a r a t i n g - to come back a l i v e i s the u l t i m a t e t u r n i n g of the t a b l e s on whatever i s an enemy of l i f e . The most popular of E l i z a b e t h a n j i g s , 154. "The J i g of Rowland", i n v o l v e s a device of p l a y i n g dead and pretending to come back t o l i f e which may w e l l be a r a t i o n a l i z e d development of t h i s p r i m i t i v e r e s u r r e c t i o n m o t i f . Rowland wins back Margaret from the Sexton by g e t t i n g i n t o a grave and p l a y i n g dead; she laments him and then s t a r t s to go o f f w i t h h i s r i v a l ; but Rowland jumps up behind them, aston-i s h e s the Sexton, sends him packing and wins the wench. ( B a s k e r v i l l , Jig., pp. 220-222) Such b r i e f comic song and dance dramas as t h i s were used as a f t e r p i e c e s f o l l o w i n g the r e g u l a r play. Pyramus  and Thisby almost amounts to a developed j i g which has been brought i n t o the framework of the play i n s t e a d of being presented as an a f t e r p i e c e , i n the usu a l f a s h i o n . The dance element comes i n when Bottom, a f t e r coming back a l i v e , concludes by danc-i n g a bergomasque. 41 At the death of Thisbe, Bottom springs up, o f f e r i n g an e p i -logue or a Bergomask dance, a rough country dance, as a l t e r n a t i v e a f t e r p i e c e s t o t h e i r play f o r the f u r t h e r entertainment of the com-pany. I n the Mummers' play and the Sword Dance, both of which contain a r i t u a l s l a y i n g and a r e v i v a l , the r e v i v a l of the sac-r i f i c i a l v i c t i m i s accompanied by r e j o i c i n g and a dance. Thus the Bergomask would seem to be p a r t i c u l a r l y appropriate i n t h i s con-n e c t i o n , f o l l o w i n g so c l o s e l y , as i t does, upon the death of Thisbe, and Bottom's exuberant leap back to l i f e . At the command of Thes-eus, they omit the epilogue, and present the Bergomask, which marks an a e s t h e t i c d i v i s i o n i n the pl a y , because Theseus ceases to speak i n prose, and, i n s t a t e l y blank verse, commends the l o v e r s to t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e beds. His speech introduces the f a i r i e s once more, and acknowledges the e f f o r t s of the mummers by saying t h a t , "This palpable-gross 41 Barber, Sh.'s F e s t i v e Comedy, p. 154. 155. play hath w e l l beguiled / The heavy g a i t of n i g h t " . With the r e -t u r n of night and the departure bedward of the Duke and h i s com-pany, who are determined to continue the r e v e l s the next day and f o r a f o r t n i g h t t h e r e a f t e r , Puck e n t e r s , seemingly i n the r o l e of Presenter or a c t o r i n a t y p i c a l H^ammers' p l a y . His speech charac-t e r i z e s the n i g h t , and announces t h a t i t i s the l a w f u l domain of f a i r i e s , s p r i t e s , and ghosts. And we f a i r i e s , t hat do run By the t r i p l e Hecate's team, From the presence of the sun, F o l l o w i n g darkness l i k e a dream, wow are f r o l i c . Not a mouse S h a l l d i s t u r b t h i s hallowed house. I am sent w i t h broom before, To sweep the dust behind the door. (V, i , 3 9 0 - 9 7 ) Here he seems to play the r o l e of L i t t l e D e v i l Doubt who often c l e a r s a space f o r the approaching mummers by c r y i n g f o r the a t -t e n t i o n of the audience. In comes I hind before, w i t h my broad broom to sweep up the f l o o r , a room f o r g a l l a n t s t o r e , prey give me room to rhyme, f o r I am come w i t h my g a l l a n t men to show a l i t t l e a c t i v i t y on t h i s merry Christmas t i d e . 42 In the Mummers' plays w i t h which we are f a m i l i a r , i t i s cus-tomary f o r the Presenter, whether he be Father Christmas or some other f i g u r e , t o come i n w i t h a broom i n h i s hand. At Le i g h , the performance of the S t . George play i s begun by L i t t l e D e v i l Doubt who sweeps a room f o r the a c t o r s j u s t as sword dancers make a pre-l i m i n a r y c i r c l e on the ground w i t h a sword. The performance ends 43 by a quete preceded by a sweeping out. Miss Welsford brings to our a t t e n t i o n t h a t : 42 R.J.E. Tiddy, The Mummers' Pl a y . Oxford, At the Clarendon Press, 1923, p. 170. 43 Chambers, Mediaeval Stage, v o l . 1, p. 216. 156 The l i v e s of u n c i v i l i z e d people are profoundly a f f e c t -ed by t h e i r b e l i e f t h a t the world i s swarming w i t h s p i r i t s and souls of the dead. The dead are honoured, pl a c a t e d , and fed (e.g. the custom of the bean). Some peoples c e l e b r a t e f u n e r a l s and a n n i v e r s a r i e s by i n v i t -i n g the dead to a banquet, eaten i n s i l e n c e , at which the dead are supplied w i t h food, e.g. beans or peas.. ..There i s a l s o a strong f e e l i n g i n p r i m i t i v e c u l t u r e s t h a t the dead should not encroach too much on the sphere of the l i v i n g , and steps are taken to keep them at a d i s t a n c e . One simple method of g e t t i n g r i d of ghosts i s to sweep them out of the house. R i t e s of t h i s kind have p o i n t s i n common w i t h scapegoat ceremonies and w i t h popular customs of sweeping away e v i l s p i r i t s and witches w i t h brooms. 44 For t h i s reason mummers shout, r i n g b e l l s , burn b o n f i r e s , and hum. In The Scapegoat. S i r James Frazer s u b s t a n t i a t e s these remarks by p o i n t i n g out t h a t sometimes P r i e s t s sweep misfortune out of 45 the house w i t h brooms made from the leaves of s p e c i a l p l a n t s . Furthermore, h i s s t u d i e s of a number of p r i m i t i v e peoples r e v e a l t h a t : The p u b l i c and p e r i o d i c expulsion of d e v i l s i s com-monly preceded or followed by a p e r i o d of general l i c e n s e , during which the o r d i n a r y r e s t r a i n t s of s o c i e t y are thrown a s i d e , and a l l offences, short of the gravest, are allowed to pass unpunished. 46 The S a t u r n a l i a n p a t t e r n of r i t u a l c e l e b r a t i o n f i n d s i t s epitome i n Rome where, apparently, every year on the f o u r t e e n t h of March, a man c l a d i n s k i n s was l e d i n procession through the s t r e e t s , beaten w i t h long white rods, and d r i v e n out of the c i t y . This p a t t e r n of c e l e b r a t i o n of the r e b i r t h of the year, c h a r a c t e r i z e d by an i n v e r s i o n of s o c i a l ranks and the s a c r i f i c e of a man i n the 44 Welsford, Masque, p. 7. 45 S i r James George F r a z e r , The Scapegoat, London, Macmillan and Co., L t d . , 1933, v o l . 6, p. 5. 46 I b i d . , p. 225» 47 I b i d . , p. 229. 1 5 7 . character of a god, i s apparently the prototype f o r s i m i l a r observ-ances which were held at one time a l l over the ancient world from 4 8 I t a l y to Babylon. In a d d i t i o n to the f a m i l i a r p r o c e s s i o n a l , i n pagan r i t u a l a human couple formed a union which was intended t o represent, as i n a microcosm, the loves of a l l nature both p l a n t and animal, and, i n the psychology of sympathetic magic, was intended to complement 4 9 and st i m u l a t e the l i f e of nature. The c e n t r a l i d e a or motive of a g r i c u l t u r a l f e s t i v a l s r e l a t e d to t h i s r i t u a l i s the b e l i e f t h a t , d u r i n g the s p r i n g season, the f e r t i l i z a t i o n s p i r i t r e s i d e s i n the v i s i b l e and t a n g i b l e form of f l o w e r s , the f o l i a g e of the t r e e s , or i n the crops i n the f i e l d s . The object of the f e s t i v a l becomes t o obta i n "the beneficent i n f l u e n c e of the f e r t i l i z a t i o n s p i r i t by b r i n g i n g the persons or places to be benefi t e d i n t o d i r -50 ect contact w i t h the p h y s i c a l embodiment of that s p i r i t . " Thus a procession becomes an important part of the c e l e b r a t i o n . Sacramental s a c r i f i c e , found r i t u a l l y i n the Mummers1 p l a y s , or at l e a s t the s p r i n k l i n g of holy water, enables p r i m i t i v e peoples to make p h y s i c a l contact w i t h the source of l i f e and growth, and the ceremonial procession f o l l o w i n g i t , which s t i l l appears i n the mummers' quetes and p r o c e s s i o n a l dances, i s a conscious attempt to spread the mystic e f f e c t s of the h o l i n e s s throughout the whole 51 community. Even a f t e r the o r i g i n a l s a c r i f i c e has long been 4 8 F r a z e r , Scapegoat. p. 4 0 7 . 4 9 I b i d . , p. 4 0 6 . 50 Chambers, Mediaeval Stage, v o l . 1, p. 1 1 7 . 51 Welsford, Masque, p. 6 . 158, f o r g o t t e n , the minor r i t e s which once accompanied i t are s t i l l perpetuated, as v e s t i g i a l remnants, i n the s u p e r s t i t i o n s or the f e s t i v a l customs of the peasantry. As p r e v i o u s l y mentioned, the heads and hides of horses er c a t t l e are worn or c a r r i e d i n the Mum-52 fliers' dance i n t h e i r procession through the v i l l a g e . Thus the hobby horse and buffoon are b a s i c a l l y worshippers prancing i n the ski n s of s a c r i f i c e d animals. The same magic power i s b e l i e v e d to be found a l s o i n the sacred t r e e , and hence mummers often wear l e a v e s , and b r i n g branches and flowers from the woods on r i t u a l days. There are b a s i c a l l y two dances n a t u r a l to the mummers. The f i r s t i s the p r o c e s s i o n a l which troops through the v i l l a g e , d i s -t r i b u t i n g the mystic power, and the second i s the ronde or round, a comparatively s t a t i o n a r y dance which o r i g i n a t e s from the dance of a group of worshippers around the more sacred objects of the f e s t i v a l , such as the tree or the f i r e . When viewed i n t h i s l i g h t , the p r o c e s s i o n a l of the f a i r i e s becomes the quete of the mummers who bear with them the lu c k of the season. Moreover, the connect-i o n between f a i r i e s and f e r t i l i t y i s deep-rooted i n f o l k l o r e and i s hence doubly apropos i n t h i s connection. I t has been suggested, f i r s t by Johnson and then by l a t e r c r i t -i c s , t h a t two songs and two dances have been l o s t from the p l a y , Mr. Barber suggests t h a t the type of dance intended t o accompany the b l e s s i n g of the house i s i n d i c a t e d i n d i r e c t l y i n the dialogue: T i t a n i a seems t o s t a r t a c i r c l i n g dance w i t h " F i r s t rehearse your song by r o t e " ; by con t r a s t w i t h Oberon's " a f t e r me," she c a l l s f o r "hand i n hand". This com-52 Chambers, Mediaeval Stage, v o l . 1, p. 141 1 5 9 b i n a t i o n of p r o c e s s i o n a l and round dances i s the ob-vious one f o r the occasion: t o get the f a i r i e s i n and give them something t o do. 53 Such dances would be doubly appropriate i n t h i s context, because, as has already been pointed out, they are t r a d i t i o n a l l y associated w i t h p r i m i t i v e f e s t i v a l s c e l e b r a t i n g and encouraging the f e r t i l i t y of the new year. Oberon and T i t a n i a , as mummers themselves, lead t h e i r f a i r y band throughout the house, b l e s s i n g i t . Thus, t h e i r f i n a l danc-i n g b l e s s i n g of the mortals turns them i n t o both mummers and f e r -t i l i t y s p i r i t s who b l e s s the b r i d a l bed, and weave a charm th a t w i l l p r o t e c t i t s i s s u e from a l l n a t u r a l defects and mischance. The f a i r i e s are commanded t o take f i e l d dew consecrated i n the fa s h i o n of holy water. and s p r i n k l e a b l e s s i n g throughout the great house. F e r t i l i z i n g and beneficent v i r t u e s are p e r s i s t e n t l y a s c r i b -ed t o dew gathering on May morning. I t was bathed i n and drunk i n the b e l i e f t h a t , at that time of the year, dew c a r r i e d f e r t i l -i t y . There are a l s o r e l i g i o u s a s s o c i a t i o n s t o " f i e l d dew consec-r a t e " suggesting the s a n c t i f i c a t i o n of love by marriage. As Bar-ber informs us: I t was customary f o r the c l e r g y , at l e a s t i n important marriages, t o b l e s s the bed and b r i d a l couple w i t h holy water. The be n e d i c t i o n i n c l u d e d exorcism, i n the Manual f o r the use of S a l i s b u r y a prayer to pr o t e c t them from what Spenser c a l l e d " e v i l l s p r i g h t s " and "things that be not" (ab omnibus f a n t a s m a t i c i s demon-urn i l l u s i o n i b u s ) . This custom may i t s e l f be an ec-c l e s i a s t i c a l adaptation of a more p r i m i t i v e b r i d a l l u s t r a t i o n , a water charm of which dew-gathering on May Day i s one v a r i a n t . 5 4 53 Barber, Sh.'s F e s t i v e Comedy, p. 1 3 8 5 4 I b i d . , p. 1 3 9 . 160 o Thus the f e r t i l i t y , s a f e t y , happiness, and l u c k of the household has been assured f o r another year, and the f a i r i e s troop away a f t e r having done t h e i r duty. As Barber remarks, the exorcism of e v i l powers i s a n a t u r a l c o r o l l a r y to the i n v o c a t i o n of good. Puck comes f o r t h once more t o speak what amounts to an e p i -logue at the end of the p l a y , ^e begs the audience's approval and applause i n much the same way that t r a d i t i o n a l mummers end t h e i r p resentations by begging food or money as a reward f o r t h e i r l a b o u r s . D e v i l Doubt. Here comes I l i t t l e D e v i l Doubt, i f you don't give me the money I ' l l sweep you a l l out. Money I want and money I crave, I f you don't give me money I ' l l sweep 'ee a l l to the grave. Gentlemen and Ladies since our sport i s ended, our box now must be recommended. Our box would speak i f i t had a tongue, nine or ten s h i l l i n g would do i t no harm, a l l s i l v e r and no brass. A l l s i n g . Your c e l l a r doors are locked and we're a l l l i k e t o choak and i t ' s a l l f o r the d r i n k that we s i n g , boys, s i n g . 55 The play ends by p l a c i n g i t s a c t i o n i n i t s proper p e r s p e c t i v e . Puck. I f we shadows have offended, Think but t h i s , and a l l i s mended, That you have but slumbered here While these v i s i o n s d i d appear, And t h i s weak and i d l e theme, No more y i e l d i n g but a dream, (V, i , 430-35) Shakespeare has concluded h i s t r i b u t e to an important marriage i n a manner appropriate t o f e s t i v a l and marriage, w i t h songs, dances, and a b l e s s i n g . In t h i s play, the dramatist has been pre-55 Tiddy, Mummers' P l a y , -p. 143 161. senting a number of r i t u a l s and kinds of entertainment. These, the Maying sequence of events, the f l i g h t t o the woods, and the consummation, have a l l been presented as o c c u r r i n g n a t u r a l l y . In a d d i t i o n , the play has dramatized the t r a d i t i o n a l b a t t l e between summer and w i n t e r , and, i n i t s burlesque of f o l k dramatics, has al s o presented what amounts t o a Mummers' p l a y . In order t o support the contention that Shakespeare has pre-sented a number of the elements of a Mummers' play i n w r i t i n g A Midsummer Night's Dream, i t becomes necessary to quote Tiddy's a n a l y s i s of the t y p i c a l Mummers' pl a y . As he p o i n t s out: The t y p i c a l Mummers' play opens w i t h a naive i n d u c t -i o n i n which one of the performers craves the spec-t a t o r s ' indulgence, asks f o r room, and promises a f i n e performance. When t h i s i s concluded, the two pro t a g o n i s t s appear, and a f t e r each has boasted of h i s v a l o u r , they f a l l t o f i g h t i n g . I n t h i s d u e l , one or other i s wounded or k i l l e d . A doctor i s then summoned who vaunts h i s p r o f i c i e n c y i n medicine and proceeds to re v i v e the f a l l e n hero. Here the main business of the play ends. I t i s now the turn of minor characters to enter and provide i r r e l e v a n t am-usement of a simple s o r t . One of them c o l l e c t s money and the performance f i n i s h e s w i t h a song. 56 On the b a s i s of t h i s g e n e r a l i z a t i o n concerning the t y p i c a l Mummers' pl a y , one would h e s i t a t e to a s s e r t that Shakespeare i s endeavouring t o reproduce e x a c t l y e i t h e r the folk - s o n g or the folk-drama, but the s i m i l a r i t i e s between parts of the play under a n a l y s i s and the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e Mummers' play, i t would seem to me, lead one t o the concl u s i o n that the dramatist i s d e l i b e r a t e l y borrowing from the f o l k t r a d i t i o n , and, i n some cases, t a k i n g the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of some of the mummers wholesale, though p u t t i n g 56 Tiddy, Mummers' Play, p. 73. 162. them i n a d i f f e r e n t s e t t i n g , and using them f o r a d i f f e r e n t pur-pose. As a consequence, some of the s i m i l a r elements l o s e much of t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l f l a v o r , but r e t a i n j u s t enough of i t to be r e c o g n i z a b l e . The purpose of the dramatist seems to be twof o l d . He wishes to supply a comic element i n a play which ce l e b r a t e s marriage. What could be more appropriate and welcome t o h i s aud-ience than h i n t s of t h e i r own t r a d i t i o n borrowed from Mummers' plays with which they are a l l f a m i l i a r ? furthermore, the Mummers' play i s i t s e l f intended to supply comedy, so nothing i s out of t a s t e i n the borrowing. ^ e a l s o wishes to honour an important marriage. What could be more c l e v e r and complimentary than t o place a marriage i n a t r a d i t i o n a l r i t u a l s e t t i n g i n order to r e -gard i t i n terms of i t s e f f e c t upon the community as a whole? E l i z a b e t h a n d ramatists had s e v e r a l avenues open to them i n appeal-i n g to the d i v e r s i f i e d t a s t e s which c h a r a c t e r i z e d t h e i r audiences. One of the most s i g n i f i c a n t i s the f a c t t h a t they were able to draw from a body of f o l k t r a d i t i o n which passed from c l a s s t o c l a s s v i r t u a l l y unmodified. The s i m i l a r i t i e s i n the r i t u a l s , pas-times, and entertainments of a l l s o c i a l c l a s s e s were, as a con-sequence, a great a i d i n producing Shakespeare's u n i v e r s a l ap-p e a l . I n a d d i t i o n to the s i m i l a r i t i e s between folk-drama and the play already mentioned during the course of t h i s a n a l y s i s , there are s e v e r a l others of a more general nature which become obvious when one surveys the play as an e n t i t y . F i r s t there i s the mat-t e r of the q u a l i t y of the humour i n the Mummers' p l a y . The scenes 163. of humour in' t h e s e plays are based on the bragging of the comba-t a n t s before they f i g h t , on the q u a r r e l l i n g of wife and husband, 57 and on the impertinence of the doctor's man to h i s master,, Furthermore:, Bottom's very speech i s somewhat reminiscent of the topsy-turvydom or nonsense popular i n the humour of the Mummers' pl a y s . In the play from Weston-sub-Edge, G l o u c e s t e r s h i r e , Be-elzebub has the f o l l o w i n g speech: I went up a s t r a i g h t crooked lane. I met a bark and he dogged at me. I went t o the s t i c k and cut a hedge, gave him a r a l l i e r over the yud jud k i l l -ed him round stout s t i f f and bold from Lancashire I came,....I came t o a l i t t l e b i g house, I knocked at the door and the maid f e l l out. She asked i f I could eat a cup of her c i d e r and d r i n k a hard c r u s t of her bread and cheese. I s a i d , "No thanks, yes i f yer please. 58 I t seems to me th a t Bottom's humorous attempts to v e r b a l i z e h i s experience w i t h the F a i r y Queen are a Shakespearian r e n d i t i o n of the same dramatic d e v i c e . Bottom confuses senses i n the same way that Mummers' plays confuse complementary a r t i c l e s and a c t i o n s . Thus, the play A Midsummer Night's Dream leans h e a v i l y on the t r a d i t i o n of the folk-drama, the r i t u a l , and the play s p i r i t of E l i z a b e t h a n England. P o s s i b l y the best example of the use of these elements, t h i s d e l i g h t f u l play provides a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e reproduction of the age-youth antipathy and of the customs of Maying and r e v e l r y . I n i t , the f l i g h t to the woods i s thematic and s u p p l i e s a s i g n i f i c a n t part of the dramatic experience f o r the E l i z a b e t h a n audience. The evidence i n d i c a t i n g the use of the elements of t y p i c a l Mummers' plays i s cumulative, and i t s bulk 5 7 Tiddy, Mummers' Play, p. 8 4 . 5 8 I b i d . , p. 1 6 7 . 164. lends weight to the hypothesis. L i k e Love's Labor's L o s t , the play d efines the love experience i n terras of l i f e as a whole, and confirms the healthy n e c e s s i t y of responding to the demands of the season. I t s references t o the pastimes and entertainments of the period are s i m i l a r l y numerous, and serve t o confirm the patterns already traced i n the preceding three p l a y s . 165. CONCLUSION Shakespearian commentators have o f t e n drawn a t t e n t i o n to the abundance of a l l u s i o n s to country sport and pageantry i n h i s drama, but r e l a t i v e l y few have noted the s t r u c t u r a l and thematic s i g n i f i c a n c e i n Shakespeare's plays of the f o l k r i t u a l and f o l k -drama which were a part of the_ E l i z a b e t h a n h e r i t a g e . The f o l l o w -i n g remarks by Miss Venezky are r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of c r i t i c a l com-ment i n t h i s area: Not only the pageant, but the entry, the welcome, and the progress entertainment provided an abundant f i e l d of reference f o r imagery to d e l i g h t the mind's eye of the spectator j u s t as h i s a c t u a l v i s i o n was served by the stage s p e c t a c l e . In a n t i t h e s i s to Homer, who employed p i c t u r e s of simple d a i l y l i f e to make the splendor of palaces and armies comprehensible to h i s audience, Shakespeare s t i r r e d h i s l i s t e n e r s by a l l u s -ions to f e s t i v e d i s p l a y , which not only c l a r i f i e d but colored h i s l i n e s by r e f l e c t i n g the de c o r a t i o n and a l l e g o r y of the pageant and progress e n t e r t a i n -ment • 1 Others have commented upon and tabu l a t e d the symbols, s i m i l e s , metaphors, and running imagery which draw upon contemporary pas-times, customs, and sport and c o n t r i b u t e subtle overtones to the a c t i o n , and, u l t i m a t e l y , the theme. As the present study and those of others r e v e a l , Shakespeare's debt to the dramatic t r a d i t i o n and the b a s i c seasonal r i t u a l s of the f o l k i s not s m a l l , nor can h i s use of these elements be ignored i n any adequate a p p r a i s a l of the play i n which they appear. The search f o r the d i r e c t i n -f l u e n c e of E n g l i s h folk-drama (which i s i t s e l f a v e s t i g i a l rem-nant of a o n c e - f l o u r i s h i n g pagan r e l i g i o n ) has become, during the l a s t few years, p r o g r e s s i v e l y popular among students of the E l i z a b e t h a n drama. The drama of England's greatest playwright, 1 Venezky, Pageantry on the Shakespearean Stage, p. 168. 166 o however, has been l a r g e l y neglected i n t h i s connection,. In h i s approach to Shakespeare's Henriad and the comedies of the middle p e r i o d , Mr. C.L. Barber has been the pioneer i n h i s f i e l d , and, though much remains to be done, other s c h o l a r s , notably 2 Mr„ Richard Wincor, i n h i s a r t i c l e , "Shakespeare's F e s t i v a l P l a y s " , have begun to see the importance of folk-drama and r i t u a l i n the l a s t p l a y s , Cymbeline. The Winter's Tale, and The Tempest, The present i n v e s t i g a t i o n has been f r u i t f u l and i l l u m i n a t i n g f o r the w r i t e r , i n d i s c l o s i n g the genesis and e a r l y p a t t e r n of development of t h i s element i n Shakespeare's dramatic method. The frequent r e f e r e n c e s , not only i n the e a r l y comedies but i n the e n t i r e canon, to the pastimes of E l i z a b e t h a n England, i n c l u d -i n g a great v a r i e t y of games and sports many of which are unusual and f o r e i g n to us, b r i n g colour and l i f e to the p l a y s , as w e l l as c o n t r i b u t i n g t o mood and, f i n a l l y , through the running imagery, t o theme. S e n s i t i v e to the c u l t u r a l tone of h i s s o c i e t y , Shakespeare drew on i t s s p i r i t of play and i t s love of r i t u a l and t r a d i t i o n to embe l l i s h h i s drama, and, as the pl a y s under a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e , even dramatized t h a t s o c i e t y at p l a y . Some plays he constructed a f t e r the model of the r e v e l , some through the use of the p r i n c i p l e of m i s r u l e , and some he developed to p r o j e c t the wonder of the b i r t h - d e a t h c y c l e , often dramatized among the f o l k as the c o n f l i c t between the seasons, culminating i n the triumph of s p r i n g , the season of r e b i r t h . I t i s t h i s p r e - C h r i s t i a n r e s u r r e c t i o n motif which 2 Shakespeare Q u a r t e r l y , v o l , 1 (1950), pp. 219-40. 167, i s i n l a r g e part r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the e c s t a t i c joy i n l i f e of the e a r l y comedies, p r e v a i l i n g d e s p i t e the r e c o g n i t i o n of the death's head g r i n n i n g through the exuberance of golden l a d s and g i r l s , as i t i s f o r the serene f u l f i l l m e n t of the l a t e r romances, a r e -c o n c i l i a t i o n which i s a l s o reached only through sorrow and t e a r s . Shakespeare's debt to E n g l i s h r i t u a l and entertainment i s not l i m i t e d to mere ref e r e n c e . He of t e n used the t r a d i t i o n as a frame-work upon which to mold p l o t s borrowed from I t a l i a n or c l a s s i c a l sources. In such i n s t a n c e s , the framework i t s e l f i s o f t e n t r a n s -muted, and i t i s always subordinated to a conscious dramatic pur-pose. The p a t t e r n which has emerged i n t h i s examination of the uses to which the e a r l y comedies put E n g l i s h f o l k r i t u a l and en-tertainment i s that of a p o l a r i t y - age-youth, winter-summer, r u l e -m i s r u l e , and everyday-holiday. These t r a d i t i o n a l o p p o s i t i o n s , which Shakespeare manipulates almost as dramatic formulae, are found most commonly i n the Mummers' pl a y , the r e v e l r y and misrule of Christmas and May, and, g e n e r a l l y , i n a l l r i t u a l and games which o r i g i n a t e from pagan c e l e b r a t i o n s of the r e b i r t h of the year. This dramatic use of p o l a r i t y provides the spectator w i t h a choice of p e r s p e c t i v e s from which to regard the a c t i o n of the pl a y , and places i t i n proper perspe c t i v e i n terms of l i f e as a whole. The p r i n c i p l e of misrule i s p e c u l i a r l y s u i t e d to dr a m a t i z a t i o n , because i t s use enables the dramatist t o set up an a r t i f i c i a l world i n which the action,obeying i t s own r u l e s of order i n d i s o r d e r , i s f o r the moment divorced from the r e a l world of which i t i s nev-168. e r t h e l e s s a v i t a l p a r t . As we 'can see i n The Taming of the Shrew. Love's Labor's Lost, and A Midsummer NjghtfeDream, the period which i s set aside i n f o l k r i t u a l f o r " m i s r u l e " lends i t s e l f read-i l y to the support of a new or d i f f e r e n t frame of dramatic r e f e r -ence, and can e a s i l y be adapted to s u i t the needs of an a c t i o n which i s apart from or contrary to the normal, the u s u a l , or the c o n v e n t i o n a l l y acceptable. The use of t h i s device enables the drama-t i s t to construct an a c t i o n , or a "world", which i s f o r a b r i e f space unique and s e l f - s u p p o r t i n g , and i n t h i s "world" he may ex-amine and p o s s i b l y r e s o l v e c o n f l i c t s of persons, i d e a l s , and con-cepts before r e t u r n i n g the completed a c t i o n , p o s s i b l y by means of a f r e s h compromise, to the r e a l world s t i l l e x i s t i n g outside the dramatic frame of reference. Thus the a c t i o n of the p l a y has f o r a time i t s own p e c u l i a r brand of r e a l i t y , but t h i s a c t i o n i s a l s o shown e v e n t u a l l y i n the l i g h t of everyday r e a l i t y , and i t s r e s u l t s are seen i n yet a f u r t h e r p e r s p e c t i v e . This i s what Shakespeare sometimes does w i t h both the r e v e l , a form of h o l i d a y (or the ob-verse of everyday) and w i t h m i s r u l e , which i s a h i g h l y s p e c i a l i z e d form of r e v e l r y . The r i t u a l s borrowed from spring c e l e b r a t i o n s are o f t e n used, w i t h i n the l i m i t s of a r e v e l or the t r a d i t i o n a l m i s r u l e , to support or a l t e r the f a l t e r i n g romantic tendencies of the l a t e Middle Ages, which were beginning to s u f f e r from the i n -creased onslaughts of Renaissance r e a l i s m , the new "reason". Of-ten i n the plays there i s a c o n f l i c t between i d e a l i s m and s k e p t i c i s m , or between d e s i r e and s o c i a l n e c e s s i t y , conveniently presented w i t h i n the framework of a r e v e l . In The Taming of the Shrew, the comedy i s achieved by b r i n g i n g together the r i t u a l of c o u r t l y 169„ l o v e , the t r a d i t i o n a l wooing sequences of the f o l k , and the f u r y of the conventional shrew. Both t h i s p l a y and The Two Gentlemen  of Verona are examples of the Renaissance r e v a l u a t i o n of the i d e a -l i s t i c thought of the Middle Ages. As i s the case i n A Midsummer- Night's Dream. V a l e n t i n e s u f f e r s from the s o c i a l n e c e s s i t y t h a t d e s i r e must be subordinated t o duty. In Love's Labor's Lost. Shakespeare presents both the appeal and the i n c o n g r u i t i e s of the t r a d i t i o n a l E l i z a b e t h a n r i t u a l of c o u r t s h i p , and expresses s k i r -mishes of w i t couched i n f e u d a l and m i l i t a r y metaphors i n the b a t t l e between the a s c e t i c s and the exponents of the s p r i n g season. F i n -a l l y , A Midsummer Night's Dream presents the c o n f l i c t between the i r r a t i o n a l f o r c e of sublunary passion and the i r r a t i o n a l use of a u t h o r i t y , i n c o n t r a s t to the r a t i o n a l l y ordered c o u r t . In these e a r l y comedies, f o l k r i t u a l and entertainments of a l l kinds are used to dramatic advantage not only i n the language, but a l s o i n the development of character, i n c i d e n t , s e t t i n g , s t r u c -t u r e , and theme. As the dramatist matures and becomes more ex-perienced i n the manipulation of h i s m a t e r i a l s , h i s use of "props" borrowed from the folk-drama becomes l e s s a r t i f i c i a l and more co n s c i o u s l y dramatic and i n t e g r a l l y f u n c t i o n a l . At f i r s t these elements appear most f r e q u e n t l y at the l e v e l of r h e t o r i c a l orna-ment, as the source m a t e r i a l of s i m i l e s . L a t e r , they appear as metaphor or, where they are not a part of the formal imagery, as surrounding the a c t i o n i n an aura of connotation, overtone, and p a r a l l e l , adding immeasurably t o the subtle s o p h i s t i c a t i o n and s i g n i f i c a n c e of the theme. In h i s choice of metaphor and s i m i l e , 1 7 0 . as, l a t e r , i n s t r u c t u r e and theme, Shakespeare uses elements of f o l k t r a d i t i o n common to a l l l e v e l s of s o c i e t y , and, t h e r e f o r e , f a m i l i a r to the whole of h i s audience. In thus e n g r a f t i n g a r t upon that " s c i o n of baser stock" the dramatic element i n f o l k r i t -u a l , h i s "great c r e a t i n g nature" fashioned a new kind of drama f o r the new p r o f e s s i o n a l stage. In each of the f o u r e a r l y comedies under a n a l y s i s , the essent-i a l c o n f l i c t i s presented by drawing upon the r i t u a l s of the s p r i n g c e l e b r a t i o n s of the f o l k . In three of the f o u r , the use of the r i t u a l s and customs of Maying i s o b v i o u s l y thematic and i n t r i n s i c to the a c t i o n . The age-youth c o n f l i c t , found i n both the t r a d i t -i o n a l Mummers' pla y and the pageant b a t t l e between summer and win-t e r , s u p p l i e s a p a t t e r n f o r the a c t i o n and a l s o provides numerous a l l u s i o n s and images. The c o n f l i c t of the drama i s r e s o l v e d i n the woods, according to the r i t u a l of the " f l i g h t to the woods", and the characters who impede the progress of the a c t i o n are " k i l l -j o y s " , r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of age and s o c i e t y , who refuse to recognize the place of the s p r i n g season i n the l i f e of man. In each com-edy, the s i t u a t i o n i s e s s e n t i a l l y the same, though developed through the use of d i f f e r e n t techniques. Always a symbolic rep r e -s e n t a t i v e of age, w i n t e r , a s c e t i c i s m , or s o c i e t y i n some way pre-vents a young woman from marrying the man of her choice, or hinders the young from doing "observance" to the s p r i n g season^ This a c t i v a t i n g circumstance produces the c o n f l i c t , a r i s i n g from an unhealthy s i t u a t i o n i n the s o c i e t y , and the ensuing a c t i o n moves toward the r e s o l u t i o n of t h i s c o n f l i c t i n a new s o c i a l harmony, s i g n i f i e d e i t h e r by a wedding or by a masque 171 o In the f o u r t h play, The Taming of the Shrew, the use of the f o l k t r a d i t i o n i s not q u i t e so obvious; however, Petruchio soon acquires the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the wooers of the Mummers' p l a y s , and seems to p a r t i c i p a t e i n a period of m i s r u l e . L i k e Love's  Labor's L o s t , t h i s play begins by e x t o l l i n g study and abstinence, but no sooner are the i d e a l s set f o r t h than they are shattered, or tempered, by the h o l i d a y - m i s r u l e s p i r i t . The t r a d i t i o n s of wooing sequences become obv i o u s l y thematic, and emphasize the age-youth ant i p a t h y inherent i n the p l a y . L i k e the Maying themes of the other three p l a y s , the atmosphere of h o l i d a y and m i s r u l e which pervades The Taming of the Shrew, culminates i n marriage and i n harmony i n the community. Whatever the d e t a i l s of the p l o t may be, the r e s o l u t i o n i s always the same, the r e s t o r a t i o n of s o c i a l harmony. The u n i t y o f the community i s assured and the aberrant impulses are chastened or commended and returned s o l i d l y w i t h i n the framework of s o c i e t y i t s e l f . The l a t e r comedy, Much Ado About Nothing, i s an example of a s u b t l e and complex use of the tendencies t r a c e d i n the four plays already analyzed. Almost a tragi-comedy, the play i s not a conscious manipulation of the f o l k theme of m i s r u l e or of the f l i g h t to the woods; i t does, however, r e v e a l the more a r t i s t i c use of such elements i n combination w i t h a more s t y l i z e d molding of metaphors employing f o l k r i t u a l and entertainment, and contains the t r a d i t i o n a l mock-death and r e v i v a l of the Mummers' play, f o r e -172. shadowing the use of t h i s device i n the l a s t p l a y s . This p l a y i s e s p e c i a l l y i n t e r e s t i n g because, as Miss C a r o l i n e Spurgeon p o i n t s out, i t contains numerous f u n c t i o n a l references to f o l k pastimes. As Miss Spurgeon e x p l a i n s : This atmosphere of outdoor sport i s not imagination, but i s supported by s t a t i s t i c s . For the only time i n Shakespeare's p l a y s , the images from sport head the l i s t , and are t h e r e f o r e more numerous than those of e i t h e r nature or animals. They i n c l u d e many from b i r d - s n a r i n g , r i d i n g and f i s h i n g , as w e l l as others from archery, shooting, t i l t i n g , hunting, f e n c i n g , b i r d - n e s t i n g , and bear b a i t i n g . Others, such as w r e s t l i n g ( l i s t e d under B o d i l y A c t i o n ) , might l e g i t i m a t e l y be added. 3 The play contains an approximation of the f a m i l i a r p a t t e r n of the t r a d i t i o n a l age-youth, summer-winter contest, but i t i s one that i s i n f i n i t e l y more complicated by the s o c i a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l motives which underemphasize i t s r i t u a l s i g n i f i c a n c e and le a n toward the p h i l o s o p h i c a l t r a g e d i e s of the c e n t r a l p e r i o d . At the end of h i s career, Shakespeare i s to r e t u r n to the thematic and f u n c t i o n a l use of folk-drama and r i t u a l i n v o l v i n g the r e b i r t h of the year, to produce the b e a u t i f u l and o f t e n enigmatic plays of r e c o n c i l i a t i o n , Cymbeline. The Winter's Tale, and The Tempest. That the most eminent of E n g l i s h dramatists should make use of the customs and c u l t u r e of h i s people i n producing h i s master-pieces should not s u r p r i s e us. To dis c o v e r yet another l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e t o the great plays which have l i v e d f o r three hundred and f i f t y years, s t i l l as e x c i t i n g and vigorous as they were on t h e i r f i r s t days of performance, i s but f u r t h e r t r i b u t e to the 3 Spurgeon, Sh.'s Imagery, p. 264. 173. remarkable genius t h a t produced them. In c r e a t i n g h i s comedies, the dramatist drew from the c u l t u r a l h e r i t a g e of h i s people, and w i t h h i s immense a r t i s t r y molded i t to a conscious dramatic pur-pose. On the one hand, Shakespeare's plays are the most u n i -v e r s a l and t i m e l e s s of our language; on the other, they are per-haps even more r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of t h e i r p e r i o d than we suspect. I t i s no longer p o s s i b l e to say t h a t they represent a break-through from the dark-ages, or t h a t they are the "woodnotes w i l d " of a new genius. We now recognize that they are blossoms on the stems of a l o n g - e s t a b l i s h e d t r a d i t i o n of E n g l i s h popular drama which continued to n o u r i s h new buds w e l l i n t o the seven-teenth century. BIBLIOGRAPHY 174. I WORKS: Ha r r i s o n , G.B., Shakespeare, The Complete Works, New York, Har-court, Brace and Company, 1952. I I ANTHOLOGIES: B a s k e r v i l l , C.R.; H e l t z e l , V.B.; and Nethercot, A.H.; e d i t o r s , E l i z a b e t h a n and Stuart P l a y s , New York, Henry H o l t . a n d Company, 1950, Dean, Leonard F., ed., Shakespeare: Modern Essays i n C r i t i c i s m . New York, Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1957. Hebel, J.W.; Hudson, H.H.; Johnson, F.R.; Green, A.M.; Hoopes, R.; e d i t o r s , Tudor Poetry and Prose. New York, Appleton-Century-Crofts, Inc., 1953. Heilman, Robert B., An Anthology of E n g l i s h Drama Before Shakespeare. New York, Rinehart & Company, Inc., 1952. Muir Kenneth, E l i z a b e t h a n and Jacobean Prose 1550-1620, Penguin Books, 1955. ( A l l o t t , Kenneth, general e d i t o r , The  P e l i c a n Book of E n g l i s h Prose) Schorer, Mark; M i l e s , Josephine; McKenzie, Gordon; e d i t o r s , C r i t i c i s m : The Foundations of Modern L i t e r a r y Judgment. New York, Harcourt, Brace and Company, 1948. ~~ Wilson, John Dover, ed., L i f e i n Shakespeare's England, Harmonds-worth, Middlesex, Penguin Books, 1949. I I I PERIODICALS AND SERIALS: A l t i c k , Richard D., "Symphonic Imagery i n Richard I I " . P.M.L.A.. v o l . 62 (June, 1947), pp. 339 - 6 5 . Babcock, Weston, "Fo o l s , Fowls, and P e r t t a u n t - l i k e i n Love's Labor's Lost " . Shakespeare Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 2, pp. 211-19. Barber, C.L., " S a t u r n a l i a i n the Henriad", i n Dean, Leonard F., ed., Shakespeare: Modern Essays i n C r i t i c i s m , New York, Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1957, pp. 169-91. Barber, C.L., "The S a t u r n a l i a n P a t t e r n i n Shakespeare's Comedy", Sewanee Review, v o l . 59 (Autumn, 1951), pp. -593-611. Barber, C.L., "The Use of Comedy i n As You L i k e I t " . 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Braddy, Haldeen, "Shakespeare's Puck and F r o i s s a r t ' s Orthon", Shakespeare Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 7 (1956), pp. 276-80o Bronson, Bertrand H., " D a i s i e s Pied and I c i c l e s " , Modern Language  Notes, v o l . 63 (January, 1948), pp. 35-38^ Burke, Kenneth, "Antony i n Behalf of the P l a y " , i n Schorer, Mark; M i l e s , Josephine; McKenzie, Gordon; e d i t o r s , C r i t i c i s m : The Foundations of Modern L i t e r a r y Judgment. New York, Harcourt, Brace and Company, 1948, pp. 533-38. Chambers, E.K., "A Midsummer Night's Dream", i n Dean, Leonard F., ed., Shakespeare: Modern Essays i n C r i t i c i s m , New York, Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1957, pp. 90-96. Draper, John W., "Tempo i n Love's Labor's L o s t " , E n g l i s h S t u d i e s , v o l . 29 (1948), pp. 129-37. F i s h e r , A.S.T., "The Source of Shakespeare's I n t e r l u d e of Pyr-amus and Thisbe: A Neglected Poem", Notes and Queries, v o l . 194 (September, 1949), pp. 376-79. F i s h e r , Peter F., "The Argument of A Midsummer Night's Dream". Shakespeare Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 8 (1957), pp. 307-10. F r a s e r , R u s s e l l A., "The Dancing H o r s e of Love's Labor's Lost". Shakespeare Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 5 (1954), pp. 98-9. Frye, Northrop, "The Argument of Comedy", i n Dean, Leonard F., ed., Shakespeare: Modern Essays i n C r i t i c i s m . New York, Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1957, pp. 79-89. 176. G r e e n f i e l d , Stanley B., "Moth's L'Envoy and the C o u r t i e r s i n Love's Labor's Lost", The Review of E n g l i s h S t udies, v o l . -4-5 N.S, (October, 1953), pp. 167-68. Maxwell, Baldwin "Wily Beguiled". Studies i n P h i l o l o g y , v o l . 19 ( A p r i l , 1922), pp. 206-37. Maxwell, J.C., "Hero and Leander and Love's Labor's L o s t " , Notes  and Queries, v o l . 197 (August 2, 1952], pp. 334-35. Montgomerie, W i l l i a m , "Folk P l a y and R i t u a l i n Camlet", F o l k -Lore, volumes 67-68 (1956-57), pp. 214-27. Muir, Kenneth, "Pyramus and Thisbe: A Study i n Shakespeare's Method", Shakespeare Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 5 (1954), pp. 141-53. N i c o l l , A l l a r d y c e , ed., Shakespeare Survey: An Annual Survey of  Shakespearian Study and Production, Cambridge, At the U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1958. Nosworthy, J.M., "Music and i t s Function i n the Romances of Shake-speare", Shakespeare Survey, v o l . 10, Cambridge, At the U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1957, pp. 60-9. Olson, Paul A., "A Midsummer Night's Dream and the Meaning of Court Marriage", E.L.H.. v o l . 24 (March, 1957), pp. 95-119. Ordish, T.Fairraan, " E n g l i s h Folk-Drama", Folk-Lore, v o l . 4 (June, 1893), pp. 149-175. Ordish, T. Fairman, "Folk-Drama", Folk-Lore. v o l . 2 (September, 1891), pp. 314-35. Perry, Thomas A., "Proteus, Wry-Transformed T r a v e l l e r " , Shake-speare Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 5 (1954), pp. 33-40. P o i r i e r , M i c h e l , "Sidney's Influence Upon A Midsummer Night's Dream'*, Studies i n P h i l o l o g y , v o l . 44 (1947), pp. 483-3 9 T ~ Presson, R.K., "The Conclusion of Love's Labor's Lost". Notes and  Queries, v o l . 205 (January, I960), pp. 17-18. R i c k e r t , E d i t h , " P o l i t i c a l Propaganda and S a t i r e i n A Midsummer  Night's Dream", Modern P h i l o l o g y , v o l . 21 (August, 1923), pp. 53-87, and (November, 1923), pp. 132-54. Roison, BobbyAnn, "Love's Labor's L o s t " , Shakespeare Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 4 (1953), P P . 411-26": Sargent, Ralph M., " S i r Thomas E l y o t and the I n t e g r i t y of The Two Gentlemen of Verona". P.M.L.A., v o l . 65 (December, 1950), pp. 1166-80. 177o Schanzer, Ernest, "The C e n t r a l Theme of A Midsummer Night's  DreamV U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 2 0 ( A p r i l , 195D, pp. 233-38. Schanzer, Ernest, "The Moon and the F a i r i e s i n A Midsummer Night's Dream", U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 24 ( A p r i l . 1955), pp. 2 3 4 - 4 6 ' . Shapiro, I.A., "Cruxes i n Love's Labor's Lost". Notes and Queries, N.S. 2 v o l . 200 TJuIy, 1955), pp. 2&7-W. S i e g e l , P a u l N., "A Midsummer Night's Dream and the Wedding Guests", Shakespeare Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 4 (1953), pp. 139-144. Smith, Marion B., unpublished paper, "Twelfth Night i n Twelfth  Night". S t i r l i n g , Brents, "Or E l s e This Were A Savage Spectacle", P.M.L.A.. v o l . 66:2 (September, 1951), pp. 765-74. Thompson, K a r l F., "Shakespeare's Romantic Comedies", P.M.L.A., v o l . 67 (December, 1952), pp. 1079-93. Wentendorf, K., "The A u t h e n t i c i t y of The Taming of the Shrew". Shakesp eare Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 5 ( 1 9 5 4 ) , p p . 1 1 - 3 2 • Wincor, Richard, "Shakespeare's F e s t i v a l Plays"."Shakespeare  Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 1 (1950), pp. 219-40. IV GENERAL WORKS: Barber, C.L., Shakespeare's F e s t i v e Comedy, A Study of Dramatic  Form and i t s R e l a t i o n to S o c i a l Custom, P r i n c e t o n , New Jersey, P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1959. B a s k e r v i l l , C.R., The E l i z a b e t h a n J i g and Related Song Drama. Chicago, The U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago Press, 1929. Bradbrook, M.C., The Growth and S t r u c t u r e of E l i z a b e t h a n Comedy. London, Chatto & Windus, 1955. Bradbrook, M.C., Themes and Conventions of E l i z a b e t h a n Tragedy. Cambridge, At the U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1957. Brooke, Stopford A., On Ten Plays of Shakespeare. London, A r c h i b a l d Constable and Company, L t . , 1905. Brown, John R u s s e l l , Shakespeare and His Comedies. London, Methuen & Co. L t d . , 1957. 178. Byrne, M. S t . C l a r e , E l i z a b e t h a n L i f e i n Town and Country. London, Methuen & Co. L t d . , 1925. Chambers, E.K., The El i z a b e t h a n Stage. Oxford At the Clarendon Press, 1923» 4 v o l s . Chambers, E.K., The E n g l i s h F o l k - P l a y . Oxford, At the Clarendon Press, 1933. Chambers, E.K., The Mediaeval Stage. Oxford, At the Clarendon Pre s s , 1903, 2 v o l s . Chambers, E.K., Shakespeare: A Survey. New York, H i l l and Wang. Clemen, Wolfgang H., The Development of Shakespeare's Imagery, London, Methuen & Co. L t d . , 1959. Cornford, F r a n c i s Macdonald, The O r i g i n s of A t t i c Comedy. London, Edward Arnold, 1914. C r a i g , Hardin, Shakespeare: A H i s t o r i c a l and C r i t i c a l Study  w i t h Annotated Texts of Twenty-one P l a y s , Toronto, W.J. Gage & Company L t d . , 1931. C r a i k , T.W., The Tudor I n t e r l u d e , Stage. Costume, and A c t i n g , L e i c e s t e r , U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1958, Creizenach, Wilhelm, The E n g l i s h Drama i n the Age of Shakespeare, London, Sidgwick & Jackson, L i m i t e d . ( No Date ) C r u t t w e l l , P a t r i c k , The Shakespearian Moment, London, Chatto & Windus, 1954. Disher, M. W i l l s o n , Clowns and Pantomimes. London, Constable & Co. L t d . , 1925. Evans, A.J., Shakespeare's Magic C i r c l e . Connecticut, Assoc-i a t e d B o o k s e l l e r s , 1956© Fergusson, F r a n c i s , The Idea of a Theatre. P r i n c e t o n , New Jersey, P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1949. Dyer, T.F. T h i s e l t o n , B r i t i s h Popular Custom. Present and Past; I l l u s t r a t i n g the S o c i a l and Domestic Manners of the People, London, George B e l l and Sons, 1876. Fluchere, Henri, Shakespeare and the El i z a b e t h a n s , New York, H i l l and Wang, Inc., 1956. F u r n i v a l l , F r e d e r i c k J . , ed., P h i l l i p Stubbes's Anatomy of the Abuses i n England, London, N. Triibner & Co., 1879. 179o Ford, B o r i s , ed., The Age of Shakespeare, Penguin Books, 1955* F r a z e r , S i r James George, The Scapegoat. Part 6, The Golden  Bough, A Study i n Magic and R e l i g i o n . London, Macmillan and Co.., L t d . , 1933. Frye, Northrop, Anatomy of C r i t i c i s m , Four Essays, P r i n c e t o n , New Jersey, P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1957. G a r r e t t , John, T a l k i n g of Shakespeare, Toronto, Max Reinhardt, 1954. Gutch, John Mathew, A L y t e l l Geste of Robin Hode With Other Ancient & Modern B a l l a d s and Songs R e l a t i n g t o t h i s  Celebrated Yeoman. London. Longman. Brown. Green & Longmans, 1847. H a l l ' s C h r o n i c l e : Containing the H i s t o r y of England, during  the Reign of Henry the Fourth and the Succeeding  Monarchs, To the End of the Reign of Henry the Ei g h t h , i n Which are P a r t i c u l a r l y Described the Manners and  Customs of those P e r i o d s , ""ondon. P r i n t e d f o r J . Johnson, 1809. H a r r i s o n , G.B., E l i z a b e t h a n P l a y s and P l a y e r s . Ann Arbor, The U n i v e r s i t y of Michigan Press, 1956. H a r r i s o n , W i l l i a m , E l i z a b e t h a n England, New York, The Walter Scott P u b l i s h i n g Co., L t d . (No Date) Hooker, Richard, Of the Laws of E c c l e s i a s t i c a l P o l i t y , Book 1, London, J.M. Dent & Sons L t d . , 1925. Hotson, L e s l i e , Shakespeare's Motley, London, Rupert Hart-Davis, 1952. Huizinga, Jonan, Homo Ludens, A Study of the Play-Element i n C u l t u r e . Boston, The Beacon Press, 1955. Joseph, S i s t e r Miriam, Shakespeare's Use of the A r t s of Lan-guage, New York, Columbia U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1949. Knight, G. Wilson, The Shakespearian Tempest, London, Methuen . & Co. L t d . , 1953. Knights, L.C. Drama and S o c i e t y i n the Age of Jonson, London, Chatto & Windus, 1937. L a n i e r , Sidney, Shakspere and His Forerunners, London, Wm. Heineman, 1903, v o l . 2. 180 Long, John H., Shakespeare's Use of Music: A Study of the Music  and i t s Performance i n the O r i g i n a l Production of  Seven Comedies, G a i n e s v i l l e . U n i v e r s i t y of F l o r i d a P ress, 1955* Mahood, M.M., Shakespeare's Wordplay. London, Methuen & Co. L t d . , 1957* Pearson, Lu Emily, E l i z a b e t h a n s at Home. Stanford, C a l i f o r n i a , Stanford U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1957. t Quennell, M a r j o r i e and C.H.B., A H i s t o r y of Everyday Things i n England, London, B.T. B a t s f o r d , L t d . ( No Date ) Qui l l e r - C o u c h , S i r Arthur, Shakespeare's Workmanship, Cambridge, At the U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1951. Sewell, Arthur, Character and S o c i e t y i n Shakespeare, Oxford, At the Clarendon Press, 1951. Spencer, Theodore, Shakespeare and the Nature of Man. New York, The Macmillan Company, 1958. Spurgeon, C a r o l i n e F.E., Shakespeare's Imagery and What I t T e l l s Us. Beacon H i l l , Boston, Beacon Press, 1958. Stevenson, David L l o y d , The Love-Game Comedy. New York, C o l -umbia U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1946. S t i l l , C o l i n , Shakespeare's Mystery P l a y - A Study of The Tempest. London. C e c i l Palmer. Oakley House. Blooms-bury S t r e e t , 1921. Tiddy, R.J.E., The Mummers' P l a y . Oxford, At the Clarendon Press, 1923. T i l l y a r d , E.M.W., The E l i z a b e t h a n World P i c t u r e . London, Chatto & Windus, 1952. Venezky, A l i c e S., Pageantry on the Shakespearean Stage. New York, Twayne P u b l i s h e r s , 1951. W e l l s , John Edwin, A Manual of the W r i t i n g s i n Middle E n g l i s h  1050-1400. New Haven. Yale U n i v e r s i t y Press. 1916. Welsford, Enid, The Court Masque. A Study i n the R e l a t i o n s h i p  between Poetry and the Revels. Cambridge, At the U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1927a 181. Welsford, Enid,, The Fool, His Social and L i t e r a r y History, New *ork, Farrar & Rinehart, 1935. Weston, Jessie, From Rit u a l to Romance, New York, Doubleday Anchor Books, 1957. Withington, Robert, English Pageantry, A H i s t o r i c a l Outline, Cambridge, Harvard U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1918, v o l . 1. Wright, Louis B., Middle-Class Culture i n Elizabethan England. New York, Cornell University Press, 1958, 2 vols. 

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