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The New Guinea Mandate : Australia's "sacred trust." Olusanya, Gabriel Olankunle 1961

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THE MEW  GUINEA MANDATE:  AUSTRALIA'S "SACRED TRUST" by  GABRIEL OLAEUNLE OLUSANYA B.A. (Hon.), The U n i v e r s i t y o f London, I 9 6 0  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF Master o f A r t s i n the Department of History  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o t h e r e q u i r e d standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August,  1961  In p r e s e n t i n g the  this thesis i n p a r t i a l fulfilment of  requirements f o r an advanced degree a t t h e  British  Columbia, I agree t h a t the  a v a i l a b l e f o r reference  and  study.  University  of  L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y I f u r t h e r agrae t h a t  permission  f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may g r a n t e d by  the  Head o f my  I t i s understood t h a t f i n a n c i a l gain  Department  Department o r by h i s  be  representatives.  c o p y i n g or p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r  s h a l l not  be  a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my  of  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Vancouver 8, Canada.  Columbia,  written  permission.  ABSTRACT  A f t e r the F i r s t World War  Germany was  of h e r c o l o n i e s by the A l l i e d Powers.  deprived  These c o l o n i e s were  t h e n p o r t i o n e d out amongst some o f the a l l i e d n a t i o n s under the League of N a t i o n s Mandate System w i t h the p r o v i s o t h a t t h e y s h o u l d be h e l d as  'a s a c r e d t r u s t o f c i v i l i s a t i o n '  t h a t the mandatory powers s h o u l d p r o v i d e f o r the m a t e r i a l w e l l - b e i n g and inhabitants'.  'moral  and and  s o c i a l p r o g r e s s o f the n a t i v e  To h e l p the League i n s e e i n g t h a t t h i s  task  was  p r o p e r l y d i s c h a r g e d the Permanent Mandates Commission  was  s e t up.  Reports  I t s duty was  t o r e c e i v e and examine the Annual  which were submitted by the mandatories and t o make  the n e c e s s a r y recommendations t o the League C o u n c i l . t h i s arrangement N o r t h e r n New Australia. Australia  handed over t o  T h i s t h e s i s examines the e x t e n t t o which f u l f i l l e d her  •sacred t r u s t ' .  Australian interest second h a l f economic and  i n New  Guinea dates from the  o f the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , and was strategic  the I s l a n d of New had  Guinea was  Under  concerns.  motivated  by  S i n c e the d i s c o v e r y o f  Guinea i n the f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y ,  there  always been the hope of d i s c o v e r i n g g o l d i n t h i s  area.  A p a r t from t h i s , i n the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y the r i v a l r i e s  amongst the v a r i o u s c o l o n i a l powers d i r e c t l y a f f e c t e d A u s t r a l i a n c o l o n i e s , which f e a r e d t h a t war  between the  European powers would i n v o l v e them as dependencies Britain.  The  the  of Great  danger t o A u s t r a l i a n s e c u r i t y i n case of  would "be s e r i o u s i f Germany o r any o t h e r Great Power a l l o w e d t o occupy New  Guinea,  war  was  which l i e s l i k e a s t e p p i n g  stone o f f A u s t r a l i a ' s n o r t h - e a s t c o a s t . F o r these two r e a s o n s , A u s t r a l i a n s were t h a t the p a r t o f New New  Guinea not under Dutch c o n t r o l ( E a s t e r n  Guinea) s h o u l d be annexed by Great B r i t a i n .  however, had no  anxious  The  British,  g r e a t d e s i r e t o f u r t h e r extend t h e i r i n f l u e n c e  i n the P a c i f i c without demonstrable cause and as l o n g as t h e r e was  no i n d i c a t i o n t h a t any o t h e r Great Power was  on annexing it  alone.  the T e r r i t o r y , B r i t a i n was I n 1877,  keen  satisfied i n leaving  w i t h the d i s c o v e r y of g o l d i n the  the clamour f o r annexation became more i n s i s t e n t .  area,  Although  the g o l d f i e l d s soon p e t e r e d out A u s t r a l i a n demands f o r a n n e x a t i o n d i d not d i e down.  Germany's a c t i v i t i e s and  inter-  e s t s i n the P a c i f i c were a c o n s t a n t s t i m u l u s t o such demands, but the C o l o n i a l O f f i c e , u n w i l l i n g t o s h o u l d e r the burden o f a n n e x a t i o n and b e l i e v i n g t h a t no  o t h e r Power was  i n the a r e a , t u r n e d a deaf e a r t o a l l p l e a s .  interested  Eventually  Queensland, annoyed w i t h the C o l o n i a l O f f i c e and f e a r f u l o f the consequences t h a t might a t t e n d Germany's a n n e x a t i o n the T e r r i t o r y , p r o c l a i m e d i t a B r i t i s h p r o t e c t o r a t e i n Great B r i t a i n r e f u s e d t o endorse  iii  this action.  of 1883.  Nevertheless,  as a r e s u l t of j o i n t p r e s s u r e s from a l l the colonies  and  w i t h the  s h o u l d e r the  Australian  guarantee t h a t t h e y were p r e p a r e d t o  f i n a n c i a l burden t h a t might be  consequent upon  annexation, Whitehall  annexed S o u t h - e a s t e r n New  1884-  i n f o r m i n g Germany o f h e r  after previously  agreement as t o the T e r r i t o r y was B r i t a i n and  future  to n e g o t i a t i o n  the  between  w i t h o u t p r e v i o u s warning, Germany Guinea i n  October, 1884.  This  g r e a t l y r e s e n t e d i n B r i t a i n because o f the  hand method adopted. disappointed  and  The  protested  u n a v a i l i n g l y t o the  A u s t r a l i a n i n t e r e s t i n the  than ever b e f o r e . role i n bringing  a r e a now  mother increased, was  greater  This s t r a t e g i c fear played a s i g n i f i c a n t about the u n i o n of the  Commonwealth o f A u s t r a l i a i n With the  Australians,  off-  A u s t r a l i a n c o l o n i e s were b i t t e r l y  because the danger to A u s t r a l i a i n case of war  the  An  Germany.  annexed N o r t h - e a s t e r n New  country.  action.  o f the n o r t h - e a s t e r n p a r t o f  t o be made s u b j e c t  Suddenly, and  a c t i o n was  Guinea i n  outbreak of the  a c t i n g under the  Government, a t t a c k e d and  six colonies  1901. F i r s t World War,  i n s t r u c t i o n s o f the  conquered German New  i t s conquest a c o n s i d e r a b l e  campaign was  British  o f the  The  annexation  A u s t r a l i a n Prime M i n i s t e r , W.  t o see  t h i s end iv  After  waged i n A u s t r a l i a ,  members of P a r l i a m e n t , f o r the  fought d e s p e r a t e l y  the  Guinea.  l e d by r e s p o n s i b l e Territory.  into  a c h i e v e d at the  M.  Paris  Hughes,  Peace Conference.  But he met i n President Wilson a deter-  mined opponent who was convinced that the former enemy c o l o n i a l possessions  should not be annexed but placed under  international control.  Hughes had to give way but not u n t i l  he was assured that the C c l a s s mandate under which the T e r r i t o r y was placed was "equivalent to a 999 years lease". The debates on the Peace Treaty i n the A u s t r a l i a n Parliament c l e a r l y showed that the Australians merely accepted the mandate as a compromise and as a cloak to outright annexation. A f t e r the War, m i l i t a r y administration was ended and c i v i l c o n t r o l was established i n New Guinea.  Australia  faced many d i f f i c u l t i e s i n administering the T e r r i t o r y . These d i f f i c u l t i e s arose from the rugged nature of the country, the backwardness and d i v e r s i t y of i t s inhabitants, A u s t r a l i a ' s lack of experience i n governing subject races, and her preoccupation  with her own development. Various methods were adopted f o r the p a c i f i c a t i o n  of the T e r r i t o r y but perhaps the c h i e f c h a r a c t e r i s t i c was the lack of enthusiasm displayed by the Administration i n the task of bringing the T e r r i t o r y under c o n t r o l .  The f i r s t  task  was to extend administrative c o n t r o l over the whole T e r r i t o r y but t h i s was slowed down by the inadequacy of the s t a f f devoted to the task.  Another problem was that of native  administration, i n which the New Guinea natives played or no part at a l l .  little  This was not the f a u l t of the A u s t r a l i a n  Government but was due rather to the chaotic nature of  v  New Guinea s o c i e t y and p a r t i c u l a r l y t o the absence o f any well-organized  p o l i t i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s and h e r e d i t a r y  leaders  or c h i e f s t h a t c o u l d be u t i l i z e d . Economic development and l a b o u r  questions  o f g r e a t importance under the A u s t r a l i a n Mandate.  were a l s o Economic  a c t i v i t i e s i n New Guinea c e n t r e d m a i n l y on the p r o d u c t i o n o f copra  and g o l d by white s e t t l e r s , w i t h the n a t i v e s  v i d i n g the l a b o u r f o r c e .  pro-  This master-servant r e l a t i o n s h i p  obviously c a l l e d f o r l e g i s l a t i v e regulation.  The A u s t r a l i a n  A d m i n i s t r a t i o n r e a l i z e d t h i s and p a s s e d a comprehensive Labour Ordinance which, though i t c o n t a i n e d p r o v i s i o n s , was on the whole commendable.  some  objectionable  Despite  this,  l a b o u r c o n d i t i o n s i n the T e r r i t o r y l e f t much t o be d e s i r e d because o f the i n a b i l i t y o f t h e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n t o p r o p e r l y enforce  the Labour O r d i n a n c e .  p r o d u c t s o f the i n d e n t u r e d the T e r r i t o r y .  Some o f the e v i l s were the  labour  system which p r e v a i l e d i n  The A u s t r a l i a n Government m a i n t a i n e d t h a t  t h i s was the most s e n s i b l e system t h a t c o u l d be adopted, t a k i n g i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n the l e v e l o f advancement o f the people.  While t h i s i s t r u e , the A u s t r a l i a n Government  failed  t o encourage f r e e l a b o u r w i t h a view t o e v e n t u a l l y subs t i t u t i n g i t f o r indentured  labour.  Another important t a s k f a c i n g the A u s t r a l i a n A d m i n i s t r a t i o n was t h a t o f p r o v i d i n g e d u c a t i o n care f o r the n a t i v e s .  Missionary  and m e d i c a l  a c t i v i t i e s i n these  fields  were q u i t e c o n s i d e r a b l e , b u t through shortage o f s t a f f , vi  lack  o f f u n d s , and  the o p p o s i t i o n o f the white s e t t l e r s t o  any  scheme f o r n a t i v e b e t t e r m e n t , the A d m i n i s t r a t i o n f a i l e d p r o v i d e adequate e d u c a t i o n a l native  to  and h e a l t h s e r v i c e s f o r the  inhabitants. A f t e r t a k i n g i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n the  difficulties  encountered by A u s t r a l i a i n the t a s k o f a d m i n i s t e r i n g T e r r i t o r y and  analysing her  c o n c l u s i o n seems i n e s c a p a b l e  s u c c e s s e s and  failures,  t h a t A u s t r a l i a d i d not  the  the adequately  d i s c h a r g e the duty e n t r u s t e d t o h e r under the League of N a t i o n s Mandate.  vii  TABLE OE CONTENTS Chapter I  Page A u s t r a l i a ' s I n t e r e s t i n New G u i n e a P r i o r t o 1884  II  1  The G e n e s i s o f A u s t r a l i a n A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f German New G u i n e a , 1914 - 1921  III  22  The " S a c r e d T r u s t " B e g i n s  40  (a) The E s t a b l i s h m e n t o f C i v i l Administration (b) The D i f f i c u l t i e s o f A d m i n i s t e r i n g New G u i n e a IV  Government and A d m i n i s t r a t i o n (a) The E x t e n s i o n (b) N a t i v e  V  VI  51  o f Government C o n t r o l  Administration  Economic Development and L a b o u r Q u e s t i o n (a) E u r o p e a n A g r i c u l t u r a l (b) N a t i v e A g r i c u l t u r e ( c ) Land P o l i c y (d) M i n i n g (e) L a b o u r P r o b l e m s S o c i a l and M o r a l P r o g r e s s  . .  80  Activities  121  I. Education (a) The R o l e o f t h e M i s s i o n s (b) The R o l e o f t h e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n II. Public VII  Health  Was t h e " S a c r e d T r u s t " F u l f i l l e d ?  Bibliography  157 168  viii  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT  I Dr.  Peter  and  advice  this Staff  am g r e a t l y  Harnetty,  unlimited  whose  enthusiasm,  s u s t a i n e d me t h r o u g h o u t  thesis. of  i n d e b t e d t o my S u p e r v i s o r ,  the  I  am a l s o  grateful  Asian Studies  facilities  i n the  to  encouragement  the  writing  the  of  Head and  L i b r a r y who a f f o r d e d me use  ix  of  their  collection.  CHAPTER I AUSTRALIAN INTEREST IN NEW  GUINEA PRIOR TO  1884  European c o n t a c t w i t h the I s l a n d o f New dates as f a r back as the 16th c e n t u r y though no o f the T e r r i t o r y was  Two Portuguese n a v i g a t o r s  d'Abreu and Serrano  I s l a n d i n 1512.  occupation  c a r r i e d out by any European Power  u n t i l the 19th c e n t u r y . Antonio  Guinea  —  were s a i d t o have s i g h t e d the  However c r e d i t f o r i t s a c t u a l d i s c o v e r y i s  o f t e n g i v e n t o Jorge de Menezes, the Portuguese Governor o f Moluccas who,  w h i l e s a i l i n g from the Malay P e n i n s u l a t o the  s p i c e i s l a n d s , d i s c o v e r e d i t i n 1526 " U n a s dos P a p u a s " .  x  and gave i t the name  However n e i t h e r the Portuguese n o r  any o t h e r European n a t i o n took any s t e p t o occupy the Island.  I n d i a and the E a s t I n d i e s o f f e r e d a more p r o f i t a b l e  f i e l d f o r t r a d e w h i l e on the o t h e r hand, the i s o l a t i o n o f New  Guinea and i t s t r o p i c a l c l i m a t e and d i f f i c u l t  terrain  c o n s t i t u t e d a d e t e r r e n t t o European o c c u p a t i o n o r t r a d e the I s l a n d .  with  The f i r s t European c o u n t r y t o occupy any p a r t  1 O f f i c i a l Handbook o f the T e r r i t o r y o f New Guinea, C a n b e r r a , Commonwealth P r i n t e r , 194-3, p . 15* See a l s o S. W. Reed, The Making o f Modern New Guinea, P h i l a d e l p h i a , American P h i l o s o p h i c a l S o c i e t y , 194-3, p . 74-. The word 'Papua' i s d e r i v e d from a Malayan term meaning ' f r i z z y - h a i r e d ' .  2 o f the  I s l a n d was  Holland.  In 1828  o f the western p o r t i o n o f i t . The alone f o r a l o n g time as no any  great  despite till  interest i n i t .  second h a l f of the  o t h e r European n a t i o n  I s l a n d showed no 19th  possession  e a s t e r n p o r t i o n was  Even the A u s t r a l i a n  the nearness of the  the  the Dutch took  century.  left  manifested  Colonies,  interest i n i t  T h i s i s because  most of these c o l o n i e s were s t i l l p r e o c c u p i e d w i t h t h e i r developments and had ventures.  little  o r no energy l e f t f o r  However, the e a s t e r n p o r t i o n was  not  own  outside  altogether  l e f t untouched by European a c t i v i t i e s f o r e a r l i e r i n the century, active  p e a r l - f i s h e r s and m i s s i o n a r i e s had  become v e r y  there. By the l a t t e r h a l f o f the 19th  i n t e r e s t i n the from the  I s l a n d was  century,  beginning to r e v e a l i t s e l f  1860s onwards t h e r e was  an e v e r - i n c r e a s i n g  i n s i s t e n t demand (from t r a d e r s , p l a n t e r s and t h a t the p o r t i o n of the s h o u l d be  I s l a n d not  annexed by the  Australian  Imperial  occupied  and  and  missionaries) by the  Government.  Dutch  Several  arguments were advanced t o j u s t i f y the c l a i m f o r a n n e x a t i o n . The  main argument was  field  Guinea Company.  Island.  A. K.  I t was  not  t a k e n by the f o r m a t i o n  i n Sydney whose aim was the  I s l a n d o f f e r e d an  f o r p r o f i t a b l e investment.  a p o s i t i v e step was a New  t h a t the  T h i s was  till  unlimited 1867  that  i n that year of  a p r i v a t e A s s o c i a t i o n formed  the e x p l o r a t i o n and  c o l o n i z a t i o n of  C o l l i n s , an e n t h u s i a s t i c s u p p o r t e r  the p r o j e c t , spoke i n an e x t r a v a g a n t v e i n on the  of  possibilities  3 New G u i n e a h e l d i n s t o r e i n a l e c t u r e w h i c h he d e l i v e r e d i n Sydney on A p r i l 13,  1867-  He d e s c r i b e d t h e t e r r i t o r y  as "an immense f i e l d f o r i n d u s t r y and e n t e r p r i s e " and he h o p e f u l l y l o n g e d f o r t h a t day when t h a t t e r r i t o r y  "shall  become one v a s t p o p u l a t i o n u n e q u a l l e d by any o t h e r  country  i n t h e w o r l d , s u b j e c t e d t o t h e s k i l l and knowledge o f E u r o p e a n s , and c u l t i v a t e d by i t s p r e s e n t i n h a b i t a n t s  —  w i l l i n g l a b o u r e r s i n t h e cause o f p e a c e f u l p r o s p e r i t y . " concluded  w i t h a grand p e r o r a t i o n :  He  "On b e h a l f o f f u t u r e  g e n e r a t i o n s , on b e h a l f o f s c i e n c e , on b e h a l f o f commerce and p r o s p e r i t y and on b e h a l f o f j u s t i c e , and f i n a l l y on b e h a l f o f c i v i l i z a t i o n and C h r i s t i a n i t y , I a d v o c a t e t h e p  measure I p r o p o s e . " I n 1871  J o h n Dunmore L a n g , who was one o f t h e  p r o v i s i o n a l d i r e c t o r s o f t h e now d e f u n c t New G u i n e a Company, i n a p a p e r r e a d t o t h e R o y a l S o c i e t y o f New S o u t h Wales w h i c h he e n t i t l e d "New G u i n e a — f o r Settlement  a h i g h l y promising  and C o l o n i z a t i o n " ,  o f New G u i n e a on s t r a t e g i c grounds.  field  argued f o r the annexation He made m e n t i o n o f t h e  i n t e r e s t shown i n t h e a r e a b y o t h e r f o r e i g n powers.  To  s u p p o r t h i s s t a t e m e n t he c i t e d t h e r e c e n t R u s s i a n e x p e d i t i o n  2 Quoted i n J . D. Legge, " A u s t r a l i a and New G u i n e a " i n H i s t o r i c a l S t u d i e s : A u s t r a l i a and New Z e a l a n d , v o l . I V  C194-9-5D, P . 35.  3 I b i d . See a l s o J . D. Legge, A u s t r a l i a n C o l o n i a n Sydney, Angus and R o b e r t s o n , 1956, P P « 1 3 - 1 4 - .  Policy,  4 l e d by Miklouho-Macklay.  4  This s t r a t e g i c argument  was  "based on the fears of being beaten to a valuable commercial p r i z e , rather than to any general view of the P a c i f i c strategy."^ In 1873 i n New  Captain Moresby undertook an exploration  Guinea and the glowing account of the s t r a t e g i c  p o s s i b i l i t y of the i s l a n d which he gave once again stimulated i n t e r e s t i n the i s l a n d and various bodies began to advocate c o l o n i z a t i o n and annexation. Colonizing A s s o c i a t i o n was E. H. Armpit, R.N.,  In 1876  the New  Guinea  formed i n London by Lieutenant  with the aim of organizing an expedition  to the i s l a n d with a view to i t s eventual annexation. a s s o c i a t i o n sought o f f i c i a l support from the Government but was  informed  This  Imperial  that no o f f i c i a l s a n c t i o n could  be given to a body "brought together by the love of adventure or the desire f o r p r o f i t " . lapsed.  Like the 1867 p r o j e c t i t c o l -  The C o l o n i a l O f f i c e and the missionaries were  opposed to t h i s sort of enterprise —  the C o l o n i a l O f f i c e  4 In 1871 Miklouho-Macklay got to Astrolabe Bay on the north-east coast of New Guinea. His purpose was to study the nature, custom and languages, but he so g r e a t l y l i k e d the country that he returned i n 1876. In 1877 be went back to Russia to obtain support f o r a settlement i n New Guinea and to urge on the Russians f o r the d e s i r a b i l i t y of annexation. However h i s plan d i d not m a t e r i a l i z e . For f u l l treatment see: The O f f i c i a l Handbook of the T e r r i t o r y of New Guinea, p. 3 6 . 5 Legge, " A u s t r a l i a and New Guinea" i n H i s t o r i c a l Studies: A u s t r a l i a and New Zealand, v o l . IV ( 1 9 4 9 - 1 9 5 1 ) , p. 3 6 . 6 Legge, A u s t r a l i a n C o l o n i a l P o l i c y , pp. 14-15.  5 out of u n w i l l i n g n e s s t o u n d e r t a k e f u r t h e r f i n a n c i a l  oblig-  a t i o n t h a t m i g h t be consequent upon a n n e x a t i o n and the m i s s i o n a r i e s out o f f e a r o f what m i g h t happen t o the n a t i v e s . I n 1874  F. B. L a b i l l i e r e  London and  (an A u s t r a l i a n l a w y e r r e s i d e n t i n  a strong supporter  o f the I m p e r i a l  Federation  I d e a ) u r g e d on the C o l o n i a l S e c r e t a r y , L o r d C a r n a v o n , the d e s i r a b i l i t y f o r annexation.  I n h i s l e t t e r , L a b i l l i e r e made  m e n t i o n o f the i n c r e a s i n g volume o f t r a d e t h a t now t h r o u g h the T o r r e s l i t i e s of New  passed  s t r a i t , d w e l t on t h e c o m m e r c i a l p o s s i b i -  G u i n e a and p o i n t e d out the i n t e r e s t of  E u r o p e a n Powers i n t h i s  area.  other  F i n a l l y , he emphasized v e r y  s t r o n g l y the need f o r immediate a c t i o n , p o i n t i n g out  that  a n o t h e r power might s e i z e the t e r r i t o r y t o the d e t r i m e n t the s e c u r i t y o f the A u s t r a l i a n C o l o n i e s and  of  consequently of 7  B r i t a i n i f the I m p e r i a l Government f a i l e d t o a c t i n t i m e . ' C a r n a v o n , on r e c e i v i n g t h i s l e t t e r , c o n s u l t e d the  Governors  o f the A u s t r a l a s i a n C o l o n i e s r e q u e s t i n g t h e i r v i e w s on matter. The  Various  Governor o f New  the q u e s t i o n of New He  and c o n f l i c t i n g  r e p l i e s were r e c e i v e d .  Zealand, S i r J . Ferguson maintained G u i n e a was  this  that  p u r e l y an A u s t r a l i a n a f f a i r .  added, however, t h a t o p i n i o n i n New  Z e a l a n d was  favourable  7 L a b i l l i e r e t o Carnavon, March 26, 1874. Great B r i t a i n , C o l o n i a l O f f i c e , Correspondence r e s p e c t i n g New G u i n e a , P a r l i a m e n t a r y P a p e r s , 1876 ( C . 1 5 6 6 ) , pp. 2-3. 8 C o l o n i a l O f f i c e t o Governors of A u s t r a l a s i a n ( C i r c u l a r ) , A p r i l 17, 1874, i b i d . , p. 4.  Colonies  6 t o the e x t e n s i o n o f B r i t i s h r u l e i n the P a c i f i c . ^  Governor  Weld o f Western A u s t r a l i a and SirW.Cairns o f Queensland supp o r t e d the p o l i c y o f A n n e x a t i o n . " ^  S i r George Bowen o f  V i c t o r i a , on the o t h e r hand s t r o n g l y opposed the i d e a , q u o t i n g L o r d Derby's statement t h a t "the Queen had a l r e a d y  11 enough b l a c k s u b j e c t s "  and a s s e r t i n g t h a t  'few t h i n k i n g men'  i n A u s t r a l i a would d e c l a r e f o r such a p o l i c y .  S i r Hercules  Robinson, the Governor o f New South Wales, o b j e c t e d t o annexation.  He e x p r e s s e d doubts as t o whether any o t h e r  powers were c o n t e m p l a t i n g a n n e x a t i o n o f E a s t New Guinea.  But  he went on t o s a y t h a t the a n n e x a t i o n o f New Guinea would be e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y welcomed by the A u s t r a l i a n c o l o n i e s .  To  support t h i s , he i n c l u d e d i n h i s r e p l y a Minute by the P r e m i e r o f New South Wales, Henry P a r k e s , i n which i t was m a i n t a i n e d t h a t New Guinea o f f e r e d "so f a i r and c e r t a i n a f i e l d f o r  12 successful colonization".  I n J u l y o f the same y e a r a n o t h e r  c i r c u l a r was sent t o the Governors a s k i n g whether the C o l o n i e s would be w i l l i n g t o c o n t r i b u t e t o the c o s t o f annexing and g o v e r n i n g New Guinea.  I t was p o i n t e d out i n  the c i r c u l a r t h a t those same A u s t r a l i a n C o l o n i e s had f o r c e d 9 Ferguson t o Carnavon, J u l y 2, 1874. Great B r i t a i n , C o l o n i a l O f f i c e , Correspondence r e s p e c t i n g New Guinea, P a r l i a m e n t a r y P a p e r s , 1876 (C.1566), p . 7. 10 Weld t o Carnavon, J u l y 14, 1874, i b i d . , p . 6. 11 Bowen t o Carnavon, September  1, 1874, i b i d . , p . 10.  12 R o b i n s o n t o Carnavon, June 3 , 1875, i b i d . , p . 26.  7 on the I m p e r i a l Government the a n n e x a t i o n Fiji  o f the i s l a n d o f  and had t h e n r e f u s e d t o c o n t r i b u t e the p a l t r y sum o f  £4,000 p e r annum t o the c o s t o f i t s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . p o s i t i v e r e p l i e s were r e c e i v e d .  Ho  A l l the c o l o n i e s showed an  u n w i l l i n g n e s s t o accept f i n a n c i a l , o b l i g a t i o n though d e s i r i n g annexation*  New South Wales m a i n t a i n e d  t h a t though the  C o l o n i e s were f a v o u r a b l y d i s p o s e d towards annexation, y e t the whole q u e s t i o n was s t i l l  an I m p e r i a l one and s i n c e the  c o l o n i e s would n o t have a hand i n the government o f t h a t t e r r i t o r y when annexed, t h e y c o u l d n o t be expected  t o bear any  13 of the c o s t .  v  As the A u s t r a l i a n c o l o n i e s were n o t p r e p a r e d  t o bear the f i n a n c i a l burden o f annexation  and the I m p e r i a l  Government was n o t keen on i n c u r r i n g f i n a n c i a l  responsibility  i n an a r e a where no I m p e r i a l i n t e r e s t s were i n v o l v e d , the whole q u e s t i o n o f annexation  had t o be s h e l v e d f o r some t i m e .  I n 1875 Carnavon sent a l e t t e r t o the A u s t r a l i a n C o l o n i e s conveying  t o them the d e c i s i o n o f the I m p e r i a l Government.  He p o i n t e d out t h a t t h e r e was no n e c e s s i t y f o r annexation  as  t h e r e was no l i k e l i h o o d o f any o t h e r power annexing the t e r ritory.  He m a i n t a i n e d  were n o t i n v o l v e d .  once a g a i n t h a t I m p e r i a l  He admitted  i n the t e r r i t o r y b u t concluded  interests  the i n t e r e s t s o f A u s t r a l i a t h a t s i n c e they were n o t  w i l l i n g t o b e a r the f i n a n c i a l burden, the .Imperial Government I J E o b i n s o n t o Carnavon, June 3, 1875. Great B r i t a i n , C o l o n i a l O f f i c e , Correspondence r e s p e c t i n g New Guinea, P a r l i a m e n t a r y P a p e r s , 1876 (C.1566), p . 5 2 .  8 felt  unable  t o accede t o them t h e i r  I n 1877 Moresby.  g o l d was d i s c o v e r e d  14  i n the  i s l a n d at  T h i s l e d to an i n r u s h of p r o s p e c t i v e  The q u e s t i o n o f public  request.  eye.  a n n e x a t i o n was o n c e  gold-seekers.  again brought  The i n d o m i t a b l e L a b i l l i e r e o n c e  Port  into  again  the  petitioned  15 the  Colonial Office.  attitude ation.  of  '  T h i s new d e v e l o p m e n t  t h e m i s s i o n a r i e s who h a d h i t h e r t o  The L o n d o n M i s s i o n a r y S o c i e t y  Colonial Office  the need f o r  by the  Colonial Office  scheme  ment t h a t Colonies f o r the of  to bear  Colonial Office  annexation,  this  of  little  the  adventurers." ^  withdrawal,  the whole  the  However,  1  the  S i r Michael Hicks-Beach,  merely repeating  Carnavon s  and u n f o r t u n a t e l y  if 17  the  Australian  Fortunately  f o r the  o r n o g o l d was f o u n d o n t h e gold-seekers.  q u e s t i o n d i e d down o n c e  state-  1  f i n a n c i a l burden.  l e d to the withdrawal of the  annex-  i n New G u i n e a h a v e  a n n e x a t i o n w o u l d o n l y be c o n s i d e r e d agreed  opposed  now u r g e d o n t h e  remained u n y i e l d i n g —  t h e new C o l o n i a l S e c r e t a r y  the  annexation p o i n t i n g out  g r e a t . . " p e r i l s to which the n a t i v e s been exposed  changed  advocates i s l a n d and With  their  more.  14 C a r n a v o n t o G o v e r n o r s o f A u s t r a l a s i a n C o l o n i e s , J a n u a r y 13, 1876. Great B r i t a i n , C o l o n i a l O f f i c e , F u r t h e r C o r r e s p o n d e n c e r e s p e c t i n g New G u i n e a , P a r l i a m e n t a r y P a p e r s , 1883 (C.3617), p . 68. 15 L a b i l l i e r e t o C o l o n i a l O f f i c e , i b i d . , p . 42. 16 J o s e p h M u l l i e n  p p . 29-30.  17 C o l o n i a l O f f i c e  September  to C o l o n i a l O f f i c e , to Gordon, October  18,  1878,  J u n e 3, 1878, 5, 1878,  ibid.,  ibid., p.  52.  9 I n 1882 widespread rumours and f e a r s as t o the impending o c c u p a t i o n o f New  Guinea by the Germans a g i t a t e d  the minds o f the A u s t r a l i a n s and once more the q u e s t i o n o f a n n e x a t i o n was  renewed w i t h the C o l o n i a l O f f i c e .  The  fears  e x p r e s s e d by the A u s t r a l i a n s were n o t w i t h o u t f o u n d a t i o n . I n 1880  a company, Die Deutsche S c e h a n d e l s g e s e l l s c h a f f ,  was  formed by a group o f B e r l i n bankers and merchants w i t h the s o l e purpose o f c o l o n i z i n g New  Guinea.  The D i r e c t o r , Adolph  von Hausemann wrote t o Bismarck, the German C h a n c e l l o r , s o l i c i t i n g the support o f the Government. given.  No s u p p o r t was  Bismarck was n o t y e t c o n v i n c e d o f the n e c e s s i t y f o r  colonial enterprise.  He f e l t t h a t the p r a c t i c a l need o f  Germany a t t h a t time was n o t c o l o n i a l adventures but consolidation.  internal  The c o l o n i a l i n t e r e s t s i n Germany remained  undaunted d e s p i t e the a t t i t u d e o f t h e i r Government and t h e y waged an i n s i s t e n t campaign  t o put p r e s s u r e on the government  so t h a t i t would accede t o t h e i r r e q u e s t . Algemeine  I n 1881  the  Z e i t u n g c a r r i e d an a r t i c l e which recommended  a n n e x a t i o n o f New  Guinea t o the German Government.  r e s u l t o f a l l these developments  the undaunted  As a  Labilliere, 18  once more wrote t o the C o l o n i a l O f f i c e demanding a n n e x a t i o n but was  i n f o r m e d t h a t the a n n e x a t i o n o f New  Guinea was  a  q u e s t i o n which Her M a j e s t y ' s Government was n o t p r e p a r e d a t 18 L a b i l l i e r e t o C o l o n i a l O f f i c e , December 11, 1882. Great B r i t a i n , C o l o n i a l O f f i c e , F u r t h e r Correspondence r e s p e c t i n g New Guinea, P a r l i a m e n t a r y P a p e r s , 1883 (C.3617), p . 118.  10 present to reopen.  19 J  L o r d L o f t u s , the Governor o f  New  South Wales, urged the I m p e r i a l Government t o d e c l a r e a p r o t e c t o r a t e over s o u t h - e a s t e r n New  Guinea m a i n t a i n i n g t h a t 20  Germany's keen i n t e r e s t i n the a r e a Thomas M c l l w r a i t h , the P r e m i e r  warranted, i t .  Sir  of Queensland, urged  I m p e r i a l Government the d e s i r a b i l i t y of immediate adding t h a t Queensland would be p r e p a r e d  on  annexation,  to shoulder 21  f i n a n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t h a t might be i n v o l v e d .  the  any Lord  Derby, the C o l o n i a l S e c r e t a r y , t u r n e d a deaf e a r t o a l l these r e q u e s t s and c o n f i d e n t l y m a i n t a i n e d  t h a t t h e r e was  no  reason  t o b e l i e v e t h a t Germany e n t e r t a i n e d any p r o p o s a l f o r annex22 a t i o n o f New Guinea. Queensland, f e a r i n g the consequences o f f o r e i g n o c c u p a t i o n and e x a s p e r a t e d ment, s e i z e d the i n i t i a t i v e  by the a c t i o n o f the Home Governand took f o r m a l p o s s e s s i o n of  the s o u t h - e a s t p o r t i o n o f the i s l a n d i n the name of the Queen on A p r i l 3, 1883.  T h i s was  of the I m p e r i a l Government. unconvinced  done i n o r d e r t o f o r c e the hand W h i t e h a l l , however, remained  o f the n e c e s s i t y f o r a n n e x a t i o n  and  bluntly  19 C o l o n i a l O f f i c e t o L a b i l l i e r e , December 28, 1882. Great B r i t a i n , C o l o n i a l O f f i c e , F u r t h e r Correspondence r e s p e c t i n g New Guinea, P a r l i a m e n t a r y Papers, 1883 (C.3617), p . 119. 20 L o f t u s t o Derby, F e b r u a r y  19,  1883,  i b i d . , p.  123.  21 Telegram, F e b r u a r y 26, 1883, e n c l o s e d i n Agent-General f o r Queensland t o C o l o n i a l O f f i c e , F e b r u a r y 28, 1883, i b i d . , p . 120. 22 C o l o n i a l O f f i c e , t o R o y a l C o l . I n s t i t u t e , A p r i l 4, i b i d . , p. 120.  1883,  11 refused to s a n c t i o n i t . House o f  Derby s c a t h i n g l y d e c l a r e d i n the  Lords: The e x p l a n a t i o n o f Queensland's a c t i o n comes t o no more t h a n t h i s ... t h a t t h e r e were s t r o n g r e p o r t s throughout A u s t r a l i a o f the i n t e n t i o n of some Power nobody knew what Power — t o s e i z e upon p a r t — nobody knew what p a r t — o f New Guinea. I endeavoured t o a s c e r t a i n the o r i g i n o f these r e p o r t s ; but i t does not appear t h a t t h e r e was a shadow o f evidence f o r t h c o m i n g t o s u b s t a n t i a t e them.... We are t o l e r a b l y w e l l - a s s u r e d t h a t , as r e g a r d s the l e a d i n g European Powers ... no such i n t e n t i o n i s entertained.^3  There were one  or two  r e a s o n s behind the I m p e r i a l  r e f u s a l t o s a n c t i o n the a c t i o n of Queensland. was  the u n w i l l i n g n e s s  f u r t h e r Imperial Imperial  Firstly,  there  o f the B r i t i s h Government t o undertake  adventures.  Government was  S e c o n d l y , i t seemed t h a t  somewhat d i s p l e a s e d w i t h the  pendent a c t i o n taken by Queensland i n p r o c l a i m i n g a n n e x a t i o n o f New  Government's  Guinea.  T h i s was  of the B r i t i s h p u b l i c o p i n i o n .  The  the  inde-  the  shared by some s e c t i o n D a i l y News, a  liberal  paper, c a r r i e d a l e a d i n g a r t i c l e i n which i t s t a t e d : The i n c i d e n t shows how v e r y independent o f us our dependencies a r e , and how easy i t i s by a l i t t l e v i g o r o u s a c t i o n almost t o f o r c e the consent o f a s o v e r e i g n a u t h o r i t y i g n o r a n t a t f i r s t , and r e l u c t a n t , but almost p o w e r l e s s a f t e r w a r d s . 24-  23 Great B r i t a i n , P a r l i a m e n t House of L o r d s , O f f i c i a l Report o f Debates. T h i r d S e r i e s , OCLXXXI, c o l . 16, J u l y 2, 1883. • 24- D. C. Gordon, A u s t r a l i a n F r o n t i e r i n New Guinea, York, Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1951* P« 159.  New  12 The  Spectator  declared  that:  The p r e c e d e n t s e t by the Government o f Queensland i n annexing the i s l a n d (New Guinea) on i t s own r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s too dangerous t o be s a n c t i o n e d . . . . F o r e i g n p o l i c y i s i m p o s s i b l e i f we are t o be burdened w i t h new p o s s e s s i o n s a c q u i r e d w i t h o u t any v o l i t i o n o f our own, or i n o p p o s i t i o n t o the w i l l of P a r l i a m e n t . 5 2  T h i r d l y , the I m p e r i a l land's motive. i n a notorious  Government was  s u s p i c i o u s of Queens-  Queensland c i t i z e n s had  been d e e p l y i n v o l v e d  l a b o u r - r e c r u i t i n g o p e r a t i o n i n New  A R o y a l Commission appointed  i n 1883  m a t t e r had p o i n t e d out t h a t i t was  Guinea.  to look i n t o t h i s  quite undesirable  a l l o w Queensland any v o i c e i n the a f f a i r s of New  to  Guinea:  I f New Guinea becomes a p a r t o f Queensl a n d , i t s v a s t r e g i o n s w i l l be a v a i l a b l e as a r e c r u i t i n g ground f o r l a b o u r , without any r e s t r i c t i o n s o t h e r t h a n t h o s e which the P a r l i a m e n t o f Queensland (an assembly l a r g e l y composed of employers o f n a t i v e l a b o u r ) i t s e l f may t h i n k f i t t o impose ... whether those who are most d i r e c t l y i n t e r e s t e d i n the employment of imported b l a c k l a b o u r are the men t o whom the r e g u l a t i o n of i t s i n t r o d u c t i o n can be most f i t l y committed, i t i s u n n e c e s s a r y t o ask.... To e n t r u s t such c o n t r o l t o the L e g i s l a t u r e of any A u s t r a l i a n Colony, i s i n f a c t , t o e n t r u s t i t to an o l i g a r c h y , i n which those governed have no r e p r e s e n t a t i o n whatever, and which cannot but be i n f l u e n c e d , i n a g r e a t e r o r l e s s degree, by i t s own s e l f i s h interest.26  25  Gordon, A u s t r a l i a n F r o n t i e r i n New  Guinea, p.  26 Legge, A u s t r a l i a n C o l o n i a l P o l i c y , p.  23.  159.  13 Though S i r Thomas M c l l w r a i t h ,  the P r e m i e r o f Queensland,  d e n i e d t h i s motive on the p a r t t h a t t h e r e was that natives suspicion  o f Queensland and  no p o s s i b i l i t y , nor was  would be  o f the  maintained  i t ever contemplated  t a k e n t o the A u s t r a l i a n Coast,  Imperial  Government c o u l d not  be  the  27 allayed. '  A l l the A u s t r a l i a n C o l o n i e s supported v e r y s t r o n g l y the  a c t i o n o f Queensland and  reconsideration ment.  I n 1883  Sydney.  of the whole m a t t e r by the  a l l the  the Empire.  an I n t e r - C o l o n i a l Conference was  o f New  Guinea not  a d j a c e n t i s l a n d s be  forthwith  P u b l i c meetings were h e l d  i n i t s f a v o u r was  waged by  held  s u c c i n c t l y e x p r e s s e d by  in  Dutch  incorporated  into  throughout  an i n c e s s a n t  the P r e s s .  Govern-  p a s s e d demanding  i n p o s s e s s i o n of the  A u s t r a l i a demanding a n n e x a t i o n , and  i s s u e was  Imperial  At t h i s Conference a r e s o l u t i o n was  t h a t the p a r t and  a l l demanded a  An  opinion  a pamphleteer  campaign on  this  who  declared: I t might be presumed t h a t the C o n s e r v a t i v e P r e s s , would have been i n f a v o u r of e x t e n d i n g the t e r r i t o r i a l b o u n d a r i e s of the Empire; but when we f i n d the l i b e r a l j o u r n a l s of A u s t r a l i a f o l l o w i n g s u i t and even e x c e e d i n g them on the same s i d e , a f o r c e o f p u b l i c o p i n i o n i s r e p r e s e n t e d which no prudent statesman can d e s p i s e . . . . The Melbourne Age which o c c u p i e s a unique p o s i t i o n i n B r i t i s h dependencies as  27 O f f i c i a l Handbook of the  T e r r i t o r y o f New  28 Legge, A u s t r a l i a n C o l o n i a l P o l i c y , p.  22.  Guinea, p.  27  14 an exponent of p o p u l a r f e e l i n g ... i s even warmer on the s i d e o f a n n e x a t i o n t h a n the most extreme of the r e a c t i o n a r y Press. 9 2  L o r d Derby c o u l d no l o n g e r be deaf t o t h i s g r e a t  clamour  f o r a n n e x a t i o n on the p a r t o f the A u s t r a l i a n c o l o n i e s . t h e r e f o r e wanted once more t o know, whether the would agree t o c o n t r i b u t e the  sum  and  Queensland q u i c k l y responded and  Imperial  north-eastern  New  Kompagnie was  formed.  O t t o F i n s c h was to acquire June 27,  Guinea.  declared.  cost Victoria  agreed t o s h o u l d e r  burden p e n d i n g f i n a l arrangements. the hand of the  Colonies  o f £15,000 t o the  o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i f a p r o t e c t o r a t e was  Government was  German a c t i v i t y i n  In October 1884  the New-Guinea  Immediately a f t e r i t s f o r m a t i o n  sent out t o the n o r t h c o a s t  the German C h a n c e l l o r was  Company's o b j e c t and  the  What f i n a l l y f o r c e d  of New  Guinea  l a n d from the n a t i v e s i n the t e r r i t o r y .  1884,  He  On  informed of  the p r o t e c t i o n o f the  Imperial  the Govern-  31 ment was  solicited.^  B r i t i s h Government and proclaimed  i n September 1884  over the s o u t h - e a s t e r n  Commodore E r s k i n e Government.  T h i s a c t i o n f o r c e d the hand of  Germany was  a protectorate  p o r t i o n o f New  a c t i n g on the o r d e r s  the  o f the  n o t i f i e d o f t h i s and  29 Legge, A u s t r a l i a n C o l o n i a l P o l i c y , p.  was  Guinea by  Imperial i n the  29.  JO Government of V i c t o r i a t o C o l o n i a l O f f i c e , J u l y 4, 1884. Great B r i t a i n , C o l o n i a l O f f i c e , F u r t h e r Correspondence r e s p e c t i n g New Guinea, P a r l i a m e n t a r y P a p e r s , 1884 (C.3839), p. 48. 31 Reed, The  Making of Modern New  Guinea, p.  81.  15 notification  the B r i t i s h made i t p l a i n  o f the p r o t e c t o r a t e to the s o u t h - e a s t s h o u l d not  i n any way  t h a t the  limiting  c o a s t of New  Guinea  p r e j u d i c e any t e r r i t o r i a l q u e s t i o n  "beyond t h a t l i m i t which t h e y suggested s h o u l d be  a subject  32 for diplomatic negotiation.  In October 1884-  d e c l a r e d a p r o t e c t o r a t e over New Guinea without  i n f o r m i n g Great  resentment i n B r i t a i n .  I t was  Britain  lodged  a s s e r t e d t h a t the little  value  and N o r t h e r n  Britain.  T h i s caused  which d i s p l e a s e d  s t r i p o f New  to B r i t a i n .  The  Guinea was  to  and F r e n c h h o s t i l i t y to the o c c u p a t i o n  weak p o s i t i o n i n the New  arose.  a trump c a r d t o  B r i t a i n had  on the E g y p t i a n  of  boundary  German p r o t e c t o r a t e s now  d i f f i c u l t i e s i n Egypt.  o b t a i n German support  clearly  by  Britain  v e r y s m a l l and  q u e s t i o n of the  In the boundary n e g o t i a t i o n , Germany had  i n 1882  great  a p r o t e s t a g a i n s t t h i s , Bismarck m e r e l y  between the B r i t i s h and the  Britain's  New  the brusque method adopted  Germany r a t h e r than the a n n e x a t i o n and when she  Germany  occupied  use:  Egypt  and the need  i s s u e put h e r i n a  Guinea n e g o t i a t i o n s .  r e v e a l e d i n Gladstone's l e t t e r to  This  was  Granville:  I do hope t h a t you are p r e s s i n g forward the 'Pauncefote' s e t t l e m e n t o f the n o r t h c o a s t of New Guinea ... i t i s r e a l l y i m p o s s i b l e t o exaggerate the importance o f g e t t i n g out o f the way the b a r t o the Egyptian settlement. These words, s t r o n g as t h e y a r e , are i n my o p i n i o n words of t r u t h and soberness; as, i f we cannot wind  32 O f f i c i a l Handbook of the T e r r i t o r y  of New  Guinea, p.  28.  16 up a t once these s m a l l C o l o n i a l c o n t r o v e r s i e s , we s h a l l b e f o r e we a r e many weeks o l d e r f i n d i t t o our c o s t . 3 3 T h e r e f o r e , i n o r d e r t o o b t a i n German g o o d w i l l i n Egypt, B r i t a i n had t o c l i m b down on h e r former d e s i r e t o extend the boundary o f h e r newly-proclaimed  protectorate.  was t h e p r i c e she had t o pay f o r p r o c r a s t i n a t i o n . a s e t t l e m e n t was r e a c h e d .  This I n 1885  Germany took p o s s e s s i o n o f t h e  n o r t h e r n p o r t i o n o f New Guinea and B r i t a i n t h e s o u t h - e a s t . T h i s s e t t l e m e n t was a g r e a t cause o f annoyance t o the A u s t r a l i a n s who c l a i m e d t h a t the mother-country had s a c r i f i c e d A u s t r a l i a n i n t e r e s t s to Imperial i n t e r e s t s . Premier  The  o f V i c t o r i a , E.I.P. S e r v i c e , d e s c r i b e d the whole  s i t u a t i o n as "one o f t h e most m e l a n c h o l y and m a r v e l l o u s i l l u s t r a t i o n s of p o l i t i c a l  i m b e c i l i t y t h a t has e v e r been  34 recorded i n h i s t o r y .  n >  A l l the newspapers i n A u s t r a l i a  were l o u d i n denouncing B r i t i s h p o l i c y . Herald  The Sydney Morning  maintained: I t i s bad f o r b o t h the I m p e r i a l and the C o l o n i a l cause when a S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e f o r Colonies undervalues t h e i r i n t e r e s t s , f a i l s t o sympathize w i t h t h e i r l e g i t i m a t e d e s i r e s , shuts h i s eyes t o t h e i r f u t u r e , and t r e a t s them i n t h e p r e s e n t w i t h s c a n t confidence. I f L o r d Derby i s n o t open t o  33 pp. 34 p.  E . F i t z m a u r i c e , The L i f e o f L o r d G r a n v i l l e , v o l . I I , Pauncefote was an o f f i c i a l of t h e F o r e i g n O f f i c e .  4-31-432.  Quoted i n Gordon, A u s t r a l i a n F r o n t i e r i n New Guinea, 2 7 1 .  17 these charges; the defense t h a t i s t o c l e a r h i s r e p u t a t i o n must he s t r o n g e r than a n y t h i n g which now appears.35 T h i s h i t t e r disappointment o f the A u s t r a l i a n s w i t h the r o l e o f the C o l o n i a l O f f i c e i n the New Guinea  affairs  was t o he r e c a l l e d over and over a g a i n . German a n n e x a t i o n o f n o r t h - e a s t e r n New Guinea had two important r e s u l t s .  F i r s t l y , i t influenced i n a very  v i t a l way A u s t r a l i a n domestic p o l i t i c s .  With Germany i n  New Guinea, the A u s t r a l i a n C o l o n i e s became more than e v e r c o n s c i o u s o f t h e danger o f i n t e r n a l p o l i t i c a l d i s u n i t y .  They  r e a l i z e d t h a t t h e r e c o u l d be no more room f o r the p e t t y i n t e r n a l d i s s e n s i o n s which had h i t h e r t o c h a r a c t e r i z e d relationship.  their  To do t h i s was t o g i v e the enemy the oppor-  t u n i t y o f s w a l l o w i n g them up one by one when the opportune moment a r r i v e d .  T h i s r e a l i z a t i o n , c o u p l e d w i t h economic  and o t h e r f a c t o r s , paved  the way f o r t h e f o r m a t i o n i n 1901  of the Commonwealth o f A u s t r a l i a .  Secondly, the presence  of Germany i n New Guinea became an important f a c t o r  influ-  e n c i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p o f the A u s t r a l i a n C o l o n i e s w i t h Britain.  The C o l o n i e s were now e v e r more dependent on the  R o y a l Navy f o r t h e i r s e c u r i t y .  As a r e s u l t , they  tended,  u n l i k e Canada, t o l a y g r e a t e r emphasis on I m p e r i a l u n i t y . This f u r t h e r strengthened t h e i r already close  relationship  35 Gordon, A u s t r a l i a n F r o n t i e r i n New Guinea, p . 264.  18 w i t h the mother-country d e s p i t e t h e i r annoyance w i t h h e r r o l e i n New  Guinea.  T h i s sense o f dependency was  at the C o l o n i a l Conference o f 1887.  revealed  Canada, s h e l t e r i n g  b e h i n d the Monroe d o c t r i n e and the N o r t h A t l a n t i c  fleet,  r e f u s e d t o c o n t r i b u t e t o the c o s t o f the n a v a l defence o f the Empire.  She m a i n t a i n e d t h a t she was  a l r e a d y d o i n g so  by f a i t h f u l l y c a r r y i n g out the agreement r e a c h e d at the time o f the C o n f e d e r a t i o n whereby Great B r i t a i n agreed t o b e a r the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r n a v a l defence w h i l e Canada undertook the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y on l a n d .  In a d d i t i o n , she argued t h a t  enough c o n t r i b u t i o n s had been made by the b u i l d i n g o f the Canadian P a c i f i c R a i l w a y . ^ nakedness  A u s t r a l i a , with her  strategic  and w i t h Germany on h e r b o r d e r , responded  quickly  t o the s u g g e s t i o n t h a t the c o l o n i e s s h o u l d c o n t r i b u t e t o the maintenance bute the sum  o f the navy.  She r e a d i l y agreed t o c o n t r i -  o f £126,000 p e r annum towards the  maintenance  of the navy w i t h the p r o v i s i o n t h a t a squadron o f the navy s h o u l d be permanently s t a t i o n e d i n the A u s t r a l i a n and t h a t the squadron c o u l d o n l y be used o u t s i d e  waters Australia  37  w i t h the consent o f the c o l o n i e s . The c o n s t a n t f e a r i n A u s t r a l i a o f the menace from Germany was h e i g h t e n e d by the arms r a c e amongst the powers.  T h i s was  European  c l e a r l y brought out by the A u s t r a l i a n  36 J . E . T y l e r , The S t r u g g l e f o r I m p e r i a l U n i t y . London, Longmans, Green & Co., 1938, p. 125. 37 I b i d . , p .  124.  19  B u l l e t i n o f the time: Europe i s t o he r e c o n s t i t u t e d h e r e , and when Germany o r France o r E n g l a n d , f l y a t each o t h e r s t h r o a t s , t h e r e w i l l he b l o o d l e t t i n g i n the South Seas as on the Rhine F r o n t i e r and i n the B r i t i s h Channel. The whole matter i s o f p r o f o u n d s e r i o u s n e s s f o r A u s t r a l i a and the A u s t r a l i a n s . 3 8 By t h i s t i m e , the economic motive f o r the a n n e x a t i o n  of  New Guinea had been r e l e g a t e d t o a secondary p l a c e .  It  must be emphasized, however, t h a t i t was s t i l l  present.  In 1908 v a r i o u s a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r l a n d f o r gold-mining purposes i n New Guinea were made by A u s t r a l i a n s t o the German A d m i n i s t r a t i o n .  T h i s l e d t o a f r e n z i e d renewal o f  the s e a r c h f o r g o l d i n the T e r r i t o r y by the German Government.  I n 1909 a group o f A u s t r a l i a n miners a r r i v e d i n  German New Guinea. explore  T h e i r purpose was t o form a company t o  the new T e r r i t o r y f o r g o l d and a l i c e n c e was  t o them by t h e German A d m i n i s t r a t i o n .  J  f o l l o w e d by a wave o f o t h e r s who e n t e r e d the p e r m i s s i o n  granted  They were soon the c o u n t r y  o f t h e German A d m i n i s t r a t i o n .  without  By the end o f  t h a t y e a r the number o f A u s t r a l i a n g o l d - p r o s p e c t o r s  was  i n c r e a s i n g so r a p i d l y t h a t the German Governor had t o b r i n g t h i s t o the a t t e n t i o n o f the I m p e r i a l Government i n B e r l i n .  38 C i t e d by R. M. Crawford i n O u r s e l v e s and the P a c i f i c , Melbourne, Melbourne U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 194-3, p . 224. 39 O f f i c i a l Handbook o f the T e r r i t o r y o f New p . 220.  Guinea,  20 T h e i r a c t i v i t i e s r e v e a l e d the keen economic  interest  the A u s t r a l i a n s s t i l l p o s s e s s e d i n the T e r r i t o r y . Melbourne  Acgus w r i t i n g i n 1929 on the A u s t r a l i a n  s e e k e r s ' a c t i v i t i e s i n the German New threw l i g h t on the u n y i e l d i n g s p i r i t  which  The gold-  Guinea b e f o r e  1914  o f some o f these g o l d  adventurers: J u s t b e f o r e the outbreak o f the war, t h r e e well-known g o l d - s e e k e r s — Matt Crowe, J i m P r e s t o n , and Shark-Eye B i l l were p r o s p e c t i n g i n what was t h e n German New Guinea. Time and time a g a i n the Germans t r i e d t o get r i d of these a d v e n t u r e r s , never showing an open hand but s e t t i n g t h e i r agents and the t r i b e s men a g a i n s t them. Shark-Eye and h i s companions were made o f hardy s t u f f , and though o f t e n s h o r t o f f o o d and i n c o n s t a n t danger o f a t t a c k from p o i s o n e d d a r t and arrows, t h e y remained i n the c o u n t r y under the g u i s e of b i r d s - o f - p a r a d i s e c o l l e c t o r s . . . . A f t e r months o f s t a r v a t i o n and i l l - h e a l t h , . . . t h e y came out, but n o t b e f o r e t h e y had found p a y a b l e gold.4-0  A f t e r the War,  Shark-Eye. whose t r u e name was Park, r e t u r n e d  t o the T e r r i t o r y and was  one of those who  profited  from the subsequent d i s c o v e r y of g o l d at E d i e T h i s s t r o n g economic  i n t e r e s t i n New  greatly  4-1 Creek. Guinea  engendered and p e r p e t u a t e d by the hope o f d i s c o v e r i n g  p.  4-0 O f f i c i a l Handbook of the T e r r i t o r y o f New 221.  large  Guinea,  41 L o c . c i t . Shark-Eye l a t e r r e t u r n e d t o Canada and d i e d a wealthy man i n Vancouver, i n 1940. See C. Simpson, Adam With Arrows, Sydney, Angus and R o b e r t s o n , 1953, P» 26.  21 q u a n t i t i e s of g o l d i n the T e r r i t o r y c o u p l e d w i t h the  still  s t r o n g e r motive o f s e c u r i t y r e v e a l e d t h a t i f e v e r an  oppor-  t u n i t y f o r t a k i n g over New A u s t r a l i a would not f a i l wait f o r l o n g .  The  Guinea s h o u l d p r e s e n t  t o s e i z e i t . She  itself,  d i d n o t have t o  outbreak of the F i r s t World War  provided her with that  opportunity.  in  1914  CHAPTER I I THE GENESIS 0 1 AUSTRALIAN ADMINISTRATION  OF EX-GERMAN  NEW GUINEA, 1914-1921 The  d e c l a r a t i o n o f war "by B r i t a i n  m a t i c a l l y i n v o l v e d the Dominions. willingly stand  i n 1914 a u t o -  The Dominions a c c e p t e d  the o b l i g a t i o n s o f war and were determined t o  shoulder t o shoulder with B r i t a i n  w i t h Germany.  i n the s t r u g g l e  As a p a r t o f the s t r a t e g y o f war,  aimed from the o u t s e t  at destroying  w i r e l e s s s t a t i o n s i n the P a c i f i c  Britain  the important German  as a p r e l i m i n a r y t o  d e a l i n g w i t h t h e German n a v a l u n i t s s t a t i o n e d i n t h a t To  c a r r y out t h i s p l a n , the h e l p  Australia  o f war i n Europe.  r e a s o n , the B r i t i s h S e c r e t a r y L o r d H a r c o u r t , sent Australia,  o f t h e Commonwealth o f  was needed because B r i t i s h e f f o r t s  r a t e d i n the main t h e a t r e  area.  of State  were concenFor t h i s  f o r the C o l o n i e s ,  a t e l e g r a m t o the Governor-General o f  on August 6, 1914 i n v i t i n g  assume the o f f e n s i v e a g a i n s t  t h a t Dominion t o  German t e r r i t o r i e s i n the  Pacific:  I f your m i n i s t e r s so d e s i r e and f e e l themselves able t o s e i z e the German w i r e l e s s s t a t i o n s a t New Guinea, Yap i n the M a r s h a l l i s l a n d s , and Nauru ... we s h o u l d f e e l t h a t t h i s was a g r e a t and u r g e n t  23 I m p e r i a l s e r v i c e . You w i l l r e a l i z e , however, t h a t any t e r r i t o r y now o c c u p i e d must a t the c o n c l u s i o n of war be at the d i s p o s a l of the I m p e r i a l Government f o r purposes of an u l t i m a t e settlement. 1  The  A u s t r a l i a n Government responded q u i c k l y t o t h i s r e q u e s t  and  by August 10,  had  been o r g a n i z e d .  the  command of C o l o n e l  Guinea which was r e s e r v i s t s and  1914  an e x p e d i t i o n a r y  W i l l i a m Holmes t o a t t a c k  e a s i l y captured.  under  German  New  O n l y a h a n d f u l of German  n a t i v e p o l i c e were a v a i l a b l e t o r e s i s t  these soon s u r r e n d e r e d . Rabaul —  September 12,  men  A week l a t e r t h i s f o r c e s e t out  A u s t r a l i a n a t t a c k on the w i r e l e s s  torate —  f o r c e o f 1500  1914,  was  The  s t a t i o n s at B i t a Paka  c a p i t a l of the  German  a l s o found undefended.  the m i l i t a r y m i s s i o n had  p l i s h e d w i t h the A u s t r a l i a n f o r c e  the and  Protec-  By  been accom-  s u f f e r i n g only  ten  2 casualties.  Immediately a f t e r the  c a p i t u l a t i o n , the  o f f i c e r commanding the A u s t r a l i a n f o r c e i s s u e d a p r o c l a m a t i o n d e c l a r i n g the  I s l a n d to be  i n m i l i t a r y o c c u p a t i o n i n the  name o f H i s B r i t a n n i c M a j e s t y . p e r t i e s of p e a c e f u l laws of the was  The  l i v e s and p r i v a t e  i n h a b i t a n t s were guaranteed and  pro-  the  Colony were t o remain unchanged i n so f a r as  consistent  w i t h the m i l i t a r y s i t u a t i o n .  action i n t h i s respect  was  Holmes'  i n k e e p i n g w i t h the p r i n c i p l e s  1 C. D. Rowley, The A u s t r a l i a n s i n German New Guinea 1914-21, Melbourne U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1958, p. 2. 2 F. W. E g g l e s t o n , The A u s t r a l i a n Mandate f o r German New Guinea, Melbourne, M a c M i l l a n and Co. i n a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h Melbourne U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1928, p. 1.  24 o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l m i l i t a r y law.  By t h a t law t h e o c c u p y i n g  f o r c e , though v e s t e d w i t h a b s o l u t e the  sovereignty  o f the o c c u p i e d  power, does n o t p o s s e s s  territory.  I t s power i s  l i m i t e d o n l y t o those a c t i o n s n e c e s s a r y f o r the maintenance and  safeguarding  purposes o f war.  o f i t s army and t o t h e r e a l i z a t i o n o f t h e The e x i s t i n g system o f law and a d m i n i s t r -  a t i o n must be m a i n t a i n e d and t h e p r o p e r t y individuals On  of. p r i v a t e  protected. September 1 7 , 1914 t h e terms o f c a p i t u l a t i o n  were s i g n e d by C o l o n e l Holmes on b e h a l f  of H i s Britannic  M a j e s t y , and t h e A c t i n g Governor o f German New Guinea on behalf  o f the I m p e r i a l  German Government.  According t o  these terms, i t was agreed t h a t the A c t i n g Governor had no a u t h o r i t y t o surrender  any p o r t i o n o f t h e German  under h i s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . had  been o c c u p i e d  possessions  However, as t h e p r i n c i p a l c e n t r e  by the e x p e d i t i o n a r y  f o r c e , the A c t i n g  Governor gave h i s assurance t h a t a l l m i l i t a r y r e s i s t a n c e would cease f o r t h w i t h .  P r o v i s i o n was made f o r the r e t u r n t o  Germany o f t h e A c t i n g Governor and o f c i v i l r e q u i r e d f o r c a r r y i n g on t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . m i l i t a r y o f f i c e r s were made p r i s o n e r s  o f f i c i a l s not The German  o f war b u t a l l o t h e r  Germans i n c l u d i n g t h e p l a n t e r s and c i v i l  o f f i c e r s were  left  alone a f t e r t a k i n g an o a t h o f n e u t r a l i t y f o r t h e p e r i o d o f  3 Report t o the League o f N a t i o n s on the A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f the T e r r i t o r y o f New Guinea, September 1914 t o June 30, 1921, p . 5» ( H e r e a f t e r c i t e d as Annual Report t o the League o f Nations.)  25 the  war.  officer  A m i l i t a r y a d m i n i s t r a t i o n was commanding t h e  Administrator  of  Public  the  t r o o p s was  felt  this  that  o p i n i o n i n A u s t r a l i a was  Imperial  if  April  1915,  House  amongst captured  it  had not been f o r  members o f  Joseph Cook,  the the  before  other  the  things,  end o f  would  annexation  have of  the  was  led  Australian Parliament. opposition leader, of the the  declared  need to  war so  Australia's  German i s l a n d s  It  seizing  dilatoriness  for  that  Germany.  believed  the  The a g i t a t i o n  of Representatives  Conference  Military  an o p p o r t u n i t y was now p r o v i d e d f o r  Government.  by r e s p o n s i b l e  the  the  determined  be r e t u r n e d t o  t e r r i t o r y w h i c h most A u s t r a l i a n s  been t h e i r s  the  appointed  up a n d  Territory.  German New G u i n e a s h o u l d n o t was  set  view that  as  speaking  h o l d an to  put  concerning the  In in  Imperial  forward, the  islands:  . . . are a great r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r A u s t r a l i a , b u t o n e , I b e l i e v e , we s h o u l d be a b l e t o s h o u l d e r ; i n d e e d , we s h o u l d be g l a d t o h a v e t h e o p p o r t u n i t y o f a s s u m i n g any r e s p o n s i b i l i t y a r i s i n g out o f the a c q u i s i t i o n o f these i s l a n d s , f o r i n my own j u d g e m e n t t h e y s h o u l d n e v e r h a v e b e l o n g e d t o any o t h e r c o u n t r y but A u s t r a l i a . It i s only defective statesmanship t h a t has caused t h i s t r o u b l e , h e a r t b u r n i n g , and a n x i e t y , d u r i n g t h e s e t r y i n g days.4"  C o o k was  a s s u r e d b y Andrew F i s h e r ,  s t e p s w o u l d be  taken  to  ensure  that  the due  Prime M i n i s t e r , consideration  that be  4 A u s t r a l i a , P a r l i a m e n t , House o f R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , Official R e p o r t o f D e b a t e s , A p r i l 15, 1915, p . 2367. (Hereafter c i t e d as H . R . D e b . )  26 given t o A u s t r a l i a ' s i n t e r e s t i n considering be  any p o l i c y t o  adopted towards the c a p t u r e d German t e r r i t o r i e s .  B r i g a d i e r Holmes, the o f f i c e r who commanded the A u s t r a l i a n f o r c e which c a p t u r e d New Guinea i n a l e t t e r t o G. P. P e a r c e , the Defence M i n i s t e r , d e c l a r e d  t h a t he d i d n o t see h i s  m i s s i o n as 'a f i l i b u s t e r i n g e x p e d i t i o n ' sent  b u t as "an e x p e d i t i o n  t o s e i z e t h e t e r r i t o r y which i t was i n t e n d e d s h o u l d  n e v e r be r e l i n q u i s h e d b u t h e l d f o r a l l time as a B r i t i s h 5 possession f o r c o l o n i z i n g purposes."^ Most A u s t r a l i a n s , l i k e Holmes and Cook, were c o n v i n c e d t h a t the c a p t u r e d t e r r i t o r i e s would be handed over to t h e A u s t r a l i a n Government a f t e r the war. a n n e x a t i o n was r u d e l y  This desire f o r  shaken by the e n t r y o f U n i t e d  i n t o the War and P r e s i d e n t  Wilson's a t t i t u d e that  s h o u l d be no a n n e x a t i o n o f German c o l o n i e s . A u s t r a l i a n s uneasy about t h e f u t u r e t e r r i t o r i e s i n the P a c i f i c —  States there  T h i s made the  o f t h e c a p t u r e d German  p a r t i c u l a r l y o f New Guinea.  I t was no wonder t h a t t h e y welcomed e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y the statement o f t h e S e c r e t a r y  of State  f o r the Colonies,  Walter  Long, t h a t under no c i r c u m s t a n c e s would any o f t h e c a p t u r e d German c o l o n i a l t e r r i t o r i e s be r e t u r n e d  to her.  But t h i s  5 Rowley, The A u s t r a l i a n s i n German New Guinea 1914-21, p. 5» The l e t t e r was w r i t t e n a f t e r the capture o f the T e r r i t o r y by Holmes t o j u s t i f y the terms o f c a p i t u l a t i o n s which he made w i t h t h e Germans. 6 Long's statement was quoted by S e n a t o r Bakhap i n a debate i n A u s t r a l i a , P a r l i a m e n t , Senate, O f f i c i a l Report o f Debates.  27 r e a s s u r a n c e was  o n l y a temporary one.  L l o y d George, sen-  s i t i v e t o American r e a c t i o n t o Long's statement, i s s u e d d i s c l a i m e r i n which he m a i n t a i n e d t h a t the d e s i r e s o f native  i n h a b i t a n t s would be  d e t e r m i n i n g the  taken i n t o consideration  f u t u r e o f the c a p t u r e d  a  the in  German c o l o n i a l  possessions.  T h i s l e d t o a renewal o f a n x i e t y i n A u s t r a l i a .  On  January 8,  1918  t o the w o r l d .  The  W i l s o n ' s F o u r t e e n P o i n t s were p r o c l a i m e d F i f t h Point provides  for:  A f r e e , open-minded and a b s o l u t e l y i m p a r t i a l adjustment of a l l c o l o n i a l c l a i m s , based upon a s t r i c t observance o f the p r i n c i p l e t h a t i n d e t e r m i n i n g a l l such q u e s t i o n s o f s o v e r e i g n t y the i n t e r e s t s of the p o p u l a t i o n s concerned must have e q u a l weight w i t h the e q u i t a b l e c l a i m s of government whose t i t l e i s to be determined.7 T h i s statement seemed t o c o n f i r m A u s t r a l i a n f e a r s . Cook, now  M i n i s t e r f o r the Navy, d i s p l a y e d the  t y p i c a l of most A u s t r a l i a n s when he was  the f i r s t  declared:  t o take German t e r r i t o r y which we  g o i n g to keep:  and  I profoundly  S e n a t o r Bakhap o b j e c t e d v e r y  hope t h a t we  Joseph  anxiety "Australia say we g  are  may."  s t r o n g l y to Wilson's p o l i c y  J u l y 19, 1917, p. 292. ( H e r e a f t e r c i t e d as Sen. Deb.) Bakhap moved a r e s o l u t i o n e x p r e s s i n g h i s u n q u a l i f i e d support and a p p r e c i a t i o n of Long's statement. 7 R. S. Baker, Woodrow W i l s o n and the World S e t t l e m e n t , 3 v o l s . , New York, Doubleday, Page and Co., 1923, I I I , p. 8 Rowley, The p.  272  A u s t r a l i a n s i n German New  Guinea 1914-21,  4-3.  28 which proposed t h a t the n a t i v e s o f the d i f f e r e n t  captured  c o l o n i e s would "be c o n s u l t e d i n the d i s p o s i t i o n o f territories. o f New  "Imagine," he d e c l a r e d , "the c a n n i b a l n a t i v e s  Guinea b e i n g c o n s u l t e d i n r e g a r d t o a m a t t e r which  i s o f v i t a l i n t e r e s t t o our p o s t e r i t y . " ^ t o the r e t u r n of former German p o s s e s s i o n s to A u s t r a l i a alone. were no  The was  objection not  South A f r i c a as w e l l as New  confined  Zealand  l e s s anxious t o annex German South West A f r i c a  Samoa r e s p e c t i v e l y . 1917  these  on Mr.  General  Smuts commenting December  Long's statement d e c l a r e d :  greater pleasure  than Mr.  Long's statement t h a t no  c o l o n y can go back t o Germany. posterous." ^ 1  Ward, was  The  New  "Nothing has  Zealand  The  mere s u g g e s t i o n  and 17,  given  German i s pre-  Prime M i n i s t e r , S i r Joseph  e q u a l l y emphatic: I t would be a c u r i o u s crime a g a i n s t the B r i t i s h i n the P a c i f i c , i f Samoa and o t h e r i s l a n d s were a l l o w e d t o r e v e r t t o Germany o r any o t h e r f o r e i g n Power. Such a change would mean a p e r p e t u a l menace, and t h e r e was no m i s t a k e n i d e a i n the minds of the p e o p l e of B r i t a i n as to what our views were on t h a t s u b j e c t . The Empire had t o p r e s e r v e the freedom of the P a c i f i c . ! 1  In A p r i l 1918  9 Rowley, The p.  Hughes, the A u s t r a l i a n P r e m i e r ,  A u s t r a l i a n s i n German New  275. 10 C i t e d by Senator Bakhap i n Sen.  p.  Guinea 1914—21,  293.  11 L o c . c i t .  Deb.,  J u l y 19,  1917,  29 and Cook l e f t f o r London and from t h e r e proceeded to V e r s a i l l e s f o r the Peace Conference. that annexation f o r reasons  of German Hew  Hughes was  Guinea was  convinced  n e c e s s a r y not  o f defence but a l s o f o r economic advantages.  b e l i e v e d t h a t t o a l l o w a s t r o n g power t o dominate New would be  only  suicidal.  He  saw  Guinea  i n t h i s t e r r i t o r y a jumping o f f  p l a c e f o r any a t t a c k on A u s t r a l i a .  Hughes was  gent p o l i t i c i a n who,  o f the n e c e s s i t y of  anything  Conference.  Guinea.  once c o n v i n c e d  an  intransi-  c o u l d never be d i v e r t e d or d e t e r r e d from what he  considered h i s goal.  Cabinet  He  T h i s was  t o be r e v e a l e d a t the Peace  Before h i s d e p a r t u r e ,  he was  to do a l l he c o u l d t o secure W.  i n s t r u c t e d by h i s  annexation  of  New  A. Watt, the A c t i n g Prime M i n i s t e r , made t h i s  c l e a r i n r e p l y i n g t o q u e s t i o n s on Government p o l i c y towards the c a p t u r e d  German p o s s e s s i o n s :  The Prime M i n i s t e r i s g o i n g t o do h i s b e s t , as f a r as t h a t b e s t w i l l a l l o w , t o r e p r e s e n t t o the I m p e r i a l Government t h a t the h o l d i n g of the i s l a n d s i s v i t a l t o the defence i n t e r e s t s of A u s t r a l i a i n the future....12 Some members o f the O p p o s i t i o n who  were e i t h e r d o c t r i n a i r e  a n t i - i m p e r i a l i s t s or 'White A u s t r a l i a '  i s o l a t i o n i s t s main-  t a i n e d the p r i n c i p l e of no  and no  'annexation  indemnity'.  They a s s e r t e d t h a t the i n t e r e s t o f the Government t r a d i n g i n t e r e s t pure and simple  12 H.R.  Deb.,  May  22,  1918,  and t h a t the  p. 4928.  was  commercial  30 c l a s s and i t s p r e s s would p r o l o n g the world's  torture that  u new  markets may  be opened t o A u s t r a l i a n t r a d e r s . ^  the O p p o s i t i o n ' s view was  confined to a m i n o r i t y i n  A u s t r a l i a w h i l e the Government p o l i c y won " B i l l y " Hughes, t h e r e f o r e , l e f t  popular approval.  f o r the Peace  w i t h the g o o d w i l l of the m a j o r i t y b e h i n d him to  secure the a n n e x a t i o n o f German New  A u s t r a l i a n hope was  determined of  Conference i n h i s mission  Guinea.  However,  not d e s t i n e d t o be c o m p l e t e l y  At V e r s a i l l e s Hughes met  But  i n W i l s o n an opponent no  than h i m s e l f t h a t t h e r e s h o u l d be no  German c o l o n i e s i f a s t a b l e peace was  fulfilled. less  annexation  t o be made.  To s t r e n g t h A u s t r a l i a ' s case w i t h the I m p e r i a l Government and Hughes' s t a n d a t V e r s a i l l e s , an r e s o l u t i o n was  i n t r o d u c e d i n t o both Houses of P a r l i a m e n t  on November 14, was  1918  j u s t a f t e r the a r m i s t i c e .  c a r e f u l l y , worded t o a v o i d r e f e r e n c e t o  though t h i s was he m a i n t a i n e d  identical  The  resolution  annexation,  i m p l i e d i n Senator M i l l e n ' s speech i n which  t h a t 'added t e r r i t o r y was  n e c e s s a r y not 14-  much f o r a c r e s but f o r g r e a t e r p r o t e c t i o n . '  The  r e s o l u t i o n reads: That the Senate o f the Commonwealth o f A u s t r a l i a declares that i t i s e s s e n t i a l to the f u t u r e s a f e t y and w e l f a r e of A u s t r a l i a t h a t the c a p t u r e d German P o s s e s s i o n s i n the  !3 H.E. 1  4  Deb.,  Sen. Deb.,  May  22, 1918,  p. 4-928.  November 14-, 1918,  p. 7782.  so  31 P a c i f i c , which are now o c c u p i e d by A u s t r a l i a and New Zealand t r o o p s , s h o u l d not i n any c i r c u m s t a n c e s , he r e s t o r e d t o Germany; and t h a t i n the c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f p r o p o s a l s a f f e c t i n g the d e s t i n a t i o n of these i s l a n d s A u s t r a l i a should he c o n s u l t e d . 1 5 In a speech on the r e s o l u t i o n i n the Lower House the  Acting  Prime M i n i s t e r , Watt, r e c a l l e d A u s t r a l i a ' s disappointment w i t h the  ' d e f e c t i v e ' B r i t i s h d i p l o m a c y which had  Germany t o take over n o r t h - e a s t e r n  New  " T h i s Department ( C o l o n i a l O f f i c e ) has b e h i n d the  c l o c k i n r e g a r d t o a l l the  S o u t h e r n Hemisphere, and the p r e s e n t  crisis." ^ 1  we  allowed  Guinea i n  1884.  always been hours g r e a t e v e n t s i n the  do not w i s h t h i s to o c c u r i n  He went on t o d e s c r i b e ..unfairly  h i s t o r y o f the  Imperial  P a c i f i c as one  of ' l e t h a r g y and n e g l e c t ' f o r which the  C o l o n i a l O f f i c e was  the  Government i n the South and West  chiefly responsible.  The  motion  was  unanimously p a s s e d . Meanwhile from V e r s a i l l e s , Hughes t e l e g r a p h e d A c t i n g Prime M i n i s t e r a s k i n g him  t o o b t a i n evidence which  might prove German i l l - t r e a t m e n t o f the n a t i v e s o f Guinea.  T h i s he wanted t o use  Germany s h o u l d be No  15  Sen.  Deb.,  16 I b i d . , November 14, 17 p.  Rowley, The  278.  obtained,  November 14, 1918,  New  t o support h i s c l a i m t h a t  s t r i p p e d of a l l her  such evidence c o u l d be  the  1918, pp.  overseas  possessions.  but t h i s i n c i d e n t  p.  7782.  7837-7858.  A u s t r a l i a n s i n German New  Guinea 1 9 1 4 - 2 1 ,  1  32 demonstrated t h e e x t e n t t o which the A u s t r a l i a n Government was p r e p a r e d t o go i n o r d e r t o a c h i e v e i t s o b j e c t i v e . By  article  119 o f t h e Peace T r e a t y ,  agreed t o renounce h e r c l a i m s o f the A l l i e d  and A s s o c i a t e d  Germany  over h e r c o l o n i e s i n f a v o u r Powers.  The q u e s t i o n  arose as t o what was t o be done w i t h them.  next  W i l s o n was  opposed t o a n n e x a t i o n b u t f a v o u r e d p u t t i n g them under international control.  T h i s l e d t o a c l a s h w i t h Hughes who  was opposed t o any form o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o n t r o l and demanded o u t r i g h t annexation.  He c l e a r l y r e v e a l e d  the r e a s o n f o r h i s  o p p o s i t i o n t o i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o n t r o l , f o r example, i n desc r i b i n g h i s p o l i c y at V e r s a i l l e s to the A u s t r a l i a n Parliament: I n t e r n a t i o n a l c o n t r o l would aim a d e a d l y blow a t our t r a d e and i n d u s t r y . Under i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o n t r o l how c o u l d we secure t h e t r a d e o f these i s l a n d s which l e g i t i m a t e l y b e l o n g t o u s . . . . P a t r i o t i s m , commonsense and m a t e r i a l i n t e r e s t s a l i k e d e c l a r e t h a t such a p o l i c y would mean the d e s t r u c t i o n o f Australia.18 Both i n and o u t s i d e his  the Conference, Hughes made sure  that  views on A u s t r a l i a ' s d e s i r e f o r a n n e x a t i o n were u n e q u i -  vocally stated.  I n an i n t e r v i e w p u b l i s h e d  i n the P a r i s  newspaper Le M a t i n on F e b r u a r y 2, 1919 he m a i n t a i n e d  18 H.R. Deb., September 19, 1919, p . 12608  that:  33 The p e o p l e o f F r a n c e know t h e importance of such s t r a t e g i c a l p o s i t i o n . I t i s our national roof. We w a n t t h e r o o f s a f e a s a whole, and n o t open t o t h e f a n c i e s o f passers-by, o r the a g g r e s s i o n o f mara u d e r s ... w h a t t h e M o n r o e d o c t r i n e i s t o A m e r i c a , an e q u i t a b l e s e t t l e m e n t o f t h e island question i s to Australia. The b l o o d of A u s t r a l i a n s o l d i e r s had flowed i n great r i v e r s i n order that t h e i r c o u n t r y ' s l i b e r t y s h o u l d be secured. The m o s t c h e r i s h e d i d e a l s , a n d their c o u n t r y ' s p o l i t i c a l , i n d u s t r i a l and-.q s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s a r e now at stake. '  Hughes  fought  annexed who  and  were  very  though  desperately supported  themselves  keen  Samoa r e s p e c t i v e l y , decided to  by  these  the  his  Mandate  mind.  Smuts'  intention,  i n Europe  system  and  this as  they  advanced  achieve  the  Guinea and  South-West  was  being  that  that  New  Africa  system  the  System,  to  that  Mandate  apply  apply  South  annexing  failed  Conference  fertile  Turkish  by  see  was  New  Zealand,  Africa  aim  as  system  and  i t  be  was  applied  colonies.  The Smuts'  he  on  to  to as  those a  new  result  doctrine  to  applied to  the these  should  be  placed  nations  as  they  19 Quoted by T r e a t y i n H.R.  product  the  captured  the  unable  Mr. J . H. C o l t s o n Deb., S e p t e m b e r 17,  a  He  was  come of  never  to into  the  meant  to  German p o s s e s s i o n s .  ex-German under  General  however,  dissolution  Empires.  were  of  s t a t e s which had  of  Austro-Hungarian  the  territories,  The  provided  tutelage  of  more  to  by  themselves  stand  debate on the Peace 1919, pp. 12423-12424.  34  under the  ' s t r e n u o u s c o n d i t i o n s o f t h e modern w o r l d ' .  The  mandatory n a t i o n s were t o h o l d them as ' s a c r e d t r u s t s ' f o r civilization.  They were t o see t o t h e  'moral and m a t e r i a l  w e l l - b e i n g and the s o c i a l advancement o f t h e p e o p l e s 20 these t e r r i t o r i e s ' .  A p r o v i s i o n was  a l s o made t h a t  of such  t e r r i t o r i e s s h o u l d be opened t o the n a t i o n a l s o f a l l n a t i o n s f o r t r a d i n g and o t h e r l e g i t i m a t e p u r p o s e s .  T h i s was  the  s o - c a l l e d 'open door p o l i c y ' w h i c h Hughes t h o r o u g h l y detested.  He  s t r o n g l y maintained t h a t i t should not  a p p l i e d t o ex-German New  Guinea.  So v i o l e n t was  his  o p p o s i t i o n t h a t Clemenceau daubed him a c a n n i b a l . o p p o s i t i o n t o t h i s p o l i c y was Japanese e m i g r a t i o n t o New  be  Hughes'  due t o A u s t r a l i a ' s f e a r o f  G u i n e a and Japanese a g g r e s s i o n .  20 B a k e r , Voodrow W i l s o n and the W o r l d S e t t l e m e n t , p. 184. A Permanent Mandates Commission was l a t e r s e t up t o a d v i s e the League on a l l m a t t e r s r e l a t i n g t o the o b s e r v a n c e o f the Mandates. I t was made up o f n i n e members c h o s e n i n such a way t h a t the m a j o r i t y b e l o n g e d t o non-mandatory s t a t e s . (The membership was i n c r e a s e d t o t e n w i t h t h e a d m i s s i o n o f a German member i n 1927.) The members were s e l e c t e d on t h e b a s i s o f p e r s o n a l m e r i t and competence and d u r i n g t h e i r t e n u r e o f f i c e w i t h the Commission, t h e y were n o t t o h o l d Government j o b s i n t h e i r own c o u n t r i e s . An e x p e r t f r o m t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l L a b o u r O r g a n i z a t i o n a t t e n d e d the m e e t i n g s o f the Commission i n an a d v i s o r y c a p a c i t y when q u e s t i o n s c o n n e c t e d w i t h l a b o u r were b e i n g d i s c u s s e d . The Commission was p u r e l y an a d v i s o r y body. I t c o u l d n o t even make d i r e c t recommenda t i o n t o a mandatory and i t s recommendations t o the League C o u n c i l c o u l d be o v e r r u l e d by a C o u n c i l member o f a mandatory. I t t h e r e f o r e depended upon the p r e s t i g e o f i t s members. Such d i s t i n g u i s h e d p e r s o n a l i t i e s l i k e L o r d L u g a r d , OrmsbyGore, L o r d H a i l e y , M. Rappard and Mme D a n n e v i g s e r v e d on the Commission.  35 He  b e l i e v e d t h a t such, a p o l i c y a p p l i e d to New  Guinea would  be p r e j u d i c i a l t o A u s t r a l i a ' s economic and s t r a t e g i c ests.  T h i s was  inter-  r e v e a l e d i n h i s speech on the Mandate i n  the A u s t r a l i a n House of R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s : I ask my f e l l o w - c i t i z e n s throughout A u s t r a l i a t o r e a l i z e , what an open door f o r men and goods i n t o those i s l a n d s would mean. Our c o n t r o l of t r a d e and n a v i g a t i o n would be gone, and w i t h i n e i g h t y m i l e s o f us t h e r e would come p o u r i n g i n those who, when the hour s h a l l s t r i k e , c o u l d pounce on us on the mainland.21 A u s t r a l i a had been i n c o n s t a n t f e a r o f Japanese a g g r e s s i o n s i n c e the b e g i n n i n g o f the t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y .  She  had  watched Japan's r i s e t o m i l i t a r y and n a v a l power w i t h uneasiness.  I t was  h e r f e a r t h a t an o v e r - p o p u l a t e d  Japan  might d i v e r t h e r a t t e n t i o n t o s p a r s e l y - p o p u l a t e d A u s t r a l i a . She had r e l u c t a n t l y agreed t o Japan's o c c u p a t i o n o f the former German i s l a n d s i n the N o r t h P a c i f i c .  T h i s had  been  i n e v i t a b l e owing t o the i n v a l u a b l e Japanese n a v a l a s s i s t a n c e t o B r i t a i n d u r i n g the war.  The  o c c u p a t i o n of these  German i s l a n d s had brought Japan half-way was  a g r e a t cause of u n e a s i n e s s  to h e r .  captured  to A u s t r a l i a T h i s , coupled  and with  the f e a r of l o s i n g c e r t a i n economic advantages which might r e s u l t i f the  'open-door p o l i c y ' was  applied,  f o r Hughes' b i t t e r o p p o s i t i o n t o the p o l i c y . declared:  21 H.R.  "There s h o u l d be no  Deb..  September 10,  accounted He  bluntly  open-door i n r e g a r d t o the  1919,  p.  12174  36  i s l a n d s near A u s t r a l i a .  There s h o u l d be a b a r r e d and  c l o s e d door w i t h A u s t r a l i a as the g u a r d i a n  o f the door."  22  A compromise had t o be worked out t o p r o v i d e room f o r the v a r i o u s c o n f l i c t i n g views.  A s o l u t i o n was found i n Smuts'  p r o p o s a l t o c r e a t e a t h i r d - c l a s s mandate —  the ' C  by which the mandatory power would be a l l o w e d  class —  to administer  the mandated t e r r i t o r y as an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f i t s own ritory.  T h i s s a t i s f i e d everybody and New  ter-  Guinea, Samoa  and South-West A f r i c a were p l a c e d i n the c a t e g o r y  of  'C  c l a s s mandates. On December 17, 1920 o f the T e r r i t o r y o f New  a Mandate f o r t h e Government  Guinea i n accordance w i t h the  Covenant o f the League o f N a t i o n s  was c o n f e r r e d upon H i s  B r i t a n n i c M a j e s t y t o be e x e r c i s e d on H i s b e h a l f by the Government o f the Commonwealth  of A u s t r a l i a .  A certified  copy o f t h i s was r e c e i v e d by the A u s t r a l i a n Government i n A p r i l 1921  and i n May o f t h a t same y e a r a c i v i l  s t r a t i o n was e s t a b l i s h e d i n New E . A. Wisdom was a p p o i n t e d  Guinea.  as the C i v i l  admini-  Brigadier-General Administrator.  Hughes i n a debate on the Mandate summed up A u s t r a l i a ' s aim f o r a c q u i r i n g New  Guinea:  We t r i e d t o o b t a i n d i r e c t c o n t r o l ... but P r e s i d e n t W i l s o n ' s F o u r t e e n P o i n t s forbade i t and ... the p r i n c i p l e o f the  22 C i t e d i n J . Shepperd, A u s t r a l i a ' s I n t e r e s t s and P o l i c i e s i n the F a r E a s t , I.P.R. I n q u i r y S e r i e s , I n s t i t u t e o f P a c i f i c R e l a t i o n s , 1939, p . 19.  37 mandate was a c c e p t e d . Then the n a t u r e of t h e c o n t e s t changed, and s i n c e the mandate p r i n c i p l e was f o r c e d upon us we had t o see t h a t the f o r m o f t h e mandate was c o n s i s t e n t ; n o t o n l y w i t h our n a t i o n a l s a f e t y b u t w i t h our economic ^ i n d u s t r i a l and g e n e r a l w e l f are .O From what c a n be gathered A u s t r a l i a n Parliament,  from the debates i n  i t would seem t h a t A u s t r a l i a  to h o l d New Guinea as a " s a c r e d t r u s t " without its full  implications.  agreed  realizing  T h i s was borne out by t h e f a c t  that  throughout the d i s c u s s i o n on the mandate, most o f the p a r l i a m e n t a r i a n s never made mention o f t h e p o s i t i v e o b l i g a t i o n s which t h e mandate imposed on them —  the moral and  m a t e r i a l w e l l - b e i n g and the s o c i a l advancement o f t h e n a t i v e s of t h e T e r r i t o r y .  Even Prime M i n i s t e r Hughes d i d n o t touch  upon t h i s a t a l l .  He dwelt o n l y on the economic and  s t r a t e g i c advantages i t s e c u r e d  for Australia.  His right-  hand man, Joseph Cook, who had accompanied him t o t h e Peace C o n f e r e n c e , c o u l d o n l y see i n t h e T e r r i t o r y a source o f revenue f o r A u s t r a l i a : I n my o p i n i o n , v e r y s h o r t l y these i s l a n d s w i l l be a source o f revenue, and i f one may so p u t i t , a p r o f i t t o u s . This i s a very great gain t o A u s t r a l i a , and a g r e a t element i n the s e c u r i t y which we hope w i l l come t o us a s , i n the f u t u r e we develop t h e r e s o u r c e s o f these i s l a n d s f o r t h e b e n e f i t o f the Empire and the w o r l d . 24-  23 H.E. Deb.. September 10, 1919, p . 12174. 24 I b i d . , September 17, 1919, pp. 12408-12410.  38 The phrase  ' b e n e f i t o f t h e Empire and the world' i s v e r y  significant.  I t seemed t o i m p l y t h a t the mandate was n o t  t o be a d u a l one e x e r c i s e d i n such a way as t o be o f advantage b o t h t o the n a t i v e i n h a b i t a n t s on one hand and the Empire and the world on the o t h e r .  I t was t o be admini-  s t e r e d o n l y f o r t h e b e n e f i t o f t h e Empire and the w o r l d . Only one o r two members dwelt  on t h e importance  o f the  ' s a c r e d t r u s t ' from t h e p o i n t o f view o f i t s o b l i g a t i o n s t o the n a t i v e s o f New Guinea — and R e i d .  t h e y were S e n a t o r s  E e r r i c k s p o i n t e d out t o members t h a t :  Eerricks "In  e x e r c i s i n g c o n t r o l , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n what was German New Guinea,  t h e c a r e o f the n a t i v e s must be our f i r s t  ation." ^ 2  consider-  The heavy emphasis on the economic advantages t o  A u s t r a l i a brought  a t a u n t from S e n a t o r R e i d who d e c l a r e d :  "So f a r as annexations  i n t h e P a c i f i c a r e concerned our  opponents speak o f the mandatory powers which are t o be 2 g i v e n t o us as i f t h e y were t o be used f o r t r a d e Even people  purposes."  l i k e P e r r i c k s and R e i d who were aware o f t h e  n a t u r e o f t h e ' s a c r e d t r u s t ' were o n l y d i m l y c o n s c i o u s o f it.  They d i d n o t seem t o r e a l i z e v e r y f u l l y t h a t i n o r d e r  t o d i s c h a r g e c o m p l e t e l y the e n t r u s t e d r e s p o n s i b i l i t y a v i g i l a n t c a r e must be e x e r c i s e d and a c o n s t a n t  interest  maintained  They seemed  over the a f f a i r s o f the T e r r i t o r y .  25 H.R. Deb., September 26, 1919, pp. 12726-12727 26 I b i d . , September 26, 1919, p . 12733.  39 to assume t h a t once New  Guinea came under A u s t r a l i a n  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , the f u l f i l m e n t of these o b l i g a t i o n s would be automatic.  Reid declared:  " A p p r e c i a t i n g the democratic  s p i r i t of A u s t r a l i a as I do, the p o s s i b l e misuse of our 27 power does not t r o u b l e me."  '  This A u s t r a l i a n a t t i t u d e ,  o b j e c t i o n a b l e as i t might be, i s q u i t e understandable* A u s t r a l i a never accepted the s p i r i t o f the mandate system. Her determination  was t o annex New  Guinea and she  only  agreed r e l u c t a n t l y to the mandate system i n order to meet Wilson's wishes and on the understanding t h a t the 'C mandate would be 'the equivalent of a 999 compared w i t h f r e e h o l d ' .  years' lease  class as  To her t h e r e f o r e the 'mandate  system' was nothing more than a t h i n l y - v e i l e d d i s g u i s e f o r annexation.  27 H.R.  Deb.,  September 26, 1919,  p. 12733  28 C i t e d i n N. Mansergh, Survey of B r i t i s h Commonwealth A f f a i r s ; Problems of E x t e r n a l P o l i c y 1931-1939. London, Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1952, p. 14-5.  CHAPTER I I I THE  "SACRED TRUST" BEGINS  With the a c q u i s i t i o n of the mandate over Guinea,  New  immediate s t e p s were taken t o b r i n g t o an end  the  M i l i t a r y A d m i n i s t r a t i o n which had h i t h e r t o r u l e d the T e r r i t o r y and r e p l a c e i t w i t h a c i v i l 1921  a p r o c l a m a t i o n was  o p e r a t i o n the New  one.  7>  On -April  i s s u e d i n Canberra b r i n g i n g i n t o  Guinea A c t , 1 9 2 0  which had a l r e a d y been  1  passed by the A u s t r a l i a n P a r l i a m e n t i n a n t i c i p a t i o n o f the award o f the mandate.  The A c t a u t h o r i z e d the  Governor-  General o f A u s t r a l i a t o accept the mandate; v e s t e d the Government of the T e r r i t o r y i n an A d m i n i s t r a t o r t o be a p p o i n t e d by the Governor-General;  p r o v i d e d t h a t A c t s of  the P a r l i a m e n t o f A u s t r a l i a s h o u l d not a p p l y to the u n l e s s so e x p r e s s e d  Territory  or u n l e s s extended t o the T e r r i t o r y  the Governor-General,  who  was  by  a l s o v e s t e d w i t h the power of  making o r d i n a n c e s f o r the T e r r i t o r y .  The A c t embodied  w i t h i n i t s e l f the terms of the mandate, which r e q u i r e d the  1 Annual Report t o the League of N a t i o n s 1921-1924, p . 62. The term New Guinea as used i n t h i s t h e s i s r e f e r s o n l y t o the n o r t h - e a s t e r n p o r t i o n o f the whole I s l a n d of New Guinea. T h i s has won g e n e r a l acceptance. The Dutch p o r t i o n of New Guinea i s c a l l e d Dutch New Guinea w h i l e the A u s t r a l i a n c o l o n y i s known as Papua.  41 establishment  o f freedom of conscience,  p r o h i b i t e d the  slave trade and f o r c e d labour, forbade the establishment  of  m i l i t a r y o r naval bases i n the t e r r i t o r y and the t r a i n i n g of the n a t i v e s f o r means other than p o l i c e d u t i e s or f o r defence of the t e r r i t o r y , and banned the supply of i n t o x i c a t i n g d r i n k s t o the n a t i v e s .  F i n a l l y , the A c t provided  t h a t the Governor-General should submit an Annual Report t o the League C o u n c i l c o n t a i n i n g f u l l i n f o r m a t i o n as t o the measures being taken t o c a r r y out the 'sacred  trust'.  In e s t a b l i s h i n g c o n t r o l over New Guinea, A u s t r a l i a d i d not need t o develop a new system.  There was  already at hand the system of c o l o n i a l r u l e e s t a b l i s h e d i n her adjacent colony of Papua, which provided a b a s i s f o r the c i v i l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n New Guinea.  What she d i d ,  t h e r e f o r e , was t o transpose the Papuan system t o New Guinea w i t h some s l i g h t m o d i f i c a t i o n s .  At the head of the  A d m i n i s t r a t i o n was a C i v i l A d m i n i s t r a t o r t o whom the e n t i r e task of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n was e n t r u s t e d .  He was not a s s i s t e d  by any l e g i s l a t u r e , e x e c u t i v e , or a d v i s o r y c o u n c i l . The  j u d i c i a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n was vested i n a  2 I n Papua, the head of the A d m i n i s t r a t i o n was the Lieutenant-Governor, a s s i s t e d i n h i s task by an A d v i s o r y C o u n c i l . I n New Guinea the A d m i n i s t r a t o r was supreme w i t h no a d v i s o r y c o u n c i l t o a s s i s t him. I n 1926 p r o v i s i o n was made f o r the formation of an Advisory C o u n c i l composed of the heads of Department t o a s s i s t the A d m i n i s t r a t o r . I n 1933 the A d v i s o r y C o u n c i l was a b o l i s h e d and Executive and L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l s were s e t up.  42 C e n t r a l Court and i n D i s t r i c t possessed j u r i s d i c t i o n District  Courts.  in civil  The C e n t r a l Court  and c r i m i n a l c a s e s ; the  C o u r t s were m a i n l y c o u r t s o f r e c o r d p r e s i d e d over  by the d i s t r i c t o f f i c e r s . jurisdiction  in civil  from a D i s t r i c t  They p o s s e s s e d o n l y l i m i t e d  and c r i m i n a l c a s e s . ^  An appeal l a y  Court t o the C e n t r a l Court whose d e c i s i o n  was f i n a l u n l e s s the A d m i n i s t r a t o r gave p e r m i s s i o n f o r f u r t h e r appeal to h i m s e l f . F o r the purpose  o f A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , the p r e v a i l i n g  German system was r e t a i n e d w i t h some s l i g h t number o f d i s t r i c t s .  changes i n the  The Mandated T e r r i t o r y (German o l d  P r o t e c t o r a t e ) was d i v i d e d i n t o t e n d i s t r i c t s , a District  Officer.  each under  He was a m a g i s t r a t e o f the D i s t r i c t  Court and o f the Court f o r N a t i v e A f f a i r s .  Apart  from  h e l p i n g i n the g e n e r a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f the d i s t r i c t s , he took c o n t r o l o f the T e r r i t o r y w h i l e the D i s t r i c t  Officer  was on p a t r o l o r absent from the d i s t r i c t and i n more important d i s t r i c t s he was u s u a l l y l e f t station.  There  the D i s t r i c t  i n charge  was a l s o the P a t r o l O f f i c e r who  Officer i n a l l fieldwork.  o f a sub-  assisted  He was a l s o a  m a g i s t r a t e o f the C o u r t s f o r N a t i v e A f f a i r s . d u t y o f the D i s t r i c t O f f i c e r and h i s s t a f f  I t was the  to inspect a l l  p l a n t a t i o n s r e g u l a r l y and t o pay p e r i o d i c a l v i s i t s t o a l l  3 Annual Report t o the League o f N a t i o n s , 1921-1922, p . 60. 4 L a t e r the number o f d i s t r i c t s was reduced t o seven.  43 n a t i v e v i l l a g e s under Government c o n t r o l or The O f f i c e r s was  t a s k of s u p e r v i s i n g the work of the entrusted  to the  o f f i c i a l made r e g u l a r v i s i t s i n the  influence.  T e r r i t o r y , and  was  District  District  Inspector.  This  of i n s p e c t i o n t o a l l d i s t r i c t s  charged w i t h the duty o f  gating i r r e g u l a r i t i e s i n d i s t r i c t  administration  investi-  and  any  o t h e r important matters t h a t might he brought t o h i s n o t i c e . To h e l p throughout the o r g a n i z e d by  d i s t r i c t s there  the  Administration. outstations  i n the t a s k o f m a i n t a i n i n g  Germans and The  under the  was  native p o l i c e  force  c o n t r o l of d i s t r i c t  amongst the n a t i v e s  The  p a s s e d by the  Australian  i n Rabaul,  but  o f f i c e r s were  d u t i e s o f the  native  and  the  o r d e r and  sup-  of those p r a c t i c e s which were  i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the p r i n c i p l e of In 1921,  was  order  t a k e n over by the  p o l i c e were the maintenance of law  considered  and  P o l i c e Headquarters was  e s t a b l i s h e d i n each d i s t r i c t .  pression  the  law  the Laws Repeal and  morality.  A d o p t i n g Ordinance  A u s t r a l i a n Parliament a b o l i s h i n g a l l  a c t s , s t a t u t e s , laws and measures e n a c t e d by the  o r d i n a n c e s and  other  German Government and  legislative declared  to  5 extend or a p p l i e d t o or i n f o r c e i n New ordinance vested title,  estate  5 Annual  and  Guinea.  i n the A u s t r a l i a n Government the  The 'right  o t h e r i n t e r e s t or c o n t r o l ' o f the  Report to the League of N a t i o n s ,  German  1914—1921,  p.  19*  44 Government, and  I t p r o v i d e d f o r the p r e s e r v a t i o n o f the r i g h t s  customs o f n a t i v e s and d e c l a r e d t h a t such customs and  usages, s u b j e c t t o the p r o v i s i o n o f any o t h e r f u t u r e nance, s h o u l d c o n t i n u e  i n e x i s t e n c e i n so f a r as t h e y were  not repugnant t o the g e n e r a l p r i n c i p l e s o f humanity. provide  ordi-  To  a s u b s t i t u t e f o r the German laws t h a t had now been  abrogated, p r o v i s i o n was made f o r c e r t a i n A c t s o f t h e Parliament  of A u s t r a l i a , a l l o r d i n a n c e s  and l e g i s l a t i v e  made by the a u t h o r i t y a d m i n i s t e r i n g t h e T e r r i t o r y  acts  during  m i l i t a r y o c c u p a t i o n , c e r t a i n A c t s and S t a t u t e s o f the S t a t e o f Queensland, c e r t a i n S t a t u t e s and laws o f E n g l a n d and c e r t a i n ordinances  o f t h e T e r r i t o r y o f Papua t o a p p l y as t h e  laws o f t h e T e r r i t o r y . and  On the b a s i s o f t h i s  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e arrangements, the c i v i l  legislation  administration  assumed a c t i v e l y the t a s k o f c a r r y i n g out the s a c r e d The the e x t e n s i o n  duty.  A d m i n i s t r a t i o n d e c l a r e d as i t s immediate aims o f i t s r u l e through the whole o f the T e r r i t o r y ,  the improvement o f the l a b o u r c o n d i t i o n s and o f n a t i v e a g r i c u l t u r e and t h e e d u c a t i o n sense.  I n t h i s worthy t a s k o f improving  moral w e l f a r e with a host nature  o f the n a t i v e s i n i t s broadest the ' m a t e r i a l and  o f the n a t i v e s , t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n was f a c e d  o f problems.  o f the country.  The f i r s t North-east  problem was posed by the New Guinea, l i k e the o t h e r  p a r t s o f New Guinea i s an e x t r e m e l y rugged and mountainous country.  The mountains r i s e  s t e e p l y from the Coast and  r e a c h h e i g h t s o f 14,000 f e e t i n some c a s e s .  The c o a s t a l a r e a  45 is  one v a s t sweep o f mangrove swamp, marshy,  and a home f o r m a l a r i a - h e a r i n g mosquitoes. grove swamp and a l o n g the Coast,  unhealthy Behind t h e man-  t h e r e i s a narrow c o a s t a l  p l a i n s t r e t c h i n g from t h e Dutch b o r d e r t o t h e mouth o f t h e Sepik R i v e r .  Here and t h e r e t o o on t h e Mandang c o a s t ,  around A s t r o l a b e Bay and Huron G u l f and a l o n g t h e two g r e a t rivers —  S e p i k and Ramu —  are i s o l a t e d p a t c h e s  The n a v i g a b l e r i v e r s are v e r y few,  most o f them b e i n g  a c t e r i z e d by c a t a r a c t s and t o r r e n t s . for  The whole a r e a  t h e h i g h l a n d s i s covered by dense and almost  tropical forest.  of lowlands. charexcept  impenetrable  The c l i m a t e , as t y p i c a l o f a l l e q u a t o r i a l  areas o f t h e world,  i s h o t , humid and wet.  The o n l y excep-  t i o n s are the h i g h l a n d s where owing t o the a l t i t u d e t h e climate i s pleasant.  The h i g h temperature and h u m i d i t y  which i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f the g r e a t e r p a r t o f t h e a r e a i s v e r y o p p r e s s i v e and unbearable of  t o white p e o p l e .  A t t h e time  A u s t r a l i a n occupation o f the T e r r i t o r y , diseases o f  m a l a r i a , dysentery,  :  t r o p i c a l sores, f i l i a r i a s i s ,  intestinal  p a r a s i t e s l i k e hookworm were widespread t a k i n g t o l l o f the life  o f many.  The rugged n a t u r e  o f the t e r r i t o r y , the  dense t r o p i c a l f o r e s t , the mangrove swamp w i t h i t s d e a d l y s t e n c h and m a l a r i a - b e a r i n g mosquitoes, the e n e r v a t i n g h o t , humid and wet c l i m a t e , t h e o p p r e s s i v e heat —  a l l these posed  v e r y g r e a t problems t o the t a s k o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . r e s u l t o f these f a c t o r s , throughout o c c u p a t i o n o f New Guinea — years —  As a  t h e p e r i o d o f German  a period lasting for t h i r t y  o n l y t h r e e q u a r t e r s o f the i s l a n d s were e x p l o r e d  46 and l e s s t h a n t h a t were brought under e f f e c t i v e Even t h i s much was a c h i e v e d under v e r y t r y i n g  control.  conditions  by h e r o i c a d v e n t u r e r s who i n the i n t e r e s t o f s c i e n c e , graphy, o r o f humanity had f a c e d undaunted adverse c o n d i t i o n s o f New Guinea.  geo-  the n a t u r a l l y  T h i s problem was t o  c o n t i n u e t o plague the A u s t r a l i a n A d m i n i s t r a t i o n and c o n s t i t u t e d a major o b s t a c l e t o h e r i n the d i s c h a r g e o f h e r sacred  trust. A p a r t from geography and c l i m a t e the s o c i e t y o f  New Guinea p r e s e n t e d another type o f d i f f i c u l t y t o the Administration.  New Guinea s o c i e t y i s a m e l t i n g - p o t  —  7  a medley o f p e o p l e o f d i f f e r e n t r a c i a l o r i g i n s . '  A l o n g the  c o a s t a l f r i n g e o f New I r e l a n d , New B r i t a i n and New Guinea (mainland) were t o be found the Melanasiahs:; ;• on the mainland were the N e g r i t o e s and the Papuaus; the P o l y n e s i a n s l i v e d i n the extreme  e a s t and the M i c r o n e s i a n s i n the most  w e s t e r l y o f the i s l a n d s .  F o r many c e n t u r i e s p a s t t h e r e had  been a c o n s t a n t i n t e r m i n g l i n g and i n t e r m a r r y i n g between p e o p l e s o f d i f f e r e n t r a c i a l s t o c k which gave b i r t h t o a s o c i e t y which c a n o n l y be p a r a l l e l e d i n L a t i n America. New Guinea s o c i e t y was a l s o h i g h l y  fragmented.  The v i l l a g e was the u n i t o f s o c i a l o r p o l i t i c a l l i f e .  In  6 Annual Report t o the League o f N a t i o n s , 1921-1922, p . 6. 7 I b i d . , pp. 25-40. See a l s o Reed, The Making o f Modern New Guinea, Chap. 1. There i s a w e a l t h o f l i t e r a t u r e on this p a r t i c u l a r subject.  4-7  f a r t o o many a r e a s means o f government were n o t i n s t i t u tionalized. achieved  Here and. t h e r e l e a d e r s were t o be f o u n d who  t h e i r p o s i t i o n as a r e s u l t o f w e a l t h  or valour  during the i n t e r n e c i n e t r i b a l warfare  which c h a r a c t e r i z e d  the p o l y g o t community o f New G u i n e a .  This sort of h i g h l y  a t o m i s e d s o c i e t y o f m u t u a l l y h o s t i l e groups s p e a k i n g u n i n t e l l i g i b l e languages presented to the task o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n .  a very great  mutually  difficulty  The p o s i t i o n h a s been a p t l y  summarized by L o r d H a i l e y : I t may n o t be e n t i r e l y c o r r e c t t o speak of n a t i v e s o c i e t y i n New G u i n e a as a n a r c h i c , but i t c o u l d be j u s t l y d e s c r i b e d as a t o m i c . F o r t h e most p a r t t h e c o u n t r y c o n s i s t s o f a t a n g l e o f t i n y c o m m u n i t i e s , many o f w h i c h c a n h a r d l y be d i g n i f i e d by t h e name o f v i l l a g e s , and most o f w h i c h were h a b i t u a l l y at feud w i t h t h e i r neighbours. There were l a c k i n g t h e r e f o r e t h e l a r g e r t r i b a l a s s o c i a t i o n s or the organized n a t i v e a u t h o r i t i e s w h i c h c o u l d be a d o p t e d i n A f r i c a o r p a r t s o f t h e F a r E a s t as a g e n c i e s o f l o c a l rule.° T h i s s o r t o f s o c i e t y r e c a l l s t o mind t h e s t a t e o f N a t u r e d e s c r i b e d by Hobbes, where no p o s s i b i l i t y o f a r t s ,  science,  and c u l t i v a t i o n e x i s t s ; where man i s c o n s t a n t l y a t war w i t h h i s n e i g h b o u r ; and where man's l i f e  ' i s s o l i t a r y , poor, nasty,  b r u t i s h , and s h o r t ' . The n a t i v e s l i v e d a t a v e r y l o w l e v e l o f e x i s t e n c e  8 L o r d H a i l e y i n h i s I n t r o d u c t i o n t o L. P. M a i r , A u s t r a l i a i n New G u i n e a , London, C h r i s t o p h e r , 194-8, pp. XI7-XV.  —  48 money  was  Shifting  unknown,  cultivation  implements of  of  was  sanitation  were  highly  healing  people,  the was  unfamiliar  was  a  She  was  from  hungry  capital into  that  true  the  she  the  necessary  had had  her  treatment  and  at  for  their  this  of  to  welfare.  of  deal  she It  witchcraft  common  peculiar  Administration.  small  were  rapid,  afford  Guinea. needs  others Australia  population.  people.  home  the  the  Australia.  not  New  of  climate,  of  methods  economic  Being to  sink  Self-interest before  sat-  territory.  races,  experience  these  period  could  administering  subject  in  on h e r  satisfying  mandated  as  of  she  the  there  a process  demands  and  presented  relatively  development  dictate  far  governance  lacked  time  herself,  the  of  As the  this  Knowledge  Australian  situation a  great  its  of.  stone-age  backwardness  problems,  with  which  were  and  the  above  crude  Sorcery  organization to  of  unheard  everywhere.  the  country  internal  country  naturally  isfying  the  at  much money would  the  undergoing  for  order  aid  sacrifices  social  made  the  Evidently,  from  agriculture  lacking.  difficulties  the  growing  changes  and  of  of  Apart deriving  entirely  nature form  with  prevalent  practiced  the  scientific  system  diseases.  'anarchic' and  and  with  a  tropical  was and  the  concerned, the  Australian  had  left  had not  manifested  is  true  that  any she  It  aborigines  much t o  be  great had  or  Australia  personnel.  peoples  also  dependency,  is but  desired desire  been  49 a d m i n i s t e r i n g Papua s i n c e 1906  but a l l those who  had  investi-  gated the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of t h a t t e r r i t o r y had eome t o the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t the p r o g r e s s a c h i e v e d i n t h a t t e r r i t o r y not due  t o the e f f o r t of the Government but was  of the energy of L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r ,  the  was,  result  S i r H e r b e r t Murray.  L o r d H a i l e y has d e s c r i b e d Murray a s : ... an o u t s t a n d i n g p e r s o n a l i t y i n the c o l o n i a l world, u n i v e r s a l l y r e c o g n i z e d as humane i n temperament, r u t h l e s s i n d e a l i n g w i t h abuse of a u t h o r i t y , and u n s p a r i n g i n p e r s o n a l e f f o r t on b e h a l f of a people t o whom he was d e e p l y a t t a c h e d and who were d e e p l y a t t a c h e d t o him....9 I n 1920  a Royal Commission a t the s u g g e s t i o n o f  S i r H e r b e r t Murray had  i n v e s t i g a t e d amongst o t h e r t h i n g s  the p o s s i b i l i t y o f u n i f y i n g the two  t e r r i t o r i e s but  r e j e c t e d the i d e a on the f o l l o w i n g g r o u n d s . ^ 1  had  Immediate  Union would i n v o l v e the a d o p t i o n of a l l Papuan laws and the c a n c e l l a t i o n o f the whole l e g a l system under which the mandated T e r r i t o r y had  grown up.  Such a complete change  c a r r i e d out suddenly c o u l d o n l y c r e a t e c o n f u s i o n .  In  a d d i t i o n i t would be i m p o s s i b l e t o p r e s e n t the League o f N a t i o n s w i t h an Annual Report which would g i v e the  facts  n e c e s s a r y t o enable the C o u n c i l o f the League t o a s c e r t a i n  9 Lord H a i l e y i n h i s Introduction to Mair, A u s t r a l i a i n New Guinea, p. XV. 10 I n t e r i m and F i n a l Reports o f the R o y a l Commission on L a t e German New Guinea, 1920, pp. 2 3 - 7 1 •  50  the r e a l p o s i t i o n of the mandated T e r r i t o r y and whether A u s t r a l i a was  r e a l l y d i s c h a r g i n g her d u t i e s .  i s because the b u s i n e s s T e r r i t o r y would be  determine  and  the  This  s t a t i s t i c s o f the mandated  so interwoven w i t h those o f Papua t h a t  the p o s s i b i l i t y of a f f o r d i n g the League the n e c e s s a r y f o r s c r u t i n y and  opportunity  c r i t i c i s m s would be l o s t .  r e j e c t i o n o f the i d e a of amalgamation was,  This  perhaps, a  great  l o s s t o the mandated T e r r i t o r y which might have g r e a t l y b e n e f i t t e d under the b e n e v o l e n t r u l e o f Murray. A u s t r a l i a i n s t a r t i n g on h e r therefore confronted  with a host  graphy of the c o u n t r y ,  sacred mission  of problems —  i t s c l i m a t e , the  'anarchic'  o f the s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n of the p e o p l e , . h e r with her  own  the  geonature  preoccupation  economic development, and h e r l a c k o f e x p e r i -  ence i n c o l o n i a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n .  A l l these problems  c o n s t i t u t e d a handicap t o the t a s k o f A d m i n i s t r a t i o n must be t a k e n i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n , i f an a c c u r a t e assessment o f h e r achievements i n New at.  was  and  Guinea i s t o be  and impartial arrived  CHAPTER IV GOVERNMENT AND ADMINISTRATION, 1920-1940 The  E x t e n s i o n o f Government C o n t r o l  When C i v i l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n was e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1921, o n l y a v e r y s m a l l p o r t i o n o f New Guinea was under e f f e c t i v e control.  The Germans had l i m i t e d t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s m a i n l y  t o t h e two i s l a n d s o f Manus and New I r e l a n d and t o some p o r t i o n s o f New B r i t a i n and B o u g a i n v i l l e , and a l o n g the c o a s t s on t h e M a i n l a n d .  The A u s t r a l i a n m i l i t a r y  admini-  s t r a t i o n which governed the T e r r i t o r y from 1914-1921 was o n l y concerned w i t h m a i n t a i n i n g  the s t a t u s quo.  i n k e e p i n g w i t h i n t e r n a t i o n a l m i l i t a r y law. war  T h i s was  Moreover, the  p e r i o d was n o t t h e time t o engage i n e x p l o r i n g new  and e x t e n d i n g  t h e i n f l u e n c e o f government.  areas  As a r e s u l t ,  considerable  areas o f New Guinea remained a complete b l a n k  on the map.  Y e t these  areas harboured v e r y l a r g e  n e e d i n g the a t t e n t i o n o f Government.  populations  The t a s k o f e x t e n d i n g  Government c o n t r o l and a u t h o r i t y became p a r t i c u l a r l y n e c e s s a r y i n o r d e r t o p r o t e c t those under Government c o n t r o l .  n a t i v e s who had a l r e a d y come  These n a t i v e s who had been  taught  t o abandon the laws o f the j u n g l e , l a y down t h e i r bows and arrows, and s e t t l e down t o p e a c e f u l l i f e ,  were b e i n g  52 c o n s t a n t l y r a i d e d by those t r i b e s which were s t i l l the sphere  o f Government i n f l u e n c e .  gold-seekers of  outside  Furthermore, the  were c o n s t a n t l y p e n e t r a t i n g beyond the p a l e  c i v i l i z a t i o n i n t o the u n c o n t r o l l e d a r e a s , w i t h  fatal  consequences b o t h t o themselves and t o the n a t i v e s w i t h whom t h e y came i n c o n t a c t .  F o r these r e a s o n s ,  g r e a t e s t t a s k s f a c i n g the A d m i n i s t r a t i o n was its  r u l e over the whole o f New  Guinea —  one  of the  that of  a very  extending  difficult  and u n e n v i a b l e  t a s k when one  the c o u n t r y —  i t s h i g h mountains and deep chasms and  almost  impenetrable The  to  nature  c o n s i d e r s the rugged n a t u r e  of i t s dense t r o p i c a l  which peace and throughout  the  forest.  A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , n o t h i n g daunted, s e t  t h i s t a s k and a l o n g programme was  itself  drawn up by means o f  good government would be u l t i m a t e l y extended  the whole of New  Guinea.  The  task of achieving  t h i s o b j e c t i v e f e l l t o the D i s t r i c t O f f i c e r s and t h e i r Before t h i s t a s k was was  of  undertaken,  the whole of the  c l a s s i f i e d into five different areas.  1  the a r e a under complete government c o n t r o l .  Territory  F i r s t , there  was  This included  areas o f the T e r r i t o r y where the census had been t a k e n i n which an unarmed c o n s t a b l e c o u l d go t o a v i l l a g e a r r e s t a n a t i v e o f f e n d e r w i t h the f u l l  staffs.  assurance  and  and  t h a t he  1 Annual Report to the League o f N a t i o n s , 1922-1923, pp. 23-24. See a l s o G. Townsend, "The A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f the Mandated T e r r i t o r y of New Guinea," G e o g r a p h i c a l J o u r n a l , v o l . 82 (1933), P- 4-24.  53 would be  s u p p o r t e d by the n a t i v e s  duties.  Then t h e r e  This included  was  the  i n the performance of h i s  a r e a under government i n f l u e n c e .  areas which had  been p a t r o l l e d and  brought  under government i n f l u e n c e t o such an e x t e n t t h a t the and p r o p e r t y  o f white men  were r e l a t i v e l y s a f e , and  the n a t i v e s were accustomed t o p a y i n g v i s i t s t o the O f f i c e r f o r advice  or f o r s e t t l e m e n t of d i s p u t e s .  lives  where District The  t h i r d c l a s s embraced a l l areas which were under p a r t i a l government i n f l u e n c e .  This consisted  p e n e t r a t e d by p a t r o l s and  where some c o n t a c t  e s t a b l i s h e d w i t h the n a t i v e s . constable  of a r e a s which had  would be t o l e r a t e d but  g i v e n no The  s i s t e d of a r e a s p e n e t r a t e d by p a t r o l s .  but  of the  was  out  f o u r t h c l a s s conThis included  anthropologists.  not  y e t v i s i t e d by any  had  y e t been  those  been made  established.  white men  and  of bounds f o r w h i t e s except f o r the  s t r a t i o n o f f i c i a l s and  been  in  the unknown a r e a c o n s i s t i n g o f those  o f the T e r r i t o r y not were by law  assistance  T e r r i t o r y where i n i t i a l c o n t a c t  where f r i e n d l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s had  F i n a l l y , there  already  In such a r e a s , an unarmed  making an a r r e s t of a l o c a l n a t i v e .  portions  had  been  such people as m i s s i o n a r i e s  A f t e r t h i s was  done and  parts  which  Adminiand  each D i s t r i c t  O f f i c e r became a c q u a i n t e d w i t h the degree of government i n f l u e n c e i n each s e c t i o n of h i s d i s t r i c t , t h e n the work of penetration  w i t h a view t o b r i n g i n g e v e n t u a l l y  T e r r i t o r i e s under complete Government i n f l u e n c e  F o r the purpose, a method of p e a c e f u l  a l l the began.  penetration  54 known as t h e hase-camp system was g e n e r a l l y employed. system had been employed w i t h c o n s i d e r a b l e a d j a c e n t A u s t r a l i a n c o l o n y o f Papua.  success  This  i n the  I t i s an economical  system and has proved h i g h l y s u c c e s s f u l as a means o f e s t a b l i s h i n g contact with the n a t i v e s . o f the system i s the p a t r o l . i n t o two c l a s s e s . which o p e r a t e s  The c h i e f  instrument  P a t r o l s c a n be d i v i d e d  roughly  F i r s t i s the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p a t r o l  o n l y i n areas under complete c o n t r o l f o r  p u r e l y a d m i n i s t r a t i v e purposes, such as t a x - c o l l e c t i n g , census t a k i n g , i n s p e c t i o n o f i n d e n t u r e d  l a b o u r and t h e l i k e .  Then t h e r e i s t h e p e n e t r a t i n g p a t r o l employed i n the extension areas,  o f the i n f l u e n c e o f the A d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n t o new  o r c o n s o l i d a t i n g t h e i n f l u e n c e a l r e a d y gained i n  areas p r e v i o u s l y v i s i t e d b u t n o t y e t under c o n t r o l . The system o f p e a c e f u l p e n e t r a t i o n r e q u i r e d a g r e a t d e a l o f planning.  A p a t r o l p a r t y had t o be o r g a n i z e d  f o r every p o s s i b l e contingency  before  and equipped  s e t t i n g out.  Care  must be t a k e n t o ensure t h a t s u f f i c i e n t f o o d and u t e n s i l s f o r o f f i c e r s , p o l i c e and c a r r i e r s were t a k e n a l o n g w i t h t e n t s and m e d i c i n e s i n case o f i l l n e s s . various types  together  Moreover,  o f t r a d e goods must be c a r r i e d by means o f  which f o o d c o u l d be p u r c h a s e d from t h e n a t i v e s , as w e l l as presents  f o r d i s t r i b u t i o n t o t h e important  men and women i n  the v a r i o u s n a t i v e communities w i t h whom f r i e n d l y  2 Annual Report t o t h e League o f N a t i o n s ,  contact  1930-1931, p . 96.  55 might be e s t a b l i s h e d .  Then an unknown a r e a was mapped out  f o r p e n e t r a t i o n and a p a t r o l p a r t y c o n s i s t i n g o f an o f f i c e r w i t h about t e n n a t i v e c o n s t a b l e s and c a r r i e r s s e t out on i t s task.  As t h e p a r t y proceeded i n l a n d , s e r v i c e s o f  i n t e r p r e t e r s were e n l i s t e d and as t h e u s u a l t h i n g was f o r s e v e r a l languages t o be spoken even w i t h i n a v e r y  limited  a r e a , t h r e e o r f o u r i n t e r p r e t e r s might be employed. a s u f f i c i e n t a r e a had been p e n e t r a t e d  When  by a p a t r o l , a  s u i t a b l e l o c a t i o n was s e l e c t e d f o r a base-camp as the headquarters f o r the p a t r o l o f f i c e r .  I n d o i n g t h i s , care was  e x e r c i s e d t h a t such an area was chosen near t h e c e n t e r o f the d i f f e r e n t communities i n the r e g i o n .  T h i s had t o be done  so as n o t t o appear p a r t i a l t o any one p a r t i c u l a r v i l l a g e a t h i n g which might rouse  the enmity o f the o t h e r .  —  When  t h i s has been done, i n a m a t t e r o f weeks, news must have gone round t h a t the 'Government' was i n t h e i r midst and eager t o . t r a d e w i t h a l l those who were keen.  As a r e s u l t  t h e r e would come from n e i g h b o u r i n g  v i l l a g e s curious natives  bent on s e e i n g what was g o i n g on.  Contact  was thus e s t a -  b l i s h e d w i t h groups from d i f f e r e n t v i l l a g e s and g i f t s were d i s t r i b u t e d and t r a d e c a r r i e d on w i t h them.  In a matter of  few weeks, i f t h e o f f i c e r b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e n a t i v e s were already convinced  o f the p e a c e f u l i n t e n t i o n o f the p a t r o l  and were f r i e n d l y , he s t a r t e d t o p a t r o l t h e a r e a .  A l l the  v i l l a g e s were v i s i t e d , g i f t s once more d i s t r i b u t e d and w h i l e compliments were b e i n g exchanged, t h e o f f i c e r s e i z e d  56 the  o p p o r t u n i t y t o e x p l a i n the  system of  administration.  and c u t t i n g s fruits  were  resthouse  c o n s t r u c t e d f o r the use  tribal  officer  tribes.  the nature  O p p o r t u n i t y was a l s o —  the  within three followed.  luluai, of  their  were  out gardens  sent.  government  —  area at  police  village tultul.  there  consolidation camps w e r e  intervals  native  down f o r to act  of  a  constables  placed  day's with  t h e i r own h o m e s ,  a p e r i o d of  several  as i n s t r u c t o r s t o  t e a c h i n g t h e m how t o r a i s e  them a r u d i m e n t a r y k n o w l e d g e  same t i m e e x p l a i n i n g t o its  health,  neighbouring  and t h e m e d i c a l  Here t h e y e r e c t e d  and s e t t l e d  newly discovered natives  the  customs,  and t h e i r  seized to appoint  selected  They were  and i m p a r t i n g t o  infor-  t h e i r general  and c u l t u r e ,  tultul  During  a b a s e camp u s u a l l y came t o a n e n d  To t h e s e c a m p s ,  at  the  p o i n t s i n the  months s t a y .  while  patrols.  of the p e o p l e ,  For t h i s purpose n a t i v e  t h e i r wives  the  seeds  to c o l l e c t  months and t h e n the p e r i o d o f  strategic  laid  of future  and s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s ,  The l i f e  walk.  visited  and t r a d i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the  officials  and  t o be p l a n t e d a n d a  took the t r o u b l e  c o n d i t i o n s , t h e i r language  political  at  I n each v i l l a g e  d i s t r i b u t e d to the n a t i v e s  m a t i o n as r e g a r d s  living  government  of European v e g e t a b l e s and n o n - i n d i g e n o u s  t h i s p e r i o d , the  their  aims of  of  the  new  crops  sanitation  them t h e p u r p o s e  of  demands a n d p r o h i b i t i o n s .  3 The l u l u a i s y s t e m i s d e s c r i b e d i n d e t a i l i n t h e on N a t i v e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n .  section  57 The  t a s k of p e a c e f u l p e n e t r a t i o n was  and p a i n s t a k i n g one. can p o s s e s s  —  I t demanded a l l the q u a l i t i e s a  man  courage, p e r s i s t e n c e and c o o l n e s s i n the  f a c e of danger. the n a t i v e s who s e c l u d e d domain. The  an arduous  At times p a t r o l s met  with h o s t i l i t y  from  resented i n t r u s i o n into t h e i r h i t h e r t o At o t h e r t i m e s , t h e y met  with  friendliness.  f o l l o w i n g e x t r a c t t a k e n from the r e p o r t of a p a t r o l a t  Ambuti c l e a r l y demonstrates  this.  The n a t i v e s demonstrated t h e i r d i s a p p r o v a l of our i n t r u s i o n by e x c i t e d exclamations. As i f by magic, the shore was l i n e d up by w a r r i o r s i n war p a i n t and feathers, brandishing formidable-looking spears. I t was sometime b e f o r e I was a b l e t o speak t o them through my i n t e r preters. I e x p l a i n e d t o them t h a t my m i s s i o n was of a f r i e n d l y n a t u r e , and I d e c i d e d to endeavour to l a n d . Seeing t h a t my a t t i t u d e was f r i e n d l y , t h e y r e t r e a t e d some t e n paces and b u i l t a b a r r i c a d e o f s p e a r s , and i n t i m a t e d t h a t t h a t was the boundary p a s t which I was not t o go. N o t i c i n g a number of bad s e p t i c s o r e s amongst the d e f e n d e r s , I walked up t o one w a r r i o r , who had an awful sore e x t e n d i n g from the knee t o the a n k l e , and persuaded him t o s i t down. He d i d so, but would not r e l i n q u i s h h i s spear. I s e t to work and r e n d e r e d what f i r s t a i d a s s i s t a n c e my e x p e r i e n c e and m e d i c a l box c o u l d a f f o r d , and when the bandage was t i e d I s i g n e d him to get up. He endeavoured t o show h i s a p p r e c i a t i o n of my l a b o u r by s h a k i n g hands w i t h me and p a t t i n g me on each s i d e o f the f a c e and p u l l i n g my nose. F o r two hours I was o c c u p i e d i n d r e s s i n g the s o r e s o f a number of men. By t h i s time i t was j u s t on dusk and I n o t i c e d t h a t q u i t e a number were f r i e n d l y towards me, though t h e r e were s t i l l some who showed some s i g n s of m i s t r u s t and o t h e r s who were a n t a gonistic. I d e c i d e d b e f o r e i t became  58  too dark t o r e t u r n t o the p i n n a c e and i n f o r m e d them o f my i n t e n t i o n , i n t i m a t i n g t h a t I would come ashore a g a i n i n the morning and t h a t I would t h e n go i n t o t h e i r village.4The  base camp system o f p e a c e f u l p e n e t r a t i o n was  a v e r y sound one although  i t i s tedious.  By t h i s system the  A d m i n i s t r a t i o n might have been able t o open up v e r y peaceably a considerable  p o r t i o n o f t h e T e r r i t o r y i f i t had n o t  been p l a g u e d by two important problems — and  shortage o f s t a f f .  l a c k o f funds  These two problems arose from the  f a c t t h a t the A u s t r a l i a n Government was u n w i l l i n g t o make grants  f o r the development o f the T e r r i t o r y .  The Admini-  s t r a t i o n was n o t unaware o f t h i s f o r i t always complained that i t s e f f o r t s to provide  adequate a d m i n i s t r a t i o n were  f r e q u e n t l y thwarted by shortage o f s t a f f . o f f i c i a l s were m o s t l y r e t u r n e d or no e x p e r i e n c e  Furthermore, the  s o l d i e r s who p o s s e s s e d  of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n .  little  I n a d d i t i o n , some o f  them were a l r e a d y t o o o l d t o engage i n the arduous t a s k o f •peaceful penetration' the cadet  o f New Guinea.  The i n t r o d u c t i o n o f  system i n 1 9 2 5 by which young men were r e c r u i t e d  i n t o the s e r v i c e a f t e r a short p e r i o d o f t r a i n i n g at the  4- Annual Report t o the League o f N a t i o n s , 1927-1928, pp. 6 2 - 6 3 . I t was a common e x p e r i e n c e f o r n a t i v e s o f some v i l l a g e s t o take t o t h e bush on t h e approach o f a p a t r o l . Under t h a t c i r c u m s t a n c e , t h e o n l y t h i n g l e f t t o a p a t r o l p a r t y was t o s i t down and wait f o r the n a t i v e s who e v e n t u a l l y came back overpowered by c u r i o s i t y . And whenever they d i d come back t h e y were i n the h a b i t o f examining the p a t r o l p a r t y , p i n c h i n g and s c r a p i n g t h e white s k i n o f the o f f i c e r and t e s t i n g i t w i t h a wet f i n g e r t o see i f the c o l o u r was l a s t i n g .  59 U n i v e r s i t y of Sydney d i d h e l p t o a l l e v i a t e the  situation.  N e v e r t h e l e s s the A d m i n i s t r a t i o n c o n t i n u e d t o he hampered by shortage of o f f i c e r s and l a c k of e x p e r i e n c e on the p a r t of those  5  appointed.' A p a r t from the t w i n f a c t o r s of l a c k of funds  and  shortage of s t a f f , t h e r e i s the o v e r - a l l i m p r e s s i o n t h a t the A d m i n i s t r a t i o n was  not too e n t h u s i a s t i c i n the t a s k of  b r i n g i n g the whole T e r r i t o r y q u i c k l y under Government c o n t r o l u n l e s s the economic a c t i v i t i e s of the European s e t t l e r s demanded i t .  L. P. M a i r m a i n t a i n s t h a t under the  A u s t r a l i a n A d m i n i s t r a t i o n "the most s i n g l e i n c e n t i v e t o the p e n e t r a t i o n o f New for gold."  Guinea M a i n l a n d  T h i s i s borne out by the f a c t t h a t though the  A d m i n i s t r a t i o n always complained open up new  ... has been the s e a r c h  of shortage o f s t a f f t o  a r e a s , i t always had s t a f f t o spare t o man  areas opened up by the a c t i v i t i e s of the g o l d - s e e k e r s . the  1927-28  Report, i t was  s t a t e d t h a t i n view of the  t h a t g o l d - s e e k e r s were b e g i n n i n g t o extend t h e i r  new In fact  activities  towards the r e g i o n s of Upper Waria R i v e r i n the Morobe  5  1936-1937,  Annual Report t o the League of N a t i o n s , p. 162. Cadets were s e l e c t e d from s u i t a b l e a p p l i c a n t s between the ages of 20 and 24. They t h e n proceeded t o New Guinea, where a f t e r a p e r i o d of s e r v i c e l a s t i n g 21 months, t h e y were sent t o the U n i v e r s i t y o f Sydney i n A u s t r a l i a where t h e y took c o u r s e s i n elementary law, t r o p i c a l h y g i e n e , and a n t h r o p o l o g y . 6 M a i r , A u s t r a l i a i n New  Guinea, p.  34.  60 D i s t r i c t , i t was  decided  t o send the Government A n t h r o p o l o g i s t  t o t h a t a r e a to e s t a b l i s h f r i e n d l y r e l a t i o n s w i t h the and  t o p r e p a r e f o r the coming of the p r o s p e c t o r s .  concluded  n a t i v e s and they  The  t h a t as a r e s u l t of t h i s the p r o s p e c t o r s  t o e n t e r t h i s a r e a without  from p l a c e t o p l a c e . '  The  report  were a b l e  h o s t i l i t y on the p a r t o f  succeeded i n p r o c u r i n g n a t i v e f o o d and 7  journeyed  natives  the guides  clear implication  o f t h i s i s t h a t no thought s h o u l d have been g i v e n t o  the  opening up  the  of t h i s a r e a i f not f o r the  gold-seekers.  as  a c t i v i t i e s of  T h i s passage brought f o r t h a s t r o n g  criticism  from the Mandates Commission which observed t h a t i n e s t a b l i s h i n g f r i e n d l y r e l a t i o n s ; of • t h i s k i n d , the  primary  c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the A d m i n i s t r a t i o n appeared t o be m e r c i a l one  and  t h a t i t would be  c o n t r a r y t o the  a com-  spirit  of  the mandatory system i f the mandatory power a l l o w e d i t s paramount d u t y o f r a i s i n g the l e v e l of c i v i l i z a t i o n t o become g s u b s e r v i e n t t o the economic e x p l o i t a t i o n of the c o u n t r y . As  a r e s u l t of the above f a c t o r s , o n l y 37,370  square m i l e s o f the 93,000 square m i l e s of the T e r r i t o r y were brought under e f f e c t i v e c o n t r o l by the A d m i n i s t r a t i o n  p.  7 Annual Report t o the League of N a t i o n s , 13.  by  1927-1928,  8 League o f N a t i o n s , Permanent Mandates Commission, Minutes o f S e s s i o n s , 15th S e s s i o n (1929), p. 61. Hereafter r e f e r r e d t o as P.M.C. M i n u t e s .  61 g  1938.  When due allowance has been g i v e n t o the  difficulties  posed by the n a t u r e of the c o u n t r y , t h e r e i s s t i l l all  the o v e r -  i m p r e s s i o n t h a t the A u s t r a l i a n A d m i n i s t r a t i o n c o u l d have  accomplished more t h a n i t r e a l l y d i d . Native A d m i n i s t r a t i o n I n the f i e l d o f N a t i v e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , the  system  adopted by the A u s t r a l i a n A d m i n i s t r a t i o n was n o t h i n g more t h a n a m o d i f i c a t i o n of the one e s t a b l i s h e d by Germany when New  Guinea was  under h e r c o n t r o l .  s e s s i o n o f the T e r r i t o r y i n 1884, f a c i n g h e r was  When Germany took posone  o f the important t a s k s  the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of c o n t r o l over those  n a t i v e s o f the T e r r i t o r y t h a t were w i t h i n h e r sphere control.  F o r t h i s purpose,  she adopted a system o f r u l i n g  through the n a t i v e c h i e f s or l e a d e r s c a l l e d the System i n New  Guinea.  The  System was  a definite  Luluai-  inaugurated i n 1 8 9 7  and a c c o r d i n g t o the German O f f i c i a l Statement sented an attempt  of  i t "repre-  t o b r i n g c o n d e n s a t i o n t o the n a t i v e s i n  a r e a and t o l e a d them t o take over d u t i e s and t o  work t o g e t h e r f o r the w e l l - b e i n g of the t r i b e .  The  1 0  New  Annual Report t o the League of N a t i o n s , p. 142. square m i l e s were under i n f l u e n c e ; square m i l e s under p a r t i a l i n f l u e n c e ; 4 , 2 2 5 square m i l e s were p e n e t r a t e d by p a t r o l s and the u n c o n t r o l l e d areas t o t a l l e d square miles. 9  1  10,040  8  ,  6  9  9  3  7  -  1  9  3  8  3  5  »  7  5  0  ,  5  Annual Report t o the League of N a t i o n s , p. See a l s o - O f f i c i a l Handbook of the T e r r i t o r y of New Guinea, p. 3 6 ; Reed, The Making of Modern New Guinea, p. 140. The L u l u a i - s y s t e m s t r i c t l y s p e a k i n g i s too r u d i m e n t a r y t o be d e s c r i b e d as a system. 1  0  1  9  2  1  -  1  9  2  2  ,  3  9  .  62  G u i n e a L u l u a i - S y s t e m i s an i n c i p i e n t f o r m o f the  Indirect  R u l e System made famous by L o r d L u g a r d i n N i g e r i a . o f I n d i r e c t R u l e e s t a b l i s h e d h e r e was m e n t a r y one New  munities  form  of n e c e s s i t y a r u d i -  because o f the n a t u r e o f New  G u i n e a s o c i e t y was  The  Guinea S o c i e t y .  a h i g h l y f r a g m e n t e d one  where com-  were b r o k e n up i n t o s m a l l v i l l a g e u n i t s .  There were,  e x c e p t i n a few  c a s e s , no h e r e d i t a r y r u l e r s whose a u t h o r i t y  was  There were v i l l a g e heads whose o f f i c e s i n  extensive.  many c a s e s were not h e r e d i t a r y but m e r e l y a c q u i r e d r e s u l t of wealth or v a l o u r .  There was  as  a  no h i g h l y d e v e l o p e d  p o l i t i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s w h i c h c o u l d be u t i l i z e d .  The  German  A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , t h e r e f o r e , e x p e r i e n c e d some d i f f i c u l t y i n s e t t i n g up a system o f n a t i v e r u l e . s u i t a b l e p e r s o n s who t h e i r fellowmen. making use  I t was  commanded t h e r e s p e c t  T h i s p r o b l e m was  d i f f i c u l t to and  find  obedience of  s o l v e d , however, by  o f the h e r e d i t a r y c h i e f s w h e r e v e r t h e y were f o u n d  and f a i l i n g t h i s , l e a d e r s were chosen f r o m amongst the e l d e r s and t h e most i n f l u e n t i a l p e o p l e i n t h e d i f f e r e n t villages.  Such l e a d e r s were g e n e r a l l y r e f e r r e d t o as  headmen o r L u l u a i s . was  1 1  E a c h L u l u a i o r headman so  made an agent o f the A d m i n i s t r a t i o n and he  representative  i n his village.  H i s d u t y was  the  appointed  a c t e d as i t s  t o see t h a t a l l  11 L u l u a i i n the language o f B l a n c h e Bay p e o p l e f r o m where i t i s t a k e n s t o o d f o r a n o n - h e r e d i t a r y o f f i c e f i l l e d by an o u t s t a n d i n g w a r r i o r and a man o f w e a l t h . The word K u k u r a i meaning ' c h i e f * i n the language o f N o r t h B o u g a i n v i l l e i s sometimes u s e d i n s t e a d o f L u l u a i .  63 o r d e r s and r e g u l a t i o n s i s s u e d "by the A d m i n i s t r a t i o n were obeyed.  He p o s s e s s e d  fellow-villagers —  some minor j u r i s d i c t i o n over h i s  the power of s e t t l i n g d i s p u t e s between  n a t i v e s i n v o l v i n g up to 25 marks or 10 fathoms o f  shell  12 money.  He  a l s o c a r r i e d out minor a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d u t i e s  such as the c a r e of roads and  s a n i t a t i o n i n the v i l l a g e s  the c o l l e c t i o n of head-tax f o r the A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . important  and  Most  of a l l from the p o i n t of view o f the A d m i n i s t r a t i o n  i s t h a t the L u l u a i was  t o see t o the r e g u l a r f l o w of l a b o u r  from the v i l l a g e s t o the German p l a n t a t i o n s . no s a l a r y but he was  g i v e n p r e s e n t s and  He r e c e i v e d  i n a d d i t i o n he  was  a l l o w e d t o deduct t e n p e r cent of the amount of t a x e s he u collected. On appointment he was g i v e n a peaked hat and 14 s i l v e r - h e a d e d s t i c k as an i n s i g n i a o f o f f i c e . To a s s i s t y  15 him was  another  o f f i c i a l c a l l e d the T u l t u l .  H i s duty was  a c t as an i n t e r m e d i a r y between the A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f f i c i a l s on one hand and the L u l u a i and the v i l l a g e r s on the F o r t h i s p o s t , the r e q u i s i t e q u a l i f i c a t i o n was t o speak p i d g i n - E n g l i s h .  A third official,  the  the  other. ability  medical  12 Reed, The Making of Modern New Guinea, p. 141. See a l s o , O f f i c i a l Handbook of the T e r r i t o r y of New Guinea, p. 36; Annual Report t o the League of N a t i o n s , 1921-1922, P. 39. 13 I b i d . , p. 140; a l s o Annual Report N a t i o n s , 1921-1922, p. 40. 14 I b i d . , p. a  to the League of  140.  15 T u l t u l i n Blanche Bay 'servant'.  language means a 'messenger' or  to  64T u l t u l o r the ' d o k i t a boy' as he i s c a l l e d by the New Guinea 16 p e o p l e was a l s o chosen.  After selection, this  official  was t a k e n t o the Headquarters o f the A d m i n i s t r a t i o n  and g i v e n  elementary i n s t r u c t i o n s i n f i r s t a i d and i n the d r e s s i n g o f wounds f o r a p e r i o d l a s t i n g about t h r e e months. He was t h e n sent back t o h i s v i l l a g e t o l o o k a f t e r the h e a l t h o f h i s 17 people.  He r e c e i v e d an annual s a l a r y o f 20 marks. '  As  each a r e a o f the T e r r i t o r y was opened up, l u l u a i s and t u l t u l s were a p p o i n t e d  from the v a r i o u s v i l l a g e s .  appointment o f these o f f i c i a l s  I n f a c t , the  always s i g n i f i e d t h a t a v i l l a g e  had been brought under the i n f l u e n c e o f government. T h i s system was c o n t i n u e d Administration with  by the A u s t r a l i a n  some s l i g h t changes.  Under A u s t r a l i a n  r u l e , the l u l u a i was nominated by the v i l l a g e r s the Government merely c o n f i r m i n g  themselves,  such n o m i n a t i o n .  T h i s was  g i v e n a p a r t i c u l a r emphasis i n o r d e r t o ensure t h a t the man appointed  t o be l u l u a i would be the n a t u r a l l e a d e r o f the  people and as such be able t o command r e s p e c t from amongst the v i l l a g e r s .  -1 Q  The l u l u a i was now ordered  t o pay r e g u l a r  16 'Dokita Boy' i s a word i n p i d g i n E n g l i s h . c o r r u p t type o f E n g l i s h which has d e v e l o p e d as c o n t a c t w i t h Europeans. T h i s s o r t o f language t o New Guinea a l o n e . I t occurs i n every place a European c o n t a c t w i t h the n a t i v e . A form o f i n West A f r i c a and i n the West I n d i e s .  This i s a a result of i s not p e c u l i a r where t h e r e i s i t i s spoken  17 Reed, The Making o f Modern New Guinea, p . 14-0. 18 An o f f i c i a l statement i n 1934- m a i n t a i n e d t h a t the " l u l u a i s " a r e c a r e f u l l y s e l e c t e d f o r c h a r a c t e r and i n t e l l i g e n c e and the m a j o r i t y are p e r s o n s o f s o c i a l s t a n d i n g i n t h e i r  65 v i s i t s t o t h e Government c e n t r e and t o r e p o r t p r o m p t l y any b r e a c h o f t h e peace i n h i s v i l l a g e .  He was no l o n g e r p a i d  any s a l a r y b u t as c o m p e n s a t i o n , he and t h e o t h e r two o f f i c i a l s were exempted f r o m t a x p a y m e n t . ^ 1  H i s power was  a l s o w h i t t l e d down t o a r r e s t i n g n a t i v e o f f e n d e r s and b r i n g i n g them b e f o r e t h e D i s t r i c t C o u r t f o r t r i a l . During the 1930's, a step forward i n Native A d m i n i s t r a t i o n was t a k e n by t h e appointment o f paramount 20 luluais.  A paramount l u l u a i was endowed w i t h some  u n d e f i n e d a u t h o r i t y o v e r a group o f n e i g h b o u r i n g  villages.  He was c h a r g e d w i t h t h e d u t y o f t o u r i n g t h e v i l l a g e s  under  h i s a u t h o r i t y and making sure t h a t Government r e g u l a t i o n s were p r o p e r l y c a r r i e d o u t .  He a l s o h a d t h e d u t y o f p r e -  s i d i n g o v e r an i n f o r m a l n a t i v e c o u r t where, a l o n g w i t h t h e l u l u a i s under h i s j u r i s d i c t i o n , m i n o r m a t t e r s n o t t o o s e r i o u s t o be b r o u g h t b e f o r e t h e C o u r t f o r n a t i v e a f f a i r s were settled.  He r e c e i v e d on appointment a s i l v e r - h e a d e d , s t i c k  v i l l a g e s , whose a p p o i n t m e n t s a r e a c c e p t a b l e t o t h e p e o p l e . A n n u a l R e p o r t t o t h e League o f N a t i o n s , 1933-1934-, P« 26. 19 A n n u a l R e p o r t p. 1 0 2 .  t o t h e League o f N a t i o n s ,  1921-1922,  20 A n n u a l R e p o r t t o t h e League o f N a t i o n s , 1933-1934, p. 2 5 . T h i s o f f i c e i s n o t r e a l l y an A u s t r a l i a n i n n o v a t i o n . The Germans h a d a p p o i n t e d a few paramount l u l u a i s j u s t b e f o r e 1914.  66 21 as an i n s i g n i a of o f f i c e and a s a l a r y o f £3 p e r annum. The paramount l u l u a i system was c o n f i n e d t o c e r t a i n p a r t s o f the  Territory.  By 1939,66 paramount l u l u a i s had  been  22 a p p o i n t e d by the A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . a system.  I t was n o t too  I t s e f f e c t i v e n e s s depended  p e r s o n a l i t y o f the men  effective  c o m p l e t e l y on the  a p p o i n t e d , s i n c e a paramount l u l u a i  had t o s u p e r v i s e a number o f v i l l a g e s whose languages he might n o t u n d e r s t a n d and where, as a r e s u l t  of h i s b e i n g an  o u t s i d e r , he l a c k e d the p r e s t i g e and r e s p e c t n e c e s s a r y to make h i s o f f i c e r e a l l y In 1937  effective.  N a t i v e C o u n c i l s were o r g a n i z e d f o r the  f i r s t time i n the T e r r i t o r y .  These C o u n c i l s were s e t up i n 23  the  f o u r t e e n groups o f v i l l a g e s i n Rabaul s u b - d i s t r i c t .  y  E a c h C o u n c i l was made up o f the i n f l u e n t i a l members o f the v i l l a g e communities  chosen by the p e o p l e themselves and  according to o f f i c i a l  statement t h e y " r e p r e s e n t e d the s o c i a l 24  and r e l i g i o u s d i v i s i o n s  o f the v i l l a g e groups."  Meetings  of t h e s e C o u n c i l s were h e l d i n p u b l i c i n the presence o f an official  o f the A d m i n i s t r a t i o n who  v i s i t e d each C o u n c i l  21 O f f i c i a l Handbook of the T e r r i t o r y p. 303.  o f New  once  Guinea,  22 Annual Report t o the League o f N a t i o n s , 1939-194-0, p . 3 0 . 23 Annual Report to the League o f N a t i o n s , 1936-1937, p. a l s o 1938-1939, Appendix C, p. 154.  31,  24 Annual Report t o the League o f N a t i o n s , 1936-1937, P«  31*  67 a fortnight.  Records of the meetings were kept i n p i d g i n 25  E n g l i s h or i n the v e r n a c u l a r .  C o u n c i l s of s i m i l a r n a t u r e  y  were l a t e r e s t a b l i s h e d i n T a l a s e a , New  B r i t a i n and Madang.  These C o u n c i l s c o u l d d i s c u s s m a t t e r s a f f e c t i n g the  villages  but had no power to put t h e i r d e c i s i o n s i n t o e f f e c t , nor t h e y p o s s e s s any local councils —  of those powers n o r m a l l y the power to t a x and  associated  did  with  to spend the money so  derived. I n a p p o i n t i n g l u l u a i s and C o u n c i l s , the d e c l a r e d aim  e s t a b l i s h i n g these  of the A d m i n i s t r a t i o n was  c r e a t e a body of r e s p o n s i b l e n a t i v e o f f i c i a l s who e n t r u s t e d t o an i n c r e a s i n g e x t e n t w i t h d u t i e s  "to  can  be  connected 26  w i t h the 1940  actual Administration  of the T e r r i t o r y . "  t h i s aim had not been f u l f i l l e d  extent.  The  l u l u a i s were s t i l l  to any  c o n s i d e r i n g the time f a c t o r and  advancement of the p e o p l e . Administration  appreciable  n o t h i n g more t h a n mere  r u b b e r stamp agents o f the A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . standable  T h i s i s underthe l e v e l  Lord Hailey c r i t i c i z e d  of the  f o r not d i r e c t i n g i t s p o l i c y towards the  o r g a n i z a t i o n of i n d i g e n o u s a g e n c i e s of N a t i v e He  By  Administration.  m a i n t a i n e d t h a t the appointment of v i l l a g e c o u n c i l l o r s  amounted o n l y t o the c r e a t i o n of l o c a l a u x i l i a r i e s t o  the  25 Annual Report to the League of N a t i o n s ,  1 9 3 8 - 1 9 3 9 , p.  26 P.M.C. M i n u t e s , 9 t h  23.  Session  ( 1 9 2 6 ) , p.  27 L o r d H a i l e y i n h i s I n t r o d u c t i o n t o M a i r , A u s t r a l i a i n New Guinea, p. XVI.  154.  68 police bore the  o r g a n i z a t i o n andt h a t  some r e s e m b l a n c e resemblance  as o f f i c i a l s  to have  constituted  local  to indigenous native  was p u r e l y  largely  no s t e p s were  of  local  i l l u s o r y f o r t h e y were  a first  experience  This  i n the p r a c t i c e o f  assertion  the f a u l t  i s very true.  lies  i n the  o f the people.  indigenous p o l i t i c a l  proper basis  institution  Administration.  tutions  o f the success  I t was, however,  o f slow and  scholars  i s always  of Indirect  the existence  of this  Rule i n  of well  and kingdoms w i t h h i g h l y d e v e l o p e d p o l i t i c a l found i n a place  like  was n o  quickly the structure  The d e v e l o p m e n t  The c r i t i c i s m o f most  on the standpoint  Emirates  very  i n New G u i n e a h a d t o be ' a p l a n t  growth'.  West A f r i c a .  i n New G u i n e a s u c h a s  o f A f r i c a and as such there  on which t o e s t a b l i s h  proper Native  based  o f s o c i a l and  T h e r e were n o w e l l - d e v e l o p e d  institutions  were f o u n d i n some p a r t s  tender  'practice  o r g a n i z a t i o n i n New G u i n e a a n d t h e l e v e l o f  advancement  of  But  n o t with the  A u s t r a l i a n A d m i n i s t r a t i o n but with the nature political  used  c a n h a r d l y be s a i d  taken t o t r a i n the natives  self-government',  and t u l t u l s  institutions,  and t h e i r appointment  self-government.  if  though the l u l u a i s  organized insti-  N i g e r i a w h i c h made t h e a p p l i -  29 cation  of Indirect  Rule  by Lord Lugard h i g h l y  28 L o r d H a i l e y i n h i s I n t r o d u c t i o n t o M a i r , New G u i n e a , p . X V I I .  successful.  Australia i n  29 See J . S . C o l e m a n , N i g e r i a : B a c k g r o u n d t o N a t i o n a l i s m , U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1958, p p . 25-26; a l s o M . P e r h a m , " A P r o s p e c t o f N i g e r i a , " L i s t e n e r , O c t o b e r 20,  I960.  69 The  same d i f f i c u l t y as was encountered, i n New Guinea  confronted. B r i t i s h C o l o n i a l Administration i n the eastern part of N i g e r i a , hut even here the problem was r e l a t i v e l y easy as the people i n that part of the country speak the same language. Court f o r Native  The same t h i n g cannot be s a i d f o r New Guinea. Affairs  In New Guinea, there were no indigenous native court i n s t i t u t i o n s .  This, however, d i d not mean that the  people were without any system of r e g u l a t i n g s o c i a l conduct and behaviour.  The means were just not i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d .  Disputes were generally s e t t l e d by v i l l a g e elders at informal meetings while j u s t i c e was meted out e i t h e r by imposition of s o c i a l sanctions on the offenders or i n some cases by resort to acts of b r u t a l revenge.  The A u s t r a l i a n  Administration sensibly r e a l i z e d that European concept of law and j u s t i c e could not be introduced i n t o New Guinea society.  For t h i s reason, Courts f o r Native A f f a i r s were •50  set up i n a l l administrative d i s t r i c t s .  The j u r i s d i c t i o n  of these courts was l i m i t e d to matters "between natives and other natives" and such matters as were set out i n the 31 Native Regulations  of 1924-.^  These regulations dealt with  c e r t a i n types of offences which do not normally come within 30 Annual Report to the League of Nations, 31  Loc. c i t .  1926-1927, p. 18.  70 the scope  o f European c r i m i n a l law, such as s o r c e r y ,  a d u l t e r y , r e f u s i n g t o he i n n o c u l a t e d and the l i k e . ^ A l l the D i s t r i c t O f f i c e r s and the A s s i s t a n t D i s t r i c t O f f i c e r s as w e l l as the D i r e c t o r o f D i s t r i c t S e r v i c e s were members o f these C o u r t s .  I n a d d i t i o n , the  A d m i n i s t r a t o r had the power t o a p p o i n t any p e r s o n t o be a member o f these C o u r t s .  I n d e c i d i n g c a s e s p a i n s were  taken  t o u n d e r s t a n d n a t i v e p o i n t s o f view, laws, and customs. Indeed  the Native A d m i n i s t r a t i o n R e g u l a t i o n provided that  the C o u r t s s h o u l d become w e l l a c q u a i n t e d w i t h n a t i v e law and customs and "must take j u d i c i a l n o t i c e o f a l l n a t i v e customs, and g i v e e f f e c t t o them i n so f a r as t h e y are n o t c o n t r a r y t o the p r i n c i p l e s o f humanity o r i n c o n f l i c t  with  any law o r o r d i n a n c e s i n f o r c e i n the T e r r i t o r y . ^ I n a l l these C o u r t s the o f f i c i a l e i t h e r the n a t i v e language  language  was  o f a p a r t i c u l a r l o c a l i t y where  the Court was s i t u a t e d o r p i d g i n - E n g l i s h . cases were, however, kept i n E n g l i s h .  Records o f a l l  I n cases where p a r t i e s  i n v o l v e d i n a l a w - s u i t were i g n o r a n t o f p i d g i n - E n g l i s h an i n t e r p r e t e r was made a v a i l a b l e . d e c i d i n g cases i n accordance  In t h i s business of  w i t h n a t i v e law and customs,  32 Other o f f e n c e s d e a l t w i t h i n c l u d e d contempt o f c o u r t , f a i l i n g to a s s i s t a D i s t r i c t O f f i c e r , p r o s t i t u t i o n , bribery, e s c a p i n g from custody, e t c . 33 Annual Report t o the League o f N a t i o n s , 1923-1924, Appendix C, p . 242.  71 the D i s t r i c t O f f i c e r s were o f t e n f a c e d w i t h p e r p l e x i n g problems a r i s i n g from the d i v e r g e n c i e s i n customs and law of  the v a r i o u s fragmented communities i n New Guinea.  Very  o f t e n t h e y had t o r e l y p u r e l y on sound commonsense i n p a s s i n g judgements because o f the c o n f l i c t i n g customs and t r a d i t i o n s of  the p e o p l e s .  T h i s case t r i e d by a D i s t r i c t O f f i c e r a t  Madang i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s  clearly.  A n a t i v e g i r l had been ' s o l d ' i n marriage by h e r p a r e n t s t o a man o f a neighbouring t r i b e . The husband d i e d s h o r t l y a f t e r the m a r r i a g e , and a d i s p u t e arose c o n c e r n i n g the s t a t u s o f the widow. A c c o r d i n g t o the custom o f h e r own t r i b e she was supposed t o r e t u r n t o h e r p a r e n t s f o r ' r e s a l e ; the custom o f h e r deceased husband's t r i b e , w i t h whom she r e s i d e d , d i c t a t e d t h a t she a u t o m a t i c a l l y became w i f e o f h e r l a t e husband's b r o t h e r . 1  R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f the two t r i b e s i n v o l v e d , unable t o come t o an unders t a n d i n g , brought the case b e f o r e the District Officer. The l a t t e r d e c i d e d t h a t she s h o u l d marry h e r b r o t h e r - i n - l a w s i n c e she was s t i l l a r e s i d e n t o f the v i l l a g e i n t o which she m a r r i e d — p o s s e s s i o n b e i n g n i n e p o i n t s o f law i n h i s sight. But the g i r l r a n away o r was s p i r i t e d back t o h e r own t r i b e and the case reopened. I n the second i n s t a n c e the D i s t r i c t O f f i c e r d e c i d e d t o l e t the g i r l choose f o r h e r s e l f , and when she i n d i c a t e d a d e s i r e t o r e t u r n t o h e r p a r e n t s the o f f i c i a l s thought the m a t t e r had been settled. I t was n o t l o n g b e f o r e she was s o l d a g a i n i n marriage; but d i s l i k i n g h e r new mate, she d e s e r t e d him and the o f f i c e r was c a l l e d on a t h i r d time t o r e c t i f y the s i t u a t i o n . He took the  72 r e m a i n i n g c o u r s e which, he c o u l d t h i n k o f and m a r r i e d h e r t o one o f h i s p o l i c e troops.34 I n t h i s r o u g h and r e a d y way j u s t i c e was  administered  by t h e o f f i c i a l s o f t h e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . Taxation When t h e German A d m i n i s t r a t i o n imposed a h e a d t a x on t h e n a t i v e s i n 1907, t h e a i m was t o e n s u r e a f l o w o f labour t o the European p l a n t a t i o n s .  constant  T h i s i s one  o f t h e c l a s s i c a l means by w h i c h l a b o u r c a n be i n d i r e c t l y 35 compelled. ' y  The German p o l i c y was c o n t i n u e d  by t h e  A u s t r a l i a n A d m i n i s t r a t i o n w h i c h , however, d e n i e d t h a t i t s aim was t o compel l a b o u r .  Rather i t maintained that i t s  aim was t o r a i s e revenue and t o i n c u l c a t e i n t h e n a t i v e s "some sense o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and some r e c o g n i t i o n o f h i s 36 own s t a t u s as a c i t i z e n . " ^ I n 1921 a t a x o f t e n s h i l l i n g s p e r annum was 37 imposed on a l l n a t i v e s i n a l l t a x a b l e  areas.  '  c l a s s e s o f p e o p l e were exempted f r o m payments. included a l l indentured  Certain These  labourers, a l l the v i l l a g e  officials  34 Reed, The M a k i n g o f Modern New G u i n e a , p. 173. 35 A head t a x v a r y i n g f r o m 5 marks t o 7 marks p e r head was imposed on male a d u l t n a t i v e s i n d i s t r i c t s d e c l a r e d l i a b l e t o t a x a t i o n . I n d e n t u r e d l a b o u r e r s were exempted. See A n n u a l R e p o r t t o t h e League o f N a t i o n s , 1921-1922, p. 1 0 1 . 36 O f f i c i a l Handbook o f t h e T e r r i t o r y o f New G u i n e a , p. 3 0 1 . 37 A n n u a l R e p o r t t o t h e League o f N a t i o n s , 1921-1922, p. 102. I n 1926 a l l a r e a s u n d e r c o n t r o l were d e c l a r e d t a x a b l e are a s .  73 ( l u l u a i s and t u l t u l s ) , members of t h e n a t i v e p o l i c e , m i s s i o n teachers,  a n a t i v e p h y s i c a l l y u n f i t t o work, and 38  f o u r o r more l i v i n g c h i l d r e n by one  wife.  o f t h e s e p e o p l e s f r o m tax-payment was  a f a t h e r of  The  exemption  altogether unfair, for  t h e s e were the o n l y p e o p l e , w i t h few e x c e p t i o n s , who  were i n  a p o s i t i o n t o pay t a x e s by v i r t u e o f the f a c t t h a t t h e y r e c e i v e d wages.  The  s i s t e n c e f a r m i n g had pay  the head t a x and,  average n a t i v e who little  o r no  engaged i n sub-  savings from which to  t h e r e f o r e , f o u n d i t burdensome.  any c a s e , t h e p o l i c y o f e x e m p t i o n was  In  a vicious circle for  i n most c a s e s t h e t a x e s were p a i d out of the s a l a r i e s o f t h e s e p e o p l e who  were exempted as most p e o p l e d e l i b e r a t e l y s e n t  t h e i r younger f o l k s t o work on the p l a n t a t i o n s i n o r d e r be a b l e t o pay  the t a x e s .  The  out  to  r e s u l t i s t h a t many p e o p l e  were d r i v e n i n t o the arms of the r e c r u i t e r s .  This  defeats  t h e argument o f t h e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n t h a t head t a x was  not  l e v i e d t o compel l a b o u r . A p a r t f r o m the head t a x , an e d u c a t i o n on the n a t i v e s . p e r annum was  I n 1921  an e d u c a t i o n  l e v i e d on a l l n a t i v e s .  i n c r e a s e d t o t e n s h i l l i n g s p e r annum.  t a x was  t a x of f i v e I n 1922 39 y  this  I t was  levied  shillings was  later  cancelled. The  f i r s t c r i t i c i s m t h a t c a n be advanced i n  38 A n n u a l R e p o r t t o the League o f N a t i o n s , 39  I b i d . , p.  18.  1921-1922, p.  102.  74respect the  of the  taxation policy  o f the A d m i n i s t r a t i o n  amount of t a x p a i d by each n a t i v e was  c u l a r l y when compared w i t h the community.  T h i s was  Commission i n 1929.  pointed The  European p o p u l a t i o n  excessive  parti-  amount p a i d by the European  out by the Permanent Mandates  Commission observed t h a t  p a i d o n l y £218  the  i n t a x e s whereas n a t i v e  p o p u l a t i o n p a i d d i r e c t t a x e s amounting t o £20,4-51. pointed  out t h a t a rough c a l c u l a t i o n  European p a i d 1/6 natives  10/-  European community was  p l a n t a t i o n s and  revealed  that  It the  l / 2 d p e r head i n d i r e c t t a x a t i o n and  p e r head and  a considerable  i s that  t h i s i n a c o u n t r y where  r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e and  p a r t o f the b e s t where i t p l a y e d  l a n d and  the  the  where i t owned  the  largest  a b i g g e r p a r t i n the  economic  4-0 life  t h a n the n a t i v e  inhabitants.  The  same c r i t i c i s m  i n d i r e c t l y r e p e a t e d when L o r d Lugard ( a member of Commission) i n q u i r e d d u r i n g the e i g h t e e n t h whether the n o n - n a t i v e p o p u l a t i o n s ; were b e a r i n g  t h e i r f a i r share of t a x e s .  The  Government defended i t s t a x a t i o n p o l i c y by the argument t h a t the Europeans c o n t r i b u t e d  the  s e s s i o n as  i n c l u d i n g the 4-1  was  to  companies  Australian untenable  j u s t as much as  the  n a t i v e s by way registration  o f i n d i r e c t t a x a t i o n , such as company 4-2 f e e , motor t r a f f i c t a x and the l i k e .  4-0 P.M.C. Minutes, 15th  Session  (1929), p.  55.  4-1 I b i d . , 18th S e s s i o n (1930), p. 56. 4-2 Annual Report t o the League of N a t i o n s , 1928-1929, p .  65.  75 I t d i d n o t add, however, t h a t t h e y had to pay t h i s of the economic p o s i t i o n and w e a l t h .  because  I f the n a t i v e s had  t h e i r own b u s i n e s s o r v e h i c l e s t h e y too would have had t o pay these i n d i r e c t  taxes.  The q u e s t i o n might be r a i s e d t h a t the 6 / e d u c a t i o n t a x p a i d by the Europeans f o r each l a b o u r e r employed made up f o r the p a l t r y amount t h e y p a i d by way o f d i r e c t taxes.  But from what can be g a t h e r e d from the Annual  Report, i t would appear t h a t the A d m i n i s t r a t i o n r e g a r d e d t h i s as p a r t o f l a b o u r e r s ' wages and perhaps used i t t o j u s t i f y the poor wages p a i d t o the New "It  Guinea l a b o u r e r s .  ( E d u c a t i o n l e v y ) i s i n e f f e c t an a d d i t i o n a l payment o f  1 / - p e r month, a l t h o u g h not mentioned i n the l a b o u r e r s ' contract of s e r v i c e . " ^ Cargo  Cult D u r i n g the 1 9 3 0 ' s ,  the A d m i n i s t r a t i o n was  con-  f r o n t e d w i t h a p e c u l i a r n a t i v e problem which d e s e r v e s mentioning here. 'Cargo C u l t ' .  T h i s problem arose from the  so-called  T h i s s o r t o f movement o r outbreak had  been  e x p e r i e n c e d b e f o r e t h i s i n Papua and i n the n e i g h b o u r i n g Dutch c o l o n y o f New  4-3  p.  Guinea.  I t i s a movement p e c u l i a r t o  Annual Report t o the League  19.  of N a t i o n s ,  1928-1929,  76 p r i m i t i v e peoples.  44  E a c h o f t h e s e movements was i n e v e r y  case l e d b y some n a t i v e w i t h s t r o n g p e r s o n a l i t y who c l a i m e d c o n t a c t w i t h t h e s p i r i t o f t h e a n c e s t r a l dead.  I t was  always  accompanied by w i l d and h y s t e r i c a l d a n c i n g , s h r i e k i n g and swooning and w i t h a p r o p h e c y  t h a t on an a p p o i n t e d d a y , a  s h i p l o a d e d w i t h a c a r g o o f E u r o p e a n goods w o u l d a r r i v e , and t h e w h i t e men w o u l d be d r i v e n away n e v e r t o r e t u r n . I n s t r u c t i o n s were g e n e r a l l y i s s u e d t h a t on s u c h a day no work s h o u l d be done and t h a t t h e p e o p l e s h o u l d s l a u g h t e r t h e i r p i g s and c a t t l e and p u t on t h e i r b e s t d r e s s e s i n a n t i c i p a t i o n o f t h e 'cargo s h i p ' .  The f o l l o w i n g  t a k e n f r o m t h e 1935-36 A n n u a l H e p o r t  extract  illustrates a typical  'cargo c u l t ' movement: I n F e b r u a r y 1934-, a n a t i v e , Sanop, w i t h f i v e f o l l o w e r s o f t h e v i l l a g e o f Gogohei c r e a t e d a new movement. In the presence of a l a r g e g a t h e r i n g t h e y f e l l i n t o t r a n c e s and f o r e t o l d coming e v e n t s . They s a i d a steamer w o u l d a r r i v e w i t h f o o d , axes, h o r s e s , dogs, f i r e a r m s and o t h e r t h i n g s f o r t h e n a t i v e s ; t h a t on t h e a r r i v a l o f t h i s s t e a m e r , Sanop and h i s f o l l o w e r s w o u l d be t h e p r i n c i p a l men i n t h e D i s t r i c t and t h a t a l l o t h e r v i l l a g e s w o u l d have t o work f o r Gogohei. F o r sometime s c a r c e l y any a t t e n t i o n was p a i d t o Sanop's p r o p h e s i e s . He  44- S i m i l a r movements have been r e c o r d e d i n N o r t h A m e r i c a amongst t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n I n d i a n s b e f o r e 1890. The b e s t known a r e t h e "Ghost Dances"; a l s o i n Kenya — Watu wa Mungu ("The men o f God"); and amongst t h e B a n t u i n S o u t h A f r i c a and t h e p e o p l e o f New H e b r i d e s [ E s p i r i t u S a n t o ] .  77 announced t h a t the s h i p would a r r i v e on Good F r i d a y , but t h a t the o n l y ] s i c ] people who were without f o o d and p i g s would share i n the c a r g o e s . Some of the people immediately k i l l e d t h e i r p i g s . F e a s t s were h e l d , and gardens were neglected. The steamer d i d not a r r i v e on Good F r i d a y , but Sanop by h i s i n f l u e n c e was a b l e t o keep the people i n suspense f o r a whole week b e f o r e t h e y e v e n t u a l l y ^ broke away and r e t u r n e d t o normal l i f e . Sanop and h i s f o l l o w e r s were i m p r i s o n e d . zed a g a i n a s i m i l a r outbreak. throughout  r u n of l i f e  by mass demonstrations who  he o r g a n i -  S e v e r a l such movements  the T e r r i t o r y are on r e c o r d .  l o c a t e the normal  In 1935  They tended t o d i s -  and were a t times accompanied  and v i o l e n c e .  The a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s  had i n v e s t i g a t e d these movements c l a i m e d t h a t t h e y were 46  a l a t e n t form of a n t i - E u r o p e a n i s m .  The most important  t h i n g about them from the p o i n t o f view o f the p r e s e n t s t u d y is  t h a t t h e y r e p r e s e n t e d a deep resentment,  genuine  o t h e r w i s e , a g a i n s t c e r t a i n a s p e c t s o f European might  rule  or and  be d e t r i m e n t a l both t o the i n t e r e s t s o f the n a t i v e s  and the A d m i n i s t r a t i o n i f not checked i n t i m e . t h i s n a t u r e were always  Cases  of  s e r i o u s l y d e a l t w i t h by the  45 Annual Report t o the League o f N a t i o n s , 1 9 3 5 - 1 9 3 6 , p. 46 W.E.H. Stanner, The South Seas i n T r a n s i t i o n , Sydney, A u s t r a l i a n P u b l i s h i n g Company, 1953, p. 6 3 . Stanner c l a i m s t h a t s i d e by s i d e w i t h the element of a n t i - E u r o p e a n i s m i n t h i s movement are motives of p e r s o n a l g a i n — d e s i r e f o r power, s e x u a l a c c e s s t o women o t h e r w i s e u n a t t a i n a b l e , m a l c o n v e r s i o n of the g i f t s o f f e r e d t o the s p i r i t of the a n c e s t r a l dead, e t c .  22.  78  A d m i n i s t r a t i o n and h e a v y terms o f i m p r i s o n m e n t meted o u t t o l e a d e r s o f s u c h movements.  Though t h e means o f d e a l i n g w i t h  t h e s e o u t b r e a k s was q u i t e sound, n e v e r t h e l e s s a l t o g e t h e r adequate.  i t was n o t  Something more t h a n t h i s was r e q u i r e d .  There i s t h e need f o r s y m p a t h e t i c u n d e r s t a n d i n g  of the  d i f f i c u l t i e s t h e New G u i n e a n a t i v e s were g o i n g t h r o u g h as a r e s u l t o f t h e m e n t a l c o n f u s i o n and s o c i a l m a l a d j u s t m e n t w h i c h i s n o t an u n u s u a l f e a t u r e o f a p r i m i t i v e s o c i e t y u n d e r g o i n g a r a p i d t r a n s i t i o n as a r e s u l t o f c o n t a c t w i t h civilization.  higher  C h i n n e r y an a n t h r o p o l o g i s t i n t h e S e r v i c e  of t h e New G u i n e a A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , h a s t h i s t o s a y : The c o n d i t i o n i n some p a r t s o f New G u i n e a t o d a y i s t h a t o f p e o p l e who have been a b r u p t l y t h r o w n i n t o t h e melting-pot of changing events w i t h o u t adequate a s s i s t a n c e t o a d j u s t t h e m s e l v e s , and amongst t h e most s e r i o u s p r o b l e m s c o n f r o n t i n g the o f f i c i a l s of t h e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n i s t h a t o f l i f t i n g them o u t o f t h e i r c o n f u s i o n and r e d i r e c t i n g them. The  need f o r s y m p a t h e t i c u n d e r s t a n d i n g  o f t h e problems o f  the n a t i v e s was emphasized b y C. W. Groves who was a t e a c h e r and  l a t e r an a n t h r o p o l o g i s t i n New G u i n e a .  I n a conver-  s a t i o n between h i m and S a r a k , a n a t i v e o f Tabar i n New G u i n e a , he r e l a t e d how S a r a k d e c l a r e d  "Oh, m a s t e r , why  d i d n ' t w h i t e men come and t a l k t o us and l e a r n about o u r  4 7 A n n u a l R e p o r t t o t h e League o f N a t i o n s , 1 9 3 2 - 1 9 3 3 » A p p e n d i x E, p. 1 5 8 . C i t e d b y J . A. D e c k e r , L a b o u r P r o b l e m s i n t h e P a c i f i c Mandates, London, O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 4 0 , p. 2 0 3 .  79 ways, and u n d e r s t a n d u s , i n t h o s e e a r l i e s t d a y s , as our 48  late missionary  d i d and as you do t o d a y . "  G r o v e s , was an i n a r t i c u l a t e e x p r e s s i o n s t a n d i n g , a l l the d i s t u r b a n c e  T h i s , says  of t h e ' m i s u n d e r -  o f s o c i a l l i f e and t h e 49  consequent p e r s o n a l b e w i l d e r m e n t and m e n t a l m a l a i s e ' , t h a t was g o i n g on i n New  Guinea S o c i e t y .  '  He r i g h t l y c o n -  c l u d e d t h a t what t h e n a t i v e s needed was n o t so much t h e magistrate  but a s p e c i a l branch of the A d m i n i s t r a t i v e  s e r v i c e which would concentrate  upon t h e t a s k o f d i r e c t i n g  50 and a d j u s t i n g t h e l i v e s o f t h e n a t i v e s i n t h e v i l l a g e .  48 C. W. G r o v e s , " A n t h r o p o l o g y and N a t i v e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n New G u i n e a , " O c e a n i a , v o l . IV (September 1935), p. 96. 49  Loc. c i t .  50 I b i d . , p.  101  CHAPTER V ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENTS The  s t o r y o f economic a c t i v i t i e s i n New G u i n e a  c e n t r e s on t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f c o p r a and g o l d .  New G u i n e a  i s a v e r y f e r t i l e c o u n t r y w i t h g r e a t economic p o t e n t i a l i t i e s . V a r i o u s c r o p s c a n he grown though t h e c r o p t h a t l e n d s s e l f t o easy c u l t i v a t i o n i s the coconut. throughout  it-  As a r e s u l t  t h e e r a o f German r u l e and t h e p e r i o d o f mandate  A d m i n i s t r a t i o n t h e r e was e x c e s s i v e c o n c e n t r a t i o n on t h e growing crop.  o f c o c o n u t almost t o t h e e x c l u s i o n o f e v e r y  other  T h i s was p a r t i c u l a r l y n o t i c e a b l e d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d  of the A u s t r a l i a n A d m i n i s t r a t i o n .  Previous t o t h i s , the  Germans h a d t r i e d t o grow o t h e r c r o p s l i k e c o c o a , s u g a r , c o f f e e , banana, t o b a c c o , a r r o w r o o t , o i l , kapok, though n o t on a l a r g e s c a l e . Rule v e r y l i t t l e  rubber,  c o t t o n and  B u t under t h e Mandate  e f f o r t was made t o encourage t h e growth o f  these other products.  The r e a s o n i s t h a t most o f t h e s e  competed w i t h t h e i n d u s t r i e s w h i c h h a d been d e v e l o p e d i n t r o p i c a l areas o f A u s t r a l i a .  Thus t h e r e was no g r e a t  i n d e v e l o p i n g t h e same i n New G u i n e a .  interest  T h i s dependence o f  New G u i n e a on one c a s h c r o p was e c o n o m i c a l l y dangerous and unsound.  T h i s was r e a l i z e d b y t h e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n because  81 as e a r l y as 1924- t h e D i r e c t o r o f A g r i c u l t u r e was comp l a i n i n g t h a t "the p l a n t i n g o f c o c o n u t s h a s been c a r r i e d out so e x t e n s i v e l y on E u r o p e a n p l a n t a t i o n s t o t h e e x c l u s i o n o f o t h e r c r o p s ; t h e n a t i v e s i n h a b i t a n t s have been so much p r e s s e d t o p l a n t coconuts  i ntheir villages  ... t h a t t h e  T e r r i t o r y may be s a i d t o be l a b o u r i n g under t h e d e s o l a t i n g b l i g h t o f an o b s e s s i o n o f c o c o n u t p l a n t i n g . . . . " was  t h i s obsession t h a t almost every i t e m o f food had t o  be i m p o r t e d i n t o t h e T e r r i t o r y .  T h i s e v i l o f a one c r o p  economy was n o t f u l l y r e a l i z e d by t h e p l a n t e r s till  So g r e a t  1  themselves  t h e time o f t h e "Great Economic D e p r e s s i o n " o f t h e  'thirties.  New G u i n e a ,  l i k e other primary  producing  c o u n t r i e s , f e l t t h e h e a v y hand o f t h e d e p r e s s i o n . for  I n 1930,  i n s t a n c e , c o p r a amounted t o , 87 p e r c e n t o f t h e t o t a l  e x p o r t s b u t by 1934- i t h a d d r o p p e d t o 16 p e r c e n t  mainly  because o f t h e d e p r e s s i o n and t o a l e s s e r e x t e n t because 2 o f t h e r a p i d development o f t h e g o l d i n d u s t r y .  The v a l u e  o f c o p r a f e l l so l o w t h a t many p l a n t e r s h a d t o w i n d up t h e i r business.  F o r t u n a t e l y , t h e T e r r i t o r y was saved  from  economic chaos by t h e g o l d d i s c o v e r y w h i c h h a d been made i n 1926.  Though t h e r e was a r e c o v e r y a f t e r t h e d e p r e s s i o n , i t  was n o t a l t o g e t h e r complete f o r s e v e r a l o t h e r  reasons.  There was now l e s s demand f o r c o p r a as whale o i l and o t h e r 1 A n n u a l R e p o r t t o t h e League o f N a t i o n s , 1923-1924-, p . 4-0. 2 A n n u a l R e p o r t t o t h e League o f N a t i o n s , 1930-1931, p. 6 9 ; 1933-1934-, p. 78.  82  v e g e t a b l e s o i l s p r o v i d e d good s u b s t i t u t e s f o r soap manufacture.  I n a d d i t i o n , t h e p r i c e o f b u t t e r i n many c o u n t r i e s  became so cheap t h a t t h e r e was a r e d u c t i o n i n t h e demand for  margarine i n which coconut o i l i s t h e main i n g r e d i e n t .  F i n a l l y , t h e q u o t a s and i m p o r t r e s t r i c t i o n s w h i c h were i n operation i n d i f f e r e n t p a r t s o f the world c o n s i d e r a b l y reduced to  copra p r i c e s .  Despite t h i s , copra s t i l l  continued  c o n t r i b u t e s u b s t a n t i a l l y t o t h e revenue o f t h e T e r r i t o r y  a c c o u n t i n g f o r o v e r 25 p e r c e n t o f t h e t o t a l r e v e n u e . remained the g r e a t e s t cash crop throughout  It  t h e mandate  p e r i o d , the copra produced i n the T e r r i t o r y accounting f o r one-twentieth of the t o t a l world  supply.  As one w o u l d n o r m a l l y e x p e c t , t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f c o p r a and o t h e r c a s h c r o p s was m a i n l y c o n f i n e d t o t h e E u r o p e a n p l a n t e r s who made use o f n a t i v e l a b o u r e r s on t h e i r plantations.  The n a t i v e s c o n t r i b u t e d l i t t l e  or nothing to  the a g r i c u l t u r a l e x p l o i t a t i o n of the T e r r i t o r y except i n v e r y few and a l m o s t n e g l i g i b l e c a s e s .  They h a d n o t y e t gone  beyond t h e l e v e l o f s u b s i s t e n c e f a r m i n g and t h e s h i f t i n g s y s t e m o f c u l t i v a t i o n was s t i l l w i d e l y p r e v a l e n t .  The  q u e s t i o n o f n a t i v e a g r i c u l t u r e was i n d e e d an i m p o r t a n t one as i t was t i e d up w i t h t h e p r o b l e m o f h e a l t h .  The n a t i v e s  l i v e d m a i n l y on one o r two s t a r c h y f o o d s w h i c h t h e y  3 Annual Report  obtained  t o t h e League o f N a t i o n s , 1938-1939, p . 100.  4 Reed, The M a k i n g o f Modern New G u i n e a , p. 193*  83  f r o m t a r o r o o t , supplemented i n some c a s e s b y c o c o n u t and fish.  This d i d not provide  d i e t necessary t o maintain was c o n s c i o u s  f o r the natives the well-balanced  good h e a l t h .  The A d m i n i s t r a t i o n  o f t h i s and aimed a t t h e o u t s e t t o i n s t r u c t  the n a t i v e s i n b e t t e r a g r i c u l t u r a l methods and t o encourage them t o c u l t i v a t e new f o o d c r o p s as supplements t o t h o s e a l r e a d y under c u l t i v a t i o n on n a t i v e f a r m s .  In addition,  i t aimed a t e n c o u r a g i n g t h e g r o w t h o f c a s h c r o p s b y t h e n a t i v e s and a t t e a c h i n g them t h e n e c e s s a s y t a s k o f p e s t eradication."^ instructors and i m p a r t culture,  T h i s t a s k was e n t r u s t e d t o a g r i c u l t u r a l  who were t o v i s i t n a t i v e v i l l a g e s t o them i n s t r u c t i o n s  periodically  on b e t t e r methods o f a g r i -  d i s t r i b u t e new p l a n t s and s e e d , t e a c h i n g them how  to cultivate  them and making sure t h a t t h e n a t i v e s  v a t e d a r e a s o f l a n d adequate t o p r o v i d e necessities.  them w i t h  cultitheir  O f t e n n a t i v e s were c o m p e l l e d t o i n c r e a s e t h e  a r e a s o f l a n d under c u l t i v a t i o n so as t o p r o t e c t them a g a i n s t the p o s s i b i l i t y o f f o o d s h o r t a g e .  I n a d d i t i o n two p e s t  o f f i c e r s were r e q u i r e d t o i n s p e c t p e r i o d i c a l l y a l l n a t i v e v i l l a g e s under  control.  I n areas near c e n t r e s o f European a c t i v i t i e s t h e r e s p o n s e o f some v e r y few n a t i v e s t o t h e use o f modern techniques  of agriculture  was e n c o u r a g i n g and was a l r e a d y  5 A n n u a l R e p o r t t o t h e League o f N a t i o n s ,  1925C1926, p. 3 1 .  84 bearing f r u i t .  I n s u c h a r e a s t h e n a t i v e s were a l r e a d y p r o -  d u c i n g y i e l d s g r e a t e r t h a n t h e i r needs and t h e e x c e s s  was  b e i n g s o l d b o t h t o t h e p l a n t a t i o n s and t o t h e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . M o r e o v e r , some o f them had s t a r t e d e n g a g i n g i n p r o d u c t i o n o f c a s h c r o p s l i k e c o p r a b u t t h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e economic l i f e o f t h e T e r r i t o r y by way o f a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n was n o t much. The  A d m i n i s t r a t i o n f a c e d two d i f f i c u l t i e s i n t h e  task of persuading farming.  t h e n a t i v e s t o adopt b e t t e r methods o f  The f i r s t was t h e c o n s e r v a t i s m t y p i c a l o f a l l  human b e i n g s w h i c h h i n d e r e d q u i c k a c c e p t a n c e o f f o r e i g n i d e a s and f o r e i g n methods. for  generations  The New G u i n e a n a t i v e s had been  subsistence farmers.  Throughout t h a t p e r i o d  t h e r e was no need t o p r o d u c e a s u r p l u s because t h e r e was no trade w i t h other p a r t s of the world.  Moreover, the n a t i v e  was n o t accustomed t o t h e money-economy t y p i c a l o f t h e h i g h l y c i v i l i z e d s o c i e t i e s of the Western w o r l d . were few —  H i s wants  a s h e l t e r o v e r h i s head w h i c h was e a s i l y  built,  a little  c l o t h i n g and some f o o d t o keep body and s o u l t o -  gether.  H i s methods o f f a r m i n g were v e r y c r u d e , stone age  implements were employed i n c u l t i v a t i o n .  There was no  c o m p e l l i n g economic n e c e s s i t y f o r h i m t o change h i s methods. N a t u r e was an o v e r - i n d u l g e n t mother t o h i m and t h e r e was  6 A n n u a l R e p o r t t o t h e League o f N a t i o n s , 1923[1924, p . 4 0 .  85 l a n d i n abundance. c o u l d not  see why  As a r e s u l t of a l l t h e s e f a c t o r s , he the A d m i n i s t r a t i o n had  renounce the t i m e - h o n o u r e d ways and F o r t h i s r e a s o n , he was a t i o n s and demands.  t o compel him  customs o f h i s  ancestors.  s l o w t o adapt h i m s e l f t o new  situ-  To c o n v i n c e him o f the need f o r b e t t e r  t e c h n i q u e s r e q u i r e d a s y m p a t h e t i c a p p r o a c h and and p a i n s t a k i n g s u p e r v i s i o n . was  to  T h i s was  what the  a  consistent Administration  n o t i n a p o s i t i o n t o g i v e as a r e s u l t o f s h o r t a g e  staff.  As e a r l y as 1924- the D i r e c t o r o f A g r i c u l t u r e  complaining  of was  o f the i n a d e q u a c y of s t a f f d e v o t e d t o the  v i s i o n of n a t i v e a g r i c u l t u r a l  super-  activities:  The s t a f f was i n a d e q u a t e and t h e r e was no c o n t i n u i t y o f p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t and e f f o r t w i t h the n a t i v e i n h a b i t a n t s n e c e s s a r y f o r any s u c c e s s i n the d i r e c t i o n o f improvement of n a t i v e a g r i c u l t u r e . Only o c c a s i o n a l and s p o r a d i c i n s p e c t i o n a t l o n g i n t e r v a l s , and the e f f e c t of the work done a t one v i s i t i s d i s s i p a t e d l o n g b e f o r e a second v i s i t can be made.7 There was  no  i n d i c a t i o n that anything  was  done t o improve  the s i t u a t i o n , f o r the 1927-1928 R e p o r t c a r r i e d the same complaint:  " I t i s n o t p o s s i b l e f o r two  or three European  i n s p e c t o r s t o c a r r y out s u c h i n s t r u c t i o n a l work on hundreds Q  o f n a t i v e g r o v e s and d e c i s i o n was  gardens."  To remedy the s i t u a t i o n ,  a  t a k e n whereby n a t i v e a g r i c u l t u r a l a s s i s t a n t s  7 A n n u a l R e p o r t t o t h e League o f N a t i o n s ,  1924-1925, p.  4-2.  8 A n n u a l R e p o r t t o the League o f N a t i o n s ,  1927-1928, p.  23.  86 were t o be t r a i n e d the  and e n t r u s t e d w i t h t h e t a s k o f s u p e r v i s i n g  other natives i n t h e i r a g r i c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s .  For  t h i s p u r p o s e , an a g r i c u l t u r a l s c h o o l was opened a t K e r a v a t where 20 t o 30 n a t i v e s were g i v e n t r a i n i n g l a s t i n g t h r e e y e a r s i n t h e c u l t i v a t i o n o f food and economic c r o p s , c r o p q rotation pletion  and e s s e n t i a l s  of t r o p i c a l a g r i c u l t u r e .  On com-  o f t h e c o u r s e , some were employed as n a t i v e  assistants  by t h e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n w h i l s t  o t h e r s were s e n t back  t o t h e i r v a r i o u s v i l l a g e s w i t h t h e hope t h a t t h e y m i g h t i m p a r t t o f e l l o w v i l l a g e r s s o m e t h i n g o f t h e knowledge t h e y had  a c q u i r e d w h i l s t under t r a i n i n g .  The i n t r o d u c t i o n  of  t h i s t r a i n i n g scheme h e l p e d t o some e x t e n t i n i m p r o v i n g t h e situation.  The w h i t e a g r i c u l t u r a l i n s t r u c t o r s  who were  f o r m e r l y on t h e j o b s were u n a b l e t o speak t h e n a t i v e guages and t h i s h i n d e r e d c o n s i d e r a b l y t h e i r  lan-  effectiveness.  M o r e o v e r , t h e n a t i v e s were somehow s u s p i c i o u s o f t h e s e w h i t e a g r i c u l t u r a l o f f i c e r s and t h e element o f t r u s t t h a t was l a c k i n g p r e v e n t e d any good r e s u l t b e i n g a c h i e v e d . surprising  that the A d m i n i s t r a t i o n d i d not r e a l i z e t h i s i n  time and t h u s make p r o v i s i o n addition,  I t was  for agricultural training.  t h e employment o f n a t i v e a g r i c u l t u r a l  h e l p e d c o n s i d e r a b l y t o improve t h e s t a f f i n g though i t was s t i l l p a i n f u l l y i n a d e q u a t e .  In  assistants  situation As a r e s u l t no  g r e a t p r o g r e s s was made i n t h e t a s k o f i m p r o v i n g n a t i v e agriculture. 9 A n n u a l R e p o r t t o t h e League o f N a t i o n s , 1 9 2 8 - 1 9 2 9 , p . 4-7  87  A n o t h e r b a r t o the q u i c k a d a p t a t i o n t o new The  New  methods was  the l a b o u r p o l i c y o f the  of  natives  Administration.  G u i n e a A d m i n i s t r a t i o n f o s t e r e d the s y s t e m o f  contract labour. t h o s e young men  T h i s system t o o k away f r o m v a r i o u s who  i d e a s and methods. o f such men  villages  would have p r o v e d more r e s p o n s i v e I t m i g h t be a r g u e d t h a t the  provided  to  employment  a u s e f u l i n t r o d u c t i o n to b e t t e r  agri-  c u l t u r a l methods, but the v e r y f a c t t h a t many o f them continuously put  new  stayed  on the p l a n t a t i o n and d i d n o t r e t u r n home t o  t h e i r experience i n t o p r a c t i c e completely  negated t h i s .  Land P o l i c y The  system o f l a n d h o l d i n g e s t a b l i s h e d by Germany  d u r i n g h e r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f New  G u i n e a was  freehold  tenure.  Under t h i s s y s t e m some n a t i v e l a n d s were a l i e n a t e d t o German companies and  s e t t l e r s i n the T e r r i t o r y .  a t o t a l o f 7 0 2 , 2 2 0 a c r e s had r i g h t s o f the h o l d e r s  the 1914  By  a l r e a d y been a l i e n a t e d .  The  1 0  o f s u c h a l i e n a t e d l a n d s were c o n f i r m e d  by the A u s t r a l i a n A d m i n i s t r a t i o n a f t e r the e s t a b l i s h m e n t c i v i l control.  Immediate s t e p s were t h e n t a k e n t o s a f e g u a r d  f o r t h e n a t i v e s the r i g h t s t o t h e i r l a n d and t h e y d i d not t h o u g h t l e s s l y d i s p o s e u s e f u l t o them a t some f u t u r e d a t e .  t o ensure t h a t  o f l a n d w h i c h m i g h t be The  1922  Land O r d i n a n c e  p r o h i b i t e d the s a l e o f n a t i v e l a n d t o anybody o t h e r  10  of  A n n u a l R e p o r t t o the League o f N a t i o n s ,  than  1921-1922,  p.  95.  88  the Administration." " 1  had  1  A p p l i c a t i o n s f o r n a t i v e owned l a n d  t o be made t o t h e D i s t r i c t O f f i c e r who was t o a s c e r t a i n  t h e w i l l i n g n e s s o f t h e n a t i v e s t o t r a n s f e r t h e l a n d and d e c i d e whether s u c h t r a n s f e r w o u l d be d e t r i m e n t a l t o n a t i v e interests.  I f t h e n a t i v e was w i l l i n g and t h e l a n d c o u l d be  t r a n s f e r r e d w i t h o u t e n d a n g e r i n g n a t i v e i n t e r e s t s and i f t h e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n d i d not r e q u i r e the l a n d f o r purposes o f n a t i v e r e s e r v e s , r o a d s , landing p l a c e s  and t i m b e r  reserves,  t h e n t h e a p p l i c a t i o n was f o r w a r d e d t o t h e A d m i n i s t r a t o r t o be a p p r o v e d .  Unfortunately  s t r i c t l y enforced  t h i s p r o v i s i o n was n o t a t t i m e s  and i n s t a n c e s had o c c u r r e d  whereby t h e  D i s t r i c t O f f i c e r ' s recommendation a g a i n s t a l i e n a t i o n h a d been r e j e c t e d on t h e grounds t h a t c o m m e r c i a l  activities  n e c e s s i t a t e d i t and t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s were f o r t h e w i d e r  12 i n t e r e s t s of the T e r r i t o r y . The  A d m i n i s t r a t i o n p o s s e s s e d t h e po\*er o f d e c l a r i n g  as crown l a n d any l a n d i n t h e T e r r i t o r y w h i c h appeared t o be ownerless a f t e r a c e r t a i n f i x e d p e r i o d .  To s a f e g u a r d n a t i v e  r i g h t s , i t was s t i p u l a t e d t h a t c o n s i d e r a t i o n must be g i v e n t o any c l a i m o f ownership i f s u c h was f o r t h c o m i n g .  I f such  a c l a i m was f o u n d t o be v a l i d , t h e n t h e l a n d h a d t o be returned  t o the claimant.  Ordinance the A d m i n i s t r a t o r  Under A r t i c l e  12 o f t h e same  was v e s t e d w i t h t h e power t o  11 F o r t h e d e t a i l e d p r o v i s i o n s o f t h e 1922 Land O r d i n a n c e see A n n u a l R e p o r t t o t h e League o f N a t i o n s , 1921-1922,  pp. 96-97.  12 M a i r , A u s t r a l i a i n New G u i n e a , p. 95*  89 s e t up a Commission t o d e c i d e  questions connected w i t h  u n c u l t i v a t e d and u n o c c u p i e d l a n d s and a l l c a s e s o f l a n d d i s p u t e i n w h i c h a n a t i v e c l a i m a n t was  involved.  I f such  a c l a i m was  r e j e c t e d by the Commission an a p p e a l l a y t o  the C e n t r a l  Court.  To meet the needs o f the E u r o p e a n s e t t l e r s , system o f l e a s e h o l d was  a  e s t a b l i s h e d i n p l a c e of the f r e e h o l d  s y s t e m w h i c h had been i n p r a c t i c e under the German r u l e . There were f i v e c l a s s e s of l e a s e s —  agricultural, pastoral,  r e s i d e n c e o r b u s i n e s s , s p e c i a l and m i s s i o n . a g r i c u l t u r a l l e a s e no i n d i v i d u a l was t h a n 2,000 h e c t a r e s  Under t h e  p e r m i t t e d t o h o l d more  of l a n d and the u n i m p r o v e d v a l u e o f s u c h  l a n d must n o t e x c e e d £5,000.  No  s u c h l e a s e was  to l a s t f o r  more t h a n 99 y e a r s and an a n n u a l r e n t o f 5 p e r c e n t o f t h e unimproved v a l u e o f the l a n d was  imposed as l a n d t a x .  f i f t h o f t h e l a n d must be p l a n t e d w i t h i n t h e f i r s t y e a r s , t w o - f i f t h s w i t h i n the f i r s t t e n and w i t h i n the f i r s t twenty y e a r s .  In case of p a s t o r a l l e a s e ,  and t h i s f o r a p e r i o d of 30 y e a r s .  e v e r y 4-00 h e c t a r e s .  and  charged.  e v e r y 10 y e a r s b u t d u r i n g  f i r s t 10 y e a r s , the a n n u a l r e n t was for  4-,000 h e c t a r e s  A r e n t o f two  h a l f p e r c e n t o f the v a l u e o f t h e l a n d was t o be a s s e s s e d  five  three-quarters  t h e maximum a r e a an i n d i v i d u a l c o u l d h o l d was  l e a s e s had  The  One-  n o t t o e x c e e d 10  t o t a l area of l a n d  a Such  the shillings  acquired 13  under v a r i o u s l e a s e s i n 194-0 13  amounted t o 63,078 h e c t a r e s .  A n n u a l R e p o r t t o t h e League o f N a t i o n s , 1939-194-0, p.  116  90 There i s no doubt t h a t t h e l a n d p o l i c y o f t h e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n was a sound one. l a n d was p r e v e n t e d . hectares Despite  Unnecessary a l i e n a t i o n of  By 1940 out o f a t o t a l a r e a o f 24,086,440  o n l y 365,602 h e c t a r e s had so f a r been a l i e n a t e d . ^ 1  t h i s , a land problem s t i l l  e x i s t e d i n the T e r r i t o r y  but t h i s was c o n f i n e d t o s u c h s m a l l i s l a n d s as New  Britain  and New I r e l a n d and t h o s e o t h e r p l a c e s where m i s s i o n and c o m m e r c i a l a c t i v i t i e s had g i v e n b i r t h t o l a r g e c o n c e n t r a t i o n s o f n a t i v e s and i n p l a c e s where t h e r e d u c t i o n i n death r a t e l e d t o over-crowding.  I n such areas,  land  hunger on t h e p a r t o f t h e n a t i v e s had begun t o m a n i f e s t itself. in  I t m i g h t seem r i d i c u l o u s t h a t a l a n d p r o b l e m e x i s t e d  t h e T e r r i t o r y because a g r e a t e r p a r t o f t h e l a n d r e m a i n e d  unalienated.  I t must n o t be f o r g o t t e n , however, t h a t i n a  s o c i e t y l i k e New G u i n e a i n h a b i t a n t s o f an a r e a where s h o r t ages o f l a n d e x i s t e d c o u l d n o t o b t a i n l a n d f r o m o t h e r  areas  s i n c e t h e p e o p l e were s t i l l  a t t h a t s t a g e o f development  where anybody n o t b e l o n g i n g  t o t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r group was  l o o k e d upon as a complete s t r a n g e r .  As e a r l y as 1924 t h e  A d m i n i s t r a t i o n had t r i e d t o s o l v e t h i s p r o b l e m by i n i t i a t i n g a p o l i c y o f l a n d r e s u m p t i o n i n a r e a s where l a n d was e x c e s s i v e  and had p r o c l a i m e d  alienation  native reserves  i n areas  where t h e demand f o r l a n d was a l m o s t i n s a t i a b l e .  By 1940  the t o t a l a r e a o f l a n d under n a t i v e r e s e r v e s was 10,736  14 A n n u a l R e p o r t t o t h e League o f N a t i o n s ,  1939-1940, p. 116.  91 hectares. M o r e o v e r , t h e system o f l o n g l e a s e was f r a u g h t f u t u r e land problems.  with  A g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d s were l e a s e d o u t  f o r as l o n g a p e r i o d as 99 y e a r s .  I t i snot unlikely,  there-  f o r e , t h a t before the e x p i r a t i o n o f such l e a s e s n a t i v e demands f o r l a n d w o u l d have been so g r e a t t h a t l a n d  shortage  might o c c u r i n t h e T e r r i t o r y . Mining The  g r e a t e s t source  1930 onwards was g o l d .  o f w e a l t h t o New G u i n e a f r o m  Since the d i s c o v e r y of the i s l a n d  by European e x p l o r e r s i n t h e s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y , hope o f t h e d i s c o v e r y o f g o l d h a d a l w a y s been e n t e r t a i n e d . time t i l l  From t h a t  t h e t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y some s p o r a d i c a t t e m p t s were  made t o d i s c o v e r g o l d i n t h e T e r r i t o r y b y p e o p l e o f v a r i o u s nationalities.  I n d e e d , one o f t h e r e a s o n s f o r A u s t r a l i a n  i n t e r e s t i n t h e T e r r i t o r y was t h e hope o f t h e d i s c o v e r y o f gold.  I n 1870, s m a l l f i n d i n g s were made n e a r P o r t Moresby.  This immediately  l e d t o a g r e a t i n r u s h o f A u s t r a l i a n s and a  g r e a t c l a m o u r on t h e i r p a r t t h a t t h e I m p e r i a l Government s h o u l d annex t h e T e r r i t o r y .  B u t as t h e f i n d i n g s soon  petered out, the question o f annexation  was s h e l v e d .  This  f a i l u r e d i d n o t i n any way dampen t h e hope o f g o l d - s e e k e r s who c o n t i n u e d  the search spasmodically.  Even t h e a n n e x a t i o n  15 A n n u a l R e p o r t t o t h e League o f N a t i o n s , 1 9 3 9 - 1 9 4 0 , p . 116.  92 of  n o r t h - e a s t e r n New  Guinea by Germany i n 1884  d i d not  p r e v e n t A u s t r a l i a n g o l d - s e e k e r s from s e a r c h i n g f o r g o l d i n t h a t s e c t i o n o f the i s l a n d o f New  Guinea.  The  German  A d m i n i s t r a t i o n s t i m u l a t e d by the hope of the d i s c o v e r y of g o l d c a r r i e d out o p e r a t i o n s t o t h i s end but no l u c k a t t e n d e d their efforts. but no more.  S m a l l f i n d i n g s were s t r u c k here and t h e r e I t was  not u n t i l 1926  g o l d - s e e k e r s were f i n a l l y R o y a l , A. Chisholm  rewarded.  t h a t the hopes o f the In t h a t y e a r W.  G.  and R. V. G l a s s o n , d i s c o v e r e d g o l d a t  16 E d i e Creek.  From t h i s time onward New  p l a c e as one The  Guinea took i t s  o f the g o l d - p r o d u c i n g areas i n the  world.  s t o r y of the development of the g o l d f i e l d was  easy one.  I t s development was  transport d i f f i c u l t i e s .  The  i n the midst o f the j u n g l e . difficult  one.  at f i r s t  not  slow as a r e s u l t  located  The  a very  approach  t o i t was  a r e a took seven days.  streams,  impenetrable t r o p i c a l f o r e s t posed  b a r r i e r t o easy movement. 17 '  of  g o l d - b e a r i n g f i e l d was  S e r i e s of h i g h l a n d s , r a p i d l y moving  and dense and almost  an  The  a  j o u r n e y from the c o a s t t o the  Gold p r o s p e c t i n g was  very  difficult  because of the rugged nature of the c o u n t r y and the f o r e s t which c o v e r e d i t s s u r f a c e .  thick  M i n i n g equipment had t o  be c a r r i e d by n a t i v e s from the p o r t of Salamaiua over  hill  and down d a l e f o r a d i s t a n c e of s i x t y - f i v e m i l e s and as the 16 O f f i c i a l 17  Handbook of the T e r r i t o r y o f New  Guinea, p.  Annual Report t o the League of N a t i o n s , 1 9 2 5 - 1 9 2 6 , p.  221. 23.  93 limit  of the load  pounds,  heavy  allowed  machinery  to a native  needed  porter  was  f o rprospecting  only  could  f i f t y n o t be  18 transported pioneers they a  As a r e s u l t ,  h a d t o work under  were  never  stimulus  solved  t o the area.  dismayed  t o them.  t h e most  trying  as t h e hope  The p r o b l e m  by the spectacular  the earliest conditions but  o f economic  gain  of transportation  development  was  was  of a i r transport i n  19 the  Territory.  the  gold  local  industry.  air-craft  13,000 20  over  needed  the  flew  over  b i g companies from  throughout  Morobe  1.5  11,000  squeezed  goldfield,  the Territory  I t was t h i s  the  Territory  economic  gold  took  depression the pride  very  of place  and other  supplies  high  gold  The S o u t h  Seas  by  and  fields  plane. consequently  prospectors. existed  i n the Sepik  discovery  of gold  paralysis during From  District  that  saved  the period of  1930  onwards,  as the c h i e f product  19 R. E . H a l l , " E x p a n d i n g A i r w a y s Far Eastern Survey, v o l . VI ( A p r i l Stanner,  carried f o r the  18 A n n u a l R e p o r t t o t h e L e a g u e o f N a t i o n s ,  20  and  out individual  of the t h i r t i e s .  alone  of freight  food  particularly  Bougainville.  economic  i n 1937  miles,  tons  small  and  from  that  expansion of  h a d t o be t r a n s p o r t e d  of prospecting soon  a rapid  million  equipment,  on the g o l d f i e l d the cost  possible estimated  and  Labourers,  made  Apart  made  I t was  passengers  industry.  This  This  of the  1926-1927, p . 77.  i n the Far East," i n  28, 1937), pp. 98-100.  i n T r a n s i t i o n , p.  35*  94 c o u n t r y c o n s t i t u t i n g by 1940  t w o - t h i r d s of the  total  21 export. Gold v a l u e d at £19 m i l l i o n was o b t a i n e d i n the T e r r i t o r y between 1926 and 1940. Other m i n e r a l s were a l s o o b t a i n e d i n the T e r r i t o r y but n o t on a l a r g e s c a l e .  22  Apart from g o l d and these m i n e r a l s , i t was b e l i e v e d t h a t o i l e x i s t e d i n New  Guinea.  1930's  D u r i n g the  t h e r e f o r e , the A u s t r a l i a n Government engaged a c t i v e l y i n the s e a r c h f o r o i l ,  but throughout  A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , o i l was  the p e r i o d of the mandate  n o t found i n any commercial q u a n t i t y . Labour  The  r o l e of the New  Guinea n a t i v e s i n the economic  e x p l o i t a t i o n of t h e i r T e r r i t o r y was I t was  not a s i g n i f i c a n t  one.  e s s e n t i a l l y t h a t of p r o v i d i n g the l a b o u r f o r c e f o r  the European p l a n t a t i o n s .  They had not y e t reached  the  stage of development at which the e x p l o i t a t i o n o f the economic r e s o u r c e s of t h e i r T e r r i t o r y c o u l d be l e f t i n t h e i r hands.  For t h i s reason, European c a p i t a l .  and  settlers  were encouraged and welcomed i n the T e r r i t o r y s i n c e t h i s the o n l y means by which the c o u n t r y c o u l d be developed.  21  The p o l i c y of a t t r a c t i n g white  Annual Report  22 Annual Reports  was  economically  settlers  to the League, 1939-1940, p.  and  63.  t o the League o f N a t i o n s , 1926-1940.  23 For a f u l l s t o r y of the s e a r c h f o r o i l see R. E. H a l l , " O i l Search i n Papua and New Guinea" i n F a r E a s t e r n Survey, v o l . V I I , No. 4 (February 4, 1 9 3 8 ) , p. 4; a l s o R. E . H a l l , "Petroleum Companies P r e s s D r i v e f o r O i l , " F a r E a s t e r n Survey,  v o l . VI (May 12,  1 9 3 7 ) , p.  95 encouraging the n a t i v e s t o work f o r them as labourers was d e l i b e r a t e l y encouraged, by the A d m i n i s t r a t i o n .  This was  given expression i n the A d m i n i s t r a t o r ' s speech t o the L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l i n May 1933 when he s a i d : We r e a l i z e t h a t the p r o s p e r i t y of the European r e s i d e n t s and the development of the n a t i v e p o p u l a t i o n must go hand i n hand ... the p r o s p e r i t y o f the European l a r g e l y depends on n a t i v e labour and the development and advancement of the n a t i v e race depends upon the means which the p r o s p e r i t y of the European r e s i d e n t s provide.2^ Thus when c i v i l c o n t r o l was e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1921, the system of indentured  labour which had been e s t a b l i s h e d by the  Germans was r e t a i n e d and c a r e f u l l y f o s t e r e d .  Care was taken  to expunge some of the e v i l s which were a l r e a d y n o t i c e a b l e i n the system by means of c a r e f u l l y drawn up labour regulations.  Two important Native Labour Ordinances were passed  during the p e r i o d of the mandate A d m i n i s t r a t i o n — 25 i n 1922 and the second i n 1925*  These Native  the f i r s t  Labour  Ordinances were comprehensive i n scope and d e a l t i n d e t a i l w i t h a l l f a c e t s of the indenture  system of labour —  recruit-  ment, working c o n d i t i o n s , wages, r e p a t r i a t i o n and the l i k e . 24- Annual Report t o the League of Nations, 1932-1933, p. 14-8; see a l s o P.M.C. Minutes, 18th Session (1930), p. 65. 25 Eor the Labour Ordinance see Annual Report t o the League of Nations, 1921-1922, pp. 53-60; 1934--1935.  96 Recruitment Under the 1922 Labour Ordinance a l l r e c r u i t e r s were t o p o s s e s s r e c r u i t i n g l i c e n c e s which were o n l y i s s u e d t o men  of good c h a r a c t e r approved by the A d m i n i s t r a t o r .  A l l r e c r u i t e r s had t o e n t e r i n t o a bond as a guarantee a g a i n s t the v i o l a t i o n of l a b o u r laws, and the l i c e n c e s were l i a b l e t o c a n c e l l a t i o n i f r e c r u i t e r s were found g u i l t y o f breaches o f the r e c r u i t m e n t r e g u l a t i o n s . l i c e n c e s were i s s u e d o n l y t o Europeans.  Recruiting A l l Asiatics,  p a r t i c u l a r l y C h i n e s e , were b a r r e d from such r i g h t s  because  the Chinese r e c r u i t e r s had p r o v e d themselves v e r y u n s c r u p u l o u s under the German regime.  As a r u l e , no n a t i v e  was  g i v e n such a r i g h t . To s a f e g u a r d n a t i v e r e c r u i t s , i t was t h a t a l l c o n t r a c t s must be i n w r i t i n g and t h a t be f i l e d w i t h the D i s t r i c t O f f i c e r . m e d i c a l e x a m i n a t i o n was In a d d i t i o n , each was who  was  l a i d down duplicates  On r e c r u i t m e n t , a  conducted f o r a l l r e c r u i t e d  natives.  t o appear b e f o r e the D i s t r i c t  Officer,  t o a s c e r t a i n h i s w i l l i n g n e s s t o be r e c r u i t e d .  Any  l a b o u r e r found t o be i l l e g a l l y r e c r u i t e d had t o be sent back to h i s v i l l a g e  at the r e c r u i t e r ' s expense.  e s s e n t i a l p r e c a u t i o n because  T h i s was  an  the A d m i n i s t r a t i o n p e r m i t t e d  26 Annual Report t o the League o f N a t i o n s , 1914-1921, p. 22; see a l s o I n t e r i m and P i n a l R e p o r t s of R o y a l Commission on L a t e German New Guinea, p . 5 9 ; P.M.C. M i n u t e s , 18th S e s s i o n (1950), p . 65.  97 the p r a c t i c e o f u t i l i z i n g n a t i v e c h i e f s as agents o f the recruiters.  The C h i e f s were p a i d a sum r a n g i n g from t e n  s h i l l i n g s t o one pound f o r each n a t i v e r e c r u i t e d depending on the l e n g t h o f s e r v i c e .  The C h i e f s found t h i s l u c r a t i v e ,  and n a t u r a l l y exerted pressures on f e l l o w - v i l l a g e r s t o accept r e c r u i t m e n t .  However, the i n q u i r y made by the  D i s t r i c t O f f i c e r d i d not prove an e f f e c t i v e safeguard, f o r i n the m a j o r i t y of cases the n a t i v e s were too much a f r a i d of t h e i r c h i e f s t o confess t h a t they had been r e c r u i t e d against t h e i r consent.  Why the A d m i n i s t r a t i o n allowed t h i s  to continue i s d i f f i c u l t t o e x p l a i n because i t was not 27 unaware o f i t s abuses. ' The Permanent Mandate Commission 28 objected t o t h i s p r a c t i c e on s e v e r a l occasions.  Despite  t h i s , n o t h i n g was done u n t i l 1932 when the p r a c t i c e was p r o h i b i t e d by ordinance. C e r t a i n c l a s s e s of people c o u l d not be r e c r u i t e d , i n c l u d i n g the o l d , the unhealthy, a l l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n officials —  c h i e f s o r l u l u a i s , t u l t u l s and medical t u l t u l s , 29  and m i s s i o n a r y t e a c h e r s .  Apart from these, a l l male  n a t i v e s above the age of twelve years c o u l d be r e c r u i t e d . I n a d d i t i o n , g i r l s over t e n years o f age and unmarried women 27 Annual Report to the League of N a t i o n s , 1921-1922, p. 5 3 . 28 P.M.C. Minutes, 6 t h S e s s i o n (1925), p. 90; 18th S e s s i o n (1930), p. 70; 20th Session (1931), p. 19. 29 Annual Report t o the League of N a t i o n s , 1921-1922, p. 5 5 .  98 c o u l d be r e c r u i t e d by f e m a l e e m p l o y e r s f o r d o m e s t i c work. Trie r e c r u i t m e n t o f n a t i v e s o f t w e l v e y e a r s o f age i s open to objection.  These boys were o b v i o u s l y t o o young f o r  c o n t r a c t l a b o u r and t h e i r employment on p l a n t a t i o n work was d e f i n i t e l y detrimental to their health.  This aspect o f t h e  r e c r u i t m e n t r e g u l a t i o n s was c r i t i c i z e d b o t h b y t h e m i s s i o n a r i e s and by t h e Permanent Mandates Commission.  At  t h e i r a n n u a l m e e t i n g i n 1927» t h e New G u i n e a m i s s i o n a r i e s p a s s e d a r e s o l u t i o n u r g i n g on t h e New G u i n e a A d m i n i s t r a t i o n the d e s i r a b i l i t y o f r a i s i n g t h e minimum r e c r u i t i n g age t o 30 16. The  T h i s was e n d o r s e d by t h e Permanent Mandates Commission. A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , however, was d e a f t o a l l p l e a s and i t  was n o t u n t i l 1932 t h a t any s t e p s were t a k e n t o r e c t i f y t h e obvious  evil.  I n t h a t y e a r t h e r e c r u i t i n g age f o r boys was  r a i s e d t o f o u r t e e n and i n t h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r t h e age l i m i t f o r g i r l s was a l s o r a i s e d .  But i t i s d i s a p p o i n t i n g t o r e c o r d  t h a t under t h e 1935 N a t i v e L a b o u r O r d i n a n c e males o f t w e l v e y e a r s o f age were s t i l l p e r m i t t e d t o be r e c r u i t e d f o r l i g h t e r d o m e s t i c work and 14 y e a r o l d males c o u l d be r e c r u i t e d 31 f o r any j o b w h a t s o e v e r . The A u s t r a l i a n Government j u s t i f i e d i t s s t a n d b y t h e u n t e n a b l e argument t h a t t h e n a t i v e s were s u f f i c i e n t l y developed  a t t h a t age t o j u s t i f y t h e i r  being  32 recruited. 30 P.M.C. M i n u t e s ,  22nd S e s s i o n ( 1 9 3 2 ) , p . 6 6 .  31 N a t i v e L a b o u r O r d i n a n c e ,  1 9 3 5 , S e c t i o n 14.  32 P.M.C. M i n u t e s , 2 9 t h S e s s i o n ( 1 9 3 6 ) , p . 24; a l s o A n n u a l R e p o r t t o t h e League o f N a t i o n s , 1935-1936, p . 1 2 7 .  99 The in  the  Territory.  possessed within  3,000  the  any  power  was  to  indiscriminate on  several  to  natives  recruitment  of  to  from  of  the  Native  criticisms  can  be  of  the  provisions This the  was  necessarily  mandate  in  an  it  33  on the  See  to  stemming  Ordinance, the  The  Guinea  that  of  disease  controlling  Administration  recruiting  or  maintained  several  other  practical  A study the  in  operation of  the  of  that  staff  the  period  so  the  supervision. than  labour of  the  many p l a c e s ,  and  Administration  provisions.  never  f o r instance Annual.:Report p . 30. A c c o r d i n g to the to recruitment i n that year.  certain  administrative  goldfield, the  from  constant  that  "there  of  the  spread  the  effectiveness  on  larger  enforce  to  above  ^  possessed.  Morobe  the  and  33  dependent  sociologist,  i n New  1935-1936, closed  excessive  place  areas  power by  recruiting  Ordinance,  any  from  The  employed  against  a  at  prevent  T e r r i t o r y throughout  impossible  American  saying  it.  Administration revealed  particularly found  the  to  provisions.  demanded  to  the  unaccustomed  natives.  Labour  Administration ever  conditions  was  criticisms  entirely  natives  were  was  advanced  recruitment  of  prevent  unhealthy  Apart clauses  who  under  recruitment  This  succumbed  occasions  recruitment  forbid  Recruitment  easily  indiscriminate  Administrator,  forbidden.  such  thereby  prohibited  The  area.  feet  malaria and  Ordinance  it  was  to the report  was nor  S. a  W.  Reed,  common  will  be  an  League of N a t i o n s , 50 v i l l a g e s w e r e  100 honest r e c r u i t e r " .  34  This i s very true.  There were c o n s t a n t  c o m p l a i n t s from m i s s i o n a r i e s , f r o m t h e Permanent Mandates Commission and i n A u s t r a l i a n newspapers o f t h e grave  abuses  that e x i s t e d i n connection w i t h recruitment i n the T e r r i t o r y . But t h e A u s t r a l i a n Government always m a i n t a i n e d t h a t a l l was w e l l .  The m i s s i o n a r i e s and t h e members o f t h e Permanent  Mandates Commission, however, were n e v e r t o be p u t o f f b y such assurances.  A t t h e Conference  o f New Guinea m i s s i o n a r i e s  h e l d i n 1927, a R e p o r t was i s s u e d on t h e s u b j e c t o f i l l e g a l r e c r u i t i n g w h i c h i s w o r t h q u o t i n g as l a t e r e v e n t s  confirmed  it: ... A l r e a d y t h e demand f o r n a t i v e l a b o u r e r s i s s u c h a g r e a t one t h a t r e c r u i t i n g i s becoming a heavy b u r d e n on t h e p e o p l e . One r e c r u i t i n g v e s s e l f o l l o w s t h e o t h e r and one r e c r u i t e r w a l k s on t h e s t i l l warm f o o t s t e p s of t h e one j u s t gone b e f o r e . By means o f c h e a t i n g , t h r e a t e n i n g and d e c e i v i n g , boys are l e d t o f o l l o w t h e r e c r u i t e r s . Not l o n g ago a r e c r u i t e r s e n t h i s boys t o some h i l l p e o p l e t o t e l l them t o come because t h e m i s s i o n a r i e s d e s i r e d t o see them. A f t e r t h e y r e a c h e d t h e v a l l e y t h e y found thems e l v e s a t t h e mercy o f t h e r e c r u i t e r . A n o t h e r s e n t h i s boys i n t o an u n c o n t r o l l e d a r e a w i t h guns and t h e y b y f o r c e b r o u g h t out a number o f boys and one g i r l . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h i s , p a t r o l o f f i c e r s go and r e q u i s i t i o n t h e boys whom t h e r e c r u i t s were u n a b l e t o persuade i n t h e above ment i o n e d ways, and t h e y a l s o t a k e men above the age a l l o w e d t o r e c r u i t e r s . Some weeks ago a p p r o x i m a t e l y 400 n a t i v e s were i n t h i s manner t a k e n o u t o f A z e r a and a t p r e s e n t t h e same i s t a k i n g p l a c e n o r t h o f F i n s c h h a f e n . P o r t h e sake o f g o l d - s e e k e r s , hundreds o f n a t i v e s are s a c r i f i c e d . 3 5  34 Reed, The M a k i n g o f Modern New G u i n e a , p . 1 8 3 . 35 E x t r a c t t a k e n f r o m P.M.C. M i n u t e s , 1 5 t h S e s s i o n p. 5 0 .  (1929),  101 Mr.  H. A. Grimshaw, t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l L a b o u r  Organization's  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e on t h e Permanent Mandates Commission, drew a t t e n t i o n t o t h i s r e p o r t and t o t h e f a c t t h a t i t was r e a d i n the p r e s e n c e o f t h e Commissioner f o r N a t i v e A f f a i r s who d i d not r e f u t e i t .  Lord Lugard a l s o took the A u s t r a l i a n r e p r e •56  sentative t o task.  M a k i n g use o f c o p i e s o f a r e p o r t o f  c e r t a i n c a s e s w h i c h were t r i e d by Judges W a n l i s s and P h i l i p s o f New G u i n e a , he quoted e x t r a c t s t o s u b s t a n t i a t e his assertion.  He r e f e r r e d t o t h e summing up o f a case  ( A l b e r t v . D u d l e y ) i n w h i c h t h e judge remarked t h a t " I t i s more or less a custom w i t h some r e c r u i t e r s a t any r a t e t o capture  some o f t h e v i l l a g e r s as h o s t a g e s and use them a s a  means o f o b t a i n i n g r e c r u i t s . "  I n t h e second case (Rex v .  M i a u and Tanga) Judge P h i l i p s n o t e d t h a t " t h e e v i d e n c e showed t h a t t h e w i v e s o f some o f t h e n a t i v e s were k e p t i n c u s t o d y as h o s t a g e s " .  As a r e s u l t o f t h i s b a r r a g e o f  c r i t i c i s m s , a Commission was a p p o i n t e d  i n 1927 b y t h e  A u s t r a l i a n Government t o l o o k i n t o and r e p o r t upon a l l e g e d i r r e g u l a r i t i e s i n connection b e a r i n g Morobe D i s t r i c t .  with r e c r u i t i n g i n the gold  The Commission's f i n d i n g s c o n -  f i r m e d a l l t h a t h a d been s a i d c o n c e r n i n g i n the T e r r i t o r y . ^  labour  conditions  I t was f o u n d t h a t an o f f i c e r o f t h e  A d m i n i s t r a t i o n had r e c r u i t e d u n w i l l i n g n a t i v e s , s e r i o u s l y 36 P.M.C. M i n u t e s , 1 5 t h S e s s i o n  ( 1 9 2 9 ) , p . 4-9.  37 P.M.C. M i n u t e s , 1 5 t h S e s s i o n ( 1 9 2 9 ) , p . 5 0 . A l s o A n n u a l R e p o r t t o t h e League o f N a t i o n s , 1927-1928, p. 1 3 .  102 emptied c e r t a i n v i l l a g e s o f a b l e - b o d i e d  m a r r i e d men,  s i g n e d on n a t i v e s whom i t was f o r b i d d e n t o r e c r u i t under the N a t i v e  Labour Ordinance, o r d e r e d  and h i s p a r t y w i t h f o o d without  n a t i v e s t o s u p p l y him  adequate payment, and  allowed p r i v a t e r e c r u i t e r s t o accompany him on h i s r e c r u i t i n g e x p e d i t i o n s and on c e r t a i n o c c a s i o n s them h i s a s s i s t a n c e i n o b t a i n i n g l a b o u r e r s .  In addition,  c e r t a i n r e c r u i t e r s were found g u i l t y o f i l l e g a l The  Commission recommended t h a t a l l i l l e g a l  offered  recruiting.  c o n t r a c t s be  c a n c e l l e d and l i c e n c e s o f c e r t a i n r e c r u i t e r s be r e v o k e d and to  t h a t compensation be p a i d t o n a t i v e s who had been f o r c e d s u p p l y f o o d f r e e o f charge t o t h e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n  and h i s p a r t y . to  concurrent  officer  The O f f i c e r was c o n v i c t e d and sentenced terms o f imprisonment o f twelve months and  s i x months r e s p e c t i v e l y .  A f t e r t h i s , the A d m i n i s t r a t i o n  made g r e a t e f f o r t s t o see t h a t i l l e g a l r e c r u i t i n g was stamped o u t b u t i t s e f f o r t s were n o t v e r y s u c c e s s f u l .  As  l a t e as 1937 t h e M a r i s t M i s s i o n was c o m p l a i n i n g of. " r e c u i t i n g which empties many v i l l a g e s o f the young f o l k s ,  38 as i t happened r e c e n t l y i n Buka".  The a r e a was immedi-  a t e l y c l o s e d t o r e c r u i t i n g by the A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . O v e r - r e c r u i t i n g was another problem connected w i t h the i n d e n t u r e producing  system.  I t had the obnoxious e f f e c t o f  s o c i a l d i s i n t e g r a t i o n o f the n a t i v e s o c i e t y and  38 Taken from P.M.C. Minutes, 31st S e s s i o n  (1937), p. 168  103 c a u s i n g a d e c l i n e i n the b i r t h r a t e because most o f the people  engaged on c o n t r a c t l a b o u r were young men between  the ages o f 16 and 4-0.  T a k i n g away such people  from t h e i r  homes unaccompanied by t h e i r wives was one o f the causes of  decline i n population.  I t i s t r u e t h a t the A d m i n i s t r a t o r  had  the power t o p r o h i b i t r e c r u i t m e n t  his  o p i n i o n i t was r e s u l t i n g i n d e p o p u l a t i o n .  difficult the e v i l The  t o know when t o c a l l  i n c e r t a i n areas i f i n But i t was  a h a l t and i n s e v e r a l cases  had a l r e a d y been done b e f o r e  a c t i o n was  q u e s t i o n o f e x c e s s i v e r e c r u i t i n g was o f v e r y  concern  taken. great  t o the Permanent Mandates Commission and t h i s  concern was expressed  on many o c c a s i o n s .  i n s t a n c e , t h e Commission observed was l i a b l e  I n 1936, f o r  that "excessive  t o undermine the s o c i a l  recruiting  s t r u c t u r e as i t removed 39  too many n a t i v e s from t h e i r homes." were e x p r e s s e d  i n subsequent y e a r s .  I d e n t i c a l views  y  This excessive  r e c r u i t i n g was a b s o l u t e l y i n c o m p a t i b l e  w i t h the d e c l a r e d  p o l i c y o f the A d m i n i s t r a t i o n t o p r e s e r v e and  n a t i v e customs  institutions.  C o n d i t i o n s o f Work By the Labour Ordinance i n f o r c e i n the T e r r i t o r y , the working hours o f i n d e n t u r e d of  l a b o u r e r s , w i t h the e x c e p t i o n  h a r v e s t time or the l o a d i n g and d i s c h a r g i n g o f v e s s e l s ,  39 P.M.C. M i n u t e s , 29th S e s s i o n  (1936), p . 24-  104 was f i x e d a t 10 h o u r s a day w i t h 1 1/2 h o u r s b r e a k f o r r e s t and l u n c h and t h i s f o r a s i x - d a y week.  T h i s was l a t e r  r e d u c e d t o 55 h o u r s a week when t h e p r a c t i c e o f w o r k i n g f o r a h a l f - d a y o n l y on S a t u r d a y was i n t r o d u c e d . W i t h t h e d i s c o v e r y o f g o l d i n 1926, t h e r e was an i n f l u x o f g o l d - d i g g e r s  i n t o t h e T e r r i t o r y a l l demanding  l a b o u r and as t h e c o n d i t i o n s i n t h e mines were d i f f e r e n t from those  on t h e p l a n t a t i o n s , s p e c i a l p r o v i s i o n had t o be  made as r e g a r d s  I n 1931  labour c o n d i t i o n s i n the mines.  and i n subsequent y e a r s r e g u l a t i o n s were p a s s e d  fixing  8 h o u r s a day f o r a l l l a b o u r e r s w o r k i n g i n t h e mines w i t h a b r e a k a t mid-day.  H i t h e r t o n i g h t work had n o t b e e n  a l l o w e d i n t h e T e r r i t o r y b u t owing t o t h e g r e a t demand f o r l a b o u r i n t h e g o l d f i e l d , t h e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n was f o r c e d t o g i v e way on t h i s .  N i g h t work was now a l l o w e d under s p e c i a l  p e r m i s s i o n b u t i t soon became t h e p r a c t i c e .  The A d m i n i -  s t r a t i o n was t a k e n t o t a s k on t h i s b y t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l L a b o u r O r g a n i z a t i o n ' s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e on t h e Permanent Mandates Commission, b u t i t m a i n t a i n e d  t h a t the n a t i v e s  t h e m s e l v e s e n j o y e d i t and t h a t m e d i c a l  examination  d i d not  i n any way r e v e a l t h a t i t was d e t r i m e n t a l t o t h e i r h e a l t h . There a r e no s t a t i s t i c s showing c a s e s o f i l l - h e a l t h c a u s e d by n i g h t work t o p r o v e t h e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n wrong b u t t h e argument o f t h e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n c a n be a c c e p t e d  with  misgivings  i n v i e w o f t h e h i g h d e a t h r a t e on t h e g o l d f i e l d . F o r a l l f a c t o r y w o r k e r s t h e w o r k i n g h o u r s were  105 n o t t o e x c e e d 50 h o u r s a week h u t f o r l a b o u r e r s employed as c o p r a d r i e r s 60 h o u r s a week was l a i d down.  Overtime  work was a l l o w e d b u t i t had t o be p a i d f o r . The A d m i n i s t r a t i o n made e l a b o r a t e p r o v i s i o n s f o r the care o f n a t i v e l a b o u r e r s .  A l l employers of l a b o u r had  t o p r o v i d e s u i t a b l e accommodation f o r t h e i r l a b o u r e r s . Such accommodation was t o be w e a t h e r p r o o f  and t h e f l o o r s  made o f cement t o ensure t h a t t h e y were n o t damp. were a l s o t o be p r o v i d e d .  Beds  These b u i l d i n g s were t o be  i n s p e c t e d f o r t n i g h t l y and a l l p l a n t a t i o n s i n s p e c t e d once a y e a r t o ensure t h a t t h e r e g u l a t i o n s were e n f o r c e d .  Pro-  v i s i o n was t o be made f o r adequate l a t r i n e system.  Good  as t h e s e p r o v i s i o n s a r e , t h e y c o u l d n o t be p r o p e r l y e n f o r c e d p a r t i c u l a r l y on t h e g o l d f i e l d owing t o s h o r t a g e  of s t a f f .  The v e r y f a c t t h a t dysentery was v e r y p r e v a l e n t i n t h e a r e a , due  t o t h e use o f streams by n a t i v e s as l a t r i n e s ,  the l a x i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f a t t e m p t s p r o v i.s i.o n s . 40  t o enforce  confirmed these  P r o v i s i o n s were a l s o drawn up r e g a r d i n g c l o t h i n g and f o o d . simple.  As r e g a r d s c l o t h i n g , t h e demands were v e r y Because i t was an o f f e n c e f o r n a t i v e men t o wear 41  any c l o t h i n g on t h e upper p a r t o f t h e body,  t h e y were t o  be p r o v i d e d o n l y w i t h a l o i n - c l o t h once a month and a 40 A n n u a l R e p o r t t o t h e League o f N a t i o n s , 1933-1934, p . 59. 41 A n n u a l R e p o r t t o t h e League o f N a t i o n s , 1928-1929, p .  121.  106 blanket tudes,  every year.  F o r n a t i v e s employed a t h i g h  alti-  c l o t h i n g s u i t a b l e f o r t h e c o l d w e a t h e r , and means  of d r y i n g s u c h c l o t h i n g , h a d t o be p r o v i d e d .  The  A d m i n i s t r a t i o n ' s r e g u l a t i o n s f o r b i d d i n g c l o t h i n g on t h e u p p e r p a r t o f t h e body was a v e r y s t r a n g e claimed  one.  I t was  t h a t n a t i v e s were n o t i n t h e h a b i t o f k e e p i n g t h e i r  c l o t h e s c l e a n and t h a t t h e r e f o r e t h e c l o t h e s became v e r m i n infested.  I t was a l s o c l a i m e d t h a t t h e n a t i v e s were i n  the h a b i t o f k e e p i n g on t h e i r wet c l o t h e s w h i c h c a u s e d them t o c a t c h pneumonia.  What t h e n a t i v e s needed was  not p r o h i b i t i o n f r o m w e a r i n g c l o t h e s .  education,  I n any c a s e , t h e  r e g u l a t i o n d i d n o t seem t o have a c h i e v e d  the d e s i r e d e f f e c t  of p r e v e n t i n g pneumonia, f o r many o f t h e n a t i v e s caught pneumonia by e x p o s u r e .  According  to the A u s t r a l i a n  Government, t h e d e a t h o f many n a t i v e s on t h e g o l d f i e l d was due t o pneumonia. As r e g a r d s f o o d , a r a t i o n was worked o u t by t h e A g r i c u l t u r a l Department i n o r d e r t o e n s u r e t h a t were w e l l - f e d on a b a l a n c e d d i e t .  labourers  A s p e c i a l d i e t was  c a r e f u l l y worked out f o r n a t i v e s engaged i n s t r e n u o u s work s u c h as s t e v e d o r e s , The u n f o r t u n a t e  p e a r l - f i s h e r s , boats'  crews o r quarrymen.  t h i n g was t h a t t h e r e g u l a t i o n s were n o t  s t r i c t l y enforced.  What i s more, t h e r a t i o n s were b a s e d  on t h e f o o d s t u f f s a v a i l a b l e i n t h e T e r r i t o r y , b u t as t h e r e  4-2 A n n u a l R e p o r t t o t h e League o f N a t i o n s , 1936-1937, p .  76.  107 was  t o o much, c o n c e n t r a t i o n on c o p r a p r o d u c t i o n ,  was  done t o c u l t i v a t e f o o d c r o p s .  The r e s u l t was t h a t t h e  n a t i v e s were f e d on t i n n e d meat and i m p o r t e d to  nothing  rice —  food  w h i c h t h e y were n o t accustomed and w h i c h was l a r g e l y  r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e c a s e s o f d y s e n t r y so common i n t h e Territory.  The A d m i n i s t r a t i o n i t s e l f a g r e e d t h a t t h e h i g h 43  d e a t h r a t e i n t h e mines was due t o f o o d d e f i c i e n c i e s . ^ E l a b o r a t e m e d i c a l p r o v i s i o n was made f o r s a f e guarding the h e a l t h of indentured l a b o u r e r s .  A l l employers  o f l a b o u r were c h a r g e d w i t h t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f p r o v i d i n g medical care f o r t h e i r l a b o u r e r s .  They were r e q u i r e d  to p r o v i d e s u i t a b l e b u i l d i n g s as s i c k wards w h i c h must have accommodation f o r 10 p e r c e n t o f t h e i r l a b o u r f o r c e . By t h e 1921  Ordinance,  any employer h a v i n g i n h i s s e r v i c e  between 75 and 100 l a b o u r e r s must p r o v i d e a c o l o u r e d m e d i c a l a s s i s t a n t and i f o v e r 100 l a b o u r e r s an e x p e r t European medical a s s i s t a n t t o c a t e r t o t h e h e a l t h o f the employees.  T h i s was m o d i f i e d i n 1922  f i c u l t t o enforce.  By t h e 1922  as i t was f o u n d d i f -  O r d i n a n c e any employer h a v i n g a  l a b o u r f o r c e o f between 100 and 500 was r e q u i r e d t o employ a p e r s o n q u a l i f i e d t o r e n d e r f i r s t a i d ; i f o v e r 500, cal  o f f i c e r was r e q u i r e d on a f u l l time b a s i s .  were t o r e p o r t d e a t h s o f l a b o u r e r s p r o m p t l y H e a l t h Department.  a medi-  A l l employers  t o the P u b l i c  I n s p e c t i o n s were t o be c a r r i e d o u t  4-3 A n n u a l R e p o r t t o t h e League o f N a t i o n s , 1932-1933* P« 65.  108 p e r i o d i c a l l y by m e d i c a l p a t r o l s t o e n s u r e t h a t t h e l a b o u r e r s r e m a i n e d f i t and t h a t t h e m e d i c a l r e g u l a t i o n s were complied with. powers.  Such m e d i c a l p a t r o l s p o s s e s s e d  being  extensive  They had t h e r i g h t t o d e s t r o y any u n s u i t a b l e  b u i l d i n g s , and t o remove and send t o t h e h o s p i t a l any n a t i v e l a b o u r e r found w i t h v e n e r e a l  disease.  They were a l s o c h a r g e d  w i t h the duty of i n s p e c t i n g a l l labourers  a t t h e end o f t h e i r  c o n t r a c t t o e n s u r e t h a t t h e y were m e d i c a l l y f i t b e f o r e s e n t home.  I f a l a b o u r e r was n o t f i t ,  being  he was r e t a i n e d on  the p l a n t a t i o n and t r e a t e d a t t h e expense o f h i s e m p l o y e r u n t i l he was f o u n d w e l l enough t o p r o c e e d home.  A l l these  were e x c e l l e n t r e g u l a t i o n s i f t h e y were p r o p e r l y  enforced.  But  t h e r e was t o o much l a x i t y i n t h e i r e n f o r c e m e n t .  The  1922 p r o v i s i o n t h a t t h e l a b o u r e r s on v a r i o u s p l a n t a t i o n s s h o u l d be m e d i c a l l y examined once a y e a r was f o u n d to enforce  impossible  as t h e r e was no adequate s t a f f and so i t was  s t r u c k o u t i n 1933*  The c o n d i t i o n s o f l a b o u r on t h e g o l d -  f i e l d d e s p i t e t h e e x c e l l e n t m e d i c a l r e g u l a t i o n s were able.  The d e a t h r a t e was a l w a y s h i g h .  w h i c h was a c o n s t a n t  feature of l i f e  deplor-  Epidemics of dysentry,  on t h e g o l d f i e l d , were  due t o i n a d e q u a t e p r o v i s i o n o f l a t r i n e s f o r n a t i v e use and food d e f i c i e n c i e s a r i s i n g from the f a i l u r e of the o f f i c i a l s t o see t h a t n a t i v e s were f e d on s t i p u l a t e d b a l a n c e d d i e t . T h i s much was a d m i t t e d  by t h e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n .  44 A n n u a l R e p o r t t o t h e League o f N a t i o n s , 1933-1934, p. 5 9 .  Pneumonia  1932-1933j p. 65;  109 a l s o p a r t l y a c c o u n t e d f o r the h i g h d e a t h r a t e .  This  was  because the n a t i v e s f r o m l o w l a n d a r e a s were r e c r u i t e d f o r work on a h i g h e r a l t i t u d e o v e r 6000 f e e t under unaccustomed weather c o n d i t i o n s —  a f l a g r a n t v i o l a t i o n o f the  Labour R e g u l a t i o n s .  Native  So bad were c o n d i t i o n s on the g o l d -  f i e l d t h a t the Permanent Mandates Commission had t o r e g i s t e r 45 i t s p r o t e s t on s e v e r a l o c c a s i o n s . x  P r o v i s i o n s were i n s e r t e d i n the N a t i v e L a b o u r O r d i n a n c e t o s a f e g u a r d the n a t i v e s f r o m m a l t r e a t m e n t  by  t h e i r employers.  £50  I t was  made an o f f e n c e l i a b l e t o a  f i n e o r s i x months i m p r i s o n m e n t f o r any p e r s o n t o a s s a u l t or maltreat a n a t i v e .  On the o t h e r hand t o e n s u r e t h a t t h e  e m p l o y e r s r e c e i v e d adequate l a b o u r f o r t h e i r wages, p e n a l s a n c t i o n s amounting t o 14 days pay o r 2 weeks i m p r i s o n m e n t were imposed on n a t i v e s f o r b r e a c h e s o f c o n t r a c t o f l a b o u r . H. A. Grimshaw, the I n t e r n a t i o n a l L a b o u r O r g a n i z a t i o n ' s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e on the Permanent Mandates Commission r i g h t l y p o i n t e d out t h a t the p e n a l t i e s were enormous i n c o m p a r i s o n w i t h the wages.  The  wage f o r an a d u l t l a b o u r e r was  s h i l l i n g s a month.  F a i l u r e to perform  by the c o n t r a c t was  punished  f o r t n i g h t ' s pay  the work  five  presented  by a f i n e w h i c h amounted t o a  (two s h i l l i n g s and s i x p e n c e ) .  He  concluded  t h a t e i t h e r t h e wages were t o o low o r the p e n a l t i e s were  45 P.M.C. M i n u t e s , 2 3 r d S e s s i o n ( 1 9 3 3 ) , p . 27, 192; 2 5 t h S e s s i o n ( 1 9 3 4 ) , p . 48; 2 7 t h S e s s i o n ( 1 9 3 5 ) , p . 2 9 .  110 too h i g h .  46  Cases o f d e s e r t i o n were p u n i s h a b l e by t h r e e  months i m p r i s o n m e n t and t h a t p e r i o d was added t o t h e unexpired  contract. Despite  t h e s e r e g u l a t i o n s drawn up t o c o n t r o l -  r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e e m p l o y e r s and t h e i r  labourers,  l a b o u r c o n d i t i o n s t h r o u g h o u t t h e p e r i o d u n d e r s u r v e y were bad. not  Regulations  a g a i n s t i l l - t r e a t m e n t o f t h e n a t i v e s were  s t r i c t l y enforced  was s t i l l  common.  and i l l - t r e a t m e n t o f n a t i v e  labourers  The r e a s o n f o r t h i s i s t h a t t h e p l a n t -  a t i o n s were w i d e l y s c a t t e r e d a l l o v e r t h e T e r r i t o r y and i n many c a s e s a t c o n s i d e r a b l e centres.  d i s t a n c e s from the A d m i n i s t r a t i v e  The number o f o f f i c e r s a v a i l a b l e f o r c a r r y i n g  out l a b o u r r e g u l a t i o n s were so few t h a t t h e degree o f s u p e r v i s i o n n e c e s s a r y t o ensure t h e proper observance o f the r e g u l a t i o n s was a l m o s t n o n - e x i s t e n t .  The a n n u a l f i g u r e s  o f c o n v i c t i o n o f European s e t t l e r s f o r s u c h o f f e n c e s as a s s a u l t o r m a l t r e a t m e n t o f n a t i v e s as r e c o r d e d i n t h e A n n u a l R e p o r t t o t h e League was p r o o f t h a t t h e l a b o u r  provisions  as r e g a r d s i l l - t r e a t m e n t o f t h e n a t i v e s were n o t b e i n g perly  pro-  enforced. As a r e s u l t o f i l l - t r e a t m e n t o f n a t i v e s and f o r  o t h e r r e a s o n s , c a s e s o f d e s e r t i o n by n a t i v e l a b o u r e r s  were  v e r y common d e s p i t e t h e p e n a l t y s u c h an a c t i o n e n t a i l e d .  46 P.M.C. M i n u t e s , 13th S e s s i o n  ( 1 9 2 8 ) , p. 31.  Ill About 3 0 0 n a t i v e s were c o n v i c t e d e a c h y e a r f o r d e s e r t i o n . T h i s r e v e a l e d t h a t a l l was n o t w e l l w i t h t h e c o n d i t i o n s under w h i c h t h e l a b o u r e r s worked.  T h i s was p o i n t e d o u t t o  the A u s t r a l i a n Government b y t h e Permanent Mandates 47  Commission. '  The A d m i n i s t r a t i o n m a i n t a i n e d t h a t c a s e s o f  d e s e r t i o n were n o t due t o p o o r l a b o u r c o n d i t i o n s b u t t o t h e i r r e s p o n s i b l e nature of the n a t i v e s , the unstable  living  con-  d i t i o n s , d e s i r e s t o a t t e n d some v i l l a g e c e r e m o n i e s , and f e a r of e p i d e m i c s l i k e d y s e n t r y .  I n a d d i t i o n , i t admitted that  the p l a n t e r s possessed l i t t l e  o r no e x p e r i e n c e i n t h e  48  handling  of the natives.  This admission, l i t t l e  as t h e  A d m i n i s t r a t i o n m i g h t have r e a l i z e d , b o r e w i t n e s s t o t h e f a c t t h a t t h e l a b o u r e r s were n o t b e i n g w e l l - t r e a t e d . labourers  The  on t h e o t h e r hand s t r o n g l y a s s e r t e d t h a t i t was  t h e i r d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n e i t h e r w i t h t h e i r employers o r w i t h t h e p o o r c o n d i t i o n s under w h i c h t h e y worked t h a t was t h e 49  prime cause f o r t h e i r d e s e r t i o n . ^  A l v i n D e c k e r , who made  a thorough study of labour c o n d i t i o n s i n the T e r r i t o r y , maintained that the reasons put forward by the A d m i n i s t r a t i o n were c o m p l e t e l y  one-sided.  Apart from t h e i l l - t r e a t m e n t o f  n a t i v e s w h i c h l e d t o t h e i r d e s e r t i n g , he c h a r g e d t h e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n w i t h pursuing a recruitment p o l i c y which 4 7 A n n u a l R e p o r t t o t h e League of N a t i o n s , 1 9 3 2 - 1 9 3 3 , P-  38,  64-65.  4 8 A n n u a l R e p o r t t o t h e League of N a t i o n s ,  64-65;  1933-34,  pp.  34-35.  4 9 A n n u a l R e p o r t t o t h e League o f N a t i o n s ,  1932-33,  pp.  1933-1934,  38,  p.  34.  112 e m p h a s i z e d the r e c r u i t i n g o f i r r e s p o n s i b l e t y p e s o f n a t i v e s : I t has a l r e a d y been p o i n t e d out t h a t a l a r g e p e r c e n t a g e o f the l a b o u r r e c r u i t s came f r o m w i l d a r e a s o n l y r e c e n t l y p a c i f i e d by government p a t r o l s , and s i n c e t h e s e n a t i v e s are o n l y a s t e p removed f r o m t h e s t o n e - a g e i n c u l t u r e and know n o t h i n g o f the r o u t i n e o f p l a n t a t i o n and m i n i n g work, i t i s e a s i e r f o r them t o become d i s c o u r a g e d and want t o escape t o t h e i r v i l l a g e s t h a n f o r natives,-Q who have had more c o n t a c t w i t h E u r o p e a n s . The  Permanent Mandates Commission was  a l t o g e t h e r unconvinced  by the arguments advanced by the A u s t r a l i a n Government  and  demanded t h a t s o m e t h i n g be done t o improve l a b o u r c o n d i t i o n s 51 i n the  Territory.  Wages The  wages p a i d t o n a t i v e l a b o u r e r s i n New  were v e r y p o o r .  The  wage f o r an a d u l t male was  f i v e s h i l l i n g s a month and the maximum a t t e n I n p r a c t i c e , except  Guinea  fixed  at  shillings.  i n the g o l d m i n e s , the m a j o r i t y o f  the  l a b o u r e r s b e l o n g e d t o the f i v e s h i l l i n g s a month wage group and t h r o u g h o u t the p e r i o d under r e v i e w the wages o f  an  o r d i n a r y l a b o u r e r n e v e r exceeded s i x s h i l l i n g s .  To  ensure  t h a t l a b o u r e r s s h o u l d n o t r e c e i v e h i g h e r wages,  experienced  50 D e c k e r , L a b o r P r o b l e m s i n the P a c i f i c Mandates, p.  183.  51 P.M.C. M i n u t e s , 15th S e s s i o n (1929), p. 52; 1 8 t h S e s s i o n (1930), pp. 64-69; 23rd S e s s i o n (1933), p . 27; 25th S e s s i o n (I934-), pp. 4-6-4-7; 27th S e s s i o n (1935), p . 28. Annual Report t o the League o f N a t i o n s , 1928-1929, p. 28; P a c i f i c I s l a n d s Y e a r b o o k , 1935, p . 286.  113 ones were p r e v e n t e d  f r o m s e e k i n g j o b s w i t h new e m p l o y e r s  whereby t h e y m i g h t b a r g a i n f o r h i g h e r pay. r e q u i r e d t o go back t o t h e i r o l d e m p l o y e r s .  They were This had the  e f f e c t o f h i n d e r i n g the d e s i r e f o r s e l f - i m p r o v e m e n t . was  This  c r i t i c i z e d b y the Permanent Mandates Commission,-^ b u t  i t c o n t i n u e d t o be i n e x i s t e n c e t i l l  1935.  I n that  year  i t was l a i d down t h a t a l a b o u r e r on re-engagement a f t e r t h r e e y e a r s ' c o n t r a c t s h o u l d have an i n c r e a s e f r o m f i v e shillings to six.  Women and boys were p a i d o n l y f o u r  s h i l l i n g s a month. The  u n f a i r n e s s o f t h e New G u i n e a wage s c a l e i s  g r e a t l y emphasized when c o n t r a s t e d w i t h t h e wages p a i d t o n a t i v e l a b o u r e r s i n the a d j a c e n t A u s t r a l i a n C o l o n y o f Papua and i n t h e B r i t i s h Solomon I s l a n d s .  I n Papua an a d u l t male  r e c e i v e d t e n s h i l l i n g s a month i n wages and i n the Solomon 53  I s l a n d s i t was s t i l l h i g h e r .  y  A number o f r e a s o n s were  p u t f o r w a r d b y the A d m i n i s t r a t i o n t o j u s t i f y t h e l o w wages paid t o native labourers i n the T e r r i t o r y .  I t maintained  t h a t t h e wants o f t h e n a t i v e s were few and i f g i v e n a l a r g e r wage he m i g h t n o t be a b l e t o make use o f i t .  A specious  argument and a s o r d i d r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n w h i c h condoned  gross  i n j u s t i c e f o r the sheer b e n e f i t o f t h e white p o p u l a t i o n . 52 P.M.C. M i n u t e s ,  5th S e s s i o n (1924-), pp. 136,  137;  6th S e s s i o n (1925), pp. 89-90; see a l s o A n n u a l R e p o r t t o t h e League o f N a t i o n s , 1932-1933, P. 171. 53 A n n u a l R e p o r t t o t h e League o f N a t i o n s , 1921-1922, p . 52.  114 Whatever m i g h t happen t o such wages s h o u l d n o t he c o n c e r n o f any man.  the  I f even the n a t i v e s were u n a b l e t o make  use  of t h e i r money p r o p e r l y , t h e y c o u l d n e v e r get t o know  how  t o do t h i s w i t h o u t  of doing i t .  The  being saddled  w i t h the  responsibility  A d m i n i s t r a t i o n also maintained  each employer o f n a t i v e l a b o u r had  that  t o c o n t r i b u t e one  a month f o r each l a b o u r e r employed t o the N a t i v e T r u s t Fund, and  since shilling  Education  s i n c e t h e y r e c e i v e d on r e c r u i t m e n t  a  present  o f 'hand-money' and because t h r o u g h o u t t h e i r t e r m o f c o n t r a c t t h e y were w e l l f e d and t h e i r h e a l t h c a t e r e d f o r —  all  t h e s e compensated t h e n a t i v e s f o r the p o o r wages t h e y received.  I t i s o n l y n e c e s s a r y t o p o i n t out t h a t the same  c o n d i t i o n s as r e g a r d s h e a l t h and  'hand-money' a p p l i e d t o  n a t i v e s i n o t h e r p l a c e s l i k e Papua where t h e y were n o t r e g a r d e d as c o m p e n s a t i n g f o r d e f i c i e n c y i n wages. important New  t o n o t e t h a t the employer o f a n a t i v e l a b o u r e r i n  G u i n e a p a i d l e s s t h a n e m p l o y e r s i n any 54  Mandates.  It i s  of the  Pacific  T h i r d l y , the A d m i n i s t r a t i o n maintained  l a b o u r e r i n New  G u i n e a had  that a  charge o f o n l y seven a c r e s  c o c o n u t p l a n t a t i o n w h i l e i n Papua the average  of  labourer  looked  a f t e r ten acres.  As a r e s u l t , the average  i n New  G u i n e a had t o be p a i d h a l f o f the average  labourer labourer's  55 wage i n Papua. 54 D e c k e r , L a b o u r P r o b l e m s i n the P a c i f i c Mandates, p.  190.  55 Por the r e a s o n s p u t f o r w a r d by the A d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n f a v o u r o f the low wages p a i d , see A n n u a l R e p o r t t o the League o f N a t i o n s , 1921-1922, p. 52.  115 Workmen's  Compensation P r o v i s i o n s f o r n a t i v e s i n c a s e s o f i l l n e s s and  a c c i d e n t s were w o e f u l l y i n a d e q u a t e .  By t h e 1955  Labour  O r d i n a n c e , a l a b o u r e r i n case o f i l l n e s s o r a c c i d e n t was e n t i t l e d t o f o u r weeks' s i c k l e a v e w i t h p a y .  After this,  he was no l o n g e r e n t i t l e d t o any payment though he was s t i l l e n t i t l e d t o f r e e m e d i c a l a t t e n t i o n up t o two months. I f a f t e r two months he was s t i l l n o t w e l l , h i s c o n t r a c t was t o be t e r m i n a t e d  and he had t o be r e p a t r i a t e d t o h i s v i l l a g e .  No c o m p e n s a t i o n was p a i d t o l a b o u r e r s who were i n v a l i d e d f r o m s e r v i c e as a r e s u l t o f i n j u r y o r a c c i d e n t n o r was c o m p e n s a t i o n p a i d t o t h e f a m i l y o f a l a b o u r e r who d i e d f r o m an a c c i d e n t w h i l e under c o n t r a c t .  I t i s t r u e t h a t by  the Laws R e p e a l and A d o p t i n g O r d i n a n c e , 1921,  by which the  E m p l o y e r s ' L i a b i l i t y Law o f Papua was made a p p l i c a b l e t o New G u i n e a , p r o v i s i o n was made b y w h i c h a l a b o u r e r o r h i s f a m i l y were t o r e c e i v e an e q u i v a l e n t o f t h r e e y e a r s p a y i n case o f t o t a l d i s a b i l i t y or death.  B u t as t h e r e was no s i n g l e  r e c o r d e d case o f compensation i n the Annual Reports throughout t h e p e r i o d o f t h e mandate A d m i n i s t r a t i o n and as many thousands o f n a t i v e s might have d i e d by a c c i d e n t w h i l e  under  c o n t r a c t i t might be s a f e l y assumed t h a t t h i s p r o v i s i o n as f a r as t h e n a t i v e s were c o n c e r n e d was n e v e r o p e r a t i v e . Repatriation Under t h e i n d e n t u r e  system i n f o r c e i n the  116 T e r r i t o r y , a contract l a s t e d f o r three years.  A t t h e end.  o f t h e c o n t r a c t a l a b o u r e r m i g h t be r e p a t r i a t e d . The Permanent Mandates Commission was n e v e r i n f a v o u r o f a t h r e e y e a r c o n t r a c t p e r i o d and demanded once o r t w i c e the p e r i o d be s h o r t e n e d  that  on the grounds t h a t such a l o n g  absence from home was i n c o m p a t i b l e  w i t h the p o l i c y o f  p r e s e r v i n g n a t i v e ways o f l i f e and t h a t i t l e d t o s o c i a l disintegration.^  The A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , however, r e f u s e d t o  countenance t h i s .  I t maintained  t h a t such a l o n g p e r i o d  of s e r v i c e was d e s i r a b l e as i t t o o k the new r e c r u i t s a l m o s t a y e a r t o l e a r n how t o work p r o p e r l y and t h a t i f t h e employer was t o r e c e i v e adequate r e t u r n s f o r h i s wages, i t 57  was  necessary  t h a t t h e p e r i o d o f c o n t r a c t be l o n g . ' The  p l a n t e r s n o t o n l y backed up t h e argument b u t even went f u r t h e r t o demand a l o n g e r p e r i o d on the grounds t h a t t h e l a b o u r e r s were j u s t b e g i n n i n g  t o be o f any r e a l use a t t h e  end o f t h r e e y e a r s and t h a t r e p a t r i a t i n g them w o u l d i n v o l v e once more t h e c o s t l y b u s i n e s s  o f r e c r u i t i n g and t r a i n i n g a  58  new  labour force.  P e r h a p s as a r e s u l t o f t h e s t a n d o f  the p l a n t e r s , t h e t h r e e y e a r r e p a t r i a t i o n p r o v i s i o n was n e v e r s t r i c t l y enforced.  A l a b o u r e r , i f w i l l i n g , was always  56 P.M.C. M i n u t e s , 1 8 t h S e s s i o n ( 1 9 3 4 ) , P. 2 5 .  (1930), p . 64; 2 5 t h  Session  57 A n n u a l R e p o r t t o t h e League o f N a t i o n s , 1932-1933, p. 171; P.M.C. M i n u t e s , 23rd S e s s i o n (1933), P« 28. 58 R e p o r t o f the M i n i s t e r f o r Home and T e r r i t o r i e s on V i s i t t o Papua and New G u i n e a , 1927, P« 75. A p p e n d i x t o A n n u a l R e p o r t t o t h e League o f N a t i o n s , 1927-1928.  117 a l l o w e d t o be engaged on a new a t the end o f t h r e e y e a r s .  c o n t r a c t w i t h the same e m p l o y e r  But i n t h i s c a s e , he m i g h t be  g i v e n some time t o v i s i t h i s v i l l a g e b e f o r e s t a r t i n g on new  contract service.  who  maintained  T h i s was  t h a t i t was  a  c r i t i c i z e d by t h e m i s s i o n a r i e s  even the p r a c t i c e o f the  Admini-  s t r a t i o n i n some c a s e s t o a l l o w l a b o u r e r s t o r e m a i n c o n t i n u o u s l y on the same p l a n t a t i o n f o r a p e r i o d o f t w e l v e I n the 1935  years.  N a t i v e L a b o u r O r d i n a n c e t h e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n came  i n t o the open by making i t l e g a l f o r a l a b o u r e r t o be re-engaged a f t e r t h r e e y e a r s f o r a n o t h e r two e x c e p t i o n s .  Any  l a b o u r e r who  three years  had been w o r k i n g  with  continu-  o u s l y f o r f i v e y e a r s must be g i v e n a t h r e e months l e a v e  and  a s k i l l e d workman and a d o m e s t i c s e r v a n t must be g i v e n a month's l e a v e b e f o r e s t a r t i n g on a new One  contract.  o f the g r e a t e s t e v i l s o f k e e p i n g  contract  l a b o u r e r s f o r a l o n g p e r i o d on the E u r o p e a n p l a n t a t i o n s was t h a t i t t e n d e d t o l o w e r the m o r a l s t a m i n a  o f the n a t i v e s .  Most o f the n a t i v e s t a k e n away t o the p l a n t a t i o n s were a c t i v e young men  accustomed t o s e x u a l a c t i v a t i o n and  since  t h e y were n o t accompanied by t h e i r w i v e s t h e y t e n d e d t o s a t i s f y t h e i r s e x u a l urge by r e s o r t i n g t o sodomy, t o s e x u a l r e l a t i o n s w i t h the few n a t i v e w i v e s who  had  accompanied  t h e i r husbands and by a t t e m p t e d rape on the w h i t e women. S e x u a l o f f e n c e s were even committed on the b o d i e s o f dead  118  females. The  1 9 3 9 L a b o u r Commission In 1 9 3 9 »  the A u s t r a l i a n Government, a n x i o u s about  l a b o u r c o n d i t i o n s i n New  G u i n e a and. s e n s i t i v e t o  the  c r i t i c i s m s o f t h e Permanent Mandates Commission,  appointed,  a Commission t o l o o k i n t o l a b o u r c o n d i t i o n s and make recomm e n d a t i o n s f o r improvement. w h i c h was  submitted  in 1 9 4 0  The  R e p o r t o f the  confirmed  Commission  t h a t a l l t h a t has  s a i d concerning  l a b o u r c o n d i t i o n s i n New  recruitment  and  i t s e f f e c t on n a t i v e s o c i e t y , the  had  say.  t h i s to  Guinea.  As  been  regards  Commission  We cannot say w i t h c e r t a i n t y t h a t n a t i v e s have met the demand f o r l a b o u r w i t h o u t d e t r i ment t o n a t i v e l i f e ... we are o f the o p i n i o n t h a t when the f i g u r e s f o r t h e T e r r i t o r y as a whole are c o n s i d e r e d i n the mass no harm i s a p p a r e n t but t h a t s e v e r a l v i l l a g e s o r a r e a s have been o v e r - r e c r u i t e d . 6 0 I n a n o t h e r passage on r e c r u i t m e n t  i t maintained  that  whole scheme o f n a t i v e development was b a s e d on the a t i o n of v i l l a g e l i f e  and the A d m i n i s t r a t i o n cannot  :  the  continuignore  the p r o b a b l e e f f e c t s of e x c e s s i v e r e c r u i t i n g on v i l l a g e  life.  5 9 See J . A. Todd, " N a t i v e O f f e n c e s and E u r o p e a n Law i n S o u t h w e s t e r n New B r i t a i n , " O c e a n i a , v o l . V ( 1 9 3 5 ) P» 4 4 - 5 . Also S. H. R o b e r t s , " R a c i a l and L a b o u r P r o b l e m s " i n E g g l e s t o n , The A u s t r a l i a n Mandate f o r New G u i n e a , p. 76; a l s o Reed, The M a k i n g o f Modern New G u i n e a , pp. 250-251. ?  60 C i t e d i n S t a n n e r , The  S o u t h Seas i n T r a n s i t i o n , p.  54-.  The  119  Commission m a i n t a i n e d t h a t t h e S e c t i o n o f t h e N a t i v e  L a h o u r O r d i n a n c e w h i c h sought t o remedy t h e s o c i a l e f f e c t of the indenture  system on n a t i v e s o c i e t y by f o r b i d d i n g  c o n t i n u o u s employment o f a l a b o u r e r f o r many y e a r s w i t h o u t a l l o w i n g h i m a v i s i t t o h i s v i l l a g e had been r e n d e r e d a dead l e t t e r i n some a r e a s b y t h e way i n w h i c h i t h a d been a d m i n i stered.  "We c o n s i d e r t h e f a i l u r e o f t h e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n t o  endorse t h i s v i t a l p r o v i s i o n a s t o n i s h i n g and r e g r e t t a b l e . " ^  1  I t recommended t h a t r e c r u i t i n g and r e p a t r i a t i o n p r o v i s i o n s be  s t r i n g e n t l y enforced,  that b e t t e r standards of medical  e x a m i n a t i o n , h o u s i n g , d i e t and g e n e r a l w e l f a r e  be s e t up.  M o r e o v e r , i t condemned t h e c o n d i t i o n s o f work on t h e p l a n t a t i o n s , emphasized t h e need f o r payment o f r e a s o n a b l e compensation f o r death o r i n j u r y s u s t a i n e d i n the course o f employment.  F i n a l l y , i t d w e l t on t h e i n a d e q u a c y o f t h e  methods and r e g u l a r i t y o f i n s p e c t i o n and on t h e a p p a r e n t l a x i t y i n e n f o r c i n g the labour Ordinance.  "Unless  legi-  s l a t i o n i s g i v e n l i f e by a c t i v e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i t i s o f l i t t l e v a l u e , except perhaps t o deceive." The  above a n a l y s i s r e v e a l s t h a t t h o u g h compre-  h e n s i v e L a b o u r O r d i n a n c e s were p a s s e d t o p r o t e c t labourers  native  t h e c o n d i t i o n s o f l a b o u r i n t h e T e r r i t o r y were  61 S t a n n e r , The S o u t h Seas i n T r a n s i t i o n , p. 55 62 I b i d . , p. 56.  120  undesirable.  T h i s was p a r t l y the r e s u l t o f t h e i n d e n t u r e  s y s t e m o f l a b o u r i n e x i s t e n c e i n t h e T e r r i t o r y and p a r t l y the i n e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f the A d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n e n f o r c i n g t h e Labour laws.  CHAPTER V I SOCIAL AND MORAL PROGRESS Education The R o l e o f t h e M i s s i o n s The h i s t o r y o f E d u c a t i o n i n New G u i n e a d a t e d f r o m the 1 9 t h c e n t u r y w h i c h was one o f g r e a t m i s s i o n a r y a c t i v i t y throughout men  A f r i c a , A s i a and t h e P a c i f i c .  Christian  and women f i r e d b y the z e a l t o share t h e good t i d i n g s o f  Christ with their  'less fortunate' brethren i n other parts  o f t h e w o r l d went o u t f r o m the d i f f e r e n t E u r o p e a n c o u n t r i e s c a r r y i n g t h e banner o f C h r i s t .  H i s t o r y abounds w i t h t h e work  and a c h i e v e m e n t s o f t h e s e h e r o i c men and women, who, u n d e t e r r e d by the c l i m a t e , geography o r t h e h o s t i l i t y o f t h e p e o p l e t o whom t h e y were t a k i n g the g o s p e l , went f o r w a r d b r a v e l y c a r r y i n g t h e message o f C h r i s t t o t h e f o u r c o r n e r s o f t h e world.  New G u i n e a was n o t u n a f f e c t e d b y t h i s wave o f r e l i g i -  ous e n t h u s i a s m ,  f o r t h e m i s s i o n a r i e s h a d been a c t i v e i n New  Guinea l o n g before the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f European control." " 1  1 O f f i c i a l Handbook o f t h e T e r r i t o r y o f New G u i n e a , p . 4 4 2 . The M e t h o d i s t M i s s i o n began a c t i v i t i e s i n t h i s a r e a i n 1 8 7 5 , and t h e C a t h o l i c M i s s i o n o f t h e Most S a c r e d H e a r t o f J e s u s i n 1882.  122 I n New G u i n e a , as w e l l as i n t h e o t h e r p l a c e s where t h e y went, t h e work o f c o n v e r s i o n a l w a y s went hand i n hand w i t h the work o f e d u c a t i o n .  T h i s i s p a r t l y due t o t h e need f o r  t h e c o n v e r t e d n a t i v e s t o be a b l e t o r e a d t h e B i b l e t h e m s e l v e s and p a r t l y t o t h e need t o t r a i n n a t i v e s who i n t u r n w o u l d a s s i s t the m i s s i o n a r i e s i n propagating  the gospel not only  amongst t h e i r own k i t h and k i n b u t a l s o amongst n a t i v e s o f other T e r r i t o r i e s .  As a r e s u l t o f t h e e d u c a t i o n a l  activities  o f t h e s e m i s s i o n a r i e s , t h e r e were a l r e a d y i n New G u i n e a 676  schools embracing a t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n o f 22,199 p u p i l s  a t t h e time A u s t r a l i a n c i v i l c o n t r o l was e s t a b l i s h e d i n p 1921.  There were s i x d i f f e r e n t H i s s i o n s o p e r a t i n g i n New  G u i n e a a t t h i s time —  the Lutheran M i s s i o n which  a t Morobe, A i t a p e and Madang; t h e M e t h o d i s t  operated  Missionary  S o c i e t y w h i c h c a r r i e d on i t s own a c t i v i t i e s i n R a b a u l , Talasae  and New I r e l a n d ; t h e S e v e n t h Day A d v e n t i s t s ; t h e  M i s s i o n o f t h e Most S a c r e d H e a r t w h i c h h a d c e n t r e s a t R a b a u l , Manus and New I r e l a n d , t h e M i s s i o n o f t h e H o l y Ghost w h i c h h e l d sway i n Madang  and t h e Marist M i s s i o n i n K i e t a .  2 A n n u a l R e p o r t t o t h e League o f N a t i o n s , 1921-1922, p . 9 0 . 3 I b i d . , p. 9 0 . No. I n 1921 Missions Lutheran Methodist Sacred Heart H o l y Ghost  of Schools 128 299 180 58  No.  of Pupils 4-,175 9,209 4,129 3,286  Marist M i s s i o n h a d 10 s c h o o l s w i t h 1,400 p u p i l s a t t e n d i n g  123 The  change i n A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e T e r r i t o r y  way  affect  d i d n o t i n any  the a c t i v i t i e s o f the v a r i o u s m i s s i o n s f o r one  o f the terms o f the Mandates had p r o v i d e d f o r the ment o f freedom o f c o n s c i e n c e  i n a l l mandated  As a r e s u l t , the m i s s i o n a r i e s c o n t i n u e d t h e i r unworried  about the p o l i t i c a l  as a r e s u l t  of the  establish-  Territories. activities  changes w h i c h had t a k e n p l a c e  war.  Three t y p e s o f s c h o o l s were o p e r a t e d by Missions —  elementary  s c h o o l s i n the v i l l a g e s ,  boarding schools at M i s s i o n Headquarters  the  intermediate  and h i g h s c h o o l s .  The v i l l a g e s c h o o l s were manned by s t a f f s o f n a t i v e t e a c h e r s and the s t a n d a r d o f e d u c a t i o n i n t h e s e s c h o o l s was low.  Instruction  t r o p i c a l hygiene culars.  extremely  i n r e l i g i o u s knowledge, s a n i t a t i o n was  i m p a r t e d t o the s t u d e n t s i n the  and verna-  From the v i l l a g e s c h o o l s , the most p r o m i s i n g  students passed  on t o the i n t e r m e d i a t e s c h o o l s .  Here t h e y  were t a u g h t by European t e a c h e r s w i t h t h e a s s i s t a n c e o f native teachers. students passed  From the i n t e r m e d i a t e s c h o o l s , the b e t t e r on t o t h e h i g h s c h o o l s .  The h i g h s c h o o l s  were s t r i c t l y s p e a k i n g Teacher T r a i n i n g I n s t i t u t i o n s t e a c h e r s were t r a i n e d  f o r here  b o t h f o r the v i l l a g e s c h o o l s and  the  intermediate schools. I n the f i e l d o f T e c h n i c a l E d u c a t i o n t h e M i s s i o n s  4- A n n u a l R e p o r t t o the League o f N a t i o n s , 1929-1930, A p p e n d i x C, p. 128.  124 were n o t b e h i n d .  The M i s s i o n o f t h e S a c r e d H e a r t o f J e s u s  and t h e M e t h o d i s t  M i s s i o n d e v o t e d much a t t e n t i o n t o t h i s  type o f e d u c a t i o n .  The S a c r e d  Heart M i s s i o n had a t e c h n i c a l  s c h o o l a t Yunapope w h i c h was d e s c r i b e d as h a v i n g  "workshops  5  for  p r a c t i c a l l y a l l trades",  at T a l l i h g a p .  and a n o t h e r T e c h n i c a l C e n t r e  These s c h o o l s t a u g h t  s u b j e c t s s u c h as  carpentry, f i t t i n g , boat-building, p r i n t i n g , p a i n t i n g , house-building,  c o o k i n g , w a s h i n g , and s e w i n g .  M i s s i o n had a T r a i n i n g School 37 g i r l s .  Methodist  a t V u n a r i m a f o r 150 boys and  Here such s u b j e c t s as h a t - m a k i n g , l a u n d r y work,  semaphore, morse s i g n a l l i n g and ambulance were The  The  Lutheran  M i s s i o n a l s o operated  taught.  a T e c h n i c a l C e n t r e where  c a r p e n t r y , g e n e r a l h a n d i c r a f t s , c o o k i n g , w a s h i n g and s e w i n g were t a u g h t .  The a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e M i s s i o n i n t h e f i e l d  o f T e c h n i c a l E d u c a t i o n were g r e a t l y commended by t h e Education in  Commission a p p o i n t e d  by t h e A u s t r a l i a n Government  1929:  The e n v i r o n m e n t and atmosphere o f t h e s e i n s t i t u t i o n s , apart from the i n s t r u c t i o n s and t r a i n i n g , have an u p l i f t i n g e f f e c t upon the n a t i v e m i n d s , and s h o u l d e x e r c i s e a p o w e r f u l i n f l u e n c e i n i n c u l c a t i n g what i s best i n c i v i l i z e d l i f e . Throughout t h e p e r i o d under s u r v e y ,  5 A n n u a l R e p o r t t o t h e League o f N a t i o n s , A p p e n d i x C, p. 128. 6 Loc. c i t .  the v a r i o u s  1929-1930,  125 M i s s i o n s c o n t i n u e d t o expand t h e i r r e l i g i o u s and activities.  As new  educational  a r e a s o f the c o u n t r y were opened up  b r o u g h t under c o n t r o l , the v a r i o u s M i s s i o n s r u s h e d t o e s t a b l i s h new  s t a t i o n s and v i l l a g e s c h o o l s .  forward  In other  p l a c e s , t h e y even s e r v e d as f r o n t i e r s m e n o p e n i n g up t e r r i t o r i e s and t h e y p l a y e d no a g e n t s amongst the n a t i v e s .  s m a l l r o l e as  By 1939,  and  new  civilizing  t h e y had e s t a b l i s h e d  a l l o v e r the T e r r i t o r y 2 , 3 2 9 v i l l a g e s c h o o l s , 158  elementary  s c h o o l s , 44 h i g h , i n t e r m e d i a t e and t e c h n i c a l s c h o o l s and t r a i n i n g centres.  The  35  t o t a l number o f p u p i l s a t t e n d i n g a l l 7  68,773•  c l a s s e s o f s c h o o l s was i n the v i l l a g e One  Most o f t h e s e were, however,  schools. o r two c r i t i c i s m s can be advanced a g a i n s t t h e  e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s o f the M i s s i o n s .  F i r s t , i n a l l the  s c h o o l s e s t a b l i s h e d i n the T e r r i t o r y , w i t h v e r y few t h e r e was  no t e a c h i n g o f the E n g l i s h language and  were i m p a r t e d  i n the v e r n a c u l a r s .  exceptions,  instructions  T h i s r e d u c e d t o some  e x t e n t t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e s e e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s as the e d u c a t i o n t h e y were g i v i n g the n a t i v e s w o u l d n o t  alto-  g e t h e r be w o r t h w h i l e  speak  English.  i f they (the n a t i v e s ) c o u l d not  F u r t h e r m o r e , i n a s o c i e t y o f New  where one v i l l a g e c o u l d h a r d l y u n d e r s t a n d  Guinea type, the o t h e r , t h e  u s e f u l n e s s o f e d u c a t i o n c o n d u c t e d i n the v e r n a c u l a r s greatly limited.  The  was  m i s s i o n a r i e s t h e m s e l v e s were n o t ,  7 A n n u a l R e p o r t t o the League o f N a t i o n s , 1939-194-0, p.  4-2  126  u n c o n s c i o u s o f t h i s b u t t h e y opposed s t r o n g l y t h e t e a c h i n g o f E n g l i s h because t h e y b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s w o u l d accompany s u c h a s t e p w o u l d be t o o g r e a t .  that  T h i s was  made c l e a r a t t h e M i s s i o n C o n f e r e n c e h e l d i n 1927: W h i l e t h e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n and t h e M i s s i o n may be s u c c e s s f u l i n t e a c h i n g E n g l i s h t o a l i m i t e d number o f s e l e c t e d n a t i v e s i n a few advanced s c h o o l s , t h e p r a c t i c a l d i f f i c u l t i e s o f i m p o s i n g so advanced a language on t h e r a n k and f i l e o f so p r i m i t i v e a p e o p l e a r e so g r e a t t h a t i t would n o t be p r a c t i c a b l e t o i n t r o d u c e E n g l i s h as a u n i v e r s a l language i n the T e r r i t o r y w i t h a r e a s o n a b l y s h o r t t i m e . 8 T h i s argument o f t h e M i s s i o n s t h a t t h e backwardness of t h e p e o p l e p r e c l u d e d E n g l i s h i s not without  the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f the teaching of some j u s t i f i c a t i o n c o n s i d e r i n g t h e  l e v e l o f advancement o f t h e n a t i v e s and t h e f a c t t h a t i t i s e a s i e r t o o f o r them t o l e a r n i n t h e i r own t o n g u e s t h a n English.  However, some a t t e m p t s s h o u l d have been made t o  i m p a r t some knowledge o f t h e E n g l i s h l a n g u a g e .  The second  c r i t i c i s m t h a t . m a y be l e v e l l e d was, t h a t t h e r e was no standardized  system o f e d u c a t i o n  and no c o o r d i n a t i o n amongst  the v a r i o u s M i s s i o n s  i n the f i e l d of education.  up i t s own s t a n d a r d ,  unmindful of the others.  the p e r i o d under survey,  the Missions  E a c h one s e t Throughout  consistently refused  8 C i t e d i n P.M.C. M i n u t e s , 2 0 t h S e s s i o n ( 1 9 3 1 ) , p . 2 5 . Most o f t h e m i s s i o n a r i e s were Germans who c o u l d n o t speak the E n g l i s h language p r o p e r l y . I t w o u l d have been d i f f i c u l t , had t h e y been w i l l i n g t o t e a c h t h e language t o t h e n a t i v e s even i f d i f f i c u l t i e s had n o t e x i s t e d i n t h e a d o p t i o n o f s u c h a measure.  127 t o submit t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s t o s u p e r v i s i o n by t h e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n w h i c h would have l e d t o a g e n e r a l b e i n g s e t up and m a i n t a i n e d  standard  by t h e s y s t e m o f i n s p e c t i o n .  To o b v i a t e t h i s p o s s i b i l i t y t h e y c o n s t a n t l y r e f u s e d t o be s u b s i d i z e d by the A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . a c t i v i t i e s remained uncoordinated.  As a r e s u l t ,  educational  F u r t h e r m o r e , many o f t h e  v i l l a g e s c h o o l s were o f v e r y l o w s t a n d a r d and some were n o t w o r t h t h e name o f s c h o o l s a t a l l . i n 1929  The Commissioner  appointed  t o i n v e s t i g a t e e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s i n the Ter-  r i t o r y v i s i t e d one o f t h e s e s c h o o l s and was f a r f r o m impressed  b y what he saw: I v i s i t e d , i n c i d e n t a l l y , one v i l l a g e s c h o o l , i n t h e charge o f a n a t i v e t e a c h e r . The p u p i l s were d i r t y and u n d i s c i p l i n e d , and d e r i v e d no b e n e f i t f r o m t h e s o - c a l l e d t e a c h i n g . N e g l e c t was a p p a r e n t e v e r y w h e r e , and t h e v i l l a g e would have been no worse o f f had the school not existed.9  Despite these  shortcomings,  however, t h e M i s s i o n s w i t h i n t h e  l i m i t a t i o n s s e t by a v a i l a b l e f u n d s and u n d e r t h e most t r y i n g c o n d i t i o n s c a r r i e d out e x c e l l e n t s e r v i c e s i n t h e f i e l d o f education. success  They p l a y e d a g r e a t e r r o l e and a c h i e v e d b e t t e r  t h a n t h e A u s t r a l i a n A d m i n i s t r a t i o n w h i c h h a d been  e n t r u s t e d w i t h t h e t a s k o f s e e i n g t o t h e m o r a l and m a t e r i a l w e l l - b e i n g of the n a t i v e s .  9 A n n u a l R e p o r t t o t h e League o f N a t i o n s , 1929-1930, A p p e n d i x C, p. 128.  128 The R o l e o f the A d m i n i s t r a t i o n When the mandate o v e r , . to  A u s t r a l i a , i t was  New  G u i n e a was  accompanied by a p r o v i s o t h a t  awarded she  s h o u l d t a k e as a ' s a c r e d o b l i g a t i o n ' the m o r a l and m a t e r i a l w e l f a r e o f the n a t i v e s .  To d i s c h a r g e t h i s d u t y p r o p e r l y i t  i s n e c e s s a r y t h a t the p e o p l e  o f New  G u i n e a be  E d u c a t i o n i s the b a s i s of a l l p r o g r e s s — The  educated.  m a t e r i a l and  e r a d i c a t i o n o f d i s e a s e s w h i c h c o n s t i t u t e d one  g r e a t e s t c u r s e s o f the New  o f the  G u i n e a S o c i e t y , the f o s t e r i n g o f  economic development, p o l i t i c a l  p r o g r e s s and m o r a l w e l l -  b e i n g can o n l y be a c h i e v e d i f the c u r t a i n of  ignorance,  f e a r , and s u p e r s t i t i o n w h i c h hung t h i c k and d a r k o v e r G u i n e a f o r many g e n e r a t i o n s c o u l d be removed. c o u l d o n l y be a c h i e v e d by e d u c a t i o n . attempt  moral.  And  New  this  Therefore, i n the  t o a s c e r t a i n whether A u s t r a l i a f a i t h f u l l y  discharged  h e r t r u s t , the e d u c a t i o n a l p r o g r e s s o f t h e T e r r i t o r y must d e f i n i t e l y occupy an i m p o r t a n t p l a c e . W i t h the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f c i v i l c o n t r o l i n the A d m i n i s t r a t i o n was  1921  a b l e t o d e v o t e i t s e l f t o the t a s k o f  c a r r y i n g out the s a c r e d d u t y .  As r e g a r d s e d u c a t i o n t h e  d e c l a r e d aim o f the A d m i n i s t r a t i o n was: To p r o v i d e such e d u c a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s as w i l l a f f o r d a l l n a t i v e s o f the T e r r i t o r y an o p p o r t u n i t y o f q u a l i f y i n g t h e m s e l v e s t o  129 p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e economic and l i f e of t h e i r own c o u n t r y . 1 ° T h i s l o f t y aim was  social  r e a f f i r m e d a g a i n and a g a i n .  s t r a t i o n c o n s i s t e n t l y maintained  Admini-  t h a t i t s p o l i c y was  e d u c a t e the n a t i v e w i t h a v i e w t o e q u i p p i n g h i s own  The  d e s t i n i e s under i t s s u p e r v i s i o n .  him  to  to c o n t r o l  An e x a m i n a t i o n o f  t h e e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s o f the A d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n the p e r i o d under s u r v e y d i d not  j u s t i f y these c l a i m s .  h i s t o r y of education  G u i n e a so f a r as the  was  c o n c e r n e d was  i n New  one  The Administration  o f p r o c r a s t i n a t i o n , o f hopes d e f e r r e d  and p r o m i s e s u n f u l f i l l e d . A t the o u t s e t the aim o f the A d m i n i s t r a t i o n was work hand i n hand w i t h the M i s s i o n s , but i t hoped t o more advanced e d u c a t i o n S t u d e n t s f r o m 10  t o 12  t h a n t h a t g i v e n by the y e a r s o f age  to  provide  Missions.  were t o be r e c r u i t e d f r o m  the M i s s i o n S c h o o l s t o the Government S c h o o l s where t h e y 11 would r e c e i v e a b e t t e r f o r m o f e d u c a t i o n . found i m p o s s i b l e .  The  But t h i s  s c h o o l s r u n by the M i s s i o n s d i d n o t  engage i n the t e a c h i n g o f E n g l i s h language and  so the p o s -  s i b i l i t y of r e c r u i t i n g p u p i l s f r o m such s c h o o l s who be q u a l i f i e d enough t o r e c e i v e the b e n e f i t of advanced e d u c a t i o n  was  would  relatively  t o be c o n d u c t e d i n E n g l i s h d i d n o t  As a r e s u l t , the A d m i n i s t r a t i o n d e c i d e d  exist.  t o e s t a b l i s h i t s own  10 A n n u a l R e p o r t t o the League of N a t i o n s ,  1926-1927, P«  35.  11  1914-1921, p.  23.  A n n u a l R e p o r t t o the League of N a t i o n s ,  130 schools.  To meet the f i n a n c i a l demands o f e d u c a t i o n ,  E d u c a t i o n T r u s t Eund was  created.  The  f u n d was  o b t a i n e d by l e v y i n g a t a x n o t e x c e e d i n g  t o "be  five shillings  12  annum on a l l n a t i v e s s u b j e c t t o t a x a t i o n .  This  i n c r e a s e d t o be t e n s h i l l i n g s p e r annum i n 1922 13 c a n c e l l e d and a s u b s t i t u t e i n t r o d u c e d . ^  an  per  was  but was  A t a x of  later  one  s h i l l i n g l a t e r i n c r e a s e d t o s i x s h i l l i n g s p e r annum  was  imposed on a l l employers o f l a b o u r f o r e v e r y n a t i v e 14  indentured  A f t e r 1933  l a b o u r e r employed.  t h i s t a x was  g e n e r a l revenue i n s t e a d o f a s e p a r a t e t h e n drawn up.  I t was  into  A scheme  was  p r o p o s e d t h a t an e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l  f o r c h i l d r e n f r o m 8 t o 10 the aim o f t r a i n i n g  fund.  paid  y e a r s o f age be e s t a b l i s h e d w i t h  the n a t i v e s f o r t h e i r g e n e r a l b e t t e r m e n t  and f o r employment i n the l o w e r grades o f the C i v i l S e r v i c e , then a Technical School  at Rabaul (the c a p i t a l ) f o r  the n a t i v e s as w o r k e r s i n the v a r i o u s h a n d i c r a f t s and  training a  s c h o o l o f D o m e s t i c Economy t o t r a i n n a t i v e s as d o m e s t i c 15 servants.  T h i s was  y  not bad  f o r a beginning  and had  there  been improvement l a t e r on t h i n g s m i g h t have worked w e l l enough.  The  scheme was  o n l y o b j e c t i o n t h a t can be o f f e r e d a g a i n s t  the d e s i r e t o c r e a t e a D o m e s t i c S c h o o l t o  this  train  n a t i v e s as d o m e s t i c s e r v a n t s . T h i s d e f i n i t e l y was n o t 12 A n n u a l R e p o r t t o the League of N a t i o n s , 1921-1922, p.  13 L o c . c i t . 14 L o c . c i t . 15  I b i d . , p.  89.  88.  131 devised i n the i n t e r e s t o f the n a t i v e s . t h e i n t e r e s t o f t h e European  settlers.  R a t h e r i t was i n T h i s was, o f c o u r s e ,  i n p e r f e c t agreement w i t h t h e European p h i l o s o p h y t h a t t h e n a t i v e s were t o be "hewers o f wood and drawers o f w a t e r " . A f t e r d r a w i n g up t h i s scheme, t h e t a s k o f t r a n s l a t i n g i t i n t o r e a l i t y now began.  An e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l was  opened a t Kokopo w i t h 50 p u p i l s f o r a s t a r t and a S c h o o l o f Domestic Economy a t R a b a u l .  The T e c h n i c a l S c h o o l was a l s o  opened a t R a b a u l t o p r o v i d e i n s t r u c t i o n i n w r i t i n g , E n g l i s h , s i m p l e a r i t h m e t i c , c a r p e n t r y , r a t t a n work, machine work, motor e n g i n e e r i n g and p l u m b i n g .  The language o f i n s t r u c t i o n  t h r o u g h o u t t h e s e Government s c h o o l s was E n g l i s h .  After  t h i s somewhat e n t h u s i a s t i c b e g i n n i n g t h e r e s t o f t h e s t o r y was  one o f a l m o s t complete s t a g n a t i o n .  I n the f i r s t  year  o f n a t i v e e d u c a t i o n t h e sum o f £20,000 was d e v o t e d t o t h e task. ^ 1  T h i s , however, c o n s t i t u t e d t h e g r e a t e s t amount  spent f o r any y e a r d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d o f t h e mandate Administration.  I t was g r a d u a l l y c u t down t i l l  i t reached  the m e l a n c h o l y f i g u r e o f £3,903 i n 1934-35. The meagre e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n had never l a c k e d c r i t i c s r i g h t from t h e o u t s e t . The P l a n t e r s and T r a d e r s A s s o c i a t i o n who were n o t f a v o u r a b l y disposed t o the education of the natives maintained i n a  16 A n n u a l R e p o r t t o t h e League o f N a t i o n s , 1922-1923, p . 30.  17 A n n u a l R e p o r t t o t h e League o f N a t i o n s , 1934-1935,  P«  35*  132  p e t i t i o n t o t h e Government t h a t "the p r e s e n t p o l i c y o f p r o v i d i n g a book e d u c a t i o n  f o r a few n a t i v e s i n a s c h o o l 1 Pi  i n R a b a u l may i m p r e s s t h e t o u r i s t and t h e u n i n i t i a t e d " . I n 1 9 2 7 t h e M i n i s t e r f o r Home and T e r r i t o r i e s who v i s i t e d New G u i n e a a g r e e d t o t h e n e c e s s i t y o f e x p a n s i o n i n t h e f i e l d of e d u c a t i o n was  though he a d m i t t e d t h a t t h e c r u x o f t h e p r o b l e m  the question  of the cost.  However, he p r o m i s e d t o s u b 19 m i t a recommendation t o t h e C a b i n e t a l o n g t h e s e l i n e s . J  As a r e s u l t o f c r i t i c i s m s f r o m p l a n t e r s and t h e Permanent Mandates Commission t h e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n  announced  i n 1 9 2 7 t h a t e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s would be opened i n each o f 20  the n i n e d i s t r i c t s o f t h e T e r r i t o r y .  Needless t o say t h i s  r e m a i n e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e p e r i o d a p a p e r scheme.  The A d m i n i -  s t r a t i o n f u r t h e r s t a t e d t h a t i t h a d been making a s t u d y o f the v a r i o u s systems o f e d u c a t i o n countries. had  i n force i n other  I t d e c l a r e d t h a t when s u f f i c i e n t  been c o l l e c t e d ,  native  information  a Committee w o u l d meet, s t u d y i t , and  recommend a s y s t e m t h a t w o u l d a d e q u a t e l y meet t h e needs o f 21  New G u i n e a .  I t i s disappointing t o record that the  Committee n e v e r met. In 1 9 2 9 , the D i r e c t o r o f E d u c a t i o n f o r Queensland, 18 E g g l e s t o n ,  The A u s t r a l i a n Mandate f o r New G u i n e a , p. 6 0 .  19  See P.M.C. M i n u t e s , 1 5 t h S e s s i o n  20  A n n u a l R e p o r t t o t h e League o f N a t i o n s ,  1926-1927,  p. 3 5 .  21  A n n u a l R e p o r t t o t h e League o f N a t i o n s ,  1927-1928,  p. 1 9 .  (1929),  p. 7 5 .  133 Mr.  B. J . Mckenna, was a p p o i n t e d t o c o n d u c t a s u r v e y o f t h e  existing  s y s t e m o f e d u c a t i o n and make recommendations. H i s  r e p o r t c o n f i r m e d how l i t t l e t h e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n had been doing i n the f i e l d of education since the establishment of C i v i l c o n t r o l i n 1921. inadequacy  The r e p o r t d w e l t on t h e complete  o f the fund a l l o t t e d f o r education. V i e w i n g , however, t h e c o n d i t i o n s o f the mandate, and t h e p r e s e n t s t a t e o f l o c a l f i n a n c e s , I am. o f t h e o p i n i o n t h a t a F e d e r a l grant f o r n a t i v e education i s h i g h l y d e s i r a b l e and I commend t h i s a s p e c t o f t h e q u e s t i o n t o t h e F e d e r a l pp authorities for serious consideration.  The r e p o r t recommended t h a t Government s h o u l d assume r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r a l l n a t i v e education but that the v i l l a g e s c h o o l s s h o u l d c o n t i n u e t o be r u n b y t h e m i s s i o n s u n d e r Government s u p e r v i s i o n .  I t p r o p o s e d t h a t s c h o o l s s h o u l d be  e s t a b l i s h e d a t permanent c o m m e r c i a l and i n d u s t r i a l c e n t r e s f o r boys and g i r l s between 6 and 13 y e a r s o f age and t h a t attendance  a t t h e s e s c h o o l s s h o u l d be made c o m p u l s o r y i n  r e s p e c t o f those l i v i n g w i t h i n a two-mile  radius.  Further-  more, i t recommended t h a t a c o l l e g e f o r t r a i n i n g n a t i v e t e a c h e r s be e s t a b l i s h e d and t h a t b e f o r e a s t a f f o f n a t i v e t e a c h e r s were t r a i n e d , European t e a c h e r s s h o u l d be u s e d . M o r e o v e r , he recommended t h a t a t t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f an elementary  c o u r s e o f s e v e n y e a r s , t h e most s u i t a b l e p u p i l s  22 A n n u a l R e p o r t t o t h e League o f N a t i o n s , 1929-1930,  A p p e n d i x C, p.  130.  134 be s e l e c t e d f o r a f u r t h e r c o u r s e  o f f o u r y e a r s a t one o r  o t h e r o f s u c h s c h o o l s as m i g h t be e s t a b l i s h e d b y t h e Government f o r t h i s p u r p o s e .  The r e p o r t ended on a n o t e o f a p p e a l :  In j u s t i c e t o the native p o p u l a t i o n , i n compliance w i t h the c o n d i t i o n s o f the mandates b y w h i c h t h e T e r r i t o r y was p l a c e d under t h e A u s t r a l i a n c o n t r o l , t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a system o f e d u c a t i o n l e a d i n g from t h e k i n d e r g a r t e n t o t r a d e s , shops, a g r i c u l t u r a l and o t h e r s k i l l e d work becomes necessary.23 The R e p o r t was a c c e p t e d b y t h e A u s t r a l i a n Government as t h e basis f o r future educational p o l i c y o f the T e r r i t o r y . Government m a i n t a i n e d ,  The  w i t h some j u s t i f i c a t i o n , t h a t a l l t h e  recommendations c o u l d n o t be c a r r i e d o u t owing t o t h e e x i s t i n g f i n a n c i a l s i t u a t i o n b o t h i n t h e T e r r i t o r y and t h e Commonpa wealth.  W i t h t h i s d e c l a r a t i o n , t h e R e p o r t was t h r o w n i n t o  a c o r n e r n e v e r a g a i n t o be examined.  The Commission was n o t ,  however, a l t o g e t h e r w i t h o u t r e s u l t f o r as a r e s u l t o f i t s recommendation, two more s c h o o l s were opened, one a t Nodup and" the o t h e r a t Chiimbu on t h e h i g h l a n d s . i s very l i t t l e  After this,  there  t o m e n t i o n b y way o f e d u c a t i o n a l development  i n the T e r r i t o r y .  Yet i t i s pathetic to record that  through-  out t h i s p e r i o d c o n s t a n t demands were made by t h e n a t i v e s o f some d i s t r i c t s f o r t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t  o f Government s c h o o l s i n  23 A n n u a l R e p o r t t o t h e League o f N a t i o n s , A p p e n d i x C, p . 129.  1929-1930,  24 A n n u a l R e p o r t t o t h e League o f N a t i o n s , 1929-1930, p. 27.  135 25 t h e i r areas. ^  M a i r r e c o r d s t h a t t h e n a t i v e s o f Madang  demanded t h a t a Government s c h o o l s h o u l d he e s t a b l i s h e d i n their district.  The p e o p l e were i n f o r m e d t h a t t h e i r  demand would o n l y be c o n s i d e r e d i f t h e y w o u l d s e t up a s c h o o l a c c o r d i n g t o t h e s t a n d a r d r e q u i r e d by t h e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . T h i s was no d i s c o u r a g e m e n t t o t h e n a t i v e s who g o t t o g e t h e r and w i t h t h e h e l p o f a k i n d o f f i c i a l p r o c e e d e d f o r t h w i t h by communal e f f o r t t o e r e c t t h e s c h o o l b u i l d i n g w h i c h t o o k them o n l y f o u r weeks.  The s c h o o l was n o t opened u n t i l  as no t e a c h e r was made a v a i l a b l e .  194-1  T h i s was t h e p o s i t i o n o f  t h i n g s r i g h t up t o t h e end o f mandate r u l e .  I t i s therefore  no e x a g g e r a t i o n when M a i r d e s c r i b e d t h e h i s t o r y o f n a t i v e e d u c a t i o n i n New G u i n e a as c o n s i s t i n g " l a r g e l y o f p o s t p o n e ment o f a c t i o n p e n d i n g  r e s u l t s of d i s c u s s i o n s , conferences,  27 and what n o t . " ' The r e c o r d o f t h e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n t h e f i e l d o f e d u c a t i o n a f t e r t w e n t y y e a r s was a v e r y d i s m a l one. d e s c r i b e d i t as "the most s t e r i l e 28  Reed  of a l l the A u s t r a l i a n  Government's u n d e r t a k i n g s " .  I m p a r t i a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n sees  no r e a s o n t o c o n t r a d i c t t h i s .  A c c o r d i n g t o the Annual  R e p o r t s 1939-4-0, t h e r e were o n l y s i x Government-owned 25 A n n u a l R e p o r t  t o t h e League o f N a t i o n s , 1932-1933, p. 44-.  26 M a i r , A u s t r a l i a i n New Guinea, p.  171.  27 I b i d . , p. 170. 28 Reed, The M a k i n g o f Modern New G u i n e a , p. 187.  136 s c h o o l s w i t h an e n r o l m e n t o f 4-91  elementary  pupils,  an  A g r i c u l t u r a l S c h o o l a t K e r a v a t and the T e c h n i c a l S c h o o l  at  29 R a b a u l w i t h an e n r o l m e n t o f 97  i n the T e r r i t o r y .  Moreover,  a l l t h e s e s c h o o l s , w i t h the s o l e e x c e p t i o n o f t h e one  in  Chimbu, were i n the v i c i n i t y o f the A d m i n i s t r a t i v e c e n t r e s and n o t h i n g was  done f o r the e d u c a t i o n o f t h e c o u n t l e s s  o t h e r s l i v i n g i n the v i l l a g e s a l l o v e r t h e T e r r i t o r y .  Even  some o f t h e s e v e r y few s c h o o l s s u f f e r e d c o n s t a n t l y f r o m l a c k o f adequate s t a f f . as l a t e as 1930  F o r i n s t a n c e , the T e c h n i c a l S c h o o l  had o n l y two t e a c h e r s on the s t a f f —  i n s t r u c t o r i n c a r p e n t r y and b u i l d i n g and an 30 instructor. 1940.  How  The number was i t was  the s c h o o l was inadequacy  assistant  n o t i n c r e a s e d even as l a t e  a b l e t o t r a i n as many as 97  a miracle.  an  as  students i n  Indeed as a r e s u l t o f the  o f the s t a f f , a s y s t e m o f a p p r e n t i c i n g the boys  under t r a i n i n g -to the P u b l i c Works Department was  evolved.  T h i s system came under f i r e f r o m the Commission o f I n q u i r y a p p o i n t e d i n 1929 New  to look into educational a c t i v i t i e s i n  Guinea. The p r e s e n t system o f a p p r e n t i c i n g boys t o t h e P u b l i c Works Department i s h i g h l y o b j e c t i o n a b l e , u n l e s s the o b j e c t i s t o f a c i l i t a t e the e r e c t i o n o f b u i l d i n g s r a t h e r than to impart a t e c h n i c a l t r a i n i n g . 3 1  29 A n n u a l R e p o r t  t o the League o f N a t i o n s , 1939-1940, p.  42.  30 A n n u a l R e p o r t  t o the League o f N a t i o n s , 1929-1930, p.  28.  31 A n n u a l R e p o r t t o the League of N a t i o n s , 1929-1930, A p p e n d i x C, p. 128.  137 The  Commissioner went on t o p o i n t o u t t h a t t h e tradesmen  u n d e r whom t h e hoys worked were n o t a c q u a i n t e d  with  teaching  methods, and were u n s k i l l e d i n t h e p r o p e r methods o f h a n d l i n g p u p i l s , t h a t as a r e s u l t t e c h n i c a l t r a i n i n g was n o t being imparted  a t a l l and t h e p u p i l s b e i n g s u b j e c t e d t o  i m p r o p e r methods d e v e l o p e d a d i s g u s t f o r t h e work and d e r i v e d no b e n e f i t f r o m t h e e x p e r i e n c e . Even t h o s e few n a t i v e s who were b e i n g had  l i t t l e prospect  educated  o f employment w i t h t h e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n .  T h i s was due t o t h e p o l i c y o f making New G u i n e a a haven f o r the A u s t r a l i a n unemployed.  Reed m a i n t a i n e d  r i g h t l y that  t h e r e was no p l a c e f o r an e d u c a t e d n a t i v e i n New Guinea: A few may become t e a c h e r s , and e a c h y e a r a dozen o r so f r o m t h e T e c h n i c a l S c h o o l s g e t p o s i t i o n s demanding some s l i g h t s k i l l . But t h e r e a r e no c l e r i c a l p o s i t i o n s , and o n l y a few o f t h e most m e n i a l j o b s a r e open t o n a t i v e s — e d u c a t e d o r n o t . Many p o s i t i o n s w h i c h might w e l l be f i l l e d b y n a t i v e s who have r e c e i v e d a r u d i m e n t a r y e d u c a t i o n a r e r e s e r v e d f o r men f r o m t h e r a n k s o f A u s t r a l i a n unemployed.32 T h i s i s no doubt a s a d r e f l e c t i o n o f t h e use o f t h e mandate entrusted to A u s t r a l i a . to A u s t r a l i a .  This sort of p o l i c y i s not p e c u l i a r  I t has always been t h e p r a c t i c e i n a l m o s t a l l  Colonial territories.  I n f a c t , one o f t h e p o t e n t  causes of  the r i s e o f n a t i o n a l i s m i n most c o l o n i e s had been t h e demand  32 Reed, The M a k i n g o f Modern New G u i n e a , p. 188  138  of the educated elements f o r b e t t e r o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r Government employment.  M o r e o v e r , t h e r e i s always a d i f -  f e r e n c e between a c o l o n y w h i c h i s a l m o s t a p e r s o n a l p o s s e s s i o n o f a C o l o n i a l Power and a mandated T e r r i t o r y w h i c h i s p u r e l y a t r u s t handed o v e r b y an i n t e r n a t i o n a l body w i t h a p r o v i s o t h a t s u c h a t e r r i t o r y would be a d m i n i s t e r e d i n t e r e s t of the native i n h a b i t a n t s .  i n the  This p o l i c y of reserving  most j o b s f o r t h e A u s t r a l i a n s k i l l e d t h e i n c e n t i v e o f t h e educated n a t i v e s f o r f u r t h e r self-improvement i n the f i e l d of education.  T h i s a c c o u n t e d f o r one o f t h o s e r e a s o n s why  t h e r e was l i t t l e  e n t h u s i a s m on t h e p a r t o f t h e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n  t o expand i t s e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s . S e v e r a l other reasons f o r the f a i l u r e of the A d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n t h e f i e l d o f e d u c a t i o n c a n be advanced. One was t h e i n a d e q u a c y o f t h e f u n d d e v o t e d t o t h e t a s k o f education.  E v e n w i t h t h e d i s c o v e r y o f g o l d and consequent  i n c r e a s e i n t h e revenue o f t h e T e r r i t o r y l i t t l e  was done  t o i n c r e a s e t h e amount o f money d e v o t e d t o e d u c a t i o n .  The  t r i f l i n g amount spent on e d u c a t i o n even when t h e economic c o n d i t i o n o f t h e T e r r i t o r y was v e r y good was a s u b j e c t o f severe  c r i t i c i s m on t h e p a r t o f t h e Mandates Commission.  M. Rappard t h o u g h t and r i g h t l y so t h a t t h e e x p e n d i t u r e £ 3 , 9 0 3  on n a t i v e e d u c a t i o n o u t o f t h e  revenue o f  £ 3 8 0 , 0 0 0  the T e r r i t o r y was r a t h e r d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e .  He  pleaded  t h a t s t e p s be t a k e n t o a l l o w t h e n a t i v e s t o share t o a 33  g r e a t e r extent i n the p r o s p e r i t y of the T e r r i t o r y . 33  P.M.C. M i n u t e s ,  29th  Session  (1936),  p.  of  21  139 T h i s s o r t o f c r i t i c i s m was examination  of A u s t r a l i a n A n n u a l  One the w h i t e The  a constant feature during  other important  the  Reports.  reason i s the h o s t i l i t y  of  s e t t l e r s t o w a r d s the e d u c a t i o n o f the n a t i v e s .  s e t t l e r s were c o n s t a n t l y a f r a i d t h a t any p o l i c y  of  e d u c a t i n g the n a t i v e s would d e p r i v e them o f the s o u r c e s labour f o r t h e i r p l a n t a t i o n s .  T h i s has  of  a l w a y s been t h e  g e n e r a l p a t t e r n o f t h i n g s i n any t e r r i t o r y where E u r o p e a n s e t t l e r s had come i n c o n t a c t w i t h n a t i v e p o p u l a t i o n . The p r o c e s s of n a t i v e e d u c a t i o n on E u r o p e a n l i n e s s e r v e s t o s t i m u l a t e the a n t a g o n i s m o f the w h i t e man, f o r i t means t h a t t h e c o l o u r e d man, as he becomes d i v o r c e d f r o m h i s n a t i v e l i f e and o c c u p a t i o n s and i s e q u i p p e d f o r t r a d e and s k i l l e d h a n d i c r a f t , becomes a competitor i n s t e a d of being merely ^ a hewer of wood and a drawer o f w a t e r . The  w h i t e p o p u l a t i o n i n New  Guinea  was. no e x c e p t i o n . .  d i d a l l t h e y c o u l d t o s t a n d i n the way natives.  T h i s was  of e d u c a t i n g  the  a b u n d a n t l y made c l e a r i n the r e p o r t o f  the C o m m i s s i o n e r a p p o i n t e d  i n 1929  a c t i v i t i e s i n New  I n i t s r e p o r t , the  Guinea.  to survey  educational  a t t a c k e d t h e E u r o p e a n s f o r s t a n d i n g i n the way  Commission of  educating  the n a t i v e s : I n the T e r r i t o r y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the R a b a u l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n an e d u c a t i o n a l  34 Reed, The  They  M a k i n g of Modern New  G u i n e a , p.  189.  140  p o l i c y had been o u t l i n e d w h i c h , had e f f e c t been g i v e n t o i t , would have p r o v e d q u i t e e f f e c t i v e ; but a t the p r e s e n t i t cannot be s a i d t h a t much i s b e i n g done t o c a r r y out what was i n t e n d e d . Local conditions p r e s e n t an u n u s u a l and p e c u l i a r f e a t u r e . There e x i s t s a l a r g e n a t i v e p o p u l a t i o n upon w h i c h has been t h r u s t an e n t e r p r i s i n g t r a d i n g p e o p l e , f i l l e d w i t h the s p i r i t o f b u s i n e s s , and b e n t on u t i l i z i n g the n a t i v e l a b o u r as f a r as p o s s i b l e i n the development of t h e i r b u s i n e s s , but imbued w i t h the i d e a t h a t i t i s u n d e s i r a b l e t o e d u c a t e the n a t i v e s t o any m a t e r i a l e x t e n t . The h o s t i l i t y o f the n o n - o f f i c i a l w h i t e r e s i d e n t s of the T e r r i t o r y t o any system of e d u c a t i o n was t h e most s u r p r i s i n g of many f e a t u r e s n o t e d i n c o n n e x i o n w i t h l i f e i n the T e r r i t o r y . The p r e v a i l i n g b e l i e f i s t h a t such t r a i n i n g makes the n a t i v e more c u n n i n g , g e n e r a t e s and d e v e l o p s e v i l q u a l i t i e s , makes him d i s i n c l i n e d f o r work, and r e n d e r s him a l e s s p l i a n t i n s t r u m e n t i n the hands of h i s m a s t e r . Any s u g g e s t i o n o f a p p e a l t o the b e t t e r s i d e o f the n a t i v e mind i s met w i t h derision.35 I n s u r v e y i n g the h i s t o r y o f n a t i v e e d u c a t i o n one  i n New  i s l e f t w i t h the s t r o n g c o n v i c t i o n t h a t the  p o l i c y was  Government  g r e a t l y i n f l u e n c e d by the a t t i t u d e o f  European p o p u l a t i o n .  The  Guinea  the  A d m i n i s t r a t i o n a l w a y s danced t o  t h e tune o f t h e s e s e l f i s h p l a n t e r s .  I n 1929,  for instance,  when the Government p l a n n e d t o send a number of i t s b r i l l i a n t students  f r o m New  Guinea t o A u s t r a l i a f o r h i g h e r  the E u r o p e a n p o p u l a t i o n p r o t e s t e d s t r o n g l y and the scheme had  t o be abandoned.  The  education;  as a r e s u l t  Rabaul Times n e v e r t o o k  p a i n s t o h i d e i t s f e e l i n g of j o y a t t h e abandonment o f  35 A n n u a l R e p o r t t o the League of N a t i o n s , A p p e n d i x C, p. 127.  1929-1930,  this  14-1 scheme as i t e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y welcomed the d e c i s i o n : We l e a r n w i t h p l e a s u r e t h a t the seven n a t i v e s who were t o be s e n t t o A u s t r a l i a d i d n o t go owing t o r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s made by the C i t i z e n s ' A s s o c i a t i o n . T h i s s h o u l d go a l o n g way towards s a t i s f y i n g t h o s e who e x p r e s s e d t h e i r i n d i g n a t i o n , and t h e i r number i s l e g i o n . 3 6 As a r e s u l t o f the above f a c t o r s , the a t t e m p t s the A d m i n i s t r a t i o n t o p r o v i d e e d u c a t i o n f o r t h e New n a t i v e s was  one  o f complete and a b j e c t f a i l u r e .  of  Guinea  It i s ,  t h e r e f o r e , n o t s u r p r i s i n g t h a t a t the l a s t s e s s i o n o f the Permanent Mandates Commission, M i s s D a n n e v i g , the  education  e x p e r t on the Commission, d e c l a r e d t h a t "she knew o f no t e r r i t o r y under mandate i n w h i c h e d u c a t i o n p r o g r e s s e d  so  37 slowly". ' Public Health One  o f the g r e a t e s t p r o b l e m s f a c i n g the  s t r a t i o n i n New s o c i e t y may  Guinea was  that of h e a l t h .  be f a i r l y d e s c r i b e d as one  deadly weight  of d i s e a s e s .  i t s p a r a l y z i n g s t i n g was  New  Admini-  Guinea  l a b o u r i n g u n d e r the  The heavy hand o f d i s e a s e w i t h  everywhere.  Diseases of m a l a r i a ,  m a l n u t r i t i o n , hookworm, yaws, t r o p i c a l u l c e r ,  dysentry,  pneumonia, l e p r o s y and v a r i o u s k i n d s o f s k i n d i s e a s e s were  36 C i t e d by Reed, The M a k i n g o f Modern New 37 P.M.C. M i n u t e s , 3 6 t h S e s s i o n ( 1 9 3 9 ) , p.  G u i n e a , p. 14-5.  190.  1  4  2  w i d e s p r e a d , t a k i n g t o l l o f the l i v e s o f many and  reducing  the p h y s i c a l and m e n t a l e f f i c i e n c y of the r e s t .  Malaria  was  p a r t i c u l a r l y p r e v a l e n t amongst the c o a s t a l i n h a b i t a n t s  and t h o s e on the l o w l a n d s and a c c o u n t e d p a r t l y f o r the  high  r a t e of i n f a n t m o r t a l i t y .  was  Hookworm was  r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the c h r o n i c n a t u r e w i t h New  Guinea n a t i v e s .  w i d e s p r e a d and  o f t r o p i c a l s o r e s common  This disease  lessens resistance to  o t h e r d i s e a s e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y pneumonia, w i t h consequent fatal results.  Yaws too was  h o r r i b l e , contagious victims.  very widespread.  It is a  d i s e a s e w h i c h l e a v e s u g l y s p o t s on i t s  I n most c a s e s , t h e s e d i s e a s e s have become c h r o n i c  as a r e s u l t of y e a r s of l a c k o f t r e a t m e n t and, the p e r i o d o f h e a l i n g them was  necessarily long.  m a t t e r s w o r s e , the n a t i v e s t h e m s e l v e s had knowledge o f m e d i c i n e .  little  rampant and  The  sorcery  the  P a i n s had  t a k e n t o d e s t r o y n a t i v e b e l i e f i n the e f f i c a c y of  It  confidence  i n the v a l u e  The  therefore a very  I t i n v o l v e d n o t o n l y the h e a l i n g and  v e n t i o n o f d i s e a s e s but a l s o much more.  instill  and  f a c t o r s i n the s p r e a d o f v a r i o u s d i s e a s e s .  d i f f i c u l t one.  as  absence  s a n i t a t i o n were p o t e n t  t a s k c o n f r o n t i n g the A d m i n i s t r a t i o n was  and  no  deeply ingrained  low l e v e l of e x i s t e n c e , and  o f any knowledge o f h y g i e n e and aggravating  or  faith in sacrifice,  m a g i c , and f e t i s h w o r s h i p as t h e i r c u r e s was the p e o p l e .  To make  B e l i e f i n w i t c h c r a f t and  the cause o f d i s e a s e was  in  therefore,  to  prebe  sourcery  of modern m e d i c i n e .  a l s o i n v o l v e d an a l m o s t complete r e a d j u s t m e n t o f n a t i v e  life.  The  n a t i v e had  t o be t a u g h t t o b u i l d b e t t e r h o u s e s ,  14-3 t o keep t h e i r homes, v i l l a g e s and s u r r o u n d i n g s c l e a n and to l e a r n t o take n u t r i t i o u s d i e t .  T h i s i s i n d e e d an u p h i l l  t a s k and i t n e c e s s i t a t e d as S i r James B a r r e t s a i d "a process of education, personal  gradual  c i v i c t r a i n i n g , and t h e i n d u c t i o n o f  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r c l e a n l i n e s s and s a n i t a t i o n ,  n e c e s s i t a t e d i m p r o v e d a g r i c u l t u r e and i n f a c t , i t r e q u i r e d a complete r e a d a p t a t i o n life."  o f t h e n a t i v e t o a new mode o f  3 8  The A u s t r a l i a n A d m i n i s t r a t i o n showed f r o m t h e outset  a g r e a t c o n c e r n f o r t h e h e a l t h o f t h e n a t i v e s and  i t s a p p r o a c h t o t h e p r o b l e m o f h e a l t h was much more  energetic  t h a n , f o r i n s t a n c e , i t s a p p r o a c h t o t h e p r o b l e m o f educ a t i o n , t h o u g h i t was l i k e w i s e h a n d i c a p p e d i n t h i s f i e l d by the p e r e n n i a l q u e s t i o n  o f l a c k o f f u n d s and s h o r t a g e o f s t a f f .  I n a s t a t e m e n t o f p o l i c y made t o t h e Permanent Mandates Commission, A u s t r a l i a m a i n t a i n e d t h a t she r e c o g n i z e d  as a  d u t y o f paramount i m p o r t a n c e t h e e r a d i c a t i o n o f n a t i v e diseases  and a c c e p t e d t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e m e d i c a l  and  t r e a t m e n t o f t h e n a t i v e s , F u r t h e r m o r e she d e c l a r e d  she  considered  care  that  a l l e f f o r t s t o c a r r y out t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s  imposed upon i t by t h e mandate i n c o n n e c t i o n  with the welfare  o f t h e n a t i v e s would be o f no a v a i l i f t h e i n h a b i t a n t s were zq  allowed  t o be d e c i m a t e d by d i s e a s e s .  38 Eggleston,  y  Sincere  attempts  The A u s t r a l i a n Mandate f o r New G u i n e a , p. 8 8 .  39 P.M.C. M i n u t e s , 9th S e s s i o n  (1926), p.  20.  144 were made b y t h e o f f i c i a l s o f t h e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n t o t r a n s l a t e t h i s statement set  o f p o l i c y i n t o r e a l i t y w i t h i n the l i m i t a t i o n s  b y a v a i l a b l e f u n d s and s t a f f .  A Department o f H e a l t h  headed b y an e x p e r t i n t r o p i c a l m e d i c i n e  was o r g a n i z e d .  1921 t h e s t a f f was made up o f seven m e d i c a l  In  officers,  eighteen medical a s s i s t a n t s , a b a c t e r i o l o g i s t , a dispenser, two s a n i t a r y i n s p e c t o r s , one s a n i t a r y e n g i n e e r and a body o f native s t a f f . blished —  N a t i v e h o s p i t a l s were i m m e d i a t e l y  esta-  one i n each o f t h e t e n a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c e n t r e s t o  c a t e r f o r t h e h e a l t h o f t h e n a t i v e i n d e n t u r e d l a b o u r e r s on E u r o p e a n p l a n t a t i o n s . To meet t h e needs o f those  countless  n a t i v e s i n a r e a s f a r removed f r o m t h e A d m i n i s t r a t i v e c e n t r e s the system o f m e d i c a l p a t r o l was i n s t i t u t e d . cheap a n d , i f p r o p e r l y c o n d u c t e d ,  This i s a very  e f f i c i e n t s y s t e m and  s h o u l d have s e r v e d w e l l i f i t had been expanded b u t t h i s was s o m e t h i n g w h i c h t h e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n was n e v e r i n a p o s i t i o n t o do.  A m e d i c a l p a t r o l u n i t was a t t a c h e d t o e a c h  strative district.  Admini-  E a c h u n i t was c h a r g e d w i t h t h e r e s p o n s i -  b i l i t y o f p a t r o l l i n g those v i l l a g e s under t h e c o n t r o l o f t h e Administration.  I t c h e c k e d on t h e g e n e r a l c o n d i t i o n s o f  h e a l t h o f t h e n a t i v e s and on s a n i t a t i o n , and a d m i n i s t e r e d i n n o c u l a t i o n a g a i n s t m a l a r i a and yaws a s i t went a l o n g , s e n d i n g t o t h e h o s p i t a l c a s e s w h i c h were c o n s i d e r e d t o o s e r i o u s t o be t r e a t e d w h i l e on p a t r o l .  The p a t r o l , i n  a d d i t i o n , was t o v i s i t p l a n t a t i o n s , m i s s i o n h e a d q u a r t e r s and  40 A n n u a l R e p o r t  t o t h e League o f N a t i o n s , 1921-1922, p . 6 6 .  14-5 m i n i n g camps a n n u a l l y , i n v e s t i g a t i n g whether due p r e c a u t i o n s were b e i n g t a k e n b y e m p l o y e r s t o s a f e g u a r d t h e health of the natives.  I t was t o r e p o r t p r o m p t l y a l l  breaches o f h e a l t h r e g u l a t i o n s .  T h i s system s h o u l d  have  s e r v e d v e r y w e l l i f t h e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n h a d been a b l e t o finance i t s expansion.  But the chronic  shortage o f s t a f f  o f m e d i c a l a s s i s t a n t s t o whom t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y was e n t r u s t e d , made i t i m p o s s i b l e f u n c t i o n adequately. of t h i s .  f o r t h e p a t r o l system t o  The A d m i n i s t r a t i o n was n o t unaware  The 1 9 2 1 - 2 2 R e p o r t d e a l t w i t h t h i s p r o b l e m : I t must be u n d e r s t o o d t h a t i n New I r e l a n d d i s t r i c t , as i n o t h e r p a r t s o f t h e T e r r i t o r y , the o u t s t a t i o n d i s t r i c t s a r e so g r e a t and the means o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n so l i m i t e d , t h a t p a t r o l s by m e d i c a l o f f i c e r s o r m e d i c a l a s s i s t a n t s cannot be u n d e r t a k e n as f r e q u e n t l y as d e s i r a b l e . . . .4-1  Though t h e r e p o r t p l a c e s i t s emphasis on t h e d i f f i c u l t y o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and t h e d i s t a n c e s  of thevarious  outstation  d i s t r i c t s , t h e c r u x o f t h e m a t t e r was t h e s h o r t a g e o f s t a f f , f o r i f adequate s t a f f h a d been a v a i l a b l e , t h e y would have been p o s t e d t o t h o s e o u t s t a t i o n s and t h e p r o b l e m w o u l d have been s o l v e d .  T h i s s i t u a t i o n never improved throughout t h e  p e r i o d o f t h e mandate a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . i n s t a n c e , t h e r e was o n l y one M e d i c a l R i v e r a r e a and he was r e s p o n s i b l e  4-1  I n 1936-37, f o r A s s i s t a n t i n the Sepik  f o r i n s p e c t i n g each n a t i v e  A n n u a l R e p o r t t o t h e League o f N a t i o n s ,  1921-1922,  p . 74-  146 i n h a b i t a n t o f each o f t h e 100 v i l l a g e s s p r e a d i n g f o r a d i s t a n c e o f 265 r i v e r m i l e s on e i t h e r s i d e o f t h e r i v e r . I n a d d i t i o n , he had charge  o f t h e n a t i v e h o s p i t a l o f 100  beds a t Ambunti where he t r e a t e d s e r i o u s c a s e s . was  This task  t o t a l l y i m p o s s i b l e f o r any s i n g l e i n d i v i d u a l and t h e 42  r e s u l t was t h a t many o f t h e v i l l a g e s were n e v e r  visited.  I n t h a t same y e a r a group o f v i l l a g e s on t h e Yuat R i v e r alarmed by t h e w i d e s p r e a d  n a t u r e o f s i c k n e s s and d i s e a s e i n  t h e i r m i d s t sent a d e l e g a t i o n t o t h e D i s t r i c t O f f i c e r t o plead f o r a v i s i t of a medical p a t r o l t o t h e i r area.  This  v i l l a g e h a d n o t r e c e i v e d any v i s i t f r o m a m e d i c a l p a t r o l 43 f o r a period of 5 years. ^ As t h e m e d i c a l p a t r o l s c o u l d o n l y c a r r y on t h e i r work p e r i o d i c a l l y and t h e n e c e s s i t y o f c a t e r i n g c o n s t a n t l y f o r t h e m e d i c a l needs o f t h e n a t i v e s was v e r y  apparent,  t h e m e d i c a l t u l t u l system w h i c h h a d been i n a u g u r a t e d b y the Germans i n 1903 was e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y t a k e n up and 44 expanded b y t h e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n .  A medical t u l t u l or  d o k i t a boy was a n a t i v e who, a f t e r u n d e r g o i n g  training for  a p e r i o d l a s t i n g t h r e e t o f i v e months i n f i r s t a i d , e l e m e n t a r y r u l e s o f s a n i t a t i o n , d r e s s i n g o f s o r e s and r e c o g n i t i o n o f c a s e s r e q u i r i n g h o s p i t a l t r e a t m e n t , was s e n t 43 Reed, The M a k i n g o f Modern New G u i n e a , p. 167. 44 Annual R e p o r t t o t h e League o f N a t i o n s , 1925-1926, A p p e n d i x B, p. 6 5 .  14-7 back t o b i s v i l l a g e t o l o o k a f t e r the h e a l t h of h i s p e o p l e . Such a man was always chosen f o r h i s i n t e l l i g e n c e and a f t e r h i s t r a i n i n g he was g i v e n a peaked cap w i t h a Red C r o s s 4-5 band on i t .  y  As each v i l l a g e was opened up and b r o u g h t  under c o n t r o l , a m e d i c a l t u l t u l was a p p o i n t e d and t r a i n e d . T h i s system o f m e d i c a l t u l t u l was n o t adequate n o r e f f i c i e n t i n c a t e r i n g f o r the h e a l t h of the n a t i v e s .  I n the f i r s t  c a s e , t h e m e d i c a l t u l t u l ' s knowledge was p u r e l y r u d i m e n t a r y and he c o u l d n o t d e a l w i t h s e r i o u s c a s e s .  Such c a s e s were  s e n t t o t h e h o s p i t a l w h i c h l a y a t a d i s t a n c e o f so many m i l e s and w h i c h might t a k e many d a y s t o r e a c h owing t o t h e poor t r a n s p o r t f a c i l i t i e s i n the T e r r i t o r y .  I n so many  cases the p a t i e n t s d i e d before g e t t i n g t o the h o s p i t a l s . F u r t h e r m o r e , many o f them on g e t t i n g back t o t h e i r v i l l a g e s tended t o f o r g e t q u i c k l y a l l t h a t t h e y had l e a r n e d .  This  was r e c o g n i z e d b y t h e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n w h i c h t r i e d t o remedy the s i t u a t i o n b y o r g a n i z i n g r e f r e s h e r c o u r s e s .  To keep  check o v e r t h e i r work, m e d i c a l p a t r o l s were i n s t r u c t e d t o v i s i t each v i l l a g e e v e r y t h r e e months b u t t h i s was f o u n d i m p o s s i b l e as t h e r e were n o t enough m e d i c a l a s s i s t a n t s t o undertake the p a t r o l .  The number o f m e d i c a l a s s i s t a n t s i n  t h e T e r r i t o r y i n 1939 was o n l y 2 2 . m e d i c a l t u l t u l s numbered 4-,003.  On t h e o t h e r hand t h e  I n that year according t o  o f f i c i a l r e p o r t o n l y 1,186 o f t h e s e 4-,003 were i n s p e c t e d by 4-5 A n n u a l R e p o r t t o t h e League o f N a t i o n s , 1921-1922,  p. 66.  148 medical p a t r o l .  46  T h i s was  of t h e p a t r o l system.  a n o t h e r p r o o f o f the  A c c o r d i n g t o the r e p o r t s  by t h e s e p a t r o l s o n l y 39.2  submitted  p e r c e n t o f the m e d i c a l  v i s i t e d were d o i n g a r e a s o n a b l e  Because o f  these  o n l y t h o s e n a t i v e s i n the A d m i n i s t r a t i v e  c e n t r e s where n a t i v e h o s p i t a l s e x i s t e d , and t h o s e f r i n g e s , who  tultuls  j o b and the r e p o r t empha47  s i z e d the need f o r f u r t h e r improvement. ' s e t b a c k s , i t was  inadequacy  were r e a l l y r e c e i v i n g adequate  on  their  medical  a t t e n t i o n and most o f t h e s e were i n d e n t u r e d l a b o u r e r s European p l a n t a t i o n s .  One  cannot but be l e f t w i t h  i m p r e s s i o n t h a t more c a r e was i n d e n t u r e d l a b o u r e r s who  on  the  d e v o t e d t o the h e a l t h o f  were economic a s s e t s t o the  the  white  p o p u l a t i o n t h a n t o t h e whole mass of the n a t i v e p o p u l a t i o n s c a t t e r e d a l l o v e r the T e r r i t o r y .  I f t h i s were n o t  the  c a s e , the A d m i n i s t r a t i o n s h o u l d have e s t a b l i s h e d some o f those  t e n Government h o s p i t a l s i n the i n l a n d a r e a s o f dense  n a t i v e p o p u l a t i o n r a t h e r t h a n e s t a b l i s h a l l i n the of European a c t i v i t i e s .  The  i n s u c h n a t i v e a r e a s was  amply d e m o n s t r a t e d d u r i n g  l a c k and the need of h o s p i t a l s  p e r i o d o f the g o l d r u s h i n 1926. was  centres  the  During that year  there  a s e r i o u s e p i d e m i c o f d y s e n t r y and pneumonia amongst  the m i n e r s and the n a t i v e l a b o u r e r s and t h e r e was  not  s i n g l e h o s p i t a l a t hand t o d e a l w i t h the s i t u a t i o n .  a The  46 A n n u a l R e p o r t t o t h e League o f N a t i o n s , 1939-194-0, p. 47 L o c .  c i t . 38.3  were s a i d t o be f a i r and 22.5  poor.  48.  149 l i v e s o f many o f t h e s e p e o p l e were saved b y t h e e f f o r t s o f Mrs. B o o t h , a n u r s e and a w i f e o f one o f t h e m i n e r s , who r e n d e r e d yeoman's s e r v i c e t o t h e s i c k — was  a service  which  a p p r e c i a t e d by t h e A u s t r a l i a n Government and f o r w h i c h  she was h i g h l y commended b y t h e Permanent Mandates  Commission.  One o f t h e h e a l t h problems t h e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n h a d t o g r a p p l e w i t h was t h a t o f i n f a n t m o r t a l i t y w h i c h was one o f t h e c u r s e s o f New G u i n e a S o c i e t y .  S e v e r a l f a c t o r s were  r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the h i g h r a t e of i n f a n t m o r t a l i t y i n the Territory — nourishment  t h e e a r l y m a r r i a g e o f many women, underand l a c k o f p r o p e r f e e d i n g o f t h e i n f a n t s and  o f t h e n a t i v e p o p u l a t i o n as a whole, complete l a c k o f c l e a n l i n e s s i n t h e way c h i l d r e n were f e d and h a n d l e d and 49 e p i d e m i c s such as whooping cough.  I n 1 9 3 0 the Admini-  s t r a t i o n seemed r o u s e d up a t l a s t t o t h e need o f t a c k l i n g the problem.  I n t h a t y e a r , a d e c i s i o n was t a k e n t o e s t a b l i s h  throughout the T e r r i t o r y a c h a i n of Infant Welfare Centres, 50  t h e f i r s t one t o be opened a t Malabunga.  A scheme was  drawn up whereby t h e Malabunga c e n t r e would be manned by two n u r s i n g s i s t e r s who would be t r a i n e d i n i n f a n t w e l f a r e work.  As t h e n a t i v e women c o u l d n e i t h e r u n d e r s t a n d n o r  speak p i d g i n - E n g l i s h , t h e n u r s e s were t o be r e q u i r e d t o 48 A n n u a l R e p o r t t o t h e League o f N a t i o n s , 4 9 A n n u a l R e p o r t t o t h e League o f N a t i o n s , A p p e n d i x C, p. 1 1 5 * 50  A n n u a l R e p o r t t o t h e League o f N a t i o n s ,  1926-1927,  p.  78.  p.  32.  1926-1927,  1929-1930,  150 learn native dialect.  A l l e f f o r t s were t o be made b y t h e  A d m i n i s t r a t i o n t o get i n contact  w i t h t h e n a t i v e women i n  t h a t area w i t h a view t o p e r s u a d i n g mothers t o b r i n g i n f a n t s t o t h e C e n t r e and p r e g n a n t women t o come t o t h e C e n t r e f o r c o n f i n e m e n t where t h e y w o u l d be t a u g h t c o r r e c t management o f t h e i r own h e a l t h so t h a t t h e i n f a n t s m i g h t b e n e f i t f r o m a f u l l and p r o p e r m a t e r n a l m i l k .  I n a d d i t i o n a census o f  c h i l d r e n u n d e r one y e a r o f age would be t a k e n and t h e p r o g r e s s o f s u c h c h i l d r e n w o u l d be watched u n t i l t h e comp l e t i o n of t h e i r f i r s t year.  T h i s programme was n o t  d e s t i n e d t o be f u l l y implemented.  I n 1931  t h e Centre a t  51  Malabunga was o p e n e d .  y  I n 1932,  however, i t was t r a n s -  f e r r e d t o the Methodist Mission of A u s t r a l a s i a .  Up t i l l  t h a t time t h e two n u r s i n g s i s t e r s h a d made b u t l i t t l e  pro-  g r e s s i n t h e s t u d y o f n a t i v e d i a l e c t and a f t e r t h e c o m p l e t i o n of 21 months t o u r , t h e y r e f u s e d t o r e t u r n t o work i n s u c h an i s o l a t e d a r e a .  On t h e o t h e r hand, t h e M e t h o d i s t M i s s i o n ,  l i k e t h e o t h e r s , h a d a body o f d e v o t e d men and women who were f l u e n t i n l o c a l l a n g u a g e s , accustomed t o l i f e the n a t i v e s and r e g a r d e d l i f e as a m i s s i o n .  i n such n a t i v e  An arrangement was e n t e r e d  amongst  communities  i n t o by which the  A d m i n i s t r a t i o n agreed t o grant t o the M i s s i o n  £350  per  annum t o d e f r a y s t a f f and maintenance expenses and a l s o t o provide  f r e e o f charge t h e d r u g s t h a t might be needed f o r  51 A n n u a l  R e p o r t t o t h e League o f N a t i o n s ,  1931-1932, p . 37.  151 g e n e r a l use xn t h e C e n t r e .  52  From t h i s t i m e onwards, t h e  d u t y o f p r o v i d i n g c a r e f o r t h e i n f a n t s was l e f t to the M i s s i o n s .  completely  S i m i l a r arrangements were e n t e r e d  w i t h the other M i s s i o n s .  into  A t Dalum i n New I r e l a n d an  arrangement was made w i t h t h e C a t h o l i c M i s s i o n o f - t h e Most S a c r e d H e a r t o f J e s u s whereby t h e M i s s i o n a g r e e d t o e s t a b l i s h an I n f a n t W e l f a r e  C e n t r e s i m i l a r t o t h e one a t  5-5 Malabunga. ^  I n a d d i t i o n , t h e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n a i d e d by way  o f g r a n t o f f r e e m i l k t h e a l r e a d y a c t i v e work o f t h e Methodist  S o c i e t y o f New Z e a l a n d  i n K i e t a D i s t r i c t and t h e 54 M a r i s t M i s s i o n i n S o r a k e n and K i e t a a r e a s . One o f t h e causes o f t h e w i d e s p r e a d n a t u r e  of  d i s e a s e s i n New G u i n e a was t h e a t t i t u d e o f t h e n a t i v e s t o d i s e a s e d members o f the community. the w o r s t type o f c o n t a g i o u s  People s u f f e r i n g from  d i s e a s e s l i v e d under t h e same  r o o f , s h a r e d t h e same f o o d , beds and c l o t h i n g w i t h h e a l t h y p e o p l e who i n t u r n became v i c t i m s o f such d i s e a s e s . i n s t a n c e , l e p e r s were n e v e r s e g r e g a t e d these  For  by t h e n a t i v e s and  l e p e r s moved about v e r y f r e e l y i n t h e v i l l a g e s .  The  Germans, e a r l y i n t h e i r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e T e r r i t o r y , e s t a b l i s h e d a L e p e r S t a t i o n i n Madang. by t h e A u s t r a l i a n Government.  I n 1931  T h i s was t a k e n up an a d d i t i o n a l L e p e r  52 A n n u a l R e p o r t t o t h e League o f N a t i o n s , pp. 5 1 - 5 2 . 53 L o c . c i t . 54 L o c . c i t .  1932-1933*  152 C o l o n y was e s t a b l i s h e d on t h e i s l a n d o f Anela.ua n e a r Ka.vieng b u t t h e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n was u n a b l e t o s t a f f t h e s t a t i o n , and handed i t o v e r t o t h e S a c r e d H e a r t M i s s i o n i n 1954, a t t h e same t i m e a g r e e i n g t o a i d t h e M i s s i o n w i t h f r e e d r u g s and dressings.  I n a d d i t i o n , t h e C o l o n y was t o be under t h e  d i r e c t c o n t r o l of the A d m i n i s t r a t i o n Medical O f f i c e r at K a v i e n g and t h e s t a f f o f t h e C o l o n y were, under s p e c i a l arrangement, 55 F i j i . ^  t o be t r a i n e d a t Makongai L e p e r C o l o n y i n  I t i s obvious t h a t i n i t s t a s k o f p r o v i d i n g  medical care f o r the n a t i v e s , the A d m i n i s t r a t i o n r e c e i v e d c o n s i d e r a b l e h e l p from t h e M i s s i o n s .  A p a r t from t h e h e l p  r e n d e r e d i n t h e f i e l d o f i n f a n t w e l f a r e and c a r e and t r e a t ment o f l e p e r s , t h e M i s s i o n s m a i n t a i n e d h o s p i t a l s and d i s p e n s a r i e s o f t h e i r own t h r o u g h o u t t h e T e r r i t o r y b u t t h e s e were a u x i l i a r y t o t h e H e a l t h S e r v i c e s p r o v i d e d by t h e Administration.  By a s p e c i a l arrangement,  the A d m i n i s t r a t i o n  s u p p l i e d t h e M i s s i o n s w i t h t h e n e c e s s a r y d r u g s and a p p l i a n c e s f r e e o f charge w h i l e t h e M i s s i o n s f u r n i s h e d t h e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n w i t h m e d i c a l r e t u r n s showing t h e use t o w h i c h t h e 56 d r u g s had been p u t and t h e r e s u l t s o f such t r e a t m e n t . ' A p a r t f r o m t h e M i s s i o n s , o t h e r a g e n c i e s were a l s o u s e d by t h e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n .  A l l employers o f l a b o u r were  55 A n n u a l R e p o r t t o t h e League o f N a t i o n s , 1932-1933> p. 5 0 ; a l s o 1933-1934, p. 4 7 . 56 A n n u a l R e p o r t t o t h e League o f N a t i o n s , 1926-1927» A p p e n d i x C, pp. 113-114.  153  charged w i t h the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f p r o v i d i n g medical for t h e i r labourers. entered  care  I n a d d i t i o n , the A d m i n i s t r a t i o n  i n t o arrangements w i t h t h e p r i v a t e companies w h i c h  owned h o s p i t a l s i n t h e T e r r i t o r y under w h i c h s u c h companies were t o c a t e r f o r any f r e e n a t i v e s n e e d i n g m e d i c a l a t t e n t i o n , the A d m i n i s t r a t i o n b e a r i n g t h e c o s t o f such t r e a t m e n t w h i c h 57  was t o be two s h i l l i n g s p e r head. ' The  use o f t h e M i s s i o n s , t h e p l a n t e r s and p r i v a t e  companies h e l p e d  considerably i n r e l i e v i n g the A d m i n i s t r a t i o n  o f some o f t h e b u r d e n o f p r o v i d i n g m e d i c a l the n a t i v e p o p u l a t i o n . s e r v i c e s were s t i l l Territory.  Despite  attention f o r  t h i s , however,  medical  i n a d e q u a t e t o meet t h e needs o f t h e  Two t h i n g s were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h i s —  o f adequate s t a f f and l a c k o f f u n d s . source of complaint  T h i s was a  lack  constant  by t h e Head o f M e d i c a l S e r v i c e s as i t  a f f e c t e d every branch of that S e r v i c e .  The f o l l o w i n g e x t r a c t  t a k e n f r o m t h e A n n u a l R e p o r t o f t h e Head o f t h e M e d i c a l S e r v i c e s speaks f o r i t s e l f : As s t a t e d e l s e w h e r e , we have f u n c t i o n e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e whole p e r i o d s h o r t o f s t a f f . . . . I t h a s been n e c e s s a r y on c e r t a i n s t a t i o n s t o r e s t r i c t p a t r o l work, and i n some i n s t a n c e s t h e a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h had been l a i d down f o r t h e y e a r have n e c e s s a r i l y been p o s t p o n e d t o a l a t e r d a t e . 5 8  57 A n n u a l R e p o r t t o t h e League o f N a t i o n s ,  1928-1929,  p.  58 A n n u a l R e p o r t t o t h e League o f N a t i o n s ,  1926-1927,  p. 14-5.  3 0 .  154As r e g a r d s t h e m o s q u i t o campaign i t was s t a t e d t h a t c o n s i d e r a b l e d i f f i c u l t y was e x p e r i e n c e d t h a t y e a r i n k e e p i n g t h e campaign up t o s t a n d a r d owing t o t h e f r e q u e n t changes o f s a n i t a t i o n s t a f f w h i c h r e s u l t e d i n u n s k i l l e d men 59 b e i n g employed.' ' theme t h r o u g h o u t Indeed,  The s h o r t a g e o f s t a f f was a c o n s t a n t  t h e p e r i o d o f t h e mandate A d m i n i s t r a t i o n .  i n 1939 t h e r e were o n l y 13 d o c t o r s i n t h e employ  of t h e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n t h e T e r r i t o r y and 30 m e d i c a l A s s i s t a n t s t o l o o k a f t e r the h e a l t h o f the European, A s i a t i c and n a t i v e p o p u l a t i o n s . E v e n  some o f t h o s e  employed by t h e Department were u n q u a l i f i e d and i n e x p e r i enced men.  T h i s was made c l e a r i n t h e 1926-27  Report.  I n t h e e a r l y p a r t o f t h e y e a r i t was hoped t h a t a system c o u l d be i n t r o d u c e d which would permit o f the g r a d u a l r e p l a c e ment o f u n q u a l i f i e d men p e r f o r m i n g m e d i c a l work and t h e i r s u b s t i t u t i o n by m e d i c a l o f f i c e r s i n t h e r a t i o o f two m e d i c a l a s s i s t a n t s t o one m e d i c a l o f f i c e r . I t was t h o u g h t t h a t i t would be p o s s i b l e t o p r o v i d e f o r gradual expansion elsewhere i n t h e T e r r i t o r y by t h e a b s o r p t i o n o f c e r t a i n of t h e s e m e d i c a l a s s i s t a n t s i n t o new d i s t r i c t s and t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f new s u b - s t a t i o n s . The sudden n e c e s s i t y , however, f o r two m e d i c a l o f f i c e r s and f o u r m e d i c a l a s s i s t a n t s i n t h e Salama.ua a r e a — an u n f o r e s e e n c o n t i n g e n c y — e n t i r e l y d i s o r g a n i z e d the t e n t a t i v e p r o p o s a l s and t h e y were abandoned.61  59 A n n u a l R e p o r t t o t h e League o f N a t i o n s , A p p e n d i x C, p. 124.  1926-1927,  60 Annual R e p o r t t o t h e League o f N a t i o n s , 1939-194-0, p. 4 3 . 61 A n n u a l R e p o r t t o t h e League o f N a t i o n s , 1926-1927, P«  112.  155  The  s h o r t a g e o f s t a f f and t h e consequent  inability  t o p r o v i d e adequate m e d i c a l s e r v i c e s c a n be t r a c e d t o one i m p o r t a n t cause —  the l a c k of funds.  The p o l i c y o f making  New G u i n e a p a y f o r i t s e l f w h i c h was a d o p t e d by t h e A u s t r a l i a n Government r i g h t f r o m t h e o u t s e t was d e t r i m e n t a l to  the i n t e r e s t s of the T e r r i t o r y .  No u n d e r d e v e l o p e d  c o u n t r y c a n p a y f o r i t s own development help.  without outside  E a r l y i n 1921 a g r a n t o f £10,000 h a d been made t o  the  New G u i n e a A d m i n i s t r a t i o n by t h e A u s t r a l i a n Government  to  be s p e n t on p r o v i d i n g m e d i c a l s e r v i c e s f o r t h e n a t i v e s .  T h i s g r a n t was l a t e r d e v o t e d t o a l l a s p e c t s o f n a t i v e i n t e r e s t s and by 1930 i t c e a s e d t o be f o r t h c o m i n g .  The  s t o p p i n g o f t h i s g r a n t was h i g h l y r e g r e t t e d by L o r d L u g a r d of  t h e Permanent Mandates Commission  who o b s e r v e d t h a t  such  an a c t i o n h a d r e n d e r e d i m p o s s i b l e t h e u r g e n t work o f 63 expansion i n the medical f i e l d .  y  The l a c k o f adequate  f u n d s was a v e r y g r e a t o b s t a c l e t o t h e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n and t h i s was echoed and r e - e c h o e d i n t h e A n n u a l R e p o r t s o f t h e Head o f M e d i c a l S e r v i c e s .  I n t h e 1924-25 R e p o r t i t was  s t a t e d t h a t t h e c e n t r a l campaign o f t h e y e a r was d e v o t e d t o the  c o m b a t t i n g o f g o n o r r h e a b u t t h a t owing t o l a c k o f f u n d s  the  campaign c o u l d n o t be pushed t o a s a t i s f a c t o r y c o n 64  elusion.  The Permanent Mandates Commission  was s e r i o u s l y  62 A n n u a l R e p o r t t o t h e League o f N a t i o n s , 1921-1922, p. 64. 63 P.M.C. M i n u t e s , 2 1 s t S e s s i o n (1931), p. 25. 64 A n n u a l R e p o r t t o t h e League o f N a t i o n s , 1924-1925, p. 17.  156 worried  about i t t o o .  I n 1926  Lord Lugard pointed  out  t h a t the v o t e o f £28,000 f o r p u b l i c h e a l t h was  totally  i n a d e q u a t e f o r so l a r g e a T e r r i t o r y . ^  a l s o a cause  I t was  f o r c o n c e r n amongst some members o f the A u s t r a l i a n P a r l i a ment.  I n a debate i n the Senate on August 27,  1925  one  of  t h e S e n a t o r s s t a t e d t h a t i n s t a n c e s had been b r o u g h t t o h i s n o t i c e o f c a s e s w h i c h had been t r e a t e d up p o i n t and  t h e n d r o p p e d f o r l a c k of f u n d s .  t h a t t h e r e s u l t was ture.  He  to a c e r t a i n He  complained  a waste of a p r o p o r t i o n of the  expendi-  c o n c l u d e d t h a t s u c c e s s c o u l d o n l y be a c h i e v e d  c o n t i n u i t y of e f f o r t s u n t i l diseases  were p r a c t i c a l l y  e r a d i c a t e d and he p l e a d e d f o r an i n c r e a s e g i v e n t o the New  i n the  Guinea A d m i n i s t r a t i o n f o r n a t i v e  I t i s t r u e t h a t an i n c r e a s e was  by  grant welfare.  s u b s e q u e n t l y made i n t h e  amount d e v o t e d t o m e d i c a l s e r v i c e s but t h r o u g h o u t p e r i o d o f the mandate A d m i n i s t r a t i o n i t was t o meet the needs o f the T e r r i t o r y . ^  7  the  n e v e r adequate  In- f a i r n e s s t o  A u s t r a l i a , i t must, however, be a d m i t t e d t h a t the needs were r e a l l y c o l o s s a l .  65 P.M.C. M i n u t e s , 9 t h 66 H.S.  Deb.,  August 27,  Session 1925,  ( 1 9 2 6 ) , p.  23.  p. 174-7.  67 T o t a l e x p e n d i t u r e upon m e d i c a l and s a n i t a r y s e r v i c e s f o r the y e a r i n c l u d i n g s a l a r i e s , m e d i c a l e x p e n d i t u r e f r o m N a t i v e W e l f a r e v o t e and New Y o r k s m e d i c a l e x p e n d i t u r e was £96,4-05. See A n n u a l R e p o r t t o the League o f N a t i o n s , 1939-194-0, p. 4-3. No f i g u r e was g i v e n t o show what p r o p o r t i o n of t h i s was spent on n a t i v e h e a l t h s e r v i c e s .  CHAPTER V I I WAS THE "SACRED TRUST" FULFILLED? Germany was s t r i p p e d o f h e r c o l o n i e s a f t e r t h e F i r s t W o r l d War on t h e grounds t h a t she had f o r f e i t e d h e r r i g h t t o these possessions r u l e r of subject taces.  by h e r d e p l o r a b l e r e c o r d as a  The C o l o n i e s were t h e n  assigned  t o v a r i o u s Powers under t h e mandate system accompanied b y a p r o v i s o t h a t t h e s e Powers s h o u l d t a k e as a s a c r e d "the m o r a l and m a t e r i a l w e l l - b e i n g and t h e s o c i a l of t h e n a t i v e i n h a b i t a n t s " .  task  progress  The n a t i v e s were t o be t r a i n e d  i n s u c h a way as t o be a b l e i n t h e l o n g r u n t o s t a n d b y themselves under the strenuous world.  c o n d i t i o n s o f t h e modern  This p r o v i s i o n contained i n A r t i c l e 22 of the  League Covenant p r o v i d e d , t h e r e f o r e a s t a n d a r d whereby a mandatory power's r e c o r d m i g h t be measured.  What t h e n i s  the v e r d i c t on A u s t r a l i a ' s e x e r c i s e o f h e r mandate o v e r New Guinea?  D i d she c a r r y out f a i t h f u l l y t h e s a c r e d  D i d she p r o v i d e  adequately  welfare of the natives?  duty?  f o r t h e m o r a l and m a t e r i a l  D i d she t r a i n them i n such a way  t h a t t h e y c o u l d s t a n d by t h e m s e l v e s under t h e c o n d i t i o n s ' o f t h e modern w o r l d ?  'strenuous  To be a b l e t o g i v e a  f a i r assessment a number o f f a c t o r s must be t a k e n  into  158  consideration —  the d i f f i c u l t i e s c o n f r o n t i n g her i n the  t a s k o f a d m i n i s t e r i n g t h e T e r r i t o r y and h e r s u c c e s s e s  and  failures. A u s t r a l i a was f a c e d w i t h a number o f d i f f i c u l t i e s i n the t a s k o f m o r a l l y and m a t e r i a l l y u p l i f t i n g t h e New Guinea n a t i v e s . mitive.  The New G u i n e a i n h a b i t a n t s were v e r y  pri-  Head-hunting, c a n n i b a l i s m , i n t e r - n e c i n e warfare,  s o r c e r y , and w i t c h c r a f t were common f e a t u r e s o f t h e l i f e o f the p e o p l e .  A tremendous e f f o r t was t h e r e f o r e r e q u i r e d i f  the p e o p l e were t o be r a i s e d f r o m t h e i r Stone Age e x i s t e n c e to t w e n t i e t h century c o n d i t i o n s of l i v i n g . the n a t u r e  of the country i t s e l f —  i t s rugged mountains  and dense j u n g l e , i t s deep gorges and swiftly flowing rivers — problem.  In addition,  cataract-impeded  confronted A u s t r a l i a with a great  T h i s , however, s h o u l d n o t be o v e r - s t a t e d because  s u c h d i f f i c u l t i e s were n o t a l t o g e t h e r p e c u l i a r t o New G u i n e a alone.  They were t o be f o u n d i n o t h e r mandated T e r r i t o r i e s  i n A f r i c a and t h e P a c i f i c though l e s s p r o n o u n c e d t h a n i n New G u i n e a .  The A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f New G u i n e a , j u s t as t h a t  o f any mandated T e r r i t o r y , c a l l e d f o r s a c r i f i c e and a s p i r i t of s e l f - d e n i a l w h i c h was a l m o s t n o n - e x i s t e n t  as f a r as  A u s t r a l i a was c o n c e r n e d . M o r e o v e r , A u s t r a l i a h a d no e x p e r i e n c e of s u b j e c t r a c e s .  as a r u l e r  I m p o r t a n t as t h i s m i g h t be i t was n o t  t o o g r e a t a h a n d i c a p because i n u n d e r t a k i n g s t r a t i o n o f backward p e o p l e s ,  the admini-  she was n o t b y any means  159 entering  'upon a p a t h h i t h e r t o u n t r o d d e n by man'.  were v a r i o u s existence  There  c o l o n i a l p o l i c i e s and p r a c t i c e s a l r e a d y  w h i c h she  could  in  l e a r n f r o m i f she were w i l l i n g .  I n a d d i t i o n , A u s t r a l i a was  h e r s e l f at t h i s time undergoing  r a p i d economic development w h i c h demanded a g r e a t d e a l h e r a t t e n t i o n and And  energy.  what about h e r  s u c c e s s e s and f a i l u r e s ?  A u s t r a l i a e s t a b l i s h e d peace and she was  order i n those areas which  a b l e t o b r i n g under c o n t r o l .  hunting, cannibalism, out.  But  the  sorcery  and  I n s u c h a r e a s , head-  w i t c h c r a f t were stamped  a r e a o f the T e r r i t o r y b r o u g h t under c o n t r o l  a f t e r 20 y e a r s o f r u l e was  n o t by any  means  I t i s t r u e d i f f i c u l t i e s e x i s t e d i n the the  country.  Analysis reveals  c o n t r o l over a greater  t h a t the  The  t a s k of p a c i f y i n g f a i l u r e to e s t a b l i s h  c h i e f r e a s o n was  many c a s e s the d e c i s i o n t o b r i n g new  whole  j o b and  a r e a s of the  of i t s b e n e f i t s t o the  in  Territory  i n f l u e n c e d by E u r o p e a n economic  and not by c o n s i d e r a t i o n  due  Inadequate, i l l - e q u i p p e d  i l l - e x p e r i e n c e d s t a f f were d e v o t e d t o the  under c o n t r o l was  not that  n o t e n t h u s i a s t i c i n b r i n g i n g the  T e r r i t o r y q u i c k l y under c o n t r o l . and  impressive.  a r e a o f the T e r r i t o r y was  t o any n a t u r a l s e t b a c k s . A u s t r a l i a was  of  activities  native  inhabitants. I n the f i e l d o f e d u c a t i o n , h e r r e c o r d was able.  T h i s was  n o t due  t o any  deplor-  d i f f i c u l t i e s d e r i v i n g from  the n a t u r e of the p e o p l e o r the T e r r i t o r y but  to  the  160  u n w i l l i n g n e s s o f the A u s t r a l i a n A d m i n i s t r a t i o n and o p p o s i t i o n of the w h i t e s e t t l e r s t o any the b e t t e r m e n t o f t h e n a t i v e s . e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s was was  The  the  scheme d e v i s e d  amount d e v o t e d t o  v e r y p o o r and  even t h a t amount  d w i n d l i n g r a t h e r t h a n i n c r e a s i n g a t a t i m e when t h e  T e r r i t o r y was  e n j o y i n g g r e a t p r o s p e r i t y as a r e s u l t o f  development o f the g o l d i n d u s t r y . exaggeration  I t i s therefore  when S t a n n e r m a i n t a i n s  t h a t "the  wholly i n mission hands".  1  The  educational  not d o i n g  enough  I n an i n t e r e s t i n g c o n v e r s a t i o n r e c o r d e d  I a n H o g b i n , a New teamed up  and  n a t i v e s t h e m s e l v e s were  n o t unaware t h a t the A d m i n i s t r a t i o n was in this field.  the  no  s e r v i c e s were p r i m i t i v e , even more s t a r v e d f o r f u n d s  War  for  G u i n e a n a t i v e was  a s k e d why  he had  by  not  a t once w i t h the a l l i e s d u r i n g the Second W o r l d  i n the same way  r e p l i e d , "The  as the n e g r o e s s t u c k t o A m e r i c a and  he  A m e r i c a n Government t a u g h t the n e g r o e s t o  r e a d and w r i t e and  so made i t p o s s i b l e f o r them t o u n d e r -  s t a n d a l l about the War.  Our  Government gave us  nothing. 2  The  little  l e a r n i n g t h a t we had The  medical  were i n a d e q u a t e . for this.  Lack  came f r o m the  services provided  f o r the  natives  o f s t a f f and f u n d s were r e s p o n s i b l e  O n l y t h o s e n a t i v e s who  1 S t a n n e r , The  Missions...."  were employed as  S o u t h Seas i n T r a n s i t i o n , p.  indentured  30.  2 H. I . H o g b i n , T r a n s f o r m a t i o n Scene: The Changing C u l t u r e of a New G u i n e a V i l T a g e , London, H o u t l e d g e & Kegan P a u l L t d . , 1951? P« i i .  161 labourers  on E u r o p e a n p l a n t a t i o n s e n j o y e d the b l e s s i n g s  m e d i c a l care centres  of  as a l l the h o s p i t a l s were e s t a b l i s h e d i n the  of E u r o p e a n a c t i v i t i e s . As r e g a r d s l a b o u r c o n d i t i o n s , O r d i n a n c e s were  p a s s e d embodying d e t a i l e d p r o v i s i o n s t o s a f e g u a r d the  native  l a b o u r e r s , but as t h e s e were n o t e f f i c i e n t l y e n f o r c e d  they  p r o v e d of v e r y l i t t l e v a l u e . 1926  W i t h the d i s c o v e r y of g o l d i n  l a b o u r c o n d i t i o n s p a r t i c u l a r l y on the g o l d f i e l d became  v e r y bad.  Wage l a b o u r was  f o r i l l n e s s and  p o o r l y p a i d , and  compensation  accidents f o r i n j u r y sustained  o f employment were h o p e l e s s l y  inadequate.  d o c t r i n e b e h i n d the p o o r wages was  The  i n the  course  official  w e l l put by M a c k e n z i e ,  an A u s t r a l i a n h i s t o r i a n , when he w r i t e s "Success i n t r o p i c a l Agriculture labour  ...  ( i n New  Guinea) can be a c h i e v e d o n l y when  i s p a i d f o r on a s c a l e f a r below t h e s t a n d a r d  of  the w h i t e man's wages". A l l the e f f o r t s o f the A d m i n i s t r a t i o n were d i r e c t e d t o w a r d the b e t t e r m e n t o f the r e l a t i v e l y few s e t t l e r s i n the  white  Territory.  I n the mandate T e r r i t o r y t h r o u g h o u t the p e r i o d p r e c e d i n g the Japanese i n v a s i o n the A d m i n i s t r a t i o n w o u l d appear t o have been d i r e c t l y l a r g e l y to d e a l i n g with conditions a r i s i n g f r o m the e x p a n s i o n o f E u r o p e a n c o m m e r c i a l a c t i v i t y , r a t h e r t h a n any  3 S. S. M a c k e n z i e , The A u s t r a l i a n s i n R a b a u l , The O f f i c i a l H i s t o r y o f A u s t r a l i a d u r i n g the War, v o l . X, Sudney, 1927, p. 228.  162 c o n s t r u c t i v e attempt to d e a l w i t h needs of the n a t i v e community.^  the  As f o r the r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e i n h a b i t a n t s and the w h i t e p o p u l a t i o n , i t was t o t a l l y undesirable. supreme.  The  The  native one  which  d o c t r i n e of w h i t e p r e s t i g e  b e l i e f t h a t the n a t i v e s must be  p l a c e ' permeated the whole s o c i e t y .  was  reigned  'taught t h e i r  N a t i v e s were t r e a t e d  as underdogs and d i s c r i m i n a t e d a g a i n s t .  This a t t i t u d e  was  w e l l summed up by an a r t i c l e w h i c h appeared i n the R a b a u l Times o f F e b r u a r y 7 ,  1930.  I t was a most d i s g u s t i n g s i g h t t o see a number o f w h i t e men f r a t e r n i z i n g w i t h c o l o u r e d men e m a n a t i n g f r o m some ( o t h e r ) i s l a n d s i n the P a c i f i c . The w h i t e s c o n cerned e v i d e n t l y d i d not t h i n k i t beneath t h e i r d i g n i t y t o p e r s o n a l l y s e r v e them w i t h d r i n k , and t o cap i t a l l , danced and sang f r e e l y w i t h them. Heaven knows our p r e s t i g e i s low enough. Why are t h e s e P a c i f i c Islanders allowed i n a p u b l i c b a r — because t h e y are A m e r i c a n s u b j e c t s ? The c o l o u r l i n e must be drawn somewhere.5 To t h e s e w h i t e s e t t l e r s the n a t i v e p r o b l e m , as Reed r i g h t l y p o i n t s o u t , was  synonymous w i t h " k e e p i n g the n a t i v e s i n a  servile position".  No r a c e - m i x i n g  was  allowed,  natives  were b a r r e d f r o m e n t e r i n g w h i t e s t o r e s and E u r o p e a n c h i l d r e n were f e d on t h e d o c t r i n e o f r a c i a l i n t o l e r a n c e .  Another  4 Lord H a i l e y i n h i s Introduction to Mair, A u s t r a l i a i n New G u i n e a , p. XVI. 5 C i t e d by Reed, The M a k i n g o f Modern New G u i n e a , p. 248. F o r d i s c u s s i o n of r a c e - r e l a t i o n s i n New G u i n e a , see a l s o Hogbur, T r a n s f o r m a t i o n Scene, Chap. X I I I  163 e x t r a c t f r o m t h e same p a p e r c l e a r l y i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s . March 30, 1928 t h e p a p e r c a r r i e d an e d i t o r i a l w h i c h  On  reads:  A l l t h i n g s c o n s i d e r e d i t i s n o t t o be wondered a t t h a t t h e n a t i v e s i n R a b a u l are a p t t o grow i n s o l e n t . Unfortunately f o r t h e permanent r e s i d e n t s , t h e r e a r e a number o f v i s i t o r s t o t h i s p l a c e who have a p p a r e n t l y no i d e a o f how t o t r e a t t h e Kanakas. A g l a r i n g example o f t h i s t o o k p l a c e r e c e n t l y when a number o f w h i t e men f r o m one o f t h e s h i p s i n p o r t c h a l l e n g e d a p a r t y o f Kanakas t o a game o f f o o t b a l l . I t i s t r u e t h a t the question of r a c i a l i n t o l e r a n c e i s a p u r e l y s o c i a l a f f a i r o v e r w h i c h t h e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n had no c o n t r o l b u t A u s t r a l i a must be condemned f o r n o t t a k i n g s t e p s t o p u t an end t o s u c h d i s c r i m i n a t o r y p r a c t i c e s i n the T e r r i t o r y . I t i s t h i s and o t h e r p r a c t i c e s o f t h e A u s t r a l i a n Government w h i c h l e d t o an o u t b u r s t  of righteous  indig-  n a t i o n on t h e p a r t o f Reed: The A u s t r a l i a n s manage t o p a y f o r m a l homage t o h u m a n i t a r i a n i s m and, a t t h e same t i m e , a c h i e v e t h e i r mundane p u r p o s e s by g i v i n g w i t h one hand what t h e y t o o k w i t h the other. Cloaked i n undefined s l o g a n s and s p u r i o u s r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n s , d i s c r i m i n a t o r y p r a c t i c e s a r e as s t r o n g a t p r e s e n t as t h e y have been.? From t h e above a n a l y s i s , i t i s q u i t e o b v i o u s  6 Reed, The M a k i n g o f Modern New G u i n e a , p. 24-8. 7 I b i d . , p. 24-5.  164t h a t A u s t r a l i a had  f a i l e d t o c a r r y out t h e s a c r e d  S e v e r a l f a c t o r s were r e s p o n s i b l e  for this.  Firstly,  A u s t r a l i a ' s a c c e p t a n c e o f the mandate o v e r New g r u d g i n g one. "We  Her  i n t e n t i o n was  G u i n e a was  accepted."  The  Mandate was,  t h e r e f o r e , a c c e p t e d as  r e g a r d e d the mandate as n o t h i n g "The  Wilson's  t h e n the mandate p r i n c i p l e was  compromise and n o t even a c o n v e n i e n t one  annexation.  a  t o annex the T e r r i t o r y .  t r i e d t o o b t a i n d i r e c t c o n t r o l but P r e s i d e n t  F o u r t e e n P o i n t s f o r b a d e ... 8  trust.  at t h a t .  a  Australia  more t h a n a mere c l o a k f o r  average A u s t r a l i a n a c c e p t s the Mandates  as t h e f r u i t s of v i c t o r y , i f n o t q u i t e the s o i l f o r w h i c h 9 A u s t r a l i a n s d i e d on G a l l i p o l i o r t h e f i e l d s o f F r a n c e . " ^ This unwillingness significant.  t o a c c e p t t h e s p i r i t o f the mandate  was  I t i n d i c a t e d f r o m the o u t s e t t h a t she was  not  l i k e l y t o c a r r y out the s a c r e d d u t y i f i t w o u l d i n v o l v e  any  s a c r i f i c e on h e r p a r t .  And  were needed i f the s a c r e d M o r e o v e r , i t was  y e t s a c r i f i c e and s e l f - d e n i a l  o b l i g a t i o n was  t o be  fulfilled.  A u s t r a l i a ' s i n t e n t i o n that  T e r r i t o r y s h o u l d be of economic b e n e f i t t o h e r . the d i s c u s s i o n i n P a r l i a m e n t o n l y one  Throughout  of the Mandate f o r New  o r two members spoke o f the i m p o r t a n c e of  s a c r e d d u t y f r o m the p o i n t of v i e w o f the n a t i v e s . 8 P r i m e M i n i s t e r Hughes i n A u s t r a l i a , H.R. September 10, 1919, p. 12174-.  the  Guinea the A l l the  Deb.,  9 F.W.E. ( p r o b a b l y F. W. E g g l e s t o n ) , " A u s t r a l i a ' s Mandate," The New S t a t e s m a n, v o l . 16 (March 26, 1 9 2 1 ) , p. 724-.  165 o t h e r s , i n c l u d i n g Hughes, t h e Prime M i n i s t e r , d w e l t  glowingly  and g r e e d i l y on t h e economic p o s s i b i l i t i e s w h i c h t h e T e r ritory offered to Australia.  T h i s a t t i t u d e was a s i g n i -  f i c a n t p o i n t e r t o t h e way i n w h i c h t h e mandate was g o i n g to be e x e r c i s e d . R i g h t f r o m t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e mandate  Admini-  s t r a t i o n , A u s t r a l i a adopted t h e p o l i c y o f making t h e T e r r i t o r y pay f o r i t s e l f . to  T h i s d e f i n i t e l y was n o t c o n d u c i v e  the proper discharge of her r e s p o n s i b i l i t y .  developed  No u n d e r -  country can pay f o r i t s e l f without o u t s i d e h e l p .  This p o l i c y , therefore, constituted a deterrent factor to the p r o p e r e x e r c i s e o f h e r mandate. e x p r e s s i o n i n t h e 1921-22 R e p o r t .  The p o l i c y was g i v e n "The revenue f r o m l o c a l  s o u r c e s h a s been so a d j u s t e d t h a t no a i d f r o m t h e Commonw e a l t h Government has been n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e maintenance o f t h e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . " ^ T h i s p o l i c y was s t r i c t l y 1  to.  adhered  A p a r t f r o m t h e sum o f £1,758 spent on hookworm cam-  p a i g n i n 1921 and t h e g r a n t o f  £10,000 made  t o the Ter-  r i t o r y i n 1921-22, made permanent i n 1925-26 and d i s c o n t i n u e d i n 1950,  no o t h e r g r a n t was g i v e n t o t h e T e r r i t o r y .  stands i n c o n t r a s t t o the g r a n t - i n - a i d of annum made t o Papua —  10 A n n u a l 109.  Report  per  an o l d e r and w e l l - e s t a b l i s h e d c o l o n y  and a l s o w i t h t h e a n n u a l s u b s i d y o f  p.  £50,000  This  £52,000 made  t o t h e League o f N a t i o n s ,  t o the  1921-1922,  166 T e r r i t o r y by the German Government f r o m 1905 the sum  o f £86,000 p r o p o s e d as a s u b s i d y  by Germany i n 1914The  t o 1909  t o the T e r r i t o r y  s h o r t l y b e f o r e the o u t b r e a k o f the  consequence of t h i s p o l i c y , as P r o f . H. K.  r i g h t l y p o i n t s o u t , was  and  war.  Bailey  that:  W h i l e the seven s p e c i f i c g u a r a n t e e s under the mandate have been o b s e r v e d , the p o s i t i v e o b l i g a t i o n t o promote t o the utmost the m a t e r i a l and m o r a l w e l l b e i n g of the i n h a b i t a n t s o f the T e r r i t o r y has f a l l e n s h o r t o f f u l f i l l m e n t . Health measures, a g r i c u l t u r a l d e v e l o p m e n t , n a t i v e education, b e t t e r communication, are as a minimum i n g r e d i e n t o f a p o l i c y of w e l l - b e i n g , but l a c k o f money has hampered a l l o f them.12 One was  other important reason f o r A u s t r a l i a ' s f a i l u r e  the l a c k of i n t e r e s t on the p a r t of h e r p e o p l e i n n a t i v e  welfare  and  c o n s e q u e n t l y the absence o f t h a t p u b l i c i n t e r e s t  i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of New a stimulus  to better  G u i n e a w h i c h would have  provided  administration.  The A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the C o l o n y has evoked l i t t l e p u b l i c i n t e r e s t i n A u s t r a l i a . The o n l y i n t e r e s t s t h a t have been t a k e n i n the T e r r i t o r y was on the q u e s t i o n o f the p o s i t i o n o f the w h i t e r e s i d e n t s . . . . 1 3 This i s quite understandable.  Nothing else could  be  11 See H. K. B a i l e y , " H i s t o r y of the New G u i n e a Mandate" i n E g g l e s t o n , The A u s t r a l i a n Mandate f o r New G u i n e a , p. 14. A l s o E. L. P i e s s e " F i n a n c i a l R e l a t i o n s o f the T e r r i t o r y o f New G u i n e a t o the Commonwealth," i n E g g l e s t o n , op. c i t . , p. 44. 12 B a i l e y , op.  13 L o c . c i t .  c i t . , p.  14.  167 e x p e c t e d o f a c o u n t r y so permeated w i t h the d o c t r i n e o f the "White A u s t r a l i a " p o l i c y .  Such i n t e r n a t i o n a l o p i n i o n  as t h a t c r e a t e d by the Permanent Mandates Commission, w h i c h would have p r o v i d e d c h e c k s on c e r t a i n u n d e s i r a b l e p r a c t i c e s and p o l i c i e s o f the A u s t r a l i a n Government i n New were b i t t e r l y r e s e n t e d by h e r p e o p l e .  Guinea,  So bad was  f e e l i n g t h a t L o r d L u g a r d had t o e x p l a i n a t the  this  eighteenth  s e s s i o n o f t h e Commission's m e e t i n g t h a t q u e s t i o n s  were  asked: With a view t o a f f o r d i n g the a c c r e d i t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e an o p p o r t u n i t y of d e n y i n g f a l s e a c c u s a t i o n s o r e x p l a i n i n g the c i r cumstances, and, i f the a c c r e d i t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e was not s u f f i c i e n t l y f a m i l i a r w i t h the f a c t s t o g i v e the n e c e s s a r y e x p l a n a t i o n , 'the q u e s t i o n when r e c o r d e d i n the M i n u t e s a p p e a r e d - t o be m e r e l y an echo of h o s t i l e c r i t i c i s m . 14 A u s t r a l i a ' s f a i l u r e c a n , t h e r e f o r e , be b r i e f l y summed up as t h a t o f a c o u n t r y a c c e p t i n g a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y w h i c h f o r v a r i o u s r e a s o n s she was c h a r g i n g and  i l l - e q u i p p e d and i n c a p a b l e of d i s -  a system w h i c h was  temper and w h i c h r a n c o u n t e r  14 P.M.C. M i n u t e s ,  at t h a t time a l i e n to  t o h e r economic  18th Session  ( 1 9 3 0 ) , p.  her  ambitions.  48  BIBLIOGRAPHY I.  Bibliographies  C o n d l i f f e , J . B. A P a c i f i c Bibliography. Hawaii, 1927.  Honolulu,  Conover, H. P. I s l a n d s of the P a c i f i c - A S e l e c t e d o f R e f e r e n c e s . W a s h i n g t o n , 194-3.  List  G i l l , E. R. New G u i n e a - C a t a l o g u e o f Books R e l a t i n g t o New G u i n e a but w i t h S p e c i a l R e f e r e n c e t o Papua. Liverpool, 1957. L e e s o n , I . A B i b l i o g r a p h y o f B i b l i o g r a p h i e s o f the S o u t h Pacific. London, O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1954-. T a y l o r , R. A P a c i f i c B i b l i o g r a p h y . New Zealand, Avery Press L t d . , 195L II. 1.  Official  Plymouth,  New  Sources  Commonwealth o f A u s t r a l i a R o y a l Commission on New G u i n e a . I n t e r i m and E i n a l R e p o r t s o f the R o y a l Commission on L a t e German New G u i n e a , V i c t o r i a , 1920. These are t h e r e p o r t s ( i n t e r i m and f i n a l ) o f the Commission a p p o i n t e d by the Government o f the Commonwealth o f A u s t r a l i a t o v i s i t the T e r r i t o r y , s u g g e s t an a p p r o p r i a t e f o r m o f Government and examine the p o s s i b i l i t y o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e u n i o n o f the A u s t r a l i a n C o l o n y o f Papua and f o r m e r German New G u i n e a . The m a j o r i t y r e j e c t e d t h e i d e a o f union. As f a r as Government was c o n c e r n e d , i t was recommended t h a t an A d m i n i s t r a t o r be a p p o i n t e d w i t h E x e c u t i v e and L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l s t o a s s i s t him i n h i s t a s k . Home and T e r r i t o r i e s Department. R e p o r t by C o l o n e l John A i n s w o r t h on A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Arrangements and M a t t e r s A f f e c t i n g the I n t e r e s t s o f N a t i v e s i n the T e r r i t o r y o f New G u i n e a , M e l b o u r n e , 1924.  169 Prime M i n i s t e r ' s Department. Report t o the C o u n c i l of of t h e League o f N a t i o n s on the A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f the T e r r i t o r y o f New G u i n e a f r o m September, 1914 t o June 30, 1921 (and a n n u a l l y t h e r e a f t e r ) , M e l b o u r n e , 1914-1926, C a n b e r r a , 1927-1940 (19 Annual R e p o r t s ) . These Annual R e p o r t s a r e v e r y v a l u a b l e and c o n s t i t u t e an e s s e n t i a l s o u r c e o f i n f o r m a t i o n . Though a t t i m e s t h e y t e n d t o be t o o l e g a l i s t i c , on the whole t h e y a f f o r d r e a s o n a b l e m a t e r i a l as a b a s i s f o r t h e w r i t i n g o f t h e h i s t o r y o f New G u i n e a under A u s t r a l i a n r u l e . O f f i c i a l Handbook o f t h e T e r r i t o r y o f New G u i n e a . Canberra, 1937. This i s a very v a l u a b l e source. I t contains a w e a l t h o f i n f o r m a t i o n on e v e r y a s p e c t o f Government p o l i c y i n New G u i n e a . I t provides excellent m a t e r i a l on t h e geography, the n a t i v e p e o p l e s , i n d u s t r i e s and m i s s i o n a r y a c t i v i t i e s i n the Territory. Commonwealth o f A u s t r a l i a .  1917-1940.  2.  Great  P a r l i a m e n t a r y Debates,  Britain  P a r l i a m e n t a r y Papers 1876, L I V [C.1566] New G u i n e a - p a p e r s r e a n n e x a t i o n 1883, X L V I I [C.3617], [3691] New G u i n e a - C o r r e s pondence r e a f f a i r s . These t h r e e p a p e r s a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y u s e f u l . They s e t out t h e c o r r e s p o n d e n c e between t h e v a r i o u s A u s t r a l a s i a n C o l o n i e s and t h e C o l o n i a l O f f i c e , the C o l o n i a l O f f i c e and t h e R o y a l C o l o n i a l I n s t i t u t e , and o t h e r b o d i e s o r i n d i v i d u a l s i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e a n n e x a t i o n o f New G u i n e a . 1883, X L V I I [C.3814] Correspondence r e New New H e b r i d e s and o t h e r P a c i f i c I s l a n d s .  Guinea,  1884, LV [ C . 3 8 6 3 ] , [C.3839] Correspondence Islands.  re P a c i f i c  1884, LV [ C . 3 9 0 5 ] , [C.4126] R e p o r t on the S t a t e o f the P a c i f i c I s l a n d s . 1884-5, L I V [C.4217], [ 0 . 4 2 7 3 ] , [C.4584] C o r r e s pondence r e New Guinea and o t h e r P a c i f i c I s l a n d s .  170 1884-5, L I V [C.4441] New Guinea - Arrangement between G r e a t B r i t a i n and Germany r e sphere o f influence. 1884-5, L I V [C.4290] Memo o f c o n v e r s a t i o n a t B e r l i n on A f r i c a , New Guinea and Western P a c i f i c . 3•  League o f N a t i o n s League o f N a t i o n s , Permanent Mandates Commission, M i n u t e s , Geneva, 1921-39 [Records o f the E x a m i n a t i o n of t h e A n n u a l R e p o r t s on New Guinea are t o be f o u n d i n t h e M i n u t e s o f S e s s i o n s 2-6 ( 1 9 2 2 - 2 5 ) ; 8-9 ( 1 9 2 6 ) ; 13 ( 1 9 2 8 ) ; 15 ( 1 9 2 9 ) ; 18 ( 1 9 3 0 ) ; 20 ( 1 9 3 D ; 22 ( 1 9 3 2 ) ; 23 ( 1 9 3 3 ) ; and t h e r e a f t e r are i n t h e M i n u t e s o f a l t e r n a t e s e s s i o n s t i l l 1939. I n v a l u a b l e s o u r c e m a t e r i a l f o r any s c h o l a r w o r k i n g on t h e mandates. The M i n u t e s are i m p o r t a n t supplements t o the A n n u a l R e p o r t s f o r t h e y c o n t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n w h i c h the mandatory powers were u n w i l l i n g to r e c o r d i n those r e p o r t s . III.  1.  Unofficial  Sources  Documents A l l e n , P. S. Handbook o f t h e P a c i f i c I s l a n d s . Sydney, M c C a r r o n , S t e w a r t and Company L t d . , 1919. T h i s i s w r i t t e n f o r t r a v e l l e r s , businessmen and o t h e r s who might be i n t e r e s t e d i n the P a c i f i c I s l a n d s . P r o v i d e s some u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n . E g g l e s t o n , W. P. ( e d . ) . The A u s t r a l i a n Mandate f o r New Guinea - R e c o r d o f a R o u n d t a b l e D i s c u s s i o n . M e l b o u r n e , M a c M i l l a n & Co. L t d . , i n A s s o c i a t i o n w i t h Melbourne U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 2 8 . These d i s c u s s i o n s were h e l d under the a u s p i c e s of t h e S t a t e o f V i c t o r i a B r a n c h o f the League o f N a t i o n s U n i o n . They c o m p r i s e t h e v i e w s o f many A u s t r a l i a n e x p e r t s on d i f f e r e n t a s p e c t s o f t h e p o l i c y o f t h e Commonwealth Government i n New G u i n e a . The e d i t o r , W. P. E g g l e s t o n was a member o f t h e F e d e r a l P a r l i a m e n t o f A u s t r a l i a and l a t e r became the M i n i s t e r f o r E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s . Some o f t h e v i e w s , p a r t i c u l a r l y on l a b o u r and f i n a n c i a l r e l a t i o n s , were v e r y c r i t i c a l . A v a l u a b l e source material. Robson, R. W. ( e d . ) . The P a c i f i c I s l a n d s Handbook. New Y o r k , The M a c M i l l a n Company, 1945.  171 Robson, R. W. ( e d . ) . The P a c i f i c I s l a n d s Yearbook. Suva, F i j i , P a c i f i c P u b l i c a t i o n s ( F i j i ) L t d . , 1944. . The P a c i f i c I s l a n d s Yearbook, Sydney, P a c i f i c P u b l i c a t i o n s PTY L t d . , 1942.  1942.  . Handbook o f Papua and New G u i n e a . Sydney, P a c i f i c P u b l i c a t i o n s PTY L t d . , 1954. Institute  of P a c i f i c  Relations  C a l d w e l l , V. The I n t e r n a t i o n a l Labour O r g a n i z a t i o n and i t s C o n t a c t s w i t h the C o u n t r i e s and P r o b l e m s of the P a c i f i c " ! ( D a t a P a p e r , Second C o n f e r e n c e of t h e I n s t i t u t e o f P a c i f i c R e l a t i o n s , H o n o l u l u , 1927). C h i c a g o , U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o P r e s s , 1928. M e r e l y o u t l i n e s the r e l a t i o n s o f the I.L.O. t o the c o u n t r i e s and problems i n t h e P a c i f i c . C o n d l i f f e , J . B. "Problems of t h e P a c i f i c , 1 9 2 7 . " P r o c e e d i n g s of the Second C o n f e r e n c e o f t h e I n s t i t u t e o f P a c i f i c R e l a t i o n s , H o n o l u l u , 1927, C h i c a g o , U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o P r e s s , 1928. G r e g o r y , H. E. "The Geography o f t h e P a c i f i c . " P r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e Second C o n f e r e n c e o f the I n s t i t u t e o f P a c i f i c R e l a t i o n s , H o n o l u l u , 1927, U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o P r e s s , 1928. R o b e r t s , S. H. "The P a c i f i c Mandates - A Summary o f the R o u n d t a b l e D i s c u s s i o n s i n P r o b l e m s o f t h e P a c i f i c . " P r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e Second C o n f e r e n c e of the I n s t i t u t e o f P a c i f i c R e l a t i o n s , H o n o l u l u , 1927, C h i c a g o , 1928. "Dependencies, N a t i v e P e o p l e s and C o l o n i a l Development." The S t u d y o f I n t e r n a t i o n a l A f f a i r s i n t h e P a c i f i c A r e a , New Y o r k , I n s t i t u t e o f P a c i f i c R e l a t i o n s , 1936. "Dependencies and N a t i v e P e o p l e s o f t h e P a c i f i c . " I n s t i t u t e of P a c i f i c R e l a t i o n s , p r o o f e d i t i o n , H o n o l u l u , 1931. ( D a t a P a p e r s of the F o u r t h Conference of the I n s t i t u t e of P a c i f i c R e l a t i o n s i n Hangchow and S h a n g h a i , 1 9 3 1 ) . 2.  Contemporary  Works  C h a l m e r s , J . and G i l l , W. W. Work and A d v e n t u r e i n New G u i n e a , 1877-1885. London, W i l l i a m Clowes and Sons L t d . , 1885. An account o f t h e e x p e r i e n c e s o f two m i s s i o n a r i e s who s p e n t many y e a r s i n t h e T e r r i t o r y .  172 C h a l m e r s , J . P i o n e e r i n g i n New G u i n e a . The R e l i g i o u s T r a c t S o c i e t y , 1887. T h i s c o n t a i n s s k e t c h e s o f t r a v e l s and l a b o u r s of t h e a u t h o r (Rev. James C h a l m e r s ) i n New G u i n e a between t h e y e a r s 1878 and 1886. D ' A l b e r t i s , L. M. New G u i n e a : What I D i d and What I Saw. 2 v o l s . London, Simpson, Low, M a r t s o n , S c a r l e and R i v i n g t o n , 1888. A book o f t r a v e l d e a l i n g w i t h t h e e x p l o r a t i o n of some p a r t s o f New G u i n e a . Penny, A. Ten Y e a r s i n M e l a n e s i a . London, W e l l s G a r d i n e r , B a r t o n & Co., 1888. T h i s i s an a c c o u n t o f t h e a u t h o r ' s e x p e r i e n c e s i n Melanesia. P r a t t , A. E. Two Y e a r s Among New G u i n e a London, S e e l e y & Co. L t d . , 1906. IV. 1.  Cannibals.  S e c o n d a r y Works  Books B a k e r , R. S. Woodrow W i l s o n and t h e W o r l d S e t t l e m e n t . 3 v o l s . New Y o r k , Doubleday and Co., 1923. A r e c o r d o f t h e P a r i s Peace C o n f e r e n c e , 1919. The book d e a l s e x h a u s t i v e l y w i t h A m e r i c a n p o l i c i e s a t t h e Peace C o n f e r e n c e and W i l s o n ' s s t r u g g l e s t o make a l a s t i n g peace b a s e d on m o r a l i t y and n o t on expediency. B e a g l e h o l e , J . C. The E x p l o r a t i o n o f t h e P a c i f i c . London, A. & C C . B l a c k L t d . , 1934. B e l s h a w , C. S. Changing M e l a n e s i a . Melbourne, Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1954. A study of Melanesian S o c i e t y undergoing s o c i a l and economic changes under t h e impact o f E u r o p e a n contact. B o d e l s e n , C. A. S t u d i e s i n M i d - V i c t o r i a n I m p e r i a l i s m . Copenhagen, 1924. Brookes, J . I . I n t e r n a t i o n a l R i v a l r y i n the P a c i f i c Islands. Berkeley, U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a Press, 1941. D e a l s w i t h a c t i v i t i e s o f t r a d e r s , whalemen and m i s s i o n a r i e s and t h e r i v a l r y o f t h e v a r i o u s E u r o p e a n Powers i n t h e P a c i f i c f r o m 1800-1875.  173  B e n i a n s , E. A., B u t l e r , J . and C a r r i n g t o n , C. E. Cambridge H i s t o r y o f B r i t i s h E m p i r e , v o l . I l l , Cambridge, Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 5 9 . Chowdhuri, R. N. I n t e r n a t i o n a l Mandates and T r u s t e e s h i p Systems. Hague, M a r t i n N y h o f f , 1 9 5 5 . A c o m p a r a t i v e s t u d y o f t h e mandates system o f the League o f N a t i o n s and t h e T r u s t e e s h i p System o f t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s . d u n e , F. Somewhere i n New G u i n e a . New Y o r k , P h i l o s o p h i c a l L i b r a r y , 1952. T h i s book d e a l s w i t h t h e d i s c o v e r y o f g o l d i n the 1 9 2 0 s and t h e development o f t h e i n d u s t r y . U s e f u l i n d i s c u s s i n g t h e economic a c t i v i t i e s i n the T e r r i t o r y . C r a w f o r d , R. M. ( e d . ) . O u r s e l v e s and t h e P a c i f i c . M e l b o u r n e , Melbourne U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 194-3. Cumberland, K. B. Southwest P a c i f i c . Christchurch, New Z e a l a n d , Whitcombe and Tombs L t d . , 1954-. D e c k e r , J . A. The L a b o u r P r o b l e m s i n t h e P a c i f i c Mandates. London, O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 194-0. A s c h o l a r l y and b r i l l i a n t a n a l y s i s o f t h e l a b o u r c o n d i t i o n s i n t h e v a r i o u s P a c i f i c mandates by an A m e r i c a n s c h o l a r . H i s c o n c l u s i o n as f a r as New G u i n e a i s c o n c e r n e d i s t h a t l a b o u r c o n d i t i o n s were d e p l o r a b l e . An i n v a l u a b l e s t u d y f o r any s t u d e n t o f l a b o u r c o n d i t i o n s i n t h e P a c i f i c mandates. Of c o n s i d e r a b l e use i n t h e w r i t i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s . E g e r t o n , H. E. A S h o r t H i s t o r y o f B r i t i s h C o l o n i a l P o l i c y , 1606-1909. 9 t h E d i t i o n , London, Methuen and Co. L t d . , 1 9 3 2 . F l e t c h e r , C. B. The P r o b l e m s o f t h e P a c i f i c . London, W i l l i a m Heinemann, 1919* W r i t t e n by a j o u r n a l i s t . D e a l s w i t h t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e r i v a l r y o f t h e E u r o p e a n Powers i n t h e P a c i f i c . Fox,  F. P r o b l e m s o f t h e P a c i f i c . London, W i l l i a m s & Norgate, 1912. A g e n e r a l work on t h e P a c i f i c . The two c h a p t e r s r e l e v a n t t o t h i s s t u d y a r e c h a p t e r s 9 and 1 7 , d e a l i n g w i t h t h e n a t i v e r a c e s and w i t h s t r a t e g i c a l considerations.  G a r d i n e r , L. P a c i f i c P e o p l e s . London, Longmans, Green & Co., 1 9 5 7 . A g e n e r a l work on t h e P a c i f i c P e o p l e s .  174 Gordon, D. C. The A u s t r a l i a n F r o n t i e r i n New G u i n e a . New Y o r k , C o l u m h i a U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1951. A good a n a l y s i s of A u s t r a l i a n i n t e r e s t s i n the P a c i f i c I s l a n d s w i t h the demands f o r a n n e x a t i o n . D e a l s w i t h the a t t i t u d e o f t h e C o l o n i a l O f f i c e t o A u s t r a l i a n p l e a s f o r a n n e x a t i o n and the r e a c t i o n s o f the C o l o n i e s t o German a n n e x a t i o n of New G u i n e a i n 1884. Grimshaw, H. A. The Mandates System and the P r o b l e m s o f N a t i v e L a b o u r . Geneva I n s t i t u t e o f P a c i f i c R e l a t i o n s , London, 1929« T h i s i s a work on the l a b o u r p o l i c i e s of the v a r i o u s mandatory powers. W r i t t e n by an o f f i c i a l of the I n t e r n a t i o n a l L a b o u r O r g a n i z a t i o n , i t makes no a t t e m p t t o p a s s judgement on the p o l i c i e s o f the v a r i o u s m a n d a t o r i e s . H a l l , H. D. Mandates, Dependencies and T r u s t e e s h i p s . London, S t e v e n s and Sons L t d . , 1948. The C h a p t e r on mandates i s u s e f u l p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r t h o s e i n t e r e s t e d i n the q u e s t i o n of where the l e g a l s o v e r e i g n t y o f t h e mandated t e r r i t o r i e s resides. H a r r i s , H. L. A u s t r a l i a ' s N a t i o n a l I n t e r e s t s and N a t i o n a l P o l i c y . M e l b o u r n e , Melbourne U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1958. Hasluck,  P. A u s t r a l i a n P o l i c y i n Papua and New G u i n e a . Hasluck i s M i n i s t e r f o r T e r r i t o r i e s i n the Australian Federal Parliament. The a d d r e s s was d e l i v e r e d a t the U n i v e r s i t y of Sydney on O c t o b e r 4 , 1956. I t o u t l i n e s the p o l i c i e s t h a t were b e i n g p u r s u e d by A u s t r a l i a a f t e r the Second W o r l d War.  H o g b i n , H. I . and Wedgwood, C. Development and W e l f a r e i n the Western P a c i f i c . A u s t r a l i a n I n s t i t u t e of International Affairs, 1943. W r i t t e n by two famous A u s t r a l i a n a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s . Deals w i t h p o l i c i e s i n Western P a c i f i c p a r t i c u l a r l y i n New G u i n e a . L a b o u r and l a n d p o l i c i e s were g i v e n s p e c i a l emphasis and the c o n c l u s i o n on l a b o u r c o n d i t i o n s i n New G u i n e a i s t h a t t h e y were v e r y p o o r . H o g b i n , H. I . T r a n s f o r m a t i o n Scene: The Changing C u l t u r e o f a New G u i n e a V i l l a g e . London, R o u t l e d g e and Kegan P a u l L t d . , 1951* T h i s i s a book on a n t h r o p o l o g y but p r o v i d e s some h i s t o r i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n on n a t i v e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and the p e o p l e s . The l a s t c h a p t e r on r a c e r e l a t i o n s is particularly useful.  175  I d r i e s s , I . L. G o l d d u s t and Ashes. R o b e r t s o n , 1934-.  Sydney, Angus &  K e e s i n g , F. M. The S o u t h Seas i n t h e Modern W o r l d . New Y o r k , The John Day Company, 194-1. New  . N a t i v e P e o p l e s o f the P a c i f i c Y o r k , The M a c M i l l a n Company, 1956.  World.  . Dependencies and N a t i v e P e o p l e s o f the P a c i f i c . I n s t i t u t e - of P a c i f i c R e l a t i o n s , Honolulu, 1 9 3 1 • K r i e g e r , H. W. I s l a n d P e o p l e s o f t h e Western P a c i f i c . Washington, The S m i t h s o n i a n I n s t i t u t i o n , 194-3. T h i s i s an a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l s u r v e y o f t h e - n a t i v e p e o p l e s o f the Western P a c i f i c . L a n g e r , W. L. European A l l i a n c e s and A l i g n m e n t 1871-1890. New Y o r k , A l f r e d A. K n o p f , 1 9 3 1 . L a r b o r d e , E. D. ( e d . ) . A u s t r a l i a , New Z e a l a n d and t h e P a c i f i c . M e l b o u r n e , W i l l i a m Heinemann L t d . , 1 9 5 2 . Legge, J . D. Australian Colonial Policy. Sydney, Angus and R o b e r t s o n , 1 9 5 6 . A good a n a l y s i s o f A u s t r a l i a n C o l o n i a l P o l i c y . The f i r s t c h a p t e r , v a l u a b l e t o t h i s s t u d y , d e a l s w i t h A u s t r a l i a n i n t e r e s t s i n New G u i n e a , the demands f o r a n n e x a t i o n and C o l o n i a l O f f i c e r e a c t i o n t o t h e s e demands. L e w i s , A. B.  The E t h n o l o g y o f M e l a n e s i a .  Luke, H. B r i t a i n and the S o u t h Seas. Longmans, Green & Co., 1945.  Chicago,  1932.  London,  M a c k e n z i e , S. S. The A u s t r a l i a n s a t R a b a u l : The C a p t u r e and A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f the German P o s s e s s i o n s i n t h e Southern P a c i f i c . O f f i c i a l H i s t o r y of A u s t r a l i a i n t h e War o f 1914-1918, v o l . X. Sydney, 1 9 2 7 . M a i r , L. P. A u s t r a l i a i n New G u i n e a . London, C h r i s t o p h e r s , 1948. T h i s book i s w r i t t e n by a B r i t i s h e x p e r t on C o l o n i a l p o l i c y . Dr. M a i r was i n v i t e d by t h e A u s t r a l i a n F e d e r a l Government t o g i v e a s e r i e s o f l e c t u r e c o u r s e s on C o l o n i a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n a t t h e Army S c h o o l o f C i v i l A f f a i r s i n C a n b e r r a . During t h i s p e r i o d he was l e d t o s t u d y t h e development o f A u s t r a l i a n A d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n Papua and New G u i n e a . The book i s the outcome o f t h e s t u d y . I t i s a good  176 a n a l y s i s o f A u s t r a l i a n p o l i c i e s i n t h e two T e r r i t o r i e s . An i n v a l u a b l e book f o r a r e s e a r c h e r on New G u i n e a . D r . M a i r d i d n o t t h i n k t o o much of t h e way i n w h i c h A u s t r a l i a e x e r c i s e d h e r mandate i n New G u i n e a . Mander, L. A. Some Dependent P e o p l e s o f t h e S o u t h P a c i f i c . New Y o r k , M a c M i l l a n Company, 1954. M a r t i n , K. P. M i s s i o n a r i e s and A n n e x a t i o n s i n t h e P a c i f i c . London, O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1924. D e a l s w i t h t h e r o l e o f t h e m i s s i o n a r i e s as regards annexations in"the P a c i f i c Islands. Mead, M. From t h e S o u t h Seas. New Y o r k , W i l l i a m Morrow & Company, 1939. A s o c i o l o g i c a l s t u d y . The c h a p t e r e n t i t l e d "Growing up i n New G u i n e a " i s u s e f u l t o t h i s s t u d y . . T r a n s f o r m a t i o n - Manus 1928-1953. V i c t o r G o l l a n c z L t d . , 1956. M o r r e l l , W. P. B r i t a i n i n t h e P a c i f i c Oxford, Clarendon Press, I960.  London,  Islands.  O l i v e r , D. L. The P a c i f i c I s l a n d s . Cambridge, M a s s a c h u s e t t s , H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1951. P e e d , S. W. The Making o f Modern New G u i n e a . P h i l a d e l p h i a , The A m e r i c a n P h i l o s o p h i c a l S o c i e t y , 1943. A b r i l l i a n t s t u d y o f New G u i n e a S o c i e t y w i t h emphasis on c u l t u r e c o n t a c t . T h i s book has p r o v e d i n v a l u a b l e i n t h e c o u r s e o f t h i s s t u d y . The c h a p t e r on A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , t h o u g h s h o r t , i s good w h i l e t h e one on r a c e r e l a t i o n s i s e x c e l l e n t . R o b e r t s , S. H. P o p u l a t i o n P r o b l e m s o f t h e P a c i f i c . London, George R o u t l e d g e & Sons L t d . , 1927. Rowley, C. D. The A u s t r a l i a n s i n German New G u i n e a 1 9 1 4 - 1 9 2 1 . M e l b o u r n e , Melbourne U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1958. Deals w i t h the capture of the T e r r i t o r y by the A u s t r a l i a n M i l i t a r y Force d u r i n g the F i r s t World War, t h e campaign i n A u s t r a l i a f o r t h e a n n e x a t i o n o f t h e T e r r i t o r y and t h e M i l i t a r y A d m i n i s t r a t i o n w h i c h l a s t e d t i l l 1921. An e x c e l l e n t s t u d y . R i v e r s , W. H. R. ( e d . ) . E s s a y s on t h e D e p o p u l a t i o n o f Melanesia. Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1922.  177 S c h o l e f i e l d , G. H. The P a c i f i c , i t s P a s t and F u t u r e and t h e P o l i c i e s o f t h e Great Powers From t h e 18th Century. London, John M u r r a y , 1920. Shepherd, J . A u s t r a l i a ' s I n t e r e s t and P o l i c i e s i n t h e Far East. IPR I n q u i r y S e r i e s , I n t e r n a t i o n a l S e c r e t a r i a t o f t h e I n s t i t u t e o f P a c i f i c R e l a t i o n s , 1939. The s t u d y i s a p a r t o f an i n q u i r y "by t h e IPR i n t o the problems a r i s i n g from the c o n f l i c t i n the F a r E a s t . The f i r s t c h a p t e r i s p a r t i c u l a r l y valuable t o t h i s study. I t deals with SinoA u s t r a l i a n and J a p a n e s e - A u s t r a l i a n r e l a t i o n s f r o m the 1 9 t h C e n t u r y ; t h e P a c i f i c mandates and t h e problem of c o l l e c t i v e s e c u r i t y i n the F a r E a s t . Simpson, C. Adam w i t h A r r o w s . R o b e r t s o n , 1953* .  I s l a n d s o f Men.  Sydney, Angus and Sydney, Angus and R o b e r t s o n ,  1955. S p e r r y , A. P a c i f i c I s l a n d s S p e a k i n g . M a c M i l l a n Company, 1955.  New Y o r k , The  S t a n n e r , ¥. E. H. The S o u t h Seas i n T r a n s i t i o n . Sydney, A u s t r a l a s i a n P u b l i s h i n g Company, 1953* S t i r l i n g , M. ¥. The N a t i v e P e o p l e s o f New G u i n e a . The S m i t h s o n i a n I n s t i t u t i o n , 194-3. T y l e r , J . E. The S t r u g g l e f o r I m p e r i a l U n i t y , 1868-1895. London, Longmans, Green & Co., 1938. U p t h e g r o v e , C. L. 'Empire by Mandates. New Y o r k , Bookman A s s o c i a t e s , 1954-. A good book on t h e r e l a t i o n s o f t h e B r i t i s h Empire t o t h e Permanent Mandates Commission. The f i r s t chapter r e l e v a n t t o t h i s study deals w i t h the o r i g i n o f t h e mandates s y s t e m , t h e Permanent Mand a t e s Commissions, i t s c o m p o s i t i o n , f u n c t i o n s , powers and i t s w o r k i n g s . • W h i t e , F. Mandates. London, J o n a t h a n Cape L t d . , 1926. A b r i e f work on t h e mandate system b u t n e v e r t h e l e s s useful. Whyte, W. F. W i l l i a m M o r r i s Hughes - H i s L i f e and Times. Sydney, Angus and R o b e r t s o n , 1957• W i l k e s , G. L. and M c B r i d e , P. T. ( e d . ) . New G u i n e a and A u s t r a l i a . P a p e r s r e a d a t t h e 24-th Summer S c h o o l of the A u s t r a l i a n I n s t i t u t e o f P o l i t i c a l Science h e l d a t C a n b e r r a , 1958, Sydney, Angus and R o b e r t s o n , 1958. A work o f many e x p e r t s i n c l u d i n g P. H a s l u c k  178 who i s M i n i s t e r f o r T e r r i t o r i e s i n t h e A u s t r a l i a n Federal Parliament. W i l l i a m , B. W. The Ways o f t h e S o u t h Sea Savage. London, S e e l e y S e r v i c e & Co. L t d . , 1914. 2.  P e r i o d i c a l s , J o u r n a l s , and Newspaper A r t i c l e s A r c h b o l d , E. "Unknown New G u i n e a , " N a t i o n a l G e o g r a p h i c M a g a z i n e , v o l . LXXIX (March 1 9 4 1 ) , pp. 315-318. B a t e s o n , G. " S o c i a l S t r u c t u r e o f t h e L a t m u l P e o p l e o f t h e S e p i k R i v e r , " O c e a n i a , v o l . I I (March 1 9 3 2 ) , pp. 245-289; pp. 4 0 1 - 4 5 3 . B e l l , F. L. S. " E e p o r t o f F i e l d w o r k i n Tanga," O c e a n i a , v o l . I V (March 1934), pp. 2 9 0 - 3 0 9 . . "Avoidance S i t u a t i o n i n Tanga," O c e a n i a , v o l . V I (December 1 9 3 5 ) , pp. 175-198; pp. 3 0 6 - 3 2 2 . . "The P l a c e o f Food i n t h e S o c i a l L i f e o f t h e Tanga," O c e a n i a , v o l . X V I I (December 1 9 4 6 ) , pp. 139-172; pp. 310-326. . "Shame - A S t u d y o f S o c i a l C o n f o r m i t y i n a New Guinea V i l l a g e , " O c e a n i a , v o l . X V I I (June 1 9 4 7 ) , pp. 2 7 4 - 2 8 9 . "  . "Warfare Among t h e Tanga," O c e a n i a , v o l . V (March 1 9 3 5 ) , pp. 2 5 3 - 2 7 9 .  Blackwood, B. " E e p o r t on F i e l d w o r k i n Buka and B o u g a i n v i l l e , " O c e a n i a , v o l . I I (December 1 9 3 1 ) , pp. 1 9 8 - 2 1 9 . . " L i f e on t h e Upper Watut, New G u i n e a , " G e o g r a p h i c a l J o u r n a l , v o l . XCIV ( J u l y 1 9 3 9 ) , pp. 11-28. B l a k e s l e e , G. H. "The Mandates o f t h e P a c i f i c , " F o r e i g n A f f a i r s , v o l . I (September 1 9 2 2 ) , pp. 9 8 - 1 1 5 . Brown, G. "Notes on t h e Duke o f Y o r k Group, New B r i t a i n and New I r e l a n d , " J o u r n a l o f t h e E o y a l G e o g r a p h i c a l S o c i e t y , v o l . X L V I I ( 1 8 7 7 ) , pp. 1 3 7 - 1 5 0 . B u e l l , E. L., "The Mandates System A f t e r Ten Y e a r s , " C u r r e n t H i s t o r y , v o l . X X I (December 1 9 2 9 ) , pp. 5 4 5 - 5 5 0 .  179 C a m p b e l l , S. "The C o u n t r y Between t h e H e a d q u a r t e r s of t h e F l y and t h e S e p i k R i v e r s i n New G u i n e a , " G e o g r a p h i c a l J o u r n a l , v o l . X C I I ( 1 9 3 8 ) , pp. 232-258. C h i n n e r y , E. W. P. "The C o n s e r v a t i o n o f N a t i v e T r i b e s i n New Guinea," G e o g r a p h i c a l J o u r n a l , v o l . LXXVI (December 1 9 3 0 ) , pp. 5 0 9 - 5 1 2 . . "Census and P o p u l a t i o n , " O c e a n i a , v o l . I l l (December 1 9 3 2 ) , pp. 2 1 4 - 2 1 7 . F. W. E. ( p r o b a b l y F. W. E g g l e s t o n ) . " A u s t r a l i a ' s Mandate," The New S t a t e s m a n , v o l . XVI (March 26, 1 9 2 1 ) , pp. 7 2 4 - 7 2 6 . E l k i n , P. A. " N a t i v e E d u c a t i o n i n New G u i n e a - A Review of W. C. Groves' " N a t i v e E d u c a t i o n and C u l t u r e C o n t a c t i n New G u i n e a , " O c e a n i a , v o l . V I I (March 1 9 3 7 ) , PP. 3 7 8 - 3 8 4 . . " E d u c a t i o n o f N a t i v e Races i n P a c i f i c C o u n t r i e s , " O c e a n i a , v o l . V I I (December 1 9 3 6 ) , pp. 145-168. . " A n t h r o p o l o g y and the P e o p l e o f t h e South-west P a c i f i c , " O c e a n i a , v o l . XIV (September 194-3), PP. 1-19. 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V I (December 1 9 3 4 ) , pp. 224-246; pp. 3 4 6 - 3 6 3 .  180 G r o v e s , W. C. "The N a t i v e s o f S i o I s l a n d , S o u t h e a s t e r n New G u i n e a : a Study i n C u l t u r e Contact," O c e a n i a , v o l . V ( 1 9 3 5 ) , p p . 325-361. . "Report on F i e l d work i n New I r e l a n d , " O c e a n i a , v o l . I l l (March 1 9 3 3 ) , pp. 3 2 5 - 3 6 1 . "Report on F i e l d work i n t h e T e r r i t o r y o f New G u i n e a From May, 1933 t o A u g u s t , 1 9 3 4 , " O c e a n i a , v o l . V (December 1 9 3 4 ) , pp. 2 1 8 - 2 2 3 . . " D i v a z u k m i t - A New I r e l a n d Ceremony," O c e a n i a , v o l . I l l (March 1 9 3 3 ) , pp. 2 9 7 - 3 1 1 . . " F i s h i n g R i t e s a t Tabar," v o l . I V (June 1 9 3 4 ) , pp. 4 3 2 - 4 5 7 .  Oceania,  . " S e c r e t B e l i e f s and P r a c t i c e s i n New I r e l a n d , " O c e a n i a , v o l . V I I (December 1 9 3 6 ) , pp. 220-245. H a l l , E. 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