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A survey of the women's division, Oakalla Prison Farm, B.C., 1958 : the beginnings of a treatment program Butterfield, Jenifer Grace (Munday) 1958

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A SURVEY OF THE WOMEN'S DIVISION. OAKALLA. PRISON FARM, B.C., 1958 The Beginnings of a Treatment Program  by JENIFER GRACE (MONDAY)  Butterf ic\d  Thesis Submitted i n P a r t i a l Fulfilment of the Requirements f o r the Degree of MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK i n the School of S o c i a l Work  Accepted as conforming t o the standard required f o r the degree o f Master' of .Social Work  School of S o c i a l Work  1953 The University of B r i t i s h Columbia  (iii) ABSTRA: " There has been considerable d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n among prison authorities and other interested persons concerning the work and recreation programs of prisons i n that they do not r e s u l t i n the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n of the delinquents incarcerated, but rather, that approximately 70 per cent return to prison. A c o r r e c t i o n a l prison program must s a t i s f y the needs of both society and the i n d i v i d u a l s concerned. This thesis undertakes a review of the t o t a l program at the Women's D i v i s i o n , Oakalla Prison Farm, B.C., to assess how f a r progress has been made i n (a) providing an o v e r a l l atmosphere of treatment 'while, at the same time, (b) meeting the custodial requirements of a p r o v i n c i a l gaol. The method followed includes a detailed study of (a) the f a c i l i t i e s and s t a f f , (b) the inmate population, and (c) the routines of work and recreation. Their r e l a t i o n to the current administrative philosophy i s h i s t o r i c a l l y and empirically assessed. Some case studies have been examined i n order to demonstrate what e f f e c t , i f any, the program has had on i n d i v i d u a l women. Although there have been studies and experiments of programs i n c o r r e c t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s , l i t t l e attention has been paid to the peculiar needs of women i n prison. The problem i s to set up a program which at i t s simplest l e v e l w i l l help the women to take r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for t h e i r own l i v e s , to develop emotionally and s o c i a l l y and to provide them with education and s k i l l s that w i l l enable them to take an acceptable place i n the community. It i s the conclusion of t h i s study that,at the Women's D i v i s i o n , excellent use has been made of the e x i s t i n g f a c i l i t i e s i n the planning of a f u l l program. The majority of the s t a f f are i n t e r ested i n t h e i r work and with adequate leadership could function under a treatment scheme. What seems to be lacking, however, i s a conscious structuring of the program and use of s t a f f i n accordance with accepted p r i n c i p l e s of treatment. There i s a need f o r communication among administration and s t a f f and inmates of the purposes and goals of i n s t i t u t i o n a l procedures.  (i) TABLE OF CONTENTS Page Chapter I.  The Problems and Treatment o f Women i n Gaol.  D i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with current programs. H i s t o r i c a l development of women's gaols. C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the female delinquent. The treatment of female offenders; some essentials of a treatment program.- The purpose of the study Chapter I I .  A Women's Gaol i n Operation: Oakalla.  The structure and f a c i l i t i e s of the Women's Building. The s t a f f ; t h e i r backgrounds and functions. The routines of program; the morning work program; the afternoon program Chapter I I I .  33  The Individual and the Program.  The.beginnings of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . Case studies; an unmanageable teenager; an Indian r e c i d i v i s t ; a f i r s t offender; an habitual drinker; an old-time drug-addict Chapter V.  21.  The Inmate Population of the Women's D i v i s i o n .  A description of the inmate population according t o face sheet information: sentence; previous convictions; age; education; r e l i g i o n ; occupation; marital status. Some problems frequently found: the Indian problem; the habitual drinker; drug addiction; homosexuality Chapter IV.  1.  50  Continuing Needs.  A c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system. The need, f o r s t a f f organization. Development of program. The future development of the Women' s D i v i s i o n  83  Appendix: a.  Bibliography  97  TABLES AND CHARTS IN THE TEXT (a) Tables Table 1.  Table 2.  D i s t r i b u t i o n of Charges Among the Inmate Population of the Women's D i v i s i o n , Oakalla Prison Farm, on January 1, 1956 and July 1, 1956  35  The D i s t r i b u t i o n of Length of Sentence Among the Inmate Population of the Women's D i v i s i o n , Oakalla Prison Farm, on January 1, 1956 and July 1, 1956  37  (ii) Page Table 3.  Incidence of Previous Conviction Among Inmate Population of the Women's D i v i s i o n , Oakalla Prison Farm, on January 1, 1956 and July 1, 1956  39  Table 4. Age D i s t r i b u t i o n of the Inmate Population of the Women's D i v i s i o n , Oakalla Prison Farm, on January 1, 1956 and July 1, 1956  40  Table 5. Education Level of Inmate Population of the Women's D i v i s i o n , Oakalla Prison Farm, on January 1, 1956. and July 1, 1956  41  Table 6.  Table 7.  Table 8.  D i s t r i b u t i o n According t o Religious A f f i l i a t i o n Among the Inmate Population of the Women's D i v i s i o n , Oakalla Prison Farm, on January 1, 1956 and July 1,  1956  41  D i s t r i b u t i o n According t o Occupation o f the Inmate Population of the Women's D i v i s i o n , Oakalla Prison Farm,on January 1, 1956 and July 1, 1956  42  Recorded D i s t r i b u t i o n According t o M a r i t a l Status of the Inmate Population of the Women's D i v i s i o n , Oakalla Prison Farm, on January 1, 1956 and July 1,  1956  .. (b)  F i g . 1.  F i g . 2.  43  Charts  Diagram of the Buildings (Main Floor) of the Women's D i v i s i o n , Oakalla Prison Farm....  22  Diagram of the S t a f f Organization of the Women's D i v i s i o n , Oakalla Prison Farm  26  (iv)  A SURVEY OF THE WOMEN'S DIVISION, OAKALIA PRISON FARM, B.C., 1958  CHAPTER I THE PROBLEMS AMD TREATMENT OF WOMEN IN GAOL During the past few decades we have seen a gradual abandonment of the b e l i e f that s t r i c t punishment o r incarceration i n a prison i s s u f f i cient t o reform a delinquent o r protect the welfare o f s o c i e t y .  There has  been an increasing awareness among prison administrators o f the need for s p e c i f i c r e h a b i l i t a t i v e measures within the prison program.  There i s d i s s a t -  i s f a c t i o n with the present f a c i l i t i e s and programs o f the majority o f prisons, i n that they meet the needs o f neither the offender nor society.  Above a l l ,  people have been concerned because prisons, f a r from being r e h a b i l i t a t i o n centres, have, rather, gained the reputation o f being 'schoolhouses o f crime . 1  Although there have been studies o f and experiments with programs i n correctional i n s t i t u t i o n s , l i t t l e attention has been paid to the p e c u l i a r needs o f women i n p r i s o n .  Despite the fact that i t i s almost impossible t o  prove, i t i s generally recognized that only a small proportion of women who commit crimes are sentenced t o p r i s o n .  Most o f those sentenced have a long  h i s t o r y of undetected crime, p o l i c e warnings, and probation.  The women  a c t u a l l y found i n prisons are therefore among the most confirmed delinquents, and are, generally speaking, emotionally immature, unable t o take respons i b i l i t y f o r t h e i r own behaviour, and often lacking i n occupational and household s k i l l s . The problem i s t o set up a program which a t i t s simplest l e v e l w i l l help these women to take r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e i r own l i v e s and t o  -2develop emotionally and s o c i a l l y , while at the same time providing them with education and s k i l l s that w i l l enable them to take an acceptable place i n the community. The women a r r i v e at prison a f t e r they have f a i l e d to meet the requirements of the community, a f t e r they have disregarded s p e c i f i c l e g a l warnings, or a f t e r they have f a i l e d t o cooperate i n a d i s p o s i t i o n o f probation. The period of incarceration i s the i n t e r v a l from that time of f a i l u r e to the time when they w i l l return to the community with i t s same s o c i a l requirements and law enforcement agencies.  The only raison d'etre f o r imprisonment i s  that the period of incarceration should effect such a change i n the i n d i vidual that she i s able, e i t h e r to cope with l i v i n g i n a community on her own, or else to work with the representative o f some accredited agency i n planning her immediate future.  The time o f incarceration should be a time  for mobilizing motivation - motivation to change, motivation to l e a r n new s k i l l s , motivation to move towards people, to form relationships with those i n authority, and to acquire s o c i a l l y acceptable a t t i t u d e s . I t has long been stated that s o c i a l work and s o c i a l welfare programs are  based on the b e l i e f i n the worth o f every i n d i v i d u a l , i n h i s p o t e n t i a l f o r  growth and change, and i n h i s r i g h t to f i n d h i s most s a t i s f y i n g s o c i a l adjustment f o r himself and the community.  And i t i s slowly being recognized that  t h i s philosophy must be exercised i n practice i n correctional i n s t i t u t i o n s i f we are to pay more than l i p service to these i d e a l s .  Just how f a r i t i s  necessary to go i n implementing a program on t h i s basis can be i n f e r r e d from the following " b i l l o f r i g h t s f o r the person under r e s t r a i n t i n a free democratic s o c i e t y " :  1  •^Alexander, Myrl E., "Corrections: A Measure o f Man's Freedom" Proceedings o f the Eighty-sixth Annual Congress o f Correction of the American Correctional Association, 1956. Los Angeles, p. 4,  1.  The r i g h t to clean, decent surroundings with competent attention to his physical and mental well being.  2.  The right to maintain and reinforce the strengthening t i e s which bind him to h i s family and to h i s community.  3.  The r i g h t to develop and maintain s k i l l s as a productive worker i n our economic system.  4.  The r i g h t t o f a i r , impartial, and i n t e l l i g e n t treatment without special p r i v i l e g e or license f o r any man.  5.  The right to p o s i t i v e guidance and counsel from c o r r e c t i o n a l personnel possessed o f understanding and s k i l l .  I t seems a l i t t l e p r i m i t i v e to have to state that government i n s t i t u t i o n s should be "clean" and "decent".  About one hundred and f i f t y years ago  Elizabeth F r y was descrying the d i r t and degradation o f women's prisons. Many o f the widely-acclaimed reforms that have been put into e f f e c t on t h i s continent i n recent years have been l i t t l e more than humane measures concerned with maltreatment  o f prisoners, inadequate food and medical attention,  etcetera. A.  The H i s t o r i c a l Background o f Women's Prisons The aforementioned  " r i g h t s " have been centuries i n being recognized  and there i s considerable controversy over ways and means o f t h e i r being put into p r a c t i c e .  With p a r t i c u l a r regard to women's prisons, the r e a l i z a t i o n o f  the need f o r s p e c i f i c measures to a s s i s t women t o become acceptable members o f society has been exceedingly slow, although i t has generally followed the course o f change i n men's prisons. 1.  The Work of Elizabeth Fry Elizabeth Fry was one of the f i r s t reformers to be concerned wholly  with women i n gaols.  The significance o f her views i s more apparent when one  r e a l i z e s the background to which she applied them. In the Newgate Prison, t y p i c a l o f many o f the eighteenth century prisons, she found "a mass o f women,  -4by the hundreds, reduced to the l e v e l o f wild beasts".  1  Beds were not  supplied and the prisoner had to pay f o r the p r i v i l e g e of l y i n g on straw. There was l i t t l e food and none was adequately covered against the cold. There was every kind o f f i l t h , drunkenness and degradation.  Male prisoners  were l e t into the women's quarters at night and the women were under the care of men gaolers. In her report to the Committee of the House of Commons on the Prisons o f the Metropolis i n 1818,  Elizabeth Fry stated the need f o r employ-  ment and education of women p r i s o n e r s — ' " I should believe i t impossible.... that any reformation  can be accomplished without employment.... We may  instruct as we w i l l , but i f we allow them t h e i r time and they have nothing to do, they n a t u r a l l y must return t o t h e i r e v i l p r a c t i c e s . "  1  She f e l t that  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n was an absolute necessity '"to keep criminals apart from f i r s t offenders.... I should prefer a prison where women were allowed t o work together i n companies, under proper superintendence; to have t h e i r meals together under proper superintendence, and t h e i r recreation a l s o . would always have them separated  i n the n i g h t . " '  2  But I  She wanted women warders  for women prisoners, o r better s t i l l , a separate women's p r i s o n . The cautious reply of the Government Committee summed up, perhaps more than they r e a l i z e d , the 'treatment* needs o f a women's p r i s o n . The benevolent exertions o f Mrs. Fry and her friends i n the female department o f the Prison have indeed, by the establishment o f a school, by providing work and encouraging industrious habits, produced the most g r a t i f y i n g change. But much must be ascribed to unremitting personal attention and influence.3 ^Whitney, Janet, Elizabeth Fry. The B r i t i s h Publishers Guild, London, 1947, p. 143. 2  I b i d . p. 167.  3LQC. c i t .  -5Not only was i t necessary to educate and employ, but also, to make the work e f f e c t i v e , was needed the personal attention, the influence o f one i n d i v i d u a l on another—that  f a c t o r now r e f e r r e d to i n s o c i a l work l i t e r a t u r e as  "relationship". P r a c t i c a l l y , however, the immediate achievement o f Elizabeth Fry through her work i n the Newgate Prison, and by her influence i n B r i t i s h and Puritan-American c i r c l e s , was i n the d i r e c t i o n o f providing clean, decent surroundings and some employment o r occupation 2.  for women prisoners.  The Borstal I n s t i t u t i o n In B r i t a i n , the f i r s t B o r s t a l i n s t i t u t i o n for women was opened at  Aylesbury i n 1909.  A program was set up f o r the d e f i n i t e purpose o f meeting  the needs o f women prisoners, as d i s t i n c t from those o f a l l prisoners. The organization was generally along the l i n e s o f a school, with emphasis on onderliness, t r a i n i n g , occupation,  and self-improvement.  At the same time,  i t was stated that "the methods o f treatment o f these wayward g i r l s have t o be mainly p s y c h o l o g i c a l " aesthetic appeal".  1  o r t o have "some form of r e l i g i o u s , moral and  "Probably the g i r l s require even more i n d i v i d u a l i z e d  treatment than the l a d s . . . i n view o f the p e c u l i a r complexity o f the causal 3 factors of crime among g i r l s " . Here we find expression o f the b e l i e f that t r a i n i n g and r e g u l a r i t y need an i n d i v i d u a l i z e d reference when the concern i s with women. allows that, i n the setting up of an e f f e c t i v e 'treatment  1  And also i t  program f o r women,  the approach may be along d i f f e r e n t l i n e s from the programs i n men's institutions. 3.  Building Programs i n the United  States  In the United States, attention was f i r s t drawn t o the needs o f iBarman, S., The English B o r s t a l System, P.S. King and Son, Ltd., London, 1934, p. 122. ^Barman, op. cit«. p. 125. 3Barman, op. c i t . , p. I l l  women in prison through numerous scandals resulting from women being housed in men's prisons.  The 1866 Annual Meeting of Friends in Indiana brought about  the creation of the Indiana Reformatory Institution for Women and Girls i n 1873.  Since that date, the building program has been f a i r l y extensive,  although there are s t i l l many instances i n both the United States and Canada where women do not have a separate building. This is particularly true of local gaols, where the female population would be small. Generally the recently built correctional institutions for women i n the United States have followed what i s called the "cottage plan".  Here the  women are housed in several more or less self-contained units separate from the administrative, training and recreation f a c i l i t i e s .  It i s considered  that the ideal unit houses twenty women or less, but high costs frequently prevent this, with the result that units containing up to forty or sixty women have been termed "cottages". The philosophy behind such a building design (which greatly increases the number of staff required) includes the belief that the rehabilitation of women calls for group living in as natural a situation as possible, which should provide an atmosphere conducive to change and allowing for individual expression but which at the same time facilitates discipline and control because of the small numbers in groups. However, the most oft-repeated cry from American authorities i s that the practice of treatment aims i s greatly hindered by the lack of aptitude of the custodial staff.  The personnel of many institutions are  insufficient in number, underpaid and untrained.  Millions of dollars have  ^Additon, Henrietta, "Women's Institutions", in Tappen, Paul W., ed. Contemporary Correction. McGraw-Hill, New York,.1951, pp. 298-300. A Manual of Correctional Standards. The American Correctional Association, New York, 1954, pp. 78-80. 2  Additon, op. c i t . , p. 300.  been expended on physical f a c i l i t i e s , but rarely i s found any corresponding increase in staff budget. An interesting comment to note here i s made by one of the leading authorities on the American penal system, Harry Elmer Barnes. He states: Whether the programs of our modern reformatories are of much service to the women sent there i s highly debatable, but we feel that there is l i t t l e reformation, especially for sex offenders and drug addicts, in our female reformatories. They are taught to sew, and moat of them are put through a domestic science course, so that they may get jobs as maids or mothers' helpers upon parole. But few prostitutes or promiscuous sex offenders are satisfied with a job which pays as l i t t l e as housework.... On the whole, women's reformatories are administered more progressively than men's institutions. Some of the latter, however, outstrip many of the female establishments i n personnel, objectives, classification, and general vision and insight,1 It seems that most women's prisons are not meeting the needs of the inmates housed in them. Perhaps we should look more closely at what these needs might be, B.  fhe Female Delinquent O f f i c i a l criminal statistics are deceptive.  The actual volume of  crime i s probably impossible to determine and i t has been stated that just over three per cent of crimes known to police f i n a l l y lead to sentence in a 2 penal institution. It seems that the divergences between actual and apparent crimes are even more pronounced in the case of female offenders.  According  to Canadian statistics, i n 1951 the proportion of male to female offenders 3 was 14 to 1 , and the F.B.I, reports of 1955 state that in the United States iBarnes, Harry Elmer, and Teeters, Negley K., New Horizons in Criminology. Prentice-Hall, New York, 1945, pp. 579-580. ^Reckless, Walter C , "A Sociologist Looks at Prostitution", Federal Probation, vol. v i i i , no. 2, April-June, 1943, p. 11. 3Government of Canada, Statistics of Criminal and Other Offenses, 1951, Ottawa, 1953, p. 16. .  the r a t i o o f male t o female arrests was 8 t o 1 and the r a t i o i n ithe populat i o n o f federal and state prison was 18 to l .  x  There appears l i t t l e basis  for any b e l i e f that women are inherently l e s s criminal than men,  and there-  fore i t i s worthwhile examining other theories as t o why the number o f women sent to prison, compared with the number o f men, i s so much smaller. Our purpose for t h i s study would be t o discover some facts about the women who are eventually sentenced, and more p a r t i c u l a r l y about some o f t h e i r personal needs, which most o f our prison programs do not appear to meet. 1.  C u l t u r a l Factors Walter Reckless i s of the opinion that Western c i v i l i z a t i o n , being  a male-dominated society, r e f l e c t s i n i t s mores a protective attitude towards 2 women that extends to delinquents .  In general, women remain a t home and  t h e i r crimes are often kept under cover.  There i s a general, protective  attitude o f man towards woman: men hate to accuse women, p o l i c e o f f i c e r s d i s l i k e arresting them, d i s t r i c t attorneys d i s l i k e prosecuting them, judges and j u r i e s d i s l i k e finding them g u i l t y o r imposing severe p e n a l t i e s . Another s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t , Otto Pollak, f e e l s that our culture has given women "a different evaluation o f d e c e i t . . . thus f o r b i o l o g i c a l as well as c u l t u r a l reasons, woman seems t o possess greater powers of concealment 3 than does man,"  The housewife, who supplements her spending money by some  form o f p r o s t i t u t i o n i s seldom prosecuted unless she stoops to the c u l t u r a l l y less-acceptable street walking. Women are usually l e s s aggressive than men and communities do not fear women offenders as they do men offenders. Although women generally suffer Reckless, Walter C , "Female Criminality", National Probation and Parole Association Journal, v o l . 3, no. 1, January, 1957, p. 2. x  %£C c i t . ^Pollak, Otto, C r i m i n a l i t y o f Women, University o f Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia, 1950, p. 151.  -9greater losses i n reputation than do men, i f , known to be connected with delinquency  and crime, t h e i r punishment i s l i k e l y to be much l e s s severe.  Arrests for c e r t a i n crimes are often dependent on current public opinion.  For example, p r o s t i t u t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y i n i t s 'higher c l a s s forms'  such as ' c a l l - g i r l ' schemes, may be v i r t u a l l y disregarded by the p o l i c e unless there i s a public outcry. 2.  The Nature of Offenses Committed by Women  1  C u l t u r a l l y and b i o l o g i c a l l y , women seem Inclined to p a s s i v i t y , whereas men,  because of t h e i r greater aggressiveness,  o f detection o f t h e i r crimes.  run the greater r i s k  The frequency o f n o t i f i c a t i o n o f crime i s  usually i n d i r e c t proportion to the s e v e r i t y or violence o f the committed act.  Women are more often involved i n the l e s s serious offenses, such as  "Theft Under $50" and "Vagrancy", and i f apprehended on such charges are frequently l e t o f f with a warning the f i r s t o r second time, and i f a formal arrest i s made, are l i k e l y to be given a Suspended Sentence or Probation. Certain crimes, i n which women have a yery great p a r t i c i p a t i o n (e.g.,  induced  abortion), are r a r e l y reported to the a u t h o r i t i e s . And others (e.g., t h e f t , blackmail, fraud) committed along with p r o s t i t u t i o n , are very infrequently reported by the man involved because of the adverse p u b l i c i t y i n which he may be subsequently involved. Women are often i n the r o l e o f i n s t i g a t o r s and accomplices rather than the d i r e c t perpetrators o f the crime, and t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n may be extremely d i f f i c u l t to prove.  The female companion can be found described  as "innocently involved" and "the mother o f two" with the inference that the sole r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for the crime r e s t s on the man. •^Additon, op. c i t . , p. 298. Pollak, op. c i t . , pp. 56-161. Radzinowicz, L., " V a r i a b i l i t y o f the Sex-Ratio o f C r i m i n a l i t y " , The S o c i o l o g i c a l Review, v o l . xxix, 1937, pp. 71-90.  -10The preceding paragraphs have given some o f the reasons why a large proportion o f women offenders do not go t o gaol and, looking at the question from the other side, the group o f women sentenced to prison appear t o be, i n a very general way, those whom society and men no longer f e e l responsible to protect - those who commit crimes o f such an aggressive nature that they cannot remain undetected o r have committed they can no longer be disregarded.  l e s s serious crimes so frequently that Various studies have been made o f the back-  ground causal f a c t o r s that seem c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f the woman offender and we can get the following composite picture that appears f a i r l y t y p i c a l o f a l a r g e percentage of women i n p r i s o n . 3.  1  Previous General Record Although v i r t u a l l y impossible to set  out s t a t i s t i c a l l y , a great  proportion o f women f i r s t being sentenced to prison have a long history o f undetected crimes, warnings from p o l i c e , acquittals from court, probation, Juvenile Court and detention, f i n e s , e t c .  This means that under the so-called  •protection* o f society a woman may have had months and years o f experience o f ^getting away* with unlawful behaviour, o f 'beating* a r r e s t s , o f bargaining with authority, o f not facing consequences, and, as a r e s u l t , when a sentence i s imposed, the patterns o f a n t i - s o c i a l and delinquent behaviour are well. established, her acquaintance with other delinquents i s extensive and there 2 i s l i t t l e respect for law and j u s t i c e . iRappaport, Mazie F., "The Psychology of the Female Offender", National Probation and Parole Association Journal, v o l . 3, no. 1, January, 1957 ; ?P« -12 8  5  Reckless, Federal Probation, pp. 13-14. Barman, op. c i t . , pp. 111-127. The above i s not meant to be an indictment of the use o f probation, warnings, etc. For many women who already have some sort o f a s o c i a l l y acceptable code of values and behaviour such 'chances' are a l l that i s needed. Discrimination, such as through pre-sentence reports which are being used more and more, i s necessary to d i s t i n g u i s h between the women who can b e n e f i t from probation and the women who need the controls o f an i n s t i t u t i o n . 2  -11Ofben, at t h i s point, the woman f e e l s that her conviction i s due to an avoidable slip-up i n plans, o r i s the r e s u l t o f another party informing the p o l i c e ; she i s not prepared t o recognize that her behaviour has set a pattern which i s incompatible with s o c i a l standards and which would eventually r e s u l t i n some action on the part o f the law. 4.  Environmental  Factors  The environment u s u a l l y r e f l e c t s poverty and dependency i n an overcrowded o r slum a r e a .  She comes from what i s referred to by s o c i o l o g i s t s as  1  a 'low resource area*. outlets.  There has been a s p a r s i t y o f healthy r e c r e a t i o n a l  Her free-time a c t i v i t i e s are considered i n terms o f going to the  movies, s i t t i n g i n restaurants and beer parlours and attending public dances. Her family and friends are l a c k i n g , as well as she, i n education and i n occupational s k i l l s .  "When she comes t o gaol we f i n d a woman whose i n t e r e s t s  extend t o l i t t l e more than gossiping about other delinquents and to r e l a t i n g her past delinquencies and contacts with p o l i c e . She has probably come from a home where there  has been immorality  or alcoholism and she has been f a m i l i a r , from an e a r l y age, with delinquents and .delinquency.  There i s a strong l i k e l i h o o d that either she, or her family,  has had some contact with a s o c i a l agency f o r family service o r f o r s o c i a l assistance . 5.  P h y s i c a l Factors Most women reach t h e i r f u l l e s t sexual development between the ages  o f 16 and 21, although many are promiscuous at an e a r l i e r age. In the teens and e a r l y twenties there seems t o be an increased tension demanding r e l i e f . Many women suffer chemical and glandular upheavals, f o r example, a t menstruation, which may be a f a c t o r i n c e r t a i n aberrations o f behaviour.  •Barman, op_. c i t . , p. 112.  -12Sexual promiscuity has probably become the woman's openly  accepted  standard and i t has only been a question of time u n t i l she has learned the ways and means o f p r o s t i t u t i o n .  The significance o f the sexual act becomes  the giving f o r something received, namely, money and material goods. She may have had an i l l e g i t i m a t e c h i l d when 16 o r 17 years o f age and t h i s c h i l d may have been  either adopted at b i r t h or else placed i n a  foster home under the wardship o f a s o c i a l agency. 6.  Family Background The family background i s generally found t o be inadequate i n  providing an atmosphere of the c h i l d r e n .  1  conducive to the p h y s i c a l and emotional maturing  The parents are divorced, or separated, or there may be  a common-law r e l a t i o n s h i p .  There i s a lack of parental c o n t r o l and guidance  and a l a c k o f love and understanding.  Sometimes there i s encouragement :.of  wrong-doing, or delinquency among other members o f the family. The father has been frequently absent from the home f o r various periods o f time and h i s employment record has been unsteady. D i s c i p l i n e has been e r r a t i c , varying between punitive and overpermissive, with no e f f e c t i v e use towards the building o f a s o c i a l l y acceptable standard o f values. 7.  Personality Development Because of the inadequate  family background and lack o f contact  with other instrumental persons, the woman i s emotionally immature.  She i s  unstable, lacks a sense of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , lacks i d e a l s and standards, lacks judgment and sense.  Delinquency and crime are l e g a l terms used to describe  s p e c i f i c unlawful acts, but they are most often found committed by persons who, through lack o f love, understanding  •Reckless, Federal Probation, p.13.  and control during t h e i r years o f  -13development, have not had t h e i r personal and emotional needs met or s a t i s fied.  The woman i s operating at a very immature l e v e l , demanding immediate  g r a t i f i c a t i o n of her wishes, having l i t t l e understanding or r e a l i z a t i o n of the problems of others, and i s unable to accept r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r her behaviour.  own  She has not had the opportunity to develop feelings o f s e l f -  worth and, because o f t h i s l a c k of personal regard, we f i n d her constantly t e s t i n g others. Other people seem to have meaning f o r her only i n terms of g i v i n g something or taking something away.  Because o f a lack o f constructive use of  authority, she has e a r l y learned to manipulate others.  She smiles and  f l a t t e r s when she wants something, but i f refused, r e t a l i a t e s with charges of meanness and personal inadequacy on the part of the person approached. As an extension o f t h i s reaction, she thinks of laws only as "shackles on her personal w i l l " .  1  From childhood, her f i r s t r e t r i b u t i v e weapon against society has been a form o f behaviour d i f f i c u l t to c o n t r o l and the ensuing have not shown her s u f f i c i e n t reason for changing her ways. b i t t e r , with a f e e l i n g of worthlessness,  circumstances Unhappy and  she frequently presents a bold  "don't care" attitude and i s suspicious of any overtures o f friendship from persons i n authority. She i s a c q u i s i t i v e , having learned to substitute f o r the warmth of human f r i e n d s h i p and respect the value of material possession.  She w i l l  g l i b l y profess undying love i n order to get f i v e d o l l a r s f o r tobacco money and then u n r e a l i s t i c a l l y plan a l i f e t i m e of marriage and happiness based on a similar statement from a boy f r i e n d .  ^Rappaport, op. c i t . , p.  9.  -14Love a f f a i r s are frequent and impermanent and are d i f f e r e n t i a t e d from relationships i n which her purpose i s purely mercenary. 8.  Kinds o f Offences Most crimes committed by women, e i t h e r d i r e c t l y or i n d i r e c t l y ,  involve men.  1  This has quite a d e f i n i t e significance i n the consideration  o f the woman's plans f o r r e l e a s e . According to Government o f Canada S t a t i s t i c s , 1951? concerning the occurrence of indictable offenses of female offenders, 15 per cent were charged with Assault, 45 per cent with Theft and Receiving o f Stolen Goods, 7 per cent with Vagrancy and Keeping a Bawdy House, and 6 per cent with charges against the Narcotic Drug Act.  Forgery and Obtaining Goods and  Money by False Pretences are other offences committed by a large number o f women. These s t a t i s t i c s do.not take into account non-indictable offences that i s , offenses punishable by summary conviction, such as State o f I n t o x i cation i n a Public Place and offences under the Indian Act - by which many persons are sentenced to the P r o v i n c i a l Gaol i n B r i t i s h Columbia. C.  The Treatment o f Female Offenders The operation of a women's prison, i f i t w i l l adequately meet i t s  functions, that o f a s s i s t i n g delinquents to achieve s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and of protecting society, must therefore take into consideration the needs o f the women incarcerated and the custodial requirements as determined by law and public opinion.  L i t e r a t u r e concerning women delinquents, o r women i n  prison, i s scarce, and what i s available seems more to be reports o f current situations or d e t a i l e d descriptions o f p h y s i c a l plants and work programs  ^Barnes and Teeters, op. c i t . , p. 569 ^Government o f Canada S t a t i s t i c s , op. ext., p. 17.  -15without elaborating on the aims and purposes of the t o t a l operation and the p r i n c i p l e s involved.  However, an attempt w i l l be made here t o set out some  essentials o f a treatment program that w i l l allow f o r l o c a l i n s t i t u t i o n a l variations. 1.  C l a r i f i c a t i o n of Purpose There should be o f f i c i a l recognition by the administration and  constant  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n to members of s t a f f of the basic needs o f the women  with whom the program must cope; of the f a c t that society has deemed these women incapable o f functioning without causing harm to themselves or to others, and of the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f the i n s t i t u t i o n t o provide the structure to help these women modify t h e i r behaviour.  The b e l i e f i n the worth of  every i n d i v i d u a l and i n her p o t e n t i a l f o r growth and change becomes e f f e c t i v e when accompanied by the s k i l l i n knowing what to expect o f each i n d i v i d u a l , how much to expect and when t o expect i t .  1  The s t a f f must be prepared to accept the f a c t that they are dealing with people most o f whom are behaving at a rather immature l e v e l , who have not learned to respect the r i g h t s o f others, who have not developed good work habits, who have not acquired healthy i n t e r e s t s and outlets f o r t h e i r  energies.  But an i n s t i t u t i o n can be said t o be o f f e r i n g 'treatment* when a l l members o f s t a f f and a l l facets o f program are coordinated to the purpose o f helping the i n d i v i d u a l s move towards a more s a t i s f a c t o r y adjustment. 2.  A F u l l and Adequate Program The i n s t i t u t i o n operates through i t s program.  The term program  refers to a l l the a c t i v i t i e s o f the day, the work and recreational projects and the routine of d a i l y l i v i n g .  The program should be f u l l enough so that  the women are occupied during most o f the day and have a purposefulness  •Rappaport, op. c i t . , p. 11.  that  -16can be understood to some degree  by both s t a f f and inmates.  Although there  i s a need f o r v a r i a t i o n s i n the program i n order to maintain i n t e r e s t i n a c t i v i t y , elaborate schemes f o r either vocational or l e i s u r e time projects are not necessary.  "We  f i n d that the simple, everyday requirements of l i v i n g  ...can provide the structure which helps these g i r l s modify t h e i r behaviour."  1  However, educational and vocational programs should be c a r r i e d out under q u a l i f i e d i n s t r u c t o r s and should be set up with a r e a l i s t i c reference to job opportunities. Leisure time a c t i v i t i e s are considered as part of s o c i a l education. Whereas the emphasis during working hours has been on developing good work habits and the proper learning of some s k i l l , e f f o r t here i s placed on helping the g i r l s enjoy a c t i v i t i e s that require the cooperation o f others, including those i n authority, on widening i n t e r e s t s and on providing experience i n planning and i n i t i a t i n g a c t i v i t i e s . Religious a c t i v i t i e s and observances can also become part o f a treatment scheme, with some i n d i v i d u a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n , to the end that each individual may gain a personal f a i t h and a r e a l i z a t i o n of i t s meaning beyond the r e l i g i o u s service alone, 3.  A Qualified Staff Here i s probably the keystone o f a successful treatment  institution.  Personnel should be adequate i n numbers and q u a l i f i c a t i o n s and selected on the basis of merit.  There should be an understanding of the requirements o f  custody and the aims of treatment by a l l s t a f f members.  There i s a need f o r  q u a l i f i e d and c e r t i f i c a t e d i n s t r u c t o r s and for t r a i n e d group workers.  Rehab-  i l i t a t i o n needs the atmosphere that can be provided only when both the warmth  •Rappaport, op. c i t . , p.  10,  -17and the controls are present.  The warmth o f r e l a t i o n s h i p that i s b u i l t o f  "steadiness, consistency and b e l i e f i n (the woman's) capacity to change"  x  develops only when there i s s u f f i c i e n t contact between the s t a f f and the individual.  I t has been found that one person, either from a custodial or  a treatment point o f view, cannot adequately handle more than twelve persons. 4.  The Small Group Theory As was previously noted, recent building programs f o r women's i n s t i -  tutions i n the United States have been generally on the "cottage plan".  This  step has been taken because of the recognition o f the importance of an atmosphere conducive to r e h a b i l i t a t i o n i n the treatment of women.  Culturally, this  can be explained i n that the arrangements simulate the woman's s o c i a l l y defined proper habitat - the home.  However, another point of view would also  lead to the d e s i r a b i l i t y o f the use of small groups f o r l i v i n g , work and l e i s u r e time a c t i v i t i e s . The inmate population i s made up of people who have had d i f f i c u l t y getting along i n society, at least to the extent that they have broken the law.  Many o f the women have personal d i f f i c u l t i e s i n adjusting to authority,  i n getting along with others, i n understanding the meaning o f p r i v i l e g e and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , i n respecting the rights o f others. We understand these charact e r i s t i c s as being found i n the mature person. matures within the family group.  Normally a person develops and  I f an i n d i v i d u a l comes from a broken or  disturbed family group, that person may never f u l l y mature.  I t i s believed  that some o f the personality development that takes place within the family, 2 may also occur within other groups. x  The i n d i v i d u a l f i r s t learns to function  Rappaport, Loc. c i t , ,  % i l s o n , Gertrude and Ryland, Gladys, S o c i a l Group Work P r a c t i c e . Houghton M i f f l i n Co., Boston, 1949, pp. 36-43.  -18within her own small group, then takes on the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f her group functioning within the larger i n s t i t u t i o n .  This can be a step towards  adjusting to community l i f e a f t e r release. The s c i e n t i f i c a l l y enlightened c o r r e c t i o n a l program equipped with empirically-derived small group theory w i l l be better able to set into motion the v a r i a b l e s that can correct, reintegrate, and r e d i r e c t the offender. In the group, the offender can be taught to re-learn, re-define, to gain insight into his problems and h i s needs, and to*be imbued with new motivation that w i l l push him on to s o c i a l l y approved goals. 1  The effectiveness of a group system depends to some degree on adequate c l a s s i f i c a t i o n .  There should be a regular admission procedure f o r  a l l inmates and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and assignment to cottage and work placements based on a l l information a v a i l a b l e , such as medical, psychological reports, s o c i a l h i s t o r i e s and pre-sentence reports, work records, e t c . As the s t a f f of the work group and cottage to which the p a r t i c u l a r i n d i v i d u a l has been assigned come to know her and she them, new aspects o f her problems w i l l become apparent and these can be taken into consideration f o r future planning within the i n s t i t u t i o n and i n making r e f e r r a l s t o outside s o c i a l agencies. One o f the important things to remember i s that i f the administrat i o n o f an i n s t i t u t i o n does not set up small groups, they w i l l form o f themselves, and i t i s i n these sub-groups, whose membership i s determined with no r e h a b i l i t a t i v e purpose i n mind, that undesirable ideas, acts and feelings are the contagious elements with the group.  Group formation i s much more than  just segregation. The pioneer o f group work i n i n s t i t u t i o n s was probably August Aichhorn and according to h i s understanding o f the term he spoke of the o l d e r i n s t i t u t i o n s as composed of a group o f delinquents of varying pathological  "^James, John, "The Application of the Small Group Concept to the Study of the Prison Community", B r i t i s h Journal of Delinquency, v o l . v , 1954-1955, pp. 269-280,  -19conditions which aggravate the i n d i v i d u a l condition, and control can be maintained only by force; and the modem i n s t i t u t i o n which has the smallest possible groups and each group so composed that group l i f e w i l l favourably influence behaviour d i f f i c u l t i e s .  1  The current problem i s t o determine  "which types o f d i s s o c i a l behaviour are most favourably influenced by l i v i n g 2 together i n such a group?" D.  The Purpose o f the Study At the Women's D i v i s i o n , Oakalla Prison Farm, B r i t i s h Columbia, a  program has been set up with the aim o f helping the inmates committed there and o f meeting some o f those t y p i c a l needs referred t o above.  The program  i s i n process o f change and only to a s l i g h t degree has i t been a r t i c u l a t e d as a purposeful treatment plan.  Many o f i t s aspects are s t i l l operating only  i n response to administrative needs and some c o n f l i c t with treatment goals. However, t h i s study i s an e f f o r t to examine the program i n process to show how the treatment plan can be implemented i n an i n s t i t u t i o n which has most of the problems that are present i n other women's i n s t i t u t i o n s . The study includes detailed descriptions o f the physical f a c i l i t i e s and buildings, the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the inmate population as taken from the face sheets o f t h e i r f i l e s and the q u a l i f i c a t i o n s and experience o f the personnel employed.  There w i l l be a description o f the d a i l y routines o f work  and recreation and t h e i r s p e c i f i c meaning i n terms o f the current treatment philosophy of the administration.  We s h a l l examine a few case records i n  order to see something o f what happens t o the individual under the program. The cases have been selected as t y p i c a l o f p a r t i c u l a r behaviour problems. x  Aichhorn, August, Wayward Youth. Viking Press, New York, 1935, pp. 143-  144. ^Aichhorn, op_»- c i t . , p. 167.  -20We w i l l also include a discussion o f the p o s s i b i l i t i e s  f o r the program,  suggestions f o r improvements under the present f a c i l i t i e s and changes which would be desirable i n future large-scale  planning.  -21-  CHAPTER I I THE WOMEN'S GAOL IN OPERATION In B r i t i s h Columbia, the Women's D i v i s i o n i s part of the P r o v i n c i a l Gaol at Oakalla Prison Farm, South Burnaby. administered  The P r o v i n c i a l Gaol Service i s  by the Department o f the Attorney-General and since 1957 through  the Corrections Branch. i n administration.  Within the prison the Warden has the f i n a l authority  Certain duties are delegated by him to the Deputies o f  Custody and Treatment. The Women's D i v i s i o n functions as a separate unit under t h i s admini s t r a t i o n , i n that the d a i l y program w i t h i n the Women's Building i s managed by i t s own s t a f f .  However, o f f i c i a l records pertaining to admission, discharge,  and movements o f inmates to court and h o s p i t a l , and a l l money and valuables o f the inmates, are kept and controlled at the Main Building.  A l l movements o f the  inmates, outside the immediate area surrounding the Women's B u i l d i n g and within the grounds o f the Prison, have to be d i r e c t l y authorized by the Senior O f f i c e r i n charge o f the Prison. Up t o the year 1952, the Women's D i v i s i o n had t o be operated s t r i c t l y as a custodial i n s t i t u t i o n because o f the small number o f s t a f f .  Adequate  supervision f o r e i t h e r vocational t r a i n i n g or s o c i a l i z a t i o n purposes was not possible; two s t a f f members per s h i f t i n charge o f 70 women could do l i t t l e more than count bodies and lock doors.  However, i n 1952, the Attorney-General's  Department gave the order f o r an increase i n s t a f f i n order that the suggestions for a treatment program o f the newly appointed Warden Hugh G. C h r i s t i e could be put into e f f e c t .  This study i s a record o f the operation o f the Women's D i v i s i o n  - 2 2 -  at the present time. There are few laid-down or tested directions f o r the successful operation of a treatment program and many of the a c t i v i t i e s o f the l a s t four and f i v e years have been experimental, p r i n c i p l e s o f human behaviour.  a l b e i t governed by recognized  The theories o f s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s have had  to be synthesized with the requirements o f custodians and often the s u r p r i s i n g r e s u l t has been that the conclusions o f both are i d e n t i c a l .  The change-over  from a custodial program t o a program that f u l l y implements the treatment p o s s i b i l i t i e s has been gradual, as i t should be. Acceptance by s t a f f and inmates - a very necessary  f a c t o r as they are the operating ingredients o f  the program - has been slow; but there i s a recognizable difference i n atmosphere that does r e f l e c t an acceptance o f the value o f changes i n program. A.  The Structure and F a c i l i t i e s o f the Women's B u i l d i n g The Women's D i v i s i o n contains one main b u i l d i n g and four cottages  referred t o as the "Huts"*  In addition, there i s a cottage b u i l t by a s p e c i a l  Government grant as part o f a program f o r the study and treatment o f narcotic drug users.  This unit i s under the d i r e c t administration of the Women's  Building (see diagram). The o r i g i n a l part o f the Women s Building was erected i n 1 9 4 2 and 1  i s long and three-storied.  P r i o r to 1 9 4 2 the women prisoners were housed i n  sections o f the main Men's Building at Oakalla.  There are thirty-one rooms  on the f i r s t and second f l o o r s a l l opening o f f a c e n t r a l c o r r i d o r .  Although  most o f the rooms were designed f o r s i n g l e occupancy, over-crowding necessitates doubling up i n the majority o f cases. to s i x g i r l s .  Eight o f the rooms accommodate from four  The windows o f each room are steel-framed and apart from two  rooms which have outside bars and can be used as security units f o r Penitentiary prisoners, there has been an architectural e f f o r t to avoid some of the grim  I I [ I  I  I I  I  I  I /  II  I  I  I  I  I  I—I  I I I  I  J<ircH£jJ  1  i  —  i Strr/A/Cr  _J U. (SCHOOL^  Fig. 1 Diagram of the Buildings (Main Floor) of the Women's D i v i s i o n , Oakalla Prison Farm.  -23and forbidding aspects of prison while s t i l l having a secure u n i t . There i s a t o i l e t and washbasin i n each room - a feature which has immense value both for custodial and sanitary reasons. a t a b l e , chair and dresser i n each room besides the bed.  There i s usually  The g i r l s i n  active groups are allowed to add i n d i v i d u a l touches to t h e i r rooms and have choice i n colour schemes.  Most of the rooms are painted about once a year  and a v a r i e t y of colours are used throughout the b u i l d i n g , thus overcoming much o f the drabness usually associated with i n s t i t u t i o n s . A bath and shower room i s located at one end of each of the two main f l o o r s and i t i s possible f o r every g i r l to have a bath o r shower three or four times a week.  There i s a s i t t i n g room on each corridor which i s used  by d i f f e r e n t groups i n non-working hours. An addition to the b u i l d i n g was opened i n September, 1 9 5 7 . On one side i s a gymnasium and recreation room, and underneath, a s i m i l a r space, which i s planned f o r use as a laundry. On the other side, there are two units, each with s i x rooms opening o f f an a c t i v i t y space and with a kitchen area cont a i n i n g sink, cupboards and hotplate.  In the basement are single i s o l a t i o n  c e l l s , many of which are presently being used as storage rooms. The working areas are i n the main b u i l d i n g . room are located on the main f l o o r .  The kitchen and dining  The kitchen i s f a i r l y well equipped,  although i t suffers from lack of space.  The dining room i s not large enough  for the whole population, but several groups eat i n t h e i r own u n i t s .  Groups  eat with t h e i r matron at separate tables; the food i s served i n dishes from which the g i r l s help themselves. On the second f l o o r there i s a large room, one-half o f which i s used as a Sewing Room, and the other f o r Occupational Therapy.  Power machines,  similar to those used i n f a c t o r i e s , have been set up i n another room and as  -24the beginning of a power sewing course which i s planned to meet the standards of the Vancouver Vocational I n s t i t u t e .  Also i n a state o f development i s a  hairdressing school which has to operate i n a very small room, but within a year w i l l probably be expanding.  At the present time, the laundry and  linen  room are i n the basement and t h i s work section i s constantly hampered by lack of space. A short wing houses the administrative o f f i c e s and admitting u n i t . Here a great l a c k of space i s evident.  One of the o f f i c e s i s frequently  required f o r v i s i t i n g purposes, consultations with lawyers workers.  The main o f f i c e i s extremely small.  from her v i s i t o r . ) library.  social  There i s a v i s i t i n g room  which has f a c i l i t i e s f o r screen v i s i t i n g and table v i s i t s . either have to s i t behind the screen or may  and  (The g i r l  may  be allowed to s i t across a table  Above the o f f i c e s are the Matrons' quarters and  the  The l i b r a r y i s f a i r l y well stocked and has about 2000 books.  It  i s used i n the evening by the inmates and often becomes a v i s i t i n g room f o r s o c i a l workers or a conference room. The four Huts were cheaply b u i l t along Army construction l i n e s . The four are placed i n front of the main building and are v i s i b l e from the administration o f f i c e .  Two  Huts are used as l i v i n g u n i t s , a t h i r d as a  combination carpenter shop and pottery u n i t , and the other as a school. In Huts I and I I there are f i v e bunks at one end  (that i s , a  possible t o t a l accommodation of 10 i n each Hut), with a night table f o r each bed and a few other pieces o f f u r n i t u r e . At the other i s a stove, sink and cupboards, and a long dining t a b l e . a bath, t o i l e t and sinks. Huts.  In a separate room there i s  The g i r l s sleep and eat a l l t h e i r meals i n the  Because of the work program, i t often happens that only breakfast  and supper can be a c t u a l l y cooked out there j otherwise,  supplies are sent  -25over from the main kitchen. The Huts permit a c e r t a i n degree o f segregation and younger g i r l s can  be kept from the undesirable contacts with older offenders.  The program  i n the Huts can be l e s s r i g i d than i n the main b u i l d i n g and there i s greater opportunity f o r development o f group f e e l i n g and f o r the establishment o f a strong p o s i t i v e relationship with the matron. For  those g i r l s f o r whom the Huts o f f e r too great a custodial r i s k ,  .the privacy of the new units allows for a similar development o f group f e e l i n g . For  recreational purposes there i s an enclosed rock garden at the  back o f the b u i l d i n g .  Between the Huts and the main building i s a badminton  court and grass area.  During the summer a b a l l f i e l d i s a v a i l a b l e , and i n the  winter use can be made o f the large p r i s o n gymnasium f o r b a s k e t b a l l .  The new  recreation room gives space f o r games, folk dancing, and exercises, and w i l l be used f o r assembly o f the g i r l s , f o r church services, f o r concerts, f i l m s , etc. B. S t a f f : Their Backgrounds and Functions At present, the Women's D i v i s i o n employs 42 f u l l - t i m e matrons, one part-time s o c i a l worker, and 6 matrons f o r the Narcotic Drug Treatment Unit. The 42 matrons gives a r a t i o of about two inmates per s t a f f member. the  This i s  factor that has made possible the establishment o f some sort o f a t r e a t -  ment program i n both work and recreational time, that has made i t possible to attempt vocational t r a i n i n g and that has allowed a "group system" to function i n a building with inadequate f a c i l i t i e s f o r segregation. Each matron i s required to work on a l l s h i f t s before being taken on permanent s t a f f .  There are no actual positions available, apart from the  Matron-in-charge, such as teacher, group worker, or nurse, and although each matron can be expected to work i n any department, they are generally placed  -26according to interests and c a p a b i l i t i e s . administrative hierarchy (See diagram). morning s h i f t (7 a.m. 11  p.m.)  - 3 p.m.)  However, i n p r a c t i c e , there i s an The d i s t r i b u t i o n i s roughly:  - 13 matrons; afternoon s h i f t (3 p.m.  - 10 matrons; night s h i f t (11  p.m.  - 7 a.m.)  -  - 15 matrons.  Staff  changes of s h i f t occur monthly, although c e r t a i n matrons, e s p e c i a l l y those i n administrative positions, work i n the same positions f o r periods of months and years. During the morning program there i s emphasis on industry and the promotion of good work habits with, of course, a recognition of i n d i v i d u a l a b i l i t i e s and l i m i t a t i o n s .  Afternoon matrons need to be able to permit a  more relaxed program, to promote interest i n a c t i v i t i e s , and to work towards i n d i v i d u a l growth, while at the same time t o set generally accepted of s o c i a l behaviour.  standards  The c h i e f purpose of the night s h i f t i s custodial,  with some nursing care involved. The backgrounds o f the s t a f f vary considerably i n education and experience.  The minimum education required i s Grade X, but the salary  offered, which i s f a i r l y high f o r women*s positions, makes i t possible i n p r a c t i c e to select employees from a large number of applicants. About a t h i r d of the present s t a f f have had p s y c h i a t r i c nurses t r a i n i n g ; three are Registered Nurses; two are trained school teachers; four are University graduates with degrees i n Sociology, Anthropology, Home Economics and Social Work, respectively.  One has a teacher's c e r t i f i c a t e i n hairdressing;  another has completed a power sewing course.  Others have had experience i n  hairdressing, p r a c t i c a l nursing, r e c r e a t i o n a l work, sewing and housework. Each s t a f f member i s required to attend S t a f f Training lectures i n the f i r s t few months of employment.  These l e c t u r e s are concerned mainly  with general c u s t o d i a l procedures and prison p o l i c i e s and are given to a l l  cusraoy  7X£yfr/ns^r  fU/>£/Z 1/lSo A?  //err I Hcrr 2_ SU/'£<L''SO/Z  fCrr.ertx*/  0/>*S£A//A/G-  OtST£,i>£ /DUB/?  {U/<A/T£i*j  S£  Mouse  cos  (s'a<*>»'£<ej  S'Vc't/iSe/e  /neroLcg/ST Fig.  2  Diagram of the Staff Organization of the D i v i s i o n , Oakalla Prison Farm.  Women's  HOT  /  MOT  Z  -27Oakalla s t a f f .  From time to time courses are offered to s t a f f members on  such subjects as the use o f sewing machines, movie projectors, f i r s t a i d . Since the summer o f 1956, a s o c i a l worker has been employed on a part-time b a s i s to take part i n s t a f f meetings f o r group matrons.  These are  held weekly from 9s30 to 11:00 p.m. and have included discussions on group work, recording, d i s c i p l i n e problems, e t c . Several members of s t a f f have taken University courses, vocational t r a i n i n g and adult education courses on t h e i r own time and at t h e i r own expense.  Encouragement  i s given to s t a f f to make use of any p a r t i c u l a r s k i l l  they have and new ideas are welcomed. G.  The Routines o f Program 1.  The Morning Work Program  There are several aims f o r the morning program: i n s t i t u t i o n a l maintenance, employment o f the inmates, the learning of s k i l l s , vocational t r a i n i n g and segregation.  Although an attempt i s made to keep the needs of  individuals i n focus, as regards t r a i n i n g and segregation, at times these needs have to be s a c r i f i c e d to the requirements of the operating i n s t i t u t i o n . Usually a woman w i l l remain i n a department from three to four months and within some departments there i s a hierarchy o f duties through which she w i l l ' p r o g r e s s e s positions become vacant. In each department i s a matron. The work departments include the kitchen, laundry, sewing room, occupational therapy, maintenance (cleaning and odd jobs), carpentry, and outside maintenance (gardening, painting, e t c . ) .  Vocational courses are  s t i l l i n a state of development but through the school Department o f Education c e r t i f i c a t e s can be obtained f o r correspondence courses completed, and negotiations are presently under way f o r recognition by the Vancouver Vocational School f o r hours of t r a i n i n g i n the Hairdressing and Power Sewing departments. In order to give the reader some idea of a work department, the  -28following i s a description of the kitchen work program.  The kitchen  generally employs eight women. Many f i r s t offenders work here, some o f the younger g i r l s and g i r l s who have shown a p o s i t i v e attitude towards rehabilitation.  1  The kitchen workers prepare and serve breakfast and the  noon meal and do c e r t a i n i n i t i a l preparations f o r the evening meal. The kitchen i s generally considered by the inmates as a good place to work, because although they work hard, and standards are high, "your time goes so f a s t " .  The progression of duties goes from vegetable g i r l , dish g i r l ,  tray g i r l , dining room g i r l to pastry cook and meat cook.  By prison  t r a d i t i o n , the meat cook i s one o f the top positions i n the gaol, but a conscious e f f o r t i s now made t o have some o f the younger women take on the responsibility. The women assigned to the laundry are often addicts, women with long records, and women who i t i s f e l t would not suffer from association with addicts. The sewing and mending department i s also concerned with i n s t i t u t i o n a l maintenance and here are made a l l the dresses, s h i r t s and blue jeans worn by the women.  There i s mending to occupy some o f the older  women sentenced f o r very short periods of time. department i s supervised by a trained person.  The Occupational Therapy I t i s used as a work depart-  ment f o r certain women convalescing from tuberculosis and other serious i l l n e s s e s , and f o r women awaiting transfer to Kingston Penetentiary when close supervision i s necessary.  The carpentry and outside maintenance gangs  are currently favourite places t o work, probably because of the popularity The thought here i s not that the kitchen department i s e s p e c i a l l y helpful i n the treatment process, but rather that the f i r s t offenders may have a- work placement which does not bring them i n d a i l y contact with older, more experienced inmates. x  -29of s t a f f i n charge o f these departments and because o f the i n t e r e s t i n g work involved.  The carpenter  i s an older man, the only guard e x c l u s i v e l y  assigned t o the Women's B u i l d i n g . Most women when f i r s t admitted, unless p h y s i c a l l y incapable, are required t o work on maintenance.  Here i t i s possible to make some obser-  vation o f work habits, o f the supervision and control probably needed by the i n d i v i d u a l woman, of the a b i l i t y to follow d i r e c t i o n s and understand them. The vocational t r a i n i n g program i s generally l i m i t e d t o women with sentences of s i x months o r longer.  The t r a i n i n g i s part of the work  program, and i f i t i s f e l t that a woman i s c o n t i n u a l l y wasting her time o r i s unable to keep up to a c e r t a i n standard, she can be moved to another department.  Sometimes the placement i s made on request, but younger women  with long sentences are encouraged. school, t e s t s are administered  In some cases, before placement i n  by the gaol psychologist t o determine a b i l i t y .  The school, which operates through the Correspondence D i v i s i o n o f the Department o f Education, has been the most successful part o f the vocational t r a i n i n g program t o date.  Commercial courses,  including typing,  are those most generally taken, and an extremely high standard of work i s expected. 2,  The Afternoon Program  Every woman i s placed i n one of eight groups and the f u l l force o f the "group system" becomes evident i n the afternoon and after-working  hours.  I t i s the compulsory aspect o f the recreation and s o c i a l i z a t i o n program that i s most d i f f i c u l t f o r the women to accept, and yet i t i s only through that factor of compulsion that many women w i l l p a r t i c i p a t e . I t i s up to the s k i l l of the matron to develop a warm group atmosphere and t o promote i n t e r e s t i n  -30a c t i v i t i e s so that the compulsory a c t i v i t y w i l l become the desirable a c t i v i t y . On admission, each woman i s automatically placed i n Group VI with others newly admitted, waiting t r a i l o r awaiting transfer to Kingston Penitentiary.  This group, which also includes s i c k women and those on  punishment involving r e s t r i c t e d a c t i v i t y ,  has a l i m i t e d program and i t s  members are locked i n t h e i r rooms at 6:30 p.m. instead of the usual 8:30 p.m. The other groups, to the extent that the t o t a l count makes i t possible, are kept to under twelve members each.  A matron i s i n charge o f  each group. Group membership i s determined by the administration and generally on the following b a s i s :  Group I - non-addict, f i r s t offenders, younger  women and women who do not have an established pattern o f delinquency; Group I I - young women who have had some experience with drugs but not to the extent that they could be termed true addicts;  Group I I I - young addicts  who have generally had several previous convictions.  (This i s frequently one  of the most troublesome groups - active and i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d to the extent that they are aware o f most o f the 'angles  1  that can be work against the  administration, the g i r l s can be d i f f i c u l t to control.);  Group IV - older  addicts, many of whom have penitentiary records, women who have a long h i s t o r y o f delinquency and those who would not be adversely influenced by association with such as described; Group V - non-addicts, a l c o h o l i c s and habitual drinkers, women with a history of delinquency other than drug charges; Group VI - the newly admitted - those waiting t r i a l o r t r a n s f e r to another i n s t i t u t i o n , the sick;  Group VII - older r e c i d i v i s t s , women whose  health r e s t r i c t s t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s (e.g., arrested T.B.  cases);  Group VIII -  young women who present a c u s t o d i a l problem, some young r e c i d i v i s t s . In the d a i l y routine, the women have returned to t h e i r own rooms  -31from work when the afternoon group matrons come on duty.  Each group with  i t s matron then assembles f o r tea i n a room according to a posted schedule t h e i r own unit a c t i v i t y space, one o f the s i t t i n g rooms or the sewing room. The groups i n the main b u i l d i n g (Group VI - the admission group, excluded) take turns preparing supper and night nourishment.  I t i s up to the matron  to foster and develop projects, although suggestions are made by the matron i n charge of the afternoon program.  Sometimes a group i s given a choice o f  a c t i v i t y - going f o r a walk or staying i n , e t c . - at other times the program has been previously determined.  Group projects include a quiet evening o f  reading and playing cards, hobbies and handicrafts i n the Occupational Therapy room, the use o f the records and player, square dancing, exercises and games i n the gymnasium, gardening projects, l i b r a r y , a t h l e t i c s ( v o l l e y b a l l , badminton, basketball, baseball, swimming), walks, redecoration o f rooms, pottery, carpentry, and others.  Sometimes a special concert o r party  w i l l be planned and each group w i l l have to present a number, or one prepare the food, another the decorations,  etc.  Although the group projects are valuable as instruments f o r broadening the i n t e r e s t s of the women - for example, for many, l e i s u r e time a c t i v i t i e s may have previously been l i m i t e d to beer-drinking - they also provide learning situations i n terms o f development of personality.  This  i s recognized by the administration and i t i s the p o l i c y that matrons encourage  the women to discuss, t o p a r t i c i p a t e , to make suggestions and  to come to a decision as a whole group.  I t i s not a straightforward business  but a learning process for both inmates and matrons, and i t i s d i f f i c u l t to measure  i t s effectiveness.  One of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s that can be recog-  nized and does form a workable basis f o r future treatment programs i s the "we-feeling" of a group.  Individuals become proud of t h e i r group, and of  being a member, and of t h e i r group having special c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s d i f f e r e n t  -32from those o f another group.  I t i s believed that t h i s sense o f belonging,  even though i t may begin i n an i n s t i t u t i o n a l setting, i s one of the e s s e n t i a l s for personality growth.  1  The program i n the Huts (Groups I and II) i s somewhat s i m i l a r to that o f the groups i n the main b u i l d i n g .  I t can be more f l e x i b l e and must  adjust to the necessities o f housekeeping.  There i s a r e a l group l i v i n g  s i t u a t i o n and there are some women who cannot f i t into circumstances where almost a l l privacy i s lacking.  This lack o f privacy i s recognized as a draw-  back by the administration, and yet there i s a closeness that develops among Hut members and with t h e i r matron that often compensates for t h i s .  The Hut  routine involves a sharing o f duties and there i s opportunity for each g i r l to learn to cook and to manage for a small number o f people. At i r r e g u l a r i n t e r v a l s , a meeting i s held between the matron i n charge of the afternoon program and inmate representatives from each group. This informal committee i s r e f e r r e d to as the Program Planning Committee  0  A president, secretary and treasurer are elected by the whole inmate body. The Committee i s responsible f o r planning special a c t i v i t i e s , such as p a r t i e s , inmate concerts, f o r discussing group complaints and requests, and as a workable means of contact with the administration.  A fund, made up from  money received f o r services to matrons and from goods made and sold by the women, i s designated f o r spending by the Committee.  The value o f t h i s  Committee l i e s i n providing the g i r l s with areas o f a c t i v i t y f o r which they can have some personal r e s p o n s i b i l i t y .  x  Wilson and Ryland, op. c i t . , p. 43,  -33-  CHAPTER I I I . THE POPULATION OF THE WOMEN'S DIVISION  Although the inmate population during the year 1956 varied between 63 and 94, the average number i n the Women's D i v i s i o n a t one time was about 80.  The women come from a l l over B r i t i s h Columbia: from the  c i t i e s of Vancouver, V i c t o r i a and New Westminster, from the I n t e r i o r towns such as Kamloops and Cranbrook, from Prince Rupert and Dawson Creek i n the north, from f i s h i n g v i l l a g e s and from Indian reservations.  From 20 to 30  per cent are native Indians. As a P r o v i n c i a l Gaol, the Women's D i v i s i o n was b u i l t to accommodate those women i n B r i t i s h Columbia who receive sentences up to 2 years l e s s 1 day.  Women with sentences of 2 years or more are transferred t o the  Federal P e n i t e n t i a r y at Kingston, Ontario.  However, women waiting t r i a l  and waiting transfer to the Penitentiary are held at Oakalla.  Thus, the  Women's D i v i s i o n frequently has at one time women with 5 day committals for Intoxication and women waiting t r a n s f e r t o Kingston Penitentiary with sentences of years on such serious offenses as T r a f f i c k i n g i n Narcotics and Murder.  There may be as many as 15 or 20 women waiting t r a i l at one  time. A.  Description of the Inmate Population According t o Face Sheet Information It i s d i f f i c u l t to obtain a precise d e s c r i p t i o n of the -inmates  of the Women's D i v i s i o n - just what are t h e i r backgrounds, where they come from, and the extent o f t h e i r records.  Much of the information of records  and face sheets i s inaccurate; education, r e l i g i o n , marital status and  -34occupation i n many cases are u n v e r i f i e d . However, i n t h i s study, an attempt has been made t o give a conception of the range i n offense, sentence, age and background without emphasizing the r e l i a b i l i t y o f i n d i vidual records. Information was obtained from the face sheets of the t o t a l inmate population on two separate dates - January 1, 195° and J u l y 1, 1956 - and marked on index cards.  The two dates were a r b i t r a r i l y selected and t h e i r  significance l i e s only i n that they show the population at dates i n the winter and summer.  This information was tabulated i n order to show s t a t i s -  t i c a l l y certain factors which require consideration i n the operating o f a program at the Women's D i v i s i o n . 1.  D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Charges among the Inmate Population o f the Women's Division The extremes i n charges range from the l e s s serious offenses,  such as being i n a "State of Intoxication i n a Public Place" t o Murder. As previously mentioned, t h i s i s due t o the temporary housing o f persons waiting t r i a l and o f Penitentiary prisoners.  Their presence makes f o r  increased custodial problems and, at times, hampers the program. On January 1, 1956, the t o t a l count of the Women's D i v i s i o n was 70; on J u l y 1, 1956, i t was 69.  I n January, 18 per cent were sentenced  for Intoxication, and 32 per cent were charged under the Narcotic Act for i l l e g a l possession o f drugs.  On J u l y 1, 23 per cent were sentenced  for Intoxication, 45 per cent f o r Possession of Drugs.  By the single  fact of charge, i t i s evident that a large proportion of the population are involved with drugs or the excessive use of a l c o h o l . The d i s t r i b u t i o n o f charges among the inmate population on two selected dates can be seen i n the following t a b l e : -  TABLE 1 D i s t r i b u t i o n of Charges Among the Inmate Population of the Women's D i v i s i o n , Oakalla Prison Farm, on January 1, 1956, and J u l y 1, 1956.  Charge  Number January 1, 1956  Intoxication W i l f u l Damage Causing Disturbance Disorderly Conduct Theft under $50 Neglect of Children Vagrancy "A" (no v i s i b l e means of support) Vagrancy "C" (prostitution) Perjury Contributing to Juvenile Delinquency Bootlegging Indecent Act Assault Theft over $50 Obtaining Goods by False Pretences Robbery Forgery Arson Possession o f Drugs Breaking and Entering T r a f f i c k i n g i n Narcotics Murder T o t a l :  13 1 1 1 5 •  J u l y 1, 1956 16  -  3 1  3  -  6 1  -5  -  1  1 2 2 4 4  -  mm  1 23 1  -  -  1 2 2 3 3  -  31  1  1  —  70  69  In the above c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , "Intoxication" i s taken to include charges under the "Indian Act".  Although there i s , o f course, a l e g a l  difference between being found i n a "State of Intoxication i n a Public Place" and being charged under the "Indian Act", f o r the purposes o f t h i s study, most persons charged under the "Indian Act" are so charged because they are intoxicated.  -36The difference i n d i s t r i b u t i o n of charges at the two dates i s not s u f f i c i e n t t o warrant much speculation.  Certain g i r l s could be  arrested under a v a r i e t y of charges: thus a g i r l who at one time i s charged with Possession of Drugs could quite l i k e l y , at a future date, be charged with Vagrancy.  Therefore, i t i s possible t o have the same  group of persons at two d i f f e r e n t dates but with a r e - d i s t r i b u t i o n of charges. 2.  The D i s t r i b u t i o n According to Sentence The range i n sentence i s another f a c t o r which merits consider-  ation i n a description of the inmate population. The problems involved i n s e t t i n g up a program which w i l l have some value f o r women serving sentences of only days or weeks and which at the same time w i l l provide enough stimulus and long-range i n t e r e s t s f o r those who know they have t o stay f i f t e e n or twenty months are enormous. the  Custodial r i s k s are not  l e a s t among the conditions t o be weighed.  -37TABLE 2 The D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Length o f Sentence Among the Inmate Population o f the Women's d i v i s i o n , Oakalla Prison Farm on January 1, 1956 and J u l y 1, 1956.  Length of Sentence  Number January 1, 1956  5 - 10 days 1 - 2 months 3 - 5 months 68 months 9-12 months 15 - 18 months 20 months - 2 years l e s s 1 day Indefinite (transferred from G.I.S.) Penitentiary (appealing or waiting Transfer) Penitentiary (Sentence being served i n O.P.F.) 1  5 17 8 15 8  6 4  J u l y 1, 1956  3 13 6 11 9 8  16  1  2  T o t a l :  693  69  The noticeable increase i n sentences ranging from 20 months to 2 years l e s s one day (from 4 on January 1st t o 16 on J u l y 1st) can probably be attributed to the expectation o f the opening at Oakalla o f a unit for the treatment o f narcotic addicts with the idea that such a length o f sentence was necessary f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a specialized treatment program.  However, on J u l y 1, 1956, the project was only i n  i t s i n i t i a l stage, and even i n f u l l operation the b u i l d i n g provided would  •'•Girls' I n d u s t r i a l School. 2  0 a k a l l a Prison Farm.  30ne woman charged was l a t e r released and therefore had no sentence.  -38not accommodate more than 12 persons.  As a r e s u l t , there was an added  custodial problem with which the program had to cope: not only was there an increase i n longer sentences (which brings an increase i n the incentive to escape) but also there was an increase i n d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n among women who  found that a 20-month sentence did not automatically mean e l i g i b i l i t y  for the program. 3.  Previous  Convictions  Criminal record may also provide some i n d i c a t i o n s of problems found i n the incarcerated group.  Previous record, although not giving a  conclusive picture i n regard to the i n d i v i d u a l ' s present condition, does give clues i n regard to segregation, and to the length of time the i n d i v i d u a l has been involved i n a delinquent way o f l i f e .  The following table was  prepared, again, only to give i n d i c a t i o n o f the backgrounds of the t o t a l group and to show the background against which the program was set up. I t i s not completely accurate, as only i n a very few cases are convictions i n provinces outside o f B r i t i s h Columbia recorded on the face sheets; nor are shown the convictions which have resulted i n f i n e s or suspended sentences (which i n the case of Intoxication may be extremely numerous). There i s no l e g a l term which simply indicates the rather complex d i s t i n c t i o n between l e s s serious and more serious crimes.  Such a d i s t i n c t i o n  i s necessary i f any attention i s going to be paid to record as there i s considerable difference between a record o f 10 convictions f o r Intoxication and a record o f 10 convictions f o r Possession of Drugs. categories have been defined.  Therefore, two  "Less Serious Offenses" w i l l include I n t o x i -  cation, Disorderly Conduct, W i l f u l Damage, Causing a Disturbance, Theft Under $50, Bootlegging  and Perjury.  Vagrancy,  A l l others (Iheft Over | 5 0 , False  -39Pretences, Robbery, Forgery, Possession of Drugs, etc,) •will be "Serious  considered  Offenses". TABLE 3  1  Incidence of Previous Conviction among Inmate Population of the Women's D i v i s i o n , O.P.F., on January 1, 1956 and J u l y 1, 1956. Number  Record January 1,  1956  J u l y 1,  1956  Less Serious Offenses  27  1-5 convictions 6 - 10 convictions 11 or more  7 5  22 13 10  9 17 6  10 19 7  16  18  6  8  19  11  Serious Offenses 1 conviction 2-5 convictions 6 or more Juvenile record Penitentiary record No previous record  As previously noted, the claim i s not made that the above s t a t i s t i c s are accurate.  However, the change that would r e s u l t i f records  were complete would be an increase i n the number o f convictions arid probably a decrease i n the number of f i r s t offenders.  I t i s l i k e l y that  for every sentence served i n gaol f o r Intoxication there are two or three suspended sentences and f i n e s paid.  •"•The above table shows a duplicated count f o r the t o t a l population An i n d i v i d u a l could have a record of Serious Offenses, Less Serious Offenses as well as a Juvenile and Penitentiary Record.  -404.  Age D i s t r i b u t i o n Eighteen i s the usual minimum age for g i r l s admitted to Oakalla.  However, there are instances where a juvenile i s transferred to Adult Court because o f the seriousness of the charge.  The range on January 1st  was from 16 years to 76 years; the median age 32. was from 16 to 68; the median age  On July 1st, the range  31.  TABLE 4 Age D i s t r i b u t i o n of the Inmate Population o f the Women's D i v i s i o n , O.P.F., on January 1, 1956 and J u l y 1, 1956..  Number  Age Group January 1, Up to 19 years 2 0 - 2 4 years 25 - 29 years 30 - 34 years 3 5 - 4 4 years 45 - 54 years 55 years or more T o t a l :  5.  1956  J u l y 1, 1956  5 15 18 9 13 9 1  4 12 22 12 13 4 2  70  69  .  Education Level Educationally speaking, most o f the g i r l s are at about Grade 7  or 8 l e v e l .  There are a number of g i r l s who  of any sort, and are i l l i t e r a t e . remote v i l l a g e s who schools.  have never attended school  Frequently these are Indian g i r l s from  have not had the opportunity to attend r e s i d e n t i a l  -41TABLE 5 Education Level of Inmate Population o f the Women's D i v i s i o n , O.P.F., on January 1, 1956 and J u l y 1, 1956. Number  Age Group  January 1, 1956 None Grades 1 - 4 5 - 6  July 1, 1956 2 1  5 2 4 27  7-8  8  9 -io " 11 -12 " 13 or more Not known  18 13  29 17 10  -  2  T o t a 1*  70  69  II  6.  -  1  D i s t r i b u t i o n According t o Religion I t seems that during the year 1956 the inmate population  rather evenly originated from Protestant grounds. B.C.  and Roman Catholic back-  The Doukhobour quota can o f course be attributed to a peculiar  problem. TABLE 6 D i s t r i b u t i o n According to Religious A f f i l i a t i o n among the Inmate Population o f the Women's D i v i s i o n , O.P.F., on January 1, 1956, and J u l y 1, 1956. Number  Religion  January 1, 1956 Roman Catholic Protestant Jewish Doukhobour Greek Orthodox None T o t a l : 7.  39 34 2 2  J u l y 1, 1956  3  34 30 1 2 1 1  70  69  -  Occupational Background The stated occupation on the face sheet i s frequently misleading.  - 4 2 -  Although very few g i r l s would report that they had no occupation, a large percentage of them have almost no steady work experience but perhaps have worked i n t e r m i t t e n t l y at restaurant or house work.  A few w i l l l i s t t h e i r  occupation as "Prostitute", which, while no doubt true, i s not a lawful means of employment as we wish to refer to here.  Therefore t h i s group  has been included under the heading "No occupation".  A large number of  the g i r l s report t h e i r occupation as "Housewife", and t h i s has been found admissible as a category. The s i g n i f i c a n t information that can be learned from the following t a b l e , because o f i t s u n r e l i a b i l i t y i f considered as a work record, i s the degree to which the group i s occupationally s k i l l e d .  As perhaps might be  expected, the majority name u n s k i l l e d occupations. TABLE 7 D i s t r i b u t i o n According to Occupation of the Inmate Population of the Women's Division, O.P.F., on January 1 , 1 9 5 6 , and J u l y 1 , 1 9 5 6 . Number  Occupation January 1 , Waitress Dishwasher Housekeeper Factory Worker Farm Hand Chauffeur Nurses Aide Clerk Dental Nurse Typist, Stenographer Seamstress Hotel Manager Writer Housewife No Occupation T o t a l :  15  3  7 7  1956  July 1 , 1 9 5 6  -  16 11  2  —>  -  1  5  1  1  4  6  2  mm  2  1  2  -  2  -  1  2  12  16  11  9  70  69  - 4 3 -  8.  M a r i t a l Status Although m a r i t a l status i s an item recorded on the face sheets,  the statement  given i s v i r t u a l l y meaningless.  Even though the majority  state they are 'Married', i n very few cases does t h i s imply a stable marriage, the setting up o f a home, the r a i s i n g o f children, the mutual respect of husband and wife.  Often the inmate f a i l s t o d i s t i n g u i s h  between l e g a l marriage and common-law marriage and designates the l a t t e r simply as 'Marriage'. of convenience,  Not too infrequently a l e g a l marriage has been one  as a marriage l i c e n c e i s a requirement  for visiting  p r i v i l e g e s should either or both be arrested. TABLE 8 Recorded D i s t r i b u t i o n According t o Marital Status of the Inmate Population o f the Women's D i v i s i o n , O.P.F.,.on January 1 , 1 9 5 6 , and J u l y 1 , 1 9 5 6 . M a r i t a l Status  Number January 1 , 1 9 5 6  Single Married Separated Divorced Common-law Widow  B.  July 1 , 1 9 5 6  24  19  23  35  13  9  2  1  4  3  4  1  Some Problems Frequently Found Among the Inmate Population Certain problems appear t y p i c a l l y among the group at the Women's  Gaol.  They are worth considering f o r the purposes o f t h i s study as they  again represent needs which the program of the i n s t i t u t i o n should be meeting. The recognition o f areas of d i f f i c u l t y within the group as background f o r program planning does not negate the i n d i v i d u a l approach i n the matter o f  -44treatment. 1.  The Indian Problem As a r u l e , Indians do not commit crimes - they commit misde-"  meanors: they misuse intoxicants, they are law-breakers and accidental offenders, but they do come to gaol.  The problem o f the Indian woman i n  Oakalla Prison Farm stems from the large problem o f acculturation within our Western c i v i l i z a t i o n .  Our society has not equipped i t s e l f t o deal  p o s i t i v e l y with the d i f f i c u l t i e s , and, as a very unfortunate consequence, often the only answer t o irresponsible behaviour on the part o f the Indian i s found i n a gaol sentence. Indian women have problems thrust on them merely because they are born Indian i n t h i s Western c i v i l i z a t i o n .  Frequently through the  schooling system they are introduced t o , and forced to l i v e within, a d i f f e r e n t culture from that which they came on the reservation and yet are not provided with the means to make the t r a n s i t i o n when they return to the reservation.  The older members do not wish t o change t h e i r way o f  l i v i n g ; the outside world o f the white man does not accept them as equals. Partially  trained f o r two c i v i l i z a t i o n s , they belong i n neither. The story o f the Indian woman i n gaol i s a l l too similar i n  many cases.  Frequent arrests f o r drinking by the p o l i c e i n the small  town near her native reservation have resulted i n her being kept i n the l o c a l lockup f o r short sentences.  F i n a l l y the harassed magistrate sentences  her to Oakalla f o r about 20 o r 30 days.  She f i n d s the experience not as  frightening as threatened or expected, the prison authorities arrange her transportation home and there are no real deterrents to prevent her from getting drunk again and sent back to Oakalla. This time she i s not so shy,  -45-  she has friends to greet and hears about the exciting things to do and the money that can be made in Vancouver. Although transportation would once more be provided, the woman stays in town (the prison has authority over her only up to her release at the gate). In the city, the Indian woman is 'accepted* only in the East End, and then usually abused and treated as a prostitute. About the only places that would hire her are disreputable restaurants, even i f she wanted work. She returns again and again to Oakalla on Intoxication charges; i f adventuresome, she may get involved with drugs. A similar situation may occur when a woman has been educated to the extent that she is dissatisfied with l i f e on the reservation but not sufficiently so that she can fit in within the community to which she moves. This social inferiority carries over into the gaol situation. It used to be that they did the "dirty work" in the prison - the scrubbing, the dishes, the peeling of vegetables - and were probably not even considered as capable of anything else. Although the flagrant discrimination against them has now virtually disappeared, there is s t i l l a noticeable tendency to think of them and refer to them as "poor l i t t l e Indian kids", rather than helping them grow towards adult responsibility. This factor of responsibility is one that should be kept constantly in mind in the operating of a treatment program. Most of the women have attended residential schools and the gaol can become l i t t l e more than a continuation of the same situation, where they are told what to do, to wear, to eat, and take on none of the decisions. 2.  The Habitual Drinker The problem of the habitual drinker and the alcoholic often fails  to receive the attention that i t warrants. Although in January, 1956,  -46there were 17 persons out of the 70 (or 24 per cent) and i n July, 16 out o f 69 (34 per cent) who were known to have a drinking problem, out of the t o t a l admissions for the f i s c a l year 1955-56 there were over 300 arrests f o r charges under the Liquor Act.  This discrepancy arises because o f  the shorter sentences given f o r Intoxication charges as compared with other offences, and one person may have served several sentences i n a r e l a t i v e l y short period o f time.  In the l a s t year there has been a great  increase i n the number of persons sentenced to 5 days as a r e s u l t o f a change i n court procedure whereby suspended  sentences are no longer  imposed f o r i n t o x i c a t i o n . Frequently f i v e days i s an i n s u f f i c i e n t period f o r a person to recover p h y s i c a l l y from a prolonged drinking bout.  I t i s completely useless  i n any sort of terms f o r treatment o f a drinking problem. Occasionally women with a long drinking record w i l l be sentenced to three months.  Then i t i s possible f o r them to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the program,  to become part o f a group, to e s t a b l i s h some sort of a relationship with a matron and to make contact with some organization, such as the Alcoholism Foundation, with whom they may be able to work out post-release plans. For the women who are constantly i n and out of gaol on drinking charges—often there are only two o r three days between charges—an  effort  has been made to make t h e i r involvement i n the program a continuing process. Once they have recovered from the physical e f f e c t s of drinking, they are returned  to the group and probably work placement where they were on t h e i r  previous admission.  Thus they are able to renew contacts with t h e i r matron  and t h e i r group members and thus many of the factors that make f o r individual growth and progress are maintained.  -473.  The Problems of Drug Addicts In both January and J u l y o f 1956 there were 34 women who were  known to be drug addicts o r to have used drugs at one time. tutes about 48 per cent o f the population at a given time.  This c o n s t i What t h i s  high percentage i n d i c a t e s , i n e f f e c t , i s that the majority of persons i n the Women's D i v i s i o n ( i n B r i t i s h Columbia), who have a f a i r l y well-established pattern o f delinquency, use drugs.  These are the habitual offenders.  Most of them have a history o f delinquency which pre-dates the use of drugs. This means that the use o f drugs i s i n most cases an outgrowth of a delinquency pattern. Sedation i s medically prescribed during the period o f withdrawal when addicts are f i r s t admitted.  Within about a week, they are  ready to take active part i n the program. Many o f the custodial requirements of the gaol are imposed because of the addict problem.  In p a r t i c u l a r , v i s i t i n g and contacts with  the community have t o be c l o s e l y watched because of the danger o f drugs being passed to the women. The minimum sentence f o r a conviction o f Drug Possession i s six months, although many receive longer terms.  Since the addicts know  they are going to be i n gaol f o r some period, the program becomes o f v i t a l interest to them.  As a group, compared to those sentenced f o r  drinking charges, they appear to be aggressive and outgoing and generally sociable.  Most of them have known each other f o r some length of time -  the procuring o f drugs involves contact with some i l l e g a l source - and there i s an expressed f e e l i n g of "We're on one side of the fence, you're on the other" and a code of delinquency which looks with suspicion on a p o s i t i v e relationship with an authority figure.  Also, there i s what has  -48been termed a "con a t t i t u d e " o r approach by which situations are manipul a t e d and exploited f o r personal benefit with l i t t l e thought f o r the effects on others o r f o r the long-term r e s u l t s .  What we f i n d i n the  addict group i s a predominance of psychopathic tendencies which must be recognized i n the planning of the program.  The s k i l l l i e s i n making the  necessary controls a part o f the treatment scheme. A cottage has been set up as a Narcotic Drug Treatment Unit next to  the Women's Building and here a specialized program w i l l operate. I t  has a maximum accommodation of twelve and the women are chosen from the population at the Women's D i v i s i o n .  I t s program w i l l not be discussed i n  t h i s study, but i t s very presence i s a f a c t o r t o be considered i n the planning of program i n the women's gaol.  A move t o the Unit i s regarded  by the inmates as recognition by the administration o f t h e i r genuine desire to 4.  stop using drugs. The Problem of Homosexuality The problem of homosexuals i n gaols and o f homosexual tendencies  never seems to be dealt with adequately. There are probably s i x or eight women at any given time i n the Women's Division who are known to have openly had homosexual l i v i n g arrangements i n the community.  The homosexual  tendency i s present i n some degree i n every i n d i v i d u a l and the gaol may provide the s i t u a t i o n which p r e c i p i t a t e s homosexual a c t i v i t y that would not  occur i n a normal s o c i a l setting, As a group, the women i n gaol are  emotionally immature and sexually promiscuous.  They need attention and  gain considerable s a t i s f a c t i o n from p h y s i c a l contact. Talk about homosexual a c t i v i t y and displays o f a f f e c t i o n embarrass •and arouse feelings of g u i l t i n many g i r l s .  I t i s a problem which frightens  many of the younger ones, and often.upsets s t a f f .  I f undue focus i s given to  -49 the problem, f a l s e interpretation can be placed on friendship and relationships between s t a f f and g i r l s . by the program i n several ways.  on  Certain control can be maintained  Aggressive homosexuals are often placed  i n d i f f e r e n t groups from those who  would be r e a d i l y attracted.  A full  and interesting program that gives scope f o r using up energy, f o r p h y s i c a l exercise, f o r creative work, and that i s c l o s e l y supervised w i l l allow l e s s time f o r a n t i - s o c i a l means of s a t i s f a c t i o n to develop.  For  the  aggressive homosexual, treatment probably requires p s y c h i a t r i c carej a good therapeutic atmosphere i s the best preventive of a s i t u a t i o n a l problem.  -50-  CHAFTER IV. THE INDIVIDUAL AND THE PROGRAM A.  The Beginnings of C l a s s i f i c a t i o n C l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s the method by which the diagnostic, t r a i n i n g  and treatment programs can be directed e f f i c i e n t l y toward the treatment o f 1 the  individual.  Hugh C h r i s t i e describes c l a s s i f i c a t i o n as a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  which begins with the reception and orientation of the i n d i v i d u a l to the i n s t i t u t i o n , includes a short, intensive diagnosis process and c a r r i e s on 2 continuously throughout the whole sentence. In the Women's D i v i s i o n at Oakalla, the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n procedures are  s t i l l elementary and a l i t t l e haphazard i n implementation.  include persons both sentenced and waiting t r i a l .  Admissions  There i s a regular  admitting routine which e n t a i l s a bath, l i s t i n g o f a l l clothing and e f f e c t s , and issue o f prison c l o t h i n g — d r e s s , shoes, socks, and nightgown. the  paper work f o r the o f f i c i a l  when necessary,  Most of  records, including f i n g e r p r i n t s and photograph, .  i s completed at the Main Gaol by the Record S t a f f .  When  known drug addicts, or those charged with drug offences, are admitted there are  a d d i t i o n a l admitting procedures designed as precautionary measures to  prevent drugs being smuggled into the b u i l d i n g . The new admissions are then taken to t h e i r rooms and, when possible, f i r s t offenders are placed i n single rooms, although shortage o f space sometimes prevents t h i s .  Generally, during the f i r s t day, each g i r l i s seen by  •^•Loveland, Frank, " C l a s s i f i c a t i o n i n the Prison System", i n Tappan, Paul W., ed., Contemporary Correction, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1 9 5 1 , p. 9 2 . o  C h r i s t i e , Hugh Graham, Administrative Structure and Process within a Penal I n s t i t u t i o n , Master of S o c i a l Work Thesis, University o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1952, p. 5 2 .  -51the prison doctor who can then prescribe any necessary medication and treatment. Admitting routines are never very pleasant.  Frequently, as  i n the cases of addicts and habitual drinkers, the f i r s t few days require intensive medical a t t e n t i o n .  One o f the main drawbacks to the present  admitting system i s the lack of privacy which r e s u l t s when four or f i v e g i r l s are admitted i n the one admitting room i n the b u i l d i n g . Certain data are recorded on the face sheet: name, address, b i r t h date and b i r t h place, marital status, occupation and education, next of k i n and parents' names, and the charge with sentence o r date o f remand.  This information, recorded on a standard form i s , o f course,  necessary and u s e f u l .  However, i n addition, during the evening of the  f i r s t day some attempt i s made to gain additional background information on why the inmate got into trouble, and to help her with some immediate problems.  Gaol procedures and rules are explained to new admissions.  Such interviews are usually undertaken by the matron responsible f o r program on the afternoon s h i f t .  This procedure o f interviewing with the subsequent  i n i t i a l recording i s most e f f e c t i v e l y and thoroughly carried out with new admissions.  However, records are often sparse on Information concerning  repeaters, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the cases o f habitual drinkers with short sentences.  With persons who have had numerous sentences o f 5 days, 10 days,  1 month, etc., l i t t l e more may be recorded of that period other than that they were admitted and discharged. Since 1953, there has been at the Women's D i v i s i o n , a f i l e on each person admitted.  P r i o r to that date, i n d i v i d u a l face sheet information  was kept at the Records O f f i c e of the Men's Building and there was no system  -52for  recording i n d i v i d u a l adjustment or progress.  Each f i l e now contains  a face sheet, c l a s s i f i c a t i o n sheet, work progress reports, group reports and any pertinent correspondence and information. The C l a s s i f i c a t i o n sheet i s a mimeographed form which provides space on one side for b r i e f recommendations and remarks from matrons o f various departments who have had contact with the' g i r l , f o r a statement of her education, occupation and health, and for a c u s t o d i a l evaluation. On the other side are sections f o r work h i s t o r y and group h i s t o r y where are l i s t e d the placements of the inmate and certain remarks concerning the placement.  The one c l a s s i f i c a t i o n sheet i s retained i f there i s more  than one admission. Work progress reports are f i l l e d out at the end o f each month by the matron o f each department.  The progress report i s a mimeographed  form which allows f o r information concerning personal and work habits under headings which include appearance, c l e a n l i n e s s , speech, walk, attitude towards s t a f f and i n s t i t u t i o n , a b i l i t y to take i n s t r u c t i o n , complete jobs, etc.  The value o f these reports l i e s i n t h e i r record o f changes over, a  period of time. Group reports are kept i n the various group books during the woman's incarceration. The report i s started on the day the woman i s admitted;  c e r t a i n circumstances  concerning her arrest and admission are  noted and any additional background information that can be obtained. These reports are made to enable an evaluation o f the i n d i v i d u a l and her needs and problems before she i s placed i n an active group.  At that time,  the record i s transferred to the relevant group book and the group matron keeps up a record of her adjustment i n the group, her approach t o various situations, and the methods that are used i n helping her with problems,  -53necessary d i s c i p l i n a r y measures, etc. As soon as p h y s i c a l l y able, the woman goes t o work and within three or four days a f t e r being sentenced i s placed i n an active group, unless health o r other conditions p r o h i b i t t h i s .  Group and steady work  placements are made a f t e r discussions between the matron-in-charge, the matron supervising the work program and the matron supervising the a f t e r noon program.  Sometimes, because o f lack o f space, o f shortage o r over-  crowding i n work teams, a woman may be placed without much discussion as t o her needs.  The " c l a s s i f i c a t i o n " discussions are held i r r e g u l a r l y , about  once o r twice a week and are often informal pooling o f opinions.  However,  there i s r a r e l y a woman, with a sentence o f a month or longer, who does not have her i n d i v i d u a l needs and s i t u a t i o n considered, at l e a s t to some degree, i n r e l a t i o n to the i n s t i t u t i o n a l program.  The r e l a t i v e l y good standard o f  " c l a s s i f i c a t i o n " that comes out o f a rather casual routine i s probably result of the low numbers of people i n the i n s t i t u t i o n .  the  Because the  population r a r e l y exceeds one hundred, i t i s possible f o r each matron to be acquainted with each woman, and because o f the number o f matrons, for each woman to be known quite well by one o r two matrons.  S t a f f are encouraged  to take an interest i n the inmates and to give t h e i r opinions on c u s t o d i a l and treatment needs. B.  Case Studies In order to give a picture o f how the i n d i v i d u a l inmate becomes  involved i n the i n s t i t u t i o n a l program, the following f i v e cases have been selected from the f i l e s at the Women ',s D i v i s i o n .  The f i v e were selected  because each exemplifies a c e r t a i n behaviour syndrome that i s t y p i c a l of a number of other women.  The cases chosen do not n e c e s s a r i l y show good  -54treatment.  They were selected because s u f f i c i e n t information was  avail-  able that some e f f e c t of the program on the i n d i v i d u a l could be noted. The e f f e c t i n some instances i s that t h i s program has helped the i n d i v i d u a l to progress and change her behaviour; i n other instances the program may have only strengthened a delinquency pattern; at times i t may have had no e f f e c t at a l l . 1.  An Unmanageable Teenager The following i s a record of a 16-year-old g i r l who was transferred  to Oakalla from the G i r l s Industrial School because o f behaviour problems and because she was known to have used drugs. i n d e f i n i t e sentence.  As a Juvenile, she was on  Since that date, the p o l i c y has changed so that g i r l s are  no longer transferred to the adult i n s t i t u t i o n .  However, t h i s case has  been included i n the study because her behaviour exemplifies some of the problems encountered with young addicts, from about 18 to 21 years of age and with juveniles who have been transferred to Adult Court p r i o r to sentencing. School.  Many o f these have been previously committed to the I n d u s t r i a l  C l i n i c a l l y speaking, the problem here i s that o f the i n d i v i d u a l  whose a n t i - s o c i a l behaviour became evident i n her early teens, who has had two or three years of contact with the "underworld" and whose unstable behaviour r e f l e c t s the circumstances of her development and the drives and r e s t l e s s energy of adolescence. Face Sheet Information Name: Esther E. Charge:  Incorrigibility  Sentence: Indefinite, Transferred from G i r l s I n d u s t r i a l School to Oakalla Prison Farm about 1 month a f t e r committal.  -55Previous Record: 1 previous committal to G.I.S. 1 charge o f I l l e g a l Possession of Drugs at which time she was transferred from Juvenile to Adult Court and sentenced to 6 months. This sentence was served i n a small provincial g a o l . Mother:  Anna E., never married.  Fathe r:  Unknown  Died of T.B. when subject 12 years o l d .  S o c i a l History (Because o f e a r l y and frequent contacts with Social Service agencies, considerable information regarding background and development was available). Esther was the i l l e g i t i m a t e daughter and only c h i l d of Anna E. who never married,  at  2jjr  years she was placed, on a non-ward basis, i n her  f i r s t foster home. Reports indicate a good adjustment, but within a year the foster parents moved. "hard to manage".  In her second placement,  she was described as  Two other placements proved unsatisfactory, and Esther  (now 4 years old) returned for the next 3 years to her mother u n t i l the l a t t e r contracted T.B. and went t o the Sanitarium where she died a few years l a t e r .  In her next foster home, Esther seemed "happy" u n t i l the  foster mother also contracted T.B.,  and i t was noted that from t h i s time  "she was unable to form any deep relationship with anyone".  However, she  remained at her next foster home which was very "accepting and understanding" u n t i l she was 13 years o l d , when she ran away.  Since then, she has run  away from every home i n which she was placed. At 1 3 , in a convent. C.A.S  i t was f e l t she needed custodial care and she was placed  She remained 3 months, then ran away but returned to the  worker on her own.  wanted".  At 1 4 ,  However, "they would not l e t me l i v e the l i f e I  she was committed to the G i r l s Industrial School and  was  released i n 7 months after having run away numerous times. From about the age of 1 2 , Esther was ostracized by various groups of conforming youngsters because o f her unconventional behaviour.  She  -56began staying out a l l night, drinking and having sexual r e l a t i o n s with  men.  Several times she stayed on an Indian Reservation, and gave the explanation that they were "my kind o f people".  (She was French i n national o r i g i n . )  From a p s y c h i a t r i c examination came the report that: she was unable to postpone immediate desires f o r future g r a t i f i c a t i o n ; she seemed to remain anxious only i n d i r e c t response to a stress; she was  confused  about masculine and feminine r o l e s ; she craved acceptance from her peers; and, though afraid of emotional contacts, she was eager to "relate". Diagnosis and  Treatment  I t would seem that from infancy Esther grew up without ever f u l l y having any of her basic needs met. appear only r e j e c t i n g to her.  She has l i v e d i n situations which can  Every time she has formed any sort of r e l a t i o n -  ship with anyone, that person was removed.  Every time she l i k e d a person or  s i t u a t i o n , that person or s i t u a t i o n was removed.  Her cravings f o r love,  a f f e c t i o n , security and a place where she belongs, which were never met, prevented her from developing normally i n other areas.  She never had the  security to develop controls within h e r s e l f , never had enough given to her to be able to give to others.  She grew up unable t o adjust to adult author-  i t y or to conformity demanded by peers. Adolescence, with i t s sex d r i v e s , brought with i t new  possibilities  o f seeming love and acceptance, and she ran away from the l i f e which had given her no s a t i s f a c t i o n .  But Esther d i d not have the control or capacity  to achieve the conformity that even delinquent adolescent groups demand. Although at 15 years she had made headlines as "The Youngest Drug Addict i n B.C.", other delinquents were making r e a l threats because she had given testimony on which a man was committed t o prison.  -57The f i r s t month of her current admission, Esther appeared extremely apathetic to everything and everybody.  She was placed i n  0,T. as she was known to have some a r t i s t i c a b i l i t i e s and more superv i s i o n was possible i n that department than had she been placed on Maintenance.  She took no interest i n any phase o f the department, had  no patience to learn a new  s k i l l , would not l i s t e n to i n s t r u c t i o n , anfl  i f she did not obtain immediate success would throw down the a r t i c l e saying she had done the best she could.  She wandered constantly from  her task and attached herself to older g i r l s . She was placed i n Hut I I with other young addicts but the threats of r e p r i s a l because of her having given testimony were so d i s turbing to her that i t was recognized she would probably never become part of the group.  In the Hut she was very much on the defensive towards  both s t a f f and other g i r l s - her most frequent remark was always pick on me?"  "Why  do  you  - would not do her share of work, and constantly  broke rules by such acts as running to the b u i l d i n g without asking and passing a r t i c l e s through the windows.  About four weeks a f t e r  admission,  she was transferred to Hut I where at that time there were no addicts and there  was one young I t a l i a n g i r l also on i n d e f i n i t e sentence.  This  g i r l was the f i r s t f r i e n d l y contact that Esther made among the g i r l s . However, her temper was very e a s i l y aroused, which constantly brought disapproval from both s t a f f and other g i r l s .  The other g i r l s  gave up t a l k i n g to her because she was so r a r e l y agreeable. She was moved to the kitchen during work hours where she  was  required to do c e r t a i n jobs a certain way and within a specified time.  -58This brought almost too much pressure on her and, at one point where she was told to re-do a f l o o r she had supposedly washed, she t r i e d to choke the matron. her "nerves".  Esther l a i d the blame f o r t h i s incident on the poor state o f She was  charged i n Warden's court, where i t was pointed out  to her that she had shown some control i n that she had not r e a l l y hurt the matron, and therefore, i n the future, more s e l f - c o n t r o l would be of her.  expected  She was placed i n i s o l a t i o n f o r three days. Although she was  somewhat subdued a f t e r t h i s , her defiance  towards the demands of society took another form.  She got her h a i r cut  l i k e a boy s, plastered i t back, and took every opportunity to associate 1  with g i r l s generally remarked as having overt homosexual tendencies. Fortunately, l i t t l e emphasis was placed on t h i s behaviour, except where i t involved already e x i s t i n g gaol r u l e s .  She was  a c h i l d , thrust into an  adult world, and such f e e l i n g s would not be considered too abnormal i n other settings. The homosexual group was another rejected group where Esther might f i n d acceptance.  But she had enough problems without  an  additional l a b e l of "lesbian". However, i t was f e l t that some progress could be made within the group of Hut I .  Once she had moved  there, i f possible, the whole time.  i t was decided she should remain The group was a slowly changing  one,  some coming, others going, and thus somewhat a counterpart o f society at large.  Acceptance by the group would therefore be an important  her growth.  factor i n  However, the matron would probably be the important figure i n  the group, accepting her at a l l times, although showing approval when she behaved  and providing the controls when she d i d not.  In regard to the  l a t t e r , the matron of the Hut t r i e d to correct Esther more often when she  -59was i n company with another g i r l , thus trying not to make her alone i n her non-conformity.  For a large p a r t , the d i s c i p l i n i n g of Esther came from  the group, so that she might l e a m  she had to get along with society.  Discussions with her on behaviour problems kept away from any deep areas of personality disorders but stressed every-day behaviour.  Emphasis was  l a i d on her keeping control and taking r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . Esther needed some form of expression f o r her l i k e s and d i s l i k e s i n a physical way.  Because of gaol mores, touching another person so as to  show a f f e c t i o n carried with i t the connotation of homosexuality. suggested that a k i t t e n be given to Esther and her group.  I t was  She became  extremely fond of t h i s k i t t e n , she could fondle and care f o r i t , could worry about i t , and s t i l l have the complete approval o f the group.  And  the k i t t e n was something the group shared a l i k i n g for with Esther. After several months, a young g i r l who had used drugs was moved into the Hut.  This g i r l had been i n quite as much trouble as Esther since  her committal but i n the l a s t two months had s e t t l e d down considerably. She took quite a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for Esther's behaviour and they became good companions and "partners i n crime" (e.g., starting a "home brew"), but the relationship was a good one.  Esther now had some acceptance by  her peers and a friend who was a "bad" g i r l but was t r y i n g to be "good" and to grow up. Esther began accepting r e s p o n s i b i l i t y h e r s e l f .  I t was her own  request that she be cook i n the Hut f o r several weeks, and she f a i t h f u l l y performed her duties - did not need to be t o l d to start the meal, d i d not complain about getting up e a r l y i n the morning, cooked even when she said she f e l t s i c k .  -60After f i v e months a f t e r admission i t was noted by her matron that she did not stand out as different from the rest of the group nearly so much as formerly; nor did she have to be encouraged as much.  She  gained i n c o n t r o l of her temper, and though s t i l l often cranky, did not have the outbursts.  Once, l i s t e n i n g to another g i r l argue, she said,  "Well, now I know what i t sounds l i k e when I argue.  I t ' s p r e t t y awful."  Eight months after admission, i t was recorded that although her general behaviour had improved a great deal, she complained constantly of her "nerves" and her eating habits were i r r e g u l a r and she slept f o r long periods during the afternoon.  What seemed to upset her the most was  the idea of her unknown release date.  Several times she had believed  would be released before certain dates and had been disappointed. l i t t l e idea of where she would be sent when released (she was  she  She  had  a ward of  the Children's Aid Society) and frequently stated that i f placed i n a foster home "I w i l l stay half an hour".  A l l her own plans were to j o i n  a boy friend and get married, and i n this respect she spoke of taking, care of the house, having children, and cooking s p e c i a l t i e s f o r her boy friend.  She formed a great admiration f o r an a t t r a c t i v e g i r l who  came  from a stable background and normal home l i f e , and i t had become a rare thing to hear Esther t a l k of the streets and of using drugs and of running around with  men.  This was her state of mind at her release a f t e r nine months of incarceration.  Her attitudes and f e e l i n g s were much more l i k e what one  would expect from an adolescent, whereas formerly they were l i k e those of a l i t t l e child.  When removed from the gaol, she was no longer the h o r r i b l y  maladjusted g i r l that had entered, but at least had the a b i l i t y , given a  -61f a i r opportunity, to make the adjustment to a normal l i f e . An Indian R e c i d i v i s t The majority of Indians i n the gaol come from reservations outside the c i t y .  Among the group o f older Indian women who come to gaol, most have  had l i t t l e education.  Many have a history of T.B.  There are times when i t  i s found that t h i s l a t t e r problem i s either unknown or ignored by them u n t i l i t i s recognized i n gaol.  D e l i a D. i s an Indian, 50 years o f age, who has  come to gaol numerous times i n the past f i v e years f o r v i o l a t i o n s under the Indian Liquor Act.  Although i n most matters she has seemed to have a passive  attitude, she has remained adamant i n her refusal to accept treatment  f o r her  tuberculosis condition, although she knows that she may be spreading the disease among others and w i l l h e r s e l f get only more sick. Face Sheet Information Name: D e l i a D. B i r t h : 4-8-06  Chase, B.C.  Charge: V i o l a t i o n under the Indian Liquor Act (Intoxication). D e l i a was arrested i n Kamloops when found s i t t i n g on the sidewalk o f the main street i n a state of i n t o x i c a t i o n . Sentence:  1 month.  Previous Record: 15 previous charges under the Liquor Act served at Oakalla Prison Farm with sentences ranging from 7 days to 2 months. There have been several sentences, of less than 20 days, which were served i n Kamloops Gaol; alternatives o f fines which were paid, both i n Kamloops and Vancouver; and numerous suspended sentences i n Kamloops and Vancouver. Personal History D e l i a i s a small woman, 4 ' U " i n height and weighing 101 pounds. She has long hair which u s u a l l y hangs straight to the shoulders.  She speaks  quietly and p o l i t e l y to s t a f f , and although she enjoys t a l k i n g to other Indian g i r l s , i s never voluble.  -62Della attended school up to Grade I I I and can read and write. When i n gaol, she l i k e s t o read magazines but r a r e l y takes out l i b r a r y books.  She gives her occupation  as housekeeper but i t i s doubtful i f she  has ever been g a i n f u l l y employed. D e l i a has been married but her present l e g a l husband.  "old man" i s not her  She has a sixteen-year-old daughter who stays with Delia's  mother i n Chase, and works as a waitress i n a cafe. During the l a s t f i v e years that Delia has been coming to gaol, her medical h i s t o r y shows that sometimes she was i s o l a t e d f o r T.B,, and at others she was diagnosed as having arrested T.B.  Five years ago she was  i n T.B. h o s p i t a l f o r treatment but l e f t a f t e r two months because she d i d not want to stay any longer.  Since then, she has refused to return.  At  the present time i t i s d i f f i c u l t to determine exactly her condition, except from X-rays, as she refuses to give sputum for sputum t e s t s , or take stomach washes.  She also refuses to take any prescribed a n t i b i o t i c s .  The conditions of her a r r e s t s are u s u a l l y s i m i l a r . with Joe D., at a logging camp outside Kamloops.  She l i v e s  She states that he works  s t e a d i l y and i t i s when they come.into town on payday to go shopping that she gets drunk.  She says t h i s happens every time because there are too  many beer parlours and too many f r i e n d s i n Kamloops.  S e t i m e s she goes to om  v i s i t her mother and daughter i n Chase, and the same s i t u a t i o n a r i s e s . She and Joe have a cabin at the camp and Delia says he w i l l not be l o n e l y without.her as he has a radio. I n s t i t u t i o n a l Adjustment On admission, Delia i s usually quite d i r t y and poorly dressed. She cooperates with the admission routine but i s generally sulky as she  -63knows she w i l l be placed i n i s o l a t i o n because o f her T.B. condition. (Isolation means that she remains i n one room, eats o f f one set of dishes, and her v i s i t i n g i s l i m i t e d to friends standing at the door).  One time  D e l i a came i n under her s i s t e r ' s name i n the hope of avoiding i s o l a t i o n . On the occasions when her T.B. condition has been diagnosed as arrested, she has worked i n the Sewing Room. What work reports there are on her state that she i s a " w i l l i n g worker>' quiet and withdrawn, leans on others to see what goes on next."  Regarding any work preferences, she  seems content with any job given her, usually mending socks, although she has asked to go on maintenance. While i n i s o l a t i o n , D e l i a remains i n Group VT - the group f o r the sick and new admissions.  The few times that she has been allowed to mix  with the other inmates she has been placed i n Group V with other g i r l s having short sentences and records of previous charges.  As a group member,  she was extremely passive, and her group record shows l i t t l e other than that she l i k e d to be with other Indians and enjoyed attending the Roman Catholic evening sessions with members o f the Legion of Mary. Her physical condition i s not improving.  She has been taken  to the T.B, C l i n i c at the General Hospital several times, but about a year ago they requested that she not be sent again as she had refused to cooperate with any routine. In t a l k i n g o f her T.B. problem Delia says she does not see why  she should go to h o s p i t a l as she thinks there are l o t s of others  who have i t and are not i n h o s p i t a l .  She does not l i k e the diagnostic and  treatment procedures, and does not think she has any need of them.  As f a r  as she i s concerned, she i s not sick. Her drinking problem she seems to understand as s i t u a t i o n a l .  If  i t were not f o r the friends and beer parlours i n Kamloops and the shopping  -64-  that brings her there, she would not be i n gaol.  Actually she does not  mind gaol too much, except for the i s o l a t i o n .  For the past year, g i r l s arrested outside Vancouver have been given a warrant f o r a t i c k e t home.  P r i o r to that time, a warrant was  given once a year, so that i f g i r l s from out o f town were sentenced more than once that year, they had to find t h e i r own way home, or remain i n Vancouver.  Since Delia was usually u n f i t for work, she would not have even  the pay of ten cents a day and therefore i s usually discharged, l i t e r a l l y , penniless.  quite  Thus frequently she d r i f t e d into Vancouver where  she did l i t t l e but drink and eventually returned to Oakalla.  The present  p o l i c y o f providing transportation every time back to place o f arrest i s o f assistance to those who wish to return, although i t has been found that with Delia, unless arrangements are made to put her on the bus f o r Kamloops (a voluntary procedure outside the j u r i s d i c t i o n of the prison), she w i l l s t i l l end up on the streets of Vancouver.  The main advantage o f  sending her home seems to be that she remains out o f Oakalla for longer periods. The preceding report could be repeated i n many other although, of course, the T.B. factor i s not always present.  cases,  Part o f  D e l i a s trouble i s the same trouble that i s a f f e c t i n g many o f the North 1  American Indian peoples.  Delia takes almost no r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r her  own l i f e nor how i t a f f e c t s the l i v e s of others; she sees no reason why she should.  She expects to come to gaol.  Whether the program o f the  Women's D i v i s i o n can have any e f f e c t on a factor that i s almost a c u l t u r a l outgrowth, or can be modified to do so, remains to be seen. at present, quite i n e f f e c t u a l .  However, i t i s  Delia i s f i f t y years o l d ; f o r her generation  -65i t i s probably too l a t e to expect any degree of change. Nevertheless, i t seems quite evident that more could be done for D e l i a within the e x i s t i n g framework of the program.  I t would  probably be possible, with a great deal of continued encouragement, to get D e l i a to cooperate with the routine f o r treatment perhaps even to enter a sanitorium.  of tuberculosis,  But beyond that, i t i s not l i k e l y  that the program i s capable o f making her wish to change her way o f l i f e . 3.  A First  Offender  The term " f i r s t offender" refers to the inmate who for  the f i r s t time to a penal i n s t i t u t i o n .  Even when the  i s admitted  circumstances  of a p a r t i c u l a r inmate's background have been checked to ensure that the term has been c o r r e c t l y applied, i t s usage, as was previously stated i n Chapter I, gives no r e a l i n d i c a t i o n as to the type of problem. there are o c c a s i o n a l l y persons who  However,  come to gaol who  have had almost no  connection or acquaintance with other delinquents.  The f o l l o w i n g i s a  description o f a g i r l who  came from a f a i r l y stable family, had a good  education and a work history that showed she had held steady jobs for long periods.  (This l a s t was one of her d i s t i n g u i s h i n g marks: the majority  of the g i r l s have worked for only b r i e f and intermittent periods at u n s k i l l e d jobs, have e i t h e r been f i r e d or quit on a moment's notice several times; some have never worked at a l l . ) .  I f her charge had been l e s s serious,  she would probably have been released on probation. Face Sheet Information Name: Arlene A. Charge: Theft Over $50. Sentence:  1 year.  Previous Record:  None.  -66January 6, 1932, Calgary, Alberta.  Date of B i r t h : Education:  Grade X I I .  Occupation: Religion:  Dental nurse. United Church.  Next-of-Kin:  Mother, Mrs. N.  Circumstances  of Admission  Arlene was arrested after her employer discovered she had been taking money from him, to the amount o f about three thousand d o l l a r s , f o r the past three years and had been a l t e r i n g the books t o correspond.  The  money had been spent on personal e f f e c t s and furnishings f o r her rooms i n the house o f her mother and step-father. She was admitted to Oakalla when charged and was a month waiting trial.  On admission she was very depressed and t e a r f u l and at f i r s t  refused to have v i s i t s with her family but was persuaded to do so by s t a f f members. Personal History Arlene was 23 years old when admitted - a t a l l ,  attractive,  dark-haired g i r l , very p a r t i c u l a r about her personal appearance.  She had  been born i n Calgary and had moved to Vancouver when t e n years old with her mother and twelve-year-old brother, Edward.  At that time, her parents  obtained a divorce a f t e r having been separated f o r over a year.  Her mother  remarried when she was sixteen. Arlene's mother, Mrs. S., was a good-looking, well-dressed woman of f o r t y - f i v e .  She had probably looked very much l i k e Arlene when younger,  although she was s t i l l youthful i n appearance and i t was said that she and her daughter were often taken to be s i s t e r s .  She and her husband had  frequently accompanied Arlene and her boy-friend on double dates.  Arlene  -67stated that her mother had spoiled her.  At the time o f her arrest, although  both were working (the mother employed part-time as a saleswoman i n a clothing store), the mother did a l l the housework, cooking and washing. Arlene said that she herself never even washed so much as a p a i r of stockings, Mrs. S. was extremely upset at the arrest and i t i s believed she had no i n k l i n g of anything wrong p r i o r to that time.  She wrote and  v i s i t e d regularly and made plans and provisions f o r Arlene's release. Mr. A., Arlene's father, was an engineer with an o i l company i n Calgary.  He seemed t o be very fond of h i s daughter and she o f him.  He wrote regularly and made two t r i p s from Calgary to v i s i t her.  She had  seen him every year since the divorce and he had provided f o r her and her brother's support. Edward A., age twenty-five, was a motor mechanic i n Vancouver, He had been married three years and h i s year-old daughter was named a f t e r Arlene.  With his wife, he frequently v i s i t e d at the mother's home, and  they too wrote and v i s i t e d Arlene i n gaol. I n s t i t u t i o n a l Adjustment September 1 - Admitted Ex Vancouver, waiting t r i a l on charge o f Theft Over $50.  Arlene was very tense and obviously upset and took  notice o f her surroundings during admission.  little  When her mother 'phoned  l a t e r that day and asked f o r permission to v i s i t , Arlene said she wanted to  see no one o f her family.  A s t a f f member spoke to her saying that she  r e a l i z e d how upset Arlene must f e e l , but that she did owe her family some sort o f explanation and that after t h e f i r s t v i s i t things would be e a s i e r . Arlene agreed, and the v i s i t was to be the following day.  -68September 15 - Although Arlene had at f i r s t stated that she been taking money from o f f i c e accounts for three years and there was  had some  implication that her boy-friend had been involved, or had shown her how f i x the books ( t h i s f r i e n d was  never charged as there was  to  no evidence that  he had a c t u a l l y p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the t h e f t ) , within about four days she started t a l k i n g as though she were not g u i l t y , had somehow been "framed", and implied that the accountant had defrauded many of his c l i e n t s . She took part i n a l l a c t i v i t i e s open to her as a member of Group VI.  During the day she worked on Maintenance and was a w i l l i n g and  reliable  worker, although she seemed ignorant of commonplace routines of cleaning. October 6 - Arlene was calmly about her sentence and  sentenced today to  1 year.  She spoke  said that the judge stated he was  sorry to  have to give i t , but i t was necessary because of the amount of money involved. She was placed i n Group V on return and i s now working i n the Kitchen. October 15 - She has become very f r i ' e n d l y with E t h e l , her roommate, a woman o f f o r t y . to one year f o r Theft.  Ethel has been i n gaol before and i s also sentenced Although she has been associated with delinquents  for some years, she i s not an addict and i s generally cooperative towards the gaol program. Arlene i s not popular with the other women, p a r t i c u l a r l y the rest of the kitchen crew. not g u i l t y .  They claim she i s too self-righteous i n saying she i s  She does not know the ways and vocabulary of "rounders" and  they f e e l she i s i n c l i n e d to put on a i r s and act as though she were superior to them.  -69November 10 - Arlene and Ethel, who are s t i l l close f r i e n d s , were transferred to Hut 1.  They were taken out p r i o r to moving to look  over the Hut and they were quite agreeable about the change. Arlene has been taking.part i n a l l the program and i s a w i l l i n g worker i n the kitchen. making a vase.  She enjoys going to Pottery and i s presently  She i s getting along with the other g i r l s and i t seems  to be the general opinion that, when she i s known,  she i s w e l l l i k e d .  December 7 - Arlene was elected editor of the "Blue Cry", a small magazine put out by the women at i n t e r v a l s .  This p o s i t i o n , l i k e  any other elected inmate p o s i t i o n , usually comes to a g i r l who  i s recog-  nized as being a "rounder", or one of the habitual delinquents.  Her  superiority of education, plus the fact that she had shown that she would rather i d e n t i f y with them than with the s t a f f , were probably some of the reasons f o r her being chosen, Arlene and Ethel were d e f i n i t e l y instrumental i n promoting unity i n the Hut.  A young g i r l , who,  because o f e r r a t i c and babyish  behaviour, had been ostracized by the other members of the Hut p r i o r to t h e i r a r r i v a l , had become t h e i r protegee.  Arlene helped her c u r l her  h a i r , gave her cigarettes, lent her some of her own cosmetics, and aged her to j o i n i n a c t i v i t i e s with them.  encour-  At the same time Arlene took  some r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r correcting the behaviour of t h i s g i r l , which was occasionally resented. December 22 - A concert was held with acts from a l l the groups. Arlene was part of an "Arabian Nights" dance arrangement and was very enthusiastic over making costumes and obtaining properties.  Although  she  -70works very well with the younger g i r l s and i s usually a nice person to have around the Hut i n setting a general tone of conversation, she seems to think that her wishes should have p r i o r i t y over those of the younger ones. January 27 - She gets very abused-looking just her way.  when things are not  She always has a long l i s t of a r t i c l e s she wants her mother  to purchase a f t e r a v i s i t , and although she makes quite a display of gratitude, she i s c r i t i c a l i f something i s not just as she s p e c i f i e d . March 10 - There seem to be fewer instances i n which Arlene c r i t i c i z e s s t a f f and other women. She had constantly complained of s t a f f being "so petty", or o f taking food, e t c . , supposedly set aside f o r the girls.  Although she may v e r b a l l y champion the others, i t seems doubtful  i f she would ever get h e r s e l f i n trouble for anyone e l s e , A p r i l 16 -  E t h e l was transferred to the Prince George Gaol f o r  Women with ten others when Oakalla was over-crowded.  The administration  f e l t that they d i d not want to take any more r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r a continuing association of Arlene and Ethel a f t e r t h e i r release.  Arlene  was  quite "put out" as she deduced that they had purposely been separated wanted to go a l s o .  and  She now took over the leadership of the Hut which had  formerly been under the guiding hand o f E t h e l . May  22  - A 19-year-old g i r l , sentenced to one month on a Theft  charge which involved two men,  was placed i n Hut I.  She made a rather bad  s t a r t the f i r s t night by demonstrating her various a b i l i t i e s as a dancer and a r t i s t and was resented by the others as a "show o f f " . of how  she had had to t e s t i f y against the two men  l i g h t sentence.  She also spoke  i n order to get such a  -71The l a t t e r was  an attitude very much against the s o c i a l mores  of the delinquent and Arlene l e d the group i n ostracism of t h i s g i r l . After several stormy sessions within the Hut and discussions with t h e i r matron, the group, paced by Arlene, agreed to be c i v i l to the g i r l i n question and accept her to a l i m i t e d degree. The s t a f f became quite concerned about Arlene at t h i s time because of her a t t i t u d e , although i t was  f e l t that her i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  with the a n t i - s o c i a l group had a r i s e n p a r t l y because of the great e f f o r t she had made to adjust to prison l i f e and because of her resentment to authority. be smarter".  A t y p i c a l remark of hers was,  underlying "Next time  1*11  Her matron planned to make a special e f f o r t to get to know  Arlene on a f r i e n d l y basis so that she might be able to i d e n t i f y herself with more p o s i t i v e elements i n s o c i e t y . June - Arlene seemed to be showing more p o s i t i v e attitudes when her release date (August 15th) began getting c l o s e r .  She talked with the  other g i r l s of jobs, of putting up with unpleasant situations i n order to get future  s a t i s f a c t i o n s . She made appointments with the s o c i a l worker  from the John Howard Society and with the representative from the National Employment Service, J u l y 1 - Arlene was came quite unexpectedly.  released on Ticket-of-Leave.  The  release  She had applied several months previously, but  when t o l d at that time she would not be released on parole, she had  decided  that i t was u n l i k e l y to come through. About eight months l a t e r , her group matron received a l e t t e r from Arlene i n which she said she had married and was  expecting a baby.  She  wanted to thank the s t a f f for what they had done, "much o f which I d i d not  -72appreciate at the time".  The d i f f i c u l t y that a r i s e s i n dealing with f i r s t offenders, such as Arlene, f o r whom delinquency i s not t h e i r whole way of l i f e (although probably developing because o f some personal or s o c i a l maladjustment), i s that the gaol setting encourages association with other delinquents.  I t has been said that "bad company can influence (the  i n d i v i d u a l ) toward delinquency, but i t can be no more than a p r e c i p i t a t i n g cause i n a situation where the delinquency i s latent.""*"  However,  there are recognizable s i t u a t i o n a l factors, as the friendship between . Ethel and Arlene, f o r which the i n s t i t u t i o n should take r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . 4.  An Habitual Drinker There are a large number o f women who are constantly i n and out  of gaol, charged with misdemeanors.  The most frequent charge i s that of  being i n a State o f Intoxication i n a Public Place (S.I.P.P.).  These  women may at times be charged with other petty offenses as Disturbing the Peace or S h o p l i f t i n g , but the cause of the s i t u a t i o n i s u s u a l l y the same: the woman i s drunk. The i n s t i t u t i o n does not seem t o be providing adequate treatment f o r these people, except i n meeting certain medical and physical needs. T he d i f f i c u l t y l i e s i n knowing what can be or should be done.  Most of  them have been drinking f o r several years and there are several who have over 50 committals t o Oakalla during the past f i v e years.  "Aichhorn, ojo. c i t . , p. 167.  -73Face Sheet Information Name:  Anne M.  Birth:  A p r i l 23, 1914, M a i l l a r d v i l l e , B.C. (Age - 43 years).  Charge:  State of Intoxication i n a Public Place.  Sentence:  20 days.  Previous Record:  31 previous charges since 1953.  A l l are charges o f  S.I.P.P. or breaches o f the Liquor Act, except one charge of Vagrancy, one of Theft Under $50, and one of Causing a Disturbance.  The longest  sentence for any o f these charges has been 2 months. Religion:  Roman Catholic.  M a r i t a l Status:  Separated from her husband who i s l i v i n g i n Prince George.  Personal History Appearance!  Anne i s a rather a t t r a c t i v e l i t t l e woman i n her f o r t i e s ,  5 feet i n height and usually weighing about 125 l b s .  She has bleached  blonde h a i r and wears both her gaol and outside clothing with quite an air.  Her appearance i s somewhat marred by scars on her face and chin.  She i s French Canadian i n r a c i a l o r i g i n and probably has some Indian blood. When excited, she i s voluble and speaks with a heavy French accent. She i s usually i n poor physical condition when admitted to Oakalla and requiring treatment f o r alcoholism and showing evidence o f f a l l s and o f having been beaten up. Even when only 2 o r 3 days have elapsed since her previous release, she s t i l l a r r i v e s i n a v e r y miserable condition. While i n Oakalla, she i s frequently involved i n quarrels with other inmates.  Sherihas been described as a "hot-tempered l i t t l e French  woman who loses her temper very e a s i l y and when she does looks very much l i k e a l i t t l e prize fighter."  -74Not much i s known about the background of t h i s woman as her stories change frequently i n the t e l l i n g .  She states she was born i n  Quebec and has a s i s t e r there and yet there i s evidence that she was actually born i n B r i t i s h Columbia and i s part Indian. French.  Anne does speak  Nothing of her early l i f e has been recorded. Eight years ago she married John S. who i s part Indian.  have been separated f o r about 5 years.  They  Anne says he treated her t e r r i b l y  and was always l i v i n g with some other woman. When speaking of him,  she  gets very excited and accuses him of t e r r i b l e crimes. They had a son, now 6 years o l d , who the Catholic Children's Aid Society and i s now  has been made a ward of i n a f o s t e r home,  Anne  speaks frequently of t h i s boy and r e a l i z e s that she i s unable to care f o r him i n her present condition. On occasions when she has been sober she has v i s i t e d the boy's home and taken him out, but t h i s probably occurs only about twice a year.  She has often spoken of going to Quebec but  says she cannot leave the province because of her son. I n s t i t u t i o n a l Adjustment Work Record:  Within a week a f t e r admission, Anne i s usually w e l l enough  to go to work. o r the laundry.  Her work placements are often i n e i t h e r the sewing room Work reports on t h i s woman are a l l very a l i k e .  She i s a  thorough and capable worker and w i l l take pride i n what she i s doing i f she can work her own way and by h e r s e l f .  However, she generally requires  much supervision because of her d i f f i c u l t y i n getting along with the other inmates.  Most o f her quarrels occur at work from disagreements over use  o f materials and appliances.  Anne becomes very abusive, uses profane  language and threatens, but does not resort to physical v i o l e n c e .  In  dealing with these outbursts, she has been locked i n her room f o r periods  -75of up to 7 days.  On one occasion, she was placed on the "crime sheet"  and brought into Warden's Court.  This was a f t e r there had been several  outbreaks of p r o f a n i t y and uncooperative behaviour i n the previous few months (albeit on various sentences).  She was sentenced to 9 days' l o s s  of remission (the maximum on a two-month sentence) and i s o l a t e d f o r 7 days with normal d i e t , no  smoking but reading material allowed.  When  i s o l a t e d , she was noisy and profane and frequently banged on the door f o r attention. About the f i f t h day o f i s o l a t i o n , Anne u s u a l l y becomes very t e a r f u l and w i l l c r y that she f e e l s "the walls are coming i n " , but i f allowed out f o r a longer period o f exercise w i l l calm down. Group Record: and VII.  During the past few years, Anne has been i n Groups V, IV  Sometimes she i s too unsettled t o take part i n an active group  program and w i l l remain i n Group VI (the admission group) during her whole sentence.  I t has been decided that wherever she i s placed, she should be  i n a single room because o f c e r t a i n o f her personal habits that upset other g i r l s . I f placed i n Group V, a group where the majority are of Indian o r i g i n and many are quiet and withdrawn, Anne immediately takes upon h e r s e l f the leadership. On group kitchen nights, she w i l l attempt to organize and w i l l designate herself cook. arguments over card games.  She often i s involved i n heated  The quiet nature o f the group does give Anne  opportunity to pursue her own i n t e r e s t s , such as do11-making and other handicrafts at which she i s quite s k i l l e d and very ingenious, and out o f which she gets considerable s a t i s f a c t i o n f o r her achievements.  However,  a d e f i n i t e resentment towards her i s f e l t , p a r t i c u l a r l y by the Indian women, e s p e c i a l l y as they believe she i s part Indian but w i l l not admit i t .  -76-  When there i s an Indian woman within the group who w i l l act as spokesman for these f e e l i n g s , trouble usually occurs. I f i n Group IV, Anne stays out of entanglements, but an unhappy f e e l i n g about the placement i s registered by both the other members of the group and by Anne h e r s e l f .  Anne has no opportunity to plan group a c t i v -  i t i e s here, and any s l i g h t a s o c i a l behaviour on her part i s severely c r i t i c i z e d by the others.  For example, they w i l l not a c c e p t her arguing  during card games and so w i l l not play with her. To date, Group VII has seemed the most s a t i s f a c t o r y placement. In general, the members are older and more s e t t l e d , and although would not be "managed" by Anne, would tolerate to some degree her uncertain temper and can appreciate her various s k i l l s . Referrals Anne has been i n contact with the s o c i a l worker from the John Howard Society f o r several years and more r e c e n t l y with workers from the Alcoholism Foundation.  However, she seems lacking i n the strength and  s t a b i l i t y to carry out any plan or program, even to the extent o f keeping appointments. On at l e a s t two occasions she has made arrangements through r e f e r r a l s from the p r i s o n doctor to receive;medicationysuch to prevent the further use of alcohol.  as antibuse,  The second time she stayed out  of gaol eight weeks. About four years ago she signed h e r s e l f i n as a voluntary patient at Crease C l i n i c , but her "cure" was not l a s t i n g , Anne speaks of h e r s e l f :  "Some use drugs, some people s t e a l ,  just a drunk and good f o r anything.  I'm  The only place I belong i s Essondale.  -77I've had eight chances i n the l a s t two weeks (meaning she had been warned or arrested f o r drinking eight times and l e t o f f ) but I'm no good on my own". 5.  An Old-time Drug Addict The following i s a record o f a drug addict whose aimless d r i f t i n g  and asocial behaviour during the past twenty years are very t y p i c a l l y a pattern o f behaviour o f an habitual delinquent.  In the Vancouver area,  habitual delinquents are very frequently involved with drugs.  This woman  i s now aged 34 years and has a Penitentiary record: these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s mark her as an "old-timer". Face Sheet Information (January, 1957) Name: Betty C, Charge:  1.  Possession of Drugs - case l a t e r dismissed.  2.  Possession of Drugs - while out on b a i l on f i r s t Betty was arrested and charged a second time.  Sentence:  charge,  1 year.  Previous Record: J u l y 1955 October 1949 January 1949 November 1948-  Vancouver Calgary Calgary Regina  October 1948 - Saskatoon August 1944 - Winnipeg Birth:  - Possession of Drugs - (2) Possession o f Drugs Possession o f Drugs - (2) Vagrancy -  Vagrancy Shoplifting  -  15 months. 2§ years K.P. 6 months. Both suspended sentences. 2 - 6 months " f l o a t e r " . - Charge withdrawn.  November 10, 1923, Winnipeg, Manitoba.  Education: Occupation:  Grade X None  Religion: Roman Catholic •'•Kingston Penitentiary.  o ^The t erm r e f e r s to a procedure whereby the i n d i v i d u a l concerned i s given 24 or 48 hours t o get out o f town, and i f she does, can avoid committal.  -78Next of Kin: Albert C. - presently i n Oakalla Prison Farm, sentenced to 15 months on charge of Possession of Drugs, received January, 1957. Circumstances o f Admission In January, 1957, Betty and Albert C. were charged j o i n t l y with Possession of Drugs when they were found by p o l i c e with drugs and drug paraphernalia i n t h e i r hotel room i n downtown Vancouver. a l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the drugs.  Albert C. claimed  Betty had been released from h o s p i t a l  the previous week following a kidney operation and t o l d p o l i c e she had not been using drugs.  However, she t o l d prison matrons that she had begun using  drugs to counteract the pain following the operation.  She said she had not  used drugs since her release from Oakalla four months before up t i l l the time o f the operation.  However, s t o r i e s from other g i r l s indicated she had  been "playing around" ( i . e . , taking drugs occasionally) during the fourmonth period. While waiting t r i a l , Betty was released on b a i l . re-admitted  She was  a month l a t e r with the second charge of Possession of Drugs,  Subsequently, Albert C. was sentenced to f i f t e e n months on the f i r s t charge, Betty's case was dismissed on that charge but she was sentenced to one year on the second charge. Personal History Betty was one of a family o f eight children, and was the fourth bom.  Apparently none o f the others have any h i s t o r y o f delinquency.  parents were Ukrainian; the father died eight years ago.  The  Betty has very  l i t t l e contact with any members o f her family although occasslonally, while in gaol, writes and receives l e t t e r s from a younger s i s t e r . According t o Betty, she was truant from school from the age of ten years and she t e l l s s t o r i e s of r e b e l l i o u s defiant behaviour and  -79d i s i n t e r e s t i n school that culminated i n her leaving home at age sixteen. She began associating with known delinquents and gangs from age fourteen and was probably promiscuous from that age. married twice, both times to known addicts.  She has been  L i t t l e i s known of the circum-  stances of the f i r s t marriage which occurred when she was eighteen years o l d . It  i s not known whether divorce from t h i s man was  ever f i n a l i z e d .  The  second marriage, to Albert C. took place i n 1947, but they have seen l i t t l e of  each other i n the 10-year period, as both have spent most of that time  i n gaol. After Betty's release from Kingston Penitentiary i n 1952, and Albert both decided to make an e f f o r t "to go s t r a i g h t " . Port A l b e r n i , B.C.,  to Albert's family.  she  They went to  However, according to Betty, the  C. family "were always accusing me of getting A l into trouble and even checked my mail to see i f there were any drugs".  She decided she could  not get along with the family and returned to Vancouver and began using drugs again.  Albert followed her about three weeks l a t e r .  Betty began using drugs when age 21, after her f i r s t marriage and before her second.  Most of her associates were using drugs and t h i s  seems to be the main reason for her beginning. I n s t i t u t i o n a l Adjustment In appearance, Betty i s of medium height and b u i l d , has  ash-  blonde h a i r , and generally presents a rather washed-out and droopy appearance.  She has poor posture and makes l i t t l e e f f o r t to smarten h e r s e l f up.  She has been described as a " s l o t h f u l , sullen, whiney g i r l " and i n mood "lethargic and i n d i f f e r e n t . "  -80On admission she was very l i s t l e s s and her only remarks were complaints about her aches and pains and descriptions o f her recent hospitalization.  When re-admitted on her second charge, she was  to the General Hospital f o r a thorough check-up.  sent  Reports indicated  that at that time there was nothing p h y s i c a l l y wrong with her and  appar-  ently the doctor there t o l d her that many of her pains were "imaginary". Hoxvever, she s t i l l continued to complain and usual remark when asked to do anything was  "I would work i f I f e l t better". Prison s t a f f ,  s a t i s f i e d that there was nothing p h y s i c a l l y wrong, i n s i s t e d she go to work. This involved her being locked i n her room for three or four days f o r r e f u s a l to work.  She was f i r s t placed i n the Sewing Room where the work  would be f a i r l y l i g h t .  I t was noted at t h i s time, as at previous times,  that she could work well i f pressure were put on her and i f l i t t l e tolerance were shown for her aches.  1  Her f i r s t group placement was with Group VII, a move to which she objected, stating that i t was the "old l a d i e s group" and that she would rather go to Group IV where her friends were.  She was t o l d that,  when she f e l t well enough to take her part i n a c t i v i t i e s with the more energetic Group IV, she would have a chance to move.  Part of her not  wanting to move was due to the r e s u l t i n g separation from Mary S., a g i r l whom she had known i n the Penitentiary and who was at that time waiting •'•The above i s an example of a behaviour pattern frequently noted i n the habitual delinquent at the i n s t i t u t i o n . Asocial and immature behaviour i s indulged i n to the extent to which i t i s allowed. The fact that the i n d i v i d u a l has decided that i t i s advantageous at the moment to conform, does not necessarily indicate that s o c i a l l y acceptable standards of behaviour w i l l carry over into other s i t u a t i o n s .  -81t r a n s f e r to the Penitentiary on a 3-year sentence.  Betty c r i e d and swore  she would not move; but within an hour she c o l l e c t e d her belongings and with many complaints moved.  (There has never been any i n d i c a t i o n that  the friendship between Betty and Mary i s of a homosexual nature). Betty s e t t l e d down quickly i n Group VII and seemed to get well with her room-mate.  along  After about a week of explaining that she would  take part i n group a c t i v i t i e s when she f e l t better, she joined i n voluntarily.  (This does not mean that Betty ever stopped complaining.  She  became v i r t u a l l y addicted ^to a s p i r i n t a b l e t s and p e r i o d i c a l l y reported new  symptoms.  She d i d work and take part i n a c t i v i t i e s and would frequently  take upon herself extra jobs).  About two months a f t e r the f i r s t move she  vras transferred to Group IV. A c t u a l l y Betty's behaviour i s affected very l i t t l e by the p a r t i c u l a r group s e t t i n g .  Matrons have observed that she has q u a l i t i e s  of leadership but i s often so wrapped up i n her own miseries that she i s content to be a follower.  She has a reputation of being pleasant f o r  what she can get out of people and often prefaces a request to s t a f f members with "Honey, could you  please?"  She l i k e s getting a job or being i n a p o s i t i o n to c i r c u l a t e throughout the b u i l d i n g in.order to pick the current news and She was  gossip.  elected (by inmate vote) President of the Program Planning  Committee."'*  •'•This i s an inmate committee composed of representatives from the groups that meets rather i r r e g u l a r l y about twice a month to plan expenditure of the inmate welfare fund, t o discuss s p e c i a l events, such as Halloween concert, Christmas decorating, etc., and t o r e g i s t e r inmate l i k e s and d i s l i k e s .  -82Betty organized the Committee quite well and used her p o s i t i o n to i t s f u l l e s t c i r c u l a t i n g advantage.  About four months a f t e r her e l e c t i o n ,  several inmates f e l t that she was working f o r her own i n t e r e s t s rather than t h e i r s and requested her resignation (an unprecedented a c t i o n ) .  Betty  accepted t h i s move with apparent i n d i f f e r e n c e . Betty expressed i n t e r e s t i n the Drug R e h a b i l i t a t i v e Services and was  given an interview with Dr. T., Director of the Services.  In h i s  report he described her as "passively cooperative with covert h o s t i l i t y " . She could give no evidence of worthwhile motivation or i n t e n t i o n , but simply verbalized a desire to stay away from n a r c o t i c s . her prognosis was personality.  I t was  f e l t that  poor and she had c e r t a i n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a sociopathic  A t r a n s f e r to the Drug R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Hut was not recom-  mended.  She did not appear too surprised that she would not be t r a n s -  ferred.  "I don't know i f they help you much, a c t u a l l y a l l I r e a l l y wanted  was  a change of  scenery."  She did not wish to see any other workers from after-care agencies (e.g., John Howard Society, Narcotic Foundation) or f i l l i n an application form f o r the National Employment Service. her husband wrote her from the B.C.  P r i o r to her release,  Penitentiary saying he wanted her to  stay with some f r i e n d s of h i s , but she d i d not seem too interested i n . contacting them. Plans f o r her release appeared very vague.  She talked  of getting a room and hoped to stay out of gaol and o f f drugs. She  'phoned back to her group matron twice, during the f i r s t  three weeks a f t e r discharge.  She wanted to say "Hello", said she  been drinking and was not using drugs. fine".  had  She said everything " i s just  She mentioned some former inmates she had seen and  apparently  she i s e i t h e r l i v i n g i n , or frequenting the East End "skid-road" d i s t r i c t .  -83-  CHAPTER V. CONTINUING MEEDS  What has been presented i n the preceding chapters has been a description of the operation of the Women's D i v i s i o n , Oakalla Prison Farm. T h.e t h e o r e t i c a l material discussed i n the f i r s t chapter regarding the f a c i l i t i e s and program of a women's gaol was based on the considered needs of women i n prison.  The long-range and permanent effectiveness of such  use of program i s outside the scope of t h i s t h e s i s .  An accurate record  of what becomes of the women released from gaol i s r e a l l y impossible t o obtain.  Furthermore, standards would have to be set to determine what  constituted improvement i n the behaviour of the released person.  Mere  staying out of the gaol i n question i s meaningless: the woman may be i n another gaol; her behaviour may s t i l l be delinquent but she may have avoided arrest; she may have matured considerably i n c e r t a i n areas and yet  have returned t o gaol.  I t i s unfortunate that there i s almost no  s c i e n t i f i c evaluation of correctional programs i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Follow-up studies should be an i n t e g r a l part of treatment  programs.  However, there are c e r t a i n v a l i d observations and c r i t i c i s m s which can be made concerning methods and d e t a i l s o f operation, o f the use of, and need f o r , certain f a c i l i t i e s , and of procedures  of s t a f f p o l i c i e s and function  i n c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and r e f e r r a l s .  When the f i r s t  measures, defined as part of a "treatment" program were introduced i n 1952> there was resistance from both s t a f f and inmates.  The inmates  resented having t h e i r time so organized and having almost continual supervision; the s t a f f had t o be educated as t o the value of a treatment  -84program; that i s , to the use and sense of group work, of enforced a f t e r work a c t i v i t i e s and of the fostering of communication and r e l a t i o n s h i p between s t a f f and inmates.  Furthermore, at that time, neither the Huts  nor the new units were b u i l t .  The separation i n t o groups was  women within a building not designed f o r group l i v i n g . was  imposed on  The group system  regarded by the inmates as " s i l l i n e s s " and any cooperation at a l l was  gained by a reward method: " i f the group stays together t h i s  afternoon,  tomorrow they can have a weiner roast".  This method was  viewed with  suspicion by many of the older women who  considered i t proof of the  g u l l i b i l i t y and c o r r u p t i b i l i t y of treatment-minded administrators. But at the present time, f i v e years l a t e r , much of that i n i t i a l resistance has been overcome.  It i s possible to operate a work and group  program that the women w i l l p a r t i c i p a t e i n without undue coercion.  The  s t a f f have shown increased i n t e r e s t i n t h e i r work and a desire to further t h e i r s k i l l s and knowledge.  The f a c i l i t i e s have improved: the a d d i t i o n  of the Huts and u n i t s , the new  laundry and gymnasium, and the continual  insistence on cleanliness and care of f a c i l i t i e s , have resulted i n an i n s t i t u t i o n which i s functional and adaptable to changes i n program. A.  C l a s s i f i c a t i o n System What i s needed now  i s a proper organization of the t o t a l scheme  of treatment that includes a l l aspects of the i n s t i t u t i o n a l operation. Some of the major d i f f i c u l t i e s a r i s e i n the area that could be generally referred to as C l a s s i f i c a t i o n .  This term may  be a misnomer, but i n using  i t , the reference i s t o a system which includes procedures f o r the ation, at regular and recognized times, of a l l inmates, and how some benefit from the program. treatment program.  consider-  each may  I t i s the conscious a r t i c u l a t i o n of the  Conjoined with a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n procedure should be a  get  -85c l a r i f i c a t i o n of which s t a f f are responsible f o r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and some means of communication to inmates and other s t a f f of the thinking of t h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n team.  The general confusion that surrounds t h i s whole  area frequently hampers f u l l use of the program and f a c i l i t i e s .  Often  there i s unnecessary opposition by inmates and s t a f f that could be eliminated i f they were more involved i n planning or i f i t were c l e a r at what stage they would be involved. Under a proper c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system, consideration of recording and the preparation of s o c i a l h i s t o r i e s should lead to more accurate timely r e f e r r a l s to outside s o c i a l  and  agencies.  The Women's Gaol at Oakalla needs a C l a s s i f i c a t i o n team that meets regularly, probably twice a week.  The meeting should be held at a  s p e c i f i c time and attendance should take precedence over a l l but extreme emergency situations.  In p r a c t i c e , the insistence on r e g u l a r l y held and  attended meetings becomes most important.  Otherwise the tendency would be  f o r the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n team to be used only i f convenient and placements and moves would be made because of the necessity of the moment. The members of the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n team should include the Matronin-c'harge plus the supervising matrons of the morning and afternoon  shifts.  I f any major changes are proposed, such as a t r a n s f e r from one group to another, or placement i n a vocational t r a i n i n g course, the matrons d i r e c t l y involved should be present also. A clear d e f i n i t i o n i s needed of the scope and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n team.  of  The team should be the deciding body f o r group and  work placements, both when the inmate i s furst admitted and when f u r t h e r changes i n placement are made. It should also be possible f o r the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n team to discuss and make decisions regarding d i s c i p l i n a r y problems.  There w i l l , of course,  -86always be emergency situations that require, .immediate attention from the present supervising matron, but d i s c i p l i n e ought t o be more a part of the whole treatment scheme than i t i s now—either f o r i n d i v i d u a l s or f o r the whole group. The danger i n the matter of dealing with d i s c i p l i n e problems by the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n team i s that the onus of control may be taken away from the work or group matron.  Generally speaking, one of the most e f f e c -  t i v e methods of control comes from a good r e l a t i o n s h i p between inmates and t h e i r matron.  The matrons should be encouraged t o set up t h e i r own l i m i t s  and controls and t o r e f e r the inmate f o r d i r e c t handling: when they f e e l the s i t u a t i o n i s beyond them.  The supervising matron o f the s h i f t would  be responsible f o r a s s i s t i n g the matrons i n determining when r e f e r r a l would be indicated. The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n team could use such d i s c i p l i n a r y measures as loss of p r i v i l e g e - f o r example, loss o f mail and v i s i t i n g p r i v i l e g e s , barring of attendance a t s p e c i a l events - i s o l a t i o n f o r short periods, and other r e s t r i c t i o n s .  The team could also decide when a s i t u a t i o n warranted  r e f e r r a l t o Warden's Court. The p r a c t i c a l i t y of the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n team w i l l be found i n the organization of procedures and through adequate preparation f o r the meetings.  The day before the meeting o f the team, each supervising matron  of the morning and afternoon s h i f t s should have prepared a l i s t of those inmates who are ready f o r group and work placements. e a s i l y taken from the count sheets prepared d a i l y . each woman t o be considered would be noted.  Such l i s t s can be Information about  The information i s gathered  from those matrons who have already had contact with the woman, that i s ,  -87the c l i n i c matrons, the Group VI matron, the matron preparing the i n i t i a l record, the matron i n charge of the maintenance team.  I t might be reason-  able to suggest that the supervisor of the morning s h i f t would have the f a c t s regarding health and work i n t e r e s t s and habits and that the supervisor of the afternoon s h i f t would have the d e t a i l s of s o c i a l background, previous contacts with other delinquents and some assessment of the i n d i v i d u a l ' s capacity f o r growth and change of behaviour.  It i s , of course, also  necessary to have the age, offence, length of sentence and some notion of the custody problems involved. Again, i t should be stated that the value of a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n team i s l a r g e l y determined by the extent and carefulness of preparation before the meeting.  Further, i t s effectiveness i s governed by the degree  to which i t s decisions are administered.  A decision of the team, i f i t  appears t o be deleterious rather than b e n e f i c i a l i n e f f e c t , should reviewed by the team before changes are made.  be  I f both s t a f f and inmates  can become assured of the r e l i a b i l i t y of the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n team and of i t s willingness to consider various points of view, then the team can become the coordination centre f o r treatment and f u l l use can be made of the p o t e n t i a l of the e x i s t i n g s t a f f , f a c i l i t i e s and program. The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n team can become the proper medium of communication with the administration f o r s t a f f and inmates regarding the place of the i n d i v i d u a l inmate i n the treatment scheme.  However, the control  of the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n team w i l l remain with the administration and the Matron-in-charge w i l l always r e t a i n the power of overruling decisions when she deems i t necessary. B.  The  Need f o r S t a f f Organization The organization of a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n team points out the necessity  for organization and d e f i n i t i o n of s t a f f p o s i t i o n s , a matter which perhaps  -88should have been considered f i r s t .  The practice o f expecting a l l s t a f f  to be expert i n a l l phases of the i n s t i t u t i o n a l program i s , i n r e a l i t y , an obstacle t o s t a f f development.  There has t o be recognition of the  d i f f e r e n t c a p a b i l i t i e s and t r a i n i n g required f o r the various s t a f f p o s i tions.  I t i s probably necessary i n an i n s t i t u t i o n a l s e t t i n g that a l l  s t a f f have had some p r a c t i c a l experience i n the various departments and on each s h i f t .  But t h i s i s a p o l i c y f o r s t a f f t r a i n i n g and should not  be a permanent procedure f o r s t a f f organization. I f s t a f f positions were defined, i t should be possible t o h i r e more trained persons.  The understanding  i s that the s k i l l and professional  t r a i n i n g have t o be accompanied by an a b i l i t y to work with a l l members of the i n s t i t u t i o n a l s t a f f , vrlth  a r e a l i z a t i o n of the importance of the  various aspects of the program.  I t i s no good to have one professional  person t r y i n g t o p r a c t i s e the l a t e s t notions of treatment without some method f o r i n v o l v i n g other s t a f f and f o r o f f i c i a l recognition of other skills. 1.  T h e D e f i n i t i o n of S t a f f Positions The problem i s being presently studied i n the l i g h t of a t r e a t -  ment program, as i t has been found that there are areas of duplication and other areas where nothing i s done at a l l because the duties of each s t a f f member are not c l e a r l y defined.  There needs t o be a supervisor or  d i r e c t o r of work and vocational programs and a d i r e c t o r of s o c i a l i z a t i o n and group a c t i v i t i e s .  The former would be responsible f o r promoting and  extending work and vocational programs as well as gathering information about i n d i v i d u a l needs and i n t e r e s t s i n t h i s area.  The d i r e c t o r of s o c i a l -  i z a t i o n would be responsible for f o s t e r i n g programs according to the needs of the various groups and f o r getting an assessment of the i n d i v i d u a l with  -89her needs and p o t e n t i a l .  These persons would be d i f f e r e n t from those  concerned with the actual running of the morning and afternoon s h i f t s as the e x i s t i n g programs are now extensive enough t o warrant t h i s separation of duties. The supervising matrons of each s h i f t would continue with t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r custody regulations, f o r example, the inmate count, and the checking of locks and doors;  and would report any discrepancies  and problems i n that area to the matron-in-charge, as reporting to the chief custodial o f f i c e r o f the Women's D i v i s i o n .  As the custody require-  ments are the primary requirements of the gaol, and the  Matron-in-charge  has therefore the f i n a l charge i n that matter, i t seems wise,that while the Women's Division i s s t i l l i n i t s present small s i z e , t o keep the ultimate r e s p o n s i b i l i t y with the Matron-in-charge.  Perhaps some of the  unfortunate dichotomy of treatment and custody that so plagues the larger i n s t i t u t i o n s can be avoided by t h i s means.  D i v i s i o n of s t a f f would be made  along the l i n e s of jobs done rather than on personality q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y when i t i s hoped that a l l s t a f f members are able t o cope with both the treatment and custody aspects of the i n s t i t u t i o n . Further s t a f f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n would occur under the two d i v i s i o n s , that of work and vocational t r a i n i n g , and of s o c i a l i z a t i o n , although the three s h i f t s would probably continue functioning as at present.  However,  there are certain jobs, such as r e f e r r a l of inmates t o outside agencies, and medical and health planning, that have d i r e c t reference outside any one p a r t i c u l a r s h i f t .  These duties are handled rather haphazardly, mainly  because no one person i s d e f i n i t e l y assigned t o see that they are dealt with at the proper time.  Often there are hurried, inadequate r e f e r r a l s made  almost at the point of release that are of p r a c t i c a l l y no value whatever  -90when a c a r e f u l l y planned r e f e r r a l could.have been part of the inmate's own release planning.  The matter of r e f e r r a l s could be under the super-  v i s i o n of the d i r e c t o r of s o c i a l i z a t i o n , as that person would be already i n receipt of information concerning the i n d i v i d u a l inmates.  Medical  and health planning, c l i n i c routines and the c l a r i f i c a t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l health needs, as being more on the physical side of things, could be under the d i r e c t i o n of the work and vocational t r a i n i n g supervisor. 2.  Staff Training Although basic t r a i n i n g f o r a l l s t a f f of Oakalla Prison Farm  i s provided through the Main Gaol, many times i t seems that matrons are expected to have an understanding of treatment programs and a knowledge and s k i l l i n handling people without having been given the t r a i n i n g . This i s part of the problem previously referred t o .  There i s a very  r e a l danger i n having an administration attempt t o organize an advanced treatment program without providing additional t r a i n i n g f o r the general staff. Several members of the s t a f f expressed a desire f o r f u r t h e r i n s t r u c t i o n concerning personality development and d i s c i p l i n e problems. Any available books on these t o p i c s are widely read, although there i s no s t a f f ..library which the matrons may use.  I t would be worthwhile f o r  the i n s t i t u t i o n to arrange short courses f o r matrons at t h e i r various stages of experience and t r a i n i n g and t o conduct them at i n s t i t u t i o n time and expense.  Such a plan should be quite f e a s i b l e i f only a few  members of s t a f f attended at one time.  Adequate reading material should  also be d i s t r i b u t e d . However, there i s no point i n f u r t h e r i n g the education of the s t a f f i f some recognition i s not given t o t h e i r increased knowledge i n  -91situations such as the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n meeting.  This i s not t o suggest  that the single opinion of a matron just having completed a course be the sole basis f o r a decision but rather that with i n t e l l i g e n t leadership each matron could f e e l she had a r e a l contribution t o make t o the whole treatment scheme. 3.  Improvement i n Recording One of the areas that demonstrates the lack of attention to  s t a f f q u a l i f i c a t i o n s i s the matter of recording and f i l e s . Although e f f o r t s have been made t o improve recording and t o i n s t r u c t the s t a f f with some notion o f what they are t r y i n g t o set down, much of what i s written seems t o be neither f o r the e d i f i c a t i o n of those who write i t nor f o r those who may need i t .  The problem of recording i s  not p e c u l i a r to the Women's D i v i s i o n , but i s studied i n many other s o c i a l agencies.  People seem to write too much, not enough, or nothing of any  significance.  A higher degree of professional recording could be attained  i f the procedure were under the d i r e c t i o n of a person who had some knowledge and t r a i n i n g i n that area. It i s necessary t o know the purpose of the record and t o recognize the difference between an o f f i c i a l record with established f a c t s and a record of a matron's impressions  of changes i n i n d i v i d u a l behaviour.  The currently used running records on i n d i v i d u a l s , as noted by the group matrons, are u s e f u l i n that they keep the matrons aware of t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l group members. What i s needed i n addition i s a periodic consolidation or summary of the record t o date and probably the most u s e f u l form would be i n the nature of a s o c i a l h i s t o r y .  The h i s t o r y could also incorporate  the progress reports completed by the work team matrons.  -92-  The c a r e f u l preparation of records would a s s i s t i n e a r l i e r recognition of treatment needs and of the necessity f o r r e f e r r a l .  Further-  more, i t would provide a concrete basis f o r deciding moves within the i n s t i t u t i o n with a reference t o past performance and exhibited a b i l i t y to learn from experience. More and more the Women's D i v i s i o n i s being expected to provide r e p o r t s — f o r the National Employment Service, f o r the Remissions Service, for the P r o v i n c i a l Mental S e r v i c e s — a n d only as r e l i a b l e reports are furnished w i l l other s o c i a l agencies recognize that the Women's D i v i s i o n can o f f e r more than custodial services. An i n s t i t u t i o n seems prone to feelings of i s o l a t i o n from the rest of the community and i t frequently happens that when a woman i s committed she i s forgotten, at l e a s t u n t i l the time of her release.  It i s up to the administration of the i n s t i t u t i o n  to contact the appropriate community resources at the time they are required and to provide adequate information pertinent to the C.  case.  Development of Program In general, the l e v e l and scope of program, both of the morning  and afternoon s h i f t s , seems to be very creditable.  Imaginative and  intel-  l i g e n t use has been made of the f a c i l i t i e s and, with the increase i n s t a f f i n t e r e s t i n planning and expanding a c t i v i t i e s , one can f i n d a  responding  willingness and enthusiasm among the inmates to p a r t i c i p a t e both i n work and leisure-time projects.  There are, of course, times when an apathetic  s p i r i t descends on the whole i n s t i t u t i o n group,but t h i s i s normal f o r humanity i n general. The one area where there seems to be a noticeable lack of program planning i s the Group VI.  In t h i s group are found, almost without  v i s i o n at times, the new admissions,  super-  those waiting t r i a l and waiting  -93transfer to Kingston Penitentiary, the sick and those who from t h e i r groups as a d i s c i p l i n a r y measure.  have been removed  The current arrangement i s to  have the C l i n i c matron of the s h i f t act as the Group VI matron, which i s sensible i n that these are the inmates requiring the most medical attention. However, these inmates, p a r t i c u l a r l y the young f i r s t offenders, are also at the period when they are susceptible to almost any influence, and  contacts  with old offenders can be very damaging to t h e i r r e h a b i l i t a t i o n .  T he  problem i s not an easy one to solve.  Various methods have been t r i e d i n the  past, such as the almost immediate placing of f i r s t offenders i n active groups.  This i s not s a t i s f a c t o r y either, as too often health conditions  have been discovered a f t e r the placement which required i s o l a t i o n and limited a c t i v i t y . same as no  Furthermore, hasty c l a s s i f i c a t i o n may  be v i r t u a l l y the  classification. The problem i s a c t u a l l y most acute f o r those waiting t r i a l , as  i t i s not unusual f o r that period to extend into months.  Occasionally,  i f i t i s known that several months w i l l elapse before the t r i a l w i l l take place, a group placement may  be a s a t i s f a c t o r y move.  But u s u a l l y during  the waiting t r i a l period the woman i s disturbed, worried about the outcome of her case, and  often hoping to be released on b a i l .  She i s not i n any  state to become a s e t t l e d member of a group within the i n s t i t u t i o n .  The  use of authority with these people has to be measured c a r e f u l l y a l s o , as by law the i n s t i t u t i o n i s required only to house and feed them and them half an hour exercise per day.  Therefore  allow  they do not have to take  part i n work or other a c t i v i t i e s , nor do the i n s t i t u t i o n a l a u t h o r i t i e s have to l e t them do so. Probably the best solution l i e s i n an increase i n i n d i v i d u a l interviews moving towards a more v a l i d assessment of the inmate's capacities and needs.  The present employment of Group VI members i n the work program  -94i s about as extensive as p o s s i b l e .  But i t i s asking too much of the  C l i n i c matron on the afternoon s h i f t that she take over the supervision of the Group f o r h a l f her s h i f t as w e l l as attend t o the medical needs of the whole i n s t i t u t i o n .  This should be the d e f i n i t e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of  some other matron, perhaps one who could a s s i s t the d i r e c t o r of s o c i a l i z a t i o n i n the preparation of i n i t i a l i n d i v i d u a l records.  With some  v e r s a t i l i t y and imagination, a c t i v i t i e s could be introduced t o t h i s "group that would keep them more occupied than a t present. It i s also recommended that the s i t u a t i o n could be improved i f Group VI was no longer used f o r d i s c i p l i n a r y purposes.  I f a person  i s deemed unable t o take the demands o f a group, that i s one thing; but i f removal from the group i s considered t o be the loss of a p r i v i l e g e , then placement i n Group VI i s not i n d i c a t e d . Group VI, rather than representing the loss of a p r i v i l e g e , i s the group where fewer demands on i n d i v i d u a l adjustment are made and where there i s l e s s supervision than i n an active group. D.  The Future Development of the Women's D i v i s i o n The present s i t e of the Women's Division i s not i d e a l .  Many  of the d i s c i p l i n a r y problems and the r e s t r i c t i o n s result from the fact that the buildings are on the grounds of the Men's Gaol.  For several  years there have been discussions and planning committees regarding a Women's I n s t i t u t i o n on i t s own grounds.  This i s probably necessary t o  any r e a l advancement i n a treatment program. However, before any such extensive changes are made, i t should be r e a l i z e d that the most e f f e c t i v e use of the i n s t i t u t i o n cannot be made without p a r a l l e l development of other correctional services within the Province.  There w i l l have t o come some o f f i c i a l recognition that  -95-  some problems should not be handled i n the Women's Gaol.  The senseless  admitting and discharging of a l c o h o l i c s i s nothing but a waste of time, money, and f a c i l i t i e s .  The scandalous complacency with which the public  allows large numbers of Indians to be incarcerated may be disturbed  only  by correctional a u t h o r i t i e s pointing out the f u t i l i t y of such action. The majority of Indians sentenced to Oakalla benefit i n no way from the i n s t i t u t i o n a l program.  For the most part, t h e i r delinquencies are  symptomic of the larger c u l t u r a l problem with which the Government should be dealing. Some authorities are of the opinion that drug addiction i s not a problem t o be treated i n a gaol s e t t i n g .  However, i n the consideration  of the writer, most of the addicts presently i n gaol had patterns of delinquency before using narcotics, and therefore the problem should be treated as part of a greater delinquent pattern of behaviour.  .This seems  to be d i f f e r e n t from the s i t u a t i o n with habitual drinkers, where the primary problem involves the misuse of alcohol. Further,  of course, to f a c i l i t a t e the advancement of a t r e a t -  ment program would be the elimination from this i n s t i t u t i o n of persons waiting t r i a l and waiting transfer t o the Penitentiary.  Such persons  derive l i t t l e benefit from the program as t h e i r chief concern i s either with the outcome of the case or with an eventual move.  Their presence  involves additional custodial measures r e s t r i c t i n g the sentenced inmates. The treatment program appears t o be most successful with f i r s t offenders.  However, the future of the i n s t i t u t i o n a l program need not be  as bleak as the past r e s u l t s would suggest.  I f giving nothing else, the  e f f o r t s over the l a s t s i x years have at l e a s t indicated some d i r e c t i o n s or trends f o r further planning.  The young addict needs some impetus  -96-  towards getting a d e s i r e for a change i n her way of l i f e .  I t has been  noticed that the older addict has l o s t almost a l l b e l i e f i n her own capacity f o r change and frequently understands r e h a b i l i t a t i o n as some miraculous outside force having l i t t l e r e l a t i o n s h i p to her own strengths and weaknesses. On the whole, the population of the Women's D i v i s i o n i s an immature group who need t r a i n i n g i n how t o l i v e , which includes a s a t i s factory relationship with authority, a sense of belonging, a sense of achievement, the development of standards and values, a f e e l i n g o f s e l f worth, some degree of conformity, and other c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s constantly reiterated i n t h i s and other essays.  The Women's Division has made, and  i s making, a concerted e f f o r t t o provide these necessaries f o r maturation; and i f our basic theses of s o c i a l work are correct, that of providing f o r individual needs and theinherent capacity of the i n d i v i d u a l f o r change, then with time there should be an increasing response i n the number of individuals being able t o make a s a t i s f a c t o r y adjustment of  society.  t o the demands  -97BIBLIOGRAPHY  (a)  General References:  Additon, Henrietta, " I n s t i t u t i o n a l Treatment of Women Offenders", National Probation and Parole Association Journal, v o l . 3, no. 1, January, 1957. Floch, Maurice, "Group Therapy i n a Women's Prison," v o l . x, no. k> October-December, 1946.  Federal Probation,  Harris, Mary B., I Knew Them i n Prison, V i k i n g Press, New York, 1936. Hironimus, Helen, "Survey of 100 May Act V i o l a t o r s Committed t o the Federal Remormatory f o r Women," Federal Probation, v o l . v i i , no. 2, April-June, 1943. Kidman, John,  The Canadian Prison, Ryerson Press, Toronto, 1947.  Lindner, Robert M., StoneWalls and Men, Odyssey Press, New York, 1946. Reckless, Walter C , T h e Crime Problem, Appleton-Century-Crofts, Inc., New York, 1950. Topping, C.W., Canadian Penal I n s t i t u t i o n s , Ryerson Press, Toronto, 1943. Van Waters, Miriam, "Study and Treatment of Persons Charges with P r o s t i t u t i o n " , Federal Probation, v o l . v i i , no. 2, April-June, 1943.  -98BIBLIOGRAPHY(Cont'd) (b)  Specific  References  A d d i t o n , H e n r i e t t a , "Women's I n s t i t u t i o n s " , i n T a p p a n , P a u l , C o n t e m p o r a r y C o r r e c t i o n , M c G r a w - H i l l , New Y o r k , 1951. Aichhorn, August,  Wayward Y o u t h , V i k i n g P r e s s ,  New Y o r k ,  ed.,  1935.  A l e x a n d e r , M y r l E . , " C o r r e c t i o n s : A Measure o f Man's Freedom", Proceedings of the E i g h t y - s i x t h Annual Congress of C o r r e c t i o n t h e A m e r i c a n C o r r e c t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n , 195o, Los A n g e l e s . Barman, S . ,  The E n g l i s h B o r s t a l S y s t e m ,  P.S.  of  K i n g and S o n , L t d . , L o n d o n ,  1934. B a r n e s , H a r r y E l m e r , a n d T e e t e r s , N e g l e y J . , New H o r i z o n s i n P r e n t i c e - H a l l , New Y o r k , 1945.  Criminology,  C h r i s t i e , Hugh G r a h a m , A d m i n i s t r a t i v e S t r u c t u r e a n d P r o c e s s w i t h i n a P e n a l I n s t i t u t i o n , M a s t e r o f S o c i a l Work t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1952. Government Ottawa,  of Canada, 1953.  Statistics  of  C r i m i n a l and Other O f f e n s e s ,  1951,  James, J o h n , "The A p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e S m a l l Group C o n c e p t t o t h e S t u d y o f t h e P r i s o n C o m m u n i t y " , B r i t i s h J o u r n a l o f D e l i n q u e n c y , v o l . v , 1954-1955. Loveland, Frank, " C l a s s i f i c a t i o n i n the P r i s o n System", e d . , C o n t e m p o r a r y C o r r e c t i o n , M c G r a w - H i l l , New Y o r k , A Manual of C o r r e c t i o n a l Standards, New Y o r k , 1954.  i n Tappan, 1951.  The A m e r i c a n C o r r e c t i o n a l  Association,  P o l l a k , O t t o , C r i m i n a l i t y o f Women, U n i v e r s i t y o f P e n n s y l v a n i a Philadelphia, 1950. Radzinowicz, L . , " V a r i a b i l i t y of the Sex-Ratio S o c i o l o g i c a l R e v i e w , v o l . x x i x , 1937.  of  Paul W.,  Press,  C r i m i n a l i t y , " The - .  R a p p a p o r t , M a z i e F . , "The P s y c h o l o g y o f t h e Female O f f e n d e r , " National P r o b a t i o n a n d P a r o l e A s s o c i a t i o n J o u r n a l , . v o l . 3, n o . 1, J a n u a r y , 1957. Reckless, Walter C , "Female C r i m i n a l i t y , " N a t i o n a l P r o b a t i o n and A s s o c i a t i o n J o u r n a l , v o l . 3, n o . 1, J a n u a r y , 1957. Whitney,  Janet,  E l i z a b e t h F r y , The P u b l i s h e r s  Guild,  London,  W i l s o n , G e r t r u d e , a n d R y l a n d , G l a d y s , " S o c i a l G r o u p Work H o u g h t o n M i f f l i n C o . , B o s t o n , 1949.-  Parole  1947.  Practice,  •  1  -  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA INTERDEPARTMENTAL  MEMORANDUM  •  f/  'A.  TO... f\A£.. O-. (^fX^^u^..  FROM  L<C^^J?^T9^.,  /  ^ju^i^^  ChJL ,  vUj^jX  UJ^IK. oU^f^frit J  ^ ^4JKJI_^^U^U. CKMUI.^  C&UC~ t^L^^-  bJb&/  C  

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