UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

The ancient system of rhetoric with a partial study of its influence on Virgil as seen in the similes… Akpore, Demas Onoliobakpovba 1958

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1958_A8 A4 A6.pdf [ 4.35MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0106148.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0106148-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0106148-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0106148-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0106148-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0106148-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0106148-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0106148-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0106148.ris

Full Text

THE ANCIENT SYSTEM OF.RHETORIC WITH A PARTIAL STUDY OP ITS INFLUENCE ON VIRGIL AS SEEN IN THE SIMILES IN THE AENEID by Demas Onoliobakpovba Akpore, B. A. (Honours in Classics, London) A Thesis Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of MASTER OF ARTS r in the Department of Classics We accept this thesis as conforming to the standard required from candidates for the degree of Master of Arts The University of British Columbia September, 1958 ABSTRACT The purpose of this thesis i s to investigate the ancient system of rhetoric and i t s influence on V i r g i l as seen in his use of the simile in the Aeneid. The f i r s t two chapters deal with the rhetorical nature of Vir g i l ' s verse, the nature of rhetoric i t s e l f , the position of literature in the study of rhetoric, the influence which this study had on subsequent literature and the various types and definitions of figures and tropes of which the simile is a very important member. Among the great wealth of literature written on these topics, Quintilian's scholarly work the Institutio Oratoria i s by far the most significant. It i s exhaustive in scope and comprehensive in nature. The origin and purpose of the Vir g i l i a n simile are both seen in the examination of the simile in Homer and Lucretius. This examination i s in the opening pages of the third chapter which constitutes the main part of the study of the simile In the Aeneid. i i i Much discussion has been devoted to the nature, sources and the classification of the sources of the V i r g i l i a n simile. The study of the simile in V i r g i l has been confined to the study of the similes in the Aeneid, since i t is the main work of our author that can be regarded as an epic without any qualifications and reservations. In considering the nature of the V i r g i l i a n simile special attention has been paid to the simple phrase simile and the extended simile whether i t is static or dynamic. This examination shows how the amplification of detail or lack of i t , and static and dynamic elements in the various similes are somehow or other connected with V i r g i l ' s personal l i f e and philosophy of l i f e , experience, and education. The manner and extent of V i r g i l ' s similes constitute the concluding chapter. The method adopted in their investigation has made i t unnecessary to embark on a lengthy discussion. This chapter opens with two tables which speak clearly for themselves. It w i l l be noticed that the l a t t e r of the two tables analyses the data of the former. It w i l l be found that V i r g i l uses almost the same number of similes as Homer and Apollonius Rhodius, and less than Ovid whose writings are obsessed with an immoderate profusion of similes; i t w i l l also be observed that most of Virgil's similes are extended and dynamic rather than static and come from the animal world, and that the influence of his rhetorical training has not led him (as in the case of other epic writers in Roman literature) to deviate widely from the norm which Homer has set in the use of the simile. These are the conclusions to which this investigation leads. In presenting t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference and study. I f u r t h e r agree that permission f o r extensive copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e . I t i s under-stood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n permission. Department of C l a s s i c s The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver 3 , Canada. Date Sept ember. 19^8  TABLE OP CONTENTS PAGE CHAPTER I • 1 Quintilian on the Rhetorical Nature of Virgil ' s Verse . . . 1 The Nature of Rhetoric 3 The Position of Literature in the Study of Rhetoric 8 The Influence of Rhetoric on Literature . 10 CHAPTER II 13 Tropes and Figures . 13 Tropes 13 Figures 17 Figures of Thought 18 Figures of Speech 20 CHAPTER III 26 The Simile in Homer 26 The Simile in Lucretius 32 The Simile in V i r g i l ' s Aeneid 32 Sources and Classification of the Similes 52 v i PAGE CHAPTER IV 57 The Manner and Extent of Vir g i l ' s Similes 57 Lis t of Similes in the Aeneid . . . . 57 Analytical Study of Li s t 63 General Remarks 63 BIBLIOGRAPHY 66 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT S I am g r a t e f u l to the e n t i r e s t a f f of the Department of C l a s s i c s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, f o r the numerous c r i t i c i s m s and suggestions they o f f e r e d me xat my o r a l examination. Among P r o f e s s o r Guthrie's many val u a b l e c r i t i c i s m s and suggestions, one has l e d to a complete a l t e r a t i o n of the t i t l e of the t h e s i s from "The S i m i l e i n V i r g i l " to a more appropriate one. My conclusions i n Chapter IV would have been h o p e l e s s l y wrong and hence misle a d i n g but f o r the r e v i s i o n recommended by Pr o f e s s o r Riddehough and Dr. E. A. E. Bongie w i t h regard to my l i s t of s i m i l e s and my a r i t h m e t i c . My f i r s t thanks, however, go to P r o f e s s o r Grant f o r the encouragement, i n v a l u a b l e h e l p , and guidance he r e a d i l y gave at various stages i n the composition of t h i s work. I would l i k e t o take t h i s opportunity to add tha t i t has not only been very d e l i g h t f u l but a l s o very i n s p i r i n g to work under him. My g r a t i t u d e a l s o goes to the L i b r a r i a n s and the l i b r a r y s t a f f s of the U n i v e r s i t i e s o f Washington, C i n c i n n a t i , and B r i t i s h Columbia f o r the trouble they have taken i n making books and periodicals easily available to me. For considerable financial assistance in the past academic session, I would l i k e to thank the World University Scholarship Committee of the University of British Columbia. Last but not least, 1 would li k e also to express my very sincere gratitude to my friend Jack Kinnear, Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, for considerable spiritual support. Demas 0. Akpore THE ANCIENT SYSTEM OP RHETORIC WITH A PARTIAL STUDY OP ITS INFLUENCE ON VIRGIL AS SEEN IN THE SIMILES IN THE AENEID CHAPTER I Quintilian on the Rhetorical Nature of Vi r g i l ' s Verse In preparing a syllabus for the student of oratory Quintilian recommends that a l l reading begin with Homer and V i r g i l as being the two most distinguished Greek and Latin a u t h o r s . T h i s recommendation recognizes the rhetorical nature of V i r g i l ' s verse, the extent of which can most clearly be grasped from what Quintilian says of Homer's. He t e l l s us that he highly approves of Homer because he considers him peculiarly suitable as a model of eloquence.^ Homer, says Quintilian, established in the commencement of the I l i a d the laws of oratorical exordia by capturing the goodwill of his readers by an invocation of 1 Quintilian, Institutio oratoria. 1.8.U.-5: 10.1.^6-51. 2 Ibid., 10.1.I|.6-5l. 2 the goddesses who patronized poets; by attracting the attention of hearers when he set forth the grandeur of his subjects; and also by rousing their curiosity through the presentation of a brief synopsis of the subject. Those who write on the rules of rhetoric, he goes on, find Homer an indispensable source for the il l u s t r a t i o n of their precepts, whether in similes, or in amplifications, or in digressions, or in any mode of establishment or refutation. The peroration of Priam's speech entreating Achilles to restore the body of Hector cannot be equalled; nor can Homer be rivalled in words or thoughts, in figures or in the arrangement of his whole work, for in a l l these departments of composition the poet exceeded the ordinary bounds of human genius.3 As regards these oratorical qualities, Quintilian places V i r g i l on a level with Homer, and says that just as Homer is the best author to commence with among the Greeks, so i s V i r g i l among the Romans, for he alone undoubtedly came nearest HomerA Although Quintilian is compelled to give f i r s t place to the genius of Homer, yet he explains that the formal excellence in V i r g i l compensates for his deficiency in these higher qualities which he finds in Homer, for V i r g i l reveals more care and exactness and has been obliged to take more pains in his composition. 3 Quintilian, op. c i t . . 10.1 .lj.6-51. k Ibid.. 10.1.85-86. 3 On the r h e t o r i c a l nature of V i r g i l ' s verse one important conclusion can be reached based on the comparison which Q u i n t i l i a n makes between Homer and V i r g i l : he t r e a t s the l a t t e r as the Roman counterpart of the former, whose verse, as we have seen, he demonstrates as embracing every species o f eloquence. By deduction, t h e r e f o r e , V i r g i l ' s verse must be regarded as having a s i m i l a r scope and r h e t o r i c a l nature i n tone and technique. The Nature of Rhetoric We may now ask what r h e t o r i c i s . Greek and Roman philosophers, grammarians, and r h e t o r i c i a n s t r i e d at various times to o f f e r a d e f i n i t i o n of some s o r t , and i n two t r e a t i s e s of the Republican Era we have systems of r h e t o r i c l a i d down: 1) the Ad Herennium. the authorship of which i s u n c e r t a i n ; 2) the P a r t i t i o n e s o r a t o r i a e of Cicero. There are other important w r i t i n g s on d i f f e r e n t aspects o f t h i s s u b j e c t , such as the De inventlone, the De o r a t o r e , the Topica, the Orator, Brutus, De optimo genere oratorum, a l l o f tfhich were w r i t t e n also by Cic e r o , but perhaps the most important o f them a l l i s the massive work of Q u i n t i l i a n , the I n s t i t u t i o o r a t o r i a . I t i s a x^ork of encyclopaedic dimensions and embraces w i t h great thoroughness the various systems of r h e t o r i c down to the author's own day. This i s t h e r e f o r e a very convenient guide i n the examination o f the various d e f i n i t i o n s of r h e t o r i c that have come down to us from the a n c i e n t s . ^ 5 Q u i n t i l i a n , 2.15.1-37; M. L. Clarke, R h e t o r i c at Rome. London, Cohen and West, 1953, p.5 0 . Rhetoric has been most commonly defined as the power of persuading. This definition is said to have originated with Isocrates.^ It i s found again in the Gorgias though Plato wishes i t to be regarded as only the opinion of the protagonists of the dialogue.7 Cicero generally accepts this definition of rhetoric' This definition of rhetoric, as Quintilian points out,9 is unsatisfactory, for i t is not only rhetoric that has the power of persuasion; other things have a similar power: money, for example, and interest, the authority and dignity of a speaker, the pitiable appearance of defendants. In the Gorgias the protagonist is compelled, as i t were, by Socrates to modify his f i r s t definition of rhetoric. The modified definition which also has the approval of Theodectes ( c 375-331]- B. C ) , Apollodorus (c. 10lj.-22 B. C ) , and Hermagoras ( f l . c. 150 B. C ) , treats rhetoric as the power of persuading by speaking. 1 0 Though this definition goes a step further It is not sufficiently comprehensive, for the orator does not always persuade, nor could harlots and flatterers who also persuade by speaking;, as Quintilian says, be regarded as orators. There are other definitions equally (or even more) inadequate; Critolaus (early 2nd century B. C.) and Athenaeus defined 6 Quintilian, 2.15.3-k; cf. also Isocrates, The Orations of  Isocrates (Loeb Classical Library; London, W. Heinemann Ltd., 1928, trans. George Norlin), Introduction, p. x x i i i . 7 Ibid., 2.15.5. 8 De oratore. I.31.138; De inventione. 1.5.6. 9 Quintilian, 2.15.6. 10 Ibid., 1.15.10-11].. 5 o r a t o r y , a s the p r a c t i c e of speaking and the a r t of deceiving r e s p e c t i v e l y . One d e f i n i t i o n , however, has the recommendation of Q u i n t i l i a n , that of Theodorus of Gadara ( f l . 33 B. C.) whose view he regards as being more ca u t i o u s . Theodorus defines o r a t o r y as an a r t which d i s c o v e r s , judges, and enunciates w i t h s u i t a b l e eloquence and which i s c a l c u l a t e d to persuade i n a l l departments of p o l i t i c a l a f f a i r s . The flaw i n t h i s d e f i n i t i o n i s that r h e t o r i c i s l i m i t e d to p o l i t i c a l matters only and a l l other matters excluded. There are many other d e f i n i t i o n s which do not need to be examined here. Q u i n t i l i a n does not attempt to define r h e t o r i c h i m s e l f but only t e l l s us the d e f i n i t i o n of which he approves. 1 P R h e t o r i c , he says, i s the a r t of speaking w e l l ; to look f o r any other d e f i n i t i o n i s to seek f o r a worse one. There i s a l s o much disagreement as regards the kinds of oratory; the t r a d i t i o n a l number, however, i s th r e e . This i s s a i d to have o r i g i n a t e d w i t h A r i s t o t l e who made the d i v i s i o n i n t o f o r e n s i c (^KKVIKOV/ , genus i u d i c i a l e ) , d e l i b e r a t i v e (o-up|SovA«:vrin«>v genus d e l i b e r a t i v u m ) , and e p i d e i c t i c ( 6 T I ^ I K T I K O V } genus demonstrativum) .-^ Whatever the contention, both i n ancient as w e l l as i n modern times, the A r i s t o t e l i a n t r i p a r t i t e d i v i s i o n 11 Q u i n t i l i a n , 1 . 1 5 . 2 3 . I t i s u n c e r t a i n when Athenaeus was born, but i t i s known that he p r a c t i s e d medicine i n Rome under Claudius (A. D. Lj.l-lj .5) . He considered medical knowledge as part of general education. 12 I b i d . , 2 . 1 5 . 3 7 . 13 I b i d . . 3.I4..1-3; A r i s t o t l e , Rhet.. 1 . 3 . 3 ; C i c e r o , De ora t o r e . 1 . 3 1 . 1 3 8-li+ 1 . has been g e n e r a l l y accepted and fol l o w e d . ^ We may now lo o k at how the or a t o r e x e r c i s e d h i s a r t , and what means he employed i n r e v e a l i n g h i s v i s o r a t o r i s . The e n t i r e problem was d i v i d e d i n t o f i v e departments. His f i r s t step was to t h i n k of what to say. This process was c a l l e d i n v e n t i o . When he had gathered h i s m a t e r i a l , he arranged i t i n t o a reasonable and l o g i c a l sequence; h i s method here the ancients c a l l e d d i s p o s i t i o . Facts alone, however w e l l disposed had not the power to convince; they, had to be clo t h e d i n persuasive language. This department o f speech-composition i s e l o c u t i o , or s t y l e . The o r a t o r also r e q u i r e d memory (memoria) to r e t a i n h i s speech. The l a s t department was p r o n u n t i a t i o or ac t i o which was the method of d e l i v e r y . These f i v e d i v i s i o n s or r h e t o r i c e s p a r t i t i o n e s were recognized by most grammarians and rhetoricians.- 1-^ The speech i t s e l f was then d i v i d e d i n t o s p e c i a l s e c t i o n s . Here again, there was disagreement as regards the number of sections i n t o which the o r a t i o should be d i v i d e d . A r i s t o t l e d i v i d e d i t i n t o two: l ) statement of case; 2) proof. This d i v i s i o n was not g e n e r a l l y accepted. The author of the book Ad Herennium and Cicero i n the De inventione and the II4. C l a r k e , R h e t o r i c at Rome, p. 2i]_; D. L. Cla r k , R h e t o r i c i n Greco-Roman Education, New York, Columbia U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1957, PP. 133-111-2. 15 Q u i n t i l i a n , 3.3.1-3; De or a t o r e , 1.31.114-2. 16 A r i s t o t l e , Rhet., 3.13; D. L. Cl a r k , op. c i t . , p. 70. 7 17 De oratore divided the oratio into six parts, ' and this T A division has received general acceptance. The oratio begins with the exordium (introduction), in which the speaker renders his hearers attentive and friendly. The exordium is recommended to be brief and to be followed by a statement of facts. This statement is known as narratio and i t is coloured by the speaker in his own favour. The third section i s known as the partitio or the divisio. Here the speaker states his plan. In the confirmatio which came fourth, the speaker gave affirmative proof for his cause and quickly followed the proof with a rebuttal or refutation (confutatio) of his opponent's objections and arguments. The speech then came to an end with a conclusio or peroratio. The successful management of these departments of oratory depended entirely on a powerful command of language and a thorough mastery of style, a l l of which depended on a systematic study of Roman and Greek literature. The part played by the study of the best authors in the standard rhetorical training, therefore, cannot be overestimated. This excellence in language, now as of old, was attained only by a judicious imitation of what was discovered to be good through careful observation in everyday reading, writing, listening, and speaking. 1.7 Ad Herennium. 1.3.k> De inventione. 1.13.19; De oratore. 1.31.1^2-3. 18 D. L. Clark, op. c i t . : M. L. Clarke, op. c i t . . p. 2J+. 19 Quintilian, 3.2.3; D. L. Clark, op. c i t . , pp. 11+4-176. 8 The Position of Literature in the Study of Rhetoric The standard rhetorical education in Rome was divided into two stages: 1) the school of the grammaticus; 2) the school of the rhetor. When elementary training was completed and f a c i l i t y had been attained both in reading and writing, the student went to the grammatici from whom he received instruction in languages and literature. The primary purpose of such training was to impart not only a good knowledge of metre, rhythm, and prose-style, but also familiarity with the expert use of words. w At this stage reading was not confined to any particular class of writers; but l y r i c poets, because of the obscenity of some of their passages, were not as highly recommended as epic writers and tragedians. Comedy was highly recommended because i t contributed largely to eloquence.^1 Poetry constituted the main source of material for the Roman educational system which became "practically synonymous with study of the poets" who supplied the students with "the earliest formative influences."^2 Early in the school of the grammaticus the future orator was required, during his reading, to explain, comment on, 20 Quintilian, l . l | . . l - 6 . 21 Ibid., 1.8.i].-l2. 22 H. W. Garrod, Oxford Book of Latin Verse. Oxford, University Press, 1921, Introduction, pp. x x v i i - x x v i i i . 9 and c r i t i c i z e the authors. This i s the equivalent of p r e c i s -w r i t i n g i n our modern and secondary schools. At t h i s stage w h i l e the student i s too young f o r the teacher of r h e t o r i c , i t i s recommended t h a t , apart from the poets, he should study the fabl e s of Aesop and l e a r n to r e l a t e and paraphrase them i n p l a i n and simple l a n g u a g e . ^ Prom plays p a r t i c u l a r passages that c l o s e l y resembled court pleadings were to be l e a r n t by heart and r e c i t e d under the guidance of an actor; t h i s p r a c t i c e was c a l c u l a t e d to insure c o r r e c t pronunciation and was at the s.ame time considered to f o s t e r eloquence. Passages from the orators were deferred f o r maturer days. 2k The student then s t a r t e d a new phase of t r a i n i n g i n the school of the rhetor where he was d i r e c t e d to commence the study of h i s t o r y , ^ which was complemented by the study of the o r a t o r s ; ' 1 0 students were recommended to take c a r e f u l n o t i c e of the excellences and f a u l t s of the authors and to i m i t a t e t h e i r various t e c h n i q u e s , ^ such as methods adopted i n the exordium, the means by which b r e v i t y and clearness were a t t a i n e d , and the manner i n which f a c t s were s t a t e d . 23 Q u i n t i l i a n , 1.9 . 2 . 2k I b i d . . 1.9 . 1 2-li).. 25 I b i d . , 2.1+.2. 26 I b i d . , 2 . 5 . 1 . 27 I b i d . . 2 . 5 . 5-9. 10 The Influence of Rhetoric on Literature Such was the rigorous training that constituted the major part of the standard rhetorical education at Rome. This training had in turn a characteristic effect on practically a l l literature that was written. The influence was so intensive that i t remained evident not only in the literature that was immediately produced at Rome hut also in the works of the early Fathers of the Christian Church, in the Middle Ages, and even PR as late as the eighteenth century. For our purpose, however, i t is with the literature of Rome in the early Empire that we are immediately concerned. From Augustus to Domitian almost a l l that was written was highly coloured with the various techniques which had been acquired in the schools of the grammatici and the rhetores. Thus V i r g i l , Ovid, Seneca the Younger, and Lucan, to take only a few of the Roman writers, by education and by the demands of their lit e r a r y circles at formal recitations became intensely rhetorical in tone and technique. It was in fact fashionable to decry Seneca and Lucan as simply mere rhetoricians, 2 9 the l a t t e r of whom Quintilian preferred to regard as an orator rather than a poet. 30 In reference to Quintilian's time and earlier, R. J. Getty says, 28 D. L. Clark, op. c i t . , Preface, p. ix; pp. 21-22, 85-86, 218-19; T. E. Page, Aeneid, London, Macmillan and Company, 1951, p. x x i i . 29 Garrod, op. c i t . , Introduction, p. xxxvii. 30 Quintilian, 10.1.90. . . . there was a craze among c e r t a i n r h e t o r i c i a n s f o r the a d d i t i o n and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f more and more f i g u r e s among the recognized l i s t s . Of t h i s p r a c t i c e he disapproves, and remarks i n c o n c l u s i o n t h a t , when true f i g u r e s are placed i n a s u i t a b l e context, they are an ornament to s t y l e , but that they are completely inept when the o r a t o r seeks to employ them to excess. This apparently, was one of the weaknesses of the age, and i t i s s i g n i f i c a n t that even i n one book of the De b e l l o c i v i l i , i l l u s t r a t i o n s of p r a c t i c a l l y every trope and f i g u r e mentioned i n the I n s t i t u t i o O r a t o r i a can be found. Even i n the framework o f h i s s t y l e i t i s abundantly c l e a r to one who considers t h i s aspect of h i s technique, why Lucan according to Q u i n t i l i a n should be i m i t a t e d by orators r a t h e r than by poets, o-. V i r g i l ' s t r a i n i n g under the r h e t o r i c i a n Epidius- 5 l e f t a strong mark on h i s works. He had been intended f o r the law c o u r t s , f o r which h i s temperament was e n t i r e l y u n s u i t e d ; however, the art of r h e t o r i c which he acquired i n the schools o r i g i n a l l y f o r the purposes of the Forum gave such r h e t o r i c a l f l a v o u r to h i s w r i t i n g s that i t created some doubt i n the minds of some ancient scholars as to whether he should be regarded as a poet or as an o r a t o r . This doubt i s i l l u s t r a t e d by the t i t l e of F l o r u s 1 (the p o e t - f r i e n d of Hadrian) book: V i r g i l i u s  Orator an Poeta. P a r t i c u l a r l y declamatory are most of the speeches that abound i n the Aeneid and the most c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f them are the s o l i l o q u i e s , dialogues and s e l f - e x h o r t a t i o n s . Of the f o u r t h book f o r example, Garrod says, "Even there V i r g i l does not forget the mere fo r m a l . r u l e s of r h e t o r i c . Analyse any speech of Dido. Dido knows a l l the r u l e s . You can c h r i s t e n 31 R. J. Getty, M. Annaei Lucani de b e l l o c i v i l i , Cambridge, U n i v e r s i t y Press, 191+0, I n t r o d u c t i o n , p. l x v i . 32 Page, Aeneid, I n t r o d u c t i o n , pp. v - v i . 12 out of Quintilian almost a l l the figures of rhetoric which she employs."33 T . E . Page very aptly compared the debate in the eleventh book with Milton's account of the great council of war in Pandemonium. 3k Also, in book ten, i t seems that V i r g i l purposely depicted a court scene, revealing an intimate acquaintance with court procedure and declamatory practice. There Juppiter i s the judge, Venus the counsel for the defence; Juno is the counsel for the prosecution and Aeneas the accused. The assembled cuncti caellcolae are the jury.35 It is in the use of figures and tropes that V i r g i l most clearly reveals the influence of rhetoric on his poetry. His untiring search for something new to say made him explore every possibility in the use of figures and tropes. These cover a very large department of oratorical style and play a very important role in the poetry of Borne, particularly that of the Augustan Age. It would be better, therefore, to reserve discussion of this subject for a special chapter. 33 Garrod, op. c i t . , p. xxxvii. 3U- Page, Aeneid, p. x x i i . 35 V i r g i l , 10, 1-117. CHAPTER I I Tropes and Figures Q u i n t i l i a n urged teachers of grammar and r h e t o r i c to e x p l a i n a l l tropes and f i g u r e s w i t h great care because they were of the utmost importance: both prose and poetry, he maintained, r e c e i v e d the greatest ornament from them."L Me s h a l l at t h i s point summarily examine the nature of tropes and f i g u r e s and define the terms used. Tropes Tropes are a d i s t i n c t form of speech c o n s i s t i n g i n the use of a word not i n i t s proper, but i n a " t r a n s f e r r e d " sense. 2 This conversion o f a word or phrase from i t s proper s i g n i f i c a t i o n to another i n c r e a s e s , by the mere f a c t of •5 u n f a m i l i a r i t y , the force of the word or phrase, which increase 1 Q u i n t i l i a n , 1.8.16. 2 I b i d . , 8.1)..28-29. 3 I b i d . . 8.6.1. of force i s g e n e r a l l y regarded as a c o n t r i b u t i o n to ornamentation i n s t y l e . ^ Ancient grammarians and philosophers engaged In interminable disputes as to the genera, s p e c i e s , number and order of importance of tropes. Q u i n t i l i a n , however, t r e a t e d o n l y those of importance and i n common u s e / These i n c l u d e d a la r g e number, only a few of which can be discussed i n any d e t a i l here. Among those that are touched upon i n Q u i n t i l i a n are: metaphora, s i m i l e , synecdoche, and metonymia, exoche and antonomasia, ep i t h e t o n , onomatopoeia, and k a t a c h r e s i s , a c y r o l o g i a , m e t a l e p s i s , a l l e g o r i a , aenigma, i r o n i a , i n r i s i o , diasyrmos, sarcasmog, astismos, a n t i p h r a s i s , euphemismos, l i t o t e s , oxymorum, hypallage, p e r i p h r a s i s , p e r i s s o l o g i a . hyperbaton, anastrophe, timiesis, or diacope, parenthesis , hysteronproteron, or hy s t e r o l o g i a , synchysis and hyperbole. We may now examine three or four of the most important tropes beginning w i t h metaphor ( t r a n s l a t i o ) , which i s the most important of the tropes, and at the same time the most common and the most b e a u t i f u l . ^ a I t s use, Q u i n t i l i a n says, comes n a t u r a l l y and must be f o r the sake of b r i l l i a n c e i n composition, f o r i t would be v i c i o u s i f i t f a i l e d to co n t r i b u t e s i g n i f i c a n c e or : embellishment.6 1|. Q u i n t i l i a n , 9 . I . I 4 . . 5 I b i d . , 8.6.1-2. 5a I b i d . , 8.6.1].. 6 I b i d . , 8-6.I4--6. I S 7 Pour kinds of metaphor are recognized by Q u i n t i l i a n : 1) i n the f i r s t , one t h i n g w i t h l i f e i s put f o r another w i t h l i f e ( i n rebus animalibus a l i u d pro a l i o p o n i t u r ) : i n gubernator  magna c o n t o r s i t equum v i , gubernator has been m e t a p h o r i c a l l y used f o r auriga or a g i t a t o r ; 2) i n the second, one t h i n g without l i f e i s put f o r another without l i f e (inanima pro a l i i s generis  eiusdem sumuntur): Q u i n t i l i a n c i t e s c l a s s ! i n m i t t i t habenas and Servius remarks that habenas i s used m e t a p h o r i c a l l y f o r funes; 3) i n the t h i r d , a t h i n g without l i f e i s used f o r a t h i n g w i t h l i f e (pro rebus animalibus inanima): the stock example quoted by grammarians such as Donatus [l\.th c. A. D.), Sacerdos (3rd c. A. D.), C h a r i s i u s ( l a t e l+\th c. A. D.), and Diomedes ( l a t e l+th c. A. D.), i s , s i tantum pectore rbbur c o n c i p i s where robur, used here m e t a p h o r i c a l l y , would be more a p p r o p r i a t e l y used w i t h wood than man; and, l|.) i n the f o u r t h , a t h i n g w i t h l i f e i s put f o r a t h i n g without l i f e (pro rebus inanimis a n i m a l i a ) : Q u i n t i l i a n ' s example i s , Accipiens sonitum s a x i de v e r t i c e  pastor; here, cacumine r a t h e r than v e r t i c e would p r o p e r l y go w i t h saxum. When Q u i n t i l i a n d e a ls w i t h the s i m i l e he does not w r i t e i n any d e t a i l but only makes, as i t were, a passing mention of g i t , and simply compares i t w i t h metaphor. We may now examine b r i e f l y two more of the tropes: 1) synecdoche ( i n t e l l e c t i o ) , and, 2) metonymy (immutatio). 7 Q u i n t i l i a n , 8.6.9-13; J . L. Moore, "Servius on the tropes and f i g u r e s of V e r g i l , " A.. J . P. . v o l . 12, ( I 8 9 D , PP. 161-165. 8 Q u i n t i l i a n , 8 .6 .8-9; D. L. C l a r k , R h e t o r i c , p. 89. The f i r s t i s the s u b s t i t u t i o n of a part f o r the whole or v i c e versa; i t i s commonly used f o r v a r i e t y . 9 Examples'*"^ of i t abound i n V i r g i l where domus A s s a r a c i i s used f o r f a m i l i a Troiana  Pergama f o r T r o i a ; Mycenae f o r Graecia; mucro f o r g l a d i u s ; Auster  A q u i l o , Boreas, Motus, Eurus, or Zephyrus f o r ventus; and amnis or lacus f o r aqua. Properly, metonymy i s a s u b d i v i s i o n of synecdoche, and here a word i s s u b s t i t u t e d f o r another that i s d e f i n i t e l y r e l a t e d to i t . " ^ The grammarians recognize at l e a s t s i x forms of t h i s trope: 1) i n the f i r s t , the contents are s u b s t i t u t e d f o r the container (per i d quod c o n t i n e t u r i l l u d quod c o n t i n e t ) ; 2) i n the second, the container i s s u b s t i t u t e d f o r the contents (per i d quod continet i l l u d quod c o n t i n e t u r ) ; 3) here, the inventor i s s u b s t i t u t e d f o r the i n v e n t i o n (per inventorem i d quod  inventum e s t ) ; Lj.) the i n v e n t i o n i s put f o r the inventor (per  inventum subiectumve inventorem dominantemve); 5) the cause f o r the e f f e c t (per e f f i c i e n t e m i d quod e f f i c i t u r ) ; 6) the e f f e c t f o r the cause (per i d quod e f f i c i t u r i l l u d quod e f f i c i t ) . Thus when we say apud Livium, Ciceronem, V i r g i l i u m , or PIautum we s u b s t i t u t e the inventor f o r the i n v e n t i o n . 9 Q u i n t i l i a n , 3.6.19-22; Moore, op. c i t . . pp. 165-168. 10 V i r g i l , A. 1.281+, c f . 2.652, 3.85, 5-121, 7.122, 9 , G.l4-.h.66, c f . G . I 4 . . I 4 . 2 O ; see also Moore, op. c i t . , pp. 165-168. 11 Q u i n t i l i a n , 8.6.23-28; Moore, op. c i t . , pp. 168-I69. Figures Tropes and f i g u r e s were always confounded by ancient grammarians since they performed n e a r l y or very n e a r l y the same f u n c t i o n , both i n poetry and prose. Caius A r t o r i u s Proculus about whom nothing i s known i s named by Q u i n t i l i a n as one of 12 those authors who c a l l e d a trope a f i g u r e . Q u i n t i l i a n h i m s e l f t r i e d to show that there was a - d i s t i n c t i o n between tropes and 13 f i g u r e s but he d i d not stat e t h i s as c l e a r l y as he might have. Figures i n L a t i n are v a r i o u s l y known as f i g u r a e , 3.I4. formae, lumina, or motus. Q u i n t i l i a n defines a f i g u r e as a mode of expression a r t i s t i c a l l y v a r i e d from the form i n o r d i n a r y use; but to Servius a f i g u r e i s quidquid ergo scientes facimus  n o v i t a t i s c u p i d i . quod tamen idoneorum auctorum f i r m a t u r -i • 15 exemplxs. ^ There was disagreement as t o the number of f i g u r e s ; some r h e t o r i c i a n s grouped a l l f i g u r e s together as one simply because there was some confusion as to whether thought was due to a change i n words or whether the reverse was t r u e , i n which a change i n thought r e s u l t e d i n a change i n words. Servius considered f i g u r e s from the grammatical standpoint only and so 12 Q u i n t i l i a n , 9 . 1 . 1 - 9 . 13 I b i d . , D. L. C l a r k , R h e t o r i c , p. 90. 1I4. Cicero, De optimo genere, 5.11+; Brutus, 17 .69; Orator, 25.83; Q u i n t i l i a n , 9 . 1 . 1 . 15 Q u i n t i l i a n , 9 . 1 . 1 0-llj.; Moore, op. c i t . , p. 267. 18 to him a figure included a l l the peculiarities of an author in style, in grammar, in syntax, and in phraseology. Both Cicero and Cornelius Celsus added to figures of thought and speech, figures of style and complexion respectively. Quintilian 1s classification, however, i s the standard one; he divides figures into two groups: 1) figures of thought (figurae sententiarum 16 mentis, or sensus); 2) figures of speech (figurae verborum). Figures of Thought In a figure of thought i t is the contents of the sentence that count--even i f the wording is wholly changed, the figure s t i l l remains; but in a figure of speech i t is the wording, not necessarily the contents, that is important.1''' 18 Cicero's treatment of them was recommended by Quintilian; the only criticism he had of Cicero's writing on this matter was that i t was too elaborate, for Cicero included no less than sixty types: Quintilian called i t a "jungle" (silvam) Notable among the figures l i s t e d by Cicero are i l l u s t r i s  explanatio, brevitas, extenuatio, digressio, and rogatio.^ Quintilian is le ss elaborate in his treatment of the figures of thought in which he includes thirteen types: 2 1 16 Quintilian, 9.1.15-18; 36; Moore, op. c i t . , pp. 267-268. 17 Quintilian, 9.1.16; D. L. Clark, op. c i t . , p. 90. .18 Quintilian, 9 .2 . 1 . 19 Ibid. , 9.1.1J.5; 9.3.90. 20 Ibid., 9.1.26-32, Lj.0-i|5. 21 Ibid., 9.2.1-66; D. L. Clark, op. c i t . , pp. 90-91; Moore, op. c i t . . pp. 268-271. 1) the r h e t o r i c a l question ( i n t e r r o g a t i o ) which i s capable of a la r g e number of v a r i a t i o n s ; 2) a n t i c i p a t i o n ( p r o l e p s i s ) : t h i s f i g u r e f o r e s t a l l s o b j e c t i o n and i t has a wonderful e f f e c t i n pleadings and i s of great Importance i n the exordium; 3) h e s i t a t i o n ( d u b i t a t i o ) ; t h i s occurs when the o r a t o r simulates being at a l o s s as to what h i s point of departure should be, what should be h i s subject matter, whether he should speak or not and what should be h i s co n c l u s i o n ; Ij.) c o n s u l t a t i o n (coromunicatio): t h i s f i g u r e i s employed when we consult our opponent, or pretend to d e l i b e r a t e w i t h the judges, or s u b j o i n something unexpected; 5) s i m u l a t i o n ( s i m u l a t i o ) : t h i s i s the f i g u r e we use when we e x c i t e the f e e l i n g s o f our audience by f e i g n i n g anger, joy, f e a r , wonder, g r i e f , i n d i g n a t i o n , wish, and so on; 6) impersonation or p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n (prosopopoeia) gives v a r i e t y and animation to eloquence; here the speaker t a l k s as though the words are those o f a c l i e n t , or opponent, or of some s t a t e s , or gods, or the speaker's f a t h e r l a n d ; 7) apostrophe: by t h i s we d i v e r t our speech from the judge, e i t h e r to at t a c k our adversary or make some i n v o c a t i o n or implore a i d or throw odium on someone; 8) i l l u s t r a t i o n ( e v i d e n t i a ) : t h i s i s used to give a graphic r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of things so f u l l y expressed i n words that-we can conceive a p i c t u r e of them before our eyes; 9) Irony: t h i s i s a f u l l development of something contrary to what the speaker wishes h i s audience to understand; 10) simulated r e t i c e n c e ( aposiopesis , or r e t i c e n t i a , or o b t i c e n t i a , or i n t e r r u p t i o ) : t h i s i s used by the speaker when he breaks o f f i n the middle o f h i s sentence i n order to t e s t i f y something of 20 h i s passion, anger, anxiety, conscientious h e s i t a t i o n ; 11) mimicry (mimesis or ethopoeia): t h i s i s used when we seek to i m i t a t e someone's manners, words, deeds, and so on; 12) i t i s also regarded as a f i g u r e o f thought when we pretend to f i n d something suggested to us by the matter about which we are t a l k i n g as when we use "This brings me i n mind of such and such;" 13) i n t i m a t i o n (emphasis): t h i s i s when some l a t e n t sense i s to be e l i c i t e d from some word or phrase. Figures of Speech While the f i g u r e o f thought deals w i t h content, the f i g u r e o f speech l i e s i n the ver b a l expression o f that conception. Q u i n t i l i a n d i v i d e s f i g u r e s of speech i n t o two groups: 1) the formation o f phrases, and 2) t h e i r c o l l o c a t i o n . 2 3 Of the f i r s t group, f i f t e e n are l i s t e d i n Q u i n t i l i a n . " ^ l ) Figures that occur w i t h regard to nouns i n t h e i r gender ( f i u n t ergo et c i r c a  genus f i g u r a e i n nominibus), f o r example, a g r i c o l a e takes m u l t i i n s t e a d o f multae. 2) The passive form i s f r e q u e n t l y used f o r the a c t i v e i n expressing our a c t i o n , e.g., de f i x u s l u m i n a . ^ ^ 3) A f i g u r e may be a l s o obtained i n number by j o i n i n g the s i n g u l a r w i t h the p l u r a l or by doing the reverse (est f i g u r a et  i n numero. v e l cum s i n g u l a r i p l u r a l i s s u b l u n g i t u r , . . . v e l ex 22 D. L. Clark, R h e t o r i c , p. 90; Q u i n t i l i a n , 9.1.16. 23 Q u i n t i l i a n , 9.3.2. 2k\ I b i d . , 9.3.6-22; Moore, op. c i t . , pp. 268-271. 2hb V i r g i l , Aeneid, 6.156. Aeneas maesto defixus lumina v o l t u . 2.1 div e r s o ) . I4.) A f i n i t e verb may sometimes be used f o r a p a r t i c i p l e (utimur et verbo pro p a r t i c i p i o ) . 5) Sometimes two or more f i g u r e s of speech may be used together (iunguntur i n t e r i m schemata). 6) Sometimes a s u b s t i t u t i o n of tenses may take place as when a present tense i s used for the past ( t r a n s f e r u n t u r et tempora). 7) There may be a s u b s t i t u t i o n of moods. 8 ) A f i g u r e may occur when a p e c u l i a r word i s recommended by I t s a n t i q u i t y . 9 ) Phrases t r a n s l a t e d from Greek are regarded also as f i g u r e s . 10) Common expressions as found i n p u b l i c acts may be t r e a t e d as f i g u r e s o f speech (vulgatum a c t i s ) . 11) Figures occur also i n the a d d i t i o n or s u b t r a c t i o n of a word i n our phrases, f o r , although a x<jord more than i s necessary may seem u s e l e s s , t h i s o f t e n c o n t r i b u t e s grace to w r i t i n g . 12) Often we use comparatives f o r p o s i t i v e s (utimur vulgo et comparativis pro a b s o l u t j s ) . 13) Some expressions which should be regarded as tropes are o f t e n taken as f i g u r e s merely because o f a s u b s t i t u t i o n o f one x^ord f o r another although they bear no r e l a t i o n to a solecism (sunt et  i l i a non s i m i l i a solecismo quidem, sed tamen numerum mutantia,  quae et t r o p i s adsigmari s o l e n t ) , a) when we s u b s t i t u t e a s i n g l e person f o r the p l u r a l (ut de uno p l u r a l i t e r dicamus). b) when we speak of s e v e r a l persons i n the s i n g u l a r (de p l u r i b u s s i n g u l a r i t e r ) . 124-) When the precepts and admonitions that we intended f o r a l l are d i r e c t e d to a s i n g l e person or to on e s e l f , a f i g u r e occurs. 15) I t i s al s o a f i g u r e when we speak of ourselves as i f we were speaking of others ( n o s t r a persona utimur pro a l i e n a , et  a l i o s pro a l i i s f i n g i m u s ) . 22 The second group of the f i g u r e s of speech which deal w i t h the c o l l o c a t i o n of phrases i s discussed i n the t h i r d chapter of the n i n t h book of the I n s t i t u t i o o r a t o r i a . 2 ^ l ) I n t e r c l u s i o or i n t e r p o s i t i o : t h i s deals w i t h p a r e n t h e t i c a l remarks inte r p o s e d to break the course of a sentence. 2) Another c l o s e l y resembles the f i g u r e of thought known-.as apostrophe but i s d i f f e r e n t i n t h i s r e s p e c t , that i t changes the form of the language and not the sense. 3) A d i e c t i o : there are various kinds of t h i s : a) words may be doubled w i t h a view to a m p l i f i c a t i o n ; b) f o l l o w i n g a p a r e n t h e s i s , a word may be repeated to produce a stronger e f f e c t on the l i s t e n e r ; c) a number of clauses may begin w i t h the same word f o r the sake of force or emphasis; d) a number o f successive clauses may end i n the same way f o r s i m i l a r reasons; e) s e v e r a l other methods of producing t h i s k ind are mentioned by Q u i n t i l i a n notably the use of: epanodos. polyptoton, metabole, ploke, and d i a l l a g e . 1+) Asyndeton: This i s the absence o f a conjunctive p a r t i c l e as i n "Better l i g h t , b e t t e r s i g h t , " or "More haste, l e s s speed." 5) B r a c h y l o g i a : t h i s i s an abbreviated comparison as i n "h a i r l i k e the Graces" ( i . e . f o r h a i r l i k e [that of] the Graces). 6) Polysyndeton: t h i s i s the opposite o f asyndeton. Here, we repeat the connecting p a r t i c l e s . 7) Climax: i n t h i s the words or clauses are arranged i n such a way that each word occurs twice i n succession; the concluding word of the f i r s t clause i s repeated as the f i r s t word of the 25 Q u i n t i l i a n , 9 . 3 . 2 3 - 8 6 ; Moore, op. c i t . . pp. 271-290. 2b Q u i n t i l i a n , 9.3.32-1+9. following clause. 8) E l l i p s i s ; this occurs when an omission is made in the sentence provided the word omitted can be clearly gathered from the context. 9) Aposiopesis: this is related to e l l i p s i s because an omission also occurs in i t , but i t i s different in that the omission i s either uncertain or requires a lengthy explanation to show what is suppressed. 10) Zeugma; in this figure a number of clauses are a l l completed by the same verb; in any case the point of zeugma is that a different verb would be required with each subject i f expressed: the one verb at the end does the work of the three (or four, as the case might be). 11) Synoikeiosis; this joins two different things as in Socils tunc arma capessant, edico, et dira bellum  cum gente gerendum.2? 12) P a r a d i a s t o l e ; t h i s distinguishes between similar things. 13) Paronomasia; this l i e s in the resemblance, equality, or contrast of words. li|.) Antanaclasis; this is similar to paronomasia. It i s the use of the same word in a contrary sense. lf>) Sometimes a figure may be derived from the contrast between two words not dissimilar in sound by a play on the resemblance. This figure can be achieved i n four ways, namely, by the use of: a) parison which is an exact correspondence between the clauses; b) homoeoteleuton which is a correspondence in the ending of two or more sentences; c) homoeoptoton which i s a correspondence produced by the use of similar cases; and d) isocolon. clauses of equal length. 16) Antithesis: this may be effected in many ways: a) where single words are contrasted with single words; b) where the 27 Quintilian, 9 .3.63; V i r g i l , Aeneid, 3.23lj.. 27b Ibid.. 9 .3.65. contrast may be between pairs of words; c) the contrast may be between sentences; d) where the contrast is produced by the use of antimetabole in which words are repeated in different cases, tenses, and moods. There are a number of figures which l i e in the collocation of words which are not specifically mentioned by Quintilian but dealt with by Servius.2® 17) Hendiadys: this consists in the resolution of an expression into parts by making a substantive limited by another in an oblique case (hypotaxis) become two substantives (parataxis) united by a conjunctive particle. 18) Hirmos: this refers to a series of words a l l in the same grammatical case depending on a single verb expressed at the end of a clause. It is very important to note that throughout the discussion on tropes and figures Quintilian harped on one dominant note of warning regarding the use of these lumina of composition. If the speaker is to attract the attention of the auditor, he should not allow him to grow languid but rouse him from time to time by the use of some striking expression. This can be done i f tropes and figures are used with moderation. Tropes and figures of the same kind should not be thrown together, nor should they be introduced too frequently, for rarity and diversity w i l l prevent satiety in their use. They are an ornament to language when they are judiciously brought 28 Moore, op. c i t . . pp. 273-283. into one's speech and writing, hut they can be extremely ridiculous when they are introduced in immoderate profusion.^ One of these lumina of composition, the simile, w i l l be the subject for discussion in Chapters Three and Pour. It is "a figure of speech by which one thing, action, or relation is likened or explicitly compared in one or more aspects, often with as or l i k e , to something of different kind or quality."^^ In this discussion particular attention w i l l be paid to i t s use in V i r g i l 1 s Aeneid. 29 Quintilian, 9.3.J+. 27, 100; D. L. Clark, Rhetoric, pp. 91-92; R. J. Getty, M. Annaei Lucani. introduction, p. l x v i . 30 Webster's New International Dictionary, edited by W. A. Neilson, T. A. Knott, and P. W. Carhart, Springfield, Mass., U. S. A., 1958, p. 231+.0. CHAPTER III The S i m i l e i n Homer The aim of t h i s s e c t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s i s to i n v e s t i g a t e b r i e f l y the character and purpose of the Homeric s i m i l e , the sources of comparison, and i t s i n f l u e n c e on subsequent e p i c . Much has been w r i t t e n f o r and against the s i m i l e s i n Homer. J. P. Mahaffy p r a i s e s the picturesque nature of the s i m i l e s but complains at the same time of t h e i r being excessive and d i s t u r b i n g to the n a r r a t i v e since they appear to be i n s e r t e d by d i f f e r e n t rhapsodes. Mahaffy, however, does not s p e c i f y wherein the excess l i e s , whether i n number or i n o v e r - e l a b o r a t i o n . G i l b e r t Murray laments t h e i r l a c k of o r i g i n a l i t y and says they are merely t r a d i t i o n a l and taken ready-made from a common st o r e ; however, he agrees t h a t they are the very breath of l i f e of Homer's poetry. I n them C. M. Bowra sees the ancestor of a l l s i m i l e s 1 J. P. Mahaffy, Greek C l a s s i c a l L i t e r a t u r e : E p i c and L y r i c Poets, London and New York, Macmillan, 1 8 9 5 , P« 9 1 ; G i l b e r t Murray, The Rise of the Greek E p i c , Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1911 , pp. 2^2-262; C. M. Bowra, Ancient Greek L i t e r a t u r e , London, Thornton Butterworth L t d . , 1 9 3 3 , p. 26. 27 We cannot here consider the merits and defects of these statements; what is more interesting here is the figurative power of the simile. Quintilian recognizes the power of figurative language in rousing the emotions. The supreme purpose of Homer as a storyteller i s to rouse the emotions of his audiences and this he does chiefly by his power of graphic narrative and description and the use of simile where he often resorts to the cumulation of imagery,3 piling one simile on another for the greatest effects. We may now examine a few of the specific functions f u l f i l l e d by the Homeric simile.^- 1) The most important function of the simile is that of ornamentation. 2) The simile introduces a moment or thing which the poet wishes to render impressive; by i t s use, the poet prepares his audience by f i r s t describing something which is known and leads his hearers thence to the unknown. 3) A very important function of the Homeric simile "is to relieve the monotony of the fighting by the interspacing of these l i t t l e cameos of the larger l i f e of nature and man that encompasses the turmoil and hell of battle."^ 1+) The similes are used in portraying a more vivid picture of Homeric l i f e , which could hardly be properly done without them. 5) Often the simile is used to introduce an important personage or to 2 Quintilian, 9-3.27. 3 Homer, Iliad, 2.l|-53-l|-90; P. Shorey, "The Logic of the Homeric Simile," Classical Philology. 17 (1922), pp. 21+0-259. 1+ R. C. Jebb, The Growth and Influence of Classical Greek  Poetry, London and New York, Macmillan and Company, 1893, pp. 69-71; Shorey, op. c i t . . p. 256. 5 Shorey, op. c i t . . p. 256. 28 heighten f e e l i n g about a f a t e f u l turn i n the n a r r a t i v e and so frame a d i v i s i o n or mark an episode. For our purpose the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the sources from which Homer draws h i s s i m i l e s can only be on a broad general b a s i s . 0 There are s i x d i v i s i o n s of which that of the animal world i s perhaps the most favoured w i t h Homer f o r from i t he draws most of h i s s i m i l e s when he t a l k s of b a t t l e s : many of h i s s i m i l e s are taken from various moments of a l i o n ' s or a boar's l i f e i n order to represent the f u r y and m i l i t a r y prowess of h i s heroes.^ Such moments may be when the w i l d animals are famished with hunger, or when they have had enough to eat, or when they are preparing f o r a k i l l or r e t i r i n g from a f l o c k a f t e r a k i l l , or wounded by the shepherd or c o u n t r y - f o l k , o r when they are at bay. However, we s h a l l deal f i r s t with the s i m i l e s drawn from n a t u r a l phenomena which i n c l u d e those drawn from c e l e s t i a l phenomena l i k e the sun, moon, and s t a r s w i t h a l l u s i o n s made to t h e i r b r i g h t n e s s , darkness, o r roundness; those drawn from atmospheric phenomena and these i n c l u d e the wind i n i t s v a r i o u s a c t i v i t i e s and i n t e n s i t y , m i s t , clouds i n g e n e r a l , or clouds r e s t i n g on mountain tops, or d r i v e n before the wind, or darkening the a i r , or r i s i n g before a storm, o r d i s p e l l e d a f t e r 6 I have followed E. G. W i l k i n s c l o s e l y i n the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . See "A C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the S i m i l e s of Homer," The C l a s s i c a l  Weekly, 13 (1920), pp. llj .7 -150, 1514--159. 7 Murray, Greek E p i c , p. 2^8. 29 a storm. Lightning, thunder, tempest, snow, h a i l and rainbow are included in similes drawn from atmospheric phenomena. Fire, water, and terrestrial phenomena also come under this class of similes which deals with natural phenomena. The second class of similes is not a favourite with the poet. The similes of this group are drawn from the vegetable world and they include references to the growth of a young plant in connection with which allusions are made to leaves, their number, their transitory l i f e or their restlessness. A grain f i e l d swaying in the wind belongs also to this class. Flowers and their number in spring are used also as sources but specific references are made to a poppy or a hyacinth. Included in this class are trees, their firmness, or their destruction. The similes which are drawn from the animal world, as we have just seen, are the most frequent in Homer's epic particularly in the battle-books. The sources include the cuttlefish, the earthworm, the spider's web and insects. The insects include f l i e s swarming about milk pails or boldly trying persistently to bite, cicadas, locusts, waspa, and bees. There i s also a number of similes drawn from fishes caught in a net, fleeing before a dolphin, or leaping on the beach. The snake simile is not common in Homer but those drawn from birds are very common, in which the general l i f e , a c t i v i t i e s , and environments are mentioned. A large number of specific birds is found in the similes including geese, swans, doves, starlings, 3-0 and daws, n i g h t i n g a l e s , swallcws, thrushes, b i r d s o f prey such as v u l t u r e s , hawks, eagles, and k i t e s . Sea-birds such as cormorants, sea crows, t e r n s , and ospreys also form the references i n the s i m i l e s . The mammals i n the s i m i l e s drawn from the animal world include bats and domestic animals such as sheep, goats, swine, c a t t l e , horses, mules, asses, and dogs; from w i l d animals are drawn s i m i l e s which d e p i c t the f u r y and f e r o c i t y o f a b a t t l e -scene or the prowess of the brave; these i n c l u d e deers and fawns, and the beasts of prey, which are the most important animals o f t h i s c l a s s . They in c l u d e w i l d boars, wolves, j a c k a l s , leopards, and l i o n s which are perhaps the commonest of Homer's w i l d beast s i m i l e s . S i m i l e s o f the f o u r t h c l a s s are drawn from human beings, t h e i r r e l a t i o n s , a c t i v i t i e s and experiences. Most of the a c t i v i t i e s and experiences centre around the d a i l y l i f e o f a man, h i s wife and c h i l d r e n ; and the a c t i v i t i e s i n c l u d e the d a i l y engagements of a shepherd or a goatherd, g r a z i n g , and a g r i c u l t u r e which includes ploughing, reaping, t h r e s h i n g , and i r r i g a t i n g . Other human a c t i v i t e s mentioned i n Homeric s i m i l e s are f i s h i n g , d i v i n g , wood-cutting, tanning, s h i p - b u i l d i n g , f o r g i n g , p o t t e r y , work i n i v o r y and precious stones, r i d i n g , the chase, and s u b j e c t i v e experiences (which are few) i n c l u d e thought, emotional experiences and dreams. In t h i s c l a s s s i m i l e s are also drawn from a la r g e number of miscellaneous experiences and a c t i v i t i e s which need not be d e a l t w i t h here. 31 In the f i f t h class, similes are drawn from the objects and materials of c i v i l i z e d l i f e such as towers, parts of a house, parts of a ship, and axes, tops, trumpets' sound, quivers, olive o i l , pitch, honey, milk, iron and horns. In similes of the sixth class in which human beings are likened to the gods, the divine powers are mentioned in general, with references made to their form, voice, and face. Mention is also made of specific gods such aa Zeus, Poseidon, Ares, Aphrodite, Hyperion, and Artemis. In almost a century of Homeric scholarship several questions have centred around Homer's similes, such as whether they belong to the earliest phase of the evolution of the epic, or whether they are the late accretions Inserted as ornaments by compilers and revisers, whether "philological analysis can determine which of the similes are native to their present place, and which the diaskeuasts and rhapsodes inserted at random from a common store."® No room w i l l be allowed for the discussion of these problems here. However, we should l e t i t suffice that some of the greatest poets and the most s k i l f u l artists since Homer, namely, Appc^onius Rhodius, V i r g i l , Milton, Dante and Arnold, by their interpretative imitation of his technique, notably in the use of his similes, have more than demonstrated that Homer's similes are a hallmark of poetic excellence. 8 Shorey, op. c i t . , p. 258. 32 The Simile in Lucretius Lucretius draws his similes from a very wide range of subjects and his powers of observation are acute, but the striking absence of amplification of details in most of his similes i s due to his desire to subordinate the decorative function of his similes to i t s didactic purpose. A great number of his similes are drawn from historical and philological subjects; nature, medicine, daily l i f e and physical phenomena also provide subjects for his similes. The Simile in V i r g i l ' s Aeneid The environment in which V i r g i l lived and grew up, his experience and temperament a l l had great influence on his outlook on l i f e . They influenced his thought and are a l l reflected in his works. The impress that these have on his writing shows very clearly in his use of similes. The similes can broadly be divided into 1) simple phrases, and 2) extended phrases. The second group i s further divided into two groups, a) extended static similes, and b) extended dynamic similes. A dynamic simile involves motion or noise or both, whereas a static simile involves neither. YJhen V i r g i l uses a simple phrase in making a comparison i t i s usually because the allusion is clearly understood and familiar to the reader and an elaboration of the subject i s therefore i n a r t i s t i c , or because his experience is limited or remote. The amplification 33 of the details of a simile i s a reflection of Virgil's greater and closer intimacy with the subject under discussion; so too, the prevalence of the static or dynamic element i s in accord with his personal experience and idiosyncrasy. In the following pages, therefore, we shall consider a large number of similes pointing out why they are simple or extended; or i f they are extended, those that are static or dynamic, and why, examining a l l in the light of Vir g i l ' s experience and idiosyncrasy. When King Aeolus, grateful for the many favours conferred on him by Juno, complies with her request to wreak havoc on the Trojan fleet, the winds that he consequently stirs up are likened to an army in battle array, not an army in action, nor one on the march.^ The failure to develop this simile along these lines robs i t of the motion and noise which usually accompany winds. It is rather the sudden disappearance of daylight and the darkness of night caused by the change in atmospheric condition that engage the attention of V i r g i l : incubuere mari, totumque a sedibus imis una Eurusque Notusque ruunt creberque procellis Africus, et vastos volvunt ad l i t o r a fluctus. insequitur clamorque virum stridorque rudentum. eripiunt subito nubes caelumque diemque Teucrorum ex oculis; ponto nox incubat atra. intonuere poll et crebris micat ignibus aether, praesentemque v i r i s intentant omnia mortem.-^ Vi r g i l i s peace-loving; the enlargement of the action of an army therefore does not seem to attract him. He i s content to 9 V i r g i l , Aeneid. I.6I4.-835 cf. p.lj.8. 10 Ibid., I .8I4--9I. leave the simile a simple phrase, velut agmine facto. However, he occasionally deviates from this practice when an elaboration is essential for greater effect. Virgil's idea of the physical features of a deity depends entirely on mere vivid imagination rather than personal experience. In a simile which aims at the portrayal of a deity, therefore, amplification of detail i s necessarily d i f f i c u l t or impossible except by imagination. Thus when V i r g i l draws a picture of Venus in the scene which immediately follows Aeneas' arrival in the realms of Queen Dido the simile i s a simple 11 phrase. It may be remarked here that action and movement in Vir g i l i a n similes are not confined to those of an extended class but may be obtained in those that are merely simple phrases. In showing the vigour of Venus V i r g i l puts before us the picture of the Thracian Harpalyce riding her horses at a breakneck speed along the banks of the swift Hebrus. It must be noted here that the picture drawn here of Harpalyce lacks detail. An elaboration would have been unnecessary since Roman audiences x^ rere intimately familiar with classical mythology and allusions. In this instance, as in many other cases where the lack of amplification of detail is obvious, i t is intended to be so by V i r g i l , for where one word would do, he does not use two, and so he says instar montis of the Trojan horse and his picture i s sufficiently painted, or' 11 V i r g i l , Aeneid, 1.316-317; cf. 1.588-593, 2.591-592, h.. 250-258, 1+.556-559. 35 when he refers to the Cyclops 1 eye he says Argolici c l i p e i 12 aut Fhoebeae lampadis instar. When V i r g i l refers to unsubstantial things l i k e winds and dreams i n connection with the magical disappearance of deities or ghosts, the references are naturally simple and unextended. Two reasons may be adduced for this peculiarity: 1) the references are usually clear and require no explanatory elaboration; 2) his knowledge of ghosts or deities i s based on mere imagination. A typical example of this kind of simple phrase-simile is that used in describing the disappearance of the ghost of Creusa. ter coriatus i b i collo dare bracchia circum; ter frustra comprensa manus effugit imago, par levibus ventis, volucrique simillima somno.^ Another is found when Anchises after giving instructions to Aeneas disappears l i k e smoke into the winds: et tenues fugit ceu fumus in auras.^ The simile of the moon seems to be particularly appealing to V i r g i l when he makes references to the underworld. In the halls of Dis, Aeneas and the Sibyl are obscured by the shadows cast by the uncertain light of the moon: 12 V i r g i l , Aeneid. 2.11+-15, 3.63U--637; there are at least thirty-two simple phrases in the Aeneid as my analytical study in Chapter Pour shows. Cf. 2.222-22lj., 7.707. 13 Ibid.. 2.791-792. These three lines almost translate the lines from Od.ll quoted at Aeneid 2.792 by almost every commentator. ^ Ibid.. 5.7*4-0. 36 ibant obscuri sola sub nocte per umbram, perque doraos Ditis vacuas et inania regna; quale per incertam lunam sub luce maligna est i t e r in s i l v i s , ubi caelum condidit umbra Iuppiter, et rebus nox abstulit atra colorem.^ This moon-simile in reference to the underworld i s an extended one, but one in which there i s no element of dynamism. One cannot rightly expect a simile of the moon to be f u l l of motion; here, i t i s the gloom and misery of the underworld that V i r g i l i s reflecting on. Another moon-simile of li k e qualities i s that in which Dido i s likened to the moon seen through clouds: inter quas Phoenissa recens a vulnere Dido errabat silva in magna: quam Troius heros, ut primum iuxta stetit adgnovitque per umbras obscuram, qualem primo qui surgere mense aut videt aut vidisse putat per nubila lunam.-^ In another simile which immediately follows and which is s t r i c t l y a simple phrase-simile but may be mentioned here since i t refers to the ghost of Dido, i t is the static element that also prevails. Dido i s represented as a hard silex or a Marpesian crag standing motionless: i l i a solo fixos oculos aversa tenebat; nec magis incepto vultum sermone movetur, quam si dura silex aut stet Marpesia cautes.. When V i r g i l deals with the number of the ghosts in the underworld, he compares them to fallen leaves in autumn, or the countless birds that gather around the sea-shore, or the bees that surround the flowers in summer. Two similes must be considered in this connection. 1^ F i r s t , 15 V i r g i l , Aeneid. 6.268-^272. 16 Ibid.. 6.1|5a-i+55. 17 Ibid., 6.14-69-1+71. 18 Ibid.. 6 .305-312, 6 .706-709. 37 hue omnis turba ad ripas effusa ruebat, matres atque v i r i , defunctaque corpora vita raagnaniraum heroum, pueri innuptaeque puellae, impositique rogis iuvenes ante ora parentum: quam multa i n s i l v i s autumni frigore primo lapsa cadunt f o l i a , aut ad terram gurgite ab alto quam multae glomerantur aves, ubi frigidus annus trans pontum fugat et terris inmittit aprlcis. Secondly, nunc circum innumerae gentes populique volabant; ac velut in pratis ubi apes aestate serena floribus insidunt var i i s , et Candida circum l i l i a funduntur; strepit omnis murmure campus. One of the most typical of Vi r g i l i a n similes arises from a conflict in the spheres of influence of Neptune and T O Aeolus. The former, indignant and resentful of the latter's transgression of his rights, quells the winds that the la t t e r has roused in fulfillment of Juno's request. V i r g i l compares this pacification of the winds to the calming influence that the appearance and the utterances of a distinguished orator have over an unruly mob. In this mob-simile we have a splendid example of the amplification of detail and elements of motion and noise. The brilliance of this simile reflects the fact that when V i r g i l has personal and intimate understanding of the subject of his simile and of infusing action and motion into i t . In his lifetime, he saw mob-action at i t s worst, for i t was then that excitement in Roman po l i t i c s of the late Republic reached i t s peak; V i r g i l was twenty^-eight years old at the time of Cicero's death (ij-3 B. C.) when assemblies were most riotous and he was 19 V i r g i l , Aeneid. l.llj .8-156. 38 probably present at Antony's delivery of the funeral-oration. But even in this simile, f u l l of dynamic elements as i t i s , the 20 static element intrudes: conspexere, silent arrectisque auribus adstant; i l l e regit dictis animos, et pectora mulcet. In V i r g i l the swan-simile, l i k e most similes that deal with creatures of the countryside, i s extended. V i r g i l was the son of a yeoman and probably had much to do with domesticated swans. V i r g i l x«?ites with great accuracy of detail when he writes of swans and this may have been the result of careful observation in his l i f e i n the countryside. In one interesting simile he compares the arrival of the Trojan fleet safely from a storm into the Carthaginian harbour with swans 21 flying safely from the reach of a hawk to the earth. As V i r g i l detested violence and i t s results, so did he, l i k e a true student of Epicureanism, delight in peace and a l l that came with i t . Exactly what Aeneas saw in Carthage on his arrival was what V i r g i l longed for in the Rome and Italy of his day and throughout mankind in general. The atmosphere of peace and plenty, the fervour of construction, the enthusiasm of the workers, some building walls, others fortifying the citadel, some heaving blocks of stone, others surveying the sites, some excavating for an a r t i f i c i a l harbour, others laying the foundations of capacious theatres; again, some quarrying 20 V i r g i l , Aeneid. 1.152-153. 21 Ibid.. 1.393-^00. 39 for large columns and others decorating the buildings; a l l this 22 was a most welcome sight. He loved i t and cherished i t . He was tired, and sick of war and destruction; he had seen the bloody transition from Republic to Empire. V i r g i l therefore compares the situation in Carthage on the arrival of Aeneas with the l i f e of the busy bee in summer not merely, or so much as to bring out the noise and movement that surround the works of men but to sing the glories of a peaceful l i f e for mankind, a l i f e that i s free from destruction and free from man's inhumanity to man. The elaboration of details and the element of dynamism shown in Vi r g i l ' s description of the busy l i f e of young Carthage are a reflection of V i r g i l ' s personal experience in everyday l i f e . He had seen the beginnings of the exciting period of reconstruction which immediately followed the C i v i l Wars (i|9-31 B. C.), whether i t was moral or architectural reconstruction. Dido herself was busied in building public edifices and temples and of course i t i s needless here to l i s t the achievements of Augustus in the direction of public works, notable among which was the building or reconstruction of eighty-two temples.2^ 22 V i r g i l , Aeneid. 1 .14 .2i-i4 .36. 23 Augustus, "fies Gestae," see V. Ehrenberg and A. H. M. Jones, Documents ill u s t r a t i n g the reigns of Augustus and Tiberius, Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1955, pp. 16-18, chapters 19-21. Another d e s c r i p t i o n l i k e the b e e - s i m i l e i s that of the ant r e p r e s e n t i n g Aeneas and h i s men preparing f o r the departure from Carthage; there, the fervour and t i r e l e s s motion also r e f l e c t V i r g i l ' s accuracy of o b s e r v a t i o n : migrantes cernas, totaque ex urbe ruentes; ac v e l u t ingentem formicae f a r r i s acervum cum populant, hiemis memores, tectoque reponunt; i t nigrum campis agmen, praedamque per herbas convectant c a l l e angusto; pars grandia trudunt obnixae frumenta umeris; pars agmina cogunt castigantque moras; bpere omnis semita f e r v e t . ^ V i r g i l was a man of a h i g h l y i n t r o s p e c t i v e nature and h i s f e e l i n g s were deep and c o n t r o l l e d ; he therefore took l i t t l e or no d e l i g h t i n a l l the noise and empty b u s t l e and j o s t l e of a crowd. This p o l i s h e d and s o p h i s t i c a t e d a t t i t u d e i n f l u e n c e d the d e s c r i p t i o n of h i s crowd-similes and robbed them of some dynamic q u a l i t y . A t y p i c a l example i s when V i r g i l compares Dido accompanied by a l a r g e crowd of the Carthaginian youth i n t o the temple w i t h the goddess Diana surrounded by a thousand nymphs.2£ Here he merely elaborates on d e t a i l s , r e f e r r i n g to the number and greatness o f the crowd. The wantonness and v i v a c i t y a s s o ciated w i t h nymphs are absent w h i l e the c o n t r o l l e d joy of Latona pervades the p i c t u r e . I t i s the c u l t i v a t e d s i l e n c e that lends d i g n i t y to r o y a l t y , i t i s Dido, a woman of a deeply i n t r o s p e c t i v e character, the wise lawgiver who i u r a dabat legesque v i r i s , operumque laborem p a r t i b u s aequabat l u s t i s aut sorte trahebat 2l|i V i r g i l , Aeneid, 1|..l4.Ol-l4.07 -2$ I b i d . , l.lj .98-508. This s i m i l e i s an i m i t a t i o n of Odyssey, 6.102 f f . that engages the a t t e n t i o n of the poet. A l l the f o l l o w e r s are a mere caterva and are a c c o r d i n g l y r e l e g a t e d to the background. Undoubtedly one of the most impressive s i m i l e s i n V i r g i l i s the s i m i l e of wolves and lambs used as symbols of courage and helplessness r e s p e c t i v e l y . On the dark and f a t e f u l night of the f a l l of I l i u m , impending doom and the danger of a t o t a l e x t i n c t i o n i n s p i r e d the Trojans w i t h a f i n a l show of courage which V i r g i l l i k e n s to the courage o f hungry wolves; -but t h i s was b l i n d courage since there was nothing they could do i n the circumstances to avert the danger; t h e i r courage was there f o r e sheer r e c k l e s s n e s s . T h e i r helplessness i s compared to that of lambs before the jaws o f hungry wolves. The e x c e l l e n t q u a l i t y of the s i m i l e depends on the vi v i d n e s s of the p i c t u r e and the d e t a i l e d aptness o f the comparison r a t h e r than the presence of any dynamic element f o r that i s e n t i r e l y absent. The lambs were merely awaiting t h e i r doom; the confused motions that would ensue i n a pastureland or a s t a b l e when wolves suddenly appeared i n the midst o f lambs d i d not i n t e r e s t V i r g i l . Another s i m i l e of a s i m i l a r nature but one i n which more a t t e n t i o n i s p a i d to the dynamic q u a l i t i e s i s that of the behaviour of a w i l d beast at bay. 2^ V i r g i l uses the s i m i l e o f a snake i n d e s c r i b i n g Androgeos' shock at d i s c o v e r i n g that he has made a mistake and 2'6 V i r g i l , Aeneid, 2 . 3 5 5 - 3 6 0 . 21 i b i d . , 9 . 5 5 1 - 5 5 5 . has led a company of his Greek comrades into the midst of the Trojan host and is already urging on the host as though they are his own a l l i e s . He is likened to a man who accidentally treads on a serpent and thus enrages the serpent and goads i t into a sudden attack while he attempts vainly to re c o i l . Although this extended simile i s dynamic, and hence typically Virgilian, i t s real effectiveness l i e s in the vividness of the picture i t conveys.^ In another snake-simile equally extended and dynamic, one cannot but feel that a l l the vigour that would be expected of a soldier of Pyrrhus' station is lost. It may be argued, however, that the r e l i e f which the simile brings to the preceding scenes of bloodshed and violent death i s primary in i t s effect and purpose.29 vestibulum ante ipsum primoque in limine Pyrrhus exsultat t e l i s et luce coruscus aena: qualis ubi in lucem coluber mala gramina pastus, frigida sub terra tumidum quern bruma tegebat, nunc positis novus exuviis nitidusque iuventa, lubrica convolvit sublato pectore terga arduus ad solera, et Unguis micat ore t r i s u l c i s . Virgil's aversion to hate, war, and suffering is as great as his delight in love and friendship. It is easily understandable, therefore, that when he describes scenes of love and friendship he does i t with a l l his powers and interest. He puts l i f e into them and seems himself to l i v e and act the part. 28 V i r g i l , Aeneid, 2.378-382. 29 Ibid., 2.11.69-475. Thus when he represents Dido as f a l l i n g i n l o v e w i t h her Trojan v i s i t o r l o n g before she r e a l i z e s that he i s merely a b i r d of passage, the A f r i c a n Queen burning with l o v e i s represented as wandering madly through the c i t y l i k e a hi n d which wounded by an arrow rushes madly over the h i l l s and dales of Crete. The s i m i l e i s extended and dynamic:-^0 i n t e r e a , et taciturn v i v i t sub pectore vulnus. u r i t u r i n f e l i x Dido totaque vagatur urbe furens, q u a l i s c o n i e c t a cerva s a g i t t a , quam p r o c u l incautam nemora i n t e r C r e s i a f i x i t p a s t o r agens t e l i s , l i q u i t q u e v o l a t i l e ferrum n e s c i u s : i l i a fuga s i l v a s saltusque peragrat Dictaeos; haeret l a t e r ! l e t a l i s harundo. And so too, when Dido discovers that she' i s abandoned she l o s e s c o n t r o l of her temper and rages through the c i t y l i k e a bacchante. There cannot be found a more dynamic manner of representing Dido i n t h i s s t a t e than by comparing her w i t h the 31 n o i s y and f r e n z i e d celebrants o f the f e a s t o f Bacchus: at r e g i n a d o l o s — q u i s f a l l e r e p o s s i t amantem?— p r a e s e n s i t , motusque exce p i t prima f u t u r o s , omnia t u t a timens. eadem i n p i a Pama f u r e n t i d e t u l i t armari classem cursumque p a r a r i . s a e v i t inops animi, totamque incensa per urbem bacchatur; q u a l i s commotis e x c i t a s a c r i s Thyias, u b i audito stimulant t r i e t e r i c a Baccho o r g i a , nocturnusque vocat clamore Cithaeron. E q u a l l y elaborate and dynamic i s the s i m i l e which very a p t l y conveys the madness which i s consequent upon the agonizing thoughts regarding Aeneas' i n f i d e l i t y : - ^ 2 Eumenidum v e l u t i demens v i d e t agmina Pentheus, et s o l em geminum, et d u p l i c e s se .-ostendere Thebas; aut Agamemnonius scaenis a g i t a t u s Orestes armatam facibus matrem et serpentibus a t r i s cum f u g i t , u l t r i c e s q u e sedent i n l i m i n e Dirae. 30 V i r g i l , Aeneid. I}.. 67-73. 31 Ibid. , h..295-30!+. 32 Ibid. . I+.I4.68-I1.73. hk Among the ancients Apollo was regarded as remarkable for strength and manly vigour; he was a symbol of courage in adventure and prowess in hunting. V i r g i l probably had a great deal of personal experience in hunting since i t was both a pastime and a means of livelihood to many in the countryside; thus, in the hunting expedition which took place shortly after Aeneas' arrival i n Carthage, to bring out a l l the manly qualities in Aeneas he was likened to Apollo. This i s one of the most elaborate Vi r g i l i a n similes. Details are piled one on another from the introductory quali3 to the resumptive haud segnlor.33 qualis ubi hibernam Lyciam Xanthique fluenta deserit, ac Delum maternam i n v i s i t Apollo, instauratque choros, mixtique altaria circum Cretesque Dryopesque fremunt pictique Agathyrsi: ipse iugis Cynthi graditur, mollique fluentem fronde premit crinem fingens, atque inplicat auro; tela sonant umeris: haud i l l o segnior ibat Aeneas; tantum egregio decus enitet ore. The simile is not only remarkable for Its amplification of detail but for the dynamic elements that are very obvious in i t as suggested by the verbs: deserit. i n v i s i t , instaurat. mixti, fremunt, graditur, inplicat, and sonant. Every verb here suggests either motion or noise. Such is the effect which the verbs eruere, certant : > consternunt and the phrase i t stridor, have when in another simile equally elaborate and dynamic V i r g i l likens the unshakeable resoluteness of Aeneas, when Anna, Dido's sister, comes to sue on her behalf, to the firmness of a strong Alpine oak in a windy day:^ 33 V i r g i l , Aeneid, 2j..llj.O-l50 3k Ibid., li.aiiO-UliQ. f a t a obstant, placidasque v i r i deus o b s t r u i t aures. ac v e l u t annoso validam cum robore quercum A l p i n i Boreae nunc h i n c nunc f l a t i b u s i l l i n c eruere i n t e r se c e r t a n t ; i t s t r i d o r , et a l t a e consternunt terram concusso s t i p i t e frondes; i p s a haeret s c o p u l i s , e t , quantum v e r t i c e ad auras a e t h e r i a s , tantum r a d i c e i n T a r t a r a t e n d i t : baud secus a d s i d u i s h i n c atque h i n c vocibus heros t u n d i t u r , et magno p e r s e n t i t pectore curas; mens inmota manet; lacrimae volv.untur inanes. An i n t e r e s t i n g s i m i l e , both extended and dynamic, i s found i n the d e s c r i p t i o n o f the r e g a t t a at the f u n e r a l games when Mnestheus rows i n to take the f i r s t p l a c e . The speed, the smoothness, and the g r a c e f u l movement of h i s boat are compared w i t h those of a dove g l i d i n g to earth a f t e r a v i o l e n t f l a p p i n g of i t s wings when suddenly scared o f f i t s nest. As i s o f t e n the case w i t h many of V i r g i l ' s s i m i l e s , noise i s not shown prominently; so here, the dove's n o i s y movement i s modified. The f l a p p i n g of the wings q u i c k l y stops and the wings are f o l d e d 36 and a t t e n t i o n i s concentrated on the g l i d i n g motion: at l a e t u s Mnestheus successuque a c r i o r ipso aguime remorum c e l e r i ventisque v o c a t i s prona p e t i t maria, et pelago d e c u r r i t aperto. q u a l i s spelunca subito commota columba, c u i domus et dulces l a t e b r o s o i n pumice n i d i , f e r t u r i n arva volans plausumque e x t e r r i t a p i n n i s dat t e c t o ingentem, mox aere l a p s a quieto r a d i t i t e r liquidum, c e l e r e s neque commovet a l a s : s i c Mnestheus, s i c i p s a fuga secat u l t i m a P r i s t i s aequora, s i c i l l a m f e r t impetus ipse volantem. One of the most humorous scenes i n the Aeneid a l s o gives occasion f o r an extended dynamic s i m i l e . Here, Sergestus, whose p l i g h t i n the contest draws long peals of laughter and 3'"5 V i r g i l , Aeneid, 5.210-219. shouting from the sp e c t a t o r s , but s t i l l wins the sympathy of a l l , l o s e s an e n t i r e row of h i s oars, and t h i s completely paralyzes h i s a c t i v i t y . I n s p i t e of t h i s d i s a s t e r , he s t i l l s t r i v e s to reach h i s g o a l , a desperate e f f o r t which i s l i k e n e d to the f i n a l w r i g g l i n g s and w r i t h i n g s of a snake whose back i s broken by the wheels of a c a r r i a g e or by a t r a v e l l e r ' s blow. The dynamic q u a l i t y i n t h i s s i m i l e i s of a s p e c i a l k i n d since i t does not l i e i n any vigorous or v i o l e n t a c t i v i t y . I t s e f f e c t i v e n e s s l i e s i n the accuracy of observation and the 36 v i v i d n e s s of the poet's expression. V i r g i l sometimes p i l e s one s i m i l e on another f o r greater clearness and e f f e c t , as when he describes the Trojan c h i l d r e n r i d i n g horses at the f u n e r a l games. Their zig-zag routes he l i k e n e d to the c r i s s - c r o s s o f the Knossian l a b y r i n t h . The s i m i l e has no dynamic element to p o r t r a y the g a l l o p i n g of the horses. V i r g i l t h erefore q u i c k l y adds to the p i c t u r e by saying that the horsemen were l i k e dolphins gamboling and c u t t i n g through the waves of the Carpathian and Lybian Seas . L 3 ' 7 For s i m i l a r reasons, i n the d e s c r i p t i o n of the e x p l o i t s of Mezentius i n the tenth book of the Aeneid we have four s i m i l e s i n quick succession w i t h i n the narrow l i m i t s of seventy-six l i n e s . ' 3 ® Perhaps the most s t r i k i n g and f a s c i n a t i n g of V i r g i l ' s s i m i l e s i s that i n the seventh book of the Aeneid where boys 3 * 6 V i r g i l , Aeneid, 5 . 2 7 0 - 2 8 1 . . 3 7 I b i d . , 5 . 5 8 8 - 5 9 5 . . 3 S I b i d . , 1 0 . 6 9 2 - 7 6 8 . :47 whip a top i n the court-yard: immensam sine more f u r i t lymphata per urbem: ceu quondam t o r t o v o l i t a n s sub verbere turbo, quern p u e r i magno i n gyro vacua a t r i a circum i n t e n t i ludo exercent; i l l e actus habena c u r v a t i s f e r t u r s p a t i i s ; stupet i n s c i a supra inpubesque manus, m i r a t a v o l u b i l e buxum; dant animos plagae: non cursu segnior i l l o per medias urbes a g i t u r populosque fero c e s . ^ g This s i m i l e d e p i c t i n g Amata's f u r y i s much more s t r i k i n g f o r i t s a m p l i f i c a t i o n of d e t a i l and the abundance of dynamic element when i t i s contrasted w i t h the f i r s t s i m i l e i n the same book.^O This contrast would l e a d one to conclude t h a t V i r g i l , not being s u f f i c i e n t l y conversant w i t h the p l i g h t of d i s t r e s s e d mariners, was at a l o s s what to say about the d e t a i l s of t h e i r woes, whereas the s i m i l e of the top would make one t h i n k that V i r g i l was simply r e c a l l i n g the experiences and pleasures of h i s e a r l y childhood. In V i r g i l s i m i l e s of the immovable crag are frequent. The stubbornness of a man !s r e s o l u t i o n i s l i k e n e d to an immovable crag or a hard oak t r e e . One V i r g i l i a n s i m i l e deserves s p e c i a l examination i n t h i s respect and i n the respect t h a t i t has the f i n i s h of a t y p i c a l V i r g i l i a n s i m i l e complete w i t h the a m p l i f i c a t i o n of d e t a i l and dynamic q u a l i t y . The p i c t u r e of an enraged mob i s put before us'at the palace o f King Latinus demanding that war be f o r m a l l y and promptly declared on the Trojans, but the King i s adamant. He i s l i k e n e d to an immovable crag w i t h the sea ragi n g n o i s i l y about: 3-9 V i r g i l , Aeneid, 7.377-384. 4Q I b i d . , 7.199-200. 48 certatim regis circumstant tecta Ls.tini; i l l e velut pelagi rupes inmota r e s i s t i t , ut pelagi rupes magno veniente fragore, quae sese, multis eircum latrantibus undis, mole tenet; scopuli nequiquam et spumea circum saxa fremunt, laterique i n l i s a refunditur alga.)^ So, earlier Aeneas' constancy of purpose i s compared with a stubborn oak in a simile that i s extended and dynamic, and Dido in her h o s t i l i t y to Aeneas in the underworld is compared to a hard silex or a Marpesian crag, although in this particular simile the elaboration of detail i s absent.^ Although the humanitarian and the Epicurean in V i r g i l cause him to detest wars, when he has to depict scenes of warfare, he shows an in f i n i t e capacity for a really vivid representation; however, on account of his personal idiosyncrasy these pictures are not so developed as Homer's. In the seventh book of the Aeneid, noise and movement that accompany soldiers as they march forth to war give V i r g i l an occasion for an extended simile, dynamic, with a large number of verbs of motion and words suggesting noise. The reference is to the catalogue of tiie Italian host where the two brothers Catillus and Coras march forth stormily as two fierce centaurs swooping down from the mountain tops. Here the vigour of their movement impresses V i r g i l more and so prevails over the noise. The dynamic character of the simile is due to the verbs and phrases of motion: descendunt, linquentes, cursu rapido, euntibus, cedunt; V i r g i l , Aeneid. 7-585-590. 42 Ibid,, 4.4+0-450; 6.469-471. and the noise is suggested by one simple phrase, an ablative of attendant circumstance magno fragore.^ et primam ante aciem densa inter tela feruntur; ceu duo nubigenae cum vertice montis ab alto descendunt Centauri, Homolen Othrymque nivalem linquentes cursu rapido; dat euntibus ingens silva locum, et magno cedunt virgulta fragore. A few lines later, in another simile of a strong dynamic quality, i t i s on the noise rather than the movement of the soldiers that the poet concentrates. Here in talking of the appearance of the Pescennines, Aequians, Paliscans and the Ciminians, V i r g i l uses the simile of singing white swans. At f i r s t sight this simile might seem inappropriate to one who does not clearly grasp the point of comparison; but i t will be noticed that i t i s the sound of military music rather than the movement of the soldiers that now engages the attention of V i r g i l . He makes this clear when he t e l l s us that the soldiers marched forth singing: "God save the King," (ibant aequati numero, regemque canebant). Accordingly the important words in this simile are words that suggest music rather than motion, canoros, modos, sonat, pulsa, and not sese referunt.^ Some of the most favoured similes in V i r g i l are those of the hawk, a hungry wolf, a lion in the midst of a fold, or a wild beast at bay. In these similes the eagerness of warriors for the fray, or their prowess is usually compared with the 43 V i r g i l , Aeneid. 7.673-677. kk Ibid., 7.698-702. 5o ferocity of the wild beasts. Thus in book nine alone we see Turnus likened to a hungry wolf, to a wolf with i t s k i l l , to a l i o n at bay; Euryalus likened to a hungry l i o n ; Pandarus likened to a l i o n at bay. In a l l these similes the vigorous motions that lend dynamism to them are unmistakable.^ Birds of prey in the war-books of the Aeneid play the same role as animals of prey. They are used in extended dynamic similes to represent warriors in the hour of success; the eagle 1L6 and the hawk are particularly noteworthy in this respect.^ As animals and birds of prey are important in the war-books of the Aeneid, so also are sea, river, flood, and opposing wind similes. For a fierce clash in the f i e l d of battle, the simile of the opposing winds with their noise and motion i s the rule. Two instances are remarkable: 1) the clash of the Greeks and Trojans in the second book; 2) the struggle between the Trojans and the Latins in the tenth.kl This rule, however, is broken where the simile of the opposing winds would be inappropriate, as when the clash arises between two men only rather than armies. So when Aeneas and Turnus engage in a single battle at the end they are compared with two fighting bulls. The simile here i s f u l l of movement and noise.^® 11.5 V i r g i l , Aeneid, 9.58-66, 563-566, 791-798, 339-314-3-14.6 Ibid. , 9.563-566, 11.717-721]., 751-759. V7 Ibid. . 2.1413-1*19, 10.356-361. I4.8 Ibid., 12.715-72*4.. 51 ac velut ingenti Sila sumraove Taburno cum duo conversis inimica in proelia tauri frontibus incurrunt; pavidi cessere magistri; stat pecus omne metu mutum, mussantque iuvencae, quis nemori imperitet, quern tota armenta sequantur; i l l i inter sese multa v i vulnera miseent, cornuaque obnixi infigunt, et sanguine largo colla armosque lavant; gemitu nemus omne remugit: non a l i t e r Tros Aeneas et Daunius heros concurrunt clipeis; ingens fragor aethera complet. We may now examine a few of the sea- and flood-similes. They are f u l l of motion, noise, and effect and are commonest in war-scenes. Perhaps the most impressive one is where the rising and the ebbing of the sea are compared with the advance and retreat of an army.^ qualis ubi alterno procurrens gurgite pontus nunc ruit ad terras, scopulosque superiacit unda spumeus, extremamque sinu perfundit harenam; nunc rapidus retro atque aestu revoluta resorbens saxa fugit, litusque vado labente relinquit. bis Tusci Rutulos egere ad moenia versos; bis r e i e c t i armis respectant terga tegentes. The onslaught of a warrior is likened to a driving rain, an avalanche, a mountain-flood or a wild f i r e . In one extended simile we see Turnus swooping down on the walls of the city like an avalanche tumbling down the steep sides of a mountain wreaking death and destruction on both men and herds of c a t t l e : ^ 0 ac veluti montis saxum de vertice praeceps cum ruit, avulsum vento, seu turbidus imber '> proluit, aut annis solvit sublapsa vetustas; fertur i n abruptum magno mons inprobus actu, exsultatque solo, silvas armenta virosque involvens secum: disiecta per agmina Turnus sic urbis ruit ad muros. k9 V i r g i l , Aenjeid, 11.6214--630. 50 Ibid., 12.6814.-690. 52 In another, where Rhoeteius leads his men against the enemy, he is likened to a driving rain:^ qualis ubi ad terras abrupto sidere nimbus i t mare per medium; miseris, heu, praescia longe horrescunt corda agricolis; dabit i l l e ruinas arboribus, stragemque satis; ruet omnia late; ante volant, sonitumque ferunt ad l i t o r a venti: t a l i s in adversos ductor Rhoeteius hostes agmen agit. And again, in another extended simile we see Turnus and Aeneas compared with a mountain-flood or a wild f i r e . Like the preceding two extended similes the vigorous action and noise typical of Virgi l i a n similes in war scenes are unmistakable:^ 2 ac velut inmissi diversis partibus ignes arentem in silv.am.et virgulta sonantia lauro: aut ubi decursu rapido de montibus a l t i s dant sonitum spumosi amnes, et in aequora currunt quisque suum populatus i t e r : non segnius ambo Aeneas Turnusque ruunt per proelia. Sources and Classification of the Similes In the preceding we have examined in detail only a few of the sources from which V i r g i l derives his similes. It would certainly be tedious to comment on the entire sources but i t would perhaps be profitable to glance through the l i s t of similes, in order to get a clear picture of their range.^ 51 V i r g i l , Aeneid. 12.1+51-457. 52 Ibid., 12.521-526. 53 The exact location of each source above w i l l be found in the l i s t of the similes at the beginning of Chapter Pour. The great array of subjects found in Virgi l ' s similes comes from five major classes:^ 4" 1) Similes drawn from natural phenomena; 2) similes drawn from the vegetable world; 3) similes drawn from the animal world; I4.) similes drawn from human experiences and activities including those drawn from objects and materials of c i v i l i z e d l i f e ; and 5) similes drawn from mythical or legendary stories and characters and those drawn from human beings likened to gods and goddesses. The similes of the f i r s t class come under five groups, a) Similes drawn from celestial phenomena. These include similes of the sun, moon and stars, in which reference may be made to the scanty light of a newly rising moon, the moon as seen amidst the clouds, sunlight or moonlight reflected on water, a f a l l i n g star or a meteor. Sometimes the references are to particular stars l i k e the morning star or Lucifer or the Dogstar more commonly known in antiquity as Sirius. b) The similes of the second group are drawn from atmospheric conditions and they ' include winds, clouds, and storm phenomena; when references are made to the winds, they may be general references or the references may be directed specifically to the swiftness, fury, intangibility, or noise of the winds. The references that are made to clouds may be general or made specifically to sunlit cloud or clouds scudding before the wind. The storm-phenomena include the thunderbolt, the speed of the lightning or the speed b\ Except for a slight modification, the classification i s E. G. Wilkins', "A Classification of the Similes in Vi r g i l ' s Aeneid and Georgics," The Classical Weekly, vol. llj. (1921), pp. 170-17I4-. of the thunderbolt, the noise of thunder, rain, h a i l , storm moving landward, the thick f a l l of snowflakes, the whiteness of snow and the rainbow, c) The similes of the third group are drawn from fire-phenomena, and they include the roar of a f i r e in a grain f i e l d , the spreading of wild f i r e s , fires f a l l i n g on dry combustible stuff and smoke, d) Similes of the fourth group come from water-phenomena and references are made to water boiling in a cauldron, to a stagnant pond or marsh, to streams and to the sea. Specific references are made to the Nile and the Ganges but general references are to the gliding of a river, the swelling of torrents, a mountain-torrent flooding and ruining the t o i l s of men on the countryside, a river bursting dams and the roar of an impeded mountain stream. The references that are made to the sea are usually directed specifically to the rise and ebb of the sea, the number of waves, and the size and fury of the billows, e) The f i f t h and the last group of this f i r s t class of simile comes from terrestrial phenomena and references are directed at the Athos, Eryx, Appenninus, and the Marpesian crag. The second main class of Virgilian simile is drawn from the vegetable world, and objects which come under this class are leaves, ears of grain, mistletoe, and flowers and trees of various kinds. The flowers include a purple flower, a poppy, a violet, a hyacinth, and l i l i e s and roses of various hues, while the trees include mountain ashes, oak trees, the cypress, f i r s , pines, and the bay tree. 55 Similes of the third main class are drawn from the animal world and they include those that are drawn from insects, f i s h , snakes, birds and mammals. Of the insects the ant-and bee-simile are of great importance in the Aeneid where their industry and fervid activity are often alluded to. The snake-similes are not very common, and the references are to the shedding of the skin and the sluggish dragging of a mutilated body. Similes drawn from birds in general refer to them when they flock towards the shore, or when they migrate overseas, or settle on a t a l l tree, or when they are scared off their nests. Specific mention i s also made of certain birds l i k e swans, cranes, doves, swallows, and birds of prey l i k e the hawk or the eagle. Similes drawn from the mammals include domestic animals like the b u l l , a horse, lambs, cattle, and dogs; they also include wild animals l i k e the hind and beasts of prey such as the wild boar, wolves, a tiger, and lions. The wolf, the tiger, or the li o n may be seen as going forth in fierce hunger, lying in wait for cattle, making off with i t s k i l l , wreaking havoc in a sheepfold, shut in with helpless cattle, or even infuriated by wounds in f l i c t e d by shepherds or hunters. Similes of the fourth main class may be grouped under four headings, a) The f i r s t group is drawn from human ac t i v i t i e s . These include spinning, sheep counting, staining ivory with dye, men sallying from a city or besieging a city or a mountain fortress, and chariot race, b) The second group comes from human experiences such as a man startled by a snake, the quieting of an angry mob by an influential orator, dreams and phantoms. c) Similes of the third group refer mainly to military l i f e and the references are generally to arms or weapons such as a shield, a poisoned arrow, a javelin or a besieging engine; and d) the fourth group centres around c i v i l l i f e with references to a child's top spinning in the court-yard, a f a l l i n g pier, a statue, a jewel, or a sceptre. The f i f t h and last class of simile includes references to mythical and legendary stories and characters such as Harpalyce, Thyias, Pentheus, the Furies, Orestes, the labyrinth, Paris making off with Helen, two Centaurs, sea-goddesses, Aegaeon, Orion, Amazons and the Cyclops. The gods are also included in this class. General mention i s made of them in V i r g i l but in places specific mention i s made of Diana, Apollo, Cybele, and bloodthirsty Mars. CHAPTER IV The Manner and Extent of Vir g i l ' s Similes L i s t of Similes in the Aeneid Key: simple phrase = S, extended static = es, extended dynamic = ed, advancing totals = AT, total of similes in individual books = BT. I = Natural phenomena, II = Vegetable world, III = Animal world, IV = Human experiences and activities, V = Myth, Legend, Gods and Goddesses. Place AT References Class Kind 1. 81- 83 1 marshalled army IV s l.llj.8-156 2 mob action IV ed 1.316-317 3 a maiden V S 1.393-^00 k swans III ed l.k21-k.36 5 bees III ed l.lj.98-508 6 nymphs V es 1.588-593 7 god V S 2. 15- 16 8 mountain I S 2.222-221]. 9 the bellowing of a wounded bull III S 2.302-308 10 a forest f i r e or stream a torrential I ed 58 Place AT References Class Kind 2.355-360 11 wolves and lambs III es? 2.378-382 12 a snake III ed 2.1413-4L9 13 opposing winds I ed 2.ltf8-lii4-0 14 battles IV S 2.469-475 15 a snake III ed 2.494-^ 99 16 a river breaking i t s banks I ed 2.514-516 17 doves III S 2.591-592 18 a goddess IV S 2.624-631 19 a wild mountain ash II ed 2.791-794 20 winds and dream I, IV S 3.375-376 21 fate IV s 3.634-637 22 Grecian shield or the sun IV, I s 3.677-681 23 oak, cypress, and other trees II es 4. 67- 73 24 wounded stag III ed 4.140-150 25 Apollo V ed 4.252-258 26 bird III ed 4.300-304 27 Bacchant V ed 4.401-407 28 ants III ed 4.440-lf49 29 Alpine oak II ed 4.464-473 30 Pentheus, Orestes V ed 4.556-559 31 a god V es 4.667-671 32 Carthage IV ed 5. 84- 89 33 rainbow I S 5.144-147 34 chariot race IV ed 59 Place AT References Class Kind 5.210-219 35 dove III ed 5.252-255 36 bird of Jove V ed 5.270-281 37 injured snake III ed? 5.315-317 38 rain I S 5.328-333 39 heifers III S 5.1+39-1442 14-0 a warrior storming a wall IV ed? 5.W>-kk9 U l pine III ed 5.457-14-60 14-2 rain and ha i l I S 5.525-528 14.3 meteor I ed 5.588-595 W * 5 Labyrinth and dolphin IV,III es, ed 5.7UO 14-6 smoke I S 6.20I4.-209 hi mistletoe II es 6.268-272 I4-8 moon, night and darkness I es 6.305=312 lt-9,50 autumn leaves and birds II,III es, ed 6.14.50-14.514- 51 moon I es 6.I4.69-I4.71 52 silex or Marpesian crag II, I S 6.520-522 53 death IV s 6.602-603 514- silex II s 6.700-702 55 light breezes and sleep I, IV s 6.706-709 56 bees III ed 6.781-787 57 Berecynthia V ed 7.199-200 58 mariners' distress IV S 7.377-381*. 59 a child's top IV ed 7.585-590 60 immovable crag I ed 60 Place AT References Class Kind 7.673-677 61 Centaurs V ed 7.698-702 62 singing white swans III ed 7.707 63 great army IV S 7.787-788 64 war IV S 8. 20- 25 65 wavy ray of light I es 8.21+1-246 66 yawning cavern I es 8.390-392 67 lightning I ed 8.407-415 68 duties of a housewife IV ed 8.588-591 69 Lucifer I ed 8.622-623 70 blue cloud I es 9. 29- 32 71 Nile and Ganges I es 9. 58- 66 72 hungry wolf III ed 9.101-103 73 nymphs V S 9.339-343 74 hungry li o n III ed 9.433-437 75 flower, poppies II es 9.551-555 76 wild beast at bay III ed 9.563-566 77 hawk or wolf III ed 9.649-651 78 Apollo V es 9.677-682 79 two oak trees III es 9.710-713 80 javelin IV ed 9.728-730 81 tiger amidst a fold III S 9.791-798 82 a l i o n at bay III ed 61 Place AT References Gla ss Kind 10. 96- 98 83 murmuring streams I ed 10.132-138 84 jewel, ivory IV es IO.26I4.-266 85 Strymonian cranes III ed 10.270-275 86 comet, sun I es 10.356-361 87 opposing winds I ed lO.i4.Ol4.-i4H 88 wild f i r e I ed 10.454-456 89 l i o n III ed 10.565-570 90 Aegaeon V ed 10.602-604 91 torrent or whirlpool I S 10.640-642 92 f l i t t i n g forms, dreams IV es 10.693-701 93 immovable crag I es 10.707-718 94 ferocious boar III ed 10.723-729 95 hungry l i o n III ed 10.763-768 96 Orion V ed 10.803-810 97 driving rain I ed 11. 67- 71 98 flower, violets, hyacinth II es 11.296-299 99 murmuring stream I ed 11.454-458 100 twitter of birds and swans III ed 11.491-497 101 prancing stallion III ed 11.610-611 102 snow I S 11.615-616 103 lightning I S 11.618-630 104 surging wave I ed 11.655-663 105 Amazons V ed 11.719-724 106', hawk III ed H.751-758 107 eagle III ed Place AT References Cla ss Kind 11.806-815 108 an escaping wolf III ed 12. 1+- 9 109 wounded l i o n III ed 12. 67- 69 110 Ivory, l i l i e s , white rose IV, II es 12.101-106 111 bull III ed 12.I23-I2I4. 112 battle IV S 12.331-340 113 bloodthirsty Mars V ed 12.365-370 114 fierce winds I ed 12.400-Ij.01 115 Paeonius V S 12.451-457 116 heavy rain I ed 12.473-478 117 swallow III ed 12.521-528 118 wild f i r e , river in flood I ed 12.582-592 119 shepherd and bees IV,III ed 12.684-690 120 avalanche I ed 12.697-703 121 Athos, Eryx, Appenninus I ed 12.715-724 122 two fighting bulls III ed 12.740 123 snow I S 12.748-755 124 hunter IV ed 12.855-860 125 poisoned arrow IV ed 12.908-914 126 nocturnal languor IV es 12.923 127 dark whirlpool I ' S 6 3 Analytical Study of L i s t Book No. of lines Subject No. of Similes S es ed I II III IV V 1 756 Travel (Trojans reach Carthage) 7 3 1 3 0 0 2 2 3 2 80I4. Sack of Troy 1 3 6 1 6 5 1 5 1 1 718 Travel 3 2 1 0 1 1 0 2 0 k 7 0 4 Tragedy of Dido 9 0 1 8 0 1 3 1 k 5 8 7 1 Funeral Games 114. 5 1 8 5 0 2 1 6 901 Underworld 11 k k 3 6 3 2 2 1 7 8 1 7 War in Latium 7 3 0 k 1 0 1 1+ 1 8 7 3 1 Site of Rome 6 0 3 3 5 0 0 1 0 9 8 1 8 Siege of Camp 1 2 2 k 6 1 2 6 1 2 1 0 908 Pitched Battle 15 1 k 1 0 7 0 Ij- 2 2 1 1 9 1 5 Pitched Battle 1 1 2 1 8 k 1 5 0 1 1 2 9 5 2 Single Battle 19 k 2 1 3 7 1 5 6 2 9 8 9 5 1 2 7 3 2 23 7 2 42 9 3 7 2if 1 8 After such a detailed l i s t and analysis there is hardly any need for a long discussion; the closing remarks cannot but be brief. In both the l i s t and the analysis i t i s clear that f the extended simile is far commoner in V i r g i l than the simple phrase. Of the 1 2 7 similes, 9 5 are extended. It i s further demonstrated that the extended dynamic similes are most frequent in V i r g i l . They are more than the simple phrase similes and the extended static similes combined. 64 Most of the extended dynamic similes come from books which deal with war; thus we have 6 in book 2, 6 in book 9, 10 in book 10, 8 in book 11, and 13 in book 12. As regards the use of the extended dynamic simile where the subject i s not war, two books deserve special mention. In book 4 which deals with the tragedy of Dido, the frequent use of the extended dynamic similes can be attributed only to the passion that i s depicted in i t ; whereas in book 5 the frequency is due to the excitement which is characteristic of athletic competitions. In the whole of the Aeneid, book 3 stands quite apart from a l l the others. In addition to being the poorest in similes, i t has no extended dynamic simile at a l l . This book must be compared with book 1 which, like i t , deals with travel. The conclusion, therefore, i s that the paucity of similes i s greatest in the travel books of the Aeneid. The analytical study of the l i s t demonstrates that most of Virgil's similes come from classes I and III which deal with natural phenomena and the animal world respectively; whereas in the l i s t i t s e l f i t is clear that the similes come mainly from the war books and deal with wind and water phenomena and the wild beast where their fury is the aspect most referred to. Within the 9,895 verses of the Aeneid V i r g i l uses 127 similes, while Homer uses 206 similes within 15,693 verses of the Il i a d . The incidence of the simile is very nearly the same in both authors. V i r g i l has a simile in every 77.91 lines. Apollonius Rhodius uses more similes than either Homer or 65 V i r g i l but the difference i s very small. There are 82 similes within 5,835 verses of the Argonautica. There i s , therefore, a simile in every 71.15 l i n e s . 1 In respect of the strong influence of the ancient rhetorical training, notably in the use of the simile, some epic writers in Roman literature may now be considered, namely, Lucan, Valerius Flaccus, Statius, Silius Italicus and Ovid who st r i c t l y i s not an epic writer although he put the Metamorphoses into heroic metre. A l l of them gave f u l l rein to their propensity for the use of the simile. Valerius Placcus and Statius have one simile in every 50 lines, Lucan has one i n every 150 lines, while Silius Italicus strikes a middle course between them; i t i s Ovid who exceeds a l l in the use of simile for in the Metamorphoses which i s 3,600 lines less than the Iliad, he uses 50 similes more. This system of rhetoric has not adversely influenced V i r g i l in his use of the simile as seen in the Aeneid for in this connection, he i s nearer Homer, who is regarded as the norm for epic writing, than any other epic writer in Roman literature. 1 J. P. Carspecken, "Apollonius and Homer," Yale Classical Studies, 13 (1952), p. 62. 9895 verses is the total as in Page's edition of the Aeneid. 2 S. G-. Owen, "Ovid's use of the Simile," The Classical  Review, 45 (1931), PP. 99-100; R. B. Steele, "The Similes in Latin Epic Poetry," Transactions of the American Philological  Association, vol. i+9 (1918), p. 91. 1 66 BIBLIOGRAPHY ANCIENT SOURCES Aristotle. Poetics. With an English translation by W. Hamilton Fyfe, "London, William Heinemann, 1927-Aristotle. The Art of Rhetoric. With an English translation by John Henry Preese, London, William Heinemann, 1947. Cicero. De oratore. With an English translation by E. W. Sutton and H. Rackham, (Loeb Classical Library), Cambridge, Massachusetts, Harvard University Press; London, William Heinemann, 1948. Cicero. Partitiones oratoriae. With an English translation by H. Rackham, (Loeb Classical Library), Cambridge, Massachusetts, Harvard University Press; London, William Heinemann, 1948. Cicero. Orator and Brutus. With an English translation by H. M. Hubbell and G. L. Hendrickson, (Loeb Classical Library), Cambridge, Massachusetts, Harvard University Press; London, William Heinemann, 1952. Cicero. Rhetorica ad Herennium. With an English translation by H. Caplan, (Loeb Classical Library), Cambridge, Massachusetts, Harvard University Press; London, William Heinemann, 1954* Cicero. De inventione, De optlmo genere oratorum, and Topica. With an English translation by H. M. Hubbell, (Loeb Classical Library), Cambridge, Massachusetts, Harvard University Press; London, William Heinemann, 1949. Homer. The Il i a d . Trans. George Chapman, London, John Russel Smith, 1865.' Homer. The Iliad. Trans. A. S. Way, London, Sampson Lox^ r, Marston, Searle, and Rlvington, 1885, vols. 1 and 2. Homer. The Iliad. Trans. Andrew Lang, Walter Leaf, and Ernest Myers, London, Macmillan, 1949. Livy. Book 30. Ed. H. E. Butler and H. H. Scullard, London, Methuen, 1939. Lucan. De bello c i v i l i . Book 1, ed. R. J. Getty, Cambridge, University Press, 1940. 67 Lucan. The C i v i l War. Trans. J. D. Duff (Loeb Classical Library), London, William Heineraann, 1928. Lucretius. De rerum natura. Ed. with Introduction and Commentary by William Ellery Leonard and Stanley Barney Smith, Madison, University of Wisconsin Press, 19*4-2. Ovid. Heroides. Ed. A. Palmer, Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1898. Plato. The Dialogues of Plato. Trans. B. Jowett, with an introduction by Prof. H. Demos, New York, Random House, 1937. Quintilian. Instltutio oratoria, Book 10. Revised with introductory essays, c r i t i c a l and explanatory notes by W. Peterson, Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1891. Quintilian. Institutio oratoria. With an English.translation by H. E. Butler, (Loeb Classical Library), London, William Heinemann, 1920. Quintilian. Institutes of Oratory. Ed. Rev. J. S. Watson, London, Henry G. Bonn, 1856, vols. 1 arid 2. V i r g i l . Aeneid *+. Ed. A. S. Pease, Cambridge, Massachusetts, Harvard University Press, 1935. * V i r g i l . The Aeneid of V i r g i l . Ed. T. E. Page, London, Macmillan; New York, St. Martin's Press, 1955, Book 1-6, 7-12. V i r g i l . The Georgics. Trans. L. C. Day, London, Jonathan Cape, 19*4-0; 7th impression, 1951-GENERAL REFERENCES Baldwin, C. S. Ancient Rhetoric and Poetic. New York, Macmillan, 192*4-. Bonner, S. F. Roman Declamation. Liverpool, Liverpool University Press, 19*4-9. Bowra, C. M. Ancient Greek Literature. London, Thornton Butterworth Ltd., 1933. Clark, D. L. Rhetoric in Greco-Roman Education. Columbia, Columbia University Press, 1957. Clarke, M. L. Rhetoric at Rome. London, Cohen and West, 1953. * This edition of V i r g i l was used throughout this thesis. 68 De Witt, N. W. Virgil ' s Biographia Li t t e r a r i a . Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1923. Ehrenberg, V. and Jones, A. H. M. Documents il l u s t r a t i n g the  reigns of Augustus and Tiberius. Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1955^ G-arrod, H. W. Oxford Book of Latin Verse. Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1921. Hadzsits, G-. D. Lucretius and his Influence. Mew York, Longmans, G-reen, 1935. Jebb, R. C. The Growth and Influence of Classical Greek Poetry. London and New York, Macmillan, 1893. Knight, W. E. J. Roman Vergil. London, Paber and Paber, 1944. Nettleship, H. Suggestions introductory to a Study of the  Aeneid. Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1875. Mackail, J. W. Classical Studies. London. John Murray, 1925. Mackail, J. W. Lectures on Poetry. London and New York, Longmans, Green, 1911. Mahaffy, J. P. Classical Greek Literature. London and New York, Macmillan, 1895, vols. 1 and 2. Masson, J. Lucretius, Epicurean and Poet. London, John Murray, 1907. Muller, K. 0. and Donaldson, J. W. A History of fee Literature  of Ancient Greece. London, J. W. Parker and Son, 1855, : vols. 1 and 3« ' ' ' Murray, G. The Rise of the Greek Epic. Oxford, Clarendon Press, 19H. Murray, G. Ancient Greek Literature. London, William Heinemann, 1907. Puttenham, G. The Art of English Poesle. Ed. Gladys Doidge Willcock and Alice Walker, Cambridge, University Press, 1936. ' Rutherford, W. G. A Chapter in the History of Annotation. London and New York, Macmillan, 1896-1905. Sellar, W. Y. The Roman Poets of the Augustan Age. V i r g i l . Oxford, Clarendon Press, 3rd ed., 1905. PERIODICALS Alexander, W. H. "The Culpa of Ovid." The Classical Journal, 53 (1958), 319-325. Carspecken, J. P. "Apollonius Rhodius and the Homeric Epic." Yale Classical Studies, 13 (1952), 35-143. Conway, R. S. "Vergil as a student of Homer." Martin Classical  Lectures, 1 (1930), 151-181. Conway, R. S. "The Youth of V i r g i l . " Reprinted from The Bulletin  of the John Rylands Library, 1915» 1-18. Conway, R. S. "Vergil's Creative Art." Reprinted from the proceedings of the British Academy, 1931, 1-24-Conway, R. S. "The Philosophy of Vergil." Reprinted from The Bulletin of the John Rylands Library, 1922,.1-18. De Witt, N. W. "Vergil and Epicureanism." The Classical Weekly, 25 (1931), 89-96. Evans, E. C. "Literary Portraiture in Ancient Epic." Harvard  Studies in Classical Philology, 58-58 (1948), 189-217-Greene, W. C. "Self-revelation in V i r g i l : The Heart of a Poet," The Classical Weekly, 24 (1931), 169-181. Jacobomeyer, Al. A., "The Second Book of the Aeneid as Literature. The Classical Bulletin, 4 (1927), 6-7,.. Jerome, M. Sr., "The Why''arid Wherefore of the Vergilian Simile." The Classical Bulletin, 13 (1937), 65-66. Kenny, M. "Those surprising Georgics." The Classical Journal, 28 (1933), 243-253. Keith, A. L. "Nature-imagery in Vergil's Aeneid." The Classical Journal, 28 (1932-1933), 591-610. Kleist, J. A. "Le Style c'est L'homme Meme." The Classical  Bulletin, 5 (1928), 9-10. : Knight. D M . "Dramatic.and Descriptive Order in the Il i a d . " Yale Classical Studies. 14 (l955), 109-126. Mer r i l l , W. A. "Parallels and Coincidences in Lucretius and V i r g i l . " University of California Publications in Classical Philology, Berkeley, California, 3 (1918), 135-247. O'Brien, V. de P. "Oratory in the Aeneid." The Classical Bulletin. 7 (1930), 13-15. O'Brien, V. de P. "The V i r g i l i a n S i m i l e . " The C l a s s i c a l B u l l e t i n . 6 ( 1 9 3 0 ) , 6 5 - 6 6 . Owen, S. G. "Ovid's Use o f the S i m i l e . " The C l a s s i c a l Review, 45 (1931), 95-106. Parry, M. "Studies i n the Ep i c Technique of Oral Verse-Making." Harvard Studies i n C l a s s i c a l P h i l o l o g y . 43 ( 1 9 3 2 ) , 1 - 5 0 . Pemberton, R. E. K. "A defence of the R h e t o r i c a l Education." C l a s s i c a l P h i l o l o g y , 7 ( 1 9 3 0 ) , 9 - 1 1 and 1 6 . Rambo, E. P. "On Homer's S i m i l e s . " C l a s s i c a l J o u r n a l , 28 ( 1 9 3 2 ) , 2 2 - 3 1 . S c o t t , J. A. "The Poe t i c Structure of the Odyssey." Ma r t i n  C l a s s i c a l Lectures, 1 ( 1 9 3 0 ) , 97-12l|-. Shorey, P. "Note on I l i a d 1 6 . 8 2 3 - 8 2 8 . " C l a s s i c a l P h i l o l o g y , 13 ( 1 9 1 8 ) , 2 1 0 . Shorey, P. "Hote on the repeated s i m i l e , Homer's I l i a d , 9 . 5 5 5 . " C l a s s i c a l P h i l o l o g y . l 6 (1921), 76. Shorey, P. "The Logic of Homeric S i m i l e . " C l a s s i c a l P h i l o l o g y , 17 ( 1 9 2 2 ) , 2i|.0-259. S t e e l e , R. B. "The Si m i l e s i n L a t i n E p i c Poetry." Transaction of the American P h i l o l o g i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n . 49 ( 1 9 1 8 ) , 8 3 - 1 0 0 . Walsh, J. A. "Aeneid I . " The C l a s s i c a l B u l l e t i n , 7 ( 1 9 3 0 ) , 1-3 and 8 . W i l k i n s , E. G. "A C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the S i m i l e s of Homer." C l a s s i c a l Weekly, 13 ( 1 9 2 0 ) , 1 4 7 - 1 5 0 , 154-159. W i l k i n s , E. G. "A C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the S i m i l e s of Ovid." C l a s s i c a l Weekly, 25 ( 1 9 3 2 ) , 73-78, 8 l - 8 6 . W i l k i n s , E. G. "A C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the S i m i l e s o f the Argonautica of A p o l l o n i u s Rhodius." C l a s s i c a l Weekly, 14 ( 1 9 2 1 ) , I 6 2 - I 6 6 . W i l k i n s , E. G. " A C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the S i m i l e s i n V i r g i l ' s Aeneid and Georgics." The C l a s s i c a l Weekly. 14 ( 1 9 2 1 ) , 1 7 0 - 1 7 4 . 71 REFERENCE BOOKS The Oxford C l a s s i c a l D i c t i o n a r y , e d i t e d by M. Cary, J. D. Denniston, J. W. Duff, A. D. Nock, V/. D. Ross, H. H. S c u l l a r d , w i t h the a s s i s t a n c e of H. J . Rose, H. P. Harvey, and A. Souter, Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1949. The Oxford Companion to C l a s s i c a l L i t e r a t u r e , e d i t e d by Paul Harvey, Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1946. A Companion to L a t i n S t u d i e s , e d i t e d by J. Sandys, Cambridge, U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1913. Webster's New I n t e r n a t i o n a l D i c t i o n a r y , e d i t e d by W. A. N e i l s o n , T. A. Knott, and P. W. Carhart, S p r i n g f i e l d , Mass., U. S. A., 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0106148/manifest

Comment

Related Items