Open Collections

UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Climatic and geomorphic techniques and their application to regional resource planning Loney, Thomas William 1958

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1958_A6_7 L6 C5.pdf [ 11.36MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0106136.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0106136-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0106136-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0106136-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0106136-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0106136-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0106136-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0106136-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0106136.ris

Full Text

CLIMATIC AND GEOMORPHIC TECHNIQUES AND THEIR APPLICATION TO REGIONAL RESOURCE PLANNING ^ 7 THOMAS WILLIAM LONEY REPORT ON A PROJECT SUBMITTED IN LIEU OP A THESIS IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE i n the Department of COMMUNITY AND REGIONAL PLANNING We accept t h i s report as conforming to the standard required from candidates f o r the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Members of the Department of Community and Regional Planning THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1958. i ABSTRACT The human race exists and progresses by vi r t u e of a sum of knowledge, with which i t i s able to maintain a measure of control over the physical world. The r e a l wealth of any region, race or nation i s drawn from the land and today much of this land i s bankrupt. Through overpopulation and misuse of his natural resources, man i s rapidl y backing himself into an ecological trap. The solution to t h i s problem i s to i n c -rease what may be termed the "carrying capacity" of the land. The only way this may be done Is by national land use planning and development of resources on a regional basis. In developing land f o r any purpose, man faces c e r t a i n physical l i m i t a t i o n s . The two most obvious and important are climate and land forms. Throughout h i s t o r y these f i e l d s have been studied and today are large and complex branches of science - they have remained, however, l a r g e l y separate f i e l d s . Only very recently have some advances been made i n the f i e l d of climatic geomorphology. The investigators i n this f i e l d have t r i e d to show some of the complex i n t e r r e l a t -ionships that exist between climate and geomorphology. Unfor-tunately, although i t shows great promise, most work to date has been on a highly academic l e v e l and i t s p r a c t i c a l applic-ation has been piecemeal at best. This thesis i s a modest attempt to define, on one hand, some fundamental i n t e r r e l a t -ionships between climatology and geomorphology and then, on the other hand, to apply these defined p r i n c i p l e s to selected types of resource development regions. In t h i s presentation, i t i s recognized that other f a c t o r s , economic, p o l i t i c a l , administrative, technological, etc. may be equally, i f not more important, i n determining the patterns and nature of regional resource development; these fa c t o r s , however, are only referred to i n passing. The o v e r a l l presentation i s as follows: f i r s t l y , the need f o r regional resource planning i s discussed i n the l i g h t of pertinent physical f a c t o r s . This i s followed by two chapters which present an introduction i n t o climatology and land forms. In these chapters the basic concepts and terms of these f i e l d s are explained and provide the essential background f o r the discussion to follow. To conclude the discussion of the physical elements, the two f i e l d s are i n t e r -related and fundamental p r i n c i p l e s applicable to regional  resource development, are developed. In the next section of the paper these p r i n c i p l e s are applied to selected types of resource development regions. In t h i s connection, two major areas of development are examined as "case studies". These areas include: (1) the Kitimat-Kemano region as an example of the development of one resource; (2) the Lower Mainland region as an example of complex resource development which i s Influe-nced by a large urban area. F i n a l l y , the general applications of climatic and geomorphic p r i n c i p l e s to regional resource development which emerge from the examination of the two case studies are discussed. In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l fulfilment of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representative. It i s understood that copying or publication of t h i s thesis f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of Community and Regional Planning The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver 8, Canada. Date May 9 t h 1958 i i i PREFACE The Eleventh Commandment Thou shalt i n h e r i t the Holy Earth as a f a i t h f u l steward, conserving I t s resources and prod u c t i v i t y from generation to generation. Thou shalt safeguard thy f i e l d s from s o i l erosion; thy l i v i n g waters from drying up; thy fores t s from desolation; and protect thy h i l l s from overgrazing by thy herds, that thy descend-ants may have abundance forever. I f any s h a l l f a i l i n t h i s stewardship of the land, thy f r u i t f u l f i e l d s s h a l l become s t e r i l e , strong ground and wasting g u l l i e s , and thy descendants s h a l l derrease and l i v e i n poverty or perish from o f f the face of the earth. - 14-th B r i t i s h Columbia Natural Resources Conference, 1 9 ! ? 1 . •» «• •» The writer would l i k e to acknowledge the assistance of Mr. J.W. Wilson, Director, Lower Mainland Regional Planning Board, Professor J.F. Muir, Head of the Department of C i v i l Engineering, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, and Dr. J.L. Robinson, Head of the Department of Geography, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, to whom the writer owes his geographic background. Special thanks are due to Professor I.M. Robinson of the Department of Community and Regional Planning f o r h i s assistance and c r i t i c i s m during the preparation of t h i s paper. i v TABLE OP CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS i i i INTRODUCTION - THE INFLUENCE OF PHYSICAL FACTORS IN REGIONAL RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT The Need f o r Regional Resource Development 1 and Planning The Physical Setting llj. Purposes of Study 17 Data Used i n Study 18 PART ONE - THE PHYSICAL ELEMENTS: CLIMATE AND LANDFO RMS Chapter I - Climatology 20 Climatic Elements and Controls 2 1 Climatic V a r i a b i l i t y , 26 Present Trends and Shortcomings 29 i n Climatology Application of P r i n c i p l e s 3i\. Chapter II - Geomorphology 37 Basic Concepts 37 Present Trends \\2 Application of P r i n c i p l e s i |4 Three Essential Tools ij.7 Topographic Maps I4.7 A e r i a l Photographs 50 Land C l a s s i f i c a t i o n 5 l Chapter III - Climatology and Geomorphology: 55 Interrelationships and Fundamental Pr i n c i p l e s Applicable to Regional Resource Planning Introduction 55 Climatic C l a s s i f i c a t i o n 55 Microclimates 62 Climatic Maps 61| Morphogenetic Regions 65 P r i n c i p l e s and Areas of Study 67 PART TWO - APPLICATIONS OF PRINCIPLES TO SELECTED TYPES OF RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT REGIONS Chapter IV - Introduction: Resources and th e i r Development 73 V Chapter V - Kitimat-Kemano Region 79 Introduction 79 Location and Description 80 Economic and Geographic Considerations 83 Physical Geographic Background 86 Climatology 86 Geomorphology 91 Vegetation and S o i l 96 Influence of Physical Factors 99 upon Planning Considerations Regional Considerations 100 Townsite Planning 110 Chapter VI - The Lower Mainland Region 123 . Introduction 123 Physical Geographic Background 125 Climatology 125 Geomorphology 129 S o i l s and Vegetation 132. Influence of Physical Factors 135 upon Planning Considerations Regional Considerations 135 Urban Considerations l i | i . Planning and the "Rural-Urban ll+5 C o n f l i c t " Lower Mainland Regional Planning l 5 l Board Chapter VII - Conclusions 162 Introduction 162 Conclusions 165 APPENDECES 176 BIBLIOGRAPHY 188 v i LIST OP FIGURES Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure k Figure 5> Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure Ik Figure 15 Unused Capacity f o r Forest Production Unused Capacity f o r A g r i c u l t u r a l Production Comparative Monthly Temperature i n Continental and Marine Situations Accumulated Sums of Departures, An-nual P r e c i p i t a t i o n , Dodge City, Kansas Schematic Representation of the Interrelationships between Climatic, Vegetation, and S o i l Types Morphogenetic Regions Technology Brings New Materials to the Fore Regional Setting of "Case Studies" Kitimat-Kemano Development Sketch of Kemano Development Kitimat - General Layout Plan C i t y of Vancouver, R a i n f a l l Freque-ncy Intensity Curves Climatic Factors i n Building Design Lower Mainland Region Climograph of Temperature and Pr e c i p i t a t i o n , Lower Mainland Region Page 11 12 23 30 71 72 75 81 82 Qk QP Ir. packet-7 <- «,fc e.r,«L 117 12l i 126 v i i LIST OP TABLES Table 1 Monthly P r e c i p i t a t i o n Average f o r 13 Complete Years, Covering 1 9 0 2 - 7 , 1931-IJ-3 Page 119 Table 2 Table 3 Monthly Mean Temperatures Monthly P r e c i p i t a t i o n and Altitude of Station 120 121 Table k Monthly Extremes of Temp-erature, and Absolute Maximum and Minimum 122 v i i i LIST OF APPENDECES Page Appendix A Sp e c i f i c Elements of Climate 176 Relating to Regional Resource Planning Appendix B Elements of A e r i a l Photo 178 Interpretation Appendix C Ef f e c t s Produced by Various 182 Geomorphic Agents Appendix D Thornthwaite 1s C l a s s i f i c a t i o n 183 of Climate -Appendix E Man as a Geological Agent l8£ INTRODUCTION THE INFLUENCE OF PHYSICAL FACTORS IN REGIONAL RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT "There are two sets of ruins: one i s the -work of Time, the other of Men". - Chateaubriand The Need for Regional Resource Development and Planning Throughout his short, intense history man has fought a never-ending battle with nature. Events of the late 19th Century and the f i r s t half of the 20th Century seem to indicate man has been successful i n many ways; he has tamed rivers, conquered the air, explored the earth, changed i t s climate - indeed, what can the future possibly hold for him but an ever-broadening road towards a "super civilization"? Today man stands at the crossroads. He has begun to realize that to defeat nature i s a reversible process. Even as man removes the forest to plant wheat today, he sets the stage for the floods tomorrow, as he builds his cities on the f e r t i l e plains he moves the source of his bread further away from him. Man i s becoming aware of the limits of his earth. No longer i s a community or country immune to the influences of the rest of the world. Perhaps the only thing linking a l l men i s the future - the physical, social, and economic forces at work i n the world today are the expression of the unfilled desires and needs of the rapidly Increasing population of the earth for the essentials of l i f e . Conflict between men i s not the result of p o l i t i c a l ideologies alone. The strength 2 of any p o l i t i c a l system w i l l be a direct result of i t s ab-i l i t y (or lack of i t ) to keep i t s people from want. History provides some sort of perspective. When resources have proved adequate for both basic needs and the needs of expan-sion, so called "great empires" rose. It i s t h r i l l i n g to read of these great empires and yet, for the purpose of this paper, we mu3t see not their greatness but discover the reasons behind their downfall. These reasons are, of course, many and complex but from the early civilizations i n Egypt to the f a l l of the Roman empire, one fact i s common to a l l : their land lost i t s productivity and their resources failed them. "At that period, however, with which we are dealing, when Attica.was s t i l l intact, what are now her mountains were lofty, s o i l clad h i l l s ; her so-called shingle plains of the present day were f u l l of rich s o i l ; and her mountains were heavily afforested - a fact of which there are s t i l l v i s i b l e traces. There are mountains i n Attica which can now keep nothing but bees, but which were clothed, not so very long ago, with fine trees producing timber suitable for roofing the largest build-ings; and roofs hewn from this timber are s t i l l i n existence. There were also many lof t y cultivated trees, while the country produced boundless pasture for cattle. The annual supply of r a i n f a l l was not lost, as i t i s at present, through being allowed to flow over the denuded surface into the sea, but was received by the country, i n a l l potler's earth and so was able to discharge the drainage of the heights into the hollows i n the form of springs and rivers with an abundant volume and a wide t e r r i t o r i a l distribution. The shrines that survive to the present day on the sites of extinct water supplies are evidence for the correctness of my present hypothesis".-*-Plato made these observations over two thousand years Toynbee, A.J.: Greek Historical Thought. (Prom Homer to the . Age of Heraclius), J.M. Dent, London, 1921}., pp. 169-170, Translation taken from Plato: Collected Works, Oxford Text, Volume IV. 3 ago and r e c o g n i z e d t h a t s o i l s , f o r e s t s , and water s u p p l y formed a u n i t y . He f u r t h e r p o s t u l a t e s tha t a d e t e r i o r a t i o n o f the p h y s i c a l environment w i l l l e a d to a n a t i o n ' s d o w n f a l l . There were, o f c o u r s e , many r e a s o n s f o r the f a l l o f g r e a t e a r l y c i v i l i z a t i o n s . In Greece an i n c r e a s i n g l a c k o f r e s p o n -s i b i l i t y d e v e l o p e d . E q u a l i t y p r o m i s e d i n the c o n s t i t u t i o n was s i m p l y n o n - e x i s t e n t . M a t e r i a l i s m g a i n e d a f o o t h o l d and the p h i l o s o p h y o f wea l th as a measure o f s o c i a l v a l u e s f o l l -owed. Wi th h e r l o v e f o r l i f e i n s m a l l groups and p o l i t i c a l Independence i n each g r o u p , Greece was n e v e r a b l e to u n i t e In to a n a t i o n a l s t a t e . Thus she was conquored by the M a c e d -o n i a n n a t i o n under P h i l l i p . Another f a c t I s c l e a r f rom r e c -orded h i s t o r y - the e v e r - d e c r e a s i n g p r o d u c t i v i t y o f the l a n d and a p r o g r e s s i v e f a i l u r e o f r e s o u r c e s . Widespread d e f o r e s t -a t i o n r e s u l t e d i n a f l u c t u a t i n g and i n e f f i c i e n t water s u p p l y which i n t u r n u p s e t the s t a b i l i t y o f a g r i c u l t u r e . The Roman Empire d i d c r e a t e and m a i n t a i n u n i t y . I t s economic and p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n was u n s u r p a s s e d . The Romans s o l v e d the g r e a t t e c h n i c a l problems c r e a t e d by the c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f p e o p l e i n c i t i e s b u i l d i n g sewers , water s u p p l y s y s t e m s , h e a t i n g systems and the l i k e . What Rome c o u l d not d o , however, was adapt to change . The r u l i n g c l a s s became r i c h e r and moved to c o u n t r y e s t a t e s - the g u l f between c l a s s e s I n s o c i e t y widened and e x p l o i t e d and d e p l e t e d l a n d s were l e f t to waste . The s o c i a l consequences o f f a i l i n g a g r i c u l t u r e were k an important contribution to the d i s i n t e g r a t i o n of the nation. With the f a l l of the Roman empire the impact of man on h i s environment was, to a great extent, checked. The h i s -tory of the Middle Ages i s one of famine, plague, and death. In the period from 1200 to 1600 A.D., England suffered a famine on the average of every f i f t e e n years^, and at the time of George I I I , balanced on the brink of starvation, of what "we now c a l l an A s i a t i c standard".3 Prom 108 B.C. to 1911 A.D. there were 1828 famines i n China, or nearly one every year.^- Down to the end of the eighteenth century fam-ine and want was the normal, periodic l o t of most people. Pood could be neither transported nor stored so when nature f a i l e d , men died. At t h i s time the I n d u s t r i a l Revolution (preceded by the A g r i c u l t u r a l Revolution a century e a r l i e r ) gave b i r t h to an e n t i r e l y new concept of l i v i n g . In the next two hundred years the world's population more than doubled. Robert Thomas Maithus warned, i n 1798, that man's population tended to out-s t r i p h i s food supply. His theories were hard to understand when every day the resources of the new world grew more l i m i t -l e s s . Why bother about land? What i f sugar was wearing out the s o i l i n the West Indies and watersheds were being destroyed i n the United States? There was more land, wasn't there? The Cited i n Burch, G.I. and Pendell, E.: Population Roads to - Peace and War, Washington, Population Reference Bureau, 19^5« Clark, C o l i n : Conditions of Economic Progress. Macmillan Co., London, 191+0. ~" Pearson, P.A. and Paarlberg, E.: Starvation Truths. Half- truths, Untruths. Ithaca, 191+6, p. 12. 5 standard of l i v i n g was r i s i n g wasn't i t ? Production of goods was equated to money and t h i s became the wealth of the nation. The eventual l i m i t s to production, the resource base, which i s one good index of the r e a l wealth of a nation, was not considered. The story of Anglo-America i n the l a s t century, as f a r as resource u t i l i z a t i o n i s concerned, i s one of much ex p l o i t -ation and waste. The res u l t of the westward surge of s e t t l e r s , i n many areas, was the loss of grassland, f o r e s t , animal l i f e , and many inches of t o p s o i l . The facts are a l l available -gathered by many government services, conservation agencies, and i n d i v i d u a l s . The following example i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s o v e r a l l p i c t u r e . The land area of the United States amounts to approximately 1,900,000,000 acres. In i t s o r i g i n a l state about 1+0 percent was In v i r g i n forest. Today t h i s figure i s l e s s than 7 percent. The estimated t o t a l stand of saw timber i n 1909 was 2,826 b i l l i o n board feet while the estimate f o r 191+5 t o t a l l e d 1,601 b i l l i o n board feet - a reduction of 1+1+ percent.^ Man today i s slowly becoming conscious of the f a c t that to avoid world wide disaster, he must co-operate with nature. L i m i t l e s s technological development w i l l never substitute f o r the natural l i f e - g i v i n g elements of the earth. On the other hand, technological development, i f f u l l y applied towards an S t a t i s t i c a l Abstract of the United States. U.S. Department of the I n t e r i o r , Washington, D.C, 191+9. 6 e n l i g h t e n e d p o l i c y o f r e s o u r c e c o n s e r v a t i o n and development, w i l l p r o v i d e f o r the c o n t i n u a t i o n o f c i v i l i z a t i o n . I t i s not t h e i n t e n t i o n o f t h i s p a per t o p r e s e n t a hope-l e s s s i t u a t i o n o f r i s i n g p o p u l a t i o n and f a i l i n g r e s o u r c e s . The means o f suc c e s s a re a v a i l a b l e . I f man w i l l use them a "super c i v i l i z a t i o n " i s w i t h i n h i s g r a s p . I f he does n o t use them, he w i l l d e s t r o y h i m s e l f - t h e c h o i c e i s as s i m p l e as t h a t . I n I t s f i n a l a n a l y s i s , p l a n n i n g may be d e f i n e d as t h e "wise use o f a l l the r e s o u r c e s w i t h i n an a r e a " . * The d e v e l o p -m e n t a l l e v e l a n a t i o n a t t a i n s i s a d i r e c t r e s u l t o f t h e degree o f s u c c e s s w i t h w h i c h i t s n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s a r e d e v e l o p e d . S u c c e s s , u s e d i n t h i s sense, i s n o t q u a n t i t y o f p r o d u c t i o n a l o n e , b u t more a measure o f t h e r a t i o between p r o d u c t i o n and r e p l a c e m e n t , n a t u r a l growth, r e g e n e r a t i o n , d i s c o v e r y o f new r e s e r v e s , and so on. Because o f t h e g r e a t abundance o f the e a r t h ' s r e s o u r c e s andr.raan's i n c r e a s i n g t e c h n i c a l s k i l l , we have t a k e n much f o r g r a n t e d . Our r e a l w e a l t h i s drawn f r o m the e a r t h and t o d a y much o f t h a t e a r t h i s b a n k r u p t . By e x c e s s i v e b r e e d i n g and abuse o f t h e l a n d man i s r a p i d l y back-i n g h i m s e l f i n t o an e c o l o g i c a l t r a p . The w e a l t h o f l a n d (whether p r e s e n t o r p o t e n t i a l ) may be r o u g h l y equated t o i t s " c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y " . * ! The c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y may be d e f i n e d , f o r o u r p u r p o s e s , as f o l l o w s : * Dr. J . L e w i s R o b i n s o n : Geography i n R e g i o n a l A n a l y s i s and P l a n n i n g , a d d r e s s p r e p a r e d f o r o r i e n t a t i o n c o u r s e i n Community P l a n n i n g , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1955* #1 T h i s concept o f " c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y " i s b a s e d on t h e work o f F. Osborn, Our P l u n d e r e d P l a n e t , L i t t l e , Brown & Co., New Y o r k , 19%0~. 7 C = P %, P - t h e p r o d u c t i v e ( o r p o t e n t i a l p r o d u c t i v e ) c a p a c i t y . T h i s m a y v a r y w i t h i n g e n e r a l l i m i t s s e t b y n a t u r e . F o r e x a m p l e , t h e b i o t i c p o t e n t i a l o f a s o i l m a y b e a p p r o a c h e d b y a p p l -i c a t i o n o f t h e b e s t u t i l i z a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s . % s t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l l i m i t s . T h i s i s t h e s u m o f a l l t h e l i m i t i n g f a c t o r s a c t i n g o n t h e e n v i r o n m e n t . W h e r e i t i s p o s s i b l e t o r e d u c e t h e e f f e c t o f t h e s e f a c t o r s , t h e e n v i r -o n m e n t a l l i m i t i s r a i s e d a n d a r i s e i n p r o d u c t i v e c a p a c i t y m a y f o l l o w . M e t h o d s o f i r r i g a t i o n , e r o s i o n c o n t r o l , a n d i n s e c t c o n t r o l a r e e x a m p l e s o f t h e r e d u c t i o n o f e n v i r o n -m e n t a l l i m i t s . T h e o t h e r f a c t o r i n f l u e n c i n g d e v e l o p m e n t a l l e v e l i s p o p u l a t i o n - i t s g r o w t h , c o m p o s i t i o n , d i s t r i b u t i o n , a n d s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e . A f t e r c e n t u r i e s o f r e l a t i v e l y s l o w g r o w t h , i t h a s i n c r e a s e d v e r y q u i c k l y i n t h e p a s t t w o h u n d r e d y e a r s . I n o r d e r t o m a i n t a i n a c o n s t a n t s t a n d a r d o f l i v i n g t h i s i n c r e a s e i n p o p u l a t i o n m u s t b e a c c o m p a n i e d b y a n i n c r e a s e i n c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y . I n s o m e a r e a s t h i s c a n n o t b e d o n e a s e n v i r o n m e n t l i m i t s a r e t o o l o w . I n s o m e a r e a s w h e r e i t c a n b e d o n e , i t i s n o t b e i n g d o n e o r n o t b e i n g d o n e p r o p e r l y . I f t h e s e t w o f o r c e s , c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y a n d p o p u l a t i o n , m a y b e r e p r e s e n t e d g r a p h i c a l l y t h i s " e c o l o g i c a l t r a p " m a y b e s e e n t h u s : 6 - P O P U L A T I O N - C A R R Y f N G C A P A C I T Y 1 9 0 0 T IME 1 9 8 0 The c u r v e s o f p o p u l a t i o n and c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y have c r o s s e d . On a wo r l d - w i d e b a s i s t h i s i n d i c a t e s many "have n o t " a r e a s . Today A n g l o - A m e r i c a i s s t i l l seen by many as t h e c o u n t r y t h a t "can f e e d the w o r l d " . Not o n l y i s t h i s a myth b u t a l s o much ev i d e n c e i n d i c a t e s A n g l o - A m e r i c a w i l l f i n d i t d i f f i c u l t t o support i t s growing p o p u l a t i o n a t p r e s e n t l i v i n g s t a n d a r d s . Some w r i t e r s have r e f e r r e d t o man as the "new g e o l o g i c a l f o r c e " . * The s h o r t h i s t o r y o f development i n A n g l o - A m e r i c a , i n many a r e a s , has been one o f w h o l e s a l e d e s t r u c t i o n o f n a t -u r a l r e s o u r c e s . No l o n g e r i s An g l o - A m e r i c a a l a n d o f p l e n t y -r e s o u r c e development and use must be d i r e c t e d toward t h e i n t -e r e s t s o f t h e p e o p l e as a whole i f p r e s e n t s t a n d a r d s o f l i v i n g a r e t o be m a i n t a i n e d . I t was n o t u n t i l s h o r t l y b e f o r e World War I t h a t t h e f i r s t s t e p s towards v e r y n e c e s s a r y , c o - o r d i n a t e d l a n d use p l a n n i n g were t a k e n ( i n the form o f c o n s e r v a t i o n m e a s u r e s ) . Assuming t h a t d r a s t i c p o p u l a t i o n c o n t r o l measures ( w h i l e c o n s i d e r e d d e s i r a b l e i n some ca s e s by the w r i t e r ) w i l l * See Appendix E. 9 not be attained i n the foreseeable future, the carrying cap-a c i t y of the land must be increased. The writer i s not, how-ever, subscribing to the pessimistic doctrines of the modern Malthusians. Their methods are only a few of many available to man i f he w i l l use them. There i s only one way to increase t h i s carrying capacity and that i s national land use planning and development of re-sources on some regional basis. By land use planning the writer does not mean the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of land f o r a s p e c i f i c purpose; f o r example, a g r i c u l t u r a l use. Rather, i t i s the comprehensive planning of a l l land uses i n t h e i r r e l a t i o n to the present and future economic and physical structure of the nation. If t h i s planning i s to be comprehensive i t must be done on some regional basis. The various aspects of resource development are i n t e r r e l a t e d and each aspect must be studied both i n I t s e l f and i n i t s r e l a t i o n to the other aspects. The foregoing i s perhaps the "negative" need f o r regional resource development. In other words i t i s necessary to increase the carrying capacity of our land and prevent the destruction of our resources through Improper use. In addition to t h i s , i s what may be c a l l e d the "p o s i t i v e " need f o r resource development. This i s the tremendous poten-t i a l f o r economic expansion and s o c i a l progress that exists i f a planned program of resource development i s r e a l i z e d . For example, some of the benefits which accrue from a planned water supply p o l i c y alone are: 10 1. The support o f f a r l a r g e r p o p u l a t i o n s i n a r i d r e g i o n s . 2. S o l u t i o n o f t h e u r b a n w a t e r s u p p l y p r o b l e m w h i c h i s s e r i o u s i n many l a r g e u r b a n a r e a s , 3. I r r i g a t i o n t o p r o v i d e f o r more f o o d p r o d u c t i o n and t o i n t r o d u c e new c r o p s i n t o s p e c i a l i z e d a r e a s , t h u s c r e -a t i n g a b r o a d e r a g r i c u l t u r a l b a s e . k. Much i n d u s t r y today r e q u i r e s a l a r g e amount o f w a t e r b o t h f o r p r o d u c t i o n p r o c e s s e s and waste d i s p o s a l . Water i s becoming a more i m p o r t a n t l o c a t i o n f a c t o r i n many ar e a s and t h e use o f s e a water i s p r e s e n t i n g an i n t e r e s t i n g c h a l l e n g e . 5>. L a r g e r e s o u r c e s o f water power c a p a b l e o f economic development augment the v a l u e o f the o t h e r r e s o u r c e s i n an a r e a . Hydro power, a l t h o u g h i t may be t r a n s -p o r t e d up t o a p p r o x i m a t e l y £00 m i l e s , i s a p o w e r f u l l o c a t i o n f a c t o r . 6. Other r e s o u r c e s are c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h water r e s o u r c e s . R e c r e a t i o n , w i l d l i f e , i n l a n d and i n t e r -c o a s t a l waterways, f l o o d c o n t r o l and l a n d r e c l a m a t i o n , e t c . a re a l l p a r t o f t h e o v e r a l l p r o b l e m . The need f o r c o - o r d i n a t e d r e s o u r c e development has been r e c o g n i z e d , t h e b e n e f i t s are apparent and p r o g r e s s has been made. T.V.A., f o r example, w i t h a l l i t s s h o r t c o m i n g s , i s a m a g n i f i c a n t example. I t i s n o t r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g but was n e v e r i n t e n d e d t o be. I t i s t h e development o f a s i n g l e r e -source ( w a t e r ) f o r m u l t i p l e purpose ;;use and w i t h i n t h a t d e f -i n i t i o n has met w i t h c o n s i d e r a b l e s u c c e s s . C o n s i d e r a com-p r e h e n s i v e programming o f a l l r e s o u r c e s w i t h i n a p l a n n i n g r e -g i o n ( n o t a s i n g l e f u n c t i o n r e g i o n ) - the r e s u l t s would be i n f i n i t e l y g r e a t e r . F i g u r e s 1 and 2 show g r a p h i c a l l y t h e scope o f p o t e n t i a l development i n f o r e s t and a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t s . S o i l s and f o r e s t s , t o d a y , are b e i n g e x p l o i t e d a t w i d e l y d i f f e r i n g e f f i c i e n c i e s even i n t h e most advanced the inc - 1 M i 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I 1 T f t i T i T I i i I r I • I 'r • i ! | 1 . i_[ i 1 • ! 1 -1 i | ; i I \~ r - i _ i 1 1 i 1 1 i ! 1 " T l ^ ; _ | - 1 ! ' ! i 1 1 1 I. It | i j 1 T r —1— 1 — ' 1 : — i ! i i 1 _L i. ; .XJ. - | | J . . 1 i . . . . ; - I —i—i—r— : 1 ! i 1 ! ! i i 1 • I | I-- f t + '  ! _ —;•• ! 4- T -i J _I_LJ_J_L n i 1 1 1 ! | | : T i - : : ' i i ! 1 i f 1 1 1 I i 1 1 1 r U 1 ILI i A i v r * f u 5 5 i a i I I I •• i i !"~i "IT" "z o < -N-' "_l Z T t"T_—r riii ttt±T - 80 —60 L.t. d -r r i UJ JJT JLU Q -40 I T . t20 _TLi -l_L •: -t-r ;--p M | | T T - u 4-H-r: ITT T T x r n j x n x p . -j_^-j4-j-|4- t-j X T r r t T l r x ^ 4-U4 i , i i i -rr-rr-- f - F H 4 - f X I _L_L I. f S t i X filbi: -•- t4-<-T T * ' " X X ' X i.l rr rnx i n r m H - l UJ CO .a !..i_Lj,44_L.r XL 4-H4 T X x X U 4 i i IT ! x T X J : J I M -T T " T T i Q Z - j - J- .- i — u - T - i {-1- "' T~ TiT-qJ R M T r j —t—. — i i TI i i - L l -r r r J --H-ri-- T -X.a.: 3 _ X i_4_u_L : "K riiTl IT •---T-r-t- T .u -4-•t "iT i-| t n r T i L FT; 7"i -:H--fT-"t-TTTT . L -UJ . T-4. JXlX P E ; O F j P R O D U C T I O N 40 •60^ -i-q-o-- i — i — l — BY- P E R'C E N T * T T T r r • -r--T . LL . U X T T J T . I I i J T T X T}-T-J- ;TI S O U R C E : YE A R B O O K U N U S ' E D C A P A C I T Y J ! I - X 4 Ti_!_ J:!±i;t! r44 -ht- H-T T 1 ! -T i i. i - , - ! ' i i r T J—I—L [ T T T T T I T I 4 - 4 -tr IZit O F ' F O R E S T i P R O D U C T S ' S T A T.' 1950 i _ 1.1. T 4 : H -f-H-1 ffl I l - f t i t : T ] ± r . iT-i-t-T-t-T- :"t I ' T - T j J4;T|T^!4I ; ._.ri4-ttJ -. I—!—I F I G . I 1'7 r u 13 countries. Today conservation techniques are being applied to s o i l , accounting f o r less than one-quarter of the world's food supply. F i n a l l y , of great importance i s the regional basis on which the planning Is to be done. The philosophy of region- alism w i l l not be examined but a few i d e n t i f y i n g statements and assumptions are necessary i n order to d efine what the writer means by regionalism. 1. A region s h a l l be defined by l o c a t i n g "core" or prob-lem areas of natural resource development out of which socioeconomic progress arises. 2. When these "core" areas have been located on the basis of greatest Jiomogeniety (measured by s p e c i f i c c r i t e r i a ) I t i s then possible to define a somewhat e l a s t i c boun-dary l i n e or zone. 3» Regionalism must function within the national frame-work, towards an end r e s u l t of national unity. In other words, i t i s not sectionalism which i s the promotion of l o c a l i n t e r e s t s toward a p o l i c y of s e l f -s u f f i c i e n c y . The nation cannot be stronger than the sum of i t s regions as prosperity or depression within the region i s r e f l e c t e d i n the nation, and vice versa. 1+. For the purpose of t h i s paper, the concept of the composite region w i l l be assumed. The establishment of single function regions i n resource development i s adequate f o r some forms of research but w i l l not work with a combination of factors. 5. The existence of p o l i t i c a l , administrative and conven-ience regions r e s u l t s i n a complex system, of over-lapping and, In many cases, confusion. These boun-daries have been established on the basis of some c r i t e r i a and, because they include an administrative organization and represent large vested i n t e r e s t s , they are very often very d i f f i c u l t or impossible to change. 6. Regardless of where or on what basis regional bound-aries are drawn, a Regional Planning Agency should be formed. Whatever i t s precise administrative and p o l -i t i c a l structure, t h i s Agency would be responsible f o r the o v e r a l l planning and development of the region. The geographer, by nature of h i s t r a i n i n g , uses region-al analysis as a basic method. He sees any region i n two ways: 1. As the sura of i t s i n d i v i d u a l parts. 2. How I t f i t s into the next largest region. The geographic method, then, establishes a hierarchy of reg-ions and, af t e r studying parts of each, f i t s into a whole. The planner and the geographer have many methods i n common i n that both c o l l e c t information from many f i e l d s and "put i t together". In a regional sense the planner i s f a r behind the geographer, both i n t r a i n i n g and accomplishment. The basic methods of geography must be adopted and u t i l i z e d more f u l l y by the planner. "Planning i s regional geography pro-jected into the future, with the hope of guiding the region into desirable patterns In harmony with i t s environment". The Physical Setting In developing land f o r any purpose, man faces c e r t a i n physical l i m i t a t i o n s . The two most obvious and important are climate and landforms. While man makes minor changes i n h i s world, h i s environ-ment i s the product of vast forces that are beyond his control and may operate at a rhythm too slow f o r perception. The d i s t r i b u t i o n of the earth's topographic features are of major importance to man as they determine where he may b u i l d h i s 6 Robinson, J.L.: "Geography and Regional Planning", The Canadian Geographer. No. 8, 193>6, p. 6. 15 c i t i e s , the placement of his a g r i c u l t u r a l lands, h i s l i n e s of communication, and so on. This i s the realm of geomorphol- ogy which attempts to discover the o r i g i n and the systematic evolution of the earth's landforms. In many cases topographic features may be the surface expression of subsurface features, f o r example a dome-like structure on the surface may indicate an a n t i c l i n a l structure below I t . This branch of geomorphology requires an understand-ing of geologic p r i n c i p l e s both f o r explaining structure and va r i e t y of subsurface phenomena and to help explain the type, o r i g i n , and d i s t r i b u t i o n of economic materials - coal, nat-u r a l gas, m e t a l l i c ores, construction materials, and many others. As geology and geomorphology seek to explain earth features, these features are, i n turn, ever changing. Geo-morphology i s a dynamic thing and i t s processes draw t h e i r energy from the atmosphere. The science of hydrology i s a basic tool i n the study of landforms. In addition to givi n g l i f e to man and his a c t i v i t i e s , water provides him with power, transportation, recreation, a basic raw material f o r industry, etc. Water, more than any other atmospheric element, i s the to o l which sculptures the face of the land. Although man l i v e s on the s o l i d surface of the earth, he owes his very survival to favourable conditions of weather and climate. The patterns of man's a c t i v i t y over the earth are d i r e c t l y related to clim a t o l o g i c a l patterns. Climatic factors not only o f f e r p o t e n t i a l s , but also impose severe l i m i t a t i o n s 16 on what man i s doing and may do i n the future. To a consid-erable extent, climate governs what man eats, wears, the structures he bui l d s , and where he l i v e s . This becomes les s marked as a society becomes more highly i n d u s t r i a l i z e d , but weather and climate s t i l l e f f e c t i v e l y govern most primary indu s t r i e s , and many commercial operations. Lying, i n e f f e c t , between the atmosphere and the surface of the earth i s the thi n layer of s o i l . The d i s t r i b u t i o n of s o i l w i l l greatly influence the patterns of man's agriculture and the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the natural vegetation. Perhaps the most tangible evidence of physical factors may be seen i n the s o i l . Climate may be taken f o r granted, geomorphic processes, with the exception of spectacular features, such as floods, may operate too slowly to be appreciated, but s o i l f e r t i l i t y may be seen In production; and economic losses from s o i l eros-ion are very r e a l . These physical factors cannot be thought of as separate branches of study. They are a l l i n t e r r e l a t e d and the i n f l u e n -ces and changes of one w i l l be r e f l e c t e d i n the others. Our s o i l r e f l e c t s the parent material upon which i t has developed, the climate under which i t has developed, and the vegetative complex i t supports. The d i s t r i b u t i o n and patterns of land-forms i s a major influence i n both regional and l o c a l climat-ology. Climate, i n turn, supplies the energy f o r geomorphic processes. Even as the great forces of u p l i f t create new sur-face features, they are being destroyed by r a i n , f r o s t , wind, and i c e . The "everlasting h i l l s " of the poet do not exist -17 there are no everlasting h i l l s . Purposes of Study Climatology and geomorphology have been studied f o r hun-dreds of years. Basic p r i n c i p l e s have been developed i n these f i e l d s and applied to the planned use of s p e c i f i c resources. But only i n the past few years have investigations sought to define the in t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the two f i e l d s . Such men as Cotton, F i e l d e r , Matthes, and Visher have r e a l i z e d the importance of these i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s and established many " f i r s t p r i n c i p l e s " . The application of these p r i n c i p l e s has been, unfortunately, on a piecemeal rather than a regional ba-s i s . Most work seems to l i e i n the specialized branches of the physical sciences and much remains as theory which i s d i s -cussed f o r academic i n t e r e s t only. This study i s a modest attempt at f i l l i n g t h i s gap ex-i s t i n g between theory and p r a c t i c a l application. In the sec-ond part of the study an e f f o r t w i l l be made to br i n g together the various f i e l d s of knowledge with respect to climatology and geomorphology, with the purpose of i n d i c a t i n g those basic p r i n c i p l e s applicable and s i g n i f i c a n t to regional resource development. Then i n Part I I , these p r i n c i p l e s w i l l be app-l i e d , or tested as i t were, to two types of resource develop-ment regions. These two types w i l l include the single resour-ce development region and the region of complex resource dev-elopment modified by a large i n d u s t r i a l complex. 18 The study, then, i s p r i m a r i l y concerned with demonstr-ating the application and implication of ce r t a i n climatolog-i c a l and geomorphological p r i n c i p l e s i n the planned use of natural resources on a regional basis. Since regional dev-elopment also involves urban bui l d i n g , some reference w i l l be made to the applications of the p r i n c i p l e s of climate and landforms on t h i s phase of planning as well. I t i s recognized, of course, that the planned use of natural resources does not only depend on the application of our knowledge of physical (and other) f a c t o r s . P o l i t i c a l and administrative factors are equally important; but these con-siderations are only discussed i n t h i s study i n passing. Data Used i n Study As the accuracy of conclusions w i l l depend on the data used, some q u a l i f i c a t i o n s must be made. Climatology - Most of the data used i s i n s t a t i s t i c a l form. There i s no problem i n obtaining adequate data f o r the stan-dard elements - temperature, p r e c i p i t a t i o n , etc. Today many more elements are being recorded by a multitude of new devices. The problem Is they have a short h i s t o r y which makes the res-u l t s of complex s t a t i s t i c a l treatment somewhat doubtful. 1. Accuracy - i n analysis allowance must be made f o r i n s t -rument error, vast differences i n q u a l i t y of Instruments used to measure the same thing, the development of more accuracy instruments over the years, and the human error factor (which i s very r e a l at times when non-professional 19 people c o l l e c t much of the data). 2. Completeness and Representativeness - some of the data are not complete and some are only p a r t i a l l y complete. This i s a very important fa c t o r , as i n the main, the longer the record the better the r e s u l t s of s t a t i s t i c a l treatment. Climatic data i s not completely representative of any area, and B r i t i s h Columbia i s a good example. There are simply no recording stations where people do not l i v e , so many re s u l t s are based on the best inferences possible. Geomorpho1ogy - The writer quotes only moderate use of s t a t i s -t i c a l data as: 1. Much of i t i s too s p e c i f i c and applies to a single prob-lem only. 2. Much of i t i s highly doubtful and subject to much debate. In the main, accepted basic p r i n c i p l e s of geomorphology and related geological sciences are discussed i n so f a r as they are related to climatology. Por "case study" examples, s t a t i s t i c a l data are used along with information from maps and technical papers. It i s hard to discuss geomorphic data as being complete or representative. It may be on a very small scale but from a regional aspect i t i s very incomplete and non-representative, One need only read a few opinions of the best authorities i n the f i e l d to r e a l i z e that there i s much disagreement even on so c a l l e d " f i r s t p r i n c i p l e s " . PART ONE THE PHYSICAL ELEMENTS: CLIMATE AND LANDFORMS 20 CHAPTER I - CLIMATOLOGY The vapor, which the Greeks and our own nation c a l l by the same name, a i r - t h i s i s the p r i n c i p l e of l i f e , and penetrates a l l the universe, and i s intertwined with the whole. - P l i n y the Elder In developing land f o r any purpose, man faces c e r t a i n physical l i m i t a t i o n s . The f i r s t and perhaps most obvious i s climate. Man l i v e s at the bottom of a sea hundreds of miles deep - on the f l o o r of a great ocean of a i r . He i s as dependent upon the atmosphere f o r l i f e as a marine organism i n i t s natural element of water. "In f a c t , among the several elements (climate, t e r r a i n , economic minerals, s o i l s , native vegetation, etc.) which i n combination comprise the t o t a l natural equipment of any region f o r human use, climate prob-ably i s the single most important one causing v a r i a -tions i n use p o t e n t i a l i t i e s between extensive regions of subcontinental size".? Climate may be defined as "the average state of the atmosphere over a p a r t i c u l a r place or region of the earth*s surface, r e l a t e d to a p a r t i c u l a r epoch and taking into con-sideration the average and extreme variations to which the atmospheric state i s subject".^ While "weather" on the other hand i s the term applying to atmospheric conditions at Trewartha, G.T.: An Introduction to Climate. McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., Toronto, 19$k-* P» 3« Conrad, V., and Pollak, L.W.: Methods i n Climatology, Harv ard University Press, 2nd Ed i t i o n , 19 50. 21 any given time, i t may vary greatly from day to day or year to year i n a given l o c a l i t y . This may not indicate a change i n climate. Climatic Elements and Controls The condition of the atmosphere at any given time or place i s expressed by a combination of several elements. These are the basic ingredients, i f you w i l l , out of which various types of weather are compounded. The most Important of these elements are:* 1. Temperature and solar r a d i a t i o n 2. P r e c i p i t a t i o n and humidity and to a l e s s e r degree: 3. Winds k-. A i r pressure systems Weather not only varies from day to day but varies considerably from place to place. This i s due to great differences i n the amount, i n t e n s i t y , effectiveness, and areal d i s t r i b u t i o n of these various elements. These differences are governed by the climatic controls. These major controls are: 1. Latitude - f o r our purposes we may assume that solar radiat i o n i s constant. The l a t i t u d e of an area w i l l determine the angle of incidence of incoming i n s o l -ation. This i n turn w i l l determine the i n t e n s i t y of * See Appendix A f o r a more complete c l a s s i f I c a t i o n - o f these elements. 22 the i n s o l a t i o n and the amount of atmosphere i t must t r a v e l through to reach the ground surface. In addition to these e f f e c t s , l a t i t u d e w i l l determine the length of, day and night and hence the p o t e n t i a l duration of i n s o l -ation. As a r e s u l t the higher the l a t i t u d e (north or south) the l e s s the amount and e f f e c t i v e i n t e n s i t y of the i n s o l a t i o n . 2. D i s t r i b u t i o n of Land and Water - the d i s t r i b u t i o n of land and water surfaces over the face of the earth i s an important f a c t o r i n modifying the effect of l a t i t u d e . Land surfaces heat and cool more quickly than water sur-faces and e f f e c t the covering a i r masses accordingly. This r e s u l t s i n a greater range of temperature i n a i r over the continents. Compare marine and continental stations (Figure 3) and, although each p a i r have about the same l a t i t u d e , they d i f f e r greatly i n maximum and minimum temperatures, annual ranges, and the general sha-pes of t h e i r curves. Cloudiness and r a i n f a l l are also d i r e c t l y effected by land and water surfaces. As the chief source of atmospheric moisture i s the ocean, con-t i n e n t a l i n t e r i o r s have dryer climates, lower r e l a t i v e hum' i d i t y , and more sunshine. This marine influence, when effe c t i v e to the west of mountain ranges produces a coast-a l marine climate of which B r i t i s h Columbia i s a good example. 3. A l t i t u d e - elevated land areas have c e r t a i n c l i m a t i c (1^.^2^38-3? to the inch L I I I 1 i 1 | 1 ! 1 i ! I j i ! ! rrr - i -i i — i I - t 1 i .~t~r ' I X L 1 —I >-- | 1 f i_ : ! ' i i i i ~ . ' L - U - ' . - - j -1 i i i i 1 | i 1 i | 1 1 I ! ] 1 ! i i i i I i 1 I r T l " ; H l X L r L± i ^ *-i KH 1 ,1 | J i 1 !~ i - f i H - J 1 ° i r i i i "> lyl 1 J| 1 J 1 n • S ^ u, ; i 1 ' i rn:r 4-'-i I 4- -' 4" • • t -• h i xxxx 7~f ~i" - . — f - t -j - L i X -r-t-' T 90 70 50 30 10-i_lCp.M .^AL8.AJjyE_ 4-U -AND T tl 'H-l J + t t t ±ttj_i Sfi t -M-f+ 1-44-MONTH LY; ; il^ E . M P E R A J U R E S ! IN 1 CO N T IN E NT A U T 4 ' ' " ^ -MARI-N-E-L xtut ixxi -.- ; ,--f - T—i—+—1—-f—I—1—*— S ITU AT I O N S L X T 4 - 4 -r n t - t - T - T - t -i—r Tt ~_jX| : A . SAN .JUAN, ! ! PU E P.TQ . RJG.0r,4 lLA|r.:_J!8?_29XlNj_a 4 _ i _ L L \ - i ^ . lTS^i± u t f f t Xlir i i i" 9 . 'C0PENHAGN , LAT. 5 5< n 3 7' N 4 l 'N -L . ! ! I h D. TOMSK, LAT. 5 6° 30 'N' I ' run: T r it Xlriiu-ttthx: -T i i i i - A F T E •H--K-- f T t R ' TREWARTHA —f- : - r • I — -ffttjt : P - O i l ± ± t -t-Ht-i , I - L l J - J -i T TIG. 3 [TITX xx 4-l-UU 21+ c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n common as a d i r e c t r e s u l t of t h e i r a l t -itude. The most obvious r e s u l t of an Increase i n elevation i s a corresponding decrease In atmospheric pressure. Among other r e s u l t s t h i s causes an increase i n evaporation and a decrease i n available oxygen. The i n t e n s i t y of i n s o l a t i o n i s increased with an increase i n a l t i t u d e l a r g e l y because of the a i r which i s more free of dust and water vapor. This increased i n t e n s i t y of i n s o l a t i o n has important effects on the s o i l temperature and hence the growth of vegetation. As the land heats quickly by day, so i t cools quickly by night i n elevated regions. This produces greater d a i l y ran-ges i n temperature and creates "thermal b e l t s " along the slopes - the cool a i r c o l l e c t s i n the v a l l e y bottoms which become colder than the mountain sides and often contain cloud and fog. As a r e s u l t , " f r o s t s ensitive" crops are grown on the slopes and benches, i n elevated regions, above the l e v e l of the cool a i r . There are so many l o c a l topogra-phic variations that i t i s d i f f i c u l t to formulate rules that have wide application. 1+. Topography - apart from the - d i s t r i b u t i o n of land and water surfaces the actual configuration of the land surface results i n climatic differences. The o r i e n t a t i o n of a slope may p a r t i a l l y determine the amount of i n s o l -ation i t receives which In turn w i l l e f f e c t s o i l temper-atures, vegetation, snow cover, runoff, etc. In a regional. 25 sense, mountain systems may e f f e c t the movement of a i r masses - protecting some areas from co l d a i r , bringing other areas more p r e c i p i t a t i o n , etc. In general mount-ains w i l l cause the upward movement of a i r , thus increas-ing the amount of p r e c i p i t a t i o n . The modification of climate by mountain systems i s very common; f o r example, the east-west trend of the Alps protects northern I t a l y from the storms of central Europe. The north-south trend of the Rocky Mountains permits cold a i r from the A r c t i c to move south into the Gulf area. Pressure Belts and Winds - are perhaps the least percept-able to humans but, as climatic controls, through the effects which they have upon temperature and p r e c i p i t a t i o n , they are of the highest importance. In actual f a c t , most "belts" of pressure are r e a l l y " c e l l s " of high or low pressure es p e c i a l l y i n the .northern hemisphere where the temperature contrasts of large land masses break the "belts" up. Differences i n pressure produce a i r movement and res u l t i n the general c i r c u l a t i o n patterns over the earth. The general pattern of these b e l t s i n the Northern Hemisphere i s : (south to north) (a) equatorial low pressure (b) sub-tropical high pressure (c) sub-polar (mid latitude) low pressure (d) polar high pressure These pressure c e l l s are further modified by: (a) Unequal heating between l a t i t u d i n a l b e l t s (b) C o r i o l i s force - r e s u l t i n g from the rotation of the earth. (c) The non-horaogeniety of the surface. 26 The pressure c e l l s developed have winds associated with them. For example a high pressure c e l l r e sults i n a divergent movement of a i r from the center towards areas of lower pressure, This i s reversed i n the low pressure c e l l s and hence pressure gradients are established. In various areas of the world d e f i n i t e types of weather may be associated with these pressure systems as they are born, move about, and die, f o r example, the Aleutian Low w i l l bring r a i n to Vancouver while the Hawaiian High w i l l bring cl e a r weather. In general the wind systems serve two fundamental climat-i c functions: 1. The transportation of heat from lower to higher l a t -itudes; thus maintaining the l a t i t u d i n a l heat balance of the earth. 2. They provide the land masses with the necessary mois-ture supply f o r p r e c i p i t a t i o n . There are other controls of climate (ocean currents, storms, etc.) but the above factors are the major controls and, within the scope of t h i s paper, adequate to provide some elementary introduction to the mechanics of climate. Climatic V a r i a b i l i t y Perhaps the clim a t i c picture given so f a r has been a s t a t i c one. This Is not the nature of climate f o r , superimp-ised on a large scale s t a b i l i t y , are numerous cl i m a t i c f l u c t -uations of varying i n t e n s i t y and period. The conclusion of 27 most geologists i s that, although these changes were i r r e g -u l a r and f l u c t u a t i n g i n character, they occurred simultane-ously over the whole earth. In addition to these great world-wide variations i n climate much evidence points to le s s e r v a r i a t i o n s . The fl u c t u a t i o n of lake l e v e l s and the advance and retreat of Alpine g l a c i e r s point to wet and dry periods. The study of growth rings on trees has revealed fluctuations i n t h e i r rate of growth evidently due to climatic v a r i a t i o n s . S t a t i s t i c s seem to indicate two trends today: 1. A world wide r i s e i n temperatures 2. Increasing a r r i d i t y i n the tropic and sub-tropic regions. Many theories have been advanced which attempt to explain these long and short term variations i n climate. In examina-t i o n of them, the following points must be kept i n mind: 1. Any change of climate w i l l be due to the combined eff e c t of many causes both t e r r e s t r i a l and solar. 2. Attention must be given to both sides of.the argu-ment as to whether g l a c i a t i o n i s due pr i m a r i l y to a loss of the earth's supply of heat or to a r e d i s t r i -bution of the heat through changes i n atmospheric and oceanic c i r c u l a t i o n . 3. Any acceptable theory must explain the synchronism between great u p l i f t s i n the earth's crust and great changes i n climate. k-» Any acceptable theory must s a t i s f y the geological record of r e p e t i t i o n of mild and cool periods. The most reasonable theories today are based on: 1. Variations of solar r a d i a t i o n as .indicated by sunspot cycle. This presumably creates a r e d i s t r i b u t i o n of the earth's atmospheric pressure with a s h i f t i n g of the wind b e l t s and storm tracks. 28 2. Changes i n atmospheric transmission of solar rad-i a t i o n caused by variable amounts of air-borne volcanic dust and carbon dioxide content; an i n c r e -ase i n the former lowering surface temperature and an increase i n the l a t t e r r a i s i n g i t . 3. Land d i s t r i b u t i o n and elevation. The changes i n the r a t i o of land to water surfaces would a l t e r the d i s -t r i b u t i o n of continental and marine climates. Changes In elevation of land masses would s i m i l a r l y produce temperature changes. The above factors are a l l probably i n f l u e n t i a l i n wea-ther v a r i a t i o n s . When examined i n d e t a i l , however, they do not o f f e r a s a t i s f a c t o r y explanation of the actual c l i m a t i c changes indicated by accepted geological evidence. Theories of c l i m a t i c v a r i a b i l i t y have l i t t l e d i r e c t bearing on the subject of this paper. However, people accept weather as a dynamic state but seldom think of climate i n the same sense. It i s impossible to express cl i m a t i c elements, of a given region, i n terms of "normal" values obtained by averaging weather data f o r 5>0 to 100 years. "Climatic conditions neither remain constant nor change forever i n one d i r e c t i o n , but instead they v i b -rate back and f o r t h In a highly complex and Irregular manner i n waves of lengths varying from a few months to m i l l i o n s of years."9 Presumably i n large scale resource development a vast amount of money w i l l be invested - i n most cases over a long period of time. In addition, the r e s u l t w i l l probably be some degree of human occupance of the region. Changes, i n climate, of a few years duration, often have serious economic and s o c i a l B l a i r , T.A.: Climatology. General and Regional. Prentice-H a l l , Inc., New York, 191+2, p. 9l+. 2 9 effects on the people of an area. Take, f o r example, the case of an area receiving just enough p r e c i p i t a t i o n to sus-t a i n agriculture. A v a r i a t i o n above the "normal" produces a good crop where a f a l l below normal means complete crop f a i l -ure. One need only to look at the s o c i a l and economic h i s t o r y of the "dust bowl" areas of the United States to appreciate t h i s point. Figure 1+ i l l u s t r a t e s the v a r i a t i o n i n annual r a i n f a l l i n Dodge City, Kansas. The average f o r the entire record i s used and the accumulated sums of the departures from i t are p l o t t e d . Years of l i g h t e r than average r a i n f a l l are Indicated by a f a l l i n g curve and a r i s i n g curve shows heavier than average r a i n f a l l . This curve gives a clearer i n d i c a t i o n of one aspect of cl i m a t i c v a r i a b i l i t y . With the above i n mind, then, i t Is apparent that the possible effects of any trends In climatic v a r i a t i o n should be taken into account i n a long-range planning analysis f o r resource development. Present Trends and Shortcomings i n Climatology Climatology has been, u n t i l recently, a purely descrip-tive science. Meteorological data was collected, analyzed, and used f o r geographic description. Man has harnessed many natural forces but climate s t i l l , i n the main, must be "taken as i t comes". I f man then i s to get along with climate he must make use of i t as i t e x i s t s . To do t h i s i t s causes and effects must be determined and kept under observation. World War I I provided the opportunity and need f o r much research and since fcirlS IP* X 8 to the incl A N N U A L • ' P R E C I P I T A T I O N ! I 4-1 1 U-4 — 4 i i i : ! r - i M-i-I I !_!..!. L. i I .1 ± r n ± -X ; : n : AF_iT_E_R M i i 7l D 0 DG E P A R T U R E S 1 ^  t-4- ^ --j-f C IT Y 7 K A N S A S . B L A I R . . M 1 1 1 i 1 1 1 - 7 l l f r - 1 - .i-l-L H~r-: a l x t 4 - - : . + _ u 4. 4-. T J ± t t l H T i i i ..La ; Ml. —t- 4-i T t r —1—i-- l - f j_J_l_i_. L 4_ -T-f" -+-t r-r 1 i 1 ! X J T . L 31 then much has been done i n the study of climate elements, causes, modifications (by physical elements and man) and e f f e c t s . Today much Is being learned through high a l t i t u d e rocket research and the use of balloon equipment. Various methods of weather control are meeting with varied success, f o r example, modification of micro-climates, polution and fog control, measures to promote and discourage p r e c i p i t a t i o n , long range forecasting, etc. The f i e l d of climatology i s , of course, broken Into areas of special study. Arnold Court has recently c l a s s i f i e d climatology as dynamic, synoptic, and complex. 1 0 Dynamic climatology describes atmospheric c i r c u l a t i o n i n terms of the available sources and transfor-mation of energy. It i s a large scale t o o l mainly f o r the research meteorologist. Synoptic climatology describes the t o t a l i t y of weather r e s u l t i n g from atmospheric c i r c u l a t i o n . I t i s the description of the cause and e f f e c t of day to day weather and forms the basis of forecasting. I t provides the " p o s s i b i l i t y of p r e d i c t i n g phenomena from li m i t e d information" Complex climatology i s the analysis and presentation of clim-a t i c information f o r p r a c t i c a l applications. I t i s with the l a t t e r area that t h i s paper i s most concerned. I f c l i m a t i c information i s to be useful the s p e c i f i c data required f o r the 1 0 Court, A.: Climatology:"Complex, Dynamic, and Synoptic," Annal3, Association of American Geographers, Vol. 1+7, 1957. 1 1 Strahler, A.N.:"Empirical and Explanatory Methods i n Physical Geography", The Professional Geographer Vol. 6, 1951;, PP. 1+-8. 32 problem at hand must be secured. The amount of material available i s great but most of i t i s r e s t r i c t e d to a few climatic elements - pressure, temperature, and p r e c i p i t a t i o n . On the whole, the standard c l i m a t i c summaries leave much to be desired, as yet. H.E. Landsberg 1^ suggests the following: 1. I n s u f f i c i e n t coverage with e x i s t i n g equipment - solar r a d i a t i o n - Information on i c e and snow ? - s o i l temperatures, moisture, cooling power, etc. - suspended p a r t i c l e s , (dust, etc.) 2 . Inadequate techniques or instruments - evaporation and tra n s p i r a t i o n - corrosive substances i n a i r - composition of p r e c i p i t a t i o n - r a d i a t i o n losses - slant v i s i b i l i t y - foliage temperatures - cloud, layering, extent, temperature, density - v e r t i c a l temperature gradients - rates of heat transfer Most recent advances i n complex, or applied climatology, have been towards better methods of s t a t i s t i c a l treatments of data. This i s mostly work i n combinations of two or three elements. C e i l i n g - V i s i b i l i t y combinations have been tabulated and analyzed on a geographical b a s i s . T e m p e r a t u r e - w e t b u l b combinations were investigated by Albright. 1^- The human Landsberg, H.E.:. Applied Climatology, i n Compendium of Meteorology, American Meteorological Soc-i e t y , Waverly Press, Inc., Baltimore, 19$3. Cunningham, G.: A Map of F l y i n g Weather, Annals Assoc. Am. Geog., Vol. k2, 19$2, pp. 21|7-2$0. li+ A l l b r i g h t , J.C.: Summer Weather Data, Kansas City, The Marley Co., 1939. 33 fac tor has been combined with c l imat i c elements i n a study d irected by Brooks . 1 ^ A very de f in i te l i m i t i s imposed on the development of s t a t i s t i c a l techniques and that i s the amount and r e l i a b i l i t y of data ava i l ab le . (See page 18 . ) C lo se ly connected with advances i n appl ied cl imatology are advances i n appl ied micro-cl imatology. "There i s a need fo r s tandardizat ion of micro-c l imat i c procedures and equipment. More measurements are needed on the v e r t i c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of the usual c l i m a t i c elements i n the boundary l a y e r over various forms of t e r r a i n and vegeta t ion" . There i s very much room f o r improvement i n : 1. The securing of more complete, representat ive , and accurate data. 2. Development of new techniques and instruments. 3. The se l ec t ion of spec i f i c data types f o r s p e c i f i c problems. k» F i n a l l y , there i s a growing f i e l d of b ioc l imato logy . This branch of science deals with the many complex r e l a t i o n s of weather and climate to l i f e and hea l th . For example: Brooks, C F . ed . : : Papers on the Re la t ion of the Atmosphere  to Human Comfort, Monthly Weather Review, V o l . 53, PP. 1^3-W7. Baum, W.A. , and Court , A . : "Research Status and Needs i n Micro-Cl imatology" , Trans. Am. Geophysics  Union, V o l . 30, 191+9, pp. lj.88-ij.93. 3k - a number of inves t iga t ions have ind ica ted that the most favourable temperatures fo r man to work i n i s 6k°. - frequent small f luc tuat ions are be t ter than long periods of hot or c o l d . - a i r of moderate humidity i s be t t e r than very moist or very dry a i r . Much disease can be re l a ted to humidity condi t ions . - considerable a t tent ion has been given to obta ining a measure of the coo l ing power of the a i r , p a r t i c -u l a r l y with reference to the coo l ing of human s k i n , under d i f f e rent atmospheric condi t ions . - the amount of sunshine received i s very c l o s e l y re l a ted to h e a l t h . One of the major developments i n a l l phases of c l imatology and the major trend at present i s the development of more complex s t a t i s t i c a l treatment of data . Some author i t i e s f e e l the techniques used are be t te r than the data i n many cases. This may lead to the mistake of b u i l d i n g a complex framework that has l i t t l e bas i s i n f a c t . A p p l i c a t i o n of P r i n c i p l e s Every place has a cl imate of some type and, as was s tated above, t h i s cl imate i s a dynamic state subject to both short and long range v a r i a t i o n s . Man may modify h i s c l imate , with varying degrees of success, but he cannot change or contro l i t to any appreciable extent. Genera l ly , man has been more successful where he has taken c l i m a t i c factors in to consider-a t ion . In many instances where he has not the effects have been disas trous . Before man can work i n more complete harmony with c l imate , he must apply h i s knowledge of i t . Much more e f fec t ive resource planning and u t i l i z a t i o n may be done on the basis of what i s known about cl imate at present . This does not mean to say that there i s l i t t l e need fo r more knowledge on the subject , but i f advances i n cl imatology are incorpor-ated, with a more complete u t i l i z a t i o n of present information much can be done towards a more harmonious balance between resource development, man, and nature. In considering climate and i t s effect on present and p o t e n t i a l resource development ce r t a in basic steps must be taken. 1. Measurement - the c o l l e c t i o n of data, by the measurement of elements and controls of cl imate and t h e i r v a r i a t i o n s . The development of instruments, l o c a t i o n of recording s ta t ions , and techniques of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n are most im-portant . The whole question of obtaining data that i s both complete and representative i s one of the greatest problems i n c l imatology. 2. In terpre ta t ion - of the data . As the extent of the app-l i c a t i o n of c l imat i c information to resource development expands, so does the need for complex s t a t i s t i c a l inform-a t i o n . The data obtained must be c l a s s i f i e d into s i g n i f -icant groupings, depending upon the p a r t i c u l a r problem being considered. 3» App l i ca t ion - of the analyzed data. Now the p r a c t i c a l value of c l imat i c information becomes e f f e c t i v e . I t i s now poss ib le to draw boundaries and e s t ab l i sh c l i m a t i c regions. Then attempts may be made to answer such quest-ions as. "Within a region what are the optimum condit ions for growth?", "How much water i s ava i lab le f o r i r r i g a t i o n "What i s the forest f i r e danger?". The app l i ca t ion of regional and l o c a l cl imatology i s becoming more and more important today i n every phase of resource development. 3 7 CHAPTER II - GEOMORPHOLOGY Nothing under heaven i s s o f terr or more y i e l d i n g than water; but when i t a t t -acks things hard and r e s i s t a n t , there i s not one of them that can p r e v a i l . - From the Chinese, Tao Te Ching, Chapter LXXVII, 21+0 B .C . Geomorphology i s l i t e r a l l y the study of the "forms of the ear th" . In studying the conf igurat ion of the ear th , geomorphology looks at the continents , ocean bas ins , great mountain systems, and broad p l a i n s . The end re su l t i s the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , measurement, and de sc r ip t ion of landforms, with the h i s t o r y of the processes that have produced them. Geomorphology has always been a border l ine f i e l d between geology and geography, and i t s most successful students are those t ra ined adequately i n the concepts and methods of both sciences . Basic Concepts Geomorphology has a long h i s t o r y of slow development. The underlying p r i n c i p l e of modern geomorphology i s known as the p r i n c i p l e of uni formitar ianism. This was f i r s t stated by Hutton i n 1 7 8 5 who argued that the same geologic processes operating today have operated with the same i n t e n s i t y throu-ghout geologic t ime. Today we know that the various processes have operated at d i f fe rent i n t e n s i t i e s , at d i f ferent times, but the processes have themselves remained the same. Glac ier s today behave the same as i n Pleis tocene times; streams cut 38 v a l l e y s i n the past as they do now; wind deposi t ion followed the same laws i n the Jurass ic age as i t does today. In add-i t i o n to the above p r i n c i p l e , the fo l lowing basic concepts must be understood before the whole subject of landforms and t h e i r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s meaningful.-* Concept 1 - Geologic s tructure i s a dominant contro l f ac tor i n the evolut ion of land forms and i s r e f l ec ted i n them. The term " s t ructure" used i n th i s sense, implies regional rather than small scale rock features.. Var ia t ions i n phys i ca l hard-ness, presence or absence of j o i n t s , f a u l t s , permeabi l i ty , reg ional d ip , and s t r ike of s t ra ta , e t c . , a l l are re f l ec ted i n landforms (although the r e s u l t i n g structure may not be v i s a b l e ) . Major s t ruc tura l features are general ly o l d and were establ ished long before the geomorphic features e x i s t i n g on them. Concept 2 - Geomorphic processes leave t h e i r d i s t i n c t i v e im-p r i n t upon landforms and each process develops i t s own chara-c t e r i s t i c group of landforms. Natura l ly ce r t a in forms become associated with others and where they cannot be seen, they may often be i n f e r r e d . As a resu l t a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of land forms i s poss ib le on more than a pure ly morphological ba s i s . Por example, the term " c l i f f " conveys r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e but the term " f a u l t l i n e scarp" t e l l s the reader much of the geo-The f i r s t 3 of these concepts are adapted from the works of W.H. Davis , the " fa ther" of the American School . His impact on geomorphology was perhaps greater than that of any other one man. For example, Davis, W . H . : Geographical Essays. 39 raorphic h i s t o r y of the feature . Geomorphic processes are general ly c l a s s i f i e d as endogenic and e x o g e n i c . T h e former or ig inate from forces wi th in the earth 's crust (volcanic ac t ion , e t c . ) ; the l a t t e r from external forces (mass wasting, eros ion, e t c . ) . In general the endogenic processes b u i l d up areas worn down by exogenic processes. Concept 3 - As the d i f fe rent eros iona l agencies act upon the earth ' s surface, there i s produced a sequence of landforms having d i s t i n c t i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s at the successive stages of t h e i r development. This concept gives r i s e to the geo- morphic c y c l e , one of the most use fu l tools i n geomorphology. In other words, a given land surface under la in by c e r t a i n types of structure and operated on by c e r t a i n geomorphic pro-cesses w i l l undergo a sequence of development to a somewhat theore t i ca l end. I n f i n i t e v a r i e t y i s n a t u r a l l y the re su l t and, as many processes go on at one time, a complex rather than simple evolut ion i s the r u l e . The terms youth, matur i ty , and o l d age are commonly used to represent the stages of dev-i ft elopment. As much of the earth ' s crust i s r e l a t i v e l y mobile (subject to de fomat ion and movement) a p a r t i a l cycle or com-pound cyc les are f a r more l i k e l y to ex i s t than a completed c y c l e . F i n a l l y there are three factors to keep i n mind: !7 Penck, ¥ . : Die Morphologische Analyse, S tut tgar t , 1927. 1 8 Davis, W.M.: "The. Geographical C y c l e " , Chapter 13 i n Geographical Essays, Glnn & C o . , 1909. 1. Much of the research that has l e d to what we accept as fundamental geomorphic p r i n c i p l e s , has been done i n the humid temperature regions. Not enough research has been done i n t r o p i c a l , a r i d , and p o l a r regions to formulate basic geomorphic p r i n c i p l e s but enough has been done to ind ica te that the processes which are dom-inant i n the humid l a t i tudes are not neces sar i ly Imp-ortant to the same degree i n the lower and higher l a t -i tudes . Here again c l i m a t i c var i a t ions provide a good Ind ica t ion of the varying importance of geomorphic p r i n c i p l e s . 2. Proper in terpre ta t ions of present day landforms i s impossible without a f u l l apprec iat ion of the great inf luence of c l imat ic changes during the Pleistocene E p o c h . 1 9 CALENDAR OP PLEISTOCENE TIME EPOCHS Eldoran PLEISTOCENE Centra l ! an Ottomwan SUBEPOCHS AGES (of time) STAGES (of deposits) Recent Wisconsin (lith g l a c i a l ) Sangamon I n t e r g l a c i a l I l l i n o l a n (3rd-/glacial) Yarmouth I n t e r g l a c i a l Kansan.(2nd g l a c i a l ) Grandi an ROUGHLY ESTIMATED DATES 20,000 B . C . 125,000 B . C . 250,000 B . C . 350,000 B . C . 650,000 B .C . 750,000 B .C . 950,000 B .C . Aftonian I n t e r g l a c i a l Nebraskan (1st g l a c i a l ) 1,000,000 B .C . - Af ter C O . Dunbar 19 P e l t i e r , L . : "The Geographic Cycle i n P e r i g l a c i a l Regions and i t s Re la t ion to C l imat ic Geomorpholoey". Assn of ^ S l i S ^ S S ^ l i . N O . i+o, P P . afc-2361- „ The Pleistocene i s regarded as an epoch of the Cenozoil per-i o d . Each subepoch begins with the expansion of g l a c i e r i c e and the deposi t ion of d r i f t . As the i c e wasted away, these deposits were exposed to geomorphic processes that produced s o i l , es tabl i shed drainage pat terns , e tc . Over t h i s pa t tern spread the next i ce sheet and a new eros ion cyc le began. I t has been estimated that g l a c i a t i o n effected d i r e c t l y over 10,000,000 square m i l e s . . I ts i n d i r e c t effects were, however, world wide i n extent. F luctuat ions i n sea l e v e l , depressions of i c e covered regions (and subsequent "rebound" with i c e r e t r e a t ) , drainage changes, depos i t iona l features , e tc . had far-reaching e f fec t s . The general lowering and r i s i n g of world-wide temperature averages are presumed to have a cause and effect re l a t ionsh ip with g l a c i e r formation and extent". Many areas that are a r i d today had humid cl imates during the g l a c i a l ages and many areas that are temperate today were subject to p o l a r - l i k e cl imates during the i ce advances. G l a c i a t i o n has been responsible f o r the formation of more lakes than a l l other causes combined. These lakes , i n turn , have t h e i r inf luence on present-day c l imate . 3. Most evidence today indicates that very l i t t l e of the ear th ' s topography i s o lder than the T e r t i a r y per iod and most of i t i s no o lder than the Pleistocene epoch. 1*2 CENOZOIC ERA TERTIARY PERIOD MESOZOIC ERA CRETACEOUS PERIOD Recent Epoch Pleis tocene Epoch Pliocene Epoch Miocene Epoch Oligocene Epoch Eocene Epoch Paleocene Epoch Time 1,000,000 B . C . 60-70,000,000 B . C . Ashley has made a strong case for the youthfulness of our topography. He estimated that as much as 99 percent i s past M i o c e n e . 2 0 Most geologic structures are very o l d and, as i t has been prev ious ly stated, they are, i n general , much o lder than the features developed upon them. Present Trends The concept of a wasting, dynamic landscape i n contrast with a permanent one was envisaged by e a r l y th inkers . A long , slow development of geologic thought has l a i d the basis fo r present-day geomorphic t h i n k i n g . Even today the concept of " ever l a s t ing h i l l s " dominates the th inking of many peoples. Penneman described the various stages through which geomorphic th inking has passed i n these words.21 20 Ashley, G . H . : "Our Youthful Scenery", Geo l . Soc. Am.. B u l l e t i n 1+2, 1 9 3 1 , pp. 537-51+6. 2 1 Fenneraan, N.M. : "The Rise of Physiography," Geol . Soc. Am.. B u l l e t i n 50 , pp. 31*9-3&0. 14-3 "There appeared f i r s t the mere universal f a c t of degrad-ation as known to some men of the ancient world and others down to the late eighteenth century. Then came the daring proposition that streams make t h e i r own valleys . • • i t means that topography i s , In the main, carved out and not b u i l t up. Some Greeks, Romans, and Arabs saw t h i s and James Hutton . . . saw i t c l e a r l y ( i n 1785) • • • Even i n the geo-o l g i c a l world . • . this p r i n c i p l e d i d not cease to be de-bated before the time of the C i v i l War. I t barely had time to take I t s place among the fundamental data of the science when the t h i r d stage arrived, i n which moving water does not act aimlessly, carving v a l l e y s at haphazard, and leaving h i l l s d i s t r i b u t e d f o r t u i t o u s l y , but works to a pattern whose spe c i f i c a t i o n s are as d i s t i n c t i v e as the sutures of a naut-i l u s or the venation of a l e a f . This Is the stage of modern physiography or geomorphology." Many ideas f a i l e d to gain acceptance because they were "ahead of t h e i r time" - i n some cases by hundreds of years. Several d i s t i n c t i v e trends In geomorphology are apparent today. 1. Geomorphology i s becoming more a geologic and l e s s a geographic i n t e r e s t . This i s due to more q u a l i t a t i v e methods of study. The s p e c i f i c phases of geologic study are being applied to geomorphic problems. Por example: (a) paleogeomorphology and stratigraphy i n dating and establishing the h i s t o r y of landforms.22 (b) mineralogy i n the study of weathering.23 2. An apparent decline i n Interest among geographers (North American geographers, at least) i n physical geography as 2 2 King, L.C.: "The Study of the World's Plainlands: A New Approach i n Geomorphology", Tuart, J., Geol.  Soc. London, 1 0 6 , 1950 , pp. 1 0 1 - 1 2 7 . 2 3 Gardner, J.H.:"Origin and Development of Limestone Caverns", • Geol. Soc» Am., B u l l . 1+6, pp. 1255-1271+. and Rich, J.L.: "Recognition and Significance of Multiple Erosion Surfaces", Geol. Soc. Am., B u l l . 1+9, pp. 1 6 9 5 - 1 7 2 2 . . kk they give more emphasis to human geography e .g . V i c t o r , Roterus, H..M. Mayer;- and other lead ing geographers are-doing much of the fundamental research i n r u r a l and urban geography and p lanning . 3 . The development of regional geomorphology which attempts to d iv ide the continents in to areas of s i m i l a r h i s t o r y and land f o r m s . ^ k. More app l i ca t ion of geomorphic p r i n c i p l e s to p r a c t i c a l problems In s o i l science, engineering, m i l i t a r y science, resource development, e t c . 2 ^ 5 . App l i ca t ion of the laws of hydrodynamics i n q u a l i t a t i v e experiments. This i s a de f in i te step forward but we must proceed with caut ion. Many elaborate formulae have been developed but many are so involved i n a s p e c i f i c problem that they have l i t t l e app l i ca t ion to land forms i n general, A p p l i c a t i o n of P r i n c i p l e s Many geomorphological concepts, some very ba s i c , remain to be tes ted . As more f ac tua l evidence accumulates, these basic concepts are being tested i n de ta i l ed studies of small areas or of spec i f i c i n d i v i d u a l t o p i c s . Wright, P . J . : The Eros lonal His tory of the Blue Ridge. Denlson Univ. of J S c i . Labs . , 2 3 , pp. 321-31+J-^ Erdmann, C . E . : " A p p l i c a t i o n of Geology to the P r i n c i p l e of War", Geol . Soc. Am., B u l l . PP« H69-1191+. and Bramlette, M.N. : "Geology of the Arkansas Bauxite Region", Arkansas Geol . Surv . , In f . C i r c . 8 , pp. I+-31* and Bryan, K . : "Geology of Reservoir and Dam S i t e s " , U.S . Geol . Surv. , Water Supply Paper 597 , pp. 1 -33* 2 6 Joyce, J . R . P . : "Stone Runs of the Falkland I s lands" , Geol .  Mag. 8 7 , pp. 1 0 5 - 1 1 5 . 1. Descr ipt ive Geomorphology - a system of de sc r ip t ion of landforms based on more than t h e i r o r i g i n seems most l i k e l y to meet the requirements of not only geographers, but also those i n other f i e l d s who f i n d appl ied geomorph-ology use fu l . Great accomplishments i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n have been made, In the f i e l d of g l a c i a l geomorphology with the recogni t ion of such map able g l a c i a l landforms as c i rques , drumlines, e tc . In the newly developing f i e l d of c l imat i c geomorphology, surface features are re la ted to the c l i m a t i c regime under which they have been produced. 2 » Dynamic Geomorphology - Is that part of the f i e l d con-cerned with geomorphic processes. In the main, there are seven d i f ferent areas of study with the f i r s t two rece iv ing the g r e a t e s t ' a t t e n t i o n . * (a) P l u v i a l Processes - are developed i n mountainous areas and a l l u v i a l va l l ey s of a r i d and semi-arid c l imates . At present the development of slopes i s under in tens ive study by the U.S. S o i l Conservation Service and others . The major problems are re l a t ions between f l u v i a l feat-ures and other environmental condi t ions , for example, c l imate , vegetat ion cover, eros ion, and sedimentation. (b) G l a c i a l Processes - a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of g l a c i a l features has been developed and appl ied to many areas. The major See Appendix C. direc t ions of study at present are concerned with g l a c i a l recess ion and the inf luence of g l a c i a l stages, on c l i m a t i c f luc tua t ions . (c) Solut ion Processes - studies of so lu t ion processes have focused mostly on limestone caverns. R e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e has been done towards c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and i n t e r -pre ta t ion of other so lu t ion features . (d) Marine Processes - study of marine processes includes the study of shore l ines , the Continental Shel f , and slope, submarine canyons, f luc tuat ions of sea l e v e l during g l a c i a l epochs, and organic reefs . Rapid ad-vances are being made with the co-operat ion of o i l companies, oceano graphic research programs, e tc . (e) P e r i g l a c i a l Processes - t h i s i s e s s e n t i a l l y the study of Pleis tocene geomorphology. The f i e l d Is very young at present and of paramount importance when re la ted to c l imat i c inf luences i n that epoch. (f) E o l i a n Processes - i s the study of features a t t r ibu ted to wind ac t ion . The study of sand and loess deposits and t h e i r r e l a t i o n to general s t ra t ig raphic problems Is the main area of i n v e s t i g a t i o n . (g) Volcanic Processes - much work i n t h i s f i e l d has been done by volcanologi s t s and geophysicists as wel l as geo-morphologists . The area of study i s e s s e n t i a l l y forma-t i o n and character of vo lcanic rocks and landforms produced by volcanic processes. 1*7 In summation, geomorphology has suffered, i n recent years , from a lack of geographic approach. The geomorpholo-g i s t seems to concern himself with questions of " s t ruc ture , process , and stage" but the geographer, and hence the region-a l planner who w i l l use much geographic methodology and th ink-i n g , wants: 1. Spec i f i c answers to the questions; what, where, and how much? 2. Information that may be presented as areal groupings and pat terns . Geomorphology i s i n a per iod of vigorous growth and s t a r t i n g to provide the bas i s from which these answers may be formulated. Three Es sent i a l Tools Among the many techniques ava i lab le i n t h i s f i e l d today, three are very s i g n i f i c a n t . They are topographic maps, the a e r i a l photograph, and a system of land c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . Their use and appl ica t ions play such an important ro le i n the study of landforms that a working knowledge of them i s of paramount importance to the Inves t iga t ion . The wri ter f ee l s j u s t i f i e d , therefore , i n inc lud ing a b r i e f note on these techniques i n th i s chapter. Topographic Maps - the science of cartography seeks to b r i n g into graphic r e l a t ionsh ip points and features on the ear th ' s surface. This graphic reproduction i s made on a scale so the de f in i t e patterns are c l e a r l y v i s i b l e . A map of the ear th ' s surface t e l l s what i s known about the surface and i s not meant to represent a "view from the a i r " . Throughout i t s long h i s -tory of development, cartography has become h igh ly spec i a l -i z e d . Depending on what the cartographer i s t r y i n g to show, he has an i n f i n i t e v a r i e t y of special purpose maps. Nor i s the cartographer r e s t r i c t e d to maps - he may use r e l i e f mod-e l s , block diagrams, globes, e tc . Planners have adopted cartography as a t o o l and use i t very e f f e c t i v e l y , e s p e c i a l l y i n urban p lanning . They are, however, f a r behind the geographer, engineer, and geo log i s t , e t c . , i n adapting cartography on a l a rger sca le . As mentioned above there are many types of map3 but f o r the purpose of t h i s paper, the wri ter considers topographic maps to be of param-ount importance. In studying the landforms or geomorphology of any area i t i s most important that accurate topographic maps be ava i l ab le . A topographic map portrays by some means the shape and e levat ion of the t e r r a i n . This may be done by. shading, hachures, c o l o r t i n t s , or contours. Por example, the maps of the U.S. Geologica l Survey represent e levat ions by contours and use a v a r i e t y of conventional symbols ( inc lud ing color) f o r other features . These symbols show: 1. Man made features 2. Survey contro l l eve l s and points 3. Administrat ive boundaries Drainage 5>. Natural vegetat ion In using topographic maps cer ta in factors must be kept i n mind: 1. The scale of the map w i l l l i m i t the amount of informat-ion that can be shown on i t . In studying an area, i f a 1+9 map at too small a scale i s used, important informat-i o n may be missed. In a s i m i l a r fashion, before maps are made of a p o t e n t i a l l y developable area, the amount of d e t a i l to be shown must be decided on so proper scales may be used. 2. The purpose fo r which the map i s being used w i l l l a r -gely contro l the types of features shown. Por example, a map fo r the purpose of designing a new highway might show drainage, property l i n e s , s o i l and rock c l a s s i f -i c a t i o n , and so on. 3. Much phys ica l information may be derived from the top-ographic map. (a) eros ional features - features formed by running water (b) re s idua l features - c l i f f s , p lateaus , e tc . (c) depos i t ional features - s o i l , g l a c i a l deposits , stream deposi ts , e t c . (d) drainage features - spr ings , r i v e r s , lakes , shore-l i n e s , g l a c i e r s , e tc . In addi t ion to information shown on the topographic sheet much more may be obtained by i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of t h i s informat ion. Complex s t a t i s t i c a l techniques are ava i lab le to determine aver-age slopes, the r e l a t i v e r e l i e f over areas, e tc . A q u a l i f i e d analyst may be able to determine geologic s tructure from drainage patterns and so on. I t i s beyond the scope of th i s paper to present a d e t a i l -ed guide to the use and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of topographic maps. In planning resource development a great deal of information i s ava i lab le to the planner. The important point i s not that he become an expert at map i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , but that he r e a l i z e s the source of information i s ava i lab le along with someone who can in te rpre t i t . Topographic maps are f a r from the only maps important i n resource development but they present a good composite p ic ture of an area and from them many i n i t -i a l l i m i t a t i o n s and p o s s i b i l i t i e s are apparent. A e r i a l Photographs - i n contrast with topographic maps a e r i a l photography i s a development of the ' twent ie th century. The science of photogrammetry has developed in to a h i g h l y ; s p e c i a l -i z e d and technica l f i e l d . Not only does i t mean conventional mapping may be done much more r a p i d l y , but also a e r i a l photo-graphy Is reveal ing new re la t ionships and s i tua t ions that can not be seen from the ground. The most useful type of a e r i a l photograph i n landform and other phys i ca l analys i s i s the simple v e r t i c a l photo. I t i s taken with the o p t i c a l axis as near ly v e r t i c a l as poss ib le and gives a p lan p i c t u r e of the area photographed. Mosaics may be made of a large area by put t ing v e r t i c a l photos together with various degrees of cont ro l depending upon the accuracy des i red . These mosaics are perhaps the most important too l that a e r i a l photography gives the geographer and planner . A e r i a l photographs have many advantages, but do not el iminate the need for topographic maps. Their biggest advantage i s the enormous amount of d e t a i l they show and the fact that t h i s d e t a i l may be seen i n a perspect ive , not seen on the ground. By use of o p t i c a l methods a three-dimensional p i c ture may be obtained from which r e l i e f features may be i d e n t i f i e d . This 51 i s the f i e l d of a i r photo i n t e r p r e t a t i o n * and i s a science i n i t s e l f . The understanding of geomorphic forms with a l l t h e i r impl ica t ions i s the most basic t o o l In the i n t e r p r e t a t -i o n of a e r i a l photographs. This implies a thorough under-standing of the response of d i f fe rent rocks to various pro-cesses under various c l imat i c condit ions and how surface features may r e f l e c t structure at depth. There are, of course, very r e a l l i m i t a t i o n s to a e r i a l photographs. Many types of d i s t o r t i o n and exaggeration may be Introduced into the photographs and must be corrected f o r or taken in to cons iderat ion. The end resul t of most a e r i a l photography i s the prepar-at ion of topographic maps. A complex system of instruments and techniques have been developed and a high degree of acc-uracy has been achieved i n t h i s f i e l d . A e r i a l photography today i s an ever-widening f i e l d ^ i and, of fers great promise as a t o o l i n planning the development of resources throughout the world, through the wealth of d e t a i l and information i t provides . Land C l a s s i f i c a t i o n - the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of land i s not a new technique and can be an important tool i n regional planning and development. Before any attempt at land c l a s s i f i c a t i o n * See Appendix B fo r a l i s t of the elements and features that can be i d e n t i f i e d by means of a e r i a l photo i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . #1 Por an excel lent example see M.C. Branch, A e r i a l Photography  i n Urban Planning and Research, Harvard Univer s i ty Press, Cambridge, 191+8. 52 i s made, the purpose fo r which i t i s to be used must be known. Thus land c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s not an end i n i t s e l f , but a technique which may improve land u t i l i z a t i o n . This leads to the major f au l t of most land c l a s s i f i c a t i o n systems i n use today. They are simply too spec i f i c and empi r i ca l . The net p o s i t i o n or resul tant value of any block of land i s inf luenced by too many factors to be reduced to a formula. On the other hand there are many competing uses f o r land to-day i n v o l v i n g too many decis ions from too many points of view to make i t poss ib le fo r only one c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . The problem, then, Is a system of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n somewhere between the above extremes. The fo l lowing system ( for a g r i c u l t u r a l development) w i l l serve to i l l u s t r a t e an attempt at such a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n syst-em.* Land c l a s s i f i c a t i o n may be d iv ided in to 5 types In terms o f : (a) inherent use (b) present use (c) use c a p a b i l i t i e s (d) recommended use (e) program ef fectuat ion (a) An example of inherent use i s the topographic map or s o i l -survey map. Such a map, In i t s e l f , t e l l s nothing about the present use of the land , nor the y i e l d s or p r o f i t s * Adapted from: Land C l a s s i f i c a t i o n f o r A g r i c u l t u r a l Develop- ment, Food and Agr icu l ture Organizat ion of the United Nations, Rome, November 1952. Obtained; nor does i t make recommendations of any k i n d . (b) This type of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n d iv ides the land into a system of classes based on e x i s t i n g use. I t may show, for example, brushland, t imberland, cropland, i n d u s t r i a l use, e tc . I t i s very useful when used i n conjunction with type (a) c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . (c) Land c a p a b i l i t y c l a s s i f i c a t i o n goes one step further than type (b) c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . For example, a map on which s o i l types, d i s t ingui shed by a type (a) c l a s s i f i c -a t ion , were grouped according to t h e i r phys i ca l and chem-i c a l c a p a b i l i t i e s of producing various crops and forage plants would be a type (c) map. (d) This type of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n must take i n t o considerat ion other factors than capable use to which the land may be put . I t must consider the s ize of the farms, standard of l i v i n g of the farmers, the l o c a l market s i t u a t i o n s , and so on. The use of judgement i s required based on c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of type (a) , (b) , and ( c ) , plus a thorough economic ana lys i s . (e) This f i n a l type of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n Is more than a recomm-endation - i t i s , i n e f fec t , a p l a n . I t must take into account factors of wider scope than the agency d i r e c t l y concerned with p u t t i n g the p lan in to e f f ec t . For example, land may be c l a s s i f i e d for taxat ion purposes. There should be no c o n f l i c t between land c l a s s i f i c a t i o n maps of the d i f ferent types. For most planning purposes, (formulation of pub l i c p o l i c y ) land c l a s s i f i c a t i o n for recommended use i s needed. More basic c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , however, i s required as steps i n making th i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n for "recommended use" . Recommended use then sets the stage for the development of p o l i c y . 55 CHAPTER III CLIMATOLOGY AND GEOMORPHOLOGY - INTERRELATIONSHIPS AND FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES APPLICABLE TO REGIONAL RESOURCE PLANNING 111 fares the l and , to ha s t 'n ing i l l s a prey, Where wealth accumulates, and men decay: Princes and lords may f l o u r i s h , or may fade; A breath can make them, as a breath has made; But a bo ld peasantry, t h e i r country ' s p r i d e , When once destroyed, can never be suppl ied . - The Deserted V i l l a g e O l i v e r Goldsmith, 1770. Introduct ion In Chapters II and I I I the wr i te r has attempted to set fo r th some of the basic facts of cl imatology and geomorphology. These basic p r i n c i p l e s must be understood before any discuss-i o n of climate and landforms becomes meaningful. Climate and landforms form the two most important p h y s i c a l l i m i t a t i o n s f ac ing man i n the development of h i s natura l resources. Although these two f i e l d s are separate branches of study, they are most d e f i n i t e l y i n t e r r e l a t e d . A very broad, and l i t t l e understood, f i e l d of i n t e r a c t i o n exis t s between reg ion-a l cl imate (and micro-cl imate) and the var ious geomorphic processes and t h e i r consequences. In th i s chapter these two f i e l d s w i l l be r e l a t e d , with the purpose of obta ining p r i n c i p l e s that must be appl ied , and areas that must be studied i n the reg ional development of natura l resources. Cl imat ic C l a s s i f i c a t i o n I t i s impossible to understand the importance of the 56 various geomorphic processes without an appreciat ion of world c l imates . Climate supplies much of the exogenic processes and the dif ferences i n the areal d i s t r i b u t i o n of c l i m a t i c patterns produces, to a large extent, the e x i s t i n g patterns of land-forms. Thus landforms are s t r i k i n g l y d i f f e rent as we move from a r i d to humid to po la r areas. Almost as s t r i k i n g may be the di f ference between high and low a l t i tudes wi th in one c l i m -a t i c area. C l imat ic va r i a t ions may e f fect geomorphic processes d i r e c t l y as temperature v a r i a t i o n , p r e c i p i t a t i o n i n t e n s i t y , e t c . , or i n d i r e c t l y by i t s e f fect on the amount and type of vegetal cover, s o i l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , e t c . , i n an area. G-eo-morphic processes - diastrophism, f a u l t i n g , f o l d i n g , sedimen-t a t i o n , etc . provide the i n i t i a l land r e l i e f . C l imat ic pro-cesses - the p r o v i s i o n of running water, wind, Ice , e t c . then shape the l and . The two are not separate but always i n a state of f l u x , so to speak; as new land i s formed the forces of eros ion, o r i g i n a t i n g i n the atmosphere, cont inua l ly s t r i v e to l e v e l i t . During these processes the land i s c o n t i n u a l l y changing i n form. C l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s a process basic to a l l sciences and cl imatology i s no exception. Many methods of d i v i d i n g the earth into c l imat i c types are a v a i l a b l e , depending on the purpose i n m i n d . * * Por example, the U .S. Quartermaster Corps, has produced c l i -matic maps based on the heat lo s s of act ive troops i n various regions for .use i n c l o t h i n g design. 57 A good deal of d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n has been expressed with pres-ent methods of climate c l a s s i f i c a t i o n as many c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s fo r spec i f i c purposes are of l i t t l e general use - they involve too many b u i l t - i n l i m i t a t i o n s , a rb i t r a ry dec i s ions , and so on. The two best known and most widely used systems of c l imat i c c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s are those developed by Koppen and Thornth-walte. Both systems have the advantage of being q u a l i t a t i v e with numerical values used to define boundaries. Both syst-ems also are based on the idea that the nat ive vegetat ion of an area i s the best expression of the t o t a l i t y of cl imate i n the a r e a . * The re su l t of these systems i s the empir ica l iden-t i f i c a t i o n of c l i m a t i c types through not ing vegetat ion, s o i l , and drainage features . For the purpose of t h i s paper these systems are of l i t t l e value as: 1. There are other ends to c l imat i c c l a s s i f i c a t i o n than the boundaries of p lant as soc ia t ions . 2. Much of the data needed cannot be derived from d i r e c t observation but i s the re su l t of quite complex t rea t -ment. *2. The wri ter fee l s i t i s more apropos to compare and contras t , as an example, the t y p i c a l humid and a r i d regions as to general cause and effect re l a t ionsh ips between climate and landforms. A r i d Regions - There i s no sa t i s f ac tory d e f i n i t i o n of a des-ert but lack of p r e c i p i t a t i o n and vegetat ion are genera l ly * and *]_ See Appendix D * 8 the most s i g n i f i c a n t c r i t e r i a . They are general ly within the trade wind be l t s on the western sides of the cont inents . Geomorphic processes are, i n the main, the re su l t of temp-erature v a r i a t i o n and the a v a i l a b i l i t y of water. The dra in-age i s , f o r the most par t , i n t e r n a l - that i s very l i t t l e reaches the ocean. P r e c i p i t a t i o n i s aper iodic i n nature and i t s i n t e n s i t y i s commonly h igh . This r e su l t s In 3hort but widespread f loods with rapid formation of g u l l i e s , e t c . Due to the lack of water, chemical weathering with the exception of ox idat ion , i s slow. This r e s u l t s i n a slow rate of s o i l formation. The topography i s angular due to the general lack of downslope movement, ( g rav i t a t ion transfer) of m a t e r i a l . Abundant moisture i s e s sent i a l to downslope movement of s o i l and subsoi l and where i t i s d e f i c i e n t , the smoothing effects of the mass movement of weathered mater ia l are l a c k i n g . The temperature v a r i a t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y i f f luc tua t ions below and above f reez ing are present, i s the main cont r ibut ing fac tor to mechanical weathering. * Where the topography i s broken, the r e su l t i s large ta lus slopes of angular m a t e r i a l . Pro-bably the most common misconception concerning a r i d regions i s the idea that the wind has been mainly responsible for the creat ion of the desert landforms. Wind abrasion may aid i n the shaping of some of the d e t a i l s of major landforms, but Is * This i s present ly the subject of some debate i n geo log ica l c i r c l e s . 59 Incapable of producing features of great areal extent. The most common manifestations of wind ac t ion are: rock p o l i s h i n g , grooving, blowouts (small depress ions) , eo l i an deposits (dunes, loe s s , e t c . ) , and the t ransportat ion of m a t e r i a l . Running water i s the most important geomorphic agent i n a r i d regions . P la ins are the most common features of deserts and running water i s the major formative agent. In t u r n , the factors c o n t r o l l i n g the amount of water ava i lab le are: (a) the amount and kind of vegetat ion (b) rates of evaporation and t r a n s p i r a t i o n (c) frequency of p r e c i p i t a t i o n (d) i n t e n s i t y of p r e c i p i t a t i o n (e) geologic s tructure i n c l u d i n g permeabi l i ty and s t ra t -igraphy. The f i r s t four factors are d i r e c t l y re l a ted to cl imate and are p r i m a r i l y responsible fo r landforms i n a r i d regions - ra ther than dif ferences i n geology. Humid Regions - One of the most outstanding features of humid regions i s the deep, chemical decay of rocks . This i s the re su l t of high moisture content and temperatures. This leads to the formation of great thichnesses of s o i l where vegetat ion cover e x i s t s . This i s true even on steep slopes (up to 70 degrees). Under t h i s pro tec t ive cover and high , uniform temperature mechanical weathering i s almost n e g l i g i b l e . As the s o i l i s h igh ly saturated, v e r t i c a l erosion i s the domin-ant geomorphological process . Slumping, mudflows, and l and-s l ides contribute to the steepening of v a l l e y wal l s . Although the vegetative cover of fers exce l lent p r o t e c t i o n , the re su l t s of i t s removal may be spectacular . Large runoff i s the usual 60 r e s u l t (as the s o i l and subsoi l are saturated) and even the usual p r e c i p i t a t i o n received br ings about rapid g u l l e y i n g and sheet eros ion. Slope or sheet erosion i s the most imp-ortant of a l l erosion as i t can ef fect the ent i re surface. I t i s inf luenced by: 1. R a i n f a l l Intens i ty - w i l l determine the r a i n f a l l excess which i s the i n t e n s i t y minus the i n f i l t r a t i o n ra te . 2. I n f i l t r a t i o n - the a b i l i t y of the s o i l to absorb water. I t depends on the permeabi l i ty of the s o i l , e .g . i n a sand i t i s h igh , i n a c lay low. 3. Length of Overland Plow - or the distance from ridge to c r e s t . This f ac tor involves complicated hydraul ic s but i n general , the c o n t r o l l i n g inf luences are i n t e n s i t y of r a i n f a l l , slope dis tance, slope cross-sect ion , density of f lowing m a t e r i a l , surface roughness, and the v e l o c i t y of f low. i+. Slope Angle - other things being equal, the gre-ater the angle the more the eros ion . 5 . Character of the S o i l Surface - governs the res-i s tance to eros ion and i s a funct ion of vegetat ion, s o i l texture , and s o i l s t ructure . Humid regions are usua l ly character ized by smooth, rounded landforms. This i s due to the movement of mater i a l by creep downslope. Abundant moisture i s necessary for t h i s and the r e su l t i s fewer abrupt changes i n s lope. As a r e su l t of h i g h , uniform temperatures ( l i t t l e or no freeze and thaw c y c l e s ) , predominance of chemical weathering and abundant vegetat ion, there i s a lack of accumulation of debris ( talus) at the base of v a l l e y s , escarpments, e tc . The r e l a t i v e res i s tance of rocks var ies a great deal depending on c l i m a t i c f a c t o r s . For exam-p l e , limestone i s considered a "hard" rock i n a r i d regions as i t i s h ighly re s i s t ant to mechanical weathering. I t I s , 61 therefore , commonly a c l i f f or a ridge former. In humid regions , however, limestone i s considered a "weak" rock as i t i s h i g h l y susceptible to so lu t ion and other forms of chemical weathering. Areas under la in by l imestone, i n humid regions , are general ly lower than surrounding areas. It fol lows that , as a r e s u l t of i t s c l imate , an area w i l l have c e r t a i n landform c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . In addi t ion to these d i rec t e f fec t s , climate w i l l have somewhat more i n -d i rec t effect on landforms. These ef fects are i n the d i s - . -t r i b u t i o n of vegetative associat ions and s o i l groups. C l im-ate and s o i l types are the c o n t r o l l i n g factors i n vegetat ion d i s t r i b u t i o n . The type and amount of vegetat ion w i l l deter-mine many geomorphic factors such as runoff ra tes , moisture re tent ion , area evaporation, res is tance to eros ion, subsur-face drainage, and so on. In t u r n , the s o i l type i n an area i s a re su l t of many factors and may r e f l e c t I t s geomorphic h i s t o r y bet ter than the landforms. S o i l i s a na tura l part of the earth 's surface r e s u l t i n g from the modi f i ca t ion of the parent mater ia l by various processes. These processes are general ly accepted as: 1. climate 2. time 3 . parent mater ia l 1+.. topography s o i l b i o t a - inc lud ing vegetative cover and organ-isms wi th in the s o i l . These factors vary i n importance, for example, cl imate i s v e r y important In B r i t i s h Columbia while parent mater ia l may be more important i n unglaciated regions . The extreme importance of 62 climate and vegetative type i n s o i l formation was not rec -ognized u n t i l about 1870, when Russian pedologists claimed that , regardless of the composition of the parent m a t e r i a l , s i m i l a r topographic, c l i m a t i c , and vegetative condi t ions , i n time, produced e s s e n t i a l l y the same s o i l . Although modif ied today, th i s i s e s s e n t i a l l y the case i n most areas. Microcl imates Micro-c l imatology i s e s s e n t i a l l y the study of the c l i -mate wi th in a given c l imat ic reg ion. Depending on the region i n quest ion, great va r i a t ions may occur due to large water bodies , topographic v a r i a t i o n , reg ional s e t t ing , a i r mass c o n t r o l , and even such "man-made" c l i m a t i c fac tors as a i r p o l l u t i o n . The development of microcl imatology would never have taken place so r a p i d l y had i t not been f o r the new demands of a g r i c u l t u r e , f o r e s t r y , indus t ry , e t c . As the populat ion i n regions grew, the degree of resource e x p l o i t -a t ion grew with i t . As a natura l r e su l t the demand f o r more complete c l i m a t o l o g i c a l data grew as w e l l . The study of microcl imatology today Is growing r a p i d l y and includes many re f ined techniques and complex Instruments. There are many appl ica t ions of microcl imatology: 1. Agr icu l ture - the l o c a t i o n of a l l c u l t i v a t e d p lants de-pends on the microclimate and the way i n which i t i s aff-ected hy topography, s o i l treatment, type of p l an t , e t c . The three major problems are : 63 (a) wind pro tec t ion r i n add i t ion to phys i ca l p r o t -ec t ion , losses from evaporation may be decreased. (b) f ro s t p ro tec t ion - i f r e l i a b l e s t a t i s t i c s on - f ros t p r o b a b i l i t y are avai lable i t i s simply a matter of economic f e a s i b i l i t y . (c) i r r i g a t i o n - the t iming and amount must be adj-usted to l o c a l c l imat i c condi t ions . 2, Forestry - today a knowledge of microcl imatology i s he lp ing to cut losses from weather damage, forest f i r e , improper re fore s t a t ion , in sec t damage, too low reproduction ra tes , e tc . 3. C i t y Bu i ld ing - every new b u i l d i n g and improvement produces a change of microcl imate . A rad iant , warm, dry microclimate i s u sua l ly produced at the south wal l while the north wal l suffers from a rough, moist , cool microcl imate . The o v e r - a l l effect of urban-i z a t i o n i s i n f l u e n c i n g microclimates to an ever i n c -reas ing extent. Many disrupt ions of the natura l state are created, for example: (a) p o l l u t i o n of a i r (b) inter ference with a i r flow (c) amount of p r e c i p i t a t i o n ava i lab le for ground water recharge (d) topographic b a r r i e r s changing microcl imates around them. The Metropoli tan Area of Vancouver i s an excel lent example of microc l imat ic v a r i a t i o n . Here the s i t u a t i o n i s c o n t r o l l e d , e s s e n t i a l l y , by three f a c t o r s : 1. A topographic b a r r i e r 2. The pressure system predominating 3. The large body of water. The l o c a l ef fect of topography alone on climate may be seen from the p r e c i p i t a t i o n received at various s tat ions i n Van-couver. Moving south to north from Sea Is land (at sea l eve l ) to Mount Seymour (3000 1), the average annual p r e c i p i t a t i o n increase from 35" to over 100". As a r u l e , south f ac ing slopes of east-west v a l l e y s are le s s steep than north f a c i n g slopes. Var ia t ions i n the microcl imatology of the two s l o -pes i s general ly be l ieved respons ib le . North f a c i n g slopes have a longer snow cover, experience fewer days of freeze and thaw, r e t a i n t h e i r s o i l moisture longer , and probably have a bet ter vegetal cover. The r e su l t of these factors i s very l i k e l y to be less act ive erosion on these slopes than on those fac ing the sun. This problem of o r i e n t a t i o n of slope problem can be very important i n the s i t i n g of f a c i l i t i e s and l i v i n g accommodation ( i n resource development). Cl imat ic Maps In developing regional contras t s , c l i m a t i c elements are best expressed by the use of maps. This i s p a r t i c u l a r l y imp-ortant i n connection with those elements most i n t e r r e l a t e d with geomorphic processes. S.S. Vi sher has presented a l i s t of 30 c l imat i c maps of geologic i n t e r e s t . 2 ? P r e c i p i t a t i o n - the amount, time of f a l l , and.;intensity of p r e c i p i t a t i o n w i l l effect ground water a v a i l a b l e , runoff , e t c . 2 ? Vi sher , S .S . : "C l imat i c Maps of Geologic In te re s t " , Geo l . Soc. Am. B u l l e t i n , Ju ly 1914-5-The i n t e n s i t y i s of p a r t i c u l a r importance and helps expla in s o i l eros ion, l eaching , and i n f e r t i l i t y . Ground water re-charge var ies with the amount and time of f a l l , and i n t e n s i t y and evaporation produce the maximum recharge. In l i k e manner, runoff , evaporation, durat ion of snow cover, /etc. may be rep-resented cartographic a l l y . The fo l lowing maps are the most appl icable to p r e c i p i t a t i o n cons iderat ions ; (a) p r e c i p i t a t i o n to ta l s In a wet year (b) p r e c i p i t a t i o n to ta l s i n a dry year (c) greatest amount of p r e c i p i t a t i o n received i n 1 month (d) greatest amount of p r e c i p i t a t i o n received i n 2I4. hours (e) /frequency of d a i l y t o t a l s of 6 inches or more of p r e c i p i t a t i o n (f) frequency of downpours of 3 inches or more In 2 hours (g) frequency of very hard ra ins (h) frequency of thunderstorms ( i ) average p r e c i p i t a t i o n to ta l s during season of ch ie f - ground water recharge ( j ) average annual runoff (k) durat ion of snow cover (1) p r e c i p i t a t i o n regions Streams and slopes are adjusted to normal condi t ions ; there-fore extreme condit ions br ing about rap id e f f ec t s . Temperature - the effects of temperature on geomorphic pro-cesses have been discussed. Weathering, slope o r i e n t a t i o n to i n s o l a t i o n , f ro s t ac t ion , accumulation of snow and i ce and some forms of erosion are d i r e c t l y re la ted to temperature. Fros t ac t ion , of course, also depends on the moisture a v a i l -able . Temperature w i l l also inf luence human occupance of a reg ion , e .g . fue l needed, types of s tructures requi red . The fo l lowing maps are the most appl icable to temperature consid-erations : 6 5 (a) average annual temperature range (b) extreme annual temperature range (c) average d a i l y temperature range (d) sunshine, ; average annual number of hours (e) f ro s t at n igh t , average number of times per year (f) days per year with temperature below 3 2 (g) average annual number of times of freeze and thaw (h) frequency of freeze and thaw ( i ) average depth of f ro s t penetrat ion ( j ) regions based on the durat ion and sever i ty of f ree-zing temperatures (k) contrasts i n the amount of temperatures below 6 5 ° F ( 1 ) temperature regions Wind V e l o c i t y - w i l l ef fect eros ion, evaporation and, to some extent, vegetat ion. A map of the average wind v e l o c i t y i s inc luded . Morphogenetic Regions It follows from the above d i scuss ion that landforms may be re l a ted to the c l imat i c regime under which they develop. In other words,, they r e f l e c t these c l i m a t i c condi t ions . Furthermore, s o i l s and b i o t i c phenomena can be re l a ted to c l imate . (Figure 5 ) . Geomorphology therefore , can be t i e d to these other aspects of p h y s i c a l and bio-geography through the common denominator of c l imate . The geographer, who thinks i n terms of pat terns , regions , and areal d i s t r i b u t i o n s , i s more l i k e l y to recognize the s ign i f i cance of the s i m i l a r i t y i n the world d i s t r i b u t i o n patterns o f physiographic regions , s o i l groups, vegetat ion types, and c l i m a t i c regions , than the geologist or geomorph-o l o g i s t . B u d e l , i n 19l|-8, suggested the existence o f form-k r e i s e n o r what may be c a l l e d morphogenetic r e g i o n s . 2 8 Budel , J . : Die Klima M o r p h o l o g l s c h e n Zonen d e r F o l a r l a n d e r , Erkunde 2 , 194*3, pp. 2 5 - 5 3 . 66 P e l t i e r , i n 195>0, put f o r t h a tentat ive l i s t of such regions (Figure 6 ) . The o v e r a l l concept of a morphogenetic region i s , that under a c e r t a i n set of c l imat i c condit ions par t i cu lar . , geomorphic processes w i l l predominate and hence w i l l give to the landscape of the region c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s that w i l l set i t of f from those of other areas developed under d i f ferent c l i m -a t i c condi t ions . Figure 6 suggests the morphologic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and c l imat i c boundaries of these regions . The close c o r r e l a t i o n of climate and landforms i s apparent, e .g . - the absence of erosion by running water i n areas of l i t t l e r a i n f a l l and temperature v a r i a t i o n - the importance of wind act ion where p r e c i p i t a t i o n , and therefore , vegetat ion, i s l ack ing - the strong effect of sheet erosion where p r e c i p i t a t i o n i s adequate for s o i l sa turat ion - the absence of g l a c i a l ef fects where temperatures are too h igh . In the past , too much emphasis has been placed on geomorphic processes per se. As set f o r t h above, these concepts must be expanded to include processes as c o n t r o l l e d by p a r t i c u l a r c l i m a t i c regimes. This recogni t ion of c l i m a t i c a l l y defined morphogenetic regions provides for a more de ta i l ed system of analys is of , f o r example, slope categor ies , e ros iona l process-es, and s o i l processes. One important c l a s s i f i c a t i o n which has become quite useful has been based on slope (or the a t t -itude of the surface) , the nature of the under ly ing m a t e r i a l , and the p a r t i c u l a r agent(s) that produced the surface. 67 P r i n c i p l e s and Areas of Study The wr i t e r feels the foregoing d i scuss ion has establ i shed the dynamic re l a t ionsh ip ex i s t ing between climate and land-forms. I f i t i s now accepted that these two f i e l d s are i n t e r -dependent and c l o s e l y i n t e r r e l a t e d , i t remains to define the p r i n c i p l e s and areas of study, r e s u l t i n g from t h i s r e l a t i o n -ship , that are appl icable to the planning and development of natura l resources. We s h a l l be concerned mainly with "non urban" areas and therefore urban areas w i l l be considered only as they may form part of a resource development scheme. In any area under cons iderat ion the fo l lowing p r i n c i p l e s and areas of study are of major importance - t h e i r app l i ca t -ions to resource development i s obv ious . * CLIMATIC ELEMENTS 1. Temperature 1. 2. P r e c i p i t a t i o n 3. Wind Radiat ion 5. Cloud Coverage 2. 6. Relat ive and Absolute Humidity 7. Evaporation & Trans-p i r a t i o n 3. AREA OF STUDY AND APPLICATION Vegetative complex present -the values of these elements w i l l l i m i t species natura l to the area as wel l as species that may be introduced. The develop-ment of any b i o t i c resource w i l l depend on the c l i m a t i c regime present. The ro le these c l i m a t i c elements p l ay i n the development of the geomorphic processes which pro-duce the r e s u l t i n g landforms. S o i l groups developed. Depend-ing on the area, cl imate may be a major f a c t o r . C l imat ic fac-tors w i l l also d i c t a t e , to a large degree to what use the s o i l may be put i n any develop-ment program. * For spec i f i c data types, see Appendix A and C 68 In a development program, many things , from the l o -ca t ion of highways to the s i t i n g of b u i l d i n g s , w i l l be inf luenced by t h i s as-pec t . I}.. The environmental s t ruc t -ure created by these e le-ments i s important. C l i -matic condi t ions , espec-i a l l y combined with top-ography, e t c . , may set d e f i n i t e l i m i t s to man's a c t i v i t i e s . AREAS OF STUDY AND APPLICATION 1. These elements must be consid-ered i n the l i g h t of the c l i m -a t i c regime under which they are operat ing. This w i l l det-ermine t h e i r r e l a t i v e import-ance to the area i n quest ion. 2. The same process must be carr-i e d out r e l a t i n g these elements to the vegetative complex and s o i l groupings present i n the area. 3 . When t h i s has been done the re su l t s o f development on these elements may be s tudied. For example: - the pos s ib le r e su l t s of r e -moval of vegetation (eros ion, sheetwash, g u l l y i n g , e tc . ) - the effects the durat ion of snow cover w i l l have on run-o f f , eros ion, and ground water l e v e l s . - the danger of avalanche and f lood i n periods of high i n t e n s i t y p r e c i p i t a t i o n . Man has, on a world-wide l e v e l , problems of demand fo r goods and services that cannot be suppl ied . Many factors are responsible for t h i s , but perhaps the most important i s the GEOMORPHIC ELEMENTS 1. Weathering 2. Mass Wasting or Grav i ta t ive Transfer 3 . Running Water k* Wind S>. Snow & Ice 6. Subsurface Water 7. Waves 8. Organisms 9 . Volcanism 69 way nature has d i s t r ibu ted resources* over the ear th . Some areas have great i r o n ore deposits and no c o a l , some have r i c h , f e r t i l e s o i l while others must import almost a l l they eat, and so on. When the geographic d i s t r i b u t i o n of resources i s re l a ted to world economic patterns (nat ional Income, buying power, i n t e r n a t i o n a l debt s t ructure , na t iona l patterns of product ion, and consumption, e t c . ) , the re su l t i s the "have" and "have not" areas. People i n China may die l a ck ing r i c e which might have been supplied by the United States - they cannot af ford i t . The Canadian government may exclude Japanese made products from Canada to protect the Canadian producer and so on. Today, a great increase i n technology i s increas ing the means by which t h i s demand for goods and services may be more f u l l y r e a l i z e d . Many of these new methods w i l l be of l i t t l e use to the people i n the "have not" areas ( for many years at least) as•;they s t i l l cannot af ford them. Complimentary to technolog ica l advances i s the concept of comprehensive land use p lanning . In the development of land fo r any purpose, p h y s i c a l geographic factors w i l l p lay an important ro le and may, i n themselves, create new concepts and methods of p lanning. To date, the inf luence of p h y s i c a l factors i n planning resource development has not been f u l l y r e a l i z e d except by a very few. * Used i n t h i s context, the word resources covers a wide range to include metals, s o i l s , c l imate , vegetat ion, landforms, r i v e r s , e t c . The term "natural resource" as used i n the f o l -lowing chapters w i l l be defined l a t e r . 70 It seems to be the familiar problem of the gap between what we know i 3 beneficial and what we are willing, p o l i t i c -a l l y and administratively, to do about i t . In the words of J. Russell Smith: "A cow w i l l walk up to a pi l e of hay, eat some, and -trample the rest Into the mud. The more I study man's management of natural resources, the greater i s the resemblance I note between the effective intellect of man and that of a cow."29 Smith, J.R.: "Regional Suicide", The Land. Vol. 8, No. 5, 191+9, pp. 311+-318. Schematic representat ion of the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s between c l i m a t i c , vegetat ion, and s o i l types . 7 1 - a f t e r D . I . Blumenstock & C.W. Thornthwaite Dry Cold Wet Cold A The d i s t r i b u t i o n of c l imat i c types PERPETUAL SNOW AND ICE TUNDRA TAIGA T3 •H U n •H u cd •H a <I> CO Dry Hot 1 6 " •rH x> CO 3 2 4 S 6 4 •H so B The d i s t r i b u t i o n of vegetative formations on a c l imat i c base B PERPETUAL SNOW AND ICE TUNDRA TAIGA •P CLIMATE Wet Hot 01 CD CO 01 oi X> cd 3 -P CD CO 01 O J 3 ft •P CD o ft G 01 u •POT CD cd CD o -P rH Cn CO 1 3 eo CQ o ol C CO c 01 cd nJ •H O U CC) O VEGETATION The d i s t r i b u t i o n of the major zonal s o i l groups on a c l imat i c basis PERPETUAL SNOW AND ICE TUNDRA SOILS PODZOLS nd CO C r H Cd >rl c ra o CO rH oi tO •H a + 3 o CD + 3 N IH a O CD 01 01 ? CD CD CD O •H Q Xi u eh O CQ 01 a CD IS) O c u CD X! O 01 rH C •H t-O OJ to X c CD •H T: ^ a •H cd cc 5H J-d. a —e3 Podzols Gray-brown Podzol ic s o i l s Red and yel low Podzol ic s o i l s L a t e r i t i c s o i l s 3 2 46* 6 4 1 2 6 SOILS F i g . 5 MORPHOGENETIC REGIONS - a f ter P e l t i e r Morphogenetic Region G l a c i a l P e r i g l a c i a l Boreal Maritime Se lva Moderate Savanna Semiarid A r i d Estimated Range of Estimated Range Average Annual of Average Annual Temperature, degrees R a i n f a l l , inches 0 - 2 0 5 15 35 60 38 30 38 70 85 85 10 - 35 35 - 85 55 - 85 0 - 4 5 5 10 50 55 35 55 60 75 90 60 25 - 50 10 - 25 0 - 1 5 Morphologic Charac te r i s t i c s G l a c i a l erosion Nivat ion Wind act ion Strong mass movement Moderate to strong wind act ion Weak effect of running water Moderate f ros t ac t ion Moderate to s l i g h t wind ac t ion Moderate effect of running water Strong mass ac t ion Moderate to strong ac t ion of running water Strong mass ac t ion S l i ght effect of slope wash No wind act ion Maximum' effect of running water Moderate mass movement Frost ac t ion s l i g h t i n colder part of region No s i g n i f i c a n t wind act ion except on coasts Strong to weak act ion or running water Moderate wind act ion Strong wind ac t ion Moderate to strong act ion of running water Strong wind act ion ^ S l i gh t act ion of running water and mass movement. PART TWO APPLICATIONS OP PRINCIPLES TO SELECTED TYPES OP RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT REGIONS 73 CHAPTER IV - INTRODUCTION: RESOURCES AND THEIR DEVELOPMENT Sc ire vere est per cavsas s i r e . - Francis Bacon (To understand thoroughly, we must study cause and e f f ec t . ) In the fo l lowing chapters some of the appl ica t ions of the p r i n c i p l e s of c l imatology and geomorphology, dealt with i n previous chapters, w i l l be discussed with reference to s p e c i f i c types of resource development regions . Perhaps a d e f i n i t i o n of natura l resources, f o r the purpose of t h i s paper, w i l l help to e s t a b l i s h the proper perspect ive . The wr i te r defines a na tura l resource i n the fo l lowing way: A p o t e n t i a l , suppl ied by nature, whereby goods may be produced and human needs s a t i s f i e d . By proper methods of development, some elements of t h i s p o t e n t i a l may be renewed af ter , or during use - t h i s i s often re ferred to as a sustained y i e l d development and s o i l f e r t i l i t y , f i s h e r i e s , and timber are good examples; other elements are exhaustive but t h e i r expenditure may hasten the -development, or increase the a p p l i c a t i o n of , subs t i tu te , or new elements - petroleum, some mineral ores and many animal indus t r ie s ( sea l , beaver, e tc . ) are good examples; f i n a l l y , some elements may be used and re-used as, i n e f fect , they are not consumed - some aspects of water development and the production of f e r t i l i z e r s by f i x -at ion of atmospheric ni trogen are examples. Some e l -ements that are so abundant that , although exhaustive i n time, t h e i r decrease offers no serious problem, must also be included i n th i s l a s t category - l o c a l i z e d short-ages of these elements may cause problems but on a world-wide bas i s , reserves are adequate fo r a l l ant ic ipa ted needs fo r thousands of years . Coa l , s a l t , su l fu r , mag-nesium, and uranium are good examples. The f i n a l or comprehensive p ic ture of any reg ion ' s natura l resources i s known as the reg ion ' s resource base. In spi te of the deplet ion and widespread misuse of the past , the 74 resource base of the Western World today i s f a r broader and stronger than ever before . This i s true because our to ta l resource base includes a l l components of the earth and atmos-phere, i n c l u d i n g the energy forces supplied by nature . At any one time, however, the usable resource base w i l l be a re su l t of the p h y s i c a l , t echno log ica l , and economic condit ions that exis t and which, i n e f fec t , e s t ab l i sh the framework of p o t e n t i a l or actual development. The re su l t i s that today only a small f r a c t i o n of the t o t a l resources are being used. By discovery, technology, and development, the ever- increas ing demands have been met. The quest ion, of course, i s "Can t h i s progress continue?" . Wo one i s able to o f fer a d e f i n i t e 'yes ' or ' n o ' , but there are ways i n which the problem of susta ining the mater ia l flow from the area of supply to the area of de-mand may be attacked. 1. Prom the"3upply area" - the most obvious methods are* (a) explorat ion and discovery - continued development - of new techniques (Figure 7) . (b) a f u l l e r use of known resources - t echn ica l advances make i t poss ib le to reduce phys i ca l waste. For example, over 5>0 percent of the average petroleum pool may be wasted. * The same appl ies to c o a l , copper, Iron ore, natura l gas, su l fur , e tc . I t i s simply not economically f ea s ib le to el iminate these wastes today but i t may be tomorrow. (c) the use of lower q u a l i t y resources - t h i s depends again on technolog ica l advances and perhaps necess-i t y . As our supply of r i c h i r o n ore runs out we have learned to use lower q u a l i t y ore . (d) the renewing of renewable resources - t h i s has been a hard lesson f o r the Western World to l e a r n . Only very slowly are these techniques being adopted to save out timber, s o i l , water, and other resources . * I f petroleum i s extracted from a r e se rvo i r too q u i c k l y , the poros i ty of the o i l - bearing s t ra ta w i l l f a l l . The reser-v o i r , i n e f fect , col lapses before the avai lable petroleum can be withdrawn. 358-3P " 7&5<8 * ° T H E I N C F TECHNOLOGY BRING NEW- MATERIALS I TO THE FORE 2 I S' 0 U R C'El B UREAL! ~\ "0 F \ Ml N E^; ISTA N fpW;. Q N S TI TU T E 0 F j^ RJETSE A R G H n't T r r r r r x 1 — i - F IG i7\7 6 (e) the increased use of our l i t t l e - u s e d and/or abun-dant resources. Magnesium, n i t rogen , copper, and aluminum are good examples. The ear th ' s crust contains more aluminum than i r o n , yet we use many times as much i r o n . 2. Prom the "demand area" - i f we can sh i f t demands and change the uses of our mater ia l supply a bet ter b a l -ance between supply, demand, and a v a i l a b i l i t y would be found. (a) the s h i f t i n g of demand from scarce to abundant -by experimentation, the functions of scarce mat-e r i a l s may be sh i f ted to abundant mater i a l s . (b) many of our production and consumption habits are l a v i s h . Much mater ia l i s wasted on personal taste while performing no funct ion . For example, the production of b i g , heavy cars covered with chromium. (c) the whole idea of the recovery of usable mater i a l by using scrap, i s not wel l developed. Two world wars have ind ica ted i t s importance and i t i s a good p o t e n t i a l t o o l . With the above pat tern as a framework i t i s now obvious that the p r a c t i c a l app l ica t ions of cl imatology and geomorph-ology a,re most useful i n the "supply areas". Resource dev-elopment takes place on a great many l e v e l s , and many factors combine to determine what the end re su l t i s to be. At one end of the scale i s the development program working with a s ingle phase of one resource; on the other i s the vas t , m u l t i p l e -purpose development of many resources. Perhaps somewhere i n between i s a program of comprehensive (many-phase) develop-ment of one resource. These l e v e l s of development may be i l l u s t r a t e d as fo l lows : 77 Development of one resource ( s ingle phase) e .g . logging Development of one resource (comprehensive) e .g . mining operation that i n -c ludes : - mining - process ing of ore - concentrat ing of ore - manufacture of mat-e r i a l s - u t i l i z a t i o n of "waste" mater ia l s Increasing - s p e c i a l i z a t i o n Multi-purpose development of many resources e .g . the T . V . A . In order , in so fa r as p o s s i b l e , to cover t h i s "range" of resource development In applying these phys ica l p r i n c i p l e s , two major areas of development w i l l be examined. These are: 1 . The Kemano-Kitimat pro ject w i l l be considered as an exam-ple of the development of one resource. 2. The Lower Mainland region w i l l be examined both as a region of complex resource development and as a reg ion which i s under study by a regional planning board. In t h i s case, the inf luence of a large urban area w i l l modify e x i s t i n g or create new factors to be considered. The two most important features are, f i r s t l y , the existence of a large populat ion r e s u l t i n g i n s p e c i f i c demand factors and, secondly, the existence of a secondary and t e r t i a r y i n d u s t r i a l complex which w i l l , to a large degree, d i r e c t much of the primary resource development i n the more remote areas. 79 CHAPTER V - THE KITIMAT-KEMANO REGION Introduct ion Today, Canada and e s p e c i a l l y B r i t i s h Columbia i s under-going rapid economic development. Much of t h i s progress Is based on the exp lo i t a t ion and development of natura l resources and, because of the geographic d i s t r i b u t i o n of na tura l res-ources, a large part of th i s development i s i n f a r - f l u n g , remote areas. The resu l t has been serious problems of acc-e s s i b i l i t y , h igh development cos t s , l i v i n g condit ions and so on. In sp i te of extremely d i f f i c u l t geographic condi t ions , developers are going to these areas. Why? Simply because the economic advantage of being near the resource outweighs a l l other cons iderat ions . Many resources ex i s t as potent-i a l l y developable but mean very l i t t l e u n t i l a c e r t a i n " threshold" l e v e l i s reached where i t becomes economic to develop them.* In addi t ion the dec i s ion to enter such an area w i l l not only involve extremely heavy expenditure, but the phys ica l condit ions w i l l create problems of t ransporta t ion l i n e s , l abor supply and, what Is extremely important today, l i v i n g condi t ions . These p h y s i c a l factors are c rea t ing pro-blems and i t i s up to the planner to supply the best poss-i b l e answers. * Thi s l e v e l i s the r e s u l t of many factors and w i l l vary great-l y with the p a r t i c u l a r resource. For example: i t i s technic-a l l y poss ib le to mine almost a l l ex i s t ing coal depos i t s , but more economic to use other mater ia l s ( o i l , hydro, e tc . ) which may be produced at lower cost and give be t te r r e s u l t s . On the other hand, i t may be more economical to subst i tute a new met-a l l i c a l l o y i n the production of a jet a i r c r a f t but technol-o g i c a l l y Impossible to do so. 80 One such area which has received world-wide a t tent ion i s the Alcan development i n the Kitimat-Kemano reg ion . Locat ion and Descr ipt ion Kit imat i s located 1|00 a i r mi les northwest of Vancouver at the end of t i d a l , deepwater, Douglas Channel. (See F i g . 8-).., Prince Rupert i s 70 miles to the north west and Prince George i s 2^0 miles to the east. The general s tructure of the B r i t -i s h Columbia coas t l ine i s a ser ies of drowned va l l ey s or f i o r d s . They are a re su l t of g l a c i a l act ion and provide a very deep, t i d a l channel. Douglas Channel d i f f e r s i n one v i t a l respect i n that i t ends i n the d e l t a of a wide v a l l e y (average of £ miles) s t re tch ing J4.O miles northward. The v a l -l e y slopes are very heav i ly forested and r i s e to mountains of over 6 0 0 0 1 . The development of the Kitimat-Kemano region involved three main features . F i r s t l y , at Kemano, a large power dev-elopment i n c l u d i n g a dam, tunnel , power-generating s t a t ion , and transmission l i n e (to K i t i m a t ) . Secondly, at K i t imat , an aluminum smelter with port and r a i l f a c i l i t i e s . T h i r d l y , also at K i t imat , a new town was b u i l t . Very b r i e f l y , the power was developed as fo l lows : The Nechako r i v e r , with i t s headwaters ten to f i f t e e n mi le s ' ea s t of the P a c i f i c Ocean, flowed to the east through a series of lakes f i n a l l y emptying in to the Fraser r i v e r . The Kenney Dam was b u i l t (Figure 9) to create a r e se rvo i r and, i n e f fect , reverse the f low. The dam i s the largest of i t s type (rock FIG. 8 82 K I T I M A T - K E M A N O D E V E L O P M E N T F I G . 9 83 f i l l with a c lay core ) , i n the world and has created a 125> mile long re se rvo i r . This great po ten t i a l head (2600 feet) i s u t i l i z e d by a ten mi le tunnel through Mount Du Bose. (Figure 1 0 ) . The e f fec t ive pressure developed by the drop i s 1 ,126 l b s . per sq. i n c h . The power developed (1+20,000 H.P. ) i s generated e n t i r e l y w i t h i n the mountain and trans-ported to Kit imat by a 50 mile transmission l i n e . Economic and Geographic Considerations In order to bring..the region in to i t s proper perspect ive , the r e l a t i v e importance of these vbasic considerat ions must be r e a l i z e d . Why, i n spi te of geographic factors u s u a l l y con-sidered p r o h i b i t i v e to development, was the pro ject feasable? The answer l i e s i n the world-side economic structure of the aluminum industry . In the f i r s t p lace , the a v a i l a b i l i t y of vast quant i t ies of water power resources f o r the generation of e l e c t r i c a l energy, great quant i t ies of which are required i n the metallurgy of aluminum product ion, and the s u i t a b i l i t y of Kit imat as a deep-sea port c lose to a t ranscont inenta l ra i lway, were the two major l o c a t i o n a l f a c t o r s . Secondly, bauxi te , the common ore of aluminum, must be imported from Jamaica. The ore i s reduced, by heat, to aluminum oxide (alumina) which i s done before i t i s shipped from the source (Jamaica). This saves $0 percent of the t ransporta t ion cos t s . The next step i s the reduction of the oxide to aluminum met-a l , u sua l ly i n the form of ingot s ; t h i s i s the step that 85 requires a large amount of e l e c t r i c a l energy. As the l o c a l markets are small , the ingots are shipped to the large mar-ket centres i n the east for f a b r i c a t i o n . Production at pres-ent i s i n the neighborhood of 300,000 tons annually and w i l l be eventual ly increased to 550,000 tons annual ly. The net r e s u l t : The most economical method to produce the aluminum was to take the raw mater ia l to the power. This was done despite the fact tha t : - the power was f a r away from the source of raw mat-e r i a l s (Jamaica)-* - the power was undeveloped and great problems had to be solved before i t could be developed - adverse phys ica l condit ions In the area would i n -crease development costs a great deal - the markets fo r the product (aluminum Ingots) was a long way from the smel te r * i - the labor supply that would be required was not av-a i l a b l e at the development. The nearest large source of labor supply, e s p e c i a l l y s k i l l e d l a b o r , was Vancouver (lj.00 a i r m i l e s ) . Geographic factors were responsible for the fact that the power was there and could be u t i l i z e d by a unique method (which w i l l be out l ined below). These geographic f a c t o r s , however, played a secondary ro le to the economic considerat ions invo lved . Economics made the development pos s ib le and the problems r e s u l t i n g from geographic factors had to be solved i n the best way pos s ib l e . These problems, although secondary to economic consider-at ions , were very r e a l and re su l ted i n serious p lanning imp-l i c a t i o n s which w i l l be discussed l a t e r . it Approximately 6,000 m i l e s . •K^ Approximately 2,500-3,000 mi l e s . 86 Physica l Geographic Background The phys ica l f ac tor s , which w i l l be out l ined below, have resul ted i n a d e f i n i t e p h y s i c a l environmental complex. This complex was,Sin i t s natura l s tate , i n i n t r i c a t e balance - p r e c i p i t a t i o n , runoff , snowfal l , eros ion, f l o o d i n g , veget-at ive assoc iat ions , stream h y d r a u l i c s , temperature, wind -a l l were i n t e r r e l a t e d and the r e s u l t of t h e i r In terac t ion was t h i s balance. Natura l ly as man develops the area t h i s balance w i l l be disrupted to some extent. The Kit imat dev-elopment i s an example of an exce l l ent , comprehensive attempt to minimize t h i s degree of d i s r u p t i o n . In t h i s attempt, hot only have these phys ica l r e l a t ionsh ip s and t h e i r planning impl ica t ions been evident, but t h e i r very existence has made necessary the c rea t ion , invent ion , and u t i l i z a t i o n of new mater ia l s , techniques, and concepts. The phys i ca l factors which have had the greatest inf luence i n these planning con-s iderat ions are c l imat i c and geomorphic and, more i n d i r e c t l y , t h e i r effects on s o i l and vegetat ion. Climatology The e x i s t i n g cl imate of the reg ion* has played a major ro le i n both the type of development that has taken p l ace , and the in t roduct ion of new techniques to solve some unique c l imato log i ca l problems. The base, upon which a l l else must * For the purpose of th i s paper, the term "reg ion" i s the gen-era l area inc lud ing Kemano and the Ki t imat watershed which in f luences , or w i l l be inf luenced by, the general i n d u s t r i a l development. 87 be b u i l t , i s the ava i lab le c l imat i c data. There were no long ser ies of homogeneous c l i m a t i c records fo r Ki t imat at the time development was planned ( 1 9 5 1 - 2 ) . What data there was a v a i l -able was r e s t r i c t e d to two years of observation of a t h i r d order c l imat i c s t a t ion , one year of wind records , and about ten years of p r e c i p i t a t i o n records . Table 1 gives some i n d -i c a t i o n of the inadequacy of the ava i lab le data, and when compared with Table 3 ind ica te s that the ava i lab le data was much too Inadequate and covered many large v a r i a t i o n s . To complicate matters s t i l l fur ther , a l l ava i l ab le data (which covered temperature and p r e c i p i t a t i o n only) was obtained at sea l e v e l on a body of water that was never f rozen. As a r e s u l t , most of the conclusions had to be based on inferences , analogies , and the general knowledge of c l imat i c p r i n c i p l e s . This was p a r t i c u l a r l y the case i n microc l imat ic deductions. The fo l lowing c l i m a t o l o g i c a l analys is w i l l be based on the elements and areas of study developed i n Chapter I I I . * Temperature - the temperature regime i s genera l ly marine with a summer maximum. The mean monthly v a r i a t i o n i s about J4.O0 over an average one year p e r i o d . Mean monthly winter temper-atures are about 20° and the extreme winter minimum i s - 5 ° » Mean monthly summer temperatures are about 60° with an ext-reme maximum of 8 7 ° . Prom the standpoint of temperature * See Tables 2 , 3 , and k. Much of the fo l lowing c l imat i c i n -formation i s based on the report of Dr . H . E . Landsberg which i s included i n the Kit imat Townsite Report. As f a r as the author has been able to d i scover , t h i s report i s the only source of authentic information. 88 alone, the area i s we l l su i ted to human occupance. However, as one moves i n l a n d , allowance must be made f o r both increas-ed cont inenta l i ty of cl imate and changes with increased e le -va t ion . These changes have resu l ted i n very rea l problems and w i l l be discussed l a t e r . P r e c i p i t a t i o n - the Kit imat region i s a t y p i c a l marine west coast c l imate. General ly t h i s may be described as a warm, temperate, ra iny c l imate . There i s no d i s t i n c t dry season but there i s a d e f i n i t e summer p r e c i p i t a t i o n minimum. The i n t e n s i t y of p r e c i p i t a t i o n i s the most important f a c t o r . 1904, 1906, 1937-1940 Inches of P r e c i p i t a t i o n Days per Year Percentage none 199 55 trace to .09 27 7 .10 to .19 23 6 .20 to .29 18 5 .30 to .39 17 5 .40 to .49 13 4 .50 and up 68 18 TOTALS 365 100 P r e c i p i t a t i o n i s concentrated i n the l a s t four months of the year and 57 percent of the days having over inch of prec-i p i t a t i o n f e l l i n these months. As p r e c i p i t a t i o n amount and i n t e n s i t y are major determinants of runoff , f looding i s most l i k e l y i n th i s p e r i o d . Twelve of the 16 two-day periods re-corded i n these s i x years , during which more than three inches of r a in f e l l , were concentrated i n these months. Seventeen non-consecutive years of snow f a l l observations were ava i lab le 89 and the fo l lowing analys i s was made:-«-a) The frequency of consecutive days with snov* during the cold season was: # of days 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 % of cases 51.5 23.5 10.2 7.2 3.0 1.5 2.6 .05 This shows that nearly |r of the snow storms l a s t for 2 or more days. b) The extreme values f o r snow that can be expected are: - maximum f a l l i n 2k hours: once i n 5 years - 20 inches 1 1 " 10 " - 25 inches !! !? 20 " - 30 Inches - maximum f a l l during several consecutive days with snow: once In 5 years - 35 inches " " 10 ' " - 1+4 inches 5 20 U - 50 inches - maximum durat ion of snowfal l : once i n 5 years - 6 days " " 10 ' " - 8 days 'i 1' 20 - 9 days c) Great v a r i a t i o n may be expected i n the snowfall regime. _ In the winters of 1903-07, 1937-1+0, 1946-1+8, and 1951-52: - t o t a l amount of snowfall va r i ed from 30" to 243" - date of f i r s t snowfall var ied from October 17th to December 4th - the greatest snowfall i n one day var ied from 7" to 26" - the greatest snowfall In two days va r i ed from 7" to 35". In converting snowfall f igures to equivalent p r e c i p i t a t i o n , the usual method i s to consider 10" snowfall equal to 1" p r e c i p i t a t i o n . Great care must be exercised i n us ing t h i s * The data was subjected to ordinary s t a t i s t i c a l reduction and missing values inc luded by regress ion and synoptic-c l imat i c methods. 90 r e l a t i o n s h i p . The water content of snow may vary a great deal and i s c e r t a i n l y much higher at Kit imat (under the inf luence of west coast marine c l i m a t i c condit ions) than, fo r example, at Terrace , Prince George, e t c . , where more cont inenta l c l imat i c inf luences p r e v a i l . Wind - from the i n i t i a l (and only) records obtained i n 1950 the winds are: 1 . From the south and south-south west about 50 percent of the time. 2 . From the north and northeast about 50 percent of the time. This i s the re su l t of the north-south trend of the deep, steep-sided, v a l l e y . Wind v e l o c i t i e s have never been accur-ate ly recorded but evidences ind ica te winds of f i f t y or more miles per hour occur every winter . The prevalent wind ass-ociated with storms would be from the nor th . Radiat ion and Cloud Coverage - the ex i s t ing record ( i n 1952) covered only the summer of 1951 which was considered to be u sua l ly c l ea r . 58 c loudless days - L6 percent 27 p a r t l y cloudy days - 21 " 36 cloudy days - 28 " 3 overcast days - 2 " 2 foggy days - 2 " 1 day of continuous r a i n - 1 '! 127 days 100 percent Cloud cover may be i n d i r e c t l y ind ica ted by the number of days r e c e i v i n g p r e c i p i t a t i o n . (See table on page 8 8 ) . This table ind ica te s that about two-thirds of the days have l i t t l e or no r a i n or snowfal l . T h i s , at f i r s t glance, would seem to i n d i c -ate a high degree of sunshine. The p r e v a i l i n g pressure sys-91 terns and t h e i r r e l a t i o n to topography may re su l t i n a good deal of cloud cover without p r e c i p i t a t i o n . This would l a r g e l y depend on the r e l a t i v e pos i t ions of the A leu t i an Low and the Hawaiin High pressure systems. The In tens i ty of r a d i a t i o n would be f a i r l y high with no cloud cover present . The lack of atmospheric impur i t ie s would tend to ra i se the i n t e n s i t y while a f a i r l y low angle of Incidence, low a l t i t u d e , and marine modi f i ca t ion would tend to lower i t . Other Factors - the c l i m a t i c elements present produce a f a i r -l y high r e l a t i v e humidity. This would be a re su l t o f : 1. high p r e c i p i t a t i o n 2. high evaporation due to heavy vegetat ion 3« the high moisture content of the p r e v a i l i n g a i r masses e spec i a l ly i n the winter and spring I j . . the marine in f luence . The r e l a t i v e l y low temperatures, e s p e c i a l l y i n the summer months, r e s u l t i n a f a i r l y low absolute humidity. Geomo rpholo gy Kit imat i's at the end of a f a i r l y broad v a l l e y on a mile-wide de l ta of gravel and s i l t spread by the r i v e r into Kitimat Arm. (Figure 11). The v a l l e y i t s e l f was apparently formed by g l a c i a l ac t ion and borings have d i sc losed a gravel f l o o r over i+OO' deep. Twenty miles from Kit imat Arm the r i v e r turns eastward towards i t s headwaters and i s joined by Chis t Creek. The channel i s poor ly defined and as a r e su l t the major problem i s f l ood ing . The major t r i b u t a r i e s to the Kit imat (Wedeene, L i t t l e Wedeene, and Hirsch Creek) can a l l become major streams during spring and ear ly summer runoff . 93 Evidence of past f loodings i n the form of meanders and nat-u r a l embankments, was obtained from a e r i a l photographs and natives of the area . The r i v e r i s b u i l d i n g up I t s bed i n i t s lower sec t ion , and hence the water l e v e l r i s e s and the f l o o d -ing increases . This i s s i m i l a r to the geomorphic concept of a r i v e r "base l e v e l " . A r i v e r may be i n the stage of youth near i t s headwaters, thus degrading i t s channel, and approach-ing maturity near i t s mouth, In which case i t w i l l be b u i l d -ing up i t s channel. The major problem, then, i s the c o n t r o l of the Kit imat River , not only at i t s mouth but along i t s course as w e l l . (a) The Kit imat River - the r i v e r i s a fas t moving but shallow stream. The banks are low and h e a v i l y wooded thus, at h igh flows, the r i v e r overflows i t s banks into f l a t , forested areas. The forest i s , i n e f f ec t , an emergency storage area. The flow of the r i v e r i s h igh ly var iab le and was measured as f o l l o w s : * V e l o c i t y River Discharge Discharge Tota l f t . / s e c . C . F . S . over banks Discharge 6.5 7.5 9 . 0 10.5 n . 5 1 2 . 0 21 ,000 33 ,000 5o,ooo 7 0 , 0 0 0 9 0 , 0 0 0 106 ,000 130 ,000 152,000 176 ,000 20l+,000 l+,000 8 ,000 15,000. 21+, 000-36 ,000 21 ,000 33 ,000 50 ,000 7 0 , 0 0 0 9 0 , 0 0 0 110 ,000 138 ,000 167 ,000 210,000 21+0,000 13.0 11+.0 * Ross, K .W. : consul t ing engineer, r i v e r bas in contro l 94 The normal high flow was estimated at 8 0 , 0 0 0 to 120,000 cubic feet per second. (b) River Protect ion - when the r i v e r i s at f lood the l ea s t damage w i l l occur i f a l l the various meander courses are i n use. This w i l l Involve pro tec t ion of the banks, e s p e c i a l l y at bends, by stone r i p r a p . As a second measure i t i s imperative that the forest cover be maintained. Due to lack of data the estim-ates of f loods on the Kit imat have had to be based on a comparison with other r i v e r s i n the area p lus the phys i ca l evidence of runoff i n the area. An estimate f lood of 160,000 to 2 0 0 , 0 0 0 cubic feet per second per square mi le of the watershed (which i s 800 square miles) as a seldom exceeded l i m i t was made. I t was r e a l i z e d , however, that unusual c l i m a t i c condit ions could produce extreme crests as high as 2^0,000 cubic feet per second per square m i l e . By comparison with other s i m i l a r areas i t was estimated that a r a i n of f i v e inches i n twelve hours over the watershed area would produce t h i s extreme f low. ( ° ) Moore and Anderson Creeks - as the proposed smelter l o c a t i o n i s to the south of Moore Creek (Figure 11) , the contro l of both these streams i s very important. Several schemes have been studied for t h i s c o n t r o l ; the most feas ib le incorpora t ing channel d i v e r s i o n . 95 The above d i scuss ion has been mainly concerned with the downstream aspects. River cont ro l cannot be at ta ined with-out contro l over development upstream. As mentioned above, the natura l watershed retards runoff and erosion i s kept to a minimum by the heavy vegetat ion. This i s every b i t as im-portant as the "storage" area provided i n the f lood p l a i n below Chis t Creek. I f the land i s c leared , or put into ag-r i c u l t u r a l use protected by dykes, the r e su l t would be: 1. An increase i n water supplied to the r i v e r . This w i l l r e su l t i n an increase i n ca r ry ing capacity and an i n -crease i n the v e l o c i t y of the water. 2. As a re su l t of number 1, the erosion of a deeper, s t ra ighter main channel and the development of side g u l l i e s would take p lace . 3. The increased capaci ty of the stream would not be enough to cope with the increase i n f lood discharge and the f lood p l a i n would be under water with every f l o o d . A l l estimates were made on the assumption that the forest cover w i l l remain. I f i t does not , there are only two a l t -ernatives : 1. A complete restudy with the probable resu l t that roads, bridges , i n d u s t r i a l s i t e s , e t c . , w i l l a l l be re - loca ted . 2. A contro l dam be b u i l t at the junction of Chist Creek and the Ki t imat . This would compensate for the v a l l e y storage l o s t and reduce and maximize the f lood c r e s t . 96 Vegetation and S o i l In the previous chapter the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s between c l imate , landforms, vegetative complex, and s o i l s was s t ress-ed. The so i l s of the Kitimat-Kemano area may be roughly divided i n t o : 1. Recent A l l u v i a l - these s o i l s extend from the townsite up the v a l l e y to Terrace and north along the Skeena R i v e r . They are too complex to be c l a s s i f i e d in to types and are confined to the smooth, l o w - l y i n g , v a l l e y bottoms. Drainage var ies from poor to excel lent depending on compaction, permeabi l i ty , g ra in s i ze , and so on. They are neutra l to s l i g h t l y acid i n reac t ion and t h e i r nat ive f e r t i l i t y i s quite h igh . They are h i g h l y susceptible to eros ion. 2. Podsol ic - the dominant upland s o i l s of the area are po l so l s which have developed under the combined i n f l -uence of temperature, p r e c i p i t a t i o n , and natura l veg-e ta t ion . These so i l s extend to the t imber l ine and are brown i n co lor , s trongly leached, and very a c i d i c . They are character ized by a shallow, l i g h t grey A£ horizon under la in by a s l i g h t l y compacted s u b s o i l . There are various s o i l associat ions wi th in t h i s group and these may be i d e n t i f i e d by t h e i r nat ive f e r t i l i t y , and drainage. Although about h a l f of the s o i l i s po-t e n t i a l l y arable much must be c lassed as non-arable due to unfavourable microtopography and poor drainage. 97 The area i s included i n what i s genera l ly known as the Coast Forest . I t i s h e a v i l y t imbered*, and the p r i n c i p l e species found are hemlock, spruce, cedar, balsam, and f i r . Much of the timber i s mature and capable of y i e l d i n g an average of 3 0 , 0 0 0 board feet per a c r e . * i In general , the timber on the r i v e r bottom i s scattered, poorly drained, and mostly spruce; hemlock and balsam are found on the bet ter drained lower slopes along with some cedar and spruce. Much of t h i s na tura l vegetat ion has shallow root systems, and 13 therefore , subject to a great deal of wind damage i f s o l i d groupings are broken by c l ea r ings . This w i l l ef fect the l o c a t i o n of highways as th in s t r i p s of trees cannot be l e f t along them unprotected. The tree cover that i s to remain a f ter development should be l e f t i n large blocks of perhaps 10 to 1 5 acres. Another fac-tor to be considered i s the heavy undergrowth which makes t r a v e l l i n g d i f f i c u l t . The over-mature condi t ion of the forest i n some areas has re su l ted i n much f a l l e n timber which makes c l e a r i n g d i f f i c u l t . This summary of the phys i ca l geography of the K i t imat-Kemano region i l l u s t r a t e s the environmental background against which the region has been developed. In the next sec t ion , some of t h e i r inf luences upon planning considerations w i l l be d i s -cussed. * Due to heavy p r e c i p i t a t i o n and f a i r l y high r e l a t i v e humidity, the r i s k of loss of vegetative cover by f i r e i s considered small . *]_ This timber i s loca ted , i n the main, on the lower s lopes. The timber l i n e i s at roughly 1+500 99 Influence of Phys ica l Factors upon Planning Considerations Despite the fact that geographic factors were r e l a t i v e l y •unimportant i n the dec i s ion to undertake development i n the Kit imat area, the planners had to overcome or compensate for the problems presented by these geographic f a c t o r s . The de-c i s i o n to develop was an economic cons iderat ion but the future success of the development, i n many respects , depended on p lanning . The fact that the development was planned resu l t s from: (a) the r e a l i z a t i o n by industry today that , i h order to . maximize the return from a large c a p i t a l investment, comprehensive planning i s needed (b) Alcan was aware that they were not equipped to act as a planning agency e spec i a l ly with regard to town-s i te p lanning. In an attempt to f i n d so lut ions to , or compensations f o r , these phys i ca l problems which obviously would deter develop-ment ( for example, rough topography, adverse c l imate , distance from markets, labor supply, e t c . ) , Alcan obtained the services of the best consul t ing firms ava i l ab l e , i n c l u d i n g Clarence S te in who became the Planning Co-ordinator fo r Kit imat town-s i t e . Ste in f e l t that : "The purpose of Kit imat i s i n the i n d u s t r i a l success of -the p l an t . That success w i l l depend on the degree that workers are content, that they l i k e l i v i n g i n K i t imat . Unless the town can a t t ract and hold good i n d u s t r i a l workers, there w i l l be continuous turnover and d i f f i c u l t y , i n t e r f e r i n g with dependable output. The workers must f i n d Kit imat more than temporari ly acceptable . . . the se t t ing f o r a good l i f e must be hewn out of the un-known wilderness . Pioneers must become o l d t imers , bound to Kit imat by enthusias t ic love of t h e i r town and i t s unusual q u a l i t i e s . They must be given the utmost freedom to develop t h e i r l i v e s and that of t h e i r community to f i t t h e i r needs, t h e i r des i re s , and t h e i r pocket books. And so the plans of K i t imat , both operat ional and p h y s i c a l , 100 have been developed to serve as a f l e x i b l e s e t t ing for good l i v i n g that i s open to continuous growth and expansion."30 The inf luence of the p h y s i c a l f a c t o r s , presented i n the preceding sect ion, on planning concepts, dec i s ions , techniq-ues u t i l i z e d , e t c . , may be seen on two l e v e l s . F i r s t l y , on the Regional l e v e l , they may be re l a ted to the broad prob-lems of l o c a t i o n , land d i s t r i b u t i o n , and i n t e r a c t i o n between various parts of the development - townsite, communication networks, power p l a n t , e tc . Secondly, t h e i r ro le In Townsite p lanning. Upon the s o l u t i o n of the problems they presented as Mr. Stein has sa id , w i l l depend on the degree to which the workers are content, and that they l i k e l i v i n g In K i t i m a t . On t h i s , i n t u r n , w i l l depend the i n d u s t r i a l success of the p l an t . Regional Considerations 1. Locat ion of the Townsite - the Kemano powerhouse i s at the head of a t y p i c a l narrow coasta l v a l l e y and there i s no room f o r both a smelter and a town. The town was considered to be a very important part of the t o t a l development and therefore , the best s i t e ( topographica l ly , c l i m a t i c a l l y , e tc . ) had to be chosen. The fact that the best ava i lab le s i t e was the only ava i lab le s i t e was the re su l t of landform pat terns , S t e in , C : Ki t imat Townsite Report. 1951-52, B r i t i s h Empire B u i l d i n g , New York. 101 topography, and climate (See p a g e ,91). These geo-graphic features are also an important factor i n re-l a t i n g towns!te and reg ional a c c e s s i b i l i t y . K i t imat , by a i r , i s almost equidistant from Prince Rupert, Terrace, and Kemano, but a c c e s s i b i l i t y by sea and land i s much more l i m i t e d and forms almost a f ixed pat tern . Economic considerat ions (outside of const-ruc t ion costs , e tc . ) are r e l a t i v e l y minor as l o c a t i o n factors wi th in the reg ion . The problems of markets, labor supply, etc . would remain f a i r l y constant, regardless of the l o c a t i o n of the s i t e . The actual l o c a t i o n of the town, as shown i n Figure 11, w i l l be discussed i n the next sect ion under Townsite Planning. 2. Transportat ion and Communication - the o v e r a l l success of the development, to a large degree, depends on transport connections with the outs ide . In the f i r s t p lace , deep water p i e r s must be b u i l t to handle over 1,000,000 tons of incoming raw mater ia l s per year for the smelter alone. Experience at Port A l f r e d , serving Arv ida , indicates that these p i e r s may be used to han-dle outgoing cargo such as lumber products . The cons-t r u c t i o n of th i s p i e r w i l l involve" a knowledge of geo-ology for foundation problems, t ides for breakwater, and navigat ion problems, and so on. Secondly, Kit imat must be l inked by al l-weather road and r a i l connections 102 with T e r r a c e . * A knowledge of c l i m a t i c and geo-morphic factors w i l l be v i t a l for t h e i r proper cons truct ion . This w i l l inc lude such factors as: - f lood l e v e l s as they effect road and r a i l l o -ca t ion - topography as i t ef fects grade and drainage - bedrock geology fo r foundations, br idges , e tc . - snow.accumulation and i t s r e l a t i o n to p o t e n t i a l avalanches - erosion re l a t ed to areas of roadbed f i l l - weathering and formation of such features as ta lus and i t s r e l a t i o n to p o t e n t i a l r o c k f a l l - temperatures and poss ib le i ce condit ions - l o c a t i o n of vegetative areas too important for erosion contro l to be removed - po ten t i a l damage from subsurface water. The reg ional pa t tern of t ransporta t ion and communication i s s i m i l a r , on a smaller scale , to the pat tern i n B r i t i s h Columbia. The province has a major urban area (Vancouver) with I t s deep-sea acc-ess, e tc . and transport and communication patterns are f ixed (over most of the province) by topography, entrenchment of r i v e r s , etc.*]_ In addi t ion to the economic importance of good communications and t ranspor ta t ion , were s o c i a l con-s idera t ions . The p r o v i s i o n of the best poss ib le fac-* A r a i l spur from Terrace to Kit imat i s now i n operat ion. I t i s lj.3 miles long and b u i l t at a cost of approximately $ 2 1 7 , 0 0 0 per mi le or near ly 1 0 m i l l i o n d o l l a r s . This once more I l l -ustrates the fact that : given adequate economic reasons, t r e -mendous phys i ca l d i f f i c u l t i e s may have to be overcome. Con-sequently, the problems which they present must be solved or compensated for by the planner . * X Population d i s t r i b u t i o n i s also a major inf luence i n the development of t ransporta t ion and communication pat terns , but th i s i n turn, l a r g e l y depends on phys i ca l f ac tor s , ( d i s t r i b u t i o n of landforms, e t c . ) . As i n the Kit imat re-gion, economic factors may overcome these geographic l i m -i t a t i o n s , for example, the P.G.E. Railway. 103 i l i t i e s f o r t r a v e l i n and out of the region provide an answer to many i s o l a t i o n problems. Smelter Locat ion - i t was quite evident before development was i n i t i a t e d that the smelter could not be located at Kemano. As the towns!te and smelter had to be wi th in commuting dis tance, the only a v a i l -able s i te was somewhere near the town. Geographic factors not only inf luenced the general l o c a t i o n of the smelter but were i n f l u e n t i a l i n i t s actual s i t e i n . r e l a t i o n to the town. These re l a t ionsh ips are shown i n Figure 11. The smelter i s located on the lower western side of the v a l l e y taking advantage of the deep-sea access and best poss ib le r a i l connection, i f located i n any other p o s i t i o n the mud f l a t s of the de l ta would re su l t i n dredging problems for shipping and the braided pat tern and f looding of the r i v e r channels would make the r a i l connection extremely d i f -f i c u l t and expensive. Moreover, the smelter s i te i s the best l oca t ion i n the lower v a l l e y from the stand-point of foundation and drainage problems which ar ise from past g l a c i a t i o n and the present r i v e r regime. The t o t a l p i c ture i s a smelter s i te which ( l ) i s the best ava i lab le f o r the smelter i t s e l f and ( 2 ) occupies a good p o s i t i o n r e l a t i v e to the town. (Figure 11). The two are separate yet within easy commuting distance and the town i s above the smelter, preserving many amenities. 101+ Transmission Line - the power generated at Kemano had to he shipped to the smelter e i ther along the coast (Gardner Canal) or by the overland route through the Kemano V a l l e y - over a 5,0001 h igh pass and down again. The phys i ca l problems presented were r e l a t i v e -l y les s along the overland route but i n choosing i t , the developers were brought up against a great un-known - the weather. Although some weather data was ava i lab le fo r K i t i m a t , (see previous sec t ion) , t h i s was not the case along the transmission route . Heavy snow and severe winds were expected, but what else? One of the main problems was the problem of i ce loads the conductors and towers might have to ca r ry . No one had any idea of p o t e n t i a l damage by rock and snow s l i d e s . The r e l a t i o n between topography, weather cond i t ions , and ice i s l i t t l e understood and, on a test span i n s t a l l e d fo r two years , i ce loading f i g -ured many times the average used for North American condit ions were found. As a p a r t i a l answer to t h i s problem, a new type of tower was developed. I t was constructed of alum-inum tubing with access ladders i n s i d e . The tower was rust free and l i g h t e r , thus i t could be more e f fec t ive l y anchored against c l i m a t i c elements and would react more . e l a s t i c a l l y to stress than s t e e l . A second dev-elopment was the "br idg ing" of the most dangerous 105 s l i d e areas. To do t h i s a cable was developed that would normally require three towers. The t e r r a i n over which the transmission l i n e was constructed, was so h igh , rough, and inacce s s ib l e , that the only means of supply was the h e l i c o p t e r . * The i r long and var ied use for the transport of men and mater ia ls under extreme-l y dangerous condit ions was one of the world ' s greatest f l y i n g achievements. In addi t ion to a lack of weather data very l i t t l e was known of the t e r r a i n . There ware no r e l i a b l e maps by which to trace even a tentat ive route . The p h y s i c a l condit ions made necessary the use of two basic planning tool s - topographic mapping and aer-i a l surveys . *^ By use of these techniques the best routes were p lo t ted and by extensive f i e l d and l ab-oratory research most engineering problems were s o l -ved. The best transmission l i n e pos s ib le had to be b u i l t as i t i s absolutely e s sent ia l that there i s no in te r rup t ion i n the supply of e l e c t r i c power to the p l a n t . * 2 This i s , again, a basic economic demand * One of the most severe phys i ca l l i m i t s set by c l imat i c con-d i t ions was a c c e s s i b i l i t y . Most of the transmission route was access ible f o r only about three months of the year. *1 See Chapter I I . * 2 Short ly a f ter the smelter was In operat ion, a snowslide knocked out three transmission towers. Although the break was repaired i n about ten days, i t was over a month before f u l l operat ion was restored at the smelter. When the en-ergy supply i s cut o f f the p o t l i n e s freeze and must be sc-raped out - a long and c o s t l y process . 106 and involves the so lu t ion of these p h 7 / s i c a l problems. 5. Dam and Powerhouse S i te - perhaps the i n i t i a l dev-elopment problem was the s e l e c t i o n of a s i t e fo r the Kenney Dam (See Figure 9). The dam had to be b u i l t at a point where i t would b r i n g the waters of a l l the upper lakes of the Nechako River to some common l e v e l . Economic f e a s i b i l i t y was the major cons iderat ion as there were many other power s i tes on the r i v e r and many other r i v e r s . Once i t was decided to locate a damsite the problems of a c c e s s i b i l i t y , l ack of maps, no e x i s t i n g data on stream flow, e tc . had to be s o l -ved. These problems were d i f f i c u l t and very import-ant to the future success of the development. Mr. J .S . Kendrick, Ass i s tant Project Manager f o r Alcan revealed that " I t took us two years , and cost us $2^0,000, before we found a sui table s i te - on our t h i r d t r y . " * The power generating s t a t ion (Figure 10) has been constructed within the Mountain. Although the main reason f o r th i s has been given as p ro tec t ion from atomic warfare (and no doubt t h i s i s a v a l i d reason) the w r i t e r fee l s the most important reason was prot-ec t ion from snow and rock avalanches. This i s a very * From an address to the 7th B r i t i s h Columbia Natural Res-ources Conference, V i c t o r i a , 1951+.. 107 rea l danger at the generating s i te as wel l as along the transmission l i n e . Here again p h y s i c a l problems resul ted i n the development of new techniques and methods. For example: the construct ion of the tunnel from the re servo i r to the powerhouse Involved complic-ated problems i n h y d r a u l i c s . In the transport of the water from the re servo i r to the powerhouse, tremend-ous pressures are created - not only downward, but i n a l l d i r e c t i o n s . The rock walls of the tunnel were, i n e f fec t , a pipe and therefore had to with-stand th i s pressure without serious l eak ing . As a r e su l t the walls of the tunnel were "sealed" by for -c ing a newly developed, l i q u i d cement, under pressure, into a l l j o in t s . River Va l l ey Control - (See Figure 11). Cl imat ic factors have been respons ib le , by g l a c i a t i o n , f o r the general topographic features and the gravel deposits along the v a l l e y f l o o r . The dominant geomorphic ag-ent i s running water and re su l t s i n the ever present problems of f lood and eros ion. The bas ic factors important i n the runoff , eros ion, f l ood ing , and other problems of the Kit imat Va l l ey have been discussed i n the previous sec t ion . To summarize them: - high p r e c i p i t a t i o n with a winter maximum - h igh snowfall accompanied by great v a r i a t i o n i n annual amount - a poorly def ined, meandering stream channel - many t r i b u t a r i e s with great va r i a t ions i n flow - p o s s i b i l i t y of rapid snow melt over the watershed. 108 The primary object ive i n f lood contro l i s the pro tec t ion of transport routes , br idges , the smelter s i t e , the transmission l i n e from Kemano (which crosses the de l t a of the r i v e r ) and the wharves and harbour f a c i l i t i e s . These geographic considerations r e s u l t i n spec i f i c contro l measures. For example: - bridge p ie r s - f i l l i n g i n low areas - p ro tec t ion of r i v e r banks - dyking and drainage channels - dredging These measures w i l l not give maximum resu l t s i f appl ied on a piecemeal bas i s . They must be a part of a comprehensive p lan fo r the whole v a l l e y . The major considerat ion i s watershed contro l i n c l u d i n g the preservat ion of natura l vegetation and r e s t r i c -t ions on the use of land where drainage, s o i l , veg-eta t ion or other factors are not favourable. Other Considerations (a) Recreation - a f ac tor that i s a d i r e c t r e su l t of phys i ca l re l a t ionsh ips i s the recrea t ion potent-i a l . The climate and landforms have combined to form a beaut i fu l se t t ing for future recrea t ion development. A l l the usual forms of mountain recreat ion are, or can be made, ava i l ab le . The important f ac tor w i l l be land use c o n t r o l . There i s already i n d i c a t i o n of ribbon development of services along the v a l l e y and, with easy access to Kit imat from Terrace, much of the natura l bea-109 uty and recrea t iona l p o t e n t i a l w i l l be destroyed i f contro l s are not imposed. Unless a s t r i c t measure of contro l i s adopted, the opportunity to eventually develop an unsurpassed regional recrea t ion area w i l l be l o s t . As i t has already been pointed out, the problems are not a l l phys i ca l ones. People must want to l i v e i n the area and f o r th i s reason the preser-vat ion and development of natura l amenities must be given a high p r i o r i t y . (b) S o i l and Vegetation - the c l imat i c elements of the area have, to a large extent, inf luenced both the s o i l complex and the natura l vegetat ion of the area. While some of the s o i l s are arable , t h e i r use, f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l purposes, w i l l be l i m i t e d to a very l o c a l scale due to poor drainage and adverse topography. Timber resources have been estimated as adequate to support a small pulp m i l l (employing perhaps 1,000 loggers . ) The logs would be taken from the Kit imat V a l l e y , Kit imat Arm, and Douglas Channel. The natura l vegetative cover must be reta ined along the v a l l e y bottom and the headwaters of the Kit imat r i v e r and i t s t r i b u t a r i e s as a runoff c o n t r o l . (c) Geomorphic and c l i m a t i c fac tors have resul ted i n some ava i lab le deposits of s t ruc tura l mater i a l s , c h i e f l y g rave l . The demand f o r them w i l l depend on the nature of future development. 110 Townsite Planning The town i s located on the southern slope and top of a forested gravel r idge which extends from the eastern side of the v a l l e y to the r i v e r . There i s room f o r eventual expansion of the townsite, where th i s ridge s t r ike s the eastern side of the v a l l e y (at 3 5 0 ' ) up to 600 f . (See Figure 1 1 ) . The o r i g -i n a l survey indica ted that about 3 ,300 acres of land could be c leared fo r r e s i d e n t i a l use supporting an eventual populat ion of 5>0,000. However, only about 2 , 3 6 0 acres of t h i s f igure can be developed economically without becoming involved i n expensive drainage and sewerage problems. To th i s f igure i s added allotments for schools , parks , and neighborhood centers , br ing ing the t o t a l to 2 ,750 acres . It i s estimated that th i s f igure w i l l provide l i v i n g space fo r about 3 5 , 0 0 0 people. Phys ica l f ac tor s , on a regional l e v e l , played a major ro le i n l o c a t i n g the town wi th in the reg ion . They were also i n f l u e n t i a l i n development wi th in the town. Some factors presented planning problems while others were unimportant or even-benef ic ia l . The re l a t ionsh ip s between these phys i ca l factors and planning may be i l l u s t r a t e d by answering three questions: f i r s t l y , what were the inf luences of phys i ca l fac-tors i n the formulation of the basic planning concepts used?; secondly, what s p e c i f i c forms of development resu l ted from the app l i ca t ion of these concepts? (which developed from these specia l phys ica l features ) ; t h i r d l y , what evaluat ion can be given to these planning solut ions to phys i ca l problems? I l l 1. Formulation of Planning Concepts - the combination of adverse phys i ca l factors and geographic l o c a t i o n re-sul ted i n extreme i s o l a t i o n and remoteness. The planner , then, must s t r i v e to overcome t h i s remote-ness and create as "urban" an area as p o s s i b l e . As people l i v i n g i n Ki t imat w i l l not have the opportun-i t y to enjoy the many amenities of the large c i t y as often people l i v i n g i n towns of s i m i l a r s ize i n other areas, these amenities must be provided f o r as far as pos s ib le . In addi t ion , i t was r e a l i z e d by the o r i g i n a l planners that the spec ia l phys i ca l condit ions would necess i tate spec ia l f a c i l i t i e s which would be bet ter adapted f u n c t i o n a l l y and s t r u c t u r a l l y . Thus the planners operated under these two basic concepts: p lanning fo r remoteness and i s o l a t i o n and planning spec i a l f a c i l i t i e s i n answer to spec ia l phys i ca l condi t ions . 2 . Spec i f i c Results - i n t r y i n g to plan according to the concepts above the planner had two main tool s or methods. In planning for i s o l a t i o n the "urban f e e l -i n g " could be created by the layout and o r i e n t a t i o n of s t reets , the grouping of b u i l d i n g s , the types of accommodation provided, and so on. For example, perhaps a group of h igh- r i s e apartments w i l l create a more urban f e e l i n g than a random grouping of s ing le-family u n i t s . This i s the role of the a rch i tec t as he 112 manipulates space to produce form and funct ion that w i l l s a t i s fy these concepts. Some very spec i f i c recommendations were made In t h i s regard. Por ex-ample :# - the ear ly and ample development of boat ing , water sports , hunting, s k i i n g , and other forms of recreat ion - indoor recrea t ion such as skating and hockey - large p l o t s of land permit t ing gardening - adequate community b u i l d i n g s , Inc luding hobby shops and entertainment for teen-agers - the construct ion of an a i r f i e l d and a road to Terrace as soon as poss ib le >- some areas f o r owner-built houses and perhaps p a r t l y - b u i l t houses where people may exercise t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l taste and imagination. Phys ica l f ac tor s , p a r t i c u l a r l y c l imate , re su l ted i n unique condit ions for which the Kit imat planners made spec ia l p r o v i s i o n i n the types and l o c a t i o n of housing and community f a c i l i t i e s planned f o r . Por example: - the p r o v i s i o n of ample indoor f a c i l i t i e s - roof covered playgrounds or open f loor s (at grade l eve l ) under schools , e tc . - a system of covered - walks i n the community and shopping centers . These walks would be widened at in ter sec t ions to allow grouping of people " shelters at a l l bus stops - l a rge r than normal houses as the people w i l l spend r e l a t i v e l y more time indoors . Houses should pro-vide c e l l a r and a t t i c storage space and covered terraces , e tc . where c h i l d r e n may play - homes should be equipped with indoor laundry f a c i l i t i e s * The fo l lowing recommendations are based on the Ki t imat  Townsite Report, Sect ion 6, Subsection 1. 113 Problems i n planning engineering were also the res-u l t of microc l imat ic and microtopographic features . The p r e c i p i t a t i o n i s not only h igh but extremely var i ab le as noted i n an e a r l i e r sec t ion . The nat-u r a l re su l t i s drainage and storm sewer problems, e spec ia l ly when th i s type of p r e c i p i t a t i o n regime i s combined with f a i r l y pronounced topographic v a r i a t i o n . The rate at which r a i n f a l l s w i l l determine i t s time of concentration or the time required for water to run from the farthest part of the catchment area to the point i n quest ion. This time of concentrat ion, i n turn , w i l l determine p o t e n t i a l runoff . Runoff i t -s e l f w i l l be cont ro l l ed by: - temperature and i t s va r i a t ions over the watershed area which w i l l e f fect evaporation, f r e e z i n g , and thawing, snow accumulation, vegetative types, e tc . - topography w i l l e f fect concentrat ion"t imes, i n -f i l t r a t i o n ra tes , na tura l storage i n poo l s , e tc . - geology w i l l determine underground storage cap-a c i t y and flow. The solut ions to these problems were based on what l i t t l e data was ava i lab le and the great experience of the consultants concerned. Not a l l the solut ions have been s a t i s f ac tory , as a l l the var iab les and pos-s i b i l i t i e s could not be considered. For example, i n the design of the storm sewer system there were no "ready made" f requency- intens i ty curves on which to base c a l c u l a t i o n s . By using Vancouver's curve (Figure 12), and adjust ing i t according to what l i t t l e data was known about the area, the basis for design was 10 40 SO ' so 70 SO 90 DURATION IN MINUTES 100 no no 40 so 60 70 so r>ur*ATION_ IN MINUTER 90 7/0 110 F l fi 12 115 e s t a b l i s h e d . * That t h i s design was inadequate Is i n no way a r e f l e c t i o n on the designer but rather r e f l e -cts the v i t a l Importance of these phys i ca l factors In planning. In a s i m i l a r manner these phys i ca l factors w i l l effect the design and operat ion of a l l u t i l i t i e s and serv ices . Many other factors were s tudied. For example: - a fog was considered to be unimportant - a study of smoke d r i f t has ind ica ted there w i l l be v i r t u a l l y none from the smelter to the res-i d e n t i a l areas - the growing season ranks with Canada's h ighest . This Is a v i t a l aspect of urban amenity p lanning . - a f a i r l y accurate estimation of hours of sunshine indicates a strong summer maximum and a minimum that compares favourably with other coasta l p o i n t s . - the surface winds are a r e s u l t of the topography and a land and sea breeze i s apparent - the combination of r a i n and f reez ing temperatures w i l l produce snow. This w i l l lead to snow d r i -f t i n g when the wind i s at s u f f i c i e n t v e l o c i t y . - a t y p i c a l v a l l e y w i l l produce some degree of temperature i n v e r s i o n . This i s a l a y e r of h igh-er temperature a lo f t which i s an e f fec t ive " l i d " and leads to smog formation. As a r e s u l t , s p e c i f i c recommendations may be made. For example: 1. Exposure on the north side of bui ld ings w i l l be poor, e s p e c i a l l y i n winter . I t may be best , therefore , to or ientate homes with a view i n some other d i r e c t i o n . 2. As winds are from the north and south, bu i ld ings must be protected from d r i f t i n g s of snow. This might be done with a north-south allignment of s treets and adequate vegetat ion. 3. Some a i r p o l l u t i o n i s unavoidable but i f scrub-bing i s used i t w i l l not be dangerous p a r t i c u -l a r l y i n the r e s i d e n t i a l areas. * Mr. J . F . Muir : Professor and Head of the Department of C i v i l Engineering, Univer s i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, Interview with the w r i t e r . 116 ij.. As much vegetat ion cover as poss ib le must be maintained i n the r e s i d e n t i a l areas. Higher areas w i l l be more comfortable i n sum-mertime as they benef i t from breezes and lower humidity 6 . C l imat ic factors play a large ro le i n the ac-tua l design of b u i l d i n g s . Examination of f igure 13 gives some examplesi& 3 . Evaluat ion - the f i n a l evaluat ion of these planning solutions can only be made on the bas is of re su l t s over the years. I t i s poss ib le today to make only a few observations. As f a r as the wr i t e r has been able to d i scover , many of the o r i g i n a l planning decis ions have not been implemented. Going back to S te in ' s basic idea that the economic success of the development depended on the success of Ki t imat as a place In which to l i v e , t h i s could be considered a serious planning mistake. The concept of maximum "urbaniza t ion" poss ib le has not guided planning - r e s i d e n t i a l p lanning , at any ra te . Res ident ia l areas have been designed along the l i n e s of those found i n large c i t i e s . Por example, the pat tern of s treets and bu i ld ings i s open rather than forming enclosure. Most homes are s ing le- fami ly uni t s which has created a large amount of open space r e l a t i v e to r e s i d e n t i a l dens i t i e s . In add i t ion , many specia l f a c i l i t i e s , recommended as a r e s u l t of c l imat i c * See a l so : Thomas, M . K . : A Method of Computing Maximum Snow - Loads, Engineering Journal , V o l . 3Q» Feb. 19£5 . and A Method for Determining Winter Design' Temper- atures, Research Paper 1 6 , D i v i s i o n of B u i l d i n g Research, Ottawa, May, 1955* CLIMATIC FACTORS IN BUILDING DESIGNJ 117 CLIMATIC FACTORS Site, orientation, planning Interior layout Roof and walls Openings Foundation and basement Mechanical equipment THERMAL HEAT Temperature frequencies X X X X X X Frequency of hot and-r o i d days X X Degree days X X RADIATION Sunshine hours X X X Clear and cloudy days X X X X Solar i n t e n s i t y X X X X Solar height X X X WIND Wind d i r e c t i o n X X X X X Wind speed X X X X Strong winds X ATMOSPHERIC MOISTURE P r e c i p i t a t i o n X X X X X Snow f a l l X X X Excess p r e c i p i t a t i o n X X X X X Rainy days X X X Fogs X Thunderstorms X Humidity X X X X X Crosses (x) are entered for those elements which are of some impor-tance fo r design of the p a r t i c u l a r fea ture . Source: H . E . Landsberg and W.C. Jacobs , "Appl ied C l imato logy , " i n Compendium of Meteorology, T . F . Malone e d . , Am. Met. S o c . Boston, 1951, p . 982. F i g # ± 3  118 fac tors , have not been f u l l y provided, (systems of covered walks, roof covered playgrounds, e t c . ) . The north-south alignment ,;of s treets to minimize snow d r i f t i n g has not been c a r r i e d out. (Figure 1 1 ) . This s i tua t ion i s absolutely u n r e a l i s t i c and ignores a l l the geographic considerat ions developed on the above pages. Kit imat has not completely succeeded as a place i n which people "want to l i v e " . It i s true that a lack of data resul ted i n planning problems but t h i s i s no defence i n t h i s case. Thus, here i s the s i t u a t i o n where geographic information i s ava i lab le (e f fec t ing the alignment of s t reets , structure of b u i l d i n g s , e t c . ) , but i s not being u t i l i z e d by the planner. As Canada, and e s p e c i a l l y B r i t i s h Columbia, con-tinues to exp lo i t and develop i t s natura l resources, many more s i m i l a r types of development w i l l take place i n remote regions under d i f f i c u l t p h y s i c a l circum-stances.-"- The experience and knowledge gained through the Kitimat-Kemano development should f a c i l i t a t e h igh-er standards of development and success i n these new regions. -* See In s t i tu te of Loca l Government, Single Enterprise Comm- u n i t i e s i n Canada, (Central Mortgage and Housing Corporat ion, 1 9 5 7 ) , f o r a de sc r ip t ion and analysis of the problems faced by the communities i n remote areas of the country. TABLE I Month January February March April May June July Augus t September October November December TOTALS 13 Year Average i n inches 9 . 7 3 5 . 7 5 5 .52 1+.99 3.51+ 3 . 5 3 2 . 3 3 k<kk 6 . 8 3 15 .39 III-. 30 1 1 . 3 4 87.1+9 Monthly precipitation averages for 13 complete years covering 1902-7 and 1931-1+3. TABLE 2 Monthly Mean Temperature KEMANO J F M A M J 1 9 5 2 20 30 35 3 6 50 53 53 22 34 3 6 44 52 56 54 1 9 30 36 37 50 54 55 31 30 29 42 47 56 KITIMAT J F M A M J 1952 23 32 35 38 47 51 53 1 9 34 36 42 50 57 54 20 30 35 37 49 53 55 30 30 3 1 4 1 47 56 M - M i s s i n g 3 J A S 0 N D 6 2 6 2 5 5 4 9 3 6 3 1 4 3 6 0 6 1 5 4 4 6 3 7 3 5 4 5 5 ^ 6 1 M M 4 2 3 4 M 6 0 5 8 5 4 4 2 2 5 1 8 4 1 J A S 0 N D 6 0 6 1 5 4 5 1 3 5 3 0 4 3 6 1 6 1 5 4 4 6 3 8 3 6 4 4 5 6 6 1 M M 4 4 3 3 M 6 0 5 8 5 4 4 2 2 4 1 8 4 1 TABLE 3 M o n t h l y p r e c i p i t a t i o n and a l t i t u d e o f s t a t i o n KEMANO - A l t i t u d e 190* J F M A M J • J :.A S 0 N D 1952 10 .25 5 .80 6 .46 11 .39 .15 2 .94 .57 2 .64 9 .66 7 . 2 0 8 .62 1 3 . 9 2 53 12 .25 4 . 6 2 5 .04 2 .05 1.55 .59 .71 1 .92 16 .51 1 6 . 8 3 1 5 . 8 0 1 5 . 1 2 54 9 . 5 4 1 2 . 8 5 1.64 3 .61 . 77 2 .35 1 .93 1.30 M M 1 3 . 1 2 1 5 . 1 2 55 6 .03 5 .33 4 .43 3 .18 . 2 . 1 2 .892 .23 2 .29 3 .26 1 2 . 0 2 3 .84 4 .71 Y e a r s - 1952 - 79 .60 1954 - M 53 - 9 2 . 9 9 55 - 50 .33 KITIMAT - A l t i t u d e 5 5 ' J F M A , M J J A S 0 N D 1952 1 6 . 0 0 6 .51 1 0 . 5 8 1 3 . 0 0 . 9 8 4 . 5 9 1 .54 4 . 8 9 8 .92 1 0 . 3 7 79 .79 15 .04 53 1 4 . 5 8 9 . 2 3 10 .96 4 . 5 9 3 .69 1.67 2 . 0 7 2 .50 9 . 0 9 26 .78 1 6 . 6 0 2 0 . 6 0 54 1 3 . 3 1 1 9 . 3 2 2 .82 9 .73 2 . 7 5 3 .81 2 .74 1.26 10 .23 1 7 . 3 9 M 24 .59 55 12 .11 7 .92 5.71 . 6 . 2 0 5 .77 2 .07 1 .82 5 .10 4 . 8 7 23 .99 1 1 . 3 7 8 .55 Y e a r s - 1952 - 102 .21 1954 - M 53 - 122 .36 55 - 9 5 . 4 8 H ro TABLE 4 Monthly Extremes of Temperature and absolute maximum and minimum a" KEMANO o J F M A M J J A S 0 N D ct CD 1952 41 i 43 52 55 7k 73 9 0 94 83 64 46 40 94 53 39 44 49 61 79 80 90 94 79 63 48 45 94 -9 20 20 28 36 4 1 45 46 42 36 29 29 «9 54 40 45 55 55 84 79 81 81 M M 50 47 94 -1 6 1 9 19 28 41 44 47 M M 34 18 -9 55 44 48" 52 64 65 88 94 82 80 6 0 54 37 94 12 4 - 2 18 34 36 4 0 42 38 28 6 -5 - 9 > KITIMAT § J F M A M J J A S 0 N D ct CD 1 9 5 2 ,41 46 4 8 53 6 8 71 87 85 73 59 45 4 0 87 - 4 9 24 25 3 0 3 4 43 4 6 41 3 8 22 2 0 - 4 53 38 4 0 46 6 1 7 7 83 86 82 7 4 59 4 8 46 87 - 5 22 25 29 3 4 45 4 8 50 4 0 33 30 3 0 - 5 54 4 4 51 54 49 7 1 76 . 7 4 8 0 7 4 M . 6 0 4 7 87 - 1 1 24 2 0 29 39 4 5 50 M M 31 1 0 - 5 55 49 4 8 57 6 1 7 2 86 9 2 80 75 54 53 4 1 9 2 3 4 - 2 27 33 37 42 4 4 37 29 3 - 5 M - Miss ing Source; Tables 2 , 3 , and 4 - The,, Climate of B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , Province of B r i t i s h Columbia, V i c t o r i a , 1 9 5 2 - 1 9 5 5 . H ro ro 123 CHAPTER VI - THE LOWER MAINLAND REGION Introduct ion The Lower Mainland Region (See Figures 8 & 1I+) i s e s s e n t i a l l y the lower v a l l e y and de l ta of the Fraser R iver . The region i s the economic focus of B r i t i s h Columbia and i t s major urban area (metropolitan Vancouver) i s the dominant influence within the region. Vancouver i s the s i te of one of the world 's f i n e s t , i c e -free harbours and the terminus of both Canadian t ranscont in-ental rai lway systems. As a re su l t i t i s the f o c a l point of the province both for d i s t r i b u t i o n and wholesale trade and manufacturing. I t draws on the r i c h primary indus t r i e s and resources of the whole province and, with the development of secondary indus t r ie s based on these resources, has become one of the most important general manufacturing areas i n Canada. The Lower Mainland has no primary resources* except a g r i c u l -ture , but i s , In a sense, an area of complex resource develop-ment as: 1. I t exercises major contro l over most of the province-wide primary i n d u s t r i e s . 2. It i s the i n d u s t r i a l machine which u t i l i z e s many p r i -mary products and therefore "keeps most of the p r i -mary indus t r ie s i n bus iness" . The Lower Mainland Region was selected for study for two major reasons: * With the exception of some s t ruc tura l minerals , e .g . c l a y , grani te , sand, and l imestone. These are important as they produce the raw mater ia l s for several large manufacturing and construct ion indus t r i e s e .g . b r i c k and t i l e , cement, e tc . 125 1. The inf luence of a large urban area wi th in the region 2. The existence of a Regional Planning Board Phys ica l Geographic Background The re la t ionships between phys i ca l geographic fac tors and planning w i l l be discussed mainly i n t h i s regard. Before th i s i s done, however, the major phys i ca l fac tors i n the region w i l l be reviewed to "set the stage". These factors have played an important role i n the form which present dev-elopment has taken and are l i k e l y to p lay an important ro le i n the future . Climatology The region, on the whole, enjoys a maritime climate with cont inenta l modi f ica t ion to the north and east. The climate i s remarkably uniform with a very low annual temperature range and a very wel l defined seasonal p r e c i p i t a t i o n v a r i a t i o n (Figure 15) .* A de ta i l ed analys i s of c l i m a t i c elements and controls w i l l not be made as t h i s i s beyond the scope of th i s paper.-x^ Instead, some of the most Important c l i m a t i c fea-tures of the region w i l l be l i s t e d ; i t w i l l then be poss ib le to see t h e i r r e l a t i o n to the ex i s t ing patterns of development, and more important planning-wise, to the p o t e n t i a l patterns of development. * In t h i s diagram the values "too h o t " , "too wet", e tc . are pure ly a rb i t ra ry and for i l l u s t r a t i v e purposes only . #1 For a more deta i led study of t h i s t o p i c , the reader i s re ferred to The Climate of B r i t i s h Columbia. J .D . Chapman, Univer s i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1952. 1 2 7 1 . The annual range of temperature over the region i s small - about 2 7 ° v a r i a t i o n s * among a l l recording s tat-ions . This range increases with distance from the ocean. 2 . The average winter temperature over the region i s 3 7 ° with a summer average of 6 3 ° . 3 . The extreme minimum i s 0 ° with an extreme maximum of 8 2 ° . 4 . As a re su l t of points 1 and 3 , a favourable f ro s t - f r ee season i s es tabl i shed. This ranges from over 2 2 5 days In White Rock to 1 8 0 days along the north side of the Fraser River . 5 . The p r e c i p i t a t i o n pa t tern i s c l o s e l y re la ted to the topo-graphic' pa t tern . The r e s u l t i s an increase In p r e c i p i t -a t ion to the north and east. MEAN ANNUAL STATION ALTITUDE PRECIPITATION South to North White Rock 4 0 1 3 6 . 6 9 " Vancouver Airpor t 2 2 ' 3 9 . 8 0 " Vancouver C i ty . 6 5 ' 5 7 . 1 1 " Brockton Point 2 0 ' 5 9 . 0 3 " Hollyburn 3 5 ' 6 3 . 6 6 " Seymour F a l l s 6 2 7 ' 1 1 + 6 . 6 0 " West to East Vancouver A i rpor t 2 2 ' 3 9 . 8 0 " New Westminster 5 5 ' 5 5 . 8 9 " Agassiz 5 2 » 6 2 . 6 3 " Hope 1 2 6 ? 6 0 . 2 7 " Source: The Climate of B r i t i s h Columbia, J . D . Chapman, Univer s i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1 9 5 2 . * * These and the fo l lowing f igures are, of course, averages, but they do ind ica te the general s i t u a t i o n . 128 The a i r masses cannot flow h o r i z o n t a l l y to the mountains and then r i s e . I t must s tar t r i s i n g before the slopes are reached and the r e s u l t Is increased p r e c i p i t a t i o n over l e v e l ground when moving toward these topographic b a r r i e r s . 6. The second main feature of p r e c i p i t a t i o n i s a winter max-imum and summer minimum. The percentage of the annual p r e c i p i t a t i o n t o t a l f a l l i n g In Ju ly and August i s below 7 percent . Although year ly to ta l s are high t h i s regime causes c r i t i c a l shortages of water at t imes, w i t h i n the reg ion . 7. Relat ive humidity i s h igh during the winter months but may drop to about 60 percent i n July and August. This i s a dangerously dry condi t ion p a r t i c u l a r l y with respect to fores t f i r e p o s s i b i l i t i e s . 8. Fog u sua l ly occurs i n the f a l l and winter months during c o o l , c l ea r weather. I t i s of the r a d i a t i o n type, and i s u sua l ly below l60! 9» The winds are a r e f l e c t i o n of the pressure gradient and the general d i s t r i b u t i o n of the pressure systems through-out the year. Most winter weather i s the re su l t of the so-ca l led "mid l a t i t u d e lows". Or ig ina t ing near the A l -eutian Islands, they proceed down the B r i t i s h Columbia coast and swing i n l a n d over the Lower Fraser V a l l e y . In the summer the high pressure systems from the south are responsible fo r most of the weather. Modi f ica t ions are 129 caused by occas ional outbreaks of p o l a r cont inenta l arid t r o p i c a l cont inental a i r masses from i n l a n d areas. These re spec t ive ly re su l t i n co ld snaps and very ho"t weather. East and southeast winds predominate throughout the year with northwest and west winds more frequent i n the sum-mer. Except f o r the northwest summer winds the average maximum speed i s about 10 mi les per hour. 10 . As a r e su l t of the p r e c i p i t a t i o n regime, there i s a def-i n i t e summer maximum of sunshine and winter maximum of cloud coverage. Vancouver has roughly 1,800 hours of sunshine per year - t h i s compares favourably with the sunniest s tat ions i n Canada (usual ly Calgary or Leth-bridge) who average around 2 ,300 hours. The foregoing i s a l i s t of the major c l imat i c features of the reg ion . Before examining some of t h e i r e f fec t s , the r o l e of the geomorphic processes must be examined i n r e l a t i o n to climate and, i n turn , the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s between these two phys i ca l aspects and the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o i l and veget-at ive complex present, w i l l be discussed. G e omo rpho1o gy The reg ion, geographical ly speaking, i s almost a perfect u n i t . (Figure 11+.). I t i s a low l y i n g area with an extensive amount of r o l l i n g land. Elevat ions over the lower d e l t a range from sea l e v e l to l+OO feet and much of the land i s dyked agai-nst the sea or r i v e r waters. The uplands south of the Fraser River have r o l l i n g to f a i r l y l e v e l upper surfaces and are 130 l a r g e l y composed of g l a c i a l deposits which have been dissected by stream ac t ion . To the north of the Fraser River are sev-e r a l upland areas made up of g l a c i a l deposits and bedrock outcroppings covered with a t h i n l a y e r of g l a c i a l m a t e r i a l . These upland areas r i s e to around 1,000 feet . The mountain areas to the north and east have l i t t l e value f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l purposes because of rough t e r r a i n , but are valuable f o r rec-r e a t i o n , f o r e s t r y , and water storage. The Lower Mainland region contains the highest proport ion of land with favour-able s o i l s topographica l ly suited to a g r i c u l t u r e . As a res-u l t , the region i s the most extensive farming area i n B r i t i s h Columbia, and i s the most important s ingle a g r i c u l t u r a l area. Spec i f i c geomorphic processes dominant i n the region are those associated with running water. The i n t e n s i t y of pre-c i p i t a t i o n Is not u s u a l l y excessive except close to the moun-ta ins to the north and east. Severe eros ion has taken place over much of the upland areas to the east and north p a r t i c -u l a r l y i n areas where vegetation has been e n t i r e l y removed. However, the general regime plus the winter runoff of snow melt can be very important. The Fraser River has somewhat the same problem as the Kit imat but the fact that man has had more data, time, and cause fo r ac t ion , has l e d to a greater meas-ure of contro l on the Fraser . Loca l drainage condit ions vary grea t ly w i t h i n the area. Some of the upland s o i l types have open porous substrata, and these are excess ively drained. Others are under la in by imp-ervious mater ia l which makes drainage necessary under some 131 topographic condi t ions . At the present time the de l ta i s b u i l d i n g out into the S t r a i t of Georgia at the rate of about 10 feet per year . This i s only one of the many deltas of the Fraser . In the past the Fraser has entered the s t r a i t through Burrard I n l e t , Boundary Bay, and Bellingham Bay. Since the retreat of i ce from t h i s area, the r i v e r has found successive lower and lower ou t l e t s . I t changed i t s course and construc-ted r i v e r terraces at each drop i n sea l e v e l . ^Eighteen miles to the SSE of Point Grey i s Point Roberts which r i s e s to the same e levat ion as does Point Grey. Point Roberts at one time formed an i s l a n d about ten miles from the mainland but as a r e su l t of de l ta b u i l d i n g now i s joined to the mainland by low- ly ing de l t a i c mate r i a l . Point Roberts and Point Grey may have been one c o n t i n -uous moraine at the time of formation. Geo log ica l ly the Fraser River de l t a area cons i s t s of a s y n c l i n a l structure cons i s t ing of Eocene deposits of sandy conglomerates, sand-stone, and. shale, under la in with g r a n i t i c i n t r u s i v e rock of Jurass ic age. At the northern edge, t h i s g r a n i t i c rock re-aches the surface forming the Coast Range b a t h o l i t h mountains which, i n p laces , reach an e leva t ion of over 6,000 f ee t . In the cent ra l por t ion the Jurass ic i s down warped and o v e r l a i n with about 1^,000 feet of Eocene deposits . These Eocene de-pos i t s are covered with a t h i n mantle of Pleis tocene g l a c i a l d r i f t which, i n p laces , has been eroded and covered with re -cent d e l t a i c deposits . Each of these recent deposits has i t s own c h a r a c t e r i s t i c e levat ion throughout the v a l l e y . The 132 recent de l t a i c deposits are found at near sea l e v e l or i n some cases i n a dyked area below sea l e v e l . At e levat ions of between 50 and 150 feet are found the de l t a i c deposits assoc-ia ted with the former channels of the Fraser River while the g l a c i a l mater ia l forms an almost l e v e l but dissected upland at an e levat ion between 300 and l+OO fee t . These g l a c i a l de-pos i t s are t y p i c a l l y sands and gravels o v e r l a i n by t i l l . Geologists estimate that during the l a t t e r part of the P l e i s -tocene per iod the sea l e v e l was 700 to 800 feet higher than at present . The t i l l contains rounded boulders and weathers into the p seudos t ra t i f i ca t ion of water l a i n m a t e r i a l . Eviden-ce of these changes i n shorel ines may be found i n o l d shore l i n e s with t h e i r wave cut c l i f f s . On the whole, the geomorphology of the region i s the re su l t o f : 1. The geologic h i s to ry of the reg ion ; 2. The a c t i v i t i e s of the Fraser r i v e r ; 3. The c l imat ic regime of the reg ion, p a r t i c u l a r l y pre-c i p i t a t i o n and temperature. Soil3 and Vegetation The landforms and depos i t ional mater ia l s establ i shed the parent mater ia l ava i lab le fo r s o i l . As c l imat i c factors sup-p l i e d the processes for s o i l formation, the natura l vegetative complex i n the region was establ ished and i t , i n t u r n , i n f l u e -nced s o i l types. The bulk of the s o i l s i n the Lower Mainland region may be broadly c l a s s i f i e d as e i t h e r a l l u v i a l or brown podsols . The former types, p lus scattered groups of peat and 133 muck s o i l s are found i n the low- ly ing areas. The l a t t e r groups are found i n the uplands. As stated e a r l i e r , the only primary resource development i n the region i s a g r i c u l -ture which i s c l o s e l y re l a ted to the nature of the s o i l s . The fo l lowing factors determine the a g r i c u l t u r a l p o t e n t i a l of the s o i l groups In the reg ion : 1. The moisture hold ing capacity - some of the upland s o i l s are poor i n t h i s respect and are therefore considered submarginal f o r c u l t i v a t i o n . 2. S o i l drainage - some s o i l s e r i e s , found c h i e f l y on the upland terraces , are subject to excessive s o i l drainage which i s a severe disadvantage during the summer dry per iod . Product ion, therefore , i s re s t -r i c t e d to crops that mature before the dry season, e.g. strawberries and ear ly vegetables. 3. C lear ing costs - large areas of the upland, have s o i l s superior to the above s o i l s i n moisture-holding capaci ty , but c l e a r i n g i s often d i f f i c u l t and exp-ensive. When c a r e f u l l y managed, small b locks of t h i s land may produce vegetables and other garden crops, but i t i s u sua l ly considered marginal at best . 14-. Sub-drainage - somewhat smaller t r ac t s , of the upland areas are character ized by r e s t r i c t e d sub-drainage. These s o i l s are s i l t - loams and, although they are ad-aptable to mixed farming, the heavy c a p i t a l inves t -ment and f e r t i l i z a t i o n required has r e s t r i c t e d t h e i r development. 1 3 1 * In general , the best a g r i c u l t u r a l s o i l s have developed i n the bet ter-dra ined parts of the region at e levat ions between 25 and 150 f ee t . They are clays and loams and support mixed farming, f r u i t growing, and da iry enterpr i ses . F i n a l l y the c o o l , moist climate and the poor drainage condit ions i n parts of the region are i d e a l f o r peat formation, and scattered patches of bog are found throughout the region i n low- ly ing areas. The crops u sua l ly grown on peat s o i l are c lover , rye , oats , and other green feeds. Some of the bogs have been developed for the supply of commercial peat moss and peat products . There are two important vegetat ive regions and a l l have been the re su l t of dif ferences i n c l imate , topography, and s o i l . 1. Puget Sound Lowland - the vegetative associat ions present are hemlock, f i r , and cedar and heavy smaller growth i n c -lud ing maple and dogwood. 2. Coast Forest - the vegetative associat ions present are spruce, hemlock, cedar, cypress , f i r , and pine with an extremely heavy undergrowth of maple, a lder , ferns , and d e v i l ' s c lub . The major dif ferences between these regions are a re su l t of topography and c l imate . The Coast Forest region begins with the increase i n a l t i t u d e along the Coast Range mountains and i s character ized by much greater p r e c i p i t a t i o n and a some-what smaller temperature range. 135 The Influence of Phys ica l Factors, upon Planning Considerations It has been pointed out i n Chapter V that phys i ca l f ac t -ors , although secondary to economical, p o l i t i c a l , administra-t i v e , and technologica l inf luences i n many cases, are never-theless , important p lanning cons iderat ions . Furthermore, i t was suggested that the inf luence of these phys i ca l factors could be seen on two l e v e l s - reg ional and urban. In order to present as c lose a p a r a l l e l as poss ib le throughout Chapters V and V I , the inf luence of these phys i ca l fac tors upon p lan-ning considerations w i l l be discussed, again on t h i s bas i s with respect to the Lower Mainland Region. Regional Considerations 1 . Regional De l imi t a t ion - i t seems f a i r to state that were i t not for the e x i s t i n g combination of phys i ca l f ac tor s , the Lower Mainland region would be of no greater Importance than, for example, the Skeena River Va l ley and i t s urban area would be a smal l , unimportant coasta l town. The patterns of landforms within the region has l a r g e l y been the r e s u l t of geo-log ic h i s t o r y and i t establ ishes a good basis of re-g ional d e l i m i t a t i o n . This Is i l l u s t r a t e d by Figure 11+.. The r i v e r v a l l e y forms the centra l par t of the region while mountains to the north and east, the ocean to the west, and the Canada-United States bor-der to the south (the only boundary that i s a r b i t r a r y ) , de l imi t the reg ion . 136 In any form of regional planning i t i s e s sent i a l that the region i s wel l defined on the basis of su i table c r i t e r i a . These w i l l vary depending on the purpose of the regional concept, but geographic factors may p lay an important r o l e , f o r example i n def in ing regions of water-shed c o n t r o l . The Lower Mainland Region, i n a sense can be considered a true " n a t u r a l " reg ion, and therefore i t would seem to form a sui table basis f o r regional p lanning . 2. Regional A c t i v i t y - phys ica l factors have played an im-portant ro le i n the development of the various patterns of a c t i v i t y , both on a p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l and wi th in the Lower Mainland r e g i o n . * F i r s t l y , on a p r o v i n c i a l sca le , phys i ca l factors have resul ted i n : (a) A d i s t r i b u t i o n of resources over a wide and d iv-e r s i f i e d area (b) Various landform.regions such as the Okanagan V a l l e y , Centra l Plateau, etc . The re su l t of these two f a c t o r s * i has been the present d i s t r i b u t i o n of populat ion and the establishment of the Lower Mainland region as the most important area i n the province . The only large areas of l e v e l land with fav-ourable climate are i n th i s reg ion . As the transport network i s re la ted to the landform pat tern i t i s l i m i t e d * Some of these patterns of a c t i v i t y are i l l u s t r a t e d by Figure I J4. . *]_ Aided by h i s t o r i c a l settlement pat terns . 137 therefore , to a few major v a l l e y routes, which converge on the Lower Mainland. Although the populat ion and development of other areas i n B r i t i s h Columbia are growing, the increase i s higher i n t h i s region and shows no signs of slowing. This would seem to bear out the trend that a major region (that i s , a region with a large urban inf luence wi th in It) w i l l tend to grow because of the simple fact that i t ex i s t s . In other words the existence of a l a rge , organized system of c o l l e c t i o n , manufacture, and d i s t r i b u t i o n of goods w i l l have more at trac-t i o n than an undeveloped area. Secondly, wi th in the Lower Mainland i t s e l f , patterns of a c t i v i t y have been inf luenced by geographic cons iderat ions . I t i s important that the planner , i n attempting to guide the future development of the region, understand the r o l e of the various factors which have resul ted i n the present a c t i v i t y patterns - land use, t ransporta t ion , settlement, e tc . Some of these a c t i v i t i e s i n which p h y s i c a l factors have been Im-portant considerations are: (a) The Lumber Industry - c l imat i c and s o i l factors have been l a r g e l y re spons ib le . fo r the range of species that may be explo i ted . A c c e s s i b i l i t y i s l a r g e l y governed by topographic features and the existance of water, which may be used to transport logs . In the Lower Mainland region, c l imat i c factors and s o i l have produc-ed large stands of timber which are e a s i l y acces s ib le . In some areas where t h i s i s not the case, advances i n technology may overcome geographic l i m i t a t i o n s . 138 Geographic and technologica l factors must operate wi th in an economic framework which w i l l produce the demand for lumber products . The Lower Mainland region i s e s s e n t i a l l y a process ing region with the s i g n i f i c a n t logging areas confined to the P i t t , Stove, and L i l l o o e t River v a l l e y s . Almost a l l the logging areas are cover-ed by publ ic working c i r c l e s , sus ta ined-y ie ld u n i t s , and appl icat ions fo r forest management l i c e n s e s . Sev-e r a l trends are apparent: While the demand for timber i s s t i l l increas ing i t i s l e v e l l i n g o f f . Recent r i s e s i n production costs , wages, and a more corapetetive mar-ket have resu l ted i n a cutback i n expansion programs. New sources of supply are being developed at greater distances from the region and i n many cases the new process ing plants have been establ i shed i n these remote areas near the supply. Within the industry as a whole, the trend i s towards fewer, l a rger firms undertaking a wider range of production - t h i s i s the na tura l r e su l t of more complete u t i l i z a t i o n of timber resources. As the region i s almost at the maximum allowable cut the only r e a l expansion w i l l be i n the f i e l d of manufactur-ing and process ing. The f i n a l re su l t w i l l probably be a more stable operation of the industry with a d e f i n i t e decrease i n i t s importance i n the reg ion , (b) Agr icu l ture - topographic and c l imat i c features have been major influences i n determining the type and pat tern of . 139 a g r i c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t y . They have been considerably modif ied by the growth of a large urban market i n one end of the region (Metropoli tan Vancouver). This market w i l l inf luence the type of a g r i c u l t u r a l prod-uct ion and a t t ract a g r i c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s that may locate very near the urban area. Por example, truck gardening and dairy farms w i l l locate wi th in a few miles radius and market gardens, e t c . may locate i n -side the metropol i tan area. A g r i c u l t u r a l uses account for Sk- percent of the 700 square miles of arable land i n the Lower Mainland r e g i o n * (excluding land over 15 percent s lope) . The bas ic phys i ca l fac tors which effect agr icu l ture have been discussed i n the opening sect ion of the Chapter. Agr icu l ture i s i n a somewhat unique p o s i t i o n i n i t s r e l a t i o n to urban expansion. This w i l l be discussed i n the next sect ion , (c) Transportat ion - many of the same geographic factors which help de l imi t the Lower Mainland region are respon-s i b l e for the transport pat terns . Topography has es-tabl i shed the major east-west trends of ground t r a v e l and topography and climate c o n t r o l , to a large degree, the l o c a t i o n of a i r p o r t s . The Fraser River forms an in land waterway and i t s degree of u t i l i z a t i o n i s Inf-* The Lower Mainland Looks Ahead, The Lower Mainland Regional Planning Board, November, 1952. 11*0 luenced by many p h y s i c a l f ac tor s . For example: - c l imat i c factors inf luence h igh runoff periods when logs cannot be towed against the current - geomorphic p r i n c i p l e s of r i v e r eros ion and de-p o s i t i o n effect the n a v i g a b i l i t y of the r i v e r - the amount of erosion over the watershed effects the rate of de l t a construct ion at the r i v e r ' s mouth. Any system of t ransportat ion should serve two purposes. F i r s t l y , i t must be adequate fo r the economical d i s t -r i b u t i o n of goods, serv ices , and people. Secondly, i t should be constructed with future land uses i n mind. The major drawback of most transport systems i s that they were constructed before, or without regards to , land use. Consequently, there was l i t t l e chance of them being adequate. As phys i ca l factors are major considerations i n future land use wi th in the Lower Mainland region, they w i l l have app l i ca t ion to the future t ransporta t ion pat terns . Many other reg ional patterns wi th in the Lower Mainland have been inf luenced by p h y s i c a l f ac tor s . The l o c a t i o n of many of the urban settlements i n the v a l l e y has been the re-su l t of ava i lab le l e v e l land, proximity to the Fraser R iver , an area of good a g r i c u l t u r a l s o i l , access to deep-sea shipping, and so on. Patterns of i n d u s t r i a l l o c a t i o n , while c h i e f l y governed by economics, are re l a ted to geographic factors as they are inf luenced by a c c e s s i b i l i t y , t ransportat ion costs , energy sources, e tc . 141 Urban Considerations - the Vancouver metropol i tan area By v i r tue of her harbour and geographic p o s i t i o n both wi th in B r i t i s h Columbia and world-wide, Vancouver i s the natura l point of shipping and t ranscont inenta l t ransport . With the wealth of the province , as wel l as l a rge r areas, to draw on th i s has resul ted i n the growth of a considerable secondary i n d u s t r i a l complex. The abundant supply of power, room for i n d u s t r i a l expansion, ava i lab le raw mater i a l s , and establ i shed patterns of t ransporta t ion , v i r t u a l l y guarantee continued i n d u s t r i a l growth i n the Lower Mainland reg ion . Thus geographic factors have helped to create a great trans-shipment center which, i n turn , has generated other a c t i v i t i e s as we l l as a complimentary re l a t ionsh ip between a large metropol i tan area and a r u r a l h i n t e r l a n d . The most important planning problem, which i s the con-cern of both urban and reg ional planners , i s the problem of land use i n an expanding urban area. This " rura l-urban con-f l i c t " seems to be the core of most planning problems. Before d i scuss ing th i s problem fur ther , a few of the geographic fac-tors and t h e i r inf luence on urban growth and development w i l l be examined. 1. The geographic factors that have helped shape the present growth of the urban area have been l a r g e l y deal t with under the sect ion on p h y s i c a l background. Of major importance were: 11+2 - the Fraser River and the formation of the d e l t a . This has provided the area with an excel lent source of a g r i c u l t u r a l products and room for re-s i d e n t i a l and i n d u s t r i a l expansion. - past c l imat i c and geomorphic condit ions have been l a r g e l y responsible fo r the deep-sea harbour. - reg ional landform patterns have es tabl i shed the urban area as a natura l reg ional focus. - c l imate , topography, vegetat ion, and g l a c i a l de-p o s i t i o n have been responsible f o r prov id ing a good water supply. The uplands and mountains which border the Lower Mainland region to the north and east, provide a re servo i r which can supply ant ic ipated needs by g r a v i t y . The Greater Vancouver -Water Board supplies much of the Lower Mainland region and maintains s t r i c t cont ro l over i t s watersheds. 2. The general d i s t r i b u t i o n of landforms w i l l l a rge ly contro l the d i r e c t i o n taken by future growth of the urban, area. (See Figure 11+). By l i m i t i n g t h i s future growth to e s s e n t i a l l y one d i r e c t i o n an eventual elongated urban area w i l l be the re su l t (assuming continued growth). This type of area may pose unique planning problems i n comparison wi th , for example, Calgary and s i m i l a r c i t i e s which are r e l a t i v e l y free to expand i n any d i r e c t i o n . These planning problems would a r i s e , for example: - i n planning an urban t r a f f i c system - i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n of services and amenities i n -cluding u t i l i t i e s - In planning re l a t ionsh ip s between place of work and r e s i d e n t i a l areas - a very i n t e r e s t i n g planning problem would be the structure of a metropol i tan system of government. Presumably th i s would have to be d i f f e rent from, fo r example, Metropol i tan Toronto. 3. Geographic f ac tor s , l a r g e l y climate and, to a smaller extent, landforms have re su l ted i n a h igh ly "des i rab le " 114-3 place i n which to l i v e . A moderate, year-round c l imate , luxur iant vegetat ion, proximity to the ocean, mountain scenery, e tc . have created a beaut-i f u l s i t e for an urban area. The " d e s i r a b i l i t y " may lead to s o c i a l ef fects the planner should be aware o f . In planning fo r an area of ce r t a in phys i ca l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s there may well ex i s t a c o r r e l a t i o n between these phys i ca l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and the family s t ructure , income, rec rea t iona l i n t e r e s t s , and so on. For example, these s o c i a l considerations may be quite d i f ferent going from Vancouver to Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. The point the planner should consider i s that one reason may be the great di f ference i n geographic factors present . The combination of phys ica l factors i n the urban area w i l l , i n many cases, lend i t s e l f to aesthetic con-s idera t ions . Topography, view, land and water d i s -t r i b u t i o n , a wide range of vegetat ion, e t c . may be used to advantage by the planner . In the Vancouver area these features exis t on such a large scale they may be u t i l i z e d over large areas. F i n a l l y , phys i ca l factors are very important over a wide range of , what may be c a l l e d , planning engin-eering problems. The important c l i m a t i c features have been covered i n previous sections and need not be re-peated. Foundation problems are genera l ly f a i r l y good f o r the most par t , the glaciomarine sediments are les s than 25 feet th ick and res t d i r e c t l y on t i l l . - : : - The exception i s the de l ta area where severe compaction may take place on loading , which presents serious problems to the present i n -d u s t r i a l development i n the area. Drainage on most of the upland areas i s hampered by impervious t i l l formations near the surface. This keeps the ground water l e v e l near the surface and re su l t s i n sewage problems p a r t i c u l a r l y i f septic tanks are used. A knowledge of r i v e r bank and bottom deposits i s para-mount i n order to combat f lood ing problems by dyking and dredging. Most problems i n th i s respect are due to the construct ion of dykes oh permeable sand. Consequently, when the r i v e r i s In f lood the water l e v e l i s higher than the land behind "'the-vdyke. The r e s u l t i n g pressure forces water through the sand causing severe seepage and poss ib le dyke f a i l u r e s . Most of the stream flow from the Coast Mountains i s over f a i r -l y Impervious t i l l or bedrock which allows an extremely fast runoff . Very serious f lood ing occurred in . 1955 f o l lowing ex-cessive r a i n f a l l . The importance of vegetative cover i n these areas i s v i t a l for the pro tec t ion of parts of the urban area as we l l as the r i v e r v a l l e y . S l ides and washouts have occurred on steep slopes when excessive r a i n f a l l and removal of veget-at ion have rendered s o i l condit ions unstable . As a r e su l t of * The fo l lowing i s adapted from J . E . Armstrong, S u p e r f i c i a l  Geology of Vancouver Area, Geologica l Survey of Canada, Department of Mines and Technical Surveys, Ottawa, Paper 55-1+0, 1956. g l a c i a l and marine deposits the area enjoys an abundance of good gravel and sand which i s produced at very low cost . These phys ica l considerat ions may be very important i n construct ion , for example: - foundation requirements of some types of development may exclude i t from c e r t a i n areas. - the problems of snow load ing , wind re s i s tance , proper drainage, water supply, sewage, i ce condi t ions , e t c . , may render spec i f i c locat ions unsui tab le . - the s i t i n g of bui ld ings ( inc lud ing r e s i d e n t i a l bui ld ings ) - some areas may be rendered unsuitable due to steep slopes, lack of sunlight on the north- fac ing slopes, p o t e n t i a l eros ion, e tc . Planning and the "Rural-Urban C o n f l i c t " As any growing urban area expands i t occupies r u r a l land fo r urban uses. The re su l t i s the f a m i l i a r p i c t u r e of urban encroachment on a g r i c u l t u r a l land and consequent con-f l i c t of land uses. This i s a world-wide problem. The Lower Mainland region i s perhaps p a r t i c u l a r l y susceptible to t h i s problem as geographic factors have l i m i t e d the d i r e c t i o n urban expansion can take, thus focusing the problem of land use c o n f l i c t into a smaller area r e l a t i v e to the s ize of Metropol i tan Vancouver. Regional geography endowed B r i t i s h Columbia with very l i t t l e a g r i c u l t u r a l land while p l a c i n g the best a g r i c u l t u r a l land wi th in the Lower Mainland reg ion . This a g r i c u l t u r a l l and , close to a large urban market, has become extremely valuable i n the food production e s sent ia l to the urban populat ion . At the same time i t i s t h i s land that i s being taken out of a g r i c u l t u r a l use. 11+6 In an address to the B r i t i s h Columbia D i v i s i o n a l Con-ference of Community Planning Assoc ia t ion , Dr. J . Lewis Robinson* made th i s point very c l e a r l y . "At the Community Planning conference i n Vancouver i n 1950 I emphasized the danger i n the trend of expanding res iden-t i a l settlement onto the good a g r i c u l t u r a l land of Lulu I s land, i n the Fraser River d e l t a . Every year , 100 to 200 acres of excel lent da iry or truck garden land d i s -appears into the non-productive c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of houses. Already Vancouver's a g r i c u l t u r a l h in ter l and i n the Fraser V a l l e y cannot supply s u f f i c i e n t food fo r the urban met-r o p o l i s , and yet we continue to allow a g r i c u l t u r a l land to go out of product ion, and therefore increase our food costs . There might be some arguments for t h i s t rend, i n terms of the space needed fo r productive commercial or i n d u s t r i a l workers, i f i t were not f o r the fact that large empty areas s t i l l ex i s t i n Greater Vancouver, located on non-productive, upland g l a c i a l s o i l s . Greater Vancouver i s , therefore , not using i t s area proper ly . On a region-a l ba s i s , housing should be placed on non-productive l a n d , l eav ing the good s o i l to feed the growing p o p u l a t i o n . " The Report of the B r i t i s h Columbia Royal Commission on Mi lk also discusses t h i s rapid los s of a g r i c u l t u r a l land. "Nature has endowed t h i s Province with ample land which i s ,completely useless and unproductive from an a g r i c u l t u r a l point of view but which i s e n t i r e l y adequate and valuable fo r the b u i l d i n g of f ac tor ie s and houses and there i s plenty of that land ava i lab le i n the immediate v i c i n i t y of Vancouver. Thus i t i s d i s t r e s s i n g from an economic point of view to see some of the f ine s t a g r i c u l t u r a l land i n the world being used for low cost housing development when there are equal ly good b u i l d i n g - s i t e s equally c lose at hand . " The point made by these two sources i s that while urban expansion must take p l ace , i t should do so by developing un-occupied areas within the metropol i tan area which have no * Dr. Robinson i s Chairman of the D i v i s i o n of Geography, Department of Geology and Geography, Univer s i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia. 11+7 a g r i c u l t u r a l use (due to poor s o i l , topography, e t c . ) . I t ought not expand into the best a g r i c u l t u r a l areas, c rea t ing , i n many cases, land uses much less economic than a g r i c u l t u r e . This uneconomic land use has been termed "urban sprawl" which i s defined by the Lox^er Mainland Regional Planning Board* as a t r a n s i t i o n between true a g r i c u l t u r a l development (which has a density l e s s than . 3 people per acre) and sub-urban r e s i d e n t i a l development (with a density greater than 3 . 5 people per acre) . A number of reasons have been sugges-ted as major causes of sprawl areas. The most important are: - complete lack of contro l despite zoning, e t c . - increas ing m o b i l i t y of the average fami ly - the a v a i l a b i l i t y of municipal services - the speculat ive subdiv i s ion of l and . Areas of sprawl are not only uns ight ly but also provide few of the amenities urban res idents enjoy. In addi t ion they create a fantas t ic expenditure i n municipal funds i n r e l a t i o n to t h e i r tax re turn . Studies have shown that over time these low density areas do not " f i l l i n " to any appreciable extent, but continue to s p r e a d . * i The considerations above ra i se some very bas ic and d i f -f i c u l t planning problems - many of them cannot be d e f i n i t e l y answered and the planner must attempt to weigh the r e l a t i v e value of various land uses. This must be done on more than * The fo l lowing d i scuss ion on "urban sprawl" i s based on Economic Aspects of Urban Sprawl, Lower Mainland Regional Planning Board, May 1 9 5 ° . * ! I b i d . , pp. 8-10. 148 an economic basis as land use value may also be measured i n terms of s o c i a l , i n s t i t u t i o n a l , r e c r e a t i o n a l , and service needs of the people. This measurement may not a r r ive at a cash value as many in tang ib le values are Involved. In other words, as a planner changes the eoonomic and p h y s i c a l aspects of environment he may change (and pos s ib ly harmfully) the s o c i a l environment. For example: In deciding between a new industry or a park as p o t e n t i a l users of a s i t e , i t i s r e l a t -i v e l y easy to ca lcula te the value of the i n d u s t r i a l use (tax returns , p a y r o l l , a t t r a c t i o n of l inked i n d u s t r i e s , e t c . ) . I t i s harder to ca lcu la te the r e c r e a t i o n a l , and aesthet ic value of the land as a park. Too many planners are paying " l i p serv ice" only to the l a t t e r cons iderat ion and a t y p i c a l re su l t i s the lack of green areas wi th in and around our c i t i e s . C e r t a i n l y the planner i s (or should be) interes ted i n the so lu t ion of the"urban sprawl" problem. No matter what the eventual use of the land w i l l be, i f i t i s l e f t to the forces of the free market much of i t w i l l eventual ly be of l i t t l e economic value. Some measures proposed i n t h i s regard are : 1. Act ive encouragement of compact, se l f - support ing r e s i d e n t i a l areas 2. A system of a g r i c u l t u r a l zoning* through minimum acreage subdiv i s ion requirements. This would tend to s t a b i l i z e land uses and values * The m u n i c i p a l i t y of Richmond has authorized a system of ag-r i c u l t u r a l zoning. The areas of heavy peat bogs, waterfront, e tc . were zoned a g r i c u l t u r a l l y i n minimum p lo t s of 5 acres. This e f f e c t i v e l y preserves the l a rger holdings as people can-not af ford to buy 5 acres of expensive land on which to erect one dwel l ing . In 1954 the Vancouver f i rm of Desmond "Muirhead and Associates submitted a land use study of the area to the Richmond Counci l who zoned development "as i t was". Since (Con ' t . p . 149) li | 9 3. The development of new r e s i d e n t i a l zones i n these areas should be r e s t r i c t e d to a r e a l i s t i c s ize -that i s a s ize capable of being f i l l e d to urban dens i t ies wi th in a r e l a t i v e l y - short per iod , f o r example, 5 years . I+. P r o v i n c i a l Government l e g i s l a t i o n should require m u n i c i p a l i t i e s to prepare zoning schemes that allow f o r not more than 5 years normal r e s i d e n t i a l growth at any time. This would help promote maximum econ-omy and e f f i c i e n c y i n developing and s e rv i c ing these areas. In addi t ion to correc t ive measures that should be appl ied to these non-economic* uses of l and , the planner must concern himself with the app l i ca t ion of measures that w i l l promote the highest use of the land In an economic sense. To do t h i s he must evaluate geographic and economic considerations at the urban, r eg iona l , p r o v i n c i a l , n a t i o n a l , and i n t e r n a t i o n a l l e v e l s . For example: (Gon' t . from p. II4.8) the establishment of a planning department a year l a t e r , t h i s zoning has been ref ined and modified to permit some develop-ment. The basic concept behind the zoning was to preserve the r i g h t to choose the best ult imate land uses which were by no means known at the t ime. This information was obtained from V . J . Wieler , Ass i s tant Planner, M u n i c i p a l i t y of Richmond. * These areas are non-economic i n the sense that as density decreases, municipal expenditures Increase. When these expenditures exceed revenue, the areas become non-economic. i5o 1. On the basis of these cons iderat ions , i t may be f e l t that agr icul ture i s the best use of the land as the cost of importing food may exceed the income from r e s i d e n t i a l and i n d u s t r i a l uses. I f t h i s i s the case the planner i s j u s t i f i e d i n preserving these lands and r e s t r i c t i n g other uses to other areas. 2. On the other hand, many factors may re su l t i n greater returns than a g r i c u l t u r a l use and make i t f eas ib le to import a g r i c u l t u r a l products - other a g r i c u l t u r a l areas wi th in the province may be developed, bet ter t ransportat ion f a c i l i t i e s , development of large i n -d u s t r i a l areas r e s u l t i n g i n increased purchasing power, e tc . I f t h i s i s the case the planner should plan fo r non-agr icu l tura l uses whi le , at the same time, preserving a g r i c u l t u r a l land from non-economic uses; thus keeping i t as long as po s s ib l e . In the case of the Lower Mainland reg ion , the wr i te r f ee l s the l a t t e r s i t u a t i o n i s more r e a l i s t i c . Geographic fac-tors have provided the potent ia l land use but economic factors u sua l ly cont ro l the changes i n land use. The guiding economic p r i n c i p l e of land a l l o c a t i o n to various uses Is the concept of marginal revenue*. I t seems i n e v i t a b l e , then, that the * As the app l i ca t ion of l abor and c a p i t a l ( inputs) to land i s increased a maximum l e v e l of(outputs) production i s reached. Beyond th i s l e v e l , the app l i ca t ion of more inputs w i l l y i e l d smaller outputs. Marginal revenue, then, seeks to equate a l l add i t iona l u n i t s of input i n a l l land uses i n terms of p r o d u c t i v i t y . 1 5 1 a g r i c u l t u r a l areas w i l l be replaced by "higher" uses. The use of soc i a l values as planning c r i t e r i a (as discussed on page II4.7) has, genera l ly speaking, been l a ck ing or over-ruled by economic cons iderat ions . Surely i f p lanning i s f o r people then soc i a l values are important. The p lanner ' s ro le i s more than asking the questions - he should look f o r the information that the s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t has not been able to supply. Por example, the creat ion of a new subdiv i s ion provides a f a i r l y spec i f i c environment. Does t h i s environ-ment re su l t i n spec i f i c s o c i a l effects? Can these s o c i a l re la t ionships be used to judge the adequacy of the p lanner ' s design? The Lower Mainland Regional Planning Board Under Section 7 1 7 of the B r i t i s h Columbia Munic ipa l A c t , * the Councils of two or more m u n i c i p a l i t i e s may p e t i t i o n the Lieutenant-Governor In C o u n c i l , who may declare any area, inc lud ing unorganized t e r r i t o r y , wi thin a region, a planning area and define the boundaries of the area. Where a planning area i s so designated the Lieutenant-Governor i n Counci l s h a l l e s t ab l i sh a board under the name of "The Reg-i o n a l Planning Board". The Board s h a l l cons i s t of one member of Council appointed by the Counci l of each m u n i c i p a l i t y with-i n the area and one member appointed by the Lieutenant-Gov-1 ernor i n Counc i l . * B r i t i s h Columbia Municipal Act , Queen's P r i n t e r , V i c t o r i a , 1 9 5 7 , Section 7 1 7 . ~ 152 Under Section 718* of the A c t : " I t i s the duty of the Board to prepare community plans -applicable to the planning area and for t h i s purpose may appoint or employ such planning engineers or con-sultants and such other persons as may be necessary, whose sa lar ies . . . s h a l l be paid from the general funds of the Board. The Board may also undertake community planning work fo r a member m u n i c i p a l i t y on such terms and condit ions as are mutually agreed upon." Under Section 720*i of the A c t , the Board may, by a two-thirds af f irmative vote of a l l i t s members and approval of the Lieutenant-Governor i n C o u n c i l , adopt as the o f f i c i a l community plan any community p lan prepared under Sect ion 7l8. In 1950 the Lower Mainland Regional Planning Board was establ ished under th i s p rov i s ion of the Municipal Act . - :^ The Board consists of representat ives of the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s and unorganized, areas i n the Lower Mainland Region and a representat ive appointed by the Lieutenant-Governor i n Coun-c i l . I t has a profes s iona l s ta f f ( inc lud ing a geographer) and i s f inanced by i t s member m u n i c i p a l i t i e s and the prov inc-i a l government. The existence of a Regional Planning Board i n the Lower Mainland i s a unique feature and i s a powerful p o t e n t i a l * I b i d . , Section 718. Ib id . i , Section 720. * 2 In actual fact the Board was establ i shed by the M i n i s t e r of Municipal A f f a i r s under the author i ty of the Town Planning Act . The prov i s ions of the new (municipal) ac t , however, are e s s e n t i a l l y the same. 153 planning too l - p a r t i c u l a r l y i n view of the problems fac ing the reg ion , which were out l ined on the previous pages. The Board w i l l be discussed as fo l lows : F i r s t l y , as t h i s paper i s concerned with planning appl ica t ions of p h y s i c a l f ac tor s , to what extent the Board has considered these factors i n i t s planning work and the effect these considerat ions have had on r e s u l t i n g p o l i c y and recommendations. Secondly, as p lanning , to be e f f e c t i v e , must have means of implementation, the powers of the Board to carry out planning p o l i c y w i l l be discussed. 1. Considerat ion of G-eographic Factors Perhaps the f i r s t major problem of the Board was the de l imi t a t ion of i t s region. I t has considered the Lower Mainland region to be the region out l ined above under Region- a l Considerat ions . "The region i s almost a natura l geographic uni t since -.mountains and the sea bound i t on roughly three s ides , while the Internat ional Boundary, though not a geographic b a r r i e r , i s nevertheless , a very r e a l one. "31 The next Important po int i s : Has the Board, which should consider a l l important f ac tor s , r e a l l y done so? Surely i f the basis fo r d e l i m i t i n g the region was l a r g e l y geographic, geographic considerat ions are very important to the planner. With t h i s question i n mind, the wr i te r examined The Lower Mainland Looks Ahead, Revised E d i t i o n , November 19^21 154 examined eight reports publ ished by the B o a r d . * In summary: - 3 reports (The Lower Mainland Looks Ahead, Airpor t s f o r  the Lower Mainland, and Parks, Schools, A r t e r i a l s ) dea l , i n p a r t , with phys i ca l geographic fac tors that may ef fect planning considerat ions . - other reports , for example, Outlook on Industry, do not deal with phys i ca l geographic f ac to r s . No mention i s made of c l imat i c Influences (fog, ground water suppl ies , e t c . ) , topography, foundation problems, and so on. The wr i t e r i s not able to suggest why these p h y s i c a l factors have not been more f u l l y considered. In studies i n which the Board has considered phys i ca l f ac tor s , and t h e i r r e l a t i v e importance with respect to economic, s o c i a l , p o l i t -i c a l , and administrat ive f ac tor s , they have been i n f l u e n t i a l i n recommendations made. For example, drainage, topography, wind, fog, e tc . were considered impor tant -c r i t e r ion for se lec t ing a i r f i e l d s i t e s (See Ai rpor t s f o r the Lower Mainland) . In t h i s case economic factors p l ay a "secondary ro le to exac-t i n g phys ica l requirements. The Board has done some very valuable work i n connection with the problem of " rura l -urban c o n f l i c t " , ou t l ined i n the preceding sec t ion . The Board has publ ished a regional land *"* A Prel iminary Economic Study of the Proposed Rosed ale-Aga- s s i z Bridge, September 1952. The Lower Mainland Looks Ahead, Revised E d i t i o n , Nov. 1952. Airpor t s f o r the Lower Mainland, September 1953. The Greater Vancouver Metropol i tan Community, A Prel iminary Factual Study, A p r i l 1954. Parks, Schools, A r t e r i a l s , D i s t r i c t of Surrey, B r i t i s h Col- , umbia, December 1955 . Economic Aspects of Urban Sprawl, May 1956. Metropol i tan Parks - A Challenge", May 1956. Outlook on Industry, December 1957. 155 use p l a n * which inc ludes : - ex i s t ing and proposed i n d u s t r i a l areas " " " other urban " " 11 i n s t i t u t i o n a l " '! ? a i rport s 11 " " parks " " " roads " railways 'J - land.over 15 percent slope - land to be kept for agr icu l ture where pos s ib l e . In t h i s report the Board noted that p r i o r i t y i n land planning must be given to bas ic I n d u s t r i a l needs. Industry i s becoming l a rger and t h e i r space requirements are growing. As a resul t geographic factors p lay an inc rea s ing ly import-ant role as the s i te must be on l e v e l ground, capable of carry ing the weight of bu i ld ings and machines, wel l -dra ined and access ible by road, r a i l , and often water. As a region matures i t s i n d u s t r i a l base moves from a dependency on p r i -mary resource development to one dependent on secondary and t e r t i a r y manufacturing. The i n d u s t r i a l base of the Lower Mainland region i s slowly but s t e a d i l y moving i n t h i s d i r e c -t i o n . The most important indus t r i e s are s t i l l those u t i l -i z i n g fores t resources, but the trend i s to wood f a b r i c a t i o n and other uses that technology i s developing. The production of a wide range of i r o n and s tee l products to meet the expan-ding needs of primary resource development i n other areas i s growing r a p i d l y . The a r r i v a l of new forms of energy ( o i l and gas) has l e d to the establishment of chemical i n d u s t r i e s ; * The Lower Mainland Looks Ahead, Revised E d i t i o n , November 156 The continued growth and spread of populat ion w i l l produce ever- increas ing demands fo r more t e r t i a r y or service f a c i l -i t i e s . Recognizing th i s t rend, the Board also f ee l s that i t i s wrong to s a c r i f i c e the reg ion ' s best a g r i c u l t u r a l land by re s ident i a l use when more su i table land i s ava i lab le for that purpose. Among the repor t ' s f i n a l recommendations the fo l lowing are made with ce r t a in geographic cons iderat ions : - a Metropol i tan Park Board should be establ i shed to dev-elop and administer large parks i n the r u r a l area - i n developing future water suppl ies , v a l l e y munic ipa l -i t i e s should consider u t i l i z i n g the services of the Greater Vancouver Water Board - a Metropol i tan Airpor t Board should be establ i shed - a long range p l an i s needed for the development of a regional system of a i rport s - the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of ru ra l zoning should be studied - programs of education and demonstration i n conservation methods should be increased - a study of c l imate. This could be corre la ted with s o i l s and ground water survey and should Include addi t iona l meteorological s tat ions throughout the Lower Mainland region. 2. The Board's Powers of Implementation Although the Board has become a very e f fec t ive mechanism by which planning problems may be recognized, so lut ions o f fer-ed (and at times accepted-"-), i t i s not an e f fect ive instrument for l o c a l or regional p lanning . There are no powers of imp-••i An example of how few these "acceptances" are i s the problem of a i rpor t s i tes i n the Lower Mainland reg ion. In 19i}-6 a warning was given that very few p o t e n t i a l s i tes were a v a i l -able . In a 1953 report , the Board pleaded that the s i t u a t i o n was c r i t i c a l . Since then much damage has been done and, es-s e n t i a l l y , the problem remains. (Con ' t . p . 157) 158 lamentation given the Board under the Municipal A c t . The power to implement plans must stem from some l e v e l of government and a regional planning board must be on arm of and responsible to that l e v e l of government. The natura l l e v e l of government, i n th i s case, seems to be p r o v i n c i a l as, by l e g i s l a t i o n , i t has created the Board. U n t i l the Board i s given the powers to implement i t s plans and i s c l e a r l y co-ordinated from the executive l e v e l of government (poss ib ly by e s t ab l i sh ing a M i n i s t r y of Planning) , i t i s i n danger of becoming a consul t ing agency for in teres ted member m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . This trend i s evident i f one looks at the majori ty of the reports published by the Board. They are, i n the main, t echnica l or popular reports on s p e c i f i c problems. While some of these problems are reg ional i n nature, there i s no e x i s t i n g framework or regional p lan into which they may be f i t t e d ; thus the Board cannot f u l f i l l I ts reg iona l fun-c t i o n . For example: (Con ' t . from p. 157) Some recommendations made by the Board have been accept-ed, by some m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , and attempts made to implement them. For example, a system of a g r i c u l t u r a l zoning, enlarge-ment of the Greater Vancouver Water and Sewage Board, e tc . The Board noted i n 1952 (The Lower Mainland Looks Ahead), that some form of metropol i tan government and eventual ly a reg ional government was needed ( b a s i c a l l y to contro l met-r o p o l i t a n and regional s e rv i ce s ) . Today t h i s recommendation, considered c r i t i c a l by the Board, i s f i n a l l y under serious study by the Committee on Metropol i tan Government. 159 - the Board has no power to take contro l measures to avoid s i l t i n g i n the Fraser River - a v i t a l geographic and planning problem - the Board has no cont ro l over the l o c a t i o n of major highways. This again i s an absolutely v i t a l aspect of regional p lanning . F i n a l l y to "add i n s u l t to i n j u r y " , i t seems some planning functions that are p r i m a r i l y the concern of the Board are being performed by other agencies. A good case i n point i s the Metropol i tan Highway Planning Committee es tabl i shed to study the metropoli tan highway problem. I t was establ i shed by the P r o v i n c i a l Department of Highways with most of the planning and engineering s ta f f provided by the C i t y of Vancouver. The wr i ter does not intend to o f fe r solut ions but i s more concerned with r a i s i n g questions. Perhaps i f the Municipal Act charged the Regional Planning Board with preparing reg ional instead of community p lans , the Board might operate at the reg ional l e v e l . The s i t u a t i o n seems to be the r e su l t of an unsympathetic p r o v i n c i a l governmental a t t i tude and short-s ighted p r o v i n c i a l governmental p o l i c y . There does not seem to be much.hope for be t te r planning implementation wi th in the present p r o v i n c i a l s t ructure . For the sake of argument, the wr i t e r suggests the fo l lowing " r e s t r u c t u r i n g " ; 1. Creat ion of a P r o v i n c i a l Department of Planning -Planning i n Canada i s s t i l l l a r g e l y a permissive fun-c t i o n of l o c a l government. M u n i c i p a l i t i e s may org-anize for planning purposes thus p l a c i n g the onus for 160 ac tua l ly devis ing and implementing plans d i r e c t l y on the m u n i c i p a l i t y . This I n i t i a l p lanning problem might be solved by g iv ing t h i s Department the auth-o r i t y to require incorporated areas to prepare and submit a p lan within a spec i f i ed time. Regional Planning D i v i s i o n - Within the P r o v i n c i a l Department of Planning a Regional Planning D i v i s i o n would funct ion to co-ordinate a l l Regional Planning Boards. The Regional Planning D i v i s i o n would be the f i n a l l e v e l of appeal against Regional Planning Board dec i s ions . Regional Planning Boards - A board would be estab-l i s h e d on request of m u n i c i p a l i t i e s or by the dec-i s i o n of a Regional Planning Committee, composed of d i rec tor s of e x i s t i n g Regional Planning Boards. These Boards would be required to submit a p lan which, i f adopted by the Regional Planning Committee and approved by the M i n i s t e r of Planning would become the o f f i c i a l Regional Plan for the region. Municipal Planning Boards - Where l o c a l Planning Boards ex i s t they would be required to submit a p l an (with the approval of Council) to the Department of Planning, which, with approval of the Department and the Min i s t e r would become the o f f i c i a l Community P lan . Where l o c a l planning boards do not ex i s t , the Regional Planning Board concerned w i l l undertake the l o c a l 161 planning. I f ne i ther a Munic ipa l or Regional Planning Board ex i s t , the area would be required to e s t ab l i sh a Municipal Planning Board. 5 . Concentration and D i v i s i o n of Author i ty - The Munic-i p a l Planning Board, with the approval of C o u n c i l , w i l l have the author i ty (by zoning, subd iv i s ion , and r e p l o t t i n g c o n t r o l , c a p i t a l works, budgeting, e t c . ) , to contro l development wi th in i t s incorporated area. On matters concerning reg iona l development (highways, a i r p o r t s , e t c . ) , i t must secure the approval of the Regional Planning Board concerned, i f one ex i s t s , or the Department of Planning. Many means of planning implementation are scattered throughout a great deal of l e g i s l a t i o n . For example: redev-elopment, contro l of beaches and navigable water, mater ia l s p e c i f i c a t i o n s , l i c e n s i n g , parks , and so on. I d e a l l y , from a planning point of view, these measures should be concentr-ated under planning l e g i s l a t i o n . P r a c t i c a l l y , they cannot be, as too many Interes t s , agencies, government departments, e tc . are concerned. However, the establishment of planning as an executive government department would help to br ing these var ious i n t -erests together. The probable re su l t would be more favour-able , comprehensive, and fa s ter planning ac t ion . 162 CHAPTER VII - CONCLUSIONS Introduct ion In the f i n a l ana lys i s , our phys i ca l resources are the basis of a l l economic l i f e . The importance of geographic d i s t r i b u t i o n of resources throughout the world has been modif ied by continual technologica l advances. Many resources are classed as non-renewable, that i s they cannot be re-grown, replaced, or recovered after use to any great extents (See Chapter IV) . As these resources are exp lo i ted , the avai lable reserve drops and e i ther (1) more must be found or , (2) something must take t h e i r p l ace . To date, man has been able to do th i s - e spec i a l ly the l a t t e r (See Figure 7)« Other resources are classed as renewable and, i f produced on a sus ta ined-yie ld bas i s , are not depleted. H i s t o r i c a l l y , the problem has been that with a large demand for these resources, they have been exploi ted much beyond sustained-y i e l d l e v e l . Increases i n technology have had two effects i n the case of renewable resources. On one hand, they have l e d to t h e i r deplet ion by producing the means by which large scale operations are poss ib le ( logging, f i s h i n g , e t c . ) . Such equipment i n the hands of pr iva te enterprise operating under l i t t l e or no governmental contro l has l e d to widespread des-t r u c t i o n i n many areas. On the other hand, increases i n technology and s c i e n t i f i c information have made techniques and methods ava i lab le by which renewable resources may be more f u l l y u t i l i z e d without exceeding sus ta ined-y ie ld l e v e l s . 163 As pointed out i n the Introduct ion , man i s faced with ever- increas ing demands by a r a p i d l y increas ing popula t ion , and technology alone, while prov id ing the t o o l s , w i l l not solve the problem. The greatest technolog ica l advances have been made i n the more advanced* countries and w i l l probably be of l i t t l e benef i t to the rest of the world f o r many years . The so lu t ion to t h i s problem seems to l i e In increas ing the carry ing capacity of the land i n order to prevent des-t r u c t i o n through improper use and to r e a l i z e some of the tremendous p o t e n t i a l which exi s t s at present (See Figures 1 and 2). Despite the claims advanced by many wri ters that there i s "enough for a l l " * i the fact remains that populat ion pressures are presenting a serious problem. This paper has made no attempt to discuss demographic trends or so lut ions of demographic problems. The cont ro l of populat ion i s a com-plex subject and faces much oppos i t ion on p o l i t i c a l , c u l t u r a l , and r e l i g i o u s grounds.*2 Although measurable progress i s being made i n t h i s f i e l d , the wr i t e r fee l s that dra s t i c con-t r o l measures w i l l not be attained i n the foreseeable , future . This leads us to the i n e v i t a b l e conclusion that u n t i l man i s * In an i n d u s t r i a l and s c i e n t i f i c sense. *], For example: Mather, K . F . : Enough and to Spare, Harper and Brothers , New York, 19UJ4--*2 For an excel lent d i scuss ion of the problems of overpopu-l a t i o n the reader i s re ferred t o : K a r l Sax, Standing Room  Only, Beacon Press , Boston, 1955. 16k able, i f ever, to cont ro l h i s numbers, he must Increase h i s a b i l i t y to support h i s growing numbers at higher standards of l i v i n g , on a world-wide ba s i s . The most enlightened approach to the. problem of increas-ing the carry ing capaci ty of the land i s nat iona l planning of resource development on a reg ional ba s i s . I f our gener-a t ion i s entrusted with today's economic wel l -be ing , and res-ponsible f o r passing on to the next the greatest prospects f o r continued wel l -be ing , then our o b l i g a t i o n to p l an ahead as best we can i s c l e a r . In developing land fo r any purposes, man faces c e r t a i n phys ica l l i m i t a t i o n s . The two most obvious and important are climate and landforms. This study has attempted to develop and apply cer ta in p r i n c i p l e s of climate and landforms i n the planned use of natura l resources on a regional ba s i s . Since regional development also involves urban b u i l d i n g , some re-ference i s made to the appl ica t ions of these p r i n c i p l e s to t h i s phase of planning as w e l l . The focus of the study has been the examination of two "case study" .regions - i n e f fec t , to test these p r i n c i p l e s . Before the conclusions are presented, ; the wr i te r would l i k e to stress once more that the planned use of natura l re-sources does not only depend on the app l i ca t ion of our know-ledge of phys i ca l (and other) f a c t o r s . P o l i t i c a l , economic, adminis tra t ive , t echnolog ica l , and s o c i a l factors are equal ly o r , i n many cases, more important; but these considerations have been discussed i n t h i s study only i n pass ing . 165 Conclusions HISTORICALLY, MAN HAS BEEN UNABLE TO UNDERSTAND THE BALANCE FORMED BY THE INTERRELATIONSHIPS OF PHYSICAL FACTORS. Some of the re su l t s of t h i s lack of understanding have been presented i n the in t roduc t ion to t h i s paper. The d i s -rupt ion of t h i s balance, by man's a c t i v i t i e s , has been i n -f l u e n t i a l i n the r i s e and f a l l of c i v i l i z a t i o n s and p o l i t i c a l ideo log ie s . Only i n the 20th Century has man begun to re-a l i z e the importance of these p h y s i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Today roughly two-thirds of the world's populat ion do not know "freedom from want". PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHIC FACTORS FORM THE ENVIRONMENTAL BACKGROUND AGAINST. WHICH DEVELOPMENT MUST TAKE PLACE. As t h i s development should be planned, these geographic factors are important considerat ions of which the planner must be aware. In th i s regard, the planner need hot be a, phys i ca l s c i e n t i s t . The most important ro le of a planner i s that of a synthesist - l i k e the geographer, he must consider the parts i n r e l a t i o n to the whole. Phys ica l factors must be weighed and evaluated r e l a t i v e to economic, p o l i t i c a l , tech-n o l o g i c a l , s o c i a l , and other appl icable cons iderat ions . However, the planner must go further than the geographer i n that after he establ ishes the r e l a t i v e importance of these considerat ions , they are used as a base upon- which planning p o l i c y and programming may be b u i l t . 1 6 6 THE TWO BASIC PHYSICAL FACTORS MAN MUST CONSIDER IN THE DEV-ELOPMENT OF RESOURCES (CLIMATE AND LANDFORMS) ARE CLOSELY INTERRELATED. These i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s , and the r e s u l t i n g p r i n c i p l e s appl icable to planning resource development, have not been f u l l y recognized. I t was pointed out i n Chapter III that most work being done i n the f i e l d of climatic-geomorphology i s on a high academic l e v e l and has not resu l ted i n very many p r a c t i c a l app l i ca t ions . The summary of p r i n c i p l e s and areas of study and app l i ca t ion (Pages 6 7 - 7 2 ) , may be useful to the planner on th i s " p r a c t i c a l l e v e l " . THE RELATIVE IMPORTANCE OF PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHIC CONSIDERATIONS, IN ANY DEVELOPMENT, WILL VARY GREATLY. HOWEVER, WHERE THEY ARE IMPORTANT, THEY MAY RESULT IN NEW PLANNING CONCEPTS AND METHODS. The r e l a t i v e importance of p h y s i c a l factors i n a spec i f i c resource development was i l l u s t r a t e d In Chapter V. Phys ica l factors resu l ted i n two important l o c a t i o n a l advantages (power and deep-sea harbour) . However, the dec i s ion to de-velop t h i s phys ica l p o t e n t i a l resu l ted from economic consid-erat ions . Although economic factors outweighed a l l other con-s idera t ions , phys i ca l factors were important and resul ted i n the new planning concepts and methods discussed on pages 1 1 0 to 1 1 8 . Many of the planning impl ica t ions r e s u l t i n g from the K i t -imat experience w i l l have appl ica t ions to s i m i l a r types of development. This w i l l be e s p e c i a l l y true of Canada, for ex-ample B r i t i s h Columbia and the Canadian S h i e l d , but w i l l apply 167 to areas throughout the world. They may be of spec ia l s i g -n i f i cance i n underdeveloped areas where planning might be faced with problems of intense heat, unfami l ia r disease, and so on. IT MAY BE ADVANTAGEOUS TO CONSIDER PHYSICAL FACTORS FROM TWO LEVELS - (1) REGIONAL AND, (2) LOCAL OR URBAN. THIS SEEMS TO PRESENT A. BETTER PICTURE AS SOME PHYSICAL FACTORS ARE MORE IMPORTANT OVER THE REGION WHILE OTHERS HAVE MORE INFLUENCE LOCALLY. This approach was taken f o r both "case s tudies " . For example: (a) Phys ica l factors may be i n f l u e n t i a l i n such reg iona l considerations as: - the type of agr icu l ture within the region. These factors have helped e s t ab l i sh a wel l developed dairy and pou l t ry industry i n the Lower Mainland Region. - the transport patterns (See Figure Ik). - reg ional recreat ions and p o t e n t i a l r ec rea t iona l areas. (b) Phys ica l factors may be i n f l u e n t i a l i n such l o c a l (urban) condit ions as: - the allignment and o r i e n t a t i o n of s treets and bui ld ings (Kitimat i s a good example). - the p r o v i s i o n of u t i l i t i e s . - the preservat ion of open spaces. Microc l imat ic and microtopographic inf luences on the con-s t ruc t ion of engineering pro ject s may be important and should be recognized by the planner . Results from both the K i t imat-Kemano and Lower Mainland regions Indicate the importance of phys i ca l factors i n , f o r example: - the s e l ec t ion of dam s i tes - the l o c a t i o n of a i rpor t s 168 - i n d u s t r i a l l o c a t i o n (foundations, water supply, e tc . ) - highway construct ion - waste di sposa l and stream p o l l u t i o n - bridge construct ion - construct ion of transmission l i n e s . BEFORE DEVELOPMENT PROCEEDS, THE APPROPRIATE PHYSICAL ELEMENTS SHOULD BE STUDIED. THIS CANNOT BE ADEQUATELY DONE UNLESS ENOUGH DATA.IS.AVAILABLE. The r e l i a b i l i t y of the re su l t s (and the planning based on these resu l t s ) w i l l depend to a great extent on the rep-resentativeness , completeness, and length of ava i l ab le data . The Kitimat-Kemano experience ind ica tes that even the best engineers and planners must have adequate data to plan comprehensively. " . . . i f we could have known more about the science of - meteorology . . . I t would have been of great help . . . our own planners assumed an extremely high value fo r the f lood flow i n the r i v e r , which cost us a l o t of money . . . Some of us f e l t that the planners were un-neces sa r i ly conservative, but since no one knew, there was not too much point i n arguing."32 Industry, today, i s spending great sums of money on re-source development and seeks some assurance i t w i l l not be wasted. The importance of survey to planning cannot be under-estimated, for i t i s upon the analys is of the survey that planning i s b u i l t . Without an adequate survey, p lanning may not be f l e x i b l e enough to cope with the unexpected. 32 Kendrick, J .S . : "Research and the Kit imat Pro j ec t " , Address to the 7th B .C . Natural Resources-Conference, V i c t o r i a , 1951+. 1 6 9 IN CERTAIN AREAS A COMBINATION OP PHYSICAL FACTORS MAY RESULT.IN AN APPROPRIATE BASIS FOR REGIONAL DELIMITATION. These phys ica l factors may also e s t ab l i sh various pat-terns throughout the region ( t ransporta t ion , a g r i c u l t u r a l areas, e t c . ) . These patterns w i l l probably be modified to a varying, degree by other factors (mainly economic, p o l i t i c a l , adminis t ra t ive , and settlement pa t tern) . The Lower Mainland region has been c i t e d as a "natura l r eg ion" . There are many f a i r l y d i s t i n c t regions i n B r i t i s h Columbia and, over a per iod of time, the inf luence of p h y s i c a l factors has helped to create d i s t i n c t economic and s o c i a l patterns wi th in each area. Two of the most important problems fac ing the planner i n regional analysis are: 1. def ining the boundaries of the region whether they be l i n e s or zones. 2. e s t ab l i sh ing a reg ional core. In many cases i t seems reasonable to apply p h y s i c a l c r i t e r i a to the f i r s t and socio-economic to the second. THE GEOGRAPHIC PATTERNS OF THE DISTRIBUTION OF RESOURCES WILL INFLUENCE THE TYPE OF DEVELOPMENT FEASIBLE OR POSSIBLE. Canada, and e spec i a l ly B r i t i s h Columbia, i s undergoing rapid economic development, much of which i s based on the exp lo i t a t ion of natura l resources. Because of the d i s t r i b -u t ion of these resources, p h y s i c a l f ac tor s , although usua l ly secondary to economic considerat ions , have presented planning problems. 170 Many po tent i a l resources ex i s t but cannot be developed u n t i l a favourable combination of many factors e x i s t s . Geo-graphic p o s i t i o n may inf luence the economic f e a s i b i l i t y of development by i t s inf luence on markets, development costs , e tc . The Lower Mainland region i s a good example of an area i n which resource d i s t r i b u t i o n has ef fected development pat-terns (See Figure lk). For example: - the d i s t r i b u t i o n of. s o i l types has inf luenced the a g r i c u l t u r a l pat tern - the d i s t r i b u t i o n of vegetation has effected the pat tern of forest use - the d i s t r i b u t i o n of topographic features has inf luenced the transport patterns and a c c e s s i b i l i t y . The planner must consider these d i s t r i b u t i o n s as (1) they w i l l effect the economic f e a s i b i l i t y of development (distance a c c e s s i b i l i t y , e tc . ) and (2) i f development i s i n i t i a t e d , each resource may involve spec i f i c planning pro-blems such as i n d u s t r i a l l o c a t i o n , new towns, t ransporta t ion f a c i l i t i e s , e t c . SOME OF THE MOST IMPORTANT EFFECTS OF PHYSICAL CONDITIONS ON RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT ARE THE-SOCIAL IMPLICATIONS INVOLVED. THIS IS INDICATED BY EXPERIENCE IN CONSTRUCTING NEW TOWNS. The t y p i c a l large-sca le development a c t i v i t y may involve thousands of workers. ..The average worker today, un l ike that of 30 years ago, i s married and often has a fami ly . A new town, serving a resource development pro jec t , must be a place i n which these people w i l l want to l i v e * or the pro ject may not be successful . This may mean more than the p r o v i s i o n of homes, comm-uni ty centers , churches, schools , etc . I f phys i ca l condit-ions present problems (poor c l imate , i s o l a t i o n , e tc . ) the planner must t r y to overcome or compensate fo r them by des-i g n and the p rov i s ion of spec ia l f a c i l i t i e s . These phys i ca l problems w i l l vary or , i n some areas, may be unimportant. Chapter V has out l ined some solut ions offered by the Kit imat planners but the same th ink ing should apply to other s i tuat ions as w e l l . I f planning measures, r e s u l t i n g from phys i ca l f a c to r s , are used to create a p h y s i c a l environment (a r e s i d e n t i a l subdiv i s ion for example) they w i l l also create a s o c i a l en-vironment. Perhaps the r e s u l t i n g soc i a l re l a t ionsh ips may be used to judge the adequacy of the planning and, therefore , the importance to planning of the o r i g i n a l phys ica l f ac tor s . The Kit imat experience seems to ind ica te some c o r r e l a t i o n between the adequacy of planning and the r e s u l t i n g s o c i a l e f fec t s . Many of the o r i g i n a l suggestions, r e s u l t i n g from adverse phys i ca l f ac tor s , were not implemented. The re su l t has d e f i n i t e l y been in jur ious to s o c i a l r e l a t ionsh ips (see page 1 1 6 - 1 1 7 ) . * See Page 99 f o r Clarence S te in ' s concept of K i t imat . 172 The planner, therefore , should be aware that phys i ca l and soc ia l environments are i n t e r r e l a t e d . I t i s probably impossible to obtain d i rec t measurements but these r e l a t i o n -ships should be considered i f only by t a l k i n g about them. AS AN URBAN AREA EXPANDS, PLANNERS ARE USUALLY PACED WITH A CONFLICT OF LAND USES IN WHICH PHYSICAL FACTORS MAY BE IMPORTANT.. In a region containing a large urban area, phys i ca l factors are important i n the development of a complementary re l a t ionsh ip between the urban area and i t s h i n t e r l a n d . As the urban area expands i t occupies r u r a l land fo r urban uses. The planner i s faced with the problem of urban encroachment on a g r i c u l t u r a l land and the r e s u l t i n g c o n f l i c t of land uses. Phys ica l factors have been i n f l u e n t i a l i n e s tab l i sh ing the a g r i c u l t u r a l patterns around the urban area and may con-t r o l the d i rec t ions on which the urban area can expand. They should, therefore , be given considerat ion as the planner attempts to resolve th i s problem. This might be done i n the fo l lowing manner: 1 . How phys ica l factors have effected present patterns of a c t i v i t y . For example, i n the Lower Mainland reg ion : - landforms have inf luenced land use by prov id ing harbour, r i v e r v a l l e y , and de l t a , e t c . - by d i r e c t i n g the urban growth, phys i ca l fac tors have l i m i t e d the ava i lab le land supply ( r e l a t i v e to a c i t y free to expand i n a l l d i r e c t i o n s ) . This has i n t e n s i f i e d the land use c o n f l i c t . 2. What t h e i r effect' may be on future development. - the amount of non-agr i cu l tura l land ava i lab le for expansion - the p o t e n t i a l of extended development of the Fraser River 173 - the a v a i l a b i l i t y of water supply - phys i ca l factors may be l o c a t i o n a l a t t rac t ions for future i n d u s t r i a l development. Thi s was the case i n the Kitimat-Kemano region with power and harbour a v a i l a b l e . THE ROLE OP THE PLANNER SEEMS TO VARY A GREAT DEAL DEPENDING ON THE DEGREE OF DEVELOPMENT (IF ANY) WITHIN A REGION. In a new development planning may face many complex problems but the opportunity exists to p lan comprehensively, thus ( i n theory) reducing problems as development grows. The Kit imat type of development i s a good example. Once the problems of a c c e s s i b i l i t y , construct ion , e tc . have been solved and the development i s i n operat ion, the planner i s able to f i t future development in to l a rge ly predetermined pat terns . In the case of a l a rge , e s tabl i shed, complex region ( for example the Lower Mainland reg ion) , the planner i s faced with many condit ions he cannot change and problems he cannot f u l l y re so lve . Patterns of land use have become establ i shed and involve too much investment to undergo major changes. His ro le i n th i s case i s to guide present development and to p lan the best poss ible patterns of future development. IN ORDER TO PLAN FOR, CONTROL, AND DIRECT THE PHYSICAL (AND OTHER) FACTORS WHICH EFFECT REGIONAL AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT, THERE:IS A.NEED FOR A REGIONAL PLANNING AGENCY. Regardless of where, or on what bas i s , reg iona l bound-aries are drawn, a Regional Planning Agency should be est-abl i shed. Whatever i t s prec i se administrat ive and p o l i t i c a l 174 s t ructure , t h i s Agency would be responsible f o r the o v e r a l l planning and development of the reg ion . A Regional Planning Agency should be so p o l i t i c a l l y and admini s t ra t ive ly structured so as to provide i t with ad-equate powers of implementation. I t should be recognized that p h y s i c a l , economic, and s o c i a l planning are i n separable and should a l l be vested i n one Agency. As a case i n p o i n t , the Lower Mainland Regional Planning Board has been discussed i n Chapter V I . Although the Board i s p o t e n t i a l l y a strong planning too l and has recognized (at t imes)-«- the important ro le of phys i ca l f ac tor s , i t has no power to implement i t s p lans . Perhaps t h i s may be a reason why i t has not given more considerat ion to these phys i ca l f ac tor s . Some of these f ac tor s , such as the l o c a t i o n of major highways and r i v e r channel c o n t r o l , are important parts of regional p lanning. The p o l i t i c a l cl imate under which planning must operate i s very important. I t should provide not only adequate p lan-ning l e g i s l a t i o n but governmental p o l i c i e s must be f l e x i b l e , a l lowing f o r changes as the region changes. In order to be i n a p o s i t i o n to inf luence government p o l i c y , p lanning , ide -a l l y , should be on the executive l e v e l of government . • » ]_ Here i t would be able to inf luence p o l i c y decis ions on, for example, -* See Pages 153-155. * x See Pages 159-161. 175 the questions of metropol i tan and reg iona l government. The re su l t s of t h i s paper are not offered as "blanket" solut ions to other s i m i l a r types of planning problems. However, the wri ter fee l s they may provide the planner with some ins ight into problems a r i s i n g from phys i ca l factors and thus bet ter equip him to deal with them. The theme of the paper i s not to "beware of the phys i ca l environment", but to discover i t - re la te i t to other f ac tor s , weigh i t s import-ance, then i f i t i s important, make i t a part of p lanning . Some day man may contro l h i s environment, but u n t i l then he must l i v e with i t . APPENDIX A Spec i f i c Elements of Climate Re la t ing to Regional Resource Planning I Temperature - annual regime - mean maximum - mean minimum - absolute maximum - absolute minimum - dur ina l range - i n t e r - d u r i n a l range - annual range (mean) - annual range (extreme) - monthly range c y c l i c a l range - dates of - s tart o f f r o s t free per iod end of f ros t free per iod - accumulated temperatures (degree days) - anomolles of temperature - v e r t i c a l temperature gradients - rates of heat t ransfer II P r e c i p i t a t i o n - annual regime - mean maximum - mean minimum - absolute maximum - absolute minimum - type - r a i n snow - h a i l occul t p r e c i p i t a t i o n - depth of snow - time of f i r s t l a s t i n g snowfall - time of l a s t l a s t i n g snowfall - i n t e n s i t y of p r e c i p i t a t i o n - anomolies of p r e c i p i t a t i o n I I I Wind - annual regime of v e l o c i t i e s - average annual wind v e l o c i t i e s - mean maximum v e l o c i t i e s - mean minimum v e l o c i t i e s - absolute maximum v e l o c i t i e s - wind rose (d i rec t ion) - destruct ive winds - other phenonema associated with winds 177 IV Radi at lon - average i n t e n s i t y - maximum (mean) i n t e n s i t y - minimum (mean) i n t e n s i t y - angles of incidence ( so lar height) - amount (sunshine hours) V Cloud Coverage - monthly number of hours with var ious cloud forms - t o t a l cloud ( i n tenths of sky covered) by hours - number of hours (per month) with obstruct ions to v i s i o n and 1) v i s i b i l i t y measured.in mi les (hor izonta l ) 2) c e i l i n g measured i n feet ( v e r t i c a l ) obstruct ions should i n c l u d e : - fog , !- i c e - f o g - blowing dust or sand - smoke - haze - snow VI Relat ive and Absolute Humidity - annual regime - mean maximum - mean minimum - absolute maximum ~ absolute minimum VII Evaporation and Transp i ra t ion - there are some rates that are usefu l e s p e c i a l l y i n connection with eros ion and natura l vegetat ion problems. Note: Some elements included here are not very important i n a regional sense. They are, however, important i n a l o c a l sense and are therefore Included. 178 APPENDIX B  Elements of A e r i a l Photo Interpre ta t ion  Part I Phys ica l A Topography - r e l a t i v e r e l i e f and r e l i e f features may be located by : 1. I d e n t i f i c a t i o n through shadows 2. I d e n t i f i c a t i o n through vegetat ion 3. I d e n t i f i c a t i o n through, drainage [j.. I d e n t i f i c a t i o n through roads and r a i l roads 5. I d e n t i f i c a t i o n through c u l t i v a t i o n . B Physiographic Features 1. Fau l t l i n e s may be i d e n t i f i e d by : a) s o i l b) drainage displacement c) v i s i b l e scarps 2. -Ant ic l ines may be i d e n t i f i e d by: a) r a d i a l drainage b) streams fo l lowing bedding planes 3. A l l u v i a l fans may be i d e n t i f i e d by: a) s o i l tone may define c h a r a c t e r i s t i c shape b) found i n areas of sharp r e l i e f where there w i l l be a suddening f l a t t e n i n g of grade c) braided stream channels may be v i s i b l e . In a s imi l a r manner the fo l lowing physiographic features may be i d e n t i f i e d : * Sedimentary rocks 5. Sinkholes 6. Kett leholes 7. Stream capture 8. Ravines 9. Moraines 10. Outwash p l a in s 11. Drumlines 12. Eskers 13. Youthful and mature surfaces G Drainage 1. Water Bodies - except streams a) f l a t uni formity of tone b) shorel ine d i s t ingui shed by a sharp change i n tone and c o l o r o) waves and breakers may be v i s i b l e d) vegetat ion texture may change near shore. * This does not mean the fo l lowing features are i d e n t i f i e d by the same c r i t e r i o n , as i n most cases d i f f e rent c r i t e r i o n apply. 1 7 9 In a s i m i l a r manner the fo l lowing drainage features may be i d e n t i f i e d : 2 . R iver s , streams, creeks 3. Rapids and f a l l s I+. Braided streams 5. Flood p l a i n s 6 . Bank l i n e s 7 . Oxbow lakes and meander scars 8 . Canals 9 . Dams and s i m i l a r construct ions 1 0 , S o i l drainage D S o i l s - broad general izat ions about s o i l s are pos s ib le but no de ta i l ed c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s should be attempted on t h i s bas i s alone. Vegetation associat ions and a knowledge of c l i m a t i c condit ions may also give some clue as to s o i l nature - for example, a damp s o i l w i l l show darker than a dry s o i l i n the same area, marsh and swamp vegetat ion Indicates peat and muck, e t c . E Minera l Resources - a i r photos are used by experienced personnel to determine geologic s tructure as r e f l e c t e d i n surface features . The petroleum industry i s a good example where drainage, s o i l textures , e t c . are used to i d e n t i f y o i l - b e a r i n g s t r a ta . F Coasts and Shores - unless a water surface i s l i g h t struck (whijte) i t photographs dark with the tone varying with depth. On t h i s b a s i s , submerged forms can be i d e n t i f i e d by t h e i r shape and p o s i t i o n . 1 . Submarine deltas 2 . Sp i t s , bars , ree f s , submerged terraces , e tc . 3. Mud f l a t s !(•• Beaches 5>. Sand dunes 6 . Sea c l i f f s and b l u f f s . G Plant L i f e - the d e l i m i t a t i o n of vegetat ion zones i s one of the most important contr ibut ions of a e r i a l photography to geographic inventory . 1 . Hardwoods a) b i l lowy l i g h t and dark tone b) texture i s " s a l t and pepper" In a s i m i l a r manner the fo l lowing may be i d e n t i f i e d : 2 . Conifers 3 . Mixed hardwoods and coni fers k* Estimates of stand 5. Swamps 6 . Marshes 7 . Grasslands 8 . Brush 9 . Burns 1 0 . Cutover areas Part II C u l t u r a l 180 A Rural Bui ldings - among the ch ie f c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of occupance are bui ld ings which are immediately recognizable on photographs. The problem of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s the determination of the funct ion of the s t ructures , genera l ly by means of as soc ia t ive keys. Indicat ions as to use may be gathered from a study of the surroundings o f the bu i ld ings under :cons iderat ion. The factors to be considered are: 1. The shadow of the s t ructure , which w i l l give information as to the form of the b u i l d i n g , i t s he ight , and s t ruc tura l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . 2. The tone of the ground surrounding the s t ructure . 3» The surrounding b u i l d i n g s , p i l e s of mater ia l s , communication l i n e s , e t c . k. The s i t e , p o s i t i o n and s i t u a t i o n , inc lud ing spacing of the structures with reference to the l o t and neighboring s tructures , 5>. Any other h e l p f u l associat ive c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Spec i f i c types of bu i ld ings may i n c l u d e : a) r u r a l schools b) r u r a l churches c) farmhouses d) barns e) lumber m i l l s f) cottages g) hunting shacks h) abandoned bui ld ings B Rural Production - i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of c u l t i v a t e d land i s immediate because of the r e g u l a r i t y of pat tern and texture i t exh ib i t s , i n contrast to the coarser textures , I r regu la r ou t l ine s , and more homogeneous tones of fore s t , grass land, or brushland. Some s p e c i f i c elements are: 1. f i e l d l i n e s 2. c u l t i v a t e d land 3. crop types k. c i r c u l a r plowing and harvest ing 5>. orchards C Transportat ion - the fo l lowing may be i d e n t i f i e d on the bas i s of c o l o r , texture , r e g u l a r i t y , a s soc ia t ion with other c u l t u r a l features , e t c . 1. t r a i l s 2. roads 3. r a i l roads fords across bodies of water 5. transmission l i n e s 6. a i rport s 7. docks D Urban Forma - the c i t y lends I t s e l f more r e a d i l y to In terpre ta t ion than does the r u r a l landscape. Some patterns have become so standardized they are e a s i l y recognized. The use of shadows and assoc iat ive keys i s of p a r t i c u l a r importance. The fo l lowing features are very useful and the funct ion they perform important 1. trees 2. r a i l roads 3. o i l , gas, and coal storage I j . . i n d u s t r i a l bu i ld ings 5 . s treets 6. commercial core 7 . commercial zones 8. apartments 9. pub l i c bui ld ings 10. schools 11. house types 12. suburban areas 13. parks and cemetries I I4.. r ec rea t iona l areas. 182 APPENDIX C Effects Produced by Various Geomorphic Agents GEOMORPHIC AGENT CRUSTAL DEFORMATION IGNEOUS ACTION WEATHERING MASS WASTING or GRAVITATIVE TRANSFER RUNNING WATER SNOW and ICE WIND SUBSURFACE WATER WAVES ORGANISMS TYPICAL RESULTING EFFECTS Large ranges of mountains, geosyncl inal bas ins , f a u l t s . Volcanic cones, vo l can ic debr i s , s o i l formations a f ter weathering, e t c . The rock mantle, s o i l , e t c . depending on chemical or mechanical o r i g i n . Talus s lopes, rock streams and g l a c i e r s , l a n d s l i d e s , raudflows, co l l apse , s o l i f l u c t i o n , e t c . River v a l l e y systems, sheet-f lood eros ion , rainwash, arroyos, and other landforms found i n a r i d regions , fans, de l t a s , bars , e t c . Continental and a lpine g l a c i e r s , l and-forms associated with g l a c i a l ac t ion , e . g . c i rques , g lac ia ted v a l l e y s , hang-i n g v a l l e y s , moraines, f j o r d s . Sand dunes, loess deposi ts , rock p i l l a r s , natura l arches, escarpments. Basins, so lu t ion s inks , and v a l l e y s , cavern systems, c l i f f caverns. Beaches, sea c l i f f s , bars , s p i t s , lagoons, submarine canyons, ree f s . Coral ree f s , beaver dams, a n t h i l l s , a c t i v i t i e s of man (farming, mining, b u i l d i n g dams and c i t i e s , e t c . ) APPENDIX D  Thornwaite's Classification of Climates 183 Instead of employing single temperature and precipitation values to establish boundaries, the concepts of temperature efficiency and precipitation effectiveness are used. These concepts cannot be expressed i n ordinary climatic values, and therefore must be thought of as zones. Thornwaite was the f i r s t to introduce mean monthly values instead of annual values. In his latest system (1914-8) he regards vegetation as a "physical mechanism by means of which water i s transported from the s o i l to the atmosphere". In the classification, the "precipitation effectiveness" of the area i s the key factor. There i s no suitable mechanism at present for measuring evaporation so i t was related to temperature. The evaporation from the s o i l surface added to the transpiration from plants was called the "evapotranspiration rate" and was computed as a function of the - temperature• Precipitation efficiency index = 12 n-1 115 T-10 1 G / c where P = monthly precipitation T - mean monthly temperature i n °P. Based on the above, five humidity provinces are d i s t i n -guished, each of which appears associated with a vegetation type. CHARACTERISTIC HUMIDITY VEGETATION PROVINCE P/E INDEX 128 4-6ij. - 127 32 - 63 16 - 31 Under 16 Rainforest Forest Grassland Steppe Desert Wet Humid Subhumid Semiarid Arid Trewartha, G.T.; An Introduction to Climate. McGraw-Hill • Book Co. Ltd., Toronto, 1954, PP. 225-230. These five humidity provinces are subdivided into four sub-types based on the concentration of precipitation: r - r a i n f a l l abundant i n a l l seasons s s r a i n f a l l deficient i n summer w a r a i n f a l l deficient i n winter d s r a i n f a l l deficient i n a l l seasons. A further refinement i s added, based on temperature efficiency. TEMPERATURE P/E INDEX PROVINCE 128 -h A 1 - Tropical 6t|. - 127 B 1 - Me sothermal 32 - 63 C 1 - Microthermal 1 6 - 3 1 D 1 - tiaga 1 - .15 - tundra 0 P 1 - frost Theoretically, 120 combinations of these three elements are possible. In reality, Thornwaite recognizes only 32. The above system of classification was included for i l l u s t r a t i v e purposes only and i s not considered by the writer to be the most applicable i n a l l cases. 185 APPENDIX B Man as a G e o l o g i c a l A g e n t * Throughout h i s t o r y bu t e s p e c i a l l y i n the 20th C e n t u r y , the a c t i v i t i e s o f man have been r e s p o n s i b l e f o r many changes i n h i s p h y s i c a l env i ronment . Many w r i t e r s are b e g i n n i n g to c l a s s i f y the works o f man a l o n g w i t h the o t h e r p h y s i c a l f o r c e s t h a t are r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the p a t t e r n s o f l a n d f o r m s and o t h e r e n v i r o n m e n t a l f a c t o r s . Most o f man 's g e o l o g i c a l a c t i v i t i e s are as an agent o f d e n u d a t i o n . T h i s i n c l u d e s almost a l l forms o f m i n i n g a n d , more i n d i r e c t l y , the d e s t r u c t i o n o f v e g e t a t i o n which l e a d s to changes i n c l i m a t e , e r o s i o n , and so o n . Some o f the a d d i t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s o f man r e s u l t i n g i n p h y s i c a l changes a r e : . - d i s t u r b a n c e o f n a t u r a l ground water f l o w - changes In the c o u r s e o f r i v e r s and s m a l l e r water c h a n n e l s - the f i l l i n g o f l a k e s - t h e c c r e a t i o n o f new l a k e s - the c h e c k i n g a n d / o r p r o m o t i o n o f e r o s i o n a l p r o c e s s e s - m o d i f i c a t i o n o f c l i m a t e Most o f these p r o c e s s e s are e r r a t i c and c o n c e n t r a t e d at s p e c i f i c p o i n t s w i t h the r e s u l t t h a t t h e i r e f f e c t s are h a r d to e s t i m a t e . Man 's e n g i n e e r i n g works are so many and o f such a v a r i e t y t h a t i t i s a lmost i m p o s s i b l e to see t h e i r c u m u l a t i v e e f f e c t on n a t u r e . The o n l y p o s s i b l e way, t h e n , to t r y to e s t i m a t e these e f f e c t s i s to do so on a r e g i o n a l b a s i s . A s , i n a d d i t i o n , the r e g i o n must be one i n which many and a c c u r a t e r e c o r d s are a v a i l a b l e , the B r i t i s h I s l e s i s a good example . There are at l e a s t seven major a reas i n t o which these human a c t i v i t i e s may f a l l . 1. E x c a v a t i o n - t h i s a r e a w i l l i n c l u d e m a t e r i a l f rom m i n e s , q u a r r i e s , e t c . and m a t e r i a l f rom r i v e r s , c a n a l s , e t c . o b t a i n e d f rom d r e d g i n g . 2. A t t r i t i o n - ( a b r a s i o n ) . I n c l u d e d i n t h i s a r e a i s m a t e r i a l u s e d f o r road b u i l d i n g and some forms o f m i n i n g . 3» Subs idence - may be the r e s u l t o f s u b s u r f a c e and subaqueous m i n i n g o r e x t r a c t i o n o f such m a t e r i a l s as o i l , b r i n e , wa te r , e t c . The major e f f e c t o f s u b s i d e n c e i s the d i s r u p t i o n o f s u r f a c e d r a i n a g e . TOTAL EXCAVATION IN GREAT BRITAIN (1922 e s t i m a t e ) A c t i v i t y C u b i c Y a r d s mines 19,692,000,000 q u a r r i e s and p i t s 15,500,000,000 r a i l w a y s 3,030,500,000 * Much o f the f o l l o w i n g i s adopted f rom R . L . S h e r l o c k . Man as a G e o l o g i c a l A g e n t . John W i l e y & Sons L t d . , London, 1930. 186 c a n a l s r o a d c u t t i n g s docks and h a r b o u r s b u i l d i n g s and s t r e e t s 1+. 5. 6 . 7. TOTAL 2^3,500,000 62l+,000,000 100,000,000 500,000,000 39,699,000,000 A c c u m u l a t i o n - o f a l l t h e p r o d u c t s o f man's a c t i v i t i e s . These may tak e many shapes and s i z e s and have many e f f e c t s . Such t h i n g s as garbage dumps and mine t a i l i n g s a r e examples. A l t e r a t i o n s o f the Sea Coast - t h e d e p o s i t i o n and removal o f m a t e r i a l i s t h e major c a u s a t i v e f a c t o r . Some examples a r e : - p l a n t i n g o r removal o f v e g e t a t i o n - d r a i n a g e o f d y k i n g - sea w a l l s , s p i t s , e t c . - r e c l a m a t i o n o f l a n d - docks - d r e d g i n g C i r c u l a t i o n o f Water - some a c t i v i t i e s o f man have i n t e r f e r e d w i t h t h e n a t u r a l c i r c u l a t i o n o f w a t e r . Some examples a r e : - l a n d d r a i n a g e - i r r i g a t i o n - w a t e r s u p p l y f o r d o m e s t i c and i n d u s t r i a l use - w a t e r pumped from w o r k i n g s , m i n e s , e t c . - m o d i f i c a t i o n s o f n a t u r a l d r a i n a g e - s t r e a m p o l l u t i o n - i n c r e a s i n g n a t u r a l r u n o f f by r e m o v a l o f v e g e t a t i o n - d e c r e a s i n g n a t u r a l r u n o f f (and t h e r e f o r e e r o s i o n ) by dams and r e s e r v o i r s . C l i m a t e and Scenery - t h e e f f e c t s o f man's a c t i v i t i e s on b o t h a re f a i r l y o b v i o u s . P o r example: - t h e e f f e c t o f v e g e t a t i o n on c l i m a t e i s i m p o r t a n t e s p e c i a l l y when i t i s removed. F l o o d s and i n c r e a s e d e r o s i o n are t h e r e s u l t . - t h e removal o f v e g e t a t i o n may a l s o i n c r e a s e t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f c a r b o n monoxide and c a r b o n d i o x i d e i n t h e atmosphere. G r a s s e d S o i l S l o p e 10° 20° 30° 13 .9 1+1.6 50 .8 Bare S o i l 10° 20° 30° 83I+.8 2368.1+ 3101 .1 The above t a b l e shows the we i g h t o f d e t r i t u s , i n grams, removed by r a i n s and m e l t i n g snow, p e r square metre o f s u r f a c e , o v e r a p e r i o d o f one y e a r . As s l o p e i n c r e a s e s t h e e r o s i o n i n c r e a s e s , b u t even more marked i s t h e i n c r e a s e i n e r o s i o n on b a r e s o i l , as compared w i t h g r a s s e d s o i l . T r e e s w i t h u n d e r b r u s h a r e even b e t t e r t h a n g r a s s . 187 - the destruction of forests effects the temperature. When vegetation i s present the evaporation of water from i t creates a lower temperature. With the removal of vegetation, and'consequent temperature rise, erosion may start. This may, i n turn, raise the temperature by: a) f a c i l i t a t i n g drainage, and therefore drying the s o i l b) allowing cold air to drain away. - i n many areas man's activities have destroyed or enhanced the;scenery. Conclusion The work of man resembles that of natural agents that are known to have acted with exceptional power at Intervals i n the earth's history. For example: the action of Ice through the Pleistocene epoch. The marked characteristic of man, as a geological agent, i s intermittency. A process that produces rapid denudation may only last a few years. For example, most of Britain's canals were bu i l t by 1800 when the railways started to replace.-them. These had their own effects on the physical environment and today are almost as extensive as they w i l l ever be. Instead of producing f l a t , smooth surfaces as nature's processes do, man makes holes, mounds, terraces, and other uneven shapes - much like glacial action. Natural denudation removes the softer rocks with the result that they form the valleys and the harder rocks form the h i l l s and plateaus. Man may excavate hard or soft rock and i n many cases prefers hard. For example, roadbeds, quarries, etc. Sherlock has estimated the total amount of material exca-vated by man i n Britain to be It-0,000 million cubic yards. This Is equal to a depth of 5>.2lj." over the entire surface area of Britain (except Ireland). To compare this with natural erosion, Sir Archibald Geikie* estimates the rate of plantation of the Brit i s h Isles to be 1 foot In 8,800 years. In spite of variations i n the mode of attack, i t seems that the rate of human denudation, on the whole, has been Increasing rapidly until the present time. An interesting question asked i s : "Will the rate continue to increase, or decrease In the future?" * Sir A. Geikie: Text Book of Geology. 2 vols., £th Edition, BIBLIOGRAPHY 188 Addison, H.: Land. Water and Food. Chapman and H a l l Limited, London, 1955* A l l b r i g h t , J . C : Summer Weather Data, Kansas C i t y , The Marley Co., 1939. Atwood, W.W.: The Physiographic Provinces of North America. Ginn and Co., Boston, 191*0. Birch, G.I., and Pendell, E.: Population Roads to Peace and  War. Population Reference Bureau, Washington, D.C., 1914-5. B l a i r , T.A.: Climatology. General and Regional. Prentice H a l l , Inc., 191+2. Brown, J.S., and Dake, C.L.: Interpretation of Topographic and  Geologic Maps. McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, 1 9 2 5 . Black, J.D.: Introduction to Economics f o r Agriculture. The . MacMillan Co., London, 1 9 5 3 . Brooks, C.E.P.: Climate Through the Ages. Ernest Benn Ltd., London, 191+9. Bryan, P.W.: Man's Adaption to Nature, university of London . Press, London, 1 9 3 3 . Bunce, A.C.: The Economics of S o i l Conservation. Iowa, Collegiate Press, 191+5. " Carlson, A.S.: Economic Geography of Industrial Materials. Relnhold Publishing Corp., New York, 1 9 5 6 . Conrad, V., and Pollak, L.W.: Methods i n Climatology. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 1 9 5 0 . C o l l i s o n , C.H.: America's Natural Resources. Ronald Press Co., New York, 1957. Coulomb, J . : La Constitution Physique de l a Terre. A l b i n Michel Editions, Paris, 1 9 5 2 . Crone, G.R.: Maps and t h e i r Makers. Hutchinson's University Library, Hutchinson House, London, 1 9 5 3 . 189 Dana, S .S . : A Textbook of Minerology. Revised by W.E. Ford , John Wiley and Sons, London, 195l . Davis , W.M.: Geographical Essays, D.W. Johnson e d . , Dover Publ icat ions I n c . , New York, 1954. Dayish, G . H . : Studies i n Regional Planning. G. P h i l i p , London, 19WI Deep Water. New York Marine News C o . , Recorder Press , P l a i n f i e l d , N . J . , 1952. De Martonne, E . : T ra i t e de Geographic Physique, L i b r a ! r i e Armand C o l i n , P a r i s , 1925. Dewhurst, J . F . , and A s s o c . : America's Needs and Resources, Twentieth Century. Fund, New York, 1947. Doane, R . R . : World Balance Sheet, Harper and B r o s . , New York, 1937: Fenneman, H . M . : Physiography of Western United States, McGraw-Hill Book C o . , New York, 1931. Fos ter , E . E . : R a i n f a l l and Runoff, The MacMillan C o . , London, 19W* Fox, C . S . : The Geology of Water Supply, Technical Press , New York, 1914-9. Freeman, O.W., and Mart in , H . H . : The P a c i f i c Northwest. John Wiley and Sons L t d . , London, 1954* Gardley, A . J . : A e r i a l Photographs: The i r Use and Interpre ta t ion . Harper and Bros . , New York, 1942. ' G e i k i e , S i r A . : Textbook of Geology. 2 v o l s . , 5th e d . , 1903. Hartshome, R . : The Nature of Geography, Edward Bros, and C o . , Lancaster, P a . , (Reprinted from the Annals of the Assoc. of American Geographers, 1939). Havemeyer, L . e d . : Conservation of Our Natural Resources. The MacMillan C o . , London, 1930. Hinds, N . E . : Geomorphology. P r e n t i c e - H a l l , I n c . , New York, Hinds, N . E . H . : Geomorphology, the Evo lu t ion of Landscape, P r e n t i c e - H a l l C o . , New York, 1943. 190 Huntington, C . C . : The Geographic Basis o f Society , Prent ice-H a l l C o . , New York, 1934. Huntington, E . : C i v i l i z a t i o n and Climate. Yale Univer s i ty Press , 3rd e d . , 1924. Huntington, E . : Cl imat ic Changes. Yale U n i v e r s i t y Press , 1922. James, P . E . , and Jones, C P . , e d . , American Geography: Inventory  and Prospect , Syracuse U n i v e r s i t y Press , Syracuse, N . Y . , 1954. Jenny, H.: Factors of S o i l Formation, McGraw-Hill Book C o . , New York, 194 l» Jensen, M . , e d . , : Regionalism i n America, Wisconsin U n i v e r s i t y Press , 1938. Keeble, L. : P r i n c i p l e s and Prac t i ce o f Town and Country Planning. Estates Gazette L t d . , London, 1952. Kendrew, W . G . : The Climates of the Continents . Oxford Univer s i ty Press , London, 1932. Koeppe, C . : The Canadian Climate. McKnight and McKnight, Toronto, 1931. Lahee, F . H . : F i e l d Geology. McGraw-Hill Book C o . , New York, .1952: Lake, P . : Phys i ca l Geography. Cambridge Univer s i ty Press , London, 1952, ( rev i sed by J . A . Steers and o ther s ) . Landsberg, H.: Phys ica l Cl imatology. Gray P r i n t i n g C o . , Dubois, P a . , 1950. Local Planning Adminis t ra t ion . Internat iona l C i t y Managers As soc . , Edwards Bros. I n c . , Chicago, 1953, (Municipal Management Ser ies , Part 2 ) . Longwell , C . R . , and others : Out l ines of Geology. John Wiley and Sons L t d . , London, 1941. Ludlam, F . H . , and Scorer, R . S . : Further Outlook. A l l a n Wingate L t d . , London, 1954. McKaye, B . : The New Exp lora t ion : A Philosophy of Regional Planning. Harcourt , Brace and.Co. , New York, 1928. McWllllams, C . : I l l Fares the Land. L i t t l e Brown and C o . , Boston, 1942. 191 Mumford, L.: Technics and C i v i l i z a t i o n . Harcourt, Brace and Co., New York, 1931+. Newell, H.E.: High A l t i t u d e Rocket Research. Academic Press : Inc., New York, 1953. Odum, H.W., and Moore, H.E.: American Regionalism. H. Ho l t and Co., New York, 193^ Osborn, F.: Our Plundered P l a n e t . L i t t l e , Brown, and Co., Boston, 1950. Outside Readings i n Geography, Renner, G.T. ed., Growell Go., New York, 1955. Penck, W.: Morphological A n a l y s i s and F o r e c a s t i n g . MacMillan and Co., London, 1953. Pearson, F.A., and P a a r l b e r g , E.: S t a r v a t i o n Truths. H a l f t r u t h s . Untruths. I t h a c a , 19US^ ' ~~ Penk, W.: Die Morphologlsche Analyse. S t u t t g a r t , 1927. P e t t e r s s e n , S.: Weather A n a l y s i s and F o r e c a s t i n g . McGraw-H i l l Book Co., New York, .191+1. P o w e l l , J.W.: Report on the Lands of the A r i d Regions of the  U.S., Washington. D.C. 1679. Putnam, D.F. ed.: Canadian Regions. J.M. Dent and Sons, Toronto, 1952. -R a i s z , E.: General Cartography. McGraw-Hill Book Co. L t d . , New York, 191+8. R a s t o r t z e f f , M.I.: Out o f the Past o f Greece and Rome. Yale U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , New Haven, 1932. R a t c l i f f , R.U.: Urban Land Economics, McGraw-Hill Book Co. Lt d . , New. York, 191+1. Sax, K a r l : Standing Room Only. Beacon Press, Boston, 1955. S c o t t , A.: Nat u r a l Resources: The Economics of Conservation. U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto Press, Toronto, 1955, (Canadian Studies I n Economics, P a r t 3). Shannon, F.A.: America's Economic Growth. The MacMillan Co., London, 191+0. Shapley, H. ed. : C l i m a t i c Change: Evidence, Causes and E f f e c t s . Harvard U n i v e r s i t y Press, Cambridge, 1953. 192 Smith, H . T . U . : A e r i a l Photographs and Their A p p l i c a t i o n s . Appleton-Century-Crofts I n c . , New York, 1943. Sherlock, R . L . : Man as a Geologic a l Agent. H . P . and G. WItherby, London, 1922. Stamp, L . D . : Land for Tomorrow, Indiana U n i v e r s i t y Press, Bloomington, 1952. Stamp, L . D . : Phys ica l Geography fo r Canada, Longmans and Green, Toronto, 19 53• ~ Sutton, O . G . : Micrometeorology. McGraw-Hill Book C o . , New York, 1954. Thomas, W . L . : Man's Role i n Changing the Face of the Ear th . Univer s i ty of Chicago Press , Chicago, 1956. Thompson, H . D . : Fundamentals of Ear th Science. D. Appleton-- Century Co. I n c . , New York, 1947. Thornbury, W.D. : P r i n c i p l e s of Geomorphology. John Wiley & ' Sons, London, 1954* Timmons, J . F . , and Murray, W . G . : Land Problems and P o l i c i e s . Iowa State College Press, 1950. Town and Country Planning Textbook. A . P . R . R . e d . , The A r c h i t e c t u r a l Press , New York, 1954* Toynbee, A . J . : Greek H i s t o r i c a l Thought, (from Homer to the Age of H e r a c l i u s ) , J .M. Dent, London, 1924. Trewartha, G . T . : An Introduct ion to Cl imate, McGraw-Hill Book Co. L t d . , New York, 1954. Vogt, W.: Road to S u r v i v a l . Wil l iam Sloan I n c . , New York, ms: von Engeln, O . D . : Geomorphology. The MacMillan C o . , London, 1942. Waddington, C . H . : The S c i e n t i f i c A t t i t u d e . Pe l i can Books, A8A, 1941. Weaver, J . D . , and Luckermann, F . E . : World Resource S t a t i s t i c s . Burgess Publ i shing C o . , Minneapolis , 1953. White, G . L . , and Foscue, E . J . : Regional Geography of Anglo-America. P r e n t l c e - H a l l I n c . , New York, 1954. 193 Woolridge, S.W.: The Geographer as a S c i e n t i s t , Thomas Nelson and Sons, L t d . , London, 1956 . Woolridge, S .W., and East , W . G . : The S p i r i t and Purpose of Geography, Gainsborough Press , London, 1952 . P e r i o d i c a l s , Government Reports, E t c . Annals of th© Assoc ia t ion of American Geographers, A l l a n Press , U . S . A . Armstrong, J . E . : S u p e r f i c i a l Geology of Vancouver Area, B . C . , G e o l . Surv. Can . , Dept. of Mines and Technica l Surveys, Ottawa, Paper 55-1+0, 1956 . A Water P o l i c y for the American People, Report of the Pres ident ' s Water Resources P o l i c y Commission, U . S . G o v ' t . P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , Washington, D . C , V o l . 1 , -1950 . B . C . Bureau of Economics and S t a t i s t i c s , Regional I n d u s t r i a l Index of B . C . , Queen's P r i n t e r , V i c t o r i a , B .C . Department of Lands & Fores t s , Report of the Lands Serv ice , 1 9 5 1 , 1953 , 1951+, 1955T Boyer, D . S . : K i t imat , Canada's Aluminum T i t a n , National Geographic-Magazine, V o l . CX, September 1953, PP. 3 7 6 - 3 9 8 . Brooks, C F . , and Conner, A . J . : C l imat ic Maps of North America, Harvard Univer s i ty Press, Cambridge, 1936 . Canada Department of Transport, Meteorological D i v i s i o n : - General Summaries of Hourly Weather Observations i n Canada, 191+3-55. - Cl imat ic Summaries fo r Selected Meteorological Stat ions i n Canada - C l imato log ica l Atlas of Canada - Monthly Record of Meteorological Observations i n Canada. The Canadian Geographer, The Canadian Assoc ia t ion of Geographers, Ottawa. Canadian Geographical Journal , Royal Canadian Geographical Soc iety . 19k Chapman, J . D . : The Climate of B r i t i s h Columbia, U . B . C . , The Climate of B r i t i s h Columbia, Dept. of A g r i c u l t u r e , Province of B . C . , V i c t o r i a , 1952-1955. Cl imato log ica l Data, U.S . Dept. of Commerce, Washington, D . C . Community Planning News, Community Planning Assoc ia t ion of Canada, Ottawa, Number 6, 1955. Davis , J . : Canadian Energy Prospects, Royal Commission on Canada's Economic Prospects , Queen's P r i n t e r , Ottawa, 1957. Deetz, D . H . : Cartography, U .S . Dept. of Commerce, Specia l Publ ica t ions No. :205, Washington, D.C. Desert, Desert Press I n c . , C a l i f o r n i a . Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s , Canada 1957. Queen's P r i n t e r , Ottawa, Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s , The Canada Year Books, Queen's P r i n t e r , Ottawa.. The Economic Aspects of Urban Sprawl, A Technica l Report, Lower Mainland Regional Planning Board of B r i t i s h Columbia, New Westminster, 1956. Economic Geography. Clark U n i v e r s i t y , Mass. Economic Geology, Lancaster Press L t d . , Lancaster , Pa. Gazeteer of Canada, B r i t i s h Columbia, Canadian Board on Geographical Names, Ottawa, 1953. Geographical B u l l e t i n , Geographical Branch, Dept. of Mines and Technical Surveys, Ottawa. Geographical Review. American Geographical Society of New York. Geographical Studies. Birkbeck Col lege , London. Geologica l Survey, Memoirs, Canada Dept. of Mines, Ottawa. Geologica l Survey, Summary Reports, Canada Dept. of Mines, Ottawa. 195 Land C l a s s i f i c a t i o n f o r A g r i c u l t u r a l Development, Pood and Agr icu l ture Organizat ion of the United Nations, Rome, November 1952. Loney, T . W . : Geology and Geomorphology of the Southern Vancouver I s land Area, Paper prepared f o r Geology U12, Dr. W.H. Mathews, U . B . C . , 1956. The Lower Mainland Looks Ahead, The Lower Mainland Regional Planning Board of B r i t i s h Columbia, New Westminster, 1952. Malayan Journal of T r o p i c a l Geography, Dept. o f Geography, Univer s i ty of Malaya, Singapore. Minera l s , Canada, and the World, Minera l Resources D i v i s i o n , Dept. of Mines and Technica l Surveys, Ottawa. Min i s t e r of Mines, Province of B . C . , Annual Reports, Queen's P r i n t e r , V i c t o r i a . Powell River Company L t d . , B r i e f to the Royal Commission of  Enquiry into the Forest Resources of B . C . , January 1956. : The Pres ident ' s Mater ia l s P o l i c y Commission, Resources f o r Freedom, U.S. Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , Washington, D . C . , 1952. - V o l . 1 Foundations for Growth and Secur i ty - " 2 The Outlook for Key Commodities - - 3 The Outlook fo r Energy Sources - " k The Promise of Technology - 5 Selected Reports to the Commission. Robinson, J . L . : Geography and Regional Planning. The Canadian Geographer, No. 6", 1956. Schuchert, C : At l a s of Paleographic Maps of North America. John Wiley & Sons I n c . , London, 1955. " "~~~ S te in , C : Kit imat Townsite Report. B r i t i s h Empire B u i l d i n g , New York, 1951-52. Transactions of the B . C . Natural Resource Conferences, V i c t o r i a . 191+8-57. United Nations, S t a t i s t i c a l Yearbook. United Nations Publ i ca t ions , New York, 1950-56. U.S. Monthly Weather Review, U.S . Dept. of Commerce, Washington, D.C . , 196 U.S. Natural Resources Committee, Drainage Basin Problems  and Programs, Washington Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , Washington, D . C , 1938. U.S. Natural Resources Committee, Regional Factors i n National  Planning and Development, U.S . Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , Washington, D . C , 1935. Visher , S . S . : Climate and Geomorphology, Journal of Geomorphology, V o l . !(., p . 3>4-. V i sher , S .S . : C l imat ic Maps of Geologica l In teres t , Geo l . Society of America, B u l l . 56, p . 713. ABSENCE REPORT Please report holidays i n terns of days and sick leave i n hours. Please do not report periods of less than a half hour. DIVISION - WEEK ENDING SATURDAY LEAVE WITHOUT NAME SICK LEAVE PAY VACATION APPROVED Divi s i o n Head. 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0106136/manifest

Comment

Related Items