UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

A regional planning analysis of a single enterprise community of settlements Clegg, Edward Terrence 1958

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A REGIONAL PLANNING ANALYSIS OF A SINGLE ENTERPRISE COMMUNITY OF SETTLEMENTS by EDWARD TERRENCE CLEGG  REPORT ON A PROJECT SUBMITTED IN LIEU OF A THESIS IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE i n the Department o f COMMUNITY AND REGIONAL PLANNING  We accept t h i s r e p o r t as conforming t o the standard r e q u i r e d from candidates f o r the degree o f MASTER OF SCIENCE  Members o f the Department o f Community and R e g i o n a l Planning  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September,  195&  ABSTRACT I t i s the purpose o f t h i s T h e s i s t o demonstrate: t h a t a s i n g l e e n t e r p r i s e community o f s e t t l e m e n t s s h o u l d p l a n i t s a c t i v i t i e s t o p r e v e n t ghost towns f r o m d e v e l o p i n g and t o l e s sen t h e i l l - e f f e c t s  o f economic f l u c t u a t i o n s ;  that a region-  a l p l a n n i n g approach t o t h i s problem i s t h e b e s t s i n c e i t produces b a l a n c e d s o l u t i o n s from c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f p h y s i c a l , s o c i a l , and economic a s p e c t s ;  t h a t the problems o f s i n g l e  e n t e r p r i s e communities can be s o l v e d i f a group or an  indivi-  d u a l who has r e c o g n i z e d t h e problem can g i v e the l e a d e r s h i p needed t o s t i r governments, companies, and the p e o p l e  suffi-  c i e n t l y so t h a t a r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g a d m i n i s t r a t i o n w i l l be e s t a b l i s h e d as the f i r s t s t e p t o s o l v i n g the problem; finally,  and,  t h a t the s u r v e y , a n a l y s i s , and s o l u t i o n s , w i l l be  a c o n t r i b u t i o n t o knowledge.  A s u r v e y o f v a r i o u s communities  was u n d e r t a k e n t o demonstrate the problem.  These were  s e t t l e m e n t s as t h e y e x i s t e d i n the p a s t and .as t h e y e x i s t today.  The s i n g l e e n t e r p r i s e community o f s e t t l e m e n t s o f t h e  R o s s l a n d - T r a i l Region i s used as a case s t u d y i n o r d e r t o show t h a t such a community i s v u l n e r a b l e t o the g e n e r a l p r o blem but can be a i d e d .  A survey of i t s p a r t i c u l a r  problems  i s u n d e r t a k e n and v a r i o u s s o l u t i o n s t o them are o f f e r e d . From t h e problems and s o l u t i o n s c e r t a i n g e n e r a l p r i n c i p l e s are  derived:  The P r i n c i p l e o f a R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Appraach;  The P r i n c i p l e of the P h y s i c a l Habitat; gional Delimitation;  A P r i n c i p l e f o r Re-  The P r i n c i p l e of Economic Dominance;  The P r i n c i p l e of a Regional Land-Use Balance; of Economic Expansion and D i v e r s i f i c a t i o n ; Resource Development;  The P r i n c i p l e  The P r i n c i p l e of  The P r i n c i p l e of C i t i z e n P a r t i c i p a t i o n  The P r i n c i p l e of Limited J u r i s d i c t i o n ; a Regional Planning A d m i n i s t r a t i o n .  and The P r i n c i p l e of  In presenting  t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of  the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the  University  of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference and study. agree that permission f o r extensive f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may  I further  copying of t h i s t h e s i s  be granted by the Head of  Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e .  my  I t i s understood  that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be•allowed without my w r i t t e n permission.  Department of Community and Regional Planning The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver 3, Canada. Date  September 27, 195&*  TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER I.  PAGE  THE PROBLEM OF THE SINGLE ENTERPRISE 1  COMMUNITY OF SETTLEMENTS . . . Planning Hypothesis  1  Methods of Study .  2  The Single E n t e r p r i s e Based 4  Community The Causes of F a i l u r e and  36  Depressions The Problems of Community Depres-  3<3  sions and F a i l u r e s  40  The Role of the Regional Planner II.  A SURVEY OF THE PROBLEMS OF THE ROSSLAND41  TRAIL REGION  41  R o s s l a n d - T r a i l Area The R o s s l a n d - T r a i l Regional  Delimi50  t a t i o n and Settlement P a t t e r n  63  Municipal Revenues Municipal Finances i n Rossland and T r a i l  32  U t i l i t i e s and Services Economic Base A n a l y s i s Regional Economy  $7 -  93 101  V  CHAPTER  PAGE P o t e n t i a l Resources i n t h e Region . . . . . Social Characteristics  ...  e  . . . . . .  110 116  M u n i c i p a l Government i n R o s s l a n d and T r a i l  . . . . . » • • . .  R e g i o n a l Power S t r u c t u r e  . . . .  126  • • •  129  A Lack o f D i r e c t i o n III.  132  SOLUTIONS TO THE PROBLEMS IN THE ROSSLAND-TRAIL REGION  137  Introduction  137  R e g i o n a l Development  .  13$  Economic E x p a n s i o n and D i v e r s i fication  e  A Planning Administration  164 . .  Improving M u n i c i p a l Finances IV.  A SUMMARY The Problems o f t h e S i n g l e  176 1$2 194  Enterprise  Community o f S e t t l e m e n t s  194  A Survey o f t h e Problems i n t h e R o s s l a n d T r a i l Region  199  S o l u t i o n s t o t h e Problems o f t h e R o s s l a n d - T r a i l Region . . . V.  20$  SOME GENERAL CONCLUSIONS FOR APPLICATION  216  The P r i n c i p l e o f a R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Approach  216  vi CHAPTER  PAGE The P r i n c i p l e of the P h y s i c a l Habitat  . . .  217  A P r i n c i p l e f o r Regional D e l i m i t a t i o n . . .  219  The P r i n c i p l e of Economic Dominance . . . .  222  The P r i n c i p l e of a Regional LandUse Balance  223  The P r i n c i p l e of Economic Expansion and D i v e r s i f i c a t i o n i n a Region  224  The P r i n c i p l e of Resource Development  226  The P r i n c i p l e of C i t i z e n P a r t i c i p a t i o n . . .  228  The P r i n c i p l e of Limited J u r i s d i c t i o n . . .  230  The P r i n c i p l e of a Regional Planning A d m i n i s t r a t i o n  231  Recapitulation BIBLIOGRAPHY APPENDIX A APPENDIX B  232  . .  234 .  244 247  L I S T OF  TABLES  TABLE I.  PAGE P o p u l a t i o n Change and  Distribution  R o s s l a n d - T r a i l A r e a From 1891 II.  The  Trail  Labor Force  ing  V*  and  British  ....  49 &  Columbia  i n Communities  Tadanac E m p l o y e d a t t h e  M i n i n g and IV.  t o 1956  A Comparison of P o p u l a t i o n Growth i n Rossland,  III.  in  ....  51  SurroundConsolidated  S m e l t i n g Company  53  Where C o m i n c o E m p l o y e e s L i v e Some B i r t h ,  54  D e a t h , and M a r r i a g e  For Rossland,  Statistics  T r a i l , and B r i t i s h  Columbia  i n 1955 VI,  The  55  D i s t r i b u t i o n of R e t a i l  Trade i n R o s s l a n d ,  Stores  T r a i l , and  and  British  Columbia VII.  56  A v e r a g e P e r C a p i t a Income and Taxation i n the Rossland, Kimberley  VIII.  A Classification Trail,  IX.  Area  and  Income  Trail,  C a n a d a f r o m 1946  o f Wage E a r n e r s  and B r i t i s h  and  in  t o 1955  •  67  Rossland, 68  Columbia  A Comparison of Per C a p i t a Revenues, Expenditures, i n 1956,  and  Administrative Costs  f o r Rossland,  municipalities  T r a i l , and  other 69  viii TABLE X.  PAGE Revenues o f t h e P r o v i n c e and Rossland  XI.  77  A Comparison o f t h e Consumer's Index From 1925 t o 1955  XII.  80  A Comparison o f M i l l Rates i n V a r i o u s M u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia  XIII.  81+  A Comparison o f t h e D i s t r i b u t i o n i n O c c u p a t i o n o f Workers i n R o s s l a n d , T r a i l , and B r i t i s h Columbia  XIV.  The Number o f Cominco Workers  88 Employed  At T r a i l From 1931 t o 1957 XV.  105  A C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of Population i n R o s s l a n d , T r a i l , and B r i t i s h  Columbia  by F i v e Year Age C l a s s e s XVI.  117  Persons i n t h e Labor F o r c e by Households f o r R o s s l a n d , T r a i l , and B r i t i s h Columbia  XVII.  118  A Comparison o f t h e Number o f Tenant and Owner-Occupied  Households i n  R o s s l a n d , T r a i l and B r i t i s h Columbia . . . . XVIII.  A Comparison o f P o p u l a t i o n by O r i g i n i n R o s s l a n d , T r a i l and B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a  XIX.  120  . .  121  . . .  123  A Comparison o f t h e D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Church Membership i n t h e R o s s l a n d - T r a i l A r e a  ix TABLE XX.  PAGE A C u t t i n g and P l a n t i n g Schedule F o r A S u s t a i n e d Y i e l d Management P l a n o f t h e Sheep Lake F o r e s t A r e a  156  LIST OF DRAWINGS DRAWING 1.  PAGE  R o s s l a n d - T r a i l Region i n B r i t i s h Columbia  3  2.  Depressed Communities i n t h e Kootenay  6  3.  The Boundary Region, i n 1906  8  4.  Ghost Towns and Depressed Communities  34  5.  Regions and S e t t l e m e n t P a t t e r n s  59  6.  The R o s s l a n d - T r a i l M e t r o p o l i t a n A r e a  61  7.  Revenues, Assessments, and P o p u l a t i o n i n Tadanac, R o s s l a n d , and T r a i l  8.  73  M u n i c i p a l Revenues i n R o s s l a n d and B r i t i s h Columbia  9»  81  A Comparison o f T a x a t i o n R a t e s . .  86  10.  A Land-Use P l a n o f R o s s l a n d C i t y  96  11.  Employment a t Cominco  12.  F l u c t u a t i o n s o f Cominco S t o c k V a l u e  108  13.  F o r e s t Cover  112  14.  Resources o f t h e R o s s l a n d - T r a i l Region  15.  E x p l o r a t i o n f o r New Ore B o d i e s  16.  A Sustained Y i e l d Cutting Plan f o r the  .  Sheep Lake F o r e s t Area . 17.  106  0"'H.^O  A F o r e s t Cover Map o f t h e Sheep Lake  . . .  139 148  °f. .  -^53-1 r ' ^ O i  r  &'  LIST OF PHOTOGRAPHS PHOTOGRAPH L.  •  PAGE  The Young Growing C i t y o f P h o e n i x i n 1900  2.  7  The Granby S m e l t e r a t Grand F o r k s as i t Appeared F i f t y Years Ago  3.  10  The Greenwood S m e l t e r as i t Appeared F i f t y Y e a r s Ago  4.  11  The R u i n s o f P h o e n i x C i t y a s i t Appeared i n June, 195$  13  5*  The L a s t B u i l d i n g i n P h o e n i x C i t y  6.  The S k e l e t a l Remains o f a F i n e Masonry  14  B u i l d i n g i n P h o e n i x as i t Appears Today . . . . 7.  15  A Tombstone f o r P h o e n i x War V e t e r a n s and  a Dead C i t y  15  8.  The Remains o f t h e Granby S m e l t e r  16  9.  The Abandoned S m e l t e r o f Greenwood C i t y  17  10.  The C i t y o f Sandon as i t Appeared i n 1$9$ . . . .  19  11.  The Remains o f t h e S t . Eugene Mine and t h e S e t t l e m e n t o f Moyie i n t h e Background as i t Appears Today  12.  . . .  The R u i n s o f Lumberton's Spruce M i l l s as They Appeared Today  13.  21  The R u i n s o f t h e R e s i d e n t i a l Lumber ton  23 Section of 23  xii PHOTOGRAPH 14.  PAGE  Fading Evidence of the Existence of Lumberton's Moyie White Spruce M i l l s as i t Appeared i n June, 195$  15»  • • •  24  An O r i g i n a l Log Cabin Home o f i 8 6 0 B u i l t at Fort Steele During the G o l d Rush  16.  26  '  A R e t a i l Store i n Fort Steele B u i l t i n 1864  17.  The L a s t Tower o f F o r t S t e e l e  18.  The C o a l Town o f Hosmer i n 1913  19.  The Townsite o f Hosmer as i t  27 27  . . . . . . . . .  29  Appeared i n J u l y , 1958 20.  The Ghost Town o f C o a l Creek as i t Appeared i n J u l y , 195$  21.  The C i t y o f C o r b i n About 1920  22.  The C i t y o f C o r b i n as i t Appeared i n J u l y , 195$*  23.  A Residential  30  .  31  32  32  The Ghost Tovm o f Copper Mountain i n June, 195$  25.  •  S e c t i o n o f C o r b i n and  the O l d R a i l w a y Yards 24.  29  36  The T o x i c E f f e c t o f S u l p h u r D i o x i d e on t h e F o l i a g e o f Acer Saccharimum and Ulmus Americana  43  xiii PHOTOGRAPH  PAGE  26.  The Cit}/ o f " o s s l a n d  45  27»  The C i t y o f T r a i l  47  2$.  F l o o d Waters and S i l t on a T r a i l S t r e e t A f t e r a R a i n Storm, June, 195$  29*  G u l l e y E r o s i o n on a S i d e h i l l i n T r a i l i n 195$  30.  90  The F l o o d Waters o f t h e Columbia R i v e r i n T r a i l i n 1948  31.  90  The Town o f Frank  91 219  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The  comprehensive nature  o f t h i s T h e s i s made i t n e c e s -  s a r y t o o b t a i n t h e a s s i s t a n c e o f many m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , t h e C o n s o l i d a t e d M i n i n g a n d S m e l t i n g Company, t h e F i n e A r t s L i b r a r y u n d e r M i s s M. Dwyer, a n d n u m e r o u s i n d i v i d u a l s .  The  t e c h n i c a l a d v i c e o f many P r o f e s s o r s was u s e d t o g o o d a d v a n tage throughout acknowledged. h i s thanks  t h e Thesis and t h i s h e l p i s g r a t e f u l l y The w r i t e r p a r t i c u l a r l y w i s h e s t o e x p r e s s  t o D r . H. P e t e r O b e r l a n d e r  and  criticism,  and  information.  f o r h i s encouragement  and t o H a r o l d C l e g g f o r h i s v a l u a b l e The a u t h o r  advice  i s most d i r e c t l y i n d e b t e d t o  h i s w i f e , G u n h i l d E v e l y n C l e g g , whose a s s i s t a n c e made t h e completion  of t h i s Thesis  possible.  CHAPTER  THE 'God  I  THE PROBLEM OF SINGLE ENTERPRISE COMMUNITY OF  made the  country, but man  SETTLEMENTS  made the town."  Cowper, The  Task  1. PLANNING HYPOTHESIS I t i s the purpose o f t h i s T h e s i s t o demonstrate t h a t : A. A s i n g l e e n t e r p r i s e community o f  settlements  should p l a n t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s t o prevent ghost towns from oping and  t o l e s s e n the  ill  B. A p l a n n i n g  a n a l y s i s of a s i n g l e e n t e r p r i s e  devel-  e f f e c t s of economic f l u c t u a t i o n s . commun-  i t y of s e t t l e m e n t s can produce reasonable s o l u t i o n s to t h i s complex and  important problem c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f the dependence  upon a s i n g l e  enterprise.  C. A r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g  approach t o t h i s problem  produce balanced s o l u t i o n s s i n c e i t c o n s i d e r s mic,  and  p h y s i c a l aspects at the r e g i o n a l D. General planning  the  social,  econo-  level.  p r i n c i p l e s can be  derived  from  such a r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g  a n a l y s i s that w i l l contribute to  general  s i n g l e e n t e r p r i s e community of  knowledge of the  can  the  settle-  ments. E. The  survey, a n a l y s i s , and  proposed s o l u t i o n s t o  the problem o f the  s i n g l e e n t e r p r i s e community o f  i n ~ t h i s Thesis may  provide a f o u n d a t i o n f o r f u r t h e r  g a t i o n of t h a t  problem.  settlements investi-  F. The problem o f the s i n g l e e n t e r p r i s e community o f settlements-'- can be s o l v e d i f a group or an . i n d i v i d u a l who  has  r e c o g n i z e d the problem can g i v e the l e a d e r s h i p needed and can • s t i r the a c t i o n s o f governments, companies, and people s u f f i c i e n t l y to e s t a b l i s h a regional planning a u t h o r i t y . 2. METHODS OF STUDY A. In order t o i l l u s t r a t e  the problem o f the s i n g l e  e n t e r p r i s e community o f s e t t l e m e n t s a b r i e f a n a l y s i s o f the phenomena as i t i s found i n B r i t i s h Columbia w i l l be d i s c u s s e d . These communities w i l l be examined as they have e x i s t e d i n the past and at the p r e s e n t . bia  The Kootenay Area o f B r i t i s h Colum-  has been s t u d i e d p a r t i c u l a r l y s i n c e t h i s a r e a has been w e l l  known f o r i t s many s i n g l e e n t e r p r i s e communities.  Some o f the  more common causes o f d e p r e s s i o n and f a i l u r e i n t h e s e communit i e s w i l l be mentioned. ing  Finally,  some o f the problems r e s u l t -  from d e p r e s s i o n s and f a i l u r e s w i l l be e x p l a i n e d . B. The s i n g l e e n t e r p r i s e community o f the R o s s l a n d -  T r a i l Region (see Drawing:i on page 3 ) o f the West Kootenay District  w i l l be examined as a case study f o r t h i s  Thesis.  i T h e problems o f a s i n g l e e n t e r p r i s e community a r e c o n s i dered t o be the same i n g e n e r a l terms as those o f the s i n g l e en t e r p r i s e community o f s e t t l e m e n t s who d i f f e r only i n s c a l e . The s i n g l e e n t e r p r i s e community i n t h i s T h e s i s w i l l r e f e r t o e i t h e r one s i n g l e community o r a number o f communities based upon a single enterprise.  Title  A  PLANNING  REGIONAL  ANALYSIS  OF  ENTERPRISE  A  of  D.rg. No.  Org.  ROSSLAND-TRAIL  REGION  SINGLE  COMMUNITY  IN  BRITISH  COLUMBIA  BY  CLEGG  E. T.  4 H e r e t h e p r o b l e m o f t h e s i n g l e e n t e r p r i s e economy h a s d e m o n s t r a t e d i n t h e p a s t and was  at present.  The  C i t y of  Rossland  t o becoming a ghost  town.  c o m m u n i t y was  However, t o d a y R o s s l a n d  c o m m u n i t i e s depend upon t h e s i n g l e e n t e r p r i s e o f t h e Mining  and  a r o u n d Tadanac t o d a y  and  other  Consolidated  t h a t have c o n f r o n t e d such  These are the  The  settlements  a r e much l i k e t h o s e t h a t f a c e d t h e  e n t e r p r i s e community o f R o s s l a n d ,  are the  on i t s  S m e l t i n g Company o f C a n a d a ( C o m i n c o ) a t T a d a n a c .  p r o b l e m s f a c i n g t h e s i n g l e e n t e r p r i s e community o f  and  well  a s i n g l e e n t e r p r i s e c o m m u n i t y b a s e d upOn a m i n i n g , i n d u s t r y .  I t s m i n e r a l r e s o u r c e , : w a s d e p l e t e d and t h e way  been  single  same p r o b l e m s  communities i n Canada d u r i n g p a s t  same a s t h o s e t h a t c o n f r o n t many s u c h  years  communities  today* C,  A critical  survey  and a n a l y s i s o f t h e p e r t i n e n t p r o -  blems o f t h e R o s s l a n d - T r a i l Area  i s then  outlined.  d a t a a number o f p o s s i b l e s o l u t i o n s a r e d i s c u s s e d , the  survey  are then on t h e  and  solutions i s presented.  d e r i v e d f r o m t h e s t u d y t o add  From  this  A summary o f  Some g e n e r a l  conclusions  to the general  knowledge  subject.  3. THE  S I N G L E ENTERPRISE BASED COMMUNITY  A, H i s t o r y o f S i n g l e E n t e r p r i s e C o m m u n i t i e s i n B r i t i s h British  Columbia i s i n the process  of settlement  Columbia and  d e v e l o p m e n t . T h i s i s a l s o t r u e o f most o f C a n a d a w h i c h i s  5 still  a young n a t i o n .  At such a stage o f development many  communities have been e s t a b l i s h e d i n the e x p l o i t a t i o n o f a s i n g l e resource or i n the o p e r a t i o n o f one l a r g e  enterprise.  Lumbering and mining communities are p a r t i c u l a r l y w e l l known. I f these communities have t h e i r n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e d e p l e t e d or i f the e n t e r p r i s e f a i l s f o r some reason, then the communities s u f f e r , the r e g i o n s u f f e r s , and even the n a t i o n s u f f e r s t o some extent.  Although a l l r e c e s s i o n s i n such communities do not  produce ghost towns, the mere f l u c t u a t i o n o f employment  follow-  i n g v a r i o u s economic changes can s t i l l produce h a r d s h i p s f o r many people.  The Province o f B r i t i s h Columbia has a h i s t o r y  marked with the r i s e and f a l l ties.  o f many s i n g l e e n t e r p r i s e communi-  Drawing 2 on page 6, i n d i c a t e s the l o c a t i o n o f some o f  these communities i n the Kootenay a r e a .  T h i s southeastern p a r t  o f the Province has had a p a r t i c u l a r l y l a r g e number o f ghost towns d u r i n g the past f i f t y y e a r s which have r e s u l t e d from the f a i l u r e s o f v a r i o u s e n t e r p r i s e s upon which the communities economies were based.  It i s i n this district  o f dead c i t i e s  t h a t the case study f o r t h i s T h e s i s , the R o s s l a n d - T r a i l Region was  studied. Ghost Towns i n the Grand Forks D i s t r i c t .  The Boundary  M i n i n g Region i n 1906 was one o f the l a r g e s t and most a c t i v e mining and i n d u s t r i a l areas i n the Province a t t h a t t i m e .  The  K E Y COMMUNITY Gfcot t  T Y P E Town  D e pres s c d Recent Historic Unrflt l a i n  SOURCE:  A  SURVEY  AUTHOR  Title  A OF A  REGIONAL SINGLE  PLANNING ENTERPRISE  of  Dr g.  Org.  ANALYSIS COMMUNITY  DEPRESSED  -  COMMUNITIES D r o w n  by  E .T.  Cl <  IN T H E  KOOTENAY  BY  JUNE.  19 5  8  No.  ON  2 X  7 appearance o f t h i s r e g i o n i s shown on Drawing 3 on page 8, a s i t was shown i n an e a r l y m i n i n g j o u r n a l o f t h e p e r i o d . ^ Phoenix C i t y was t h e c e n t r a l c i t y o f t h e Boundary M i n i n g R e g i o n . In 1905 "the p o p u l a t i o n o f t h e camp was between 1500 and  2000."3  The l a r g e s t p o p u l a t i o n i n Phoenix was r e p o r t e d t o be  about 3000 persons.4-  The community depended upon the r i c h  copper mines nearby.  I t was a growing c i t y i n 1900 as shown  i n Photograph 1 .  Photograph 1 THE YOUNG GROWING CITY OF PHOENIX IN 1900 NOTE: The b u s i n e s s s e c t i o n o f Phoenix i s shown. b u i l d i n g s were l a r g e and w e l l b u i l t .  The  S o u r c e : J.E. P a r l i a m e n t , Manager o f Phoenix Copper L i m i t e d , Grand F o r k s , June 2 6 , 1958.  The Phoenix P i o n e e r and Boundary M i n i n g J o u r n a l , P i o n eer F o u r t h Annual H o l i d a y Number Record o f P r o g r e s s i n t h e Boundary M i n i n g D i s t r i c t o f B r i t i s h Columbia, (Pioneer Pubb l i s h i n g Company, Phoenix, December 1906J, The c o v e r . ^ P h o e n i x J o u r n a l , o p . c i t . , p.28c, a l s o photograph p. 34d ^ I n f o r m a t i o n o b t a i n e d t h r o u g h an i n t e r v i e w w i t h W.E.A. McArthur- l o c a l r e s i d e n t and miner s i n c e 1897, Greenwood B.C., June 18, 1958.  THE  #  /  PDO  BOUNDARY  PH 0 E N I X  MINING  CITY  Midway Phoenix  M  Mine  0  Community  or  B  SOURCE  :  Pioneer Record  REGIONAL  PLANNING  OF  A  ENTERPRISE  No  Annual of  of  Ruins  L o n g e r  Exists  THE  BOUNDARY Draw n  Number 4,  Holiday  Pr o g r e s s Phoenn  in  the  Journal,  Drg.  Dr g  ANALYSIS COMMUNITY  in  Smelter  District,  A  1906  Mine  Title  SINGLE  REGION,  by  REGION E . T.  IN  C1egg  1906  Bo un d o r y Dec.  No.  3  1906  9 The ore was shipped by r a i l w a y .  The town of Eholt  "was the railway d i v i s i o n a l point of the CPR i n the boundary district."5 400.6  -phg  o r e  The r a i l w a y town of Eholt had a population of w a s  d e l i v e r e d by r a i l w a y from Eholt t o the Gran-  by Smelter at Grand Forks. The smelter was l o c a t e d i n Grand Forks because the K e t t l e River nearby, could be used t o remove smelting wastes.  This smelter was the l a r g e s t i n Canada.'7 I t  i s w e l l described i n some h i s t o r y books.^  I t s output was, f o r  a time, the l a r g e s t i n the B r i t i s h Empire.9  The e a r l y smelter  i s shown i n Photograph 2 , on page 1 0 . Another large community developed at Greenwood. i t was not as large as Phoenix.  However  The r i c h ore deposits of the  Mother-Lode Mine and others were t r e a t e d at the Greenwood Smelter. 11.  This e a r l y smelter i s shown i n photograph 3 , on page  R e s i d e n t i a l communities grew up.at Greenwood, Deadwood-j-^  ''The Phoenix J o u r n a l , o p . c i t . p. 55.. ^W.E. McArthur, l o c . c i t . ?The Phoenix J o u r n a l , o p . c i t . December, 1 9 0 5 , p.15. %.W. Howay, B r i t i s h Columbia from the E a r l i e s t Times to the': Pre sent. V o l . 2~, (Vancouver: S.J. Clarke P u b l i s h i n g Co., I 9 1 4 T , p«478 (a photograph o f the Granby Smelter and a d i s cussion of i t s operation.) 9 W.E. McArthur, l o c . c i t . -L^ Percy F. Godernrath, Mother E a r t h s Treasure Vaults., ( V i c t o r i a : The C o l o n i s t P. and P. Co., December 1 9 0 5 ) , p.6. (photograph of Deadwood C i t y i n the e a r l y days). T  10  and the Mother Lode.  They had populations of  2500, 100,  4 0 0 r e s p e c t i v e l y . H A power dam was b u i l t at Boundary  and  Falls-^  Photograph 2 THE GRANBY SMELTER AT GRAND FORKS AS IT APPEARED FIFTY YEARS AGO NOTE; The sloped t r e s t l e on the l e f t hand side of t h i s photograph i s the same as that p r o t r u d i n g from the s l a g p i l e i n Photograph $. Source: Cominco Magazine A r c h i v e s , T r a i l , June,  195$.  llW.E. McArthur, l o c . c i t . Percy F. Godernath, o p . c i t • , of Boundary F a l l s i n the e a r l y days. d  p. 1 6 , (photograph  11  f o r the Greenwood Smelter and at Cascade- -^ f o r the Granby 1  Smelter.  These plants provided the smelters with power.  Com-  munities of 500 and 100 persons grew up around these power sites.^  These then were the communities of the Boundary Re-  gion as they appeared a h a l f century ago. This Mining Region was, at that time, l a r g e r than the R o s s l a n d - T r a i l Mining Region,  Photograph 3 THE GREENWOOD SMELTER AS IT APPEARED FIFTY YEARS AGO NOTE: This photograph was taken from approximately the same p o s i t i o n as Photograph 9 . Source: Cominco Magazine Archives, T r a i l , June, 1 9 5 8 . 3 The Phoenix J o u r n a l , l o c . c i t . . 1 9 0 5 , p. 3 7 , (Photograph of the Cascade Power Dam i n the e a r l y days). 1  + W.E. McArthur, l o c . c i t .  ll  12 The major employer i n the Boundary D i s t r i c t e a r l y days was the Granby M i n i n g Company.  i n the  When the mines o f  the a r e a showed s i g n s o f e x h a u s t i o n , the Company made no attempt t o f i n d new  ore bodies o r t o s t a b i l i z e the r e g i o n a l  economy i n anyway.  T h i s p o l i c y i s very d i f f e r e n t from t h a t o f  Cominco's, who, its  i n 1906,  expanded the sources o f ore so t h a t  smelter o p e r a t i o n s could be made a r e l a t i v e l y  t r y . T h e  s t a b l e indus  Granby p o l i c y was t o shut-down as soon as the ore  d e p o s i t s became low-grade.  The r e s u l t was r u i n f o r the Bound-  a r y Region and today the area appears very d i f f e r e n t . i n a few short y e a r s Phoenix C i t y was and the c i t y and mines f e l l  into ruin.  With-  completely abandoned The C i t y o f Phoenix  has not appeared on maps f o r over t h i r t y y e a r s .  Photograph 4,  on page 13, i l l u s t r a t e s the c o n d i t i o n o f Phoenix C i t y today. One o f the few r e m a i n i n g b u i l d i n g s i s shown i n Photograph 5, on page 14.  The permanent-type  c o n s t r u c t i o n o f some o f the  o r i g i n a l b u i l d i n g s o f Phoenix are i l l u s t r a t e d by Photograph 6, on page 15. be seen.  Here the s k e l e t o n o f a s o l i d b r i c k b u i l d i n g can  The only landmark t h a t remains t o mark Phoenix i s  the F i r s t World War Memorial t h a t stands alone i n a gr»©v§ o f t r e e s i n a remarkably w e l l - p r e s e r v e d s t a t e .  Photograph 7, on  page 15, shows the memorial as i t appeared t o the author.  W.H. A l d r i d g e , Managing D i r e c t o r o f Cominco, ( w r i t t e n i n 1906), c i t e d by the C o n s o l i d a t e d M i n i n g and Smelting Company o f Canada, L i m i t e d , The Cominco Story , ( T r a i l , n . d . ) p . 3 7 p  13 When t h e m i n e s o f P h o e n i x and t h e M o t h e r ed, t h e o t h e r dependent r u i n one b y o n e .  The  communities  Granby  of the Region f e l l  into  S m e l t e r c l o s e d down and t o d a y  c o n c r e t e f o u n d a t i o n s and mountains  Photograph  only  o f s l a g mark t h e s i t e o f t h e  g r e a t s m e l t e r a s shown i n P h o t o g r a p h 8, on page  THE  Lode w e r e c l o s -  16.  4  RUINS OF PHOENIX C I T Y AS I T APPEARED I N JUNE, 1958  NOTE: T h i s p h o t o g r a p h was t a k e n f r o m p o i n t A on p h o t o g r a p h 1, p a g e 7. M o s t o f t h e r u i n s h a v e b e e n o v e r - r u n w i t h f o r e s t growth. S o u r c e : P h o t o g r a p h by t h e A u t h o r , J u n e ,  The  s m e l t e r a t Greenwood was  1958.  a l s o c l o s e d and o n l y t h e r u i n s  be s e e n t o d a y , a s shown i n t h e two v i e w s o f P h o t o g r a p h page  9,  17. The  communities  o f Deadwood, M o t h e r  Lode,  Boundary  on  can  14 Falls,  E h o l t , and C a s c a d e a r e a l l g h o s t t o w n s t o d a y .  is l i t t l e  There  r e m a i n i n g on t h e s e t o w n s i t e s t o i n d i c a t e t h a t t h r i v -  i n g communities were once l o c a t e d t h e r e .  The C i t y o f G r e e n -  wood h a s d r o p p e d t o a s m a l l p o p u l a t i o n o f 363  i n 1941.  The  Photograph 5 THE  LAST BUILDING I N PHOENIX C I T Y  NOTE: T h i s b u i l d i n g i s m a r k e d b y an x on P h o t o g r a p h 1, page 7« N o t e t h e s i z e o f t h e t r e e s t h a t have grown up a t t h e f r o n t d o o r . These t r e e s a r e 30 t o 40 y e a r s o l d . T h i s i s a b o u t t h e same number o f y e a r s t h a t P h o e n i x h a s b e e n a g h o s t t o w n . S o u r c e : P h o t o g r a p h b y t h e a u t h o r i n J u n e , 195#«  !6 B u r e a u o f E c o n o m i c s and S t a t i s t i c s , D e p a r t m e n t o f I n d u s t r i a l D e v e l o p m e n t , T r a d e , a n d Commerce, R e g i o n a l I n d u s t r i a l I n d e x o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , ( V i c t o r i a : Queen's P r i n t e r ,  19577, p. 7$, $1.  Photograph 6 THE SKELETAL REMAINS OF A F I N E MASONRY BUILDING I N PHOENIX AS I T APPEARS TODAY S o u r c e : P h o t o g r a p h by t h e A u t h o r i n J u n e , 195$.  Photograph  7  A TOMBSTONE FOR PHOENIX WAR VETERANS — A N D A DEAD CITY S o u r c e : P h o t o g r a p h by t h e A u t h o r i n J u n e , 195$.  16 C i t y o f Grand  Forks has s u r v i v e d and grown t o a p o p u l a t i o n o f  1995, i n 1956.^7  "The economy o f Grand  Forks now depends  up-  on a g r i c u l t u r e , f o r e s t r y , and lumber, although i n c r e a s i n g 18 a t t e n t i o n i s being given t o m i n e r a l e x p l o r a t i o n . "  Without  Photograph 8 THE REMAINS OF THE GRANBY SMELTER NOTE: The remnants o f the t r e s t l e work seen p r o t r u d i n g from the s l a g p i l e i n the background i s the same as that shown i n Photograph 2, on page 10. Source:  Photograph by the author i n June, 1958.  such d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n and expansion of the economic base o f Grand Forks i t too would l i k e l y have become a ghost town. But  1  7  Ibid  IS I b i d  17  Photograph  9  THE ABANDONED SMELTER OF GREENWOOD C I T Y NOTE: The s m o k e s t a c k shown i n P h o t o g r a p h 9 i s t h e same a s t h a t shown i n P h o t o g r a p h 3, page 11. The l a s t p o t s o f s l a g c a n be s e e n c l e a r l y a s t h e y were dumped i n t h e f o r e g r o u n d . Rem a i n s o f t h e o l d f u r n a c e s and t r e s t l e s a r e c l e a r l y v i s i b l e . Source:  P h o t o g r a p h by t h e A u t h o r i n June,  1958.  Phoenix or some other community may  18 w e l l have s u r v i v e d i f i t  too had a d i v e r s i f i e d base r a t h e r than j u s t one  enterprise  —  mining. Ghost Towns i n the R o s s l a n d - T r a i l D i s t r i c t .  Although  the c i t i e s of Rossland and T r a i l have s u r v i v e d through many t r y i n g years, a number of other communities i n t h i s a r e a d i d not.  The f i r s t  settlement i n t h i s D i s t r i c t was  the Hudson  Bay F o r t b u i l t at the confluence of the Columbia R i v e r and the Pend d ' O r i e l l e R i v e r . was  founded i n 1865.  I t was  I t was  c a l l e d F o r t Shepherd and  p r i m a r i l y a t r a d i n g post f o r  the l a k e t r i b e s o f the S a l i s h a n I n d i a n s .  When the area be-t.\  came s e t t l e d , t r a d e f e l l o f f and the F o r t was  abandoned.  To-  day the s i t e o f the F o r t i s marked o n l y by a stone monument. .  In 1898 ... the C i t y o f Brooklyn was a b u s t l i n g com,'munity on the Arrow Lakes, o p p o s i t e Deer Park. T h i s p o i n t served as a l a n d i n g place f o r s u p p l i e s (coming up the Columbia on paddle wheelers) i n the c o n s t r u c t i o n of the Columbia and Western Railway. A ' t o t e ' road r a n from Brooklyn t o the t u n n e l at F a r r o n . With the completion o f the r a i l r o a d t o the coast, Brooklyn soon became a ghost town. 19 There were t e n h o t e l s ready f o r business by t h i s time,  am)  The p o p u l a t i o n o f over one thousand l a s t e d f o r l e s s than one year, f o r as the r a i l r o a d progressed the town moved westward and soon n o t h i n g remained but s k e l e t o n s o f b u i l d i n g s . Doors, windows, and such t h a t c o u l d be packed over the t o t e road were taken. A f i r e f i n i s h e d  City, n.n.  19 Lance H. Whittaker, (ed.) Rossland, The Golden (Rossland: Rossland Miner L t d . , September, 1949), (In B i l l y E s l i n g ' s D e d i c a t i o n ) .  19 the job and the l o v e l y l o o k i n g home of B i l l Schneider i s the l a s t memory of what was perhaps the busiest r a i l r o a d camp i n B.C.  20  Today the s i t e of Brooklyn i s marked only by a l a r g e stone f i r e p l a c e of the o l d CPR dining room. also remains.  A large cemetary  A number of these r a i l r o a d towns followed the  progress of the CPR westward. Since they depended upon the r a i l w a y work crews, these r a i l w a y communities were s h o r t l i v e d . Ghost Towns of the Slocan D i s t r i c t .  A community of  settlements based upon the r i c h ore deposits of the Slocan Area a l s o grew r a p i d l y at the t u r n of t h i s century.  Photograph 10 THE CITY OF SANDON AS IT APPEARED IN 1$98 NOTE: Today the C i t y i s abandoned and most of the b u i l d ings have been destroyed by floods and s l i d e s . Source: B r i t i s h Columb i a P r o v i n c i a l Archives as found i n Cominco Magazine, June, 195$, T r a i l , B.C., p. 31.  Kate Johnson, Pioneer Days of Nakusp and the Arrow Lakes, (no p u b l i s h e r ) 1951, p. 128-29-30.  20 In 1896 Sandon was the r o a r i n g c e n t e r o f the S l o c a n mining boom, (Photograph 10) .... Sandon boasted the second h y d r o - e l e c t r i c p l a n t i n B r i . t i s h Columbia. (A p l a n t a t Nelson s t a r t e d i n 1896.) I t began o p e r a t i n g e a r l y i n 1897. (A photograph on page 30 showed the P e l t o n wheel which a c t i v a t e d the Sandon generator continuously f o r h a l f a century). The end came i n September, 1955* Completely d e s e r t e d . .... and w i t h the plank road r o t t i n g up and f a l l i n g i n t o the creek bed beneath, Sandon was swept out o f e x i s t e n c e on a foaming c r e s t o f a f r e s h e t . P i l i n g s crumbled under t h e f o r c e o f the water, the a n c i e n t b u i l d i n g s t o p p l e d and were borne g r i n d i n g and grumbling i n t o a m a t c h s t i c k t i m ber jam. Beneath i t l a y the remains o f t h a t g a l l a n t p l a n t , one o f the f i r s t o f i t s k i n d ever t o be b u i l t i n B r i t i s h Columbia. 21 Tha f a t e o f Sandon i s another example o f what can happen t o a community when i t s one b a s i c a c t i v i t y s t o p s . communities  Other mining  i n t h i s area have become almost ghost towns, such  as Slocan C i t y , p o p u l a t i o n 326.22  Today the r e g i o n ' s "existing'  economy i s based on base-metals mining, l o g g i n g , lumbering, and a g r i c u l t u r e . " 2 3  Without t h i s d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n the whole  r e g i o n may have soon d i s a p p e a r e d l i k e Sandon Ghost Towns o f the Moyie D i s t r i c t . mining town o f about 500 p o p u l a t i o n .  itself.  "Moyie was a s m a l l  The S t . Eugene Mine and  ^iLance H. Whittaker, Progress c i t e d by the Consolidated M i n i n g and S m e l t i n g Company o f Canada L i m i t e d , i n Cominco Magazine, June, 195&. R e g i o n a l I n d u s t r i a l Index o f B r i t i s h Columbia, c i t . p. 62. 2 3  Ibid  op.  21 c o n c e n t r a t o r were owned by the C o n s o l i d a t e d M i n i n g and Smelt i n g Company .... About 200  men were employed  .... Located  on the east shore of Moyie Lake ....24 Today Moyie has a p o p u l a t i o n o f about 50.^5  The mine  i s c l o s e d and only r u i n s remain as shown i n Photograph 11.  Photograph  11  THE REMAINS OF THE ST. EUGENE MINE AND THE SETTLEMENT OF MOYIE IN THE BACKGROUND AS IT APPEARS TODAY Source:  zine,  Photograph by the Author i n June,  24- J . F . C a i r e , "As I remember Moyie," ( T r a i l Times), June, 1948, pp. 14, 15.  1958.  Cominco Maga-  ^5 From an i n t e r v i e w w i t h Harold Bennet, Cranbrook, B.C., and Frank Conrad, Moyie, B.C., o l d t i m e r e s i d e n t s , J u l y 1, 1958.  22 "Lumberton was founded by A.E. Watts and was f i r s t known as Wattsburg."26  The American Lumber Company o f Weyer-  hauser operated a l a r g e sawmill there which produced S i l v e r Spruce.  A community  o f 300 persons t h r i v e d here \ahile a num-  ber o f s m a l l e r camps were l o c a t e d on t h e upper Moyie R i v e r . The spruce stands o f t h i s a r e a were u n u s u a l l y l a r g e f o r i n t e r i o r timber.  These l o g s were as l a r g e as f o u r and f i v e  i n diameter.  feet  T h i s heavy stand o f timber l e a d t o a prosperous  lumbering o p e r a t i o n which i n c l u d e d a m i l l i o n d o l l a r l o g flume.  The p e r i o d o f maximum growth was from 1922-26.27 The  name o f t h i s community was soon changed from Wattsburg t o Lumberton.  The l o g g i n g o p e r a t i o n s o f t h e Weyerhauser Com-  pany was t o c l e a r - c u t .  Under t h i s system i t was not l o n g be-  f o r e a l l the good a c c e s s i b l e timber was c u t . reserves.  Today only pockets o f mature timber remain amid  i n f e r i o r scrub second growth.28 of the m i l l and the community town.  There were no  The r e s u l t was the c l o s i n g  o f Lumberton became a ghost  The r u i n s o f t h e m i l l a r e shown i n Photograph 12, on  page 23-  The heavy concrete c o n s t r u c t i o n i n d i c a t e s t h e size  and permanency o f the o r i g i n a l  structure.  26 F . W . Howay, l o c . c i t . . p. 118. 27 Bennet and Conrad Interview,  loc.cit•  28 From a timber survey made by the Author i n 1952 f o r the Forest Surveys D i v i s i o n o f t h e B.C. F o r e s t S e r v i c e .  23  Photograph  12  THE RUINS OF LUMBERTON'S SPRUCE MILLS AS THEY APPEARED TODAY NOTE: The large concrete construction used i n d i c a t e that the o r i g i n a l owners had v i s i o n s of a r e l a t i v e l y long l a s t i n g f o r e s t industry. Source:  Photograph by the Author i n June, 195$.  The r e s i d e n t i a l section of Lumberton i s shown i n Photograph 13  Photograph  13  THE RUINS OF THE RESIDENTIAL SECTION OF LUMBERTON served.  NOTE: The lumber wagon i n the foreground i s well-preSource:  Photograph by the Author i n June, 1958.  24 The o l d sign on the concrete foundations shown i n Photograph 1 4 , gives mute evidence of the lumber operations that were once underway on t h i s s i t e . The h i s t o r y of Lumberton i s a f u r t h e r example of a community based on one resource —  the f o r e s t s .  I f sustain-  ed y i e l d management had been p r a c t i s e d , the community would s t i l l be t h r i v i n g today.  Photograph  14  FADING EVIDENCE OF THE EXISTENCE OF LUMBERTON S MOYIE WHITE SPRUCE MILLS AS IT APPEARED IN JUNE 1 9 5 8 1  NOTE: The sign reads, "A Super Spruce, B.C. Spruce M i l l s manufacturers of Moyie White Spruce." Source:  Photograph by the Author i n June, 1 9 5 $ .  25  Ghost Towns o f t h e Cranbrook D i s t r i c t .  The p l a c e r  m i n i n g g o l d r u s h on W i l d Horse Creek i n t h e 1860's e s t a b l i s h ed a number o f p i o n e e r s e t t l e m e n t s i n t h e Cranbrook D i s t r i c t a l o n g t h e Kootenay and S t . Mary r i v e r s .  Many o f t h e s e com-  m u n i t i e s became ghost town when t h e g o l d r i c h e s had been r e moved. I n t h e r u s h t h a t f o l l o w e d t h e P e r r y Creek s t r i k e a l ..• .most a c e n t u r y ago, a whole town s p r a n g up complete w i t h s t r e e t s and homes. But "Oldtown" was s h o r t l i v e d . 29 The owners connected w i t h t h e S u l l i v a n o r e , b u i l t a smelter at M a r y s v i l l e . I n 1908 t h e s m e l t e r was c l o s e d and t h e company d e c l a r e d b a n k r u p t . M a r y s v i l l e , w h i c h had mushroomed i n t o a town o f 600 p e o p l e ( a p p r o x i m a t e l y ) d u r i n g t h e s m e l t e r days, became not q u i t e a ghost town.30 There were many o t h e r communities such as W y c l y f f e and Skookumchuck t h a t saw b o t h boom and b u s t .  The most i n -  t e r e s t i n g g h o s t town, however, i n t h e Cranbrook D i s t r i c t i s Fort Steele.  I n 1867 t h i s community had between 5000 and  6000 p e r s o n s . 3 1  I t was, a t f i r s t , a m i n i n g town c a l l e d  Bell-  view, but l a t e r became F o r t S t e e l e , named a f t e r M a j o r G e n e r a l Sir  Samuel S t e e l e who b r o u g h t t h e f i r s t R o y a l Canadian Mount-  ed P o l i c e Detachment t o B r i t i s h Columbia b r i n g i n g l a w and order t o t h i s area at a c r i t i c a l time.  When t h e G o l d d i s a p -  p e a r e d and t h e Canadian P a c i f i c R a i l w a y went t o Cranbrook  R a i n e C o r b i n and C h r i s F o o t e , T r a i l , June, 1958, p. 13. c y  Cominco Magazine,  30 Ben K e e r , Cominco Magazine, o p , c i t . , p. 23.  26 as a major d i v i s i o n a l p o i n t r a t h e r than F o r t S t e e l e , t h e l a t ter  community d e c l i n e d t o almost a ghost town.  of i t s o r i g i n a l b u i l d i n g s s t i l l the  e a r l y type o f home b u i l t  stand.  Today some  Photograph 15, shows  by these p i o n e e r s .  Photograph  15  AN ORIGINAL LOG CABIN HOME OF i860 BUILT AT FORT STEELE DURING THE GOLD RUSH Source:  Photograph by t h e Author i n June, 1958.  An o r i g i n a l b u i l d i n g o f t h e e a r l y c o m m e r c i a l of Fort Steele  i s shown i n P h o t o g r a p h 16 o n page 27* The  d a t e o f c o n s t r u c t i o n , 1864, i s s t i l l the windows.  section  b a r e l y v i s i b l e above  The r e m a i n s o f " F o r t " S t e e l e  a r e shown i n  From an i n t e r v i e w with C l i f f White, a l o c a l r e s i dent and h i s t o r i a n o f F o r t S t e e l e , and t h e Author i n June, 1958. J  X  27 Photograph 17 below.  11 Photograph  16  A RETAIL STORE IN FORT STEELE BUILT IN 1864 NOTE: Source:  The date IS64 i s b a r e l y v i s i b l e above the window. Photograph by the Author i n June, 195$.  Photograph 17 THE LAST TOWER OF FORT STEELE the  NOTE: The h i s t o r i c plaque i n the foreground d e s c r i b e s origin of the Fort. Source:  Photograph by t h e Author i n June, 1958.  28 The o l d tower of the Fort shown there i s used to hold water today.  There are a few people s t i l l l i v i n g i n Fort Steele.  But since the major a c t i v i t i e s of mining and law enforcement have disappeared, the City i s very close to e x t i n c t i o n . Ghost Towns i n the Fernie D i s t r i c t .  The r i c h coal  deposits of the Fernie area gave r i s e to a number of communit i e s which have since become ghost towns because of depletion of the coal deposits or because of poor market conditions f o r the c o a l .  The Town of Morrissey grew to have a population  of 3000 i n 1899.  32  The c o l l i e r i e s were closed.  Today i t i s  a ghost town. Hosmer. This busy l i t t l e mining town with a populat i o n of about 2000 i s located i n the midst of the richest coal mining d i s t r i c t i n the Crow's Nest Pass, some eight miles east of Fernie. 33 Today only one or two buildings remain standing.  Photograph  18, on page 29, shows the coal town of Hosmer as i t appeared i n 1913•  Today the townsite of Hosmer appears as shown  i n Photograph 19, on page 29. Another town c a l l e d Coal Creek also grew around a coal mine.  Today i t i s also a ghost town as shown i n Photograph 20,  3 Form an interview with the s t a f f of the Crowds Nest Pass Coal Mining Company i n Fernie on July 2, 1958. 2  33j_he D i s t r i c t Ledger, Crow's Nest Pass I n d u s t r i a l and Labor E d i t i o n . Fernie, No. 4, V o l . VII, September 20, 1913, p. 5.  29  Photograph  18  THE COAL TOWN OF HOSMER I N 1913 Source: The D i s t r i c t Ledger. Crow's Nest Pass Indust r i a l and Labor E d i t i o n , F e r n i e , No. 4, V o l . V I I , September 20, 1913, p. 5.  Photograph  19  THE TOWNSITE OF HOSMER AS IT APPEARED IN JULY, 1958 NOTE: The views o f photograph 18 and 19 a r e t a k e n from a p p r o x i m a t e l y t h e same s p o t . The mountains i n t h e background correspond approximately i n o u t l i n e . Source: Photograph by t h e Author i n J u l y , 1958.  30  Photograph  20  THE GHOST TOWN OF COAL CREEK AS I T APPEARED I N J U L Y , 1958 NOTE: The o l d c o a l c h u t e s a p p e a r o n t h e m o u n t a i n side i n t h e background. Source:  P h o t o g r a p h b y t h e A u t h o r i n J u l y , 195$•  C o r b i n was a l a r g e  c o a l town l o c a t e d a b o u t f o r t y  s o u t h o f t h e main highway p a s s i n g  mile  t h r o u g h N a t a l , B.C., i n a  s e t t i n g o f g l a c i e r s and peaked mountains o f t h e R o c k i e s . T h i s town h a d a p o p u l a t i o n  o f about 3000 i n 1904.34  Its col  lieries  c l o s e d a f t e r t h e f i r s t W o r l d War. The town was a b a n -  doned.  B e c a u s e o f i t s i s o l a t i o n many o f t h e b u i l d i n g s a r e  Crow's N e s t P a s s M i n i n g Company, l o c . c i t .  31  w e l l preserved. Photograph 2 1 , shows the C i t y of Corbin as i t appeared many years ago.  The C i t y as i t appears today i s  shown i n Photographs 22 and 23 on page 3 2 .  Photograph 21 THE CITY OF CORBIN ABOUT 1 9 2 0 NOTE: At the center of the community the cleaning and loading plant can be seen. I t s remains are shown i n Photograph 2 2 . Rows of smaller houses are barely v i s i b l e j u s t above the l a r g e r s t a f f b u i l d i n g s on the l e f t side of the Photograph. The remains of some of these are shown i n Photograph 23. Coal Mountain, on the r i g h t , i s a 1 0 0 , 0 0 0 , 0 0 0 ton surface deposit of high-grade c o a l . Source: "Coal Mountain", a pamphlet p r i n t e d by Corbin C o l l i e r i e s Limited, Corbin, B.C., (n.d.) The f a t e of these o l d coal towns i s a r e s u l t of t h e i r complete dependence upon one a c t i v i t y —  coal mining.  I f the  economic base of any of these communities had been d i v e r s i f i e d enough i t i s doubtful i f any of them would have become the ghost towns they are today.  Thus the great waste that r e s u l t -  ed from abandoning these c i t i e s could perhaps have been avoided by c a r e f u l r e g i o n a l planning of the economic base.  32  Photograph  22  THE CITY OF CORBIN AS IT APPEARED IN 1958 NOTE: The l a r g e b u i l d i n g i s what remains o f t h e c l e a n i n g and l o a d i n g p l a n t shown i n Photograph 21. The above photograph was t a k e n a t p o i n t x on Photograph 21. Source: Photograph by t h e Author i n J u l y , 1958.  Photograph  23  A RESIDENTIAL SECTION OF CORBIN THE OLD RAILWAY YARDS N6TE: The homes a r e w e l l - p r e s e r v e d . shows t h e o r i g i n a l b u i l d i n g s .  AND Photograph 21,  Source: Photograph by t h e Author i n J u l y , 1958.  33  B. S i n g l e E n t e r p r i s e Communities Today In  B r i t i s h Columbia, even today, communities are s t i l l  s u f f e r i n g from t h e i r dependence on one s i n g l e r e s o u r c e . Drawing 4, on page 34, shows the l o c a t i o n o f some o f these communities. B r i t a n n i a Beach, near Vancouver, was a community based on one o f t h e l a r g e s t copper and z i n c mines i n the P r o v i n c e . T h i s year, however, the owners c l o s e d the mines because o f heavy c o s t s .  The e n t i r e community  i s f a c e d w i t h the p o s s i -  b i l i t y o f becoming a ghost town. K i t i m a t i s a planned community r e c e n t l y b u i l t i n the P a c i f i c Coast a r e a .  I t i s based on the s m e l t i n g and r e f i n i n g  of aluminum ore c o n c e n t r a t e s . its  o p e r a t i o n s planned, b e f o r e the community and i n d u s t r y  were b u i l t .  Still,  num p r o d u c t i o n . the  K i t i m a t had every aspect o f  i t i s based on one e n t e r p r i s e —  Because o f adverse world m a r k e t - p r i c e s ,  i n d u s t r y reduced the number o f i t s employees very  cally.  alumi-  drasti-  Hundreds o f K i t i m a t f a m i l i e s have moved t o Vancouver  seeking employment  and government  relief.  F e r n i e i t s e l f i s a c o a l mining town. T h i s h a r d - l u c k community near the B r i t i s h ColumbiaA l b e r t a border may be dead as a c o a l town ... t h i n g s a r e tough h e r e . B e t t e r than h a l f the C i t y ' s BOO wage earners have been unemployed s i n c e January 31 when the c o l * l i e r i e s , t h a t have s u p p l i e d F e r n i e ' s economic l i v e l i hood f o r 60 yaars, shut down f o r l a c k o f c o a l markets... we have been dependent on the c o a l mines too l o n g . 35  Ghost  Town  Depressed  Community  H i s t o r i c a l Rec  ent Ser  I ou s  Uncc r T alh  Economic  B a s e  Industry Lumbering M i n i ng T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Trading  Source-  Regional  industrial  Inde x  B. C . -  B of  Title  A  REGIONAL  PLANNING  ANALYSIS  of  0 rg.  A  SINGLE  ENTERPRISE  Personal the  TOWNS  AND  DEPRESSED  COMMUNITY By  E.  T.  COMMUNITIES  1957  Experience  Author  Drg.  OF GHOST  for  in  the  Nj.  4  Clegg  x  The  35  people o f F e r n i e are not l e a v i n g the community.  Efforts  taken to s t a b i l i z e the community are as f o l l o w s : Endorsement of a F e r n i e r e s o l u t i o n a s k i n g f o r support i n endeavours to have the proposed new f e d e r a l p e n i t e n t i a r y l o c a t e d i n the F e r n i e area was given at the S a t u r day s e s s i o n of the A s s o c i a t e d Boards of Trade.... 36 F u r t h e r a i d has been g i v e n the c o a l mining i n d u s t r y by a c o a l subsidy granted by the f e d e r a l government. 37 F i r s t road work s t a r t e d t h i s week. 3$ F e r n i e has recognized  o n l y too w e l l the problems  with which i t i s f a c e d because of i t s over dependence upon one  enterprise —  c o a l mining.  The C i t y does have other  v i t i e s such as lumbering and a brewery. i s l o o k i n g f o r a new  The  brewery, however,  s i t e with b e t t e r market c o n d i t i o n s .  Continuation  of t h i s t r e n d c o u l d s p e l l e v e n t u a l  Fernie.  r e c e n t attempts by the C i t y t o strengthen  The  acti-  ruin for and  d i v e r s i f y ' i t s base c o u l d s t a b i l i z e the community i f they prove to be  s u c c e s s f u l soon enough.  Copper Mountain was based upon the as 1000  mem,  copper mine nearby.  but  grade t o mine.  a community near Hedley,  i n 1957  i t was  I t had  closed.  B.C.,  employed as many  The  ore was  too  Today the community i s abandoned.39  Photo-  3 Ron Thornber, " T h e y ' l l Mine T o u r i s t D o l l a r s Now", Vancouver Sun, February 14, 195$, p. 3« 5  3 The F e r n i e Free Press, V o l . 60, 6  37 i b i d . V o l . 60, 3  ^  No.  15,  No.  A p r i l 17,  16,  195$,  Apr. p.  low  24,  The 195$.  1.  Ibid, p . l .  39 From an i n t e r v i e w with J.E. Parliament,  Manager of  36 graph 24, shows t h e mine b u i l d i n g s and t h e r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a on t h e f l a t s above t h e mine.  The f a t e o f Copper M o u n t a i n  i s o n l y one o f a l o n g l i n e o f m i n i n g communities i n B r i t i s h Columbia t h a t have ended as ghost towns.  Photograph  24  THE GHOST TOWN OF COPPER MOUNTAIN IN JUNE, 1958 NOTE: The s u r f a c e b u i l d i n g s o f t h e mine appear on the m o u n t a i n s i d e w h i l e t h e r e s i d e n t i a l community o f Copper M o u n t a i n i s j u s t v i s i b l e on the f l a t above. Source: Photograph by the A u t h o r i n June, 195$. 4. THE CAUSES OF FAILURE AND  DEPRESSION  The f a c t o r s t h a t l e a d a s i n g l e e n t e r p r i s e community  the Phoenix Copper L i m i t e d , (Former manager o f Copper Mount a i n ) , Grand F o r k s , June, 195$.  37 i n t o a p o s i t i o n where i t l o s e s t h e major source o f i t s employment can be summarized as f o l l o w s : 1.  A n a t u r a l resource,  f o r example, w i l l remain p r o -  d u c t i v e f o r a p e r i o d o f time determined by the s i z e o f the resource the  and the r a t e o f removal.  When t h i s time  community 'generally reduces i n s i z e and may 2.  In some cases,  elapses, disappear.  the market p r i c e o f a community's  product can drop so low t h a t the i n d u s t r y i s f o r c e d t o c l o s e . T h i s can apply t o almost any i n d u s t r i a l a c t i v i t y as w e l l as t o t h e n a t u r a l removal o f a 3.  In other  resource.  s i t u a t i o n s a product may no l o n g e r be  demanded by the p u b l i c because o f changing f a s h i o n s and needs o f the buying p u b l i c .  T h i s may a l s o f o r c e the i n d u s t r y t o  c l o s e and a ghost town may develop. 4.  I f very s t i f f competition  o f other  producers  makes i t uneconomical t o continue producing the good i n some community, then t h e i n d u s t r y must again 5.  close.  An i n d u s t r y may a l s o : l o s e i t s c o m p e t i t i v e  position  because o f adverse c o s t s o f l a b o r , m a t e r i a l s , o r t r a n s p o r t a tion. 6.  Again an i n d u s t r y may c l o s e because i t s owners  wish i t t o — or  region.  r e g a r d l e s s o f the i l l  e f f e c t s on t h e community  38 5. THE PROBLEMS OF COMMUNITY DEPRESSIONS AND FAILURE A. D i r e c t  Costs  When an e s t a b l i s h e d community i s f a c e d w i t h t h e l o s s of  i t s economic base, people  s u f f e r i n many ways.  i n t h e community's h i n t e r l a n d s u f f e r , t o o .  The people  F a m i l i e s may  move from t h e i r homes i n order t o f i n d new employment. value o f p r o p e r t y i n t h e community may drop.  The  Other minor  a c t i v i t i e s t h a t e i t h e r served t h e l o c a l p u b l i c o r depended on t h e b a s i c i n d u s t r y i n some way may e v e n t u a l l y move from the community f o l l o w i n g the l o s s o f the b a s i c i n d u s t r y . o t h e r people  To  i n t h e Province and the n a t i o n t h i s l o s s can  a l s o be a burden.  The unemployed soon move t o o t h e r  cities  which may i n c r e a s e t h e competition f o r jobs t h a t c o u l d r e s u l t i n added unemployment i n these c i t i e s , t o o . support t h e unemployed through  Most  taxpayers  unemployment i n s u r a n c e ,  works programmes, and o t h e r , s o c i a l a i d s .  special  I t c o s t s everyone  a l o t o f money. The abandonment o f a community i s a great waste o f human e f f o r t . utilities  The many i d l e homes, b u i l d i n g s , s t r e e t s , and  o f a ghost town a r e an investment  sands o f d o l l a r s .  worth many thou-  They should hot be l e f t t o decay.  c i t i e s a r e one o f man's proudest achievements,. unreasonable  Surely  I t appears  t o f i r s t b u i l d a c i t y and then t o abandon i t .  To do t h i s i n d i c a t e s a l a c k o f forethought and p l a n n i n g .  39  B. I n d i r e c t  Costs  The adverse e f f e c t on a community t h a t  loses  i t s econo-  mic base can a l s o be measured by a l o s s o f revenue.  When  the p r o d u c t i o n o f some good s t o p s , fewer t r a d e d o l l a r s  may  f l o w i n t o a r e g i o n , a p r o v i n c e , or a n a t i o n , because fewer export goods are f l o w i n g o u t .  R e g i o n a l , p r o v i n c i a l , and n a t i o n -  a l income are thereby reduced and t h e r e f o r e l e s s money i s a available to invest  i n the needs o f the p e o p l e .  In a d d i t i o n  the revenues from the l o c a l p r o p e r t y t a x , p r o v i n c i a l and resource t a x e s , and f e d e r a l l o s s of an e n t i r e community area's economy.  sales  income t a x are reduced.  The  can have a d r a s t i c e f f e c t on an  Even s e a s o n a l , c y c l i c a l , and other f l u c t u a -  t i o n s of the major e n t e r p r i s e somewhat the same i l l  effect.  i n a community  can produce  F o r example, the M u n i c i p a l  D i s t r i c t o f Tadanac produces l e a d and z i n c p r i m a r i l y .  •  The  1  number of unemployed persons i n the whole surrounding r e g i o n r i s e s and f a l l s with the market p r i c e o f l e a d and z i n c . some of the people become unemployed t h e r e i s no source o f b a s i c  employment.  When  alternative  Such economic f l u c t u a t i o n s  or  community f a i l u r e s are a waste o f human e f f o r t and a burden t o many t a x p a y e r s . In c o n c l u s i o n : t h e n , t o j u s t leave a community t o decay and r u i n a f t e r the resource has been d e p l e t e d or the major enterprise  has c o l l a p s e d  i s a great l o s s f o r a l l people.  the e f f e c t s o f the economic f l u c t u a t i o n s  Even  on the major e n t e r -  p r i s e can r e s u l t i n a waste o f human energy and t a l e n t .  40 6. The  THE ROLE OF THE REGIONAL PLANNER  problem o f the s i n g l e e n t e r p r i s e community i s a  r e a l challenge one  t o planning  perfect solution.  i n Canada t o d a y .  There w i l l be no  Any answer r e q u i r e s the f u l l  consider-  a t i o n o f a l l the s o c i a l , economic, and p h y s i c a l a s p e c t s o f l i f e w i t h i n t h a t community and i t s h i n t e r l a n d . the c o o p e r a t i o n themselves.  I t requires  o f governments, companies, and the people  Each p r o f e s s i o n has a r o l e t o p l a y i n shaping  the environment o f the s i n g l e e n t e r p r i s e community t o t r a n s form i t i n t o a b e t t e r p l a c e t o l i v e .  Each o f the f a c t o r s  c o n t r i b u t i n g t o the achievement o f t h i s g o a l must be guided and  i n t e g r a t e d so t h a t they w i l l be d i r e c t e d t o do the most  good f o r a l l p e o p l e . be considered  Both t h e urban and r u r a l h a b i t a t must  and developed as an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f the whole  r e g i o n a l community.  No other p r o f e s s i o n i s so equipped t o  perform these broad t a s k s as r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g .  The p r o -  blem o f t h i s T h e s i s then, i s a problem i n r e g i o n a l  planning.  41  CHAPTER I I A SURVEY OF THE PROBLEMS OF ROSSLAND-TRAIL REGION  THE  1. ROSSLAND-TRAIL AREA A.  Townsites Rossland i s a s m a l l community  the  (population 4344)^ i n  West Kootenay Area of southern B r i t i s h Columbia.  This  C i t y was b u i l t at an e l e v a t i o n o f more than 3400 f e e t , i n the  Monashee Mountains very near t o the Columbia R i v e r j u s t  before i t c r o s s e s the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Border. s i t e , o f approximately 1200  Rossland's town-  acr'es, spreads over a number of  r o l l i n g h i l l s t h a t are i n t u r n surrounded by h i g h e r peaked mountains. pattern.  The community i s n e a t l y l a i d out i n a compact g r i The c e n t r a l core c o n s i s t s o f commercial  along a main s t r e e t —  c a l l e d Columbia Avenue.  buildings  A b e l t of  small green farms surrounds the urban a r e a and s e p a r a t e s i t from the wooded  h i l l s beyond.  Rossland g i v e s i t a s t r i k i n g  The rugged a l p i n e s e t t i n g o f  townscape.  T r a i l i s a somewhat l a r g e r c i t y  ( p o p u l a t i o n 11,395),-,  2  iBureau of Economics and S t a t i s t i c s , Department of I n d u s t r i a l Development, Trade, and Commerce, R e g i o n a l Indust r i a l Index of B r i t i s h Columbia, V i c t o r i a , 1957 E d i t i o n , pp. 58 and 61.  2lbid  V  42 b u i l t very near t o Rossland but f a r t h e r down the mountains i d e on the banks o f the Columbia R i v e r . i s r e s t r i c t e d to f l a t  r i v e r benches which are separated by  deep g u l l e y s and the r i v e r i t s e l f . at  Urban development  The o r i g i n a l  townsite,  the mouth o f T r a i l Creek, was s h a r p l y c o n f i n e d i n area by  steep mountains on one s i d e , and the smelter development on the o t h e r .  Growth i n T r a i l has overflowed up onto the steep  h i l l s i d e s e n c l o s i n g i t and even a c r o s s the r i v e r t o nearby flat  r i v e r benches.  and d i s j o i n t e d .  The urban l a y o u t , as a r e s u l t , i s l o o s e  The h i l l s about the community  have l o s t  t h e i r c o v e r i n g o f v e g e t a t i o n because o f l o g g i n g , f i r e , f i n a l l y , the smelter fumes.  and  The smoke damage t o farms i n  the area has r e s u l t e d i n numerous law s u i t s a g a i n s t Cominco i n past y e a r s .  Photograph 25, on page 43, i l l u s t r a t e s the  t o x i c e f f e c t o f sulphur d i o x i d e fumes on ulmus and acer s p e c i e s o f deciduous growth.  T r a i l ' s most  characteristic  f e a t u r e s are f i r s t , i t s great i n d u s t r i a l development, and second, the b a r r e n landscape w i t h patches o f p l a n t e d e x o t i c s . A e r i a l Photographs 26 and 27, on pages 44 t o 47, show the C i t y of Rossland  and the C i t y o f T r a i l as they appeared i n  1956 and 1957 r e s p e c t i v e l y .  B. H i s t o r y Rossland was once the Golden C i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia. I t was i n c o r p o r a t e d i n 1897 under the Speedy I n c o r p o r a t i o n o f Towns A c t .  I t s h i s t o r y began w i t h the d i s c o v e r y o f one o f  43  the  world's r i c h e s t gold mines —  the famous Red Mountain  Gold Mines. ... the c a p i t a l i s t s began t o gather upon the top of Red Mountain, Rossland became a proud name upon the map of B r i t i s h Columbia ... i n 1901 i t had grown i n t o a C i t y of 7000 . ...^ These fabulous ore deposits gave b i r t h to the C i t y of T r a i l i n 1901 f o l l o w i n g the construction of a smelter there to r e f i n e the Rossland o r e . The C i t y of T r a i l derived i t s name from the t r a i l that was t r a v e l l e d from T r a i l t o Rossland.  Rossland grew as a r i c h mining community f o r twenty  Photograph  25  THE TOXIC EFFECT OF SULPHUR DIOXIDE ON THE FOLIAGE OF ACER SACCHARINUM AND ULMUS AMERICANA NOTE: The fumes w i l l k i l l a l l the leaves on a t r e e and the t r e e i t s e l f i f concentrations of the gas are heavy. Coniferous species are more vulnerable because the fume dep o s i t s c o l l e c t on the evergreen needles and destroy them over the years. Deciduous species lose t h e i r leaves each year and are l e a s vulnerable. Source: A summer essay f o r F o r e s t r y 498 i n 1951 by the Author at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. ^F.W. Howay, B r i t i s h Columbia from the E a r l i e s t Times  Photograph  26  THE CITY OF ROSSLAND NOTE: Heavy f o r e s t growth and many green f i e l d s round the C i t y . Source:  1956.  Photographic Survey C o r p o r a t i o n ,  sur-  Vancouver,  47  Photograph  27  THE CITY OF TRAIL NOTE: Much o f the l a n d surrounding the C i t y does not have any f o r e s t growth. Green patches near the i n d u s t r i a l area were p l a n t e d by Cominco. Source: 1957.  Photographic Survey C o r p o r a t i o n ,  Vancouver,  48  y e a r s b e f o r e the ore d e p o s i t s were f i n a l l y d e p l e t e d . o f the mine workers i n Rossland Trail.  The C i t y o f Rossland,  Many  found work at the smelter i n  i n t h i s way,  escaped  the  fate  of becoming a ghost town, l i k e Phoenix, Sandon, C o r b i n , and many other o l d mining towns.  Rossland became a r e s i d e n t i a l  a r e a and T r a i l became the work c e n t e r .  Following a municipal  f i n a n c i a l c r i s i s , the C o n s o l i d a t e d M i n i n g and S m e l t i n g Company withdrew i t s i n d u s t r i a l p l a n t s from the C i t y of T r a i l by i n c o r p o r a t i n g them i n the M u n i c i p a l i t y o f Tadanac on December 21, 1 9 2 2 .  On December 8, 1952, the V i l l a g e of W a r f i e l d  separated from T r a i l .  The  community of T r a i l i s thus not  o n l y g e o g r a p h i c a l l y d i v i d e d by i t s broken topography, but a l so l e g a l l y d i v i d e d by i t s many m u n i c i p a l  boundaries.  Table I, on page 49, i l l u s t r a t e s the p o p u l a t i o n changes i n the R o s s l a n d - T r a i l Area f o r the past 65 y e a r s . I t can be seen t h a t Rossland  C i t y was  once the dominant  w i t h i n the R o s s l a n d - T r a i l Region up t o about 1 9 1 6 .  city  At t h a t  time n e a r l y t w o - t h i r d s of t h i s Region's p o p u l a t i o n l i v e d i n Rossland.  Since then, however, T r a i l C i t y has becmme the  dominant center and now population.  h o l d s over t w o - t h i r d s o f the Region's  However, the C i t y of Rossland has, from t h a t  time, not o n l y maintained  i t s p o p u l a t i o n , but has more than  t o the Present, V o l . I I , (Vancouver: Co.77*1914, p. 4 7 4 .  S.J. C l a r k e P u b l i s h i n g  TABLE I POPULATION CHANGE AND DISTRIBUTION IN ROSSLAND-TRAIL AREA FROM 1 8 9 1 TO 1956 ;  Year  •  :;  ' '  ::  Rossland  1000 7500 . 6156 2826 2.0.97 2848 3657 4604 4344  1891  a  a  1895  1901 1911 1921 1931 1941 1951 1956  &  ' ' p e r cent of T o t a l  ::  100 88 84 66 38  26 27 28 27  L a n c e H. Whittaker.  NOTE:  Population Trail  Tadanac  1000 (1200) 1460. 3020 7573 9392 11430  :  per cent of t o t a l  a  11395  292 464 510 479 325  12 16 34 62 74 73 72 73  Total Rossland-Trail Tadanac  1000 8500 7356 4286 5409  10885  13559 16513 16064  The Golden C i t y . ( R o s s l a n d Miner L i m i t e d , 1949) p. 3  F i g u r e i n bracket i s author's  estimate.  Source: Dominion Bureau o f S t a t i s t i c s , Canada Census. (Ottawa: Queens' P r i n t e r , 1951).  50 doubled  i t in thirty  years.  Table I I , on page 5 1 , i l l u s t r a t e s the r a t e o f population increase.  Rossland had a phenomenal growth r a t e i n the  e a r l y days but l a t e r i t dropped r a p i d l y u n t i l 1921, when i t again i n c r e a s e d .  T r a i l has grown f a s t e r than B r i t i s h Colum-  b i a , from 1921 t o 1941.  In recent y e a r s , T r a i l and Rossland  have both l o s t p o p u l a t i o n .  T h i s i s not a h e a l t h y s i g n .  It  i n d i c a t e s t h a t the b a s i c employer, Cominco, i s e x p e r i e n c i n g some h a r d s h i p s . 2.  THE ROSSLAND-TRAIL REGIONAL DELIMITATION AND SETTLEMENT PATTERN  A. D e l i m i t a t i o n o f the Region and Core In order t o l i m i t our survey and a n a l y s i s t o some c l e a r l y d e f i n e d area, a d e l i m i t a t i o n o f the R o s s l a n d - T r a i l Regional boundaries  w i l l be undertaken a t t h i s  time.  C i t i e s seldom e x i s t as independent i s l a n d s .  Each  community i s i n f l u e n c e d by, and i n t u r n i n f l u e n c e s , o t h e r communities.  The T r a i l a r e a , a t the core, e x e r t s a very  d e f i n i t e i n f l u e n c e upon the surrounding h i n t e r l a n d communities, l a r g e l y as a r e s u l t o f the C o n s o l i d a t e d Mining and S m e l t i n g Company o f Canada.  The extent o f t h i s i n f l u e n c e w i l l be used  to d e l i m i t a R o s s l a n d - T r a i l Region.  The problems o f '.  Ooiainco, at the core o f such a Region, are b e l i e v e d t o be t h e same problems which s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e people and communities w i t h i n the e n t i r e Region so d e l i m i t e d .  Periods o f depression  TABLE I I A COMPARISON OF POPULATION GROWTH IN ROSSLAND, TRAIL, AND BRITISH COLUMBIA FROM 1891 TO 1956  Rossland  Year  1000 6156 2826  1891 1901 1911 1921 1931 1941 1951 1956  2097  2848 3657 4604 4344 a  per cent  Trail a  a  Rossland Trail Tadanac  British Columbia  per cent  101  98173 178657 392480 524582 694263  82 120 34  22 - 3  1165210 1398464  per cent  b  616 -54 -26 36 28 26  - 6  1460 3020 7573  9392  11430 11395  T h e percent i s c a l c u l a t e d Lance H. Whittaker.  Source:  per cent  107 151  24  22  -  1 5  4286 5409 10885 13550 16513 16064  26 27  a  817861  as an i n c r e a s e over t h e preceding  The Golden C i t y .  a  32  18 42 20  census.  (Rossland Miner L i m i t e d , 1949) p. 3  D.B.S. Canada Census. (Queen's P r i n t e r , 1951 and 1956.)  52 and  prosperity  s i o n and  i n Cominco's o p e r a t i o n s ,  prosperity  f o r the  e n t i r e Region.  Regional Boundaries.  The  extent of the T r a i l Core  Area's i n f l u e n c e w i l l be measured by the social,  and  p h y s i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n o f the  ments toward the  surrounding  total t o the  settle-  i l l u s t r a t e s the degree o f econo-  o r i e n t a t i o n by the number of workers t h a t each  community p r o v i d e s the  the  degree of economic,  Core.  Table I I I , on page 53, mic  are p e r i o d s o f depres-  central industry  satellite  i n r e l a t i o n to  l a b o r f o r c e a v a i l a b l e i n each community.  In  the  addition  Cominco employees, a l a r g e p a r t of the l a b o r f o r c e i n  s a t e l l i t e towns t r a v e l t o the  forms o f employment.  The  c e n t r a l c i t y f o r other  l a r g e number o f workers t h a t  pend on c e n t r a l a c t i v i t i e s i s a good measure o f the influence  o f the T r a i l Core Area.  i n d i c a t e s how  many h i n t e r l a n d  Table IV,  de-  economic  on page  54,  communities p r o v i d e homes f o r  Cominco workers. Indicators the  core are  of s o c i a l  and  economic o r i e n t a t i o n toward  shown by Table V, on page 55.  T h i s t a b l e shows  the l a r g e number of n o n - r e s i d e n t b i r t h s t h a t occur i n T r a i l . T h i s i n d i c a t e s t h a t people from the  s a t e l l i t e communities  the h o s p i t a l and m e d i c a l f a c i l i t i e s o f T r a i l . page 56,  i l l u s t r a t e s the  are l o c a t e d The  i n the  l a r g e number o f r e t a i l o u t l e t s  core a r e a on a per 1,000  number o f r e t a i l o u t l e t s at the  shown f o r the P r o v i n c e .  Table VI,  population  core exceeds the  Rossland, however, one  use on  that basis.  number  of the  satel-  53  TABLE I I I  THE LABOR FORCE IN COMMUNITIES SURROUNDING TADANAC EMPLOYED AT THE CONSOLIDATED MINING AND SMELTING COMPANY  Community  T o t a l Community Labor Force  Trail Rossland Warfield Castlegar Kinnaird Fruitvale  2956  Total  Number Employed at Cominco  (550)  2366 680 204 314 196 418  6657  4178  1115 (816) (700)  (520)  Per Cent of T o t a l Employed at Cominco 80 61  25  45 3$ 76  NOTE: F i g u r e s i n s i d e t h e b r a c k e t s were c a l c u l a t e d from census p o p u l a t i o n f i g u r e s d i v i d e d by t h e average r a t i o of t h e l a b o r f o r c e t o p o p u l a t i o n i n Rossland and T r a i l o f 2.5. Source: and 1956).  D.B.S.  Canada Census. (Queen's P r i n t e r , 1951  P e r s o n a l correspondende of t h e Author w i t h t h e C o n s o l i dated Mining and S m e l t i n g Company, February, 1958.  54  TABLE IV  WHERE COMINCO EMPLOYEES LIVE  Place of Residence Trail Rossland Fruitvale Annable Castlegar Warfield Casino Kinnaird Total  Employees HourlyRated  1662 506 361 76 281 122 5 161  2174  Salaried  704 174 57 9 33 82 1 25  1095  Total  Per Cent Distribution  2366 680 418 $5 314 204 6 196  55 16 10 2 7 5 0 5  4269  100  Source: P e r s o n a l Correspondence o f t h e Author w i t h the P e r s o n n e l Department o f C o n s o l i d a t e d M i n i n g and S m e l t i n g Company o f Canada. ( T r a i l , February, 195$)•  55  TABLE V SOME BIRTH, DEATH, AND MARRIAGE STATISTICS FOR ROSSLAND, TRAIL, AND BRITISH COLUMBIA IN 1955  Rossland  Births Total Residents Male Female Total Illegitimate Non-resident Others  109  566  59 43 102  163 179 342 10 241 17  n. 14  a  2.0  Birth rate  Trail  British Columbia  17366 16772 34138 2062 2.6  3.0  Deaths Residents Total Male Female  48 23 25  v Death r a t e  0*1  172 102 70  25673 12857 12816  1.0  0*1  Marriages  35  Total v  Marriage r a t e  a  0.8  93  11011  0.7  0.8  B i r t h s of r e s i d e n t s outside the c i t y .  ^Rates a r e per 1000 persons. Source: B r i t i s h Columbia Department o f H e a l t h and Welf a r e , D i v i s i o n of V i t a l S t a t i s t i c s . Vital Statistics. ( V i c t o r i a ; Queen's P r i n t e r , 1955) et passim.  TABLE VI  THE DISTRIBUTION OF RETAIL STORES AND TRADE . IN ROSSLAND, TRAIL, AND BRITISH COLUMBIA R e t a i l S t o r e s and Trade Trail Total Stores Total Total no. of per 1,000 T r a d e Trade persons Stores ; :  Commodity  Total no. o f Stores  Food and Beverage General Merchandise Automotive A p p a r e l and Accessory Building Materials and Hardware F u r n i t u r e , Radio & home a p p l i a n c e s Drug and H e a l t h Second Hand Other R e t a i l  a  In  Rossland Stores per 1,000 persons  16  3.7  3 2  0.7 0.5  5  1.2  4  a  a  B r i t i s h Columbia Total Stores no. o f per 1,000 Stores persons  52  4.6  4863.4  5561  4.0  8 12  0.7 1.0  2074.3 3908.9  1019 1529  0.7 1.1  192.1  16  1.4  961.0  1593  1.1  0.9  301.0  6  0.5  902.1  771  0.6  4 2  0.9 0.5  154.0  1.9  1.0 0.3 0.1 1.8  928".5  8  11 4 1 20  520 440 258 1457  0.4 0.3 0.2 1.0  1159.7  719.6  thousands o f d o l l a r s .  Source: B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Trade and I n d u s t r y , Bureau of Economics and S t a t i s t i c s . West Kootenay R e g i o n a l S t a t i s t i c s . ( V i c t o r i a : Queen's P r i n t e r , J u l y , 1954), p. 30. ON  57 l i t e s , has vince.  fewer r e t a i l o u t l e t s on t h i s b a s i s , than the  I t can be assumed then, t h a t people i n the  l a n d communities t r a v e l t o T r a i l t o shop. t o r s or o r i e n t a t i o n , can be  ties.  The  hinter-  Additional indica-  found from the numerous l a r g e  r e t a i l , wholesale, f i n a n c i a l , p r o f e s s i o n a l , and s e r v i c e s found i n T r a i l but  Pro-  not  y e l l o w pages o f the  i n the  recreational  s u r r o u n d i n g communi-  l o c a l telephone d i r e c t o r y con-  f i r m t h i s statement. A number of p h y s i c a l f a c t o r s tend t o c o n f i n e a c t i v i t i e s .into a n a t u r a l geographic r e g i o n . i s not as strong the  and  economic and  p h y s i c a l l y by the  The  T h i s , however,  east and  s o c i a l r e g i o n are  S e l k i r k and  c l e a r l y defined The  i n t e r n a t i o n a l border.  n o r t h e r n boundary i s l i m i t e d , f i r s t , by the i n g road systems, and  west bound-  Monashee Mountains.  ern boundary i s l i m i t e d by the  and  above  c l e a r a c r i t e r i a of d e l i n e a t i o n as i s  economic or s o c i a l c r i t e r i a .  a r i e s of the  the  second, by the  southThe  extent of e x i s t -  summit o f the  Kootenay  Columbia R i v e r mountain systems. In t h i s T h e s i s ,  any  community whose i n h a b i t a n t s make  over 50% of t h e i r t r i p s f o r work, p r o f e s s i o n a l  service,  r e c r e a t i o n , or a major purchase t o T r a i l , r a t h e r -than Nelson, Grand Forks, or any  o t h e r major center,  o r i e n t e d more to T r a i l than any therefore  be  included  i s c o n s i d e r e d to  other center and  be  should  i n T r a i l ' s sphere of i n f l u e n c e . 4  This  ^ T h i s measure i s o f f e r e d as a r e s u l t of the Author's experience l i v i n g i n V a r i o u s communities i n the T r a i l a r e a .  58 measure could be made i n t h e f i e l d t o v e r i f y t h e h y p o t h e t i cal in  Region proposed h e r e i n .  A sample survey o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n  each b o r d e r l i n e community would l i k e l y i n d i c a t e t h a t a l l  communities i n c l u d e d i n the proposed R o s s l a n d - T r a i l Region would make over 50% o f t h e i r t r i p s t o the T r a i l Core Area. Through c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f a l l these s o c i a l , economic, and  geographic c r i t e r i a , then, t h e r e g i o n a l boundary has  been d e l i m i t e d as i l l u s t r a t e d on Drawing 5, on page 59, by a broken l i n e . R e g i o n a l Core Boundaries.  Economic and s o c i a l  cri-  t e r i a can a l s o be used t o d e l i n e a t e the boundaries o f a r e g i o n a l core a r e a a t the c e n t e r  of the Region.  I t i s assum-  ed,, f o r t h i s . T h e s i s , t h a t where people make over 90% o f t h e i r major t r i p s t o t h e c e n t r a l c i t y ,  such an a r e a o f intense i n -  t e r a c t i o n can be d e l i n e a t e d as a r e g i o n a l core.5 c r i t e r i a are o f l i t t l e  value  Geographic  i n d i s t i n g u i s h i n g the core.  However, the i n t e r n a t i o n a l border, the Rossland Range, and a p a r t o f the S e l k i r k Range,, enclose area which agrees i n g e n e r a l s o c i a l and economic c r i t e r i a . is  a weak n a t u r a l geographic  o u t l i n e t o t h a t d e s c r i b e d by The r e g i o n a l core so d e r i v e d  shown as a s o l i d l i n e on Drawing 5, page The  59:  s e t t l e d area o f t h e core i n c l u d e s the C i t y o f  T r a i l , t h e V i l l a g e o f W a r f i e l d , the D i s t r i c t M u n i c i p a l i t y  Ibid  A REGIONAL PLANNING A N A L Y S I S OF A S I N G L E ENTERPRISE COMMUNITY SHOREACRES  TARRYS  ^  v o  (&}>  \ I  %  I 1  REN AT A ROB  THRUMS  SOt  e  I  KEY  i  I I  GENERAL  f  CASTLEGAR  %  REGIONAL  I  KINNAIRD  REGION C ORE  SETTLEMENT  %  INDUSTR I A L  i  RESIDENTIAL  '• TYPE  COMMERCIAL PAR K  t $  DISTRICTS I 2 3 4 5  GEI  WARFIELD TRAIL C E N T E R GLENMERRY EAST TRAIL TADANAC  O R I E N T A T ION  I  i t i  I  FRUITW  I  N  S I  MONTROSEi  1 8 I  Title  of  REGIONS  % One i n c h %  %  %  Four miles  ROSSLAND  SHEEP  ^PATERSON  AND  SETTLE MENT PATTERNS  WANE;  BIG  Org.  Org.  Internotionol  No.  5  60 ' of Tadanac, and the C i t y of Rossland. l o c a t e d very c l o s e t o g e t h e r .  These communities are  Tadanac, W a r f i e l d , and  are r e a l l y only p a r t s of one l a r g e c i t y .  Rossland  Trail  i s separa-  t e d from t h i s c i t y by two m i l e s o f s p a r s e l y b u i l t - u p l a n d so t h a t i t a c t s l i k e a suburb t o the l a r g e r c i t y .  These commui-.:'-  n i t i e s t o g e t h e r have a p o p u l a t i o n of 18,115^ but by i n g the p o p u l a t i o n o f the u n i n c o r p o r a t e d a r e a  includ-  immediately  adjacent t o these communities, the p o p u l a t i o n would l i k e l y be nearer t o 20,000.,  T h i s s t a t e of continuous  development  e n g u l f i n g a number of i n c o r p o r a t e d m u n i c i p a l i t i e s and  unin-  corporated b u i l t - u p l a n d w i t h a p o p u l a t i o n o f t h i s s i z e be d e s c r i b e d as the minor m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a of the T r a i l Region. B. Settlement The  may  Rossland-  I t i s shown on Drawing 6, on page.61. Patterns  p a t t e r n of settlement w i t h i n the R o s s l a n d - T r a i l  Region shows the r e l a t i o n s h i p of communities very  clearly.  These r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i l l h e l p t o e x p l a i n some of the  charac-  t e r i s t i c s o f the Region. The  T r a i l settlement system has the major work c e n t e r ,  producing r e f i n e d metals,  fertilizers,  and  chemicals, l o c a t e d  i n Tadanac, but the major commercial c e n t e r i s found  in Trail.  " B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of I n d u s t r i a l Development, Bureau of Economics and S t a t i s t i c s , R e g i o n a l I n d u s t r i a l Index of B r i t i s h Columbia, ( V i c t o r i a : Queen's P r i n t e r , 1956), pp. 56,58,60.  62 Around t h i s commercial and work nucleus a number of r e s i d e n tial  s e t t l e m e n t s have grown.  The  s i z e o f the  settlements  shown on Drawing 5 , page 5 9 > i s r e l a t e d d ^ g r a m m a t i c a l l y  to  the a c t u a l area covered by them.  rela-  This i l l u s t r a t e s t h e i r  t i v e p o p u l a t i o n and perhaps importance.  The  settlements are  broken i n t o separate d i s t r i c t s which are l o c a t e d on  indivi-  d u a l r i v e r benches or are separated as i n d i v i d u a l m u n i c i p a l i ties.  Settlement  i s not continuous but i t i s compact i n the  sense t h a t most of the a v a i l a b l e , b u i l d a b l e l a n d very near t o the nucleus has a l l been b u i l t - u p . The  Rossland  settlement system i s s t r o n g l y o r i e n t e d  towards the T r a i l n u c l e u s .  Rossland no l o n g e r has any  indus-  t r y but i t s small c o m m e r c i a l , s t i l l serves a small h i n t e r l a n d of s e t t l e m e n t . approaching ed on page The  The Rossland  and T r a i l  systems t o g e t h e r  the c o n d i t i o n o f a m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a as d e s c r i b 60. C a s t l e g a r settlement system has i t s own  t e r producing lumber and p u l p , and i t s own  ment i n t h a t a r e a .  work cen-  commercial c e n t e r .  T h i s i s p r i m a r i l y due t o the C e l g a r pulp and lumber  develop-  The h i e r a r c h y o f s e t t l e m e n t s around the  C a s t l e g a r nucleus are f u r t h e r away than are T r a i l ' s and more weakly o r i e n t e d toward the c e n t e r .  The  are  Castlegar  s a t e l l i t e s are l a r g e l y independent a g r i c u l t u r a l The  are  communities.  o r i e n t a t i o n o f the C a s t l e g a r system towards T r a i l i s be-  i n g weakened very much by C e l g a r ' s i n d u s t r i a l a c t i v i t y i n the C a s t l e g a r a r e a .  63 The t h r e e settlement systems t o g e t h e r a r e i n t e r - r e l a t ed by the s o c i a l , economic, and p h y s i c a l c r i t e r i a  described  under R e g i o n a l Boundaries, on page 52, as w e l l as by a common use o f v a r i o u s f a c i l i t i e s .  Each settlement type performs i t s  p a r t i c u l a r a c t i v i t y as a n e c e s s a r y p a r t of the whole Region.  organic  But t h i s r e g i o n a l network o f systems d e r i v e s i t s  b a s i c stimulus today from the major employer -- Cominco. 3.  MUNICIPAL REVENUES  A. P o p u l a t i o n Growth and I t s Problem The c i t i e s of Rossland and T r a i l , l i k e most urban areas i n Canada, have had a great p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e i n recent years.  From Table I I , on page 51, the range o f p o p u l a t i o n  change i s shown.  In Rossland and T r a i l p o p u l a t i o n s have  i n c r e a s e d from 100% t o 600% i n some decades.  Rossland has  l o s t as much as 70% o f i t s p o p u l a t i o n i n one decade.  These  extreme f l u c t u a t i o n s i n p o p u l a t i o n b r i n g many problems t o the c i t i e s and t h e i r Region. Urban growth c r e a t e s many problems. The p l a n n i n g problems f a c e d by B r i t i s h Columbia's small communities stem l a r g e l y from the f a c t o r of r a p i d urban growth .... urban communities r e q u i r e a wider range and a h i g h e r standard o f m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s ... water mains ... more a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p e r s o n n e l ... more s c h o o l s , and ... many o t h e r f a c i l i t i e s .... f i r e departments, waste d i s p o s a l systems .... storm water mains .... housing accomodat i o n s ... h e a l t h and w e l f a r e f a c i l i t i e s . . . . - '  I r a M. Robinson, " P l a n n i n g F o r Small Communities i n B r i t i s h Columbia", Community P l a n n i n g H i v i e w . V o l . V, No. 1, V, (March, 1955), p.11. 7  64 For Canada ... an i n c r e a s e i n p o p u l a t i o n of some twenty-eight m i l l i o n by 1980. It i s a n t i c i p a t e d that the i n c r e a s e w i l l be c o n c e n t r a t e d very l a r g e l y i n c i t i e s and towns. The i m p l i c a t i o n s ... f o r s o c i a l , c a p i t a l , a and m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s are c l e a r ... w i l l the f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s o f the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s be adequate t o meet the requirements?^ These are a l s o the problems c r e a t e d by growth i n the R o s s l a n d - T r a i l Region.  The  population  extreme p o p u l a t i o n  f l u c t u a t i o n s i n t h i s area have made the problem even more acute.  Rapid i n c r e a s e s i n p o p u l a t i o n c r e a t e demands f o r  more housing,  utilities,  and  local services.  Abrupt drops  i n p o p u l a t i o n , on the otherhand, leave many homes vacant, u t i l i t i e s i d l e , and remaining  s e r v i c e s not f u l l y u t i l i z e d .  i n such communities must s t i l l  T h i s narrow  Population  t i o n s can, t h e r e f o r e , be a h a r d s h i p on any  was  built  very r a p i d l y .  frame c o n s t r u c t i o n .  Rossland  was  the  pro-  as a boom town,  B u i l d i n g s were l a r g e l y o f crude  S e r v i c e s were temporary.  sewer l i n e s were o f t e n open flumes. Rossland  fluctua-  community.  Other p u r e l y l o c a l f a c t o r s have accentuated blems o f growth i n t h i s Region.  people  pay fior past expen-  d i t u r e s on u t i l i t i e s and o t h e r overhead c o s t s . t a x base c a r r i e s a h e a v i e r t a x burden.  The  Water  and  A f t e r the mines c l o s e d ,  unable t o f i n a n c e l a r g e works p r o j e c t s t o r e -  place such inadequate s t r u c t u r e s .  They remained i n  Rossland  % . C . Goldenberg, " M u n i c i p a l Finance and T a x a t i o n Problems and P r o s p e c t s " . Canadian Tax J o u r n a l . V o l . IV, No. 3, (May-June, 1956), p.158.  65 f o r many y e a r s . burned, f i r s t 1929.  The town center o f Rossland was completely  i n 1902, a second time i n 1927, and a g a i n i n  These f i r e y ravages put the C i t y even f u r t h e r back  i n i t s e f f o r t s t o p r o v i d e s a t i s f a c t o r y homes and s e r v i c e s . In T r a i l , r a p i d growth and t h e l a c k o f good p l a n n i n g r e s u l t e d i n haphazard development. hillsides.  Housing  grew on steep  People were crowded i n t o homes converted  into  apartments and duplexes t o meet the demand o f r a p i d popular:;, t i o n growth. P r o v i d i n g adequate roads and s e r v i c e s t o these areas has been a great burden f o r T r a i l ' s t a x p a y e r s . broken nature o f i t s geographic  The  l a y o u t t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e pro-  blem o f b e i n g d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e separate m u n i c i p a l i t i e s have made s e r v i c e s and development u n n e c e s s a r i l y expensive. T r a i l was dominated by Cominco f o r many y e a r s . almost a company town.  I t was  Cominco saw no r e a l value i n im-  p r o v i n g l o c a l s e r v i c e s or promoting  town development on the  b a s i s t h a t the smelter worker would o n l y be burdened by t h e cost through t a x e s .  The Company's i n f l u e n c e on l o c a l  affairs  d i d not, t h e r e f o r e , encourage and perhaps d i s c o u r a g e d sound development.  T h i s can be supported by examination  y e a r s t h a t any o f t h e major works p r o j e c t s were A l l are recent.  o f the  undertaken.  F o r many years no l a r g e p r o j e c t s were under-  taken. 9  ^Based on experience o f the author i n l i v i n g and worki n g i n the T r a i l a r e a f o r many y e a r s .  66  The r e s u l t of r a p i d p o p u l a t i o n growth and other f a c t o r s , has thus, l e f t a backlog o f needs i n Rossland and T r a i l , f o r good economical  s e r v i c e s and  housing.  B. A Demand f o r S e r v i c e s The people o f Rossland and T r a i l earn an annual per c a p i t a income t h a t i s the h i g h e s t i n C a n a d a . T a b l e y/i, page 67,  shows the average  on  income i n the Rossland, T r a i l ,  Kimberley areas f o r the past t e n y e a r s .  Table VJH, on page  and 68,  shows the high p r o p o r t i o n of workers i n the upper income brackets.  The  i n each y e a r .  income i s w e l l above the average  f o r Canada  A p o p u l a t i o n w i t h such a h i g h p u r c h a s i n g power  c r e a t e s a s t r o n g demand f o r a h i g h l e v e l of m u n i c i p a l s e r vices.  The people buy good homes and c a r s and they expect  the m u n i c i p a l i t y t o supply good s e r v i c e s and roads at the same expensive l e v e l .  Table JX, on page 69,  shows, however,  t h a t the c i t i e s of Rossland and T r a i l have one  o f the lowest  m u n i c i p a l incomes f o r c i t i e s of t h i s s i z e i n B r i t i s h Columbia.  The problem  of s e r v i c e demands i s very e v i d e n t i n com-  m u n i t i e s o f the R o s s l a n d - T r a i l Region. ... a wide and ever growing range of s e r v i c e s which are e x c l u s i v e l y o f l o c a l concern, s e r v i c e s which are d e s i r e d by the c i t i z e n s and are t o be maintained up t o standards demanded by the c i t i z e n s . Such, f o r example, would be the p r o v i s i o n of s t r e e t l i g h t i n g , f i r e p r o t e c t i o n , parks, t r e e trimming, snow removal, sidewalks,  C a n a d a , Department of N a t i o n a l Revenue, T a x a t i o n S t a t i s t i c s , (Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r , 1 9 5 5 - 5 6 ) . lu  ;  67  TABLE V I I  AVERAGE PER CAPITA INCOME AND INCOME TAXATION IN THE ROSSLAND, TRAIL, AND KIMBERLEY AREA AND CANADA FROM 1 9 4 6 TO 1955  Rossland,Trail,and Kimberley Income Tax Income  Year  #2183 2441  1946  1947  1948  2815  1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955  3012 3101  3486  3789  3853  3737 4113  $288  247 319 205 235 295  431 418 340  377  a  Canada Income Income Tax  $2043 2356 2512  2881  2963 3150 3290  3386 3436  3535  $274 262 241 224 242 292 342 338  322 323  T h i s a r e a i s r e p o r t e d i n 1955 as having t h e h i g h e s t income per c a p i t a i n Canada. a  Source: Canada,.Department o f N a t i o n a l Revenue, Taxat i o n D i v i s i o n . Taxation S t a t i s t i c s . (Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r 1 9 4 6 - 5 5 ) , et passim.  68  TABLE  V I I I  A CLASSIFICATION OF WAGE EARNERS IN ROSSLAND, TRAIL, AND BRITISH COLUMBIA  Wage C l a s s i -500 500-999 1000-1499  1500-1999 2000-2499 2500-2999 3000-3999 4000Total  Rossland T o t a l Per cent 102 77 83 93 226 389 348 72 1430  7.1 5.3 5.8 6.5 15.2 27.2 24.3 5.0  Trail T o t a l Per cent 344 251 330 365 629 1271 1018  174  7.6 5.5 7.3 8.1 14.0 28.2  22.6 3.9  B.C. per cent 9 8 12 16 21 14 12 4  4507  NOTE: T o t a l s and breakdowns do not always agree s i n c e a l l wage earners do not r e p o r t f o r census purposes. Source:  D.B.S.  Canada Census, (Queen's P r i n t e r ,  1951).  69  TABLE IX  A COMPARISON OF PER CAPITA REVENUES/ EXPENDITURES, AND ADMINISTRATIVE COSTS IN 1956 FOR TRAIL, ROSSLAND AND OTHER.MUNICIPALITIES  Municipality  Population  4344 5774 4562 4632 3469  $ 61  11395  $9 94  Rossland Kimberley Cranbrook Port Coquitlam Revelstoke Trail Nanaimo Penticton P r i n c e George P r i n c e Rupert  Total Municipal Revenues o r Expenditures Per C a p i t a  12705  11894  10563  10498  B r i t i s h Columbia  A l l cities, villages,  87  100  65 94  123 121 101  Municipal Administration Costs Per C a p i t a  \3  4 3 4 4  5 4 7 5 7  95 and d i s t r i c t s .  Source: B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s , M u n i c i p a l S t a t i s t i c s . ( V i c t o r i a : Queen's P r i n t e r , 1 9 5 6 ) et passim.  70  r e c r e a t i o n programmes, refuse removal and d i s p o s a l , b u i l d i n g i n s p e c t i o n , e t c . The range of such s e r v i c e s increases as population increases and as the standard of p u b l i c s e r v i c e s expected by the c i t i z e n s continues to r i s e . 1 1  C. Sources of M u n i c i p a l Revenue I f municipal revenue was as adequate i n the RosslandT r a i l Region as are wages, then there would be no municipal revenue problem. The fundamental problem o f the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i s a f i n a n c i a l one ... the f a c t t h a t revenues which they can r a i s e from the a v a i l a b l e sources are not s u f f i c i e n t t o meet the mandatory expenditures which the l o c a l c i t i z e n s want t h e i r c o u n c i l s t o incur.12 Tadanac Tax Revenue.  The major problem o f the Ross-  l a n d - T r a i l Region i s the present p o s i t i o n of Tadanac.  The  D i s t r i c t M u n i c i p a l i t y of Tadanac was incorporated by Cominco as noted on page 48, t o help the C i t y of T r a i l w i t h i t s f i n a n c i a l problems.  Cominco o f f e r e d t o look a f t e r the ser-  v i c i n g of i t s own p l a n t s and the adjacent r e s i d e n t i a l prop e r t y , as the independent m u n i c i p a l i t y of Tadanac.  The true  e f f e c t of t h i s i n c o r p o r a t i o n was not f e l t i n the Region u n t i l later.  The T r a i l C o u n c i l , i n 1922, d i d not consider what a  great source of t a x revenue i t was l o s i n g .  The c i t i e s of  T r a i l and Rossland, and t o a l e s s e r degree, the surrounding  -^K.G. Crawford, Canadian M u n i c i p a l Government, (Toronto: U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto Press, 1955), p.340. 1 2  I b i d , p.359.  71 communities however, were f a c e d i n f u t u r e y e a r s w i t h  increas-  i n g s e r v i c e c o s t s r e s u l t i n g f r o m t h e demands o f t h e w e l l p a i d Cominco employees.  People working  l i v e i n Tadanac, t h e y l i v e  i n C o m i n c o do n o t  i n the surrounding  a s shown i n T a b l e s I I I and IV on p a g e s 53  a  n  municipalities  ^ 54*  The C o m i n c o  employee e x p e c t s h i s m u n i c i p a l i t y t o p r o v i d e good s c h o o l s , paved r o a d s , w a t e r a n d sewer s e r v i c e s , good s t o r e s , a c h o i c e of r e c r e a t i o n , and v a r i o u s other a m e n i t i e s .  The m u n i c i p a l i -  t i e s are thus faced with p r o v i d i n g the r e s i d e n t i a l  needs  g e n e r a t e d b y Cominco b u t w i t h o u t t h e a s s i s t a n c e o f t a x r e v e n ues from t h e l a r g e s m e l t e r p l a n t .  T h i s anomaly has c r e a t e d  a r e a l h a r d s h i p f o r communities i n t h e R o s s l a n d - T r a i l Region. I n a l l c a s e s , revenues from r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s were i n s u f f i c i e n t t o pay t h e cost o f s e r v i c e s t o those areas. I n a l l c a s e s , c o m m e r c i a l a n d i n d u s t r i a l . a r e a s p a i d more taxes than The  unbalanced  r e l a t i o n s h i p s between Tadanac,  a n d R o s s l a n d c a n be shown b y t h e c o m p a r i s o n ments, t o t a l t a x revenues, municipalities.  Trail,  of t o t a l ;  assess-  and t o t a l population within  The a s s e s s m e n t s  these  o f l a n d a n d improvements i n  T a d a n a c a m o u n t e d t o $44,680,408 w h e r e a s i n R o s s l a n d a n d T r a i l t h e amount t o g e t h e r was a b o u t h a l f o f t h i s o r $18,867, 627 f o r T r a i l , a n d $5,805,311 f o r R o s s l a n d .  The t a x e s  levied  - ^ R o b e r t B. G a r r a b r a n t , "The Community a n d I n d u s t r i a l D e v e l o p m e n t , " U r b a n L a n d I n s t i t u t e , T e c h n i c a l B u l l e t i n No.21, ( W a s h i n g t o n : S e p t e m b e r , 1953), p.5.  72  i n Tadanac upon t h i s assessment i s a t a much l o w e r r a t e s i n c e i t y i e l d s only,$686,712,000 i n t a x e s as compared t o $633,851 f o r T r a i l and $144,766 f o r R o s s l a n d on t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e assessments. and R o s s l a n d  T h i s p o i n t s out t h e heavy t a x a t i o n i n T r a i l as compared t o Tadanac.  The  residing population  i n Tadanac i s i n d i r e c t c o n t r a s t t o i t s l a r g e t a x base. nac has o n l y 325  r e s i d e n t s , w h i l e T r a i l has 11,395, and  l a n d has 4,344 r e s i d e n t s .  TadaRoss-  T h i s i n d i c a t e s t h e imbalance  —  Tadanac,with a low p o p u l a t i o n , has a tremendous t a x r e s o u r c e , whereas R o s s l a n d  and T r a i l , w i t h g r e a t p o p u l a t i o n s have v e r y  l i m i t e d t a x bases. The was  T h i s i s shown i n Drawing 7, on page 73  dilemma o f l o c a l f i n a n c i n g i n t h e C i t y o f T r a i l  examined by B.C.  B r a c e w e l l who  r e c o g n i z e d t h e problem  and recommended t h a t Cominco p a r t i c i p a t e i n l o c a l f i n a n c e s as an o b l i g a t i o n t o i t s employees, and t h e s u r r o u n d i n g  communi-  ties. Heavy i n d u s t r y as a t y p e o f t a x b e a r i n g p r o p e r t y i n v a r i a b l y pays i n t a x e s more t h a n t h e s e r v i c e i t demands o r g e t s . T h i s i s not a t a l l u n f a i r , as i n d u s t r y must assume some f i n a n c i a l i n t e r e s t i n t h e w e l l - b e i n g o f i t s employees and t h e i r f a m i l i e s . T r a i l , as an o r g a n i z e d m u n i c i p a l i t y , does not b e n e f i t d i r e c t l y t o any c o n s i d e r a b l e e x t e n t from heavy i n d u s t r y ( i n T a d a n a c ) . A prime need seems t o be t h e a p p r o p r i a t e s h a r i n g o f c o s t s o f s e r v i c e s w h i c h a r e o f common concern and g e n e r a l b e n e f i t . . . and t h e d e s i r a b i l i t y f o r t h e s e b e i n g borne  l ^ B r i t i s h Columbia, Department o f M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s , M u n i c i p a l S t a t i s t i c s , ( V i c t o r i a : Queen's P r i n t e r , 1956), pp. 10, 16, 26.  TOTAL  TAX  REVENUE  TOTAL  ASSESSMENTS  TOTAL  POPULATION  TADANAC R O S S L A N D 8 TRAIL WMM Title  A REGIONAL  PLANNING  OF A SINGLE  ENTERPRISE  ANALYSIS COMMUNITY  ol  D rg.  Dt|.,  REVENUES,  ASS£SSMENTS, 8 POPULATION  IN TADANAC, ROSSLAND, 8 TRAIL By  E.T  C l e g s  No.  7  74 on a wider base.... A s t a r t has been made w i t h education c o s t s (Cominco p a i d 83% of s c h o o l taxes i n 1958i5) and t h a t suggests the p o s s i b i l i t y o f s i m i l a r treatment f o r s o c i a l w e l f a r e and h o s p i t a l i z a t i o n charges.!" In 1958  Cominco a s s i s t e d on f o u r work p r o j e c t s by  i n g 1260,000 t o T r a i l .  T h i s i s a very d i f f e r e n t p o l i c y  what has been f o l l o w e d i n past y e a r s . !  7  Still,  givfrom  the other  surrounding communities l i k e Rossland, K i n n a i r d , and  Fruit-  v a l e , r e c e i v e no a s s i s t a n c e a l t h o u g h they house many Cominco workers, as shown i n Tables I I I and IV, on pages 53 and The need f o r revenues i n Rossland, T r a i l , and  54.  other  surrounding communities i s even more acute than t h a t found i n an average m u n i c i p a l i t y i n Canada.  T h i s has  resulted  from the backlog of needs r e s u l t i n g from l i m i t e d t a x  sources  s i n c e most of the i n d u s t r y has been i n Tadanac f o r many ;years.  The i n c r e a s i n g p o p u l a t i o n and  added t o the problem.  s e r v i c e demands have  There a r e , however, s t i l l  some other  f a c t o r s which c r e a t e a d d i t i o n a l f i n a n c i a l problems i n communit i e s o f the R o s s l a n d - T r a i l Region  as they have done i n other  communities a c r o s s Canada.  ~-->L.G. Anderson,. C o m p t r o l l e r , from an i n t e r v i e w with the author i n T r a i l , June, 1958. ~-^B.C. B r a c e w e l l , Report o f B.C. B r a c e w e l l , prepared f o r the C i t y of T r a i l i n t o the i n t e r - r e l a t i o n s h i p s of the C i t y of T r a i l w i t h the D i s t r i c t o f Tadanac and the V i l l a g e Of Warfield, ( T r a i l : T r a i l Times, June, 1955), pp. 5,8. ^  7  Anderson, l o c . c i t .  '  The Property Tax. oldest taxes.  The p r o p e r t y t a x i s one o f the  At one time, l a n d and b u i l d i n g s comprised  c h i e f form of wealth.  A t a x on p r o p e r t y at t h a t time  the best and most j u s t source o f t a x revenue.  But  P r o p e r t y and  was  today  people have a c q u i r e d other forms o f wealth, such as ments, c a r s , f u r n i t u r e , and so on.  the  invest-  buildings  are no l o n g e r the c h i e f form of w e a l t h . "Whatever f o r c e t h e r e may  have been once i n the argu-  ments t h a t the t o t a l wealth o f i n d i v i d u a l s  corresponds  r o u g h l y t o the v a l u e of t h e i r houses and l o t s has d i s a p p e a r ed'.'^ "The p r o p e r t y t a x no l o n g e r measures the a b i l i t y t o pay."19 But m u n i c i p a l i t i e s s t i l l  depend p r i m a r i l y upon the p r o p e r t y  t a x f o r revenue. "The p r o p e r t y t a x produced revenue  81% of the t o t a l t a x  of urban m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n 1953,  i t a l s o was  the  p r i n c i p a l source of m u n i c i p a l revenue at Confederation.20 The income t a x , however, does t a x t r u e wealth today.  ° J a m e s C. Bonbright, " V a l u a t i o n f o r Tax Purposes: The General P r o p e r t y Tax," The V a l u a t i o n of P r o p e r t y , ( e d i t i o n one, New York: McGraw H i l l , 1937), pp. 451-510. 1  ^Edwin R. A. Seligman. Essays i n T a x a t i o n . ( E d i t i o n • 10, New York: M a c M i l l a n , 1925), pp. 19~~o"2. 1  20  Goldenberg,  loc.cit.  76  T h i s t a x , however, i s not l e v i e d by m u n i c i p a l i t i e s but r a t h e r by the F e d e r a l Government.  The p r o p e r t y t a x i s no  adequate as a source o f m u n i c i p a l revenue and  longer  should be  sup-  plemented i n order to p r o v i d e s u f f i c i e n t revenue t h a t w i l l enable m u n i c i p a l i t i e s t o g i v e a reasonable v i c e s and u t i l i t i e s . to and  The  standard o f s e r -  o n l y a l t e r n a t i v e to t h i s would be  have the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s lower t h e i r standard of s e r v i c e s utilities. High Property T a x a t i o n and Other Revenue Sources. Muni-  c i p a l i t i e s are g e n e r a l l y depending more and more upon o t h e r sources of revenue such as p r o v i n c i a l g r a n t s .  T h i s can  shown t o be t r u e i n the C i t y of Rossland by Table page 77.  Here t o t a l m u n i c i p a l t a x revenues,  be  . X I , on  (largely  pro-  p e r t y t a x e s ) , are compared t o t o t a l m u n i c i p a l revenues on a per c a p i t a basis*.from 1921 t o 1955 f o r Rossland and Columbia.  These f i g u r e s show t h a t i n 1921, Rossland  $ 3 1 , 8 9 9 l a r g e l y from p r o p e r t y t a x e s . t h e i r t o t a l revenues of $ 7 4 , 0 7 1 .  British derived  T h i s i s about 4 3 % o f  However, i n 1955 t o t a l tax  revenues (property tax) amounted t o $132,559 or o n l y 2 $ % of the t o t a l revenues of $ 3 6 5 , 3 4 6 .  At the same time  property  t a x revenues i n c r e a s e d from $15 t o $28" per c a p i t a while  total  revenues i n c r e a s e d from $37 t o $91 i n the same p e r i o d .  The  C i t y of Rossland,  l i k e other communities, i s thus depending  l e s s and l e s s upon p r o p e r t y t a x revenues.  In comparing  Rossland to B r i t i s h Columbia, however, the t o t a l  property  t a x revenue change from 1921 t o 1955 i s very much more i n  77 TABLE X REVENUES OF THE PROVINCE AND ROSSLAND  Year  1955 1953 1951 1948 1945 1941 1938  1935 1933 1930 1927  1924 1921  Population  579 571 563 546 422 333 302  274 273  269  249  284 281  B r i t i s h Columbia Revenue Tax Revenue Per Per Capita Total Total Capita 28005 23111 18865 13855 9251 7757 7085 6626 65 $3  7269  9407 8943 8512  48 42 33  25  21  23 23  24  24  27 37 31 30  86489 64790 59574 47793 29140 21626 21906  13315 13077 13773  17026 15475 14283  150 114 106 87 69 65  72  50 48  51  68 54 50  Rossland  1955 1953 1951 1948 1945 1941 1938 1935 1933 1930 1927 1924 1921  4606 4606 4666 4250 3657 3609 2848 2848" 284$ 2245 2400 2100 2100  132559 114022 $7835 7388$ 67510 67654 4 $640 4$967 43739 30942 34070 29729 31$99  2$ 25 19  18  1$  18  17 17 15 15 15 14 15  365346 326730 391071 193432 143 $60 158971 144$01 101941 95359 $2371 $4540 77720 74071  91 $2 9$ 46 40 44 51 36 34 37 35 37 37  continued  78  TABLE X  (continued)  Source: B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s , M u n i c i p a l S t a t i s t i c s , ( V i c t o r i a : Queen's P r i n t e r ,  1921, 1924, 1927, 1930, 1933, 1935, 1938, 1941, 1945, 1948, 1951, 1 9 5 3 , 1955.)- et passim.  NOTE: A l l t h e numbers under B r i t i s h Columbia a r e i n thousands except t h e per c a p i t a columns. I n order t o p r o v i d e comparable f i g u r e s i f was necessary t o make a number of a d j u s t ments t o these f i g u r e s . I n 1933 and 1935 t h e f i g u r e s termed l a n d taxes were used, i n 1 9 5 1 r e a l and p r o p e r t y taxes were use<J and i n 1935 and 1938 c u r r e n t and non-current taxes were used. P o p u l a t i o n s f o r Rossland were obtained i n p a r t from t h e Canada Census 1951 and 1 9 5 6 , and i n p a r t from F i n a n c i a l Statements f o r Rossland, p u b l i s h e d by t h e C i t y of Rossland. School g r a n t s f o r t h e y e a r s 1 9 5 1 - 5 2 , 1 9 5 3 - 5 4 , and 1955-56 were added t o t h e 1 9 5 1 , 1 9 5 3 , 1955 f i g u r e s s i n c e such g r a n t s were normally i n c l u d e d i n past y e a r s . These g r a n t s were found i n t h e Annual Reports f o r t h e B r i t i s h Columbia Department of E d u c a t i o n f o r these y e a r s as p u b l i s h e d by t h e Queen's P r i n t e r , V i c t o r i a . Rossland s c h o o l expenditures were i n c l u d e d i n D i s t r i c t E l e v e n . The share f o r Rossland was c a l c u l a t e d i n p r o p o r t i o n t o t h e C i t y ' s p o p u l a t i o n . School expenditures f o r 1 9 5 1 and 1953 were unusually high. The figures f o r B r i t i s h Columbia i n c l u d e a l l c i t i e s , v i l l a g e s , and m u n i c i p a l d i s t r i c t s as recorded by t h e Department and p u b l i s h e d i n t h e i r annual r e p o r t .  79  Rossland. ed $30  P r o p e r t y t a x e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia i n 1 9 2 1 a v e r a g -  p e r c a p i t a , and i n 1 9 5 5 i n c r e a s e d o n l y t o $ 4 8 p e r cap-  i t a or an i n c r e a s e o f over 50%.  In Rossland the i n c r e a s e  from $ 1 5 t o $ 2 8 i s almost  The i n c r e a s e i n t o t a l  100%.  rev-  enues f o r the Province as a whole o f $ 5 0 i n 1 9 2 1 t o $ 1 5 0 i n 1 9 5 5 compares f a v o u r a b l y t o the i n c r e a s e o f these revenues i n Rossland  of $ 3 7 to $ 9 1 .  From t h i s a n a l y s i s i t i s e v i d e n t  t h a t Rossland has i n c r e a s e d p r o p e r t y t a x e s very much more than the average m u n i c i p a l i t y i n B r i t i s h Columbia.  It i s  of i n t e r e s t t o c o n s i d e r the change i n the purchase value o f the d o l l a r i n the same y e a r s .  Table X'., on page 8 0 , shows  the change i n the consumers index over the past 30 y e a r s . I f t h i s i s taken t o i n d i c a t e the changing  d o l l a r value,  then  a change o f from 7 5 i n 1 9 2 5 t o 1 1 6 i n 1 9 5 5 can be d e s c r i b e d as a l o s s i n 1 9 5 5 of 1 / 3 o f the p u r c h a s i n g value o f the d o l l a r from what i t was i n 1 9 2 5 .  C o n s i d e r i n g t h i s change then, the  i n c r e a s e i n p r o p e r t y t a x e s of Table \ \ X J , on page 7 7 , i s not p r o v i d i n g any more i n the way o f s e r v i c e s i n 1 9 5 5 f o r the amount o f money spent than i t d i d i n 1 9 2 1 .  Drawing 8 , on  page 8 1 , i l l u s t r a t e s the changes i n m u n i c i p a l revenues i n Rossland and B r i t i s h Columbia from 1 9 2 1 t o 1 9 5 5 . Of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t from the above a n a l y s i s i s the f a c t t h a t p r o p e r t y t a x e s have i n c r e a s e d very much i n Rossland and probably have i n c r e a s e d as w e l l f o r o t h e r communities i n the R o s s l a n d - T r a i l Region.  This could i n d i c a t e  t h a . t l a c k o f Tadanac i n d u s t r i a l t a x revenues has s h i f t e d A  80  TABLE XI  A COMPARISON OF THE CONSUMER'S INDEX FROM 1925 TO 1955  Year  1925 1926 1927 192$ 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938 1939  Index  Year  Index  74.6 75.9 74.6 75.0 75.8 75.3 67.9 61.7 58.8 59.6 59.5 60.9 61.9 63.8 62.9  1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 1946 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955  64.6  67.4 71.$ 73.2 74.7 74.4 75.2 79,6  92.8  100.0 102.9 113.7 116.5 115.5 116.2 116.4  NOTE: 1949 i s taken as t h e base of 1 0 0 . Source: Canada, Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s , P r i c e Index, (Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r ) .  Consumer's  $  150  A-B. /  C. T O T A L REVENUE  I20~  rB. C. T O T A L  f CO  /  UJ  f\  /  R E V E N  TAX  UE  90"  2 Ul  >  Ul  < -  Q_  /  60"  <  ^  1 ^ ^ ^ ^ ^  J  ^ROSSLAND  .  J  TOTAL  REVENUES  O  rr Ul  •  •  30" " 0  ^  •  /-ROSSLAND  *r  0 *"  ^ 0 - - 0  0 —  O  Q  1920  O -  O - -  - 0 ^  0  -  O -  0  0 - ^ " °  .  I  1  1  1  1  I  I  1935  1940 Tl»lt  PLANNING  SINGLE  ENTERPRISE  TAXATION  o  ANALYSIS  of  1  1  ' 1950  1945  i 19 5 5  •  1 •  i  OF IN  ROSSLAND  COMMUNITY Drown  by  E , T.  Clegg  &  B. C.  .  I960 Org.  Org,.  MUNICIPAL REVENUES  A  "  FROM  ^  1  1930  REVENUES  ^cf  -o—o  I  1925  A REGIONAL  -  TOTAL  No.  8  82 the burden o f t a x a t i o n onto c i t y p r o p e r t y owners.  Finally,  with a l l the i n c r e a s e i n p r o p e r t y tax, t h e C i t y i s s t i l l dependent upon other sources The  o f revenue such as g r a n t s .  dependence o f communities on a higher government  f o r revenue reduces l o c a l autonomy. these  very  circumstances  A l o c a l government i n  can not e x e r c i s e f u l l  the money i s spent.  a u t h o r i t y over  how  The l o c a l government i s no l o n g e r as  responsible.;for spending the money as i t would be i f they c o l l e c t e d t h e taxes themselves and had t o j u s t i f y the need f o r i t t o t h e people o f the community.  The r e s u l t i s —  t h a t a good d e a l o f l o c a l f i n a n c i n g i s out o f t h e hands o f l o c a l government.  T h i s l a c k o f c o n t r o l and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  l e a v e s the community l e s s a b l e t o govern t h e i r own a f f a i r s . With i n c r e a s e d p r o v i n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e came i n c r e a s e d s u p e r v i s i o n and d i r e c t i o n ... i f a democratic form o f government i s t o s u r v i v e a t t h e n a t i o n a l l e v e l i t can only do so i f i t i s b u i l t upon a f o u n d a t i o n o f l o c a l autonomy. Such a system o f l o c a l government must ... have u l t i m a t e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y w i t h i n t h e i r sphere o f jurisdiction.... A u n i t o f government t h a t must c a r r y the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the f i n a n c i n g and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of p o l i c i e s which a r e not o f i t s making i s c o n t r a r y t o the fundamental p r i n c i p l e s o f r e s p o n s i b l e government... 4.  MUNICIPAL FINANCES IN ROSSLAND AND TRAIL  The m u n i c i p a l kept  f i n a n c e s o f . t h e C i t y o f Rossland  have tee*  i n good order from t h e time o f i t s i n c e p t i o n some s i x t y  years ago.  21  Today i t s statement o f revenues and  expenditures  ^ K.G. Crawford, Canadian M u n i c i p a l Government, (Toronto: U n i v e r s i t y o f Toronto Press, 1 9 5 5 ) , p.340.  83 shows a s u r p l u s . 1956  I t s bonded indebtedness  of #271,079 i n  as compared t o the t o t a l p r o p e r t y assessments o f  $5,767,831 (land and  improvements) i s w e l l under the  debt l i m i t allowed by the Province.22 taxes i n Rossland  The  growth of  20% unpaid  i n r e c e n t years as compared t o o t h e r  cities  of t h i s s i z e i n the P r o v i n c e has been f a r l e s s a c c o r d i n g t o the Department o f M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s . 2 3 A c l o s e r examination  o f the f i n a n c i a l s t r u c t u r e of  the C i t y , however, i n d i c a t e s t h a t the community has and i s e x p e r i e n c i n g some d i f f i c u l t i e s .  Municipal  have, i n some y e a r s , shown a d e f i c i t * red  as r e c e n t l y as 1951,  1953,  statements  A d e f i c i t was  The m i l l r a t e i n Rossland  than the average m i l l r a t e i n B r i t i s h  Rossland's  i s much h i g h e r  Columbia, and  m u n i c i p a l i t i e s of the same s i z e when compared on a b a s i s o f assessment.  T h i s i s shown on Table XW  other similar 84.  on page  I t appears from the h i g h t a x e s , low revenues, r e c e n t d e f i c i t s , t h a t Rossland  incur-  and 1955*^ Most m u n i c i p a l i t i e s  have improved t h e i r c o l l e c t i o n s of t a x a r r e a r s but has become worse.  still  i s not as prosperous  communities of s i m i l a r s i z e i n B r i t i s h Columbia..  and as  other  Rossland  i s f a c e d w i t h a f i n a n c i n g problem i f i t i s t o p r o v i d e a t  C i t y of Rossland, M u n i c i p a l F i n a n c i a l Statement, (Rossland: Rossland Miner L t d . , 1941 t o 1956), et passim. 2 2  ^ M u n i c i p a l S t a t i s t i c s , l o c . c i t . 1921,-24,-27,-30, -33,-35,-38,-41,-45,-48,-51,-53, and -55, et passim. 2 4 R s s l a n d M u n i c i p a l F i n a n c i a l Statement, l o c . c i t . 0  84  TABLE X I I  A COMPARISON OF MILL RATES IN VARIOUS MUNICIPALITIES IN BRITISH.COLUMBIA  Municipality Rossland Port Coquitlum Cranbrook Alberni Duncan Courtenay Trail P r i n c e Rupert Penticton Port Alberni Nanaimo Vancouver Average o f a l l c i t i e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia  Population  4344 4632 4562 3947 3247 3025  Mill  Rate  43 43 38  42 36  40  11395  55  10498  45  11894  4 1  10373  35  12705  41  365844  50  37  NOTE: T r a i l has t h e h i g h e s t m i l l r a t e dfi a l l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Source: B r i t i s h Columbia, Department o f M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s , M u n i c i p a l S t a t i s t i c s . ( V i c t o r i a : Queen's P r i n t e r , 1 9 5 6 ) p . 2 2 .  85 l e a s t a s i m i l a r l e v e l of s e r v i c e s . f o l l o w i n g on page 86, and  services i n  Part 5, o f t h i s  d e s c r i b e s the poor l e v e l o f  chapter,  utilities  Rossland.  M u n i c i p a l f i n a n c e s i n T r a i l have not been as sound as those  i n Rossland.  Bonded indebtedness i s t e n times as much  i n T r a i l as i n Rossland.25  The  m i l l r a t e and  assessment:  r a t e s are h i g h e r i n T r a i l than i n a l l other c i t i e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia.., A comparison of m i l l r a t e s i n Table XII page 84,  shows.how high the r a t e i s i n T r a i l * ^ 2  oh-page 86,  i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s comparison*.  den  of works programmes was  was  necessary  The  Drawing.,9, . ;  f i n a n c i a l bur-  so heavy i n r e c e n t y e a r s , t h a t i t  f o r the T r a i l C o u n c i l t o seek the a i d o f - t h e  C o n s o l i d a t e d f o l l o w i n g the B r a c e w e l l R e p o r t . i s now  on  p r o v i d i n g some a s s i s t a n c e . .  comes s u p e r v i s i o n .  2 7  The  Company  But with t h i s a s s i s t a n c e  I t i s i n e v i t a b l e t h a t the community w i l l  l o s e some o f i t s s e l f - g o v e r n i n g f e a t u r e s under the  present  system o f p a t e r n a l a i d from Cominco. The  V i l l a g e o f W a r f i e l d was  incorporated a f t e r  the  V i l l a g e had been f u l l y s e r v i c e d and a . l a r g e number of homes had been b u i l t by Cominco c a p i t a l . .  In other words,:; a l l  major c o s t s of s e r v i c e s were p a i d by Cominco. f u l i f the t a x base o f the V i l l a g e w i l l be  2  ^ T r a i l F i n a n c i a l Statement,  ^Municipal 2 7  Bracewell,  Statistics, loc.cit.  I t is.doubt-  s u f f i c i e n t t o meet  ( T r a i l D a i l y Times,  .op.cit.,  the  p.22.  1955)  TOTAL MILL RATES  70  60 50 40  30 20 10  TRAIL  BRITISH  ROSSLAND  NELSON  KELOWNA  TADANA C  COLUMBIA  Title  A  REGIONAL  OF A  SINGLE  PLANNING ENTERPRISE  of  Dr g.  Dr g .  ANALYSIS COMMUNITY  A  COMPARISON By  OF E . T.  TAXATION Clegg  RATES  87 any r e c u r r e n t expenses o f t h i s s i z e when replacements  are  due. 5. A.  UTILITIES AND  SERVICES  Rossland U t i l i t i e s and s e r v i c e s i n the R o s s l a n d - T r a i l Region  are poor. to  There has been l i t t l e  these matters.  Rossland.  p l a n n i n g or thought  given  T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e o f the C i t y o f  The g o l d rush l e f t the community w i t h many h a s t i l y  constructed b u i l d i n g s .  Many of i t s water and sewer l i n e s  were wooden flumes as mentioned on page 64•  Many p i p e l i n e s  were so shallow t h a t the winter f r o s t o f t e n f r o z e them. Most of the roads are unpaved and s t e e p . walks and s t r e e t l i g h t s . movement i m p o s s i b l e .  Winter  There are few  side-  snows o f t e n make t r a f f i c  Rossland has a low m u n i c i p a l income  as d e s c r i b e d under M u n i c i p a l F i n a n c e s on page 82.  These  u t i l i t y and s e r v i c e d e f i c i e n c i e s are very expensive f o r such a C i t y to provide. Waste d i s p o s a l i s the major problem  i n Rossland.  The  C i t y i s p a r t i a l l y sewered but i t s o u t f a l l s run i n t o T r a i l . Creek, which flows through W a r f i e l d and T r a i l . of  The volume  sewage i s too much f o r the s m a l l volume of water t o  o x i d i z e with the r e s u l t that a f o u l , i l l - s m e l l i n g flows t o the Columbia  stream  River.  ... many houses empty u n t r e a t e d sewage d i r e c t l y i n t o T r a i l Creek. During the S p r i n g , c e s s p o o l s o v e r f l o w onto the s t r e e t and sidewalks; w h i l e a nuisance i s g e n e r a l l y  88 c r e a t e d a t c e r t a i n seasons over the whole a r e a . I n s t a l l a t i o n o f a sewerage system i s needed i n t h e i n t e r e s t o f p u b l i c health.,... I t i s f e a s i b l e t o c o n s t r u c t a sewerage system t o adequately serve the a r e a , t r e a t i n g t h e sewage, i n sept i c tanks and f i l t r a t i o n b e d s . . . . ( t h i s has not been done).2° The  d i s p o s a l o f s o l i d waste i s a l s o  inefficient.  Garbage i s p i l e d a t the very entrance t o t h e C i t y and burned. People t r a v e l l i n g t o Rossland a r e a s s a i l e d by t h e u n s i g h t l y view o f p i l e s o f garbage and t h e obnoxious odor o f burning rubbish.  The cost o f an i n c i n e r a t o r i s h i g h .  A fill  p o s a l system would be d i f f i c u l t because o f t h e very  disrocky  ground. The  annual r e p o r t ^ o f the M e d i c a l 2  Health O f f i c e r f o r  the R o s s l a n d - T r a i l Area (Health D i s t r i c t E l e v e n ) ,  pointed  out t h a t Rossland's water system i s dangerously exposed t o pollution. summer.  The water d e t e r i o r a t e s i n t h e S p r i n g and l a t e  The r e p o r t s a i d t h a t water s u p p l i e s i n W a r f i e l d ,  Robson, F r u i t v a l e , Montrose, and K i n n a i r d were much worse than i n R o s s l a n d .  The T r a i l supply  i s chlorinated.  The  cost o f p r o v i d i n g a safe h e a l t h y water supply t o these small e r communities i s a l s o very B.  high.  Trail The  C i t y o f T r a i l s u f f e r s from poor u t i l i t i e s and t h e  'R.W. Haggen, C i v i l Engineer, Report on Sewerage  89 l a c k o f good p l a n n i n g .  F l o o d waters o f t e n pour down the  steep mountains surrounding the community,-deluging i t w i t h mountains o f sand and t o r r e n t s o f water t h a t plug d r a i n s and, erode s o i l , and i n t e r f e r e w i t h t r a f f i c movement. Widespread damage r e p o r t s came i n the wake o f t h i s morningi s tremendous h a i l and r a i n storm.... T;  T r o u b l e spots were Rossland Avenue .. which a t one p o i n t resembled a muddy r i v e r ; Highway Three a t R i v e r v a l e where a s l i d e b l o c k e d the highway t o a depth o f three or four f e e t ; Blocked catchbasins saw much o f Pine Avenue f l o o d e d and a c o a t i n g o f s i l t d e p o s i t e d a c r o s s V i c t o r i a Avenue. I t was r e p o r t e d that a r e t a i n i n g w a l l had c o l l a p s e d on L a Rose S t r e e t . . . . I t was c l e a r , however, t h a t the r a i n s caused many thousands o f d o l l a r s o f damage. At a p o i n t where Highway Three connects with Tadanac M u n i c i p a l i t y , the s u r f a c e i s completely blocked by a hugh pond o f water and mud.30 Photograph 2$, on page 90, shows p a r t o f Rossland Avenue f o l l o w i n g the r a i n storm.  Photograph 29, on page 90,  shows a deep g u l l e y caused by water e r o s i o n . The  C i t y o f T r a i l i s f a c e d with f l o o d s from the C o l -  umbia R i v e r every  Spring.  The r a t e o f r i s e o f the Columbia appears t o be l e v e l i n g out, but C i t y D i r e c t o r o f Works and S e r v i e e s , Ron S.  System and Treatment,Plant,  (Rossland,August 25,1937), p.1,2.  ^ R o s s l a n d Miner, C i t y Water, February 27, 1958, p . l . 3°The T r a i l D a i l y Times, Heavy Damage from Storm. June 27, 1958, p . l .  Hail-Rain  90  Photograph 28 FLOOD WATERS AND SILT ON A TRAIL STREET AFTER A RAIN STORM, JUNE, 1958 NOTE: E r o s i o n and f l o o d i n g a r e so severe t h a t i s o f t e n blocked f o r h o u r s .  traffic  Source: Photograph by the Author i n June, 1958.  Photograph  29  GULLEY EROSION ON A SIDEHILL IN TRAIL IN 1958 Source: Photograph by the Author i n June, 1958.  91 T a y l o r , has completed p l a n s f o r combating f l o o d i n g should i t occur. Water s h o u l d b e g i n t o show s h o r t l y i n the K e r r p a r k i n g l o t on Dewdney Avenue. Meanwhile t h e r e are a p p r o x i mately f i v e l o c a t i o n s where i t may be n e c e s s a r y t o pump domestic sewers.31 Photograph 30,  below, shows how  can be as i n t h i s case d u r i n g 1948.  severe the f l o o d i n g  Great w a l l s o f sandbags  must be c o n s t r u c t e d t o w i t h s t a n d such f l o o d c o n d i t i o n s . d e s p i t e a l l f l o o d p r e c a u t i o n s t h e ravages  o f f l o o d s are  a threat to T r a i l .  Photograph THE  30  FLOOD WATERS OF THE COLUMBIA RIVER IN TRAIL IN 1948  Source: Cominco Magazine, June,  ^The  T r a i l D a i l y Times, May  195$.  21, 195$, p . l .  But still  92 Much o f T r a i l i s b u i l t  on s i d e h i l l s .  The  cost of  b u i l d i n g r o a d s and r e t a i n i n g w a l l s , p r o v i d i n g s e r v i c e s , and m a i n t a i n i n g t h e s e a r e a s i s a burden t o t h e C i t y Works D e p a r t ment. A l a r g e number o f T r a i l ' s i n h a b i t a n t s l i v e on other s i d e of the r i v e r .  the  These p e o p l e , t o g e t h e r w i t h  those  from o t h e r communities, must c r o s s a s m a l l narrow, t w o - l a n e b r i d g e when g o i n g t o work or shopping i n T r a i l .  This r e g u l a r  t r a f f i c f l o w meets a b o t t l e n e c k a t t h e b r i d g e s i n c e t h e narrowness and poor e n t r a n c e "...  make t r a f f i c movement slow.  t h e p r e s e n t T r a i l b r i d g e has been a r e a l b o t t l e n e c k i n  t r a f f i c movement, i t i s s l i p p e r y and dangerous when wet icy  or  "32 The  C i t y o f T r a i l has an i n a d e q u a t e water  supply.  ... manager o f Seven-up ( T r a i l ) L t d . , who c o m p l a i n e d t h a t h i s o p e r a t i o n s i n Glenmerry was b e i n g j e o p a r d i z e d by i n a d e q u a t e water s u p p l i e s . I am sure he s a i d ... t h a t t h e y c o u l d not v e r y e f f e c t i v e l y c o n t r o l a f i r e w i t h 10 pounds o f water p r e s s u r e , or even 30 pounds. We know a p p r o x i m a t e l y what w i l l c o r r e c t the t r o u b l e , s a i d Alderman Dixon, and i f we had t h e money we c o u l d do i t t h i s y e a r , but we haven't.33 I f T r a i l had t h e advantage o f good e n g i n e e r i n g  32From an i n t e r v i e w by t h e Author w i t h L.G. C o m p t r o l l e r , C i t y o f T r a i l , June 2 6 , 1958.  advice,  Anderson,  3 3 T r a i l D a i l y Times, Osder Probe of Domestic Water S u p p l i e s i n C i t y , ( h e a d l i n e ) , T r a i l , June 30, 1958, p . l .  93 s u f f i c i e n t funds, and some good p l a n n i n g , many o f these major works problems c o u l d be avoided. 6. ECONOMIC BASE ANALYSIS An a n a l y s i s o f the economic base o f the RosslandT r a i l Region w i l l be undertaken t o demonstrate a fundamental problem i n t h i s Region.  T h i s i s the problem o f having the-  b a s i c i n d u s t r y o f a r e g i o n l o c a t e d i n one community, case the D i s t r i c t M u n i c i p a l i t y o f Tadanac.  i n this  The problems o f  o b t a i n i n g t a x revenues from r e s i d e n t i a l p r o p e r t y alone i n the other dormitory communities was d e s c r i b e d i n Part 4-C of t h i s Chapter, under Sources o f M u n i c i p a l Revenue,  on page i  70.  F o r the. purpose o f t h i s T h e s i s o n l y one dormitory com-  munity w i l l be examined i n the Region. a n a l y s i s o f one community  The r e s u l t s o f the  w i l l i n d i c a t e what would  likely  r e s u l t from an a n a l y s i s o f each of the dormitory communities i n the Region. A. C r i t e r i a f o r Economic Base A n a l y s i s As a sample study the economic base o f the C i t y o f Rossland w i l l be examined.  Many o f the recent economic base  s t u d i e s d i s t i n g u i s h between b a s i c and s e r v i c e i n d u s t r i e s . The b a s i c i n d u s t r i e s , as d e s c r i b e d by Homer Hoyt and R.B. Andrews^-are those t h a t b r i n g money i n t o a  community  ^ E c o n o m i c Base S t u d i e s by these w r i t e r s are l i s t e d i n the B i b l i o g r a p h y .  T  94 through the  s a l e of goods and  f i n e s of the community.  s e r v i c e s beyond the l e g a l con-  Some r e s i d e n t i a l communities l i k e  West Vancouver or Rossland, export labor.35  The  service  i n d u s t r i e s , on the other hand, were those t h a t served the l o c a l i n h a b i t a n t s . t h a t both b a s i c and  In t h i s T h e s i s , however, i t i s f e l t  s e r v i c e i n d u s t r i e s generate income  employment i n a community t o i t s b e n e f i t . metropolitan  only  and  Within the minor  area some communities perform e i t h e r a s e r v i c e  f u n c t i o n , a b a s i c i n d u s t r y f u n c t i o n , or a dormitory f u n c t i o n . . Of primary importance t o the communities i s i n which community the v a r i o u s a c t i v i t i e s are l o c a t e d . from b a s i c and  The  i t y w i t h b a s i c i n d u s t r y and t h a t has  In g e n e r a l ,  de-  a commun-  commerce i s more prosperous than  only r e s i d e n t i a l p r o p e r t y .  However, the r o l e of  each community, whether i n d u s t r i a l , commercial, or tial,  derived  s e r v i c e a c t i v i t i e s are far.more than those  r i v e d from j u s t r e s i d e n t i a l a c t i v i t i e s .  one  tax revenues  residen-  b e n e f i t s the r e g i o n but the a c t u a l l o c a t i o n o f each  a c t i v i t y determines the degree of i n d i v i d u a l b e n e f i t to each community.  A survey of the l o c a t i o n o f a c t i v i t i e s i n our  sample study of Rossland was following  t h e r e f o r e undertaken by  the  criteria:  1. C r i t e r i a o f the Primary Economic Base. a. A l l b u s i n e s s e s which are l o c a t e d w i t h i n  the  35oberlander, H. Peter, and I r a M. Robinson, L i v i n g and Working i n West Vancouver, M u n i c i p a l H a l l , 1954.  95  C i t y l i m i t s t h a t employed one or more permanent workers were i n c l u d e d i n t h i s c a t e g o r y . b. As an index of economic base measurement the t o t a l number of employees i n each b u s i n e s s was noted. c. As a second index of economic base measurement the t o t a l p a y r o l l s generated by each l o c a l b u s i ness was a l s o noted. 2. C r i t e r i a of the Secondary Economic Base. A l l b u s i n e s s a c t i v i t i e s t h a t are l o c a t e d o u t s i d e Rossland C i t y l i m i t s but are so o r i e n t e d t o the C i t y t h a t the employees l i v e i n Rossland or do the m a j o r i t y of t h e i r p u r c h a s i n g , banking, and so on i n s i d e the C i t y were c o n s i d e r e d t o be a p a r t of the secondary economic base o f R o s s l a n d . The t o t a l of these two bases i s b e l i e v e d t o be a good measure of Rossland's economic base.  As e x p l a i n e d , a l l the  a c t i v i t i e s i n the m e t r o p o l i t a n area b e n e f i t the Region  as  a whole but those p a r t i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s t h a t b e n e f i t the i n d i v i d u a l community are those found i n i t or depending it.  on  A measure of these a c t i v i t i e s by these c r i t e r i a i s be-  l i e v e d t o be a good assessment  of any community's economic  base. B. Measurement of the Economic Base of Rossland From a f i e l d a n a l y s i s , the primary and  secondary  economic bases were c a l c u l a t e d as shown i n Appendix A. t o t a l primary employment of 377  The  f u l l - t i m e , and 40 p a r t - t i m e  workers are a l l t h a t Rossland, as a community, was d e n t l y s u p p o r t i n g at the time of the survey.  independ-  Table I I I , , o n  96 page 53j shows t h a t the balance o f Rossland's l a b o r f o r c e of 1115  a l l work with Cominco a t Tadanac.  t h a t i n February, 1958, land.  employees  From the a n a l y s i s i n December, 1957,  about 2/3 Tadanac  there were 680  Cominco r e p o r t e d from Ross-  698 workers, or  o f Rossland's l a b o r f o r c e depended  on Cominco a t  f o r work. The major 'industry i n Rossland, from Appendix 1  appears t o be the s e r v i c e t y p e .  The l a r g e s t employers o f  t h i s type were found t o be the Department  ;  of P u b l i c Works,  the H o s p i t a l , the C i t y , and the S c h o o l Board. ' i n d u s t r i e s ' employed  A,  A l l other  l e s s than t e n workers each.  A number o f o t h e r measures were made of Rossland's economic base.  These help t o i l l u s t r a t e the r e s i d e n t i a l  f u n c t i o n of R o s s l a n d and the dependence of the C i t y upon Cominco and T r a i l .  A Land-Use P l a n of R o s s l a n d i s shown on  page 97 i n Drawing 10.  The d i s t r i b u t i o n of commercial,  d e n t i a l , . a g r i c u l t u r a l , and f o r e s t l a n d i s shown. t r i a l uses e x i s t .  No  resi-  indus-  The m a j o r i t y o f developed l a n d i s used f o r  r e s i d e n t i a l purposes.  The commercial a c t i v i t i e s are r e s t r i c -  t e d p r i m a r i l y t o the urban core s t r e t c h e d a l o n g Columbia Avenue.  A l a r g e p a r t o f the C i t y i s undeveloped.  A good  percentage of the p e r i p h e r a l l a n d i s under a g r i c u l t u r a l use. From a c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f land-use, the b a s i c economic f u n c t i o n of Rossland i s r e s i d e n t i a l .  Table  X-ll-l,  on page 98,  shows the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f o c c u p a t i o n s i n R o s s l a n d and compared t o B r i t i s h Columbia.  Trail  The l a r g e number of manufactur-  Title  A A  REGIONAL SINGLE  PLANNING  ENTERPRISE  ANALYSIS  of  org.  Org.  No,  OF  COMMUNITY  A  LAND-USE  PLAN Drown  OF by  ROSSLAND E . T.  Clegg  CITY  10  98  TABLE X I I I  A COMPARISON OF THE DISTRIBUTION IN OCCUPATION OF WORKERS IN ROSSLAND, TRAIL, AND BRITISH COLUMBIA D i s t r i b u t i o n of Workers Occupations  Rossland T o t a l Per Cent  P r o p r i e t a r y and Managerial Professional Clerical Agriculture F i s h i n g , hunting > trapping Logging M i n i n g and Quarrying Manufacturing and Mechanical E l e c t r i c and Stationary Enginemen Construction Transportation Communication Commercial Financial Service Labourers Not s t a t e d a  Total  et  83 167 137 13  6 11 9 1  288 421 495 22  45  3  5 117  493'  32  139  9  81  5  68 112 181  5 7 12  1519 a  Trail T o t a l Per  100%  1241  D.B.S.  6 9 10  9 8 11 6 7  2  31  15  8  7  228 403 218 69 249 21 466 505 59  6  10  6 10 11 1  8 12 7  4807  100%  100%  A g r i c u l t u r e , mining, l o g g i n g ,  Source: passim.  Cent  British Columbia Per Cent  and f i s h i n g a r e excluded.  Canada Census, (Queen's P r i n t e r , 1951),  99 (32%)  ing  employees  shown f o r R o s s l a n d c o u l d be e x p l a i n e d  the  l a r g e number o f C o m i n c o e m p l o y e e s  that l i v e  by  i n Rossland.  This a g a i n demonstrates the r e s i d e n t i a l f u n c t i o n of Rossland. T a b l e V I , on page 56,  as discussed  on page 52,  indicates  t h a t p e o p l e i n t h e h i n t e r l a n d c o m m u n i t i e s shop i n T r a i l . also indicates that  It  such communities, i n c l u d i n g R o s s l a n d , not  o n l y l a c k i n d u s t r y , b u t a l s o have a s m a l l v o l u m e o f commercial activities. force  T a b l e I I I , on page 53>  compares t h e  i n communities of the R o s s l a n d - T r a i l  number o f C o m i n c o e m p l o y e e s  Region w i t h  labor the  t h a t each community p r o d u c e s .  T h i s i l l u s t r a t e s : .the l a r g e p e r c e n t o f t h e l a b o r f o r c e i n The r e m a i n i n g 39%  do  not a l l w o r k i n R o s s l a n d s i n c e many o f t h e m w o r k i n T r a i l  in  t h e s e communities t h a t work i n T r a i l .  the  service  industries.  C. C o n c l u s i o n s The  economic  base a n a l y s i s , and t h e o t h e r  supplemen-  t a r y e x a m i n a t i o n s o f R o s s l a n d , make i t c l e a r t h a t t h i s  com-  m u n i t y h a s no r e a l amount o f b a s i c o r s e c o n d a r y i n d u s t r y . Even i t s t e r t i a r y i n d u s t r y i s l i m i t e d . the  S u c h an a n a l y s i s o f  other communities i n the R o s s l a n d - T r a i l  likely  Region would  show somewhat t h e same r e s u l t s . The  r e s i d e n t i a l communities of the  R e g i o n l a c k i n d u s t r y a n d commerce.  Rossland-Trail  T h e y do n o t d e r i v e  d i r e c t t a x r e v e n u e s f r o m t h e Tadanac i n d u s t r y . must b e a r t h e c o s t o f p r o v i d i n g a h i g h l e v e l  Still  any they  service f o r  100 Cominco employees.  T h i s i n d i c a t e s the high  degree o f Cominco  dependence on o u t s i d e communities f o r l a b o r , housing, and schools.  The R o s s l a n d - T r a i l Region, as a u n i t , has a good  balance o f i n d u s t r y , commerce, and housing.  But each  separat  community i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r i t s own s c h o o l and housing f i n a n ces, whereas the i n d u s t r i a l base o f the whole Region i s taxed by Tadanac, or i n e f f e c t , by Cominco i t s e l f f o r t h e i r own use (Cominco does help f i n a n c e today).  s c h o o l s and some other  facilities  Each o f these communities i s an e s s e n t i a l p a r t o f  the Region but each must f e n d f o r i t s e l f i n l o c a l  finances.  The  communities must r e a l i z e , f o r t h e i r own sake, as Cominco  has  i n o b t a i n i n g i t s l a b o r f o r c e , t h a t they a r e a part o f  one Region. the success  The success  o f any one community w i l l  o f any other community and the Region  effect itself.  United, the Region has a balance o f i n d u s t r y , housing, and commerce, but s u r e l y as i n d i v i d u a l communities with  separate  f u n c t i o n s and revenues, t h e r e i s no e q u i t a b l e balance.  If  each community had a share o f the r e g i o n a l t a x revenues i n accord with the value o f i t s i n d i v i d u a l c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e welfare  o f t h e Region as a whole, the problem o f Tadanac  i n d u s t r y c o u l d be c o r r e c t e d t o some e x t e n t . The  economic base a n a l y s i s a l s o p o i n t s out how v u l n e r -  a b l e the r e g i o n a l economy i s s i n c e i t i s dependent upon j u s t one  enterprise.  I f Cominco should f a i l t h e r e i s no other  b a s i c i n d u s t r y t o c a r r y the Region through a d e p r e s s i o n . s e r v i c e i n d u s t r i e s o f the surrounding  The  communities are depen-  101 dent on the b a s i c employment at Cominco. i n d u s t r y or some other t y p e , the lose t h e i r useful function. F e r n i e , f o r example, the  Without t h i s - b a s i c  s e r v i c e i n d u s t r i e s would  When the  c o a l mines c l o s e d i n  s e r v i c e i n d u s t r i e s , such as  l o c a l brewery, made p l a n s t o move elsewhere.36 of the  single enterprise  enterprise.  economic s t r u c t u r e of the R o s s l a n d - T r a i l now  weakness  economy i s t h a t a l l a c t i v i t y  d i r e c t l y or i n d i r e c t l y upon one  b u i l t and  The  the  The  depends  entire  Region has  been  r e s t s upon the a c t i v i t i e s of Cominco.  7. REGIONAL ECONOMY A. World Markets and The  Limited  Resources  p r o s p e r i t y of the R o s s l a n d - T r a i l  Region depends  upon some very changeable f a c t o r s completely beyond the t r o l o f the Region.  One  of these f a c t o r s i s world markets.  World p r i c e s f o r metals and production  f e r t i l i z e r s determine Cominco's  volume which i n t u r n a f f e c t s the  wages of the Region's i n h a b i t a n t s . to the U n i t e d put  i n 1957.37  bought 27%  of t h i s 1957  zinc  t o t a l Cominco out-  S t a t e s bought 28% and  total.  and  Canada  T h i s d i s t r i b u t i o n of  sales  36 Thornber, " T h e y ' l l Mine T o u r i s t D o l l a r s Vancouver Sun, February 14, 1958, p.3.  Now,"  R o n  The  United  employment  S a l e s of l e a d and  Kingdom claimed 38% o f the The  con-  3 T h e C o n s o l i d a t e d M i n i n g and S m e l t i n g Company of Canada, F i f t y - S e c o n d Annual Report f o r the Year Ended December 31, 1957, (Montreal), March 13, 1958", n.n. (See metal sales). 7  102  i l l u s t r a t e s the degree of Cominco's dependence on world markets. The U n i t e d S t a t e s ' d e c i s i o n to d i s c o n t i n u e t h e i r p i l i n g p o l i c y i n May l e a d and  stock  of 1 9 5 7 , r e s u l t e d i n a d e c l i n e i n w o r l d  zinc p r i c e s .  M e t a l producers  i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s  sought p r o t e c t i o n from the dropping p r i c e s .  The  House Ways  and Means Committee of the U n i t e d S t a t e s Congress c o n s i d e r e d a p r o p o s i t i o n by the U.S. impose h i g h e r t a r i f f s ,  and  Emergency Lead-Zinc import  Committee t o  quotas on l e a d - z i n c .  Such  d e c i s i o n s beyond the c o n t r o l of the Region or Cominco have a r e a l a f f e c t on the l o c a l Region. At the same time t h e r e i s keen c o m p e t i t i o n f o r s a l e s i n o f f - s h o r e markets, both from the U n i t e d S t a t e s and pean p r o d u c e r s . declined.  The  Consequently fertilizer  Euro-  metal p r i c e s have r e c e n t l y  s a l e s have a l s o been a f f e c t e d  i n c r e a s i n g competition from the U n i t e d S t a t e s . with an o v e r - p r o d u c t i o n of f e r t i l i z e r  by  T h i s , coupled  elsewhere i n the  world,  r e s u l t e d i n a d e t e r i o r a t i o n o f Cominco f e r t i l i z e r  sales l a s t  year.  with i n  The type of severe c o m p e t i t i o n t h a t i s met  world t r a d e i s i l l u s t r a t e d by the experience  of Aluminium.  In s e v e r a l i n s t a n c e s s e l l e r s of Russian metal have o f f e r e d t o maintain a d i f f e r e n t i a l below whatever p r i c e we might quote.... We cannot alone, however, expect t o compete a g a i n s t the r e s o u r c e s of a s t a t e . I f t h i s form of c o m p e t i t i o n continues we b e l i e v e i t i s apparent t h a t i t must be d e a l t with by those i n government who have r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r a d j u s t i n g the t r a d e r e l a t i o n s between the two forms o f s o c i e t y . 3 °  3%athanael  V. Davis, P r e s i d e n t of Aluminium L i m i t e d ,  103 Cominco o p e r a t i o n s are based on a v o l a t i l e r e s o u r c e ore-bodies.  —  The survey o f Ghost Towns i n Chapter I , g i v e s  ample evidence t h a t g r e a t mines can be d e p l e t e d . understood t h a t Cominco has many good mines —  It i s  but w i l l they  always be e c o n o m i c a l l y p r o d u c t i v e ? . The e f f e c t o f a l l these adverse f a c t o r s on Cominco o p e r a t i o n s can be c l e a r l y shown i n r e c e n t events.  The Cominc  smelter i n Tadanac depends p r i m a r i l y upon ore a t t h e S u l l i v a n Mine i n Kimberlsy, B r i t i s h Columbia. are  A number o f o t h e r mines  operated a t R i o n d e l , Salmo, Tulsequah, Pine P o i n t , and  Yellowknife. During 1 9 5 7 , Tulsequah Mines L i m i t e d , a s u b s i d i a r y company, was p l a c e d i n l i q u i d a t i o n , d u r i n g t h e course of which a l l i t s a s s e t s and l i a b i l i t i e s were taken oyer by the Company i n s a t i s f a c t i o n o f the debt owing....39 T h i s i s the r e s u l t o f adverse markets -- another ghost town!  Market p r i c e s c o u l d e a s i l y go lower.  The great .  S u l l i v a n Mine i s a l r e a d y o p e r a t i n g on low grade o r e . ^ Perhaps Kimberley and then T r a i l might quah today, or Phoenix y e s t e r d a y .  c l o s e down l i k e T u l s e The recent experience i n  F e r n i e , B r i t a n n i a Beach, and even K i t i m a t i n d i c a t e t h a t  Report o f the T h i r t i e t h Annual Meeting o f the Shareholders o f the Company, M o n t r e a l , A p r i l 24, 1 9 5 8 , p.7.  39The  C o n s o l i d a t e d , o p . c i t . n.n., (See F i n a n c i a l ) .  ^ R . E . S t a v e r t , P r e s i d e n t o f the C o n s o l i d a t e d Mining and Smelting Company o f Canada L i m i t e d , Address t o Shareholders, (Montreal: Annual Meeting, A p r i l 24, 19~~~~) • n.n., p. 4 - 5 *  104 s i n g l e e n t e r p r i s e communities today are s t i l l s e r i o u s problems. in  T r a i l today.  The  e f f e c t s of d e p r e s s i o n are b e i n g  Table XIV.,  on page 105,  employment i n recent y e a r s at Cominco. 106,  experiencing  shows the drop i n Drawing 11, on page  i l l u s t r a t e s the f l u c t u a t i o n i n employment.  summarized the economic problems now  felt  Mr.  Stavert  f a c i n g Cominco i n grave  terms. ... two of our mining o p e r a t i o n s were shut down. Our i n v e n t o r i e s of r e f i n e d l e a d and z i n c have been s t e a d i l y i n c r e a s i n g . . . . I t would be prudent t o f o r e s e e the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t f u r t h e r c u r t a i l m e n t i n both mining and m e t a l l u r g i c a l o p e r a t i o n s may become necessary i n the next few months u n l e s s the down-trend i n the l e v e l of b u s i n e s s i n g e n e r a l , and consumer demand f o r l e a d and z i n c i n p a r t i cular, i s reversed.... Labor c o s t s are s t i l l i n c r e a s i n g i n Canada, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n B r i t i s h Columbia.... Unless t h e r e i s some e a r l y r e c o v e r y from c u r r e n t r e c e s s i o n i n b u s i n e s s , t h e r e does not seem to be any reason f o r o p t i mism i n connection w i t h our o p e r a t i o n s i n 195S»^1. B. Business The  and Seasonal  Cycles  h i s t o r y of the C o n s o l i d a t e d i s marked with  e f f e c t s of r e c u r r i n g changes i n b u s i n e s s a c t i v i t y . 11, a l s o i l l u s t r a t e s these f l u c t u a t i o n s . diagram mark the p e r i o d s of p r o s p e r i t y . depressions.  Recovery has,  the  Drawing  The peaks o f the The  low p o i n t s are  i n the l o n g run, f a r  surpassed  the r e c e s s i o n s with the r e s u l t t h a t Cominco has grown gradua l l y into a large i n d u s t r i a l enterprise.  The  e f f e c t s of  b u s i n e s s c y c l e s are a l s o shown i n . Table XIV., by the  ^Stavert,  Ibid.  fluctua-  105„  TABLE XIV THE NUMBER OF COMINCO WORKERS EMPLOYED AT TRAIL FROM 1 9 3 1 TO 1 9 5 7 -  Year  1931 1932 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938  1939 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944  HourlyRated  2885 2201 2204 2831 3095 3236 3811 3812  3389  4118 4136  4508 4214 3681  Year  Salaried  383 453 467 471 493 512 593 696 675  -  1945 1946 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957  HourlyRated  3485 4055 4321 4379 4426 4229 4197 4110  3531 3389 3462 3460 3174  S a l a r i ed  690 820  918 998 997  1018  1173 1210 1123 1088 1115 1108 1095  Source: P e r s o n a l correspondence o f t h e author from the P e r s o n n e l Department o f t h e C o n s o l i d a t e d M i n i n g and Smelting Company o f Canada L i m i t e d , ( T r a i l B.C. February 1958.)  '^A-'iA'v:' 8 0  7  0  0  0  0  fci<f  0  ;'«•.••"•'. -  Sfiiisii  Pi ii m  o a o  6  •;'C--" i'v' • v-.' '; ;  /  r  :^.y>' .^-v--:-v^:. :  1• » - V . -  5  0  0  0  .' * r.'A^-^irr  >- '-r^iL-v --.' w r  r  Wk 4  0  0  v *]  J  M$  0  1 A-'V  3 0 0  0  m • 2  0  0  1'.;'*  fi--.-i *JBSQ*Q  0  V'?t.r'>>.-.  0  s  1 ) 0 5  19 10  1915  1 9 2 0  1 9 2 5  1 9 3 0  Title  A  • r-  liii  il  0  wr^'Ki ' A O C  1 0  SilSBl  REGIONAL  OF A SINGLE  PLANNING ENTERPRISE  ANALYSIS COMMUNITY  of  1 9 3 5  1 9 4 0  1 9 4 5  Diagram  1 9 5 5  D i a g . No.  EMPLOYMENT By  1 9 5 0  E . T.  AT  C 1 e gg  COMINCO  11  o  107 t i o n s i n the number of workers employed. Employment at Cominco a l s o f l u c t u a t e s d u r i n g the y e a r . Seasonal changes are not as severe but they do occur. ally,  Gener-  summers are p e r i o d s of h i g h employment and w i n t e r s are  p e r i o d s of low employment.  T h i s i s a r e s u l t of weather c o n d i -  t i o n s which slow down c e r t a i n a c t i v i t i e s i n the w i n t e r months, such as e x p l o r a t i o n s , c o n s t r u c t i o n , and maintenance. The f l u c t u a t i o n s of markets f o r Cominco products  and  the r e l a t e d f l u c t u a t i o n s of p r o s p e r i t y i n the R o s s l a n d - T r a i l Region are w e l l i l l u s t r a t e d by the value of Cominco s t o c k . Drawing 12, on page 108,  shows how  have f l u c t u a t e d from 1906  the annual  t o 1958.4-2  stock q u o t a t i o n s  The r e c e n t downward  t r e n d o f stock values i n d i c a t e s the s e r i o u s nature of r e c e s s i o n f o r Cominco.  today's  T h i s drop i n stock v a l u e s i s the  g r e a t e s t i n the e n t i r e h i s t o r y of Cominco o p e r a t i o n s . C. E f f e c t s of Market Changes and C y c l i c a l F l u c t u a t i o n s The  seasonal c y c l e s i n Cominco o p e r a t i o n s can l e a v e  as many as 500 men page 105,  from 1943  unemployed as shown from Table Xltf, t o 1944.  employment by as much as 1000  A b u s i n e s s r e c e s s i o n can men  on vary  i n a p e r i o d of f o u r or  f i v e y e a r s as shown on Table XIV from 1952  t o 1957.  These  changes i n employment can have d r a s t i c e f f e c t s on the comm u n i t i e s i n the R o s s l a n d - T r a i l Region.  The  surrounding  Stock q u o t a t i o n s were o b t a i n e d from The Vancouver Stock Exchange and The Royal T r u s t Company, Vancouver B.C., May, 1958.  $  4000  3500  Lowest  Artnual  Quotation  O  Highest  Annual  Quotation  •  ADJUSTED 3000  -\  2500  i  FOR  STOCK  SPLITS  2000 H  1500 H  1000-  5001  1906  A  REGIONAL  i 1910  r  1915  [—  19 2 0  -1  1925  PLANNING ANALYSIS  1930  OF  Title  I 1940  1935  of  ENTERPISE  1  —I 1955  1950  I  I 96 0  Org.  Dr g.  FLUCTUATIONS  A SINGLE  I 1945  OF  COMINCO  STOCK  COMMUNITY Drawn  by  E. T.  C Ieg g  VALUE  No.  12  o OJ  109 dormitory  communities cannot r e a d i l y a d j u s t the  s i z e of c i t y ,  number of homes, and the l e n g t h o f u t i l i t y l i n e s t o meet the changes i n l o c a l p o p u l a t i o n t h a t r e s u l t from sudden l a y o f f s . I f Cominco, f o r example, suddenly d i s c o n t i n u e d permanently the s e r v i c e s o f 1000  employees who  lived in Trail,  these  people would l i k e l y leave T r a i l to f i n d work elsewhere. l o s s i n t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n c o u l d be as much as 3000 The  C i t y o f T r a i l , however, has  The  people.  geared i t s commercial  develop-  ment, c i t y s e r v i c e s , and u t i l i t i e s t o a p o p u l a t i o n t h a t i n cluded these 3000 persons.  The  payments on debentures i s s u e d  to pay f o r the o r i g i n a l u t i l i t i e s must s t i l l be p a i d .  There  w i l l be other problems encountered i n t r y i n g t o reduce v a r i o u s c i t y s e r v i c e s to the new unavoidable remaining  It i s  t h a t c e r t a i n f i x e d c o s t s must be borne by  taxpayers.  I t i s a heavy burden t o them.  a waste to have u t i l i t i e s and their f u l l  population l e v e l .  capacity.  the It i s  s e r v i c e s t h a t are not used t o  T h i s i s the opposite  e f f e c t from t h a t  c r e a t e d by sudden p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e s d i s c u s s e d under Popu l a t i o n Growth and  I t s Problems on page 63.  Recessions,  t h e r e f o r e , are a r e a l burden on communities because t h e i r t a x revenues are reduced but t h e i r s o c i a l s e r v i c e s go on even i n c r e a s e t o care f o r the unemployed. w i l l o f t e n be a hardship comes over-crowded and react slowly — i s met  f o r these  A sudden  communities.  recovery  Housing  s e r v i c e s become inadequate.  but when the demand f o r housing  or  and  The  becities  services  i n a few years, perhaps by borrowing money, a C i t y  110 may  f i n d t h a t Cominco i s i n a n o t h e r  a g a i n moving f r o m t h e community —  r e c e s s i o n and  people  l e a v i n g t h e c i t y and  remaining  c i t i z e n s t o bear the f u l l  pansion.  S u c h f l u c t u a t i o n s i n employment a t t h e b a s i c  try  can have u n f a v o r a b l e  and p e o p l e  i n the Region.  severe  social effects.  people  can  life may  the  cost of the recent  e c o n o m i c e f f e c t s on t h e  are  exindus-  communities  These f l u c t u a t i o n s c a n a l s o h a v e  The  movement o f a s many a s  c r e a t e many s o c i a l p r o b l e m s .  3000  F a m i l y and  a r e d i s r u p t e d f r o m s u c h an e x o d u s .  Other  community  communities  have a s o c i a l problem r e s u l t i n g from the i n f l u x o f  the  unemployed. The is  economic p r o b l e m o f t h e  t h a t any  single enterprise region  problem i n the business a c t i v i t y of the  e n t e r p r i s e i s r e g i s t e r e d by t h e e n t i r e m e n t s d e p e n d e n t on t h e e n t e r p r i s e . Chapter  I , the e n t e r p r i s e f a i l s  could r e s u l t  community o f  I f , a s i t was  8.  settle-  shown i n  completely, then ghost  s i n c e t h e r e i s no a l t e r n a t i v e  s c a l e employment i n t h e  major  source  of  large-  Region.  POTENTIAL RESOURCES I N THE  Regional development.in  REGION  the R o s s l a n d - T r a i l Area  been v e r y o n e - s i d e d .  The  Cominco o p e r a t i o n i s t h e  a c t i v i t y t h a t has had  any  r e a l a t t e n t i o n f o r the past  years.  towns  only  A l l the other p o t e n t i a l l y v a l u a b l e resources  received only a s u p e r f i c i a l examination.  Regional  has  fifty have  develop-  Ill ment i s , t h e r e f o r e , u n b a l a n c e d . all  the resources  resources are A. F o r e s t The forest 112.^3 larch, est  and  the Region than the present  Resources Region has  cover  a good r e s o u r c e  in i t s forests.  i n t h i s R e g i o n i s shown on D r a w i n g 13,  The  on  page  i t c o n s i s t s o f f i v e t y p e s ; t h e Lake F o r e s t ( f i r , spruce,  cedar,  (fir,  and p i n e s p e c i e s ) ; t h e Sheep Lake  l a r c h , p i n e , and  b u r n e d , l o g g e d and The  and  f i n a l l y , the  eroded  scrub,  areas. smelting operations at  The  u l m u s t r e e s p e c i e s i s shown i n P h o t o g r a p h 25,  and  i s discussed. smelter fumes.^  growth has  Coniferous  A d e t a i l e d survey  been prevented  growth has  Trail  down t h e  damage t o t h e l e a v e s o f an  and  New  Forest  fume-damaged,  v e g e t a t i o n f o r s e v e r a l m i l e s up a n d  Columbia R i v e r V a l l e y .  For-  p i n e ) ; the South B e l t  cedar); the Mountain  t o x i c fumes from t h e  have d e s t r o y e d  larly.  other  ignored.  ( s p r u c e , and b a l s a m ) ;  by  of  system  t h e s i n g l e e n t e r p r i s e t o t h e p o i n t where  ( s p r u c e , eedar, l a r c h , f i r ,  Forest  development  i n ideal proportions could y i e l d f a r better  v e n e f i t s t o the people of emphasizing  Coordinated  acer  on page for  43,  years  suffered particu-  of the f o r e s t cover i n t h i s  area  ^ F r o m personal experience of the Author w h i l e working w i t h t h e B.C. F o r e s t S e r v i c e i n t h i s a r e a . J.D. Chapman, (ed.) e t . a l . , N a t u r a l R e s o u r c e s C o n f e r e n c e 1956, B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a A t l a s o f R e s o u r c e s , (1956 edition, V a n c o u v e r : S m i t h L i t h o g r a p h e r s ) , p7£l. ^ B a s e d on an e s s a y w r i t t e n by t h e a u t h o r  i n 1951,  at  F O R E S T Moun«o in ( S 8) L a k e ( F L S CP) S c r u b , Fu e - d a m ag e d , Logged  m  COVER  H  Burn  <®  South ( F L P C ) Sheep L a k e C S C L F P ) F o r m Wood I o t Management L i c e n c e Regional Boundary For s p e c i e s name a Source tee Text  S C A L E  I  Title  A  REGIONAL  OF A  PLANNING  of  ENTERPRISE  8 Mi  Drg.  D r g . No.  ANALYSIS FOREST  SINGLE  -  COVER  COMMUNITY By  E. T.  Clegg  1  o  113 shows t h a t a number o f mature stands which have not y e t been cut.^5  These stands, i f cut on a s u s t a i n e d y i e l d  basis,  would be s u f f i c i e n t t o supply l o c a l needs as w e l l as t o prov i d e some f o r e x p o r t . The v a r i o u s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s o f the f o r e s t cover o f t h i s Region  a t the time o f w r i t i n g a r e not f u l l y u t i l i z i n g bhe r e -  source.  The C e l g a r Management l i c e n c e extends  over p a r t o f  the Arrow Lakes F o r e s t type, as shown on Drawing 13 on page 112,  and farm woodlot l i c e n c e s have been granted as shown.  Such f o r e s t areas a r e managed on a s u s t a i n e d y i e l d  basis.  However, the remaining f o r e s t cover i s not under good management.  A number o f companies are p r a c t i s i n g  clear-cutting  o p e r a t i o n s without r e g a r d f o r r e p l a n t i n g the c u t - o v e r a r e a s . A v e r y l a r g e a r e a around the Columbia R i v e r V a l l e y i s not n a t u r a l l y p r o d u c t i v e f o r f o r e s t growth.  T h i s a r e a has s u f f e r -  ed r e p e a t e d l y from c l e a r - c u t t i n g o p e r a t i o n s , f i r e s , e r o s i o n , and  smelter smoke damage.  species.  I t c o n t a i n s many non-commercial  The s o i l s i n t h i s a r e a have been so s e v e r e l y erod-  ed t h a t i n many areas o n l y rock and sand B. Other  remain.  Resources  The Region has a number o f p o t e n t i a l m i n e r a l r e s o u r c e s .  the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, f o r F o r e s t r y 498, which s t u d i e d t h e smoke problem and r e p l a n t i n g a t T r a i l . ^ B r i t i s h Columbia, Department o f Lands and F o r e s t s , Rossland Region F o r e s t Cover. (2 maps), V i c t o r i a , 1937.  114 Mining o p e r a t i o n s i n the Region are almost a t a standstill.  complete  I t i s claimed t h a t good ore b o d i e s e x i s t  here  but Cominco owns most of them and has not developed them. The reason has been c o n s i d e r e d t o be t h a t Cominco mines outside the Region are more p r o d u c t i v e .  It i s also  understood  t h a t any e x p l o r a t i o n work i n l o c a l mines would cost a g r e a t deal. There are reasons t o b e l i e v e t h a t some good ore b o d i e s e x i s t , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the Rossland a r e a . ed only the bulk of the o r e .  E a r l y mining remov-  L a t e r l e a s i n g o p e r a t i o n s , how-  ever, had f o r many years mined good ore u n t i l Cominco s t o p ped such operations.4-6  Experience In o l d mine-workings has  shown t h a t hidden ore bodies can sometimes be  found.  The a g r i c u l t u r a l r e s o u r c e i n the a r e a has from the t o x i c fumes of the s m e l t e r .  suffered  The Columbia V a l l e y  once had a number of good farms but these had to be abandoned because the smelter smoke destroyed a l l the crops.  Today  the smoke i s under b e t t e r c o n t r o l but most o f the damage has a l r e a d y been done. the removal Region now  The good farm s o i l s were eroded  following  of v e g e t a t i o n by the deadly smelter fumes. imports almost a l l of i t s farm produce.  an example of the i l l  This i s  e f f e c t on the a g r i c u l t u r a l r e s o u r c e  t h a t r e s u l t e d from the development of o n l y one r e s o u r c e Cominco —  The  without due r e g a r d to other r e s o u r c e s . ,  ^ L a n c e H. Whittaker, Rossland, The Golden (Rossland Miner L t d . , 1949), p. 95.  City,  —  115 T h i s Region has  electric  c a p a c i t y than any  there  is still  p r o j e c t could add Good dam  other Company i n the  ample power to develop.  Province.  The  Waneta  Dam  220,000 HP i f a use f o r i t c o u l d be found.  s i t e s on the Columbia R i v e r have been s t u d i e d  K a i s e r Aluminum Company and  others.  i n t h i s Region i s not being  utilized.  The has  in hydro-electric  In 1 9 5 1 4 7 Cominco had a g r e a t e r i n s t a l l e d hydro-  power.  But  a great p o t e n t i a l resource  Region a l s o has a r e s o u r c e  The  by  f u l l power p o t e n t i a l  in i t s recreation.  r i v e r s , l a k e s , and mountains, w i t h e x c e l l e n t  It  sites.  Cominco has both helped and r e t a r d e d the r e c r e a t i o n develop:ment i n the Region.  Cominco b u i l t the Red  l i t i e s at R o s s l a n d .  But the  Mountain S k i  i n f l u e n c e of Cominco has  h e l d back the progress of these s k i f a c i l i t i e s . l y Cominco maney and Mountain S k i Club who has been t h a t the  i n f l u e n c e t h a t has  ski f a c i l i t i e s  I t was  Their  largeRed  policy  are f o r l o c a l use and  should  be h e l d as low as p o s s i b l e by not  sion.  The  ski  also  dominated the  operate the f a c i l i t i e s .  should be expanded and  s k i e r s from a l l p a r t s of the w o r l d . ^  costs  encouraging expan-  independent members of the club b e l i e v e t h a t  facilities  faci-  improved to  the  serve  From a r e g i o n a l view-  Chapman, l o c . c i t . ^ F r o m an i n t e r v i e w by the Author w i t h George Merry, V i c e - P r e s i d e n t of the Red Mountain S k i Club, Rossland, December, 1957*  116 point  i t would appear i d e a l t o develop the s k i f a c i l i t i e s t o  the maximum f o r t h e good o f the Region.  The R o s s l a n d - T r a i l  G o l f Club has almost been an e x c l u s i v e club f o r t h e Cominco staff.  There has been l i t t l e  system t o the park and r e c r e a -  tional  development.  The Region s o r e l y l a c k s a nearby n a t u r a l  park.  The d i f f i c u l t y has been t h a t r e c r e a t i o n  facilities  have been b u i l t and promoted by Cominco but as t h e i r ground f i r s t and o n l y second as a r e g i o n a l resource  playf o r the  people. The  f l u c t u a t i o n s i n employment a t the Cominco p l a n t s  l o s e s a great d e a l o f t r a i n e d l a b o r i n times o f r e c e s s i o n . This labor i s often l o s t . employment. ported  These people migrate t o areas o f  In times o f p r o s p e r i t y , new l a b o r must be im-  and t r a i n e d .  These f l u c t u a t i o n s then, can r e s u l t i n  a l o s s o f the Region's l a b o r  9. A. P o p u l a t i o n  resource.  SOCIAL CHARACTERISTICS  Analysis  Table XVJ'I, on page 117, i l l u s t r a t e s the age s t r u c t u r e o f people i n Rossland and T r a i l .  I t shows a l a r g e num-  ber o f people i n the young age groups, 0-44years, but fewer i n t h e o l d e r ones o f 45 years and up, as compared t o B r i t i s h Columbia. retired  Table XVI, on page 118, i l l u s t r a t e s t h a t few  couples l i v e i n Rossland and T r a i l as compared tsor<  TABLE XV  A CLASSIFICATION OF POPULATION IN ROSSLAND, TRAIL, AND BRITISH COLUMBIA BY FIVE YEAR AGE CLASSES  Age Classes  Rossland  0-4 5-9 10-14 15-19 20-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65-69 70-  684 525  460 315 2 $4 739 747 423 213  88 126  4604  Total  Source:  % of Total  14 ,12. 1076 16 16 •5  2 3  100%  Trail  1378 948 $51 812 1032 2116 1890 1253 665 223  262  Population Trail Tadanac Tadanac  39 37 37 50 46 51 79 91 32  3 14  1417 985 888  862 107$ 2167 1969 1344 697 226  276 1190.9  fo Of  Total  12 $  7 7 9 1$ 17 11 6 2 3 100%  British Columbia  124,$$6 99,$92 7$,609 70,230 79,$24 1$2,370 168,$19 124,693 108,750 52,929  73,210  1,165,210  D.B.S. Canada Census, (Queen's P r i n t e r , 1951.) et passim.  fo Of  Total  11 9 6 6 7 16 14 11 9 5 6 100%  118  TABLE XVI  PERSONS IN THE LABOR FORCE BY HOUSEHOLDS FOR ROSSLAND, TRAIL, AND BRITISH COLUMBIA  Persons in Labor F o r c e  2-. 1 0  British Columbia  % of  21.2 - 72.7 6.1  719 2116 121  1115  100%  2956 100%  D.B.S.  Canada Census, (Queen's P r i n t e r , 1951.)  811  68  Source:  % of  Trail  Rossland  236  Total  Households  % of Total  Total  24.3  70.2  5.5  65,666 193,749 40,430 299,845  Total  22.0 64.4 13.6 100%  119 B r i t i s h Columbia, by the low number of households that l i s t e d as h a v i n g no member i n the l a b o r f o r c e . particularly es —  The  District.  T r a i l has  l a r g e number o f people i n the working age  25 to 54 y e a r s .  groups.  are  class-  Rossland has many i n the 0 t o 19 y e a r  o l d e r people a p p a r e n t l y  This i s a  a  IQSS  do not  t o the Region.  retire in this  Older r e t i r e d  people give a community s t a b i l i t y and l e a d e r s h i p . government would l i k e l y be f a r more e f f e c t i v e  Local  i f more r e t i r e d  people remained i n the Region. The  T r a i l population  tory types.  has  a high p r o p o r t i o n  Table XVIJ on page 120,  of t r a n s i -  i l l u s t r a t e s t h a t 54%  the households are t e n a n t - o c c u p i e d , whereas o n l y 30.5% t e n a n t - o c c u p i e d i n B r i t i s h Columbia. population  are  T h i s f e a t u r e of a  does not improve i t . T r a n s i t o r y groups do  add to the s t a b i l i t y of the p o p u l a t i o n . g e n e r a l l y not  of  not  These people are  as i n t e r e s t e d i n the community or as u s e f u l t o  i t as they c o u l d be i f they intended  t o s e t t l e i n the  area  permanently. Table XVII(, on page 121, of r a c e s bia.  The  i n Rossland and  i l l u s t r a t e s the  T r a i l as compared t o B r i t i s h Colum-  large I t a l i a n population  This i s a result  distribution  of Cominco.  in Trail i s significant.  A l a r g e number of e a r l y I t a l i a n  immigrants were encouraged to come t o T r a i l because they would work under the poor c o n d i t i o n s found at the T h i s group has maintained much of i t s own They have t h e i r own  church.  original  T h i s e x p l a i n s the  smelter. culture.  large  120  TABLE XVII  A COMPARISON OF THE NUMBER OF TENANT AND OWNER-OCCUPIED HOUSEHOLDS IN ROSSLAND, TRAIL, AND BRITISH COLUMBIA  Household Tjrpe Tenant Occupied Owner Occupied Total  Households  % of Total  Trail  Total  British Columbia  % of Total  250  20.7  1435  54.4  102,620  30.5  954  79.3  1715  45.6  235,160  69.5  1204  100%  337,780  100%  Rossland  fo Of  3150 100%  Source: D.B.S. Canada.Census,  (Queen's P r i n t e r ,  1951).  121  TABLE XVIII A COMPARISON OF POPULATION BY ORIGIN IN ROSSLAND, TRAIL, AND BRITISH COLUMBIA  .population  Origin British Isles French German Italian Jewish Netherlands Polish Russian. Scandinavian Ukrainian Other European Asiatic Other and not stated Total  Rossland 2818 141  157 269 16 86 43 72 370  61 3 3  6 0 2 1 2  8  Trail  DistriDucion % of Total  484 739 I856 49 195 170 192  57 4 7 16 0 2 1 2  503  4  6492  216 7  1 5 0  241 105  1  356  8  404  4  53  4604  Source:  % of Total  100%  11,430  2  100%  Canada Census, (Queen's P r i n t e r ,  British Columbia  % Of  766,000 42,000  66 4 6 1 0  69,000  17,000 5,000  33,000 16,000  22,000 72,000 23,000 19,000  Total  3  1 2  6  26,000  2 2 2  54,000  5  1,164,000  100%  1951)', D.B.S.  122 C a t h o l i c p o p u l a t i o n found i n T r a i l by Table XTX/_, on page 123. T h i s group has i t s own s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s and a s s o c i a t i o n s . I t a l i a n s have tended t o s e t t l e t o g e t h e r i n a " L i t t l e a r e a c a l l e d the "Gulch". from the r e s t  Here they have segregated  Italy" themselves  of Trail.  Another r a c i a l group i s found i n t h e Region t h a t does not appear i n Table XVII/ on page 121, because inhabitants.  they a r e r u r a l  These people a r e a s t r o n g l y segregated group  the Doukhabors.  —  They a r e a r e l i g i o u s sect who s e t t l e d i n t h e  C a s t l e g a r - S l o c a n areas not f a r from T r a i l .  The much-publi-  c i z e d Sons o f Freedom are t h e r a d i c a l order o f t h i s sect whose f o c u s o f a c t i v i t y i s a t K r e s t o v a .  These people have  s t u b b o r n l y h e l d t o t h e i r r e l i g i o u s and c u l t u r a l b e l i e f s f o r many y e a r s . shawls.own  The women wear t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l s i l k gowns and  The men o f t e n wear a f u l l beard.  language,  They speak t h e i r  eat t h e i r own f o o d s , l i v e t o g e t h e r i n community  compounds, and r e f u s e t o be educated by t h e Canadian.system. In p r o t e s t t o e f f o r t s t o change t h e i r way o f l i f e they o f t e n burn s c h o o l s and homes, o r parade  i n the nude.  Although  many have r e s i s t e d a l l e f f o r t s t o 'Canadianize' them, a number o f the l e s s r a d i c a l members a r e l i v i n g a s normal ians.  The r a d i c a l members, however, a r e a r e a l  group i n t h e R o s s l a n d - T r a i l  Canad-  problem  Region.  B. S o c i a l S t r a t i f i c a t i o n The s o c i a l h i e r a r c h y o f Cominco r e f l e c t s a s i m i l a r  TABLE XIX A COMPARISON OF THE DISTRIBUTION OF CHURCH MEMBERSHIP IN THE ROSSLAND-TRAIL AREA  Church  Bapti st Anglican Greek Orthodox Jewish Lutheran Mennonite Presbyterian Catholic U k r a i n i a n Greek U n i t e d Church Other Total  — — •  y  Members  Total  56  938  o  Q f  137 1072  23  D.B.S.  Members  1 21 4  2 1875 309  f  Q f  16 16 183  4604 Source:  D i s t r i b u t i o n of Membership TrailRossland-Trail Tadanac Tadanac  Rossland  210  .  3  41 7 100%  2252  56 50  322  21 1175 3556 57 3593 617 11909  0  Total 2 19 1 1 2 10  30 30 5 100%  Members 266 3190  72  66 505 21 1312 4628 59 5468 926 16523  Canada Census. (Queen's P r i n t e r , 1951).  Of  Total 2 19 1 3 8 28 33 6 100%  124 social  s t r a t i f i c a t i o n i n t h e people o f t h e R o s s l a n d - T r a i l  Region.  T h i s i s very evident i n many s i n g l e  enterprise  economies, because t h e r e a r e no other s o c i a l h i e r a r c h i e s t o diffuse  into  t h e community except t h a t o f the major e n t e r -  prise.  Your rank i n the Cominco s t r u c t u r e determines your  social position reflected  i n the community.  by t h e housing  areas.  This s t r a t i f i c a t i o n i s The h i g h e s t order o f  Cominco's s o c i a l group have, f o r y e a r s ,  segregated  them-  s e l v e s i n t h e company-owned and e x c l u s i v e r e s i d e n t i a l of Tadanac. made t h e i r  area  Lower s o c i a l o r d e r s , such as t h e I t a l i a n s , own housing  company r e g i m e n t a t i o n  area i n the "Gulch". i s reflected  The i m p r i n t o f  i n other ways.  The s h i f t  system, f o r example, a t Cominco i s f o l l o w e d i n bus schedules, r e s t a u r a n t hours, a c t i v i t y programmes, and i n many other ways. The  s o c i a l d i s t a n c e between v a r i o u s groups i n the  Region reduces t h e i n t e r e s t The  of the i n d i v i d u a l  i n h i s community.  o r d i n a r y worker nurses h i m s e l f through the work day with  the thought t h a t j u s t as soon as he gets a b e t t e r j o b o r r e t i r e s , he w i l l l e a v e t h e smelter and the Region f o r e v e r . There has been no c o n s c i e n t i o u s e f f o r t t o h o l d workers and r e t i r e d people by the amenities u n t i l very r e c e n t l y . i t s good The  o f the Region and communities  The Region has t h e r e f o r e l o s t many o f  citizens. l a c k of e q u a l i t y and t h e l a c k o f f e e l i n g  t a n t p a r t o f the l a r g e e n t e r p r i s e has had other  an impor-  effects.  125 The  people  concerned  h a v e no r e g i o n a l s e n t i m e n t .  Each community i s  w i t h i t s own p r o b l e m s i n i s o l a t i o n f r o m t h e o t h e r  communities. independence.  There i s a s t r o n g f e e l i n g t o m a i n t a i n t h e i r  T h i s i n d e p e n d e n c e h a s d i s c o u r a g e d one o f t h e  most f o r w a r d s t e p s t h e R e g i o n  e v e r t o o k upon i t s e l f .  was t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g B o a r d ago.  own  That  some y e a r s  I n r e p l y t o an i n q u i r y r e g a r d i n g t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f  a R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Board  f o r the R o s s l a n d - T r a i l Area, the  Deputy M i n i s t e r o f M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s  replied:  I may s a y t h a t i t was o r i g i n a l l y h o p e d t h a t a p l a n n i n g a r e a c o u l d be e s t a b l i s h e d s o m e t i m e a g o b u t t h e p r o p o s a l f e l l b y t h e w a y s i d e t h e r e due t o some m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g s a n d a c e r t a i n amount o f o p p o s i t i o n . 4 9 A t t h e same t i m e many p e o p l e Cominco. vincial  f e e l an antagonism  This a t t i t u d e i s demonstrated elections.  Candidates  r a r e l y very popular. l a b o r e r comprises  towards  i n f e d e r a l and pro-  f r o m t h e Cominco s t a f f a r e  The common u n s k i l l e d a n d s e m i - s k i l l e d  the largest part of the electorate.  Unions  a r e s t r o n g i n t h e T r a i l a r e a a n d h a v e b e e n more t h a n met h a l f - w a y by Cominco i n d i s p u t e s . The  many s o c i a l g r o u p s t h a t l i v e  have a d i v i d e d l o y a l t y . sen§e o f d u t y , f i r s t  i n the Region  C o m i n c o s t a f f members f e e l a s t r o n g  t o Cominco.  The common C o m i n c o  h o w e v e r , i s more l o y a l t o h i s u n i o n s a n d v a r i o u s parties.  also  C e r t a i n e t h n i c groups i n t h e Region  o n l y w i t h t h e i r own t r a d i t i o n s a n d c u l t u r e . i n h a b i t a n t s place the importance  worker,  political  are concerned  Some o f t h e  o f t h e i r own c o m m u n i t y  fore-  126 most r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e f a c t that i t i s only part o f a Region which must operate as a u n i t t o be s u c c e s s f u l .  The r e s u l t  of t h i s i n d i v i d u a l l o y a l t y has been t h e development people o f an a p a t h e t i c a t t i t u d e towards the Region.  by the The  a l l e g i a n c e o f the people i s d i v i d e d . One o f the s t r o n g e s t elements i n any s i n g l e  enter-  p r i s e community c o u l d be the h e a l t h y u n i f i e d a t t i t u d e o f i t s people.  The key t o s u c c e s s f u l r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g , as w e l l  shown i n the Tennessee Valley50 i }  s  the c o o p e r a t i o n o f people. Cominco has been unable t o arouse any r e a l sense o f R e g i o n a l l o y a l t y from i t s workers.  Seldom do you f i n d an employee  who c o n s i d e r s h i m s e l f a p a r t o f Cominco, and t h e r e f o r e , a p a r t o f the Cominco Region.  This lack of f e e l i n g a part of  Cominco i s a s e r i o u s handicap t o oversome i n e s t a b l i s h i n g a s t a b l e community o f s e t t l e m e n t s i n t h i s Region.  Without  a f e e l i n g f o r , and a. c o n s e q u e n t i a l i n t e r e s t i n , the g r e a t e r Region, t h e strongest s i n g l e r e s o u r c e o f t h e Region remains to be tapped — t h e p o t e n t i a l o f t h e people themselves. 10. MUNICIPAL GOVERNMENT IN ROSSLAND AND TRAIL The problems o f l o c a l government i n Rossland d i f f e r  ^ P e r s o n a l Correspondence o f t h e Author, l e t t e r from J.E. Brown, Deputy M i n i s t e r o f M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s , Apr.29, 1958 50 L i l i e n t h a l , TVA (Tennessee V a l l e y A u t h o r i t y ) . Democracy on the March, (New York: Penguin Books, 1945 e d i t i o n , p. 78. D a v i d  E  #  127 from those i n T r a i l . The  Rossland has a s t r o n g l o c a l government.  c i t i z e n s of the community as a whole take a r e a l i n t e r e s t  i n the community.  T h i s i n t e r e s t i s shown by the many c a n d i -  dates t h a t run f o r Mayor and aldermen, i n the l o c a l e l e c t i o n s . In T r a i l the candidates t e d by accla:..mation.  are so few t h a t they are o f t e n e l e c -  The  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e i n Ross-  l a n d , however, i s very weak. the low  Table  IX, on page 69,  cost of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n R o s s l a n d .  One  shows  reason f o r  t h i s i s the absence o f a p r o f e s s i o n a l a d m i n i s t r a t o r City  on  the  staff. Rossland C i t y C o u n c i l was again under f i r e . . . . These comments a l l came back t o the q u e s t i o n of e n g i n e e r i n g . . . suggested t h a t C o u n c i l take a c l o s e look at r e d u c i n g d u p l i c a t i n g of work... and to employing a part-time engineer.51 There i s no engineer,  accountant, planner,  other p r o f e s s i o n a l l y t r a i n e d employee. activities.  No  one  any  coordinates  C o u n c i l committees undertake the o r d i n a r y work  of the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e departments.  Because of the l i m i t e d  term o f o f f i c e f o r C o u n c i l members, p o l i c y and such committees l a c k s c o n t i n u i t y . t r a t o r with an e n g i n e e r i n g city activities. municipal  or  guidance from  A full-time city  background i s needed to  But because o f the l a c k of  coordinate  sufficient  revenues i t appears u n l i k e l y t h a t such an  t r a t o r w i l l be h i r e d at l e a s t f o r the next few  ^ T h e Rossland Miner, May 15, 1958, c i l Under F i r e From L o c a l D e l e g a t i o n " .  adminis-  adminis-  years.  p. 1, " C i t y Coun-  128 The l o c a l government of T r a i l has been, at v a r i o u s times, accused of b e i n g c o r r u p t . p o l i c e f o r c e was  Some y e a r s ago the  disbanded f o r t h i s reason and the Royal  Canadian Mounted P o l i c e were brought  i n because  the o l d C i t y P o l i c e were not doing a good j o b . cism i s c o n t i n u i n g .  "There i s one alderman  i t was Such  felt criti-  who d e c l a r e s  t h a t the e n t i r e s u p e r v i s o r y s t a f f should be f i r e d and those who  local  instantly  are of value t o the C i t y r e h i r e d . " 5 2  The C i t y of T r a i l was  never a t r u e company town.  Un-  l i k e many s i n g l e e n t e r p r i s e communities i n Canada, i t was unnecessary t o people i n T r a i l t o f i g h t f o r t h e i r dence from Cominco domination i n c i v i c a f f a i r s . two d i v e r g e n t views, one  indepenThere are  s u p p o r t i n g self-government and  one  s u p p o r t i n g company domination i n a s i n g l e e n t e r p r i s e community.  The i d e a l approach  self-government then r e s t r i c t  i s o f t e n b e l i e v e d t o be t h a t  i s d e s i r e d by the p e o p l e .  i t s e l f t o Company matters.  local  The Company would T h i s sentiment  was  i l l u s t r a t e d by the v o i c e of the people r e c e n t l y . ... we do not argue with the Company's importance here, but we do not want t o see the Company put i t s e l f i n the p o s i t i o n o f an Almighty presence with whom the people's f i r s t m i n i s t e r must consort b e f o r e he sees the people.53  5 E d i t o r i a l i n the T r a i l D a i l y Times, June 12, p . l , "Clean Out C i t y H a l l ? " 2  1952,  1958,  -^The Kootenay Free Press, ( T r a i l B.C.), September 4, p.2. (not o p e r a t i n g r e c e n t l y ) .  129 The  second approach i s supported by the b e l i e f t h a t the C i t y  would b e n e f i t i f T r a i l was with.  a Company dominated town t o begin  Cominco i s the only r e a l power of c o o r d i n a t i o n i n  t h i s Region.  I f the community were operated by Cominco, some  semblence of o r d e r l y development may  have:/resulted.  Utilities,  roads, and r e s i d e n t i a l growth c o u l d have been c o o r d i n a t e d under the s i n g l e power of Cominco.  The unnecessary  duplica-  t i o n of governments i n t h r e e m u n i c i p a l i t i e s c o u l d perhaps have been a v o i d e d .  Cominco has always been  influencial  enough i n l o c a l a f f a i r s s i n c e they were the c h i e f employer i n the a r e a .  T h i s was  p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e i f some C o u n c i l mem-  bers were Cominco employees.  The  i n f l u e n c e was  sent but the c o o r d i n a t e d guidance, i t y were n o t .  always p r e -  f i n a n c i a l a i d , and  author-  The r e s u l t has been t h a t the T r a i l Area  grew and the problem of c o o r d i n a t i o n i s one  just  of the r e a l  diffi-  c u l t i e s t h a t must be overcame here.  11. REGIONAL POWER STRUCTURE A. The Power E l i t e L o c a l governments i n the R o s s l a n d - T r a i l Region are i n e f f e c t i v e i n s o l v i n g any of the r e a l problems of t h i s e n t e r p r i s e community of s e t t l e m e n t s .  The  important  single  decisions  t h a t determine the p a t t e r n of development are made f a r above the rank and order of mere c o u n c i l l o r s . i s made, however, i t may  Once the d e c i s i o n  i n some cases, be necessary f o r  130 the C o u n c i l under the w i l l o f a power e l i t e t o enact t h e i r wishes.  The men o f t h i s power e l i t e can d i r e c t the f u t u r e  of the e n t i r e Region. ... some men come t o occupy p o s i t i o n s ... from ... which t h e i r d e c i s i o n s m i g h t i l y a f f e c t the everyday worlds o f the o r d i n a r y environments o f o r d i n a r y men and women, they are i n a p o s i t i o n t o make d e c i s i o n s having major consequences.54 The R o s s l a n d - T r a i l Area was examined t o see i f a power e l i t e d i d e x i s t there.55  i t was found t h a t c e r t a i n people d i d have  a strong i n f l u e n c e on major d e c i s i o n s .  These people were  found t o be those t h a t command unusual power, wealth, or even l o c a l c e l e b r i t y . citizens#  They were p o l i t i c i a n s and i n f l u e n t i a l  A number o f Cominco employees were found t o have  a great i n f l u e n c e on some major d e c i s i o n s . B. The Rule o f t h e E l i t e I t was found i n the study "Why People L i v e i n Rossl a n d " t h a t whatever d e c i s i o n s were f i n a l l y made i n l o c a l a f f a i r s were s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e d by c e r t a i n Cominco  employees.  I n e v i t a b l y the primary a l l e g i a n c e o f such decision-makers was t o Cominco and not t o the community.  Whatever i s done  i n the R o s s l a n d - T r a i l Region i s done i n the shadow o f the  54cW. M i l l s , " T h e Power E l i t e ,  Press, 1956), p. 3-4.  (New York: Oxford  55E. Terrence Clegg, "Why People L i v e i n Rossland", An essay w r i t t e n f o r Dr. S. Jamieson i n S o c i o l o g y 425 a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia), March, 1958. (See Appendix B on page 247).  131 Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company.  At the same time,  whatever end t h i s Region might come t o , Cominco w i l l have a great i n f l u e n c e on the means t o that end. I f , f o r example, the s a t e l l i t e communities around T r a i l are t o remain i n e x i s tence — many of the r e s i d e n t s must be able t o work a t Cominco.  Or i f Rossland wished t o promote i t s e l f as a t o u r i s t  center then Cominco must release i t s hold on Red Mountain Ski Club —  the main t o u r i s t a t t r a c t i o n f o r Rossland.  (Some  of these f a c t o r s are discussed under P o t e n t i a l Resources, on page 110).  I f Rossland wished t o have i t s mines explored,  Cominco must approve since they own the mines.  I f any of  the communities were to i n v i t e new i n d u s t r y , Cominco, w i t h i t s strong i n f l u e n c e , land ownership, and h y d r o - e l e c t r i c monopoly, could very e a s i l y make or break a new, small industry.  The dominance that Cominco has over c e r t a i n major d e c i -  sions that could determine the future of the Area i s unquestionable.  Cominco i s the greatest s i n g l e power t o be  reckoned with i n any r e g i o n a l planning. The r u l e of the e l i t e i n t h i s Region has been d i r e c t e d i n some ways by members of parliament.  The R o s s l a n d - T r a i l  E l e c t o r a l D i s t r i c t i s represented i n the P r o v i n c i a l House of Parliament by R.E. Sommers. Mr. Sommers was f i r s t e l e c t e d i n 1952 by the strong S o c i a l C r e d i t Party i n t h i s Region. The e l e c t i o n of Mr. Sommers has been an event which w i l l long be remembered i n B r i t i s h Columbia. M i n i s t e r of Lands and F o r e s t s .  Mr. Sommers became  I n t h i s p o s i t i o n he d i d much  132 t o encourage i n d u s t r y i n t o t h i s R e g i o n , such as K a i s e r num Company56  a  n  (  j Celgar. L i m i t e d .  i n l o c a t i n g d i s t r i c t highways.  Alumi-  He was a l s o i n f l u e n t i a l  What good he d i d has r e c e i v e d  l e s s p u b l i c i t y than t h e a c c u s a t i o n t h a t he a c c e p t e d b r i b e s i n t h e a l l o c a t i o n o f f o r e s t management l i c e n c e s .  The p u b l i -  c i t y g i v e n t o t h e charge has n o t r e f l e c t e d f a v o r a b l y on t h e electorate i n h i sriding.  R e g a r d l e s s o f what t h e c o u r t s may  decide about t h i s charge t h e f a c t remains t h a t t h i s R e g i o n has had g r e a t changes brought about by a s i n g l e man i n a strong p o s i t i o n .  12. A LACK OF DIRECTION A. Haphazard Development There has been a d i s t i n c t l a c k o f o r g a n i z e d d i r e c t i o n t o development i n t h e R o s s l a n d - T r a i l R e g i o n . ed i n a h a p h a z a r d , e x p e n s i v e ,  T h i s has r e s u l t -  and u n d e s i r a b l e p a t t e r n o f  development. There a r e many urban problems a t t h e c e n t e r o f t h e Region's m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a .  T r a i l i t s e l f has been d i v i d e d  i n t o t h r e e separate m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . The a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p r o blems t h a t o c c u r from such an arrangement a r e f a r g r e a t e r t h a n i s w a r r a n t e d by such a s m a l l community.  One o f t h e  5^The K a i s e r Aluminum Company proposed t o b u i l d a lowl e v e l power dam a t C a s t l e g a r i n 1955 t o g e n e r a t e e l e c t r i c i t y f o r an aluminum p l a n t . No f u r t h e r a c t i o n has been t a k e n .  133 great problems i n m e t r o p o l i t a n areas today t h e r e a r e t o o many s e p a r a t e  i s the fact  administrative units.  These  d i v i s i o n s make t h e c o o r d i n a t i o n o f d e v e l o p m e n t v e r y The  that  difficult.  l a c k o f d i r e c t i o n has a l s o r e s u l t e d i n an overcrowded  low c l a s s o f housing People  i n some d i s t r i c t s  (such as Byers  h a v e c o n s t r u c t e d homes on m o u n t a i n - s i d e  very costly t o service.  Finally,  spread out and uncoordinated  Lane).  lots that are  development h a s been so  t h a t s e r v i c i n g h a s been v e r y  expensive. The  smelter i s located i n the center of the T r a i l  metropolitan area. the C i t y proper.  T h e r e i s no s e p a r a t i o n o f i n d u s t r y f r o m Railway  t r a c k s cut through  Poor c o n d i t i o n s i n T r a i l have d r i v e n people b u i l d i n g s i t e s beyond t h e C i t y .  the. u r b a n  center.  t o look f o rbetter  T h i s c o u l d have been  i f T r a i l had a system o f o r d e r l y development.  avoided  But t h e s h o r t  s u p p l y o f good b u i l d i n g l o t s , t h e h i g h p r o p e r t y t a x e s , t h e o b n o x i o u s f u m e s , a n d t h e v e r y h o t summers, w e r e t o o much f o r many o f T r a i l ' s  citizens.  B e y o n d t h e u r b a n a r e a , many s u b u r b a n p r o b l e m s h a v e b e gun.  U n r e s t r i c t e d and u n g u i d e d s t r i p development grew a l o n g  the highways l e a d i n g t o T r a i l . any  thought  L a n d was s u b d i v i d e d  o f c o o r d i n a t i o n o r s e r v i c i n g problems.  population d e n s i t i e s i n these  o u t l y i n g areas prevent  i n s t a l l a t i o n o f adequate s e r v i c e s . t h e h i g h w a y impede t h r o u g h  traffic.  m i l e s o f 30 mph s p e e d l i m i t s .  The many o u t l e t s  without The l o w economic along  The r e s u l t h a s b e e n  The V i l l a g e  of Kinnaird i s  134 a good e x a m p l e o f a l i n e a r v i l l a g e c e n t e r e d a l o n g t h e Castlegar The  Trail-  Highway. almost  c o n t r o l s has  c o m p l e t e l a c k o f b u i l d i n g and s u b d i v i s i o n  r e s u l t e d i n many s u b u r b a n s l u m d e v e l o p m e n t s .  R i v e r v a l e i s a s u b d i v i s i o n on t h e v e r y b o r d e r  of T r a i l  • I t a d v e r t i s e s t h e f a c t t h a t t h e r e a r e no b u i l d i n g i n R i v e r v a l e t o h i n d e r a homeowner. r e a l slum a r e a .  The  B i r c h Grove i s another  very near to T r a i l .  I t has  i t s own  restrictions  r e s u l t has b e e n a recent subdivision  water system.  People  l i v e h e r e e v e n t h o u g h H e a l t h A u t h o r i t i e s h a v e condemned p o l l u t e d water system.  T h e s e a r e p r o b l e m s now  B. Cominco  the  that w i l l i n -  crease i n magnitude as urban development from T r a i l more and more i n t o t h e s e  City.  expands  areas.  Leadership  Cominco has been t h e o n l y u n i f y i n g f o r c e i n t h e l a n d - T r a i l Region during the past  50 y e a r s .  p l a n s f o r i t s i n d u s t r y a r e p e r h a p s one  Ross-  Its.development  of the greatest  indus-  t r i a l p l a n s e v e r made i n C a n a d a . The C o n s o l i d a t e d M i n i n g and S m e l t i n g Company o f C a n a d a L i m i t e d i s n o t d e p e n d e n t upon any s i n g l e m i n e o r u p o n any s i n g l e m i n i n g d i s t r i c t ; b u t i t s i n t e r e s t s and b u s i n e s s , b e s i d e s b e i n g t o an e x t e n t i n d u s t r i a l , w i l l a l s o be so d i v e r s i f i e d a s t o m i n i m i z e so f a r a s p o s s i b l e t h e s p e c u l a t i v e element.57  -^'W.H. A l d r i d g e , M a n a g i n g D i r e c t o r , ( w r i t t e n i n 1 9 0 6 ) , c i t e d b y t h e C o n s o l i d a t e d M i n i n g a n d S m e l t i n g Company o f C a n a d a , L i m i t e d , The C o m i n c o S t o r y , ( T r a i l , n . d . ) , p.37.  135 The success o f t h i s p l a n n i n g i s evident from the success o f the  Company.  I t s long range p l a n o f power development i s  p h y s i c a l p l a n n i n g at a high l e v e l . In i t s r o l e as the o n l y major e n t e r p r i s e i n the Region, Cominco has n e g l e c t e d t o e x e r t i t s i n f l u e n c e on urban development.  (Nor d i d i t have any l e g a l p r e r o g a t i v e t o do t h i s ).  But i f Cominco c o u l d see the value o f i n d u s t r i a l  planning,  s u r e l y the v a l u e o f community and r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g should I have been accepted as a v i t a l p a r t o f a s u c c e s s f u l development.  industrial  With i t s power and i n f l u e n c e Cominco could have  g i v e n the Region a r e a l sense o f cohesion..and R e g i o n a l l e a d ership. not.  But i t d i d not and t o some extent, perhaps could  The emphasis  on the development  of one e n t e r p r i s e has  l e f t many problems f a c i n g t h i s Region. Cominco operates under a d i s t i n c t h a n d i c a p . d e c i s i o n s are made at i t s head o f f i c e i n M o n t r e a l .  The  real  It i s  impossible f o r people a t the head o f f i c e t o understand the l o c a l problems or t o even be r e a l l y i n t e r e s t e d i n them. Such remote c o n t r o l o p e r a t i o n can never hope t o understand l o c a l c o n d i t i o n s , customs, and the many p h y s i c a l arid economic v a r i a t i o n s i n the Region. the  Much o f the c a p i t a l c r e a t e d by  people and the r e s o u r c e s of the Region has been removed. There i s a r e a l need f o r an a u t h o r i t y with a d m i n i s t r a -  t i v e powers over the whole Region. power, i n c l u d i n g Cominco, who required.  Ther® i s no  existing  could perform the broad t a s k s  The problem i s f o r Cominco and the people of the  136 Region t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e need f o r such an a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . The problem o f e d u c a t i n g t h e people and Cominco t o t h i s need may be one o f t h e most d i f f i c u l t t o overcome i n t h e R e g i o n .  137  CHAPTER I I I SOLUTIONS TO PROBLEMS IN THE ROSSLAND-TRAIL 1.  REGION  INTRODUCTION  I t i s o f t e n f e l t t h a t economic changes a r e due e n t i r e l y t o f o r c e s , o u t s i d e the c o n t r o l o f a community o r a r e g i o n . These changes a r e believed, t o be u n p r e d i c t a b l e by unseen f o r c e s .  and d i c t a t e d  I t i s t h e purpose o f t h i s Chapter t o  demonstrate t h a t r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g a c t i o n can a f f e c t the economic f l u c t u a t i o n s w i t h i n a community o r a r e g i o n , as w e l l as add t o the r e g i o n ' s g e n e r a l p r o s p e r i t y . regional planning  i s not always r e c o g n i z e d  The need f o r •until a community  or a r e g i o n i s s e v e r e l y s t r u c k by an economic  depression,  but then i t i s o f t e n too l a t e t o l e s s e n o r stop the g e n e r a l recession.  I t i s t h e r e f o r e more s e n s i b l e f o r a community or  r e g i o n t o assess and strengthen cycles before  i t s v u l n e r a b i l i t y t o economic  i t s u f f e r s a s e r i o u s breakdown.  Such a c t i o n  w i l l enable the area t o f o r t i f y i t s e l f through c a r e f u l r e g i o n a l planning depressions.  guidance so t h a t i t can s a f e l y r i d e through most Where a r e g i o n depends upon a s i n g l e e n t e r p r i s e  or a s i n g l e r e s o u r c e , cularly c r i t i c a l  the need f o r r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g  i s parti-  s i n c e t h e r e i s only one source o f income.  138 The a n a l y s i s o f problems o f the s i n g l e  enterprise  community o f the R o s s l a n d - T r a i l Region i n d i c a t e s t h a t a) There are some p h y s i c a l , s o c i a l , and economic p r o — blems i n the communities which depend upon the C o n s o l i d a t e d M i n i n g and Smelting Company o f Canada. b) These communities are e n t i r e l y dependent d i r e c t l y or i n d i r e c t l y on one i n d u s t r y — Cominco — f o r employment. c) The f u l l p o t e n t i a l of the R e g i o n a l r e s o u r c e s i s not being u t i l i z e d . d) The communities w i t h i n the Region are so i n t e r r e l a t e d t h a t the problems o f one cannot be c o n s i dered i n i s o l a t i o n from the o t h e r . An examination o f methods o f improving the e x i s t i n g c o n d i t i o n s i n the R o s s l a n d - T r a i l Region w i l l t h e r e f o r e be undertaken at the community and the R e g i o n a l l e v e l .  2. REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT T h i s Region has a number o f i d l e r e s o u r c e s which are not b e i n g f u l l y u t i l i z e d .  Development  o f these r e s o u r c e s  would d i v e r s i f y the economic s t r u c t u r e as w e l l as add c o n s i e r a b l y t o the p r o s p e r i t y of the Region.  A number o f other  a s s e t s e x i s t i n the Region, which, i f f u l l y u t i l i z e d , a l s o add t o the p r o s p e r i t y o f the Region.  would  The l o c a t i o n o f  some of these a s s e t s and r e s o u r c e s i s shown.on Drawing  14,  139.  on page  A. U t i l i z i n g R e s i d e n t i a l  Sites  P o t e n t i a l R e s i d e n t i a l Land i n the Region.  There i s  a shortage of good r e s i d e n t i a l l a n d near the work c e n t e r a t Tadanac.  T h i s i s due i n p a r t t o the rugged t e r r a i n e o f the  ARROW LAKE  - N . . ^ " " \  ».  Camping Arrow Lake  For esf ' Pow or  Hunting  otlng  \  Fishing Far, In duetry^ , Pulp 8 Lumeri\  ROSSLAND-TRAIL R E GION Sheep Lake Forest V  I  Park Are a  Log glng  cc  — »-  »4 R e s i d e n t tal  Far nil ng Industry  Fishing  ^  \* ._ ^  1  Hunting  1 \  E»is N ng_H i ghwjoy^  Metals S Fer t Residential Skiing  REGIONAL  OF A SINGLE  PLANNING ENTERPRISE  ANALYSIS COMMUNITY  Mining  Mining  I  SC 2  One Inch = 8 Mi.  Dr g. No.  of Drg.  RESOURCES  A L E 4 6  Power  .> Title  A  Bldgj  9  OF  T H E R O S S LAND-TRAIL Drawn  by E T . Clegg  REGION  8  140 area, and i n p a r t t o the u n d e s i r a b l e elements a s s o c i a t e d with the s m e l t i n g processes such as sulphur d i o x i d e and o t h e r noxious  fumes, heat, dust, and a b a r r e n landscape.  ob-  The  search f o r good r e s i d e n t i a l s i t e s has r e s u l t e d i n an exodus from T r a i l as e x p l a i n e d i n Chapter opment on page 132. tial  I I , under Haphazard Devel-  A community nearby t h a t has good r e s i d e n -  s i t e s then has a v a l u a b l e a s s e t .  dential sites s t i l l  A number of good r e s i -  e x i s t i n Rossland, F r u i t v a l e , and on the  v a r i o u s r i v e r benches above and below T r a i l .  These areas are  c l o s e t o T r a i l but have not y e t been used f o r v a r i o u s r e a s o n s . For example, Rossland has perhaps the c h o i c e s t r e s i d e n t i a l s i t e s of a l l .  Photograph 26,  on page 44,  shows a number o f  l a r g e open f i e l d s adjacent t o the R o s s l a n d - T r a i l Highway. These f i e l d s are w i t h i n a f i v e minute d r i v e o f Cominco. land i s gently sloped.  There i s no smoke.  This  I t has good gar-  den s o i l , and a c o o l p l e a s a n t c l i m a t e through the a m e l i o r a t ing  i n f l u e n c e of abundant t r e e s , grass, and mountain b r e e z e s .  Yet, with these advantages i t i s s t i l l undeveloped.  The  Rossland C i t y C o u n c i l has d i s c o u r a g e d development here because they b e l i e v e d t h a t the c o s t s of s e r v i c e s t o the C i t y would be too h i g h . l Rossland i s a r e s i d e n t i a l community. d e n t i a l a r e a s , p a r t i c u l a r l y new  To add more r e s i -  ones, would not l i k e l y c o s t  Statement by Mayor H a r o l d Elmes, p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w i n Rossland, December, 1958. Permission t o quote secured.  141 the C i t y more than i t would g a i n .  More r e s i d e n t i a l  would p r o b a b l y improve revenues by expanding the t a x base.  property-  municipal  I f compact planned r e s i d e n t i a l development  were  encouraged on Rossland's choice r e s i d e n t i a l l a n d , the C i t y would l i k e l y d e r i v e c o n s i d e r a b l y b e n e f i t . f o r example,  I f the s u b d i v i d e r ,  was r e q u i r e d t o pay. f o r the c o s t of water and  sewer l i n e s , and then i n c o r p o r a t e t h i s cost i n t o the p r i c e of h i s l o t s , the C i t y would not l i k e l y s u f f e r from any expenditures residential  t h a t would exceed r e s u l t i n g revenues through a development.  Revenues and E x p e n d i t u r e s from R e s i d e n t i a l S u b d i v i s i o n . A number o f r e s i d e n t i a l communities  operate i n B r i t i s h Colum-  b i a today without apparent d i f f i c u l t y , t o r i a , and West Vancouver.  A recent  such as Oak Bay, V i c -  study o f the c o s t s o f  s e r v i c i n g a s u b d i v i s i o n as compared t o the revenues r e c e i v e d was made. Looking a t c o s t s and revenues f o r each d e n s i t y and at each p r i c e range over a p e r i o d of twenty y e a r s , we f i n d t h a t i n each case t o t a l revenues over the 20-year p e r i o d w i l l exceed annual o p e r a t i n g c o s t s and the i n i t i a l c a p i t a l outlay c o s t . 2  T h i s study i n c l u d e d the c o s t s o f such items a s : a) c a p i t a l b) f i r e engines, equipment, s t a t i o n , and alarm system, c) s t r e e t s i g n s , d) s t r e e t paving, maintenance, and replacement,  George H. E s s e r , Are New R e s i d e n t i a l Areas a Tax Liability? ( U n i v e r s i t y o f North C a r o l i n a , 1956), p.21. 2  /  142 e) f) g) h)  sewer, maintenance, and replacement, garbage removal, maintenance, and replacement, machine c l e a n i n g , maintenance, and replacement, s t r e e t l i g h t i n g , maintenance, and replacement.  The revenues i n c l u d e d property States  t a x e s and the  c a r l i c e n c e and t h e l i q u o r f e e s .  United  These l a t t e r  charges amounted t o only 12% o f the p r o p e r t y  tax.  The study  a l s o found t h a t revenues per home decreased from a 600 s q . f t . l o t upward t o a 36000 sq. f t . l o t . out t h a t c o s t s o f s e r v i c i n g the new  I t was a l s o  s u b d i v i s i o n could  pointed be  very h i g h i n cases where: a s u b d i v i s i o n d e s i r i n g annexation which i s so l o c a t e d t h a t c i t y s e r v i c e s such as water and sewer cannot be e c o n o m i c a l l y extended t o the s u b d i v i s i o n u n t i l l a n d between the s u b d i v i s i o n and the present c i t y boundary i s annexed.3 There seems t o be every reason t o i n d i c a t e that.comm u n i t i e s c o u l d p r o f i t a b l y develop t h e i r r e s i d e n t i a l r e s o u r c e s i f they do so f o l l o w i n g a compact planned development where the  subdivider  pays f o r u t i l i t y  extension.  Attractive r e s i -  d e n t i a l development c o u l d a l s o encourage the r e t i r e d people t o stay i n the R o s s l a n d - T r a i l  Region.  B. A Resource i n R e c r e a t i o n The R o s s l a n d - T r a i l  Region has one o f the l a r g e s t per  c a p i t a s a l e s volumes i n Canada. employees i s a l s o i n c r e a s i n g .  The l e i s u r e hours o f Cominco These f a c t o r s have c r e a t e d  strong l o c a l demand f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l  Ibid.,  p.28.  facilities.  a  143  The C i t y o f R o s s l a n d has a v a l u a b l e r e s o u r c e i n i t s winter sports a c t i v i t i e s .  I n p a s t y e a r s t h e C i t y was  famous  f o r i t s W i n t e r C a r n i v a l and N a t i o n a l S k i C o m p e t i t i o n s .  The  C i t y i t s e l f i s l o c a t e d h i g h i n t h e mountains where t h e snowfall  i s heavy and l a s t s l a t e i n t o t h e S p r i n g .  A number o f  e n t h u s i a s t i c s k i e r s , w i t h the support o f Cominco, c o n s t r u c ted  one o f Canada's l a r g e s t and h i g h e s t c h a i r l i f t s  n o r t h s l o p e o f Red M o u n t a i n .  on t h e  T h i s l i f t has a t t r a c t e d  skiers  from t h e whole n o r t h w e s t and i s a r e a l a s s e t t o t h e R o s s l a n d T r a i l Region.  Drawing 1 4 ,  on page 1 3 9 ,  shows t h e l o c a t i o n o f  the s k i i n g f a c i l i t i e s . The s k i f a c i l i t i e s c o u l d be developed more t h a n t h e y have been.  The p r e s e n t s k i a r e a i s o p e r a t e d by a c l u b .  c l u b does not have a b u s i n e s s manager.  The  There i s a need f o r  a manager t o o p e r a t e t h e s k i f a c i l i t i e s on a p r o f i t - m a k i n g basis.  Such a manager would be r e s p o n s i b l e t o t h e C l u b i n  the same way t h a t a C i t y Manager i s r e s p o n s i b l e t o t h e C i t y Council.  The p r e s e n t c l u b has no l o n g range  development  p l a n s , c a t e r i n g s e r v i c e i s poor, and o p e r a t i o n s a r e uneconomical.^  An e f f i c i e n t management c o u l d make the s k i f a c i l i t i e s  f a r more a t t r a c t i v e and  lucrative.  The r e a l s k i a r e a i n t h e R o s s l a n d Range i s f o u n d Grey and G r a n i t e Mountains  ( e l e v a t i o n s 7000 f e e t ) .  The  on ideal  4This i s based l a r g e l y on t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e Author who was a member o f t h e Red Mountain S k i Club foom t h e time of i t s e s t a b l i s h m e n t i n 1948 t o 1958.  144 s k i development would be on these mountains. second c h a i r l i f t  Plans f o r a  i n t h i s a r e a c o u l d make t h e Region's s k i  f a c i l i t i e s c o m p e t i t i v e with t h e best i n North America  from  the viewpoint o f the s i z e and q u a l i t y o f t h e s k i runs. a c t i v i t i e s such as bob-sled runs, s k i jumping,  Other  and summer  camping, horse back r i d i n g , and mountain c l i m b i n g c o u l d be developed i n t h i s area by the Club t o make t h e a c t i v i t y more v a l u a b l e t o the Region.  The value o f the w i n t e r s p o r t s f a c i -  l i t i e s i s r e c o g n i z e d and i s r e c e i v i n g study f o r f u t h e r d e v e l opment . "The  Hon. E.C. Westwood, M i n i s t e r o f Parks and Recrea-  t i o n , expressed c o n s i d e r a b l e , , ^ the Rossland S k i a r e a . . . . Mr. Westwood agreed t o have h i s department make a thorough o f the area w i t h a view t o a s s i s t i n g with f u r t h e r  survey  develop-  ment ."^ A comprehensive park development programme f o r t h e Region c o u l d i n c r e a s e the value o f t h e r e c r e a t i o n r e s o u r c e . Many l a k e s and streams f o r b a t h i n g , b o a t i n g , and f i s h i n g c o u l d be improved.  The Hon* E.C. Westwood, M i n i s t e r o f Parks  and R e c r e a t i o n , i s i n v e s t i g a t i n g a number o f these areas f o r f u r t h e r development  purposes.^  The development o f r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s and p u b l i c  ^The Rossland Miner. " M i n i s t e r I n t e r e s t e d i n Development o f Rossland S k i Resort", March 27, 1958, p . l . 6  Ibid.  145 spaces i n the R o s s l a n d - T r a i l Region has been without c o o r d i n a t i o n or p l a n .  The r e s u l t i s an unbalanced and  park development.  inadequate  There i s a need f o r a comprehensive  system  of park development s u f f i c i e n t to serve the p o p u l a t i o n . These c o u l d i n c l u d e : a) playground and p l a y f i e l d s , b) parks -passing-through parks -neighborhood parks - p i c n i c and camping parks c) parkways and boulevards d) s p e c i a l r e c r e a t i o n areas -swimming p o o l s -beaches -tennis c o u r t s e) e d u c a t i o n a l parks - b o t a n i c a l gardens -arboretum -scenic s i t e s C. M i n e r a l Resources The R o s s l a n d - T r a i l Region has some m i n e r a l d e p o s i t s which should be e x p l o r e d and developed i f they are found t o be economic.  A number o f o l d m i n e r a l c l a i m s i n the Sheep  Lake a r e a were never developed because away from a v a i l a b l e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . now  they were too f a r  S i n c e a new  highway i s  b e i n g c o n s t r u c t e d near t o these c l a i m s t h e r e appears t o  be a good o p p o r t u n i t y t h a t they c o u l d be put i n t o o p e r a t i o n . Drawing 14,  on page 139,  shows the l o c a t i o n of the new  high-  way. One  of the best p o t e n t i a l areas f o r m i n e r a l develop-  ment i s s t i l l the o l d workings  of the Rossland M i n i n g Camp.  A number o f these mines have r e c e n t l y been o p e r a t i n g .  The  \  146 V e l v e t Mine, near Rossland, opened u p ^ i n 1955•  A mill  was  c o n s t r u c t e d and o p e r a t i o n s began t h a t employed s i x t y men.7 A number of small g o l d mines, such as the Snowdrop and Midn i g h t Mines, near R o s s l a n d work p e r i o d i c a l l y and employ a few men.  There i s some c o n t r o v e r s y as t o whether the o r i g i -  n a l mine workings on Red Mountain which would warrant  c o u l d s t i l l produce ore  development.  Cominco s assessment T  of R o s s l a n d s ore i s as f o l l o w s : T  ... the s t a t e o f the Rossland ore bodies i s t h a t they are almost d e p l e t e d . Only a few s c a t t e r e d remnants o f low grade ore remain in' p l a c e . The o l d waste dumps are v i r t u a l l y v a l u e l e s s . We have no immediate p l a n s f o r development i n the Rossland a r e a and although, as i n most o l d mining camps, t h e r e may be the odd chance of f i n d i n g ore, any such i n v e s t i g a t i o n would be h i g h l y specu l a t i v e and cost a great d e a l o f money." ... i t i s not uncommon f o r o l d mines t o become r e v i v ed by f i n d i n g new ore bodies at g r e a t e r depths a f t e r a p p a r e n t l y being exhausted. T h i s p o s s i b i l i t y i s present i n any area, as e x p l o r a t i o n can never completely t e s t a l l the chances of f i n d i n g new ore.9 Some of the o l d t i m e r s who worked i n the Red Mines b e l i e v e t h e r e i s a chance good ore e x i s t s ,  Mountain This i s  based on good reasons. I came here May 1, 1898. S t a r t e d t o work at the Giant Mine on the f o u r t h of J u l y . . . . A l l the work t h a t was done i n the e a r l y days was w i t h the hand s t e e l and hammer. Rossland ore was very hard, hard t o d r i l l and break.... In my s i x t y y e a r s a l o t has happened with modern methods, i t i s wonderful t o see what can be done. 0  7 Personal correspondence of the Author from R.W. Livers i d g e , Mid-West Copper and Uranium Mines L i m i t e d , Vancouver, October 21, 1957. <*  Personal correspondence of the Author with W.G. J e w i t t , V i c e - P r e s i d e n t i n Charge of Mines, C o n s o l i d a t e d M i n i n g and  147 L e a s i n g o p e r a t i o n s i n recent y e a r s found good o r e . O.K. Mountain p r o p e r t i e s a g a i n became a c t i v e , d u r i n g that p e r i o d over t h i r t y men were employed i n these mines. ... 350 men had found g a i n f u l employment i n the mines d u r i n g 1934.... The output f o r t h i s year was estimated at $1,000,000.... A l l l e a s e s were withdrawn i n September from approximately 120 i n d i v i d u a l s . . . . H These l e a s i n g o p e r a t i o n s produced good ore but Cominco has not i s s u e d any such l e a s e s s i n c e that t i m e . evidence t o show t h a t t h e r e was  There i s no  any shortage o f ore ate".the  time Cominco withdrew the l e a s e s . New  e x p l o r a t i o n methods d e v i s e d i n recent y e a r s c o u l d  be used t o explore the whole Region f o r s i g n s of v a l u a b l e mineral deposits. l e t g e o l o g i s t s are convinced t h a t vast s t o r e s o f u n d i s covered m i n e r a l s l i e i n the e a r t h where no probe has ever gone... the presumption i s t h a t the same m i n e r a l s thus exposed at or near the s u r f a c e i n some areas are present i n o t h e r s too, o n l y f u r t h e r d o w n . 2  Drawing 15, on page 148, f i n d new can now  ore d e p o s i t s .  i l l u s t r a t e s how  new  e x p l o r a t i o n can  The surrounding s o i l and v e g e t a t i o n  be analyzed t o show t r a c e s o f the m i n e r a l s t h a t l i e  underneath  the s u r f a c e mantel.  Aerial infrared  photography  can show the presence of c e r t a i n m i n e r a l s i n the e a r t h ' s s u r -  S m e l t i n g Company of Canada, T r a i l ,  October 17,  1957.  o ^Personal correspondence of the Author, l e t t e r form Dr. C O . Swanson, C h i e f G e o l o g i s t , C o n s o l i d a t e d Mining and Smelting Company of Canada, T r a i l , January 20, 1958. Roy  " ^ P e r s o n a l correspondence of the Author, l e t t e r from Stevens, r e t i r e d miner, Rossland, February 28, 1958.  L a n c e H. Whittaker, (ed.) Rossland, The Golden C i t y , (Rossland: Rossland Miner L t d . , September, 1949), n.n. ( In ±  i Art  O V E R  B U R D E N  EXHAUSTED >  ORE BODY  EXPLORATO R Y DIAMOND DRILLING  Title of DrQ-  A  REGIONAL  OFA  SINGLE  PLANNING ENTERPRISE  ANALYSIS COMMUNITY  Dr g. No.  EXPLORATION ORE  FOR  BODIES By  E . T.  C 1 e^g  NEW  f  E7  15  149 face.  G e o p h y s i c a l methods o f d e t e c t i n g o i l d e p o s i t s can  used t o d i s c o v e r m i n e r a l s . time  G e o l o g i c mapping can a v o i d the  consuming d r i l l i n g of h o l e s and  These and o t h e r new  be  sinking of shafts.  methods are b e i n g used today  i n other  areas and they c o u l d be used to f i n d a "mother l o d e " i n the o l d Rossland workings or new gion.  The Rossland  d i s c o v e r i e s elsewhere i n the  Re-  ore bodies would soon be i n v e s t i g a t e d by  such methods i f the p r i c e o f g o l d i n c r e a s e d or i f other Cominco mines were exhausted. Mining depends upon a v o l a t i l e r e s o u r c e . source i s d e p l e t e d , the mine i s c l o s e d . almost  i m p o s s i b l e t o perpetuate  When ore r e -  Such an o p e r a t i o n i s  p a r t i c u l a r l y s i n c e economics  i n mining might make i t necessary to remove the ore as f a s t as p o s s i b l e .  However, some thought  t o e s t a b l i s h i n g a continuous  c o u l d perhaps be  given  o p e r a t i o n on a r e g i o n a l b a s i s  where a number o f mines are depended on r a t h e r than one as Cominco o p e r a t i o n s today.  At the same time  i t may  such  be  p o s s i b l e t o l o c a t e a community based upon a mining i n d u s t r y i n a l o c a t i o n where i t i s f a v o r e d by other r e s o u r c e s or  poten-  t i a l avenues of development so t h a t when the mine does cease  B i l l y Esling's Dedication),  p.95.  l P r e s i d e n t s M a t e r i a l s P o l i c y Commission, Foundations f o r Growth and S e c u r i t y , (Vol* I , o f Resources f o r Freedom, A Report t o the P r e s i d e n t , 5 volumes, June, 1952), p . 1 3 3 - 3 4 . 2  150 to  operate  the settlement  may w e l l be a b l e . t o c a r r y on o t h e r  a c t i v i t i e s which i t has developed. some.  T h i s c o u l d n o t be done i n  all  cases and perhaps only  I f an o r e b o d y i s l a r g e  and  c o s t s a r e n o t a f f e c t e d b y t h e r a t e o f r e m o v a l , i t may be  p o s s i b l e t o mine a r e g u l a r q u a n t i t y o f o r e each y e a r  so t h a t  a c o m m u n i t y c a n h a v e some c o n t i n u i t y e v e n i f , e v e n t u a l l y , i t must l o s e i t s b a s i c i n d u s t r y .  The p r o b l e m o f m a k i n g a  town s e l f - s u s t a i n i n g p r e s e n t s than any o f t h e other ty  single resource  c o u l d have as a r e c o n s i d e r e d  D. A g r i c u l t u r a l The  grow f r u i t  i n this  Thesis.  Resource  The e a r l y s m e l t e r  trees, or f i e l d  agricul-  fumes made i t i m p o s s i b l e  crops.  A l l the e a r l y farm-  s t e a d s were soon abandoned b e c a u s e o f t h e s m e l t e r The  problem  h a s e s w h i c h a: communi-  R o s s l a n d - T r a i l R e g i o n h a s n e v e r h a d much  tural activity. to  a much more d i f f i c u l t  mining  smoke.  t o p s o i l s o f good f a r m l a n d were e r o d e d s e v e r e l y .  r e s u l t today i s t h a t few t o p s o i l s remain i n t h e main system t h a t c o u l d support strong competition  The valley  a v a l u a b l e a g r i c u l t u r a l c r o p . The  from American and B r i t i s h Columbia grow-  e r s make i t i m p o s s i b l e t o e v e r i n d u s t r y o f any s i z e i n t h i s  consider an a g r i c u l t u r a l  Region.  F o r l o c a l u s e , h o w e v e r , much o f t h e now u n d e v e l o p e d s o i l s c o u l d be u s e d f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l p u r p o s e s .  Some o f t h e  e r o d e d r i v e r b e n c h e s c o u l d be b u i l t up w i t h t h e h e l p o f Cominco f e r t i l i z e r a n d i r r i g a t i o n t o s u p p o r t  certain field  151 crops.  Choice a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d has been surveyed i n t h e  Sheep L a k e A r e a b y t h e P r o v i n c e .  S i n c e t h e new h i g h w a y  will  pass through t h i s area a r i c h a g r i c u l t u r a l p o t e n t i a l w i l l o p e n e d up f o r d e v e l o p m e n t .  The l o c a t i o n o f t h i s l a n d i s  shown on D r a w i n g 14, on p a g e 139. for  an i n c r e a s e i n v e g e t a b l e  "There i s an o p p o r t u n i t y  production.  Beaver V a l l e y and  Pend O ' r e i l l e V a l l e y o f f e r p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r i n c r e a s e d cultural  type  of a g r i c u l t u r e that w i l l  most l i k e l y be  s u c c e s s f u l i n the R o s s l a n d - T r a i l Region f o r l o c a l are d a i r y i n g , p o u l t r y r a i s i n g , s w i n e , s m a l l sheep h e r d s ,  E. F o r e s t  fruit  and vegetable  some  products.  now.  Resource  Sustained  Y i e l d Management.  The f o r e s t s o f t h e R o s s -  l a n d - T r a i l R e g i o n c o u l d be u s e d t o p r o v i d e  a v a r i e t y of pro-  Some o f t h e m a t u r e s t a n d s  c o u l d be u s e d t o p r o d u c e  Some o f t h e f o r e s t c o v e r  c o u l d be u s e d t o p r o d u c e  pulp-logs. tie,  markets  small c a t t l e ranching,  These goods a r e l a r g e l y i m p o r t e d  lumber.  agri-  production."-^  The  ducts.  be  Some o f t h e s m a l l e r l u m b e r i s s u i t e d t o p o l e ,  and p i t prop p r o d u c t i o n .  grown i n some a r e a s .  C h r i s t m a s t r e e s c o u l d be  These p r o d u c t s  c o u l d be r e a d i l y  dis-  p o s e d o f on t h e l o c a l m a r k e t a n d some c o u l d be e x p o r t e d t o  ^ B r i t i s h Columbia, Bureau o f Economics and S t a t i s t i c s , D e p a r t m e n t o f I n d u s t r i a l D e v e l o p m e n t , T r a d e , a n d Commerce, R e g i o n a l I n d u s t r i a l I n d e x o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . (1957 e d i t i o n , V i c t o r i a : Queen's P r i n t e r ) , p.57.  152 surrounding r e g i o n s . The f o r e s t resource i n t h e Region on a s u s t a i n e d y i e l d b a s i s .  should be managed  Those f o r e s t s i t e s which a r e  best s u i t e d t o the p r o d u c t i o n o f a particular., good should be managed so t h a t a p e r p e t u a l y i e l d i s ensured. l a r g e r l o g g i n g o p e r a t o r s c o u l d be encouraged management l i c e n c e s .  Some o f t h e to obtain  These l i c e n c e s would ensure t h a t t h e  f o r e s t r e s o u r c e w i l l be managed on a s u s t a i n e d y i e l d  basis.  Where a l a r g e number o f s m a l l o p e r a t o r s a r e found t h e p r o v i s i o n o f a p u b l i c working  c i r c l e would ensure b e t t e r manage-  ment o f the f o r e s t r e s o u r c e . A t e n t a t i v e management p l a n f o r the Sheep Lake F o r e s t Area i l l u s t r a t e s the method o f s u s t a i n e d y i e l d t h a t would ensure a l a s t i n g f o r e s t r e s o u r c e .  Drawing 17, on page 154,  shows the f o r e s t cover o f t h e Sheep Lake A r e a . l ^  In t h i s  example, mature stands f o r sawlogs are taken a t 150 y e a r s of age and over, while mature stands f o r p u l p l o g s a r e taken at 50 years and over.  F o r s i m p l i c i t y the r o t a t i o n age was  a l s o . t a k e n a t 150 y e a r s .  That i s , timber w i l l be grown f o r  150 years and then h a r v e s t e d .  On the b a s i s o f e x i s t i n g  stands  a c u t t i n g p l a n f o r the area i s arranged as shown on Drawing 16, on page 153• cannot produce restocked  Some areas a r e non-productive  f o r e s t growth.  (N.S.R.).  (N.P.), and  Some a r e not s a t i s f a c t o r i l y  These l a t t e r areas need t o be p l a n t e d .  B r i t i s h Columbia, Department o f Lands and F o r e s t s , Rossland Region F o r e s t Cover, V i c t o r i a , 1937, (2 maps).  153 The.cutting plan arranges areas of approximately equal timber volume f o r c u t t i n g e a c h y e a r t h r o u g h o u t t h e 150 tion. er  The  oldest  stands are cut f i r s t .  c u t t i n g and p l a n t i n g  basis. 160  The  s c h e d u l e i n T a b l e XX,  The  on page 156,  illus-  o f c u t t i n g and r e g e n e r a t i n g  a c h i e v e a maximum f o r e s t y i e l d on a s u s t a i n e d  E v e r y y e a r w i t h i n t h e 150  y e a r r o t a t i o n a minimum o f  a c r e s o f mature t i m b e r i s c u t .  Each year the f o r e s t i n -  d u s t r y has an a p p r o x i m a t e l y - e q u a l volume t o c u t . i n d u s t r y becomes a s t a b l e e m p l o y e r , to  young-  areas  be t h e l a s t a r e a s t o be c u t .  t r a t e s the c o n t i n u o u s system which w i l l  rota-  This gives the  s t a n d s an o p p o r t u n i t y t o g r o w t o m a t u r i t y .  which are r e p l a n t e d w i l l  year  strengthen the Region's  The  p r o v i d i n g annual  forest products  economic base and add t o i t s p r o s -  perity. The  development o f t h e w i l d l i f e  i n t h i s a r e a s h o u l d be  c o o r d i n a t e d w i t h f o r e s t , t o u r i s t , and p a r k p l a n s . Restocking i n the R o s s l a n d - T r a i l Region. area suited to forest ging practice w i l l ,  cover requires r e p l a n t i n g .  i s most p r o n o u n c e d  The  need f o r a r t i f i c i a l  i n the Columbia  River Valley.  a r e a s c o u l d be p l a n t e d by h a n d w i t h some s u c c e s s . so b a d l y e r o d e d t h a t regrowth.  Proper  log-  however, p e r m i t s a t i s f a c t o r y n a t u r a l r e -  g e n e r a t i o n on f o r e s t e d s i t e s . ing  Much o f t h e  plantSome  Others  are  s p e c i a l measures are needed t o permit  Those a r e a s t h a t s u r r o u n d T r a i l have r e c e i v e d t h e  c a r e f u l a t t e n t i o n o f Cominco who  has r e p l a n t e d t h e  areas  156 TABLE M. A CUTTING AND PLANTING SCHEDULE FOR A SUSTAINED YIELD MANAGEMENT PLAN OF THE SHEEP LAKE FOREST AREA  Block • Numb er 1 6  7,a  9, 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22,23 24 25 2,3,4 5 26 27 28,29  C u t t i n g Schedule Period Species to Cut cut 1958-1963 1963-1968 1968-1973 1973-1978 1978-1983 1983-1988 1988-199$ 199$-2008 200$-2013 2013-2018 201$-2023 2023-2028 202$-2033 2033-2043 2043-2053 2053-205$ 2058-2063 2063-2068 2068-2078 2078-2088 2088-2098 2098-2103 2103-2108  SBC S L s c S C H F L F S PI C H PI PI L PI Mxd S B PI L L D W L C PI F W D P F L C L C S S F  Total Acreage Cut 1630 1260 1440 1770 1850 1840 4340 5310 1650 1540 800 1030 1920 6216 4440 3336 2730 1620 4820 4370 7150 6110 4790  P l a n t i n g Schedule Blocks  S p e c i es  2,4,24 5,26 27 28,29  F L C S S F  Natural Reforestation  NOTE: The c u t t i n g r o t a t i o n f o r t h i s p l a n has been s e t a t 150 y e a r s . Symbols used r e f e r t o t h e f o l l o w i n g s p e c i e s : S — s p r u c e , B — b a l s a m , C — d e d a r , L — l a r c h , W--willow, H — h e m l o c k , P I — l o d g e p o l e p i n e , P — p o p l a r , F«—fir, Mxd--mixed s p e c i e s , and D--alder. Source:  From Drawings 16 and 17.  157 adjacent  t o t h e i r i n d u s t r y f o r a e s t h e t i c r e a s o n s and  b i l i z e the  s o i l s there.  Cominco has  undertaken  to  extensive  i n v e s t i g a t i o n s t o o b t a i n specimens of p l a n t s t h a t w i l l on t h e  sandy h i l l s i d e s a n d  smelter fumes.  n o t be  destroyed  toxic to coniferous species.  under the  c o n d i t i o n s a t T r a i l i f a d e q u a t e w a t e r and  Ulmus A m e r i c a n a.  The  toxic  species  prevailing  fertilizer  Such s p e c i e s were A c e r S a c c h a r i n u m , R o b i n i a  c a c i a . and  were  Pseudoa-  r e p l a n t i n g procedure used  by C o m i n c o i s f i r s t t o l a y a g r i d w o r k o f i r r i g a t i o n which produce a fine.'spray of water. ed t o t h e  s o i l s and  t r e e s and  shrubs are p l a n t e d .  a s u i t a b l e grass  a three l a y e r f o r e s t cover. hances the landscape, Much o f t h e a r e a t h i s way  and  w i t h amazing  the  seed i s p l a n t e d .  effect  i n time i s that  s t a b i l i z e s the  T r a i l has  the  soil,  of  en-  micro-climate.  been r e p l a n t e d i n  t o e s c a p e t o a b a r e minimum. and  of  amount A  down t h e r i v e r g i v e t h e  dioxide i n the a i r at t h a t p o i n t .  q u a n t i t y i s not  add-  Later  good c o n t r o l o v e r t h e r e l e a s e  number o f smoke s t a t i o n s up  way  i s then  A system of haghouses r e d u c e s the  of toxic matter allowed  amount o f s u l p h u r  This  pipes  success.  Today C o m i n c o h a s i t s t o x i c fumes.  The  Fertilizer  ameliorates  surrounding  grow  particularly  Some e x o t i c d e c i d u o u s  were however, f o u n d t o grow n o r m a l l y  used.  from the  They f o u n d t h a t t h e fumes w e r e  sta-  exact  In  this  allowed to exceed a safe l i m i t .  The  s e r i o u s t h r e a t o f smoke damage o f p a s t  y e a r s has  largely  158 been  corrected.^5 Celgar Limited.  The f o r e s t r e s o u r c e s  o f t h e upper  Columbia R i v e r a t t r a c t e d t h e C e l g a r Company t o t h e a r e a i n 1951.  A l a r g e p u l p m i l l i s b e i n g b u i l t west o f C a s t l e g a r .  They have been g r a n t e d a f o r e s t management l i c e n c e over a l a r g e f o r e s t a r e a on t h e upper Columbia. i s l o c a t e d near C a s t l e g a r .  Celgar s T  sawmill  T h i s Company i s t h e f i r s t  real  d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n o f t h e R o s s l a n d - T r a i l r e g i o n a l economy s i n c e Cominco began i t s o p e r a t i o n s The  some y e a r s ago.  e f f e c t o f t h i s new i n d u s t r y has been t o p r o v i d e  a n o t h e r l a r g e independent p a y r o l l f o r t h e R e g i o n . source o f employment i s a l s o p r o v i d e d t i o n i s based on s u s t a i n e d y i e l d .  A stable  s i n c e t h e woods o p e r a -  The growth o f t h e C a s t l e -  gar a r e a has a c c e l e r a t e d i n r e c e n t y e a r s due t o C e l g a r ' s activity.  A number o f o t h e r minor i n d u s t r i e s c o u l d be a t t r a c -  t e d t o t h e a r e a as a r e s u l t o f C e l g a r ' s l o c a t i o n t h e r e . F. I n d u s t r i a l Resources The industry.  R e g i o n o f f e r s a number o f a t t r a c t i v e f e a t u r e s f o r The e l e c t r o - c h e m i c a l t y p e o f i n d u s t r y r e q u i r e s a  cheap e l e c t r i c power s u p p l y .  I t i s economically  not p o s s i b l e  t o t r a n s m i t e l e c t r i c i t y d i r e c t l y f o r more t h a n 250 m i l e s .  •'Based on i n f o r m a t i o n o b t a i n e d by t h e Author w h i l e w o r k i n g i n t h e Garden Branch o f Cominco i n 1950, and w r i t t e n as a summer e s s a y i n F o r e s t r y 498 a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia.  159 Industry that r e q u i r e s e l e c t r i c power must l o c a t e near the power s o u r c e . T h e type of i n d u s t r y that r e q u i r e s abundant power i s as f o l l o w s i , a) The manufacture of aluminum, a b r a s i v e s , t i t a n i u m , f e r r o a l l o y s , and i r o n powder depend l a r g e l y on cheap power. b) The manufacture of calcium carbide depends on cheap power and a l o c a l market. c) The manufacture of elemental phosphorous and e l e c t r o l y t i c zinc depend upon cheap power and a second n a t u r a l resource. d) The manufacture of e l e c t r i c furnace g l a s s and s t e e l depend on cheap power and a good market. Such i n d u s t r y could l o c a t e i n the R o s s l a n d - T r a i l Region provided that other important l o c a t i o n f a c t o r s were not too unfavorable. ed.  Type one and two appear p a r t i c u l a r l y w e l l s u i t -  This e x p l a i n s the recent i n t e r e s t of K a i s e r Aluminum  as noted on page 115• The i n f l u e n c e of abundant cheap power on i n d u s t r i a l development, as d i s t i n c t from i t s a f f e c t on farms and homes, has been l i m i t e d . I t was o p t i m i s t i c a l l y p r e d i c ted that low cost power would a t t r a c t new f a c t o r i e s t o the Northwest and contribute t o the economic d i v e r s i t y the region so c l e a r l y r e q u i r e d . Except f o r one very s p e c i a l type of i n d u s t r y t h i s has not happened. ' The electro-chemical i n d u s t r i e s do not d i v e r s i f y the economic s t r u c t u r e of a region as might normally be expected.  Employ-  ment i n these i n d u s t r i e s i s low i n r e l a t i o n to the amount of power consumed.  E x t e r n a l ownership and p o l i c y l e a d e r s h i p of  E d w i n J . Cohen J r . , Industry i n the P a c i f i c Northwest and Theory. 1958, as condensed by the C e n t r a l Technical L i b r a r y of the Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company of Canada i n a book review, n.d., p.6-10. 10  1 7  Ibid  160 t h e s e i n d u s t r i e s i s common.  The m a n u f a c t u r e o f p r o d u c t s i s  rarely f i n i s h e d i n the region areas.  b u t i s shipped out t o market  These c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e e l e c t r o - c h e m i c a l  make i t l e s s a t t r a c t i v e a s a d i v e r s i f y i n g a g e n t t h a n types.- 1  0  Nevertheless,  such i n d u s t r y would s t i l l  industry other-  improve t h e  economic s t r u c t u r e o f t h e R o s s l a n d - T r a i l R e g i o n i f i t l o c a t e d there. This Region i s a l s o a t t r a c t i v e f o r i n d u s t r y that cesses the products already  pro-  made h e r e , o r p r o p o s e d t o be made.  S u c h f i n i s h e d g o o d s i n d u s t r y m i g h t g a i n an- a d v a n t a g e b y  being  :  near t h e source o f i t s raw m a t e r i a l o f f s e t the disadvantage of being  supply.  major i n d u s t r y w i t h  industries that  could  supply the  s u p p l i e s , machinery, s p e c i a l c l o t h i n g ,  equipment f o r w o r k e r s , o r t h a t u t i l i z e b y - p r o d u c t s  also locate i n the Rossland-Trail industry that bag  use l e a d , z i n c , indium,  o r some p u l p p r o d u c t s a s r a w m a t e r i a l s .  Certain s a t e l l i t e  and  Region.19  serves the l o c a l population  I t has o f t e n been s a i d t h a t  Finally,  could consumer  such a s a paper  p l a n t p o s s i b l y c o u l d be a t t r a c t e d t o t h i s  industry.  must  l o c a t e d away f r o m m a r k e t s .  T h e r e a r e many i n d u s t r i e s t h a t c o u l d heavy chemicals,  But t h i s  Region.  i n d u s t r y a t t r a c t s more  F o r t h i s reason i n d u s t r y i s a t t r a c t e d t o metro-  p o l i t a n a r e a s such a s t h e Lower M a i n l a n d A r e a i n B r i t i s h  ^ O p i n i o n e x p r e s s e d b y J a c k R. B r y a n , R e s e a r c h E n g i n e e r , C o n s o l i d a t e d M i n i n g a n d S m e l t i n g Company o f C a n a d a , T r a i l , December 1957, P e r m i s s i o n t o q u o t e s e c u r e d . l^Cohen j r . ,  loc.cit.  161 Columbia.  However, c e r t a i n i n d u s t r y r e q u i r e s  l a n d areas *2  xious  1  and r e l a t i v e  processes.  for  above and below  could not l o c a t e near  The R o s s l a n d - T r a i l  such i n d u s t r y .  cheap  i s o l a t i o n because o f c e r t a i n obno-  Such i n d u s t r y  populated areas.  large  These a r e l o c a t e d  heavily  R e g i o n o f f e r s good on t h e r i v e r  sites  benches  Trail.  G. A Human R e s o u r c e Much o f t h e s u c c e s s o f r e g i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t i n t h e Rossland-Trail  R e g i o n depends upon i t s u n i t y .  u n i t y was d i s c u s s e d  i n Chapter I I under S o c i a l  t i c s on page 116 e t s e g g . s e n s e o f u n i t y now.  The l a c k o f Characteris-  As one work R e g i o n t h e r e  i s some  B u t u n i t y must be w i t h i n t h e p e o p l e .  I f a d e v e l o p m e n t programme c o u l d t h i s R e g i o n a n d make h i m a p a r t  draw i n t h e a v e r a g e man o f of the Regional  development  p r o c e s s t h e n t h e r i c h e s t r e s o u r c e o f t h i s R e g i o n w o u l d be t a p p e d -- t h a t The ment p l a n  i s i t s human  resource.  i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e p e o p l e t o any r e g i o n a l  develop-  o r t o a r e g i o n a l e c o n o m i c e x p a n s i o n programme h a s  been w e l l r e c o g n i z e d  b y some g r e a t  Tennessee V a l l e y A u t h o r i t y , o f t h e human  pioneer p r o j e c t s .  The  f o r example, has proven t h e v a l u e  resource.  From t h e o n s e t o f t h e T e n n e s s e e V a l l e y A u t h o r i t y u n d e r t a k i n g , i t h a s b e e n e v i d e n t t o me, a s t o many o t h e r s ,  Dorothy A. Muncy, 'Space f o r I n d u s t r y , An A n a l y s i s o f S i t e and L o c a t i o n Requirements", Urban Land I n s t i t u t e , T e c h n i c a l B u l l e t i n , 23« Washington D.C, J u l y , 1946.  162 that a v a l l e y development envisioned i n i t s e n t i r e t y could become a r e a l i t y i f , and only i f , the people of the region d i d much of the p l a n n i n g , and p a r t i c i p a t e d i n most of the decisions.21 In order to have the i n t e r e s t and the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of the people, i t i s necessary t o have l o c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s , Cominco, and even i n d i v i d u a l s , play an a c t i v e r o l e i n the development programme.  I f the people can f e e l that they are an im-  portant part of the programme, each w i l l o f f e r h i s e f f o r t s to achieve the o v e r - a l l goals.  The combined e f f o r t s of a l l  these people could a t t a i n almost any objective i n r e g i o n a l development.  The s o c i a l b a r r i e r s of segregation and the  Cominco s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e must be overcome t o achieve u n i t y . The people of the R o s s l a n d - T r a i l Region do have a strong l o y a l t y f o r t h e i r own community.  If this loyalty  could be extended t o the Region, a r e a l step toward developing and s t a b i l i z i n g the Region would be accomplished.  Of  p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t at t h i s point i s the s p i r i t and i n t e r e s t that the people of Rossland have displayed f o r t h e i r community.  The h i s t o r y of Rossland was discussed on page 42 of  Chapter I I .  Rossland almost became a ghost town when i t s  mines were c l o s e d .  Even when employment was found i n the  T r a i l smelter the people of Rossland s t i l l d i d not abandon t h e i r C i t y to l i v e i n T r a i l , but t r a v e l l e d back and f o r t h  ^ D a v i d E. L i l i e n t h a l , TVA (Tennessee V a l l e y A u t h o r i t y ) , Democracy on the March, (1945 e d i t i o n ; New York: Penguin Books, p.78.  163 each day between R o s s l a n d and T r a i l .  The g r e a t f i r e s i n  R o s s l a n d w o u l d h a v e b e e n enough t o d r i v e most p e o p l e t o l i v e elsewhere.  But s t i l l  their City.  To l i v e  could not accept. the  R o s s l a n d c i t i z e n s w o u l d n o t g i v e up i n Trail  was a d e f e a t t h a t  T h i s stubborn attachment  such  people  t o Rossland i s  same s t u b b o r n s p i r i t d i s p l a y e d b y t h e e a r l y p i o n e e r s  who f o u n d e d  the C i t y .  thus weathered  The s p i r i t o f R o s s l a n d ' s p e o p l e h a s i i i  many o r d e a l s .  I t has k e p t t h e community  even w i t h o u t i t s mines o r a n o t h e r b a s i c i n d u s t r y . of R o s s l a n d had a sentiment o f l o y a l t y f o r t h e i r  alive  The p e o p l e community  t h a t gave i t a s t r e n g t h and s o l i d a r i t y t h a t few c i t i e s claim, fied  whether  on e c o n o m i c  could  t h e a c t i o n o f R o s s l a n d p e o p l e c a n be j u s t i grounds  such a tremendous s p i r i t  i s not important.  But t h e f a c t  that  i n t h e p e o p l e o f one c o m m u n i t y h a s  e x i s t e d g i v e s hope t h a t w i t h some d i r e c t i o n  such a sentiment  a n d l o y a l t y m i g h t a g a i n be d e v e l o p e d a n d d i r e c t e d t o t h e R e g i o n upon w h i c h e a c h o f t h e s e c o m m u n i t i e s all to  now d e p e n d s .  the people o f the R o s s l a n d - T r a i l Region f e l t as a t t a c h e d t h e i r R e g i o n and were a s c o n c e r n e d about  land's citizens  concerned about  i t a s were  Ross-  t h e i r community, t h e n t h e  R o s s l a n d - T r a i l Region would have a s t r e n g t h t h a t c o u l d it  If  carry  through a l m o s t any d i s a s t e r , and t h a t c o u l d a c h i e v e a l m o s t  any r e g i o n a l development  goal.  164 3. ECONOMIC EXPANSION AND D I V E R S I F I C A T I O N A. The T h e o r y o f E c o n o m i c E x p a n s i o n B a s i c Concept.  A c o m m u n i t y o r a r e g i o n may e x p a n d  i t s e c o n o m i c b a s e b y a d d i n g new commerce a n d i n d u s t r y .  This  i n c r e a s e s t a x revenues .to..individual communities and i n c r e a s e s income f o r t h e e n t i r e r e g i o n .  A community o r a r e g i o n  compared t o a t r a d i n g n a t i o n .  The s a l e o f g o o d s a n d s e r v i c e s  beyond i t s b o u n d a r i e s a s e x p o r t s  creates  a dollar  c a n be  inflow.  T h i s t y p e o f i n d u s t r y was d e f i n e d b y Homer H o y t . B a s i c i n d u s t r i e s a r e t h o s e w h i c h e x p o r t goods a n d s e r v i c e s beyond t h e economic c o n f i n e s o f t h e community o r m a r k e t g o o d s a n d s e r v i c e s t o p e r s o n s who come f r o m b e y o n d the C i t y confines. This export o r trade outflow gets a d o l l a r i n f l o w from t h e r e g i o n , n a t i o n , and other n a t i o n s . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , when p u r c h a s e s o f g o o d s a n d s e r v i c e s a r e made b e y o n d a c o m m u n i t y ' s l e g a l b o u n d a r i e s t h e s e p u r c h a s e s a r e imports  and a d o l l a r outflow r e s u l t s .  o f t h e community o r r e g i o n accounting  The r e l a t i v e  c a n be m e a s u r e d b y t a k i n g a n  b a l a n c e o f a l l s u c h money e x c h a n g e s . ^ 3  A community o r a r e g i o n t h a t i n t r o d u c e s dustry  prosperity  new b a s i c i n -  o r commerce c a n c r e a t e a m u l t i p l i e r e f f e c t o n t h e i n -  come o f t h e community o r t h e r e g i o n .  This  i s t h e same e f f e c t  t h a t r e s u l t s from a c a p i t a l investment i n f i s c a l  economics.  As f o u n d i n R.B. A n d r e w s , " M e c h a n i c s o f t h e U r b a n Econmmic B a s e " , L a n d E c o n o m i c s , V o l . X X I X , No. 2, 1953* April,  23.0 s k a l o o s a v s t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s " , F o r t u n e M a g a z i n e , 1938, p p . 55-62, 124-32, V o l . X V I , No.5-  165 The " f i s c a l p o l i c y " i n t h i s case i s adopted by the region or community r a t h e r than a higher l e v e l of government. an investment i n industr^r or business may p r i c e s and employment.  Such  increase r e g i o n a l  (On the other hand, the r e g i o n may  d e f l a t e p r i c e s and employment by lowering r e g i o n a l i n v e s t ment ). The m u l t i p l i e r e f f e c t can be measured.  According to  Keynes Theory '*', people determine what part of t h e i r income 2  they spend.  Their spending h a b i t s vary and we f i n d communi-  t i e s and regions have a d i f f e r e n t Marginal Propensity to Consume (that i s the r a t i o of consumption to income).  I f we  know the Marginal Propensity to Consume i t i s p o s s i b l e to measure the economic e f f e c t s of investment or expansion  by  a formula. ^ 2  R =  A 1-r  A = i n i t i a l investment r =; M a r g i n a l Propensity to Consume R » t o t a l increase i n income  example:  A = $1,000,000 r  R =  =  $1.000.000  A =  $2,000,000  1-4  The m u l t i p l i e r e f f e c t of the economic base expansion i n the  ^"Harold S. Sloan and Arnold J . Zurcher, A D i s t i o n a r y of Economics, ( t h i r d e d i t i o n , 1957; New York: Barnes and Noble), p. 179. 25Lorrie T a r c h i s , The Elements of Economics, An I n t r o duction to the Theory of P r i c e and Employment, (Boston:  166 above example i s t h e r a t i o o f t h e i n i t i a l total  investment —  f2M  =  2  The  investment t o the  e f f e c t s of t h i s increased  flM  economic a c t i v i t y o f t e n i n d u c e s a second c a p i t a l which a g a i n induces a consumption may  investment  goods i n v e s t m e n t .  be r e p e a t e d a number o f t i m e s .  This chain of events  c r e a t e an a c c e l e r a t o r e f f e c t w h e r e b y t h e o r i g i n a l c o u l d e v e n be  This can  multiplier  doubled.^  The p r i n c i p a l  shown h e r e i s t h a t e c o n o m i c b a s e  expan-  s i o n c a n c r e a t e e f f e c t s i n a r e g i o n w h i c h a r e many more t i m e s what t h e y a p p e a r t o be by j u s t a s u p e r f i c i a l a n a l y s i s .  These  e f f e c t s r e s u l t from t h e need f o r s e r v i c e s t o p r o v i d e f o r t h e needs of the b a s i c Law  i n d u s t r i a l workers.  According to Engel's  p e o p l e w i t h h i g h i n c o m e s s p e n d more on  luxuries.^7  P e o p l e i n t h e T r a i l A r e a have h i g h incomes. on page 6 7 ) .  (See T a b l e V I I ,  I n o r d e r t o p r o v i d e them w i t h s e r v i c e s  and  l u x u r i e s a h i g h r a t i o of s e r v i c e worker t o b a s i c worker i s needed.  The m u l t i p l i e r e f f e c t w o u l d t h e r e f o r e be i n c r e a s e d  i n the R o s s l a n d - T r a i l Region.  T h i s economic e x p a n s i o n  c r e a t e employment, i n c r e a s e r e g i o n a l income and c o u n t e r a c t a d v e r s e economic f a c t o r s , and  H o u g h t o n M i f f l i n Co.,  prosperity,  develop the  region.  1947).  % i c h a r d V. C l e m e n c e , Income A n a l y s i s , Mass.; A d d i s o n - W e s l e y P r e s s , 1951) • ' 2  ^Sloaxi  can  a n d Z u r c h e r , op . c i t . ,  p.  110.  (Cambridge,  167 Economic A n a l y s i s and E x p a n s i o n .  Homer H o y t e x a m i n e d  t h e economic base o f B r o c k t o n , M a s s a c h u s e t t s . ^ 2  was  s u f f e r i n g from an economic d e c l i n e .  b a s i c i n d u s t r i e s were n e e d e d t o p r o d u c e t h e a r e a ' s economy.  This area  Hoyt f o u n d  that  more j o b s t o r e v i v e  He recommended e x p a n d i n g t h e b a s i c i n -  d u s t r y a n d a d d i n g o t h e r new i n d u s t r y .  A number o f o t h e r s i m i -  l a r economic base s t u d i e s have been u n d e r t a k e n f o r D e n v e r ^ , 2  P h i l a d e l p h i a - ^ , New E n g l a n d ^ , New Y o r k ^ , 2  and West  Los A n g e l e s - ^  Vancouver^.  Economic e x p a n s i o n h a s been f o u n d t o c r e a t e b o t h c o s t s and  revenues. The a d d i t i o n a l m u n i c i p a l r e v e n u e s g e n e r a t e d b y a new i n d u s t r y are f r e q u e n t l y considered g r e a t e r than the a d d i t i o n a l m u n i c i p a l c o s t s . When t h e y a r e new i n d u s t r y , t h e n i t lowers t h etax rate. However, f o r a n i n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i c t o f a n y g i v e n s i z e , t h i s t a x a d v a n t a g e may v a r y w i d e l y d e p e n d i n g on i t s i n d u s t r i e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y r e q u i r e -  28  Homer H o y t A s s o c i a t e s , A R e p o r t o n t h e E c o n o m i c B a s e o f t h e B r o c k t o n , M a s s a c h u s e t t s Area"! [ B r o c k t o n : Hanson P r i n t , J a n u a r y , 1949), p p . 14-15,' 49-42, 43, e t p a s s i m . 29  ^Working 26-29, 47-66.  Denver.  ( D e n v e r P l a n n i n g O f f i c e , 1953), pp«  30  Economic Base Study o f t h e P h i l a d e l p h i a A r e a , ( P h i l a d e l p h i a C i t y P l a n n i n g C o m m i s s i o n , A u g u s t , 1949), p p . 8-10, 28-9, 38-9, 61-4. -^Seymour E d w i n H a r r i s , The E c o n o m i c s o f N e w E n g l a n d , ( C a m b r i d g e : H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1952) p p . 91-103. 32  E c o n o m i c S t a t u s o f t h e New Y o r k M e t r o p o l i t a n R e g i o n , ( R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g A s s o c i a t i o n o f New Y o r k , 1944), pp.13-24. • ^ F r a n k K i n d e r , a n d P. N e f f , E c o n o m i c B a s e o f t h e L o s A n g e l e s A r e a , ( U n i v e r s i t y o f P e n n s y l v a n i a ) , p p . 27-49. 3^H.  P e t e r O b e r l a n d e r , a n d I.M. R o b i n s o n , L i v i n g a n d  168 ments f o r sewerage and o t h e r f a c i l i t i e s , t h e i r propertyv a l u a t i o n s , and t h e l o c a l p u r c h a s e s o f t h e i r e m p l o y e e s . Other t h i n g s being equal, the l a r g e r the i n d u s t r i a l d e v e l opment, t h e g r e a t e r t h e d e c r e a s e i n c o m m u n i t y t a x e s . Howe v e r , when i n d u s t r i a l d e v e l o p m e n t i s a c c o m p a n i e d by r e s i d e n t i a l d e v e l o p m e n t , t a x r a t e s may e i t h e r r i s e o r f a l l , d e p e n d i n g on t h e number o f new r e s i d e n t s a n d t h e i r i n c o m e s , t h e m a g n i t u d e o f t h e new i n d u s t r i a l a n d c o m m e r c i a l v a l u a t i o n s , the l e v e l s of municipal s e r v i c e s provided, the amount o f u n u s e d c a p a c i t y i n t h e e x i s t i n g m u n i c i p a l s t r u c t u r e , and o t h e r f a c t o r s . - * 5 The  m a j o r i t y of economic base s t u d i e s c o n c e n t r a t e  t h e b e n e f i t s t h a t r e s u l t f r o m economic e x p a n s i o n . Front Royal  V i r g i n i a , and  Edmore M i c h i g a n ^ , - ,  a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i)  Studies  in  p o i n t out c e r t a i n  p r o b l e m s r e s u l t i n g f r o m i n d u s t r i a l e x p a n s i o n on A summary o f t h e s e  on  small towns.  e f f e c t s i s as f o l l o w s :  new j o b s a r e c r e a t e d p e r c a p i t a income i n c r e a s e s m u n i c i p a l income i n c r e a s e s ' m u n i c i p a l e x p e n d i t u r e s i n c r e a s e more r a p i d l y t h a n i n the e a r l y stages of i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n m u n i c i p a l debt i n c r e a s e s t o p r o v i d e p u b l i c f a c i l i t i e s some new b u s i n e s s e s a n d r e t a i l o u t l e t s w i l l be a t tracted r e n t s and l a n d v a l u e s w i l l i n c r e a s e p l a n t c o n s t r u c t i o n w i l l r e s u l t i n i m p o r t i n g cons t r u c t i o n w o r k e r s t h a t w i l l compete w i t h l o c a l w o r k e r s and o c c u p y l o c a l l i v i n g q u a r t e r s t e m p o r a r i l y speculative r i s e s i n r e a l estate costs w i l l disperse workers t o suburban a r e a s . The c o m m u n i t y t h u s l o s e s much o f t h e b e n e f i t s o f e x p a n s i o n . The a u t o m o b i l e e n a b l e s a f a r l a r g e r a r e a t o b e n e f i t f r o m t h e new  W o r k i n g i n West V a n c o u v e r , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , M u n i c i p a l H a l l , 1 9 5 4 ) , p. 1 4 - 2 7 .  :  (West V a n c o u v e r :  3 5  ^ W a l t e r I s a r d , a n d R o b e r t E. C o g l i n , M u n i c i p a l C o s t s a n d R e v e n u e s R e s u l t i n g From Community G r o w t h , U n i v e r s i t y o f P e n n s y l v a n i a , ( W e l l e s l e y , Mass.: C h a n d l e r - D a v i s , 1 9 5 7 ) , p.46. • ^ W e s l e y C. C a l e f , and C h a r l e s D a o u s t , A r e a D e v e l o p ment D i v i s i o n , U n i t e d S t a t e s D e p a r t m e n t o f Commerce, What W i l l New I n d u s t r y Mean t o My Town? ( W a s h i n g t o n : G o v e r n m e n t P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , A p r i l 1 9 5 5 ) , PP- 5 - 7 .  169 industry. j ) wages w i l l  increase  A l l these e f f e c t s w i l l not n e c e s s a r i l y occur i n the RosslandT r a i l R e g i o n f o l l o w i n g e x p a n s i o n but t h e y do serve as an i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e k i n d o f e f f e c t s economic e x p a n s i o n can b r i n g about. The  new M u n i c i p a l Act^7 p r o v i d e s t h e l e g a l m a c h i n e r y  t h a t w i l l enable a c o u n c i l o r a r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g s t a f f t o i n i t i a t e an economic e x p a n s i o n programme.  S e c t i o n 462 o f  t h a t A c t e n a b l e s c o u n c i l t o buy o r l e a s e p r o p e r t y f o r muni- . c i p a l purposes.  S e c t i o n 463 e n a b l e s t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y t o use  m u n i c i p a l l a n d f o r r e s i d e n t i a l , commercial, o r i n d u s t r i a l purposes.  S e c t i o n 465 g i v e s c o u n c i l power t o r e s e r v e  land.  S e c t i o n 475 empowers c o u n c i l t o l e a s e p r o p e r t y f o r t w e n t y years.  P a r t XXI i s o f v a l u e as a w h o l e , b u t p a r t i c u l a r l y  d i v i s i o n t h r e e which t r e a t s z o n i n g .  Under t h i s A c t a commun-  i t y may o b t a i n l a n d f o r i n d u s t r y and even c o n s t r u c t b u i l d i n g s to rent t o i n d u s t r y .  Such andevelopment c o u l d be i n an  i n d u s t r i a l zone o r an i n d u s t r i a l e s t a t e . When a r e g i o n expands i t s economic base i t s h o u l d attempt t o o b t a i n a b a l a n c e  o f employment and i n d u s t r y .  A  r e c e n t U n i t e d S t a t e s census o f urban a r e a s produced t h e f o l l o w M u n i c i p a l A c t , Chapter 42 o f t h e P r o v i n c i a l S t a t u t e s o f B r i t i s h Columbia, ( V i c t o r i a : Queen's P r i n t e r as a s s e n t e d t o March 28, 1957), 6 E l i z . 2., S e c t i o n 717-1, p. 4 8 5 .  170 i n g d i s t r i b u t i o n o f employment.-^  29.4% 21.9 9.5  Manufacturing Wholesale Professional T r a n s p o r t a t i o n and Public U t i l i t i e s Personal Services Construction Public Administration Finance, Insurance, and R e a l E s t a t e Other  9.0 7.2 6.0 5.2 4 «4 7-4 100 %  As  a general  by a r e g i o n The  g u i d e t h i s b a l a n c e o f employment c o u l d be u s e d a s an o b j e c t i v e f o r economic  expansion.  b a s i c motive o f i n d u s t r y and b u s i n e s s i n l o c a t i n g  new p l a n t s a n d o u t l e t s i s t o i n c r e a s e their cost.  their profit  or reduce  The t y p e o f i n d u s t r y s o u g h t i n a programme o f  e x p a n s i o n m u s t , t h e r e f o r e , be o f a k i n d w h i c h c a n l o c a t e advantage i n t h e p a r t i c u l a r a r e a s e l e c t e d . the  C i n c i n a t t i Planning  selective  In this  with  regard  Commission suggests a system o f  expansion.  . . . t h e w h o l e g r o u p o f i n d u s t r i e s c a n be c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a h i g h degree o f s t a b i l i t y and r e s i s t a n c e t o a d verse business f l u c t u a t i o n s , provided the i n d u s t r i e s are d i v e r s i f i e d , f u n c t i o n a l l y i n t e r d e p e n d e n t , and f i n a n c i a l l y independent what i n d u s t r i e s h a v e r e a l e c o n o m i c o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n view o f t h e l a b o r supply and other f a c t o r s .... The s e c o n d s t e p i s t o s e e k o u t d i l i g e n t l y s u c h i n d u s t r i e s a n d p e r s u a d e them o f t h e o p p o r t u n i t i e s t h a t e x i s t . . . w i t h o u t promiscuous s u b s i d i z a t i o n and t h e o f f e r i n g o f spec i a l f a v o r s t o new i n d u s t r i e s . . . . The C o r p o r a t i o n . . .  R o b e r t B. G a r r a b r a n t , "The Community a n d I n d u s t r i a l D e v e l o p m e n t , " U r b a n L a n d I n s t i t u t e , T e c h n i c a l B u l l e t i n Number 21, ( W a s h i n g t o n : S e p t e m b e r , 1953), P»5« 0  171 f r o m t i m e t o time has a c q u i r e d o r b u i l t f a c t o r y b u i l d i n g s and a s s e m b l e d p r o m i s i n g i n d u s t r i a l a c r e a g e s t h r o u g h pur— c h a s e o r o p t i o n s t o b u y . . . . The c i t i z e n s have shown an a g g r e s s i v e and e n t e r p r i s i n g s p i r i t ... and a r e w i l l i n g t o b a c k t h e i r j u d g e m e n t w i t h t i m e and p r i v a t e l y owned c a p i tal such s e l e c t i v e expansion s h o u l d keynote the objective....39 It  s h o u l d a l s o be b o r n e i n m i n d t h a t new  w a n t s t o know f a c t s .  A d e q u a t e d a t a s h o u l d be p r e p a r e d  o p p o r t u n i t i e s of the R o s s l a n d - T r a i l Region. p u b l i s h e d and  industry  circulated.  on  the  These s h o u l d  Trade magazines and b u s i n e s s  be  papers  c o u l d be u s e d f o r a d v e r t i s i n g . B.  The  Theory of  Diversification  A community i s p a r t i c u l a r l y v u l n e r a b l e t o s t a g n a t i o n and d e p r e s s i o n i f i t i s d e p e n d e n t u p o n one p r o d u c t o r one i n d u s t r y f o r i t s s u p p o r t .... Even major c i t i e s t h a t once b o a s t e d o f b e i n g c e n t e r s ... a r e d i v e r s i f y i n g . . . . T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y i m p o r t a n t when t h e p r e d o m i n a n t i n dustry i s t i e d i n w i t h n a t i o n a l defence or w i t h a d i m i n i s h i n g n a t u r a l resource.4° I n most c o m m u n i t i e s and  regions i t i s advisable to  t h e i r economic base by a d d i n g t h i s way,  w h i l e one  diversify  d i f f e r e n t k i n d s of irriustry.  In  i n d u s t r y s u f f e r s a r e c e s s i o n f o r some r e a -  son, another d i f f e r e n t  i n d u s t r y may  enjoy  prosperity.  The  community o r r e g i o n i s i n a b e t t e r p o s i t i o n t o w i t h s t a n d  the  e c o n o m i c f l u c t u a t i o n s i f i t s e c o n o m i c s t r u c t u r e i s composed o f a number o f r e l a t i v e l y i n d e p e n d e n t and  stable  A sound d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n p o l i c y s h o u l d  industries.  select industry  -^The Economy o f t h e C i n c i n a t t i M e t r o p o l i t a n A r e a , C i t y P l a n n i n g C o m m i s s i o n o f C i n c i n a t t i , December, 1946. ^R.B.  Garrabrant,  op.  c i t . , p.  3-4»  172 which w i l l b e n e f i t the community and the region,*'  Criteria  to use i n t h i s s e l e c t i o n could be the f o l l o w i n g ^ ! ; a) Select industry that i s not vulnerable t o the same . type of economic changes, b) Select i n d u s t r i e s that have good growth p o t e n t i a l , c) Select industry that i s e f f i c i e n t and productive, d) Obtain stable i n d u s t r y that can withstand, c y c l i c a l and seasonal f l u c t u a t i o n s i n the economy. Those which r i s e high i n p r o s p e r i t y and f a l l low i n recession are unstable, an index of economic a c t i v i t y can be used t o measure the s t a b i l i t y of an i n d u s t r y . From sales data, a base year of 100 can be s e l e c t e d and graphed over as many years as data are a v a i l a b l e . The f l u c t u a t i o n s shown i n d i c a t e the s t a b i l i t y of that i n d u s t r y . (Note the f l u c t u a t i o n s i n Tables XI and X I I , on pages 80, and 84.) e) Select a good balance between durable goods (lumber, i r o n , automobiles, e t c . ) , and non-durable goods ( t e x t i l e s , food products, chemicals, c o a l s , rubber goods, e t c . ) , f ) Select i n d u s t r i e s of d i f f e r e c t s i z e s . This prevents domination by a few l a r g e i n d u s t r i a l i s t s . An i d e a l s i z e s e l e c t i o n has s m a l l , medium, and l a r g e industries. By the above c r i t e r i a of s e l e c t i o n the f o l l o w i n g kinds of industry appear i d e a l ^ ; 2  e l e c t r i c a l machinery; l i g h t e l e c -  t r i c a l equipment; radios and t e l e v i s i o n ; p l a s t i c s ; i r o n and s t e e l f a b r i c a t i o n ; l i g h t metal f a b r i c a t i o n ; p r o f e s s i o n a l and s c i e n t i f i c instruments;  chemicals; p r i n t i n g and p u b l i s h i n g ;  frozen goods; l i q u o r ; b i s c u i t s and baked goods.  ^ A summary of the more important c r i t e r i a discussed i n various studies of economic base expansion as described i n the Bibliography and footnotes of t h i s Thesis. ^ B a s e d l a r g e l y on a l i s t of i n d u s t r y selected by the C i t y Planning Commission of C i n c i n a t t i whose c r i t e r i a were somewhat l i k e that l i s t e d on page 172. 2  173  C. Economic Expansion and D i v e r s i f i c a t i o n i n the RosslandT r a i l Region Economic expansion i n the R o s s l a n d - T r a i l Region can be considered at the community and at the r e g i o n a l l e v e l . Community Economic Expansion and D i v e r s i f i c a t i o n . The l o c a l communities i n the R o s s l a n d - T r a i l Region do not have basic i n d u s t r i e s of t h e i r own. Nor i s there any reason why each community should have a basic i n d u s t r y .  Each small  m u n i c i p a l i t y i s only a part of one l a r g e r work Region.  Each  community performs i t s e s s e n t i a l f u n c t i o n i n the Region.  As  long as the Region has s u f f i c i e n t basic i n d u s t r y i t w i l l benef i t as a whole.  The i n e q u a l i t i e s i n municipal revenues could  not be reasonably solved by a basic i n d u s t r i a l expansion programme i n each community on a scale which would ever hope t o make them independent of the Tadanac i n d u s t r i e s . A large bas i c i n d u s t r y r e q u i r e s a complex of f a c t o r s which no one of these communities could provide alone. A measure of the soundness of the present'economic s t r u c t u r e of the Region today can be taken from i t s many years of s u r v i v a l . At the community l e v e l , however, minor s e r v i c e indust r i e s and commercial a c t i v i t i e s could s u c c e s s f u l l y l o c a t e i n the s a t e l l i t e communities t o some l o c a l advantage.  Such  small i n d u s t r i e s could be accommodated by the e x i s t i n g munic i p a l s e r v i c e s and vacant land now a v a i l a b l e i n most of these communities.  The C i t y of Rossland has good f l a t land serviced  by r a i l w a y s , paved roads, s a n i t a r y sewers, and a reasonable  174  water supply, a l l of which are l o c a t e d c e n t r a l l y . Under the c o n d i t i o n s you mention the r a i l r o a d would not s e l l property ... but would arrange leases at nominal r e n t a l t o i n d u s t r i e s which would develop business. ~ A s p e c i a l f r e i g h t r a t e from Rossland t o T r a i l might be negotiated....43 These s i t e s could be used f o r warehouses, by wholesalers, f o r minor assembly p l a n t s , and the l i k e i n connection w i t h the  Cominco operations.  A pump service r e p a i r and assembly  plant could be located here t o service the large number of pumps used by Cominco.  The pumps are now shipped out of the  Region t o d i s t a n t dealers.  The number of pumps used by  Cominco would warrant a small branch operation here by a pump company.44  The C i t y of Rossland has good commercial  s i t e s at the center of town.  Business e n t e r p r i s e s such as a  t o u r i s t h o t e l could take advantage of the l o c a t i o n a l resources in this City. T r a i l has small s e r v i c e i n d u s t r i e s l o c a t i n g t o good advantage i n that C i t y . The T r a i l Chamber of Commerce e f f o r t s t o l i n e up l i g h t i n d u s t r y have been s u c c e s s f u l with the announcement that United D i s t r i b u t o r s Incorporated of .Spokane w i l l b u i l d a branch here t o construct Gales Form-Ties.45  Personal correspondence of the Author, l e t t e r from G.L. P h i l l i p s , Superintendent of Railways, Nelson B.C., January 22, 1958. ^ J . R . Bryan, l o c . c i t . 45The T r a i l D a i l y Times, "Light Industry W i l l Locate i n Glenmerry," ( s u b d i v i s i o n i n T r a i l B.C.), January 24, 1958, p.3. •• -  175 T r a i l has  an-industrial  service industries.  zone w h i c h c o n t a i n s a number o f  light  I f each community expands i t s economic  base w i t h such a c t i v i t i e s t h e y  c o u l d d e r i v e c o n s i d e r a b l e bene-  fit. Seasonal  f l u c t u a t i o n s i n employment a t C o m i n c o c o u l d  p r o b a b l y be r e d u c e d Reducing these  by c a r e f u l a d j u s t m e n t o f w o r k  schedules.  l a y o f f s would a i d the Region as a whole.  R e g i o n a l Economic Expansion  and  Diversification.  The  r e a l weakness of the R o s s l a n d - T r a i l Region i s found  at the r e -  gional level.  need f o r  O n l y one  basic industry exists.  d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n at a r e g i o n a l l e v e l been r e a l i z e d by Cominco i t s e l f reason  today  and  is critical.  f o r many y e a r s .  antimony, tungsten,  silver,  this  fertiToday  cadmium, g o l d , t i n ,  chemical f e r t i l i z e r  further diversification  has  Although  fallen appreciably.  ( s o l i d and  a n h y d r o u s ammonia, o l e u m , s u l p h u r i c a c i d , a n d still  For  z i n c are low, the p r i c e of  heavy c h e m i c a l s has n o t  Cominco p r o d u c e s l e a d , z i n c ,  But  This  i t produces a v a r i e t y of products.  p r i c e s f o r C o m i n c o l e a d and lizer  The  liquid),  phosphoric  acid.  i s needed.  D u r i n g 1957, a t o t a l o f $ 3 . 2 m i l l i o n was e x p e n d e d on s e a r c h a n d m i n i n g e x p l o r a t i o n , an i n c r e a s e o f 33% o v e r the previous year t h e p l a n to e x t e n d t h e u s e s o f - -our p r o d u c t s , t o o b t a i n more d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n o f o u r p r o d u c t l i n e s , a n d t o employ t h e h y d r o - e l e c t r i c power p o t e n t i a l i n the T r a i l area. L a s t y e a r I s t a t e d t h a t we w e r e u n d e r t a k i n g t h e . d e s i g n o f a p i g - i r o n and s t e e l p l a n t . . . . An a c t i v e r e s e a r c h programme c o n t i n u e d on t h e p r o d u c t i o n of high p u r i t y metals.... I n an e f f o r t t o b r o a d e n t h e a p p l i c a t i o n s o f m e t a l s p r o d u c e d b y t h e Company, we h a v e r e c e n t l y e s t a b l i s h e d a f a b r i c a t e d metal products department... on t h i s c o n t i n e n t a n d i n t h e U n i t e d K i n g d o m we  176 a r e i n t e n s i f y i n g r e s e a r c h endeavors t o f i n d new uses and t o e n l a r g e t h e p r e s e n t uses o f t h e s e m e t a l s . 4 6 T h i s d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n i s based to a g r e a t e x t e n t on p r o d u c t s l i n k e d t o one r e s o u r c e -- o r e . D i v e r s i f i c a t i o n must, t h e r e f o r e , go beyond Cominco.  Celgar Limited i n Castlegar,  w i t h t h e i r l u m b e r i n g o p e r a t i o n and new p u l p m i l l p l a n t , i s a step i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n .  (See page 158)  Other p o s s i b i l i t i e s  s h o u l d be i n v e s t i g a t e d .  4. A PLANNING ADMINISTRATION A. The Need f o r a P l a n n i n g A d m i n i s t r a t i o n The R o s s l a n d - T r a i l Region as d e l i n e a t e d i n t h i s T h e s i s i s under t h e j u r i s d i c t i o n o f numerous a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s o f v a r y i n g s i z e and f o r m .  These a u t h o r i t i e s  include various  p r o v i n c i a l , and f e d e r a l government departments a d m i n i s t e r i n g a g r i c u l t u r a l r e g i o n s , f o r e s t d i s t r i c t s , mining  divisions,  C e n t r a l Mortgage and Housing C o r p o r a t i o n R e g i o n s ,  school d i s -  t r i c t s , game a r e a s , park a r e a s , e l e c t o r a l d i s t r i c t s , c o u n t i e s , and many o t h e r a r e a s .  W i t h i n t h e s e many a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s ,  l o c a l government and Cominco have t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e j u r i s d i c tions.  None o f t h e s e a l o n e c o u l d promote t h e needed r e g i o n a l  planning.  I n o r d e r t o a c t as a u n i f i e d Region some agency  must t r y and c o o r d i n a t e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , i n o r d e r t o implement a p l a n o f economic e x p a n s i o n , d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n , and r e s o u r c e development.  S t a v e r t , op. c i t . , p.3-4.  177 The l a c k o f c o n t r o l i n urban development i s w e l l d i s p l a y e d by t h e haphazard development f o u n d i n T r a i l t o d a y . (See page 1 3 2 ) . to  The new a r e a s opened up by t h e  Blueberry  C h r i s t i n a Lake Highway, now under c o n s t r u c t i o n , need  r e g i o n a l c o n t r o l t o a v o i d the mis-use o f good f a r m l a n d , e s t s , p a r k a r e a s , and w i l d l i f e .  for-  In order t o a t t r a c t , s e l e c t ,  and l o c a t e i n d u s t r y t o s t r e n g t h e n  and d i v e r s i f y t h e economy  of t h e R e g i o n , some agency must a c t f o r t h e R e g i o n .  This i s  beyond t h e power o f any o f t h e e x i s t i n g a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s .  The  i d e a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n f o r t h e purposes o u t l i n e d i s a r e g i o n a l planning administration.  Most o f t h e communities a r e t o o  s m a l l t o have t h e i r own p l a n n i n g employs a c i t y e n g i n e e r .  s t a f f s i n c e o n l y one even  A Regional  P l a n n i n g B o a r d and i t s  s t a f f c o u l d a c t i n a c o n s u l t i n g c a p a c i t y t o each  community.  Such an a d m i n i s t r a t i o n c o u l d c o n t r o l t h e use o f l a n d t o t h e best i n t e r e s t s of the Region. t r y t o l o c a t e i n the R e g i o n .  I t c o u l d a l s o encourage  indus-  Such an o r g a n i z a t i o n would dev-  v e l o p a r e g i o n a l p l a n f o r t h e a r e a t o g u i d e development. Regional  This  P l a n n i n g Board would c o n s i s t o f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from  each m u n i c i p a l i t y and v a r i o u s p r o v i n c i a l departments.  The  Board would a c t under t h e guidance o f i t s p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a f f . B. R e g i o n a l  Planning  Today  The M u n i c i p a l A c t p r o v i d e s f o r t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t r e g i o n a l planning area. 717-1  of a  • :  On p e t i t i o n by t h e C o u n c i l o f two o r more munic i p a l i t i e s i n a r e g i o n , t h e L i e u t e n a n t Gover-  178 n o r - i n - C o u n c i l may declare the area i n c l u d i n g unorganized t e r r i t o r y w i t h i n the region, a planning area and define the boundaries of the area. 718-1  ... to prepare community plans ... and employ such planning engineers ... as may be necessary .47  A Regional Planning A d m i n i s t r a t i o n organized under these sect i o n s i s the only a u t h o r i t y that can coordinate and undertake the economic expansion, d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n , and resource  develop-  ment that t h i s Region sorely needs. The p r o v i s i o n s of the M u n i c i p a l Act f o r Regional Planning l a c k any r e a l power f o r planning.  Therefore the best  s o l u t i o n that can be o f f e r e d to a i d the R o s s l a n d - T r a i l Region i s i t s e l f weak. 720-1  I t l a c k s power and comprehensive approach.  The Board may, by an a f f i r m a t i v e vote of twot h i r d s of a l l the members t h e r e o f , adopt as the o f f i c i a l community plan f o r the planning area, any community plan prepared under s e c t i o n 718-1.48  This s e c t i o n means a community does not have to adopt any planning measures.  There i s a great need f o r reform i n p l a n -  ning l e g i s l a t i o n t o f o l l o w what has been done i n A l b e r t a . 95-1  Where, a f t e r making such i n q u i r i e s as he deems s u f f i c i e n t , the M i n i s t e r i s s a t i s f i e d ...  (b) that i t i s i n the p u b l i c i n t e r e s t that the Counc i l of a m u n i c i p a l i t y prepare and adopt or enact a general plan development scheme and  4 The M u n i c i p a l Act, op. c i t . , p.485. 7  4 8 i b i d , Section 698 p. 4 7 9 ,  p. 4 8 7 .  179 z o n i n g b y - l a w , o f a n y o f t h e m , he may o r d e r t h e C o u n c i l t o c o n f o r m t o , e n f o r c e , a d m i n i s - .. t e r , prepare, adopt, o r enact, as t h e case may b e , a g e n e r a l p l a n , d e v e l o p m e n t b y - l a w , i n t e r i m development by-law, o r z o n i n g by-law w i t h i n s u c h t i m e o r t i m e s a s he may s t a t e i n his order. ( c ) I f d e f a u l t i s made ... t h e M i n i s t e r ... may e x e r c i s e f o r t h e purpose o f c a r r y i n g out t h e p r o v i s i o n s o f t h e o r d e r ... t h e p o w e r s c o n f e r r e d upon t h e C o u n c i l . 4 9 Such l e g i s l a t i o n i n A l b e r t a g i v e s a u t h o r i t y t o p l a n i n a r e g i o n f o r t h e good o f a l l p e o p l e .  The c o m p r e h e n s i v e n a t u r e o f  regional planning i s also recognized 14.  i n Alberta.  A C o m m i s s i o n may  (a) s t u d y t h e r e s o u r c e s a n d d e v e l o p m e n t • o f t h e d i s t r i c t planning area w i t h a view t o preparing a general plan of the area. (b) a d v i s e ... ( i ) i n t h e p l a n n i n g .... ( i i ) on m a t t e r s a f f e c t i n g p l a n n i n g (c) prepare  ....  a g e n e r a l p l a n , d e v e l o p m e n t scheme, a n d  z o n i n g b y - l a w , o r any o f them.... (d) p r o m o t e p u b l i c i n t e r e s t . . . . 5® The be  l i m i t a t i o n o f r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g i n B r i t i s h Columbia can i l l u s t r a t e d b y c o m p a r i n g t h e two r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g  i n B r i t i s h Columbia t o t h e nine i n A l b e r t a t h a t almost the e n t i r e Province.  cover  The s o l u t i o n t o t h e p r o b l e m s i n t h e R o s s -  l a n d - T r a i l Region i d e a l l y t u t e s much l i k e t h o s e  boards  i n v o l v e s changes i n P r o v i n c i a l  Sta-  o u t l i n e d i n t h e A l b e r t a ffnwn a n d R u r a l  Planning Act described. 49The Town a n d R u r a l P l a n n i n g A c t , C h a p t e r 337 o f t h e P r o v i n c i a l S t a t u t e s o f A l b e r t a ^ ( E d m o n t o n : Queen's P r i n t e r ,  180 C. Planning A c t i o n Required I t has been shown i n t h i s Thesis that a planning adm i n i s t r a t i o n i s needed t o perform such tasks as strengthening the economic s t r u c t u r e of the R o s s l a n d - T r a i l s i n g l e enterp r i s e community of settlements.  -In the R o s s l a n d - T r a i l Region,  a c t i o n by the Province, Cominco, and the people i s r e q u i r e d t o do t h i s .  A c t i o n of these groups t o date has not r e s u l t e d  i n a planning a d m i n i s t r a t i o n .  I t was attempted once as d i s -  cussed under S o c i a l S t r a t i f i c a t i o n on page 122. There appears t o be a need f o r strong leadership t o guide the Province, Cominco, and the people i n e s t a b l i s h i n g a r e g i o n a l planning a d m i n i s t r a t i o n .  Because the e f f o r t s t o e s t a b l i s h  such an a d m i n i s t r a t i o n f a i l e d once does not mean that these people do not want, or do not recognize the need f o r such an organization.  In order t o f i n d out what the a t t i t u d e of these  groups was, the Author d i r e c t e d an enquiry t o a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of each group which read i n part as f o l l o w s . In my Thesis study I examined p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r p l a n ning i n the T r a i l area which may be o f i n t e r e s t t o you. I b e l i e v e that planning ... could i d e a l l y extend t o r e g i o n a l planning as shown on the accompanying map. (See Drawing 5, page 59) Where unorganized area i s i n c l u d e d the Province may share part of the c o s t s . . . . The s i z e of s t a f f and cost depends upon the area t o be administered. ... I would l i k e t o hesr your viexfs on t h i s matter at your e a r l i e s t convenience.^1  1957), 6 E l i z . 5 0  2, Section 95, p. 4919.  I b i d , pp. 4893-94.  5 l L e t t e r by the Author t o the Province, Cominco and the  City of T r a i l ,  A p r i l , 1958.  181 In r e p l y t o t h i s and other enquiries the f o l l o w i n g r e p l i e s v were r e c e i v e d . a) From the Province A r e g i o n a l planning area may be set up on p e t i t i o n of ••the Councils of two or more m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n the region ... I may say t h a t i t was o r i g i n a l l y hoped that a p l a n ning area could be established....52 b) From Cominco Your l e t t e r ... concerning town and d i s t r i c t planning f o r the T r a i l area ... i t i s j u s t p o s s i b l e that something might be done.53 c) From the people This matter was discussed a t l e n g t h by the C o u n c i l and i t was f e l t that no a c t i o n should be taken at t h i s time w i t h regard t o the establishment of a planning area u n t i l the Urban Renewal Study now being undertaken i s completed. We s h a l l be pleased t o advise you of f u r t h e r developments. The r e p l i e s i n d i c a t e d that there was n e i t h e r strong opposit i o n nor strong support f o r a r e g i o n a l planning a d m i n i s t r a tion.  I t d i d appear from the r e p l i e s , that i f some group  s t r o n g l y supported a move t o e s t a b l i s h a r e g i o n a l planning a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , they could, with some c a r e f u l n e g o t i a t i o n s , b r i n g these various groups to terms.  The need i s f o r guid-  ance and leadership by a strong and i n f l u e n t i a l group or  Personal correspondence of the Author, l e t t e r from J.E. Brown, Deputy M i n i s t e r of M u n i c i a p l A f f a i r s , V i c t o r i a , A p r i l 29, 1958. 53  Personal correspondence of the Author, a l e t t e r from Dr. C.H. Wright, Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company of Canada, T r a i l , A p r i l 17, 1958. 54p ] _ correspondence of the Author, l e t t e r form L.G. Anderson, T r a i l C i t y Comptroller, May 7, 1958. ersona  182  individual.  5. IMPROVING MUNICIPAL FINANCES A number of methods of improving municipal finances i n the R o s s l a n d - T r a i l Region w i l l be discussed as a f i n a l method of improving c o n d i t i o n s i n t h i s Region. A. Increase Tax Rates An increase i n the r e a l property tax i s one method of improving the municipal revenues.  This s o l u t i o n appears to  be p a r t i c u l a r l y reasonable since i t has been shown, under Municipal Revenues i n Chapter I I (see Tables VII and X, on pages 67 and 77), that the increase i n l o c a l property tax has lagged f a r behind the great increase i n i n d i v i d u a l income. However, such a s o l u t i o n i s subject to some c r i t i s m .  An i n -  crease i n property taxes w i l l only tax property owners.  It  has been p r e v i o u s l y shown on page 75 that wealth today i s made up of many other t h i n g s i n a d d i t i o n t o land and improvements.  To tax property alone as a. source of municipal i n -  come i s , t h e r e f o r e , i n e q u i t a b l e since the burden of t a x a t i o n r e s t s on the property owners.  Such a s o l u t i o n today cannot  be j u s t i f i e d by any of the accepted canons of t a x a t i o n . B. A General Property Tax Since the r e a l property no longer represents true wealth, i t has been proposed by some that m u n i c i p a l i t i e s r o should adopt a general property t a x .  Such a tax would be  183 l e v i e d on p e r s o n a l p r o p e r t y a s w e l l a s on l a n d a n d ments. for  Such a t a x c o u l d understandably  improve-  p r o v i d e ample r e v e n u e  municipalities. An o v e r w h e l m i n g o b j e c t i o n t o t h e b r o a d e x t e n s i o n o f t h e p r o p e r t y t a x t o i n c l u d e a l l p e o p e r t y was a n d i s a d ministrative. I n t a n g i b l e p r o p e r t y s u c h a s b o n d s and l i f e i n s u r a n c e p o l i c i e s , and many t y p e s o f t a n g i b l e p e r s o n a l p r o p e r t y s u c h a s c l o t h i n g and j e w e l r y c o u l d n o t be a s s e s sed f a i r l y w i t h o u t the honest c o o p e r a t i o n of the g e n e r a l p u b l i c . I n a s s e s s i n g such p r o p e r t y a s s e s s o r s had t o r e l y c h i e f l y upon w r i t t e n d e c l a r a t i o n s by t a x p a y e r s a s t o t h e VA;l.ue o f t h e i r p o s s e s s i o n s . ' The r e s u l t s i n C a n a d a , a s i n o t h e r c o u n t r i e s , were w h o l e s a l e evasion.55 The g e n e r a l p r o p e r t y t a x a s a c t u a l l y a d m i n i s t e r e d i s b e y o n d a l l d o u b t one o f t h e w o r s t t a x e s known i n t h e c i v i l i z e d world.5°  Such a s o l u t i o n i s t h e r e f o r e not C.  I n t r o d u c t i o n o f a New  acceptable.  Municipal  Tax  Because of the inadequacy o f the p r o p e r t y t a x p a l i t i e s are l o o k i n g to a d d i t i o n a l  sources  munici-  of revenue.  T h i s f i n a n c i a l d i l e m m a a c c o u n t s f o r t h e f a c t t h a t so many c i t i e s a r e t u r n i n g t o new t a x e s a s a means o f s u p p l e menting t r a d i t i o n a l sources of revenue. C i g a r e t t e t a x e s , amusement t a x e s , g e n e r a l s a l e s t a x e s , e v e n i n c o m e t a x e s a r e b e i n g i m p o s e d b y c i t i e s i n i n c r e a s i n g numbers.57 The  heavy c o s t s r e s u l t i n g from the automobile  is  o f the major expenses l o c a l governments are f a c e d w i t h  one today.  - ^ D r . R o b e r t C l a r k e , P r o p e r t y Tax A s s e s s m e n t s , page 1, a s c i t e d i n U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a E x t e n s i o n CouBse i n M u n i c i p a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , 3rd y e a r C o u r s e , F i n a n c e I I I - l , ( V a n c o u v e r : B e s t Co., 1955) New  ^ E d w i n R.A. S e l i g m a n , E s s a y s i n T a x a t i o n , Y o r k ; M a c m i l l a n , 1925), p p . 19-62. 5?Barrabrant,  loc .cit.  (Edition  10,  184 A t a x on a u t o m o b i l e s ,  f o r e x a m p l e , w o u l d go a l o n g way  b o o s t i n g m u n i c i p a l income. p a l automobile  The  i n c r e a s i n g need f o r a  tax i s well recognized  by  in munici-  authorities.  ... D r . R o b e r t C l a r k p r o p o s e d t h e gas t a x a s a means o f b r o a d e n i n g t h e c i v i c t a x b a s e b e y o n d the. s i n g l e m a i n s o u r c e o f p r o p e r t y t a x . . . . The l e v y o f one o r two c e n t s a g a l l o n w o u l d be on a r e g i o n a l b a s i s . I t seems c o n t r a r y t o any r e c o g n i z e d p r i n c i p l e o f j u s t i c e i n t a x a t i o n t h a t owners o f p a s s e n g e r c a r s s h o u l d put t h e i r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s t o g r e a t e x p e n s e i n t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n and m a i n t e n a n c e o f • s t r e e t s and b r i d g e s and y e t n o t pay a c e n t t o t h e i r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s f o r t h i s s e r v i c e . . . p r o v i n c i a l gas t a x and l i c e n c e r e v e n u e s h a v e d e c l i n e d f r o m more t h a n h a l f o f p r o v i n c i a l and m u n i c i p a l c o s t s o f h i g h w a y s , b r i d g e s , and s t r e e t s , t o l e s s than 30% i n the l a s t s i x y e a r s . 5 ° " P e r i o d i c a l l y i t i s proposed t h a t m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n v e s t i g a t e the p o s s i b i l i t y of the r e t a i l d o u b t t h a t new  s a l e s tax."59  There i s l i t t l e  taxes would a s s i s t the communities i n the  l a n d - T r a i l Region.  However, s u c h new  the P r o v i n c i a l L e g i s l a t u r e to enact.  Ross—  taxes are a matter f o r The  only part the i n -  h a b i t a n t o r a P l a n n i n g S t a f f can p l a y i s t o a g i t a t e f o r such tax D.  reform. A s s i s t a n c e From H i g h e r H.C.  Governments  Goldenberg^O suggested t h a t the problem of  p a l r e v e n u e s c o u l d be  s o l v e d b y an a d j u s t m e n t o f  municipal relations.  He b e l i e v e d c e r t a i n f u n c t i o n s c a n  munici-  provincialbe  An a d d r e s s on The D i l e m m a i n M u n i c i p a l F i n a n c e t o t h e V a n c o u v e r Chamber o f Commerce, F e b r u a r y 24, 195$, cited b y Ron T h o r n b e r , The V a n c o u v e r P r o v i n c e . F e b . 25, 1958, p . 29. p  5^The R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n on C a n a d a ' s E c o n o m i c P r o s p e c t , F i n a l R e p o r t , ( O t t a w a : Queen's P r i n t e r , 1 9 5 7 ) , p . 508. H.C.  Goldenberg, " M u n i c i p a l Finance  and  Taxation  Pro-  185 most e f f e c t i v e l y p e r f o r m e d a t d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s o f g o v e r n m e n t and t h a t v a r i o u s o f government.  t a x e s c a n be c o l l e c t e d b e s t a t v a r i o u s  levels  I t then remains a matter o f a d j u s t i n g t h e  r e v e n u e s c o l l e c t e d w i t h t h e f u n c t i o n s p e r f o r m e d b y some e q u i t able  system.  Some a d j u s t m e n t o f p r e s e n t p r o v i n c i a l - m u n i c i p a l  r e l a t i o n s w i l l be r e q u i r e d t o b r i n g a b o u t arrangement.  I t was e x p l a i n e d  that this  more p r o v i n c i a l a i d t o m u n i c i p a l i t i e s .  such an i d e a l s o l u t i o n may  bring  T h i s t r e n d has been  ci  c r i t i z e d on t h e g r o u n d s t h a t i t r e d u c e s l o c a l a u t o n o m y . (See page $ 2 ) . G o l d e n b e r g , h o w e v e r , d o e s n o t b e l i e v e "It  h a s been s u g g e s t e d t h a t m u n i c i p a l  be e n d a n g e r e d .  This  suggested simply it  i s doubtful  criticism  i t would.  autonomy w o u l d t h e r e b y  i sunrealistic."^l  Goldenberg  an a d j u s t m e n t o f revenues a s a s o l u t i o n . But  i f municipal  by such a s o l u t i o n u n l e s s  a u t o n o m y w o u l d n o t be w e a k e n e d  conscientious  action t o prevent i t  were u n d e r t a k e n . The f u n c t i o n s s h o u l d be so a l l o c a t e d t h a t a s f a r a s p o s s i b l e t h e m u n i c i p a l i t i e s w i l l be e n t i r e l y r e s p o n s i b l e , f i n a n c i a l l y and o t h e r w i s e , f o r c e r t a i n f u n c t i o n s and a t t h e same t i m e , a s f r e e a s p o s s i b l e f r o m p r o v i n c i a l c o n t r o l and d i r e c t i o n i n t h e sphere f o r which t h e m u n i c i pality i s responsible. The p r o v i n c e s s h o u l d be s o l e l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e f i n a n c i n g and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f c e r tain functions...." 2  blems and P r o s p e c t s , " C a n a d i a n T a x J o u r n a l , V o l . I V , No. 3, ( M a y - J u n e , 1956), p . 158^ 6 l  Goldenberg,  Ibid.  6? K.G. C r a w f o r d , C a n a d i a n M u n i c i p a l G o v e r n m e n t . ( T o r o n t o : . U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o P r e s s , 1955), p» 360.  186 The  a l l o c a t i o n o f f u n c t i o n s and revenues i s here  v i n c i a l matter  again a Pro-  and t h e communities can o n l y a g i t a t e f o r a i d .  G.C. W y a t t , V i c t o r i a C i t y M a n a g e r , s a i d p r o v i n c i a l a n d f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t s s h o u l d p a y f u l l t a x on c r o w n p r o p e r t i e s i n a m u n i c i p a l i t y a n d , he s a i d , t h e P r o v i n c e s h o u l d t a k e over c o s t s o f h e a l t h , w e l f a r e and education.63 Crown p r o p e r t i e s i n come c i t i e s a c c o u n t s the m u n i c i p a l assessment.  f o r a large part of  T a x i n g o f such p r o p e r t y a t f u l l  m i l l r a t e s would produce c o n s i d e r a b l e revenue f o r c i t i e s had  a l a r g e number o f p u b l i c b u i l d i n g s .  R o s s l a n d and T r a i l  do n o t h a v e a l a r g e number o f g o v e r n m e n t b u i l d i n g s . Mr.  that  As t o  W y a t t s s e c o n d s u g g e s t i o n -- i f t h e P r o v i n c e was t o t a k e  over c e r t a i n l o c a l  f u n c t i o n s , then l o c a l  more a n d more a n a r t i f i c i a l  g o v e r n m e n t becomes  body w i t h o u t r e a l power.  The  P r o v i n c e can a i d m u n i c i p a l i t i e s b e s t by a d j u s t i n g t h e a l l o c a t i o n s o f f u n c t i o n s and s o u r c e s vincial  control of local  Pro-  government d u t i e s i s u n d e s i r a b l e  from a m u n i c i p a l s t a n d p o i n t . cial  o f income a v a i l a b l e .  I t i s d e s i r a b l e t o have  finan-  and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e independence i n those a c t i v i t i e s  performed  a t a community  best  level.  E. A B u d g e t i n g S o l u t i o n The  p r o b l e m o f m u n i c i p a l r e v e n u e s i s n o t e n t i r e l y one  o f o b t a i n i n g more r e v e n u e . can  Budgeting  municipal  expenditures  s a v e a m u n i c i p a l i t y a s much r e v e n u e i n some c a s e s a s a  new t a x s o u r c e  The  could create.  C a p i t a l expenditures are gener-  Vancouver P r o v i n c e , l o c . c i t .  . a l l y the major items i n m u n i c i p a l f i n a n c i n g . planning of these  expenditures  by  The  b o n d i n t e r e s t payment o r by j u s t greatest.  spending  may  funds  f o r unnecessary  g e t i n g c o u l d be a s  available  items.  save  unnecessary  where t h e need i s  P r o v i d i n g f o r c a p i t a l p r o j e c t s on a p r i o r i t y  a c c o r d i n g t o need and rowings  careful  c a p i t a l budgeting  a community a g r e a t d e a l o f r e v e n u e by a v o i d i n g  187  can p r e v e n t  A procedure  basis  heavy  bor-  for capital  bud-  follows:  a) L i s t i n g a l l p r o p o s e d p r o j e c t s by a d e v e l o p m e n t p l a n f o r t h e n e x t f i v e y e a r s on a p r i o r i t y b a s i s , b) A f i n a n c i a l a n a l y s i s o f c i t y r e v e n u e s a n d e x p e n d i t u r e s i s n e e d e d t o e s t i m a t e what c a p i t a l e x p e n d i t u r e s t h e c o m m u n i t y c a n a f f o r d t o make f o r t h e next f i v e years, c ) From a) a n d b) a c a p i t a l i m p r o v e m e n t programme i s adopted, d) P u b l i c a n d c o u n c i l a p p r o v a l i s t h e n o b t a i n e d , e) A d j u s t m e n t o f t h e programme and r e v i s i o n f r o m t i m e t o t i m e may be u n d e r t a k e n . F.  The  Gordon Commission's Recommendations The  Gordon Commission o f Canada's Economic  Prospect^  p r o p o s e d a number o f s o l u t i o n s t o i n c r e a s e m u n i c i p a l The  revenues.  Commission b e l i e v e d , f o r example, t h a t s i n c e the  property  t a x t o p e r s o n a l i n c o m e h a d become l e s s i n r e c e n t y e a r s , m u n i cipalities  s h o u l d r a i s e t h e i r a s s e s s m e n t s and m i l l r a t e s t o  p r o v i d e more r e v e n u e .  The  m u n i c i p a l debt as a p e r c e n t  Commission a l s o s t a t e d t h a t s i n c e o f p e r s o n a l income had  come l e s s i n r e c e n t y e a r s , c i t i e s logic  of the f i r s t  4  cit.  Royal  argument i s n o t  also  s h o u l d b o r r o w more. so e v i d e n t i f we  beThe  remember  C o m m i s s i o n on C a n a d a ' s E c o n o m i c P r o s p e c t , l o c .  188 t h a t income i t s e l f  i s taxed.  I f income t a x e s were  the p r e v i o u s comparisons would not much.  a p p e a r t o i n d i c a t e very-  S u c h a s o l u t i o n c o u l d a l s o be by p e o p l e  tax  w o u l d be a v o i d e d  but  b e n e f i t from m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e s .  i n c r e a s i n g municipal borrowing ticized  since t h i s  t i o n of annual borrowing  criticized  do n o t pay The  e x i s t i n g sources Assistance from The  in  by t h e  of cri-  addiplanned  i n the R o s s l a n d - T r a i l Region,  l a c k of municipal revenues w i l l  G.  second argument  A l i m i t e d amount o f  however, t o p r o v i d e needed improvements.  ing  a  taxes  a s a s o l u t i o n c a n a l s o be  charges.  necessary  s i n c e such  property  increases gross expenditures  interest  w i l l be  who  deducted,  n o t be  o r by i n c r e a s e d  But t h e  fundamental  i m p r o v e d by  over-tax-  borrowing.  Industry  p r o b l e m c r e a t e d by h a v i n g a l l t h e m a j o r i n d u s t r y  t h e D i s t r i c t M u n i c i p a l i t y o f Tadanac needs s o l v i n g .  Com-  i n c o c o u l d s h a r e t h e p r o p e r t y t a x r e v e n u e l e v i e d on i t s i n d u s t r y with those industry.  communities t h a t c o n t r i b u t e l a b o r t o  T h i s s o l u t i o n c o u l d be  local level.  The  l a r g e l y achieved at  the  the  s h a r i n g o f r e v e n u e s w o u l d p r o b a b l y be  most  e q u i t a b l e i f i t w e r e b a s e d on t h e number o f C o m i n c o e m p l o y e e s , ( o v e r some minimum n u m b e r ) , t h a t e a c h c o m m u n i t y Cominco. ter  S u c h a s y s t e m w o u l d be  easy f o r Cominco t o  s i n c e t h e y l e v y t a x e s on t h e i r own  i n d u s t r y and  r e c o r d s o f t h e number o f e m p l o y e e s p r o v i d e d f r o m communities.  provides adminishave  full  surrounding  T h i s method w o u l d n o t be t o o u n l i k e a  federal  189 or p r o v i n c i a l per c a p i t a grant.  This s o l u t i o n i s perhaps the  best method that could b r i n g immediate r e l i e f to m u n i c i p a l i ties. Most of the i n d u s t r y may be i n one m u n i c i p a l i t y while most of the r e s i d e n t i a l development, which that i n d u s t r y has helped to b r i n g about, i s i n another. The f i r s t m u n i c i p a l i t y may be comparatively w e l l - o f f , the second may have to.struggle t o keep up with i t s r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . I t has been proposed to us that as a s o l u t i o n t o t h i s k i n d of d i f f i c u l t y tha t a x a t i o n of i n d u s t r i a l property should be undertaken by p r o v i n c i a l governments who would d i s t r i b u t e the proceeds amongst m u n i c i p a l i t i e s on some accepted b a s i s . -> Imposition of a l e v y by p r o v i n c i a l a u t h o r i t i e s f o r d i s t r i b u t i o n to m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i s not recommended."" H. J o i n t Action A Need For J o i n t A c t i o n . great c i t i e s of the world^7  a r e  The problems of some of the often a s s o c i a t e d with the  many p o l i t i c a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e u n i t s of which they c o n s i s t . This i s often the r e s u l t of r a p i d growth. ing  Gaps between  exist-  communities are f i l l e d , but they remain l e g a l l y separate  with t h e i r own governments.  The t e c h n i c a l problems of pro-  v i d i n g water, sewers, highways, and so on, r e q u i r e a u n i t y  6  5lbid.  ^B.C. Bracewell, Report of B.C. Bracewell, prepared for the C i t y of T r a i l i n t o the i n t e r - r e l a t i o n s h i p s of the C i t v of T r a i l w i t h the D i s t r i c t of Tadanac and the V i l l a g e of W a r f i e l d , ( T r a i l : T r a i l D a i l y Times, June, 1 9 5 5 ) , pp. 5,8. ^ ^ W i l l i a m Alexander Robson, Great C i t i e s of the World, ( E d i t i o n one; London: A l l e n and Unwin, 1 9 5 4 ) , pp* 52-62.-  190 of a c t i o n over a. l a r g e area which i s almost impossible t o achieve i n such c i t i e s since each struggles f o r i t s own independence with l i t t l e regard f o r the greater problem.  These  problems have been attacked a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l y by ad hoc bodies whose j u r i s d i c t i o n covers a greater area than would one l o c a l council.  We thus have, f o r example, appointed water, sewer,  and highway boards.  But the more separate bodies that are  created, the more d i f f i c u l t c o o r d i n a t i o n of them becomes and the more necessary i t would be t o have one higher t i e r of elected government' o f f i c i a l s who administer a l l the ad hoc functions.  The C i t y of Toronto has adopted a system of metro-  p o l i t a n government because such problems became so acute that a c t i o n of t h i s type was demanded. The R o s s l a n d - T r a i l area was described as a minor metrop o l i t a n area with i t s a s s o c i a t e d problems as described i n Chapter I I on page 60. T r a i l i s d i v i d e d i n t o f o u r municip a l i t i e s and has overgrown onto surrounding unorganized l a n d . For a small community t h i s s i z e such f r a c t u r i n g of the urban s t r u c t u r e has r e s u l t e d i n a number of serious problems which the great c i t i e s of the world have only encountered when they were much older and much l a r g e r .  The problems of u t i l i t i e s ,  s e r v i c e s , and government were discussed throughout Chapter I I . I t i s vary u n l i k e l y t h a t many of the problems i n the RosslandT r a i l Region could be solved e f f e c t i v e l y without some type of group a c t i o n .  191 ... t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e d o m e s t i c s e w e r s a r e c o n n e c t e d w i t h i n d e p e n d e n t o u t f a l l s d i s c h a r g i n g r a w sewage i n t o the Columbia R i v e r . T r a i l Creek i s a l s o used as an o u t f a l l by W a r f i e l d and R o s s l a n d . L o o k i n g t o t h e f u t u r e i t seems s e l f - e v i d e n t t h a t s o o n er o r l a t e r t h e problems a r i s i n g from t h e discharge o f r a w sewage w i l l have t o be t a c k l e d . I n v i e w o f t h e p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n , W a r f i e l d must w o r k w i t h T r a i l , b u t R o s s l a n d has a choice s u p e r f i c i a l l y there appears t o be some a r g u m e n t f o r t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a p r i m a r y sewage treatment p l a n t t o care f o r a l l three p l a c e s .  J o i n t a c t i o n where p r a c t i c a b l e i s recommended.°° Methods o f J o i n t A c t i o n . T r a i l , W a r f i e l d , and Tadanac  An a m a l g a m a t i o n o f R o s s l a n d ,  would d i s s o l v e these m u n i c i p a l i -  t i e s who w o u l d t h a n e l e c t a common c o u n c i l o v e r t h e e n t i r e metropolitan  area.  This would give a u n i t y o f c o n t r o l over  urban and suburban development  a s w e l l a s g i v e a b r o a d common  t a x base i n c l u d i n g Cominco i n d u s t r y .  The h e a r t  o f t h e work  a r e a w o u l d be one c i t y w h e r e a l l t h e i r m u t u a l p r o b l e m s be c o n s i d e r e d  could  f o r t h e good o f a l l .  The C i t y o f T r a i l  could  e x t e n d i t s b o u n d a r i e s so a s t o  a n n e x a l l f o u r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s a s w e l l a s some p r o v i n c i a l l a n d . T h i s w o u l d a c h i e v e t h e same e f f e c t a s a m a l g a m a t i o n e x c e p t t h a t t h e r e s u l t i n g c i t y w o u l d be T r a i l .  I t i s doubtful i f  e i t h e r a m a l g a m a t i o n o r a n n e x a t i o n w o u l d e v e r be p o l i t i c a l l y f e a s i b l e because o f t h e s t r o n g these m u n i c i p a l i t i e s .  Bracewell,  f e e l i n g o f independence i n  I f metropolitan  o p . c i t . , p p . 6-8.  p r o b l e m s become  serious  192 enough a s t h e y  d i d i n T o r o n t o , s u c h a c t i o n may  be p o s s i b l e .  From an u r b a n v i e w , T r a i l , W a r f i e l d , a n d r e a l l y one area  city  separated  o n l y by  by a n n e x a t i o n  type  o f ad hoc  ever  agree t o such a union  to the taxes t o be no  authority.  area  c o u l d be  The  problems  of  a  I t i s d o u b t f u l i f Cominco w o u l d s i n c e i t would expose i t s i n d u s t r y  h o w e v e r , why  W a r f i e l d and  There appears Trail  should  unite. Each community c o u l d m a i n t a i n  f u n c t i o n s but ment who  i t s own  identity  e l e c t members t o a h i g h e r m e t r o p o l i t a n  would then a d m i n i s t e r  the metropolitan  and govern-  functions.  T h i s method w o u l d i n v o l v e l e s s c h a n g e t h a n e i t h e r or  This  s o l v e d by  o f an i n d e p e n d e n t l o c a l g o v e r n m e n t .  good r e a s o n ,  are  i f a u n i t of c o n t r o l  or amalgamation.  the R o s s l a n d - T r a i l metropolitan  not  l e g a l boundaries.  c o u l d f u n c t i o n f a r more e f f i c i e n t l y  were p r o v i d e d  Tadanac  annexation  amalgamation. A m a l g a m a t i o n i s n o t recommended, on a c c o u n t o f t h e d i s s i m i l a r i t y i n the a r t i f i c i a l s t r u c t u r e of the three munic i p a l i t i e s ( T r a i l , T a d a n a c , and W a r f i e l d ) . T h e i r d i s s i m i l a r i t y i n r e q u i r e m e n t s , a g e , and d e v e l o p m e n t , t h e u s u a l b a s i s f o r m e t r o p o l i t a n government, i s not p r e s e n t . Until c o n d i t i o n s h a v e p r o d u c e d an u r g e n c y a n d h a v e d e m o n s t r a t e d t h e i n a b i l i t y o f p r e s e n t m u n i c i p a l g o v e r n m e n t s t o cope w i t h p r o b l e m s , t h e a t t e n d a n t e x p e n s e and d u p l i c a t i o n w h i c h w o u l d be i n e v i t a b l e by t h e s u p e r i m p o s i n g o f a n o t h e r g o v e r n m e n t s u c h a s a m e t r o p o l i t a n a u t h o r i t y c a n n o t be j u s t i f i e d and s h o u l d be avoided."" F i n a l l y , the  Bracewell,  e a s i e s t and  loc.cit.  p e r h a p s t h e weakest method  193  would be to have each community e l e c t a member t o a Board which would administer each p a r t i c u l a r metropolitan problem as i t a r i s e s .  These a u t h o r i t i e s are, however, only a step  toward a more complete s o l u t i o n such as metropolitan government. up.  A metropolitan sewage board, f o r example, could be set  Such a u t h o r i t i e s would do a great deal t o solve the pro-  blems of t h i s area and thereby improve municipal finances by f i r s t p r o v i d i n g an e f f i c i e n t metropolitan a d m i n i s t r a t i o n .  194 CHAPTER I V A SUMMARY 1. THE  PROBLEMS OF THE SINGLE ENTERPRISE COMMUNITY OF SETTLEMENTS  I n C a n a d a , and  p a r t i c u l a r l y B r i t i s h Columbia,  s i n g l e e n t e r p r i s e c o m m u n i t y i s v e r y common. ties built  around the  the  These a r e  communi-  exploitation of a single v o l a t i l e  s o u r c e , o r c o m m u n i t i e s w h i c h j u s t d e p e n d upon a s i n g l e prise.  enter-  shown t h a t t h e s e  communities and  their  r e g i o n s s u f f e r a g r e a t d e a l when t h e  single resource  has  removed o r t h e s i n g l e e n t e r p r i s e has  failed for various rea-  sons.  H i s t o r y has  re-  I n f a c t numerous o l d towns and  disappeared  c i t i e s have  entirely  a few y e a r s a f t e r t h i s d e p l e t i o n o r f a i l u r e .  r e s u l t has  b e e n a l a r g e number o f g h o s t  vey  s o u t h e a s t e r n p a r t o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a was  of the  taken The  towns.  i n t h i s T h e s i s t o show t h e p r e v a l e n c e  r e s u l t s of t h i s  ghost  been  s u r v e y may  A sample s u r -  of ghost  undertowns.  v e r y w e l l i n d i c a t e t h e many  c o m m u n i t i e s o r d y i n g t o w n s t h a t do e x i s t e l s e w h e r e  B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a and t i o n or f a i l u r e  The  i n C a n a d a as. a r e s u l t o f r e s o u r c e  in deple-  of a single e n t e r p r i s e .  Ghost towns i n the Grand F o r k s Area o f B r i t i s h b i a i n d i c a t e d how  s e r i o u s l y a r e g i o n c o u l d be  l o s s o f i t s m a j o r e n t e r p r i s e and  resource.  Colum-  a f f e c t e d by  I n 1906,  the  the  195  "Boundary Mining Region" i n the Grand Forks Area was one of the l a r g e s t mining and smelting communities i n the Province. I t was reported t o have had the l a r g e s t smelter i n the B r i t i s h Empire at that time.  The core of the Region was the C i t y of  Phoenix where the l a r g e s t mines were l o c a t e d .  Communities  grew up around Phoenix; some with smelters, others became transport centers, and others provided power or j u s t good residential sites.  When the ore became too low-grade the  owners of the mines stopped operation.  The r e s u l t was the  collapse of the e n t i r e r e g i o n a l economy. and the people l e f t the towns. C i t y of Phoenix disappeared. C i t y today.  The smelters closed  In a short time the e n t i r e Not one person l i v e s i n that  Phoenix has f a l l e n i n t o r u i n .  The smelters i n  surrounding towns were abandoned or removed. and p l a n t s no longer operate.  The power dams  A h a l f dozen communities  dependent upon the Phoenix ore have disappeared and are not remembered even i n h i s t o r y books. The R o s s l a n d - T r a i l Region had an o r i g i n very much l i k e that of the Boundary Mining Region.  The C i t y of Rossland had  one of the r i c h e s t gold mines i n the world.  The C i t y of T r a i l  grew around a smelter b u i l t t o r e f i n e the Rossland ore.  The  ore i n the Rossland mines was depleted a f t e r many years of successful operation.  At t h i s time the Region had not yet  reached the extent of development that the Boundary Region a l r e a d y had at the time of i t s c o l l a p s e .  The R o s s l a n d - T r a i l  Region, nevertheless, was faced with the t h r e a t of becoming  196 a ghost community.  But the owners o f the mines and  smelter  were l o n g - s i g h t e d .  They r e c o g n i z e d t h e f o l l y o f over-depen-  dency on j u s t one mine and t h e y r e a l i z e d the g r e a t wastes t h a t would r e s u l t f r o m c l o s i n g the s m e l t e r as w e l l as the Rossland Mines.  These men  o f the C o n s o l i d a t e d M i n i n g  S m e l t i n g Company (Cominco) took a c t i o n . found work i n the T r a i l s m e l t e r .  The  M i n e r s from  and Rossland  s m e l t e r brought ore i n  from d i s t a n t mines t o keep i t s f u r n a c e s o p e r a t i n g t h r o u g h p e r i o d of great t r i a l .  this  I n l a t e r y e a r s the Company d i v e r s i f i e d  i t s p r o d u c t i o n by u t i l i z i n g the b y p r o d u c t s  of i t s smelting  o p e r a t i o n s t o produce f e r t i l i z e r s and c h e m i c a l s .  The  result  t o d a y , o f t h i s r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g by a major i n d u s t r y t o expand and d i v e r s i f y i t s economic base, can be seen by the t h r i v i n g community o f s e t t l e m e n t s t h a t are found t h e r e .  As a sample  study f o r t h i s T h e s i s t h e R o s s l a n d - T r a i l Region has been examined.  Although the Region has s u r v i v e d the many t r i a l s  of past years i t i s s t i l l p e r i l s today.  c o n f r o n t e d w i t h somewhat s i m i l a r  The problems f a c i n g t h i s Region are t h e same  as those t h a t have f a c e d o t h e r communities i n the p a s t s t i l l others  and  today.  A number o f towns i n the R o s s l a n d - T r a i l R e g i o n , howe v e r , d i d not s u r v i v e .  F o r t Shepherd i s an o l d abandoned  Hudson Bay t r a d i n g p o s t on the Columbia R i v e r .  The C i t y o f  B r o o k l y n i s an o l d abandoned t r a n s p o r t c e n t e r on the Arrow Lakes.  Both have d i s a p p e a r e d  so t h a t i t i s almost  t o r e c o g n i z e where t h e y once were.  impossible  /  197 The  Mining  Boundary M i n i n g fell  R e g i o n o f S l o c a n was  Area.  Mining  very  similar, to  the  towns grew r a p i d l y t h e r e  and  i n t o r u i n as t h e m i n e s w e r e g r a d u a l l y e x p l o i t e d .  C i t y o f Sandon i s a g o o d e x a m p l e o f a d e a d m i n i n g this  city  in  area. The  Moyie D i s t r i c t  illustrates  how  d e p e n d upon a s i n g l e r e p l a c e a b l e r e s o u r c e But  The  still,  destroyed  communities —  the  t h r o u g h t h e p o o r management o f t h e  can  forests.  resource,they  the b a s i s of t h e i r economic s t r u c t u r e which i n t u r n  l e f t t h e Town o f L u m b e r t o n , t h e m a j o r c o m m u n i t y , i n r u i n s t o day.  Sustained The  yield  management c o u l d h a v e p r e v e n t e d  Cranbrook D i s t r i c t  ghost communities.  has  a l a r g e number o f o l d  Many s e t t l e m e n t s  of e a r l y gold rushes,  began h e r e as a  s m e l t i n g o p e r a t i o n s , and  For various reasons these  of people remaining.  i n the East  largest city  for  law enforcement i n the whole i n t e r i o r  bia.  The  other  c o m m u n i t i e s g r e w and  S t e e l e has  the need f o r the  The  The  only  of B r i t i s h  r a i l r o a d s bypassed F o r t S t e e l e , the  almost  I t was  Kootenay w i t h the  center i n Fort Steele lessened.  and  Fort Steele i s a  the  result  result  trading centers.  basic industries f a i l e d  communities have a l l d i s a p p e a r e d . c i t y with only a handful  this.  the dying once center Colum-  gold rush  law  ended,  enforcement  i s that  Fort  disappeared.  Fernie D i s t r i c t  i s w e l l marked w i t h o l d c o a l  t o w n s t h a t h a v e become g h o s t t o w n s .  Hosmer, M o r r i s s e y ,  mining Coal  C r e e k , and many o t h e r s a r e a b a n d o n e d c i t i e s i n a s t a t e o f  198 desolation.  The C i t y of Corbin, high i n the Rocky Mountains  surrounded by jagged crags and g l a c i e r s , i s one of p a r t i c u lar  interest.  No person l i v e s i n Corbin today but yet the  old  abandoned c o l l i e r i e s , homes, and b u i l d i n g s s t i l l  stand  between the overgrown and eroded s t r e e t s . In ing  B r i t i s h Columbia today communities are s t i l l  suffer-  from t h e i r over dependence upon one resource or e n t e r p r i s e .  B r i t a n n i a Beach, near Vancouver, was a community based upon a large copper mine.  The mine closed and B r i t a n n i a Beach  has almost been abandoned. the  Kitimat i s a new planned c i t y on  north coast of B r i t i s h Columbia..  Recent adverse market  p r i c e s have caused much of the aluminum r e f i n i n g operations to  close.  Kitimat.  Today many people have been forced to.move from The C i t y of F e r n i e , as a f u r t h e r example, was de-  pendent l a r g e l y upon a. coal mine.  This mine was closed r e -  c e n t l y by the owners because of poor market conditions f o r coal.  The r e s u l t today i s that Fernie i s f i g h t i n g t o s u r v i v e .  Unless new i n d u s t r i e s are brought i n ,  Fernie may f o l l o w the  f a t e of Corbin.  Copper Mountain was a t h r i v i n g mining com-  munity i n 1955.  Today i t i s a ghost town.  I t was a compara-  t i v e l y new c i t y but i t was abandoned because there was no longer any source of employment. The causes of f a i l u r e and depression of a s i n g l e e n t e r p r i s e community are many. may be exhausted. may change.  A s i n g l e depletable resource  Market p r i c e s may drop.  Demand trends  Various forms of competition, f o r example, may  199 a l s o c l o s e an the  industry.  Because of t h e s e adverse  o w n e r s o f t h e m a j o r e m p l o y e r may  l e s s of the  i l l e f f e c t s on  T h e s e f a i l u r e s and problems.  The  j u s t c l o s e down  community.  l o s s e s o f employment l e a d t o  talent i s considerable.  unused s t r e e t s , u t i l i t i e s ,  of paying f o r s o c i a l  also considerable.  and  i n d u s t r y are  The  is also a large l o s s . and  The  s e r v i c e s t o the  community, t h e  an i n the  unemployed i s their  province  I n many ways t h e n g h o s t  cost the  of  cost to  l o s s o f t h e s e c i t i e s and  t a n t s as a s o u r c e o f t a x revenue f o r the  are w a s t e f u l  real  Empty homes, b u i l d -  v e s t m e n t w o r t h many t h o u s a n d s o f d o l l a r s . public  regard-  d i r e c t c o s t s t h a t r e s u l t from the waste  human e f f o r t and i n g s , and  the  conditions  and  inhabiCanada  communities  province,  and  the  n a t i o n a l o t o f money. The  problem of the  r e a l challenge  to planning  no  solution.  one  perfect  e c o n o m i c , and t i e s and  Any  their hinterlands.  b e s t be  s t u d i e d and  2.  A.  i n Canada t o d a y .  w i t h i n these  I t r e q u i r e s the  government.  This  A planning  communi-  cooperation  p e r h a p s s o l v e d by r e g i o n a l  be  social,  i s a problem  A SURVEY OF THE PROBLEMS IN ROSSLAND-TRAIL REGION  Rossland-Trail  There w i l l  a n s w e r must c o n s i d e r  p h y s i c a l aspects of l i f e  p e o p l e , c o m p a n i e s , and can  s i n g l e e n t e r p r i s e community i s a  of  that  planning.  THE  Area s u r v e y and  a n a l y s i s of the  Rossland-Trail  200 R e g i o n was this  u n d e r t a k e n t o d e t e r m i n e w h a t p r o b l e m s now  single enterprise  community o f  faced  settlements.  R o s s l a n d i s a s m a l l r e s i d e n t i a l c o m m u n i t y o f 4344 p e r sons n e a t l y l a i d out  i n a compact g r i d - p a t t e r n  in a setting  o f wooded m o u n t a i n s w h e r e o n c e a number o f r i c h g o l d operated. 11395  Trail  i s a somewhat l a r g e r i n d u s t r i a l  persons located  development i n T r a i l benches and  by t h e  only  two  miles  i s b r o k e n up  by  Columbia River  city  from Rossland. gullies,into  itself.  i n g T r a i l are r e l a t i v e l y barren.  mines  The  The  Urban  separate  hills  City itself  of  surround-  is  divided  i n t o the  D i s t r i c t M u n i c i p a l i t y o f T a d a n a c , where a l l t h e  smelting  p l a n t s are  C i t y of B.  l o c a t e d , the  R e g i o n a l D e l i m i t a t i o n and  In order to l i m i t  was  the  survey to  undertaken.  The  limit  of the  surrounding settlements i n c o w o r k e r s who  be  of the  d e t e r m i n e d by  a s m e a s u r e d by  The  the the  the  number o f Com-  Tadanac p l a n t s  c h i e f f a c t o r s of  used to d e l i m i t r e g i o n a l  movements o f p e o p l e o f t h e  various  Core.  t r a v e l r e g u l a r l y to the  o r i e n t a t i o n w h i c h can  boundaries  p h y s i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n of  toward the  T r a i l C o r e A r e a i s one  defined  Regional  R e g i o n was  T r a i l Core area's i n f l u e n c e  d e g r e e o f e c o n o m i c , s o c i a l , and  The  the  Settlement  some c l e a r l y  a d e l i m i t a t i o n of the R o s s l a n d - T r a i l  extent of the  the  and  Trail.  The R o s s l a n d - T r a i l Pattern  area,  V i l l a g e of W a r f i e l d ,  Region towards the  in  economic boundaries. Core f o r  services also indicates a regional influence  of  the  201 C e n t r a l Core.  Finally,  t h e r e were a number o f p h y s i c a l f a c -  t o r s which confined these a c t i v i t i e s  i n t o a n a t u r a l geographic  region. The Core o f t h e Region i n c l u d e s T r a i l C i t y , t h e V i l l a g e of W a r f i e l d , the D i s t r i c t M u n i c i p a l i t y o f Tadanac, and the C i t y of Rossland. dent.  These m u n i c i p a l i t i e s a r e v e r y i n t e r d e p e n -  O r i e n t a t i o n w i t h i n t h i s a r e t o w a r d T r a i l and Tadanac  i s v e r y much more i n t e n s e than i t i s f u r t h e r beyond t h e Core. These m u n i c i p a l i t i e s t o g e t h e r w i t h some u n i n c o r p o r a t e d l a n d are  a minor m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a . The p a t t e r n of s e t t l e m e n t i n t h i s Region can be des-  c r i b e d i n systems.  The t h r e e systems o f R o s s l a n d , T r a i l  and  C a s t l e g a r have numerous s a t e l l i t e communities o r i e n t e d around each c e n t r a l core a r e a o r n u c l e u s . are  These systems t o g e t h e r  o r i e n t e d t o t h e major r e g i o n a l n u c l e u s o f T r a i l  and  Tadanac. C. M u n i c i p a l Revenues The growth o f t h e communities o f R o s s l a n d and has c r e a t e d many p r o b l e m s .  As m i n i n g and s m e l t i n g  Trail settle-  ments, t h e Region e x p e r i e n c e d l a r g e r a p i d f l u c t u a t i o n s i n population.  T h i s has l e a d t o a poor q u a l i t y o f development. a*  R o s s l a n d has s u f f e r e d from a s e r i e s o f d e v a s t m g  town f i r e s .  T r a i l s u f f e r s from i t s u n f a v o u r a b l e t o p o g r a p h i c s e t t i n g which has produced a broken p a t t e r n o f development.  These  have c r e a t e d a g r e a t b a c k l o g of needs i n the A r e a .  factors  202  The average worker i n the R o s s l a n d - T r a i l Region earns the highest average per c a p i t a income i n Canada.  The r e s u l t  i s that the people demand a high l e v e l of l o c a l s e r v i c e s from t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e municipal a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s . The municipal incomes of these various settlements i n the Region are,on the otherhand, f a r l e s s frhan what would be expected t r i a l area of t h i s s i z e elsewhere  i n Canada.  i n an indus-  This has been  caused by the l o c a t i o n of the major i n d u s t r y , Cominco, i n the D i s t r i c t M u n i c i p a l i t y of Tadanac, which i s administered by Cominco.  These l a r g e i n d u s t r i a l p l a n t s y i e l d a l a r g e proper-  ty' tax income f o r Tadanac, but Tadanac houses only 3 2 5 persons.  The remaining population of the Region who work at  Cominco are housed i n the various s a t e l l i t e communities which have only r e s i d e n t i a l and some l i m i t e d commercial property upon which t o l e v y taxes.  Thus these r e s i d e n t i a l communities  are hard-pressed t o provide schools, u t i l i t i e s , and s e r v i c e s f o r Cominco workers s i n c e , among other t h i n g s , they do not share the r e g i o n a l property t a x income.  This shortage of  funds, coupled with the strong demand f o r s e r v i c e s exerted by the Cominco worker and a great backlog of needs, has r e s u l t ed i n producing a r e a l hardship f o r these m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . The property t a x as a source of revenue i s inadequate today.  These taxes have increased i n t h i s area more than  elsewhere i n B r i t i s h Columbia.  S t i l l the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s are  very dependent on other sources of income such as "grants. This dependency has reduced l o c a l autonomy.  203  D. M u n i c i p a l Finances i n Rossland and T r a i l Neither the c i t i e s of Rossland nor T r a i l have been bankrupt. ever.  They have had f i n a n i c a l d e f i c i t s i n some years how-  The bonded indebtedness of T r a i l i s also c o n s i d e r a b l e .  Rossland has a very high m i l l rate when compared to other communities  of i t s s i z e i n B r i t i s h Columbia.  highest m i l l rate i n B r i t i s h Columbia.  T r a i l has the  W a r f i e l d has had a l l  i t s major u t i l i t i e s provided by Cominco before i t s i n c o r p o r a tion.  Now on i t s l i m i t e d tax resources i t may be unable to  finance needed major works programmes i n the f u t u r e . E. U t i l i t i e s and Services Rossland has wooden flumes, steep unpaved s t r e e t s , no sidewalks, poor s t r e e t l i g h t i n g , and a serious problem w i t h i t s heavy snowfalls each w i n t e r . Waste d i s p o s a l i s by way of T r a i l Creek which runs through W a r f i e l d and T r a i l i n a polluted state. sightly.  C i t y garbage d i s p o s a l i s unsanitary and un-  Water sources of Rossland and other communities i s  open to p o l l u t i o n .  T r a i l s u f f e r s from the f l o o d s of sand  from the surrounding steep h i l l s i d e s and from Spring f l o o d s of the Columbia R i v e r .  The broken topography of T r a i l has  made s e r v i c i n g expensive and settlement.awkward.  The  water  supply i s inadequate. F. Economic Base A n a l y s i s An a n a l y s i s of the economic base of the R o s s l a n d - T r a i l Region i l l u s t r a t e d the e f f e c t of having the basic i n d u s t r y  204  i n Tadanac.  Of  l o c a t i o n and  o r i e n t a t i o n of v a r i o u s  people. it,  I f an  i t was  critical  importance i n t h i s  a c t i v i t y was  a n a l y s i s was  a c t i v i t i e s that  located in a city  believed that t h i s  c i t y derived  employed  or o r i e n t e d  b e n e f i t from  t a x revenues r e s u l t i n g from the  b u s i n e s s and  perty  commercial a c t i v i t i e s  created  and  have r e s u l t e d . sisted  the  On  increased  this  of a c t i v i t i e s  b a s i s the  that  of a c t i v i t i e s  con-  secondary  o r i e n t e d to the  City.  A s u r v e y o f R o s s l a n d ' s e c o n o m i c b a s e showed t h e number i n c o m e o f w o r k e r s t h a t d e p e n d e d upon R o s s l a n d and pendent of Tadanac. basic  industrial  tions, retail  land i n Rossland.  d e n c e upon T r a i l and land, l i k e other no  basic  there  Tadanac.  (except  communities of the  Celgar  But  balance of these uses. i n the  same way  r e l a t e d and ability  as  inter-dependent.  upon t h e  Regional The  As a  s e p a r a t e communities' there  that a l l a c t i v i t i e s  depen-  be  i n the  has  Region and  i s an  im-  shared r e g i o n a l l y Region are  T h i s a n a l y s i s showed t h e  s i n g l e enterprise of  Ross-  residential,  of the Region because almost a l l a c t i v i t y  some way  the  Region,  in Castlegar).  Revenues should  of  occupa-  a n a l y s i s showed t h a t  i s , however, a b a l a n c e of i n d u s t r i a l ,  commercial l a n d .  G.  The  lack  examination of  l a b o r f o r c e showed a g a i n  residential  industry  An  and  were, i n d e -  A l a n d - u s e a n a l y s i s showed t h e  s t o r e s , and  pro-  p r i m a r y economic base the  to  the  residential  located inside a c i t y while  economic base c o n s i s t e d  the  inter— vulner-  depends i n  Cominco.  Economy p r o s p e r i t y of t h i s  R e g i o n d e p e n d s upon w o r l d  mar-  205 k e t s and a l i m i t e d r e s o u r c e .  The c o m p e t i t i v e n a t u r e  of world  m a r k e t s makes t h e p r o s p e r i t y o f t h e R o s s l a n d - T r a i l R e g i o n f l u c t u a t e w i t h the changing c o n d i t i o n s o f t h i s market.  These  f a c t o r s c a n n o t be c o n t r o l l e d . The i n d u s t r y s t i l l I f these  resources  gion w i l l other  d e p e n d s upon d e p l e t a b l e o r e b o d i e s .  a r e ever  e x h a u s t e d t h e R o s s l a n d - T r a i l Re-  s u f f e r s e v e r e l y o r may e v e n c o l l a p s e a s d i d many  such r e g i o n s i n past y e a r s .  from a r e c e s s i o n .  Cominco i s t o d a y  Some o f i t s m i n i n g  suffering  towns have a l r e a d y been  abandoned. The h i s t o r y o f C o m i n c o i s m a r k e d b y t h e e f f e c t s o f r e c u r r i n g changes i n b u s i n e s s a f f e c t e d employment. tuated. than  activity.  These changes have  Cominco s t o c k v a l u a t i o n s have a l s o  T h i s y e a r Cominco s t o c k has dropped l o w e r  ever before  by t h e community.  t i o n s overcrowded. vacant  i n value  i n i t s history.  The f l u c t u a t i o n s i n p o p u l a t i o n a r e d i f f i c u l t to  fluc-  t o adjust  P e r i o d s o f p r o s p e r i t y h a v e made c o n d i P e r i o d s o f r e c e s s i o n s have l e f t  and u t i l i t i e s unused.  Since there  houses  i s no a l t e r n a t i v e  e m p l o y m e n t , w o r k e r s whose s e r v i c e s a r e d i s c o n t i n u e d b y Cominco, g e n e r a l l y leave the Region. H. P o t e n t i a l R e s o u r c e s i n t h e R e g i o n The R o s s l a n d - T r a i l R e g i o n h a s a number o f r e s o u r c e s w h i c h c o u l d be d e v e l o p e d base o f t h e Region.  t o widen and d i v e r s i f y t h e economic  The f o r e s t r e s o u r c e  s h o u l d be managed  206 on a s u s t a i n e d y i e l d b a s i s t o s u p p l y t h e l o c a l m a r k e t h a p s some e x p o r t m a r k e t .  The a r e a h a s a p o t e n t i a l m i n e r a l  r e s o u r c e i n some o f t h e o l d m i n i n g a r e a s . p l o r e d and perhpas  and p e r -  T h e s e c o u l d be e x -  d e v e l o p e d i f Cominco w o u l d  permit i t .  Agri-  c u l t u r e i n t h i s Region i s very l i m i t e d .  There  h y d r o - e l e c t r i c p o t e n t i a l i n t h e Region.  R e c r e a t i o n could be-  come one o f t h e R e g i o n ' s r i c h e s t r e s o u r c e s .  i s a great  The R e g i o n  also  h a s a good l a b o r r e s o u r c e . I. Social  Characteristics  A p o p u l a t i o n a n a l y s i s o f Rossalnd and T r a i l r e v e a l e d some i n t e r e s t i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . o f people i n t h e working-age  T r a i l h a s a l a r g e number  class.  Many a r e t r a n s i e n t s .  R o s s l a n d h a s many y o u n g c h i l d r e n a n d f a m i l i e s . do n o t h a v e many r e t i r e d p e r s o n s .  Both  cities  The R e g i o n h a s a l a r g e  I t a l i a n p o p u l a t i o n who l i v e a s a g r o u p  i n the "Gulch".  A  l a r g e doukhabor p o p u l a t i o n l i v e s i n t h e r u r a l d i s t r i c t s o f the Region.  The r a d i c a l  blem  Region.  i n this The  o r d e r o f t h i s group i s a r e a l  pro—  h i e r a r c h y o f C o m i n c o i m p r e s s e s i t s e l f upon t h e  s o c i a l structure of the Region.  A w o r k e r ' s rank a t Cominco  i s a l s o h i s s o c i a l r a n k i n t h e community.  The w o r k i n g  class  of t h e Region a r e concerned l a r g e l y w i t h t h e i r u n i o n s and political parties. are l o y a l f i r s t ,  Cominco s t a f f employees as a s o c i a l  t o Cominco.  group  The r e s i d e n t s o f v a r i o u s com-  m u n i t i e s a r e more c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e i r own' i n d i v i d u a l communi-  207 t i e s and not the Region or Cominco. t h e r d i v i d e the s o c i e t y .  Racial interests  fur-  T h i s s o c i a l s t r a t i f i c a t i o n i n the  Region makes u n i f i e d a c t i o n o f these people d i f f i c u l t t o achieve.  The g r e a t e s t r e s o u r c e o f t h i s Region could be i t s  people i f t h e i r energies c o u l d be c o l l e c t i v e l y tapped. J . M u n i c i p a l Government  i n Rossland and T r a i l  Rossland has a s t r o n g l o c a l government but a weak l o c a l administration.  T r a i l ' s l o c a l government i s weaker and i t s  C i t y s t a f f has been c r i t i c i z e d f o r i t s i n e f f i c i e n c y .  Trail  has never been a company town but t h e r e has always been the strong i n f l u e n c e of Cominco. good e f f e c t s  T h i s has had some poor and some  on the Region's development.  K. R e g i o n a l Power S t r u c t u r e The important d e c i s i o n s that determine development i n the  R o s s l a n d - T r a i l Region a r e not made by governments alone  but  r a t h e r by a group which can be d e s c r i b e d as a "power  elite".  These people, because o f some unusual powers t h a t  they possess, can make d e c i s i o n s that may have a great upon the Region.  affect  Cominco employees a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y promi-  nent among t h i s group.  Whatever i s done i n the Region i s  done i n the shadow o f Cominco.  R.E. Sommers, Member o f Par-  liament, has had a great a f f e c t r e c e n t l y on l o c a l development. L. A Lack o f D i r e c t i o n There has been a d i s t i n c t l a c k o f organized  direction  208  t o development i n t h e R o s s l a n d - T r a i l R e g i o n . ed i n a haphazard, e x p e n s i v e , opment.  T h i s has r e s u l t -  and u n d e s i r a b l e p a t t e r n o f d e v e l -  The many separate m u n i c i p a l i t i e s a r e an a d m i n i s t r a -  t i v e problem.  Crowded, u n h e a l t h y  c o n d i t i o n s i n T r a i l have  f o r c e d people t o move t o t h e suburbs.  Uncontrolled  develop-  ment has r e s u l t e d i n a suburban s p r a w l , r i b b o n development, and p o o r l y s e r v i c e d r e s i d e n t i a l  areas.  Cominco has been t h e o n l y u n i f y i n g f o r c e i n t h e R e g i o n . The  i n d u s t r i a l p l a n o f Cominco has been l o n g - s i g h t e d and  sound.  I t i s u n f o r t u n a t e t h a t t h i s good l e a d e r s h i p c o u l d n o t  i n some way have extended t o t h e development and p l a n n i n g o f surrounding Montreal.  communities.  However, Cominco i s operated  from  Moreover i t had no l e g a l a u t h o r i t y t o d i r e c t muni-  cipal activities.  The r e s u l t i s t h a t no one a d m i n i s t r a t i o n  has e x i s t e d o r does e x i s t t o d a y t o g i v e l e a d e r s h i p and g u i dance t o development and growth i n t h e R e g i o n as a w h o l e .  3. SOLUTIONS TO THE PROBLEMS OF THE ROSSLAND-TRAIL REGION A. I n t r o d u c t i o n R e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g a c t i o n can r e d u c e t o some e x t e n t t h e economic f l u c t u a t i o n s w i t h i n a community o r a r e g i o n as w e l l as add t o i t s p r o s p e r i t y .  A community o r a r e g i o n  f o r t i f y i t s e l f against the i l l tions.  should  e f f e c t s o f economic f l u c t u a -  When a r e g i o n depends upon a s i n g l e r e s o u r c e o r e n t e r -  p r i s e , t h e need f o r r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g becomes v e r y  necessary.  209 The a n a l y s i s o f p r o b l e m s i n t h e R o s s l a n d - T r a i l R e g i o n h a v e shown t h a t a number o f p h y s i c a l , b l e m s do e x i s t . Cominco.  s o c i a l , and economic.pro-  A l m o s t a l l a c t i v i t y t h e r e d e p e n d s upon  Many o f t h e R e g i o n ' s r e s o u r c e s a r e u n d e v e l o p e d .  The c o m m u n i t i e s t h e r e a r e so i n t e r - r e l a t e d  t h a t t h e y must  be  considered t o g e t h e r as a Region. B. R e g i o n a l  Development  There i s a s h o r t a g e o f good r e s i d e n t i a l l a n d n e a r t h e work c e n t e r a t Tadanac.  R o s s l a n d a n d some o f t h e o t h e r com-  m u n i t i e s have good r e s i d e n t i a l s i t e s w h i c h have n o t been u s e d for various reasons.  The a d d i t i o n o f r e s i d e n t i a l  t o a c o m m u n i t y c a n be p r o f i t a b l e  property  i f a p l a n n e d campact  develop-  ment i s e n c o u r a g e d . The R o s s l a n d - T r a i l R e g i o n h a s a v a l u a b l e r e s o u r c e i n its recreation potential.  The w i n t e r s p o r t s a c t i v i t i e s o f  Rossland appear p a r t i c u l a r l y a t t r a c t i v e ment.  f o r further  develop-  T h e s e s k i a c t i v i t i e s c o u l d be e x p a n d e d a n d o p e r a t e d  more e f f i c i e n t l y .  The M i n i s t e r o f P a r k s a n d R e c r e a t i o n i s  s t u d y i n g t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f a comprehensive park development programme i n t h e R e g i o n .  S u c h a programme must  consider a l l  types of park development. T h e r e a r e good m i n e r a l r e s o u r c e s i n t h e R e g i o n . number o f s m a l l m i n e s h a v e r e c e n t l y b e e n o p e r a t i n g . R o s s l a n d m i n e s a r e owned b y C o m i n c o who some t w e n t y y e a r s .  A  The o l d  h a s c l o s e d them f o r  Cominco e x p e r t s b e l i e v e any  exploration  210  i n the mines would be h i g h l y s p e c u l a t i v e .  Leasing operations  i n 1 9 3 4 y i e l d e d one m i l l i o n d o l l a r s before the mines were closed by Cominco.  New e x p l o r a t i o n methods of today could  be used i n these mines.  I t may be p o s s i b l e to plan a mining  community so that i t can have more s t a b i l i t y than mining towns have had i n the past.  E a r l y farms along the Columbia  R i v e r were destroyed by smelter fumes.  The s o i l s were eroded  and the farms were abandoned.  Some good farm s o i l s s t i l l do  e x i s t however, i n the Region.  There i s a good market f o r cer-  t a i n farm products i n the Region i t s e l f . The f o r e s t resources of the area should be operated on a sustained y i e l d b a s i s f o r the l o c a l and export markets. An example of good f o r e s t management f o r one area was outlined. ing.  Much of the fume-damaged f o r e s t areas needed r e p l a n t Cominco has planted s p e c i a l r e s i s t a n t species on the  badly eroded s o i l s near i t s p l a n t s .  Celgar Development has  obtained a f o r e s t management l i c e n c e which covers part of the Region's f o r e s t s .  They have a large sawmill i n Castlegar and  have a l s o begun to b u i l d a large pulp m i l l .  This i s the f i r s t  i n d u s t r y that has d i v e r s i f i e d and strengthened the economic base of the Region. The Region has a number of power dams which have an excess of e l e c t r i c power p o t e n t i a l . exist.  Many good dam s i t e s a l s o  Industry such as the electro-shemical types could  l o c a t e i n the area w i t h good advantage. There are opportunit i e s f o r f i n i s h e d goods industry as w e l l as s a t e l l i t e and  211  consumers goods i n d u s t r i e s .  There are good i n d u s t r i a l s i t e s .  on the l a r g e r i v e r benches above and below T r a i l . Much of the success of t h i s Region depends upon the u n i t y of the people.  I f the people of the Region could deve-  lop a r e g i o n a l sentiment l i k e t h e i r pioneering f o r e f a t h e r s , the Region would be able t o achieve almost any goal i n r e g i o n a l development. C. Economic Expansion and D i v e r s i f i c a t i o n A community or a region may expand i t s economic base by adding new commerce and i n d u s t r y . munity or r e g i o n a l income.  This increases the com-  A m u l t i p l i e r e f f e c t created by  investment i n an i n d u s t r i a l a c t i v i t y can increase income and investment by i n c r e a s i n g s e r v i c e i n d u s t r i e s as a complementary effect.  A large number of studies of the economic base  have shown the methods and e f f e c t of economic base expansion. The e f f e c t of new i n d u s t r y on municipal revenues i s t o improve them. The new M u n i c i p a l Act provides the l e g a l machinery that w i l l enable a c o u n c i l to expand i t s economic base.  A  s e l e c t i v e programme of expansion i s desired to obtain indust r i e s that are most advantageous t o a p a r t i c u l a r Region. A region's economic base should be d i v e r s i f i e d .  The  Region and i t s communities are b e t t e r able t o withstand economic f l u c t u a t i o n s i f t h e i r base i s d i v e r s i f i e d since i t depends on not j u s t one industry but many.  C r i t e r i a of s e l e c t i o n  212 s h o u l d be:  select industry that  economic changes; tial;  the  i t s h o u l d be  must be  stable  tuations;  industry  e f f i c i e n t and  s h o u l d be  as  e l e c t r i c a l m a c h i n e r y , and  the  instruments,  above The  not  c y c l i c a l and  seasonal  and  s i z e s rather than just  i r o n and  steel and  similar  the  sought;  of various  to  productive;  a b a l a n c e b e t w e e n d u r a b l e and  be  tific  vulnerable  s h o u l d have good g r o w t h p o t e n -  so as t o w i t h s t a n d  types of industry  plastics,  i s not  one.  fluc-  n o n - d u r a b l e good the  i n d u s t r i e s should  Industries  equipment, r a d i o s ,  fabrication,  industry  such  television,  p r o f e s s i o n a l and  scien-  c h e m i c a l s h a v e p r o v e n t o h a v e most  of  qualities. l o c a l communities of t h e , R o s s l a n d - T r a i l  expand t h e i r  economic s t r u c t u r e w i t h b a s i c  Region need  industry.  These communities p e r f o r m a u s e f u l f u n c t i o n f o r the  greater  work r e g i o n .  industry  could  locate  fit.  The  S m a l l b u s i n e s s e s and  s u c c e s s f u l l y i n these communities to t h e i r  c i t i e s o f R o s s l a n d and  e x c e l l e n t f a c i l i t i e s f o r such The  i s at the  only major i n d u s t r y  I t s products are diversification. different  bene-  T r a i l , f o r example, have  expansion.  r e a l n e e d f o r e x p a n s i o n and  economic s t r u c t u r e i s the  s e r v i c e t y p e s Of  d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n of  regional l e v e l .  i n the  d i v e r s i f i e d and  Region aside  Today Cominco from  i t i s encouraging  However, f o r t h e  Celgar. further  b e s t s t a b i l i t y , new  i n d u s t r y i s needed f o r the  Region.  the  and  213 D.  A Planning  Administration  T h e r e i s no  s i n g l e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n the  T r a i l R e g i o n t h a t c o u l d c a r r y o u t any i n g a s has  been suggested.  a r e d i v e r s e i n f u n c t i o n and o f c o n t r o l i s shown b y The  The  ^ossland-  effective regional plan-  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s t h a t do  area of j u r i s d i c t i o n .  The  l e g i s l a t i o n under the M u n i c i p a l Act p r o v i d e s  the establishment  lack  the haphazard development i n t h e  i d e a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n w o u l d be a r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g  Planning  exist  o f s u c h an a u t h o r i t y .  The  Act needs  area.  board. for revi-  s i o n , h o w e v e r , t o g i v e t h i s a u t h o r i t y some power s i m i l a r what i s p r o v i d e d Act.  Rural  I n t h e R o s s l a n d - T r a i l R e g i o n a c t i o n by  people,  and  planning  Planning  governments,  companies, i s needed t o e s t a b l i s h a r e g i o n a l  authority.  gion f a i l e d . and  u n d e r t h e A l b e r t a Town a n d  to  An  e a r l i e r a t t e m p t t o do  There i s a g r e a t need f o r s t r o n g  so i n t h i s  Re-  leadership  i n f l u e n c e to enable a r e g i o n a l planning a u t h o r i t y to  be-  come e s t a b l i s h e d . E.  Improving Municipal  Finances  A number o f m e t h o d s o f i m p r o v i n g  municipal  finances  w h i c h c o u l d a s s i s t t h e R e g i o n as a whole were d i s c u s s e d . property  t a x , f o r e x a m p l e , c o u l d be  t h e t a x b u r d e n on p r o p e r t y t a x may  owners o n l y .  y i e l d more r e v e n u e b u t  minister f a i r l y . c a r , o r gas  an  A general  i t w o u l d be  A number o f new  t a x c o u l d be  i n c r e a s e d but t h i s  effective aid.  places  property  impossible to  municipal taxes  The  such as  An a d j u s t m e n t  ada of  214 m u n i c i p a l - p r o v i n c i a l r e l a t i o n s w o u l d be h e l p f u l t o t h e s e m u n i t i e s but vince.  such r e f o r m  c a n o n l y be  by t h e  Crown p r o p e r t y c o u l d be t a x e d a t a n o m i n a l  Finally,  the Province could accept  for certain social The  a larger  Checking  entirely  e x p e n d i t u r e s and  one  plan-  a l s o s a v e m u n i c i p a l i t i e s a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount  of revenue.  Communities s h o u l d adopt a sound system of  t a l budgeting. The  rate.  responsibility  problem of m u n i c i p a l revenues i s not  n i n g them may  Pro-  services.  o f o b t a i n i n g more r e v e n u e s .  S u c h a b u d g e t was  Gordon Commission has  t a x e s and b o r r o w i n g likely  undertaken  com-  discussed. suggested  to a i d m u n i c i p a l i t i e s .  an  increase i n  This w i l l  not  improve the fundamental l a c k of revenue sources  municipalities  capi-  for  however.  I n d u s t r y c a n a s s i s t t h e R o s s l a n d - T r a i l R e g i o n by i n g t h e i n d u s t r i a l p r o p e r t y t a x r e v e n u e s i n T a d a n a c on  sharthe  b a s i s o f t h e number o f e m p l o y e e s e a c h c o m m u n i t y p r o v i d e s Cominco.  Cominco does a i d t h e  i n other s o c i a l f i n a n c i n g .  d i s t r i c t now  T h i s s h o u l d be  communities t h a t provide the  industry with  i n schools  to  and  extended to a l l employees.  T h e r e i s a r e a l n e e d f o r j o i n t m u n i c i p a l a c t i o n on many o f t h e p r o b l e m s i n t h e R e g i o n . and  housing  Water, sewer, highways,  c o u l d be more e f f i c i e n t l y p l a n n e d  f o r as a  unit.  A m a l g a m a t i o n o r a n n e x a t i o n .as a method o f j o i n t a c t i o n w o u l d be  almost  field,  impossible to achieve  Trail,  T a d a n a c , and  i n the Region.  perhaps Rossland  Still,  are r e a l l y  Warone  215 city.  The a d o p t i o n  o f an ad hoc a u t h o r i t y c o u l d  administer  sewer and water problems, f o r example, on a j o i n t b a s i s . m e t r o p o l i t a n government would g i v e t h e core a r e a a r e a l f o r a c t i o n i f t h i s were p o l i t i c a l l y  possible.  A unity  216  CHAPTER V SOME GENERAL CONCLUSIONS FOR A P P L I C A T I O N I n t h e a n a l y s i s o f problems i n t h e R o s s l a n d - T r a i l Reg i o n and i n v a r i o u s  p r o p o s e d s o l u t i o n s a number o f f a c t o r s  have been d i s c u s s e d  which deserve s p e c i a l  consideration.  B e c a u s e o f t h e i r n a t u r e t h e s e f a c t o r s a p p e a r t o be t h e k i n d t h a t can apply  generally  i n t h e study o f s i n g l e  communities o f settlements.  enterprise  For t h i s reason i t i s believed  t h a t t h e s e p a r t i c u l a r f a c t o r s d e s e r v e t o be s u m m a r i z e d a n d considered  separately.  channels o f thought.  They l o g i c a l l y  i n t o t e n main  F o r convenience and c l a r i t y each o f  these t e n channels w i l l  1.  fall  be d i s c u s s e d  as a planning  principle.  THE P R I N C I P L E OF A REGIONAL PLANNING APPROACH  The  single enterprise reflects  i t s success o r f a i l u r e  upon a l l a s p e c t s o f u r b a n a n d r u r a l l i v i n g w i t h i n t h e r e g i o n where i t i s dominant. creates, sical, a ty  To f u l l y a s s e s s t h e p r o b l e m s i t  i t i s n e c e s s a r y t h e n t o examine a l l t h e s o c i a l ,  and economic a s p e c t s o f l i f e  within that region.  s i m i l a r way a l l t h e p r o b l e m s o f a s i n g l e e n t e r p r i s e of settlements  c a n n o t be s o l v e d b y a p u r e l y  approach i n i s o l a t i o n from v a l i d  p h y '.In  communi-  economic  s o c i a l and p h y s i c i a l c o n s i -  217 derations.  I t i s t h e r e f o r e e s s e n t i a l t o have a c o m p r e h e n s i v e  approach i n studying t h e problem o f t h e s i n g l e e n t e r p r i s e . S i n c e t h e s u r v e y a n d t h e a n a l y s i s s h o u l d be c o m p r e h e n s i v e , it  appears l i k e l y t h a t t h e r e g i o n a l planner  i s best  qualified  t o e x a m i n e t h e p r o b l e m o f the. s i n g l e e n t e r p r i s e i n o r d e r t o a r r i v e a t s o l u t i o n s which w i l l produce t h e best r e s u l t s f o r a l l t h e people  i n a p a r t i c u l a r community o f s e t t l e m e n t s .  A c t i v i t i e s a n d s e t t l e m e n t s t e n d t o l o c a t e where e c o n o m i c conditions are favorable. unfavorable located.  When e c o n o m i c c o n d i t i o n s become  these a c t i v i t i e s and s e t t l e m e n t s a r e o f t e n  I t i sb e l i e v e d that r e g i o n a l planning a c t i o n can  a l t e r , t o some e x t e n t , t h e s e u n f a v o r a b l e trends.  dis-  b u t v e r y common  S u c h a c t i o n may t h e r e f o r e p r e v e n t  depressions  drastic  economic  o r complete c o l l a p s e o f a s i n g l e e n t e r p r i s e i f  action i s taken  soon enough.  This Thesis has demonstrated  what m e a s u r e s r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g c a n t a k e t o do t h i s . 2. THE P R I N C I P L E OF THE PHYSICAL HABITAT Many o f t h e p r o b l e m s o f a s i n g l e e n t e r p r i s e c o m m u n i t y of settlements r e s u l t from t h e uncoordinated i n d u s t r y and i t s r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s . i s often planned s i m p l y grow. dential  growth o f i t s  The i n d u a t r i a l  growth  but t h e r e s i d e n t i a l areas a r e not and j u s t  A c o m p l e t e community w i t h i n d u s t r i a l a n d r e s i -  s i t e s s h o u l d be d e s i g n e d  winh e n g i n e e r s , a r c h i t e c t s , possible, the industrial  by a p l a n n e r i n c o n s u l t a t i o n  economists,  site  and s o c i o l o g i s t s .  I f  c o u l d be s e l e c t e d i n r e l a t i o n  218  to  an e x i s t i n g  of u t i l i t i e s ing  s e t t l e m e n t f o r " j o i n t p l a n n i n g and  and  transportation f a c i l i t i e s .  community can p r o v i d e a b e t t e r l e v e l  e c o n o m i c a l l y t h a n an e n t i r e l y new  joint  O f t e n an  ted  i n the  pated. 15%  communities.  community c o u l d .  A s u f f i c i e n t area  exist-  o f s e r v i c e s more Industry  should t h e r e f o r e c o n s i d e r the advantage of l o c a t i n g existing  s h o u l d be  near incorpora-  community t o accomodate t h e f u t u r e g r o w t h  S i t e s i n low l y i n g f l o o d areas,  -  use  on  s l o p e ) , o r on u n s t a b l e b a s e s s h o u l d be  antici-  steep ground  (over  avoided.  P h o t o g r a p h 3 1 , on page 2 1 9 , i l l u s t r a t e s w h a t h a p p e n e d to  t h e t o w n o f F r a n k when i t was  l o c a t e d without  sufficient  regard f o r the surrounding p h y s i c a l f e a t u r e s of the h a b i t a t . A g i g a n t i c wedge o f l i m e s t o n e b u r i e d t h e t o w n u n d e r n i n e t y m i l l i o n tons of rock w i t h i n Residential  100  seconds i n  s i t e s s h o u l d be  1903•  s e p a r a t e d f r o m an  i n d u s t r y by an e f f e c t i v e b e l t o f g r e e n a r e a . sites  s h o u l d be  noxious  fumes.  The  obnoxious  residential  on t h e u p w i n d s i d e o f i n d u s t r y t h a t  emits  Industry should c o n t r o l the emission  o f fumes  so t h a t t h e l e a s t p o s s i b l e a n n o y a n c e o r damage r e s u l t s . s e l e c t i n g r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s due  considerations should  given to the n a t u r a l amenities of the  site,  such  as  i n s o l a t i o n , n a t u r a l park a r e a s , and w a t e r b o d i e s . b u i l d i n g s and  utilities  In  be  view, Temporary  s h o u l d n o t ^ c o n s t r u c t e d on t h e  perma-  n e n t t o w n s i t e s i n c e t h e y have a h a b i t o f becoming permanent. A good s t a n d a r d o f c o n s t r u c t i o n t h a t f o l l o w s a t o w n p l a n s h o u l d be  established.  The  reasonable  i n d u s t r y s h o u l d assume  219 t h e i n i t i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f s e e i n g t h a t town development a t l e a s t b e g i n s on a planned b a s i s s i n c e t h e w e l f a r e o f t h e i r employees a t home as w e l l as a t work has i n f l u e n c e on t h e s u c c e s s f u l and e f f i c i e n t o p e r a t i o n o f t h e i n d u s t r y .  Photograph 31 THE TOWN OF FRANK Source:  Photograph by t h e Author i n J u l y , 1 9 5 3 .  3. A PRINCIPLE FOR REGIONAL DELIMITATION "... we may c h a r a c t e r i z e r e g i o n a l i s m as t o o l and t e c h nique f o r v a r i o u s o f j e c t i v e s of p l a n n i n g . . . . " !  The concept  of r e g i o n a l i s m can be used as a t e c h n i q u e i n a p l a n n i n g sis  analy-  o f a s i n g l e e n t e r p r i s e community t o e s t a b l i s h t h e a r e a  Howard W. Odum, and Harry E s t i l l Moore, American R e g i o n a l i s m , (New York: Henery H o l t , 1938), P a r t I , p. 640.  220  i n f l u e n c e d by i t .  Once r e g i o n a l b o u n d a r i e s are l o c a t e d by  v a r i o u s c r i t e r i a i t i s t h e n p o s s i b l e t o a n a l y z e the  problems  w i t h i n t h i s l i m i t e d a r e a and t o e x c l u d e i r r e l e v a n t a r e a s and problems. may  The f o l l o w i n g procedure of r e g i o n a l d e l i m i t a t i o n  be used.  S i n c e t h e e f f e c t s of the s i n g l e e n t e r p r i s e a r e  r e f l e c t e d t h r o u g h the medium o f p h y s i c a l , s o c i a l ,  and economic  changes on t h e h i n t e r l a n d r e g i o n , t h e c r i t e r i a o f d e l i n e a t i o n were determined by the degree o f t h e s e e f f e c t s caused by s p e c i f i c f a c t o r s o r i g i n a t i n g a t the s i n g l e e n t e r p r i s e the c e n t r a l c i t y t h a t c o n t a i n e d i t .  and  The g r e a t e s t e f f e c t upon  the h i n t e r l a n d r e s u l t s from t h e employment a c t i v i t i e s major e n t e r p r i s e and t h e c e n t r a l c i t y .  of the  A r e a s where over  50% of the l a b o r f o r c e depend upon the major e n t e r p r i s e o r c e n t r a l c i t y f o r employment can be c o n s i d e r e d as a p a r t o f t h e r e g i o n dominated by t h a t e n t e r p r i s e .  P e o p l e from the  h i n t e r l a n d t r a v e l t o the c e n t r a l c i t y t o shop, t o p l a y , t o use f a c i l i t i e s and t o c o n s u l t p r o f e s s i o n a l p e r s o n s . be c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s  I t may  locate i n the c e n t r a l  c i t y t o serve t h e people o f t h e e n t i r e r e g i o n .  I t can o f t e n  be assumed t h a t people g e n e r a l l y t r a v e l t o t h e n e a r e s t c i t y t h a t p r o v i d e s t h e needed goods and s e r v i c e s .  An  approximate  r e g i o n a l boundary can be d e l i n e a t e d by b i s e c t i n g t h e  distance  between those c e n t e r s s u r r o u n d i n g the c e n t r a l c i t y t h a t o f f e r s i m i l a r goods and s e r v i c e s and t h e n j o i n i n g t h e s e point:! o f bisection.  I n o r d e r t o determine t h e e x a c t l o c a t i o n o f r e g i o n -  a l b o u n d a r i e s t h e topography  s h o u l d be examined.  The h e i g h t  221 of l a n d n e a r e s t t o t h e s e b o u n d a r i e s t h a t e n c l o s e t h e a r e a s d e l i n e a t e d by t h e o t h e r c r i t e r i a s e r v e s Very w e l l , f o r t h i s purpose.  This n a t u r a l c r i t e r i a o f . d e l i m i t a t i o n also encloses  t h o s e p h y s i c a l elements o f t h e a r e a such as t h e 'streams o f w a t e r , l a n d a r e a s , f o r e s t s , r o a d s , and r e s o u r c e s which a r e more t h e concern o f t h e people o o n t a i n e d i n t h a t n a t u r a l R e g i o n t h a n any o t h e r .  N a t u r a l b o u n d a r i e s may be a l t e r e d  by a d m i n i s t r a t i v e b o u n d a r i e s such as t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l boundary  s i n c e t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f a s i n g l e e n t e r p r i s e do n o t s u f f i -  c i e n t l y i n f l u e n c e t h e a r e a beyond such b o r d e r s and f o r most purposes such b o r d e r s a r e a l i m i t t o normal p l a n n i n g j u r i s diction.  The exact l o c a t i o n o f r e g i o n a l b o u n d a r i e s can be  d e t e r m i n e d by a s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s undertaken by f i e l d i n vestigation.  T h i s a n a l y s i s would e s t a b l i s h t h e number o f  t r i p s made t o a c e n t r a l c i t y f o r work, p r o f e s s i o n a l , s e r v i c e , r e c r e a t i o n , o r a major purchase by t h e m a j o r i t y o f p e o p l e o f the v a r i o u s communities. t h o s e communities  When t h i s number i s over 50% t h e n  s h o u l d be i n c l u d e d i n t h e Region o f t h a t  particular central c i t y .  The area t h a t i s v e r y s t r o n g l y i n -  f l u e n c e d by a s i n g l e e n t e r p r i s e may be d e l i n e a t e d as t h e regional core.  Here t h e i n f l u e n c e i s most i n t e n s e and over  90% o f t h e t r i p s w i t h i n t h i s a r e a a r e made t o t h e c e n t r a l city.  (  In t h e p r o c e s s o f d e l i m i t a t i o n i t may be f o u n d t h a t sub-dominant c e n t e r s i n t h e h i n t e r l a n d may have systems o f s e t t l e m e n t s o r i e n t e d upon them.  These systems, however, may  222 be f o u n d t o be o r i e n t e d a g a i n These try  sub-dominant  centers  t o the dominant  regional  o f t e n have n u c l e i o f m i n o r  center. indus-  and commerce w h i c h a t t r a c t a s y s t e m o f s a t e l l i t e s .  s y s t e m s may  have l a r g e r e s i d e n t i a l n u c l e i w i t h minor  c i a l b u t no i n d u s t r i a l a c t i v i t y .  commer-  Only a few s a t e l l i t e  m e n t s a r e o r i e n t e d on a n o l d n u c l e u s . t e r i z e d b y new  Old  New  settle-  systems a r e c h a r a c -  b a s i c i n d u s t r y , commerce, a n d l e s s  residential  a c t i v i t y a t t h e n u c l e u s as w e l l as numerous s m a l l  satellite  communities o r i e n t e d upon i t .  4. The  THE  P R I N C I P L E OF ECONOMIC DOMINANCE  economic  s t r u c t u r e of the s i n g l e e n t e r p r i s e  m u n i t y i s d o m i n a t e d by t h e m a j o r e n t e r p r i s e . i s t h e most c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f e a t u r e community.  It exhibits itself  t h i s only  of the s i n g l e  i n v a r i o u s ways.  a c t i v i t i e s a r e l o c a t e d i n one p a r t Beyond  This  of the c e n t r a l e n t e r p r i s e determines a p a t t e r n  dominance  enterprise A l l basic  of the region  s e r v i c e a c t i v i t i e s are found.  com-  o r community. The  dominance  of land  use.  I n d u s t r i a l and c o m m e r c i a l u s e s a r e f o u n d o n l y a t t h e s i t e the  s i n g l e enterprise or very  c l o s e t o i t . Beyond  r e s i d e n t i a l or minor commercial uses a r e found. a l s o shown b y t h e many w o r k e r s who basic hood.  depend  this  d i r e c t l y upon t h e  O t h e r employment a l s o d e p e n d s i n d i r e c t l y u p o n The  greatest  only  Dominance i s  employment a t t h e s i n g l e e n t e r p r i s e f o r t h e i r  basic p a y r o l l .  of  livelithis  concentrations of municipal  tax:  223 revenues a r e a l s o dominated by t h e s i n g l e e n t e r p r i s e .  But  with  enter-  t h i s d o m i n a n c e comes t h e m a j o r p r o b l e m o f s i n g l e  prise the  c o m m u n i t i e s -- o v e r - d e p e n d e n c e upon one a c t i v i t y .  fortunes  o f a c o m m u n i t y a r e t i e d t o one e n t e r p r i s e  that  community w i l l  self  does.  If then  s u f f e r and p r o s p e r as t h e e n t e r p r i s e i t -  5. THE P R I N C I P L E OF A REGIONAL LAND-USE BALANCE This enterprise exist  Thesis has pointed  out t h a t w i t h i n t h e s i n g l e  community o f s e t t l e m e n t s  a number o f i m b a l a n c e s  such as employment, l o c a t i o n o f a c t i v i t i e s ,  From a r e g i o n a l p e r s p e c t i v e balanced.  h o w e v e r , t h e s e i m b a l a n c e s become  Nature has created  land  i n a v a r i e t y of forms,  each o f which has c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h a t one  and revenues.  l a n d - u s e more t h a n a n o t h e r .  Rich  are i d e a l l y soils,  suited to  f o r example,  i n l a r g e areas a r e s u i t e d best t o a g r i c u l t u r e whereas tile the  g r a v e l s which are w e l l drained construction  of buildings.  infer-  and s t a b l e a r e s u i t e d t o  Settlement patterns  do n o t  f o l l o w e n t i r e l y such i d e a l n a t u r a l l a n d uses but r a t h e r , t o be i n f l u e n c e d  by chance, c o n v e n i e n c e , n e a r n e s s t o a  o r some o t h e r r e a s o n . those created  By c o n s i d e r i n g  b y man, p a r c e l s  of land  tend resource,  t h e i u a t u r a l f a c t o r s and still  have a s a r e s u l t ,  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h a t make t h e m s u i t a b l e t o a p a r t i c u l a r l a n d use  activity.  Very often the uses that  e x i s t today i n s e t t l e -  ments a r e a r e s u l t o f t h e i n t e r p l a y o f a l l t h e s e  various  224  factors.  Thus we have an area best s u i t e d to i n d u s t r i a l  use,  another best s u i t e d f o r r e s i d e n t i a l , another f o r commercial, and s t i l l another f o r park use.  Each such land-use performs  i t s own p a r t i c u l a r functions i n the greater region f o r the good of a l l and i s as important to the successful of that region as any of the other land-uses.  operation  In a s i n g l e  e n t e r p r i s e region these areas or communities of p a r t i c u l a r land-use may settlements.  f u n c t i o n together as one l a r g e r community of Thus a r e s i d e n t i a l community, an i n d u s t r i a l ,  a commercial, or a r e c r e a t i o n s l community h a s . i t s p a r t i c u l a r r o l e i n the greater region or community of settlements.  Each  community should receive a share of the r e g i o n a l income i n proportion to the usefulness  of i t s p a r t i c u l a r f u n c t i o n .  One  method of doing t h i s i s to share the i n d u s t r i a l tax revenues with a l l the r e g i o n a l communities by the number of basic workers provided to the basic industry by each community.  6.  THE  PRINCIPLE OF ECONOMIC EXPANSION DIVERSIFICATION IN A REGION  AND  A s i n g l e e n t e r p r i s e economy has many problems.  Very  often the sale of the primary export good depends on world markets.  The actions of a world market are beyond the c o n t r o l  even of the nation i t s e l f .  World a f f a i r s constantly a f f e c t  the p r i c e s of these products and thereby the l o c a l r e g i o n a l economy around that e n t e r p r i s e . ably keen between nations.  Competition can be unreason-  A s i n g l e enterprise that depends  225  upon a v o l a t i l e resource i s vulnerable to depressions. i s p a r t i c u l a r l y true of a mining community.  This  In times of  economic depression f o r the product of a s i n g l e e n t e r p r i s e , the e n t i r e region dependent upon t h a t e n t e r p r i s e s u f f e r s .  In  times of seasonal depressions the r e g i o n can a l s o s u f f e r to a l e s s e r degree.  These depressions are r e f l e c t e d by employ-  ment r e d u c t i o n s . The theory of economic expansion can be a p p l i e d t o overcome t h i s v u l n e r a b i l i t y .  An expanded economic base com-  posed of more than one i n d u s t r y or business can create employment;  increase r e g i o n a l income and p r o s p e r i t y ;  adverse economic e f f e c t s ;  and develop:the r e g i o n .  counter The good  e f f e c t of economic base expansion can be m u l t i p l i e d many times depending upon the b a s i c worker t o service worker fcatio and the people's marginal propensity to consume.  The theory  of economic d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n can be a p p l i e d t o strengthen the economic structure of a s i n g l e e n t e r p r i s e community against economic f l u c t u a t i o n s .  This i s done by a s e l e c t i v e choice of  i n d u s t r y that i s not vulnerable t o s i m i l a r economic f l u c t u a tions;  i s a stable type;  has a balance of durable and non-  durable i n d u s t r y ; and has a v a r i e t y of i n d u s t r i a l s i z e s . The expansion of the economic base of a small community w i t h i n a region i s not f e a s i b l e .  The expansion of c e r t a i n t e r -  t i a r y f u n c t i o n s can be achieved w i t h good e f f e c t .  The optimum  economic expansion and d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n i s planned f o r the  226  region to benefit a l l of the region ty.  a n d n o t j u s t one communi-  T h i s r e q u i r e s more t h a n a n e x p a n s i o n a n d d i v e r s i t y o f  mere p r o d u c t s .  A number o f d i f f e r e n t i n d e p e n d e n t b a s i c  indus-  t r i e s are required.  7.  THE P R I N C I P L E OF RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT  A s i n g l e e n t e r p r i s e economy h a s i t s one i n d u s t r y o r resource sources ed.  developed a t t h e expense o f a l l o t h e r n a t u r a l r e i n the region.  The r e s o u r c e s  maximum. balanced  This  Most o f t h e r e g i o n r e m a i n s  of the region  s h o u l d be d e v e l o p e d t o t h e i r  s h o u l d ' b e done i n a way t h a t w i l l  and i n t e g r a t e d economic s t r u c t u r e .  r e g i o n becomes more s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t ports.  The r e g i o n may e n j o y  undevelop-  give a  I n t h i s way t h e  and r e q u i r e s fewer im-  greater prosperity.  The  resources  o f a s i n g l e e n t e r p r i s e c o m m u n i t y c a n be d e v e l o p e d so t h e e c o n omic b a s e o f t h e r e g i o n i s e x p a n d e d a n d d i v e r s i f i e d . will  strengthen  t h e e c o n o m i c s t r u c t u r e so t h a t t h e r e g i o n  be a b l e t o w i t h s t a n d little  This  i l l effect.  will  a n y e c o n o m i c f l u c t u a t i o n s w i t h v e r y ...... D i v e r s i f i c a t i o n and e x p a n s i o n o f t h e  goods p r o d u c e d by t h e major i n d u s t r y i s n o t s u f f i c i e n t t o s t a b i l i z e t h e economy.  Resources w i t h a l i m i t e d p o t e n t i a l  may be d e v e l o p e d f o r l o c a l u s e w h i l e t h o s e  with  considerable  p o t e n t i a l may be d e v e l o p e d f o r e x p o r t . Generally the resources tinuous  s h o u l d be d e v e l o p e d s o a c o n -  a n n u a l y i e l d may be p r o d u c e d .  This w i l l  ensure the  227  conservation of resources and at the same time ensure t h e i r full utilization.  The quantity of y i e l d w i l l vary w i t h the  product and the resource p o t e n t i a l .  The best a g r i c u l t u r a l  p r a c t i c e s should be adopted so a s u i t a b l e crop i s grown on a s u i t a b l e s o i l without the danger of d e p l e t i n g the of the s o i l s . yield basis.  fertility  The f o r e s t s should be managed on a sustained The optimum development would have the net  increment of growth on the e n t i r e stand equal to the annual cut.  The mineral resources should not be e x p l o i t e d a l l at  one time. gated.  Methods of s t a b i l i z i n g output should be i n v e s t i -  H y d r o - e l e c t r i c p o t e n t i a l should be expanded but only  as the demand f o r power i s created.  The water resources  should a l s o be developed to give f l o o d c o n t r o l , i r r i g a t i o n . , and a good domestic supply of water as w e l l as power.  Poten-  t i a l i n d u s t r i a l , r e c r e a t i o n a l , and r e s i d e n t i a l s i t e s should be developed i n accordance with a sound r e g i o n a l master p l a n . I t i s important that a s i n g l e e n t e r p r i s e community of s e t t l e ments develop a l l i t s resources. Because they sinned against the u n i t y of nature, because they developed some one resource without regard to i t s r e l a t i o n t o every other resource i n the l i f e of man, ancient c i v i l i z a t i o n s have f a l l e n i n t o decay and l i e buried i n o b l i v i o n . Everywhere i n the world the t r a i l of unbalanced resource development i s marked by poverty, where p r o s p e r i t y seemed assured by u g l i n e s s and desolat i o n , w i t h towns now dying that once were t h r i v i n g ; by land that once supported gracious l i v i n g now eroded and bare and over wide areas the c h i l l of death to the ambit i o n s of the e n t e r p r i s i n g young and to the s e c u r i t y of the mature. David E. L i l i e n t h a l , TVA  (Tennessee V a l l e y A u t h o r i t y ) ,  228  8. THE PRINCIPLE OF CITIZEN PARTICIPATION A s i n g l e enterprise community of settlements generates many s o c i a l problems.  The i n d u s t r y often encourages the  immigration o f people that w i l l provide a cheap labor supply. These immigrants often l i v e i n groups W  which they segregate  themselves from the r e s t of the community.  Each group main-  t a i n s i t s own language, b e l i e f s , and customs. a s s i m i l a t i o n i s slow.  The process of  The p o s i t i o n of the employees i n the .  hierarchy of a s i n g l e e n t e r p r i s e determines h i s s o c i a l rank i n the community.  This s t r a t i f i c a t i o n can produce antagonisms.  The people t r y t o escape from the s o c i a l regimentation of the s i n g l e enterprise by l i v i n g i n s a t e l l i t e communities, f a r removed from the i n d u s t r y .  The people express t h e i r desire  f o r independence i n l o c a l community a f f a i r s .  These communities  become very independent i n t h e i r a f f a i r s -- other than employment.  Company dominance may also produce an apathy i n the  l o c a l c i t i z e n r y who have been dominated and guided too long by the major e n t e r p r i s e .  Transients may comprise a l a r g e  part of the population. The people of such a s i n g l e e n t e r p r i s e community are thus d i v i d e d i n t o many groups with many s o c i a l problems. I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o obtain a r e g i o n a l sentiment or a f e e l i n g of  Democracy on the March, (New York: Penguin Books, 1945 edition), p. 78.  229  u n i t y i n the face of these s o c i a l o b s t a c l e s .  The type of  r e g i o n a l sentiment that i s needed i s the type of pioneering s p i r i t that founded the f i r s t e a r l y community i n the w i l d s of t h i s area many years ago.  Such a sentiment would give the  region strength and s o l i d a r i t y .  This i s the sentiment which  must be nurtured on a r e g i o n a l l e v e l .  The Tennessee V a l l e y  Authority has shown c l e a r l y that a r e g i o n a l p r o j e c t can  only  become a r e a l i t y i f the people have a r e g i o n a l sentiment to p a r t i c i p a t e i n , and to help plan the p r o j e c t .  The  ideas, and support of the c i t i z e n s i s perhaps the resource a region can possess. harness t h i s p o t e n t i a l resource.  energy, strongest  But the problem i s how  to  People can only become  u n i f i e d and attached to a p r o j e c t i f i t can show to each i n d i v i d u a l that h i s ideas and help do have a part and a meaning i n the p r o j e c t and that the p r o j e c t w i l l take account of h i s i n d i v i d u a l needs.  Regional planning should be planning f o r  the people of the region and by the people of the r e g i o n . There i s no a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , other than r e g i o n a l planning, can perform these t a s k s . Canada.  that  There i s no r e g i o n a l government i n  Industry r a r e l y does and seldom can undertake r e g i o n -  a l planning.  The l o c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s are obsolete.  The  re-  g i o n a l power e l i t e i s more concerned with i t s own needs than those of the region.  A r e g i o n a l planning a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i s  therefore the c h i e f hope of u t i l i z i n g the human resource.  230  9. THE P R I N C I P L E OF LIMITED J U R I S D I C T I O N F o r many y e a r s c o m m u n i t i e s  i n B r i t i s h Columbia  have  grown i n d e p e n d e n t l y a n d i n r e l a t i v e i s o l a t i o n f r o m one a n o t h e r . The  m u n i c i p a l i n s t i t u t i o n was o r i g i n a l l y  r u r a l and s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t  populations.  these m u n i c i p a l i t i e s have changed. b a n i z a t i o n have p r o d u c e d populations.  designed t o serve Conditions today i n  I n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n and u r -  a great increase i n these m u n i c i p a l  The g r e a t i m p r o v e m e n t s i n t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  put a l l communities  have  i n c l o s e r c o n t a c t w i t h each o t h e r a s w e l l  a s t h e i r own h i n t e r l a n d r e g i o n s .  The e f f e c t s o f t h e s e  changes  c a n be n o t e d b y t h e i n c r e a s e d p r o b l e m s a n d n e e d s o f t h e m u n i c i p a l i t i e s a s w e l l a s t h e i r i n c r e a s i n g i n a b i l i t y , t o cope w i t h the problems and p r o v i d e f o r t h e needs.  Some o f t h e s e  I n v o l v e a r e a s beyond t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y ' s l e g a l l i m i t s . needs i n c l u d e water,  sewage o u t f a l l s ,  s i t e s , a n d many o t h e r s i m i l a r r e g i o n a l m a t t e r s .  building  But t h e i n -  i s t o p r o v i d e t h e s e needs i s a d m i n i s t e r -  ed b y t h e P r o v i n c e .  T h e r e i s no m i d d l e t i e r  ment o v e r t h e d i s t r i c t  of local  govern-  despite t h e large populations t h a t are  sometimes found i n t h e s e u n o r g a n i z e d a r e a s .  On t h e o t h e r h a n d '  t h e p r o v i n c i a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n t h e s e a r e a s i s weak. range  Such  v a r i o u s raw m a t e r i a l s ,  food products, r e c r e a t i o n a l areas, l a b o r supplies,  t r a - c i t y area which  needs  Long  c o n t r o l from V i c t o r i a i s not e f f i c i e n t nor i s i t w e l l  acquainted with l o c a l  district  conditions.  There a r e a l i m i -  t e d number o f P r o v i n c i a l a d m i n i s t r a t o r s a v a i l a b l e a n d t h e y  231 exercise l i t t l e c o n t r o l .  Planning s e r v i c e s by the Province  f o r example, are provided by two planners^ f o r about 9 0 % of B r i t i s h Columbia's t o t a l land area.  The c i t y ' s h i n t e r l a n d  i s needed to provide some of the needs of the c i t y .  But the  c i t y and i t s h i n t e r l a n d are administered by two very d i f f e r ent and perhaps even c o n f l i c t i n g systems of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s that cannot coordinate development e f f i c i e n t l y on a d i s t r i c t or r e g i o n a l b a s i s .  The single e n t e r p r i s e community i s then  faced with the a d d i t i o n a l problem r e s u l t i n g from the l i m i t a t i o n s i n the j u r i s d i c t i o n of the municipal i n s t i t u t i o n , the s i n g l e e n t e r p r i s e i t s e l f , and the Province, i n areas beyond the c i t y .  10. THE PRINCIPLE OF A . REGIONAL PLANNING ADMINISTRATION The people of a c i t y no longer confine t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s to j u s t one community, or even two, but they now extend t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s throughout an e n t i r e r e g i o n .  Planning f o r such a  people must t h e r e f o r e be f o r an e n t i r e r e g i o n .  The m u l t i -  tudes of problems r e s u l t i n g from urban l i v i n g i n d i c a t e a need today f o r planning to prevent problems r a t h e r than j u s t p l a n ning to r e c t i f y the past mistakes.  Planning powers must be  extended beyond the urban area to undeveloped areas where  ^B.C. Division, of Community Planning A s s o c i a t i o n of Canada, Community Planning of B.C., E d i t o r i a l , ( V a n c o u v e r : lune, 1958),.  232  planning  m e a s u r e s can  This Thesis  be  has  pointed  the need of the  people;  established before  constantly to regional  expansion of the  as n e c e s s a r y f o r r e s o u r c e  s a r y t o a c t where l o c a l and ed.  T h e r e i s no  other  The  development;  and  as  i s better  Provincial Statutes  have g i v e n  shown i n i t i a t i v e  regional planning  w i s e t o amend t h e i r there  Province.  is still  and  p o w e r s --  The  statutes along  time to  the  planning direct  organization The  foresight in  other  equipped  T h e r e i s no  c o n c e i v e d o f on a c o m p r e h e n s i v e s c a l e .  o f A l b e r t a has full  the  fail-  organiza-  regional  b o a r d s l i m i t e d powers i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a .  i s not  neces^  p r o v i n c i a l governments have  administration that  power o f i m p l e m e n t a t i o n by  economy-  economic s t r u c -  t o undertake such d u t i e s than a r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g tion.  begins.  planningas  as n e c e s s a r y t o s t a b i l i z e the  t h r o u g h d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n and ture;  development  Provinces  Province providing  would  be  l i n e s of Alberta  while  plan.  RECAPITULATION No  known i n d u s t r i a l a c t i v i t y  economic d e p r e s s i o n s .  This Thesis  community o f s e t t l e m e n t s for  i t s basic  recessions  has  activity  s u f f e r from the itself  from  demonstrated t h a t  d e p e n d i n g u p o n j u s t one  employment w i l l  t h a t the  i s entirely free  activity  same e c o n o m i c  s u f f e r s from.  some a c t i v i t i e s f l u c t u a t e : • more t h a n o t h e r s .  a  However,  Some s u f f e r  233  while others prosper.  This Thesis has therefore shown that  a basic economic s t r u c t u r e b u i l t up from many r e l a t i v e l y s t a b l e selected a c t i v i t i e s and resources w i l l , on the average, be b e t t e r able to protect communities that depend upon such a basic economic s t r u c t u r e .  A serious recession or a f a i l u r e  i n any one a c t i v i t y w i l l not therefore cause a s i m i l a r recession or f a i l u r e f o r the e n t i r e community. demonstrated that s s i n g l e emterprise  This Thesis  has  community of s e t t l e -  ments should plan i t s a c t i v i t i e s to prevent ghost towns from developing as w e l l as lessen the i l l e f f e c t s r e s u l t i n g from economic f l u c t u a t i o n s . I t has been shown that a r e g i o n a l planning approach i s best able t o consider and produce s o l u t i o n s to t h i s important and complex problem c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the dependence upon a s i n g l e e n t e r p r i s e .  I t was f u r t h e r  shown that such an a n a l y s i s can provide information that i s of value to f u r t h e r study on the subject.  Finally,  the  Thesis has i n d i c a t e d that strong leadership of i n d i v i d u a l s or groups i s needed to s t i r the a c t i o n s of governments, of the s i n g l e e n t e r p r i s e , and of the people s u f f i c i e n t l y so that a r e g i o n a l planning a d m i n i s t r a t i o n w i l l be e s t a b l i s h e d as the f i r s t and best step towards an u l t i m a t e s o l u t i o n to the problem of the s i n g l e enterprise community of settlements.  BIBLIOGRAPHY  234 A.  BOOKS  Bogue, Donald. The S t r u c t u r e o f t h e M e t r o p o l i t a n Community. U n i v e r s i t y o f M i c h i g a n , 1949. The T h e o r y o f M e t r o p o l i t a n Dominance i s d i s c u s s e d . Dominance i s m e a s u r e d b y p o p u l a t i o n a n d f u n c t i o n s i n a metropolitan area. B o n b r i g h t , James C. New Y o r k : McGraw A t r e a t i s e on on t h e v a l u a t i o n tax.  The V a l u a t i o n o f H i l l , 1937. p p . the appraisal of f o r t a x purposes  Property. E d i t i o n One. 451-510. p r o p e r t y w i t h emphasis of the general property  Campbell, W i l l i a m G i l e s . Form and S t y l e i n T h e s i s W r i t i n g . B o s t o n : H o u g h t a n M i f f l i n , 1954. A d e t a i l e d study o f form and s t y l e i n Thesis w r i t i n g . C h r i s t a l l e r , Walter. Die Zentralen Orte i n Suddeutschland. J e n a , 1933. The f a t h e r o f t h e c e n t r a l p l a c e t h e o r y o u t l i n e s t h e b a s i c c o n c e p t s o f c e n t r a l i t y i n s o u t h e r n Germany. D a h i r , J a m e s . R e g i o n B u i l d i n g . New Y o r k : H a r p e r , 1955. A discussion of regionalism. C r a w f o r d , Kenneth, G r a n t . C a n a d i a n M u n i c i p a l Government. T o r o n t o : U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o P r e s s , 1955. A study o f l o c a l government i n Canada w i t h d i s c u s s i o n of problems and s o l u t i o n s . F r i e d r i c k , C a r l J o a c h i r n . (ed.) A l f r e d W e b e r ' s T h e o r y o f t h e Location o f Industry. E n g l i s h E d i t i o n . Chicago: Univers i t y o f C h i c a g o , 1929. C h a p t e r I e t p a s s i m . A discussion of basic factors i n industrial location. H a r r i s , Seymour E d w i n . The E c o n o m i c s o f New E n g l a n d . Camb r i d g e : H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1952. p p . 91-103 e t passim. An a n a l y s i s o f New E n g l a n d ' s r e g i o n a l e c o n o m i c b a s e . The i m p o r t - e x p o r t b a l a n c e i s a p p l i e d t o t h e r e g i o n . Howay, F.W. B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a From t h e E a r l i e s t T i m e s t o t h e Present. Volume I I . V a n c o u v e r : S . J . C l a r k e , 1914. T h i s h i s t o r i c a l s e r i e s h o l d s v a l u a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n on e a r l y B.C. h i s t o r y . Hunter, F l o y d . Community Power S t r u c t u r e , A S t u d y o f D e c i s i o n Makers. Chapel H i l l : U n i v e r s i t y o f North C a r o l i n a ,  235 1953. A s t u d y o f c o m m u n i t y power s t r u c t u r e . The s u r v e y t e c h n i q u e o f t h i s s t u d y was a p p l i e d i n R o s s l a n d — "Why P e o p l e L i v e I n R o s s l a n d " , by E.T. C l e g g . I s a r d , W a l t e r , a n d R o b e r t E. C o u g h l i n . U n i v e r s i t y o f P e n n s y l v a n i a . M u n i c i p a l C o s t s a n d R e v e n u e s R e s u l t i n g From Community G r o w t h . W e l l e s l e y , M a s s . : C h a n d l e r - D a v i s , 1957. P a r t I and I I . A d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s o f m u n i c i p a l c o s t s and r e v e n u e s . L a n g f o r d , G.B. Out o f t h e E a r t h . U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o Press, 1954. A g e n e r a l m i n i n g r e f e r e n c e f o r development o f the mineral resources. L i l i e n t h a l , D a v i d E. TVA — D e m o c r a c y on t h e M a r c h . New Y o r k : P e n g u i n B o o k s , 1954 edition. An o u t l i n e o f t h e w o r k o f t h e T e n n e s s e e V a l l e y A u t h o r i t y i n that Area. The i m p o r t a n t t e c h n i q u e s a r e d i s c u s s e d . L e o p o l d , A l d o . Game Management. New Y o r k : S c r i b n e r , 1953. A s t u d y on t h e management o f game a s a r e s o u r c e . Losch, August. The E c o n o m i c s o f L o c a t i o n . Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1954. A d i s c u s s i o n o f the s p a t i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e economy a s h e x a g o n a l . Mathews, Donald M a x w e l l . Mamagement o f A m e r i c a n F o r e s t s . First Edition. New Y o r k : McGraw H i l l , 1935. A s t u d y o f f o r e s t management. M c L a u g h l i n , G.F. a n d S. R o b o c k . Why I n d u s t r y M o v e s A discussion of i n d u s t r i a l location factors.  South.  M i l l s , C. W r i g h t . The Power E l i t e . New Y o r k : O x f o r d P r e s s , 1956. A s o c i o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s o f t h e g r e a t d e c i s i o n makers o f o u r t i m e . The p r e m i s e o f t h i s w o r k i s t h a t an e l i t e o f c o r p o r a t i o n , g o v e r n m e n t , a n d m i l i t a r y l e a d e r s make d e c i s i o n s i n w h i c h t h e p e o p l e and t h e i r p a r l i a m e n t have no p a r t . Odum, Howard W. and H a r r y E s t i l l M o o r e . A m e r i c a n R e g i o n a l i s m . New Y o r k : H e n e r y H o l t , 1938. P a r t I e t p a s s i m . A s t u d y o f t h e h i s t o r y and t h e o r y o f r e g i o n a l i s m . P r e s i d e n t s M a t e r i a l s P o l i c y C o m m i s s i o n . F o u n d a t i o n s £or G r o w t h and S e c u r i t y . Volume I o f R e s o u r c e s f o r F r e e d o m , A r e p o r t t o t h e P r e s i d e n t . 5 v o l u m e s ; W a s h i n g t o n : U.S.  236  P r i n t i n g O f f i c e . June, 1952. An evaluation of resources and the f u t u r e . Presidents M a t e r i a l s P o l i c y Commission. Resources f o r Freedom. V o l . I — Foundation f o r Growth and S e c u r i t y . V o l . I I -- The Outlook f o r Key Commodities. V o l . I l l - - The Outlook f o r Energy Sources. V o l . IV -- The Premise of Technology. V o l . V — Selected Reports t o the Commission. Washington: U.S. P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1952. Renne, Roland R. 1947.  Land Economics. New York:  Harper Brothers,  A study of good land u t i l i z a t i o n .  Robson, W i l l i a m Alexander. Great C i t i e s o f the World. F i r s t E d i t i o n . London: A l l e n and Unwin, 1954* A complete a n a l y s i s of the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n the great c i t i e s . The problems of the great c i t y i n d i c a t e what trends the small growing c i t i e s should avoid t o avoid the problems now f a c i n g the great c i t i e s . Royal Commission on Canada's Economic Prospect. PreliminaryReport . H u l l : Queen's P r i n t e r , 1956. pp. 95-6. Some c o n t r o v e r s i a l municipal finance s o l u t i o n s are discussed. Seligman, Edwin R.A. Essays i n Taxation. E d i t i o n 10. New York: MacMillan, 1925. pp. 10-62. A d i s c u s s i o n of the property t a x and i t s weaknesses. Tarchis, L o r i e . The Elements of Economics, An I n t r o d u c t i o n to the Theory of P r i c e and Employment. Boston: Houghton M i f f l i n , 1947The theory of investment, the marginal p r o p e n s i t y t o consume, and the m u l t i p l i e r e f f e c t are discussed.  B. GOVERNMENTS, LEARNED ORGANIZATIONS AND OTHERS 1. Corporations Cohen, Edwin J . J r . Industry i n the P a c i f i c Northwest and the L o c a t i o n Theory. 1953. as condensed by the C e n t r a l Technical L i b r a r y o f the Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company of Canada i n a book review, (n.d.) The types of i n d u s t r y that -srould l o c a t e i n the T r a i l Area are o u t l i n e d .  237 C o n s o l i d a t e d M i n i n g and S m e l t i n g Company o f Canada. The Comi n c o S t o r y . T r a i l , B r i t i s h Columbia, (n.d.)., 1956T" A b r i e f s t o r y of how t h e C o n s o l i d a t e d M i n i n g .and Smelti n g Company grew. .  F i f t y - S e c o n d Annual Report f o r the Year Ended December 31, 1957. M o n t r e a l , March 13th, 1958. An u p r t o - d a t e a p p r a i s a l o f the a c t i v i t i e s and problems o f Cominco. D a v i s , Nathanael V. Report o f the T h i r t i e t h Annual M e e t i n g of t h e S h a r e h o l d e r s o f the Company. M o n t r e a l : Aluminium L i m i t e d , A p r i l 24, 1958. An a p p r a i s a l . o f the grim s t r u g g l e i n w o r l d t r a d e w i t h Soviet Russia. S t a v e r t , R.E. P r e s i d e n t o f t h e C o n s o l i d a t e d M i n i n g and Smelti n g Company o f Canada L i m i t e d . Address t o S h a r e h o l d e r s . M o n t r e a l : Annual M e e t i n g , A p r i l 2 4 t h , 1958. The decrease i n p r o f i t s and p r i c e s of Cominco p r o d u c t s , as w e l l as a gloomy f o r e c a s t i s o u t l i n e d .  2. Dominion Government Canada, Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s . Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r , 1956.  Consumer P r i c e Index.  . Ninth and Tenth Canada Census. 1951 and Ottawa: Queen's-Printer, 1952 and 1957. S t a t i s t i c a l source.  1956.  Canada, Department of N a t i o n a l Revenue, Taxation D i v i s i o n . Taxation S t a t i s t i c s . Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r , 1946-56. City taxation s t a t i s t i c s . Drysdale, C.W. Department of Mines. Geology and Ore Deposits of Rossland B.C. 1911. Ottawa: Government P r i n t e r , 1915. Royal Commission on Canada's Economic Prospect. F i n a l Report. Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r , 1957. Chapts. 2,7,10,11,12,17, 20, and Appendix I . The long term prospects of Canada's economic development with reference to resources, i n d u s t r y , and municipal finance a i d s are discussed. 3.  Municipalities  Corporation of the C i t y of Rossland.  F i n a n c i a l Statement f o r  /  238 Y e a r E n d e d December 31, 1956. e t a l . 1957, e t a l . Rossland s t a t i s t i c s .  Rossland Miner,  Corporation of the City of T r a i l . Financial T r a i l : H a l l P r i n t i n g , 1956 e t a l . 4.  Statement.  Planning Organizations  C a l e f , W e s l e y C. a n d C h a r l e s D a o u s t . A r e a Development D i v i s i o n , U n i t e d S t a t e s D e p a r t m e n t o f Commerce. What W i l l New I n d u s t r y Mean t o My Town? W a s h i n g t o n : G o v e r n m e n t P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , A p r i l , 1955.' An a n a l y s i s o f t h e e f f e c t s o f e c o n o m i c e x p a n s i o n i n some c o m m u n i t i e s . F i r s t I n t e r n a t i o n a l C o n f e r a n c e on R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g a n d D e v e l opment. R e p o r t o f t h e P r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e C o n f e r a n c e H e l d a t B e d f o r d C o l l e g e , L o n d o n . S e p t e m b e r 22 t o O c t o b e r 2, 1955* Brussels, Belgium: The I n t e r n a t i o n a l C e n t e r f o r R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g a n d D e v e l o p m e n t , 1955• An o u t l i n e o f r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g p r o j e c t s t h r o u g h o u t the w o r l d . G e r t l e r , L. e t a l . A G e n e r a l P l a n f o r t h e M u n i c i p a l D i s t r i c t of Stony P l a i n . Edmonton D i s t r i c t P l a n n i n g Commission,  1956":  A comprehensive  r e g i o n a l development  plan.  P h i l a d e l p h i a C i t y P l a n n i n g Commission. Economic Base S t u d y o f t h e P h i l a d e l p h i a A r e a . P h i l a d e l p h i a : A u g u s t , 1949• p p . 8-10, 28-9, 38-9, 61-4, e t p a s s i m . P h i l a d e l p h i a p r e p a r e s t o m a i n t a i n i t s f u t u r e manufact u r i n g s t a t u s by e x a m i n i n g i t s economic b a s e . A pertinent d i s c u s s i o n o f h e a l t h y d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n , economic s t a b i l i t y , economic f l u c t u a t i o n s , and s e l e c t i v e e x p a n s i o n is given. P o l i t i c a l a n d E c o n o m i c P l a n n i n g . R e p o r t on t h e L o c a t i o n o f Industry i n Great B r i t a i n . M a r c h 1939. p p . 194-211. The n e e d f o r a b a l a n c e d r e g i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t i s d i s cussed with regard t o depressed areas. R e e d e r , S h e r w o o d L . e t a l . The Economy o f t h e C i n c i n n a t i M e t r o p o l i t a n A r e a . C i n c i n n a t i P l a n n i n g C o m m i s s i o n , 1946. A s t u d y o f t h e C i n c i n n a t i A r e a economy. R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g A s s o c i a t i o n o f New Y o r k . Economic S t a t u s of the M e t r o p o l i t a n Region. New Y o r k : R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g A s s o c i a t i o n , 1944. p p . 13-24 e t p a s s i m .  239 An e c o n o m i c b a s e s t u d y i n d i c a t e d t h e t y p i c a l n o n - : i . d u r a b l e i n d u s t r y — t h e s e s h o u l d be b a l a n c e d b y d u r a b l e types. 5.  Province of B r i t i s h  Columbia  B r i t i s h Columbia, Department o f M u n i c i p a l - A f f a i r s . Municipal S t a t i s t i c s . 1 9 5 6 . V i c t o r i a : Queente P r i n t e r , e t p a s s i m . B r i t i s h Columbia Bureau o f Economics and S t a t i s t i c s , Department o f I n d u s t r i a l D e v e l o p m e n t , T r a d e , a n d Commerce. R e g i o n a l I n d u s t r i a l I n d e x o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . 1957 e d i t i o n . V i c t o r i a : Queen's P r i n t e r . An a n a l y s i s o f r e g i o n s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a p r o v i d i n g population, industrial a c t i v i t y , natural resources, power s u p p l i e s , t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s , p u b l i c u t i l i t i e s , s o c i a l a m e n i t i e s , and o t h e r p e r t i n e n t s u b j e c t s . B r i t i s h Columbia Bureau o f Economies and S t a t i s t i c s . Summary o f B u s i n e s s A c t i v i t y i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1957* V i c t o r i a : Queen's P r i n t e r . A general source of p r o v i n c i a l i n d u s t r i a l activities over t h e y e a r s — 1945-1957. . Vital Statistics. et a l .  Victoria:  Queen's P r i n t e r ,  1956  B r i t i s h Columbia, Department o f Trade and I n d u s t r y . West Kootenay R e g i o n a l S t a t i s t i c s . V i c t o r i a : Queen's P r i n t e r , J u l y , 1954. A source of l o c a l s t a t i s t i c s . B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a Te.lelphone Company. Directory. June, 1957. 6.  West K o o t e n a y  Telephone  Universities.  C r a w f o r d , K.G. D i r e c t o r . S i n g l e - E n t e r p r i s e Communities i n Canada. I n s t i t u t e o f L o c a l G o v e r n m e n t , Queen's UnlverH-' s i t y , 1953A survey o f the s i n g l e e n t e r p r i s e communities a c r o s s Canada. E s s e r , G e o r g e H. U n i v e r s i t y o f N o r t h C a r o l i n a . A r e New Res i d e n t i a l A r e a s a Tax L i a b i l i t y ? Chapel H i l l , North Carolina: I n s t i t u t e o f Government, 1956. P l a n n e d r e s i d e n t i a l d e v e l o p m e n t c a n be profitable.  240 S m i t h , E d w a r d K. A G u i d e t o E c o n o m i c B a s e S t u d i e s F o r L o c a l Communities. B o s t o n : B u r e a u o f B u s i n e s s and Economic Research. N o r t h e a s t e r n U n i v e r s i t y , 1955* A g u i d e t o economic base s t u d i e s f o r l o c a l c o m m u n i t i e s . U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia. E x t e n s i o n Course i n M u n i c i pal Administration. A four year course. Vancouver: B e s t Company, ( m i m e o g r a p h e d ) , 1955. This course i s a t e c h n i c a l a n a l y s i s o f l o c a l administ r a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia. D e t a i l on a l l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , i n c l u d i n g R o s s l a n d and T r a i l i s p r o v i d e d . 7.  Other  Chapman, J.D. ( e d . ) e t a l . N a t u r a l R e s o u r c e s C o n f e r e n c e s , 1956. B r i t i s h . C o l u m b i a A t l a s o f R e s u r c e s . 1956 e d i t i o n . Vancouver: Smith L i t h o g r a p h e r s . An e x c e l l e n t s o u r c e w h e r e g e o g r a p h i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a n d r e s o u r c e s . i n t h e R o s s l a n d - T r a i l R e g i o n and B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a c a n be f o u n d . Homer Hoyt A s s o c i a t e s . A R e p o r t on t h e E c o n o m i c B a s e o f t h e B r o c k t o n , M a s s a c h u s e t t s A r e a . B r o c k t o n : Hanson P r i n t , 1949. p p . 14-15, 40-42, 43, e t p a s s i m . An e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e e c o n o m i c b a s e o f B r o c k t o n when i t s m a j o r i n d u s t r y (shoe m a n u f a c t u r i n g ) was f a c e d w i t h an e c o n o m i c r e c e s s i o n . Recommendations f o r e x p a n s i o n a n d d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n w e r e made. K i n d e r , F r a n k , and P h i l i p N e f f . Economic Base o f t h e L o s A n g e l e s A r e a . U n i v e r s i t y o f P e n n s y l v a n i a , p p . 29-49* Underdeveloped a c t i v i t i e s o f the r e g i o n are determined b y a c o m p a r i s o n o f employment i n t h a t a c t i v i t y a t t h e n a t i o n a l l e v e l and a t the r e g i o n a l l e v e l . A need f o r d e v e l o p m e n t i s shown i n t h e v a r i o u s a c t i v i t i e s b y a l o c a t i o n quotient. N a t u r a l R e s o u r c e s Conference.; T r a n s a c t i o n s o f t h e B r i t i s h Columbia N a t u r a l Resources Conferance. Victoria, I - X Volumes e t p a s s i m . These p u b l i c a t i o n s p r o v i d e a c l e a r p i c t u r e o f t h e s t a t e o f our r e s o u r c e s and t h e p r o b l e m s t h a t c o n f r o n t r e g i o n a l r e s o u r c e development p l a n n i n g . O b e r l a n d e r , H. P e t e r , a n d I r a M. R o b i n s o n . L i v i n g a n d Worki n g i n West V a n c o u v e r , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ; An E c o n o m i c A n a l y s i s a s a B a s i s f o r Community P l a n n i n g . West V a n c o u v e r : M u n i c i p a l H a l l , 1954« An e c o n o m i c a n a l y s i s o f t h e c o m m u n i t y . The r e p o r t  241 p o i n t s out the weaknesses of the economic s t r u c t u r e r e s u l t i n g f r o m l a r g e r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s b u t no i n d u s t r y a n d i n d i c a t e s how t h e e c o n o m i c b a s e may be s t r e n g t h e n e d . W h i t t a k e r , L.H. ( e d . ) R o s s l a n d , The G o l d e n C i t y . R o s s l a n d , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a : R o s s l a n d M i n e r L i m i t e d , 1949. A s t o r y o f t h e f i r s t h a l f - c e n t u r y o f p r o g r e s s and dev e l o p m e n t i n t h e T r a i l C r e e k A r e a o f t h e West K o o t e n a y .  C. Andrews,  R.B.  PERIODICALS  Land Economics.  V o l . 29,  No.  2, 1953,  pp.  161-  167; V o l . 29, No. 3, 1953, pp. 263-268; V o l . 29, No. 4, 1953, p p . 343-349; V o l . 30, N o . l , 1954, p p . 52-60; V o l . 30, No. 2, 1954, p p . 164-172; V o l . 30, No. 3, 1954, pp. 260-269; V o l . 30, No. 4, 1954, p p . 309-319; V o l . 31, N o . l , 1955, P P . 47-53; V o l . 31, No. 2, 1955, p p . 144155; V o l . 31, No. 3, 1955, p p . 245-256; V o l . 31, No. 4, 1955, P P . 361-371. S t u d i e s o f t h e mechanics, t e r m i n o l o g y , measurement, i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , d e f i n i t i o n , and changes o f t h e b a s i c s e r vice concept.  B r a c e y , H.E. "A R u r a l Component o f C e n t r a l i t y : A p p l i e d t o S i x S o u t h e r n C o u n t i e s o f t h e U n i t e d K i n g d o m . " E c o n o m i c Geog r a p h y . V o l . 32, No.. 1, 1956, p p . 33-50. . "Towns a s R u r a l S e r v i c e C e n t e r s : An I n d e x o f C e n t r a l i t y With S p e c i f i c Reference t o Somerset." Institute of B r i t i s h Geographic T r a n s a c t i o n . 1953, p p . 95-106. An h i e r a r c h y o f c e n t r a l p l a c e s i s o b t a i n e d b y q u e s tionnaire. Fortune Magazine. "Oskaloosa vs. the United S t a t e s . " V o l . XVI, No. 5, A p r i l , 1938, p p . 55-62, 124-132. O s k a l o o s a l o s e s on t h e b a l a n c e o f t r a d e t o l a r g e r cities. A new t e c h n i q u e i s u s e d t o a n a l y z e t h e p r o f i t s o f t h e e n t i r e community b y a b a l a n c e o f i t s i m p o r t s a n d exports. G a r r a b r a n t , R o b e r t B. "The Community a n d I n d u s t r i a l D e v e l o p ment." T e c h n i c a l B u l l e t i n 21. W a s h i n g t o n : U r b a n L a n d I n s t i t u t e , S e p t e m b e r , 1953, p« 5 ff« A d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e need and t e c h n i q u e s o f i n d u s t r i a l development i n communities. G o l d e n b e r g , H. C a r l .  " M u n i c i p a l F i n a n c e and T a x a t i o n  Problems  242 and Prospects." Canadian Tax J o u r n a l . V o l . IV, No. 3, May-June, 1956". A j o u r n a l on Canadian t a x a t i o n containing a d i s c u s s i o n of municipal f i n a n c i a l problems and some suggested s o l u tions. Lash, H.N. Planning A d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n Small Towns. The A l b e r t a Experience. Ottawa: Community Planning Associat i o n Newsletter. No. 5, 1954« A study of small town planning to prevent b i g town problems. Robinson, I r a M. "Planning f o r Small Communities i n B r i t i s h Columbia." Community Planning Review. V o l . V, No. 1, March, 1955. pp. 10-15. A review of the problems of planning i n small B r i t i s h Columbia towns.  D. UNPUBLISHED REPORTS Clegg, E.T. D e l i m i t a t i o n of Cloverdale Service Area. A report f o r R.J. Ruggles, Geography 304, A p r i l , 1957. A s e r v i c e area i s d e l i m i t e d by d i r e c t and i n d i r e c t survey. . Why People L i v e In Rossland. An essay w r i t t e n f o r Dr. S. Jamieson i n Sociology 425 at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. March, 1958. A d e t a i l e d s o c i o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s includes a h i s t o r y of the people and t h e i r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which extends to include the R o s s l a n d - T r a i l Area. Haggen, Rupert W.  Report on  "Sewer System and  Treatment  Plant.  Ross l a n a,/ (unpublished). August 25, 1938* A report to Counfcil concerning the sewage problem. E. STATUTES  M u n i c i p a l Act. Chapter 42 of the P r o v i n c i a l Statutes of B r i t i s h Columbia. V i c t o r i a : Queen's P r i n t e r , as assented to March 28, 19576 ELIZ. 2. A c o n s o l i d a t i o n of l e g i s l a t i o n governing m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia. The Town and Rural Planning Act.  Chapter 337 of the Provin-  243 c i a l S t a t u t e s of A l b e r t a . 19576 ELIZ. 2.  Edmonton: Queen's P r i n t e r ,  APPENDIXES  244  APPENDIX A I . PRIMARY ECONOMIC BASE  Business Type C i t y of Rossland Court House & P u b l i c Health Department of Highways Bank of Montreal Post O f f i c e Canadian P a c i f i c Railway Hospital Co-op Transportation Liquor Vendor Consumer's Co-op Butcheteria Savmor Store Okanagan Store Malahoff Store Handy Store Corner Store Rossglen Store Red Mountain Store F l e u r y ' s Store Wright's Meats Andy's Garage Hanson's Garage Albo 's Garage Green's Garage Davies Transfer Walt's Transfer Seccombe's Transfer Rossland Motel Red Mountain Auto Court Eaton's Store Wener's C l o t h i n g Ogroskin's Store Marie's M i l l i n e r y Shoemaker Columbia Dry Goods Re id's Hardware Wise's Hardware Allan-Hotel I r v i n Hotel  Number of Employees Full Parttime time 25 6 8o  6 2  8  7 7 40 9 1 2 4 9 1 2 2 2 1 1 1 4 2 1 1 1 4 2 1 1 1 6 3 4 2 1 1 2 4 2 2  1  1 1 2 1 1  1 1 2 2  Income Earned |  100,000 18,000 312,000 30,000 20,000 20,000 125,000 30,000 5,000 7,000 12,500 25,000 3,000 5,000 5,000 5,000 3,000 3,500 2,000 15,000 7,500  2,500  5,500 5,500 20,000 10,000 6,000 4,000 2,500 10,000 6,500 9,000 5,000 3,000 3,000 6,500 15,000 10,000 10,000  245 APPENDIX A ( c o n t i n u e d )  B u s i n e s s Type  Income Earned  Number o f E m p l o y e e s FullParttime time  Orwell Hotel Legion. C l i n i c — Doctors Nurses Clerks Dr. Gregorak, d e n t i s t & nurse Dr. C o u r v i l l e , d e n t i s t , & nurse Barristers Wm. B a k e r -- R e a l E s t a t e Hertig — Real Estate Rexall Drug Davies Drug Tibby's Hair Dresser C o m m o s o t t i -- E l e c t r i c Goods Poolroom Novelty Store B o o t y ' s S k i Shop Delich Jewelry Butorac Jewelry Silver Grill Sunshine G r i l l Bowling A l l e y (cafe & a l l e y s ) Smitty's Taxi Golden C i t y T a x i Schwartzenhauer's Bakery Freddy's Bakery• Heywood C l e a n e r s Bus D e p o t Swimming P o o l Arena Coventry's Flowers D a l o i s e Tobacco Jones A c c o u n t i n g C a p i t o l B a r b e r Shop Bank B a r b e r Shop Ross.land F u e l & B u i l d i n g S u p p . Lazareff J r . Building Supplies Plotnikoff Building Supplies M o d e r n P l u m b i n g (Yawney) S i s s o n ' s Body Shop Harry's,' t h e Plumber School Board  2 1 3 2 2 2 2 3 2 2 2 3 2 1 1 1 3 2 3 2 •6 1 4 3 3 4 1 1 2 2 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 40  2 1  1  1 1 1  1 1  2 2 1  2 1 1 1  |  10,000 4,000 25,000 6,000 3,500 9,500 9,500 8,500 • 6,000 10,000 6,000 8,000 6,000 6,000 3,500 1,500 2,000 9,000 6,000 6,000 3,000 10,000 3,500 2,000 8,000 6,500 6,500 8,000 1,500 2,500 2,000 5,000 5,000 6,000 3,500 10,000 5,000 5,000 6,000 6,000 1,500 25,000  246 APPENDIX  Income Earned  Number o f E m p l o y e e s FullParttime time  B u s i n e s s Type D a i r i e s -- Dougans French's Glovers Valley Dairy Jensens  II.  |  2 1 1 3 1 377  TOTAL  40  8,000 4,000 4,000 12,000 4,000  $1,197,000  SECONDARY ECONOMIC BASE  M i n e s -- V e l v e t , S n o w d r o p , IXL, e t c . Stoney Creek E x p l o r a t i o n Old G l o r y Lookout Farmers — Drakes P a t e r s o n Farms B i g Sheep F a r m s Jones Logging Paul Logging Jumbo Saw M i l l P a t e r s o n Customs TOTAL  A (continued)  6 2 3 3 6 8 1 1 1 6  $  30,000 5,000 13,000 12,000 32,000 24,000 4,000 4,000 4,000 30,000  37  $  158,000  Source: From a s u r v e y c o m p l e t e d i n R o s s l a n d b y t h e A u t h o r , t h r o u g h t h e a s s i s t a n c e o f t h e R o s s l a n d Chamber o f Commerce.  247 APPENDIX B People i n prominent p o s i t i o n s i n the C i t y of Rossland were asked i n a survey^ during December, 1957, what people, i n t h e i r opinion, had the greatest i n f l u e n c e i n making major decisions which could a f f e c t Rossland as a community, -b r i e f l y , who are the men of the l o c a l power e l i t e ?  The  answers t o t h i s question were t a l l i e d and i n the order of t h e i most frequent occurrence the f o l l o w i n g names appeared: 1. General Manager of Cominco 2. Member of Parliament f o r Kootenay West 3. Member of the L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly f o r RosslandTrail 4» Mayor of the C i t y of Rossland 5. General Manager of the West Kootenay Power and L i g h t Company (Owned by Cominco) 6. President of the Senior Board of Trade 7. Manager of the Bank of Montreal 8. P u b l i s h e r of the Rosslarid Miner 9. C i t y C l e r k ( r e t i r e d ) 10. President of the Canadian Legion 11. Postmaster 12. Officer-in-Charge of Customs 13. United Church M i n i s t e r 14. C a t h o l i c P r i e s t 15* P o l i c e Magistrate 16. C i t y S o l i c i t o r 17- President of the Labor Union 18. An alderman 19. Manager of the Rossland Transportation Society 20. A l o c a l sport promoter A survey of l o c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s was a l s o made t o deter mine how many of t h e i r presidents or d i r e c t o r s were Cominco  A survey undertaken by the Author f o r an essay — "Why People Live i n Rossland" f o r Sociology 425 at the Univer s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, March, 1958.  248  employees. Cominco.  I t was found that 80% of them were employed by At the same time d t was found that 40% of them were  Cominco s t a f f employees. The Cominco element was predominant i n l o c a l organizations as w e l l as i n the power e l i t e .  

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