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Classification of the criminal offender : a comparative study of British Columbia and other experience Beighton, Alan Lloyd 1959

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CLASSIFICATION OF THE CRIMINAL OFFENDER: A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA AND OTHER EXPERIENCE  by ALAN LLOYD BEIGHTON  Thesis Submitted i n P a r t i a l Fulfilment of the Requirements for the Degree of MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK i n the School of S o c i a l Work  Accepted as conforming to the standard required for the degree of Master of S.ocaal Work  School of Social Work  1959 The University of B r i t i s h Columbia  (iii)  ABSTRACT  Attempts at treatment and training i n correctional i n s t i t u t i o n s have h i s t o r i c a l l y preceded the establishment of adequate diagnosis and treatmentplanning. Mass work and s o c i a l i z a t i o n programmes have generally been i n s t i t u t e d i n the more treatment-focused correctional systems, not with any r e a l i s t i c assurance that they could be adapted to the i n d i v i d u a l needs of inmates, but rather because such programmes were considered worthwhile, per se. On the North American continent, new attempts have been made i n the past twentyf i v e years to apply to corrections the p r i n c i p l e longrecognized i n other treatment f i e l d s , i . e . , i n d i v i d u a l diagnosis as the prerequisite to e f f e c t i v e treatment. This study b r i e f l y reviews the development of correctional c l a s s i f i c a t i o n (diagnosis and treatmentplanning) up to the present time, and describes the many penological trends evidenced by t h i s development, i n keeping with the various influences of the humanitarians and s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s . I t i s suggested, perhaps unconventionally, that the correctional c l a s s i f i c a t i o n process i s actually the f i n a l step i n a series of more general " c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s " by the p o l i c e the community, and so f o r t h . Four contemporary c l a s s i f i c a t i o n systems selected for their progressive features are described i n d e t a i l : (a) the B r i t i s h "Borstal" system, (b) the State of New York, (c) the State of Pennsylvania, and (d) the State of C a l i f o r n i a programmes. These programmes were selected from a wider survey, using the American Prison Association's Directory of Institutions and Manual of Correctional Standards as the c r i t e r i a for s e l e c t i o n . C l a s s i f i c a t i o n practice within the B r i t i s h Columbia P r o v i n c i a l Gaol Service i s next examined and compared with the other systems outlined, f o r the purposes of assessing the comprehensiveness of the l o c a l service and suggesting changes f o r i t s improvement. Contributions to c l a s s i f i c a t i o n theory and practice made by s o c i a l work and related d i s c i p l i n e s are evidenced throughout the enquiry. ?  From the systems surveyed, i t i s apparent that c e r t a i n features of administration and process are common to a l l e f f e c t i v e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n programmes. Most of these could be incorporated, with appropriate modifications, into existing practice within the P r o v i n c i a l Gaol Service. The p o s s i b i l i t i e s of this development are assessed i n the concluding chapter.  In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s the requirements of B r i t i s h it  freely  f o r an advanced  Columbia, I agree t h a t available  agree that for  for reference  permission for  degree at the the  University  L i b r a r y s h a l l make  and s t u d y .  extensive  of  I  further  copying of t h i s  thesis  s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e Head o f my  D e p a r t m e n t o r by h i s that  in partial fulfilment  representatives.  It  copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s  is  understood  for  financial  g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n .  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h V a n c o u v e r 8, C a n a d a . Date  y^Za  Columbia, /fJTf.  (i) TABLE_pF_COKTENTS Chapter I.  C l a s s i f i c a t i o n ; Th.e_.Prereguisite to " E f f e c t i v e Treatment  The evolution of correctional philosophy: from punishment to treatment. The s h i f t i n focus from the offence to the offender. Humanitarian and s c i e n t i f i c influences i n penal reform. H i s t o r i c a l development of correctional c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . I n s t i t u t i o n a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . I n s t i t u t i o n a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n as the f i n a l step i n a series. P r e - i n s t i t u t i o n attitudes as shaped by the p o l i c e , the law, the courts, and the community. Method of study... Chapter I I .  Page  1.  A-^I]I§2-Q^-^2B§^QQ^S^9L^I2-21§i3^i^i£^i22~ S_jstims~ "*  (a) The_British__!Borstal^_System^ Origin and philosophy. The"legal framework"within"which the programme operates. C l a s s i f i c a t i o n and a l l o c a t i o n within the Borstal system. I n s t i t u t i o n a l and after-care r e sources for treatment. (b) New_York_State. Establishment of a Recept i o n Centre within the Department of Correction. Legal provisions for commitment to the Centre. Sentencing practices of the courts. The Reception Centre s t a f f , and programme. Variety of treatment resources. (c) Pennsylvania. Early attempts at C l a s s i f i c a t i o n . Re-organization of the correctional programme and e s t a b l i s h ment of treatment resources. The Eastern Diagnostic and C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Centre. The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n process. (d) C a l i f o r n i a . History, and recent development i n Corrections"! Legal"framework, and the establishment of Adult and Youth Authority programmes. Establishment of commitment areas and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n centres. I n s t i t u t i o n a l and other resources. F a c i l i t i e s , s t a f f , and process within the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n centres. Special treatment techniques, and community involvement -  25.  Chapter I I I . Reception and C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Within the British_Columbia~Pr H i s t o r i c a l development of the P r o v i n c i a l Gaol Service. Growth of i n s t i t u t i o n a l and other resources for treatment and custody. Forestry camp development. History of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Central c l a s s i f i c a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s , personnel and process. The administrative framework for the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n programme. C l a s s i f i c a t i o n at the unit or i n s t i t u t i o n a l l e v e l . C l a s s i f i c a t i o n as a continuing process 62.  (ii)  Chapter IV.  Page ~  JLyaluation_o^^  " i S P l l i i d ^ ~  Recommendations  A s s e s s m e n t o f t h e f o u r c o m p a r a t i v e programmes. S i m i l a r i t i e s i n l e g a l framework, f a c i l i t i e s , personnel, and programmes. D i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e programmes s t u d i e d , and c r i t i c i s m s . C l a s s i f i c a t i o n w i t h i n t h e B r i t i s h Columbia P r o v i n c i a l Gaol Service. Adequacy o f t h e l o c a l p r o gramme. Recommendations: e x i s t i n g and f u t u r e n e e d s . . . . . . APPENDICES A.  Bibliography  B.  Figure  1.  A d m i n i s t r a t i v e framework, a l l a P r i s o n Farm.  Figure  2.  A l l o c a t i o n o f a d u l t , male i n mates t o p r o v i n c i a l g a o l s : by the c o u r t s , and t h r o u g h t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n process.  Oak-  101.  (iv)  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  The -writer wishes to acknowledge the assistance of the following persons i n the preparation of this study. To Dr. Leonard C. Marsh and Professor Adrian Marriage of the Faculty of the School of S o c i a l Work for their many helpful c r i t i c i s m s and encouragement; to Mr. E. G. B. Stevens, Mr. S. Rocksborough-Smith, and Mr. R. V. McAllister of the Corrections Branch f o r their encouragement and assistance i n i n i t i a t i n g this enquiry.  (v)  CLASSIFICATION OF THE CRIMINAL OFFENDER: A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA AND OTHER EXPERIENCE.  CHAPTER^!..  CLASSIFICATION: "The  THE PREREQUISITE,TO EFFECTIVE CORRECTIONAL TREATMENT  struggle for the i n d i v i d u a l i z a t i o n of penal treatment  on the basis of the character of the criminal instead of the character of his offence i s one of the most dramatic i n the history of thought...  The forces which prompted this movement... emanated not  from j u r i s t s but from natural s c i e n t i s t i s . " correctional philosophy  1  While i t i s true that  has moved, to paraphrase G i l b e r t and S u l l i v a n ,  i n the d i r e c t i o n of " l e t the treatment f i t the offender" rather than " l e t the punishment f i t the crime", the l a t t e r was,  in itself, a  vast improvement over the practices that existed p r i o r to the eighteenth century.  Many persons had become concerned over the complete  lack of uniformity which prevailed i n the dispensation of criminal j u s t i c e , and among these c r i t i c s the most s i g n i f i c a n t name was doubtedly that of Cesare Beccaria.  un-  In his Essay on Crimes and Punish-  ment , i n 176M-, Beccaria postulated that man,  i n exercising h i s free  w i l l , might decide to commit a crime i n his search for pleasure. Through the a p p l i c a t i o n of hedonistic psychology, Beccaria  therefore  concluded that the punishment for any criminal act need only be severe 2 enough to exceed the pleasures which the offence might provide* S e l l i n , Thorsten, "The T r i a l Judge's Dilemma: A Criminologist's View", Probation & Criminal J u s t i c e , (New York: Macmillan) 1933. Sheldon~Glueck, ed. ~ x  Sutherland, Edwin H., Principles_of__Crirninology, (New J . B. Lippincott Co.) 1939,~pT 2  York:  -2He argued, too, t h a t i d e n t i c a l o f f e n c e s should l o g i c a l l y r e s u l t i n i d e n t i c a l punishment. was  Gradual m o d i f i c a t i o n o f t h i s d o c t r i n e  seen i n the French Penal Code of 1810  which p r o v i d e d f o r the  e x c l u s i o n of insane persons and c h i l d r e n on the grounds t h a t were i n c a p a b l e o f i n t e l l i g e n t l y a s s e s s i n g p l e a s u r e s and The  they  pains.  emphasis upon a s s e s s i n g the crime r a t h e r than the c r i m i n a l ,  became the b a s i s upon which c r i m i n a l law operated,  and  this  emphasis has l a r g e l y remained w i t h the c o u r t s i n r e f e r e n c e to the sentencing  of c o n v i c t e d o f f e n d e r s . I t was  not u n t i l the n i n e t e e n t h century t h a t  jurists  and p e n o l o g i s t s , i n f l u e n c e d by the growth of humanitarian  sen-  s i b i l i t y , began to g i v e some c o n s i d e r a t i o n to the o f f e n d e r as w e l l as to h i s o f f e n c e .  We know t h a t as e a r l y as the 1830*s, H o l l a n d  had begun to separate  c o n v i c t e d o f f e n d e r s from those a w a i t i n g  trial,  and made subsequent d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n s according to degree o f c r i m i n a l i t y , sex and age.-*-  Focus upon the i n d i v i d u a l o f f e n d e r , however,  g a i n e d i t s f i r s t r e a l impetus w i t h the w r i t i n g s o f Cesare Lombroso whose emphasis upon the p h y s i o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f o f f e n d e r s was  l a t e r m o d i f i e d through the work o f others and h i s own  studies  2 o f the p s y c h o l o g i c a l and  sociological factors i n criminality.  Of p a r t i c u l a r importance were h i s "The "The  C r i m i n a l Man",  Delinquent Man"  i n 1889.  published  i n 1872,  and  I t became more g e n e r a l l y  accepted  among s o c i a l r e s e a r c h e r s t h a t many p h y s i c a l and  environ-  D o l l , Edgar A., " C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of O f f e n d e r s , " E n c y c l o p e d i a o f C r i m i n o l o g y j Branham, V.C., and Kutash, S.B., e d i t o r s , TNew York: The P h i l o s o p h i c a l L i b r a r y ) 19*+9. p.67. 1  T a f t , Donald R., 1950. Pp.37-38. 2  Cr^inolpjXa (  N e w  York: The Macmillan  Co.)  mental stimuli affected man's behaviour, quite apart from h i s conscious w i l l to act, and that c r i m i n a l i t y or behaviour of any type resulted from the individual's response to a complex of inner and outer stresses.  Drawing upon the discoveries of psychology, s o c i o l -  ogy, anthropology and medicine, criminologists reasoned that mere incarceration of the offender was neither humane nor conducive to the ultimate protection of society unless the period of imprisonment was used to r e - t r a i n the offender. He must be returned to the community more adequately equipped to take h i s place as a normal, productive c i t i z e n .  Rather than viewing the criminal as an " e v i l "  person, he was seen as an inadequate, pathological personality, or a " s i c k " person whose r e h a b i l i t a t i o n would be best effected through treatment rather than punishment.  There was and s t i l l i s , of course,  a strong f a c t i o n who oppose t h i s concept of the "new  penology" and  hold firmly to the Beccarian concept of the free w i l l of the offender and the r e t r i b u t i v e purpose of the law.  However, humanitarians such  as John Howard and the s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, had pointed up the f u t i l i t y of mere i n c a r c e r a t i o n as a corrective measure, and had proved that prisons were l i t t l e more than unsanitary, degrading schools f o r crime, from which persons emerged demoralized, embittered, and more educated i n the ways of immorality and crime than when they entered.^" The infamous common prisons so lamented by Elizabeth Fry, John Howard and others gave way to those providing f o r s o l i t a r y confinement, and eventually to prisons which  provided f o r industry and  1 Howard, John,The State_of Prisoris (London: Cadell and Conant), 1780, Pp.5-11.  re-training.  In  North America t h i s movement was  seen f i r s t i n  the so-called Pennsylvania system, which was replaced around by the Auburn system.^  1913  Since that time the Auburn system has been  gradually replaced by the reformatory movement which heralded the r i s e of the s o c i a l sciences and the focus upon i n d i v i d u a l of  the offender.  treatment  The emphasis upon reformation of the offender  through r e - t r a i n i n g was begun with the provision of work programmes and, l a t e r , with programmes of academic education.  Today, of course,  these i n i t i a l resources have been supplemented i n progressive penal systems by programmes of r e l i g i o u s i n s t r u c t i o n , vocational t r a i n i n g , recreation, p s y c h i a t r i c and medical services, s o c i a l group work and casework, and similar resources.  The a p p l i c a t i o n of the e a r l i e s t  attempts at treatment through work and education, pointed up the great v a r i a t i o n i n needs, a b i l i t i e s , i n t e r e s t s , and potentials that exist i n any heterogeneous grouping of offenders.  Because i t was  reasoned that education and trades training are worthwhile, programmes were applied to gaol populations, en masse. was  such  The r e s u l t  that instructors wasted valuable time and resources on the un-  t r a i n a b l e , materials were wasted, and equipment was abused or destroyed. I t became apparent  that treatment and training i n corrections must be  preceded, as i n medicine, s o c i a l work and other f i e l d s , by diagnosis of  the individual's needs, planning a programme of treatment  best  suited to meeting these needs, and by i n s t i t u t i n g the l e g i s l a t i o n and administrative measures-which insure and f a c i l i t a t e the implement a t i o n of t h i s diagnostic-treatment planning process.  1  Taft, Donald R.,  Op_cit_^ Pp Al9-lf26.  -5I t i s true that u n t i l recent years, l i t t l e more than l i p - s e r v i c e was  paid to the concept of i n d i v i d u a l i z e d treatment,  or to the diagnostic process knox^n as " c l a s s i f i c a t i o n " which makes t h i s i n d i v i d u a l i z a t i o n both s c i e n t i f i c and p r a c t i c a b l e .  Grunhut  1  noted that l e g i s l a t i o n providing for the innovation of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n procedures did not appear i n England p r i o r to the Gladstone Report i n 1895.  L e g i s l a t i o n concerning correctional c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  appeared elsewhere i n Europe, beginning with Holland during World War  I, Italy i n 1921  Germany i n 1923 Belgium i n 1930  through the work of Enrico F e r r i and  others,  with the " P r i n c i p l e s of Prison D i s c i p l i n e " , and with "The Law on S o c i a l Defence Against Abnormal  2 and Habitual Criminals."  Grunhut  mentions, however, that c l a s s i -  f i c a t i o n programmes were actually i n s t i t u t e d much l a t e r i h many instances.  In the United States, for example, basic custodial 3  classification 1938.  was  not applied i n federal i n s t i t u t i o n s u n t i l  Edgar D o l l has suggested that C l a s s i f i c a t i o n i n North  America today i s much more s c i e n t i f i c and dynamic than was case prior to the 1920's. * 1  the  D o l l attributes the subsequent inno-  vations and refinements primarily to the rapid development of psychological testing and the growth of c l i n i c a l psychiatry within the correctional f i e l d .  From c l i n i c a l psychiatry, the development  of psychiatric and other c l i n i c a l l y - o r i e n t e d forms of s o c i a l work has provided trained personnel f o r i n s t i t u t i o n a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n as well as for the more t r a d i t i o n a l after-care functions. This has been Grunhut, Max, Penal Reform^ (London: Oxford University Press) 1  19^8. Pp. 120-12*+. 2  U5!i£L»_ P. 181.  3 Segregation according required. h  to the degree of custodial supervision  D o l l , Edgar A., o^sXiU*  P-67.  -6 p a r t i c u l a r l y true i n Canada and, more s p e c i f i c a l l y , i n B r i t i s h Columbia where s o c i a l case workers rather than p s y c h i a t r i s t s head the C l a s s i f i c a t i o n panels i n a l l i n s t i t u t i o n s which employ professionally trained The_Cgntrlbution  personnel,  of S o c i a l Work and Related D i s c i p l i n e s  Although i t i s perhaps l e s s true of other areas of correctional p r a c t i c e , there appears to be l i t t l e doubt that correctional s o c i a l work has made the greatest contribution to c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  1  and after-care.  The contribution of psychology  has been primarily i n the area of psychometric t e s t i n g , a useful 2  adjunct to the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n process.  Criminologists or correct-  i o n a l s o c i o l o g i s t s have t r a d i t i o n a l l y been active i n c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , o f t e n to the actual exclusion of s o c i a l work personnel whose r o l e has remained that of counsellor and Service Unit worker."^  Yet, by  v i r t u e of their t r a i n i n g , they can hope to contribute more i n the areas of penal administration, e t i o l o g i c a l research, and i n some after-care programmes i n which the emphasis i s upon supervision rather than case work help.  Medicine and, p a r t i c u l a r l y , psychiatry  has made i t s most s i g n i f i c a n t contributions i n the area of rather than p r a c t i c e .  theory  This i s especially true of the l a t t e r pro-  f e s s i o n whose members are more r e a d i l y attracted to mental i n s t i t utions, or to private practice with i t s obvious advantages. Psycho-social diagnosis and treatment, based upon the therapeutic use of r e l a t i o n s h i p as well as i n s t i t u t i o n a l and  com-  " C l a s s i f i c a t i o n and Casework", symposium, Proceedings •of the American _Prison Congress 1938. 1  n  G i a r d i n i , G. I., "The Place of Psychology i n Penal and i o n a l I n s t i t u t i o n s , " F e der a 1_ Pro bat ion, April-June, 19*+2. 2  Correct-  3 Wallack, Walter M., "The Service Unit", Contemporary Correction..., (New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co. Inc.,) 1951>Tappan ed., Ch.X, Pp.1^1-  - 7 -  munity resources, f a l l s most readily within the realm of the generically trained s o c i a l case worker,  whether under the  d i r e c t i o n of a p s y c h i a t r i s t , working as one member of the C l a s s i f i c a t i o n team, or heading the team of custodial and t r e a t ment experts, the s o c i a l worker's concept of treating "the whole person" i s intended to enable him to co-ordinate the e f f o r t s of the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n team and to ensure the continuing, complementary r e l a t i o n s h i p between diagnosis and treatment• I]^^Il§iiJuii2nal_C2as£i^  The term " c l a s s i f i c a t i o n " refers to a diagnostic and treatment-planning process which should begin when a sentenced offender enters a penal i n s t i t u t i o n .  I t i s not, as the name  might imply, a method f o r l a b e l l i n g or categorizing types of offenders, although segregation of similar groups of inmates i n separate, specialized i n s t i t u t i o n s i s a part of the process when a d i v e r s i t y of resources f o r custody and training exists within the correctional system.  Custodial d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n i s ,  of course, the basis £>r segregation, i n that the i n s t i t u t i o n ' s f i r s t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s for the custody and confinement of the offender.  Accurate custodial c l a s s i f i c a t i o n not only provides  sound protection of the community against dangerous persons, but also saves the tax payers m i l l i o n s of d o l l a r s by grouping  Basic references on this subject, applying not solely to correctional settings, are: (a) H o l l i s , Florence, "The Relationship Between Psychosocial Diagnosis and Treatment", S oc i a l Casework, Feb. 1951. (b) Garrett, Annette, "The Worker-Client Relationship", Ego_Psvchologv_and Dvnamie_Casewprk, (New York: Family Service Associ a t i o n of America)~ 195"B7~PpT83-96. (c) Hamilton, Gordon, Theory and Practice o f _ S o c i a l Case Work. (New York: Columbia University Pressl~195"l~"CiuTl, PpT27-50. (d) Ash, Stanley P., " C l a s s i f i c a t i o n i n R e l a t i o n to Custody and Control", Proceedings of the American Prison Congress, 1938, Pp.185-1927 "  -8-  those inmates requiring less supervision i n medium or minimumsecurity i n s t i t u t i o n s which do not require high concrete walls and the other costly provisions f o r maximum-security i n s t i t u t i o n s . The degree of custodial supervision required i s assessed on such f a c t o r s as the length of the inmate's sentence, h i s attitudes towards h i s conviction and incarceration, the s t a b i l i t y of h i s emotional makeup as evidenced by psychometric test r e s u l t s , and observation by experienced custodians.  Segregation according to  the degree of c r i m i n a l i t y i s also desirable I f a variety of accommodation e x i s t s , f o r the p o s s i b i l i t y of contamination of the novice by the more criminally sophisticated offender i s thereby reduced. Segregation of new a r r i v a l s from the main population of the prison i s another requirement f o r proper c l a s s i f i c a t i o n .  In  the more progressive correctional systems, a l l sentenced offenders are f i r s t placed i n special i n s t i t u t i o n s known as Reception Centres i n which the i n i t i a l diagnostic and treatment-planning procedures are carried o u t .  1  Ideally, these Centres include shops f o r testing  vocational aptitudes, recreational and other f a c i l i t i e s  i n which  group Inter-action may be observed, and adequate f a c i l i t i e s i n which the professional and custodial s t a f f may carry out i n d i v i d u a l interviews.  Other f a c i l i t i e s generally include a central f i l i n g  system, a photography  and finger-printing department, chapels,  mess h a l l s , clothing stores, and so f o r t h .  Custodial provisions  are always close-medium to maximum because of the heterogeneous nature of the Reception Centre's population.  Tappan, Paul W., Juvenile Delinquency, (New York: The McGraw H i l l Book Co. Inc.,) 19WJ Ch.Xv.  According  to the report of a special committee of the  American Prison Association, the summary of the i n d i v i d u a l r e * ports of the C l a s s i f i c a t i o n personnel  should include findings  and recommendations under each of the following headings: (1)  S o c i a l Background, (2)  Criminal History, (3)  I n i t i a l Adjust-  ment to the I n s t i t u t i o n , (*f) Medical Examination, (5) i c a l Study, (60 Analysis, (8)  Vocational Study, (7)  Psycholog-  Educational History and  Religious Background and Attitudes, (9)  Interests and A b i l i t i e s , and (10)  1  Recreational  Psychiatric Evaluation.  reports are used i n the Staff Conference,  These  i n which the inmate's  case i s discussed by the various s p e c i a l i s t s with a view to making s p e c i f i c recommendations to the administrative s t a f f for the inmate' programme of custody and training i n r e l a t i o n to the inmate's needs and the administration's C r i t e r i a for Selection.  While the inmate  i s awaiting transfer from the Reception Centre to the i n s t i t u t i o n recommended, the s o c i a l work s t a f f may  use t h i s opportunity for  discussing the inmate's programme with him and for providing  the  inmate with an o r i e n t a t i o n to the transfer i n s t i t u t i o n . 3 Upon h i s a r r i v a l at the transfer i n s t i t u t i o n the inmate i s seen by the I n s t i t u t i o n a l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Committee* ' who, 4  within the l i m i t s of  existing resources, put the Reception Centre's recommendations into effect.  This Committee p e r i o d i c a l l y reviews the inmate^ programme  1 The Committee on C l a s s i f i c a t i o n and Case Work of the American Prison Association, Handbook on C l a s s i f i c a t i o n i n Correctional Institutions_, New York, 19^7~Pp.32-33"  2 3  Ibid.,  Pp.3*+-35.  Ibid^Pp.^-^.  Ibid., Pp.6O-63.  -loi n order that the programme may be modified as the inmate's needs change, insuring the complementary and continuing relationship of diagnosis and treatment. This, i n b r i e f , i s the essence of the Correctional C l a s s i f i c a t i o n process.  Long before the offender enters the Reception  Centre, however, he i s subjected to a series of progressive, more general c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s .  The offender sets t h i s series into motion  when he violates the law, f o r the very nature of the offence c l a s s i f i e s him as a f e l o n or a misdemeanant.  On the basis of h i s offence,  the Criminal Law provides f o r c e r t a i n dispensations by the court, which, i n turn, may deal with the offender i n a variety of ways i n accordance with i t s discretionary powers.  And, f i n a l l y , the police  and the community help to shape the offender's attitudes through their contact with him; those basic attitudes towards authority, himself, and others, which w i l l influence the court, the i n s t i t u t i o n , and the Paroling Authority.  I t i s highly relevant to consider  b r i e f l y some of the above-mentioned factors, f o r the convicted offender has been subtly shaped by their influence, long before he faces the C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Committee. The  Pollce-Past_and_Present The impact of the law upon the offender i s experienced  through his apprehension  by the p o l i c e .  first  Perhaps i n the North American  culture, law enforcement personnel have seldom enjoyed the respect and cooperation awarded police i n England and other European countries, and i f the offender i s a product of a criminal sub-culture, i t i s expected  that he w i l l have more than the average c i t i z e n ' s d i s t r u s t  of the law enforcement o f f i c e r .  Police who are corruptible or b r u t a l ,  and who ignore the rights of the i n d i v i d u a l , w i l l increase rather than  -11l e s s e n his h o s t i l i t y , and reinforce his contempt for the  law.  Such practices as holding the suspect incommunicado, obtaining confessions through threats and physical abuse, advising the offender to "plead g u i l t y , and we'll see that you get o f f l i g h t l y " , submitting f a l s e evidence i n court, and similar abuses of p o l i c e authority-*- provide the offender with a frame of reference which precludes his acceptance of a correctional system whose professed aim i s to re-educate and r e h a b i l i t a t e .  Supervision on probation  or i n s t i t u t i o n a l training w i l l have l i t t l e p o s i t i v e influence upon the offender i f he feels that he has been grossly mishandled by the police and the courts. For the offender who  i s sentenced and placed i n a Reception  Centre, belligerence and lack of cooperation place him at a marked disadvantage.  Although no one i s expected to be happy at the grim  prospect of incarceration, C l a s s i f i c a t i o n panels w i l l invariably o f f e r the best housing and training placements to those inmates who  show a willingness to cooperate and a desire for  self-improvement.  The inmate's attitude i s , therefore, one of the primary factors i n fluencing his eventual placement. The i n d i v i d u a l policeman's decision to apprehend or ignore the bootlegger, the prostitute, and other petty criminals i s , i n a sense, a form of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n based on personal values and  Although they were written with s p e c i f i c reference to the United States, the following are generally applicable to the subject of police abuses: (a) Hopkins, Ernest Jerome, Our Lawless Police,. (New York: The Viking Press Inc.) 1931. x  (b) Trott, Harlan, "Police vs. the People", The C h r i s t i a n Science Monitor, May 19^0. p.7. (c) Beyle, Herman C , and Parratt, Spencer D., "Approval and Disapproval of S p e c i f i c Third-Degree P r a c t i c e s , " Journal of Criminal  La^-and-CriminologVj Nov. - Dec. 1937.  Pp.526-5"fo".  -12-  and motives.  However, astute, humane police can protect society  and s t i l l recognize the rights of the individual.  We are aware  that i t has been only i n recent years that law enforcement agencies on this continent have begun to attract personnel of the calibre required to win the respect and cooperation of the community, and at the same time, avoid brutalizing through outmoded and sadistic measures those who run afoul of the law.  This has been possible  1 ?  owing to a general trend '  towards professionalization, c i v i l  service status, promotions on the basis of a merit system rather than p o l i t i c a l influence, raising of minimum educational standards, and more intensive screening with regard to the emotional health and character of applicants.  Although i t may be argued that i t is  not the responsibility of the police to shape the offender's a t t i tudes i n the direction of rehabilitation and reformation, i t may very well be too late by the time he reaches the Reception Centre. The growth of Police Athletic Societies and others engaged i n •a  preventive work with children and juveniles i s indicative of J  intelligent public relations and an increasing awareness of a wider responsibility to the community. The Law - Past and Present When he commits an offence against the Criminal Code, the offender probably does not realize that he i s , i n a sense, Parratt, Spencer D . , "How Effective is A Police Department?" Annalsof the American Academy of P o l i t i c a l and Social Sciences, Sept.~19337~P.l55. Kooken, D. L . , "Ethics i n the Police Service," Journal of_ Criminal Law and Criminology May-June and July-August,~l~~~~ Pp7"l-7 +"172-1^': 1  2  1  3 National Conference on Prevention and Control of Juvenile Delinquency, Rei^ort_on_Role_of_Police, Washington, Nov.l9*f6 #  -13-  c l a s s i f y i n g himself by the very nature of h i s offence.  I f the  offence committed i s non-indictable ( i . e . a misdemeanour), the law provides f o r t r i a l and sentence upon conviction under circumstances d i f f e r e n t from those pertaining to indictable offences (or  felonies).^  Some confusion occurs, however, i n that while  some offences are always indictable or summary, s p e c i f i c offences may be considered.as  either summary or indictable at the d i s c r e t i o n  of the prosecuting attorney.  Examples f the l a t t e r are seen i n 0  those sections of the Criminal Code dealing with impaired drunken driving, and common a s s a u l t .  2  I t i s important  driving,  to note  that i n the United States, some states l i s t as f e l o n i e s offences  3 which are considered by other state laws as misdemeanours. However, the more usual f e l o n i e s include murder, manslaughter, burglary, housebreaking, larceny, bigamy, and rape, while some of the more conspicuous misdemeanours include perjury, conspiracy, k : : f a l s e pretences, l i b e l , r i o t , and common assault. The term non-indictable offence includes summary offences and misdemeanours and i s used to describe less serious offences. S i m i l a r l y , more serious offences are described by the terms i n idctable offence or felony. The Criminal Code of Canada. Annotations and Notes by J . C. Martin" QTcT, TTorontoT Cartwright and Son Ltd.) 1955. Sections 2  222, 223, and 230.  3 Herlihy, Thos. J r . , "Sentencing the Misdemeanant," National Probation and Parole Association Journal^ V o l . 2 , No.*+, 1 9 % ^ Turner, J . W. C e c i l , "The C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of Crimes", Kennv__§ Outlines of Criminal,, Law. (Cambridge: University Press) 19^2. Chapter VlT  As contrasted with indictable offences, summary offences i n Canadian law consist primarily of v i o l a t i o n s of p r o v i n c i a l statutes, and upon conviction make the offender l i a b l e to a maximum of  6  months imprisonment and  $250  fine.  and the magistrate has sole j u r i s d i c t i o n .  There i s no jury,  Indictable offences,  however, automatically provide for t r i a l by judge and j u r y ,  x  except for instances i n which the accused i s t r i e d for conspiracy i n trade.  Under such circumstances,  the accused may  by judge and jury, or t r i a l without jury.  elect t r i a l  An interesting example  i s seen i n the case of theft of money or property.-^ of the money or property stolen i s less than $50,  If the value  the magistrate has sole j u r i s d i c t i o n and upon conviction may a maximum sentence of 2 years. however, the accused may  $50),  (Theft under  In the case of theft over  award  $50,  elect t r i a l by jury i f he so chooses,  and upon conviction i s l i a b l e to a maximum of 10 years imprisonment. In Canada, probation may  be applied i n most cases, but i n  actual practice, i s seldom awarded by the courts to persons who not f i r s t offenders. duration may  are  A suspended sentence of two years maximum  be awarded as s t i l l another alternative to incarcer-  a t i o n i f the offender has no previous criminal record, or i f there i s on record a conviction of d i s s i m i l a r nature which occurred  five  h.  or more years previously.  Superior courts are empowered to try  any indictable offence, while every court of criminal j u r i s d i c t i o n The Criminal Code of Canada, op, c i t . , Section M-15 p.687. : ' ; 1  2  Ibid.« Section hll, pp.678-681.  3 I b i d . , Sections 280, h6?, and *t68. Pp.^98, 772-3. Sections 637 and 638,  Pp.965-6, and 968-70.  and hL6, L  -15may t r y a l l i n d i c t a b l e o f f e n c e s excluded and  other  than  those  by t h e Code, s u c h a s m u r d e r , r a p e ,  specifically  manslaughter,  a number o f o t h e r s w h i c h we need n o t l i s t  here,  treason,  Minimum  1  2 sentences while the  a r e p r o v i d e d , upon c o n v i c t i o n , i n o n l y  maximum l i m i t s  are stipulated  f o r every  four  instances,  offence l i s t e d i n  C r i m i n a l Code. It  fender's  becomes a p p a r e n t  crime  does, indeed,  to the astute observer  that the o f -  have c o n s i d e r a b l e b e a r i n g upon h i s  d i s p o s i t i o n by C a n a d i a n c o u r t s , f o r t h e C r i m i n a l Code i s s t i l l very  much f o c u s e d  upon l e t t i n g  Movements i n l a w r e f o r m of reducing  t h e punishment f i t t h e c r i m e .  have h i s t o r i c a l l y  c o n s i s t e d , i n t h e main,  t h e s e v e r i t y o f t h e maximum s e n t e n c e s  f o r indictable  o f f e n c e s , a n d t h e r e - d e f i n i n g a s n o n - i n d i c t a b l e many formerly  of indictable  summary, i n d i c t a b l e ,  status.  The d i s t i n c t i o n s made b e t w e e n  and n o n - i n d i c t a b l e o f f e n c e s  v a g u e and o f t e n i l l o g i c a l ,  offences  as i s the r e a s o n i n g  a p p e a r t o be  behind  the d i s t i n c -  t i o n s b e t w e e n t h e v a r i o u s l e g a l mechanisms f o r h a n d l i n g Although it  t h e Code l e a v e s c o n s i d e r a b l e  i s doubtful i f i tprovides  enlightened  jurist  d i s c r e t i o n with  sufficient  who i s t r u l y  flexibility  concerned w i t h  finding  them.-^J^  the courts, f o r t h e more a sentence  to f i t the o f f e n d e r . The  Courts  -Past  The  f u n c t i o n o f the c o u r t s has been m o d i f i e d  degrees, with 1  2  IMcU,  and P r e s e n t  direct  relationship  Part XII, Section  I b i d * , page 11,  paragraph  i n varying  t o new and v a r i e d t h e o r i e s o f  hl3, Pp.683-^. 15.  3 P i h l b l a d , C. T., " C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f C r i m e , " . E n c y c l o p e d i a o f , C r i m i n o l o g y , (New Y o r k : P h i l o s o p h i c a l L i b r a r y )  19^+9~  ^  H e r l i h y , Thos. J r . , op. c i t .  -16<  correction, the adequacy and a v a i l a b i l i t y of resources for community and i n s t i t u t i o n a l supervision and t r a i n i n g , changes i n the criminal code, and sentencing reforms.  Robert M. H i l l  has commented on the growing complexities involved i n the most recent of sentencing reforms, that of finding a sentence to f i t the offender: "Anyone can try a case. That i s as easy as f a l l i n g o f f a l o g . The d i f f i c u l t y comes i n knowing what to do with a man once he has been found g u i l t y . " 1  H i l l ' s o v e r - s i m p l i f i c a t i o n of the s i t u a t i o n i s h i s attempt to emphasize that, while there are well-defined procedures f o r conducting a t r i a l for the purposes of establishing a condition of innocence or g u i l t , there i s at present a lack of focus upon the equally important matter of sentencing, both within the schools of law and i n the f i e l d of p r a c t i c e . of  However, experts i n the f i e l d  criminal law have for many years been aware of the e x i s t i n g ,  i l l o g i c a l variations i n sentencing, often within the same court, and by the same judge or m a g i s t r a t e . ? 3 Movements to a l l e v i a t e 2  such discrepancies have taken many forms, including the establishment of  sentencing b o a r d s o r  Youth and Adult Authority programmes which  remove from the courts the more s p e c i f i c aspects of sentencing, placing them i n the hands of a committee of penal experts. H i l l , Robert M., "A Judge's Guide to Sentencing," National,. ll Probation and Parole Association Journal, V o l . 2 , No.*-, 19 +Z~~~~~~ 1  1  Everson, George, "The Human Element i n J u s t i c e " , Journal of Criminal Law. Criminology, and Police Science, V o l . 1G:90*7" 1 9 2 0 • 2  3 Gaudet, Frederick J r . , "The Sentencing Behavior of the Judge," Encyclopedia of Criminology. (New York: Philosophical Library) l ^ ^ . k  Warner, S. B., and Cabot, H.B., Harvard University Press), 1 9 3 6 .  Judges and Law Reform,. (Cambridge  -17-  The magistrate has always performed a d i f f i c u l t r o l e i n the j u d i c i a l system.  In areas where probation services are  inadequate or, as yet, undeveloped,  sentence must be passed  without the benefit of a pre-sentence report containing a s o c i a l h i s t o r y and investigation of the s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n .  The absence  of probation services also severely l i m i t s the court's choice of d i s p o s i t i o n i n many cases, often leaving no alternative to incarceration when i t i s c l e a r l y indicated that the interests of the i n d i v i d u a l and the community would be best served by placing the offender on probation.  The magistrate Is also  hampered i n h i s attempt to f i n d a sentence to f i t the offender by the very nature of h i s l e g a l training and the t r a d i t i o n a l conservatism with which the profession has viewed recent developments i n penology. The weight of public opinion- and the magistrate's 1  personality have often accounted for sentencing which i s inappropriate to the circumstances of the offence and the needs of the offender.  Coloured by these influences, sentencing may become  so lenient as to provide l i t t l e deterrent e f f e c t , poor protection f o r the community, and i n s u f f i c i e n t time i n which to r e - t r a i n the offender.  On the other hand, excessively harsh sentences  may deprive the offender of h i s freedom for so long that he becomes embittered, hopeless and i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d , making him and h i s family unnecessary burdens upon the taxpayer.  Ideally  Ulman, Joseph N. "The T r i a l Judge's Dilemma; A Judge's View", Probation and CrJjiinal J u s t i c e . Sheldon Glueck, ed., (New York: The Macmillan CoV7l933. 2 1  Rector, M i l t o n G., "Sentencing and Corrections," National ££2.^i°n_and_Parole_Ass^  V o l . 2 , No.U-, 1956.  -18the magistrate's  sentencing would not r e f l e c t h i s personal  prejudices, or the pressure of public opinion, but would indicate h i s careful consideration of the inmate's t o t a l needs and the f a c i l i t i e s available for his r e h a b i l i t a t i o n .  Many  observers have advocated pre-legal training i n the s o c i a l sciences and frequent workshops involving j u r i s t s and correcti o n a l workers as suitable means towards t h i s end. Albert Morris, member of the Board of Directors of the United Prison Association of Massachusetts and Professor of Sociology at Boston University, i s not alone i n suggesting that l e g a l training should be supplemented with that offered by schools of s o c i a l work.  1  As might be expected, Mr. Morris'  viewpoints  on t h i s topic have not been widely or enthusiastically by many of h i s colleagues.  shared  Others have pointed out that  j u r i s t s seldom attend the annual correctional congresses, and accept few of the many i n v i t a t i o n s extended by prison admini-  2 strators to v i s i t their i n s t i t u t i o n s .  This disappointing  response must be attributed to such factors as the conservatism of the l e g a l profession, and i t s d i s t r u s t and, perhaps, fear of the new d i s c i p l i n e s which have invaded c e r t a i n areas of i t s sphere of p r a c t i c e . Morris, Albert, "Wanted: A Core of Basic Knowledge for the Prevention and Control of Crime", Federal Probation. V o l . 11:20, January-March, 19^7. ~" x  2  Warner, S. B., and Cabot, H.B., op c i t .  -19-  In view of the complexities of sentencing  today, and  the many p i t f a l l s inherent i n practices of the past, i t i s not surprising that the development of Adult and Youth Authority programmes-'- has met with wide i n t e r e s t , speculation, and controversy.  I t would seem apparent, however, that such programmes  contain many p o s i t i v e measures for a l l e v i a t i n g discrepancies i n sentencing, and for insuring that the sentence w i l l , indeed, f i t the offender.  Under an Authority programme, convicted  offenders are sentenced to an indeterminate  term within c e r t a i n  minimum and maximum l i m i t s provided by the criminal code. The actual l o c a t i o n and term of imprisonment and parole-supervision i s f i x e d by the Authority board a f t e r the offender has undergone an extensive diagnostic study i n a correctional reception centre. In t h i s manner, release of the inmate can be r e l a t e d to the length of time required for vocational and other forms of t r a i n i n g , improvement i n the inmate's a t t i t u d e , family r e l a t i o n s h i p s , employment opportunities i n the community, and so f o r t h .  The straight  determinate sentence, based on a hasty, pre-sentence i n v e s t i g a t i o n could scarcely be expected to perform an equivalent function. The example of an Authority programme most often cited i s that of the State of C a l i f o r n i a which was the f i r s t state to enact Youth  and Adult Authority l e g i s l a t i o n .  The C a l i f o r n i a experiment  has now proven i t s worth, and has been e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y endorsed  1 Gordon, Walter A., " C a l i f o r n i a Adult Authority", Proceedings of the 77th Annual C o n g r e s s ^ o f , . C o r r e c t i o n . o f ^ h e _ ^ e r l ^ ) ^ P T l s g n l Associatlonj ""New York,~19*+7T ~  -20by the press, l e g i s l a t i v e bodies, and numerous Associations of Correctional  personnel.  X  Elsewhere, and i n Canada today, i n s t i t u t i o n a l a l l o c a t i o n by the courts and awarding of the straight determinate sentence is  s t i l l very much i n vogue.  Unless the whole f i e l d of criminal  law and corrections undergoes sweeping changes i n the near future i t can be expected that much of the correctional c l a s s i f i c a t i o n process w i l l continue to be carried out by the courts, despite the evidence  suggesting that the courts are i l l - e q u i p p e d to  perform t h i s function. The Community^-^Past^ and,..Pre sent With the humanitarian  approach of the "new  penology",  community attitudes toward the offender have undergone considerable modification through the e f f o r t s of s o c i a l educators,  and  of progressive correctional systems which have maintained  a  community focus.  sporadic  Community i n t e r e s t and support although  has increased as a r e s u l t of good public r e l a t i o n s programmes, correctional publications, community involvement i n after-care and trades advisory programmes, and the interest of the press, radio, t e l e v i s i o n , and other media of mass communication. in  Yet,  spite of these influences for making lay persons more knowledge-  able of corrections, there s t i l l exists a powerful element i n society which adheres solely to the concept of the r e t r i b u t i v e purpose of the law and the b e l i e f that the sentence of the courts should be  1  Biennial Report State of C a l i f o r n i a Department of Corrections, Sacramento, C a l i f o r n i a , p.52.  1955-56" 2  I b i d . , p.20,  r  51.  -21-  r e l a t e d to the offence rather than to the offender. Personal prejudice, mis-information, crime reporting devoted to cheap sensationalism,  1  and p o l i t i c a l and personal motives have  accounted for such negativism which can have, i n an i n d i r e c t sense, marked influence upon the obstruction of l e g a l and penal reforms, the l i m i t e d success of some after-care programmes, and the  d i s p o s i t i o n by the courts of certain cases which receive  widespread p u b l i c i t y .  The fact that i n some j u r i s d i c t i o n s , a  man s t i l l may be imprisoned for l i f e for the act of indecent exposure i s evidence of public unconcern and the effect of 2 "sex fiend" mythology,  accepted by a mis-informed public and  perpetrated by an over-zealous press. programmes can hope for l i t t l e  S i m i l a r l y , after-care  success i n r e h a b i l i t a t i n g offenders  i f employers are unwilling to "take a chance" by h i r i n g a paroled offender, and i f the stigma of imprisonment precludes s o c i a l adjustment i n the non-criminal strata of society.  An i l l o g i c a l  fear or hatred of the petty offender i s the inevitable r e s u l t of b e l i e f i n i n v a l i d concepts of c r i m i n a l i t y , which must be replaced by honest programmes aimed at the long-term re-education of  the community. Lay persons do have d i r e c t influence upon the offender's  handling by the courts through testimony as witnesses, and as previously mentioned, through service as jury members.  In t h i s  Ulman, Joseph N., pjj_._cit . J  2 Reckless, Walter C , The Crime_Problem, Century-Crofts, Inc.) 1955~""Pp. 293-1+.  (New York: Appleton-  -22way,  the p u b l i c  has  a direct  although i t i s readily  hand i n c l a s s i f y i n g  apparent  that  a t t i t u d e s i s u s u a l l y more i n d i r e c t l y offender.  As we  reflected accept  by  our l e g a l  and  believe  of  society's attitudes  and  community  i n v o l v e d i n shaping  that progressive correctional  a t i o n that shaping  responsibility  t h e community  are g e n e r a l l y  There  1  systems w i l l  f o r community  and  value  the  i s every  reason  increasingly  education, i n r e a l i z -  i s instrumental i n creating,  the a t t i t u d e s  the  i n community r e l u c t a n c e t o  t h e m i n o r i t y - g r o u p member.  recognize their  and  system  the i n f l u e n c e  the r e l e a s e d o f f e n d e r , the d e l i n q u e n t t e e n - a g e r ,  immigrant to  have i n d i c a t e d ,  the o f f e n d e r ,  labelling,  systems o f i t s o f f e n d e r s i n  2 relation as  to moral  a result  plicity  and  of rapid  of r e l a t e d  ethical  s t a n d a r d s w h i c h have become  i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n , u r b a n i z a t i o n , and  o  f  this  institutional descriptive  comparative  classification  treatment  T h i s work i s i n t e n d e d p r i m a r i l y study o f the c o r r e c t i o n a l  p r o c e s s w h i c h makes p o s s i b l e porary  d e v e l o p m e n t s have o c c u r r e d  i n d i v i d u a l i z a t i o n of correctional  settings.  and  this  individual  focus.  s y s t e m s a r e e x a m i n e d , and  p r o c e s s w i t h i n the B r i t i s h  Columbia  the  i n comparison  Four  2 Co.  Rhodes^. H.T.F., Ltd.,) 1937.  contem-  classification  P r o v i n c i a l Gaol S e r v i c e i s then this in  situation.  Witmer, H e l e n L . , " J u v e n i l e D e l i n q u e n c y and No.5, S e p t . - O c t . , Pp.l88-191.  2,  a  w i t h t h e o t h e r programmes d e s c r i b e d , and  r e l a t i o n t o the l o c a l  Vol.  as  in  classification  c o n s i d e r e d w i t h a view to e v a l u a t i n g the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f service  multi-  Enquiry  I n r e c e n t y e a r s , many i m p o r t a n t r e l a t i o n to the  a  factors.  The. P u r p o s e _and_Methodology  in  confused  1955.  Xh^-QLi^l^^S^S-^^II^  Anomie,"  Children,  , (London: Methuen  &  -23The scope and methods of t h i s enquiry  included  personal  tours to examine and discuss c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and related programmes within the B r i t i s h Columbia P r o v i n c i a l Gaol Service and the State of C a l i f o r n i a Department of Corrections.  In addition, l e t t e r s  of enquiry were sent to twelve correctional departments, one i n Great B r i t a i n , two i n Canada, and the remainder i n the United States of America.  With the exception of the Province of Saskat-  chewan the writer chose the others from a directory of i n s t i t u t i o n s published by the American Prison Association, using as the c r i t e r i o n for  s e l e c t i o n only those correctional systems which maintain sep-  arate i n s t i t u t i o n s for reception and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , i n recognition of the specialized role which c l a s s i f i c a t i o n performs.  On the basis  of the nine r e p l i e s received, four programmes were selected for examination because of their noteworthy or unique features, and the adequacy of the descriptive material a v a i l a b l e .  Unfortunately,  the material received from the provinces of Saskatchewan and was  Ontario  not s u f f i c i e n t l y comprehensive for i n c l u s i o n i n t h i s study.  I t should also be noted that although s i g n i f i c a n t advances have been made i n the correctional systems of some European countries, these programmes have not been included because their  judicial,  s o c i a l and economic circumstances would c a l l for special i n t e r pretation which i s not part of the purpose of t h i s study. Chapter I I I , dealing with Reception and  Classification  Within the B r i t i s h Columbia P r o v i n c i a l Gaol Service, has been d i f f i c u l t to document owing to the scarcity of published r e l a t i n g to t h i s service.  material  The writer has therefore dealt with  -2hmany h i t h e r t o u n p u b l i s h e d in  line  with the primary  a s p e c t s o f t h e programme. focus of t h i s  b e e n made t o examine i n d e t a i l , bation,  forestry  related  study,  1  Also,  no a t t e m p t  s e r v i c e s such  has  as p r o -  programmes, a n d so f o r t h .  The w r i t e r p e r f o r m e d t h e d u t i e s o f C l a s s i f i c a t i o n O f f i c e r f o r C e n t r a l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f the B r i t i s h Columbia P r o v i n c i a l G a o l S e r v i c e b e t w e e n May, 1957, a n d O c t o b e r , 1958, h a v i n g a l r e a d y s e r v e d as a s o c i a l worker i n o t h e r u n i t s o f O a k a l l a P r i s o n Farm.  CHAPTER II CONTEMPORARY CLASSIFICATION SYSTEMS  Among the various c l a s s i f i c a t i o n systems operative i n Great B r i t a i n and on the North American continent, the four programmes described i n this chapter embody, i n varying degree, most of the recognized features of a sound c l a s s i f i c a t i o n process. Naturally, while these programmes p a r a l l e l each other i n many respects, they nevertheless d i f f e r i n some important aspects owing to c e r t a i n d i s s i m i l a r i t i e s i n administrative structure and resources, and subtle differences i n t h e o r e t i c a l bases. Nevertheless there i s a great deal to be gained from  examining  t h i s experience. (a) The Borstal System of Great  Britain  Although a programme of C l a s s i f i c a t i o n has existed for some time within the English penal system , i t would be 1  appropriate to focus our attention on c l a s s i f i c a t i o n within the Borstal programme.  It i s the l a t t e r system which deals  with the youthful offender, and which has gained world-wide acclaim through i t s revolutionary methods.  Before we consider  the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and a l l o c a t i o n process, however, we must examine the l e g a l and philosophical framework within which B o r s t a l  1 E l k i n . W. A T h e Ehglish Penal System. (London: Penguin  Books Ltd.) 1 9 5 7 , Chap~6T"~  -26-  is  operated,  has  f o r i t i s from  this  classification  developed. The  gained Sir  problem o f the y o u t h f u l o f f e n d e r i n E n g l i s h p r i s o n s r e c o g n i t i o n i n 189^,  official  E . Du  more t h a n  Cane, d i r e c t o r  3»000  youths  a committee  b e t w e e n 16  to study  the r e p o r t o f t h i s  as a r e s u l t  and  The  training.  separate Borstal  training  lishments  The  concept  are a p t l y  the  o f the  appoint-  1895>  in  provided  contemporary  system  indeterminate  w h i c h s h o u l d be  freely  and  the of  sentence,  the fundamentals  of  c o m m i t t e e ' s own  words:  c o u r t s would h a v e t h e power t o commit t o t h e s e  estab-  f o r young o f f e n d e r s ) , o f f e n d e r s u n d e r  f o r p e r i o d s o f not l e s s  t h a n one  graduated  exercised.  amply p r o v i d e d w i t h a s t a f f the  were s e r v i n g  Home S e c r e t a r y I m m e d i a t e l y  s e t f o r t h i n the  y e a r s w i t h a system of l i c e n s e s  training  y e a r s o f age  f o r young a d u l t s and  (institutions  o f 23,  21  committee, submitted  institutions  "The  age  1  by  the problem of the y o u t h f u l o f f e n d e r ,  recommendations upon which i s based Borstal  of a report  of E n g l i s h p r i s o n s , which s t a t e d t h a t  terms i n the g a o l s o f London. ed  framework t h a t  capable  year  and  up  according to  These i n s t i t u t i o n s of giving  sound  inmates i n v a r i o u s k i n d s of i n d u s t r i a l  to  the  three  sentence should  be  education, work,  and p  qualified  to e x e r c i s e the b e s t . . . k i n d o f m o r a l E l m i r a Reformatory-^  spread  2  i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s had  won  a c c l a i m f o r i t s work w i t h y o u t h f u l o f f e n d e r s , and  Fox, Routledge 1  influence." wideS i r Evelyn  W. L i o n e l , The ^ E n g l i s h P r i s o n and B o r s t a l S y s t e m , and K e g a n P a u l Ltd.7T~19!>2. p.329.  Ibid.,  p.332.  3 Watson, J o h n , Meet t h e P r i s o n e r , ( L o n d o n : J o n a t h o n  1936, p.218.  (London:  Cape  Co.)  -27Ruggles-Brise  was  accordingly sent to study the Elmira programme  i n the hope that i t would prove applicable to the s i t u a t i o n i n Britain.  So impressed was he, that upon his return to England  a p i l o t project was  i n i t i a t e d through the authority of the  Secretary of State, i n a wing of Bedford Prison.  Young inmates  aged 16 to 21 were segregated from the main population of the gaol, and were placed i n a s p e c i a l trades-training and building programme.  S i r Evelyn Ruggles-Brise  character-  also enlisted the  services of his more enthusiastic friends, i n forming a group to v i s i t and befriend inmates during their incarceration, and to a s s i s t them i n re-establishing themselves upon release.  From  t h i s nucleus has grown the Central After-Care Association which a s s i s t s Probation O f f i c e r s i n providing after-care for every Borstal Trainee.  1  Results proved so encouraging that i n  Rochester Prison near the town of Borstal was i n s t i t u t i o n s o l e l y for youthful offenders.  1902,  converted into an  However, Borstal  t r a i n i n g did not become recognizably or l e g a l l y separate from the prison system u n t i l the passing i n 1908 of Crimes Act.  of the  Prevention  The provisions i n t h i s Act covering Borstal sen-  tencing existed, with minor modifications, u n t i l 19*+8 when s i g n i f i c a n t changes were introduced by the Criminal Justice Act. The appointment i n 1910  of S i r Alexander Patterson  as  a Prison Commissioner gave great Impetus to the movement towards expansion and c l a r i f i c a t i o n of the Borstal programme. Patterson's  It was  firm b e l i e f that the p r i s o n - l i k e setting of the  • Brockway, Zebulon R., F i f t y Years of_Prison Service. York: Charities Publication Committee)~1912~~Pp.^19-^3.  first  (New  -28Borstal i n s t i t u t i o n s could not adequately serve the objectives of Borstal t r a i n i n g .  He stressed the need for freedom to exer-  c i s e s e l f - d i s c i p l i n e through a reduction of external controls, b u i l t the concept of staff as the primary treatment  resource,  and introduced the house plan patterned after the system then i n use i n the preparatory and "public" schools.  The entire  programme stressed the lessening of regimentation and the close contact of inmates with s t a f f of i n s p i r i n g personal q u a l i t i e s . One of the most important developments was the establishment i n 1922 of 1955,  of a diagnostic centre at Wormwood Scrubs.  By the f a l l  l ^ Borstal i n s t i t u t i o n s for male offenders were oper1  a t i v e , i n addition to two reception centres and two r e c a l l centres. Another i n s t i t u t i o n at Hull receives lads who adjust i n the available Borstal settings.  are unable to  Of the 1*+ Borstal  u n i t s , the newest i s a medium security i n s t i t u t i o n , nine are "open", and the remainder are "closed" B o r s t a l s . The l e g a l framework governing Borstal sentencing has a very direct bearing upon the t o t a l programme.  As mentioned  e a r l i e r , i t was the Prevention of Crimes Act of 1908  that f i r s t  made provision for the conditions of Borstal sentencing.  1  Courts  of summary j u r i s d i c t i o n could not sentence d i r e c t l y to B o r s t a l , but had to commit the prisoner to a higher court i f a B o r s t a l sentence was desired.  In order to do t h i s , the courts of summary  j u r i s d i c t i o n had to prove that the offender had previously been on probation or that he had at least one previous conviction.  E l k i n , W. A., op c i t . ,  Pp.2^3-2^5.  -29The Assizes or Quarter Sessions i n turn, were required to consider a report  by the Prison Commissioners as to the lad's s u i t a b i l i t y  f o r sentence i n terms of h i s mental and physical health.  The lad  had to be 16 to 21 years of age, and must have been convicted of an offence punishable by imprisonment. seen i n the case of Borstal sentencing  of absconders from Approved  Sentences were 2 or 3 years i n duration followed by a  Schools.  period of parole  supervision.  The maximum age was period of time, but i t was  raised from 21 to 23,  19*+8,  for a short  found that the older inmates were  l e s s amenable to Borstal t r a i n i n g . of  The only exception i s  1  The Criminal Justice Act  therefore restored the previous age l i m i t of  addition to abolishing the 2 year sentence. maximum periods of incarceration are now  21,  in  The minimum and  9 months and 3 years  respectively, within the t o t a l Borstal sentence o f h years. allows for a minimum of one year on supervised parole.  This  However,  the period of post-release supervision i s generally much longer than one year, for the average stay i n the i n s t i t u t i o n i s somewhat l e s s than two years.  Regardless of the date of release, the f u l l  sentence does not expire u n t i l h years from the date of sentence, and supervision and l i a b i l i t y time.  to r e c a l l are i n e f f e c t u n t i l that  Only i n extremely unusual circumstances would a lad be  required to serve the f u l l three year term of imprisonment. The C l a s s i f i c a t i o n  and A l l o c a t i o n Process  As previously mentioned, the f i r s t Borstal diagnostic centre was  established at Wormwood Scrubs i n 1922.  Since then,  The maximum age l i m i t of 23 has been retained i n B r i t i s h Columbia.  a second, Surrey.  Latchmere House, has been i n s t i t u t e d near Richmond, The programme f o l l o w e d by t h e s e c e n t r e s  adequate than t h a t  found i n the p r i s o n s ,  to  classifying  the work o f  the  schools  and i s  i s much more even  superior  i n the Approved  Schools  System. Inmates  sentenced  to a term of B o r s t a l t r a i n i n g  p l a c e d i n the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n centres and o b s e r v a t i o n b e f o r e specific the  an attempt  Borstal institution." "  officer,  are  staffed  several  with a psychologist,  s o c i a l workers,  i n a d d i t i o n to the r e g u l a r visit  the i n m a t e ' s  i s made a t  a s o c i a l history of  together  w i t h the housemasters,  g a t i o n which includes psychometric,  of  this diagnostic  order  t o measure  test results  process  The o t h e r  An e x c e l l e n t  200 i n m a t e s  placed  of  the inmate.  according  s u p e r i o r work performance  as  i n order  recreational, the  and value  conducted  following vocational solely  in  in aptitude  accordance  I n a s a m p l i n g o f k-00  to t e s t r e s u l t s  compared t o t h e  control group.  2  Guidance.  B i x b y , F . L o v e l l , " R e f o r m a t o r i e s and t h e B o r s t a l S y s t e m " , Contemporary C o r r e c t i o n j T a p p a n , e d . , (New Y o r k : The Mc"'GrawH i l l B o o k CoTJ 1951. P~331. 2  cases,  showed a m a r k e d l y  R o d g e r , A . , A. B o r s t a l E x p e r i m e n t i n V o c a t i o n a l H i s M a j e s t y ' s S t a t i o n e r y Office,~London7 1937~ x  workers  professionals,  example o f  as opposed t o v o c a t i o n a l placement wishes  officer,  the i n s t i t u t i o n a l i n v e s t i -  educational,  merits of  guidance  The s o c i a l  was s e e n i n a n e x p e r i m e n t  the r e l a t i v e  w i t h the expressed the  testing.  guidance  community c o n t a c t s ,  each c a s e . conduct  function,  a vocational  and a n e d u c a t i o n a l  home and make o t h e r  vocational  a l l o c a t i o n to a  institutional staff.  to develop  exploratory  testing  I n order to perform t h i s  1  centres  for a period of  are  The  -31period  of observation  duration, the  and  centre's  and  testing i s generally  s i x weeks i n  t e r m i n a t e s w i t h an a l l o c a t i o n decided Administration,  previously  u p o n by  described.  Once i t h a s b e e n d e t e r m i n e d o n t h e b a s i s o f t h e emotional s t a b i l i t y , "closed" for  whether  institution,  placement.  there  he  ways, and i n l i g h t  of this  i s s u i t a b l e f o r a n "open"  still  E a c h o f t h e Ih  r e m a i n numerous  the boy's  carefully  Borstal  framework, each Governor  v o c a t i o n a l and  taken into account.  Within  to experiment, to develop an e s p r i t  specialize  i n the s o c i a l  difference the  diverse  skills,  Housemaster.  and m o r a l r e - e d u c a t i o n  training,  Therefore,  corps,  and  of s p e c i f i c  character  to types  there  and p e r s o n a l i t y o f  is a  each  often  a p a r t i c u l a r inmate  w i l l h a v e u p o n t h e new  1  arrival,  and  versa. Vocational  considered  the s h o r t ,  skills  and  way  training  i n allocation.  during  average  work h a b i t s may  for apprenticeship  placements  A l t h o u g h one sta y :  the awarding  Fox,  are a l s o a f a c t o r to cannot  "learn a  a t an i n s t i t u t i o n ,  be a c q u i r e d  to a degree  o r employment f o l l o w i n g  Whenever p o s s i b l e , t h e y o u t h ' s own in  moreover,  t h e a l l o c a t i o n o f a n i n m a t e may  g r o u p , House o r Housemaster  the  de  the  a p p r o a c h i n each House, i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h  be made i n c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e i n f l u e n c e t h a t  vice  needs  the l i m i t s o f  E v e n w i t h i n t h e same i n s t i t u t i o n ,  to the group  o r more  social  h a s b e e n a l l o w e d , and  encouraged  or  possibilities  B o r s t a l s i s u n i q u e i n one  must be  of B o r s t a l inmates.  inmate's  trade"  certain basic that w i l l  op. c i t . ,  pave  discharge.  wishes are taken i n t o account  o f work p l a c e m e n t s w i t h i n t h e i n s t i t u t i o n .  L i o n e l , W.,  be  p.335.  The  - 3 2 -  variety of work placements i s l i m i t e d i n some i n s t i t u t i o n s which have tended to s p e c i a l i z e .  1  The North Sea Camp for example, i s  primarily concerned with land reclamation, another with f o r e s t r y , and s t i l l another with h o r t i c u l t u r a l work.  The remaining i n s t i t -  utions concentrate upon the i n d u s t r i a l trades, although the variety of trades-training p o s s i b i l i t i e s varies i n accordance with c e r t a i n l o c a l condition, physical plant and equipment, and the p a r t i c u l a r 2 focus and specializations which each Governor has encouraged. In both of the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n centres, the above-mentioned process i s carried on i n a closed setting which allows for testing and observation of the inmate, In both group and s o l i t a r y pursuits, i n a programme setting which w i l l approximate, i n most respects, any programmes into which he w i l l eventually  be placed.  This r e -  mains true, despite the variations i n s t a f f i n g , f a c i l i t i e s , and vocational philosophy  t r a i n i n g , for throughout there exists the same basic that promotes the staff-inmate relationship , character  building, and the self-determination  which i s the essence of Borstal  training everywhere. (b) The New York State Department of Correction The Correctional C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of male offenders i n the State of New York presents one of the most i n t r i g u i n g paradoxes 1  E l k i n , V/. A., op. c i t . , p.2^8.  2  Taft, Donald R., op c i t . , p.61 *. 1  3 For a more comprehensive examination of the philosophy underl y i n g the Borstal programme, see Patterson, S i r Alexander, The 2^^£l£l^-2l-^h^32i:^S:l^^l^^E , The Home O f f i c e , London, 1932.  -33Adults over 21 years of age  i n the correctional f i e l d .  are  committed d i r e c t l y to the Department i n s t i t u t i o n s by the  sentencing  courts, without the benefit of i n v e s t i g a t i o n and a l l o c a t i o n through a diagnostic centre.  On the other hand, a l l youthful male offenders  aged 16 to 21 receive the benefits of a r e c e p t i o n - c l a s s i f i c a t i o n programme that i s probably  second to none the world over.  This  programme originates i n the Reception Centre situated at the Elmira Reformatory, famous for i t s early attempts at segregation and  train-  1 ing  of youthful offenders. The Reception Centre of the New  Correction was opened on November  York State Department of  1, 19*+5>  having been authorized  2 by Chapter  55^,  Laws of  19*+5.  The establishment  of this centre  came as the r e s u l t of recommendations contained i n the report of a committee, appointed Interdepartmental  i n 19^3  by Governor Dewey.  Known as the  Committee on Delinquency, t h i s committee  was  comprised of experts i n the f i e l d of corrections, law,social welfare, education, and mental hygiene. i n December, 19^5, and February,  19*f6,  Their two-part report, issued recommended the  establishment  of a reception centre as a necessary resource i n a comprehensive, State-wide programme "for the prevention and treatment of Legal provisions for the Reception Centre are  delinquency".  extensive  and rather complex, and i t w i l l therefore s u f f i c e to r e l a t e the highlights and major provisions of the Law.^ Within the age range Central Administration of the_Department^ New York State Department o f ~ C o r r e c t i o n 7 New York 1953~pT!bo•"" Correction. New York State Department of Correction, January 1956, Vol. XXI, NoTl., p.3. 1  2  3 A r t i c l e 3A, Correction Law, 19^5, State of New York. Correction Law, 195^ ( e f f e c t i v e February 1, 1955).  803,  Also Chap.  -3>+of 16 to 21, commitments to the Centre may  include those male  persons adjudged or convicted as juvenile delinquents,  vagrants,  wayward-minors, youthful offenders, misdemeanants, disorderly persons, felons, and those convicted of any offence.  However,  persons i n the age group sentenced to death or found to be mentally defective before commitment are not commitable to the centre.  The laws stipulate that the Centre s t a f f are required  to make a detailed study of each offender received, recommending to the Commissioner of Correction, (1) the State i n s t i t u t i o n most suited to meeting the inmate's needs, (2) a s p e c i f i c programme of training and treatment, and  (3)  the approximate length of  treatment. Sentencing by the courts i s quite d i f f e r e n t i n the case of felons and non-felons.  The courts are empowered to f i x the  sentence i n a l l felony cases committed to the Centre, but have chosen to exercise their r i g h t to set minimum and maximum terms i n only 30 P©r cent of such cases.  In the remaining 70  percent,  In which the court s p e c i f i e s no minimum or maximum, the law automatically provides for a term with no minimum, and a maximum of 5 years. In the case of non-felony offenders (misdemeanants, etc.) committed to the Reception Centre, Correction Law  automatically  provides i n d e f i n i t e sentences with no minimum term, and with a maximum term not to exceed 3 years.  A l l releases on parole are  authorized by the State Board of Parole, with p o s t - i n s t i t u t i o n a l supervision provided by o f f i c e r s of the D i v i s i o n of P a r o l e .  Oorrection, op. c i t .  Pp.3-*+.,  1  -35-  The Reception Centre"*" at Elmira Reformatory consists of two c e l l blocks of the main i n s t i t u t i o n , and s i x areas, each about 50 feet by 50 f e e t , housing the following f a c i l i t i e s : (1)  Business  and Administrative o f f i c e s ; board room, (2) Medical u n i t ; chaplairfs o f f i c e s ; paroles; guidance supervisor's o f f i c e s , (3) vocational shop, (*+) Recreational room, (5) p s y c h i a t r i c u n i t , and (6)  Exploratory  Psychological and  Classrooms, testing and o r i e n t a t i o n room.  The large and small cellblocks contain 325 and *+5 c e l l s r e s p e c t i v e l y , a l l of "outside" construction, and providing f o r a t o t a l accommodation of 370 inmates.  The Centre i s dependent upon Elmira Reform-  atory, however, f o r other services and f a c i l i t i e s such as kitchen and messhall, laundry, maintenance and r e p a i r s , u t i l i t i e s (power,  2 heat, etc.) and h o s p i t a l services. STAFF PROVISIONS.. The professional s t a f f at the Centre includes a d i r e c t o r , an assistant d i r e c t o r , two associate c l i n i c a l p s y c h i a t r i s t s , four psychologists, a senior physician, two graduate nurses, three guidance supervisors, three vocational supervisors, three  educational  supervisors, two r e c r e a t i o n a l education supervisors, a parole o f f i c e r , and one part-time and two f u l l - t i m e chaplains.  Clerical,  custodial, and other s t a f f include a head c l e r k , a p r i n c i p a l account clerk, a correspondence censor, a senior c l e r k , three c l e r k s , eleven stenographers, four t y p i s t s , a chauffeur, and forty-three custodial officers. x  Ibid, p.5.  p Kendall, Glenn, "Reception Centers,"  op. c i t . , Pp.107, 109.  CohtemporarCorrection,  -36S t a f f devote a l l their time to Centre duties, as none are joint functionaries with r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s to the Elmira Reformatory.  The Director of the Reception Centre s i m i l a r l y i s  responsible not to the Reformatory, but d i r e c t l y to the Commissioner of Correction.  Although not specified' by law, the average stay at the Reception Centre i s roughly 70 to 80 days.  This includes two or  three weeks of reception, o r i e n t a t i o n , and group testing; s i x weeks i n the study and observation programme; and a period of two to three weeks awaiting t r a n s f e r . Some f l e x i b i l i t y i s seen i n shortening or lengthening the stay at the Centre f o r inmates who present s p e c i f i c problems, such as those who are tubercular, long-sentence  cases, those who are of extremely  low i n t e l l i g e n c e ,  inmates with severe behaviour disorders, and so f o r t h .  X  At a l l times there are ten to twelve groups of inmates i n various stages of the Centre programme; two to three i n reception, s i x p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n various stages of the a c t i v i t y programme study, and two to three awaiting t r a n s f e r . Each week's intake  (approximately  30 inmates) constitutes a group, and i t s members proceed as a group through each of the various studies, i n the weeks to follow.  Three  separate and d i s t i n c t divisions i n programme are seen, beginning with (1) Reception-Orientation - Group Testing, followed by (2) Study and Observation, and terminating i n (3)  Classification.  The inmate's f i r s t two to three weeks at the Centre are  1  Ibid, Pp.5-7.  -37-  spent i n the u s u a l of and  reception,  identification  g r o u p l e c t u r e s by t h e d i v i s i o n a l  are assigned  including  to supervise  and  regulations, personal  are  c o n d u c t e d by a l l s e n i o r  include  staff,  counselling  metric  and as  lectures  life,  furnished with information  the Centre's  importance  are devoted to psychoquestionnaires  attainment, vocational i n t e r e s t s  p e r s o n a l i t y and i n t e l l i g e n c e ,  soon as p o s s i b l e , i n order  group,  the f u n c t i o n o f p a r o l e , r e l i g i o u s  Three h a l f - d a y s  the areas o f e d u c a t i o n a l  aptitudes,  Group  to i n s t i t u t i o n a l  t e s t i n g on a group b a s i s , w i t h t e s t s and  covering  of each  s e r v i c e s , and t o p i c s o f s i m i l a r  t o b o t h inmates and s t a f f .  custodial  f r o m t h e D i r e c t o r down, and  inmates' r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s ,  personal  Two  instruction i n rules  h y g i e n e , and so f o r t h .  s u c h t o p i c s as a d j u s t m e n t  function,  a l l the a c t i v i t i e s  recreation, basic m i l i t a r y - d r i l l ,  part  h e a d s , and i n d i v i d u a l  g r o u p t e s t i n g c o n d u c t e d by t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a f f .  officers  and  p r o c e d u r e s now a s t a n d a r d  that  other  This  Centre  i n these areas,  i s accomplished  staff  m i g h t be  p r i o r to t h e i r  contact  w i t h the inmate. During by  this  the c h a p l a i n s ,  tribution  period,  i n d i v i d u a l interviews  and by t h e p a r o l e  parole the  functions  part  interview  p e r t a i n s mostly  mainder forms the b e g i n n i n g portion called  has been d i v i d e d to parole  the Centre  prior  to f i n a l  s t a f f who w i l l evaluation.  supervisors, the that  f a c t o r s , whereas t h e r e This  second  and s u b - t i t l e d " O f f e n c e s and M a l a d -  j u s t e d B e h a v i o u r " and " S o c i a l B a c k g r o u n d " p r o v i d e s for  performs.  i n s u c h a manner  o f the case a n a l y s i s .  "Case A n a l y s i s "  con-  point,  which h i s r e p o r t  t o l i g h t e n t h e work l o a d o f t h e g u i d a n c e  officer's  first  The l a t t e r ' s  to the C l a s s i f i c a t i o n process begins a t t h i s  owing t o t h e i n t e r e s t i n g d u a l I n order  officer.  are conducted  eventually  complete  a starting point the case  analysis  -38The  s e c o n d p h a s e , known as  programme, i n c l u d e s testing  by  the  educational,  and  guidance.  Study  i n d i v i d u a l interviews  psychologists,  and  the  at  vocational,  and  and  l e a s t one  here are  must f o c u s a l s o  u p o n the  treatment  and  The  services  are  of  two  the  in  case  used  frequently  diagnosis  a total psychiatric  service  Th©  recreational  educational  b o t h to the  and  evaluate  s t r e n g t h s and  interviews  group a c t i v i t i e s , similar  that  and  diagnostic, the  but  individual.  the  the interns  each case w i t h  i n addition  con-  to p a r t i c i p a t i o n  electroencephalogram  organic  brain disorders,  are  providing  i s unique i n i t s comprehensiveness. e d u c a t i o n programmes a r e  w e a k n e s s e s , and  counselling  visual aids,  of  psychiatric  1  to  formulate  t r a i n i n g and sessions  supplementary  are  designed with  education. augmented  t e s t i n g , and  by  other  techniques. The  vocational  i t attempts  addition  vocational of  that  of  i n d i v i d u a l a r e m e d i a l programme o f  Individual  in  staff,  S u c h d e v i c e s as  i n the  several  evaluations  to a l l Centre  conferences.  first  testing  p a r t i c u l a r l y noteworthy, i n that  psychiatric  sultation available  examination,  interviewing,  t r a i n i n g of  f u l l - t i m e p s y c h i a t r i s t s and  makes p o s s i b l e  some I n d i v i d u a l  recreational  functions  staff  Observation  psychiatric  A l l staff  psychiatric  and  to  programme d e s e r v e s  to provide  supplying  exploratory  each inmate w i t h a p r a c t i c a l  vocational  services.*  auto mechanics, e l e c t r i c i t y ,  p r i n t i n g , m e t a l work, w e l d i n g  7-12.  counselling  in  "tryout", The  shop u s e d f o r t h i s p u r p o s e p r o v i d e s a  test areas, including  I b i d , Pp.  s p e c i a l mention,  and  carpentry.  number  plumbing,  E a c h inmate f i r s t  art, corn-  -39-  pletes a woodworking project, and then i s assigned to one of the other areas, on the basis of h i s professed i n t e r e s t s . If the inmate's choice proves to be u n r e a l i s t i c , the vocational supervisor attempts to r e d i r e c t h i s interests and to explore secondary areas of i n t e r e s t , through the counselling process. Other interviews include those with the medical s t a f f , chaplains, and with the guidance supervisors.  The guidance super-  visors provide general casework service to each inmate during h i s stay at the Centre, i n addition to performing a case-coordinating function.  I t i s the guidance supervisor's r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , i n  each case assigned to him, to complete the remaining three sections of the Case A n a l y s i s ,  1  As mentioned e a r l i e r , the f i r s t two sections,  "Offences and Maladjusted Behaviour" and " S o c i a l Background" are completed by the Centre's parole o f f i c e r .  The remaining sections,  known as the "Addendum", "Reception Centre Adjustment and Findings," and "Over-all Evaluation" and  "Future Outlook" include corrections  and additions to the information i n sections 1 and 2, a general review of adjustment problems, and needs of the i n d i v i d u a l , and a recommendation as to the type of treatment and t r a i n i n g required. This "tentative" case analysis i s of course a summary by the guidance supervisor of the findings and recommendations of a l l the i n d i v i d u a l reports on each case, prepared by the various departments of the Centre,  An example of a complete Case Analysis i s present In Correction, New York State Department of Correction, A p r i l , 1956. V o l . XXl7 No.^f, Pp.5-12.  -hoThe Centre's C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Board  meets Thursday of  each week for the purpose of studying the tentative case analyses i n order to a r r i v e at a decision i n each case.  In order that each  of the 30 "to 35 cases per week may receive adequate study, the Board members are divided into two groups, and two meetings are thus held simultaneously.  One group i s chaired by the Director,  the other by the Assistant Director, and the members include physician, psychologist, p s y c h i a t r i s t ,  guidance supervisors, senior  custodial o f f i c e r s , chaplains, general education, physical education, and vocational supervisors.  The findings and recommendations i n  each area are considered and discussed at length, and a vote i s taken to determine the i n s t i t u t i o n to which transfer w i l l be effected.  When general agreement has been reached, the approved  Case Summary i s incorporated into the Reception Centre C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Report.  The inmates i n question do not appear before the board,  however, their i d e n t i f i c a t i o n pictures being employed instead. Following the board meeting, each inmate considered i s interviewed by his guidance supervisor who points up the Reception Centre f i n d ings and recommendations, and informs the inmate where (but not when) he i s to be transferred.  Recommendations are c l a r i f i e d ,  and the inmate i s given an o r i e n t a t i o n talk on the i n s t i t u t i o n to which he w i l l be a l l o c a t e d .  Even this post-board interview i s  written up and forwarded to the receiving i n s t i t u t i o n . Before transfer can be effected, the f u l l Reception Centre C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Report must be forwarded to the Commissioner of  Correction. New York State Department of Correction, Feb. 1956,"Vol.XXI" No. 11, Pp.l2-llf. x  -1+1-  Correction  f o r approval.  a b o u t one week l a t e r , copies  When t h i s h a s b e e n r e c e i v e d ,  the inmate i s t r a n s f e r r e d along  o f t h e Case A n a l y s i s ,  and f o u r  Centre C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Report. (1)  sections: (3)  Parole  Face Sheet,  (2)  The l a t t e r  Chronological  mentioned  o f the R e c e p t i o n  report  consists of s i x  sub-headings,  (5)  Inmate's  R e c o r d , and ( 6 ) I n d i v i d u a l D e p a r t m e n t  R e c e p t i o n Centre C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Report p r o v i d e s  for  a case r e c o r d  chronological  t r a i n i n g and p a r o l e report  the D i v i s i o n o f Parole,  "parole  Cumulative  Reports, the beginning  supervision.  This  I s i n d i c a t i v e o f the degree o f c o -  o r d i n a t i o n t h a t has been a c h i e v e d and  Summary  which i s c a r r i e d o n t h r o u g h o u t t h e Inmate's  of institutional  complete  Sessions,  (h) R e c e p t i o n C e n t r e Case  The  period  with s i x  a Statement o f O r i e n t a t i o n  O f f i c e r ' s Interview,  with i t s previously  copies  usually  by t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f C o r r e c t i o n  i n keeping with the philosophy  b e g i n s when t h e i n m a t e e n t e r s  that  t h e i n s t i t u t i o n and c o r r e c t -  i o n ends w i t h s u c c e s s f u l a d j u s t m e n t i n t h e community." The very  careful consideration,  possibilities (1)  r e c o m m e n d a t i o n f o r t r a n s f e r o f any i n m a t e i n that  an unusually  wide v a r i e t y o f  i s p r e s e n t e d by t h e New Y o r k s y s t e m ,  Maximum-security S t a t e  prisons:  there  are f i v e  s t i t u t i o n s f o r the housing o f f e l o n s with long  requires  1  F o r example, of these i n -  minimum s e n t e n c e s ,  d a n g e r o u s p e r s o n s and f o r t h o s e c a s e s i n w h i c h r e f o r m a t i o n t o be l e a s t p r o b a b l e . include  Elmira  offenders;  of  (2) Reformatory-type i n s t i t u t i o n s :  R e f o r m a t o r y , f o r young b u t r a t h e r  Walkill Prison,  these  sophisticated  a medium s e c u r i t y s e t t i n g f o r more  The C h a l l e n g e _ o f D e l i n q u e n t Y o u t h , Correction, New York™1955• Pp~7-13. -  appears  New Y o r k S t a t e  Department ' ;  -immature, stable youths; New York State Vocational I n s t i t u t i o n , West Coxsackie, f o r younger, more immature offenders; and Great Meadow Correctional I n s t i t u t i o n f o r more serious offenders, with longer delinquent h i s t o r i e s . (3) Institutions f o r Defective and Borderline-Defective Delinquents: I n s t i t u t i o n f o r Male Defective Delinquents at Napanock, f o r defectives with I.Q. of 70 or below; and Woodbourne Correctional I n s t i t u t i o n for borderline defectives (I.Q. of 71. - 85).  ( ) I n s t i t u t i o n s for mentally i l l delinquents: k  Dannemora State Hospital, for mentally i l l felons; and Mattewan State Hospital f o r mentally i l l non-felons.  (5) Medical transfers:  C l i n t o n Prison, f o r tubercular cases, and Sing Sing Prison f o r others requiring special medical care.  (6)  Department of Welfare  i n s t i t u t i o n s , f o r youths so immature that they cannot be placed readily i n i n s t i t u t i o n s within the Department of Correction. The preceding pages have described very b r i e f l y a Reception-Classification programme which deserves more detailed study than i s afforded by a work of this s i z e .  However, i t i s  r e a d i l y apparent that l i t t l e has been overlooked i n developing this process f o r the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of youthful offenders.  1  By contrast the very absence of these services f o r older offenders indicates that the State of New York has placed i t s emphasis upon youth services, an area of programming which has continued to enjoy community and government interest and support.  For a description of C l a s s i f i c a t i o n at the i n s t i t u t i o n a l l e v e l , see Barnes, H.E., and Teeters. N.K., New_Horizons_in Criminology (New York: Prentice-Hall Inc.) 19U6. ~Pp.7^-765^"and~Reckless, Walter C , The_Crime Problem, (New York Appleton-Century-Crofts, Inc.) i955."Pp.575^57BT  (c) The Bureau of Correction, Pennsylvania Department of Justice The State of Pennsylvania has long been considered one of the pioneers  i n the f i e l d of corrections and penal reform i n  the United States of America.  The early recognition of the need  for reformation of the criminal offender was seen i n the philosophy of the Eastern State Penitentiary, opened i n 1829. octagonal  This huge,  e d i f i c e , surrounded by massive stone walls, was dedicated  to " s o l i t a r y confinement at labour with i n s t r u c t i o n morals and i n r e l i g i o n " .  i n labour, i n  Much of the new approach used i n the  Eastern State Penitentiary can be attributed to the influence and e f f o r t s of the Philadelphia Society of A l l e v i a t i n g Public Prisons.  the Miseries of  This Society, founded i n the early days of the  Union, attracted many i n f l u e n t i a l and sincere members including such persons as Benjamin F r a n k l i n , and Dr. Benjamin Rush. I t was this same group that had been instrumental i n improving conditions and I n i t i a t i n g a rudimentary form of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n In P h i l adelphia's old Walnut Street P r i s o n .  1  When the Walnut Street Prison  was f i n a l l y abandoned i n 1835> i t s influence l i v e d on i n the growing programme of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n which had developed i n the Eastern State 2  Penitentiary.  Construction of another large i n s t i t u t i o n followed,  and this was to be known as the Western State Penitentiary.  The  Eastern State Penitentiary was required to house the female prisoners The influence of the work done at the Walnut Street Prison i n promoting the whole concept of C l a s s i f i c a t i o n , i s described by Dr. Negley K. Teeters i n his TJhe_Cradle_of_the_Penitenti , (Philadelphia: Pennsylvania Prison Societyl~1955~ 1  Shearer, J . D., and Teeters, N.D. The_Prison at Philadelphia. Cherry^Hillj (New York: Columbia University~Press~, 195% Pp."~l-10. 2  of  the State u n t i l  either  1923*  i n t h e County  Since  jails,  t h a t time they  or i n the State  have b e e n  detained  I n d u s t r i a l Home f o r  Women a t Muncy. From t h i s has  grown u n t i l  auspicious beginning,  today  minimum c u s t o d y , newest  another  are  committed.  vocational and  a hospital.  has  at least  of  and C l a s s i f i c a t i o n C e n t r e s a r e  a variety of  s h o p s , r e c r e a t i o n a l and e d u c a t i o n a l  A l l hospital units are not f u l l y  offenders  facilities,  equipped but each  one r e s i d e n t p h y s i c i a n , a d e n t i s t , p a r t - t i m e  and e i t h e r  f u l l or part-time  Extensive  the Pennsylvania  psychiatric  changes have o c c u r r e d penal  special-  services.  i n the e n t i r e  system w i t h i n the p a s t  c h a n g e s were p r o m p t e d by s e v e r a l r i o t s entiary  Penitentiaries,  u n i t s t h a t a l l a p p r o p r i a t e l y sentenced  Each i n s t i t u t i o n i s equipped w i t h  training  and t h e  i s f o r the confinement o f Defec-  i n Wings o f t h e E a s t e r n and W e s t e r n S t a t e  i t i s t o these  "  i na d d i t i o n to a Forestry  a s minimum t o medium c u s t o d y ,  Two D i a g n o s t i c  and  been  new p r i s o n s , one i s d e s i g n a t e d a s  s i t u a t e d i n Luzerne County  located  ists,  institutions,  Of t h e t h r e e  tive Delinquents.  t h e P h i l a d e l p h i a system  t h e two o r i g i n a l p e n i t e n t i a r i e s have  augmented by t h r e e o t h e r Camp a t R o c k v i e w .  1  five  structure years.  i n the Western State  These Penit-  and i t s b r a n c h i n s t i t u t i o n a t Rockview, which l e d t h e Governor  to  appoint  As  a result  an investigating of this  committee  shortly  thereafter, i n  c o m m i t t e e ' s f i n d i n g s and s u b s e q u e n t  1953*  recommendations,  G i a r d i n i , G. J . , " P r e l i m i n a r y C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f M a l e P r i s o n e r s i n P e n a l I n s t i t u t i o n s o fk P e n n s y l v a n i a , " P r o c e e d i n g s o f _ t h e A m e r i c a n Prison Association, Pp.206-21"+. x  193 .  -^5-  vast changes were recommended i n the 1953 session of the Legisl a t u r e , and were immediately approved by the Governor. involved; 1.  The changes  1  Removal of the prisons from the j u r i s d i c t i o n of the Department of Welfare, and placement under the administration of the Pennsylvania Department of J u s t i c e .  2.  Establishment  of a Bureau of Correction within the Department  of J u s t i c e , with a Commissioner empowered to reorganize and d i r e c t the prisons. 3.  Establishment  of two Diagnostic and C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Centres  under the d i r e c t authority of the Deputy Commissioner for Treatment, i n the Eastern and Western State P e n i t e n t i a r i e s . R e - d i s t r i c t i n g of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania  into two  commitment areas (Eastern and Western). As previously mentioned, the State i s divided into two commitment areas.  The Eastern Diagnostic and C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Centre  receives prisoners sentenced i n the t h i r t y - f o u r easternmost (and most populous) counties, while the Western Centre receives inmates from the remaining thirty-three counties.  Women prisoners do not  go to either centre, but are committed d i r e c t l y to the State r i a l Home for Women, at Muncy.  Indust-  In addition to o r i g i n a l commitments,  the Centres also receive parole v i o l a t o r s from a l l i n s t i t u t i o n s within the Bureau.  Extensive use i s made of the indeterminate  sentence, although parole release i s available only to inmates whose maximum term i s i n excess of two years.  The parole board i s an  independent l e g i s l a t i v e body, operative under the provisions of the  Commonwealth o f Pennsylvania, and lk-37. (1953).  1^+35,  P.L. 1^2**,  1^27, 1^28, IV33,  -1+6Amended Parole Act of 19^3*  This agency has the authority to  parole, reparole, to commit and recommit for parole v i o l a t i o n , any inmate sentenced  (as mentioned above) to a county p r i s o n ,  state i n d u s t r i a l school or state prison. Eastern Diagnostic and C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Centre The Eastern Diagnostic and C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Centre was made operational on January 1 s t ,  195+> as a r e s u l t of the Gubernatorial 1  proclamation of December 28, 1 9 5 3 »  X  Prior to January 1 s t ,  195^,  the f a c i l i t i e s used had been known as the receiving housing u n i t of  the Eastern State Penitentiary. This three storied c e l l block  was now designated as the Eastern Centre, and i t s complement of 107 c e l l s was increased to 1*+1.  Adjacent i s a single storied  c e l l building, a c l i n i c o f f i c e building, c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f f i c e s , and a complete records o f f i c e where inmates undergo the standard reception and i d e n t i f y i n g procedures.  I t i s necessary for the  Centre to share medical, dining, and chapel f a c i l i t i e s of the Eastern Penitentiary, although c e r t a i n practices have been i n s t i t u t e d i n order to reduce f r a t e r n i z a t i o n to a minimum.  The  Centre has i t s own exercise yards, but i s without adequate vocati o n a l testing  facilities.  S t a f f i n g of both Centres was a problem o r i g i n a l l y i n that the funds f o r the new programme were those appropriated f o r the Department of Welfare I n s t i t u t i o n s , under l e g i s l a t i o n that preceded the acts providing f o r the establishment of the Bureau of Correction. The directors of the centres were c l i n i c a l psychologists appointed  BgPfiKjLPJL the, Bur 6, a u o f _Corr ect ionj_19J?Z» Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, Camp H i l l , Pennsylvania, 1957, Pp.19-22.  -1*7-  from  t h e c a s e work s t a f f  o f the parent  institutions.  more p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a f f were s i m i l a r l y prison staffs.  At f i r s t ,  i o n a r i e s , having parent  a l l Centre  responsibilities  institution.  obtained staff  from the main  were j o i n t - f u n c t -  i n b o t h t h e C e n t r e and t h e  However, a s i n t a k e  increased  and t h e g e n -  eral  programme a d v a n c e d , c e r t a i n s t a f f were r e l e a s e d  dual  responsibilities.  staffed social staff as  Centre,  by a d i r e c t o r , two f u l l - t i m e  of five  joint  records  and a  full-time  clerical-typist Still  caseworker, e d u c a t i o n a l  physicians,  acting director,  t h e p s y c h i a t r i s t , and  dentist.  The, C l a s s i f i c a t i o n  Process  Upon a r r i v a l fingerprinted,  a t the Centre each inmate i s photographed,  and a s s i g n e d  a number f o r r e f e r e n c e  B u r e a u o f I n v e s t i g a t i o n , The B u r e a u o f C r i m i n a l the  Pennsylvania  The  t o t a l r e c e p t i o n - c l a s s i f i c a t i o n process  to  their  f o r example, i s now  whose e n t i r e s e r v i c e i s t o t h e C e n t r e .  director, chaplains,  from  p s y c h o l o g i s t s , two  officers,  functionaries are a s o c i a l  vocational the  The E a s t e r n  caseworkers, three  Several  State  by t h e F e d e r a l  Investigation of  P o l i c e , and t h e P e n n s y l v a n i a  Board o f P a r o l e .  takes a period of four  e i g h t weeks t o c o m p l e t e , d e p e n d i n g u p o n t h e l e n g t h o f t i m e  required  to v e r i f y  classified  information,  p r e v i o u s l y , and so  During h i s stay  whether o r n o t t h e inmate has been  forth.  1  a t the Centre,  the inmate undergoes  routine  o r i e n t a t i o n i n s t r u c t i o n , p a r t i c i p a t e s i n d e n t a l , p h y s i c a l , and p s y chiatric  e x a m i n a t i o n s , and i s s u b j e c t e d  to psychometric t e s t i n g .  Eastern C o r r e c t i o n a l Di agnostic_. and_Classification Center, Commonwealth o ? P e n n s y l v a n i a ^ P h i l a d e l p h i a ^ P e n n s y l v a n i a , 195ft. i  Pp .20-25.  i  ->+8Personal interviews with each of the aforementioned s p e c i a l i s t s follow, i n an attempt to plan a comprehensive programme of t r a i n ing f o r each inmate.  These interviews are summarized f o r the  C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Panel by the Centre's stenographic s t a f f , under the d i r e c t i o n of the Senior Psychologist.  The summaries are  discussed by the Panel members and agreement i s reached on the recommendations contained therein, prior to the inmate's appearance before the Panel,  Then, as the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n process i s  terminated, the inmate i s seen by the Panel, and i s encouraged to participate i n the discussion of the programme that has been recommended.  After each of the weekly C l a s s i f i c a t i o n meetings,  s t a f f recommendations are forwarded to the Deputy Commissioner for treatment, whose s t a f f prepare the transfer forms i n order to meet the necessary l e g a l requirements. Usually within f i v e days thereafter, the actual transfer i s effected. It i s interesting to note that the Panel i s chaired by the Director of the Centre, and includes the Senior Psycholog i s t , the Vocational and Educational Directors, and the Senior Caseworker.  Once the inmate has been transferred to an i n s t i t -  u t i o n of the Bureau he appears before the I n s t i t u t i o n a l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Committee, which i s somewhat d i f f e r e n t i n composition. This committee i s usually under the chairmanship of the Director of Treatment, and i n addition to the Major of the Guard, Senior Caseworker, and Vocational and Educational Directors, includes the Senior Parole O f f i c e r of the I n s t i t u t i o n .  The l a t t e r i s of  p a r t i c u l a r s i g n i f i c a n c e , i n that parole planning i s therefore begun with the inmate from the moment that he begins h i s t r a i n i n g i n the i n s t i t u t i o n .  -'+9-  As m e n t i o n e d e a r l i e r ,  the p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r  u t i o n a l placement are e x t e n s i v e , i n t h a t the of  resources  gramme. are,  walking  course, the  institution and  may  been a h i g h l i g h t  T r a n s f e r s from the  1  of  has  simple  to e f f e c t  inmates from the cell  take  blocks.  two  200  year,  and  i s the  from the E a s t e r n  Institutional of  improved  It  yet,  we  for  less  erroneous  Report  the  this  include training  development  t o assume t h a t t h e new  scope f o r expansion  there  Classi-  Others  C o m m i t t e e s o r C l i n i c s , and  must remember t h a t t h e  recorded,  subse-  of  a manual  procedures.  w o u l d be  than f i v e  and  a revised in-service  programme o f t h e B u r e a u l e a v e s l i t t l e considerable  earlier,  begun e a r l i e r  services.  of a l l i n s t i t u t i o n s ,  Classification  Classification  to Rockview,  upon the  r e s e a r c h programme was  a Manual o f C o r r e c t i o n a l Standards,  van,  Centre.  legislation  a salutary effect  newest o f t h e  programme, C l a s s i f i c a t i o n  prison  of t r a n s f e r s to G r a t e r f o r d ,  f r o m t h e 1953  q u e n t r e o r g a n i z a t i o n have had A new  parent  sweeping changes mentioned  innovations resulting  f i c a t i o n process.  by  d a y s when t r a n s f e r r i n g  miles  I n a d d i t i o n to the  case  merely  o f the  t r a n s f e r s are  pro-  institutions  c o n s i s t s of  Wing t o one  A l l other  away, o r  which i s approximately  other  Centre  correctional  to the p a r e n t  as t h i s  s e v e r a l hours i n the  some t h i r t y m i l e s  diversification  o f t h e new  Centres  instit-  years.  and  new  t o be  desired.  refinement  of  programme h a s  Classification There  services,  doubt  t h a t the p a s t  o f t h e B u r e a u o f C o r r e c t i o n , 1957,  and  been o p e r a t i v e  I n c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f the r e c e n t  c a n be l i t t l e  remains  op.  gains  four years  of  c i t . , Pp.38-60.  -50-  progress have done much to restore the State of  Pennsylvania  to i t s former place as a leader i n the c o r r e c t i o n a l f i e l d . () d  1  The,,State, of C a l i f o r n i a Department .of Corrections  The State of C a l i f o r n i a has long been recognized throughout the world as a leading force i n the f i e l d  of penal  reform.  Many s i g n i f i c a n t changes i n the American c o r r e c t i o n a l scene have resulted from the experimentation  and innovations which have been  so much a part of the history of the C a l i f o r n i a State Department of Corrections.  C a l i f o r n i a , i n 1 9 l , was k  the f i r s t state to enact  Youth Authority l e g i s l a t i o n , patterned after the model Youth Correct i o n Authority Act submitted 2 American Law I n s t i t u t e .  i n 19*+0 by a special committee of the  Then i n 19^>  the C a l i f o r n i a l e g i s l a t u r e  created the f i r s t Adult Authority, which was  to employ the same  p r i n c i p l e s of the Youth Authority programme i n the handling of offenders over the age of 21.  Other states have since i n s t i t u t e d  similar programmes, but i t i s to C a l i f o r n i a that credit i s due for supplying the p i l o t projects and the r e a l impetus towards the development of the new  c o r r e c t i o n a l philosophy which i s implied  by the concept of an Authority Programme. The creation of an Adult Authority was part of a t o t a l reorganization of the c o r r e c t i o n a l system i n C a l i f o r n i a . to  the  Prior  l e g i s l a t i o n , a Department of Corrections did not e x i s t .  There existed, instead, a number of rather autonomous county  agencies  The writer i s indebted to Mr. John D. Shearer, Director of the Eastern Correctional Diagnostic and C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Centre, whose personal l e t t e r provided much of the foregoing descriptive material. E l l i n g t o n , JohnR., "The Youth Authority Plan: Development and Prospects", Contemporary Correction, op. c i t . , Chapter IX, Pp.l2 -l i-0. 2  k  L  -51-  and  institutions,  of  with  the  s e r v i c e s , absence of  consequence. ship, one  the  Provided  specialization, now  with  sulted  i n increased  utions  and  responsibility efficiency  the  offenders  committed  N o r t h e r n C e n t r e a t San C a l i f o r n i a Medical  I n s t i t u t i o n f o r Men,  the  to the  correctional services into  Facility,  P e n a l Code o f  were s e t up  Department o f  Q u e n t i n has  institIn  1  California,  to c l a s s i f y a l l Corrections,  while  the  Southern  The the  Reception-  l o c a t i o n a t the  t h i r d Reception-Guidance  California Centre  Deuel Vocational  In-  Tracy,  ment o f C o r r e c t i o n s the  re-  s i n c e been r e - l o c a t e d at  wards i s l o c a t e d a t t h e  I n terms of  of  A  a  leader-  to a h e a d q u a r t e r s o f f i c e  centres  Chino.  Youth A u t h o r i t y  stitution,  l a c k o f economy, as  necessary p r o f e s s i o n a l  Guidance Centre remains i n i t s o r i g i n a l  for  duplication  through s p e c i a l i z a t i o n of  d i r e c t i v e s of  main reception-guidance  new  and  and  programmes and. s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n o f p r o c e d u r e s .  accordance with  adult  the  r e o r g a n i z a t i o n of a l l adult  department w i t h  two  i n e v i t a b l e overlapping  the  are  framework w i t h i n w h i c h the  functions, California  adult offenders  institutions  legal  incarcerated  i s unique i n that a l l  i n Department o f  awarded i n d e t e r m i n a t e  Depart-  Corrections  sentences, with  release  2 upon parole a of a  at  the  d i s c r e t i o n of  wide r a n g e o f minimum and the  indeterminate  separate  x  the Adult  maximum l i m i t s .  The  a u t h o r i t y known as  within  administration  s e n t e n c e f o r women i s s i m i l a r l y the Board of T r u s t e e s ,  handled  Reckless,  W a l t e r C., _o_P_.__cit_. >  P.583*  by  California  B i e n n i a l R e c o r t ^ S t a t e o f C a l i f o r n i a Department o f 1 S a c r a m e n t o , C a l i f o r n i a , Pp.36- +0.  1953-5^+T 2  Authority,  Corrections,  -52-  I n s t i t u t i o n f o r Women, a n d f o r y o u t h f u l o f f e n d e r s hy t h e C a l i f ornia  Youth A u t h o r i t y . If,  of  not l e s s  matically  f o r example, a n i n m a t e  has been sentenced  t h a n s i x months and n o t more  appears  than  5 y e a r s , he a u t o -  b e f o r e t h e A d u l t A u t h o r i t y f i v e months  t h e d a t e o f commitment, i n c o n f o r m i t y w i t h s t a t u t o r y Available vided  t o a term  to the Authority a t that  by t h e R e c e p t i o n - G u i d a n c e  time  Centre  from  provisions.  i s the i n f o r m a t i o n prod u r i n g t h e inmate's  first  two months o f i n c a r c e r a t i o n , p l u s t h e r e p o r t  o f t h e man's  utional parole o f f i c e r ,  o n t h e inmate's  during  Authority and  w h i c h w o u l d be b a s e d  instit-  t h e t h r e e months w h i c h he h a d s p e n t i n t h e t r e a t m e n t  On t h e b a s i s o f a l l f i l e then f i x e s  maximum l i m i t s  material  1  progress programme.  and t h e i n t e r v i e w s i t u a t i o n , t h e  t h e man's s e n t e n c e  p r o v i d e d by l a w .  w i t h i n the broad  minimum  I n t h e c a s e o f t h e man s e n -  t e n c e d t o a t e r m o f s i x months t o 5 y e a r s , t h e A u t h o r i t y m i g h t decide to f i xthe period from  of institutional  confinement  a t one y e a r  t h e d a t e o f commitment, f o l l o w e d by two y e a r s o f p a r o l e  super-  vision. Obviously, tence r e q u i r e s In  view  the full-time  of this,  broad background stances  the administration o f the indeterminate attention of correctional  t h e A u t h o r i t y members a r e r e q u i r e d  s u r r o u n d i n g t h e o f f e n c e s committed.  consent o f the Senate.  the Governor  t o have a  18*-, 1  The seven-member  com-  o f the S t a t e , with the advice  Any o f t h e members may be d e s i g n a t e d by  as Chairman, from  Resolution  experts.  i n the a p p r a i s a l o f o f f e n d e r s and o f t h e c i r c u m -  m i t t e e i s a p p o i n t e d by t h e G o v e r n o r and  sen-  time  t o t i m e , and a l l members a r e  The P e n a l Code o f C a l i f o r n i a .  -53appointed  to the Authority for a term of four years.  Chairman i s a former d i s t r i c t attorney, and was o f f i c e r prior to his appointment.  The  present  chief state parole  The membership of the Authority  also includes a former deputy chief of police from Los Angeles, a former warden of the C a l i f o r n i a State Prison at San Quentin, a former associate warden, a former criminal attorney, a former union business agent-negotiator  who  i s also an attorney, and  army general of many years experience  an  i n both c i v i l and m i l i t a r y  law enforcement and i n v e s t i g a t i o n . The Authority meets regularly at each of the state prisons, i n order to make a comprehensive study of the cases of a l l inmates whose terms of imprisonment are to be determined by the Authority, or whose applications for parole come before i t .  Ordinarily,  sentences are set and parole action i s taken by panels of members of the Authority. the Authority may  Under special circumstances,  two  however,  meet as a whole to consider a p a r t i c u l a r case.  The Authority i s also empowered to revoke paroles and to r e f i x term of imprisonment.  In addition, the Authority serves as an  advisory pardon board to the Governor, as a part of the State Board of Correction which i s the co-ordinating agency for the state's c o r r e c t i o n a l programme, and may  also advise the Director  of Corrections on policy and operation of the state p r i s o n s . Within the i n s t i t u t i o n a l configuration provided by State Department of Corrections, marked d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n of  x  the resources  has resulted i n providing the Reception-Guidance Centres with  1  MeM-ial_Report^  op. c i t . ,  1955-56, Pp.^8-55  con-  siderable scope.  The Department operates seven i n s t i t u t i o n s  for men, ranging from maximum to minimum security, i n addition to sixteen forestry honour camps.  Of the eight i n s t i t u t i o n s ,  the oldest and most widely known i s the C a l i f o r n i a State Prison at San Quentin.  Founded i n 185^, i t was designated as a close-  medium security i n s t i t u t i o n , although i t now houses inmates whose custodial ratings vary from maximum to minimum. ^ko acres of which  Consisting of  are walled, San Quentin houses the State's  largest i n s t i t u t i o n a l population, numbering well i n excess of U-jOOO.  I t i s also the site of condemned row, and the l e t h a l  gas execution chamber f o r the State.  Providing closer custody  i s C a l i f o r n i a ' s second largest i n s t i t u t i o n , the C a l i f o r n i a State Prison at Folsom.  Opened i n 1880, i t i s the only i n s t i t u t i o n  designated as maximum custody, with *+0 of i t s 1,000 acres behind walls.  In d i r e c t contrast i s the State's only minimum security  i n s t i t u t i o n , the C a l i f o r n i a I n s t i t u t i o n for Men, at Chino, located on a 2,500 acre t r a c t i n the Southwest portion of San Bernardino County.  Put into operation i n 19*+1> Chino i s without walls or  manned towers, and houses approximately 2,600 Inmates, a l l c a r e f u l l y screened f o r this open s e t t i n g . Between the extremes of maximum and minimum custody are f i v e medium security i n s t i t u t i o n s including the new C a l i f o r n i a Medical F a c i l i t y , V a c a v i l l e j (for the confinement and treatment of mentally and phsycially i l l offenders), The C a l i f o r n i a Men's Colony, San Luis Obispo, (for offenders aged 50 years or o l d e r ) , The C a l i f o r n i a State Prison at Soledad, and the Deuel Vocational I n s t i t u t i o n , Tracy, (for Youth Authority wards considered too mature  -55-  for  juvenile  institutions).  As p r e v i o u s l y m e n t i o n e d ,  the Department o f C o r r e c t i o n s  o p e r a t e s two m a i n r e c e p t i o n - g u i d a n c e c e n t r e s f o r t h e p u r p o s e inmate  classification.  the e l e v e n southernmost at  Chino.  The C e n t r e p r o c e s s i n g commitments ( a n d most p o p u l o u s )  sically Unlike  from  counties i s located  A l t h o u g h o n t h e same g r o u n d s a s t h e C a l i f o r n i a  u t i o n f o r Men, t h e R e c e p t i o n - G u i d a n c e and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l y the main i n s t i t u t i o n ,  u n i t , surrounded with r i f l e  the Centre  the main  i s a medium  n e c e s s a r y , i n view  a t key p o i n t s .  i s phy-  institution. security  by a h i g h f e n c e t o p p e d w i t h b a r b e d - w i r e ,  towers  Instit-  C e n t r e o p e n e d i n 1951  removed f r o m  of  and  Such p r e c a u t i o n s a r e , o f c o u r s e ,  o f the heterogeneous  nature o f the Centre's  population. The  C e n t r e ' s inmates  a r e housed  individually  e a c h o f " o u t s i d e " c o n s t r u c t i o n and w i t h c o m p l e t e Chapels, r e c r e a t i o n a l are  found  and v o c a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s ,  i n the Guidance  main i n s t i t u t i o n ,  Centre, quite  d e s p i t e the f a c t  facilities. and mess  a p a r t from  from 1956, and  t o t h e C e n t r e , by t r u c k , i n s p e c i a l l y  the main k i t c h e n .  *+,529  inmates,  a t any one t i m e i s  Chino  Meals are d e l -  ending  Centre r e c e i v e d ,  June  30th,  classified,  which represented an i n c r e a s e o f  per cent o f the t o t a l f i g u r e  Capacity  those o f the  designed containers  t h e two-year p e r i o d  the Southern R e c e p t i o n Guidance allocated  1.72  During  halls  that meals f o r the e n t i r e  p o p u l a t i o n a r e p r e p a r e d i n t h e one l a r g e k i t c h e n . ivered  i n cells,  *+50  f o r the p r e c e d i n g two-year  period.  inmates.  The w r i t e r v i s i t e d e a c h o f t h e s e i n s t i t u t i o n s . , a s w e l l a s t h e R e c e p t i o n G u i d a n c e C e n t r e s , i n December 1957 and J a n u a r y 1958. 1  2  Bienni32_Bejooit,  1955-56,  op. c i t . ,  p.35.  -56-  The on  second major  the grounds  Serving  o f the C a l i f o r n i a  the northernmost  from i t s former site  cells,  counties,  towers.  testing  and  the main  by  As  that  of  third  convicted  the o f f e n d e r  and  1953>  smallest  receives  Reception-Guidance  Institution,  those of  and  Centre  Tracy.  classifies  any  court,  , but not  oper-  mentioned,  This  Centre  youthful and who  is  i n the  and  Housing  sufficiently  i n m a t e s . Such o f f e n d e r s  belief  125  construction, this  inmates  mature  are s t i l l  as such, are s e n t e n c e d to an  wards  indeter-  at the d i s c r e t i o n of  C e n t r e b e n e f i t s f r o m t h e medium  to those o f the M e d i c a l F a c i l i t y  C e n t r e i s n o t so a d v a n t a g e o u s l y  the  i n modern, s i n g l e c e l l s  p r o v i s i o n s o f the main i n s t i t u t i o n which  identical  and  i s , as p r e v i o u s l y  period o f custody, with r e l e a s e  "outside"  i n modern,  i s too mature o r c r i m i n a l l y s o p h i s t i c a t e d f o r  among a d u l t  Youth A u t h o r i t y .  this  are s e p a r a t e from  o f a f e l o n y by a s u p e r i o r  the Youth A u t h o r i t y ,  urity  facilities  i n a juvenile institution  placement  minate  i n c l u d e a double fence  i n the custody o f the D i r e c t o r o f C o r r e c t i o n s  placement for  inmates  institution.  opened i n October  placed  relocated  i n the case o f the C e n t r e a t C h i n o , a l l shop,  at the Deuel V o c a t i o n a l  offender  C e n t r e was  a t San Q u e n t i n t o i t s p r e s e n t  the Department o f C o r r e c t i o n s  located  at V a c a v i l l e .  t h i s u n i t b e n e f i t s from the M e d i c a l F a c i l i t y ' s  educational  The ated  this  W i t h a c c o m m o d a t i o n f o r 600  medium s e c u r i t y p r o v i s i o n s w h i c h eight  Centre i s l o c a t e d  Medical F a c i l i t y ,  inadequate quarters  e a r l y i n 1957.  single  Reception-Guidance  are,  of sec-  incidentally,  at V a c a v i l l e .  s i t u a t e d i n terms o f  Although separation  of f a c i l i t i e s ,  a high degree of inmate segregation has been  achieved through c a r e f u l scheduling of a c t i v i t i e s and programmes. Personnel Each of the three Reception-Guidance Centres i s under the immediate administrative supervision of an Associate Warden, who  reports to the Superintendent of the i n s t i t u t i o n on whose  grounds the centre i s located.  S t a f f i n g of the two main Centres  also includes a Chief P s y c h i a t r i s t , another P s y c h i a t r i s t , three c l i n i c a l psychologists, eleven Correctional C l a s s i f i c a t i o n O f f i c e r s , two Records O f f i c e r s , a Vocational Testing Instructor', and a varying  number of stenographic  and c l e r i c a l employees.  The Correctional  C l a s s i f i c a t i o n O f f i c e r s are professional s t a f f with a variety of backgrounds including s o c i a l work, sociology, criminology, or psychology. The C l a s s i f i c a t i o n s t a f f at the Tracy Reception-Guidance Centre i s , of course, fewer i n number owing to the much smaller 2  intake at that Centre.  In addition to the Associate VJarden,  s t a f f i n g includes a p s y c h i a t r i s t , a psychologist, an educational i n s t r u c t o r , a vocational testing i n s t r u c t o r , and two  senior s o c i o l -  ogists. A l l of the above-mentioned s t a f f devote f u l l - t i m e attention to their Centre duties.  Custodial s t a f f also assigned to the Centre  are rotated from time to time, between the Centre and the main i n s t i t ution.  S i m i l a r l y , the Reception-Guidance Centre personnel  do not  also serve as I n s t i t u t i o n a l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Committees^ for the main For example, the f i e l d house, chapels, and main kitchen f a c i l i t i e s are shared by both Centre and D.V.I, inmates. x  2  B^nnial_Re£ort, op. c i t . ,  1953-5^, p.58.  ^ The Manual^ of Procedures for C l a s s i f i c a t i o n , State of C a l i f o r n i a Department of Corrections, Sacramento, C a l i f o r n i a , 1955. Pp.9-15.  -58-  institutions  o n whose g r o u n d s t h e C e n t r e s a r e l o c a t e d .  c o m m i t t e e s a r e composed o f t h e Warden o r A s s o c i a t e and  other  custody The  senior  members  Such  Wardens,  o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n ' s t r e a t m e n t and  staff.  C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Process With minor v a r i a t i o n s ,  a fairly  Guidance C e n t r e s .  1  communicable  established  classification,  o f inmates admitted  to the Reception-  I n accordance with standard r e c e p t i o n  c e d u r e s , t h i s phase i n c l u d e s  and  been  u n i f o r m programme f o r t h e r e c e p t i o n ,  o r i e n t a t i o n , and t r a n s f e r  against  t h e r e h a s now  a medical examination,  diseases,  issuing of i n s t i t u t i o n a l  pro-  immunization  registering of personal  effects  c l o t h i n g , p h o t o g r a p h i n g , and. f i n g e r -  printing. The during sists  actual  the f i r s t primarily  tests several  diagnostic  and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n p r o c e s s  week a t t h e C e n t r e , and d u r i n g  California Interest  The s e c o n d , t h i r d , and f o u r t h  with p r a c t i c a l testing  i n the v o c a t i o n a l  group o r i n d i v i d u a l p s y c h o m e t r i c sessions.  F i n a l l y , the f i f t h  individual  interviewing  vocational  and e d u c a t i o n a l  recreational personnel.  are  scheduled on a r e f e r r a l  such  I n v e n t o r y , and  weeks a r e t a k e n up  exploratory  t e s t i n g , and g r o u p  shop,  further  orientation  and s i x t h weeks a r e u t i l i z e d f o r  by c o u n s e l l o r s ,  and  1  period,con-  o f psychometric group t e s t i n g which i n c l u d e s  as the Kuder P r e f e r e n c e , others.  this  begins  psychologists,  i n s t r u c t o r s , parole Psychiatric basis.  B i e n n i a l j t e n o r t , op. c i t . ,  and c u s t o d i a l  consultations  Usually,  and  an a d d i t i o n a l  1953-5 . Pp.9-12. k  padres, staff, interviews two weeks  - 5 9 -  is  r e q u i r e d f o r t h e c o m p l e t i o n and summarization  reports signed the  and r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s by t h e C l a s s i f i c a t i o n O f f i c e r a s t o each  c a s e , the p a n e l appearance  submission t o Headquarters  offender.  The H e a d q u a r t e r s  t h e Deputy D i r e c t o r  institution.  and t r a n s f e r  C l a s s i f i c a t i o n and T r e a t m e n t  transfer  from  study  make t h e n e c e s s a r y the Centre  to the t r a n s f e r  these  arrange-  to the a p p r o p r i a t e  Copies o f the Centre's d i a g n o s t i c  ment-plan are forwarded  o f the  p e r s o n n e l under the s u p e r v i s i o n  r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s a n d , when a p p r o v e d , ments f o r t h e i n m a t e ' s  o f e a c h i n m a t e , and  o f t h e C e n t r e ' s f i n d i n g s and  recommendations f o r custody, t r e a t m e n t ,  of  of a l l  summary and  institution,  treat-  and t o t h e  Division of Adult Paroles. When t h e i n m a t e he  arrives  i s s e e n by t h e I n s t i t u t i o n a l  after  careful  inmate  study  i n specific  a t the t r a n s f e r  C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Committee  o f the Reception-Guidance  to the cumulative  quently  (at least  case  gramme w h i c h seems i n d i c a t e d ,  will  to the  allow.  o f adding  summary, o f r e v i e w i n g e a c h  This progress  case  to  fre-  Headquarters  o r i n any p h a s e o f t h e t r e a t m e n t including  pro-  recommendations f o r t r a n s f e r  institutions. Although  system  who,  p l a c e the  o n c e e a c h y e a r ) , and o f recommending  change i n c u s t o d i a l r a t i n g  to other  and f a c i l i t i e s  charged w i t h the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  reports  any  file,  1  a r e a s o f programme, a d h e r i n g a s c l o s e l y  C e n t r e ' s recommendations as space Committee i s a l s o  institution,  the C l a s s i f i c a t i o n process w i t h i n the C a l i f o r n i a  approximates  previously  t h a t o f the o t h e r advanced  d e s c r i b e d , t h e r e a r e some i m p o r t a n t  The M a n u a l o f P r o c e d u r e s  correctional differences  for Classification,  op. c i t . ,  systems which  Pp.9-20.  -60bear  consideration.  (other ted  than those  I n every  sentenced  to a Reception-Guidance  penal i n s t i t u t i o n .  T h i s means, i n e f f e c t , number o f c a s e s of  Centre  the  1  and  a  Centres sentences,  treatment c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . a  C e n t r e s must p r o c e s s  none o f w h i c h a r e  l e n g t h o f i n c a r c e r a t i o n and,  to  serving indeterminate  custodial  t h a t the  each y e a r ,  rather than d i r e c t l y  the Reception-Guidance  with inmates  complicates  the c o n v i c t e d o f f e n d e r  t o c a p i t a l p u n i s h m e n t ) i s commit-  Furthermore,  are dealing e n t i r e l y which g r e a t l y  case,  definite  staggering i n terms  t h e r e f o r e , somewhat e a s i e r  to  assess. I n terms o f treatment has  planning, diversity  resources  been of g r e a t a s s i s t a n c e to C l a s s i f i c a t i o n p e r s o n n e l .  a d d i t i o n t o the v a r i o u s c l a s s i f i e d a wide v a r i e t y  of specialized  G r o u p c o u n s e l l i n g was b e e n expanded  initiated  opening  the M e d i c a l F a c i l i t y  an i n t e n s i v e San  ational  at Folsom i n  and  been  195*+»  was  and has  Quentin,  and  has  Institution,  P r i s o n at Soledad  has  Chino,  and  carried  with  i n m a t e s was  s i n c e been i n s t i t u t e d Soledad.  The  since  A more  begun  at the Deuel California  the 1956,  Then, i n J u l y o f  c a s e w o r k programme f o r s e l e c t e d  camps,  instituted.  begun a t V a c a v i l l e  there.  In  honour  to i n c l u d e inmates o f a l l i n s t i t u t i o n s .  group psychotherapy  of  institutions  programmes has  intensive,  at  of  VocState  t h e I n t e n s i v e T r e a t m e n t programme  a.  7,^31 male inmates r e c e i v e d f o r the two-year p e r i o d ending June a c c o r d i n g to the B i e n n i a l Report, which a l s o l i s t s s t a t i s t i c a l d a t a on per c a p i t a c o s t s , p a r o l e s t a t i s t i c s , and so f o r t h .  30th, 1956,  1955-56  2 K i n g , M.R., Psychiatric_Pro£ramme_of_t F a c i l i t y , State of~California~Department~ C a l i f o r n i a . 1956, Pp.1-19  ,  3 B r a d l e y , H a r o l d B., I n t e n s i v e T r e a t m e n t Programme, F i r s t A n n u a l Rejjortj S t a t e o f C a l i f o r n i a Department of C o r r e c t i o n s , Sacramento, California  , 1957,  2h  Pp.  -61-  step further into the area of family counselling, i n the spring of 1958,  which i s a further i n d i c a t i o n of C a l i f o r n i a ' s w i l l i n g -  ness to experiment and innovate.  1  Community p a r t i c i p a t i o n has been invaluable i n the forma t i o n of Trades Advisory Councils and Correctional Industries Commissions, whose members voluntarily share their  experience  i n labour and industry i n providing consultative and advisory  2 services to the correctional trades training programmes. one considers t h i s great community involvement,  When  diversity of  resources, the existance of a Youth Authority and an Adult Autho r i t y programme, a comprehensive s t a f f training programme, coordinated i n s t i t u t i o n a l and after-care programmes, and so f o r t h , i t i s readily apparent why C a l i f o r n i a has been considered a "mecca" to penologists the world  over.  Fenton, Norman, Treatment_in_Prisom C a l i f o r n i a State Prison^ Sole dad , ~ C a l i f or nia~~19 1  2  Bien_iial_Report, op. c i t . ,  Family Can Help,, 92" PpV"  1955-56. Pp.20-21.  CHAPTER_III.  In the Province o f B r i t i s h Gaol Service receives are  into  s e n t e n c e d t o terms  less  one d a y .  dictable incial  not exceeding  to inmates  or non-indictable offences.  ment and i s u n d e r  the P r o v i n c i a l  c u s t o d y a l l a d u l t m a l e o f f e n d e r s who  o f imprisonment  This applies  Gaol Service  Director  Columbia,  two y e a r s  sentenced on e i t h e r i n The B r i t i s h  Columbia  i s a branch o f the A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l ' s Departt h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f Mr. E . G. B. S t e v e n s ,  of Correction.  This branch o f the c o r r e c t i o n a l  e x p e r i e n c e d c o n s i d e r a b l e g r o w t h s i n c e 1951 > w h i c h  has  tributed  i n some measure t o t h e f i n d i n g s  the commission  Prov-  services  c a n be a t -  and r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s o f  o f e n q u i r y a p p o i n t e d i n 19^8.  A three-man  m i s s i o n was a p p o i n t e d by t h e A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l t o r e p o r t  com-  upon  c o n d i t i o n s w i t h i n t h e g a o l s o f t h e p r o v i n c e , and i t s membership i n c l u d e d Mr. E . P e p l e r , K.C., Deputy A t t o r n e y G e n e r a l ; D r . C. Topping, P r o f e s s o r o f S o c i o l o g y , U n i v e r s i t y and Mr. E . G. B. S t e v e n s , who was a t t h a t bation officer.  P u b l i s h e d i n 1950,  of B r i t i s h  c o n t a i n e d a number o f r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s  1  Columbia;  time a p r o v i n c i a l  the r e p o r t which  of this  W.  pro-  commission  have r e s u l t e d  i n many  R e p o r t o f t h e C o m m i s s i o n A p p o i n t e d by t h e A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l t o I n a u i r e _ i n t o t h e S t a t e ^ a n d , Management o f t h e G a o l s o f B r i t i s h ^ C o l umbia~~The K i n g ' s P r i n t e r ~ ~ V i c t o r i a ™ B ~ C 1 9 5 0 P p T 1  27-31~  -63improvements of  i n  particular  services,  significance  1.  Formation  2.  The  establishing  3.  The  appointment  basis, k.  i n  Warden,  5.  of  an  gaol  of of  a  a  training  Forestry Medical  the  of  a  being  for  Prisons  an  the  full-time  training  of  Deputy  of  staff  from  one  Farm).  inmates  province),  and  a  additional  Prison  transfer the  on  1951.  i n  Farm). as  (Oakalla  the  Programme,  Officer,  Prison  1951.  programme, i n  Camp  worker  (within  to  developments  Classification:  social  for  another  amendment  a  1953*  i n  provision to  following  responsibility  inmates,  Legal  for  (Oakalla  of  with  the  in-service  1953.  Appointment  and  v i t h  through  Reformatories  an  Act,  i n  1953. 6.  Formation Prison  7.  8.  Farm,  i n  Construction  of  which  i n  opened  Consolidation B r i t i s h of  least  such  as  prior i n the  to  195*+«  i s  the the  opening  the  of  The  Haney  of  the  Classification  Correctional  provincial under  the  appointed  of  to  Oakalla  I n s t i t u t i o n  a l l  of  of  local  of  that  and  Gaol have  the  a  Director  the  Westgate  Service, i n  and  has  and  occurred Committee  occurred  on  existence  late  i n  1, 1959»  March for  or  others  Unit,  Classification  function  been  Implementation,  developments,  Central this  of  i n  1957.  these  a  services  administration  i n  New H a v e n  w i l l  correctional  realize  establishment of  at  1957.  establishment  development  Central  the  important  planning  Committee  195^.  Columbia  Correction,  It at  Classification  a  period  of  only  five  years.  The  c o n c e p t s and  b e e n i n f l u e n c e d , i n e v i t a b l y , by the  institutional  ince,  and  c o n f i g u r a t i o n and  a knowledge o f  facilitate  Units  British  are  i n the  of B r i t i s h  at  Kamloops and  of  the  two,  in  of  the  Prince  others are  George.  some 100  housing  the  and  British  take p a r t  i n the  Central  which are  excluded.  latter  male o f f e n d e r s .  gaol's  k-5-50 i n m a t e s .  To  a t t r i b u t e d , i n part, to  gaols  p r i m a r i l y d e s i g n e d as l o c a l offender  geographical  Lower M a i n l a n d . their  rather  t h a n one  who  but  p a r t i c i p a t e i n the  or  Central  Kamloops  Prince  G e o r g e and  population  this  the  area.  purposes,  Classification  fact  that  institutions  both  for  Another  the  factor  situated i n  Kamloops G a o l s o c c a s i o n a l l y  to O a k a l l a  P r i s o n Farm when s e v e r e  i s a straight administrative  which i s based on  equivalent  "county" lockups  i s sentenced i n that  s e p a r a t i o n f r o m the  overflow  crowding o c c u r s ,  1  larger  a l l i n t e n t s and  be  transfer  Gaols,  f o r a l m o s t as many I n m a t e s t h r o u g h i t s o p e r -  T h i s may  the  f a r the  the  However, t h e  process.  the  In  Provincial  i s by  not  is  Classi-  of  do  short-term  should  S e r v i ce  these i n s t i t u t i o n s  are  prov-  status of  C l e a r w a t e r Camp w h i c h h o u s e s a p o p u l a t i o n  number t o t h e  of  Service.  s i t u a t e d two The  the  development  contemporary  Columbia Gaol  have  growth  framework o f  P r o v i n c i a l Gaol Service  Columbia  Gaol i s responsible a t i o n of  legal  b a c k g r o u n d and  i n s t i t u t i o n s w h i c h do  C l a s s i f i c a t i o n process, Interior  e a r l y h i s t o r y and  and_Institutions_of_the^Gaol Included  Columbia  this  an u n d e r s t a n d i n g  f i c a t i o n w i t h i n the The  the  procedures i n v o l v e d  treatment  transfer  considerations.  A t the end o f the f i s c a l y e a r , M a r c h 31, 1958, a third P r o v i n c i a l G a o l was b e i n g c l o s e d a t N e l s o n , B.C., as p a r t o f a movement t o w a r d s g r e a t e r economy t h r o u g h c o n s o l i d a t i o n o f services.  Although  -65modest a t t e m p t s have b e e n made t o p r o v i d e them, t h e g a o l s ional  staff  required  remaining  considered For  f o r i n t e n s i v e treatment  institutions  of Prince  o f the offender.  G e o r g e and Kamloops  with  Central  i t i s convenient  i n two g e n e r a l  and p r o f e s s -  Gaols,  o f the P r o v i n c i a l Gaol Service are  t o be c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d  t h e sake o f c l a r i t y ,  stitutions  programmes i n  o f the I n t e r i o r l a c k the f a c i l i t i e s  With the exception the  training  Classification.  to discuss  groupings: the "parent"  these i n -  institution,  Oakalla  P r i s o n F a r m , and t h e "maximum-resource" i n s t i t u t i o n s  include  t h e Young O f f e n d e r s '  Correctional  Institution,  Unit,  which  New H a v e n B o r s t a l Home, Haney  and t h e F o r e s t r y  Camp  institutions,  The_i!Parent^_Institution Oakalla in  P r i s o n Farm i s s i t u a t e d o n 260  t h e M u n i c i p a l i t y o f B u r n a b y , w h i c h j o i n s t h e two  a r e a s o f V a n c o u v e r and New W e s t m i n s t e r . 1912,  and c o n s i s t e d  only  Oakalla  three-storied  Hospital Unit East,  i n m a t e s known t o be u s e r s sentenced under  222  I n the East  Drug A c t ,  as h a b i t u a l o f f e n d e r s .  men i n s i n g l e and d o u b l e  cells  are  awaiting  awaiting  those  who a r e  and t h o s e i n m a t e s who a r e accommodation f o r  a r e f o u n d t h o s e i n m a t e s whom t o be l e a s t  The West Wing i s u s e d f o r h o u s i n g trial,  as t h e  Wing a r e h o u s e d  Here, w i t h  C e n t r a l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n has considered treatment.  from  O f f i c e s and t h e  o f n a r c o t i c drugs o r o t h e r s  the Narcotic  i sa  Apart  wings, r e f e r r e d to s p e c i f i c a l l y  West, and S o u t h w i n g s .  classified  The l a t t e r  which houses the A d m i n i s t r a t i o n  are three  metropolitan  was b u i l t i n  b u i l d i n g , shaped i n t h e f o r m o f a "T".  c e n t r a l area  of land  o f t h e Annex B u i l d i n g , a n d t h e s t r u c t u r e  w h i c h i s now r e f e r r e d t o a s t h e "main g a o l " .  the  acres  amenable t o  those  i n m a t e s who  s e n t e n c e , a n d t h o s e who a r e a p p e a l i n g  -66-  t h e i r convictions or sentences.  Accommodation equivalent to  that of the East Wing i s provided i n single and double c e l l s . F i n a l l y , the South Wing, with accommodation for a t o t a l of 9 3 inmates i n single and double c e l l s , houses both the Condemned t i e r and the C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Unit. Apart from the main gaol building are numerous maintenance shops, farm and storage buildings, a large gymnasium, the buildings of the Women's Gaol, the twelve-man Narcotic Addiction Treatment Unit (Male), the Westgate Unit, the Elementary Training Unit (for d i s c i p l i n a r y purposes),  and the Young  Offenders' Unit.  195 +,  The VJestgate Unit, opened i n  L  vjas o r i g -  i n a l l y intended to house the vocational training shops of the institution.  However, before i t was completed, i t became ap-  parent that this f a c i l i t y would be required for the housing of Oakalla's ever-increasing population. for  *+00  It opened with a capacity  inmates, housed i n i n d i v i d u a l c e l l s , and was to become  Oakalla's major r e h a b i l i t a t i o n unit for those adult male offenders c l a s s i f i e d as most amenable to treatment. The  "Maximum-Re source^. Ins t i tut ions Although situated on the grounds of Oakalla Prison Farm,  the Young Offenders' Unit has usually been considered as a separate i n s t i t u t i o n .  Opened, i n 1 9 5 1  3  with s i n g l e - c e l l accommodation  for 1 0 0 inmates and i t s own educational and vocational training f a c i l i t i e s , t h i s unit was administratively autonomous. was  The Director  not responsible to the Warden of Oakalla Prison Farm, but rather,  to the Inspector of Gaols.  However, with the appointment of Oakalla's  present Warden, Mr. Hugh G. C h r i s t i e , i t was decided i n the i n t e r e s t s of sound administration, to make the Young Offenders' Unit d i r e c t l y  -67-  responsible in  cell  to the Oakalla Administration.  capacity to seventy-eight,  ming, t h i s u n i t old  has continued  i n order  still  Borstal  1955? 90 p e r c e n t  in  t h e Young O f f e n d e r s '  tences.  Release  Columbia  Parole  by  officers  Probation  I n 1938,  *+l50  P r i s o n Farm. officially General. brought  Columbia  i n  19*+2,  owing  r e o p e n e d o n November  With  some two m i l e s  25th, 19^7  Deputy-Governor o f B o r s t a l i n s t i t u t i o n s  vacant Oakalla  by t h e A t t o r n e y D i r e c t o r , and  as a Housemaster and  i n England.  v i s i o n f o r t h e f u n c t i o n p e r f o r m e d by t h i s 1  from  Angus  t o t h e war, New H a v e n was  p o s i t i o n a wide e x p e r i e n c e  by 'the New H a v e n A c t ,  permission  Prison Officer  Mr. S. R o c k s b o r o u g h - S m i t h was a p p o i n t e d  "The  led a l lof  class" prisoners to a  S. E . M a r i n e D r i v e ,  Closed  to t h i s  sen-  are supervised  Lowdham G r a n g e .  through O r d e r - i n - C o u n c i l , Oakalla  at  placed  Branch.  British  McLeod moved a g r o u p o f h i s " s t a r building  o f the inmates  o p e n i n g o f New H a v e n B o r s t a l Home, p a t t e r n e d  t h e E n g l i s h Open B o r s t a l ,  granted  i n a Vclosed"  i n i t s i n c e p t i o n was t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f  New H a v e n B o r s t a l Home.  after  b e n e f i t from t r a i n i n g  B o a r d , and a l l p a r o l e d o f f e n d e r s  the  year  i s a t the d i s c r e t i o n o f the B r i t i s h  o f the P r o v i n c i a l  Canada w i t h  16 - 23  those  U n i t had determinate-indeterminate  upon p a r o l e  Much e a r l i e r  program-  t o be u n s u i t a b l e f o r New H a v e n  p l a c e m e n t , b u t who c o u l d By  a reduction  to f a c i l i t a t e  t o accommodate  o f f e n d e r s who a r e c o n s i d e r e d  institution.  Despite  institution  Legal  pro-  i s provided  which s t a t e s :  i n s t i t u t i o n known a s 'New H a v e n  1  situated on  A n _ A c t R e s p e c t i n g t h e I n s t i t u t i o n Known as_New Haven, S t a t u t e s o f ~ B r i t i s h Columbia" Chap ter~~-5~  19~~~~  -68-  Lot  16*+,  tinue and  as  G r o u p 1,  New W e s t m i n s t e r  a lawful  place  shall  their are  be  for  education,  lawfully To  ious has  the  of  confinement  custody  end,  maintain,  a programme  dormitory housing  full  inmate-complement.  a  determinate-indeterminate Columbia Parole  volunteer  this  of  name  w i t h the of  and  con-  New H a v e n view  to  such offenders  vocational  youths  Each inmate sentence,  Board,  is  at  F o r m e d i n 19*+8, t h i s  and  been  is  as  difficult  considered  and u p o n r e l e a s e  British  relig-  athletics  New H a v e n i s  supervised  the  training,  recreation  number h a s  forty  o r g a n i z a t i o n known as  Association.  of  education,  Although  a  British  and d e t e n t i o n ,  the  exist  thereto."  i n s t r u c t i o n , academic been developed.  shall  under  t r a i n i n g and r e c l a m a t i o n ,  committed this  District,  by  A s s o c i a t i o n has  to  be  serving by  a member  Columbia  to  the of  a  Borstal  some 125  spon-  1 sors  i n 39  communities  September, Canada's  newest  of  criminal  of  Haney,  penal made  vision 100  offenders.  this  possible  inmates  1957,  i n cubicle  Situated  The f o c u s  by  Haney  100  the  province.  opening  some f i v e  i n s t i t u t i o n embodies  shops,  is  three  units.  Annual_Renort_of  B . C . ,~195~~ p ~ 2 . ~ ~  of  cells,  miles  most  B._C.  of  from the  town  modern f e a t u r e s and  of  social training, of  a very  a capacity  accommodation. 200  B.C.,  rehabilitation  and p e r s o n n e l  I n a d d i t i o n to the  Haney,  the  I n s t i t u t i o n has  types  men i n s i n g l e  the  at  upon v o c a t i o n a l  equipment,  Correctional  and f e a t u r e s for  saw  the  Provincial i n s t i t u t i o n for  training.  standard.  throughout  high  o f MX)  There  is  pro-  i n open d o r m i t o r i e s ,  the  vocational  and  training  Borsta^Associationj^l^jE+j  and  Vancouver  -69m a i n t e n a n c e s h o p s a r e a gymnasium; a c a d e m i c e d u c a t i o n , work, C l a s s i f i c a t i o n a n d C o u n s e l l i n g , r e l i g i o u s , strative  d e p a r t m e n t s , and a n i n f i r m a r y .  t h e power h o u s e , a l l f a c i l i t i e s which i s t h r e e - s t o r i e d ,  and e l s e w h e r e .  and a d m i n i -  With the exception o f  are contained  i n one b u i l d i n g  and c o n s t r u c t e d i n t h e " t e l e p h o n e - p o l e "  d e s i g n w h i c h h a s g a i n e d wide a c c e p t a n c e ornia,  The o b v i o u s  i n the State o f C a l i f -  gaol-like  appearance has  b e e n s o f t e n e d a n d made p l e a s i n g t o t h e eye t h r o u g h use  of natural lighting  e x e r c i s e yards fields  f o r outdoor,  family  perimeter  all  Project  athletic future,  and a n  towers.  medium-security operated  doors,  I t houses inmates  with  sentences,  f i t , a n d g e n e r a l l y b e t w e e n t h e a g e s o f 18-U-O  t h e most  rectional  Institution i s a  as w e l l as d e t e r m i n a t e - i n d e t e r m i n a t e  The o p e n i n g  provided  Fenced  I n t h e near  chapel b u i l d i n g ,  w i t h b o t h k e y and e l e c t r i c a l l y  physically  years.  colours.  visiting.  f e n c e s , and r i f l e  determinate,  a maximum  w i n g , and two l a r g e  f o r a separate  Haney C o r r e c t i o n a l institution,  pastel  c o n s t r u c t e d on the grounds.  c o n s t r u c t i o n i s planned area  and a t t r a c t i v e  a d j o i n each housing  are being  group  of this  i n s t i t u t i o n i n the f a l l of  significant  advance i n the e x p a n s i o n  1957 of cor-  s e r v i c e s s i n c e t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e F o r e s t r y Camp  of The  1951. Gaol  Service, i n co-operation with  C o l u m b i a F o r e s t S e r v i c e , s e t up i n 1951 camp f o r c r i m i n a l o f f e n d e r s . B r a n c h was p l a c e d i n c h a r g e  1  its initial  M r . R. M. D e i l d a l  of this  the B r i t i s h forestry  o f the P r o b a t i o n  camp, and o n June 18,  Annual_RejDort o f _ t h e _ I n s p e c t o r o f _ G ao 1 s_j_ 1 ^ 5 2 ^ Printer" Victoria~~B7c., 1 9 5 2 ,p . 2 2 "  195l>  The Queen's  -70-  under the p r o v i s i o n s from  o f the T i c k e t o f Leave A c t , e l e v e n  t h e Young O f f e n d e r s '  some 55 m i l e s  east  Unit  were t r a n s f e r r e d t o t h e camp  o f V e r n o n , B.C.  e a c h boy h a d t h e o p p o r t u n i t y  Operated on the honor  o f working  i n a healthy,  e n v i r o n m e n t away f r o m t h e p r i s o n s u r r o u n d i n g s . providing  a "bridge"  they would  between p r i s o n l i f e  soon r e t u r n ,  work p r o v i d e d  the increased  them w i t h more  conduct" pay.  This  system,  wholesome  and t h e community  than the u s u a l ,  site  In addition to  wages p a i d  e x t r a money h e l p e d  u n a b l e , as i s so o f t e n  inmates  to which  for their  small  daily  sum o f "good  t o s u s t a i n many who  t h e c a s e , t o s e c u r e employment  were  immediately  upon r e l e a s e . Results an  were  so e n c o u r a g i n g  expansion o f the F o r e s t r y  d i r e c t i o n o f Mr. D e i l d a l , in  the Nelson F o r e s t  e x p a n d e d i n 1953 of  Unit  The p r o j e c t was  initiated,  the  camp s i t e  By F e b r u a r y  at a point  of s t i l l  and t h e . Y o u n g  23, 195*+,  some hj? m i l e s  and  the  status  Offenders'  t h e Haney Camp P r o j e c t being  transferred to  f r o m t h e town o f Haney,  two bunk h o u s e s h a d b e e n e r e c t e d ,  o f 60 I n m a t e s . another  continued  t h e need f o r a T i c k e t o f  w i t h l*f inmates from O a k a l l a  o f 1955,  population  ment  On September  established  Camps were g r a n t e d  to t r a n s f e r inmates from O a k a l l a  was  a  District.  saw  A g a i n under t h e  two t w e l v e - m a n camps were  when t h e s e F o r e s t  t o t h e camps.  t h e summer o f 1952  Camp Programme.  P r o v i n c i a l G a o l s , thus o b v i a t i n g  Leave  that  The f o l l o w i n g  year  camp i n t h e Haney a r e a .  Annual Report o f the Inspector o f _ G a o l s , P r i n t e r , V i c t o r i a " B " C ~ , l ~ ~ ^ , ~ p \ 51™  B.C.  allowing f o r  saw t h e e s t a b l i s h With p r o v i s i o n f o r  1955,  The  Queen's  -71-  50  i n m a t e s drawn f r o m t h e  placed  under the  of  Haven, and  New  later,  i n the  was  to  spring  be  o f 1957,  The  this  end,  Mr.  Norman B a k e r was  1957,  and  w i t h the  that  each  the  camp  stitution.  By  the  spring  of  was  advisable.  of  1958,  the  of  To  Camps i n made  Haney C o r r e c t i o n a l  Haney Camp and  some t i m e b e e n u n d e r Haney C o r r e c t i o n a l w i t h the  indicated  r a n k o f Deputy Warden, was  Administration  istration,  A  inmates  become a p p a r e n t  appointed D i r e c t o r  the  maining  year  administration  to  for  G o l d C r e e k Camp.  t h i s programme now  responsible  had  Director  B.C.  i t had  expansion of  c o n s o l i d a t i o n u n d e r one  of  was  Rocksborough-Smith,  camps h o u s i n g 60  two  near C h i l l i w a c k ,  that  fall  t h i s camp  s u c c e s s f u l , b o t h i n t e r m s o f r e h a b i l i t a t i o n and  productivity.  the  S.  known as  S e p t e m b e r , 1957,  programme was  population,  d i r e c t i o n o f Mr.  were e s t a b l i s h e d By  Oakalla  plan  being  to  eventually  camps, C h i l l i w a c k  I and  Chilliwack  In-  G o l d C r e e k Camp  I n s t i t u t i o n admin-  include  the  two  re-  I I , i n the  new  fiscal  year. The^istprv_of_Classif i ^ The Provincial  growth o f  Classification within  Gaol Service  n o n e t h e l e s s , when we  has  the  b e e n a g r a d u a l one,  consider  how  recently  British but  Columbia  surprising,  t h i s r e s o u r c e was  dev-  eloped. Prior Warden, Mr. to  1  the  Hugh G.  segregate  f r o m the  to  the  i n 195  Christie, little  young o f f e n d e r  recidivist,  the  Annual Report of  Printer~  appointment  the  sex  or  no  from the  deviate,  Inspector  Victoria7 BT~~195l,~P~9~ _  °f  2  and  Oakalla*s  present  a t t e m p t had  o l d , the the  of GaolSj  b e e n made  first  offender  drug a d d i c t .  l£53a  T h  e  1  While  Queen s 1  -72t h i s was t r u e o f t h e g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n a t O a k a l l a , t h e p u r p o s e s of  s e g r e g a t i o n had been served  re-opening  t o some e x t e n t by t h e o p e n i n g and  o f New H a v e n i n 1938  ment o f t h e Young O f f e n d e r s *  and  19*+7,  a n d by t h e e s t a b l i s h -  U n i t i n 1951.  H a v e n i n m a t e s were c h o s e n f r o m  Up u n t i l  19^8,  the younger, s o - c a l l e d  New  "star  group"  1 inmates a t O a k a l l a . not  i t was f e l t  The c r i t e r i o n f o r s e l e c t i o n was w h e t h e r o r  that a p a r t i c u l a r  youth would  programme o f a n "open" i n s t i t u t i o n . was  provided f o r direct  indeterminate  sentence.  "Every parently is  committals  over  Then i n  benefit  19*+9»  The A c t s t a t e s :  c o u r t i n t h e p r o v i n c e b e f o r e w h i c h any m a l e a p -  t h e age o f 16 y e a r s  and under  t h e age o f 23  f o r a term  such person  of 3  to im-  o f 3 months o r f o r a n i n d e t e r m i n a t e  period  o f n o t more t h a n 2 y e a r s l e s s one day i n New H a v e n . . . .  thereafter and  years,  by t h e p r o v i n c e ,  by i m p r i s o n m e n t , i n t h e common g a o l f o r a t e r m  months o r f o r any l o n g e r t e r m , may s e n t e n c e prisonment  legislation  t o New H a v e n , o n d e t e r m i n a t e -  c o n v i c t e d o f a n o f f e n s e a g a i n s t any l a w e n a c t e d  punishable  from t h e  such persons  shall  thereupon  be i m p r i s o n e d  i n New H a v e n  until  2 he  i s lawfully The  in  order  dealing guided  discharged or paroled."  C r i m i n a l Code o f Canada was amended a t t h e same  t h a t t h i s l e g i s l a t i o n would a l s o with violations  o f F e d e r a l laws.  cover  sentencing  I n order  magistrate  t h e p e r i o d o f remand t o c o n s u l t w i t h a n o f f i c e r  A n n u a l _ R e n o r t p f _ t h e D i r e c t p r _ o f New_Haven _12it§> Printer, Victoria, B . C " " ^ " ? ' * 1  4  -  1  -  i n cases  t h a t he m i g h t be  i n h i s u s e o f t h e New H a v e n A c t , t h e s e n t e n c i n g  o f t e n used  time,  T  h  e  of the King's  2  An A c t R e s p e c t i n g Chapter t-5~~ ~ _I  the, I n s t i t u t i o n Known a s New_Haven, o p .  cit.,  -73-  Probation Branch. the a  In addition to social history material,  Probation O f f i c e r ' s pre-sentence  r e p o r t would  contain  s p e c i f i c r e c o m m e n d a t i o n " f o r " o r " a g a i n s t " New H a v e n p l a c e -  ment, and t h u s  had a very  real  b e a r i n g upon the sentence a d -  ministered.  W i t h t h e a p p o i n t m e n t i n 1 9 5 2 o f a f u l l - t i m e Med-  ical  and a G a o l  Officer  augment t h e p r e - s e n t e n c e metric on  testing  P s y c h o l o g i s t , i t became p o s s i b l e t o report with  o f the inmate w h i l e  i n t e r v i e w i n g and p s y c h o -  he was c o n f i n e d i n O a k a l l a  remand. T h e n i n 1951,  a f u r t h e r s e g r e g a t i o n o f the y o u t h f u l  o f f e n d e r was made p o s s i b l e by t h e o p e n i n g o f t h e Young Unit.  At f i r s t ,  s e l e c t i o n o f i n m a t e s was made f r o m t h e O a k a l l a  population, with  the Medical  Young O f f e n d e r s '  Classification Officer  Officer,  t h e P s y c h o l o g i s t , and t h e c o l l a b o r a t i n g on the  d e c i s i o n s f o r t r a n s f e r o f s u i t a b l e inmates. an  However, i n 195^>  amendment was made t o t h e P r i s o n s and R e f o r m a t o r i e s A c t ,  thereby  allowing magistrates  sentences by  Offenders'  t o award  t o t h e Young O f f e n d e r s '  the B r i t i s h  U n i t , with r e l e a s e on Licence  C o l u m b i a P a r o l e B o a r d , and w i t h  after-care provided As  determinate-indeterminate,  by t h e P r o v i n c i a l  s u p e r v i s i o n and  Probation  Branch.  1  p r e v i o u s l y m e n t i o n e d , s e g r e g a t i o n and a l l o c a t i o n o f  i n m a t e s d i d n o t a p p e a r i n any r e c o g n i z a b l e Prison itself,  until  the appointment o f the present  is  a p r o f e s s i o n a l l y t r a i n e d s o c i a l worker.  in  February  of  1953>  form w i t h i n  Less  Oakalla  Warden, who  than a year  Mr. D. L . C l a r k became O a k a l l a ' s  A n n u a l _ R e p o r t o f _ t h e _ I n s p . e c t p r _ o f _ G a o l s _ j _ 19^+, P r i n t e r ~ ~ V i c t o r i a , ~ B . C . , 195"-, p~7.  later,  second p r o -  The Queen's  f e s s i o n a l w o r k e r , when he t r a n s f e r r e d  from  P r o b a t i o n Branch.  was made by Mr. R. M.  Deildal  A similar  i n November, 1953 > and o n M a r c h 1,  as  Classification  at  O a k a l l a P r i s o n Farm.  Mr.  transfer  Officer,  utions.  Representing  i n both p r o v i n c i a l  o f the i n s t i t u t i o n .  presence  Gaol  sentences,  instit-  i n t h e West Wing, a s t h e as the " w a i t i n g  trial"  with  t h e p a n e l was augmented by  P s y c h o l o g i s t ; and Mr. C l a r k , who h a d b e e n a p p o i n t e d  Unit.  T h u s , t h e c o u r t s were a l l o w e d  lawful  custody,  sentenced  or  t h e Young O f f e n d e r s ' U n i t .  by  the C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Panel placement  i n  been  1953»  to transfer i n -  O a k a l l a , New Haven, and t h e Young  a l l persons  Deputy  C l a s s i f i c a t i o n had e a r l i e r  c o n s i d e r a b l e s c o p e by t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n ,  mates t o and from  this  was  w i t h many y e a r s o f  l e g i s l a t i o n p e r m i t t i n g the Inspector o f Gaols  for  staff  Panel  o f D r . G. R i c h m o n d , M e d i c a l O f f i c e r ; Mr. R. M c A l l i s t e r ,  provided with  to  the c u s t o d i a l  designated  Warden i n C h a r g e o f T r e a t m e n t .  of  Classification  F o r the s c r e e n i n g o f inmates  determinate-indeterminate the  Mr. D e i l d a l ,  and f e d e r a l c o r r e c t i o n a l  T h i s two-man p a n e l o p e r a t e d  S o u t h Wing was, a t t h a t t i m e , unit  195^,  c h a i r e d the f i r s t  J o h n Cooke, a S e n i o r C u s t o d i a l O f f i c e r  experience  the s t a f f of the  Offenders'  to place at Oakalla, i n t o a common g a o l , New H a v e n ,  This permitted further  as t o the s u i t a b i l i t y  o f each  i n t h e "maximum-resource" i n s t i t u t i o n s .  i n t r o d u c t i o n o f t h e "Warrant o f T r a n s f e r , "  New Haven had b e e n done, i n a s e n s e ,  screening inmate  Before  classification  before r a t h e r than  after  sentencing. Early  i n  1955>  t h e f u n c t i o n s o f t h e West and S o u t h W i n g s  were r e v e r s e d , a n d s i n c e June 1,  1955  the C l a s s i f i c a t i o n U n i t has  -75continued  to f u n c t i o n i n the  of  the  in  195*+, and  not  Forest  Camp programme, t h e  the  there  original  has  t o 9,1^1  to Oakalla  i n 1957.  R e c e p t i o n and  opening of  are  Service  Initial  frequently  consider  have i n c r e a s e d  or.  Central"  r e v i s e d as  become e v i d e n t ,  a l l the  the  to the  from  At  Oakalla  S o u t h Wing f o r the  Administration  t h e n i s s u e the fication,  and  inmate w i t h ask  with  an  man's G a o l R e c o r d  i t is procedures  7,831  This  that  be-  annual  i n 195*+,  C l a s s i f i c a t i o n procedure  the  changing  needs o f  him  has  when a  which terminate  and Gaol  now in-  prisoner  when he  is  trans-  Classification.  new  inmate i s t a k e n immediately basement,  the m a i n g a o l .  a number f o r the  The  typing  The  the  staff identi-  which w i l l  inmate i s i n t e r v i e w e d information  to  directly  purpose of  for certain information  officer  the  P r i s o n Farm, t h i s p r o c e s s  section of  i n his identification.  counter,  fact  Unit  Classification  Records O f f i c e which i s s i t u a t e d i n the  below the  aid  the  r o u t i n e procedures which begin  Upon a r r i v a l , the  the  intake-reception process  a r r i v e s u n d e r p o l i c e e s c o r t , and ferred  Westgate  2  become s t a n d a r d i z e d . cludes  expansion  C l a s s i f i c a t i o n P a n e l o f 195V.  Although c e r t a i n areas of policy  the  been m o d i f i c a t i o n of  comes e v e n more a p p a r e n t when we committments  W i t h the  Haney C o r r e c t i o n a l I n s t i t u t i o n i n 1957,  the  surprising that  e m p l o y e d by  S o u t h Wing..  further  across  o f f e r e d onto  a each  Sheet.  Annual. R e p o r t o f  the  Inspector  o f G-ap3L_s__l_955> °P*  Unpublished s t a t i s t i c s , obtained S o u t h Wing, O a k a l l a P r i s o n F a r m .  J i  from the  daily  cit.,  journal,  p.59.  -76-  All from  the inmate,  placed or  p e r s o n a l b e l o n g i n g a n d v a l u a b l e s a r e removed carefully  i n safe-keeping u n t i l  transferred  elsewhere.  i n the inmate's  s u c h t i m e a s he i s d i s c h a r g e d  A l l money removed  possession i s transferred placed  l i s t e d i n h i s p r e s e n c e , and t h e n  to the Bursar's O f f i c e  been completed,  is  t h e inmate  i s turned over After  i s given an issue o f gaol c l o t h i n g ,  noted on h i s c l o t h i n g The  graphing  to the s t a f f i n showering, t h e  b l a n k e t s , e t c . , which  i n t a k e - r e c e p t i o n p r o c e s s i s completed  o f the inmate,  and. f i n g e r p r i n t i n g offence.  by p h o t o -  i n t h e c a s e o f com-  T h i s i s done by a n R.C.M.P.  whose room i s a d j a c e n t t o t h e R e c o r d s photograph  Office  room.  A copy  o f the inmate's  Record  Sheet,  and another a l o n g w i t h h i s f i n g e r p r i n t s  to  Office  card.  mitment f o r a n i n d i c t a b l e Officer  where i t i s  by t h e R e c o r d s  a n a d j a c e n t a r e a known a s t h e B a t h r o o m . inmate  the inmate's  personal account.  When t h e i n f o r m a t i o n r e q u i r e d has  from  and B a t h -  i s p l a c e d on the Gaol i s forwarded  t h e C e n t r a l R e g i s t r y m a i n t a i n e d by R.C.M.P. H e a d q u a r t e r s a t  Ottawa.  The i n m a t e  Classification, from  bail.  i s then t r a n s f e r r e d  t o t h e S o u t h Wing, f o r  o r t o t h e West Wing i f he i s o n remand, o r r e t u r n e d  I n t h e case o f t h e inmate  who a r r i v e s  at Oakalla having  already  been s e n t e n c e d , t h e i n t a k e - r e c e p t i o n p r o c e s s i s completed  in  t h a n one d a y .  less  From t h e W a r r a n t s compute t h e i n m a t e ' s conduct" the  o f Commitment, t h e R e c o r d s  Office  probable date o f discharge ( i n c l u d i n g  t i m e ) , p l u s the date o f e x p i r a t i o n o f the f u l l  case o f d e t e r m i n a t e - i n d e t e r m i n a t e s e n t e n c e s .  staff  "good  term, i n  Along with a l l  -77previously Record  gathered information, t h i s  Sheet.  i s e n t e r e d on the Gaol  I f the p r i s o n e r has not e s t a b l i s h e d  dence i n Canada, a n a p p r o p r i a t e n o t i f i c a t i o n local wish  Immigration  Office,  to take a c t i o n .  Warrants  i n t h e event  When c o m p l e t e d ,  o f Commitment a r e c h e c k e d  that  resi-  i s forwarded this  to the  authority  the Gaol Record  first  t h e n by t h e D e p u t y Warden, t o i n s u r e  legal  might  S h e e t and  by t h e C h i e f C l e r k , a n d  that  a l l legal  requirements  h a v e b e e n met. The of  Records  the treatment  assigned  Office  file.  i s not responsible f o r preparation  T h i s i s t h e duty o f a c u s t o d i a l  t o t h e S o u t h Wing.  W o r k i n g a h p.m. - 11 p.m..  this o f f i c e r obtains a l i s t and  draws f r o m  Central Files,  must a l s o p r e p a r e Oakalla Face all  Sheet, Master  Record  a new f i l e  f o r the f i r s t  files,  time.  onto  the f i l e  from  folder  f o r each inmate  shift,  the Records  the f i l e  i s placed a  the i n f o r m a t i o n from  enclosures.  He  who h a s e n t e r e d  I n t o e a c h new f i l e ,  transcribes  Office,  o n e a c h man.  I n d e x C a r d , and a C l a s s i f i c a t i o n C a r d .  the o f f i c e r  Sheet  o f admissions  officer  When c o m p l e t e d ,  On  the Gaol a l l files  for  t h e d a y ' s i n t a k e a r e p l a c e d i n t h e S o u t h Wing t o a w a i t  use  by t h e C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Committee d u r i n g t h e f o l l o w i n g d a y .  The  Initial  or. C e n t r a l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n  The  initial  Process  or Central C l a s s i f i c a t i o n process begins i n  t h e S o u t h Wing, u p o n c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e i n t a k e - r e c e p t i o n of  the Records  Office  and B a t h r o o m .  f i c a t i o n process i t s e l f , facilities  their  and s t a f f i n g  Before discussing  i t w o u l d be w e l l  procedures the C l a s s i -  to consider the p h y s i c a l  o f t h e S o u t h Wing, a s t h e s e r e s o u r c e s h a v e  a marked i n f l u e n c e u p o n t h e p r o c e d u r e s f o l l o w e d .  -78-  The being for  only  only  four  in  tier this  The of  tiers  total  consists of eight A l l cells  area  i s , set against Locking  facilities,  C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Unit  and s i x c e l l s  two r o o m s .  entirely  The f i r s t  to eventually  i s no a t t a c h e d  than  and k e y o p e r -  exercise  i s situated i n two-thirds  "tier  number o n e , l e f t . "  i n length,  this  area  area.  as t h e r e  alongside  the o f f i c e r s  L i g h t i n g i n these  a r e no windows.  Senior  Correctional Officer  rooms  A move i s u n d e r office  building  o f the South Wing. who p e r f o r m r o u t i n e  be d i s c u s s e d  C e n t r a l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Committee  inter-  room i s u s e d f o r t h e  custodial  i n t h e w i n g , and t h e D e p u t y Wardens who p r o v i d e  ance" f u n c t i o n which w i l l  of  The w i d t h  room i s u s e d f o r C l a s s i f i c a t i o n  testing.  Unit.  has been d i v i d e d  r e l o c a t e t h e s e rooms i n a s m a l l  erected  Excluding  of  side  w i t h o u t work, t r a i n i n g , o r  p r o c e d u r e s , and t h e second  artificial,  which i s being  the  chamber.  the inner w a l l rather  and t h e r e  w h i c h was o r i g i n a l l y  the t i e r ,  duties  located  on the l e f t  i s both mechanically  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f psychometric  way  cells  i s also  u n d e r n e a t h t h e Condemned T i e r i s t h e C l a s s i f i c a t i o n  v i e w s and g e n e r a l  is  In addition,  i n t h e wing a r e o f " i n s i d e "  The S o u t h Wing i s e n t i r e l y  The  into  i n double c e l l s .  to i t s proximity  capacity  S i x t y - s i x of the  to the execution  recreational  the  classification.  w i n g , owing  t h e windows.  Directly  a maximum  execution  number two l a n d i n g .  ated.  wings,  h o u s i n g men who a r e a w a i t i n g  "Condemned. T i e r "  against  o f the three  and h a v i n g  would be f o u n d  construction; that  of  i n height,  85 i n m a t e s a w a i t i n g  eighty-five the  S o u t h Wing i s t h e s m a l l e s t  later,  the s t a f f  comprises f i v e and S e n i o r  custody, the C l a s s i f i c a t i o n O f f i c e r  a "clear-  members.  of the They a r e  P r i s o n Guard i n charge  and R e l i e f  Classification  -79-  Officer, Relief  and t h e P s y c h o l o g i s t .  Classification  coverage  are necessary  on a seven-day b a s i s ,  fication Officer both  Officer  must p e r f o r m  the C l a s s i f i c a t i o n In  The S e n i o r P r i s o n G u a r d a n d  e a c h week.  to provide The R e l i e f  Officer  and t h e P s y c h o l o g i s t . Classification  Committee h a s u n d e r g o n e many c h a n g e s i n m e m b e r s h i p .  of  i s the only remaining  P a n e l o f 195^.  Classification  The S e n i o r  member o f t h e o r i g i n a l  However, b o t h  c u s t o d i a l members  t h e Committee have a b a c k g r o u n d o f many y e a r s e x p e r i e n c e i n  i n s t i t u t i o n a l work. similarly  Classification social ence.  The d u t i e s o f t h e P s y c h o l o g i s t a r e i n  competent hands, b e i n g performed  wide e x p e r i e n c e  to  Classi-  the dual f u n c t i o n o f r e l i e v i n g  the past four years, the C e n t r a l  Custodial Officer  staff  i n c l i n i c a l psychology. Officer  case workers, There  1  Classification  serving  are professionally  trained  personnel  experi-  attached  Unit.  Process  sentences  of five  as  a r e men who may be s e n t e n c e d  of  these  inmates  both the  w i t h g e n e r a l w e l f a r e and c o r r e c t i o n a l  B e c a u s e t h e Lower M a i n l a n d inmates  And f i n a l l y ,  a r e no s t e n o g r a p h i c o r c l e r i c a l  the C l a s s i f i c a t i o n  The  and h i s R e l i e f  by a w o r k e r w i t h a  are processed  i s without  county  gaols,  d a y s must be h o u s e d a t O a k a l l a ,  t o two y e a r s l e s s through  the South  one d a y . A l l Wing, a t t h e r a t e  p of  31  inmates  per day.  Obviously  t h e wide range  of sentences,  s h o r t l e n g t h o f s t a y i n t h e w i n g , and s m a l l number o f C l a s s i f i c a t i o n T h i s was t h e c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e C e n t r a l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n m i t t e e a s o f M a r c h 31st, 1958.  Com-  p Average d a i l y i n t a k e f o r t h e South December 31, 1957.  Wing, f o r t h e y e a r  ending  "-80-  personnel  calls  f o r s e v e r a l v a r i a t i o n s i n methods o f c l a s s i f y i n g .  Several years  of experience,  i n a d d i t i o n t o a common  s e n s e a p p r o a c h have l e d t o t h e f o l l o i i / i n g interviewing. the  As a general  two months d u r a t i o n .  months do n o t p r e s e n t placed type and  i n a training  of offender.  no i n m a t e i s i n t e r v i e w e d by  U s u a l l y , i n m a t e s s e r v i n g u n d e r two  a c u s t o d i a l p r o b l e m , c a n n o t be p r o f i t a b l y a r e a , and a r e more o f t e n t h e o l d e r ,  The m a j o r i t y  o f them a r e h a b i t u a l  alcoholic  recidivists,  a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n a r e m e d i c a l l y r a t e d as unemployable. these  i n m a t e s a r e w e l l known t o t h e s t a f f  and  almost without  the  basis of f i l e  occasionally likely they  r e c e i v e short  o f these  are c l a s s i f i e d  material alone.  t o be a l l o c a t e d  entries the  exception,  of this  i n a general  "short-termers"  labour  a Senior  advisability the f i l e s ,  plished then  and a r e more  capacity.  where  Once t h e  a r e made o n t h e M a s t e r I n d e x and C l a s s i f i c a t i o n C a r d s , and  transfer,  actual  nature,  f i t men  have been s e l e c t e d o u t , a p p r o p r i a t e  i n m a t e s a r e moved o u t o f t h e w i n g .  the  t o t h e Annex U n i t o n  Younger, p h y s i c a l l y  sentences  Most  o f the i n s t i t u t i o n ,  t o t h e W e s t g a t e U n i t o r t h e E a s t Wing  c a n be u s e d b r i e f l y  files  of  with regard to  C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Committee i f he i s s e r v i n g a t e r m o f l e s s  than  of  rule,  policy  custodial officer  However, p r i o r  looks over  o f e a c h man's i n c l u s i o n i n t h i s  making  the a p p r o p r i a t e  these  sorted into  Psychometric  The f i l e s  men t o i n s u r e  group.  Sorting  e n t r i e s o n t h e cards, and the  t r a n s f e r o f i n m a t e s who a r e n o t i n t e r v i e w e d by m i d - m o r n i n g .  to the a c t u a l  i s u s u a l l y accom-  o f i n m a t e s t o be i n t e r v i e w e d a r e  two g r o u p s , a c c o r d i n g  to the type  of  sentence.  Testing  Because the major p a r t o f s t a f f  t i m e and programme  resources  -81-  will  be  focused  indeterminate metric and  upon those younger o f f e n d e r s  s e n t e n c e s , i t has  t e s t i n g to t h i s  staff  ticable,  been the  the  i t has  become a m a t t e r o f d e c i d i n g  occasional  fifteen  y e a r o l d who  or  Psychologist  i s able  to i n c l u d e  file  each inmate  The Psychologist, The  i n the  and  of  and  the  Psychologist  the  i s i s a valuable  d i s c r e t i o n of  used include Inventory  the  the  Otis A  (Intermediate  Comprehension T e s t Verbal  Tests  training), Temperament  a i d to  the  o f the staff  A v a r i e t y of  Form A,  (Form A A ) .  whom  i s given  to  under h i s  of  the  superin  separate  i n planning  that  psycho-  process,  administered, frequently  Occupational The  desk.  a suitable  be  t h o s e most  Less frequently  the  s i x persons,  L e e - T h o r p e ) , and  Henmon-Nelson T e s t  Brannan  Classification  (Employment T e s t ) , The  of  schedule of t e s t i n g .  t e s t s may  but  include  transfer  handled at  each inmate a t a  Psychologist,  Interest  Mechanical  employed  i n language and/or I n t e l l i g e n c e , and  are  Non-  academic the  Johnson  Analysis.  Upon c o m p l e t i o n and the  tested  approximately  ( f o r persons d e f i c i e n t  The  resources  a r e made t o  offenders  then placed  important part  programme f o r e a c h i n m a t e . at  t o be  with  these  intake imprac-  a d d r e s s e s h i s inmate group, e x p l a i n i n g  t e s t i n g i s an  that  first  psycho-  r a t e of  i n s u c h c a s e s as  i n h i s crowded  inmates are  Psychologist,  how  c a n n o t be  case of other  t e s t i n g room s e a t s  a d d i t i o n to the  metric  the  Exceptions  t e s t i n g programme o n l y  Lake S c h o o l ,  The  As  complement makes t e s t i n g o f a l l i n m a t e s q u i t e  i n the  vision.  determinate-  p o l i c y to l i m i t  group o f i n m a t e s .  w o u l d be most p r o f i t a b l y u t i l i z e d . others  serving  Psychologist  writes  e v a l u a t i o n of  the  tests  administered,  a summary o f h i s f i n d i n g s i n e a c h  case.  -82-  This and  summary  i n c l u d e s the inmate's i n t e l l i g e n c e  avocational interests,  cation,  and a g e n e r a l  mary i s t h e n p l a c e d to  with  they  on the inmate's f i l e ,  and h i s c u s t o d i a l c o u n t e r p a r t  and  This i s intended  alleviate  him,  Prior  t h e inmate has a d i s c u s s i o n w i t h  which the inmate's t e s t r e s u l t s  part.  The c o m p l e t e d  to s a t i s f y  h i s anxiety  and t o p r o v i d e  around  him w i t h  problems, strengths,  usually the  While  the t e s t  and w e a k n e s s e s .  already  situation,  and c l a s s i f y i n g  some c l a r i f i c a t i o n o f h i s However, t h e i n m a t e i s n o t  they  diagnostic  nature.  c a n be i n t e r v i e w e d  i s testing  by  h i s "indeterminates",  o f the remaining  inmates i s i n p r o g r e s s .  t h e two-man C l a s s i f i c a t i o n P a n e l .  on the f i l e  Much o f t h i s  The  individ-  information  F a c e S h e e t , M a s t e r I n d e x C a r d , and C l a s s i f i c a t i o n data  t r a n s c r i b e d from  information  the inmate p r o c e e d s .  Probation  to reassure  a s e n t e n c e o f two months o r more a p p e a r s  m o d i f i c a t i o n o f t h i s data of  curiosity  Committee.  Card i s the " f a c t u a l " Sheet.  before  the Psychologist  E a c h inmate w i t h before  the P s y c h o l o g i s t ,  when a number o f i n m a t e s a r e t e s t e d i n one d a y , i t i s  Classification  ually  to h i s interview  the inmate's n a t u r a l  at least  the f o l l o w i n g morning  interviewing  when,  a r e i n t e r p r e t e d to him, i n  shown t h e w r i t t e n summary, b e c a u s e o f i t s f r a n k , On o c c a s i o n s  sum-  and i s e x t r e m e l y h e l p f u l  i n t e r v i e w each inmate t e s t e d .  the P a n e l ,  vocational  o f f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s , edu-  p e r s o n a l i t y assessment.  the C l a s s i f i c a t i o n O f f i c e r  later,  in  details  level,  the inmate's Gaol  i s u n v e r i f i e d , and a s a r e s u l t ,  o f t e n takes  place  as d i r e c t  questioning  The p r e - s e n t e n c e r e p o r t p r e p a r e d  Branch i s of r e a l  Record  assistance i n providing  by t h e  details  of family  -83-  history,  record o f previous  offence^  and o t h e r  However, i n t h e c a s e o f i n m a t e s s e r v i n g tences,  these  report  factor  determinate  contacting  Committee must r e l y  forms o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n The  prior  Classification  of other  sen-  I f no p r e - s e n t e n c e  u p o n t h e inmate f o r a n s w e r s t o i t s e n q u i r i e s .  seldom p e r m i t s  pattern,  straight  r e p o r t s are u s u a l l y not prepared.  i s a v a i l a b l e , the C l a s s i f i c a t i o n  entirely  helpful information.  agencies  almost  The t i m e  or use o f other  to C l a s s i f i c a t i o n .  i n t e r v i e w does n o t f o l l o w any p r e s c r i b e d  but proceeds i n a r a t h e r  i n f o r m a l manner, g u i d e d  by t h e  i n f o r m a t i o n r e q u i r e d f o r t h e C l a s s i f i c a t i o n C a r d , and a l s o i n response is  t o t h e c u e s o f f e r e d by t h e i n m a t e .  not e n t i r e l y  pertaining ations. details  restricted  only  to the o f f e n c e ,  o f the s o c i a l h i s t o r y .  with of  regard  takes  Data Tab."  down t h i s  This  the offence  restricted  to gathering  immediate d i s c u s s i o n o f what i s  m a t e r i a l . They t h e n q u e s t i o n t h e history.  The C l a s s i f i c a t i o n  i n f o r m a t i o n , o n what i s known a s t h e " S o c i a l  tab i s later  attached  t o the Master Index  on the C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Card.  are usually discussed  t e n d e d to b r i n g o u t n o t o n l y also  sentence, or c u s t o d i a l c o n s i d e r -  to h i s personal  a c a r b o n copy r e m a i n i n g  O  advice  B o t h committee members g e n e r a l l y  and t o a v o i d  t o be e m o t i o n a l l y - c h a r g e d ,  inmate w i t h  or offering  member  a r e i t e r a t i o n o f t h e F a c e S h e e t m a t e r i a l , so a s t o  check i t s accuracy,  Officer  questions  Nor i s t h e C l a s s i f i c a t i o n O f f i c e r  begin with  apt  to asking  The C u s t o d i a l  last.  Details  A l l enquiries are i n -  information of a factual  t h e f e e l i n g s and. u n d e r l y i n g  Card,  nature, but  m o t i v i a t i o n s of the inmate.  t h e m a t t e r o f a l l o c a t i o n and t r a i n i n g  a p p e a r s t o be q u i t e  t o t h e Committee, t h e members u s u a l l y d i s c u s s  their  When  obvious  proposed  recom-  -81+-  mendations  w i t h the inmate,  a l l o w him to p a r t i c i p a t e  and t o t h e g r e a t e s t  extent  i n t h e p l a n n i n g o f h i s own  possible,  rehabilitation  programme. The ing  inmate's  participation i s usually  o u t t o him the advantages  this  end, h i s academic,  o f "making t i m e  vocational  point-  s e r v e h i m , " and  to  and a v o c a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s and  aptitudes are discussed.  Advice i s offered,  be  i n terms  expected o f the inmate  prompted by  c o n c e r n i n g what  of attitude,  will  c o n d u c t , and i n -  d u s t r y , how he s h o u l d p r e p a r e f o r h i s t i m e o f r e l e a s e , and so forth.  When t h e need the inmate  seems a p p a r e n t ,  may  refer  may  be made i n w r i t i n g  the C l a s s i f i c a t i o n  to other p r o f e s s i o n a l  services.  t o the M e d i c a l O f f i c e r ,  Officer  Referrals  the Padre,  The  A l c o h o l i s m F o u n d a t i o n , A l c o h o l i c s Anonymous, t h e S a l v a t i o n and if  t h e J o h n Howard S o c i e t y . the inmate  referral urbed  so d e s i r e s ,  for psychiatric  R e f e r r a l s a r e g e n e r a l l y made o n l y  but t h e r e a r e e x c e p t i o n s , such as assessment  o f t h e more o b v i o u s l y d i s t -  type o f inmate. If  t h e P a n e l members c a n n o t  ment a n d t r a i n i n g interview has  Army,  the inmate,  been a r r i v e d  of  the u n i t  in  an attempt  leaving  required  i n a particular  c a s e , t h e y may  i n t h e d a y , when a t e n t a t i v e  a t through case  conference.  A brief  o r i n s t i t u t i o n recommended i s o f f e r e d  less  a p p r e h e n s i v e about  interview process i s similar  again decision  description  t o the inmate,  to terminate the i n t e r v i e w on a p o s i t i v e  the inmate The  later  agree upon the type o f p l a c e -  n o t e , and  h i s immediate  future.  i n the case o f an i n -  mate w i t h a d e t e r m i n a t e - i n d e t e r m i n a t e s e n t e n c e , e x c e p t t h a t time  i s s p e n t i n d i s c u s s i o n o f what t h i s  more  s e n t e n c e i m p l i e s , how t h e  -85inmate  should  plan  how he c a n p r o f i t Borstal  constructively for h i s release  from h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the P a r o l e  s p o n s o r who  i s responsible  When t h e i n m a t e l e a v e s Officer the he  writes  on L i c e n c e ,  a summary  space p r o v i d e d  f o r providing  the interview,  and  Officer  after-care  or  services.  the C l a s s i f i c a t i o n  o f h i s f i n d i n g s and r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s , i n  on the back o f the C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Card,  Both  and t h e C u s t o d i a l member s i g n t h e C l a s s i f i c a t i o n C a r d , t o i n d i -  cate  their  agreement w i t h r e g a r d  t o placement  i n a specific  unit  programme. Although a l l i n d i v i d u a l s serving o r more a r e i n t e r v i e w e d , ths  o r more a r e p r e s e n t e d  Either sists of  only  the f i l e s  administrative  h i s signature  perform  sanction  the C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Committee.  Warden a f f i x e s  of those  this  the  c u s t o d i a l e v a l u a t i o n o f the other  may  and r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s o f t h e C l a s s i f i c a t i o n O f f i c e r , p a n e l member.  is  desirable.  o f h i s own i f he f e e l s  On r a r e o c c a s i o n s  the C l a s s i f i c a t i o n U n i t ,  the  and  further  t h e Deputy Panel, elaboration Committee  the d e c i d i n g  vote.  the C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Card i s r e t a i n e d  the Master Index Card  accompanies  i n m a t e t o t h e u n i t recommended, and t h e r e m a i n d e r o f t h e  file of  has been c l e a r e d ,  that  reading  f o r a n inmate, the Deputy  performs the a d d i t i o n a l f u n c t i o n o f c a s t i n g  in  so t h a t  when t h e C l a s s i f i c a t i o n  c a n n o t r e a c h a g r e e m e n t o n t h e programme  When t h e f i l e  con-  The f i l e s a r e  v e r b a l l y t h e C l a s s i f i c a t i o n a r r i v e d a t by t h e  add comments  mon-  f o r the recommendations  p r e s e n t e d i n p e r s o n by t h e C l a s s i f i c a t i o n O f f i c e r  and  duty, which  t o the C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Card, a f t e r  summary  discuss  three  I f he i s i n a g r e e m e n t , t h e D e p u t y  the  may  serving  t o t h e Deputy Warden f o r " c l e a r a n c e " .  Deputy Warden o r A s s i s t a n t may of providing  s e n t e n c e s o f two months  i s returned  the main g a o l .  to Central F i l i n g  i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  I f t h e i n m a t e i s t o be t r a n s f e r r e d  offices from  -86Oakalla  to another i n s t i t u t i o n , I n the  event  s t i t u t i o n other  that  than that  an  the  file  inmate i s c l a s s i f i e d  s p e c i f i e d on  the  C l a s s i f i c a t i o n O f f i c e r must a p p l y  The  a p p l i c a t i o n must p r o v i d e  mended.  A typically "Subject  the  brief  has  no  New  Haven.  'roots'  i n the  among t h e more d i s t u r b e d  youths at  needs can  programme a t transfer  the  be  met  rection.  to Oakalla,  of  and  of  he  the  and  likely the  be  be  c o n s t i t u t e s the a l l that the  final  step  inmate a r r i v e s at  the  i n the  completed  Unit.  Recommend  i s signed  by  the  Director  of  Cor-  the  from  Headquarters  and  Central i s the  Classification actual  transfer  institution  having  already  recom-  been  sen-  C l a s s i f i c a t i o n process  effected within being  destin-  A p p l i c a t i o n f o r Warrant  twenty-four hours of  i n m a t e was  placement  10-3-58."  u n i t or  Oakalla  entire intake-reception  that  This  S o u t h Wing t o t h e  a c t u a l t r a n s f e r m i g h t be  providing  to  mature,  training  i s returned  custody.  r e m a i n s t o be  completed w i t h i n  too  t r a n s f e r r e d , l a w f u l l y t o h i s new  remains i n l e g a l  I f the  t e n c e d , the  i s forwarded  Warrant of T r a n s f e r  inmate can  inmate from  mended.  the  A p p l i c a t i o n f o r Warrant of T r a n s f e r  the  Transfer  process,  by  Haney C o r r e c t i o n a l I n s t i t u t i o n .  When t h e  as  Young O f f e n d e r s '  most a d e q u a t e l y  Deputy Warden T r e a t m e n t , and  ation,  considered  t o Haney C o r r e c t i o n a l I n s t i t u t i o n o n The  lacks •  open s e t t i n g  experience, for  the  recom-  follows:  community, and  must be  i n terms o f  Transfer.  placement  f o r placement i n an  However, he  Committment,  f o r a Warrant of  as  well.  to an i n -  Warrant o f  " r e a s o n " might r e a d  b o t h c h r o n o l o g i c a l l y and  Subject's  the  a r e a s o n f o r the  staying-power necessary  s u c h as  i s f o r w a r d e d , as  placed  his arrival.  this  period  i n a unit  of  will Even  time,  of Oakalla  Prison  -87Farm, r a t h e r or  the  t h a n i n some o t h e r  Haney C o r r e c t i o n a l I n s t i t u t i o n .  possible  i n this  psychometric or  regard,  intake  t e s t i n g , or  i n t o the  which can  be  s u i t e d to  the  the  institutional  institutions  as  facilities  utilized  The  by and  inmate i n t h a t  Headquarters  number o f days.  programme w h i c h i s that  at Oakalla  programmes, t r a i n i n g be  expected  new  cases  an  of  both  available for his training.  offender.  the  Central  Written  describes  facilities,  and  to b e n e f i t from each as  the  pro-  various  units  visits  C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Committee h a n d , and  every  problems of mutual i n t e r e s t .  the  the  In a d d i t i o n to w r i t t e n p o l i c y  programmes a t f i r s t  gradual  are  c h a n g e s and  P r o v i n c i a l Gaol  are  to i n opportunity  Discussion  i n many  is  instances  modifications  in  the  Service.  Representative  I n F e b r u a r y o f 1956, was  mental  volume o f  C l a s s i f i c a t i o n personnel,  have emerged g r a d u a l l y  because of  programme o f  McAllister  the  several  i m p o r t a n t , as w r i t t e n c r i t e r i a  i n c o m p l e t e , and overall  the  to discuss  particularly  limits  t o the  a guide f o r C l a s s i f i c a t i o n personnel,  made p e r i o d i c a l l y  is  can  is  have d e v e l o p e d more s p e c i a l i z e d a p p r o a c h e s t o  r e h a b i l i t a t i o n of  spect  However, t h e  Classification Policy File  These c r i t e r i a  which serves  by  resources  t y p e s o f i n m a t e who  gramme.  inmate.  the  Haven  Some f l e x i b i l i t y  meeting o f h i s needs, i t f o l l o w s  i s required  b o t h u n i t and  and  the  i n m a t e and  m a t e r i a l on  to p l a c e  New  i s some d o u b t as  s t u d i e d over a p e r i o d of  understanding  the  i f there the  s u c h as  case of i n d i v i d u a l s r e q u i r i n g  S o u t h Wing s e v e r e l y  In order  the  i n the  p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n of  most  institution  the  Gaol Service  Psychologist  r e l i e v e d of h i s duties at Oakalla  and  was  Mr.  made  R.  V.  "...dir-  -88-  ectly of  to the  of  the  transfer."  hiring  Oakalla  of  an  supervision  r e v i e w o f a p p l i c a t i o n s - f o r war-  change i n d u t i e s was  additional psychologist  the  w i t h i n a s e c t i o n of separate  but  Central C l a s s i f i c a t i o n the m a i n g a o l  to  made p o s s i b l e the  staff  by  by  the  Classification  the  Committee  of  functions  therefore  interpretive  role.  provides  Central Classification, gaol  service.  are  r e f e r r e d t o him  the  institution  and  the  Questions of  i n an  C o r r e c t i o n are  being  Classification  at  the  Headquarters  Re-  advisory, educative,  and  The  various  u n i t s and  After  the  h a v e b e e n c o m p l e t e d , and t o w h i c h he  has  that  and  the  he  policies  or_Instjjutional  procedures of the  institutions  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n p o l i c y and  c o r r e c t l y i n t e r p r e t e d and  the U n i t  Represent-  a l i a i s o n between h e a d q u a r t e r s ,  for clarification,  to ensure  function  to which  c e r t a i n a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r Warrant of T r a n s f e r , reclassifications,  functions than i n a  "clearance"  i s responsible.  presentative  the  the  rather  Headquarters C l a s s i f i c a t i o n  Deputy Warden o f  He  Committee  at Oakalla,  classification institution,  performed not  ative  This  1  the  o f G a o l s f o r the  Prison. Because  is  Inspector  i n m a t e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and  rants by  responsible  the  i n turn  procedure  reviews  Classifications, of  the  Director  and of  followed.  Level  Central Classification  inmate a r r i v e s a t  b e e n c l a s s i f i e d , a f u r t h e r and  Annual Report o f the I n s p e c t p r _ o f Printer,~VIctoria~ B.C.""1956,~p.39.  of  the u n i t or  Committee institution  more s p e c i f i c  GaolSj_19Jj>6, The  type  Queen's  of  -89classification  takes place.  e a c h new a r r i v a l socialization, accomplished possibly  This  to a s p e c i f i c  involves  work p l a c e m e n t , programme o f  and h o u s i n g u n i t .  I n some s e t t i n g s , t h i s i s  o n t h e b a s i s o f one s h o r t  two members  interview with  o f the u n i t ' s s e n i o r  h a n d , t h e C l a s s i f i c a t i o n and C o u n s e l l i n g Correctional and  the a s s i g n i n g o f  staff.  one, o r  On t h e o t h e r  D i v i s i o n a t t h e Haney  I n s t i t u t i o n performs t h i s . f u n c t i o n i n an i n t e n s i v e  c o m p r e h e n s i v e manner, o v e r  a period  of approximately  two  weeks. Within  the u n i t s o f O a k a l l a  form o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n for  short-term,  merely  of assigning  positions large  older  food  and t h e r e  can perform l i g h t  consists  duties  s e r v e r s , and t r u s t e e s .  to such  Housing  i s I n one  i s no s o c i a l i z a t i o n o r r e c r e a t i o n a l No t r e a t m e n t  staff  are attached  t h i s u n i t , and t h e work a s s i g n m e n t s a r e awarded by t h e S e n i o r  custodial officer followed  ments.  i n charge o f the u n i t .  This  i s the procedure  i n t h e West Wing and H o s p i t a l U n i t , a s w e l l , i n t h e c a s e  of persons  sent  there  The same h o l d s  f r o m C e n t r a l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n f o r work true o f the F o r e s t r y  i z a t i o n programmes a r e i n e v i d e n c e . ilities  are a v a i l a b l e , but t h e i r  assign-  Camp p l a c e m e n t s .  v i d u a l work a s s i g n m e n t s a r e made, b u t no t r e a t m e n t  ized  rudimentary  the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  programme a v a i l a b l e t o t h i s u n i t . to  a more  I n t h e Annex, w h i c h i s t h e u n i t  offenders,  t h e few who  as c l e a n e r s ,  dormitory,  exists.  itself,  staff or  Indisocial-  Some o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c -  use i s on a v o l u n t a r y  and u n o r g a n -  basis. The  East  Wing and W e s t g a t e U n i t s  of Oakalla  P r i s o n Farm  employ a more a d e q u a t e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n p r o c e d u r e , a l t h o u g h i t i s  - 9 0 -  not  by  any  means complex o r  been without tier  and  a  s o c i a l worker  work p l a c e m e n t s a r e  custodial  staff  of  t r e a t m e n t , i t has  therefore As  Gymnasium b u i l d i n g u n d e r  and  i t i s this  and  the  f i c a t i o n at  Wing i n m a t e s t o  the  mate i s p l a c e d  the  interviews  the  and  on  Senior  are  least  found  t o be  that only  satisfy  s o c i a l w o r k e r and  inmate w i t h  socialization  c o n d u c t and. i n d u s t r y . special t o him,  a guide,  amenable social-  carried  on  in  staff, which  educational,  the  addicts,  a modified  interest,  preferences  made, o n  the  the  taking  they  t o Mm  of  the  Westgate U n i t ,  Late  i n the  senior  Using  that  later,  e n r o l l him  i n t o account inmate.  classi-  each i n -  same day,  a  custodial person  the  him  Central  to  on  the  i n the  Finally,  general  vocational basis of  his  educational,  f e e l w i l l be  so f a r as  work,  Classi-  inmate to a  a "shop" o r  groups which they  that  example o f  u n i t - c o n f i g u r a t i o n of  a s s i g n the  considered  of the  basis of  best  i n t e n t i o n of assigning  They a l s o  interest  expressed preferences  the  placements.  p l a c e m e n t w i l l be  beneficial  find  the R e c e p t i o n T i e r .  comments as  hobby and  the  drug  Upon h i s a r r i v a l a t the  group, p o i n t i n g out  training  by  wing h o u s e s the  specific  u n i t l e v e l , w i t h i n the  two-man team o f u n i t  labour  arranged  recreational specialists  W e s t g a t e U n i t , we  Prison.  fication  has  inmate.  I n the  living,  Wing  s u p e r v i s i o n o f Westgate  hobby g r o u p s w h i c h most n e a r l y  Oakalla  East  Most a c t i v i t i e s a r e  g r o u p o f hobby and  the E a s t  individual  is  who  been demonstrated  i z a t i o n programme i s p o s s i b l e .  assigns  this  others  the  The  s i n c e November o f 1 9 5 6 , and a l l  the w i n g .  c o n f i r m e d r e c i d i v i s t s , and to  comprehensive.  possible,  a cell  most the  allocation  t i e r g r o u p i n g w h i c h i s most l i k e l y  to f a c i l i t a t e unit  t h e i n m a t e ' s wholesome,  classification  describing  s e s s i o n ends w i t h  t o t h e new  arrivals,  social  adjustment.  the c u s t o d i a l  The  officer  a s a g r o u p , t h e r u l e s and r e g -  u l a t i o n s o f the u n i t . Within the a  t h e "maximum-resource" i n s t i t u t i o n s ,  Young O f f e n d e r s '  v a r i e d b u t more  viewing.  as  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n programmes  i n t e n s i v e p a t t e r n o f o r i e n t a t i o n and  At t h e Young O f f e n d e r s '  temporarily for  Unit, unit  on a Reception T i e r .  Unit,  i n t o the general  inmate takes p a r t the  e a c h new  H i s stay  s e v e r a l days, o r f o r an i n d e f i n i t e release  u n i t programme  i n a minimum o f t h r e e  gate  training.  The g o a l  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n process,  tier  period, u n t i l  i s placed may  such  be  time  seems i n d i c a t e d .  separate  The  interviews,  and s u p e r v i s o r  i s t h e same as t h a t  with  follow  inter-  arrival  on t h i s  u n i t c a s e w o r k e r , g r o u p work s u p e r v i s o r ,  vocational  such as  with  of  o f t h e West-  the d i f f e r e n c e that  shop p l a c e -  ments a r e a r r a n g e d i m m e d i a t e l y , whenever p o s s i b l e , and t h e i n t e r viewing  and o r i e n t a t i o n d i s c u s s i o n s  Movement after  a r e more  o f the inmate i n t o the g e n e r a l  supplementing  own o b s e r v a t i o n s ,  d e t a i l e d and i n t e n s i v e .  programme  Central C l a s s i f i c a t i o n  i s e f f e c t e d when,  information  with  their  the u n i t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n a r r i v e s a t a t e n t a t i v e  treatment p l a n f o r the i n d i v i d u a l . A f u r t h e r refinement o f the i n s t i t u t i o n a l process  i s observable  a t New  H a v e n , where t h e r a t i o  inmate p o p u l a t i o n  i s most f a v o u r a b l e .  warded  Classification  by C e n t r a l  psychometric Vocational  t e s t i n g may  aptitude  Using  classification of s t a f f to  the i n f o r m a t i o n  for-  as a s t a r t i n g - p o i n t , a d d i t i o n a l  be done a t t h e d i s c r e t i o n o f t h e c a s e  tests are administered  worker.  as w e l l , i n an attempt  -92to  determine  training  more s p e c i f i c a l l y  areas  interests. arrival,  i s most s u i t e d  the  further  immediately him  c a s e w o r k e r may and  may  point  by  f o r each  is  accomplished  as  t h e r e i s no It  vanced  A c o n t a c t w i t h each  and  one,  as  the l a d ' s f a m i l y , or  agencies  i s a l s o made  w i t h the purpose  of assigning  enrollment i n c e r t a i n educational t h e House M a s t e r .  The  latter  Haven, r e g a r d l e s s o f the o t h e r  f o r him.  P l a c e m e n t i n work and  s o o n as p o s s i b l e  reception unit  i s a t t h e new  new  b e c a u s e a c a d e m i c e d u c a t i o n i s com-  l a d a t New  the i n s t i t u t i o n a l and  and  boy  as a r e deemed a d v i s a b l e by  o f programme p l a n n e d  observe  abilities  w r i t e to or v i s i t  t h e House M a s t e r ,  i s an i m p o r t a n t  pulsory  inmate's  contact other i n s t i t u t i o n s  information.  to a dormitory u n i t ,  courses  to the  vocational  I n a d d i t i o n to o r i e n t a t i o n i n t e r v i e w s w i t h each  whenever f e a s i b l e , for  w h i c h o f the f o u r  after  i n the New  the  Haney C o r r e c t i o n a l  areas  arrival,  setting.  I n s t i t u t i o n that  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n process  comprehensive form.  living  inmate's  Haven  areas  i n i t s most  Inmates c l a s s i f i e d  we ad-  f o r Haney  by  C e n t r a l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n a r e h e l d i n O a k a l l a ' s S o u t h Wing,  pending  the weekly date  before  of transfer.  the I n s t i t u t i o n a l following period  a t the  f o r the  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n process. in  inmate does not  C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Committee u n t i l  his arrival  i s allowed  The  institution.  appear the  Thus, a  second F r i d a y  twelve-day  c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e i n t a k e - r e c e p t i o n and During  this  p e r i o d , t h e i n m a t e i s housed,  the R e c e p t i o n U n i t , which c o n s i s t s o f t w e n t y - f i v e s i n g l e  e a c h w i t h i t s own  toilet  construction,  are w e l l - l i g h t e d  unit  but  cheerfully  facilities.  The  and  decorated i n a t t r a c t i v e  cells  fairly pastel  w i t h t h e modern d e s i g n o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n .  are of  cells,  "inside"  wide, w i t h the  entire  c o l o u r s , i n keeping  Attached  i s a shower room  -93-  and is its  small-games a r e a , black-topped  as w e l l  and f e n c e d .  as a n outdoor e x e r c i s e  Haney C o r r e c t i o n a l I n s t i t u t i o n h a s  a r e p h o t o g r a p h e d , f i n g e r p r i n t e d , and i n t e r v i e w e d i n  these f a c i l i t i e s .  The new a r r i v a l s  C l a s s i f i c a t i o n and C o u n s e l l i n g view each inmate.  Using  family  are then turned  a comprehensive  history; relatives  as h i s g u i d e ,  case h i s t o r y .  economic  time a c t i v i t i e s ;  military  references;  of visitors  education  status; physical condition;  service; religion;  business  previous  the counsellor, the  a t h o r o u g h m e d i c a l e x a m i n a t i o n by t h e M e d i c a l  and t h r o u g h o u t  the succeeding  days i s i n t e r v i e w e d Personal  c o n d u c t e d by a member o f t h e a c a d e m i c  staff,  Roman C a t h o l i c P a d r e , a programme o f f i c e r custodial officer,  interviews are  the Protestant or  ( r e c r e a t i o n a l and g r o u p  a n o n - t h e - j o b a s s e s s m e n t may be made o f t h e i n m a t e ' s  the v o c a t i o n a l - e x p l o r a t o r y  shop.  by a  and a v o c a t i o n a l i n s t r u c t o r .  The r e s u l t a n t M e d i c a l ,  cational, Religious, Custodial, Leisure are  and p e r s o n a l  offence.  member o f e a c h programme d e p a r t m e n t .  Also,  leisure  and c o r r e s p o n d e n t s r e q u e s t e d ;  In a d d i t i o n to h i s interview with  work), a senior  attained;  and t h e i n m a t e ' s own v e r s i o n o f t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s  around h i s present  Officer,  are the  a n d r e l a t i o n s h i p t o them, m a r i t a l  employment r e c o r d ;  inmate i s g i v e n  inter-  i n addition  Focal points  mobility of residence;  criminal record;  to the  summary, t h e w o r k e r e n d e a v o u r s t o  status, residence;  list  over  D i v i s i o n , whose c a s e w o r k e r s  a form r e p o r t  the C e n t r a l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n  formulate  in  which  own I d e n t i f i c a t i o n D e p a r t m e n t and R e c o r d s O f f i c e , and a l l  new a r r i v a l s  to  yard  skills Edu-  Time a n d I n d u s t r i a l r e p o r t s  t h e n summarized by t h e C l a s s i f i c a t i o n and C o u n s e l l i n g  staff,  -9^i n what i s c a l l e d  t h e A d m i s s i o n and  a d d i t i o n to the i n d i v i d u a l d i s c u s s i o n s and the inmates the t o t a l  appears  to the o p p o r t u n i t i e s  the  following  the inmate's  C o p i e s o f t h e A d m i s s i o n and  the meeting is  usually ially  s e t f o r one  useful  pending  the f u l l date  The  inmate  i n the v o c a t i o n a l  pressures of daily  intake,  and  situated and  role.  distributed  and  of  level  the G a o l  o f performance Service.  than are  academic  before  b e f o r e he  the to  leaves  programme,  he  This i s  Such a d e v i c e i s espec-  shops.  Free from  very f a v o u r a b l y i n  clerical  staff,  the  the o t h e r u n i t s  and  work  the terms  Institutional  C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Committee a t Haney i s more a b l e t o a p p r o a c h ional  on  are a s s i g n e d to maintence  training  of physical plant, p r o f e s s i o n a l ,  of  i s encouraged  for re-classification.  o r two months h e n c e .  Super-  v o c a t i o n a l or  institutional  i n c a s e s where i n m a t e s  space  and  reached  c a s e work s e r v i c e s r e q u i r e d ,  of the r e s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e ,  informed of a d e f i n i t e  The  the presence  concurrence i s u s u a l l y  the m e e t i n g .  to enter i n t o  he  chairman.  assumes t h e c h a i r m a n s h i p  the recommendations f o r d o r m i t o r y placement, and  as  C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Summary a r e  t h e Committee members, and  make optimum u s e  arrival,  the B u s i n e s s  presiding  i s augmented by  t h e Deputy Warden T r a i n i n g , who  into  extant i n  Camp Programme, E d u c a t i o n a l and  Counselling  When t i m e p e r m i t s , t h i s g r o u p  i s brought  orienting  the C u s t o d i a l D i v i s i o n , w i t h the  o f C l a s s i f i c a t i o n and  training, recreation,  group  C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Committee.  Division, Forestry and  In  institution.  second F r i d a y  "Vocational D i v i s i o n ,  inmate  conduct  f o r self-improvement  i s composed o f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s f r o m  Administrative  to  counsellors  t o u r s o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n as a means o f  b e f o r e the I n s t i t u t i o n a l  committee  visor  interviews,  programme o f t h e On  C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Summary.  a  profess-  institutions  -95Classification It well the a  as a Continuing Process  i s immediately apparent that r e - c l a s s i f i c a t i o n ,  as i n s t i t u t i o n a l  classification,  P r o v i n c i a l Gaol Service.  t r e a t m e n t programme w h i c h  the  c h a n g i n g needs  fication are  t a k e s many f o r m s  i s sufficiently  o f the i n d i v i d u a l ,  flexible  t o meet  c e r t a i n forms o f r e - c l a s s i and i n s t i t u t i o n s ,  a s t h e programmes and f a c i l i t i e s  or i n s t i t u t i o n ,  in  i s handled e n t i r e l y  the  authority  fication  training,  of that unit  or i n s t i t u t i o n .  f r o m one u n i t o r i n s t i t u t i o n  institution, "group"  and "work" r e p o r t s ,  request  re-classification  form.  Labour  report  recommendation training  as t h e r e s u l t  each u n i t  and shop i n s t r u c t o r s industry,  The g r o u p  officer  complete  are considered  i t i s this  suitability  or t i e r  submits a  h i s supervision. a form  report  f o r o t h e r work o r  officer  by t h e u n i t ' s  team w h i c h d e c i d e s w h e t h e r  gramme i s s a t i s f a c t o r y ,  o f monthly  and a b i l i t y , and make a  manner, b u t w i t h t h e f o c u s u p o n t h e i n m a t e ' s  Both reports and  w i t h i n any one u n i t o r  who i s p l a c e d u n d e r  as to the inmate's  placements.  Committee.  a l t h o u g h t h e i n m a t e h i m s e l f may  o n every inmate  gang o f f i c e r s  re-classi-  by means o f t h e a p p r o p r i a t e " r e q u e s t "  on each inmate's a t t i t u d e ,  lar  initiated  Unless otherwise s p e c i f i e d ,  monthly  within  to another i s recognized  the case o f r e - c l a s s i f i c a t i o n action i s usually  f o r example,  However,  as a f u n c t i o n o f the C e n t r a l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n In  which  t h e m s e l v e s . . Re-  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n within a single unit the area of v o c a t i o n a l  within  I n accordance w i t h the concept o f  have d e v e l o p e d w i t h i n t h e u n i t s  as v a r i e d  as  reports social  i na  simi-  adjustment.  t r e a t m e n t - c u s t o d y team, or n o t the inmate's  o r i n what a r e a s i t must be a l t e r e d  pro-  t o meet  the inmate's changing needs„  Under these circumstances, changes  are introduced without reference to or consultation with the Central C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Committee. If i t i s decided  through unit case conference that a  p a r t i c u l a r inmate would benefit from transfer to another unit or i n s t i t u t i o n , a written request for r e - c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s directed to the Central C l a s s i f i c a t i o n personnel.  I t i s i n t h i s manner  that the Narcotic Addiction Treatment Unit receives i t s entire inmate complement.  After consideration of the stated reasons  f o r the r e f e r r a l , study of the Central F i l e and  Classification  Card, and i n some cases, an interview with the inmate, the Central C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Committee makes a recommendation to the Deputy Warden Treatment.  This includes reasons " f o r " or "against" r e -  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , and with s p e c i f i c recommendations for a l t e r n a t i v e placement and  training i f the need appears indicated.  The Deputy  Warden's clearance of these recommendations provides the necessary authority for the C l a s s i f i c a t i o n O f f i c e r to begin implementation of the prescribed treatment plan. The procedures as described above do not apply i n the event of a c r i s i s or "emergency" s i t u a t i o n . For example, the Director of New  Haven may  return an inmate to Oakalla i f he believes  that there i s imminent danger of the lad's escape from that open setting.  Also, inmates suffering severe physical injury or mental  Except i n such units as the East Wing, West Wing, and Annex, which have no s o c i a l work personnel. In these u n i t s , the senior custodial person makes a l l changes which seem indicated i n the inmate's programme.  b r e a k d o w n may  be  t r a n s f e r r e d immediately  without  clearance  Central  C l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s merely  has by  by  the  Deputy Warden.  been enacted, w i t h a b r i e f the  unit  staff.  r e t u r n to the  the  unit  staff  is  seen i n the  as  i t is felt  own  Once the  first  who  that  statement of  crisis  the  Hospital  w i t h the  Central  that  d i s c r e t i o n to  insure  good o r d e r  crisis  situations.  senior protect  staff the  throughout  should  welfare the  be  Classi-  Officer  Considerable  d e f i n i t i o n o f what c o n s t i t u t e s a n  seen  been handled,  Medical  transfer.  transfer  p r o b l e m as  s i t u a t i o n has by  Unit  instances,  such  the  considered  consulting  Initiated  the  In these  notified  former u n i t i s not  f i c a t i o n without  to  and  latitude  emergency s i t u a t i o n ,  capable of using  o f i n d i v i d u a l s , and  i n s t i t u t i o n i n the  their to  emergence  of  Summary. Correctional  C l a s s i f i c a t i o n i n the  P r o v i n c i a l Gaol Service P r i s o n Farm. offenders  This  d e r s who  institution receives  sentenced  y e a r s l e s s one are  day  originates within  to  terms o f  w i t h the  sentenced  felons  also  inmate p o p u l a t i o n  provides  institutions, Unit, are  New  s u c h as  Haven, and  the the  located  Oakalla,  by  In Oakalla*s  those  local  Forestry Haney  f o r the  the  of  a l l adult  short-term  gaols  of  f o r the  Central  S o u t h Wing.  offen-  the I n t e r i o r . custody  Prison  Young  and  Farm  Offenders'  Correctional Institution. well  two  "maximum-resource"  Camps, t h e  as  Oakalla  exceeding  and. m i s d e m e a n a n t s , O a k a l l a  selected f o r these i n s t i t u t i o n s ,  units within is  the  confines  not  a common g a o l  r e h a b i l i t a t i o n of  Columbia  i n t o custody  of  smaller,  I n a d d i t i o n t o i t s f u n c t i o n as  the  imprisonment  exception  to the  British  as  f o r the  Classification  Inmates various  Committee  which  -98-  Regardless five  days,  received  o f w h e t h e r he  or  two  y e a r s l e s s one  into  the  S o u t h Wing a f t e r  Records O f f i c e  and  "Condemned T i e r " ,  Bathroom.  double  It i s entirely  facilities.  For  the p a s t  rooms o n  office  and  under  C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Committee  and  custodial  O f f i c e r who  members a r e a l s o and by  the o t h e r the  two  persons,  i s a social  and  the use  sentences.  reports, a  and  and  Proplace  adequate  five-member  two  treatment  treatment  i n social  work,  i s represented'  o f the wing, both  e x c e e d s two  this  W i t h the  to those  with  cases  months d u r a t i o n ,  i s further  limited  to  those  determinate-indeterminate  somewhat r e s t r i c t e d  i n t a k e p r o v i d e s few aid of test  information obtained  social history  and  Classification  other  Custody  c o u r t s have awarded  Classification.  The  the  t r a i n e d ; one  testing  p o s s i b l e o n l y when t h e d a i l y for  inmate  training  taken  of three  i s generally restricted  D e v i a t i o n from  the  experience.  of psychometric  i n which the  The  psychology.  i n which the inmate's sentence  cases  i s comprised  senior custodial o f f i c e r s  Interviewing  and  a l t h o u g h more  i s headed by  professionally  many y e a r s o f i n s t i t u t i o n a l  and  i n t e r v i e w i n g has  case worker.  in clinical  on  limited  recreational  level,  the  inmates i n s i n g l e  construction.  Central two  through  t h r e e y e a r s , the C l a s s i f i c a t i o n  testing  a r e now  of is  eight cells  an extremely  without  the wing's f i r s t  facilities  arrival  processed  f o r only e i g h t y - f i v e  gramme o f p s y c h o m e t r i c two  e a c h new  being  t h e S o u t h Wing has  space  cells.  day,  E x c l u d i n g the  capacity, with  in  i s s e r v i n g a sentence  through  programme i s  "indeterminates"  results,  pre-sentence  direct interviewing,  diagnosis i s formulated  by  the  Classification  -99Officer.  W i t h i n t h e framework o f t h e  mended by  the  Officer  and  custodial representative,  t h e n recommends a s p e c i f i c  individual,  custodial limits  i n light  the  Classification  treatment  o f the inmate's  i n r e c o g n i t i o n o f the t r e a t m e n t  recom-  programme f o r t h e  needs and  capabilities,  resources available.  Clear-  a n c e must be o b t a i n e d f r o m  t h e Deputy Warden o n  a l l Classification  recommendations p e r t a i n i n g  to inmates  t o t h r e e months o r  more, and W a r r a n t s The  Central  Classification  case, within  twenty-four  After to  Central  are a p p l i e d  f o r wherever  process i s usually  hours  of the inmate's  Classification  has  Classification"  a team o f s o c i a l which c o n s i s t s those  utional  of f i t t i n g  specific  the inmate  and  work and  Counselling  the i n s t i t u t i o n .  a twelve-day  the inmate's  the  changing  or  by  of  re-classification.  within  t h e inmate  stration,  without  function  programme,  t o meet t h e needs o f most c o m p r e h e n s i v e  both Instit-  a t t h e new  Haney  Classification  an i n t a k e - r e c e p t i o n  programme must  a p r o v i s i o n has  Re-classification be h a n d l e d  reference  possible,  this  i n t o the t o t a l  n e e d s , w h e t h e r t h e y be  t h e same u n i t may  Wherever  or  and  and  Classification  period.  treatment  himself,  inmate  a further unit  where a p r o f e s s i o n a l  D i v i s i o n conducts  Because  The  arrival.  perform  programme i s o b s e r v e d  Institution,  programme o v e r  inmate  a r e a s most l i k e l y  Classification  Correctional  each  i n each  a l l o c a t e d the  takes place.  custodial staff  necessary.  completed  a u n i t or i n s t i t u t i o n o f the Gaol S e r v i c e ,  "Institutional  in  of Transfer  sentenced  r e c o g n i z e d by  b e e n made f o r two t o a new  entirely  to C e n t r a l  c o n t i n u e t o meet  by  programme  the u n i t  Classification.  staff types area  adminiHowever,  -100requests must  for re-classification  to another u n i t or  be r e f e r r e d , t o C e n t r a l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n  e x c e p t i n c e r t a i n "emergency" s i t u a t i o n s . t h r o u g h the Headquarters C l a s s i f i c a t i o n with  h i s i n t e r p r e t i v e and a d v i s o r y Generally,  teams o p e r a t i n g provide,  i t i s assumed  a t each l e v e l  social  work t h i n k i n g .  f o r consideration, This  i s usually  Representative,  done  i n keeping  role. t h a t the s o c i a l  work-custody  o f the C l a s s i f i c a t i o n  w i t h i n the a p p r o p r i a t e  p l a n which i n c o r p o r a t e s  institution,  custodial limits,  t h e most r e c e n t  trends  process  will  a treatment  i ncorrectional-  CHAPTER EVALUATIOM_OF THE  PROGRAMMES EXAMINED, IMPLICATIONS FOR AND  It  IV  i s noted  case  system d e s c r i b e d i n Chapter I I , the  of each  legal  classification  framework w i t h i n w h i c h  the  programmes f u n c t i o n makes e i t h e r  extensive  the  indeterminate  upon p a r o l e  is  sentence.  based upon a c a r e f u l  return  to the  community  assessment o f the  is  the  of p a r t i c u l a r  the  release  to b e g i n from  most c a s e s  facilitate  prospective parolee him  to the  term o f i n c a r c e r a t i o n .  e x p l a i n t h e p u r p o s e and  u p o n r e l e a s e , by  than  directly  classification  t h e moment t h e  general  the  the  to the  the  centres  inmate  These i n s t i t u t i o n a l  parole  officer  c o u r t s are treatment  and  who  socially his re-  courts. allow  commences  parole  officers  between  will  to  length  c o n d i t i o n s o f p a r o l e , and  e a r l y assignment of case  Commitments by rather  The  i n determining  a good w o r k i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p  and  dis-  inmate's r e a d i n e s s  some minimum t e r m p r e s c r i b e d by  attached  his  of  i s at the  i n m a t e v o c a t i o n a l l y and  significance  Parole personnel planning  t o t a l use  as a r e s p o n s i b l e c i t i z e n .  time r e q u i r e d t o r e - t r a i n  l e a s e , rather than  Release  or  composed o f p r o f e s s i o n a l p e r s o n s  of  factor  FUTURE  RECOMMENDATIONS  t h a t i n the  c r e t i o n of a p a r o l e board  THE  in the  supervise  loads.  to c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  institutions.  centres,  I n the  light  -102of  the comprehensive  in  this  study, i t i s hardly  advantages of  the  n a t u r e o f t h e c e n t r e programmes  of this  n e c e s s a r y to e l a b o r a t e upon the  type of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n ,  as o p p o s e d  sentencing courts i n other c o r r e c t i o n a l  particular ization,  described  to  systems.  s i g n i f i c a n c e , however, i s t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  which  the American  i s similar  i n the B r i t i s h  programmes s t u d i e d .  that  "Borstal"  Of organ-  system  I n each case, the  admini-  s t r a t i v e head, o f t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n c e n t r e i s r e s p o n s i b l e ectly  to a c e n t r a l  pertaining  official  may  situated.  be  c e n t r e may  than to the  o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n o n whose p r o p e r t y t h e c e n t r e I n t h i s way,  the d i r e c t o r  assume a more o b j e c t i v e  c a t i o n o f inmates total  dir-  or d e p a r t m e n t a l h e a d q u a r t e r s on a l l m a t t e r s  to c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of inmates, r a t h e r  senior  and  correctional  and may  attitude  i n r e l a t i o n to t h e i r  classification  towards  the  allo-  o p e r a t e i n the b e s t i n t e r e s t s o f  programme w i t h o u t l o c a l  ferences of p a r t i a l i t y .  o f the  These  factors  interference  cannot  e f f e c t upon the e s p r i t  f i c a t i o n personnel i n their  team a p p r o a c h  de  be  the  or i n -  over-emphasized  corps of  classi-  t o d i a g n o s i s and  treat-  ment p l a n n i n g . Because o f the extremely performs, the d i r e c t o r of  important f u n c t i o n which  of each c e n t r e s t u d i e d  carries  the  he  rank  associate  (or deputy)  warden.  T h i s not o n l y p r o v i d e s f o r ad-  ministrative  expediency,  but a l s o  g i v e s s t a t u s and  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n p r o c e s s , and that  a l l staff,  h i s w e l f a r e and  impresses  administrative  and  each inmate  custodial,  are anxious to a s s i s t  dignity w i t h the  to  the  idea  are concerned  i n his rehabilitation.  with  -103-  A number o f o t h e r among t h e f o u r  contemporary  W i t h i n each c o r r e c t i o n a l institutions aimed  and h o n o u r  at a s p e c i a l i z e d  group of inmates.  similarities  are a l s o  programmes d e s c r i b e d  system t h e r e  exists  t o be n o t e d i n Chapter I I .  a wide  variety  camps, e a c h w i t h a w e l l - d e f i n e d approach to the treatment o f a  Manuals  of c o r r e c t i o n a l  of  programme  particular  s t a n d a r d s , manuals o f  procedures f o r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n ,  adequate  supervision insure  f o c u s and a minimum o f u n n e c c e s s a r y  a continued  staff  training,  and  good  d u p l i c a t i o n o f programmes. C l a s s i f i c a t i o n a t the i n s t i t u t i o n a l r e - c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f each inmate p r e c l u d e i n m a t e becoming . . f o r g o t t e n .  provide  the p o s s i b i l i t y  of  built  to hold  any in  several  thousand centres  every inmate w i t h an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the purposes o f the o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r t r a i n i n g  w h i c h he w i l l  be a l l o c a t e d ,  c o n d u c t , i n d u s t r y , and  goes  periodic  Good o r i e n t a t i o n programmes i n t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  fication,  to  and  This i s important, p a r t i c u l a r l y  American p r i s o n s which are g e n e r a l l y inmates.  level  constructively  for  the inmate's f a m i l y  its  s u p p o r t i n e v e r y way  this,  California  by p r o v i d i n g  possible  i n order  and r e d u c e t h e h a r d s h i p s u p o n f a m i l y system has  gramme aimed  a t measuring  at l e a s t  programme  similar Information  to encourage  members.  now  And,  enlist  the  inmate  finally,  each  the beginning o f a r e s e a r c h p r o -  the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f the treatment p r o -  grammes and. t h e c o m p r e h e n s i v e n e s s classification  The  i n t h e community, and a t t e m p t s t o  correctional  to  and what i s e x p e c t e d o f h i m w i t h r e g a r d  so f o r t h .  beyond  at the i n s t i t u t i o n  classi-  and  a c c u r a c y o f t h e work o f t h e  centres.  As m e n t i o n e d minor weaknesses,  gaps  above,  none o f t h e s e programmes i s w i t h o u t  i n s e r v i c e s , and  so f o r t h .  I n some  cases,  improvements judicial  i n s e r v i c e s would  system, a g r e a t e r  more s t a f f ,  In  because  f o r m k-year utional  resources,  I n o t h e r c i r c u m s t a n c e s , changes system  adequate  system o f G r e a t B r i t a i n ,  s c o p e and. f l e x i b i l i t y  period of t r a i n i n g generally  amounts t o two  trainees.  y e a r s , and The  s e t by law r a t h e r  i n d i v i d u a l requirements o f the inmate.  argued that sentencing  t h e r e a r e , as w e l l , i n that  t h e t i m e l i m i t s may  and r e d u c e t h e i n m a t e h o s t i l i t y sentencing  w i t h i n t h e New  tencing  courts  institutions,  may  3-year  prove i n -  of  post-release  than being adapted to However, i t may  be  to t h i s uniformity i n  systems.  a r e i n o r d e r i n r e v i e w i n g the programme  allocate  of Correction.  inmates d i r e c t l y  The most that  to the  the  Elmira Reformatory.  must be p l a c e d  These  ob-  sen-  department  e x c e p t i n the case o f t h o s e inmates between the  16 and 21 y e a r s who  a splendid  period  i s , o f c o u r s e , based, u p o n t h e f a c t still  instit-  c a u s e d by t h e i n e q u a l i t i e s i n  York S t a t e Department  criticism  The  uni-  h e l p t o f o c u s programmes  experienced i n other j u d i c i a l More c r i t i c i s m s  vious  advantages  American  w i t h i n the  b e t w e e n t h e 9-month minimum and  the inmate's needs.  supervision i s similarly  classification  t h a n i n some o f t h e  o f t h e minimum and maximum l i m i t s  i n meeting  efficient  resources.  s e n t e n c e awarded a l l B o r s t a l  maximum l i m i t s  of  of treatment  i n the  framework o f t h e c o r r e c t i o n a l  the B o r s t a l  afforded less  systems  the  upon changes  r e q u i r e d , b o t h i n terms o f t r e a t m e n t f o c u s and more  u t i l i z a t i o n of existing  is  variety  and o t h e r f a c t o r s .  from w i t h i n the e x i s t i n g are  depend  ages  i n the R e c e p t i o n Centre at  y o u t h f u l inmates enjoy the b e n e f i t s  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n programme w h i c h w o u l d  have t o be  of  extended  -105to  a l l inmates  before of  coming w i t h i n t h e D e p a r t m e n t ' s  i t s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n programme  the S t a t e o f C a l i f o r n i a ,  The  Reception Centre  Reformatory  and  and  of incomplete  p o p u l a t i o n and supplying  so f o r t h . inmate  of v i t a l  s e p a r a t i o n from  disadvantages  the main  h o u s e d i n wings o f l a r g e r  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n f o r the  i s e x p e r i e n c e d by  institutions  and must  of the main i n s t i t u t i o n s .  for vocational  testing.  some o f t h e i r  Both  s h a r e many o f  Lacking are centres are  professional  the  centres. one  may  correctional p l e t e d , and  assume t h a t  the. t o t a l  suffer  efforts  or The  edly  as i n  inevitable  as a c o n s e q u e n c e .  1953»  has  not  a r e b e i n g made t o i m p r o v e  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n programme i n t h o s e a r e a s i n w h i c h incomplete  as w e l l  How-  reorganization of Pennsylvania's  programme, w h i c h b e g a n i n that  further  type or arrangement i t i s almost  programme o r t h e o t h e r w i l l  e v e r , one  adequate  staff responsible  a r e a s o f programme w i t h i n t h e m a i n i n s t i t u t i o n s Under t h i s  the E a s t e r n  Both of these centres are  for  that  prison  C l a s s i f i c a t i o n C e n t r e s w i t h i n Penn-  s y l v a n i a ' s Bureau of C o r r e c t i o n .  hampered by h a v i n g  such as m e s s h a l l s ,  T h e s e a r e two  same p r o b l e m  and W e s t e r n D i a g n o s t i c and  facilities  to the E l m i r a  services.  Much o f t h e  the f a c i l i t i e s  connected  dependence upon a n o t h e r  that  comprehensiveness.  s h a r e s many o f i t s f a c i l i t i e s  kitchen, hospital, because  c o u l d be r a t e d w i t h  i n terms o f  i s physically  jurisdiction  y e t b e e n com-  and  expand  s e r v i c e s are  the still  inadequate. State of C a l i f o r n i a  Department o f C o r r e c t i o n s undoubt-  p r o v i d e s the most c o m p r e h e n s i v e  examined, whether  j u d g e d by  c o r r e c t i o n a l programme o f  i t s diversity  o f r e s o u r c e s and  those  programmes,  -106its  successful  i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f A d u l t and Y o u t h A u t h o r i t y  programmes, o r g e n e r a l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e practice and  structure.  California  a l s o makes w i d e s t u s e o f t h e i n d e t e r m i n a t e  p r o v i d e s f o r the d i a g n o s t i c  study  sentence  and a l l o c a t i o n  o f each  inmate  p l a c e d i n t h e c u s t o d y o f t h e Department o f C o r r e c t i o n s .  Proper  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f the i n d e t e r m i n a t e sentence  comprehensive and  study, treatment  i t might  wealth  be assumed t h a t  to s u s t a i n  positive  in  s u c h a programme.  o f i t s many  has f a i l e d to p r o v i d e the  c e n t r e ' s recommendations f o r treatment  will  be c a r r i e d  case.  training  inmates  Although  t h e same c r i t i c i s m c a n n o t  fication  f o r i t slarge population.  l o i t e r i n g o r wandering  committee p l a c e new  placements.  systems s t u d i e d ,  t h i s may  the primary  must be made i n r e l a t i o n personnel. them.  Excellent On December  be l e v e l l e d a t  The w r i t e r  saw h u n d r e d s o f  and w i t n e s s e d a n i n s t i t u t i o n a l on w a i t i n g l i s t s were a l s o  be e q u a l l y  totally  applicable  normal classi-  f o r work inadequate.  to the other  c r i t i c i s m o f the C a l i f o r n i a  though 31st,  the s t a f f might  programme  1957  b e , t h e r e a r e n o t enough  > San Quentin's  of staff  to inmates  inmate  population  of approximately  T r u s t e e s y s t e m s were i n o p e r a t i o n e v e r y w h e r e ,  were p e r f o r m i n g  employment  w i t h i n the w a l l s on a  arrivals  out  t o t h a t most p r e c i o u s o f a l l r e s o u r c e s , -  numbered ^•j'+OO, w i t h a r a t i o t o 10.  about  Recreational f a c i l i t i e s  Although  classific-  San Q u e n t i n p r o v i d e s inadequate  work day i n December, 1957,  1  Yet, i n spite  that  t h e newer i n s t i t u t i o n s ,  of  inmate,  h a s t h e p o p u l a t i o n and  programme  and s t a f f n e c e s s a r y  f o r each  to insure  each  and  California  a s p e c t s , the C a l i f o r n i a  the f a c i l i t i e s ation  and. a f t e r - c a r e  demands  and  inmates  f u n c t i o n s w h i c h h a v e f o r many y e a r s b e e n r e c o g n i z e d  -107as  staff  quate by  functions i n B r i t i s h  staffing  the w r i t e r ,  stitutions Deuel  was  visited.  and  arrivals.  whether  the  the p a s t .  and  elsewhere.  Quentih,  degree,  T r a c y , inmates  b u t was  Centre  were  noted  at  the  issuing  i n photographing,  finger-  r e c o r d i n g standard r e c e p t i o n i n f o r m a t i o n from Under  s u c h c i r c u m s t a n c e s , one  "convict-run" institution seem t h a t  might  ion  to improving  are  still  facilities  tripling  the numbers o f  i n t h o s e few  i n a d e q u a t e , a r e the  s t e p s most needed  otherwise e x c e l l e n t  i n a p o s i t i o n t o make r e a l l y  full  i n additthey  to p e r f e c t  Once t h i s has  correctional  use  of  staff  i n s t a n c e s where  c o r r e c t i o n a l programme i n C a l i f o r n i a . this  question  i s , indeed, a thing  i n Department o f C o r r e c t i o n i n s t i t u t i o n s ,  accomplished,  Inade-  i n each o f the i n -  I n the Reception-Guidance  and were a s s i s t i n g  I t would  operative  be  to a l e s s e r  Vocational Institution,  printing,  total  c o n f i n e d t o San  perhaps  prison clothing,  new  not  Columbia  system  the been will  of i t s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  centres. C l a s s i f i c a t i o n P r a c t i c e i n the B r i t i s h Gaol Service. " - - If Columbia  one  Columbia -  i s t o compare c l a s s i f i c a t i o n w i t h i n t h e  Provincial  Gaol S e r v i c e with that  f o u r programmes d e s c r i b e d , i t must f i r s t fundamental  differences  e a c h programme o p e r a t e s . l a t i o n nor  the w e a l t h  comprehensiveness  exist  British  to support  serving  found  be  i n the t o t a l Columbia  i n the o t h e r  acknowledged  that  situation within has  t o t h e s e o t h e r programmes.  relatively  British  neither  the  which popu-  a programme c o m p a r a b l e i n i t s  P r o v i n c i a l Gaol S e r v i c e i s dealing most p a r t ,  Provincial  Furthermore, i t s  w i t h o f f e n d e r s who  short, determinate  a r e , f o r the  s e n t e n c e s , and  who  -108-  therefore  present less  o p p o r t u n i t y f o r treatment  w h i c h must, i n many c a s e s , be At  the  long-term  and,  i n order  training  t o be  same t i m e , t h e p e o p l e o f B r i t i s h  effective.  Columbia  justify  the c o n t i n u e d e x p e n d i t u r e o f hundreds o f thousands  dollars  on f a c i l i t i e s  f o c u s i n programming of  inmates.  Only  t h e o f f e n d e r , and ineffectual. umbia may  (1)  to d u p l i c a t e system,  t o be  short-term  classification be made t o f i t  t o be  largely  Gaol Service i n B r i t i s h exactly  Col-  a l l the a s p e c t s of a the l o c a l  those fundamental  service  policies  common t o a l l s u c c e s s f u l  and .  classi-  programmes.  i s immediately  apparent  for Central Classification  h o u s e men the  a w a i t i n g e x e c u t i o n and  same wing w o u l d be  that  testing  tional  and  and  lacking  other f a c i l i t i e s  o b s e r v a t i o n o f new  Institution  has  classification  incongruous  system. i n those  inmates.  w h i c h w o u l d have b e e n b e t t e r  fication.  Essential  they  in  Furthermore, vocational,  The  new  Haney C o r r e c -  been p r o v i d e d w i t h c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  though  To  r e c o g n i z e d as e s s e n t i a l f o r  facilities  classification,  facilities  inadequate.  others awaiting  considered at least  O a k a l l a ' s S o u t h Wing i s t o t a l l y recreational,  the p r e s e n t  are extremely  e v e n t h e most u n e n l i g h t e n e d c o r r e c t i o n a l  al  of  Facilities  used  the  prove  i t w o u l d seem t h a t  to g r e a t advantage  which appear  It  in  upon the d i a g n o s t i c  the P r o v i n c i a l  model c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  fication  i s based  i f i t does n o t , i t w i l l  be u n a b l e  procedures  programmes u n l e s s e v e n o u r  i n t h i s manner c a n t h e t r e a t m e n t  While  could u t i l i z e  and  cannot  allocated  staff  to C e n t r a l  are f o r the purposes  t h e Haney c l a s s i f i c a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s  of  and Classi-  institution-  benefit  only  -109a  small  f r a c t i o n of  the  total  inmate p o p u l a t i o n of  Columbia's p r o v i n c i a l g a o l s . not  a man  will  be  The  a l l o c a t e d to the  d e c i s i o n as  British  to whether  or  Haney I n s t i t u t i o n i s b a s e d  upon the  f i n d i n g s o f a C e n t r a l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n programme f a r  inferior  t o t h a t w h i c h he  level  when he  enters  Ideally, g r o u n d s f o r the Classification. contained  staff  unit  facilities  an  should  essentially  but  recognized  as  the  restated here).  custodial  institution.  It other  classification,  I f , however, i t i s f e l t  that  i m p r a c t i c a l , i n view o f  the  s o - c a l l e d F a u t e u x report,"^" i t i s p r o b a b l e  Classification will,  allocated  self-  Southern  e s s e n t i a l t o good  implications  other  Unit)  Central  v o c a t i o n a l t e s t i n g , r e c r e a t i o n a l and  s u c h a u n i t w o u l d be  Offenders'  Oakalla  autonomous,  h o s p i t a l o f the parent  c o n s t r u c t i o n of  l o c a t i o n unless  on  would b e n e f i t from the  be  Central  erected  C e n t r a l R e c o r d s and  ( w h i c h need n o t  of  be  t o C a l i f o r n i a ' s N o r t h e r n and  Centres,  s t o r e s , and  institutional  programme.  T h i s would be  equipped with  and  Haney  a separate  unit similar  provisions,  encounter a t the  purpose of housing  Reception-Guidance  w o u l d be  the  will  of n e c e s s i t y , remain i n i t s present  existing  c o u l d be  that  facilities  (such  as  the  Young  appropriated.  As  for resource  institutions  by  Central Classification,  t o w h i c h i n m a t e s may  there  i s evidence  of a  be pressing  Recommendation no.315 page 8 9 , o f t h i s r e p o r t , p r o p e r l y e n t i t l e d R e p o r t o f a Committee t o Inquire., I n t o t h e P r i n c i p l e s and P r o c e d u r e s F o l l o w e d i n " t h e R e m i s s i o n S e r v i c e ~ o f " t h e , Department o f Justice_of_Canada_ "(The Queen's P r i n t e r " O t t a w a " 19 56) " a d ~ i s e d ~ t h a t o f f e n d e r s s e n t e n c e d t o t e r m s o f more t h a n 6 months s h o u l d be placed i n federal institutions. P r e l i m i n a r y d i s c u s s i o n s between the p r o v i n c i a l A t t o r n e y s - G e n e r a l i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e y f a v o u r the one year s e n t e n c e as t h e d i v i d i n g l i n e b e t w e e n p r o v i n c i a l and f e d e r a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , i n p l a c e o f the p r e s e n t 2 y e a r s e n t e n c e o r t h e r e c o m mended 6 month s e n t e n c e . 1  t  -110-  ne ed  f o r c o n s t r u c t i o n of a p s y c h i a t r i c u n i t at Oakalla  Farm.  None o f t h e  focused  o r -well s t a f f e d  turbed  existing be  who  are  to d e a l  programmes.  misconstrued  identify  not  Oakalla's as  i t as  institutions  is  constructively with  consequently  s e n c e o f programme o r plant  u n i t s or  i n m a t e s whose needs a r e  a p p r o a c h and  not  existing  met  by  a mass  Prison  sufficiently those  dis-  socialization  highly disruptive i n  the  "Elementary T r a i n i n g U n i t "  a p s y c h i a t r i c u n i t , i n that trained personnel,  and  should  i t s total  i t s general  a punishment u n i t o r , a t l e a s t ,  a  ab-  physical  semi-  isolation unit. Finally, a t Kamloops and are  not,  and  a r e u s e d by  i t becomes a p p a r e n t  P r i n c e George a r e  at p r e s e n t , the  not  i n v o l v e d i n the courts of  the  that  the  being  fully  and  covered,  alcoholics.  i s sent  Interior  as  of offenders l e m s , and  s u c h as  others.  i n m a t e s who  drug  ( 2 ) P o l i c y and  serves  only  fication Officer the  They process, for  petty  recidi-  the  province,  presenting  be  groups  emotional  s e l e c t e d s t a f f , much c o u l d  s u c c e s s f u l programmes i n t h e s e  special  the  would  specific  dis-  probbe  done  units,  problems i n t r e a t m e n t .  Procedures  At p r e s e n t , ative  of  a d d i c t s , those  With c a r e f u l l y  present  chronic  i n t e n s i v e treatment of  to develop h i g h l y focused, for  common g a o l s  T h e s e s m a l l u n i t s , away f r o m  Lower M a i n l a n d a r e a  s u i t a b l e f o r the  utilized.  s o - c a l l e d " p r o b l e m i n m a t e " , when  to O a k a l l a .  highly urbanized ideally  The  gaols  Central C l a s s i f i c a t i o n  confinement of a heterogeneous p o p u l a t i o n of vists,  Interior  the H e a d q u a r t e r s ' C l a s s i f i c a t i o n  i n an a d v i s o r y  and  consultative role.  RepresentThe  Classi-  f o r C e n t r a l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s r e s p o n s i b l e , not  Headquarters' p e r s o n but  to the  Oakalla  administration.  to  Thus  -111-  the  Central  C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Committee i s a l s o  f i c a t i o n Committee  and  of  Correction's  the  and  Director  of  does n o t  Classification  and  whole  the  are  and be  Office.  the  Oakalla  placed  i n an It  to  the  is clearly  evident  that  the  Whether o r  Oakalla  responsible  Central  to  the  Representative.  In this  connection,  the  not  take part  the  inmates c l a s s i f i e d . this,  and  The  on  the  the  the  may  Classification Officer  would  be  Headquarters function  as  the  to d i r e c t a l l o c a t i o n of  its  optimum e f f e c t i v e n e s s .  his  classification  the  The  status  does  does not  providing  Deputy Warden, as  T h i s w o u l d be  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n process  by  recog-  Deputy  p o l i c y would, be  facilitated  rank of  on a l l  with d i r e c t admini-  "clearance"  supervision,  must  programme  Deputy Wardens must be  recommended  c o r r e c t i o n a l systems. with regard  question,  inmates.  a c t u a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n p r o c e s s and  f i c a t i o n O f f i c e r w i t h the  ient  Oakalla  i n e f f e c t u a l form of i n the  not  w i t h s u p e r v i s i o n from the  p r e s e n t l y , p e r f o r m e d by  other  over  of  Headquarters' o f f i c e  and  authority  to  decisions  Classification  g r o u n d s , the  strative  superior  capacity,  invidious position.  directly  an  dual  C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Committee  to inmate c l a s s i f i c a t i o n ,  as  direct authority  open to  "haggling"  matters pertaining  nized  Classi-  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n a r i s e between H e a d q u a r t e r s  administration,  operates from w i t h i n be  the  i n e v i t a b l y considered  become a H e a d q u a r t e r s ' f u n c t i o n .  should  In this  authority,  system i s conducive  Should disagreements on  Oakalla  f u n c t i o n w i t h the  without d i r e c t administrative  Central  the  vastly the  i s the  Classipolicy  administratively  i n m a t e s , and and  would  seriously i f i t consists of  expected  a hasty  to  in  expedconfer  dignity required  i n m a t e c a n n o t be  see  for take  process  con-  -112-  ducted As  by  staff  o f low  r a n k and  t h e D i r e c t o r o f Camps h o l d s  Classification Officer in  should  the  entire  provincial  at l e a s t  the B r i t i s h of  to  be  measured  w o u l d be  programme i s by  scientifically.  statement  and  Of  There  throughout  existing,  on a l l m a t t e r s  should the  a l s o be  for  use  and  i n m a t e s would be  for  d i s t r i b u t i o n to inmates p r i o r  the  in  order  c a t i o n Committee. factor.  I f the  into  the q u a l i t y  by  im-  training  is  classification  for  Classification,  terms a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n realistic  inadequate  service.  of  criteria  criteria,  p e r t a i n i n g to the  to t h e i r t o be  and  classification  treatment  A f u r t h e r a i d to  allocation,  incomplete  facilities  of  and  altered  file staff  be  given  t h e S o u t h Wing would, be  Senior  the  hasty. Classific-  considerably  the  Classifi-  to the  r e c i d i v i s t s were a l l o c a t e d  an e x p e r i e n c e d  as  for Central  t h e work done by  C o n s i d e r a t i o n must f i r s t  short-term  the Records O f f i c e take  and  b e n e f i t to  c u r r e n t programme would, have t o be  to improve  i n i t s absence  p r o v i s i o n of p r i n t e d o r i e n t a t i o n m a t e r i a l  v e r b a l o r i e n t a t i o n s tend  the  Unfortunately  adopted a standard  provincial  I n view o f the p r e s e n t ation,  direct  devel-  a programme i s  programmes, w e l l - d e f i n e d , and  of p o l i c y  inmates.  present  such  classification  comprehensive  s e l e c t i o n i n p l a c e o f the  of  c o u l d be  no means a l o n e  Nevertheless,  e f f e c t i v e n e s s of  i n c o n c i s e and  institutions  status  greater i n f l u e n c e upon  the d e v e l o p m e n t o f a M a n u a l o f P r o c e d u r e s  including  for  equal  Central C l a s s i f i c a t i o n process.  Columbia  i f the  and  granted  administrative techniques  a r e s e a r c h programme.  perative  he  the  programme.  Numerous o t h e r o p e d t o enhance t h e  administrative authority.  r a n k o f D e p u t y Warden,  view o f h i s wider r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s  the  a  without  time  directly  from  Custodial Officer, i n -  g r e a t l y reduced.  Until  there i s a  -113programme d e v e l o p e d elsewhere, housing  t o meet t h e i r these  needs, e i t h e r i n O a k a l l a  "short-termers"  overnight  Wing  c o n s t i t u t e s a c o m p l e t e waste o f a l r e a d y  ies,  and  for  i m p l i e s an  them, does n o t  would  allow  i n v o l v e m e n t i n the exist.  one  facilit-  week, and  which,  S o u t h Wing tested  perhaps  and  longer  some. A l t h o u g h the  m u n a l d i n i n g and easily other  units.  pursuits.  vocational c o u l d be  facility  afternoons  testing,  testing  easily  distributed  the  could  u n i t or  observing  e x c e l l e n t f o r the  The  parole  time, the  constructed  orities  The  copies  to the  enhance the  just  i n the  handwritten  the Master  beyond the  case of  new and  then to  the  indeterminate  Probation Branch.  classification  At  summary  i n most i n s t a n c e s , the  receiv-  the m i n i m a l , u n v e r i f i e d  Index Card,  ( d e s c r i b e d i n Chapter  recommended change w o u l d a l s o b r i n g t h e p i c t u r e a t a much e a r l i e r  e f f e c t i v e n e s s of that  and  shop w h i c h  central files,  Provincial  i n s t i t u t i o n receives only  i n t o the  semi-active  i m p r o v e d programme c o u l d  be made a v a i l a b l e , and  by  purposes  more c o m p r e h e n s i v e o b s e r v a t i o n s  b o a r d and  brief,  by  i n m a t e s i n s m a l l work g r o u p s ,  inexpensively  i n typewritten  information provided III.)  could  t h e n be u s e d f o r i n t e r v i e w i n g ,  emerging from t h i s  t o the  cannot r e a d i l y ing  w o u l d be  o r i n s t i t u t i o n o f a l l o c a t i o n and,  present  gymnasium  i n a small v o c a t i o n a l exploratory  and  recommendations  sentences,  Oakalla  i n m a t e s i n a wide v a r i e t y o f a c t i v e and  classification offices.  unit  the  com-  i n the m o r n i n g s , when i t r e m a i n s u n u s e d  This  The  psychometric  wing's p h y s i c a l s t r u c t u r e p r e c l u d e s  group a c t i v i t i e s ,  be u t i l i z e d  of observing  be  i n t o the  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n t o he  observed f o r a p e r i o d of at l e a s t for  inadequate  South  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n process  A reduced intake  inmates undergoing  i n the  or  service.  d a t e and  paroling would,  auth-  thereby  (3)  Personnel If  additional  t h e s e above c h a n g e s c o u l d r e a d i l y be  s t a f f would  be  staff  complement.  could  a d e q u a t e l y h a n d l e the  two  One  required  qualified  i n order  the  summaries and  committee was  required  associated  first  created  E v e n a marked d e c r e a s e i n i n t a k e ant  pressures,  because  the  and  of p r a c t i c e i s , of present  verifying  necessity,  not  (Chapter  completely  III.) result-  involved  in  a d d i t i o n of  contacts  information.  of  The  the  g r e a t l y , both i n  community  typing  increased  alleviate  The  or  duties.  s t a f f w o u l d be  o r more s o c i a l w o r k e r s w o u l d a s s i s t  pose o f o b t a i n i n g  has  195*+.  in  each case.  i n making agency and  basic  one  f o r the  clerical  w o u l d not  present  a more t h o r o u g h a s s e s s m e n t o f  i n m a t e s and  a  v o c a t i o n a l t e s t i n g , while  number o f C e n t r a l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n p e r s o n n e l since  to provide  industrial arts instructor  f u l l - t i m e s t e n o g r a p h e r s w o u l d be  classification  implemented,  one  interviewing f o r the  This l a t t e r  disregarded  at  pur-  area  the  time. _2iiM3LiO_2X_B_?JSo^_i_>^ati2I^  (a) P l a n t  and F a c i l i t i e s , .  1.  A separate  j  institution  C e n t r a l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n and those resources 2. i s not  or  the  practical  enders' Unit, by the  the  construction of  the  constructed  as  providing  the  a vocational exploratory  include  new the  should  hut,  housing  desirable.  Fauteux Report,  s u c h as  S o u t h Wing r e s o u r c e s  Classification Offices.  should  a totally  existing f a c i l i t i e s  present  for  e s s e n t i a l and/or  i m p l i c a t i o n s of  to c o n s i d e r  appropriation of  be  C e n t r a l R e c o r d s , and  previously described  I f , i n view of  it  should  be  facility Young  Off-  augmented  s i t u a t e d beyond  -1153. as fic  Kamloops and P r i n c e G e o r g e g a o l s  special types  h.  ized,  of offender.  be c o n s t r u c t e d therapeutic  disrupt  be d e v e l o p e d  f o r i n t e n s i v e treatment of s p e c i -  A p s y c h i a t r i c unit with  should  (b)  treatment resources  should  on O a k a l l a  programme  t h e programme  a capacity f o r  25-50 i n m a t e s  grounds t o p r o v i d e  a  special-  f o r d i s t u r b e d i n m a t e s who  i n other  tend t o  units.  Policv,_and_Prpgramme On t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t w i t h i n t h e f o r e s e e a b l e  Central  Classification will  S o u t h Wing, a number 5.  continue  of other  recommendations  The C l a s s i f i c a t i o n O f f i c e r  should  hold  to operate  Oakalla's  follow.  for Central  Classification  t h e r a n k o f Deputy Warden, and o n m a t t e r s p e r t a i n i n g  to  inmate c l a s s i f i c a t i o n ,  of  the D i r e c t o r o f C o r r e c t i o n .  should  be r e s p o n s i b l e o n l y On o t h e r  m a i n t e n a n c e o f t h e Wing, e t c . , he w o u l d to  from  future  matters continue  to the o f f i c e  such as  custody,  t o be r e s p o n s i b l e  t h e Warden o f O a k a l l a P r i s o n F a r m .  6.  Short-term  the Records O f f i c e , reduce intake  recidivists by a S e n i o r  7.  Custodial Officer.  observing  and c l a s s i f y i n g  This  each  from  would up  inmate  3 months o r more, The O a k a l l a  gymnasium  should  o b s e r v e new i n m a t e s i n g r o u p a c t i v i t i e s particularly tunity  be a l l o c a t e d d i r e c t l y  i n t o t h e S o u t h Wing t o a r a t e w h i c h w o u l d a l l o w  t o one week f o r t e s t i n g , serving  should  important  f o r communal  be u t i l i z e d  i n order  and r e c r e a t i o n .  b e c a u s e t h e S o u t h Wing p r o v i d e s  d i n i n g or group  inter-action.  to  This Is  no o p p o r -  -116-  8.  There  Classification  should  be  including  developed  well-defined criteria  a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of i n s t i t u t i o n s policy  pertaining  A standard  developed  f o r use  10.  Typed c l a s s i f i c a t i o n the  treatment  classified,  11.  and  treatment  throughout  institutions  to the  P a r o l e Board  and  file  the  on  entire  or u n i t s  the P r o v i n c i a l  and,  provincial s h o u l d be  selection, written  should gaol  be  service.  distributed  to which each inmate i s where a p p l i c a b l e ,  Probation  to  the  developed  for  Branch.  W r i t t e n o r i e n t a t i o n m a t e r i a l should  d i s t r i b u t i o n to inmates awaiting  for  classification.  each inmate  summaries  central f i l e s  for  programmes, and  to a l l a s p e c t s o f inmate  9.  to  a Manual o f P r o c e d u r e s  be  a l l o c a t i o n from  Central Classi-  fication. 12. of  A r e s e a r c h programme s h o u l d be initiating  new  programming  e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f the (c)  existing  developed  as r e q u i r e d , and  purpose  f o r measuring  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and  training  the  programme  Personnel  13.  At l e a s t  to type  one  classification  ih.  One  full-time  stenographer  summaries and  perform  s h o u l d be related  o r more s o c i a l w o r k e r s s h o u l d be  added  complement o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n p e r s o n n e l , i n o r d e r investigations  f o r the  a t i o n p r o v i d e d by 15. to  f o r the  the  A qualified  p u r p o s e o f o b t a i n i n g and i n m a t e , h i s f a m i l y , and industrial  arts  t h e C e n t r a l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Committee  vocational  testing.  i n order  clerical to the  verifying  dutie  present  to conduct  other  instructor  employed  field  inform-  sources.  should  be  added  to c a r r y out  -117APPENDIX  A. BIBLIOGRAPHY  T e x t s and  Ashe,  Articles  Stanley  " C l a s s i f i c a t i o n i n R e l a t i o n t o C u s t o d y and C o n t r o l " , P r o c e e d i n g s o f ' the_American P r i s o n C o n g r e s j , I93BT" ~  P.,  Barnes, Harry E., Teeters, N.K.  and  B a x t , Herman,  B e n n e t t , James  Prentice  " M e d i c a l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n and T r e a t m e n t o f Newly A d m i t t e d P r i s o n e r s " , P r o c e e d i n £ s _ o f _t h_e_ _ A _ m e r i c a n P r i s o n _ A s s o c i a t i o n , New Y o r k , V.,  B e y l e , Herman C. P a r r a t t , Spencer Bixby, F.  New H o r i z o n s i n _ C r i m i n o l o ^ v , ^ N e w Y o r k : H ~ l l ~ ~ l ~ ~ ~ . 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" P r a c t i c a l R e s u l t s of the C l a s s i f i c a t i o n P r o g r a m " , J o u r n a l _ o f _ C r i m i n a l Law_and C r i m i n g ology. Vol7~337~May, 191*17 "The Human E l e m e n t i n J u s t i c e " , J o u r n a l o f C r i m i n a l L a w Cr imiriolo_r_^_,_and P o l l c e _ S c i e n c e , a  Vol~~10l90~~1920~ F e n t o n , Norman, Fox,  W.  C a l i f o r n i a " S t a t e~ PrT s o n~"" S o l e d a d ™ 19 The_Eng 1 i s h ^ P r i s o n _ a n d B o r s t a 1_ Sj stern_ R o u t l e d g e ~ a n d K e g a n " P a u l Ltd7Tl9527  Lionel,  Garrett,  Annette,  5^. (London:  "The Worker - C l i e n t R e l a t i o n s h i p " , Ego_ P s y c h o l o g y and Dynamic Casework, (New York: Family"Service"Assoelation"of America), 1958.  G a u d e t , F r e d e r i c k J r . , "The S e n t e n c i n g B e h a v i o u r o f t h e J u d g e " , E n c y c 1 o p e d i a _ o f C r i m i n o l o g y , 1(New Y o r k : The P h i 1 o s o p h i c a 1 ~ L i b r a r y ) 19 +9. G i a r d i n i , G.  A.,  " P r e l i m i n a r y C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f Male P r i s o n e r s i n Penal I n s t i t u t i o n s i n Pennsylvania", Proceedings of_the American_Pj;ison_Association, New"York" 193^. ~ "The P l a c e o f P s y c h o l o g y i n P e n a l and C o r r e c t i o n al Institutions", Federal_Probation, AprilJ u n e , 19*+2.  Gordon, Walter  A.,  " C a l i f o r n i a Adult Authority", the_2^th_Annual_Con£re^  Proceedin£S_of the__  M^^ll2§:2--2^32ILA3§2^1^ll.QI^ , ~ Ne v, ~ Yo r k^" 19^ 7. Grunhut,  Max,  P e n a l Reform, (London: O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y  19WT  Hamilton., G o r d o n , Herlighy,  Thos. J r . ,  "  The o r_7_ a nd_ P r a c t i c e_ o f„ S o c i a 1_ C a se__Work, (New Y o r k : C o l u m b I a ~ U n i v e r s i t y Press7"l95l7 Chapter " S e n t e n c i n g the Misdemeanant", and P a r o l e A s s o c i a t i o n _ J o u r n a l ^  195?":""" Hill,  Robert  M.,  Press)  N_|t_^nal_Probation  V o l . 2 ,~No7ft7~  "A J u d g e ' s G u i d e t o S e n t e n c i n g " , N a t i o n a l ^ P r o bation_and Parole Association_Journal, V o l . 2 ,  No7^~~1956~~  I  -119-  T e x t s and A r t i c l e s Hollis,  (continued)  Florence,  Hopkins, Ernest  "The R e l a t i o n s h i p B e t w e e n P s y c h o s o c i a l D i a g n o s i s and Treatment", S o c i a l _ C a s e w o r k , F e b r u a r y , 1951. " ~  Jerome, Our L a w l e s s _ P o l i c e , Press  Howard, J o h n , Kendall,  King,  Glenn  M a r i o n R.,  The  The V i k i n g  193-7  In")  State  (New Y o r k s  of Prisons.  Co n a n " 17557  (London: C a d e l l and  " R e c e p t i o n C e n t r e s " , Contemporary,,„Correction., Tappan,P., e d i t o r , ( N e " Y o r k : M c G r a w - H i l l Book Co. I n c . ) 1951. " C l a s s i f i c a t i o n i n Relation to Individual D i s c i p l i n e " , Proceedings_pf_the_American_ __lson_Asspciationj New Y o r k , 193%. P s y c h i a t r i c Programme o f t h e C a l i f o r n i a M e d i c a l " " F a c i l i t " ' , State~"of~Ca 1 1 f o r n i a D e p a r t m e n t of C o r r e c t i o n s , Sacramento, 1956.  K o o k e n , D. L .  "Ethics i n the Police Service,"  Journal_of May-June and  QLlEll}§:l-.L^^§I}^QllBlB2lQE^ji Jul~-August"l9 +-7 I  Kulp, William E.,  " R e l a t i o n o f C l a s s i f i c a t i o n t o P r i s o n Employment", P r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e A m e r i c a n P r i s o n A s s o c i a t i o n . New Y o r k , 1939™  Loveland,  " C l a s s i f i c a t i o n i nRelation to Individual Rehabilitation", Proceedings_of_the^ P r i s o n , A s s o c i a t i o , r " N e w Y o r k ™ 19 3^7 ~  Frank,  "The  S e t t i n g f o r R e h a b i l i t a t i o n " , P r i s o n World  May , 19 +5. Morris,  Albert,  1  "Wanted: A C o r e o f B a s i c Knowledge f o r t h e P r e v e n t i o n and C o n t r o l o f C r i m e " , F e d e r a l P r o b a t i o r i j V o l . 11:20, J a n u a r y - M a r c h " 19~7.  P a r r a t t , S p e n c e r D.,  "How E f f e c t i v e i s a P o l i c e D e p a r t m e n t ? " A n n a l s o f t h e A m e r i c a n Academy o f P o l i t i c a l and S o c i a l S c i e n c e , S e p t e m b e r , 193$.  P a s c o e , A . Ross,  "What P a r o l e Needs f r o m C l a s s i f i c a t i o n " , Proceedings o f the American P r i s o n A s s o c i a t i o n New""" 1 ~ " ' "  Patterson,  S i r Alexander  The P r i n c i p l e s o f t h e _ B o r s t a l S y s t e m , t h e  Home Of f i e e " Lo nd o " ~  1932.  -120Texts_and_Arj_icles  (continued)  P i h b l a d , C.T.,  " C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of Crime", Encyc]^ueJIa_of C r i m i n o l o g y . (New Y o r k : T h e ~ P h i l o s o p h i e a l k L i b r a r y 7 7 19 9«  R e c k l e s s , Walter  C,  The  Crime_Probleni_  (New  Appleton-  1950.  Century-Croft"lnc.,) R e c t o r , M i l t o n G.,  York:  " S e n t e n c i n g and C o r r e c t i o n s " , N a t i o n a l P r o b a t i o n and P a r o l e A s s o c i a t i o n J o u r n a l ,  ~/ol7 2, No7 f~~19 5? • T  R h o d e s , H.T.F.,  The  C r i m i n a l s We  Deserve,  (London: Methuen  and"CoT~Ltd.l"l937T ~ R o d g e r , A.,  A_Borstal_Ex£erime^  ?  London"l937.  His~Ma"3esty' s " " S t a t i o n e r y O f f i c e " ^ Sellin,  Thorsten,  "The T r i a l J u d g e ' s Dilemma: A C r i m i n o l o g i s t ' s View", P r o b a t i o n _ a n d _ C r i m i n a l _ J u s t i c e j S h e l d o n G l u e c k " " e d i t o r "(New Y o r k 7 ~ M a c m i l l a n ) -  1933.  S h e a r e r , J.D., T e e t e r s , N.K.,  and  S u t h e r l a n d , E d w i n H.,  The P r i s o n a t P h i l a d e l p h i a , , C h e r r y H i l l , 7New~York7~Columbia~University PressT"l957. P r i n c i p l e s of Criminology, Lipplncott  T a f t , Donald  R.,  T e e t e r s , Negley  K.,  Trott, Harlan, Turner,  J.W.  (New  Y o r k : The  J u v e n i l e Delinquency, H i l l " Bo ok  B.  Co7  Inc.)  (New  19^9.  Macmillan Y o r k : The  Chapter  Co.)  1950.  McGraw-  XV.  ^U^-Ql§^l2-2l-.^h^2§I}-l^§I}^i§^I^ ( P h i l a d e l p h i a : Pennsylvania P r i s o n Society,7l955. "Police  Cecil,  York: J .  Co77~1939~  Criminology,  T a p p a n , P a u l W.,  (New  v s . the P e o p l e " ,  The  Christian  Science  M o n i t o r , May, 19^0. "The C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f C r i m e " , Kemy_;s_0utl i n e s _ o f C r i m i n a l Law ( C a m b r i d g e : U n i v e r s i t y Press!"19527" C h a p t e r V I . T  Ulman, Joseph  Wollack,  N.,  Walter  M.,  "The T r i a l J u d g e ' s Dilemma: A J u d g e ' s V i e w , " P r o b a t i o n and C r i m i n a l _ J u s t i c e , Sheldom G l u e c k , e d i t o r , " 7 N e w " Y o r k : The M a c m i l l a n Co.) 1933. "The S e r v i c e U n i t " , C o n t e m p o r a r y _ C o r r e c t i T a p p a n P., e d i t o r , 7New~York: M c G r a w - H i l l " B o o k Co. I n c . ) 1951. C h a p t e r X.  -121I_?2>ts_and_Articles W a r n e r , S.B., C a b o t , H.B.,  and  (contlnued) J u d g e s and. Law R e f o r m . ( C a m b r i d g e : H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y Press) 193".  Watson, John,  Meet  the_Prisoner,  Witmer, H e l e n L.,  "Juvenile  ( L o n d o n : J o n a t h o n Cape  19367  Delinquency  and Anomie",  Co.)  Children^  V o l . 2 , No.5» S e p t e m b e r - O c t o b e r , 195TT" Yepson, L l o y d ,  Ql^Mlll£§.^i2L ^2^IlM^§^-i.QI^3^£§.^i2D-j i  Y e a r b o o k o f Committee o n E d u c a t i o n , A m e r i c a n P r i s o n A s s o c i a t i o n , New Y o r k , 1939. " C l a s s i f i c a t i o n - The B a s i s f o r M o d e r n ment o f O f f e n d e r s , " P r i s o n _ W o r l d , May,  Treat19^0.  -122S t a t u t e s , , A n n u a l , a nd , S p e c i a l Rep, o r t s  The A m e r i c a n C o r r e c t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n , Committee t o R e v i s e t h e 19^6 'Manual o f S u g g e s t e d S t a n d a r d s f o r a S t a t e C o r r e c t i o n a l S y s t e m ' , J  New Y o r k ,  195*+•  The A m e r i c a n P r i s o n A s s o c i a t i o n , Committee o n C l a s s i f i c a t i o n a n d C a s e Work, Handbook o n _ C l a s s i f i c a t i p n _ i n _ C o r r e c t i o n a l I n s t i t u t i o n s . New Y o r k , 19~77 " ^nnual_Report BTC., lWT.  o f the B r i t i s h Columbia B o r s t a l A s s o c i a t i o n , Vancouver, , Victoria,  Annual,_Reports_of_the  B7c7~  19^8-57 •  B.C.,  I n s p e c t p r _ o f G a o l s , The Queen's P r i n t e r ,  1951-577 "  " C l a s s i f i c a t i o n and Casework", symposium, P r o c e e d i n g s P _ _ _ ° _ _ C o n g r e s s , 1938. ~  Victoria,  o f the, A m e r i c a n ~  Commonwealth o f P e n n s y l v a n i a , R e p o r t o f t h e B u r e a u o f C o r r e c t i o n , Camp H i l l , P e n n s y l v a n i a , 1957."" ~ ~ ~~ ~ Commonwealth o f P e n n s y l v a n i a , E a s t e r n _ C o r r e c t i o n a l ^ C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Centre, Philadelphia™Pennsylva^ The  Commonwealth o f P e n n s y l v a n i a ,  "  Penal_Laws _1253_ J  T h e _ C r i m i n a l C o d e _ o f Canada,, A n n o t a t i o n s a n d N o t e s by J . C. M a r t i n , Q.C., " T o r o n t o : C a r t w r i g h t and S o n L t d . ) 1955. N a t i o n a l C o n f e r e n c e o n P r e v e n t i o n and C o n t r o l o f J u v e n i l e t _ P I L R _ l e _ p f _ P o l i c e , W a s h i n g t o n , November, 19^+6.  Delinquency,  New Y o r k S t a t e Department o f C o r r e c t i o n , C e n t r a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f _ New Y o r k , 1 9 5 3 . " ~  M^^§S^I^3^^Q^QQTTect±on,  New Y o r k S t a t e Department o f C o r r e c t i o n , The C h a l l e n g e _ o f Y o u t h , New Y o r k , 1955. New Y o r k S t a t e D e p a r t m e n t o f C o r r e c t i o n , C o r r e c t i o n ^ to A p r i l 1956.  Delinquent  January  1956  R e _ o r t _ p f _ t h e _ R o y a l Commission t o I n v e s t i g a t e the Penal_System o f _ Canada, The K i n g ' s P r i n t e r " O t t a w a , " 1 9 3 ^ . ^S^L^2l^Q§^T^l^A^3jt^QlJosoTi.  A  The K i n g ' s  Printer,  19^7.  R e £ o r t _ o f _ t h e _ C o m m i s s i o n Appointed_by_ _ t h e _ A t t o r n e y r G e n e r a l t o I n q u i r e l £ t p _ t h e _ S t a t e and~Management~of~the Gag1s"of~British_Columbia"" ~ King's Printer,~ Vic t o r i a"~B~ C 19™7~ Tn  -123-  Statutes^_Annua 1 and Special^Reports (continued)  Report.of, a Committee to, Inquire Into the P r i n c i p l e s and Procedures Followed_in_the_Remi Department of Justice"of Canada, The Queen's Printer, Ottawa ,~19567~ State of C a l i f o r n i a Department of Corrections, Biennial Report, Sacramento, C a l i f o r n i a , 1953-5^, 1955-56, and 19%~W. State of C a l i f o r n i a Department of Correction, The_Manual of Proc e d u r e ^ for_CJ_as^ Sacramento, C a l i f o r n i a " 195^7 ~ Statutes of B r i t i s h Columbia, An.Act,Respecting the I n s t i t u t i o n Known_as_New_Havenj Victoria,~B.C7, IJ^+SV  APPENDIX B.. FIGURE I. ADMINISTRATIVE FRAMEWORK OF OAKALLA PRISON FARM Warden  Headquarters C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Repre sentative  Medical Officer  Deputy Wardens (T) & (c) Asst. Deputy Wardens (T) & (c)  Legend; direct line authority advisory or consultative relationship SCO  Senior Correctional Officer  SPG  Senior Prison Guard  (T)  Treatment  (C)  Custody  Class. Officer & SCO(C) SOUTH WING  SCO(C) EAST WING  (  sc'o(c) WEST  WING  ,  sco(c)  HOSPITAL UNIT  —~7~— SPG(C) ANNEX  "A"  SCO(C) ELEMENTARY  SPG'(T ) DRUG HUT  TRAINING  (MALE)  UNIT  1  1  SCO(T),  Matron i n Charge Women's Gaol  sco(c)  WESTGATE  UNIT  Directo Young Offende Unit  FIGURE 2  Chart Allocation of Adult, Male Prisoners to Provincial Gaols: By the Courts, and by Correctional C l a s s i f i c a t i o n  COURTS OF CRIMINAL JURISDICTION  Legend: allocation by Courts allocation by correctional classification  KAMLOOPS GAOL I  OAKALLA PRISON FARM (Central Classification)  PRINCE GEORGE GAOL  Clea'rwater Camp I Haney Correctional Institution I Gold Creek Camp  I Haney Camp  I Units of Oakalla Prison Farm ^ I I Chilliwack Camps  I New Haven  

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