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The Community Chest and Council : an historical and analytical review of the Chest and Council movement… Aghai, Mohd. Ahmad 1958

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THE COMMUNITY CHEST AND COUNCIL An h i s t o r i c a l and a n a l y t i c a l review of the Chest and Council Movement i n North America; with p a r t i c u l a r reference to i t s development i n Vancouver 1930-58; and i t s possible application to a Pakistani c i t y  by MOHD. AHMAD AGHAI  Thesis Submitted i n P a r t i a l Fulfilment of the Requirements f o r the Degree of MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK i n the School of S o c i a l Work  Accepted as conforming to the standard required f o r the degree of Master of S o c i a l Work  School of S o c i a l Work  1958 The University of B r i t i s h Columbia  - iv -  AE"TRACT The development of an ever-growing number of private health and welfare agencies i s one of the d i s t i n c t i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of urban communities. The need f o r coordination and guidance i n orderly development was met i n the past by Charity Organization S o c i e t i e s , i n more recent decades, by Community Chest and Council organizations. Community Chest and Community Co unci is--the "Chest as a fund-raising coordinator, and the "Council" as a p o l i c y coordinator—appear to be p a r t i c u l a r l y North American i n s t i t u t i o n s , e s p e c i a l l y i n the larger c i t i e s of the Eastern seaboard, because of the greater dependence on private philanthrophy and late development of s o c i a l welfare l e g i s l a t i o n . With the strengthening of t h e i r planning and standard-setting functions and closer integration between "chest" and "council" functions, these organizations, today, are engaged i n mobilizing the communities for improved S o c i a l Welfare. Chest and Council o f f i c e s are now widely regarded as an e s s e n t i a l part of the s o c i a l work structure i n nearly a l l major urban centres on the North American Continent. They remain important i n spite of increased s o c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n , because new agencies continue to be established, because volunteer and experimental work i s valuable, and because community education and welfare research functions have come to the fore i n modern community development programs. The present study has endeavoured to s i f t out the essential p r i n c i p l e s demonstrated by Community Chest and Council h i s t o r y ; then to focus s p e c i a l l y on the administrative requirements of the modern Chest and Council organization, drawing on some t h i r t y years of Vancouver experience f o r this purpose. This l a t t e r task i s followed out i n two p a r t s — ( a ) existing Organization and Administration of the Chest and Council, and (b) the development of i t s main Sections. In the l i g h t of t h i s , the question i s examined how far and i n what way a Chest and Council as a coordinating welfare organization might be applied to the C a p i t a l C i t y of Pakistan (Karachi). The conclusion i s that the p r i n c i p l e s of Community Chest and Council are d i s t i n c t l y adaptable to the c i t y of Karachi and perhaps to other selected metropolitan areas of t h i s country. The present i s o l a t e d efforts of s o c i a l welfare agencies can hardly ensure balanced development of health, welfare and recreational services i n a fast developing community l i k e Karachi. This i s also the best avenue for leadership and an integrated approach toward common problems, through budgeting and s o c i a l planning. Modifications which may be of s p e c i a l concern i n Pakistan are indicated.  In p r e s e n t i n g  this thesis i n p a r t i a l fulfilment of  the'requirements f o r an advanced degree at'the  University  o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make it  f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference  agree t h a t  and study.  I further  permission f o r e x t e n s i v e copying of t h i s t h e s i s  f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by t h e Head o f my Department or by h i s .representatives.  I t i s understood  that  copying or p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r , f i n a n c i a l  gain  s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n  permission.  ( M . A . AGHAl) Social Welfare Orgapispr, •SOCIAL Wi.i.i'AKE FRO.) is.? Ministry ot Health & Soc*i,l \v  T  GOVERNMENT OF PAKISTAN  Department of S o c i a l Work The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Vancouver 8, Canada.  Date  July 15, 1959 >  Columbia,  - ii -  TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter 1.  Community Chest and Council Movement  Philosophy and History of the Movement. Historical Perspective. Establishment of Council of Social Agencies. Establishment of Community Chest. Relationship between the Chest and the Council. Development of overall Planning and Financing. Community Chest and Council and its place in Community Organization. Problems of Large Urban Coverage. Summary of findings. Chapter 2.  Page  Local Application: The Community Chest and Council of Greater Vancouver  The growth of Social Services in Vancouver. First Council of Social Agencies and the Welfare Federation for the City. Unification of Chest and Council. Constitution. Membership. Recent Developments. Summary of Findings Chapter 3.  3°  Organization and Administration: The Chest and Council in Action, 195b 1  General Description. Functions of the Chest and Council. Organization and Structure. Governing Body. Executive Director, and Sectional Chiefs. Trends in Staff Situation Chapter 4.  1  63  Development of Sections  (1) Social Planning Section: Formation, Size, Structure, and Functions. (2) Campaign Section: Formation, Size, Structure, and Functions. (3) Budget Section: Formation, Size, Structure, and Functions. (4) Public Relations Section: Formation, Size, Structure, and Functions. Summary of Administration and Structure. 85 Chapter 5» The Community Chest and Council: its Possible Application to a Pakistani City (Karachi! Principles Demonstrated in the Study. Social Welfare in Pakistan. Why a Community Chest and Council for Karachi? Who Should Take the Initiative? Appropriate type of Community Chest and Council. Summary Ill Bibliography  - iii -  CHARTS IN THE TEXT Page F i g . 1.  F i g . 2.  F i g . 3. F i g . 4.  F i g . 5.  F i g . 6.  F i g . 7.  F i g . 8. F i g . 9.  The Council of S o c i a l Agencies and the Welfare Federation, Greater Vancouver Organizational Structure I93O-3I  42  The Community Chest and Council, Greater Vancouver in. 1946. (After Amalgamation of the Chest and the Council)  50  The Community Chest and Council, Greater Vancouver i n 1958  50  Structure Developed to Permit Joining of Burnaby and Vancouver i n a Community Chest and Council of Metropolitan Vancouver. . .  67  Community Chest and Council, Greater Vancouver 1958. Staff Organization and Line of Authority  83  Community Chest and Council of Greater Vancouver. S o c i a l Planning Section Structure  89  Community Chest and Council of Greater Vancouver, 1958 United Red Feather Appeal Organization Chart  95  Community Chest and Council of Greater Vancouver, Public Relations Section ...  103  Organizational Structure of the Budget Section  107  - V  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT  I wish to acknowledge with deep gratitude the patience and kind assistance afforded to me by Mr. Ernest H i l l , M.S.W., Director of the S o c i a l Planning Section of the Chest and Council of Greater Vancouver, i n the preparation of t h i s study.  c  I express my very deep sense of gratitude for the keen i n t e r e s t and h e l p f u l counsel of Professor G~)w. Dixon, Director of the School of S o c i a l Work, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, f o r his guidance on the content of the study; I am also grateful to Dr. L.C. Marsh for his help i n the preliminary discussion of the study, and the general format of the f i n a l text.  THE COMMUNITY CHEST AND COUNCIL An h i s t o r i c a l and a n a l y t i c a l review of the Chest and Council Movement i n North Americaj with p a r t i c u l a r reference to i t s development i n Vancouver 1930-58; and i t s possible a p p l i c a t i o n to a Pakistani c i t y .  CHAPTER I  COMMUNITY CHEST AND COUNCIL MOVEMENT  The presence of substantial ever-growing number of health and welfare agencies i s one of the d i s t i n c t i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of urban communities.  Inadequate  services of  c e r t a i n kinds, competition, imbalance and duplication of these services have given r i s e to demands f o r t h e i r proper financing, coordination and guidance toward orderly development.  This demand was met i n the past by the Charity  Organization S o c i e t i e s , i n our day t h i s i s being met by the Chest and Council organizations. These organizations—Community  Chest and C o u n c i l —  are s i n g u l a r l y North American i n s t i t u t i o n s and are now widely regarded as an e s s e n t i a l part of the s o c i a l work structure i n nearly a l l major urban centres on t h i s continent. But, i n addition to providing structure, these organizations are engaged i n mobilizing the community f o r improved  social  welfare. 1.  Philosophy and History of the Movement S o c i a l work begins with a concern f o r people.  More  s p e c i a l l y , t h i s r e l a t i v e l y new service profession i s b u i l t on solving the d i f f i c u l t i e s human beings sometimes have i n t h e i r relationships to each other and to the world i n which they  live.  From the very e a r l i e s t time, even though men quarrelled  and fought amongst themselves, they showed concern f o r each 1 other's welfare and a great capacity for helping one  another  as i n d i v i d u a l s , groups and as communities. S o c i a l work i n the form i n which i t helps communities, as a basic process of s o c i a l work, concentrates not so much on the i n d i v i d u a l and h i s needs, or on the group and i t s growth, as upon the larger and more i n c l u s i v e welfare problems of the whole community.  True, i t seeks to strengthen the e f f e c t i v e  accomplishment of casework and group work, but i t has other r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s as w e l l , such as community education, research and administration. The focus of community organization i s upon the a c t i v i t i e s of groups of people. The meaning and the importance of welfare services and of community r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s are deeply rooted i n the h i s t o r y of man.  The help given by neighbour to neighbour  to  a s s i s t h i s "fareing w e l l " dates back to the time when the f i r s t families grew into communities of f a m i l i e s .  In  pioneer days, welfare services were e s s e n t i a l to families and took such form as barnraising, helping the s i c k , caring f o r each other's children i n time of need and giving a new  start  2  to the unfortunate.  Throughout the h i s t o r y of mankind,  1 Community Chest and Council of Greater Vancouver—Manual of Health. Welfare and Recreation Services of Greater Vancouver. 2 Dixon, G.W., S o c i a l Welfare and Preservation of Human Values: Dent and Sons L t d . and the University of B r i t i s h Columbia; Vancouver; 1957J p. 6 0 .  - 3 -  giving a i d toward welfare has been common p r a c t i c e . In the smaller communities that were habitat of most of the world's people before the era of urban!sm, the adjustment of the i n d i v i d u a l to h i s s o c i a l environment was achieved l a r g e l y through the c o l l e c t i v e a c t i o n of the primary groups which he was i d e n t i f i e d . But with the growth of c i t i e s and the emergence of great metropolitan communities, new problems of behaviour and health appeared which could not be dealt with expeditiously on the basis of simple neighborliness growing out of kindly beneficence or personal a f f e c t i o n . I t i s f o r t h i s reason that new forms of organizations developed not only within c i t i e s , but also on a s t a t e / p r o v i n c i a l , national and i n t e r n a t i o n a l b a s i s . 1  Such organizations involve the process of Community Organization, and i n large metropolitan areas they use the structure and name commonly known as "the Community Chest and Council." The concept of organization f o r s o c i a l welfare i s as old as s o c i a l work i t s e l f .  H i s t o r i c a l l y , the beginnings of  community organization, i n today's accepted sense, are found In the Charity Organization S o c i e t i e s ' movement of the middle 19th  century.  E f f o r t s of these s o c i e t i e s to ascertain causes  of s o c i a l i l l n e s s and to bring about some order i n r e l a t i o n ships among numerous agencies and organizations were the forerunners of a l l modern s o c i a l welfare development. 2.  H i s t o r i c a l Perspective Impulses f o r mutual a i d characterized many of the  earlier societies.  Even the most p r i m i t i v e peoples  expressed  kindliness and concern f o r unfortunate members of t h e i r  1 G i s t , Noel P. and Halbert, L.A., Urban Society: Thomas Y Crowell Co.; New York; 1949; p. 413.  communities.  B i b l i c a l and Quarariio injunctions f o r alms  giving record similar fellow f e e l i n g s . The early monastic order provided food, shelter and clothing to the needy. When the breakup of feudalism i n England created a large number of wandering people, searching for employment and a place to locate, l e g a l steps were taken for the f i r s t time to deal with poverty i n 1536. Elizabethan Poor Law was  Later i n l601 the famous  passed which established the basis of  poor r e l i e f from the public funds i n England, and l a t e r i n the North American Continent.  Changing s o c i a l conditions, and  abuses under the law, led to revisions i n 1034.  A "framework  of prevention" was provided by p r i n c i p l e s adopted i n 1909» E a r l y American systems of r e l i e f r e f l e c t e d t h i s English experience. Private c h a r i t y f i r s t became highly organized i n Hamburg and E l b e r f e l d i n Germany, where d i s t r i c t s were established, a c e n t r a l bureau set up, and  citizen-visitors  1 assigned to investigate paupers.  This was  the f i r s t  step  towards thinking i n terms of citizens*involvement, d i v i s i o n of area into manageable size and providing coordination. r e a l work of coordination and planning began with the  foundation  of Charity Organization Societies i n London (England) i n It was for  designed  The  1869.  to coordinate and systematize the services  existing voluntary agencies, p a r t i c u l a r l y those giving  1 Johns, Ray and De March, David P., Community Organization and Agency R e s p o n s i b i l i t y ; Association Pressj New York; 1951 > P. 39.  - 5 -  relief.  The Charity Organization S o c i e t i e s ' movement was  quickly transplanted into the new world; and just eight years l a t e r , i n 1 8 7 7 , the f i r s t such society was (U.S.A.).  founded i n Buffalo  These s o c i e t i e s , l i k e t h e i r predecessors i n  England, made e f f o r t s to improve community coordination to serve the c l i e n t and family better.  The f i r s t Canadian  Charity Organization Society appeared i n Montreal i n  1899•  This f i r s t Canadian society s t i l l e x i s t s , and i s now known as the Family Welfare A s s o c i a t i o n .  Similar organizations  spread throughout the United States and to some Canadian cities.  These Societies emphasized four central p r i n c i p l e s  which, with modifications, are now Chests and Councils of today. i. ii. iii. iv.  followed by the Community  These p r i n c i p l e s were:  investigation of every applicant; central r e g i s t r a t i o n ; cooperation of a l l r e l i e f agencies; the general use of volunteer f r i e n d l y v i s i t o r s . It i s evident that Charity Organizations S o c i e t i e s  of the 1 9 t h century were one of the important forerunners of the modern community chests and councils. Their emphasis on fact f i n d i n g , cooperation, coordination and exchange of information and experience, of working on underlying causes of s o c i a l problems have been retained i n modern s o c i a l welfare planning bodies. At the outset, the Charity Organization S o c i e t i e s did not plan to give d i r e c t service to c l i e n t s ; t h e i r task was to work with and through the already existing s o c i a l agencies.  Their f i r s t purpose was  stated as "cooperation  -  6 -  between a l l charitable agencies of a given l o c a l i t y ; and the best coordination of t h e i r e f f o r t s . " Later, as a r e s u l t of t h e i r concern that prompt and adequate r e l i e f be given, Charity Organization S o c i e t i e s soon began to provide d i r e c t service to the c l i e n t s .  They also  organized a number of other activities—employment  bureaus,  day nurseries, etcetera—many of which l a t e r were taken over by specialized agencies which operated independently.  The  provision of d i r e c t services l i m i t e d the o r i g i n a l Charity Organization Societies coordinating r o l e , as with the operation of d i r e c t services they needed t h e i r own a c t i v i t i e s to be coordinated. Looking back from today's vantage point, we can see that the Charity Organization S o c i e t i e s made two mistakes i n terms of community organization.  F i r s t , i n c i t y after c i t y  they attempted to organize t h e i r private agencies services through the e f f o r t s of a small group of c i v i c leaders and without thorough-going agency p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the plan. Well-meaning though i t was,  the approach was  e s s e n t i a l l y an  authoritarian one, and the agencies resented or ignored i t . The second mistake of the Charity Organization Societies was t h e i r attempt to operate d i r e c t service programs themselves— programs which i n e f f e c t competed with those of the agencies  1 being coordinated.  Although these mistakes were serious  1 Watson, Frank Dekker, The Charity Organization Movement i n the United States: The Macmillan Company; New York; 1922; p. 281.  from the standpoint of community organization, yet the p o s i t i v e values of the Charity Organization Movement should not be overlooked.  The movement was l a r g e l y responsible f o r  the p r o f e s s i o n a l i z a t i o n of S o c i a l Work, and was the f i r s t attempt towards proper coordination and financing of private welfare programs on a community l e v e l . 3.  Establishment  of Council of S o c i a l Agencies  The need f o r sound planning and e f f e c t i v e coordination of s o c i a l welfare services has grown out of the confusion and overlapping of services which developed during the course of time.  Shortly a f t e r the turn of the century another approach,  and t h i s time a more successful one, was t r i e d i n a number of large c i t i e s .  I t took the form of federations of s o c i a l  agencies, established by the operating agencies themselves. A Federation of S o c i a l Agencies, or Council of S o c i a l Agencies or Community Welfare Council, or the S o c i a l Planning  Sections  of the Community Chest and Council, which have now become an important means of planning f o r and coordination of s o c i a l welfare services, were f i r s t organized as Councils of S o c i a l Agencies i n Pittsburgh and Milwaukee i n 1909. Similar councils now exist i n more than 600 d i f f e r e n t communities spread a l l over the continent. In some communities, councils came into being as chests discovered the need f o r planning and coordinating machinery; i n others, councils antedated chests and planned  - 8 -  the organization of federated financing for l o c a l voluntary agencies.  By and large, councils and chests have, i n general,  been c l o s e l y associated. Growth of Councils was  slow.  Up to 1917>  only seven  c i t i e s i n the United States had city-wide c o u n c i l s . America's entry into World War  I, with i t s need for increased welfare  services and for better coordination, gave great impetus to the movement, and by 1923,  council of s o c i a l agencies were  functioning i n twenty of the large American c i t i e s and i n many smaller communities.  Today, almost every c i t y over  100,000  population has some kind of community-wide council f o r planning and coordination of i t s health and welfare services. The depression of the  1930's further stimulated  community planning of s o c i a l welfare services. Needs were urgent and voluntary funds were l i m i t e d .  Governmental  programs expanded greatly, and many private agencies  shifted  the emphasis of t h e i r services, as from r e l i e f to help with other family and personal problems.  During World War I I ,  defence councils and war-service councils were organized i n hundreds of communities.  Many of these councils became  community welfare councils i n the post-war years. Turning to the Canadian scene, the early records of Councils i n t h i s country are obscure.  Most of the Canadian  councils did not take permanent root u n t i l the l a t e t h i r t i e s or during or a f t e r the Second World War.  The h i s t o r y of  councils i n Canada i s intimately associated with t h e i r  - 9 -  p a r a l l e l organizations of welfare federations and community chests, described below i n more d e t a i l .  Indeed, i t i s often  d i f f i c u l t to make a clear cut d i s t i n c t i o n , because the combining of charitable appeals into a united campaign was often the d r i v i n g public force behind the movement f o r better planning and coordination of welfare services. 4.  Establishment of Community Chest Many of the s o c i a l services which are not concerned  with d i r e c t f i n a n c i a l r e l i e f or supplementation, are operated for by voluntary and private welfare agencies.  The costs of  such services run into m i l l i o n s of d o l l a r s annually, r a i s e d from voluntary contributions.  The method which i s generally  used to obtain these funds i s through the Community Chest which i s also known by various other names, such as federation, welfare fund, united funds, community fund, etcetera. symbol i s "Red  Their  Feather."  The o r i g i n of the modern chest i s said to l i e i n the Charity Organization Societies of the middle 19th  century.  The development of federated financing has been a s i g n i f i c a n t factor i n community planning and organization of S o c i a l Welfare services.  The development of j o i n t financing as an aspect  community organization was  a natural, l o g i c a l step i n the  evolution of s o c i a l welfare services.  As agencies came into  being to meet s p e c i f i c needs t h e i r very number brought with them a new  of  inevitable problem of organization.  The  first  such e f f o r t occurred i n Liverpool, England, i n 1869.  The  - 10 -  f i r s t financing organization on t h i s continent was/ th,er A s s o c i a t e d C h a r i t i e s organized i n Denver, ColoradC^J' i n the •  .  .  .  .  \y  United States i n 1887.  I t was formed by two Protestant, one  Jewish and one Catholic clergyman and comprised that raised $20,000.  In 1922  23 agencies  t h i s organization which has  operated to the present, was reorganized and became a f u . l l -  1 fledged community chest. In 1895,  the Jewish Charities of Boston were federated  and l a t e r other Jewish and Catholic Federations of Charities developed and they exist today i n most of the large c i t i e s . The federation of both these r e l i g i o u s groups i n many cases are now members of Community Chests, but i n others they are wholly or p a r t i a l l y independent. Early i n 1909,  the Cleveland Chamber of Commerce  assumed r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r endorsing s o c i a l welfare organizations seeking funds i n that c i t y .  This endorsement process  made necessary some kind of evaluation of the competence of the various agencies to provide service, of t h e i r cooperation with other agencies, and of t h e i r methods of c o l l e c t i n g and accounting for money. for  As a r e s u l t , the Cleveland Federation  Charity and Philanthrophy was  organized i n 1913»  with a  board of 30 members, ten of whom were chosen by the member agencies.  Fifty-seven agencies joined t h i s federation i n  the f i r s t year.  Thus, i n 1913,  Cleveland became the f i r s t  large c i t y to form a welfare f i n a n c i a l organization that 1 Encyclopaedia Canadiana, v o l . I l l , p. 57*  -  11  -  based i t s work on community need and budgetary p r i n c i p l e s . The Chest i n Cleveland i s regarded as the f i r s t true community chest. P r i o r to World War  I the-private s o c i a l agencies i n  almost a l l communities conducted t h e i r own raising drives. efforts.  i n d i v i d u a l fund-  Seldom did two or more agencies combine t h e i r  The d u p l i c a t i o n of fund-raising drives consequently  posed a considerable problem i n most c i t i e s , and was  often  accompanied by high costs of fund-raising. During World War  I, however, federated f i n a n c i a l drives were conducted i n  a large number of c i t i e s f o r war-related s o c i a l welfare 1  programs.  This experience and the experiences of the previous  federated fund-raising groups convinced, more than ever before, the agencies and many contributors that there would be a r e a l economy i n e f f o r t s and cost i n banding together i n a well-concentrated annual fund-raising campaign.  Gut of these  experiences evolved the structure of the present day chests. A period of expansion i n the number of chests occurred from 1921-1924.  Another period of great growth  occurred between 1929 and 19315 when a great many l o c a l r e l i e f campaigns were conducted. development of War  World War  I I , with the  Chests i n almost every c i t y on the  continent, ushered i n the greatest period of expansion federated financing movement.  The War  i n the  Chests were turned  into the Community Chest i n the post-war years.  By  1950,  1 Murphy, Campbell G., Community Organization Practice; Houghton M i f f l i n Co.; Boston; 1954; p. 38.  - 12 -  there were over 1,300  community chest campaigns reported as  compared to 240 i n 1925  In the United States of America.  Federated financing i n Canada began with the formation of Jewish Philanthropies i n both Montreal Toronto i n 1917*  and  These federations were followed by the  foundation i n Toronto of the Federation for community service i n 1918,  which included a Federation of Catholic C h a r i t i e s .  Organizations based on a similar federating p r i n c i p l e were created i n Montreal and Winnipeg i n 1922. spread i n t h i s country very slowly.  But the movement  By 1938? there were only  9 c i t i e s i n Canada with f i n a n c i a l federations or community chests.  However, during the years of Second World War—  1939-45) 24 new  community chests were organized.  In  1946  there were 36 chests i n Canada, but i n the following decade almost 3G more were organized bringing the t o t a l to 65 i n which a l l provinces except Newfoundland were reported to have chests. The early financing groups, forerunners of the community chest, bore only a limited resemblance to l a t e r chests as they often grouped or gathered together the appeals of a number of agencies without reference to the actual community need f o r the services and without any budgetary procedure to establish a true picture of the r e a l f i n a n c i a l need of the agencies.  In many instances these organizations  were e s s e n t i a l l y only contributors' protective associations, as o r i g i n a l l y the givers were mainly a handful of i n f l u e n t i a l  - 13 -  wealthy persons.  There was no broad base of general  community giving and involvement as i t exists today.  The  primary purpose of the present fund-raising trend i s the reduction of voluntary f i n a n c i a l appeals into a single more e f f i c i e n t vehicle with p a r t i c u l a r reference to community needs and a proper budgetary procedure to e s t a b l i s h a true picture of the r e a l need of the agencies i n r e l a t i o n to the o v e r a l l needs of the community. 5.  Relationship Between the Chest and the Council Joint planning and j o i n t financing are two  the same coin.  Community planning  sides of  Inevitably a f f e c t s  d i s t r i b u t i o n of funds, as program changes w i l l require either increase or decrease i n appropriations.  Conversely, groups  responsible f o r a l l o c a t i n g funds make decisions that have program s i g n i f i c a n c e . The task of j o i n t planning i s so close to j o i n t financing that some communities have established a single organization to do both jobs.  Such an organization w i l l have  a campaign section, a planning  section, a budget section, a  public r e l a t i o n s section and such other sections, d i v i s i o n s or departments as are needed.  A combined Chest and  Council  can only be successful as an o v e r a l l planning and fund r a i s i n g organization i f i t s s t r u c t u r e — t h e board and the  staff—is  established i n f u l l recognition of t h i s broad concern. the organization i s set up primarily f o r financing the  If  -  14  -  voluntary services, with a section added f o r planning, i t w i l l not be i n a p o s i t i o n to do the planning Whatever may  job e f f e c t i v e l y .  be the plan of organization, i t must recognize  the i n t e r e s t s of the agencies which provide the services, and of the public which both uses and support them.  The combined  plan of organization has several advantages: i ) i t helps assure unity i n financing and planning a c t i v i t i e s , bringing together agency and contributor interests; i i ) i t requires less organizational structure and simplifies staff responsibilities; i i i ) i t may stimulate the i n t e r e s t df campaign leaders i n planning as well as fund-raising. However, the more usual plan i s to e s t a b l i s h the Chest or United Fund and the Council as two organizations.  distinct  The Council i s set up to be the central  coordinating and planning body f o r a l l community welfare activities.  I t develops working relationships with the Chest  or Fund as well as with other groups.  This separate plan of  organization has the following advantages: i ) the planning function i s more l i k e l y to get proper emphasis and less apt to be subordinated to the money-raising operations; i i ) f u l l p a r t i c i p a t i o n of public and other non-Chest agencies i s easier to achieve; i i i ) the general public i s more l i k e l y to view the Council as an impartial body not affected by factors of campaign expediency. Often the Council and the Chest j o i n t l y employ one executive to serve both organizations.  This arrangement has  some advantages of both the combined and the separate  - 15 -  organization plans i n that while eaeh organization r e t a i n s i t s i d e n t i t y , close cooperation can be assured.  The  disadvantage i s that while the executive i s reponsible to two boards, the general public may not understand these relationships.  However, the j o i n t executive plan could have  p r a c t i c a l value, e s p e c i a l l y i n smaller c i t i e s and towns which would f i n d i t easier i n t h i s way to employ s t a f f of high caliber. Whether e n t i r e l y separate, j o i n t l y staffed or combined i n one organization, the Council and the Chest w i l l need to work together harmoniously.  C e r t a i n l y t h e i r objectives  come together i n the budgeting of funds raised annually for agency services.  To f a c i l i t a t e close working r e l a t i o n s h i p  the following practices are i n common use: 1.  The Chest president and budget committee chairman are e x - o f f i c i o members of the Council board;  2.  The Council president i s an e x - o f f i c i o member of the Chest board and budget committee;  3.  The Council selects some of the members of the Chest board and budget committee;  4.  S t a f f service and o f f i c e f a c i l i t i e s are shared;  5.  J o i n t committees on public r e l a t i o n s and research are established;  6.  The constitutions of both Chest and Council provide for using the Council i n program planning matters. Although most Chests and Councils on the continent  are not operating on a j o i n t staffed or combined-in-one organization basis, yet t h e i r objectives being the same and t h e i r functions being complimentary to each other, have  -  16 -  evolved an e f f e c t i v e working method between themselves to have a unified approach to community problems. 6.  Development of Overall Planning and Financing Community planning, and j o i n t financing of s o c i a l  welfare services have developed out of the increasing i n t e r dependence of s o c i a l welfare needs and the increasing complexity of specialized  services organized to meet these  needs. In i t s early days, the movement(s) of j o i n t planning and j o i n t financing met considerable c r i t i c i s m and resistance i n the community.  There were considerable differences of  opinion as to whether j o i n t planning and financing represented a forward or a backward step i n s o c i a l welfare development. Even today, a f t e r a f a i r l y long experience with chests and councils, some difference of opinion e x i s t , but t h i s i n i t s e l f i s not unhealthy.  A majority of observers appear to  believe however, that the chest and council have made important contributions i n the f i e l d .  However, some present  day c r i t i c s f e e l that many community chests and welfare councils and welfare funds emerged from a common f e e l i n g of discontent with sporadic, uncoordinated, and inconsistent e f f o r t s In the welfare f i e l d .  And most of these associations  revealed great v i t a l i t y i n t h e i r early days.  Many have,  however, l o s t t h i s f e e l i n g of discontent and have become mechanical means of r a i s i n g money or of doing s u p e r f i c i a l  - 17 -  l planning. Overall planning  and financing movement, under the  banners of community chest and the council of s o c i a l agencies have enjoyed a rapid and spectacular development and have made important contributions. accepted ones, has now  The movement, l i k e most  reached the period of maturity  which c r i t i c i s m must be met.  at  I t seems safe to i n f e r , however,  that so long as urban communities continue to support large numbers of private philathropies, neither agencies nor donors w i l l w i l l i n g l y return to the old system of i n d i v i d u a l competitive  campaigns.  I t also appears l i k e l y that council  methods of consultation, interpretation and o v e r a l l planning of community services w i l l p e r s i s t .  Though changes i n  structure to carry on the j o i n t planning and financing are l i k e l y to occur i n any dynamic society, the elements of order which the movement has contributed to the s o c i a l welfare f i e l d w i l l undoubtedly be conserved. 7«  A Community Chest and Council; and i t s place i n Process of Community  Organization  A Community Chest: and i t s place i n Community  Organization  The development of chest and council movement has been l a r g e l y contemporaneous.  The underlying  reason f o r the  development of community chest part of the movement was  1 Ross, l u r r y G., Community Organization—Theory and P r i n c i p l e s ; Harper and Bros.; New York; 1955 > P» 160*  to  - 18 effect economy—economy of campaign cost, of s o l i c i t a t i o n work, and of time.  The interest of the true chest goes  beyond mere fund-raising and i t focuses on the e f f e c t i v e development of the community's health and welfare programs. The chest, besides saving time and the costs of r a i s i n g money, has tended to provide more adequate financing i n the health and welfare f i e l d s , especially f o r smaller agencies. It has also relieved the donors who were previously subject to constant giving to a number of agencies. The chest i s i n e x t r i c a b l y involved i n the community organization process at a number of points.  When agencies  are considered f o r membership i n the chest i t i s usually on the basis of such c r i t e r i a as purpose, standards of service, area of coverage, and need for the service.  This, i n  essence, i s attempting to r e l a t e s o c i a l welfare resources to s o c i a l welfare needs i n the community.  The functions of  budgeting i n and the d i s t r i b u t i o n of funds c o l l e c t e d also go deeply into community organization p r a c t i c e .  These concerns  of the chest have n a t u r a l l y related i t c l o s e l y to the coordinating and planning body.  Because the chest i s a  l o c a l enterprise, the nature of i t s membership d i f f e r s from community to community.  In general, the non-profit  organizations who operate services i n health, welfare and recreation f i e l d s are e l i g i b l e f o r membership.  Besides being  able to c o l l e c t large sums of money, the base of c i t i z e n s ' p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the work of the chest has considerably been broadened.  -  19  -  The chests of the 1920*s made few attempts to evaluate the standards of service provided by member agencies, nor did they usually attempt to determine a l l o c a t i o n s on the basis of areas of greatest need.  In most c i t i e s the member  agencies used to present t h e i r budget requests i n advance of the annual campaign, the t o t a l requests used to be added up, and agencies used to receive pro rata share of the proceeds. On the contrary, now the work of the chest i s based on community need and budgetary p r i n c i p l e s , involving thorough use of community organization techniques. A Council of S o c i a l Agencies and i t s Place i n Community Organization The growth of councils warrants to the consciousness of communities to the need f o r coordination and proper cooperative planning of s o c i a l welfare services.  The work  of a council i s carried on primarily by involvement  of people  i n the community and through d i v i s i o n s and committees organized around the broad f i e l d s of service, such as health, family and c h i l d welfare, and recreation. The council membership i s drawn as delegates from a l l governmental and voluntary agencies i n the f i e l d of health, welfare and recreation i n a geographical area. In addition, interested c i t i z e n s are added as delegates-at-large. I d e a l l y , the membership should include a l l those  persons  interested i n the o v e r a l l welfare program of the community. The basic function of the council i s to provide a  -  20  -  medium for the planning process.  The programs (to achieve  the planning objective) of no two councils w i l l exactly be alike.  However, the s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t i e s of a well-organized  Council can usually be grouped as under: i.  Coordination:  Councils provide opportunities through  committees, case conferences, and j o i n t p r o j e c t s , f o r members to come together f o r the purpose of becoming acquainted, sharing information, planning, and acting together. councils serve as clearinghouses on information and for new  services or changes i n existing services.  of clearance tends to a l i g n new  These suggestions This type  or projected services with  actual needs i n the community. ii.  Fact-finding;: There cannot be two opinions that any  sound planning must rest on f a c t u a l information.  One of the  tasks of the council i s the continuous and systematic gathering of facts about the community, i t s needs, and i t s services.  These facts are analyzed, and t h e i r implications  for community planning i d e n t i f i e d .  Occasionally the councils  undertake an o v e r a l l community study or survey. large studies, which may  In these  involve a single functional f i e l d ,  such as recreation, or the t o t a l health and welfare f i e l d , outside help i n the form of s p e c i a l i s t s or consultant, may  be  utilized. iii.  Improving the quality of service:  A better balance  between community needs and community resources may  be  achieved by improving the quality of existing services.  This  - 21 -  stepping  up of q u a l i t y may  be achieved through  educational  and t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t e s for lay and professional workers; studies of personnel p r a c t i c e s , budgeting, reporting; development and a p p l i c a t i o n of higher standards to s e l e c t i o n and t r a i n i n g of personnel, agency management, and program services. iv.  Developing adequate services:  When there are gaps or  duplication i n services, the council supplies a way  for  c i t i z e n s to work together to remedy the s i t u a t i o n .  Pacts  are studied; a l o g i c a l course of action i s agreed upon; and action i s put into e f f e c t .  This may  mean elimination of a  service, re-vamping an established program or development of an e n t i r e l y new v.  service.  Common services:  Councils  seldom operate d i r e c t services  for i n d i v i d u a l s , though they may temporary demonstration basis.  do so occasionally on a They, however, do usually  provide some common services which accrue to the benefit of the i n d i v i d u a l agencies and ultimately to t h e i r members and clients.  This i s done, for no one agency can provide such a  service so well or so economically for i t s e l f . Service Index or Exchange i s one common services.  More recent  The S o c i a l  of the oldest and best known  services include the  Volunteer Bureau, Central Information Service,  Central  joint  p u b l i c i t y programs. vi.  Developing public understanding:  One  of the p r i n c i p a l  functions of a Council i s to quicken public awareness of community problems and develop an understanding of  how  22 -  agencies are dealing with these problems.  This i s done by  i n s t i t u t i n g an e f f e c t i v e public r e l a t i o n s program:  by  sponsoring public meetings and forums, maintaining a speaker's bureau, d i s t r i b u t i n g studies and reports, and getting p u b l i c i t y through the press, radio and other media. Community understanding of welfare needs and services i s also developed through cooperation with other organizations on matters of general c i v i c i n t e r e s t . Throughout the  1920's  however, the councils were  usually not major instruments for o v e r a l l s o c i a l planning. In general, they lacked broad community p a r t i c i p a t i o n ; but now with t h e i r functions mentioned above, these city-wide councils become extremely powerful community movements with increasing p a r t i c i p a t i o n , not only by agency executives and public o f f i c i a l s , but also by large numbers of i n f l u e n t i a l lay leaders.  Using the community organization techniques,  the a g e n c i e s — p u b l i c and p r i v a t e — j o i n together i n the council i n focusing the spotlight on a community problem, bringing to bear on that problem a l l available resources, and when necessary developing new  resources.  Through the strength  which comes with such an approach, the health and welfare organizations exert an influence f a r beyond what they could y i e l d i f they each worked independently. The concepts of community organization and planning are interlocked. Planning may be broader i n scope than the community, but i t s essentials can well be demonstrated by the  - 23 -  councils i n t h e i r organized  l o c a l action.  Councils, as  required i n community organization method, foster conscious cooperation among the agencies and provide better involvement of the members of the community for l o c a l planning and f o r other forms of common action.  I t d e l i b e r a t e l y selects  goals and systematically Implements them.  Being e s s e n t i a l l y  engaged i n a program of community organization they are able to give great impetus to the j o i n t planning and  joint  financing so that the specialized a c t i v i t i e s i n the community may  become a well integrated whole and should not die out f o r  want of funds, 8.  Problems of Large Urban Coverage Acceptance as s o c i a l welfare planning and financing  body(ies) of the community i s the main objective of a l l Community Chests and Councils, regardless of the size of the community served.  Moreover, i t seems an objective which few  Chests and Councils have t r u l y achieved. The Chests and Councils i n large metropolitan  areas  are becoming more and more impersonal mechanical means of planning and fund-raising.  Such an impersonal s i t u a t i o n i s  bound to r e s u l t with a large area of coverage. and Councils may  The Chests  have l i t t l e f e e l i n g of d i r e c t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  for helping and encouraging i t s agencies to improve the q u a l i t y of their services, or for a s s i s t i n g new needed by the community to become a v a i l a b l e . Councils e s p e c i a l l y may  services  At times the  f i n d i t d i f f i c u l t to integrate i t s  - 24  -  planning with public services i n the community; smaller, somewhat homogeneous communities provide easier and more collaboration i n public and private e f f o r t s on the community level.  Press and radio coverage of the a c t i v i t i e s and  the  plans of the Chests and Councils i s usually more complete i n smaller communities.  This, of course, a s s i s t s the Chest and  Council immeasurably i n gauging areas of community i n t e r e s t and concern as these develop, and also i n securing generous p u b l i c i t y f o r chest and council work. The natural question i s how  the Chest and Council  with large metropolitan coverage can gain r e a l acceptance as community's planning and financing body(ies)?  To the writer,  the starting point i s to e s t a b l i s h a Chest and Council which must be as representative as possible of a l l elements of the community.  Though such an all-embracing  Chest and Council  would not solve the whole problem, yet i t would c e r t a i n l y improve the s i t u a t i o n .  To have a better and more personal  approach and r e l a t i o n s h i p with the grass-root, involves r e a l hard work and a thorough going-over of the community organization development process at the grass-root  level.  Community Organization or community development denotes the techniques  used by neighbours themselves, or by professionals  guiding them, to set going mutual e f f o r t s and develop t h e i r interest i n the planning and carrying out of the plans jointly.  " I t provides broader c i t i z e n s ' p a r t i c i p a t i o n ,  greater energy or enthusiasm than can be mobilized from any other source for the s o l u t i o n of the economic and  social  - 25  problems of the people."  -  1  Community Organization i s a process of bringing into being and maintaining the kinds of group i n t e r r e l a t i o n ships which f a c i l i t a t e c i t i z e n s ' p a r t i c i p a t i o n and e f f e c t i v e group action and growth. or new  These techniques are not untried  suggestions f o r getting the energy and support of  the people behind a community program. A guide l i n e i n reaching to the grass-root and involving them f u l l y into the program of the Chest and Council i s found i n the geographical l e v e l s , i . e . the neighbourhood,  the d i s t r i c t and the whole community at which  various c i t i z e n s by reason of t h e i r experience or Interest may be able to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the program.  These several  levels of citizens' p a r t i c i p a t i o n or involvement serve d i f f e r e n t though equally useful functions i n the broader framework of a Chest and Council. The working out of patterns of community organization appropriate f o r a s p e c i f i c community begins with the existing structure and proceeds i n ways adapted to l o c a l circumstances. Community Organization f o r c i t i z e n s ' p a r t i c i p a t i o n cannot be a blue p r i n t i n advance f o r any and a l l s i t u a t i o n s . In some c i t i e s the c e n t r a l council of s o c i a l agencies have been working toward t h i s objective of broader and more f u l l e r involvement of the grass-roots, by building  1 United N a t i o n s — S o c i a l Progress Through Community Development (New York! IV 18, 1955), p.- 15.  - 26 -  tip d i s t r i c t and neighbourhood organizations through which c i t i z e n s can p a r t i c i p a t e .  According to Hillmans  In large c i t i e s e s p e c i a l l y , councils (of s o c i a l agencies) have encouraged and given s t a f f assistance i n the formation of l o c a l community or neighbourhood councils . . . outstanding among these are the developments i n Pittsburgh and Cleveland which go back to the early 1930's, D e t r o i t , Chicago, LosAngeles, Oakland, Washington DC, Indianapolis, St. Louis and Rochester, NY. 'Approximately f i f t y councils are currently providing s t a f f time f o r the organization and service of such neighbourhood Councils .'1 Liaison with the Chest and Council and these neighbourhood or d i s t r i c t Councils could be effected i n various ways:  through an executive group within the Council,  through periodic reports, through j o i n t meetings with the coordinator i n the Council and the s t a f f at the various neighbourhood and/or d i s t r i c t groups. The Chest and Council, especially the Council, i n such a set up must not be regarded as administrative overhead. It has a special service to perform for the community as a whole.  The fact must not be ignored that the Councils are  supported by the community through contributions to the chest. It serves the chest i n the same way as i t serves other community agencies.  When the Council wins public  understanding  and i s accepted as being of value to the community at large, the necessary f i n a n c i a l support w i l l be forthcoming not only for Chest and Council, but f o r the t o t a l community program.  1 Hillman, Arthur, Community Organization and Planning (MacMillan; New York; 1950), p. 247. The i n t e r n a l quotation i s from V i o l e t M. Sieder, i n a l e t t e r written from the Community Chest and Council i n August, 1947.  - 27 -  9-  Summary of Findings In the main, Casework, Group work and Community  Organization a l l are i d e n t i f i e d as related parts of S o c i a l Work p r a c t i c e . The common core i s found i n a d i s c i p l i n e d use of s e l f i n working with people; a common working philosophy; an emphasis on working with (not for) c l i e n t s ; a problemcentred approach; use of s o c i a l diagnosis based on analysis of the a r t i c u l a t i o n of the problem and the f a c t s ; i n formulation of a plan toward s o l u t i o n or action; continuous  evaluation;  and the fact that each area of s p e c i a l i z a t i o n i s involved i n varying degrees with interpersonal, group, and  intergroup  process. Community Organization i s found wherever people have learned to l i v e together.  In simple s o c i e t i e s i t rests upon  customs or t r a d i t i o n a l ways of regulating s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s and goal achieving devices:  i n complex societies i t i s  e s s e n t i a l l y a matter of d e l i b e r a t e l y s e l e c t i n g goals and systematically implementing them. For individuals or organized groups to function as part of a community requires an organizational structure i n c l u s i v e of common areas of interest and having limitations.  geographical  People can cooperate e f f e c t i v e l y only through an  e f f e c t i v e form of s o c i a l organization which provides suitable channels of communication.  When the organization i s serving  the interest of a number of groups i n a community, i t must provide methods of broader and more complete representation to  - 28 -  and from these groups and to the community as a whole.  Most  recently, Community Organization i s seen as a d i r e c t service to communities through which individuals and groups representing a cross section of d i v e r s i f i e d special interests are helped to work together to i d e n t i f y and meet t h e i r own needs by p a r t i c i p a t i n g as e f f e c t i v e parts of a democratic society.  The  goal here i s to achieve an integrated community through the broad involvement on a meaningful basis at every l e v e l of p a r t i c i p a t i o n of the many appropriate groups and sub-groups i n the community concerned with a common problem.  Evidence  of gainful use of t h i s may well be found i n the Chest and Council approach. The Chests and Councils a s s i s t organizations and individuals to improve s o c i a l conditions i n the community, d i s t r i c t s or neighbourhoods i n which they operate; to r e l a t e l o c a l planning e f f o r t s through appropriate channels and resources to community wide planning; t o keep community wide services sensitive to l o c a l needs, and to stimulate maximum use and support of community service and resources to meet and prevent health and welfare problems.  When the common  interest of the planning and financing body(ies) i s to promote s o c i a l welfare objectives, i t has to have community organizat i o n p r a c t i t i o n e r ( s ) i n s o c i a l work on s t a f f , to help i t i d e n t i f y i t s problems and move toward i t s goals e f f i c i e n t l y and e f f e c t i v e l y . The chest and council movement has unquestionably  - 29 -  contributed to the progress of s o c i a l welfare.  Federated  financing has brought a measure of order i n fund-raising. I t has tended to s t a b i l i z e voluntary financing and to increase the amounts of money secured. the member agencies.  This has resulted i n s t a b i l i z i n g  Joint financing has broadened the base  of giving, increasing the number of contributors.  Chests  have given impetus to the development of improved methods of f i n a n c i a l and s t a t i s t i c a l accounting i n the s o c i a l agencies. A s i g n i f i c a n t gain has been made by councils i n the area of coordination and planning, r e l a t i n g the agencies more r e a l i s t i c a l l y to community needs and resources.  Councils  also quicken public awareness of community problems and develop an understanding these problems.  of how  agencies are dealing with  CHAPTER 2  LOCAL APPLICATION:  THE COMMUNITY CHEST AND COUNCIL  OF GREATER VANCOUVER, BRITISH COLUMBIA  1.  The Growth of S o c i a l Services i n Vancouver The scope of community organization i s broad and  i t s contents are varied.  Community planning and organization  i s necessary and i t grows out of the very l i f e people l i v e together, whatever the size or type of community  i t may be.  It grows out of t h e i r e f f o r t s to meet t h e i r common needs. The process of planning and organizing community  life is  something spontaneous and operates i n any community, regardless of presence of s o c i a l welfare agencies or professional workers. The growth of S o c i a l Services i n Vancouver p a r a l l e l s the h i s t o r y of growth and development of t h i s P a c i f i c Coast c i t y .  Looking some odd ninety years back, we  would f i n d that B r i t i s h Columbia was admitted to the Federation as a Province i n I87I; and under the terms of the B.N.A. Act the province accepted r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r "making laws i n respect of h o s p i t a l s , asylums, c h a r i t i e s and eleemosynary i n s t i t u t i o n s . " Vancouver was Incorporated as a c i t y i n the year 1886,  and was almost completely wiped out by f i r e during the  same year.  Though the pace of growth i s normally rapid on  t h i s continent, the growth of Vancouver during the l a s t  - 31 -  seventy-five years has been exceptionally rapid, and today as a r e s u l t thereof i t stands as the t h i r d largest c i t y i n Canada.  This rapid growth of socio-economic  l i f e i n this,  once a small-lumbering town, brought with i t many i n e v i t a b l e problems which always follow such quick changes. Vancouver had l i t t l e need for organized charity i n i t s e a r l i e r days.  When help was needed, i t was administered  through the City Health Department; and u n t i l 1906,  the aged  and i n f i r m were cared f o r i n the public wards of the General Hospital. The period of general trade depression i n 1906 and 1907 tested the administration of C i v i c R e l i e f which existed at  that time.  Besides families who f e l t the pinch of the  hard time, there were large numbers of single men who could not f i n d work.  The way to deal with t h i s s i t u a t i o n was  something awful from our point of view i n 1958s  boarding  and lodgings were provided under the d i r e c t i o n of Dr. F.T. U h d e r h i l l , the Medical Health O f f i c e r — t w o meals per day and a shakedown of clean straw, a f t e r a bath administered under supervision of an old Sergeant Major.  Once i n every twenty-  four hours the men were given the "once over"—once i n the day time and again at night, each man would wake to f i n d the Sergeant's b u l l eye f u l l on h i s face.  This had the so-called  effect to s i l e n t l y eliminate a l l those with doubtful conscience. Foundation for organized private welfare program and community organization work was l a i d i n 1901, when the  - 32 -  V i c t o r i a n Order of Nurses was organized. Aid  In 1907 the Friendly-  Society came into being to deal with f a m i l i e s , and for  the f i r s t time the system of i n v e s t i g a t i o n was introduced. The investigations were carried out by the public s p i r i t e d women who reported back t h e i r findings to the City Health Department. The aims and objects of the Society as set f o r t h i n the Constitution were: II. Object: The object s h a l l be to minimize the e v i l s of private c h a r i t y and of begging from door to door to discriminate between worthy and unworthy mendicants, to r e l i e v e a l l who may be found to be i n r e a l d i s t r e s s , e s p e c i a l l y women and c h i l d r e n and to d i s t r i b u t e i n a systematic manner the C h a r i t i e s of the C i t y . The Friendly Aid Society with i t s aims and objects and i n character of i t s membership was the f i r s t attempt to systematize the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the City C h a r i t i e s on a c i t y wide b a s i s . following  The membership of the Society was drawn from the  sources:  I. Representatives of the City Council i i . Representatives of the Executive Committee of the Local Council of Women i i i . Representatives of the clergy i v . From each of the churches (two of whom, i f possible, be women) v. Salvation Army v i . Trade and Labour Council In 1908,  the C i t y Council made a grant of $1500 to  the Society f o r i t s work.  This grant continued even a f t e r  the merger of the Society i n t o a larger group known as Associated C h a r i t i e s , financed by c i t y grants and public subscriptions.  The grant was, however, discontinued i n 1912  - 33  -  after the appointment of Captain Godson-Godson as the f i r s t R e l i e f O f f i c e r under the C i t y Health Department. Largely through the a c t i v i t i e s of the Associated Charities another i n s t i t u t i o n made i t s appearance.  The Creche  or Day Nursery developed from a small private beginning i n 1910  to a c i v i c i n s t i t u t i o n by 1912.  The Day Nursery, f o r the  f i r s t time maintained s t a t i s t i c s and proved i t s value to the community i n the succeeding years by the large increase i n the number of children cared f o r , and the substantial earning capacity of the mothers. The Associated C h a r i t i e s , financed by C i t y Grant and public subscriptions, having ceased to function i n a new  body of public men  and R e l i e f Association.  was  formed known as the Employment  This Association acted as an a u x i l i a r y  to the C i t y Council's R e l i e f Committee,  The Association  raised a large portion of funds administered City R e l i e f O f f i c e r who  1914,  by Mr.  Ireland,  succeeded Captain Godson-Godson.  Mr. Ireland used to report progress of the funds to the Association and to the Council Committee.  The Committee also  launched work projects to r e l i e v e unemployment. Not much record i s available for the period 1922 War  to permit any discussion on i t . I i n 1922,  1914-  However, a f t e r World  i t became increasingly apparent and  was  seriously f e l t that some thoughtful planning would have to be undertaken to meet the then chaotic conditions i n the of welfare.  field  This resulted In the creation of an Advisory  - 34 -  Board to the S o c i a l Service Exchange on September 1922  with  the following Preamble: Whereas the Vancouver C i t y Council has i n s t i t u t e d a S o c i a l Service Exchange, and Whereas the voluntary and o f f i c i a l S o c i a l Welfare workers i n Vancouver and the surrounding d i s t r i c t s desire to work i n cooperation with the Exchange i n order that i t s benefit to the community may be developed to the highest degree; Therefore, we, the undersigned The objects of the Board were as under: Art.  2  Objects  (a) To acquire an intimate knowledge of the Exchange i t s methods and achievements on behalf of the S o c i a l Welfare Workers; (b) To encourage cooperation between a l l s o c i a l welfare workers and agencies and the Exchange; (c) To c a l l meetings of the s o c i a l welfare workers at stated i n t e r v a l s f o r the study of welfare problems on modern s c i e n t i f i c l i n e s . To provide speakers and e s s a y i s t s , and to hold seminars f o r the consideration and discussion of l o c a l welfare cases present usual features; (d) To cooperate with Greater Vancouver Public Health and Welfare A s s o c i a t i o n . These objects of the Board thus provided, rather than paved the way for future city-wide planning and coordination of the s o c i a l s e r v i c e s — b o t h private and p u b l i c .  Leaving  discussion on the Chest and Council of Greater Vancouver, which follows i n the next section of t h i s chapter, one sees that great impetus has been given to the s o c i a l welfare movement during the l a s t t h i r t y years. For about three years p r i o r to the great depression of the 1930 s, things had been taking on a new f  look i n the  - 35 -  private welfare f i e l d .  The e a r l i e s t beginning of a t r a i n i n g  program, which i s now known as a f u l l - f l e d g e d School of S o c i a l Work at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, had started at the same time. Aid  The programs of the Children's  Society, the Family Welfare-Bureau and indeed the whole  pattern of community organization began to take a new shape i n Vancouver. Besides the private programs, there were a number of l o c a l , p r o v i n c i a l , l o c a l - p r o v i n c i a l , f e d e r a l , and f e d e r a l p r o v i n c i a l programs.  Workmen's Compensation and Mothers'  Allowance had of course been i n operation since 1916 and 1920 respectively.  Federal-Provincial Old Age Pension had been i n  existence since 1927.  A net work of c h i l d welfare services  under combined public and private auspices took better shape i n the decade  1920-30.  The i n s t i t u t i o n a l programs which  existed i n Vancouver were:  Boys' and G i r l s ' i n d u s t r i a l  schoolsj orphanages, under non-governmental auspices providing the main resource of care f o r children away from t h e i r homes; mental hospitals} T.B. sanatorium; homes f o r the aged and incurables; h o s p i t a l s ; j a i l s and p e n i t e n t i a r i e s . Casework was not known and Foster Home care was just beginning to be t r i e d . However, during the l a s t t h i r t y years a peaceful revolution has taken place i n the f i e l d of s o c i a l w e l f a r e — both public and p r i v a t e .  Besides the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of the  Federal Government i n the f i e l d of s o c i a l services i n the  - 36 -  Province of B r i t i s h Columbia and i n Vancouver, the P r o v i n c i a l Government has been spending about one-third of t h e i r t o t a l expenditure  on s o c i a l services.  active i n the f i e l d .  The municipalities are also  Greater Vancouver i s a fortunate part  of the province as the municipalities i n t h i s area are veryprogressive and are conscious of the every day growing needs of t h e i r c i t i z e n s .  "The private welfare movement, too, has  flourished and expanded and gained i n strength and influence. The network of voluntary agencies  serving the needs of the  . . . community has been strengthened 1 the past (30) years." 2.  and enlarged greatly i n  Need to Form a Community Chest and Council was  felt  i n Vancouver The idea of a chest f o r Vancouver was the Board of Trade (as was  i n i t i a t e d by  done i n other places) who  called  the f i r s t meeting of Health and Welfare organizations i n December 1922 city.  to discuss the a d v i s a b i l i t y of a chest f o r the  The meeting was held i n the Board of Trade Office under  the Chairmanship of Mr. J.B. Thomson, Vice-President of the Board.  This meeting resulted i n the creation of a Special  Committee of twelve persons to study the whole issue and submit a report f o r further consideration. submitted  The Committee  t h e i r report i n June 1923, and on discussion of the  1 Dixon, W.G., S o c i a l Welfare and the Preservation of Human Values; J.M. Dent and Sons (Canada) L t d . j Vancouverj 19575 P. 25.  - 37 -  report: It was resolved that the findings of the above Committee, together with a l l data collected by them, be turned over to the Board of Trade with the request that i t be again brought to the attention of the people and the various organizations at a l a t e r date. I t was also the wish . . . that the present committee should remain i n o f f i c e , with power to add to i t s number several prominent businessmen.l Around 1925 one of the service clubs i n the c i t y raised $20,000 which was slated to be used f o r some deserving agency.  Various agencies forwarded requests f o r f i n a n c i a l  assistance.  The service club, wishing to spend the money  wisely, suggested that a study be done i n t h i s area to determine the best place f o r the money to be used.  Consequently  the famous Charlotte Whitton Survey was made i n 1927) and thus a sound step towards laying a plan f o r future e f f i c i e n t expansion was taken.  Among the various recommendations of  that Survey Report, one i s of special interest to us here; f o r i t was i n carrying out t h i s recommendation that the Chest and Council came into being: The Survey finds a lack of the usual f a c i l i t i e s f o r j o i n t action and development of mutual understanding and a f e e l i n g of comradeship and common purpose among s o c i a l workers, and f o r encouraging and f a c i l i t a t i n g case cooperation. As a f i r s t step toward f a c i l i t a t i n g cooperation i t i s recommended that the S o c i a l Service Exchange be reorganized f o r continuous service as an autonomous agency, and that the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of a Council of S o c i a l Agencies . . . be kept i n mind f o r future development. 2  1 Mowat, Walter Mrs., History of the Community Chest and Council of Greater Vancouver: 1951) p. 2. 2 Whitton, Charlotte, Report of the B.C. C h i l d Welfare Survey; Canadian Council of C h i l d Welfare$ Ottawa; 1927.  - 38 -  As a r e s u l t of the work of the Committee of the Board of Trade to study the p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r a chest f o r Vancouver, coupled with the recommendations of Miss Whitton, referred to above, the Board of Trade c a l l e d an important meeting on November, 1928 with Mr. B.L. M i t c h e l l i n the Chair, when i t was the consensus of opinion that a Survey was absolutely necessary before Vancouver could go ahead with the proposed plan of the Council of S o c i a l Agencies and the Chest.  Later at the meeting i n February 1929 under the  Chairmanship of Mr. J.L. Noble i t was recommended that the services of Mr. J . Howard T. Falk, Executive Director of the Montreal Council of S o c i a l Agencies be obtained to conduct the Survey.  I t was also decided to pay a fee of $1000 to Mr.  Falk f o r t h i s assignment. 3.  Formation of Council of S o c i a l Agencies and the Welfare Federation After Mr. Falk had conducted the Survey, a  h i s t o r i c a l meeting was convened by the Board of Trade on 7th November 1929 under the Chairmanship of His Worship Mayor W.H. Malkin, which was attended by the following s o c i a l service organizations and public and semi-public bodies: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.  Alexandra Orphanage Canadian National I n s t i t u t e f o r the B l i n d , Van. Br. Canadian Red Cross Society, B.C. and Vancouver Branches Central Welfare Bureau Central City Mission Children's A i d Society Crippled Children's Hospital Seamen's I n s t i t u t e Returned S o l d i e r s ' Club  - 39 -  10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16.  and  V i c t o r i a n Order of Nurses Western Association f o r the B l i n d Y.M.C.A. Y.W.C.A. Amputation Association of the Canadian Legion T.B. Veterans' Association of the Canadian Legion Disabled Veterans' Association of the Canadian Legion 17. Vancouver General Hospital l o . Council of the Vancouver Board of Trade 19. St. Paul's Hospital 20. Rotary Club 21. Kiwanis Club 22. Gyro Club 23. Lions Club 24. Jewish Community Chest 25. B r i t i s h S o l d i e r s ' Home 26. B.C. Safety League 27. C i t y R e l i e f Department 28. C i t y Council 29. L i f e Underwriters 30. American Women's Club 31. University of B r i t i s h Columbia 32. Engineering Bureau, Board of Trade 33. Norwegian Lutheran Mission 34. Deputy P r o v i n c i a l Treasurer.1 The Chairman explained to those present the purpose  of the meeting which was c a l l e d to discuss the report of Mr. Falk, copies of which were already with the attending organizations since August l ? t h to allow the organizations to have s u f f i c i e n t time to study the same.  Mr. Falk's  report apparently answered many questions that were i n the minds of the community at large, and h i s recommendations were well received. At the meeting i t was unanimously decided to proceed with the Council of S o c i a l Agencies and the p r i n c i p l e of a F i n a n c i a l Federation was also adopted. The following resolutions were passed:  1 Mowat, op. c i t . . pp. 5-6.  - 40 -  Be i t resolved that t h i s meeting go on record as being i n favour of the report of Mr. Falk and that i t proceed forthwith with the formation of a Council of S o c i a l Agencies. Be i t further resolved that t h i s meeting place i t s e l f on record as favouring the p r i n c i p l e of the F i n a n c i a l Federation and upon the completion of the Council of S o c i a l Agencies, a meeting be c a l l e d to i n t e r e s t c i t i z e n s who w i l l be asked to proceed with the formation of an organization to be known as the Vancouver F i n a n c i a l Federation. Be i t resolved that a committee of seven be appointed to d r a f t a c o n s t i t u t i o n and bylaws f o r , f i r s t , the Council of S o c i a l Agencies, and, secondly, the F i n a n c i a l Federation; . . . and that t h i s Committee report as soon as convenient to those organizations who at t h i s meeting s i g n i f y their intentions of becoming members of the Council of S o c i a l Agencies.1 Later, i t was  decided to appoint Mr. Falk as  Director of Council of S o c i a l Agencies which was process of formation. and took h i s new  Mr. Falk arrived i n Vancouver i n 193°  assignment.  His previous experience  him admirably to undertake t h i s new wide experience  i n the  project.  He had  fitted had  i n Council work and community organization  both on t h i s continent and i n England. S o c i a l Agencies was  Thus the Council of  o f f i c i a l l y formed i n February, 1930  with  following objectives: 1.  To a f f o r d an opportunity to a l l agencies engaged i n s o c i a l work to r e a l i z e the r e l a t i o n of t h e i r respective functions to the community;  2.  To f a c i l i t a t e cooperation i n meeting problems of common i n t e r e s t , i n developing plans f o r s o c i a l betterment and i n creating an i n t e l l i g e n t public opinion as to s o c i a l problems; and  1 Minutes of the Meeting, held i n the Board of Trade o f f i c e on November 7, 1929.  -  3.  41 -  To engage i n such a c t i v i t i e s as may seem wise i n order to further these ends.l The Council quickly gained community support and  started with t h i r t y - n i n e agencies, including those that appealed to the public f o r funds, as well as those generally interested i n welfare work.  In order to f a c i l i t a t e the  carrying out of the objectives of the Council, i t was divided into four main d i v i s i o n s of a c t i v i t y : I. Ii. iii. iv.  C h i l d Welfare; Health; Education and Recreation; and Family Welfare. As has been said e a r l i e r , the Council was formed  to act i n conjunction with a Welfare Federation which was to be carved out by the Council i t s e l f .  Accordingly, at a  meeting of the Council i n the l a t t e r part of 1930, a special committee was appointed to raise the sum of $15»000, f o r preliminary finances f o r the Welfare Federation before the general campaign could be held for 1931.  I t was arranged  that the f i r s t general campaign would be held from 23rd February to March 2nd, 1931» to provide the budget requirements of the various c h a r i t i e s interested for t h e i r work i n 1931 beginning A p r i l 1931. The Vancouver Welfare Federation a c t u a l l y came into being on December 2nd, 193°, when the Federation was o f f i c i a l l y formed and the Constitution and bylaws were  1 Constitution of the Council of S o c i a l Agencies, adopted i n February, 1930.  - 42 -  approved.  Functionally, three p r i n c i p a l services were  assigned to the Federation: I. Public Relations; i i . Fund Campaign; and i i i . Budgeting. Thus the b a l l was  set r o l l i n g i n 1930 and  the  Council of S o c i a l Agencies and the Welfare Federation (Community Chest) started functioning as two  separate  organizations with separate Boards of Directors, but under one professional person i n Mr. Falk who  was  the Executive  Director of both the Council of S o c i a l Agencies and of the Welfare Federation. During the f i r s t twelve months of the Council's existence i t had not functioned under normal conditions. The work involved i n organizing the Federation, admitting a large number of agencies, the matter of going through the process of budgeting and campaigning l e f t l i t t l e time for organizing the Council's work.  However, the following was  accomplished: 1.  The S o c i a l Service Exchange was the Family Service Bureau;  taken over from  2.  A Christmas clearing names of f a m i l i e s was done;  3.  Central O f f i c e scheme was  4.  Placement service for s o c i a l workers and of volunteers was started;  5.  Public education programs were launched.  developed; recruitment  The period of great depression and economic e f f e c t s of unemployment threw into sharp r e l i e f the agency services, and by 1935 i t was recognized that the Council had f i l l e d a  THE COUNCIL OF SOCIAL AGENCIES AND THE WELFARE FEDERATION, GREATER VANCOUVER ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE  19^0-^1 WELFARE FEDERATION  COUNCIL OF SOCIAL AGENCIES  BOARD OF DIRECTORS  BOARD OF DIRECTORS  EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR  1-3  o  H»  O h-  1  (-> O  •3  &> orq  CD  ro CHILD WELFARE  EDUCATION AND RECREATION  FAMILY WELFARE  BUDGET  CAMPAIGN  PUBLIC RELATION  HEALTH  Figure 1  - 43 -  r e a l need i n the community.  Besides t h i s , the Council and  i t s committees were constantly on the lookout to coordinating and improving  the work of the public and private agencies.  It did a remarkable job i n maintaining health and services i n the c i t y .  welfare  I t performed the d i f f i c u l t task of  acquainting the public with the type of work each agency was doing. The Council and the Federation moved onward hand i n hand making great progress.  As a r e s u l t , people continued to  i d e n t i f y themselves prominently with these organizations and the q u a l i t y and volume of support was  increasing year a f t e r  year. The Chest and Council i n Vancouver has always been a dynamic organization since i t s inception; and has always been making e f f o r t s to r e l a t e i t s work to the changing needs of the community. World War  The Organization i n 1939» i . e . during  I I , cooperated  with the War  i n 1940 March, the United War the Vancouver War Federation.  Chest, so much so that  Fund appeal took place under  Chest using the s t a f f of the Welfare  Coordinating Councils were also set up for war  work which were quickly recognized by the Federal Government. As a f i r s t step i n the d i r e c t i o n of stock taking and evaluation, the Board of Directors appointed a Special Coordinating Committee i n March 1942,  to make a survey of the  o r i g i n a l membership agencies with a view to: (a)  eradicate d u p l i c a t i o n of work  - 44 -  (b)  coordination of agencies where work was being carried on of a l i k e nature  (c)  requesting the P r o v i n c i a l and/or Federal Governments to take over agencies whose work In the opinion of Welfare Federation was the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the State. In February 1944,  at the annual meeting of the  Federation, i t was decided to change the name of the Federation to "Community Chest of Greater Vancouver."  At t h i s  time too, the name of the Council of S o c i a l Agencies was also changed to "Welfare Council of Greater Vancouver." 4.  U n i f i c a t i o n of Chest and Council As has been said above the two o r g a n i z a t i o n s —  Welfare Federation and the Council of S o c i a l Agencies—were formed and did maintain separate i d e n t i t i e s f o r about f i f t e e n years.  The coordination i n t h e i r work was sought at the  Executive Director's l e v e l or i n the Budget Committee of the Federation. During 1 9 3 4 ,  there were discussions held as to the  r e l a t i v e functions of the Federation and the Council, by a Special Committee appointed for t h i s purpose.  When the  findings of the Committee were referred to the Executive Committee of the Council f o r t h e i r consideration, the Executive Committee reported that there was not s u f f i c i e n t j u s t i f i c a t i o n for the Council to merge with the Federation. At that time the feelings were that the a c t i v i t i e s of the Standing Committees could not be considered within the scope of the Federation's c o n s t i t u t i o n a l purpose, which was the  - 45 -  financing and budgeting of i t s i n s t i t u t i o n a l membership of private s o c i a l  agencies.  Later i n the year 1942, there had been confusion i n the minds of the public regarding the r e l a t i o n s h i p of the Federation and the Council being two separate bodies.  This  confusion also arose because of the fact that f o r several years the posts of the Executive Director of the Council and the Managing Director of the Federation were held by one person.  This p o s i t i o n was changed i n 1939 and two persons  were appointed  to ensure increased e f f i c i e n c y .  It is  i n t e r e s t i n g to keep i n mind that the Council was financed by the Federation and was regarded as a member agency, and that i t s function was s o c i a l service planning.  Welfare Federation  used the Council i n an advisory capacity, and the Council d i d not have j u r i s d i c t i o n over the matter of a l l o c a t i o n of Federation's Funds. Due  to t h i s confused r e l a t i o n s h i p and because of the  fact that both the organizations are complimentary and are closely r e l a t e d i n t h e i r objects and functions to each other, the Board of Directors of the Community Chest, appointed a Committee i n 1944 under the Chairmanship of Mr. E.A. Jamison to inquire into the a d v i s a b i l i t y of bringing about a merger of the Community Chest and the Welfare Council.  For some time  there had been strong opposition and even a g i t a t i o n on the part of both the Chest and the Council to bring the two organizations closer together.  Since i t was r e a l i z e d that  both bodies were c l o s e l y i n t e r r e l a t e d , the necessity of  - 46  -  bringing about a more u n i f i e d e f f o r t i n the functioning of the two was  essential.  Consequently, i n March 1945  Mobilization Committee was  set up under Mr. J.D.  a Special  Vickers  which had several j o i n t meetings with the Executive Committee of the Council.  The Council recommended that an  Executive  Director responsible to both the Community Chest and Welfare Council was  the  the most important need and thata sound  course of action would be f o r the two bodies to work again with a j o i n t Executive Director and then to arrange a merger on the basis of the confidence and understanding that would be established i n coordinating them under one Constitution.  The  Council further recommended that the two bodies should share o f f i c e space and that every e f f o r t should be made at the e a r l i e s t convenience to bring the two organizations  together.  The lay members of the Boards of the Chest and  the  Council have always been aware and appreciative of good professional leadership i n the a f f a i r s of the h e s t and c  Council since i t s i n i t i a t i o n i n 1930.  the  Hence, when the merger  was being considered the Committee r e a l i z e d that an able Executive Director who would be responsible to both bodies, was  of immediate importance.  This person would have to be an  administrator, f a m i l i a r with s o c i a l welfare trends and trained i n money r a i s i n g techniques, and would also have knowledge of public r e l a t i o n s .  The Community Chest and Council found such  a person i n C o l . Hugh A l l a n , QBE, Ed., who October 1st  194-5  took o f f i c e on  as the Executive Director of the Community  - 47 -  Chest and Council.  His f i r s t task was to plan the amalgamation  of the Community Chest and the Council of S o c i a l Agencies and to reorganize the administration. A noteworthy year was 1946 f o r i t saw the t r a n s i t i o n from war to peace time conditions.  Many new services had  been established because of war, some of which had j u s t i f i e d t h e i r continuance i n peace time. and accomplishment.  I t was a year of progress  The year was more important from the  point of view of t h i s study as the formal amalgamation of the Community Chest and the Council was effected on J u l y 21st with the adoption of the new Constitution and bylaws.  A resolution  was also passed "That the name of the Society be changed to the Community Chest and Council of Greater Vancouver." Here, i t would be interesting to see the l a t e s t professional thinking on the Chest and Council s t r u c t u r a l i n t e r - r e l a t i o n s h i p s made at the B i e n n i a l Conference of United Community Funds and Councils of America, held at Cleveland, Ohio, i n February  1958.  Arguments f o r a combined Chest - Council: 1.  Bring into s o c i a l planning many business and professional persons who would not normally be drawn into the less tangible area of Community planning.  2.  Insure unity and coheslveness between j o i n t financing and planning. (Planning recommendations more apt to be favourably approved by United Fund and Chest.)  3.  Brings s o c i a l planning down to a p r a c t i c a l basis consistent with the community's a b i l i t y to finance s o c i a l services.  4.  E f f e c t s savings i n administrative cost.  - 48 -  Arguments f o r a separate Council setup: 1.  Public agencies are less apt to f e e l that the Council i s a private agency dominated mechanism.  2.  S o c i a l planning i s less apt to be restrained by d o l l a r consideration: v a l i d needs should be brought to public attention even though immediate ways and means of financing them are not a v a i l a b l e .  3.  S o c i a l planning i s less apt to be suspended during the period of the United Fund or Chest campaign.  4.  Council i s less apt to be used as a "whipping boy" by the United Fund or Chest.1 There are always two sides of a program or a  structure.  We cannot claim that such and such type of a  structure Is a l l good or a l l bad. The only c r i t e r i o n which guides our thinking i n the matter i s to see and examine both sides—advantages and the disadvantages involved i n a given approach; and i f the advantages outnumber the d i s advantages then d e f i n i t e l y the approach i s good.  The writer,  seeing the inter-dependence of and close relationship between the Chest and Council, f e e l s and sincerely believes that the arguments f o r a combined Chest-Council outweigh the arguments for separate Chest and Council. Further: The primary function of a community chest i s to raise the money required to meet the budgetary d e f i c i t s of the member-agencies. Usually t h i s i s accomplished i n a single annual fund-raising campaign. The primary function of a council of s o c i a l agencies i s to coordinate the service functions of the s o c i a l agencies and the social-planning a c t i v i t i e s of the community and to provide leadership i n the development of community's  1 Rudolph, N. Evjen (Discussion Leader), Outline Summary f o r I n s t i t u t e of Fund, Chest and Council Operation; Feb. 25, 1958; PP. 6-7. ~~  - 49 -  s o c i a l services. Since granting of funds cannot be accomplished i n t e l l i g e n t l y without s o c i a l ' objectives' i n view, the chest i s greatly concerned to keep abreast of plans made by the c o u n c i l . In some places where councils are inactive or i n e f f e c t i v e , the chest may even undertake some of the planning and coordinating functions independently. Since plans f o r the development of s o c i a l services are u n r e a l i s t i c unless evolved with the problem of financing c l e a r l y i n mind, councils are greatly concerned to understand the p o l i c i e s and the existing commitments of chests. In b r i e f , neither the chest nor the council can operate with maximum effectiveness unless t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s are very c l o s e l y coordinated.1 And  this close coordination can very well more surely be  achieved i n a combined chest-council organization with one single Board of Directors and one Executive Director, a s s i s t e d by professional deputies, who would head the various sections and/or f u n c t i o n a l ^ f i e l d s of the t o t a l organization. The merger of Chest-and Council of Vancouver i n 1946,  resulted i n s t r u c t u r a l changes.  There was only one Board  of Directors, a Finance Committee responsible for carrying out the functions of the Chest, and a Welfare Section responsible for the s o c i a l planning and a l l other a c t i v i t i e s which were the functions of the Welfare Council.  The Budget Committee  and the Public P.elations Committee represented both sections. The Special J o i n t Committee was recognized as a Joint Executive Committee i n a l l matters of coordinated administration between the Community Chest and the Welfare Council, and the Executive Director was made responsible to  1 McMillan, Wayne, Community Organization for S o c i a l Welfare: University of Chicago Press; Chicago; 194-5; PP. 413-14.  - 50 -  t h i s Committee for the proper administration, s t a f f matters and f o r proper functioning of the Organization. was responsible to the Executive Director.  Other s t a f f  Thus for the f i r s t  time a c l e a r cut l i n e administration was established. The new Constitution of the Community Chest and Council which was registered on July 30th 194-6, provided a wise integration bringing into close cooperation  the functions  of S o c i a l Planning and Financing, and creating a better understanding on the part of a l l concerned.  The r e s u l t i n g  success of the organization i n the following years proved the wisdom of the decision to merge the Chest and the Council into one single organization. 5.  Constitution S o c i a l work has developed from the neighbourly  mutual aid of individuals into organized and corporate activity.  In a complex urban community the i n d i v i d u a l i s  unable to know the needs of h i s fellow c i t i z e n s or to c a l l upon the community's resources  f o r meeting those needs. The  charitable corporation or s o c i a l agency, through i t s d i v e r s i f i e d s t a f f , can know a l l the community's resources  for human  welfare and can evoke those to bear on to meet the needs. S o c i a l work by an unincorporated  committee, though  usually better than i n d i v i d u a l action, i s not o r d i n a r i l y so s a t i s f a c t o r y f o r long time r e s u l t s as that engaged i n by a l e g a l l y incorporated organization.  Incorporation absolves  the members of the organization from personal l i a b i l i t y .  It  THE COMMUNITY CHEST AND COUNCIL, GREATER VANCOUVER IN 1946 (After Amalgamation of the Chest and the Council)  BOARD OP DIRECTORS  H3 O H> O M  r-»  i  J» CPSCD  EXECUTIVEJ DIRECTOR  O  WELFARE SECTION  PUBLIC RELATION COMMITTEE  BUDGET COMMITTEE  FINANCE COMMITTEE (Chest Section)  [Council Section) Figure 2  THE COMMUNITY CHEST AND COUNCIL, GREATER VANCOUVER IN 1958  PEOPLE OF GREATER VANCOUVER  BOARD OF DIRECTORS  EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR  SOCIAL PLANNING SECTION (Note:  BUDGET SECTION  PUBLIC RELATIONS SECTION  CAMPAIGN  The breakup of each Section has been shown and discussed i n Chapter 4.) Figure ^  - 51 -  gives to the organization an additional prestige, because l e g a l status denotes permanency and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y ; and  their  o r i g i n a l purposes are reasonably w e l l - f u l f i l l e d . The c o n s t i t u t i o n or charter should be such as to provide and f a c i l i t a t e the furtherance and f u l f i l m e n t of the objectives of the association and l i m i t i t s becoming astray. These c o n s t i t u t i o n a l and l e g a l provisions vary from one organization to another depending on many f a c t o r s . Constitution i s the skeleton or fundamental law of the organization and may state the r e l a t i o n s h i p of the board, the executive o f f i c e , the s t a f f and the members to each other; and provide a l e g a l basis for the a c t i v i t i e s of the organization.! The Constitution and bylaws should be dynamic and not s t a t i c .  An organization which operates under antiquated  regulations which are cumbersome, impedes rather than a i d the agency's work.  They sometimes a c t u a l l y prevent the agency  from making highly desirable changes i n procedures.  The  Constitution and bylaws should be checked, perhaps once a year to see i f they correspond to the best thought and practice i n the f i e l d and to the s i t u a t i o n i n the community. In general the c o n s t i t u t i o n should be b r i e f .  It  should state only the fundamental elements of name, l o c a t i o n , purpose, mode of government and means of amendment.  Bylaws  should contain the d e t a i l s of organization and operation which are not delegated  to administrative decision and  should  1 Street, Elwood, A Handbook of S o c i a l Agency Administration; Harper and Bros.; New York; 194b; p. 14.  - 52  -  provide f o r easy amendment. The constitution(s) of the Community Chest and the Council of Greater Vancouver has always been dynamic since t h e i r inception.  Important  need f o r these were f e l t .  changes have been made whenever a An important amendment was made i n  1 9 3 2 , i . e . two years after the formation of the Council i n respect of membership to the society.  That amendment made  provision f o r the i n c l u s i o n of public departments of welfare and f o r membership of organizations which, though not s p e c i f i c a l l y engaged i n the practice of s o c i a l work but have a d e f i n i t e interest i n s o c i a l work and s o c i a l problems. Through t h i s amendment i t was hoped, i n the course of time, to l i n k up i n the council, a l l the elements i n the community, public agencies, private agencies and interested associations which, together, form the body of opinion which has a r i g h t to determine the p o l i c i e s which should be followed i n development of the s o c i a l work programs.  Similar other  important amendments have been made at many occasions ever since the o r g a n i z a t i o n ^ ) came into being.  The most important  thing to remember i s that never ever effecting these amendments the focus of community service has never been overlooked.  The organization has always belonged to the  people, f o r the people and by the people of the Greater Vancouver Community.  - 53 -  6.  Membership The Chest and Council constitute i n some respect a  "superstructure" over many agencies that work d i r e c t l y with i n d i v i d u a l c l i e n t s and c l i e n t groups.  They, as i s true f o r  a l l community organization agencies, seldom ever deal d i r e c t l y with persons who  receive services.  In other words, the work of the community organization agencies i s achieved p r i m a r i l y through the use of organizational patterns and s t r u c t u r a l devices that foster intergroup communication, intergroup understanding, and intergroup achievement. Different patterns and devices are suited for d i f f e r e n t ends under varying times and circumstances. The complete workings of a democratic society make for the use of such varied pragmatic approaches.1 Membership gives an organization i t s l i f e .  One  of  the most s i g n i f i c a n t types of membership, commonly found i n community organization agencies, i s delegate membership.  Here  member agencies send one or more delegate(s) to s i t on the council.  Several d i s t i n c t patterns are apparent i n structure  of the coordinating and promotional devices.  Most delegate  councils i n s o c i a l work operate on an "open membership" p r i n c i p l e , thereby allowing almost any agency or organization working i n or interested i n the p a r t i c u l a r area of a c t i v i t y to j o i n .  However, the coordinating body frequently set some  simple conditions for membership, e.g.,  that only incorporated  non-profit organizations can become i t s members. In 1930» when the Chest and Council movement was  1 Murphy, Campbell G., Community Organization P r a c t i c e . Houghton M i f f l i n Co.; Boston; 1954; p. 359.  - 54 -  f i r s t gaining momentum i n Vancouver, l i t t l e attention was paid to agency standards.  Usually the majority of the  voluntary agencies i n the community, regardless of standards, associated on a delegate basis.  The Chest (Federation) i n  Vancouver started with following three kinds of memberships: (a) I n d i v i d u a l — A n y person over the age of eighteen years who contributes to the Federation the sum of not less than One Dollar; (b) I n s t i t u t i o n a l — A n y agency having membership i n the Vancouver Council of Social Agencies may, upon approval of the Board of Directors, become an i n s t i t u t i o n a l member; (c) Honorary—The Board of Directors of Federation may elect as Honorary members such person or persons as they may see f i t , i n recognition of outstanding and u n s e l f i s h service to the public welfare. The membership to the Council of S o c i a l Agencies was open to a l l recognized welfare agencies i n the c i t y . By 1942 the Chest and Council were examining quite c l o s e l y the new agencies applying f o r membership—examining the quality of the program, the need f o r the service, the p o s s i b i l i t y of duplication of existing services, and so on. Today, new agencies are admitted a f t e r careful study.  Though,  i n the main the Chest and Council has e s s e n t i a l l y an open membership p o l i c y , yet the p r i n c i p l e of closed membership based on standards of performance  i s now quite well  established, and new agencies applying for membership to the Community Chest and Council are generally required to meet certain standards as a condition of membership. types of membership are now  The following  available within the Chest and  - 55 -  Council: BY-LAW I - MEMBERSHIP The members of t h i s Society s h a l l be of s i x classes - A, Honorary; B, Individual; C and D, F i n a n c i a l l y P a r t i c i p a t i n g ; E, Non-Financially P a r t i c i p a t i n g ; and F, Associate. Class A - Honorary Members: The Board of Directors may appoint not more than two Honorary Members annually. Recommendations and nominations for Honorary Members may be made i n the month of December each year i n accordance with such procedure as the Board of Directors may from time to time prescribe and the s e l e c t i o n of such Honorary Members s h a l l be made i n recognition of t h e i r outstanding and u n s e l f i s h service. Class B - Individual Members: Each contributor to the Annual F i n a n c i a l Campaign of the Society s h a l l f o r the ensuing f i s c a l year be an i n d i v i d u a l member of the Society and any other person may, upon approval of the Board of Directors, become an i n d i v i d u a l member. Class C - F i n a n c i a l l y P a r t i c i p a t i n g Members: Any organization (except those q u a l i f y i n g f o r Class D membership) which receives an annual allotment of funds from the Society s h a l l be a F i n a n c i a l l y P a r t i c i p a t i n g Class C member. Class D - F i n a n c i a l l y P a r t i c i p a t i n g Members: Any organization which receives an annual allotment of funds from the Society whose f i n a n c i a l and administrative structure i s such that i t s budgetting must be done on other than a l o c a l basis, and i t i s not practicable f o r such an organization, i n the opinion of the Board of Directors of the Society, to become a Class C member, may become a Class D, F i n a n c i a l l y P a r t i c i p a t i n g member. Class E - Non-Financially P a r t i c i p a t i n g Members: Any organization or any department of government, Federal, P r o v i n c i a l or Municipal, interested i n the objects of t h i s Society and which does not receive an allotment of funds, may upon the approval of the Board of Directors and i n compliance with Bv-jLaw I I , become a Non-Financially P a r t i c i p a t i n g  - 56 -  Class F - Associate Members; Any service organization interested i n the objects of t h i s Society, who by v i r t u e of t h e i r Constitution, By-laws or program, are not e l i g i b l e f o r Class "E" membership, may become associate members for purposes of co-operation i n health and welfare planning only, upon the approval of the Board of Directors. The names of the duly elected or appointed o f f i c e r s or o f f i c i a l s of Class C, D, E, and F members s h a l l be communicated i n writing to the Board of Directors of the Society. At general meetings of the Society each Class C, D, E, and F member s h a l l have two voting delegates named by the members for t h i s purpose.1 7.  Recent Developments An important development i n the l i f e of the  Community Chest and Council took place i n the year 195*3. This was about the i n c l u s i o n of Burnaby i n the Community Chest and Council. simple as one may  This i n c l u s i o n was and/or i s not so think.  The proposal for i n c l u s i o n has  been under active consideration of the Vancouver Chest and Council since 1955*  In A p r i l 1956  the Board of Directors  adopted the following recommendations of the Committee which the Board set up i n 1955 to examine t h i s issue: Consideration has been given to the a f f e c t i n g a decision as to the i n c l u s i o n of the Municipality of Burnaby within the Community Chest and Council and we are s a t i s f i e d that from the standpoint of e f f e c t i v e Fund Raising and S o c i a l Planning, i t i s desirable to include t h i s Municipality within the area served by the Community Chest and Council. Already the Community Chest and Council i s supplying a number of services to t h i s area and an analysis of a d d i t i o n a l costs and additional revenues reveals that the i n c l u s i o n of  1 Constitution and Bylaws of the Chest and Council, Greater Vancouver, as Revised March 3 r d , 1958*  - 57 -  Burnaby i n the Community Chest campaign can reasonably be expected to carry i t s e l f , and that the increase which might be anticipated i n services within the next few years can be met by increased revenue as the Chest campaign i n that area becomes better consolidated and accepted, and as the i n d u s t r i a l growth of that Municipality continues. Quite apart from these economic considerations we consider that i t would be extremely shortsighted f o r the Community Chest and Council to view i t s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n t h i s area other than on a metropolitan b a s i s . The Committee, therefore, requests authority to add to i t s members and to proceed on a course of action designed to bring the Municipality of Burnaby within the area served by the Community Chest and Council i n time for i n c l u s i o n within t h i s next campaign i f possible, and i f not f o r i n c l u s i o n i n the campaign to be held i n the F a l l of 1957. 1  The proposed i n c l u s i o n of Burnaby however, could not materialize at that time, as i n the Spring of 1957 Burnaby was  making i t s own  arrangements for a campaign.  Those  arrangements of Burnaby having not worked out, further p o s s i b i l i t i e s were explored of including Burnaby within the Vancouver Chest.  I t was  f e l t that i f the i n c l u s i o n i s  accepted by Burnaby: The proposed structure and representation i s possible within . . . present Constitution, with the exception of Budget representation which can be provided f o r , of course, by a special r e s o l u t i o n of the Board of Directors. I t i s considered that i f t h i s structure i s acceptable and i f the other terms and conditions are acceptable to both groups that integration can be effected through agreement i n p r i n c i p l e and that Constitutional amendments be only considered within the next twelve months where they appear necessary a r i s i n g out of the f i r s t year's experience.2 1 Minutes of the Board Meeting, Community Chest and Council, Greater Vancouver. 2 Memorandum dt.20.1.58 to the Executive Committee of the Board of Directors from Naphtali, C.H., Executive Director of Community Chest and Council, Vancouver, p. 2.  - 58 -  Basic P r i n c i p l e s mutually accepted for integration: 1.  Federation should be a partnership between donors and services.  2.  That health and welfare planning and budgeting functions should cover the area coincidental with the fund r a i s i n g area.  3.  That there should be community p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a l l aspects of the metropolitan organization.  4.  That the establishment of campaign objectives and d i s t r i b u t i o n of campaign funds should be i n l i n e with health and welfare needs.  5.  The a p p l i c a t i o n of Community Chest budgetting methods must be consistent throughout the metropolitan area served.  6.  That the Burnaby Community Council s h a l l be the basis from which Burnaby community needs are determined and l o c a l services are coordinated and related to the services throughout the entire metropolitan area.  7.  That the Community Council i s responsible i n i t s e l f and through i t s representatives for assuring that a l l aspects of the work of t h i s federation are c a r r i e d out i n the best interests of i t s own l o c a l community, and bearing i n mind i t s relationship to the t o t a l organization and the welfare of the metropolitan community i t serves.  8.  It i s recognized that as part of the metropolitan federation Burnaby i s e n t i t l e d to equal p r i v i l e g e s and equal standards of service to that enjoyed i n any other part of the area covered.1 The writer feels the i n c l u s i o n of Burnaby i s a  healthy sign i n the growth and development of the Chest and Council.  The s t r u c t u r a l and organizational provisions made i n  respect of Burnaby could well be t r i e d i n other cooperating municipalities and d i s t r i c t s , e.g.  1 I b i d . , PP. 2-3  existing North Vancouver,  - 59 -  West Vancouver, etcetera.  This approach would ensure more  and better d i s t r i c t - w i s e c i t i z e n s ' p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the work of the Chest and Council, especially i n the area of S o c i a l Planning.  The recent i n c l u s i o n of Burnaby within the Chest  and Council could be interpreted as a happy step towards reaching grass-roots into the community i n the large metropolitan area being covered by the Community Chest and Council of Greater Vancouver. 8.  Summary of Findings Very l i t t l e record i s available of S o c i a l Services  i n t h i s c i t y (Vancouver) preceding 1930.  However, i n the  early days and i n the period up to 193°» both public and private agencies assisted i n providing services as the need arose, without much thought being given to research, planning and coordination.  The f i r s t step to study what the c i t y ' s  needs were, and the method df securing more e f f i c i e n t services was taken i n 1927, when the B.C. made by Charlotte Whitton.  C h i l d Welfare survey  Besides, being good or  was  otherwise,  the survey was d e f i n i t e l y the guide post for i t pointed out the way  towards more e f f i c i e n t future planning of s o c i a l  services i n B r i t i s h Columbia and for that matter i n Vancouver. The Survey of 1927 was  followed i n 1929 by the  Survey made by Mr. J.H.T. Falk of Montreal to explore the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of starting the Council of S o c i a l Agencies and the Welfare Federation f o r Greater Vancouver.  These studies  resulted i n the organization of the Council of S o c i a l Agencies  - 60  and the Welfare Federation i n 1930;  -  and thus a new  chapter  of cooperation and coordination of s o c i a l services i n the c i t y was  opened.  Ever since t h e i r i n i t i a t i o n , the Community  Chest and Council, which were u n i f i e d and given t h e i r present name i n 194-5 > have been making steady progress.  The  organization i s winning deserving and sincere esteem of the community, as a r e s u l t of i t s work i n nearly every needed walk of community l i f e . With t h i s singular success of the Chest and Council one should not think that the Chest i n Vancouver i s covering a l l health and welfare agencies operating within i t s j u r i s d i c t i o n ; c e r t a i n l y not.  The l o c a l chapters of the  National organizations l i k e Red Cross, P o l i o Fund, Cancer, T.B.  Seal and B.C.  Crippled Children's Society, w i l l  not j o i n the Chest, but rather have t h e i r own campaigns for funds.  still  individual  This attitude of these organizations  k i l l s the very purpose of federation.  The present system of  multiple appeals i s not only endangering the success of the long established agencies, but i s causing the i n d i v i d u a l and Chest campaigns to f a l l short of t h e i r objective.  There i s  no doubt that the increasing number of campaigns conducted outside the Chest i s perhaps the outstanding confronting the Chest today.  problem  It i s , therefore, high time  that some mutually accepted pattern should be evolved to solve t h i s problem.  These National organizations should be  helped to see that the Chest and Council movement i s l o c a l i n origin.  In the case of the Community Chest, the community  -  61  -  decides upon a balanced program of health and welfare services and how  they can best be supported.  As such, i t i s i n the  interest of service and the l o c a l a f f i l i a t e to l i n k i t s e l f with the l o c a l planning and financing group, rather than going on i t s own under d i r e c t i v e s from remotely located National Headquarters.  The writer feels that i f the Chest here i n  Vancouver change i t s e l f from the Federated approach to a United one i n v i t i n g National organizations to j o i n the United Fund as partners, the number of i n d i v i d u a l appeals could hopefully be reduced.  Moreover, the word "United" gives a  better sense of belonging, whereas the Federated gives f e e l i n g s of a superstructure to which the agency i s l i n k e d .  The word  "United" also shows a partnership i n association of e q u a l s — i n which neither side dictates to the other.  This p o s i t i o n could  perhaps be acceptable to the National Organizations i n question. It i s , however, anticipated that the Vancouver Board of Trade which gave lead to the whole Chest and Council movement i n Vancouver, w i l l again take the lead i n t h i s timely and important  undertaking  of setting up the necessary framework  for a "United Appeal" plan; a plan to combine the Community Chest, the Red Cross, P o l i o , Cancer, etcetera into a one single United Appeal.  There i s widespread b e l i e f that a United Appeal  would have profound consequences f o r every contributor and f o r the c i t y i n general, as the present system of m u l t i p l i c i t y of appeals presents a state of continuous  e f f o r t leading to  confusion, overlapping, i n e f f i c i e n c y and  wastefulness.  - 62 -  However, a sound, foundation of c i t i z e n s ' p a r t i c i p a t i o n and cooperation has been l a i d i n the framework of the Community Chest and Council of Greater Vancouver.  The  scope of work of the society has greatly been enlarged during the l a s t twenty-eight  years.  The Chest and Council stand  braced for an equally progressive future with a r e a l i z a t i o n that i t s task i s indispensable for the welfare of the people of Greater Vancouver.  Continued  success w i l l , however,  depend upon a great deal of understanding, not only among the professional and voluntary workers, but among the public at large.  The more c l e a r l y the work of the Chest and Council i s  known, the greater w i l l be the w i l l to carry i t further on.  CHAPTER 3  ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION: THE CHEST AND COUNCIL IN ACTION, 1958  1.  General D e s c r i p t i o n Any  study o f the Chest and C o u n c i l i s n e c e s s a r i l y ,  a study o f a p a r t i c u l a r phase of community o r g a n i z a t i o n , f o r no Chest and/or C o u n c i l c o u l d ever come i n t o e x i s t e n c e the i n t e r e s t of the people i n the community.  Community,  whether d e f i n e d on a r e g i o n a l b a s i s or on an i n t e r e s t presupposes a f e e l i n g o f b e l o n g i n g people.  The process  without  level,  and a common bond between  o f community o r g a n i z a t i o n i s d e s c r i b e d as  i n v o l v i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s between i n d i v i d u a l s , groups and among groups.  T h i s may f u r t h e r be d e f i n e d as "an e d u c a t i o n a l  process which aims ( i ) t o promote mutually  satisfactory  r e l a t i o n s between groups through formal or i n f o r m a l meansj and  ( i i ) t o use these r e l a t i o n s t o f u r t h e r • . . goals  1 s e l e c t e d by the groups i n v o l v e d . " B a s i c a l l y any Chest and C o u n c i l i s a c i t i z e n s  1  movement: . . . a v o l u n t a r y coming t o g e t h e r o f the c i t i z e n s o f a community f o r t h e i r mutual b e n e f i t . Regardless o f whether . . . s e r v i c e s are supported and a d m i n i s t e r e d as v o l u n t a r y p r o j e c t s or as departments of government, (behind them) 1 N e w s l e t t l e , Wilbur I . , Teaching Community O r g a n i z a t i o n i n Schools o f S o c i a l Work, paper presented a t the N a t i o n a l Conference o f S o c i a l Work, 194-1, p. 31.  - 64 -  are the c i t i z e n s of the community who were o r i g i n a l l y responsible f o r starting the work, upon whose behalf a i l a c t i v i t y i s undertaken, and with whom the ultimate r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and authority rests.1 Thus the establishment  of the Chest and Council i n any  community and so also i n Vancouver i s c i t i z e n s ' way  given  of  providing themselves with an organized means of accepting and exercising ultimate r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n the f i e l d of health and  welfare. Although the i n i t i a t i v e i n the matter of organizing  the Chest and Council i n Vancouver was  taken by the Board of  Trade, yet i t should not i n any way be thought that the Chest and Council of Greater Vancouver was  a pet idea of the Board,  or f o r that matter, of any p a r t i c u l a r group or section of the community. idea was  The unanimous acceptance with which the whole  received at the f i r s t general meeting to form the  Chest and Council on November 7,  1929 > t r u l y manifests  the need f o r such an organization was  long being f e l t  that and  recognized by community leaders i n Vancouver and the Board of Trade simply acted as a c a t a l y t i c agent i n the matter. 2.  Functions of the Chest and Council of Greater Vancouver The functions of the Chest and Council have undergone  great expansion and changes since i t s inception i n  1930.  This has, however, been done without changing the main focus for which the Chest and Council were formed.  Since these  1 Community Chest and Council Inc., Health and Welfare Planning, New York, 1945? p. 6.  basic objectives have already been discussed i n the preceding chapter, i t i s needless to repeat them here again. However, the objects of the Chest and Council as they stand today are as follows:  3.  a.  To plan, i n i t i a t e and co-ordinate health and welfare services supported, subscribed to, maintained or conducted i n Greater Vancouver as hereinafter defined and to encourage high standards, economy and e f f i c i e n c y i n and e f f e c t i v e organization of such services.  b.  To create and continue a fund to be c o l l e c t e d co-operatively through voluntary subscriptions, g i f t s , bequests and other means; to estimate, budget and dispurse such funds f o r maintenance and expansion and f o r reorganization of member agencies and to finance new services to meet proven needs.  c.  To provide information regarding and to increase public understanding of what i s being accomplished by the Society and i t s p a r t i c i p a t i n g members and what needs exist i n health and welfare planning and services.  d.  To work with and encourage continuing co-operation with Federal, P r o v i n c i a l , Municipal and private s o c i a l agencies.  e.  To guide and stimulate public opinion and foster necessary s o c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n .  f.  To e s t a b l i s h and support or a i d i n the establishment and support of associations, i n s t i t u t i o n s , funds and t r u s t s , calculated to benefit the employees of the Society or the employees of any f i n a n c i a l l y p a r t i c i p a t i n g members of the Society or the dependent or connections of such employees, to grant pensions and allowances to such employees and make payments towards the insurance of such employees.  g.  To own, acquire and take by purchase, donation, devise or otherwise, land or personal property and s e l l , exchange, mortgage, lease, l e t , improve and develop same and erect and maintain any necessary buildings for the purpose and objects of the Society.  The Society by extraordinary resolutions may subscribe to p a r t i c i p a t e with, become a member of, a f f i l i a t e with,  - 66 -  and/or co-ordinate i t s work with any other Society, association or organization, whether incorporated or not, whose objects are not divergent from i t s own objects. 4.  The Directors of the Society s h a l l have the power to invest the funds of the Society only i n s e c u r i t i e s authorized by the "Trustees Act" of B r i t i s h Columbia.  5.  The operations of the Society s h a l l be c h i e f l y c a r r i e d on i n that area referred to as Greater Vancouver i n the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia.1 From the above objectives, the functions of the  Community Chest and Council stem.  These objectives  provide  a framework for the following four main sections of the Chest and Council, which w i l l be discussed i n the next 1. 2. 3. 4. 3.  chapter.  S o c i a l Planning Section; Campaign Section; Public Relations Section; Budget Section.  Organization and  Structure  In the case of the Chest and Council, i t could be said that i t s organization and administration being by the Board of Trade was  not complex.  influenced  The business  community always wants to have clear-cut, w e l l defined administration, and perhaps the Vancouver group wanted the same unambiguity i n the organizational structure of the Chest and Council. The Chest and Council i n Vancouver has thus always had a c a r e f u l , well defined administration.  1 Chest and Council, Greater Vancouver. (Revised March 1958).  The  organizational  Constitution  - 67 -  structure which the Chest and Council has now the thoughtfulness  i n 1958  shows  of the volunteers and the professionals i n  devising an excellent structure, pending possible amendment(s) i n the Constitution to give representation to the adjoining municipality of Burnaby, which they propose to e f f e c t sometime next year.  In the l i g h t of the preceding  text, the  organization of the Chest and Council, shown on the following page, i s self-explanatory. The need for sound administration of s o c i a l agencies i s as great now  as ever before.  This i s more important i n  r e l a t i o n to a Community Chest and Council which, i n addition to other c r i t e r i a of merit, needs reasonably sound methods of administration to enable i t to work e f f e c t i v e l y and to show the benefits of i t s existence to the contributors and  the  members of the community at large. D i r e c t l y or i n d i r e c t l y the whole Greater Vancouver community i s involved i n the working of the Chest and  Council.  The p r i n c i p l e of community p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s l i k e a thread woven through a l l human relationships of the agency.  It  s t r i v e s and encourages the f u l l e s t practicable p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n p o l i c y making and management by a l l those persons who responsible f o r or are interested i n i t s performance. means a great variety of people who  This  are associated with the  Chest and Council: i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi.  are  O f f i c e r s and Board Members Volunteers Contributors Beneficiaries Paid Executive and his professional s t a f f Secretarial staff.  BOARD OF DIRECTORS  BUDGET SECTION  FUND RAISING  EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE  2 Burnaby r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s .  5 Burnaby r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s a p p c i n t e d by Community Council  5 Biuniaijr-r^epre^eiitatiTes nominated by Community C o u n c i l  PUBLIC RELATIONS  SOCIAL PLANNING SECTION  EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE  EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE  2 Burnaby r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s MANAGEMENT COMMITTEE  ALV. CORP.  ADV. PERS-  NAT. CORP.  6 Burnaby r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s  PROF.  RES,  BUS,  DIV.  I . BURNABY COMMUNITY COUNCIL  VAN. DIV. Special  Metropolitan  Structured  Burnaby  Structured  ii.  Committees  • • • • i 6 u" ~o • • D Budget g r o u p i n g of Agencies by f i e l d s of s e r v i c e .  PIG.  2 Burnaby r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s 1  S p e c i a l Committees w i t h specific responsibilities drawing p e r s o n n e l from appropriate areas.  STRUCTURE DEVELOPED TO PERMIT JOINING OP BURNABY AND\ VANCOUVER IN A COMMUNITY CHEST AND COUNCIL OP \ \ METROPOLITAN VANCOUVER 1  \  DIVISION  CENTRAL" SERVICE  - 68  -  A l l of these categories of people are important and t h e i r active association i s just a must for successful operation of the Chest and Council. 4.  Board of Directors The membership of an organization provides  strength  and l i f e to the organization, but the Board of Directors provides necessary motion and d i r e c t i o n to the whole enterprise, and i s responsible to administer i t s a f f a i r s .  In i t s work  the Board of Directors i s assisted by the Executive Committee. It might be said that the board of directors . . . , i n terms of the Federal Government combines both the l e g i s l a t i v e and j u d i c i a l functions of Congress and of the Supreme Court, whereas the powers of carrying out i t s p o l i c i e s and decisions i s delegated to the executive (committee) . . . .1 The Board of Directors i s responsible f o r program formulation and for control of f i s c a l matters; and i t acts as l i a i s o n i n interpreting the agency and the community to each other.  The Board i s responsible f o r insuring that the agency  continues to meet community needs and operates e f f e c t i v e l y . The Board i s also responsible f o r the s e l e c t i o n of the Executive Director and other executive s t a f f on the recommendation of the Executive Director. As usual, within the Budget adopted by the Board, the Board of Directors has relinquished a great part of their functions by delegating to the Executive Director the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r administration and the technical operation  1 Street, Elwood, A Handbook for S o c i a l Agency Administration; Harper and Bros.; New York; 1 9 4 b .  - 69 -  of the agency.  This healthy, p r a c t i c a l a t t i t u d e of the Board,  besides giving due recognition to his technical a b i l i t i e s , gives the Executive Director a free hand to p i l o t the agency. This delegation of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s also important from the point of view of personnel p r a c t i c e , as the s t a f f must know one person to whom they are d i r e c t l y responsible for t h e i r action; and to whom they can look to for guidance i n t h e i r work.  In agencies where this r e s p o n s i b i l i t y has not been  delegated to the Executive Director, there usually i s found confusion and r e b e l l i o u s disagreement between the Executive Director and his s t a f f .  This wrong practice often r e s u l t s i n  the formation of groups and sub-groups within the Board—some favouring the Executive Director and the others to the i n d i v i d u a l s t a f f member(s).  Such an atmosphere obviously  results i n unhealthy competition among the groups i n the Board, and much e f f o r t i s wasted i n s e t t l i n g down petty s t a f f disputes rather than providing service to the community. Consequently the agency relapsed into i n a c t i v i t y , and eventually results i n i t s own elimination from the community. In Vancouver, the Executive Director of the Chest and Council has c l e a r l y spelled out r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n t h i s a r e a — f o r selection, d i r e c t i o n and release of s t a f f , and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for the administration of personnel p o l i c i e s as determined by the Board of Directors from time to time. The board of d i r e c t o r s , as has been said before i s the l e g i s l a t i v e and j u d i c i a l body of the agency.  More than  - 70 -  that, however, i t i s the body responsible f o r continuous policy and for steady progress through the periods of changing executives, s t a f f s , and conditions of l i f e . board of directors i s the one e s s e n t i a l of the private s o c i a l agency.  The  standard  The agency may operate without an  executive or s t a f f through delegation of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to volunteers, or without an executive through committees or through volunteer supervision of paid s t a f f members; but i t must have an active responsible board of directors i f i t i s long to continue. 5.  Composition and Size of the Board The implementation of the objects and the management and administration of the a f f a i r s of t h i s Society (CCC) s h a l l be conducted by a Board of Directors consisting of: 1.  a. T h i r t y - s i x elected members (exclusive of e x - o f f i c i o members) twelve of whom s h a l l be elected each year at the Annual meeting of the Society for terms of three years each. No person s h a l l be e l i g i b l e to serve as a Director for more than two successive three year terms. b. Up to f i v e additional members may be appointed by the Board of Directors to serve f o r a period of one year where s p e c i f i c representations from community groups i s considered to warrant such appointment. c. The S o c i a l Planning Section Chairman The Public Relations Section Chairman The Budget Section Chairman The Fund Raising Section Chairman The Campaign Chairman and the Immediate Past President, each of whom s h a l l become an e x - o f f i c i o member of the Board of Directors i n the event that he i s not a member by e l e c t i o n . Thus the Board of Directors of the Chest and Council  could have up to forty-seven members.  This year (1958) they  - 71 -  have f o r t y - s i x members as one of the e x - o f f i c i o members under Clause 1(c) i s an elected member under 1(a).  Consequently,  there are f o r t y - s i x members of the Board t h i s year, of which f i v e are from the Burnaby Council appointed under 1(b). i s an adhoc arrangement  This  and the writer agrees with the  Executive Director and others who f e e l that Clause 1(c) should be kept open and should not be used i n the way i t i s being used t h i s year to give enblock representation to one group— Burnaby.  E f f o r t s are being made to amend the Constitution at  the next Annual Meeting i n February 1959 to give representation to Burnaby which would l e t the Clause 1(b) open f o r the purpose i t i s provided i n the Constitution.  Even the present  number of f o r t y - s i x members of the Board seems to be a large number f o r an e f f e c t i v e board.  The Board should neither be so  small i n number that representative opinion w i l l be impossible, nor so large that discussion w i l l be unduly d i f f i c u l t .  From  f i f t e e n to t h i r t y members i s considered about the r i g h t size for most agency boards. There are several reasons for t h i s large number of board members of the Chest and Council as observed by the Community Chest and Council o f f i c i a l s .  I t has been found  necessary to enlarge the Board to a seemingly disproportionate number i n order to widen the range of community p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n and knowledge about the organization.  Expansion of the  Board has also made possible considerable turnover while at the same time retaining the strength and continuity  - 72 -  contributed by the well indoctrinated members. The present Board of Directors of the Chest and Council i s f a i r l y representative i n character.  I t has  representatives from almost a l l shades of opinion—business, labour, press, professionals, public administrators, housewives, etcetera.  A look at the following summary analysis of  the present composition  of the Board w i l l support  this  contention: Business  15  Labour  7  Public Administrators  3  Press  1  Housewives  9  Professionals i. ii. iii. iv. v.  Medical Law Teaching Church Others  11 2 2 3 1 3  How long a board member should serve on the board i s a matter of much controversy.  The present trend i s d e f i n i t e l y  toward limited term, as the advantages f a r outweigh the disadvantages.  The l i m i t e d term i s an e f f e c t i v e tool to  prevent the board becoming an ingrown or self-perpetuating body.  I t makes i t possible f o r more and more people to become  acquainted with and interested i n the agency.  This i s also  important as the new members always bring i n fresh points of view; and chances of domination of the agency by a few are minimized.  Cognizance has been given to these advantages by  - 73 -  the Chest and Council i n Vancouver.  The most widely accepted  plan f o r tenure of board membership which i s also followed by the Chest and Council, i s a three-year term allowing one r e - e l e c t i o n f o r a second f u l l term.  By staggering the terms,  two-thirds of the elected Board returns each year, which keeps up s u f f i c i e n t continuity i n the Board's thinking and i n  , i  the plans of the Agency.  After a year's absence, a former  member may be asked to serve again.  Besides, valuable i  members are and/or could be i n v i t e d to remain associated with the Agency by serving on special committees and advising on s p e c i f i c points. 6.  Manner of E l e c t i o n to the Board of Directors According to the Constitution: . . . at elections i n both membership and Board meetings, a request s h a l l be made for nominations from the f l o o r i n addition to those submitted by the Nominating Committee but nominations so made s h a l l only be received provided the written consent of the nominee has been obtained and delivered to the Chairman of the meeting at least twenty-four hours p r i o r to such nominations from the f l o o r . The Nominating Committee of the Board nominates  '  ;  twelve persons f o r e l e c t i o n to the Board from the membership at the annual meeting to f i l l the vacancies which occur each i  year i n the Board. The system of nomination provided by the Chest and Council i s sound, as t h i s provides an opportunity f o r careful study of prospective candidates f o r the board membership keeping i n view that the representative nature of the  i  -  7 4  -  organization i s not interrupted. In order to obtain a cross section of the community with good inter-mixture of professional and amateur s k i l l s and i n t e r e s t s , much thought i s given by the Nominating Committee i n preparing the s l a t e .  In addition much time i s  given i n making d i r e c t personal contact with each nominee, i n order to accomplish a thorough interpretation job on the underlying ideas and philosophy of the Chest and Council. Another s p e c i f i c function of the Nominating Committee i s to r e t i r e members gracefully but firmly where t h i s i s necessary. nominating  This i s a d i f f i c u l t and unpleasant task, and committees n a t u r a l l y tend to be over-courteous.  This task has been lightened however, by p r o v i s i o n for term of tenure i n the Bylaws of the Chest and Council.  Thus i n  the matter of e l e c t i o n to the Board of Directors of the Chest and Council, there i s adequate board turn-over and adequate continuity, with no stigma attached to retirement from board membership. 7.  Functions of the Board The Constitution states that: The Board of Directors s h a l l manage the a f f a i r s of t h i s Society . . . ; to employ and discharge an Executive Director, to define h i s duties and f i x his salary and terms and conditions of employment; and upon the nomination of the Executive Director to employ and discharge such other s t a f f members as i t may deem necessary for the successful operation of the society and to determine t h e i r number, remuneration, terms and conditions of employment, and the Board s h a l l delegate duties to i t s executive committee, from time to time.  - 75 -  Lack of c l a r i t y i n defining powers (duties) delegated to the Executive Committee could cause confusion and could involve duplication of e f f o r t .  In view of the Board's s i z e , i t i s  only natural that the Executive Committee has been forced to carry on the business of the organization, and has a good deal of weight to i t s decision making.  Its purpose i s to  carry on the business of the Organization between Board meetings, which has often necessitated action which the Board might consider i t s prerogative.  "In theory, the board should  make broad general decisions of p o l i c y , and the executive (committee) with the a i d of the s t a f f should make s p e c i f i c decisions within the framework of p o l i c y outlined by the board."  1  . . . such an executive committee tends to become the r e a l board. One of the two courses should then be followed. The executive committee may be given f i n a l authority and be r e l i e v e d from having to get approval from the larger body (Board). The large committee (Board) may be retained, c l e a r l y recognized as an honorary or advisory body. Less w i l l be expected of i t and special e f f o r t s w i l l be necessary to stimulate i t enough so that i t w i l l interpret the work to the various groups i t represents . . . . The other course i s to reduce the size of the large board to maximum workable size (about 30) and place upon i t complete r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for a l l major decisions.2 However, there i s no conceivable problem i n this relationship between the Board of Directors and the Executive Committee of the Chest and Council. 1 McMillan, Wayne, Community Organization f o r Social Work, University of Chicago Press; Chicago; 1945, p. 159« 2 King, Clarence, S o c i a l Agency Boards and How to Make Them E f f e c t i v e : Harper and Bros.; New York, 1936; p. 41.  - 76 -  The functions of the Board of Directors described above, have been decentralized and they are carried on by a number of Standing and Special Committees.  This year,  these Committees are: A.  Standing Committees: 1. Executive Committee; 2. Administration Committee; 3. Nominating Committee; and 4-. Annual Meeting and Annual Report Committee.  B.  Special Committees: 1. Negotiating Committee; 2. Lower Mainland Planning Committee; 3. Burnaby Agencies; 4. Committee r e . Amendments to Constitution; Admission Committee; 6. Public-Private R e s p o n s i b i l i t y Committee; and 7. Research Advisory Committee.  8.  Board-Staff Relationships Not very long ago, the tendency on the part of Board  members was to centralize a l l powers and concommitant r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n themselves.  Consequently, there used to be  an atmosphere of insecurity and d i s t r u s t among the Board members on one hand and the professional s t a f f on the other; each trying to usurp the area of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the other. In t h i s tug of war f o r power, each one used to consider the other as a necessary e v i l , as presence of both—Board members and professional s t a f f — w a s and i s essential f o r agency operation. everywhere.  But that s i t u a t i o n i s now r a p i d l y changing In more recent years, the character of the  relationship between boards and s t a f f has been undergoing a marked change.  Many board members have been showing a  - 77 -  serious concern about understanding t h e i r functions i n r e l a t i o n to that of the s t a f f .  They have been acquiring a  greater r e a l i z a t i o n that Board members and s t a f f members working together have much to gain from each other: professional s t a f f on t h e i r part have been becoming more conscious  than ever of the s o c i a l significance of c i t i z e n s  1  participation. Professionals are increasingly recognizing  the  importance of blending the lay-professional thinking for the service of the community.  Harold Laski i n h i s essay  Limitation of the Expert"  explained:  "The  . . . that by his very expertness the expert (professional) separates himself from the everyday run of people. Someone must form a bridge between them . . . . I f he (Board member) i s t r u l y representative of an important segment of the community, he w i l l interpret to the professional s t a f f the attitudes and needs of h i s part of the community. And conversely he w i l l i n t e r p r e t the work of that s t a f f to his constituency and act i n securing t h e i r sponsorship and support. To serve i n t h i s capacity he must be c l o s e l y i n touch with the work, so that he understands i t , while s t i l l maintaining h i s representative capacity i n the community.1 The board-staff r e l a t i o n s h i p , when reduced to i t s essence, i s primarily one of human r e l a t i o n s . The association of board and s t a f f b a s i c a l l y represents a working p a r t n e r s h i p — the harmonious and e f f e c t i v e sharing of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n a j o i n t i n t e r e s t — t h e organization.  "The working together  of  board and s t a f f c a l l s f o r mutual consultation, free and c r i t i c a l discussion, a wholesome process of give and take and 1 King, Clarence, Organization f o r Community Action, Harper and Bros; New York; 194-8; p. 2 1 .  - 78 1 mutual recognition of the complimentary r o l e s of each." Considerable  progress seems to have been made i n t h i s  important area of board-staff r e l a t i o n s h i p i n the Chest and Council, by achieving a s a t i s f a c t o r y balance between Board and s t a f f functioning. 9.  Executive Director, Functions of The Executive  of any organization i s the steering  wheel of that organization.  "A S o c i a l Worker engaged i n the  practice of community organization draws upon the basic philosophy,  p r i n c i p l e s and ethics of his profession, and both  uses and contributes to the methodology which forms the 2 generic core of s o c i a l work."  He must be adept i n  administration and i n educational and promotional  processes.  He needs to understand the dynamics of community and i n t e r group r e l a t i o n s as well as the dynamics of i n d i v i d u a l and group behaviour. The functions of the Executive Director of the Community Chest and Council of Vancouver, as l a i d down i n the Manual of Job d e s c r i p t i o n are: Within the l i m i t s of general p o l i c i e s established by the Board of Directors of the Community Chest and Council, to give d i r e c t i o n to joint planning and promotion of an e f f i c i e n t and e f f e c t i v e program of public and voluntary health, welfare and recreational services for the community; to e n l i s t and maintain community f i n a n c i a l support and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the program of the d i f f e r e n t f i e l d s and member agencies; 1 Blumenthal, L.H., How to Work with your Board and Committees; Association Press; New York; p. 13. 2 Sieder, V i o l e t M., "The Task of the Community Organizer" paper given at the National Conference of S o c i a l Work (U.S.A.);  1957.  -  79  -  to d i r e c t the work of the s t a f f .'. . acts as consultant to the Board of Directors. Besides t h i s very wide a l l - i n c l u s i v e job description, an Executive of a Community Chest and Council has to work under a confused understanding as to the objective of S o c i a l Work, r o l e of public and private agencies ( r e l i g i o u s and secular) i n the f i e l d ; and the question of program f i x a t i o n of national agencies.  To t h i s , has been added growing  i r r i t a t i o n of the public over the ever increasing "tax b i t e " for public welfare programs and requests f o r larger contributions to support voluntary agencies.  An Executive,  whether he l i k e s i t or not, has to recognize these f a c t s . He has to work with agencies, groups and individuals who  may  be having a d i f f e r e n t viewpoint, philosophy and method of work.  Much of h i s success depends oh the kind of professional  relationship he i s able to e s t a b l i s h with leaders who and influence community's destiny.  direct  But, the humanitarian  motivation, respect and recognition afforded for a job done, coupled with unlimited opportunities f o r creative imagination and f o r testing ideas, viewpoints and judgements have made this job challenging, rewarding and f a s c i n a t i n g . In using the community organization method, the Executive Director makes conscious and d i s c i p l i n e d use of himself i n interpersonal, group and intergroup r e l a t i o n s , through the appropriate choice and use of such s k i l l s as the Interview, consultation, conference, committee delegate groups, and with the support of such administrative tools as  -  80  -  fact f i n d i n g , i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and public r e l a t i o n s ,  budgeting,  financing, and administration. To take a meaningful look at the tasks performed by the Executive Director of the Chest and Council, we must see them against a conception of the t o t a l i t y of the community organization process within which the tasks operate and to which they r e l a t e .  This conception, by the very nature of  Community Organization p r a c t i c e , must be  multi-dimensional  and therefore complex; and as such the Executive i s needed to follow c e r t a i n steps to do h i s job successfully: 1.  An assessment of the r e a l i t y factor i n the community s i t u a t i o n ; Diagnosis of the community s i t u a t i o n ; Formation of the community's s o c i a l goals or objectives.  2. 3.  The p o s i t i o n of the Executive person i n any  voluntary  agency i s that of l i a i s o n between p o l i c y making and operating groups.  This demands that the person be q u a l i f i e d to carry  out the p o l i c i e s the Board of Directors and the Executive Committee l a y down i n day to day operation of services to members and member-groups.  In democratic administration and  i n large organizations l i k e the Community Chest and Council, t h i s necessitates a b i l i t y to further delegate both r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and i t s e s s e n t i a l concommitant, authority, whenever t h i s i s possible.  This i s the only way  to give wide range and  e f f i c i e n t services to the community.  Accordingly, a major  portion of his r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and concommitant authority have been delegated by the Executive Director of the Chest  - 81 and Council to h i s four deputies, (each one of these heads one of the four main Sections of the organization), and to other executive s t a f f .  The functions of these Sectional  Chiefs and the other executive s t a f f b r i e f l y are as follows: (i)  Director of S o c i a l Planning Section (Asst. Executive Director Under the administrative supervision and d i r e c t i o n of  the Executive Director, the Director of the S o c i a l Planning guides and a s s i s t s the formulation of p o l i c i e s , e s p e c i a l l y concerning  S o c i a l Planning of the Chest and Council.  He  gives d i r e c t i o n to j o i n t planning and i n formulation of an e f f i c i e n t and e f f e c t i v e program of public and voluntary health, welfare and r e c r e a t i o n a l services i n the community. He performs, when required, the duties of the Executive Director; and thus occupies a key p o s i t i o n i n the organization. (ii)  Campaign Director Under the administrative d i r e c t i o n of the Executive  Director, the Campaign Director a s s i s t s i n the development of plans and procedures l a i d down by the general Campaign Committee.  He a s s i s t s the Campaign Manager i n the supervision  and d i r e c t i o n of campaign preparations f o r a l l d i v i s i o n s . (iii)  Director of Public Relations Under the administrative supervision of the Executive  Director, the Director of Public Relations d i r e c t s the development and execution of long-range p o l i c i e s designed to  82 earn and maintain p u b l i c confidence i n the Community Chest and Council, and i n i t s f i n a n c i a l l y p a r t i c i p a t i n g member agencies and s o c i a l welfare i n general.  He serves i n an  advisory capacity on p o l i c y matters which influence public attitudes and agency r e l a t i o n s h i p s . (iv)  Director of Budget Section Under the administrative supervision of the Executive  Director, the Director of the Budget Section a s s i s t s the Budget Section i n considering and deciding a l l matters pertaining to the allowances, increase or reduction of budgets, including payments to agencies In accordance with t h e i r budget allowance and a l l other matters incident thereto. He gives consultative services to agencies with regard to budgets and works i n close cooperation with D i v i s i o n Secretaries. (v)  Campaign D i v i s i o n Manager Under the administrative supervision of the Executive  Director, the Campaign D i v i s i o n Manager a s s i s t s i n the development of plans and procedures l a i d down by the General Campaign Committee, and i n accordance with these plans and procedures, executes and promotes the fund r a i s i n g a c t i v i t i e s of a D i v i s i o n or Divisions of the Community Chest and Council Campaign. (vi)  Comptroller Under the d i r e c t i o n of the Executive Director, and  assisted by two s t a f f members, the Comptroller performs the  - 83 -  duties of the Accountant, Purchase Agent and Office Manager, described below. (a)  Accountant maintains the accounting  system of the  organization. (b)  Purchase Agent arranges for purchase of a l l o f f i c e  and campaign supplies and equipment keeping i n mind the necessity of obtaining the best possible price while at the same time endeavoring to spread out purchases to keep the goodwill of business firms and employees. (c)  Office Manager supervises and d i r e c t s the o f f i c e  s e c r e t a r i a l and c l e r i c a l s t a f f and s e l e c t i o n and assigning of such s t a f f . (vii)  Labour S t a f f  Representative  Under the administrative d i r e c t i o n , the Labour S t a f f Representative  has general duties and works with a l l Sections.  His main job i s to encourage and stimulate more and more labour p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the a f f a i r s of the Chest and Council. To l e t the working people know about the services of the Chest and Council and how 10.  they can make use of these services.  Trends i n S t a f f S i t u a t i o n From the 'Staff Organization' chart on the following  page, i t i s clear that the Chest and Council has a l i n e administration.  The ultimate authority i n the a f f a i r s of the  agency rests with the Board of Directors, who  has  delegated  -  Pi  to  £?H  follow  page  83  -  •  o PQ <q *=$ EH  H3  H rH EH  CO  KH EH  S « EH S <{ O O H <3 EH O H EH O EH CO H EH O H cd H J ' ^ H  {SJ  oo pq i-4 re PQ co  CO {_> m H {3 CO «a< PH p^J fi PH «a«  |2i H Ci3 H  PH O EH  EEC  < tj PH ^ O  H  & O H CO £ H  EH'PH  is;  c5  <i EH O pq  s<i  co m .<j <j H « PH s co H s <d co o <t s < o  H <J. PH.  EH O  o  H  ciJ  OH  < W EH  o O H  P3  CO <!  O H  S >  O is; >  O  H  OH"  CO CO  i-H . O&W pq><  EH <}  o t-q • M  PH EH  H «  <  K  CO CO  H EH fr, O t3 3 H o H >  .  H H PH O p O  o co  [-j ^  pcj  pq o co pq o  X §  H  - 84  -  necessary powers to the Executive Director, who delegated  In turn has  some of his powers to his professional deputies  and other administrative a i d s . This decentralization of powers and functions should be seen as r e s p o n s i b i l i t y through, though not to the executive person, for the executive person i s d i r e c t l y responsible to the Board of Directors for o v e r a l l operation of the Chest and Council.  In terms of o v e r a l l operating  structure of the Society the four main Sections  should  therefore be considered to be there to serve the Society rather than the Executive Director. From the early days adequate provision f o r q u a l i f i e d s t a f f has always been considered e s s e n t i a l for the society. The organization has been constantly u n s a t i s f i e d with short of professional performance on the job.  anything  To a t t r a c t the  r i g h t type of persons, the agency has revised the salary scale of the paid s t a f f from time to time, to keep i t i n l i n e with s i m i l a r jobs elsewhere i n the community.  Coupled with  better s a l a r i e s , the s t a f f also has the benefits of pension, annual leave, sick leave, etcetera.  As a r e s u l t thereof, the  Chest and Council has q u a l i f i e d persons on i t s s t a f f to do the job of organizing the Vancouver c i t i z e n r y for community action.  CHAPTER 4  DEVELOPMENT OF SECTIONS  In any service organization, program i s the end toward which a l l administrative e f f o r t i s bent.  I t endeavours  to s a t i s f y the needs of the organization's membership and of the community i n which i t functions.  Administration, i n this  context, i s the planning function and i s followed by program which i s the carrying out of plans i n terms of actual service given. Both administration and program involve the t o t a l membership, either d i r e c t l y or i n d i r e c t l y , and should r e f l e c t both i t s thinking and i t s action f o r the f u l f i l l m e n t of the objectives of the agency. The objectives of the Chest and Council are achieved through four main Sections of the Society.  Each of  these Sections was formed when a need f o r such a section was f e l t within the framework of the Society. they stand today, are: 1. 2. 3. 4.  S o c i a l Planning Section Campaign Section Public Relations Section; and Budget Section  These Sections, as  - 86 -  1.  SOCIAL PLANNING SECTION  Today, as never before, we need to l i v e by planning and cooperation.  In hundreds of communities c i t i z e n s are  working together to change t h e i r physical environment, t h e i r i n d u s t r i a l economy, and their fund r a i s i n g and community planning machinery for health, welfare and recreation.  The  key to t h i s task i s found i n the phrase " c i t i z e n s working together."  Community Planning f o r s o c i a l work i s a  cooperative venture, whereby dozens, scores or hundreds of agencies and autonomous organizations sponsoring  social  welfare programs i n the community accept the common good as something that transcends s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t s . with c i t i z e n s who  They j o i n hands  support and use the services to develop a  t o t a l program which w i l l meet the needs of people as  adequately  as possible. This need for planning and cooperation was f e l t  and  recognized i n Vancouver when t h i r t y - f o u r s o c i a l welfare organizations of the c i t y unanimously decided to form the Council of S o c i a l Agencies on November 7, the Council became established on February  1929.  1930*  Accordingly This Council  functioned as a separate entity but with close cooperation with i t s counterpart "ITelfare Federation" u n t i l both these organizations were merged into one single organization i n 1946, was  and the present name, "The Community Chest and Council," given to them.  With this merger, a Welfare Section  (now  - 87 -  known as S o c i a l Planning Section) was  established within the  Chest and Council for the purposes of s o c i a l planning and a l l other a c t i v i t i e s which were hitherto c a r r i e d on by the of S o c i a l Agencies.  Council  Since then the Section has been able to  accomplish a l o t i n the f i e l d of s o c i a l  planning.  Today, on the paid professional side, the Section i s headed by a Director of S o c i a l Planning who  i s also the  Assistant Executive Director of the Chest and Council, and i s responsible to the Executive Director.  The Director of S o c i a l  Planning i s assisted i n h i s work by an  Administrative  Assistant.  He has seven professionally trained  deputies;  four of these lead on as Executive Secretaries on each of the 1  four main d i v i s i o n s  of the Section, while the remaining three  act as Executive Secretaries for three Special Groups of the Section. 1.  Present Formation of the S o c i a l Planning Section According to the c o n s t i t u t i o n a l provisions, a g e n c i e s —  f i n a n c i a l l y p a r t i c i p a t i n g and non-participating—which  are  granted membership i n the Community Chest and Council also receive representation or standing  i n one of the four functional d i v i s i o n s  groups of the Section by reason of t h e i r i n t e r e s t  and function.  An agency may  also be represented on more than  one Functional D i v i s i o n and/or group, i f approved by Executive Committee of the  the  Section.  1 Four main Divisions of the S o c i a l Planning Section: i ) Group work and Recreation; ( i i ) Family and C h i l d Welfare; i i i ) Guidance of Handicapped; (iv) Health.  -  88  -  Besides agencies, individuals who are members of the Society may, by reason of t h e i r i n t e r e s t i n or contributions to i t s object also belong to one d i v i s i o n or group according to major function or i n t e r e s t ; and may also be represented  on any other d i v i s i o n or group approved by the  Executive Committee of the Section. Thus, l i k e a Community Council, the S o c i a l Planning Section (which i n fact i s a Community Council) has two types of members—organizational and i n d i v i d u a l .  The organizational  or agency membership of the Section this year i s 111 and has 45 i n d i v i d u a l members. 2.  Organization of the Section The t o t a l membership of the Section i s , i n the  main, the sum t o t a l of members enrolled i n each of the four Functional Divisions and three standing groups.  The Executive  Committee of the Section, which has twenty members this  year,  i s constituted as follows: (i) The Chairman s h a l l be the Chairman of the S o c i a l Planning Section who with at least two vice chairmen s h a l l be elected by the Executive Committee of the S o c i a l Planning Section. ( i i ) The Chairman, Vice Chairmen, or t h e i r deputies, of each of the d i v i s i o n s or groupings and standing committees. ( i i i ) Two delegates selected from and by the members of each of the d i v i s i o n s or groupings. (iv) Six members appointed annually by the Board of Directors of the Society of which two s h a l l be members of the Board of Directors.  - 89 -  (v) The Chairman of the Fund Rasising, Budget and Public Relations Sections or t h e i r designates. (vi) Up to f i v e additional members may be appointed by the Executive Committee to serve f o r a period of one year where s p e c i f i c representations from community groups i s considered to warrant such appointment.1 Each of these Functional Divisions and the Standing Groups have t h e i r own  executive and an structure.  assisted i n t h e i r work by a professional person—an secretary.  They are executive  The basic organizational structure of the Section  has been shown on the following page which i s self-explanatory. 3»  Functions  of the S o c i a l Planning  Section  The S o c i a l Planning Section of the Chest and  Council  i n i t s composition, s p i r i t and functions i s a Community Council having a geographic base.  The S o c i a l Planning  Section  . . . i s a voluntary organization (within the Chest and Council) consisting of representatives from public and private agencies, interested organizations and lay c i t i z e n s , formed to the end of developing the q u a l i t y and adequacy of s o c i a l services i n the community. The primary function of the (Section) i s to develop teamwork among private and public s o c i a l agencies so that j o i n t resources can be used to the best advantage i n meeting the welfare problems of the community as a whole. The r e a l purpose of (the Section) i s achieved when "Community Mindedness" transcends "Agency Mindedness." This i s accomplished when agencies, i n the company of interested lay c i t i z e n s , get together cooperatively and earnestly attempt to do the following: a - Coordinate existing programs of service b - Marshal facts on basic s o c i a l needs c - Eliminate duplication and outmoded services  1 Community Chest and Council, Greater Vancouver Constitution (1958).  COMMUNITY CHEST AND COUNCIL OF GREATER VANCOUVER SOCIAL PLANNING SECTION STRUCTURE  S O C I A L P L A N  N I  H3 O  NG  Hj  S E C T I O N  O r-> H» O  »o (D  OO vO  3ROUIWORK AND RECREATION DIVISION  FAMILY AND CHILD TffiLFARE DIVISI ON  GUIDANCE OF HANDICAPPED DIVISION  HEALTH DIVISION  STANDING COMMITTEES E.G. MEMBERSHIP NOMINATIONS YffiLFARE OF THE AGED VETERANS AND SEAMEN  PROJECT COMMITTEES  CENTRAL SERVICES SOCIAL SERVICE INDEX COMMUNITY INFO. SERVICE CHRISTMAS BUREAU CAMP REFERRAL PROJECT  Figure 6  - 90 -  d - I n i t i a t e programs to meet unmet needs e - Subject t h e i r own programs to periodic evaluation f - Develop public understanding of s o c i a l work.l According to the Constitution, the functions of the Section are:  "continuous study of s o c i a l needs and resources;  cooperative planning to develop a more e f f e c t i v e program of services; j o i n t action on matters of common concern.; the creation of informed public opinion concerning s o c i a l  problems;  and the provision of consultative services i n the f i e l d of 2 health, welfare and recreation." With these broad functions, the S o c i a l Planning Section i s the best protection against stagnation i n s o c i a l welfare programs.  I t offers the best assurance that the  community w i l l keep ahead of changing needs and quickly adapt to changing conditions.  I t i s just as important to make sure  that money i s spent wisely as i t i s to secure money to spend. An e f f e c t i v e S o c i a l Planning Section keeps upgrading the service product to j u s t i f y continued public support. Community planning i s concerned with coordination and educational a c t i v i t i e s as well as program development. It i s not enough to operate on a day to day f i r e - f i g h t i n g basis.  I t has to have long-range plan and bold strategy.  It i s not enough to ameliorate s o c i a l problems, today, the need i s to prevent and cure them. 1 Rudolph, N. Bvjen (Discussion Leader) Outline Summary f o r I n s t i t u t e of Fund, Chest and Council Operation, Feb. 2*5'. 1958. 2 Community Chest and Council, Greater Vancouver , Constitution (Revised 1 9 5 8 ) .  -  91  -  Some Membership Problems There are three groups of people whose i n t e r e s t needs expression, f o r they have a stake i n community planning for s o c i a l welfare.  F i r s t , are the people who  the consumers; second, are those who  use the s e r v i c e s —  support the s e r v i c e s — t h e  contributors and taxpayers; and t h i r d , are those who  develop  and manage the services and who must carry out the p l a n s — agency board members, public o f f i c i a l s and professional workers.  These are overlapping i n t e r e s t s , but neglect of any  of them, or dominance by any one of them, could seriously impair the effectiveness of the Chest and Council. Presently, these interests are not being cared f o r i n the S o c i a l Planning Section i n a well balanced way.  The number of lay community  persons—consumers and c o n t r i b u t o r s — i n the Divisions of the Section i s minimal because of the existing membership procedure.  This can make the Divisions "Agency Centred" with  a limited number of lay persons.  However, on the Executives  and on the various Project Committees a balance has been achieved to some extent.  These facts were highlighted i n  October l a s t when the Section did a Survey of i t s membership i n various Divisions, etcetera. The net r e s u l t s were shown i n Table IV of the Survey, which i s reproduced  on the following  page. From the Table, i t i s clear that the present makeup of the Section i s "agency centred" and i s dominated by the "professionals."  Such a makeup can pose a number of problems  - 92 -  Agency Persons Board Staff  BODY Divisions Executives Project Committees (with Centre Services) T O T A L S  Community Persons Lay Professional  157  112  48  36  48  20  50  26  140  20  100  107  345  152  198  169  The figures i n the Table above indicate the following percentages: I)  Ii)  Agency persons Community persons  -  57*5 42.5  S t a f f persons Board persons Lay persons ' Professional persons  -  40.1 17*5 22.9 19«5  i n the area of s o c i a l planning, e.g., i . lack of o b j e c t i v i t y on the part of the delegates/ members which can l i m i t the s o c i a l planning to member agencies only without much care being given to bring i n the t o t a l community thinking and the community needs; i i . makes i t impossible to discuss/consider any possible l i q u i d a t i o n of a member agency who has completed i t s job and, therefore, i t s continuance i n the Chest and Council, and i t s existence i n the community i s no longer j u s t i f i a b l e ; i i i . r e s t r i c t s the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of the lay persons from the community f o r t h e i r obvious fears of being dominated by the professionals and the agency persons. To overcome these and similar other problems, which can undermine the importance of S o c i a l Planning, an  - 93 -  organizational structure on the basis of neighbourhood councils/committees could be evolved with great b e n e f i t . Such a beginning has already been made t h i s year by the inclusion of Burnaby, discussed e a r l i e r i n Chapter 3.  This  approach, i f adopted, w i l l bring more order and consistency i n the e f f o r t s of the S o c i a l Planning Section.  I t w i l l take  the organization r i g h t to the grass-roots; which w i l l then owe i t s existence to the community at large rather than to a few i n the community.  This w i l l c e r t a i n l y give strength to  the Section to meet the challenges of S o c i a l Planning, without fear, by being free from the control of any single i n t e r e s t group.  Such an approach i n turn w i l l help the Campaign  Section i n t h e i r fund r a i s i n g by broadening the base of supporters. A true planning body i s a c i t i z e n s ' organization, having a cross section of leadership represented  on i t . I t  must have a strong leadership so that i t could be a force strong enough, free enough and democratic enough to look at the community needs o b j e c t i v e l y , and to be able to plan and carry through i t s plans e f f e c t i v e l y .  Any community planning  worthy of the name gives a great deal of attention to public programs and r e l a t e i t s planning to the t o t a l community s e r v i c e s — b o t h public and p r i v a t e .  The S o c i a l Planning  Section has a clear i d e n t i f i c a t i o n as a body responsible for development and coordination of services, governmental and voluntary, to meet the wide range of community needs i n  -  94  -  health, welfare and recreational f i e l d s . Continuing  evaluation of the current s i t u a t i o n and  a periodic audit to determine the v a l i d i t y of active programs and the end r e s u l t s are the key to success of the S o c i a l Planning  Section.  2.  CAMPAIGN SECTION  A coordinating agency which i s p r i m a r i l y concerned with j o i n t fund-raising i s known by a v a r i e t y of names, e.g. United Funds, Community Chest, Community Fund, Welfare Federation, etcetera.  In Vancouver such an organization  formed with the name of Welfare Federation i n 1930. Federation continued  was  This  to r a i s e funds f o r financing health,  welfare and recreational programs of the member agencies and for financing i t s counterpart—the  Council of S o c i a l Agencies.  The Federation functioned as a separate e n t i t y but with close cooperation with i t s counterpart—the  C o u n c i l — u n t i l both  these organizations were merged into one single organization i n 1946 and the present name—"The Community Chest and Council"—was given to them. was  On the merger, Finance Committee  established within the Chest and Council f o r the purposes  of fund r a i s i n g . and now  This Committee was  l a t e r made as a Section;  i t i s one of the four main Sections of the Chest and  Council and i s known as the "Campaign Section." Today, on the paid professional side, the Section  - 95 -  i s headed by a Campaign Director who i s responsible to the Executive Director.  The Campaign Director i s assisted i n h i s  work by an Assistant Campaign Director and a Campaign Divisions Manager. 1.  Present Formation of the Campaign Section According to the Constitutional provisions the: Section s h a l l consist of a l l those a c t i v e l y engaged i n the gathering of funds and/or such persons as s h a l l from time to time be named by the Board of Directors of the Society upon recommendation of the . . . Section. The Chairman of the . . . Section s h a l l be the Campaign Chairman who s h a l l be appointed by the Board of Directors and s h a l l hold o f f i c e u n t i l h i s successor i s appointed.1 There s h a l l be an Executive Committee of the Fund Raising Section appointed immediately following the appointment of the Campaign Chairman, constituted as follows: ( i ) The Campaign Chairman who s h a l l be the Chairman of the Executive Committee, ( i i ) The Vice Chairmen of the Campaign, ( i i i ) The Campaign D i v i s i o n Chairmen, (iv) The immediate Past Chairman of the Campaign, (v) Such other o f f i c e r s or persons as may be appointed by the Campaign Chairman, (vi) The Chairman of the Budget Section or h i s delegate, ( v i i ) The Chairman of the Public Relations Section or his delegate. ( v i i i ) The Chairman of the S o c i a l Planning Section or h i s delegate.2 The organizational structure of the Campaign Section  i s interesting and has been shown i n the following pages. Functions of the Campaign Section The Campaign Section of the Chest and the Council i n 1 Community Chest and Council of Greater Vancouver, Constitution, 1958.  2 Loc. c i t .  - 96 -  i t s composition, s p i r i t and functions i s l i k e a Community Chest.  I t i s a machinery set up by c i t i z e n s of the community  to combine the f i n a n c i a l needs of e s s e n t i a l health, welfare and recreation agencies into one annual campaign.  A  Community Chest has three basic functions: 1.  To raise funds f o r a l l recognized voluntary health, welfare and recreation agencies through a single annual community wide d r i v e .  2.  To d i s t r i b u t e the funds thus secured on the basis of f a c t u a l information r e l a t i v e to services and f i n a n c i a l operations of agencies, and i n accordance with needs of the whole community.  3.  To promote the s o c i a l welfare of the community by guiding community i n t e r e s t , d i r e c t i n g attention and otherwise planning to the end of e f f e c t i v e l y meeting human needs to the extent that the resources of the community w i l l permit. In the case of the Campaign Section, the functions  mentioned under 2 and 3 are carried out by the Budget and the S o c i a l Planning Sections.  Thus the main function of the  Section centres around annual  fund-raising—efficiency,  adequacy and continuity i n fund-raising. In i t s e f f o r t s f o r funds, the Campaign Section (Chest) has been subject to the non-cooperative attitude of some of the national agencies (discussed i n Chapter 2).  Such an attitude i s not something  which i s being suffered by the Chest i n Vancouver only, but i s the one being suffered by Chest organizations a l l over the North American continent. Chest and United Funds are the centre of a b i t t e r controversy.  To many communities i t i s the most sensible  approach; but several of the most important national voluntary  - 97 -  organizations are convinced that i t represents a threat to t h e i r income and to t h e i r autonomy.  The leaders of these  organizations believe that i t i s i n the best interests of t h e i r organization to remain completely independent and s e l f sufficient.  These independent minded national organizations  have a l i s t of grievances against the Chest/United Funds concept, most of which touch on the hard-core problem of income.  Some of these are:  1.  The Chest/United Funds destroy the autonomy of the national organizations;  2.  Smaller groups take away the funds at the cost of larger groups;  3.  Giving through Chest/United Funds lacks the personal touch;  4.  Information and education are easier to spread when they concern a single cause rather than a package.  The major holdouts i n Canada against the l o c a l c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of appeals are the Salvation Army and the Canadian Cancer Society, which have joined only a few of the smaller Chests. The Red Cross allowed i t s branches to j o i n federated drives i n 1956, and now belong to about t h i r t y groups. The Salvation Army i s determined to remain independent so that i t s c o l l e c t o r s can spread the word of God during t h e i r rounds. The Cancer Society bluntly i n s i s t s that i t must stay out i n order to educate contributors about danger signs of the disease.1 This year, with the joining of Burnaby, there are s i x t y - s i x f i n a n c i a l l y p a r t i c i p a t i n g agencies with the Chest i n Vancouver.  Some of the national organizations, discussed  i n Chapter 2, have not yet joined the Chest, preferring to  1 Newman, Peter C., "Is the United Appeal too b i g — o r big enough," Maclean : September 27, 1958.  - 98 -  conduct t h e i r own go-alone campaigns, f o r reasons discussed above.  This has been further adding to the problems of the  Campaign Section i n achieving i t s campaign objective for the l a s t several years. Problem of Campaign F a i l u r e The problem of campaign f a i l u r e s i s serious and could not be i n d e f i n i t e l y postponed or ignored, otherwise i t would eventually r e s u l t i n a gradual deterioration of federated planning and campaigning.  Further f a i l u r e to face  up and cure t h i s problem would simply mean that i n d i v i d u a l agencies either c u r t a i l t h e i r program or would leave the Community Chest and Council.  Both these courses of action  would d i r e c t l y and seriously a f f e c t the health, welfare and recreation services of the community.  The writer f e e l s that  the addition of agencies to the existing l i s t of Chest  agencies;  and a progressively higher campaign objective each year (which imeets unfortunate f a i l u r e ) could never solve the problem. One  should be objective about voluntary g i v i n g . The problem of campaign f a i l u r e s i s not the one  being suffered by Vancouver only, but i s the one being suffered by many other c i t i e s .  In Vancouver however, i t needs  some serious thinking, e s p e c i a l l y because f o r the ninth time out of ten the Chest has f a i l e d to reach i t s Red Feather goal. This year's drive brought i n about $2,600,000 which i s only 8 9 . 4 per cent of the $2,906,000 target set by the Chest l a s t Spring on the basis of need.  The d e f i c i t remained despite  - 99 -  a f i f t e e n days extension with an a l l out appeal from the Campaign Chairman to the c i t i z e n s of Greater Vancouver. Whatever might be the c a u s e s — d i s i n t e r e s t ,  resentment,  ignorance of the c i t i z e n s — o f this and other f a i l u r e s , i t i s now  important and long overdue to have a searching reappraisal  of the Community Chest i n both i t s organization and the area of service.  I t i s high time that consideration may be given  to a possible regrouping of the Chest's agency/membership keeping i n view the p r i o r i t y needs of the people and t h e i r a b i l i t y to finance these services.  The best arrangement could  be that the treatment and other proven e s s e n t i a l services i n the f i e l d of health, welfare and recreation be s h i f t e d from the voluntary to public r e s p o n s i b i l i t y .  This would leave the  Chest to concentrate on and to c o l l e c t for preventive services, recreational and character-building agencies i n i t s fundr a i s i n g e f f o r t s ; and to carry on i t s work " i n the imaginative area of intensive treatment, research (demonstration), teaching, 1 interpretation and continuing scrutiny of public programs." I t i s interesting to note that "In a l l , the agencies' budgets this year t o t a l l e d $5>260,315.  The Chest provided  $2,014,173 (38.3#); governments at a l l l e v e l paid $1,467,689 (27.9=0; and the agencies raised $1,778,453 (33.8$).  A total  1 Dixon, G.W., S o c i a l Welfare and the Preservation of Human Values; J.M. Dent and Sons (Canada) Ltd.; Vancouver; 1957; P. 157.  - 100  of 32 of the a g e n c i e s , however, r e c e i v e d no p u b l i c g r a n t s . " Chest's f a i l u r e from a d i f f e r e n t  1  angle  Whether the Chest d r i v e f a i l e d or d i d not should be seen keeping i n view the f a c t t h a t t h i s year the Chest r a i s e d i t s g o a l by 17 per cent over i t s l a s t year's g o a l , which  was  a l s o not a c h i e v e d . The l o c a l community b e l i e v e the Chest t o be " f a i l i n g " i n the a r b i t r a r y sense t h a t i t f r e q u e n t l y failed t o meet i t s ( s e l f s e t ) g o a l . But f o r a l l we know . . . , t h i s f a i l u r e might r e p r e s e n t n o t h i n g more than an e r r o r of judgement i n s e t t i n g the g o a l too h i g h . Moreover, " f a i l u r e , " i f i t i s t o be made a spur t o g r e a t e r e f f o r t , must mean f a i l u r e - i n - r e l a t i o n - t o - o p p o r t u n i t y . . . . t h e r e f o r e . . . , t o f i n d a way of judging the " p o t e n t i a l " of a g i v e n c i t y ; o n l y i n r e l a t i o n t o t h a t p o t e n t i a l c o u l d i t m e a n i n g f u l l y be s a i d t h a t a g i v e n Chest was "succeeding" or " f a i l i n g " t o do what i t might r e a s o n a b l y be expected, i . e . t o do what other Chests i n l i k e circumstance were doing.2 In the l i g h t of the f o r e g o i n g r e a s o n i n g , one i s apt t o t h i n k t h a t the g o a l s e t by the Vancouver Chest t h i s year was  rather  u n r e a l i s t i c , e s p e c i a l l y , d u r i n g a p e r i o d of r e c e s s i o n and unemployment.  Vancouver's  large c i t i e s .  Toronto f o r example, cut i t s quota t h i s year  from l a s t ; S e a t t l e ' s was  approach was  d i f f e r e n t from most  i n c r e a s e d by o n l y 2 per cent; but i n  Vancouver the i n c r e a s e was  17 per cent though the c i t y i s i n  no b e t t e r " p o t e n t i a l " than Toronto and/or  1 Vancouver Sun. November 27,  Seattle.  1958.  2 S e e l e y , John R and A s s o c i a t e s , Community Chestt A Case Study i n P h i l a n t h r o p h y ; U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto P r e s s ; Toronto;  1957; P. 395.  - 101  "What makes the problem problematic i s p a r t l y . . . a matter of l o c a l outlook, l o c a l ways of l i f e , l o c a l habits 1 and t r a d i t i o n s and h i s t o r y . " more than true.  In Vancouver i t seems to be  The tax-conscious, a c q u i s i t i v e nature of  people often holds them back to give enough and may be p a r t l y responsible f o r frequent Chest's f a i l u r e s i n achieving i t s goals. There can be no two opinions that the Chest should be objective and cautious i n f i x i n g i t s Campaign goal(s), as such frequent f a i l u r e s to achieve the goal i s bound to a f f e c t the confidence of the people i n t h e i r Chest.  "Such an open-  ended approach i s only one of the weaknesses that could be over-come with a proper Research D i v i s i o n .  Research would  provide, too, better "yardsticks" on which " f a i r giving" 2 could be s o l i c i t e d at any l e v e l . " In every community and so also i n Vancouver, finds two groups.  one  Both these groups wish to see the Chest  succeed, but one group measures success l a r g e l y by the amount of "expansion" i n the Chest's a c t i v i t i e s and i n i t s coverage, while the other group measures i t by the degree of r a t i o n a l i t y , control, economy, "elimination of waste, duplication and overlap" i n the area of the Chest's operation.  I t i s f o r the  l o c a l Chest and the community to decide which of the two views they l i k e to work on. 1 Ibid., p. 397. 2 Vancouver Sun. November 27,  1958.  102 -  3.  PUBLIC RELATIONS SECTION  The Public Relations Section f i r s t appeared as a P u b l i c i t y Committee within the Welfare Federation  i n May  1957? set up from the membership of the Advertising and Sales Bureau of the Board of Trade.  This Committee used to b u i l d  up a program of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and education during the months before the campaign. Federation  This greatly helped the  i n i t s annual fund-raising campaigns.  amalgamation of the Federation  When the  and the Council was effected  i n 194-6, the P u b l i c i t y Committee, was renamed as Public Relations Committee and was to be shared by both the Welfare Section (now c a l l e d S o c i a l Planning Section) and the Finance Committee (now c a l l e d Campaign Section).  The Committee was  l a t e r made a f u l l "Section, of the Chest and Council. Today, on the professional side the Section i s headed by a Director of Public Relations who i s responsible to the Executive Director.  The Director of Public  Relations  i s assisted i n his work by an Assistant Director and a P u b l i c i t y Assistant. 1.  Present Formation of the Public Relation  Section  According to the c o n s t i t u t i o n a l provisions, the "Section s h a l l consist of a l l groups, business and i n d i v i d u a l s a c t i v e l y engaged i n , or providing d i r e c t assistance to the public r e l a t i o n s or advertising program of the Society." The work of the Section i s c a r r i e d on by the  - 103 -  Executive Committee of the Section which has sixteen members this year.  The number of members vary each year.  The  Executive Committee i s composed each year as follows: ( i ) Four members appointed by the Board of Directors of the Society, two of whom s h a l l serve f o r a period of two years and two for a period of one year and each year thereafter the Board s h a l l appoint two f o r a two year term. ( i i ) Four members recommended by the Executive Committee of the S o c i a l Planning Section f o r appointment by the Board of Directors of the Society. Two of these s h a l l be professional s o c i a l workers i n the f i e l d of health and welfare, one of whom s h a l l be employed i n a f i n a n c i a l l y p a r t i c i p a t i n g agency, and one employed i n a government agency. Two s h a l l serve f o r a period of two years and two f o r a period of one year and each year thereafter the Executive of the S o c i a l Planning Section s h a l l recommend two for a two year term f o r appointment by the Board of Directors. ( i i i ) Four members recommended by the Executive Committee of the Fund Raising Section for appointment by the Board of Directors. (iv) The Chairmen of the S o c i a l Planning, Budget and Fund Raising Sections or t h e i r designates. (v) The immediate past Chairman of the Public Relations Section. (vi) Additional members may be appointed by the Board of Directors of the Society upon recommendation of the Executive of the Public Relations Section. c.  The Chairman and Vice Chairman of the Executive Committee of the Public Relations Section s h a l l be the chairman and Vice Chairman of the Public Relations Section and s h a l l be elected by that Executive Committee. 1  The organizational structure of the Section i s shown on the following page, which i s self-explanatory.  1 Community Chest and Council, Vancouver, Constitution (1958).  COMMUNITY CHEST AND COUNCIL OF GREATER VANCOUVER PUBLIC RELATIONS SECTION  PUBLIC RELATIONS SECTION  EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE  STANDING COMMITTEES PROGRAM  SPECIAL COMMITTEES  Figure 8  104 -  2.  Functions of the Public Relations Section According  to the Constitution, following are the  functions of the Section which cover a wide f i e l d of Public Relations: ( i ) To develop a year around program designed to earn and maintain public confidence i n the Society. ( i i ) To a s s i s t i n promoting good relationships between the Society and governmental agencies i n health, welfare and r e c r e a t i o n a l f i e l d s . ( i i i ) To provide the Board of Directors of the Society, the S o c i a l Planning Section, the Budget Section and the Fund Raising Section with information as required about the effect which any plans and p o l i c i e s may have on the attitude of the public towards the Society. (iv) To plan, prepare and execute fund r a i s i n g p u b l i c i t y and promotion. The Public Relations Section of the Chest and Council i s very active; but i n many communities i t i s not like this.  They lack i n many ways i n t h e i r Public Relations  program, and i n spite of the a c t i v i t i e s of the Chest and Council f o r many years, an i n c r e d i b l e number of people have only a dim understanding of the p r i n c i p l e s which guide the operation of the Chest and Council.  In f a r too many cases  i t i s known simply as a large and rather impersonal organization which raises a l o t of money to do good work i n the community.  Very l i t t l e i s understood about the need for  planning and the p r i n c i p l e s of budgeting.  As f o r d e f i c i t  financing and surplus return, even some of the agencies would not know.  I t makes one shudder to think how small the  group i s that understands how fund-raising, budgeting and  - 105  -  planning f i t together, which i s the whole purpose of the federation.  The Ghest and Council look at health, welfare  and recreation problems, not piecemeal, but as a whole, each i n i t s proper perspective with the other.  The whole  idea and the philosophy of the Chest and the Council are so l o g i c a l and sound that when they are understood, there could be l i t t l e disagreement with them.  Lack of understanding  therefore, i s a paramount problem i n many instances, which i s to be fought by an e f f i c i e n t Public Relations program. Public Relations i s no longer a casual, once a year job; i t i s now a year round program.  I t i s impossible  to successfully bring about an appreciation of o v e r a l l community health, welfare and recreation needs i n a single month of promotion each year.  The story w i l l have to be  t o l d and r e t o l d a l l year long, constantly reminding the public of the program and needs of the Chest and Council. This could well be supplemented by s p e c i f i c promotional a c t i v i t i e s carried on by a l l the member agencies. The job of the Public Relations Section i s challenging and v i t a l f o r successful existence of the Society. A more complete understanding of the a c t i v i t i e s of the Chest and Council and the p r i n c i p l e s on which they base t h e i r work i s necessary; f o r with greater public understanding w i l l come increased public interest and the necessary resources with which to meet a reasonable area of community's needs i n the f i e l d of health, welfare and recreation.  -  4.  io6  -  BUDGET SECTION  The Budget Section of the Chest and Council, started as Budget Committee of the Welfare Federation i n 1930•  Ever since i t has undergone a steady growth and  changes to s u i t the needs of the enlarging organization of the Chest and Council of Vancouver.  Today, on the professional  side, the Section i s headed by a Director of the Budget Section, who functions under the Executive Director.  The  Director of the Budget Section i s assisted i n his work by clerical staff. 1.  Present Formation of the Budget Section The Constitution of the Community Chest and Council  establishes t h i r t y as the minimum number of members f o r the Section; one-half to be appointed  from the S o c i a l Planning  Section, one-quarter each from the Fund Raising Section and the Board of Directors; such members to be appointed  from  various occupational grouping and representative of various community i n t e r e s t s . At present there are f i f t y - e i g h t members.  While  appointment i s on a one-year basis, members are encouraged to serve f o r several consecutive years (to a maximum of s i x years as provided i n the Constitution).  The Chairman of the  Board of Directors, and of the Fund Raising, Public Relations and S o c i a l Planning Sections, serve as e x - o f f i c i o members of the Section.  O f f i c e r s of the Section are elected  - 107 -  annually. 2.  Functions of the Section The r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of the Section, as i n a l l  other Sections of the Chest and Council, are c a r r i e d out by a number of Committees. are important.  Of these, seven Review Committees  These Review Committees—'A*  to 'G —review 1  the programs and f i n a n c i a l requirements of Agencies i n a p a r t i c u l a r f i e l d of service: - Committees »A and 'E', Family and C h i l d Services !  - Committee 'C , Health Services 1  - Committee 'D', Seamen and Ex-Service - Committees 'E' and 'F', Youth Leadership and Recreation Services - Committee 'G , P r o v i n c i a l and National Services. 1  The present organizational structure of the Section has been shown on the following page, which i s self-explanatory. Budgeting i s a year round program.  The Section  not only has the job of recommending a l l o c a t i o n s , establishing salary scales etcetera, but i s also responsible f o r a year round administrative function.  I t s c r u t i n i z e s the budget of  the Chest and Council i n the same way as i t does with f i n a n c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i n g agencies. effective job.  other  The Section i s doing an  r To follow page 107 -  ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE OF THE BUDGET SECTION  HONORARY  INDIVIDUAL MEMBERSHIP  ORGANIZATIONAL  BOARD OF DIRECTORS  FUND RAISING SECTION  BUDGET SECTION  SOCIAL PLANNING SECTION  PUBLIC RELATIONS SECTION  EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE  SALARIES COMMITTEE  A  B  C  D  E  F  reviews  reviews  reviews  reviews  reviews \  reviews  T 13 Family & C h i l d Welfare  /  24 Health Agencies  70 Agencies Each Review Committee has/8 members. Figure 9  reviews  /  6 Sea- 20 Youth Leadermen & ship & RecreaVeteran t i o n Agencies Services \  about  G  7 Prov. & National Agencies  - 108 -  Summary of Findings  (Chapters 3 and 4)  The administration of any organization i s the means of accomplishing itself. process.  i t s purpose rather than an end i n  Like Community Organization i t i s a dynamic As Community Organization i s the process of  r e l a t i n g groups to each other better to meet t h e i r  corporate  needs, so administration i s the process through which aims are determined, plans are made and executed. Looking at the administration of the Community Chest and Council of Greater Vancouver, one finds i t as a Board-centered administration, i . e . the authority goes down from the Board, rather than coming from the membership which stem through the Social Planning  Section.  The membership of the Society which r e g i s t e r s through the Social Planning Section seems to be "agency centred" and dominated by "professionals."  Such a makeup  of the Social Planning Section can pose some questions i n the area of "lay" p a r t i c i p a t i o n .  However, t h i s i s one way  of carrying on the Society's program; as the ultimate authority always rests with the people at large. The administration of the Chest and Council i s f l e x i b l e to meet the changing demands of the community i f they are i n harmony with the objectives of the Society, both i n thought and i n action.  But the absence of a proper  Research Section i s undoubtedly a great lack i n the t o t a l organizational structure of the Society, which at times can  109 -  prevent the Society to meet the changing demands of the community on time.  This lack of proper research f a c i l i t i e s  i s also r e f l e c t e d i n nearly a l l areas of the Society's working, e s p e c i a l l y i n the S o c i a l Planning and the Campaign Sections.  I t seems therefore, desirable that consideration  should now  be given to appoint, under the  Director, adequate research s t a f f , who  Executive  could serve a l l the  existing Sections of the Society equally. Although structure i s important f o r the Society, yet i t i s merely a means of ensuring e f f e c t i v e operation. There i s a desirable degree of decentralization of functions and powers, giving the Society a pyramid type of structure. There i s , however, not unnecessary decentralization or delegation of powers, as the danger of over-centralized, s t r a t i f i e d , s t a t i c structuring can be as serious as overf l u i d i t y of structure which may and  r e s u l t i n complete confusion  inertia. The o v e r a l l organization of the Chest and Council  i s dynamic.  The Board of Directors and i t s Committees,  especially the Executive Committee, seemingly, i s a c l o s e l y k n i t group and being cohesive operates at a high l e v e l of e f f i c i e n c y and integration. The Board has a high degree of acceptance of the need f o r q u a l i f i e d professional s t a f f , and has demonstrated a sincere desire to adhere to the best p r i n c i p l e s of professional standards and personnel p r a c t i c e .  - 110  -  The Sections of the Ghest and Council are also very active i n t h e i r respective areas of operation.  They  are the main source f o r involving more and more community p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the a f f a i r s of the Society.  CHAPTER 5  THE COMMUNITY CHEST AND COUNCIL: ITS POSSIBLE APPLICATION TO A PAKISTANI CITY (KARACHI)  United giving has grown because people a l l over the United States and Canada have wanted i t , have been w i l l i n g to support i t and have made i t successful. At present, federated (united) giving i s at the highest point i n i t s h i s t o r y , whether measured i n terms of money raised, community p a r t i c i p a t i o n or people benefitted. Whatever i t s weaknesses, the federated idea does have an excellent record of accomplishment. Eighty-five United Funds and Chests ( i n Canada) l a s t f a l l c o l l e c t e d $25,504,45l~94.1% of t h e i r objective. During that campaign, only eleven Canadian c i t i e s reached less than 8% of their goal. Before the United idea spread, the i n d i v i d u a l campaigns now federated managed to gather i n only ten m i l l i o n dollars a y e a r . l Is t h i s not a success of the movement?  But, i n some c i t i e s ,  i n t h e i r single-minded pre-occupation with targets, Chest and Fund executives have sometimes resorted to unpopular a n d — a t least to some potential donors—offensive money-gathering techniques.  Such techniques are unethical, and are contrary  to the very basic philosophy of the Chest and Council movement. The key to success of the movement i s found i n the phrase " c i t i z e n s working together."  Community planning f o r  1 Newman, Peter C , Maclean's, September 27, 1958.  - 112 -  s o c i a l welfare i s a cooperative venture, whereby c i t i z e n s who support and use the services j o i n hands to develop a t o t a l program which w i l l meet the needs of people as adequately as possible. In view of the above r e c a p i t u l a t i o n and what has been said i n the preceding chapters, following are some of the basic p r i n c i p l e s demonstrated  i n the growth and develop-  ment, and l o c a l application of the Chest and Council movement: 1.  Any study of the Chest and Council i s necessarily  a study of a p a r t i c u l a r phase of Community Organization, f o r no Chest and/or Council can ever come into being without the interest of the people i n the community. 2.  The Chest and Council i s a non-sectarian voluntary  cooperative movement.  I t i s the c i t i z e n s ' way of providing  themselves with an organized means of accepting and exercising ultimate r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n the, f i e l d of health, welfare and recreation.  Through the Chest, people r a i s e more money from  more people f o r more worthwhile causes than any other method yet devised.  Through the Council, people plan wise spending  of t h e i r c o l l e c t i o n s .  The Chest and Council could well be  c a l l e d as big P r o j e c t ( s ) , within which many smaller projects (agencies) operate; and to a t t a i n t h i s big project people put their mite together to keep the wheel of community progress moving. 3.  The Chest and Council movement i s l o c a l i n o r i g i n .  In the case of the Chest and Council, the community decides  - 113 -  upon a balanced program of health, welfare and r e c r e a t i o n a l services, and how they can best be supported.  By involving  a cross section of the community, the Chest and Council s t r i v e s to furnish the best possible opportunity f o r community cooperation—including the components of planning, philanthrophic giving, education, research, budgeting and public r e l a t i o n s . Where the Community Chest has become "United Funds" certain national organizations have joined i t .  Some of these  organizations unfortunately do not appreciate that they are the creation of t h e i r l o c a l chapters, and exist to serve them. I t i s not t h e i r purpose, nor i s i t wise to dictate to their l o c a l chapters i n the matter of l o c a l i n t e r e s t , such as preventing them from joining the Chest, as these l o c a l chapters always know the l o c a l conditions much better because of t h e i r presence i n the community. Summing up, the writer feels that the Chest and Council movement has t r u l y grown from the people and r i g h t l y belongs to them.  The Chest and Council movement affords the  best opportunity yet invented f o r the i n d i v i d u a l t o help h i s neighbour i n a democratic way.  Because a Chest and Council  embraces a l l or most of the voluntary and public services of the community, p a r t i c i p a t i o n as a consumer, worker (manager) and giver inevitably becomes the r e a l measure of the individual's i n t e r e s t . stand up and be counted.  I t i s a c i t i z e n s ' best opportunity to The p o l i t i c a l phrase—"of, by,  - 114 -  f o r " — c a n more t r u l y be used i n respect of a Community Chest and Council. A Community Chest and Council i s very r i g h t l y an organization of the people, formed by the people f o r the good of the people i n the community. 2.  S o c i a l Work i n Pakistan Pakistan i s only eleven years old as an  country.  independent  However, the roots of i t s c i v i l i z a t i o n and culture  go deep into p r e - h i s t o r i c times along with Mesopotamia and Egypt.  Pakistan, at the time of independence on August 14,  1947, besides other things, also inherited the old t r a d i t i o n a l system of dealing with s o c i a l i l l s , and meeting the s o c i a l welfare needs of the people. Creation of Pakistan, as a r e s u l t of d i v i s i o n of India, brought with i t tremendous s o c i a l problems.  Millions  of destitute refugees entered the new born country from what i s now  c a l l e d India.  Disrupted families and children without  families had to be helped, and integrated into a new,  fast  growing society. The very size and nature of the problem, threw public and private agencies into action, the former assuming the major r e s p o n s i b i l i t y by providing machinery to meet the immediate needs of those unfortunate refugees.  But the  spontaneous contribution of old reconstituted, and  new  emerging private organizations was an even more remarkable performance i n coping with the s o c i a l problems of the new State.  The Government recognized the pioneering e f f o r t s of  -  115  -  these private organizations and sanctioned grants-in-aid to bonafide organizations i n  194-8.  By  1955  > large amounts of  money were being given to hundreds of such organizations without much care as to t h e i r standard of services and to t h e i r usefulness to the community.  This S o c i a l p o l i c y  resulted i n a mushroom growth of hundreds of s o c i a l welfare organizations a l l over the country, especially i n Karachi (the  C a p i t a l of the Country) where the pressure of refugees  and of other s o c i a l problems was f e l t most. The concept of professional s o c i a l work which i s taken f o r granted i n Western countries and some of the Eastern countries too, i s also being visioned i n Pakistan today . . . . H.E. the Governor-General of Pakistan ( 1 9 5 1 - 5 4 ) , the late Mr. Ghulam Mohmmed was the f i r s t to enunciate the new philosophy by saying, "we need a large number of S o c i a l Workers. Their need i s increasingly f e l t i n modern society. S o c i a l Work can no longer be considered, as i t has mostly been h i t h e r t o , a casual pastime of the r i c h . I t i s now a science." Since then the tide has been steadily r i s i n g without ever ebbing.1 In Pakistan, s c i e n t i f i c s o c i a l work dates since 1952»  when under an agreement made between the Government of  Pakistan and the United Nations Technical Assistance Administration, the country received United Nations Consultants i n the f i e l d of S o c i a l Work to explore the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of organizing new  programs and reorganizing the  t r a d i t i o n a l services of the country on s c i e n t i f i c l i n e s . f i r s t problem which these Consultants faced was lack of  1 U.N.j Govt, of Pakistan S o c i a l Welfare Project; S o c i a l Welfare i n Pakistan. V o l . 2 No. 3 ; May 1 9 5 5 ; p. 3 .  The  - 116 -  trained personnel.  In one of her reports, Miss Elmina  Lucke, the f i r s t Chief of the U.N.  R.  team remarked that there  were only six/seven trained persons i n a population of seventy m i l l i o n .  This problem of lack of trained personnel  has now been greatly overcome, as a r e s u l t of a number of short-term training courses given by the U.N.  team and by  organizing a regular Master's Degree course at one of the six Pakistani U n i v e r s i t i e s . training f a c i l i t i e s ,  Besides these within-the-country  some Pakistanis are being trained  abroad each year under various Technical Assistance programs. In addition to the within-the-country t r a i n i n g programs, a number of new  services were developed,  new  programs were demonstrated, and a unique approach to s u i t a developing country l i k e Pakistan was evolved.  Here the  writer refers to the great national program of Community Development, both for c i t i e s and v i l l a g e s . The term Community Development designates the u t i l i z a t i o n under one single programme of approaches and techniques which r e l y upon l o c a l communities as units of action and which attempt to combine outside assistance with organized l o c a l self-determination and e f f o r t , and which correspondingly seek to stimulate l o c a l i n i t i a t i v e and leadership as the primary instrument of change. . . . i n a g r i c u l t u r a l countries ( l i k e Pakistan), i n the economically under-developed areas ( l i k e Pakistan), major emphasis Is placed upon those a c t i v i t i e s which aim at promoting the improvement of the basic l i v i n g conditions of the community, including the s a t i s f a c t i o n of some of i t s non-material  needs.1  1 United Nations Document E/CN.5/291? Programme of Concerted Action i n the S o c i a l F i e l d of the United Nations and Specialized Agencies.  - 117 -  Besides the National Community Development Program, Medical S o c i a l Work and other public health and welfare programs are i n operation.  The National Planning Board i n  i t s chapter on "Social Welfare" has included the following areas of s o c i a l welfare to be worked on during the planperiod—1955-60: 1. Urban Community Development 2. Child Protection 3. Child and Adolescent Recreation 4. Delinquency 5. Women deprived of Family Support 6. Medical S o c i a l Work . Beggery and Destitution . Welfare of the Handicapped 9. Family Planning 10. Training of S o c i a l Workers 11. ' S o c i a l Planning and S o c i a l Research 12. T r i b a l Welfare 13. Organization and Administration. The above do not include the Rural (V-AID) Community Development Program, which has a separate chapter i n the Plan. In the main, the two programs of Community  Development—rural  and urban—are  programs i n t h e i r  spirit.  "...  comprehensive socio-economic  our main programme must be to procure welfare  of the masses and to raise the standard of t h e i r l i v i n g  . . .  Community Projects i n c i t i e s and the V i l l a g e Aid program i n 1 r u r a l areas w i l l help i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n . . . ." These developments i n the f i e l d of s o c i a l welfare i n the Government brought about concurrent changes i n the thinking of the people and i n the professional standards and personnel practice within the private organizations. As a r e s u l t of t h i s changed thinking, Dr. De Jongh, the U.N.  Chief Consultant  1 Prime Minister of Pakistan (Mr. S.H. Sahrwardy) S o c i a l Welfare i n Pakistan V o l . 3, No. 5 Karachi, p. 3.  - 118 -  in  S o c i a l Work t o  P a k i s t a n wrote  in his  final  report:  P r i v a t e agencies are extremely important f o r the f i e l d of s o c i a l welfare, f o r every country, but p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r a c o u n t r y where the government r e s o u r c e s a r e s t i l l so meagre and where t h e government w i l l have t o f a c e so many o t h e r h e a v y t a s k s i n t h e n e a r f u t u r e . Here, too, we m u s t l a y e m p h a s i s o n " S e l f - h e l p " b y t h e p o p u l a t i o n , b u t , a g a i n , t h e g o v e r n m e n t s h o u l d f i n d means " t o h e l p the s e l f - h e l p . " T h e r e f o r e , we s u g g e s t a b r o a d p r o g r a m m e t o s t i m u l a t e t h e p r i v a t e a g e n c i e s so a s t o make f u l l u s e o f t h e huge r e s o u r c e s o f i n d i v i d u a l g o o d w i l l and i n d i v i d u a l c a p i t a l , which are available i n t h i s country, where h e l p t o p e o p l e i n need has always been c o n s i d e r e d one o f t h e f i r s t r e l i g i o u s d u t i e s o f e v e r y citizen.1 Accordingly, was  established  1956t w i t h t h e  by  the  the  N a t i o n a l Council of  Government  following  of  Social  Welfare  P a k i s t a n on J a n u a r y  2,  objectives:  (a)  t o c a u s e a s u r v e y t o b e made o f t h e n e e d s a n d requirements of S o c i a l Welfare organizations i n Pakistan;  (b)  t o s t i m u l a t e and t o r e n d e r f i n a n c i a l a i d , when necessary to deserving organizations or i n s t i t u t i o n s on t e r m s t o be p r e s c r i b e d b y t h e C o u n c i l ;  (c)  to evaluate agencies;  (d)  to coordinate the assistance extended to S o c i a l Welfare a c t i v i t i e s by various M i n i s t e r i e s and Departments i n the C e n t r a l and P r o v i n c i a l Governments; and  (e)  t o p r o m o t e t h e s e t t i n g up o f S o c i a l W e l f a r e O r g a n i z a t i o n s on a v o l u n t a r y b a s i s i n p l a c e s no such O r g a n i z a t i o n s e x i s t . 2  the  programmes  and p r o j e c t s  of  the  aided  where  1 D r . J . F . de J o n g h , T e c h n i c a l A s s i s t a n c e P r o g r a m , U . N . R e p o r t N o . T A A / P a k / o , d a t e d O c t o b e r 13, 1955. 2 Government o f P a k i s t a n The G a z e t t e o f P a k i s t a n E x t r a o r d i n a r y R e s o l u t i o n N o . F . 4 - 2 / 5 5 - S . W . d a t e d t h e 2nd J a n u a r y 1956, Karachi: R e g i s t e r e d N o . S . 1033, p . 1.  - 119 The Council i s a strong body with both public and private representation on i t . provinces.  I t has i t s counterparts  i n the  During i t s short existence of three years, the  Council has given grants to a large number of voluntary organizations throughout the country.  These organizations  are engaged i n d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l welfare a c t i v i t i e s , e.g. Care of Children; r e h a b i l i t a t i o n of p h y s i c a l l y handicapped; welfare of T.B. Patients; family planning;  community  organization, coordination of s o c i a l welfare etcetera. i. ii. iii. iv. v.  agencies,  Council grants are given f o r : Employment of agency s t a f f Training Administrative Expenditure P u b l i c i t y and Publication Expansion of Services. It i s clear from the above description that the  people and the three levels of government have r e a l i z e d and acted upon the idea that i n r a i s i n g the standard of l i v i n g of the people i t i s not enough to arrange the supply of material goods to meet t h e i r physical requirements, but i t i s also essential to protect human r i g h t s and c u l t u r a l values. Workers i n the economic f i e l d — l i k e a g r i c u l t u r e , trade, industry—must coordinate their a c t i v i t i e s with those engaged on health and welfare programs.  Economic and s o c i a l  must go hand In hand to avoid the breeding  progress  of new s o c i a l  which are necessary r e s u l t s of i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n .  ills,  - 120 -  3.  Why a Community Chest and Council f o r Karachi? Karachi, being the Capital of the country has a  strategic position i n the socio-economic  l i f e of the country.  Besides, a number of s o c i a l welfare programs operating under the federal auspice (Karachi being the c e n t r a l l y administered area), there are scores of private agencies who are engaged i n some kind of a s o c i a l welfare program.  Of these private  agencies, the important one for t h i s study i s the S o c i a l Services Coordinating Council, which was formed i n 1953 with the following objectives: (a) To work f o r the coordination and development of s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s i n Karachi; (b) to study the s o c i a l needs of the community which are brought to the attention of the Council and formulate suitable plans for t h e i r solution; (c) to provide e f f e c t i v e machinery f o r the pooling of experiences, problems and resources related to s o c i a l welfare of the community; (d) to serve as a channel of communication between Govt, and non-Govt. agencies; (e) to mobilize j o i n t community e f f o r t s i n meeting s o c i a l welfare needs of the community; (f) to stimulate interest i n s o c i a l welfare work and to work f o r the improvement of s o c i a l welfare practices i n the community such as establishing or helping to e s t a b l i s h s o c i a l services t r a i n i n g centres, and to promote the professional training of s o c i a l workers and to encourage t h e i r employment for welfare work; (g) to arrange the holding of p e r i o d i c a l conferences on s p e c i f i c s o c i a l problems; (h) to appoint or depute representatives on national or international conferences; (i) to secure the enactment or change of laws r e l a t i n g to s o c i a l matters;  121-  (j) to encourage the formation of similar Councils i n other parts of Pakistan; (k) to do a l l or any acts for the furtherance of the objects of the Council and for r a i s i n g funds f o r the Council.1 The Coordinating Council has made great  progress  during the l a s t f i v e years, and has done some r e a l service to the cause of s o c i a l welfare i n Karachi.  The Council could be  compared with a Council of Soeial Agencies.  I t i s , however,  financed by subscriptions from the member agencies individuals.  and  I t i s not as e f f e c t i v e as any of the Council  of S o c i a l Agencies would be on the North American Continent. With regard to the financing of S o c i a l Welfare agencies i n Pakistan and so also i n Karachi, i t i s the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the i n d i v i d u a l agency to f i n d funds for themselves i n the manner most suitable f o r them.  But, t h i s  system of year-round Multiple Appeals create confusion and i n some cases feelings of jealousy among agencies,  especially  when the present S o c i a l Services Coordinating Council i s not a r e a l l y e f f e c t i v e Council of S o c i a l Agencies.  This i s more  true, as the Council i s dependent for i t s very existence on subscriptions from the membership. unavoidable  However, apart from the  confusion of frequent Multiple Appeals, there has  recently been a great improvement i n the techniques  and  methods employed i n these go-alone campaigns for funds.  1 S o c i a l Services Coordinating Council, Karachi, Constitution, pp. 1-2.  - 122 -  State d i g n i t a r i e s have been supporting or signing many such appeals, and business has been responding generously with sizeable donations. A l l these developments with t h e i r accompanying weaknesses i n the f i e l d of community planning, coordination and fund-raising show a great need f o r a Community Chest and Council organization to bring order i n the present system of public and private welfare programs.  The proposed Chest and  Council w i l l r e l i e v e the donors of the year-round c a l l s f o r funds; and through a proper planning of community services, these donors would be assured of gainful and e f f e c t i v e use of t h e i r donations.  I t w i l l save much of the wastage i n actual  and potential funds from private sources.  The Chest w i l l also  r e l i e v e genuine welfare agencies from f i n a n c i a l worries and from the trouble of fund-hunting, thereby allowing them maximum time to devote to actual service to their c l i e n t s . Organization of a Community Chest and Council i n any community and so also i n Karachi i s not easy.  A sound  public educational program, to create a favourable public opinion, especially i n related c i r c l e s , has to be done as a pre-requisite.  A Community Chest and Council i s a cooperative  enterprise, and i t must be formed with a genuine and active cooperation of a l l concerned. cooperative e f f o r t s .  There i s no short cut to r e a l  - 123 -  4.  Who Should Take I n i t i a t i v e ? The  w r i t e r f e e l s t h a t i t would be worthwhile f o r  the e x i s t i n g S o c i a l S e r v i c e s C o o r d i n a t i n g  Council of Karachi  t o move i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n , as i t i s f o r t h i s c o o r d i n a t i n g body t o i n i t i a t e the formation  city-wide of t h i s much  needed Community Chest and C o u n c i l , which would c e r t a i n l y be a tremendous success  and a milestone  i n the developmental  h i s t o r y of s o c i a l work, not only i n P a k i s t a n but i n Southeast A s i a .  The S o c i a l S e r v i c e s C o o r d i n a t i n g  i t s meagre resources  Council,  with  would not be able t o c a r r y t h e burden  of experimenting w i t h the proposed Community Chest and C o u n c i l a l o n e j i t w i l l r i g h t l y need the h e l p and p r a c t i c a l a s s i s t a n c e o f a l l concerned, e s p e c i a l l y the government and semi-government departments engaged i n s o c i a l w e l f a r e The  N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l of S o c i a l Welfare ( d i s c u s s e d  c o u l d e a s i l y help the C o o r d i n a t i n g  Council with  programs.  earlier)  sufficient  funds f o r the appointment o f p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a f f needed t o give a l e a d on t h i s p r o j e c t .  T h i s h e l p , i f extended by the  N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l , would be i n l i n e w i t h i t s o b j e c t i v e s . F u r t h e r p r o f e s s i o n a l help and guidance c o u l d come from the Urban Community Development Department o f the Government. T h i s proposed t r i p a r t i t e p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f people  (Coordinating  C o u n c i l ) , semi-government ( N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l ) and the government (Urban Community Development Department) agencies would prove h e l p f u l i n i n i t i a t i n g and f o l l o w i n g through the Community Chest and C o u n c i l p r o j e c t .  The approach c o u l d be  - 124 -  experimental  f o r two to three years, and i f i t proves  f r u i t f u l , i t could l a t e r be established on a permanent basis. The kind of strong leadership needed to give a push to the movement warrants this broad involvement of p r i v a t e , government and semi-government agencies/individuals.  This  involvement i s a necessity i n the i n i t i a l stages of the movement; and would be a desirable thing i n the stages to follow. Type of Community Chest and Council f o r Karachi The Chest and Council must be a strong organization with a broad and well representative cross-section of the community.  I t needs adequate funds, top leadership and a  competent professional s t a f f .  The Constitution of the  proposed Chest and Council should be progressive and reasonably  f l e x i b l e to enable the organization to meet the  changing needs of the r a p i d l y growing Karachi  community.  The structure should provide f o r : 1.  Control by c i t i z e n volunteers  2.  Partnership of laymen and professionals i n developing plans  3.  Clear l i n e s of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  4.  Centralized p o l i c y making and program  5.  Decentralized program planning and implementation  6.  Competent s t a f f , adequately paid  7.  Free channels f o r expressing agency knowledge and opinion  determination  - 125 -  8.  P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n any project by the major parties concerned  9.  E f f e c t i v e working relationships with government programs. Structure i s simply a means to an end.  I t must  s u i t the purpose and f a c i l i t a t e the working of the  organization  which would aim at developing an increasingly adequate program of services for the people i n the community. Changing conditions require continuous assessment, upgrading and revamping of the programs.  To meet t h i s challenge the  proposed Community Chest and Council must be free to question habit and t r a d i t i o n . single interest group.  I t must be free of control by  any  I t must be free to tackle through  problems and controversial issues, even i n d i f f i c u l t times. By doing so, the proposed community chest and council w i l l command respect and confidence of the community.  I t would  achieve e f f i c i e n c y , s u f f i c i e n c y and continuity i n s o c i a l planning, fund-raising, budgeting and public r e l a t i o n s ; thereby ensuring balanced development of health, welfare and recreation services i n the community. Summary The p r i n c i p l e s demonstrated by the Community Chest and Council movement i n North America and success achieved i n i t s l o c a l application i n Vancouver d e f i n i t e l y shows that  the  Community Chest and Council can well be experimented with success i n Karachi (Pakistan) where the present conditions  in  the f i e l d of health and welfare are more or less the same as  - 126 -  they were i n Vancouver some t h i r t y years ago when the Council of S o c i a l Agencies and the Welfare Federation were organized as two separate organizations.  These were l a t e r merged into  one organization with a view to achieving optimum r e s u l t s i n s o c i a l planning and fund r a i s i n g .  In Karachi (as i t was i n  Vancouver i n the 1920's) the present isolated e f f o r t s of s o c i a l welfare agencies and go-alone fund-raising can hardly ensure the balanced development of health, welfare and recreational services i n the Greater Karachi community. Good community planning i s e s s e n t i a l to federated financing and to the agencies  i t supports.  I t i s equally  essential to public and private s o c i a l services i n the community.  Accordingly, i n Karachi, the Community Chest and  Council could be i n i t i a t e d as one single organization and i t could be maintained as that.  The proposed Community Chest  and Council should have a broad base membership having on i t representatives of p u b l i c , semi-public and private and professional and labour organizations.  As regards the  National Organizations, l i k e the Red Cross, A l l Pakistan Women's Association, etcetera, the l o c a l chapters of these organizations would be quite w i l l i n g to cooperate with the proposed Community Chest and Council, as there exists a great amount of goodwill among the s o c i a l welfare organizations i n the Country, e s p e c i a l l y i n Karachi, where the conditions are favourable for creating the kind of organization under  - 127 -  discussion. In the i n i t i a l stages and i n the stages to follow, the writer feels strongly that the government association, not dominance, with the movement i s necessary and desirable. This would also help i n giving a good start to the movement i n Karachi, of whose success the writer i s least s k e p t i c a l . The proposed Community Chest and Council i n Karachi could be i n i t i a t e d with minimum professional s t a f f . This could, however, be increased as the organization progresses.  The s t a f f organization could be simple and  p r a c t i c a l , rather than complicated  and unduly  impressive.  Organization i s not an end i n i t s e l f but i t i s a mean to an end, i . e . service to the community. a dynamic process.  "Organization i s  The challenge i s to be dynamic without  1 being p e r f e c t i o n i s t . "  1 Dixon, G.W., S o c i a l Welfare and the Preservation of Human Values; J.M. Dent and Sons (Canada) Ltd.; Vancouver; 1957? p. 164.  - 128  -  BIBLIOGRAPHY  A.  Books  D i x o n , GoW. S o c i a l "Welfare and P r e s e r v a t i o n o f Human V a l u e s . V a n c o u v e r J.M. Dent and Sons (Canada) L t d . , 1957* G i s t , N o e l P. Thomas Y.  and H a l b e r t , L.A. U r b a n S o c i e t y . New Crowe 11 Co., 191+9.  J o h n s , Ray and De M a r c h e , D a v i d P. and A g e n c y R e s p o n s i b i l i t y . New  _9~5"_  Watson, P r a n k Dekker. The t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . New •Murphy, C a m p b e l l G. Houghton M i f f l i n  York,  Community . . O r g a n i z a t i o n York/ Association Press,  C h a r i t y O r g a n i z a t i o n Movement Y o r k , The M a c m i l l a n Company,  in 1922.  Community O r g a n i z a t i o n P r a c t i c e . B o s t o n , Company, 1951+• '  R o s s , M u r r y G. Community O r g a n i z a t i o n — T h e o r y New Y o r k , H a r p e r and B r o s . , 1955• Hillman, Arthur. Community O r g a n i z a t i o n New Y o r k , M a c M i l l a n Company, 1950.  and  and  Principles.  Planning.  M c M i l l a n , Wayne L„ Community O r g a n i z a t i o n f o r S o c i a l C h i c a g o , U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o P r e s s , 191+5.  Welfare.  S t r e e t , Elwood. A Handbook o f S o c i a l A g e n c y A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . New Y o r k , H a r p e r and B r o s . , 191+8. King, Clarence. S o c i a l A g e n c y B o a r d s and How Effective. New Y o r k , H a r p e r and B r o s . ,  t o Make Them 1936.  S e e l e y , J o h n R. and A s s o c i a t e s . Community C h e s t : Study i n P h i l a n t h r o p y . Torontoj U n i v e r s i t y of Press, 1957Bo  Journals. P e r i o d i c a l s . Reports,  A Case Toronto  etc.  Community C h e s t and C o u n c i l o f G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r , M a n u a l H e a l t h . W e l f a r e and R e c r e a t i o n S e r v i c e s o f G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r . 19%%". S o c i a l Work Y e a r - b o o k . Encyclopaedia  1957.  Canadiana, V o l . I I I .  of  - 129 U n i t e d N a t i o n s — S o c i a l P r o g r e s s Through ment. I V , 18, New Y o r k , 1955.  Community  Develop-  Mowat^ M r s . W a l t e r . H i s t o r y o f t h e Community C h e s t and C o u n c i l o f G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r . V a n c o u v e r , Community C h e s t and C o u n c i l , 1 9 5 1 • "Whitton, C h a r l o t t e o R e p o r t o f t h e B.C. C h i l d W e l f a r e Ottaixra, C a n a d i a n C o u n c i l o f C h i l d W e l f a r e , 1927. Minutes of the Meeting h e l d November 7, 1929.  i n t h e Board  of Trade  Survey.  Office  C o n s t i t u t i o n o f t h e C o u n c i l o f S o c i a l A g e n c i e s . Feb.. 1930. R u d o l p h , ,N. E v j e n . O u t l i n e Summary f o r I n s t i t u t e - o f F u n d ^ C h e s t and C o u n c i l O p e r a t i o n . C l e v e l a n d , Ohio,. U n i t e d Community F u n d and C o u n c i l o f A m e r i c a , F e b . 1950. Community Chest and C o u n c i l o f G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r , C o n s t i t u t i o n and B y l a w s . 1958( R e v i s e d as on M a r c h 3rd) M i n u t e s o f t h e B o a r d M e e t i n g , Community Chest G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r , A p r i l , 195b.  and C o u n c i l ,  Naphtalij CH., Executive Director. Memo, d t . 2 0 . 1 . 5 8 . t o t h e E x e c u t i v e Committee o f t h e B o a r d o f D i r e c t o r s . N e w s l e t t i e , W i l b u r I . T e a c h i n g Community O r g a n i z a t i o n i n S c h o o l s o f S o c i a l Work. N a t i o n a l C o r p o r a t i o n o f S o c i a l Work, 1 9 i f l . Community C h e s t and C o u n c i l I n c o r p o r a t e d . H e a l t h and W e l f a r e P l a n n i n g . New Y o r k , 19J+5S i e d e r , V i o l e t M. The T a s k o f Community O r g a n i z a t i o n Work. N a t i o n a l C o r p . o f S o c i a l Work, U.S.A., 1957Community Chest and C o u n c i l o f G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r . Job D e s c r i p t i o n . Community Chest U.N.—Govt, Welfare  of G r e a t e r Vancouver.  Budget  Manual o f  Manuals  1957«  of P a k i s t a n , S o c i a l Welfare. P r o j e c t — S o c i a l i n P a k i s t a n . V o l . 2, No. 3> May, 1955.  U n i t e d N a t i o n s Document E/CN.5/291, Programme, o f C o n c e r t e d A c t i o n i n t h e S o c i a l F i e l d o f t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s and S p e c i a l i z e d ' a g e n c i e s . New Y o r k .  - 130  -  Prime Minister of Pakistan (Mr. S.H. Sharwardy) S o c i a l Welfare i n Pakistan V o l . 3 , No. 5, Karachi. de Jongh, Dr. J.P. Technical Assistance Program. U*N. No. TAA/Pak/8, dated October 13, 1955-  Report  Government of Pakistan. The Gazette of Pakistan. Extraordinary Resolution. No. F •¥• dated 2nd January 1956, Karachi: Registered No. S.1033S o c i a l Services Coordinating Council of Karachi, Constitution. Karachi. U.N.  Govt, of Pakistan, S o c i a l Welfare Project. S o c i a l Welfare i n Pakistan ( E d i t o r i a l ) V o l . 2> No. 3 , Karachi, May, 1957. ~~  Planning Board Govt, of Pakistan, F i v e Year .Plan—19B>6-60. Chapter on " S o c i a l Welfare." Maclean's. September 27, 1958. Vancouver Sun. Nov. 25, 1958.  

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