UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

The Community Chest and Council : an historical and analytical review of the Chest and Council movement… Aghai, Mohd. Ahmad 1958

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1959_A5 A4 C6.pdf [ 7.77MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0106125.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0106125-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0106125-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0106125-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0106125-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0106125-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0106125-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0106125-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0106125.ris

Full Text

THE COMMUNITY CHEST AND COUNCIL An histor i c a l and analytical review of the Chest and Council Movement in North America; with particular reference to i t s development in Vancouver 1930-58; and i t s possible application to a Pakistani city by MOHD. AHMAD AGHAI Thesis Submitted in Partial Fulfilment of the Requirements for the Degree of MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK in the School of Social Work Accepted as conforming to the standard required for the degree of Master of Social Work School of Social Work 1958 The University of Br i t i s h Columbia - iv -AE"TRACT The development of an ever-growing number of private health and welfare agencies is one of the distinctive characteristics of urban communities. The need for coordination and guidance in orderly development was met in the past by Charity Organization Societies, in more recent decades, by Community Chest and Council organizations. Community Chest and Community Co unci is--the "Chest as a fund-raising coordinator, and the "Council" as a policy coordinator—appear to be particularly North American institutions, especially in the larger ci t i e s of the Eastern seaboard, because of the greater dependence on private philanthrophy and late development of social welfare legislation. With the strengthening of their planning and standard-setting functions and closer integration between "chest" and "council" functions, these organizations, today, are engaged in mobilizing the communities for improved Social Welfare. Chest and Council offices are now widely regarded as an essential part of the social work structure in nearly a l l major urban centres on the North American Continent. They remain important in spite of increased social legislation, because new agencies continue to be established, because volunteer and experimental work is valuable, and because community education and welfare research functions have come to the fore in modern community development programs. The present study has endeavoured to s i f t out the essential principles demonstrated by Community Chest and Council history; then to focus specially on the administrative requirements of the modern Chest and Council organization, drawing on some thirty years of Vancouver experience for this purpose. This latter task is followed out in two parts—(a) existing Organization and Administration of the Chest and Council, and (b) the development of i t s main Sections. In the light of this, the question i s examined how far and in what way a Chest and Council as a coordinating welfare organization might be applied to the Capital City of Pakistan (Karachi). The conclusion is that the principles of Community Chest and Council are distinctly adaptable to the city of Karachi and perhaps to other selected metropolitan areas of this country. The present isolated efforts of social welfare agencies can hardly ensure balanced development of health, welfare and recreational services in a fast developing community like Karachi. This is also the best avenue for leadership and an integrated approach toward common problems, through budgeting and social planning. Modifications which may be of special concern in Pakistan are indicated. In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l fulfilment of the'requirements for an advanced degree at'the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of th i s thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his .representatives. It i s understood that copying or publication of this thesis f o r , f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. ( M . A . AGHAl) Social Welfare Orgapispr, •SOCIAL Wi.i.i'AKE FRO.) is.? T Ministry ot Health & Soc*i,l \v GOVERNMENT OF PAKISTAN Department of S o c i a l Work  The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver 8, Canada. Date July 15, 1959 >  - i i -TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter 1. Community Chest and Council Movement Page Philosophy and History of the Movement. Historical Perspective. Establishment of Council of Social Agencies. Establishment of Community Chest. Relationship between the Chest and the Council. Development of overall Planning and Financing. Community Chest and Council and its place in Community Organization. Problems of Large Urban Coverage. Summary of findings. 1 Chapter 2. Local Application: The Community Chest  and Council of Greater Vancouver The growth of Social Services in Vancouver. First Council of Social Agencies and the Welfare Federation for the City. Unification of Chest and Council. Constitution. Membership. Recent Developments. Summary of Findings 3° Chapter 3. Organization and Administration: The  Chest and Council in Action, 195b1 General Description. Functions of the Chest and Council. Organization and Structure. Governing Body. Executive Director, and Sectional Chiefs. Trends in Staff Situation 63 Chapter 4. Development of Sections (1) Social Planning Section: Formation, Size, Structure, and Functions. (2) Campaign Section: Formation, Size, Structure, and Functions. (3) Budget Section: Formation, Size, Structure, and Functions. (4) Public Relations Section: Formation, Size, Structure, and Functions. Summary of Administration and Structure. 85 Chapter 5» The Community Chest and Council: its  Possible Application to a Pakistani  City (Karachi! Principles Demonstrated in the Study. Social Welfare in Pakistan. Why a Community Chest and Council for Karachi? Who Should Take the Initiative? Appropriate type of Community Chest and Council. Summary I l l Bibliography - i i i -CHARTS IN THE TEXT Page Fig. 1. The Council of Social Agencies and the Welfare Federation, Greater Vancouver Organizational Structure I93O-3I 42 Fig. 2. The Community Chest and Council, Greater Vancouver in. 1946. (After Amalgamation of the Chest and the Council) 50 Fig. 3. The Community Chest and Council, Greater Vancouver in 1958 50 Fig. 4. Structure Developed to Permit Joining of Burnaby and Vancouver in a Community Chest and Council of Metropolitan Vancouver. . . 67 Fig. 5. Community Chest and Council, Greater Vancouver 1958. Staff Organization and Line of Authority 83 Fig. 6. Community Chest and Council of Greater Vancouver. Social Planning Section Structure 89 Fig. 7. Community Chest and Council of Greater Vancouver, 1958 United Red Feather Appeal Organization Chart 95 Fig. 8. Community Chest and Council of Greater Vancouver, Public Relations Section . . . 103 Fig. 9. Organizational Structure of the Budget Section 107 - V ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I wish to acknowledge with deep gratitude the patience and kind assistance afforded to me by Mr. Ernest H i l l , M.S.W., Director of the Social Planning Section of the Chest and Council of Greater Vancouver, in the preparation of this study. c I express my very deep sense of gratitude for the keen interest and helpful counsel of Professor G~)w. Dixon, Director of the School of Social Work, University of Br i t i s h Columbia, for his guidance on the content of the study; I am also grateful to Dr. L.C. Marsh for his help in the preliminary discussion of the study, and the general format of the f i n a l text. THE COMMUNITY CHEST AND COUNCIL An histori c a l and analytical review of the Chest and Council Movement in North Americaj with particular reference to i t s development in Vancouver 1930-58; and i t s possible application to a Pakistani c i t y . CHAPTER I COMMUNITY CHEST AND COUNCIL MOVEMENT The presence of substantial ever-growing number of health and welfare agencies is one of the distinctive characteristics of urban communities. Inadequate services of certain kinds, competition, imbalance and duplication of these services have given rise to demands for their proper financing, coordination and guidance toward orderly development. This demand was met in the past by the Charity Organization Societies, in our day this is being met by the Chest and Council organizations. These organizations—Community Chest and Council— are singularly North American institutions and are now widely regarded as an essential part of the social work structure in nearly a l l major urban centres on this continent. But, i n addition to providing structure, these organizations are engaged in mobilizing the community for improved social welfare. 1. Philosophy and History of the Movement Social work begins with a concern for people. More specially, this relatively new service profession is built on solving the d i f f i c u l t i e s human beings sometimes have i n their relationships to each other and to the world i n which they l i v e . From the very earliest time, even though men quarrelled and fought amongst themselves, they showed concern for each 1 other's welfare and a great capacity for helping one another as individuals, groups and as communities. Social work in the form in which i t helps communities, as a basic process of social work, concentrates not so much on the individual and his needs, or on the group and i t s growth, as upon the larger and more inclusive welfare problems of the whole community. True, i t seeks to strengthen the effective accomplishment of casework and group work, but i t has other responsibilities as well, such as community education, research and administration. The focus of community organization is upon the acti v i t i e s of groups of people. The meaning and the importance of welfare services and of community responsibilities are deeply rooted in the history of man. The help given by neighbour to neighbour to assist his "fareing well" dates back to the time when the f i r s t families grew into communities of families. In pioneer days, welfare services were essential to families and took such form as barnraising, helping the sick, caring for each other's children in time of need and giving a new start 2 to the unfortunate. Throughout the history of mankind, 1 Community Chest and Council of Greater Vancouver—Manual of Health. Welfare and Recreation Services of Greater Vancouver. 2 Dixon, G.W., Social Welfare and Preservation of Human  Values: Dent and Sons Ltd. and the University of B r i t i s h Columbia; Vancouver; 1957J p. 60 . - 3 -giving aid toward welfare has been common practice. In the smaller communities that were habitat of most of the world's people before the era of urban!sm, the adjustment of the individual to his social environment was achieved largely through the collective action of the primary groups which he was identified. But with the growth of ci t i e s and the emergence of great metropolitan communities, new problems of behaviour and health appeared which could not be dealt with expeditiously on the basis of simple neighborliness growing out of kindly beneficence or personal affection. It i s for this reason that new forms of organizations developed not only within c i t i e s , but also on a state/ provincial, national and international basis. 1 Such organizations involve the process of Community Organization, and i n large metropolitan areas they use the structure and name commonly known as "the Community Chest and Council." The concept of organization for social welfare i s as old as social work i t s e l f . Historically, the beginnings of community organization, in today's accepted sense, are found In the Charity Organization Societies' movement of the middle 19th century. Efforts of these societies to ascertain causes of social illness and to bring about some order in relation-ships among numerous agencies and organizations were the forerunners of a l l modern social welfare development. 2. Historical Perspective Impulses for mutual aid characterized many of the earlier societies. Even the most primitive peoples expressed kindliness and concern for unfortunate members of their 1 Gist, Noel P. and Halbert, L.A., Urban Society: Thomas Y Crowell Co.; New York; 1949; p. 413. communities. B i b l i c a l and Quarariio injunctions for alms giving record similar fellow feelings. The early monastic order provided food, shelter and clothing to the needy. When the breakup of feudalism in England created a large number of wandering people, searching for employment and a place to locate, legal steps were taken for the f i r s t time to deal with poverty in 1536. Later in l601 the famous Elizabethan Poor Law was passed which established the basis of poor r e l i e f from the public funds in England, and later in the North American Continent. Changing social conditions, and abuses under the law, led to revisions in 1034. A "framework of prevention" was provided by principles adopted in 1909» Early American systems of r e l i e f reflected this English experience. Private charity f i r s t became highly organized i n Hamburg and Elberfeld in Germany, where di s t r i c t s were established, a central bureau set up, and citizen-visitors 1 assigned to investigate paupers. This was the f i r s t step towards thinking in terms of citizens*involvement, division of area into manageable size and providing coordination. The real work of coordination and planning began with the foundation of Charity Organization Societies in London (England) in 1869. It was designed to coordinate and systematize the services for existing voluntary agencies, particularly those giving 1 Johns, Ray and De March, David P., Community Organization  and Agency Responsibility; Association Pressj New York; 1951 > P. 39. - 5 -r e l i e f . The Charity Organization Societies' movement was quickly transplanted into the new world; and just eight years later, in 1 8 7 7 , the f i r s t such society was founded in Buffalo (U.S.A.). These societies, like their predecessors i n England, made efforts to improve community coordination to serve the client and family better. The f i r s t Canadian Charity Organization Society appeared in Montreal i n 1 8 9 9 • This f i r s t Canadian society s t i l l exists, and is now known as the Family Welfare Association. Similar organizations spread throughout the United States and to some Canadian c i t i e s . These Societies emphasized four central principles which, with modifications, are now followed by the Community Chests and Councils of today. These principles were: i . investigation of every applicant; i i . central registration; i i i . cooperation of a l l r e l i e f agencies; i v . the general use of volunteer friendly v i s i t o r s . It i s evident that Charity Organizations Societies of the 1 9 t h century were one of the important forerunners of the modern community chests and councils. Their emphasis on fact finding, cooperation, coordination and exchange of information and experience, of working on underlying causes of social problems have been retained in modern social welfare planning bodies. At the outset, the Charity Organization Societies did not plan to give direct service to clients; their task was to work with and through the already existing social agencies. Their f i r s t purpose was stated as "cooperation - 6 -between a l l charitable agencies of a given loc a l i t y ; and the best coordination of their efforts." Later, as a result of their concern that prompt and adequate r e l i e f be given, Charity Organization Societies soon began to provide direct service to the clients. They also organized a number of other activities—employment bureaus, day nurseries, etcetera—many of which later were taken over by specialized agencies which operated independently. The provision of direct services limited the original Charity Organization Societies coordinating role, as with the operation of direct services they needed their own act i v i t i e s to be coordinated. Looking back from today's vantage point, we can see that the Charity Organization Societies made two mistakes in terms of community organization. F i r s t , in city after city they attempted to organize their private agencies services through the efforts of a small group of civ i c leaders and without thorough-going agency participation in the plan. Well-meaning though i t was, the approach was essentially an authoritarian one, and the agencies resented or ignored i t . The second mistake of the Charity Organization Societies was their attempt to operate direct service programs themselves— programs which in effect competed with those of the agencies 1 being coordinated. Although these mistakes were serious 1 Watson, Frank Dekker, The Charity Organization Movement  in the United States: The Macmillan Company; New York; 1922; p. 281. from the standpoint of community organization, yet the positive values of the Charity Organization Movement should not be overlooked. The movement was largely responsible for the professionalization of Social Work, and was the f i r s t attempt towards proper coordination and financing of private welfare programs on a community level. 3. Establishment of Council of Social Agencies The need for sound planning and effective coordination of social welfare services has grown out of the confusion and overlapping of services which developed during the course of time. Shortly after the turn of the century another approach, and this time a more successful one, was tried in a number of large c i t i e s . It took the form of federations of social agencies, established by the operating agencies themselves. A Federation of Social Agencies, or Council of Social Agencies or Community Welfare Council, or the Social Planning Sections of the Community Chest and Council, which have now become an important means of planning for and coordination of social welfare services, were f i r s t organized as Councils of Social Agencies in Pittsburgh and Milwaukee in 1909. Similar councils now exist in more than 600 different communities spread a l l over the continent. In some communities, councils came into being as chests discovered the need for planning and coordinating machinery; in others, councils antedated chests and planned - 8 -the organization of federated financing for local voluntary agencies. By and large, councils and chests have, in general, been closely associated. Growth of Councils was slow. Up to 1917> only seven ci t i e s in the United States had city-wide councils. America's entry into World War I, with i t s need for increased welfare services and for better coordination, gave great impetus to the movement, and by 1923, council of social agencies were functioning in twenty of the large American c i t i e s and i n many smaller communities. Today, almost every city over 100,000 population has some kind of community-wide council for planning and coordination of i t s health and welfare services. The depression of the 1930's further stimulated community planning of social welfare services. Needs were urgent and voluntary funds were limited. Governmental programs expanded greatly, and many private agencies shifted the emphasis of their services, as from r e l i e f to help with other family and personal problems. During World War II, defence councils and war-service councils were organized in hundreds of communities. Many of these councils became community welfare councils in the post-war years. Turning to the Canadian scene, the early records of Councils in this country are obscure. Most of the Canadian councils did not take permanent root until the late t h i r t i e s or during or after the Second World War. The history of councils in Canada i s intimately associated with their - 9 -parallel organizations of welfare federations and community chests, described below in more detail. Indeed, i t i s often d i f f i c u l t to make a clear cut distinction, because the combining of charitable appeals into a united campaign was often the driving public force behind the movement for better planning and coordination of welfare services. 4. Establishment of Community Chest Many of the social services which are not concerned with direct financial r e l i e f or supplementation, are operated for by voluntary and private welfare agencies. The costs of such services run into millions of dollars annually, raised from voluntary contributions. The method which i s generally used to obtain these funds is through the Community Chest which is also known by various other names, such as federation, welfare fund, united funds, community fund, etcetera. Their symbol is "Red Feather." The origin of the modern chest is said to l i e in the Charity Organization Societies of the middle 19th century. The development of federated financing has been a significant factor in community planning and organization of Social Welfare services. The development of joint financing as an aspect of community organization was a natural, logical step in the evolution of social welfare services. As agencies came into being to meet specific needs their very number brought with them a new inevitable problem of organization. The f i r s t such effort occurred in Liverpool, England, in 1869. The - 10 -f i r s t financing organization on t h i s continent was/ th,er Associated Charities organized in Denver, ColoradC^J' in the • . . . . \y United States in 1887. It was formed by two Protestant, one Jewish and one Catholic clergyman and comprised 23 agencies that raised $20,000. In 1922 this organization which has operated to the present, was reorganized and became a fu.ll-1 fledged community chest. In 1895, the Jewish Charities of Boston were federated and later other Jewish and Catholic Federations of Charities developed and they exist today in most of the large c i t i e s . The federation of both these religious groups in many cases are now members of Community Chests, but in others they are wholly or partially independent. Early in 1909, the Cleveland Chamber of Commerce assumed responsibility for endorsing social welfare organiza-tions seeking funds in that ci t y . This endorsement process made necessary some kind of evaluation of the competence of the various agencies to provide service, of their cooperation with other agencies, and of their methods of collecting and accounting for money. As a result, the Cleveland Federation for Charity and Philanthrophy was organized in 1913» with a board of 30 members, ten of whom were chosen by the member agencies. Fifty-seven agencies joined this federation in the f i r s t year. Thus, in 1913, Cleveland became the f i r s t large city to form a welfare financial organization that 1 Encyclopaedia Canadiana, vol. I l l , p. 57* - 11 -based i t s work on community need and budgetary principles. The Chest in Cleveland is regarded as the f i r s t true community chest. Prior to World War I the-private social agencies in almost a l l communities conducted their own individual fund-raising drives. Seldom did two or more agencies combine their efforts. The duplication of fund-raising drives consequently posed a considerable problem in most c i t i e s , and was often accompanied by high costs of fund-raising. During World War I, however, federated financial drives were conducted in a large number of ci t i e s for war-related social welfare 1 programs. This experience and the experiences of the previous federated fund-raising groups convinced, more than ever before, the agencies and many contributors that there would be a real economy in efforts and cost in banding together i n a well-concentrated annual fund-raising campaign. Gut of these experiences evolved the structure of the present day chests. A period of expansion in the number of chests occurred from 1921-1924. Another period of great growth occurred between 1929 and 19315 when a great many local r e l i e f campaigns were conducted. World War II, with the development of War Chests in almost every city on the continent, ushered in the greatest period of expansion in the federated financing movement. The War Chests were turned into the Community Chest in the post-war years. By 1950, 1 Murphy, Campbell G., Community Organization Practice; Houghton M i f f l i n Co.; Boston; 1954; p. 38. - 12 -there were over 1,300 community chest campaigns reported as compared to 240 in 1925 In the United States of America. Federated financing in Canada began with the formation of Jewish Philanthropies in both Montreal and Toronto i n 1917* These federations were followed by the foundation in Toronto of the Federation for community service in 1918, which included a Federation of Catholic Charities. Organizations based on a similar federating principle were created in Montreal and Winnipeg in 1922. But the movement spread in this country very slowly. By 1938? there were only 9 ci t i e s in Canada with financial federations or community chests. However, during the years of Second World War— 1939-45) 24 new community chests were organized. In 1946 there were 36 chests in Canada, but in the following decade almost 3G more were organized bringing the total to 65 in which a l l provinces except Newfoundland were reported to have chests. The early financing groups, forerunners of the community chest, bore only a limited resemblance to later chests as they often grouped or gathered together the appeals of a number of agencies without reference to the actual community need for the services and without any budgetary procedure to establish a true picture of the real financial need of the agencies. In many instances these organizations were essentially only contributors' protective associations, as originally the givers were mainly a handful of influential - 13 -wealthy persons. There was no broad base of general community giving and involvement as i t exists today. The primary purpose of the present fund-raising trend i s the reduction of voluntary financial appeals into a single more efficient vehicle with particular reference to community needs and a proper budgetary procedure to establish a true picture of the real need of the agencies in relation to the overall needs of the community. 5. Relationship Between the Chest and the Council Joint planning and joint financing are two sides of the same coin. Community planning Inevitably affects distribution of funds, as program changes w i l l require either increase or decrease in appropriations. Conversely, groups responsible for allocating funds make decisions that have program significance. The task of joint planning i s so close to joint financing that some communities have established a single organization to do both jobs. Such an organization w i l l have a campaign section, a planning section, a budget section, a public relations section and such other sections, divisions or departments as are needed. A combined Chest and Council can only be successful as an overall planning and fund raising organization i f i t s structure—the board and the s t a f f — i s established in f u l l recognition of this broad concern. If the organization i s set up primarily for financing the - 14 -voluntary services, with a section added for planning, i t w i l l not be i n a position to do the planning job effectively. Whatever may be the plan of organization, i t must recognize the interests of the agencies which provide the services, and of the public which both uses and support them. The combined plan of organization has several advantages: i) i t helps assure unity in financing and planning a c t i v i t i e s , bringing together agency and contributor interests; i i ) i t requires less organizational structure and simplifies staff responsibilities; i i i ) i t may stimulate the interest df campaign leaders in planning as well as fund-raising. However, the more usual plan is to establish the Chest or United Fund and the Council as two distinct organizations. The Council i s set up to be the central coordinating and planning body for a l l community welfare a c t i v i t i e s . It develops working relationships with the Chest or Fund as well as with other groups. This separate plan of organization has the following advantages: i) the planning function i s more l i k e l y to get proper emphasis and less apt to be subordinated to the money-raising operations; i i ) f u l l participation of public and other non-Chest agencies i s easier to achieve; i i i ) the general public is more l i k e l y to view the Council as an impartial body not affected by factors of campaign expediency. Often the Council and the Chest jointly employ one executive to serve both organizations. This arrangement has some advantages of both the combined and the separate - 15 -organization plans in that while eaeh organization retains i t s identity, close cooperation can be assured. The disadvantage i s that while the executive i s reponsible to two boards, the general public may not understand these relationships. However, the joint executive plan could have practical value, especially i n smaller c i t i e s and towns which would find i t easier in this way to employ staff of high caliber. Whether entirely separate, jointly staffed or combined i n one organization, the Council and the Chest w i l l need to work together harmoniously. Certainly their objectives come together in the budgeting of funds raised annually for agency services. To f a c i l i t a t e close working relationship the following practices are in common use: 1 . The Chest president and budget committee chairman are ex-officio members of the Council board; 2. The Council president i s an ex-officio member of the Chest board and budget committee; 3. The Council selects some of the members of the Chest board and budget committee; 4. Staff service and office f a c i l i t i e s are shared; 5. Joint committees on public relations and research are established; 6. The constitutions of both Chest and Council provide for using the Council in program planning matters. Although most Chests and Councils on the continent are not operating on a joint staffed or combined-in-one organization basis, yet their objectives being the same and their functions being complimentary to each other, have - 16 -evolved an effective working method between themselves to have a unified approach to community problems. 6. Development of Overall Planning and Financing Community planning, and joint financing of social welfare services have developed out of the increasing inter-dependence of social welfare needs and the increasing complexity of specialized services organized to meet these needs. In i t s early days, the movement(s) of joint planning and joint financing met considerable criticism and resistance in the community. There were considerable differences of opinion as to whether joint planning and financing represented a forward or a backward step in social welfare development. Even today, after a f a i r l y long experience with chests and councils, some difference of opinion exist, but this i n i t s e l f is not unhealthy. A majority of observers appear to believe however, that the chest and council have made important contributions in the f i e l d . However, some present day c r i t i c s feel that many community chests and welfare councils and welfare funds emerged from a common feeling of discontent with sporadic, uncoordinated, and inconsistent efforts In the welfare f i e l d . And most of these associations revealed great v i t a l i t y in their early days. Many have, however, lost this feeling of discontent and have become mechanical means of raising money or of doing superficial - 17 -l planning. Overall planning and financing movement, under the banners of community chest and the council of social agencies have enjoyed a rapid and spectacular development and have made important contributions. The movement, like most accepted ones, has now reached the period of maturity at which criticism must be met. It seems safe to infer, however, that so long as urban communities continue to support large numbers of private philathropies, neither agencies nor donors w i l l willingly return to the old system of individual competitive campaigns. It also appears l i k e l y that council methods of consultation, interpretation and overall planning of community services w i l l persist. Though changes in structure to carry on the joint planning and financing are li k e l y to occur in any dynamic society, the elements of order which the movement has contributed to the social welfare f i e l d w i l l undoubtedly be conserved. 7« A Community Chest and Council; and i t s place in Process  of Community Organization A Community Chest: and i t s place in Community Organization The development of chest and council movement has been largely contemporaneous. The underlying reason for the development of community chest part of the movement was to 1 Ross, lurry G., Community Organization—Theory and  Principles; Harper and Bros.; New York; 1955 > P» 160* - 18 -effect economy—economy of campaign cost, of so l i c i t a t i o n work, and of time. The interest of the true chest goes beyond mere fund-raising and i t focuses on the effective development of the community's health and welfare programs. The chest, besides saving time and the costs of raising money, has tended to provide more adequate financing i n the health and welfare f i e l d s , especially for smaller agencies. It has also relieved the donors who were previously subject to constant giving to a number of agencies. The chest is inextricably involved in the community organization process at a number of points. When agencies are considered for membership in the chest i t i s usually on the basis of such c r i t e r i a as purpose, standards of service, area of coverage, and need for the service. This, in essence, is attempting to relate social welfare resources to social welfare needs in the community. The functions of budgeting in and the distribution of funds collected also go deeply into community organization practice. These concerns of the chest have naturally related i t closely to the coordinating and planning body. Because the chest i s a local enterprise, the nature of i t s membership differs from community to community. In general, the non-profit organizations who operate services in health, welfare and recreation fields are eligible for membership. Besides being able to collect large sums of money, the base of citizens' participation in the work of the chest has considerably been broadened. - 19 -The chests of the 1920*s made few attempts to evaluate the standards of service provided by member agencies, nor did they usually attempt to determine allocations on the basis of areas of greatest need. In most c i t i e s the member agencies used to present their budget requests in advance of the annual campaign, the total requests used to be added up, and agencies used to receive pro rata share of the proceeds. On the contrary, now the work of the chest i s based on community need and budgetary principles, involving thorough use of community organization techniques. A Council of Social Agencies and i t s Place in Community  Organization The growth of councils warrants to the consciousness of communities to the need for coordination and proper cooperative planning of social welfare services. The work of a council i s carried on primarily by involvement of people in the community and through divisions and committees organized around the broad fields of service, such as health, family and child welfare, and recreation. The council membership i s drawn as delegates from a l l governmental and voluntary agencies in the f i e l d of health, welfare and recreation in a geographical area. In addition, interested citizens are added as delegates-at-large. Ideally, the membership should include a l l those persons interested in the overall welfare program of the community. The basic function of the council i s to provide a - 20 -medium for the planning process. The programs (to achieve the planning objective) of no two councils w i l l exactly be alike. However, the specific a c t i v i t i e s of a well-organized Council can usually be grouped as under: i . Coordination: Councils provide opportunities through committees, case conferences, and joint projects, for members to come together for the purpose of becoming acquainted, sharing information, planning, and acting together. These councils serve as clearinghouses on information and suggestions for new services or changes in existing services. This type of clearance tends to align new or projected services with actual needs i n the community. i i . Fact-finding;: There cannot be two opinions that any sound planning must rest on factual information. One of the tasks of the council is the continuous and systematic gathering of facts about the community, i t s needs, and i t s services. These facts are analyzed, and their implications for community planning identified. Occasionally the councils undertake an overall community study or survey. In these large studies, which may involve a single functional f i e l d , such as recreation, or the total health and welfare f i e l d , outside help in the form of specialists or consultant, may be u t i l i z e d . i i i . Improving the quality of service: A better balance between community needs and community resources may be achieved by improving the quality of existing services. This - 21 -stepping up of quality may be achieved through educational and training institutes for lay and professional workers; studies of personnel practices, budgeting, reporting; development and application of higher standards to selection and training of personnel, agency management, and program services. i v . Developing adequate services: When there are gaps or duplication in services, the council supplies a way for citizens to work together to remedy the situation. Pacts are studied; a logical course of action is agreed upon; and action is put into effect. This may mean elimination of a service, re-vamping an established program or development of an entirely new service. v. Common services: Councils seldom operate direct services for individuals, though they may do so occasionally on a temporary demonstration basis. They, however, do usually provide some common services which accrue to the benefit of the individual agencies and ultimately to their members and clients. This i s done, for no one agency can provide such a service so well or so economically for i t s e l f . The Social Service Index or Exchange is one of the oldest and best known common services. More recent services include the Central Volunteer Bureau, Central Information Service, joint publicity programs. v i . Developing public understanding: One of the principal functions of a Council i s to quicken public awareness of community problems and develop an understanding of how 22 -agencies are dealing with these problems. This i s done by instituting an effective public relations program: by sponsoring public meetings and forums, maintaining a speaker's bureau, distributing studies and reports, and getting publicity through the press, radio and other media. Community understanding of welfare needs and services i s also developed through cooperation with other organizations on matters of general civ i c interest. Throughout the 1920's however, the councils were usually not major instruments for overall social planning. In general, they lacked broad community participation; but now with their functions mentioned above, these city-wide councils become extremely powerful community movements with increasing participation, not only by agency executives and public o f f i c i a l s , but also by large numbers of influential lay leaders. Using the community organization techniques, the agencies—public and p r i v a t e — j o i n together in the council in focusing the spotlight on a community problem, bringing to bear on that problem a l l available resources, and when necessary developing new resources. Through the strength which comes with such an approach, the health and welfare organizations exert an influence far beyond what they could yield i f they each worked independently. The concepts of community organization and planning are interlocked. Planning may be broader in scope than the community, but i t s essentials can well be demonstrated by the - 23 -councils in their organized local action. Councils, as required in community organization method, foster conscious cooperation among the agencies and provide better involvement of the members of the community for local planning and for other forms of common action. It deliberately selects goals and systematically Implements them. Being essentially engaged in a program of community organization they are able to give great impetus to the joint planning and joint financing so that the specialized act i v i t i e s i n the community may become a well integrated whole and should not die out for want of funds, 8. Problems of Large Urban Coverage Acceptance as social welfare planning and financing body(ies) of the community is the main objective of a l l Community Chests and Councils, regardless of the size of the community served. Moreover, i t seems an objective which few Chests and Councils have truly achieved. The Chests and Councils i n large metropolitan areas are becoming more and more impersonal mechanical means of planning and fund-raising. Such an impersonal situation i s bound to result with a large area of coverage. The Chests and Councils may have l i t t l e feeling of direct responsibility for helping and encouraging i t s agencies to improve the quality of their services, or for assisting new services needed by the community to become available. At times the Councils especially may find i t d i f f i c u l t to integrate i t s - 24 -planning with public services i n the community; smaller, somewhat homogeneous communities provide easier and more collaboration in public and private efforts on the community level. Press and radio coverage of the act i v i t i e s and the plans of the Chests and Councils is usually more complete in smaller communities. This, of course, assists the Chest and Council immeasurably in gauging areas of community interest and concern as these develop, and also in securing generous publicity for chest and council work. The natural question is how the Chest and Council with large metropolitan coverage can gain real acceptance as community's planning and financing body(ies)? To the writer, the starting point is to establish a Chest and Council which must be as representative as possible of a l l elements of the community. Though such an all-embracing Chest and Council would not solve the whole problem, yet i t would certainly improve the situation. To have a better and more personal approach and relationship with the grass-root, involves real hard work and a thorough going-over of the community organization development process at the grass-root level. Community Organization or community development denotes the techniques used by neighbours themselves, or by professionals guiding them, to set going mutual efforts and develop their interest in the planning and carrying out of the plans jointly. "It provides broader citizens' participation, greater energy or enthusiasm than can be mobilized from any other source for the solution of the economic and social - 25 -1 problems of the people." Community Organization i s a process of bringing into being and maintaining the kinds of group interrelation-ships which f a c i l i t a t e citizens' participation and effective group action and growth. These techniques are not untried or new suggestions for getting the energy and support of the people behind a community program. A guide line in reaching to the grass-root and involving them f u l l y into the program of the Chest and Council is found in the geographical levels, i.e. the neighbourhood, the d i s t r i c t and the whole community at which various citizens by reason of their experience or Interest may be able to participate in the program. These several levels of citizens' participation or involvement serve different though equally useful functions in the broader framework of a Chest and Council. The working out of patterns of community organization appropriate for a specific community begins with the existing structure and proceeds i n ways adapted to local circumstances. Community Organization for citizens' participation cannot be a blue print in advance for any and a l l situations. In some c i t i e s the central council of social agencies have been working toward this objective of broader and more f u l l e r involvement of the grass-roots, by building 1 United Nations—Social Progress Through Community  Development (New York! IV 18, 1955), p.- 15. - 26 -tip d i s t r i c t and neighbourhood organizations through which citizens can participate. According to Hillmans In large c i t i e s especially, councils (of social agencies) have encouraged and given staff assistance in the formation of local community or neighbourhood councils . . . outstanding among these are the developments in Pittsburgh and Cleveland which go back to the early 1930's, Detroit, Chicago, Los-Angeles, Oakland, Washington DC, Indianapolis, St. Louis and Rochester, NY. 'Approximately f i f t y councils are currently providing staff time for the organization and service of such neighbourhood Councils .'1 Liaison with the Chest and Council and these neighbourhood or d i s t r i c t Councils could be effected i n various ways: through an executive group within the Council, through periodic reports, through joint meetings with the coordinator i n the Council and the staff at the various neighbourhood and/or d i s t r i c t groups. The Chest and Council, especially the Council, in such a set up must not be regarded as administrative overhead. It has a special service to perform for the community as a whole. The fact must not be ignored that the Councils are supported by the community through contributions to the chest. It serves the chest in the same way as i t serves other community agencies. When the Council wins public understanding and is accepted as being of value to the community at large, the necessary financial support w i l l be forthcoming not only for Chest and Council, but for the total community program. 1 Hillman, Arthur, Community Organization and Planning (MacMillan; New York; 1950), p. 247. The internal quotation i s from Violet M. Sieder, in a letter written from the Community Chest and Council in August, 1947. - 27 -9- Summary of Findings In the main, Casework, Group work and Community Organization a l l are identified as related parts of Social Work practice. The common core is found i n a disciplined use of self in working with people; a common working philosophy; an emphasis on working with (not for) clients; a problem-centred approach; use of social diagnosis based on analysis of the articulation of the problem and the facts; in formulation of a plan toward solution or action; continuous evaluation; and the fact that each area of specialization is involved in varying degrees with interpersonal, group, and intergroup process. Community Organization i s found wherever people have learned to live together. In simple societies i t rests upon customs or traditional ways of regulating social relationships and goal achieving devices: in complex societies i t is essentially a matter of deliberately selecting goals and systematically implementing them. For individuals or organized groups to function as part of a community requires an organizational structure inclusive of common areas of interest and having geographical limitations. People can cooperate effectively only through an effective form of social organization which provides suitable channels of communication. When the organization is serving the interest of a number of groups in a community, i t must provide methods of broader and more complete representation to - 28 -and from these groups and to the community as a whole. Most recently, Community Organization is seen as a direct service to communities through which individuals and groups representing a cross section of diversified special interests are helped to work together to identify and meet their own needs by participating as effective parts of a democratic society. The goal here i s to achieve an integrated community through the broad involvement on a meaningful basis at every level of participation of the many appropriate groups and sub-groups in the community concerned with a common problem. Evidence of gainful use of this may well be found in the Chest and Council approach. The Chests and Councils assist organizations and individuals to improve social conditions in the community, distr i c t s or neighbourhoods in which they operate; to relate local planning efforts through appropriate channels and resources to community wide planning; to keep community wide services sensitive to local needs, and to stimulate maximum use and support of community service and resources to meet and prevent health and welfare problems. When the common interest of the planning and financing body(ies) i s to promote social welfare objectives, i t has to have community organiza-tion practitioner(s) in social work on staff, to help i t identify i t s problems and move toward i t s goals eff i c i e n t l y and effectively. The chest and council movement has unquestionably - 29 -contributed to the progress of social welfare. Federated financing has brought a measure of order in fund-raising. It has tended to stabilize voluntary financing and to increase the amounts of money secured. This has resulted in stabilizing the member agencies. Joint financing has broadened the base of giving, increasing the number of contributors. Chests have given impetus to the development of improved methods of financial and s t a t i s t i c a l accounting i n the social agencies. A significant gain has been made by councils in the area of coordination and planning, relating the agencies more r e a l i s t i c a l l y to community needs and resources. Councils also quicken public awareness of community problems and develop an understanding of how agencies are dealing with these problems. CHAPTER 2 LOCAL APPLICATION: THE COMMUNITY CHEST AND COUNCIL OF GREATER VANCOUVER, BRITISH COLUMBIA 1. The Growth of Social Services in Vancouver The scope of community organization i s broad and it s contents are varied. Community planning and organization is necessary and i t grows out of the very l i f e people live together, whatever the size or type of community i t may be. It grows out of their efforts to meet their common needs. The process of planning and organizing community l i f e is something spontaneous and operates in any community, regardless of presence of social welfare agencies or professional workers. The growth of Social Services in Vancouver parallels the history of growth and development of this Pacific Coast city. Looking some odd ninety years back, we would find that B r i t i s h Columbia was admitted to the Federation as a Province in I87I; and under the terms of the B.N.A. Act the province accepted responsibility for "making laws in respect of hospitals, asylums, charities and eleemosynary institutions." Vancouver was Incorporated as a city in the year 1886, and was almost completely wiped out by f i r e during the same year. Though the pace of growth is normally rapid on this continent, the growth of Vancouver during the last - 31 -seventy-five years has been exceptionally rapid, and today as a result thereof i t stands as the third largest city in Canada. This rapid growth of socio-economic l i f e i n this, once a small-lumbering town, brought with i t many inevitable problems which always follow such quick changes. Vancouver had l i t t l e need for organized charity in it s earlier days. When help was needed, i t was administered through the City Health Department; and until 1906, the aged and infirm were cared for in the public wards of the General Hospital. The period of general trade depression in 1906 and 1907 tested the administration of Civic Relief which existed at that time. Besides families who f e l t the pinch of the hard time, there were large numbers of single men who could not find work. The way to deal with this situation was something awful from our point of view in 1958s boarding and lodgings were provided under the direction of Dr. F.T. Uhderhill, the Medical Health Officer—two meals per day and a shakedown of clean straw, after a bath administered under supervision of an old Sergeant Major. Once in every twenty-four hours the men were given the "once over"—once in the day time and again at night, each man would wake to find the Sergeant's b u l l eye f u l l on his face. This had the so-called effect to silently eliminate a l l those with doubtful conscience. Foundation for organized private welfare program and community organization work was la i d i n 1901, when the - 32 -Victorian Order of Nurses was organized. In 1907 the Friendly-Aid Society came into being to deal with families, and for the f i r s t time the system of investigation was introduced. The investigations were carried out by the public spirited women who reported back their findings to the City Health Department. The aims and objects of the Society as set forth in the Constitution were: II. Object: The object shall be to minimize the evils of private charity and of begging from door to door to discriminate between worthy and unworthy mendicants, to relieve a l l who may be found to be in real distress, especially women and children and to distribute in a systematic manner the Charities of the City. The Friendly Aid Society with i t s aims and objects and in character of i t s membership was the f i r s t attempt to systematize the distribution of the City Charities on a cit y wide basis. The membership of the Society was drawn from the following sources: I. Representatives of the City Council i i . Representatives of the Executive Committee of the Local Council of Women i i i . Representatives of the clergy iv. From each of the churches (two of whom, i f possible, be women) v. Salvation Army v i . Trade and Labour Council In 1908, the City Council made a grant of $1500 to the Society for i t s work. This grant continued even after the merger of the Society into a larger group known as Associated Charities, financed by city grants and public subscriptions. The grant was, however, discontinued in 1912 - 33 -after the appointment of Captain Godson-Godson as the f i r s t Relief Officer under the City Health Department. Largely through the act i v i t i e s of the Associated Charities another institution made i t s appearance. The Creche or Day Nursery developed from a small private beginning in 1910 to a civ i c institution by 1912. The Day Nursery, for the f i r s t time maintained statistics and proved i t s value to the community in the succeeding years by the large increase in the number of children cared for, and the substantial earning capacity of the mothers. The Associated Charities, financed by City Grant and public subscriptions, having ceased to function in 1914, a new body of public men was formed known as the Employment and Relief Association. This Association acted as an auxiliary to the City Council's Relief Committee, The Association raised a large portion of funds administered by Mr. Ireland, City Relief Officer who succeeded Captain Godson-Godson. Mr. Ireland used to report progress of the funds to the Association and to the Council Committee. The Committee also launched work projects to relieve unemployment. Not much record is available for the period 1914-1922 to permit any discussion on i t . However, after World War I in 1922, i t became increasingly apparent and was seriously f e l t that some thoughtful planning would have to be undertaken to meet the then chaotic conditions in the f i e l d of welfare. This resulted In the creation of an Advisory - 34 -Board to the Social Service Exchange on September 1922 with the following Preamble: Whereas the Vancouver City Council has instituted a Social Service Exchange, and Whereas the voluntary and o f f i c i a l Social Welfare workers in Vancouver and the surrounding d i s t r i c t s desire to work in cooperation with the Exchange in order that i t s benefit to the community may be developed to the highest degree; Therefore, we, the undersigned The objects of the Board were as under: Art. 2 Objects (a) To acquire an intimate knowledge of the Exchange i t s methods and achievements on behalf of the Social Welfare Workers; (b) To encourage cooperation between a l l social welfare workers and agencies and the Exchange; (c) To c a l l meetings of the social welfare workers at stated intervals for the study of welfare problems on modern sci e n t i f i c lines. To provide speakers and essayists, and to hold seminars for the consideration and discussion of local welfare cases present usual features; (d) To cooperate with Greater Vancouver Public Health and Welfare Association. These objects of the Board thus provided, rather than paved the way for future city-wide planning and coordination of the social services—both private and public. Leaving discussion on the Chest and Council of Greater Vancouver, which follows in the next section of this chapter, one sees that great impetus has been given to the social welfare movement during the last thirty years. For about three years prior to the great depression of the 1930fs, things had been taking on a new look in the - 35 -private welfare f i e l d . The earliest beginning of a training program, which is now known as a full-fledged School of Social Work at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, had started at the same time. The programs of the Children's Aid Society, the Family Welfare-Bureau and indeed the whole pattern of community organization began to take a new shape in Vancouver. Besides the private programs, there were a number of local, provincial, local-provincial, federal, and federal-provincial programs. Workmen's Compensation and Mothers' Allowance had of course been in operation since 1916 and 1920 respectively. Federal-Provincial Old Age Pension had been in existence since 1927. A net work of child welfare services under combined public and private auspices took better shape in the decade 1920-30. The institutional programs which existed in Vancouver were: Boys' and Gir l s ' industrial schools j orphanages, under non-governmental auspices providing the main resource of care for children away from their homes; mental hospitals} T.B. sanatorium; homes for the aged and incurables; hospitals; j a i l s and penitentiaries. Casework was not known and Foster Home care was just beginning to be tried. However, during the last thirty years a peaceful revolution has taken place in the f i e l d of social welfare— both public and private. Besides the participation of the Federal Government in the f i e l d of social services in the - 36 -Province of B r i t i s h Columbia and in Vancouver, the Provincial Government has been spending about one-third of their total expenditure on social services. The municipalities are also active in the f i e l d . Greater Vancouver is a fortunate part of the province as the municipalities in this area are very-progressive and are conscious of the every day growing needs of their citizens. "The private welfare movement, too, has flourished and expanded and gained in strength and influence. The network of voluntary agencies serving the needs of the . . . community has been strengthened and enlarged greatly i n 1 the past (30) years." 2. Need to Form a Community Chest and Council was f e l t  in Vancouver The idea of a chest for Vancouver was initiated by the Board of Trade (as was done in other places) who called the f i r s t meeting of Health and Welfare organizations in December 1922 to discuss the advisability of a chest for the city. The meeting was held in the Board of Trade Office under the Chairmanship of Mr. J.B. Thomson, Vice-President of the Board. This meeting resulted in the creation of a Special Committee of twelve persons to study the whole issue and submit a report for further consideration. The Committee submitted their report in June 1923, and on discussion of the 1 Dixon, W.G., Social Welfare and the Preservation of Human  Values; J.M. Dent and Sons (Canada) Ltd . j Vancouverj 19575 P. 25. - 37 -report: It was resolved that the findings of the above Committee, together with a l l data collected by them, be turned over to the Board of Trade with the request that i t be again brought to the attention of the people and the various organizations at a later date. It was also the wish . . . that the present committee should remain in office, with power to add to i t s number several prominent businessmen.l Around 1925 one of the service clubs in the city raised $20,000 which was slated to be used for some deserving agency. Various agencies forwarded requests for financial assistance. The service club, wishing to spend the money wisely, suggested that a study be done in this area to determine the best place for the money to be used. Consequently the famous Charlotte Whitton Survey was made in 1927) and thus a sound step towards laying a plan for future efficient expansion was taken. Among the various recommendations of that Survey Report, one i s of special interest to us here; for i t was in carrying out this recommendation that the Chest and Council came into being: The Survey finds a lack of the usual f a c i l i t i e s for joint action and development of mutual understanding and a feeling of comradeship and common purpose among social workers, and for encouraging and f a c i l i t a t i n g case cooperation. As a f i r s t step toward f a c i l i t a t i n g cooperation i t i s recommended that the Social Service Exchange be reorganized for continuous service as an autonomous agency, and that the pos s i b i l i t i e s of a Council of Social Agencies . . . be kept in mind for future development.2 1 Mowat, Walter Mrs., History of the Community Chest and  Council of Greater Vancouver: 1951) p. 2. 2 Whitton, Charlotte, Report of the B.C. Child Welfare Survey; Canadian Council of Child Welfare$ Ottawa; 1927. - 38 -As a result of the work of the Committee of the Board of Trade to study the poss i b i l i t i e s for a chest for Vancouver, coupled with the recommendations of Miss Whitton, referred to above, the Board of Trade called an important meeting on November, 1928 with Mr. B.L. Mitchell in the Chair, when i t was the consensus of opinion that a Survey was absolutely necessary before Vancouver could go ahead with the proposed plan of the Council of Social Agencies and the Chest. Later at the meeting in February 1929 under the Chairmanship of Mr. J.L. Noble i t was recommended that the services of Mr. J. Howard T. Falk, Executive Director of the Montreal Council of Social Agencies be obtained to conduct the Survey. It was also decided to pay a fee of $1000 to Mr. Falk for this assignment. 3. Formation of Council of Social Agencies and the  Welfare Federation After Mr. Falk had conducted the Survey, a historic a l meeting was convened by the Board of Trade on 7th November 1929 under the Chairmanship of His Worship Mayor W.H. Malkin, which was attended by the following social service organizations and public and semi-public bodies: 1. Alexandra Orphanage 2. Canadian National Institute for the Blind, Van. Br. 3. Canadian Red Cross Society, B.C. and Vancouver Branches 4. Central Welfare Bureau 5. Central City Mission 6. Children's Aid Society 7. Crippled Children's Hospital 8. Seamen's Institute 9. Returned Soldiers' Club - 39 -10. Victorian Order of Nurses 11. Western Association for the Blind 12. Y.M.C.A. 13. Y.W.C.A. 14. Amputation Association of the Canadian Legion 15. T.B. Veterans' Association of the Canadian Legion 16. Disabled Veterans' Association of the Canadian Legion 17. Vancouver General Hospital l o . Council of the Vancouver Board of Trade 19. St. Paul's Hospital 20. Rotary Club 21. Kiwanis Club 22. Gyro Club 23. Lions Club 24. Jewish Community Chest 25. B r i t i s h Soldiers' Home 26. B.C. Safety League 27. City Relief Department 28. City Council 29. Life Underwriters 30. American Women's Club 31. University of Br i t i s h Columbia 32. Engineering Bureau, Board of Trade 33. Norwegian Lutheran Mission and 34. Deputy Provincial Treasurer.1 The Chairman explained to those present the purpose of the meeting which was called to discuss the report of Mr. Falk, copies of which were already with the attending organizations since August l?th to allow the organizations to have sufficient time to study the same. Mr. Falk's report apparently answered many questions that were in the minds of the community at large, and his recommendations were well received. At the meeting i t was unanimously decided to proceed with the Council of Social Agencies and the principle of a Financial Federation was also adopted. The following resolutions were passed: 1 Mowat, op. c i t . . pp. 5-6. - 40 -Be i t resolved that this meeting go on record as being in favour of the report of Mr. Falk and that i t proceed forthwith with the formation of a Council of Social Agencies. Be i t further resolved that this meeting place i t s e l f on record as favouring the principle of the Financial Federation and upon the completion of the Council of Social Agencies, a meeting be called to interest citizens who w i l l be asked to proceed with the formation of an organization to be known as the Vancouver Financial Federation. Be i t resolved that a committee of seven be appointed to draft a constitution and bylaws for, f i r s t , the Council of Social Agencies, and, secondly, the Financial Federation; . . . and that this Committee report as soon as convenient to those organizations who at this meeting signify their intentions of becoming members of the Council of Social Agencies.1 Later, i t was decided to appoint Mr. Falk as Director of Council of Social Agencies which was in the process of formation. Mr. Falk arrived in Vancouver in 193° and took his new assignment. His previous experience f i t t e d him admirably to undertake this new project. He had had wide experience in Council work and community organization both on this continent and in England. Thus the Council of Social Agencies was o f f i c i a l l y formed in February, 1930 with following objectives: 1. To afford an opportunity to a l l agencies engaged in social work to realize the relation of their respective functions to the community; 2. To f a c i l i t a t e cooperation in meeting problems of common interest, in developing plans for social betterment and in creating an intelligent public opinion as to social problems; and 1 Minutes of the Meeting, held i n the Board of Trade office on November 7, 1929. - 41 -3. To engage in such activities as may seem wise i n order to further these ends.l The Council quickly gained community support and started with thirty-nine agencies, including those that appealed to the public for funds, as well as those generally interested in welfare work. In order to f a c i l i t a t e the carrying out of the objectives of the Council, i t was divided into four main divisions of activity: I. Child Welfare; I i . Health; i i i . Education and Recreation; and iv. Family Welfare. As has been said earlier, the Council was formed to act in conjunction with a Welfare Federation which was to be carved out by the Council i t s e l f . Accordingly, at a meeting of the Council in the latter part of 1930, a special committee was appointed to raise the sum of $15»000, for preliminary finances for the Welfare Federation before the general campaign could be held for 1931. It was arranged that the f i r s t general campaign would be held from 23rd February to March 2nd, 1931» to provide the budget requirements of the various charities interested for their work in 1931 beginning A p r i l 1931. The Vancouver Welfare Federation actually came into being on December 2nd, 193°, when the Federation was o f f i c i a l l y formed and the Constitution and bylaws were 1 Constitution of the Council of Social Agencies, adopted in February, 1930. - 42 -approved. Functionally, three principal services were assigned to the Federation: I. Public Relations; i i . Fund Campaign; and i i i . Budgeting. Thus the b a l l was set r o l l i n g in 1930 and the Council of Social Agencies and the Welfare Federation (Community Chest) started functioning as two separate organizations with separate Boards of Directors, but under one professional person in Mr. Falk who was the Executive Director of both the Council of Social Agencies and of the Welfare Federation. During the f i r s t twelve months of the Council's existence i t had not functioned under normal conditions. The work involved in organizing the Federation, admitting a large number of agencies, the matter of going through the process of budgeting and campaigning l e f t l i t t l e time for organizing the Council's work. However, the following was accomplished: 1. The Social Service Exchange was taken over from the Family Service Bureau; 2. A Christmas clearing names of families was done; 3. Central Office scheme was developed; 4. Placement service for social workers and recruitment of volunteers was started; 5. Public education programs were launched. The period of great depression and economic effects of unemployment threw into sharp r e l i e f the agency services, and by 1935 i t was recognized that the Council had f i l l e d a THE COUNCIL OF SOCIAL AGENCIES AND THE WELFARE FEDERATION, GREATER VANCOUVER ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE 19^0-^1 COUNCIL OF SOCIAL AGENCIES WELFARE FEDERATION BOARD OF DIRECTORS EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR BOARD OF DIRECTORS CHILD WELFARE FAMILY WELFARE CAMPAIGN BUDGET 1-3 o H» O h-1 (-> O •3 &> orq CD ro EDUCATION AND RECREATION HEALTH PUBLIC RELATION Figure 1 - 43 -real need in the community. Besides this, the Council and i t s committees were constantly on the lookout to coordinating and improving the work of the public and private agencies. It did a remarkable job in maintaining health and welfare services in the city. It performed the d i f f i c u l t task of acquainting the public with the type of work each agency was doing. The Council and the Federation moved onward hand in hand making great progress. As a result, people continued to identify themselves prominently with these organizations and the quality and volume of support was increasing year after year. The Chest and Council in Vancouver has always been a dynamic organization since i t s inception; and has always been making efforts to relate i t s work to the changing needs of the community. The Organization in 1939» i.e. during World War II, cooperated with the War Chest, so much so that in 1940 March, the United War Fund appeal took place under the Vancouver War Chest using the staff of the Welfare Federation. Coordinating Councils were also set up for war work which were quickly recognized by the Federal Government. As a f i r s t step in the direction of stock taking and evaluation, the Board of Directors appointed a Special Coordinating Committee i n March 1942, to make a survey of the original membership agencies with a view to: (a) eradicate duplication of work - 44 -(b) coordination of agencies where work was being carried on of alike nature (c) requesting the Provincial and/or Federal Governments to take over agencies whose work In the opinion of Welfare Federation was the responsibility of the State. In February 1944, at the annual meeting of the Federation, i t was decided to change the name of the Federation to "Community Chest of Greater Vancouver." At this time too, the name of the Council of Social Agencies was also changed to "Welfare Council of Greater Vancouver." 4. Unification of Chest and Council As has been said above the two organizations— Welfare Federation and the Council of Social Agencies—were formed and did maintain separate identities for about fifteen years. The coordination in their work was sought at the Executive Director's level or in the Budget Committee of the Federation. During 1 9 3 4 , there were discussions held as to the relative functions of the Federation and the Council, by a Special Committee appointed for this purpose. When the findings of the Committee were referred to the Executive Committee of the Council for their consideration, the Executive Committee reported that there was not sufficient justification for the Council to merge with the Federation. At that time the feelings were that the act i v i t i e s of the Standing Committees could not be considered within the scope of the Federation's constitutional purpose, which was the - 45 -financing and budgeting of i t s institutional membership of private social agencies. Later in the year 1942, there had been confusion in the minds of the public regarding the relationship of the Federation and the Council being two separate bodies. This confusion also arose because of the fact that for several years the posts of the Executive Director of the Council and the Managing Director of the Federation were held by one person. This position was changed in 1939 and two persons were appointed to ensure increased efficiency. It is interesting to keep in mind that the Council was financed by the Federation and was regarded as a member agency, and that i t s function was social service planning. Welfare Federation used the Council in an advisory capacity, and the Council did not have jurisdiction over the matter of allocation of Federation's Funds. Due to this confused relationship and because of the fact that both the organizations are complimentary and are closely related in their objects and functions to each other, the Board of Directors of the Community Chest, appointed a Committee in 1944 under the Chairmanship of Mr. E.A. Jamison to inquire into the advisability of bringing about a merger of the Community Chest and the Welfare Council. For some time there had been strong opposition and even agitation on the part of both the Chest and the Council to bring the two organizations closer together. Since i t was realized that both bodies were closely interrelated, the necessity of - 46 -bringing about a more unified effort in the functioning of the two was essential. Consequently, in March 1945 a Special Mobilization Committee was set up under Mr. J.D. Vickers which had several joint meetings with the Executive Committee of the Council. The Council recommended that an Executive Director responsible to both the Community Chest and the Welfare Council was the most important need and thata sound course of action would be for the two bodies to work again with a joint Executive Director and then to arrange a merger on the basis of the confidence and understanding that would be established in coordinating them under one Constitution. The Council further recommended that the two bodies should share office space and that every effort should be made at the earliest convenience to bring the two organizations together. The lay members of the Boards of the Chest and the Council have always been aware and appreciative of good professional leadership in the affairs of the chest and the Council since i t s i n i t i a t i o n in 1930. Hence, when the merger was being considered the Committee realized that an able Executive Director who would be responsible to both bodies, was of immediate importance. This person would have to be an administrator, familiar with social welfare trends and trained in money raising techniques, and would also have knowledge of public relations. The Community Chest and Council found such a person in Col. Hugh Allan, QBE, Ed., who took office on October 1st 194-5 as the Executive Director of the Community - 47 -Chest and Council. His f i r s t task was to plan the amalgamation of the Community Chest and the Council of Social Agencies and to reorganize the administration. A noteworthy year was 1946 for i t saw the transition from war to peace time conditions. Many new services had been established because of war, some of which had ju s t i f i e d their continuance in peace time. It was a year of progress and accomplishment. The year was more important from the point of view of this study as the formal amalgamation of the Community Chest and the Council was effected on July 21st with the adoption of the new Constitution and bylaws. A resolution was also passed "That the name of the Society be changed to the Community Chest and Council of Greater Vancouver." Here, i t would be interesting to see the latest professional thinking on the Chest and Council structural inter-relationships made at the Biennial Conference of United Community Funds and Councils of America, held at Cleveland, Ohio, in February 1958. Arguments for a combined Chest - Council: 1. Bring into social planning many business and professional persons who would not normally be drawn into the less tangible area of Community planning. 2. Insure unity and coheslveness between joint financing and planning. (Planning recommendations more apt to be favourably approved by United Fund and Chest.) 3. Brings social planning down to a practical basis consistent with the community's a b i l i t y to finance social services. 4. Effects savings i n administrative cost. - 48 -Arguments for a separate Council setup: 1. Public agencies are less apt to feel that the Council i s a private agency dominated mechanism. 2. Social planning is less apt to be restrained by dollar consideration: valid needs should be brought to public attention even though immediate ways and means of financing them are not available. 3. Social planning i s less apt to be suspended during the period of the United Fund or Chest campaign. 4. Council is less apt to be used as a "whipping boy" by the United Fund or Chest.1 There are always two sides of a program or a structure. We cannot claim that such and such type of a structure Is a l l good or a l l bad. The only criterion which guides our thinking in the matter is to see and examine both sides—advantages and the disadvantages involved in a given approach; and i f the advantages outnumber the dis-advantages then definitely the approach is good. The writer, seeing the inter-dependence of and close relationship between the Chest and Council, feels and sincerely believes that the arguments for a combined Chest-Council outweigh the arguments for separate Chest and Council. Further: The primary function of a community chest is to raise the money required to meet the budgetary deficits of the member-agencies. Usually this i s accomplished in a single annual fund-raising campaign. The primary function of a council of social agencies i s to coordinate the service functions of the social agencies and the social-planning activities of the community and to provide leadership in the development of community's 1 Rudolph, N. Evjen (Discussion Leader), Outline Summary for  Institute of Fund, Chest and Council Operation; Feb. 25, 1958; PP. 6-7. ~~ - 49 -social services. Since granting of funds cannot be accomplished intelligently without social' objectives' in view, the chest i s greatly concerned to keep abreast of plans made by the council. In some places where councils are inactive or ineffective, the chest may even undertake some of the planning and coordinating functions independently. Since plans for the development of social services are unrealistic unless evolved with the problem of financing clearly in mind, councils are greatly concerned to understand the policies and the existing commitments of chests. In brief, neither the chest nor the council can operate with maximum effectiveness unless their ac t i v i t i e s are very closely coordinated.1 And this close coordination can very well more surely be achieved in a combined chest-council organization with one single Board of Directors and one Executive Director, assisted by professional deputies, who would head the various sections and/or functional^fields of the total organization. The merger of Chest-and Council of Vancouver in 1946, resulted in structural changes. There was only one Board of Directors, a Finance Committee responsible for carrying out the functions of the Chest, and a Welfare Section responsible for the social planning and a l l other act i v i t i e s which were the functions of the Welfare Council. The Budget Committee and the Public P.elations Committee represented both sections. The Special Joint Committee was recognized as a Joint Executive Committee in a l l matters of coordinated administration between the Community Chest and the Welfare Council, and the Executive Director was made responsible to 1 McMillan, Wayne, Community Organization for Social Welfare: University of Chicago Press; Chicago; 194-5; PP. 413-14. - 50 -this Committee for the proper administration, staff matters and for proper functioning of the Organization. Other staff was responsible to the Executive Director. Thus for the f i r s t time a clear cut line administration was established. The new Constitution of the Community Chest and Council which was registered on July 30th 194-6, provided a wise integration bringing into close cooperation the functions of Social Planning and Financing, and creating a better understanding on the part of a l l concerned. The resulting success of the organization i n the following years proved the wisdom of the decision to merge the Chest and the Council into one single organization. 5. Constitution Social work has developed from the neighbourly mutual aid of individuals into organized and corporate activity. In a complex urban community the individual i s unable to know the needs of his fellow citizens or to c a l l upon the community's resources for meeting those needs. The charitable corporation or social agency, through i t s diversified staff, can know a l l the community's resources for human welfare and can evoke those to bear on to meet the needs. Social work by an unincorporated committee, though usually better than individual action, is not ordinarily so satisfactory for long time results as that engaged in by a legally incorporated organization. Incorporation absolves the members of the organization from personal l i a b i l i t y . It THE COMMUNITY CHEST AND COUNCIL, GREATER VANCOUVER IN 1946 (After Amalgamation of the Chest and the Council) BOARD OP DIRECTORS EXECUTIVE J DIRECTOR H3 O H> O M r-» i J» CPS-CD O WELFARE SECTION [Council Section) BUDGET COMMITTEE PUBLIC RELATION COMMITTEE FINANCE COMMITTEE (Chest Section) Figure 2 THE COMMUNITY CHEST AND COUNCIL, GREATER VANCOUVER IN 1958 PEOPLE OF GREATER VANCOUVER BOARD OF DIRECTORS EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR SOCIAL PLANNING SECTION BUDGET SECTION PUBLIC RELATIONS SECTION CAMPAIGN (Note: The breakup of each Section has been shown and discussed in Chapter 4.) Figure ^ - 51 -gives to the organization an additional prestige, because legal status denotes permanency and responsibility; and their original purposes are reasonably w e l l - f u l f i l l e d . The constitution or charter should be such as to provide and f a c i l i t a t e the furtherance and fulfilment of the objectives of the association and limit i t s becoming astray. These constitutional and legal provisions vary from one organization to another depending on many factors. Constitution i s the skeleton or fundamental law of the organization and may state the relationship of the board, the executive office, the staff and the members to each other; and provide a legal basis for the activities of the organization.! The Constitution and bylaws should be dynamic and not static. An organization which operates under antiquated regulations which are cumbersome, impedes rather than aid the agency's work. They sometimes actually prevent the agency from making highly desirable changes in procedures. The Constitution and bylaws should be checked, perhaps once a year to see i f they correspond to the best thought and practice in the f i e l d and to the situation in the community. In general the constitution should be brief. It should state only the fundamental elements of name, location, purpose, mode of government and means of amendment. Bylaws should contain the details of organization and operation which are not delegated to administrative decision and should 1 Street, Elwood, A Handbook of Social Agency Administration; Harper and Bros.; New York; 194b; p. 14. - 52 -provide for easy amendment. The constitution(s) of the Community Chest and the Council of Greater Vancouver has always been dynamic since their inception. Important changes have been made whenever a need for these were f e l t . An important amendment was made in 1 9 3 2 , i.e. two years after the formation of the Council in respect of membership to the society. That amendment made provision for the inclusion of public departments of welfare and for membership of organizations which, though not specifically engaged in the practice of social work but have a definite interest in social work and social problems. Through this amendment i t was hoped, in the course of time, to link up in the council, a l l the elements in the community, public agencies, private agencies and interested associations which, together, form the body of opinion which has a right to determine the policies which should be followed in development of the social work programs. Similar other important amendments have been made at many occasions ever since the organization^) came into being. The most important thing to remember is that never ever effecting these amendments the focus of community service has never been overlooked. The organization has always belonged to the people, for the people and by the people of the Greater Vancouver Community. - 53 -6. Membership The Chest and Council constitute i n some respect a "superstructure" over many agencies that work directly with individual clients and client groups. They, as is true for a l l community organization agencies, seldom ever deal directly with persons who receive services. In other words, the work of the community organization agencies i s achieved primarily through the use of organizational patterns and structural devices that foster intergroup communication, intergroup understanding, and intergroup achievement. Different patterns and devices are suited for different ends under varying times and circumstances. The complete workings of a democratic society make for the use of such varied pragmatic approaches.1 Membership gives an organization i t s l i f e . One of the most significant types of membership, commonly found in community organization agencies, i s delegate membership. Here member agencies send one or more delegate(s) to s i t on the council. Several distinct patterns are apparent in structure of the coordinating and promotional devices. Most delegate councils in social work operate on an "open membership" principle, thereby allowing almost any agency or organization working in or interested in the particular area of activity to join. However, the coordinating body frequently set some simple conditions for membership, e.g., that only incorporated non-profit organizations can become i t s members. In 1930» when the Chest and Council movement was 1 Murphy, Campbell G., Community Organization Practice. Houghton M i f f l i n Co.; Boston; 1954; p. 359. - 54 -f i r s t gaining momentum in Vancouver, l i t t l e attention was paid to agency standards. Usually the majority of the voluntary agencies in the community, regardless of standards, associated on a delegate basis. The Chest (Federation) in Vancouver started with following three kinds of memberships: (a) Individual—Any person over the age of eighteen years who contributes to the Federation the sum of not less than One Dollar; (b) Institutional—Any agency having membership in the Vancouver Council of Social Agencies may, upon approval of the Board of Directors, become an institutional member; (c) Honorary—The Board of Directors of Federation may elect as Honorary members such person or persons as they may see f i t , i n recognition of outstanding and unselfish service to the public welfare. The membership to the Council of Social Agencies was open to a l l recognized welfare agencies in the c i t y . By 1942 the Chest and Council were examining quite closely the new agencies applying for membership—examining the quality of the program, the need for the service, the possibility of duplication of existing services, and so on. Today, new agencies are admitted after careful study. Though, in the main the Chest and Council has essentially an open membership policy, yet the principle of closed membership based on standards of performance is now quite well established, and new agencies applying for membership to the Community Chest and Council are generally required to meet certain standards as a condition of membership. The following types of membership are now available within the Chest and - 55 -Council: BY-LAW I - MEMBERSHIP The members of this Society shall be of six classes - A, Honorary; B, Individual; C and D, Financially Participating; E, Non-Financially Participating; and F, Associate. Class A - Honorary Members: The Board of Directors may appoint not more than two Honorary Members annually. Recommendations and nominations for Honorary Members may be made i n the month of December each year in accordance with such procedure as the Board of Directors may from time to time prescribe and the selection of such Honorary Members shall be made in recognition of their outstanding and unselfish service. Class B - Individual Members: Each contributor to the Annual Financial Campaign of the Society shall for the ensuing f i s c a l year be an individual member of the Society and any other person may, upon approval of the Board of Directors, become an individual member. Class C - Financially Participating Members: Any organization (except those qualifying for Class D membership) which receives an annual allotment of funds from the Society shall be a Financially Participating Class C member. Class D - Financially Participating Members: Any organization which receives an annual allotment of funds from the Society whose financial and administrative structure is such that i t s budgetting must be done on other than a local basis, and i t i s not practicable for such an organization, in the opinion of the Board of Directors of the Society, to become a Class C member, may become a Class D, Financially Participating member. Class E - Non-Financially Participating Members: Any organization or any department of government, Federal, Provincial or Municipal, interested in the objects of this Society and which does not receive an allotment of funds, may upon the approval of the Board of Directors and in compliance with Bv-jLaw II, become a Non-Financially Participating - 56 -Class F - Associate Members; Any service organization interested in the objects of this Society, who by virtue of their Constitution, By-laws or program, are not eligible for Class "E" membership, may become associate members for purposes of co-operation in health and welfare planning only, upon the approval of the Board of Directors. The names of the duly elected or appointed officers or o f f i c i a l s of Class C, D, E, and F members shall be communicated in writing to the Board of Directors of the Society. At general meetings of the Society each Class C, D, E, and F member shall have two voting delegates named by the members for this purpose.1 7. Recent Developments An important development in the l i f e of the Community Chest and Council took place in the year 195*3. This was about the inclusion of Burnaby in the Community Chest and Council. This inclusion was and/or is not so simple as one may think. The proposal for inclusion has been under active consideration of the Vancouver Chest and Council since 1955* In April 1956 the Board of Directors adopted the following recommendations of the Committee which the Board set up in 1955 to examine this issue: Consideration has been given to the affecting a decision as to the inclusion of the Municipality of Burnaby within the Community Chest and Council and we are satisfied that from the standpoint of effective Fund Raising and Social Planning, i t i s desirable to include this Municipality within the area served by the Community Chest and Council. Already the Community Chest and Council i s supplying a number of services to this area and an analysis of additional costs and additional revenues reveals that the inclusion of 1 Constitution and Bylaws of the Chest and Council, Greater Vancouver, as Revised March 3rd, 1958* - 57 -Burnaby in the Community Chest campaign can reasonably be expected to carry i t s e l f , and that the increase which might be anticipated in services within the next few years can be met by increased revenue as the Chest campaign in that area becomes better consolidated and accepted, and as the industrial growth of that Municipality continues. Quite apart from these economic considerations we consider that i t would be extremely shortsighted for the Community Chest and Council to view i t s responsibility in this area other than on a metropolitan basis. The Committee, therefore, requests authority to add to i t s members and to proceed on a course of action designed to bring the Municipality of Burnaby within the area served by the Community Chest and Council in time for inclusion within this next campaign i f possible, and i f not for inclusion in the campaign to be held i n the F a l l of 1957.1 The proposed inclusion of Burnaby however, could not materialize at that time, as in the Spring of 1957 Burnaby was making i t s own arrangements for a campaign. Those arrangements of Burnaby having not worked out, further possibilities were explored of including Burnaby within the Vancouver Chest. It was f e l t that i f the inclusion i s accepted by Burnaby: The proposed structure and representation i s possible within . . . present Constitution, with the exception of Budget representation which can be provided for, of course, by a special resolution of the Board of Directors. It is considered that i f this structure is acceptable and i f the other terms and conditions are acceptable to both groups that integration can be effected through agreement in principle and that Constitutional amendments be only considered within the next twelve months where they appear necessary arising out of the f i r s t year's experience.2 1 Minutes of the Board Meeting, Community Chest and Council, Greater Vancouver. 2 Memorandum dt.20.1.58 to the Executive Committee of the Board of Directors from Naphtali, C.H., Executive Director of Community Chest and Council, Vancouver, p. 2. - 58 -Basic Principles mutually accepted for integration: 1. Federation should be a partnership between donors and services. 2. That health and welfare planning and budgeting functions should cover the area coincidental with the fund rais ing area. 3 . That there should be community participation in a l l aspects of the metropolitan organization. 4. That the establishment of campaign objectives and distribution of campaign funds should be in l ine with health and welfare needs. 5. The application of Community Chest budgetting methods must be consistent throughout the metropolitan area served. 6. That the Burnaby Community Council shal l be the basis from which Burnaby community needs are determined and local services are coordinated and related to the services throughout the entire metropolitan area. 7. That the Community Council i s responsible in i t s e l f and through i t s representatives for assuring that a l l aspects of the work of this federation are carried out i n the best interests of i t s own local community, and bearing in mind i t s relationship to the tota l organization and the welfare of the metropolitan community i t serves. 8. It is recognized that as part of the metropolitan federation Burnaby is entit led to equal privileges and equal standards of service to that enjoyed i n any other part of the area covered.1 The writer feels the inclusion of Burnaby is a healthy sign in the growth and development of the Chest and Council . The structural and organizational provisions made i n respect of Burnaby could well be tr ied in other existing cooperating municipalities and d i s t r i c t s , e.g. North Vancouver, 1 I b i d . , PP. 2-3 - 59 -West Vancouver, etcetera. This approach would ensure more and better district-wise citizens' participation in the work of the Chest and Council, especially in the area of Social Planning. The recent inclusion of Burnaby within the Chest and Council could be interpreted as a happy step towards reaching grass-roots into the community in the large metropolitan area being covered by the Community Chest and Council of Greater Vancouver. 8. Summary of Findings Very l i t t l e record is available of Social Services in this city (Vancouver) preceding 1930. However, in the early days and in the period up to 193°» both public and private agencies assisted in providing services as the need arose, without much thought being given to research, planning and coordination. The f i r s t step to study what the city's needs were, and the method df securing more efficient services was taken in 1927, when the B.C. Child Welfare survey was made by Charlotte Whitton. Besides, being good or otherwise, the survey was definitely the guide post for i t pointed out the way towards more efficient future planning of social services in B r i t i s h Columbia and for that matter in Vancouver. The Survey of 1927 was followed in 1929 by the Survey made by Mr. J.H.T. Falk of Montreal to explore the possibilities of starting the Council of Social Agencies and the Welfare Federation for Greater Vancouver. These studies resulted in the organization of the Council of Social Agencies - 60 -and the Welfare Federation in 1930; and thus a new chapter of cooperation and coordination of social services in the city was opened. Ever since their i n i t i a t i o n , the Community Chest and Council, which were unified and given their present name in 194-5 > have been making steady progress. The organization is winning deserving and sincere esteem of the community, as a result of i t s work in nearly every needed walk of community l i f e . With this singular success of the Chest and Council one should not think that the Chest in Vancouver is covering a l l health and welfare agencies operating within i t s jurisdiction; certainly not. The local chapters of the National organizations like Red Cross, Polio Fund, Cancer, T.B. Seal and B.C. Crippled Children's Society, w i l l s t i l l not join the Chest, but rather have their own individual campaigns for funds. This attitude of these organizations k i l l s the very purpose of federation. The present system of multiple appeals is not only endangering the success of the long established agencies, but i s causing the individual and Chest campaigns to f a l l short of their objective. There is no doubt that the increasing number of campaigns conducted outside the Chest is perhaps the outstanding problem confronting the Chest today. It i s , therefore, high time that some mutually accepted pattern should be evolved to solve this problem. These National organizations should be helped to see that the Chest and Council movement is local i n origin. In the case of the Community Chest, the community - 61 -decides upon a balanced program of health and welfare services and how they can best be supported. As such, i t is i n the interest of service and the local a f f i l i a t e to link i t s e l f with the local planning and financing group, rather than going on i t s own under directives from remotely located National Headquarters. The writer feels that i f the Chest here i n Vancouver change i t s e l f from the Federated approach to a United one inviting National organizations to join the United Fund as partners, the number of individual appeals could hopefully be reduced. Moreover, the word "United" gives a better sense of belonging, whereas the Federated gives feelings of a superstructure to which the agency is linked. The word "United" also shows a partnership in association of equals—in which neither side dictates to the other. This position could perhaps be acceptable to the National Organizations in question. It i s , however, anticipated that the Vancouver Board of Trade which gave lead to the whole Chest and Council movement in Vancouver, w i l l again take the lead in this timely and important undertaking of setting up the necessary framework for a "United Appeal" plan; a plan to combine the Community Chest, the Red Cross, Polio, Cancer, etcetera into a one single United Appeal. There i s widespread belief that a United Appeal would have profound consequences for every contributor and for the city in general, as the present system of multiplicity of appeals presents a state of continuous effort leading to confusion, overlapping, inefficiency and wastefulness. - 62 -However, a sound, foundation of citizens' participation and cooperation has been l a i d in the framework of the Community Chest and Council of Greater Vancouver. The scope of work of the society has greatly been enlarged during the last twenty-eight years. The Chest and Council stand braced for an equally progressive future with a realization that i t s task is indispensable for the welfare of the people of Greater Vancouver. Continued success w i l l , however, depend upon a great deal of understanding, not only among the professional and voluntary workers, but among the public at large. The more clearly the work of the Chest and Council is known, the greater w i l l be the w i l l to carry i t further on. CHAPTER 3 ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION: THE CHEST AND COUNCIL IN ACTION, 1958 1. General Description Any study of the Chest and Council i s necessarily, a study of a p a r t i c u l a r phase of community organization, for no Chest and/or Council could ever come into existence without the i n t e r e s t of the people i n the community. Community, whether defined on a regional basis or on an int e r e s t l e v e l , presupposes a f e e l i n g of belonging and a common bond between people. The process of community organization i s described as involving relationships between i n d i v i d u a l s , groups and among groups. This may further be defined as "an educational process which aims ( i ) to promote mutually s a t i s f a c t o r y r e l a t i o n s between groups through formal or informal meansj and ( i i ) to use these r e l a t i o n s to further • . . goals 1 selected by the groups involved." B a s i c a l l y any Chest and Council i s a c i t i z e n s 1 movement: . . . a voluntary coming together of the c i t i z e n s of a community for t h e i r mutual be n e f i t . Regardless of whether . . . services are supported and administered as voluntary projects or as departments of government, (behind them) 1 Newslettle, Wilbur I., Teaching Community Organization i n  Schools of S o c i a l Work, paper presented at the National Conference of S o c i a l Work, 194-1, p. 31. - 64 -are the citizens of the community who were originally responsible for starting the work, upon whose behalf a i l activity i s undertaken, and with whom the ultimate responsibility and authority rests.1 Thus the establishment of the Chest and Council in any given community and so also in Vancouver is citizens' way of providing themselves with an organized means of accepting and exercising ultimate responsibility in the f i e l d of health and welfare. Although the i n i t i a t i v e in the matter of organizing the Chest and Council in Vancouver was taken by the Board of Trade, yet i t should not in any way be thought that the Chest and Council of Greater Vancouver was a pet idea of the Board, or for that matter, of any particular group or section of the community. The unanimous acceptance with which the whole idea was received at the f i r s t general meeting to form the Chest and Council on November 7, 1929 > truly manifests that the need for such an organization was long being f e l t and recognized by community leaders in Vancouver and the Board of Trade simply acted as a catalytic agent in the matter. 2. Functions of the Chest and Council of Greater Vancouver The functions of the Chest and Council have undergone great expansion and changes since i t s inception i n 1930. This has, however, been done without changing the main focus for which the Chest and Council were formed. Since these 1 Community Chest and Council Inc., Health and Welfare  Planning, New York, 1945? p. 6. basic objectives have already been discussed i n the preceding chapter, i t i s needless to repeat them here again. However, the objects of the Chest and Council as they stand today are as follows: a. To plan, i n i t i a t e and co-ordinate health and welfare services supported, subscribed to, maintained or conducted in Greater Vancouver as hereinafter defined and to encourage high standards, economy and efficiency i n and effective organization of such services. b. To create and continue a fund to be collected co-operatively through voluntary subscriptions, g i f t s , bequests and other means; to estimate, budget and dispurse such funds for maintenance and expansion and for reorganization of member agencies and to finance new services to meet proven needs. c. To provide information regarding and to increase public understanding of what is being accomplished by the Society and i t s participating members and what needs exist in health and welfare planning and services. d. To work with and encourage continuing co-operation with Federal, Provincial, Municipal and private social agencies. e. To guide and stimulate public opinion and foster necessary social legislation. f. To establish and support or aid in the establishment and support of associations, institutions, funds and trusts, calculated to benefit the employees of the Society or the employees of any financially participating members of the Society or the dependent or connections of such employees, to grant pensions and allowances to such employees and make payments towards the insurance of such employees. g. To own, acquire and take by purchase, donation, devise or otherwise, land or personal property and s e l l , exchange, mortgage, lease, l e t , improve and develop same and erect and maintain any necessary buildings for the purpose and objects of the Society. 3. The Society by extraordinary resolutions may subscribe to participate with, become a member of, a f f i l i a t e with, - 66 -and/or co-ordinate i t s work with any other Society, association or organization, whether incorporated or not, whose objects are not divergent from i t s own objects. 4. The Directors of the Society shall have the power to invest the funds of the Society only in securities authorized by the "Trustees Act" of B r i t i s h Columbia. 5. The operations of the Society shall be chiefly carried on in that area referred to as Greater Vancouver i n the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia.1 From the above objectives, the functions of the Community Chest and Council stem. These objectives provide a framework for the following four main sections of the Chest and Council, which w i l l be discussed in the next chapter. 1. Social Planning Section; 2. Campaign Section; 3. Public Relations Section; 4. Budget Section. 3. Organization and Structure In the case of the Chest and Council, i t could be said that i t s organization and administration being influenced by the Board of Trade was not complex. The business community always wants to have clear-cut, well defined administration, and perhaps the Vancouver group wanted the same unambiguity in the organizational structure of the Chest and Council. The Chest and Council in Vancouver has thus always had a careful, well defined administration. The organizational 1 Chest and Council, Greater Vancouver. Constitution (Revised March 1958). - 67 -structure which the Chest and Council has now in 1958 shows the thoughtfulness of the volunteers and the professionals in devising an excellent structure, pending possible amendment(s) in the Constitution to give representation to the adjoining municipality of Burnaby, which they propose to effect sometime next year. In the light of the preceding text, the organization of the Chest and Council, shown on the following page, is self-explanatory. The need for sound administration of social agencies is as great now as ever before. This i s more important in relation to a Community Chest and Council which, in addition to other c r i t e r i a of merit, needs reasonably sound methods of administration to enable i t to work effectively and to show the benefits of i t s existence to the contributors and the members of the community at large. Directly or indirectly the whole Greater Vancouver community is involved in the working of the Chest and Council. The principle of community participation is like a thread woven through a l l human relationships of the agency. It strives and encourages the f u l l e s t practicable participation in policy making and management by a l l those persons who are responsible for or are interested in i t s performance. This means a great variety of people who are associated with the Chest and Council: i . Officers and Board Members i i . Volunteers i i i . Contributors iv. Beneficiaries v. Paid Executive and his professional staff v i . Secretarial staff. A L V . CORP. BOARD OF DIRECTORS 5 Biuniaijr-r^epre^eiitatiTes nominated by Community C o u n c i l FUND RAISING BUDGET SECTION PUBLIC RELATIONS SOCIAL PLANNING SECTION EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE MANAGEMENT COMMITTEE 2 Burnaby r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . 6 Burnaby r ep resen ta t ives 5 Burnaby r ep resen ta t ives appcin ted by Community C o u n c i l ADV. PERS-NAT. CORP. D I V . PROF. RES, BUS, VAN. DIV. M e t r o p o l i t a n S t r u c t u r e d Burnaby S t r u c t u r e d EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 2 Burnaby r ep resen ta t ives 2 Burnaby r ep resen ta t ives 1 I . BURNABY COMMUNITY COUNCIL DIVISION CENTRAL" SERVICE S p e c i a l Committees • • • • i 6 u" ~o • • D Budget grouping of Agencies by f i e l d s of s e r v i c e . S p e c i a l Committees w i t h s p e c i f i c r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s drawing personnel from appropr ia te a reas . PIG. ii. STRUCTURE DEVELOPED TO PERMIT JOINING OP BURNABY AND\ VANCOUVER IN A COMMUNITY CHEST AND COUNCIL OP \ \ METROPOLITAN VANCOUVER 1 \ - 68 -A l l of these categories of people are important and their active association is just a must for successful operation of the Chest and Council. 4 . Board of Directors The membership of an organization provides strength and l i f e to the organization, but the Board of Directors provides necessary motion and direction to the whole enterprise, and is responsible to administer i t s a f f a i r s . In i t s work the Board of Directors is assisted by the Executive Committee. It might be said that the board of directors . . . , i n terms of the Federal Government combines both the legislative and judicial functions of Congress and of the Supreme Court, whereas the powers of carrying out i t s policies and decisions is delegated to the executive (committee) . . . . 1 The Board of Directors is responsible for program formulation and for control of f i s c a l matters; and i t acts as liaison in interpreting the agency and the community to each other. The Board is responsible for insuring that the agency continues to meet community needs and operates effectively. The Board i s also responsible for the selection of the Executive Director and other executive staff on the recommendation of the Executive Director. As usual, within the Budget adopted by the Board, the Board of Directors has relinquished a great part of their functions by delegating to the Executive Director the responsibility for administration and the technical operation 1 Street, Elwood, A Handbook for Social Agency Administration; Harper and Bros.; New York; 1 9 4 b . - 69 -of the agency. This healthy, practical attitude of the Board, besides giving due recognition to his technical a b i l i t i e s , gives the Executive Director a free hand to pilot the agency. This delegation of responsibility is also important from the point of view of personnel practice, as the staff must know one person to whom they are directly responsible for their action; and to whom they can look to for guidance in their work. In agencies where this responsibility has not been delegated to the Executive Director, there usually is found confusion and rebellious disagreement between the Executive Director and his staff. This wrong practice often results i n the formation of groups and sub-groups within the Board—some favouring the Executive Director and the others to the individual staff member(s). Such an atmosphere obviously results in unhealthy competition among the groups in the Board, and much effort is wasted in settling down petty staff disputes rather than providing service to the community. Consequently the agency relapsed into inactivity, and eventually results in i t s own elimination from the community. In Vancouver, the Executive Director of the Chest and Council has clearly spelled out responsibility in this area—for selection, direction and release of staff, and responsibility for the administration of personnel policies as determined by the Board of Directors from time to time. The board of directors, as has been said before is the legislative and judicial body of the agency. More than - 70 -that, however, i t i s the body responsible for continuous policy and for steady progress through the periods of changing executives, staffs, and conditions of l i f e . The board of directors is the one essential of the standard private social agency. The agency may operate without an executive or staff through delegation of responsibility to volunteers, or without an executive through committees or through volunteer supervision of paid staff members; but i t must have an active responsible board of directors i f i t is long to continue. 5. Composition and Size of the Board The implementation of the objects and the management and administration of the affairs of this Society (CCC) shall be conducted by a Board of Directors consisting of: 1. a. Thirty-six elected members (exclusive of ex-officio members) twelve of whom shall be elected each year at the Annual meeting of the Society for terms of three years each. No person shall be eligible to serve as a Director for more than two successive three year terms. b. Up to five additional members may be appointed by the Board of Directors to serve for a period of one year where specific representations from community groups is considered to warrant such appointment. c. The Social Planning Section Chairman The Public Relations Section Chairman The Budget Section Chairman The Fund Raising Section Chairman The Campaign Chairman and the Immediate Past President, each of whom shall become an ex-officio member of the Board of Directors in the event that he is not a member by election. Thus the Board of Directors of the Chest and Council could have up to forty-seven members. This year (1958) they - 71 -have forty-six members as one of the ex-officio members under Clause 1(c) is an elected member under 1(a). Consequently, there are forty-six members of the Board this year, of which five are from the Burnaby Council appointed under 1(b). This is an adhoc arrangement and the writer agrees with the Executive Director and others who feel that Clause 1(c) should be kept open and should not be used in the way i t is being used this year to give enblock representation to one group— Burnaby. Efforts are being made to amend the Constitution at the next Annual Meeting in February 1959 to give representation to Burnaby which would let the Clause 1(b) open for the purpose i t i s provided in the Constitution. Even the present number of forty-six members of the Board seems to be a large number for an effective board. The Board should neither be so small in number that representative opinion w i l l be impossible, nor so large that discussion w i l l be unduly d i f f i c u l t . From fifteen to thirty members is considered about the right size for most agency boards. There are several reasons for this large number of board members of the Chest and Council as observed by the Community Chest and Council o f f i c i a l s . It has been found necessary to enlarge the Board to a seemingly disproportionate number in order to widen the range of community participation in and knowledge about the organization. Expansion of the Board has also made possible considerable turnover while at the same time retaining the strength and continuity - 72 -contributed by the well indoctrinated members. The present Board of Directors of the Chest and Council is f a i r l y representative in character. It has representatives from almost a l l shades of opinion—business, labour, press, professionals, public administrators, house-wives, etcetera. A look at the following summary analysis of the present composition of the Board w i l l support this contention: Business 15 Labour 7 Public Administrators 3 Press 1 Housewives 9 Professionals 11 i . Medical 2 i i . Law 2 i i i . Teaching 3 iv . Church 1 v. Others 3 How long a board member should serve on the board i s a matter of much controversy. The present trend is definitely toward limited term, as the advantages far outweigh the disadvantages. The limited term is an effective tool to prevent the board becoming an ingrown or self-perpetuating body. It makes i t possible for more and more people to become acquainted with and interested in the agency. This i s also important as the new members always bring in fresh points of view; and chances of domination of the agency by a few are minimized. Cognizance has been given to these advantages by - 73 -the Chest and Council in Vancouver. The most widely accepted plan for tenure of board membership which i s also followed by the Chest and Council, i s a three-year term allowing one re-election for a second f u l l term. By staggering the terms, two-thirds of the elected Board returns each year, which keeps up sufficient continuity in the Board's thinking and in , i the plans of the Agency. After a year's absence, a former member may be asked to serve again. Besides, valuable i members are and/or could be invited to remain associated with the Agency by serving on special committees and advising on specific points. 6. Manner of Election to the Board of Directors According to the Constitution: . . . at elections in both membership and Board ' meetings, a request shall be made for nominations from the floor i n addition to those submitted by the Nominating Committee but nominations so made shall only be received provided the written consent of the nominee has been obtained and delivered to the Chairman of the meeting at least twenty-four hours prior to such nominations from the floor. The Nominating Committee of the Board nominates ; twelve persons for election to the Board from the membership at the annual meeting to f i l l the vacancies which occur each i year in the Board. The system of nomination provided by the Chest and Council i s sound, as this provides an opportunity for careful study of prospective candidates for the board membership keeping in view that the representative nature of the i - 7 4 -organization is not interrupted. In order to obtain a cross section of the community with good inter-mixture of professional and amateur s k i l l s and interests, much thought is given by the Nominating Committee in preparing the slate. In addition much time is given in making direct personal contact with each nominee, in order to accomplish a thorough interpretation job on the underlying ideas and philosophy of the Chest and Council. Another specific function of the Nominating Committee is to retire members gracefully but firmly where this is necessary. This is a d i f f i c u l t and unpleasant task, and nominating committees naturally tend to be over-courteous. This task has been lightened however, by provision for term of tenure in the Bylaws of the Chest and Council. Thus in the matter of election to the Board of Directors of the Chest and Council, there is adequate board turn-over and adequate continuity, with no stigma attached to retirement from board membership. 7 . Functions of the Board The Constitution states that: The Board of Directors shall manage the affairs of this Society . . . ; to employ and discharge an Executive Director, to define his duties and f i x his salary and terms and conditions of employment; and upon the nomination of the Executive Director to employ and discharge such other staff members as i t may deem necessary for the successful operation of the society and to determine their number, remuneration, terms and conditions of employment, and the Board shall delegate duties to i t s executive committee, from time to time. - 75 -Lack of c l a r i t y in defining powers (duties) delegated to the Executive Committee could cause confusion and could involve duplication of effort. In view of the Board's size, i t is only natural that the Executive Committee has been forced to carry on the business of the organization, and has a good deal of weight to i t s decision making. Its purpose i s to carry on the business of the Organization between Board meetings, which has often necessitated action which the Board might consider i t s prerogative. "In theory, the board should make broad general decisions of policy, and the executive (committee) with the aid of the staff should make specific decisions within the framework of policy outlined by the 1 board." . . . such an executive committee tends to become the real board. One of the two courses should then be followed. The executive committee may be given f i n a l authority and be relieved from having to get approval from the larger body (Board). The large committee (Board) may be retained, clearly recognized as an honorary or advisory body. Less w i l l be expected of i t and special efforts w i l l be necessary to stimulate i t enough so that i t w i l l interpret the work to the various groups i t represents . . . . The other course is to reduce the size of the large board to maximum workable size (about 30) and place upon i t complete responsibility for a l l major decisions.2 However, there is no conceivable problem in this relationship between the Board of Directors and the Executive Committee of the Chest and Council. 1 McMillan, Wayne, Community Organization for Social Work, University of Chicago Press; Chicago; 1945, p. 159« 2 King, Clarence, Social Agency Boards and How to Make  Them Effective: Harper and Bros.; New York, 1936; p. 41. - 76 -The functions of the Board of Directors described above, have been decentralized and they are carried on by a number of Standing and Special Committees. This year, these Committees are: A. Standing Committees: 1. Executive Committee; 2. Administration Committee; 3. Nominating Committee; and 4-. Annual Meeting and Annual Report Committee. B. Special Committees: 1. Negotiating Committee; 2. Lower Mainland Planning Committee; 3. Burnaby Agencies; 4. Committee re. Amendments to Constitution; Admission Committee; 6. Public-Private Responsibility Committee; and 7. Research Advisory Committee. 8. Board-Staff Relationships Not very long ago, the tendency on the part of Board members was to centralize a l l powers and concommitant responsibility in themselves. Consequently, there used to be an atmosphere of insecurity and distrust among the Board members on one hand and the professional staff on the other; each trying to usurp the area of responsibility of the other. In this tug of war for power, each one used to consider the other as a necessary e v i l , as presence of both—Board members and professional staff—was and i s essential for agency operation. But that situation is now rapidly changing everywhere. In more recent years, the character of the relationship between boards and staff has been undergoing a marked change. Many board members have been showing a - 77 -serious concern about understanding their functions in relation to that of the staff. They have been acquiring a greater realization that Board members and staff members working together have much to gain from each other: professional staff on their part have been becoming more conscious than ever of the social significance of citizens 1 participation. Professionals are increasingly recognizing the importance of blending the lay-professional thinking for the service of the community. Harold Laski in his essay "The Limitation of the Expert" explained: . . . that by his very expertness the expert (professional) separates himself from the everyday run of people. Someone must form a bridge between them . . . . If he (Board member) is truly representative of an important segment of the community, he w i l l interpret to the professional staff the attitudes and needs of his part of the community. And conversely he w i l l interpret the work of that staff to his constituency and act i n securing their sponsorship and support. To serve in this capacity he must be closely in touch with the work, so that he understands i t , while s t i l l maintaining his representative capacity i n the community.1 The board-staff relationship, when reduced to i t s essence, is primarily one of human relations. The association of board and staff basically represents a working partnership— the harmonious and effective sharing of responsibility in a joint interest—the organization. "The working together of board and staff calls for mutual consultation, free and c r i t i c a l discussion, a wholesome process of give and take and 1 King, Clarence, Organization for Community Action, Harper and Bros; New York; 194-8; p. 2 1 . - 78 -1 mutual recognition of the complimentary roles of each." Considerable progress seems to have been made in this important area of board-staff relationship in the Chest and Council, by achieving a satisfactory balance between Board and staff functioning. 9. Executive Director, Functions of The Executive of any organization is the steering wheel of that organization. "A Social Worker engaged in the practice of community organization draws upon the basic philosophy, principles and ethics of his profession, and both uses and contributes to the methodology which forms the 2 generic core of social work." He must be adept i n administration and in educational and promotional processes. He needs to understand the dynamics of community and inter-group relations as well as the dynamics of individual and group behaviour. The functions of the Executive Director of the Community Chest and Council of Vancouver, as l a i d down i n the Manual of Job description are: Within the limits of general policies established by the Board of Directors of the Community Chest and Council, to give direction to joint planning and promotion of an efficient and effective program of public and voluntary health, welfare and recreational services for the community; to enlist and maintain community financial support and participation in the program of the different fields and member agencies; 1 Blumenthal, L.H., How to Work with your Board and Committees; Association Press; New York; p. 13. 2 Sieder, Violet M., "The Task of the Community Organizer" paper given at the National Conference of Social Work (U.S.A.); 1957. - 79 -to direct the work of the staff .'. . acts as consultant to the Board of Directors. Besides this very wide all-inclusive job description, an Executive of a Community Chest and Council has to work under a confused understanding as to the objective of Social Work, role of public and private agencies (religious and secular) in the f i e l d ; and the question of program fixation of national agencies. To this, has been added growing i r r i t a t i o n of the public over the ever increasing "tax bite" for public welfare programs and requests for larger contributions to support voluntary agencies. An Executive, whether he likes i t or not, has to recognize these facts. He has to work with agencies, groups and individuals who may be having a different viewpoint, philosophy and method of work. Much of his success depends oh the kind of professional relationship he is able to establish with leaders who direct and influence community's destiny. But, the humanitarian motivation, respect and recognition afforded for a job done, coupled with unlimited opportunities for creative imagination and for testing ideas, viewpoints and judgements have made this job challenging, rewarding and fascinating. In using the community organization method, the Executive Director makes conscious and disciplined use of himself in interpersonal, group and intergroup relations, through the appropriate choice and use of such s k i l l s as the Interview, consultation, conference, committee delegate groups, and with the support of such administrative tools as - 80 -fact finding, interpretation and public relations, budgeting, financing, and administration. To take a meaningful look at the tasks performed by the Executive Director of the Chest and Council, we must see them against a conception of the totality of the community organization process within which the tasks operate and to which they relate. This conception, by the very nature of Community Organization practice, must be multi-dimensional and therefore complex; and as such the Executive is needed to follow certain steps to do his job successfully: 1. An assessment of the reality factor in the community situation; 2. Diagnosis of the community situation; 3. Formation of the community's social goals or objectives. The position of the Executive person in any voluntary agency is that of liaison between policy making and operating groups. This demands that the person be qualified to carry out the policies the Board of Directors and the Executive Committee lay down in day to day operation of services to members and member-groups. In democratic administration and in large organizations like the Community Chest and Council, this necessitates a b i l i t y to further delegate both responsibility and i t s essential concommitant, authority, whenever this i s possible. This is the only way to give wide range and efficient services to the community. Accordingly, a major portion of his responsibilities and concommitant authority have been delegated by the Executive Director of the Chest - 81 -and Council to his four deputies, (each one of these heads one of the four main Sections of the organization), and to other executive staff. The functions of these Sectional Chiefs and the other executive staff b r i e f l y are as follows: (i) Director of Social Planning Section (Asst. Executive Director Under the administrative supervision and direction of the Executive Director, the Director of the Social Planning guides and assists the formulation of policies, especially concerning Social Planning of the Chest and Council. He gives direction to joint planning and in formulation of an efficient and effective program of public and voluntary health, welfare and recreational services in the community. He performs, when required, the duties of the Executive Director; and thus occupies a key position in the organization. ( i i ) Campaign Director Under the administrative direction of the Executive Director, the Campaign Director assists in the development of plans and procedures lai d down by the general Campaign Committee. He assists the Campaign Manager in the supervision and direction of campaign preparations for a l l divisions. ( i i i ) Director of Public Relations Under the administrative supervision of the Executive Director, the Director of Public Relations directs the development and execution of long-range policies designed to 82 -earn and maintain public confidence in the Community Chest and Council, and in i t s financially participating member agencies and social welfare in general. He serves in an advisory capacity on policy matters which influence public attitudes and agency relationships. (iv) Director of Budget Section Under the administrative supervision of the Executive Director, the Director of the Budget Section assists the Budget Section in considering and deciding a l l matters pertaining to the allowances, increase or reduction of budgets, including payments to agencies In accordance with their budget allowance and a l l other matters incident thereto. He gives consultative services to agencies with regard to budgets and works in close cooperation with Division Secretaries. (v) Campaign Division Manager Under the administrative supervision of the Executive Director, the Campaign Division Manager assists in the development of plans and procedures l a i d down by the General Campaign Committee, and in accordance with these plans and procedures, executes and promotes the fund raising activities of a Division or Divisions of the Community Chest and Council Campaign. (vi) Comptroller Under the direction of the Executive Director, and assisted by two staff members, the Comptroller performs the - 83 -duties of the Accountant, Purchase Agent and Office Manager, described below. (a) Accountant maintains the accounting system of the organization. (b) Purchase Agent arranges for purchase of a l l office and campaign supplies and equipment keeping in mind the necessity of obtaining the best possible price while at the same time endeavoring to spread out purchases to keep the goodwill of business firms and employees. (c) Office Manager supervises and directs the office secretarial and c l e r i c a l staff and selection and assigning of such staff. (vii) Labour Staff Representative Under the administrative direction, the Labour Staff Representative has general duties and works with a l l Sections. His main job is to encourage and stimulate more and more labour participation in the affairs of the Chest and Council. To let the working people know about the services of the Chest and Council and how they can make use of these services. 10. Trends in Staff Situation From the 'Staff Organization' chart on the following page, i t i s clear that the Chest and Council has a line administration. The ultimate authority in the affairs of the agency rests with the Board of Directors, who has delegated - t o f o l l o w p a g e 8 3 -Pi £?H o • PQ <q *=$ EH H3 H rH EH CO KH EH {SJ S « EH S <{ O O H <3 EH O H EH O EH CO H EH O H cd H J ' ^ H oo pq i-4 re PQ co CO {_> m H {3 CO «a< PH p^ J fi PH «a« |2i H PH Ci3 & O H O EH <tj H EEC PH CO ^ £ H O H EH'PH is; c5 <i EH O pq H EH O H ciJ <J. co m .<j <j PH. H « PH s co H s <d co o <t s s <i o < o o O H O is; > CO <! H EH <} o t-q • M PH EH K CO H CO « < OH < W EH O P3 H S > O OH" CO CO pq i-H . & >< H O W H H EH fr, O PH O t3 3 H p O X o H > o co . [-j ^ pcj § pq o co pq o H - 84 -necessary powers to the Executive Director, who In turn has delegated some of his powers to his professional deputies and other administrative aids. This decentralization of powers and functions should be seen as responsibility through, though not to the executive person, for the executive person i s directly responsible to the Board of Directors for overall operation of the Chest and Council. In terms of overall operating structure of the Society the four main Sections should therefore be considered to be there to serve the Society rather than the Executive Director. From the early days adequate provision for qualified staff has always been considered essential for the society. The organization has been constantly unsatisfied with anything short of professional performance on the job. To attract the right type of persons, the agency has revised the salary scale of the paid staff from time to time, to keep i t in line with similar jobs elsewhere in the community. Coupled with better salaries, the staff also has the benefits of pension, annual leave, sick leave, etcetera. As a result thereof, the Chest and Council has qualified persons on i t s staff to do the job of organizing the Vancouver citizenry for community action. CHAPTER 4 DEVELOPMENT OF SECTIONS In any service organization, program is the end toward which a l l administrative effort i s bent. It endeavours to satisfy the needs of the organization's membership and of the community in which i t functions. Administration, in this context, is the planning function and is followed by program which is the carrying out of plans in terms of actual service given. Both administration and program involve the total membership, either directly or indirectly, and should reflect both i t s thinking and i t s action for the fulfillment of the objectives of the agency. The objectives of the Chest and Council are achieved through four main Sections of the Society. Each of these Sections was formed when a need for such a section was f e l t within the framework of the Society. These Sections, as they stand today, are: 1. Social Planning Section 2. Campaign Section 3. Public Relations Section; and 4. Budget Section - 86 -1. SOCIAL PLANNING SECTION Today, as never before, we need to live by planning and cooperation. In hundreds of communities citizens are working together to change their physical environment, their industrial economy, and their fund raising and community planning machinery for health, welfare and recreation. The key to this task is found in the phrase "citizens working together." Community Planning for social work is a cooperative venture, whereby dozens, scores or hundreds of agencies and autonomous organizations sponsoring social welfare programs in the community accept the common good as something that transcends special interests. They join hands with citizens who support and use the services to develop a total program which w i l l meet the needs of people as adequately as possible. This need for planning and cooperation was f e l t and recognized in Vancouver when thirty-four social welfare organizations of the city unanimously decided to form the Council of Social Agencies on November 7, 1929. Accordingly the Council became established on February 1930* This Council functioned as a separate entity but with close cooperation with i t s counterpart "ITelfare Federation" u n t i l both these organizations were merged into one single organization in 1946, and the present name, "The Community Chest and Council," was given to them. With this merger, a Welfare Section (now - 87 -known as Social Planning Section) was established within the Chest and Council for the purposes of social planning and a l l other activities which were hitherto carried on by the Council of Social Agencies. Since then the Section has been able to accomplish a lot in the f i e l d of social planning. Today, on the paid professional side, the Section is headed by a Director of Social Planning who is also the Assistant Executive Director of the Chest and Council, and is responsible to the Executive Director. The Director of Social Planning is assisted in his work by an Administrative Assistant. He has seven professionally trained deputies; four of these lead on as Executive Secretaries on each of the 1 four main divisions of the Section, while the remaining three act as Executive Secretaries for three Special Groups of the Section. 1. Present Formation of the Social Planning Section According to the constitutional provisions, agencies— financially participating and non-participating—which are granted membership in the Community Chest and Council also receive representation in one of the four functional divisions or standing groups of the Section by reason of their interest and function. An agency may also be represented on more than one Functional Division and/or group, i f approved by the Executive Committee of the Section. 1 Four main Divisions of the Social Planning Section: i) Group work and Recreation; ( i i ) Family and Child Welfare; i i i ) Guidance of Handicapped; (iv) Health. - 88 -Besides agencies, individuals who are members of the Society may, by reason of their interest i n or contribu-tions to i t s object also belong to one division or group according to major function or interest; and may also be represented on any other division or group approved by the Executive Committee of the Section. Thus, like a Community Council, the Social Planning Section (which in fact i s a Community Council) has two types of members—organizational and individual. The organizational or agency membership of the Section this year is 111 and has 45 individual members. 2. Organization of the Section The total membership of the Section i s , in the main, the sum total of members enrolled in each of the four Functional Divisions and three standing groups. The Executive Committee of the Section, which has twenty members this year, is constituted as follows: (i) The Chairman shall be the Chairman of the Social Planning Section who with at least two vice chairmen shall be elected by the Executive Committee of the Social Planning Section. ( i i ) The Chairman, Vice Chairmen, or their deputies, of each of the divisions or groupings and standing committees. ( i i i ) Two delegates selected from and by the members of each of the divisions or groupings. (iv) Six members appointed annually by the Board of Directors of the Society of which two shall be members of the Board of Directors. - 89 -(v) The Chairman of the Fund Rasising, Budget and Public Relations Sections or their designates. (vi) Up to five additional members may be appointed by the Executive Committee to serve for a period of one year where specific representations from community groups is considered to warrant such appointment.1 Each of these Functional Divisions and the Standing Groups have their own executive and an structure. They are assisted in their work by a professional person—an executive secretary. The basic organizational structure of the Section has been shown on the following page which is self-explanatory. 3» Functions of the Social Planning Section The Social Planning Section of the Chest and Council in i t s composition, s p i r i t and functions is a Community Council having a geographic base. The Social Planning Section . . . i s a voluntary organization (within the Chest and Council) consisting of representatives from public and private agencies, interested organizations and lay citizens, formed to the end of developing the quality and adequacy of social services in the community. The primary function of the (Section) i s to develop teamwork among private and public social agencies so that joint resources can be used to the best advantage in meeting the welfare problems of the community as a whole. The real purpose of (the Section) is achieved when "Community Mindedness" transcends "Agency Mindedness." This i s accomplished when agencies, in the company of interested lay citizens, get together cooperatively and earnestly attempt to do the following: a - Coordinate existing programs of service b - Marshal facts on basic social needs c - Eliminate duplication and outmoded services 1 Community Chest and Council, Greater Vancouver Constitution (1958). COMMUNITY CHEST AND COUNCIL OF GREATER VANCOUVER SOCIAL PLANNING SECTION STRUCTURE 3ROUIWORK AND RECREATION DIVISION FAMILY AND CHILD TffiLFARE DIVISI ON S O C I A L P L A N N I N G S E C T I O N GUIDANCE OF HANDICAPPED DIVISION HEALTH DIVISION STANDING COMMITTEES E.G. MEMBERSHIP NOMINATIONS YffiLFARE OF THE AGED VETERANS AND SEAMEN PROJECT COMMITTEES H3 O Hj O r-> H» O »o (D OO vO CENTRAL SERVICES SOCIAL SERVICE INDEX COMMUNITY INFO. SERVICE CHRISTMAS BUREAU CAMP REFERRAL PROJECT Figure 6 - 90 -d - Initiate programs to meet unmet needs e - Subject their own programs to periodic evaluation f - Develop public understanding of social work.l According to the Constitution, the functions of the Section are: "continuous study of social needs and resources; cooperative planning to develop a more effective program of services; joint action on matters of common concern.; the creation of informed public opinion concerning social problems; and the provision of consultative services in the f i e l d of 2 health, welfare and recreation." With these broad functions, the Social Planning Section i s the best protection against stagnation in social welfare programs. It offers the best assurance that the community w i l l keep ahead of changing needs and quickly adapt to changing conditions. It is just as important to make sure that money is spent wisely as i t is to secure money to spend. An effective Social Planning Section keeps upgrading the service product to justify continued public support. Community planning i s concerned with coordination and educational a c t i v i t i e s as well as program development. It i s not enough to operate on a day to day fire-fighting basis. It has to have long-range plan and bold strategy. It is not enough to ameliorate social problems, today, the need i s to prevent and cure them. 1 Rudolph, N. Bvjen (Discussion Leader) Outline Summary for  Institute of Fund, Chest and Council Operation, Feb. 2*5'. 1958. 2 Community Chest and Council, Greater Vancouver , Constitution (Revised 1958) . - 91 -Some Membership Problems There are three groups of people whose interest needs expression, for they have a stake in community planning for social welfare. F i r s t , are the people who use the services— the consumers; second, are those who support the services—the contributors and taxpayers; and third, are those who develop and manage the services and who must carry out the plans— agency board members, public o f f i c i a l s and professional workers. These are overlapping interests, but neglect of any of them, or dominance by any one of them, could seriously impair the effectiveness of the Chest and Council. Presently, these interests are not being cared for in the Social Planning Section in a well balanced way. The number of lay community persons—consumers and contributors—in the Divisions of the Section is minimal because of the existing membership procedure. This can make the Divisions "Agency Centred" with a limited number of lay persons. However, on the Executives and on the various Project Committees a balance has been achieved to some extent. These facts were highlighted in October last when the Section did a Survey of i t s membership in various Divisions, etcetera. The net results were shown in Table IV of the Survey, which i s reproduced on the following page. From the Table, i t i s clear that the present makeup of the Section is "agency centred" and is dominated by the "professionals." Such a makeup can pose a number of problems - 92 -Agency Persons Community Persons B O D Y Staff Board Lay Professional Divisions 157 112 48 36 Executives 48 20 50 26 Project Committees 140 20 100 107 (with Centre Services) T O T A L S 345 152 198 169 The figures in the Table above indicate the following percentages: I) Agency persons - 57*5 Community persons - 42.5 Ii) Staff persons - 40.1 Board persons - 17*5 Lay persons ' - 22.9 Professional persons - 19«5 in the area of social planning, e.g., i . lack of objectivity on the part of the delegates/ members which can limit the social planning to member agencies only without much care being given to bring in the total community thinking and the community needs; i i . makes i t impossible to discuss/consider any possible liquidation of a member agency who has completed i t s job and, therefore, i t s continuance in the Chest and Council, and i t s existence in the community i s no longer justifiable; i i i . restricts the participation of the lay persons from the community for their obvious fears of being dominated by the professionals and the agency persons. To overcome these and similar other problems, which can undermine the importance of Social Planning, an - 93 -organizational structure on the basis of neighbourhood councils/committees could be evolved with great benefit. Such a beginning has already been made this year by the inclusion of Burnaby, discussed earlier in Chapter 3. This approach, i f adopted, w i l l bring more order and consistency in the efforts of the Social Planning Section. It w i l l take the organization right to the grass-roots; which w i l l then owe i t s existence to the community at large rather than to a few in the community. This w i l l certainly give strength to the Section to meet the challenges of Social Planning, without fear, by being free from the control of any single interest group. Such an approach in turn w i l l help the Campaign Section in their fund raising by broadening the base of supporters. A true planning body is a citizens' organization, having a cross section of leadership represented on i t . It must have a strong leadership so that i t could be a force strong enough, free enough and democratic enough to look at the community needs objectively, and to be able to plan and carry through i t s plans effectively. Any community planning worthy of the name gives a great deal of attention to public programs and relate i t s planning to the total community services—both public and private. The Social Planning Section has a clear identification as a body responsible for development and coordination of services, governmental and voluntary, to meet the wide range of community needs in - 94 -health, welfare and recreational f i e l d s . Continuing evaluation of the current situation and a periodic audit to determine the validity of active programs and the end results are the key to success of the Social Planning Section. 2. CAMPAIGN SECTION A coordinating agency which is primarily concerned with joint fund-raising is known by a variety of names, e.g. United Funds, Community Chest, Community Fund, Welfare Federation, etcetera. In Vancouver such an organization was formed with the name of Welfare Federation in 1930. This Federation continued to raise funds for financing health, welfare and recreational programs of the member agencies and for financing i t s counterpart—the Council of Social Agencies. The Federation functioned as a separate entity but with close cooperation with i t s counterpart—the Council—until both these organizations were merged into one single organization in 1946 and the present name—"The Community Chest and Council"—was given to them. On the merger, Finance Committee was established within the Chest and Council for the purposes of fund raising. This Committee was later made as a Section; and now i t i s one of the four main Sections of the Chest and Council and is known as the "Campaign Section." Today, on the paid professional side, the Section - 95 -is headed by a Campaign Director who is responsible to the Executive Director. The Campaign Director i s assisted in his work by an Assistant Campaign Director and a Campaign Divisions Manager. 1. Present Formation of the Campaign Section According to the Constitutional provisions the: Section shall consist of a l l those actively engaged in the gathering of funds and/or such persons as shall from time to time be named by the Board of Directors of the Society upon recommendation of the . . . Section. The Chairman of the . . . Section shall be the Campaign Chairman who shall be appointed by the Board of Directors and shall hold office u n t i l his successor i s appointed.1 There shall be an Executive Committee of the Fund Raising Section appointed immediately following the appointment of the Campaign Chairman, constituted as follows: (i) The Campaign Chairman who shall be the Chairman of the Executive Committee, ( i i ) The Vice Chairmen of the Campaign, ( i i i ) The Campaign Division Chairmen, (iv) The immediate Past Chairman of the Campaign, (v) Such other officers or persons as may be appointed by the Campaign Chairman, (vi) The Chairman of the Budget Section or his delegate, (vii) The Chairman of the Public Relations Section or his delegate. ( v i i i ) The Chairman of the Social Planning Section or his delegate.2 The organizational structure of the Campaign Section is interesting and has been shown in the following pages. Functions of the Campaign Section The Campaign Section of the Chest and the Council i n 1 Community Chest and Council of Greater Vancouver, Constitution, 1958. 2 Loc. c i t . - 96 -i t s composition, s p i r i t and functions i s like a Community Chest. It is a machinery set up by citizens of the community to combine the financial needs of essential health, welfare and recreation agencies into one annual campaign. A Community Chest has three basic functions: 1. To raise funds for a l l recognized voluntary health, welfare and recreation agencies through a single annual community wide drive. 2. To distribute the funds thus secured on the basis of factual information relative to services and financial operations of agencies, and in accordance with needs of the whole community. 3. To promote the social welfare of the community by guiding community interest, directing attention and otherwise planning to the end of effectively meeting human needs to the extent that the resources of the community w i l l permit. In the case of the Campaign Section, the functions mentioned under 2 and 3 are carried out by the Budget and the Social Planning Sections. Thus the main function of the Section centres around annual fund-raising—efficiency, adequacy and continuity in fund-raising. In i t s efforts for funds, the Campaign Section (Chest) has been subject to the non-cooperative attitude of some of the national agencies (discussed in Chapter 2). Such an attitude is not something which is being suffered by the Chest in Vancouver only, but is the one being suffered by Chest organizations a l l over the North American continent. Chest and United Funds are the centre of a bitter controversy. To many communities i t i s the most sensible approach; but several of the most important national voluntary - 97 -organizations are convinced that i t represents a threat to their income and to their autonomy. The leaders of these organizations believe that i t is in the best interests of their organization to remain completely independent and self-sufficient. These independent minded national organizations have a l i s t of grievances against the Chest/United Funds concept, most of which touch on the hard-core problem of income. Some of these are: 1. The Chest/United Funds destroy the autonomy of the national organizations; 2. Smaller groups take away the funds at the cost of larger groups; 3. Giving through Chest/United Funds lacks the personal touch; 4 . Information and education are easier to spread when they concern a single cause rather than a package. The major holdouts in Canada against the local centralization of appeals are the Salvation Army and the Canadian Cancer Society, which have joined only a few of the smaller Chests. The Red Cross allowed i t s branches to join federated drives in 1956, and now belong to about thirty groups. The Salvation Army is determined to remain independent so that i t s collectors can spread the word of God during their rounds. The Cancer Society bluntly insists that i t must stay out in order to educate contributors about danger signs of the disease.1 This year, with the joining of Burnaby, there are sixty-six financially participating agencies with the Chest in Vancouver. Some of the national organizations, discussed in Chapter 2, have not yet joined the Chest, preferring to 1 Newman, Peter C., "Is the United Appeal too b i g — o r big enough," Maclean : September 27, 1958. - 98 -conduct their own go-alone campaigns, for reasons discussed above. This has been further adding to the problems of the Campaign Section in achieving i t s campaign objective for the last several years. Problem of Campaign Failure The problem of campaign failures is serious and could not be indefinitely postponed or ignored, otherwise i t would eventually result in a gradual deterioration of federated planning and campaigning. Further failure to face up and cure this problem would simply mean that individual agencies either cur t a i l their program or would leave the Community Chest and Council. Both these courses of action would directly and seriously affect the health, welfare and recreation services of the community. The writer feels that the addition of agencies to the existing l i s t of Chest agencies; and a progressively higher campaign objective each year (which imeets unfortunate failure) could never solve the problem. One should be objective about voluntary giving. The problem of campaign failures is not the one being suffered by Vancouver only, but is the one being suffered by many other c i t i e s . In Vancouver however, i t needs some serious thinking, especially because for the ninth time out of ten the Chest has fai l e d to reach i t s Red Feather goal. This year's drive brought in about $2,600,000 which is only 89.4 per cent of the $2,906,000 target set by the Chest last Spring on the basis of need. The de f i c i t remained despite - 99 -a fifteen days extension with an a l l out appeal from the Campaign Chairman to the citizens of Greater Vancouver. Whatever might be the causes—disinterest, resentment, ignorance of the c i t i z e n s — o f this and other failures, i t i s now important and long overdue to have a searching reappraisal of the Community Chest in both i t s organization and the area of service. It is high time that consideration may be given to a possible regrouping of the Chest's agency/membership keeping in view the priority needs of the people and their a b i l i t y to finance these services. The best arrangement could be that the treatment and other proven essential services i n the f i e l d of health, welfare and recreation be shifted from the voluntary to public responsibility. This would leave the Chest to concentrate on and to collect for preventive services, recreational and character-building agencies in i t s fund-raising efforts; and to carry on i t s work " i n the imaginative area of intensive treatment, research (demonstration), teaching, 1 interpretation and continuing scrutiny of public programs." It is interesting to note that "In a l l , the agencies' budgets this year totalled $5>260,315. The Chest provided $2,014,173 (38.3#); governments at a l l level paid $1,467,689 (27.9=0; and the agencies raised $1,778,453 (33.8$). A total 1 Dixon, G.W., Social Welfare and the Preservation of Human  Values; J.M. Dent and Sons (Canada) Ltd.; Vancouver; 1957; P. 157. - 100 1 of 32 of the agencies, however, received no public grants." Chest's f a i l u r e from a d i f f e r e n t angle Whether the Chest drive f a i l e d or did not should be seen keeping i n view the f a c t that t h i s year the Chest raised i t s goal by 17 per cent over i t s l a s t year's goal, which was also not achieved. The l o c a l community believe the Chest to be " f a i l i n g " i n the a r b i t r a r y sense that i t frequently failed to meet i t s ( s e l f set) goal. But f o r a l l we know . . . , t h i s f a i l u r e might represent nothing more than an error of judgement i n setting the goal too high. Moreover, " f a i l u r e , " i f i t i s to be made a spur to greater e f f o r t , must mean fa i l u r e - i n - r e l a t i o n - t o - o p p o r t u n i t y . . . . therefore . . . , to f i n d a way of judging the " p o t e n t i a l " of a given c i t y ; only i n r e l a t i o n to that p o t e n t i a l could i t meaningfully be said that a given Chest was "succeeding" or " f a i l i n g " to do what i t might reasonably be expected, i . e . to do what other Chests i n l i k e circumstance were doing.2 In the l i g h t of the foregoing reasoning, one i s apt to think that the goal set by the Vancouver Chest t h i s year was rather u n r e a l i s t i c , e s p e c i a l l y , during a period of recession and unemployment. Vancouver's approach was d i f f e r e n t from most large c i t i e s . Toronto f o r example, cut i t s quota t h i s year from l a s t ; Seattle's was increased by only 2 per cent; but i n Vancouver the increase was 17 per cent though the c i t y i s i n no better " p o t e n t i a l " than Toronto and/or Seat t l e . 1 Vancouver Sun. November 27, 1958. 2 Seeley, John R and Associates, Community Chestt A Case  Study i n Philanthrophy; University of Toronto Press; Toronto; 1957; P. 395. - 101 "What makes the problem problematic is partly . . . a matter of local outlook, local ways of l i f e , local habits 1 and traditions and history." In Vancouver i t seems to be more than true. The tax-conscious, acquisitive nature of people often holds them back to give enough and may be partly responsible for frequent Chest's failures in achieving i t s goals. There can be no two opinions that the Chest should be objective and cautious in fixing i t s Campaign goal(s), as such frequent failures to achieve the goal is bound to affect the confidence of the people in their Chest. "Such an open-ended approach is only one of the weaknesses that could be over-come with a proper Research Division. Research would provide, too, better "yardsticks" on which " f a i r giving" 2 could be solicited at any level." In every community and so also in Vancouver, one finds two groups. Both these groups wish to see the Chest succeed, but one group measures success largely by the amount of "expansion" in the Chest's activities and in i t s coverage, while the other group measures i t by the degree of rationality, control, economy, "elimination of waste, duplication and overlap" in the area of the Chest's operation. It is for the local Chest and the community to decide which of the two views they like to work on. 1 Ibid., p. 397. 2 Vancouver Sun. November 27, 1958. 102 -3. PUBLIC RELATIONS SECTION The Public Relations Section f i r s t appeared as a Publicity Committee within the Welfare Federation in May 1957? set up from the membership of the Advertising and Sales Bureau of the Board of Trade. This Committee used to build up a program of interpretation and education during the months before the campaign. This greatly helped the Federation in i t s annual fund-raising campaigns. When the amalgamation of the Federation and the Council was effected in 194-6, the Publicity Committee, was renamed as Public Relations Committee and was to be shared by both the Welfare Section (now called Social Planning Section) and the Finance Committee (now called Campaign Section). The Committee was later made a f u l l "Section, of the Chest and Council. Today, on the professional side the Section is headed by a Director of Public Relations who i s responsible to the Executive Director. The Director of Public Relations is assisted in his work by an Assistant Director and a Publicity Assistant. 1 . Present Formation of the Public Relation Section According to the constitutional provisions, the "Section shall consist of a l l groups, business and individuals actively engaged in, or providing direct assistance to the public relations or advertising program of the Society." The work of the Section i s carried on by the - 103 -Executive Committee of the Section which has sixteen members this year. The number of members vary each year. The Executive Committee is composed each year as follows: (i) Four members appointed by the Board of Directors of the Society, two of whom shall serve for a period of two years and two for a period of one year and each year thereafter the Board shall appoint two for a two year term. ( i i ) Four members recommended by the Executive Committee of the Social Planning Section for appointment by the Board of Directors of the Society. Two of these shall be professional social workers in the f i e l d of health and welfare, one of whom shall be employed in a financially participating agency, and one employed in a government agency. Two shall serve for a period of two years and two for a period of one year and each year thereafter the Executive of the Social Planning Section shall recommend two for a two year term for appointment by the Board of Directors. ( i i i ) Four members recommended by the Executive Committee of the Fund Raising Section for appoint-ment by the Board of Directors. (iv) The Chairmen of the Social Planning, Budget and Fund Raising Sections or their designates. (v) The immediate past Chairman of the Public Relations Section. (vi) Additional members may be appointed by the Board of Directors of the Society upon recommendation of the Executive of the Public Relations Section. c. The Chairman and Vice Chairman of the Executive Committee of the Public Relations Section shall be the chairman and Vice Chairman of the Public Relations Section and shall be elected by that Executive Committee.1 The organizational structure of the Section is shown on the following page, which is self-explanatory. 1 Community Chest and Council, Vancouver, Constitution (1958). COMMUNITY CHEST AND COUNCIL OF GREATER VANCOUVER PUBLIC RELATIONS SECTION PUBLIC RELATIONS SECTION EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE STANDING COMMITTEES PROGRAM SPECIAL COMMITTEES Figure 8 104 -2. Functions of the Public Relations Section According to the Constitution, following are the functions of the Section which cover a wide f i e l d of Public Relations: (i) To develop a year around program designed to earn and maintain public confidence in the Society. ( i i ) To assist in promoting good relationships between the Society and governmental agencies in health, welfare and recreational f i e l d s . ( i i i ) To provide the Board of Directors of the Society, the Social Planning Section, the Budget Section and the Fund Raising Section with information as required about the effect which any plans and policies may have on the attitude of the public towards the Society. (iv) To plan, prepare and execute fund raising publicity and promotion. The Public Relations Section of the Chest and Council is very active; but in many communities i t i s not like this. They lack i n many ways in their Public Relations program, and in spite of the activities of the Chest and Council for many years, an incredible number of people have only a dim understanding of the principles which guide the operation of the Chest and Council. In far too many cases i t is known simply as a large and rather impersonal organization which raises a lot of money to do good work i n the community. Very l i t t l e is understood about the need for planning and the principles of budgeting. As for d e f i c i t financing and surplus return, even some of the agencies would not know. It makes one shudder to think how small the group is that understands how fund-raising, budgeting and - 105 -planning f i t together, which i s the whole purpose of the federation. The Ghest and Council look at health, welfare and recreation problems, not piecemeal, but as a whole, each in i t s proper perspective with the other. The whole idea and the philosophy of the Chest and the Council are so logical and sound that when they are understood, there could be l i t t l e disagreement with them. Lack of understanding therefore, i s a paramount problem in many instances, which is to be fought by an efficient Public Relations program. Public Relations is no longer a casual, once a year job; i t is now a year round program. It is impossible to successfully bring about an appreciation of overall community health, welfare and recreation needs in a single month of promotion each year. The story w i l l have to be told and retold a l l year long, constantly reminding the public of the program and needs of the Chest and Council. This could well be supplemented by specific promotional activities carried on by a l l the member agencies. The job of the Public Relations Section is challenging and v i t a l for successful existence of the Society. A more complete understanding of the a c t i v i t i e s of the Chest and Council and the principles on which they base their work is necessary; for with greater public understanding w i l l come increased public interest and the necessary resources with which to meet a reasonable area of community's needs in the f i e l d of health, welfare and recreation. - io6 -4. BUDGET SECTION The Budget Section of the Chest and Council, started as Budget Committee of the Welfare Federation in 1930• Ever since i t has undergone a steady growth and changes to suit the needs of the enlarging organization of the Chest and Council of Vancouver. Today, on the professional side, the Section i s headed by a Director of the Budget Section, who functions under the Executive Director. The Director of the Budget Section i s assisted in his work by cl e r i c a l staff. 1. Present Formation of the Budget Section The Constitution of the Community Chest and Council establishes thirty as the minimum number of members for the Section; one-half to be appointed from the Social Planning Section, one-quarter each from the Fund Raising Section and the Board of Directors; such members to be appointed from various occupational grouping and representative of various community interests. At present there are fifty-eight members. While appointment is on a one-year basis, members are encouraged to serve for several consecutive years (to a maximum of six years as provided in the Constitution). The Chairman of the Board of Directors, and of the Fund Raising, Public Relations and Social Planning Sections, serve as ex-officio members of the Section. Officers of the Section are elected - 107 -annually. 2. Functions of the Section The responsibilities of the Section, as in a l l other Sections of the Chest and Council, are carried out by a number of Committees. Of these, seven Review Committees are important. These Review Committees—'A* to 'G 1—review the programs and financial requirements of Agencies in a particular f i e l d of service: - Committees »A! and 'E', Family and Child Services - Committee 'C1, Health Services - Committee 'D', Seamen and Ex-Service - Committees 'E' and 'F', Youth Leadership and Recreation Services - Committee 'G1, Provincial and National Services. The present organizational structure of the Section has been shown on the following page, which i s self-explanatory. Budgeting is a year round program. The Section not only has the job of recommending allocations, establishing salary scales etcetera, but is also responsible for a year round administrative function. It scrutinizes the budget of the Chest and Council in the same way as i t does with other financial participating agencies. The Section is doing an effective job. r To follow page 107 -ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE OF THE BUDGET SECTION HONORARY INDIVIDUAL ORGANIZATIONAL MEMBERSHIP FUND RAISING SECTION BOARD OF DIRECTORS BUDGET SECTION SOCIAL PLANNING SECTION PUBLIC RELATIONS SECTION EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE SALARIES COMMITTEE A B C D E F G reviews T 13 Family & Child Welfare reviews / reviews reviews 24 Health Agencies reviews \ reviews / 6 Sea- 20 Youth Leader-men & ship & Recrea-Veteran tion Agencies Services \ 70 Agencies about Each Review Committee has/8 members. reviews 7 Prov. & National Agencies Figure 9 - 108 -Summary of Findings (Chapters 3 and 4) The administration of any organization is the means of accomplishing i t s purpose rather than an end in i t s e l f . Like Community Organization i t i s a dynamic process. As Community Organization is the process of relating groups to each other better to meet their corporate needs, so administration is the process through which aims are determined, plans are made and executed. Looking at the administration of the Community Chest and Council of Greater Vancouver, one finds i t as a Board-centered administration, i.e. the authority goes down from the Board, rather than coming from the membership which stem through the Social Planning Section. The membership of the Society which registers through the Social Planning Section seems to be "agency centred" and dominated by "professionals." Such a makeup of the Social Planning Section can pose some questions in the area of "lay" participation. However, this i s one way of carrying on the Society's program; as the ultimate authority always rests with the people at large. The administration of the Chest and Council is flexible to meet the changing demands of the community i f they are in harmony with the objectives of the Society, both in thought and in action. But the absence of a proper Research Section is undoubtedly a great lack in the total organizational structure of the Society, which at times can 109 -prevent the Society to meet the changing demands of the community on time. This lack of proper research f a c i l i t i e s i s also reflected in nearly a l l areas of the Society's working, especially in the Social Planning and the Campaign Sections. It seems therefore, desirable that consideration should now be given to appoint, under the Executive Director, adequate research staff, who could serve a l l the existing Sections of the Society equally. Although structure is important for the Society, yet i t is merely a means of ensuring effective operation. There is a desirable degree of decentralization of functions and powers, giving the Society a pyramid type of structure. There i s , however, not unnecessary decentralization or delegation of powers, as the danger of over-centralized, st r a t i f i e d , static structuring can be as serious as over-f l u i d i t y of structure which may result in complete confusion and inertia. The overall organization of the Chest and Council is dynamic. The Board of Directors and i t s Committees, especially the Executive Committee, seemingly, is a closely-knit group and being cohesive operates at a high level of efficiency and integration. The Board has a high degree of acceptance of the need for qualified professional staff, and has demonstrated a sincere desire to adhere to the best principles of professional standards and personnel practice. - 110 -The Sections of the Ghest and Council are also very active in their respective areas of operation. They are the main source for involving more and more community participation in the affairs of the Society. CHAPTER 5 THE COMMUNITY CHEST AND COUNCIL: ITS POSSIBLE APPLICATION TO A PAKISTANI CITY (KARACHI) United giving has grown because people a l l over the United States and Canada have wanted i t , have been willing to support i t and have made i t successful. At present, federated (united) giving is at the highest point in i t s history, whether measured in terms of money raised, community participation or people benefitted. Whatever i t s weaknesses, the federated idea does have an excellent record of accomplishment. Eighty-five United Funds and Chests (in Canada) last f a l l collected $25,504,45l~94.1% of their objective. During that campaign, only eleven Canadian cities reached less than 8% of their goal. Before the United idea spread, the individual campaigns now federated managed to gather in only ten million dollars a year.l Is this not a success of the movement? But, in some c i t i e s , in their single-minded pre-occupation with targets, Chest and Fund executives have sometimes resorted to unpopular and—at least to some potential donors—offensive money-gathering techniques. Such techniques are unethical, and are contrary to the very basic philosophy of the Chest and Council movement. The key to success of the movement is found in the phrase "citizens working together." Community planning for 1 Newman, Peter C , Maclean's, September 27, 1958. - 112 -social welfare is a cooperative venture, whereby citizens who support and use the services join hands to develop a total program which w i l l meet the needs of people as adequately as possible. In view of the above recapitulation and what has been said in the preceding chapters, following are some of the basic principles demonstrated in the growth and develop-ment, and local application of the Chest and Council movement: 1. Any study of the Chest and Council i s necessarily a study of a particular phase of Community Organization, for no Chest and/or Council can ever come into being without the interest of the people in the community. 2. The Chest and Council i s a non-sectarian voluntary cooperative movement. It is the citizens' way of providing themselves with an organized means of accepting and exercising ultimate responsibility in the, f i e l d of health, welfare and recreation. Through the Chest, people raise more money from more people for more worthwhile causes than any other method yet devised. Through the Council, people plan wise spending of their collections. The Chest and Council could well be called as big Project(s), within which many smaller projects (agencies) operate; and to attain this big project people put their mite together to keep the wheel of community progress moving. 3. The Chest and Council movement is local in origin. In the case of the Chest and Council, the community decides - 113 -upon a balanced program of health, welfare and recreational services, and how they can best be supported. By involving a cross section of the community, the Chest and Council strives to furnish the best possible opportunity for community cooperation—including the components of planning, philanthrophic giving, education, research, budgeting and public relations. Where the Community Chest has become "United Funds" certain national organizations have joined i t . Some of these organizations unfortunately do not appreciate that they are the creation of their local chapters, and exist to serve them. It i s not their purpose, nor i s i t wise to dictate to their local chapters in the matter of local interest, such as preventing them from joining the Chest, as these local chapters always know the local conditions much better because of their presence in the community. Summing up, the writer feels that the Chest and Council movement has truly grown from the people and rightly belongs to them. The Chest and Council movement affords the best opportunity yet invented for the individual to help his neighbour in a democratic way. Because a Chest and Council embraces a l l or most of the voluntary and public services of the community, participation as a consumer, worker (manager) and giver inevitably becomes the real measure of the individual's interest. It is a citizens' best opportunity to stand up and be counted. The p o l i t i c a l phrase—"of, by, - 114 -for"—can more truly be used in respect of a Community Chest and Council. A Community Chest and Council is very rightly an organization of the people, formed by the people for the good of the people in the community. 2. Social Work in Pakistan Pakistan i s only eleven years old as an independent country. However, the roots of i t s c i v i l i z a t i o n and culture go deep into pre-historic times along with Mesopotamia and Egypt. Pakistan, at the time of independence on August 14, 1947, besides other things, also inherited the old traditional system of dealing with social i l l s , and meeting the social welfare needs of the people. Creation of Pakistan, as a result of division of India, brought with i t tremendous social problems. Millions of destitute refugees entered the new born country from what is now called India. Disrupted families and children without families had to be helped, and integrated into a new, fast growing society. The very size and nature of the problem, threw public and private agencies into action, the former assuming the major responsibility by providing machinery to meet the immediate needs of those unfortunate refugees. But the spontaneous contribution of old reconstituted, and new emerging private organizations was an even more remarkable performance in coping with the social problems of the new State. The Government recognized the pioneering efforts of - 1 1 5 -these private organizations and sanctioned grants-in-aid to bonafide organizations in 194 -8 . By 1 9 5 5 > large amounts of money were being given to hundreds of such organizations without much care as to their standard of services and to their usefulness to the community. This Social policy resulted in a mushroom growth of hundreds of social welfare organizations a l l over the country, especially in Karachi (the Capital of the Country) where the pressure of refugees and of other social problems was f e l t most. The concept of professional social work which is taken for granted in Western countries and some of the Eastern countries too, i s also being visioned in Pakistan today . . . . H.E. the Governor-General of Pakistan ( 1 9 5 1 - 5 4 ) , the late Mr. Ghulam Mohmmed was the f i r s t to enunciate the new philosophy by saying, "we need a large number of Social Workers. Their need is increasingly f e l t in modern society. Social Work can no longer be considered, as i t has mostly been hitherto, a casual pastime of the rich. It i s now a science." Since then the tide has been steadily rising without ever ebbing.1 In Pakistan, s c i e n t i f i c social work dates since 1952» when under an agreement made between the Government of Pakistan and the United Nations Technical Assistance Administration, the country received United Nations Consultants in the f i e l d of Social Work to explore the possibilities of organizing new programs and reorganizing the traditional services of the country on s c i e n t i f i c lines. The f i r s t problem which these Consultants faced was lack of 1 U.N.j Govt, of Pakistan Social Welfare Project; Social  Welfare in Pakistan. Vol. 2 No. 3 ; May 1 9 5 5 ; p. 3 . - 116 -trained personnel. In one of her reports, Miss Elmina R. Lucke, the f i r s t Chief of the U.N. team remarked that there were only six/seven trained persons in a population of seventy million. This problem of lack of trained personnel has now been greatly overcome, as a result of a number of short-term training courses given by the U.N. team and by organizing a regular Master's Degree course at one of the six Pakistani Universities. Besides these within-the-country training f a c i l i t i e s , some Pakistanis are being trained abroad each year under various Technical Assistance programs. In addition to the within-the-country training programs, a number of new services were developed, new programs were demonstrated, and a unique approach to suit a developing country like Pakistan was evolved. Here the writer refers to the great national program of Community Development, both for ci t i e s and villages. The term Community Development designates the ut i l i z a t i o n under one single programme of approaches and techniques which rely upon local communities as units of action and which attempt to combine outside assistance with organized local self-determination and effort, and which correspondingly seek to stimulate local i n i t i a t i v e and leadership as the primary instrument of change. . . . i n agricultural countries (like Pakistan), in the economically under-developed areas (like Pakistan), major emphasis Is placed upon those activities which aim at promoting the improvement of the basic living conditions of the community, including the satisfaction of some of i t s non-material needs.1 1 United Nations Document E/CN.5/291? Programme of Concerted  Action in the Social Field of the United Nations and Specialized Agencies. - 117 -Besides the National Community Development Program, Medical Social Work and other public health and welfare programs are in operation. The National Planning Board i n i t s chapter on "Social Welfare" has included the following areas of social welfare to be worked on during the plan-period—1955-60: 1. Urban Community Development 2. Child Protection 3. Child and Adolescent Recreation 4. Delinquency 5. Women deprived of Family Support 6. Medical Social Work . Beggery and Destitution . Welfare of the Handicapped 9. Family Planning 10. Training of Social Workers 11. ' Social Planning and Social Research 12. Tribal Welfare 13. Organization and Administration. The above do not include the Rural (V-AID) Community Development Program, which has a separate chapter in the Plan. In the main, the two programs of Community Development—rural and urban—are comprehensive socio-economic programs in their s p i r i t . " . . . our main programme must be to procure welfare of the masses and to raise the standard of their l i v i n g . . . Community Projects in ci t i e s and the Village Aid program in 1 rural areas w i l l help in this direction . . . ." These developments in the f i e l d of social welfare in the Government brought about concurrent changes in the thinking of the people and in the professional standards and personnel practice within the private organizations. As a result of this changed thinking, Dr. De Jongh, the U.N. Chief Consultant 1 Prime Minister of Pakistan (Mr. S.H. Sahrwardy) Social  Welfare i n Pakistan Vol. 3, No. 5 Karachi, p. 3. - 118 -i n S o c i a l W o r k t o P a k i s t a n w r o t e i n h i s f i n a l r e p o r t : P r i v a t e a g e n c i e s a r e e x t r e m e l y i m p o r t a n t f o r t h e f i e l d o f s o c i a l w e l f a r e , f o r e v e r y c o u n t r y , b u t p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r a c o u n t r y w h e r e t h e g o v e r n m e n t r e s o u r c e s a r e s t i l l s o m e a g r e a n d w h e r e t h e g o v e r n m e n t w i l l h a v e t o f a c e s o many o t h e r h e a v y t a s k s i n t h e n e a r f u t u r e . H e r e , t o o , we m u s t l a y e m p h a s i s o n " S e l f - h e l p " b y t h e p o p u l a t i o n , b u t , a g a i n , t h e g o v e r n m e n t s h o u l d f i n d m e a n s " t o h e l p t h e s e l f - h e l p . " T h e r e f o r e , we s u g g e s t a b r o a d p r o g r a m m e t o s t i m u l a t e t h e p r i v a t e a g e n c i e s s o a s t o m a k e f u l l u s e o f t h e h u g e r e s o u r c e s o f i n d i v i d u a l g o o d w i l l a n d i n d i v i d u a l c a p i t a l , w h i c h a r e a v a i l a b l e i n t h i s c o u n t r y , w h e r e h e l p t o p e o p l e i n n e e d h a s a l w a y s b e e n c o n s i d e r e d o n e o f t h e f i r s t r e l i g i o u s d u t i e s o f e v e r y c i t i z e n . 1 A c c o r d i n g l y , t h e N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l o f S o c i a l W e l f a r e w a s e s t a b l i s h e d b y t h e G o v e r n m e n t o f P a k i s t a n o n J a n u a r y 2, 1956t w i t h t h e f o l l o w i n g o b j e c t i v e s : ( a ) t o c a u s e a s u r v e y t o b e made o f t h e n e e d s a n d r e q u i r e m e n t s o f S o c i a l W e l f a r e o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n P a k i s t a n ; ( b ) t o s t i m u l a t e a n d t o r e n d e r f i n a n c i a l a i d , w h e n n e c e s s a r y t o d e s e r v i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s o r i n s t i t u t i o n s o n t e r m s t o b e p r e s c r i b e d b y t h e C o u n c i l ; ( c ) t o e v a l u a t e t h e p r o g r a m m e s a n d p r o j e c t s o f t h e a i d e d a g e n c i e s ; ( d ) t o c o o r d i n a t e t h e a s s i s t a n c e e x t e n d e d t o S o c i a l W e l f a r e a c t i v i t i e s b y v a r i o u s M i n i s t e r i e s a n d D e p a r t m e n t s i n t h e C e n t r a l a n d P r o v i n c i a l G o v e r n m e n t s ; a n d ( e ) t o p r o m o t e t h e s e t t i n g u p o f S o c i a l W e l f a r e O r g a n i z a t i o n s o n a v o l u n t a r y b a s i s i n p l a c e s w h e r e n o s u c h O r g a n i z a t i o n s e x i s t . 2 1 D r . J . F . de J o n g h , T e c h n i c a l A s s i s t a n c e P r o g r a m , U . N . R e p o r t N o . T A A / P a k / o , d a t e d O c t o b e r 13, 1955. 2 G o v e r n m e n t o f P a k i s t a n T h e G a z e t t e o f P a k i s t a n E x t r a o r d i n a r y R e s o l u t i o n N o . F.4-2/55 - S . W . d a t e d t h e 2nd J a n u a r y 1956, K a r a c h i : R e g i s t e r e d N o . S . 1033, p . 1. - 119 -The Council is a strong body with both public and private representation on i t . It has i t s counterparts in the provinces. During i t s short existence of three years, the Council has given grants to a large number of voluntary organizations throughout the country. These organizations are engaged in different social welfare a c t i v i t i e s , e.g. Care of Children; rehabilitation of physically handicapped; welfare of T.B. Patients; family planning; community organization, coordination of social welfare agencies, etcetera. Council grants are given for: i . Employment of agency staff i i . Training i i i . Administrative Expenditure i v . Publicity and Publication v. Expansion of Services. It is clear from the above description that the people and the three levels of government have realized and acted upon the idea that in raising the standard of livin g of the people i t is not enough to arrange the supply of material goods to meet their physical requirements, but i t i s also essential to protect human rights and cultural values. Workers in the economic f i e l d — l i k e agriculture, trade, industry—must coordinate their a c t i v i t i e s with those engaged on health and welfare programs. Economic and social progress must go hand In hand to avoid the breeding of new social i l l s , which are necessary results of industrialization. - 120 -3. Why a Community Chest and Council for Karachi? Karachi, being the Capital of the country has a strategic position in the socio-economic l i f e of the country. Besides, a number of social welfare programs operating under the federal auspice (Karachi being the centrally administered area), there are scores of private agencies who are engaged in some kind of a social welfare program. Of these private agencies, the important one for this study is the Social Services Coordinating Council, which was formed in 1953 with the following objectives: (a) To work for the coordination and development of social activities in Karachi; (b) to study the social needs of the community which are brought to the attention of the Council and formulate suitable plans for their solution; (c) to provide effective machinery for the pooling of experiences, problems and resources related to social welfare of the community; (d) to serve as a channel of communication between Govt, and non-Govt. agencies; (e) to mobilize joint community efforts in meeting social welfare needs of the community; (f) to stimulate interest in social welfare work and to work for the improvement of social welfare practices in the community such as establishing or helping to establish social services training centres, and to promote the professional training of social workers and to encourage their employment for welfare work; (g) to arrange the holding of periodical conferences on specific social problems; (h) to appoint or depute representatives on national or international conferences; (i) to secure the enactment or change of laws relating to social matters; 121-(j) to encourage the formation of similar Councils in other parts of Pakistan; (k) to do a l l or any acts for the furtherance of the objects of the Council and for raising funds for the Council.1 The Coordinating Council has made great progress during the last five years, and has done some real service to the cause of social welfare in Karachi. The Council could be compared with a Council of Soeial Agencies. It i s , however, financed by subscriptions from the member agencies and individuals. It is not as effective as any of the Council of Social Agencies would be on the North American Continent. With regard to the financing of Social Welfare agencies in Pakistan and so also in Karachi, i t is the responsibility of the individual agency to find funds for themselves in the manner most suitable for them. But, this system of year-round Multiple Appeals create confusion and in some cases feelings of jealousy among agencies, especially when the present Social Services Coordinating Council is not a really effective Council of Social Agencies. This is more true, as the Council is dependent for i t s very existence on subscriptions from the membership. However, apart from the unavoidable confusion of frequent Multiple Appeals, there has recently been a great improvement in the techniques and methods employed in these go-alone campaigns for funds. 1 Social Services Coordinating Council, Karachi, Constitution, pp. 1-2. - 122 -State dignitaries have been supporting or signing many such appeals, and business has been responding generously with sizeable donations. A l l these developments with their accompanying weaknesses in the f i e l d of community planning, coordination and fund-raising show a great need for a Community Chest and Council organization to bring order in the present system of public and private welfare programs. The proposed Chest and Council w i l l relieve the donors of the year-round calls for funds; and through a proper planning of community services, these donors would be assured of gainful and effective use of their donations. It w i l l save much of the wastage in actual and potential funds from private sources. The Chest w i l l also relieve genuine welfare agencies from financial worries and from the trouble of fund-hunting, thereby allowing them maximum time to devote to actual service to their clients. Organization of a Community Chest and Council in any community and so also in Karachi is not easy. A sound public educational program, to create a favourable public opinion, especially in related c i r c l e s , has to be done as a pre-requisite. A Community Chest and Council is a cooperative enterprise, and i t must be formed with a genuine and active cooperation of a l l concerned. There is no short cut to real cooperative efforts. - 123 -4. Who Should Take I n i t i a t i v e ? The writer f e e l s that i t would be worthwhile f o r the e x i s t i n g S o c i a l Services Coordinating Council of Karachi to move i n thi s d i r e c t i o n , as i t i s for t h i s city-wide coordinating body to i n i t i a t e the formation of t h i s much needed Community Chest and Council, which would c e r t a i n l y be a tremendous success and a milestone i n the developmental hi s t o r y of s o c i a l work, not only i n Pakistan but i n South-east A s i a . The S o c i a l Services Coordinating Council, with i t s meagre resources would not be able to carry the burden of experimenting with the proposed Community Chest and Council alonej i t w i l l r i g h t l y need the help and p r a c t i c a l assistance of a l l concerned, e s p e c i a l l y the government and semi-government departments engaged i n s o c i a l welfare programs. The National Council of S o c i a l Welfare (discussed e a r l i e r ) could e a s i l y help the Coordinating Council with s u f f i c i e n t funds for the appointment of professional s t a f f needed to give a lead on t h i s project. This help, i f extended by the National Council, would be i n l i n e with i t s objectives. Further professional help and guidance could come from the Urban Community Development Department of the Government. This proposed t r i p a r t i t e p a r t i c i p a t i o n of people (Coordinating Council), semi-government (National Council) and the government (Urban Community Development Department) agencies would prove h e l p f u l i n i n i t i a t i n g and following through the Community Chest and Council project. The approach could be - 124 -experimental for two to three years, and i f i t proves f r u i t f u l , i t could later be established on a permanent basis. The kind of strong leadership needed to give a push to the movement warrants this broad involvement of private, government and semi-government agencies/individuals. This involvement is a necessity in the i n i t i a l stages of the movement; and would be a desirable thing in the stages to follow. Type of Community Chest and Council for Karachi The Chest and Council must be a strong organization with a broad and well representative cross-section of the community. It needs adequate funds, top leadership and a competent professional staff. The Constitution of the proposed Chest and Council should be progressive and reasonably flexible to enable the organization to meet the changing needs of the rapidly growing Karachi community. The structure should provide for: 1. Control by citizen volunteers 2. Partnership of laymen and professionals in developing plans 3. Clear lines of responsibility 4. Centralized policy making and program determination 5. Decentralized program planning and implementation 6. Competent staff, adequately paid 7. Free channels for expressing agency knowledge and opinion - 125 -8. Participation in any project by the major parties concerned 9 . Effective working relationships with government programs. Structure is simply a means to an end. It must suit the purpose and f a c i l i t a t e the working of the organization which would aim at developing an increasingly adequate program of services for the people in the community. Changing conditions require continuous assessment, upgrading and revamping of the programs. To meet this challenge the proposed Community Chest and Council must be free to question habit and tradition. It must be free of control by any single interest group. It must be free to tackle through problems and controversial issues, even in d i f f i c u l t times. By doing so, the proposed community chest and council w i l l command respect and confidence of the community. It would achieve efficiency, sufficiency and continuity in social planning, fund-raising, budgeting and public relations; thereby ensuring balanced development of health, welfare and recreation services in the community. Summary The principles demonstrated by the Community Chest and Council movement in North America and success achieved in i t s local application in Vancouver definitely shows that the Community Chest and Council can well be experimented with success in Karachi (Pakistan) where the present conditions in the f i e l d of health and welfare are more or less the same as - 126 -they were in Vancouver some thirty years ago when the Council of Social Agencies and the Welfare Federation were organized as two separate organizations. These were later merged into one organization with a view to achieving optimum results in social planning and fund raising. In Karachi (as i t was in Vancouver in the 1920's) the present isolated efforts of social welfare agencies and go-alone fund-raising can hardly ensure the balanced development of health, welfare and recreational services in the Greater Karachi community. Good community planning is essential to federated financing and to the agencies i t supports. It is equally essential to public and private social services in the community. Accordingly, in Karachi, the Community Chest and Council could be initiated as one single organization and i t could be maintained as that. The proposed Community Chest and Council should have a broad base membership having on i t representatives of public, semi-public and private and professional and labour organizations. As regards the National Organizations, like the Red Cross, A l l Pakistan Women's Association, etcetera, the local chapters of these organizations would be quite willing to cooperate with the proposed Community Chest and Council, as there exists a great amount of goodwill among the social welfare organizations in the Country, especially in Karachi, where the conditions are favourable for creating the kind of organization under - 127 -discussion. In the i n i t i a l stages and in the stages to follow, the writer feels strongly that the government association, not dominance, with the movement is necessary and desirable. This would also help in giving a good start to the movement in Karachi, of whose success the writer is least skeptical. The proposed Community Chest and Council in Karachi could be initiated with minimum professional staff. This could, however, be increased as the organization progresses. The staff organization could be simple and practical, rather than complicated and unduly impressive. Organization is not an end in i t s e l f but i t is a mean to an end, i.e. service to the community. "Organization is a dynamic process. The challenge is to be dynamic without 1 being perfectionist." 1 Dixon, G.W., Social Welfare and the Preservation of Human  Values; J.M. Dent and Sons (Canada) Ltd.; Vancouver; 1957? p. 164. - 128 -BIBLIOGRAPHY A. Books Dixon, GoW. S o c i a l "Welfare and P r e s e r v a t i o n of Human Va l u e s . V a n c o u v e r J.M. Dent and Sons (Canada) L t d . , 1957* G i s t , Noel P. and H a l b e r t , L.A. Urban S o c i e t y . New York, Thomas Y. Crowe 11 Co., 191+9. Johns, Ray and De Marche, David P. Community ..Organization  and Agency R e s p o n s i b i l i t y . New Y o r k / A s s o c i a t i o n P r e s s , _9~5"_ Watson, Prank Dekker. The C h a r i t y O r g a n i z a t i o n Movement i n  the U n i t e d S t a t e s . New York, The Macmillan Company, 1922. •Murphy, Campbell G. Community O r g a n i z a t i o n P r a c t i c e . Boston, Houghton M i f f l i n Company, 1951+• ' Ross, Murry G. Community O r g a n i z a t i o n — T h e o r y and P r i n c i p l e s . New York, Harper and Bros., 1955• H i l l m a n , A r t h u r . Community O r g a n i z a t i o n and P l a n n i n g . New York, MacMillan Company, 1950. M c M i l l a n , Wayne L„ Community O r g a n i z a t i o n f o r S o c i a l Welfare. Chicago, U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago P r e s s , 191+5. S t r e e t , Elwood. A Handbook of S o c i a l Agency A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . New York, Harper and Bros., 191+8. King, C l a r e n c e . S o c i a l Agency Boards and How to Make Them  E f f e c t i v e . New York, Harper and Bros., 1936. Seeley, John R. and A s s o c i a t e s . Community Chest: A Case  Study i n P h i l a n t h r o p y . T o r o n t o j U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto P r e s s , 1957-Bo J o u r n a l s . P e r i o d i c a l s . Reports, e t c . Community Chest and C o u n c i l o f G r e a t e r Vancouver, Manual of  H e a l t h . Welfare and R e c r e a t i o n S e r v i c e s of G r e a t e r  Vancouver. 19%%". S o c i a l Work Year-book. 1957. E n c y c l o p a e d i a Canadiana, V o l . I I I . - 129 -U n i t e d N a t i o n s — S o c i a l Progress Through Community Develop-ment. IV, 18, New York, 1955. Mowat^ Mrs. Walter. H i s t o r y of the Community Chest and  C o u n c i l o f G r e a t e r Vancouver. Vancouver, Community Chest and C o u n c i l , 1 9 5 1 • "Whitton, C h a r l o t t e o Report of the B.C. C h i l d Welfare Survey. Ottaixra, Canadian C o u n c i l o f C h i l d W elfare, 1927. Minutes of the Meeting h e l d i n the Board of Trade O f f i c e November 7, 1929. C o n s t i t u t i o n of the C o u n c i l o f S o c i a l A g e n c i e s . Feb.. 1930. Rudolph, ,N. E v j e n . O u t l i n e Summary f o r I n s t i t u t e - o f Fund^ Chest and C o u n c i l O p e r a t i o n . C l e v e l a n d , Ohio,. U n i t e d Community Fund and C o u n c i l o f America, Feb. 1950. Community Chest and C o u n c i l o f G r e a t e r Vancouver, C o n s t i t u t i o n and Bylaws. 1958- (Revised as on March 3rd) Minutes of the Board Meeting, Community Chest and C o u n c i l , G r e a t er Vancouver, A p r i l , 195b. N a p h t a l i j C H . , E x e c u t i v e D i r e c t o r . Memo, d t . 20.1.58. t o the E x e c u t i v e Committee of t h e Board of D i r e c t o r s . N e w s l e t t i e , W i l b u r I . Teaching Community O r g a n i z a t i o n i n Schools of S o c i a l Work. N a t i o n a l C o r p o r a t i o n of S o c i a l Work, 1 9 i f l . Community Chest and C o u n c i l I n c o r p o r a t e d . H e a l t h and  Welfare P l a n n i n g . New York, 19J+5-S i e d e r , V i o l e t M. The Task of Community O r g a n i z a t i o n Work. N a t i o n a l Corp. o f S o c i a l Work, U.S.A., 1957-Community Chest and C o u n c i l of G r e a t e r Vancouver. Manual o f  Job D e s c r i p t i o n . Community Chest of G r e a t e r Vancouver. Budget Manuals 1957« U.N.—Govt, of P a k i s t a n , S o c i a l Welfare. P r o j e c t — S o c i a l  Welfare i n P a k i s t a n . V o l . 2, No. 3> May, 1955. U n i t e d Nations Document E/CN.5/291, Programme, of Concerted  A c t i o n i n the S o c i a l F i e l d o f the U n i t e d Nations and  S p e c i a l i z e d ' agencies. New York. - 130 -Prime Minister of Pakistan (Mr. S.H. Sharwardy) Social  Welfare in Pakistan Vol. 3, No. 5, Karachi. de Jongh, Dr. J.P. Technical Assistance Program. U*N. Report No. TAA/Pak/8, dated October 13, 1955-Government of Pakistan. The Gazette of Pakistan. Extraordinary Resolution. No. F •¥• dated 2nd January 1956, Karachi: Registered No. S.1033-Social Services Coordinating Council of Karachi, Constitution. Karachi. U.N. Govt, of Pakistan, Social Welfare Project. Social Welfare in Pakistan (Editorial) Vol. 2> No. 3 , Karachi, May, 1957. ~ ~ Planning Board Govt, of Pakistan, Five Year .Plan—19B>6-60. Chapter on "Social Welfare." Maclean's. September 27, 1958. Vancouver Sun. Nov. 25, 1958. 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0106125/manifest

Comment

Related Items