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Family influence on child protection cases at the point of apprehension and in later foster care : an… Tuckey, Elizabeth Ursula Townsend 1958

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FAMILY INFLUENCE OH CHILD PROTECTION CASES AT THE POINT  (of  OF AgPREHEiBSlON AW'W  LATTER FOSTER CARE  An E x p l o r a t o r y S t u d y o f a G r o u p o f Wards the C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y , Vancouver) i n f o s t e r c a r e more t h a n two y e a r s .  by E L I Z A B E T H URSULA TOWHSMD TUCKET  Thesis Submitted i n P a r t i a l F u l f i l m e n t o f the Requirements f o r t h e Degree o f  MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK i n the  S c h o o l o f S o c i a l Work  A c c e p t e d as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e s t a n d a r d r e q u i r e d f o r the degree o f M a s t e r o f S o c i a l VJork  School of  S o c i a l Work  1958 The U n i v e r s i t y  of  B r i t i s h Columbia  V ABSTRACT The p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y i s t o e x p l o r e t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t h e f o s t e r c h i l d t o h i s own f a m i l y , t o examine t h e r e s u l t i n g e f f e c t s upon t h e c h i l d ' s adjustment i n f o s t e r c a r e .  and  The g o a l o f the c h i l d w e l f a r e w o r k e r has c h a n g e d i n the p a s t t w e n t y - f i v e y e a r s from the p r o v i s i o n o f f o o d , c l o t h i n g , and a r o o f o v e r the h e a d o f t h e f o s t e r c h i l d , t o a n a t t e m p t t o meet t h e e m o t i o n a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l a s w e l l as p h y s i c a l needs o f the c h i l d . These needs a r e l i k e l y t o v a r y a c c o r d i n g t o the degree of d e p r i v a t i o n s u f f e r e d by t h e c h i l d b e f o r e p l a c e m e n t * Regardless of the inadequacy o f h i s p a r e n t s , the c h i l d has t o t h i n k w e l l o f t h e m , s o f a r a s he i s a b l e , I f he i s a l s o t o t h i n k w e l l of himself. He must r e s o l v e t h e t r a u m a i n e v i t a b l y r e s u l t i n g f r o m t h e s e p a r a t i o n f r o m h i s p a r e n t s b e f o r e he c a n s e t t l e down i n M s f o s t e r home, and t a k e on new t i e s . A g a i n s t these c o n c e p t s as b a c k g r o u n d , the p r e s e n t s t u d y examines the c i r c u m s t a n c e s o f t h i r t y - f o u r , wards of the C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y of Vancouver, B. G . , b e g i n n i n g w i t h t h e f a m i l y s i t u a t i o n a t the t i m e o f t h e c h i l d ' s r e m o v a l , and c o v e r i n g a s i g n i f i c a n t p e r i o d o f f o s t e r c a r e . P a r t o f t h e m e t h o d o l o g y o f the s t u d y i s a n a t t e m p t t o a s s e s s t h e p a r e n t s * s t r e n g t h s and w e a k n e s s e s i n c l u d i n g their capacity f o r parenthood. The c h i l d r e n a r e r e v i e w e d twice: once a t t h e t i m e o f t h e i r r e m o v a l f r o m t h e i r own h o m e s , and a g a i n a t a f i x e d d a t e , when a l l the c h i l d r e n had b e e n i n f o s t e r c a r e f o r a t l e a s t two y e a r s . The degree of c o n t a c t w i t h the n a t u r a l parents i s kept i n the focus of the study throughout. The s t u d y c o n c l u d e s w i t h a n a s s e s s m e n t o f some o f t h e ways i n w h i c h t h e f o s t e r c h i l d c a n be h e l p e d t o a c c e p t h i s p a s t , and move on t o t h e f u t u r e f r e e f r o m h a m p e r i n g o r neurotic t i e s ; The i m p l i c a t i o n s r e l a t e t o (a) the c h i l d r e n , (b) t h e n a t u r a l p a r e n t s , ( c ) t h e f o s t e r p a r e n t s .  In presenting  t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of  the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference and study. agree that permission f o r extensive t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may  I further  copying of t h i s  be granted by the Head  of my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e .  I t i s under-  stood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my permission.  Department The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver 8 , Canada. s  Date  written  i t  TABLE  Chapter I. ''  OF  CONTENTS  Meeting the, Heeds of Children Removed from n e g l e c t f u l Parents. '  '  "  •  Introduction. The changing philosophy of foster care,. The foster child's cone era f o r h i s own parents. Changing goals' f o r foster c h i l d r e n . Objectives, methods., and scope of study ............ 1 ;  Chapter I I . The Keplectful Parent. Introduction. A review of some of the thinking i n current s o c i a l work l i t e r a t u r e . Description of family circumstances and analysis of parents' capacity f o r parenthood at the time of t h e i r child's admission to foster care............. Chapter i l l .  15'',  Experiences In Placement and Foster Care.  A description of the children at time of, placement together with an,analysis of t h e i r degree of adjustment at that time. A description of the children as at March 1, 1957 together with an analysis of t h e i r degree of adjustment a f t e r at l e a s t two years i n f o s t e r care., An assessment of . the extent of their continued contact with,their families 38 Chapter IV.  The Social. Worker,and the .Neglected Child.  The importance of research as a means of improving services, f o r children. The present study: findings j validity,, limitations., Comparison of present study to other s i m i l a r studies. Th© significance of the findings as they a f f e c t casework practice with,parents, children, and f o s t e r parents. ,. . 66 4  Appendices: A.  Survey Schedule f o r Family Circumstances at Time of Apprehension.  B.  Survey Schedule f o r Child's Situation on March 1, 1957.  C.  Bibliography.  ill TABLES A M D SCHEDULES IH THE (a) Table 1. Table 2.  TOT  Tables  A Comparison of the E t h n i c Background o f t h e Parents.>.........................  26  A Comparison o f the Church A f f i l i a t i o n of t h e Parents  ;..... .>•......  27  Table 3.  E d u c a t i o n a l S t a t u s o f Parents  ..........  27  Table 4.  A Comparison o f the Ages o f P a r e n t s . . . . .  29  Table 5.  P a r e n t a l P a t t e r n Compared t o S i z e o f Family  Table 6. Table 7. Table 8. Table 9.  ...  30  Degree o f Family U n i t y  31  Degree o f P a r e n t a l C a p a c i t y o f twentyfiv© F a t h e r s Degree o f P a r e n t a l C a p a c i t y of T h i r t y one Mothers *... Comparison o f Age and Sex o f C h i l d r e n (at Time o f Placement)  34 34 39  Table 1 0 . C h i l d ' s Degree o f Adjustment (at Time o f Placement)  *  40  Table 1 1 . Comparison o f Length o f Time i n P o s t e r Care t o P r e s e n t Age o f C h i l d  43  Table 12. D i s t r i b u t i o n of C h i l d r e n — A c c o r d i n g t o Type o f Placement on March 1, 1957  44  Table 13. Length o f Time i n P r e s e n t F o s t e r Home Compared t o Length o f Time i n C a r e on March 1, 1957 * .  45  Table 14. E x t e n t o f C h i l d ' s C o n t a c t v/ith Family ( F o l l o w i n g Admission t o Care) Table 1 5 . C h i l d ' s Degree of Adjustment as of March 1, 1957  .,  46 47  iv  (bj Schedule A .  Schedule B. Schedule C .  Schedules  C r i t e r i a A p p l i e d t o P a r e n t ' s Degree of Capacity f o r Parenthood . . . . . . . . . . .  36  C r i t e r i a A p p l i e d t o C h i l d ' s Degree o f A d j u s t m e n t ( a t Time o f P l a c e m e n t ) . .  60  C r i t e r i a A p p l i e d t o C h i l d ' s Degree o f A d j u s t m e n t ( F o l l o w i n g Two y e a r s or Longer i n F o s t e r Care)  62  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I  wish to  e x p r e s s ray s i n c e r e  t o Mrs.- H e l e n E x n e r and D r . the  School of  S o c i a l Work,  Columbia,, f o r  their  encouragement.  T  thanks  to Mr.  of  Children's  the  and h i s I  staff  also wish to  L.  her  University  invaluable  should also l i k e  Aid Society their  to  encouragement.  '  British and  e x p r e s s my  Executive  Director  of Vancouver,  B.  C.,  h e l p and c o - o p e r a t i o n . '  Executive  Aid Society  of  guidance  e x p r e s s my g r a t i t u d e  Coombe, f o r m e r  Children's  Leonard C . Marsh of  S . H. P i h k e r t b n ,  for  appreciation  Director  of Vancouver,  to Miss of  Dorothy  the  B. C . ,  for  FAMILY WFUmiCE  QN CHILD .PROTECTION .CASES.A3?. THE  POINT OF APPI^HElsfOH AND IN L A T M l l l f E R  (of  CARE  An E x p l o r a t o r y S t u d y o f a G r o u p o f Wards th© C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y , Vancouver) in f o s t e r c a r e raore t h a n two y e a r s , .  CHAPTER Meeting the  Weeds..of C h i l d r e n R e m o v e d f r o m  The c h i l d foster  who i s  home, and i n  attention.  It  is  nowhere,  seems t o  hop© f o r  the  the  community  unhappy  trust  future  --  child  who i s  happen?  Examination of  the  difficult their  from  any group  feelings  may n o t  care  of  foster  Many o f about  prior  their  foster  belongs  everyone  to  or  with  of  the  damage children,  years,  nearly  Sometimes "fit  failure  in", at  to  f u l f i l  have never  their  resolved  w i t h whom t h e y  Frequently  there  and c h i l d r e n  knowledge  of  the  this  may  has at  not  the  child's  inadequate.  total  situation,  how  can  done?  short  indeed  to  own p a r e n t s ,  admission i s  of  home.  children  contact.  Casework s e r v i c e s f o r have a r e l a t i v e l y  of  such problem  inability  Too o f t e n ,  p l a n n i n g be  long history  of  parents'  the  L a c k i n g awareness of realistic  little  without direction  despair  planning with parents  placement.  experiences  o n e who  over a period  child's  have m a i n t a i n e d  been r e a l i s t i c time  the  from the  role.  the  his  attracts  When a n d h o w w a s t h e  a l w a y s r e v e a l s many c h a n g e s o f  times  —  no o n e , f e e l s  w h o h a v e b e e n In f o s t e r  other  generally,  in  Parents.  contact.  Why d o e s t h i s  has r e s u l t e d  Neglectful  making a good a d j u s t m e n t  the  whom h e c o m e s i n  done?  I  children  history, child  in  their  although  placement  of  present  there  is  one k i n d  a or  form very  or  -  another.  2  -  I t i s only w i t h i n the p a s t two years t h a t the  f i r s t hook was  p u b l i s h e d which gave a comprehensive  of b a s i c casework s e r v i c e s which t o g e t h e r p r o v i d e adequate c h i l d w e l f a r e program.  survey  an  As H e n r i e t t a L. Gordon  s t a t e s i n the p r e f a c e of her book Casework S e r v i c e s f o r ?  C h i l d r e n , p u b l i s h e d i n 1956s "This book c o u l d not have been w r i t t e n t e n y e a r s ago, because we had not then f u l l y developed the c o n v i c t i o n s and s k i l l s d i s c u s s e d i n i t . Although the s e r v i c e s had been a v a i l a b l e f o r many y e a r s , they were b e i n g used i n d i s c r i m i n a t e l y . Ten years ago, the c h i e f concern o f many agencies d i d not go beyond p r o v i d i n g f o o d , c l o t h i n g , and s h e l t e r t o c h i l d r e n whose parents c o u l d not g i v e them needed care. I t remained f o r the implementing of the S o c i a l S e c u r i t y Act of 1935» the deeper unders t a n d i n g of human b e h a v i o r , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h a t of c h i l d r e n , and the contemporary maturing of c a s e work as a p r o f e s s i o n , t o h e l p show how each of the s p e c i f i c services could a i d c h i l d r e n b e s t . " 1  In B r i t i s h Columbia, t h e r e has been p u b l i c i n t e r e s t i n the w e l f a r e of c h i l d r e n f o r the p a s t f i f t y - f i v e I t was  i n 1901  t h a t The  C h i l d r e n ' s P r o t e c t i o n Act  passed by the Government o f the P r o v i n c e Columbia.  years. was  of B r i t i s h  T h i s a c t mad© p o s s i b l e the i n c o r p o r a t i o n , i n  the same y e a r , of the C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y of Vancouver, B. C. Mrs.  T h i s a c t i o n of the Government was Anne Margaret Angus, who  due,  according  to  wrote the h i s t o r y o f the  agency, t o a request t h a t the Government:  1. Gordon, H e n r i e t t a L., Casework S e r v i c e s f o r C h i l d r e n . Houghton M i f f l i n Company, Boston, 1956, p. v i l i .  -  3  -  ... so frame the laws t h a t the c h i l d r e n o f drunken, d i s s o l u t e and immoral parents s h o u l d , by the p r o t e c t i o n and a i d o f the law, have such h e l p and a s s i s t a n c e as would enable them t o grow up t o l i v e a good, and u s e f u l l i f e , and not by f o r c e o f t h e i r surroundings become unt r u t h f u l , u n c l e a n and immoral, thereby adding t o the pauper and c r i m i n a l c l a s s e s of the community. rt  1,1  When c h i l d r e n were removed by c o u r t a c t i o n from t h e i r parents' saw  themselves as t a k i n g over th©  entirety. and  c o n t r o l , caseworkers In c h i l d - c a r i n g agencies r o l e of parent i n I t s  The n a t u r a l parents became o b j e c t s o f  suspicion,  t h e i r contacts w i t h t h e i r c h i l d r e n were reduced to a  minimum or cut o f f a l t o g e t h e r ^ " I t was presumed t h a t c h i l d r e n had to be cared f o r u n t i l grown and ready t o assume r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r themselves b e f o r e b e i n g r e t u r n e d t o t h e i r parents." 2  These were: ... The days when a great d e a l was s a i d about the " c h i l d - c e n t e r e d " agency, i n which the c h i l d and h i s needs were the focus o f a t t e n t i o n and a c t i v i t y t o the e x c l u s i o n , a t l e a s t by i m p l i c a t i o n , o f h i s parents. V?© d i d not c o n s c i o u s l y admit t h a t we excluded parents; i n f a c t we were more l i k e l y t o deplore t h e i r l a c k of i n t e r e s t i n what happened t o t h e i r c h i l d r e n ; t h e i r f a i l u r e to v i s i t ; t h e i r w i l l i n g n e s s t o l e t th© agency take over so completely the p a r e n t a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y they c o u l d not c a r r y . But u n d e r l y i n g t h i s was a deeply r o o t e d assumption t h a t p a r e n t s who needed agency car© f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n were inadequate by r e a s o n o f t h a t v e r y need, and t h a t i t was our r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the agency t o make up t o the c h i l d f o r h i s p a r e n t s ' f a i l u r e towards h l m . 3 rt  w  1. Angus, Ann© Margaret, C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y Vancouver, B. C. 1901-1951. Vancouver, 1951, p. 5.  of  2. Radinsky, E l i z a b e t h , K., "The Caseworker In a C h i l d P l a c i n g Agency," B u l l e t i n . V o l . XXVI, No. 7, September, 1957, C h i l d Welfare League of America, Inc., New York, p. 1. 3. Sheldon, Eleanor P., "Intake P r a c t i c e s — The Core o f the Agency's S e r v i c e i n H e l p i n g C h i l d r e n and t h e i r P a r e n t s , " C h i l d Welfare. V o l . XXVIII, No. 10, December, 1949, C h i l d Welfare League of America, Inc., New York, p. 6.  -  4  -  Major emphasis was placed on providing f o r the physical well-being of th© c h i l d .  At f i r s t , i n s t i t u t i o n a l  care was considered the best way of doing t h i s .  Later came  th© r e a l i z a t i o n that a c h i l d needs to belong to a family group, and so fo&ter-homes came into us© to provide a substitute f o r the c h i l d ' s own family.  In Vancouver,  B r i t i s h Columbia, the change from a program of i n s t i t u t i o n a l care to on© emphasizing foster-home placement cam© about as a r e s u l t of the recommendations  of th© Child Welfare Survey  of 1927. With th© passing of th© years, caseworkers i n c h i l d placing agencies everywhere took stock and evaluated t h e i r programs.  Had a mistake been made i n ignoring parents and  b e l i e v i n g that t h e i r influence could only be harmful to t h e i r children?  In February 1948,  Emily Wires wrote?  "We have come to face the f a c t that with th© best Intentions we had removed children from "bad" homes and placed them i n "good" f o s t e r homes and yet th© children f a i l e d to roak© an adjustment. Later i t was found that some of these c h i l d r e n , having arrived at the age of independence, had gone back to those "bad homes and had worked out t h e i r own salvation there. Furthermore th© present s c a r c i t y of foster homes had forced us into a more discriminating use of our limited resources to make c e r t a i n that they ar© employed most advantageously f o r the children. We hav© also been reacting more soberly to the overenthusiasm of th© early days of f o s t e r car©." 1  1. Wires, Emily M i t c h e l l , "The Child Placing Agency," B u l l e t i n . V o l . XXVIX, No. 2 9 February, 1948, Child Welfare League of America, Inc., New York, p. 9.  In Vancouver t h e need f o r p r e v e n t i v e f a m i l y work was noted as e a r l y as 1903 When Mrs.  A t k i n s , a member o f t h e  Board, wrote: "The C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y stands f i r s t and l a s t f o r the r i g h t s o f c h i l d r e n . I t i s authorized t o i n v e s t i g a t e a l l cases o f n e g l e c t , d e s t i t u t i o n and c r u e l t y , t o a m e l i o r a t e and b e t t e r t h e i r home surroundings when p r a c t i c a b l e and when hopeless t o remove t h e c h i l d r e n from an environment o f unc l e a n l i n e s s and v i c e : only when ©very e f f o r t i n the home f a i l s i s t h e matter brought t o th© courts f o r a d j u d i c a t i o n . " 1  However, i t was n o t u n t i l 1927. w i t h t h e a r r i v a l i n •Vancouver o f Miss S e l l a C o l l i n s j t h a t a p r e v e n t i v e casework s e r v i c e t o f a m i l i e s was inaugurated. "In i t s f i r s t y e a r 685 c h i l d r e n were r e p o r t e d as i n need o f a s s i s t a n c e , b u t i t was found necessary i n only 26 cases t o make th© c h i l d r e n wards o f th© society," 2  Of utmost importance I n h e l p i n g th© c h i l d wolfar© worker t o a c q u i r e an i n c r e a s e d  u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f th© needs  of c h i l d r e n has been th© tremendous advances i n p s y c h o l o g i c a l knowledgei  "We have l e a r n e d , "  says E l e a n o r P. Sheldon,  "of th© s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the b i o l o g i c a l t i e between a c h i l d and h i s p a r e n t s , o f t h e f a c t t h a t t h e r e i s no s u b s t i t u t e f o r th© deep, o r i g i n a l c o n n e c t i o n , one© f o r a l l a t b i r t h . " 3  1.  ••Angus.j op. c i t .  She goes on:  9  p. 11.  2.  I b i d , p. 32.  3.  Sheldon, op. c i t . , p . 6 .  established  6  -  "We have learned that a child needs adults, or rather an adult to carry for him that image of his personality which he Is not yet ready to take into himself, and that this Is as essential to his emotional development as are food and exercise to his physloal growth. Therefore the loss of the parent, or of th© person upon whom he had to depend In this way, Is more than loss of the means of l i f e , or loss of lovej i t Is truly th© loss of himself, or a part of himself the most threatening of a l l losses....This fact constitutes one of our major dilemmas In giving care to children. Our very awareness of the child's need for his parents, and of his dependence upon them has mad© us equally aware and fearful of their enormous power, at least potentially to damage him 0  d  What t*e can and must accept j however, i s th© fact that nothing we can do, ho ear© we can provide in plaoe of parents, has the Importance or the value to the child of what his own parents can or cannot do or provide for him. l f,  With this new emphasis on the importance of his own family to the child cam© a swing towards leaving the child In his own home, even when the home was seriously impaired.  This trend was encouraged by the shortage of  foster homes, and in i t s turn, was carried too far, I n fact, group placement and foster home ear©* each in turn became popularly "the answer" for troubled children i n troubled homes. I hope that now the idea of possibly keeping a child In his own home, excellent as i t i s , w i l l not become a panacea in professional circles. I do hop© that serious consideration of maintaining a child in his own home represents rather a broadening of our perspectives so that i t may be added to the variety of plans that may possibly b© suitable for a particular child and for a particular family." 0  2  1.  Ibid, p. 7.  2. Welsoh, Exie E., "Sustaining the Child in His Impaired Home," Child Welfare. July, 1953, Child Welfare League of America, Inc., New York, p. 3.  I n the p e r i o d s i n c e the s t a r t o f t h i s century  there  has been a steady growth i n the knowledge o f what a c h i l d needs i f he i s t o develop a h e a l t h y p e r s o n a l i t y .  With the  growth i n knowledge has com© a change i n the g o a l s s e t by c h i l d - w e l f a r e workers.  Th© pioneers were s a t i s f i e d  that  they had done t h e i r duty when thoy had p r o v i d e d f o r th© p h y s i c a l needs o f the c h i l d .  Mext* cam© a dawning awareness  t h a t a c h i l d had o t h e r needs which had t o b© s a t i s f i e d i f normal p h y s i c a l and emotional growth was not t o be s t u n t e d . At f i r s t an attempt was made t o meet these needs by s u b s t i t u t e s ; suoh as th© use o f f o s t e r p a r e n t s t o r e p l a c e r e a l When I t became apparent  parents.  t h a t t h i s was not enough f o r many  c h i l d r e n , parents were r e d i s c o v e r e d , and an attempt mad© t o r e h a b i l i t a t e them.  T h i s a g a i n was s u c c e s s f u l i n some  i n s t a n c e s , but d i d not p r o v i d e the whole answer.  Today  c h i l d - w e l f a r e workers have, i t i s hoped, reached  th© e r a  of  t r e a t i n g each c h i l d as an I n d i v i d u a l j t o b© helped by  t h a t method which b e s t meets h i s needs. Changes i n th© s t r u c t u r e o f the C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y of  Vancouver, B.  the times. care.  C. r e f l e c t e d the changing p h i l o s o p h y o f  F i r s t , t h e r e was the emphasis on i n s t i t u t i o n a l  KText, cam© the s w i t c h t o a foster-home program.  Then, w i t h the f i r s t r e a l beginnings  o f p r e v e n t i v e work,  cam© th© s e p a r a t i o n o f the agency i n t o two departments: C h i l d P l a c i n g and Family Work.  And, most r e c e n t l y , i n  1954,  th©  i n c r e a s i n g a p p r e c i a t i o n of the need, t o t r e a t the  f a m i l y as a whole p l a y e d o f the agency from two  i t s p a r t i n the  reorganization  departments to f i v e d i s t r i c t u n i t s ,  i n which the same worker would work w i t h th©  child  and  h i s f a m i l y , b o t h b e f o r e and a f t e r placement. Changing Goals f o r F o s t e r  Children.  A l o n g w i t h s t r u c t u r a l changes have gone changes i n goals s e t f o r those c h i l d r e n who  have become wards o f the  C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y o f Vancouver, B. C. f o s t e r home care was  considered  an end  At  first,  in Itself.  Many  c h i l d r e n were p l a c e d and l e f t to grow up In homes t h a t c o u l d never become r e a l homes but would always remain "temporary homes" however l o n g the c h i l d r e n remained I t i s t r u e t h a t many o f these placements turned and  the f o s t e r parents  and  endured beyond the years  there.  out w e l l ,  c h i l d r e n formed t i e s which  o f placement.  However, t h e r e  were other c h i l d r e n , e q u a l l y i n need o f permanent homes, who  were l e s s fortunat© and remained as " v i s i t o r s " i n  t h e i r f o s t e r homes.  Often t h i s was  due  to f a i l u r e  c l a r i f y the t r u e s i t u a t i o n w i t h c h i l d r e n , n a t u r a l and f o s t e r p a r e n t s .  C h i l d r e n grew up w i t h  e x p e c t a t i o n t h a t they would be r e t u r n i n g t o (who,  parents,  the parents  i n r e a l i t y , were unable t o p l a n f o r them)5  were not helped  to  parents  t o c l a r i f y t h e i r r o l e s } f o s t e r parents  were l e f t too long i n the dark.  9 •Today a t the time a c h i l d comes i n t o care through 9  c o u r t a c t i o n , the agency's f i r s t o b j e c t i v e i s t o c a r r y out a thorough study of the t o t a l f a m i l y s i t u a t i o n , i n order t h a t the p l a n t o be made f o r the c h i l d w i l l a l l the f a c t s i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n . t h a t Jimmy i s a c h i l d who forever.  take  Such a study may  reveal  has l o s t h i s n a t u r a l f a m i l y  However, he Is a c h i l d who  had a good s t a r t i n  l i f e , and he i s young enough t o take on a new  family.  Por such a c h i l d j a d o p t i o n can be the g o a l . C a r o l , on the o t h e r hand, has a l s o l o s t her f a m i l y , b u t , perhaps, i t need not be f o r e v e r .  Given h e l p and  time  t o overcome u n f a v o r a b l e c i r c u m s t a n c e s , her p a r e n t s may  be  a b l e t o show the c o u r t t h a t they should be allowed t o t r y again.  In the meantime, C a r o l needs f o s t e r p a r e n t s  who  w i l l l o v e h e r , show u n d e r s t a n d i n g of h e r p a r e n t s , and be  ;  a b l e t o r e t u r n her t o them when the time comes. B i l l y has l o s t h i s f a m i l y , and, i n h i s c a s e , i t i s f o r good.  He has s u f f e r e d severe damage a l r e a d y , and may  be a completely "whole" person.  never  Even w i t h the h e l p of a  s k i l l e d caseworker, he cannot be expected t o change o v e r n i g h t , and h i s s l i g h t e s t improvement must be of as success..  thought  I t w i l l have t o be decided whether under-  s t a n d i n g f o s t e r p a r e n t s , o r a group s e t t i n g , ean best meet h i s c u r r e n t needs. As the circumstances are d i f f e r e n t f o r each so w i l l th© answer be d i f f e r e n t .  child,  Sometimes the emphasis  -  10  -  W i l l be on h e l p i n g the c h i l d , sometimes on h e l p i n g th© p a r e n t s , sometimes on h e l p i n g the f o s t e r p a r e n t s .  Th©  caseworker must always remain aware o f th© importance of the n a t u r a l parents and the f o s t e r parents t o the  child,  and the importance o f work w i t h both, as w e l l as w i t h  th©  child. The purpose of the present study i s t o assess  th©  i n f l u e n c e o f th© f a m i l y on c h i l d p r o t e c t i o n c a s e s , a t th© p o i n t o f apprehension,  and  Th© p l a n f o l l o w e d was  In l a t e r f o s t e r car©. t o examine each f a m i l y , as i t  e x i s t e d a t the time o f placement, i n an attempt to assess the s t r e n g t h s and weaknesses, and  to a r r i v e a t an  o f th© parents* c a p a c i t y f o r parenthood. attempt was  Next, an  made t o r e a c h an assessment o f the  adjustment, a t time o f apprehension,  estimate  child's  and, a g a i n , a f t e r  a p e r i o d of f o s t e r c a r e . The c h i l d r e n s e l e c t e d f o r study comprised  a l l children  b e i n g s u p e r v i s e d by caseworkers i n the West U n i t of the C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y of Vancouver, B. C. who,  on March  1 » 1 9 5 7 » had been i n th© care o f the S o c i e t y f o r a t l e a s t two y e a r s , and who  had been between the ages o f three  twelve a t the time o f p r e s e n t a t i o n In the Family (as c h i l d r e n I n need o f p r o t e c t i o n ) .  memories of circumstances  Court  T h i s ag© range  decided upon i n order t o s e l e c t c h i l d r e n who  and  was  would have  p r i o r t o placement, y e t ,  who  — 'XI — would not have e n t e r e d adolescence a t the time of placement. The,, t h i r t y * f our c h i l d r e n chosen were p a r t of a group of  two hundred and f i v e c h i l d r e n b e i n g s u p e r v i s e d by  caseworkers i n the West U n i t of tile Agency.  The  th©  remaining  c h i l d r e n i n c l u d e d non-wards, o r wards-who, because o f ag© at  time of admission, were excluded from th© As a f i r s t  m a t e r i a l was t i o n was  s t e p i n a n a l y s i n g the c a s e s ,  study. statistical  c o l l e c t e d a c c o r d i n g t o an o u t l i n e .  Informa-  obtained and compiled about each o f the f a m i l i e s ,  under th© f o l l o w i n g h e a d i n g s i  Birth-date, birth-place,  r a c i a l o r i g i n , m a r i t a l s t a t u s , r e l i g i o n , e d u c a t i o n , trad© or  o c c u p a t i o n , income^and p r e s e n t whereabouts,^ Next, c r i t e r i a f o r d e t e r m i n i n g c a p a c i t y f o r parenthood  were, drawn up and each parent was  given a r a t i n g —  f a i r , o r poor i n ©&oh of the f o l l o w i n g areas; s t a t u s , ©motional s t a t u s  t  good,  physical  marital relations, parent-child  r e l a t i o n s , l i v i n g s t a n d a r d s , and work  adjustment*  1  Th© t h i r t y - f o u r c h i l d r e n chosen f o r study w©r© assessed at  two p o i n t s ; a t the tim© of removal from t h e i r  f a m i l i e s , and,, a g a i n , a t a f i x e d d a t e , March 1,  own  1957»  when  they had a l l been i n car©: f o r a t l e a s t two y e a r s , and som© of was  them f o r consid©rably l o n g e r .  I n a d d i t i o n , a tabl©  drawn up showing the e x t e n t of th© c h i l d r e n ' s c o n t a c t  w i t h t h e i r f a m i l i e s f o l l o w i n g admission t o car©. F i n a l l y , an attempt was  mad© t o draw so^e c o n c l u s i o n s  as t o the e f f e c t of f a m i l y i n f l u e n c e s on th© degree o f 1.  See Appendix,  p.75.  -  12  -  each c h i l d ' s adjustment. A r e c e n t i s s u e o f C h i l d Welfare c a r r i e d an e n t i t l e d "The  Meaning of Parents  article  t o the P l a c e d C h i l d " . 1  Such t i t l e s are t y p i c a l o f the emphasis b e i n g p l a c e d , a t t h i s t i m e , on the importance of the f a m i l y t o the  child,  r e g a r d l e s s of whether or not he i s e t i l l l i v i n g as p a r t o f the f a m i l y group.  T h i s i d e a has become an  accepted  p a r t o f s o c i a l work t e a c h i n g , but, there i s s t i l l much t o be done, b e f o r e  i t becomes a r e a l i t y i n casework  practice.  The l a g i n p r a c t i c e i s i l l u s t r a t e d  March 1957  i s s u e of C h i l d Welfare.  i n the  Under the t i t l e  "A  S t a t e S t u d i e s I t s S e r v i c e s " , i n f o r m a t i o n i s presented from a survey years  c a r r i e d out i n M i s s o u r i o f c h i l d r e n twelve  o f age and under who  were In f o s t e r c a r e .  Among  the c o n c l u s i o n s reached were the f o l l o w i n g : "Sine© approximately o n e - f o u r t h of the workers and t h e i r s u p e r v i s o r s d i d not answer th© questions r e g a r d i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p between parents and c h i l d , i t was d i f f i c u l t t o e v a l u a t e t h i s . This would seem t o i n d i c a t e t h a t workers need t o be much more aware o f p a r e n t - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f c h i l d r e n p l a c e d i n f o s t e r care — as much as they are i n r e s p e c t t o the c h i l d who Is b e i n g g i v e n s e r v i c e In h i s own home. The progress which th© parent has mad© towards r e - e s t a b l i s h i n g the f a m i l y was one c r i t e r i o n of development f o r parenthood. In almost t h r e e f o u r t h s o f the s i t u a t i o n s , i t was found t h a t the parents had made some p r o g r e s s . However, th© d i s c o u r a g i n g aspect of these f i n d i n g s was t h a t more than h a l f of the workers and s u p e r v i s o r s f a i l e d t o answer t h i s q u e s t i o n . Th© r e p o r t i n d i c a t e d t h a t those workers and  1. P o l l o c k , Jeanne C., "The Meaning o f Parents t o the P l a c e d C h i l d , " C h i l d Welfare. A p r i l , 1957, C h i l d Welfare League o f America, Inc., New York, p. 8.  -  13 -  s u p e r v i s o r s who were concerned w i t h g i v i n g c o n s i s t e n t casework s e r v i c e t o parents o f p l a c e d c h i l d r e n had h e l p e d 74.1 p e r c e n t o f the parents make r e a l progress towards r e e s t a b l i s h i n g the home." 1  An a r t i c l e e n t i t l e d "New Horizons i n Adoption'  1  i l l u s t r a t e s another aspect o f the same problems "As agencies have turned t h e i r a t t e n t i o n t o o l d e r c h i l d r e n who may be a v a i l a b l e f o r a d o p t i o n t h e r e i s g r e a t e r awareness o f the severe d e p r i v a t i o n s which these c h i l d r e n have s u f f e r e d , which f o r some have been so damaging as t o p r e c l u d e the p r e s e n t p o s s i b i l i t y o f a d o p t i o n . At the same time I t has become apparent t h a t had adequate casework s e r v i c e been a v a i l a b l e t o the parents o f these c h i l d r e n when they f i r s t became dependent o r n e g l e c t e d , which f o r some was i n e a r l y I n f a n c y , many o f them might have been adopted a t t h a t time. I t i s t h i s r e a l i z a t i o n , which c a r r i e s w i t h i t so much g u i l t f o r a l l o f us t h a t has, more than a n y t h i n g , s t i m u l a t e d the p r e s e n t concern. P r e v e n t i v e e f f o r t s a r e now d i r e c t e d towards h e l p i n g parents r e a c h as e a r l y a d e c i s i o n as p o s s i b l e r e g a r d i n g a d o p t i v e placement o f the c h i l d r e n f o r whom they cannot or do n o t w i s h t o p r o v i d e . " 2  The purpose  o f the p r e s e n t study i s t o take a sample  group o f c h i l d r e n , who became wards o f the C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y o f Vancouver, B. C. between 1942 and 1954 and were s t i l l  i n c a r e o f th® s o c i e t y on March 1, 1957,  and t o examine t h e i r I n t e r - r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h t h e i r f a m i l i e s a t the time o f placement  and l a t e r .  There  proved  t o be t h i r t y - f o u r such c h i l d r e n .  Some o f the q u e s t i o n s  1. "A S t a t e S t u d i e s I t s S e r v i c e s , " C h i l d W e l f a r e . March 1957, C h i l d Welfare League o f America, I n c . , New York, p . 31. 2.  Krause, Mignon, "New Horizons i n Adoption.".  g h l l d i e l f a r e ^ ^ A n r l | ^ ^ 1957. C h i l d Welfare League o f  A l D 0 r l c a  »  -  14  f o r which answers w i l l be sought  are:  What s o r t of  parents do these c h i l d r e n have?  In what ways do  p a r e n t s resemble the parents of c h i l d r e n who  the  do not  become dependent, and i n what ways are they d i f f e r e n t ? Is i t p o s s i b l e hood?  t o estimate t h e i r c a p a c i t y f o r p a r e n t -  An attempt  w i l l a l s o be made t o examine the  c h i l d r e n , and the meaning o f t h e i r p a r e n t s t o them, but t h i s w i l l be l e f t t o the t h i r d c h a p t e r . T h i s study w i l l not attempt  to evaluate  th©  adequacy o f th© h e l p g i v e n t o the parents p r i o r t o removal o f the c h i l d r e n , or t o assess whether th© removal was  justified, •  CHAPTER I I The N e g l e c t f u l Parent  The T h i r t y - f o u r c h i l d r e n i n c l u d e d i n the study a r e a l i k e I n some ways; but have important d i f f e r e n c e s a l s o . They a r e a l i k e i n t h a t they were a l l removed from th© g u a r d i a n s h i p o f t h e i r parents by d e c i s i o n o f the Family Court o f Vancouver..  T h i s d e c i s i o n was made when the  C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y of Vancouver, B. C. p e t i t i o n e d the Court t o e s t a b l i s h the c h i l d ' s need f o r p r o t e c t i o n . . They d i f f e r In the reasons which caused the care o f the S o c i e t y ,  them t o com© i n t o  Some had a l r e a d y been p h y s i c a l l y  abandoned by t h e i r p a r e n t s , who had gone o f f l e a v i n g them I n p r i v a t e boarding-homes o r w i t h r e l a t i v e s ; o t h e r s had one remaining parent but had l o s t th© other one. I n some Cases, the c h i l d l o s t one of the parents by death; but t h i s t o the young c h i l d , may appear as the worst k i n d of abandonment.  In the m a j o r i t y o f c a s e s , there was an  a c t u a l or i m p l i e d acceptance  o f the need f o r placement  on the p a r t o f the remaining parent o r r e s p o n s i b l e relative.  F r e q u e n t l y , there must have been a r e a l i z a t i o n  on th© p a r t o f the c h i l d t h a t he was unwelcome.  Often  t h i s wish t o get r i d o f the c h i l d was based on r e a l i t y f a c t o r s i n the parent's o r r e l a t i v e ' s own l i f e  situation  (e.g. the d e s e r t i o n o f a mother l e a v i n g an unemployed. Inadequate f a t h e r unable t o care f o r f o u r s m a l l c h i l d r e n ) . At o t h e r times, p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r some of the o l d e r c h i l d r e n , i t was  due,  a c c e p t a b l e behavior.,  In p a r t , t o the c h i l d ' s  un-  There were only two cases i n which  c h i l d r e n were removed suddenly  from homes i n which they  had been l i v i n g t o g e t h e r w i t h b o t h p a r e n t s . Xtfhen a c h i l d i s b e i n g removed from h i s parent's care o r g u a r d i a n s h i p by c o u r t a c t i o n , there i n v a r i a b l y  exists  a s i t u a t i o n which has caused the community t o condemn the parent f o r h i s treatment  of the c h i l d . .  Sometimes  t h i s a t t i t u d e i s tempered i f . the cause o f the n e g l e c t can be seen, c l e a r l y , t o b© beyond the c o n t r o l o f the p a r e n t . F o r example, the parent who  Is o b v i o u s l y m e n t a l l y  ill  r e c e i v e s the p i t y r a t h e r than the condemnation o f the community.  However, t h i s i s not t r u e f o r the a l c o h o l i c  p a r e n t , or the parent who offence.  S t i l l l e s s i s i t t r u e f o r the inadequate  or the parent whose own energy  has committed a c r i m i n a l  problems l e a v e him  t o cope w i t h the needs of another  The  tendency  parent,  insufficient  individual.  a l l too o f t e n has been t o condemn the  "bad" parent and t o speak of " r e s c u i n g " h i s c h i l d . .  This  continues t o be the a t t i t u d e o f l a y members of the community towards n e g l e c t f u l p a r e n t s .  The good parent  f i n d s i t i m p o s s i b l e t o b e l i e v e t h a t any parent can l o v e  Ms  17  -  c h i l d , and, a t the same time, g i v e him inadequate  pare.  Y e t , H e n r i e t t a Gordon s a y s : " B a r r i n g gross mental i l l n e s s or o t h e r cond i t i o n s which make parents incompetent t o Judge e i t h e r the d e p r i v a t i o n o f the c h i l d r e n , or t h e i r own I n c a p a c i t y , when a d u l t s a r e unable t o enjoy the p l e a s u r e s o f parenthood or t o g i v e t h e i r c h i l d r e n a happy c h i l d h o o d , they s u f f e r as w e l l as t h e i r children*"-' 1  As was noted e a r l i e r  (chapter 1) condemnation was  a l s o the a t t i t u d e p r e v a l e n t among s o c i a l workers i n c h i l d - e a r i n g agencies i n the e a r l y y e a r s * a c t i o n s of c h i l d r e n which caused examine t h e i r t h i n k i n g .  I t was the  s o c i a l workers t o r e -  I f c h i l d r e n continued t o seek out  t h e i r bad p a r e n t s , t h e r e must be v a l u e s there t h a t c o u l d not be o v e r l o o k e d .  G r a d u a l l y , s o c i a l workers began t o  g i v e l i p s e r v i c e t o the p l a c e o f the n a t u r a l parent In the l i f e  o f the c h i l d a f t e r placement.  T h i s was most  l i k e l y t o occur i n the cases where the parent f o r c e d h i m s e l f upon the a t t e n t i o n o f the worker.  The p a r e n t , who  allowed h i m s e l f t o g e t l o s t , was seldom looked f o r u n l e s s he was needed f o r some purpose, such as s i g n i n g a d o p t i o n consents.  When these l o s t parents were found, they  sometimes s u r p r i s e d the worker.  F a r from h a v i n g f o r -  g o t t e n t h e i r c h i l d r e n , they were b i d i n g t h e i r time  until  they f e l t t h e i r s i t u a t i o n was s t r o n g enough f o r them t o r e t u r n and r e a p p l y f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n .  1.  Gordon, op. c i t . , p . 20,  In some  18  -  I n s t a n c e s , t h i s r e s u l t e d i n h e a r t break f o r f o s t e r parents and i n emotional t u r m o i l f o r c h i l d r e n , faced with divided l o y a l t i e s .  suddenly  In o t h e r c a s e s , i t  seemed c l e a r t h a t permanent p l a n s c o u l d have been c l a r i f i e d f a r e a r l i e r , and w i t h g r e a t e r hope of s u c c e s s , i f continued casework h e l p had been extended parents.  Speaking  of the importance  t o the  of t*ork w i t h parents  a f t e r placement E s t h e r Gliokman says: " U n t i l th© p a s t few y e a r s there has been v e r y l i t t l e meaningful c o n t a c t w i t h p a r e n t s by workers i n the c h i l d placement a g e n c i e s , and i n too many i n s t a n c e s l i t t l e o r no c o n t a c t of any k i n d even when the parents were a v a i l a b l e . A c t i v i t y w i t h parents was g e n e r a l l y omitted u n l e s s p r e c i p i t a t e d by the parents themselves. Then i t became a problem t o be d e a l t w i t h simply f o r purposes o f g e t t i n g i t d i s p o s e d o f , or a r o u t i n e matter t o be taken care of among the mechanical aspects o f the work, without dynamic c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f the parents thems e l v e s . The worker r e s e n t e d what h© regarded as an I n t r u s i o n of the p a r e n t s , e s p e c i a l l y i f the parents d i s t u r b e d the c h i l d and the f o s t e r family. I f the worker was not provoked by the p a r e n t s ' c o n t a c t , then he viewed i t e i t h e r w i t h t o l e r a n c e or i n d i f f e r e n c e . The p a r e n t s , i n t u r n , saw the worker as an enemy, whether th© placement was v o l u n t a r y or f o r c e d . When the parents d i d not seek c o n t a c t w i t h th© c h i l d , and hence not w i t h the agency, even \irhen such c o n t a c t was p o s s i b l e , the worker allowed the s i t u a t i o n t o d r i f t on the i n v a l i d assumptions t h a t the placement would be i n d e f i n i t e and t h a t the parents were e n t i r e l y u n i n t e r e s t e d i n th© e h i l d . I f a worker f e l t k i n d l y towards the p a r e n t s , the r e l a t i o n s h i p was s t i l l not put t o d e f i n i t e t h e r a p e u t i c use. A l t o g e t h e r , the worker seldom made e f f o r t s t o seek out and I n v o l v e the parents i n r e l a t i o n s h i p s f o r d i a g n o s t i c and.treatment purposes. I t has s i n c e been found t h a t a more p o s i t i v e and  s c i e n t i f i c approach t o parents has proved to he necessary not only f o r the maintenance o f a c o n s t r u c t i v e placement, but a l s o , i n i t s e l f , f o r the d i r e c t v a l u e t o the c h i l d i n placement and t o the p a r e n t s . " 1  T h i s involvement  o f parents as p a r t of the  p l a n , u t i l i z i n g t h e i r s t r e n g t h s and d i l u t i n g  treatment  their  weaknesses, as opposed t o the i d e a of c o n s i d e r i n g them as bad p a r e n t s , t o be punished by th© l o s s of t h e i r c h i l d r e n , i s not a new  idea.  I t i s t o be found i n th©  w r i t i n g s of b o t h p s y c h o l o g i s t s and s o c i a l workers, concerned w i t h the f i e l d  of d e l i n q u e n c y , as w e l l as  with c h i l d welfare, C a r l Rogers, f o r example, I n h i s book e n t i t l e d , "The  C l i n i c a l Treatment of th© Problem C h i l d " i n d e a l i n g  w i t h f a c t o r s f a v o r a b l e t o placement says t h a t the: " C h i l d may  accept placement i f h i s own  the need f o r I t , co-operate  parents r e c o g n i z e  i n making the p l a n , and g i v e  t h e i r a p p r o v a l t o the placement."  2  On the o t h e r hand,  Mr. Rogers s a y s , c o n d i t i o n s are u n f a v o r a b l e t o placement if  the: " C h i l d can admit no f a u l t i n h i s parents and wishes t o be w i t h them. Attempts t o persuade him t o the c o n t r a r y only make him more d e f e n s i v e as regards h i s p a r e n t s , and more a n t a g o n i s t i c t o the agency and community which has brought about the s e p a r a t i o n .... T h i s d i f f i c u l t y may be Increased by ... any c i r c u m stances which confirms h i s f e e l i n g t h a t the agency i s h o l d i n g him a g a i n s t h i s w i l l . " 3  1. Glickman, E s t h e r , C h i l d Plaoement Through C l i n i c a l l y O r i e n t e d Casework. Columbia U n i v e r s i t y Press,"New York, 1957, p.333. 2, Rogers, C a r l , The C l i n i c a l Treatment of the Problem C h i l d . Houghton M i f f l i n Company, Boston, 1939, 3.  Ibid,  p.92.  p.93.  In the American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, f o r .  .  .  .  .  .  ^  -  .  (  ... ^  A p r i l 1939, there appeared an a r t i c l e e n t i t l e d "A Comparative Study of the Adjustment made by Foster Children a f t e r Complete and P a r t i a l Breaks i n Continuity of Home Environment" which i s a graphic i l l u s t r a t i o n of the damage children can suffer when they are forced to make a clean break with t h e i r past. "The objective of t h i s study was suggested by observation of an apparent r e l a t i o n s h i p between behavior problems a r i s i n g i n the l i v e s of f o s t e r children under the custody of the Kansas Children's Home and Service League, and a p o l i c y with regard to techniques of placement which had been c o n t r o l l i n g the work of case workers i n t h i s agency since i t s organlzatloni ' ,  1  r  The a r t l e l e goes on to explain that the agency followed? "... a p o l i c y of breaking as completely as possible a l l continuity with a former home when f o r any reason a c h i l d was moved into a net* f o s t e r home. This p o l i c y was the outgrowth of a l o g i c a l assumption that the c h i l d would make adjustment and adaptation into the new home more completely, quickly and s a t i s f a c t o r i l y to th© f o s t e r parents (and even perhaps to himself) i n proportion as he was not remembering and pining f o r people, things and conditions i n h i s former horn© The f a l l a c y i n t h i s procedure began to beeom© apparent when those who studied the f i l e s and the d i f f i c u l t i e s of these foster children gradually became aware of the p o s s i b i l i t y of a r e l a t i o n s h i p between c e r t a i n kinds of behavior problems and these complete environmental breaks i n the l i v e s 1. Cowan, Edwina A., and Stout, Eva, "A- Comparative Study of the<4djustmeht made by Foster Children a f t e r Complete and P a r t i a l Breaks i n Continuity of Home Environment," American Journal of Orthopsychiatry. V o l . IX A p r i l , 1939i George Banta Publishing Company, Menasha, Wisconsin, p.330.  of c h i l d r e n . I t seemed t h a t b e h a v i o r problems a r i s i n g from the g e n e r a l ©motional s i t u a t i o n known as i n s e c u r i t y might be d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o th© occurrence o f a break i n environmental c o n t i n u i t y i n the lif© of a p r e - a d o l e s c e n t child." ... 1  Th© f i n d i n g s o f t h i s study wer© summarized  as  follottfs: "1. Case h i s t o r i e s o f a c h i l d placement agency were s t u d i e d t o determine whether there was any r e l a t i o n between the completeness and abruptness o f chang© between home environments and the development of h a b i t s I n d i c a t i n g ©motional I n s e c u r i t y i n c h i l d r e n undergoing t h i s change. 2, Th©r© was a r e l i a b l e d i f f e r e n c e i n f a v o r o f p a r t i a l breaks i n environmental c o n t i n u i t y as b e i n g l e s s l i k e l y to be f o l l o w e d by b e h a v i o r i n d i c a t i n g i n s e c u r i t y than are complete b r e a k s . 3. In some i n s t a n c e s t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of a complete break i n t o a p a r t i a l break t h r o u g h r e e.stablishmsnt o f c o n t a c t between a c h i l d i n a new environment and people o r c o n d i t i o n s i n \ former environment r e s u l t e d In th© disappearance of behavior i n d i c a t i n g I n s e c u r i t y . " 2  Dr. John Bowlby, the p h y s i c i a n , i n h i s book M a t e r n a l Care and Mental H e a l t h r e a f f i r m s these f i n d i n g s . H© says t h a t  children?  "... are not s l a t e s from which th© past can b© rubbed by a d u s t e r o r spong®, but human b e i n g s who c a r r y t h e i r p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e s w i t h them and whose b e h a v i o r i n th© p r e s e n t Is p r o f o u n d l y a f f e c t e d by what has gone befor©. I t confirms, t o o , the deap emotional s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the p a r e n t - c h i l d t i e which, though i t can be g r e a t l y d i s t o r t e d , Is n o t t o be expunged by mer© p h y s i c a l s e p a r a t i o n . F i n a l l y , i t c o n f i r m s th© knowledge that i t i s always e a s i e r f o r a human b e i n g t o adapt e f f e c t i v e l y t o something of which he has d i r e c t e x p e r i e n c e than t o somet h i n g which i s a b s t r a c t and imagined."*  1.  I b i d , p.331.  2.  I b i d , p.335.  3. Bowlby, John, M a t e r n a l Care and Mental H e a l t h . World H e a l t h O r g a n i z a t i o n , Monograph S e r i e s , Geneva,  1952, p.113.  22  -  Another l e a d e r i n the c h i l d w e l f a r e f i e l d ,  Jean  Charnley* puts i t t h i s ways "When c h i l d w e l f a r e workers have n o t only seen but genuinely understood the innumerable evidences t h a t c h i l d r e n want whatever p a r t of t h e i r parents the p a r e n t s ar© a b l e t o g i v e , and when they can accept t h i s p r i n c i p l e not as a h a n d i cap i n t h e i r work but as a s t r e n g t h , they w i l l b e g i n t o h e l p the c h i l d r e n as w e l l as the c h i l d r e n ' s p a r e n t s . T h i s i s hard f o r some C h i l d placement workers. Hot l o n g ago I heard someone ask a c h i l d placement worker what was the hardest p a r t o f h e r Job. Without h e s i t a t i o n she answered, "Coping w i t h the t i e c h i l d r e n have t o t h e i r parents) " As l o n g as s o e i a l workers f e e l they are "coping w i t h " the t i e , parents and c h i l d r e n w i l l sense i t and the workers w i l l have t r o u b l e " c o p i n g w i t h " t h e i r c a s e s . Once s o c i a l workers r e c o g n i z e the t i e f o r what i t i s a lifeline t o s e l f - r e s p e c t , good mental h e a l t h , and a sense of s e c u r i t y — t h e y ' l l n o u r i s h , t r e a s u r e , and respect i t . Th© c h i l d r e n w i l l sense i t . And th© p a r e n t s , so f u l l of g u i l t and sham© a t h a v i n g had t o aocept the l a b e l " f a i l u r e " because they have asked t h a t t h e i r c h i l d r e n be p l a c e d , w i l l sense i t t o o . The Inadequate mother w i l l f e e l , "This .social worker understands.. She t h i n k s i t ' s important t h a t I go r i g h t on b e i n g a mother t o Frank!©, even though I c a n ' t l i v e w i t h him now." Because someone t h i n k s she's v a l u a b l e , she a c q u i r e d v a l u e i n her own eyes; and she has taken the f i r s t s m a l l s t e p towards becoming a more adequate person perhaps, someday, even a f u l l - t i m e mother."* 1  In j u s t i c e t o a l l s o c i a l workers, i t should be p o i n t e d out t h a t much o f t h i s avoidance l a c k of knowledge of how  of p a r e n t s was  due t o a  t o h e l p them; and th© f e a r of  them a r o s e , i n other words, out of the worker's Ignorance  or i n e x p e r i e n c e .  Too few  s o c i a l workers knew  1. Charnley, Jean, Th© A r t o f C h i l d Placement. U n i v e r s i t y of Minnesota P r e s s , M i n n e a p o l i s , 1955, p . i l l .  23 how  -  t o work w i t h parents once they came i n c o n t a c t  w i t h them.  Parents who  have l o s t t h e i r c h i l d r e n have  s u f f e r e d s e v e r e l y , and are only too ready t o l a s h out at  others, i n t h e i r turn.  Some o f them, i t i s t r u e ,  are beyond h e l p , but f a r more can be reached ever dreamed o f o n l y a few years ago. o n l y s i n c e the growing understanding of  than  was  I t has been o f the dynamics  human b e h a v i o r that, s o c i a l workers have found i t  p o s s i b l e t o approach such parents i n a way r e a l l y h e l p them.  which could  With t h i s knowledge has come the  r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t n e g l e o t f u l parents are not d i f f e r e n t from parents known t o o t h e r s o c i a l  any agencies.  The d i f f e r e n c e i s r a t h e r one o f degree of s i c k n e s s . As E s t h e r Gliokman p o i n t s o u t : " A c t u a l l y t h e r e seems t o b© no d i s t i n c t i v e p s y c h o l o g i c a l mechanism o r s p e c i f i c c h a r a c t e r s t r u c t u r e i n parents of p l a c e d c h i l d r e n o r i n the c h i l d r e n themselves which i s not a l s o found In f a m i l i e s met i n o t h e r agency s e t t i n g s . The d i f f e r e n c e s which are p r e s e n t i n the f a m i l i e s who are seen i n placement agencies l i e f i r s t i n the q u a n t i t y o f the d i s t u r b a n c e and i n i t s l a c k o f compensations, and second., In the l o c a t i o n of th© pathology In th© parents' p e r s o n a l i t y or f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s , . l 1  She  goes on t o e l a b o r a t e t h i s s  "The f i r s t i n s t a n c e * q u a n t i t y , i s concerned w i t h the emotional economy, which c o n s i s t s of the number o f r e s o u r c e s i n the p e r s o n a l i t y and the e x t e n t o f the d i s t u r b a n c e s there,. These determine th® amount of emotional energy a v a i l a b l e f o r the job of g i v i n g i n the r o l e of p a r e n t , and a l s o h e l p t o determine  1..  Gllckraan, op. c i t . , p..23..  M  the i n t e g r a t i v e c a p a c i t y o f f a m i l y members as w e l l as how much s t r e s s can be borne b e f o r e the f a m i l y b a l a n c e w i l l be d e s t r o y e d . The emotional economy comprises t h e account o f how many o r how few, how r i c h o r meager are t h e p o s i t i v e s i n p r o p o r t i o n t o the, n e g a t i v e s i n b o t h o f t h e parents and In t h e child. Disturbances o f the same p s y c h o l o g i c a l n a t u r e can be seen i n parents who do manage t o r e a r t h e i r c h i l d r e n , but these d i s t u r b a n c e s are o f a m i l d e r degree, s i n c e b o t h emotional and f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s a r e more ample than are those o f parents who p l a c e d t h e i r c h i l d r e n . .. 8  In a d d i t i o n t o the nature o f the emotional economy, t h e r e i s the matter of the l o c a t i o n of the d i s t u r b a n c e In parents and c h i l d r e n ? t h i s too i s a determining f a c t o r i n causing placement. I t i s known t h a t emotional d e v i a t i o n s can e x i s t w i t h i n a f a m i l y without d e s t r o y i n g I t s o r g a n i c u n i t y , even though the u n i t y I s baaed on n e u r o t i c t i e s . The d i s t u r b a n c e can be so e n c a p s u l a t e d o r defended as n o t t o d i s r u p t t h e f a m i l y o r as t o Impair o n l y c e r t a i n r e l a t i o n s h i p s and n o t o t h e r s . A woman can be a b e t t e r mother than w i f e because o f the l o c a t i o n o f h e r e a r l y trauma; o r t h e parent can be an adequate m a r i t a l p a r t n e r w h i l e unable t o be an adequate parent, being able t o r e l a t e only i f given t o f i r s t by a s o l i c i t o u s spouse, a g a i n due t o e a r l y experiences i n o l d family i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s . The l o c a t i o n o f the d i s t u r b a n c e i n the s t r u c t u r e o f th© p e r s o n a l i t y and i n t h e s t r u c t u r e o f the c u r r e n t f a m i l y ' s i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s I s here more Important than the nature o f the d i s t u r b a n c e I t s e l f The e r r o r o f a s s e s s i n g a parent's c a p a c i t y on th© b a s i s o f the weakest p a r t o f h i s p e r s o n a l i t y i s avoided by making a comprehensive e v a l u a t i o n . So much f o r t h e o r y .  The purpose  o f the p r e s e n t  study I s t o take a l o o k a t p r a c t i c e which i n e v i t a b l y l a g s , t o some degree, behind t h e l a t e s t t h e o r i e s I n  1.  I b i d , pp.23-25  some areas, In others i t may lead the.way to new d i s coveries.  P r a c t i c e , as demonstrated i n t h i s  study,  covers a period of time extending from 19*2, when the f i r s t of the t h i r t y f o u r children was admitted to f o s t e r ?  home care, to 1954, when the, l a s t c h i l d was brought Into care. Home Background. In.order to gain some picture of the parents;of the children In the sample under study, c e r t a i n basic i n f o r mation was c o l l e c t e d about them using agency case records,. For presentation t h i s information has been grouped under three general headingst  c u l t u r a l .--• which includes such  things as ethnic background, r e l i g i o n , and educations economic —  which includes such things as occupation and  income; and family -.- which Includes such things as age, marital status, size of family, and degree of family unity.  The adequacy of a v a i l a b l e information was very  uneven —  a great deal a v a i l a b l e about some of these areas  and hardly any, about others. fits at the,date of ;  A l l information Is given  the.child fa.apprehension.  Cultural. i  An examination of the ethnic background of the parents revealed a considerable, degree of uniformity.  Twenty-nine  out of the t h i r t y - f o u r mothers and eighteen of the t h i r t y four fathers were known to be Canadian born.  In a d d i t i o n ,  four mothers and ten fathers were B r i t i s h born or of British origin.  As no information was  available about  three fathers, t h i s l e f t only four parents -- three fathers and on© mother —• known to be of other than (Table 1)  Canadian or B r i t i s h b i r t h . Table 1 ;  A Comparison of the Ethnic Background of th©  Parents.  Total Ethnic Background of Mother Ethnic Background B r i t - Other Canadian Born ' of ish Origin Father Born Canadian Born B r i t - Euro- UnPart (a) Ish pean known Indian Origin British • -• - 1 2 1 12 European 1 - , . , - • Unknown > 2 - • "' • •" 2 Part (a) Indian 2 . ...• .3 British Born 6 . ' .._ 2 , 1 .1 - ' *" 10 European 2 1. •* ** «•><*»• Born 3 Unknown . 3 . ; -. . . .• • *. -. Total -•'22 3 2 2 4 1 34 ;  (a) B r i t i s h or French and Church a f f i l i a t i o n was  Indian.  examined next,,  While th©  majority of the parents were l i s t e d as being Protestant, only sixteen mothers and ten fathers were shown as belonging to a s p e c i f i c Protestant d©homination.  There were only  seven f a m i l i e s where both parents were a f f i l i a t e d with a Protestant church.  Two fathers and one mother were l i s t e d  as being Roman Catholic,  (Table 2)  Table 2:  A Comparison o f the Church A f f i l i a t i o n  Mother's Church  Father's Church Affiliation  Affiliation  o f t h e Parents  Total  Roman Protestant Church Catholic No A f f i l i a t i o n Church Affiliation  Church Affiliation  7  2  No Church Affiliation  4  Roman C a t h o l i c  1  13 1  -  Religion Unknown  4  1  -  5  16  17  ,1  34  Total  Table 3 :  Father * s Education  Education Unknown Partial Grade School  10  mm  17 2  E d u c a t i o n a l Status o f P a r e n t s .  Mother's  Education  ComEducP a r t i a l plete Partial Grade High Grade ation Unknown School School School  10  2  3  7  3  Gomplet© Grade School  Total  22  3  1  3  4  1  3  1  1  2  3  12  34  Partial High School  1  1  Complete High School  -  -  14  5  Total  1  •  -  E d u c a t i o n proved was s c a n t y .  2 8  -  t o be an a r e a i n which I n f o r m a t i o n  Wo information.was  recorded about the edu-  c a t i o n o f f o u r t e e n mothers and twenty-two f a t h e r s . the remaining group, no mothers had completed w h i l e , only two f a t h e r s had gone t h i s f a r .  Of  high school,  (Table 3)  Economic. Other areas In which i n f o r m a t i o n was l a c k i n g were occupations and Incomes o f the p a r e n t s .  Of the twenty-  e i g h t f a t h e r s , o n l y one h e l d a "white c o l l a r " Job. Twenty-five f a t h e r s h e l d jobs r a n g i n g from u n s k i l l e d t o s e m i - s k i l l e d , w i t h a p o s s i b l e f i v e o r s i x out o f these whose occupations might be c o n s i d e r e d s k i l l e d . occupations l i s t e d were:  Typical  labourer, millworker, truck  d r i v e r , , l o g g e r , window-cleaner, welder, c a r p e n t e r , p a i n t e r , bakery worker, and fisherman*  The occupations o f - two •  f a t h e r s were unknown. E i g h t e e n mothers were n o t employed o u t s i d e t h e i r homes.  Among t h e occupations o f the others were: w a i t r e s s ,  cannery worker, laundry worker, d a n c i n g t e a c h e r , and stenographer.  The occupations o f two mothers were unknown.  I n s u f f i c i e n t i n f o r m a t i o n was a v a i l a b l e t o make any a c c u r a t e assessment r e g a r d i n g incomes.  I n d i c a t i o n s were  t h a t most o f the f a m i l i e s were l i v i n g on m a r g i n a l , o r below m a r g i n a l , income.  Family. Finally, th© structure of th© family groups was studied, beginning with th© age of th© parents at the time of their child's anprehension.  Twenty-nine of the  thirty-four mothers and sixteen of the thirty-four fathers were between th© ages of twenty and forty at that time. forty*  Two mothers and eight fathers were over  The ages of four fathers were unknown. Three  mothers and six fathers had died. Table 4;  A Comparison o f the Ages o f Parents»  Age of Father In Years 20-30 31-40 41-50  Total  Age of Mother Over 20-30 31-40 41-* 50 50 Years Years Years Years ' — *• ;5 6 3 4 '1  -  -  mm  Dead 2  -  -  -  1  1  -  1  •*  14  i  1  3  Over 50  1  1  Unknown Dead  2 4  2  15  Total  (Table 4)  -  5 11 5 3 4 6 34  An examination o f t h e m a r i t a l s t a t u s o f the parents showed t h a t the m a j o r i t y families.  o f th© c h i l d r e n came from broken  Only e i g h t o f the c h i l d r e n came from homes  where the parents were married and l i v i n g t o g e t h e r , and,  -  30  -  even here, two o f t h e f a t h e r s were a\my from home much o f t h e time clue t o the nature o f t h e i r work. o f e l e v e n c h i l d r e n were s e p a r a t e d . Broken by d e a t h —  Mine homes were  i n s i x t h e f a t h e r had d i e d , and, I n  three;, the mother. divorced.  Parents  P a r e n t s o f two c h i l d r e n had been  Parents o f f o u r c h i l d r e n had never been  m a r r i e d . ' (Table 5) Table fir P a r e n t a l Pattern-.Compared t o S i z e o f F a m i l y .  Total  P a r e n t a l P a t t e r n Number o f C h i l d r e n /in F a m i l y 1  V  3  4  M a r r i e d Couple Common-law  3 1  Divorced Separated Widow' Widower,  -  1  —  2  1  2 1  • —  2 3 2  „  2  -1  Unmarried Mother  -  Total  5  :  2  mm  2  %  34  mm  3  •  ii 4 2, •  i  9  5  or more ,  •  —  -  10  8 2 2 11 6 3  1 2 1  The s i z e o f the f a m i l y groups showed wide v a r i a t i o n . Nineteen o f the t h i r t y - f o u r c h i l d r e n cam© from  families  w i t h t h r e e o r four, c h i l d r e n , s i x c h i l d r e n came from f a m i l i e s w i t h f i v e or, more c h i l d r e n , f i v e were only c h i l d r e n , and th© r e m a i n i n g t h r e e came from f a m i l i e s w i t h two  children.  (Table 5)  -  31  -  In g a i n i n g i n s i g h t i n t o the degree o f f a m i l y u n i t y , I t i s t o he noted t h a t o n l y seven o f the c h i l d r e n cam© from homes where b o t h p a r e n t s were In th© home f u l l time. was  E l e v e n c h i l d r e n came from homes where the f a t h e r  absent, f o u r from homes where th© mother was  and on© c h i l d was  absent,  g o i n g from on© p a r e n t t o the o t h e r .  Of the remaining twelve c h i l d r e n e i g h t were l i v i n g w i t h r e l a t i v e s o t h e r than parents and f o u r had a l r e a d y been p l a c e d i n p r i v a t e b o a r d i n g homes. Table St  Parental Pattern  (Table 6)  Degree o f Family U n i t y '  Mother F a t h e r Family & & ChilUnit Children I n t a c t dren  Children Going between Parents  Both Parents T o t a l Gon©, C h i l d with in R e l a - P.B.H. tives (a)  Married Couple Commonlaw Divorced Separated Widow Widower  8  1...  -'  Unmarried Mother Total  7  .-  -  4 , .2 -  4 ,  .  1 -  -  2  -  10  4  , ''.  .  (a) P r i v a t e Boarding Home.  1 ..  1 -4 1  1 .* . 2  -  1  2 . 2 11 6 3  2 8  4  34  :  -  32  -  So f a r , an attempt has been made t o examine those t h i n g s about the f a m i l i e s which can most e a s i l y  be  measured.  an  The next p a r t of the chapter w i l l be  attempt t o examine those a s p e c t s o f f a m i l y l i f e  which  cannot, so r e a d i l y , be measured q u a n t i t a t i v e l y . Capacity  f o r Parenthood.  As a b a s i s f o r d e t e r m i n i n g the p a r e n t s ' parenthood, c r i t e r i a broad a r e a s :  were drawn up.  capacity f o r  These covered s i x  p h y s i c a l s t a t u s , emotional status,, m a r i t a l  relations, parent-child relations, l i v i n g work adjustment. each parent who  These c r i t e r i a was  standards,  and  were then a p p l i e d t o  r a t e d good, f a i r , or poor, i n each of  the s i x a r e a s , u s i n g I n d i c a t i o n s of the k i n d assembled i n Schedule A.  I t should be borne i n mind t h a t , w h i l e  the  areas have been t r e a t e d as though they were o f e q u a l value,  i n a c t u a l f a c t one  might be of more s i g n i f i c a n c e  than another i n measuring t o t a l adjustment. P h y s i c a l s t a t u s appears t o be  the area h a v i n g  the  l e a s t e f f e c t upon the c a p a c i t y of the parent f o r p a r e n t hood. and  Nineteen o f the f a t h e r s r a t e d good; f i v e ,  one,  poor.  fair;  S i m i l a r l y , f o r the mothers, twenty r a t e d  good; seven, f a i r ;  and  f o u r , poor.  Emotional s t a t u s f o l l o w e d  quite a d i f f e r e n t  pattern.  Hone of the f a t h e r s r a t e d good; seven r a t e d f a i r ; eighteen,  poor.  r a t e d f a i r ; and  One  of the mothers r a t e d good;  s i x t e e n , poor.  and  fourteen  -  33  -  M a r i t a l r e l a t i o n s f o r the twenty-two couples showed two  r a t e d good; f o u r r a t e d  9  f a i r ; and s i x t e e n r a t e d , poor.  P a r e n t - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s showed a d i f f e r e n c e between the f a t h e r s and mothers.  Of t w e n t y - f i v e  r a t e d good; seven,, f a i r ; and e i g h t e e n , one  f a t h e r s none  poor.  Of t h i r t y -  mothers, however, w h i l e only two r a t e d good; s i x t e e n  r a t e d f a i r ; and t h i r t e e n , poor. L i v i n g standards f o l l o w e d a s i m i l a r p a t t e r n f o r both parents.  Of the t w e n t y - f i v e  f a t h e r s , four rated  good; seven, f a i r ; and f o u r t e e n , poor. mothers, three r a t e d good; t e n , f a i r ;  Of the t h i r t y and seventeen,  poor. Work adjustment o f the f a t h e r f o l l o w e d pattern. six,  fair;  Of the t w e n t y - f i v e and s i x t e e n , p o o r .  a similar  f a t h e r s , three r a t e d good; I t was harder t o r a t e t h e  mothers as f o u r t e e n were n o t employed o u t s i d e homes and n o t h i n g  was known about one.  s i x t e e n , seven r a t e d good; f o u r , f a i r ;  their  Of th© r e m a i n i n g and f i v e , poor.  To sum up, out o f a t o t a l o f one hundred and f o r t y seven r a t i n g s o f adjustment f o r the f a t h e r s t h e r e were twenty-eight good, t h i r t y - s i x f a i r , and e i g h t y - t h r e e poor.  T h i s compared w i t h a t o t a l o f one hundred and  sixty-one  r a t i n g s o f adjustment f o r the mothers --  t h i r t y - f i v e good, f i f t y - f i v e (Tables 7 and 8)  f a i r , and seventy-one poor.  -  34  -  Table 7 : Degree o f P a r e n t a l C a p a c i t y o f Twenty-five F a t h e r s , (a)  Good  Status  2  Parent-child Relations Living  .5. •  :•  T o t a l Ratings  .  f  •  28  S i x f a t h e r s deael.  (b)  Three mothers dead*  1 , 18  .,  7  3  (k)  .  7 4  0 4  Standards  Work Adjustment  •  G  Marital Relations  Poor  Fair  19  P h y s i c a l Status Emotional  / Total  Ratings  Area o f Adjustment  6  35  16  25 22(b)  18  25  14  25  16  25  83  147  Three p u t a t i v e f a t h e r s unknown,  T a b l e . . . • De&ree o f P a r e n t a l C a p a c i t y o f T h i r t y - o n e Mothers. (a)  . Ratings  Area o f Adjustment  Physical-Status Emotional  Status  Marltal Relatlons Parent-child Relations Living  Standards  Work Adjustment  Good  Fair  Poor  20  4  1  7 14  16  31 31  2  4  16  22(b)  2 3  16 10  13 17  31 30(c)  5  16(d)  X  • 3f  Total (a)  Three mothers dead,  mation p r e s e n t circumstances  161  55  71  (b)  S i x f a t h e r s dead:.  i n f o r m a t i o n about t h r e e p u t a t i v e f a t h e r s ,  mothers n o t employed.  Total  Ho  (c) Ho i n f o r -  o f one mother,  l o i n f o r m a t i o n on one.  (d)  Fourteen  .  35  -  Before l e a v i n g the examination t h e r e Is one more p o i n t t o he noted.  o f the  families,  The o h i l d r e n  In the sample were not n e c e s s a r i l y the only c h i l d r e n from these f a m i l i e s i n th© care o f the C h i l d r e n ' s A i d Society,  The t h i r t y - f o u r c h i l d r e n s t u d i e d came from  t h i r t y f a m i l i e s w i t h a t o t a l of one hundred and childreni  Of t h i s t o t a l of one hundred and  eleven  eleven  c h i l d r e n , seventy-three had been apprehended by  the  C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y and a f u r t h e r t e n had been p l a c e d f o r a d o p t i o n , e i t h e r p r i v a t e l y , o r through th©  agency.  Thus s e v e n t y - f i v e per cent o f the c h i l d r e n i n the t h i r t y f a m i l i e s had l e f t t h e i r parents' c a r e , l e a v i n g only t w e n t y - f i v e p e r cent b e i n g cared f o r by  parents  or r e l a t i v e s .  children,  Of t h i s group o f twenty-eight  twelve were o l d e r c h i l d r e n a b l e t o be "on t h e i r  Own"  a t the time o f the breakdown o f the f a m i l y ; s i x were b e i n g c a r e d f o r by relatives-;, and o n l y t e n were w i t h p a r e n t s , or a p a r e n t .  ;  -  36  Schedule A. C r i t e r i a a p p l i e d t o P a r e n t ' s Degree o f C a p a c i t y f o r Parenthood. _ 1.  Physical Status.  Good  References made t o person's good h e a l t h . I l l n e s s e s mentioned*  Fair  Minor i l l n e s s e s or I n j u r i e s not i n t e r f e r i n g w i t h person's a b i l i t y t o l i v e a normal l i f e .  Poor  Acute or c h r o n i c i l l n e s s e s or severe I n j u r i e s s e r i o u s l y i n t e r f e r i n g w i t h person's a b i l i t y t o l i v e a normal l i f e .  g.  Wo  Emotional S t a t u s .  Good  Able t o c a r r y average degree of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r f a m i l y and f o r Job and t o ge^, a l o n g i n the community. Ho mention o f mental or emotional problems.  Fair  Can only assume above r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s w i t h difficulty. Mention o f minor e m o t i o n a l problems.  Poor  Completely unable t o c a r r y on i n one o r more o f above a r e a s . Mental or e m o t i o n a l i l l n e s s , e i t h e r diagnosed or worker's e s t i m a t e .  3.  Marital Relations.  Good  Parents show a f f e c t i o n and r e s p e c t f o r each o t h e r , even w i t h minor d i f f e r e n c e s of o p i n i o n .  Fair  P e r i o d s o f s e r i o u s disharmony or disharmony i n s e v e r a l major a r e a s .  Poor  Parents separated dr d i v o r c e d , o r , i f t o g e t h e r , e x h i b i t i n g s e r i o u s disharmony.  4. Good  Parent-child  Relations.  P a r e n t s show a f f e c t i o n f o r the c h i l d r e n , are concerned about them, g i v e them guidance, and s e t limits.  -  37  -  Fair  Parents g i v e a f f e c t i o n , but without s e t t i n g l i m i t s o r g i v i n g guidance, o r l i m i t t o o much.  Poor  Parents unable t o show concern o r a f f e c t i o n f o r c h i l d r e n ; o r show o v e r t r e j e c t i o n ; o r swing from show o f a f f e c t i o n t o o v e r t r e j e c t i o n and back.  5.  L i v i n g Standards.  Good  Housing and equipment were s u i t e d t o f a m i l y ' s needs, housekeeping standards adequate.  fair  Housing and equipment b a r e l y adequate, keeping standards b o r d e r l i n e .  Poor  Housing and equipment inadequate, housekeeping standards bad, slum a r e a .  6.  house-  Work Adjustment  Good  S t e a d i l y employed his a b i l i t y .  a t a Job commensurate w i t h  Fair.  Short p e r i o d s o f unemployment but a b l e t o ' support h i s f a m i l y the m a j o r i t y o f th© time, Seasonable employment b u t w i t h adequate s a v i n g s t o c a r r y on t o the next season.  Poor  Mo employment, o r f r e q u e n t l o s s o f Jobs f o l l o w e d by p e r i o d s o f d e s t i t u t i o n .  III  CHAPTER  E x p e r i e n c e s , i n Placement and F o s t e r Care. Th© importance  t o th© f o s t e r c h i l d o f a secure  f o u n d a t i o n upon which t o b u i l d c o n f i d e n c e i n th® f u t u r e Is often i n s u f f i c i e n t l y stressed. suggest  Edwina Cowan and Eva S t o u t  that5  " i t may be p o s s i b l e t h a t a c l e a r and unbroken t h r e a d of memory e x t e n d i n g from th© present i n t o e a r l y c h i l d h o o d and even v i c a r i o u s l y i n t o the e x p e r i e n c e s o f past g e n e r a t i o n s through remembered t a l e s o f the reminescenees of parents and grandparents may c o n s t i t u t e for, an a d u l t an important component of the complex emotional p a t t e r n c a r r i e d over from day to day and known i n i t s dependable e n t i r e t y as ©motional s e c u r i t y . Confidence has a two f o l d s o u r c e . One aay have c o n f i d e n c e i n one's own a b i l i t y t o meet a n y t h i n g w i t h which fat© may c o n f r o n t on© or one may have c o n f i d e n c e i n a k i n d l y world i n h a b i t e d by k i n d l y people who w i l l not subj e c t oh© t o too great d i f f i c u l t y . Normally on© would expect t o f i n d s e c u r i t y as the r e s u l t o f an admixtur© o f b o t h types of c o n f i d e n t e x p e c t a t i o n but the presence of e i t h e r type i n some degree may s u f f i c e t o produce s e c u r i t y , I n the absence of th© other. I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t environmental c o n t i n u i t y may be a dependable f a c t o r i n c r e a t i n g c o n f i d e n c e i n one's s u r r o u n d i n g s . 1  T h e ' t h i r t y - f o u r c h i l d r e n i n c l u d e d i n the study cam© Into f o s t e r car© a t d i f f e r e n t ages, from d i f f e r e n t k i n d s o f homes, i n d i f f e r e n t y e a r s . ©xperlence —  N e v e r t h e l e s s , they shared  they had a l l been through a c r i s i s  one  calculated  t o shake t h e i r c o n f i d e n c e "In a k i n d l y world I n h a b i t e d by k i n d l y people who ficulty."  w i l l not s u b j e c t one t o too g r e a t d i f -  t t i s t r u e t h a t the Community, i n the person o f  the C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y , had stepped i n t o r e s c u e them, but t o the c h i l d , whose own 1.  Cowan, op. c i t . , p.  s m a l l world had been s h a t t e r e d , 338.  the r e s c u e r must o f t e n have seemed a n y t h i n g but t h e h a r b i n g e r o f renewed c o n f i d e n c e . I n Chapter  I I , an attempt was made t o e v a l u a t e the  f a m i l i e s as they appeared a t the time o f the removal of the c h i l d r e n .  I t was seen t h a t many problems e x i s t e d and  t h a t In many Cases, th© f a m i l i e s had s t a r t e d t o d i s i n t e g r a t e l o n g b e f o r e the apprehension  o f the c h i l d r e n .  The purpose o f t h i s c h a p t e r i s t o take a l o o k a t t h e c h i l d r e n and t o examine them f i r s t a t the time o f removal from t h e i r f a m i l i e s and a g a i n a f t e r a p e r i o d o f f o s t e r home car©.,  Mho wore these c h i l d r e n ?  when they cam© Into c a r e ?  What were they  like  How f a r had t h e i r b a s i c needs •  been met by t h e i r f a m i l i e s ?  What-did t h e i r f a m i l i e s mean  t o them? The t h i r t y - f o u r c h i l d r e n i n the sample c o n s i s t e d o f e l e v e n g i r l s and twenty-three  boys.-  A t the time o f p l a c e -  ment n i n e .of the c h i l d r e n were between the ages o f t h r e e and f i v e y e a r s , f o u r t e e n were between s i x and ©Ight, and e l e v e n were between n i n e and e l e v e n .  (Table 9)  Table ffs' Comparison o f Age and Sex o f C h i l d r e n (at time o f placement)  Hale  Female 3-5  Years  '6-8  Years  9«!-ll Years Total  Total  Sex o f C h i l d  Age o f Child  -  3 5 ' 3 11  ' 6  9  '- 9  14  8  11  23  34  ;  -  40  -  As a b a s i s f o r d e t e r m i n i n g the c h i l d ' s degree of adjustment a t the time of placement, c r i t e r i a were drawn up.  These covered f i v e ' a r e a s :  physical status,  emotional s t a t u s , p a r e n t a l r e l a t i o n s ( a p p l i e d t o the f a t h e r and and  the mother), r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h s i b l i n g s ,  s c h o o l adjustment.  t o each c h i l d who  separately  was  These c r i t e r i a were than a p p l i e d r a t e d : good, f a i r , or poor, i n  each of the f i v e a r e a s , u s i n g i n d i c a t i o n s o f the assembled i n Schedule Table 10s  kind  B.  C h i l d ' a Decree of Adjustment (at time o f placement)  Ratings  Areas o f Adjustment  Total  Good  Fair  Poor  P h y s i c a l Status.. ..  25  ,2.  Emotional  12  :•. 7 13  Status  Parental Relations Father . Mother  6  14 19  Relationship with Siblings  17  11  School Adjustment  11  T o t a l Ratings  74  3  (a) S i x f a t h e r s were dead. about three p u t a t i v e f a t h e r s , (c) F i v e c h i l d r e n had, no under s c h o o l  age..  9 73 T;h©re was  ,  34 34  9 « .8 •.  25(a)  6  31(b)  1  29(c)  .5 •  25(d)  31 no  178; information  (b) Three mothers were dead,  siblings;  (d) Win® c h i l d r e n were  -  The  41  -  p h y s i c a l s t a t u s of''the' c h i l d r e n was  satisfactory  i n most c a s e s : w i t h t w e n t y - f i v e rated- as good, seven as f a i r , ' a n d two'as poor. The  r a t i n g s f o r emotional s t a t u s were b e t t e r  than  those of the p a r e n t s : twelve r a t e d as good, t h i r t e e n f a i r , and  as  n i n e as poor.  P a r e n t a l r e l a t i o n s were poor.  In t h e i r r e l a t i o n s  i f i t h t h e i r f a t h e r s , t h r e e c h i l d r e n were r a t e d as goodj . fourteen  were r a t e d as f a i r ? and  e i g h t , as poor.  Th©  c h i l d r e n ' s r e l a t i o n s w i t h t h e i r mothers were somewhat b e t t e r : s i x r a t e d good; n i n e t e e n , f a i r ? and Relationships  s i x , poor.  w i t h s i b l i n g s seemed f a i r l y  Satis-  f a c t o r y ; seventeen were r a t e d as good? e l e v e n , aa and  one,  fair;  as poor.  In the area of s c h o o l adjustment, the c h i l d r e n of school f a i r ; and  age  twenty-fiv©  were r a t e d as: e l e v e n , good; n i n e ,  f i v e , poor.  To sum  up,  :  out o f a t o t a l o f one  hundred and  seventy*  e i g h t r a t i n g s f o r the c h i l d r e n i n a l l areas of adjustment, s e v e n t y - f o u r were good; s e v e n t y - t h r e e , f a i r s ono,  and  thlrty-  poor. These f i g u r e s would seem t o I n d i c a t e , e i t h e r  the adjustment o f the c h i l d r e n was  somewhat b e t t e r  that than  t h a t o f t h e i r p a r e n t s , o r , a t l e a s t , t h a t t h i s appeared t o be the c a s e , judging from the i n f o r m a t i o n  available  In th© r e c o r d s .  In some i n s t a n c e s , e s p e c i a l l y i n th©  e a r l i e r placements, i n f o r m a t i o n was f a r from adequate, and Judgments had t o be based on an absence o f ©vidence o f severe problems, r a t h e r than on any assurances o f good adjustment,. The C h i l d A f t e r a P e r i o d o f F o s t e r Care. The next p a r t o f th© c h a p t e r w i l l c o n s i s t o f an examination o f the same group o f c h i l d r e n a f t e r they had been In ear© f o r a p e r i o d o f a t l e a s t two y e a r s .  The  date ohosen f o r the assessment was March 1, 1957.  As a  p r e l i m i n a r y s t e p , the caseworkers c a r r y i n g the c h i l d r e n wer© asked t o complete a form g i v i n g i n f o r m a t i o n about the c h i l d r e n such a s : present age group, type o f placement, s p e c i a l problems,, f a m i l y c o n t a c t s i n c e admission t o c a r e , and plans f o r the f u t u r e , ^  T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n was  supplemented by r e a d i n g cas© records,, and by the w r i t e r ' s own knowledge  as s u p e r v i s o r of West U n i t .  Since each c h i l d had been i n care a d i f f e r e n t  length  o f tiffi© on Maroh 1,. 1957,, and s i n c e the c h i l d r e n ' s ages v a r i e d greatly,, i t was d i f f i c u l t t o e s t a b l i s h a uniform b a s i s f o r comparison,,  Although each c h i l d has been  t r e a t e d as i f , h e wer© from a s e p a r a t e f a m i l y , f o r th© purposes o f t h i s study,, there were f o u r p a i r s o f r e l a t e d children:  two s e t s o f tnal© t w i n s , a p a i r o f b r o t h e r s and  a p a i r o f sisters.,.  Only the p a i r o f b r o t h e r s remained  t o g e t h e r throughout t h e i r time I n c a r e . ,1.  See Appendix, p.76.  The o t h e r  s i b l i n g s w©re p l a c e d b o t h t o g e t h e r and s e p a r a t e l y a t d i f f e r e n t times. Th© f i r s t  t h i n g t o be examined, a t t h i s p o i n t ,  was  the l e n g t h o f time the c h i l d had been i n care as compared to  h i s age.  From th© f o l l o w i n g t a b l e i t w i l l be noted  t h a t the c h i l d r e n seem t o be d i v i d e d i n t o two groups  —  those i n car© under f i v e y e a r s , and those i n car© more than t h a t tim©.  In the f i r s t  group, ©ight of th® t e n  c h i l d r e n wer© s t i l l under twelve.  In the second  group,  however, n i n e t e e n o f the twenty-four c h i l d r e n wer© over sixteen.  (Table 11)  Table l i s Comparison of Length o f Time i n F o s t e r Care to  Present Age of C h i l d . (as  Ag© of C h i l d  a t March 1 ,  Length of Time i n Car© Under 5 Years  6-8  Years  9-11  Years  1957)  5-10 Years  3 5  -  Total  Over 10 Years  -  -  3 5  12-15  Years  2  5  7  16-20  Years  -  -  12  7  19  10  17  7  34  Total  Next, an examination was type o f placement.  I t was  made of the c h i l d ' s c u r r e n t  found t h a t h a l f o f th©  44 c h i l d r e n were I n f o s t e r homes.  Two c h i l d r e n who were  at home w i t h parents were s t i l l I n c l u d e d i n the study, as t h e i r r e t u r n home was only temporary and t h e agency was s t i l l r e t a i n i n g g u a r d i a n s h i p d u r i n g th© t r i a l p e r i o d . Nine o f the o l d e r c h i l d r e n were, as might he expected, e i t h e r i n commercial b o a r d i n g homes o r "on t h e i r own". Three c h i l d r e n o f l i m i t e d i n t e l l i g e n c e were i n S t . C h r i s t o p h e r ' s S c h o o l , on© g i r l was I n t h e G i r l s ' I n d u s t r i a l S c h o o l , and one boy was i n the Boys* R e c e i v i n g Home.  (Table 12)  Table 12:  Distribution of Children —  According t o  Type o f Placement on March 1. 1957.  Type o f Placement  Number o f C h i l d r e n  18  F o s t e r Horn© Boys* R e c e i v i n g Home  1  Commercial Boarding Horn©  4  On own — S e l f - s u p p o r t i n g  5  S t . Christopher*©  School  G i r l s ' I n d u s t r i a l School  1  Home w i t h Parents  2  Total  34  F o l l o w i n g t h i s , a c l o s e r l o o k was taken a t t h e c h i l d r e n I n f o s t e r homes, t o see how permanent  were  -  45  t h e i r present s i t u a t i o n s .  -  Of the e i g h t e e n c h i l d r e n i n  f o s t e r homes, f i v e had been i n t h e i r present homes l e s s than one y e a r ; s i x had been i n t h e i r present homes one t o t h r e e y e a r s ; f o u r had been i n t h e i r p r e s e n t homes over f i v e y e a r s .  Two o f the c h i l d r e n i n the one t o t h r e e  y e a r group were o l d e r c h i l d r e n who had moved t o th© homes of married c h i l d r e n o f t h e i r p r e v i o u s f o s t e r p a r e n t s . (Table 13) Table 13;  Length o f Time i n Present F o s t e r Home Compared t o Length o f Time i n Care on. March 1.  Years i n Car©  Years  In Present F o s t e r Horn©  1-3  3-5  Under Year  Years  Years  1957.  Total  Over 5 Years  2-3  Years  -  1  -  -  1  3-4  Years  -  3  1  . -  4  4 - 5 Years  1  mm  2  -  3  5-6  Years  1  -  1  7-8  Years  -  1  . -  8-9  Years  2  -  Over 9 Years  1  Total  5  2 1  2  -  • -  2  1  -  2  4  6  4  3  18  Th© next a r e a examined was the extent o f the c h i l d ' s c o n t a c t w i t h h i s f a m i l y a f t e r placement.  No attempt \me  -  46  -  made to d i f f e r e n t i a t e between the kinds of contact such as v i s i t s , l e t t e r s , telephone c a l l s e t c .  I t was noted  that the greatest amount of contact was with other s i b l i n g s In care.  With a very few exceptions l i t t l e or  no mention was made of any contact with r e l a t i v e s outside the immediate family group,  (Table 14)  Table 14; Extent of Child's Contact with Family (following admission t o care)  Family Contact  Total  Extent of Contact Frequent Infrequent None Reported  Father  6  8  14  28(a)  Mother  7  12  11  30(b)  Siblings i n Care  11  10  1  22(e)  Siblings at Home  5  7  4  16(d)  Other Relatives  1  9  24  (a) Six fathers were dead,  34  (b) Four mothers were  dead,  (c) Twelve children did not have s i b l i n g s i n  care,  (d) Eighteen children d i d not have s i b l i n g s at  . home, F i n a l l y , an attempt was made t o determine the child's degree of adjustment as of March 1, 1957. As a basis f o r  -  4?  -  determining t h i s ^ c r i t e r i a were drawn up. eight areass  These covered  physical status, emotional status, school  adjustment, work adjustment, r e l a t i o n s h i p to f o s t e r parents, r e l a t i o n s h i p to natural parents, r e l a t i o n s h i p with s i b l i n g s , and child's understanding of why he i s i n care.  These c r i t e r i a wer© then applied to each c h i l d  who was rated good, f a i r , or poor, i n each of the areas * using Indications of the kind assembled .in Schedule Table 15: , ••  C.  Child's Degree of Adjustment. (as at March 1, 1957)  Good Physical Status Emotional Status School Adjustment Work Adjustment Relationship with Foster Parents Relationship with Natural Parents Relationship with Siblings Understanding of Being i n Car© Total Ratings  Total  Ratings  Area of Adjustment  30  Fair  5 9 3  3 18 10, 4  5  Poor 1  34  3 5  34 22(a) 12(b)  13  5  23(c)  5  21  8  34  4  19  6  29(d)  3  22  7  32(e)  64  no  11  ;  46  220  (a) Twelve children had l e f t school, (b) Twenty-two children were s t i l l at school, (c) Eleven children had no f o s t e r parents — four were i n I n s t i t u t i o n s ; f i v e , on t h e i r own; and two were with parents, (d) Five children had no S i b l i n g s , (©) Two children had returned to parents on a temporary basis..  48 Here a g a i n ,  -  i t w i l l be noted t h a t the r a t i n g s f o r  p h y s i c a l s t a t u s vrere the most s a t i s f a c t o r y w i t h t h i r t y c h i l d r e n r a t e d as good; t h r e e , as f a i r ; and  o n l y one,  as  poor. Emotional s t a t u s was  much lower than the  previous  assessment w i t h only f i v e c h i l d r e n r a t e d as good; eighteen  r a t e d as f a i r ; and  e l e v e n , as poor.  School adjustment f o r the twenty-two c h i l d r e n of  i s c h o o l age  showed t h a t they were f a i r l y  n i n e c h i l d r e n r a t e d as good, and  evenly  divided;  ten children rated  as  f a i r , w i t h t h r e e r a t e d as p o o r . Work adjustment was  less satisfactory.  Of the  c h i l d r e n i n t h i s c a t e g o r y , t h r e e r a t e d , good; f o u r , and  twelve fair;  f i v e , poor. R e l a t i o n s h i p t o f o s t e r p a r e n t s f o r the  c h i l d r e n t o whom t h i s category a p p l i e d homes, commercial b o a r d i n g homes, and  twenty-three  (those  i n foster  the Boys' R e c e i v i n g  Home) showed f i v e c h i l d r e n r a t e d , good; t h i r t e e n , f a i r ; and  f i v e , poor. R e l a t i o n s h i p t o n a t u r a l p a r e n t s showed f i v e c h i l d r e n  r a t e d as good; twenty-one r a t e d as f a i r ;  and  eight rated,  poor. R e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h s i b l i n g s showed a s i m i l a r p a t t e r n w i t h f o u r c h i l d r e n r a t e d good; nineteen,, f a i r ; poor.  and  six,  i n the f i n a l  category  o f b e i n g i n care —  the c h i l d ' s u n d e r s t a n d i n g  t h e r e were only t h r e e c h i l d r e n r a t e d  as good, twenty-two c h i l d r e n were r a t e d as f a i r , seven c h i l d r e n were r a t e d as To sum  up,  r a t i n g s f o r th©  out  poor.  of a t o t a l o f two  hundred and  twenty  c h i l d r e n , I n . a l l areas o f adjustment,  s i x t y - f o u r were good; one forty-six,  and  hundred and  ten, f a i r ;  and  poor.  Ratings as A p p l i e d  to Individual  Children,  So f a r , the r a t i n g s have been a p p l i e d c h i l d r e n i n a group.  What meaning do  are a p p l i e d t o i n d i v i d u a l An examination o f the  to  the  they have when they  children? I n d i v i d u a l r a t i n g s of  the  c h i l d r e n at the time of t h e i r placements showed t h a t o f the  c h i l d r e n had  In b o t h cases t h i s c h i l d r e n had f a i r , and  received a r e a was  received  poor.  r a t i n g s i n only good.  E i g h t o f the t h i r t y - f o u r  A l l the o t h e r c h i l d r e n r e c e i v e d areass  f a i r and  poor.  poor, o r good and  High r a t i n g s and  a com-  e i t h e r good and  the highest  fair,  ratings p o s s i b l e , being  marked good i n a l l areas a p p l i c a b l e .  parent).  good,  low r a t i n g s were next* examined.  Three c h i l d r e n r e c e i v e d  whom was  area.  r a t i n g s i n a l l t h r e e areas —  b i n a t i o n of r a t i n g s i n two  from s i x f o r one  one  two  c h i l d t o f i v e f o r two  below s c h o o l age, Next came on©  and  (The number v a r i e d c h i l d r e n , one  the other had  lost  of  on©  c h i l d whose t o t a l score o f s i x  was  -  50  -  mad© up o f f i v e r a t i n g s o f good; and on©, f a i r .  Two  o t h e r c h i l d r e n , whose t o t a l score was f i v e , r a t e d  four  good and one f a i r . At the other extreme, one c h i l d r e c e i v e d o f poor and two o f good, w h i l e f o u r c h i l d r e n  four  ratings  received  t h r e e r a t i n g s o f poor. An examination o f the r a t i n g s o f the i n d i v i d u a l c h i l d r e n a t the time o f th© second assessment showed t h a t one  c h i l d had r e c e i v e d  r a t i n g s i n only  e l e v e n o f the c h i l d r e n had r e c e i v e d  one a r e a —  good;  r a t i n g s i n a l l three  areas —  good, f a i r , and poor; and two c h i l d r e n had  received  r a t i n g s i n j u s t the areas o f good and poor. A l l  o t h e r c h i l d r e n had r e c e i v e d  r a t i n g s o f good and f a i r , o r  f a i r and poor. The  t h r e e c h i l d r e n r a t e d the highest  had r a t i n g s o f  s i x good and one f a i r out o f a p o s s i b l e seven* c h i l d r e n w i t h the next h i g h e s t  The two  r a t i n g s were those w i t h  r a t i n g s o f f o u r good, two f a i r , and one poor out o f seven; and  f o u r good and two f a i r out o f s i x . At the o p p o s i t e extreme came two c h i l d r e n w i t h r a t i n g s  of s i x poor and one good out o f a p o s s i b l e  seven.  Next,  cam© on© c h i l d w i t h a r a t i n g o f f i v e poor, one good, and one  fair.  The next lowest were two c h i l d r e n w i t h r a t i n g s  o f f o u r poor, on© good, and on© f a i r .  - • 51  »  R a t i n g s ta.ke on g r e a t e r meaning when they can be translated into actual situations.  Looking a t a group  of eases, I t i s hard t o s e l e c t those which seem " t y p i c a l " . However, the f o l l o w i n g examples have been chosen as i l l u s t r a t i v e of some o f the v a r i a t i o n s i n degree o f adjustment  found among the c h i l d r e n j as shown by the  assessments:  a t time o f placement, and on March 1,  John camei i n t o f o s t e r care when he was  eleven.  two 1957. Th©  i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e would seem t o i n d i c a t e t h a t , a t the time^ h i s adjustment  c o u l d be r a t e d as good i n the areas  o f p h y s i c a l s t a t u s , emotional s t a t u s , and  relationship  w i t h s i b l i n g s } f a i r i n the a r e a of p a r e n t a l r e l a t i o n s , a s r e l a t e d t o h i s mother; and poor i n the a r e a o f s c h o o l adjustment*  Ho r a t i n g was  given f o r parental r e l a t i o n s  a s a p p l i e d to h i s f a t h e r , as the l a t t e r was John was  dead.  the seventh c h i l d i n a f a m i l y of e i g h t .  f a t h e r , w h i l e he was  His  a l i v e , managed t o keep th© f a m i l y  together, i n s p i t e of h i s wife's a l c o h o l i c tendencies; and f a m i l y t i e s were s a i d t o be s t r o n g .  A f t e r the f a t h e r ' s  death, th© mother r e c e i v e d Mothers' Allowance  f o r about  t h r e e y e a r s ; then began s t a y i n g away from home f o r l o n g e r and l o n g e r p e r i o d s of time. kept t h i n g s g o i n g . a year.  For awhile, older c h i l d r e n  Next, a married s i s t e r took John f o r  When she c o u l d not keep him any l o n g e r , even w i t h  f i n a n c i a l h e l p , because o f her own  growing f a m i l y , she  requested the C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y t o take g u a r d i a n s h i p .  -  52  -  At the time o f admission t o c a r e , John's g e n e r a l h e a l t h was good. nourished.  He was s m a l l f o r h i s age b u t w e l l -  He was d e s c r i b e d as p o s s e s s i n g a n a t u r a l ,  pleasing personality. and he expressed  R e l a t i o n s w i t h s i b l i n g s were good  i n t e r e s t i n being placed with a brother,  who was a l r e a d y In c a r e , I f t h i s c o u l d be arranged. School adjustment  was r a t e d as poor, as he had missed a  l o t o f s c h o o l due t o t r u a n c y . Three weeks a f t e r coming i n t o c a r e , John \ms p l a c e d w i t h f o s t e r p a r e n t s , who had two sons, and who took a keen i n t e r e s t i n the boys' a c t i v i t i e s .  A t the time o f  the second assessment, John, now n i n e t e e n , x*as s t i l l i n t h i s home.  A t t h i s time he was r a t e d good i n a l l areas  except one. He was r a t e d as only f a i r In t h e a r e a of r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h s i b l i n g s , as he seemed t o have only moderate i n t e r e s t i n them. I n the i n t e r v e n i n g y e a r s , John had become an I n t e g r a l p a r t o f the f o s t e r f a m i l y and appeared  t o have I d e n t i f i e d  completely w i t h t h e i r standards and g o a l s . continued good, h i s emotional adjustment  His h e a l t h  average (as  Judged by a Youth C o u n s e l l i n g S e r v i c e T e s t ) , and, up t o the time he l e f t s c h o o l , h i s work was c o n s i d e r e d good f o r h i s a b i l i t y , and he was p o p u l a r w i t h h i s c l a s s m a t e s .  After  l e a v i n g s c h o o l , he obtained steady employment and became f i n a n c i a l l y independent.  A f t e r the f i r s t  tevt  months i n  c a r e , John seemed t o l o s e touch w i t h h i s f a m i l y . P o r  -  53  * .  some time, he used the f o s t e r f a m i l y ' s name.. when he xoas e i g h t e e n ,  However,  John had a v i s i t w i t h some o f h i s  f a m i l y , and a f t e r t h i s he began t o us© h i s own name a g a i n , s a y i n g t h a t he f e l t h i s f a t h e r would have l i k e d him  t o do s o . T h i s p i c t u r e i s n o t e n t i r e l y f r e e from  aspects.  I f anything,  w i l l i n g t o please.  negative  John i s t o o c o - o p e r a t i v e and  A l s o , the presence o f a l l e r g i e s , which  erupt from time t o time, may I n d i c a t e some u n d e r l y i n g tension.  On the other hand, John has become a s e n s i b l e ,  hard-working, dependable boy who manages h i s money w e l l and who seems t o have ©very hop© o f becoming a worth-while citizen, Joan was t e n when she came i n t o c a r e .  From t h e  I n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e , h e r adjustment a t t h a t time c o u l d be r a t e d as good i n the areas o f p h y s i c a l s t a t u s , emotional s t a t u s , p a r e n t a l r e l a t i o n s (as r e l a t e d t o h e r mother), and s c h o o l adjustment. r e l a t i o n s h i p with s i b l i n g s . was no r a t i n g made In t h i s  She was r a t e d f a i r i n  As her f a t h e r was dead, t h e r e area,  Joan was the youngest o f three c h i l d r e n .  Her f a t h e r  d i e d the y e a r she was born, and her mother managed t o b r i n g up the three c h i l d r e n , w i t h the h e l p o f S o c i a l Assistance.  In 194-9, the f a m i l y was r e f e r r e d t o th©  C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y , as the mother was showing symptoms of schizophrenia  w i t h paranoid  tendencies*,.  The o l d e r boys,  -  54  -  who were p r e s e n t i n g b e h a v i o r problems, i n 1950,  xirere apprehended  Joan, a model c h i l d , remained w i t h h e r mother  u n t i l 1951,  A t t h a t time, her mother brought h e r t o  the o f f i c e s a y i n g t h a t she f e l t unable t o c a r r y on. was  apprehended.  Joan  Her mother was examined b y a  p s y c h i a t r i s t and committed t o the P r o v i n c i a l Mental Hospital. When Joan was admitted  t o c a r e , she was d e s c r i b e d  as a f r i e n d l y , i n t e l l i g e n t c h i l d who r e l a t e d e a s i l y t o adults.  The worker sensed t h a t she had deep f e e l i n g s ,  p a r t i c u l a r l y about h e r f a m i l y , and i t was c o n s i d e r e d  that  Joan was a b l e t o f a c e th© r e a l i t y of h e r s i t u a t i o n .  Sh©  had a p p a r e n t l y been i n the h a b i t o f a c c e p t i n g a cons i d e r a b l e degree o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r h e r mother.  Sh©  showed a good d e a l o f concern as t o whether h e r mother was  b e i n g cared f o r , whether she was l o n e l y , and whether  she i*as w e l l t r e a t e d . Joan's s c h o o l r e p o r t e d her t o be a model p u p i l , , s o c i a l l y w e l l a d j u s t e d , and w i t h an I.  Q. o f 120.  Since coming i n t o f o s t e r c a r e , Joan has had f o u r placements. May  She has been I n h e r present f o s t e r home sine©  1952, w i t h th© e x c e p t i o n o f one y e a r when the f o s t e r  parents  were away,  Joan c o u l d have gone w i t h them, b u t ,  i n s t e a d , chos© t o stay i n Vancouver so t h a t she c o u l d v i s i t h e r mother.  . -  55  -  At. the time o f t h e second assessment., Joan was r a t e d as good i n a l l a r e a s ;  She c o u l d be d e s c r i b e d as a b r i g h t ,  a t t r a c t i v e , a d o l e s c e n t making f a i r l y s a t i s f a c t o r y p r o g r e s s i n grade 1 1 , h a v i n g l o t s o f f r i e n d s , and d i s p l a y i n g th© , occasional burst of adolescent r e b e l l i o n .  For a long  time, s h © looked forward t o t h e day when she would become s e l f - s u p p o r t i n g as t h e time when she "would take h e r mother out o f the mental h o s p i t a l t o car© f o r h e r . " G r a d u a l l y j she has come t o r e a l i z e t h a t t h i s d e s i r e w a s unrealistic.  The change i n a t t i t u d e has come about,  p a r t l y due t o the h e l p g i v e n h e r by th© d o c t o r s a t th© h o s p i t a l i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g h e r mother's c o n d i t i o n j p a r t l y du© t o t h e a c t u a l experience o f spending time w i t h h©r mother, when the l a t t e r was out f o r a v i s i t , a t th© home of  Joan's married b r o t h e r .  helped t o arrange v i s i t s  Joan's f o s t e r p a r e n t s have  w i t h her mother and have  encouraged  c o n t a c t w i t h her b r o t h e r s . Joan's adjustment rated f a i r .  t o her f o s t e r parents has only been  T h i s r a t i n g was based upon a remark mad© by  Joan's f o s t e r mother t h a t she d i d n o t t h i n k t h a t sh© and hor husband would ever mean a g r e a t d e a l t o Joan -- th© emotional d i s t a n c e between them was c l e a r c u t and always present.  A t times the f o s t e r mother has spoken o f h e r .  disappointment  a t Joan f o r n o t h a v i n g chosen f r i e n d s o f  the same c l a s s as t h © f o s t e r p a r e n t s .  Nov;, a t seventeen,  Joan Is l o o k i n g forward t o t h e day when she w i l l have a Job and be a b l e t o move i n t o an apartment w i t h o t h e r girls.  T h i s appears  t o be a h e a l t h y s i g n o f growth  towards m a t u r i t y and independence, Barbara, a l s o , came i n t o f o s t e r care when she was t e n , but the p i c t u r e i s v e r y d i f f e r e n t .  At the time o f  admission* t h e i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e would seem t o i n d i c a t e t h a t her adjustment  c o u l d be r a t e d as good i n the.areas o f  p h y s i c a l s t a t u s , and r e l a t i o n s h i p t o s i b l i n g s , and p o o r i n a l l other ;||reas.  At the time o f the second  assessment,  s i x years l a t e r , she was r a t e d good i n only one a r e a  —  h e a l t h s t a t u s ; f a i r i n th© area o f r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h s i b l i n g s ; and poor i n the areas o f emotional s t a t u s , s c h o o l adjustment,  r e l a t i o n s h i p t o n a t u r a l p a r e n t s , and  c h i l d ' s understanding o f why he i s i n c a r e ,  No r a t i n g was  g i v e n i n the a r e a o f r e l a t i o n s h i p t o f o s t e r p a r e n t s , as Barbara had none a t the time, b e i n g i n the G i r l s '  Industrial  School. Barbara was the s i x t h c h i l d i n a f a m i l y o f seven. When h e r parents s e p a r a t e d , h e r mother took f o u r o f the c h i l d r e n t o another p r o v i n c e , p l a c e d them with and d i s a p p e a r e d .  relatives,  They were r e t u r n e d t o t h e i r f a t h e r i n  Vancouver, and, subsequently, s i x o f the c h i l d r e n were apprehended.  -  57  *  At the time of admission, Barbara's h e a l t h  was  s a t i s f a c t o r y , b u t her b e h a v i o r suggested extreme deprivation.  She was ©neurotic, h y p e r - a c t i v e , had temper-  tantrums, and was daze.  o f t e n found wandering the s t r e e t i n a  A neighbour s a i d i t was  to her.  '•'-'>  i m p o s s i b l e to get " c l o s e "  She had been b a d l y beaten by her f a t h e r .  At th©  same time, she was d e s c r i b e d as t a l k a t i v e , outgoing, f r i e n d l y , w i t h a dry sense of humour, demonstrative, and affectionate.  Subsequent  examinations a t the C h i l d  Guidance C l i n i c r e v e a l e d her t o be an anxious c h i l d j showing emotional d i s t u r b a n c e i n the a r e a of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , Sh© was  c o n s i d e r e d t o be d i s p l a y i n g her a n x i e t y i n a c t i n g  out a g g r e s s i o n .  Play therapy s e s s i o n s were recommended t o  h e l p h e r work out her h o s t i l i t i e s but these c o u l d n o t be arranged,  _  By the time of Barbara's second assessment, s i x y e a r s a f t e r admission, she was  i n the G i r l s ' I n d u s t r i a l S c h o o l  f o r th© second time and was  I l l e g i t i m a t e l y pregnant,  Th©  p e r i o d i n between had been a s o r r y h i s t o r y o f moves from f o s t e r home t o f o s t e r home, attempts t o h e l p her by placement  In the G i r l s ' R e c e i v i n g Home, and by  w i t h a married s i s t e r .  placement  The only person w i t h much meaning  t o her seemed t o be one of her b r o t h e r s .  In spit© o f  every e f f o r t t o h e l p her on the p a r t o f the worker, Barbara had n o t h i n g but h o s t i l i t y f o r her and the agency,  Barbara  seemed t o l a c k any  58  -  sense of identification„ and her need  t o h u r t h e r s e l f , by b r i n g i n g upon h e r s e l f the r e j e c t i o n of o t h e r s , holds out l i t t l e hope f o r the f u t u r e . . Mary was Society.  The  s i x when she cam© i n t o the care of the i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e would seem' t o i n d i c a t e  t h a t she c o u l d be r a t e d good In the areas of p h y s i c a l s t a t u s , and s c h o o l adjustment, ©motional adjustment,  and f a i r i n the areas of  and p a r e n t a l r e l a t i o n s .  She had  no  siblings. Mary was  the only c h i l d  of a l c o h o l i c parents.  Sh©  had e x p e r i e n c e d many f i g h t s between her p a r e n t s , and, a t the time o f her apprehension*  she r e f u s e d t o go w i t h the  workers u n t i l assured t h a t someone would keep an eye on her mother f o r f e a r her f a t h e r would r e t u r n and She d e s c r i b e d how  fflistreat  her.  she l a y awake a t n i g h t s l i s t e n i n g t o  arguments and f i g h t s between her parents u n t i l 3 A. M. when they would f a l l a s l e e p .  Since her admission t o c a r e , Mary  has had two placements.  The f i r s t ,  months, was was  which l a s t e d  planned as a temporary placement u n t i l more  known o f the f a m i l y p r o g n o s i s .  In the second  home, Mary has made a f a i r l y good adjustment. has shown complete i n a b i l i t y she seems t o shut o f f her own politeness.  seven  foster  However, she  t o share her b e l o n g i n g s , and p r i v a t e world by a door of  When Mary d i d not see her parents f o r some  time, she became so anxious t h a t the worker had them by a d v e r t i s i n g .  to l o c a t e  S i n c e then, her parents have  -  59 -  s e p a r a t e d , and h e r f a t h e r has disappeared from th© p i c t u r e . Her mother, who has had two p e r i o d s i n Crease C l i n i c , has ceased t o d r i n k .  She i s , however, diagnosed as an i n -  adequate p e r s o n a l i t y , and she seems unable t o h o l d a j o b , or  t o take any steps t h a t would make i t p o s s i b l e t o have  Mary w i t h h e r . w i t h her mother.  Mary becomes extremely upset a f t e r  In a r e c e n t p s y c h i a t r i c c o n s u l t a t i o n , i t  was suggested that Mary i s unable t o f a c e t h e f a c t she  visits  that  d o e s n o t want t o b© w i t h h e r mother, i n s t e a d she has  to blame the agency f o r r e f u s i n g t o l e t h e r go.  In school,  Mary i s making good p r o g r e s s , i s f o u r t h i n h e r c l a s s , and i s working t o c a p a c i t y .  Sh© i s d e s c r i b e d as w i l l i n g t o  h e l p i n any way asked, t o be making f r i e n d s , and g e t t i n g along n i c e l y . Mary's f o s t e r p a r e n t s have been d i s a p p o i n t e d i n h e r aloofness.  Each year the f o s t e r mother speaks o f a s k i n g  t o have her moved, only t o put i t o f f f o r enother y e a r as the  time draws n e a r .  Although a g r e e i n g t o v i s i t s w i t h th©  mother, f o s t e r mother f i n d s them most t h r e a t e n i n g as Mary, upon h e r r e t u r n t o t h e f o s t e r home, takes out h e r d l s * appointment upon the f o s t e r mother. At  the time o f t h e second assessment, when Mary had  been i n care f o r throe y e a r s , she was r a t e d as good i n th© areas o f p h y s i c a l s t a t u s and s c h o o l adjustment; and f a i r i n th©  areas o f ©motional adjustment, r e l a t i o n s h i p t o f o s t e r  p a r e n t s , r e l a t i o n s h i p t o n a t u r a l p a r e n t s , and c h i l d ' s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f why he i s %n c a r e ,  -  60  -  SCHEDULE B. C r i t e r i a . Applied. to...Child *.a Degy©e of Adjustment. (at time o f placement) j..  Physical Status.  Good  References made t o c h i l d * s good h e a l t h * Ho h e a l t h problems other than u s u a l i n f e c t i o u s d i s e a s e s .  ffiair  Minor h e a l t h problems. weight or underweight* can be c o r r e c t e d *  Poor  Acute or c h r o n i c i l l n e s s e s .  Moderate degree o f overP h y s i c a l d e f e c t s which Severe m a l n u t r i t i o n .  2, , -3Smotlona.l.,Status., Good  C h i l d malting s a t i s f a c t o r y progress a t home and i n the community. Ho b e h a v i o r problems.  Fair  C h i l d d e s c r i b e d as too q u i e t or as showing some a g g r e s s i v e b e h a v i o r . Minor b e h a v i o r problems.  Poor  3.  - ; C h i l d d i s p l a y i n g sever© b e h a v i o r ' d i f f i c u l t i e s or committing a c t s o f d e l i n q u e n c y . Extreme w i t h drawal or extreme a g g r e s s i o n , P a r e n t a l R e l a t i o n s Applied- S e p a r a t e l y t o (a) F a t h e r (b) Mother, , . . . •.  foqc|  C h i l d a c c e p t s and g i v e s a f f e c t i o n . Identifies w i t h parent and accepts p a r e n t a l s t a n d a r d s .  Fair  C h i l d withdraws*/from parent or becomes overdemanding and a t t e n t i o n - s e e k i n g . Shows o v e r a n x i e t y when separated: from p a r e n t ,  Poor  4  f  .  C h i l d demonstrates h o s t i l i t y and r e j e c t i o n o f parent without s e e k i n g a parent s u b s t i t u t e * C h i l d renounces a d u l t a f f e c t i o n and a p p r o v a l . Becomes s e r i o u s l y withdrawn...  .. R e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h . S i b l i n g s .  Good  C h i l d r e n show a f f e c t i o n w i t h minor d i f f e r e n c e s of ©pinion,  Fair  Some s i b l i n g r i v a l r y . harmony ,  n  Poor.  P e r i o d s of s e r i o u s d i s -  Children quarrel continually. siblings.  Ho. c o n t a c t between  -  School. Adjustment,,. Good  61  «  .  C h i l d p r o g r e s s i n g s a t i s f a c t o r i l y i n accordance  with, h i s academic ••ability,, good.  Fair  S o c i a l .adjustment'  C h i l d ' s academic progress r e t a r d e d by minor  difficulties.  Some behavior problems.  O c c a s i o n a l truancy,.  Poor  C h i l d ' s progress f a r below h i s academic  S o c i a l adjustment poor.  ability.  Habitual truancy.  -  6 2  -  SCHEDULE C. •Criteria  A p p l i e d t o C h i l d ' s degree of Adjustment, m  ( f o l l o w i n g tvfo y e a r s o r l o n g e r I n f o s t e r 1.  car©)  Physical Status.  Good  References made t o c h i l d ' s good h e a l t h confirmed by examinations by agency d o c t o r . N o . h e a l t h problem o t h e r than u s u a l i n f e c t i o u s d i s e a s e s .  Fair  Minor h e a l t h problems. Moderate degree o f overweight or underweight. P h y s i c a l d e f e c t s which can be c o r r e c t e d .  Poor  Acute o r c h r o n i c I l l n e s s e s .  2.  Severe m a l n u t r i t i o n .  Emotional S t a t u s .  Good  C h i l d making s a t i s f a c t o r y progress i n the f o s t e r home and i n t h e community. Good sense o f p e r s o n a l worth. Capable o f forming meaningful r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Ho b e h a v i o r d i f f i c u l t i e s mentioned.  Fair  C h i l d l a c k s an adequate sens© o f p e r s o n a l worth but i s s t i l l a b l e t o form some meaningful r e l a t i o n s h i p s . D e s c r i b e d as t o o q u i e t o r showing a g g r e s s i v e b e h a v i o r . Minor b e h a v i o r problems.  1  Poor  3..  C h i l d completely l a c k i n g i n a sense o f p e r s o n a l worth. Severe b e h a v i o r d i f f i c u l t i e s and/or d e l i n q u e n t conduct.. Extreme withdrawal o r extreme a g g r e s s i o n . Unable t o form meaningful . relationships. School Adjustment.  Good  C h i l d p r o g r e s s i n g s a t i s f a c t o r i l y i n accordance w i t h h i s academic a b i l i t y . S o c i a l adjustment good.  Fair.  C h i l d ' s academic p r o g r e s s r e t a r d e d by minor difficulties. Some b e h a v i o r problems. Occasional truancy.  Poor  C h i l d ' s p r o g r e s s f a r below h i s academic a b i l i t y S o c i a l adjustment poor. H a b i t u a l t r u a n c y .  63 4.  -  Work Adjustment.  Good  C h i l d s t e a d i l y employed a t a job commensurate w i t h his a b i l i t y . Taking a p p r o p r i a t e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r h i s own support.  Fair  C h i l d has p e r i o d s o f steady employment but changes Jobs q u i t e f r e q u e n t l y . Hot p e r f o r m i n g up to M s a b i l i t y . Has d i f f i c u l t y a c c e p t i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r h i s own support.  Poor ~~  C h i l d unable t o h o l d a job and making l i t t l e attempt t o f i n d new employment. Spends e a r n i n g s f o r s e l f - g r a t i f i c a t i o n ^ without regard t o s e l f maintenance.  g.  Relationship to Foster Parents.  Good  C h i l d accepts f o s t e r parents as p e r t - p a r e n t s u b s t i t u t e s . Gives and r e c e i v e s a f f e c t i o n and i d e n t i f i e s with f o s t e r parents' standards.  Fair  C h i l d accepts f o s t e r parents only p a r t i a l l y and r e t a i n s unhealthy t i e s w i t h n a t u r a l p a r e n t s . Conforms t o demands o f f o s t e r parents and maintains a superficially friendly relationship.  Poor  C h i l d i s unable t o t o l e r a t e any c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h parent s u b s t i t u t e s . D i s p l a y s h o s t i l i t y and r e j e c t i o n ' t h u s provoking frequent requests f o r r e placement. Over-demanding o r extremely withdrawn.  6.  Relationship to Natural Parents.  Good  C h i l d accepts parents on a r e a l i t y b a s i s , n e i t h e r over g l o r i f y i n g them nor h a t i n g them. Can i d e n t i f y w i t h p a r e n t a l s t r e n g t h s and accept and r e t u r n a f f e c t i o n where such i s p o s s i b l e .  Fair  C h i l d has some d i f f i c u l t y i n a c c e p t i n g parents I n a b i l i t y t o care f o r him and e i t h e r keeps hoping, u n r e a l i s t i c a l l y , f o r p a r e n t a l promises t o m a t e r i a l i s e , o r , has l o s t hope, but has t r o u b l e forming s u b s t i t u t e r e l a t i o n s h i p s .  Poor  C h i l d shows complete r e j e c t i o n of parents t o the degree t h a t i t i n t e r f e r e s w i t h h i s acceptance o f h i s own ©elf-worth and a b i l i t y t o form t i e s i v i t h o t h e r s . C h i l d h e l d i n n e u r o t i c t i e t o parent making i t i m p o s s i b l e f o r him t o form new t i e s .  64 7.  Relationship  -  with S i b l i n g s .  Good  .Child shows a f f e c t i o n w i t h minor d i f f e r e n c e s 'opinion.  Fair  Moderate i n t e r e s t . harmony .  Poor  Children quarrel continually. No c o n t a c t between s i b l i n g s . Extreme r e j e c t i o n or antagonism shown t o s i b l i n g s .  P e r i o d s of s e r i o u s  8. • .Child's.Understanding of Why  he  of  dis-  i s i n Care.  Good  C h i l d has s o l v e d h i s c o n f l i c t s over s e p a r a t i o n from p a r e n t s , has c l a r i f i e d h i s i d e n t i t y , and has a d j u s t e d r e l a t i v e l y w e l l .  Fair  C h i l d conforms lying hostility crisis. Lacks i d e n t i t y . May ability.  Poor  C h i l d c l i n g s to a phantasy p i c t u r e of h i s family. R e j e c t s f o s t e r p a r e n t s , workers, agency and/or i s extremely demanding.  i n most areas w i t h some underwhich may appear a t times of any c l e a r u n d e r s t a n d i n g of h i s s t r i v e t o achieve beyond h i s own and  CHAPTER The  IV  S o c i a l Worker and the Neglected  Child.  In the past f i f t y y e a r s s o c i a l workers * unders t a n d i n g o f the needs o f c h i l d r e n has grown i n d e p t h and clarity. Is  The knowledge t h a t has been gained, however,  s t i l l only the b e g i n n i n g o f t r u e u n d e r s t a n d i n g .  In  the words o f John Bowlby: "The growth of an i n d i v i d u a l proceeds by d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n 'from l a r g e d i f f u s e unfocused responses t o g o a l determined, l i m i t e d , p r e c i s e and consequently e f f i c i e n t modes o f response'. In h i s s e a r c h f o r c l e a r e r understanding and jnore p r e c i s e l y adapted a c t i o n , the s c i e n t i s t proceeds s i m i l a r l y , moving from the p e r c e p t i o n of c e r t a i n g e n e r a l and gross r e l a t i o n s h i p s t o a f i n e r and f i n e r a p p r e c i a t i o n o f the nature o f the f o r c e s a t work and of t h e i r i n f l u e n c e on each o t h e r . In th© f i e l d of mental h e a l t h and i t s r e l a t i o n t o p a r e n t a l care i n v e s t i g a t o r s have so f a r done no more than p e r c e i v e the gross r e l a t i o n s h i p s . I t i s f o r workers In the coming h a l f - c e n t u r y to r e f i n e p e r c e p t i o n s , t o e l u c i d a t e comp l e x i t i e s , and t o g i v e the power t o prevent mental i l l n e s s . " * Reference has a l r e a d y been made to the e a r l y days o f c h i l d w e l f a r e when the s o c i a l worker f e l t her job  was  don© when she had p r o v i d e d f o r the p h y s i c a l needs of child.  Today, the s o c i a l worker's goals are p l a c e d f a r  beyond t h i s p o i n t . emotional  1.  th©  She has  seen t h a t , u n l e s s a c h i l d ' s  and. p s y c h o l o g i c a l needs can be met,  Bowlby, op. c i t . ,  p.63.  he i s unable  -  - 6 6  t o u t i l i z e th© advantages p l a c e d a t h i s d i s p o s a l . thee© needs can be met,  and what they a r e ,  requires further c l a r i f i c a t i o n . the c h i l d who  cannot adjust? not everyone can under-  d i f f e r e n t ; so may  brother.  still  Everyone can r e c o g n i z e  stand the r e a s o n f o r h i s f a i l u r e .  different.  How  But each c h i l d  Is  the cause o f h i s f a i l u r e t o a d j u s t be  What works f o r on© c h i l d may  f a i l with his  Only by r e v i e w i n g the f a c t s of each c a s e ,  c o n s t a n t l y , by examining and success and  t e s t i n g the reasons  f o r each  f a i l u r e , can progress be made.  The present study was  designed  o f the f o s t e r c h i l d ' s world —  to e x p l o r e on©  area  that of h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p  (or l a c k o f I t ) w i t h h i s n a t u r a l f a m i l y —  and t o examine  some of the e f f e c t s of t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p on h i s adjustment i n foster care. t h i s was and  E x p l o r a t i o n o f the s u b j e c t r e v e a l e d t h a t  an a r e a of concern t o many c h i l d w e l f a r e workers,  one which seemed t o m e r i t more a t t e n t i o n than i t had  r e c e i v e d i n the p a s t .  While the problems had been c l e a r l y  s t a t e d , methods f o r r e s o l v i n g the c o n f l i c t which f r e q u e n t l y arose between p a r e n t s , f o s t e r p a r e n t s , and  children  had  not been c l e a r l y s e t f o r t h u n t i l r e c e n t l y .  I t was  Esther  Gliokman, i n her book, C h i l d Placement Through C l i n i c a l l y O r i e n t e d Casework« who subject f u l l y ;  was  the f i r s t author t o d i s c u s s the  and t o s e t f o r t h concrete suggestions f o r  d e a l i n g w i t h the problems i n v o l v e d .  The p r e s e n t study was designed t o examine the family r e l a t i o n s h i p s of t h i r t y - f o u r c h i l d r e n of v a r y i n g ages, a l l wards o f the C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y , i n an endeavour t o determine  how t h e i r adjustment  i n foster  care might have been a f f e c t e d by f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s . As a b a s i s f o r the study, the f a m i l y s i t u a t i o n o f th© c h i l d a t the time o f h i s removal was examined and an attempt  made t o assess t h e strength© and weaknesses i n  the f a m i l y group*  In a d d i t i o n , c e r t a i n c r i t e r i a were  drawn up on t h e b a s i s o f which t h e p a r e n t s ' c a p a c i t y f o r parenthood  was a s s e s s e d .  How f a r can the f i n d i n g s o f  t h i s examination be drawn t o g e t h e r ? The m a j o r i t y o f parents were born i n Canada o f B r i t i s h O r i g i n s w h i l e predominately P r o t e s t a n t , approxi-* mately  o n e - h a l f the mothers and t w o - t h i r d s o f the f a t h e r s  were n o t l i s t e d as h a v i n g any church a f f i l i a t i o n .  Th©  p a r e n t s ' e d u c a t i o n a l background was l i m i t e d and t h e I n f o r m a t i o n about i t o f t e n inadequate.  The m a j o r i t y o f  f a t h e r s were employed a t u n s k i l l e d o r s e m i - s k i l l e d o c c u p a t i o n s ; whil© one-half o f the mothers were n o t employed o u t s i d e t h e i r homes.  Information concerning  income was l i m i t e d and income l e v e l s appeared  low. Th©  m a j o r i t y o f parents were between twenty and f o r t y , w i t h the mothers somewhat younger than the f a t h e r s . home —  broken by death, d e s e r t i o n , o r by  Th© broken  out-of-town  employment -- seemed a major cause o f th© c h i l d becoming  -  68  -  i n need of p r o t e c t i o n ; poor p h y s i c a l h e a l t h was  not  a  c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r ; poor emotional h e a l t h , however, as demonstrated i n poor m a r i t a l r e l a t i o n s , poor p a r e n t - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s , and poor work adjustment* seemed o f major s i g n i f i c a n c e as the cause o f f a m i l y d i s i n t e g r a t i o n . Of the c h i l d r e n who time o f placement, and  were s t u d i e d :  then  f i r s t at the  (at a f i x e d d a t e , March 1,  \*hen every o h i l d had been i n c a r e f o r a t l e a s t two the f o l l o w i n g background can be i n d i c a t e d .  Th©  1957)  years,  children  wer© a l l between the ages of t h r e e and e l e v e n when admitted, but had be©n i n oar© v a r y i n g l e n g t h s o f time  by  March 1957. There were e l e v e n g i r l s and twenty-three group; t h e i r ages ranged of placement.  boys i n th©  from t h r e e t o e l e v e n a t the  time  By March 1957• seven c h i l d r e n had been i n  f o s t e r care over t e n y e a r s , seventeen i n car© between flv© and  c h i l d r e n had  b©©n  t e n y e a r s , and t e n c h i l d r e n  been i n oar© under f i v e y e a r s .  had  E i g h t e e n c h i l d r e n wer©  b e i n g cared f o r i n f o s t e r homes, one was  i n the Boys'  R e c e i v i n g Home, two were w i t h parents t e m p o r a r i l y , f o u r were i n commercial b o a r d i n g homesj f i v e s e l f - s u p p o r t i n g , t h r e e i n S t . C h r i s t o p h e r ' s and I n d u s t r i a l School.  one  i n the G i r l s ' •  Of the e i g h t e e n c h i l d r e n i n f o s t e r  homes, seven had been i n the same home over t h r e e y e a r s . Two  more of the e i g h t e e n had moved t o the homes of  -  69  -  n a t u r a l c h i l d r e n of t h e i r f o s t e r parents.  The c h i l d r e n ' s  c o n t a c t w i t h t h e i r f a m i l i e s v a r i e d g r e a t l y from  "frequent",  t o none a t a l l . R a t i n g of Adjustment. A comparison of the two assessments to determine degree of adjustment s h o w e d , f i r s t , t h a t h e a l t h was g e n e r a l l y good. emotional  At the time o f the f i r s t assessment,  s t a t u s , r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h s i b l i n g s , and  adjustment ( f o r those a t t e n d i n g ) was for  the m a j o r i t y o f the c h i l d r e n .  school  r a t e d good or  fair  Relationship with  p a r e n t s , p a r t i c u l a r l y f a t h e r s , showed few r a t e d as good and, many as poor, the m a j o r i t y r a t e d as only At th©  time of the second assessment  r a t i n g s f o r approximately  fair.  (March 1957)  th©  t w o - t h i r d s of the c h i l d r e n wer©  " f a i r " , w i t h the l a r g e s t number o f poor r a t i n g s f o r emotional adjustment and r e l a t i o n s h i p t o n a t u r a l p a r e n t s . School adjustment r a t e d h i g h f o r th© twenty-two a t t e n d i n g . Three c h i l d r e n were r a t e d good i n the a r e a of of reasons  understanding  f o r b e i n g in^car©, as compared t o twenty-two  r a t e d f a i r and  seven,  poor.  To e v a l u a t e these f i n d i n g s , i t i s neoessary c o n s i d e r t h e i r degree of v a l i d i t y .  Since the  to  criteria  used i n t h i s study are only t e n t a t i v e and have not been s u b j e c t t o t e s t i n g , the r e s u l t s can only be c o n s i d e r e d exploratory.  An Important l i m i t a t i o n on the v a l i d i t y  as of  th® r e s u l t s ' iss th© v a r i a t i o n - I n the q u a l i t y o f .the ease records involved,,  I t was found t h a t , i n some o f the o l d e r  recordsg i t was necessary t o make Judgments on the b a s i s of l a c k o f evidence t o the contrary., r a t h e r than on s p e c i f i c a l l y stated f a c t s .  I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t some'  c h i l d r e n may have been given 'higher r a t i n g s a t the time of admission than was r e a l l y warranted. A previous study, What, ..Happens .to. F o s t e r ...'Children i n L a t e r Adolescence., by Edwin Watson i n 1955 attempted t o evaluate the personal and s o c i a l adjustment of o l d e r foster children.^  This study, together w i t h an e a r l i e r  study, (1953) The Placement o f Adolescent Boys, by George Reed, both experimented w i t h e v a l u a t i v e c r i t e r i a aiming a t 2  measuring the adjustment of f o s t e r c h i l d r e n .  The present  study d i f f e r s from these im two respects? (1) the c h i l d r e n s t u d i e d covered a wider age range, not being confined t o adolescents as were the two e a r l i e r e t u d l e s j (2) the focus of the present study was on the c h i l d ' s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o h i s n a t u r a l p a r e n t s , an aspect not s t r e s s e d i n e a r l i e r studies. I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t the f i r s t studies on the adjustment o f f o s t e r c h i l d r e n should concern themselves 1. Watson, Edwin F r a n c i s , What Happens t o F o s t e r C h i l d r e n in.Later. .Adolescence? Master o f S o c i a l Work T h e s i s , " U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, B.C., 1955. '2. Reed, §©orge Aubrey, The ^Placement of A d o l e s c e n t Boys* Master o f S o c i a l Work T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, B. C , 1953.  w i t h the a d o l e s c e n t .  71 -  I t i s not t i l l  the d i s t u r b a n c e  becomes obvious t h a t we r e a l i z e t h a t we have a problem w© must t r y t o s o l v e *  Th© c h i l d who r e p r e s s e s h i s  f e e l i n g s o f t e n goes u n n o t i c e d u n t i l on© o f the c r i s i s p e r i o d s o f l i f e cause h i s defences t o break down.  On th©  other hand, i t i s o f t e n harder t o make d e f i n i t e assessments In  the e a r l i e r year®., What a r e the broader i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r casework  p r a c t i c e which can be drawn from the present  study?  F i r s t , the n©ed t o know the c h i l d as f u l l y as p o s s i b l e at  the. time o f placement, o r b e f o r e wherever p o s s i b l e ^  One  way o f d o i n g t h i s i s f o r the worker t o spend more time w i t h the p a r e n t s , o r those c a r i n g f o r the c h i l d , t o ask th©m t o share t h e i r knowledge o f th© c h i l d , the good as w e l l as the bad.  T h i s Bounds so simple and obvious y e t so  o f t e n th© worker, concerned  w i t h the p r a c t i c a l a s p e c t s o f  p l a n n i n g , e i t h e r f a l l s t o ask f o r t h i s s h a r i n g o f knowledge, o r , i f she asks f o r i t , f a i l s t o r e c o r d the information.  Perhaps,  we f e e l the parent does not car©  enough t o be i n t e r e s t e d i n t e l l i n g u s , o r p©rhaps, we f e a r i t may be t o o p a l n f u i j b u t do we ever s t o p t o t h i n k how important  i t may be t o the c h i l d l a t e r i f we can g i v e him  d e t a i l s about h i s e a r l y days w i t h h i s p a r e n t s ?  This  i n f o r m a t i o n s h o u l d i n c l u d e f a c t s about other r e l a t i v e s , so o f t e n unknown i n the l i f e o f the f o s t e r c h i l d .  Much of  -  72  -  t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n s o f the c h i l d ' s f e e l i n g s about, and r e a c t i o n t o , h i s parents,• i s extremely  important  t o share  w i t h f o s t e r p a r e n t s , so t h a t they can understand t h e c h i l d and h i s own p a r e n t s , and be p a r t n e r s w i t h t h e agency and  the c h i l d i n h e l p i n g him. Next, and e q u a l l y important,  i f we a r e t o be a b l e  t o work e f f e c t i v e l y w i t h the c h i l d and h i s p a r e n t s , i s the iirorker's acceptance  o f the parents —  not t r y i n g t o  see them as b e t t e r o r worse than they a r e — them as they a r e .  but seeing  Some workers g e n e r a l l y o v e r - i d e n t i f y  w i t h p a r e n t s , others see them as worse than they a r e . Both a r e e q u a l l y h u r t f u l t o the c h i l d and h i s chance t o use a f o s t e r home c o n s t r u c t i v e l y . Parents need t o be understood,  t o be a c c e p t e d , and t o  have t h e worker r e a l i z e t h a t they do n o t f i n d i t easy t o see t h e i r c h i l d r e n g e t t i n g " e v e r y t h i n g " and themselves "nothing". "A c h i l d cannot d e r i v e maximum b e n e f i t from placement u n l e s s h i s p a r e n t s ' needs a r e r e c o g n i z e d and d e a l t w i t h , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e p a r e n t s ' r e a l i t y circumstances and emotional framework.**.Not t o heed the n a t u r a l f a m i l y means t o n e g l e c t t h a t p a r t o f the c h i l d which i s t i e d i n w i t h the parents', whether p o s i t i v e l y or n e u r o t i c a l l y , This s t i l l c o n s t i t u t e s a l a r g e p a r t o f the c h i l d ' s l i f e , " 1 How can we best h e l p the c h i l d t o accept placement? Some c h i l d r e n seem t o need more h e l p i n t h i s a r e a  1,  Glickman, op, c i t , , , p.332.  than  -  73  -  other's, but i t i s b e i n g r e c o g n i z e d more and more t h a t every child, needs h e l p i n working through the s e p a r a t i o n trauma.  A few y e a r s ago, i t was a r u l e o f many placement  agencies t o g i v e a c h i l d two weeks t o " s e t t l e " b e f o r e allowing relatives to v i s i t *  I f a v i s i t eaused u p s e t ,  i t was considered a reason f o r c u t t i n g o f f v i s i t s .  Today,  we a r e coming t o r e a l i z e t h a t t h i s "upset" i s a necessary p a r t o f the readjustment  process*  We see t h a t , i f t h e  c h i l d does n o t have a chance t o " t a l k o u t " h i s feelings,, he may remain i r r e p a r a b l y and n e g a t i v e l y , o r a m b i v a l e n t l y , t i e d to h i s past.  We tend t o l e t the b e s t o p p o r t u n i t i e s  f o r t h i s " t a l k i n g o u t " p r o c e s s pass by unheeded.  It la  a t the time o f the break w i t h h i s f a m i l y t h a t the c h i l d needs t o t a l k and t o know t h a t the worker i s aware and. understands  his feelings*  Instead o f l e t t i n g him t a l k ,  th© worker may t r y t o d i s t r a c t him* under the mistaken Impression  t h a t i f he can become I n t e r e s t e d i n o t h e r  t h i n g s he w i l l f o r g e t *  These c h i l d r e n sometimes a r e the  c h i l d r e n who never become a p a r t o f t h e i r f o s t e r homes. By t h a t time, however, i t i s o f t e n too l a t e t o r e p a i r th© damage without p s y c h i a t r i c t r e a t m e n t has become t o o deeply  9  because the c o n f l i c t  repressed*  E s t h e r Glickman says:  "Treatment o f the s e p a r a t i o n  trauma i s always-*- n e c e s s a r y , whether emotional  1*  U n d e r l i n i n g - the a u t h o r ' s .  disturbance  as a r e s u l t o f t h i s . I s apparent o r n o t ,  M l  Another a r e a i n which the c h i l d i n placement needs h e l p i s i n understanding t h a t i t i s p o s s i b l e t o l o v e and he l o v e d by more than one person*  O f t e n i t aeeas t o the  c h i l d t o be a c h o i c e between h i s own parents and the f o s t e r parents.  " I f a c o n f l i c t of l o y a l t i e s  results  from e a r l i e r t i e s t o the n a t u r a l f a m i l y , he can be helped t o f e e l t h a t he can l o v e and be l o v e d by more than one s e t o f people a t the same t i m e . "  2  i h i s Is an a r e a In which f o s t e r parents need h e l p also.  O f t e n f o s t e r parents f e e l r e j e c t e d i f the c h i l d  s t i l l c l i n g s t o own p a r e n t s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i f the f o s t e r parent f i n d s the b e h a v i o r o f the n a t u r a l parents unacceptable.  We need t o prepare f o s t e r parents  r e a l i s t i c a l l y f o r c h i l d r e n ' s f e e l i n g s about own p a r e n t s . The primary o b j e c t i v e o f f o s t e r c a r e i s t o h e l p th© c h i l d develop i n t o an a d u l t w i t h a r e c o g n i t i o n o f h i s own worth as an i n d i v i d u a l , and an acceptance r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s t o others  t h i s he cannot do u n l e s s h©  has come t o terms w i t h h i m s e l f and h i s p a s t .  1.  Gliekman, I b i d ,  2.  I b i d , p.384.  of h i s  p.253.  APPENDIX A;  75  -  "  SURVEY SCHEDULE FOR FAMILY  CIRCUMSTANCE  AT TIT-IS OF J^H3B33R£Siqa«  FAMILY CIRCUMSTANCES AT TIME OF APPREHENSION Date o f apprehension.  SURNAME  F i l e No.  CHRISTIAN NAME  BIRTH DATE  BIRTH PIACB  MARITAL STATUS  RACIAL ORIGIN  RELIGION  TRADE j INCOME &/or ! OCCUP.i  EDUCATION  ! »  -t FATHER  MOTHER  CHILDREN i  ri i i  H  i  PRESENT WHEREABOUT  APPENDIX B;  -  76  SURVEY SCHEDULE FOR CHILD'S SITUATION ON MARCH 1.  1957.  F i l e No.  Name Birthdate Non-ward  Are parents paying?  C,B,C.  Ward  Date o f admission Date o f apprehension  Date o f Committal  M a r i t a l status o f parents a t time of admission Age group - under 1 year 1 t o 5 years i n c l . at school t a k i n g vocational or other higher education working - not yet s e l f supporting p a r t l y s e l f supporting s e l f supporting unemployed other - specify Placement - subsidized baby home temporary f o s t e r home permanent f o s t e r home adoption home r e c e i v i n g home commercial boarding home i n s t i t u t i o n - name commercial boarding home i n s t i t u t i o n - name with relatives - free with r e l a t i v e s - paid other - s p e c i f y  APPENDIX B: (Continued)  S p e c i a l problems emotional disturbance r a c i a l problem mental defect Woodlands recommended , I f so, a r e papers i n ? delinquency on probation p h y s i c a l defect - s p e c i f y • C h i l d Guidance C l i n i c examination - date other p s y c h i a t r i c c o n s u l t a t i o n - s p e c i f y - date p s y c h i a t r i c treatment recommended? vocational test Adoption delayed due t o : background l a c k of p a r e n t a l consent emotional disturbance r a c i a l problem mental defect other - s p e c i f y Other problems - s p e c i f y  Family contact w i t h :  Frequent  Infrequent  father mother s i b l i n g s - i n care s i b l i n g s - a t home other r e l a t i v e s Future plans: adoption return t o parents continued f o s t e r home care other - s p e c i f y Date (Curvwy  Worker a f .•ehil.-lr^r. i n care )  None f o r -5 years o r since committal  -  78 -  BIBLIOGRAPHY Angus, Ann© Margaret, C h i l d r e n a A i d S o c i e t y o f Vancouver. 1  B. C. 1901-1951, Vancouver, 1951.  Baker, Inez M., "Caseworker Helps C h i l d Use B o a r d i n g Home", C h i l d W e l f a r e . V o l . XXVIII, Number 5 , May, 1949, C h i l d Welfare League o f America, I n c . , New York. Barbee, Margaret, "The C h i l d - P l a c i n g Agency C o n s i d e r s th© Parent's F i n a n c i a l R e s p o n s i b i l i t y " , The F a m i l y . V o l . XXI, Number 7, J u l y , 1940, Family S e r v i c e A s s o c i a t i o n o f America, New York. Bowlby, John, M a t e r n a l Care and Mental H e a l t h . World H e a l t h O r g a n i z a t i o n , Monograph S e r i e s , Geneva, 1952. Charnley, Jean, The A r t o f C h i l d Placement. U n i v e r s i t y of Minnesota P r e s s , M i n n e a p o l i s , 1955. C h i l d P r o t e c t i o n i n Canada.  Ottawa, 1954.."  Canadian Welfare C o u n c i l ,  C o r n w a l l , C h a r l o t t e E l i z a b e t h , The Use o f P r o f e s s i o n a l Time I n R e l a t i o n t o Case Content and S e r v i c e s Rendered. Master o f S o c i a l Work T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, B. C., 1956. Cowan, Edwina A., and S t o u t , Eva, "A Comparative Study o f the Adjustment made by F o s t e r C h i l d r e n a f t e r Complete and P a r t i a l Breaks i n C o n t i n u i t y o f Home Environment", The American J o u r n a l o f O r t h o p s y c h i a t r y . V o l . IX, A p r i l , 1939* George Banta P u b l i s h i n g Company, Menasha, Wisconsin. Dempoon, James R., "New Developments i n C h i l d W e l f a r e " , B u l l e t i n . V o l . XXVII, Number 5, May, 1948, C h i l d Welfare League o f America, I n c . , Nexf York. Dula, John E., "The C h i l d Away from Home", S o c i a l Casework. V o l . XXIX, Number 4, A p r i l , 1948, Family S e r v i c e A s s o c i a t i o n o f America, New York. E n g l i s h , 0. Spurgeon, "The P s y c h o l o g i c a l Role o f th© F a t h e r i n the F a m i l y " , S o c i a l Casework. V o l . XXXV, Number 8, October, 1954, Family S e r v i c e A s s o c i a t i o n of America, New York. Epperson, Jane Ann. "Some B a s i c P r i n c i p l e s o f D i r e c t Work w i t h C h i l d r e n " , C h i l d W e l f a r e . V o l . XXXI, Number 7, J u l y , 1952, C h i l d Welfare League o f Ameriea, I n c . , New York.  -  79  -  F o g e r t y , P a t r i c k James R e l a t i o n o f C h i l d r e n ' s D i s o r d e r s t o L i m i t i n g P a r e n t a l Influence©« Master o f S o c i a l Work T h e s i s U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, B. C , 1952. 9  9  Glickman, E s t h e r , Child.Placement Through C l i n i c a l l y O r i e n t e d Casetfork. Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . '. Hew York, 1957. Golden, C l a r a , "Generic and S p e c i a l i s e d Knowledge and S k i l l s i n F o s t e r Horn© Car©", C h i l d W e l f a r e . V o l . . XXXIII, number 10, December* 19§4, C h i l d Welfare' League o f America, I n c . , Hew York. Gordon, H e n r i e t t a L., Casework S e r v i c e s f o r Children.. Houghton M i f f l i n Company, Boston, 195^• Gordon, H e n r i e t t a L., " L i m i t a t i o n s o f F o s t e r Home Care", C h i l d W e l f a r e . V o l . XXXII, Number ?* J u l y , 1953, •' C h i l d Welfare League o f America, I n c . . Hew York. H a l l o w i t z , D a v i d , "The S e p a r a t i o n Problem i n the C h i l d Car© I n s t i t u t i o n " , S o c i a l C a s e w o r k . V o l . XXIX, lumber 4, A p r i l , 1945% Family S e r v i c e A s s o c i a t i o n of America, New York. n  Hancock, C l a i r e , R., " P r o t e c t i v e S e r v i c e f o r C h i l d r e n " , C h i l d W e l f a r e . V o l . XXVIII, Number 3, March, 1949, C h i l d Welfare League o f America, I n c . , Hew York. Hutchinson, Dorothy, " B a s i c P r i n c i p l e s i n C h i l d W e l f a r e " , C h i l d W e l f a r e . V o l . . XXXI, lumber 10, December 1952, C h i l d Welfar© League o f America, I n c . , Hew York. J o l o w i c z , Almeda R,, "A F o s t e r C h i l d Needs H i s Own P a r e n t s " , The C h i l d . August, 1947, U.S. C h i l d r e n ' s Bureau, Washington. J o s s e l y n , Irene M., "The F a m i l y as a P s y c h o l o g i c a l U n i t " , S o c i a l Casework. V o l . XXXIV, Number 8, October, 1953, Family S e r v i c e A s s o c i a t i o n o f America, New York. Kahn, A l f r e d J . , "Can E f f e c t i v e n e s s o f C h i l d Care b© Determined?", C h i l d Welfare, V o l . XXXIII, Number 2,. February, 19154, C h i l d Welfare League o f America, I n c . , Hew York. Krause, Mignon, "New Horizons i n A d o p t i o n " , C h i l d W e l f a r e . V o l . XXXVI, Number 4, A p r i l , 195T, C h i l d Welfar© League o f America,' I n c . , New York. L a z a r u s , E s t h e r , "The P o s i t i v e Approach t o P r o t e c t i v e S e r v i c e " , C h i l d Welfare, V o l . XXVIII, Number 9, November, 1949, C h i l d Welfare L e a g u e of America, I n c . , New York.  -  8b  Lewiso Mary E . , and R u s s e l , E l l e r y C.*. "Long Term Temporary Placement",; C h i l d Welfare^ V o l . XXX, Number 8 , October, 1 9 5 1 , Vhiict wexrare League o f America, I n c . ; Net? Y o r k , f  L u g t l g , Donald Joseph, The P s y c h o s o c i a l F a c t o r s which may I n t e n s i f y the A d o l e s c e n t F o s t e r C h i l d ' s • Concern about h i s Unknown N a t u r a l P a r e n t s . Master of S o c i a l Work T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h ;Columbia^ Vancouver, 1. C., 1950• McLaren, Henry M o h c r l e f f * Adjustment o f the A d o l e s c e n t i n R u r a l F o s t e r Homes. Master o f S o c i a l Work T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, B. C , 1 9 5 4 . Marcuse, B e r t h o l d . LonR-Term Dependency and Maladjustment Cases In a F a m i l y S e r v i c e Agency — An E x p l o r a t o r y . Study o f Data and Method. Master o f S o c i a l Work> T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, B. OV, 1 9 5 6 . 1  ;  P o l l o c k , Jeanne C., "The Meaning o f Parents t o . t h e P l a c e d C h i l d " , C h i l d Welfare* V o l . XXXVI, Number 4 , A p r i l , . 1957, C h i l d Welfare League o f America, I n c . , N©w York. Radinsky,, E l i z a b e t h K., "The Caseworker I n a C h i l d P l a c i n g Agency", B u l l e t i n . - V o l . XXVI, Number/ 7 , September, . 1 9 4 7 , C h i l d Welfare League,of America, I n c . , New York. Reed, George Aubrey, The Placement o f A d o l e s c e n t Boys. Master o f S o c i a l Work T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, B.- C , 1 9 5 3 . Rogers, C a r l Ransom, The C l i n i c a l Treatment o f t h e problem C h i l d , Houghton M i f f l i n Company, Boston, 1 9 3 9 . Sears j Robert R*, MacGoby, E l e a n o r E., and L e v i n , H a r r y , P a t t e r n s o f C h i l d R e a r i n g , Row, P e t e r s o n and Company, Evanston, I l l i n o i s , 1957• ;  Sheldon, E l e a n o r P., " I n t a k e , P r a c t i c e s - - T h e Core o f th© Agency's S e r v i c e i n H e l p i n g C h i l d r e n and t h e i r P a r e n t s " V . C h i l d W e l f a r e . V o l * , XXVIII, Number 1 0 , December, 1 9 4 9 , C h i l d Welfare League o f America, I n c . , New York.: "A S t a t e S t u d i e s I t s S e r v i c e s " , C h i l d W e l f a r e . V o l . XXXVI, Number 3 , March, 1957» C h i l d Welfare League o f America, Ino.,New York.  1  -  81  -  S t o t t , p. H., U n s e t t l e d C h i l d r e n and, T h e i r F a m i l i e s . U n i v e r s i t y o f London Press L t d . * London, 1956. "Symposium on Status, o f Parents, o f C h i l d r e n I n F o s t e r Care", C h i l d Welfare* V o l . XXXII, Number 9 , November, 1953» C h i l d Welfare League o f America, Inc., New York. Watson, Edwin F r a n c i s , What Happens t o F o s t e r C h i l d r e n i n L a t e r Adolescence? Master o f S o c i a l Work T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, B. C , 1955. Welsch, E x i e E., " S u s t a i n i n g the C h i l d i n H i s Impaired. Home!', Chi Id ^Welfare. V o l . XXXII, Number 7 , J u l y , 1953, C h i l d Welfare League o f America, I n c . , Hew York* Weissman, I r v i n g , " C h i l d r e n i n Long-Time F o s t e r Care", C h i l d - W e I f a r e . V o l . XXIX, Number 6, June, 1950, C h i l d Welfare League o f America, I n c . , Hew York. Wires, Emily M i t c h e l l , "The C h i l d P l a c i n g Agency", B u l l e t i n * V o l * XXVII, Number 2, F e b r u a r y , 1948, C h i l d Welfare League o f America, I n c . , New York. Wires, Emily Mitchell,."Some F a c t o r s i n the Worker-Foster P a r e n t , R e l a t i o n s h i p " , . C h i l d . W e l f a r e . V o l . XXXIII, Number 8, October, 1954, C h i l d Welfare League o f America, I n c * , Hew York.  

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