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Family influence on child protection cases at the point of apprehension and in later foster care : an… Tuckey, Elizabeth Ursula Townsend 1958

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FAMILY INFLUENCE OH CHILD PROTECTION CASES AT THE POINT OF AgPREHEiBSlON AW'W LATTER FOSTER CARE An E x p l o r a t o r y Study o f a Group o f Wards (o f the C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y , Vancouver ) i n f o s t e r c a r e more than two y e a r s . by ELIZABETH URSULA TOWHSMD TUCKET T h e s i s Submi t ted i n P a r t i a l F u l f i l m e n t o f the Requirements f o r the Degree o f MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK i n the S c h o o l o f S o c i a l Work A c c e p t e d as c o n f o r m i n g t o the s t a n d a r d r e q u i r e d f o r the degree o f Master o f S o c i a l VJork S c h o o l o f S o c i a l Work 1958 The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia V ABSTRACT The purpose o f t h i s s tudy i s t o e x p l o r e the r e l a t i o n s h i p of the f o s t e r c h i l d to h i s own f a m i l y , and t o examine the r e s u l t i n g e f f e c t s upon the c h i l d ' s ad justment i n f o s t e r c a r e . The g o a l of the c h i l d w e l f a r e worker has changed i n the p a s t t w e n t y - f i v e y e a r s from the p r o v i s i o n o f f o o d , c l o t h i n g , and a r o o f over the head o f the f o s t e r c h i l d , t o an at tempt t o meet the e m o t i o n a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l as w e l l as p h y s i c a l needs o f the c h i l d . These needs a r e l i k e l y t o v a r y a c c o r d i n g t o the degree o f d e p r i v a t i o n s u f f e r e d by the c h i l d b e f o r e p lacement* R e g a r d l e s s o f the inadequacy o f h i s p a r e n t s , the c h i l d has t o t h i n k w e l l o f them, so f a r as he i s a b l e , I f he i s a l s o to t h i n k w e l l o f h i m s e l f . He must r e s o l v e the trauma i n e v i t a b l y r e s u l t i n g f rom the s e p a r a t i o n f rom h i s p a r e n t s b e f o r e he c a n s e t t l e down i n M s f o s t e r home, and take on new t i e s . A g a i n s t these c o n c e p t s as b a c k g r o u n d , the p r e s e n t s tudy examines the c i r c u m s t a n c e s o f t h i r t y - f o u r , wards of the C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y o f V a n c o u v e r , B . G . , b e g i n n i n g w i t h the f a m i l y s i t u a t i o n a t the t ime o f the c h i l d ' s r e m o v a l , and c o v e r i n g a s i g n i f i c a n t p e r i o d o f f o s t e r c a r e . P a r t o f the methodology o f the s tudy i s an a t tempt t o a s s e s s the p a r e n t s * s t r e n g t h s and weaknesses i n c l u d i n g t h e i r c a p a c i t y f o r p a r e n t h o o d . The c h i l d r e n a r e r e v i e w e d t w i c e : once a t the t ime o f t h e i r remova l f rom t h e i r own homes, and a g a i n a t a f i x e d d a t e , when a l l the c h i l d r e n had been i n f o s t e r c a r e f o r a t l e a s t two y e a r s . The degree of c o n t a c t w i t h the n a t u r a l p a r e n t s i s kep t i n the f o c u s o f the s tudy t h r o u g h o u t . The s tudy c o n c l u d e s w i t h an assessment of some o f the ways i n wh ich the f o s t e r c h i l d c a n be h e l p e d t o a c c e p t h i s p a s t , and move on t o the f u t u r e f r e e from hamper ing o r n e u r o t i c t i e s ; The i m p l i c a t i o n s r e l a t e to (a) the c h i l d r e n , (b) the n a t u r a l p a r e n t s , (c) the f o s t e r p a r e n t s . In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y available f o r reference and study. I further thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representative. I t i s under-stood that copying or publication of t h i s thesis f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s Department The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver 8s, Canada. Date i t T A B L E O F CONTENTS Chapter I. Meeting the, Heeds of Children Removed  from neglectful Parents. ' ' ' ' " • Introduction. The changing philosophy of foster care,. ;The foster child's cone era for his own parents. Changing goals' for foster children. Objectives, methods., and scope of study ............ 1 Chapter II. The Keplectful Parent. Introduction. A review of some of the thinking in current social work literature. Description of family circumstances and analysis of parents' capacity for parenthood at the time of their child's admission to foster care............. 15'', Chapter i l l . Experiences In Placement and Foster  Care. A description of the children at time of, placement together with an,analysis of their degree of adjustment at that time. A description of the children as at March 1, 1957 together with an analysis of their degree of adjustment after at least two years in foster care., An assessment of . the extent of their continued contact with,their families 38 Chapter IV. The Social. Worker,and the .Neglected  Child. The importance of research as a means of improving services, for children. The present study: findings j validity,, limitations., Comparison of present study to other similar studies. Th© significance of the findings as they affect case-work practice with,parents, children, and foster parents. ,. . 4 66 Appendices: A. Survey Schedule for Family Circumstances at Time of Apprehension. B. Survey Schedule for Child's Situation on March 1, 1957. C . Bibliography. i l l TABLES A M D SCHEDULES IH THE TOT (a) Tables Table 1. A Comparison of the Ethnic Background of the Parents.>......................... 26 Table 2. A Comparison of the Church A f f i l i a t i o n of the Parents ;..... .>•...... 27 Table 3. Educational S t a t u s of Parents .......... 27 Table 4. A Comparison of the Ages of Parents..... 29 Table 5. Parental Pattern Compared to Size of Family ... 30 Table 6. Degree of Family Unity 31 Table 7. Degree of Parental Capacity of twenty-fiv© F a t h e r s 34 Table 8. Degree of Parental Capacity of Thir t y -one Mothers *... 34 Table 9. Comparison of Age and Sex of Children (at Time of Placement) 39 Table 10. Child's Degree of Adjustment (at Time of Placement) * 40 Table 11. Comparison of Length of Time i n Poster Care to Present Age o f Child 43 Table 12. D i s t r i b u t i o n of Children — According to Type of Placement on March 1, 1957 44 Table 13. Length of Time i n Present Foster Home Compared to Length o f Time i n Care on March 1, 1957 * . 45 Table 14. Extent of Child's Contact v/ith Family (Following Admission to Care) ., 46 Table 15. Child's Degree of Adjustment as of March 1, 1957 47 i v ( b j S c h e d u l e s Schedu le A . C r i t e r i a A p p l i e d t o P a r e n t ' s Degree o f C a p a c i t y f o r Paren thood . . . . . . . . . . . 36 S c h e d u l e B . C r i t e r i a A p p l i e d t o C h i l d ' s Degree o f Adjustment (at Time o f P l a c e m e n t ) . . 60 Schedu le C . C r i t e r i a A p p l i e d t o C h i l d ' s Degree o f Adjustment ( F o l l o w i n g Two y e a r s o r Longer i n F o s t e r Care) 62 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I w i s h to e x p r e s s ray s i n c e r e a p p r e c i a t i o n t o Mrs.- He len Exner and D r . Leonard C . Marsh of ' the S c h o o l o f S o c i a l Work, U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia , , f o r t h e i r i n v a l u a b l e gu idance and encouragement . T s h o u l d a l s o l i k e t o e x p r e s s my thanks t o Mr . S . H. P i h k e r t b n , E x e c u t i v e D i r e c t o r o f the C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y o f V a n c o u v e r , B. C . , and h i s s t a f f f o r t h e i r h e l p and c o - o p e r a t i o n . ' I a l s o w i s h t o e x p r e s s my g r a t i t u d e t o M i s s Dorothy L. Coombe, fo rmer E x e c u t i v e D i r e c t o r o f the C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y o f V a n c o u v e r , B. C . , f o r h e r encouragement . FAMILY WFUmiCE QN CHILD .PROTECTION .CASES.A3?. THE POINT OF APPI^HElsfOH AND IN L A T M l l l f E R CARE An E x p l o r a t o r y Study o f a Group o f Wards (o f th© C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y , Vancouver ) i n f o s t e r c a r e raore t h a n two y e a r s , . CHAPTER I M e e t i n g t h e Weeds..of C h i l d r e n R e m o v e d f r o m N e g l e c t f u l P a r e n t s . The c h i l d who i s m a k i n g a g o o d a d j u s t m e n t i n h i s f o s t e r h o m e , a n d i n t h e c o m m u n i t y g e n e r a l l y , a t t r a c t s l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n . I t i s t h e u n h a p p y c h i l d — t h e o n e who b e l o n g s n o w h e r e , s e e m s t o t r u s t n o o n e , f e e l s w i t h o u t d i r e c t i o n o r hop© f o r t h e f u t u r e - - who i s t h e d e s p a i r o f e v e r y o n e w i t h whom h e comes i n c o n t a c t . Why d o e s t h i s h a p p e n ? When a n d how was t h e damage d o n e ? E x a m i n a t i o n o f a n y g r o u p o f s u c h p r o b l e m c h i l d r e n , who h a v e b e e n In f o s t e r c a r e o v e r a p e r i o d o f y e a r s , n e a r l y a l w a y s r e v e a l s many c h a n g e s o f f o s t e r h o m e . S o m e t i m e s t h i s h a s r e s u l t e d f r o m t h e c h i l d ' s i n a b i l i t y t o " f i t i n " , a t o t h e r t i m e s f r o m t h e f o s t e r p a r e n t s ' f a i l u r e t o f u l f i l t h e i r d i f f i c u l t r o l e . Many o f t h e c h i l d r e n h a v e n e v e r r e s o l v e d t h e i r f e e l i n g s a b o u t t h e i r own p a r e n t s , w i t h whom t h e y may o r may n o t h a v e m a i n t a i n e d c o n t a c t . F r e q u e n t l y t h e r e h a s n o t b e e n r e a l i s t i c p l a n n i n g w i t h p a r e n t s a n d c h i l d r e n a t t h e t i m e o f p l a c e m e n t . T o o o f t e n , k n o w l e d g e o f t h e c h i l d ' s e x p e r i e n c e s p r i o r t o a d m i s s i o n i s i n a d e q u a t e . L a c k i n g a w a r e n e s s o f t h e t o t a l s i t u a t i o n , how c a n r e a l i s t i c p l a n n i n g b e d o n e ? C a s e w o r k s e r v i c e s f o r c h i l d r e n i n t h e i r p r e s e n t f o r m h a v e a r e l a t i v e l y s h o r t h i s t o r y , a l t h o u g h t h e r e i s a v e r y l o n g h i s t o r y i n d e e d o f c h i l d p l a c e m e n t o f one k i n d o r - 2 -another. It i s only within the past two years that the f i r s t hook was published which gave a comprehensive survey of basic casework services which together provide an adequate c h i l d welfare program. As Henrietta L. Gordon states i n the preface of her book? Casework Services f o r Children, published i n 1956s "This book could not have been written ten years ago, because we had not then f u l l y developed the convictions and s k i l l s discussed i n i t . Although the services had been available f o r many years, they were being used indiscriminately. Ten years ago, the chief concern of many agencies did not go beyond providing food, c l o t h i n g , and s h e l t e r to children whose parents could not give them needed care. It remained f o r the implementing of the So c i a l Security Act of 1935» the deeper under-standing of human behavior, p a r t i c u l a r l y that of c h i l d r e n , and the contemporary maturing of case-work as a profession, to help show how each of the s p e c i f i c services could a i d c h i l d r e n b e s t . " 1 In B r i t i s h Columbia, there has been public i n t e r e s t i n the welfare of children f o r the past f i f t y - f i v e years. I t was i n 1901 that The Children's Protection Act was passed by the Government of the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia. This act mad© possible the incorporation, i n the same year, of the Children's Aid Society of Vancouver, B. C. This action of the Government was due, according to Mrs. Anne Margaret Angus, who wrote the history of the agency, to a request that the Government: 1. Gordon, Henrietta L., Casework Services f o r Children. Houghton M i f f l i n Company, Boston, 1956, p. v i l i . - 3 -rt... so frame the laws that the children of drunken, dissolute and immoral parents should, by the protection and a i d of the law, have such help and assistance as would enable them to grow up to l i v e a good, and useful l i f e , and not by force of t h e i r surroundings become un-t r u t h f u l , unclean and immoral, thereby adding to the pauper and criminal classes of the community. 1 , 1 When children were removed by court action from t h e i r parents' c o n t r o l , caseworkers In c h i l d - c a r i n g agencies saw themselves as taking over th© r o l e of parent i n Its e n t i r e t y . The natural parents became objects of suspicion, and t h e i r contacts with t h e i r children were reduced to a minimum or cut o f f altogether^ " I t was presumed that c h i l d r e n had to be cared f o r u n t i l grown and ready to assume r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r themselves before being returned to t h e i r parents." 2 These were: rt... The days when a great deal was said about the "child-centered" agency, i n which the c h i l d and his needs were the focus of attention and a c t i v i t y to the exclusion, at l e a s t by implication, of his parents. V?© d i d not consciously admit that we excluded parents; i n f a c t we were more l i k e l y to deplore t h e i r lack of i n t e r e s t i n what happened to t h e i r children; t h e i r f a i l u r e to v i s i t ; t h e i r willingness to l e t th© agency take over so completely the parental r e s p o n s i b i l i t y they could not carry. But underlying t h i s was a deeply rooted assumption that parents who needed agency car© f o r t h e i r children were inadequate by reason of that very need, and that i t was our r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the agency to make up to the c h i l d f o r his parents' f a i l u r e towards hlm . w 3 1. Angus, Ann© Margaret, Children's Aid Society of Vancouver, B. C. 1901-1951. Vancouver, 1951, p. 5. 2. Radinsky, Elizabeth, K., "The Caseworker In a C h i l d Placing Agency," B u l l e t i n . V o l . XXVI, No. 7, September, 1957, C h i l d Welfare League of America, Inc., New York, p. 1. 3. Sheldon, Eleanor P., "Intake Practices — The Core of the Agency's Service i n Helping Children and t h e i r Parents," Ch i l d Welfare. V o l . XXVIII, No. 10, December, 1949, C h i l d Welfare League of America, Inc., New York, p. 6. - 4 -Major emphasis was placed on providing for the physical well-being of th© child. At f i r s t , institutional care was considered the best way of doing this. Later came th© realization that a child needs to belong to a family group, and so fo&ter-homes came into us© to provide a substitute for the child's own family. In Vancouver, Brit i s h Columbia, the change from a program of institutional care to on© emphasizing foster-home placement cam© about as a result of the recommendations of th© Child Welfare Survey of 1927. With th© passing of th© years, caseworkers in child-placing agencies everywhere took stock and evaluated their programs. Had a mistake been made in ignoring parents and believing that their influence could only be harmful to their children? In February 1948, Emily Wires wrote? "We have come to face the fact that with th© best Intentions we had removed children from "bad" homes and placed them i n "good" foster homes and yet th© children failed to roak© an adjustment. Later i t was found that some of these children, having arrived at the age of independence, had gone back to those "bad homes and had worked out their own salvation there. Furthermore th© present scarcity of foster homes had forced us into a more discriminating use of our limited resources to make certain that they ar© employed most advantageously for the children. We hav© also been reacting more soberly to the over-enthusiasm of th© early days of foster car©."1 1. Wires, Emily Mitchell, "The Child Placing Agency," Bulletin. Vol. XXVIX, No. 29 February, 1948, Child Welfare League of America, Inc., New York, p. 9. In Vancouver the need f o r preventive family work was noted as early as 1903 When Mrs. Atkins, a member of the Board, wrote: "The Children's Aid Society stands f i r s t and l a s t f o r the r i g h t s of chi l d r e n . I t i s authorized to investigate a l l cases of neglect, d e s t i t u t i o n and cr u e l t y , to ameliorate and better t h e i r home surroundings when practicable and when hopeless to remove the children from an environment of un-cleanliness and v i c e : only when ©very e f f o r t i n the home f a i l s i s the matter brought to th© courts f o r a d j u d i c a t i o n . " 1 However, i t was not u n t i l 1927. with the a r r i v a l i n •Vancouver of Miss S e l l a C o l l i n s j that a preventive casework service to families was inaugurated. "In i t s f i r s t year 685 children were reported as i n need of assistance, but i t was found necessary i n only 26 cases to make th© children wards of th© s o c i e t y , " 2 Of utmost importance In helping th© c h i l d wolfar© worker to acquire an increased understanding of th© needs of c h i l d r e n has been th© tremendous advances i n psychological knowledgei "We have learned," says Eleanor P. Sheldon, "of th© sig n i f i c a n c e of the b i o l o g i c a l t i e between a c h i l d and his parents, of the f a c t that there i s no substitute f o r th© deep, o r i g i n a l connection, established one© f o r a l l at b i r t h . " 3 She goes on: 1. ••Angus.j op. c i t . 9 p. 11. 2. Ibid, p. 32. 3. Sheldon, op. c i t . , p. 6 . 6 -"We have learned that a child needs adults, or rather an adult 0 to carry for him that image of his personality which he Is not yet ready to take into himself, and that this Is as essential to his emotional development as are food and exercise to his physloal growth. Therefore the loss of the parent, or of th© person upon whom he had to depend In this way, Is more than loss of the means of l i f e , or loss of lovej i t Is truly th© loss of himself, or a part of himself the most threatening of a l l losses....This fact constitutes one of our major dilemmas In giving care to children. Our very awareness of the child's need for his parents, and of his dependence upon them has mad© us equally aware and fearful of their enormous power, at least potentially d to damage him What t*e can and must accept j however, is th© fact that nothing we can do, ho ear© we can provide in plaoe of parents, has the Importance or the value to the child of what his own parents can or cannot do or provide for him.f,l With this new emphasis on the importance of his own family to the child cam© a swing towards leaving the child In his own home, even when the home was seriously impaired. This trend was encouraged by the shortage of foster homes, and in its turn, was carried too far, 0In fact, group placement and foster home ear©* each in turn became popularly "the answer" for troubled children in troubled homes. I hope that now the idea of possibly keeping a child In his own home, excellent as i t i s , will not become a panacea in professional circles. I do hop© that serious consideration of maintaining a child in his own home represents rather a broadening of our perspectives so that i t may be added to the variety of plans that may possibly b© suitable for a particular child and for a particular family." 2 1. Ibid, p. 7. 2. Welsoh, Exie E., "Sustaining the Child in His Impaired Home," Child Welfare. July, 1953, Child Welfare League of America, Inc., New York, p. 3. In the period since the s t a r t of t h i s century there has been a steady growth i n the knowledge of what a c h i l d needs i f he i s to develop a healthy personality. With the growth i n knowledge has com© a change i n the goals set by child-welfare workers. Th© pioneers were s a t i s f i e d that they had done t h e i r duty when thoy had provided f o r th© physical needs of the c h i l d . Mext* cam© a dawning awareness that a c h i l d had other needs which had to b© s a t i s f i e d i f normal physical and emotional growth was not to be stunted. At f i r s t an attempt was made to meet these needs by substitutes; suoh as th© use of f o s t e r parents to replace r e a l parents. When I t became apparent that t h i s was not enough f o r many chi l d r e n , parents were rediscovered, and an attempt mad© to r e h a b i l i t a t e them. This again was successful i n some instances, but d i d not provide the whole answer. Today child-welfare workers have, i t i s hoped, reached th© era of t r e a t i n g each c h i l d as an Individual j to b© helped by that method which best meets his needs. Changes i n th© structure of the Children's Aid Society of Vancouver, B. C. r e f l e c t e d the changing philosophy of the times. F i r s t , there was the emphasis on i n s t i t u t i o n a l care. KText, cam© the switch to a foster-home program. Then, with the f i r s t r e a l beginnings of preventive work, cam© th© separation of the agency into two departments: Child Placing and Family Work. And, most recently, i n 1954, th© increasing appreciation of the need, to treat the family as a whole played i t s part i n the reorganization of the agency from two departments to f i v e d i s t r i c t u n i t s , i n which the same worker would work with th© c h i l d and his family, both before and a f t e r placement. Changing Goals f o r Foster Children. Along with s t r u c t u r a l changes have gone changes i n goals set f o r those children who have become wards of the Children's Aid Society of Vancouver, B. C. At f i r s t , f o s t e r home care was considered an end i n I t s e l f . Many children were placed and l e f t to grow up In homes that could never become r e a l homes but would always remain "temporary homes" however long the c h i l d r e n remained there. It i s true that many of these placements turned out w e l l , and the foster parents and c h i l d r e n formed t i e s which endured beyond the years of placement. However, there were other c h i l d r e n , equally i n need of permanent homes, who were l e s s fortunat© and remained as " v i s i t o r s " i n t h e i r f o s t e r homes. Often t h i s was due to f a i l u r e to c l a r i f y the true s i t u a t i o n with c h i l d r e n , natural parents, and f o s t e r parents. Children grew up with the expectation that they would be returning to parents (who, i n r e a l i t y , were unable to plan f o r them)5 parents were not helped to c l a r i f y t h e i r roles} f o s t e r parents were l e f t too long i n the dark. 9 •Today 9 at the time a c h i l d comes into care through court action, the agency's f i r s t objective i s to carry out a thorough study of the t o t a l family s i t u a t i o n , i n order that the plan to be made f o r the c h i l d w i l l take a l l the f a c t s i n t o consideration. Such a study may reveal that Jimmy i s a c h i l d who has l o s t his natural family forever. However, he Is a c h i l d who had a good s t a r t i n l i f e , and he i s young enough to take on a new family. Por such a c h i l d j adoption can be the goal. Carol, on the other hand, has also l o s t her family, but, perhaps, i t need not be forever. Given help and time to overcome unfavorable circumstances, her parents may be able to show the court that they should be allowed to t r y again. In the meantime, Carol needs fos t e r parents who w i l l love her, show understanding of her parents, and be; able to return her to them when the time comes. B i l l y has l o s t his family, and, i n h i s case, i t i s f o r good. He has suffered severe damage already, and may never be a completely "whole" person. Even with the help of a s k i l l e d caseworker, he cannot be expected to change overnight, and his s l i g h t e s t improvement must be thought of as success.. I t w i l l have to be decided whether under-standing f o s t e r parents, or a group s e t t i n g , ean best meet his current needs. As the circumstances are d i f f e r e n t f o r each c h i l d , so w i l l th© answer be d i f f e r e n t . Sometimes the emphasis - 1 0 -W i l l be on helping the c h i l d , sometimes on helping th© parents, sometimes on helping the fo s t e r parents. Th© caseworker must always remain aware of th© importance of the natural parents and the f o s t e r parents to the c h i l d , and the importance of work with both, as well as with th© c h i l d . The purpose of the present study i s to assess th© influence of th© family on c h i l d protection cases, at th© point of apprehension, and In l a t e r f o s t e r car©. Th© plan followed was to examine each family, as i t existed at the time of placement, i n an attempt to assess the strengths and weaknesses, and to a r r i v e at an estimate of th© parents* capacity f o r parenthood. Next, an attempt was made to reach an assessment of the c h i l d ' s adjustment, at time of apprehension, and, again, a f t e r a period of f o s t e r care. The children selected for study comprised a l l c h i l d r e n being supervised by caseworkers i n the West Unit of the Children's Aid Society of Vancouver, B. C. who, on March 1 » 1 9 5 7 » had been i n th© care of the Society for at l e a s t two years, and who had been between the ages of three and twelve at the time of presentation In the Family Court (as children In need of protection). This ag© range was decided upon i n order to select children who would have memories of circumstances p r i o r to placement, yet, who — 'XI — would not have entered adolescence at the time of placement. The,, t h i r t y * f our childr e n chosen were part of a group of two hundred and f i v e children being supervised by th© caseworkers i n the West Unit of tile Agency. The remaining ch i l d r e n included non-wards, or wards-who, because of ag© at time of admission, were excluded from th© study. As a f i r s t step i n analysing the cases, s t a t i s t i c a l material was co l l e c t e d according to an outline. Informa-t i o n was obtained and compiled about each of the f a m i l i e s , under th© following headingsi Birth-date, b i r t h - p l a c e , r a c i a l o r i g i n , m arital status, r e l i g i o n , education, trad© or occupation, income^and present whereabouts,^ Next, c r i t e r i a f o r determining capacity f o r parenthood were, drawn up and each parent was given a r a t i n g — good, f a i r , or poor i n ©&oh of the following areas; physical status, ©motional s t a t u s t marital r e l a t i o n s , parent-child r e l a t i o n s , l i v i n g standards, and work adjustment* 1 Th© t h i r t y - f o u r children chosen f o r study w©r© assessed at two points; at the tim© of removal from t h e i r own f a m i l i e s , and,, again, at a f i x e d date, March 1, 1957» when they had a l l been i n car©: f o r at l e a s t two years, and som© of them f o r consid©rably longer. In addition, a tabl© was drawn up showing the extent of th© children's contact with t h e i r f a m i l i e s following admission to car©. F i n a l l y , an attempt was mad© to draw so^e conclusions as to the e f f e c t of family influences on th© degree of 1. See Appendix, p.75. - 12 -each c h i l d ' s adjustment. A recent issue of C h i l d Welfare c a r r i e d an a r t i c l e e n t i t l e d "The Meaning of Parents to the Placed C h i l d " 1 . Such t i t l e s are t y p i c a l of the emphasis being placed, at t h i s time, on the importance of the family to the c h i l d , regardless of whether or not he i s e t i l l l i v i n g as part of the family group. This idea has become an accepted part of s o c i a l work teaching, but, there i s s t i l l much to be done, before i t becomes a r e a l i t y i n casework pra c t i c e . The l a g i n practice i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n the March 1957 issue of Child Welfare. Under the t i t l e "A State Studies Its Services", information i s presented from a survey c a r r i e d out i n Missouri of c h i l d r e n twelve years of age and under who were In f o s t e r care. Among the conclusions reached were the following: "Sine© approximately one-fourth of the workers and t h e i r supervisors d i d not answer th© questions regarding the r e l a t i o n s h i p between parents and c h i l d , i t was d i f f i c u l t to evaluate t h i s . This would seem to indicate that workers need to be much more aware of parent-child relationships of childr e n placed i n f o s t e r care — as much as they are i n respect to the c h i l d who Is being given service In h i s own home. The progress which th© parent has mad© towards re - e s t a b l i s h i n g the family was one c r i t e r i o n of development f o r parenthood. In almost three-fourths of the s i t u a t i o n s , i t was found that the parents had made some progress. However, th© discouraging aspect of these findings was that more than h a l f of the workers and supervisors f a i l e d to answer t h i s question. Th© report indicated that those workers and 1. Pollock, Jeanne C., "The Meaning of Parents to the Placed C h i l d , " Child Welfare. A p r i l , 1957, C h i l d Welfare League of America, Inc., New York, p. 8. - 13 -supervisors who were concerned with giving consistent casework service to parents of placed childr e n had helped 74.1 percent of the parents make r e a l progress towards r e -est a b l i s h i n g the home."1 An a r t i c l e e n t i t l e d "New Horizons i n Adoption' 1 i l l u s t r a t e s another aspect of the same problems "As agencies have turned t h e i r attention to older children who may be available f o r adoption there i s greater awareness of the severe deprivations which these childr e n have suffered, which f o r some have been so damaging as to preclude the present p o s s i b i l i t y of adoption. At the same time It has become apparent that had adequate casework service been avail a b l e to the parents of these children when they f i r s t became dependent or neglected, which f o r some was i n early Infancy, many of them might have been adopted at that time. I t i s t h i s r e a l i z a t i o n , which c a r r i e s with i t so much g u i l t f o r a l l of us that has, more than anything, stimulated the present concern. Preventive e f f o r t s are now directed towards helping parents reach as early a decision as possible regarding adoptive placement of the children f o r whom they cannot or do not wish to provide." 2 The purpose of the present study i s to take a sample group of chi l d r e n , who became wards of the Children's Aid Society of Vancouver, B. C. between 1942 and 1954 and were s t i l l i n care of th® society on March 1, 1957, and to examine t h e i r Inter-relationships with t h e i r families at the time of placement and l a t e r . There proved to be t h i r t y - f o u r such c h i l d r e n . Some of the questions 1. "A State Studies Its Services," Child Welfare. March 1957, Child Welfare League of America, Inc., New York, p. 31. 2. Krause, Mignon, "New Horizons i n Adoption.". ghlld i e l f a r e ^ ^ A n r l | ^ ^ 1957. Child Welfare League of A l D 0 r l c a » - 14 f o r which answers w i l l be sought are: What sort of parents do these children have? In what ways do the parents resemble the parents of children who do not become dependent, and i n what ways are they d i f f e r e n t ? Is i t possible to estimate t h e i r capacity f o r parent-hood? An attempt w i l l also be made to examine the c h i l d r e n , and the meaning of t h e i r parents to them, but t h i s w i l l be l e f t to the t h i r d chapter. This study w i l l not attempt to evaluate th© adequacy of th© help given to the parents p r i o r to removal of the c h i l d r e n , or to assess whether th© removal was j u s t i f i e d , • CHAPTER II The Neglectful Parent The Thirty-four chi l d r e n included i n the study are a l i k e In some ways; but have important differences al s o . They are a l i k e i n that they were a l l removed from th© guardianship of t h e i r parents by decision of the Family Court of Vancouver.. This decision was made when the Children's Aid Society of Vancouver, B. C. petitioned the Court to e s t a b l i s h the c h i l d ' s need f o r protection.. They d i f f e r In the reasons which caused them to com© into the care of the Society, Some had already been p h y s i c a l l y abandoned by t h e i r parents, who had gone off leaving them In private boarding-homes or with r e l a t i v e s ; others had one remaining parent but had l o s t th© other one. In some Cases, the c h i l d l o s t one of the parents by death; but t h i s to the young c h i l d , may appear as the worst kind of abandonment. In the majority of cases, there was an actual or implied acceptance of the need f o r placement on the part of the remaining parent or responsible r e l a t i v e . Frequently, there must have been a r e a l i z a t i o n on th© part of the c h i l d that he was unwelcome. Often t h i s wish to get r i d of the c h i l d was based on r e a l i t y factors i n the parent's or r e l a t i v e ' s own l i f e s i t u a t i o n (e.g. the desertion of a mother leaving an unemployed. Inadequate father unable to care f o r four small c h i l d r e n ) . At other times, p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r some of the older c h i l d r e n , i t was due, In part, to the chil d ' s un-acceptable behavior., There were only two cases i n which chi l d r e n were removed suddenly from homes i n which they had been l i v i n g together with both parents. Xtfhen a c h i l d i s being removed from h i s parent's care or guardianship by court action, there invariably e x i s t s a s i t u a t i o n which has caused the community to condemn the parent f o r his treatment of the child.. Sometimes t h i s attitude i s tempered i f . the cause of the neglect can be seen, c l e a r l y , to b© beyond the control of the parent. For example, the parent who Is obviously mentally i l l receives the pi t y rather than the condemnation of the community. However, t h i s i s not true f o r the a l c o h o l i c parent, or the parent who has committed a criminal offence. S t i l l l ess i s i t true f o r the inadequate parent, or the parent whose own problems leave him i n s u f f i c i e n t energy to cope with the needs of another i n d i v i d u a l . The tendency a l l too often has been to condemn the "bad" parent and to speak of "rescuing" his child.. This continues to be the attitude of lay members of the community towards n e g l e c t f u l parents. The good parent finds i t impossible to believe that any parent can love - 17 -M s c h i l d , and, at the same time, give him inadequate pare. Yet, Henrietta Gordon says: "Barring gross mental i l l n e s s or other con-d i t i o n s which make parents incompetent to Judge e i t h e r the deprivation of the chil d r e n , or t h e i r own Incapacity, when adults are unable to enjoy the pleasures of parenthood or to give t h e i r children a happy childhood, they suffer as well as t h e i r children*"-' 1 As was noted e a r l i e r (chapter 1) condemnation was also the attitude prevalent among s o c i a l workers i n child- e a r i n g agencies i n the early years* It was the actions of children which caused s o c i a l workers to r e -examine t h e i r thinking. I f children continued to seek out t h e i r bad parents, there must be values there that could not be overlooked. Gradually, s o c i a l workers began to give l i p service to the place of the natural parent In the l i f e of the c h i l d a f t e r placement. This was most l i k e l y to occur i n the cases where the parent forced himself upon the attention of the worker. The parent, who allowed himself to get l o s t , was seldom looked f o r unless he was needed f o r some purpose, such as signing adoption consents. When these l o s t parents were found, they sometimes surprised the worker. Far from having f o r -gotten t h e i r c h i l d r e n , they were biding t h e i r time u n t i l they f e l t t h e i r s i t u a t i o n was strong enough f o r them to return and reapply f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n . In some 1. Gordon, op. c i t . , p. 20, 18 -Instances, t h i s resulted i n heart break f o r f o s t e r parents and i n emotional turmoil f o r ch i l d r e n , suddenly faced with divided l o y a l t i e s . In other cases, i t seemed cle a r that permanent plans could have been c l a r i f i e d f a r e a r l i e r , and with greater hope of success, i f continued casework help had been extended to the parents. Speaking of the importance of t*ork with parents a f t e r placement Esther Gliokman says: " U n t i l th© past few years there has been very l i t t l e meaningful contact with parents by workers i n the c h i l d placement agencies, and i n too many instances l i t t l e or no contact of any kind even when the parents were a v a i l a b l e . A c t i v i t y with parents was generally omitted unless precipitated by the parents themselves. Then i t became a problem to be dealt with simply f o r purposes of getting i t disposed of, or a routine matter to be taken care of among the mechanical aspects of the work, without dynamic consideration of the parents them-selves. The worker resented what h© regarded as an Intrusion of the parents, e s p e c i a l l y i f the parents disturbed the c h i l d and the f o s t e r family. I f the worker was not provoked by the parents' contact, then he viewed i t eith e r with tolerance or indifference. The parents, i n turn, saw the worker as an enemy, whether th© placement was voluntary or forced. When the parents did not seek contact with th© c h i l d , and hence not with the agency, even \irhen such contact was possible, the worker allowed the s i t u a t i o n to d r i f t on the i n v a l i d assumptions that the placement would be i n d e f i n i t e and that the parents were e n t i r e l y uninterested i n th© e h i l d . I f a worker f e l t kindly towards the parents, the r e l a t i o n s h i p was s t i l l not put to d e f i n i t e therapeutic use. Altogether, the worker seldom made e f f o r t s to seek out and Involve the parents i n relationships f o r diagnostic and.treatment purposes. I t has since been found that a more po s i t i v e and s c i e n t i f i c approach to parents has proved to he necessary not only f o r the maintenance of a constructive placement, but also, i n i t s e l f , f o r the d i r e c t value to the c h i l d i n placement and to the parents." 1 This involvement of parents as part of the treatment plan, u t i l i z i n g t h e i r strengths and d i l u t i n g t h e i r weaknesses, as opposed to the idea of considering them as bad parents, to be punished by th© loss of t h e i r c hildren, i s not a new idea. It i s to be found i n th© writings of both psychologists and s o c i a l workers, concerned with the f i e l d of delinquency, as well as with c h i l d welfare, C a r l Rogers, f o r example, In h i s book e n t i t l e d , "The C l i n i c a l Treatment of th© Problem C h i l d " i n dealing with factors favorable to placement says that the: "Child may accept placement i f his own parents recognize the need for I t , co-operate i n making the plan, and give t h e i r approval to the placement." 2 On the other hand, Mr. Rogers says, conditions are unfavorable to placement i f the: "Child can admit no f a u l t i n his parents and wishes to be with them. Attempts to persuade him to the contrary only make him more defensive as regards his parents, and more antagonistic to the agency and community which has brought about the separation .... This d i f f i c u l t y may be Increased by ... any circum-stances which confirms his f e e l i n g that the agency i s holding him against h i s w i l l . " 3 1. Glickman, Esther, Child Plaoement Through C l i n i c a l l y Oriented Casework. Columbia University Press,"New York, 1957, p.333. 2, Rogers, C a r l , The C l i n i c a l Treatment of the  Problem C h i l d . Houghton M i f f l i n Company, Boston, 1939, p.93. 3. Ibid, p.92. In the American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, for . . . . . . ^ - ( . ... ^ April 1939, there appeared an arti c l e entitled "A Comparative Study of the Adjustment made by Foster Children after Complete and Partial Breaks i n Continuity of Home Environment" which i s a graphic i l l u s t r a t i o n of the damage children can suffer when they are forced to make a clean break with their past. "The objective of this study was suggested by observation of an apparent relationship between behavior problems arising in the lives of foster children under the custody of the Kansas Children's Home and Service League, and a policy with regard to techniques of placement which had been controlling the work of case workers in this agency since i t s organlzatloni ,' 1 r The artlele goes on to explain that the agency followed? "... a policy of breaking as completely as possible a l l continuity with a former home when for any reason a child was moved into a net* foster home. This policy was the outgrowth of a logical assumption that the child would make adjustment and adaptation into the new home more completely, quickly and satisfactorily to th© foster parents (and even perhaps to himself) in proportion as he was not remembering and pining for people, things and conditions in his former horn© The fallacy in this procedure began to beeom© apparent when those who studied the f i l e s and the d i f f i c u l t i e s of these foster children gradually became aware of the possibility of a relationship between certain kinds of behavior problems and these complete environmental breaks in the lives 1. Cowan, Edwina A., and Stout, Eva, "A- Comparative Study of the<4djustmeht made by Foster Children after Complete and Partial Breaks in Continuity of Home Environment," American Journal of Orthopsychiatry. Vol. IX Apr i l , 1939i George Banta Publishing Company, Menasha, Wisconsin, p.330. of children. It seemed that behavior problems a r i s i n g from the general ©motional s i t u a t i o n known as in s e c u r i t y might be d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to th© occurrence of a break i n environmental continuity i n the lif© of a pre-adolescent c h i l d . " 1 . . . Th© findings of t h i s study wer© summarized as follottfs: "1. Case h i s t o r i e s of a c h i l d placement agency were studied to determine whether there was any r e l a t i o n between the completeness and abruptness of chang© between home environments and the development of habits Indicating ©motional Insecurity i n children undergoing t h i s change. 2, Th©r© was a r e l i a b l e difference i n favor of p a r t i a l breaks i n environmental continuity as being l e s s l i k e l y to be followed by behavior in d i c a t i n g i n s e c u r i t y than are complete breaks. 3. In some instances transformation of a complete break into a p a r t i a l break through r e -e.stablishmsnt of contact between a c h i l d i n a new environment and people or conditions i n \ former environment resulted In th© disappearance of behavior i n d i c a t i n g I n s e c u r i t y . " 2 Dr. John Bowlby, the physician, i n h i s book Maternal Care and Mental Health reaffirms these f i n d i n g s . H© says that children? "... are not slates from which th© past can b© rubbed by a duster or spong®, but human beings who carry t h e i r previous experiences with them and whose behavior i n th© present Is profoundly affected by what has gone befor©. It confirms, too, the deap emotional sig n i f i c a n c e of the parent-child t i e which, though i t can be greatly d i s t o r t e d , Is not to be expunged by mer© physical separation. F i n a l l y , i t confirms th© knowledge that i t i s always easier f o r a human being to adapt e f f e c t i v e l y to something of which he has d i r e c t experience than to some-thing which i s abstract and imagined."* 1. Ibid, p.331. 2. Ibid, p.335. 3. Bowlby, John, Maternal Care and Mental Health. World Health Organization, Monograph Series, Geneva, 1952, p.113. 22 -Another leader i n the c h i l d welfare f i e l d , Jean Charnley* puts i t t h i s ways "When c h i l d welfare workers have not only seen but genuinely understood the innumerable evidences that child r e n want whatever part of t h e i r parents the parents ar© able to give, and when they can accept t h i s p r i n c i p l e not as a handi-cap i n t h e i r work but as a strength, they w i l l begin to help the childr e n as well as the children's parents. This i s hard f o r some Child placement workers. Hot long ago I heard someone ask a c h i l d placement worker what was the hardest part of her Job. Without h e s i t a t i o n she answered, "Coping with the t i e childr e n have to t h e i r parents) 1" As long as s o e i a l workers f e e l they are "coping with" the t i e , parents and childr e n w i l l sense i t and the workers w i l l have trouble "coping with" t h e i r cases. Once s o c i a l workers recognize the t i e f o r what i t i s a l i f e l i n e to s e l f - r e s p e c t , good mental health, and a sense of security — t h e y ' l l nourish, treasure, and respect i t . Th© children w i l l sense i t . And th© parents, so f u l l of g u i l t and sham© at having had to aocept the l a b e l " f a i l u r e " because they have asked that t h e i r c h i l d r e n be placed, w i l l sense i t too. The Inadequate mother w i l l f e e l , "This .social worker under-stands.. She thinks i t ' s important that I go r i g h t on being a mother to Frank!©, even though I can't l i v e with him now." Because someone thinks she's valuable, she acquired value i n her own eyes; and she has taken the f i r s t small step towards becoming a more adequate person perhaps, someday, even a f u l l - t i m e mother."* In j u s t i c e to a l l s o c i a l workers, i t should be pointed out that much of t h i s avoidance of parents was due to a lack of knowledge of how to help them; and th© fear of them arose, i n other words, out of the worker's Ignorance or inexperience. Too few s o c i a l workers knew 1. Charnley, Jean, Th© Art of Child Placement. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, 1955, p . i l l . 23 -how to work with parents once they came i n contact with them. Parents who have l o s t t h e i r children have suffered severely, and are only too ready to l a s h out at others, i n t h e i r turn. Some of them, i t i s true, are beyond help, but f a r more can be reached than was ever dreamed of only a few years ago. It has been only since the growing understanding of the dynamics of human behavior that, s o c i a l workers have found i t possible to approach such parents i n a way which could r e a l l y help them. With t h i s knowledge has come the r e a l i z a t i o n that negleotful parents are not any d i f f e r e n t from parents known to other s o c i a l agencies. The difference i s rather one of degree of sickness. As Esther Gliokman points out: "Actually there seems to b© no d i s t i n c t i v e psychological mechanism or s p e c i f i c character structure i n parents of placed children or i n the c h i l d r e n themselves which i s not also found In families met i n other agency se t t i n g s . The differences which are present i n the fa m i l i e s who are seen i n placement agencies l i e f i r s t i n the quantity of the disturbance and i n i t s lack of compensations, and second., In the l o c a t i o n of th© pathology In th© parents' 1 personality or family r e l a t i o n s h i p s , . M l She goes on to elaborate thiss "The f i r s t instance* quantity, i s concerned with the emotional economy, which consists of the number of resources i n the personality and the extent of the disturbances there,. These determine th® amount of emotional energy available f o r the job of gi v i n g i n the r o l e of parent, and also help to determine 1.. Gllckraan, op. c i t . , p..23.. the integrative capacity of family members8 as well as how much stress can be borne before the family balance w i l l be destroyed. The emotional economy comprises the account of how many or how few, how r i c h or meager are the positives i n proportion to the, negatives i n both of the parents and In the c h i l d . Disturbances of the same psychological nature can be seen i n parents who do manage to rear t h e i r c h i l d r e n , but these disturbances are of a milder degree, since both emotional and f i n a n c i a l resources are more ample than are those of parents who placed t h e i r c h i l d r e n . .. In addition to the nature of the emotional economy, there i s the matter of the l o c a t i o n of the disturbance In parents and children? t h i s too i s a determining f a c t o r i n causing placement. I t i s known that emotional deviations can ex i s t within a family without destroying Its organic unity, even though the unity Is baaed on neurotic t i e s . The disturbance can be so encapsulated or defended as not to disrupt the family or as to Impair only c e r t a i n relationships and not others. A woman can be a better mother than wife because of the lo c a t i o n of her early trauma; or the parent can be an adequate marital partner while unable to be an adequate parent, being able to r e l a t e only i f given to f i r s t by a s o l i c i t o u s spouse, again due to early experiences i n old family i n t e r r e l a t i o n -ships. The lo c a t i o n of the disturbance i n the structure of th© personality and i n the structure of the current family's i n t e r -r e l a t i o n s h i p s Is here more Important than the nature of the disturbance I t s e l f The error of assessing a parent's capacity on th© basis of the weakest part of his personality i s avoided by making a comprehensive evaluation. So much f o r theory. The purpose of the present study Is to take a look at practice which in e v i t a b l y lags, to some degree, behind the l a t e s t theories In 1. Ibid, pp.23-25 some areas, In others i t may lead the.way to new dis-coveries. Practice, as demonstrated in this study, covers a period of time extending from 19*2, when the f i r s t of the thirty ?four children was admitted to foster home care, to 1954, when the, last child was brought Into care. Home Background. In.order to gain some picture of the parents;of the children In the sample under study, certain basic infor-mation was collected about them using agency case records,. For presentation this information has been grouped under three general headingst cultural .--• which includes such things as ethnic background, religion, and educations economic — which includes such things as occupation and income; and family -.- which Includes such things as age, marital status, size of family, and degree of family unity. The adequacy of available information was very uneven — a great deal available about some of these areas and hardly any, about others. A l l information Is given fits at the,date ;of the.child fa.apprehension. Cultural. i An examination of the ethnic background of the parents revealed a considerable, degree of uniformity. Twenty-nine out of the thirty-four mothers and eighteen of the thirty-four fathers were known to be Canadian born. In addition, four mothers and ten fathers were Bri t i s h born or of Br i t i s h origin. As no information was available about three fathers, this l e f t only four parents -- three fathers and on© mother —• known to be of other than Canadian or B r i t i s h birth. (Table 1) Table 1 ; A Comparison of the Ethnic Background of th© Parents. Ethnic Back-ground of Father Ethnic Background of Mother Total Canadian Born ' Origin B r i t -ish Born Other Canadian Born Origin B r i t - Euro- Un- Part (a) Ish pean known Indian Bri t i s h European Unknown Part (a) Indian • -• - 1 2 1 1 - , - . - , - • > 2 - • "' • •" -2 . . - ..- • .-12 2 3 Br i t i s h Born European Born Unknown 6 . ' .._ 2 , 1 .1 - ' *" ; 2 1. •* ** «•><*»• . 3 . ; - -. . . .• • *. - . 10 3 Total -•'22 3 2 2 4 1 34 (a) B r i t i s h or French and Indian. Church a f f i l i a t i o n was examined next,, While th© majority of the parents were l i s t e d as being Protestant, only sixteen mothers and ten fathers were shown as belonging to a specific Protestant d©homination. There were only seven families where both parents were a f f i l i a t e d with a Protestant church. Two fathers and one mother were l i s t e d as being Roman Catholic, (Table 2) Table 2: A Comparison of the Church A f f i l i a t i o n of the Parents Father's Church Mother's Church A f f i l i a t i o n Total A f f i l i a t i o n Protestant Roman Church A f f i l i a t i o n No Church A f f i l i a t i o n Catholic Church A f f i l i a t i o n 7 2 1 10 No Church A f f i l i a t i o n 4 13 mm 17 Roman Catholic 1 1 - 2 R e l i g i o n Unknown 4 1 - 5 Total 16 17 ,1 34 Table 3: Educational Status of Parents. Father * s Education Mother's Education Total Educ-ation Unknown P a r t i a l Grade School Com-plete Grade School P a r t i a l High School Education Unknown 10 3 2 7 22 P a r t i a l Grade School 3 3 Gomplet© Grade School 1 3 4 P a r t i a l High School 1 1 1 3 Complete High School - - 1 1 2 Total 14 5 • 3 12 34 - 2 8 -Education proved to be an area i n which Information was scanty. Wo information.was recorded about the edu-cation of fourteen mothers and twenty-two fathers. Of the remaining group, no mothers had completed high school, while, only two fathers had gone t h i s f a r . (Table 3) Economic. Other areas In which information was lacking were occupations and Incomes of the parents. Of the twenty-eight fathers, only one held a "white c o l l a r " Job. Twenty-five fathers held jobs ranging from u n s k i l l e d to semi-skilled, with a possible f i v e or s i x out of these whose occupations might be considered s k i l l e d . T y p i c a l occupations l i s t e d were: labourer, millworker, truck driver,, logger, window-cleaner, welder, carpenter, painter, bakery worker, and fisherman* The occupations of - two • fathers were unknown. Eighteen mothers were not employed outside t h e i r homes. Among the occupations of the others were: waitress, cannery worker, laundry worker, dancing teacher, and stenographer. The occupations of two mothers were unknown. I n s u f f i c i e n t information was available to make any accurate assessment regarding incomes. Indications were that most of the families were l i v i n g on marginal, or below marginal, income. Family. Finally, th© structure of th© family groups was studied, beginning with th© age of th© parents at the time of their child's anprehension. Twenty-nine of the thirty-four mothers and sixteen of the thirty-four fathers were between th© ages of twenty and forty at that time. Two mothers and eight fathers were over forty* The ages of four fathers were unknown. Three mothers and six fathers had died. (Table 4) Table 4; A Comparison of the Ages of Parents» Age of Father In Age of Mother Total Years 20-30 Years 31-40 Years 41-* 50 Years Over 50 Years Dead 20-30 ; 5 * • ' — - 5 31-40 3 6 - mm 2 11 41-50 4 ' 1 - 5 Over 50 1 1 - - 1 3 Unknown 2 2 - 4 Dead 4 1 - 1 •* 6 Total 15 14 i 1 3 34 An examination of the marital status of the parents showed that the majority of th© children came from broken f a m i l i e s . Only eight of the children came from homes where the parents were married and l i v i n g together, and, - 30 -even here, two of the fathers were a\my from home much of the time clue to the nature of t h e i r work. Parents of eleven children were separated. Mine homes were Broken by death — i n s i x the father had died, and, In three;, the mother. Parents of two chi l d r e n had been divorced. Parents of four children had never been married.' (Table 5) Table fir Parental Pattern-.Compared to Size of Family. Parental Pattern Number of Children /in Family Total 1 V 3 4 5 • or more , Married Couple 3 — 2 1 2 8 Common-law 1 • — • — 1 2 Divorced ii 2 „ 2 Separated 1 2 4 3 1 11 Widow' - -- : 2, • 2 2 6 Widower, 1 i - 1 3 Unmarried Mother - mm 2 mm 2 Total 5 3 9 10 % 34 The s i z e of the family groups showed wide v a r i a t i o n . Nineteen of the t h i r t y - f o u r c h i l d r e n cam© from f a m i l i e s with three or four, children, s i x children came from fa m i l i e s with f i v e or, more chi l d r e n , f i v e were only children, and th© remaining three came from f a m i l i e s with two children. (Table 5) - 31 -In gaining insight into the degree of family unity, It i s to he noted that only seven of the c h i l d r e n cam© from homes where both parents were In th© home f u l l time. Eleven childr e n came from homes where the father was absent, four from homes where th© mother was absent, and on© c h i l d was going from on© parent to the other. Of the remaining twelve childr e n eight were l i v i n g with r e l a t i v e s other than parents and four had already been placed i n private boarding homes. (Table 6) Table St Degree of Family Unity ' Parental Pattern Family Unit Intact Mother & C h i l -dren Father & C h i l -dren Children Going between Parents Both Parents Gon©, C h i l d with i n Rela- P.B.H. tives (a) Total Married Couple Common-law 1 . . . .- - . , ''. 1 .. 8 2 Divorced Separated Widow Widower 4 4 1 1 1 , . 2 , - -4 . * . -' - - - 1 2 . 2 11 6 3 : Unmarried Mother 2 - . - 2 Total 7 10 4 1 8 4 34 (a) Private Boarding Home. - 32 -So f a r , an attempt has been made to examine those things about the f a m i l i e s which can most e a s i l y be measured. The next part of the chapter w i l l be an attempt to examine those aspects of family l i f e which cannot, so r e a d i l y , be measured qu a n t i t a t i v e l y . Capacity f o r Parenthood. As a basis f o r determining the parents' capacity f o r parenthood, c r i t e r i a were drawn up. These covered s i x broad areas: physical status, emotional status,, marital r e l a t i o n s , parent-child r e l a t i o n s , l i v i n g standards, and work adjustment. These c r i t e r i a were then applied to each parent who was rated good, f a i r , or poor, i n each of the s i x areas, using Indications of the kind assembled i n Schedule A. I t should be borne i n mind that, while the areas have been treated as though they were of equal value, i n actual f a c t one might be of more s i g n i f i c a n c e than another i n measuring t o t a l adjustment. Physical status appears to be the area having the l e a s t e f f e c t upon the capacity of the parent f o r parent-hood. Nineteen of the fathers rated good; f i v e , f a i r ; and one, poor. S i m i l a r l y , for the mothers, twenty rated good; seven, f a i r ; and four, poor. Emotional status followed quite a d i f f e r e n t pattern. Hone of the fathers rated good; seven rated f a i r ; and eighteen, poor. One of the mothers rated good; fourteen rated f a i r ; and sixteen, poor. - 33 -M a r i t a l r e l a t i o n s f o r the twenty-two couples showed two rated good; four r a t e d 9 f a i r ; and sixteen rated, poor. Parent-child r e l a t i o n s showed a difference between the fathers and mothers. Of twenty-five fathers none rated good; seven,, f a i r ; and eighteen, poor. Of t h i r t y -one mothers, however, while only two rated good; sixteen rated f a i r ; and t h i r t e e n , poor. L i v i n g standards followed a s i m i l a r pattern f o r both parents. Of the twenty-five fathers, four rated good; seven, f a i r ; and fourteen, poor. Of the t h i r t y mothers, three rated good; ten, f a i r ; and seventeen, poor. Work adjustment of the father followed a s i m i l a r pattern. Of the twenty-five fathers, three rated good; s i x , f a i r ; and sixteen, poor. I t was harder to rate the mothers as fourteen were not employed outside t h e i r homes and nothing was known about one. Of th© remaining sixteen, seven rated good; four, f a i r ; and f i v e , poor. To sum up, out of a t o t a l of one hundred and f o r t y -seven ratings of adjustment f o r the fathers there were twenty-eight good, t h i r t y - s i x f a i r , and eighty-three poor. This compared with a t o t a l of one hundred and sixty-one ratings of adjustment f o r the mothers --t h i r t y - f i v e good, f i f t y - f i v e f a i r , and seventy-one poor. (Tables 7 and 8) - 34 -Table 7: Degree of Parental Capacity of Twenty-five Fathers, (a) Area of Adjustment Ratings / T o t a l Good F a i r Poor Physical Status 19 • .5 . • . 1 , Emotional Status G 7 18 25 M a r i t a l Relations 2 . 4 16 22(b) Parent-child Relations 0 f ., 18 25 L i v i n g Standards 4 7 14 25 Work Adjustment :• 3 • 6 16 25 Total Ratings 28 35 83 147 (k) Six fathers deael. Three putative fathers unknown, (b) Three mothers dead* T a b l e . . . • De&ree of Parental Capacity of Thirty-one Mothers. (a) Area of Adjustment . Ratings Total Good F a i r Poor Physical-Status 20 7 4 31 Emotional Status 1 14 16 31 M a r l t a l Relatlons 2 4 16 22(b) Parent-child Relations 2 16 13 31 L i v i n g Standards 3 10 17 30(c) Work Adjustment X 5 16(d) Total • 3 f 55 71 161 (a) Three mothers dead, (b) Six fathers dead:. Ho information about three putative fathers, (c) Ho i n f o r -mation present circumstances of one mother, (d) Fourteen mothers not employed. l o information on one. . 35 -Before leaving the examination of the f a m i l i e s , there Is one more point to he noted. The ohildren In the sample were not necessarily the only childr e n from these f a m i l i e s i n th© care of the Children's Aid Society, The t h i r t y - f o u r children studied came from t h i r t y f a m i l i e s with a t o t a l of one hundred and eleven c h i l d r e n i Of t h i s t o t a l of one hundred and eleven children, seventy-three had been apprehended by the Children's Aid Society and a further ten had been placed f o r adoption, eit h e r p r i v a t e l y , or through th© agency. Thus seventy-five per cent of the children i n the t h i r t y families had l e f t t h e i r parents' care, leaving only twenty-five per cent being cared f o r by parents or r e l a t i v e s . Of t h i s group of twenty-eight c h i l d r e n , ; twelve were older childr e n able to be "on t h e i r Own" at the time of the breakdown of the family; s i x were being cared f o r by relatives-;, and only ten were with parents, or a parent. - 36 Schedule A. C r i t e r i a applied to Parent's Degree of Capacity f o r Parenthood. - _ 1. Physical Status. Good References made to person's good health. Wo Illnesses mentioned* F a i r Minor i l l n e s s e s or Injuries not i n t e r f e r i n g with person's a b i l i t y to l i v e a normal l i f e . Poor Acute or chronic i l l n e s s e s or severe Injuries seriously i n t e r f e r i n g with person's a b i l i t y to l i v e a normal l i f e . g. Emotional Status. Good Able to carry average degree of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r family and f o r Job and to ge^ , along i n the community. Ho mention of mental or emotional problems. F a i r Can only assume above r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s with d i f f i c u l t y . Mention of minor emotional problems. Poor Completely unable to carry on i n one or more of above areas. Mental or emotional i l l n e s s , e ither diagnosed or worker's estimate. 3. M a r i t a l Relations. Good Parents show a f f e c t i o n and respect f o r each other, even with minor differences of opinion. F a i r Periods of serious disharmony or disharmony i n several major areas. Poor Parents separated dr divorced, or, i f together, e x h i b i t i n g serious disharmony. 4. Parent-child Relations. Good Parents show a f f e c t i o n f o r the children, are con-cerned about them, give them guidance, and set l i m i t s . - 37 -F a i r Parents give a f f e c t i o n , but without s e t t i n g l i m i t s or givi n g guidance, or l i m i t too much. Poor Parents unable to show concern or a f f e c t i o n f o r children; or show overt r e j e c t i o n ; or swing from show of a f f e c t i o n to overt r e j e c t i o n and back. 5. L i v i n g Standards. Good Housing and equipment were suited to family's needs, housekeeping standards adequate. f a i r Housing and equipment barely adequate, house-keeping standards borderline. Poor Housing and equipment inadequate, housekeeping standards bad, slum area. 6. Work Adjustment Good Steadily employed at a Job commensurate with his a b i l i t y . Fair. Short periods of unemployment but able to ' support h i s family the majority of th© time, Seasonable employment but with adequate savings to carry on to the next season. Poor Mo employment, or frequent loss of Jobs followed by periods of d e s t i t u t i o n . CHAPTER I I I Experiences,in Placement and Foster Care. Th© importance to th© fo s t e r c h i l d of a secure foundation upon which to b u i l d confidence i n th® future Is often i n s u f f i c i e n t l y stressed. Edwina Cowan and Eva Stout suggest that5 " i t may be possible that a clear and unbroken thread of memory extending from th© present into early childhood and even v i c a r i o u s l y into the experiences of past generations through remembered tale s of the reminescenees of parents and grand-parents may constitute for, an adult an important component of the complex emotional pattern c a r r i e d over from day to day and known i n i t s dependable en t i r e t y as ©motional secur i t y . Confidence has a two f o l d source. One aay have confidence i n one's own a b i l i t y to meet anything with which fat© may confront on© or one may have confidence i n a kindly world inhabited by kindly people who w i l l not sub-ject oh© to too great d i f f i c u l t y . Normally on© would expect to f i n d security as the r e s u l t of an admixtur© of both types of confident expectation but the presence of eit h e r type i n some degree may s u f f i c e to produce security,In the absence of th© other. It i s possible that environmental continuity may be a dependable f a c t o r i n creating confidence i n one's surroundings. 1 The'thirty-four c h i l d r e n included i n the study cam© Into f o s t e r car© at d i f f e r e n t ages, from d i f f e r e n t kinds of homes, i n d i f f e r e n t years. Nevertheless, they shared one ©xperlence — they had a l l been through a c r i s i s calculated to shake t h e i r confidence "In a kindly world Inhabited by kindly people who w i l l not subject one to too great d i f -f i c u l t y . " t t i s true that the Community, i n the person of the Children's Aid Society, had stepped i n to rescue them, but to the c h i l d , whose own small world had been shattered, 1. Cowan, op. c i t . , p. 338. the rescuer must often have seemed anything but the harbinger of renewed confidence. In Chapter I I , an attempt was made to evaluate the families as they appeared at the time of the removal of the c h i l d r e n . I t was seen that many problems existed and that In many Cases, th© families had started to d i s -integrate long before the apprehension of the c h i l d r e n . The purpose of t h i s chapter i s to take a look at the children and to examine them f i r s t at the time of removal from t h e i r families and again a f t e r a period of fo s t e r home car©., Mho wore these children? What were they l i k e when they cam© Into care? How f a r had th e i r basic needs • been met by t h e i r f a m i l i e s ? What-did t h e i r f a m i l i e s mean to them? The t h i r t y - f o u r children i n the sample consisted of eleven g i r l s and twenty-three boys.- At the time of place-ment nine .of the children were between the ages of three and f i v e years, fourteen were between s i x and ©Ight, and eleven were between nine and eleven. (Table 9) Table ffs' Comparison of Age and Sex of Children (at time of placement) Age of Ch i l d Sex of Child Total Female Hale 3-5 Years 3 ' 6 9 '6-8 Years - 5 ' ;'- 9 14 9«!-ll Years 3 8 11 Total 11 23 34 - 40 -As a basis f o r determining the c h i l d ' s degree of adjustment at the time of placement, c r i t e r i a were drawn up. These covered five'areas: physical status, emotional status, parental r e l a t i o n s (applied separately to the father and the mother), r e l a t i o n s h i p with s i b l i n g s , and school adjustment. These c r i t e r i a were than applied to each c h i l d who was rated: good, f a i r , or poor, i n each of the f i v e areas, using indications of the kind assembled i n Schedule B. Table 10s Child'a Decree of Adjustment (at time of placement) Areas of Adjustment Ratings Total Good F a i r Poor Phy s i c a l Status.. .. 25 :•. 7 ,2. , 34 Emotional Status 1 2 13 9 34 Parental Relations Father . 3 14 « .8 •. 25(a) Mother 6 19 6 31(b) Relationship with Siblings 17 11 1 29(c) School Adjustment 1 1 9 . 5 • 2 5(d) Total Ratings 74 73 31 178; (a) Six fathers were dead. T;h©re was no information about three putative fathers, (b) Three mothers were dead, (c) Five c h i l d r e n had, no s i b l i n g s ; (d) Win® children were under school age.. - 41 -The physical status of''the' c h i l d r e n was s a t i s f a c t o r y i n most cases: with twenty-five rated- as good, seven as fair,'and two'as poor. The ratings f o r emotional status were better than those of the parents: twelve rated as good, th i r t e e n as f a i r , and nine as poor. Parental r e l a t i o n s were poor. In t h e i r r e l a t i o n s i f i t h t h e i r fathers, three children were rated as goodj . fourteen were rated as f a i r ? and eight, as poor. Th© children's r e l a t i o n s with t h e i r mothers were somewhat better: s i x rated good; nineteen, f a i r ? and s i x , poor. Relationships with s i b l i n g s seemed f a i r l y S a t i s -factory; seventeen were rated as good? eleven, aa f a i r ; and one, as poor. In the area of school adjustment, the twenty-fiv© chi l d r e n of school age were rated as: eleven, good; nine, f a i r ; and f i v e , poor. : To sum up, out of a t o t a l of one hundred and seventy* eight ratings f o r the c h i l d r e n i n a l l areas of adjustment, seventy-four were good; seventy-three, f a i r s and t h l r t y -ono, poor. These figures would seem to Indicate, e i t h e r that the adjustment of the c h i l d r e n was somewhat better than that of t h e i r parents, or, at l e a s t , that t h i s appeared to be the case, judging from the information a v a i l a b l e In th© records. In some instances, e s p e c i a l l y i n th© e a r l i e r placements, information was f a r from adequate, and Judgments had to be based on an absence of ©vidence of severe problems, rather than on any assurances of good adjustment,. The Child After a Period of Foster Care. The next part of th© chapter w i l l consist of an examination of the same group of children a f t e r they had been In ear© f o r a period of at lea s t two years. The date ohosen f o r the assessment was March 1, 1957. As a preliminary step, the caseworkers carrying the children wer© asked to complete a form giving information about the children such as: present age group, type of placement, s p e c i a l problems,, family contact since admission to care, and plans f o r the future,^ This information was supplemented by reading cas© records,, and by the writer's own knowledge as supervisor of West Unit. Since each c h i l d had been i n care a d i f f e r e n t length of tiffi© on Maroh 1,. 1957,, and since the children's ages varied greatly,, i t was d i f f i c u l t to e s t a b l i s h a uniform basis f o r comparison,, Although each c h i l d has been treated as i f , h e wer© from a separate family, f o r th© purposes of t h i s study,, there were four pairs of r e l a t e d c h i l d r e n : two sets of tnal© twins, a p a i r of brothers and a p a i r of sisters.,. Only the p a i r of brothers remained together throughout t h e i r time In care. The other ,1. See Appendix, p.76. s i b l i n g s w©re placed both together and separately at d i f f e r e n t times. Th© f i r s t thing to be examined, at t h i s point, was the length of time the c h i l d had been i n care as compared to h i s age. From th© following table i t w i l l be noted that the children seem to be divided into two groups — those i n car© under f i v e years, and those i n car© more than that tim©. In the f i r s t group, ©ight of th® ten children wer© s t i l l under twelve. In the second group, however, nineteen of the twenty-four children wer© over sixteen. (Table 11) Table l i s Comparison of Length of Time i n Foster Care to Present Age of C h i l d . (as at March 1 , 1957) Ag© of C h i l d Length of Time i n Car© Total Under 5 Years 5-10 Years Over 10 Years 6-8 Years 3 - 3 9-11 Years 5 - - 5 12-15 Years 2 5 - 7 16-20 Years - 12 7 19 Total 10 17 7 34 Next, an examination was made of the c h i l d ' s current type of placement. I t was found that hal f of th© 44 c h i l d r e n were In foster homes. Two children who were at home with parents were s t i l l Included i n the study, as t h e i r return home was only temporary and the agency was s t i l l r e t a i n i n g guardianship during th© t r i a l period. Nine of the older children were, as might he expected, eith e r i n commercial boarding homes or "on t h e i r own". Three ch i l d r e n of l i m i t e d i n t e l l i g e n c e were i n St. Christopher's School, on© g i r l was In the G i r l s ' I n d u s t r i a l School, and one boy was i n the Boys* Receiving Home. (Table 12) Table 12: D i s t r i b u t i o n of Children — According to  Type of Placement on March 1. 1957. Type of Placement Number of Children Foster Horn© 18 Boys* Receiving Home 1 Commercial Boarding Horn© 4 On own — Self-supporting 5 St. Christopher*© School G i r l s ' I n d u s t r i a l School 1 Home with Parents 2 Total 34 Following t h i s , a closer look was taken at the children In f o s t e r homes, to see how permanent were - 45 -t h e i r present s i t u a t i o n s . Of the eighteen children i n fo s t e r homes, f i v e had been i n t h e i r present homes less than one year; s i x had been i n t h e i r present homes one to three years; four had been i n t h e i r present homes over f i v e years. Two of the children i n the one to three year group were older children who had moved to th© homes of married children of t h e i r previous f o s t e r parents. (Table 13) Table 13; Length of Time i n Present Foster Home Compared  to Length of Time i n Care on. March 1. 1957. Years i n Car© Years In Present Foster Horn© Total Under Year 1-3 Years 3-5 Years Over 5 Years 2-3 Years - 1 - - 1 3-4 Years - 3 1 . - 4 4-5 Years 1 mm 2 - 3 5-6 Years 1 - 1 2 7-8 Years - 1 . - 1 2 8-9 Years 2 - - • - 2 Over 9 Years 1 1 - 2 4 Total 5 6 4 3 18 Th© next area examined was the extent of the ch i l d ' s contact with his family a f t e r placement. No attempt \me - 46 -made to differentiate between the kinds of contact such as v i s i t s , letters, telephone calls etc. It was noted that the greatest amount of contact was with other siblings In care. With a very few exceptions l i t t l e or no mention was made of any contact with relatives out-side the immediate family group, (Table 14) Table 14; Extent of Child's Contact with Family (following admission to care) Family Contact Extent of Contact Total Frequent Infrequent None Reported Father 6 8 14 28(a) Mother 7 12 11 30(b) Siblings in Care 11 10 1 22(e) Siblings at Home 5 7 4 16(d) Other Relatives 1 9 24 34 (a) Six fathers were dead, (b) Four mothers were dead, (c) Twelve children did not have siblings in care, (d) Eighteen children did not have siblings at . home, Finally, an attempt was made to determine the child's degree of adjustment as of March 1, 1957. As a basis for - 4? -determining t h i s ^ c r i t e r i a were drawn up. These covered eight areass physical status, emotional status, school adjustment, work adjustment, relationship to foster parents, relationship to natural parents, relationship with siblings, and child's understanding of why he i s i n care. These c r i t e r i a wer© then applied to each child who was rated good, f a i r , or poor, in each of the areas * using Indications of the kind assembled .in Schedule C. Table 15: Child's Degree of Adjustment. , • (as at March 1, 1957) Area of Adjustment Ratings Total Good Fair Poor Physical Status 30 3 1 34 Emotional Status 5 18 11 34 School Adjustment 9 10, 3 22(a) Work Adjustment 3 4 5 12(b) Relationship with Foster Parents 5 13 5 23(c) Relationship with Natural Parents 5 21 8 34 Relationship with Siblings 4 19 6 29(d) Understanding of Being in Car© 3 22 7 32(e) Total Ratings 64 n o ; 46 220 (a) Twelve children had l e f t school, (b) Twenty-two children were s t i l l at school, (c) Eleven children had no foster parents — four were in Institutions; f i v e , on their own; and two were with parents, (d) Five children had no Siblings, (©) Two children had returned to parents on a temporary basis.. 48 -Here again, i t w i l l be noted that the ratings f o r physical status vrere the most s a t i s f a c t o r y with t h i r t y c h i l d r e n rated as good; three, as f a i r ; and only one, as poor. Emotional status was much lower than the previous assessment with only f i v e children rated as good; eighteen rated as f a i r ; and eleven, as poor. School adjustment f o r the twenty-two children of i school age showed that they were f a i r l y evenly divided; nine children rated as good, and ten children rated as f a i r , with three rated as poor. Work adjustment was less s a t i s f a c t o r y . Of the twelve children i n t h i s category, three rated, good; four, f a i r ; and f i v e , poor. Relationship to foster parents f o r the twenty-three children to whom t h i s category applied (those i n f o s t e r homes, commercial boarding homes, and the Boys' Receiving Home) showed f i v e c h i l d r e n rated, good; t h i r t e e n , f a i r ; and f i v e , poor. Relationship to natural parents showed f i v e c h i l d r e n rated as good; twenty-one rated as f a i r ; and eight rated, poor. Relationship with s i b l i n g s showed a s i m i l a r pattern with four children rated good; nineteen,, f a i r ; and s i x , poor. i n the f i n a l category the c h i l d ' s understanding of being i n care — there were only three childr e n rated as good, twenty-two children were rated as f a i r , and seven childre n were rated as poor. To sum up, out of a t o t a l of two hundred and twenty ratings f o r th© c h i l d r e n , I n . a l l areas of adjustment, s i x t y - f o u r were good; one hundred and ten, f a i r ; and f o r t y - s i x , poor. Ratings as Applied t o Individual Children, So f a r , the ratings have been applied to the children i n a group. What meaning do they have when they are applied to i n d i v i d u a l children? An examination of the Individual ratings of the c h i l d r e n at the time of t h e i r placements showed that two of the children had received ratings i n only one area. In both cases t h i s area was good. Eight of the t h i r t y - f o u r children had received ratings i n a l l three areas — good, f a i r , and poor. A l l the other childr e n received a com-bination of ratings i n two areass either good and f a i r , f a i r and poor, or good and poor. High ratings and low ratings were next* examined. Three childre n received the highest ratings possible, being marked good i n a l l areas applicable. (The number varied from s i x f o r one c h i l d to f i v e f o r two c h i l d r e n , one of whom was below school age, and the other had l o s t on© parent). Next came on© c h i l d whose t o t a l score of s i x was - 50 -mad© up of f i v e ratings of good; and on©, f a i r . Two other ch i l d r e n , whose t o t a l score was f i v e , rated four good and one f a i r . At the other extreme, one c h i l d received four ratings of poor and two of good, while four c h i l d r e n received three ratings of poor. An examination of the ratings of the i n d i v i d u a l children at the time of th© second assessment showed that one c h i l d had received ratings i n only one area — good; eleven of the children had received ratings i n a l l three areas — good, f a i r , and poor; and two children had received ratings i n just the areas of good and poor. A l l other childr e n had received ratings of good and f a i r , or f a i r and poor. The three children rated the highest had ratings of s i x good and one f a i r out of a possible seven* The two children with the next highest ratings were those with ratings of four good, two f a i r , and one poor out of seven; and four good and two f a i r out of s i x . At the opposite extreme came two ch i l d r e n with ratings of s i x poor and one good out of a possible seven. Next, cam© on© c h i l d with a r a t i n g of f i v e poor, one good, and one f a i r . The next lowest were two children with ratings of four poor, on© good, and on© f a i r . - • 51 » Ratings ta.ke on greater meaning when they can be translated into actual s i t u a t i o n s . Looking at a group of eases, I t i s hard to se l e c t those which seem " t y p i c a l " . However, the following examples have been chosen as i l l u s t r a t i v e of some of the v a r i a t i o n s i n degree of adjustment found among the children j as shown by the two assessments: at time of placement, and on March 1, 1957. John camei into f o s t e r care when he was eleven. Th© information available would seem to indicate that, at the time^ h i s adjustment could be rated as good i n the areas of physical status, emotional status, and r e l a t i o n s h i p with siblings} f a i r i n the area of parental r e l a t i o n s , as r e l a t e d to h i s mother; and poor i n the area of school adjustment* Ho r a t i n g was given for parental r e l a t i o n s as applied to h i s father, as the l a t t e r was dead. John was the seventh c h i l d i n a family of eight. His father, while he was a l i v e , managed to keep th© family together, i n spite of his wife's a l c o h o l i c tendencies; and family t i e s were said to be strong. After the father's death, th© mother received Mothers' Allowance f o r about three years; then began staying away from home f o r longer and longer periods of time. For awhile, older childr e n kept things going. Next, a married s i s t e r took John f o r a year. When she could not keep him any longer, even with f i n a n c i a l help, because of her own growing family, she requested the Children's Aid Society to take guardianship. - 52 -At the time of admission to care, John's general health was good. He was small f o r his age but we l l -nourished. He was described as possessing a natural, pleasing personality. Relations with s i b l i n g s were good and he expressed i n t e r e s t i n being placed with a brother, who was already In care, I f t h i s could be arranged. School adjustment was rated as poor, as he had missed a l o t of school due to truancy. Three weeks af t e r coming into care, John \ms placed with foster parents, who had two sons, and who took a keen inter e s t i n the boys' a c t i v i t i e s . At the time of the second assessment, John, now nineteen, x*as s t i l l i n t h i s home. At t h i s time he was rated good i n a l l areas except one. He was rated as only f a i r In the area of rel a t i o n s h i p with s i b l i n g s , as he seemed to have only moderate in t e r e s t i n them. In the intervening years, John had become an Integral part of the foster family and appeared to have Id e n t i f i e d completely with t h e i r standards and goals. His health continued good, his emotional adjustment average (as Judged by a Youth Counselling Service Test), and, up to the time he l e f t school, his work was considered good f o r his a b i l i t y , and he was popular with his classmates. Afte r leaving school, he obtained steady employment and became f i n a n c i a l l y independent. After the f i r s t tevt months i n care, John seemed to lose touch with his family. Por - 53 * . some time, he used the f o s t e r family's name.. However, when he xoas eighteen, John had a v i s i t with some of his family, and a f t e r t h i s he began to us© his own name again, saying that he f e l t h is father would have l i k e d him to do so. This picture i s not e n t i r e l y free from negative aspects. If anything, John i s too co-operative and w i l l i n g to please. Also, the presence of a l l e r g i e s , which erupt from time to time, may Indicate some underlying tension. On the other hand, John has become a sensible, hard-working, dependable boy who manages his money well and who seems to have ©very hop© of becoming a worth-while c i t i z e n , Joan was ten when she came into care. From the Information a v a i l a b l e , her adjustment at that time could be rated as good i n the areas of physical status, emotional status, parental r e l a t i o n s (as rel a t e d to her mother), and school adjustment. She was rated f a i r i n re l a t i o n s h i p with s i b l i n g s . As her father was dead, there was no r a t i n g made In t h i s area, Joan was the youngest of three c h i l d r e n . Her father died the year she was born, and her mother managed to bring up the three children, with the help of S o c i a l Assistance. In 194-9, the family was referred to th© Children's Aid Society, as the mother was showing symptoms of schizophrenia with paranoid tendencies*,. The older boys, - 54 -who were presenting behavior problems, xirere apprehended i n 1950, Joan, a model c h i l d , remained with her mother u n t i l 1951, At that time, her mother brought her to the o f f i c e saying that she f e l t unable to carry on. Joan was apprehended. Her mother was examined b y a ps y c h i a t r i s t and committed to the P r o v i n c i a l Mental Hospital. When Joan was admitted to care, she was described as a f r i e n d l y , i n t e l l i g e n t c h i l d who related e a s i l y to adults. The worker sensed that she had deep f e e l i n g s , p a r t i c u l a r l y about her family, and i t was considered that Joan was able to face th© r e a l i t y of her s i t u a t i o n . Sh© had apparently been i n the habit of accepting a con-siderable degree of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r her mother. Sh© showed a good deal of concern as to whether her mother was being cared f o r , whether she was lonely, and whether she i*as well treated. Joan's school reported her to be a model pupil,, s o c i a l l y well adjusted, and with an I. Q. of 120. Since coming into f o s t e r care, Joan has had four placements. She has been In her present f o s t e r home sine© May 1952, with th© exception of one year when the f o s t e r parents were away, Joan could have gone with them, but, instead, chos© to stay i n Vancouver so that she could v i s i t her mother. . - 55 -At. the time of t h e second assessment., Joan was rated as good i n a l l areas; She could be described as a b r i g h t , a t t r a c t i v e , adolescent making f a i r l y s a t i s f a c t o r y progress i n grade 11, having l o t s of fr i e n d s , and di s p l a y i n g th© , occasional burst of adolescent r e b e l l i o n . For a long time, s h © looked forward to t h e day when she would become self-supporting as t h e time when she "would take her mother out of the mental h o s p i t a l to car© f o r her." Graduallyj she has come to r e a l i z e that t h i s desire was u n r e a l i s t i c . The change i n attitude has come about, p a r t l y due to the help given her by th© doctors at th© ho s p i t a l i n understanding her mother's condition j p a r t l y du© to the actual experience of spending time with h©r mother, when the l a t t e r was out fo r a v i s i t , at th© home of Joan's married brother. Joan's f o s t e r parents have helped to arrange v i s i t s with her mother and have encouraged contact with her brothers. Joan's adjustment to her fo s t e r parents has only been rated f a i r . This r a t i n g was based upon a remark mad© by Joan's f o s t e r mother that she did not think that sh© and hor husband would ever mean a great deal to Joan -- th© emotional distance between them was clear cut and always present. A t times the f o s t e r mother has spoken of her . disappointment at Joan f o r not having chosen friends of the same class as t h © f o s t e r parents. Nov;, at seventeen, Joan Is looking forward to the day when she w i l l have a Job and be able to move into an apartment with other g i r l s . This appears to be a healthy sign of growth towards maturity and independence, Barbara, also, came into foster care when she was ten, but the picture i s very d i f f e r e n t . At the time of admission* the information available would seem to indicate that her adjustment could be rated as good i n the.areas of physical status, and r e l a t i o n s h i p to s i b l i n g s , and poor i n a l l other ;||reas. At the time of the second assessment, s i x years l a t e r , she was rated good i n only one area — health status; f a i r i n th© area of r e l a t i o n s h i p with s i b l i n g s ; and poor i n the areas of emotional status, school adjustment, r e l a t i o n s h i p to natural parents, and chi l d ' s understanding of why he i s i n care, No r a t i n g was given i n the area of r e l a t i o n s h i p to fos t e r parents, as Barbara had none at the time, being i n the G i r l s ' I n d u s t r i a l School. Barbara was the s i x t h c h i l d i n a family of seven. When her parents separated, her mother took four of the children to another province, placed them with r e l a t i v e s , and disappeared. They were returned to t h e i r father i n Vancouver, and, subsequently, s i x of the chi l d r e n were apprehended. - 57 * At the time of admission, Barbara's health was s a t i s f a c t o r y , but her behavior suggested extreme '•'-'> deprivation. She was ©neurotic, hyper-active, had temper-tantrums, and was often found wandering the street i n a daze. A neighbour said i t was impossible to get "close" to her. She had been badly beaten by her father. At th© same time, she was described as t a l k a t i v e , outgoing, f r i e n d l y , with a dry sense of humour, demonstrative, and aff e c t i o n a t e . Subsequent examinations at the Child Guidance C l i n i c revealed her to be an anxious c h i l d j showing emotional disturbance i n the area of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , Sh© was considered to be displaying her anxiety i n ac t i n g out aggression. Play therapy sessions were recommended to help her work out her h o s t i l i t i e s but these could not be arranged, _ By the time of Barbara's second assessment, s i x years a f t e r admission, she was i n the G i r l s ' I n d u s t r i a l School for th© second time and was I l l e g i t i m a t e l y pregnant, Th© period i n between had been a sorry history of moves from fos t e r home to foster home, attempts to help her by placement In the G i r l s ' Receiving Home, and by placement with a married s i s t e r . The only person with much meaning to her seemed to be one of her brothers. In spit© of every e f f o r t to help her on the part of the worker, Barbara had nothing but h o s t i l i t y f o r her and the agency, Barbara - 58 -seemed to lack any sense of identification„ and her need to hurt h e r s e l f , by bringing upon herself the r e j e c t i o n of others, holds out l i t t l e hope f o r the future. . Mary was s i x when she cam© into the care of the Society. The information available would seem' to indicate that she could be rated good In the areas of physical status, and school adjustment, and f a i r i n the areas of ©motional adjustment, and parental r e l a t i o n s . She had no s i b l i n g s . Mary was the only c h i l d of a l c o h o l i c parents. Sh© had experienced many f i g h t s between her parents, and, at the time of her apprehension* she refused to go with the workers u n t i l assured that someone would keep an eye on her mother f o r fear her father would return and fflistreat her. She described how she lay awake at nights l i s t e n i n g to arguments and f i g h t s between her parents u n t i l 3 A. M. when they would f a l l asleep. Since her admission to care, Mary has had two placements. The f i r s t , which lasted seven months, was planned as a temporary placement u n t i l more was known of the family prognosis. In the second f o s t e r home, Mary has made a f a i r l y good adjustment. However, she has shown complete i n a b i l i t y to share her belongings, and she seems to shut o f f her own private world by a door of politeness. When Mary did not see her parents for some time, she became so anxious that the worker had to locate them by advertising. Since then, her parents have - 59 -separated, and her father has disappeared from th© p i c t u r e . Her mother, who has had two periods i n Crease C l i n i c , has ceased to drink. She i s , however, diagnosed as an i n -adequate personality, and she seems unable to hold a job, or to take any steps that would make i t possible to have Mary with her. Mary becomes extremely upset a f t e r v i s i t s with her mother. In a recent p s y c h i a t r i c consultation, i t was suggested that Mary i s unable to face the f a c t that she doesnot want to b© with her mother, instead she has to blame the agency f o r r e f u s i n g to l e t her go. In school, Mary i s making good progress, i s fourth i n her c l a s s , and i s working to capacity. Sh© i s described as w i l l i n g to help i n any way asked, to be making fr i e n d s , and getting along n i c e l y . Mary's f o s t e r parents have been disappointed i n her aloofness. Each year the fost e r mother speaks of asking to have her moved, only to put i t o f f for enother year as the time draws near. Although agreeing to v i s i t s with th© mother, foster mother finds them most threatening as Mary, upon her return to the f o s t e r home, takes out her d l s * appointment upon the f o s t e r mother. At the time of the second assessment, when Mary had been i n care for throe years, she was rated as good i n th© areas of physical status and school adjustment; and f a i r i n th© areas of ©motional adjustment, r e l a t i o n s h i p to f o s t e r parents, r e l a t i o n s h i p to natural parents, and ch i l d ' s understanding of why he i s %n care, - 6 0 -SCHEDULE B. C r i t e r i a . Applied. to...Child *.a Degy©e of Adjustment. (at time of placement) j.. Physical Status. Good References made to c h i l d * s good health* Ho health problems other than usual i n f e c t i o u s diseases. ffiair Minor health problems. Moderate degree of over-weight or underweight* Physical defects which can be corrected* Poor Acute or chronic i l l n e s s e s . Severe malnutrition. 2, , -3Smotlona.l.,Status., Good Child malting s a t i s f a c t o r y progress at home and i n the community. Ho behavior problems. F a i r C h i l d described as too quiet or as showing some aggressive behavior. Minor behavior problems. Poor - ; C h i l d displaying sever© behavior ' d i f f i c u l t i e s or committing acts of delinquency. Extreme with-drawal or extreme aggression, 3 . Parental Relations Applied- Separately to (a) Father (b) Mother, , . . . • . Child accepts and gives a f f e c t i o n . I d e n t i f i e s with parent and accepts parental standards. Child withdraws*/from parent or becomes over-demanding and attention-seeking. Shows over-anxiety when separated: from parent, . Child demonstrates h o s t i l i t y and r e j e c t i o n of parent without seeking a parent substitute* Child renounces adult a f f e c t i o n and approval. Becomes seriously withdrawn... 4f .  Relationship with .Siblings. Good Children show a f f e c t i o n with minor differences of ©pinion, Fair n Some s i b l i n g r i v a l r y . Periods of serious d i s -harmony , foqc| F a i r Poor Poor. Children quarrel continually. Ho. contact between s i b l i n g s . - 61 « School. Adjustment,,. . Good Child progressing s a t i s f a c t o r i l y i n accordance with, h i s academic ••ability,, S o c i a l .adjustment' good. Child's academic progress retarded by minor d i f f i c u l t i e s . Some behavior problems. Occasional truancy,. Child's progress f a r below h i s academic a b i l i t y . S o c i a l adjustment poor. Habitual truancy. F a i r  Poor - 6 2 -SCHEDULE C. • C r i t e r i a Applied to Child's degree m of Adjustment, (following tvfo years or longer In foster car©) 1. Physical Status. Good References made to chi l d ' s good health confirmed by examinations by agency doctor. No.health problem other than usual infe c t i o u s diseases. F a i r Minor health problems. Moderate degree of overweight or underweight. Physical defects which can be corrected. Poor Acute or chronic I l l n e s s e s . Severe malnutrition. 2. Emotional Status. Good Child making s a t i s f a c t o r y progress i n the fost e r home and i n the community. Good sense of personal worth. Capable of forming meaningful r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Ho behavior d i f f i c u l t i e s mentioned. Fair 1 Child lacks an adequate sens© of personal worth but i s s t i l l able to form some meaningful r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Described as too quiet or showing aggressive behavior. Minor behavior problems. Poor Child completely lacking i n a sense of personal worth. Severe behavior d i f f i c u l t i e s and/or delinquent conduct.. Extreme withdrawal or extreme aggression. Unable to form meaningful . rel a t i o n s h i p s . 3.. School Adjustment. Good Child progressing s a t i s f a c t o r i l y i n accordance with his academic a b i l i t y . S o c i a l adjustment good. Fair. Child's academic progress retarded by minor d i f f i c u l t i e s . Some behavior problems. Occasional truancy. Poor Child's progress f a r below his academic a b i l i t y S o c i a l adjustment poor. Habitual truancy. 63 -4. Work Adjustment. Good Child s t e a d i l y employed at a job commensurate with his a b i l i t y . Taking appropriate r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r his own support. F a i r Child has periods of steady employment but changes Jobs quite frequently. Hot performing up to M s a b i l i t y . Has d i f f i c u l t y accepting r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r h i s own support. Poor Child unable to hold a job and making l i t t l e ~~ attempt to fi n d new employment. Spends earnings for s e l f - g r a t i f i c a t i o n ^ without regard to s e l f -maintenance. g. Relationship to Foster Parents. Good Child accepts foster parents as pert-parent substitutes. Gives and receives a f f e c t i o n and i d e n t i f i e s with foster parents' standards. F a i r Child accepts fo s t e r parents only p a r t i a l l y and retains unhealthy t i e s with natural parents. Conforms to demands of foster parents and maintains a s u p e r f i c i a l l y f r i e n d l y r e l a t i o n s h i p . Poor Child i s unable to tolerate any close r e l a t i o n s h i p with parent substitutes. Displays h o s t i l i t y and rejection'thus provoking frequent requests f o r r e -placement. Over-demanding or extremely withdrawn. 6 . Relationship to Natural Parents. Good Child accepts parents on a r e a l i t y b a s i s , neither over g l o r i f y i n g them nor hating them. Can i d e n t i f y with parental strengths and accept and return a f f e c t i o n where such i s possible. F a i r Child has some d i f f i c u l t y i n accepting parents I n a b i l i t y to care f o r him and either keeps hoping, u n r e a l i s t i c a l l y , f o r parental promises to materialise, or, has l o s t hope, but has trouble forming substitute r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Poor Child shows complete r e j e c t i o n of parents to the degree that i t int e r f e r e s with his acceptance of his own ©elf-worth and a b i l i t y to form t i e s ivith others. Child held i n neurotic t i e to parent making i t impossible f o r him to form new t i e s . 64 -7. Relationship with S i b l i n g s . Good .Child shows a f f e c t i o n with minor differences of 'opinion. F a i r Moderate i n t e r e s t . Periods of serious d i s -harmony . Poor Children quarrel continually. No contact between s i b l i n g s . Extreme r e j e c t i o n or antagonism shown to s i b l i n g s . 8. • .Child's.Understanding of Why he i s i n Care. Good C h i l d has solved h i s c o n f l i c t s over separation from parents, has c l a r i f i e d h i s i d e n t i t y , and has adjusted r e l a t i v e l y w e l l . F a i r Child conforms i n most areas with some under-l y i n g h o s t i l i t y which may appear at times of c r i s i s . Lacks any c l e a r understanding of h i s i d e n t i t y . May s t r i v e to achieve beyond h i s a b i l i t y . Poor Child clings to a phantasy picture of h i s own family. Rejects f o s t e r parents, workers, and agency and/or i s extremely demanding. CHAPTER IV The S o c i a l Worker and the Neglected C h i l d . In the past f i f t y years s o c i a l workers * under-standing of the needs of children has grown i n depth and c l a r i t y . The knowledge that has been gained, however, Is s t i l l only the beginning of true understanding. In the words of John Bowlby: "The growth of an i n d i v i d u a l proceeds by d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n 'from large d i f f u s e un-focused responses to goal determined, l i m i t e d , precise and consequently e f f i c i e n t modes of response'. In h i s search f o r clear e r understanding and jnore pr e c i s e l y adapted action, the s c i e n t i s t proceeds s i m i l a r l y , moving from the perception of c e r t a i n general and gross relationships to a f i n e r and f i n e r appreciation of the nature of the forces at work and of t h e i r influence on each other. In th© f i e l d of mental health and i t s r e l a t i o n to parental care investigators have so f a r done no more than perceive the gross r e l a t i o n s h i p s . I t i s f o r workers In the coming half-century to r e f i n e perceptions, to elucidate com-p l e x i t i e s , and to give the power to prevent mental i l l n e s s . " * Reference has already been made to the early days of c h i l d welfare when the s o c i a l worker f e l t her job was don© when she had provided for the physical needs of th© c h i l d . Today, the s o c i a l worker's goals are placed f a r beyond t h i s point. She has seen that, unless a c h i l d ' s emotional and. psychological needs can be met, he i s unable 1. Bowlby, op. c i t . , p.63. - 6 6 -to u t i l i z e th© advantages placed at h i s d i s p o s a l . How thee© needs can be met, and what they are, s t i l l requires further c l a r i f i c a t i o n . Everyone can recognize the c h i l d who cannot adjust? not everyone can under-stand the reason f o r his f a i l u r e . But each c h i l d Is d i f f e r e n t ; so may the cause of h i s f a i l u r e to adjust be d i f f e r e n t . What works for on© c h i l d may f a i l with his brother. Only by reviewing the facts of each case, constantly, by examining and t e s t i n g the reasons f o r each success and f a i l u r e , can progress be made. The present study was designed to explore on© area of the fo s t e r c h i l d ' s world — that of h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p (or lack of It) with his natural family — and to examine some of the e f f e c t s of t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p on his adjustment i n foster care. Exploration of the subject revealed that t h i s was an area of concern to many c h i l d welfare workers, and one which seemed to merit more attention than i t had received i n the past. While the problems had been c l e a r l y stated, methods for r e s o l v i n g the c o n f l i c t which frequently arose between parents, f o s t e r parents, and children had not been c l e a r l y set f o r t h u n t i l r ecently. It was Esther Gliokman, i n her book, Child Placement Through C l i n i c a l l y  Oriented Casework« who was the f i r s t author to discuss the subject f u l l y ; and to set f o r t h concrete suggestions f o r dealing with the problems involved. The present study was designed to examine the family relationships of t h i r t y - f o u r c h i l d r e n of varying ages, a l l wards of the Children's Aid Society, i n an endeavour to determine how t h e i r adjustment i n fo s t e r care might have been a f f e c t e d by family r e l a t i o n s h i p s . As a basis for the study, the family s i t u a t i o n of th© c h i l d at the time of his removal was examined and an attempt made to assess the strength© and weaknesses i n the family group* In addition, c e r t a i n c r i t e r i a were drawn up on the basis of which the parents' capacity f o r parenthood was assessed. How f a r can the findings of th i s examination be drawn together? The majority of parents were born i n Canada of B r i t i s h Origins while predominately Protestant, approxi-* mately one-half the mothers and two-thirds of the fathers were not l i s t e d as having any church a f f i l i a t i o n . Th© parents' educational background was li m i t e d and the Information about i t often inadequate. The majority of fathers were employed at u n s k i l l e d or semi-skilled occupations; whil© one-half of the mothers were not employed outside t h e i r homes. Information concerning income was l i m i t e d and income l e v e l s appeared low. Th© majority of parents were between twenty and f o r t y , with the mothers somewhat younger than the fathers. Th© broken home — broken by death, desertion, or by out-of-town employment -- seemed a major cause of th© c h i l d becoming - 68 -i n need of protection; poor physical health was not a contributing factor; poor emotional health, however, as demonstrated i n poor marital r e l a t i o n s , poor parent-child r e l a t i o n s , and poor work adjustment* seemed of major sig n i f i c a n c e as the cause of family d i s i n t e g r a t i o n . Of the children who were studied: f i r s t at the time of placement, and then (at a fi x e d date, March 1, 1957) \*hen every o h i l d had been i n care f o r at l e a s t two years, the following background can be indicated. Th© childr e n wer© a l l between the ages of three and eleven when admitted, but had be©n i n oar© varying lengths of time by March 1957. There were eleven g i r l s and twenty-three boys i n th© group; t h e i r ages ranged from three to eleven at the time of placement. By March 1957• seven children had been i n f o s t e r care over ten years, seventeen c h i l d r e n had b©©n i n car© between flv© and ten years, and ten c h i l d r e n had been i n oar© under f i v e years. Eighteen childr e n wer© being cared f o r i n f o s t e r homes, one was i n the Boys' Receiving Home, two were with parents temporarily, four were i n commercial boarding homesj f i v e self-supporting, three i n St. Christopher's and one i n the G i r l s ' • I n d u s t r i a l School. Of the eighteen childr e n i n f o s t e r homes, seven had been i n the same home over three years. Two more of the eighteen had moved to the homes of - 69 -natural chil d r e n of t h e i r f o s t e r parents. The children's contact with t h e i r f a m i l i e s varied greatly from "frequent", to none at a l l . Rating of Adjustment. A comparison of the two assessments to determine degree of adjustment showed,first, that health was generally good. At the time of the f i r s t assessment, emotional status, r e l a t i o n s h i p with s i b l i n g s , and school adjustment (for those attending) was rated good or f a i r for the majority of the children. Relationship with parents, p a r t i c u l a r l y fathers, showed few rated as good and, many as poor, the majority rated as only f a i r . At th© time of the second assessment (March 1957) th© ratings f o r approximately two-thirds of the childr e n wer© " f a i r " , with the largest number of poor ratings f o r emotional adjustment and r e l a t i o n s h i p to natural parents. School adjustment rated high for th© twenty-two attending. Three children were rated good i n the area of understanding of reasons f o r being in^car©, as compared to twenty-two rated f a i r and seven, poor. To evaluate these findings, i t i s neoessary to consider t h e i r degree of v a l i d i t y . Since the c r i t e r i a used i n t h i s study are only tentative and have not been subject to t e s t i n g , the r e s u l t s can only be considered as exploratory. An Important l i m i t a t i o n on the v a l i d i t y of th® results' iss th© variation- In the quality of .the ease records involved,, I t was found that, i n some of the older recordsg i t was necessary to make Judgments on the basis of lack of evidence to the contrary., rather than on s p e c i f i c a l l y stated f a c t s . I t i s possible that some' children may have been given 'higher ratings at the time of admission than was r e a l l y warranted. A previous study, What, ..Happens .to. Foster ...'Children i n Later Adolescence., by Edwin Watson i n 1955 attempted to evaluate the personal and s o c i a l adjustment of older f o s t e r c h i l d r e n . ^ This study, together with an e a r l i e r study, (1953) The Placement of Adolescent Boys, by George Reed, both experimented with evaluative c r i t e r i a aiming at 2 measuring the adjustment of foster children. The present study d i f f e r s from these im two respects? (1) the childr e n studied covered a wider age range, not being confined to adolescents as were the two e a r l i e r etudlesj (2) the focus of the present study was on the child ' s r e l a t i o n s h i p to his natural parents, an aspect not stressed i n e a r l i e r studies. I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t that the f i r s t studies on the adjustment of foster children should concern themselves 1. Watson, Edwin Francis, What Happens to Foster Children in.Later. .Adolescence? Master of S o c i a l Work Thesis,"University of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, B.C., 1955. '2. Reed, §©orge Aubrey, The ^ Placement of Adolescent  Boys* Master of So c i a l Work Thesis, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, B. C , 1953. - 71 -with the adolescent. It i s not t i l l the disturbance becomes obvious that we r e a l i z e that we have a problem w© must t r y to solve* Th© c h i l d who represses his feelings often goes unnoticed u n t i l on© of the c r i s i s periods of l i f e cause his defences to break down. On th© other hand, i t i s often harder to make d e f i n i t e assessments In the e a r l i e r year®., What are the broader implications f o r casework practice which can be drawn from the present study? F i r s t , the n©ed to know the c h i l d as f u l l y as possible at the. time of placement, or before wherever possible^ One way of doing t h i s i s f o r the worker to spend more time with the parents, or those caring for the c h i l d , to ask th©m to share t h e i r knowledge of th© c h i l d , the good as well as the bad. This Bounds so simple and obvious yet so often th© worker, concerned with the p r a c t i c a l aspects of planning, e i t h e r f a l l s to ask f o r t h i s sharing of knowledge, or, i f she asks f o r i t , f a i l s to record the information. Perhaps, we f e e l the parent does not car© enough to be interested i n t e l l i n g us, or p©rhaps, we fear i t may be too p a l n f u i j but do we ever stop to think how important i t may be to the c h i l d l a t e r i f we can give him d e t a i l s about his early days with his parents? This information should include facts about other r e l a t i v e s , so often unknown i n the l i f e of the fos t e r c h i l d . Much of - 72 -t h i s informations of the ch i l d ' s f e e l i n g s about, and reaction to, his parents,• i s extremely important to share with f o s t e r parents, so that they can understand the c h i l d and h i s own parents, and be partners with the agency and the c h i l d i n helping him. Next, and equally important, i f we are to be able to work e f f e c t i v e l y with the c h i l d and h i s parents, i s the iirorker's acceptance of the parents — not t r y i n g to see them as better or worse than they are — but seeing them as they are. Some workers generally over-identify with parents, others see them as worse than they are. Both are equally h u r t f u l to the c h i l d and his chance to use a fo s t e r home constructively. Parents need to be understood, to be accepted, and to have the worker r e a l i z e that they do not f i n d i t easy to see t h e i r c h i l d r e n getting "everything" and themselves "nothing". "A c h i l d cannot derive maximum benefit from placement unless h i s parents' needs are recognized and dealt with, according to the parents' r e a l i t y circumstances and emotional framework.**.Not to heed the natural family means to neglect that part of the c h i l d which i s t i e d i n with the parents', whether p o s i -t i v e l y or n e u r o t i c a l l y , This s t i l l constitutes a large part of the chi l d ' s l i f e , " 1 How can we best help the c h i l d to accept placement? Some children seem to need more help i n t h i s area than 1, Glickman, op, c i t , , , p.332. - 73 -other's, but i t i s being recognized more and more that every child, needs help i n working through the separation trauma. A few years ago, i t was a rul e of many placement agencies to give a c h i l d two weeks to " s e t t l e " before allowing r e l a t i v e s to v i s i t * I f a v i s i t eaused upset, i t was considered a reason f o r cu t t i n g o f f v i s i t s . Today, we are coming to r e a l i z e that t h i s "upset" i s a necessary part of the readjustment process* We see that, i f the c h i l d does not have a chance to "talk out" h i s feelings,, he may remain irreparably and negatively, or ambivalently, t i e d to his past. We tend to l e t the best opportunities fo r t h i s " t a l k i n g out" process pass by unheeded. I t l a at the time of the break with h i s family that the c h i l d needs to t a l k and to know that the worker i s aware and. understands h i s f e e l i n g s * Instead of l e t t i n g him t a l k , th© worker may t r y to d i s t r a c t him* under the mistaken Impression that i f he can become Interested i n other things he w i l l forget* These children sometimes are the chil d r e n who never become a part of t h e i r f o s t e r homes. By that time, however, i t i s often too l a t e to r e p a i r th© damage without p s y c h i a t r i c treatment 9 because the c o n f l i c t has become too deeply repressed* Esther Glickman says: "Treatment of the separation trauma i s always-*- necessary, whether emotional disturbance 1* Underlining - the author's. as a r e s u l t of t h i s . I s apparent or n o t , M l Another area i n which the c h i l d i n placement needs help i s i n understanding that i t i s possible to love and he loved by more than one person* Often i t aeeas to the c h i l d to be a choice between his own parents and the fos t e r parents. " I f a c o n f l i c t of l o y a l t i e s r e s u l t s from e a r l i e r t i e s to the natural family , he can be helped to f e e l that he can love and be loved by more than one set of people at the same time." 2 i h i s Is an area In which fos t e r parents need help also. Often foster parents f e e l rejected i f the c h i l d s t i l l c l i n g s to own parents, p a r t i c u l a r l y i f the fo s t e r parent finds the behavior of the natural parents unacceptable. We need to prepare fo s t e r parents r e a l i s t i c a l l y f o r children's feelings about own parents. The primary objective of fo s t e r care i s to help th© c h i l d develop into an adult with a recognition of h i s own worth as an i n d i v i d u a l , and an acceptance of h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s to others t h i s he cannot do unless h© has come to terms with himself and his past. 1. Gliekman, Ibid, p . 2 5 3 . 2 . Ibid, p.384. - 75 - " APPENDIX A; SURVEY SCHEDULE FOR FAMILY CIRCUMSTANCE AT TIT-IS OF J^H3B33R£Siqa« FAMILY CIRCUMSTANCES AT TIME OF APPREHENSION Date of apprehension. F i l e No. SURNAME FATHER MOTHER CHILDREN i CHRISTIAN NAME BIRTH DATE BIRTH PIACB RACIAL ORIGIN MARITAL STATUS RELIGION ! » -t EDUCATION TRADE j &/or ! OCCUP.i INCOME P R E S E N T WHEREABOUT i i H r i i - 76 -APPENDIX B; SURVEY SCHEDULE FOR CHILD'S SITUATION ON MARCH 1. 1957. Name F i l e No. Birthdate Non-ward Are parents paying? C,B,C. Ward Date of admission Date of apprehension Date of Committal Ma r i t a l status of parents a t time of admission Age group - under 1 year 1 to 5 years i n c l . at school taking vocational or other higher education working - not yet s e l f supporting pa r t l y self supporting s e l f supporting Placement - subsidized baby home temporary foster home permanent foster home adoption home receiving home commercial boarding home i n s t i t u t i o n - name commercial boarding home i n s t i t u t i o n - name with r e l a t i v e s - free with r e l a t i v e s - paid other - specify unemployed other - specify APPENDIX B: (Continued) Special problems emotional disturbance r a c i a l problem mental defect Woodlands recommended , I f so, are papers in? delinquency on probation physical defect - specify• Child Guidance C l i n i c examination - date other psychiatric consultation - specify - date psychiatric treatment recommended? vocational test Adoption delayed due to: background lack of parental consent emotional disturbance r a c i a l problem mental defect other - specify Other problems - specify Family contact with: Frequent Infrequent None f o r -5 years or since committal father mother si b l i n g s - i n care s i b l i n g s - a t home other r e l a t i v e s Future plans: adoption return to parents continued foster home care other - specify Date Worker (Curvwy af .•ehil.-lr^r. i n care ) - 78 -BIBLIOGRAPHY Angus, Ann© Margaret, Children 1a Aid Society of Vancouver. B. C. 1901-1951, Vancouver, 1951. Baker, Inez M., "Caseworker Helps Child Use Boarding Home", Child Welfare. V o l . XXVIII, Number 5 , May, 1949, Child Welfare League of America, Inc., New York. Barbee, Margaret, "The Child-Placing Agency Considers th© Parent's F i n a n c i a l R e s p o n s i b i l i t y " , The Family. V o l . XXI, Number 7, July, 1940, Family Service Association of America, New York. Bowlby, John, Maternal Care and Mental Health. World Health Organization, Monograph Series, Geneva, 1952. Charnley, Jean, The Art of Child Placement. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, 1955. Child Protection i n Canada. Canadian Welfare Council, Ottawa, 1954.." Cornwall, Charlotte Elizabeth, The Use of Professional  Time In Relation to Case Content and Services  Rendered. Master of So c i a l Work Thesis, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, B. C., 1956. Cowan, Edwina A., and Stout, Eva, "A Comparative Study of the Adjustment made by Foster Children a f t e r Complete and P a r t i a l Breaks i n Continuity of Home Environment", The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry. V o l . IX, A p r i l , 1939* George Banta Publishing Company, Menasha, Wisconsin. Dempoon, James R., "New Developments i n Child Welfare", B u l l e t i n . V o l . XXVII, Number 5, May, 1948, Child Welfare League of America, Inc., Nexf York. Dula, John E., "The Child Away from Home", S o c i a l Casework. V o l . XXIX, Number 4, A p r i l , 1948, Family Service Association of America, New York. English, 0. Spurgeon, "The Psychological Role of th© Father i n the Family", S o c i a l Casework. Vol. XXXV, Number 8, October, 1954, Family Service Association of America, New York. Epperson, Jane Ann. "Some Basic P r i n c i p l e s of Direct Work with Children", Child Welfare. V o l . XXXI, Number 7, July, 1952, Child Welfare League of Ameriea, Inc., New York. - 79 -Fogerty, Patrick James9 Relation of Children's Disorders to L i m i t i n g Parental Influence©« Master of S o c i a l Work Thesis 9 University of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, B. C , 1952. Glickman, Esther, Child.Placement Through C l i n i c a l l y  Oriented Casetfork. Columbia University Press. '. Hew York, 1957. Golden, Clara, "Generic and Specialised Knowledge and S k i l l s i n Foster Horn© Car©", Child Welfare. V o l . . XXXIII, number 10, December* 19§4, Child Welfare' League of America, Inc., Hew York. Gordon, Henrietta L., Casework Services f o r Children.. Houghton M i f f l i n Company, Boston, 195^• Gordon, Henrietta L., "Limitations of Foster Home Care", Child Welfare. V o l . XXXII, Number ?* July, 1953, •' Child Welfare League of America, Inc.. Hew York. Hallowitz, David, "The Separation Problem i n the Child Car© I n s t i t u t i o n " , Social nCasework. V o l . XXIX, lumber 4, A p r i l , 1945% Family Service Association of America, New York. Hancock, C l a i r e , R., "Protective Service f o r Children", Child Welfare. V o l . XXVIII, Number 3, March, 1949, Child Welfare League of America, Inc., Hew York. Hutchinson, Dorothy, "Basic P r i n c i p l e s i n Child Welfare", Ch i l d Welfare. V o l . . XXXI, lumber 10, December 1952, Child Welfar© League of America, Inc., Hew York. Jolowicz, Almeda R,, "A Foster Child Needs His Own Parents", The C h i l d . August, 1947, U.S. Children's Bureau, Washington. Josselyn, Irene M., "The Family as a Psychological Unit", S o c i a l Casework. Vol. XXXIV, Number 8, October, 1953, Family Service Association of America, New York. Kahn, Al f r e d J . , "Can Effectiveness of Child Care b© Determined?", Child Welfare, V o l . XXXIII, Number 2,. February, 19154, Child Welfare League of America, Inc., Hew York. Krause, Mignon, "New Horizons i n Adoption", Child Welfare. Vol . XXXVI, Number 4, A p r i l , 195T, Child Welfar© League of America,' Inc., New York. Lazarus, Esther, "The Positive Approach to Protective Service", Child Welfare, V o l . XXVIII, Number 9, November, 1949, Child Welfare L e a g u e of America, Inc., New York. - 8b Lewiso Mary E., and Russel, E l l e r y C.*f. "Long Term Temporary Placement",; C h i l d Welfare^ V o l . XXX, Number 8, October, 1951, Vhiict wexrare League of America, Inc.; Net? Y o r k , Lugtlg, Donald Joseph, The Psychosocial Factors which  may Intensify the Adolescent Foster Child's • Concern about h i s Unknown Natural Parents. Master of S o c i a l Work Thesis, University of B r i t i s h ;Columbia^ Vancouver, 1. C., 1950• McLaren, Henry Mohcrleff* Adjustment of the Adolescent i n Rural Foster Homes. Master of S o c i a l Work Thesis, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, B. C , 1954. Marcuse, Berthold. LonR-Term Dependency and Maladjustment  Cases In a Family Service Agency — An Exploratory. Study of Data 1 and Method. Master of ; S o c i a l Work> Thesis, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, B. OV, 1956. Pollock, Jeanne C., "The Meaning of Parents to.the Placed C h i l d " , Child Welfare* V o l . XXXVI, Number 4 , A p r i l , . 1957, Child Welfare League of America, Inc., N©w York. Radinsky,, El i z a b e t h K., "The Caseworker In a Child P l a c ing Agency", B u l l e t i n . - V o l . XXVI, Number/ 7 , September, . 1947, Child Welfare League,of America, Inc., New York. Reed, George Aubrey, The Placement of Adolescent Boys. Master of So c i a l Work Thesis, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, B.- C , 1953. Rogers, Carl Ransom, The C l i n i c a l Treatment of the problem  C h i l d , Houghton M i f f l i n Company, Boston, 1939. Sears j Robert R*, MacGoby, Eleanor E., ; and Levin, Harry, Patterns of Child Rearing, Row, Peterson and Company, Evanston, I l l i n o i s , 1957• Sheldon, Eleanor P., "Intake,Practices --The Core of th© Agency's Service i n Helping Children and t h e i r Parents"V.Child Welfare. Vol*, XXVIII, Number 1 0 , December, 1949, C h i l d Welfare League of America, Inc., New York.: "A State Studies Its Services", Child Welfare. V o l . XXXVI, Number 3 , March, 1957» Ch i l d Welfare League of America, Ino.,New York. 1 - 81 -S t o t t , p. H., Unsettled Children and, Their Families. University of London Press Ltd.* London, 1956. "Symposium on Status, of Parents, of Children In Foster Care", Child Welfare* V o l . XXXII, Number 9, November, 1953» C h i l d Welfare League of America, Inc., New York. Watson, Edwin Francis, What Happens to Foster Children  i n Later Adolescence? Master of S o c i a l Work Thesis, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, B. C , 1955. Welsch, Exie E., "Sustaining the Child i n His Impaired. Home!', Chi Id ^ Welfare. V o l . XXXII, Number 7, July, 1953, Child Welfare League of America, Inc., Hew York* Weissman, Irving, "Children i n Long-Time Foster Care", Child-WeIfare. V o l . XXIX, Number 6, June, 1950, Child Welfare League of America, Inc., Hew York. Wires, Emily M i t c h e l l , "The Child Placing Agency", B u l l e t i n * Vol* XXVII, Number 2, February, 1948, Child Welfare League of America, Inc., New York. Wires, Emily Mitchell,."Some Factors i n the Worker-Foster Parent,Relationship",.Child.Welfare. V o l . XXXIII, Number 8, October, 1954, Child Welfare League of America, Inc*, Hew York. 

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