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The effect of the proposed Moran dam on agriculture within the middle Fraser region, British Columbia Hardwick, Walter Gordon 1958

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THE EFFECT OF THE PROPOSED MORAN DAM ON AGRICULTURE WITHIN THE .MIDDLE FRASER REGION, BRITISH COLUMBIA by WALTER GORDON HARDWICK B.A. , University of Brit i s h Columbia, 1954 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in the Department of GEOLOGY AND GEOGRAPHY We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September, 1958 i i ABSTRACT In the search for energy many proposals have been made to harness the rivers of Brit i s h Columbia, but the one for the Moran canyon on the Fraser River has the widest im-plications. A dam on this site, 800 feet high and 2400 feet wide, could produce i n i t i a l l y 4 million horsepower of elect-r i c i t y at low cost. In addition i t would hold the key to flood control on the Fraser River and to expansion of navi-gation, industrial location and agriculture. It would be located on part of the river believed by many to have con-siderable potential for future salmon runs. While each of these aspects of the dam is important when considered by its proponents, together they indicate a unique possibility of widening the economic base of the province. One aspect, the effect of the dam on agriculture, is the subject of this study. Moran Dam, i t is believed, w i l l affect agriculture in three major ways: (1) It w i l l flood the Fraser Valley for.a distance of 172 miles north of Moran to a maximum elevation of 1540 feet; (2) i t w i l l provide low cost hydro-electric power for use in pumping irrigation water and for rural electrification; (3) i t w i l l provide low cost energy which may act as a factor in the location of electrically-oriented i n -dustries, and in turn through an increased work force create larger markets for agricultural products. It is these in-fluences on agriculture related to the land and people of Briti s h Columbia that concerns this thesis. i i i To collect the necessary data four week-long trips were made to the agricultural areas of the Fraser Basin in the f a l l of 1957. Land-use was mapped and location of farms, ranches and significant landforms upon which agriculture could be undertaken were mapped. Later airphotos and maps were studied. The reasons for proposing the Moran Dam' along with a comparison between this dam and others within the province were reviewed. Next followed a description of the landforms, climate, s o i l s , vegetation and hydrology, the components of the Physical Geography. A consideration of the present value, location and nature of agricultural activity and the extent to which foodstuffs have been imported into the province was made. Another aspect studied was the human geography. As the Fraser River Basin was found too large to study as a whole a sub-regional breakdown was made within which the various aspects of the problem were discussed. The sub-regions were Lytton to Moran, Moran to Williams Lake River, Williams Lake River to Quesnel and the adjacent areas of the Thompson Valley, Chilcotin and Cariboo plateau. Flooding was found to be restricted because of the physical nature of the valley with its steep slopes rising from the river to a more or less continuous series of benches 100 to 800 feet above it s present bed. Thus only about 3000 acres of arable land, now chiefly utilized for winter grazing would be flooded, while about 4 5 , 0 0 0 acres could be inten-iv sively cultivated with irrigation water pumped from the reservoir. If the adjacent regions were included,where flooding is not a factor, pumping plants u t i l i z i n g low cost electrical energy could make available an additional 20,000 acres. Since Br i t i s h Columbia at present imports large quantities of foodstuffs, additional population expected to work in electrically-oriented industries would necessitate importation of even larger quantities of foodstuffs unless some of the 65jOOO acres were developed. Many of these are in areas with a relatively long growing season, large accumulated temperatures and low precipitation. Soils are f e r t i l e and the prospects for the intensive cultivation of vegetables, fruits and forage crops, plus the establishment of "feed lot" type cattle operations, in place of extensive grazing of cattle,could be expected. The costs of expanding agriculture in this region, however, would have to be com-petitive with other areas where irrigation agriculture is undertaken. This expansion of agriculture, desirable to meet the growing deficit in foodstuffs within Br i t i s h Columbia,would be dependent on the advent of large scale pumping irrigation works contingent on the construction of Moran Dam. No other proposal has been made of comparable import to the diversification of the economic base of the province. The impact of the proposal on agriculture alone is impressive. In presenting t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference and study. I f u r t h e r agree that permission f o r extensive copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e . I t i s under-stood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n permission. Department of Jlgj^gjLapJay,^cL,£gglogy,, ( i The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver 3 , Canada. Date September, 1958 V TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE I. INTRODUCTION 1 The Purpose and Methods of Research Employed . 1 Energy, The Primary Reason for the Moran Proposal 5 Energy in Br i t i s h Columbia 9 Bri t i s h Columbia Hydro-Electric Sources . 10 Major Hydro-Electric Proposals for Briti s h Columbia 13 The Moran Proposal 21 PART I II. THE MIDDLE FRASER REGION 32 III. THE PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY 37 Landforms 38 Climate 53 Controls of Climate 53 Weather Stations 55 Classification of Climate . . . 60 Precipitation 61 Temperature 67 Frosts 72 Growing Season 80 Extreme Temperature 84 Potential Evapo«?transpiration 85 Climatic Areas 90 Hydrology . 93 v i CHAPTER PAGE IV. HUMAN GEOGRAPHY 110 Sequent Occupance . 110 Supply Center 117 Transportation 121 Present Population Distribution . 127 PART II V. AGRICULTURE IN BRITISH COLUMBIA 134 Extent of Agriculture . 134 Agriculture Within the Fraser Basin . . . . . 139 Ranching 140 Distribution of Ranchsteads 140 Distribution of Cattle 142 Field Crops 148 An Increasing Demand for Agricultural Products 150 Summary 151 VI. IRRIGATION IN BRITISH COLUMBIA 152 Historical Development of Irrigation . . . . 153 Irrigation in the Fraser Basin . . . . . . . 156 Method of Irrigation 159 Pumping Irrigation Water 163 Considerations in the Expansion of Irrigation Agriculture ... 166 v i i CHAPTER PAGE PART III VII. EFFECT OF MORAN ON AGRICULTURE IN VARIOUS AREAS OF THE FRASER BASIN 169 VIII. SUB REGION I, LYTTON TO MORAN . 174 Physical Geography of the Lytton Moran Sub-region 174 Agriculture Areas in Lytton-Moran sub-region 177 Crops in Lytton-Moran Sub-region 181 Agricultural Development . 183 Moran Dam and Lytton-Moran Sub-region . . 185 Position of the Region with Respect to future Development 187 IX. SUB REGION II, MORAN-WILLIAMS LAKE RIVER . . 191 The Physical Geography of the Sub-region . 191 Distribution of Agricultural Areas . . . . 195 Agricultural Activities 197 Moran Dam and Moran-Williams Lake River Sub-region 200 Position of this Region as to Future Development 206 X. SUB REGION III, WILLIAMS LAKE RIVER TO QUESNEL 213 Physical Geography 213 Agricultural Areas 216 v i i i CHAPTER PAGE Mor an Dam and Sub-region III 220 The Position of the Region with Respect to Future Development 223 X I . THOMPSON RIVER VALLEY . . . 228 The Physical Geography of the Region . . . . 228 Agricultural Areas 231 Extent of Agriculture 232 Moran Dam and the Thompson Valley 237 Future as an Agricultural Region . . . . . . 241 XII. THE CHILCOTIN PLATEAU AND THE CARIBOO . . . . 245 The Physical Geography 245 Extent of Present Agriculture 248 The Moran Proposal in Respect to the Plateau Regions 249 Future Prospects of the Plateau Region . . . 250 XIII. FACTORS INFLUENCING THE EXPANSION OF AGRICULTURE IN THE MIDDLE FRASER BASIN . . 252 Competitive Irrigation Areas . . 252 Problems of Expanding Production 255 Moran Dam and Livestock Production 257 Fish and Agricultural Resources Compared . . 262 XIV. SUMMARY 265 The Effect of Agriculture on the Moran Dam Proposal 267 i x PAGE ILLUSTRATIONS 274 BIBLIOGRAPHY .279 X LIST OF MAPS MAP PAGE 1. Present and Potential Hydro-electric Develop-ments, the Columbia River Basin 16 2. Fraser and Thompson River, Power and Storage Sites 20 3. Salmon Spawning Streams 26 4. The Middle Fraser Region and Adjacent Areas . 34 5. Valley Cross Sections 49 6. Climatically significant Landforms 56 7. The Weather Stations 58 8. Mean Annual Precipitation 63 9. July Mean Temperature 70 10. January Mean Temperature 71 11. The Frost Free Period 76 12. The Mean Length of the Growing Season . . . . 81 13. Date at which Temperature Rises Above 43 F . . 83 14. The Percent of Water Deficiency 87 15. Climatic Areas . . . . . 92 16. Hydrological Features 95 17. S o i l Divisions 104 18. Grassland, Parkland, and Forest Areas . . . . 106 19. Population Distribution, 1891 116 20. Classification of Settlement 119 x i MAP PAGE 21. The Historic Access Trails 124 22. Population Distribution, 1956 128 23. Census Divisions 130 24. Indian Population . . . 132 25. Values of Agricultural Products 138 26. Distribution of Ranchsteads 141 27. Irrigation Areas 157 28. The Sub-regions 170 29. Settlement and Transportation, Lytton-Moran. 175 30. Distribution of Agriculture, Lytton-Moran . 179 31. Relative Position of Lytton-Moran to other Areas . . . .' 189 32. Settlement and Transportation, Moran-Williams Lake 192 33. Agricultural Areas, Moran-Williams Lake . . 196 34. Agricultural Regions after Flooding, Moran-Williams Lake 202 35. Relative Position, Moran-Williams Lake, to other Areas 207 36. Alienated Land 209 37. Settlement, Transportation and Agriculture, Williams Lake River-Quesnel 218 38. Effect on Flooding, Williams Lake River-Quesnel 222 39. Relative Position of Williams Lake River-Quesnel to Other Areas 226 x i i MAP PAGE 40. Settlement and Transportation, Thompson Valley 229 41. Agriculture Areas, Thompson Valley 234 42. Pavilion Diversion Scheme 242 43. Settlement and Transportation on the Plateau 246 44. Major Power Sites and Distances from Vancouver 266 45. Moran-Lower Mainland . . . 273 x i i i LIST OF TABLES TABLE PAGE I. B r i t i s h Columbia's Undeveloped Hydro-electric Resources 13 II. Proposed Dam Sites on the Fraser and Thompson Rivers 19 III. Weather Recording Stations by Elevation . . . 57 IV. Weather Recording Stations by Elevation in Adjacent Regions 57 V. Accumulated Temperature at Selected Stations 1955-56 72 VI. Frost Free Period (32 degrees) 77 VII. Frost Free Period (26 degrees) 78 VIII. Duration', Mean Daily Temperature above 43 degrees 80 IX. Date at which Mean Daily Temperature Rises and Falls Below 43 degrees F 82 X. A Comparison Between the Length of the "Growing Season" and the Frost Free Period . Determined at 26 and 32 degrees 84 XI. Distribution of Ranches, 1887 114 XII. Population, Occupied Acreage and Number of Farms 1891 115 XIII. Farm Population as Percent of Total Populat-ion 117 xiv TABLE PAGE XIV. Growth of Total Population 129 XV. Relative Value of Livestock and Crop Production by Regions 137 XVI. Percentage of Total Occupied Land in Crop . 139 XVII. Cattle, by Census Sub-divisions 142 XVIII. Number and Value of Cattle per Farm . . . . 146 XIX. Number of Cattle 1862-69 . . . . . . 147 XX. Number of Cattle by Census Sub-division . . 148 XXI. Comparison in Numbers of Cattle Shipped, 1954, 1955 148 XXII. Cultivated Land Devoted to Feed Production 1951 . . 149 XXIII. Average per Capita.IConsumption . . . . . . . 150 XXIV. Irrigated Acreage in the Okanagan Valley . ;. 154 XXV. Average Replacement Costs of Flumes over 30 years 162 XXVI. Comparative Costs of Sprinkler and Furrow Irrigation in the Okanagan Valley . . . . 163 XV LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE PAGE 1. Air View of the Moran Dam Location 23 2. Outwash Deposits near Pavilion 44 3. Outwash Fans, south of Lillooet 48 4. Mean Monthly Precipitation, Deep Valley Stations 62 5. Mean Monthly Precipitation, Plateau and High Valley Stations 62 6. Precipitation Variability, The Growing . Season, 1922-1956, Quesnel . . 66 7. Precipitation Variability, The Growing Season, 1922-1956, Lillooet . . 66 8. Mean Temperature Range . . . . . . 69 9. Extreme Temperature Range 69 10. Number of Days Upon Which Frosts Occur in the Growing Season 79 11. Length of the Frost Free Season, 32 degrees F. and 26 degrees F. Compared 79 12. Water Deficiency 88 13. S o i l Profiles, Brown, Thin Black and Grey Wooded Soils 97 14. Percent of Farms with area Irrigated 160 xvi LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS PAGE The Lytton-Moran Sub-region, near Laluwissin Creek . . 274 Irrigated Benches, East Lillooet 274 Fraser River near the Moran Damsite 275 Big Bar Creek Valley, Irrigated Pasture 275 Canoe Creek Headquarters Ranch 276 Gang Ranch Depression 276 Benches near Churn Creek 277 Williams Lake-Quesnel Sub-region, near Australian . . 277 The Thompson Valley looking East 278 The Plateau, at Meadow Lake 278 x v i i ACKNOWLEDGMENT It is impossible to mention the many people who gave assistance in the preparation of this thesis; some who answered questions, replied to letters and other en-quiries, who supplied information or acted as a "sounding board" for the ideas of the author. Others i t is imperative to acknowledge for their assistance. Singled out for particular thanks are: Dr. J.D. Chapman, my advisor, in whose classes I f i r s t became interested in Geography and who patiently listened to the plans for this thesis and read parts of the original draft before leaving for England in the spring of 1958; Dr. Harry V. Warren, who sparked my interest in Energy problems in Br i t i s h Columbia and who read the f i n a l draft; Mr. Hans Swinton and the Directors of Moran Power Development Company through whose generosity in sponsoring the Moran Power Devel-opment Fellowship, the author was financially able to spend a year doing research and writing; Dr. J. Lewis Robinson, who patiently read the f i r s t and f i n a l drafts after the de-parture of Dr. Chapman; Dr. R.I. Ruggles who offered consider-able professional advice on the cartography; my father, W.H. W. Hardwick who read and edited much of the thesis; and fi n a l l y my wife, Shirley, who in addition to spending many lonely evenings while the thesis was in preparation did much .of the printing on the maps. Walter G. Hardwick. September, 1958. CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Serious proposals to dam the Fraser River in the Moran Canyon have prompted studies on the effect of this dam on the people, economy and landscape in Brit i s h Columbia. The dam is planned primarily to produce hyro-ele c t r i c i t y , but i t would have important influences on navigation, flood control, tourism and irrigation agri-culture. To date the studies related to this dam have been directed toward the f e a s i b i l i t y of constructing the -dam, its influence on flood control and its effect on the fishing industry of Br i t i s h Columbia. None of these studies has been exhaustive and- a l l are continuing. Three areas of investigation have received l i t t l e more than superficial or speculative attention. These are the effect of the Moran Dam on settlement patterns within the Fraser River valley, on industrial location within the province, and on the agricultural potential of the region. I. THE PURPOSE AND METHODS OF RESEARCH EMPLOYED Moran Dam w i l l affect agriculture, within the middle Fraser River Valley in at least four ways? 2 (1) It w i l l raise the level of the river for some 175 miles; (2) i t w i l l provide cheap power for pumping i r r i -gation water; (3) i t w i l l provide local markets for locally pro-duced agricultural products through industrial location; and (4) i t may stimulate the expansion of transport-ation routes in the area. It is the purpose of this thesis to examine these and their effects on various sub-regions of the middle Fraser Valley from a geographical point of view. Some attention w i l l be paid to settlement patterns that may change within the region. Procedure Information was gathered and processed concerning the technique of irrigation agriculture and the present means for producing and marketing agricultural products. Also, f i e l d studies were made of the present and potential location of agricultural land within the Middle Fraser Region. The physical geography of the region was studied as to its landforms, climate, s o i l s , vegetation and hydro-graphy. Data on the extent of agricultural activity in the Middle Fraser Region, its location and potentialities was examined, through use of maps, air photos and f i e l d trips. 3 Vertical air photographs covering the area from Lytton to Moran and from Spences Bridge to Walhachin on the Thompson were studied, along with oblique air photo-graphs of the moran to Williams Lake areas. Four week-long f i e l d trips were made by auto-mobile, the f i r s t one in mid-August, 1957. They covered the Williams Lake to Quesnel area in detail, and served as a reconnaissance survey for the Lytton-Lillooet and Ash-croft regions enroute. In early September, 1957> with the aid of air photographs and one inch to one mile base maps, the agricultural use of the area from Lytton to Pavilion on both sides of the Fraser was mapped. An i n i t i a l trip into the Big Bar Creek.Valley was made on this t r i p . Several weeks later on another t r i p , the area from Clinton west to Canoe Creek and the Gang Ranch was visited, and agricultural activities in the Canoe Creek, Gang Ranch, Dog Creek and Alkali Lake areas were recorded on maps. A day trip was made south-west from Williams Lake to the Riske. Creek area in the Chilcotin and another side trip was made to Soda Creek and Marguerite along a portion of the old Cariboo Road. Late October, 1957 > was the occasion for the last t r i p , in which the Fraser Basin was entered from the east, through the Okanagan and Thompson Valleys. Land use was mapped in several areas of the Thompson and Big Bar Creek 4 Valleys. Visits were made for the f i r s t time to the Big Bar Mountain ranges, and along the road from Jesmond to Canoe Creek. The phase of this study, in which the physical and cultural geography of the region was described, and in which the data for the agricultural production was derived, necessitated the study of government reports, documents, and of historical works. Also some correspondence and per-sonal interviews were undertaken. It was found that the Middle Fraser Region had not been studied as a separate region and a l l the information for this report had to be selected from a variety of sources. Plan This introductory chapter w i l l include an outline of the factors involved in building the dam at Moran. Other sections w i l l include a resume of the primary reasons for planning the dam, a consideration of its relation to other hydro-electric proposals in the province and else-where, and a description of the proposed Dam i t s e l f . Part I of this thesis contains chapters delimiting the area which the Moran Dam w i l l affect, and describing the physical and human geography. Part II provides basic information needed to under-stand the problems involved in any expansion of irrigation agriculture. The f i r s t chapter discusses Agriculture, the second Irrigation in Br i t i s h Columbia. 5 Part III consists of five chapters dealing v/ith the agricultural potentialities of various sub-divisions of the Moran region in terms of the influences of Moran on agriculture described on page one. It is in these chapters that the bulk of the data collected on f i e l d trips and from air photographs and maps is reported. Two concluding chapters consider problems of the future of agriculture in the region and give a general summary. II. ENERGY, THE PRIMARY REASON FOR THE MORAN PROPOSAL Electricity is a means of distributing, for con-venient use, energy that has been produced from any one of a number of sources. From early in this century i t has been largely produced from coal-powered steam plants and from hydro sources. In recent years, petroleum products, natural gas and nuclear fuels have been utilized to produce i t for domestic and industrial consumption. Exhaustible and Renewable Energy Sources. In pro-ducing elect r i c i t y , coal, petroleum and natural gas are themselves consumed. In other words they are exhaustible, in that they are consumed and cannot be utilized again. The exhaustible sources of energy suffer from several drawbacks. Usually they are bulky to transport, and some-times, after they are consumed, residue remains for disposal. In addition, they suffer from increasing costs, for as soon 6 as nearby sources are utilized, more distant sources must be developed with a resulting increase in transportation costs. Hydro-electricity and solar power can be termed renewable energy sources, in that they are not consumed in the process of supplying energy. Even after indefinite use they do not become any less potent suppliers of energy. Energy as a locating; factor for Industry. Energy can be a tool for the use of man and industry, or i t can act as a locating factor for various industries. In industrial countries, energy is produced primarily as a tool for the industries of the nation, and the cost of production can be considerable. When energy becomes a determining factor in the location of an industry, the cost of "producing the energy becomes important; for only where a nation or region can produce energy so that i t can compet in price with the cheapest producers of energy in the world can i t attract those electrically-oriented industries in which the cost of energy is a substantial proportion of the total cost of production. An expanding economy demands an expanding energy source, and when the energy is used only as a tool for industry, the source of energy, thermal or hydro, does not make too much difference because the cost of power as a cost of production for most industries is not significant. The fact that power is available to meet an increasing demand is the significant factor. If, however, 7 a nation or region is to compete v/ith other regions for the location of industry which demands large blocks of cheap power, a renewable source, with a low unit cost, w i l l usually be imperative.^" The most frequently found source o for cheap power has been water. Where power costs are substantial proportions of the costs of production, as in the electro-chemical and electro-metallurgical industries, their location depends on the maintenance of low cost power relative to-other regions. Although domestic and light industrial users can pay up to 2 to 4 cents per kilov/att hour for electr i c i t y , some electro-chemical industries require ele c t r i c i t y at a total cost of only 4 mills per kilowatt hour. The large forest industries can afford 6 mills. Bonneville Power Authority which mar-kets Columbia River power in the United States, charges be-tween 2 and 2.5 mills per kilowatt hour. If any region is to attract industries similar to these mentioned, then i t is imperative that the electricity be developed at sites which are favorable and at a wholesale price competitive with the cheapest. 1 The cost of power is only significant, when com-paring several regions, i f other cost factors of production are relatively constant. 2 In several locations thermal plants have produced power at rates competitive with the large hydro-electric sources. The most widely cited plant is the Dow Chemical plant in Texas where gas fired generators produce power at 4 mills per kilowatt hour. 3 G. G r i f f i t h , "Inventory of Br i t i s h Columbia's Hydro-Electric Resources," 9th Transactions. Br i t i s h Columbia  Natural Resources Conference, (Victoria B.C. 1956) p. 530 8 Cost Factors in Development of Hydro Sources Costs of dam construction and transmission of energy are important factors in considering which sites are to be developed and in which order. The cost of building a dam i t s e l f is important, because fixed annual costs, re-sulting from construction borrowings, are one major item to govern the price at which elec t r i c i t y may be sold. The cost of transmitting energy from the dam site to the area of utilization is about 1 m i l l per kilowatt hour, for every 150 miles. Most electrical u t i l i t y engineers have believed that, without a great loss of energy, 300 miles was the limit that electric power could be transmitted. However this physical limit may be changed by the announce-ment by the Soviet Union and inspection by western engin-eers of the 400kv line, which transmits about 1 million kilowatt hours of electricity from Kuibyshev to Moscow, a 4 distance of 505 miles. The cost of transmission of power, added to the cost of i n i t i a l generation, limits the effect-iveness of any power to act other than as a mere tool for established industries and homes. Fish F a c i l i t i e s . As many rivers desirable for multi-purpose dams are already utilized as a fisheries re-source, provisions for fis h protection must be made. Fur-ther costs of construction are added to the capital cost 4 "Russian 400 kv Transmission Line Viewed" Elect r i c a l World, Sept. 30, 1957, p. 29. 9 where means of conveying f i s h over the dam and fingerlings down the dam are needed. Other Costs related to Dam Construction Where ex-pensive relocation of transportation routes or of farms and towns are involved, costs increase. International implications of international rivers, 'creating problems of down stream damages and benefits, further complicate the cost picture. On the other hand, some of the costs of a dam may be borne by other agencies that w i l l benefit from the construction. Those who can share in the costs of a dam are interested in flood control, irrigation and navi-gation. . Load Finally the question of "load" needs con-sideration. Energy which is used to 90 per cent of capacity is obviously cheaper to produce than that, given the same capital costs, which is used only to 50 per cent of capacity. The term "load factor" is used in describing the percentage of developed power actually used. III. ENERGY IN BRITISH COLUMBIA Bri t i s h Columbia has been endowed with many energy producing materials: coal, natural gas, and large rivers on which to produce hydro-electric power. These sources make up the energy reserves of the province, the tools for our present and future economies. El e c t r i c i t y has been the form 10 In which much energy has been utilized in British Columbia, most of i t produced by hydro-electric stations. B r i t i s h Columbia's Hydro-Electric Sources At the turn of the present century, Bri t i s h Columbia was believed to have unlimited latent sources of hydro-electric power to supply energy to future generations. B r i t i s h Columbia can ho longer claim unlimited supplies, for now most of the large watersheds have been studied, at least superficially, and estimates of the energy which i t is possible to u t i l i z e are now being made. In December 1957} within the province, some 3.7 million horsepower had been developed, accounting for about forty per cent of the energy used. Another 177,000 horsepower was under con-struction. Leaders of government and industry have tried to project into the future the energy needs of the province so that provisions can be made to meet those needs. The Br i t i s h Columbia Electric Company expects to need 1,400,000 horsepower by 1961 and 5>600,000 horsepower within 20 5 years. Bri t i s h Columbia Power Commission w i l l need some 700,000 horsepower by 1961.^ In its submission to the Gordon Economic Commission, the Government of B r i t i s h Columbia anticipates there w i l l be needed some 12.5 million 5 A.E.Grauer, Annual Report to Stockholders, 1956 6 G r i f f i t h s , op^ c i t . , p. 525. 11 horsepower of electrical energy within the province by 1975. Whether these estimates are valid or not, they are of significance in that they have prompted an intensive study of the rivers of this province to determine the f e a s i b i l i t y of developing hydro-electric sources. It has also prompted a survey of other means of producing electric power, using the other energy reserves of the province. Interim Estimates of the Hydro-Electric Potential  of B r i t i s h Columbia. British Columbia has five large and several small water sheds on which hydro-electric develop-ments have taken place or are proposed: the Fraser, draining 89,9Q0 square miles of south-central B r i t i s h Columbia; the Columbia, draining sofcth-eastern British-Columbia; the Yukon, draining the far northwestern part of the province; the Peace, draining east-central B r i t i s h Columbia and the Liard in the far north-eastern part of 8 B r i t i s h Columbia. It was reported in 1957 that 3.7 million horsepower was installed or being installed in the province and that another 2.5 million horsepower was possible from the present sites. This represented 2,100 horsepower in-stalled per person in Br i t i s h Columbia. Further, i t was 7 Submission of the Province of Br i t i s h Columbia to the Commission on Canada's Economic Prospects, 1956. 8 "Water Resources of Canada," Department of Northern Affairs and Natural Resources, Water Resources Branch #2602,, (Ottawa, March 15, 1958) (mimeographed) p.16. 12 estimated that there is an energy potential of 21.2 million horsepower at undeveloped sites in the province. This total, added to the present and potential energy possible from de-veloped sites, is far from the 8.5 million horsepower e s t i -9 mated five years ago, and no doubt far short of the total potential, as studies in northern rivers are at present fragmentary at best. This is exemplified in that in 1954- i t was estimated that 179,000 horsepower"*"*"* was available from 'the Peace River while in 1957 the B r i t i s h Thompson-Houston Company estimates the potential may be near four million horsepower. In tabular form the potential horsepower for various rivers and regions of the province are listed in Table I on the following page. This l i s t is already out-dated, as previously mentioned, in regard to the Peace River. There appears from this impressive l i s t , a great potential of renewable energy sources, as yet untapped in the form of hydro-electric power. Many of the sources, however, are beyond what was considered the range of economic transmission to markets. Although the cost of high voltage transmission in the western world has not been determined, the Wenner-Gren proposals for the Peace River obviously plan to u t i l i z e this method of bringing power to the Vancouver Metropolitan area. 9 S.R.Weston, "Fish and Power", 4th Transactions, Br i t i s h Columbia Natural Resources Conference, (Victoria B.C.T953>, P- 95. . ^ ~ 10 Water Power in B.C., Water Rights Branch, De-partment of Lands (Victoria B.C. 1954), p. 171. 13 TABLE I 1 1 BRITISH COLUMBIA'S UNDEVELOPED HYDRO-ELECTRIC RESOURCES Drainage Basin 1. Fraser 2. Yukon-Taku 3. Columbia 4. Stikine 5. Thompson 6. Homathko, Chilko 7. Nass 8. Quesnel 9. Skeena-Bulkley 10. Vancouver Island 11. Peace 12. Dean-Klinaklini 13. Okanagan-Similkameen 14. Liard . Potential El e c t r i c a l Horsepower 7,100,000 4,900,000 3,300,000 2,000,000 1,531,000 1,000,000 353,000 309,000 291,000 228,000 179,000 166,000 34,000 IV.' MAJOR HYDRO-ELECTRIC PROPOSALS IN BRITISH COLUMBIA The Fraser and Columbia Rivers have received much attention from hydro-engineers, politicians and industrial leaders as a potential source of hydro-electric power to meet Br i t i s h Columbia's industrial and domestic needs. The location of these rivers in the southern portion of the province, near population concentrations and industrial . locations, have prompted studies of their characteristics and of potential sites. In October 1957, proposals were made to develop Peace River. This river is outside what has generally been believed to be the range of economical transmission distance to the markets of the province. 11 G r i f f i t h , op_i. c i t . , p. 528 14 Within the Fraser River Basin, development has taken place along some of the important tributaries. The Nechako River has been diverted through a tunnel in the Coast Mountains to develop some 860,000 of a potential 2.2 million horsepower, at Kemano on tidewater. On the Bridge River, th.e B.C. Electric has several projects, where 24-8,000 horsepower out of a potential 620,000 horse-power has been brought into production. Several other smaller rivers have been developed. Tributaries of the Columbia River system have been developed in Canada by Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company and by the public and private u t i l i t i e s of the area. However, neither the Fraser nor Columbia River has been developed in Canada, and proposals to u t i l i z e their potential are being debated at the time of writing. The Columbia River System The Columbia River and some of its major tributaries, such as the Kootenay and Okanagan, rise in B r i t i s h Columbia and cross the international boundary enroute to sea level. This fact complicates the development of the river, as storage dams built on these rivers, which have wide seasonal differences in their run off, would automatically create more uniform flow patterns on the lower reaches of the Columbia and allow dams in the United States to generate more power. Alternate plans have been developed to u t i l i z e 15 the f u l l potential of the Columbia within Canada, and these are indicated on Map 1. At present, two dams have been specifically proposed for the Columbia River, one at Mica Creek, just south of the Big Bend of the Columbia, and the second at the lower end of the Arrow Lakes; and several others are planned. The dam at Mica Creek has a reported potential of 830,000 horsepower. Potential dams at Dowme Creek and L i t t l e Dalles could generate an additional 500,000 and 300,000 horsepower respectively. Additional power could be generated i f a dam were built on the Kootenay River at Bull River or Copper Creek, and excess flood waters diverted northward across Canal Flats to the storage lake behind Mica Creek dam. Canada has claimed in international meetings that by creating additional storage in Canada and by creating bene-f i t s in the United States through release of stored water from B r i t i s h Columbia, Canada is contributing a natural re-source and should share in any resultant benefits in the form of a percentage of the power so created. To back up this de-mand, the "McNaughton Plan" has been proposed whereby the excess stored water from Mica Creek would be diverted from either the Downie Creek or L i t t l e Dalles Dams into the Thompson River, a tributary of the Fraser, for use entirely 13 within the province of Br i t i s h Columbia. 12 G r i f f i t h , o j ^ c i t . p . 53. 13 "Report of the Water Rights Branch," Annual  Report 1956, Department of Lands, (Victoria, 1956) p. 153. 1 W. 6. HARDWICK 17 Cost of construction of dams on the Columbia would be larger than just the cost of the physical plants, for the Columbia River Valley is now settled in many places, and r a i l lines, roads, farms would have to be re-located and forest cover removed. Production costs at Mica Creek are estimated at 3 to 4 mills per kilowatt hour at 7% load f a c t o r . 1 4 Mica Creek and the related power producing dams l i e approximately 400 miles from the large markets of Vancouver Island and the lower Fraser Valley, and thus transmission costs would range from 2 to 3 mills per kilowatt hour. The power from these sources, i f developed, w i l l l i k e l y add to the energy base of the province but consider-ing the cost would not act as a locating factor for industry in the settled tidewater locations of this province. The electrical energy, produced at 3 "to 4 mills, might attract industry to the Columbia and Kootenay Valleys themselves. The Fraser River The Fraser River .system is reported to have the largest potential power reserve of a l l the watersheds in Briti s h Columbia, and as studies progress, the power potential has been uprated several times. In 1956, i t was estimated that over 10,000,000 horsepower of electrical energy was available. y 14 T.Ingledow, from notes taken at Hearing of Public U t i l i t i e s Commission, October, 1957. 15 Annual Report,.Department of Lands, (Victoria, 1956) p. PU WT ' 18 Ten Dams Proposal One proposal put forward i s to construct ten dams on the Fraser and Thompson R i v e r s , which would be supplemented by the excess stored floodwaters from the, Columbia, described i n the preceding s e c t i o n . The l o c a t i o n of these dams i s i n d i c a t e d on Map 2. In January 1955• B r i t i s h Columbia Engineering Company and the Depart-ment of Northern A f f a i r s and N a t i o n a l Resources, proposed four h y d r o - e l e c t r i c dams on the Fraser River and s i x on the Thompson. S u b s i d i a r y storage dams on Adams, Shuswap, Mabel and Kamloops Lakes, and on Quesnel, S t u a r t and Babine Lakes, and d i v e r s i o n of Babine Lake from the Skeena i n t o the Fraser watershed were suggested. In a d d i t i o n , the r e -port envisioned 10,000,000 acre f e e t being d i v e r t e d from the Columbia R i v e r i n the seven low flow months each year, October to A p r i l . The head developed at each dam l i s t e d i n Table I I would vary from t h i r t y - f i v e to one hundred f e e t on the Thompson and Fraser. A head of 1136 feet i s p o s s i b l e i n the d i v e r s i o n from the Columbia. (See Table I I f o l l o w i n g page). The p o t e n t i a l power from the Fraser and Thompson Rivers under t h i s proposal i s reported as 2,799-000 k i l o w a t t s . 19 TABLE II PROPOSED DAM SITES ON THE FRASER AND THOMPSON RIVERS River Damsite Head Fraser Emory Creek 60 feet Fraser Spuzzum Creek 100 " Fraser Anderson Creek 100 11 Fraser Cisco 100 " Thompson Gladwin 95 " Thompson Seddel 50 "* Thompson Basque" 35 " Thompson Ashcroft 35 " Thompson McAbee 35 " Thompson Kamioops Lake 35 " The Moran Proposal The second proposal for the Fraser centres around the construction of the Moran Dam in the Moran Canyon, north of Lillooet. This site is one of the major dam sites of the world, with a great storage capacity behind i t . This dam would be supplemented by three smaller dams on the Fraser, one at Cottonwood, one in the Grand Canyon, just east of Prince.George and one in Raush Valley. Additional storage could be derived from Quesnel Lake, Stuart Lake and Chilko River. Potential diversions of the Parsnip River from the Peace River water-shed, with the construction of a 550 foot dam near Finlay Forks, and diversion of Babine Lake into Stuart Lake from the Skeena watershed, could add to the average flow passing this huge dam. A third proposal is that several smaller dams would be built on Fraser River, the f i r s t at Lillooet, a second L I T T L E D A L L E S SOUTHERN BRfTISH COLUMBIA FRASER ANDTHOMPSON - . R IVER, POWER AND STORAGE SITES P L A N N E D OR P R O P O S E D LEGEND ^7" DAMS (HEIGHT) WATERSHEAD BOUNDARY SOURCE " A HSPOIVT o f T u g F I S H F A C I L I T I E S A N D P l S r t ! ! 0 . ' . e » P R O B l ^ M S H E L A T t O T O T r t E F R A S f c K A K J I J r n o r v i P s o N R l V B R O B W \ S l T C J N V E S T l C A T i O N S ( I N T t f l . N A T l O N A l . P A C I F I C 3 A L * A O N C O M M H S I O N V A N C O U V E R . , ias£ ) A « O w v r s a R I G H T S B R A N C H A N N H A U R E P O R T I S S O . 37 MILES TO I INCH MILES V/. G. HAR DW ICK 21 small dam at Moran, a third at Soda Creek, a fourth.at Cottonwood and a f i f t h at Fort George Canyon. Each of these could develop power, but no estimate of the potential for this system has been ventured. Conflicting Interests on the Fraser A l l these proposals for development of Fraser and Thompson Rivers and their tributaries involve the dis-placement of the fisheries on the Fraser River to some degree. The International Pacific Salmon Commission, in November 1955, brought out a report dealing with the possible effect 16 of Fraser-Thompson proposal on the fishing industry, and in 1957 the University of Br i t i s h Columbia, under a grant from the Br i t i s h Columbia Power Corporation, published a second report, dealing with both the Fraser-Thompson and the , 17 Moran proposals. V.' THE MORAN PROPOSAL Moran Canyon dam site is 226 miles up Fraser River from its mouth, but only 140 miles from tidewater at Squamish. 16 "A. Report on the Fish F a c i l i t i e s and Fisheries Problems Related to Fraser and Thompson Damsite Investigat-ions," Department of Fisheries, Canada, and International Pacific Salmon Commission, Vancouver, November 1955. 17 Pretious, Contractor, et a l , Fish Protection  and Power Development on the Fraser River, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1957. 22 A dam can be built 2400 feet long some 840 feet tiigh, giving an effective head of 732 feet. The drainage basin amounts to some 51,040 square miles, an area which could be reduced by the diversion of Taseko Lakes and Chilko Lake into the Homathko River and Bute Inlet. The capacity of 18 the reservoir is reported as 13,350,000 acre-feet with an elevation of 1,520 feet. The storage exceeds by some 2,000,000 acre-feet the required flood storage on Fraser River. A description of the dam site is found in several publications of the Fraser River Board, Water Rights Branch and in articles by interested parties. One description of the site, four miles upstream from Pavilion Creek, states: "In this area, the river cuts through a rock-walled gorge about 500 feet deep and 400 feet \^ide at water level. Above the gorge, benches on either side of the river extend back to the toe of steep-rising valley walls which climb to the 20 Fraser Plateau...." (Figure 1) 18 Annual Report, Department of Lands, Victoria 1955 p. 136. 19 Interim Report into Measures for Flood Control---in  the Fraser River" Basin, Fraser River Board, "(Victoria, 1956) p. E 102. . 20 Preliminary studies indicate that footings are satisfactory for this dam. At the proposed dam site in the lower of two canyons, the right bank is rock for 1,000 feet up from the river. On the left bank, no rock is visible between water level at elevation 810 feet and elevation 850 feet. Between that latter contour an elevation 1,080 feet bedrock is evident. A further section of visible rock lies between the elevations of 1200 and 1620 feet. 23 FIGURE 1 THE MORAN DAM SITE, FRASER RIVER Indicating the axis of the dam. The P.G.E. Railway runs along the right side of the photo. Note the deep channel cut by the Fraser and the absence of agricultural areas near the river. 24 The nearest gauging s t a t i o n to the damsite i s on the F r aser R i v e r , 26 miles upstream near B i g Bar Creek, where records a v a i l a b l e , commencing i n 'April 1935, report maximum' and minimum discharges of 289,000 cubic feet per second and 4,000 cubic feet per second r e s p e c t i v e l y . The mean annual discharge r a t e at B i g Bar i s 50,500 cubic f e e t per second. At Moran. i t i s proposed to develop the r i v e r f o r a mean flow of 41,000 cubic feet per.second. This amount of water would j u s t i f y the i n s t a l l a t i o n of three m i l l i o n k i l o w a t t s at 75 percent load f a c t o r . "The s i t e lends i t s e l f to low cost power, something below $175 Ver i n s t a l l e d k i l o -watt i n c l u d i n g two transmission l i n e s to the Vancouver a r e a . " 2 2 This would develop approximately 4,021,450 horse-po\»/er, which could be expanded to over 6 m i l l i o n horsepower w i t h the proposed d i v e r s i o n from the Peace and Skeena River 23 systems and storage of a l l f l o o d waters above Moran. The lake created behind the dam would be very narrow and long, enclosed w i t h i n the steep sided banks of the r i v e r , and 21 (This would be somewhat reduced by d i v e r s i o n of Kechako, C h i l k o and Taseko Systems.) 22 R. P o t t e r , "Moran Dam, F i s h and Power," B.C. P r o f e s s i o n a l Engineer, March, 1957, p. 21. 23 I b i d . , p. 22 25 s t r e t c h i n g f o r 172 miles from Moran Canyon to the v i c i n i t y of N a r c o s l i Creek, south of Quesnel. I f d e t a i l e d d r i l l i n g supports the p r e l i m i n a r y g e o l o g i c a l and engineering examinations and d e t a i l e d engineering s t u d i e s , probably a concrete arch type dam w i l l be constructed. The intakes f o r power generation w i l l be sunk low i n the r e s e r v o i r and the power houses w i l l be set on e i t h e r bank. In the process of ope r a t i o n , the r e s e r v o i r w i l l vary-between 66 feet and 75 feet i n l e v e l , as water i s drained o f f to maintain flows through the win t e r . The estimated cost of the dam, i n c l u d i n g two tra n s m i s s i o n l i n e s to Vancouver area, i s between $500 and $600 24 m i l l i o n . F i s h Problems The Fraser and Thompson Rivers and many of t h e i r t r i b u t a r i e s , i n d i c a t e d on Map 3, are important spawning areas f o r salmon, the most important s i n g l e species of f i s h caught and marketed i n B r i t i s h Columbia. I t i s estimated that a maximum of 750,000 m i g r a t i n g adult salmon per day can be expected to migrate up the Fraser R i v e r past Y a l e , h a l f of which are sta t e d to go up the Thompson. The I n t e r n a t i o n a l P a c i f i c Salmon Commission st a t e s t h a t : The c o n s t r u c t i o n of four power dams on the Fraser River and s i x on the Thompson R i v e r would preclude the p r e s e r v a t i o n and extension of a l l the salmon and steelhead runs to these 24 R. P o t t e r , op. c i t . , p . 24 26 27 rivers beyond the dams. This conclusion is reached both on the basis of the delays in migration caused by the dams, and on the basis of the mortalities to seaward migrants at the series of dams.25 The advocates of the Moran Dam have made proposals 26 to counter these claims, but to the knowledge of the writer, no specific reply has been made to their claims. This is mentioned briefly here as one of the problems involved in such an undertaking as Moran Dam. The Number of Salmon Involved1 in the Moran Proposal It is important to note that the Fraser River is 27 just one of the salmon streams of the province, and that various species and runs of species spawn in its various tributaries. In the 1951-54- salmon-cycle, the value of 28 salmon that passed Moran averaged$3,000,000 per annum. This figure could be misleading i f one did not take into account the fact that, prior to the Hell's Gate slide of 1911 the runs to many streams north of Moran were larger, and i f restored, would no doubt considerably exceed the present value of salmon. 25 "A report on Fish F a c i l i t i e s . . . " op., c i t . p.4 26 Personal communication with Mr. Russell Potter, Consulting Engineer, Victoria, B.C. 27 The Fraser accounts for 20$ of the B r i t i s h Col-umbia Salmon pack and 31% of the American and Canadian packs attributable to the rivers of B r i t i s h Columbia. 28 "Effect of Moran on B.C. Salmon pack" — exhibit Public U t i l i t i e s Commission Hearing, Vancouver, November 1957. 28 There i s evidence t h a t , w i t h concentrated e f f o r t , 29 s a t i s f a c t o r y s o l u t i o n s to t h i s problem w i l l be devised. Power Costs As a source f o r low-cost e l e c t r i c power, the Moran Dam i s reported to be one of the most promising s i t e s i n the world. In a submission to the P u b l i c U t i l i t i e s Commission of the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia, Mr. R u s s e l l P o t t e r , p r o j e c t engineer f o r Moran Power Development Company, stated that power generated at Moran Dam could be d e l i v e r e d at tidewater f o r use by e l e c t r i c a l l y - o r i e n t e d i n d u s t r i e s f o r a f i g u r e s l i g h t l y l e s s than four m i l l s per k i l o w a t t hour, and at the damsite f o r c o nsiderably l e s s . The p r i c e f o r e l e c t r i c i t y to bulk buyers could be one-third l e s s than present B r i t i s h Columbia c o a s t a l e l e c t r i c p r i c e s . This p r i c e would be competitive at the time of completion of the dam, w i t h any other major 30 power s i t e i n the world. Western Development and Power L i m i t e d , x^hich has r e p o r t e d l y made s t u d i e s of the Moran s i t e , has issued no statement as to what the cost of power would be. President A.E. Grauer of the B r i t i s h Columbia 31 Power Corporation has suggested that the Fraser R i v e r power resource o f f e r s the most economical source of power a v a i l a b l e to the people of B r i t i s h Columbia. 29 S e v e r a l a r t i c l e s on t h i s problem are l i s t e d i n the B i b l i o g r a p h y . 30 P u b l i c U t i l i t i e s Hearing, Vancouver November 1957 31 Reported i n the Vancouver Sun, March 25, 1958. 2 9 Industry Utmost haste appears d e s i r a b l e i n the c o n s t r u c t i o n of the Moran Dam i n order to o f f e r the. people of B r i t i s h Columbia a means of expanding the base of t h e i r economy. Dominated by the lumber and r e l a t e d wood-working and p r o c e s s i n g • i n d u s t r i e s , the present economy does not appear to contain any other base w i t h which to c o r r e c t t h i s imbalance. Neither mining, f i s h i n g nor a g r i c u l t u r e o f f e r s much prospect f o r l a r g e s c a l e expansion. The Moran proposal o f f e r s an important opportunity to r e - o r i e n t a t e the economic base of the province. I t has unique geographic advantages over schemes f o r the Columbia, Columbia-Thompson-Fraser, Peace or C h i l c o -Homathko Rivers.. Moran i s the most advantageous major s i t e from which to transmit l a r g e q u a n t i t i e s of power, at a p r i c e acceptable to the e l e c t r i c a l l y - o r i e n t e d i n d u s t r i e s . The distance from Moran to Vancouver i s h a l f that of Mica Creek, one-third the distance of the proposed Peace R i v e r Dam, and l e s s than the distances from e i t h e r the "Ten Dams" or Chilco-Homathko. The n e c e s s i t y of t r a n s m i t t i n g t h i s power to t i d e -water at a low cost becomes meaningful when one r e a l i z e s that most p o t e n t i a l e l e c t r i c a l l y - o r i e n t e d i n d u s t r i e s w i l l u t i l i z e imported raw m a t e r i a l s and w i l l consequently be dependent on ocean t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . P o t e n t i a l areas a v a i l -able f o r i n d u s t r i a l s i t e s at t i d e w a t e r , are i n d i c a t e d on Map 4 5 . 30 Electr i c i t y would also be available for any pro-cessing of Bri t i s h Columbia raw materials within a radius of two or three hundred miles of the dam. 31 PART I Part I of t h i s t h e s i s i s devoted to s e t t i n g the stage upon which a d i s c u s s i o n of the e f f e c t of the Moran Dam proposal on a g r i c u l t u r e w i t h i n the Middle Fraser Region can take place. Three chapters are included i n t h i s s e c t i o n : one d e l i m i t i n g the region and d e s c r i b i n g i t s r e l a t i o n to other areas of B r i t i s h Columbia; a second d e s c r i b i n g the p h y s i c a l geography i n terms of i t s . l a n d f o r m s , c l i m a t e , hydrography, s o i l s and vegetation; and one d e s c r i b i n g the C u l t u r a l Geography, i n terms of the man-made features i n the region. CHAPTER I I THE MIDDLE FRASER REGION This t h e s i s i s concerned w i t h those areas i n which the Moran Dam proposal could a f f e c t a g r i c u l t u r e . As the dam i t s e l f i s planned f o r the Moran Canyon on the Fraser R i v e r , the areas most d i r e c t l y a f f e c t e d by the proposal w i l l be those w i t h i n the Fraser River v a l l e y i t s e l f , - the Middle Fraser Region. The Middle Fraser Region can be described as that area w i t h i n the Fraser V a l l e y between the Coast Mountains and Quesnel where much of the land can be used f o r a g r i -c u l t u r e . The Middle Fraser Region i s recognized as separate from the Cariboo and C h i l c o t i n r e g i o n s , although a l l three form part of the c e n t r a l upland area of B r i t i s h Columbia, g e n e r a l l y c a l l e d the I n t e r i o r p l a t e a u . The Cariboo region l i e s between the Cariboo Mountains, and the poorly defined r i d g e west of the North Thompson River on the east, the T r a n q u i l l e plateau on the south and the Marble Mountains and high.plateau domes that l i e immediately east of the Fraser on the west. The 32 R.A. Daly, "Geology of the North American Cor-d i l l e r a at the F o r t y - n i n t h P a r a l l e l , P t . I , " G e o l o g i c a l Survey  of Canada Memoir 38, (Ottawa, 1912). Daly recognizes many plateau blocks separated by deeply i n c i s e d streams, and perhaps f i r s t recognizes the C h i l c o t i n and Cariboo regions as parts of the I n t e r i o r Plateau' 33 C h i l c o t i n Region i s an area of s i m i l a r s i z e which l i e s n o r th of the Camelsfoot Range, Taseko Mounta'in and the C h i l c o Lake area, east of the ranges of the Coast Moun-t a i n s and south of the water d i v i d e between the West Road-Nazko Ri v e r system and the C h i l c o t i n system. Between these two regions l i e s the Middle Fraser Region. This r e g i o n , o u t l i n e d on Map 4, i s d i s t i n c t from Lower Fraser V a l l e y , that area of the R i v e r west of the Coast Mountains and the Upper Fraser R i v e r , where the r i v e r flows southward. The Middle Fraser Region stretches from 50 degrees to 53 degrees North L a t i t u d e and between 122 and 123 degrees west l o n g i t u d e . The southern s e c t i o n of the Region i s i n a s i m i l a r l a t i t u d e to the Thompson and n o r t h Okanagan V a l l e y i n B r i t i s h Columbia, central'Germany and the northern Russian steppes i n Europe. L y t t o n , a town of some 350 persons, at the confluence of the Thompson and Fraser Rivers was chosen as the southern l i m i t of the Middle Fraser Region and the v i l l a g e of Quesnel, w i t h some 5,000 persons, the northern l i m i t . L y t t o n , s i t -uated at the southern l i m i t of a g r i c u l t u r a l land i n the v a l l e y , i s a major weather recording s t a t i o n and the centre of trade f o r the southern v a l l e y . Quesnel, near the northern end of major a g r i c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t y i n the middle Fraser V a l l e y , has a major weather recording s t a t i o n and i s located W, G. HA ROW I C K 35 j u s t a few miles n o r t h of the l i m i t of f l o o d i n g caused by the proposed Moran dam. I t , l i k e L y t t o n i s a marketing centre f o r the l o c a l farm areas. The boundaries of the region c o i n c i d e w i t h the boundary of the immediate v a l l e y of the Fraser R i v e r , plus the drainage basins of the t r i b u t a r i e s except where the t r i b u t a r y stream enters the Fraser from an area outside the main basin . From Lytton the boundary of the region would f o l l o w about the 2,000 foot contour along the eastern s i d e of the Coast Mountains, to Seton Creek, one of the Fraser t r i b u -t a r i e s that enters from outside the ba s i n . Continuing north the v a l l e y of the Bridge R i v e r would be excluded. The r e g i o n a l boundary would then f o l l o w the mountains n o r t h to Churn Creek where i t would angle west some f o r t y miles so as to in c l u d e the lands of the Gang Ranch, and then r e t u r n to the Fraser at the mouth of the C h i l c o t i n R i v e r . North of the C h i l c o t i n the border follows the v a l l e y r i m , and f i n a l l y a rid g e j u s t west of N a r c o s l i Creek to West Quesnel. The eastern edge of the r e g i o n follows the d i v i d e between the Fraser and Thompson drainage basins as f a r as Bi g Bar Creek. North of B i g Bar Creek, the t r i b u t a r y v a l l e y s where they are cut i n t o the p l a t e a u , and the range land on B i g Bar Mountain, Dog Creek Dome and no r t h of A l k a l i Lake are included w i t h i n the Region. North of Williams Lake the boundary f o l l o w s the rim of the Fraser 36 v a l l e y n o r t h , and Includes Culsson and Dragon Lakes i n the Middle Fraser Region. The; Adjacent Regions The Moran Dam proposal would a f f e c t two other r e g i o n s , the Thompson Riv e r V a l l e y and the plateau regions. The boundaries of these two regions are described i n more d e t a i l i n two chapters of Part I I I . CHAPTER III THE PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY Man does not operate in a vacuum, and any cultural or economic activity which he engages in must by necessity take place within some physical context. When considering the effect of the Moran Dam pro-posal on agriculture within the Middle Fraser Region, i t becomes obvious that a description of the area upon which the dam is to be constructed and the area over which the agriculture w i l l take place is a necessity. To draw this picture, on which the rest of the dis-cussion of the effect of Moran Dam on agriculture w i l l be placed, I have undertaken a description of the landforms of the area, along with the processes that were involved in their creation. The climate of the area is considered, both as a factor for the success or failure of agriculture and as an agent in the development of the landforms. The rivers and streams which modify landforms, act as sources of irrigation water, and as the home of the proposed dam i t s e l f , are described in the section on hydrology. Soils, upon which the agriculture is based and the vegetation that must be removed, adapted or used for grazing cattle or other animals are other environmental factors discussed in this chapter on the physical geography. 38 I. LANDFORMS Near 54 degrees north latitude, the Fraser River starts a southward flow diagonally across the interior plateau of B r i t i s h Columbia. After a course, nearly due south for over two hundred miles, the river enters a canyon through the Coast Mountains. The Interior Plateau lying between the Coast and Rocky Mountains, is a rol l i n g , h i l l y upland sloping from a general elevation of 4 ,000 to 6 ,000 feet in the south to 2,500 to 3,500 feet in the north, which is deeply incised in places by major streams like the Fraser and Chilcotin Rivers. Fraser River flows from north to south against the general trend of the plateau, so that in the northern areas i t appears as a rather mature stream in a relatively wide valley, while in the southern region i t could more easily be described as a rapid flowing youthful stream in a deeply incised valley within the plateau. Where i t enters the Canyon through the Coast Mountains i t leaves the Interior Plateau. Physiographic History Pre-pleistocene The Interior Plateau,in the early part of the Triassic Period had become a nearly uniform plain, through prolonged denudation. The rivers were likely in a mature form and flowed to both the Pacific Ocean and 39 Inland Seas.33 An u p l i f t of the Coast b a t h o l i t h followed i n the J u r a s s i c , which was followed by a long period of calm i n which through subsidence and erosion by the many r i v e r s , the area x^ as reduced to near sea l e v e l . Later another e l e v a t i o n took place i n P l i o c e n e times. With the b u i l d i n g of the Rocky Mountains and the Coast Mountains the r o l l i n g p l a i n was elevated and the streams became entrenched due to t h e i r increased volume and head. The parts of the Fraser R i v e r that may have flowed n o r t h and east to the Inland Sea from the v i c i n i t y of the C h i l c o t i n R i v e r i n the mountain b u i l d i n g era were captured by the streams f l o w i n g westward. As the Coast Mountains were elevated these streams were subsequently forced to take a s o u t h e r l y course along the eastern edge of the mountain mass, to where they f i n a l l y s p i l l e d through the new 34 mountains i n the Fraser Canyon. The excavation- of the v a l l e y s of the Thompson and Fraser V a l l e y s i s b e l i e v e d to have been completed wholly or almost wholly about the close of the Eocene. In the Miocene, the area occupied by the plateau was down warped and lavas poured i n . In the Fraser V a l l e y near Soda Creek, i n t r u s i o n s of l a v a caused extensive damming, as they f i l l e d the v a l l e y to some 1200 f e e t . Remnants of t h i s are found near the 33 An i n l a n d sea occupied the present I n t e r i o r p l a i n s region. 34 J.F. Walker, B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Mines, Unpublished Paper. 40 mouth of N a r c o s l i Creek and i n the gorge near Soda Creek and over much of the C h i l c o t i n area. Other evidence of the r i v e r excavation i n the Eocene i s reported i n sedimentary 3 5 s t r a t a found near Spences Bridge on the lower Thompson. The present Fraser R i v e r was completely cut i n a form s i m i l a r to the present before the g l a c i a l p e r i o d . Remnants of Miocene Age B a s a l t s and Sandstones which occur near Leon, P a v i l i o n and B i g Bar Creeks, have been cut through by the r i v e r and now f r i n g e the edges of the plateau on both s i d e s , 1 5 0 0 f e e t above the r i v e r are c i t e d as 3 6 evidence. P l e i s t o c e n e Epoch During t h i s epoch the middle Fraser B a s i n was covered w i t h i c e , exc-ept f o r some higher peaks of the Coast Mountains. The i c e seems to have had i t s center over the middle Coast Mountains and across the pla t e a u i n the Churn Creek area. I t i s believed that t h i s area received the most continuous supply of moise P a c i f i c a i r which was i n the form of snow and helped accumulate the enormous depth of 8 , 7 0 0 f e e t . From t h i s center the i c e appears to have moved south along the edge of the Coast Mountains i n the general trend of the Fraser R i v e r , as i s evidenced i n the scouring of the east face of the Coast 3 5 D. Lay, "Fraser R i v e r T e r t i a r y Drainage H i s t o r y i n R e l a t i o n to P l a c e r Gold Deposits," B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Mines B u l l e t i n 3 ( V i c t o r i a , 1940)". 3 6 Lay, op._ c i t . 41 Mountains between Lytton and Lillooet. In the north the ice appears to have moved in a north-easterly direction, across 3 the low plateau, disrupting the established drainage pattern. There have been two onslaughts of the glaciers, and some unconsolidated material in the Fraser Basin is of this f i r s t glacial period.38 A l l present landforms were the re-sult of, or were modified considerably by,'the last glacial period. Some landforms in higher valleys along Bridge River, Cinquefoil and Fountain Creeks are glacial deposits as are many of the smaller landforms in the Fraser River Valley. It is believed that the glacier melted more rapidly in the interior than on the Coast Mountains, or the northern Nechako plateau. With this excessive supply of meltwater the resulting outwashes and quickly flowing streams cut into the accumulated d r i f t material on the plateau and the rivers quickly regained their old channels. Some tributaries like the Bonaparte and Deadman Creek, now the homes of very small streams were probably large torrents as meltwater channels. Glacial outwash deposits are abundant along the 37 "Glacial Geology," B r i t i s h Columbia, Atlas of Resources, pp. 9-10. 38 N.F.G. Davis, and W.H. Mathews, "Four Phases of Glaciation with illustrations from Southwestern Bri t i s h Columbia, "Journal of Geology, LII, #6, (Nov. 1944), p. 283. 39 S. Duffel, and K.C.McTaggart, "Ashcroft Map Area, Br i t i s h Columbia," Canada, Department of Mines and Technical Surveys, Geological Survey Memoir #262 (Ottawa, Queen's Printer, 1952), p. 69. 42 Fraser and from the v i c i n i t y of Ly t t o n north they form more or l e s s continuous benches. They are some 200 fee t t h i c k i n the south and reach a maximum thickness of about 900 40 feet near P a v i l i o n . (Figure 2) Some deposits c o n s i s t of coarse boulder and cobble gravel and l o c a l l y considerable thicknesses of s i l t , which were probably b u i l t up by an aggrading r i v e r that was overloaded w i t h outwash from the g l a c i e r s to the west and the north. These sediments even-t u a l l y accumulated to such a depth that the gradient of the main stream was increased, to a point where i t could carry the m a t e r i a l supplied by i t s t r i b u t a r i e s , and then the r i v e r cut down l e a v i n g the t e r r a c e s . This development i s p a r t i c u l a r l y evident near L i l l o o e t . Other benches are larg e a l l u v i a l fans which have formed at the mouths of many t r i b u t a r y v a l l e y s . E x c e l l e n t examples are evident i n the v i c i n i t y of Foster Bar and L a l u w i s s i n Creeks. These fans are composed of p a r a l l e l l a y e r s , up to s i x feet t h i c k , of unsorted angular and rounded fragments and minor layers of g r a v e l , sand and c l a y . Many of them were l i k e l y produced under water as the r e s u l t of mud flows that swept down side v a l l e y s onto the outwash p l a i n during the period when streams occupying them were c l e a r i n g t h e i r channels of the g l a c i a l d e b r i s . Many of these were developed before the present terraces and are 40 S. D u f f e l , and K.C.McTaggart, op^ c i t . p. 70 43 characterized by the smooth convex surfaces. It is quite possible that these fans extended right across the valley and that when the main river started its rapid down cutting 41 i t chose the lowest point on the fan for its course. The subsequent deepening of the river channel has left these fans quite high above the present river, and from the river bottom d i f f i c u l t to distinguish from any other bench. Damming of the present river occurred probably at various places along the course and glacial lakes of some size existed behind them. One of the last to be removed 42 was at the Fountain gorge states Dawson. He claims a waterfall may have been s t i l l present there in post glacial times. In the northern part of the region the rounding out of the valleys and the clearing of small tributary valleys is less evident. It is believed that the rather shallow valley of the Fraser River was f i l l e d with d r i f t deposits, into which the river has cut. The valleys are much less regular in pattern and in many places stream courses have been disturbed by various glacial phenomena. Bogs and small lakes are common on the poorly drained upland adjacent to the river. 41 George M. Dawson, "Report on the Kamloops Map Sheet, Bri t i s h Columbia," Geological Survey of Canada Annual Report, VII (Ottawa, Queen's Printer l8947T~p. 304." 42 George M. Dawson, "Report on exploration in South-ern B r i t i s h Columbia," Geological Survey, Canada, Report on Progress, 1877-78 (Queen's Printer 1 8 7 9 ) . p. 3 0 2 . 44 FIGURE 2 HIGH BENCHES ABOVE THE FRASER RIVER SOUTH OF PAVILION P.G.E. Railway and Highway 12 follow the high benchland 45 Present Landforms During most recent times, the Fraser River has re-gained its comparatively narrow river channel, and in the process of doing so has formed most of the agriculturally 43 significant landforms. These landforms are the benches that are found the whole length of the river, benches of various elevations, sizes, base material and origin. Travelling within the valley, one loses sight of the plateau, and is conscious only of these smaller land-forms although the sides of the river valley give an in-dication of the surrounding plateau. These landforms with-in the river valley are basically of three origins; fluvo-glacial benches, fans, and old lake bottoms. The largest number are benches. These benches may be continuous for several miles, and where they are at a similar elevation, i t is usually indicative of a pause in the downcutting of the river. Some of the present benches are fans, with eroded river faces and having tributary streams cut deeply into their surface. Fans have a sloping surface of about six degrees. The old lake bottoms are usually identifiable be-cause of the level surface of the bench and the horizontal layers of material that underlie the present s o i l surface. 43 V.C.Brink, and L Farstad, "The Physiography of the Agricultural Areas of British Columbia," Scientific  Agriculture, XXIX ( 1 9 4 9 ) , pp. 2 7 3 - 3 0 1 . 46 In addition to these three landform types, complex varieties are in existence in several locations where fans have developed over a l l or part of old terraces. The agriculturally significant landforms of these varieties are found in a l l sections of the valley. Most of the well developed fans are found in the southern region, whereas old lakes are most evident near Lillooet and Soda Creek. The Southern Area 4 4 Between Lytton and the mouth of Bridge River the valley varies between one and five miles in width. It is bounded on the west by the Lillooet Range of the Coast Mountains which form a complete barrier, to the west, broken by the narrow Seton Gap, where Seton Creek enters the Fraser. The mountains are part of the Coast batholith. They rise steeply from fragmented terraces, giving the appearance of glaciated sides of a U-shaped valley. The streams that flow from these mountains are short, and some drop sharply from hanging valleys. The larger valleys were once occupied by glaciers, as indicated by their U-shaped appearance. On the east the slopes rise rapidly from rather well-developed fans and benches to about 3500 feet, from inhere the plateau slopes eastward with characteristic rolling surface.• This plateau is rather deeply incised and 44 An excellent account of the Geology and Landforms for this area is found in the Geological Memoir #262, S. Duffel, and K.C.McTaggart., op. c i t . 47 i n b e i n g so g i v e s a mountainous appearance t o a r e a s w h i c h a r e e s s e n t i a l l y p a r t o f the p l a t e a u . Many i n t e r m i t t e n t streams f low down t h e s t e e p s l o p e s from the p l a t e a u and have v e r y l i t t l e v a l l e y d e v e l o p m e n t . The v a l l e y s t h a t a r e open were c l e a r e d out i n the p e r i o d at the end o f the g l a c i a l e r a , and t h e m a t e r i a l washed out forms fans at the v a l l e y mouths. The streams t h a t p r e s e n t l y occupy the v a l l e y have cut d e e p -l y i n t o the f a n because the F r a s e r i t s e l f has cut down c r e a t i n g a new base l e v e l . A c r o s s s e c t i o n at L a l u w i s s i n C r e e k h a l f - w a y between L y t t o n and L i l l o o e t i n d i c a t e s t h i s type o f t e r r a i n , (Map 5 . ) The h i g h C o a s t M o u n t a i n s r i s e s t e e p l y on the w e s t , w i t h f r a g m e n t a r y t e r r a c e s n e a r t h e i r b a s e , w h i l e on the e a s t t h e r e i s a s t e e p r i s e to the f a n s , w h i c h l i e r i v e r w a r d o f the p l a t e a u m o u n t a i n s . The a i r -p h o t o , F i g u r e 3 j shows t h e s e l a r g e fans u t i l i z e d t o a l a r g e degree as a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d . The s e d i m e n t a r y r o c k s t h a t u n d e r l i e the p l a t e a u o u t c r o p from p l a c e t o p l a c e as dome p e a k s , or as the s p e c t a c u l a r l i m e s t o n e M a r b l e M o u n t a i n s w h i c h l i e j u s t n o r t h o f P a v i l i o n . E l s e w h e r e these p l a t e a u m o u n t a i n s , u n l i k e the Coast M o u n t a i n s , a r e c o v e r e d w i t h u n c o n s o l i d a t e d m a t e r i a l . The M i d d l e A r e a 4 ^ N o r t h o f the "S" t u r n o f the F r a s e r 45 T h e r e i s l i t t l e p u b l i s h e d m a t e r i a l on t h i s s e c t i o n w h i c h may stem from the f a c t t h a t the a r e a i s o f l i t t l e i n t e r -e s t t o g e o l o g i s t s . In a d d i t i o n t o the g e n e r a l work o f Dawson i n the 1 8 7 0 ' s some i n f o r m a t i o n i s a v a i l a b l e from: (1) L . R e i n e c k e , " M i n e r a l D e p o s i t s between L i l l o o e t and P r i n c e G e o r g e , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , " G e o l o g i c a l S u r v e y o f Canada Memoir #118, ( O t t a w a , K i n g ' s P r i n t e r , 1920) (.2) L a y , op. c i t . 48 FIGURE 3 IRRIGATED FARMS ON OUTiv'ASH FANS NEAR LALUWISSIN CREEK Note the steep r i v e r hanks of the F r a s e r , the g u l l i e s and where the t r i b u t a r y creeks have cut deeply i n t o the fans. LYTTON M I D D L E F R A S E R R E G I O N VALLEY CROSS SECTIONS 3000 -v R E S E R V O I R . _!S00-^ETIOOO 0 CROSS SECTION VERTICAL SCALE-5,000 FT.TO flU HORIZONTAL SCALE 3.3MILES- I INCH MAP SCALE • 8 MILES •I I I ! . TO I INCH AP 5 - W. G. HARDWICK 50 at Fountain the plateau mountains are found on both the west and east side of the river. On the west they form high foothills to the Coast Mountains. Between Bridge River and north of French Bar Creek they form a high west wall to the Fraser Valley. The plateau to the east is not as high, and the dome-type mountains common in the southern sections be-come more widely spaced. In the valley i t s e l f , benches are rather continuous on the east bank, relatively wide, made up of riverine deposits, which in the subsequent dropping of the river level have been left as terraces. At the mouths of some tributary streams, for example Watson Bar and Big Bar Creeks, fans and some deltaic formations are found. A cross section of this area, (Map 5 ) , shows 6 , 0 0 0 foot mountains on the west sloping down to several small benches near the river. On the east wider benches l i e some 500 feet above the river, from which point the land slopes up to the plateau surface around 3500 feet on Big Bar Mountain. This pattern of the high west bank and lower east bank continues north along the river. Just south of Crow's Bar the height on the west has dropped, and a series of old benches show up at various levels above the river. On the east bank the valley slopes more gradually up to 3500 feet in steps. The level to which the Moran Dam w i l l cause the valley to flood is indicated by dotted lines on the profile. The importance of the flooding to the wide terrace on the 51 w east bank is evident, for where at present the land could not be served with pumped irrigation water because of its height above the river, after flooding i t w i l l l i e less than 200 feet above the new reservoir and within easy-pumping distance. At Canoe Creek, the height of the west bank has diminished to approximately the same height as the east bank. The significant landforms present on this cross section, (Map 5) are the large benches on the east bank about 300 feet above the new reservoir level, presently utilized by the B.C. Cattle Company for winter range. A similar pattern is evident in a l l the profiles of the southern and middle sections and the relative r e l i e f is considerable. An interesting exception to the pattern in the Middle Fraser Region is the Gang Ranch depression. In this depression on the west side of the river, between Churn Creek and Gaspard Creeks, the height of the plateau is con-siderably lower than anywhere to the south. A gradual slope for forty miles is required to reach the elevation of 4000 feet. The benches common in other parts of the river valley occur in this section, the f i r s t ones about 500 feet above the river. This large upland is the setting of the largest ranch in the Middle Fraser Region. North of Gaspard Creek the western side of the valley is higher than the east,the height being around 3 , 5 0 0 feet. The river is considerably 52 nearer the l e v e l of the plateau by the time the C h i l c o t i n Bridge i s reached, and the r e l a t i v e r e l i e f i s not as great as i n the south. A d i s t i n c t rim to the v a l l e y i s evident i n t h i s area. The Northern Region In the northern s e c t i o n , the general slope of the plateau from the south to n o r t h , and the general r i s e i n the l e v e l of the r i v e r as i t s head-waters are neared, i s i n d i c a t e d i n considerably l e s s r e l a -t i v e r e l i e f . At Soda Creek, (Map 5) the r i v e r l e v e l i s about 1300 f e e t and the plateau stands between 2500 and 3500 f e e t . The r i v e r was blocked by l a v a f l o w s , remnants of which s t i l l show along the v a l l e y s i d e s , f i l l i n g a la r g e area to some depth w i t h s i l t s and sands which form the basis of a lar g e bench at about the 2 0 0 0 ' l e v e l . This surface i s not smooth l i k e the fans of the south, but i s covered i n places w i t h g l a c i a l d r i f t making a r o l l i n g surface i n places. Near the r i v e r more recent deposits are the l o c a t i o n of a g r i c u l t u r a l land. North of M a c a l i s t e r the r i v e r i t s e l f i s wide and recent bottom lands, i n c l u d i n g some i s l a n d s , are important for- a g r i c u l t u r e . In t h i s region a g r i c u l t u r e takes place at about the 2500 foot l e v e l , an area covered w i t h g l a c i a l d eposits. The r i v e r s and streams that are t r i b u t a r y to the Fraser River i n t h i s region flow roughly p a r a l l e l to the r i v e r and then turn and enter the r i v e r at r i g h t angles. These streams, l i k e the Williams Lake-San Jose R i v e r s , 53 N a r c o s l i and Cuisson Creeks, were p o s s i b l y meltwater channels during g l a c i a l times. At Quesnel, the northern end of the r e g i o n , the v a l l e y i t s e l f i s close to r i v e r l e v e l , and l a r g e a l l u v i a l areas are found at the confluence of the Quesnel and Fraser. I I . CLIMATE The climate of an area i s one of i t s i n e x h a u s t i b l e resources. I t makes up one of the components of the en-vironment and as such becomes a l i a b i l i t y or an asset to the i n h a b i t a n t s of an area, and must be studied i f one i s to comprehend a f u l l p i c t u r e of the region. Climate i s part of the n a t u r a l environment of a country. In some regions i t imposes hardship on the i n h a b i t a n t s , i n others makes l i f e easy. Designs of l i v i n g adapted to the climate of each region are the r e s u l t of accumulated experience, of generations. They f i n d t h e i r foremost ex-pr e s s i o n i n c l o t h i n g , housing and a g r i c u l t u r e . The climate of the Middle Fraser Region i s con-s i d e r e d here as an a i d to evalua t i n g the p o s s i b l e expan-s i o n of a g r i c u l t u r e . This i s done w i t h i n the severe l i m i t a t i o n s imposed by few r e p o r t i n g s t a t i o n s and v a r i e d t o p o g r a p h i c a l c o n d i t i o n s . Controls of Climate The Middle Fraser Region l i e s w i t h i n the I n t e r i o r 46 F.V.C.Brink, "Climate of B r i t i s h Columbia f o r A g r o l o g i s t s , " mimeographed, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, (1953), p. 1. 54 plateau of Brit i s h Columbia, an area with a continental climate characterized by hot summers and cold winters. The region is under the influence of Polar Pacific air through most of the year, this air being unstable in winter and stable in summer. In some periods in winter Polar Con-tinental air penetrates the region. The mountain barriers are significant in that they cause these air masses to rise and to be modified before entering the Interior region. The Polar Pacific a i r , in crossing the Coast Mountains, drops much of its moisture and enters this region relatively dry. The Fraser Basin, lying in the southern sections with-in the rain shadow of the Coast Mountains, is characterized by warm temperatures, for the descending air warms con-siderably as i t drops into the deep valleys, particularly in summer. Stagnation of the air and absence of cloud in the summer contribute to the hottest temperatures recorded in the province. In the winter an increase in pressure gradient in the Mackenzie River Valley and in the Yukon causes Polar continental air to push south into the interior plateau, bringing with i t the coldest temperatures of the season. These polar outbreaks are most severe in the northern and eastern areas and are moderated in the southern and western sections. 47 R.V.Tyner, "Paths taken by the cold air in polar outbreaks in British Columbia," Technical Circular 2049 Meteorological Division, Department of Transport, Toronto, December 14, 1 9 5 1 , pp. 1-8. 55 Topography i s a very important f a c t o r i n c o n t r o l l i n g the c l i m a t e of the r e g i o n , and s e v e r a l c l i m a t i c a l l y s i g n i -f i c a n t landforms can be recognized. These are i l l u s t r a t e d on Map 6. The mountain v a l l e y s are a route f o r the pene-t r a t i o n of a i r i n t o some areas of the i n t e r i o r . S l i g h t l y modified maritime a i r o f t e n enters the i n t e r i o r at Lytton i n w i n t e r . On the east and no r t h , mountains act as a more or l e s s e f f e c t i v e b a r r i e r against p o l a r c o n t i n e n t a l a i r , and i t i s only when extreme high pressure systems occur that the passes through the mountains, l i k e Peace, Monkman and Pine Passes, become routes of passage f o r the a r c t i c a i r . The l a c k of continuous mountain b a r r i e r s i n the south allows the o c c a s i o n a l entry of warm a i r from the d e s e r t - l i k e intermountain region to the south. Weather i s modified l o c a l l y by such a d d i t i o n a l f a c t o r s as l o c a l landforms and exposure. Di f f e r e n c e s w i t h i n the c l i m a t i c records of p a r t i c u l a r s t a t i o n s are found and are a t t r i b u t a b l e to the moving of the s t a t i o n , perhaps only a few hundred f e e t . Changes i n the l o c a t i o n may a l t e r the p o s s i b i l i t y of a i r drainage, the exposure to wind and sun, or the heat r e t e n t i o n of the s o i l or vegetation cover. Weather S t a t i o n s Few s t a t i o n s report from w i t h i n the Middle Fraser Region. Some have only r a i n gauges or have recorded weather observations f o r only a very short p e r i o d . The Weather 56 B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A C L I M A T I C A L L Y S IGNIF ICANT LANDFORMS -P / V f -POLAR M A R I T I M E AIR P C - P O L A R C O N T I N E N T A L AIR(WINTER) A — PEACE PASS S-PINE PASS C- MONKMAN PASS D-EAGLE PASS E - • 0 K ANAGAN DEPRESSION F—FRASER CANYON! - M- • M A P & W. 6. HARDWIC K 57 Stations can be classed by: elevation, what type of records that are maintained and the length of time the records have been kept. Three stations can be classed as low elevation stations, located in the deep southern valley; four can be classed as mid-elevation stations, 1000 to 3000 feet, and two can be classed as high elevation plateau stations. These are located on Map 7 and listed in Table III. TABLE III WEATHER RECORDING STATIONS BY ELEVATION Under 1000 Feet 1000 to 3000 Feet Over 3000 Feet Lytton Quesnel Dog Creek Laluwissin Creek Soda Creek Pavilion Lillooet Williams Lake Alkali Lake Several stations outside the middle Fraser Region that w i l l be referred to for comparison f a l l into each of these categories, (Table IV). TABLE IV WEATHER RECORDING STATIONS BY ELEVATION IN ADJACENT REGIONS Under 1000 Feet 1000 to 3000 Feet Over 3000 Feet Ashcroft Alexis Creek Big Creek Kamloops Mamitt Lake Oliver M A P 7 W. G. HARDWICK 59 The quantity of weather data recorded is a c r i -terion for a second classification. Quesnel, Dog Creek and Lytton have continuous records from their establishment to the present time. Lillooet, Pavilion and Williams Lake have temperature records and some precipitation records for some periods, but these do not necessarily coincide. Rain gauge data for some years has been recorded at Laluwissin Creek, Alkali Lake and Soda Creek. Quesnel has continuous weather records for over 60 years, while Lytton and Lillooet have records for over thirty years. Other stations have weather records for much shorter periods. Dog Creek with nine years and Pavilion with two years are examples. The station at Lillooet has had at least three locations, although the present one at 740 feet has been there for the longest period. For one year, i t was located about a mile south of town at 830 feet, and for two years, namely • 1945 and 1946, i t was not in operation. In 1958 i t is reported that the station in the town was closed and that records were now being kept at the Riverland Irrigated farm across the Fraser. One year, records were kept at Fountain, and the station was called Lillooet #3. The Pavilion station has been in operation only two years but another station, of the same name from which a long frost free period is recorded a decade ago, was located at the 15 Mile Ranch near Glen Fraser. The present station is at an 60 e l e v a t i o n of over 3000 f e e t while the former was near 1700 f e e t . C l a s s i f i c a t i o n s of Climate As the a g r i c u l t u r a l p o s s i b i l i t i e s of the Middle Fraser Region are the primary i n t e r e s t of t h i s r e p o r t , f i r s t c o n s i d e r a t i o n w i l l be given to those aspects of c l i m a t e that s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n f l u e n c e success or f a i l u r e i n farming. These aspects are p r e c i p i t a t i o n and temperature and t h e i r i n t e r r e l a t i o n i n the P o t e n t i a l Evapo-transpir-a t i o n . Other c l i m a t i c phenomena that are of i n t e r e s t i n t h i s d i s c u s s i o n w i l l be the f r o s t f r e e p e r i o d , the growing season, s n o w f a l l and temperature accumulation. The probab-i l i t y of v a r i a t i o n s from the mean of p r e c i p i t a t i o n from year to year w i l l be of i n t e r e s t , p a r t i c u l a r l y to the farmer. The I n t e r i o r P l a t e a u of B r i t i s h Columbia l i e s w i t h i n the humid c o n t i n e n t a l c l i m a t i c c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of Koeppen. 48 In the deep v a l l e y s Chapman recognizes examples of the m i d - l a t i t u d e steppe. The weather s t a t i o n at Quesnel at the 49 extreme north of the region f a l l s i n t o the Dfb, humid c o n t i n e n t a l c l i m a t i c type, w i t h p r e c i p i t a t i o n a l l year, a 48 J.D.Chapman, "The Climate of B r i t i s h Columbia," Transactions jth B r i t i s h Columbia N a t u r a l Resources Confer-ence T T 7 5 2 ) , p . " " 2 1 ' 49 L e t t e r s representing c l i m a t i c types derived by Koppen. D c o l d snowy f o r e s t c l i m a t e s , average temperature of c o l d e s t month l e s s than 2 6 . 6 ° F, average temperature 61 dry s p r i n g w i t h a summer maximum, a January mean of 14 degrees and a J u l y mean of 62 degrees. Lytton f a l l s i n t o the Dsa type c l i m a t e , w i t h a summer drought, winter maximum p r e c i p i t a t i o n and a warmest month.with temperatures of 71 degrees. Some l o c a l areas i n the deep v a l l e y s are c l a s s i -f i e d as Bsk. P r e c i p i t a t i o n While p r e c i p i t a t i o n i s low w i t h i n the Middle Fraser Region, w i t h mean annual p r e c i p i t a t i o n under 20 inches,two general p r e c i p i t a t i o n regimes are recognized. In one, the deep v a l l e y l o c a t i o n s of the south, low summer p r e c i p i t a t i o n and high winter p r e c i p i t a t i o n are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c , w h i l e i n the northern shallow v a l l e y and on the pl a t e a u , year-round p r e c i p i t a t i o n w i t h a summer maximum i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c . The monthly means p l o t t e d i n two graphs, Figure 4 and 5, i l l u s -t r a t e these two regimes. This c h a r a c t e r i s t i c v a r i a t i o n i s s i g n i f i c a n t i n terms of a g r i c u l t u r e , f o r equivalent annual r a i n f a l l d i s t r i b u t e d w i t h a summer maximum o f f e r s more use-f u l moisture f o r a g r i c u l t u r e than the same amount of pre-warmest month more than 30°. f no d i s t i n c t dry season, b c o o l summer, average temperature l e s s than 71.6 degrees F. s summer dry — d r i e s t month l e s s than 1.2 inches, a hot summer, average temperature of warmest month over 71 .6° F. 62 P R E C I P I T A T I O N — A N N U A L VARIATION IN MONTHLY M E A N S i , , , — . — — , , 1 , , 1 1 1 F~E&. MAR. A-Pf?- MAV Juue JULV AUC- SEPT CC~r AJPU DEC V A L L E Y S T A T I O N S LYTTON L ILLOOET L A L U W I S S I N ASHCROFT v 1 1 1 — j i » i • • V?A/. FEB- MAR. APR. MAY JUME JUL.Y AUG. s^pr OCT- A/OI/. P L A T E A U AND N O R T H E R N V A L L E Y STATIONS Q U E S N E L WILLIAMS LAKE ALKALI LAKE DOG CREEK- -L F!6. 5 W.G HARDWlCK 63 M A P 8 W . G . H A R D W I C K 64 c i p i t a t i o n o c c u r r i n g i n the winter season. The d i s t r i -b u t i o n of annual p r e c i p i t a t i o n through the Middle Fraser Region i s mapped on Map 8 . Ashcroft on the Thompson, v/ith average annual p r e c i p i t a t i o n of 7 . 4 inches, i s the d r i e s t s t a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia. V a r i a b i l i t y of P r e c i p i t a t i o n For the farmer, the v a r i a b i l i t y of p r e c i p i t a t i o n i s very important, f o r t h i s "can make or break" him i n terms of crop r e t u r n s . To f i n d t h i s , p r e c i p i t a t i o n f o r the growing season over t h i r t y year periods f o r Quesnel and L i l l o o e t were p l o t t e d (Figure 6 and 7) and the v a r i a t i o n s from the mean c a l c u l a t e d . Records of eight years at Dog Creek, representing a s t a t i o n on the pl a t e a u , were s t u d i e d . At Quesnel the mean p r e c i p i -t a t i o n f o r the growing season-' i s 9.04 inches, at L i l l o o e t 5.44 inches and at Dog Creek 8 . 9 2 inches. During the grow-ing season wide v a r i a t i o n s from the mean f i g u r e s take place. Quesnel had i t s low p r e c i p i t a t i o n i n 1926 when 5 . 15 inches were recorded and a maximum i n 1955 of 14 . 78 inches. At L i l l o o e t had i t s s i x month minimum p r e c i p i t a t i o n record i n 1929 when 1.44 inches were recorded and a maximum i n 1956 of 10.94- inches. A range of from 5 . 5 2 inches to 13.4-5 inches i s found at Dog Creek i n the eight years recorded. The question of v a r i a b i l i t y of p r e c i p i t a t i o n has not 50 A p r i l to September i s taken as an average grow-ing season. While'at Quesnel the p l a n t i n g season does not come u n t i l l a t e A p r i l , at L i l l o o e t ploughing of t e n takes place i n March. 65 been stud i e d f u l l y i n t h i s b r i e f summary. In some years, e s p e c i a l l y at L i l l o o e t , most of the p r e c i p i t a t i o n has f a l l e n i n one month, and i n f a c t w i t h i n a very few days i n some cases. For seven of the months i n the t h i r t y year period recorded there has been l e s s than .01 inches of p r e c i p i t a t i o n recorded, and i n a s i m i l a r number of months over 2.50 inches had f a l l e n . This i n d i c a t e s the need f o r f u r t h e r study of p r e c i p i t a t i o n v a r i a b i l i t y , not by years alone, but by months and days. At Quesnel, 14 of the years summarized had l e s s p r e c i p i t a t i o n than the average and 17 years had more than average p r e c i p i t a t i o n . At L i l l o o e t , the p a t t e r n i s reversed, and 20 years have experienced l e s s than average p r e c i p i t a t i o n w h i l e only 10 years recorded more. At Dog Creek the r a t i o was 5 years l e s s and 3 more. C o e f f i c i e n t of V a r i a t i o n S t a t i s t i c a l l y the v a r i a t i o n i s best expressed i n the C o e f f i c i e n t of V a r i a t i o n . • In determining t h i s , the standard d e v i a t i o n of the annual means from the o v e r a l l mean i s c a l c u l a t e d . The r e -s u l t i s compared as a percentage v a r i a t i o n from the mean f o r Quesnel and L i l l o o e t , s t a t i o n s r e presenting the northern v a l l e y and the southern v a l l e y r e s p e c t i v e l y . On the basis of 30 years of records, the c o e f f i c i e n t of v a r i a t i o n f o r L i l l o o e t i s 40$ while that f o r Quesnel i s 30.9$. V A R I A T I O N IN PRECIPITATION DURING T H E GROWING SEASON (APRIL-SEPTEMBER) QUESNEL-MEAN 9.04 I N C H E S ! 1 1 i ' 1 r i I 1 1 1 1 | J\J. ICO zoo 3pa 4--<*> Soo fa.oo -jj)o g 0 0 fa 10.00 « o o a o o L I L L O O E T MEAN 5.44 INCHES L F16. 6-7 W.G. HARDWICK 67 Temperature S t a t i o n s recording temperature data are not as wide-spread as those recording p r e c i p i t a t i o n data (see Map 7) . L i l l o o e t and Lytton represent the southern v a l l e y s t a t i o n s , Williams Lake and Quesnel the high v a l i e y s t a t i o n s , and Dog Creek and P a v i l i o n the p l a t e a u s t a t i o n s . As one would expect, the southern s t a t i o n s have higher annual temperatures than the northern v a l l e y and plateau s t a t i o n s . As i n d i c a t e d on Figure 8, the southern s t a t i o n s have J u l y means 7 to 9 degrees warmer than the northern v a l l e y s t a t -i o n s , and these i n turn are 6 to 7 degrees warmer than the pla t e a u s t a t i o n s . L y t t o n and L i l l o o e t have J u l y means i n excess of 71 degrees, while the m i d - v a l l e y s t a t i o n s of Wi l l i a m s Lake and Quesnel report J u l y mean temperature of 64 and 62 degrees r e s p e c t i v e l y . Dog Creek reports a 60 degree mean and P a v i l i o n records a 56 degree mean. The p a t t e r n of J u l y mean temperatures i n the Middle Fraser Region i s p l o t t e d on Map 9. In January, a 27 degree mean was reported at Lytton while i n the n o r t h and on.the p l a t -eau mean temperatures range from 9 to 15 degrees. The p a t t e r n of temperatures i n January i s i l l u s t r a t e d on Map 10. Decreases i n monthly mean temperatures are evident both i n a l t i t u d e and i n l a t i t u d e . P a v i l i o n i s located on the west-facing s i d e of a rounded mountain, part of the northern upland p l a t e a u , at 3500 feet e l e v a t i o n . The 68 January mean at Pavilion of 15 compares with 27 at Lillooet, and a 56 degree July mean at Pavilion compares with a 71 51 degree July at Lillooet. July 71 degree mean at Lillooet compares with 64 degrees at Quesnel, only 900 feet higher, but nearly 200 miles further north. In January Quesnel's •14 degree mean compares with a 27 degree mean at Lillooet. Accumulated Temperature The success of agriculture depends to some degree on the accumulated temperatures in the growing season. Rather than.considering monthly means alone this derived climatic element is described to give further information on the potential warmth of various areas. In deriving these figures of accumulated temper-ature, work by T.G. Northcote in an unpublished paper was • 52 consulted. In this paper the "day degree" units are obtained from the monthly mean temperature multiplied by the number of days in the month concerned. The threshold tempera-5-a ture used is 43 degrees.^ In this paper the Accumulated Temperature is calculated over a twelve-year period, 1944-56. 51 Although the two year record at Pavilion suggests that this comparison may not be too accurate, a similar tem-perature pattern is found when comparing Ashcroft in the Thompson Valley and Mamit Lake on the plateau, where records have been in existence for a long period. 52 T.G. Northcote, "Accumulated Temperature in Bri t i s h Columbia" typewritten, Department of Geography, University of British Columbia. 53 43 degrees is the temperature at which plants commence to grow. This w i l l be discussed in the section entitled "The Growing Season". 69 7 0 -50-4-0 • 30 20-10 •> MEAN TEMPERATURE RANGE 7 / V \ V w - i r 1 \ " i 1 i . . . . . J A N . . F E B . M A R . A P R . M A Y J U N E J U L Y A U G . S E P T . O C T . MOV. D E C . QUESNEL WILLIAMS LAKE DOG CREEK " LILLOOET FIG..9 W. 6. HARDWICK EXTREME TEMPERATURE RANGE DEGREES F. no /no Bo BO 70 60 50 *0 Jo iO I'O 0 - to - 2o -Jo -*o - 50 - 6 0 I I I 4 1 T-r n < I 11 i l IL.J_. ! i 111 1 1 »-o Z I-0 O O H H -i y z J > UI 3 J a 2.2 0 5 t > I 0 <t « Q a S Ui > O U Z < > I—H-I I a ui a j -J2« I I i ! F I G . 9 W. G. HARDW ICK 9 W. G , H A R D W I C K '71 W. G. HARD W I CK 72 (Perhaps a longer period would be needed to get more exact estimates.) At L y t t o n , i n the low deep v a l l e y along the F r a s e r , 3667 day degrees per annum are accumulated. L i l l o o e t has a s i m i l a r accumulated temperature. Quesnel at the northern end of the region accumulates 2022 day-degrees per annum, whi l e Dog Creek on the p l a t e a u , w i t h an e i g h t -year record shows 1716 day degrees per annum. The accumu-l a t e d temperature at Lytton i s perhaps the l a r g e s t accumu-l a t i o n i n the province and compares w e l l w i t h Kamloops i n the Thompson V a l l e y and O l i v e r i n the warm southern area of the Okanagan Trench. (Table V). TABLE V ACCUMULATED TEMPERATURE AT SELECTED STATIONS 1955-56 S t a t i o n Day Degrees Ly t t o n . . . 3667 O l i v e r " 3426 Kamloops 3247 The s i g n i f i c a n c e of the h i g h accumulated tempera-tur e to farmers at Lytton i s great as t h i s allows i n t e n s i v e c u l t i v a t i o n of a wide v a r i e t y of pla n t s that need warm temperatures. F r o s t s Freezing temperatures are expected i n winter at l o c a t i o n s i n t h i s l a t i t u d e , and as they occur i n other than the growing season they do not a f f e c t a g r i c u l t u r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y . 73 Important to agriculture in the Middle Fraser Region are: (1) the dates at which freezing temperatures begin and; (2) the occurrence of freezing temperatures in the other-wise open season; (3) the cause of frost conditions. It is usually considered that frost occurs when the low daily temperature drops below 32 degrees Fahrenheit. Some per-sons interested in agriculture prefer a low of 26 degrees Fahrenheit in the 24-hour period. Cause of Frost Frosts are caused by a variety of conditions - • among them nocturnal radiation, air drainage and the penetration of air masses. Summer frosts on the plateau and northern valley locations are usually attributable to nocturnal radiation. The clear nights allow the accumulated heat to dissipate so that the 24 hour temperature f a l l s below freezing. In the same period, many valley locations w i l l be so warm that the drop in temperature would not be sufficient from the day time highs to cause freezing temperatures. If the frosts persist on the plateau, drainage of cold air down the valley sides can be expected. The outpouring of cold air masses is common in the winter but occasional outbursts in the spring and.fall bring freezing temperatures to the region. This air normally comes through the mountain passes and moves down the river 74 valleys. However in spring and f a l l the lowering of the overall temperatures may sometimes be attributed to Polar Maritime Air. The lower portions of this air in its move-ment across the Pacific are warmed by its proximity to the ocean, while the upper portions which are f i r s t to cross the mountains, remain cold. In the Fraser Region, this air mass crosses the plateau in a south-easterly flow and possibly passes completely over the deep valley areas, bringing cold temperatures to the plateau alone. The arrival of cold air in the interior valleys does not necess-a r i l y mean that frost w i l l occur, for the valley bottoms may be f i l l e d with warm moist a i r . When this is the case, the cold air entering the valley causes the formation of clouds which block radiation and keeps temperatures above freezing. If, however, dry air f i l l s the valley and the cold air enters the province clear skies occur, which in-evitably results in nocturnal radiation and the lowering of the temperature. Each particular site w i l l be affected differently by frosts. Terrace sites w i l l benefit from air drainage, an occurrence with drains off the coldest air and leaves the terrace moderately warm. A northern exposure w i l l usually mean that less heat accumulation takes place in the daylight hours and as a result lower temperatures w i l l occur at night, perhaps low enough for frost, while on the south-ern or western slopes at a similar elevation the temperature remains above freezing. 75 Vegetation or surface m a t e r i a l , w i t h i t s a b i l i t y to r e t a i n or r a d i a t e heat, i s s i g n i f i c a n t i n the f r o s t s i t u a t i o n at some p a r t i c u l a r s i t e s . 54 The Length of Frost Free P e r i o d (32 degrees F.) The f r o s t f r e e period i s u s u a l l y the number of days between the occurrence of the l a s t 32 degree temperature i n any 24 hour day i n the s p r i n g and the f i r s t day on which i t occurs i n the autumn. In comparing the f r o s t free period f o r s e v e r a l s t a t i o n s i n the i n t e r i o r of B r i t i s h Columbia, as i n d i c a t e d i n Table V I , v a r i a t i o n s i n the average f r o s t free p e r i o d appear, ranging from 52 days at B i g Creek i n the C h i l c o t i n to 192 days at Lytton i n the south. The number of f r o s t free days vary from year to year. S t a t i o n s on the p l a t e a u and at Quesnel can experience f r o s t s i n any month 'of the year, w h i l e v a l l e y l o c a t i o n s experience long f r o s t f r e e periods. The number of days i n each month of the grow-ing season i n which f r o s t s occur f o r some rep r e s e n t a t i v e s t a t i o n s i s i n d i c a t e d on Figure 10. The contrast between the long open season at Lytton and the short one on the p l a t e a u s t a t i o n s i s evident. The Frost Free P e r i o d (26 degrees f.) A g r i c u l t u r i s t s b e l i e v e that most plan t s that t h r i v e i n t h i s region can take up to s i x degrees of f r o s t before k i l l i n g takes p l a c e , 54 Map 11. 76 MAP I I N W. G. HARDWICK TABLE VI FROST FREE PERIOD (32 DEGREES)^ Mean Average E a r l i e s t L atest Average E a r l i e s t L a t e s t Longest Shortest F r o s t Date of Date of Date of Date of Date of Date of F r o s t F r o s t S t a t i o n Free Last Last Last F i r s t F i r s t F i r s t Free Free P e r i o d Frost F r o s t F r o s t F r o s t F r o s t F r o s t P e r i o d P e r i o d L y t t o n 192 Apr.13 Mar.12 May 8 Oct.22 Oct.3 Oct.21 200 167 L i l l o o e t 182 Apr.22 Mar.20 May 20 Oct.21 Oct.3 Oct.31 223 129 W i l l i a m s L. 119 May 21 May 11 June 1 Sep.17 Sen.2 Oct.10 150 93 Quesnel 103 June 2 May 7 J u l . . 1 1 Sep.13 J u l . 2 2 Oct.18 115 12 P a v i l i o n 111 Dog Creek 95 May 30 May 16 J u l . 2 Sep. 2 Jul.26 Sep.17 124 66 Mammit Lake 81 B i g Cr. 52 Jun.27 May 29 J u l . 1 3 Aug.18 J u l . 1 6 Sep.7 103 3 Kamloops 166 Apr.25 Mar.28 May 29 Oct.8 Sep.18 Oct.30 212 137 55 Based on A.J. Connor, "The Frost Free Season i n B r i t i s h Columbia," M e t e o r o l o g i c a l D i v i s i o n , Department of Transport, (Tononto, 1949) "Frost Data," M e t e o r o l o g i c a l Summaries, v o l . I l l , M e t e o r o l o g i c a l D i v i s i o n , Department of Transport, (Toronto, 1956). 78 and as a result suggest that a Frost Free period based on 26 degrees Fahrenheit should be used. Comparing frost free averages for several stations, l i s t e d in Table VII, one finds that the length of period is extended from 20 to 40 days each year. TABLE VII FROST FREE PERIOD (Mean Period above 26 degrees Fahrenheit) Station Number of Days Average Date of the Last Frost of the Season Average Date of the First Frost of the Season Lytton 245 Lillooet 221 Williams Lake 144 Quesnel 135 Big. Cr. 177 Kamloops 221 Mar. 20 Mar. 17 May 6 May 6 May 27 Mar.28 Nov. 17 Oct. 31 Sep. 26 Sep. 17 Sep. 19 Nov. 4 The dates of the last spring frost and the f i r s t autumn frosts on the 32 degree and 26 degree c r i t e r i a plotted on Figure 11 show some striking comparisons. At Big Creek in 1 9 5 4 , where on the 32 degree scale 11 frost-free days were recorded, on the 26 degree scale 110 frost-free days A 56 occurred. Using the low of 32 degrees as a c r i t e r i a for frosts, 56 Consecutively numbered days 192 to 203 were frost free on the 32 degree scale while days 152 to 272 were frost free on the 26 degree scale. 79 NUMBER OF DAYS OF FROSTS PER MONTH IN T H E G R O W I N G S E A S O N - 19 5*3 BIG CREEK i DOG CREEK ft QUESNEL 1 PAVILION • LYTTON 0 DAYS mm MARCH'APR\L ' MAY ' June " JULY '/WGUST SEPT. 8CT. foov. FIG . 10 W. G. HARD Wl C K THE LENGTH OF THE FROST FREE PERIOD OF 2 6 AND 32 DEGREES COMPARED 'Hi | 'fSo '9SZ l?5i I9S+ 5 Z b O 3 3 2 -} ~i <. CL UJ o o I I I I -r - r-r - r 1 1 1 1 1 I • ' Zoo ~r ^-n— CONSEC UTI VELY DOG C R E E K >-i *•, / •. 1 \ \ ? \ \ s \ / s ; t9S'~ l?Sz\-i • I / . !?& ! \ • • t \ i 1 => => I < lii O O i i •xoo N U M B E R E D DAYS L Y T T O N 5oo FIG. il W. G. HARDWICK 80 Map 6 has been prepared, which shows the length of the frost free period over the Middle Fraser Region. It is notable that most of the plateau has a very short frost free period, while the narrow deep valley and the southern part of the region have long dependable frost free periods. Growing Season The growing season of any station is the number of days on which the mean temperature exceeds 4 3 degrees. (6.01 C) Mean 4 3 degrees is used as i t approximates the tempera-ture at which seeds germinate in the spring and where grow-ing terminates in the f a l l . This data suggests when a farmer can plant in the spring and should harvest in the f a l l . The length of the growing season in different parts of the Middle Fraser Region is indicated on Map 12. The mean durations of the growing seasons for several stations are listed in Table VIII. TABLE VIII DURATION MEAN DAILY TEMPERATURES ABOVE 4 3 DEGREES Station Days Station Days Quesnel Williams Lake Lillooet Lytton 184 199 2 3 0 2 3 4 Kamloops Oliver Prince George Vancouver 214 225 166 244 57 Brink, op^ c i t . p. 5 81 M A P 12 W. G, HARDWICK 82 The pattern is similar to the frost free period in many respects. The Lillooet-Lytton area has a very long growing season, longer than others in the Interior, and only slightly shorter than coastal stations such as Van-couver. Just as the frost free period is discussed as extending from a particular day in the spring to a certain day in the f a l l , so is the growing season. Table IX indicates the dates at which the mean daily temperatures rise and f a l l below 43 degrees F. TABLE IX DATE AT WHICH MEAN DAILY TEMPERATURE RISES AND FALLS BELOW 43° F Station Spring F a l l Lytton March 16 Nov. 5 Lillooet March 19 Nov. 3 Quesnel April 15 Oct. 16 Kamloops March 28 Oct. 28 Penticton March 22 Nov. 3 Big Creek May 2 Oct. 3 Williams Lake April 9 Oct. 25 Map 13 indicates the approximate dates at which the growing season arrives in different parts of the Middle Fraser Region. The growing season begins in the southern regions in March, a month earlier than in many plateau locations. It is interesting to compare the length of the growing season with the frost free periods based on 32 degrees and 26 degrees as in Table X. 83 MAP 13 W. G . H A R D W I C K 84 TABLE X A COMPARISON BETWEEN THE LENGTHS OF "THE GROWING SEASON" AND THE FROST FREE PERIODS DETERMINED AT 26 AND 32 DEGREES Station Lytton Lillooet Williams L. Quesnel Kamloops Growing Seas on 234 230 190 184 214 Frost Free Period (32°) 192 182 119 103 166 Frost Free Period (26°) 245 221 144 133 221 Extreme Temperatures In general, extreme temperatures do not significant-ly influence agriculture. However the absolute minimum temperatures have a " k i l l i n g effect" on certain crops. The regular occurrence of low minimum temperatures can be a limiting factor in growing some crops, particularly crops demanding a long growing season and high accumulated temperature. Temperatures below 20 degrees Fahrenheit make it impossible to grow peaches successfully. This limits any possible peach orchards to the most sheltered areas in the Middle Fraser Region. At present there are none grown commercially. However, apples are grown successfully in the Lillooet area, indicating that they are not affected by the minimum temperatures in that area. Alf a l f a is kil l e d in years when persistent low temperatures occur. Such a loss adds to the cost of farming. Within the Middle Fraser Region, there are lower 85 minimum temperatures in the northern areas and on the plateau than in the southern valley. These are indicated on Figure 9. The lowest recorded temperature in the region is - 5 2 degrees Fahrenheit at Quesnel. The maximum temperatures are high in the south and the 112 degree high at Lytton is the hottest temperature o f f i c i a l l y recorded in the province. Potential Evapo-transpiration With high accumulated temperatures and small total precipitation recorded in much of the Middle Fraser Region, one would reasonably expect a water deficiency and a need for irrigation i f agriculture was to survive. This is the case. Of considerable interest to the farmer is the extent 58 of water deficiency. Thornthwaite developed a means of measuring the relationship between moisture available to that needed through potential evapo-transpiration. 'Water deficiency or surplus at any time in any particular area can be estimated, by comparing the precipitation with the v/ater loss attributable to the evaporation of water and transpir-ation of plants and different areas can be compared in terms of their water deficiency or water surplus. The water deficiency and the heat accumulation can be the most important factors in suggesting what type of crops are desirable in an area. 58 C.W.Thornthwaite, "An Approach Toward a Rational Classification of Climate," Geographical Review, XXXVIII, (January 1948), p. 55-94. 86 In determining the potential evapo-transpiration, i t is assumed that the s o i l retains a portion of the moisture that f a l l s and the rest runs off. In many of his works, Thornthwaite used the figure of 10 centimetres as the re-tention capacity of the s o i l . This figure is accepted as generally satisfactory, although not necessarily so for a l l 59 areas within the region. The pattern of v/ater deficiency in the Middle Fraser Region is mapped on Map 14. It generally increases from north to south, and from plateau to valley. The degree of deficiency of moisture can be tabulated indicating the months of deficiency and months of surplus. The greatest deficiency occurs around Laluwissin Creek where over 71 centimetres per annum of moisture must be 60 added i f agriculture is to be practised. Figure 12 illustrates graphically the pattern of water deficiency at Laluwissin Creek and other weather stations in the Region. At Lytton a winter surplus of moisture is accumulated, some of which is retained and aids that area in the early part of the water deficient season. By the f i r s t week in May, the surplus has been used and the deficiency starts accumulating 59 The particular soils in this area have their own retention characteristics, and until the soils are a l l classi-fied an average figure has to be taken. 60 No temperature data is available from Laluwissin, but as Lytton and Lillooet have nearly identical temperatures throughout the year an average was taken and applied to the precipitation records of Laluwissin. 88 WATER DEFICIENCY IN THE MIDDLE FRASER REGION L E G E N D A D J U S T E D P O T E N T J A L " V E V A P O - T R A N S P I R A T I O N AMOUNT OF JA/ATER DEFICIENCY! J P M A M J J A - S O N P FJGURE 12 W.G. HARDWICK 89 because the summer has minimum r a i n f a l l . The annual water deficiency for Lytton is 53 cm. Lillooet becomes water deficient two weeks earlier than Lytton, in April . Because there is a greater precipitation in the growing season at Lillooet the deficiency does not become as great as at Lytton, amounting to 38 centimetres. Recalling that the northern stations have higher annual precipitation than the southern stations, and a summer maximum, one could expect that the water deficiency in those areas would be less than in the south and would be for a shorter period. Dog Creek, on the plateau, has a defic-iency of 16.3 cm. Dog Creek, Figure 12, meets its water needs until late enough in the season so that surplus water in the s o i l is sufficient to meet the plants' needs until July. As a result some dry farming can take place. At Williams Lake, only 1 centimetre deficit is recorded by July f i r s t , and even by the end of July, i t just totals 5.5 centimetres, a permissive deficiency for the raising of some grains or dry farming methods. Quesnel, at the northern end of the region has a water deficiency of only 9.1 centimetres, and the moisture needs of the plants are usually met until late July. Pavilion, the station at 3500 feet thirty miles north of Lillooet, has only a 9.3 centimetre annual d e f i c i t , which does not start unti l July. As this record is for two years i t can be 90 questioned as to r e l i a b i l i t y , but nevertheless i t makes an excellent contrast with the valley station at Lillooet where, starting in Ap r i l , a 38 centimetre average annual deficit accumulates. Climatic Areas After studying maps of the various elements of climate, a common pattern is noted. In precipitation, there are two regimes, that of the valley and that of the.plateau: in temperature, three patterns, those of the southern valley, northern valley and plateau. In heat accumulation, there are wide variations between the' south and north, and great variations in the water deficiency between the southern valley, the northern valley and plateau are indicated. In consider-ing the frost free period or the growing season similar patterns are in evidence, a distinct variation from the valley to the plateau. On the basis of this evidence, three climatic divisions are recognized. Although the boundaries cannot be located exactly, they are estimated on Map 15. The f i r s t division is the southern valley, extending from north of Lytton between the Coast Mountains and plateau to just north of Big Bar Creek. This is the area of high temperatures, greatest heat accumulation, long growing season and has the greatest average annual water deficiency. Vegetation and crops are similar at Lytton and Lillooet and at Big Bar, although winter temperatures may be somewhat 91 more severe at the last station. The 190 day frost-free period, recorded at the 15 Mile Ranch near Pavilion on a two year basis, indicates that the characteristics of this southern division reach further north than has been suggested in the British,Columbia-Atlas of Resources, and by other writers such as Kendrew and Kerr. The second climatic division are those areas over 1500 feet elevation in the south, and lesser elevations in the north, where heat accumulation is less, water deficiency is less and the growing season is shorter than in the southern valley region. Here grass lands can be converted, by irrigation, into excellent cultivated fields. As no stations exist in the south, i t is d i f f i c u l t to limit the extent of this division; but in the north, the Canoe Creek, Alk a l i Lake, Williams Lake and Soda Creek areas have similar climatic characteristics and could be called representative. In the south, this division is indicated by conditions in the Fountain Yalley, and lower Bridge River. The third area is the high forested plateau and northern valley, Marguerite to Quesnel, where there is a relatively low average annual moisture deficiency which usually does not start until July, summer frosts, low winter temperatures and relatively low accumulated temperatures. 61 W.G. Kendrew, and D. Kerr, "The Climate of B r i t i s h Columbia and the Yukon Territory (Ottawa: Queen's Printer, 1955). MAP 15 93 Stations from Quesnel to Pavilion, over 150 miles apart, have similar climatic characteristics. III. HYDROLOGY As the Middle Fraser Region is an area with a moisture d e f i c i t , tributary streams of the Fraser become very important as sources for irrigation water. Some streams are already utilized as sources for irrigation water, some have potential value and some others w i l l not be of use because of their intermittent nature. L i t t l e is known of the actual flow of most of these tributary streams. However, a consideration of their flow in August and September and the size of their watershed w i l l give some indication of their r e l i a b i l i t y . In addition several streams have lakes in their headwaters which act as natural reservoirs. The rivers and streams of the Middle Fraser Region can be classified in terms of their importance as potential sources of irrigation water as follows: I. The trunk river, the Fraser River 62 II. The major river tributaries: viz. the Bridge, Chilcotin and Quesnel Rivers, III. The small river tributaries: vis. the Stein River, Seton Creek, Churn Creek, Williams Lake River-San Jose River. 62 Location of rivers and creeks referred to are indicated on Map 16. 94 17. The streams, which through adequate watersheds or natural storage in lakes, provide year round supplies of water adequate for irrigation. (a) Southern section, Texas Creek, Foster Bar Creek, Laluwissin Creek, Cinquefoil Creek, Fountain Creek, Sallus Creek, Pavilion Creek, Slok Creek, Mackay Creek, Spray, Towinok and Riley Creeks. (b) Middle section Leon Creek, Kelley Creek, French Bar Creek, Lone Cabin Creek, Watson Bar Creek, Ward Creek, Big Bar Creek, Grinder-Coster Creek, Canoe Creek, Gaspard Creek, Harpers Creek, Dog Creek, Meason Creek, Al k a l i Creek, Word Creek, Chimney Creek, and Riske Creek. (c) Northern section Meldrum Creek, Makin Creek, Soda Creek, Narcosli Creek, Dragon Creek and Cuisson Creek. V. The small streams utilized in local farms, usually intermittent in. nature, which collectively are important to irrigation agriculture but individually are not important enough to mention. Flow data is available only for the major rivers, the Fraser, Thompson, Chilcotin and Stein Rivers and Seton Creek. Wide variations are found in the flow throughout the year, a fact that makes construction of run-of-the-river dams without storage impossible. 95 MAP 16 W. G. HARD W IC K-96 Fraser River Stream flow on the Fraser River has wide variations from month to month during the year, re-flecting the runoff from melting snow in the spring and summer, and the lack of runoff in winter when precipitation f a l l s as snow and lies for extended periods during cold , weather. At Hope, where a gauging station has been in con-tinuous operation for over 44 years, a maximum discharge of 536,000 cubic feet per second has been recorded, and a minimum of 12,000 cubic feet per second. The mean discharge at Hope is 92,300 cubic feet per second. Various other stations are found In a l l parts of the Fraser Basin, giving similar information for different years. A station with 21 years of record near Big Bar Creek (Jesmond) indicates a maximum flow of 289,000 cubic feet per second, a minimum of 4,000 cubic feet per second and a mean discharge of 54,100. Although records are kept only in the open water season they 62 give an indication for the flow expected at the Moran Dam. These stations are maintained by the Federal Department of Northern Affairs and Natural Resources. In addition to the hydrometric data recorded, meteorological stations and snow gauge stations throughout the basin are maintained from whose records predictions are made as to the runoff expected in any season. 62 "Flood Runoff-Frequency and Magnitude-Design Flood" Appendix D, Interim Report Investigations into Measures for" Flood Control in the Fraser River Basin, Fraser River BoardTvictoria, 1956), Plate 4 .4 .3 i • ' 97 Thompson River A hydrometric station near Spences Bridge has records for over 45 years, and gives an indi -cation of the wide fluctuations experienced on that river. A maximum flow of 146,000 cubic feet per second is recorded as compared to a minimum figure of 4,100 and a mean figure of 26,600 cubic feet per second. Seton Creek near Lillooet records an average flow of 1,240 cubic feet per second, Cayoosh Creek 2,480 cubic feet per second and Chilco River near Redstone 3»210. Although no flow data is l i s t e d , i t is indicated that about 600 horsepower, regulated flow, is available from Stein R i v e r . ^ Reliability of Records In discussing the runoff from the rivers of the Fraser system, some consideration must be taken of the length of time records have been kept. When averages are involved, one exceptional year can make a short duration station appear to have a greater mean flow than perhaps is justified over the long run. Just as meteor-ological records are more reliable when available over a long period, so is hydrometric data. Unfortunately most stations within the Fraser Basin have been established since 1948, after the severe flood of that year, and their records are not long enough to illustrate what potential flows are possible. In addition no data is available for some of the 63 Water Powers, Bri t i s h Columbia. Water Rights Branch, op_. cit.p. l5S 9 8 large tributary streams such as Churn Creek, Williams Lake River and Narcosli Creek. IV. SOILS S o i l Areas Few detailed s o i l studies have been made within the Fraser Basin, and as a r e s u l t , attempts to place boundaries around s o i l classes i s d i f f i c u l t . S o i l surveys have been made i n the l a s t ten years at Quesnel, Alexandria, and L i l l o o e t . There are two divisions of the s o i l s i n the region, (1) those associated with the grass and parkland, and (2) those associated with the forests. The S o i l Classes The Grey-Wooded s o i l s are associated with the forests whereas the Brown, Dark Brown and Thin Black s o i l s are associated with the grass and parkland. Some areas of Degrading Black s o i l are found i n poorly drained sections of the uplands. The Grey Wooded S o i l s The Grey Wooded s o i l s are found i n areas of the plateau with moderate r a i n f a l l (for the i n t e r i o r ) and forest cover. North of Marguerite, the forest cover dominates the v a l l e y as well as the plateau and i n this section Grey Wooded s o i l s are the dominant s o i l c l a s s . The p r o f i l e for the s o i l s i n this c l a s s , Figure 13 , shows a thin surface horizon of organic matter underlain by 99 five to eleven inches of greyish, slightly acid s o i l . The s o i l horizons beneath the organic surface may have a high sand and s i l t content. Below these horizons the s o i l tends to be more calcareous and free lime is frequently found at 64 depths of 25 to 3 0 inches. The base material is in most areas glacial d r i f t , but in some localized areas sedimentary rock and lava con-stitutes the base material. The Kersley loamy sand, found on the undulating ,terraces along the Fraser River south of Quesnel, is the most widespread subdivision of the Grey Wooded soils within this region. It is in some places associated with clay and muck, and Degrading Black so i l s . Where arable these soils may be adapted to a variety of agricultural practices. Be-cause of the low organic matter and fibre content of these s o i l s , leguminous forage crops are recommended in their management. "Provided the s o i l is properly f e r t i l i z e d and crop rotation is practised, mixed livestock-crop farming is 65 generally recommended." Thin Black Soils The transition zone between the forest and the valley grassland of the "dry belt" of Br i t i s h 64 C.A.Rowles, L. Farstad, D.G.Laird, "Soil Re-sources of B r i t i s h Columbia," 9th Transactions. B r i t i s h  Columbia Natural Resources Conference, (Victoria, 1956) pp. 92-105. 65 "The Quesnel-Lillooet Bulletin Area," Bulletin  Area No. 5_« Department of Lands, (Victoria, 1957)» p. 18. 100 S O I L P R O F I L E S GRASSLAND SOIL < I / ' / I N C H E S A , H U f A O S A H O N I T R O G E N B . 1 2 2 4 -H I G H A I D E G R E E O F O R G A N I C M A T T E R B, ' C A L C I U M C A L C I U M 0 C A R B O N A T E CA^B&fi A T E 3 6 PARKLA ND SOIL D A R K B R O W N T W I N B L A C K I N C H E S o — O R G A N I C A" G R E Y A ' ( S H O R T L Y A C i O IZ — 2 4 -C L A Y C A L O U N > C A R & O N A T 6 36 -D E P O S I T S FOREST SOIL CREY WOODED S O U R C E - c. A , R O W L E S , L . F A « S T A O T ( O C . L A I R O , " 3 0 1 1 . R E S O U R C E S O F G R l T i S W C O L U M B I A " 9 T « T R A N S A C T I O N S , B . C . N A T U R A L R E S O U R C E S C O H F E n e n c E , V I C T O R I A ( l 9 S 6 ) P . P . 9 e - / O J . FIG. 13- W. G. HARD WICK 101 Columbia, is labled the Parkland. Here the Grey Wooded soils become associated with the grassland s o i l s . Within the parkland the Thin Black soils are the common s o i l type; a s o i l type associated with low precipitation, under 15 inches, and a 110-120 day frost free season. In the southern section of the Middle Fraser Region these soils are found 66 between 1800 feet and 3000 feet. The Thin Black s o i l shows a relatively high degree of organic matter in the upper horizons, six to twelve inches in depth, which are dark brown to dark grey in color. The surface is close to neutral in reaction, but the subsoil is alkaline and may show some lime accumulation. With irrigation the Thin Black soils are very productive. On the plateau i t s e l f these soils are associated with the Degrading Black s o i l s , soils which occur in many small watered meadows, and as a group are not significant as agricultural s o i l s . The Thin Black soils cover the greatest area in the Middle Fraser Basin. Dark Brown Soils The Dark Brown soils are found in the valleys of the interior, and are associated with low elevation, low precipitation, plus a frost free period of about 180 days. These soils vary from a very sandy texture where water retention is very low, to nearly a s i l t y loam where a high degree of water retention is reported. The 66 Profile, Figure 13 102 Dark Brown soils have a slight content of humus and nitro-gen but may be lacking in some other trace elements. It has experienced a minimum of leaching. These soils are neutral to alkaline in reaction and the subsoils contain calcium carbonate. The s o i l profile, Figure 13, indicates the horizons. The distribution of these soils is quite extensive, covering many of the lower benches from Lytton to the Chil-cotin River. In the south the Dark Brown soils ":are found to an elevation of about 2300 feet but in the north, they appear only at low elevations, only to about 1400 feet. As a result of this, large areas of Dark Brown soils north of Moran would be unavailable for agriculture because they would be flooded. Hardy f r u i t s , vegetables, forages and other crops thrive when these soils are irrigated. Light Brown Soils The Light Brown soils are associated with very high summer temperatures and a long growing season. They are like the Dark Brown soils but are generally low in humus and nitrogen and as such are light in color. They are found in small patches associated with Dark Brown soils in the Fraser Basin, particularly near Lillooet. In general, due to higher winter precipitation, extensive areas of these soils are not found in the Lillooet-Lytton area, although they are found at similar latitudes near Ashcroft and Kamloops. 103 S o i l Map The s o i l map, Map 7, is designed to indicate the approximate distribution of these s o i l classes, within the Middle Fraser Region and adjacent regions. V. VEGETATION Two major divisions of native vegetation comprise the plant cover within the Middle Fraser Region - the grasslands and forests. A factor in the landscape which is most impressive is the large areas of grassland at different elevations from the deep valley to the southern slopes of the high plateau domes over 3»000 feet in elevation. The soils and vegetation are closely linked and the distribution of soils roughly corresponds to the broad types of vegetation. 67 Spilsbury and Tisdale ' have recognized the s o i l plant relationships in the Thompson Valley area and the 68 vertical zonation that takes place. Weir notes that this vertical zonation does not apply too well to the Cariboo-Chilcotin ranchlands, where deep valleys make up a small percentage of the land and where horizontal differences are more easily recognized. Weir's fourfold classification is used here in a modified form, in which the grassland, Cariboo parkland, the forest and natural meadows are the chief classes 67 R.H. Spilsbury and E.W.Tisdale, "Soil-plant re-lationships and vertical zonation in the southern interior of B r i t i s h Columbia, Scientific Agriculture, XXIV (May 1944) PP. 395-436. 68 T.R. Weir, "Ranching in the Southern Interior of B r i t i s h Columbia" Geographical Branch Memoir #4 (Ottawa 1957) p.21. -104 MAP 17 W. G . HARDWICK 105 of vegetation. A f i f t h area, the alpine zone must be noted. Grassland The grasslands of Bri t i s h Columbia are an extension of the intermontane grasslands of the northwest United States, an area associated with the Brown and Thin Black so i l s . They are widespread (see Map 18), in the Thompson Valley and along the benches and terraces of the Fraser. Near the Gang Ranch, Big Bar Mountain, Dog Creek, Al k a l i Lake and Riske Creek they cover large areas of high land, ranging from 2 5 0 0 to 3 5 0 0 feet in elevation, though in most areas the transition to parkland takes place lower than 2 5 0 0 feet. The grasslands have a vertical zonation, the lower grassland associated with the Brown so i l s , the middle grasslands found with the Dark Brown soils and the upper grasslands under which lies the Thin Black s o i l s . The lower grassland areas are largely restricted to the Thompson Valley, but some areas in the Lillooet and the China Gulch-Canoe Creek areas have similar characteristics. The middle grass-land is found in the Lytton-Lillooet area and as far north perhaps as the mouth of the Chilcotin River at elevations below 2 5 0 0 feet. The upper grasslands are found in the south over 2 5 0 0 feet and in the northern areas over 1 5 0 0 to 1 8 0 0 feet. In the Chilcotin Valley grassland is found as far as Alexis Creek, although i t is largely restricted to the valley at that point. 6 9 69 Weir, op. c i t . , p. 21 106 M A P !8 W. G. H A R D W I C K 107 The lower grassland is characterized by blue, bunch, and wheat grass a l l highly palatable for cattle and sought after for winter range, plus sage brush, rabbit and ante-lope brush. Where overgrazing has taken place, the sage-70 brush becomes the dominant cover. The middle grassland is found in higher areas of the Thompson Valley, the Lillooet-Williams Lake River areas 71 along Fraser and in the Chilcotin to Hanceville. Blue-bunch wheat-grass and dwarf-blue grass are native to this area, along with spear-grass, which through overgrazing has become dominant plant type in some areas. Downy chess and Russian t h i s t l e , both non-nutritional plants have been introduced with overgrazing. On the upper grassland, an area including most high plateau areas, the valley of the Fraser to north of Soda Creek and the Chilcotin to Alexis Creek is cooler and has a shorter growing season. Spear-grass and Kentucky blue-grass are widespread, plus downy brome-grass and other plants. The grassland in the Middle Fraser Region, particu-l a r l y in the south, is broken in places by ponderosa pine, often standing alone, or widely spaced above the grassland cover. 70 Spilsbury and Tisdale, OJD^  c i t . p. 400 71 Weir, op^ c i t . , p. 23 108 The Cariboo Parkland Technically the ponderosa pine infringements into the grassland can be termed park-land i n areas between L i l l o o e t and Lytton. Generally the parkland refers to the t r a n s i t i o n from grass to forest, i n many plateau areas. Often this takes the form of f i r and aspen arranged i n dumbs interspersed with grassland areas. In many places these groves w i l l be associated with a va l l e y on the plateau and the rises w i l l be grass covered. These groves provide grazing c a t t l e with shade. The Riske Creek area, around Meadow Lake and valleys of the San Jose River and the area north of Soda Creek, provide many examples of this pleasing landscape. Forest The timbered areas are complementary to the grassland and parkland and are found over some 80$ of the 7 2 Cariboo and C h i l c o t i n plateau areas. Forests are more dense i n the northern and higher areas where p r e c i p i t a t i o n i s greater. In the northern part of the Middle Fraser Region f o r e s t s penetrate the v a l l e y of the Fraser and as one nears Quesnel, forest cover i s found even on the lowest benches. The dominant trees are conifers i n most areas, p a r t i c u l a r l y Douglas f i r , lodgepole pine. In higher areas subalpine f i r and Englemann spruce are dominant. Willow, alder and bi r c h are found i n many well watered areas. 7 2 Weir, op. c i t . , p. 2 3 . 109 Meadows This type of vegetation is limited to the plateau and is associated with the derangement of drainage by glacial deposition in some plateau regions. The meadows are very important to ranchers as sources of natural hay, and spring and autumn ranges. The meadow may be part of a sluggish stream course, or the reault of a high spring water table which recedes in the summer leaving the grasses easy to cut. Spear-grass, brome grass and other grasses are found in these meadows. A third type of meadow is found on the flood plain of small streams, usually between f a i r l y thick groves of willow. Ranches in Hat Creek and Pavilion Creek use meadows of this type. CHAPTER IV HUMAN GEOGRAPHY I. SEQUENT OCCUPANCE The Middle Fraser Region has a long history of occupance, f i r s t as the home of a large native Indian population, and later as the home of the European settlers who followed the explorers into the region. The occupance of the region can be divided into five periods, based not on numbers of people or waves of migration, but on the way the land was used. These are not separate divisions of time in which particular activities started or stopped, but overlapping periods when one activity or another was dominant. They are: (1) The period of fishing and gathering or the period of Native Indian occupance; (2) The period of fur trade, - 1793-1857 ; (3) The period of gold mining and early agriculture; (4) The period of ranching and farming; 1 8 7 1 -1940; (5) The period of forest industries, construction and tourism, associated with the stagnation of agriculture -1940-present. The Period of Fishing and Gathering The native Indians who inhabited the Middle Fraser Region and the Thompson River Valley are described as the "up-river fishing tribes" in the Atlas of Resources.?3 These Indians belonged 73 B r i t i s h Columbia Atlas of Resources, (Victoria, 1 9 5 6 ) , p. 8 . I l l to the Interior Salish l i g u i s t i c division and were reported to be semi-nomadic peoples who numbered some 91,000 In 1835. The greatest concentration of Indians was in the Fraser Valley between Pavilion and Boston Bar, a town about 30 miles south of Lytton, although villages were located at Canoe Creek, Dog Creek, Alkali Lake, Williams Lake and in the Chilcotin. Generally their settlements were at the mouths of the reliable streams, where a water supply could be found, and where deciduous trees grew. From the latter roots and fruits were collected. The Indians fished for salmon with primitive nets and spears from the bluffs above the Fraser and in tributary streams such as the Seton River. At Lillooet, native Indians can s t i l l be observed catching salmon this way. The population of native Indians was re-ported halved by a smallpox epidemic in 1862. The Period of the Fur-Trade, 1793-1858 In 1793, Alexander Mackenzie crossed the continental divide, travelled along the Peace and Parsnip Rivers in search of a route to the Pacific Ocean, and in doing so, brought the European to the Middle Fraser Basin. Simon Fraser, in 1805 built a number of forts on the west side of the Rockies in order to trade for furs, and also to create well stored outposts from which a descent of the Fraser River could be made. In 1808, Fraser descended the river, negotiating the rapids between Fort George and the 112 mouth of the Thompson with l i t t l e trouble; then after con-siderable hardship he continued to the coast. At Lytton, the Indians were friendly, and i t is reported that he had to 7 4 shake the hands of 1200 natives. Fort Alexandria, the f i r s t fort in this region, was built in 1820. In 1821, the region was o f f i c i a l l y taken over by the Hudson's Bay Company. Location of Fort Alexandria is shown on Map 37, page 218 Although the area was claimed as Br i t i s h territory, the number of Europeans in the region remained very small, and they were generally employees of the Company. The Period of the Gold Rush The period known as the "Gold Rush" corresponds to the period of effective European settlement of the region. Gold was discovered on the lower Fraser In 1857, b u - t w a s n o ^ until the bars in the lower Fraser were worked and exhausted that miners moved north along the river into the Middle Fraser Region. In i860, gold discoveries were made on Williams Creek in the Cariboo, and the great trek to the Barkerville area took place. While 18,000 persons swelled Barkerville, making i t the second largest city of the west coast of North America, the bench and valley lands along the Fraser were taken up by farmers. Some men, who had been caught by the "Gold Fever", but who were farmers at heart, recognized the 74 W.N. Sage, "History of Canada West of the Great Lakes", mimeographed. 113 potential of many of the benches and valleys and estab-lished farms. Gold was the basis for the economic develop-ment of the area, and agriculture was of limited importance. Barkerville and Stanley made up the large population con-centration, while Quesnellemouth, Alexandria, the Mile Houses on the Cariboo Road, Clinton and Lillooet were lesser centres. By 1871, a decline in gold mining was fe l t in the economy of the region. The Period of Ranching and Farming With the decline in mining, the remaining population was primarily occupied in ranching and subsistence farming. Although access to the markets of the coast was d i f f i c u l t , most of the arable land within the Middle Fraser Region was alienated. The economy recovered somewhat after the collapse of the gold rush, and the population slowly increased. By 1881, the population of 7»550 was distributed in the agricultural areas along the Fraser around small supply centers and along the Cariboo Wagon Road on the plateau. Typical of the period were l i t t l e nodes of two or three ranches grouped around a favored watering place or rich pasture. This is well illustrated in the case of the River T r a i l north. Big Bar Creek, Dog Creek, Alkali Lake, Williams Lake, were, and are to-day centers of settlement because of the natural features of water and open grassland found together. Along the Cariboo Road from Clinton to Lac l a Hache, 75 An example of this is the story of Robert Carson, and the establishment of the farm on Pavilion Mountain called "Carson's Kingdom", described by Bruce Hutchison in The  Fraser. 1 1 4 where the T r a i l passes through heavy timber, on the higher upland, settlement clusters were few and far between and this is s t i l l the case.'" Ranching was well established as a dominant industry in this period. A general idea of the extent of agricultural activity is found in the following table: TABLE XI DISTRIBUTION OF RANCHES, 188? 7 7 Area Number of Ranches Chilcotin 40 Williams Lake-Soda Creek 40 100 Mile House, Lac l a Hache 26 Clinton 11 Bonaparte Valley 8 Cache Creek 10 Spences Bridge 9 Lytton 3 Asheroft 11 The dominance of agriculture in the Cariboo is best illustrated by the census figures of 1891 in which the census divisions were named after the settlements of im-portance. A l l but one of these were in the immediate vi c i n -i t y of the Fraser River; viz. Alexandria, Alkali Lake, Big Bar Creek, Lillooet, Quesnelle and Williams Lake. Clinton d i s t r i c t was located on the plateau. The population and occupied acreage for 1891 in each census subdivision is 76 T.R.Weir, "Ranching in the southern interior of B r i t i s h Columbia," Queen's Printer, Ottawa, (1955), p. 54. 77 B.C.Directory, 1887. 115 found in Table XII, and the population distribution for 1891 in Map 19. TABLE XII POPULATION, OCCUPIED ACREAGE AND NUMBER OF FARMS, 1891 Division Population Acreage Occupied No of Farms Alexandria 671 23,887 122 A l k a l i Lake 534- 45,928 30 Big Bar 234 4,953 24 Clinton 388 11,232 148 Lillooet 1088 11,010 33 Quesnelle 706 4,340 47 Williams Lake 410 15,776 180 Even with the improvement of transportation f a c i l -i t i e s in the twentieth century the settlement pattern re-mained similar, with population settled in greatest numbers in the agricultural areas along the Fraser. The Recent Period The period from about the be-ginning of World War II to the present can be referred to as the Construction, Forest Industry and Tourism period. The population has increased more rapidly on the plateau and in the forest regions than in the agriculture areas near the Fraser River. The settlements along the Cariboo Road have swelled in numbers with persons engaged in construction and the forest industries and at Quesnel, a largely forest-based economy has been established upon one that was for half a century agriculturally-oriented. In the south, 116 POPULATION DISTRI BUTION - 1891-• REPRESENTS 25 PERSONS WAGON ROAD — CONNECTING ROAD SHADED AREA OVER 4000 FEET SOURCE : 3EOCEN5US OFCANADA, \89\. 8 MILES TO I INCH 2 0 2 . ^ - & fZ 1 i 1 1 1 I •••sr.-: Q O E S M E U V l L ALEXANCRtiA S O D A C R E E V S l? "0 • R I S K S C R E E K MAP 19 w, G; HARDWICK 117 hydro-electric construction on the Bridge River and Seton Creek, have made jobs for an increased population in the Lillooet sub-division. This change in orientation of the economy can be best illustrated by a comparison between 1921 and 1951 of the farm population as a percentage of the total population. Table XIII indicates that the farm population as a percentage of the total population has dropped by one-half. TABLE XIII FARM POPULATION AS PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL POPULATION Census sub-division 1921 1951 6d South Chilcotin A-4-% 47% 6e Clinton 62% 31% 6f Lillooet 30% 9% 8c North Chilcotin 21% 8d Quesnel 40% 20% The exception is in the South Chilcotin sub-division where the percentage has increased. If the predominantly agri-cultural areas on the west side of the Fraser, within the Big Bar and Dog Creek enumeration districts were subtracted from the total farm population of the Clinton d i s t r i c t , the increase of the non-farm population on the plateau is even more marked. Supply Centers Concentrations of population are not widespread within 118 the Middle Fraser Region and many settlements retain essentially the same functions and characteristics that they have had through the past half-century. A few settlements have grown rapidly and now are incorporated villages of some size. 78 Weir recognizes three classifications of supply centres and settlements in the ranching areas of the southern interior of B r i t i s h Columbia each of which is represented in the Middle Fraser Region. (Map 20). Type I settlements are ranch centred operations where the Post Office, store and other services are assoc-iated with the ranch. Often the store which sells staple goods, confections and perhaps some hardware is part of the ranch building i t s e l f . A school is found near some of the Type I settlements. Jesmond, Dog Creek, Alkali Lake, Riske Creek, Hanceville, Big Creek, Meldrum Creek, Macalister and Gang Ranch are settlements of this type. Even within these settlements quite a range of services is found. At Gang Ranch only a Post Office is in existence, and any supplies that are available for purchase come from the Ranch i t s e l f whereas at Dog Creek, a f u l l range of goods is available, plus a stage headquarters. At Type II settlements, in addition to store, gasoline, post office and school, there are some tourist accomodations, 78 Weir, op. c i t . , p. 66 119 QUESNEL A U S T ( 2 f t U A / M .ALEXANDRIA W C L A S S I F l C A T I O N O F S E T T L E M E N T S IN MIDDLE FRASER REGION, CARIBOO, a THOMPSON VALLEY LEGEND • CLASS I SINGLE SERVICES 0 CLASS II FEW SERVICES CLASS III MULTI - SERVICES 30 MILES TO I INCH ! AM S IS T>O M I L E S LAI1 I5OVAIL.G. M o u s e , " A V S . X I S J L.AC LA HAC-HB 100 MILE HOUSE A L * A L . l L A k i E /CeEHK DOG 1 83 M\Lft lO NUL.E: »OL>£6-CLINTON LYT MAP 20 W. G. HARD WICK 120 eating f a c i l i t i e s and perhaps a cattle loading corral. Alexandria, Alexis Creek, Pavilion and Spences Bridge are examples. Type III settlements have multi-services available. Small hospitals, government offices, police headquarters, transportation agencies and some small industries are located in these towns. In the Middle Fraser Region, Lytton and Lillooet in the south, Williams Lake and Quesnel in the north, 100 mile House and Clinton on the plateau and Ashcroft in the Thompson Valley are representatives of this classification. For most of the period of European settlement this threefold classification has applied to the same centres. However 150 Mile House and Soda Creek, which in 1958 are Type I settlements within the sphere of influence of Williams Lake, in the last century would have been Type II or III centres. One Hundred Mile House was classified as Type II by Weir, but in the last five years, this settlement has grown rapidly becoming a dominant supply centre in its own right. Areas Served Lytton serves the area near the confluence of the Thompson and Fraser, while Lillooet functions as a major supply centre for the Fraser Valley from Laluwissin to Pavilion area plus the Bridge River d i s t r i c t . Clinton serves 121 Jesmond and Big Bar Creek as well as Canoe Creek and Gang Ranch f i f t y miles to the west. Somewhere between Marguerite and Australian, the dominance of Williams Lake is replaced by that of Quesnel. Ashcroft is the centre of the Thompson Valley, serving the area from Spences Bridge to Walhachin. In addition i t has widespread influences in the southern Cariboo, providing headquarters for the South Cariboo School di s t r i c t and for health and welfare operations. II. TRANSPORTATION The development of transportation in the Middle Fraser Region has had four distinct phases: (1) the historic period in which waterways were the dominant means of trans-port; (2) the period of the Lillooet and Cariboo Trails; (3) the Cariboo Wagon Road era, associated with the coming of the railways; (4) the present era of expansion and re-construction of roads and bridges, the completion of the railroads and the inauguration of air travel. These phases of development do not coincide in every part of this region, but they do make a framework for dis-cussion of this aspect of human geography. The Historic Period The native Indians inhabiting the Middle Fraser Region did not travel widely, but are re-ported to have developed a network of t r a i l s along the benches 122 of the Fraser, particularly in the Lillooet and Lytton areas. In the slow moving areas of the river north of Soda Creek, the Indians had canoes for water transport. Many of the Indians were semi-nomadic, but parkland vegetation and tributary stream valleys made travel easy. The f i r s t ex-plorers , Mackenzie and Fraser, travelled by canoe and foot. The Trails Miners and adventurers entering the Middle Fraser Region in search of gold found convenient the water-level route, up Harrison and Lillooet Lakes, then to Anderson and Seton Lakes and f i n a l l y to the Fraser River at Lillooet. Boats were employed on the rivers and lakes and a railway was constructed over one portage. This was the Lillooet T r a i l . From Lillooet, i t would north over Pavilion Mountain to Clinton, thence across the plateau past the various Mile H o u s e s . T h e t r a i l reached the Fraser again west of Williams Lake. After reaching Quesnellemouth, i t turned eastward to Stanley and Barkerville. Goods that were transported over this route were packed by the miners or by animal train until the wagon road was constructed. The routes Into the interior are shown on Map.21. With the incorporation of the mainland areas into the Colony of British Columbia in 1858 and the appointment of the Royal Engineers to construct a road into the Cariboo, the 79 These Mile houses incidentally were, and s t i l l are, numbered from Lillooet. 123 entrance into the area shifted from Lillooet area to Yale, 80 the head of navigation of the Fraser. The road was built through the Fraser Canyon to Lytton, thence to Clinton and across the plateau to return to the Fraser at Williams Lake. The route across the plateau was popular even to those who hiked in at the beginning of the gold rush. The "River Route" through the arid Fraser valley, with its few streams, steep slopes and frequent gullies, passed north through Pavilion, Big Bar Creek, across the plateau to Canoe Creek and thence along the river to Dog Creek and Alkali Lake. It was more or less abandoned in favor of the plateau route. Commencing in 1864, passengers travelled on stages of the B.C. Express Company from Yale to Lillooet, to Clinton and eventually Soda Creek, from whence summer steamer service provided accommodation as far as Fort George. The Road and Rail The Cariboo Wagon Road was im-proved and extended to Alexandria and Quesnelle. In the 1880's the Canadian Pacific Railway was built and altered the transportation pattern of the region. Instead of trans-shipment at Yale, goods were transported by r a i l to Ashcroft, from where the stages l e f t for Clinton and the rest of the Cariboo Road. Lillooet, which had continued to be on the road from Yale, lost a l l importance as a transportation 80 W.N. Sage, op_i c i t . p.30 124 2 I W. G. HARDWICK 125 centre and became serviced only by weekly stages from Ashcroft. The B.C.Express Stages travelled from Ashcroft 81 after the starting of r a i l services. Trails out to the Fraser via Meadow Lake and Canoe Creek were opened in the late 1860's and were followed by t r a i l s south from Chimney Creek to Alkali Lake and from Dog Creek and into the Chilcotin at Alexis Creek. Other t r a i l s , wide enough for the passage of wagons hauling hay from natural meadows, were constructed on the west bank of the Fraser to Narcosli, Meldrum and Riske Creek. In 1912, the government completed a steel bridge at Churn Creek bringing to four the number of crossings of the Fraser in its Middle Region. Others, a l l s t i l l in use to-day, are at Lillooet, Chimney Creek and Quesnel. Stages from 150 Mile to Dog Creek and to Alexis Creek were instituted at that time. Before choosing the route through the Thompson Valley the Canadian Pacific Railway had made surveys of routes that would have crossed the northern area of this region, bridging the Fraser at Quesnel, crossing the Chilcotin plateau, cutting through the Coast Mountains and then down Bute Inlet. A l -though this plan was abandoned, i t sparked land speculation in the Quesnel area. 81 Their schedule called for the f i r s t day, Ashcroft to 83 Mile House, 2nd day 83 Mile House to 150 Mile House, third day 150 Mile House to Quesnel. Boam, H.J., B r i t i s h Columbia, The Gresham Press, Unwin Bros.Ltd., London (1912), p. 400. 126 In the early years of this century the Grand Trunk Pacific built a railroad through the upper Fraser and Bulkley and Skeena Valleys to Prince Rupert, a railroad that affected the Middle Fraser Region in that i t created demands that a railroad be built through this region to the Pacific at Vancouver. Lillooet wanted an outlet for its agricultural products, and cattlemen hoped for a railway to carry cattle into the Vancouver market. Eventually the Pacific Great Eastern Railway Company was formed. Some 230 miles of r a i l between Squamish on tidewater and Quesnel were constructed in the early 1920's before the company went bankrupt, and the railway was subsequently taken over by the provincial government. Expansion of Roads, Rail and Air It is only after World War II that an efficient system of roads and r a i l has been realized. The highway, #2-97 and railroad parallel each other roughly from Clinton to Quesnel over the old Cariboo Wagon Road route. What was a one-day trip by stage in 1912, is now only l i t t l e more than a one or two hour trip by car. Much of highway #12, which goes from Lytton to Lillooet and thence to the Cariboo Highway, is paved or im-proved gravel. Most other roads, established a half century ago as t r a i l s , are now f a i r dirt roads. Ferry crossings of the river are maintained at High Bar, Big Bar Creek, Lytton Alexandria and Soda Creek, and an aerial cable passenger ferry operates near Pavilion. 127 Regular truck services are maintained on a daily basis on the Cariboo Highway, and at least weekly to those settlements located along the Fraser and in the Chilcotin. Rail The completion of the Pacific Great Eastern Railway to North Vancouver in the south arid recently to the Peace River has improved transportation to the Middle Fraser. Air Transport The development of scheduled air transport to the region took place in the period following World War II. Several airports were built, two of which, Quesnel and Dog Creek, are operated by the Federal Govern-ment Department of Transport, and three, Williams Lake, 100 Mile House and Clinton, are operated by the local communities. Amphibious landings are possible on many lakes in the plateau region. III. PRESENT POPULATION DISTRIBUTION The present population pattern is described on Map 22 on which a dot has been placed for every 25 persons. Larger concentrations in the villages of Lytton, Lillooet, Williams Lake and Quesnel and lesser concentrations around 150 Mile House and Clinton, growing centers on the plateau, as well as the cluster of persons in the tributary valleys of the Fraser, are indicated. The urban growth in the area has been most spectacular POPULATION DISTRIBUTION - 1 9 5 6 -% REPRESENTS 25 PERSONsj m URBAN POPULATION C 1 7 9 C D SHADED AREA OVER 4,000 FT. 5oUEC£: D E P T OF " T R A D E . AHD ( C O M M E R C E , C B N I S O S i 9 S & O T T A W A , _ i , , _ 8 MILES TO I INCH z o z /2 M I L E S QUESNEL "I (+384-) I, / M A R C O S L / / t*) A U S T R A L I A N • C R E F K . V - s A L E X A N i S R l A N XT' CASTLE ROCK •MACALISTER. SODA CREEK \ 4 CREEK s i .WILLIAMS LAKE (1750) " ^ N ^ H A N C E V I L L E R l S V S E C R a e v s I S O :MlLe»a •3 B I G C R E E K ALVSALl L A K E AIRPORT G A M ( R A N C H OOO CREE* C A N O E j E S r s A O M C e> 5 N > i C L I N T O N s CACME \ i i t ,\>*cx (805; 1 / S P E N C $ S : \ R R » O G E \ LYTTOI MAP 22 VW. 6. HARDWI CK 129 in the past decade. The rural population has been much more stable. Table XIV indicates the total population i n -crease in the period 1921 to 1956. TABLE XIV GROWTH OF TOTAL POPULATION Census Subdivision 1921 1931 1941 1951 1956 '6d South Chilcotin 492 851 498 524 697 6e Clinton 1417 1350 2041 3180 5929 6f Lillooet 2116 2794 4107 4693 5677 8c North Chilcotin 903 1052 1560 3174 3162 8d Quesnel 3201 2991 5907 7094 12 !,016 While these census sub-divisions do not correspond to the Middle Fraser Basin, (Map 23) they illustrate trends taking place in the whole Cariboo region. An important settlement trend is the concentration of persons in urban areas, particularly at Quesnel, where 82 4,384 persons lived in 1956 compared with 1,587 in 1951. Similar growth in the other centers has been noted. An interesting contrast is made by comparing the present pattern with those at the close of the nineteenth century. The rapid growth of non-agricultural areas in the Middle Fraser becomes marked. The distribution of the Indian population is of interest, particularly because of its concentration in 82 The boundaries of the village were increased. It is believed that about 800 additional persons should have been counted in 1951. 130 M A P 2 3 • W . G . H A R D W I C K 131 several f e r t i l e valley areas. A dot Map (Map 24) indicates the location of this Indian population. Perhaps the most startling conclusion that one can reach in studying the population map is the lack of popu-lation in so much of the Middle Fraser Region. The fact that not one dot, representing twenty-five persons, can be placed in a large area immediately west of the Fraser, illustrates this. The human geography of the area is not the dominant geography of the region, for man-made institutions, objects and economies certainly do not feature the landscape. 1 3 2 1 SoOfr CQittK M I D D L E F R A S E R R E G I O N I N D I A N P O P U L A T I O N L E G E N D ONE DOT REPRESENTS 50 PERSONS BOUNDARY OF AGENCY ( 1 , 0 0 2 ) POPULATION OF "AGENCY SOURCE: CENSUS OF INDIANS, 1954 30 M I LES TO. I INCH O IS jo M I L E S GEFtCY ( 2040) / / / / / / / / j KAMLOO^S_ AGENCY (1541 ) \ \ \ \ » L Y T T O N / A G E N C Y A MAP 24 W. G. HARDWICK PART II Just as a summary of the physical geography of the Middle Fraser Region was necessary to appreciate the effect the Moran Dam proposal may have on the region, so some knowledge of the patterns of agriculture and the patterns and mechanics of irrigation are needed. This material may be considered as not s t r i c t l y geographic. However, the Chapter on "Agriculture within B r i t i s h Columbia" is designed, among other things, to show the distribution of agricultural activity throughout the province, and of various crops in areas topographically and climatically suited to their growth. Similarly the chapter on "Irrigation in British Columbia" attempts to show the patterns and locations of irrigation. CHAPTER V AGRICULTURE IN BRITISH COLUMBIA I. EXTENT OF AGRICULTURE Total farm area in Brit i s h Columbia is small,account-ing for only two percent of the total area, and improved acreage is calculated to be but .5% of the land of the province. Most of the land lies along the benches and valley bottoms of interior valleys, in the Lower Fraser Valley and on south-east Vancouver Island. While 48 per-cent of production by value is currently centred in the Lower Fraser Valley, secondary centres of agricultural production are located in the Okanagan Valley, accounting for 17 per-cent of the production value, in the Kootenays, Cariboo, 84 Peace River, Vancouver Island and the north central d i s t r i c t . Of the 18,000 farms and ranches within the province, 5 5 percent , are small-scale farms, that produce less than 8 percent of the total value of production and thus are of l i t t l e importance to the agricultural picture. The number of persons engaged in agriculture in British Columbia has 83 J.S.Allin, "Inventory of Agriculture in British Columbia," 9th Transactions. B r i t i s h Columbia Resources  Conference, (Victoria. 1956). p. 244. 84 Ibid., opposite p. 254 135 declined in recent years. In 1941, 41,000 people or 13 percent of the gainfully occupied were engaged in farming and ranching. In the ensuing decade, there was an absolute decline in the numbers involved to 28,000 and a drop in the percentage of the gainfully occupied to 6 percent. By the census of 1956, 3»000 fewer people were on the farms and ranches than five years before and the percentage of the gainfully occupied had decreased to 5 pereent. B r i t i s h Columbia, a Deficit Region In 1950, B r i t i s h Columbia was self-sufficient only in tree f r u i t s , small f r u i t s , eggs and fluid milk. Imports from other provinces, the United States and abroad made up the de f i c i t in production of other food stuffs. Especially in vegetables and me ait • British Columbia's needs were beyond her production. In 1950, 42 percent of the beef, 22 percent of the veal, 27 percent of the lamb and mutton and 12 percent of the pork needed in the province were produced in the province. J In 1950, the province imported 12,205,000 lbs of canned vegetables. These included varieties which were not grown within the province or were in short supply, or which could successfully compete in matters of price with the Br i t i s h Columbia product. This was equivalent to about 24 percent of the processing of that year. 85 G.L.Landon, "The Problems of Agriculture," 3rd Transactions, The Brit i s h Columbia Natural Resources Conference, (1950), P. 73. 136 Except for f l u i d milk products, even dairy products were imported. These included 28 percent of the province's needs of evaporated milk, 79 percent of the butter and a similar amount of the cheese. A total of 71>449 live cattle came into B r i t i s h Columbia for slaughter at inspected plants in 1956, the bulk of these originating in the province of Alberta. It is estimated that 25,000 cattle were imported in the form of dressed carcasses and beef cuts. Although there is no o f f i c i a l record of this movement, i t would appear that the equivalent of approximately 100,000 head of cattle, about 2,000 weekly, were moved into B r i t i s h Columbia 86 during the calendar year 1956. Forty-four percent of the beef marketed in Vancouver in 1956 was of Brit i s h Columbia origin. These figures indicate the deficit in food stuffs exists at the present time, when the farm population is fa l l i n g and the cultivated acreage is remaining constant. Cash income to Br i t i s h Columbia farmers averaged under $2,000 per farm. However, i f the 11,236 farms classed as f u l l scale farms are considered alone, sales per farm were $8,915 compared with $1,653 on the 13,512 part time farms.^ Comparative Agricultural Areas in the Interior Plateau To illust r a t e the comparative position of agricultur-86 Personal communications with the Marketing Ser-vice, Department of Agriculture, Ottawa. 87 J.S.Allin, op. c i t . . p. 181. 137 a l production in the interior valleys of Br i t i s h Columbia, one may compare the relative value of production in three regions: Okanagan, Kamloops and Cariboo, as shown in Table XV. TABLE XV 88 RELATIVE VALUE OF LIVESTOCK AND CROP PRODUCTION BY REGIONS Cariboo Kamloops Okanagan ($ ,000) ($ ,000) ($ ,000) Beef 5,4-03 3,685 2,205 Poultry 725 488 2,326 Dairy 402 287 2,524 Vegetables and Pot. . 211 275 1,743 Swine . 171 282 377 Sheep 58 192 114 Forage* 25 100 95 Tree Fruit — 84 7,766 Small Fruit — 15 155 Grain — 9 500 Seed — 4 115 Special Horticulture . — - 201 DL This is the value sold and does not include the crops produced and used on the farm. The relative value of the crops in each of these agricultural regions Is indicated on Map 25. The Okanagan leads the three regions in value of production of most crops, In beef, however, the Cariboo and Kamloops value of product-ion is considerably larger. Kamloops leads in the value of sheep production and in the value of the forage crop sold. 88 J.S.Allin, op. c i t . , p. 254. 138 cARiBobjn^ OKANAGAN JL RTCT COMPARISON OF VALUES OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS I N CARIBOO, KAMLOOPS AND OKANAGAN AGRICULTURAL DISTRICTSl SOUK.CZ ! N INTH T R O N J A C T I O N J , 8 .C - N A T U R A L ^ v 1956 37 M ILES „ T O I INCH I b u l I MILES M A P 2 5 W. G . H A R D W I C K 139 II. AGRICULTURE WITHIN THE FRASER BASIN Location The Fraser Basin lies within the Depart-ment of Agriculture's Cariboo d i s t r i c t , except for a small area around Lytton. Table XVI indicates that the pre-dominant farm product in the area is beef cattle, supple-mented by poultry, dairy cattle, vegetables, potatoes, swine and sheep. Within the Fraser Basin south of Williams Lake, a l l areas of intensive cultivation are irrigated, except for a few areas on the plateau where water deficiency is not acute. The irrigated areas are small in extent and almost entirely devoted to the growing of forage crops to supplement the range feed for beef cattle. The occupied land in this area is primarily grass and parkland grazing areas. The area in crop expressed as a percentage of the total occupied land, for each of the five census subdivisions which make up the Cariboo agricultural d i s t r i c t is shown in Table XVI. TABLE XVI PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL OCCUPIED LAND IN CROP South Chilcotin 2% Clinton 6% Lillooet 10$ North Chilcotin 10% Quesnel 12fo Source:"Canada Census 1951" 14G Ranching Most of the land in the Middle Fraser Region is used in some way by ranchers. The small amount that is intensive-l y cultivated i s , in most cases, in forage crops which are used as winter feed for cattle. Most of the cattle found in the northern sections of the Interior Plateau are on ranches within the Middle Fraser Region or in the adjacent regions of the Chilcotin, Cariboo and Thompson River Valley. The extensive report by Thomas R. Weir, published as Geographical 89 Memoir 4 in Ottawa, gives the most comprehensive descript-ion of ranching in this area of B r i t i s h Columbia. Distribution of Ranchsteads A Map (26) showing the distribution of ranchsteads, indicates the concentration of large ranches within the Middle Fraser Region. Often, even when extensive range land is maintained on the plateau, the main ranch is found within the region under discussion. The factors influencing this pattern of distribution are both human and physical. The human factor has operated through history and the chance decisions by early settlers. The physical factors, as de-scribed in Chapter III, are more enduring, and have influenced the broad patterns of settlement throughout the historical period. The distribution of grassland, supplemented with 89 T.R.Weir, op_s. c i t . .141 M A P 2 6 W. G. H A R D W I C K 142 reliable water sources and moderate climate, set the bounds to which the ranches have more or less adhered. The linear pattern of locations in the valleys of the Fraser, Thompson, San Jose and Chilcotin are evident as well. Ranch sizes are indicated, and in doing so, ill u s t r a t e the general d i s t r i -bution of cattle. The Distribution of Cattle by Census Divisions Most of the cattle in the census sub-divisions, liste d in Table XVII are found within the Middle Fraser Region. TABLE XVII CATTLE BY CENSUS SUB-DIVISIONS4 Beef Milk South Chilcotin 21,008 34 Clinton 22,546 165 Lillooet 5,185 153 North Chilcotin 13,020 211 Quesnel 11,154 549 One third of the cattle in the South Chilcotin Division belong to the Gang Ranch and are dependent for winter feed or winter range on the irrigated lands of Gang Ranch proper and Big Bar Mountain Range. Other cattle are near centres at Hanceville, Big Creek, Riske Creek, and along the Chilcotin Road. Many of the 22,546 cattle reported in the Clinton sub-division are associated with the plateau meadows ft Source: "Canada Census 1951" 143 and lakes from 100 Mile House toCanim and Chimney Lakes. Over a third, however, are found at the Canoe Creek, Dog Creek and Alkali Lake Ranches, a l l of which are dependent for winter forage crops on the irrigated lands near the Fraser and the winter pastures on the low Fraser River benches. In the Lillooet area, the cattle are dependent on the ranches in Big Bar Creek area, on the Pavilion-Salius Creek-Fountain irrigated a l f a l f a land and on the small farms south of Lillooet. In North Chilcotin, the Alexis Creek ranching area has a large number of cattle, while the Meldrum Creek-Narcosli Creek area supplies irrigated pasture for cattle feed. In the Quesnel sub-division, the cattle are concen-trated in Williams Lake area, near Soda Creek and in the Horsefly area well back on the plateau. The extent to which cattle raising expands w i l l be related to the carrying capa-city of the land in the winter season. Ranches are measured by the carrying capacity of the range rather than the acreage occupied by the ranch. In the forest land and parkland ranges six acres are needed to graze one animal for one month, whereas on the grassland, three to four acres per animal per month are needed. This necessi-tates large holdings of land either by outright ownership or by grazing leases or grazing permits. In most areas the acreage under lease or permit is about one-fifth of that which is owned, but in the South Chilcotin about one-third of the 144 land is under permit or lease. The grazing leases are issued by the provincial government and include periods up to 21 years at a rent of four cents to f i f t y cents per acre per year. The grazing permit is issued annually and allows ranchers to graze limited numbers of cattle on a certain 90 acreage for a stated period. The exception to the pattern of extensive ranches in the Cariboo and Lillooet areas is the Riverland Irrigated Farms Limited operation at East Lillooet where the "feed l o t " method of cattle production is being tried. Rather than grazing the cattle over large areas the ranchers re-s t r i c t them to pens to which the feed is brought. Similar work has been done at the Experimental Farm hear Kamloops where production of cattle per acre has been very high. It is with production methods of this type that i t is hoped to expand production markedly in the "dry belt" in future years. The following description of the operation at Riverland gives an interesting insight into the operation: Green feeding in the feed lot w i l l be a regular practice at Riverland. Cattle w i l l not graze the fields . This system w i l l eliminate tramping of fie l d s , uneven manure distribution and interference with movement of irrigation pipe. No cross fencing w i l l be required and i t w i l l not be necessary to move cattle frequently as is essential with well managed rotational grazing. Grain w i l l supplement the green forage. As cattle approach market weights, grain w i l l replace more and more forage for the sake 90 The permit rate was 11^ per head per month in 1957. 145 of finish and high quality of beef. Experience is s t i l l limited in the green feeding method but i t is expected that yields of forage w i l l exceed those that could be used effectively by grazing.91 On the four hundred acres planned to be brought under intensive cultivation at Riverland, i t is hoped that 1 ,000 head of cattle per year w i l l be supplied with summer forage and winter ;silage. The Experimental Farm at Kamloops reports 827 pounds of beef per acre is produced by similar 92 methods. Markets for Cattle Practically a l l cattle have been shipped to Greater Vancouver, where the market serves an urban population of more than half a million. Small numbers of cattle have been shipped to Calgary and to the United States when there has been a demand. In 1 9 4 9 , only 907 head went to the United 93 States and 277 went to Calgary. J The cattle from interior regions of the province made up just one half the needs of the Vancouver area. Weir suggests that "this would indicate that the populous districts of the west coast w i l l continue to be the destination of most interior cattle shipments." This is not necessarily the case in 1958 , for in the 91 R. Gram, "Riverland Irrigated Farms" (mimeo graphed) p. 6 . 92 B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Agriculture Annual Report, ( 1 9 5 3 ) , p . CC 1 4 5 . 93 Weir, ojp. c i t . , p. 76. 146 ranching areas of Alberta, grain fed cattle are being market-, ed, and demand for grass fed cattle in the urban areas has decreased. As a result, ranchers have been forced either to import grain to finish their cattle before marketing, or to s e l l them as feeder cattle to "feed l o t " operators for finishing. In the late f a l l of 1956, Chilco Ranch at Hanceville sent its f i r s t large shipment of 700 to $00 two-year-old light steers to Alberta to be finished. The Douglas Lake Cattle Company, located on the Nicola Plateau, shipped 94 twenty cars of calves to Medicine Hat for finishing. The future implications of this change in the kind of beef in demand w i l l be discussed further in Chapter XIII. Value of Cattle The large ranches in the Middle Fraser Region suggest that there are larger numbers of cattle on the average per farm in these areas. This is illustrated in Table XVII where number and value of cattle per farm are indicated. TABLE XVIII NUMBER AND VALUE OF CATTLE PER FARM North Chilcotin Quesnel South Chilcotin Clinton Lillooet 631 $120,307 90 19,152 26 5,207 78 11,404 37 7,030 94 G.A.Iuyat, Annual Report, Bri t i s h Columbia Department of Agriculture, (1956), p. DD 86. 14? Growth of Cattle Production Cattle ranching had Its greatest growth in the "Gold Rush" period, as indicated by-figures in Table XIX. By 1881, the cattle population had levelled off at about 9,000 animals. However, after the turn of the century cattle population again expanded. Of the 83,000 cattle listed in the Cariboo and Nicola region, 40,000 were estimated to be in the Cariboo. This nears the 48,000 cattle found in the Cariboo and Chilcotin in 1948. TABLE XIX NUMBERS OF CATTLE l862-69 9^ Year Number Location 1862 1,520 Lillooet-Lytton 1865 2,905 Quesnel-Cariboo-Lillooet-Lytton 1866 5>680 Quesnel-Caribob-Lillooet-Lytton 1867 8,446 Quesnel-Williams Lake-Lillooet 1869 10,275 Lillooet-Lytton and Cariboo Another large increase in the cattle population has taken place in the last decade, when numbers run from 48,000 cattle in 1948 to 59,000 cattle in the 1951 census year. In 1956, 72,000 cattle are reported. This increase was marked in each census subdivision, Table XX with the largest per-centage increase in the Lillooet d i s t r i c t . This rapid i n -crease in numbers of cattle may be indicative of the "slow" character of the market for grassfed beef rather than an increase in agricultural activity in the region. 95 Annual Report, Department of Agriculture 1869, Victoria, 1871, p. 63. 148 TABLE XX NUMB EES OF CATTLE BY CENSUS SUB-DIVISION Sun-division 1956 1951 South Chilcotin Clinton Lillooet North Chilcotin Quesnel 21,008 22,546 5,185 13,020 11,154 1 6 , 3 7 7 1 9 , 6 1 6 2 ,995 9,720 1 0 , 8 6 3 The change in shipment patterns of cattle from Br i t i s h Columbia is indicated in Table XXI, where are 96 indicated a distinct decrease in shipments from the Cari-boo, the area most dependent on grass feeding, and a distinct increase in the number of head being shipped to Alberta for finishing. TABLE XXI A COMPARISON IN NUMBERS OF CATTLE SHIPPED, 1954 AND 1955 Shipments To U.S.A. From Cariboo From Kamloops-Nicola To Prairie 1955 (head) 2,013 17,061 28,953 9,920 1954 (head) 3,207 22,684 29,312 7,849 change minus 1 , 194 minus 5,623 minus 359 plus 2,071 Field Crops Most of the land devoted to cultivation in the Middle Fraser Region is in cultivated hay or a l f a l f a . This 96 G.A.Luyat, Annual Report B r i t i s h Columbia De-partment of Agriculture, (Victoria, 1955), p. 105. 149 is used for winter feed for cattle. In some areas husking corn has been tried as a crop to be used for cattle f i n i s h -ing, but to the present the production is small. The large amount of cultivated land in forage crops is indicated in Table XXII. TABLE XXII CULTIVATED LAND DEVOTED TO FEED PRODUCTION, 1951 South Chilcotin Clinton Lillooet North Chilcotin Quesnel Improved Acres 6 ,824 13,789 7,761 23,000 27,297 Cultivated Hay 3,691 11,925 3,909 3,769 10,776 Irrigated Pasture 2 ,386 • 3 ,634 1 ,959 1 9 , 9 1 2 9 ,309 The remaining acreage after the hay and pasture acreage are totalled is in other f i e l d crops. Small quantities of grains, particularly oats, are grown in each part of the Middle Fraser Region. Vegetable crops are grown in the Lillooet-Lytton section and in the Quesnel area. In 1956, 310 acres were reported in potatoes in the Lillooet area and 135 acres in the Quesnel region. Lillooet-Lytton A l f a l f a Seed Gro\>rers Association produced some five tons of seed. Vegetable crops are grown commercially only in the Lillooet area which in 1951 amounted to some 81 acres on 14 farms. Vegetables grown in other areas were used for local 150 farm consumption. Some tomatoes and apples are grown in the Lillooet area. Grapes, Mullberry trees and other warm weather crops have been grown in the Lillooet area, but not on a commercial scale. An Increasing Demand for Agricultural Products The expansion of production in the Middle Fraser Region, either through improved farming methods or by break-ing new land has been necessary in the last few years to meet the increased needs of the urban dwellers in the province. Table XXIII indicates how the consumption of a few products has increased in the last several years. TABLE XXIII AVERAGE PER CAPITAL CONSUMPTION (POUNDS) OF FRUIT AND VEGETABLES IN CANADA 1935/39 1946/49 1955 Tomatoes 15.4 19.4 21.1 Fresh Fruit 40.5 52.7 68.9 Cabbage and greens 16.2 18.6 18.8 Potatoes 192.9 196.9 145.0 Even though the consumption of potatoes has notably decreased that of the other products has increased. This is 97 the pattern of other commodities cited by R.P. Walrod in an artic l e on the expanding need for processed food stuffs. 97 R.P. Walrod, "Fruit and Vegetables," 10th Trans- actions, The Br i t i s h Columbia Natural Resources Conference, Victoria, (1957) p. 194. 151 III. SUMMARY (1) The farm population has decreased in B r i t i s h Columbia in recent years. The reasons for this have been many, but have included better opportunities for farm workers in forestry and construction, attractive opportunities available in urban areas and the consolidation of land into large holdings. (2) The Province's need for agricultural products has increased and importation of food stuffs is at an a l l -time high. Production has increased in some lines. However, the desire of the consumer for standardized grade produce and grain finished beef have contributed to the inab i l i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia farmers and ranchers to meet the demand. (3) The dominance of ranching as a form of agri-culture in the Middle Fraser Region is evident. The use of the grassland/. for grazing and the valley areas for i r r i g a t -ing forage crops are important characteristics of this region. (4) Increases in numbers of cattle on the range have been noted in past years. A further increase in production w i l l depend on the establishment of "feed l o t " operations and the importation of grain. CHAPTER VI IRRIGATION IN BRITISH COLUMBIA About one-fifth of the crop land in B r i t i s h Columbia is under irrigation. Most of i t , some 200,000 acres, is located in the interior valleys of the province, scattered along old river terraces, valley bottoms and lake shores. The greatest concentration of irrigation is in the Okanagan Valley where about 70,400 acres are estimated to be presently under irrigation; but a larger acreage, 77,300 acres, is spread over a greater area in the Nicola and 98 Thompson Valleys. The Creston and Grand Forks regions of the eastern part of the province have considerable acreage under irrigation, and additional acreage is found in the 99 agricultural sections of the Fraser River Valley. Forage crops make up the largest percentage of the acreage under irrigation within the province, while tree f r u i t s , small fruits and vegetables make up the largest acreage in certain d i s t r i c t s . Irrigation Irrigation is the process by which the deficit of moisture in the s o i l is made up so that plants w i l l have sufficient moisture to grow. In some areas 98 "Irrigation," B r i t i s h Columbia Atlas of Re-sources, Victoria, (195°), p. 45. 99 Ker, op_t. c i t . , p. 235 153 irrigation takes place through natural flooding of streams but in most areas irrigation works must be constructed and operated by man. When man operates irrigation works he tries to apply only as much moisture as the s o i l needs, and to limit the run off. The amount of water applied is usually equal to the amount lost through evaporation, trans-piration and run off, and is called "water duty". I. HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF IRRIGATION Irrigation works were established simultaneously with the establishment of intensive agriculture in the arid areas of Brit i s h Columbia. Water was applied to the land around the f i r s t fur-trading posts, Fort Alexandria and Fort Kamloops, from their establishment before 1812. Ranches in the Okanagan, Thompson and Nicola Valley were established to make use of the large areas of natural grass-land, and cattle and sheep were put to graze. Along the Middle Fraser, many small individual farms were irrigated from tributary streams and farmers began producing grain, fr u i t and vegetables to supply miners heading north into the Cariboo country. Extensive grazing and intensive cultivation were the contrasting uses to which the land and irrigation water were put in the early years of settlement in Br i t i s h Columbia. For example,"as late as 1891, the land in the Okanagan Valley 154 north of the boundary line was owned by ranchers for a distance of twenty miles . ..""^^ but in that year orchard-is ts entered the Okanagan Valley, and bid the price of land up so that ranchers had to s e l l their irrigable acreage and thus started the gradual transition of the irrigated lands from control of the large rancher to the small farmer. In the f i r s t decade of the present century this trend spread to the Thompson River Valley. Irrigation Projects The South Okanagan Lands Project, instituted in 1919 by the Provincial Government, resulted in the purchase of 22 ,000 acres of land for re-turned service men. About 4810 acres were irrigated. In other areas of the Okanagan Valley, as permitted by landforms, s o i l and hydrology, large areas, by British Columbia standards, have been put under irrigation. These areas, listed in Table XXIV, are well separated from each 101 other. TABLE XXIV IRRIGATED ACREAGE IN THE OKANAGAN VALLEY Vernon 8 , 6 9 7 Oyama, Winfield, Kelowna 1 0 , 4 9 7 Okanagan Center 3 , 9 3 7 Westbank 765 Peachland 455 Naramata 916 Summerland 3>418 Penticton 2,232 100 Margaret Ormsby, "History of Agriculture in Br i t i s h Columbia," Scientif i c Agriculture XX(September 1939) p. 65. 101 "Irrigation and Irrigable Lands in the Tree Fruit Area of the Okanagan and Similkameen Valleys," Regional Devel-opment Division, B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Trade and Industry, 1950. 155 Land was brought under irrigation along the Thompson, near Kamloops, Ashcroft and at Spences Bridge. One large irrigation project, supplying many individual farmers at Walhachin, was started in 1908 on the benches along the north bank of the Thompson River immediately west of Kam-loops Lake. Five thousand acres were irrigated with water from Deadman River and Snohoosh Lake reservoir. The scheme was instituted by C.E. Barnes and the Marquis of Anglesey, but failed when most of the British settlers returned to Europe during World War I, and slides and washouts destroyed sections of the irrigation flumes. The failure of this scheme, where thousands of fr u i t trees had been planted over a sever-year period, seems to have been due to human, rather than any physical factors. In 1957» the whole area was 102 covered with sage brush and grass. Irrigation regulations Irrigation in Br i t i s h Columbia is administered by the Water Rights Branch of the Department of Lands, Victoria. Within Bri t i s h Columbia, a right to use water is comparable to a property right and i t requires registration and protection similar to that of a property right. Irrigation may be undertaken in several ways. (1) a farmer may procure the water rights to a certain stream or 102 D.Borthwick, "Settlement in B r i t i s h Columbia," 8th Transactions, B r i t i s h Columbia Natural Resources  ConferenceTTVictoria, 1955). p. 97. 156 pond and u t i l i z e that water entirely on his own farm. (2) a small group of water licences may operate joint works in what is known as Water-Users Associations. (3) Irrigation Districts may be formed, by public, co-operative or private groups to bring irrigation waters to a number of individual farmers in a particular area. II. IRRIGATION IN THE FRASER BASIN At present, most irrigation undertakings in the Middle Fraser Basin are individual farm or ranch enter-prises, where one farmer or company maintains the rights to the water of a particular stream. Water Users Communities are located at Dog Creek and near Alexandria. The number of acres under irrigation in the Fraser Basin is d i f f i c u l t to determine (Map 27). It does not seem possible that i t reaches the proportions suggested in the 103 British.Columbia Atlas of Resources the acreage estimated there seems to be an estimate of the acreage for whieh licences have been granted rather than the actual irrigated acreage. The cartographic symbol in the Atlas at Dog Creek, for example, suggests over 1000 acres are under irrigation, 1 while actually 364 acres are reported to be under irrigation. 103 Br i t i s h Columbia Atlas of Resources, p. 46 1 ° 4 Census, 1951. Agriculture Part II, Vol. VIII 157 MIDDLE FRASER REGION I R R I G A T I O N A R E A S L E G E N D • OVER 500 ACRES UNDER IRRIGATION • SOME LAND IRRIGATED 30 MILES TO I INCH i M I LES M A P 2 7 W. G. HARDWICK 158 Extent of Irrigation The census of 1951 reports that in the South Chilcotin census sub-division, 4,018 acres are under irrigation; in the Clinton sub-division, 4,617 acres are irrigated; while in the Lillooet area, 3,942 acres are irrigated, making a total of 12,577 acres for this southern portion of the Cariboo. In the Quesnel area, 5*214 acres are irrigated while in the North Chil-cotin sub-division, 7,224 acres are irrigated, for a total of 12,438 acres in the North Cariboo area. Much of the • irrigated land is on the plateau surface, and does not l i e within the Fraser Basin i t s e l f . The number of irrigated acres on these farms varies widely. If the total number of farms u t i l i z i n g irrigation in each subdivision is studied one notes in the South Chilcotin only 18 farms use irrigation, while in the Clinton sub-division 44 farms and ranches have some irrigation. Sixty farms in the Lillooet subdivision, 33 farms in the Quesnel subdivision and 27 farms in North Chilcotin sub-division have some irrigation. The largest acreages per farm are found in the Chilcotin while the smallest are in the Lillooet area. The ranches in Clinton and South Chilcotin census sub-regions have the largest number of cattle per irrigated acre, while those in the Quesnel and North Chilcotin have half as many. To indicate the wide variation in irrigation use, the number of farms in each census sub-division is 159 equated to one hundred percent, and the percentage of farms with areas irrigated is plotted on a graph, Figure 14. III. METHODS OF IRRIGATION Diversions and Pumps Streams, ponds or wells higher than the land to be irrigated normally operate under gravity flow and are the usual sources of water. A small dam often is constructed to store some water and divert the flow into the irrigation system; but sometimes, where water supply is sufficient the year round, a wing dam may be constructed to divert only a portion of the flow. Water located below the land to be irrigated must either be pumped onto the land or elevated by some water wheel arrangement. There are both cost and physical limit-ations on how high water may be pumped. In recent years, 250 feet was believed to be the maximum height but recently the Riverland Irrigated Farm at East Lillooet, has been pumping water some 350 feet above the Fraser. One farmer in the Okanagan Valley pumps water over 500 feet to his highest benches, although the average height pumped for his whole operation would be similar to that of the Riverland Pro-l o g ject. J The types of pumps that can be used, their costs and their efficiency are separate topics in themselves and 105 W.H.Ker, "Existing and Probable Future Develop-ments in"Water Supply for Irrigation within the Province," 9th Transactions, B r i t i s h Columbia Natural Resources Confer- ence , Victoria, (1956), p. 234. 160 PERCENT P E R C E N T OF £ ftRM S 30 ZS 2Q 10 | PERCENT OF 3 5 3 0 -I Z S 1 20 IS OF FARMS B Y C E N S U S WITH AREA S U B - DlVk S I O N 1951 IRRIGATED SOOTH CHILCOTIN . C L I N T O N L I L L O O E T A C R E S / M O R T H C H I L C O T I N QUESNEL 4 - 0 <oO 80 I0O izo /go zoo ZSO 300 20O + A C R E S F I G . 147 W. G. H AR D W I C K . 161 are covered in various publications.^^ Conduits Conduits for irrigation are complex and costly and may tax the s k i l l of the most ingenious engineer in f a c i l i t a t i n g their construction. The traditional means of transporting water in the Middle Fraser has been in earth ditches. In some places, water is diverted into channels of intermittent streams, but both these methods allow serious water loss through seepage and evaporation. Wooden flumes and wooden pipe conduits are common on other farms. Many of these long-established irrigation systems, u t i l i z i n g earth ditches, wooden flumes and other open . 107 conduits, have an efficiency of only about 20%. Water loss in conduits and in farm application is becoming less through improved irrigation technology and engineering. Steel, concrete and asbestos-cement pipe are replacing open ditches and flumes in conveying water to the farm. Metal conduits, with plastic or asphalt protective coatings, make transporting of water much more efficient. Although these conduits are i n i t i a l l y more expensive to build, they have a long l i f e ; and their cost amortized over their extended l i f e is no more annually than the more primi-tive conduits. Reference to Table XXV, comparing costs over 106 "Sprinkler Irrigation in the Fraser Valley," pamphlet, B.C.Electric Farm Service, Vancouver, 107 The irrigation efficiency is the percentage of water diverted or pumped that is maintained in the root zone of the plant. 162 thirty years in the Okanagan w i l l illustrate the economy of pipe. In addition, these protected pipes allow higher velocity to be maintained, providing more water in any given period to irrigate more acreage. Pipe allows water to be moved across gently rooling country, a feature not possible for traditional open-faced conduits. TABLE XXV 108 AVERAGE REPLACEMENT COSTS OF FLUMES OVER 30 YEARS Conduit Cost per Acre Life Underground pipe $238 17 years Galvanized pipe, etc. 113 30 " Wooden rectangle 340 12 Wooden "V" etc. 309 10 " Application Supplanting the traditional methods of applying irrigation water are sprinklers which offer economies attract-ive to both farmer and rancher. These are summarized in Table XXVI, following page. For some crops, sprinkler irrigation is less desir-able, because the water may wash insecticides from leaves; or because of heavy foliage i t may not be spread evenly across the f i e l d . To give efficiency and surface irrigation, several plastic pipes have been developed that issue water 108 G.C.Ferries and J.Q. Wilcox, "Comparative Costs of Furrow and Sprinkler Irrigation in the Okanagan Valley" Economic Annalist XXV, (June 1955)* p. 63. 163 at a constant rate through hundreds of pin points in the pipe. This is a form of controlled furrow irrigation. TABLE XXVI COMPARATIVE COSTS OF SPRINKLER AND FURROW IRRIGATION IN THE OKANAGAN VALLEY 1 0 9 Furrow Gravity Pumped Sprinkler Sprinkler Number of orchards 16 20 10 Average size 10.2 13.1 13.8 Average investment per acre $ 114 131 168 Average annual cost per acre $ 30 22 30 Man labor per acre (hours) 22 11.4 13.3 Machine use per acre (hours) 1.1 0.5 0.2 The Riverland Irrigated Farm is completely operated by pipe with a very high irrigation efficiency. Similar methods are utilized on the Earlscourt farm at Lytton. Where in 1951> only one farm reported sprinkler irrigation to the census, in 1957, several farmers in the Laluwissin, Lillooet, Dog Creek and Alexandria-Quesnel districts were using i t . Pumping Irrigation Water Expansion of agriculture within the Middle Fraser Region depends to some degree on the development of pumping systems to bring irrigation water from rivers or streams to 109 Ferries and Wilcox, op. c i t , p. 64 164 the land. Water, combined with a well-planned farming system, can make the desert and grassland bloom. The "L" Ranch at Hanceville and another one north of Soda Creek have pumped irrigation water for several years; but Riverland, at Lillooet is the f i r s t to operate in the Fraser Valley solely from pumped irrigation water. Some of the problems to be faced i f pumping irrigation water is to expand are summarized in this paragraph. The Fraser River is violent. It rises and f a l l s 30 feet or more as freshets come and go. It carries a great load of sand and s i l t that must not get into the pumps... A pump house was constructed ... Steel piling anchored in rock, was used to make a five by twelve foot well casing. It is 40 feet high ... Water enters the bottom of the well through perforated steel pipe two feet in diameter extending 60 feet into the river. A f i l t e r of crushed rock and gravel placed over the intake pipe screens out sand and much of the Fraser River's s i l t . The pumping plant at Riverland consists of two deep well turbine pumps at the river, 100 horsepower and 125 horsepower ... The irrigation system delivers water at a rate of 1600 gallons a minute. 1! 0 Fraser River water has a high percentage of s i l t , which causes extreme wear on the pumping machinery, and con-siderable care and expense must be undertaken to protect i t . On the other hand, one farmer south of the Damsite expressed the thought that he would like gravity-fed Fraser 110 "Riverland Irrigated Farms," op. c i t , p. 3 111 Ibid, p. 7 165 River water because the s i l t would do much to replenish the top so i l s , in the tradition of the Nile and Menam. The efforts which farmers have expended to bring water to the f e r t i l e benches of the Fraser Valley have been considerable. One example of these is illustrated in this account of the Anahim Flats ranch near Hanceville on the Chilcotin, established in 1893. Water is brought 25 miles from Big Creek into Minton Ck. which flows to the south bank of the Chilcotin River and the supply is there caught by dams and led through a flumed ditch to an eight inch pipe suspended on two cables across the river... and is led through the upper part of the ranch. The ditch on the south bank of the river is three miles in length and the pipe is 2200 feet in length in the form of an inverted siphon; the carrying cables are 7/8 inch wire and the drop is 400 feet rising again to 360 feet on the north bank... The cost of constructing the pipeline was about $4000 and i t presented a d i f f i c u l t engineer-ing problem owing to the sagging of the cables at f i r s t under strain. It is noteworthy as the f i r s t example of a new form of irrigation work in the country.112 This isolated example is cited to indicate the complexity of the operation of transporting the water to the land, and the ingenuity used by ranchers to solve their problems. Other large undertakings could be cited, such as the transfer of water from Gaspard Creek to the Gang Ranch, the use of Pavilion Creek on the old Carson Ranch and the early electric pumping arrangement on the Boston Flats Ranch 112 Boam, opi c i t . p. 407 166 near Ashcroft. This imagination and ingenuity shown by pioneer ranchers in solving conveyance problems, are not in evidence at present, for many of these operations are in disrepair or even have been abandoned. Perhaps present technology, plus the ingenuity and perserverence of the early settlers w i l l both be needed to transform these many re-maining benches and valleys into productive agricultural regions. Considerations in the Expansion of Irrigation Agriculture Some statements drawn from the reports of the Prairie Farm Rehabilitation Act engineers concerning several studies of the Fraser and Thompson Valleys for the Fraser 113 River Board that are apt in this study of Irrigation in Br i t i s h Columbia. These pertain to the cost of irrigation. Of course, before any definite costs of construction or annual operating costs could be estimated, surveys of the physical and economic features would be carefully under-taken. But for a rough guide, based on Brit i s h Columbia costs, the Fraser River Board estimates that capital costs of instituting irrigation run from $175.00 to $300.00 per 114 acre. Present energy costs for pumping irrigation water are $4.00 to $4.50 per horsepower month. Several other economic factors need consideration. 113 "Third Annual Progress Report, 1951" The Dom-inion Provincial Board, Fraser River Basin, (Victoria, 1952) p. 100. 114 Ibid, p. 102 167 The cost of land must be low i f irrigation is to be successful. The combined capital costs of land and irrigation works must be such that payments on capital expenditures may be made and s t i l l allow the farmer sufficient returns from the sale of produce to operate the farm and give a margin of profit. Related to this is the need for reliable markets for the products of the land to ensure reasonable income to pay the fixed costs. The depth of water applied for optimum profit may be lower than the optimum water requirements, as yields of some crops often increase slowly as increased water depth approach their optimum. These are some of the factors of an economic nature that enter into the irrigation picture. In Summary Irrigation is found in many areas in B r i t i s h Columbia. Technical advances have been made in recent years and adopted particularly in the Okanagan. Expansion of irrigation acreage is possible in the Middle Fraser Region, but as suggested in the preceding pages, the problems to overcome are many. 115 E. Houk, "Irrigation Engineering," Vol. II, John Wiley and Sons Inc., (1956), p. 352. PART III The Middle Fraser Region is too large an area for a detailed discussion of the effects of the Moran Dam proposal on agriculture. It seems desirable to break the Region into smaller sub-regions, within which particular aspects of the problem can be examined. In the following chapters, the basis upon which the report is sub-divided is discussed, followed by three chapters dealing with sub-divisions of the Middle Fraser Region. Two further chapters deal with the effect of Moran Dam on the adjacent regions. Two concluding chapters discuss the problems of agricultural expansion and give a summary of thfc thesis. CHAPTER VII EFFECT OF MORAN ON AGRICULTURE IN VARIOUS AREAS OF THE FRASER BASIN The ribbon-like distribution of agricultural lo-cations, their north-south orientation and altitudinal range, accounts for the variations in climate, s o i l s , vegetation and crop type, that we have seen do exist. The human patterns and activities also lack homogeneity. In addition, the Moran proposal w i l l not have uniform effects on the whole Region. This lack of uniformity supplemented by variations in the physical and cultural patterns form the basis for this sub-regional breakdown. (Map 28). Sub-division I A major division of the region occurs at the site of the Moran Dam, for south of the dam no flooding w i l l take place, and north of i t extensive flooding w i l l occur. Within the area south of the damsite several physical and cultural features have a degree of homogeneity. The climate is characterized by a long, warm growing season with a minimum of precipitation. Dark Brown soils are found in most agri-cultural regions, which are located on benches of relatively low elevation. Tomatoes, apples and certain vegetable crops are grown only in this sub-region of the Fraser Basin. 170 M A P 2 8 W. G. HA ROW ICK 171 The marketing of the farm products below Moran dam-site is centralized, and transportation routes which link the towns and farms end near Moran. The highway, which follows the Fraser between Lytton and Pavilion, turns east at Pavilion to the Clinton region on the plateau. The P.G.E. Railway, which enters the region at Lillooet, leaves i t again at Kelley Creek near Moran. These physical and cultural factors are the basis for recognizing the Lytton-Moran area as a sub-region of the Middle Fraser. Sub-division 2 and 3 When the dam at Moran is constructed, the level of the river w i l l rise to form a reservoir 175 miles long with an elevation of approximately 1540 feet. Flooding north of the dam w i l l change the appearance of the landscape of the area from Moran to Quesnel. However, a look at the physical and cultural patterns of the area w i l l indicate that this area does not have the homogeneity of the area south of Moran, and the recognition of two sub-regions is desirable. Soda Creek is generally recognized as the northern boundary of the "dry belt" 1 1*' and around this settlement the transition from the grassland to forest cover takes place. The Thin Black s o i l of the grassland and parkland near Soda Creek blend into the Grey Wooded forest soils of the north. 116 Chapman, op. c i t . , p. 23. 172 Near Williams Lake the valley of the Fraser enters the deep valley that characterizes the river as far south as Fountain while above the Williams Lake area, the valley as well as being nearer the surface of the plateau, widens to two to four miles. Human geographical factors indicate the advisability of dividing the region north of Moran into two sub-regions. The transportation routes that cross the plateau as far as f i f t y miles east of the Fraser north of Clinton return to the river near the mouth of Williams Lake River. North of here the characteristic ribbon pattern of small farms and villages along the highway and railway that exist south of the Moran damsite are in evidence. This pattern is in contrast to the scattered locations of large ranches and the absence of villages in the Middle Fraser area between Williams Lake and Moran. Although general flooding w i l l be characteristic from Moran to Quesnel, the physical features and cultural factors, described indicate the advisability of recognizing two sub-divisions. The f i r s t of these subdivisions, is from Moran to Williams Lake River, whereas the second sub-division w i l l extend from the Williams Lake River to Quesnel. Other Regions While the development of cheap electric power at Moran w i l l be of secondary importance to the regions along 1 7 3 the Fraser, cheap power for pumping irrigation water w i l l be of great significance to two areas outside the Middle Fraser Basin. These are the Thompson River Valley, west of Kam-loops Lake, which is within short transmission distances of Moran, and the plateau regions of the Chilcotin and Cariboo. These cannot be Included within the physically-defined region, or those regions affected by alterations in the level of the river; but cheap power for pumping agriculture w i l l be nonetheless important in altering the character of these regions. They w i l l be discussed in two sections entitled, "adjacent regions". Low cost power w i l l make possible the more economic pumping of irrigation water in the North and South Thompson River Valleys, in the Okanagan and to some degree in the Lower Fraser Valley. These areas are noted -here, but not discussed in detail as agriculture is at present well developed, and low cost pov/er w i l l permit an expansion of established agricultural patterns. CHAPTER VIII SUB-DIVISION #1 - LYTTON TO MORAN The settlements which occupy the Fraser Valley between the Moran site and the town of Lytton, at the con-117 fluence of the Fraser and Thompson Rivers, ' l i e in a deep valley flanked on the west by a division of the Coast Mountains, - the Lillooet Range, and on the east by the high dissected plateau. In this valley, averaging one to five miles in width, terraces and fans form a nearly con-tinuous series of benches on both banks. It is upon these benches, ranging in width from a few feet to about two miles, that intensive agriculture takes place. I. PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY OF THE LYTTON MORAN SUB-REGION Landforms The benches have their origin chiefly as either fans or former glacial lake bottoms. Fans are highly developed and are found on both sides of the valley as benches from two to six hundred feet above the present river level. Tributary streams have cut into the fans creating large gullies, and continued erosion over the centuries has gullied the river-facing c l i f f s , especially those that are steep and have no vegetation cover. 117 See Map 2 9 . 176 A glacial lake in the vi c i n i t y of Lillooet was in existence in Pleistocene times and parallel layers of s i l t s and gravels were laid down forming the present benches on either side of the river. These benches are characterized by their near-level surface and the horizontal layers of material which are exposed in road cuts and on the c l i f f along the river. It is believed that near Fountain a block in the Fraser caused similar depositing of layers of unconsolidated material, which created the benches some 300 to 800 feet above the present river level. However, the clearing out of tributary valleys with the retreat of the glaciers caused fans to cover parts or a l l of the existing terraces. As a result one can see level benches stretching back from the river for a few hundred feet, then sloping gradually up to-wards the mouth of a valley in the plateau behind. Climate As this sub-region is located in the rain shadow of the Coast Mountains and is characterized by a long growing season with warm summer temperatures, i t is entirely a water deficient region. Irrigation must be undertaken i f any i n -tensive agriculture i s to take place. Soils Soils are deep in most of this sub-region, ranging from 1 to 4 feet in depth. They are classed as Dark Brown soils; but Thin Black soils are found in some locations. As the average annual r a i n f a l l ranges from 7 to 15 inches in 177 the sub-region, very l i t t l e leaching has taken place and the s o i l is very f e r t i l e . Some benches have a gravel base for their soils whereas many of the fans have clay and s i l t bases. As a result considerable differences in the water retention qualities of the s o i l are found. The porous soils on benches in East Lillooet, have water retention estimated to be about three inches. In other areas in the sub-region, the retention is about four inches. This variation in the water retention a b i l i t y of the s o i l is indicated in the distribution of grassland and parkland. The ponderosa pine, the most common tree in the area, grows on lands which retain more water. II. AGRICULTURE AREAS IN LYTTON-MORAN SUB-REGIONS Agriculture in this sub-region takes place in a number of locations dependent upon s o i l and climate plus the availability of sufficient water supplies. The streams that enter the Fraser from the west have adequate year-round flows. Some, such as the Stein River and Texas Creek, have suffi c -ient water to supply more land than is available. On the east, many of the streams from the elevated plateau are intermittent, because the plateau does not receive nor retain sufficient moisture to maintain year-round flow. A few streams have large enough drainage basins and sometimes a small lake reservoir which help maintain a year-round flow. On some streams the construction of small storage dams has allowed a number of farms to exist. 178 In general, the farms and ranches in this sub-region are grouped as shown in Map 30, due to one or more of the factors described in the previous section, and are separated by non-agricultural areas. Lytton is located in one of these agricultural areas. Several farms are situated on various benches on both sides of the Fraser and Thompson Rivers. Most are part-time or subsistence farms on Indian Reserves, but a few are commer-c i a l farms and ranches. The benches on the east are generally quite high above the water and receive inadequate water supplies from nearby streams. Others, particularly on the west bank, are well-irrigated from streams like the Stein River. More annual r a i n f a l l occurs in this area than else-where in the sub-region, with the maximum coming in the winter. Winter temperatures are moderated by flows of moist Pacific air up the Fraser Valley. However, summer temper-atures are warm, the average for July being over 71 degrees. A second area of farms and ranches is along the east bank of the Fraser, midway between Lillooet and Lytton. A combination of mile-wide fans and fair-sized tributary streams allowed a number of quarter-section farms to be located here. Foster Bar, Laluwissin and Cinquefoil Creeks are the most important tributaries utilized for irrigation. Considerable acreage in this area remains in grass and ponderosa pine as the water sources are not adequate to irrigate a l l the available land. The r a i n f a l l is perhaps M A P 3 0 W . G . H A R D W I C K 180 the lowest in the province. This section w i l l be referred to as "Laluwissin area" in the remaining chapter. From Foster Bar to near Lillooet, on the west bank of the Fraser, l i e a series of broken benches on which con-siderable agriculture takes place. At the mouth of Texas Creek a fan occurs, but most of the benches seem remnants of larger glacial landforms which crossed the river. Many benches are very narrow, and farmers must u t i l i z e terraces at various levels above the river to get adequate arable acreage. Precipitation in this area is more reliable than in the Laluwissin area to the south, and the soils are heavier, in some places being clay loams. Vegetation is dense, and on many of the farms now in existence, considerable clearing was necessary. East and west Lillooet comprise a fourth area of agriculture. The farming areas are located on level benches at various heights above the Fraser, and in most cases are covered with grass or light pine groves. The East Lillooet area has no year-round streams crossing i t and two springs are believed to be the only sources of water available. On the other hand, Seton and Cayoose Creeks cut through the benches on the Lillooet side, and some small streams flow from the Coast Mountains behind the town. This region has a very long growing season (over 180 frost free days) and warm (71 degrees July mean) summer temperatures. 181 The last section is a complex of fans and benches high above the Fraser between Fountain and Pavilion Ferry. Most of the benches are from 400 to 800 feet above the river, and when fed water from streams like Fountain, Sallus and Pavilion Creeks, they become very productive. Tree cover is absent from most 'of this area; and summer tempera-tures are warm. The growing season is long and the pre-cipitation similar to Lillooet. III. CROPS IN LYTTON-MORAN SUB-REGION The Lytton-Moran region, when prudently farmed, is very productive. Cultivated hay and a l f a l f a are grown in a l l five agricultural areas. Most farmers report three crops per year, and one reports that four are possible in the "good" years. The s o i l is very f e r t i l e in the valley and some farmers point to where crops have been removed every year for nearly a century. The f i r s t farm, at Lytton, was established in 1859. Although most acreage is in a l f a l f a , cultivated hay, grain crops are grown for local use. Cash crops have been few because of transportation and marketing problems, but two in particular stand out: tomatoes and potatoes. Tomatoes are an important crop; yields are high, and the quality is such that premium prices have been paid. Potato yields of from 10 to 15 tons per acre are reported. Apple orchards are maintained in a l l areas of this sub-region, and apples are 182 marketed through the Lillooet-Co-operative Growers Assoc-iation. Peas, seed crops, beans, corn, cucumbers and water-melon are grown, and a l f a l f a seed in particular is a major source of income for some farms. Peaches and grapes have been grown in the south, but few of the f i e l d crops or fruits have been marketed outside the local villages them-selves. Around Lytton, most farms grow cultivated hay and a l f a l f a or vegetables for local use. Earlscourt Farm, the f i r s t farm established in the area, now owned by the Spencer family, grows excellent crops of a l f a l f a under a sprinkler-type irrigation system. It was one of the f i r s t operations in the region to use sprinklers. Some of the finest shoxir beef In Canada are produced on this Farm. In the Laluwissin Creek area, several ranches raise forage crops, seed, tomatoes and potatoes. South of Lillooet, on the west bank, farms of from 10 to 400 acres in size, most with about one-third of their area under irrigation, produce tomatoes, cucumbers, potatoes and apples, along with hay 'for cattle, sheep and poultry. At East Lillooet, Riverland Irrigated Farms Limited has about 160 acres in a l f a l f a and a mixture of grasses to feed cattle kept in pens, in the tradition of "feed l o t " operations. A small area is under cultivation south of Seton Creek near the power house, from which energy for the electrically-operated pumps is obtained. 183 The i r r i g a t e d pastures near Fountain are mostly maintained by the Indians of the area, and one large old ranch was purchased by the Indian Department for the Indians a few years ago. Unfortunately, much of the area is i n e f f i c i e n t l y i r r i g a t e d , and the land does not produce what i t could under wise management. North of Sallus Creek, the lands are under the control of Spencer's Diamond "S" Ranch, which raises forage crops for winter feed for the c a t t l e ranged on the main ranch on P a v i l i o n Mountain. IV. AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT The whole sub-region has had a more or less "boom or bust" economy based on fluctuations of markets and trans-portation routes. The f i r s t gold bars discovered on the upper r i v e r were i n this area, and L i l l o o e t became the i n i t i a l center for gold panning. Much of the land i n the area was taken up during this period, and crops produced made up "grub stakes" for miners. With the transfer of the st a r t of the T r a i l to Yale, L i l l o o e t l o s t much of i t s im-portance, but a road did pass through the v a l l e y . Hope was raised that the railway from the Cariboo to the Coast would enable the area to tap the coast markets. However, when the P a c i f i c Great Eastern Railway was b u i l t , i t ended i n Squamish and the barge service to Vancouver made the t r i p too long and too expensive for transporting 184 f r u i t and vegetables. The railway did, however, allow cattle to be more easily marketed, and drives to the coast through the Lillooet and Harrison valley were no longer needed. Extension to North Vancouver in 1957 improved marketing by inaugurating less than 24 hour service. During World War II, a number of Japanese were moved into the area. They leased land on the benches in East Lillooet and north of the town, and raised large crops of tomatoes, which they marketed through the cannery established in the town of Lillooet. At the end of the war, the Japanese returned to the coast, and the cannery, through reported mis-management, was forced to close. Large hydro-electric devel-opments in the area after World War II attracted many men off the farms for good paying construction jobs, and agriculture reached the most depressed state in nearly a century. In the summer and f a l l of 1957, eight producers were reported market-ing their fruit and vegetable crops through the re-organized Lillooet Co-operative Growers Association, a non-profit or-ganization operated by a local resident. Tomatoes sold on the Vancouver market at a premium, and the manager of the Co-118 op produced invoices showing a price of $2.15 per case for tomatoes shipped out over the Pacific Great Eastern Railway. Even with premium prices, few acres are under cultivation. Potatoes, apples, cucumbers and vegetables sold in Vancouver and the northern Cariboo towns. Further expansion of the acreage under cultivation is expected even though the only 118 As compared with the Okanagan price of $1.85 185 dairy farm in the area closed recently. The land seems to. produce good crops even where farm methods seem most primitive. Land in this valley is valued at about $100 per acre i f water is available, and very l i t t l e per acre i f no water is available. A number of ranches are for sale; most of the others are by no means in commercial operation. Those ranches that are run efficiently are reported financially sound. Part-time workers from the native Indian population are available for harvesting crops. V. MORAN DAM AND LYTTON-MORAN SUB-REGION The construction of Moran Dam would have considerable effect on this region in providing gravity-fed water, cheap power, and a small market for locally grown products. Any industries that located near the dam site to benefit from the cheap power, would of course increase the population of the area, and in addition u t i l i z e fresh milk, fruit and vegetables. In particular, water fed through a gravity irrigation system could irrigate the series of benches from Moran to Sallus Creek, which l i e below 1500 feet, and make available the presently utilized streams for irrigating the series of fans behind the benches, which now go unused. In addition, only about one-half the available acreage in this area is 186 under irrigation, and this additional area could be further uti l i z e d . If desirable, the conveyance system could be ex-tended to the Fountain Range, about 1 5 miles from the dam. In the Pavilion-Sallus Creek area, about 3 , 0 0 0 acres could be utilized along with 7 0 0 acres more in the Fountain area. Across the Fraser, a series of terraces that are linked to the second sub-region, could have similar gravity fed water. Cheap electric power Will aid in the establishment of more pumping irrigation water for agriculture in the Lillooet area, as considerable acreage is not presently ut i l i z e d . For the area south of Lillooet, the Prairie Farm Rehabilitation Act report on pumping agriculture had this to say: Because of the abundant supply of gravity water in the area between Lillooet and Lytton, and the small area of probable agricultural land available, i t would not be particularly a necessity to supplant this cheap water supply for irrigation purposes for any of the lands in this area.H* This is very true for the lands on the western bank of the Fraser^ but hardly true for the Laluwissin area, where the present agricultural land could be doubled i f water v/ere pumped cheaply. However i t is too high for the present application of such water, and would lik e l y have to await further technical improvements in pumps. The north Lytton area also would benefit from cheap power for pumping. 1 1 9 "Fraser River Reconnaissance Survey, Pumping Irrigation P o s s i b i l i t i e s , Williams Lake to Lytton," Prairie  Farm Rehabilitation Act r Water Development Board Report No.I Department of Agriculture, (Otrtawa, 1 9 5 2 ) 187 VI. POSITION OF THE REGION WITH RESPECT TO FUTURE DEVELOPMENT In 1957, the agricultural production of this sub-region was slight, with only a few hundred boxes of tomatoes and apples being sold in Vancouver, a few tons of potatoes being marketed in the Cariboo towns, and only beef from a half dozen ranches adding substantial cash income to farmers and ranchers. Moran Dam w i l l l i k e l y aid in the area by doubling or more than doubling the present acreage available for cultivation, and making existing improved land more pro-ductive in the following wayst (1) The Lytton-Moran sub-region, in terms of climate and s o i l , is very similar to southern Okanagan Valley, a highly productive, intensive agricultural region. Past and present production by progressive* farmers in this sub-region indicates a similar degree of concentration can be maintained on the Fraser as in the Okanagan. Shipments of tomatoes, potatoes, apples and cucumbers to Vancouver in the f a l l of 1957» over the newly completed P.G.E., although small indi-cated an expanded business may develop in the near future. (2) The acreage available in the Lytton-Moran sub-region indicates that each of the five farming areas w i l l correspond in acreage with irrigation districts in the Okanagan. For example, 34-18 acres at Summerland compares with 3000 acres in Pavilion-Sallus Creek area. Similarly 860 acres now 188 irrigated in the Laluwissin area can be compared with 916 acres at Naramata. As the Okanagan areas are large enough in size to support crop marketing agencies, these areas along the Fraser should have similar success. (3) This sub-region when related to the Vancouver Metropolitan d i s t r i c t , as on Map 3 1 , indicates that i t is the closest large agricultural area outside the Lower Fraser Valley. By r a i l , the distance between Lytton and Vancouver is 160 miles, while Lillooet on the P.G.E. is 147 miles by r a i l from North Vancouver. Paved highways, of Trans-Canada standards, w i l l soon link Vancouver with Lytton, allowing the 167 miles to be travelled in less than five hours. Pave-ment w i l l soon reach Lillooet, 200 road miles from Vancouver, as compared with 250 miles to the south Okanagan. Overnight deliveries of fresh vegetables and fruits to Vancouver area is a distinct possibility. (4) Urban encroachment on the dairy lands of the Lower Fraser Valley w i l l necessitate an increase in the number of dairy cattle per acre kept in the Lower Valley, and require importation of hay and other forage crops. The Lytton-Moran sub-region could easily produce these crops i f farm extension takes place, and be within a 100-mile delivery radius of the Lower Fraser Valley. (5) The introduction of rural electrification to this area would bring the conveniences of the towns to the 189 M A P 31 R E L A T I V E POSfTION OF JLYTTON-MORAN SUB-REG SON AND ^VANCOUVER, THOMPSON VALLEYj AND OKANAGAN LEGEND OTHER AGRICULTURAL REGIONS LYTTON-MORAN SUB-REGION HIGHWAYS W. G. H A R D W I C K 190 farms, and no doubt attract enterprising farmers to the region. (6) Electric power could also make possible the establishment of quick freezing plants, where the process-ing of farm products, not marketed as fresh fruits and vegetables, could take place. The crops that w i l l be produced w i l l no doubt be those that w i l l bring the greatest return; but f i e l d crops, small fruits and vegetables for the growing metropolitan market, appear a f a i r l y probable development. In addition, "feed l o t " type cattle farms are a distinct possibility for the region. It appears economical and a good use for the land to raise cattle by "feed l o t " methods. However, regardless of the type of land use, large quantities of capital w i l l be required for the construction and maintenance of irrigation works. It is doubtful i f farmers themselves can make such outlays, unless the farmer is a large corporation or a wealthy citizen. This sub-region w i l l only be developed to its ultimate capacity for small-scale farmers with the aid of careful planning. CHAPTER IX SUB-REGION #2 - MORAN TO WILLIAMS LAKE RIVER I. THE PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY OF THE SUB-REGION Landforms Just north of Williams Lake River, the Fraser River enters a deep valley 500 to 2000 feet in depth, which extends south in varying widths to near Pavilion. Terrace formations are found throughout the whole length of this sub-region and at the mouths of tributary valleys, fans have developed. A large basin on the west bank between Churn and Gaspard Creeks, on which are the 2000 to 3000 foot elevation ranges of the Gang Ranch, perhaps was a large meltwater channel. 1^" In many places, the rapid down-cutting of the river has l e f t only small benches, and in other regions no benches whatever. Those that are in existence are chiefly on the east bank of the river and l i e about 500 feet above i t . Above this elevation a rapid rise takes place to the rim of the plateau. Near the confluence of the Fraser and Chilcotin the valley is quite wide. There tier upon tier of "broad sweeping terraces, often assuming fantastic shapes, rise hundreds of feet from the torrent below to the rolling up-120 See Map 32, Sub-Region #2 121 "Glacial Geology", B r i t i s h Columbia Atlas of  Resources, and personal discussion. 192 MORAN ~ WILLIAMS LAKE SUB - REGION . (23 SETTLEMENT A N D TRANSPORTATION f l * \ E A S , oca •;• ooc ' . • .V. ' . ' . ::j*x:::: \El\APlR6 X - X - X - XV/VAVLE Y Q^^:::::::x::::::X:Xix:; ^ ^ : : : : : ; : vx:-x-*X-x.y.XXv; 8 i C . ^ ^ R t t f '•xxXvx-x^x-':^ L E G E N D R O A D R A I L W A Y ( P . G . E . ) F- F E R R Y I R R I G A T I O N D I T C H p • P O S T O F F I C E » S T O R E S H A D E D A R E A O V C R 3 , 0 0 0 F T . 4 M I L F S T O I I N C H =1= M I L E S l i w l l X-X-X^T^TvTX-TTr-Tvv!^ M A P 3 2 W. G. r 'HARDWICK land, a thousand or more feet above." Climate The sub-region is a transition climatic zone. To the south is the deep valley area which, because of i t s warm summer temperatures, has been classified as a mid-latitude steppe. To the north, humid continental con-ditions prevail, and within this sub-region these two climatic types merge. Perhaps the difference in elevation between the river and the plateau, 2,000 feet in many places, is particularly significant to the climate of selected valleys and benches. If a generalization is permissible, one could say that the humid continental climate of the northern sub-region extends far south in this sub-region on the plateau surface, whereas the warm arid climate of the "dry belt" southern sub-region extends far north in the valley locations. The tributary valleys become the transition zones. Unfortunately, few weather records are kept within the sub-region. Dog Creek, (3370 feet) and Pavilion Mountain (3500 feet), have similar mean annual precipitation, precipitation distribution through the year, mean temperatures and frost-free periods. These stations, both on the plateau, are near the northern and southern ends of this sub-region respectively. In the valley i t s e l f , no records are kept but from tributary valleys, the rain gauge at A l k a l i Lake and the weather stations at 122 Weir, op. c i t . . p. 8 194 Williams Lake provide useful data. Other observations come from verbal reports. The aridity of the area is apparent by the complete lack of trees within the valley i t s e l f , suggesting that the valley is in the rain shadow of the high western Chilcotin plateau. In the deep valley sage brush is in evidence, but on higher benches, grasses are a l l that grow. Whereas summer frosts are possible on the high plateau, they are un-known in.the valley. In the Big Bar Creek area, climatic conditions reportedly approximate those of Lillooet, with very hot summer temperatures. However, lower minimum winter temperatures are experienced than at Lillooet. In the northern part of the sub-region, the elevation of the benches increases, the growing season is shorter, and the mean tem-peratures lower. The whole sub-region is water deficient, and irrigation must be undertaken i f intensive agriculture is to take place. However, on the high plateau dry farming may be successful as more r a i n f a l l and lower temperatures cause greater water retention. Soils The soils on the low benches are Dark Brown, while on the upper benches and tributary valleys they are classified as Thin Black. Many of the soils are s i l t s with the consistency of flour, while others are sandy. In fact, on some benches north of Canoe Creek sand dunes are in evidence. None of the soils in the area retains very much moisture because they are underlain with gravels. 195 II. DISTRIBUTION OF AGRICULTURAL AREAS In 1957, the cultivated lands were found chiefly in the valleys tributary to the Fraser, the only places where sufficient water is to be found (Map 33). These streams are not numerous because precipitation on the plateau is light. Only those streams that have their headwaters far west in the Coast Mountains have significant year-round flows. A half dozen streams on the east bank have sufficient water to allow irrigation, a dozen streams on the west could permit irrigation agriculture except that very l i t t l e land is available. Several agricultural areas can be recognized. One of significance is that near Big Bar Creek and High Bar. The few hundred acres under cultivation are dependent for water on the Big Bar Creek and by damming intermittent streams on the plateau. The benches at the mouth of the Creek, the valley i t s e l f , and a narrow bench stretching south along the Fraser to High Bar, are the locations for agri-culture. Another agricultural area exists on the west bank at the mouths of Watson Bar and Ward Creeks. At Canoe Creek, a third area of intensive agriculture f i l l s the lower reaches of the valley and s p i l l s out onto one bench of the Fraser. Across the Fraser, Coster and Grinder Creeks are utilized by the Empire Valley Cattle Company. LEGEND SHADED AREA OVER 3,000 FT. LIMIT OF GRASSLAND IRRIGATION DITCHES 4 MILES TO I INCH 2 / a -a 4- 6 i" ' ' I ' ——< M ILES MAP 33 W. G. HARDWICK 197 The headquarters of the Gang Ranch is located be-tween Churn and Gaspard Creeks and from the latter water is diverted to irrigate considerable acreage on the rolling surface of the basin. Ranches are found in the valleys of Dog Creek, Meason Creek and Alkali Creek. North of Alkali Lake, several small irrigated pastures are related to a larger ranch on the plateau some miles away. III. AGRICULTURAL ACTIVITIES IN MORAN-WILLIAMS LAKE REGION Three types of agricultural operations are found in this sub-region. One type is the irrigated pasture of large ranching companies; the other types are subsistence and part-time farm operations. These latter farms are of similar size, but one is operated for a livelihood, while the other is cultivated when the owner is not working on a large near-by ranch or as a guide. Land under cultivation in the Big Bar Creek area is very productive. Three crops of a l f a l f a , as well as veget-ables, potatoes and small fruits for local use are reported. Mulberry trees have been growing for many years on one ranch. Most acreage is utilized for growing winter feed for the cattle of the two large ranches, the Cromie and O.K., and for several small ranches in the area. The valley has several subsistence and part-time farmers who, according to the voters' l i s t , are ranch hands or guides for big game 198 hunters west of the Fraser. In 1957, the Cromie Ranch was not under crop, except for a small area reported under lease. One rancher reportedly markets produce and potatoes to residents on the plateau at Jesmond. Products of this agri-cultural area are not marketed in the towns of the Cariboo or the Lower Fraser Valley because the road from Big Bar to Clinton via Jesmond is considered too long a haul by the local residents. On the west side of the river, the area around Watson Bar and Ward Creeks is under irrigation for a l f a l f a , vegetables, and reportedly, apples. This farming area is reached by ferry across the river, and is even more inaccessible to markets. Between Big Bar Creek and Canoe Creek, no stream gives adequate year-round flow except Crow's Bar. The land through this presently non-irrigable area is maintained as winter range by the Gang Ranch and the Canoe Creek Ranch for i t has very l i t t l e snow in winter. At Canoe Creek, nearly 400 acres are irrigated. A l f a l f a is the chief crop averaging over 1^ - tons per acre on the f i r s t crop maturing in early July, and one ton on the sec-ond crop maturing in late August. Potatoes, tomatoes, sweet corn, vegetables, small f r u i t s , and as many as three crops of a l f a l f a in good years, are grown on the eighty-acre area on a bench of the Fraser about two miles from the main ranch. 199 The Gang Ranch is the largest ranch in the region. Its proprietors own some 50,000 acres outright and control a million acres under grazing permit and lease. This ranch o 123 was established by the Harper Brothers in 1833. Irrigated farm land, where winter feed was grown for up to 11,000 head of cattle, was established. Furrow type irrigation is practised and the water is brought long distances in flumes and channels of intermittent streams. At Dog Creek, irrigation agriculture has taken place since the early 1860's. In 1912, a ranch of 7500 acres was , 124 reported with 600 acres under irrigation. In 1957, some 364 acres of a potential 445 acres were under irrigation producing forage crops. On the plateau above Dog Creek the large Circle "S" Ranch of the Spencer family maintains con-siderable irrigated hay land. 123 Marketing cattle has been a problem at times. The attempts to meet the problem have been spectacular at times. In one case, Thaddeus Harper, owner of Gang Ranch, was l e f t with a large number of cattle and nowhere to market them in the Cariboo. As a remedy, he decided to drive them to Salt Lake City, the nearest Railway and ship them to Chicago. Arriving in Idaho, he learned that the market had fallen in Chicago, and that i t would not be profitable to continue. Turning west he planned to return to the Cariboo when news of a drought In California was reported. So he drove the Br i t i s h Columbia cattle to San Francisco instead where a substantial profit is reported to have been made. F.A. Laing, "Pioneers of the Cattle Industry," Br i t i s h Columbia Historical quarterly VI (1942), p. 257. 124 Boam, Ed., op. c i t . , p. 404. 200 One ranch u t i l i z i n g Meason Creek, in 1893 controlled 11,000 acres, stretching eight miles along the Fraser. Partial irrigation from pools and springs covered 3,000 acres of this but 300 acres of intensive cultivation was 125 maintained on the warm bottom land. The Alkali Lake Ranch is similar in many ways to the Canoe Creek Ranch in that substantial land in the valley at about 2500 feet is under intensive cultivation while a reported 25,000 acres on the plateau extending some eleven miles along the Fraser, are in fenced natural range. A few acres at Sword Creek and Doc English Gulch, are or were, irrigated plus small areas along the highway north of Chilcotin Bridge. IV. MORAN AND SUB-REGION MORAN TO WILLIAMS LAKE RIVER The Moran Dam w i l l affect this region in two main ways: (1) The dam w i l l cause the Fraser River to flood a l l lands that l i e below the 1540 foot contour. This w i l l mean the river level w i l l rise about 740 feet at the dam sit e , over 400 feet at the mouth of the Chilcotin River, and 126 some 200 feet at Soda Creek. (2) The dam w i l l supply electric power which, i f transmitted north, would supply cheap power for pumping 125 Bbam, op.cit. p. 401 126 See Map 34 SUB REGION II, AFTER FLOODING 201 irrigation water from the reservoir to the land. From a superficial view, the flooding of land would indicate great losses in the arable acreage available for agriculture in the province, but this is only partly true for the banks of the Fraser in this sub-region rise very rapidly. In many areas therefore the flooding w i l l take place only within these steep walls and no land of any present commercial value w i l l be flooded, as indicated on the profiles in Chapter III. However, in the southern sections particularly the water w i l l rise so high that some f e r t i l e terraces w i l l be inundated, particularly irrigated pastures at the mouths of Big Bar and Watson Bar Creeks. This w i l l be a major loss to the existing agricultural acreage both in that Big Bar and Watson Bar Creeks are excellent areas for growing a l f a l f a , but also in that both are at such an altitude that an ex-pansion of vegetable and fru i t crops is possible i f trans-portation were improved. Secondly, several benches used for winter pasture but presently unavailable for intensive agri-culture w i l l be flooded. These ranges are in the Deadman Creek and Crow's Bar area south of Canoe Creek, the Churn Creek Bridge area on the east side of the river, around 127 French Bar Creek ' and the Gang Ranch on the west. A l -though this is not presently arable land, i t is significant 127 A plan to subdivide the old ranch north of French Bar Creek is reported in the Surveyors Report in the 1954 Department of Lands Annual Report, p. CC 53. 202 1 mmmm RWNCK on. [•:-:-:-:\-'^-*:-':X-:-:-:-:-:v.'i tJANG l l P » .. ^s : : : : : x: : x : x' m m M O R A N - . J W I L L I A M S L A K E S U B - R E G I O N A G R I C U L T U R A L A R E A S A F T E R F L O O D I N G AND SIZE OF M O R A N RESERVOIR V»AN.CH f m m m m / i f I P l Ht :-:::::^ ^ ft.:.;.:.:.;.*:-:-:-:-: m y m E M WyW^m X. 3S-: Tytyy-::-: y.y.' E S T A B U S H E b ^ BOUNDARY FARMING AREAS J ^ F GRASSLAND H P ^ l ' B W ^ o f f i ^ M A ^ S A S S UlTABLE MSBS, t-u^blBLY FLOODED • • F O R PUMPING x v r r , T _ I R R i G A T l 6 N ^ WATER l l f l l i 1 E X T E N T CF RESERVOIR 4 MILES TO j INCH i l l ! OVER 3000 F E E T p | | i l i l | i l f i i i r | 1 J M | h | | | r > . f | r i r i ) jftj-j,-,-; j . . • V|> t y . y . y . - • • MAP 34 W. G H A R D W I C K 203 winter range. It includes over 1000 acres near Deadman Creek and 500 acres each in the other three locations. On the credit side, there w i l l be large areas, pre-sently only available for grazing, which w i l l be able to make the transition to intensive agriculture with the application of water pumped from the Fraser Reservoir. One area that w i l l become available is some 2000 acres immediately adjacent to the Moran Dam i t s e l f . This high bench, now nearly 900 feet above the river, has long been recognized as an area of potential agriculture; but a most primitive aerial ferry at Pavilion has permitted only the smallest use of the land to be made. The surveyor for the Department of Lands in Victoria in 1917 reported that the " s o i l is excellent, 18" to 24-" deep on a gravel subsoil, capable of producing four crops of a l f a l f a in one season, 1 PR excellent beans and other vegetable crops." Although four crops may be exceptional, three are common, according to the residents. Some higher benches in the Watson Bar and Big Bar Creek areas w i l l be unaffected by the flooding and w i l l no doubt, with a more reliable source of water, increase pro-duction. Perhaps the largest tract that could come under cultivation is located on the benches that stretch along the 128 G.S.Boulton, "Abstracts from Reports on the Cariboo Di s t r i c t . " 1871-1921, Survey Branch, Department of Lands, (Victoria), p. 78. 204 east side of the Fraser from China Gulch to the Churn Creek Bridge. It is described by the surveyor as follows: It is bordered on the east by a vertical preci-pice about three hundred feet high, of basaltic formation, which makes fencing along this side un-necessary; and on the west by the Fraser River. The whole area is practically treeless and has a steep slope to the river ... near the river the slope flattens out into a most remarkable series of benches, which, but for the absence of water, would form an area of enormous productivity. The benches are separated by numerous deep ravines ... snow hardly ever lies in winter... S o i l is a foot or.more in depth, of a very fine river s i l t almost the consistency of flour, and underlying this is gravel such as is found in a river bed... A l l this area is covered with bunch grass and wormwood and is singularly free from sage brush... owing probably to the fact that i t is just at too high an altitude for this plant to survive....129 Using a pumping height of 350 feet or more, as demonstrated at the Riverland Irrigated Farm, and a base level of 1500 feet for the water, about 3380 acres south of Canoe Creek and about 3200 acres north of Canoe Creek could be made available to intensive agriculture. A large tract of land at the mouth of French Bar Creek could be developed i f transportation were made avail-able. Significant acreage is available on Gang Ranch property for increased intensive agriculture, but i t is be-lieved that waters of Churn and Gaspard Creeks could supply 129 G.M.Dowriton, Survey Branch Division, Department of Lands Annual Report, (Victoria, Dec 2, 1923). 2 0 5 adequate gravity-fed water. Near Harper, Meason and Word Creeks, areas of some 400 acres each might be brought under intensive cultivation. There are several other benches that, because of ravines or c l i f f s , are too small for community water develop-ment but which could be exploited by individual farmers with enough capital to instal pipes and pumping apparatus. Altogether there are over 18,000 acres that could be brought under intensive agriculture with the aid of pumping in this sub-region. In a few places, the land within the tributary valleys could be used more intensely, using gravity fed water no longer needed on the lower terraces. This would be true in Big Bar Creek particularly. Two problems are recognized as far as flooding and pumping are concerned. One is wave action following the flooding and creation of a large reservoir, could cause con-siderable erosion in the steep bench sides. Rough water could erode sandy c l i f f s free of significant vegetation quickly. In addition, water-logging of adjacent shores caused by the raising of the river level would increase the possibility of serious mud slides which could remove a l -together some agricultural land. 1 3 0 The possible use of tributary streams for i r r i -gation is recognized by the P.F.R.A. Report to the Fraser River Board. A recommendation for future studies into the flow of these streams is included in their 1 9 5 2 report. op. c i t . p. 1 0 0 . 206 Secondly, to maintain a constant flow through the dam, the height of the reservoir w i l l be reduced in the winter low-water period and built up in the flood season. Fortunately, the water deficit does not appear until June in most of this sub-region, so i t is hoped a level, of 1500 feet could be maintained in the growing season for pumping irrigation water. However, in dry years, when irrigable water is particularly needed, the reservoir water level could be conceivably lower and upper pastures therefore left without water. V. POSITION OF THIS REGION AS TO FUTURE DEVELOPMENT (1) This sub-region is generally inaccessible to l v i the markets of the province J because of distance, poor roads, few bridges and limited scheduled freight or passenger services. Whereas in the 1890's places like Alkali Lake, Dog Creek and Big Bar Creek gave their names to federal census areas, in 1957 they are relatively unknown agricul-ture areas far to the west of the growing Cariboo. This isolation has given a peculiar character to the residents of the area, perhaps one indicating inertia or apathy to change or even of backwardness; unless this character is changed, l i t t l e agricultural progress can be expected. 131 See Map 35. 207 MAP 3 5 RELATIVE POSITION OF M O R A N - W I L L I A M S LAKE S U B - R E G I O N A N D VANCOUVER AND OTHER AREAS LEGEND RAILWAY HIGHWAYS AND ROADS * -^-'MILAGE BETWEFN TOWNS H I OTHER AGRICULTURAL A R E A S W. G. HAR DW1 C K 208 (2) Much of the region is controlled by several large ranching organizations through outright ownership or by grazing land lease. These organizations prosper through extensive use of the land. This problem is characteristic of the region, and was recognized as far back as 1921, when surveyor G.M. Downton wrote, The state of development at which this area has now arrived is that at which practically no crown land suitable for settlement remains. No subdivision of the crown grants has yet taken place, and there is apparently no move at present in this direction. There is greater reluctance on the part of any property owner to subdivide or s e l l at reasonable prices any areas under cultivation.. . 132 This practice has worsened with the consolidation of many holdings and through purchase of homesteads that were being sold. In 1956, in the southern section of this sub-region, there were only 22 farms or ranches. The extent of alien-ated land is indicated on Map 36. (3) Related to these f i r s t two problems is the situation where the large ranches are operated by absentee landowners. In 1957, several large ranches are in partial operation. Buildings and irrigation ditches are in dis-repair, due to mis-management or lack of interest by the parties concerned. This is a region with a great potential as an agri-cultural area for the growing of forage crops, vegetables 132 "Abstracts", op^ . c i t . , p. 93 209 A L I E N A T E D L A N D G E N E RALI ZED FROM PRE - EMPTOR MAPS BONAPARTE ' 4MILE SHEET ONE SQUARE MILE 30 MILES TO i INCH MILES MAP 36 W.G. HARDWIGK 210 and grains. Several statements in the Transactions of the 133 B r i t i s h Columbia Natural Resources Conference, indicate that the number of cattle ranged in the Cariboo is restricted only by the winter feed. With a large potential area of irrigable land available through pumping irrigation, i t is expected that i t could be increased significantly. The commercial production of vegetables and small fruits has greatest chance of success in the south, for only there would transportation costs be comparable to elsewhere in the Middle Fraser Basin. (4) The southern part of this sub-region, bordering on the reservoir, may become a desirable summer resort area. The reservoir w i l l be within about 200 miles from Vancouver by road and 185 miles by Pacific Great Eastern Railway. This is comparable with the distance from Vancouver to the Okanagan Valley. The warm summer conditions, a large boating area on the reservoir, and the attraction of the dam i t s e l f may make the land desirable for recreation use, and as a result have the effect of inflating the value of the land. As was suggested in the chapter on' irrigation, this com-petitive demand for land could easily make agricultural development of those lands impracticable. 1 133 "Rangelands of Brit i s h Columbia," Forum, R.E. Potter, Chairman, 4th Transactions of the British Columbia  Natural Resources Conference. (Victoria. B.C. 1951). p. 37. 211 (5) Better roads into the Big Bar-High Bar region might enable this area to expand its production into fruits and vegetables, marketable in the middle Cariboo and even through Lillooet to the Vancouver market. Although, as has been suggested, forage crops produced in the area may very well be needed to feed increased heads of cattle, any surplus could likely be marketed in the Lower Fraser Valley, where a deficiency in dairy cattle feed is expected. (6) The possible expansion of "feed l o t " type cattle operations would be desirable, for much land suited to the cultivation of a l f a l f a and other clover, grass and hay crops could be put to intensive use. Only in the southern part of the sub-region, within a short distance of the railway or perhaps in the Alkali Lake area not too far from Williams Lake, would i t be possible to Import grains 1^4 for finishing cattle. Ranches in this area would there-fore l i k e l y have to export cattle to the Peace River, Alberta or the Lytton-Moran sub-region or Thompson Valleys for finishing for market. (7) In this region also i t is evident that large quantities of development capital w i l l be needed to pur-chase land, build irrigation works, homes and barns and buy equipment. This development capital is not likely to come 134 The term finishing refers to the f i n a l period of fattening when the texture of the meat is determined. Grain finished cattle is reported more uniform than grass fed cattle. 212 from private sources, as farmers demand long-term financing at low interest rates. Government assistance seems a necessity i f intensive agriculture is to be expanded in this sub-region. CHAPTER X SUB-REGION #3 WILLIAMS LAKE RIVER-QUESNEL I. PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY Landforms The height of the Fraser plateau north of Williams Lake River is under 4,000 feet, and many areas l i e below three thousand feet. The Fraser River lies within this plateau in a valley two to five miles wide. The plateau is underlain primarily by lava flows which l i e in horizontal layers over the region, having been extruded several times in the geological past. Into these layers the river has entrenched i t s e l f . To the west of the river, morainic ridges and swell and swale topography, muskeg and swamp are typical surface landforms, indicating the effect of the Pleistocene. Several wide terraces, and the remnants of what may have been an old river plain have been le f t on each side of the river upon which present settlement is located and agriculture takes place. In the southern part of this sub-region, the Fraser River enters the great deep valley described earlier. The benches are wide and the absence of high mountains or plateau formations in the vici n i t y gives the whole area much more open appearance than in the southern sub-region. Vegetation covers a l l the land-forms, and as a result the edges of the benches are less 214 eroded and have a rather even appearance, as compared with the jagged sawtooth appearance of the gullied river front benches in the southern sub-region. The river is relatively slow-moving in much of this northern sub-region and has created a l l u v i a l deposits along its banks, some of which are available for agriculture. A few islands and several sand bars are found in this section as well. The river i t s e l f is rather wide and is navigable north of Soda Creek. The tributary streams are long, less steep in their lower courses and less frequently intermittent than in the southern portion of the Middle Fraser Region. Most of them flow northward through the greater parts of their course, turning and crossing the river benches to enter the river at right angles. Some of the northern tributaries have adequate flows to irrigate considerable land i f that is desired, while some in the south have small flows, more like the streams of the middle sub-region. Climate Soda Creek is recognized as the northern limit of what is generally referred to as the "dry belt". South of Soda Creek, climatic conditions are similar to the northern sections of the Moran-Williams Lake River area, with relatively warm summer conditions, l i t t l e precipitation and a relatively long growing season. Irrigation is a necessity 215 for successful intensive cultivation. The similarity in the regions is indicated by comparing precipitation recorded at the two stations of Al k a l i Lake and Soda Creek. Where records at Al k a l i Lake indicate a mean annual precipitation of 10.38 inches, they show 11.50 inches at Soda Creek. North of Soda Creek the climatic conditions are more similar to those on the plateau than the southern valley, with threat of summer, frosts, more precipitation (16.74- inches at Quesnel), cooler temperatures and less moisture deficiency being characteristic. Whereas south of Soda Creek grassland is found in the valley, forest cover becomes more dense as one moves north. Patches of grassland are found on south-facing slopes in the Alexandria area, but north of there forest cover dominates the landscape. The winters are more severe in this sub-region than in the south and cattle must be fed for up to six months. The growing season commences between the 10th and 20th of Ap r i l , a f u l l month later than in the Lillooet area. At Quesnel the moisture deficiency does not become acute until mid-July in most years. The water deficiency is generally less than 10 percent in the northern section of this sub-region. Soils Soils in the northern sub-region are mixed, because the region is a transition zone. In the southern 216 part the Thin Black soils predominate, associated with Dark Brown soils in some low valley locations and Degrading Black in the higher poorly drained areas. In most of the north Grey Wooded forest soils predominate, intermixed with Thin Black soils where grassland is found. Some of the Grey Wooded soils are rocky and at some high locations are un-profitable to work. On most benches between Alexandria and Quesnel good soils are found in patches. Thus a farm w i l l be large, containing several patches of s o i l a few acres in size. Near the river some very f e r t i l e a l l u v i a l soils are found. II. AGRICULTURE AREAS, WILLIAMS LAKE RIVER-QUESNEL Five agricultural areas can be recognized in this sub-region. Ranching is carried on in one area between Williams Lake and Marguerite, in similar fashion to the ranching in the southern sub-regions. Although the settle-ments of Soda Creek and Macalister act as supply centres the whole area is tributary to Williams Lake for most ser-vices. Irrigated pasture is maintained, usually by gravity-fed operations. On the Springfield Ranch water is pumped for irrigation purposes. A second area is near Alexandria, midway between "Williams Lake and Quesnel. In this section irrigation is desirable but not imperative. Ranching is the dominant activity but intensive farming is not uncommon. Culsson 217 Creek scheme for irrigation is planned for this area. In the Kersley-Dragon Lake-Quesnel area, in the northern section of the sub-region, a third agricultural area can be recognized. Although a ribbon of farms is found along the highway and railway between Alexandria and Quesnel, this northern section is an area of dairying and vegetable cultivation, rather than a ranching area. The farms are small, and cultivated areas are a l l cleared from the forest. Cleared land is a major characteristic of the landscape in this section. On the west bank of Meldrum Creek a large area devoted to ranching is the fourth agricultural section of this sub-region. The f i r s t settlers came to this wide grassy valley before 1870 . It is surrounded with a high-land containing natural meadows and poorly drained swamps adequate for summer grazing and some hay for winter use. In this area cattle need feed for about five months of the year. The f i f t h agricultural area is situated on the east side of the Fraser River, between Alexandria Ferry and the mouth of Narcosli Creek. The farms are generally small, often subsistence type. Natural meadow is utilized along Narcosli Creek for winter feed for a few cattle kept for cash income. The farms are generally located high on benches several miles back from the Fraser River. These areas are indicated on Map 37 . 218 ''I [ K E R S L E Y <3 / 11 I. < I 2i 9 t 9 1 N A R C O S U l C R E E K WILLIAMS LAKE QUESNEL SUB - REGION SETTLEMENT AGRICULTURE AREAS A N D TRANSPORTATION - HIGHWAYS AND ROADS • ' PACIFIC GREAT EASTERN RAILWAY CLEARED LAND,, CULTIVATED. LANTJ GRASSLAND SWAMP AND MTEADOW © AIRPORT X SITE FORT ALEXANDRIA f' FERRY SHADED AREA OVER 3 , 0 0 0 FT. 4 MILES TO I INCH rwiLUlXM8 LAKE f C R E e * 0 A V MAP 37 W. 6 . HARD WICK 219 Crops There are estimated to be more than one hundred farms in the sub-region, most of them lying between the river and 2500 foot contour. About one-third of the farms and ranches use irrigation. In the southern sections most land is in either irrigated pasture or grain, both utilized for cattle feed on the ranches in the area. Some vegetables are grown, dairy cows maintained and poultry kept chiefly for farm use, although small quantities are reportedly marketed in Williams Lake. The Williams Lake-Soda Creek and Meldrum Lake areas are the most important ranching areas in the northern sub-region. Between Quesnel and Australian, farms are small, often part-time operations. Dairy cows are kept as well as poultry, sheep and hogs. Vegetables are grown commercially in this area and potatoes, particularly, have been important cash crops to some farmers. The dairy products are marketed through Quesnel, where sales to local residents and those in Prince George are handled by Northern Dairies. Potatoes were grown in considerable quantities in the Dragon Lake and Kersley area after World War I I , both for table use and seed. The acreage in potatoes was 551 in 1951. By 1954 the acreage was reduced to 150. Marketing problems and high transportation costs are believed to be factors in the decline in this specialized crop. On some land yields were very high, reportedly up to 20 tons per acre. 220 Dairying appears to be the dominant source of farm income. The growth of the forest industries around Quesnel has been an important factor in attracting farmers off the land. The short frost free period experienced in this area (50 plus days) limits the growth of many vegetables and grains. Between Alexandria and Narcosli Creek l i e mixed farming areas, where dairying and intensive vegetable c u l t i -vation takes place side by side with cattle ranching. I r r i -gation is practised near Alexandria, water coming from Cuisson Creek. Most farms seem to have some dairy and beef cattle and other crops, but no general category of farm, can be readily recognized. Irrigation expansion is possible in this whole sub-region. Prairie Farm Rehabilitation Act engineers report some 30,000 acres are available for irrigation with the aid of pumped water. J y Of this, some 5»000 acres are now either in cultivation or natural grass. A scheme to u t i l i z e water stored on Cuisson Creek could supply about 2600 acres in the Alexandria area by gravity. III. MORAN DAM AND SUB-REGION #3 The Moran Dam w i l l have much less effect on this northern sub-region than either of the fore mentioned sub-regions. Distance from the dam, over one hundred miles up 135 Prairie Farm Rehabilitation Act, Water Development  Branch Report,"Report on Reconnaissance Survey of Pumping Irrigation P o s s i b i l i t i e s . Quesnel to Williams Lake," Depart-ment of Agriculture, (Ottawa, 1951) 221 stream, means that flooding w i l l not be as great as down-stream and that transmission costs for power w i l l be greater. The land i t s e l f , as already suggested, is not in as great need of water as the southern area, for water e f f i c -iency is greater. Moran reservoir w i l l flood some land in this sub-region, (Map 38). The depth of the water above present river levels w i l l range from about 200 feet at Soda Creek to nothing at the mouth of Narcosli Creek. South of Soda Creek the river is in a rather deep valley, in which few branches are cultivated. Between Soda Creek and Alexandria, about 10,000 acres may be flooded. However, reference to maps of the area indicates that, except for smalllareas near the villages of Soda Creek and Alexandria, no agricultural land is low enough to be flooded. Most farms are found be-tween 1500 and 2000 feet elevation. Many of them that cannot at present benefit from potential pumping of irrigation water w i l l be within the range of pumping i f the reservoir is established. Moran electric power w i l l be reasonably priced in this northern sub-region, but w i l l be higher than in the southern sub-regions. Detracting from the importance of Moran to this region are the facts that irrigation can be expanded in most areas from existing streams and that some arable land could be irrigated from the river at its present level i f power 222 \ i U I M I T O F P L O O O I M O i I W A R C O S n c R E E K A V - E X A N D m A C A S T U E : R O C K 9 o \KER5UCY » A U S T * A U A M WILLIAMS LAKE RIVER-QUESNEL SUB - REG ION A G R I C U L T U R A L AREAS A F T E R F L O O D I N G A N D E X T E N T O F T H E M O R A N R E S E R V O I R AL6* ANORfA M A R G U E R I T E I 1 If 0 - M A C A U S.R X. 7 1\W { ^ S O O A C R U K / S i y> L E G E N D FRAS.ER R I V E R A F T E R F L O O D I N G j OVER 3 , 0 0 0 F EET C L E A R E D OR CULTIVATED AREA FLOODED B Y MORAN 4, SWAMP AND ^ N A T U R A L MEADOWS * S E T T L E M E N T S • V I L L A G E S LIMITS OF P O S S I B L E P U M P I N G OF ' IR'RI GAT I ON WATER ' ( A B O U T 1,800 F E E T ) 4 MILES TO .1 INCH l i e , Z. 4. " • > 1. 1 • I I 1 I ^Wl L H M L A K E | M t l _ O R U M i C R E E K 0/ M A P 3 8 W. G. H A R D W I C K 223 were available. Other areas are too high even for future pumping. Narcosli Creek has sufficient discharge to irrigate 136 the bench several miles south of its mouth, although these areas could be irrigated from the Fraser river i f pumping were undertaken. Across from the mouth of Williams Lake River, agriculture could be expanded in the Meldrum Creek area, where a considerable acreage of good land is used for hay and grazing land. A surveyor in 1913 made this report: ... the resident is an old settler with a large family. Only eight acres is cultivated by hand. The system of irrigation used is the carrying of pails of water from the creek to the crop" by the large family.137 The water flow of Meldrum Creek would need be more e f f i c -iently utilized, for most of the area is too high for pumping from the Fraser i t s e l f . IV. THE POSITION OF THE REGION WITH RESPECT TO FUTURE DEVELOPMENTS The northern sub-region is quite satisfactory for some types of agriculture, although the threat of summer frosts limits the varieties of vegetables and f i e l d crops grown. More severe winter conditions mean that longer 136 An October flow of 60 cfs. is reported by Provincial Government Surveyors. 137 R.W.Haggen, Abstracts, op. c i t . , p. 54. 224 winter feed periods for cattle are necessary, making com-petition with southern ranchers more d i f f i c u l t . Moran w i l l not stimulate agriculture, for i t w i l l not aid in the cost of clearing nor significantly in the cost of pumping water. Cost of clearing land is an important deterrent to, expansion of agriculture. The machine work involved, that i s , the services of a bulldozer to clear the trees, averages at present about $40 per acre in this sub-region, depending 138 on the terrain, s o i l and vegetation density. This does not include burning, root-picking and working down of the s o i l . Although assistance is given to farmers from the Provincial government through the "Farmers' Land Clearing Assistance Act", this "clearing" factor places this sub-region in a poor competitive position in relation to the grasslands farther south. The proportions to which this area may grow is exemplified by considering the size of an economic unit needed. In this area, 150 acres of cleared arable land is considered necessary, and usually because of the dispersed nature of the soils this w i l l require the ownership of about 320 acres. New farmers w i l l find i t expensive to acquire land,— 138 Quesnel-Lillooet Bulletin Area. Bulletin Department of Lands, Victoria 1957» p. 53. 225 .for privately owned land is valued at $15.00 per acre un-cleared, $69.00 per acre cleared and about $100.00 per acre 139 when irrigated. Labour costs are high, and the maintenance of reliable workers is a distinct problem in this. area. Saw-mills and construction provide jobs for most of the work force, and competition for labour often leaves the farms short-handed. On the other hand, additional income from forestry or construction allows many farms to be operated on a part-time basis. They would lik e l y not be operated at a l l without this additional source of income. Although ultimate agricultural development in this sub-region w i l l be restricted by the fragmented nature of holdings, climate and water supply, the future outlook is reasonably encouraging. The increase in population in the sub-region and the areas to the north indicate an increased market for fl u i d milk, eggs, poultry and vegetables. These may compensate for disadvantages in freight cost to the distant coast markets (Map 39). The expansion of beef cattle raising in this area has been marked during the last decade, and the prominence of the Quesnel Cattle Sale is an indi-cation of this growth. What is important to this discussion- is; cheap power 139 Bulletin, op. c i t . p. 50 226 MAP 3 9 W. G. HARDWICK 227 from Moran would have l i t t l e influence on pumping irrigation water; markets would not li k e l y be stimulated; and flooding, although covering a considerable area, would not influence settlement or agricultural acreage significantly. CHAPTER XI THOMPSON RIVER VALLEY Expansion of agriculture in the Thompson River Valley is closely related to power development at Moran. This arid valley, 20 to 30 miles east of the Fraser River Valley requires low-cost hydro-electric power for pumping irrigation water. 1 4 - 0 I. THE PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY OF THE REGION Landforms There are three types of landforms in this region: the fans, found along the Thompson particularly between Ashcroft and Lytton; the high valleys and terraces such as those at Ashcroft Manor and along Semlin Valley; and terraces along the river from Ashcroft to Kamloops Lake. Related to this area are the two former meltwater channels containing the Bonaparte and Deadman Rivers. A major differ-ence between Lytton-Moran sub-region and the Thompson region is the fact that both sides of the Thompson are bordered by the high plateau; whereas only the east side of the Fraser is so bordered. Consequently both banks of the Thompson are covered by large fans, products of the post-pleistocene. West of Ashcroft lies the Ashcroft Manor area, over 500 feet 140 See Map 40. 229 W . G . H A R D W I C K 230 above the present level of the Thompson River and running generally parallel to its north-south axis. The land is gently rolling over the upper part of the area, but below the 1500 foot level there are a series of benches that drop gradually to the river. Several large h i l l s protrude from the upland area, separating some of i t into valley tracts. The Semlin Valley just north of Ashcroft, was per-haps an old bed of the Bonaparte River. Many of the present landforms and soils within these valleys and along the Thompson between Ashcroft and Kamloops Lake originated from the outwash in the Pleistocene. Intermittent streams are the rule in this region. Severe gullying has taken place in many areas where flash floods following exceptional heavy rains have poured down a valley. Generally these valleys are dry during the rest of the season. Several streams have natural reservoirs in the form of lakes, or have been dammed to retain the spring sur-plus for summer irrigation. Where these exist, individual farmers u t i l i z e them f u l l y for irrigation. Climate This region has one of the lowest annual average precipitations in the province, as reported at Ash-croft near the river, and at Ashcroft Manor higher on the benches. The mean summer temperatures are slightly cooler than the region of similar latitude on the Fraser, and the 231 growing season is slightly shorter. These are relatively unimportant differences, as the growing season is adequately long and warm for producing most crops desired. As the valley has such low precipitation, lying as i t does in the rain s shadow of the Coast Mountains and the plateau to the west, vegetation is not extensive. A similar degree of water de-ficiency exists here as in the Moran-Lytton Region, and irrigation is a necessity. S o i l The soils of the region are Dark Brown in the valley, and are classified as Thin Black on the higher ben-ches and tributary valleys. Discussing the fe a s i b i l i t y of pumping irrigation water, the Prairie Farm Rehabilitation Act report-states: "Generally the soils found in the Thompson Valley were of a s i l t to sandyloam of varying depth, underlain by a gravelly terrace. In some places, and particularly on the higher benches, angular stones appeared on the ground surface in quantities such that cultivation 141 would be impossible." II. AGRICULTURAL AREAS Several agricultural areas are found in this region, their area governed by one or several of the physical factors 141 Prairie Farm Rehabilitation Act, Water Develop- ment Branch Report No. 4., "Thompson River Reconnaissance Survey on Pumping Irrigation P o s s i b i l i t i e s , Kamloops to Lytton," Department of Agriculture, (Ottawa, 1952). 232 mentioned above (Map 41). One area around Spences Bridge is significantly limited in size by the narrow benches found in the region, and by a lack of water. A second, between Ashcroft Manor and Basque Ranch, is a very large area of grassland, some five miles wide and extending twelve miles along and above the western bank. Across the river, high on the valley side, several benches are intensively cultivated by ut i l i z i n g water stored in Barnes Lake. The Bonaparte and Semlin Valleys, meeting at right angles at Cache Creek, compose a fourth area of agriculture. A f i f t h area, the series of terraces along the Thompson from Ashcroft to Kamloops Lake, are irrigated largely by waters flowing from the plateau. Water supply is the limiting factor in the Ashcroft Manor, Semlin Valley and Thompson bench areas. III. EXTENT OF AGRICULTURE Production in the Thompson Valley is f a i r l y large in both vegetables and beef cattle. Cattle raised on the ranches in the valley and tributary valleys are marketed through cattle auctions at Kamloops or are shipped directly from Ashcroft and Lytton and sold to packing houses in Vancouver. Tomatoes raised on the hot benches with aid of irrigation are sold both fresh and for canning. Turkeys, a new and successful means of marketing the products of the 233 s o i l , are sold by the farmers directly to the large meat packing firms. Ashcroft potatoes are well known as good quality Mdry belt" potatoes and receive a top price on the Coastal market, Spences Bridge was one of the f i r s t areas developed for agriculture in the Thompson Valley. In 1957, some farms were raising forage crops, potatoes, tomatoes and f r u i t ; but "urban sprawl" seemed to be u t i l i z i n g parts of the best farm lands. About 600 acres are available for cultivation around Spences Bridge. The ranches of the Ashcroft Manor area are producing crops but in amounts in no way comparable to what was re-ported produced in the late nineteenth century. In 1957, two large tracts were being operated under lease. On one, 300 acres of oats were planted as partial feed for 35,000 turkeys being raised on the open range. On a second, a large tomato crop was raised. Cattle were being ranged from the Basque Ranch and the other ranches in the area. Water for these ranches along the western side of the Thompson is limited, most of i t coming from Cornwall, Minniberrie:.ty, Lone Tree and Oregon Jack Creeks. Only Cornwall Creek has natural lake storage. The Boston Flats Ranch, just north of Ashcroft Manor, was the grazing land for the B.C. Express Company, the firm which operated the stages on the Cariboo Road. At this ranch 234 M A P 41 W. G. HARDWICK 235 the f i r s t electrically operated pumping system was installed in the f i r s t decade of this century, to raise the water of the Bonaparte some 300 or more feet to the ranch. In 1957 the sytem was in ruins. Fed by water from Barnes Lake, the benches on the east side of the Thompson above Ashcroft, at a similar elevation to Ashcroft Manor, are the location of several rather prosperous farms, where cattle and forage crops now place second to turkeys and grain crops in importance. These farms have some acreage in f r u i t trees and in tomatoes which are marketed at Ashcroft. Except for a few acres around Cache Creek, the Bona-parte and Semlin Valleys are under cultivation for hay and a l f a l f a , which are used as winter feed for the cattle that graze in Hat Creek Valley on the plateau to the north and east, and on the terraces of the Thompson Valley i t s e l f . These Bonaparte, Semlin and the Perry Ranches were established 142 in the 1860's and 1870"s. The Perry Ranch was part of the land empire established by the Harper Brothers, noted in Chapter 10 in regard to the Gang Ranch. To-day i t produces breeding stock for the wide holdings of the partnership which 143 controls both ranches. The Semlin and Perry ranches grow 142 C.W.Vroom "History of Ranching in Bri t i s h Columbia," Economic Analyst, Department of Agriculture, (Ottawa, April 1941), p. 20. 143 Weir, op_j. c i t . , p. 85 236 impressive crops of hay. From time to time, some acreage has been leased to Chinese and white farmers, who cultivate cash crops, usually tomatoes or potatoes. Many people have objected to this practice of leasing land rather than outright sale for "their unfailing practice seems to be to work there until the s o i l is thoroughly impoverished and 144 then turn i t back to the owners. Near Cache Creek, cash crops of potatoes and tom-atoes are grown by ranchers and native Indians. In the upper Bonaparte Valley, several small ranches irrigate just the a l l u v i a l river bottom, and leave the gentle sloping fans on either side of the valley in natural grass for their c a t t l e . 1 4 5 Several benches along the Thompson, from Ashcroft to Walhachin, are under cultivation. The Thompson meanders between elevated terraces in this portion of the valley, terraces that are only a few feet above the river in places. Streams that drop rapidly from the sharp rising c l i f f s on the south bank irrigate a large acreage devoted to forage crops and tomatoes. Several small orchards are maintained. The large area on the north bank of the river is now covered with sage brush and grass, above which the occasional dead fru i t tree stands as a reminder of the large Walhachin irrigation project which once prompted the land to blossom 144 Downton, Abstracts, op. c i t . . p. 53 2 3 7 forth some f i f t y years ago. The abandonment of this i r r i -gation project where 5>000 acres of orchard were planted appears to have been as was explained in Chapter VII, due to human neglect rather than an unsatisfactory physical location. IV. MORAN AND THE THOMPSON VALLEY The Moran Dam proposal could have two major i n -fluences on agriculture in this region: ( 1 ) Moran would produce cheap power, to be made available (a) for pumping irrigation water, (b) for rural electrification and (c) for quick freeze and other process-ing plants; ( 2 ) Moran would possibly allow certain waters, now utilized in the Fraser Valley, to be diverted into the Thompson Valley through Hat Creek Valley. The effect of cheap power for irrigation water pumping would be considerable, for perhaps more land is available at low elevations in this valley than elsewhere in the interior. It is stated in the Prairie Farm Rehabilitation Act report"1"4^ that an estimated 1 3 , 9 5 6 acres were available to pumped irrigation water between Kamloops and Lytton, using the conservative figure of 2 5 0 feet as the height water could be pumped. Some of the land under this survey is outside 146 Report #4, op. c i t . 238 this region, being around Tranquille and Kamloops at the east end of Kamloops Lake, but the figures are worth recalling. 4356 acres, or 31$ of this land was recognized as already under cultivation. 8053 acres, or 5Q% of the area was in grassland, and the remaining 11% in forest. The land was further classified as to the number of acres at various heights above the river as follows: 0 - 50 7210 acres 50 - 100 2041 acres 100 - 150 1916 acres 150 - 200 1446 acres 200 - 250 1343 acres Much of the nearly 10,000 acres under 100 feet above the river is the location of the presently cultivated land. Using just these figures, the possible addition to cultivation is considerable; but i f 350 feet were considered as a pumping height, much of the area of the original Walhachin project could be resettled. The half-century old flume, now in ruins, enters the Thompson Valley from the Deadman River Valley at about the fifteen hundred-foot con-tour. Recalling that the elevation of Kamloops Lake is slightly over 1100 feet, i t is evident much of the Walhachin property could be re-irrigated. Through a rebuilding of the Deadman River flumes, water could be utilized -on the excellent 239 147 benches within the Deadman Creek Indian Reserve. The s o i l and landforms are satisfactory for i n -tensive irrigated agriculture. With the establishment of a reliable source of water through pumping and the convenience of rural ele c t r i c i t y , this area could well become an ideal agricultural region. The Ashcroft Manor-Bonaparte and Semlin Valley w i l l benefit some from cheap power, but the most interesting possibilities for these areas are in diversion of streams to supply water for irrigation. Cache Creek water is com-pletely utilized for irrigation by the Semlin Valley Ranches, but the Bonaparte River has considerable flow now utilized. Most areas outside the Bonaparte valley i t s e l f are too high for normal pumping. Additional waters from the Semlin Valley, and more particularly the Boston Flats and Ashcroft Manor area, could be brought from the Bonaparte River by pipe or flume. This is no new scheme. In 1893» this report was made: "I am not aware of the practicability of bringing water to the higher levels from such sources as the Bonaparte, but from the fact that Captain Parsons gives the altitude of 147 The effect of power dams on irrigation within the Thompson Valley could be even more spectacular i f the so-called "Ten.Dams" proposal of General McNaughton, mentioned in Chapter I was undertaken. Dams at Savona Bridge, MacAbee, Ashcroft and Basque would each raise the level of the river to a height which would lessen the pumping distance necessary to irrigate surrounding benches, and each would provide electric power for pumping at a low cost, as no transmission distance would be involved. 240 the mouth of Hat Creek which empties into the Bonaparte fourteen miles from Ashcroft, at 1686 feet, I think much of the land on the northern side of the Thompson could be irrigated from that source. A ditch was put in some time ago, but I believe, probably from faulty construction, i t 148 proved to be a failure." As was stated earlier, the general decline of this area to extensive ranching in the present century has pre-cluded any further development of this novel but seemingly practical scheme. The water available for irrigation from the Bona-parte could be supplemented with water diverted from the Fraser. The possible gravity-fed irrigation of the Pavilion-Sallus Creek area in the Fraser Valley with waters from the Moran dam reservoir, could allow Pavilion Creek and Lake to be dammed and diverted east through the near-level Marble Canyon, 2600 feet in elevation, into Hat Creek, the main tributary of the lower Bonaparte. An expansion of this scheme was investigated. Re-calling that the level of the Fraser reservoir at Moran Dam would be at 1540 feet, the possibility of pumping water 1000 feet up into Pavilion Lake, a total distance of about six miles, for storage and future distribution on the rolling grassland above Ashcroft Manor, looks interesting, and 148 "Abstracts" op_^  c i t . , p. 86 241 could likely be done i f the need for agricultural land in this province were acute. At present, the cost of pumping water six miles and up 1000 feet would be prohibitive but 149 not impossible, as indicated on Map 42. V. FUTURE AS AN AGRICULTURAL REGION Like the Lytton-Moran area on the Fraser, this area is climatically suited for intensive irrigated agriculture. Past and present farmers in the region have demonstrated the valuable returns that are possible. This region is well situated in relation to the urban centers of the lower Fraser Valley and the growing city 150 of Kamloops. Cache Creek in its centre is 220 road miles from Vancouver on the Trans-Canada Highway. Both trans-continental railways travel through the valley. Walhachin, Semlin Valley and Ashcroft Manor areas are a l l suited to the development of large irrigation d i s t r i c t s , which, properly planned and executed, could pro-vide farmers with successful, economical farms. The long growing season w i l l allow the cultivation of most vegetable crops, some fruits and most certainly hay and cereal crops. The future development of the area would be planned, no doubt, so that adequate crops of certain types 149 In a Venezuelan scheme water is pumped up some 3000 feet. "Caracas Water Supply Lifted 3,125 f t . Over Divide," Engineering. XXVI, #12, p. 49. 150 Map 31, "Moran-Lytton sub-region and other areas" 242 M A P 4 2 W.G. HARDWICK 243 would be grown to supply packing and quick freezing plants, and other marketing organizations. The expansion of vegetable crops seems highly probable to supply the Vancouver metropolitan market. The surplus apple production in the Okanagan Valley and the curtailment of Canadian export markets, precludes an in -crease in horticulture in the province at least for the present. Along with vegetables, the raising of poultry and live stock seems particularly suited to this area. As has been mentioned, turkeys have proven a most satisfactory farm product; no pens or other shelters are needed as in the damp coastal region. With sufficient feed available, thousands of birds could be produced. Hogs do well in the area east of Kamloops, and are reported to do well in this valley because of the dry air , and because proper feed crops grow exceptionally well. The extensive use of the land in cattle raising seems wasteful on an area so potentially productive. Perhaps the "feed l o t " type of cattle operation w i l l be instituted where local hay crops and imported grains are utilized for finishing the cattle for market. Electrification w i l l no doubt make i t a more desir-able rural living area. There are many factors operating which w i l l tend to prevent this area from being f u l l y developed. These include 244 the apathy of many of the present inhabitants, the existence of the large ranches covering several thousand acres, and the d i f f i c u l t y of securing capital to purchase land and equipment. A new generation of farmers w i l l l i k e l y be needed i f the area is to expand. The break-up of ranches is only possible i f the price of the land is bid up to a point where ranchers find i t to their advantage to s e l l . A number of individual farmers cannot go into the region, divert a selected stream, or pump water along the river front, for this can result only in a peripheral patchwork development of the area. It seems that the Thompson region should be developed as an integrated irrigation d i s t r i c t where fullest development at the least average acreage cost would be possible. A problem arising in 1957 is the reported acqui-sition of land for speculative purposes by a number of large corporations and individuals. These interests hope that the "Ten Dams" of the Fraser and Thompson may be developed. The result could be an increase in land cost that could hinder valley-wide agricultural development. Lastly, the tenant farmer has done much to ruin some tracts of land and their revitalization w i l l no doubt be costly. Over 20,000 acres could be developed at a cost. They are acres well located to meet the future needs of growing Lower Mainland and south-central interior markets. Imaginative planning on a valley-wide basis w i l l be necessary. CHAPTER XII THE CHILCOTIN PLATEAU AND THE CARIBOO Two areas where the Moran Proposal w i l l influence agriculture to lesser degrees than either the Middle Fraser Region or the Thompson Valley are the plateau areas to the east and west of the Fraser River. These areas are plateau lands, lying over 3j000 feet in elevation. Only small settlements whose residents are dependent on forestry, transportation and cattle-raising for a livelihood are located there. I. PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY Landforms The plateau is a comparatively level plain, broken only in a few places by low rolling h i l l s or an occasional sharp volcanic cone. In general the r e l i e f is not more than 500 feet on the surface i t s e l f , except where the deeply incised river valleys break the plateau into large blocks. The gentle r e l i e f is referred to as "undulat-ing and ro l l i n g " and is directly related to two elements of its origin; the extensive lava beds which cover much of the region, and the deposits of glacial d r i f t which in f i l l i n g former stream channels and creating ground moraines have resulted in the derangement of the drainage. The resulting 151 Map 43. -v: >::;fe;v:-:%::::::v::-::::v:-: TUTU M A P 4 3 W. G. HARDWICK 247 lakes and swamp meadows are widely used by ranchers. Large stretches of stony ground caused by glacial deposits makes intensive cultivation impossible. Climate The climate of the plateau regions has been described in Chapter III, in sections dealing with the weather recording stations of Dog Creek, Big Creek and Pavilion. Long cold winters and relatively short cool summers, characteristics of a humid continental climatic c l a s s i f i c a t -ion, are typical of this area. Precipitation is not abundant at any time of the year, but as temperatures also are low, the moisture retention is such that dry farming can be under-taken in favorable areas. Frosts can occur in any month of the year; and at Big Creek, in one year only three days separated the last frost of the spring and the f i r s t frost 152 of the f a l l . Although the frost free period is short, the growing season is much longer, numbering from 50 to 150 days at various plateau locations. Except for protected areas, the plateau area is not generally suited to intensive cultivation. Some valleys have l i t t l e precipitation and considerable heat accumulation in the summer, and in these, cultivation of hay and some grains is undertaken with the air of irrigation. 152 See Chapter III 248 Soils The characteristic soils of the plateau are Thin Black in the parkland, Grey Wooded in the forested areas, and Degrading Black in the poorly-drained meadows and swamps. II. EXTENT OF PRESENT AGRICULTURE Ranching is the dominant agricultural activity on the plateau, and in the Chilcotin i t is the chief economic activity. On the east side of the Fraser, ranching places second in value to forestry and construction as economic activities of importance. Ranches on the plateau were established later than those of the deep valleys and as far as the headquarters of ranches were concerned, most were located in the small plateau valleys, viz. The San Jose River, Bridge Creek and the Chasm near Clinton. Many ranches were established in a linear fashion along the Cariboo and Chilcotin Roads; and i t was not until the present century that the pattern was broken and ranches spread east of 100 Mile House to the Buffalo Lake, Canim Lake and Lone Butte areas. The opening of these marginal ranching areas followed the construction of the Pacific Great Eastern Railway. Most ranches are of moderate size, none running more than 1000 head except the Exeter Ranch at 100 Mile House and the Chilco Ranch at Hanceville. Ranches on the plateau 249 do not generally have large areas available for irrigated pasture and hay, and as a result must harvest their winter feed from natural meadows and small valley flood plains. Cattle are usually ranged over a wide area on spring, summer and f a l l .ranges at various elevations and returned to the home ranch for wintering or marketing. The report of T.R. Weir explains in detail the complex ranching practices 153 engaged upon by the plateau-located ranchers. Cattle from this area are marketed through the Cariboo Cattleman's Association at Williams Lake, or by direct shipment to the coast from railway stations at Lone Butte, for the 100 Mile House area, and: Chasm for the Clinton area. III. THE MORAN PROPOSAL IN RESPECT' TO THE PLATEAU REGIONS The Moran Proposal w i l l not influence the plateau region to any appreciable degree as i t would the-Middle Fraser Region. Small areas of the lower Chilcotin River Valley would be flooded, areas generally not at present used by the ranchers. To the other areas, Moran w i l l be of importance in two ways: (1) by providing cheap power, for pumping irrigation water and perhaps more important for rural electrification, and 153 T.R.Weir, Ranching in the Southern Interior Plateau of Brit i s h Columbia, op. c i t . 250 (2) by stimulating the economy in the adjacent Middle Fraser Region. Cattle-raising on more compact farms with "feed l o t " methods in the valley, w i l l leave the grazing lands on the plateau, now used for summer grazing by the valley ranches for the sole use of the ranches on the plateau. The Chilcotin River Valley could support some in -tensive cultivation of hay, grains and vegetables. Rural electrification and power for pumping irrigation water would no doubt aid in stimulating these a c t i v i t i e s . IV. FUTURE PROSPECTS OF THE PLATEAU REGIONS (1) The Cariboo plateau areas are not particularly well suited for agriculture. As was explained in an earlier chapter, the population of this area grew very slowly, taking second place in importance to the agricultural areas assoc-iated with the Fraser. After World War II, a great expansion of population associated with forestry, construction and transportation took place. Settlements like Clinton and 100 Mile House have doubled their population in the last decade. In this last decade cattle raising has at best maintained i t s e l f and i t is unlikely that i t w i l l expand. Increased yields of cultivated hay or a l f a l f a for winter feed are un-li k e l y because of the limited area of useful land, (that i s , where expensive clearing is not needed,) the elevation and adverse climatic conditions. 251 (2) The Chilcotin River Valley and the Chilcotin plateau have better prospects as far as agricultural act-i v i t y is concerned. The expansion of cattle-raising is a distinct possibility as is the advent of intensive c u l t i -vation of hardy grains, hay and vegetables. Irrigation in the Chilcotin Valley could provide moisture for the c u l t i -vation of crops in areas now used exclusively for extensive grazing. The area is very isolated. Only the fact that the cattle can be driven to market in Williams Lake or Quesnel, has allowed even as much development in the area as has taken place. Consolidation of ranches into larger operations has taken place in recent years. When the province needs new sources of food or new frontiers for agriculture, the Chilcotin cannot be discounted. Although the area is marginal in so many ways, a demand for food, rural electrification, power for pumping irrigation water where needed and accessible roads, cannot but aid in encouraging this development. CHAPTER XIII FACTORS INFLUENCING THE EXPANSION OF AGRICULTURE IN THE MIDDLE FRASER BASIN The chapters dealing with agriculture in Br i t i s h Columbia and with the various sub-regions of the Middle Fraser Basin indicate two things: (1) that British Columbia is a deficit region as far as many foodstuffs are concerned, and (2) that the Middle Fraser Region and Thompson Valley aided by the construction of Moran Dam and related irrigation works could produce much more foodstuffs than at present, particularly in terms of vegetables and livestock. I COMPETITIVE AGRICULTURAL AREAS The markets for food products in southwestern B r i t i s h Columbia are large and according to various sources 1^ 4 w i l l increase during the next 15 years. J This optimistic picture of expanded intensive agriculture in these regions supplying the growing metropolitan areas of southwest British Columbia assumes that the products of the s o i l can be pro-duced, transported and marketed at a price competitive with footstuffs produced elsewhere. This problem is not new, nor one yet to be experienced in the future. It is a serious problem in British Columbia at present, as recognized in the 154 The Commission on Canada's Economic Prospects suggests the Vancouver metropolitan area may have 1.5 million by 1975. 253 submission of B r i t i s h Columbia to the Gordon Commission on Canada's Economy Prospects. Agricultural development in B r i t i s h Columbia to be successful, and healthy, must of course be able to compete with similar production from our neighbouring provinces and the Northern United States. There is no incentive for our farmers to go ahead and develop new land unless reasonable assurance is present that by good and efficient farming practice, i t w i l l be possible to s e l l the farm produce at an adequate profit. Competition in this regard is keen because of large and small scale reclamation developments in Alberta and in northern United States, many of which have been brought into being by federal financial gation agriculture, two of which have in recent years had increasing effect on the existing economy of agriculture in B r i t i s h Columbia, and one projected scheme, may seriously compete with products grown in the Middle Fraser Region and in Washington state, the St. Mary's River project in southern Alberta, both now in operation, and the South Saskatchewan project, now planned. The Columbia River area covers some 2.5 million acres, half of which is suitable for irrigation. The St. Mary's 155 B r i t i s h Columbia Government News, November, 1956 156 One area in B r i t i s h Columbia which w i l l offer considerable competition to the new irrigation areas of the Thompson and Fraser is the Okanagan Valley, where as market-ing of tree fruits has become more d i f f i c u l t farmers have been switching to vegetable production and livestock as cash crops. assistance Competitive Irrigation Areas Three areas of i r r i -Thompson Valleys. 156 These are the Columbia Basin project 2^4 project in southern Alberta in 1954 covered approximately 241,000 acres of a potential 500,000 acres. The construct-ion of the South Saskatchewan project once looked remote, but in 1958, this project covering eventually 500,000 acres 157 has been approved by Parliament. As each of these areas is a longer distance from the large markets of southwestern B r i t i s h Columbia than the 200 miles of the Middle Fraser and Thompson Valleys, one would expect that producers in those areas could compete successfully with these more distant producers. This un-fortunately is not necessarily the case. A statement from the submission to the Gordon Commission on Canada's Economic prospects expresses adequately the competitive dis-advnatage in which Bri t i s h Columbia is presently:.and'is li k e -ly to remain for some time. Cheap electric power is available for irrigation pumping from the Federally financed and constructed Grand Coolee power plant. Roosevelt Lake created by Grand Coolee dam provides a source of water for the land. Reclamation of the land, construction of i r r i -gation canals and f a c i l i t i e s have also been carried out by the United States Government and the land sold to settlers on such terms as to make i t possible for the farmer to become established without the heavy burden of annual costs which has been the death knell of many of our farming enterprises in Bri t i s h Columbia. The land is sold on a long term basis with low i n i t i a l rates. Irrigation charges are deferred for a ten year period which allows the farmer to equip his farm and become firmly established. Thereafter, repayment of the construction costs of irrigation f a c i l i t i e s are made over a long period, free of interest. Saturday Night, March 2, 1957, p. 17 255 This is a large development, close to the urban centers of Br i t i s h Columbia and a strong competitor for the sale of agricultural produce within our province. 158 The St. Mary's project in southern Alberta was undertaken jointly by the Federal government and the govern-ment of Alberta and there, as in the Columbia scheme, the land was sold to the settlers on long term financial arrange-ments with relatively low annual charges. In addition many farms were established before this project was instituted, and thus the fixed annual charges for the land were not added to the costs of production. Many crops produced in the St. Mary's development, particularly vegetables and potatoes, were in 1957 competing strongly with crops grown within Br i t i s h Columbia, partly because of the advantageous financing which is enjoyed by the Albertans. II. PROBLEMS OF EXPANDING PRODUCTION The problem facing the expansion of agriculture within the Middle Fraser Region and Thompson Valley appears to be primarily one of competing with other areas, both within the province and without. The Government of the United States has aided farmers to solve the financial problems involved in reclaiming agricultural land and have taken the necessary steps to assure the best likelihood of 158 G.L.Landon, Submission to the Gordon Commission on Canada's Economic Prospects, quoted by W.J.Anderson, 10th Transactions B r i t i s h Columbia Natural Resources Con- ference . V i c t o r i a : 1 9 5 7 . PP 258-259. 256 success for such farming enterprises. The federal and provincial governments have taken no part in such schemes as far as Bri t i s h Columbia is concerned. For some years in the post-war period, an office of the Prairie Farm Rehabilitation Act engineers was maintained at Kamloops, but i t has closed. Fixed annual costs are an important cost factor in the economy of any farm, and the lower they remain, the cheaper the produce may be marketed and s t i l l maintain a reasonable profit. A second general problem that w i l l put the Middle Fraser Region at a disadvantage over these other areas is in the nature of the area i t s e l f . Where the Alberta and Saskatchewan schemes are located around a nodal supply and marketing center, allowing short distances to market, the Br i t i s h Columbia scheme is lineal in orientation and in addition the largest areas do not exceed 5»000 acres. Most areas occupy 300 to 1000 acres and are separated from the neighbouring plots by h i l l s , gullies and streams. This orientation means that transportation of produce to the marketing center w i l l be more costly than on the prairies where large acreages in particular crops are grown within a short distance of the marketing center. The scale of pro-duction of any crop on the prairie is such that i t often can be produced at a lower cost per. unit than in B.C. and pro-cessed in large factories at similar savings. Bri t i s h 257 Columbia farmers would have to be willing to accept the direction of the processors in terms of what crops to pro-duce and in what quantities to compete. Brit i s h Columbia has a problem of securing farmers to work the land - farmers who have the ingenuity and train-ing to operate irrigated farms to their greatest advantage. The Middle Fraser Region, as suggested in earlier chapters,, is now occupied by part-time farms, large ranches often operated by absentee oisrners, and farms inefficiently operated by "old timers" whose methods have not changed with the times. This is in contrast with the southern Alberta region where farmers abounded and with Saskatchewan, where farmers, desiring to produce other crops than wheat and grains, are patiently awaiting the water to go into operation on an efficient grand scale. III. MORAN DAM AND LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION Livestock production in B r i t i s h Columbia w i l l l i k e l y increase markedly i f the Moran proposal is adopted and supplementary irrigation works are constructed. Larger crops of a l f a l f a and cultivated hay w i l l be available either to feed cattle grazed in the summer on the plateau parkland or maintained in feed lots on the river terraces. The problem that Bri t i s h Columbia ranchers faced in 1957 and w i l l l i k e l y continue to face arises from the price 258 discrimination between grass-fed and grain-fed steers and heifers. Packers pay premium prices for cattle that are grain-fed or at least grain finished; Southern Alberta and Saskatchewan are well located for raising cattle on grain or by importing grass-fed calves or yearlings and finishing them for market on surplus grains. It was the practise in 1 9 5 7 for some Brit i s h Columbia producers to ship their cattle to Alberta for finishing. There is l i t t l e prospect for the expansion of grain production in the Middle Fraser Region, and i t is expensive at present to import grains into the region for finishing cattle. Unlike Alberta farmers who s e l l one to another Br i t i s h Columbia ranchers have to buy through the Canada Wheat Board. Some ranchers have trucked grain into the region from the Peace River d i s t r i c t where grain can be pur> chased at lower cost without going through the Canada Wheat Board. With the completion of the Pacific Great Eastern Railway to the Peace River in 1 9 5 8 , i t was believed by many that grain would be imported into the region to finish the cattle raised on natural grass and forage. This w i l l be possible on ranches along the railway. However in the f a l l of 1 9 5 7 » i t seemed li k e l y that most cattle would be shipped from the Middle Fraser Region to the Peace River area for finishing, and then returned to the markets on the coast. Cattle from the Thompson region and the Nicola plateau seem 259 destined to continue to go to southern Alberta for finishing, 159 maintaining the present pattern, unless changes take place in the activities of the Canada Wheat Board. Even with the increased production of cattle in B r i t i s h Columbia made possible with the construction of the Moran Dam, i t w i l l be necessary to compete with the cattle producers of southern Alberta, and li k e l y in addition to 159 "There is a general trend in cattle production in the interior to convert to a cow and calf operation, and the trend is manifested to a greater degree in the Cariboo plateau region. The markets of to-day in demanding "red" and "blues" brand beef place the Cariboo cattle especially in a very unfavorable position price-wise, unless they have been on a short feed period or on very good grass. The latter is rapidly being depleted to the point that in order to market 2-year-old steer at the highest prices i t has be-come necessary to spend $25 to $35 in supplementary feeds... The f a l l sales have clearly pointed out that since a 400 pound weaner calf sells for the same price or better than the 2-year-old steer, there is an economic loss sustained in keeping the latter over two years just to gain weight. To establish this cow-calf operation, needed is (1) finishing area not too distant from the calf producing ranges (2) a direct short haul back to Vancouver, (3) the finishing area should be well supplied with fattening feeds, grains, summer grass and hay. Unless subsidies from the Federal Freight Assistance Policy should be made to apply to the Peace River feed grains for consumption in the Cariboo, i t would seem, in the light of some cost accounting done by M.J. Walsh, District Agri-culturist, Williams Lake and the writer, that young cattle can be advantageously shipped and finished in the Peace River Area." G.A.Luyat, Supervising Agriculturist, Annual Report, B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Agriculture, Victoria, 1956, p. DD 84. 260 those of the South Saskatchewan region. This w i l l be so even with a disappearance of huge grain stocks, for the de-mand for grain-fed cattle is established in the c i t i e s . B r i t i s h Columbia ranchers seem to be penalized or put at a competitive disadvantage because the province is not a grain producing area. In 1957} i t was apparent that hogs u t i l i z i n g im-ported grains and corn grown in the area could be produced in the Middle Fraser Region cheaper than they could be imported into the province. Turkeys were thriving under a similar condition where local oats and imported feed grains were mixed. However the success of the 1957 crop can also be attributed to the raising of the t a r i f f on birds coming from the United States. It is indicated that Br i t i s h Columbia farmers are now at some disadvantage in their attempt to compete success-f u l l y against products grown in other areas. It is obvious that construction of such large irrigation works, as the Moran Dam would make possible, must have some guarantee that the produce can be sold at a price high enough to make the whole scheme a financial success. Failure of individual farms could do much to undermine the financing of irrigation works,• processing plants and marketing agencies. It is apparent that for B r i t i s h Columbia growers to compete successfully, even within our province, with produce from such projects as those mentioned above, some sort of assistance must be provided, 261 particularly with regard to the development of new land and the rehabilitation of existing re-clamation systems. Federal and provincial assist-ance in the planning, and financing of such develop-ments in Brit i s h Columbia would seem desirable. Much could be' accomplished to place present and future agricultural enterprises within the province on a solid footing by the use of long term financing with low interest rates.!60 Pessimism is held by many authorities on the future of the region without the institution of a new factor, viz. the construction of Moran Dam. This is indicated in two statements concerning the present: As areas of open grassland and abundant upland meadow have been settled to their practical limits since World War I, the basis for establishing new commer-c i a l ranch units no longer exists and no expansion can be expected in the future. On the other hand, expansion of cattle numbers is within the practical limits of realization by in-creasing the total available forage and by fattening young stock on feed lots. The problem of increasing forage is related directly to more efficient use of water resources.161 and Because of the geographical features of this area the land does not lend i t s e l f economically to the development of its lands by pump irrigation from the Fraser River.162 The new factor, Moran Dam, would make possible many changes. If the additional acreage in each subdivision available for intensive cultivation were totalled, some 65,000 acres would be added. 160 G.L.London, B.C.Submission to the Gordon Comm-ission, op. c i t . p.260 161 Weir, op. c i t . , p. 109 162 P.F.R.A. Summary, Dominion-Provincial Board Fraser River Basin op^ . c i t . , p. 100 d r a ' 262 South of Moran are 5,000 potential acres, five times the present cultivated acreage in that area. Some 18,000 acres, six times the present irrigated acreage, are in the Williams Lake River-Moran area; and some 20,000 acres are in the northern sub-region. In addition, 20,000 acres in the Thompson Valley would be available i f cheap power were produced to pump water. Bringing some 65,000 acres under cultivation would be costly. Assuming $200 per acre as an average cost of irrigation equipment, as suggested in Chapter V, the cost would reach about $13,000,000. IV. FISH AND AGRICULTURAL RESOURCES COMPARED Proponents of the Moran Dam have suggested that the agricultural potential of the Fraser River Basin, i f expanded with the aid of irrigation water would be more than comparable in food and monetary value with the salmon that pass the Moran site enroute to spawn. This comparison is rather hypothetical for there are so many variables i n -volved. For example, the possibility of a l l the land avail-able being irrigated and being devoted to "feed l o t " type cattle is highly unlikely. The salmon pack that is attributed to runs that pass Moran Dam are valued at about $5 to $6 m i l l i o n 1 ^ 163 "Effect of Moran on B.C. Salmon Pack," exhibit Public U t i l i t i e s Commission Hearing, Vancouver 1957. 263 164 annually and weigh an estimated 6-10 million pounds. In the Middle Fraser Region, about 45,000 acres w i l l be available for intensive cultivation for forage crops along with an additional 20,000 acres in the Thompson Valley. Five hundred pounds of beef per acre, a figure now surpassed by the Kamloops Experimental Farm, could be estimated as the potential of each of the 65,000 acres of land. Thus 32,500,000 pounds of beef could be produced in addition to the current 40,000,000 pounds. The 32,500,000 pounds multiplied by the farmers* selling price of between $15 and $20 per hundredweight, would give a value of $ 5 -165 $6,000,000. The total present and projected beef produce would weigh 72,500,000 pounds and be valued at $11,000,000 to $14j000,000 to the ranchers. Thus the ratio between the increase in beef production and the present f i s h resource would be 32,500,000 (lbs) to 6,000,000 to 10,000,000 (lbs). In comparing the food values of the two protein foods, fi s h and beef, the beef production would be considerably more. The method of comparing these was to consult the Table of Food Values Recommended For Use in Canada, where one pound of the edible portion of salmon is liste d as giving 1,012 166 calories. While one pound of the edible portion of beef 164 The number of fis h involved in the Moran Proposal is derived from the 'spawning count' of the International Pacific Salmon Commission and the estimation that about 50$ of the escapement is caught. 165 The price of beef is on the basis of the Calgary Livestock Market, in the summer of 1958 . Since the value of 264 167 as producing 1,241 calories. The value of the post-Moran beef production would be 40,332,500,000 calories com-pared to 10,120,000,000 calories for the salmon. If the present production of cattle were maintained the beef food value could reach 89,932,500,000 calories. Similarily i f the salmon runs were to return to their pre-1913 figures their food value would be much higher, but the value of increase is d i f f i c u l t to determine. Perhaps the apt conclusion to this discussion is a recognition of what a large food potential there is in the Middle Fraser Region i f the Moran Dam is built and i f the fi s h runs are maintained I the f i s h is the wholesale" pack price, its comparison with beef is d i f f i c u l t . Perhaps the beef price should be more correctly the value of beef leaving the processing plant after dressing or the f i s h price should be on the basis of that paid to the fisherman; whichever modification was made the comparative position of the beef would be indicated. 166 Table of Food Values Recommended for Canada, Nutrition Division Department of Health and Welfare, Ottawa 1951, p. 218. 167 Ibid, p.22 CHAPTER XIV SUMMARY The Moran Dam is multi-purpose and benefits could be derived by a large segment of the economy of Bri t i s h Columbia. A possible loss to the fishing industry remains the only adverse effect of the proposed dam. Some favorable aspects of the proposal are: Moran Dam would allow the storage of more water than is necessary to control flooding in the Lower Fraser Valley and delta. A steady year round volume of water entering the navigable areas of the Lower Fraser would permit con-struction and easy maintenance of deep-sea shipping f a c i l i t i e s twice as far inland as is possible at the present time. A large, long lake-reservoir would afford excellent sites for resorts in an area climatically suited for summer outdoor a c t i v i t i e s . As a source of low cost electrical power, the Moran Dam is reported to be one of the most promising sites in the world. In its relation to the potential tidewater industrial areas in southwestern B r i t i s h Columbia, the Moran Dam generators could produce lower cost power than any other site in the province. (Map 44). The economic bene-f i t s would be of considerable significance in expanding the economy basis of the province now dominated by the lumber industry. 266 FROM PEACE RIVER MO^AN HITEN/DAMS H us-*0 HJ FROM CHILGO-f 0 VANCOUVER M A P 4 4 SOUTHERN BRITISH COLUMBIA SHOWIN G MAJOR P O W E R SITES AND DISTANCES FROM VANCOUVER •LEGEND POW E R SITE 22-O/vm.es TRANSMISSION DISTANCE 37 MILES TO I INCH 10 5 o io ZO • 1 MILES W. G. HARDWICK 267 I. T.HE EFFECT ON AGRICULTURE OF THE MORAN DAM PROPOSAL The effect of the Moran Dam proposal on agricultural production w i l l be fourfold. (1) construction of the dam w i l l cause flooding of valley areas behind the dam to an elevation of 154-0 feet; (2) the dam w i l l provide low cost electric power for the pumping of irrigation water and rural electrification; (3) the location of electrically-oriented industries subsequent to the construction of the dam w i l l increase markets for agricultural production; and (4) transportation to and within the region should improve. Flooding and Agriculture Between Moran and Narcosli Creek near Quesnel flooding w i l l occur. The depth of the water w i l l vary from about 800 feet at Moran to 400 feet at the confluence of the Chilcotin River and 200 feet at Soda Creek. Because.:the river is so deeply incised through so much of its length, flooding of arable land w i l l not be great. Present inten-sively cultivated land w i l l be flooded in three areas: at Big Bar and Watson Bar Creeks a few miles north of the dam, near Soda Creek and near Alexandria. The total acreage is small, li k e l y not exceeding 600 acres. Some land used for grazing w i l l be flooded, particularly prize winter rangeland on the east bank between Big Bar and Canoe Creeks. Near 268 Churn Creek Bridge and the Chilcotin River other valuable tracts w i l l be flooded. More marginal land in the northern sub-region w i l l be flooded. Since i t is mostly tree covered its loss as grazing land w i l l not be serious. It must be suggested that some of this land could be developed i f clearing were. to.be undertaken. The significant grazing land that w i l l be lost totals about 3000 acres, in the Moran to Quesnel areas. Irrigated land that may be flooded likely does not exceed 250 acres. Low Cost Power and Agriculture The advent of low cost electricity for use to pump irrigation water could be of great significance in the ex-pansion of agriculture in the Middle Fraser Basin. Most potentially arable land between Moran and Williams Lake River lies on high benches 300 to 800 feet above the present river level, much too high for pumping. The raising of the river to the 154-0 foot level w i l l allow many of these ben-ches to be irrigated. About 18,000 acres in the Moran-Williams Lake area and 20,000 acres between Williams Lake and Quesnel could be irrigated. Some large areas by Br i t i s h Columbia standards that w i l l become available are Deadman Creek-China Gulch area south of Canoe Creek, Churn Creek Bridge area and the benches along the river side of Gang Ranch. Each of these areas would be over 3000 acres in 269 extent and thus be comparable in size to the Summerland area of the Okanagan Valley. The Thompson Valley, unaffected by flooding, would benefit from low cost power for pumping irrigation water. Twenty thousand acres in the Thompson Valley could be brought under intensive cultivation. Over 3,000 acres immediately below the dam could be irrigated by a gravity fed system. The importance of these areas to Br i t i s h Columbia could be more easily recognized i f the potential value of production of crops produced by cultivation could be com-pared with those produced by the present extensive use of the land. Some of the benches in the Middle Fraser Region do not necessarily need to await Moran and can be developed through diversion of tributary streams. Increased Markets and Agriculture As Br i t i s h Columbia is a deficit area at present for most agricultural commodities, an increase in population in the Vancouver metropolitan area w i l l increase this deficit. The Moran proposal could stimulate the development of some 65,000 acres to meet this demand. Three types of agricultural products w i l l be produced. These are vegetables and small f r u i t s , livestock and forage crops. 270 Expansion of agriculture in Williams Lake River Quesnel sub-region w i l l be related to an expansion of markets in the Prince George and Quesnel d i s t r i c t s . Vegetables and Small Fruits The Lytton-Moran sub-region and Thompson Valley with their hot dry climate and proximity (less than 200 miles distant) to the Vancouver metropolitan area could produce large quantities of f i e l d vegetables, small fruits and potatoes on intensively cul-tivated irrigated farms. Livestock Beef cattle production which cannot now be increased without new feed sources could be expanded with the introduction of "feed l o t " type ranches. A l f a l f a and natural hay supplemented by locally grown or imported grains can produce 600 to 800 pounds of beef per acre. Expansion of this type of operation seems probable in the Thompson Valley and on locations near the railway in the Middle Fraser Region. Ranchers in many inaccessible areas w i l l produce more beef per acre but w i l l likely s e l l their cattle as feeder calves or yearlings for finishing in those areas where grains are available at reasonable costs. Turkeys and other poultry can be grown successfully in the southern sub-regions. Forage Crops The anticipated encroachment on agri-cultural land of the Lower Fraser valley by urban residences 271 w i l l increase the dependence of dairy farms on imported hay for supplementary feed. Surplus forage crops are possible, particularly in the Moran Williams Lake sub-region where distances from r a i l lines and more severe climate preclude the 'finishing' of the beef cattle or large scale production of vegetables. Improved Transportation and Agriculture The completion of the Pacific Great Eastern Railway to Worth Vancouver has already stimulated the production of some vegetable crops in the Lillooet area; and the improve-ment of highways to the Lytton-Moran and Thompson Valleys promises to improve their position in relation to the urban • coastal markets. However the Moran-Williams lake sub-region w i l l have to await the construction of the Moran Dam to stimulate the growth of adequate transportation routes. The Competitive Position The expansion of agricultural production to meet the growing demand from urban areas w i l l be contingent on costs of development being such that the Region can compete with other areas of irrigation agriculture. The development cannot be random i f i t is to be successful. Some degree of planning w i l l have to be undertaken. Further, large quan-t i t i e s of developmental capital w i l l be needed for capital 272 expenditures on irrigation works, livestock and buildings, and these funds w i l l not li k e l y come from private sources. Agriculture in Bri t i s h Columbia is perhaps at its lowest ebb in several decades, and expansion seems contin-gent on the intervention of a new factor. The expansion of production is needed to meet the growing deficit B r i t i s h Columbia has in agricultural production. However, this w i l l require in the arid areas of the province with their low population, the advent of large scale pumping irrigation works. These w i l l be dependent to a large degree on the construction of the Moran Dam. 273 4\ Q U A M I S H r PoKHTIf}^ Ji'At.T CP D^BP S J T A tyORAN -/ 4 0 ^ ABB0TS*E0RD " — ^ S u ^ s \ " | SQUAWSH Ml LES MORAN-LOWER MAINLAND I f l f l f j P R E S E N T T IDEWATER INDUSTRIAL A R E A S ££3 POTENTIAL A REAS* E XCLUDlNG MAJOR AGR ICULTURE L A N D Hil l V A N C O U V E R M E T R O P O L I T A N D ISTR ICT R O A D S RAILWAY . . . . . . POTENT IAL TRANSM I SS ION L INE S C A L E •  10 M I L E S T O I I N C H MAP 4-5 W.G. HARDWICK 274 The Lytton-Moran Sub-Region near L a l u w i s s i n Creek "In t h i s v a l l e y averaging one to f i v e miles i n width terraces and fans form a continuous s e r i e s of benches on both banks ... two to s i x hundred feet above the present r i v e r l e v e l . I t i s upon these benches that i n t e n s i v e a g r i c u l t u r e takes p l a c e . " I r r i g a t e d Benches, East L i l l o o e t " E l e c t r i c a l l y operated pumps (center l e f t ) supply i r r i g a t i o n water to 160 acres on l e v e l benches 100, 200 and 250 feet above the Fraser ... on the R i v e r l a n d I r r i g a t e d Farms." 275 Fraser R i v e r Near the Moran Dams i t e The canyon j u s t north of where t h i s p i c t u r e was taken would hold the dam 2400 f e e t long and n e a r l y 800 f e e t high. The absence of benches w i t h i n the v a l l e y i n -d i c a t e s why only small arable acreage w i l l be l o s t through f l o o d i n g . B i g Bar Creek V a l l e y I r r i g a t e d Pasture These i r r i g a t e d areas l i e above the range of f l o o d i n g . Note small b u i l d i n g s and fence i n centre. The near f i e l d i s i r r i g a t e d from an e a r t h d i t c h running along the edges and drained o f f to a lower f i e l d down the centre. 276 Canoe Creek Ranch Headquarters In e a r l y September the second crop of a l f a l f a i s being harvested. An Indian v i l l a g e from which labor i s secured i s l o c a t e d at the f a r edge of the f i e l d s . Note the abrupt r i s e to the surface of the p l a t e a u , c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the ranges along the Fraser i n the Moran-Williams Lake sub-region. Gang Ranch Depression A l a r g e s a u c e r - l i k e area between Churn and Gaspard Creeks i s the headquarters f o r the widespread holdings of the Gang Ranch. I t i s over twenty miles back to the plateau. Large i r r i g a t e d f i e l d s growing winter feed f o r up to 11 ,000 head are found here. This view i s from the east rim above the Fra s e r , l o o k i n g vest across the r i v e r . Camera e l e v a t i o n i s about 3000 f e e t . 277 Benches Near Churn Creek Sage and grass covered benches used f o r winter grazing l a n d . The centre benches would be flooded by the Moran r e s e r v o i r but the higher benches would be a v a i l -able f o r c u l t i v a t i o n . Near A u s t r a l i a n Williams Lake-Quesnel Sub-region Much l e s s r e l i e f i s evident i n t h i s sub-region. Farms are u s u a l l y found on high ground above the r i v e r as shown i n the l o c a t i o n of the farm i n the foreground and a second one s e v e r a l miles away on the west bank. Farms are located i n a l i n e a r f a s h ion along the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n route. 278 The Thompson V a l l e y 20,000 acres of arable land could be i n t e n s i v e l y c u l t i v a t e d i n t h i s region i f low cost e l e c t r i c power was a v a i l a b l e f o r pumping i r r i g a t i o n water. This view i s l o o k i n g east from near the Perry Ranch. Sage brush covers much of the Thompson V a l l e y . Meadow Lake About h a l f way between the Cariboo Highway and the Fraser on the Pl a t e a u . Parkland i n background stretches back to the Marble Mountains. Rocky s o i l and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c grasses are i n the foreground while hay from around the lake i s baled and p i l e d i n f r o n t of bared b l u f f , l e f t of centre. 279 BIBLIOGRAPHY A. BOOKS Boam, H.J., Br i t i s h Columbia. London: The Gresham Press, Union Bros. Ltd., 1912. 485 pp. Houk, E., Irrigation Engineering. 2 Vols. New York: John Wiley and Sons Inc., 1956. Vol. II., 531 pp. B. PERIODICALS Armstrong, J.E., and Teffer, H.W., "Glaciation in North Central Br i t i s h Columbia," American Journal of  Science, CCXLVI (June, 1948), pp. 283-310. Brink, V.C., and Farstad, L., "The Physiography of the Agricultural Areas of Bri t i s h Columbia," Scientific Agriculture. XXIX (June, 1949), pp. 273-2oT Davis, N.F.G., and Matthews, W.H., "Four Phases of Glacia-tion with illustrations from Southwestern British Columbia," Journal of Geology. LII: 6 (November, 1944), pp. 403-441. "Caracas Water Supply Lifted 3,125 feet over Divide," Engineering, XXVI: 12 (September 1957), p. 49. Kerr, Donald,."The Physical Basis for Agriculture in Br i t i s h Columbia," Economic Geography. XXVIII (July, 1952), pp. 229-239. Laing, F.A., "History of Agriculture in British Columbia," Brit i s h Columbia Historical Quarterly. VI (1942) pp. 257-268. Ormsby, Margaret, "History of Agriculture in B r i t i s h Columbia," Scientific Agriculture, XX (September, 1939), pp. 61-72. Potter, Russel, "Moran Dam, Fish and Power", B.C.Pro- fessional Engineer, (March 1957), pp. 14-17. 280 Spilsbury, R.H., and Tisdale, E.W., "Soil-plant Relation-ships and vertical zonation in the Southern Interior of British Columbia," Scientific Agriculture, XXIV (May, 194-4), pp. 395-43^ "Russian 400 kv. Transmission Line Viewed," Electrical World, (September 30, 1957), p. 62. Thornthwaite, C.W., "An approach Towards a Rational Classification of Climate," Geographical Review. XXXVIII, (January 1948), Tisdale, E.W., "Grassland of the Southern Interior of British Columbia," Ecology, XXVII, (1947) pp. 346-382. Warren, Harry V., "Hydro-electric Potentialities of the Upper Fraser," Western Miner, (March, 1956) pp. 3.2.36. Weir, T.R., "Ranch Types and Range Uses within the Interior Plateau of B r i t i s h Columbia," Canadian Geographer, II (1952), pp. 73-79. C. PUBLICATIONS OF THE UNIVERSITY AND BOARDS, COMMISSIONS AND SOCIETIES, ASSOCIATED WITH THE GOVERNMENT Brink, V.C., "Climate of Bri t i s h Columbia for Agrologists," University of B r i t i s h Columbia, mimeographed, (1953) "Flood Runoff-Frequency and Magnitude," Interim Report, Investigations Into Measures for Flood Control in  the Fraser River Basin, Appendix D, Victoria, B.C. Fraser River Board, ("June, 1956), 34 pp. Fourth Annual Progress Report, 1952. Victoria, B.C.: Dominion-Provincial Board, Fraser River Basin, (July, 1953), PP. 99. "Geography" Interim Report, Investigations into Measures  for Flood Control in the Fraser River Basin,. Appendix A. Victoria, B.C.: Fraser River Board, 1956, 58 pp. "Geology," British Columbia Atlas of Resources. Edited by J.D.Chapman and D.B. Turner, Victoria, B.C.: British Columbia Natural Resources Conferences 1956 pp. 7-8. 281 "Glacial Geology," Bri t i s h Columbia Atlas of Resources, Edited by J.D. Chapman and D.B. Turner, Victoria, B.C.: B.C.Natural Resources Conference, 1956. pp. 9-10. Interim Report, Investigations into Measures for Flood Control in the Fraser River Basin, Victoria, B.C.: Fraser River Board, 1956, 71 pp. "Irrigation," B r i t i s h Columbia Atlas of Resources. Edited by J.D.Chapman and D.B. Turner, Victoria, B.C.:-B.C.Natural Resources Conference, 1956, pp 45-4-6. "Irrigation by Elect r i c a l Pumps," Pacific Northwest Public Power Bulletin, XXI, 1311 Columbia Street, Vancouver, Washington, November 12, 1952. "Means of Flood Control," Interim Report, Investigations irita Measures for Flood Control in the Fraser River  Basin, Appendix E, Victoria, B.C.: Fraser River Board, 1956, 136 pp. Report on the Fish~ F a c i l i t i e s and Fisheries, Problems Re- lated to Fraser and Thompson Damsite Investigations, Vancouver, B.C.: International Pacific Salmon Commission and Department of Fisheries, Canada, November, 1955? 96 plus xxv pp. Pretious, Edward S., et a l . Fish Protection and Power Development of the Fraser River, Vancouver, B.C.: University of Brit i s h Columbia, 1957. "Soils", British Columbia Atlas of Resources. Edited by J.D. Chapman and D.B. Turner, Victoria, B.C.: B.C. Natural Resources Conference, 1956. pp. 11-12. Third Annual Progress Report 1951 < V i c t o r i a , B.C.: Dominion-Provincial Board, Fraser River Basin, 1952. 141 pp. TRANSACTIONS, BRITISH COLUMBIA NATURAL RESOURCES CONFERENCES VICTORIA, B.C.: BRITISH COLUMBIA NATURAL RESOURCES CONFERENCE. A l l i n , J.S., "Inventory of Agriculture in Brit i s h Columbia," Ninth Transactions, (1956), pp. 244-254. Anderson, W.J., "An Evaluation of the Future of Agriculture in British Columbia," Ninth Transactions (1956), pp. 255-264. 282 Borthwick, D., "Settlement in Br i t i s h Columbia," Eighth  Transactions, (1955)5 pp. 97-108. Chapman, J.D. "The Climate of B r i t i s h Columbia," F i f t h  Transactions, (1952), pp. 8-56 Garry G., "Trends in Irrigation in Semi-Arid B r i t i s h Columbia," F i f t h Transactions (1953), p. 4-7. Glover, M.H.A., "Introduction to the Economy of British Columbia," Tenth Transactions (1957), pp. 39-49. 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