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The unemployment Assistance Act (1956) : its implications for social security and public welfare administration… Fowler, Douglas Weatherbee 1958

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THE UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE ACT ( 1956 )  I t s I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r S o c i a l S e c u r i t y and P u b l i c Welfare A d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n Canada*  by  DOUGLAS WEATHERBEE FOWLER  Thesis Submitted i n P a r t i a l F u l f i l m e n t of the Requirements f o r the Degree of MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK i n the School o f S o c i a l Work.  Accepted as conforming t o the standard required f o r the degree of Master of S o c i a l Work  School of S o c i a l Work 1958  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia  iv  ABSTRACT  The passage of the Unemployment Assistance Act i n J u l y , 1956 represented a s i g n i f i c a n t break w i t h the t r a d i t i o n a l approach to p u b l i c assistance i n Canada f o r i t brought Dominion government p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t o a f i e l d always regarded as the e x c l u s i v e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the provinces. T h i s study has been undertaken to consider i t s i m p l i c a t i o n s ' f o r S o c i a l S e c u r i t y i n Canada, i n c l u d i n g the e f f e c t s of the A c t on e x i s t i n g p r o v i n c i a l programs. The method of study has been both h i s t o r i c a l and a n a l y t i c a l . In order to i d e n t i f y the p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l f a c t o r s which lead to t h i s r a d i c a l change i n a t t i t u d e on the part of the Dominion, Parliamentary debates have been reviewed and the proceedings of Dominion-Provincial conferences s t u d i e d . In a d d i t i o n , such r e p o r t s as t h a t of the Royal Commission on Dominion-Provincial R e l a t i o n s , the N a t i o n a l Employment Commission and the various p u b l i c a t i o n s of the Canadian Welfare Council were u s e f u l sources of information. A study of the l e g i s l a t i o n i t s e l f was e s s e n t i a l to analyze i t s e f f e c t s on p r o v i n c i a l programs and t h i s was done i n conjunction with a review of p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n p e r t i n e n t to the subject. A d e f i n i t i v e evaluation of the l e g i s l a t i o n i s l i m i t e d by the f a c t that i t i s of such recent o r i g i n that there has been l i t t l e time to study i t s t o t a l e f f e c t . Furthermore, an amendment to the Act which took e f f e c t on January 1, 1958 broadened the terms of the l e g i s l a t i o n to extend the degree of p a r t i c i p a t i o n by the Dominion. S i g n i f i c a n t points which do emerge however, are? (a) Those provinces which have developed high standards i n t h e i r p u b l i c assistance programs are the p r i n c i p a l b e n e f i c i a r i e s under the l e g i s l a t i o n , (b) Those provinces which have r e l i e d h e a v i l y on Mothers' Allowances to meet the needs of a large segment of dependent persons are at a serious f i n a n c i a l disadvantage, (c) The a p p l i c a t i o n of the Act i s uneven among the provinces because of the wide v a r i a t i o n s i n services o f f e r e d . An important element i n the l e g i s l a t i o n i s the a b o l i t i o n of residence r e g u l a t i o n s between the p a r t i c i p a t i n g provinces, a step which may b r i n g an end t o one of the most vexing problems i n p u b l i c welfare a d m i n i s t r a t i o n .  In presenting  t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of  the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree a t t h e  University  of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t freely  a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and  agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may of my  study.  I further  copying of  this  be g r a n t e d by the Head  Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e .  I t i s under-  stood t h a t c o p y i n g or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r financial  g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my  permission.  Department of The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver 8 , Canada.  written  ii  TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter I * The Background of Unemployment A s s i s t a n c e . 1921-19A5. Pag The new act and i t s passage. Economic and s o c i a l change. F i r s t unemployment c r i s i s (1921). The depression. Government a c t i o n t o meet unemployment* Dominion-Provincial conferences. Royal Commission on Dominion-Provincial r e l a t i o n s , Po st-war planning 1 Chapter I I , A New Dominion P o l i c y on Unemployment A s s i s t a n c e 194? -  19ft.  Post-war unemployment. New Dominion p o l i c y on unemployment a s s i s t a n c e . The Unemployment Assistance A c t * P r o v i n c i a l r e a c t i o n t o l e g i s l a t i o n . Commons debate on removal of "threshold c l a u s e " . Passage of the amendment*. Chapter I I I ,  26  The A p p l i c a t i o n and A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the A c t  The p r o v i s i o n s of the A c t * - i n c l u s i o n s and e x c l u s i o n s . P r o v i n c i a l programs of unemployment a s s i s t a n c e , The question of Mothers' Allowance. Payments to the provinces. Standards of assistance i n Canada, . . A3 Chapter IV* The Unemployment Assistance A c t ; P r o v i s i o n a l Assessment Major features of the l e g i s l a t i o n * S o l u t i o n of the residence problem* L i m i t a t i o n s of the l e g i s l a t i o n , . Future r o l e of F e d e r a l aid i n s o c i a l welfare Appendices: A , The operation of the f i n a n c i a l formula used by Government of Canada t o determine deductions from reimbursement claim because of reduction i n Mothers Allowance caseload. B, B i b l i o g r a p h y *  62  iii  TABLES I N THE TEXT Page Table I ,  Payments t o P r o v i n c e s under t h e Unemployment A s s i s t a n c e A c t , 1955—1957 59 «  Table I I .  Average payments t o i n d i v i d u a l s r e c e i v i n g unemployment a s s i s t a n c e , s i x Canadian p r o v i n c e s 1955 - 1956 ....... 60*  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The w r i t e r wishes t o acknowledge the assistance of the f o l l o w i n g persons i n the preparation of t h i s study. To Professor W»G Dixon, D i r e c t o r of the School of S o c i a l Work and Professor Leonard C, Marsh of the F a c u l t y f o r t h e i r counsel and assistance from the time of i t s i n c e p t i o n u n t i l the f i n a l d r a f t emerged; t o my wife f o r her patience and encouragement over a long p e r i o d , and t o Miss Joan Ross f o r the typing of the study«, ft  THE UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE ACT ( 1956 )  CHAPTER I THE BACKGROUND OF UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE. 1921-19A5.  On J u l y 1, 1955, the l a t e s t a d d i t i o n t o Canada's s o c i a l s e c u r i t y program came i n t o e f f e c t w i t h an announcement of the F e d e r a l government.  The proposal was simple, but epoch making - t h a t the  Dominion would share w i t h the provinces and m u n i c i p a l i t i e s the cost of unemployment r e l i e f .  This was a r a d i c a l departure from p o l i c y  regarded as e s t a b l i s h e d f o r two decadesj under Canada's c o n s t i t u t i o n , r e l i e f c o s t s , except i n times o f n a t i o n a l emergency, had been considered t o be a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the provinces and l o c a l governments.  What was a " n a t i o n a l emergency" was the subject o f  a c t i v e debate i n the e a r l y t h i r t i e s ;  and there are other important  elements i n the background which i t i s the purpose of t h i s t h e s i s t o review.  Perhaps the most remarkable feature of the new l e g i s l a t i o n  was the f a c t that i t d i d not d i f f e r e n t i a t e between the unemployed employable and the s o - c a l l e d unemployed unemployablej both groups were now considered simply as unemployed persons and as such are covered under the p r o v i s i o n s of the l e g i s l a t i o n . The new program was announced i n the House of Commons on June 21, 1955. The Prime M i n i s t e r , the R t . Hon. L o u i s S t . Laurent, stated that the Dominion would share w i t h the provinces h a l f of the cost of the unemployment r e l i e f b e n e f i t s when the number of persons i n the population of the province i n r e c e i p t of such b e n e f i t s exceeded  0.A5 per cent of the population.  At the 1956 session of Parliament,  Hon. Paul Martin, Minister of National Health and Welfare, introduced the Unemployment Assistance A c t , " which was designed to validate agreements reached with s i x provinces following the announcement of the Dominion's new p o l i c y , and to provide f o r the remaining four provinces to enter the plan i f they so d e s i r e d . While t h i s i s apparently not yet a complete program, and there has been one amendment of importance since the act f i r s t came into e f f e c t , the implications of t h i s change i n attitude on the part of the Federal government are so far-reaching that the present t h e s i s has been undertaken to present the main f a c t s and to consider the consequences f o r future s o c i a l security p o l i c y i n Canada*  The economic and s o c i a l changes which have marked Canadian l i f e i n the twentieth century were never anticipated by the group of 2 men who drafted the B r i t i s h North America A c t - i n 1867.  When the  d i v i s i o n of powers between the Dominion and the provinces was set out i n t h i s statute there was no expectation of the problems which would beset governments at a l l l e v e l s , p a r t i c u l a r l y those r e s u l t i n g from unemployment, modern industry and business depressions*  "The fathers  of Confederation c l e a r l y thought they were assigning the provinces the unimportant and inexpensive functions of government, among which education, h o s p i t a l s , c h a r i t i e s , and municipal i n s t i t u t i o n s were then 1  Canada*  4-5  2  Great B r i t a i n .  E l i z a b e t h II,  c.26.  30 V i c t o r i a , c . 3 .  m  ^  *•  J reasonably numbered©"^ At the time of Confederation Canada was a frontier  society and unemployment was v i r t u a l l y unknown.  The  community took care of i t s sick and aged and the able-bodied unemployed men moved, usually Westward, where there were new opportunities and plenty of work.  T h i s vast hinterland could e a s i l y  absorb those who could not make t h e i r way i n the towns and v i l l a g e s . As the f r o n t i e r disappeared c i t i e s grew and i n d u s t r i e s massed around the great transporation c e n t r e s .  There was unemployment  and signs of economic d i s l o c a t i o n i n 1913 but h i s t o r y has passed t h i s over.  The economic pressure of World War I stepped up the n a t i o n ' s  i n d u s t r i a l output, and Canada amassed a huge labour force i n munitions i n addition to thousands serving i n the armed f o r c e s .  In 1919 the  economy was not geared to continue war-workers i n t h e i r jobs nor to absorb the thousands of men discharged from the armed f o r c e s , A recession a f t e r World War I created large scale i n d u s t r i a l unemployment and t h i s was the f i r s t instance of unemployment discussed as an issue i n government p o l i c y * THE FIRST RECESSION (1921) Because many of the unemployed i n 1921 were former members of the armed f o r c e s , the Federal government accepted a moral responsibility for a i d .  In addition to extended Service Men's  p r o v i s i o n s , the Dominion i n s t i t u t e d a p o l i c y of g r a n t s - i n - a i d to the provinces and the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s to a s s i s t them i n meeting the problem. In making these grants the government was c a r e f u l to state t h a t : 3  Wallace, E l i z a b e t h , The Origin of the S o c i a l Welfare State Canada 1867 - 1900. Canadian Journal of Economics and P o l i t i c a l Science, v o l , 16, p, 3&U»  in  "Unemployment r e l i e f has always been, and must necessarily continue to b e , primarily a municipal r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , and i n the second  A instance the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the province,"  These words were  destined to be frequently quoted within the succeeding t h i r t i e s . The Dominion government based i t s p o s i t i o n on Section 92 of the B r i t i s h North America A c t , where the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of the provinces are enumerated i n terms which were also frequently quoted at the time of the R o w e l l - S i r o i s Commission, "In each province the l e g i s l a t u r e may make laws i n r e l a t i o n to . . . The Establishment, Maintenance, and Management of H o s p i t a l s , Asylums, C h a r i t i e s , and  5 Eleemosynary I n s t i t u t i o n s  i n and f o r the P r o v i n c e . T  This appeared to relegate the provision of unemployment r e l i e f to p r o v i n c i a l a u t h o r i t i e s although t h i s i s not s p e c i f i c a l l y stated.  The Dominion took the p o s i t i o n that i n granting assistance  i t was performing a function which was the exclusive r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the provinces.  The provinces, i n t u r n , had i n many cases passed  the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y on to the munbipalities i n keeping with the ancient B r i t i s h t r a d i t i o n of l o c a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the care of 6 the poor and i n d i g e n t , established by the Elizabethan Poor Law,"" and s t i l l prevalent i n B r i t a i n i n 1867,  It  i s often forgotten that  when the B r i t i s h North America A c t was drawn up B r i t a i n had made very l i t t l e progress i n reconstructing i t s antique form of municipal government* A Grauer, A , E . , Public Assistance and S o c i a l Insurance, a study prepared f o r the Royal Commission on Dominion-Provincial R e l a t i o n s . Ottawa, K i n g ' s P r i n t e r , 1939, p , 17. i  Great B r i t a i n ,  30 V i c t o r i a , c , 3 , Section 92,  6  Great B r i t a i n ,  A3 E l i z a b e t h I,  c . 2,  T h e " f i r s t " c r i s i s i n 1921 was met by the appropriation of  2 to  12,000,000  municipalities.  provide g r a n t s - i n - a i d to the provinces and to the Economic conditions improved enough f o r no f a r t h e r  claims to be made and the concept of "emergency only" remained undisturbed f o r a decade.  It  was not u n t i l the mass unemployment of  the 1930's that p r o v i n c i a l and l o c a l governments again approached the Dominion f o r aid and the issue became a major national one,  CRISIS OF THE WINTER OF  1929 -  1930  In October 1929 the e r a of prosperity that had featured l a t e 1920*3 ended abruptly.  The f i r s t  the  signs of what proved to be the  worst economic depression i n North American history were indicated by a dramatic drop i n values of stocks on the New York Stock Exchange* These declines were quickly r e f l e c t e d i n Canada and the economic recession which followed the break was also f e l t i n t h i s country*  At  t h i s time there was l i t t l e recognition of the f a c t that the recession would be of such f a r reaching proportions, Canada's prosperity had been b u i l t upon heavy  import-export  business and i t was p a r t i c u l a r l y vulnerable to the d i s l o c a t i o n of international trade.  The Canadian West, with i t s r i c h wheat y i e l d of  the p r a i r i e provinces and the primary industries of B r i t i s h Columbia, was immediately a f f e c t e d .  Early i n 1930 a meeting of P r o v i n c i a l and  Municipal o f f i c i a l s from the provinces of Manitoba, Saskatchewan, A l b e r t a and B r i t i s h Columbia was held i n Winnipeg,  A delegation was  appointed to interview Federal a u t h o r i t i e s and to present a s e r i e s of resolutions which had been passed.  2  The r e s o l u t i o n s c a l l e d f o r  Grauer, Public Assistance and S o c i a l Insurance, p , 17  f i n a n c i a l assistance to d e a l with unemploymentj curtailment of the government's colonization programj assumption by the Dominion f o r f i n a n c i a l assistance to veteransj appointment of an economic commission to deal with the f i n a n c i a l problems of the n a t i o n ; and a 8 scheme of unemployment insurance," The reception the delegates received from the senior government was somewhat l e s s than c o r d i a l . 9 King spoke on behalf of the government,  Prime Minister MacKenzie  Addressing the meeting on  February 26, 1930, he said that i t was important to have a true perspective i n the discussion of such serious matters rather than be influenced by one p a r t i c u l a r set of c o n d i t i o n s .  He said that a heavy  winter load of unemployment was normal i n ma-y parts of the country*, In Mr, K i n g 8 opinion the delegates, instead of seeking help f o r the 1  unemployed, were seeking help f o r p r o v i n c i a l and municipal governments* He suggested that the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , who were affected by the high rate of unemployment, should seek aid from the p r o v i n c i a l government and i f the l a t t e r encountered f i n a n c i a l problems they could i n turn seek aid from the Federal government.  He considered i t  extraordinary  that m u n i c i p a l i t i e s should f i r s t come to the Federal government* Summed u p , the answer was a firm r e f u s a l to a s s i s t * A GH&.NGE OF GOVERNMENT Unemployment continued to be a problem during 1930*  An  e l e c t i o n i n the summer of that year unseated Mr, King and h i s 8  labour Gazette, v o l , 30, n o , 3 , (March 1930^ Ottawa, Kingls P r i n t e r , p . 283*  2 IMd.  1  government and on August 7 , 1930 a Conservative government headed by the R t , Hon, R«B, Bennett assumed o f f i c e .  The e l e c t i o n had been fought  on the issue of the deteriorating economic conditions and the new Prime Minister implemented h i s e l e c t i o n promises by c a l l i n g a s p e c i a l session of Parliament on September 8 , 1930,  The Speech from the Throne  read on t h i s date stated: "The necessity f o r dealing with exceptional economic conditions with the resultant unemployment has induced me to summon you at an e a r l i e r date than would otherwise be necessary,? 2Q A t t h i s Session of Parliament the R e l i e f A c t was passed but i t was made very clear that the Dominion was not permanently assuming what, i n i t s o p i n i o n , was not i t s a f f a i r .  The preamble to the A c t  stated: "Whereas unemployment, which i s primarily a municipal and p r o v i n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y has become so general throughout Canada as to constitute -a matter of national concern . . . " 11 and the Prime Minister i n the debate r e c a l l e d the precedent established i n 1921 when Federal aid had been granted.  He said t h a t :  "It i s not proposed that t h i s Dominion Government would i n any sense deal with these problems d i r e c t l y . These are primarily problems of provinces and m u n i c i p a l i t i e s and apart from n a t i o n a l undertakings* But a problem l o c a l and p r o v i n c i a l i n i t s nature may become a national one. That i s the p o s i t i o n " 22  NEW PROGRAMS ON UNEMPLOYMENT:  EMERGENCY POWERS; PUBLIC WORKS.  The 1930 A c t provided $20,000,000 to be devoted mostly to p u b l i c works.  The Federal Government would pay twenty-five per cent  IQ  Canada, Parliament, House of Commons, O f f i c i a l Report of Debates. 8 September, 1930, p . A ,  11  Canada,  12  O f f i c i a l Report of Debates. 8 September, 1930, p p , 64-65,  20 George V , c , 1,  of the cost of these works, an a d d i t i o n a l twenty-five per cent would be paid by the P r o v i n c i a l governments and the balance of f i f t y per cent by the l o c a l area i n which the works were performed. P r o v i s i o n was also made f o r the use of some of the money f o r d i r e c t r e l i e f , the cost of which was t o be shared e q u a l l y by the three l e v e l s of government.  I n unorganized t e r r i t o r i e s of the provinces where no  l o c a l government e x i s t e d the cost would be divided evenly between the Dominion and the province concerned. When Parliament reassembled i n the e a r l y part of 1931 the subject of unemployment was s t i l l high on i t s l i s t of unsolved problems. The s i t u a t i o n was acute and became worse d a i l y , . The government presented f o r consideration of Parliament the Unemployment and Farm R e l i e f A c t and sought a u t h o r i t y from Parliament t o supplement the r e l i e f measures of the provinces and other bodies i n such ways as the Governor i n Council may deem expedient, and f o r that purpose should v e s t i n the Governor i n C o u n c i l the powers necessary t o ensure the speedy and unhampered prosecution of a l l r e l i e f measures and the maintenance of peace, order and good government i n Canada ...,.". 12 P r o v i s i o n was made i n the l e g i s l a t i o n f o r payment out of the Consolidated Revenue Fund "such money as the Governor i n C o u n c i l i n h i s d i s c r e t i o n may deem expedient t o expend f o r r e l i e v i n g d i s t r e s s , providing employment and maintaining w i t h i n the competence of  U  Parliament peace, order and good government throughout Canada." The unemployment c r i s i s was now being handled as a n a t i o n a l 13. Canada, U  Ibid.  21 George V, c , 58,  emergency with the government invoking the general powers granted  it  i n Section 91 of the B r i t i s h North America Act to l e g i s l a t e f o r the "peace, order and good government of Canada,"  The Unemployment and  Farm R e l i e f Act vested with the Governor i n Council authority to spend money without reference to Parliament, The passage of t h i s Act was s t u r d i l y debated i n Commons, Mr, K i n g , leader of the Opposition, was c r i t i c a l of the government f o r the wide powers which i t was seeking and likened them to those granted i n 1914 a f t e r the outbreak of World War I * He said that the existing laws on the statute books would appear to be s u f f i c i e n t to ensure preservation of "peace, order and good government", but i f government sought further authority i t  the  should be the subject of  separate l e g i s l a t i o n and separated from i t s request f o r emergency  16 powers to deal with the f i n a n c i a l aspects of unemployment r e l i e f . The Conservative government pressed the A c t , however, and i t was the fore-<runner of a s e r i e s of similar pieces of l e g i s l a t i o n which provided assistance to lower l e v e l s of government to meet their financial r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s .  The Federal government  still  adhered to the p r i n c i p l e that unemployment r e l i e f was a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the provinces and Prime Minister Bennett, speaking i n Winnipeg i n October 1933, said that i t was c o n s t i t u t i o n a l l y impossible f o r the Dominion government to set up a national r e l i e f organization.  He  said that the j u r i s d i c t i o n rested with the provinces and i t was f o r that reason the p o l i c y of a s s i s t i n g with money grants had been adopted JL5  Great B r i t a i n ,  30 V i c t o r i a , c , 3»  16  O f f i c i a l Report of Debates, July 29, 1931, p. 4285.  22  labour Gazette, v o l , 33. n o , 10 (October 1933), p . 972.  - 10 As the unemployment c r i s i s continued the program of a s s i s t i n g with public works broke down i n many areas due to the i n a b i l i t y of l o c a l governments to maintain t h e i r share of the c o s t s . This resulted i n more and more of the money being diverted to d i r e c t relief.  The expenditures by a l l governments on d i r e c t r e l i e f  to  unemployables rose from #10,461,000 i n 1930 to #110,777,000 i n 1936, The corresponding expenditure f o r r e l i e f works rose from #3,605,000 18  i n 1930 to #12,252,000 i n 1936,— The question as to where ultimate r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the care of the unemployed rested was of l i t t l e importance to the v i c t i m of the depression. It  d i d , however, pose a problem f o r u n o f f i c i a l  interpreters of the C o n s t i t u t i o n ,  One c o n s t i t u t i o n a l expert and  w e l l known p o l i t i c a l s c i e n t i s t F , R . S c o t t , i n a discussion of the matter wrote: "Consider the present unemployment s i t u a t i o n Unemployment i s national i n scope; i t has produced a s i t u a t i o n so serious that Mr, Bennett considers i t worthy of a new adjective "emergent", l e t both p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s agree that labour questions are purely a p r o v i n c i a l matter and must be l e f t to the provinces to handle. A l l that Ottawa does i s to vote money f o r the provinces to spend; the unemployed have to wait u n t i l the same matter that was thrashed out i n Ottawa gets thrashed out anew i n the p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t u r e and put into the form of p r o v i n c i a l s t a t u t e . The present d i v i s i o n of powers i n regard to labour and s o c i a l problems i s p a r t i c u l a r l y s i l l y since t a r i f f s , trade t r e a t i e s , immigration, labour problems, unemployment and trade and commerce are so intimately connected that they can not be divided up among the l e g i s l a t u r e s without the certainty of d e l a y , mismanagement and confusion. Interpretations of the J u d i c i a l Committee of the Privy Council have relegated the residuary powers of the . .  18  .  Report of the Royal Commission on Dominion-Provincial R e l a t i o n s Book III, Ottawa, King«s P r i n t e r , 1940, p , 89 - Table 3 1 .  ?  -11 Dominion Parliament to the p o s i t i o n of a reserve power f o r use only i n national emergencies. 22 11  The writer took the stand that the d i v i s i o n of powers set out i n the B r i t i s h North America A c t , p a r t i c u l a r l y those r e l a t i n g to public welfare, were obsolete and i l l - e q u i p p e d to meet the current c r i s i s * He was c r i t i c a l of the Privy Council i n i t s narrow interpretation  of  the Act and of the unmistakeable trend of Increasing p r o v i n c i a l powers at the expense of the Dominion*  THE BENNETT "NEW DEAL" This problem of narrowing Federal j u r i s d i c t i o n was encountered by Mr. Bennett i n h i s "New Deal" l e g i s l a t i o n which he announced i n a radio address i n January 1935*  His announcement which  indicated that he intended to embark on a p o l i c y of intervention and c o n t r o l i n the business of the country,took not only Party members, but also h i s Parliamentary associates,by s u r p r i s e .  For Mr. Bennett  the surprise announcement was i n character i f i t s contents were n o t , Mr. Bennett was not a "team man" and h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p s with h i s Cabinet members were frequently strained because of h i s tendency t o announce government p o l i c y without previous c o n s u l t a t i o n .  The  measures introduced by the Prime Minister to the House of Commons on January 29, 1935 included the Employment and S o c i a l Insurance A c t , the Minimum Wage A c t , Weekly Day of Rest i n I n d u s t r i a l Undertakings A c t , and the Limitations of Hours of Work A c t ,  Constitutional  e x p e r t s , both inside and outside the House, attacked the c o n s t i t u t i o n a l i t y of the l e g i s l a t i o n .  19  Of the l a t t e r three A c t s i t  Proceedings. Canadian P o l i t i c a l Science Association 1931* Kingston, O n t a r i o , The Jackson P r e s s , 1931, pp* 243»244*  - 12 was argued that the p r i n c i p l e of p r o v i n c i a l c o n t r o l of labour matters had been settled by the Privy Council i n a d e c i s i o n i n  20 1925,  Mr, Bennett, however, argued that t h i s l e g i s l a t i o n was enacted pursuant to obligations assumed by the Dominion under the conventions of the International Labour Organization and were thus i n substance f u l f i l l m e n t s of treaty obligations of Canada,  Of the Employment and  S o c i a l Insurance Act Mr, Bennett argued that the unemployment c r i s i s j u s t i f i e d national action under the "peace, order and good government" clause of Section 91 of the B r i t i s h North America A c t , The new p o l i c i e s announced by Mr, Bennett were i n a n t i c i p a t i o n of an e l e c t i o n which was c a l l e d i n June 1935,  His "New Deal" l e g i s l a t i o n ,  which had been passed e a r l i e r i n the y e a r , had not been implemented and the Canadian people, weary with f i v e years of unemployment and hardship, turned back to the L i b e r a l s and the R t , Hon, W.L. MacKenzie King and h i s government again assumed o f f i c e . On November 5, 1935 the "New Deal" l e g i s l a t i o n was referred by Order-in-Council to the Supreme Court of Canada f o r a d e c i s i o n . The l e g i s l a t i o n had been opposed i n the House of Commons by the L i b e r a l s who questioned i t s c o n s t i t u t i o n a l v a l i d i t y .  The Supreme Court of Canada  was divided equally on the decision and a r e f e r r a l , t h e r e f o r e , was made to the J u d i c i a l Committee of the Privy C o u n c i l , The J u d i c i a l Committee of the Privy Council held t h i s l e g i s l a t i o n to be u n c o n s t i t u t i o n a l .  It  did not agree with Mr. Bennett's  contention that the Dominion could use i t s treaty making powers to impose r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s or to remove j u r i s d i c t i o n on any matters  20  Toronto E l e c t r i c Commissioners v. Snider (1925) A » C , 396,  - 13 s p e c i f i c a l l y l a i d down i n Section 92 of the B r i t i s h North America A c t which contains the s p e c i f i c areas of p r o v i n c i a l j u r i s d i c t i o n *  21  Of the Employment and S o c i a l Insurance A c t , the J u d i c i a l Committee held t h a t , as i t affected property and c i v i l r i g h t s and dealt with a contract of employment and insurance, i t was a matter f o r p r o v i n c i a l concern.  It  further limited the interpretation  of  the "peace, order and good government" clause by holding that such clause conferred on the Dominion only an emergency power*  The  J u d i c i a l Committee pointed out that the l e g i s l a t i o n could not be considered emergency l e g i s l a t i o n since i t was intended to be permanent* Unemployment Insurance, however, continued to be an active issue i n Canadian public a f f a i r s with both the Dominion and the provinces frustrated by the decision of the J u d i c i a l Committee*  The  solution to the problem was found i n an amendment to the B r i t i s h North America A c t , which was sought by j o i n t address to the B r i t i s h House of Commons, and the Act was amended with e f f e c t July 10, 1940* The Amendment added the words "unemployment insurance" to that clause of Section 91 which gives the Dominion j u r i s d i c t i o n over "the regulation of trade and commerce,"  21  The Attorney General f o r Canada v . Attorney General f o r Ontario (1937), A , C * 326.  22. The Attorney General f o r Canada v . Attorney General f o r Ontario (1937), A , C * 355. 22  Great B r i t a i n . 3 - A George V I , c , 36*  m L4 -  THE DOMINION-PROVINCIAl CONFERENCE OF 1935 Mr, MacKenzie King previous to the e l e c t i o n had promised further co-operation with the provinces i n meeting t h e i r problems and i n keeping with t h i s a Dominion-Provincial Conference was summoned i n December 1935.  Mr, K i n g ' s attitude was quite d i f f e r e n t from that  revealed at the meeting with Western leaders i n 1930 and when he spoke i t was i n a more c o n c i l i a t o r y tone.  He said that the conference  was assembling at a c r i t i c a l time i n the history of the country with serious problems of unemployment, t a x a t i o n , c o n s t i t u t i o n a l issues and other matters.  social services,  Pointing out that there was  no clear cut l i n e of j u r i s d i c t i o n over many of the matters to be discussed, Mr, King said that i f the c i t i z e n s were to be adequately served by the government which they had elected a formula f o r co-operation between the provinces and the Dominion would have to be worked out.  He hoped that machinery would be set up to study problems  U solutions f o r which could not be reached at the present  time.  The conference was organized into committees to consider the various matters before i t with i n s t r u c t i o n s to report back to a general session which would end the meeting.  The committee on  unemployment returned with a series of recommendations which can be summarized as f o l l o w s : 1 , The Dominion government should l i m i t i t s assistance to the Provinces and m u n i c i p a l i t i e s to the unemployed employables and to the aged through the Old Age Pension, Other persons, usually unemployables, i n need of f i n a n c i a l assistance should be the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the provinces and the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . 2A  Dominion-Provincial Conference 1935, Record of Proceedings. Ottawa, K i n g ' s P r i n t e r , 1936, p p , 8-9.  - 15 2,  A Dominion Commission of Unemployment should be created and a nation wide r e g i s t r a t i o n of unemployed should be conducted. This r e g i s t r a t i o n would provide the commission with u s e f u l information and permit long term planning,  3,  The co-operation of industry should be sought to i n i t i a t e a program of youth t r a i n i n g and an apprenticeship system,  A»  Commerce and industry should be asked to a s s i s t i n devising plans to make year round provision f o r t h e i r e s s e n t i a l quota of employees, 25.  The Hon, C«A Dunning, Chairman of the Sub-Conference Committee #  on Finance, reported to the Conference that the f i n a n c i a l p o s i t i o n of each province had been studied along with the problem of decline i n revenues and increased r e l i e f  costs.  Suggestions advanced by the  Provinces were: 1,  The transfer to the Provinces of c e r t a i n sources of revenue belonging to or being used by the Federal Government,  2,  The assumption of the larger portion of the cost of by the Federal Government,  3,  Reduction i n interest charges by refunding outstanding p r o v i n c i a l and municipal d e b t , 26  relief  In the discussion of the Report on Unemployment the Hon. A.W, Roebuck, speaking on behalf of the Ontario government, complained that there was nothing i n i t r e f e r r i n g to the p r o v i s i o n of employment.  He  r e c a l l e d that i n the e l e c t i o n campaign of the previous summer the Prime Minister had said that unemployment and i t s cure was the supreme issue i n Canada today  0  Other p r o v i n c i a l premiers echoed h i s concern about  25.  Dominion-Provincial Conference 1935,  26  I b i d . , p,  U.  Record of Proceedings*  p,43.  - 16 the s i t u a t i o n but at t h i s point nothing more p o s i t i v e was forthcoming from the Dominion l e v e l .  22  The problem was s t i l l being dealt with i n '  terms of a s a t i s f a c t o r y formula of financing between the various l e v e l s of government« NATIONAL EMPLOYMENT COMMISSION As a r e s u l t of the recommendation of the committee on unemployment at the Conference a National Employment Commission,under the chairmanship of Mr. Arthur B. P u r v i s , was appointed on May 13, 1936. The Commission's f i r s t act was to i n s t i t u t e a scheme of national r e g i s t r a t i o n and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of a l l persons on r e l i e f to whom the Dominion contributed.  This was the f i r s t national survey of t h i s type  which had been attempted and i t was designed to provide the Commission with an adequate s t a t i s t i c a l background before proceeding with i t s work. The Commission had been instructed to carry out t h i s survey i n order to determine the nature and extent of the problem and also to formulate recommendations regarding p r a c t i c a l measures to increase employment, to ensure e f f i c i e n c y and economy i n the administration of f i n a n c i a l a i d , to set up administrative machinery, to carry out p o l i c i e s approved by the government, and to propose long range plans of n a t i o n a l development 28 to ameliorate the e f f e c t s of future depressions. The f i n a l report of the Commission recommended a comprehensive housing p o l i c y , which would include a home improvement plan and assistance to low r e n t a l housing; modernization and extension of the 22  Dominion-Provincial Conference 1935.  28  National Employment Commission. P r i n t e r , 1937, p . 5 .  Record of Proceedings, p . 49.  Interim Report.  Ottawa, K i n g ' s  - 17 National Employment Service to increase placements In industry} and a r e v i s i o n of the p o l i c y on grants-in-aid f o r r e l i e f designed t o ensure that the money was not being spent haphazardly but directed t o remedying the  e f f e c t s a r i s i n g from varying degrees of d i s t r e s s .  In addition the  Commission recommended a nation-wide Dominion-Provincial t r a i n i n g program f o r persons i n the younger age group who had not had work experience and f o r persons i n the middle-age group t o restore t h e i r  29 s k i l l , physique and morale. The Commission noted t h a t , at the time of i t s Report (1937) there was an improvement i n the employment situation and i t also recommended that expenditures on p u b l i c works i n i t i a t e d t o provide employment should be c u r t a i l e d and the funds diverted t o more e f f e c t i v e and  fundamental attacks on unemployment•  Cf these recommendations  the  government had already embarked on a home improvement plan and on  a Dominion-Provincial program of t r a i n i n g youths and other workers affected by prolonged unemployment.  Improvements were also made i n the  National Employment Service, which was l a t e r to become a basic part of the unemployment insurance organization* THE ROYAL COMMISSION ON DOMINION-PROVINCIAL RELATIONS F i n a n c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the Dominion and the provinces were becoming increasingly involved because of the heavy expenditures on unemployment r e l i e f and the various programs of r e l i e f work*  To f i n d some solution to the problem the Royal Commission on  22  National Employment Commission* F i n a l Report. Ottawa, King's P r i n t e r , 1938, p* 6.  20  Ibid..  m  18 -  Dominion-Provincial R e l a t i o n s , (frequently referred to as the RowellS i r o i s Commission), was established on August L 4 , 1937,  In the terms  of reference setting out the tasks of the Commission i t was asked to do a complete survey of a l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s to be assumed by various l e v e l s of government. The Commission was asked to review Dominion-Provincial f i n a n c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , a l l o c a t i o n of tax sources, public expenditures and public debt, and the system of cash subsidies to the provinces.  It  was also asked to make recommendations regarding these matters and to express an o p i n i o n , subject to the d i s t r i b u t i o n of l e g i s l a t i v e powers e s s e n t i a l to the proper carrying out of the f e d e r a l system, how to best e f f e c t a balanced r e l a t i o n s h i p between the f i n a n c i a l powers and the  ii obligations of each governing body. The Commission's report was completed i n 1940 a f t e r the outbreak of World War II,  It  had c a r r i e d out i t s i n s t r u c t i o n s to the  l e t t e r and despite problems due to changes i n personnel because of death or i l l n e s s , produced a document which i s a milestone i n Canadian government h i s t o r y .  I t s recommendations covered various aspects of  inter-governmental r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n Canada but here we are concerned p r i m a r i l y with those r e l a t e d to unemployment r e l i e f . The Commission pointed out that mass unemployment i n Canada i s l a r g e l y the r e s u l t of economic changes abroad which a f f e c t Canada because of t h i s country's dependence on foreign t r a d e .  The inter*,  r e l a t i o n of the f a c t o r s i n the Canadian economy take the problem of  21  Report of the Royal Commission, Book I.,  p , 10,  - 19 * unemployment out of the l o c a l area and place r e s p o n s i b i l i t y a t the national l e v e l , "The Dominion i s the only government which can meet, i n an equitable and e f f i c i e n t manner, the large f l u c t u a t i n g expenditures due t o unemployment. I t s u n l i m i t e d powers of t a x a t i o n give i t access t o a l l the incomes which are produced on a n a t i o n a l b a s i s , regardless of where they may happen t o appear, and i t can obtain the needed revenues therefrom i n a manner which i s the l e a s t harmful t o welfare and productive e n t e r p r i s e s . " 32 The Commission was a l s o concerned w i t h the economic waste of manpower and resources i n a depression and, while i t acknowledged that the Dominion lacked any c o n t r o l of the e x t e r n a l f o r c e s involved i n a depression, i t f e l t that the e f f e c t s could be minimized by the planning of p u b l i c works and developmental expenditures, and an i n t e l l i g e n t and co-ordinated use of c r e d i t .  I t pointed out t h a t f o r e i g n exchange,  t r a d e , t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and t a x a t i o n p o l i c i e s are powerful  instruments  t o combat unemployment and reduce f l u c t u a t i o n s i n income and that the  21 Dominion i s the only government which can use these e f f e c t i v e l y . One of the more important recommendations of the Commission suggested a complete break from the t r a d i t i o n of cash subsidies t o tbe provinces t o be replaced by the payment of n a t i o n a l adjustment g r a n t s . Having drawn a t t e n t i o n t o the discrepancies i n s o c i a l s e r v i c e s i n the v a r i o u s provinces the Commission pointed out that the grants would "••••make i t p o s s i b l e f o r every province t o provide f o r i t s people s e r v i c e s of average Canadian standards and they w i l l thus a l l e v i a t e d i s t r e s s and shameful conditions which now weaken n a t i o n a l u n i t y and handicap many Canadians, They are the concrete expression of the Commission's conception ... 32 Report of the Royal Commission. Book I I , p , 24, 23. I b i d . „  - 20 of a f e d e r a l system which w i l l both preserve a healthy j£ l o c a l autonomy and b u i l d a stronger and more united n a t i o n . " Establishment of these grants would, however, be contingent upon the provinces withdrawing e n t i r e l y from various f i e l d s of and the cancellation of existing s u b s i d i e s .  taxation,  The Dominion would also 35  assume c e r t a i n debt obligations of the provinces. The Commission made i t clear that any plans f o r s o c i a l insurance, p a r t i c u l a r l y unemployment insurance and r e l i e f  f o r the  able-bodied unemployed, should be a t o t a l Dominion r e s p o n s i b i l i t y but a l l other s o c i a l services should remain the exclusive r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of .36 the provinces.  Summarizing the unemployment s i t u a t i o n the Commission  stated: "The experience of the past decade i s conclusive evidence that unemployment r e l i e f should be a Dominion f u n c t i o n . By unemployment r e l i e f we mean r e l i e f or aid f o r unemployed employables as d i s t i n c t from unemployables. P r o v i n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for other welfare services should continue, and the provinces should be enabled f i n a n c i a l l y to perform these services adequately. P r o v i n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r s o c i a l welfare should be deemed basic and general; Dominion r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , cm the other hand, should be deemed an exception to the general r u l e , and as such should be s t r i c t l y d e f i n e d . But the Dominion should be given adequate j u r i s d i c t i o n to perform e f f i c i e n t l y whatever r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s are entrusted to i t , " ,22 P r i o r to the publication of the Report, Parliament, with the approval of a l l the provinces, requested an amendment to the B r i t i s h  2k  Report of the Royal Commission. Book I I ,  25 J b M „ p . 83. 2k Ibid., p . 25. XL  I b i d . , p.  24  p , 125,  •» 21 «  North America A c t which would permit the Dominion t o embark on a n a t i o n a l p l a n of unemployment insurance.  The B r i t i s h  Government  consented t o the amendment and the Unemployment Insurance A c t was passed on August 7 , 1940.  I t came i n t o e f f e c t on J u l y 1, 1941.  DOMINION-PROVINCIAL CONFERENCE - 1941. In November the Prime M i n i s t e r , Mr. K i n g , c a l l e d a conference of p r o v i n c i a l premiers t o be held i n January 1941.  I n h i s l e t t e r of  i n v i t a t i o n Mr. King stated i n part "....the R o w e l l - S i r o i s Commission...was appointed because of the general d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n i n respect of DominionP r o v i n c i a l r e l a t i o n s and arrangements - a d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n which reached a c r i t i c a l stage during the depression. The i n a b i l i t y of l o c a l and p r o v i n c i a l governments t o d e a l w i t h mass unemployment and a g r i c u l t u r a l d i s t r e s s and the r e s u l t i n g f i n a n c i a l d i f f i c u l t i e s and controversy i n regard to p o l i c y and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y c o n s t i t u t e d admitted e v i l s and a serious s t r a i n on n a t i o n a l u n i t y . The n e c e s s i t y , under e x i s t i n g c o n s t i t u t i o n a l a u t h o r i t y , of maintaining l o c a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r r e l i e f precluded the development of p o l i c i e s on a n a t i o n a l s c a l e , and produced a s i t u a t i o n which s e r i o u s l y a f f e c t e d the morale of the unemployed and destroyed the f i n a n c i a l independence of many l o c a l governments. I n the emergency the Dominion made large c o n t r i b u t i o n s f o r r e l i e f purposes but could not assume f u l l or permanent r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r unemployment, nor can i t do so unless measures such as those contemplated by the Commission are agreed upon. I t i s the view of the government that adoption of the Commission's recommendations i s necessary.^ 38 The p r o v i n c i a l premiers met with the Dominion government on January 14, 1941.  A s noted i n Mr. King's l e t t e r t o them the Dominion  recommended that the Report of the R o y a l Commission be implemented. The recommendations regarding unemployment r e l i e f , however, were contingent on other adjustments i n the f i n a n c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s between ^8  Dominion P r o v i n c i a l Conference. 1941. Record of Proceedings, p . 3 .  - 22 two l e v e l s o f government and these were not acceptable t o the provinces of Ontario, A l b e r t a and B r i t i s h Columbia,  I t was argued that permanent  changes should not be made i n the e x i s t i n g f i n a n c i a l  s t r u c t u r e when the  country was engaged i n a f u l l scale war. I t soon became apparent t h a t there was l i t t l e p o s s i b i l i t y f o r any agreement and the Conference terminated on the second day without any a c t i o n being taken on the 39 Report or the Dominion's recommendations regarding i t . A n t i c i p a t i n g the problems which would i n e v i t a b l y a r i s e i n the post-war e r a the Prime M i n i s t e r i n January 1943 appointed an Advisory Committee on R e c o n s t r u c t i o n , headed by Dr, F, C y r i l James, President of M e G i l l U n i v e r s i t y ,  One of the products of the work of  t h i s Committee was the Report on S o c i a l S e c u r i t y f o r Canada prepared by Dr, Leonard C. Marsh, Research Advisor t o the Committee, D r , Marsh's recommendations involved p r o t e c t i o n against unemployment, s i c k n e s s , d i s a b i l i t y , old age and r e t i r e m e n t , death of bread-winner, f a m i l y needs, and expenses involved w i t h b i r t h and death.  He  recommended that these contingencies be met by: (1) extension of Canada's present system of unemployment insurance; an unemployment assistance program f o r those not covered  39  (2)  a n a t i o n a l system of h e a l t h insurance t o provide medical - d e n t a l « h o s p i t a l care - sickness insurance or a separate p l a n ,  (3)  d i s a b i l i t y benefits  (4)  r e v i s i o n of Old Age Pensions by retirement c o n t r i b u t o r y pension  (5)  p r o v i s i o n f o r widows and orphans  Dominion-Provincial Conference,  1941. Record of Proceedings«  - 23 -  (6)  c h i l d r e n s allowances. 1  DOMINION-PROVINCIAL CONFERENCE - 1945 During the war years unemployment r e l i e f ceased t o be an issue and the problem l a y dormant u n t i l 1945 when Mr* King again summoned the p r o v i n c i a l premiers t o a Dominion-Provincial Conference oh Reconstruction*  On August 6, 1945 when the Conference assembled  at Ottawa the war w i t h Japan had not been concluded but the F e d e r a l government, apparently f e a r i n g an economic r e c e s s i o n such as t h a t which occurred a f t e r World War I , sought d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h the provinces regarding the f u t u r e .  The whole tone of the meeting was concern that  unemployment would again become a n a t i o n a l problem*  The Prime M i n i s t e r  i n h i s opening address to the Conference said that f e a r of unemployment i s next t o the f e a r of war i n men's hearts* "There are men and women who almost dread the coming of v i c t o r y because they f e a r t h a t depression and unemployment might come i n v i c t o r y ' s t r a i n * " Al The Dominion offered the provinces a system of unemployment assistance under which i t would pay b e n e f i t s equal t o e i g h t y - f i v e per cent of Unemployment Insurance b e n e f i t s which had been e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1941*  These b e n e f i t s would be payable t o unemployed persons able and  w i l l i n g t o work who were not e n t i t l e d t o or had ceased t o be e n t i t l e d to Unemployment Insurance b e n e f i t s .  T h i s p o l i c y , however, was never  4Cf Marsh, Leonard C., Report on S o c i a l S e c u r i t y f o r Canada* Ottawa, King's P r i n t e r , 1943. Al  Dominion-Provincial Conference* 1945.  A2  I b i d . , p* 387.  Record of Proceedings, p.6.  •» 2A — implemented as again i t was part of a l a r g e r plan to a l t e r e x i s t i n g f i n a n c i a l arrangements on which there was no unanimous agreement*  SUMM&RX As the expected depression d i d not m a t e r i a l i z e and the Unemployment Insurance program was now a v a i l a b l e to meet the needs of many unemployed, the problem of f i n a n c i a l assistance to those who were not covered by insurance or who were not insurable was l e s s pressing*  C e r t a i n gains had been achieved from the hard and laborious  years of the t h i r t i e s *  As a r e s u l t of the depression experience and  the involvement of the F e d e r a l government i n d e a l i n g w i t h mass unemployment precedents of far-reaching i m p l i c a t i o n had been established*  Unemployment insurance as an e x c l u s i v e l y F e d e r a l measure  was i n e f f e c t as a r e s u l t of an amendment to the B r i t i s h North America A c t and a N a t i o n a l Employment Service had been e s t a b l i s h e d *  By  i m p l i c a t i o n , t h e r e f o r e , the Dominion had the major share of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n the event of mass unemployment* Despite the disagreements i n Dominion-Provincial Conferences over d i v i s i o n of t a x resources the provinces had always maintained that the unemployment problem rested w i t h the Dominion i n making p r o v i s i o n f o r employable persons not covered by Unemployment Insurance* At these conferences i t was apparent t h a t the p i c t u r e of p u b l i c finance i n Canada had been a l t e r e d by the heavy o b l i g a t i o n s assumed by the Dominion during the Depression and l a t e r during World War I I * I t was w e l l summed up by McGregor Dawson and many others would have agreed, that: "The new f a c t o r i n the s i t u a t i o n which the depression and the war experience had brought i n t o prominence was the ...  - 25 » enormous significance of national finance and a l l i e d p o l i c i e s as the instruments of economic and s o c i a l welfare."  Al  A d i f f e r e n t Canada was to emerge at the end of t h i s war period*  The nation was becoming more i n d u s t r i a l i z e d :  was growing and i t s c i t i e s were expanding:  i t s population  and with t h i s growth came  i n e v i t a b l y economic and s o c i a l problems.  A3  Dawson, Robert M,, Government of Canada. University of Toronto P r e s s , 5th impression, 1952, p , 130,  CHA.PTBR I I A NEff DOMINION POLICY ON UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE 1945-1956  The emerging pattern of Dominion r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the welfare of unemployed persons has now become c l e a r .  The passage i n  1940 of the Unemployment Insurance Act was r e c o g n i t i o n of the n a t i o n a l scope of the problem.  The f i n a l step i n the Dominion's acknowledgement  of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r those who f e l l outside the p r o v i s i o n s of the Unemployment Insurance A c t was the o f f e r to the provinces at the Dominion-Provincial Conference on Reconstruction i n 1945. A c t u a l l y Canada's somewhat unforeseen post-war boom d i v e r t e d a t t e n t i o n from the s u b j e c t , f o r unemployment stayed a t a low point and unemployment insurance, which came i n t o e f f e c t i n 1941, took up the slack i n t r a n s i t i o n p e r i o d s .  Those persons not covered by unemployment  insurance were l a r g e l y the unemployable persons whose needs were met by the provinces and the l o c a l governments i n accordance w i t h t h e i r statutory r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . T h i s p i c t u r e of u n p a r a l l e l e d progress i n Canadian employment l e v e l s was o f f s e t somewhat by seasonal unemployment which i s always present i n the Canadian economy. According t o N a t i o n a l Employment Service s t a t i s t i c s employment h i t s i t s lowest l e v e l on March 1st each year, and then climbs gradually through the summer to September when i t reaches i t s maximum peak. Seasonal unemployment i s p a r t i c u l a r l y indigenous to Canada because the n a t i o n i s a producer of primary  - 27 products with heavy emphasis on a g r i c u l t u r e , lumbering, mining and fishing.  By the very nature of these industries they can not be  operated on a twelve-month basis and i n some months they either c u r t a i l t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s or shut them down a l t o g e t h e r . In any case the pattern of unemployment which emerged a f t e r 1945 indicated low l e v e l s u n t i l the winter of 1949-1950,  There was  an improvement i n 1951; t u t , following t h i s , the National Employment Service indicates a problem of increasing severity u n t i l the winter of 1954-1955, when the t o t a l climbed to 401,000 persons without jobs 1 and seeking work on March 1 , 1955,"  These f i g u r e s include only  persons known to the National Employment Service and make no reference to any other persons seeking work.  In the years of f l u c t u a t i n g  unemployment, the provinces made representations to Ottawa asking that the Federal government implement i t s o f f e r of 1945 to assume r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r unemployed persons, who were not e l i g i b l e f o r unemployment insurance f o r a v a r i e t y of reasons. These representations were without e f f e c t , however, and the Dominion government presumably remained committed to the view that the seasonal nature of the s i t u a t i o n was such that i t could be handled by the provinces.  Furthermore there had been no uniform agreements reached  between the Dominion and the provinces on f i n a n c i a l arrangements; and the Dominion held to the stand that agreement on these other matters was an e s s e n t i a l part of the settlement of future r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for unemployment r e l i e f , 1  S t a t i s t i c a l sources unless otherwise s t a t e d , are a l l Canada Year Book, of appropriate date.  \  -  28  -  THE CRISIS OF 1954-1955 The c r i s i s of the winter of 1954-1955 made i t necessary for the Dominion to take a new approach to the problem. In only a handful of the provinces was any provision made for the able-bodied unemployed in need of financial assistance. There are no accurate statistics on the extent of the problem but in many parts of the country public welfare administrators, both provincial and municipal, were compelled to retreat from their traditional attitude of refusing help to the unemployed employable. This type of assistance was normally limited to the barest minimum: sometimes the allowance was even less than that paid to unemployable persons on the general assistance r o l l s . The 1954-1955 crisis had repercussions in Parliament, with the Opposition urging some type of government action to meet the problem. DOMINION-PROVINCIAL CONFERENCE 1955 A Dominion-Provincial Conference was held at Ottawa i n A p r i l 1955, at which time the Dominion made an offer to the provinces to assist them and the municipalities i n meeting the current unemployment problem. The meetings were held i n private but certain proposals were made, which were referred for study to a Committee of 2 o f f i c i a l s attending the meeting." The o f f i c i a l approach to policy was expressed in the House of Commons on A p r i l 29th by the Prime Minister when he stated: "The Dominion's attitude i s that i t would like to see a system established and administered by local authorities which would avoid the situation which has existed of saying this i s one's responsibility and that i s another's responsibility! to try to remove the inconvenience to the ...  g  Labour Gazette, v o l . 55, no. 5, (May 1955), Ottawa, Queen's Printer, P. 505.  - 29 . . . i n d i v i d u a l r e s u l t i n g from d i v e r g i n g v i e w s about t h e q u e s t i o n o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and have a c o n c r e t e f o r m u l a t h a t when t h e r e was a r e a l need h e l p would be e x t e n d e d , and t h a t i t would n o t be t h e c o n c e r n o f t h e a p p l i c a n t as t o who was g o i n g t o p r o v i d e u l t i m a t e l y what was p a i d t o h e l p him o r i n what p r o p o r t i o n . " J The Conference resumed i t s s e s s i o n i n June 1955, f o l l o w i n g w h i c h t h e P r i m e M i n i s t e r r e p o r t e d t o t h e House o f Commons on t h e s o l u t i o n w h i c h had been r e a c h e d .  M r . S t . Laurent s a i d :  "The p r o v i n c i a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s have d e c i d e d t o c o n s i d e r w i t h t h e i r governments t h e m o d i f i e d p r o p o s a l made t o them t h a t t h e f e d e r a l government a c c e p t o n e - h a l f o f t h e c o s t o f r e l i e f f o r t h e number o f t h o s e i n need i n e a c h p r o v i n c e i n e x c e s s o f 0.45 p e r c e n t o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f t h e p r o v i n c e . T h i s 0.45 p e r c e n t o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n proposed as t h e s t a r t i n g p o i n t f o r f e d e r a l s h a r i n g i s t a k e n as a measure o f t h e b a s i c l o a d o f t h o s e i n need because t h e y a r e u n e m p l o y a b l e , and would make i t u n n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e f e d e r a l government t o make any d i s t i n c t i o n between payments t o p e r s o n s who a r e employable and t h o s e who a r e n o t e m p l o y a b l e . S p e c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n w i l l be g i v e n t o t h e problem a r i s i n g i n any p r o v i n c e where t h e l o a d o f unemployable p e r s o n s r e c e i v i n g a s s i s t a n c e h a s n o r m a l l y been below t h i s l e v e l o f 0.45 p e r c e n t . " A The Prime M i n i s t e r ' s s t a t e m e n t , w h i c h i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e F e d e r a l government, i n making i t s c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e c o s t o f unemployment r e l i e f , d i d n o t d i s t i n g u i s h between e m p l o y a b l e s and u n e m p l o y a b l e s , was h i s t o r y - m a k i n g i n i t s i m p l i c a t i o n s .  During the  d e p r e s s i o n y e a r s a s t h e p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r documented, t h e r e was c o n t i n u e d i n s i s t e n c e t h a t t h e whole problem r e s t e d w i t h t h e l o w e r l e v e l s o f government under t h e terms o f t h e B r i t i s h N o r t h A m e r i c a A c t .  The  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f t h e p r o v i n c e s and t h e m u n i c i p a l i t i e s f o r t h e c a r e o f unemployables had never been d i s p u t e d b y t h e p r o v i n c e s ; and i n t h i s r e g a r d e a c h p r o v i n c e had some t y p e o f p l a n t o p r o v i d e f o r t h i s g r o u p .  2  C a n a d a , P a r l i a m e n t . House o f Commons. 29 A p r i l , 1955, p . 3289.  A JbM., 21 J u n e , 1955, p . 5070.  O f f i c i a l Report of Debates.  I t i s t o be noted, however, that there was no i n d i c a t i o n given by the Prime M i n i s t e r of the e f f e c t the new plan would have on the v a r i o u s provinces. Six  provinces, ( B r i t i s h Columbia, Saskatchewan, Manitoba,  New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island and Newfoundland), entered  into  agreements w i t h the Dominion t o take advantage of the F e d e r a l government's o f f e r , and the plan went i n t o e f f e c t on J u l y 1, 1955,  On  June 27, 1956 the Hon. P a u l M a r t i n , M i n i s t e r of N a t i o n a l Health and Welfare, introduced a b i l l "..,,to provide f o r c o n t r i b u t i o n s by Canada to be paid out of the Consolidated Revenue Fund i n respect of  i unemployment assistance costs t o the p r o v i n c e s " .  He said that since  the Prime M i n i s t e r had made h i s announcement i n the House the previous summer, d e t a i l s had been worked out a t a number of conferences the provinces.  with  The b i l l which he proposed would v a l i d a t e e x i s t i n g  agreements w i t h the s i x provinces already named and would make p r o v i s i o n f o r the other provinces t o come i n t o the plan at a l a t e r date.  The only d i f f e r e n c e between the b i l l suggested by Mr. Martin  and the plan announced i n J u l y 1955 by the Prime M i n i s t e r was one applicable t o the province of Nova S c o t i a , I t was decided t h a t the f i g u r e used f o r determining the s t a r t i n g p o i n t f o r f e d e r a l sharing was t o be set a t 0.30 per cent because of the depressed economic c o n d i t i o n s faced by t h i s province, *Mr. Martin t o l d the House t h a t the p r o v i s i o n s of the b i l l would be found t o go much f u r t h e r than the recommendations of the R o w e l l - S i r o i s Commission and f u r t h e r than the proposals made at the ^  O f f i c i a l Report of Debates. 27 June, 1956, p , 5447,  - 31 194-5-1946 Dominion-Provincial Conference.  He said that these  proposals had not included the unemployables, as did the current l e g i s l a t i o n ; nor d i d they cover s p e c i a l cases and l o c a l situations as was contemplated i n t h i s b i l l .  He added t h a t :  "Under the arrangement which t h i s r e s o l u t i o n and the b i l l to be based upon i t envisage . . . . I think I can say we w i l l be able to write • f i n i s to the deadlock which has existed i n t h i s country f o r a decade or more on the subject of the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the several government j u r i s d i c t i o n s f o r what we c a l l r e s i d u a l a s s i s t a n c e , and that henceforth there w i l l be an assurance of organized assistance to persons i n need in any part of Canada who can not q u a l i f y f o r help under any of the e x i s t i n g s o c i a l welfare measures such as unemployment insurance and supplementary b e n e f i t s , Disabled Person's Allowances and so o n . " 6 1  Mrs. E l l e n Fairclough (Hamilton West) was c r i t i c a l of the Act,  pointing out that only s i x of the ten provinces had entered into  the scheme and those s t i l l outside of i t were the two l a r g e s t , Quebec and Ontario.  She questioned whether i t  could be regarded as a  national program i n t h i s s i t u a t i o n ; and also argued that the proposals of the R o w e l l - S i r o i s Report, i n which a clear l i n e would be drawn between the employable and the unemployable with the Dominion taking t o t a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r employable persons i n need, should be followed.  She pointed out that i n the provinces where agreements had  not been signed, m u n i c i p a l i t i e s were forced to carry a heavy part of the l o a d .  Mrs. F a i r c l o u g h , accordingly, maintained that i n i t s  present form the l e g i s l a t i o n did not assure equality of treatment f o r  2 persons across Canada. 6  O f f i c i a l Report of Debates. 27 June, 1 9 5 6 , p.  1  I b i d . , pp. 5 4 4 8 - 5 4 4 9 .  5448.  - 32 The f i n a n c i a l problems of the Maritimes were r e f e r r e d to by Clare G i l l i s (Cape Breton South), who pointed out that i t was  difficult  to maintain present s o c i a l s e r v i c e s without i n c r e a s i n g the l o a d . Higher p r o v i n c i a l expenditures would be required i f Nova S c o t i a implemented the government's program, p a r t i c u l a r l y since at that date no p r o v i n c i a l program f o r e i t h e r employables or unemployables 8 existed,  Mr. G i l l i s was a l s o concerned about the f a c t that the  l e g i s l a t i o n was administered by the Department of N a t i o n a l Health  and  Welfare and said that there could be "....the danger i n t h i s ' l e g i s l a t i o n that those who administer the Unemployment Insurance Act w i l l t i g h t e n up t h e i r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n so much that they w i l l drop a load of unemployed i n t o the hands of the M i n i s t e r of N a t i o n a l Health and Welfare,"^ An o v e r - a l l s o c i a l s e c u r i t y plan on a n a t i o n a l l e v e l urged as s t i l l necessary by Harold Winch (Vancouver E a s t ) ,  was  He s a i d :  "The b i l l i s a great advance by t h i s Federal government compared with the Federal L i b e r a l government's a t t i t u d e back i n the hungry thirties.  Despite a l l the s i n c e r i t y and i n t e g r i t y of the M i n i s t e r  and despite the b i l l which he i s now introducing .... I am convinced that he i s not going to be able to solve t h i s problem of assistance to the unemployed who  are not covered by any other A c t s unless 10  i s an o v e r - a l l s e c u r i t y plan on a Federal b a s i s . " 8  O f f i c i a l Report of Debates. 27 June, 1956,  5  I b i d . , P. 5459.  10  Ibid.., p. 5463.  p.  5451,  there  -  33  In the d i s c u s s i o n on the b i l l Mr. M a r t i n r e p l i e d t o questions regarding the f i g u r e of 0.4-5 per cent i n the formula f o r Federal participation.  He said t h a t :  "....the f i g u r e of .45 was a r r i v e d a t because i t represented the f i g u r e a t which i t would be p o s s i b l e t o provide f o r f e d e r a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a l l the provinces but one. A t f i r s t we had i n mind and had discussed with the provinces the f i g u r e of one per cent. My Honourable f r i e n d w i l l r e c a l l t h a t the Premier of B r i t i s h Columbia, who was among those who proposed some measure of f e d e r a l assistance i n the past y e a r , along w i t h o t h e r s , had suggested t h a t he was prepared t o accept t h i s as a p o s s i b l e b a s i s . When we came to examine the f i g u r e of one per cent as the s t a r t i n g p o i n t f o r f e d e r a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i t became c l e a r t h a t the provinces of Nova S c o t i a and Ontario would not b e n e f i t i n any s u b s t a n t i a l way. As a r e s u l t of d i s c u s s i o n vdth the provinces i t was agreed that we would f o r nine of them a r r i v e a t the f i g u r e of .45 per cent which enabled us t o cover O n t a r i o . Nova S c o t i a was recognized by a l l of the provinces as having a s p e c i a l s i t u a t i o n . " 11 Regarding the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of the four provinces which had not signed the b i l l he said t h a t the Province of A l b e r t a had objected t o the l a c k of residence q u a l i f i c a t i o n s :  Ontario would l i k e l y come i n t o the  program i n the near f u t u r e : the a t t i t u d e s of Nova S c o t i a and Quebec 12  were not known. 1956.  The b i l l passed and was assented t o on J u l y 11,  U n t i l December 13, 1957 i t operated on the b a s i s of the 0.45  per cent formula.  Ontario d i d not come i n t o the plan as a n t i c i p a t e d  by the M i n i s t e r and the other three provinces a l s o remained a l o o f , A Federal e l e c t i o n i n June 1957 r e s u l t e d i n the defeat of the L i b e r a l regime and i t was replaced by a Conservative government headed by John Diefenbaker.  An important issue i n the campaign had  11  O f f i c i a l Report of Debates. 27 June, 1956, p . 5463.  12  I b i d . , p. 5481.  1£  Canada.  4-5  E l i z a b e t h I I , c. 26.  - 34 been the problem of Dominion-Provincial f i s c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , always a contentious issue i n Canadian p o l i t i c s .  The s u c c e s s f u l leader  promised that he would c a l l a Dominion-Provincial conference t o d i s c u s s the f i n a n c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the two l e v e l s of government, and t h i s meeting was held i n Ottawa on November 25th and 26th, 1957. A NEW PROPOSAL At the outset the Prime M i n i s t e r made an announcement t o the  gathering which represented a remarkable change i n p o l i c y .  One  of the concessions the Dominion would make, he proposed, was the removal altogether of the 0.45  per cent "threshold clause" i n the  agreement under the Unemployment Assistance A c t . I t s removal, he declared, "....would have the r e s u l t t h a t the Dominion treasury would share the costs of a l l e l i g i b l e cases upon the r e l i e f r o l l s - whether employable or unemployable - and not j u s t the numbers i n excess of .45 per cent of the p r o v i n c i a l population. We should then be avoiding e n t i r e l y t h i s i n v i d i o u s d i s t i n c t i o n between employable and unemployable persons and sharing the costs of providing a i d to a l l those i n need, apart from the normal statutory r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of the provinces i n respect of Mothers' Allowances. I am t o l d that a change of t h i s nature would make i t much easier f o r some suitable arrangements to be made t o a s s i s t t h e i r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s which have been c a r r y i n g most of t h i s burden of assistance to those i n need, apart of course from the bulk of the cost being c a r r i e d by unemployment insurance. The b e n e f i t s of removing t h i s "threshold" would be f a i r l y e q u i t a b l y d i v i d e d among a l l the provinces t h a t would be p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n agreements under t h i s a c t , and we see no s e r i o u s obstacle t o meeting your wishes i n t h i s regard." 1  I t would be i n t e r e s t i n g to know more of the r e a c t i o n s of the 2A  Canada. Dominion P r o v i n c i a l Conference. Record of Proceedings. Ottawa, Queen's P r i n t e r , 1957, p. C-3.  - 35  -  premiers to the new proposals of the Prime M i n i s t e r , but t h i s i s not r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e as these d i s c u s s i o n s on s p e c i f i c matters were held " i n camera" and only a b r i e f communique on the day's proceedings issued.  was  The communique stated t h a t , during i t s s e s s i o n , the Committee  discussed: "....matters concerning the f i n a n c i n g of h o s p i t a l insurance, the sharing of costs of assistance to persons i n need, s p e c i a l f i s c a l assistance to the governments of the A t l a n t i c Provinces and f i s c a l matters. Many delegates declared i t would be d e s i r a b l e to remove the "threshold c l a u s e " i n the Unemployment Assistance Act i n order that the F e d e r a l government would a s s i s t provinces i n meeting the costs t o persons i n need whether they were employable or unemployable." 15 The opening d e c l a r a t i o n by the Prime M i n i s t e r perhaps took some of the delegates by s u r p r i s e , f o r i n the opening sessions of the meeting the Hon. Douglas Campbell, Premier of Manitoba, and the L e s l i e F r o s t , Premier of Ontario, read p r e v i o u s l y prepared  Hon.  statements,  which contained the a t t i t u d e of t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e governments to the A c t as i t was i n i t s o r i g i n a l form. I n the opinion of the Premier of Manitoba, the agreement under the A c t was unnecessarily complicated and expensive to administer. I n h i s province the working out of the formula and the preparation of reimbursement claims produced a d m i n i s t r a t i v e problems of the most d i f f i c u l t order.  Maintaining that "the recommendations of the  R o w e l l - S i r o i s Report should have been c a r r i e d out", he conceded t h a t the government i n the Unemployment Assistance Act had acknowledged i t s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to a l i m i t e d extent.  He objected to t h i s 0 . A 5  per  cent formula; and as a s u b s t i t u t e submitted the proposal from 15  Canada. Dominion P r o v i n c i a l Conference. Record of Ottawa, Queen's P r i n t e r , 1957, p. 1 0 A ,  Proceedings.  - 36 Manitoba t h a t the F e d e r a l government should immediately a b o l i s h a l l e x c l u s i o n s i n the present unemployment assistance agreement (other than those cases i n which the Federal government i s already sharing i n costs under other agreements) and contribute towards the costs when the case-load exceeds one per cent of the p o p u l a t i o n , an amount approaching one hundred per cent of those c o s t s .  Premier Campbell pointed out  t h a t , by excluding Mothers' Allowance payments from the p r o v i s i o n s of the A c t , Manitoba was a t a disadvantage  compared t o other provinces.  He said t h a t some cases may be included i n the claims of some provinces as r e l i e f r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and be e l i g i b l e under the Unemployment Assistance A c t .  I n other provinces, i n c l u d i n g h i s own, they may be  a s s i s t e d under a Mothers' Allowance program f o r which there i s no F e d e r a l reimbursement." The Manitoba Premier appealed f o r two o b j e c t i v e s i n the f i e l d of p u b l i c welfare programs under j o i n t Federal and p r o v i n c i a l auspices.  These were:  ;  a) a greater i n t e g r a t i o n and s i m p l i f i c a t i o n of welfare s e r v i c e s , and b) a r e c o g n i t i o n of the d i f f e r e n c e s i n the f i s c a l a b i l i t i e s and needs of the provinces. 22. Premier F r o s t stated that h i s government refused t o enter i n t o the agreements because i t b e l i e v e d that a precedent had been e s t a b l i s h e d by the Dominion f o r the acceptance of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the unemployed employable, by i t s a c t i o n i n a s s i s t i n g the provinces i n the 1930's and by seeking a c o n s t i t u t i o n a l amendment t o enable i t 16  Record of Proceedings., p. 52.  - 37  -  t o i n a u g u r a t e unemployment i n s u r a n c e .  He harked b a c k t o t h e  1955  c o n f e r e n c e and s a i d : " I t was w i t h dismay t h a t we were p r e s e n t e d w i t h t h e t a k e - i t - o r - l e a v e - i t p r o p o s a l o f 1955, t h a t t h e p r o v i n c e s s h o u l d c o n t i n u e t o care f o r t h e i r own b u r d e n and assume h a l f o f the F e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t ' s , namely t h e c a r e o f t h e unemployed e m p l o y a b l e s a f t e r t h e e x p i r y of unemployment i n s u r a n c e b e n e f i t s . We d i d n o t c o n s i d e r i t f a i r and e q u i t a b l e a t t h e t i m e , n o r do we now." 18 The s u g g e s t i o n t h a t t h e F e d e r a l government s h o u l d e x t e n d the Unemployment A s s i s t a n c e agreements t o i n c l u d e s h a r i n g b y Canada o f supplementary payments t o aged and handicapped p e r s o n s was p u t forward by Premier W.A.C, Bennett of B r i t i s h Columbia.  He made no  23 comment on the p r e s e n t o p e r a t i o n o f t h e A c t , THE "THRESHOLD" CLAUSE REMOVED Implementing t h e Prime M i n i s t e r ' s promise t o the  Conference  the H o n , J . W , M o n t e i t h , the new M i n i s t e r o f N a t i o n a l H e a l t h and W e l f a r e , i n t r o d u c e d an amendment t o t h e Unemployment A s s i s t a n c e A c t on December 18, 1957 w h i c h would d e l e t e t h e s o - c a l l e d " t h r e s h o l d c l a u s e " .  In the  e n s u i n g debate b o t h L i b e r a l and C . C , F , members approved g e n e r a l l y t h e b r o a d e n i n g o f t h e measure proposed b y t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e s ,  Some o f t h e  L i b e r a l members, however, h e l d t h a t t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e s were moving i n t o a f i e l d of p r o v i n c i a l j u r i s d i c t i o n by sharing w i t h the p r o v i n c e s the cost of a l l r e l i e f r a t h e r than a percentage of the c a s e - l o a d .  Some o f  t h e members s t a t e d t h a t t h e y were n o t aware o f any g r e a t p r e s s u r e on t h e p a r t o f t h e p r o v i n c e s - e i t h e r t h o s e i n t h e scheme o r t h o s e o u t s i d e of  18  Record of P r o c e e d i n g s . , p ,  22 IfcM«> P» t 6 6  19,  i t - f o r t h i s amendment. Members of the C.C.F, party welcomed the f  extension of the program but took the view that i t d i d not go f a r enough and maintained  t h a t the Federal government should commit  i t s e l f to a n a t i o n a l s o c i a l s e c u r i t y program to b e n e f i t a l l Canadians i n time of need. The sponsor of the o r i g i n a l A c t , the Hon, P a u l M a r t i n , opened the debate on the amendment and reviewed the moves made by the L i b e r a l s i n the past to meet d i s t r e s s caused by unemployment.  He  stressed the burden on the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s of r e l i e f costs and went on t o point out the philosophy of h i s government i n framing the legislation.  Mr. Martin said t h a t many of the provinces had taken  an a r b i t r a r y stand i n connection with the p r o v i s i o n of assistance t o able-bodied unemployed, r e f u s i n g to help the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , who were attempting to meet the need; and r e j e c t i n g the o f f e r of the Federal government by r e f u s i n g to become party to agreements under the A c t , He was c r i t i c a l of the government, p o i n t i n g out that when he had f i r s t introduced the measure, while the Conservatives were i n o p p o s i t i o n , he had been c r i t i c i z e d f o r proposing a p u b l i c assistance measure rather than a plan t o solve the problem of unemployment.  He  then r e f e r r e d to the growing problem of unemployment and hoped that the government would produce a program which would provide  jobs  r a t h e r than an expansion of p u b l i c a s s i s t a n c e , Mr, C o l i n Cameron (Nanaimo) urged the government t o implement the recommendations of the R o w e l l - S i r o i s Report and assume the t o t a l cost of assistance to the unemployed employable, 20  Mr«  O f f i c i a l Report of Debates, (unrevised), 18 December, 1957, PP»  2565-2563;  - 39  -  Cameron was p e s s i m i s t i c about the economic outlook and argued t h a t the government should make Immediate plans t o f o l l o w h i s proposal. He underlined the point that one of the primary recommendations of the R o w e l l - S i r o i s Commission i n regard t o s o c i a l s e r v i c e s was t h a t the Dominion should assume the t o t a l cost of r e l i e f t o the a b l e bodied unemployed and leave with the provinces t h e i r c o n s t i t u t i o n a l 21 r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s f o r unemployables. Support f o r the amendment was expressed by Mr. Stanley Knowles (Winnipeg North Centre) because i t would provide help f o r the provinces i n meeting the costs of unemployment r e l i e f .  He  urged that the government give consideration to a s s i s t i n g the provinces i n the costs of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of p u b l i c assistance as 22 w e l l as medical and h o s p i t a l care. THE QUEBEC VIEWPOINT k d i f f e r e n t view of the p r i n c i p l e s involved i n the removal of the "threshold" clause was voiced by the Hon. L i o n e l C h e v r i e r , who regarded i t as an i n t r u s i o n of p r o v i n c i a l r i g h t s .  H i s objection  was based on the premise t h a t , as the provinces and the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s were the l e v e l s of government best equipped t o d e a l w i t h the unemployed employable, t h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y should be l e f t w i t h them and that i t was f o r t h i s reason the p r o v i n c i a l governments had s e t t l e d on the 0,45 per cent formula.  Mr. Chevrier s a i d t h a t i n  proposing t o drop the "threshold" clause the present F e d e r a l 21  O f f i c i a l Report of Debates, (unrevised), 18 December 1957, p. 2571.  22  I b i d . , p. 2598.  —' 4 0 —  government was a s s e r t i n g t h a t i t had a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y e q u a l t o of t h e p r o v i n c e s i n t h e f i e l d o f a s s i s t a n c e  that  t o the unemployed  u n e m p l o y a b l e s , or more p r e c i s e l y i n t h e f i e l d of g e n e r a l p u b l i c a s s i s t a n c e , which has always been c o n s i d e r e d t o b e l o n g e x c l u s i v e l y t o t h e p r o v i n c e s and t h e m u n i c i p a l i t i e s .  He e x p r e s s e d  amazement  at  t h e a t t i t u d e o f t h e P r e m i e r o f Quebec who was r e p o r t e d as s a y i n g  that  t h e l e g i s l a t i o n d i d n o t go f a r enough s i n c e he r e g a r d e d t h e whole matter of assistance o f the D o m i n i o n ,  t o a b l e - b o d i e d unemployed as a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  M r . C h e v r i e r added t h a t t h i s was an u n u s u a l  a t t i t u d e t o be e x p r e s s e d b y M r , D u p l e s s i s , who defended p r o v i n c i a l r i g h t s even when such a d e f e n c e i n v o l v e d f i n a n c i a l d i s a d v a n t a g e  to  22 his province. The H o n , J , W , P i c k e r s g i l l ( B o n a v i s t a - T w i l l i n g a t e )  prefaced  h i s c r i t i c i s m of the b i l l w i t h the statement: " • « • « s p e a k i n g as a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f a p r o v i n c e w h i c h v e r y b a d l y needs t h i s m o n e y , . . , , I have no c h o i c e b u t t o s u p p o r t t h e m e a s u r e . B u t I would p o i n t o u t . . . , t h a t I am s u p p o r t i n g i t w i t h o u t e n t h u s i a s m , because i t i s such an i n a d e q u a t e s u b s t i t u t e f o r what the members o f t h i s House and t h e p e o p l e o f Canada g e n e r a l l y were l e d t o e x p e c t t h e y would g e t from t h i s government i n i t s r e l a t i o n s w i t h t h e p r o v i n c i a l governments b e f o r e June 1 0 , and even after," 2A M r . P i c k e r s g i l l went on t o say t h a t , d e s p i t e t h e statement of t h e Prime M i n i s t e r to the D o m i n i o n - P r o v i n c i a l Conference, the  "threshold  c l a u s e " was b e i n g removed a t the r e q u e s t of some p r o v i n c e s , he was u n a b l e t o f i n d any r e c o r d s o r s t a t e m e n t s from p r o v i n c i a l governments 22  O f f i c i a l R e p o r t o f D e b a t e s . ( u n r e v i s e d ) , 18 December, 1 9 5 7 , pp.  2k  2572-2573,  I b i d . . 1 9 December, 1 9 5 7 , p , 2 5 9 3 .  t o i n d i c a t e that they were s e r i o u s l y concerned about the .4-5 per cent clause.  25  He supported Mr. Chevrier's contention that the amendment  represented an i n v a s i o n of p r o v i n c i a l r i g h t s and a i e p towards c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of government c o n t r o l "against which the  Conservatives  26  have preached". The statement of the Opposition that the B i l l  represented  an i n t r u s i o n of p r o v i n c i a l r i g h t s was denied by Mr. Monteith.  The  only e f f e c t of the proposal i n h i s view was to deal more generously with the provinces.  He remarked that the b i l l had been introduced  under the auspices of the previous L i b e r a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and  said  t h a t there was l i t t l e doubt t h a t the i n t e n t i o n was to a s s i s t the provinces and m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n meeting r e l i e f costs f o r both 27  employables and unemployables.  He added that the amendment under  d i s c u s s i o n was acceptable to the provinces, and compared i t w i t h the Disabled Persons A c t under which the Dominion and the provinces share i n the cost of a program f o r a s p e c i f i c group. Mr, Monteith said i t was quite c l e a r that ever since i t s passage the Unemployment Assistance Act intended to provide f o r "needy employables and needy unemployables" with no d i s t i n c t i o n being made between these two groups.  In t h i s s i t u a t i o n , t h e r e f o r e , the  M i n i s t e r considered t h a t there was no more i n t r u s i o n on p r o v i n c i a l r i g h t s as the r e s u l t of t h i s amendment than there had been i n the 25. O f f i c i a l Report of Debates, ( u n r e v i s e d ) , 19 December, 1957, P.  2593.  26  Ibid,., p. 2594.  22  IbM.,  p. 2603.  - 42 28 original legislation.  SUMMARY During the decade, 1945 - 1955, there was a complete r e v e r s a l of attitude on the part of the Dominion i n regard to the problem of the unemployed.  The senior government had turned  its  back on the old p r i n c i p l e that t h i s was an exclusive r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the provinces and moved towards a more r e a l i s t i c a p p r a i s a l of the s i t u a t i o n .  The new program, introduced by the L i b e r a l s and  extended by the Conservatives, had the support of a l l p a r t i e s Parliament,  If  in  there was any disagreement with the l e g i s l a t i o n ,  was to the e f f e c t that the Federal government had not gone far enough i n t h i s aid to the provinces i n the matter of unemployment relief.  28  O f f i c i a l Report of Debates, (unrevised), 19 December, 1957, P . 2603,  it  CHAPTER I I I THE APPLICATION AND ADMINISTRATION OF THE ACT  The primary purpose of the Unemployment Assistance A c t i s t o ensure that a l l unemployed persons i n Canada are provided f o r i n time of need.  The Act provides f i n a n c i a l help to the provinces  to implement t h i s purpose?  i t does not e s t a b l i s h a new n a t i o n a l  program. U n l i k e the l e g i s l a t i o n passed during the depression e r a , which emphasized p r o v i n c i a l and l o c a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n the area of f i n a n c i a l assistance t o needy persons, and which i n d i c a t e d t h a t Dominion a c t i o n was being taken because of the emergency nature of the s i t u a t i o n , t h i s A c t contains no such r e f e r e n c e . When the Hon. P a u l M a r t i n , M i n i s t e r of N a t i o n a l Health and Welfare, spoke on the Unemployment Assistance A c t on June 27, 1956, he said t h a t the l e g i s l a t i o n would be an assurance of organized assistance t o persons i n need, i n any p a r t of Canada, who could not q u a l i f y f o r 1  f i n a n c i a l help under e x i s t i n g s o c i a l welfare measures. Under the terms of the l e g i s l a t i o n , however, the r e a l i z a t i o n of these hopes r e s t s w i t h the provinces and the manner i n which they u t i l i z e the assistance provided.  There i s nothing i n the Act which  s t a t e s s p e c i f i c a l l y the type of program which must be provided, the conditions of e l i g i b i l i t y , or the scale of b e n e f i t s .  The provinces  r e t a i n complete c o n t r o l over the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e 1  O f f i c i a l Report of Debates. 27 June, 1956, p . 5448.  p r o g r a m s , and t h e D o m i n i o n ' s j u r i s d i c t i o n i s l i m i t e d , as f u r t h e r e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e t e r m s o f the l e g i s l a t i o n w i l l  indicate.  The r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s imposed on t h e p r o v i n c e s under t h e agreement w h i c h t h e y s i g n are g e n e r a l i n t h e i r n a t u r e .  With the  e x c e p t i o n o f t h e s e c t i o n on r e s i d e n c e , t h e p r o v i n c e s are n o t r e q u i r e d to f u l f i l l  any r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s w h i c h t h e y were n o t d i s c h a r g i n g b e f o r e  e n t e r i n g the agreement.  A s s e t out i n t h e agreement, t h e p r o v i n c e  I s r e q u i r e d t o "make a l l t h e n e c e s s a r y  arrangements f o r t h e  by i t s e l f o r by t h e m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , of a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r  assistance  from unemployed p e r s o n s i n t h e p r o v i n c e " and t o v e r i f y t h e o f such i n f o r m a t i o n .  receipt,  correctness  I n a d d i t i o n t h e p r o v i n c e must p r o v i d e t h e  Dominion w i t h a statement o f c o n d i t i o n s under w h i c h a s s i s t a n c e  is  1 g r a n t e d and t h e r a t e s o f a s s i s t a n c e  payable.  A n o t h e r s e c t i o n of t  the  Schedule s t a t e s t h a t t h e p r o v i n c e s h a l l d e l i v e r t o t h e M i n i s t e r o f N a t i o n a l H e a l t h and W e l f a r e a monthly s t a t e m e n t , known as a reimbursement c l a i m , w h i c h i n d i c a t e s : " ( a ) t h e t o t a l number o f p e r s o n s who are unemployed and i n need i n the p r o v i n c e , i n c l u d i n g t h e i r d e p e n d e n t s , who have r e c e i v e d a s s i s t a n c e d u r i n g the month t o w h i c h t h e reimbursement c l a i m r e l a t e s , and (b) t h e t o t a l amounts p a i d t o o r on b e h a l f o f such p e r s o n s d u r i n g t h e month t o w h i c h the reimbursement c l a i m relates." £  2  C a n a d a , A - 5 E l i z a b e t h I I , c , 26 (amended), S c h e d u l e , S e c t i o n 2 (a & b ) .  2  I b i d . . Schedule, S e c t i o n 3 (a & b ) ,  A  I b i d . . Schedule, Section 5 (a & b ) .  -  45  -  PROVINCIAL RESIDENCE IMPLICATIONS The part of the l e g i s l a t i o n which has the most s i g n i f i c a n t i m p l i c a t i o n f o r the f u t u r e of p u b l i c assistance i n Canada i s that r e l a t i n g t o residence.  This i s the only part of the l e g i s l a t i o n i n  which the Dominion makes any attempt t o i n f l u e n c e standards.  The act  states that length of residence s h a l l " n o t be a c o n d i t i o n f o r r e c e i p t of assistance i f : "(a) the a p p l i c a n t has come from a province whose government has entered i n t o an agreement s i m i l a r to t h i s r e s p e c t i n g unemployment a s s i s t a n c e , and (b) such agreement includes a l i k e clause as h e r e i n contained i n respect of length of residence not being a c o n d i t i o n f o r r e c e i p t of a s s i s t a n c e , " % This f o r e c a s t s a welcome change i n philosophy i n p u b l i c assistance p o l i c y by movement away from r e s t r i c t i v e residence settlement laws.  and  The problem of residence laws between the provinces  i s one which could only be solved by F e d e r a l a c t i o n b u t , i n order that such a c t i o n be taken at t h i s l e v e l of government, i t would have t o be involved i n the f i n a n c i a l aspects of the program,  Canada's r a p i d  economic expansion and the r e s u l t a n t m o b i l i t y of population has created s o c i a l problems, many of them i n v o l v i n g f i n a n c i a l need, E.S.L. Govan i n her study of Canadian residence laws p o i n t s out t h a t : "The laws assume t h a t people have permanent r o o t s i n one community, while our i n d u s t r i a l system demands m o b i l i t y i n the labour f o r c e . This i s p a r t i c u l a r l y true i n regard t o seasonal work, but i t i s also true because of the geographic d i s t r i b u t i o n of i n d u s t r y , " 6 jj  4-5  E l i z a b e t h I I , c, 26 (amended), Schedule, Section 4 (a & b ) ,  6  Govan, E.S.L,, Residence and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n s o c i a l w e l f a r e Ottawa, Canadian Welfare C o u n c i l , 1 9 5 2 , p. 3o  f  - 46 D r . Goran points out that with the increased use of machinery operated by s e m i - s k i l l e d workers and with changing technology i n many industries the selection of jobs i s broadened*  When one industry i s slack workers  may move to another, which may be i n a d i f f e r e n t part of the country* Workers normally move around the country to obtain employment and do  7 not anticipate the need f o r public assistance i n any form* Taking cognizance of the f a c t that a section of the Canadian population i s a mobile one, and that persons away from t h e i r  permanent  homes may frequently encounter f i n a n c i a l a d v e r s i t i e s beyond t h e i r c o n t r o l , the Dominion h a s , i n addition t o abolishing residence r e g u l a t i o n s , agreed to share i n the expense of returning such persons and t h e i r dependents to t h e i r normal place of residence.  Before such  steps can be taken, however, i t i s required that approval of the municipality or government of the province, where the r e c i p i e n t  8 normally r e s i d e s , be obtained,"  In addition the Dominion w i l l share  i n the cost of transporting a r e c i p i e n t , or dependent members of h i s f a m i l y , to obtain assured employment on the production of a c e r t i f i c a t e  9 from the National Employment S e r v i c e ,  Transportation costs are also  shared when a r e c i p i e n t or dependent member of h i s family must t r a v e l to obtain needed m e d i c a l , h o s p i t a l or nursing home care which can not  10 be provided at h i s usual abode, 2  Govan, Residence and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , p , 3 ,  8  4 - 5 Elizabeth II,  2  I b i d . . Schedule, Section 9 ( c ) ( i i ) ,  e , 26 (amended), Schedule, Section 9 ( c ) ( i ) ,  2Q I b i d . . Schedule, Section 9 ( c ) ( i i i ) .  - 47  -  The Dominion has no power, however, t o r e q u i r e a province t o grant assistance to a person whose l e g a l residence i s w i t h i n one of the two n o n - p a r t i c i p a t i n g provinces.  A t the t i n e of the i n t r o d u c t i o n  of the A c t , the M i n i s t e r , Mr. M a r t i n , made t h i s c l e a r i n r e p l y to a question i n the House of Commons, when he said that the Dominion could not impose on the province the requirement that a l l persons applying f o r a s s i s t a n c e , regardless of residence, should be granted h e l p , EXCLUDED AND INCLUDED CATEGORIES Under the terms of the agreement, the provinces submit a monthly claim f o r reimbursement f o r monies paid f o r unemployment  22  assistance.  I t i s here that the groups, to whom Unemployment  Assistance Act payments are not a p p l i c a b l e , are set out s p e c i f i c a l l y , , They are as f o l l o w s : (1)  The Unemployment Insurance A c t ,  (2)  Old Age S e c u r i t y A c t ,  (3)  Old Age Assistance A c t ,  (4)  B l i n d Persons A c t ,  (5) (6)  Disabled Persons A c t , A supplemental allowance or "cost of l i v i n g bonus" provided under the law of the province t o r e c i p i e n t s of b e n e f i t s under any of the aforementioned a c t s .  On the other hand i t i s recognized  22  t h a t payments made under  the afore-mentioned programs may be i n s u f f i c i e n t to meet the r e c i p i e n t ' s needs or r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s .  Payments under the programs, to which we  11  O f f i c i a l Report of Debates. 28 June, 1956,  12  4-5  22  I b i d . . Schedule, Section 7 ( b ) .  E l i z a b e t h I I , c. 26,  p. 5487.  (amended), Schedule, Section  5.  - A8 have r e f e r r e d , are set by statute and take no account of i n d i v i d u a l need.  The Unemployment Insurance A c t allows up t o #23.00 per week  f o r a single person w i t h no dependents and up t o $30.00 per week f o r a person with dependents, r e g a r d l e s s of the number i n the f a m i l y . The range i s from $6.00 t o $23.00 f o r a single person without a dependent; and $8.00 t o $30,00 f o r a person w i t h a dependent. The amount of the b e n e f i t i s determined by the insured person s average 1  weekly c o n t r i b u t i o n *  The other programs make no p r o v i s i o n f o r any  dependents which the r e c i p i e n t may have nor do they make any p r o v i s i o n f o r the payment of s p e c i a l care which may be r e q u i r e d . The l a t t e r i s often an important consideration with these groups. For the above reasons the Act makes p r o v i s i o n f o r i n c l u s i o n i n the reimbursement claim e x t r a payments made to persons i n these categories  U  when the need f o r such payments has been e s t a b l i s h e d . Another group s p e c i f i c a l l y excluded are r e c i p i e n t s of 15  Mothers Allowance and s p e c i a l precautions are provided i n the A c t 1  to prevent provinces from t r a n s f e r r i n g such cases t o the unemployment assistance category. The provinces are required t o report to the Dominion the average number of Mothers' Allowance cases i n the province f o r each month i n a ten year period p r i o r t o the date of t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the program.  I f there appears t o be a  disproportionate reduction i n the number of Mothers' Allowance cases i n recent years an adjustment i s required to be made. T h i s adjustment would r e s u l t i n a reduction of the amount of the reimbursement 3A U " 5 E l i z a b e t h I I , c, 26, (amended), Schedule, S e c t i o n 8 15  I b i d . . Schedule, Section 7 ( c ) .  claim p r o p o r t i o n a l t o the reduction i n the percentage of the Mothers'  2k  Allowance cases t o the general population of the province.  A d e s c r i p t i v e table which i n d i c a t e s the manner i n which t h i s formula a f f e c t s B r i t i s h Columbia appears i n the Appendix.  It is  noted that the number of Mothers' Allowance cases i n B r i t i s h Columbia has declined r a p i d l y i n recent years from a t o t a l of 3,032 persons r e c e i v i n g b e n e f i t s i n the year ending June 30, 1946 t o 973 i n the year ending June 30, 1947.  This was due t o the f a c t t h a t many persons i n  t h i s province who would normally receive Mothers' Allowance are given assistance under the S o c i a l Assistance A c t . An important feature of the l e g i s l a t i o n i s the agreement of the Dominion t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n part of the cost of persons who are 17 maintained i n "homes f o r s p e c i a l c a r e " .  These are defined as  "nursing homes, h o s t e l s f o r indigent t r a n s i e n t s , homes f o r the aged, poor houses, almshouses, and h o s t e l f a c i l i t i e s provided f o r the aged 18 w i t h i n housing p r o j e c t s constructed under the N a t i o n a l Housing A c t . S p e c i f i c a l l y excluded from the claims are payments made t o , or on behalf o f , inmates of g e n e r a l , acute, chronic or convalescent h o s p i t a l s , t u b e r c u l o s i s s a n a t o r i a , mental i n s t i t u t i o n s , i n s t i t u t i o n s  22 f o r i n c u r a b l e s , orphanages or c h i l d welfare i n s t i t u t i o n s . No p r o v i s i o n i s made f o r any type of medical c a r e , o p t i c a l care or dental work, drugs or f u n e r a l expenses.  Costs of these  16  4 - 5 E l i z a b e t h I I , c. 26, (amended), Schedule, Section 12.  21  I b i d . . Schedule, Section 7 ( a ) .  2&  I b i d . . Schedule, Section 1 ( e ) .  22  I b i d . , Schedule, Section 7 (a)(iv)»  -  50  -  services remain the exclusive r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the provinces or of 20 the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . In addition the f u l l cost of administration of the programs within the provinces i s borne by the provinces and the 21 municipalities. The c a l c u l a t i o n of the reimbursement claim has been greatly simplified by the amendment to the Act which wiped out the  "threshold  c l a u s e " . It has been noted that certain precautions are taken to ensure that r e c i p i e n t s of Mothers' Allowance are not transferred to 22 the category of unemployment a s s i s t a n c e .  Apart from the reservation  i n t h i s regard  the t o t a l reimbursement claim i s submitted to Ottawa 2A and the province i s repaid one half of t h i s amount. Agreements between the Dominion and the provinces run f o r  25 f i v e years  but may be cancelled during t h i s i n t e r v a l on one y e a r ' s 26 notice by either s i d e . New agreements with provinces presently outside the scheme may be retroactive f o r one year from date of 22 signature,  20  A - 5 Elizabeth II,  c , 26, (amended), Schedule, Section 9 (a & b ) ,  21  I b i d . . Schedule, Section 9  22  See p , A& of t h i s t h e s i s ,  22  A - 5 Elizabeth II,  2&  I b i d . . Schedule, Section 14.  25  I b i d . . Schedule, Section A ,  26  I b i d . . Schedule, Section 16.  22  I b i d . . Schedule, Section 5.  (d).  c , 26, (amended), Schedule, Sections 10, 11 & 12,  -51  -  To evaluate the expressed purpose of the Act as a means of meeting the needs of unem]4)yed persons i n Canada i t i s imperative to examine the current programs w i t h i n the provinces.  T h i s i s beset w i t h  a number of d i f f i c u l t i e s , however, f o r two b a s i c reasons.  First,  these programs vary g r e a t l y i n many e s s e n t i a l d e t a i l s i n c l u d i n g e l i g i b i l i t y requirements and scales of b e n e f i t s so t h a t a  standard  comparison, province by province, i s v i r t u a l l y impossible. 28 comparative s t a t i s t i c s are u n a v a i l a b l e ,  Secondly,  The problem of the l a c k of  uniform s t a t i s t i c s was h i g h - l i g h t e d at a three-day conference on S o c i a l S e c u r i t y , i n Ottawa i n January 1958.  The meeting, which was  held under the auspices of the Canadian Welfare C o u n c i l , was  attended  by p u b l i c welfare o f f i c i a l s from a l l l e v e l s of government and a number of i n t e r e s t e d l a y persons.  I t was designed to consider f u t u r e  planning f o r p u b l i c welfare s e r v i c e s i n Canada, One of the problems of the conference was t h i s l a c k of uniform information to a s s i s t i n i t s d e l i b e r a t i o n s . On t h i s subject Miss Marjorie King stated t h a t : "We obviously need more research i n s o c i a l w e l f a r e , and i n many areas much b e t t e r s t a t i s t i c s . I t i s impossible, f o r i n s t a n c e , to compare f i g u r e s on c e r t a i n p r o v i n c i a l services; because r e p o r t s by one agency or department of government may not cover the same kinds of f a c t s as r e p o r t s from another. I t was a f r e q u e n t l y expressed opinion at the Conference that much more a t t e n t i o n should be given by both government and voluntary organizations to the c o l l e c t i o n and c o l l a t i o n of f a c t s about s o c i a l needs and s o c i a l welfare," 29. The attempt, t h e r e f o r e , to make a comparison must be l i m i t e d by these 28  S t a t i s t i c s are received annually on Mothers' Allowances, but t h i s i s the only program which i s reported i n the Canada Year Book,  29  K i n g , M a r j o r i e , Conference on S o c i a l S e c u r i t y . Canadian Welfare, February 1, 1958, v o l , XXXIII, No. 6, pp, 251-253, p« 251,  - 52' considerations.  The d i s c u s s i o n of program w i t h i n the provinces i n  the present t e x t i s l i m i t e d , p e r f o r c e , t o broad o u t l i n e s , ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS WITHIN THE PROVINCES The p r o v i n c i a l programs of a i d to the unemployed show a wide v a r i a t i o n .  In some provinces a l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s delegated  t o l o c a l governments, with the province t a k i n g no active p a r t .  The  type of service provided v a r i e s from narrow programs, which exclude unemployed employable persons, to broader ones which encompass a l l persons i n need. Most provinces pay assistance i n cash to a l l categories while a few o f f e r i n s t i t u t i o n a l care only t o c e r t a i n categories.  The f o l l o w i n g b r i e f review i n d i c a t e s the p r i n c i p a l  k  elements of the programs i n the ten p r o v i n c e s , Newfoundland,  This province has a new S o c i a l Assistance  A c t which came i n t o e f f e c t on A p r i l 1, 1955,  I t was designed t o  replace both the Dependent's Allowance A c t , the Mothers* Allowance A c t and t o include a l l p r o v i n c i a l f i n a n c i a l assistance programs under a single piece of l e g i s l a t i o n .  The program i s designed t o provide f o r  a l l needy persons not covered under other s o c i a l s e c u r i t y programs and, on A p r i l 1, 1956,  i t s coverage was broadened to include a l l  unemployed employable persons.  This province has been a p a r t i c i p a n t  i n the b e n e f i t s of the Unemployment Assistance Act since J u l y 1,  1955,  when these f i r s t became a v a i l a b l e ,  k  The information on p r o v i n c i a l programs contained i n t h i s summary was obtained from the Canada Year Book and the l a t e s t a v a i l a b l e annual r e p o r t s p e r t a i n i n g to the p u b l i c assistance programs of the p r o v i n c e s ,  - 53  -  Prince Edward I s l a n d . I n t h i s , Canada's smallest province, h a l f the cost of f i n a n c i a l assistance i s shared by the province w i t h l o c a l governments but the government pays the t o t a l cost where persons l i v e i n unorganized  territory»  P r o v i s i o n i s made f o r a l l persons i n  need, e i t h e r employable or unemployable. Nova S c o t i a . T h i s province has a new S o c i a l Assistance A c t , which came i n t o e f f e c t on A p r i l 1, 1956.  I t i s contemplating changes  i n i t s Poor R e l i e f A c t which w i l l permit the province t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n the cost of l o c a l r e l i e f . years.  This i t has not done since the depression  The province signed an agreement under the Unemployment  Assistance Act w i t h the Federal government on January 1, 1958 t o take advantage of g r a n t s - i n - a i d t o a s s i s t i n these new programs. The new S o c i a l Assistance A c t appears t o be somewhat narrow i n i t s terms since i t provides only f o r a f r i n g e group not e l i g i b l e under Mothers' Allowance l e g i s l a t i o n .  J u s t 317 cases were handled  i n the f i r s t year of the Act's operation and these were confined t o deserted wives, wives of persons serving p r i s o n terms, common law widows, and abandoned c h i l d r e n . New Brunswick. I n t h i s province poor r e l i e f i s e n t i r e l y a l o c a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and i t i s f r e q u e n t l y provided through i n s t i t u t i o n a l care.  While New Brunswick was one of the f i r s t s i x  provinces t o take advantage of the terms of the Unemployment Assistance A c t i t has not i n s t i t u t e d a p r o v i n c i a l program but has submitted accounts f o r b e n e f i t s under the a c t on behalf of l o c a l governments, who have disbursed a s s i s t a n c e .  -  Quebec.  54  -  P u b l i c assistance i n Quebec i s disbursed through  p r i v a t e voluntary agencies, which are subsidized by the p r o v i n c e . This arrangement the government f i n d s preferable t o the establishment of p u b l i c agencies.  This province has shown no i n t e r e s t i n a v a i l i n g  i t s e l f of the b e n e f i t s of the Unemployment Assistance A c t , Ontario,  The Unemployment R e l i e f A c t , a p r o v i n c i a l s t a t u t e ,  provides f o r a sharing of costs of r e l i e f between the province and the l o c a l governments, with the province accepting t o t a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n unorganized t e r r i t o r y .  The costs of the program were shared on an  equal b a s i s u n t i l the province signed an agreement under the Unemployment Assistance A c t , Since then the r a t i o of sharing has been on an eighty-twenty b a s i s , with the province t a k i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r eighty per cent of the share,  Ontario has u s u a l l y provided a winter  time program f o r the unemployed employable, also on a share b a s i s with l o c a l government agencies, Manitoba,  In t h i s province f i n a n c i a l assistance t o the  needy i s administered i n organized areas by l o c a l governments, and i n unorganized t e r r i t o r y by the province.  I n the past l o c a l governments  have been subsidized by a refund of a p o r t i o n of the assistance granted from a fund e s t a b l i s h e d by the p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t u r e .  This  fund i s a f i x e d sum annually and i s d i s t r i b u t e d on a pro r a t a b a s i s . The province i s contemplating more generous grants to the l o c a l governments since these have been made p o s s i b l e through the Unemployment Assistance A c t , Saskatchewan.  This province has had f o r a number of years  a program of s o c i a l a i d f o r a l l persons i n need.  I t has shared on a  -  55 -  f i f t y - f i f t y b a s i s costs of b e n e f i t s w i t h l o c a l governments and pays the t o t a l cost of assistance i n unorganized  territory.  With the  signing of the agreement under the Unemployment Assistance A c t , i t has increased i t s c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o l o c a l governments towards the cost of assistance which they i s s u e . T h i s province has always included unemployed employables, who have no other means, i n the b e n e f i t s of social aid. Alberta.  This province, l i k e Quebec, has not signed an  agreement under the Unemployment Assistance A c t .  P r o v i s i o n i s made  f o r a l l needy persons, i n c l u d i n g unemployed employables under the P u b l i c Welfare Assistance A c t , and, i n a d d i t i o n , A l b e r t a has a program not t o be found i n any other Canadian p r o v i n c e , the Widows Pension A c t .  This l a t t e r provides a pension on a means t e s t b a s i s  f o r widows between the ages of s i x t y and s i x t y - f i v e .  Upon a t t a i n i n g  s i x t y - f i v e years of age they are e l i g i b l e f o r Old Age A s s i s t a n c e , Costs of s o c i a l assistance are shared between the province and the l o c a l governments except i n unorganized  territory.  Here the t o t a l  cost i s borne by the province. B r i t i s h Columbia.  The S o c i a l Assistance A c t , which has  been i n e f f e c t i n t h i s province since 1942, provides assistance f o r a l l persons i n need.  While the unemployed employables are not  s p e c i f i c a l l y excluded from b e n e f i t s under the a c t , they have only been granted help when acute d i s t r e s s was apparent.  Since the province  signed the Unemployment Assistance Act agreements i n 1955, p r o v i s i o n has been made f o r t h i s group on the same b a s i s as other cases, except that grants have been l i m i t e d t o periods of seasonal unemployment,  -  56 -  u s u a l l y the winter months. Costs of assistance are shared, as of A p r i l 1, 1958, on an e i g h t y - f i v e — f i f t e e n per cent r a t i o , w i t h the province paying the l a r g e s t share. The province also meets the cost of assistance t o t r a n s i e n t s and to r e s i d e n t s of unorganized t e r r i t o r y . THE ISSUE OF MOTHERS' ALLOWANCE In a d d i t i o n t o the f o r e g o i n g , a l l provinces, except Newfoundland, have a Mothers' Allowance Act which provides f o r one category of persons i n need*  Mothers' Allowances, as o r i g i n a l l y  conceived, envisaged a program which would provide a i d t o widows and t h e i r c h i l d r e n so that the mother could remain i n her home and give adequate supervision t o her young f a m i l y .  The philosophy was based  on the statement of the f i r s t White House Conference on care of dependent c h i l d r e n where the p r i n c i p l e was enunciated that c h i l d r e n should not be removed from t h e i r homes, or f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s destroyed, because of economic need alone. Women's organizations and other groups made representations t o P r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t u r e s and, i n 1916,  Manitoba passed Canada's f i r s t Mothers' Allowance A c t . Between  1917 - 1920 Mothers' Allowance l e g i s l a t i o n was passed i n Saskatchewan, A l b e r t a , B r i t i s h Columbia and Ontario.  I n 1930 Nova S c o t i a passed a  s i m i l a r s t a t u t e , followed i n 1938 by Quebec, i n 1943 by New Brunswick and i n 1949 by Prince Edward I s l a n d and Newfoundland. Since i t s i n c e p t i o n Mothers' Allowance l e g i s l a t i o n has been broadened t o a considerable degree by i n c l u d i n g i n i t s b e n e f i t s , i n a d d i t i o n t o widows, a wide v a r i e t y of dependent mothers deprived of a bread-winner. Various provinces have extended t h e i r l e g i s l a t i o n t o include wives who are divorced, deserted or separated, or whose husbands are  disabled because of mental or p h y s i c a l i l l n e s s , or who are serving  - 57 p r i s o n terms.  To i l l u s t r a t e the current v a r i e t y of e l i g i b i l i t y  requirements f i v e provinces make an allowance t o divorced womenj three t o those separated from t h e i r husbandsj and nine t o deserted wives.  Within these groups there are v a r i a t i o n s as t o the length of  time e l a p s i n g between the date of the d i v o r c e , separation or d e s e r t i o n , v a r y i n g from one t o four y e a r s .  Four provinces provide  f o r payment t o unmarried mothers and three t o a f a t h e r i f the mother i s dead or d i s a b l e d . Nine provinces r e q u i r e evidence of good character and s i x r e q u i r e t h a t the applicant be a B r i t i s h s u b j e c t . Residence q u a l i f i c a t i o n s vary from one t o f i v e y e a r s .  The upper age  l i m i t a t which c h i l d r e n w i l l be e n t i t l e d t o an allowance v a r i e s from f i f t e e n t o eighteen years w i t h p r o v i s i o n i n some provinces f o r extensions while the c h i l d i s attending school or c o l l e g e . I n a l l j u r i s d i c t i o n s , however, payment ceases on the c h i l d ' s t w e n t y - f i r s t birthday. The category of Mothers' Allowances has always enjoyed a p r e f e r r e d status i n the f i e l d of p u b l i c a s s i s t a n c e . This was p a r t i c u l a r l y marked i n the Depression e r a when unemployment r e l i e f as i t i s understood today had i t s beginnings, when i n many of the provinces Mothers' Allowances was a more generous grant and was regarded as a s p e c i a l type of p u b l i c a s s i s t a n c e , as indeed i t was. When the Dominion government stopped i t s grants t o a s s i s t the provinces i n t h e i r unemployment r e l i e f programs on March 31, 1941 some of the provinces allowed t h e i r s o c i a l welfare programs t o r e v e r t t o the pre-Depression s t a t u s . Others sought t o b u i l d upon the Depression experience t o provide f o r the r e s i d u a l group which t h i s e r a l e f t i n i t s wake. These p r o v i n c e s , i n co-operation with  - 58  -  t h e i r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s * developed e f f e c t i v e programs w i t h i n t h e i r boundaries and a new s e r i e s of s o c i a l assistance programs emerged  0  Many of these were regarded as comparable i n q u a l i t y to Mothers' Allowance.  This was the case p a r t i c u l a r l y i n B r i t i s h Columbia where  s o c i a l allowance r a t e s and medical b e n e f i t s were the same f o r both programs.  There i s a l s o a changing a t t i t u d e i n some provinces  towards Mothers' Allowances and a tendency to include t h i s group i n the general assistance category which i s u s u a l l y provided f o r i n some type of s o c i a l assistance l e g i s l a t i o n .  This i s p a r t i c u l a r l y  true i n Newfoundland where the Mothers' Allowance program had v i r t u a l l y disappeared and i n B r i t i s h Columbia where the t o t a l i s s t e a d i l y d e c l i n i n g , while s o c i a l assistance i s on the i n c r e a s e . The l i n e of demarcation between Mothers' Allowance and s o c i a l assistance or other forms of f i n a n c i a l help to persons i n need i s becoming i n c r e a s i n g l y b l u r r e d i n many provinces.  For t h i s  reason, the e x c l u s i o n of Mothers' Allowance payments from the reimbursement claim has become a c o n t r o v e r s i a l i s s u e . The percentage of Mothers' Allowance cases to the general population i n Canada i n 1955 ranged from .030 i n B r i t i s h Columbia t o .AA3 i n the province of Quebec, i n d i c a t i n g the wide range i n the use of t h i s program across Canada. T h i s i n d i c a t e s the d i f f e r e n c e s between the provinces i n the use of t h i s program to meet the needs of a p a r t i c u l a r category of persons.  I t a l s o p o i n t s up the f a c t  t h a t a case c l a s s i f i e d i n one province as a Mothers' Allowance may be c l a s s i f i e d i n another province as general assistance or s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e , both of which are shareable under the Unemployment Assistance Act r e g u l a t i o n s .  While the Dominion has devised a formula  - 59 which would discourage provinces from t r a n s f e r r i n g cases from Mothers' Allowance to general assistance t h i s does not e n t i r e l y eradicate the disadvantage t o those provinces which, over the y e a r s , have maintained t h e i r Mothers' Allowance programs. The uneven a p p l i c a t i o n of the Unemployment Assistance A c t i s g r a p h i c a l l y d i s p l a y e d i n the f o l l o w i n g table which i n d i c a t e s payments t o the provinces between J u l y 1, 1955 and March 31, 1957. These payments were made t o the s i x provinces which p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the o r i g i n a l plan when the Dominion paid only h a l f of the cost of assistance i n excess of 0,45 per cent of the p o p u l a t i o n . Table I . Payments t o Provinces under the Unemployment Assistance A c t , 1955—1957, Province British Columbia Newfoundland Manitoba Saskatchewan Prince Edward Island New Brunswick k  Estimated,  1956-7 (b)  1955-6 (a) # 1,721,339.28 1,174,734,83 484,130.67 369,519,12 55,033,37 18,854,00  (a) July 1st to March 31stj  I 2,299,894.48 1,562,058,32 650,000.00 it 512,678.33 54,035.89 32,886.96  (b) April 1st to March 31st.  Source: Report to House of Commons by Hon. Waldo. Monteith, Minister of National Health and Welfare, December 19, 1957. This table indicates that the provinces, which have received the greatest b e n e f i t under the new l e g i s l a t i o n , are B r i t i s h Columbia and Newfoundland.  I t i s notable t h a t , i n the case of these two  provinces, one has eliminated the Mothers' Allowanoe program and the other has had a c o n s i s t e n t l y d e c l i n i n g number of cases i n t h i s category over a period of y e a r s . These f i n d i n g s would lend a u t h o r i t y t o Premier Campbell's contention that the Unemployment Assistance Act i s d i s c r i m i n a t o r y i n r e l a t i o n t o those provinces which have maintained  m  60 •»  a strong Mothers' Allowance program.  It would appear, therefore, that  the application of the new act would be more equitable towards a l l provinces i f Mothers' Allowance payments were subject to reimbursement. One important aspect of the problem, which would appear to demand the attention of the Dominion, i s that of the wide discrepancy i n r a t e s of assistance provided by programs within the provinces. The following table indicates the l e v e l of payments made in the s i x provinces, which f i r s t entered into an agreement with the Dominion, These figures represent the average payment per i n d i v i d u a l . Table II Average payments to i n d i v i d u a l s receiving unemployment a s s i s t a n c e , six Canadian provinces 1955 - 1956,  NFLD,  P.E.I,  SM3K,  MAN.  2£i  9,00 - 1 3 , 0 0  1 1 . 0 0 - 16,00  15,00- 23.00  19.00-2A.00  30.00 - 32.00  N.B. $ 8.00  Source:  Report to House of Commons by Hon. J.W, Monteith December 19, 1957.  While i t i s expected that there would be some v a r i a t i o n i n the amounts p a i d , one would question whether t h i s wide range i s consistent with the economic and s o c i a l unity of the country. The three A t l a n t i c provinces have the lowest range of payments and t h i s situation can be attributed to t h e i r poorer economic s i t u a t i o n . The f i n a n c i a l p l i g h t of these i s recognized i n other areas of DominionP r o v i n c i a l r e l a t i o n s and-^if the nation i s to enjoy an adequate l e v e l of public welfare service, consideration w i l l have to be given to t h i s particular part of the problem.  - 61 ~ SUMMARY I f the Unemployment Assistance A c t i s t o f u l f i l l i t s avowed purpose of p r o v i d i n g f o r a l l persons i n need i n Canada, there must be a high degree of co-operation a t a l l l e v e l s of government, f o r a l l are involved i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of t h i s v i t a l l e g i s l a t i o n .  I n the review  of p r o v i n c i a l programs, the widespread v a r i a t i o n s among the provinces are apparent.  This r e s u l t s i n unequal a p p l i c a t i o n of the A c t w i t h great  d i f f e r e n c e s i n payments t o the provinces as indicated i n Table I , Those provinces with the most advanced programs r e c e i v e the greater share of f e d e r a l funds which are a v a i l a b l e under the A c t .  T h i s i n d i c a t e s the  need t o devise a means of a s s i s t i n g the poorer provinces, p a r t i c u l a r l y the Maritimes, i n order t h a t they may b r i n g p u b l i c welfare s e r v i c e s up to a p a r i t y w i t h the remainder of the country*  Because the new  l e g i s l a t i o n i s an i n t e g r a l part of the t o t a l p u b l i c assistance program i n a l l the p r o v i n c e s , which have subscribed t o i t , i t w i l l be necessary to s c r u t i n i z e thoroughly other types of s e r v i c e s a v a i l a b l e i n order t o assess i t s true r e l a t i o n s h i p t o them.  CHAPTER IV THE UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE A C T : PROVISIONAL ASSESSMENT  The Unemployment A s s i s t a n c e A c t ( 1 9 5 5 ) r e p r e s e n t s a new approach i n t h e p r o v i s i o n of f i n a n c i a l a i d f o r t h e r e s i d u a l group i n the p u b l i c a s s i s t a n c e  c a s e l o a d , n a m e l y , unemployed p e r s o n s not  e l i g i b l e f o r a i d under any o f t h e c a t e g o r i c a l p r o g r a m s .  I t has t a k e n  many y e a r s t o a c h i e v e t h i s new p h i l o s o p h y , w h i c h i s t h e c u l m i n a t i o n of the e f f o r t s  o f such o r g a n i z a t i o n s as t h e C a n a d i a n W e l f a r e C o u n c i l ,  the C a n a d i a n A s s o c i a t i o n of S o c i a l W o r k e r s , innumerable p r i v a t e and p u b l i c w e l f a r e a g e n c i e s and f o r w a r d l o o k i n g p u b l i c w e l f a r e administrators. Canadian communities h a v e , by and l a r g e , s e r i o u s l y  neglected  t h i s segment o f dependent p e r s o n s and p r o v i s i o n f o r them has v a r i e d g r e a t l y across the n a t i o n .  T h e i r p l i g h t , f a r from a r o u s i n g any d i s p l a y  o f p u b l i c sympathy, has m e t , f o r t h e most p a r t , w i t h apathy and even hostility.  T h i s has been p a r t i c u l a r l y marked i n t h e case of  the  a b l e - b o d i e d unemployed, f o r the r e a l i t y o f modern economic and s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s has been s l o w t o r e p l a c e the " p i o n e e r " a t t i t u d e w h i c h c h a r a c t e r i z e s t h e Canadian c u l t u r e .  I t i s of i n t e r e s t , t h e r e f o r e ,  that  t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f t h e government's p o l i c y o f a i d t o unemployed p e r s o n s i n 1 9 5 5 , and i t s subsequent v a l i d a t i o n i n J u l y 1 9 5 6 , have met w i t h no dissent.  Indeed the most f r e q u e n t o b j e c t i o n s were t h a t t h e Dominion had  n o t gone f a r enough i n i t s a i d t o t h e p r o v i n c e s ; and i t i s n o t e w o r t h y  - 63 that when the Government removed the "threshold clause" in January 1958, two more provinces, Nova Scotia and Ontario, came into the program* The Unemployment Assistance Act f i l l s a broad gap in the nation's social security program since i t s terms make financial assistance available to a l l persons in need in Canada. While the Act was originally designed to provide for the residual group, close examination of i t s terms indicates that i t goes much farther than this for i t lends i t s support to many provincial programs of social assistance which were in existence when i t came into effect.  Since  i t s benefits are available to many persons whose financial problem i s not necessarily the result of unemployment, this might be more properly described as "social assistance" legislation instead of unemployment assistance legislation.  The broad coverage provided  by the Act i s i t s most significant feature for i t enables the provinces to give financial help to any persons in need within their boundaries. This legislation i s a movement away from the categorical forms of public assistance because i t considers the fact of need rather than the kinds of persons who f i t into certain categories. Unemployability  i s a d i f f i c u l t term to define and the Act  does not attempt to do t h i s .  In addition to providing broad coverage  the Act avoids the invidious distinction between employable and unemployable persons. While the Dominion was encouraged i n the Rowell-Sirois Report to maintain the line of distinction between the employable and unemployable groups, with the Dominion taking total responsibility for the former, the Canadian Welfare Council has consistently opposed this division.  In i t s report on Dominion-  - 6A P r o v i n c i a l R e l a t i o n s and S o c i a l S e c u r i t y published i n 1946 i t summarizes i t s o b j e c t i o n s as f o l l o w s : " I t i n v o l v e s the segregation, f o r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e purposes of "employable" and unemployable" persons* Such d i s t i n c t i o n i s a matter of degree r a t h e r than of k i n d , f o r scarcely anybody i s t o t a l l y "unemployable" a t a l l timesj while i n periods of acute depression large numbers of healthy and reasonably competent persons are not "employable" enough t o be chosen f o r the few job vacancies a v a i l a b l e . The a d m i n i s t r a t i v e problems i m p l i c i t i n the attempt at segregation are s e r i o u s . " 2 The broad scope of the A c t i s due t o the f l e x i b i l i t y of the l e g i s l a t i o n , and, i n i t s present form, i t i s l i m i t e d only by the concept of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y held by the p r o v i n c i a l governments f o r those i n need.  The i m p l i c a t i o n s of t h i s l e g i s l a t i o n f o r Canadians are  far-reaching and i n t h i s concluding chapter the issues involved w i l l be discussed, MAJOR FEATURES OF THE LEGISLATION In the absence of any p r o v i s i o n s f o r a means t e s t the new l e g i s l a t i o n r e v e a l s i t s f l e x i b l e nature*  While i t i s implied t h a t  the b e n e f i t s of the l e g i s l a t i o n are a v a i l a b l e t o persons i n f i n a n c i a l need, the provinces have t o t a l d i s c r e t i o n i n s e t t i n g t h e i r own i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of need. Advances have been made i n r e l a x i n g the formerly s t r i c t d e f i n i t i o n of need which was adhered t o so r i g i d l y i n the unemployment c r i s i s of the 1930*s*  I n t h i s respect the  province of B r i t i s h Columbia has been one of the more progressive provinces f o r i t s t a t e s i n i t s S o c i a l Assistance Act t h a t the possession of personal property, (cash, s t o c k s , bonds, insurance,, e t c , ) , not i n excess of f250,00 f o r s i n g l e persons and #500,00 f o r 2  Dominion-Provincial R e l a t i o n s and S o c i a l Security„ Canadian Welfare C o u n c i l , p, 6 a  1946, Ottawa,  -  65  -  a person with dependents, s h a l l not be a bar to any one  receiving  2  b e n e f i t s «~ The means t e s t has always been a c o n t r o v e r s i a l issue i n the f i e l d of p u b l i c assistance but i t w i l l probably remain an element of these programs.  I t i s u s u a l l y regarded by those subjected to i t as  a h u m i l i a t i n g experience and an i n t r u s i o n on t h e i r p r i v a c y .  There  are elements of t h i s i n i t s a p p l i c a t i o n but i t s e f f e c t s w i l l be modified i f the r e g u l a t i o n s surrounding i t s use are framed l e s s rigidly.  M o d i f i c a t i o n of i t s e f f e c t w i l l also occur when the means  t e s t i s administered by p r o f e s s i o n a l l y t r a i n e d persons, who  bring  good s o c i a l work p r i n c i p l e s to the s i t u a t i o n . E l i m i n a t i o n of the means t e s t can be looked f o r only i f there i s an expansion of programs of s o c i a l insurance and s o c i a l endowment. Another part of the program i n which a wide degree of l a t i t u d e i s l e f t to the provinces concerns the amount of paid to a r e c i p i e n t i n which the Dominion shares.  assistance  In the c a t e g o r i c a l  programs of Old Age A s s i s t a n c e , B l i n d Persons Allowance and  Disabled  Persons Allowance, the maximum amounts which the Dominion w i l l share are stated s p e c i f i c a l l y i n the l e g i s l a t i o n and the provinces are free t o supplement t h i s payment i f they wish. of shareable maximums appears i n t h i s A c t , to set t h e i r own  No  such r e s t r i c t i o n  The provinces are f r e e  standards of assistance and the Dominion w i l l share  equally the cost of these b e n e f i t s . The absence of a maximum standard of assistance administrators of the program with an opportunity 2  B r i t i s h Columbia. S o c i a l Assistance A c t . c , 6 2 , Section 5 ( a ) 1945, f  provides  to b r i n g to t h e i r Regulations,  — 66 — a d m i n i s t r a t i o n c r e a t i v e e f f o r t , which could r e s u l t i n a more e f f e c t i v e use of the b e n e f i t s of the legislation© As one example t h i s could be implemented by a more r e a l i s t i c method of c a l c u l a t i n g grants on the b a s i s of i n d i v i d u a l need instead of the f l a t r a t e b a s i s now i n use i n many p u b l i c welfare  agencies.  With the requirement that l e g a l residence s h a l l not be a c o n d i t i o n f o r the granting of assistance w i t h i n the provinces, the  new  l e g i s l a t i o n takes a r e a l i s t i c view of a s i t u a t i o n which has always plagued the administration of p u b l i c welfare.  The existence of  residence r e g u l a t i o n s i n p u b l i c assistance programs i s an anachronism i n a r a p i d l y expanding economy so dependent on a mobile labour f o r c e . This m o b i l i t y of population has h i s t o r i c a l l y been an important element i n a country where the f r o n t i e r has been both a challenge and a resource. The f r o n t i e r has disappeared but the mobile labour force continues to be an e s s e n t i a l component of the Canadian economy which i s marked by an annual harvest, seasonal i n d u s t r y , and large scale c o n s t r u c t i o n projects.  A l l these require a labour force free to move when work  i s a v a i l a b l e but they o f f e r no assurance to the worker of long term employment. In such a mobile labour force w i l l be found a number of s o c i a l problems, many i n v o l v i n g f i n a n c i a l need, and p u b l i c welfare administrators have often been hampered by r e s t r i c t i v e  residence  r e g u l a t i o n s which bar t r a n s i e n t s from the b e n e f i t s of p u b l i c assistance programs despite t h e i r need.  This s i t u a t i o n may r e s u l t i n acute  d i s t r e s s to i n d i v i d u a l s and f a m i l i e s * The residence problem has continued to be an important issue i n p u b l i c assistance i n both Canada and the United S t a t e s .  It i s  - 67 discussed i n considerable d e t a i l by Lloyd Graham i n an a r t i c l e i n Canadian Welfare,  Mr, Graham emphasizes the important c o n t r i b u t i o n  of the migrant worker and s t a t e s that p u b l i c welfare agencies i n Canada have l i m i t e d resources to meet t h e i r needs.  He draws a t t e n t i o n  to three groups which c o n s t i t u t e the migrant population i n Canada and elsewhere:  the employable, w i l l i n g - t o - w o r k migrantj the unemployable  migrant (the s i c k and the handicapped); and the employable but work-shy migrant.  For the f i r s t two groups Mr. Graham recommends  s e r v i c e s , i n c l u d i n g f i n a n c i a l a i d , on the same b a s i s as any  other  person i n the community. For the t h i r d group he asks f o r deeper understanding and r e c o g n i t i o n of vagrancy as a form of human behaviour.  He p o i n t s to the work being done i n B r i t a i n under the  N a t i o n a l Assistance Act designed to help the "work-shy" and " a l c o h o l i c " migrant. The often expressed view that people move about the  country  i n search of higher s o c i a l welfare b e n e f i t s i s not borne out i n a c t u a l p r a c t i s e . New York State was one of the f i r s t i n the United States to a b o l i s h residence requirements w i t h i n i t s boundaries; according t o Peter K a s i u s , Deputy Commissioner f o r New York C i t y A f f a i r s i n the (N.Y.) State Department of .Social Welfare, the experience i s that t h i s a c t i o n has s i m p l i f i e d a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and improved service f o r persons i n need. L i t t l e evidence has been adduced that persons moved w i t h i n the state or i n t o the state because s o c i a l welfare b e n e f i t s were higher than i n other areas.  I t was  the  opinion of Mr. Kasius that residence r e s t r i c t i o n s i n t e r f e r e with the 3. Graham, L l o y d , Canada's Migrant P o p u l a t i o n , Canadian Welfare, v o l . X X I I I , no. A, (November 1957), p. 163.  - 68 f r e e flow of labour; deny the r i g h t of freedom of movement; and work unnecessary and often c r u e l hardships on people, whose only f a u l t i s a w i l l i n g n e s s to take a chance t o improve t h e i r economic well-being i n terms of employment. Mr. Kasius was speaking at a symposium, held under the auspices of the N a t i o n a l Travelers A i d A s s o c i a t i o n i n 1956  i n New  5 York C i t y ,  t o discuss the problems created f o r the migrant worker by  residence laws.  The seven p a r t i c i p a n t s a l l argued that the migrant  worker was an i n t e g r a l part of modern economic l i f e , and t h a t h i s needs i n time of d i s t r e s s should be met on the same b a s i s as thoseof anyone e l s e i n the community. These considerations regarding residence have now been acknowledged i n the Dominion by the i n c l u s i o n i n the Unemployment Assistance Act of the requirement that the provinces s h a l l not make residence w i t h i n t h e i r boundaries a c o n d i t i o n of r e c e i v i n g a s s i s t a n c e . Whether t h i s beginning w i l l eventually r e s u l t i n a t o t a l e l i m i n a t i o n of residence requirements can not be f o r e t o l d at t h i s time.  A great  deal w i l l depend on the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the r e g u l a t i o n by i n d i v i d u a l provinces, and p a r t i c u l a r l y on that s e c t i o n of the Act which provides reimbursement f o r the cost of r e p a t r i a t i o n to a r e c i p i e n t ' s place of l e g a l residence.  This type of r e g u l a t i o n can  be i n t e r p r e t e d i n many ways and at t h i s time there i s no information a v a i l a b l e regarding i t s manner of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n .  But the way i s  c l e a r f o r the provinces, at l e a s t those which have entered i n t o A  K a s i u s , P e t e r , What Happens i n a State without Residence Requirements i n Residence Laws: Road Block to Human Welfare. a symposium. N a t i o n a l Travelers A i d A s s o c i a t i o n , New Y o r k , 1956. f  i>  Residence Laws: Road Block to Human Welfare  f  a symposium.  - 69 Unemployment Assistance Act agreements, t o r i d themselves of these restrictive regulations  a  I t i s of i n t e r e s t t h a t , p r i o r to the passage of the Unemployment Assistance Act and i t s a b o l i t i o n of residence q u a l i f i c a t i o n s w i t h i n the p a r t i c i p a t i n g provinces, there was some movement towards m o d i f i c a t i o n of e x i s t i n g r e g u l a t i o n s inasmuch as the provinces of B r i t i s h Columbia and Saskatchewan have had a r e c i p r o c a l agreement by which they provided f o r each other's a p p l i c a n t s on the same b a s i s as they would t h e i r own*  Since the Unemployment  Assistance Act has been passed the B r i t i s h Columbia government i s studying the p o s s i b i l i t y of e l i m i n a t i n g residence requirements w i t h i n the p r o v i n c e . This new approach t o the residence problem represents an important advance i n s o c i a l t h i n k i n g f o r i t removes the vexing and binding r e s t r i c t i o n s of outmoded r e g u l a t i o n s .  I t recognizes the  r i g h t of any Canadian i n any part of Canada t o receive f i n a n c i a l help i n accordance w i t h h i s needs, LIMITATIONS OF THE LEGISLATION To ensure a f a i r share of the b e n e f i t s of the A c t t o a l l Canadians i n need there should be a r e c o g n i t i o n of the dilemma of the poorer provinces, who may encounter f i n a n c i a l problems i n providing the type of program envisaged by the sponsors of the Unemployment Assistance A c t ,  The f a i l u r e of the Dominion t o provide  a f i n a n c i a l formula of d e a l i n g with these poorer provinces and i t s f a i l u r e t o set any minimum standard of assistance are two of the serious l i m i t a t i o n s of t h i s l e g i s l a t i o n .  - 70 Encountered here i s the t r a d i t i o n a l unwillingness of the Dominion to define standards, develop e q u a l i z a t i o n formulas i n p u b l i c assistance and share i n administrative c o s t s .  On these three areas  the Canadian assumption i s one of respect f o r p r o v i n c i a l autonomy. The R o w e l l - S i r o i s Report has drawn a t t e n t i o n to the t h r e a t to n a t i o n a l u n i t y which can ensue from wide v a r i a t i o n s i n s o c i a l services among the provinces.  This concern f o r a n a t i o n a l minimum  standard has also been expressed by the Canadian Welfare C o u n c i l . i t s recommendations i n 1953  In  the Canadian Welfare Council urged that  standards should be set by the Dominion t o help the provinces  perform  6  t h e i r work s a t i s f a c t o r i l y . " " The major l i m i t a t i o n of the l e g i s l a t i o n i s the f a i l u r e t o share i n many p r o v i n c i a l programs of p u b l i c a s s i s t a n c e , notably Mothers' Allowance and, i n c e r t a i n provinces, supplementary payments to b e n e f i c i a r i e s under the Dominion-Provincial  programs of Old  Age  A s s i s t a n c e , Disabled Persons Allowances and B l i n d Persons Allowances. Programs f o r Mothers' Allowances have always been e x c l u s i v e l y a p r o v i n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , and t h i s p r i n c i p l e i s maintained by the present l e g i s l a t i o n .  These programs, however, provide f o r a large  number of persons i n f i n a n c i a l need and as such would appear t o have a claim f o r r e c o g n i t i o n i n the l e g i s l a t i o n under review.  There would  seem to be as good an argument f o r Dominion p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n Mothers' Allowances programs as there i s i n the sharing of Old Age Mr. F.R. out t h a t : 6  Assistance.  MacKinnon, D i r e c t o r of C h i l d Welfare i n Nova S c o t i a , points "In terms of n a t i o n a l welfare c h i l d r e n are equally as  P u b l i c Assistance and the Unemployed. Canadian Welfare C o u n c i l , 1953, Ottawa*  - 71 important as older people and yet Mothers' Allowances have always 7 "been a p r o v i n c i a l responsibility8 " ir  Supplementary b e n e f i t s payable to r e c i p i e n t s of Old  Age  Assistance, B l i n d Persons Allowance and Disabled Persons Allowance, are a v a i l a b l e i n the provinces of B r i t i s h Columbia, A l b e r t a , Saskatchewan, Ontario, and Yukon T e r r i t o r y , These payments are excluded from the reimbursement claim although r e l i e f payments made i n a d d i t i o n to these i n s p e c i a l cases may be included.  This f a i l u r e  r e s u l t s i n f u r t h e r discrepancies i n the l e v e l s of assistance between the provinces f o r persons e l i g i b l e f o r these c a t e g o r i e s . Other suggestions which have been made to the F e d e r a l government regarding the extent of t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a n a t i o n a l program of general assistance include p r o v i s i o n f o r h e a l t h services and an expansion of current programs f o r r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . This l a t t e r point i s stressed by the Canadian Welfare C o u n c i l i n i t s statement 8 of 1953," In summary i t would appear necessary that the operation of the Unemployment Assistance Act should be kept under constant review by both F e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l a u t h o r i t i e s to determine the success of i t s operation and to eliminate the i n e v i t a b l e d i f f i c u l t i e s which w i l l arise i n i t s administrationa  From these observations w i l l come  the e s s e n t i a l information upon which both m o d i f i c a t i o n s and extensions of the Act can, be developed, 2  Workbook f o r Conference on C e r t a i n Issues i n S o c i a l S e c u r i t y Canadian Welfare C o u n c i l , 1958, Ottawa, Section 17, p«2»  8  P u b l i c Assistance and the Unemployed . p. a  13«  B  - 72 TEE FUTURE ROLE OF FEDERAL AID IN SOCIAL WELFARE Whether Canada moves towards an extension of s o c i a l insurance or Improved p u b l i c assistance to meet i t s s o c i a l s e c u r i t y needs, the Unemployment Assistance Act w i l l play an important r o l e .  Even i n  countries l i k e B r i t a i n , equipped now with a wide range of s o c i a l insurances, a N a t i o n a l Assistance Act has been a necessary and  important  element i n order to provide f o r a r e s i d u a l group, who, f o r a v a r i e t y of reasons are not covered by e x i s t i n g programs. Furthermore, insurance programs do not i n d i v i d u a l i z e need, but u s u a l l y pay b e n e f i t s r e l a t e d to c o n t r i b u t i o n s . These b e n e f i t s may not always be s u f f i c i e n t i n some cases and means must be found to supplement such payments.  I t Is  here that l e g i s l a t i o n s i m i l a r t o the Unemployment Assistance Act  fills  the gap  8  One of the notable omissions i n Canadds s o c i a l s e c u r i t y program has been the absence of sickness insurance.  A national health  insurance plan w i l l soon be a v a i l a b l e f o r Canadians but there i s s t i l l no p r o v i s i o n f o r l o s s of income because of i l l n e s s or other types of temporary d i s a b i l i t y . U n t i l such time as t h i s type of b e n e f i t becomes a v a i l a b l e i n insurance form, the Unemployment Assistance Act could provide f o r t h i s group on the b a s i s of need. In the passage of the Unemployment Assistance Act a new p r i n c i p l e i s established f o r future developments i n s o c i a l welfare i n Canada, The break with t r a d i t i o n , whereby the Dominion has entered a f i e l d formerly regarded as the exclusive j u r i s d i c t i o n of the provinces could be the commencement of a new trend which would take the Dominion into other areas of s o c i a l welfare.  Two of these areas  of expansion could be i n the f i e l d of c h i l d welfare and c o r r e c t i o n s .  Canada l a c k s any n a t i o n a l standards f o r c h i l d care  although  these should be part of the s o c i a l welfare program of a n a t i o n a l government.  I f c h i l d r e n are t o be regarded as n a t i o n a l assets they  should receive the same consideration extended to other groups i n the population. In the f i e l d of c o r r e c t i o n s divided j u r i s d i c t i o n i n many  2 areas i s a recurrent problem. The authors of the Fauteux Report advocate a high degree of i n t e g r a t i o n between a l l p a r t s of the c o r r e c t i o n a l system, of every l e v e l of government, t o ensure that persons i n any part of Canada receive f a i r and equal treatment.  The  r o l e of the Federal government i n t h i s f i e l d i s one of leadership f o r i t has the greater a u t h o r i t y t o implement the many recommendations included i n t h i s r e p o r t . SUMMATION Canada i s a nation i n i t s own r i g h t and while i t may b u i l d on the experiences of others i t must evolve a program of i t s own best s u i t e d t o i t s needs. Wilbur J . Cohen, Professor of P u b l i c Welfare A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , School of S o c i a l Work, U n i v e r s i t y of Michigan, and formerly D i r e c t o r of the D i v i s i o n of Research and S t a t i s t i c s , United States S o c i a l S e c u r i t y A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , i n g i v i n g h i s impressions a t the Canadian Welfare Council Conference i n January 1958, s a i d :  2  Canada. Parliament. Report of a Committee Appointed t o Inquire i n t o the P r i n c i p l e s and Procedures Followed i n the Remission Service of the Department of J u s t i c e ct Canada 1956, Ottawa, Queen's P r i n t e r . B  » 74. "The most important t h i n g i n a s o c i a l s e c u r i t y system i s not whether we a l l f o l l o w the same p a t t e r n , nor whether we a l l dp the same t h i n g , but whether we b u i l d i n t o that program a preservation of the c r e a t i v e genius of our people. So I would say t o you i n Canada, b u i l d your own genius i n t o the system. Don't t r y to make i t so r a t i o n a l t h a t the genius i s l e f t out. Don't t r y t o make i t so a r b i t r a r y , so c o n s i s t e n t , that something you treasure of an e l u s i v e p s y c h o l o g i c a l value i s omitted. I t i s j u s t as Important i n a system of s o c i a l s e c u r i t y ...» t o b u i l d i n values that you cannot always d e f i n e , that you cannot always make o b j e c t i v e , as i t i s t o have a neat system that i s n ' t a patchwork." 10 The next few years should see i n t e r e s t i n g developments i n Canada's s o c i a l s e c u r i t y program.  The nation i s i n the throes o f  economic, s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l change and i n the F e d e r a l e l e c t i o n of March 1958 the Conservative government was returned t o o f f i c e w i t h an overwhelming m a j o r i t y .  S o c i a l welfare issues loomed large i n the  campaign and i t was apparent that the Canadian people are v i t a l l y concerned with them.  This i n t e r e s t of the Canadian people i n p u b l i c  welfare w i l l determine i t s future d i r e c t i o n .  10  Cohen, Wilbur J , , quoted i n Conference on S o c i a l S e c u r i t y , by Marjorie K i n g , Canadian Welfare, February 1, 1958, V o l , X X X I I I , no. 6 , pp. 252-253,  ~ 75 -  APPENDICES  » 76 -  APPENDIX A .  A table i n d i c a t i n g the operation of the f i n a n c i a l formula used by the Government of Canada to determine deductions from the reimbursement claims submitted by the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia, because of reduction over a period of years i n the Mothers Allowance caseload* 1  Year ending  June 3 0 ,  Average monthly Population Percentage on MpA.. number of persons r e c e i v i n g M«A»benefits  Difference Percentage Percentage from allowed by used i n highest Fed. Govt* compiling percentage deduction  3,032  1,003,000  .30  2,902  1,044,000  *28  2,584  1,082,000  .24  2,260  1,113,000  .20  2,139  1,137,000  ,19  1,902  1,165,210  .16  1,671  1,198,000  .14  1,574  1,230,000  .13  1,462  1,266,000  .12  1,335  1,305,000  .10  ,20  .10  .10  1,122  1,353,000  .08  .22  •10  .12  1,487,000  .07  .23  .10  .13  1946  June 3 0 , 1947  June 3 0 , 1948  June 3 0 , 1949  June 3 0 , 1950  June 3 0 , 1951  June 3 0 , 1952  June 3 0 , 1953  June 3 0 , 1954  June 3 0 , 1955  June 3 0 , 1956  June 3 0 ,  973  1957  Source:  1  F i g u r e s supplied by accounting d i v i s i o n , S o c i a l Welfare Branch, Department of Health and Welfare, Province of B r i t i s h Columbia,  The percentage f i g u r e i n t h i s column i s m u l t i p l i e d by the population of the province and the f i g u r e derived i s then m u l t i p l i e d by the average c o s t of assistance per person i n the p a r t i c u l a r month, t o determine the deduction from the reimbursement c l a i m *  1  - 77 -  APPENDIX B. BIBLIOGRAPHY  BOOKS Cassidy, Harry M. Unemployment and R e l i e f i n Ontario* J.M. Dent and Sons L t d . , Toronto, 1932. Dawson, R. MacGregor, The Government of Canada* U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto P r e s s , F i f t h P r i n t i n g , 1952. G e t t y s , L u e l l a , The Administration of Canadian C o n d i t i o n a l Grants* P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n S e r v i c e , Chicago, 1938. R i c h t e r , L. ( e d i t o r ) , Canada's Unemployment Problem. The Macmillan Company of Canada L t d . , Toronto, 1939. Workbook on C e r t a i n Issues i n S o c i a l S e c u r i t y . Canadian Welfare C o u n c i l 1958, Ottawa.  ARTICLES and PAMPHLETS F a l k , Myron, Settlement Laws, American A s s o c i a t i o n of S o c i a l Workers 1948, New York. Gov an, E.S.L., Residence and R e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n S o c i a l Welfare. Ottawa, Canadian Welfare C o u n c i l , 1952, Graham, L l o y d , Canada's Migrant P o p u l a t i o n , Canadian Welfare. V o l . XXXIII, (November, 1957), pp. 163-171 K i n g , M a r j o r i e , Conference on S o c i a l S e c u r i t y , Canadian Welfare* V o l . XXXIII, (February, 1958), pp. 251-253. S c o t t , F.R., The Development of Canadian Federalism,Proceedings, Canadian P o l i t i c a l Science A s s o c i a t i o n * (1931), V o l I I I ,  pp. 231-247.  Wallace, E l i z a b e t h , The O r i g i n of the S o c i a l Welfare State i n Canada 1867-1900, Canadian J o u r n a l of Economics and P o l i t i c a l Science, V o l . XVI, August, 1950, pp. 383-393,  - 78 APPENDIX B . (Continued) Mothers' Allowance L e g i s l a t i o n i n Qanada Research D i v i s i o n , Department of N a t i o n a l Health and Welfare, Ottawa, 1955, f  Canadian Welfare C o u n c i l , Dominion-Provincial R e l a t i o n s and S o c i a l S e c u r i t y Ottawa, 194.6. f  Canadian Welfare C o u n c i l , P u b l i c A s s i s t a n c e and the Unemployed. Ottawa, 1953. N a t i o n a l T r a v e l e r s A i d A s s o c i a t i o n , Residence Laws: Road Block t o Human Welfare. New York, 1956.  GOVERNMENT DOCUMENTS STATUTES: B r i t i s h Columbia, S o c i a l A s s i s t a n c e Acty (1945), c. 62. Canada, 4 - 5 E l i z a b e t h I I , c. 26. 21  George V,  c. 28.  Great B r i t a i n , 30 V i c t o r i a , c. 3. Canada, Parliament, House o f Commons, O f f i c i a l Report of Debates. 1930, Volume I . 1955, Volume I I I . Volume V. 1956, Volume V. 1957, Volume 101, No, 50, December 18, (unrevised). No. 51, December 19, (unrevised), Canada Year Book. Dominion Bureau o f S t a t i s t i c s , Queen's P r i n t e r , Ottawa, 1955 and 1956, Labour Gazette. V o l , 33, No. 10, (October, 1933). V o l . 55, No. 5, (May, 1955). Report of a Committee t o Inquire into the P r i n c i p l e s and Procedures followed i n the Remissions Service o f the Department o f J u s t i c e of Canada. Queen's P r i n t e r , Ottawa, 1956. Reports o f Proceedings of Dominion-Provincial Conferences. Ottawa, King's P r i n t e r f o r the years 1935, 1941, 1945 and 1957, Report of the N a t i o n a l Employment Commission. Interim Report. 1937, F i n a l Report. 1938, King's P r i n t e r , Ottawa, 1938, Report of the Royal Commission on Dominion-Provincial R e l a t i o n s . Books I , I I , I I I , Ottawa, King's P r i n t e r , 1939, Marsh, Leonard C,, Report op S o c i a l S e c u r i t y f o r Canada. King's P r i n t e r , Ottawa, 1943,  - 79 APPENDIX B. (Continued) A l b e r t a , Annual Report of the Department of Public Welfare f o r the year ending March 31. 1957. Edmonton, Queen's P r i n t e r , 1957. B r i t i s h Columbia, Annual Report of the S o c i a l Welfare Branch of the Department of Health and Welfare f o r the year ending fl&roh 3 1 , 1957. V i c t o r i a , Queen's P r i n t e r , 1958, Manitoba, Annual Report of the Department of Health and P u b l i c Welfare f o r the year ending March 31. 1957. Winnipeg, Queen's P r i n t e r , 1957. Newfoundland, Annual Report of the Department of Public Welfare f o r the year ending March 3 1 1957. St.John's, Queen's P r i n t e r , 1957. T  Nova S c o t i a , Annual Report of Department of P u b l i c Welfare f o r the year ending March 31. 1957. H a l i f a x , Queen's P r i n t e r , 1957. Ontario, Annual Report of the Department of P u b l i c Welfare, f o r the year ending March 31. 1957, Toronto, Queen's P r i n t e r , 1957. Prince Edward I s l a n d , Annual Report of the Department of Health and Welfare f o r the year ending March 31. 1957. Charlottetown, Queen's P r i n t e r , 1957. Saskatchewan. Annual Report of the Department of S o c i a l Welfare and R e h a b i l i t a t i o n . Regina, Queen's P r i n t e r , 1957.  PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS McKinnon, F.R., D i r e c t o r of C h i l d Welfare, Province of Nova S c o t i a , l e t t e r t o the w r i t e r , 21 March, 1958, R i c k i n s o n , E.R., Deputy M i n i s t e r of Welfare, Department of Health and Welfare, Province of B r i t i s h Columbia, l e t t e r t o the w r i t e r , 28 A p r i l , 1958.  

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