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UBC Theses and Dissertations

The Joint Family Services Project : a review of two years experience in making both casework and group… Nordman, Iris 1958

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THE  JOINT FAMILY SERVICES PROJECT  A r e v i e w o f two y e a r s e x p e r i e n c e i n m a k i n g b o t h c a s e w o r k . a n d g r o u p work service a v a i l a b l e through a Neighborhood H o u s e ; b a s e d on t h e r e c o r d s o f two ( F a m i l y S e r v i c e A g e n c y and A l e x andra House) o f the t h r e e c o o p e r a t i n g a g e n c i e s ; 1955-7*  by IRIS"  NORDMAN  and B E N CHUD  Thesis Submitted i n P a r t i a l F u l f i l m e n t of the Requirements f o r the Degree o f MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK i n t h e S c h o o l o f S o c i a l Work  Accepted as conforming t o the standard r e q u i r e d f o r the degree o f M a s t e r o f S o c i a l V/ork  School  o f S o c i a l Work  1958 The  U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h  Columbia  ABSTRACTThe J o i n t F a m i l y S e r v i c e s P r o j e c t w h i c h was i n o p e r a t i o n i n V a n c o u v e r , B.C., d u r i n g 1955 t o 1957* i s an e x p e r i m e n t i n b r i n g i n g c o m b i n e d c a s e w o r k a n d g r o u p work s e r v i c e s t o f a m i l y u n i t e . The t h r e e p a r t i c i p a t i n g a g e n c i e s a r e t h e F a m i l y S e r v i c e A g e n c y , G o r d o n House a n d A l e x a n d r a N e i g h b o r h o o d House. The p r e s e n t s t u d y i s b a s e d upon t h e P r o j e c t as i t f u n c t i o n e d i n t h e l a t t e r Agency o n l y ; b u t a p a r t from t h i s l i m i t a t i o n , i t i s t h e f i r s t attempt a t a comprehensive review. Reaching f a m i l i e s w i t h i n c i p i e n t s o c i a l a n d e m o t i o n a l p r o b l e m s , b y means o f o b s e r v a t i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l s who a r e n o t b e n e f i t t i n g f u l l y f r o m g r o u p e x p e r i e n c e s , i s t h e key note; and t h e study endeavours t o assess t h e s o c i a l s e r v i c e s extended t o those i n need. T h i s s t u d y i s b a s e d u p o n t h e r e p o r t s a n d docu-. ments p r e p a r e d p r i o r t o a n d d u r i n g t h e P r o j e c t . I t a l s o a n a l y z e s t h e main s t a t i s t i c a l data accumulated during t h e two y e a r s , a s w e l l a s m a k i n g u s e o f r e c o r d e d m a t e r i a l o f b o t h t h e c a s e w o r k and g r o u p work s t a f f . Interviews w i t h t h e s t a f f members s e r v e d t o s u p p l e m e n t t h i s i n f o r - . m a t i o n on i m p o r t a n t p o i n t s . I n t h e s u r v e y , p a r t i c u l a r c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s g i v e n t o (1) t h e c l i e n t and h i s f a m i l y , h o u s i n g , t h e n e i g h b o r h o o d , and o t h e r socio-economic f a c t o r s , (2) t h e r o l e a n d methods o f t h e p a r t i c i p a t i n g g r o u p work s t a f f , a n d ( 5 ) t h e r o l e a n d methods o f t h e caseworker and r e l a t e d c o n s u l t a n t s i n t h i s l e i s u r e - t i m e setting. C h a p t e r One d e a l s w i t h t h e p r e p a r a t o r y work o f t h e P r o j e c t and i t s o b j e c t i v e s . C h a p t e r Two s k e t c h e s , a p i c t u r e o f t h e c l i e n t s a n d t h e community f r o m w h i c h t h e y a r e drawn. C h a p t e r s T h r e e a n d F o u r f o c u s on t h e s k i l l s and s e r v i c e s o f t h e g r o u p w o r k e r and c a s e w o r k e r r e s p e c t i v e l y . The f i n a l c h a p t e r b r i n g s t o g e t h e r t h e p r e l i m i n a r y f i n d i n g s and i m p l i c a t i o n s r e g a r d i n g t h i s P r o j e c t . B e n e f i t s .to c l i e n t s f r o m t h e f a m i l y a p p r o a c h t o t h e i r problems a r e i n d i c a t e d ; a l s o t h e m e r i t s t o s o c i a l workers, namely, c o o p e r a t i n g t o d e a l w i t h t h e " t o t a l p e r s o n a l i t y " . Some e n r i c h m e n t s t o b o t h c a s e w o r k a n d . g r o u p work c a n b e . seen i n t h e P r o j e c t p r o c e s s . P r e s e n t a c h i e v e m e n t s and p o s s i b l e f u t u r e v a l u e s s h o u l d b o t h be m e a s u r e d a g a i n s t t h e t e l a t i v e l y s m a l l funds and s h o r t p e r i o d o f o p e r a t i o n o f this experiment.  In presenting  t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of  the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree a t t h e  University  of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t freely  a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and  agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may of my  study.  I further  copying of  this  be g r a n t e d by the Head  Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e .  I t i s under-  stood t h a t c o p y i n g or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain  s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my  permission.  Department of The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i sh Columbia, Vancouver $, Canada.  written  In presenting  t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of  the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree a t t h e  University  of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t freely  a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and  agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may of my  study.  I further  copying of  this  be g r a n t e d by the Head  Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e .  I t i s under-  stood t h a t c o p y i n g or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d W i t h o u t my permission.  Department of The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver #, Canada. Date  May  2g. 1958  written  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS  The w r i t e r s w i s h t o a c k n o w l e d g e the v a l u a b l e c o n t r i b u t i o n s o f t h e f o l l o w i n g p e r s o n s w i t h o u t whose c o o p e r a t i o n t h i s t h e s i s would n o t have been p o s s i b l e . F i r s t and f o r e m o s t , c r e d i t i a due t o D r . L e o n a r d C. M a r s h , whose k n o w l e d g e , s k i l l , a n d p a t i e n t d i r e c t i o n was a n i n s p i r a t i o n . M i s s Anne F u r n e s s a n d M i s s M u r i e l C u n l i f f e were most . h e l p f u l i n e v a l u a t i n g t h e g r o u p work and c a s e w o r k c o n t e n t r e s p e c t i v e l y . S i n c e r e a p p r e c i a t i o n i s extended t o t h e a g e n c i e s i n v o l v e d i n t h e J.oint F a m i l y Services Project. S p e c i a l t h a n k s go t o M i s s L i l l i a n C a r s c a d d e n , c a s e w o r k e r , and t o t h e g r o u p work s t a f f a t A l e x a n d r a N e i g h b o r h o o d House, f o r t h e i r generous g i v i n g o f t i m e and assistance. For h i s p r a c t i c a l help a n d c o n s t a n t e n c o u r a g e m e n t , we a r e s i n c e r e l y g r a t e f u l t o Mr. B a s i l R o b i n s o n .  Table  of  Page  Contents  Ab s t r a c t  •i i  Acknowledgements.  . . i i i  Face Sheet..........  Chapter  1.  iv  A Team A p p r o a c h i n a Pro.j e c t : T h e o r y and  Family-Centred Practice  C o n d i t i o n s w h i c h gave r i s e t o t h e P r o j e c t ; t h e f a m i l y - c e n t r e d a p p r o a c h and t h e team a p p r o a c h . Origin of the Vancouver P r o j e c t . P a r t i c i p a t i n g a g e n c i e s and a r e a s s e r v e d ; p e r s o n n e l and c o m m i t t e e s ; s e l e c t i o n of cases; o p e r a t i o n of the P r o j e c t . Research aspects...... 1 Chapter  2.  People i n the P r o j e c t : Client s  Community  and  Introduction. P l a y - S c h o o l , J u n i o r , Teen-Age, A d u l t and S e n i o r C i t i z e n g r o u p i n g s . The t o t a l c l i e n t body; common c l i e n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ; e n v i r o n m e n t a l factors; family patterns; social service contacts Chapter  5.'  The  G o a l s and  R o l e o f t h e Group YJorker  Introduction. The i n t a k e p r o c e s s ; o b s e r v a t i o n i n the group; o t h e r sources of r e f e r r a l . Groups: t h e i r f o r m a t i o n and make-up, i n t h e l i g h t o f t h e J o i n t Family Services P r o j e c t Chapter  4.  5.  60  Casework i n the P r o j e c t  The v o l u m e o f c a s e w o r k s e r v i c e s . A definition of casework. Process: study; d i a g n o s i s ; treatment. Casework methods; r e l a t i o n s h i p , i n t e r v i e w i n g s k i l l , psychological support, i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . Illustrative material... Chapter  28  J o i n t Family Service:  An  81  I n t e r i m Review  The o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e P r o j e c t r e v i e w e d . The c h a r a c t e r o f t h e c o m m u n i t y and i t s p r o b l e m s . Group work and c a s e w o r k i m p l i c a t i o n s . Remaining areas of study  116  Table of Contents  (Oon't)  Appendices:. A.  F a m i l y Record  Card  B.  F a m i l y Face  C.  B e h a v i o u r a l Symptoms:  D.  Problems  E.  Process Involved i n the Project: Outline  F.  Joint Family Services Project Statement  G.  Bibliography  Sheet  and S e r v i c e s :  Tabulation List Tabulation List Schematic  Financial  Tables i n the Text T a b l e A.  Sources  T a b l e 1.  F a m i l y P a t t e r n s Among t.he C l i e n t s .  T a b l e 2,  P r e s e n t i n g Problems  Table  The P a t t e r n o f W e l f a r e Needs ( T h e i r S e r v i c e Agency C o n t a c t s )  3.  T a b l e 4.  of Referral  Page  to the Project.......  .. 49  Among t h e C l i e n t s . . . . . . . . .  51  Social  Group Work S e r v i c e s . . . .  Table 4(a)  44(a)  Number and K i n d s o f S e r v i c e s G i v e n t o C l i e n t s (Casework)  55 71 82  THE JOINT FAMILY SERVICES  PROJECT  I  CHAPTER  A TEAM APPROACH IN A FAMILY-CENTRED PROJECT; F o r many y e a r s w i t h t h e problem difficulties sons t h e s e  casework a g e n c i e s  of recognizing i n c i p i e n t  developing within f a m i l i e s .  social  and e m o t i o n a l  F o r a number o f r e a -  The l a t t e r h a v e . n o  to press i n a g a i n s t t h e f a m i l y ' s wishes relatively  except  a c t i o n from  N o t o n l y were many p e r s o n s n o t b e n e f i t t i n g  h e l p , b u t many o t h e r s , f i n a l l y  authority  i n t h e few  s p e a k i n g , where t h e r e i s d e f i n i t e  n e g l e c t of c h i l d r e n which would warrant agency.  h a v e been f a c e d  f a m i l i e s c o u l d n o t , o r would n o t , a p p l y f o r t h e s e r -  v i c e s o f f e r e d by t h e a g e n c i e s .  cases,  THEORY AND PRACTICE  evidence of a protective from  f o r c e d t o come o f n e c e s s i t y , h a d  by t h e n made a t y p e o f a d j u s t m e n t  t h a t was v e r y d i f f i c u l t  A t t h e same t i m e , p r i v a t e g r o u p work a g e n c i e s , ticularly  neighborhood  clients.  b e r s , because o f t h e s e  and e m o t i o n a l  fully  same s o c i a l  b e n e f i t from  tend t o remain  their participating  on t h e f r i n g e  have c o n t a c t o n l y i n d i r e c t l y ,  leaders,  par-  of a c t i v i t i e s . u s u a l l y through  Many g r o u p memdifficulties,  i n g r o u p s and Other  families  one o r more o f  t h e c h i l d r e n who may a t t e n d t h e g r o u p work a g e n c y . workers  t o change.  h o u s e s , have r e c o g n i z e d t h e n e e d f o r  i n d i v i d u a l h e l p f o r many o f t h e i r  cannot  needed  Group  r e c o g n i z e s p e c i a l needs, y e t c a n n o t , i n t h e r o l e as s i n g l e out i n d i v i d u a l s f o r i n t e n s i v e help nor take  2.  time out f o r sustained  visiting  services.  When p a r e n t s s e e  a n e e d and want t o a c t upon i t g r o u p w o r k e r s a i d i n r e f e r r i n g them t o an a p p r o p r i a t e  source o f help.  I n t h e homes f r o m  t h e most s e r i o u s l y d i s t u r b e d members come h o w e v e r ,  which  parents  may n o t s e e t h e p r o b l e m , o r may n o t a c t upon i t , o r may n o t e v e n be a b l e skills  t o b e n e f i t from help.  are required  difficulty,  i n reaching  Time a n d s p e c i a l i z e d  these people, assessing the  and i n f o s t e r i n g i n t e r e s t i n t h e u t i l i z a t i o n o f  help. B e t w e e n t h e s e r v i c e s o f t h e s e two t y p e s o f casework and group work, t h e r e stem f r o m t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n e a c h on t h e i r  gap.  This  may  o f c a s e w o r k e r s and g r o u p w o r k e r s  own s p e c i a l i z a t i o n . I t a l s o a r i s e s f r o m t h e  l i m i t a t i o n s of staff, The  may be a v i t a l  agencies,  finances  and p u b l i c  r e s u l t may be t h a t a g e n c i e s d e a l w i t h  understanding. only  a part  of the  f a m i l y ' s p r o b l e m s o r may n o t r e a c h them a t a l l , a n d i n some s i t u a t i o n s may be f o r c e d t o do a j o b o u t B i d e o f t h e i r of competence. gap  The t a s k  as w e l l as t o s u p p l y  value  at the present It  Family  a service that  can o f f e r  practical  time.  P r o j e c t was e s t a b l i s h e d .  in the undertaking work s k i l l s  i s t o f i n d a means o f b r i d g i n g t h e  was i n an a t t e m p t t o a n s w e r t h i s t h a t  Services  were t h e c o o r d i n a t i o n  i n order  area  Essential  the J o i n t elements  o f c a s e w o r k and g r o u p  that the f a m i l i e s i n v o l v e d might  more i n t e n s i v e a n d so more e f f e c t i v e s e r v i c e . s a t i o n had p a r t i c u l a r s k i l l s  Each  receive  speciali-  t o contribute to the goal of  t r e a t i n g t h e f a m i l y as a s o c i a l  The  Family  Centred  and p s y c h o l o g i c a l  unit.  Approach  What h a s now come t o be c a l l e d t h e F a m i l y P r o j e c t i n V a n c o u v e r i s b u t one i n d i c a t i o n the  continent ' strengthening school  Service  o f t h e many  across  o f t h e recent i n t e r e s t i n t h e whole s u b j e c t o f 1 family l i f e . T h i s t r e n d i s n o t due t o a new  o f thought but r a t h e r i s a/revival o f e a r l y s o c i a l  work  p r i n c i p l e s plus the incorporation of l a t e r s p e c i a l i z e d knowledge.  From t h e 1880's t o t h e 1 9 2 0 ' s , s o c i a l  work was  a new a n d g r o w i n g p r o f e s s i o n a s e x p r e s s e d  through the r i s e of  such a g e n c i e s  S o c i e t i e s , the  social  as t h e C h a r i t y O r g a n i z a t i o n  settlements  such as Toynbee H a l l  G u i l d , the s p e c i a l i z e d agencies services,  or the social  other  disciplines  etc.  The s o c i a l  1  r a j son  d'etre , 1  the  community.  and  t o support  and N e i g h b o r h o o d  such as f a m i l y and c h i l d r e n ' s  work f u n c t i o n s i n c o n j u n c t i o n  i n such s e t t i n g s as h o s p i t a l s and c o u r t s , worker's c e n t r a l concern,  i n fact  The p r o f e s s i o n d e v e l o p e d t o h e l p healthy  the f a m i l i e s  r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h i n t h e community. same p e o p l e f o r s u p p o r t ,  c r e a t i n g worker-family-community cooperation  1.  their  was t h e i n t e r a c t i o n b e t w e e n t h e f a m i l y a n d  I n t u r n , i t was d e p e n d e n t upon t h e s e  kind.  with  of the closest  The s i t u a t i o n c h a n g e d c o n s i d e r a b l y by t h e 1950's due  S i n c e W o r l d War I I p r o j e c t s s u c h a s t h e one u n d e r d i s * c u s s i o n and programs such as those o f mental h y g i e n e , f a m i l y - l i f e e d u c a t i o n , p a r e n t - t e a c h e r a s s o c i a t i o n s , and community c e n t r e s , a r e d e v e l o p i n g e d u c a t i o n a l o r t h e r a peutic services to further this objective.  4  t o t h e advent o f government f i n a n c i n g  a s c a u s e d by t h e  d e p r e s s i o n , t h e b e g i n n i n g o f c a s e w o r k and g r o u p work ialization, on  and t h e i n c r e a s e d  t h e area of psychiatry..  information  These t h r e e  i n and emphasis strong  l e d t h e way t o w i d e d i v e r s i t y i n t h e p r a c t i c e How c o n s o l i d a t i o n The  influences o f s o c i a l work.  o n c e a g a i n becomes t h e k e y n o t e .  f o c u s i s ho l o n g e r on i n d i v i d u a l s b u t on t h e i r i n t e r -  a c t i o n and i n t e r - r e l a t i o n s h i p s . family long  spec-  While the importance of  i n t e r - a c t i o n i n t h e development o f t h e problems has  been r e c o g n i z e d , t h e u s e o f t h i s p r i n c i p l e i n t r e a t m e n t ,  within  the p s y c h i a t r i c a l l y enriched  work, h a s o f t e n psychological sociological  been o v e r l o o k e d .  In addition,  t h e newer  i n s i g h t s i n t h e m s e l v e s have l e d back t o t h e concept of the f a m i l y  thus making t h e p s y c h o - s o c i a l  as a u n i t o f t r e a t m e n t ,  approach a r e a l i t y .  L e v i n s o n ^eatman, i n h e r a r t i c l e Significance  understanding of s o c i a l  Frances  "Family I n t e r a c t i o n :  f o r D i a g n o s i s and Treatment"  Its  statesi  "Our i n c r e a s e d u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f f a m i l y i n t e r a c t i o n i s i t s e l f a r e s u l t o f an i n t e r a c t i v e process - the i n t e r a c t i o n of various d i s c i p l i n e s c o n c e r n e d w i t h u n d e r s t a n d i n g man, h i s f a m i l y , and h i s s o c i a l s e t t i n g , a s t h e s e a r e i n f l u e n c e d by p h y s i c a l , p s y c h o l o g i c a l , s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l f o r c e s . From t h i s i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y process, i n which s o c i a l workers a r e p a r t i c i p a n t s , i s e m e r g i n g a new f r a m e o f r e f e r e n c e w h i c h i n c l u d e s n o t o n l y an a p p r e c i a t i o n of these diverse influences i n the d e v e l o p m e n t o f p e r s o n a l i t y b u t a l s o an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e i r dynamics i n f a m i l y i n t e r a c t i o n a n d b e h a v i o u r a s f a m i l y members move f r o m one r o l e t o a n o t h e r and f r o m one s e t o f c u l t u r a l influences t o another.... Family  5 i n t e r a c t i o n i s an a l l - i n c l u s i v e t e r m f o r a m u l t i - f u n c t i o n a l , multi-dimensional operation." 1 Seeing the  i n d i v i d u a l only  one-dimensional view. her  basic  that  the  equivalent  Mary Richmond s t a t e d  p r i n c i p l e s of family  i s the  i s the  t h i s i n one  s o c i a l casework which s a i d i n u n i t of  of  social diagnosis  and  a  of effect  treat-  2  ment.  Present  Irene Josselyn's  day  w r i t e r s have r e - s t a t e d  comment t h a t  "not  the  this,  such  i n d i v i d u a l but  as the  5 family In  i s the  smallest  r e f e r r i n g to the  u n i t of our  family  as  T a l c o t t Parsons suggests that as  'atomistic'  turn."  A new  and  picture  of a f a m i l y ' s  an  social  the  i n s i g h t s not  family  taken into consideration  " c a s e w o r k b a s e d on  system",  total  family  derivable  as  interaction  a unit  f a m i l y members a t t a i n t h e  get  problems.  been d e f i n e d  u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the family  in  i n order to  p o s i t i v e s and  c a s e w o r k has  emotional needs of the the  scale  t r e a t m e n t of each r e l a t i o n s h i p  Family-centred  of helping  structure."  considering  compound i s f o r m e d by  t h i s must be  a true  and  a "small  a s o c i a l system might " y i e l d  from the  social  social, f o r the  as physical, purpose  best personal  and  1*  Beatman, ? r a n e e s L e v i n s o n , " F a m i l y I n t e r a c t i o n : Its S i g n i f i c a n c e f o r D i a g n o s i s and T r e a t m e n t " , S o c i a l C a s e w o r k , March 1957, v o l u m e 5 8 , page 5.  2.  Richmond, Mary, S o c i a l D i a g n o s i s , R u s s e l l New Y o r k 1 9 1 7 , page 1 J 4 .  5.  J o s s e l y n , I r e n e M., "The F a m i l y as a P s y c h o l o g i c a l Unit", S o c i a l Casework, O c t o b e r 1955, v o l u m e 54, Number 8 , page 54j.  4.  E x n e r , H e l e n K., " R e t u r n t o t h e F a m i l y i n C o m m u n i t y O r i e n t e d S o c i a l Work", S o c i a l W e l f a r e and t h e Preservation o f Human V a l u e s . Dent and S o n s L t d . , V a n c o u v e r , 19^7 page I 6 7 . '  Sage F o u n d a t i o n ,  6  social  s a t i s f a c t i o n s of which they are capable.  centred  casework t h e improvement o f t h e s o c i a l  In familyfunctioning  o f t h e f a m i l y u n i t i s a c h i e v e d by d i r e c t o r i n d i r e c t t r e a t ment o f i n d i v i d u a l f a m i l y members, so p l a n n e d , b a l a n c e d , a n d controlled that latter  benefits  statement i s the key t o the h e l p i n g  necessary to consider affect,  accrue to the t o t a l  process.  how t h e p r o b l e m s and s t r e n g t h s  and a r e a f f e c t e d  most a m e n a b l e t o h e l p . consideration  group." 1  The  I ti s o f each  b y , t h e o t h e r a n d what p r o b l e m s a r e The f a m i l y u n i t  s h o u l d be t h e p r i m e  i n t h e s e l e c t i o n o f t r e a t m e n t g o a l s and t e c h -  niques. Family Service have t r a d i t i o n a l l y  A g e n c i e s and N e i g h b o r h o o d Houses  been c o n c e r n e d w i t h  the family u n i t ,  A  t  t i m e s t h i s h a s b e e n more i n t h e o r y t h a n i n p r a c t i c e , h o w e v e r , due  t o v a r i a t i o n s i n emphasis or t h e e f f e c t s o f h i g h  or group l o a d s .  The i n c r e a s e d  understanding o f the impor-  tance of the f a m i l y as the basic of h i g h e r  incidence  facing  social  s o c i e t a l unit plus  the f a c t  o f f a m i l y b r e a k d o w n w i l l mean a r e v i s i o n  of p r e s e n t s p e c i a l i z a t i o n s w i t h into a basic  case  an i n c o r p o r a t i o n  and broad a p p r o a c h t o t h e problems workers.  ^he J o i n t F a m i l y S e r v i c e s  i s an example o f c o o p e r a t i o n  of these presently Project  between s p e c i a l i z e d a g e n c i e s  t o w a r d t h i s common g o a l .  1,  S c h e r z , F r a n c e s H., "What i s F a m i l y C e n t e r e d C a s e w o r k ? " , S o c i a l C a s e w o r k . O c t o b e r 1955, v o l u m e j 4 , Number 8, page 545.  7  T h i s f a m i l y - c e n t r e d a p p r o a c h must t h e n the  total  past  context.  few y e a r s  " I t h a s become i n c r e a s i n g l y c l e a r i n t h e  t h a t the s o c i a l worker's concern  c e n t r e d on t h e s o c i a l but  be s e e n i n  must be  aspects, not only of the i n d i v i d u a l , 1  o f h i s f a m i l y , h i s g r o u p , a n d t h e community."  This,  requires the a p p l i c a t i o n of the basic p r i n c i p l e s of the p r o f e s s i o n t o each o f t h e s e ' a r e a s . be  i n t e g r a t e d as f u l l y  effective  results  range s o c i a l  The l a t t e r  t h e n need t o  a s p o s s i b l e , i n o r d e r t h a t t h e most  c a n be o b t a i n e d  work g o a l s .  i n terms o f t h e l o n g -  T h i s i s t h e essence o f t h e g e n e r i c  outlook. The  Team A p p r o a c h O a s e w o r k - g r o u p work c o o p e r a t i o n  i s , of course,  o n l y pne p a r t o f t h e g e n e r i c a p p r o a c h b u t t h i s a s p e c t h a s been a p r e d o m i n a n t f e a t u r e o f t h e J o i n t F a m i l y Project.  Experience  i n v a r i o u s areas  Services  h a s shown t h a t many  d i f f e r e n t k i n d s o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a r r a n g e m e n t s c a n be developed  between t h e s e  two s p e c i a l i z e d  services.  The  d i f f e r e n c e s d e r i v e f r o m a n d depend upon t h e n e e d s o f t h e . community o r a g e n c i e s .  Casework a g e n c i e s ,  f o r example,  have experimented w i t h t h e use o f s p e c i a l groups i n t h e treatment  of both  - i n c r e a s i n g l y being  1,  c h i l d r e n and a d u l t s ; g r o u p t h e r a p y i s employed and s t u d i e d .  E x n e r , H e l e n K., op. c i t . ,  page 1 7 2 .  G r o u p work  agencies,  8.  on t h e o t h e r h a n d , h a v e e x t e n s i v e l y u s e d home v i s i t s group worker as w e l l within their  categories! type,  (5)  as u s i n g c a s e w o r k e r s f o r s p e c i a l  the services  agency.  A. W. c a s e work and  by  E r l e n has  classified  g r o u p work a g e n c i e s (1)  the  the r e l a t i o n s h i p  as b e i n g  supplementary type,  i n three (2)  the  between  general referral  the i n t e g r a t e d type. The  S u p p l e m e n t a r y Type  " I n c r e a s i n g l y , c a s e work and g r o u p work a g e n c i e s , f i n d i n g n e e d s unmet by t h e i r own s p e c i a l k i n d o f r e s o u r c e s , have employed supplementary p r o grams w i t h i n t h e i r own o r g a n i z a t i o n a l • w a l l s ' u s i n g the t e c h n i q u e s found u s u a l l y i n the 'other' f i e l d . C a s e work a g e n c i e s , f o r e x a m p l e , h a v e b e e n e x p e r i m e n t i n g w i t h t h e use o f s p e c i a l g r o u p s i n t h e t r e a t m e n t o f b o t h c h i l d r e n and adultBj g r o u p t h e r a p y and g r o u p c o n s u l t a t i o n methods a r e i n c r e a s i n g l y b e i n g e m p l o y e d and s t u d i e d ; s e v e r a l o p e r a t e summer camps. Group work a g e n c i e s , on t h e o t h e r h a n d , h a v e ext e n s i v e l y used 'neighborhood v i s i t o r s ' ; now some o f them a r e e x p e r i m e n t i n g w i t h t h e use o f case w o r k e r s employed f o r i n t a k e or o t h e r s p e c i a l s e r v i c e s w i t h i n the agency. The  Referral  Type  "Many c a s e work and g r o u p work a g e n c i e s , b e c o m i n g more and more aware o f e a c h o t h e r ' s r e s o u r c e s , h a v e b e e n d o i n g a good d e a l o f e x p l o r i n g of procedure f o r r e f e r r i n g persons f o r s e r v i c e s f r o m one a g e n c y t o a n o t h r . In these instances, n e i t h e r o r g a n i z a t i o n takes r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the process o f s e r v i c e , a f t e r r e f e r r a l o f an i n d i v i d u a l t o the o t h e r agency; the c o n c e n t r a t i o n of e f f o r t and t h i n k i n g has been e s t a b l i s h i n g t h e c o n t a c t f o r use o f t h e o t h e r r e s o u r c e f o r h e l p i n g i n dividuals. Most of the present i n t e r - a g e n c y r e l a t i o n s h i p s a r e o f t h i s t y p e and f r o m them we h a v e l e a r n e d a g r e a t d e a l a b o u t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f c a s e work and g r o u p work and a b o u t what e  v  9  k i n d s o f p r o b l e m s c a n o r s h o u l d be r e f e r r e d t o a s c a s e work a g e n c y ; and what k i n d s o f i n * d i v i d u a l s c a n b e s t be r e f e r r e d t o a g r o u p work a g e n c y f o r s e r v i c e , and what k i n d o f b e h a v i o u r p a t t e r n c a n n o t be h a n d l e d t h e r e . The  Integrated  Type  " I n some few i n s t a n c e s , c a s e work and g r o u p work a g e n c i e s h a v e been a b l e t o r e c o g n i z e common r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n t h e 'no man's l a n d e x i s t i n g b e t w e e n c a s e work and g r o u p work s e r v i c e s and have o r g a n i z e d i n t e g r a t e d r e l a t i o n s h i p s f o r u t i l i z a t i o n o f e a c h o t h e r ' s s k i l l s and resources. Operating i n j o i n t l y supervised p r o j e c t s which take v a r i o u s forms, t h i s type of r e l a t i o n s h i p , where e m p l o y e d , has g r e a t l y expanded t h e s e r v i c e h o r i z o n s and q u a n t i t y , as w e l l as q u a l i t y , o f e x c h a n g e o f s e r v i c e s . The b a r r i e r o f ' d e f i n i t i o n of f u n c t i o n , though sometimes n e c e s s a r y f o r e f f e c t i v e o p e r a t i o n o f a g e n c i e s , has o f t e n c o n f i n e d a g e n c i e s and p r e v e n t e d them f r o m c o n s i d e r i n g t h i s t y p e o f r e l a t i o n s h i p . The t r e n d i s e v i d e n t , h o w e v e r , and, more and more, c a s e and g r o u p work a g e n c i e s a r e m o v i n g . i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n as t h e y l e a r n how t o u s e e a c h o t h e r and o v e r c o m e t r a d i t i o n a l i s o l a t i o n and t h e b l o c k i n g s of i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n . 1  1  "Case work and g r o u p work h a v e much t o g i v e t o e a c h o t h e r - and t h e b e s t c h a n n e l f o r t r a n s m i s s i o n of t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e c o n t r i b u t i o n s can come t h r o u g h an i n t e g r a t e d r e l a t i o n s h i p i n s e r v i c e to i n d i v i d u a l s f o r which both agencies s h a r e a common r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . " 1 As the  will  seen from the  above, E r l e n  i n t e g r a t e d t y p e o f r e l a t i o n s h i p as  more c a s e work and  1.  be  one  g r o u p work a g e n c i e s a r e  considers  t o w h i c h "more  and  moving."  E r l e n , A.W., "The I m p l i c a t i o n s o f a R e l a t i o n s h i p B e t w e e n a G r o u p Work A g e n c y and a C a s e Work A g e n c y " , P r o c e e d i n g s of the N a t i o n a l Conference of J e w i s h S o c i a l S e r v i c e , 19J7.  10.  Erlen briefly prevented Apart way  d i s c u s s e s "the b a r r i e r . . . ( w h i c h has)  them f r o m c o n s i d e r i n g t h i s t y p e  from t h i s b a r r i e r ,  and  has  come t o t h e  another f o r e as  b e g a n t o work more c l o s e l y . between t h e s e  practitioners  of  relationship."  d i f f i c u l t y has  stood  c a s e w o r k e r s and  Misunderstandings o f t e n stood  i n the  group  and  i n t h e way  workers  prejudices of  co-  operation. Wilson  has  a t t i t u d e s which are  made a c o m p l e t e s t u d y  common and e a r l y stages  major problems has  been the  shortage  of cooperation.  d i f f e r e n c e i n the  d e v e l o p m e n t o f g r o u p work and of t r a i n e d group  prejudiced  the problems which have  workers during the  fessional  of the  One  stage  beset  of of  c s e work and a  the pro-  the  workers.  "The g r e a t e s t b l o c k t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of c o o p e r a t i v e s e r v i c e between case w o r k e r s and g r o u p w o r k e r s i s t h e l a c k o f u n d e r * s t a n d i n g by e a c h o f t h e b a s i c c o n c e p t s and p r a c t i c e of the other." 1 During  the  e x p e r i m e n t s t h e r e has focussed  skills  sound f o u n d a t i o n  1.  stages  i n most  cooperative  t o be a p e r i o d where t h e  on o v e r c o m i n g p r e j u d i c e s and  t i o n s and  stages,  initial  of each f i e l d  emphasis i s  i n t e r p r e t i n g the  of p r a c t i c e u n t i l  for cooperative practice.  there i s a  In the  perhaps,, t h e most o u t s t a n d i n g v a l u e has  func-  early  heen t h a t  W i l s o n , G e r t r u d e , G r o u p Work and C a s e Work, T h e i r R e l a t i o n s h i p and P r a c t i c e , (New Y o r k : Family Welfare A s s o c i a t i o n , 194-1) page 10.  11.  c a s e w o r k e r s and g r o u p w o r k e r s h a v e l e a r n e d t o a c c e p t e a c h o t h e r , a n d work t o g e t h e r . perfect their  From t h e r e t h e y have gone on t o  r e l a t i o n s h i p and p r a c t i c e . "The e a r l y e f f o r t s a t b r i n g i n g c a s e work and g r o u p work c l o s e r t o g e t h e r gave w o r k e r s i n b o t h f i e l d s a new a w a r e n e s s o f each o t h e r ' s r e s o u r c e s , f u n c t i o n s and limitations." 1  In ities.  g r o u p work  settings there are various  Case w o r k e r s have been l e n t t o group work  case w o r k e r s have been employed as f u l l - t i m e of the  staff  possibil-  agencies; members  t h e g r o u p work a g e n c y ; o r c a s e w o r k e r s have r e m a i n e d i n c a s e work a g e n c y a n d c l o s e i n t e g r a t e d  been d e v e l o p e d .  relationships  have  S c h e i d l i n g e r p o i n t s o u t t h e m a i n r e a s o n why  g r o u p work a g e n c i e s e m p l o y e d t h e s e r v i c e s o f c a s e w o r k e r s : "In a l l i n s t a n c e s d i s c u s s e d , t h e i n i t i a t i v e i n b r i n g i n g case workers t o group work a g e n c i e s came f r o m t h e f i e l d o f g r o u p work. The m o t i v a t i o n s were t h e r e c e n t increase i n d i f f i c u l t behaviour of c h i l d r e n and t h e g r o w i n g i n t e r e s t o f g r o u p w o r k e r s i n t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f human b e h a v i o u r . " 2 Regardless of the very  different kinds of r e l a t i o n -  s h i p s t h a t have been d e v e l o p e d , and t h e d i f f e r i n g to  o p i n i o n s as  how c a s e w o r k e r s s h o u l d be u s e d i n t h e g r o u p work  t h e r e i s g e n e r a l a g r e e m e n t t h a t much i s t o be g a i n e d  setting, through  1.  S c h e i d l i n g e r , S a u l , "A C o m p a r a t i v e S t u d y o f t h e Use o f Work S e r v i c e s i n Group Work S e t t i n g s " , ( U n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r ' t h e s i s , School of A p p l i e d S o c i a l Sciences, U n i v e r s i t y o f P i t t s b u r g h , 1944)  2.  S c h e i d l i n g e r , S a u l , " P a t t e r n s o f C a s e Work S e r v i c e i n G r o u p Work A g e n c i e s " , The G r o u p , N o v e m b e r , 1 9 4 5 , page 6 .  12.  a c l o s e r c o o p e r a t i o n of group workers w i t h case workers. The  case worker i s h e l p f u l  t o t h e group  worker  by h e l p i n g t o i n c r e a s e t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f i n d i v i d u a l h a v i o u r and i m p r o v i n g t h e i r g r o u p members.  I t would  skill  i n working with  be-  individual  seem t h a t i n many a g e n c i e s g r o u p  l e a d e r s and g r o u p work s t a f f n e e d e d t o u s e t h e c a s e w o r k e r f o r h e l p i n i m p r o v i n g t h e i r own  practice.  This  situation  can  be a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e l a c k o f t r a i n e d g r o u p w o r k e r s and t o t h e e x t e n s i v e use o f v o l u n t e e r l e a d e r s w h i c h e x i s t agencies.  I n some c a s e s , h o w e v e r ,  w o r k e r s were a v a i l a b l e ,  i n most  e v e n where t r a i n e d  group  t h e c a s e w o r k e r and h i s p a r t i c u l a r  a p p r o a c h t o t h e p r o b l e m o f i n d i v i d u a l s and an u n d e r s t a n d i n g of a l l  aspects of p e r s o n a l i t y  development  i s very  valuable.  I n t h e o p i n i o n o f B e r t r a m G o l d , t h e r e i s need t o r e - e v a l u a t e g r o u p work - c a s e work r e l a t i o n s h i p s .  He  believes  t h a t group w o r k e r s s h o u l d n o t need t o b r i n g i n case w o r k e r s t o h e l p them g a i n  insight.  " E m p h a s i s must be u p o n h a v i n g g r o u p workers s e n s i t i v e to i n d i v i d u a l behaviour, d i a g n o s t i c a l l y o r i e n t a t e d ; a b l e t o use t h e i n t e r v i e w , h a v i n g k n o w l e d g e o f community resources; capable of referring....Our focus o u g h t n o t t o be upon h a v i n g c a s e w o r k e r s w i t h i n o u r a g e n c i e s t o do g r o u p work o r f o r t h a t m a t t e r upon h a v i n g g r o u p w o r k e r s who w i l l do c a s e work." 1 1.  G o l d , B e r t r a m , "Work w i t h I n d i v i d u a l s O u t s i d e t h e G r o u p " , T o w a r d P r o f e s s i o n a l S t a n d a r d s . New Y o r k , 194-7, page 9 6 . .  15.  The relationship  i n t e g r a t e d t y p e o f g r o u p work - c a s e work  i s n o t , o f c o u r s e , b a s e d on t h e c o n c e p t t h a t t h e  case worker w i l l  do g r o u p  work a n d v i c e v e r s a .  ever, a case f o r t h e s e n s i t i v i t y which Gold The  i s , how-  discusses.  g r o w i n g u s e o f t h e team a p p r o a c h i n a g e n c i e s  underlines the necessity to clearly  define the roles of the  s p e c i a l i s t s and i n t e g r a t i n g t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s to  There  i n s u c h a way a s  be o f b e s t s e r v i c e t o t h e c l i e n t . "Knowledge and u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f i n d i v i d u a l b e h a v i o u r , o f t h e dynamics o f t h e i n t e r a c t i n g p r o c e s s e s w i t h i n g r o u p s , and o f t h e f u n c t i o n ing o f s o c i e t y form t h e composite background u p o n w h i c h a s o c i a l w o r k e r d r a w s when he endeavours t o understand t h e i n d i v i d u a l i n his setting. A s s o c i a l w o r k e r s h a v e become c o n s c i o u s o f t h e deeper meaning o f unders t a n d i n g , t h e y h a v e become c o n s c i o u s o f t h e help that workers i n s p e c i a l i z e d areaB o f s o c i a l work p r a c t i c e may g i v e t o e a c h o t h e r . Through c o n s u l t a t i o n and c o o p e r a t i v e work, case w o r k e r s and group workers a r e b r o a d ening t h e i r understanding of i n d i v i d u a l s and g r o u p s , a n d a r e b r i n g i n g t o t h e f o r e many q u e s t i o n s f u n d a m e n t a l t o t h e p r a c t i c e and p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g f o r b o t h c a s e work and g r o u p work." 1  O r i g i n o f t h e Vancouver In  Project  the Vancouver  area, the f i r s t  attempt  a s o l u t i o n of the,problems of c o o r d i n a t i o n o u t l i n e d was t h e p l a c i n g i n 1949 o f two U n i v e r s i t y  1.  W i l s o n , G e r t r u d e , op. c i t .  page 5  of B r i t i s h  toward previously Columbia  14.  casework students ment was  carried  i n Gordon N e i g h b o r h o o d House. on f o r two  s u c c e s s f u l at the time assistance to  of  t h e n e e d f o r more t r e a t m e n t  2  considered  generally  Requests f o r necessary  In a d d i t i o n , to the  student  resources  the  project  and  coordinated  these.  i n v o l v e d as f o l l o w s : Family  and  g r o u p s became i n t e r e s t e d and  a f t e r G o r d o n N e i g h b o r h o o d H o u s e came t h e  S e r v i c e Agency, then Alexandra  finally  t h e Community C h e s t and  f o u r met  to  House e x p e r i m e n t . evaluated  began t o a c t i v e l y fessional  Council.  Representatives  to c o n s i d e r the f i n d i n g s of the  and  reviewed  p r o c e d u r e s and  process  establishment,  Neighborhood  i n September of  of  Gordon con-  they  consider a d e t a i l e d plan to provide  c a s e w o r k s e r v i c e s a t t h e two  and  concern  A f t e r a p e r i o d i n which the agencies  T h i s r e s u l t e d i n the the J o i n t  N e i g h b o r h o o d House,  d i s c u s s unmet n e e d s w i t h p a r t i c u l a r  a b o u t r e f e r r a l s and  cerned  range.  b e n e f i t s achieved,  Other agencies  these  was  experi-  so numerous t h a t i t became  l i m i t them t o a d e f i n e d age  p o i n t e d up  and  The  o f i t s c o n c l u s i o n i n 1952.  soon grew t o be  immediate i n d i v i d u a l  use  years  1  pro-  Houses.  1955*  of'  Family Services P r o j e c t .  1.  T h i s i s f u l l y d e s c r i b e d by F r e d H u t c h i n s o n i n C a s e w o r k S e r v i c e s i n a N e i g h b o r h o o d House, u n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r o f S o c i a l Work T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1952  2.  F u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n i s g i v e n i n an u n p u b l i s h e d p a p e r by H e l e n K. E x n e r , P l a n f o r I m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f C a s e w o r k S e r v i c e s i n Neighborhood Houses, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1956.  15.  From i t s i n c e p t i o n the P r o j e c t was  envisaged as an  experimental undertaking only and so f o r m a l l y ceased i n December 1 of  1957,  As such, c e r t a i n c o n t r o l s were e f f e c t e d , r e s e a r c h  jfeools devised, and of  statistical  and case records kept.  Because  the c o n t r o l f a c t o r s as w e l l as time l i m i t a t i o n s , the present  t h e s i s had to be c o n f i n e d to the P r o j e c t as i t f u n c t i o n e d i n Alexandra Neighborhood  House,  As s t a t e d i n the f i r s t main r e p o r t , i s s u e d i n 1 9 5 5 * the  1,  P r o j e c t was developed with the f o l l o w i n g o b j e c t i v e s i n mindi 1, To seek out persons i n need of i n d i v i d u a l s e r v i c e s and to b r i n g s e r v i c e s to them, 2,  To demonstrate the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of t r e a t ment which combined the s k i l l s and resources of both group work and casework a g e n c i e s ,  5,  To determine the p o s s i b i l i t i e s and weaknesses of s e r v i c e s to f a m i l i e s r e f e r r e d f o r casework on a non-voluntary b a s i s ,  4,  To demonstrate the way i n which the agencies can r e l a t e t h e i r s e r v i c e s i n a j o i n t e f f o r t to f i l l a community gap,  5«  To b u i l d up a back-log of i n f o r m a t i o n i n d i c a t i n g persons i n the community who cannot be helped e i t h e r by casework or group work.  In the f i r s t year the P r o j e c t was f i n a n c e d from two sources. The J u n i o r League, i n a d d i t i o n to i t s v o l u n t e e r s e r v i c e s , provided the major p o r t i o n of funds necessary f o r the operation. Balance was a c q u i r e d through the Mrs, Frank Smith Legacy, approved f o r t h i s purpose by the Board of D i r e c t o r s of the Community Chest, When i t was o f f i c i a l l y decided to continue the P r o j e c t f o r a second year the Community Chest then s u p p l i e d t w o - t h i r d s of the needed funds with the J u n i o r League p r o v i d i n g the remainder. T h i s money was mainly used f o r payment of s a l a r i e s and o p e r a t i n g expenses.  16.  6.  To d e m o n s t r a t e t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f e x t e n d i n g e x i s t i n g services to senior c i t i z e n s .  7.  To make known a v a i l a b l e community r e s o u r c e s e n c o u r a g e t h e i r u s e at. a t i m e when n e e d e d .  8.  To  i n d i c a t e o t h e r needed  P a r t i c i p a t i n g Agencies Alexandra Settlement  the Areas  through  and  neighborhood l i f e .  the p r o v i s i o n  practice  people  democracy w h i l e they 1  pursuits."  f r o m "two  T h i s purpose i s  f o r a l l persons  geographical area.  g r o u p work m e t h o d s , h e l p t h e s e  those  i n the  of a v a r i e t y of i n d i v i d u a l ,  inter-group experiences  w i t h i n the prescribed  reational  Served  House Movement, t h e p u r p o s e o f w h i c h i s " t o p r o m o t e  g r o u p , and  to  services.  N e i g h b o r h o o d House i s r o o t e d  h e a l t h y , happy f a m i l y fulfilled  and  and  Leaders,  who  live  trained  t o grow p e r s o n a l l y  enjoy  in  and  a v a r i e t y of r e c -  •  I n age  to ninety-two"  range, and  t h e House i s open t o  endeavours to p r o v i d e Small  groups are  con-  s t r u c t i v e group e x p e r i e n c e  f o r them.  en-  c o u r a g e d where e a c h p e r s o n  r e c e i v e s a maximum o f i n d i v i d u a l  attention. While Alexandra  House i s o f f i c i a l l y  designed  s e r v e a much l a r g e r g e o g r a p h i c a l a r e a , tjae ' n e i g h b o r h o o d ' w h i c h most o f t h e members come i s e n c l o s e d Arbutus  1.  Street,  by G r a n v i l l e  T w e l f t h Avenue, C o r n w a l l S t r e e t ,  and  to from Street,  F a l s e Creek.  C o m m i t t e e o f S o c i a l Work P e r s o n n e l , A R e p p r t on t h e J o i n t F a m i l y S e r v i c e s P r o j e c t , A u g u s t 50, 1957, Vancouver, page 2.  17.  This d i s t r i c t  i s segmented by m a j o r t r a f f i c  a r t e r i e s and  is  under slow t r a n s i t i o n from a r e s i d e n t i a l to a b u s i n e s s industrial  community.  implications and  the  This l a t t e r  i n terms of the  services  n e e d e d by  r e c r e a t i o n a l needs of the  and  Public  toward the  Recreation, provision  the  considerable  living  i n s u c h an  B e c a u s e some o f t h e  area are  b e i n g met  d i r e c t i o n of tne  A l e x a n d r a H o u s e has  by  been g r e a t l y a i d e d  House h a v i n g a f u l l  area  basic  the K i t s i l a n o  Board of  Parks  been a b l e to  o f more s p e c i a l i z e d g r o u p work  S u c h d e v e l o p m e n t has y e a r s by  residents  them.  Community C e n t r e , u n d e r t h e  f a c t has  and  during  the  move  services. last  three  s t a f f of w e l l q u a l i f i e d  personnel. While t h i s t h e s i s Project  as  i t functioned  s h o u l d be made o f t h e i n the  Project,  i n A l e x a n d r a House o n l y ,  namely Gordon House.  form i n each.  p h y s i c a l l y and  Project  The  While the  of n e c e s s i t y  i n an  area of  t a i n i n g a h i g h number o f m u l t i p l e  the  House i s t h e r e f o r e  and  to a large  two-fold  extent public  no-t a l l o f whom a r e  purpose i s took a  services  family  - that  dwellings, The  con-  and  lacking  function  of meeting both  agency r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s .  workers.  both  offered.  membership p l a c e a heavy l o a d trained  slightly  dense p o p u l a t i o n ,  playgrounds or a community•centre.  e x t e n d e d p r o g r a m and  mention  communities served d i f f e r ,  i n r e g a r d to a d d i t i o n a l  G o r d o n House i s l o c a t e d  in public  the  s e c o n d g r o u p work a g e n c y p a r t i c i p a t i n g  common i n b o t h H o u s e s , t h e different  i s l i m i t e d to a study of  on  of  private The the  staff,  18  The  Family  Service  a r e a as A l e x a n d r a House b u t the C i t y of Vancouver. and  maintains high  fessional of the  life,  and  to  services  t r a i n i n g of i t s pro-  services offered.  The  c e n t r a l purpose  c o n t r i b u t e to harmonious f a m i l y  9  strengthen  to promote h e a l t h y  same  throughout  I t s p e c i a l i z e s i n casework  the  agency i s t o  i n the  draws i t s c l i e n t s f r o m  standards.as to the  s t a f f and  relationships,  Agency i s l o c a t e d  the p o s i t i v e values  inter-  in  family  p e r s o n a l i t y development  and 1  satisfactory  social  f u n c t i o n i n g of v a r i o u s  The  broad purposes of the F a m i l y  out  t h r o u g h two  ones.  major f u n c t i o n s  These f u n c t i o n s  An  functions  and  P e r s o n n e l and The  Family of the  and  three  related  carried  secondary  1.  providing  2.  p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n community  J.  c o n d u c t i n g group e d u c a t i o n a l  activities  4.  c o n t r i b u t i n g to p r o f e s s i o n a l  education  5.  engaging i n  fits  casework  s u c h as  indicates their  services planning  research the J o i n t Family  i n w e l l w i t h the  agency's  Services defined  c o n t r i b u t i o n to i t .  Committees s e l e c t i o n of the  fundamental importance i n the  1,  S e r v i c e Agency are  are:  undertaking  Project therefore  f a m i l y members."  r i g h t k i n d o f p e r s o n n e l was  Project.  T h i s was  s e e n as  of  being  S e r v i c e A s s o c i a t i o n o f A m e r i c a , S c o p e and M e t h o d s F a m i l y S e r v i c e A g e n c y , Mew Y o r k , 1 9 5 3 , page 3.  19.  f a r more t h a n s o l e l y t h e p r o v i s i o n o f c a s e w o r k s e r v i c e s i n g r o u p work a g e n c i e s , b u t r a t h e r skills  as t h e i n t e g r a t i o n o f t h e  o f both methods i n an o v e r a l l h e l p i n g  disturbed  process f o r  i n d i v i d u a l s and unhappy f a m i l i e s . . I n o r d e r t o a c -  c o m p l i s h t h i s a i m , t h e use o f w e l l q u a l i f i e d and e x p e r i e n c e d s o c i a l w o r k e r s was r e g a r d e d a s a n e s s e n t i a l The  requirement.  case worker a s s i g n e d from t h e F a m i l y  A g e n c y t o A l e x a n d r a H o u s e was a s e n i o r  supervisory  member, w e l l e x p e r i e n c e d i n f a m i l y c a s e w o r k . she  brought with  her a f u l l  As  staff  In addition  a c c e p t a n c e a n d some u n d e r s t a n d i n g  o f t h e g r o u p work m e t h o d w h i c h a i d e d i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with  Service  i n h e r e a r l y and easy  t h e House s e t t i n g .  m e n t i o n e d , A l e x a n d r a H o u s e ' s s t a f f was com-  posed o f p r o f e s s i o n a l l y t r a i n e d  social  group w o r k e r s .  The  common d e n o m i n a t o r o f p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g and t h e u n d e r standing  and a c c e p t a n c e o f b a s i c  social  work p r i n c i p l e s h a s  been t h e k e y t o e f f e c t i v e i n t e g r a t i o n w h i c h n e e d e d t o t a k e place  b e t w e e n t h e c a s e w o r k a n d g r o u p work  services.  B e c a u s e o f t h e premium o f t i m e o f t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l group worker f o r d i r e c t l e a d e r s h i p necessity  f o r a l l g r o u p s t o have such l e a d e r s h i p ,  selected volunteers Project  o f g r o u p s , and t h e l a c k o f  clientele  such c l i e n t s  have been used t o l e a d groups i n whicjj  p a r t i c i p a t e d , o r where t h e p o t e n t i a l f o r  existed.  Volunteer leaders,  of t h e J u n i o r League, c o n t r i b u t e d  services  s u c h a s t h e members  much i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e  t r e a t m e n t p l a n and i n i d e n t i f i c a t i o n specialized  carefully  of the Project,  o f members n e e d i n g t h e  20.  During the were p r o v i d e d all  the  Elda Lindenfeld.  Generally  s t a f f these conferences provided  dividual  or f a m i l y  about the but  by. D r .  P r o j e c t monthly p s y c h i a t r i c  the  situations.  Not  was  the  i n d i v i d u a l concerned o f t e n the  key  to  o t h e r s i t u a t i o n s and  given  attended  by  c o n s u l t a t i o n on i n -  only  p s y c h i a t r i c i n s i g h t has  consultations  generally  information e f f e c t i v e help,  been a p p l i c a b l e , t o  good s t i m u l a t i o n t o t h e  Project  personnel; A Project Advisory established.  Included  C o m m i t t e e o f t w e l v e members  i n t h i s were t h e D i r e c t o r s  a g e n c i e s , a b o a r d member f r o m e a c h , and the  Community C h e s t and  Council  League o f G r e a t e r Vancouver.  to the  Planning  reporting  on t h e  a well-informed and  l a y m a n who  various  This  experiment'.  organizations  formed.  m a i n t a i n e d an  I t consisted  of eight  cluding  three  reporting occasion  on  on  a monthly b a s i s , with  arose.  Council  for  I t s chairman  was  concepts the  interest  effective liaison  professional  Project  d i r e c t o r s o f t h e A g e n c i e s as  progress to the Advisory  for this  the  Committee, a Working  were a c t i v e l y engaged i n t h e  C o m m i t t e e s met  from  involved.  w o r k e r s who the  three  responsible  successfully sustained  In a d d i t i o n to the A d v i s o r y C o m m i t t e e was  body was  very q u i c k l y grasped the  c o m m i t t e e members, and  the  representatives  Community C h e s t and  progress of the  p o t e n t i a l of the P r o j e c t ,  of the with  of the  of the  o f G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r and  Junior  Section  was  the  itself,  above.  social in-  Both  Working Committee  Committee whenever  21.  S e l e c t i o n o f t h e Oases In  the selection of the Project  c o n s i d e r a b l e change i n emphasis.  c a s e s t h e r e was a  The f a m i l i e s  serviced  i n the  e a r l y months u s u a l l y p r e s e n t e d s e r i o u s p r o b l e m s w h i c h had e x i s t e d f o r some t i m e .  The c a s e w o r k e r a n d t h e g r o u p  workers  a t t e m p t e d to' m o d i f y t h e s e p r o b l e m s , . m a n y o f w h i c h w e r e e x t r e m e l y deep r o o t e d . workers  D u r i n g t h e second  s t a g e , however, t h e  r e c o g n i z e d p r o b l e m s much s o o n e r , a l l o w i n g  s e r v i c e s t o be f o c u s s e d on p r e v e n t i o n a s w e l l of the  more s e r i o u s d i s t u r b a n c e s .  Project  a s on t r e a t m e n t  The h i g h t r a n s i e n c y  rate i n  community f r e q u e n t l y meant t h a t f a m i l i e s n e e d i n g  potential  s e r v i c e moved away b e f o r e t h e P r o j e c t c o u l d be o f h e l p t o them. After  some e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n t h e f o l l o w i n g  criteria  f o r the  s e l e c t i o n o f f a m i l i e s was d e v e l o p e d : 1.  The f a m i l y i n w h i c h some member ( s ) i s u n a b l e , a t l e a s t t e m p o r a r i l y , t o use group e x p e r i e n c e and who a p p e a r s s e r i o u s l y i n n e e d o f c a s e work s e r v i c e s .  2-s:  The f a m i l y i n w h i c h some member ( s ) h a s p r o b l e m s w h i c h make i t d i f f i c u l t f o r h i m t o u s e a n o r g a n i z e d g r o u p b u t who i s u n a b l e t o r e c o g n i z e h i s p r o b l e m and t h e r e f o r e c a n n o t be r e f e r r e d t o a n o t h e r a g e n c y .  5.  The f a m i l y i n w h i c h some member ( s ) i s g a i n i n g something from group c o n t a c t s but whose u s e o f them i n d i c a t e s - d i f f i c u l t y i n relating to others.  4.  The f a m i l y i n w h i c h some member ( s ) i s b e n e f i t t i n g from group c o n t a c t s but because of c r i s i s o r s p e c i a l problems needs s t r o n g support i n t h e s i t u a t i o n .  5.  I n d i v i d u a l s or f a m i l i e s l i v i n g i n the areas who a r e n o t House members b u t who, b e c a u s e  22  o f a p o s i t i v e f e e l i n g t o w a r d t h e H o u s e , go t h e r e to ask f o r h e l p r a t h e r t h a n s e e k i n g i t from o t h e r sources, 6,  Operation  I n d i v i d u a l s o r f a m i l i e s who c a n n o t o r s h o u l d n o t be r e f e r r e d t o t h e c a s e w o r k e r d i r e c t l y , b u t where c o n s u l t a t i v e s e r v i c e w i l l e n a b l e t h e g r o u p w o r k e r t o be o f g r e a t e r h e l p .  of the P r o j e c t The  teamwork a p p l i e d i n t h e J o i n t F a m i l y  Services  P r o j e c t i s t h e c o - o r d i n a t e d u s e o f c a s e w o r k and g r o u p work i n selecting the f a m i l i e s nature can  for special  of the d i f f i c u l t i e s ,  services, i n assessing the  i n determining  be g i v e n , i n e x e c u t i n g a t r e a t m e n t  t h e a r e a where h e l p  p l a n , and i n t h e e v a l u a *  t i o n of that plan. When t h e P r o j e c t f i r s t began, i t was c o n c e r n e d a backlog  o f cases w h i c h had been c o m p i l e d  was c l e a r e d away o b s e r v e d became t h e n e x t  source.  problematic With  problems seen a t t h e time  previously.  behaviour  and  discuss the matter  of r e g i s t r a t i o n or personal  improved t h e i r for  Project  to record their  with supervisors.  Volunteers  of t h i s material.  Group  observe  behaviour,  A family f i l e  r e c o r d i n g p r a c t i c e s and a s y s t e m was  cases.  members  requests  t o c e r t a i n programs t o  difficulties,  begun f o r t h e a c c u m u l a t i o n  this  t h e development o f t h e P r o j e c t ,  g r o u p w o r k e r s were a s s i g n e d  t h o s e who were h a v i n g  As  o f group  f r o m members o r non-members were a l s o g i v e n , s e r v i c e . and  with  was  workers developed  25.  The  c a s e s were c l e a r e d w i t h t h e S o c i a l S e r v i c e  Index  i a order, t o i 1.  Determine i f other the f a m i l y .  agencies  were a c t i v e w i t h  2. A s c e r t a i n t h e r e a s o n f o r t h e i r  contact.  5.  Secure f u r t h e r d e t a i l s about t h e s i t u a t i o n i f e l e m e n t s o f p r o t e c t i o n were i n v o l v e d .  4.  Make t e n t a t i v e p l a n s a b o u t what s o c i a l a g e n c y s h o u l d c a r r y t h e m a j o r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y a n d how t h e s e r v i c e o f t h e v a r i o u s a g e n c i e s c o u l d be c o o r d i n a t e d t o g i v e more e f f e c t i v e h e l p t o t h e client. Sometimes t h i s c l e a r i n g r e v e a l e d t h a t another agency, w h i l e knowing about t h e f a m i l y and i t s p r o b l e m s , had n o t g i v e n a s much h e l p as t h e y d e s i r e d b e c a u s e o f s h o r t a g e o f s t a f f w i t h i n t h e a g e n c y and r e s u l t i n g h e a v y c a s e l o a d s .  I n a d d i t i o n t o c o n t a c t i n g t h e I n d e x and o t h e r munity agencies to contact termine this,  i n v o l v e d , t h e c a s e w o r k e r was u s u a l l y  t h e f a m i l i e s and o f t e n t h e s c h o o l  a s much o f t h e t o t a l  t h e r e w o u l d be a j o i n t  i n c l u s i o n o f each case i n t o  Tentative  i n order  p i c t u r e as p o s s i b l e . staff  com-  assigned t o de-  Following  d e c i s i o n as t o t h e d e f i n i t e  t h e f?ro j e c t .  Diagnosis A f t e r a l l a v a i l a b l e f a m i l y i n f o r m a t i o n was  compiled,  c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h t h e p s y c h i a t r i s t was u s u a l l y a r r a n g e d .  Her  help  basically  was v a l u a b l e t o t h e w o r k e r s i n d e t e r m i n i n g  what was  w r o n g , what e a c h f a m i l y member n e e d e d , a n d i n d e v e l o p i n g for treatment.  U s u a l l y t h e c o n s u l t a t i o n was f o l l o e d  by a m e e t i n g  o f c a s e w o r k a n d g r o u p work s t a f f , and t h e n o f v o l u n t e e r to.implement t h i s .  The f u l l  a plan  leaders  team work came i n t o p l a y a t t h e  24.  p o i n t where a s s e s s m e n t  was made o f t h e f a m i l y a p r o b l e m s 1  tentative  d i a g n o s i s v/as r e a c h e d .  knowledge  and s k i l l  fully  and a  B o t h c a s e work a n d g r o u p  work  were u s e d f u l l y w h i l e , t h e p r o b l e m was c a r e -  a n a l y s e d a n d w o r k e r s d e c i d e d how b e s t t h e y c o u l d  help.  T reatment I t was i m p o r t a n t t h a t a c a r e f u l e a c h f a m i l y member u n d e r the  discussion.  p l a n be made f o r  I n such a t r e a t m e n t p l a n  r o l e s o f t h e c a s e w o r k e r and g r o u p  w o r k e r ( s ) were  deline-  a t e d most c a r e f u l l y .  The t a s k s a s s i g n e d t o e a c h were  related  to  w h i c h e a c h b r o u g h t t o t h i s team.  the special  skills  s e r v i c e s were c o o r d i n a t e d t h r o u g h s t a f f duals d i s c u s s i o n .  Ongoing  c o n f e r e n c e s and i n d i v i -  e v a l u a t i o n was made o f t h e p l a n f o r  a f a m i l y a n d a d a p t e d t o meet c h a n g i n g c o n d i t i o n s . further psychiatric might  c o n s u l t a t i o n was sought..  effective Joint  Although a family  Service. were n e e d e d  evaluate the family's progress while  group  required,  T h i s was t i m e - c o n B u m i n g b u t e s s e n t i a l  Standard c r i t e r i a to  When  s e e o n l y one o r two o f t h e w o r k e r s , a team was a l w a y s a t  work b e h i n d t h e s c e n e s . to  The  work s e r v i c e s .  which c o u l d receiving  be u s e d  t h e casework-  The f o l l o w i n g g e n e r a l o u t l i n e was d e v e l o p e d :  1.  A b i l i t y t o make c o n s t r u c t i v e u s e o f t h e a g e n c y program.  2.  A b i l i t y t o form p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h s t a f f , w i t h p e e r s , i n f a m i l y and community c o n t a c t s .  5»  A b i l i t y to function effectively s u c h a s s c h o o l , j o b , home.  i n social  situations,  25.  '  An o u t l i n e o f t h e p r o c e s s i n v o l v e d Family Services  Project  i n the Joint  was p r e p a r e d and i n c l u d e d  i n A Report  1 on t h e J o i n t F a m i l y S e r v i c e s  Project.  A s c h e d u l e w h i c h sum-  marizes the e s s e n t i a l workingof the Project  i s appended.  Research Aspects The r e s e a r c h a s p e c t s were c o n s i d e r e d jjo he o f prime i m p o r t a n c e as t h e P r o j e c t finding  was a ' p i l o t '  one by way o f  some a n s w e r s o r i n s i g h t s i n t o t h e p r o b l e m o f f a m i l y  d i s t u r b a n c e a s s e e n by b o t h c a s e w o r k a n d g r o u p work a g e n c i e s . Careful  analysis  o f t h e c a s e s a n d r e s u l t s a c h i e v e d w o u l d be  necessary i n order that the  Project  t h e many r a m i f i c a t i o n s and v a l u e s o f  w o u l d be r e a l i z e d .  This t h e s i s i s but a beginning  i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n and as such i s l a r g e l y a d e s c r i p t i v e i n t r o duction the  to the potential  t o be g l e a n e d  from  Project. This  basic  1.  research material  s t u d y h a s been c o n c e r n e d w i t h  the following  questions: 1.  Who were t h e c l i e n t s i n t h e P r o j e c t , what were t h e i r p r o b l e m s , and what s o c i o l o g i c a l a n d / o r p s y c h o l o g i c a l p a t t e r n s c o u l d be d e r i v e d from t h i s information?  2.  What were t h e p a r t i c u l a r g r o u p work s k i l l s u s e d i n t h e P r o j e c t a n d what were t h e i m p l i cations of these?  J.  What were t h e p a r t i c u l a r c a s e w o r k s k i l l s u s e d i n t h e P r o j e c t a n d what were t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s of these?  S o c i a l Work P e r s o n n e l C o m m i t t e e , A R e p o r t on t h e J o i n t F a m i l y S e r v i c e s P r o j e c t , A u g u s t 3 0 , 1 9 5 7 , V a n c o u v e r , B.C., appendix I I I  26.  4.  What were t h e o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e P r o j e c t what a r e some o f t h e i r i m p l i c a t i o n s ?  At the i n i t i a t i o n  o f t h e P r o j e c t forms were d e v i s e d  which would p r o v i d e the n e c e s s a r y data f o r research. were as  and  These  follows* 1.  The I n d e x C a r d . T h i s p r o v i d e d an i n d e x on t h e number o f f a m i l i e s w h i c h were i n c l u d e d i n t h e Project during i t s existence.  2.  The F a c e S h e e t . T h i s form c o n t a i n e d f a c t u a l d e s c r i p t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n about the f a m i l y , including marital status, nationality, r e l i g i o n , p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n House p r o g r a m , e t c .  J.  B e h a v i o u r a l Symptoms. The p u r p o s e o f t h i s f o r m was t o r e c o r d a s p r e c i s e l y a s p o s s i b l e t h e k i n d s o f b e h a v i o u r o b s e r v e d by g r o u p w o r k e r s o r r e p o r t e d by a g e n c i e s o r p e o p l e i n t h e community which r e s u l t e d i n extending the s p e c i a l s e r v i c e s of the P r o j e c t t o a f a m i l y .  4.  Problems. On t h i s f o r m was marked t h e c h i e f problems which appeared i n the course of c o n t a c t with the family. In contrast to the B e h a v i o u r a l Symptoms f o r m w h i c h n o t e d o b s e r v e d b e h a v i o u r , p r o b l e m s on t h i s f o r m a r e m a r k e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e d i a g n o s i s o f t h e f a m i l y s i t u a t i o n made by t h e c a s e w o r k e r and g r o u p w o r k e r .  5.  Services. I n m a r k i n g t h e s e r v i c e s g i v e n an a t t e m p t was made t o show t h e k i n d s o f s e r v i c e g i v e n by t h e team o f c a s e w o r k e r , g r o u p w o r k e r and p s y c h i a t r i s t t o v a r i o u s members o f t h e f a m i l y ; and by the whole agency s t a f f as a u n i t .  6.  Rating Scale. T h i s was d e v i s e d t o d e p i c t t h e v a r i o u s ways i n w h i c h a f a m i l y had b e e n h e l p e d through the services given. However, i t p r o v e d t o o c o m p l e x t o be u s e f u l .  Copies of the f i r s t  five  f o r m s a r e t o be f o u n d i n t h e A p p e n d i x .  The m e t h o d s o f s t u d y i n t h i s t h e s i s w e r e as 1,  Statistical  t a b u l a t i o n of the data  2.  C o r r e l a t i o n o f t h e f i n d i n g s o f the above  followst  available.  27.  D e s c r i p t i o n o f c a s e w o r k a n d g r o u p work m e t h o d by u s e o f r e c o r d s and r e p o r t s . Verbal discussion with staff involved i n this  the various Project,  professional  CHAPTER 2  PEOPLE IN THE  Pre-School  PROJECT:  term pre-school  to f i v e years.  P r o j e c t i n which the and  through  one  parent  divorce. these  them on t h e i r o n l y , due  While the  h a v e f r o m one No  Four of the  to i l l e g i t i m a c y ,  to f i v e  range i n the  age* c h i l d c h i l d r e n have  separation  parents,  four  and  of  c o n t a c t w i t h a f a m i l y s e r v i c e agency s e r i o u s f a m i l y problems r e q u i r i n g c h i l d r e n are only  o f t h o s e , w i t h o n l y one  i n f o r m a t i o n was  death,  o t h e r t e n have b o t h  help. F i v e of the  two  on a p r e - s c h o o l  family.  or f a m i l y c o u r t , suggesting professional  c o n s t i t u t e s t h e age  T h e r e were f o u r t e e n c a s e s  f o c u s was  f a m i l i e s h a v e had  including  CLIENTS  Section The  f r o m one  COMMUNITY AND  siblings,  parent.  children,  The  remainder  t h e a v e r a g e number b e i n g  a v a i l a b l e as t o o t h e r s who  may  be  two*  living  i n t h e home* S i x of the mothers, i n c l u d i n g the f o u r h u s b a n d s , work r e g u l a r l y . necessary  f o r the  s i x pre-schoolers  of fourteen youngsters should  be w i t h o u t  serious matter c a u s e and  and  effect.  F o s t e r day  in this  care  i s therefore  concerned.  important  without  That s i x out  developmental  age  t h e i r mothers f o r such l o n g p e r i o d s i s a one  which needs c a r e f u l  e v a l u a t i o n as  to  2 9.  Of more c o n t a c t s cluding  the fourteen  families,  with  social  various  eight  have h a d one o r  agencies  i n the city, i n -  several giving services to children.  previous  contacts  a n d two a r e unknown.  Four  The l a r g e  which have had c o n t a c t  i s indicative  facing  and p o s s i b l y i s s u g g e s t i v e  these  ability  families,  of present There  resources  i s wide  though most a r e o f E u r o p e a n Canadian, one  Polish.  ligious are  two a s F r e n c h ,  Protestant,  dox,  as t o r a c i a l Three  of the i n with  as  one D u t c h ,  was u n k n o w n .  The r e eight  a r e Roman C a t h o l i c , one i s G r e e k  Witness,  al«*  a.re l i s t e d  two S c o t t i s h , two German, of three  them.  origin,  o f t h e f a m i l i e s a r e as f o l l o w s :  three  one J e h o v a h ' s  effectively  extraction.  The n a t i o n a l i t y  affiliation  percentage  o f t h e number o f p r o b l e m s  t o cope  diversity  h a d h a d no  Ortho-  a n d o n e h a s n o t named t h e r e l i g i o u s  background. Unfortunately, about one  housing.  as f a i r l y  dication. health  Three good,  information  specifically  listed  and t h e remaining  Likewise,  little  f a c t o r s or problems  situation.  Another  which might  l a c k was d e t a i l s  v o c a t i o n a l and e d u c a t i o n a l  specific  problem  fourteen  families.  on t h e p a r t  closely  tied  i n with  family  given  as t o t h e  be i n f l u e n t i a l  adjustment  i nt h e occupation.  was l i s t e d  as a  i n seven out o f t h e  and housing  f o r f o s t e r care  poor,  no i n -  was g a t h e r e d  Included  patterns  as being  as t o parental  economic  common n e e d s .  problems were a r r a n g e m e n t s  this  of the parents  Moreover,  was a v a i l a b l e  t e n have  information  However,  were t h e n e x t most _  little  difficulties  i n the presenting which,  and economic  of course, i s problems.  50. The r e m a i n i n g ality  p r o b l e m s were i n t h e a r e a o f p e r s o n -  d i s t u r b a n c e i n t h e c h i l d r e n ( f i v e ) and t h e c h i l d r e n ' s  r e a c t i o n s to absent, c h i l d was h a v i n g his religion  ill,  or r e j e c t i n g  difficulty  (Jehovah's  with the c o n f l i c t  Witness)  In n i n e cases  parents ( f o u r ) .  i s appended.  aggressive behaviour inability and  to accept  projecting  i n t h e form  through limits,  blame.  Four  Four  T h e s e were  of the children  fighting,  listed  exhibited  taunting authority,  belligerency,  demanding  attention,  others e x h i b i t e d - p a s s i v e behaviour  of f e a r s with three of these  m o d d i n e s s , f a n t a s y i n g , and w i t h d r a w i n g , f o r m s o f i m m a t u r i t y were e v i d e n c e d  showing s i g h s s o f respectively.  i n five  two o f whom were o v e r - p r o t e c t e d , one who  was s t i l l  one w i t h e a t i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s ,  exhibiting  behaviour.  One c h i l d  Various  of the children,  s u c k i n g a t age f i v e , infantile  culture.  fourteen, information  yjas o b t a i n e d r e g a r d i n g b e h a v i o u r a l symptoms. on Form B w h i c h  c r e a t e d between  and t h e s u r r o u n d i n g  of the t o t a l  One  showed  thumba n d one signs of  neglect. Problems being manifested t e n t i o n i n t h e r e c o r d i n g system In t e n out of the present s h i p s were r e c o r d e d . child  relationships,  two l i s t e d  sibling  were g i v e n s p e c i a l  at»  s e t up f o r t h e P r o j e c t ( F o r m 0 ) .  fourteen, d i f f i c u l t i e s  i n relation-  Seven f a m i l i e s had problems i n p a r e n t two s u f f e r e d f r o m m a r i t a l  s i t u a t i o n s as problems.  discord,  and  In addition, the  c h i l d r e n i n t h e s e l a t t e r two f a m i l i e s a l s o had d i f f i c u l t i e s i n  51. groups  and i n t h e c o m m u n i t y .  as h a v i n g problems or o l d e r  Two c h i l d r e n were l i s t e d  only  w i t h o t h e r c h i l d r e n , and two w i t h l e a d e r s  persons. The s o u r c e s o f r e f e r r a l  potential  "Project  registration,  were a s f o l l o w s :  two  c a s e s " were p i c k e d up r i g h t a t t h e t i m e o f  e i g h t c a s e s were r e f e r r e d b e c a u s e  o f them i n t h e g r o u p ,  of observation  and f o u r c a s e s were t h e r e s u l t  q u e s t s from t h e community.  The p a r e n t s , o f t h e s e  ofre-  children  were i m m e d i a t e l y p a r t o f t h e c o n c e r n o f t h e P r o j e c t and so were i n v o l v e d by means o f home v i s i t s , e t c .  The J u n i o r  Division T h i s group,  comprised  o f t h o s e c h i l d r e n between  t h e a g e s o f s i x a n d t w e l v e and upon whom t h e r e was a m a i n focus i n the P r o j e c t , clients.  The t o t a l  constituted the l a r g e s t  s e c t i o n of  o f t h i r t y - o n e i s i n accordance  with the  f a c t t h a t t h e j u n i o r s ,in g e n e r a l a r e t h e l a r g e s t group ing  s e r v i c e from A l e x a n d r a Neighborhood  House.  receive  The A g e n c y i s  o f g r e a t e r i m p o r t a n c e t o them i n t h a t t h e y a r e no l o n g e r c o n f i n e d t o t h e i r homes b u t h a v e n o t y e t d e v e l o p e d terests  i n the city at large.  The n e i g h b o r h o o d ,  a r l y A l e x a n d r a House, i s t h e i r p l a y a r e a . there that i n d i c a t i o n of t h e i r  problems,  broader i n and.particul-  Therefore, i t i s also i f any, w i l l  likely  appear. N i n e t e e n o f t h e c h i l d r e n come f r o m homes where b o t h p a r e n t s a r e p r e s e n t , t h r e e o f w h i c h f a m i l i e s a r e common-law  unions.  Two c h i l d r e n a r e l i v i n g  p a r e n t s , one on< a p r i v a t e agency. and  with  b a s i s and one t h r o u g h  foster a public  S e v e n o f t h e p a r e n t s a r e s e p a r a t e d , two a r e d i v o r c e d ,  one i s an u n m a r r i e d  parents of t h i s l a s t mainly  permanently  by day.  mother.  grouping  are i n private  lings.  foster  available.  t h r e e o f t h e c h i l d r e n were w i t h o u t a n y s i b -  The r e m a i n d e r  came f r o m  fairly  large family  t h e a v e r a g e number o f c h i l d r e n p e r f a m i l y b e i n g m a j o r i t y o f them a t t e n d s c h o o l , t h u s problems o f t h e i r The  relieving  5.8.  groups, The  parents of the  c a r e d u r i n g much o f t h e day.  S o c i a l S e r v i c e Index i n d i c a t e s t h a t twenty-one  of t h e f a m i l i e s have had p r e v i o u s c o n t a c t w i t h o t h e r agencies  care,  I n f o r m a t i o n a s t o o t h e r s who m i g h t be l i v i n g  i n t h e s e homes was n o t r e a d i l y Only  Three o f the c h i l d r e n o f the  and t h a t s e v e n h a v e n o t .  The r e m a i n i n g  social  t h r e e a r e un-  known a s t o w h e t h e r o r n o t t h e y h a v e been r e c i p i e n t s o f s o c i a l s e r v i c e from  any a g e n c i e s .  t h i r d s . of ' the c h i l d r e n ,  I t i s a significant or their  families,  of p r o f e s s i o n a l help w i t h i n t h e f i r s t  f a c t t h a t two-  s h o u l d have need  twelve years o f these  children's existence. The  racial  seven a r e Canadian, two  o r i g i n s o f t h i s group a r e as f o l l o w s :  four are I r i s h ,  a r e S c a n d i n a v i a n , a n d one e a c h a r e R u s s i a n and J e w i s h .  This information i s not a v a i l a b l e for  three are East I n d i a n ,  religious affiliation,  t h r e e a s Roman C a t h o l i c s ,  forthirteen families.  f i f t e e n are l i s t e d  As  as P r o t e s t a n t s ,  and t h r e e a s m i s c e l l a n e o u s ( t h e  55.  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n b e i n g one Science r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . The  e a c h o f S i k h , J e w i s h , and Ten  source of  are  unknown as t o t h e i r  r e f e r r a l of the  t h i s group, namely t w e n t y - f i v e , group and  settings.  one  Skilled  ognize these riate  The fall  rather  and  presenting  i n t o the  and  problems. lected,  the  that  brought the  verbalize  therefore  needed to  p r o b l e m s , as  g i v e n on  categories.  the  Eight  face  of  showed s i g n s  of  of the  was  she not  p r o b l e m s as  the  regarding worked.  listed  I n the  i n another  remaining nine  the  cases  t o what p a r t i c u l a r p r o b l e m  borne out  and  Project. e n l a r g e d by  Form C w h i c h i s a p p e n d e d .  relationships' within difficulties,  pro-  making arrangements f o r  a t t e n t i o n of the  on  neg-  case the  r e l a t i o n s h i p while  a v a i l a b l e as  to the  I n one  rela-  personality  c h i l d r e n were c o n s i d e r e d t o be  of a p a r e n t - c h i l d  c a t e g o r y of  rec-  approp-  seven because they  family  having m a r i t a l  cannot  r e f e r t h e s e c h i l d r e n t o an  These problems a r e  the  the  e x p r e s s them t h r o u g h t h e i r b e h a -  following  mother wished h e l p  family  usually  i n peer  information  in  time of r e g i s t r a t i o n  difficulties  c h i l d ' s care while the  at the  because of  Five  of  through observation  p h y s i c a l l y and/or e m o t i o n a l l y .  b l e m was  l a r g e s t number  help.  c h i l d r e n were n o t i c e d tionships  to  faith.  Observation i s p a r t i c u l a r l y  s o c i a l workers are  signs  source of  shefet,  service.  c h i l d r e n o f t h i s age  problems but  viour.  was  were r e f e r r e d  member r e q u e s t e d  i m p o r t a n t as their  Five  Christian  the  family,  the Under  s i x were  t h i r t e e n were e x p e r i e n c i n g  parent-  54.  child  p r o b l e m s , and  along w e l l . sere not  s i x sets of  I n group  relating  s i b l i n g s were n o t g e t t i n g  situations,  well  t o o t h e r members and  get along w e l l w i t h the l e a d e r s . the  c h i l d r e n were h a v i n g  o t h e r s of t h e i r older  own  age  In the  difficulties  children  three could  was  of with  in conflict  with  persons.  families  so t h a t t h e a b o v e and  b a s e d on n i n e t e e n  families.  b e r s needed h e l p w i t h t h e i r Seven of the health.  Two  Of  n o t a v a i l a b l e on t w e l v e following  statistics  these,forty-two  individual  cases  Three concerned  handicaps.  listed  lems.  p e r s o n a l i t y adjustment.  p h y s i c a l h e a l t h and  S e v e n f a m i l i e s were h a v i n g  o f e c o n o m i c s and closely  s i x with housing.  inter-related  a p p l i c a b l e to the  and  so b o t h  same f a m i l y .  two p h y s i c a l  prob-  difficulties  i n the  T h e s e two  problems  of these  are often  v o c a t i o n a l and  again being  i n w i t h the p r e v i o u s l y mentioned f a c t o r s . two  area  factors sere  Four l i s t e d  i n a d e q u a t e r e c r e a t i o n and  closely  T h r e e were  i n employment.  Two  o t h e r f a m i l i e s needed h e l p i n p l a n n i n g f o r s u b s t i t u t e care the  c h i l d r e n w h i l e one The  was  taken  f a m i l y was  following  of  retardation.  e d u c a t i o n a l adjustment as a problem, t h i s  lacking  are  problems i n the area  o t h e r s s u f f e r e d from  of  f a m i l y mem-  T h e r e were a l a r g e V a r i e t y o f s i t u a t i o n a l  tied  not  community, t e n  i n g e t t i n g along  g r o u p w h i l e one  Form C on P r o b l e m s was the  eleven of the  i n need of l e g a l  i n f o r m a t i o n on  f r o m Form B ( s e e a p p e n d i x ) .  behavioural  of  help. symptoms  Children i n eleven  of  55  t h e n i n e t e e n f a m i l i e s on w h i c h i n f o r m a t i o n was showed symptoms o f a g g r e s s i v e b e h a v i o u r . i n one  one  or i n s e v e r a l forms.  s i x engaged i n f i g h t i n g .  a u t h o r i t y and  f i v e were u n a b l e  and  two  tended  T h i s might  E i g h t were v e r y  a t t e n t i o n and  belligerent  to accept  limits.  to b u l l y others.  The  a great  be  taunt  F o u r were  Three one  children was  destruc-  to the f a c t that t h i s type  forms of p a s s i v e n e s s  also indicated  p r o b l e m s among t h e c h i l d r e n .  d e a l and and  f o u r who  were a p a t h e t i c .  another  four of the c h i l d r e n ,  agof  Two  to  bewithdraw  F e a r f u l n e s s was  including  showed e v i d e n c e  of d e s i r e f o r punishment.  h i d e w h i l e - one  S i x tended  f i v e were q u i t e moody.  ptomatic  and  due  of  i s more n o t i c e a b l e . Various  havioural  to  l a r g e s t number o f symptoms were" i n t h e area/of  g r e s s i o n but t h i s may behaviour  appear  demanding  F i v e tended  were b o a s t f u l , t h r e e w o u l d p r o j e c t blame,- and tive.  available  One  some o f  sym-  the  of f a n t a s y i n g  c h i l d tended  to•  w o u l d r u n away.  T h e r e were o t h e r i n d i c a t i o n s o f p e r s o n a l i t y p r o b l e m s as w e l l .  The  rather i n f a n t i l e , munication.  One  feminine" r o l e , and  one  was  w h i l e two  of t h r e e of the  had  difficulty  e x h i b i t e d c o n f u s i o n over  one  was  considered The  c h i l d r e n and  behaviour  s u s p i c i o u s , one  children  i n v e r b a l comthe masculine- -  had  been  over-protected  neglected.  wide range of problems e x p e r i e n c e d  their  was  families  i n d i c a t e t h e i r need f o r  a l h e l p . .. T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y  important  f o r the  by  these  proffesion-  children  who  56  are i n t h e i r  formative years.  However, i t i s d i f f i c u l t  h e l p them on a p e r m a n e n t b a s i s u n l e s s t h e i r couraged t o improve t h e t o t a l  The T e e n - a g e  f a m i l i e s a r e en-  situation.  Division  While youngsters  t h e teen-age years are u s u a l l y considered  from t h i r t e e n t o n i n e t e e n , t h e l a t t e r  persons  w i t h i n t h i s age group, r e c e i v e d  Only eight of the teen-agers and  continuous  and  one m a r r i a g e  separated, fifty  family unit.  One  per cent  Nine-  service.  belonged  t o a complete  p a r e n t had r e c e n t l y r e m a r r i e d  was a common-law u n i o n .  f o u r were d i v o r c e d .  as  age h a s b e e n  e x t e n d e d t o t w e n t y - o n e f o r tfja p u r p o s e s o f t h i s P r o j e c t . teen  to  Five parents  were  T h i s meant t h a t no l e s s  o f t h e homes were b r o k e n .  Four persons  than from  t h i s g r o u p were w a r d s o f t h e C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y , two b o y s who  were l i v i n g  two g i r l s  i n commercial boarding  homes, and t h e r e  were  who h a d r e s i d e d i n a s e r i e s o f f o s t e r homes. S i x of t h e s i n g l e - p a r e n t group a r e w i t h o u t  d u r i n g t h e day due t o t h e employment o f t h e l a t t e r .  a  parent  Likewise,  t h e f o u r a g e n c y w a r d s r e c e i v e v a r y i n g amounts o f s u p e r v i s i o n , d e p e n d i n g upon t h e i r  residence  The t e e n - a g e r s for  situation.  activities  e l e v e n and employment f o r f i v e ,  "unknown".  The o c c u p a t i o n s  c a s e s and a r e a s f o l l o w s .  by day c o n s i s t e d o f s c h o o l the remaining  three  beinjj  o f t h e p a r e n t s were known i n t e n only O f t h e men,/one was a w h i t e - c o l l a r  57. w o r k e r ; t h r e e were s k i l l e d one  was  three  a pensioner.  s a l e s c l e r k s and As  listed  Eleven  women i n c l u d e d  and  seven housewives  and  waitresses.  for nationality,  as C a n a d i a n s .  F i n n i s h and  The  Jugoslavian  t h e l a r g e s t number, t w e l v e ,  r e m a i n d e r c o n s i s t o f one  origin,  listed  plus four t h a t are  unknown.  s e c t s ) , t h r e e a r e Roman C a t h o l i c , and  as t o t h i s No  are  each of E n g l i s h ,  a r e P r o t e s t a n t as t o r e l i g i o n ( o f w h i c h s i x b e l o n g  fundamentalist not  The  w o r k e r s , f i v e were u n s k i l l e d ,  to  five  are  housing  or.  aspect.  i n f o r m a t i o n was  a v a i l a b l e regarding  health factors. The  S o c i a l S e r v i c e I n d e x showed f i f t e e n o f  f a m i l i e s t o h a v e had h a v e no  r e c o r d of  w h i c h have had operating  contact  s u c h and  J u v e n i l e Court,  comitant  Of t h e  Three  fifteen agencies  P r o t e s t a n t ) , C h i l d Welfare  Metropolitan Health  contact  Clinic,  etc.  Division, F i v e of  with the C i t y S o c i a l S e r v i c e  the need f o r f i n a n c i a l  a s i s t a n c e and s  these  Department,  i t s con-  problems. The  sources  group o b s e r v a t i o n  of r e f e r r a l  o f c a s e s were l a r g e l y  ( e l e v e n ) , w i t h problems evident  of r e g i s t r a t i o n (one), from the  a r e unknown.  agencies.  i n t e r e s t s o f c h i l d r e n , s u c h as C h i l d r e n ' s A i d  S o c i e t i e s ( C a t h o l i c and  suggesting  two  social  a s s o c i a t i o n , t h i r t e e n a r e known t o  i n the  h a v e a l s o had  with other  the  requests  community ( f i v e )  at the  f r o m members ( t w o ) ,  c o n s t i t u t i n g the  and  remainder.  f o u r w a r d s o f C h i l d r e n ' s A i d became a c t i v e due  to  from time referrals The  referral  38  a f t e r being  observed  i n the group.  p l u s t h e number o f p r e v i o u s these  contacts with  number o f  social  of the n i n e t e e n several  Behavioural  cases.  agencies  b l a m e , and  limits,  one  WOB  ing aggressive M o o d i n e s s was  In the  extreme  belligerent.  cases.  S i x cases  These  p a r e n t ( s ) w i t h one  girl  as  symptoms  ( i n c l u d i n g one  were  and  two  ex-  another  to  problems  considered  mother b e i n g  exhibited infantile  show-  symptoms.  had a t e n d e n c y t o w i t h d r a w and  Three of the teen-agers  One  the  projected  column marked o t h e r a v a r i e t y o f  by t h e i r  suspicious.  w e r e d e s t r u c t i v e , two  considered  One  Under  t h r e e were demanding o f a t t e n t i o n ,  n o t i c e d i n f o u r of the teen-agers  came t o l i g h t . neglected  the  exhibiting  symptoms a s w e l l ) showed p a s s i v e  fears.  r u n away.  often  t h r e e p e r s o n s were c o n s i d e r e d  a u t h o r i t y , two  a p p l i e d to f i v e of the  hibited  that  marked f o r t e n  were t a b u l a t e d a s f o l l o w s .  heading of aggressiveness unable to accept  Symptoms, was  W i t h each t e e n e r  symptoms t h e s e  taunted  referrals  teen-agers.  Form B,  excessively  behaviour  and  conformity. . I n f o r m a t i o n was  which covered difficulty.  Problems.  marital  conflict,  causing  difficulty.  listed  a v a i l a b l e f o r nine  R e l a t i o n s h i p s caused  W i t h i n the f a m i l y , f i v e  r e l a t i o n s h i p s as b e i n g  was  total  p e r s o n s h a v e h a d , w o u l d i n d i c a t e t h e many n e e d s on  part of these  two  The  and  as h a v i n g  a p r o b l e m , two i n another  I n group  cases  on Form 0  considerable  listed parent-child families  a sibling  s u f f e r e d from  situation  r e l a t i o n s h i p s o n l y one  difficulty  w i t h members and  none  was person with  59.  leaders.  I n t h e community two h a d p r o b l e m s i n r e l a t i o n s h i p s  w i t h p e e r s a n d one e a c h w i t h  o l d e r p e r s o n s and t h e o p p o s i t e s e x .  In t h e survey o f s i t u a t i o n a l fication  of the nine  c a s e s was a s f o l l o w s :  V o c a t i o n a r l and E d u c a t i o n a l Adjustment  5  Legal  .4  Employment  2  Recreation  2  Economic  1  Foster  1  care  Even w i t h o u t able  list,  fifteen  further elucidation, this  p r o b l e m s among n i n e  the teen-agers had three with  simultaneously,  first the  and f o r e m o s t .  youngsters.  I t i s also  significant that  f a m i l y u n i t s were a l r e a d y  family.  although  they  tended  b a s i s a s so many o f t h e  disrupted.  Service  s e c t i o n i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h o s e c a s e s where  an a d u l t was t h e m a i n f o c u s their  help  o f t h i s age g r o u p  family d i f f i c u l t i e s ,  t o be t r e a t e d on a n i n d i v i d u a l  This  size-  Some o f  showing t h e i r need f o r p r a c t i c a l  problems, p s y c h o l o g i c a l or otherwise,  A d u l t s V/ho R e c e i v e d  i sa  o r f o u r o f t h e s e p r o b l e m s t o cope  stemmed c l o s e l y from, t h e i r  ing,  problems t h e c l a s s i -  o f a t t e n t i o n a n d t h r o u g h them  F i f t e e n f a m i l i e s were i n c l u d e d  the adults ranging  i n this  from twenty-one t o f i f t y  group-  years i n age.  40  The l a r g e s t p e r c e n t a g e o f b r o k e n homes was f o u n d in this  category,  approximately  namely n i n e  f o r t y per cent  of the f i f t e e n .  o f t h e g r o u p and a s s u c h i s a  serious indication of the existing Of t h e s e  family disorganization.  s e v e n were s e p a r a t i o n s a n d two were d e s e r t i o n s .  c a u s e o f t h i s t h e r e were a t l e a s t f i v e and  a corresponding  care.  This constitutes  o f t h e mothers  Be-  working  number o f c h i l d r e n i n p r i v a t e f o s t e r day  I t . i s n o t known what a r r a n g e m e n t s were made by t h e  remaining  single  parents.  Due t o t h i s b r e a k d o w n t h e f a m i l i e s were f a i r l y I n e i g h t t h e r e was o n l y one c h i l d , three  consisted of three  children.  f o u r h a d two c h i l d r e n , a n d The t o t a l  c o n c e r n e d was t w e n t y - f i v e , t w e n t y o f w h o A s t h e r e were so many s i n g l e  parent  small.  m  were  number o f c h i l d r e n pre-schoolers.  f a m i l i e s and a s v e r y  young  c h i l d r e n c o n s t i t u t e d the m a j o r i t y , i ti s q u i c k l y apparent  that  c a r e o f t h e c h i l d r e n i s a s e r i o u s p r o b l e m f a c i n g most o f t h e s e parents. Ten o f t h e f i f t e e n with a social and  f a m i l i e s had p r e v i o u s  a g e n c y , i n most c a s e s  several.  contact  Two h a d no  contact  t h r e e were n o t known. Racial  available  a n d r e l i g i o u s b a c k g r o u n d i n f o r m a t i o n was  f o r ten of the families.  F i v e were l i s t e d  as Canadian,  t h r e e were o f E n g l i s h e x t r a c t i o n , a n d two w e r e H u n g a r i a n . belonged t o v a r i o u s of the P r o t e s t a n t f a i t h s , Catholic,  The s o u r c e s followsi  one was a Roman  and one was a member o f t h e J e h o v a h ' s W i t n e s s  The r e l i g i o u s a f f i l i a t i o n  nine  Eight  sect.  o f t h e r e m a i n i n g , f i v e was unknown.  of referral  c o n s t i t u t e d requests  among t h e a d u l t s were a s from.the community, f i v e  41.  w e r e r e q u e s t s f r o m H o u s e members, and one was r e f e r r e d a t t h e time of r e g i s t r a t i o n .  I t i s t o be n o t e d t h a t none o f t h e s e  f a m i l i e s who were i n n e e d o f h e l p were p i c k e d up o b s e r v a t i o n i n the group,  t h u s showing  through  t h e need f o r a v a r i e t y  o f c o n t a c t i n o r d e r , t h a t t h e most e f f e c t i v e h e l p be g i v e n . The m a j o r i t y o f t h e p r e s e n t i n g p r o b l e m s children.  In five  for the children, tional  cases t h e p a r e n t s needed h e l p i n p l a n n i n g including  f o s t e r day c a r e .  c a s e s p a r e n t s were c o n c e r n e d  r e c e i v e d by c h i l d r e n Three  marital  of t h e i r  difficulty  was a l c o h o l i c difficulty  about  I n two  addi-  the care being  i n the custody of the other parent.  f a m i l i e s were c o n c e r n e d  s o n a l i t y problems  concerned  about  t h e b e h a v i o u r and p e r -  children.  I n two c a s e s t h e r e was  i n t h e home, and i n a n o t h e r t h e f a t h e r  and a b u s i v e .  obtaining  Two  suitable  o t h e r f a m i l i e s were h a v i n g  l i v i n g accommodations.  S e v e n o f t h e f a m i l i e s were h a v i n g p r o b l e m s i n family  relationships.  S i x were e x p e r i e n c i n g m a r i t a l  f i c u l t i e s and s i x p a r e n t - c h i l d two b e i n g c l o s e l y  relationship  iriter-related.  i n the area of s i b l i n g  There  One f a m i l y a l s o h a d  were h e a l t h problems  i l l n e s s and m e n t a l Under s i t u a t i o n a l  these problems  i n one  i n adjusting to peers.  I n o n e , t h e f a t h e r was a l c o h o l i c both mental  problems,  r e l a t i o n s h i p s and t h e c h i l d  f a m i l y was a l s o h a v i n g p r o b l e m s  dif-  i n two o f t h e f a m i l i e s .  and i n t h e s e c o n d . t h e r e  was  retardation.  problems  as l i s t e d  f o u r o f t h e f a m i l i e s were h a v i n g d i f f i c u l t y  on Form 0  a r r a n g i n g sub-  42  stitute  care f o r t h e i r  problems i n the area  Two  and  fifteen  area.  One  were l i s t e d  as  having  one e a c h were  having  v o c a t i o n a l and  educational adjust-  f a m i l i e s were i n n e e d o f l e g a l a i d . Behavioural  the  Two  of economics whije  problems w i t h housing ment.  children.  families,  symptoms were g i v e n f o r o n l y t h r e e a l l of these  being  i n the  This w i l l  not  be  d i s c u s s e d as t h r e e  s t i t u t e a s u f f i c i e n t number t o draw c o n c l u s i o n s  Older  sisting  "senior citizen"  of those  of twelve,  persons f i f t y  e i g h t woman and  g r o u p was years  followsi  two  and  in their  three  were i n t h e i r  Of  from.  two,  one  con-  or over.  A  received help The  fifties,  age  g r o u p was  as sixties,  g r o u p o n l y two  w i f e was  physically i l l , w h i l e the  were m a r r i e d .  Of  r e q u i r i n g at  o t h e r w i f e was  least mentally  t o a degree r e q u i r i n g permanent h o s p i t a l i z a t i o n .  f a r as  c o u l d be  c h i l d r e n and  was  separated,  determined,  n e i t h e r was  f a m i l y u n i t was  and  two  o n l y two  finding this  w o u l d t h e r e f o r e seem t h a t n o t  by^a  total  through  seven i n . t h e i r  the t o t a l  were widowed, one  It  con-  seventies.  temporary h o s p i t a l i z a t i o n ,  As  does n o t  defined.as  o f age  f o u r men,  the J o i n t Family S e r v i c e s P r o j e c t .  ill  other  Clients The  these  aggressive  o f t h e f a m i l i e s a l s o e x h i b i t e d p a s s i v e and  behaviour.  of  had  remained  lived with  particularly  belonging  Seven  their satisfactory.  to, or being  a problem f o r the m a j o r i t y of  single.  accepted  these  4?  twelve  persons. Of  the  s i x p e r s o n s whose r e l i g i o u s a f f i l i a t i o n  known, f i v e were P r o t e s t a n t and the  connection  one  was  Greek Orthodox.  i s nominal or a c t i v e i s not  the  (one),  same s i x were C a n a d i a n ( t w o ) , and  Ukrainian O n l y two  p e r s o n was  t h e r couple bonus.  living  on.  One  was  Of  the  to  h e a l t h was  w h i l e two  The to had  h a v e had not.  not  was  been regarding  a matter  of  information  as  problems of p h y s i c a l area  of mental  illness illness.  S o c i a l S e r v i c e I n d e x showed f o u r o f t h e social  agencies  while  F i v e c a s e s were u n d e t e r m i n e d as t o s u c h sources  of r e f e r r a l  d i v i d e d between s i x r e q u e s t s community.  p r o b l e m s were n o t  up  cases '  three  contact.  t o t h e P r o j e c t were  evenly  f o r s e r v i c e f r o m members and  I t i s t o be  picked  living  persons.  problems i n the  contact with other  The  from the  o t h e r s has  e i g h t c a s e s where s p e c i f i c  had  ano-  S e c u r i t y plus cost of  a v a i l a b l e , housing  g i v e n , t h r e e had  others  presumably  u n e m p l o y e d and d e s t i t u t e .  of the  serious concern f o r f i v e of the the  English  eight cases i n which i n f o r m a t i o n  a c c o m m o d a t i o n was  Of  F i n n i s h (two),  Widows A l l o w a n c e w h i l e  r e c e i v i n g O l d Age  Economic c i r c u m s t a n c e s  determined.  Racial origins  were r e g u l a r l y e m p l o y e d w i t h  r e c e i v i n g t h e War  was  be  (one).  enough i n c o m e t o l i v e One  Whether  known b u t m i g h t  r e l e v a n t i n c o n s i d e r i n g community r e s o u r c e s . for  was  noted that these  persons'  at the time of r e g i s t r a t i o n  i n t h e i r group p a r t i c i p a t i o n ,  yet  were s t i l l  six  i n need  of  nor  44  specialized  help. The  problems w i t h which they d e s i r e d  two  categories,  and  ( 2 ) psychological.  inter-related First  (1) "practical",  but  were t h e  are  and  health.  they f i r s t pressing,  T h e s e two  as  w h i c h t o ask  for  n e e d was  likely  as  affairs,  the  which  most  to the i n -  as t h e y were s o m e t h i n g t a n g i b l e  for  help.  s e c o n d g r o u p o f p r o b l e m s were o f t h e  emotional-psychological and  variety.  depression.  social-  A l a r g e number c o m p l a i n e d  Several  inter-personal relationships.  Nearly  had  difficulties  a l l desired  in  attention  e n c o u r a g e m e n t , c o m i n g t o A l e x a n d r a N e i g h b o r h o o d House  f o r r e c o g n i t i o n and Service mation-giving A the  such  problems w i t h  t h e s e w e r e p r o b a b l y more a c c e p t a b l e  The  of ldmeliness  discussion.  physical d i f f i c u l t i e s  as t h e  of  of course, c l o s e l y  T h e s e were p r e s e n t e d as t h e requested help  were  environmental,  employment, r e c r e a t i o n , l e g a l  d i v i d u a l t o a d m i t , and  and  are,  and  d i v i d e d h e r e f o r ease of  e c o n o m i c and  housing, finances,  material  help  older  support. given  was  or r e f e r r a l  c i r c u m s t a n c e s of the t h i s P r o j e c t and  community, p r e s e n t s  common human n e e d s  c u l t u r e , compared t o t h e  senior  of the  o f an  of  specific  c i t i e n s under c o n s i d e r a t i o n z  resources  a serious  lems i s a p p l i c a b l e t o the  infor-  nature.  c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the  p e r s o n s i n our  population.  u s u a l l y b r i e f and  a v a i l a b l e f o r them i n  picture.  T h i s p i c t u r e of  l a r g e numbers o f  in • the prob-  such p e r s o n s i n  our  44 ( a )  Table A  Sources of R e f e r r a l t o the Proj ect  Division  Problems Indicated at Registration  Problems Indicated i n Group Work Program  Member Request f o r S ervice  Playschool  2  8  -  Junior  5  25  Teen-Age  1  Adult  1  Senior Total  C ommunity Request f o r S e r v i ce  Total  4  14  1  -  51  11  2  19  5  9  -  -  5  15  6  6  12  9  44  14  24  91  45.  The  Total Client The  Body  foregoing p o r t i o n of t h i s  with the c l i e n t s as d i v i d e d These g r o u p i n g s  into  five  purposes.  a it  service-  I t s h o u l d be b o r n e i n m i n d t h a t i n t e r m s o f t h e Moreover, i t i s necessary  depart from t h e program d i v i s i o n social picture of the t o t a l will  d i v i s i o n which i s  House f o r p r o g r a m  P r o j e c t t h e f o c u s i s on f a m i l i e s . to  d i s t i n c t age g r o u p s .  represent a convenient  f o l l o w e d a t Alexandra Neighborhood  c h a p t e r has d e a l t  be n e c e s s a r y t o s e e k  client  of groups i n order t o g e t body.  For this  purpose  answers t o t h e f o l l o w i n g  questionsj 1.  What c a n be f a c t o r e d o u t a s b e i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e c l i e n t s served?  2.  What e n v i r o n m e n t a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e s i t u a t i o n s i n w h i c h t h e y f i n d themselves?  3»  What f a m i l y p a t t e r n s s t a n d o u t f r o m t h e information available?  4.  What do t h e c l i e n t s s e e i n i t i a l l y a s b e i n g t h e i r most p r e s s i n g p r o b l e m ?  5.  What h a v e t h e y a t t e m p t e d about t h e i r problems?  t o do. i n t h e p a s t  Some i n f o r m a t i o n i s a v a i l a b l e w h i c h b e g i n t o answer t h e s e q u e s t i o n s . into  relief  the geographic  It will  will  at least  also help to put  as w e l l as s o c i a l  area i n which the  P r o j a c t has been o p e r a t i n g .  Common C l i e n t  Characteristics  A salient  characteristic  s h a r e d by a l l p e o p l e  living  46.  i n t h i s a r e a i s t h e i r h o u s i n g and  neighborhood  T h i s important i n f l u e n c e i n the background h a r d l y be more g r a p h i c a l l y summary i n one  illustrated  of the P r o j e c t  situation.  of these people  t h a n by t h e  can  following  reports.  " T h i s a r e a i s segmented by m a j o r t r a f f i c a r t e r i e s , and i s u n d e r s l o w t r a n s i t i o n f r o m a r e s i d e n t i a l t o a b u s i n e s s and i n d u s t r i a l community. A c o n s i d e r a b l e amount o f h o u s i n g s t i l l remains, v a r y i n g i n q u a l i t y from average to poor, i n c l u d i n g one s e c t i o n i n t h e n o r t h e a s t c o r n e r b o r d e r i n g on s l u m c o n d i t i o n s . Overcrowding i s v e r y common i n t h e l o w e r q u a l i t y h o u s i n g u n i t s . The t r a n s i e n c y r a t e o f t h e r e s i d e n t s i s h i g h <* t h e r e l a t i v e l y c h e a p h o u s i n g b e i n g u s e d by f a m i l i e s f o r e m e r g e n c i e s and s t o p o v e r s . O t h e r f a m i l i e s , w h i l e b e i n g i n v e r y a d e q u a t e c o n d i t i o n s , a r e most a p a t h e t i c and h a v e v e r y l i t t l e a m b i t i o n t o b e t t e r t h e i r a c c o m m o d a t i o n . Many b r o k e n homes and onep a r e n t f a m i l i e s a r e t o be f o u n d a m i d s t a p o p u l a t i o n w h i c h i s composed p r i m a r i l y o f f a m i l i e s rather than s i n g l e persons." 1 This short paragraph  c o n t a i n s not merely  p i c t u r e o f a g e o g r a p h i c a l a r e a but v i v i d l y as w e l l as p s y c h o l o g i c a l elements solescent d i s t r i c t An  of t h i s  additional  a c c e p t e d , and  1.  economic ob-  kind.  and v e r y i m p o r t a n t  couver P l a n n i n g Department, c l a r i f y i n g further.  suggests the  i n v o l v e d i n a m i x e d and  "Vancouver Redevelopment P l a n " , prepared  here  a word  S i n c e t h e p l a n i s now there are p r o v i n c i a l  document i s t h e  by t h e C i t y  the housing  more o r l e s s  and  federal  o f Van-  situation officially  grants-in-aid  R e p o r t on t h e J o i n t F a m i l y S e r v i c e s P r o j e c t , A u g u s t 1957» page 5.  50,  47  i n the o f f i n g ,  i t may  mark t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e end  of the b l i g h t e d areas i n t h i s f o r A l e x a n d r a House w h i c h development  city.  And  this  f o r some  i s very  important  i s i n the eastern section of the  re-  area. The  e n t i r e area covered  either for "partial"  by t h e C i t y  r e p o r t i s slated  or "comprehensive redevelopment".  It is  s i g n i f i c a n t " t h a t the e n t i r e area around Alexandra  Neighborhood  House i s i n t h e l a t t e r  study  important "Age  category.  Two  with respect to t h i s area.  of B u i l d i n g s "  and  a study  maps i n t h e The  o f t h i s map  whelming m a j o r i t y of b u i l d i n g s are over age  structures. map  draws t h e  shows t h a t t h e  second  entitled  Here the housing  is classified  " Q u a l i t y of  as p o o r ,  fair  or poor.  f r i n g e s o f t h e a r e a a r e t h e r e any  is  or g o o d .  Only  houses which  con-  Housing".  s u r r o u n d i n g A l e x a n d r a Neighborhood House, a l l o f  h o u s e s a r e r a t e d e i t h e r as f a i r  The  d e s c r i b e the  I n f o r m a t i o n on t h i s a s p e c t  contained i n the  over-  f o r t y years o l d .  o f t h e s e , h o w e v e r , does n o t n e c e s s a r i l y  d i t i o n s of the  area  first  are  on t h e bear  In the the very  the  rating  of good; On observation i s  page s e v e n o f -the s t u d y , th©  following  interesting  found.  " W h i l e n o t so much an i n d e x o f b l i g h t a s a consequence of i t , c e r t a i n u n d e s i r a b l e s o c i a l cond i t i o n s a r e a s s o c i a t e d , i n V a n c o u v e r as e l s e w h e r e , with t h i s substandard housing a l l h e a l t h and w e l f a r e a g e n c i e s r e c o g n i z e these b l i g h t a r e a s , not o n l y as c o n t r i b u t i n g t o f a m i l y b r e a k d o w n and i l l h e a l t h b u t a l s o a s o f f e r i n g t h e most s e r i o u s obstacles to remedial treatment. The p h y s i c a l oymptoms  c  48.  of b l i g h t may be more o b v i o u s ; t h e human c o n • sequences/in l o s s o f w e l l - b e i n g a n d s e l f - r e s p e c t , may be more d i s a s t r o u s and i n t h e l o n g r u n more expensive." 1  Environmental  and F a m i l y P a t t e r n s  I n t e r - r e l a t e d with the preceding i s the extremely i m p o r t a n t q u e s t i o n o f t h e e f f e c t s on t h e g r o w t h  and d e v e l o p -  ment o f b o t h a d u l t s a n d c h i l d r e n .  has been  a s one o f t h e e l e m e n t s  Overcrowding  i n the housing  situation.  cited  T h i s means  n o t o n l y t h a t more t h a n one f a m i l y o c c u p i e s a g i v e n h o e , b u t m  in  addition,  each  family  t h e r e i s no s t a t i s t i c a l the m u l t i - f a m i l i a l of  t h e above.  i s living  i n cramped q u a r t e r s .  While  i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e t o support  dwellings typical  From t h i s  i n the area o f f e r  this,  evidence  s i t u a t i o n i t f o l l o w s t h a t i n a good  many c a s e s a d e q u a t e f a m i l y p r i v a c y i s i m p o s s i b l e t o m a i n t a i n . Adequate p a r e n t a l c o n t r o l addition, that  poor  of children  i s diminished and,in  f a m i l y p a t t e r n s may be t r a n s m i t t e d . -  some f a m i l i e s a r e "most a p a t h e t i c and have v e r y  The f & b t little  a m b i t i o n t o b e t t e r t h e i r accommodation" i n d i c a t e s elements p a t h o l o g y w h i c h may Other people to  living  this,  ties  environmental  i n this  f o r the children,  behaviour 1.  e a s i l y be c o n t a g i o u s i n some i n s t a n c e s . f a c t o r s which  influence the  area i n c l u d e h e a l t h problems,  questions of cleanliness,  environmental  of  proper  playground  and r e l a t e d facili-  e t c . I t i s not hard to c o r e l a t e  such  p r e s s u r e s w i t h p s y c h o l o g i c a l e f f e c t s and t h e  o f some o f t h e c h i l d r e n a p p e a r s  to r e f l e c t  this.  Housing Research Committee, Vancouver Redevelopment Study Ho. 5» C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t , December 1957.  49. t h e word " f a m i l y " a p p e a r s o f t e n i n t h i s the  survey.of  the family patterns of the c l i e n t s  study.  i n the Project  r e v e a l s much d i v e r s i t y a n d a f a r more s t a b l e s i t u a t i o n . i s a h i g h p r o p o r t i o n o f b r o k e n homes h e r e . explain the complexity and  children.  one  of the parents  one-third  is  o f p r o b l e m s e n c o u n t e r e d by b o t h  living  a t home.  of the entire caseload  death.  1.  Family -  Family 1.  The s t a t i s t i c a l  This  ..  only  c o n s t i t u t e s more  of the P r o j e c t .  than  In addition, partners  picture of the family  patterns  1.  — P a t t e r n s Among t h e C l i e n t s C l i e n t Group • ( 1 )  Pattern  Both Parents A l i v e , L i v i n g Together a. b. c.  adults  T h i r t y - t h r e e o f t h e f a m i l i e s i n v o l v e d have  summarized i n T a b l e  Table  There  This too helps to  t h e r e a r e s e v e n s e n i o r p a r t n e r s who h a v e l o s t t h e i r through  But  Married Common Law Remarried  I  II  10  21  10  -  18 2 1  8 1 1  10  III  IV  6 6 —  91 C a s e s  V  Total  2  42 44  -2  5  2  •"  2.  Broken or Incomplete Families a. b. c. d. e.  One P a r e n t Dead Parents (or.Spouse) Separated P a r e n t s ( o r Spouse) Divorced . Deserted Wife Unmarried Mother Total  1. 2.  4  10  2  8  40  _  7  8  5  7  1  21  4  —  —  £  1 1  7  1  -  —  1  14  2 1  51  —  2  —  .—  19  15  —•  10  7 2 2 91  (2  I - P l a y S c h o o l Group, I I - J u n i o r D i v i s i o n , I I I - Teen-age D i v i s i o n , IV - A d u l t D i v i s i o n , V - S e n i o r D i v i s i o n . I n c l u d e s two i n S e n i o r Group who a r e s i n g l e .  50.  Of  the t o t a l  partners are l i v i n g  forty-nine families  border-line of separation.  of t h e v e r y h i g h the t o t a l  Some o f t h e s e  a r e on t h e  T h i s , them, i s i n d i c a t i v e  rate of marital disturbance  encountered i n  caseload.  It i s of interest  t o n o t e t h a t t h e r e i s an i n c r e a s e  i n t h e r a t e o f b r o k e n homes a s one moves t h r o u g h d i n g age g r o u p s . roughly one  In the play  s c h o o l and j u n i o r  t h i r t y - t h r e e per cent  parent  only at ho e. m  r i s e s t o almost f i f t y  apart  group, of a t o t a l  division,  (fourteen of forty-five)  per cent  have  ( n i n e out o f n i n e t e e n ) . . I n  sixty  per cent  (nine out of n f i f t e e n ) . twelve  the ascen-  I n the teen-age group, the f i g u r e  t h e a d u l t s e c t i o n , more t h a n are l i v i n g  both  t o g e t h e r , many o f t h e r e c o r d s i n d i c a t e  s e r i o u s husband-wife d i f f i c u l t y . very  i n which  cases,  o f t h e spouses  In the senior  one i s s e p a r a t e d ,  seven  s p o u s e s a r e d e c e a s e d , a n d two p e r s o n s a r e s i n g l e . The  Presenting In  essential  Problem  d i s c u s s i n g t h e p r e s e n t i n g p r o b l e m , t h e r e a r e two aspects  t o be i e p t  i n mind.  The f i r s t  a r e t h e p r o b l e m s a s s e e n by t h e c l i e n t initial  point of contact.  Secondly,  to  that the presenting  give a convenient  these  or the worker a t t h e  there are certain  s i e n c i e s i n t h e c a t e g o r i z a t i o n o f these instance,  i s that  problems.  defi-  To s a y ,  for  p r o b l e m was m a r i t a l i s m e r e l y  i n d i c a t i o n of the d i f f i c u l t y .  h o w e v e r , t o g i v e a n a n s w e r t o a good many q u e s t i o n s  It fails, w h i c h come  51  to the as  m i n d as t o t h e s p e c i f i c s same t i m e , t h i s  or i n t e n s i t y  of the problems.  i n d i c a t i o n i s o f some v a l u e i n a s t u d y  P r e s e n t i n g Problems of the C l i e n t s ( 6 l o u t o f 91 c a s e s )  Type o f P r o b l e m  I  C l i e n t G r o u p (1) III IVII  Peer R e l a t i o n s h i p s , F r i e n d s h i p D i f f i c u l t ! es Parent C h i l d Problems P e r s o n a l i t y Problems Marital Relationships Need f o r F o s t e r C a r e  5 5 4 1 1  9 4 1 1 2  6 2  1 4  1  5 5 :4  H e a l t h Problems Economic Problems Housing Problems  2 2 2  1 1  5 1  —  —.  18  19  Total  There i n t h e sample  ships.  •*  15  These,  h o w e v e r , may  Total  2  —  21 15 ;8 9 7  1 1 1  4 2 4  11 7 7  20  15  85  1  sheets out of  ninety  group.  be c o n s i d e r e d r e p r e s e n -  T h e y show t h a t t h e g r e a t e s t  were e n c o u n t e r e d i n t h e r e a l m o f p e e r  T h i s i s f o l l o w e d by p a r e n t - c h i l d  health, marital,  V  which c o n t a i n e d i n f o r m a t i o n about the p r e -  t a t i v e of t h e whole difficulties  -  were o n l y s i x t y - o n e f a c e  senting problems.  of  such  this.  T a b l e 2.  one  At  personality  problems,  relationships,  economic,  number  relationthen  h o u s i n g , and  f o s t e r case problems, i n t h a t order. I t would  1.  appear t h a t the problem of peer  relation-  I - P l a y S c h o o l , I I - J u n i o r D i v i s i o n , I I I - Teen-Age IV - A d u l t D i v i s i o n , V - S e n i o r D i v i s i o n  Division,  52.  s h i p s was  a preliminary diagnostic evaluation f i r s t  t h e group w o r k e r s r a t h e r t h a n as This i s a logical  s o m e t h i n g s e e n by t h e  c o n s e q u e n c e o f o b s e r v a t i o n by t h e  the group o r i n a c t i v i t y around the Social Service  was  trations. (l)  Had  b e e n no  every  From t h i s  i t was  (2)  any  two  incomplete,  agencies  Btory.  out  previous  contacts with other Or (5)  of the ninety-one  The  s i x t y - e i g h t had remaining  under three headings:  Public Welfare, below.  F a m i l y and  and H e a l t h A g e n c i e s .  What i s o f s i g n i f i c a n c e  fiftyor s e v e r a l  5 has  Child  been  Welfare,  These a r e f u r t h e r d i s c u s s e d  i s the f a c t t h a t  f a m i l i e s h a v e had  c o n t a c t w i t h no  l e s s than  and  w i t h as many a s  seven  some o f t h e s e  no  I n o r d e r t o summarize t h e p i c t u r e o f  c l i e n t ' s a s s o c i a t i o n with other agencies, Table compiled  be  even i f  h o w e v e r , h a v e been known e i t h e r t o one  i n the past.  had  families.  r e v e a l a most i n t e r e s t i n g ,  o t h e r agency.  social  There  These q u e s t i o n s can  Over s i x t e e n of t h e  r e c o r d w i t h any  regis-  p o s s i b l e to a s c e r t a i n three t h i n g s ,  previous contact at a l l .  families,  in  s e t up f o r a f a m i l y , an  I f so, w i t h which a g e n c i e s ?  These r e c o r d s  previous  staff  made t o i n c l u d e t h e S o c i a l S e r v i c e I n d e x  answered f o r s i x t y - e i g h t  an  client.  agency.  r e c o r d w h i c h was  t h e f a m i l y had  agencies?  by  Contacts  For attempt  noted  three  agencies.  twenty-one agencies,  53.  Table  No 1.  3.  The P a t t e r n o f W e l f a r e N e e d s ( T h e i r S o c i a l Agency Contacts). (68 o u t o f 91 c a s e s ) -  T y p e and Name of Agency. Previous Record of Contact  Service  C l i e n t Group (1) IV, . V III  Total  I  II  4  4  3  1  1  7  4  •5  2  8  2  4  -  3  2  2  -  '-  -  4  4  4  5  4  -  17  •1  —  l  -.  —  1  5  2  5  -  11  1  6  5  2  2  16  1  2  4  -  -  7  -.  1  4  1  -  6  4  2  1  1  -  20  45  40  19  8  F a m i l y and C h i l d Welfare Family Service Agency Children s Aid b. Society Catholic Child* c. r e n s A i d Soc. C h i l d Welfare d. Dept. (B.C.) e. Family Court Vancouver J o h n Howard f. So c i e t y  4  '  2.  16  17  1  1  2.  Public Welfare Social Welfare Branch (Prov.) City Social b. S e r v i c e Dept. Vancouver  a.  Health Agencies Metropolitan. Health C l i n i c P r o v i n c i a l Psyb. c h i a t r i c Services c. Victorian Order of Nurses  a.  T o t a l S o c i a l Service. C o n t a c t Per Group  It  is  a p p r o p r i a t e1 t o po i n t o u t  agencies w i t h which the  1.  -  c l i e n t s h a v e had  -  16 12  2  . 8  132  t h a t t h e number contact  i n no  way  I - P l a y S c h o o l , I I - J u n i o r D i v i s i o n , I I I - Teen-Age D i v i s i o n , IV - A d u l t D i v i s i o n , V - S e n i o r D i v i s i o n .  of  54. i n d i c a t e s t h e i n t e n s i t y o f need or d u r a t i o n of w e l f a r e vices.  I t reveals nothing  about the k i n d s of s e r v i c e s nor  does i t i n d i c a t e w h e t h e r t h e contact.  The  in this  family s t i l l  has  a continuing  I n d e x m e r e l y shows t h a t a c a s e was  p a r t i c u l a r agency.  The  ser-  o p e n e d by  f i g u r e s i n the t a b l e should  be  a  judged  light. T h i s i s n o t .enough, h o w e v e r , t o e l i m i n a t e t h e  s u s p i c i o n t h a t some o f t h e the  s o - c a l l e d "hard-core"  multiplicity  cases.  of problems.  welfare agencies. t h e i r problems. p r o b l e m and  c l i e n t s i n the P r o j e c t These a r e  They a r e  seemingly  This multi-problem  l a c k of p o t e n t i a l  deficiency  i n the  t o grow and  services given  whether i t r e p r e s e n t s  elements of  A most i n t e r e s t i n g cases  has  group  been made by Mr.  of s o c i a l  i s a result  develop, by t h e  a  work.  It  for  their  of  has  their  whether i t i s a  contact agencies,  or  both.  study  of s o - c a l l e d "hard  B. M a r c u s e .  t h i s t e r m , M a r c u s e makes t h e  social  remains both  responsibility  to various agencies  a  incapable of s o l v i n g  field  y e t t o be a s c e r t a i n e d w h e t h e r t h e  own  c l i e n t s with  T h e y have been t o s e v e r a l  a c h a l l e n g e f o r the  c o n t i n u a l appeal  represent  In connection  core" with  following observation:  "The t e r m ' h a r d c o r e ' , as has b e e n i n d i c a t e d , i s f r e q u e n t l y used w i t h i n . t h e f i e l d of s o c i a l work, s o c i o l o g y , and o t h e r s o c i a l s c i e n c e s t o d e s c r i b e the l o n g - s t a n d i n g cases of maladjustment. By t h e i r v e r y n a t u r e , t h e s e a r e a p t t o a b s o r b a l a r g e amount o f community w e l f a r e r e s o u r c e s and s e r v i c e s . W h i l e t h i s t e r m has a c e r t a i n m e r i t , d e r i v e d p r i m a r i l y from usage, i t l a c k s  55  p r e c i s e d e f i n i t i o n , and from a semantic v i e w p o i n t may be- s u b j e c t t o s e r i o u s q u e s t i o n . The meaning o f 'hard c o r e h a s n e v e r been p r e c i s e l y defined - apart from i t s o r i g i n a l t e c h n i c a l d e f i n i t i o n , which i s hardly relevant without much i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . " 1 1  He g o e s on t o p o i n t  out t h a t t h i s i s a group f o r  whom t r e a t m e n t h a s l a r g e l y been i n e f f e c t i v e and h i s i m p o r t a n t s t u d y i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e f a c t o r s w h i c h make f o r t h i s of c h r o n i c m a l a d j u s t m e n t and dependency. t h a t many o f t h e c l i e n t s to those dealt w i t h  I t would  i n t h e P r o j e c t b e a r many  appear similarities  by M r . M a r c u s e .  What a r e t h e k i n d s  o f needs and W e l f a r e  Services  w i t h w h i c h t h e c l i e n t s i n t h e P r o j e c t a r e o r h a v e been Table 5 brings  a great  deal  a l i k e number h a v e h a d c o n t a c t f a m i l i e s , according  received  with the Family  to the Social Service  a i d from t h e F a m i l y  associated?  of t h i s to l i g h t .  ' S e v e n t e e n f a m i l i e s have been t o F a m i l y  Five  type  C o u r t and  Services  Agency.  Index, had  and C h i l d W e l f a r e .  When a l l o w a n c e  i s made f o r some d u p l i c a t i o n i n t h e s e f i g u r e s , e . g . some f a m i l i e s had been t o two o f t h e a b o v e - m e n t i o n e d there  is still  sufficient  e v i d e n c e , t o show t h a t t h e home  s i t u a t i o n o f a l a r g e number o f c l i e n t s extremely  i n the Project i s  disturbed. The  1.  agencies,  three  agencies which s p e c i f i c a l l y  f o c u s on  M a r c u s e , B e r t h o l d , Lonfe-Term D e p e n d e n c y and M a l a d j u s t m e n t Oases I n a F a m i l y S e r v i c e Agency, U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1956, M a s t e r o f S o c i a l Work T h e s i s .  56.  c h i l d r e n , the C a t h o l i c C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y , A i d S o c i e t y , and  the C h i l d Welfare  of t h i r t y - t w o f a m i l i e s a v a i l i n g As  the  p o l i c y of the  s i d e r a t i o n of c h i l d these  D e p a r t m e n t show a  themselves of t h e i r  three agencies  explicitly  Court,  I t should  Family  Welfare  be  involves  serious  lication,  C a t h o l i c Family  Family sod C h i l d  •''hus t h e  f i g u r e s r e f e r r i n g to the  of  seventy-one cases.  six  agencies  Allowing  c a s e l o a d i n t h e P r o j e c t h a v e , a t one  another,  contact  about the  w i t h one  While there  o r more o f t h e s e  i s no. s p e c i f i c  economic s t a t u s of t h e  following  facts.  primarily  concerned with f i n a n c i a l  S o c i a l Welfare  The  can  per time  six  a combined t o t a l  or  agencies.  be  i n the P r o j e c t , drawn f r o m  the  C i t y S o c i a l S e r v i c e Department i s assistance, while  Branch d e a l s w i t h a wide v a r i e t y of  including financial  cent  information available  clients  p e r h a p s some t e n t a t i v e c o n c l u s i o n s  assistance.  Both these  agencies  of twenty-seven f a m i l i e s served.  c o n s t i t u t e s about t h i r t y  per  cent  of the  t h e C i t y S o c i a l S e r v i c e , D e p a r t m e n t no  formation  f o r dup-  i t i s f a i r t o assume t h a t more t h a n f i f t y  of the t o t a l  '  or  1  had  con-  dis-  borne i n mind t h a t t h e  S e r v i c e s A g e n c y and  above g i v e a t o t a l  As  services.  a l s o deal w i t h c h i l d r e n s problems d i r e c t l y  otherwise.  total  placement, i t t h e r e f o r e f o l l o w s that  t h i r t y - t w o f a m i l i e s were f a c e d w i t h  organization.  Children's  total  the  problems show This  case  load.  longer gives i n *  t o t h e S o c i a l S e r v i c e I n d e x , i t can  be  assumed  57.  t h a t t h e number o f f a m i l i e s  seeking  financial  even g r e a t e r t h a n t h a t w h i c h i s g i v e n Clearly, these  families will  stability light Two  the figures  agencies  emotional  I t i s therefore important  to high-  r e l a t i n g to the mental h e a l t h of the c l i e n t s .  listed  i n the S o c i a l  S e r v i c e Index concern  and e m o t i o n a l  h e a l t h problems.  themThese  S e r v i c e s and t h e M e t r o p o l i t a n  Clinic. Seven c h i l d r e n  were r e f e r r e d  the M e t r o p o l i t a n H e a l t h C l i n i c , . with the P r o v i n c i a l  Psychiatric  o r more members o f t h e s e Clinic,  Services.  T h i s means t h a t  of the  one  to Crease  the P r o v i n c i a l Mental Eight  contact  Hos-  families  t h e m s e l v e s o f t h e s e r v i c e s g i v e n by t h e V i c t o r i a  Order o f Nurses.  These i n d i c a t e  h e a l t h p r o b l e m s o f a more  nature. The J o h n Howard  probation families  and p a r o l e i n the  S o c i e t y , w h i c h concerns- i t s e l f  services,  with  h a s h a d c o n t a c t w i t h two o f t h e  Project.  The t a b l e clearly  schools to  f a m i l i e s have b e e n e i t h e r  or the C h i l d Guidance C l i n i c .  general  by t h e i r  S i x f a m i l i e s have had  the Mental Health Centre,  have a v a i l e d  junior  among  on t h e  are the P r o v i n c i a l P s y c h i a t r i c  pital  prevalent  have a pronounced e f f e c t  selves with psychiatric  Health  here.  t h e amount o f d i s t r e s s  o f i t s members.  assistance i s  dealing with the S o c i a l Service  shows t h a t t h e p r e p o n d e r a n c e o f c o n t a c t and teen-age s e c t i o n s o f A l e x a n d r a  House.  Index  i s i n the This  i s so  58  because these  s e c t i o n s c o n s t i t u t e the bulk  c l i e n t e l e , b u t i n t h e t e e n - a g e s e c t i o n one  of the  Project  also finds that  the  p r o p o r t i o n of s e r v i c e s i s g r e a t e r . This  study  does n o t  o f t h e number o f t i m e s but  an  interesting  include a s t a t i s t i c a l  c a s e s were r e o p e n e d i n v a r i o u s  p i c t u r e presents  made o f t h e number o f a g e n c i e s or are m a i n t a i n i n g no  previous  cards  contact.  evidence to  a c o n s t i t u e n c y i n need. h a v e had  contact  b r e a k down i n t h e contact  w i t h two  likewise, constitute  Of  the  agencies;  other agency.  contact  w i t h f o u r ; f o u r h a v e had contact  only  given t h e i r n a t i o n a l i t y  Scotch,  with  had  three; with  agencies.  f a m i l i e s who  have  each.  significahtffactor  i n terms  of  f a c t t h a t . t w e n t y - n i n e have  as C a n a d i a n .  This  is a  significant  i n w h i c h p e o p l e g e n e r a l l y i n Canada  b e c o m i n g a w a r e o f t h e m s e l v e s as a n a t i o n . d i v i d e i n the  residue  contact  with six  r a n g e , t h e r e a r e two  i n f o r m a t i o n on n a t i o n a l i t y / i s t h e  i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e way  The  f o u r t e e n f a m i l i e s have  s e v e n h a v e had  seven agencies  is  remainder, seventeen f a m i l i e s  f o l l o w i n g way:  Perhaps the  Index  show t h a t t h e s e ,  f a m i l i e s h a v e had  by  had  a v a i l a b l e , there  f i v e and  been s e r v e d  f a m i l i e s have  While the S o c i a l S e r v i c e  w i t h o n l y one  extreme of the  had  f a m i l i e s are not  contact  At the  i t s e l f when a c h e c k i s  S i x t e e n of the  s i x h a v e had two  agencies;  w i t h w h i c h f a m i l i e s have  record of contact.  f o r twenty-three  sufficient  survey  f o l l o w i n g way:  t h r e e F i n n i s h , two  The  remainder  six English, six Slavic,  German, and  five  are  three  miscellaneous.  59.  Thirty-seven  a r e unknown. Information  eight  o f t h e n i n e t y - o n e f a m i l i e s shows f o r t y - t h r e e  listed and  as t o r e l i g i o u s a f f i l i a t i o n  as P r o t e s t a n t ,  eleven C a t h o l i c , four  for fiftyfamilies  miscellaneous  t h i r t y - t h r e e unknown. Only a p o r t i o n of the s t a t i s t i c a l  b e e n commented u p o n i n t h i s (a)  family contact  (c)  economic c o n d i t i o n s ,  was f e l t  that  of the c l i e n t s  with  study.  p i c t u r e has  The a r e a s c h o s e n were  s o c i a l agencies, (b) and (d)  marital  housing conditions.  status, It  t h e s e r e p r e s e n t t h e common c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n the Project.  CHAPTER 5  THE GOALS AND ROLE OF THE GROUP WORKER The whatever  social  sonal  role of a l l social  g r o u p work - i n  s e t t i n g i t i s . p r a c t i c e d - i s t o e f f e c t changes o r  adaptations and  general  i n a p a r t i c u l a r person's a t t i t u d e , r e l a t i o n s h i p s , b e h a v i o u r t o t h e end t h a t he w i l l  adequacy and s o c i a l  have g r e a t e r  per-  adjustment,  G i s e l a Konopka o u t l i n e s t h e a r e a o f competence a g r o u p w o r k e r must a c h i e v e t o r e a c h t h i s g o a l . ings given tudes.  to this  competence a r e Knowledge, S k i l l s  Konopka says "the  The t h r e e  head-  and A t t i -  that  group worker g a i n s knowledge i n : I n d i v i d u a l d i a g n o s i s ( n o r m a l and p a t h o l o g i c a l ) Dynamics o f group b e h a v i o u r (normal and p a t h o logical) L e g a l f r a m e w o r k o f s o c i a l work Understanding of administrative p r i n c i p l e s K n o w l e d g e o f community r e s o u r c e s a n d c o m m u n i t y organization  He d e v e l o p s s k i l l s i n : S u p e r v i s i o n o f l a y s t a f f and v o l u n t e e r s d i a g n o s i s o f i n d i v i d u a l ^ . a n d group b e h a v i o u r R e c o r d i n g , s u m m a r i z i n g and a n a l y z i n g g r o u p p r o c e s s and i n d i v i d u a l m a t e r i a l R e f e r r a l t o o t h e r a g e n c i e s and o t h e r p r o f e s s i o n a l people Casework and c o u n s e l l i n g He d e v e l o p s a n a t t i t u d e o f : P r o f e s s i o n a l d i s c i p l i n e and i n t e g r i t y Respect f o r and a p p r e c i a t i o n o f o t h e r s p l a c e o f work An i n q u i r i n g m i n d  i n his  61  F l e x i b i l i t y in. t h e u s e o f p r i n c i p l e s a n d t o o l s F r e e d o m and c r e a t i v i t y i n t h e u s e o f h i m s e l f . " This  study  ciples outlined  shall  confine i t s e l f  i n t h e above.  While  t o a few o f t h e p r i n -  t h e group workers i n t h e  Project  d i s p l a y e d competence i n t h e f i e l d ,  a great  deal of experimentation  The  latter  t h e r e was n e e d f o r  and f l e x i b i l i t y  provided material f o r h i g h l i g h t i n g  o f t h e g r o u p work method i n t h i s the  first  encounter  of approach.  certain  aspects  agency.  w i t h t h e new member o f a n a g e n c y  i s known a s t h e " i n t a k e p r o c e s s " .  I n an a r t i c l e  writtenf o r  the Journal of S o c i a l  Work, H e l e n N o r t h e n d e s c r i b e s t h i s  cess, i n t h e f o l l o w i n g  way:  pro-  "The f i r s t s t e p i s t h a t o f s e l e c t i v e i n t a k e of e i t h e r i n d i v i d u a l s or a l r e a d y formed groups. I n t h e i n t a k e p r o c e s s a n a t t e m p t i s made t o help the people i n v o l v e d express t h e i r prob l e m s and n e e d s , t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e a g e n c y ' s s e r v i c e s a n d make d e c i s i o n s a b o u t u s i n g them, to a s s e s s t h e i r needs i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e s e r v i c e s a n d t o j u d g e w h e t h e r s o c i a l g r o u p work o r some o t h e r s e r v i c e i s i n d i c a t e d . " 2 Northen then  goes on t o p o i n t t o o t h e r a r e a s  g r o u p work method and l i s t s  i n the social  them a s d i a g n o s i s a n d  These q u e s t i o n s  shall  treatment,  and  group f o r m a t i o n s .  be d e a l t w i t h i n  1.  K o n o p k a , G i s e l a , "Group Work i n t h e I n s t i t u t i o n , a M o d e r n Qhallenge", W h i t e s i d e I n c o r p o r a t e d and W i l l i a m M o r r o w a n d Company, New Y o r k , 1954-.  2.  Northen, Helen, " I n t e r - r e l a t e d Functions of a S o c i a l W o r k e r " , J o u r n a l o f S o c i a l Work, A p r i l , 1 9 5 7 .  Group  1  62  subsequent  p o r t i o n s of t h i s  Considerable group workers  i n this  study,  s t r e s s was p l a c e d u p o n i n t a k e by t h e setting.  As a r e s u l t ,  some v e r y  e s t i n g and i m p o r t a n t a d d i t i o n s were made t o t h e w h o l e of  the intake process.  ^he p r o c e d u r e  an u n p u b l i s h e d a r t i c l e w h i c h the (a)  the Intake I n t e r v i e w , (b)  concept  i s described i n  sums up t h e t e n t a t i v e  s t a f f a t Alexandra Neighborhood  Observations  utilized  inter-  findings of  House u n d e r t h r e e  headings:  F a m i l y r e g i s t r a t i o n add ( c )  i n i n t a k e program.  Intake Interview "Where p r e v e n t a t i v e s e r v i c e t o t h e f a m i l i e s i s the aim, t h e i n t a k e i n t e r v i e w i s a p r o t e c t i v e and i n t e n s i v e p r o c e s s c a r e f u l l y d e s i g n e d t o a s s e s s t h e members n e e d s a n d i n t e r e s t s , h i s d e g r e e o f s o c i a l development, a t t i t u d e s t o s c h o o l and work, t o f a m i l y , t o p e e r s and t o t h e a g e n c y . The i n t e r viewer ( i s ) always a p r o f e s s i o n a l s s t a f f person. " 1 1  In  order to i l l u s t r a t e  the f o l l o w i n g  case  record w i l l  how t h i s  operated  be h e l p f u l .  A m o t h e r came t o  r e g i s t e r h e r c h i l d r e n f o r program a t A l e x a n d r a House. of  T h i s i n t a k e i n t e r v i e w was t h e f i r s t  M r s . A. w i t h a s t a f f member.  i n practice,  Neighborhood  f a c e - t o - f a c e meeting  The two c h i l d r e n whom she. had  come t o r e g i s t e r were known o n l y s l i g h t l y  t o t h e a g e n c y as a  r e s u l t o f b e i n g seen on t h e p l a y g r o u n d , "When M r s . A, came t o A l e x a n d r a N e i g h b o r h o o d House t o r e g i s t e r Sady and M y r a f o r p r o g r a m ,  1.  From an u n p u b l i s h e d a r t i c l e by s t a f f members o f A l e x a n d r a N e i g h b o r h o o d House, M a r c h , 1958.  65.  she t a l k e d a b o u t h e r eczema a n d h e r c o n c e r n o v e r moneys a n d seemed n o n c h a l a n t a b o u t p l a n s f o r t h e children. R e f e r r a l was made t o t h e c a s e w o r k e r f o r f u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e s e problems and h e l p in planning. " D u r i n g t h e r e g i s t r a t i o n i n t e r v i e w , M r s . A. t o l d w o r k e r t h e c h i l d r e n were i n s p e c i a l c l a s s e s a t B c h o o l a n d t h a t , s i n c e she o f t e n w o r k e d away f r o m home, t h e c h i l d r e n h a d been a l m o s t on t h e i r own s i n c e e a r l y c h i l d h o o d . S i n c e she was c o n s i d e r a b l y d i s t u r b e d a b o u t a s k i n c o n d i t i o n on h e r h a n d s a n d f i n a n c i a l p r o b l e m s , w o r k e r was a b l e t o r e f e r h e r to our f a m i l y case worker i m m e d i a t e l y . " 1 The  sensitivity  o f t h e group worker  was  subsequently  b o r n e o u t by t h e r e c o r d i n g o f t h e c a s e w o r k e r  who i n t e r v i e w e d .  Mrs.  information to  A. i m m e d i a t e l y a n d s o l i c i t e d  sufficient  h i g h l i g h t t h e need f o r h e l p i n h e r f a m i l y 2.  Family  Registration  The family  situation.  unpublished a r t i c l e  t h e n g o e s on t o d e s c r i b e  registration: " F o r y e a r s a p a r e n t c o n t a c t h a s been r e q u e s t e d at t h e t i m e o f r e g i s t e r i n g any c h i l d . However, t h i s now i s b e i n g e x t e n d e d a n d i f a p a r e n t does n o t come i n t o r e g i s t e r , p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a f f i n i t i a t e i n t e r v i e w e i t h e r a t t h e Neighborhood House o r t h r o u g h a home v i s i t . O b s e r v a t i o n s a r e c a r e f u l l y recorded i n the c o n f i d e n t i a l family f i l e s , which a g a i n c o n t r i b u t e t o an a s s e s s m e n t of f a m i l y n e e d s a n d p l a n s f o r f a m i l y s e r v i c e . " While'this article  written after  1.  i n t a k e procedure  was  t h e P r o j e c t had been c o n c l u d e d , t h e p r o c e s s  described.above life  describing  was,to  of the Project.  Family f i l e  some e x t e n t , b e i n g e m p l o y e d d u r i n g t h e The f o l l o w i n g i s a n example o f a c a s e  r e c o r d s , J u n e 20, 1956.  64  where t h e c h i l d h a d b e e n i n one p r o g r a m a c t i v i t y and  t h e f a t h e r was f o r t h e f i r s t  the purpose o f r e g i s t r a t i o n  time being  i n another  - play school  interviewedf o r  program.  "The i n t e r v i e w l a s t e d a l i t t l e o v e r one h o u r . Mr. D, t a l k e d c o n t i n u o u s l y a n d a n x i o u s l y . He e x p l a i n e d t h a t M r s . D.. s u f f e r e d f r o m a n e r v o u s c o m p l a i n t a n d h a d been a d v i s e d by h e r p h y s i c i a n t h a t i t w o u l d be b e s t i f she were n o t l i v i n g a t home. L a r r y was r e a c t i n g t o t h i s . He was s o i l i n g h i m s e l f two o r t h r e e t i m e s a f i a y . They h a d a h o u s e k e e p e r , b u t t h e r e h a d been g r e a t d i f f i c u l t y i n k e e p i n g h o u s e k e e p e r s and t h i s r e p r e s e n t e d a problem." 1 As a r e s u l t intake, this  of t h i s  "family registration"  c a s e was r e f e r r e d t o t h e J o i n t  type of  Family Services  project. Observation i n Intake  Program  A t A l e x a n d r a N e i g h b o r h o o d H o u s e , new members a r e initiated one  into activity  v i aa special  i n t a k e program.  At  t i m e , t h i s was c o n f i n e d t o a Games Room a c t i v i t y ; b u t ,  e v e n b e f o r e t h e P r o j e c t was t e r m i n a t e d , t h i s was e x t e n d e d now i n c l u d e s a hobby p r o g r a m f o r e a c h a g e g r o u p . this,  the playground,  library,  and s p e c i a l  events  a r e a l s o a r e a s where o b s e r v a t i o n o f b e h a v i o u r unpublished a r t i c l e intake  says t h e f o l l o w i n g  Apart  and from  activity  takes place.  about o b s e r v a t i o n i n  program: " H e r e , f o r t h e f i r s t few weeks o f t h e p r o g r a m p e r i o d , a c h i l d can choose an a c t i v i t y each p r o g r a m day w i t h o u t n e c e s s a r i l y b e i n g e n r o l l e d i n a s m a l l g r o u p where g r o u p p r o c e s s m i g h t be  .  Family  file  record  The  6%  d e m a n d i n g . A number o f s k i l l e d l e a d e r s , b o t h m a l e and f e m a l e , a r e p r e s e n t t o g i v e him i n d i v i d u a l a t t e n t i o n and h e l p him p a r t i c i p a t e . T h e s e same l e a d e r s c a r e f u l l y r e c o r d and d i s c u s s h i s b e h a v i o u r and a d j u s t m e n t s i n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r h i s p l a c e m e n t i n more i n t e n s i v e g r o u p s e r v i c e . " The portant serves  new  i n t a k e p r o g r a m a p p e a r s as  methods adopted at the Agency.  both the  new  A g e n c y as w e l l as w i t h the help  o f t h e most This  im-  procedure  member as a p e r i o d o f o r i e n t a t i o n t o enabling  the  i n d i v i d u a l members.  s t a f f to f a m i l i a r i z e Thus, the  t h e member t o i n t e g r a t e h i m s e l f  a t h i s own  one  p a c e and  i n a way  which w i l l  itself  group workers  i n t o program  the  can  activities  be most b e n e f i c i a l  to  him. Thus, the culminate his  i n an  or her  observation  place  a recording  i n t a k e i n t e r v i e w and  fore i n this  a r e no  recording.  c h i l d under o b s e r v a t i o n difficulties. on t h i s  child  The  to the  in.more i n t e n s i v e program.  of o b s e r v a t i o n  noted that there  period prior  family  i n the  child  The  i n t a k e program.  What i s i m p o r t a n t ,  taking  following i s It will  s p e c i a l p r o b l e m s w h i c h come t o  however, i s t h a t  becomes  family d i f f i c u l t i e s ,  be  the  comes f r o m a f a m i l y w h i c h i s h a v i n g  r e a c t i o n of the  therefore  registration  i f  the some any,  important.  " L a r r y has n o t been coming r e g u l a r l y t o A l e x a n d r a House t h i s p a s t y e a r . He has d r o p p e d i n t o p r o g r a m e v e r y now and t h e n , but has n o t b e e n a r e g u l a r member o f a g r o u p o r a c t i v i t y . He has u s e d t h e games room ( 9 t o 1 2 y e a r o l d g r o u p ) most o f t e n . He s o m e t i m e s went i n t o t h e gym, but more o f t e n • p l a y e d i n t h e games room f o r a w h i l e , t h e n t o o k  66.  o f f f o r woodwork o r a r t s and c r a f t s . On two o c c a s i o n s , he i n s i s t e d he come i n t o M o u n t e d P o l i c e Club with h i s brother. He o n l y r a r e l y used the l i b r a r y . " L a r r y seemed t o h a v e enough a c t i v i t y o u t s i d e the House t h i s y e a r . He s o m e t i m e s b o r r o w e d e q u i p m e n t t o p l a y w i t h i n t h e p l a y g r o u n d and was u s u a l l y shy a b o u t a s k i n g f o r i t . A t t i m e s he was b e l l i g e r e n t and demanded e q u i p m e n t , but t h e s e o c c a s i o n s were i n f r e q u e n t . " 1  O b s e r v a t i o n i n the An  i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the  shows t h a t n i n e take procedure. ce&e l o a d .  to the  c a s e s were r e f e r r e d t o This  a true  source of r e f e r r a l  cent of the  work p r o g r a m " ( s e e  p r o c e d u r e was  statistical  referral  total  This  File  referred  This  was  constantly  so  being  terms i n d i c a t i n g the The  next  i s " P r o b l e m s i n d i c a t e d i n group"  Form A o f a p p e n d i x ) .  f i g u r e represents  case l o a d .  the  figure  number o f c a s e s  Here the  f o r t y - f o u r c a s e s were r e f e r r e d t o t h e  source.  Family  the  total  c o n s e n s u s among  were u s e d i n a more l i m i t e d way.  heading f o r source of  1.  t e n per  p i c t u r e of the  concept of i n t a k e  upon, w h i l e  show t h a t  Project  i t as a r e s u l t o f i n -  P r o j e c t as a r e s u l t o f i n t a k e p r o c e d u r e .  enlarged  of the  represents  of the  s t a f f members i n t h e A g e n c y t h a t t h i s  give  because the  this  statistics  There i s , however, a g e n e r a l  professional does not  Group  statistics  Project  some f o r t y - B e v e n p e r  I f a l l o w a n c e i s made f o r t h e  R e c o r d s , J u n e 18,  from  1957  fact  cent  67  t h a t a p o r t i o n of t h e s e f o r t y - f o u r belong under t h e h e a d i n g "Problems i n d i c a t e d at r e g i s t r a t i o n " , the  f a c t that the greatest  single  i t would n o t g r e a t l y  source of r e f e r r a l  alter  would r e -  m a i n t h e o b s e r v a t i o n by t h e g r o u p w o r k e r i n t h e g r o u p . In  the r e c o r d quoted below, t h e r e i s not o n l y a des-  c r i p t i o n o f Wendy's b e h a v i o u r i n t h e g r o u p , b u t a l s o tative  d i a g n o s i s i s made by t h e g r o u p w o r k e r .  p e r u s a l of the r e c o r d i n d i c a t e s "knowledge  A  some t e n -  careful  of, s k i l l s  i n and  a t t i t u d e towards" which Konopka speaks o f a t the b e g i n n i n g this  of  chapter. " R e p o r t by L e a d e r o f 'Nancy C o o k i n g C l u b ' " Wendy was a member o f t h i s f r i e n d s h i p g r o u p made up o f a " n a t u r a l " n e i g h b o r h o o d g r o u p . I t was d u r i n g t h e m e e t i n g s o f t h i s c l u b t h a t t h i s w o r k e r h a s b e e n a b l e t o o b s e r v e Wendy's . behaviour. Recent Behaviour I s o l a t e a c t i v i t y w i t h i n the group s e t t i n g i s s t i l l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f Wendy's b e h a v i o u r . She r a r e l y g e t s i n v o l v e d i n g r o u p - a c t i v i t y and o f t e n s e p a r a t e s h e r s e l f from the group - e i t h e r p h y s i c a l l y or m e n t a l l y . On t h e two o c c a s i o n s when t h e g r o u p d i d c l a y m o d e l l i n g , Wendy s t o o d away 'from the g r o u p , h i d i n g h e r c l a y so t h a t no one c o u l d see what she was m a k i n g . When t h e o t h e r members m o d e l l e d p u p p e t h e a d s , Wendy m o d e l l e d a b o a t . A n o t h e r t i m e , Wendy was d i s c o v e r e d d e l i g h t e d l y t h r o w i n g t h e c l a y o v e r and o v e r a g a i n a t t h e w a l l , t h e n c l i m b i n g upon a c h a i r and g e t t i n g i t down. When t h e g r o u p was f i n g e r p a i n t i n g , Wendy was d i s c o v e r e d i n t h e washroom e x c i t e d l y s p r e a d i n g b l a c k p a i n t o v e r t h e b a s i n s and w a l l s . The f a c t t h a t W e n d y ' i s a b s e n t f r o m s c h o o l f r e q u e n t l y i s o f t e n m e n t i o n e d by o t h e r g r o u p members. She w i l l o f t e n come t o g r o u p m e e t i n g s a l t h o u g h she h a s b e e n away f r o m s c h o o l a l l day. Her u s u a l  68.  c o m p l a i n t i s t h e f l u , b u t she h a s a l s o h a d 'appointments', a sore f i n g e r , or has j u s t been t o o l a t e . t o g e t t o s c h o o l b e c a u s e h e r m o t h e r d i d n o t have brefakfast p r e p a r e d o n t i m e . She m e n t i o n e d once t h a t she h a d done p o o r l y on a t e s t i n s c h o o l ; she h a d a p p a r e n t l y c r i e d when she g o t h e r m a r k s . She d i d n o t go back to s c h o o l i n t h e a f t e r n o o n , but c l a i m e d t h a t t h i s wa8 b e c a u s e she was n o t f e e l i n g w e l l and not b e c a u s e she was ashamed o f c r y i n g . Wendy s t i l l l e a v e s t h e g r o u p many t i m e s d u r i n g an a c t i v i t y and w a n d e r s a b o u t t h e h a l l s . She seems t o have d e v e l o p e d a p a t t e r n o f w i t h d r a w a l whenever a s i t u a t i o n becomes d i f f i c u l t . When she was e m b a r r a s s e d a t s c h o o l , s h e s t a y e d a t home, f o r t h e a f t e r n o o n . ''hen she f e e l s u n c o m f o r t a b l e i n a g r o u p s i t u a t i o n , she w i t h d r a w s t o t h e washroom o r t o t h e f r i n g e o f a c t i v i t y . H e r i s o l a t i o n i s s e e n i n h e r n e e d t o do e v e r y - . t h i n g d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h a t o f anyone e l s e , e . g . when t h e y make p u p p e t h e a d s , she makes a c a n o e ; when t h e y made r e c i p e b o o k s , she c u t h e r p a g e s an i n c h s h o r t e r . She seems t o be s t r i v i n g t o m a i n t a i n h e r i n d i v i d u a l i t y by w i t h d r a w i n g o r by d o i n g t h i n g s d i f f e r e n t l y . " T h i s r e f i d r . d i h g i s an i l l u s t r a t i o n  o f t h e powers o f  o b s e r v a t i o n and d i a g n o s i s o f t h e group worker. in  referring  This  c l i e n t s to the J o i n t Family Services  aided  Project.  G r o u p s - T h e i r F o r m a t i o n a n d Make-up i n t h e L i p h t o f t h e Joint Family Services The  Project.  t e r m " g r o u p work"  essence of t h e a c t i v i t y this  field  contains within  of this profession.  of o p e r a t i o n i s the group.  i t s e l f the  The p r a c t i c e i n  I t i s t h e group  which t h e group worker f o c u s s e s h i s p r i m a r y a t t e n t i o n . i s t o be f o u n d t h e e s s e n t i a l w o r k e r and t h e c a s e w o r k e r .  d i f f e r e n c e between  upon Here  t h e group  But j u a t as t h e c a s e w o r k e r would  be u n a b l e t o be o f h e l p t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l  i f he d i d n o t -unde  69.  stand  the family  be  impossible  of  t h e group  individual practice, a  situation  f o r t h e group  these  parts.  This  the situation  thaftthat The  or.from fellow  would  of  information  workers  about  o f c o u r s e , be a b l e  the behaviour of the client  on t h e j o b .  In a similar  the individual  i n t h e group  will,  u p o n t h e make-up o f t h e g r o u p a n d R y l a n d make  this  from an  to a large  very  that  situation.  to find  a  i n the family  way, t h e b e h a v i o u r  i n w h i c h he f i n d s  point  find  of the client  i n h i s home  h i s attitudes  Wilson  a client  picture  presents  In  I f ,f o r example,  on t h e j o b , he m i g h t  a different  caseworker would, between  a generalization.  i s more c o m p l i c a t e d .  w h i c h he ( t h e c l i e n t )  trained  to understand the behaviour  i s , however,  present quite  relationship and  worker  so t o o w o u l d i t  i f he d i d n o t d e v e l o p a n u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f i t s  c a s e w o r k e r were, t o s e e k  employer  of the client,  extent,  depend  himself.  effectively  when.they  say: " I f one i s t o u n d e r s t a n d a n i n d i v i d u a l , one must know t h e g r o u p s t o w h i c h he b e l o n g s . Every i n d i v i d u a l has a d i f f e r e n t s t a t u s i n each o f t h e v a r i e t y o f g r o u p s t o w h i c h he • belongs. T h e same i n d i v i d u a l w i l l exhibit different patterns of behaviour i n different group 8." 1 If,  f o r example,  up  of friends  be  free  1.  with  o f many  WilsonMifflin  the individual  whom h e h a s c o n s t a n t  of the inhibiting  i s i n a group contact,  factors  s  t h e n he  which would  R y l a n d , " o c i a l Group Work P r a c t i c e , Company, B o s t o n , M a s s .  made will  come  Houghton  into  70.  p l a y i n a group o f s t r a n g e r s .  Because  of the d i f f e r e n c e of  s t a t u s i n a g r o u p o r s t r a n g e r s , he may f e e l of  his insecurity  brief, at  i n t h i s new s i t u a t i o n ,  threatened.  he may w i t h d r a w .  t h e t y p e o f g r o u p t o w h i c h an i n d i v i d u a l  any g i v e n t i m e w i l l This i s ,  find  Because In  i s attached  expression i n h i sbehaviour.  of course, r e l a t e d to the question of the  operation of the Project  i n A l e x a n d r a House.  h a s been a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e c l i e n t  Thus f a r , t h e r e  and t h e r o l e o f t h e g r o u p  w o r k e r a s i t r e l a t e s t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l members i n t h e A g e n c y who were r e f e r r e d t o t h e P r o j e c t . The was t h i s  essential  reflected  q u e s t i o n f o r t h e group worker i s :  how  i n h i s work w i t h g r o u p s ?  T h a t t h i s was r e c o g n i z e d u n d e r t a k e n i s e v i d e n c e d by a j o i n t  even b e f o r e t h e P r o j e c t report  issued  was  i n t h e mat-  e r i a l . preparatory to i t s inception: "To t h e member who w a n t s and c a n b e n e f i t f r o m group c o n t a c t s , t h e group worker w i l l c o n t i n u e to g i v e l e a d e r s h i p t h r o u g h group a c t i v i t i e s . He w i l l e n c o u r a g e and s u p p o r t h i m i n p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n h i s own way. He w i l l r e c o g n i z e h i s contribution. He w i l l c o n t i n u e i n f o r m a l c o n t a c t s w i t h h i m i n n e i g h b o r h o o d h o u s e a n d community. " 1 During the course of the P r o j e c t ,  a f o r m was u s e d  on w h i c h t h e k i n d o f s e r v i c e s g i v e n t o t h e c l i e n t s lated.  In this  ticular  importance.  1•  s t u d y , two p o r t i o n s o f t h i s The f i r s t  were t a b u -  form a r e o f p a r -  d e a l s w i t h Group Work  Services  A l e x a n d r a N e i g h b o r h o o d House, Gordon House, and F a m i l y W e l f a r e B u r e a u C o m b i n e d E f f o r t i n F i l l i n g a Community Gap, J a n u a r y 8, 1 9 5 5 , V a n c o u v e r .  71.  and  specifically  r e l a t e s to groups;  While  t h e second w i l l  found i n C h a p t e r F o u r and r e l a t e s t o Casework  Services.  Under t h e h e a d i n g o f S p e c i a l G r o u p , t h i s that  t w e n t y - e i g h t , members were p r o v i d e d  service. given  This  i n this  Twenty-four  the  be f o u n d  with t h i s kind of  An example o f t h i s  i n t h e d e s c r i p t i o n o f "The J o l l y  heading of "providing  members a r e l i s t e d .  a d d i t i o n a l groups",  The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e w i l l  members i n each o f t h e d i v i s i o n s a t A l e x a n d r a House r e c e i v e d  these services  is  members w e r e , i n t h e c o u r s e  o f t h e P r o j e c t , moved t o a n o t h e r g r o u p . will  f o r m shows  t y p e o f s e r v i c e , a n d an example o f i t , chapter.  be  ChefB '. 1  Under  twenty-three show how many Neighborhood  and w h i c h o f t h e s e r v i c e s  were  involved.  Table 4.  Group Work S e r v i c e s Services  . I . II  C l i e n t Groups ( l ) III IV V_ Total  Groupwo r k 1. 2. 3.  S p e c i a l Group Movement t o a n o t h e r group Provision of additional group .  1..  ;  Totals  1  20  5  2 ~  28  1  15  7  1  —  24  1  17  4  1  —  23  3  52  16  4  —  75  I - P l a y S c h o o l Group, I I - J u n i o r D i v i s i o n , I I I - Teena g e r D i v i s i o n , IV - A d u l t D i v i s i o n , V - S e n i o r D i v i s i o n .  72.  F o r t h o s e members who h a d c e r t a i n  difficulties  but who c o u l d b e n e f i t f r o m a g r o u p e x p e r i e n c e , blem o f what k i n d o f a g r o u p c o u l d b e s t had  t o be a n s w e r e d .  suit  the pro-  their  Two e x a m p l e s s t a n d o u t ' a s  on t h e p a r t o f t h e g r o u p w o r k e r s a t A l e x a n d r a  needs  attempts Neighbor-  hood House t o s e t up s p e c i a l g r o u p s w h i c h w o u l d  serve  t h e n e e d s o f t h e d i s t u r b e d members i n t h e P r o j e c t . were t h e B i n g o It  should  a t i o n of these  Club  and t h e J o l l y  be n o t e d  at t h i s  Chefs. p o i n t t h a t t h e form-  c l u b s n e c e s s i t a t e d m o v i n g members  s i t u a t i o n s not of t h e i r  own c h o i c e .  t h e g r o u p s had t o be d e c i d e d  These  into  The c o m p o s i t i o n o f  upon t o a l a r g e e x t e n t by  the  staff.  T h i s c h o i c e o f m e m b e r s h i p f o r t h e g r o u p and  the  reasons  f o r the choice are not recorded,  but i n t e r -  v i e w s w i t h s t a f f members i n d i c a t e d t h e f o l l o w i n g s i d e r a t i o n s w h i c h l e d t o t h e c r e a t i o n of. t h e B i n g o  conClub.  Tommy and a g r o u p o f o t h e r b o y s ( a g e 9 - 10) who were known t o e a c h o t h e r were c r e a t i n g a d i s t u r b a n c e  almost  75  every  day i n t h e A g e n c y .  h e i r aggressive behaviour  mani-  t.  fested  itself  by i n v a s i o n o f o t h e r p r o g r a m a c t i v i t y  h a p p e n e d t o be g o i n g  on when t h e y  which  entered t h e b u i l d i n g .  The  b o y s h a d a l l p r e v i o u s l y b e e n r e f e r r e d t o t h e P r o j e c t a n d so t h e r e .was some i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e a b o u t them. exhibiting very i n f a n t i l e boy  D. V. was a more s t a b l e  who came f r o m a b r o k e n home and f r o m t i m e  hibited and  behaviour.  aggressive behaviour.  displayed a terrible  who was t h e i r  R.G. was  t o time ex-  F. L. was q u a r r e l s o m e  temper.  leader, represented  These, along the core.  and s u l k y  w i t h Tommy,  To them was  added D.N., who was a l w a y s a r o u n d t h e A g e n c y a n d was m a k i n g demands f r o m t h e s t a f f .  He h a d no f a t h e r a t home a n d h i s  m o t h e r was away a t work.  D.H. was t h e s i x t h member.  He, t o o ,  was a g g r e s s i v e a n d d e m a n d i n g w i t h a v e r y m a r k e d f a n t a s y While  Tommy was t h e l e a d e r , i t was o b s e r v e d  were a m b i v a l e n t  about him.  factor.  t h a t t h e boys  H i s was a r u l e o f t e r r o r .  By •;•  b o t h t h e t h r e a t o f p h y s i c a l v i o l e n c e a n d by v e r b a l means, he maintained  h i sleadership.  In  order t o develop  a balance  i n t h e group,  plans  were made t o i n c l u d e t h r e e o t h e r b o y s who s t o o d o u t b e c a u s e of t h e normalcy o f t h e i r  behaviour  pattern.  This portion of  t h e p l a n d i d n o t , h o w e v e r , come t o f r u i t i o n a n d t h e g r o u p remained w i t h those It educative  d e s c r i b e d above.  was f e l t  experience.  t h a t t h i s group o f boys needed a r e T h i s r e q u i r e d s t r o n g l e a d e r s h i p and  74.  firm  s e t t i n g o f l i m i t s and c o n t r o l s .  represent to  parent  s u b s t i t u t e which t h e boys  r e c e i v e i n t h e i r homes,and a t t h e same t i m e ,  create to  a strong  The l e a d e r was t o  a warm r e l a t i o n s h i p .  focus  on c o - o p e r a t i o n  failed  strive to  The g r o u p w o r k e r w o u l d  attempt  and s h a r i n g , a s w e l l a s h e l p t o  c r e a t e an a t m o s p h e r e i n w h i c h t h e members w o u l d u n d e r g o a re-learning  o f some s o c i a l  values.  Once t h e r o s t e r was p r e p a r e d , recruitment  i trequired  on t h e p a r t o f t h e w o r k e r i n o r d e r  group t o g e t h e r .  The f o l l o w i n g s h o r t  records, of the f i r s t  excerpts  aggressive  to bring the from t h e  meeting of the Bingo Club ( t h e record  b e a r s t h e h e a d i n g "Tommy's G r o u p " - w h i c h i n d i c a t e s t h a t i t was s e t up a r o u n d TommyJthese  will  g i v e a n i n d i c a t i o n o f how  b o y s were r e c r u i t e d . "They went t o t h e Rainbow Room ( a room i n t h e A g e n c y so named b e c a u s e o f t h e many c o l o r s t h e c h i l d r e n h a d p a i n t e d on t h e w a l l s d u r i n g a d e c o r a t i n g s e s s i o n ) where t h e r e was c o n s i d e r a b l e s k i r m i s h i n g f o r a few m i n u t e s b e f o r e t h e W o r k e r c 4 1 e d f o r o r d e r a n d i n s i s t e d t h a t t h e . boys s i t down a n d keep q u i e t . Anyone who t a l k e d was t o l e a v e t h e room. Tommy s u p p o r t e d t h e W o r k e r i n t h i s , s a y i n g he w o u l d b a s h t h e i r h e a d s i n i f t h e y d i d n ' t l i s t e n 'about t h e c l u b . " 1 1  T h i s , t h en, a club.  I t i s clear,  i s the f i r s t  h o w e v e r , t h a t t h e boys h a d been g i v e n an  i n d i c a t i o n of the formation to 1.  discuss i t . c  lub  i n d i c a t i o n i n the record of  o f a c l u b and t h e y  The r e c o r d g o e s on:  R e c o r d s , Wednesday, J a n u a r y  18, 1956.  had a s s e m b l e d  75 " T h e r e was some comment on t h i s b u t Tommy w a l k e d t h r e a t e n i n g l y a b o u t t h e room, l o o k i n g e a c h boy i n t h e eye. H i s f i s t s were c l e n c h e d , as was h i s j a w , a n d he l o o k e d a s t h o u g h he w o u l d b a a i t h e i r h e a d s i n . He t h e n s a t on t h e t a b l e next t o t h e Worker, t e l l i n g him t o 'get  "We t a l k e d a b o u t t h e c l u b a s a g r o u p o f f r i e n d s who m i g h t l i k e t o meet t o g e t h e r on a s e p a r a t e day t o do w h a t e v e r t h e y p l a n n e d . T h e r e was an i m m e d i a t e demand f o r t h i n g s t h e y w o u l d do. W o r k e r s u g g e s t e d gym and t h e n e a c h s u g g e s t e d some o t h e r a c t i v i t y . Tommy w a n t e d c o o k i n g ( p o p c o r n , c o o l - a i d ) . D i c k s u g g e s t e d woodwork, D e n i s games, Ron w a n t e d gym a n d f o o d a n d t r i p s w h i l e F r e d d y wanted f o o d and b e l t - m a k i n g . The i d e a o f d o i n g many t h i n g s t o o k a n d W o r k e r s a i d t h e y w o u l d h a v e t o p l a n v e r y c a r e f u l l y e a c h week f o r the f o l l o w i n g meeting. They a l l a g r e e d to t h i s . " This short p o r t i o n of the record confirms the role which  Tommy p l a y e d i n t h e g r o u p .  From i t c a n a l s o be a s -  c e r t a i n e d t h e f a c t t h a t t h i s g r o u p i s b a s e d on t h e l e v e l o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s r a t h e r t h a n o f i n t e r e s t s.  The r e m a i n d e r  record  o f t h e members and  confirms the aggressive behaviour  i n d i c a t e s a very and  short i n t e r e s t  c a n d y weaves l i k e  the Bingo Club.  As a matter  of fact,  a l l of the records of t h e m a i n a c t i v i t y was  corn, while B  i n g o  served as a  "while t h e c»ke was i n t h e o v e n " . This.represents the f i r s t  stages of the P r o j e c t , striking  The demand f o r f o o d  a thread through  c o o k i n g , baking and popping stop-gap  span.  of the  attempt,  t o g e t ' up a s p e c i a l  i n the very group.  early  The most  t h i n g a b o u t t h i s g r o u p i s dfcbat; i t was made up e n t i r e l y  o f members who were having, d i f f i c u l t i e s .  I ti s significant  7 6.  t h a t t h e g r o u p was f o r m e d a r o u n d Tommy. t i o n as t o whether  T h i s r a i s e s t h e ques-  a member who h a s s p e c i a l  problems ought t o  be c o n s i d e r e d t h e n u c l e u s a r o u n d w h i c h t o b u i l d  o r whether t h e  member oughjt t o be c o n s i d e r e d . f o r a g r o u p f r o m w h i c h t h e most positive  experiences w i l l  accrue t o him.  While t h e Bingo Club  members were known t o e a c h o t h e r , and t h e r e were e l e m e n t s o f f r i e n d s h i p here, i t i s important t o note that t h e i r ual  individ-  r e l a t i o n s h i p s t o t h e g r o u p w o r k e r were t h e f a c t o r s  drew them t o g e t h e r i n t o t h i s g r o u p . questions r a i s e d here w i l l  which  The i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e  be d i s c u s s e d  i n the f i n a l chapter.  By way o f c o n t r a s t , t h e J o l l y C h e f s C l u b i s a n example of- m a t u r i n g c o n c e p t s , k n o w l e d g e  and s k i l l  o f s t a f f i n a i d i n g members who r e q u i r e d  special  The J o l l y received  on t h e p a r t  attention.  C h e f s was l e d by a v o l u n t e e r l e a d e r  c o n s t a n t s u p e r v i s i o n by a t r a i n e d g r o u p In a record prepared i n A p r i l ,  who  worker.  1957* t h e l e a d e r  d e s c r i b e s t h e p u r p o s e s o f t h e g r o u p u n d e r a number o f headings*" T h i s was a g r o u p o f J u n i o r g i r l s perience  i n cooking."  as an i n t e r e s t g r o u p . the p o t e n t i a l  Thus, t h e group  w a n t i n g some e x -  i s immediately defined  The e l e m e n t o f c h o i c e on t h e p a r t o f  g r o u p members i s t h e r e f o r e p r i m a r y .  t i m e , i t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t t h e inttee p r o g r a m  A t t h e same  p r o v i d e s an  o p p o r t u n i t y f o r t h e s t a f f t o d i r e c t members t o g r o u p s and programs.  Hence, b o t h e l e m e n t s a r e p r e s e n t . "They w a n t e d t o h a v e f u n . "  cooking  This indicates that the  e x p e r i e n c e - w h i c h i s t h e p r i m a r y one - was n o t a n end  77  in i t s e l f ,  b u t t h a t i t w o u l d be done i n s u c h a way a s t o be  enjoyable.  More t h a n  to cooking,  but would i n c l u d e other  records  i t w o u l d n o t be c o n f i n e d  outside of cooking.  cards, towels,  doilies,  p a r t i e s were a l s o a r r a n g e d . of g i r l s  solely  a c t i v i t i e s as w e l l .  of the club d i s c l o s e that there were,in  range o f a c t i v i t i e s Easter  this,  fact,  The  a wide  These i n c l u d e d making  paper p l a t e s , e t c .  A t one o f t h e s e ,  ( N a n c y 8 C l u b ) was i n v i t e d t o t a k e 1  Several  another  group  part.  " S p e c i f i c members n e e d e d p a r t i c u l a r h e l p " , t h e l e a d e r ' s r e c o r d g o e s on t o s a y . T h i s loesfc p o i n t i s p a r t i c u l arly up  important  to the Project.  t h e membership o f t h e J o l l y  specifically profiles nitely one  t o t h i s group.  of the club  Of t h e t e n g i r l s Chefs,  A perusal  girls  t h r e e were d i r e c t e d of the personality  shows t h a t .seven o f t h e g i r l s  w i t h i n t h e range o f t h e normal.  of these  who made  I n one c a s e ,  was d i r e c t e d t o t h e c l u b  H i n d u a n d i t was f e l t  are defiat least,  b e c a u s e she was  t h a t t h i s atmosphere would h e l p t o  overcome " l o n e l i n e s s because o f h e r n a t i o n a l i t y " . As  t o t h e t h r e e members w i t h p a r t i c u l a r  problems, the record "frightened, timid, the  high-strung,  contains  such p h r a s e s a s  almost w i l d at times".  case o f t h e second, " d i s r u p t i v e , d e s t r u c t i v e  disliked lost  of the f i r s t  behavioural  by a l l members e x c e p t h e r two f r i e n d s ,  In  behaviour, i s completely  when h e r f r i e n d s a r e away, r u s h e s i n a n d o u t o f p r o g r a m ,  hides".  J.,. t h e t h i r d  of the t r i o ,  h a s "home  difficulties,  economic p r o b l e m s , s t r o n g l y under t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e second  78  member d e a l t w i t h a b o v e " . The  t h i n k i n g o f t h e g r o u p ,work s t a f f a b o u t  t h r e e was d e s c r i b e d  these  i n t h e f o l l o w i n g way i n an i n t e r v i e w :  "S. G-. was a f o r g o t t e n member o f h e r f a m i l y . She n e e d e d t o h a v e a f e e l i n g t h a t ' t h i s i s my c l u b ' , and ' t h i s i s m y . - l e a d e r . J . , on t h e o t h e r h a n d , n e e d e d t o be t i e d . d o w n t o an a c tivity. She i n d i c a t e d i n t e r e s t i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r k i n d of club - cooking. She n e e d e d a g r o u p where she w o u l d n o t be t h e l e a d e r and where an a t m o s p h e r e o f r e l a t i v e n o r m a l c y , c o n s i s t a n c y and p o s i t i v e l e a d e r s h i p was p r e s e n t . The t h i r d member was n o t i n t e n d e d f o r t h i s g r o u p a n d came i n t o i t as a r e s u l t o f J . ' s need t o f o r t i f y h e r p o s i t i o n . " 1  Thus, t h e J o l l y ment o f t h e i d e a f i r s t "special  group"  concept  Chefs Club  tried  i n t h e Bingo Club.  special  consideration, into  average group o f i n d i v i d u a l s . recting there  the three g i r l s  i s no r e c o r d e d  sufficient cooking  evidence  refine-  Here, the  i s r e p l a c e d by an a t t e m p t t o i n t e -  g r a t e a s m a l l group o f g i r l s , w h o s e cated  constitutes a  into  behaviour  patterns  a predominantly  indi-  normal or  The g r o u p w o r k e r s were d i a h e a l t h i e r environment.  material to substantiate t h i s , that the p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t  Although  there i s  o f t h e group -  - w o u l d a l s o h e l p t h e t r o u b l e d members by m e e t i n g  some o f t h e i r The  oral  needs.  records  of the J o l l y  C h e f s show t h a t t h e t h r e e  members, and p a r t i c u l a r l y J . , who was t h e l e a d e r o f t h i s triumvirate,  d i d n o t make u s e o f t h e c l u b on a r e g u l a r b a s i s .  F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e r e were p r o b l e m s of. i n t e g r a t i o n f o r t h e s e three  i n the group.  o t h e r members. behaviour  They were n o t r e a d i l y a c c e p t e d  Their bel1igerent,and  often provoked h o s t i l i t y  by t h e  sometimes d e s t r u c t i v e ,  from t h e o t h e r s .  I t required  79.  a great deal of s k i l l a learning  on t h e p a r t o f t h e l e a d e r t o make  e x p e r i e n c e f o r t h e whole  group.  W h i l e i t i s n o t w i t h i n t h e scope o f t h i s try  this  study to  t o m e a s u r e t h e success- o f t h e t r e a t m e n t p l a n f o r m u l a t e d  by t h e g r o u p  workers,  make m e n t i o n  of the f a c t that the i n t e r e s t i n g  Jolly  i t seems a p p r o p r i a t e , a t t h i s  point, to  records of the  O h e f s do show some b e g i n n i n g i n d i c a t i o n s o f p o s i t i v e  movement on t h e p a r t o f t h e t h r e e members. t h e o t h e r members o f t h e g r o u p  The; - way i n w h i c h  g r a d u a l l y came t o a c c e p t t h e  three,  d e s p i t e the d i f f i c u l t i e s , which they c r e a t e d f o r t h e  group,  i s also a very positive ^'he two g r o u p s  d i s c u s s e d h e r e a r e n o t i n any way  meant t o be c o u n t e r - p o s e d .  That  i n t h e s e t t i n g up o f a s p e c i a l o f members w i t h s p e c i a l a r e , however, s p e c i a l  achievement.  i s t o say, t h e r e i s v a l i d i t y  group,' a s w e l l a s t h e i n c l u s i o n  problems  i n an i n t e r e s t  i m p l i c a t i o n s arid c o n s i d e r a t i o n s  respect t o both these types of groups. discussed study,  group.  i n greater detail  w i t h Tommy)?  with  While these s h a l l  around  point.  one member ( a s was t h e c a s e  I s i t n e c e s s a r y t o have a b a l a n c e o f n o r m a l  members w i t h t h o s e who have p r o b l e m s ?  What i s meant by a  " s p e c i a l group"  and i s t h i s t h e best d e s c r i p t i o n o f such a  constellation?  What t y p e o f l e a d e r s h i p  a group  be  toward t h e c o n c l u s i o n of t h i s  s e v e r a l q u e s t i o n s suggest themselves at t h i s  I s i t v a l i d t o form a group  There  i s n e c e s s a r y f o r such  and what i s t h e f o c u s i n s u c h a group?  q u e s t i o n s a l s o p r e s e n t t h e m s e l v e s about  A number o f  the d i r e c t i o n of  80  members w i t h a m u l t i p l i c i t y  o f problems  to interest  What does t h i s  mean, f o r t h e n o r m a l members?  to  o f d e m o c r a t i c c h o i c e o f an a c t i v i t y  t h e element  member i s d i r e c t e d relationship  i n t o a group?  groups.  What h a p p e n s when a  Does t h e a t t i t u d e a n d  o f t h e l e a d e r i n such a groyp d i f f e r  i n any  way a s b e t w e e n a p r o b l e m member a n d a n o r m a l one.  In  t h e c o u r s e o f t h e P r o j e c t , t h e group  at A l e x a n d r a Neighborhood  staff  House h a s b e e n c o n f r o n t e d w i t h a  number o f new and c h a l l e n g i n g p r o b l e m s . the  work  In this  portion of  s t u d y , t h e r e h a s been an a t t e m p t t o d e a l w i t h a few  aspects of the l a t t e r . probed w i l l  Many o t h e r a r e a s w h i c h c a n be  be l i s t e d i n t h e f i n a l c h a p t e r .  CHAPTER 4  SOME CASEWORK ASPECTS OF THE PROJECT As  mentioned p r e v i o u s l y ,  the J o i n t Family  P r o j e c t h a s been i n t e r - d i s c i p l i n a r y  i n nature - bringing t o -  g e t h e r casework, group work, p s y c h i a t r y , administration, gressive being  attempt t o adjust  served.  various  and r e s e a r c h .  that  This  s p e c i a l i z a t i o n s as long  professional  in the Project  as t h e c e n t r a l  The most i m p o r t a n t  among t h e professional consideration  t h i n k i n g a n d r e s o u r c e s s h o u l d be s h a r e d  of the client. was p r o v i d e d ,  program i n o r d e r t h a t  T h e r e f o r e , casework  service  n o t merely as an a s s i s t t o group  work b u t a s a a c c e p t e d p a r t n e r  could  science,  combination i s a pro-  T h e r e n e e d e d t o be no c o n f u s i o n  for the benefit  the  social  t o t h e complex needs o f t h e a r e a  c o m m i t t m e n t was k e p t c l e a r . was  Services  a n d was c l o s e l y i n t e g r a t e d  the "joint  permeate t h e whole p a t t e r n  services"  into  philosophy  of services at Alexandra  Neighborhood House. A  closer examination o f the important part  by t h e c a s e w o r k e r w o u l d t h e r e f o r e largely  be i n o r d e r .  d e s c r i p t i v e i n n a t u r e as e v a l u a t i o n  This  played w i l l be  of theinter-action,  w h i c h was i n t a n g i b l e a n d i n t e n s i v e , w o u l d r e q u i r e much research. is  Rather, t h i s  i s a basic  i n o r d e r t o show what i t o f f e r e d  d i s c u s s i o n o f what  further casework  t o t h e team a p p r o a c h a n d  82.  what d i f f e r e n c e s natural  or values there  s e t t i n g such as t h a t  N e i g h b o r h o o d House. following  were when i t was u s e d i n a  offered.by  and t h e  The i m p l i c a t i o n s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d  Types o f S e r v i c e s Wo r k e r 1. Exploratory 2. B r i e f S e r v i c e s 5. T r e a t m e n t I n t e r v i e w 4. Referral Total re Casework  I  II  6 5 2  11  _  7 4 2  1  —  12  26  Given t o C l i e n t s  C l i e n t Groups (1) III IV: . V  15 2 2 6 5  were d i v i d e d  into four  Total  16 2 5 6 5  8  ^8  2 2 1 5  16 15 15 12  52  16  116  Services  A s shown on t h e a b o v e t a b l e , t h e c a s e w o r k  brief  i nthe  chapter.  T a b l e 4(a) Number a n d K i n d s o f S e r v i c e s (91 c a s e s )  Statistics  the Project  categories:  exploratory  s e r v i c e , and t r e a t m e n t i n t e r v i e w s .  services  contact,  referral,  T h e s e g r o u p i n g s were  d e c i d e d upon p r i o r t o t h e i n c e p t i o n o f t h e P r o j e c t .  The m e t h o d  of  i s t o be  statistical  t a b u l a t i o n of items of services given  f o u n d on Form C ( a p p e n d i x ) w h i c h was f i l l e d o u t f o r e a c h at the t e r m i n a t i o n  of the Project.  The c o m p l e t e d t a b u l a t i o n s o f  t h e s e f o r m s a r e f o u n d on t h e a b o v e - m e n t i o n e d t a b l e . total  1.  of f i f t y - e i g h t  family  items of service given  I t shows a  by t h e c a s e w o r k e r  alone,  I - P l a y S c h o o l , I I - J u n i o r D i v i s i o n , I I I - Teen-Age D i v i s i o n , IV - A d u l t D i v i s i o n , V - S e n i o r D i v i s i o n .  83  There  were s i x t e e n c a s e s i n which t h e  explored a s i t u a t i o n i n order t o determine the person wished help,, o r . t o  fill  casework  the problem,  whether  i n the family picture,  f i n d w h e t h e r o t h e r a g e n c i e s were a c t i v e  or r e s p o n s i b l e .  or to The  l a r g e s t number o f t h e s e e x p l o r a t o r y c o n t a c t s were w i t h i n t h e j u n i o r group  and a l l s e v e n o f t h e s e were w i t h t h e m o t h e r s o f  c h i l d r e n under P r o j e c t  observation.  The r e m a i n i n g n i n e c o n t a c t s  were s p r e a d e v e n l y among t h e r e m a i n i n g Referral workers.  i s , o r s h o u l d be, a s k i l l  However, as c a s e w o r k e r s  was i n c l u d e d i n t h e i r in this  groups.  role  made by t h e c a s e w o r k e r .  s p e c i a l i z e i n i t and a s i t  i n the P r o j e c t ,  section of the t h e s i s .  There  i twill  were t w e l v e  F i v e of these concerned  and t h r e e eah were i n t h e a d u l t and s e n i o r . Brief problem  service  fairly  the other three  adequately.  teen-agers  require  long  t h o s e who  There  were f i f t e e n  f o u r among t h e j u n i o r s ,  require  i n t e r v i e w s were t h o s e i n w h i c h  and p s y c h o l o g i c a l  aspects.  There  i n w h i c h t h i s t y p e o f s e r v i c e was g i v e n . i n t h e teen-age  such  their cases,  and two i n e a c h  and c l i e n t w o r k e d t o g e t h e r on t h e p r o b l e m ( s )  the s o c i a l  term  sections.  Treatment worker  referrals  a s s i s t a n c e i n o r d e r t o be a b l e t o cope w i t h  f i v e among t h e a d u l t s , of  included  sections.  t r e a t m e n t from a s p e c i a l i z e d agency and/or  own p r o b l e m s  be  c o n s t i t u t e s g i v i n g h e l p t o t h o s e whose  i s n o t so i n t e n s i v e t h a t i t w i l l  only a l i t t l e  h i d by a l l s o c i a l  group  the casefrom  were f i f t e e n  both cases  Of t h e s e , s i x were  and s i x i n t h e a d u l t .  84.  Of  the total  fifty-eight  items o f casework s e r v i c e s  o n l y t h r e e were d u p l i c a t e d .  The c a s e w o r k e r t h e r e f o r e p r o v i d e d  direct  of the ninety-one  service to f i f t y - f i v e  majority of the clients agers, to nor  families.  The  s e e n by t h e c a s e w o r k e r were t h e t e e n -  p a r e n t s , and s e n i o r s .  t h e g r o u p wo rker's e f f o r t s ,  T h i s was a v e r y h e l p f u l as t h e l a t t e r  adjunct  had n o t t h e t i m e  t r a i n i n g t o give i n d i v i d u a l i z e d help through i n t e r v i e w s ,  home v i s i t s , e t c . As cooperated  discussed i n Chapter  w i t h t h e team on t h e c o n s u l t a t i o n a s p e c t s , e . g . ,  c a s e w o r k - g r o u p work, p s y c h i a t r i c , agencies.  See C h a p t e r The  fitted Its  Two, t h e c a s e w o r k e r a l s o  and l i a i s o n w i t h  Two f o r d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e s e  preceding  f i g u r e s a c q u i r e m e a n i n g o n l y when  p a r t i c u l a r processes  and t e c h n i q u e s  i n the following  pages.  that the goals of a l l social  will  d i f f e r e n t means f o r a r r i v i n g  t h e r e f o r e be  I t i s necessary  t o remember  workers a r e e s s e n t i a l l y  but t h e v a r i o u s s p e c i a l i z a t i o n s w i t h i n s o c i a l  similar,  work h a v e  a t t h e s e , o r t h a t i n some  cases  same p r i n c i p l e s a r e b u t d i f f e r e n t l y a p p l i e d . The  is  g-spects.  i n t o t h e c o n t e x t o f casework as a p r o f e s s i o n a l s e r v i c e .  presented  the  other  an a t t e m p t  working  J o i n t Family  S e r v i c e s P r o j e c t , as has been  seen,  t o c o m b i n e t h e v a l u e s o f ea>hh s p e c i a l i z a t i o n i n  t o w a r d s a common g o a l - t h a t o f t h e b e n e f i t o f t h e  clients, determine  who a r e , i n t h i s  instance, family, units.  casework c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h i s ,  answer t h e q u e s t i o n  'what i s c a s e w o r k ? ' .  I n order to  i t i s necessary t o  85  D e f i n i t i o n , of Casework Casework has been d e f i n e d w i t h a problem  s i m p l y as "a  person  c o m i n g t o a p l a c e where a p r o f e s s i o n a l  rep-  1  r e s e n t a t i v e h e l p s him  by a g i v e n p r o c e s s " .  v a r i e t y as t o t h e f i r s t p e r s o n , and Project  setting  The  f a c t o r s but the p l a c e ,  these l a t t e r  and t h e c a s e w o r k Any  j_  n e r e  p r o c e s s c a n be c o n s i d e r e d c o n s t a n t s .  caseworker,  aid.  two  T  endless  s  professional In the  were A l e x a n d r a House, t h e  social  process, respectively.  person needing or w i s h i n g help i s e l i g i b l e f o r  problems  may  be e x t e r n a l o r i n t e r n a l .  s i t u a t i o n i s that of a person i n c o n f l i c t  "The  casework  with environmental  f a c t o r s o r w i t h a d e f i c i e n c y w h i c h must be c o m p e n s a t e d f o r by community r e s o u r c e s , o r t h e t y p i c a l w h i c h the c o n f l i c t has that the c l i e n t  s i t u a t i o n may  b e e n t o some d e g r e e  is in conflict  be one i n  internalized  w i t h h i m s e l f as w e l l a s  so with  2  society."  Such s i t u a t i o n s o f t e n develop t o a degree  professional  assistance  social  casework  solution.  The  i s therefore to help i n d i v i d u a l s  e f f e c t i v e l y with t h e i r functioning.  in their  To t h i s  environment end,  and  problems  purpose  requiring of  cope more in  social  t h e c a s e w o r k e r s have d e v e l o p e d  'body o f p r o f e s s i o n a l k n o w l e d g e and a c o r e o f t e s t e d  a  casework  1.  Perlman, Helen H a r r i s , S o c i a l C h i c a g o P r e s s , C h i c a g o , 1957,  Casework, U n i v e r s i t y page 4.  of  2.  H a m i l t o n , G o r d o n , T h e o r y and P r a c t i c e o f S o c i a l C a s e w o r k , C o l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , New Y o r k , 1951, page 83.  86.  skills  and  procedures.  A  h e s e a r e b a s e d on t h e  science  of  human r e l a t i o n s . The casework are:  main assumptions behind a l l d e f i n i t i o n s of (1)  t h a t t h e i n d i v i d u a l and inter-dependent  client  and  ponents of the personality:  The is  that social forces influence behaviour and a t t i t u d e s a f f o r d i n g o p p o r t u n i t y f o r s e l f - d e v e l o p m e n t and c o n t r i b u t i o n t o society  (5)  t h a t not o n l y are a l l problems p s y c h o s o c i a l - i n n e r and o u t e r - but m o s t casework problems are i n t e r - p e r s o n a l , t h a t i s , more t h a n one p e r s o n i s l i k e l y t o be i n v o l v e d i n t h e t r e a t m e n t o f a n i n d i v i d u a l , and p a r t i c u l a r l y i n c a s e work i s t h e f a m i l y u n i t i n v o l v e d . 1  his  social  l a t t e r are  has  been c o n c e r n e d  adjustment.  The  the  e n v i r o n m e n t and  client's  two  with  m a j o r comhis  " I n h e l p i n g the i n d i v i d u a l a c h i e v e a b e t t e r a d j u s t m e n t c a s e w o r k has u s e d a t w o - f o l d a p p r o a c h : i t has i n t e r v e n e d i n t h e e n v i r o n m e n t i n h i s i n t e r e s t and i t has e m p l o y e d v a r i o u s p s y c h o l o g i c a l methods t o d e c r e a s e the i n d i v i d u a l ' s e m o t i o n a l b u r d e n s and i n c r e a s e h i s c a p a c i t i e s t o meet l i f e ' s f r u s t r a t i o n s and make u s e o f its opportunities. So i n t e r w o v e n a r e t h e s e i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l t h r e a d s i n b o t h c a u s a t i o n and t r e a t m e n t t h a t one c a n t r u l y say t h a t a l l casework i s p s y c h o - s o c i a l . " 2  psycho-social equally.the  are  (2)  Casework, t r a d i t i o n a l l y , the  society  a p p r o a c h , as  i n t e r e s t of the  e m p h a s i z e d by t h e other  caseworkers,  s p e c i a l i z a t i o n s and  1.  °p»  2.  H o l l i s , F l o r e n c e , "The T e c h n i q u e s o f C a s e w o r k " , of S o c i a l Casework, J u n e , 1949.  c i t . , page  an  22 Journal  87.  i n h e r e n t p a r t o f t h e p h i l o s o p h y and p o l i c y In a d d i t i o n , r e s p e c t f o r each person  casework i s based and a c c e p t a n c e  means s t a r t i n g where t h e c l i e n t  of the Project. on t h e p r i n c i p l e o f  o f h i m a s he i s .  i s i n terms of development  r a t h e r t h a n where many may f e e l he s h o u l d be. f e e l i n g s and b e h a v i o u r , a l t h o u g h p e r h a p s norm, a r e u n d e r s t o o d  This  The  client's  different  from t h e  and h i s r i g h t s a s a. p e r s o n a r e r e c o g n i z e d .  T h e r e f o r e , he s h o u l d be a r e s p o n s i b l e p a r t i c i p a n t a t e v e r y step i n t h e s o l u t i o n o f h i s problems. of t h e d e f i n i t i o n which  states that "social  art  of h e l p i n g people to help  The  process i n S o c i a l The  of the c l i e n t  T h i s i d e a i s t h e essence casework i s t h e  themselves".  Casework  process i n s o c i a l  casework i s t h e acceptance  a s a p e r s o n a n d t h e p r o b l e m s he p r e s e n t s , t h e  a n a l y z i n g and c l a r i f y i n g  of h i s situation,  the attempts to  e n c o u r a g e o r s u p p l y t h e n e e d e d q u a l i t i e s by w h i c h  the c l i e n t  c a n make- t h e most o f h i m s e l f and h i s r e s o u r c e s , a n d i s d e s i gnated  by t h e t e r m s s t u d y , d i a g n o s i s , and t r e a t m e n t .  theory these three steps f o l l o w i n l o g i c a l  While i n  sequence, i n p r a c t i c e  t h e y a r e i n t e r - w o v e n w i t h each a s p e c t o f t h e p r o c e s s  paralleling  the others. Study The  social  case  the b e g i n n i n g o f a case mation to f a c i l i t a t e  study  i s especially  important at  i n order to obtain s u f f i c i e n t  understanding  of t h e person's  infor-  present  88  situation,  what he h a s done a b o u t i t , a n d what he w i s h e s t o  do a b o u t i t . I n s u c h a s i t u a t i o n , t h e s i g n i f i c a n t and  events i n the c l i e n t s  t o w a r d them  life  experiences/and h i s f e e l i n g  c o n s t i t u t e the u n i t of a t t e n t i o n . The t o o l s o f s t u d y  structured  people  living  such as s c h o o l s ,  are. o b s e r v a t i o n ,  or group s i t u a t i o n s , c o l l a t e r a l hospitals, social  agencies,  home v i s i t s ,  etc.  the  come f r o m t h e c l i e n t h i m s e l f  material  interviews, contacts  c h u r c h e s , and  I t i s preferable that the majority  t h r o u g h t h e medium  o f i n t e r v i e w s o r t h a t he i s i n a g r e e m e n t w i t h o t h e r Observation  of  methods  of g a t h e r i n g  information.  particularly  i n t h e P r o j e c t where t h e s e t t i n g makes t h i s much  more f e a s i b l e t h a n i s u s u a l . of i n f o r m a t i o n ,  help. may This its  K n o w l e d g e o f community  such as t h e s c h o o l s  i n d i c a t i o n of other  i s of  role,  sources  and S o c i a l S e r v i c e  i n t e r e s t e d agencies,  Index  considerable  I n many i n s t a n c e s a n o b s e r v a n t i n t e r v i e w i n t h e home  a i d i n increased latter  understanding  family-centred  approach.  This  more r e a l i s t i c  approach.  depends upon t h e n a t u r e  situation.  i n t h e P r o j e c t due t o  consideration of the  and f r o m t h e p o i n t  f a m i l y members g i v e s t h e s t u d y  client.  of the t o t a l  a p p r o a c h was w e l l u t i l i z e d  u a t i o n from a l l a s p e c t s  the  p l a y s an i m p o r t a n t  a third  Of c o u r s e ,  sit-  of view of a l l the  dimensional  t h e method  of  and much study  o f t h e p r o b l e m and t h e n e e d s o f t h e  For example, t h e r e  i s considerable  i n f o r m a t i o n needed c o n c e r n i n g  d i f f e r e n c e between  a disturbed child  w i t h t h a t o f an a d u l t whose d i f f i c u l t y  as c o m p a r e d  i s unemployment.  89  To  i l l u s t r a t e the  study  process  i n use,  an  example  1  is  given  f r o m one  with observation trated  of the by  the  Project family f i l e s . g r o u p w o r k e r and  This  shows how  begins  concen-  s t u d y on t h e p a r t o f t h e P r o j e c t team f o l l o w s : " I n t h e f a l l o f 1955 g r o u p w o r k e r s r e p o r t e d t h e i r concern about the behavior of e i g h t y e a r old Terry. He was c o n s i s t e n t l y a ' s c a p e g o a t ' p i c k e d on by. t h e o t h e r c h i l d r e n . T e r r y p r o - , v o k e d t h e s e a t t a c k s by p o k i n g and a n n o y i n g them. He was o f t e n w i t h h i s o l d e r s i s t e r Nan, are e l e v e n , who was o v e r - p r o t e c t i n g and dominating, w i t h no f r i e n d s o f h e r own. She was a 'tomboy* who r e f u s e d any a d u l t a t t e n t i o n s . Nan o f t e n d i s r u p t e d a c t i v i t i e s w i t h her a g g r e s s i v e n e s s . . . . A t a s t a f f m e e t i n g i t was d e c i d e d t o i n c l u d e t h i s f a m i l y i n t h e P r o j e c t . The case-' w o r k e r was a s k e d t o v i s i t t h e p a r e n t s i n an a t t e m p t t o f i n d o u t more a b o u t t h i s f a m i l y . " When t h e  lishing  contact  caseworker took the  with the  initiative in  f a m i l y , t h i s marked one  estab-  of the  basic  d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e P r o j e c t a p p r o a c h as c o m p a r e d w i t h many other it was  was  agencies  offering  casework s e r v i c e s .  most v a l u a b l e as t h e  f a m i l y was  u n a b l e t o make t h e n e c e s s a r y  their  own  behalf.  Because of the  In t h i s  instance,  i n need o f h e l p  effort  to obtain, t h i s  caseworker's v i s i t ,  was  b r o u g h t t o t h e m , i n a d d i t i o n t o much b e i n g  the  family situation.  learned  but on help regarding  .  "When t h e c a s e w o r k e r v i s i t e d t h e h o e , M r s , D o u g l a s , a l t h o u g h c o o p e r a t i v e , seemed d i s c o u r a g e d and d u l l e d by t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s o f l i f e . She e x p l a i n e d t h a t T e r r y had a c o n g e n i t a l h e a r t c o n d i t i o n . He had spent a g r e a t deal of time i n the h o s p i t a l . The m  1,  A B s u m m a r i z e d by t h e C o m m i t t e e o f S o c i a l Work P e r s o n n e l , A R e p o r t on t h e J o i n t f a m i l y S e r v i c e s P r o j e c t , A u g u s t J O , 1957, c a s e i l l u s t r a t i o n number f o u r , page 6.  90  doctor f e a r e d t h a t a heart o p e r a t i o n , which would p r o b a b l y p r o v e n e c e s s a r y w i t h i n two y e a r s , m i g h t prove f a t a l . T e r r y s h o u l d n o t do a n y t h i n g w h i c h was p h y s i c a l l y s t r e n u o u s . D e s p i t e t h i s he f r e q u e n t l y r a n , t u s s l e d , and c l i m b e d t r e e s . Because o f h i s c o n d i t i o n t h e g r a n d p a r e n t s showed s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t i n him and were c r i t i c a l o f Nan who r e s e n t e d h e r b r o t h e r and s o m e t i m e s e x p r e s s e d t h e w i s h t h a t she t o o c o u l d become i l l . Mr. D o u g l a s ' s work k e p t him away f r o m t h e home most o f t h e t i m e . ( L a t e r i t was l e a r n e d t h a t he d r a n k h e a v i l y , s u p p o r t e d p o o r l y , and Bhowed l i t t l e i n t e r e s t i n t h e children.) The c a s e w o r k e r n o t e d t h a t t h e two y o u n g e r c h i l d r e n seemed h e i t h y and happy." Then f o l l o w e d a p e r i o d o f more i n t e n s i v e s t u d y , the caseworker p r o v i d i n g s u f f i c i e n t that  she was  discouraged  a b l e to  d i s c u s s her  support  f o r the mother  p r o b l e m s on d e e p e r  levels.  a s t h i s woman i s , i t w o u l d be most d i f f i c u l t  h e r t o do much e x c e p t n e e d f o r and  respond  value of s o c i a l  at f i r s t .  with  This again  for  shows t h e  w o r k e r s r e a h i n g out t o  clients,  as d e m o n s t r a t e d i n t h i s P r o j e c t . "The c a s e w o r k e r c o n t i n u e d t o v i s i t t h e m o t h e r p e r i o d i c a l l y to d i s c u s s the progress of the c h i l d r e n a t t h e N e i g h b o r h o o d H o u s e . As M r s . D o u g l a s g a i n e d c o n f i d e n c e she began t o t a l k a b o u t d e e p e r p r o b l e m s and a d m i t t e d t h a t t h e p r e s s u r e s i n h e r l i f e were so many t h a t o f t e n she w o n d e r e d i f she c o u l d s u r v i v e . She was c o n c e r n e d a b o u t Nan as w e l l a s T e r r y and s a i d t h e y f r e q u e n t l y f o u g h t a t home." L a s t came t h e p e r i o d o f time a s o c i a l  h i s t o r y was  prepared  psychiatrist.  This  c a s e w o r k e r and  g r o u p w o r k e r s who  of the  during  f o r p r e s e n t a t i o n to  i s a cooperative  diagnosis into treatment. broatder u n d e r s t a n d i n g  'formal' study,  effort  later  on t h e  the  part of  t r a n s l a t e the  which  the  doctor's  S u c h team e f f o r t makes f o r a much c l i e n t s and  s e r v i c e s t o them.  91V  " M e a n w h i l e t h e c a s e w o r k e r and g r o u p . w o r k e r s a g r e e d t h a t p s y c h i a t r i c c o n s u l t a t i o n was n e e d e d t o u n d e r s t a n d how t h i s f a m i l y c o u l d be h e l p e d . Mrs. Douglas was i n t e r v i e w e d by t h e c a s e w o r k e r and c o n t r i b u t e d c o n s i d e r a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n to the f a m i l y h i story'which was p r e p a r e d f o r ' t h e p s y c h i a t r i s t . The r e s u l t s w e r e shared w i t h her f o l l o w i n g the c o n s u l t a t i o n . " Djagno s i s Out fessional t i e s and and  of the  i n f o r m a t i o n the  o p i n i o n i s f o r m e d as t o t h e n a t u r e the  e v a l u a t i o n of the  weaknesses.  nosis.  study  On  This  of the  i n terms of  t h i s a p p r a i s a l the treatment  formulation.  i n t e r - p e r s o n a l d i a g n o s t i c c o n f i g u r a t i o n , or  person,  e s p e c i a l l y the  interaction.  intra-familial  In the l a t t e r ,  diag-  approach,  the p s y c h o - s o c i a l , or p e r s o n - i n - s i t u a t i o n , concept the  strengths  p l a n i s based.  p a r t i n P r o j e c t team  i s essentially a psycho-social  pro-  difficul-  f o r m u l a t i o n i s t h e n known as t h e  I n c a s e w o r k , and diagnosis  clients  caseworker's  Within  i s placed  person-to-  problems of balance  diagnosis achieves  an  and  extra  dimension: " I t o f f e r s b o t h a v e r t i c a l ( e t i o l o g i c a l ) and horizontal (current interaction) perspective •in s t u d y i n g p e r s o n a l i t y o r i n t r a - f a m i l i a l c o n f l i c t and i t ^ i n e v i t a b l y i n f l u e n c e s t h e treatment process. In a d d i t i o n to e v a l u a t i n g the developing f o r c e s which have i n f l u e n c e d the shaping of t h e p e r s o n a l i t y of the c l i e n t - c h i l d or a d u l t - e q u a l a t t e n t i o n i s p a i d to the c u r r e n t f a m i l y G e s t a l t . " 1 This  can  be  done most e f f e c t i v e l y  worker cooperate i n the 1.  when g r o u p w o r k e r and  case-  p r e s e n t a t i o n o f p a r t s t o make a  total  Gomberg, R.M.,."Trends T o w a r d F a m i l y O r i e n t e d T r e a t m e n t i n S o c i a l C a s e w o r k " , J e w i s h S o c i a l S e r v i c e Q u a r t e r l y , Volume XXX, Number 195^, page 256.  92.  picture. A specific  P r o j e c t example o f t h i s  i s t h e Brown  f a m i l y w h i c h c o n s i s t s o f m o t h e r and f o u r y e a r o l d Raymond. Diagnostic  recording,  d a t e d 8.11,  56, on t h e boy i s a s f o l l o w s :  "Raymond i s a n a g g r e s s i v e c h i l d who h a s a g r e a t need f o r a t t e n t i o n . A n y t h i n g i s b e t t e r t h a n t h e i n d i f f e r e n c e shown t o him by h i s m o t h e r . Her p u n i t i v e a t t i t u d e s do n o t h i t him t o o h a r d as t h e y seem t o show t h a t she c a r e s . There i s l i t t l e wpong w i t h Raymond - r a t h e r h e . i s r e a c t i n g t o h i s situation. I t i s a s t r e n g t h t h a t he c a n f i g h t a g a i n s t i t . The r e a l d i f f i c u l t y l i e s w i t h t h e mother." The c a s e w o r k e r ' s d i a g n o s t i c t h i n k i n g r e g a r d i n g t h e m o t h e r i s now p r e s e n t e d f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f s e e i n g e a c h member o f t h e f a m i l y a s an i n d i v i d u a l b e t w e e n them.  The  caseworker presented  m a t i o n and d i a g n o s t i c s t u d y T h i s m a t e r i a l was  and o b s e r v i n g  the following  b a s e d on h e r c o n t a c t  best  infor-  w i t h the mother.  e s s e n t i a l t o t h e team t h a t t h e y  u n d e r s t a n d Raymond's b e h a v i o u r and how of h e l p i n g t h i s  the i n t e r a c t i o n  t o plan  be a b l e t o methods  family.  "Mrs. Brown i s a young woman o f good i n t e l l e c t u a l a b i l i t y who seems t o h a v e b e e n so e m o t i o n a l l y d e p r i v e d h e r s e l f t h a t she f i n d s g r e a t d i f f i c u l t y i n h e r r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h h e r s o n Raymond, age f o u r . The e x a c t n a t u r e o f h e r a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d h i m i s n o t yet c l e a r . As a m o t h e r she h a s b e e n u n a b l e t o s e t any l i m i t s , h a s w a v e r e d b e t w e e n o v e r - p r o t e c t i o n and i n d i f f e r e n c e t o t h e c h i l d ; b e t w e e n i n d u l g e n c e and p e r i o d s when she s c r e a m e d a t him and was f e a r f u l t h a t she m i g h t h u r t him b e c a u s e o f h e r a n g e r . " "Mrs. B r o w n 8 f a t h e r d i e d when she was a baby and h e r m o t h e r was d e s c r i b e d a s a c o n f o r m i n g l o w e r m i d d l e c l a s s woman who had r i g i d s t a n d a r d s a b o u t what was r i g h t and wrong and what was ' f i t t i n g . She was i n r e c e i p t o f S o c i a l A l l o w a n c e . d u r i n g M r s . Brown's g r o w i n g up y e a r s . M r s . Brown's n e e d 1  1  9 5;' t o h a v e p a r t i c u l a r l y g o o d c l o t h e s f o r R a y m o n d so t h a t h e w i l l n o t be ' d i f f e r e n t s e e m s r e l a t e d t o h e r own f e e l i n g s . o f b e i n g d i f f e r e n t a s a c h i l d . H o w e v e r she c a n n o t a d m i t t h i s . She r e p r e s s e s host i l i t y t o h e r o l d e r s i s t e r who was a l w a y s a m o d e l d a u g h t e r a n d who i s s t i l l l i v i n g near the mother." 1  "It i s d i f f i c u l t t o see any a r e a s w h e r e M r s . Brown has f o u n d much s a t i s f a c t i o n . She f o u n d s c h o o l w o r k ' e a s y b u t w e n t t o w o r k d u r i n g t h e w a r y e a r s a i d so didn't complete her education. She l i k e d h e r w o r k but s t a t e d she d i d l i t t l e o f i t . M r s . B r o w n g i v e s t h e i m p r e s s i o n o f one who s t a n d s on t h e s i d e l i n e s , admiring some p a r t s o f t h e w o r k b e i n g d o n e b u t not being i n v o l v e d i n i t h e r s e l f . "She says l i t t l e about her husband, except t h a t he i s k i n d t o R a y m o n d o n t h e f e w o c c a s i o n s when he s e e s h i m a n d t h a t t h e f a t h e r may wish a divorce now b e c a u s e o f h i s i n t e r e s t i n a n o t h e r woman. .The way i n w h i c h Mrs. Brown a v o i d s t a l k i n g about her h u s b a n d seems t o i n d i c a t e t h a t i t i s a p a i n f u l a r e a . I n h e r way o f s p e f t i n g a b o u t f r i e n d s - b o t h men and women - t h e r e , i s s h a l l o w e f f e c t . "The p r e d o m i n a n t mood a p p a r e n t i n - M r s . B r o w n i s . anxiety. In the P l a y s c h o o l Mothers Group, h a v i n g a s k e d f o r an a p p o i n t m e n t w i t h t h e c a s e w o r k e r , she l e f t t h e room and l a t e r d e s c r i b . e d h e r r e a c t i o n a s one o f p a n i c . When s h e t a l k B a b o u t R a y m o n d s h e f i n d s i t h a r d t o a d m i t t h a t t h e r e i s any difficulty a n d r u s h e s on t o e x p l a i n how b r i g h t he i s . I t i s as i f any s u c h d i s c u s s i o n t h r e a t e n e d h e r i n a v e r y b a s i c way. She h a s t a l k e d a b o u t h e r p a n i c and a b o u t t h e f a c t t h a t o n l y r e c e n t l y d i d she a l l o w h e r s e l f t o s e e t h a t R a y m o n d ' s b e h a t e i o r was a p r o b l e m and t h a t s h e was i n v o l v e d i n i t . I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o see more c l e a r l y t h e p r e c i s e n a t u r e o f Mrs. Brown's f e e l i n g s a b o u t h e r s o n i n o r d e r t o be a b l e t o h e l p h e r and t h e r e f o r e him as w e l l . " These vivid  picture  inter-action mother,  the  of  few  paragraphs  the  personalities in this  between them.  present  Because of  team members c o u l d  then  a  comprehensive family  this  plan  the  and  and  of  the  diagnosis  of  the  b e s t means  of  94.  h e l p i n g M r s . Brown and h e r s o n .  To h a v e t r e a t e d  on t h e b a s i s o f h i s s y m p t o m a t i c  behaviour without  and  only  Raymond  investigating  i n v o l v i n g h i s f a m i l y would, h a v e been a o n e - d i m e n s i o n a l  a p p r o a c h a s c o m p a r e d t o t h e f a r greater c o v e r a g e and n e s s o f t h e team  effective-  approach.  Treatment Treatment  i s t h e sum o f a l l a c t i v i t i e s  d i r e c t e d toward h e l p i n g an i n d i v i d u a l concerned with problem  solving,  or at least  w i t h h i s problem.  relieving,  brought t o the caseworker's a t t e n t i o n ,  made f e a s i b l e  by t h e c l i e n t ' s  modifying basic  difficulties  and  services I ti s  the immediate and a l s o , i f  r e c o g n i t i o n and p a r t i c i p a t i o n , and c o m p l i c a t i o n s .  Often  treat-  ment o f t h e . c l i e n t ' s m a i n c o m p l a i n t l e a d s t o i t s c o n n e c t i o n w i t h a g r a d u i l y emerging able to face  core problem which t h e p e r s o n . i s then  directly.  S i n c e t h e g o a l o f casework or improve t h e f u n c t i o n i n g especially social  treatment i s to  of the c l i e n t  i n h i s social  stabilize milieu,  i n t h e b a l a n c e o f i n n e r and o u t e r f o r c e s , t h e p s y c h o -  a p p r o a c h u s e d i n s t u d y and d i a g n o s i s i s e q u a l l y  to and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  of treatment aims.  applicable  Dr. Gordon H a m i l t o n  states: "One way o f e x p r e s s i n g t h e o b j e c t i v e o f p s y c h o s o c i a l a d j u s t m e n t w o u l d be t o s a y t h a t t h e c a s e worker i s i n t e r e s t e d i n p r e v e n t i n g s o c i a l breakdown, i n c o n s e r v i n g s t r e n g t h s , i n r e s t o r i n g s o c i a l f u n c t i o n s , i n m a k i n g l i f e e x p e r i e n c e s more c o m f o r t a b l e , or compensating, i n c r e a t i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s  95 f o r g r o w t h and d e v e l o p m e n t , and c a p a c i t y f o r s e l f - d i r e c t i o n and The  d i r e c t i o n of the  p r e p o n d e r a n c e and Basic  in this  weighting  i s the  t r e a t m e n t i s d e t e r m i n e d by  of the  f a c t o r s i n any  personality, his  improvement.  'The  self-awareness,  s e v e r i t y of the  client,  h i s f a m i l y , and  probability  of  c h a n g e , a l l n e e d t o be  (diagnosis)  i n order  that the  t u n i t i e s a v a i l a b l e to the  and  the  i n t h i s are skill  of the  the  the  carefully be  functions  workers  the  (l)  i  of the  first  i s administration  t h i s the  worker a s s i s t s the  a  resource  social  of a p r a c t i c a l of the  resource  c l i e n t ' s own  toward i n t a k e , o r t o an  afforded  for  the  evaluated  as e f f e c t i v e  be  and  oppor-  considered.  p a r t i c u l a r agency  involved.  sake o f d i s c u s s i o n , i n t o t h r e e  he  his desire  community r e s o u r c e s  p e r s o n must a l s o  his  e f f e c t s of  e main approaches i n t r e a t m e n t are for  situation.  c o m m u n i t y , and  t r e a t m e n t may  In a d d i t i o n , the  and  problems, the  t h e s e upon t h e  Included  given  the  person - h i s c o n s t i t u t i o n a l equipment,  acculturated  as p o s s i b l e .  i n i n c r e a s i n g the social contribution."  of p r a c t i c a l  client by  the  basic  to  implies a diagnostic  strengths  and  resources,  else careful preparation  appropriate  agency or  institution.  the  t r e a t m e n t but  i t i s the  c a s e w o r k e r who  1.  H a m i l t o n , op.  c i t . , page  2J9.  classifications, services.  c h o o s e and  community.  to  The  In  utilize  proper  survey, and  and  simplified,  use  appraisal  a movement  careful  Here the  referral  resource  enables the  is  person  1  96,-  or  f a m i l y t o use i t c o n s t r u c t i v e l y .  or  g r o u p work a g e n c y t h a t makes t h e h e l p p o s s i b l e t h r o u g h r e c o g -  nition  o f t h e n e e d s and An  And i t i s t h e g r o u p  worker  s u p p l y o f t h e means o f h e l p .  illustration  of t h i s  i s the case of M i s s White, a  member o f t h e Sunny S e n i o r s C l u b a t A l e x a n d r a H o u s e .  The  group  worker r e f e r r e d her to the caseworker f o r d i s c u s s i o n of p o s s i b l e i n v e s t m e n t o f a s m a l l l e g a c y a b o u t w h i c h she seemed q u i t e To q u o t e t h e r e c o r d i n g o f  uncertain.  10.2.57s  " M i s s W h i t e ' s manner was d i r e c t and she seemed to f i n d i t h e l p f u l t o t a l k about her s i t u a t i o n . . . ^he m e n t i o n e d t h a t r e l a t i v e s i n S c o t l a n d t h i n k she s h o u l d s h a r e h e r b i t o f money w i t h them b u t she f e e l s she must p r o v i d e f o r h e r .own o l d age. One s i s t e r w i t h s e v e r a l c h i l d r e n had wanted M i s s W h i t e to s p o n s o r h e r coming t o Canada, but M i s s W h i t e r e f u s e d t o do so. H e r a t t i t u d e seemed t o r e f l e c t a h a b i t o f feeing f a c t s h o n e s t l y , and e x p e c t i n g o t h e r s t o do t h e same. I gave s u p p o r t t o t h e r e a l i s m o f h e r s t a n d , and she seemed t o a p p r e c i a t e this. One o f h e r w o r r i e s i s a b o u t m e d i c a l expenses. She h a s been h a v i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s i n menop a u s a l c h a n g e s a d d e x p e n s i v e i n j e c t i o n s h a v e been necessary. H e r d o c t o r has p a r e d down t h e c o s t s a s much a s p o s s i b l e . I discussed possible referral t o t h e Out P a t i e n t s D e p a r t m e n t a t t h e h o s p i t a l b u t her a s s e t s o f $ 1 , 6 0 0 p u t h e r above t h e e l i g i b i l i t y level. 1 e x p l a i n e d t h a t I had c h e c k e d a b o u t D o m i n i o n A n n u i t y p l a n s and she c o u l d r e c e i v e f u l l d e t a i l s f r o m Mr. S m i t h , g r o u n d f l o o r o f t h e C o n c o r d Building. M i s s W h i t e w i l l a s k f o r an a p p o i n t m e n t w i t h him. She a l s o spoke o f t h e p r o b l e m o f c l o t h e s , and l a t e r when some c l o t h e s o f v e r y good q u a l i t y were g i v e n t o t h e H o u s e , she was t o l d o f them." The  c a s e o f J o a n J o h n s o n i s a l s o one t h a t  the  use o f p r a c t i c a l  the  group worker because o f h e r p e r s o n a l i t y  circumstances. a r a t i o n for  services.  She had q u i t  t h e f u t u r e and  T h i s t e e n - a g e r was  illustrates referred  by  problems p l u s her  s c h o o l w i t h o u t much t h o u g h t o r p r e p -  so n e e d e d  assistance with t h i s .  97.-  "We d i s c u s s e d h e r d e s i r e t o g e t a j o b . She w o u l d l i k e f a c t o r y work o r work as an u s h e r e t t e . •She l i k e s b a b y - s i t t i n g , h a s c o n s i d e r a b l e e x p e r i e n c e and spoke e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y a b o u t l i k i n g c h i l d r e n . Joan q u i t s c h o o l b e c a u s e she d i d n ' t l i k e m a t h e m a t i c s and s p e l l i n g and b e c a u s e one t e a c h e r ' p i c k e d on h e r c o n tinually'. She seemed c o n v i n c e d t h a t she was 'dumb' i n s c h o o l and a p p e a r e d t o be v e r y l a c k i n g i n c o n fidence i n herself. V/e spoke o f t h e l i m i t a t i o n s i n j o b p r o s p e c t s w i t h h e r e d u c a t i o n and how t h & t l i m i t e d t h e p e o p l e she w o u l d m e e t . She was s u r e h o w e v e r t h a t she c o u l d n ' t r e t u r n t o s c h o o l and I made i t c l e a r t h a t I was n o t t r y i n g t o p e r s u a d e h e r b u t r a t h e r j u s t p r e s e n t i n g some f a c t s . Joan l i k e s t y p i n g and spoke v a g u e l y o f g o i n g t o n i g h t s c h o o l , I a s s u r e d h e r I w o u l d speak t o t h e p e r s o n i n t h e Y o u t h S e c t i o n a t N a t i o n a l Employment S e r v i c e and a r r a n g e an a p p o i n t m e n t f o r h e r . 10.11.55 "Spoke t o M i s s S l a c k a t t h e N a t i o n a l Employment S e r v i c e a b o u t J o a n . J o b p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r a g i r l h e r age and l e s s t h a n g r a d e t e n educ a t i o n are almost n i l . Nowever M i s s B l a c k w i l l see J o a n 17.11.55 a t 10:50 i n an e f f o r t t o h e l p h e r i n any way p o s s i b l e . I relayed t h i s i n f o r mation to Joan." A third problems  example  of p e r s o n a l i t y  v i o u s examples cumstances  shows t h e same p r o c e d u r e a p p l i e d a d j u s t m e n t a s compared t o t h e p r e -  w h i c h were more c o n c e r n e d w i t h p r a c t i c a l  and t h e i r  to  rearrangement.  The  following  cir-  summary i s  t a k e n from t h e J o i n t F a m i l y S e r v i c e s P r o j e c t R e p o r t of J a n u a r y 12,  1956: "  "A young man i n t h e community came t o t h e N e i g h b o r hood H o u s e t o e n q u i r e a b o u t r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s f o r h i s f a t h e r who h a d r e c e n t l y a r r i v e d i n V a n c o u v e r , ^ u r i n g t h e i n t e r v i e w i t became c l e a r t o t h e g r o u p w o r k e r t h a t Mr. L a n e was g r e a t l y c o n c e r n e d a b o u t h i s f a t h e r ' s d e p r e s s d s t a t e o f raind and c o m p l e t e l a c k of i n t e r e s t i n s o c i a l a c t i v i t y f o l l o w i n g the death of h i s w i f e . I n coming t o V a n c o u v e r Mr. L a n e S r . l e f t a s m a l l t o w n where he had l i v e d f o r o v e r t w e n t y y e a r s and had c o n s i d e r a b l e p r e s t i g e . He  98  seemed almost immobilized by h i s wife's death and i n desp e r a t i o n h i s son had brought him t o Vancouver. On the suggestion o f the group worker Mr. lane talke.d over h i s problem w i t h the caseworker who made plans f o r r e f e r r a l t o the Family Service Agency. By doing so she made i t p o s s i b l e f o r Mr. Lane Sr. t o o b t a i n the s p e c i a l i z e d help required i n order t h a t he might be helped t o r e - e s t a b l i s h a pattern of l i v i n g . "  1  I n each o f these examples there has been a sequence o f group work t o casework t o needed resource.  Each o f the l a t t e r has a s p e c i a l i z e d  service t o o f f e r but a l l three are necessary t h a t the c l i e n t r e c e i v e the appropriate h e l p . (2) The second type o f treatment i s environmental m o d i f i c a t i o n . A l l attempts t o c o r r e c t or improve the s i t u a t i o n i n order to reduce s t r i n and pressure and a l l adjustments o f the l i v i n g experience t o a  o f f e r o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r growth o r change may be regarded as environmental m o d i f i c a t i o n .  This i n c l u d e s arranged s i t u a t i o n s such as home-  making s e r v i c e s , camps, and group experiences, educational and vocat i o n a l adjustments, s u b s t i t u t e f a m i l y care, e t c .  The approach may be  predominantly s o c i a l or there may be greater emphasis on m o d i f i c a t i o n of i n t e r p e r s o n a l adjustment, but both elements u s u a l l y have a part i n the process.  Because t h i s approach deals w i t h e f f e c t s r a t h e r than  causes i t i s often c a l l e d i n d i r e c t treatment. The Donaldson case shows e f f e c t i v e use o f environmental m o d i f i c a t i o n through the means o f s e v e r a l resources.  While t h i s exaiple shows  the combined e f f o r t s o f caseworker and group worker on a team b a s i s , a caseworker i n another agency c o u l d b r i n g about the same e f f e c t through good r e f e r r a l and use of community resources.  However the s o d l work  99.-  cooperation i n the Project s e t t i n g , both from the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and treatment p o i n t o f view, made the s e r v i c e to the c l i e n t s more e f f e c tive.  The value of environmental m o d i f i c a t i o n w i t h an i n t e r - p e r s o n a l ,  family-centered approach i s shown i n the f o l l o w i n g summary regarding the Donaldsons;  1  Group workers alertness t o the existence of problems, magnified by the presence o f the P r o j e c t i n the Neighborhood House, was t h e reason f o r t h i s family coming t o the a t t e n t i o n o f the team.  The l a t -  t e r was necessary i n order t h a t the Donaldsons r e c e i v e the help they needed i n so many d i f f e r e n t areas, which could not be supplied s o l e l y by any one p a r t i c u l a r s p e c i a l i z a t i o n but r a t h e r required the combined e f f o r t s o f the v a r i o u s team members. "For two years the s t a f f had wondered what would be done about Bobby, age seven. He was unable t o get along ^sith other c h i l d r e n i n group a c t i v i t i e s , y e t he was f r e q u e n t l y at the House. At summer program he had wanted the e x c l u s i v e a t t e n t i o n o f the leader. He looked desperately unhappy. H i s brother Terry, age f i v e , was s u l l e n and r e s t l e s s a t the House playschool. He was p a r t i c u l a r l y upset when mothers came to help. He s a i d " I don't have any . mother. She went away". Attempts were made to see Mr. Donaldson but he was r e t i c e n t about coming to the House. On the one occasion when the group worker was able t o t a l k t o him, Mr. D. discussed only h i s own problems and could give l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n t o -the c h i l d r e n and t h e i r needs. There was no time on the group worker's p a r t t o make repeated e f f o r t s to know him b e t t e r . . ... .q. . . A f t e r the commencement o f the P r o j e c t , a combined e f f o r t was made t o see how t h i s f a m i l y c o u l d be helped. F u l l information about the behavior o f the c h i l d r e n was gathered and there was c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h t h e p s y c h i a t r i s t . Even though the f a c t s a v a i l a b l e were meager the doctor underscored the seriousness o f what was happening t o the c h i l d r e n and suggested ways t h e s t a f f could help them". 1. Advisory Committee, An I n t e r i m Report t o the Community Chest and C o u n c i l , October 10, 1956, Appendix B, case one  100.'  A f t e r t h e p s y c h i a t r i c d i a g n o s i s t h e caseworker a n d group w o r k e r s t h e n p r o c e e d e d t o h e l p t h e f a m i l y , each a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r skills.  Likewise the assistance  o f v o l u n t e e r s was u t i l i z e d i n t h e a l l -  out e f f o r t t o a i d t h i s f a m i l y w i t £ t h e i r problems  The approach was  t h a t o f changing t h e environment s u f f i c i e n t l y t h a t a more p o s i t i v e f a m i l y atmosphere be c r e a t e d . "Attempts were t h e n made by t h e caseworker t o t i l k t o " M r . D o n a l d s o n about h i s two b o y s . He m i s s e d t h e f i r s t t h r e e a p p o i n t m e n t s , and when he f i n a l l y d i d come, o b v i o u s l y e x pected c r i t i c i s m o f the boy's behavior. G r a d u a l l y , howe v e r , he was a b l e t o t a l k about t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s a t w o r k , about h i s concern o v e r the c h i l d r e n , and about h i s w i f e h a v i n g l e f t t h e home. He showed i n t e r e s t i n h i s sons b u t was almost overwhelmed b y h i s c o n f u s i o n o v e r t h e d e s e r t i o n o f h i s w i f e , s e c u r i n g a good housekeeper, h a v i n g h e r u n d e r s t a n d h i s two b o y s , and l e a r n i n g how he h i m s e l f c o u l d b e s t h e l p t h e m . He was i n v i t e d t o a t t e n d t h e P a r e n t s Group o f t h e P l a y s c h o o l . As he worked i n t h i s he found a r e c o g n i t i o n from h i s n e i g h b o r s t h a t was new t o h i m . He saw t h e House as h e l p i n g him t o g i v e s e c u r i t y t o h i s boys and a t t e n d e d s p e c i a l g a t h e r i n g s w i t h them. He t u r n e d t o t h e . caseworker t o t a l k about h i s t a n g l e d f e e l i n g s a b o u t h i s w i f e , and when Bobby's b e h a v i o r seemed p u z z l i n g he asked f o r h e l p w i t h i t and was a b l e t o use t h e s u g g e s t i o n s g i v e n . " :  :  " A t M r . D o n a l d s o n ' s r e q u e s t t h e housekeeper was v i s i t e d and i n v i t e d t o h e l p a t t h e P l a y s c h o o l . She t o o had many problems b e c a u s e o f unhappy e x p e r i e n c e s i n t h e p a s t •which h a d shaken . her self-confidence. There were t h e p r e s e n t d i f f i c u l t i e s t o o , o f d e a l i n g w i t h Bobby and T e r r y who were r e s t l e s s and d e f i a n t . She f o u n d s t r e n g t h t o s t i c k a t t h i s h a r d t a s k , p a r t l y from t h e f r i e n d l i n e s s o f t h e mothers o f t h e p l a y s c h o o l c h i l d r e n and p a r t l y because she knew t h a t she c o u l d t u r n t o t h e c a s e w o r k e r when any d i f f i c u l t y loomed t o o l a r g e . " " W i t h a c l e a r e r p i c t u r e o f t h e needs o f t h i s it© l e f a m i l y t h e group w o r k e r s worked out a p l a n f o r h e l p i n g Bobby move g r a d u a l l y toward b e i n g able t o p l a y w i t h o t h e r c h i l d r e n i n a g r o u p . A s p e c i a l attempt was made t o i n t e r e s t h i m i n t h e J u n i o r Fun C l u b . He came, b u t r e m a i n e d unhappy and s u l l e n He demanded c o n s t a n t a t t e n t i o n . A J u n i o r League v o l u n t e e r a s s i g n e d t o t h e group was b r o u g h t i n t o t h e p l a n n i n g t o h e l p  Bobby. He gradually reacted to her warmth and understanding and began to participate i n activities with other children. As the year progressed Bobby began to relax for he became more convinced that "the people at the Neighborhood House" were interested i n him. ... Terry also showed a quick response to developments i n the home. He was satisfied that he was like other c h i l dren when the housekeeper took her turn helping at the playschool". The results, i n both the social and psychological areas, showed the effectiveness of the team approach i n attacking the family's problems on the. level of environmental modification.  The Project setting  showed well the inter-relationships between the many personalities and factors in this situation. "At the end of a year, during •which time the combined s k i l l s of volunteers, group workers, caseworker, and consulting psychiatrist were used to help this family, Bobby no longer looked unhappy - he had come to Summer Fun Club where he-lhad enjoyed himself, made friends with other boys his age, and had even shown some signs of leadership. Terry -was now a happy and active child looking eagerly forward to school. The housekeeper had been able to remain steady and to give security to the boys. She said that without the help of the caseworker she could not have endured the constant stresses. Mr. Donaldson had settled into a new regime at -work, was more relaxed at home, understood his children better, found satisfaction i n helping them and had gained some understanding of his own problems". This case has been presented in considerable detail- as i t shows the caseworkers role in the perspective of the total process. (3) The third category i s direct treatment.  "By this i s meant a  series of interviews carried on with the purpose of inducing or reinforcing attitudes favorable to maintenance of emotional equilibrium, to making constructive decisions, and to growth or change".  1  1.  Hamilton, op. c i t . , page  2ir?  The most com-  102.  mon method employed i n d i r e c t treatment interviews i s p r o f e s s i o n a l c o u n s e l l i n g , which i s t o some degree an educational process.  It is  intended t o help a person i n a r a t i o n a l way to s o r t out the i s s u e s i n his  s i t u a t i o n , t o c l a r i f y h i s problem and h i s c o n f l i c t s w i t h r e a l i t y ,  and t o f r e e the c l i e n t r e a l i s t i c a l l y t o assume the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f making a choice, as w e l l as t o discuss the f e a s i b i l i t y o f various courses of a c t i o n ,  Just as i t required knowledge and s k i l l t o help  the c l i e n t to use p r a c t i c a l s e r v i c e s t o r e l i e v e h i s s i t u a t i o n , so i t r e q u i r e s knowledge and s k i l l t o help the c l i e n t use the d i r e c t t r e a t ment type o f i n t e r v i e w so t h a t he can make a d e c i s i o n and carry i t out. There i s a l s o the area o f therapeutic i n t e r v i e w i n g concerned w i t h adaptive patterns which are consciously recognized by the c l i e n t but which nevertheless require a h i g h degree o f s p e c i a l i z e d s l d . l l t o modify. I n the P r o j e c t the caseworker d i d not undertake such i n t e n s i v e l e v e l s o f help so t h i s aspect w i l l not be discussed here.  Outside the area o f  s o c i a l work i s a deeper l e v e l of therapy y e t - that o f p s y c h i a t r i c t r e a t ment which deals w i t h the unconscious causes of problems.  The l a t t e r i s  mentionned because i t i s an aspect o f the f o l l o w i n g case i l l u s t r a t i o n . The excerpts from the summary o f casework w i t h the Morton f a m i l y , December o f 1957 t o March o f 19!?8, show the various l e v e l s o f treatment, chosen according t o the needs o f each f a m i l y member. Mrs. Morton; "In December Mrs. Morton came f o r r e g u l a r weekly i n t e r v i e w s and expressed growing i n a b i l i t y t o cope w i t h her f e e l i n g s and w i t h the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f the home. She could not do the r o u t i n e t h i n g s around t h e home and p a r t i c u l a r l y found  103.  that C a r l i r r i t a t e d her. A p l a n was made whereby he would be cared f o r by a f r i e n d t o r e l i e v e t h i s s i t u a tion . . . . Mrs. Morton was given a p r e s c r i p t i o n f o r t r a n q u i l l i z e r s by her doctor and one day when she v i s i t e d him without t a k i n g the p i l l she was i n such an upset s t a t e t h a t he r e f e r r e d her t o a p s y c h i a t r i s t . She asked t o remain a t home over Christmas and i n January was admitted t o the p s y c h i a t r i c ward of the Vancouver General H o s p i t a l where she remained f o r s i x weeks. She welcorned t h i s t r e n d of events as she had reached a point o f needing t o escape from a l l respons i b i l i t y and she seemed to have a good understanding of the n e c e s s i t y f o r p s y c h i a t r i c help." Mr. Morton: "During t h i s p e r i o d Mr. Morton was seen t o d i s c u s s problems around C a r l , John, and h i s wife and plans f o r the c h i l d r e n during her absence i n the h o s p i t a l . An attempt was made t o i n t e r p r e t to Mr. Morton the r e a l i t y of the emotional d i f f i c u l t i e s encountered both by h i s wife and h i s son.John. He seemed s e r i o u s l y t r y i n g t o grasp these things but l i m i t e d i n h i s a b i l i t y t o <do so. Considerable i n t e r p r e t a t i o n was given about the f e e l ings of a woman who i s experiencing the menopause and how he could help t o r e i n f o r c e her self-esteem and senseof being l o v e d . Mr. Morton could never express h i s r e a l f e e l i n g s about h i s w i f e going t o Ward R but i t seemed obvious t h a t he had them." John; John came r e g u l a r l y f o r weekly appointments and gradu a l l y became more r e l a x e d i n h i s a t t i t u d e and a b i l i t y to use the i n t e r v i e w s more c o n s t r u c t i v e l y ....One of the d i f f i c u l t i e s i n t r y i n g to give John any help was the f a c t . that h i s l i f e was almost a vacuum. He got up very l a t e each day, d i d a few things around the house, watched TV u n t i l l a t e at n i g h t . He could t a l k about t h i s and express the fact t h a t i t was not much of a way. to l i v e . He had l i t t l e contact w i t h people h i s own age, and seemed to be withdrawing from the p a r t i e s t o which he was i n v i t e d . The caseworker t h e r e f o r e asked h i s help i n moving an e l d e r l y l a d y and John l a t e r brought her a Christmas hamper of h i s own accord. He was p l a c e d i n charge of the House pool t a b l e Monday evenings and so g r a d u a l l y got i n w i t h a gang of teenagers and f e l t accepted by them. A good i n d i c a t i o n of. t h i s was an impromptu p a r t y a t h i s home which gave him considerable pleasure. John was also a s s i s t e d by the caseworker to look f o r a job which he found v e r y d i f f i c u l t by h i m s e l f . "  lOlw  This administering of p r a c t i c a l s e r v i c e s , p l u s environmental m o d i f i c a t i o n ( i n d i r e c t treatment) was i n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r h i s a b i l i t y to use d i r e c t treatment as f o l l o w s .  This s e c t i o n shows a new l e v e l o f  treatment - that of changing o r improving b a s i c problems which ©nstitutes d i r e c t treatment, "In March he seemed t o move i n t o a new way o f using the i n t e r v i e w . He s t a r t e d to t a l k about r e l i g i o n which had not been mentioned f o r a l o n g time. He reported t a l k i n g about t h i s w i t h the other young people, discussions i n which he had been e n t i r e l y negative i n h i s comments and had shocked most of them* The caseworker emphasized that i t was good t o use one's head and t o have c r i t i c a l thoughts about every aspect of l i f e but k e p t r r e i t e r a t i n g that there was something important i n r e l i g i o n even though he might object t o the way i n which some people r e f u s e d to t h i n k c r i t i c a l l y about t h e i r b e l i e f s . He moved from r e l i g i o n to p o l i t i c s , saying there was much i n communism and seemed t o f a v o r n a t i o n a l i z a t i o n of i n d u s t r y . Again the caseworker encouraged him to t h i n k and analyze hims e l f but a l s o t o b u i l d up a b a s i s of f a c t s w h i c h w u l d help him to t h i n k c l e a r l y . I t seemed t h a t these g e n e r a l discussions might provide an important opportunity t o help John s o r t out some b a s i c v a l u e s . " The Mortons show the i n t e r - r e l a t i o n s h i p of a l l forms o f treatment as w e l l .  Use of community resources, environmental m o d i f i -  c a t i o n , and d i r e c t treatment a l l played an important p a r t i n the helping o f t h i s f a m i l y *  Casework Methods The preceding s e c t i o n s have been devoted t o a discussion and d e f i n i t i o n of. casework, f o r i t i s e s s e n t i a l to have, an understanding of what casework i s before going on to d i s c u s s what i t does. work i s able t o help persons i n d i f f i c u l t y must be considered  How now.  case-  105  The  means o f h e l p i n g a r e v a r i o u s l y  r e f e r r e d to as t e c h n i q u e s ,  •" 1 methods o r p r o c e s s e s .  Combining  2  and H a m i l t o n  , t h e w r i t e r has  f o u r main a r e a s - use psychological  s u p p o r t , and  development.  t a n t a s p e c t s of the casework separately.  But  inter-related Use  of  the c l i e n t one  The  skill,  latter is  of e x p l a n a t i o n , c l a r i f i c a t i o n , each of t h e s e are such process,. they w i l l  impor-  be d i s c u s s e d  remembered t h a t t h e s e a r e  closely  i n use.  Relationship The  is  i t must be  into  interviewing  interpretation.  As  Hollis  d i v i d e d t h e s e methods  of r e l a t i o n s h i p s ,  s u b d i v i d e d under t h e headings and i n s i g h t  t h e comments o f  idea that the r e l a t i o n s h i p  i s important i n helping people to help  of t h e o l d e s t  Kenneth  P r a y who  i n casework.  stated:  "The  r o l e and m e a n i n g o f s o c i a l p r o c e s s , used controlled s i v e and  of the worker  characteristic  relationship.  "The  functional  casework  by t h e c l i e n t ,  by t h e w o r k e r ,  This i s well  themselves  expressed  by  conception of the  i s a s e r v i n g and  helping  rather than a treatment  process  f i n d s expression i n another  concept"  decisive  and  - t h a t of the  deci-  professional  f a c t o r i n the h e l p i n g  situation  1.  H o l l i s , F l o r e n c e , "The T e c h n i q u e o f C a s e w o r k " , P r i n c i p l e s and T e c h n i q u e s i n S o c i a l C a s e w o r k , F a m i l y S e r v i c e A s s o c i a t i o n o f A m e r i c a , New Y o r k , 1950*  2.  H a m i l t o n , G o r d o n , T h e o r y and P r a c t i c e o f S o c i a l C a s e w o r k , C o l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , New Y o r k , 1951» p a g e s 26 and 6k,  106  and  i n the helping process  for the c l i e n t , thought  i s the offering  experience  i n w h i c h and a r o u n d w h i c h o l d p a t t e r n s o f  and f e e l i n g a n d b e h a v i o u r  - provfidc-inadequate f o r  t h e e x i s t i n g n e e d - c a n be b r o k e n t h r o u g h afford  o f a new  a new s t a r t  toward  s u f f i c i e n t l y to  some p e r s o n a l a n d s o c i a l  reorganiza-  1  tion."  T]  1 U 8 >  relationship  i B u s e d c o n s c i o u s l y by t h e c a s e -  worker as both  c l i m a t e and c a t a l y s t  out  c a n be a c c o m p l i s h e d  it,  little While  relationship  f o r problem-solving. which i s of l a s t i n g  With-  value.  i s always i n v o l v e d i n s o c i a l  case-  work t o some d e g r e e , t h e more i n t i m a t e t h e h i s t o r y and t h e more disturbed the person, ship  t h e more i t i s e s s e n t i a l  be s t r o n g enough t o p e r m i t  been a p a r t i c u l a r l y Project,  important  relation-*  d i s c l o s u r e s of s e l f .  f a c t o r i n the Family  T h i s c a n be c o n s i d e r e d a s d i r e c t l y o f p e r s o n a l and s o c i a l i s also partly  would accept  due t o t h e h i g h  T h i s has  Services  a s so many o f t h e c l i e n t s n e e d e d t o e s t a b l i s h  r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h t h e worker before they  It  that  strong help.  incidence  d i s o r g a n i z a t i o n a s shown i n C h a p t e r  due t o t h e s p e c i f i c  setting  Two.  of the P r o j e c t ,  whereby t h e c a s e w o r k e r o f t e n had t o t a k e t h e i n i t i a t i v e f o r establishing clients  contact  a n d h a d t o be a c c e p t e d  before they would f e e l  secure  by t h e p r o s p e c t i v e  enough t o b r i n g t h e i r  pro-  blems t o h e r . An tionship possible. 1.  integral  p a r t of t h e purpose of p r o f e s s i o n a l r e l a -  i s t h e a i m t h a t i t be g r o w t h p r o d u c i n g , Therefore,  i n a d d i t i o n to the c l i e n t  i fata l l and w o r k e r s  F r a y , K.L., "A R e - S t a t e m e n t o f t h e G e n e r i c P r i n c i p l e s o f S o c i a l C a s e w o r k P r a c t i c e " , P r i n c i p l e s aid T e c h n i q u e s i n S o c i a l C a s e w o r k , F a m i l y S e r v i c e - A s s o c i a t i o n o f A m e r i c a , New Y o r k , page 6 6 .  107  acceptance  of each  other, i t i s p r e f e r a b l e t h a t the  e n c o u r a g e and m o t i v a t e t h e c l i e n t . from  the Perron f i l e  s h i p and  '^he f o l l o w i n g  illustration  i l l u s t r a t e s t h e e f f e c t i v e use  showsvtfiat an i m p o r t a n t i n s t r u m e n t i t c a n  worker  of  relation  be:  " M r s . P e r r o n showed t h a t she welcomed t h e v i s i t s o f t h e c a s e w o r k e r w h i c h a t f i r s t were focusBed around the c h i l d r e n ' s p r o g r e s s i n . g r o u p s , and l a t e r a r o u n d how.Mrs. P e r r o n c o u l d help her c h i l d r e n w i t h t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r problems. She had s l u m p e d t o a l e v e l o f d i s c o u r a g e d e n d u r a n c e o f l i f e a s i t was, b u t she r e s p o n d e d t o t h e c a s e w o r k e r ' s s t a t e d b e l i e f t h a t she had s o m e t h i n g i m p o r t a n t , t o c o n t r i b u t e to her c h i l d r e n . The m o t h e r enc o u r a g e d N a n c y i n more f e m i n i n e i n t e r e s t s ; she a r r a n g e d s p e c i a l m e e t i n g s w i t h h e r t o add to t h e g i r l ' s n e e d f o r a s e n s e o f i m p o r t a n c e , and she commented e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y a b o u t Nancy's responses to her e f f o r t s . Mrs. P e r r o n seemed t o f i n d s t i m u l u s and s u p p o r t i n s h a r i n g p a r t of her burden of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y w i t h the caseworker. At a parent's meeting, a f i l m was shown d e p i c t i n g how.a c a s e w o r k e r h e l p e d a f a m i l y . . M r s . P. commented l a t e r on the p r o f e s s i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p : 'I'm l i k e Mrs. Jones i n the f i l m . I couldn't talk t h i s way t o n e i g h b o r s , and c e r t a i n l y n o t t o r e l a tives. They d o n ' t h e l p y o u t o see t h i n g s more c l e a r l y ' , t t  Mrs.  P e r r o n accepted the worker  tive professional  person  she was.  ended upon t h e c a s e w o r k e r ' s relationship  Interviewing  and  f o r the i n t e r e s t e d  concomitant  skill  objec-  s u c c e s s o f t h i s ' dep-  understanding  o f t h e use  i n putting  of  i t into  practice  Skill  Communication i s necessary personal  The  but  relationships.  i n a l l forms o f  inter-  I t follows, therefore, that i n  social  108.  work, p a r t i c u l a r l y It  i s to t h i s  tions, the  casework,  i s essential.  end t h a t many p e r s o n s , i n a v a r i e t y  hold interviews  e v e r y day,  o n l y ones p r o f e s s i o n a l l y  Considerable  c l e a r communication  skill  occupa-  but c a s e w o r k e r s a r e  t r a i n e d ' i n t h e use o f  almost  interviews.  i s needed i n t h i s a r e a , as i t i s t h e main  medium t h r o u g h w h i c h t h e c a s e w o r k e r Effective  of  interviewing,  helps the  for social  client.  work  purposes,  r e s t s upon t h e b a s e o f r e l a t i o n s h i p and i t s c o n c o m i t a n t aspect of acceptance. the  d i s c o v e r y and  Respect  building  up  f o r the c l i e n t  o f h i s s t r e n g t h s , as w e l l  u n d e r s t a n d i n g h i s n e e d s and h i s f e e l i n g s o f Implicit and  i n t h i s are the casework  s e l f - h e l p on t h e c l i e n t ' s While  i t i s important  accepting of the c l i e n t  as  inadequacy.  p r i n c i p l e s of  self-direction  part. t h a t t h e worker  be  personally  and h i s p r o b l e m ( s ) , i t i s e q u a l l y  i m p o r t a n t t h a t the worker Objectivity  i s shown t h r o u g h  n o t become p e r s o n a l l y  involved.^. •  i s j u s t as n e c e s s a r y as a c c e p t a n c e , f o r p e r s o n a l  involvement prevents proper p e r s p e c t i v e of the s i t u a t i o n  and  so i s a d e t e r r a n t t o p r o f e s s i o n a l h e l p . The  skill  needed i n i n t e r v i e w i n g  i s e v i d e n t i n the  Donaldson  c a s e ( a s p r e s e n t e d on page 99 o f t h i s  pertinent  section w i l l  chapter).  be r e q u o t e d h e r e f o r d i s c u s s i o n  pur-  poses: " A t t e m p t s were t h e n made by t h e c a s e w o r k e r t o t a l k t o Mr. D o n a l d s o n a b o u t h i s two b o y s . He m i s s e d t h e f i r s t t h r e e a p p o i n t m e n t s , and when h e - f i n a l l y d i d come, he o b v i o u s l y e x p e c t e d c r i t i c i s m o f t h e b o y s ' behaviour.."  A  109 Apparent i n t h i s father,  and,  i.s Mr.  However, orce he  accepted  him  along  came, she  could  with h i s strengths  would begin  a p o s i t i v e one  of wishing  caseworker's s k i l l ,  to help  t h i s was  f r e e enough t o b e g i n  and  show him  a  case-  that  she  weaknesses.  In  to r e a l i z e t h a t her m o t i v a t i o n him  r a t h e r t h a n n e g a t i v e l y c o n d e m n i n g him  felt  as  t h e r e f o r e , h i s r e l u c t a n c e t o come t o t h e  worker.  a d d i t i o n , he  Donaldson's f e a r of c r i t i c i s m  to  to improve the f o r i t . Due  a c c o m p l i s h e d and  Mr.  r e v e a l h i m s e l f and  was  situation  to  the  Donaldson  his  problems:  " G r a d u a l l y , h o w e v e r , he was a b l e t o t a l k a b o u t d i f f i c u l t i e s a t work, a b o u t h i s c o n c e r n o v e r t h e c h i l d r e n , and a b o u t h i s w i f e h a v i n g l e f t t h e home. He showed i n t e r e s t i n h i s c h i l d r e n but was a l m o s t o v e r w h e l m e d by h i s c o n f u s i o n over the d e s e r t i o n of h i s w i f e , s e c u r i n g a good h o u s e k e e p e r , h a v i n g h e r u n d e r s t a n d t h e two b o y s , "and l e a r n i n g h i m s e l f how he c o u l d b e s t h e l p them.". The  caseworker continued  thinking T h i s was,  to  encourage the  a b o u t h i s p r o b l e m s and of course,  father i n his  h i s a c t i o n i n regard  done i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e  o f . t h e other.members of the of the case:  team.  As  to  them.  efforts  s t a t e d i n the  summary  " A t t h e end o f a y e a r , d u r i n g w h i c h t i m e t h e combined s k i l l s of v o l u n t e e r s , group w o r k e r s , and c a s e w o r k e r and c o n s u l t i n g p s y c h i a t r i s t w e r e u s e d t o h e l p t h i s f a m i l y . . . . M r . D o n a l d s o n had s e t t l e d i n t o a new r e g i m e a t work, was more r e l a x e d a t ho^e, understood h i s c h i l d r e n better, f o u n d s a t i s f a c t i o n i n h e l p i n g them and had g a i n e d some u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f h i s own p r o b l e m s . " Had centred skill  not  effort,  the  team a p p r o a c h b e e n u s e d i n t h i s  i t is likely  t h a t the  family-  casework i n t e r v i e w i n g  w o u l d n o t h a v e b e e n n e a r l y as e f f e c t i v e  i n that i t  110.'  e o u l d h a v e been w i d e n e d i n o r d e r t o t o u c h o n l y i n d i r e c t l y t h e many o t h e r i m p o r t a n t a r e a s n e e d i n g h e l p a s The P r o j e c t  setting  well.  provided resources not  a v a i l a b l e and t h e s e p r o v e d v e r y v a l u a b l e i n a c t i v e  Psychological  in particular  i n times of s t r e s s .  The  i s common t o a l l s o c i a l  treatment.  s u r r o u n d i n g him.  workers,  employ i t t o s t r e n g t h e n t h e individual  a d j u s t i n g to the psychological  relationship,  ordinarily  Support  W h i l e t h i s method caseworkers  on  client  i s .thereby a s s i s t e d i n  and e n v i r o n m e n t a l p r e s s u r e s  I t i s a c c o m p l i s h e d t h r o u g h t h e use o f  t h r o u g h t h e p o i n t i n g o u t and encouragement o f  the the c l i e n t ' s  positive  qualities,  (as p o s s i b l e ) i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the  and t h r o u g h  realistic  situation.  The u s e o f p s y c h o l o g i c a L s u p p o r t v a r i e s f r o m  cases  where t h e c l i e n t h a s t e m p o r a r i l y become u n a b l e t o cope w i t h his  s i t u a t i o n and n e e d s some s u p p o r t f r o m  until  he h a s r e g a i n e d h i s b a l a c e and so h i s a b i l i t y  with h i s situation, is  an o u t s i d e p e r s o n  t o c a s e s where t h e c l i e n t ' s  of a chronic nature requiring  vention of further  stress.  With  to deal  instability  continued support p l u s preregard to the l a t t e r ,  t a i n i n g t h e p r e s e n t b&ance i s o f t e n an e q u a l l y v a l i d  mainsocial  work t a s k . The N e l s o n c a s e , c o n c e r n i n g a d e s e r t e d m o t h e r and her  seven y e a r o l d son, p o r t r a y s t h i s use o f s u p p o r t  cally.  The f o l l o w i n g m a t e r i a l  from t h e r e c o r d , both  graphiquoted  111.  and  s u m m a r i z e d , shows t h e t h i n k i n g w h i c h  c o n c l u s i o n t h a t t h e caseworker  l e d t h e team t o t h e  should approach  the situation  t h r o u g h t h e method o f u s i n g p s y c h o l o g i c a l s u p p o r t .  The v e r y  t a s k o f m a n a g i n g t o f u n c t i o n i n t h e community was a n e f f o r t for to  t h e s e t w o , a n d so t h e y  d i d n o t have s u f f i c i e n t  c o n s i d e r c a u s a t i o n and c u r e .  strength  Rather, t h e caseworker  s h o u l d s u p p l y t h e needed support i n o r d e r t h a t t h e y maint a i n a t least a minimal  balance.  "Mrs. N e l s o n was s e e n by a g r o u p w o r k e r a n d a s k e d a b o u t a f t e r s c h o o l p l a n s f o r G e r r y . She was r e f e r r e d t o t h e c a s e w o r k e r b e c a u s e she was o v e r - a n x i o u s and e x c i t a b l e , s e e m i n g t o n e e d f u r t h e r help i n p l a n n i n g f o r h e r s e l f and t h e boy. I t seemed n e c e s s a r y t o a s s e s s c a r e f u l l y how d i s t u r b e d she m i g h t be." S o c i a l S e r v i c e I n d e x showed t h a t M r s , N e l s o n had h a d c o n t a c t w i t h a number o f s o c i a l a g e n c i e s , a l l o f whom c o n s i d e r e d h e r u n s t a b l e a n d few of whom h a d been a b l e t o be o f much s e r v i c e t o h e r a s she w o u l d n o t a c c e p t s u c h a n d moved frequently. The e f f e c t o f t h e m o t h e r on t h e c h i l d was s e r i o u s a n d he was i n n e e d o f p o s i t i v e f a c t o r s i n h i s l i f e e x p e r i e n c e s . As t h e p s y c h i a t r i s t f e l t t h a t Mrs. N e l s o n would need long-term p s y c h i a t r i c treatment i n order t o change h e r p r o b l e m s , i t was d e c i d e d t h a t t h e caseworker should supply s u f f i c i e n t reassurance and s u p p o r t t o t h e m o t h e r t h a t she w o u l d r e l i e v e some o f t h e p r e s s u r e on t h e b o y , and w o u l d do e v e r y t h i n g p o s s i b l e t o m o b i l i z e t h e community t o h e l p h i m . c a s e w o r k e r saw M r s . N e l s o n on a f a i r l y r e g u l a r i n t e r v i e w b a s i s as w e l l as being a v a i l a b l e t o h e r by t e l e p h o n e i n b e t w e e n t h e s e t i m e s . The c a s e w o r k e r e x e r t e d e v e r y e f f o r t t o show M r s . N e l s o n t h a t she was l i k e d and a c c e p t e d ; t h a t h e r d e s i r e was t o h e l p , n o t t o c r i t i c i z e . The c a s e w o r k e r assumed t h e r o l e o f t h e a c c e p t i n g m o t h e r t o whom M r s . N e l s o n c o u l d a d m i t some o f h e r f e a r s , a n d d i s c u s s s i t u a t i o n s w h i c h she  112  found d i f f i c u l t , without e n c o u n t e r i n g c r i t i c i s m and r e j e c t i o n . T h e r e was c o n s t a n t e m p h a s i s on t h e s t r e n g t h s M r s . N.' p o s s e s s e d . I t was o n l y v e r y s l o w l y t h a t M r s . N. was a b l e t o t r u s t t h e a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e c a s e w o r k e r and i t was o n l y w i t h i n t h i s - r e l a t i o n s h i p of growing t r u s t t h a t she c o u l d t o l e r a t e any d i s c u s s i o n o f r e a l i t y factors. Some o r d i n a r y d i s c i p l i n a r y uvea s u r e a t s c h o o l was c o n s t r u e d a s f l a g r a n t d i s c r i m i n a t i o n and a l w a y s h e r t e n d e n c y was t o want t o move somewhere e l s e - t o w i t h d r a w G e r r y f r o m t h e school. T h e s e t h i n g s have p r o v i d e d maximum s u p p o r t f r o m t h e community f o r G e r r y ; h i s m o t h e r has been h e l p e d t o be s l i g h t l y more r e a s o n a b l e i n h e r t r e a t m e n t o f h i , and i n h e r r e a c t i o n t o e v e r y day e v e n t s . The s e r i o u s d e t e r i o r a t i o n w h i c h t h r e a t e n e d t h i s f a m i l y has been a v e r t e d a t l e a s t f o r the time being.". m  Interpretation There are explanation,  s e v e r a l degrees of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  clarification,  and  insight.  These a r e  the  means by w h i c h t h e c l i e n t o b t a i n s t h e k n o w l e d g e n e e d e d and  i s helped  to u t i l i z e  i t w i t h regard to h i s problem ( s ) .  E x p l a n a t i o n i s o f t e n termed The  caseworker  may  * information giving".  provide the necessary  details  regarding  t h e p o l i c y o f the p a r t i c u l a r agency or a c q u a i n t t h e with the  resources a v a i l a b l e  t h i s i s a l l the person own  problem.  Olson  i n t h e community.  client  Sometimes  n e e d s i n o r d e r t o t a k e a c t i o n on h i s  A brief illustration  of t h i s  i s taken  from  the  family filei, "7.6.56. M r s . O l s o n t e l e p h o n e d a s k i n g a b o u t p o s s i b l e placement of Debbie from n i n e o ' c l o c k t o f i v e e a c h day d u r i n g t h e summer as m o t h e r i s working. L i l y has bean a t t e n d i n g k i n d e r g a r t e n at the p u b l i c s c h o o l . I n answer t o  113.  the caseworker's question, Mrs. Olson i n d i c a t e d t h a t h e r h u s b a n d was n o t i n t h e h o e . I t e a s e x p l a i n e d t h a t t h i s was a s k e d o n l y t o see i f she w o u l d be e l i g i b l e t o u s e t h e F o s t e r Day C a r e A s s o c i a t i o n s e r v i c e s . The m o t h e r d i d n o t know o f t h i s r e s o u r c e and was d e l i g h t e d t o learn of i t . Worker d i s c u s s e d i t s o p e r a t i o n , l o c a t i o n , and g a v e t h e names o f t h e w o r k e r s . " m  N e i t h e r mother n o r c h i l d contact  with Alexandra  were known t o have had a n y  House.  I t i s interesting  time o f need, t h e mother t u r n e d because o f i t s n e i g h b o r l y is  b o t h v a l i d and v a l u a b l e  of  view. (2)  that i n of help  P r o v i s i o n o f such s e r v i c e  f r o m t h e H o u s e and P r o j e c t  i s the l e v e l  o f much  point  casework  I t i s u s u a l l y t h o u g h t o f as r a t i o n a l  c u s s i o n about s o c i a l is  aspect.  Clarification  interpretation.  t o i t as a source  previous  or p s y c h o l o g i c a l problems.  The  disclient'  s t i m u l a t e d , t h r o u g h r e l a t i o n s h i p and p r o f e s s i o n a l know-  ledge,  t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e study  in the planning,  of h i s s i t u a t i o n ,  to share  a n d t o make an a c t i v e e f f o r t t o s o l v e h i s  own p r o b l e m s . This  i s effectively  illustrated  by t h e R o n a l d  I t was r e f e r r e d t o t h e P r o j e c t by t h e P l a y s c h o o l as M r s . R o n a l d h a d i n d i c a t e d t o h e r t h a t t h e home was d i f f i c u l t  because o f t h e husband's d r i n k i n g .  teacher situation I n the i n t e r -  view with the caseworker, Mrs. Ronald i n d i c a t e d there considerable abusive age  friction  case.  was  i n t h e h o e , t h a t h e r h u s b a n d was m  t o h e r , and p o s s i b l y dangerous f o r t h e c h i l d r e n ( J a n ,  f i v e and J u d y , o n e ) .  114 "21.2.57. The c a s e w o r k e r t r i e d t o a s s u r e M r s . R. o f h e r d e s i r e t o h e l p h e r a d s t r e s s e d the importance o f t h e mother e v a l u a t i n g t h e e f f e c t o f t h i s s i t u a t i o n on h e r s e l f a n d t h e c h i l d r e n b o t h i n p r e s e n t and l o n g range t e r m s . The o n l y t h i n g M r s . R o n a l d was c e r t a i n o f was t h a t h e r h u s b a d h a d no d e s i r e t o c h a n g e h i s attitude. W o r k e r s a i d t h a t she knew how comp l i c a t e d o n e ' s f e e l i n g s c o u l d be about a p a r t n e r , t h a t no one w o u l d a t t e m p t t o make a n y d e c i s i o n s f o r t h e m o t h e r , b u t t h a t h e l p w o u l d be g i v e n whatever t h e d e c i s i o n . " "14.5.57. A f t e r several serious happenings i n t h e home, M r s . R o n a l d p r o c e e d e d t o t a l k a b o u t p l a n s f o r l e a v i n g h e r h u s b a n d . . . . She was e m p h a t i c t h a t she h a d no l o v e l e f t f o r h i m and was. n o t a f r a i d o f h e r a b i l i t y t o p r o v i d e f o r the c h i l d r e n i n f u t u r e . She s t a t e d she was g l a d s h e . h a d met t h e c a s e w o r k e r a s , ' t h e r e a r e some t h i n g s y o u c a n ' t do a l o n e ' . . . T h r o u g h o u t t h e i n t e r v i e w she s t a t e d s e v e r a l t i m e s t h a t she d i d h a v e some r i g h t s a s a n i n d i v i d u a l , w h i c h seemed t o be a r e p e t i t i o n o f what w o r k e r h a d said i n previous meetings. At Mrs. Ronald's request caseworker c a r e f u l l y o u t l i n e d what.the . m o t h e r ' s l e g a l p o s i t i o n was, s u g g e s t e d c o n t a c t w i t h t h e F a m i l y C o u r t i n R e g i n a ( w h e r e she p l a n n e d t o move), a n d d i s c u s s e d community r e sources f o r f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e , e t c . should she n e e d s u c h f o r a t e m p o r a r y p e r i o d . M r s . Ronald again expressed a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r being a b l e t o t a l k t o someone who u n d e r s t o o d . " The  m a i n s e r v i c e g i v e n M r s . R o n a l d , a n d so h e r f a m i l y , was  the  t h i n k i n g through or c l a r i f y i n g  that  she w o u l d be a b l e  cluded giving, cation.  i n this  of her s i t u a t i o n  i n order  t o make a d e c i s i o n r e g a r d i n g  i t . In-  were p s y c h o l o g i c a l  s u p p o r t and  information  showing t h e i n t e r - r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t h e s e w i t h While t h i s  clarifi-  case d i d n o t r e c e i v e treatment from the  t e a m , s e r v i c e was g i v e n  b e c a u s e o f t h e a w a r e n e s s o f t h e team  members, e.g. t h e t e a c h e r ,  and because o f t h e n a t u r a l  hood h o u s e s e t t i n g o f t h e P r o j e c t .  neighbor-  115.  (3)  The  deepest  must be u s e d  level  of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  with caution.  making the c l i e n t  In the p s y c h i a t r i c  sense,  conscious of the i n f l u e n c e of  m a t e r i a l and m o t i v a t i o n .  Dr. H a m i l t o n  and  i t means  sub-conscious  This i s outside the s o c i a l  a r e a o f c o m p e t e n c e , u n l e s s a c c o m p a n i e d by sultation.  i s insight  worker's.  psychiatric  con*  states:  " I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the overt aspects of the problem, c l a r i f i c a t i o n of i s s u e s , of a t t i t u d e s , o f c o n s c i o u s and p r e - c o n s c i o u s f e e l i n g s , d i s t i n g u i s h i n g b e t w e e n f e e l i n g s and r e a l i t y , p o i n t i n g up p a t t e r n s o f b e h a v i o u r , a r e e s s e n t i a l t o s e l f - a w a r e n e s s and may be r e g a r d e d as forms of i n s i g h t . " 1 While  reality  t o be  c a u t i o u s i n sharing data concerning p s y c h o l o g i c a l  matters,  data i s shared w i t h a c l i e n t ,  s i n c e t h e c l i e n t may  n o t be  t i o n of emotional m o t i v a t i o n . element,  usually  w i t h the worker as i n s i g h t  1.  and  Timing  in this  to face the  i s a very  t h a t the c l i e n t  ques-  important  be v e r y  secure  t h a t t h e t r e & m e n t be on a l o n g - t e r m  i s a v e r y complex a r e a .  i s not used used  requiring  ready  i t i s necessary  by most c a s e w o r k e r s Project.  H a m i l t o n , Op. C i t .  and  For these  reasons,  specifically  was  basis insight  not  CHAPTER 5  JOINT FAMILY SERVICE I The  AN INTERIM REVIEW  h i s t o r y of the J o i n t Family  Services  back a p p r o x i m a t e l y t e n y e a r s .  Project  can  be t r a c e d  the  p l a c e m e n t o f two c a s e w o r k s t u d e n t s i n G o r d o n N e i g h b o r h o o d  House i n 1 9 4 9 , t h e i d e a several  stages.  periences,  f o r such a p r o j e c t  T h e s e were an e v a l u a t i o n  Beginning  developed  with  through  o f t h e student ex-  a g r o w i n g r e c o g n i t i o n by s e v e r a l a g e n c i e s o f t h e  need f o r s e r v i c e s t o t h e t o t a l  f a m i l y group i n a l e i s u r e  time s e t t i n g , the involvement of i n t e r e s t e d l a y o r g a n i z a t i o n s , the  establishment  of a representative  and  work o u t t h e o b j e c t i v e s  forthis  pilot  extensive  I t s two  effort  and i n t e r e s t  of operation  on t h e p a r t  o f b o t h p r o f e s s i o n a l and v o l u n t e e r  d e c a d e o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n and e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n  minated  i n the incorporation.of  feature  of the services given While the values  plans  project.  year period  The  involved  c o m m i t t e e t o make  personnel. then  cul-  t h e o b j e c t i v e s as a permanent  by b o t h N e i g h b o r h o o d H o u s e s ,  o f t h e P r o j e c t were e m p i r i c a l l y  d e m o n s t r a t e d , a t h o r o u g h w r i t t e n a n a l y s i s o f i t s component parts  i s now n e e d e d i n o r d e r  understood.  This  t h a t the elements i n v o l v e d  study has t h u s f a r attempted t o  some o f t h e i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t s o f t h i s P r o j e c t . cluding  chapter,  areas w i l l  be  describe  In this  con-  some o f t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e f o l l o w i n g  be d i s c u s s e d :  the o b j e c t i v e s of the P r o j e c t , the  117.  community i n w h i c h i t f u n c t i o n e d , of the  effects  A g e n c y , and  The  of the  of the  Project  P r o j e c t , these being In the  f o u r and  duction  was  listed  eight  e n u m e r a t e d i n C h a p t e r One  to  aims l i s t e d  i n the  possibility  of  It  I t can  practical original  extending  t i m e and  e n e r g y o f one  delimiting  of the  essential  d e c i d e d upon w i l l  these  being  surmised that  considerations, was  s e r v i c e s to  "to  this  discussed  one, re-  one  the  the  occupy the staff.  full The  therefore concentrate  f o u r a i m s w h i c h were here, with  of  citizens".  t h a t those concerned might  be  this  objectives  e.g.  senior  o b j e c t i v e can  The  of  demonstrate  o r more p r o f e s s i o n a l  elements.  for  numbers  o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e P r o j e c t was  necessary i n order on t h e  be  eight  becomes o b v i o u s t h a t t h i s  the  setting.  objectives  s u b s e q u e n t R e p o r t o f 195^,  eight.  due  time  some  Reviewed  were r e d u c e d t o f o u r , t h o s e r e m a i n i n g two,  served,  P r o j e c t on g r o u p work method i n  R e p o r t o f 1955  The  thesis.  clientele  casework a c t i v i t y i n a l e i s u r e  Objectives  the  the  finally  e m p h a s i s upon t h o s e  w h i c h p e r t a i n most d i r e c t l y t o t h e m a t e r i a l  previously  pre-  sented. 1.  TO TO  SEEK OUT PERSONS IN,.NEED OF BRING SERVICES' TO THEM. . In order  o b j e c t i v e was sources of  to  demonstrate the  carried  referral  INDIVIDUAL SERVICES extent  to which  t h r o u g h , i t i s of v a l u e  to the  Project.  The  two  to  AND  this  review  categories  the which  118.  p e r t a i n to the o b j e c t i v e  o f ' s e e k i n g o u t and  s e r v i c e s t o p e r s o n s i n need registration, program.  bringing'  are (1) problems i n d i c a t e d at  and ( 2 ) p r o b l e m s  indicated  i n the group  T h e s e f i g u r e s show t h a t n i n e c l i e n t s were  work  referred  as a r e s u l t o f r e g i s t r a t i o n and f o r t y - f o u r as a r e s u l t o f g r o u p work o b s e r v a t i o n . per to  This,  t h e n , means t h a t  c e n t o f t h e c l i e n t s were s o u g h t o u t and  some  services  offered  them. • Involved  recruitment',  i n t h e above o b j e c t i v e  a t e r m known t o s o c i a l  t e n s i v e l y p r a c t i c e d at present.  The  is  'aggressive  w o r k e r s but n o t  m a i n ones a r e t h e i n f l u e n c e thought which r e q u i r e s work l o a d  families,  Several  the trend  nevertheless  to u t i l i z e i s i n need  upon p r o f e s s i o n a l clients.  of reaching  The  aB c o r r e c t i o n s  i n New  of and  workers at the  York C i t y .  the services of a i d .  social  The  and m e n t a l  which  f o r help,or previously  Moreover,  i t is  potential who  incumbent  i n s p e c i a l i z e d areas  i l l n e s s are e q u a l l y  has  offered,  w o r k e r s t o meet t h e n e e d s o f  principles applied  t o a s e t t i n g such as  school  out to t h e h a r d - t o - r e a c h  does n o t come t o an a g e n c y  not been a b l e  of the  s t u d i e s h a v e been made r e c e n t l y  e.g. t h e p r o j e c t  c l i e n t who  Two  request f o r s e r v i c e  p r e s s u r e s upon most s o c i a l  present time. reflect  of the f u n c t i o n a l  voluntary  ex-  lack of a p p l i c a t i o n  w o u l d a p p e a r t o be due t o a number o f f a c t o r s .  the  sixty  such such  applicable  this.  In a d d i t i o n , the w i l l i n g n e s s or preparedness of the  119.  client  t o seek a i d i s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y r e l a t e d  situation  i n w h i c h he  finds himself.  Neither i s i t necessarily  indicative  of h i s a b i l i t y  ingness  seek a i d i s d e p e n d e n t upon many t h i n g s .  may  to  s o m e t i m e s be  found  i s not aware of t h e may  resources  social agencies.  t h e unknown. be  i n the  stem f r o m a c u l t u r a l  with  The  to use  to the d i s t u r b e d  f a c t t h a t the  e n v i r o n m e n t w h i c h has  I t may  a l s o be  the  cause,  those  but  the  persons  case  social  of the  f o r seeking  social o u t and  i n need of a i d i s s t i l l  client  Again, i t shunned  contact  c l i e n t may  immaturity.  an u n d e r s t a n d i n g  c a r r y i n g out  reason  rooted i n the fear of  r e t i c e n c e of the p o t e n t i a l  sons are i n n u m e r a b l e  Will-  The  potential  a v a i l a b l e t o him.  b a s e d u p o n p s y c h o l o g i c a l and  to e f f e c t i v e  s u c h a i d when o f f e r e d .  also  The  rea-  o f them i s v i t a l  work method.  Whatever  bringing help  to  manifest.  T h i s P r o j e c t shows t h a t r e a c h i n g o u t t o f a m i l i e s a d i s t r e s s e d s i t u a t i o n and before they  b r i n g i n g h e l p t o them, p e r h a p s  a r e aware o f t h e p r o b l e m o r h a v e m o b i l i z e d them-  selves to o b t a i n a s s i s t a n c e with i t , i s very worthwhile. and  juniors  in  The  i s of great  can  be e f f e c t i v e and  work done w i t h p l a y s c h o o l significance.  c a t i o n f o r h e l p would not  so  children  I n most c a s e s ,  appli-  h a v e been made, o r made b e l a t e d l y ,  for but^the  p e r c e p t i o n and  workers observed they  method o f t h e  p r o b l e m s and  became p e r m a n e n t l y f i x e d  p a r e n t s were s u b s e q u e n t l y —  their  c h i l d r e n and  staff.  The  s t r o v e to e l i m i n a t e these i n the  helped  the process  skilled  before  child's personality.  to understand  of t h e i r  the needs  development.  The of  Such  120.  m e a s u r e s c a n be d e f i n e d a s p r e v e n t i v e s o c i a l therefore  work.  I t can  be s a i d t h a t , t o a l a r g e e x t e n t , t h e f i r s t  objec-  t i v e was a t t a i n e d . II.  TO DEMONSTRATE THE P O S S I B I L I T I E S OF TREATMENT WHICH COMBINED THE S K I L L S AND RESOURCES OF BOTH GROUP WORK AND CASEWORK AGENCIES. W h i l e many f a c e t s o f t h e team a p p r o a c h  the to  s u b j e c t o f study  i n this thesis,  i ti s possible,  draw some i n f e r e n c e s o f t h e way i n w h i c h  from  the kinds o f s e r v i c e s rendered  t h e team  i n a j o i n t way.  t h e two y e a r p e r i o d , a c o m b i n e d s t a f f m e e t i n g second  week.  cussed  a t these meetings.  h a v e n o t been however, operated Over  was h e l d  every  P r o s p e c t i v e r e f e r r a l s t o t h e P r o j e c t were I f the.case  was a c c e p t e d ,  t h e group  workers  undertook  client,  a n d i n some c a s e s , t o b r i n g r e c o r d s up t o d a t e .  caseworker  dis-  t o g a t h e r a l l r e c o r d e d m a t e r i a l on t h e  w o u l d , i n most i n s t a n c e s , make a home v i s i t .  t h e team a p p r o a c h  Thus,  s t a r t e d a t t h e ' v e r y b e g i n n i n g and t h e im-  m e d i a t e r e s u l t was a f u l l e r  p i c t u r e o f t h e f a m i l y unit.••  These m e e t i n g s a l s o s e r v e d t h e purpose o f c h o o s i n g p a r i n g cases  The  f o rpsychiatric  consultation.  been s e l e c t e d f o r s u c h c o n s u l t a t i o n ,  and p r e -  A f t e r a case had  i t was n e c e s s a r y  t o draw  t o g e t h e r a l l t h e recorded m a t e r i a l , and, i n a d d i t i o n , t h e group workers which  and t h e c a s e w o r k e r  drew up a l i s t  were s u b m i t t e d t o t h e p s y c h i a t r i s t .  were d e v o t e d  of questions  Many m e e t i n g s  t o d i s c u s s i n g t h e s u g g e s t i o n s made..  T h e r e was c o n s i d e r a b l e r e p o r t i n g back t o t h e t o t a l g r o u p on t h e p r o g r e s s  of v a i o u s cases  i n order that the s t a f f  121.  might c o o r d i n a t e t h e v a r i o u s treatments  being carried out.  There were, i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e s e m e e t i n g s , i n which further  t h e caseworker  twenty-nine  cases  a n d g r o u p w o r k e r met p r i v a t e l y f o r  consultation. It  still  remains f o r f u t u r e e v a l u a t i o n s t u d i e s t o  show i n g r e a t e r d e t a i l t h e p r o c e s s o f i n t e g r a t i o n a n d c o o r dination i n order t o bring better services t o the c l i e n t . C e r t a i n l y t h e need f o r and t h e g r e a t v a l u e o f such  coordi-  n a t i o n was e v i d e n t . III.  TO DEMONSTRATE THE WAY AGENCIES CAN RELATE THEIR SERVICES I N A JOINT EFFORT TO F I L L A COMMUNITY GAP. In  a t t e m p t i n g t o e v a l u a t e t h e measure o f a c h i e v e -  ment i n t h e above o b j e c t i v e , h a v e b e e n more c l e a r l y parts to t h i s (b) f i l l i n g  i t appears t h a t t h i s aim should  defined.  objective:  (a) relating  how a g e n c i e s  tion  i sa valuable  can c o o r d i n a t e t h e i r  of the three agencies  d e s i r e t o improve t o t a l sures a l r e a d y being their  agency s e r v i c e s , and  a community gap.  This Project i n i t s e l f of  T h e r e a r e , i n f a c t , two  directly  services.  services.  demonstration The  i n v o l v e d showed  cooperatheir  D e s p i t e t h e heavy  pres-  e x p e r i e n c e d by t h e N e i g h b o r h o o d H o u s e s ,  s t a f f gave g e n e r o u s l y  o f t h e i r time  and s k i l l .  Like-  w i s e , t h e F a m i l y S e r v i c e A g e n c y r e l e a s e d two o f i t s s e n i o r caseworkers.  The Community C h e s t  d e r s h i p and f i n a n c i a l  and C o u n c i l p r o v i d e d  support, w h i l e t h e J u n i o r League  leasr  contri-  122.  buted c o n s i d e r a b l y  through volunteer  s e r v i c e s and f i n a n c i a l  assistance.  Representatives  o f t h e above groups  composed,  the A d v i s o r y  and S o c i a l Work P e r s o n n e l C o m m i t t e e s , w h i c h met  r e g u l a r l y t o a i d i n and a s s e s s t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e P r o j e c t . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e S c h o o l o f S o c i a l Work a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia provided The  some r e s e a r c h  l a r g e number o f p e r s o n s i n v o l v e d  effort  required  t o make t h i s  and c o n s u l t a t i o n .  indicated the extensive  P r o j e c t a success.  o f t h e o b j e c t i v e was a c h i e v e d t o a l a r g e If mittee  by ' f i l l i n g  extent.  s e r v i c e was g i v e n the J o i n t Family  com-  out t o unreached f a m i l i e s ,  t h e n t h i s o b j e c t i v e was o n l y p a r t i a l l y  addition,  portion  a community g a p ' t h e i n i t i a t i n g  had i n m i n d t h e r e a c h i n g  valuable  This  filled.  However,  t o many p e r s o n s n e e d i n g h e l p . Services  Project  In  d i d Berve to  p o i n t up t h e n e e d s a n d t o d e m o n s t r a t e one way a s t o how coordination  o f s e r v i c e s would help  meet t h e s e .  c o u r s e , c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o objective... f o u r ing  d i s c u s s i o n as t o t h e c h a r a c t e r  This, of  and t o t h e f o l l o w -  o f t h e p a r t i c u l a r community  involved. IV.  TO INDICATE OTHER NEEDS. A maijor n e e d i n t h e g e o g r a p h i c a r e a s e r v e d  agency i s f o r a d d i t i o n a l - s e r v i c e s t o c h i l d r e n . been n o t e d p r e v i o u s l y Fun  Club.  by t h i s  T h i s has  i n t h e S p e c i a l R e p o r t r e Day Camp a n d  These groups s e r v i c e d a l a r g e  c h i l d r e n of f a m i l i e s r e c e i v i n g Project  percentage of the  s e r v i c e s , as w e l l as  123.  o t h e r s from t h e n e i g h b o r h o o d and found n e e d f o r more c h i l d  care  that "there i s a pressing  s e r v i c e s i n t h e community."  was s u b s t a n t i a t e d i n t h e P r o j e c t d u r i n g t h e c o u r s e ferring  c l i e n t s to other agencies.  were made.  T h i s i s a seemingly  s i d e r s t h e breadth  Five  ofre-  referrals  s m a l l g r o u p , b u t when one  a l r e a d y s e r v i n g so many o f t h e  then these twelve  c a n be c o n s i d e r e d  o f t h e r e f e r r a l s were t o a g e n c i e s  signifie&nt.  dealing with  dren's problems, three t o f a m i l y s e r v i c e agencies, remaining  four to a v a r i e t y  of other agencies.  b e a r o u t t h e o b s e r v a t i o n made i n t h e s p e c i a l the  chiland t h e  These  report  figures  regarding  summer p r o g r a m s . In t h e course  of this  study,  more and more t o t h e f o r e g r o u n d . causes which deeply  affect  T h e s e c a n be, i n t h e m a i n , tal  con-  o f s e r v i c e o f f e r e d by t h e P r o j e c t , and t h e  number o f o t h e r a g e n c i e s clients,  T w e l v e such  This  changes i n t h i s  one c e n t r a l  i s s u e came  What a r e t h e u n d e r l y i n g  the inhabitants of this s u r m o u n t e d by r a d i c a l  sector of the c i t y .  area?  environmen-  The P r o j e c t , w h i c h  u n d e r t o o k v i a t h e team a p p r o a c h t o come t o t h e a i d o f n i n e t y one  families,  was a w o r t h w h i l e  undertaking;  but even under  t h e b e s t o f c o n d i t i o n s , i t w o u l d o n l y be a b e g i n n i n g i n t h i s area.  The h i s t o r y o f a l l s e t t l e m e n t h o u s e s i s r i c h i n  examples o f o r g a n i z a t i o n o f communities f o r s e l f - a i d .  Already,  t h e r e a r e f o r c e s a t work w h i c h c o u l d change t h e p h y s i c a l a n d psychological  face of t h i s  community.  In this  study,  mention  124  h a s b e e n made o f t h e V a n c o u v e r R e d e v e l o p m e n t P l a n , be h o p e d t h a t i t w i l l undertaken.  I t i s to  be a c c e p t e d and s t e p s t o i m p l e m e n t i t  In order to derive the f u l l  value of the Plan,  the  p e o p l e i n t h e community t h e m s e l v e s s h o u l d be i n v o l v e d i n  the  process,  without.  rather than having  i t s u p e r i m p o s e d on them f r o m  Thus, t h e changing o f t h e p h y s i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t  w o u l d become more m e a n i n g f u l f o r them. Several and  the s o c i a l  work method  be p o s e d a b o u t a g e n c y  of social  policy  action:  1,  Has t h e A g e n c y d i s p l a y e d s u f f i c i e n t i n i t i a t i v e and l e a d e r s h i p i n t h e f i e l d o f community o r g a n i z a t i o n i n t h i s area?  2.  What a r e t h e c h i e f p r o b l e m s o f t h i s community f r o m t h e r e s i d e n t s ' p o i n t o f v i e w and t o what e x t e n t c a n t h e y be.hoped t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e s o l u t i o n of these?  5* 4.  here i s , are  q u e s t i o n s may  active  f What i s t h e s t a t e o f f a c t - f i n d i n g a n d p r e t a t i o n i n t h i s community?  inter-  What a r e t h e . r e s o u r c e s , o r g a n i z e d a n d o t h e r w i s e , w h i c h c o u l d be m o b i l i z e d f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f i n v o l v i n g t h i s community i n i t s own s e l f improvement?  o f c o u r s e , e v i d e n c e o f g r o u p s w h i c h h a v e been a n d i n t h e community.  Apart from A l e x a n d r a  Neighbor-  hood House,, a n o t e w o r t h y e x a m p l e i s t h e P a r e n t - T e a c h e r s t i o n o f one o f t h e l o c a l  schools.  Likewise,  Associa-  i t i s relevant 1  to  1,  n o t e t h a t f i v e o f t h e most important s o c i a l  agencies  have  The Community C h e s t and C o u n c i l , t h e F a m i l y S e r v i c e A g e n c y , The C i t y S o c i a l S e r v i c e D e p a r t m e n t , t h e C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y , and A l e x a n d r a N e i g h b o r h o o d H o u s e ,  125.  t h e i r headquarters  located in this  immediate v i c i n i t y .  o f them h a v e c o n s i d e r a b l e i n v e s t m e n t this  f o l l o w e d up  The  Joint  been a c o o p e r a t i v e e f f o r t  o f t h r e e o f them, and be  i n the w e l l - b e i n g of  p a r t i c u l a r m u l t i - p r o b l e m .community.  S e r v i c e s P r o j e c t has  as  such,  All  Family  on t h e  a good b e g i n n i n g .  part  This  by e v e n g r e a t e r e f f o r t s i n t h e area/of  should  social  action.  The  Character The  o f t h e Community and  i t s Problems  b a s i c area of c l i e n t e l e  i n t e n d e d t h a t the P r o j e c t would o f f e r those who  families with incipient  had  not,  f o r one  from a s o c i a l  a g e n c y and  group e x p e r i e n c e s . client  reason  flection  d i d not  who  Two  fall  s e r v i c e was and  or another,  emotional  screened  c h a r a c t e r of the House o p e r a t e s , f a m i l i e s and  of  problems  fully  from the d e s c r i p t i o n  from of  t h a t t h e o v e r w h e l m i n g number into t h i s category.  on t h e a c t u a l s e r v i c e s r e n d e r e d ,  were c a r e f u l l y  that  applied for service  were n o t b e n e f i t t i n g  I t i s obvious  body i n C h a p t e r  of f a m i l i e s  social  to which i t o r i g i n a l l y  as n e e d i n g  help.  T h i s i s no  as a l l o f t h e Due  community i n which A l e x a n d r a  to the  reclients  social  Neighborhood  t h e membership a t the* H o u s e i n c l u d e s many d i s t r e s s e d  correlated with t h i s  t a c t w i t h many o t h e r  social  is their  agencies.  considerable  I n the process  con-  of  r e f e r r i n g members t o t h e P r o j e c t , t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a f f ' s m a i n c o n s i d e r a t i o n was  the obvious  need of the c l i e n t  and  126.  not as  w h e t h e r 'the. f a m i l i e s had stated  August,  i n She  existence  f a m i l i e s were o f f e r e d  knowledge, s k i l l s , persons could the  and  kinds  observation were a b l e  p s y c h i a t r i s t , and  of help  existence  to undertake  the  Proj ect. I n one  presently  agencies, while  groups.  problems of  A  the  time.  there  with  service  come and  point  request  twenty-four Project.  per  by  of the  clients  their families via  clients  I t w o u l d be  influ-  of r e g i s t r a t i o n ,  can  be  divided  c e n t had  been  o r more s o c i a l  r e m a i n d e r were r e c e i v i n g  i s any  professional  fifty-three  one  the  group w o r k e r s , e i t h e r  s e r v i c e t o them and  sense, a l l the  ninety-  a l l of  Thirdly,  groups or at the  were i n c o n t a c t  or not  the  the  workers,  community t o t h e  Approximately eighty  first  of t h i s  voluntarily.  i t meant t h a t  to note the  and  ther  of  S e c o n d l y , i t meant  members o f t h e A g e n c y t o  i n the  groups.  i t meant t h a t  resources which these  knowledge of the  A p a r t from t h i s ,  the  Report  s e r v i c e s of group  f a m i l i e s were r e f e r r e d f r o m th©  for  services'  P r o j e c t mean f o r  make a v a i l a b l e f o r them.  enced f o u r t e e n  two  Project  of the  First,  the  a caseworker, a c o n s u l t i n g  various  secured  1957*  members o f A l e x a n d r a House?  that  already  J o i n t Family Services  What d i d t h e  one  not  such  into  or  welfare service  i m p o r t a n t t o a s c e r t a i n whe-  s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between these  c o m p a r a t i v e a n a l y s i s between the  l a r g e r and  smaller  127 g r o u p w o u l d be v a l u a b l e . ful  The f o l l o w i n g p o i n t s m i g h t be h e l p -  i n an a s s e s s m e n t o f t h i s :  These  1.  Does t h e s m a l l e r g r o u p , w h i c h h a s h a d no p r e v i o u s c o n t a c t , l i v e i n any p a r t i c u l a r p a r t o f t h i s a r e a , what i s t h e l e n g t h o f t h e i r r e s i d e n c e , and what a r e t h e i r r e a c t i o n s t o t h e i r housing conditions?  2.  How does t h e i r e c o n o m i c s i t u a t i o n w i t h t h e l a r g e r c l i e n t body?  J.  I n t h e s m a l l e r g r o u p , what i s t h e a v e r a g e d u r a t i o n o f m a r r i a g e and what a r e t h e f a m i l y patterns?  4.  I n what ways, i f a n y , do t h e i r p r o b l e m s d i f f e r f r o m t h o s e o f o t h e r members o f t h e P r o j e c t ?  5.  What s e r v i c e s were r e n d e r e d t o them by t h e P r o j e c t s t a f f , e.g. r e f e r r a l , b r i e f s e r v i c e , i n t e n s i v e c a s e w o r k , i n t e n s i v e g r o u p work, psychiatricconsultation?  6.  Was t h e k i n d a n d d u r a t i o n o f t r e a t m e n t t o t h e s m a l l e r group d i f f e r e n t from t h e l a r g e r ?  7.  Can i t be s a i d t h a t t h e s u c c e s s o f t h e t r e a t ment was g r e a t e r i n t h e s m a l l e r g r o u p ?  compare  q u e s t i o n s do n o t e x h a u s t t h e many f e a t u r e s  group o f twenty p e r cent which deserve a n a l y s i s . m i g h t be p a r t i c u l a r l y  of this But t h e y  r e l e v a n t , i f among t h i s g r o u p a r e t o  be f o u n d t h e a n s w e r s t o t h e q u e s t i o n s w h i c h b r o u g h t t h e Project  into being.  No a t t e m p t c a n be made t o a n s w e r  them  i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y , but t h e s e remain a r e a s f o r f u r t h e r analysis. What m i g h t be c a l l e d  t h e m u l t i - p r o b l e m group r e -  presented eighty per cent of the P r o j e c t c l i e n t e l e .  What  a r e t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s t o be drawn from t h e m a t e r i a l a v a i l a b l e  128  a b o u t them?  T h i s s t u d y h a s a l r e a d y d i s c u s s e d some o f t h e  common, c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e s e marital,  housing,  people,  such as t h e i r  m e n t a l and p h y s i c a l h e a l t h  economic,  difficulties.  They a r e i n f l u e n c e s w h i c h c a n h a v e a c o r r o d i n g e f f e c t on individuals, not  their  and t h e c o m m u n i t y .  One  need  emphasize t h a t they a r e t h e c o n d i t i o n s which can con-  tribute to juvenile children, the l o s s  delinquency,  the continued  with corresponding  personalities.  f l o u r i s h i n the f e r t i l e  effect  I n o t h e r w o r d s , many  soil  What m e a n i n g h a s t h i s Baycroft,  t h e need f o r p r o t e c t i o n o f  d e p e n d e n c e upon f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e ,  of family s o l i d a r i t y  upon i n d i v i d u a l ills  families,  social  of t h i s b l i g h t e d area.  for Alexandra  House?  Bernice  i n h e r t h e s i s Casework i n a Neighborhood House,  speaks o f t h e r o l e o f such an agency.  She s a y s :  "The n e e d f o r a n e i g h b o r h o o d h o u s e i n s u c h a n area i s q u i t e apparent. The H o u s e was e s t a b l i s h e d i n accordance w i t h t h e best t r a d i t i o n s o f t h e n e i g h b o r h o o d h o u s e movement, t o s e r v e t h e t o t a l community a s w e l l a s t h e h o u s e memb e r s ; t o c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e s o c i a l development, o f t h e community arid o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l ; t o p r o v i d e a p l a c e where p e o p l e c a n come t o g e t h e r f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f s o l v i n g common p r o b l e m s ; t o s e r v e t h e i n d i v i d u a l by o f f e r i n g h i m t h e a d v i c e and h e l p o f p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a f f i n u s i n g o t h e r community r e s o u r c e s , and t o f u r t h e r democracy through t h e p r a c t i c e of democratic p r i n ciples." 1  1.  B a y c r o f t , B. W., C a s e w o r k i n a N e i g h b o r h o o d H o u s e , Master o f S o c i a l Work T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1952, page 5.  129,  While  the preceding  Alexandra Neighborhood  locality.  t h i s area of  family  of t h i s  par-  some o f t h e c h a l l e n g i n g q u e s (as i t i s c a l l e d l o c a l l y ) ,  by  1.  S h o u l d t h e p r o g r a m be g e a r e d t o t h e p e r s o n w i t h r e l a t i v e l y few p r o b l e m s , a s i s done i n many r e c r e a t i o n a g e n c i e s ?  2.  I f s o , s h o u l d s p e c i a l p r o g r a m m i n g be p l a n n e d f o r t h o s e members who a r e known t o h a v e many d i f f i c u l t i e s ? Has t h e r e l a t i v e l y h i g h number o f p e o p l e i n t h e n e i g h b o r h o o d w i t h more t h a n a v e r a g e p r o b l e m s had t h e e f f e c t o f c r e a t i n g a t r e a t m e n t - c e n t r e d a t t i t u d e on t h e p a r t o f the s t a f f , to the d e t r i m e n t of the 'normal member?  1  4.  What e f f e c t , i f any, h a s t h e h i g h i n c i d e n c e o f d i s t u r b e d b e h a v i o u r among memb e r s had u p o n t h e s e t t i n g up o f g r o u p s ?  5v  How h a s t h e f a m i l y - c e n t r e d o r i e n t a t i o n o f t h e P r o j e c t changed o r m o d i f i e d t h e agency's s e r v i c e t o t h i s u n i t i n t h e community?  T h e s e a r e but a few  one  Nabe"  elements  be  service?  3.  House w h i c h  specific  What a r e  t i o n s r a i s e d f o r "The  of  House i n g e n e r a l , i t would s t i l l  necessary to c o n s i d e r the ticular  described the f u n c t i o n  of the i m p l i c a t i o n s  flow from sampling  an e x a m i n a t i o n  f o r the  Neighborhood  of at l e a s t a n i n e t y -  o f t h e community i n w h i c h t h e  Project  op e r a t ed. T h e r e a r e , o f c o u r s e , i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r more t h a n j u s t A l e x a n d r a House. plications  In fact,  r e l a t e to the l a r g e r  t h e most s i g n i f i c a n t  im-  community, i . e . m e t r o p o l i t a n  V a n c o u v e r , as i n t h e f i n d , a n a l y s i s ,  the  social  agencies  serve  130.  and  represent t h i s area.  are i n d i c a t e d  both  The  many n e e d s o f t h e  i n the v a r i e t y  t h e l a r g e number o f p r e v i o u s  client  group  of p r e s e n t i n g problems  contacts with other  social  and agen-  cies. With fifty-two  regard to the l a t t e r ,  f a m i l i e s had  contacts with possible Index,  one  this  h u n d r e d and  social agencies.  contacts with agencies  study  twenty  This figure  beginning  does n o t  include  not using the S o c i a l  Service  such a s t h e C i t y S o c i a l S e r v i c e D e p a r t m e n t and  S o c i a l Welfare  Branch. one  The half  a v e r g e per  f a m i l y then i s  p r o x i m a t e l y two  and  sent c o n n e c t i o n  w i t h the P r o j e c t , at Alexandra  Since approximately f a m i l i e s were e s t i m a t e d other agencies,  are  t h a t the  Was  vidual  agencies  agencies  the  one  research  today.  previous  these  c l i e n t unable  contacts  reasons  t o use  areas  with  so  agencies  the p r o f f e r e d  These a r e  e f f e c t i v e n e s s of e x i s t i n g  o f t h e most i m p o r t a n t  pre-  f o r the  c l i e n t ' s needs  s e r v i c e s of the  coordinated?  ap-  House.  s e r v i c e g i v e n on t h e p a r t o f  a n d / o r were t h e  insufficiently  stitutes  Are  the  cent of the P r o j e c t  s e r v i c e s of s e v e r a l s p e c i a l i z e d  insufficient  questions,as  e i g h t y per  t o h a v e had  services.  r e q u i r e d , or is, the  help?  c o n t a c t s , e x c l u d i n g the  q u e s t i o n s a r i s e as t o t h e  need o f c o n t i n u e d varied  showed t h a t  indi-  various important  resources  of s o c i a l  con-  work  Much more k n o w l e d g e i s o b v i o u s l y h e e d e d i n o r d e r  to  151  u n d e r s t a n d t h e many i n t e r - r e l a t e d f a c t o r s c a u s i n g situation.  A new a p p r o a c h i s t h e r e f o r e  adequate f a c t - f i n d i n g , i n order  that  needed,- b a s e d upon  e v e n more e f f e c t i v e  s e r v i c e s be r e n d e r e d t o t h e m u l t i - p r o b l e m g r o u p . t i o n t o i t s many o t h e r ginning the  i n this  values,  regard.  The c h a r a c t e r  o f i t s c l i e n t e l e and  community i n w h i c h i t o p e r a t e s makes i t a v a l u a b l e  s o u g h t by t h o s e i n i t i a t i n g  Some I m p l i c a t i o n s This flexible  reshaping  of social  work.  up some r a t h e r  e x c i t i n g new  o f s o c i a l g r o u p work t h i n k i n g  i n the area of i n t a k e .  are i n d i c a t i o n s that the procedures of intake  already  under review p r i o r t o t h e P r o j e c t , t h e r e  t h a t a d e e p e n i n g and c o n s t a n t stimulated routine  by t h e l a t t e r .  r e f i n i n g of this  intake  process includes  intake  interview, (2)  This While were  i s no d o u b t  p r o c e s s was  Moving from t h e o l d i d e a o f  r e g i s t r a t i o n o f a member f o r an a c t i v i t y ,  observation  based  s i t u a t i o n o f t h e membership s e r v e d .  is particularly true, f i r s t , there  some-of'the answers  f o r Group Work P r a c t i c e i n t h e P r o j e c t  study has p o i n t e d  upon t h e r e a l i t y  source  t h e P r o j e c t , a s w e l l a s by a l l  t h o s e engaged i n t h e p r o f e s s i o n  (5)  In addi-  t h e P r o j e c t h a s b e e n a be-  f o r f u r t h e r study and which might supply  and  this  three  distinct  phases:  the present  ( l ) the.  t h e f a m i l y o r p a r e n t i n t e r v i e w , and  and i n t a k e  program.  What s t a n d s o u t i s t h e f a c t t h a t  i n each o f t h e s e  152.  f e a t u r e s o f i n t a k e , c r y s t a l l i z a t i o n nrd a n u n d e r s t a n d i n g the Of  s i g n i f i c a n c e of t h i s particular  process  became more and more a p p a r e n t .  i m p o r t a n c e i s t h e methodology employed  t h e member's i n i t i a l  contact  w i t h t h e agency.  This  during contact  was u n d e r s t o o d t o mean a good d e a l more t h a n an i n t a k e view.  of  inter-  N o r was i t assumed t h a t o n l y a p o r t i o n o f t h e new  membership n e e d e d t o h a v e an o r i e n t a t i o n p e r i o d b e f o r e decided  o r were d i r e c t e d t o v a r i o u s g r o u p s .  e n t i r e beginning  of. t h e p r o g r a m y e a r  they  In fact, the  now c o n s t i t u t e s a  per-  i o d o f o r i e n t a t i o n f o r o l d a n d new members and a n i n t e n s i v e observation It  p e r i o d on t h e p a r t o f t h e s t a f f . should  be b o r n e i n m i n d t h a t A l e x a n d r a  borhood House i s b a s i c a l l y practice  Neigh-  a l e i s u r e - t i m e agency.  i n l e i s u r e - t i m e agencies  The u s u a l  i s to o f f e r a vafciety of  p r o g r a m t o t h e new member who c h o o s e s one o r a n o t h e r o f these. the  Very l i t t l e ,  i f a n y , c o n s i d e r a t i o n on t h e p a r t o f  s t a f f goes i n t o t h e c h o i c e  responsibility  w h i c h t h e member m a k e s .  r e s t s w i t h t h e member.  He may c h o o s e t o j o i n  a p a r t i c u l a r group because h i s f r i e n d s a r e t h e r e , o f h i s own r e a l  interest  i n the a c t i v i t y ,  because  or because o f  t h e g l a m o u r o r s t a t u s w h i c h may be a t t a c h e d  to a  program.  placed  agencies usually  The  Furthermore, the only l i m i t a t i o n s  given i n some  f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n any p a r t i c u l a r a c t i v i t y i s d i c t a t e d by two c o n s i d e r a t i o n - t h e age  t h e maximum number f o r t h e g r o u p .  range:iand  W h i l e age o f t h e member  133.  and  number i n t h e g r o u p a r e two  Neighborhood activity  considerations at  House, t h e placement  Alexandra  o f an i n d i v i d u a l  i n an  i s d e p e n d e n t on a number o f o t h e r f a c t o r s .  these are:  Among  t h e r e a d i n e s s o f a member f o r a n i n t e n s i v e  e x p e r i e n c e ; t h e type of group a c t i v i t i e s  best  suited to h i s  o r h e r n e e d s ; t h e make-up o f t h e g r o u p i n r e l a t i o n t o p e r s o n a l i t y , n e e d s , e t c . , so t h a t t h e member may positive  experience.  leadership  Other  sex,  have a  c o n s i d e r a t i o n s are the k i n d  ( v o l u n t e e r or t r a i n e d ) given to the group,  t h e members' r e q u i r e m e n t s  group  i n a d d i t i o n to a  Assessment b e f o r e placement  of  and  group.experience.  i s exceedingly  im-  p o r t a n t where t h e p o s s i b i l i t y  o f some d i s t u r b a n c e i n p r o s -  p e c t i v e members i s h i g h .  chances o f ' t h e ensuing  The  experience being a p o s i t i v e greatly  increased.  one  f o r the i n d i v i d u a l  the present i n t a k e procedure  was  in  choice-of a c t i v i t y Not  progrsmthat  formulated.  Assessment at p o i n t of r e g i s t r a t i o n  r u l e d out.  does n o t mean  on t h e p a r t o f t h e member i s  o n l y t h a t , b u t . t h e whole program o p e r a t i o n  d e p e n d s upon v o l u n t a r y p a r t i c i p a t i o n .  I f t h i s were n o t  case, i t would i n d i c a t e a d i s r e g a r d of the n a t u r a l and  are .  I t i s i n t h e p r o c e s s o f s e e k i n g ways •  and means f o r a more e f f e c t i v e p l a c e m e n t  that free  group  the democratic  r i g h t s o f t h e members i n v o l v e d .  the  wishes It  does,  h o w e v e r , p o i n t t o an a w a r e n e s s on' t h e p a r t o f t h e g r o u p work s t a f f of the l o c a l i t y  i n which  t h e y o p e r a t e and t h e t y p e  of  15*. 2  member  Berved.  Following v a t i o n of the are  given  an  the  intake  interview, a period  member t a k e s p l a c e  i n t r o d u c t i o n to v a r i o u s  playground a c t i v i t i e s ,  program i s the able who  and  types of  p r e p a r e d t o go  he  i s not  activity  experience.  The  program make-s few  s p e c i a l events.  - at t h i s  relatively  stage - asked to At  Thus, the  intake  the  stimulated  t r a t i o n procedure to  agency t o  i n d i v i d u a l who  the  e n t i r e f a m i l y group.  by  other  members o f t h e  s ions.  noted i n t h i s  i t permits  only  agency.  without, the  program  are  s t a r t where t h e  the  client focus  regis-  r e g i s t r a t i o n of wherever p o s s i b l e ,  amount o f use  of  some s u c c e s s f u l  f a m i l y members i n g r o u p s , o r a t  i n the  own  needs o f  intake  that  •'•he f a m i l y - c e n t r e d  favwily v a r i e d ,  regard  nature  his  development of the  While the  s p e c i a l events around the  t o be  the  came f o r s e r v i c e , b u t ,  were made t o i n c l u d e in  fuller  i n c l u d e not  the  helped-to  i n d i v i d u a l members  is. i n r e l a t i o n t o meeting h i s needs. Project  are Those  informal  same t i m e ,  i n t e r v i e w and  conscious e f f o r t s of the  of the  Intake  group.  subordinate  as w o u l d h a p p e n i n a g r o u p , o v e r l o o k i n g  the  library  demands upon t h e member so  group worker t o f u n c t i o n w i t h  whole.  groups,  t o move i n t o a g r o u p a r e  wishes to those of a group. the  activities.  i n t o a more f o r m a l i z e d  inability  prepare f o r t h i s intake  and  members  s i e v e t h r o u g h w h i c h p a s s t h e members who  i n d i c a t e an  of the  obser-  i n i n t a k e program and  T h e s e c o n s i s t o f game s room, hobby and periods,  of  program attempts least  P a r t i c u l a r success i s  playschool  and  junior  divi-  135  Through f a m i l y r e g i s t r a t i o n s ,  t o o , i t became p o s -  s i b l e t o g i v e more c o m p l e t e s e r v i c e t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l of t h e f a m i l y .  Family  r e g i s t r a t i o n helped  t o deepen t h e u n d e r -  standing  o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l members o f t h i s p r i m a r y  addition,  o f t e n t h e help' g i v e n t o i n d i v i d u a l s was  to  the e n t i r e family.  The I n t a k e  be  d e s c r i b e d as a good w o r k i n g  members  group.  In  beneficial  procedure,therefore,  can  example o f t h e manner i n w h i c h  b o t h t h e members and t h e s t a f f were  helped.  I n summary, t h e i n t a k e p r o c e d u r e , a s d e v e l o p e d , b e n e f i t t e d t h e member i n t h e f o l l o w i n g ways:  For it  1.  I t gave a b e t t e r o r i e n t a t i o n t o t h e agency.  2.  I t g a v e an o p p o r t u n i t y various a c t i v i t i e s .  3»  T h r o u g h i t one c o u l d meet more o f t h e o t h e r members.  4.  I t helped to create the f e e l i n g "my f a m i l y i s w i t h me h e r e " .  5.  I t gave an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r t h e member t o move a t h i s own peos f r o m i n t a k e t o a g r o u p .  t h e g r o u p work s t a f f t h i s  t o t r y out t h e  that  i n t a k e p r o c e d u r e made  possible toj 1.  A d d t o t h e i n t a k e and f a m i l y i n t e r v i e w by o b s e r v a t i o n i n t h e i n t a k e program.  2.  Observe peer r e l a t i o n s - h i p s , behaviour&l symptoms, and d e t e r m i n e i n t e r e s t s .  3.  Evaluate  4.  B a s e p r o g r a m p l a n s on d e m o n s t r a t e d n e e d s and i n t e r e s t s o f members.  5.  Move t o k e e n e r d i a g n o s t i c e v a l u a t i o n and  readiness  f o r group  experience.  136.  an a b i l i t y t o s h a r e t h e l a t t e r of c o l l e c t i v e o b s e r v a t i o n . 6.  on t h e  Form warm and h e a l t h y r e l a t i o n s h i p s  basis  with  members p r i o r t o i n t e n s i v e g r o u p e x p e r i e n c e s . F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h and a n a l y s i s o f t h e w h o l e  concept  and o p e r a t i o n o f intake p r o c e d u r e s w o u l d make a v a l u a b l e  con-  t r i b u t i o n t o a b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h i s method.  In  this  P r o j e c t , and more s p e c i f i c a l l y  o f group  i n terms of the f i e l d  w o r k , t h e movement t o w a r d s a more e f f e c t i v e  intake  procedure  a t A l e x a n d r a N e i g h b o r h o o d H o u s e s t a n d s o u t as a h i g h l i g h t . While the area of i n t a k e  shows a g r e a t d e a l  p o s i t i v e movement, t h e p r o b l e m o f g r o u p position i s admittedly  still  t a t i o n i n t h e Agency. are both examples was  The  of t h i s .  shown t h a t t h e g r o u p  was  of  s t r u c t u r e and  i n the process of  com-  experimen-  B i n g o C l u b aad t h e J o l l y  Chefs  I n the case o f the f o r m e r , i t f o r m e d a r o u n d one  child.  Fur-  t h e r m o r e , t h e members o f t h i s g r o u p were a l l s e e n as dren w i t h B p e c i a l was  problems.  While the plan f o r the  t o i n c l u d e a number o f b o y s who  balance to the e n t i r e group, t h i s examination of the J o l l y  An  C h e f s C l u b shows t h a t c e r t a i n  ad-  c o n s i d e r e d t o be r e l a t i v e l y  added  stable.  been f o r m e d were two  to the group.  - s o m e weaknesses  some  did not m a t e r i a l i z e .  a r o u n d an i n t e r e s t ' a n d t h e m a j o r i t y  n u c l e u s had  club  w o u l d have g i v e n  v a c e s were made i n t h e f o r m a t i o n o f t h i s g r o u p . med  chil-  I t was  for-  o f t h e members were  Only a f t e r the  c h i l d r e n from the  stable Project  There are i n d i c a t i o n s which p o i n t to  i n t h e c h o i c e o f t h e s e two  f o r t h e same g r o u p .  1*7.  The a b o v e  i s n o t meant t o be an e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e  s t r u c t u r e o f t h e g r o u p s p e r se i s meant a s an of the d i f f i c u l t i e s Project  illustration  encountered during the course of the  i n t h e s e t t i n g up o f g r o u p s w h i c h w o u l d b e s t  the membership.  What m i g h t have a p p e a r e d t o be a  serve  simple  p r o b l e m i n o t h e r a g e n c i e s became c o m p l e x i n an a g e n c y  where  s u c h a l a r g e number o f members a r e c o p i n g w i t h so many p r o blems i n t h e i r tions  daily lives.  T h i s r a i s e s a number o f q u e s -  f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n by t h e g r o u p work  staffs  I s a f r i e n d s h i p g r o u p n e c e s s a r i l y a sound f o u n d a t i o n f o r group s t r u c t u r e answer t h i s all On  i n t h i s Agency?  q u e s t i o n , i t s h o u l d be b o r n e i n m i n d t h a t  o f t h e members i n t h e A g e n c y t h e o t h e r hand, " f r i e n d s h i p "  cessarily  In attempting to  require  are the i n t e r e s t  help.  i n t h i s a r e a does n o t n e -  constitute a s o c i a l l y healthy How  extensive  not  constellation.  g r o u p s d e c i d e d upon and  what  criteria  s h o u l d d e t e r m i n e t h e membership  groups?  A g a i n , t h e f a c t o r s t o be c o n s i d e r e d a r e l a r g e l y  related  s t r u c t u r e of such  to t h e c h a r a c t e r o f t h e membership.  The p a t h o l o g y  here would i n d i c a t e t h a t i n t e r e st i n a p a r t i c u l a r  activity  c a n n o t be t h e m a j o r r e a s o n f o r t h e i n c l u s i o n o f a member i n an i n t e r e s t g r o u p . A this  point.  sideration  caution  In d i r e c t i n g  seems t o be a p p r o p r i a t e a t  a member t o a_ g r o u p , s e r i o u s  s h o u l d be g i v e n t o th.e" f e e l i n g  and r e j e c t i o  n  which the l a t t e r  may  suffer  of  con-  frustration  b e c a u s e h i s own  158.  interest The  i n an a c t i v i t y  i s seemingly not b e i n g c o n s i d e r e d .  v o l u n t a r y p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f members i n an a c t i v i t y  p r i m e p r e r e q u i s i t e and group  one  work i n t h i s k i n d  of the basic  of  tenetsnof social  setting.  What i s meant by a " s p e c i a l function?  group"  I t i s suggested that the term  n o t t h e b e s t o r most d e s i r a b l e stellation  leadership  special  Because  be on t r e a t m e n t , i t w i l l  of t r a i n e d  and what i s i t s group i s  d e s c r i p t i o n f o r such a con-  and n e e d s t o be r e v i e w e d .  such groups w i l l  the focus i n  r e q u i r e the  more e x t e n s i v e i n f o r m a l  in  program  cannot f i t i n t o a group?  this  study t o p l a c e emphasis  of- t h e i n t a k e  program.  on-going The  has  been t e r m i n a t e d -  on t h e p o s i t i v e appear  development  attempt  character  that t h i s  constitutes  can take p l a c e i n terms  program. J o i n t F a m i l y S e r v i c e s P r o j e c t has  rather than uncovered  w h i c h t h e P r o j e c t made was  The  t o c o n f r o n t t h e group  a  more t a n g i b l e  of  t h e P r o j e c t , t h e group w o r k e r s have a l r e a d y  involvement with  families.  t o cope w i t h many p r o b l e m s .  require further  highlighted  t h e community c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w h i c h  a l r e a d y known t o t h e s t a f f t o a l a r g e e x t e n t .  their ability  and  f o r such members  T h e r e h a s been an  I t would  a base f r o m w h i c h f u r t h e r of  setting  - even a f t e r t h e i n t a k e p r o g r a m  still  direct  workers.  S h o u l d t h e r e be c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f an o n - g o i n g  who  is a  s t u d y . . The  were  difference  workers  with  In the course demonstrated  Many a r e a s  still  a b o v e r e p r e s e n t s but an a t t e m p t  to  159  r a i s e a few  of t h e s e ,  .Some C a s e w o r k I m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e The  casework  c o n c e p t s and m e t h o d s u s e d  h a v e a l r e a d y been i l l u s t r a t e d search, w i l l  Project  (Chapter Four).  could, of course, c o n s t i t u t e  t r e a t m e n t , two a thesis topic  H o w e v e r , some g e n e r a l c o n c l u s i o n s can be at hand.  Perhaps  i t would  the P r o j e c t  time -recreational  setting,  staff,  e.g.  t h e r e was  to - s e v e r a l f u l l - t i m e generally of  benefitting  The  drawn f r o m t h e  with regard to  p a r t - t i m e caseworker w o r k e r s , and  from the  (5)  case-  of the  as  compared  group  work i s  development i n terms  more c h a n c e o f  group  s p e c i a l i z e d knowledge  was  involved  per cent of t h e P r o j e c t  s u c h a s e r v i c e as an i n t e g r a l  directly  c a s e s , showing  and  adult,  or o l d e r persons.  equally well trained  i n approximately the need f o r  p a r t o f t h e House p r o g r a m .  i s t o be n o t e d t h a t n e a r l y a l l t h o s e s e e n  are  expect  caseworker.  caseworker  were t e e n - a g e ,  ma-  leisure-  the p r o p o r t i o n i n g  so t h e r e was  which  i n themselves.  operating i n a  r e c o g n i z e d as b e i n g a l a t e r  techniques of the  sixty  (2)  group  s p e c i a l i z a t i o n and  workers  one  was  aspects  and  n o t be r e a s o n a b l e t o  many n o v e l f e a t u r e s t o show t h e m s e l v e s work b e c a u s e ( l )  Project  further re-  be n e e d e d i n o r d e r t o a n a l y z e t h e p r o c e s s  t h e outcome o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l  terial  i n the  by t h e Since  caseworker  caseworkers  i n dealing with children,  be assumed t h a t a d e c i s i o n was  It  made r e g a r d i n g t h i s  i t i s to division.  l4o.  The c a s e w o r k e r d i d s e r v e staff  as a c o n s u l t a n t  and a s s i s t e d t h e  i n the coordination of the a c t i v i t i e s  of the youngsters. of c o n s i d e r a b l e direct,  t o meet t h e n e e d s  The c a s e w o r k - g r o u p work c o o p e r a t i o n  v a l u e , whether treatment  was  was d i r e c t o r i n -  as the c l i e n t s r e c e i v e d t h e b e n e f i t o f broader  ser-  v i c e s and k n o w l e d g e . The r o l e o f t h e c a s e w o r k e r was e s s e n t i a l l y t h a t o f an  1  enabler  as expressed  1  people to help to  i n t h e s o c i a l work g o a l  themselves.  of helping  I n t h e P r o j e c t , t h i s was e x t e n d e d  some who were n o t a w a r e o f t h e i r p r o b l e m a n d p o s s i b l y n o t  desirous  of professional assistance.  Ihe caseworker s job 1  t h e n was t o a i d them i n w o r k i n g t o w a r d t h e o b j e c t i v e o f accepting  and u t i l i z i n g h e l p ,  i f t h i s were p o s s i b l e , a s e a r l y  d e t e c t i o n and s o l u t i o n o f p r o b l e m s i s a n i m p o r t a n t preventive  work.  T h i s o f t e n meant a much s l o w e r  many c a s e s i n o r d e r his  own p a c e .  t h a t t h e p e r s o n be a l l o w e d  approach i n  t o move a t  The a i d i s a l w a y s a m u t u a l e n d e a v o u r rather  t h a n s o m e t h i n g done t o o r f o r t h e c l i e n t w i t h o u t pation i n the process. ful  aspect of  Consideration  t i m i n g were t h e r e f o r e a n e c e s s a r y  approach i n order  to accomplish  his partici-  of the c l i e n t  and c a r e -  part of the caseworker's  this desired goal.  A n o t h e r p a r t o f t h e caseworker's r o l e wasthat o f an interpreter.  T h i s . t a s k was t w o - f o l d .  disorganization i n this  The s o c i a l  community was r e f l e c t e d  viduals within i t , tending  t o make them p a s s i v e  and p e r s o n a l  i n the indii n personality  l4l.  o r a g g r e s s i v e i n an u n h e a l t h y way.  The c a s e w o r k e r , t h e r e f o r e ,  needed t o e x p l a i n community r e s o u r c e s and readbions t o them, throughout  e n c o u r a g i n g t h e i r ' r e c o g n i t i o n o f same.  o t h e r hand, t h e caseworker persons t o the l a r g e r  client  a l s o needed t o i n t e r p r e t  community and so m o b i l i z e  understanding i n meeting  On t h e these  s u p p o r t and  t h e many n e e d s o f t h i s  particular  group. With regards t o the P r o j e c t , the caseworker  tributed all  a number o f s k i l l s .  social  con-  Many o f t h e s e a r e common t o  w o r k e r s , b u t i t i s t h e c a s e w o r k e r s who h a v e de-  veloped these techniques to a h i g h l y p r o f e s s i o n a l  degree.  Examples o f these a r e t h e a r t o f i n t e r v i e w i n g , t h e t h e r a p e u t i c use o f r e l a t i o n s h i p ,  t h e k n o w l e d g e o f caise a n d e f f e c t  with regard to i n t r a - p s y c h i c  and i n t e r - p e r s o n a l  s h i p s , t h e knowledge o f t h e dynamicsof  family  relation-  constellations,  and t h e w o r k i n g t h r o u g h o f a p p r o p r i a t e r e f e r r a l s .  Case-  w o r k e r s h a v e a l s o h a d more o p p o r t u n i t y f o r e x t e n s i v e development  of t h e i r  ability  ment on a n i n d i v i d u a l Because  i n study, diagnosis,  basis.  o f these, f a c t o r s ,  the caseworker  of c o n s i d e r a b l e v a l u e i n the P r o j e c t . taking  on o f House c a s e s n e e d i n g  service than possible as t h e p l a y - s c h o o l  and t r e a t -  i n groups,  (Sould be  This included the  individual  a n d more  intensive  consulting  w i t h such  persons  teacher i n order that the caseworker's  s p e c i a l i z e d knowledge about  g r o w t h and d e v e l o p m e n t  a r e a s as t h e emotions  be o f i n d i r e c t v a l u e t o a l l o f  might  i n such  142. t h e c h i l d r e n , a n d p o s s i b l y be o f some a s s i s t a n c e i n d e t e r mining  t h e g r o u p work  needs o f i n d i v i d u a l s .  p r o g r a m due t o u n d e r s t a n d i n g The c a s e w o r k e r was,:.also  of the  responsible  and 1 .liaison a s p e c t s o f t h e P r o j e c t .  at f i r s t  f o r the referral  As  a r e g e n e r a l l y c o n s i d e r e d t o be two a r e s w i t h  these  all  s o c i a l w o r k e r s s h o u l d be e q u a l l y f a m i l i a r ,  were l a t e r  shared  by t h e s t a f f ,  these  which tasks  d e p e n d i n g upon t h e i n d i v i d u a l  case. The  v a l u e s o f t h e P r o j e c t t o c a s e w o r k were many. -  One o f t h e f o r e m o s t  of these  i s t h a t t h e caseworker's  hori-  z o n s o f k n o w l e d g e w o u l d be much i n c r e a s e d by t h e a d d i t i o n o f i n f o r m a t i o n a s t o t h e f u n c t i o n i n g and p s y c h o l o g y Participation  i n g r o u p s i s an i n t e g r a l  modern s o c i e t y and, as such, s t o o d by c a s e w o r k e r s . and  of  groups.  part of l i v i n g i n  s h o u l d be much b e t t e r u n d e r -  Because o f t h e i r  l a c k o f t r a i n i n g in',  c o n t a c t w i t h , g r o u p work t h e y a r e n o t a b l e f u l l y t o  a p p r e c i a t e or u t i l i z e Equally  important,  i t s may b e n e f i t s f o r t h e i r  clients.  i n terms o f v a l u e s , a r e t h e d i f f e r e n t  ele-  m e n t s i n t r o d u c e d i n t o t h e c a s e w o r k s i t u a t i o n by t h e l e i s u r e time  recreational  setting  meabersswho a r e p o t e n t i a l become somewhat l o s t found and  and s t a f f  familiarity  clients.  These l a t t e r v a l u e s  i n the antiseptic  i n man/ c a s e w o r k a g e n c i e s .  the establishment  Project  have  professional situation  The a c c e p t a n c e  of a beginning  w i t h many  o f the- w o r k e r  relationship  prior to  c o n t a c t l e s s e n s t h e n e e d f o r , and l e n g t h o f , t h e  i n t r o d u c t o r y period before  proceeding  w i t h t h e needed  service.  145.  W i t h i n the P r o j e c t s e t t i n g , the of due  study,  d i a g n o s i s , and  to the  greater  added a r e s  treatment  casework  assumed new  a r e a s on a d e p t h b a s i s .  these  in  groups to t h e agency i s of c o n s i d e r a b l e  The  f a c t t h a t f a m i l i e s come  caseworker i n , t h a t i t gives o p p o r t u n i t y observation  his gives f a r  previously specialized  in  and  dimensions  of group c o n s u l t a t i o n .  breedth t o c a s e w o r k w h i c h h a s  processes  advantage to  f o r encouragement  o f more p o s i t i v e i n t e r - p l a y b e t w e e n t h e  i o u s f a m i l y members.  Parallel  of broader resources  and  with t h i s  greater  i s the  e a s e o f use  Four.  G  J u s t as  study  broadened through d i s c u s s i o n w i t h through observation so i s t r e a t m e n t  of t h e i r  of t h e s e .  many c l i e n t s vention  of valuable  s e v e r a l f a m i l y members  due  to the  therapeutic  energy being  client's  r e s i s t a c e , as he  fortable  i n the House  combined  setting,  skills time  the  spent i n overcoming  pre-  the com-  surroundings. has  been c o n s i d e r i n g t h e  p o i n t of view of the clients  caseworker,  values  p e r t a i n to the  factor  i s t h e i r p o s i t i v e f e e l i n g s t o w a r d , and  equally v e i l .  ment i n , t h e N e i g h b o r h o o d H o u s e . number o f c l i e n t s l i v i n g members, t u r n e d  and  and  activities,  i s already f a m i l i a r w i t h and  While the preceding vantages from the  diagnosis are g r e a t l y  p r o b l e m , t h e g r e a t e r amount o f  spend i n t h e  A presen-  p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n agency  more e f f e c t i v e  used i n a t t a c k i n g the  and  var-  availability  good example o f t h i s i s t h e D o n a l d s o n c a s e w h i c h was ted i n h a p t e r  the  i n the  to Alexandra  This  An  ad-  these  important  personal  invest-  i B d e m o n s t r a t e d by  a r e a who,  although  not  House i n t i m e o f n e e d j u s t  a  House as  144.  t h e y w o u l d t o a f r i e n d o r n e i g h b o r . • The a g e n c y i n e f f e c t b e l o n g s t o t h e p e o p l e , w h i c h makes u s e o f i t s s e r v i c e s , b o t h recreational includes  and t h e r a p e u t i c ,  acceptance of the caseworker.  to t h e l a t t e r , and  much more a c c e p t a b l e .  Whan a p a r e n t t a l k s  i t i s much e a s i e r t o d i s c u s s  family  p e r s o n a l i t i e s , a s maf o f t h e s e a r e a l r e a d y  worker.  The s e r v i c e r e c e i v e d  This  problems  known t o t h e  i s c e r t a i n l y more c o n v e n i e n t  and  comprehensive i n terms o f the a c t u a l p h y s i c a l  and  t h e b r e a d t h o f t h e a p p l i c a t i o n by means o f s e v e r a l  cializations family with  w o r k i n g t o w a r d t h e common g o a l t h e i r problems.  v i c e to c l i e n t s , tia  goal  in this  setting  of a i d i n g  I t i s , after a l l ,  better  spethis ser-  case f a m i l i e s , which i s t h e essen-  o f s o c i a l work i n g e n e r a l ,  and o f t h i s P r o j e c t i n  particular. Many i m p o r t a n t research  questions  remain,  such a s :  1.  What a r e t h e d i f f e r e n c e s , i f a n y , o f t h e c a s e w o r k a p p r o a c h i n t h i s P r o j e c t a s compared t o t h a t p r a c t i c e d i n a g e n c i e s spec i a l i z i n g l a r g e l y i n casework s e r v i c e s ?  2.  Were t h e r e any d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e v a r i o u s c a s e v i o r k t r e a t m e n t methods?  5.  How was t h e c o o r d i n a t i o n o f c a s e w o r k w i t h g r o u p work e f f e c t e d a n d were t h e r e new elements r e s u l t i n g from t h e s y n t h e s i s ?  4.  What was t h e e f f e c t o f t h e i n f o r m a l c o n t a c t s w i t h c l i e n t s a t t h e House on c a s e w o r k treatment?  5.  How was r e l a t i o n s h i p u s e d arl were common e l e m e n t s i n t h i s ?  there  145.  Some R e m a i n i n g A r e a s o f S t u d y This it ant  s t u d y was u n d e r t a k e n w i t h  would c o n s t i t u t e a f i r s t experiment.  This  general  Project  the r e a l i z a t i o n  review of a very  provides  material  study, not only  f o r the agencies involved,  field  work.  of social  investigated are  here  that import-  f o r further  but f o r t h e whole  Many i m p o r t a n t a r e a s have y e t t o be •  and a n a l y z e d .  Some s u g g e s t i o n s f o r f u r t h e r  study  included: 1.  How were t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a s p e c t s o f c a s e work - g r o u p w o r k c o o p e r a t i o n w o r k e d out?  2.  What i s t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e team a p p r o a c h i n t h e s o l u t i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l and f a m i l y p r o blems? Was t h e P r o j e c t a n i l l u s t r a t i o n o f p r i v a t e a g e n c i e s ' o p p o r t u n i t y and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o e x p e r i m e n t i n new ways o f h e l p i n g p e o p l e ?  4.  I n what w a y s . d i d t h e P r o j e c t a i d i n p r e v e n t i o n a n d how c a n t h i s be i n c r e a s e d ?  5*  ^ i d t h e P r o j e c t serve t o re-emphasize the s o c i a l work a i m o f h e l p i n g t h e t o t a l p e r s o n in the t o t a l social s i t u a t i o n - with careful b a l a n c e between a s s i s t i n g w i t h i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l p r e s s u r e s - a n d s t r e s s on s e r v i n g t h e whole f a m i l y ?  6.  What i s t h e r o l e o f t h e g r o u p w o r k e r w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l i n t h e group as i l l u s t r a t e d i n the Project?  7.  What were t h e e f f e c t s o n , a n d t h e t r e n d s i n , r e c o r d i n g and f i l i n g ?  8.  What c o n c l u s i o n s a s t o t h e u s e o f p s y c h i a t r i c c o n s u l t a t i o n c a n be a r r i v e d a t ?  146  Summary I n the have n o t e d t h e vested  course  (See  and  e f f o r t and  This  small budget, r e l a t i v e l y  i n terms of the  indirectly,  broader  values  c a n n o t be  ning.  h a v e now  i n t o the  p r o g r a m s and  Houses.  The  reaching  in their  an  Alex-  the case-  important  been  begin-  incorporated  the  Neighborhood  therefore f a r -  J o i n t Family  rich with material for further research  t o l i g h t many more v a l u e s  The  directly  Likewise,  r e s u l t s of t h i s P r o j e c t are The  $12,000.  of f i n a n c e s ) .  s e r v i c e s o f f e r e d by  effect.  of  c o o r d i n a t i o n and  represent  aspects  recom-  hundred persons.at  work - g r o u p work c o o p e r a t i o n  is  speaking,  estimated.  of inter-sgency  These p o s i t i v e  way  services received,  by more t h a n t h r e e  a n d r a House a l o n e , additional  interest i n -  i n v e s t m e n t i s i n no  Appendix F f o r f u r t h e r explanation  value,  the w r i t e r s  i n v o l v e d i n t h i s P r o j e c t i n i t s two-year  p e r i o d of o p e r a t i o n . the  investigation,  enormous amount o f  by t h o s e  p e n s e d by  of t h i s  Services Project which w i l l  of t h i s p r o g r e s s i v e  bring  experiment.  APPENDIX A  JOINT  FAMILY  SERVICES  PROJECT  page l l t f Date of Entry  Address  Surname  Christian Names  Telephone  Birthdate  Christian Names  Birthdate  Father . Mother Children  Others in Home  •  SOURCE OF REFERRAL: |  |  |  [  fj ] -  1. Problems indicated at registration. 2. Problems indicated in group work programs.  .Q  Date Closed  3. Member request for service, 4. Community request for service.  Date Reopened  348.  B  A P P E N D I X  JOINT FAMILY SERVICES F£LE  FAMILY RECORD  Phone Nti&tbor  ADDRESS  FAMILY NAME  Names  House Members  Birth Date  Birth Place  Occupation School  Employer Grade  Father 'Mother Children"  • Others i n Home  .  Relationship  Age  1  Religion „ Church Nationality:  S.S.I.  Fa:'Z~~Z1 Mo;'~".~ Date A r r i v a l i n Canada i n B.C.. [ ^ i n Nei,qhborhood i  M a r i t a l Status aiclen Name Mother^ Date"" of ferriage Divorce oeparation  Presentinp; ProbIem(~s)  xj  Previous Carriage -.• Fa: - Mo: rIousing_  —I ?arnily Recreation & I n t e r e s t s  !  . . .  1U9.  A P P E N D I X  . .  C FAMILY SURNAME  JOINT F/:M,LY'SERVICE PROJECT BEHAVIOURAL SYMPTOMS  FORM B  1 !  Ages F C3  C4  M  Cl  C5  C6  32  ( ), l  Jt ) 2.  Destrufifcq-peness:  ) 3. Taunting a u t h o r i t y I n a b i l i t y t o accept . ) 4. l i m i t s  v  ffiLflfog  . (,,)  Running away  ( ) 3. Fears " ( ) 4/ Apathy  Belligerency  ( )--5.0 Moodiness  ) 6.  Bullying  ( •) 6 . F a n t a s y i n g  ) 7c Demanding a t t e n t i o n ) 3.  Boasting  ) 9.  P r o j e c t i n g blame  • ( )'7. Withdrawing. Desire f o r ( ) 8. punishment  0,  .  R.  S - s t a f f - part time and other  agency  (3)  on play ground  (4)  i n community'  REPORTED" BEHAVIOUR  'DATE'  ;  P - Professional staff  i n groups  ( 2 ) . about  ( ) 8,  BY WHOM OBSERVED  Observed behaviour (1)  ( ) 4 Suspiciousness Over-protective ( ) 3« ness . Kegleet .of ( ) 6 , •children .Infantile: (:••) 7c-.behaviour  ( ) 9.  •(.'"') 9. Lying'  MEANS OF IDENTIFICATION  OTHER Confusion over masou( ) l . l i n e feminine r o l e . Unusual sex ^ ) 2. behaviour, ... D i f f i c u l t y i n verbal ( ) 3. communication ?  ) 5«  "volunteer  BY:  (1) member of family  -  -  --" ••"  ••  DATE  (2) person i n community (3) agency I  INDIVIDUAL AWARENESS OF PROBLEM  i I j  Other PASSIVENE3S  j  DATE  . ...LEGEND  .,,  _____  .r-.r-,::^-  •  CASEWORK  :  ' -•SERVICES- , --.  1. .2.; 3.  •  ••  j----:-- v.-.-.  1 ^ -  ^  ..... -.^; >... :/  R e f e r r a l Service B r i e f Service Exploratory  ;  4. Treatment Interviews 5.••• L i a i s o n 'fork Interviews  GROUP WORK In.Groups ... A.  1, D i r e c t i o n to a s p e c i a l group - provision, of p r o f e s s i o n a l or s p e c i a l l y selected leadership. ••-•••>•••• 2.  Movement t o another regular program group or a c t i v i t y better .suited t o meet i n d i v i d u a l needs  \  ... 3.  "B.  P r o v i s i o n of a d d i t i o n a l group experiences  In Total Agency Setting  V ,.  .) c'r ( ) i.';  ~  1  1. P r o v i s i o n of increased s e n s i t i v i t y of a l l s t a f f t o i n d i v i d u a l ' needs  :  ^  2.  P r o v i s i o n of consistency  3.  P r o v i s i o n of s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n by one or.more s t a f f members  i n s t a f f reactions t o i n d i v i d u a l behavior  . GOBSULTATIQg ''  "  l v "-&asey/prk - Groupworlc • ."••'.'•" • 2. P s y c h i a t r i c :  •  -.J-.--:.TO;';.".;  -.  -.-.7  •'-•"'•"' J  -  • ' J.  ^.^^-r-  ~,?  A P P E N D I X  D FAMILY SURNAME  JOINT FAMILY SERVICE PROJECT  FORM C  Ages F C4  C3  M.  Cl  C5  C6  C2 .  Other  !  PROBLEMS A.  3. INDIVIDUAL PERSONALITY ADJUSTMENT  RELATIONSHIPS 1. W i t h i n the Family a. b. c. d.  marital parent-child; sibling other  2. In Group S i t u a t i o n s  3. In Community a . w i t h peers b. w i t h older persons c. " younger " d. " opposite sex e. other  a. b. c. d. e.  pre-school 6-12 12-21 ~ adults (young) Sr. C i t i z e n s  a . w i t h members b. w i t h leaders C.  PHYSICAL AND MENTAL HEALTH  D.  1. p h y s i c a l a. b. 2.  3.  1. 2. 3. 4.  Economic Employment Housing Vocational & Educational Adjustment 5. Recreation 6. Planning Substitute  illness handicap  Mental \ a. b.  ilness Retardation  '  c a r T of C h i l d r e n  Intellectual retardation  CASEWORK  SITUATIONAL  7. 8. SERVICES GROUP WORK -• ~B— ;  Legal Immigration-  ~  'CONSULTATION  l5l A P P E N D I X  F  JOINT FAMILY SERVICE PROJECT BUDGET ( f i r s t year) 'TOTAL FUNDS AVAILABLE  $3593.00 2200.00  Junior League of Greater Vancouver Mrs. Frank Smith Bequest  #5793.00  AGENCY BUDGETS FAMILY SERVICE AGENCY OF GREATER VANCOUVER Two Senior Caseworkers Stationery Transportation  (U days per wk) 3593.00 25.00 100.00  $3718.00  GORDON NEIGHBORHOOD HOUSE Group work s t a f f (Supervision  Specialists  $U80.00)  i n group work  Stationery Transportation Equipment ( f i l e )  )  1*20.00)  900.00  25.00  10.00  10.00  9U5.00  ALEXANDRA NEIGHBORHOOD HOUSE Group work s t a f f Telephone Stationery Transportation  763.00 36.00 25.00  Equipment ( f i l e )  10.00  10.00  EXTRA STENOGRAPHIC HELP  814uOO  :.:>.:€  125.00  5632.00  Balance i n account  $  161.00  JOINT FAMILY SERVICES PROJECT BUDGET ~ '. (second year) . ~ TOTAL FUNDS TOLLABLE: J u n i o r League o f Greater Vancouver  2059.20  Community Chest and Council  U629.80  $6689.00  AGENCY BUDGETS Fami3y Service Agency o f Greater Vancouver Gordon Neighborhood House Alexandra Neighborhood House  391*0.00  1355»00  139U.00  $6689.00  Ip2.  APPENDIX E Method 1. S e l e c t i o n o f cases  OUTLINE OF THE PROCESS INVOLVED IN THE JOINT FAMILY SERVICES PROJECT 1 I  Process  1 Sources I from 1 which cases 1 come 1  ( a . observed behavior i n groups ( (b. problems seen at r e g i s t r a t i o n ( ( c . requests o f members and nonmembers f o r service  1 1 1.- observation o f members i n groups 1 2» expression o f concern by group worker 1 I 3i d i a g n o s t i c assessment o f needs i n s i t u a t i o n by group work s t a f f i . I U. family f i l e s t a r t e d J £. c l e a r i n g i n S o c i a l Service Index 1 6. contacting other s o c i a l agencies 1 | 7. c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h caseworker ' 8. j o i n t s t a f f d e c i s i o n f o r r e f e r r a l t o Project services 1 1  2. Tentative Diagnosis  Further e x p l o r a t i o n o f information from f a m i l y , other agencies, by home v i s i t s , i n t e r v i e w s , r e view o f records, e t c . and diagnostic formulation. P s y c h i a t r i c c o n s u l t a t i o n might be needed here.  3. P l a n o f Treatment  1. Treatment goals defined 2. D e l i n e a t i n g o f r o l e s o f group worker and caseworker 3. P l a n f o r co-ordination o f s e r v i c e i n c l u d i n g recording k» P s y c h i a t r i c c o n s u l t a t i o n where r e q u i r e d  l u Execution of P l a n and On-going Evaluation  Group Workers tasks w i l l i n c l u d e : 1. P r o v i s i o n o f s p e c i a l group services - i . e . Changing o f group experience P r o v i d i n g special group experience P r o v i s i o n o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h group worker according t o diagnosis  153.  APPENDIX E (CON'T.)  Process  Method U . Execution o f Plan and On-going Evaluation (continued)  Group workers t a s k s w i l l include: (con't.) Consideration o f s p e c i a l problems, e.g. family- r e l a t i o n s h i p s , s i b l i n g r i v a l r y 2. Cooperative work w i t h other  agencies  3. Continued observation, recording and e v a l u a t i o n o f the c l i e n t ' s r e a c t i o n Case Workers task w i l l i n c l u d e : 1. P l a n f o r home v i s i t s or o f f i c e i n terviews 2. Use o f community resources and g i v i n g p r a c t i c a l help where advisable 3. P r o v i s i o n o f casework r e l a t i o n s h i p i n accordance w i t h diagnosis Recording and e v a l u a t i o n o f c l i e n t ' s progress Co-ordination o f Service through: —  staff  conferences  i n d i v i d u a l discussions  -  recording  -  p e r i o d i c evaluations  -  r e - e v a l u a t i o n o f p l a n based on f u r t h e r p s y c h i a t r i c c o n s u l t a t i o n i f necessary  Evaluation 1. A b i l i t y t o make c o n s t r u c t i v e use of agency program 2. A b i l i t y t o form p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h s t a f f , w i t h peers, i n f a m i l y and i n community contacts 3. A b i l i t y t o f u n c t i o n e f f e c t i v e l y i n s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n s , such as school, j o b , home.  BIBLIOGRAPHY  BOOKS D i x o n , W.G. ( e d . ) , S o c i a l W e l f a r e and t h e P r e s e r v a t i o n o f Human V a l u e s , J.M. Dent a n d Sons L t d . , V a n c o u v e r , 1957. G o l d , B e r t r a m , "Work w i t h I n d i v i d u a l s O u t s i d e t h e G r o u p " , T o w a r d P r o f e s s i o n a l S t a n d a r d s , New Y o r k , 1947. Gomberg, R. a n d L e v i n s o n , F., D i a g n o s i s a n d P r o c e s s i n Family Counselling, Family Service Association of A m e r i c a , New Y o r k , 1951* H a m i l t o n , G o r d o n , T h e o r y and P r a c t i c e o f S o c i a l C o l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , New Y o r k , 1951.  Casework,  K o n o p k a , G i s e l a , Group Work i n t h e I n s t i t u t i o n - A M o d e r n C h a l l e n g e , W h i t e s i d e I n c . and W i l l i a a M o r r o w a d Company, New Y o r k , 1954. Perlman, H e l e n H a r r i s , S o c i a l Casework, U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o P r e s s , C h i c a g o , 1957. R i c h m o n d , M a r y , S o c i a l D i a g n o s i s , R u s s e l l Sage New Y o r k , 1917.  Foundation,  W i l s o n , G e r t r u d e , Group Work and C a s e Work, T h e i r R e l a t i o n s h i p and P r a c t i c e , F a m i l y W e l f a r e A s s o c i a t i o n , New Y o r k , 19^1.  W i l s o n , G. a n d R y l a n d , S o c i a l Group Work H o u g h t o n M i f f l i n Company, 19^9.  Practice,  ARTICLES Boatman, F r a n c e s L e v i n s o n , " F a m i l y I n t e r a c t i o n : I t s Sign i f i c a n c e . f o r D i a g n o s i s ad Treatment", S o c i a l Casework, M a r c h , 1957, V o l u m e X X X V I I I , Number J . E r l e n , A. W., "Th.e I m p l i c a t i o n s o f a R e l a t i o n s h i p B e t w e e n a G r o u p Work A g e n c y a n d a C a s e w o r k A g e n c y " , P r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e N a t i o n a l C o n f e r e n c e o f J e w i s h S o c i a l S e r v i c e , 1937. F a m i l y S e r v i c e A s s o c i a t i o n C o m m i t t e e , "The C o n t e n t o f F a m i l y S o c i a l Work," S o c i a l C a s e w o r k , J u l y , I956, Volume X X X V I I , Number 7, pp. 519-327.  US  Gomberg, R.M., "Trends Toward F a m i l y O r i e n t e d Treatment i n S o c i a l Casework'-', J e w i s h S o c i a l S e r v i c e Q u a r t e r l y , Volume XXX, Number 5, 1954. _ Gomberg, R.M., " F a m i l y O r i e n t e d T-reatment o f M a r i t a l Problems", S o c i a l C a s e w o r k , J a n u a r y , 1956, Volume X X X V I I , Number 1, pp.5-11 H o l l i s , F l o r e n c e , "The T e c h n i q u e s o f C a s e w o r k " , P r i n c i p l e s and T e c h n i q u e s i n S o c i a l C a s e w o r k , F a m i l y S e r v i c e A s s o c i a t i o n o f A m e r i c a , New Y o r k , 1950. J o s s e l y n , I r e n e M., "The S o c i a l Casework, October  F a m i l y as a P s y c h o l o g i c a l U n i t " , 1955, Volume X X X I V , Number 8, pp.  Northen, Helen, " I n t e r - r e l a t e d Functions of a S o c i a l W o r k e r " , J o u r n a l o f S o c i a l Work, A p r i l , 1957.  556-545.  Group  P r a y , K e n n e t h L., "A R e - s t a t e m e n t o f t h e G e n e r i c P r i n c i p l e s , o f S o c i a l C a s e w o r k P r a c t i c e " , P r i n c i p l e s and T e c h n i q u e s i n S o c i a l Casework, F a m i l y S e r v i c e A s s o c i a t i o n of A m e r i c a , New York, 1950.  1 I  S i p o r i n , Max, " F a m i l y C e n t e r e d C a s e w o r k i n a P s y c h i a t r i c S e t t i n g " , S o c i a l C a s e w o r k , A p r i l , 1956, Volume X X X V I I , Number 4,  pp.  167-175.  S c h e r z , F r a n c e s H., "What i s F a m i l y C e n t e r e d C a s e w o r k ? " , S o c i a l C a s e w o r k , O c t o b e r , 1955, Volume XXXIV, Number 8, pp.  545-549.  S c h e i d l i n g e r , S a u l , " P a t t e r n s o f C a s e Work S e r v i c e i n Group Work A g e n c i e s " , The G r o u p , November, 1945. REPORTS A l e x a n d r a N e i g h b o r h o o d H o u s e , G o r d o n H o u s e , and F a m i l y W e l f a r e B u r e a u C o m b i n e E f f o r t s i n F i l l i n g a Community Gap, J a n u a r y 8, 1955* V a n c o u v e r . E v a l u a t i o n of the J o i n t F a m i l y S e r v i c e s P r o j e c t a t A l e x a n d r a N e i g h b o r h o o d H o u s e , S e p t e m b e r 19 t o December 51* 1955* V a n c o u v e r A d v i s o r y Committee o f the J o i n t F a m i l y S e r v i c e s P r o j e c t , An I n t e r i m R e p o r t t o t h e Community C h e s t and C o u n c i l o f G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r S o c i a l P l a n n i n g S e c t i o n , O c t o b e r 10, 1956, V a n c o u v e r The J o i n t F a m i l y S e r v i c e s P r o j e c t R e p o r t , J a n u a r y Vancouver.  12,  1956,  j i  156 C o m m i t t e e o f S o c i a l Work P e r s o n n e l , A R e p o r t on t h e J o i n t P a m i l y S e r v i c e s P r o j e c t , A u g u s t 30, 1 9 5 7 , V a n c o u v e r . 1 S p e c i a l R e p o r t on Day Gamp a n d F u n C l u b , A l e x a n d r a N e i g h b o r h o o d H o u s e , V a n c o u v e r , B.C., J u l y 1956". THESES B a y c r o f t , B e r n i c e W., " C a s e w o r k i n a N e i g h b o r h o o d H o u s e " , M a s t e r o f S o c i a l Work T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ,  1949.  F r a n k l i n , D a v i d S., C a s e w o r k - Group Work R e f e r r a l , M a s t e r o f S o c i a l Work T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1 9 4 9 . Helm, E l m e r , A l e x a n d r a N e i g h b o r h o o d House, M a s t e r o f S o c i a l Work T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1 9 5 2 . H u t c h i n s o n , F r e d e r i c k A., C a s e w o r k S e r v i c e i n a N e i g h b o r h o o d H o u s e , M a s t e r o f S o c i a l Work T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia 1952. M a r c u s e , B e r t h o l d , Long-Term D e p e n d e n c y a n d M a l a d j u s t m e n t O a s e s i n a F a m i l y S e r v i c e A g e n c y , M a s t e r o f S o c i a l Work T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1956. S c h e i d l i n g e r , S a u l , A C o m p a r a t i v e S t u d y o f t h e Use o f C a s e work S e r v i c e s i n G r o u p Work S e t t i n g s , M a s t e r s T h e s i s , S c h o o l of A p p l i e d S o c i a l S c i e n c e s , U n i v e r s i t y of P i t t s b u r g h , 19^4.  OTHERS! Exner, H e l e n , E s t a b l i s h m e n t o f Casework S e r v i c e s i n a H e i g h b o r Hood H o u s e , u n p u b l i s h e d p a p e r , S c h o o l o f S o c i a l Work, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1952. H o u s i n g Research Committee, Vancouver Redevelopment Study, C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t , December, 1957*  

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