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Heliports : their location in the central business district. Wieler, Verner Jacob 1958

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HELIPORTS: THEIR .LOCATION IN THE CENTRAL BUSINESS DISTRICT by VERNER JACOB WIELER REPORT ON A PROJECT SUBMITTED IN LIEU OF A THESIS IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE i n the Department of COMMUNITY AND REGIONAL PLANNING We accept t h i s report as conforming to the standard required from can-didates for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Members of the Department of Community and Regional Planning. THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1958. i ABSTRACT The helicopter represents a revolutionary approach to f l i g h t . I t s most important char a c t e r i s t i c i s i t s f l e x i b i l i l y j i t : climbs and descends v e r t i c a l l y , i t hovers i n mid-air, and i t t r a v e l s at r e l a t i v e l y slow and f a s t speeds. Therefore, i t presents a vehicle which has great p o t e n t i a l i n operating within or d i r e c t l y above the p h y s i c a l l y dense central business d i s t r i c t , carrying passenger and f r e i g h t t r a f f i c . Helicopter transportation i s now taking root i n several large metropolitan c i t i e s , and more c i t i e s are considering the i n s t a l l a t i o n of such a service. I t appears that the helicopter w i l l become a strong member of the urban transportation system i n the near future, and therefore steps should be taken i n advance of i t s advent to insure a proper location of the h e l i p o r t , as w e l l as an e f f i c i e n t route pattern within the metropolitan c i t y . I t i s f e l t that the helicopter w i l l be most r e s t r i c t e d i n i t s operation within the central business d i s t r i c t , and at the same time w i l l carry i t s greatest payload i n and out of the central business d i s t r i c t . Therefore, the l o c a t i o n of one or a pattern of h e l i p o r t s within the central business d i s t r i c t , becomes a funda-mental issue to helicopter transportation. Several studies have been undertaken which considered the h e l i p o r t l o c a t i o n i n l i g h t of the technical requirements of i i the helicopter, and to some degree the pot e n t i a l t r a f f i c which the helicopter might bear. The heliport l o c a t i o n c r i t e r i a which evolved r e f l e c t e d t h i s more general approach, p a r t i c u l a r l y to t r a f f i c generating areas. The studies d i d not consider i n d i v i d u a l land uses which might d i r e c t l y or i n d i r e c t l y cause the f a i l u r e of a hel i p o r t because the part-i c u l a r characteristics of the land uses could not support helicopter transportation. Using former studies, therefore, as a basis f o r further research, t h i s study has attempted to analyze t r a f f i c generating areas as they a f f e c t helicopter transportation. In t h i s respect, the land uses of the central business d i s t r i c t and the t r a f f i c that such land uses create have become the f o c a l point of the study. The study draws certain conclusions with respect to he l i p o r t locations i n the central business d i s t r i c t . F i r s t ; i t recognizes the overlapping effects of s p e c i f i c land uses and the technical l i m i t a t i o n s of the helicopter on the choice of lo c a t i o n . Although i t i s f e l t the land use factors are e s s e n t i a l l y determining over a period of time, the technical l i m i t a t i o n s create problems which must be dealt with, with equal urgency, and i n some cases might i n i t i a l l y control l o c a t i o n . However, i n a l l cases, the land use factors should receive precedence i n the establishment of l o c a t i o n c r i t e r i a . I t i s the land use c r i t e r i a that w i l l determine the long-range success of the helicopter service. i i i Secondly; the h e l i p o r t should be located i n the "auto-oriented" areas of the central business d i s t r i c t , but should be cl o s e l y associated with the "walking" area of the s p e c i f i c types of c e n t r a l business d i s t r i c t workers who may be expected to be the major users of helicopter transportation. Thirdly; the technical characteristics of the helicopter require that the h e l i p o r t have an area of approximately four acres. In addition, i t should have a b i - d i r e c t i o n a l approach route with- an obstruction p r o f i l e r a t i o minimum of 1:8, with allowance f o r emergency landings outward to the c r i t i c a l point i n the take-off pattern. The problem of noise associated with the helicopter i n f l i g h t have been mentioned only i n passing, t h i s involves a detailed study of the mechanical parts of the helicopter which the author could not discuss with authority. However, the noise w i l l have i t s a f f e c t on adjacent land uses to a considerable degree. The onus i s on the helicopter manufacturer to attempt to reduce the noise to a compatible l e v e l . The l o c a t i o n of a h e l i p o r t on a water-front s i t e seems p a r t i c u l a r l y advantageous with respect to the lower cost of land and an obstruction-free landing and departure route. However, i f the water-front l o c a t i o n cannot s a t i s f y the land use c r i t e r i a which have been developed, and which generate the t r a f f i c p o t e n t i a l , then such a l o c a t i o n would prove to be inadequate. Furthermore, harbour regulations pertaining to shipping i n the area may r e s u l t i v i n the negation of the values of a p a r t i c u l a r water-front l o c a t i o n from the standpoint of the land use c r i t e r i a . The study was l i m i t e d i n obtaining s u f f i c i e n t data on land use i n r e l a t i o n to the movement of central business d i s t r i c t workers. Such research i s now underway but- only to a l i m i t e d degree, I t i s f e l t that the contribution of t h i s study l i e s i n i t s attempt to point out the influence of land uses on the generation of t r a f f i c , and the helicopter service developing on the basis of what t r a f f i c the s p e c i f i c land uses are generating. In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l fulfilment of the. requirements f o r an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y available f o r reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s t h e s i s for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representative. It i s understood that copying or publication of t h i s thesis f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of Community & Regional Planning The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver 8, Canada. Date 9th May, 1958. V P R E F A C E The purpose of t h i s Thesis i s to develop c r i t e r i a or general prin c i p l e s for guiding c i t y planners i n t h e i r selection of appropri-ate locations for major heliports w i t h i n the central business d i s -t r i c t s of major metropolitan centres. This objective i s achieved by means of an analysis* on the one hand of the land use pattern and establishments within central business d i s t r i c t s and the chaages i n these factors, and on the other hand, of those physical and technical factors of the helicopter and the heliport that are l i k e l y to influence the location of h e l i p o r t s . The study i s not concerned with a whole network of heliports for a metropolitan region - that i s a regional study of helicopter transportation. The author views the central h e l i p o r t as the f o c a l h e l i p o r t i n the region, and therefore i t s location i s the most s i g n i f i -cant one and also the most complex. A separate investigation of the central heliport was f e l t to be important. The B r i t i s h Columbia Lower Mainland Regional Planning Board, i n i t s study of -Airports for the Lower Mainland, emphasized the im-portance of recognizing the helicopter as a new and p r a c t i c a l means of transportation, and that helicopter operations should be v i s u a l i z e d as an i n t e g r a l unit i n the t o t a l regional transportation framework. The author recognizes the regional approach as a requisite to setting the stage for more detailed investigation. This study attempts to v i provide more of the detailed investigation of one s i g n i f i c a n t por-t i o n of the regional helicopter transportation pattern. The author encountered d i f f i c u l t y i n obtaining information, esp e c i a l l y with regard to linkages between establishments, and the movement of various types of persons wi t h i n the CBD. These problems supply r i c h f i e l d s for further research, and t h e i r analysis would throw much l i g h t on the subject of he l i p o r t locations, as w e l l as aid i n the re-shaping of the whole transportation system to allow i t to operate at a functional maximum from one control centre. The studies by R.H. M i t c h e l l and C. Rapkin i n Urban T r a f f i c , and of John Rannells i n The Core of the City, have been invaluable to t h i s study and have been referred to extensively. It i s hoped that the study has aroused a greater interest i n h e l i p o r t location within the Central Business D i s t r i c t , and has shed more l i g h t on the problems which must be considered i n properly locating the h e l i p o r t . This study i s indebted to the advice and material offered by many persons and organizations concerned with the Central Busin-ess D i s t r i o t , and with helicopter transportation. Of p a r t i c u l a r mention are: Mr. Ira M. Robinson, A. B;, M.A., Assistant Professor of Planning, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver3 B.C. Mr. J. R. I y a l l , P.Eng., Technical Assistant to the City Engineer, City of Vancouver, Vancouver, B.C. Mr. W. L. I n g l i s , P.Eng., M.E.I.C., Airport Manager, Vancouver International Airport, Vancouver, B.C. v i i i C O N T E N T S CHAPTER I -CHAPTER I I -CHAPTER I I I -CHAPTER IV -CHAPTER V -CHAPTER VI -The Role And Future Of Helicopter Transportation In Metropolitan Centres. Land Uses In The Central Business D i s t r i c t . Changing Trends In The Central Business D i s t r i c t . Linkages In The Central Business D i s t r i c t . .. Movement Uf Persons Within The Central Business D i s t r i c t CHAPTER VII -CHAPTER V I I I -1 15 31 62 92 The Physical And Technical Requirements Of The Helicopter In The Central Business D i s t r i c t .. .. 108 C r i t e r i a For Selecting A Heliport In A Major Central Business D i s t r i c t .. 130 Certain Problems In Planning For Heliport F a c i l i t i e s 142 B I B L I O G R A P H Y LIST OF DIAGRAMS AND TABLES Standardized Measures of Daily Population Movement into Central Business D i s t r i c t s by C i t y Size Groups Da i l y Population Movement into Central Business D i s t r i c t s , by C i t y Size Standardized Measures of Dai l y Population Move-ments into Central Business D i s t r i c t s , f o r Cities l e s s than and more than One M i l l i o n Population, by 5-year Periods, from 1926-1950 Destination of Richmond Shoppers f o r the Three Major Types of Household Commodities Theoretical Webs-of-Linkage i n the Central Business D i s t r i c t S i m i l a r i t y of Location of Nucleations of Estab-lishments Diagramatic Relationship of Locations of Nuclea-tions among Five Major Business Groups i n P h i l a -delphia, 1949 Cohesion or Dispersion of the Establishments of the Five Major Business Groups Mode of Transportation Used and Average Time Re-quired to ar r i v e at Destination from Last Base, by Callers at a Department Store D i s t r i b u t i o n of Trips by Type, Percent of Number of Total T r i p s , and By Average Number of Stops per Trip D i s t r i b u t i o n of Trips to Four Establishments from Work Bases and Residential Areas Movement of Workers within the CHD Generation of T r a f f i c by Land Uses i n Detroit Generation of T r a f f i c by Land Uses i n Detroit Generation of T r a f f i c by Land Uses i n Detroit Walking Distance and Land Uses as Measured from the Peak Land Value Intersection i n Nine C i t i e s Ranging from 150,000 to 200,000 persons Heliport Design C r i t e r i a Heliport Area Requirements Obstruction Clearance - Heliports Linear Dimensions of a Heliport as Affected by Approach Angle Area and Cost of a Heliport as Affected by Approach Angle Safe Take-Off Procedures and Effect on Site Dimensions Possible Techniques of Land Use Zoning f o r Heliports CHAPTER:, I THE ROLE AND FUTURE OF HELICOPTER TRANSPORTATION IN METRO-POLITAN CENTRES A - THE HELICOPTER; According to the Oxford Dictionary the helicopter i s a " f l y i n g machine deriving both i t s l i f t and i t s propulsive power from h o r i z o n t a l l y revolving blades or rotors, and oapable of ascending and descending v e r t i c a l l y " . This study considers the helicopter as a vehicle, not just as a f l y i n g maohine, and that i t can hover and f l y sideways and backwards i n addition to ascending and descending v e r t i c a l l y . What has created greatest enthusiasm i n the f i e l d of helioopter transportation i s t h i s •vehicles' uncanny f l y i n g characteristics which enables i t to land and take-off within a confined area. ThiB i s the v e r s a t i l i t y any airborne machine must have to operate within a built-up area. The helicopter can f l y among t a l l buildings, can land and take-off from a s u f f i c i e n t l y strong roof, and can land and take-off from the ground immediately adjacent to a ground transportation system or a pedestrian walk-way. Helicopters vary greatly as to size . The capacity of commercial helicopters now operating, range from two to twelve passengers. On November 2nd, 1957, Russia olaimed a record-breaking f l i g h t by a twin turbo-prop MI - 6 helicopter to an 2 1 al t i t u d e of 7,5000 feet with a load of 24 ,000 pounds. Eleven days l a t e r , on November 13th, Pairey Aviation of England announced the successful t e s t f l i g h t of the "world's f i r s t v e r t i c a l take-off a i r l i n e r " - the Rotodyne. The Rotodyne has a capacity of 48 2 passengers and a speed of 185 miles per hour. Dr. Igor I. Sikorsky considers the transport helicopter, being developed i n the immediate future, as following two d i s t i n c t l i n e s of design. "The f i r s t would correspond and be similar to the a i r l i n e r or transport airplane. The seoond would be a freight and cargo ca r r i e r and would be a cra f t i n i t s own class with v i r t u a l l y no p a r a l l e l i n any other a i r c r a f t or even i n any other ve-h i c l e of t r a v e l . The f i r s t type would need very l i t t l e description because i t would e s s e n t i a l l y be the further development of the modern helicopter as currently used. I t means an a i r c r a f t with a body-fuselage with i n t e r i o r arrangements e s s e n t i a l l y similar to what i s used i n corresponding m i l i t a r y transports or a i r -l i n e r s . In the helicopter i t would be desirable to use larger entrance doors or more of them i n order to expedite the loading and unloading of the a i r c r a f t i n the case of short-range f l i g h t s . Furthermore, i t would be desirable to use larger windows because, i n the majority of cases, the h e l i -copter offers much more interesting scenery than could be viewed from the airplane. The seoond and very interesting type whose appearance may be confidently expected' i n the near future, wo uld be a special freight-cargo helicopter which would be s p e c i f i c a l l y designed to l i f t any type of object or load, including large and bulky ones, and to carry them on the outside, suspended below the body of the a i r c r a f t . 3 m 1 - The Vancouver Sun, (November 2nd, 1957) 2 - She Vancouver Sun, (November 13th, 1957) 3 - Dr. Igor I. Sikorsky, "The Transport Helicopter" Engineering Digest,(July, 1955). 3. The problem that fao.es helicopter manufacturers i s the development of multi-engine helicopters which w i l l provide greater e f f i c i e n c y , economy, safety and carrying capaoity - a technical problem* the problem that faoes the he l i p o r t oper-ator i s the aooeptance of the helicopter by the general public as a means of transportation which they w i l l use with confidence and not shun i n fear and doubt - an acceptance problem. It i s beyond the scope of t h i s study to consider h e l i -copter transportation of a m i l i t a r y nature, or for exploration and survey purposes i n uninhabited or sparsley populated r u r a l areas. The emphasis i s on the use of the helicopter i n the densely built-up areas of the central business d i s t r i c t w i t h i n the urban setting. B - STATUS OF THE HELICOPTER IN THE URBAN TRANSPORTATION SCENE: In North America metropolitan helicopter transportation began with the mail service i n the Los Angeles metropolitan, area i n 1947. This i n i t i a t e d the period of experiment and de-velopment under way today to improve the f l y i n g characteristics of the machine i t s e l f , and to create enthusiasm and confidence i n the mind of the public who must ultimately accept or reject the helicopter as a means of transportation. The recent stage of helicopter transportation development appears to b e something l i k e that of a i r l i n e service i n the late 4. 1920's, when mail was the p r i n c i p l e item carried and passengers were few. However, t h i s picture i s rapidly changing and today there are a score of helicopter operators i n North America and i n Europe carrying large numbers of passengers and goods, and the market i s continually expanding. To c i t e one example, New York Airways, Inc., Flushing, N.Y., was inaugurated on 8th July, 1953, and became the f i r s t regularly scheduled helicopter passen-ger service i n the world. In 1956, i t carried the following 4 t r a f f i c : Passengers - 42,972 5 Mail - 1,159,704 pounds Freight - 600,000 pounds This can be considered a s i g n i f i c a n t volume of t r a f f i c for the t h i r d year of operation of the firm. Although there are many commercial helicopter firms i n operation today, the following firms are operating within, metro-p o l i t a n areas across North America: New York Airways, Flushing, N.Y. Port of New York Authority, New York, N.Y. Los Angeles Airways, Los Angeles, Cal. Chicago Helicopter Airways, Chicago, 111. Helicopter A i r Services, Inc., Chicago, 111. Cleveland A i r Taxi Inc., Cleveland, Ohio. 4 - Frank Piasecki, "What's Holding Up The Helicopter," Esquire, (October 1957) p. 47. 5 - New York Airways Incorp. began carrying mail i n 1952. These firms are carrying passengers, mail and f r e i g h t , although some oarry only one or more of these three. There are some eighty commercial helicopter charter operators i n the United States and Canada, using a t o t a l of 6 some 400 helioopters. Canadian helioopter firms have been inaugurated and ex-panded at a s i g n i f i c a n t rate over the past few years. Of the approximate dozen firms operating i n Canada by f a r the largest f i r m i s Okanagan Helicopters Limited, based at Sea Island -within the Vancouver metropolitan area. The Canadian helicopter firms have been engaged p r i n c i p a l l y i n construction work i n remote areas, power l i n e inspections, mountain and water rescue, a i r surveys, and transporting supplies and persons into remote areas, otherwise inaccessible. There i s no actual metropolitan helicopter service i n operation i n Canadai however, Vancouver w i l l no doubt have the f i r s t metropolitan helicopter service operating i n Canada.with the shu t t l i n g of mail between the Vancouver International Airport and the post o f f i c e i n downtown Vancouver. The newly completed post o f f i c e i s s p e c i f i c a l l y de-signed to handle helicopters from i t s roof-top h e l i p o r t . The helicopter service w i l l handle mail freight only, the heliport not being designed for passengers. Therefore, i f helicopter 6 - The American City, (August, 1957) p. 160 6. service i s i n s t i t u t e d i n the Vancouver metropolitan area another location w i l l have to be chosen within the CBD which w i l l be cap* able of handling large numbers of passengers as w e l l as f r e i g h t . The Port of New York Authority envisions helicopter ser-7 vioe as taking three forms: 1 - Aerocab or shuttle service 2 - In t e r - c i t y service 3 - Suburban service. Elaborating on these three forms, the P.N.Y.A. go on to say that the largest market w i l l eventually be found i n the commu- t a t i o n business, i . e . , i n competition with t r a i n s on a short-haul metropolitan area type of operation. The second largest market w i l l be i n t e r - c i t y service i n competition with regular railway ooaches. The t h i r d largest market w i l l be metropolitan area-to-airport, airport-to-airport within the same metropolitan area, and outlying area-to-airport. The t r a f f i c p o t e ntial i n t h i s type of service i s not nearly as great as i n the f i r s t two, but i t i s a type of t r a f f i c that i s w i l l i n g to pay a high price f o r services rendered. The P.N.Y.A. f e e l that the current high cost of helicopter t r a v e l can be met by t h i s type of t r a f f i c because i t i s not p a r t i c u l a r l y interested i n whether i t i s paying 4 cents per mile or 24 cents 7 - The P.N.Y.A. Study, although speaking i n general terms, i s r e f e r r i n g to the New York Metropolitan area regard-ing the forms of helicopter services envisione d and the market for the service. per mile, but simply a question of whether getting there i n 15 8 minutes i s worth $5.00. In regard to the order i n which helicopter services are l i k e l y to be introduced into the a i r transport industry, the P.N.Y.A. view was that i t would be i n the exact reverse to that i n which they are l i s t e d above; that i s : 1 - Metropolitan Area-to-airport, airport-to-airport within the same metropolitan area, and outlying area to a i r p o r t . 2 - I n t e r - c i t y service. Q 3 - Short-haul commutation service. It i s evident that perhaps the most spectacular c o n t r i -bution to the f i e l d of transportation i n t h i s age of technical development i s to be seen i n the v e r s a t i l e helicopter. I t s p o s s i b i l i t i e s afford unlimited opportunities to those persons concerned with providing a better means of public transportation. In addition, the very presence of the helicopter service as a memberof the urban transportation system may not only tend to re-distribute the functions of the other transportation f a c i l i t i e s , but may also ease the load on those f a c i l i t i e s , de-8 - However, helicopter fares may be competitive with other forms of transportation under c e r t a i n circumstances. 9 - Helicopter Operation and Design Requirements, International A i r Transport Assoc., Conference, Puerto Rico ( A p r i l 1953) p. 21, 2. 8. crease vehicular congestion, and f i n a l l y i t may cause adjust-ments of the land uses i n certain areas, especially within'the central commercial area, to a more desirable arrangement i n the interest of the community as a whole. The helicopter must be vi s u a l i z e d as a public trans-portation vehicle for i t s role within a metropolitan centre. It i s expected to carry passengers predominantly, and such freight which i t finds economical to carry. Some indi c a t i o n of the future p o t e n t i a l i t i e s of the helioopter was given i n a recent study by the Port of New York A u t h o r i t y . ^ i t s major conclusions were; (a) The helicopter i s a brand new a i r vehicle with en-t i r e l y new p o t e n t i a l i t i e s . (b) I t w i l l expand a i r t r a v e l i n the short-haul f i e l d , a v a s t l y greater market than the long-haul f i e l d , so success-f u l l y invaded by fixed-wing a i r c r a f t . (c) The Korean War has advanced the day of the h e l i -copter as a common c a r r i e r by f i v e to ten years. (d) Within the next few years, a ten-place helicopter w i l l be used i n common oarrier service. (e) By 1958, 30-place helioopters w i l l be available for common oar r i e r commercial operations. 10 - Helicopter Transportation, Port of New York Authority, (New York, 1952) 9. (f) I t w i l l not be possible t o land these newer h e l i -copters on any and every roof-top, nor to permit them to f l y at random through the a i r over c i t i e s . Despite i t s v e r s i t i l i t y , the helicopter w i l l require a ca r e f u l l y located, s p e c i f i c a l l y designed airstop f a c i l i t y . (g) The helicopter w i l l require the allotment of i t s own a i r channels, landing and take-off procedures suited to i t s special capacities, and standards of service t a i l o r e d to the markets i t can expect to serve. (h) The p o t e n t i a l i t i e s of the helicopter cannot be r e a l -ized within the time periods discussed unless the Federal Govern-ment (U.S.A.) i s prepared to include t h i s new a i r c r a f t i n i t s hitherto l i b e r a l p o l i c y of aid to commercial a i r transport and to include helicopter airstops i n i t s airport aid programs. ( i ) While the e a r l i e s t common car r i e r use began as an airport shuttle service i n 1953, i t has even greater p o t e n t i a l -i t i e s i n the f i e l d of short-range i n t e r - c i t y t r a v e l and i n the expanding area of commutation service. The B.C. Lower Mainland Regional Planning Board, i n i t s study of airports, suggests certain probable effects of the large-scale use of helicopters i n the Lower Mainland. What was f e l t most important was a "speedier intercourse" between Greater Van-couver and other urban areas within a radius of some 200 miles. 10. The idea of direct f l i g h t s from one downtown to another would eliminate the necessity for airport-to-downtown journeys, assuming that the passenger would have otherwise t r a v e l l e d i n a scheduled fixed-wing a i r c r a f t . The centres which would be most affected by such a service, i n r e l a t i o n to the Vancouver Metro-po l i t a n , would be V i c t o r i a , Hanaimo, Seattle, Ballingham.',. C h i l l i -wack, and Mission. Helicopters could also cause accelerated i n d u s t r i a l devel-opment of the underdeveloped areas north of Vancouver. They might also open up certain recreational areas, such as Garibaldi Park, which are r e l a t i v e l y inaccessible by ground transport. The suggestion was also put forward that the helicopter could supply a commutation service between urban centres and a major international airport established some distance out from the concentrated and populous urban areas. This large airport would be the terminal for long-distance fixed-wing commercial a i r c a r r i e r s . (With the introduction of the B r i s t o l - B r i t t a n i a turbo-propellor ai r c r a f t into regular passenger service i n 1950, and the Comet and Boeing 707 j e t a i r l i n e r s by 1959-60, the necessity for constructing large airports some distance away from large metropolitan centres w i l l become v i r t u a l l y i n e v i table to aid i n the e f f i c i e n t and adequate development of long-range f i x e d -wing a i r transport operations."'"''" 11 - Crerar, A.D., Airports for the Lower Mainland, Lower Mai nland Regional Planning Board, (New-westminster, B.C., Sept. 1953) pp. 11-12. 11. C - THE MEED FOR THE METROPOLITAN REGION TO CONSIDER SPECIFIC LO^ CATIONS FOR HELIPORTS WITHIN THE CENTRAL BUSINESS DISTRICT Clearly, then, the day of wide-spread i n t e r - o i t y h e l i -copter transportation i s not far o f f . The muni c i p a l planners T i f a o , a few short years ago were debating as to whether to build an airport are now facing the question of how many airports the community needs. The heliport presents b a s i c a l l y the same problem to the planner. An attempt must be made to anticipate the need i n advance of demand i n order to maintain a greater control over development of he l i p o r t s , not as a separate entity, but as a functional part of the dynamic central business d i s t r i c t . This means that thought must be given now to the most appropriate loca-tions f o r heliport s i t e s within the CBD. As the f i n a l conclusion of the aforementioned study of the Port of New York Authority, i t stated: ( j ) None of these p o t e n t i a l i t i e s of the helicopter as a common ca r r i e r can be rea l i z e d unless attention i s given promptly to the study of actualvsite'sj.^not-.-ohly i n the Northern New Jersey/ New York Metropolitan area but i n a region within a 175 mile radius, and to the design and development of airstop f a c i l i t i e s f i t t e d to the needs of the common c a r r i e r helicopter and the t r a f f i c i t w i l l 12 be ready to serve. 12 - Helicopter Transportation, p. v. 12. The question could be l o g i c a l l y raised: Why should the metropolitan c i t y consider the heliport as a functional part of the dynamic central business d i s t r i o t , requirin g a detailed location study.? The following points are suggested as s i g n i f i -cant answers to t h i s question: F i r s t , the fundamental consideration i s that helicopter transportation i s put into effect when there i s a s u f f i c i e n t demand for i t s service; that i s , when the establishments and the land uses of the BBD oreate a demand for helicopter service just as the demand for street cars and t r o l l e y s , railways, and private cars has developed over the past years. The helicopter w i l l l f i t into the urban transportation pattern by supplying a transport service for a p a r t i c u l a r c l i e n t e l e which the urban area, especially the central business d i s t r i c t , generates. Secondly, the t o t a l helicopter operation, including the heli p o r t and the helicopter f l i g h t pattern, must f i t into the ove r a l l plan f o r the urban area, p a r t i c u l a r l y the plan for the central business d i s t r i o t . Within t h i s broad oategory such con-siderations as an.integrated urban transportation system, pro-t e c t i o n of land uses adjacent to the he l i p o r t , adequate terminal f a c i l i t i e s , e specially for ground t r a f f i c such as private passenger cars, and s p e c i f i c helicopter routes i n and out of the CBD must reoeive c r i t i c a l analysis. 13. F i n a l l y , the study would allow the public authorities to ohoose oertain advantageous s i t e s for the hel i p o r t before the demand for heliports has created an i n f l a t e d price for those s i t e s , or, i t would allow them to r e t a i n s i t e s while they are s t i l l available and s p e c i f i c a l l y meet the requirements of the heliport operation. The question i s raised; What faotors are l i k e l y to affeot the location of heliports i n a CBD, To date, most studies on t h i s question have emphasized either the volume of t r a f f i c , or the technical considerations, as d i c t a t i n g the s i t i n g of he l i p o r t But, while these factors are important - and indeed, w i l l be d i s -cussed i n t h i s report, the most dynamic considerations are the land use factors affecting the generation of passengers for h e l i -copter transportation within the CBD; t h i s aspect, however, i s given only passing reference i n the studies hitherto. The central business d i s t r i c t shows w i t h i n i t s e l f a wide variety of i n t r i c a t e land uses and d i s t i n c t i v e clusters of par-t i c u l a r types of businesses. This variety of land uses i n turn generates t r a f f i c i n the form of p a r t i c u l a r types of people who represent either shoppers, persons on business, sight-seers, holidayers, or some combination of these. Goods are also trans-ported t o and from the various business establishments and are destined f o r certain areas depending on the type they are. Somewhere within the central business d i s t r i c t there i s an area, 13 - See for example, Ibid. p. 5 and Port of New York Authority, Helicopter Looation and Design, p. 9 14. or areas, which would be most convenient to a p a r t i c u l a r group of persons or goods, who would t r a v e l by helicopter t o some area outside of the central business d i s t r i c t , i f suoh a servioe be-came available. This study w i l l endeavour to locate such areas by means of an analysis of the functional and loc a t i o n a l characteristics of the various land uses wit h i n central business d i s t r i c t s , the changing trends i n these characteristics, and -the movement of 14 persons i n the CBD. Chapters 2 through 5 are devoted to t h i s analysis. In addition, i t i s recognized that physical and technical factors, for example, height of the heliport above ground l e v e l or maximum approach angles of the helioopter, w i l l also affect the location of heliport s i t e s . Chapter 6 considers some of the more importaat factors here. On the basis of these analyses, c r i t e r i a are developed, i n Chapter 7, for selecting appropriate locations within the CBD for h e l i p o r t s . F i n a l l y , Chapter 8 discusses some of the zoning and ad-ministrative considerations i n implementing a he l i p o r t program once the decision as to location i s determined, and emphasizes the major differences i n setting up a heliport i n Canada. 14 - This approach to the study of helioopter trans-portation owes much to the pioneering work of Robert Mi t c h e l l and Chester Rapkin i n Urban T r a f f i c , as well as the accompanhing analysis of John Rannell i n The Core of the City. CHAPTER I I 15. LAND USES IN THE CENTRAL BUSINESS DISTRICT A - THE CENTRAL BUSINESS DISTRICT The central business d i s t r i c t i s the "heart" of t he c i t y . In a sense, i t can be considered a geographical region i n i t s e l f and i t , therefore, displays the three dominating characteristics of a planning region:' F i r s t , i t has a "core" area. Here i s located the peak land value intersection. This peak land value area has origin a -ted and has been maintained as such by the two c r u c i a l factors b f : 1. Maximum pedestrian flow, and 2. Maximum-vehicular flow. Within t h i s core area three functions have the greatest concentration. These are: 1. R e t a i l establishments. 2. Offices. 3. Financial establishments. Secondly, as i n the oase of a planning region, the bound-aries of the CBD are zonal. That i s , there i s a "zone of trans-i t i o n " from the concentrated centre outwards. This zone of trans-i t i o n i s generally considered as the boundary of the central business d i s t r i c t . Thirdly, the CBD has also regional v a r i a t i o n within i t s e l f , t h i s often being referred to as horizontal zones. The zones 16. which develop are generally considered as: - r e t a i l i n g area - hotel.area - cinema area - night club area - wholesale area - o f f i c e and f i n a n c i a l area. A v e r t i c a l zoning of functions i s also found i n the CBD. This i s , c e r tain types and q u a l i t i e s of establishments rent on spec i f i c f l o o r s of s p e c i f i c types of higher buildings. I t must be seen i n i t i a l l y that no two CBD's w i l l be i d e n t i c a l i n terms of t h e i r location. Each has had a unique history of development i n which l o c a l conditions have dictated particular locations f o r the CBD. Therefore, the CBD of a large c i t y which i s a seaport w i l l dictate an altogether different location than the CBD of a p r a i r i e c i t y which has developed as a hub for r u r a l a c t i v i t i e s that stretch out from i t i n a l l directions. The exact location of the CBD w i t h i n dif f e r e n t c i t i e s w i l l vary greatly, but within eaoh CBD i t s e l f there i s found an amazing s i m i l a r i t y of types of establishments and ways i n which these establishments locate i n r e l a t i o n to each other and i n r e l a t i o n to other "centres" which the CBD creates. 17. B - GENERAL LAND USE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE CBD A great deal of pioneering research was carried out i n the f i e l d of land uses by Dr. R. M. Haig, i n h i s studies of the 15 New York area. Haig believed that the aim of the modern master plan was to maximize the e f f i c i e n c y of the urban area through an arrangement of land uses which would minimize the "dosts of f r i c t i o n " . The two elements whioh Haig considered made up the costs of f r i c t i o n were transportation costs and s i t e rentals. The underlying eoonomic forces which mold the urban land use pattern, he f e l t , were often working imperfectly toward the same end. The imperfections, lags, and obstacles to the free opera-t i o n of the forces of adaptation were the origins of urban problems which li m i t e d the e f f i c i e n c y of the land use structure as an economic mechanism. To Haig, a c c e s s i b i l i t y m ant ease of contact, that i s , contact with r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e f r i c t i o n ; and ultimately, t h i s referred to ease of contact at low cost. R.U. R a t c l i f f , i n another study of land uses, ^ s t a t e d that among land use types there i s a heirarchy of "convenience-::-, d e s i r a b i l i t y " . Consumers vote by the amount and frequency of t h e i r purchases to establish the r e t a i l structure i n a pattern #15 - See R.M.Haig, Major Economic Factors i n Metro- p o l i t a n Growth and Arrangement (New York, 1927)• #16 - See RLU.Ratoliff, The Madison Central Area (Madison; Bureau of Business Research & Service of the University of Wisconsin, 1955). 18. which maximizes t h e i r convenience. This creates the phenomenon of clustering, thereby minimizing the costs of f r i c t i o n . Another study of land uses was that of R.E.Murphy and 17 J. E. Vance. The study considered nine (9) United States c i t i e s ranging i n population from 150,000 to 200,000 persons. It was decided not to use c i t i e s over t h i s population size to avoid the sp e c i a l character of very large c i t i e s . "Land use" was considered to be the most p r a o t i c a l approach to delimiting the central business d i s t r i c t . Some of the conclusions of the study are presented here to emphasize certain generally accepted phenomena regarding the CBD, and also to bring to l i g h t certain s i g n i f i c a n t facts which are valuable i n the search for h e l i p o r t locations. The applicable conclusions are these; 1. The land uses t y p i c a l of the CBD, the ones which are t r u l y "central business" i n character, are of f i c e s and r e t a i l outlets for goods and services. 2. The CBD, more than any other business area of the c i t y , serves the entire community rather than any one part of the c i t y or any one ethnic group. #17 - R.E. Murphy and J.E.Vance, "Delimiting the Central Business D i s t r i c t , " Economic Geography, Vol. 30, Ho. 3, 1954, pp. 189-222. The study was subse-quently published i n a separate volume. 19. 3. The current demand for o f f i c e space i n CBD's i s focused upon new, high o f f i c e buildings. (This was especially noticed i n the new c i t i e s of Tulsa, Oklahoma, and Phoenix). 4. There seems to be a type of new Western City, b u i l t e s s e n t i a l l y on a single plane, but having a few peaks of t a l l buildings for o f f i c e s , hotels and department stores. #18 - I f Vancouver, B.C. i s considered as one of these newer Western c i t i e s , then Murphy's assumption does not hold e n t i r e l y true. For, although there are r e l a t i v e l y few " t a l l " buildings, the majority of the buildings i n the CBD are not on a single plane, but are more "intermediate" i n height. The average height being somewhere between two and four s t o r i e s . Therefore, Vancouver could be considered as having a d i s t r i b u t i o n of t a l l , medium and single-storey buildings clustered i n r e l a t i v e l y close proximity. I t i s int e r e s t i n g to note, however, that of the three new and t a l l e s t buildings erected i n Vancouver i n the past three years, two are exclusive o f f i c e buildings and the t h i r d i s the administration centre of one large u t i l i t y corporation. A l l three buildings are l o -cated some distance from the peak land value^inter-seotion, the one being two blocks awayjthe others several blocks further away, but a l l three i n the area west of the intersection. 20. 5. The CBD has oeased to be e n t i r e l y a "walk-ing zone". I t has acquired outer seotions that are, i n part, "automobile orientated zones". 6. In most c i t i e s the position of the peak land value intersection has shifted at one time or another, but where i t corresponds to a p a r t i c u -l a r l y w e l l developed route focus the peak point may remain stable f o r a long time. Reviewing the land uses that have been considered i n t h i s section, certain fundamental facts are evident and pertain to the investigation of land use as i t affects the generation o f i f c r a f f i c . The central d i s t r i c t functions serve the whole metropolitan area, consequently they a t t r a c t persons from a l l parts of the met-ropolitan. These persons have come to t h i s area for p a r t i c u l a r reasons, and have a certain number of destinations which they i n -tend to or w i l l v i s i t . They a r r i v e i n the central d i s t r i c t by private auto or public t r a n s i t after connecting onto major through-routes which converge i n the central business d i s t r i c t . Therefore, the CBD i s the f o c a l point of transportation- routes, i t s centre or certain areas close to i t experiencing the heaviest density of passengers and vehicles seen i n any area of i t s size w i t h i n the whole metropolitan area. Within t h i s central d i s t r i c t i s found an area, where persons p r i n c i p a l l y walk between establishments they wish to v i s i t . The trend toward a few high buildings i n the 21. CBD, for,purposes of business o f f i c e s and department stores, should i be noted. I t i s of interest to note that the 3 new " t a l l " buildings i n the Vancouver CBD are located more i n the outlying auto-orient-ated area. Although Murphy's study claims the new Western c i t y i s more a two-size physical v a r i a t i o n - high . buildings and single-storey buildings, Vancouver displays a s i g n i f i c a n t array of medium-storey buildings within the core area. Economics seem to indicate the necessity for the construction of higher bu ildings i n t h i s ex-tremely high land value area. The fourth building, newly opened i n the midst of the Vancouver Core Area, i s a five-storey building housing a bank on the main f l o o r and devoting the. four upper fl o o r s to administrative o f f i c e s . The "walking zone" generally contains r e t a i l sales and ser-vice establishments, o f f i c e s , f i n a n c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s and public entertainment f a c i l i t i e s . The area immediately next to t h i s close walking zone but s t i l l a s i g n i f i c a n t part of the central business d i s t r i c t i s orientated more toward the automobile and other trans-port vhioles and can be considered a t r a n s i t i o n zone which i s 19 auto-orientated. Less dense pedestrian t r a f f i c i s observed and 19- Murphy & Vance f e l t that the area beyond a distance of 400 yards from the peak land value intersection ended the walking zone, and was oriented towards the auto. The walking and auto-oriented zones are discussed further on page 99 22. and the establishments located here do not necessarily cater to the pedestrian. The zone of t r a n s i t i o n contains large numbers of wholesalers (with and without stooks), manufacturers and i n -dustries. These firms are generally located i n the older, m u l t i -storied buildings. Before considering the changing trends i n land use and the movement of the central business d i s t r i c t , i t i s necessary to consider the establishments that exist there i n more d e t a i l , i n order to arrive at a more s i g n i f i c a n t conception of the CBD. C - ESTABLISHMENTS IE THE CENTRAL BUSINESS DISTRICT In considering establishments i n more d e t a i l i t i s necess-ary f i r s t to define the terms "establishment" and "land use", so that they are considered separately, or at least as integral; parts of the t o t a l central business d i s t r i c t . For the purposes of t h i s 20 study, the de f i n i t i o n s w i l l be those used by Rannells. Establishment; Individuals or groups using a def i n i t e location as a reoogniz-able place of business, residence, government, or assembly. Land use; Repeated a c t i v i t i e s of individuals and establishments as they relate to the use of space at fixed locations and among these locations. 20 - J. Rannells, The Core of the City (Columbia University Press, New York, 1956) p. 11. 23. In the progressive approach to the understanding of land use within the central d i s t r i c t the establishments i t contains must be observed, ^he following ten characteristics apply to establishments found i n the CBD's of p r a c t i c a l l y every metropoli-tan c i t y i n North America. 1. The establishments are of a l l ages. 2. Old arid new establishments are found side by side. 3. New buildings with the most up-to-date services and advantages of location naturally command the highest rents, and the very appearance of the more suooessful of these buildings becomes a symbol of t h e i r desirable q u a l i t i e s . 4. Well-looated older buildings can main-t a i n f a i r l y high rents by modernizing t h e i r services and a l t e r i n g t h e i r ap-pearance to accord with what i s expected of them. 5. In outmoded locations the same kind of older buildings continue to serve a less demanding group of establishments at rentals which t h e i r operators can support. 24. 6. In a general way the quantity and qual- i t y and cost of accommodations provide'd-hy the stock of buildings i n an established business d i s t r i c t a l l go on adjusting to the requirements of the entire array of establishments that use them. 7. ^ e "front-and-fixture" alterations of establishments i n the central d i s t r i c t have been s i g n i f i c a n t . This means of keep-ing up with t h e i r symbols i s most generally applied to "frontage" establishments, thus highlighting the enormous differences be-tween ground space, accessible from the street, and upper f l o o r space. These d i f -ferences are so marked that there may be l i t t l e or no connection between the ground-fl o o r and upper-floor establishments, (^or example, hotels., o f f i c e buildings, apart-ment houses, - these a l l have much the same assortment of r e t a i l shops and small servioe establishments at the ground level.) 8. Old r e s i d e n t i a l structures are always present i n the centre of any c i t y , and provide a reservoir of space which oan be adapted to the needs of the more v o l a t i l e elements of central a c t i v i t i e s . The d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n of a c t i v i t i e s oarried on by present-day urban establishments has been brought about largely by technological advances-i n production, communication and transportation. (a) Improved production: - This affects the i n t e r n a l space requirements of manufacturing e s t a b l i shment s. - I t forces some types of manu-facturing out of the central business d i s t r i c t . (b) Improved communication: - This has largely released the same a c t i v i t i e s from the necess-i t y of locating near each other for the exchange of information. - Business organizations are now more free to locate each of t h e i r separate a c t i v i t i e s i n a place suited to i t s p a r t i c u l a r needs. 26. (c) Improved transportation: - Especially i n trucking. - This figures l a r g e l y i n the changes taking plaoe i n the location patterns of a c t i v i t i e s which are related to each other. 10. In addition to the technological advantages, changes taking place i n the very organization or the a c t i v i t i e s themselves are potent factors i n the re-alignment of establishments and l i n k -ages among them. Although the central d i s t r i c t contains a great profusion of establishments, t h i s study w i l l deal exclusively with p a r t i c u -l a r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s of establishments. By considering groups of establishments i t becomes easier to relate t h e i r locations to s i g -n i f i c a n t areas of the CBD, and to note the s p a t i a l relationships and linkages whioh e x i s t between them. I f groups of est a b l i s h -ments and t h e i r relationships with one another are observed, and the type of t r a f f i c generated by such groups i s superimposed over t h i s pattern, i t may be possible to choose certain s i t e s for h e l i -ports which intimately connect certain major interchange areas. 21 - Ibid. Chap. V, "Land Use i n Central Business D i s t r i c t s . " The ten characteristics include various factors presented i n t h i s chapter. 27. Various c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s of central business d i s t r i c t es-tablishments have been made. The following are representative and w i l l be considered for t h i s study: 2 2 1. Standard Industrial C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Manual; (a) Manufacturing. (b) Wholesale trade. (c) R e t a i l trade. (d) Business services. - including finance, insurance, r e a l estate. (e) Personal services. (f) Transportation, communication and other public u t i l i t i e s . 2. The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n for the- CBD established by the Philadelphia City Planning Commission, Philadelphia, Pa., f o r t h e i r studies of 1934 and 1949. 2^ 22 - Bureau of the Budget, (Washington, D.C.) Vol. 1, 1945i Vol. I I , 1949. 23 - Ibid. p. 125. 28. (a) Manufacturing. (b) iNholesaling. (o) Business services. (d) Consumer services. (e) R e t a i l i n g . 3. The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of establishments i n the CBD has been broadly divided into three sections i n the study by Mu'rphy and Vance. 24 These are: (a) Establishments present and apparently t y p i c a l : - restaurants - women's clothing - men's clothing - furniture (high & medium class) - hardware & appliances - banks - insuranoe and r e a l estate - personal services (barbers, beauticians, etc.) - clothing service. - department stores - 5# and 100 stores - drug stores - jewellery & g i f t stores - amusement establishments - general o f f i c e s - commercial parking - hotels & other transient lodging. 24 - See R.E. Murphy & J.E. Vance, op.cit.pp.189-222. 29. GO Establishments rare enough to be-absent, or e s s e n t i a l l y so, from one or more of the central business d i s t r i c t s : - supermarkets r a i l r o a d stations - auto sales bus stations - service stations residences - accessory, t i r e and i n d u s t r i a l battery sales wholesale - newspaper publishing headquarters o f f i c e s (c) Establishments occupying substantial spaoe i n a l l C.B.D. *s, but not t y p i c a l central business land use: - public land and buildings - organizational and charitable i n s t i t u t i o n s - vaoant building or l o t space. Although Murphy's study has value i n i t s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of types of establishments, i t i s limited to the extent that the c r i t e r i a used were: "that the only establishments that are t r u l y •central business' i n character are offioes and r e t a i l outlets for goods and services". However, the establishments that are l i s t e d under the three headings could a c t u a l l y be rearranged to give consumer service, business service, and r e t a i l i n g groups, and also o f f i c e and f i n a n c i a l groups. Therefore Murphy's study 30. proves i t s value to t h i s study i n c i t i n g those t y p i o a l establish-ments found i n the core of the CBD, as w e l l as other types occas-i o n a l l y found, and those types considered as being;,non-central business i n function. For the purpose of t h i s study the following c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of groups of establishments w i l l be used i n o r d e r t o simplify the approach as much as possible, and i n recognition of the fact that the CBD i s a number of clusters of certain types of establishments, ^he groups are: 1. R e t a i l i n g . 2. Consumer services. 3. Business services. 4. Wholesaling. 5. Manuf actur ing. Having considered land uses and establishments i n the cen-t r a l business d i s t r i c t , as observed by various researchers, we now turn to the more dynamic aspects of the central d i s t r i c t ; that i s , the trends of development i n certain areas, the c e n t r a l i z a t i o n and decentralization of establishments, new types of structures and values, and the physical movement of the peak land value within t h i s central d i s t r i c t . CHAPTER I I I CHANGING TRENDS IN THE CENTRAL BUSINESS DISTRICT The Central business d i s t r i c t i s a dynamic area i n which the most stable elements are the buildings, the streets and the u t i l i t y services present. The establishments present are constant-l y changing i n t h e i r i n t e r n a l operations and i n t h e i r actual l o -cations. Movement of the peak land value point i n the central 25 business d i s t r i c t i s generally seen as following three di r e c t i o n s : 1. I t may move along the same street. 2. I t may turn up another street. 5. I t may jump over to a new location some distance away from i t s o r i g i n , but s t i l l w e l l within the recognizable central business d i s t r i c t . The "residue area" l e f t behind by the movement of the centre of the central business d i s t r i c t progressively reduces i n quality and i s generally considered a poor q u a l i t y area, especially for r e t a i l sales. However, the stigma of a poor quality area, though i t may apply to r e t a i l sales establishments, does not necessarily apply to the many other types of establishments that make up the t o t a l functions present. The residue area, because i t s t i l l has buildings i t formerly had, experiences different tenants. The firms 25 - The "Peak Land Value Point" or "intersection" i s generally considered as the point of highest' land assessment for l o c a l taxation purposes, and therefore i s also the highest priced land. 32. observed i n t h i s area are cheaper q u a l i t y r e t a i l outlets, r e t a i l services, manufacturers, i n d u s t r i a l firms, business services, cheap hotels, night clubs and- entertainment spots. There are very few new buildings constructed i n t h i s area. The old CBD area contains a large r e s i d e n t i a l settlement and some new residents are attracted. Many former business b u i l d -ings are converted into dwellings, and, because of the poor con-d i t i o n of the buildings, low rents are asked; consequently, persons of low income who cannot afford to l i v e elsewhere are attracted to i t . I t also becomes an area of s o c i a l problems. Alcoholics, drug addicts, old age pensioners, new immigrants, and well-established immigrant groups are present. The area becomes a c o n f l i c t area, not only by i t s high incidence of orime, but also because f r i c t i o n appears between the di f f e r e n t groups present, i n p a r t i c u l a r where immigrant groups of vastl y different c u l t u r a l and s o c i a l backgrounds are grouped side-by-side. The new centre of the CBD created by the movement of the peak land value point, generally contains the establishments- of the "best q u a l i t y " i n the CBD. The buildings are new, the designs contemporary, and there i s the v i t a l i t y of the area which a t t r a c t s those firms who can pay the high rents and land costs that are de-manded. Many inter-related factors, however, determine the types of establishments that are found i n t h i s new area, and they are . 33. discussed i n more d e t a i l further on. This area, assumed to be the centre of r e t a i l sales establishments, attracts the heaviest density of pedestrian t r a f f i c as well as vehicular t r a f f i c . Consequently, a cluster of certain types of smaller r e t a i l and service stores appear, each catering to a specialty as a rule, and together reaping the benefits created by the dense movement of pedestrians among the large stores. The area has i n i t s immediate v i c i n i t y better q u a l i t y hotels and entertainment establishments. The movement of the CBD i s said to move i n various directions for certain reasons: For examplej Murphy states that the CBD moves towards high class r e s i d e n t i a l areas as a repulsion to the deteriorated 26 conditions that exist i n the old CBD area. Bogue states that the CBD i s sttracted i n the d i r e c t i o n of the homes of the City's leading 27 business executives. These explanations are a l l plausible, although no study has yet shown conclusively that any of these factors are de-termining. I t i s not s u f f i c i e n t to consider only l o c a l factors as being t o t a l l y responsible f o r the c a t a l y t i c e f f e c t . Of equal importance i s the effect of the t o t a l national economy, as well as the international economy, and also the haphazard action and f a t u i t y of the r e a l estate i n s t i t u t i o n i t s e l f . 26 - See R.E. Murphy and J.E.Vance, Op.Cit.pp 189-222 27 - See Donald J. Bogue, Population Growth i n Standard Metropolitan Areas, 1900-1950. 36. T r a f f i c congestion i n p a r t i c u l a r has a s i g n i f i c a n t influence on the movement of the CBD, for nowhere i n the balance of the city-i s there so much vehicular and pedestrian t r a f f i c compacted into so small an area throughout the day and w e l l into the night. As ve-hicu l a r t r a f f i c increases, certain business establishments w i l l ex-perience either a loss or a change i n the type of customer they a t t r a c t . The inconvenience of having t o drive some distance further to pull:, into a pay-park area may influence the would-be shopper to shop elsewhere, where i t i s more convenient. E n c i r c l i n g the r e t a i l establishments that cluster about the peak land value point of the C.B.D. are a maze of establishments representing many diff e r e n t types of a c t i v i t i e s . These mainly con-s i s t of wholesalers, manufacturere, service-to-industry firms, and public establishments of various kinds. They form the almost unseen portion of the C.B.D., but they, create two t r a f f i c generating con-ditions which affect the whole of the C.B.D. 1. They generate dense vehicular t r a f f i c , p a r t i c u l a r l y truck t r a f f i c . 2. They generate a large labour force which streams into the central area i n the early morning and disperses out again i n the late afternoon. In addition, through-out the day, persons on some form of business either walk or drive within the C.B.D. 37. The result of these two conditions i s heavy t r a f f i c , mostly private autos, between 7 A.M. and 9 A.M., followed by r e l a t i v e l y heavy truck and auto t r a f f i c throughout the day, and ending with the heavy flow of private auto t r a f f i c heading home between 4 P.M. and 6 P.M.. To add to these t r a f f i c conditions, certain other forms of vehicular t r a f f i c e x i s t over t h i s time period: 1. Public t r a n s i t vehicles. 2. Shoppers and sight-seers autos. 3. Autos driven by persons on some form of business. 4. Vehicles passing through the CBD destined to various points i n the greater metropolitan area. Because of the dense vehicular movement present, i t imposes a negative effect, on.the r e t a i l area of the CBD. The vehicular movement comes i n c o n f l i c t with pedestrian movement. The t r a f f i c c o n f l i c t tends to change the shopping pattern and i n many oases i t causes would-be downtown shoppers to by-pass the CBD i n favour of the outlying modern shopping centres. However, recent studies i n d i -cate that the CBD s t i l l attracts the majority of shoppers purchasing major household appliances and family needs, and that the outlying 28 areas are favoured for supplying the everyday needs. There has been a great deal of interest l a t e l y i n the possi-b i l i t y of introducing a monorail t r a n s i t system which would carry 28 - See Pages 47-54. 29 - Vanoouver Province, (Vancouver, B.C., Sept.13, 1957,p.17. 38. commuters into the CBD from the surrounding metropolitan area. 2^ Tlie monorail i s not a new idea but only a v a r i a t i o n of the elec-t r i c t r o l l e y , e l e c t r i c street oar, overhead railway, and the e l e c t r i c subway railway. However, the fact that i t may be sus-pended above the street gives the monorail some decided advant-ages i n that i t does not c o n f l i c t with ground vehicular t r a f f i c to any large degree. But, as many c i t i e s are experiencing today, an increase i n public t r a n s i t f a c i l i t i e s does not increase the proportion of persons using those f a c i l i t i e s , and, i n fact, the private auto i s appearing i n greater numbers each year. Whether changing levels of prosperity i n the country as a whole w i l l change t h i s phenomenon i s not known, nor i s i t possible to assess accurately the systems of values of persons which appear i n part i n the purchase of automobiles. The private auto has become a desirable possession to the i n d i v i d u a l and any vehicular t r a f f i c planning, especially w i t h i n the CBD, must consider the increasing number of private autos and t h e i r affect on that area. The foregoing i s an attempt to picture i n a broad way changing trends observed within the central d i s t r i c t . I t i s necessary now to examine i n greater d e t a i l the actual changes i n land use and establishments. The changing trends of establishments and the move-29 - Vancouver Province, (Vancouver, B.C.,Sept.13,1957,p.17 30 - See Wilfred Owen, The Metropolitan Transportation Problem. 39. ment of the CBD are probably the most important elements i n the consideration of potential t r a f f i c for helicopters, and the l o -cating of h e l i p o r t s . I f a pattern of change can be observed, i t may be possible to choose certain locations for a hel i p o r t which are most compatible i n the dynamic picture. Such Heliport l o c -ations should not be obsolete i n the foreseeable future, i n re-l a t i o n to t h e i r surroundings. A - CHANGING TRENDS IN LAUD USE: In considering t h i s question, i t i s necessary to assume that i t i s possible to guide changes i n land use and t r a f f i c . Certain techniques have been available to the planner and he has been able to put them into effect with a certain degree of success. As private development i s the major form of change i n land use i n the CBD, public action and control can influence i t s nature, timing, and location. This public action and control can be re-alize d through the use of the following techniques, either inde-pendently or i n combination: - zoning - building regulations - redevelopment of blighted areas - construction of highways and t r a n s i t l i n e s - provision of i n d u s t r i a l f a c i l i t i e s - provision of services and u t i l i t i e s . 40. The c i t y may achieve greatest success i n i t s attempt to create a desired land use pattern by the careful planning of i t s i n t e r n a l highway system and t r a n s i t system; however}.- other p o s s i b i l i t i e s maybe equally successful. What i s of value to not f o r t h i s study i s that public action and control i s able to influence land use to a considerable extent, and therefore, as sound planning l e g i s l a t i o n becomes adopted into c i t y p o l i c y , immediately a measure of control over land use has been created. It indicates further, that future land use can be controlled and direoted by the system of public control, s t i l l allowing s u f f i c i e n t freedom for the operation of private enterprise; In attempting to describe the change i n patterns of land use i n the C.B.D., i t i s necessary to note the process of urban land u t i l i z a t i o n . In Urban T r a f f i c , M i t c h e l l an d Rapkin suggest that a parcel of land must experience three major improvements before i t s physical u t i l i z a t i o n i s oomplete: 1. The parcel must be improved to the needs of the anticipated user. - by improved services and f a c i l i t i e s . - by demolition, i f t h i s i s necessary. 2. The parcel i s further improved by construction or al t e r a t i o n . - t h i s constitutes a unit of r e a l e state, but i t i s not yet "land use". 41. 3. The occupancy of the land and the building space. - the physical u t i l i z a t i o n of the parcel i s complete. - the occupants may change from time to time without further a l t e r a t i o n of the 31 space required. Throughout the entire three steps of improvement the oom-plex process of land u t i l i z a t i o n i s subject to competition for s p e c i f i c locations among the would-be users. And the whole pro-cess i s subject to the delaying e f f e c t of p r i o r rights held on ' the land. Without owner approval the parcel remains as i t was, unless l o c a l government action or some other force compels the improvement. Therefore, the change i n land use of a s p e c i f i c parcel i s mainly the result of the conscious decision of i t s owner, which may be influenced d i r e c t l y or i n d i r e c t l y by the actions of the r e a l estate market. For future planning purposes, then, i t would seem impossible to forecast changes i n the land use of a parcel of land unless some dir e c t public action i s fore-seen. Changes i n the available supply of space through the con-struction of new buildings causes a.change i n land use. M i t c h e l l and Rapkin make these observations: 31 - Urban T r a f f i c , p. 15 42. "One of the most dramatic and readily observable factors i n land use change i s to be found i n the construction of new buildings. As a rule, the new building i s put to a different use than the structures that previously occupied the s i t e . Occasionally the general category of use i s the same, but there are differences i n quality. A new building has the following e f f e c t s : (Addition-a l space seems to f a c i l i t a t e the working out of other forces i n process). 1. Additional space i s made available for the firms present and f o r new firms coming i n . 2. Often the building provides a more strategic location for e x i s t i n g firms and f o r the est-imated movement requirements of new estab-lishments. 3. A "one-establishment" building has generally had a choice of location according to i t s movement requirements. 4. Establishments attracted into the new b u i l d -ings (often by the quality and prestige associated with i t ) may form new f o c i of a c t i v i t i e s previously located elsewhere. 5 . Establishments d i r e c t l y or i n d i r e c t l y linked w i l l be attracted to the new concentrations". (Often buildings are b u i l t with suitable f a c i l i t i e s f o r the linked uses. For example, variety service shops on the main f l o o r of an of f i c e building who require walk-in customers). Rannells considers buildings and the accommodations supplied by the addition of buildings i n the following way: "The most permanent things i n the C.B.D. are the buildings themselves. Buildings are constructed, as a rule, i n 32 - Ibid. pp. 127-8. 43. response to demaid for accommodations beyond those available i n the exi s t i n g structures. "New buildings r e f l e c t well-established a c t i v i t i e s of t h e i r prospective users. These are usually a c t i v i t i e s such as are current i n the older buildings. "Commercial buildings, by far the greatest bulk of C.B.D. construction, are most frequently b u i l t i n the midst of an e x i s t i n g concentration i n order to capit-a l i z e on the advantages of a location proved to- be successful New and used buildings are thus i n competition for tenants, although not e n t i r e l y for the same ones. New buildings supply the needs of those best able to lease new (and expensive) space, while similar older buildings f i n d themselves, i n time, with tenants of "lower type" than the buildings-were designed f o r . Meanwhile, new assortments of tenants are always being formed by the continually changing ways of doing business which are chara c t e r i s t i c of commercial e n t e r p r i z e s . " ^ What becomes apparent i n the observations of M i t c h e l l and Rapkin i s that new buildings tend to attra c t firms of higher quality than may have previously been found on or near the par-t i c u l a r s i t e . Also, i t i s seen that these new establishments generally stand to gain i n t h e i r new location; and as a b i -product of t h e i r i n f l u x , attract into the area certain e s t a b l i s h -ments which may be linked to them i n some manner. The new l o -cation may also give the establishment a better orientation to the types of establishments i t caters t o . Of course, here again, many exceptions e x i s t . What i s evident, however, i s that the new 33 - The Core of the City, pp. 41-2 44. building which i s to cater to a p a r t i c u l a r group of establishments has the effect of re-arranging the land use i n the immediate area to a condition which i s compatible t o the new establishments„which occupy the buildings. Also s i g n i f i c a n t i s the observation that new buildings are most frequently b u i l t i n the midst of an e x i s t i n g concentration of buildingSj t h i s indicates the degree of s t a b i l i t y the CBD enjoys. However, new buildings are often b u i l t in:: the re s i d e n t i a l areas immediately adjacent to the concentrated CBD, and t h i s abnormality s i g n i f i c a n t l y changes the land use trend of par t i c u l a r establishments. In considering the construction of a building for e s t a b l i s h -ments and the effect that t h i s building has on i t s surroundings, Rannells observes that: "Old buildings are re-altered and new buildings are b u i l t as in d i v i d u a l projects, and there i s l i t t l e to no consideration of the effects such buildings might have on the former s i t u a t i o n that t h i s p a r t i c u l a r area had enjoyed;. Some of the problems that arise are: 1. I f a new building i s set-up, there i s no concern for the facancies or loss i n land value that might result to the area from which the new tenants came. 2. The ove r a l l e f f i c i e n c y of a l o c a l area may be upset by dis l o c a t i o n of i t s service est-ablishments which cannot afford the higher rents brought about by new construction. 45. 3. The harmful effeots of t r a f f i c congestion „ 34 resulting from overbuilding . A l l three problems ci t e d here bear s i g n i f i c a n t l y on the change i n land use which an area might experience. What appears as the major problem i s that the new construction or re-a l t e r a t i o n of buildings i s not controlled or r e s t r i c t e d by any l e g i s l a t i v e power which i s considering the. effeot that such changes might have on the other functions which together comprise the CBD. However, here i t may be argued that r t would be impossible to control private development beyond the control imposed by standard zoning for certain purposes. Within these "zoned" areas establishments have the righ t , and are required, to continually adjust t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s i n order to remain com-p e t i t i v e i n t h e i r business operation. Summarizing the changing trends i n land use, certain features are outstanding: 1. Land use can be s i g n i f i c a n t l y influenced by various forms of public action and control. 2. The owner of a parcel of land and the b u i l d -ings thereon, largely controls what future land use h i s property could have. However, various external factors could actually control the 34 - Ibid. p. 41. 46. type of land use his property i s experienoying at present. 3. New buildings give establishments a d e f i n i t e location and accommodation advantage. 4. Buildings are r e l a t i v e l y permanent and f i x e d ; establishments are continually changing through the process of adjustment. 5. New and altered buildings can seriously disturb the land use pattern which has developed i n a pa r t i c u l a r area, as w e l l as i n the area from which the tenants came. B - The Changing Trends of Establishments I t i s necessary now to consider the establishments which make the physical u t i l i z a t i o n of buildings and the parcels of land on which they stand complete. The establishments represent the land use of an area, and therefore they are of basic interest to t h i s study. I t i s the establishment that creates the genera-t i o n of persons and goods movement, and w i l l determine where a he l i p o r t might be placed to serve i t most usefully and conveni-ently. As i t i s a highly mobile and vulnerable being, the estab-lishment evades any p o s s i b i l i t y of being a static- form of land use, and therefore presents the planner with the problem of at-tempting to forecast i t s movements - or i t s adjustments. 47. Elaborating on the physical setting of establishments, Eannells states-"Patterns of buildings and streets and other improve-ments on land are r e l a t i v e l y permanent i n comparison with the groupings of establishments which they accommodate. The groupings appear and change as re-quirements for different kinds of a c t i v i t i e s are modified and as establishments are formed and dissolved. A great deal of s h i f t i n g of. a c t i v i t i e s among ex i s t i n g accommodations goes on continually, while a r e l a t i v e l y small proportion of establishments are set up i n newly constructed buildings i n any given period'.. Additions to the public works or public f a c i l i t i e s r p l a n t i n any one period are also f r a c t i o n a l modifications of e x i s t -ing f a c i l i t i e s . The predominant si t u a t i o n i s that of new a c t i v i t i e s adjusting to the physical accommodations as they exist."35 In analyzing establishments i n action, t h e i r requirements for space and l o c a t i o n are determined by both i n t e r n a l and external a c t i v i t i e s , that i s , by the a c t i v i t i e s carried on within'-ieaoh est-ablishment and by i t s relationships and interactions with others. Rannells considers in t e r n a l and external a c t i v i t i e s i n the follow-ing manner: 1. The i n t e r n a l a c t i v i t i e s of establishments; Space requirements brought about by a c t i v i t i e s carried on within the establishment are met by: - frontage, or shipping f a c i l i t i e s - o f f i c e , factory and display space. These are generally f u l f i l l e d by the c i t y ' s present supply of buildings. 35 - Ibid. p. 50 48. 2. The external a c t i v i t i e s of establishments; Location requirements are met by: - physical setting i n which the building i s placed. - the services available. - the combination of a c t i v i t i e s engaged i n by near-by establishments.-^ - nearness to transportation or to markets. - linkages to various establishments nearby or distant. - whether they are suppliers or competitors or customers. - the presumed value of prestige of a good address. It i s inevitable that the requirements change more rapidly than the great bulk of the accommodations can be adapted, and i t frequently happens that one set of requirements i s better s a t i s -f i e d than another. Therefore, the patterns, on the land use map, taken by different categories of establishments are largely i n -fluenced by t h e i r external a c t i v i t i e s . This often produces the deviation from the normal d i s t r i b u t i o n of establishments observed when a group of establishments moves away from accommodations which are e n t i r e l y suitable for t h e i r i n t e r n a l a c t i v i t i e s . There-36 - Ibid. p. 39 49. fore, i t becomes apparent that the location requirements of an establishment, i t s e x t e r n a l - a c t i v i t y area, causes i t s movement, and consequently, the dynamic nature of the central business d i s t r i c t . Considering the changes i n land use caused by the a c t i v i -t i e s of establishments at a given location, M i t c h e l l and Rapkin suggest that two prominant changes are s i g n i f i c a n t : 1. Land use change comes about through changes that occur i n t e r n a l l y i n an establishment that remains established at a given s i t e . (For example, re-t a i l stores have responded to a shift!- i n compos-i t i o n of t r a f f i c passing the establishments.) 2. The subdivision of functions and the removal of one or more of the functions to other locations more suited to t h e i r movement requirements. The loc a t i o n a l change of certain f u n c t i o n s may be necessary because : - the land uses may be incompatable. 37 - the pattern of linkages may have changed. What might have been a manufacturing area at one time may now be an administrative d i s t r i c t offupied by the main o f f i c e s of the manufacturing firms. Summarizing the changing trends of establishments, four factors carry considerable weight: 37 - Urban T r a f f i c , p. 122 1. Hew establishments must adjust to the physical accommodations as they e x i s t . That i s , the "concentrated" nature of the C.B.D. remains, i n effect, i n perpetuity. Dispersion of the es-tablishments from t h i s concentration i s very limi t e d . 2. The loc a t i o n a l requirements of an establishme nt are most important to i t . This can change the land use of a given area most s i g n i f i c a n t l y . I t may cause a group of establishments to move out of an area suitable to them i n t h e i r i n t e r n a l operations, but unsuitable location-wise. 3 . The amount of pedestrian and vehicular t r a f f i c passing a given establishment may cause a ohange i n the establishments' i n t e r n a l a c t i v i t i e s } that i s , an in t e r n a l adjustment to external uncon-t r o l l a b l e events. 4. The removal of the incompatible and inadequately linked functions of an establishment out of the CBD, leaving behind those functions which benefit most by t h i s location$ that i s , mainly the adminis-t r a t i v e and oontrol sections of i n d u s t r i a l and manufacturing establishments. 51. C - ATTEMPTS TO REVIVE TEE CENTRAL BUSINESS DISTRICT: This section may have equally bean captioned "the war against the outlying shopping centre". In a study of "The Dovmtown Area", Business VTeek views the CBD i n t h i s way: "....the very things that make the down-town what i t i s , help to destroy i t i n the end - namely , people and t r a f f i c . " This i s the problem the merchants of the CBD, and the l o c a l government face. I f the CBD i s to remain the "centre" of the c i t y , positive action must be taken to per-petuate i t s esteemed po s i t i o n . The merchants of the CBD, seriously aware of t h e i r predicament, have r a l l i e d behind the " r e v i v a l " banner i n f u l l force i n order to r e t a i n the area as the d i s t r i b -ution centre, and as a centre of a c t i v i t y , as w e l l as to guarantee t h e i r existence and investments. The "campaigners", attempting to attract people into the CBD, have used the following t a c t i c s : - One-way streets. - Off-street parking. - Merchant-sponsored parking corporations. Free bus transport for shoppers on special days. 38 - Reprinted i n Herbert L. Marx, Ed., Community Planning, (New York, 1956) p. 45. i 52. - " F a c e - l i f t i n g " programs. - M u l t i - m i l l i o n d o l l a r city-centre.shopping - areas. For example, Pittsubrgh's "Golden Triangle". - Slum clearance. - Civic improvement. - Fringe parking. Each technique i s an attempt to assure convenience and a c c e s s i b i l i t y to the person coming into the CBD. Referring further to the observati ons of Business Week, suggested four possible approaches which might be followed to produce an adequate urban renewal system f o r the C.B.D.: " 1, Get people i n and out quickly. By, - improved a c c e s s i b i l i t y . - improved street system. - s k i r t i n g expressways. 2. Give the c i t y back to the people: - create " f o o t - t r a f f i c " areas exclusive from a u t o - t r a f f i c areas. (For example, Lijnbaan Shopping Centre i n downtown Rotterdam). 3. Use the land properly: - a d i f f i c u l t approach. - involves land use, zoning, etc. - the idea i s to use each part for the purpose i t i s best suited f o r . 53. 4. Rebuild the slums that constrict the centre of town. - but 3... get away from the idea of 'Ghettos' 39 for the f i n a n c i a l l y underprivileged". The s i t u a t i o n that might evolve i n the C.B.D. iSuthat downtown f a c i l i t i e s may increasingly serve specialized needs, and the servicing of more frequent and common needs may be i n the process of transfer to peripheral areas. But one*; thing seems to figh t against the " s p e c i a l i z a t i o n " idea for C.B.D.'s; i t i s t h i s question - can the large major functions e x i s t with a decrease i n the mass of people i n the C.B.D? W i l l t h i s " s p e c i a l i z a t i o n " , to a more extreme point, cause the C.B.D. to rot away? In defense of the CBD remaining the f o c a l point of com-mercial a c t i v i t y i n the metropolitan c i t y , three studies are pres-ented as argument. The f i r s t study i s that of D.L. Foley, "The Daily Movement of Population Into the Central Business D i s t r i c t " ^ 0 . The value i n observing the persons entering the CBD l i e s 59 - H.L. Marx, Community Planning, p. 44 40 - Donald L. *'oley, "The Daily Movement of Population Into The Central Business D i s t r i c t " , American Sociological Review, Vol. 17, 1952, p. 538. 54. not only i n indicating the perpetuity or future existence of the CBD, but, more s i g n i f i c a n t l y , to show the proportion of the t o t a l metropolitan population whioh regularly or frequently enters the CBD for any of a number of reasons. In t h i s way a certain concentration of persons can be attributed to a CBD aocording to the day and time i n the week, and according to the population of the metropolitan c i t y i t s e l f . Foley's study concerned i t s e l f exclusively with the day-time population of the CBD i n middle-sized, and large American c i t i e s . T r a f f i c surveys were used as the major source of i n -formation. Sixty-three (63) c i t i e s were examined, a l l but ten (10) of which had a 1940 metropolitan population of 100,000 persons or over. The guiding question of t h i s study was: What propor-t i o n of a metropolitan population enters and accumulates i n the CBD each week day, Along with t h i s , two related questions were: How do these entry and accumulation proportions vary by c i t y size, and, how have these proportions varied with time? Three main indices were used to measure t y p i c a l week-day population movement. (See Table, p. 54B). Unfortunately, because of the lack of s u f f i c i e n t informa-t i o n regarding the c i t i e s studied, Foley was forced to rely on averages from groupings of c i t i e s , impeding di r e c t and conclusive interpretations as to time-series trends. STANDARDIZED MEASURES OF DAILY POPULATION MOVEMENT INTO CENTRAL BUSINESS DISTRICTS BY CITY SIZE "GROUPS Metropolitan », - Mean Number of Persons Per 1000 Metro. Population 1 D i s t r i c t Pop-u l a t i o n ( i n 1,000's) Entering CBD 7 a.m. - 7 p. ra. With Destination i n CBD, 7 a.m. - 7 p.m. In CBD at time of Maximum Accumulation, noon - 3 p.m. 100 - 249 665 253 115 250 - 499 558 234 114 500 - 999 481 235 108 1,000 - 1,999 274 170 90 2,000 - 2,999 213 - 52 3,000 and over 201 107 71 GROUP AVERAGES: 399 189 92 S 0 U R C E: Table 2. D. Foley, "The Daily Movement of Population into the Central Business D i s t r i c t " , American Sociological Review, Vol. 17, 1952, p. 541. N. B. ( T r a f f i c surveys for the years 1936-40, and 1946-50 were used as representative, contem-porary, and reasonably normal conditions. The war years 1941-5, were excluded since t h e i r ratios tended to be abnormally low. A l l ratios have been standardized, ( l ) adjusting for CBD acreage and (2) excludingg pedestrian entrants). 54-B DAILY POPULATION MOVEMENT INTO CENTRAL BUSINESS DISTRICTS, BY CITY SIZE.  Figure - 1. (Diagramatic Representation of Table 1, p. .54-A) 700 METROPOLITAN DISTRICT POPULATION (IN THOUSANDS) 55. Some extremely interesting findings are brought forward i n t h i s study. The variations i n the r a t i o s by c i t y size i n d i -cated broadly: (See Table p. 54A and Diagram 54B). (a) That the number of persons entering the CBD between 7 a.m. and 7 p.m. varies inversely with c i t y s i z e . (b) The destination r a t i o also varies inversely with c i t y size, but not to the extent-, that the entrance r a t i o varies. (o) Considering accumulation r a t i o s , the maximum accumulation of persons wi t h i n the CBD amounts to between S% and 12% of the metropolitan pop-ul a t i o n . (d) In general, the r a t i o of person entering the CBD: to persons with destinations i n the CBD: to maximum accumulation of persons at anytime during the day i s about 4:2:1. This ra t i o holds most true for c i t i e s having from one-haIf to one  m i l l i o n population, and varies somewhat for c i t i e s smaller or larger than t h i s . (e) A careful examination of the incomplete data, re-garding year to year trends, has suggested the following c y c l i c a l , short range variations i n the entrance r a t i o (the only r a t i o for which the most information on a h i s t o r i c a l basis i s available) during the past 30 years: (See Table 56A). i . - The entrance r a t i o dropped • during the lowest years of the' depression i n the early 1930's. i i . - After climbing back i n the period 1936-41> the r a t i o again dropped during World War I I . This drop was apparently related to trans-portation curbs, heavy war industry employ-ment with long hours, and shortages of con-sumer goods for sale, i i i - The r a t i o climbed sharply following the War, h i t t i n g a peak i n the period 1946-48 . I t has since dropped s l i g h t l y . This marked ris e following the War seems to r e f l e c t the high l e v e l of employment, shopping and other business a c t i v i t y , both within:the CBD, with i t s consequent drawing effect, and throughout the c i t y , with the result that more persons move through the CBD en route to other destin-ations. In the discussion of the findings the study produced, Foley concludes with fi v e major observations: (a) The findings support the fact that the CBD holds a po s i t i o n of v i t a l functional importance. STANDARDIZED MEASURES OF DAILY POPULATION MOVEMENTS INTO CENTRAL BUSINESS DISTRICTS, FOR CITIES LESS THAN AND MORE THAN ONE MILLION POPULATION, BY 5-YEAR PERIODS, FROM 1926-1950. Maximum Aooumulation i n CBD Time Less than 1 M i l l i o n 1 M i l l i o n Pop. Less Than 1 M i l l i o n 1 M i l l i o n Pop. Periods Metro. Population or More Metro. Population or More  1926-30 411 264 102 89 1931-35 - 223 - 70 1936-40 514 224 107 68 1941-45 394 201 62 58 1946-50 622 235 118 85 Persons entering CBD 7 a.m. - 7 p.m. GROUP AVERAGES 485 229 97 74 S 0 U R C E: D. Foley, "The Daily Movement of Population into the Central Business D i s t r i c t " , American Sooiologioal Review, Vol. 17, 1952, p. 542, Table 3 (Part of). 57. Broadly, 1 person i n 5 metropolitan residents has at least one destination i n the CBD during each week-day. And 1 person i n 10 residents w i l l be found i n the CBD i n the early afternoon at peak accumulation. These figures best s u i t a metropolitan of approximately one m i l l i o n population; as c i t i e s get larger the ra t i o s tend to drop; for smaller c i t i e s the ratios tend to increase considerably. Regarding the notion that the CBD i s dispersing, t h i s study, although i t s findings are tentative, indicates that the CBD's of the largest c i t i e s (that i s , one m i l l i o n and over) are holding t h e i r own as measured by the entrance and accumulation ratios used as i n -dices, and that the CBD's of medium-sized c i t i e s (100,000 to one m i l l i o n ) are gaining. Although r e s i d e n t i a l areas, some shopping f a c i l i t i e s , and certain employment centres have indeed been d i s -persed, the CBD, today, seems to draw more persons per 1,000 metropolitan population than i t did 20 years ago ( i n the 1930's). The higher entrance ratios for the smaller c i t i e s apparently indicate a r e l a t i v e l y greater concentration of functions i n the CBD of the smaller c i t i e s . 58. The seoond study introduced here and v i t a l to the consid-eration of the "centralized" nature of the major CBD, i s that of Jonassen, i n his comparison of the downtown area to the outlying shopping centre.^ -"jonassen observed these features, " . . . . i n a l l three c i t i e s the most important disadvantage of the central business d i s t r i c t was d i f f i c u l t parking; next i n im-portance for a l l c i t i e s was too crowded; and t h i r d , t r a f f i c congestion. Respondents from a l l three c i t i e s agreed that the advantages of downtown shopping were, . . . . f i r s t , large selections of goods* second, can do several errands at one time; and t h i r d , cheaper prices. Opinions concerning suburban shopping centres were less uniform i n second and t h i r d choices, but respond-ents i n the three c i t i e s agreed that closeness to home was the chief a t t r a c t i o n the number and weight of downtown advantages seem to minimize the disadvantages of parking and t r a f f i c d i f f i c u l t i e s " . The t h i r d study concerned the a t t r a c t i o n of the Vancouver c i t y CBD for purchases of various goods and services. A sample survey of shopping habits was carried out by the Richmond Town 42 Planning Department. ( S e e accompanying Table on p. 58A). Richmond i s a municipality of some 30,000 population, located within the Vancouver Metropolitan area, and separated from i t by the Worth Arm of the Fraser River. Three bridges connect Rich-mond with the Vancouver-Burnaby-Uew Westminster areas. The sur-41 - C.T. Jonassen, • The Shopping Centre Versus Downtown, (Columbus, Ohio, 1955) pp.90-1 42 - Richmond Town Planning Department, Customer Shopping Survey, (Richmond, B.C. July 1957-Unpublished). DESTINATION OF RICHMOND SHOPPERS FOR THE THREE MAJOR TYPES OF HOUSEHOLD COMMODITIES Item Vancouver City (Larue CBD) Richmond Mun. (Suburban) Burnaby (Suburban) New Westminster (CBD) Other Areas (Suburban) 1. Family Groceries 12.5$ 80.3$ 1.7$ 5.5$ 0$ 2. Family Clothing 73.2% 12.556 3.6$ 10.1$ 0.6$ . 3. Large Householc Appliances. I 69.6$ 16.0$ 3.0$ 10.7$ 0.7$ SOURCE; Richmond Town Planning Department, "Customer Shopping Survey" (Richmond, B.C., July, 1957.) 59. vey results show the degree of a t t r a c t i o n that the large CBD has; only family groceries (that i s , "convenience goods") were purchased l o c a l l y i n large amounts. The amount of shopping done i n other municipalities i s also indicated, again emphasizing the a t t r a c t i o n of the large CBD for major purchases. The most si g n i f i c a n t reasons expressed by the majority of Richmond shoppers as to why they preferred buying i n the Vancouver CBD.were these; 1. It has large department stores. 2. I t has the best variety i n goods, quality, and prices. (That i s , the large CBD s a t i s f i e s more tastes and pocket books than any other area.) 5. I t has sales and bargains every business day of the year. 4. There i s convenient t r a n s i t service into the CBD from most points i n Richmond. 5. I t has many second-hand stores. As a concluding part to the discussion of changing trends i n the C3D, i t i s of importance to consider defense measures. In t h i s age of atom bombs and intercontinental missiles i t i s only natural to assume that should h o s t i l i t y break out between nations the major attack areas would be m i l i t a r y i n s t a l l a t i o n s and c i t i e s -especially the central area which i n effect controls the functions of the whole metropolitan region. To plan for atomic warfare may 60. seem a f u t i l e approach. However, some general comments can be made. D - DEFENSE CONSIDERATIONS ~ A CASE FOR DECENTRALIZATION: It i s said that to the extent that c i t i e s are vulnerable to enemy attach, the nation i s vulnerable. New weapons can sud-denly wipe out large urban areas. This leaves one shuddering at the sight of a densely built-up central business d i s t r i c t which i s , i n many instances, the regional centre of operations. I f the CBD was suddenly d emolished, chaos would r e s u l t . The concern i s brought forward i n the B u l l e t i n of the Atomic Sci e n t i s t s i n which i s stated: "There must be some balanced size of a c i t y (and par-t i c u l a r l y the CBD) to provide an optimum combination of immunity to damage from airborne weapons, and ef f i c i e n c y and economy i n producing the goods and servioes, and amenities of modern urban living".43 I t i s evident from t h i s a r t i c l e that the U.S. Government w i l l es-t a b l i s h governmental firms i n extra-central d i s t r i c t locations, to avoid the v u l n e r a b i l i t y of attack on one densely built-up area where a l l the f a c i l i t i e s e x i s t . The American Society of Planning O f f i c i a l s has urged the U.S. Federal Government to "provide strong and continuing leader-ship i n t h i s f i e l d , and to recognize reduction of v u l n e r a b i l i t y as a prime consideration i n a l l construction and development pro-jects which i t undertakes, or for which i t provides f i n a n c i a l or 43 - Reprinted i n Community Planning, p. 57 61. 44 other assistance." This could mean an exodus of certain establishments from the CBD, and could oause a serious disruption i n the land use pattern set-up and functioning there. However, the exodus of government "orientated" establishments which may be affected by a pol i c y of dispersion may not disrupt the land use of the CBD i n a negative way, but may only require another adjustment phase by the establishments remaining. However, what must be remembered i s that a real threat of attack by nuclear weapons could cause an h y s t e r i c a l exodus of CBD establishments, with the r e s u l t i n g p a r a l -y s i s of central d i s t r i b u t i o n and service functions. Having considered land use and establishments, and t h e i r a b i l i t y to adjust to the di f f e r e n t circumstances created by the central business d i s t r i c t , i t i s now necessary to consider the re-lationships that e x i s t between establishments. This introduces the concept of linkages. In the following chapter we w i l l consider linkage as i t i s applied to nucleations of establishments, and the s p a t i a l relationships between these nucleations. 44 - Ibid. p. 58 CHAPTER IV LINKAGES IN THE CENTRAL BUSINESS DISTRICT 62. H i s t o r i c a l l y , the central business d i s t r i c t , the e a r l i e r "market centre", has contained two p a r t i c u l a r types of e s t a b l i s h -ments : 1. The s e l l e r s or traders of produce. 2. The money lenders and other credit i n s t r u -ments needed i n the trade of stock. The aim of the ancient c i t y was to "promote trade". In retrospect, the major functions of the central d i s t r i c t have not changed at a l l , except that many refinements and subdivisions of these primary functions have developed. I t i s quite conceivable, then, that a system of linkages, or inter-relationships or i n t e r -dependencies, could have developed i n those early years of trading, and that today we see linkage as the 1358 refinement of that prim-i t i v e form; and, that any future date w i l l show a v a r i a t i o n of the e x i s t i n g conditions of today. However, no matter what refinements occur, what seems to persist consistently are the same major func-tions today referred to as the: 1. Major r e t a i l sales and service centre. 2. Financial and administrative centre. 63. A - THEORY OF LINKAGES The CBD can be viewed as a maze of establishments, each with i t s p a r t i c u l a r functions, and each dependent on a certain number of other establishments for p a r t i c u l a r things which allow t h i s establishment to continue to function. The relationships that exist between establishments are c a l l e d linkages. It i s the form of the linkage that determines how establishments are physically related to each other, and t h i s i n t u r n produces the concept of nucleations, or clusters, of certain types of establishments, and also the s p a t i a l separation between the d i f -ferent clusters, Linkage i s also seen as more than the physical relationship between establishments - the physical groupings are merely the end result. The condition of linkage i s dynamic i n form, with ever-changing relationships occurring as e s t a b l i s h -ments relocate, expand or decline, subdivide p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r n a l a c t i v i t i e s , or for other reasons where a change a l t e r s the pattern of linkages. Each establishment has i t s own pattern of d i s t r i b u t i o n , and related combinations of them tend to congregate i n more or less d i s t i n c t centres, each a somewhat different area but always over-lapped by others. . The consequent mixture at any one location, say within one block, w i l l be characterized, as much by the variety of unrelated a c t i v i t i e s as by the type of businesses for which that d i s t r i c t i s noted. The generally accepted d e f i n i t i o n of linkage i s that i t i s a relationship between establishments characterized by i n t e r -actions which require movement of persons or of goods or the ex-change of information. 45 In The Core of the City, four types of linkage are d i s -tinguished: (a) Competitive Linkage: Each establishment strives to hold or increase i t s own share of the same market, for goods or ser-vices, dealing either with a generalized "public", with groups of establishments, or with a single establishment. Competition i s so all-pervasive that examples are legion, from newstands to publishers, from pedlers to department stores. (b) Complementary Linkage: Both establishments supply the same market or a single customer-establishment with goods or services which are interrelated. The products of both establishments may be mutually interdependent; or the product of one establishment may supplement the product of the other. Examples of both kinds abound among establishments 45 - Rannells, Op. C i t . pp. 29-31 65. supplying the "bits and pieces" and subassemblies of manufactured goods of a l l sorts to the "prime" manufacturing establishments, from men's clothing to motor cars. Both competitive and complimentary linkages have much i n common, especially among closely related establishments which comprise a specialized "market". The close proximity of these groups, often a mixture of manufacturing, wholes saling, and service establishments, encourages f l e x i b i l i t y i n the business operations, s i n c e . i t provides conveniently a wide range of linkages. (c) Commensal Linkage: Both establishments use the same f a c i l i t i e s or depend upon the same supplier or the same market. There may be no direct business relationship between establishments com-mensally linked. (d) A n c i l l a r y Linkage; Services supplied by one establishment to the members of another. Examples are s p e c i a l l y common i n major business centres where cafeterias, cigar stores, and various "consum-er service" establishments serve the working population. Commensal and A n c i l l a r y Linkages are also considered as having muoh i n common. The relationships tend to be i n -direct but they may exert a powerful effect i n a t t r a c t i n g different kinds of establishments to a given location. 66. The four types of linkages may each be seen, depend-ing on the form of the relationships that e x i s t s between establishments, i n the following arrangement: i . As Paired Linkage: P a r t i c i p a t i o n by two establishments only, without the introduction of an intermediate establishment. There i s a direct movement from one to the other. For example, the transaction between a supplier and a customer, i i . As Chain Linkage: P a r t i c i p a t i o n by two establishments i n j o i n t a c t i v i t y which includes one or more intermediate establishments i n the course of i t s accomplishment. However, each l i n k i n the chain i s a paired linkage. For example, suppliers o f f i c e - suppliers warehouse - shipper - wholesaler - cus-tomer (four paired linkages), i i i . As Systematic Linkage ; P a r t i c i p a t i o n by groups of related establishments en-gaged i n a common system of a c t i v i t i e s . The Paired, Chained, and Systematic Linkages are more or less direct, simple relationships. The shorter the linkage chain that i s considered the easier i t i s to v i s u -a l i z e the linkage. I f linkages are viewed i n an a l l - i n c l u s -ive manner, they lose t h e i r significance i n the multitude of linkages which are actually i n effect, and i t becomes 67. impossible to arrive at any conclusion regarding any par-t i c u l a r linkage arrangement. Perhaps:..Qne..of the most notable contributions to the con-cept of linkage was expressed by Robert M. Haig when he described an establishment (s) as a "packet of f u n c t i o n s " . ^ The complete operation of the packet of functions produces the end product or service which determines the success of the establishment. Haig f e l t that i n some cases the packet of functions i s loosely t i e d and i n other cases t i g h t l y t i e d - and that d i f f i c u l t i e s of co-ordination and control increase as the disintegration of the packet progresses. The scale of operation i s , however, an important factor. In addition, there may be a tendency, because of the increased costs of management through subdivision, to r e s i s t the separation of  functions which derive advantages from close physical proximity. Haig's formulation leads to a possible clue i n observing the types of establishments that do persist i n the central business d i s t r i c t . The small businesses are forced, by cold economic fact, to either remain i n one location or Vacate completely to another location more suitable to t h e i r operation - and perhaps completely disrupting the network of linkages i t had developed i n i t s r e l a t i o n to other establishments. The large industry may subdivide i t s functions, retaining the head o f f i c e and administration sections i n the central business d i s t r i c t , thus maintaining the linkage pattern developed there, while other parts of i t s operation (or 46 - Haig, R.M. Major Economic Factors i n Metro-p o l i t a n Growth and Arrangement, p. 37 68. parts of i t s packet of functions) may be relocated i n areas where the operation could be carried on as e f f i c i e n t l y and perhaps more economically. In the former case, a whole re-orientation of l i n k -ages may be necessary; i n the l a t t e r case, the "external" linkages are retained and the major addition i s that the " i n t e r n a l " linkage has been extended physically, creating perhaps a more successful operation. Haig also predicated that certain advantages flow from a cohesion of functions i n a given d i s t r i c t , and the r e s u l t i s a number of specialized centres with definite u n i t i e s of i n t e r e s t , rather than a single d i v e r s i f i e d centre. The two types of d i s t r i c t s described had these d i s t i n c t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s : ^ (a) The f i n a n c i a l d i s t r i c t : - The e f f i c i e n c y of the firms depend on close  proximity. - I t contains only those r e t a i l shops and servioes as supply the immediate conveniences to the work- ers i n that d i s t r i c t . The general central busin-ess d i s t r i c t shopper does not buy here, nor are there the f a c i l i t i e s for him here. (b) The r e t a i l area: - Its outstanding characteristic advantage i s that i t i s a consolidated area of shops within walking  distance of each other. - Only such f i n a n c i a l firms which service the immedi-47 - Ibid. pp. 38-39 69. ate shops and t h e i r customers are present. (That i s , banks, brokers, finance companies, e t c . ) . Haig considered that the same chara c t e r i s t i c factors apply-also to the wholesale areas and the factory areas. However, linkage does not always create neat and w e l l -defined nucleations of establishments which are closely related:, to each other i n some d i s t i n c t manner. There appear many v a r i -ations to the rule. In many instances the linkage only appears after an establishment has moved to a p a r t i c u l a r location, and for reasons other than that of strengthening the t i e s of the linkage. However, becoming a "using" member of the linkage appears v i t a l . R.U. R a t c l i f f has stated that "no matter why people want to be near something or somebody, th e i r preference i s expressed AO i n terms of value and becomes an economic f o r c e " . ^ R a t c l i f f considered further that spaoe relationships were the primary factors i n the existence of urban organization, and i n the l o c a t i o n of urban centres. Cost, an economic factor, p a r t i c u l a r l y the minimization of cost, was the c o n t r o l l i n g force. In his a r t i c l e which i s concerned with r e l a t i n g e f f i c i e n c y to location, R a t o l i f f emphasized certain measures of urban e f f i c i e n c y . 48 - R.U. R a t c l i f f , "Efficiency and the Location of Urban A c t i v i t i e s , " i n R.M.Fisher, Ed. The  Metropolis i n Modern L i f e , (Hew York, 1955), P. 125. : 70. These measures were of two forms: (a) The cost, or d i s u t i l i t y , of distance; The cost was an economic one rather than a physical one, and, That i t was a space relationship evaluated i n view of i t s importance to those individuals and firms concerned. (b) The equitable d i s t r i b u t i o n of the burden of loca-t i o n a l costs i n accordance with benefits received and i n proportion to the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for t h e i r creation; the equitable d i s t r i b u t i o n serves as the basis of market transactions; as w e l l as being a s o c i a l t e s t - the underlying c r i t e r i o n being the welfare of the community. The f i r s t measure seems to include a l l the four common types of linkage previously discussed; namely, competitive, com-plementary, commensal, and a n c i l l a r y . The location of the est-ablishment i n i t s r e l a t i o n to certain other establishments d i c -tates the cost to be absorbed by location at that spot; and, that i n order to become a member of thenecessary web of linkages present i n that area, the establishment must be able to bear the i n i t i a l cost of establishing there; while, simultaneously, i t i s attempting i n the long run to achieve a minimization of costs by i t s membership i n the linkage pattern. 71. In considering the second measure, introduced by R a t c l i f f , i t may be surmised that the locational costs of an area have been created by the p a r t i c u l a r web of linkages present there, and i f the linkage pattern i s seriously disrupted the l o c a t i o n a l costs are immediately affected. This may point out the extremely high', l o c a t i o n a l costs a r e t a i l establishment must absorb to establish i n the recognized r e t a i l area of the central business d i s t r i c t ; and because the "packet of functions" of a r e t a i l establishment oper-ates most e f f i c i e n t l y i n one location, the f i r m depends heavily on the s t a b i l i t y of the e x i s t i n g r e t a i l area linkage pattern for i t s surv i v a l , and hence, there i s a resistenoe to movement created by  the web of linkage except for that relocation taking place within t h i s closely-knit pattern. The r e t a i l establishments not able to meet the l o c a t i o n a l costs demanded are extricated from the v i t a l linkage pattern and relocate i n the outlying areas of the central . business d i s t r i c t , or i n other outlying areas, or they close down. 49 ii R a t c l i f f points out that the "history of the Madison Central Business D i s t r i c t i s one of a constant replacement of less inten-sive uses by more intensive uses"; furthermore, he conjectures that "decentralization i s a symptom of degeneration and decay only i f i t leaves a vacuum behind, — much of the outward move-ment of certain urban functions occurs as they are pushed out of the centre rather than as they respond to a p u l l toward outlying locations". 49 - Ibid. pp. 132, 137. 72. P.S. Florence, i n another contribution to the aforementioned volume, assumed that the high prices, or rents, for land (locational cost) give p r i o r i t y for uses of land that p r o f i t most from a central 50 s i t e or access to the central s i t e . They drive out uses which f i n d t h i s c e n t r a l i t y less p r o f i t a b l e . He f e l t that what might e x i s t i s a heirarchy of possible uses of a piece of land descending from the most to the least p r o f i t a b l e . Without any deliverate c i t y planning, the r e s t r i c t i o n s of the land factor by the price mechanism ecologi-c a l l y w i l l produce some kind of l o g i c a l pattern. He observed f u r -ther that land use maps for large c i t i e s i n a l l countries brought out c l e a r l y the central s i t e s of professional s p e c i a l i s t s , of finan-c i a l and commercial houses, and of public administration, entertain-ment f a c i l i t i e s , and specialty stores. The land use maps also i n d i -cated the radiating star pattern of more general stores, and the grouping of factories and homes, usually separately, i n the sections between the r a d i i . Faotories processing heavy goods tended to group around r i v e r s , canals, railways, and other means of transporting t h e i r materials and products. Florence's assumptions regarding p r i o r i t y of land use and the ensuing loc a t i o n a l costs compare, i n essence, with R a t c l i f f ' s cost, or d i s u l i t y , of distance; each study emphasizes the tendency of establishments to nucleate i n some manner i n order to benefit from the linkage pattern present therein; and, that continuity of 50 - P. Sargent Florence, "Economic E f f i c i e n c y i n the Metropolis", i n R.M.Fisher, Ed., The  Metropolis i n Modern L i f e , pp. 94-5. 73. the establishment i s a "survival of the f i t t e s t " business, -those surviving benefiting most from the p a r t i c u l a r advantages  of the linkage which has created the nucleation w i t h i n the cen-t r a l business d i s t r i c t . It may be postulated that the central business d i s t r i c t i s , i n fact, a series of webs of linkages (creating the nuclea-tions) involving establishments of d i s t i n c t types; and, more important, that linkage chains of p a r t i c u l a r groups of e s t a b l i s h -ments may range from most profitable webs-of-linkage to least 51 profitable webs-of-linkage.; Further, i t i s suggested that the most profitable webs-of-linkage groups represent the f o c i of the central business d i s t r i c t and are the only makers of s t a b i l i t y attributable to the conglomeration of establishments which actually e x i s t there. See diagram, page 74-A). Although patterns of linkage have been observed among establishments, the tendency i s therefore, to type the central business d i s t r i c t functions accordingly. However, typing webs-of-linkage may be s u f f i c i e n t l y adequate for today, but, we must also recognize the s t a r t l i n g e ffects of technological change, and i t s disorganizing as w e l l as organizing c a p a b i l i t y . Jessie Bernard observed that "less spectacular than war, 51 - NOTE: P r o f i t a b i l i t y refers here to the extent of success a p a r t i c u l a r establishment may have by locating i n a p a r t i c u l a r area and thus be-coming a part of the e x i s t i n g web of linkages. 74. but perhaps fundamentally more conducive to nonconformity and therefore disorganizing to community l i f e , are new inventions or technological changes".^ However inevitable technological change i s , Bernard f e l t that beoause the s c i e n t i f i c method has played such a large role i n technology, i t i s f a r ahead of a l l other aspects of community l i f e . He further remarks that tech-nological change may destroy whole communities by taking away t h e i r "economic underpinnings". I f technologies do not change too rapidly a community becomes adjusted to them, but the more rapid the change the less adjustment time i s allowed, and d i s -organization and d i s s o c i a t i o n occur. Considering then the postulate expressed e a r l i e r , i n respect to the picture of the central business d i s t r i c t as the area i n which least-profitable webs-of-linkage groups could represent the f o c i of central business d i s t r i c t a c t i v i t i e s ; i t may be further postulated that technological change can a l t e r these linkage patterns s i g n i f i c a n t l y , changing the whole con-cept of nucleations which have been developed. (See diagram page 74-A). This may be simply i l l u s t r a t e d by the advent of the t e l e v i s i o n set offering p a r t i c u l a r r e t a i l establishments the opportunity of employing mass communication of a revolution-ary means to s e l l t h e i r products. The effect might be an 52 - Bernard, Jessie, American Community Behavior (Hew York, 1945) pp. 475-7. T H E . C E M T R ^ L B U ^ M U S S D \ S T Q . \ C T . 75. elimination of these types of establishments from the central business d i s t r i c t to outlying areas, the business being conducted solely by means of, for example, a television-phone, and de-livered by some rapid vehicular means. It i s important now to look at the types of nucleations that have t r a d i t i o n a l l y been a part of the central business d i s -t r i c t , as w e l l as the establishments, so that some picture may be developed indicating the result of the linkages and t h e i r s p a t i a l relationships within the central business d i s t r i c t . B - WHAT HAVE BEEN, AND ARE TODAY, THE MOST PERMANENT NUCLEATIONS OF ESTABLISHMENTS IN THE CENTRAL BUSINESS DISTRICT?  - Market Places and Fairs of the Past -In order to f u l l y appreciate the significance of the nu-cleations of establishments that constitute the central business d i s t r i c t i t i s important to look back into e a r l i e r periods of c i v i l i z a t i o n . What i s suggested i s that the central business d i s t r i c t of ancient times contained p r i n c i p a l l y the traders and se l l e r s of goods, and the money lenders and money changers; and, that these two main participants of commerce have always maintained the market place, and have created the great trading c i t i e s of the past. Today, the central business d i s t r i c t shows the 1958 refinement of these two dominating forces of trade - seen now as the centre of r e t a i l sales and services, and the f i n a n c i a l and administrative centre. It i s suggested that the central business d i s t r i o t was created because of those two forces, and as long as the central business d i s t r i c t remains i n existence they w i l l continue to play the leading roles, and, w i l l be the v i s u a l and economic expression of the success of the economy of the region the c i t y serves. The City of Babylon, possibly as early as 3,000 B.C. was a market place to which precious metals were brought from a l l directions. Later, records show that by 1,600 B.C. w e l l -developed trade routes existed, over which the Arabs conducted caravans transporting s i l k s , spices, wine, gold and other com-modities from the Red Saa d i s t r i c t , from Phoenicia, and even from Asia to Egypt, where they were exchanged c h i e f l y for grain and linen. Excavations i n Egypt have revealed certain vases which seem to have been brought from the Island of Crete as 53 early as the year 2,000 B.C. The Bible refers to the nation of Tyrus and i t s trading. centres i n t h i s way: "12. Tarshish was thy merchant by reason of the mu l t i -tude of a l l kind of riches; with s i l v e r , iron, t i n , and lead, they traded i n thy f a i r s . 13. Javan, Tubal, and Meshach, they were thy merchants: they traded the persons of men and vessels of brass i n thy market. 53 - The Lincoln Library of Essential Knowledge " (The Frontier Press Co., Buffalo, New York, 1929) p. 1199. 77. 14. They of the house of Togarmah traded i n thy f a i r s with horses, and horsemen, and mules. 17. Judah, and the land of I s r a e l , they were thy mer-chants : they traded i n thy market wheat of min-n i t h and Pannag, and honey, and o i l , and balm.""^ In fact, t h i s whole chapter (Chapter 27) which i s con-cerned with the riches of Tyrus, contains references to the " "trading" or "market" centres where commerce was carried on. It i s only natural to think that wherever there was a group of people a market place, of some fashion or other, was needed to s u P P l y "the needs of the people. Medieval commerce seemed to take one step i n reverse. "During the dark ages that followed the f a l l of Rome, commerce was almost e n t i r e l y i n the hands of the Mohammedans, with cen-tres at Bagdad, Damascus, Cairo, Alexandria, and the Moorish c i t i e s i n Spain. Western and Northern Europe became divided under the feudal system into thousands of t i n y units, each attempting to be complete within i t s e l f , and e n t i r e l y independ-ent of a l l external sources of supply. Roads were t o t a l l y neglected; strangers were regarded with suspicion; robbery was a common practice; and commerce, under such conditions, was quite naturally almost non-existent."-^ 54 - The Bible, Ezekiel 27: 12, 13, 14, 17 55 - The Lincoln Library of Essential Knowledge, p. 1200 78. - The Central Business D i s t r i o t Today -Many studies of the central business d i s t r i c t have been carried out i n recent years, each attempting to establ i s h some characteristic found present, and noting the tupes of esta b l i s h -ments and t h e i r characteristic pattern of grouping. Although studies of linkage have merely scratched at the surface of t h i s elusive superstructure, linkage perhaps shows promise of being the controlling factor i n determining groupings of es t a b l i s h -ments, as long as technological developments are foreseen as great influencing factors, and perhaps i n extreme cases, - d i s -organizing factors. R a t c l i f f suggests there are two basic reasons why central 56 . locations are advantageous to various a c t i v i t i e s and functions. These are: 1. The central location minimizes transportation costs: - That convenience i s the prime, factor. - He f e l t that central area businesses may be roughly divided into four groups on the basis of the geo-graphical location of t h e i r c l i e n t e l e : (a) Wo l o c a l c l i e n t s group; i - t h e i r contacts are largely outside the oommunity. For example - mail order, and some types of industries and manufactures. i i - Centrality i s not important for customers 56 - In The Metropolis In Modern L i f e , op. c i t . pp.138-9 79. may be for employee convenience, i i i - They could locate outside of the C.B.D. b) Community-wide c l i e n t e l e group: i - serve the entire community and the hinterland. Pore example, a department store. i i - The central location i s important for c l i e n t  and employee convenience. i i i - The maximizing of public convenience i s v i t a l to t h e i r success. c) : Neighbourhood Clientele Group: i - They supply those persons l i v i n g on the periphery of the C.B.D. who fi n d i t most convenient to shop for d a i l y needs and services i n the C.B.D. For example, grocery stores, drug stores, dry cleaners, located on the fringe of the commercial core, i i - They must be present to supply the need, (d) Central Area Clientele Group: i - They f i n d t h e i r c l i e n t e l e among the businesses located i n the central commercial area. i i - A central area location i s inevitable because of the nature of t h e i r business. For example, cafes, business services. i i i - They could locate outside of the C.B.D., but face-to-face contacts are an important part of the business, making a central business d i s t r i c t most de-sir a b l e . 80. 2. Haig's assumptions regarding the "packet of functions" concept, where an enterprize's proper loc a t i o n i s de-termined by the proportion of the components of the packetj the cohesion or clustering of establishments i s witnessed here. In R a t c l i f f s Madison Central  Area Study, he noted that "As the c i t y grows—the more intensive types of r e t a i l outlets tend to dominate the central area. — Because the cohesion of central area functions i s so strong, disint e g r a t i o n i s most un-l i k e l y i n the foreseeable future. The strength of the central area l i e s i n i t s unmatched variety or a v a i l a - b i l i t y . Even the newest, most elaborate one-stop regional centre provides only a f r a c t i o n of the a c t i v i -t i e s and combinations of services which are available 57 i n the downtovm destination area." - Mucleations of Establishments observed i n the Central Business D i s t r i c t -The following observations are presented as representative of the studies which have been undertaken with respect to Mucleations: 1. R. U. R a t c l i f f , "Efficiency and the loc a t i o n of urban 58 a c t i v i t i e s : " 57 - Ibid. pp. 146 58 - Ibid. pp. 138-9 81. MAJOR FUNCTION FUNCTIONS CLUSTERING ABOUT IT (Retail sales and service d i s t r i c t ) (Entertain-ment, etc. d i s t r i c t ) (a) Department and variety stores (b) Outlets serving men - dress shops - shoe stores - hat shops - hosiery stores - other •'women:'sr specialty shops - men's wear cluster (c) Restaurants plus theatres plus flower shops (d) Financial d i s t r i c t banks investment houses business services lawyers accountants (Industrial d i s t r i c t ) (e) "Tarehouse d i s t r i c t (f) Manufacturing d i s t r i c t (This group has gener-a l l y deserted the CBD) (g) Processing d i s t r i c t l o f t houses loft-type industry transport terminals 82. Of these nucleations, R a t c l i f f writes: "Thus the central area (however delimited) i s a galaxy of constellations formed of  a c t i v i t i e s which appear to have a locational a f f i n i t y one for  the other, and are related i n some degree to other clusters i n the area. — These constellations are related land use types which generally are confined i n extent to a ground area which can  be comfortably covered on foot." A rapid observation of the functions described narrows the establishments into 4 major groupings: (a) R e t a i l sales and services (b) Entertainment and related services (c) Financial and administrative services (d) I n d u s t r i a l services 60 2. E. W. Burgess, Concentric Zone Theory: Burgess recognized the following d i s t r i c t s , with t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r functions: Zone I - The Central Business D i s t r i c t Zone: (a) R e t a i l shopping d i s t r i c t : - where shoppers seek the largest assortment of goods and services. (b) : - Financial d i s t r i c t ; - performs special functions - need not cater to the convenience of a large number of persons. 60 - R.H. Lee, The City, (New York, 1955) pp.236-240 - i s close to the R e t a i l Shopping D i s t r i c t . (c) Wholesale d i s t r i c t - may l i e next to the Finanoial D i s t r i c t or may be nearer the Shopping Centre. (d) Light Manufacturing Establishments: - a few may be interspersed among old residences and delapidated structures. Zone I I - The Zone i n Transition: - Burgess described t h i s area as being immedi-ately adjacent to the central business d i s t r i o t . - Is slowly invaded by expanding business and l i g h t industry. - The zone contains the following types of est-ablishments : x - l i g h t industries x - warehouses x - stores x - manufacturing plants 35 - gambling houses x - vice "dens" x - saloons ( a l l may existwcbhin the same block). Although Burgess' Theory has been c r i t i c i z e d for many i n -adequacies, what i s of interest for t h i s study, and quite applica-ble, i s the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of functions i n the more inclusive cen-84. t r a l business d i s t r i o t - which includes his zone i n t r a n s i t i o n area. 3. John Eannells, The Core of the City, (Study of P h i l a -delphia: The s i x major business groups recognized i n t h i s study were: (a) Retailing (b) Consumer services (c) Business services (d) Wholesaling without stocks (e) Tilholesaling with stocks (f) Manufacturing Data for t h i s study was comprised of the number of estab-lishments per block, and the f l o o r area. Observations of the nu-cleations vary from generally scattered establishments to f a i r l y coherent areas. Although each of the three studies show variations, the obvious conformity i s that these appear recognizable nucleations or d i s t r i c t s , and that, considering broadly a l l c i t i e s , these nu-cleations are present and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c . There i s always a r e t a i l d i s t r i c t , a f i n a n c i a l and o f f i c e d i s t r i c t , a wholesale- industrial-manufacturing d i s t r i c t , and an entertainment d i s t r i c t . What are the most predominant s p a t i a l relationships that  exi s t between different nucleations of establishments? Although some work has been done i n s p a t i a l relationships 85. between nuoleations of establishments, and between establishments themselves, perhaps the most intensive analysis has been that which appears i n The Core of the City, a study of Philadelphia c i t y . In t h i s section the author w i l l consider only the s p a t i a l relationships expressed by Rannell's study,. as i t i s f e l t to be adequate for the heliport study at t h i s stage. The study of 1949 reveals some generally scattered as well as some f a i r l y coherent establishments i n the central business d i s t r i c t . The following groups of establishments are distinguished (within the "reference core of 59 blocks"): 1 - Most coherent establishments: (a) Manufacturing (b) Wholesaling without stocks 2 - S i m i l a r i t i e s of location between nucleations of establishments:  (a) Manufacturing and wholesaling with stocks occupy much the same area. (b) Business Services and consumer services occupy much the same area. (c) Wholesaling without stocks seems to f a l l almost e n t i r e l y within both the business services and 61 consumer services groups. (See diagram on page 35-A) 6 3 - Diagramatic l o c a t i o n a l relationships between nucleations. The following table (Table XI i n The Core of the City) 61 62 - The Core of the City, p. 122-3, Table XI. - Ibid. pp. 137-140. indicates the r e l a t i v e proximity of pairs of busin-ess groups or establishments. The table i s also shown diagramatically on the following pages. W B C R TOTAL Manufacturing - 13% 9 8 16 vVholesaling 1 1 8 Business services - 11 10 Consumer services - 17 100% Table XI shows the following interesting and s i g n i f i c a n t relationships: (a) The strongest l o c a t i o n a l t i e between groups i s that of manufacturing and wholesaling. {13% of a l l com-binations) . (b) The t i e s between wholesaling and the services are i n s i g n i f i c a n t . (c) Strong locational t i e s exist between r e t a i l i n g and manufacturing, and r e t a i l i n g and consumer services. (See Diagram on page 86-B) (d) The f i v e remaining pairs are a l l about average -(around 10%). Prom Figure 37, (See Diagram on page 85B) the following assumptions are made by Rannells: (a) Only manufacturing and r e t a i l i n g have s i g n i f i c a n t t i e s with a l l the other groups. (b) The consumer servioes and business services each re-late to two other groups. 86A 86B J) 1 0 V I 1 0 1 u o 1 0 v 4 o 0 J u 0 t o 5 J UI 2 & 4 P (T 4 IV J I* 0 J I 0 tL or & ul 2 J) of 0 ul > or Z o u 0 Y I 9 X r a O 0 2 ft i i u e 0 1 u 1 i r d i -J u O 3 4 o ft. I .3 5 or V*-<0 y o u O VI/ of 0 Y o d i o 87. (c) Wholesaling relates to only two other groups. ( i t i s important to note, however, that the separate parties i n each of these paired relationships d i f f e r considerably i n t h e i r degree of p a r t i c i p a t i o n ) . Figure 38 (in Rannells- page 138) diagramatically shows the 6 consistency of relationships among the fi v e major business groups. (Only the results are noted here). The diagram i s the same as Figure 37 except that the data i s taken from two other tables; a different method of attempting to get comparable r e s u l t s . The results of t h i s table, expressed by Rannell's, were: (a) Business services are the most combined group. (That i s , located i n closest proximity to each other.) (b) Manufacturing was the next most combined group. (c) R e t a i l i n g was the most uniformly dist r i b u t e d among the other groups. (d) Manufacturing was the next most uniformly distributed group among the other groups. (e) Consumer services were the most isolated group. (f) j/holesaling i s the least uniformly d i s t r i b u t e d . (g) -then pairs are examined the most balanced relationship i s manufacturing-retail. (That i s , each of these shares i 63 - Hote: The s i x major functions were reduced i n • the study to f i v e , retaining Wholesalers with stocks, and combining wholesalers without stocks with business services, as they were located almost e n t i r e l y within the business services concentration of blocks and t h e i r functions seem to coincide. 88. about the same proportion of i t s combinations with the other, or nearly a 1 : 1 r a t i o ) . (h) Almost as equally balanced as (g) i s the relationship between business-consumer services. ( i ) Those groups i n which wholesaling participates (M-W, F-R) are least balanced, each i n roughly a 2:1 r a t i o . The patterns of business groups that have been presented are no more than general approximations showing r e l a t i v e locations  of the groups. They are based mainly on the "combined core" which i s a type of a merger of blocks i n which both f l o o r space and number of establishments take part. Unfortunately, more refined data on patterns i s not available, and u n t i l such time, any reference made to nucleations of establishments i s only an approximation, and much i s yet to be learned. However, some fundamental issues are brought to l i g h t , and on these facts a tentative conclusion w i l l be drawn for purposes of considering the location of h e l i p o r t s . 89. C - CONCLUSION 1 - The former "market place", today's "central business d i s t r i c t " has always been the place of major trading and major f i n a n c i a l transactions. 2. - Tlhat a l l large central business d i s t r i c t s seem to have i n common i s some form of: - r e t a i l d i s t r i c t - f i n a n c i a l and o f f i c e d i s t r i c t - wholesale-industrial-manufacturing d i s t r i c t - entertainment d i s t r i c t . 3 - Considering R a t c l i f f ' s four major groups i n the C.B.D. :-Each of the groups could quite conceivably be located out-side the C.B.D. The groups requiring a central location most may be l i s t e d i n t h i s order: F i r s t - Community wide c l i e n t e l e group Second - Central area c l i e n t e l e group Third - Neighborhood c l i e n t e l e group Fourth - No l o c a l c l i e n t e l e group. 4 - The nucleations of the C.B.D. can be observed asrebs-of-linkag and, that there might be d i f f e r e n t levels of webs-of-linkage de-termined on the a b i l i t y of that web to provide a f a i r margin of p r o f i t to i t s member establishments. And, further, that the most profitable of these webs of linkage may be the major dominating nucleations present i n the C.B.D. One dampening factor, however, 90. could occur where too rapid technological changes disorganize one or more of the linkage chains which have developed. 5 - Referring to the Philadelphia studies, only manufacturing and r e t a i l i n g have s i g n i f i c a n t t i e s with a l l of the other four groups present. The re l a t i v e proximity of the four other groups to re-t a i l i n g and wholesaling groups i s roughly equal, the proximity appearing i n t h i s way: To R e t a i l i n g : Closest - consumer services (11%) - manufacturing (16$) - business services (10%) Farthest- - 'wholesaling (8 %) To Manufacturing;Closest - Vftiolesaling (19%) - r e t a i l i n g (16%) - business services ( 3%) Farthest - consumer services ( 8%) Since both r e t a i l i n g and manufacturing share approximately the same proportions of t h e i r combinations between a l l the other four groups, i t may be assumed that at some point between the major  r e t a i l nuoleation and the major manufacturing nucleation there may  appear a suitable location for a downtown h e l i p o r t . However, the following problems appear: (a) R e t a i l i n g firms are the most evenly spread among the other four groups. ¥.o d i s t i n c t r e t a i l grouping i s observed. (b) Manufacturing firms are also f a i r l y w e l l spread among 91. the other four groups. From these two conditions i t appears that both r e t a i l i n g and manufacturing nucleations are the most dispersed nucleations; and, t h i s might be accounted for by the f i r s t postulate of the helicopter study (page A.) which considers different webs of l i n k -age of p a r t i c u l a r nucleations, varying from least profitable to most profitable linkage groups. (c) sJholesale groups and business service groups seem to be the two groups which locate closest together as a group, that i s , they are the least dispersed among the other groups. In conclusion, i t may be proposed that both the wholesale and the business service broups may be considered as "land marks" i n the CBD. (See diagram on p. 91A). This suggests a possible  heliport s i t e somewhere betweeen the wholesaling nucleation and  the business service nuoleation, i f cohesion of the establishments of a nucleation i s considered as a useful c r i t e r i a i n assessing locations for a h e l i p o r t . 91A CHAPTER V THE MOVEMENT OF PERSONS WITHIN THE CENTRAL BUSINESS DISTRICT Webster's Dictionary defines a c c e s s i b i l i t y as something "capable of being approached". In t h i s section the establish-ments of the central business d i s t r i c t w i l l be viewed according to t h e i r approachability by the persons who fi n d themselves i n the CBD for any of a variety of reasons. The CBD i s the area subject to the greatest demand for a c c e s s i b i l i t y ; the esta b l i s h -ments located there attempt to create the conditions which allow for the greatest possible degree of a c c e s s i b i l i t y . Primarily, an attempt w i l l be made to picture s i g n i f i c a n t movements of persons amohg the various establishments. I f i t i s possible to portray such movements, and i f these movements appear to be generally standard, i t may be possible to v i s u a l i z e areas  within the CBD which are orientated towards persons walking between  destination-establishments, and persons using a vehicular mean s to  to arrive at destination-establishments within the CBD. Thus, two areas within the CBD can be observed; that i s , a pedestrian-oriented area, and a vehicle-oriented area. The d e f i n i t i o n and limi t a t i o n s of these two areas of the CBD are important to a study considering the location of a major downtown h e l i p o r t , or system of h e l i p o r t s , i f i t i s necessary to f i t the heliport into the most e f f i c i e n t location, determined by the establishments responsible for the most s i g n i f i c a n t generation of persons t r a f f i c . 93. A primary assumption advanced at t h i s point i s that a downtown heliport should te so looated that i t may be reached by  foot by as many persons as possible. This suggests a h e l i p o r t location intimately t i e d to the pedestrian-orientated area of the CBD, and serving a p a r t i c u l a r c l i e n t e l e who are most readily adaptable to t r a n s i t by 'helicopter. 1. General Considerations of Persons-Movement within the Central Business D i s t r i c t Convenience of movement i n the CBD: The CBD provides a common loc a t i o n a l advantage at the focus of transportation, and a mutual advantage i n proximity among the central land uses. That i s , i t offers the unique convenience of a c c e s s i b i l i t y and a v a i l a b i l i t y . The a c c e s s i b i l i t y of the CBD i s geographical as w e l l as man-made i n the converging transportation f a c i l i t i e s . R a t c l i f f states that i t s a v a i l a b i l i t y i s a product of the unmatched variety of ser-vices and"activities, the wide range of choice within each service, and the relatedness, d i r e c t and i n d i r e c t , of most of the central a c t i v i t i e s . These dimensions of a v a i l a b i l i t y give the central area a tremendous potential advantage i n convenience over any other spot i n the community. The greater the number of possible combinations of errands which can be run within a destination area, the greater 64 the aggregate potential saving i n transportation costs. 64 - R.U. R a t c l i f f , "Efficiency and the Location of Urban a c t i v i t i e s " , pp. c i t l pp. 140-2. 94. The Street Pattern; The street exerts an influence on the pattern of land uses by establishing the basic avenues of a c c e s s i b i l i t y . The street provides for the movement of persons, the transportation of commodi-t i e s , i t furnishes l i g h t and a i r and access, and a l l or many of the u t i l i t y services above and below the ground. In these terms, then, the street appears to be one of the most permanent elements i n the entire array of man-made structures which represent the CBD. The changing movement requirements are the direct long-run cause for changes i n the street system, and i n some of the other channels of movement. The f r i c t i o n of space i n r e l a t i o n to persons movement; Dr. Haig believed that the aim of the modern master plan was to maximize the efficiency of the urban area through an arrange-ment of land uses which would minimize the cost of f r i c t i o n . To 65 Haig, a c c e s s i b i l i t y meant contact with r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e f r i c t i o n . In Urban T r a f f i c , M i t c h e l l and Rapkin accept Haig's concept of the f r i c t i o n of space, and go on to expand t h i s concept as i t applies to movement; 11 Space, on the one hand, may be considered as an input  factor that enters into the cost relationships i n terms of rent, transportation, time (labor cost) etc. On the other hand, space can. also be considered i n terms of output; that i s , a firm not only s e l l s goods add services but also convenience. In t h i s sense, alternative l o -cations w i l l have different influences on the l e v e l of the demand curve, with more accessible lcoations tending to lower i t . Here too, the strategic factor i s movement expressed i n transportation cost. The cost, however, i s not incurred by the establishment but by the persons who  v i s i t i t . Cost to the v i s i t o r must include such elements as time, convenience, and pleasantness, as w e l l as d o l l a r 65 - Haig, R.M. Op. C i t . p. 38. 95. On the whole, the r e l a t i v e importance of these input and output factors i n the operation of s p e c i f i c kinds of enterprises constitutes a s i g n i f i c a n t factor i n the loc a t i o n a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of a c t i v i t i e s i n an urban area. It should be noted that i n most cases where location i s related to cost, the establishment's p r i n c i p a l a c t i v i t y , i n terms of movement, i s as a base  of operations. In those cases where location i s re-lated to demand, the p r i n c i p a l a c t i v i t y centres around the establishment as a destination of one type or another." 6 6 Linked establishments w i l l be characterized by movements among each other, while the non-linked but proximate e s t a b l i s h -ments w i l l not have movement among each other. Establishments located close to each other, both linked and non-linked, provide a basis f o r analyzing the structure of movement. The l o c a t i o n a l pattern of establishments and the r e l a t i v e ease of t r a v e l between establishments determine the grouping, the degree of interaction, and the frequency of movement between establishments. Types of mass movement; Wilfred Owen describes oongestion, caused by mass move-ment within the CBD, i n t h i s i n i m i c a l manner: "We have the assurance, that the problem of congestion i n urban areas has been precipitated by the automobile, on the contrary, has been our escape from congestion; that the automobile and mass transportation are both g u i l t y of promoting congestion; and f i n a l l y , that neither i s the primary culprit, but rather a host of other factors that hage resulted, thanks to modern technology, i n the successful attempt to crowd too many people and too much economio a c t i v i t y into too l i t t l e space. And of the c i t y i t s e l f , we are t o l d that preservation of the vast investment of urban America w i l l assure both economic salvation and atomic a n n i h i l a t i o n " . 66 - Urban T r a f f i c , pp. 109-110 67 - W. Owen, The Metropolitan Transportation Problem, . 29 Owen feel s that the following^factors must be respected i n properly viewing the roles of public and private transportation: (a) I t appears t r a v e l requirements and consumer choice w i l l continue to favor the automobile. (Present s t a t i s t i c s strongly back t h i s observa-t i o n . ) (b) Revision of public policy to give equal t r e a t -ment to a l l forms of transportation w i l l not appreciably a l t e r the patterns of movement that have developed to date. (c) The competitive aspects of auto and t r a n s i t have been over-emphasized; t h e i r roles to a large extent are complimentary. (d) The advantages and disadvantages of public c a r r i e r and auto transportation vary according to these d i f f e r i n g circumstances: I - In the CBD: - Land use i s so intensive that the attempt to accommodate private transportation under a l l circumstanoes i s not f e a s i b l e . - In peak hours at least the emphasis must continue to be on some form of mass trans-port. 68 - Ibid. p. 162-4 97. i i - In less-dense areas: - Residential and commercial uses must be accommodated by a combination of private and public transportation, with increasing reliance on the auto as incomes and auto ownership increase. i i i - In low-density suburban areas: - Public t r a n s i t i s least able to meet the l o c a l needs of a scattered population. - There i s nearly complete dependence on the car. i v - In addition to the geographic factors, the urban transportation problem varies with the time and purpose of t r a v e l . I t may be candidly observed that the future of the CBD w i l l be greatly enhanced by the preservation of t h i s area as one which allows, primarily, convenient access among establishments by large masses of persons t r a v e l l i n g among t h e i r destinations on foot. M i t c h e l l and Rapkin observe movement as being organized 69 s p a t i a l l y and temporally. 69 - Urban T r a f f i c , pp. 22-3 98. Both characteristics are si g n i f i c a n t for t h i s study: (a) Spatial characteristics of mass movement: The three forms recognized here are considered to be the key categories i n the organization of the structure of movement; i - Assembling movement: A converging on points or areas of assembly, i i - Dispersive movement: Persons (or goods) are dispersed from points or areas of assembly throughout related areas of dispersal, i i i - Random movement: Where persons (or goods) t r a v e l among d i s -persed locations. Most persons - movement (including an interbase t r i p such as a t r i p to and from work), has the nature of a round-trip. (Most goods - flow, to the contrary, i s one-directional). (b) Temporal char a c t e r i s t i c s of mass movement; It i s through the dimensions of time, i n a variety of applications, that some of the most c r i t i c a l re-lationships of movement and the land use pattern are expressed. Individual movements display a "rythmic pattern"; mass movements also display t h i s rythmic pattern, and the phenomenon creates the " t r a f f i c peaks". The components of a structure of movement at a given time are ind i v i d u a l movements of persons, goods, or vehicles, and v a r i -ous classes of these movements, and the systems of movement into which individual movements are grouped. M i t c h e l l and Rapkin de-scribe i n d i v i d u a l movements as they relate to establishments and 70 t h e i r members, and the v a r i e t i e s and characteristics of t r i p s : (a) Establishments and t h e i r members: Each establishment has one or more members, for each of whom the establishment i s a base of oper-ations. A base of operations for an ind i v i d u a l i s any establishment of which he i s a member. The two main bases of operations are home and work. (b) Trips; t h e i r v a r i e t i e s and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s : I t i s readily observed that bases of operations are focal points i n persons-movement patters, and appear more frequently than any other location as points of o r i g i n or destination i n in d i v i d u a l movement, The locations of the bases strongly influence the locus of a l l movement. Two general kinds of personal movement are distinguished: i - Interbase movement: Travel of an in d i v i d u a l between two bases. This i s the most routinized form of move-ment, and of p a r t i c u l a r significance to t h i s study i n that i t denotes the pattern 70 - Ibid. pp. 38-43, 62-9. 100. of the frequency of v i s i t s . I t becomes the most predictable form of movement i n the CBD. i i - Round-trip movement; Travel from a base to one or more i n t e r -mediate destinations and then returning to the base of o r i g i n . This type of movement i s the least predictable. II - Destinations of Persons within the.Central Business D i s t r i c t .  The movement of persons within the CBD can be observed most f r u i t f u l l y as movement to, from, and among establishments as bases of operations and as destinations, i n any evaluation of the relationship between land use and movement. Much i s yet to be discovered regarding the movement of persons i n the CBD. To the present time, the largest contributions to an understanding of these movements have been those of; R. M i t c h e l l and C. Rapkin i n Urban T r a f f i c , J. Rannells, i n The Core of the City, and, IT, Owen, i n The Metropolitan Transportation Problem. The observations of persons-movement, as put f o r -ward i n these three studies, are presented here along with several other studies which bear on p a r t i c u l a r aspects of t h i s type of movement; 101. 71 (a) The Interview Survey of Philadelphia, Spring, 1950. The survey was carried out by interviewing persons v i s i t i n g four representative CBD establishments-a theatre, a specialty shop, a department store, and a small service establishment. The object of the survey was to observe the number and nature of associ-ated destinations which may be v i s i t e d by an ind i v i d u a l on a single t r i p . Results of the survey: i - Mode of transportation and t r a v e l to the depart- ment store; (See Table on p. 101-A) The s i g n i f i c a n t observations here are: - Approximately 25% of the v i s i t o r s t r a v e l l e d by foot from.their last base of operations. - Over 50% of the v i s i t o r s arrived by using some form of mass transportation. - Persons who walked from a base of operations required approximately 10 minutes• i i - Type of t r i p and number of stops: - The d i s t r i b u t i o n of t r i p s sheds some l i g h t on linkages of establishments. - It indicates the varying dependence of d i f f e r -71 - Urban T r a f f i c , pp. 37-53 101A MODE OF TRANSPORTATION USED AND AVERAGE TIME REQUIRED TO ARRIVE AT DESTINATION FROM LAST BASE, BY CALLERS AT A DEPART-MENT STORE,  Mode of Transportation % of Total Visitors. Average Travel Time in Minutes From Last Base. Automobile 9.2% 39.9 minutes Public Transit 33.7 • Walking ZM& 10.7 • Railroad 7.4# 47.0 Other and Undetermined 0.5% -ALL MODES: 100.Og 28.3 minutes SOURCE; Interview Survey, Philadelphia, 1950. Urban Traffic, p.^2, Table 1 (Part Of) (N.B. Mode of transportation refers to that used in travelling from last base, ie., home-work-or school. Actual arrival at department store may have been by -walking from an intermediate destination. Data shown in table are expansions of sample to total traffic count, hour by hour. Sample size for the depart-ment store was 251 persons.) 102. ent kinds of r e t a i l or service establishments on the working population of the area. The small service establishment i s largely depend-ent on the working population, and such ser-vice establishments must be within a short walking distance of the c l i e n t e l e they serve. - The department store and the r e t a i l specialty shop are not orientated to the CBD working pop- ula t i o n , but serve the general metropolitan population. This, as previously considered,is the function of both of these a c t i v i t i e s which offer the greatest number of persons variety and a c c e s s i b i l i t y within r e l a t i v e l y short walk-ing distances. However, because of t h e i r func-tions, these two types of establishments also serve whatever working population do shop there during the course of a week day. (See Table on p. 102-A, and Diagram on p. 102-B). In the selection of s i t e s for h e l i p o r t s , one i s not so much concerned with the shopper from the r e s i d e n t i a l area (home-to-home, round-trip movement) as he i s with the person employed  by an establishment i n the CBD, who i s moving or i s required to move about the CBD. Therefore, what i s of greatest interest here i s the l i n k between CBD employees from a variety of establishments DISTRIBUTION UF TRIPS BY TYPE, PERCENT OF NUMBER OF TOTAL TRIPS, AND BY AVERAGE NUMBER OF STOPS PER TRIP.  Type of DEPARTMENT STORE THEATRE RETAIL SPECIALTY SHUP SMALL SEHVICJH ESTABLISHMENT Trip $ of Total TriDS Average Stops Per TriD % of Total Trips Average Stops Per TriD. % of Total TriDS Average Stops Per TriD $ of Total TriDS Average Stops Per TriD Home to Home 57.0% 2.6 58.7% 2.0 73.2% 3.6 28.8$ 3.9 Work-to Work 21.0% 2.0 2.5% 1.5 15.8$ 2.6 37.3$ 2.3 Home to Work & Work to Home 13.7% 1.6 26.3% 2.0 11.0% 3.0 33.9$ 2.3 Other Combin-ations . 8.3$ 2.0 12.5% 1.9 - - - -T O T A L : 100.0$ 2.3 100.0$ 1.9 100.0$ 3.4 100.0$ 2.7 SOURCE: Interview Survey, Philadelphia, 1950. Urban T r a f f i c , p. 19. Table 2 (Part of.) » S T R»\bLiT \ O N Q C T R . \ P S "T O F O U R . ^^TA^lVSUA'S.ehATS V / o ^ K ft^&gS A»KXD R g & \ p e U T V A > L fts^g>>S> . "P*Ltt.SOKi<8» T o S o u R c a i U R 6 A > N " T R A . F C V C p .A4- , ^ R . a ^ T^^u«t 2 ^ 102U ce>D 103. and consumer service establishments - one rel y i n g heavily on the other. This then, mainly concerns the interbase movement of the CBD working population. (See Diagram on p. 102-C). 72 (b) Detroit Metropolitan Area T r a f f i c Study, 1955. - Observations of the study: In observing the generation of t r a f f i c by land uses i t i s f a i r l y easy to note those establishments or groups of establishments, which play the dominant role i n attr a c t i n g persons; or, those establishments which require a large flow of persons t r a f f i c i n order to function successfully. Certain groups of establishments operate quite well by some other means of communication other than by the movement of persons, and these w i l l also become apparent. Some s i g n i f i c a n t observations can be noted: (See Table on p.lQ3-A, and Diagram on pp. 103-B and 103-C). i - In a l l distance zones, as might be expected, com-73 mercial uses are the greatest t r a f f i c generators, i i - Consider the "Core of the City" (Ring-0) Commercial establishments are the major sources of t r a f f i c generation. Therefore, the largest amount of persons movement i s r e s t r i c t e d to move-72 - TTilfred Owen, Op. C i t . pp 224-7. 73 - Considering Ring 0 and 1 as being one zone. 74 - Unfortunately i t was not possible to determine what constituted the commercial and i n d u s t r i a l e s t a b l i s h -ments. I t i s assumed commercial use also include d business services, and i n d u s t r i a l use included whole-sale, manufacturing, and other forms of industry. GENERATION OF TRAFFIC BY LAND USES IN DETROIT PERSON TRIPS PER ACRE BY LAND USE TYPE1 Ring Description Residential Commercial Industrial Public Open Space Public Buildings Total Land In Use 0 Gore of CBD 733 1,797 153 - 945 1,522 1 Remainder of CBD 186 207 209 29 362 222 2 Remainder to 3 Miles 65 194- 92 10 89 U 3 3-6 Miles 56 218 43 3 26 58 4- 6-9 Miles 42 280 38 8 46 50 5 9-12 Miles 26 325 36 3 33 32 6 Over 12 Miles ! 14. 182 8 2 17 15 TOTAL STUDY AREA:-1 29 269 37 3 33 36 SOURCE; Detroit Metropolitan Area Traffic Study, Pt.l, (July 1955) p-41. Metropolitan Transportation Problem, p.225. 1 Excluding streets, alleys, and railway rights-of-way. 103B p. 2 2 ^ . 103C V 0 d Y tu O (A Ul o J > u u 0 z v d ul Z or 0 0 0 0 o 0 0 2 0 o 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 o 0 o o n 0 0 o o u K> Of <N <S <N -of J 0 of c J 4. d o t { 1 4. t J & & u> 2 a t: -0 << J <0 o 0 of a-J) 2 o J 1 4 r J 0 (V 0 of S Ul 0 i of u } (J or 4 104. ment between commercial establishments. Industrial establishments do not generate any considerable movement of persons' i n 77 t h i s area. 75 - In t h i s respect M i t c h e l l & Rapkin state: " i f the establishments that serve as origins and des-tinations are confined to a small area, then a c c e s s i b i l i t y can be achieved through proximity." This may be assumed as a usable observation i n t h i s case. M i t c h e l l & Rapkin recognize certain characteristics of the commercial establishments i n the CBD: - The r e t a i l i n g and consumer services group. - They are held together p r i m a r i l y by consumer t r a f f i c . - TJhile they are usually found together, they are not found i n balanced proportions. Urban T r a f f i c , p. 104, 115. 77 - Ibid. p. 115, M i t c h e l l & Rapkin observe that the manufacturing and wholesaling with stocks group, have a major subdivision: (1) Those establishments which deal with the downtown department stores and other types of r e t a i l shops, and are found on the periphery of  the concentrated portions of the r e t a i l shopping area. This could quite conceivably be the group referred to i n the Detroit study and present i n the "core". (2) Those manufacturing & wholesaling groups that supply markets outside of the CBD, and tend to locate at truck and r a i l terminals and along rive r fronts. The business services and wholesaling without stocks group also display interesting character-i s t i c s : (1) They deal with business firms, not with con-sumers. (2) Both t y p i c a l l y require, and can afford, a c c e s s i b i l i t y i n location. (3) Their space needs are mainly for o f f i c e space. 105.. The only other group that i s notable for our purposes i s the public buildings group. As most public buildings are located i n the CBD and because of th e i r proximity to the business establishments present, persons are able to walk or drive to these establishments en route to other destinations within the CBD. I t may be postulated that the walking area of the CBD i s the "core" of the CBD (as far as concentration and amount of persons-movement i s concerned), and that the core includes the following establishments: Commercial establishments - the greatest proportion. Public establishments - a lesser proportion. Industrial establishments - only a small proportion of persons-movement. i i i - "F.emainder of the CBD": VHhat i s immediately outstanding i s the sharp drop i n commercial generation of persons-movement. That i s , t h i s i s not the area of commercial est-ablishments, and those that are present serve either the downtown business establishments or the residents l i v i n g here. Fublio Buildings persons-movement generation has also dropped by one-third, but remains a s i g n i f i -cant generator of t r a f f i c . I t i s understandable 106. that public buildings are found i n t h i s area be-cause of the high land value locations of the "core" which are avoided for p r a c t i c a l reasons; and also, i t could enote former positions of the "core" of the CBD - since having relocated farther away. Industrial establishments generate more t r a f f i c i n t h i s area than i n the "core", ( i . e . 209 as to 153). This i s a very s i g n i f i c a n t observation, and may point out a close relationship between these firms and those of the core of the CBD, especially to the "core" i n d u s t r i a l e s t a b l i s h -ments and certain of the commercial establishments. (As has been observed i n the Philadelphia study, the relationship to the small service establishment especially) and to business services. Ri'.E.Murphy and J.E.Vance, "Delimiting the Central Business Di s t r i c t ; 7 8 Although the study concerned i t s e l f p r i m a r i l y with determining the s p a t i a l l i m i t a t i o n s of the central business d i s t r i c t by land use and f l o o r space, i t included an important portion related to t h i s h e l i -port study. We are mainly concerned with Murphy's 78 - R.E.Murphy & J.E.Vance, "Delimiting the Central Business D i s t r i c t " , i n Economic Geography, Vol. 30, No. 3, 1954, pp. 189-222. 107. "walking distance zones" here. In order to evaluate the i n t e n s i t y of land use within the CBD Murphy took the peak land value inter s e c t i o n and ruled out walk-ing distance zones, as follows: - a 200 yard zone, - a 400 yard zone (he considered t h i s zone to be the maximum walking d i s -tance) . The observations i n the walking zones were as follows: I * High quality variety stores and clothing stores f a l l w i t h i n the 100 yard zone, i i - Professional and business o f f i c e s were found normally within the 200 - 400 yaazd zone, i i i - Theatres and hotels were found within the 200 - 400 yard zone, i v - Heavy household goods firms and automobile firms were within the 300 - 400 yard zone.. Murphy found that the nine c i t i e s studied were only beginning-to develop specialized zones (the popula-t i o n of the c i t i e s studied ranged from 150,000 to 200,000), he f e l t that d e f i n i t e " c l u s t e r i n g " of establishments was not observable u n t i l a popula-t i o n reached 300,000 to 400,000 persons. (See Diagram on p. 107A). 107A W ^ U K X K I C ^ D \ S T / \ N C E . N N O L ^ M D Uses SOURCE:-. f ^ . E . ^ \ u * P * x AVMO X C . V / k N C E Deu^ \ T i M Q T n e C C M T R A L ^ U ^ M C & S D \ ^ T R . V C T , \tu ^.CO»nAO^\C Q g . C > Q * , A ^ V O r V o v - . i o ^ o . ' i > \<=IS4- , p p . I B ^ -Z2X 108. CHAPTER VI THE PHYSICAL AND TECHNICAL REQUIREMENTS OF THE HELICOPTER AID THE HELIPORT WITHIN THE CENTRAL BUSINESS DISTRICT In the preceding chapters the emphasis has been on the land uses i n the central business d i s t r i c t . Certain basic characteristics have evolved along with other assumptions which require further research to judge adqquately. Once a r e a l i s t i c approach to these land uses has been achieved, then the attention must focus back again on the helicopter i t s e l f and the h e l i p o r t . The technical l i m i t a t i o n s of the machine along with i t s projected future capa-b i l i t i e s must now be considered, along with the physical structure which harbors the helicopter when not i n f l i g h t . This chapter attempts to focus the p e c u l i a r i t i e s of the helioppter i n i t s f l i g h t condition, and i n addition presents the basic arguments for roof-top and ground-level h e l i p o r t s . It must be emphasized that land use, and technical and physical factors must be v i s u a l i z e d as one problem requiring an o v e r a l l solution. The actual dimensions of the h e l i p o r t and the required approach clearances needed depend e n t i r e l y on the type of h e l i p o r t we t a l k about. The requirements of an airport, a suburban h e l i p o r t , or a h e l i p o r t i n a densely built-up area such as the central business d i s t r i c t , vary markedly. Many factors need to be reckoned with, d i s t r i c t , vary markedly. Many factors need to be reckoned with, such as: size of helicopters, function of the h e l i p o r t (for public transport use, for private use, or for a mixed public and private 109. use), surrounding land use obstructions, density of helioopterr t r a f f i c , and so on. Since t h i s study l i m i t s i t s e l f to happenings within'the CBD, the heliport requirements dealt with are those peculiar to helicopter operations into and out of a densely b u i l t -up area, where the s i t e , approach clearance minimums, and the nuisance from a i r c r a f t noise as w e l l as safety, become prime factors of consideration. In t h i s respect, t h i s chapter w i l l deal with three general aspects; the broad requirements of the helioopter, the ground area required for e f f i c i e n t operation, and the f l i g h t paths best suited f o r helicopters entering built-up urban areas. The noise problem i s not discussed i n any d e t a i l ; i t i s assumed that the manufacturers w i l l be required to decrease h e l i -copter-noise through technological improvements or the day of helicopter acceptance into the urban transportation scene w i l l be unnecessarily delayed. In any case, the ambient noise l e v e l should be considered i n s i t e selection. The study primarily d i s -cusses the multi-engined helicopter, as i t i s the only form of helicopter which could be used i n the CBD i f economy, e f f i c i e n c y , and safety are the c r i t e r i a . ^ single h e l i p o r t i n the centre of a c i t y i s not the l o g i c a l solution to the heliport problem. In many cases the t r a f f i c potential w i l l be such that a number of somewhat smaller heliports w i l l be required at various strategic locations within 110. the CBD. By a "smaller" heliport t h i s does not mean a reduction of the approximate 200 f t . x 400 f t . take-off and landing area, but a reduction i n the additional area required f o r parking, loading, and unloading, and so on. A - THE BROAD REQUIREMENTS OF THE HELICOPTER The broad requirements which a multi-engined helicopter 79 should meet for operation over and into built-up areas are: 1. The helicopter should be able to maintain height after engine f a i l u r e with the remaining engine(s) operating within t h e i r continuous rating ( i . e . maximum continuous cruising power) by a margin of power to allow for manoeuvres, rough a i r , and de-t e r i o r a t i o n . 2 . The helicoptor should be able to follow a normal approach path after engine f a i l u r e with the remain-ing engine(s) operating w i t h i n the take-off rating. 3. The helicopter should be able, to make a safe touch-down on a r e s t r i c t e d area i n the hands of a compet-ent p i l o t a fter engine f a i l u r e . 4 . ^he helicopter should be able to exercise a take-off maneouvre such that, after engine f a i l u r e at any ' stage, i t can return safely to a r e s t r i c t e d take-off point or f l y to a less r e s t r i c t e d landing area. 79 - R.H. Whitby, "Some Operational Problems of Public Transport Helicopters",- Royal Aeronautical Society  Journal, 7 o l . 55, 1951, p. 42 . 111. THE PHYSICAL REQUIREMENTS OP A HELIPORT IK THE CENTRAL BUSINESS DISTRICT  1. KooT-top Versus ground Level Heliports; The elevation chosen for construction of the landing and take-off area should be arrived at only after many factors have been considered. In defining the two levels of helipor t s , a roof-top (or elevated) heliport i s one which i s located on a 1 structure several stories above the ground; a ground l e v e l heliport may be structural or non-structural. (Locations which might require s t r u c t u r a l heliports at ground l e v e l would be piers, or other water-edge locations, marshy areas, and so on.) Roof-top h e l i p o r t s : Their advantages and disadvantages:  The advantages of roof-top or elevated heliports are;, (a) In areas where land cost i s at a premium, the use of a roof-top for a h i l i p o r t w i l l reduoe the land  cost because the land i s also being used for many other a c t i v i t i e s located Mow the h e l i p o r t . (b) It permits the location of a hel i p o r t i n built-up areas - immediately accessible to the greatest concentration of persons i n the CBD, and closely t i e d to converging public transportation f a c i l i -t i e s . (c) It provides a means of obtaining approach protection 112. on an inexpensive basis because the height of the heliport i t s e l f w i l l give a reasonable de-gree of protection. (d) I t offers the p o s s i b i l i t y of providing a h e l i -copter hangar dedk below the landing area with elevator access. However, such an i n s t a l l a t i o n seems p r a c t i c a l only with small helicopters weighing up to about 20,000 pounds. (e) Flight i n the v i c i n i t y of an elevated heliport would generally experience less turbulence than f l i g h t into a ground l e v e l s i t e i n the same l o -cation. This would result because the landing area would be above nearby obstructions to wind flow. (f) I t may be possible to combine a downtown auto parking structure with a heliport located on the roof of the structure. The disadvantages of roof-top heliports are: (a) A costly structure i s required to support the weight of the helioopter. The newly completed post o f f i c e i n Vancouver i l l u s t r a t e s the s t r u c t u r al problems associated with a helicopter landing area. Although the roof-top heliport i s designed p r i n c i -p a l l y to f a c i l i t a t e helicopters carrying mail, the roof of the building required t h i s design: ( i n addition to the roof design requirements, the t o t a l building structure and foundation must have a d d i t i o n a l s trength to carry the weight of the roof and the operations on i t . ) 113. It i s d i f f i c u l t to supply the necessary space re-quired fo r a heliport on the roof. Fueling f a c i l i t i e s must be brought to the' roof l e v e l , increasing the cost of equipment required. Also, l o c a l f i r e insurance regulations and re-s t r i c t i o n s may not permit roof-top f u e l i n g . Insurance rates are considerably higher. The provision for handling emergencies i s made more d i f f i c u l t . Removing disabled a i r c r a f t may require some type of lowering down the side of the building by means of a crane arrangement. Considerable space on the flo o r s below the h e l i -port w i l l have to be devoted to heliport uses such as; exclusive elevators, moving stairways or other means of access, lobby and processing areas for passengers, freight, and baggage handling and passenger auto parking. Perhaps one of the major problems i n developing a roof-top heliport would be the supplying of s u f f i c i e n t parking space for private passenger cars where passengers are u t i l i z i n g helicopter service. Such cars would require parking for a longer period of time than the average person takes who i s engaged i n some form of a c t i v i t y i n the CBD. The cost of land and the volume of building space required for passenger cars and the f i n a n c i a l returns from 114. the parking service may not j u s t i f y the use of one building as a composite major h e l i p o r t . On the other hand, where multi-storied parking structures are already i n existence i n the CBD, or which are being considered for future develop-ment, i t i s quite feasible to consider such structures for a h e l i p o r t . However, the location of such a parking structure would be subject to the land use considerations referred to i n e a r l i e r chapters. It requires a higher cloud base (than the ground l e v e l h e l i p o r t ) to provide the same operating safety. The more elevated the h e l i p o r t i s the lower i n proportion the cloud c e i l i n g becomes. The support of the "ground cushion" i s not a v a i l -able at roof-top elevations, with the r e s u l t that a roof-top s i t e must provide s u f f i c i e n t length to permit the helicopter to reach a minimum forward speed (currently about 40 M.P.H. for a transport type helicopter) for adequate control before leaving the edge of the platform. The heliport builder i s required to commit him-s e l f now to the design of a heliport from a long-range standpoint. Because there i s so much to be 115. learned about helicopter operations and heliport design requirements, i t seems undesirable to cre-ate a r i g i d design u n t i l greater refinements are achieved. Ground Level Heliports: Their Advantages and Disadvantages. The advantages of ground-level heliports are; (a) Low l e v e l operations i n the approach and departure zones permit greater f l e x i b i l i t y i n both minimum speed and greater maneouverability, since the h e l i -copter can hover on one engine i n the "ground cushion" formed by the downdraft from the rotor blades, within 10 to 15 feet of the surface. (b) The construction costs are lower as str u c t u r a l support of the heliport would usually be unnecessary, or, at least achieved at minimum cost. (c) The ground l e v e l s i t e should more conveniently provide the large space required for the heliport landing and take-off areas with i t s associated parking areas, for both helicopters and passenger autos. (d) I t would permit helicopters to make f u l l use of the airspace between the ground and the cloud c e i l i n g , and so would be closed less often because of "below minimum" weather. 116. Fueling f a c i l i t i e s should be provided at a major heli p o r t , and these can be provided at minimum cost i n a ground l e v e l heliport, using standard f u e l handling techniques. In addition, the i n -surance costs would be considerably less i n a ground l e v e l operation. The ground l e v e l heliport provides the minimum of pedestrian t r a v e l from the street or public transportation f a c i l i t y to the helicopter. It i s a "saving of t.ime" to the customer, and i n t h i s respect an important convenience faotor. The ground l e v e l h eliport could handle a disabled helicopter vri.th.out excessive d i f f i c u l t y , either for repair purposes or by providing means to transport i t from the heliport to some other f a c i l i t y . It could more readily be equipped to handle emer-gencies resulting from fueling or f l i g h t operations. Although the heliport should have i t s own emergency equipment, i t could e a s i l y draw on other municipal emergency equipment. The i n i t i a l ground-level structure could be simple and e a s i l y al tered i f i t was found that the location, or structure was not adequate. 117. The Port of New York Authority has decided that downtown heliports should preferably be located on waterfront property to clear over-water approaches. Waterfront offers additional ad-vantages i n that adjoining land use i s normally commercial or i n d u s t r i a l , and the heliport can be expanded as necessary by building out into the water rather than using additional c o s t l y land area. Also, f u e l can be delivered by barge which i s the most economical method. The disadvantages of ground-level heliports are mainly that i t would be extremely d i f f i c u l t to locate a h e l i p o r t within the built-up CBD because of the obstruction clearance.profile required for take-offs and landings, i n addition to the high cost of a substantial piece of land for the services which must be located there. 2. Design of the Heliport: The Port of New York Authority has established de-sign c r i t e r i a based on the estimated t r a f f i c volumes and on the operational c a p a b i l i t i e s and requirements 80 of helicopter design. The area required for land-ing and take-off i s an operational requirement depend-ent upon the f l i g h t c haracteristics of future h e l i -copters. On the other hand, the amount of space and number of gate positions needed for loading and un-loading i s a function of both: 80 - See P.U.Y.A., Aviation Dept., Transportation by  Helicopter, 1955-1975, pp. 61-75 118. (a) Volume of t r a f f i c , and, (b) The size and ground handling charac-t e r i s t i c s of the helicopter. Once t r a f f i c volumes to be handled by the heliport are arrived at, the problem of design c r i t e r i a be-comes one of determining what physical areas and f a c i l i t i e s w i l l be necessary to safely accommodate helicopters of the size and f l i g h t c h aracteristics which these machines are expected to have. Although the volume of t r a f f i c to be handled i s i n one sense a co n t r o l l i n g factor, the e f f i c i e n c y of terminal operations and the aerodynamic characteristics of the helicopter during landing and take-off are con-siderably more important i n determining the t o t a l area required. The h e l i p o r t design c r i t e r i a developed by the Port of Hew York Authority are shown on the chart on page 118-A. It appears that an area i n the neighbourhood of 200 feet by 400 feet maximum i s necessary for a major downtown h e l i p o r t , and depending on whether i t i s a ground-level or elevated structure, other related f a c i l i t i e s must also be provided f o r . (See chart on page 118-B). The Second Helicopter Meeting of the International HTtt.TPuftT DESIGN CRITERIA SPACE - WEIGHT CRITERIA: 1 - Landing - Take-Off Area 2 - Wheel Loading 3 - Loading - Unloading Area 4 - Weight to be Carried by Each Loading 200 f t . x 250 f t . - One Landing & One Take-off Platform. 19,000 lbs. 30 f t . x 90 f t . 8-17 Loading Positions 25,000 lbs. OBSTRUCTION CRITERIA: (Major and Secondary Heliport) 1 - Desired Maximum Elevation of Operational Area Above Street Level 2 - Minimum Lateral Obstruction Clearance 3 - Minimum Approach Obstruction Clearance 4 - Desired Minimum Width of Approach and Departure Path »• 100 f t . 100 f t . 35° 500 f t / 1 30-Place Helicopters Anticipated. This would have to be increased 50$ when 4C--place equipment becomes available. 2 Measured from end of platform plus 100 f t . SOURCE: Port of New York Authority, Aviation Dept. Transportation by Helicopter. 1955-1975, (New York, 1953). i — ' 00 I HELIPORT AREA REQUIREMENTS REQUIREMENTS 1955 I960 1965 ULTIMATE 1 - Size of Landing and Take-off Area. Major Heliport 100'x 1O0'1 200' x 400' 200' x 400» 200» x 400' 2 - Number of Parking Positions Major Heliport^ A A A 5 3 - Parking Area Major Heliport (a) If Helicopters Positioned Mechanically. 85' x 135' 85' x 135' 85' x 135' (b) If Helicopters are Taxied 80' x 125 1 100' x 160» 100' x 160' 100' x 160' 1 If heliport elevation i s such that loss of ground cushion occurs on take-off immediately after leaving heliport, size must be increased sufficiently to assure that operations can be safely conducted i n compliance with the height-velocity diagrams for the helicopters using the heliport. 2 In addition, space should be provided for one disabled aircraft, or means should be provided for removing i t from the landing area. SOURCE; Engineering News-Record. (September 22nd, 1955) p.22. 119. A i r Transport Association, concluded, i n regard to size of he l i p o r t s , that i n built-up d i s t r i c t s a heliport area i n excess of 200 feet by 400 feet would be extremely d i f f i c u l t to f i n d - even for a major commercial heliport contemplated to serve the largest proposed helicopter. This area should therefore be understood as being the maximum area required from which to operate the helicopter at . 81 maximum gross weight. In addition to the actual dimensions of the s i t e , orientation of the heliport i n r e l a t i o n to prevailing winds must also be considered. Since the helicopter derives l i f t through airflow over i t s rotors, v e l o c i t y affects performance. The operating area should be designed to permit operation into wind, to minimize crosswind operation, and to eliminate the need for downwind operation. This requires an analysis of l o c a l weather records to determine the dir e c t i o n of the prevailing winds, and t h i s related to the type of helicopter which w i l l f l y into that p a r t i c u l a r 82-h e l i p o r t . 81 - International A i r Transport Association, Report of Second Helicopter Meeting, (Brussels, February 2 3 r d - 2 5 t h , 1955. 82 - Engineering i'lews-Record, (Sept ,22nd, 1955) pp. 2 2 - 3 . 120. It appears, however, that i f p r e v a i l i n g winds are not greater than 25 knots, the helicopter may take-off or land i n any d i r e c t i o n , thereby requiring, t h e o r e t i c a l l y , only one approach and departure lane. In general, i t can be concluded that the h e l i p o r t authorities must choose a certain dimension for the he l i p o r t , simply on the grounds of high land costs i n the CBD. The operational aspects of helicopter opera-t i o n w i l l then have to be f i t t e d into t h i s framework. The helicopter manufacturer should be required to pro-duce an a i r c r a f t to f i t the operational requirements which the h e l i p o r t dictates by i t s size and l o c a t i o n within a densely built-up area, and also the obstruction p r o f i l e s l i k e l y to be obtainable there. 3. The Heliport Obstruction P r o f i l e ; The major commercial h e l i p o r t has as i t s basic object-ive the carrying of large loads, i n the form of persons and goods. I t becomes apparent, therefore, that the helicopter cannot be expected to make use of v e r t i c a l take-offs and landings. The transport helicopter must use a r e l a t i v e l y f l a t approach and take-off angle. The Port of New York authority states that i n commercial use, the helicopter w i l l have characteristics similar to conventional fixed-wing a i r c r a f t , though approach and take-off angles w i l l be steeper and f l i g h t speeds 83 - C i v i l Engineering, (Feb. 1955) p. 52 121. much slower. The Second Helicopter Meeting of I.A.T.A. brought to l i g h t the various problems the helicopter operation 84 faces i n respect to obstruction p r o f i l e s . Obstruction p r o f i l e s must be determined on the basis of: (a) Current helicopter performance c r i t e r i a , (b) Future milti-engine performance character-i s t i c s with one engine inoperative. (c) Instrument approach requirements. (d) City planning considerations. I t i s desirable, therefore, that the obstruction pro-f i l e be such that i t provides for the above factors i n a l l stages of helicopter development. However, i t may not be possible to provide a slope f l a t enough to accommodate the one-engine-out operation of early multi-engine helicopters. I f t h i s i s true, i t becomes necessary' for t h i s f i r s t stage operation to have take-off and approach routes which include s u f f i c i e n t emer-gency landing areas. Consideration has been given to various take-off procedures with multi-engined helicopters which make provision for an engine f a i l u r e at any point i n the take-off f l i g h t path, without requiring an excessively 84 - I.A.T.A., Op.Citl pp. 14, 15, 18, 19. 122. f l a t slope i n the take-off zone. Where f l a t slopes cannot be achieved i t appears s at t h i s time, that a reasonable procedure would be one i n which the h e l i -copter takes-off substantially upwards (that i s , with small or zero horizontal v e l o c i t y ) to a minimum a l t i -tude over the h e l i p o r t . At some point a decision must be made either to proceed with or abandon the take-off. I f the take-off i s to be continued, the helicopter must achieve such a combination of height and forward speed that a l l obstructions i n the f l i g h t path can be cleared by a suitable margin. I f the take-off i s abandoned, the helicopter w i l l be landed and brought to rest w i t h i n the boxmdary of the h e l i p o r t . The p r o f i l e slope of 1;8 was conservatively chosen, at the meeting, i n view of the lack of experience with multi-engined helicopters. With experience, i t may be found practicable to inorease approach gradients and make zoning less r e s t r i c t i v e . In any case, i t was f e l t unwise at that time to e n t i r e l y reject any s i t e which does not meet the 1:8 obstruction gradient re-quirement. The p r o f i l e slope that i s established, and the width of the take-off and landing area together constit-ute the balance of space required for a heliport oper-ation, and these also become the.fundamental issues i n 123. applying some form of r e s t r i c t i o n , such as zoning. 85 I.A.T.A. feels that the width of the landing and take-off area should be not less than twice the rotor diameter of the largest helicopter l i a b l e to use the he l i p o r t . The rotor diameter of some h e l i -copters under development i s of the order of 100 feet which suggests that a 200 foot width w i l l be adequate i n most cases. The take-off area should be  at least b i - d i r e c t i o n a l ; that i s , normally with  approaches 180° apart, and so orientated as to permit general into-xvind operations a great percentage of the time. The publication C i v i l Engineering,°^ i n i t s considerations of obstruction clearance, v i s u a l i z e s a forward take-off p r o f i l e i n which a 400 foot over-run area has been included to allow for an emergency landing d i r e c t l y a f t e r take-off, before one-engine-out f l i g h t can be achieved. (See Diagram on page 123A). Within the over-run area the take-off r a t i o has been doubled to 1:4 (as compared to the I.A.T.A. suggestion of a r a t i o of 1:8) g i v i ng the helicopter a height of 100 feet above a ground l e v e l h eliport at a horizontal distance of 400 feet out from the h e l i p o r t . How-ever, i t appears d i f f i c u l t to vi s u a l i z e the purchase of a s t r i p of land 400 feet wide and 800 feet long (approximately 2 f u l l 85 - Ibid. p. 18 86 - C i v i l Engineering, (February 1955) p. 52 123-A A R I A . E L t V A T l O M PQoPoStb OttST«uc-rioM CLCA «AN C « PUAMI* P o d A M U*%A . U CfcdOUMO v t i o v o n - t Afttt, S H O W N IM P U k M A M 6 E U W A T t O M . 124. o i t y blocks) i n the built-up CBD area. However, i f the h e l i -port i s so located that take-offs would be over water, or some other form of open space, then t h i s does become a feasible approach. an R.H.Whitby, has contributed a great deal i n h i s study of l i n e a r dimensions and costs per acre of heliports as affected by approach angle, as well as the three generally accepted forms of take-offs, and t h e i r effect on s i t e dimensions. R.H.Whitby's Findings were as follows: (a) The l i m i t a t i o n s imposed on s i t e size by landing: (See Diagram on p. 124-A) i - The graph suggests a r e l a t i o n between approach angle and s i t e length. The clearances of h a l f an a i r c r a f t length ahead, and no approach nearer than an a i r c r a f t length to an obstacle behind the touch-down point are a r b i t r a r y ; i n practice, the approach path may not be a straight l i n e but curved so that the l a t e r a l part i s substantially v e r t i c a l , but t h i s w i l l tend to make clearances greater when operating into a s i t e of given s i z e , i i - To accommodate large helicopters operating near high buildings much larger space i s needed for the landing. 37 - R.H.Whitby, "Operational Problems of Transport Helicopters", Op. C i t . pp. 27-42. 124-A 125. i i i - As the angle of approach increases the s i t e length  gets smaller, and gets dorm to quite manageable dimensions of 400 to 500 feet between buildings by the time i t has reached 35°. The reason for choosing- 35° as a planning l i m i t i s that i n the absence of wind and at the rates of descent v i s u -a l i z e d , the helicopter i s l i k e l y to be operating i n the vortex ring condition at angles of descent o re l a t i v e to the a i r i n excess of 45 . In i t s milder form, t h i s results i n roughness and, i n i t s extreme form, may lead to temporary loss of control. (b) Site areas required i n r e l a t i o n to angle of approach; (See Diagram on p. 125-A) i - Since approaches are normally made into wind, these are based on the square of the length derived i n the previous diagram on p. 124-A. - an assumption that i s somewhat pessimistic i n the larger sizes, i i - An urban si t e for a large multi-engined helicopter approaching at 35° would have to be about 4 acres  i n s i z e . A si t e much smaller would not give suf-f i c i e n t room for ground i n s t a l l a t i o n s and parking of other a i r c r a f t . 125-A 126. The effect of take-off on size of s i t e s suitable f o r Safe operation: u (See Diagram on p.l27-A). Consider the forward take-off: The a i r c r a f t i s accelerated and climbed to a height such that i t can maintain height on one engine and be clear of surrounding obstruct-ions. I f an engine f a i l s at t h i s point, the p i l o t has the choice of continuing to climb or of returning to the a i r f i e l d ; a period of delay while he i s making up h i s mind must be allowed. A rather large dimension of nearly h a l f a mile results, and, i f t h i s i s made up of two"runways" 150 yards wide, to allow for emergency landings into wind, about 50 acres are required. Consider a v e r t i c a l take-off: The take-off i s v e r t i c a l to the c r i t i c a l point so that i f an engine f a i l e d the helicopter could either return to the landing f i e l d or pick up a s u f f i c i e n t forward speed (loosing height i n the process) to maintain heighten the remaining engine without danger of c o l l i s i o n with ground obstructions. The p i l o t w i l l not wish to descend from the rotor operating i n the vortex-ring state, and furrhermore, i t w i l l not be easy for him to see immediately below, therefore he w i l l be driven 127. make his approach back on to the landing ground at a steep, but far from v e r t i c a l , angle. The area of the sit e required f o r t h i s technique would be about 20 acres. i i i - Consider the Backward Take-off: Here i t i s assumed the helicopter takes-off back-wards and at about 45° to the horizontal, keeping his take-off point i n view and the a i r c r a f t nose into the. wind. I f the engine f a i l s at the c r i t i c a l point, the p i l o t has s u f f i c i e n t height to f l y away on one engine or to descend on to h i s take-off point, and t h i s phase of take-off becomes i d e n t i -cal with that of the normal approach. The area required, therefore, i s the same as that suggested as meeting landing requirements, that i s , about 4 acres. The a b i l i t y to maintain control of the a/c when the engine f a i l s and during the period while adjustments are being made to the t h r o t t l e of the remaining engine and the c o l l e c t i v e pitch, w i l l require to be demonstrated. U n t i l such matters as t h i s have received p r a c t i c a l t r i a l the requirements of space for heliports cannot be specified with too great a degree of confidence. 127-A CQ,VT\CAk. P*»KVT So 1 ^ 2 4 o o T="-r. So a s ^ ^ 39tC: 3. S«.c*_ CRv-rvc»v\_ Pov^-r IS N "—— /1-^ M o o » 128. C - FLIGHT FATE OF HELICOPTERS OVER URBAN AREAS In order f o r a helicopter operation to function, the h e l i -copter must f l y between terminal points for the expediting of persons and goods. Many factors must be taken into consideration, each re-quiring detailed investigation. The problems of route altitudes under VFR and IFR conditions, the coordination of helicopter and fi x e d wing t r a f f i c patterns, and many other problems must be agreed upon i n order to set up a p r a c t i c a l operation. This h e l i p o r t study could not possibly include such information, although i t i s recog-nized that such information i s invaluable to a c t u a l l y putting a helicopter service into operation. The f l i g h t paths generally agreed upon as being best suited for helicopter f l i g h t s are those over: - water bodies - parks - golf courses - uninhabited land - railway rights-of-way - auto freeways. I t i s obvious that f l i g h t s over these areas minimize the seriousness of forced landings because they provide r e l a t i v e l y un-obstructed landing areas, as w e l l as absorbing much of the effects of rotor blast and direct-overhead noise. If adequate f l i g h t paths over such desirable areas i s not possible, routes w i l l have to be chosen which offer the inhabitants 129. on the ground immediately belov/ suoh f l i g h t paths a minimum of inconvenience i n noise and a maximum assurance of safety from a f a l l i n g a i r c r a f t , as well as offer to the occupants of the h e l i -copter the greatest chances of survival should some factor cause the helicopter to make a forced landing. D - CONCLUSION Economy of operation and development points to the fact that a ground l e v e l s i t e he used f o r a major CBD h e l i p o r t . Such a heliport w i l l require a ground area of somewhere near four acres. A simple, ground l e v e l structure can be used which has adequate space for touch-down, and a e r i a l maneouvre space, not necessarily surfaced, for the acceleration and climb-out path. Although a sizeable area w i l l s t i l l be needed for a ground l e v e l h e l i p o r t , the owners investment can be kept to a minimun and he can r e t a i n com- plete freedom of design for the large heliport which may be a n t i c i -pated i n the future. The Port of New York Authority v i s u a l i z e s the future heliport as a part of a specially constructed structure on which the lower f l o o r w i l l be u t i l i z e d for the parking of i t i n e r a n t helicopters, and for vehicular parking i n connection with the h e l i p o r t . A b i - d i r e c t i o n a l take-off and landing area must be visualizedj with an obstruction clearance p r o f i l e r a t i o of 1:8, for purposes of zoning. CHAPTER VII CRITERIA FUR SELECTING A HELIPORT IN A MAJOR CENTRAL BUSINESS DISTRICT.  This study has been concerned with the factors likely to affect the location of a heliport in the CBD in relation to the other establishments present there. It must be realized that the helicopter will no doubt serve a particular clientele which orig-inates or must operate among certain establishments in the CBD. It i s also felt that the helicopter will not be a mass transport-ation vehicle at the outset as other ground transportation systems are. It appears that certain occupations require the use of fast means of vehicular transportation between various points, mainly for business purposesj this i s the group which will benefit most from helicopter transportation. The study could not go into types of potential customers, but other studies, particularly of short-haul fixed-wing commercial carriers, indicate specific "types" of airline passengers, and i t is fel t the commercial helicopter passenger will no doubt be quite similar to the commercial fixed-88 wing aircraft passenger. Underlying these considerations i s the basic question of the demand for helicopter service as opposed to other forms of public transportation which might prove', equally capable of handling such traffic. In the preceding chapters the author has presented various 88 See "A Market Analysis Approach To Forecasting Domestic Air Travel", a paper by John Logan, Aviation Dept., P.N.Y.A., before the Airport Operation Council, Chicago, 111., April 29, 1957. aspects of the complex field of land uses which includes groupings of establishments, and movements of persons within central business districts. In addition, the technical and physical requirements of helicopter operations were presented to indicate the minimum standards below which the helicopter could not operate success-fully. With these basic considerations at hand certain criteria may be advanced which consider the heliport location from the city planning point of view. It appears that either the land uses of the CBD or the physical and the technical requirements of the heliport operation could demand precedence in determining a heliport location, i f only a superficial investigation is undertaken. However, there are certain fundamental considerations which will determine the success of the heliport over an-extended period of time, and as an establish-ment which compliments other establishments to which i t i s related. These fundamental considerations are the basis of this study; that i s , both the land uses and the heliport requirements must be seen as working partners. The strongest partner in the relationship i s the land uses, this determines the traffic potential which may be served. If the heliport cannot be located in relation to i t s traffic market, then i t may be a serious disadvantage to the CBD, and particularly to the total urban transportation pattern. The technical and physical limitations of the heliport 132. operation becomes the auxiliary partner of the combination. The limitations these present may reduce the potential of a heliport location -which may be satisfactory from the land use standpoint, but these factors must s t i l l be considered as secondary in the choice of locations wherever long-range planning is in process. As a result of the analysis of the land uses and the helicopter requirements, and the relationship seen between them, the heliport location criteria are presented as a two-stage selection process. The f i r s t stage of selection sets out the land use criteria which are fundamental to the whole selection process. The second stage sets out the heliport and helicopter requirements which completes the selection process and allows for the service to be operationally functional. 'i'HK FIRST STAGE IN Si&EOTXNG A msLlPORT LOCATION: The Land Use Criteria. The land use factors may determine the actual success of the helicopter operation. If the heliport location has not been intimately related to the traffic generation areas i t serves then i t has been misplaced and would suffer seriously in being functionally inadequate in i t s anticipated role. If i t is assumed that public action and control can influence the nature, timing, and location of private development, then, by locating a heliport and i t s accompanying obstruction profile, a 133 predetermined land use pattern may be achieved in a given number of years in the area adjacent to the heliport operation. That i s , the heliport may be considered as a useful device in molding new land use patterns for particular parts of the OBD. For example, by height restrictions along the obstruction profile which might allow for the location of certain types of land uses such as open space, low buildings for specific commercial uses, and so on. In this respect the following criteria should be considered: 1. The heliport establishment must become the member of several distinct linkage groups, each most able to utilize helicopter service. If the heliport i s considered in relation to the most permanent establishments of the UBD, i t should be tied closely to the ariwriniptration  and financial area, and the retailing-service  area. Of these four groups of establishments, the retailing area may prove to be the least favorable area for the location of the heliport, in relation to traffic generation. In addition, i f affinity for clustering of like establishments is considered a valid criterion, then the heliport would best be situated between the wholesale- manufacturing area and the business services area. 131 2. The c o n f l i c t between auto t r a f f i c and pedestrian t r a f f i c must be resolved. Such a c r i t e r i o n demands a reduction i n detrimental congestion, and suggests d e f i n i t e "walking areas" and "auto-oriented areas" i n the CBD. In addition, the whole metropolitan transportation system must be designed as an integrated u n i t , directed from -one control centre, end not many d i f f e r e n t control centres. 3. The h e l i p o r t should be located i n the low and medium height building areas of the CBD. This suggests the concept of three building-height l e v e l s f o r the CBD, - low buildings, medium-height buildings, and t a l l buildings. Various portions of the CBD that are presently developed or are developing should be evaluated to determine i f building-height zones or areas are f e a s i b l e . And further study must also be made of the present concentrated building areas, as well as the r e l a t i v e permanency of buildings i n r e l a t i o n to the est a b l i s h -ments which occupy the buildings, i n order to evaluate the effecjb of building heights that are scattered i n random heights, or grouped according to s p e c i f i c heights. This i s the f i e l d i n which the 135. architect, the engineer, the sociologist and the economist could pool their knowledge to provide a starting point. 4.. The heliport should be located in the "auto- oriented" area but catering to the "walking" area. That i s , the heliport should be situated in the zone of transition between these two areas. In such a location the heliport may draw its customers from walking traffic equally well as from persons arriving at the heliport by some vehicular means. This suggested location area is also that area where UBD commercial parking facilities are currently being developed, and some spatial arrangement between down-town •passenger car parking facilities and the heliport may be envisioned as a practical measure. 5. The heliport should be so located that i t i s within ten minutes walking time of the majority of persons and establishments i t will serve. The ten minute limit appears to be the maximum distance a person desires to walk between destination estab-lishments. The convenience and accessibility factors are important to this consideration. It must also be assumed that the helicopter will, for 136. some years to come, provide service to a particular working population within the (JED, and will not cater to the general retail consumer traffic in the CBD. However, additional research into the type of traffic the helicopter will generate must be carried out to give more' validity to this conception. It appears that one vital field of research which must be made i s that concerning the walking area of the CBD worker, and in partic-ular, the type of CBD worker that will become an active user of helicopter transportation. 6. finally, a heliport location may be considered in an area that does not satisfy the external locational requirements of other exclusive CBD establishments, such establishments may also supply traffic for the helicopter service. THE SECOND STAGE IN SELECTING'A HELIPORT LOCATION: The Technical and Physical Requirements Criteria for the Helicopter Operation. 1. The i n i t i a l CBD heliport should be a s i m p l y ground-level structure, which can be economically altered i f i t s design or location prove to be inadequate or detrimental. The ground-level heliport, although i t requires sufficient structural strength, does not involve the huge expense of the added structural strength a high building demands to supply the same facility. In addition, i t would be difficult to provide one roof-top with a flight deck area of some two to four acres. The problems of accessibility to the roof-top, convenience, repair and fueling facilities, and ground cushion, a l l force the heliport to be as near the ground as possible. The heliport itself, exclusive of obstruction profile requirements, will require an area of  approximately four acres. This area includes that required for landings and take-offs, heli-copter parking, helicopter loading, and servicing and refueling areas. Planners should consider as a working standard an obstruction profile angle of 1:8. This profile will probably be the greatest determining factor in the heliport location in relation to the surround-ing buildings. As better helicopters are produced this ratio will be reduced, but the reduction may not be too great. However, i f certain areas are just below the 1:8 minimum ratio they should not be considered as unusable, but could be earmarked for a possible future site, keeping in mind the the potential technical development of the helicopter. A bi-directional (180° - opposite) approach  route should be considered, with into-wind operation where possible or necessary. This appears to be the minimum number of approach routes that will be required. Some form of emergency forced-landing area must be provided between the point of take-off and the reaching of the "critical point" along the take-off route. This assumes that the take-off will be a relatively flat, forward take-off so that the helicopter may carry a maximum load within an efficient engine power-to-weight rating, in a manner that provides the helicopter occupants with the greatest degree of safety. The detrimental affect of enffjna noise and rotor  blast must be taken into consideration. This would be considered in conjunction with the obstruction profile, and may force an increase in profile ratio above 1*8, additionally restrict-ing the maximum height of physical structures below the approach and departure route. Although the 139. study has recognized the detrimental effects of engine and rotor noise, considerably more study must be undertaken to evaluate the noise as a nuisance factor to adjacent land uses and land uses along the flight path for some distance. 7. Adequate flight paths into and out of the CBD must be chosen. Such flight paths should be routed so that there is an emergency landing area at specific intervals along the flight route. The intervals to be so spaced as to allow an engine-out glide approach from the minimum en route altitude. The emergency landing area should be at.ground level in an open space where there are a minimum number of people at any given time. Such areas include parks, golf courses, vacant land, railway rights-of-way, wide roads. 8. Finally, the heliport must provide adequate  passenger car parking facilities for the passengers using the helicopter service. As the heliport seems best situated at ground-level, i t appears that auto parking cannot be considered as an integral part of the one structure but must be considered as an auxiliary structure. This might mean an auto parking 140. structure -within a short walking distance of the heliport i t s e l f . In addition to the actual technical criteria, or, perhaps, as the result of considering these criteria, city planners might do well to determine what area the CBD can afford to give for the heliport operation and i t s accompanying obstruction clearance profile. The helicopter manufacturer should then be obliged to produce the machine to f i t the maximum allowable dimensions. This appears to be a plausible approach when the focus i s on the CBD as a whole and not just on the helicopter service itself. In conclusion, i t i s f e l t that the cooperation of the commercial operators in the CBD could be anticipated in the attempt to create "walking" and "auto-oriented" areas in the CBD. Such areas would encourage the overall development of the land uses of the CBD in a positive manner, and would in addition automatically allow for the provision of an efficiently operating helicopter transportation system in an adequate location or pattern of locations. It must be strongly emphasized that no private or public construction of a building with an adjoining helicopter landing area (smaller than a major heliport) should be permitted in the CBD without f i r s t developing a plan of the total heliport facilities allowable and possible within the CBD, and following along the general line of principles set forward in this study. 142. CHAPTER VIII CERTAIN PROBLEMS IN PLANNING EUR HELIPORT FACILITIES The city planner faces particular problems in attempting to locate or simply consider a helicopter service. A major problem i s the determination of the legal basis under which the heliport may be instituted within the general framework of zoning. That i s , will the city zone particular sites exclus-ively for a heliport, or will the zone in which the heliport i s located be the wholesaling - manufacturing zone or the financial - business services zone, and so on, with no further refinement of the concept of horizontal zoning by type of land use. In addition, another approach, that of various "zones" present in the CBD, may be considered, perhaps in conjunction with the conventional land use zones; that i s , here may be considered high-building or jnedium-building or low-building zones, or some other concept which considers the vertical physical structure of the CBD in contrast with the land use and establishment approach. Los Angeles has considered various heliport zoning techniques and these are listed on the following 89 page. In Canada, cities face a somewhat different control 89 See Los Angeles City Planning Dept., P-i-eH urinary Report on Planning For Heliports. (Los Angeles, January, 1956). POSSIBLE TECHNIQUES OF LAND USE ZONING FOR HELIPORTS.  Effect Listed Use Permitted in specified zones only. Permits indiscriminate location within specified zones. Does not control number or spacing of heliports. Might lead to air traffic congestion and conflict. Might restrict heliports from areas where needed. Listed and Conditional Use Permitted in specified zones as matter of course and in other zones by specific conditional approval. Permits indiscriminate location in speci-fied zones but allows location, site, and use control in other zones. (This is current status of airports (includ-ing Heliports) in Los Angeles City ordinance Conditional Use Permitted only by specific conditional approval. Allows specific location, site, and use control in a l l cases. Might be considered discriminatory unless applied on basis of sound plan and uniform standards. Supplemental Use Permitted only in specified districts superimposed on zoning plan. If district i s so small as to permit only one heliport, this might be considered to constitute spot zoning. If district i s large enough to permit location of several heliports indiscrimin-ately, air traffic problems might result. POSSIBLE TECHNIQUES OF LAND USE ZONING FOR HELIPORTS Cont'd.  Method Description Effect Controlled Supplemental Use Permitted only in specified districts and subject to specific conditions. Allows specific location, site, and use control within selected areas. Guarantees freedom of other areas from heliport uses. Exclusive Use Permitted in special zone which prohibits a l l other types of use. Prevents appropriation of land for other uses. Reasonable application probably limited to fixing of heliport location in relation to other uses within large single ownership. Variance Permitted by specific conditional approval only i f general conditions for variance are met. Improper use of variance i f ordinance makes any other provision for heliports. Meeting of necessary conditions for variances ' might prevent serving of public interest. SOURCE: City Planning Department, Los Angeles, Calif., P-rftHniinary Report On Plapr^npr F o r Heliports. (Los Angeles, January, 1956) Chart 6.2 (following p.63). 143. over air transportation than i s the case in American cities. In the United States, airports are owned either federally, by cities, or by private operators; in Canada, the Federal Government, through the Department of Transport, controls a l l airfields. It is felt that a l l heliports will also come under the control of the federal government, .except that they may be administered by cities or municipalities. - No private ownership of heliports i s anticipated in Canada. In addition, the Department of Transport controls airport zoning which 90 includes obstruction profile zoning. It i s generally assumed that when Canadian commercial heliports are developed the federal government will also zone the area about the heliport to provide for public safety and aeronautical safety. This will require the utmost of cooperation between cities and the federal government, so that the zoning restrictions applied will benefit the whole metropolitan community, and not stand as an obstacle in the path of sound commercial development in the CBD. Although the Department of Transport, Air Services Division, has not as yet produced standard requirements for heliports, i t i s considering such standards as are being accepted by the International Civil Aviation Authority which represents many countries and operators throughout the world. 90 The standard approach clearance ratio for airports i s 1:50. BIBLIOGRAPHY. Adams, Thomas, and Bassett, E.M., Buildings; Their Uses And The Spaces About Them. Regional Plan Of New York and Its Environs, (New York, 1931). Allen, C.B., "Basic Design Criteria For Heliports", a paper before the National Convention American Association of Airport Executives, Louisville, Kentucky, May, 1954* Bernard, Jessie, American Community Behavior. (New York, 1949). Carroll, J.D., "The Relation Of Homes To Work Places And The Spatial Pattern Of Cities," in Social Forces. (March, 1952) p.272. Cox, F.A., Biblical Antiquities. (Glasgow, 1852). Crerar, Alistair, Airports For The Lower Ma;inlapdr a study by the B.C.Lower Mainland Regional Planning Board, (Vancouver, 1954 Rev.) Florence, P.S.~, "Economic Efficiency In The Metropolis," in The Metropolis In Modern Life. ed. R.M. Fisher, (New York, 1955) p.94. Foley, D.L., "The Standardization Of Data Showing Daily Population Movements Into Central Business Districts," in Land Economics. Vol.27, 1951. Foley, D.L., "The Daily Movement Of Population Into Central Business Districts," in American  Sociological Review. Vol.17, 1952, pp.348-353. Haig, R.M., Major Economic Factors In Metropolitan  Growth And Arrangement. Regional Plan Of New York And Its Environs, (New York, 1927). Hanchet, W.H.D., "The Helicopter And The Engineer", in The Engineering Journal. (December, 1955)• Helicopter Council Of The Aircraft Industries Association, The Heliport - A Blueprint  Of Change In Airport P l a n n i n g Standards. (Washington, April, 1954)• Hoover, E.M., The Location Of Economic Activity. (New York, 1948). "Horonjeff, Robert, and Lapin, H.S., Planning  For Urban Heliports. Research Report No.19, of the Institute of Transportation and Traffic Engineering, University of California, (Berkeley, June, 1954)• Hughes, William, "Free Transit: An Efficient Solution To Metropolitan Congestion", (Vancouver, 1958) . An unpublished paper. Hunter, John M., Chief, Airport Division, U.S. Ci v i l Aeronautics Administration, "Airports And Heliports In The Jet Age," a paper before the National Planning Conference, American Society of Planning Officials, San Francisco, March, 1957. I.A.T.A., Helicopter Operation And Design Requirements. I.A.T.A.Technical Conference, (Puerto Rico, April, 1953). I.A.T.A., Report of Second Helicopter Meeting. (Brussels, February, 1955). I.A.T.A., Report of Helicopter Meeting. (San Remo, May, 1956). 146. Jonassen, C.T., The Shopping Centre Versus Downtown. (Ohio State University, Columbus, 1955). Lee, R.H., The City. (Chicago, 1955). Legan, John, "A Market Analysis Approach To Forecasting Domestic Air Travel" a paper before the Airport Operators Council, Chicago, April, 1957. Leigh, Fisher and Associates.- Heliports. (South Bend, Indiana, 1954). Liepman, Kate K., The Journey To Work. (London, 194-5). Lincoln Library Of Essential Knowledge. (The Frontier Press, New York, 1929). Los Angeles City Planning Department, Preliminary  Report On Planning For Heliports. (Los Angeles, January, 1956). Marx, H.L., ed., Community Planning. (New York. 1956). Mitchell, R.H., and Rapkin, C, Urban Traffic - A  Function Of Land Use. (Columbia University, New York, 1954). Moving People In Metropolitan Areas. Proceedings of the Second Annual University of California Conference on City and Regional Planning, 1954. Owen, Wilfred, The Metropolitan Transportation  Problem. (Washington, 1956). PiaseckL, Frank N., "Military Aspects Of The Transport Helicopter," in The Engineering  Journal. (November, 1951). Piasecki, Frank N., "Whats Holding Up The Helicopter?" in Esauire. (October, 1957) p.4-7. Port of New York Authority, Heliport Location And Design. (New York, 1955). Port of New York Authority, Transportation By  Helicopter 1955-1975. (New York, 1953) . Rannells, John, The Core Of The City. (Columbia University Press, New York, 1956). Ratcliff, R.U., "Efficiency And The Location Of Urban Activities," in The Metropolis  In Modern Life, ed., R.M.Fisher, (New York, 1955), p.125. Regional Plan Association Incorporated, Metropolis In The Making. (New York, 1955). Ricklefs, James S., "A Helicopter Operator Views Heliports," a paper before the National Planning Conference, American Society of Planning Officials, San Fran-cisco, March, 1957. Sikorsky, Dr. Igor I., "The Transport Helicopter" In Engineering Digest. (July, 1955). Sullivan, Thomas, M., "Planning Metropolitan Airports And Heliports", a paper before the American Society of Planning Officials, March, 1957. Sullivan, .Thomas M., "Proposal For A Master Plan For A Regional Heliport System" a paper before the Regional Heliport Conference, New York, April, 1956. Taylor, E.G.R., "Climate In Relation To Planning," in Town And Country Planning Textbook, ed. A.P.R.R., (London, 1950), pp.14.-r24.. Tobin, Austin J., "Transportation In The New York Metropolitan Region During The Next Twenty-Five Years," a paper before the Regional Plan Conference, (New York, October, 1954-). U.S. Department of Commerce, Civil Aeronautics Administration, Airoort Design. (Washington, 1949)• U.S. Department of Commerce, Civil Aeronautics Administration, Airport Terminal Buildings. (Washington, 1953). Vancouver Town Planning Commission, Metropolitan  Airport Plan. (Vancouver, August, 194-6). Vest, John P.W., "Heliports For Commercial Transportation" a paper before the American Society of Civil Engineers, Air Transport Division, (New York, October, 1953). Warskow, Martin A., "Heliports, Helicopters, and Airspace," a paper before the Radio Technical Commission For Aeronautics, (Boston, Spring, 1956). Whitby, R.H. "Some Operational Problems of Public Transport Helicopters", in Royal Aeronautical  Society Journal. Vol.55, 1951, p.27. Wiley, John R., "Transportation To And From Airports", a paper before the Aviation Committee, Chicago Association of Commerce and Industry, (New York, June, 1956). Wiley, John R., "The Heliport Operator Looks At Helicopters" a paper before the American Helicopter Society, (Washington, March, 1957). Woodbury, Coleman, ed. The Future of Cities  And Urban Redevelopment. (University of Chicago Press, :.1953.) Woolston, Howard. Metropolis. (New York, 193S). 

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