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Bulk-handling compared with the use of field boxes with reference to the post-harvest physiology of apples Combret, Robert Jules Louis 1958

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BULK-HANDLING COMPARED WITH THE USE OF F I E L D WITH REFERENCE TO THE  BOXES  POST-HARVEST  PHYSIOLOGY OF APPLES  by ROBERT COMBRET B.A. U n i v e r s i t y o f P a r i s , B.S.A. U n i v e r s i t y o f M o n t r e a l ,  1951 1955  A T H E S I S SUBMITTED I N PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER  OF SCIENCE I N AGRICULTURE in HORTICULTURE  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e s t a n d a r d r e q u i r e d f r o m c a n d i d a t e s f o r t h e degree o f MASTER OF SCIENCE I N AGRICULTURE  THE UNIVERSITY OF B R I T I S H A p r i l 1958  COLUMBIA  ii  BULK-HANDLING COMPARED WITH THE USE WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO THE  OP FIELD BOXES  POST-HARVEST  PHYSIOLOG/Y OF APPLES  Robert  Combret  ABSTRACT Yellow Newtown apples bandied i n bulk i n l a r g e twentyf i v e bushel b i n s showed l e s s b r u i s i n g than those handled i n standard one-bushel f i e l d boxes. Most of the b r u i s i n g took p l a c e d u r i n g the dumping on to the grader o p e r a t i o n r a t h e r than at p i c k i n g time. The mechanical dumping of the l a r g e b i n s did  not cause as severe b r u i s i n g as d i d the manual dumping of  the f i e l d  boxes.  The apples bulk handled and s t o r e d i n the l a r g e b i n s proceeded a t a lower r e s p i r a t i o n r a t e , maintained a h i g h e r sugar l e v e l , kept f i r m e r , s h r i v e l l e d l e s s and were f r e e r storage p h y s i o l o g i c a l d i s o r d e r s than those s i m i l a r l y and s t o r e d i n the standard f i e l d  from  handled  boxes.  S t o r i n g apples i n p o l y e t h y l e n e bags kept the f r u i t i n a s i m i l a r p h y s i o l o g i c a l c o n d i t i o n to that of apples s t o r e d i n bulk b i n s . Evidence presented suggests t h a t storage i n l a r g e bulk b i n s e f f e c t s apples i n a b e n e f i c i a l manner s i m i l a r l y t o the use of p o l y e t h y l e n e box l i n e r s and to c o n t r o l l e d atmosphere storage. I t was  concluded t h a t b u l k - h a n d l i n g i s b e n e f i c i a l to the  iii  p o s t - h a r v e s t p h y s i o l o g y o f Y e l l o w Newtown a p p l e s . their  I t improves  s t o r a g e q u a l i t i e s , p r e s e r v e s a "better a p p e a r a n c e and  Increases t h e i r m a r k e t a b i l i t y handled  i n standard f i e l d  so  i n c o m p a r i s o n t o a p p l e s wnicb. a r e  "boxes.  G-. H o w e l l  Harris »  Professor  of H o r t i c u l t u r e .  In presenting the  this  thesis  i npartial  r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y  of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that it  fulfilment of  freely  agree that for  available  the L i b r a r y s h a l l  f o r r e f e r e n c e and study.  permission f o rextensive  make  I further  copying of t h i s  thesis  s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d b y t h e Head o f my  Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e .  I t i s understood  that  copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s  gain  s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n  Department o f  HORTICULTURE  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Vancouver 8 , Canada.  Columbia,  thesis f o r financial permission.  iv  ACKNOWLEDGEMEN T The w r i t e r w i s h e s t o e x p r e s s h i s s i n c e r e  gratitude  t o t h o s e whose a d v i c e and s u g g e s t i o n s made t h i s work and e s p e c i a l l y t o D r . G. H. H a r r i s , P r o f e s s o r  possible,  of H o r t i c u l t u r e ,  U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , under whose d i r e c t i o n t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n was c a r r i e d o u t . S i n c e r e thanks a l s o a r e due t o Mr. W. D. M o l y n e u x , I n s p e c t o r o f t h e D i v i s i o n o f P l a n t P r o t e c t i o n - Canada Agriculture Occidental  - i nPenticton,  and t o Mr. C. E l s e y , Manager o f t h e  F r u i t Company L t d . , i n West Summerland, whose c o -  o p e r a t i o n made a v a i l a b l e t h e m a t e r i a l s  used i n these  experiments.  V  TABLE OP CONTENTS  Page 1.  Introduction  1  2.  H i s t o r y and d e s c r i p t i o n of the most commonly adopted bulk-handling methods ....  2  3.  M a t e r i a l s and Methods a) - Experiment I b) - Experiment I I c) - Experiment I I I  4-. Experimental Results a) - Experiment I b) - Experiment I I c) - Experiment I I I  27 27 28 30 31 31 32 33  5.  D i s c u s s i o n of Results  . ... 34-  6.  Conclusions  40  7.  Literature Cited  4-1  8.  Appendix  4-3  INTRODUCTION To o b t a i n the i d e a l i n the h a r v e s t i n g of f r e s h under p r e s e n t - d a y  c o n d i t i o n s , we  f a c t o r s - t h a t i s , p i c k the f r u i t  must c o r r e l a t e two  management.  i t i n such  d u r i n g h a n d l i n g and  the same t i m e , c o s t s must be kept as low Bulk-handling  main  at a stage of m a t u r i t y to  assure i t s b e s t e d i b l e q u a l i t y , and h a n d l e that i t s q u a l i t y i s maintained  a  way  storage.  i s of r e c e n t i n t r o d u c t i o n i n orchard  More and more growers are a d o p t i n g t h i s  new  d e s t i n e d f o r the f r e s h market.  of  out t o - d a t e  the experiments c a r r i e d  h a n d l i n g have been conducted  i n the f i e l d  of e n g i n e e r i n g ; a bulk-handling  But n o t h i n g has y e t been worked out  b u l k - h a n d l i n g w i t h the use  affects  comparing  of f i e l d boxes i n t h e i r e f f e c t s  the p o s t - h a r v e s t p h y s i o l o g y of a p p l e s . a d v i s a b l e t o undertake such  Most  i n regard to bulk-  v e r y few have been made t o determine how quality.  At  as p o s s i b l e .  method of h a r v e s t i n g f r u i t  fruit  fruit,  I t was  on  considered  a study, e s p e c i a l l y when b u l k -  h a n d l i n g i s r e p o r t e d as b e i n g  "the most s i g n i f i c a n t  change  t h a t has e v e r o c c u r r e d i n f r u i t h a r v e s t i n g i n the Okanagan Valley"  (9). The  m a t e r i a l s and methods used i n these  and the r e s u l t s obtained w i l l be p r e s e n t e d  experiments  and d i s c u s s e d i n  the second and t h i r d p a r t s of t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n , the p a r t b e i n g d e d i c a t e d to the h i s t o r i c a l of  and d e s c r i p t i v e  the most commonly adopted b u l k - h a n d l i n g methods.  first aspects  -  HISTORY AND  2  -  DESCRIPTION OF THE  MOST COMMONLY  ADOPTED BULK-HANDLING METHODS: F r u i t d e s t i n e d f o r p r o c e s s i n g has been h a n d l e d bulk bins ( 1 ) , (2) b i n s were almost  s i n c e the e a r l y days of p r o c e s s i n g , but  e x c l u s i v e l y a p a r t of the p r o c e s s i n g  l a t i o n s and were not used  by f r u i t growers.  Zealand t h a t b u l k - h a r v e s t i n g of deciduous  I t was  instal-  in  f r u i t was  (3),  i n the N e l s o n and Hawke's Bay d i s t r i c t s n i n g of the 1950s.  in  pioneered,  s i n c e the b e g i n -  I n s t e a d o f the b u s h e l box the New  used a "thumping b i g b i n " and  New  Zealanders  i n s t e a d of moving the f r u i t  by  hand, they d i d i t w i t h machinery ( 4 ) . Some of the e a r l i e r types of b u l k - h a n d l i n g equipment (13),  because they were l a r g e l y e x p e r i m e n t a l  c o n s i d e r e d somewhat crude  i n d e s i g n and  i n form, may  s t r u c t u r e to-day.  " T e e t h i n g " problems, of c o u r s e , were i n e v i t a b l e b u t ments developed  rapidly.  be  These improvements l a r g e l y  improveoccurred  through the p o o l i n g of i d e a s amongst growers i n the i n d u s t r y . Of the systems so f a r operated main i n t e r e s t The  type No.  i n Hawke's Bay,  the  i s b e i n g c e n t r e d on t h r e e types ( 5 ) » as f o l l o w : 1, or "Ansa system":  The  t h i s system i s of a p r o p r i e t a r y nature In this case, a f e l t - l i n e d  b a s i c equipment f o r and  used.  e l e v a t o r about 18 i n c h e s wide  r e p l a c e s t h e normal grade hopper, and l i e s towards the end  i s widely  of the g r a d e r .  at a s l i g h t  angle  A more r e c e n t development i s  a v e r t i c a l e l e v a t o r ( F i g . 1 ) , the main advantage b e i n g  a  - 3 s l i g h t saving  i n shed space.  g r a d i n g bench i s p l a c e d weight o f f r u i t it  springs  Between t h e e l e v a t o r and t h e  a s m a l l hopper which r e a c t s t o the  being h e l d ,  i n t h a t as t h i s hopper empties,  s l i g h t l y upwards a t t h e e l e v a t o r end, and by switch  means o f a m e r c u r y / c o n t r o l , When t h e hopper i s f u l l  s t a r t s the elevator  of f r u i t , this  operating.  c o n t r o l s t o p s the  e l e v a t o r moving, thereby r e g u l a t i n g t h e f l o w o f f r u i t grading  t o the  bench. The  base o f t h e e l e v a t o r i s sunken i n t o t h e end o f  a long concrete  w e l l i n the f l o o r o f t h e shed, r u n n i n g the  same d i r e c t i o n as t h e g r a d e r , e x t e n d i n g from the hopper end, away from t h e g r a d e r .  f e e t wide and 2 . 2 5 f e e t deep, w i t h the s i d e f a c i n g  long, the  T h i s w e l l may be 9 . 5 f e e t t o 1 5 f e e t  shed doors s h a r p l y b e v e l l e d .  f l a t endless  r u b b e r conveyor b e l t 1 . 5 f e e t wide, on s p e c i a l  wooden frame 2 . 7 5 f e e t wide. the f r u i t  Along t h i s well t r a v e l s a  When i n motion, t h i s b e l t moves  s l o w l y towards t h e e l e v a t o r . The  fruit  i s harvested  i n large t r a i l e r  w i t h b a l l o o n type a i r c r a f t wheels and t i r e s , (Pig.  2).  bins,  fitted  drawn by t r a c t o r s  F o r d i s t a n t t r a v e l on l a r g e o r c h a r d s ,  three of  these b i n s may be drawn a t one time by one t r a c t o r .  Each of  the b i n s c a n h o l d up t o 1 0 0 b u s h e l s o f apples o r p e a r s .  They  are made o f lumber on p r e f a b r i c a t e d s t e e l frames and s i d e s , the measurements b e i n g  1 1 . 7 5 f e e t x 5 . 5 f e e t x 20 i n c h e s .  Some growers use l i n o l e u m  t o l i n e the bottoms t o a v o i d  of f r u i t  and t o a l l o w t h e f r e e movement o f t h e f r u i t  tipped.  P r o v i d i n g the t i m b e r i s f r e e o f k n o t s , w e l l  chafing  when dressed  - 4- and  w e l l p a i n t e d , however, a l i n e r  seem t o b e  shed, a t r i g h t they  released  reach  from t h e t r a c t o r  is  then  tilted  of  a rope tail  on  and s u f f i c i e n t  on,  grading  slides,  i s carried  into  of the  i n t h e w e l l b y means over  sliding  the f r u i t  boards  t h e drawbar. near the  a r e removed  to slide  from  o u t ( P i g . 3)  motor f o r t h e equipment slowly along  c o n t r o l hopper  r a t h e r than r o l l s  a replacement  The t r a i l e r i s  on a s l o p i n g board  e l e v a t o r , which picks the f r u i t the  the other,  belt.  the e l e c t r i c  the f r u i t  into the  o p e r a t i o n , one o f t h e b i n s  t o the r a f t e r s  sits  end o f t h e b i n t o a l l o w  As  one a l o n g s i d e  the conveyor b e l t  of the b i n then  a r e backed  a f t e r t h e drawbar stand  and a p u l l e y f i x e d  the conveyor  bins  near the w e l l .  T o commence  towards  conveyor b e l t ,  full  to the well,  a stop r a i l  i s lowered.  the  two o f t h e s e  angles  trailer  The  as l i n o l e u m does n o t  necessary. Usually,  until  such  on the b e l t  up a n d c a r r i e s  and g r a d i n g from  the b i n s  b i n i s put into p o s i t i o n ,  o p e r a t i o n , and t h e r e  bench.  i s switched t o the  i t upwards t o The  fruit  t o the b e l t .  Before  the second b i n i s p u t  i s no n e e d f o r t h e f l o w o f f r u i t t o  s t o p a t any s t a g e .  From e i g h t t o f i f t e e n with this orchards fruit,  equipment w i t h to provide  trailer  bins  are normally  a t e n d e n c y t o h i g h e r numbers  a good r e s e r v e  and continuous  and t o a v o i d h o l d i n g u p t h e wxk  d u r i n g good w e a t h e r a n d p a c k i n g  on l a r g e  flow of  o f p i c k e r s ( F i g . 4)  d u r i n g wet w e a t h e r .  used  The  Photos  N.Z.D.A.  General View : Conveyor belt and elevator carrying fruit to grader hopper.  Fig.  Fig. 2  1  Trailer bin tilted towards conveyor belt in floor well. Note stop rail.  Fig. 3  Riled trailer bins arriving at packing shed direct from orchard.  Apples being lowered from picking bag into 90-bushel trailer.  Fig. h  The Ansa system o f bulk-handling.  -  equipment  described  effectively  is  6  -  reported  and b r u i s i n g  is  to  operate  s a i d to  be  very  less  smoothly  than w i t h  and  normal  methods. a  As  a result  was shown t h a t equipment final  1,000  from the  outloading  normal methods considerable shed,  10 t o  cases  tree  in  and  (including  in  the  outloaded  picking)  or  motor truck, of  to  or  fruit  -  a  for  packing-  cases  is  very  of  fruit  method  stacked  b y means o f  b y means o f  hydraulic  this  whereas  to  1,000  a tractor.  the  it  readiness  as compared w i t h normal  rear  rams connected  of  trucks  to  to  carting  to  attached  front  item,  the  commercial f o r k l i f t  time,  385 man-hours  packing,  standard  the  handling  c o u l d be h a n d l e d w i t h  equivalent  3 man-hours, After  of  143 m a n - h o u r s ,  One n o t a b l e  orchard,  then  operated by  fruit  v a r i e d b e t w e e n 230 t o  20 m a n - h o u r s .  pallets  of  survey  approximately  saving.  from the  were handled  of/brief  The  a  of  on  a fork-lift  latter  equipment  are  of  the  tractors. If protect the  the  fruit  trailers  large  shed space i s  trees  in  reserve  c l o s e to  the  of  (11).  This  one,  using  mobile  bulk  handling  type  of  awaiting  be l e f t  to  handling,  under the  shade  and  of  packing-shed.  2 or  "Hastings  quite  in  installation  a tractor-lift  35-40  c o v e r s may b e n e e d e d  trailers,  should preferably  The Type N o . method  limited,  to  system",  favour is  carry  loose-bushel capacity)  is  another  i n New Z e a l a n d  a simpler rather  and much c h e a p e r  smaller  from the  (5)»  bins  orchard  to  (nonthe  - 7 shed and t h e n p l a c i n g them on a t i l t i n g wooden frame r e p l a c e s t h e grader hopper.  T h i s f i x e d frame  which  ( i n one case  h y d r a u l i c a l l y - e l e v a t e d ) i s made o f heavy timber w i t h the t o p stand s l o p i n g towards t h e g r a d e r bench a t an angle o f about 35  degrees.  After a f u l l  b i n i s lowered on t o t h i s  frame,  s l i d i n g boards are removed from t h e end o f t h e b i n n e a r e s t the  grader bench, and t h e f r u i t s l i d e s , as r e q u i r e d , on t o the  grader. of 3.25 the  The f l o w o f f r u i t  boards removed.  i s l a r g e l y c o n t r o l l e d by t h e number  These b i n s u s u a l l y measure about 8 f e e t x  f e e t x 18 i n c h e s , b u t t h e r e a r e many v a r i a t i o n s , a l t h o u g h depth does n o t exceed 2 0 i n c h e s . T h i s type i s r e p o r t e d as o p e r a t i n g v e r y  and the i n i t i a l c o s t i s r e a s o n a b l e .  satisfactorily  The t r a c t o r l i f t  i s also  a v a i l a b l e f o r l o a d i n g p a l l e t e d cases on t o a motor t r u c k . Oversize t i r e s ,  at a h i g h e r than normal p r e s s u r e , a r e a d v i s a b l e  on the t r a c t o r f o r c a r t i n g i n from t h e o r c h a r d .  Two of these  b i n s can be c a r r i e d i n f r o m the o r c h a r d ( P i g . 5 ) > b u t i n such case the t r a c t o r must be equipped w i t h d u a l f o r k l i f t s . d e s i r e d , two o r f o u r of t h e s e b i n s c a n be c a r r i e d  If  i n from the  o r c h a r d , p l a c e d end t o end ( w i t h a second l a y e r on t o p ) , on a f l a t 16 f e e t t r a i l e r . or  T h i s allows the t r a c t o r - l i f t  t o load  unload each b i n , w i t h o u t i n t e r f e r e n c e from t h e c e n t r a l l y  s i t u a t e d t r a i l e r wheels.  The p r o v i s i o n o f such t r a i l e r s i s  a second-year improvement, when the need appears w a r r a n t e d . With ample b i n s , and r e a s o n a b l e s t o r a g e space f o r them i n the shed ( s t a c k e d i n t i e r s ) , fruit.  t h i s system p r o v i d e s p l e n t y of r e s e r v e  Although, the t r a c t o r i s r a t h e r t i e d t o shed f o r r e p l a c e -  ment of b i n s , the t r a c t o r - l i f t has many o t h e r uses i n the o r c h a r d ,  - 8 a p a r t from b e i n g the p i v o t of t h i s The  type No.  5 , which may  system" between the two developed  and  orchards  i n New  system. be  called a "hybrid  a l r e a d y d e s c r i b e d , has now  been  seems to be v e r y p o p u l a r f o r a v e r a g e - s i z e d Zealand  (5)>  (12).  T h i s c o n s i s t s of t h e  use  of  an e l e v a t o r and mercury s w i t c h c o n t r o l l e d hopper a t the  of  the e l e v a t o r r e s t i n g on the shed f l o o r .  for  t h i s type.  No w e l l i s r e q u i r e d  Running a t r i g h t angles t o the e l e v a t o r i s a  s p e c i a l type of s t e e l conveyor 4- f e e t wide mounted on supports  end  about 3 f e e t from f l o o r l e v e l .  steel  E a c h b i n r e s t s on a  separate s t e e l t r o l l e y , o r frame, which runs on s t e e l wheels a l o n g the a n g l e - i r o n top r a i l  of the conveyor.  the conveyor, j u s t o p p o s i t e the e l e v a t o r , has t i l t i n g device. fruit  The b i n s (8 f e e t x 3.25  A s e c t i o n of a knee a c t i o n  f e e t x 20  i n c h e s ) of  are c a r r i e d from the o r c h a r d on a t r a c t o r l i f t ,  p l a c e d c r o s s w i s e on the conveyor.  and  Depending on the l e n g t h of  the conveyor, a number of b i n s can be h e l d i n r e s e r v e on i t and the b i n s moved along as r e q u i r e d , and  tilted  v e r y s m a l l hopper near the f o o t of the e l e v a t o r .  towards a Once the  end boards are removed ( F i g . 6) and the e l e v a t o r equipment put i n motion, the f r u i t  s l i d e s out of the b i n and  i s p i c k e d up  the e l e v a t o r s t e p s and moved on t o the hopper and d e s c r i b e d i n the Ansa system. to  the f l a t p o s i t i o n and  When empty, the b i n s are r e t u r n e d  l a t e r r e t u r n e d t o the p i c k e r s  Shed doors  g i v i n g t r a c t o r a c c e s s t o each  •end of the conveyor a l l o w the b i n s t o be a l o n g and emptied, and  as  e i t h e r removed, or pushed a l o n g to an  e x t e n s i o n of the conveyor, and by the t r a c t o r - l i f t .  grader,  by  t a k e n away through  put on  one  end, moved  the o t h e r end.  Here  Demonstrating method of tilting bin towards the hopper and elevator.  Dual fork lifts on tractor, each carrying 40 loose bushels of fruit.  Fig. 5  Photo N.Z.D.A.  Fig. 6  Photo N.Z.D.A.  i I  Fig. 7  Photo U.3.D.A.  •--'or  lift  loads  filled  pallet  Fig. 8  boxes  onto  flat-bed  truck  for  Photo U.S.D.A.  above:  bulk-handlir.g i n New Zealand,  belowi  bulk-handling i n Michigan.  trip  to  storacje  - 10 a g a i n the t r a c t o r - l i f t a f t e r packing.  i s a v a i l a b l e t o l o a d the p a l l e t e d f r u i t  T h i s t y p e c a n be c l a s s e d as a c o m p l e t e u n i t t o  h a n d l e t h e f r u i t f r o m the t r e e t o f i n a l o u t l o a d i n g .  There i s  a c o n t r o l l e d and s t e a d y f l o w o f f r u i t t o the g r a d e r , an ample r e s e r v e of f r u i t on the c o n v e y o r o r s t a c k e d  i n the s h e d ,  and  because o f t h i s , the t r a c t o r i s not t i e d t o the shed f o r b i n replacement. The  c o s t of i n s t a l l a t i o n depends o f c o u r s e  a good  d e a l on the amount of i n s t a l l a t i o n work done by t h e grower h i m s e l f , s u c h as i n the c o n s t r u c t i o n of b i n s o r t r a i l e r b i n s , wells, etc.  The  f o l l o w i n g f i g u r e s , however, a r e r e p o r t e d  g i v e the a p p r o x i m a t e p r e s e n t c h a s e d and  c o s t when systems are f u l l y  Type No.  1 - £ 1,400  - £ 1,500*  Type No.  2 - £  400  - £  500*  Type No.  3 - £  650 - £  750*  above p r i c e s i n c l u d e a b o u t £ 220 f o r f o r k - l i f t  for  tractor.  The  attachments  number of b i n s , t r a i l e r b i n s o r f l a t  considered necessary  a f f e c t the o v e r a l l  trailer,  price.  F o l l o w i n g are some o f the advantages r e c o g n i z e d b u l k - h a n d l i n g of d e c i d u o u s f r u i t o v e r t h e use i n New  pur-  i n s t a l l e d by tradesmen:  The  etc.,  to  Zealand  to  o f f i e l d boxes  ( 3 ) , ( 4 ) , ( 5 ) , ( 1 3 ) , and A u s t r a l i a ( 1 1 ) , ( 1 2 ) :  1. - H a r v e s t i n g i s e a s i e r . 2. -  p i c k e r s show more e f f i c i e n c y .  3. -  h a u l i n g i s made f a s t e r .  *The r a t e o f exchange i s p r e s e n t l y of Can.  $ 2.78  for  1£.  - 11 4.  -  savings of 25% are  5. -  or more on p i c k i n g c o s t s  realized.  c o n t r a r y to g e n e r a l p r e d i c t i o n , the f r u i t s u f f e r s *; l e s s i n j u r y . p a r t i c u l a r l y apparent  :  This i s reported w i t h Golden D e l i c i o u s apples  and w i t h peaches. It  i s now  e s t i m a t e d t h a t more than 9 0 p e r c e n t of New  apple and p e a r  crop are handled  i n one  or another ways of "bulk-  h a n d l i n g , p l u s cannery peaches and f i e l d Bulk-handling  tomatoes.  i n N o r t h America, as f a r as  d e s t i n e d t o the f r e s h market i s concerned, by the c i t r u s  was  first  fruit developed  i n d u s t r y of the U n i t e d S t a t e s , f a c e d as i t i s  w i t h the problem of h i g h c o s t s and h a n d l i n g was  Zealand's  low p r i c e s ( 6 ) .  Hence b u l k -  seen as a good o p p o r t u n i t y t o reduce h a r v e s t i n g  costs. Bulk-handling of f r e s h c i t r u s f r u i t States i s generally c a r r i e d  i n the U n i t e d  a c c o r d i n g to t h r e e methods as  d e s c r i b e d below: Bulk-handling  i n trucks ( 6 ) ,  (7)»  l a r g e r packing-houses where the a r e a s e r v e d  i s used by  i s g r e a t , and  f r u i t must be hauled c o n s i d e r a b l e d i s t a n c e s . fruit  i s dumped i n t o a m e c h a n i c a l  i n t o the t r u c k . of  The  fruit  The  down a c h u t e ,  T h i s chute  s e c t i o n s which can be  l o a d i n g of t h e t r u c k .  i t up  does not drop d i r e c t l y from the  h e l p s p r e v e n t damaging t h e f r u i t .  the  When p i c k e d the  e l e v a t o r which t a k e s  the e l e v a t o r i n t o the t r u c k , but r o l l s  s e r i e s of h i n g e d  the  top  which  i s made w i t h a  opened t o p e r m i t  e l e v a t o r i s detachable  even  and when the  - 12 t r u c k i s l o a d e d , t h e e l e v a t o r i s taken o f f and the t r u c k h a u l s the l o a d o f f r u i t  t o t h e p a c k i n g house.  handles two t r u c k s , one t r u c k b e i n g l e f t  One d r i v e r  i n the f i e l d t o be  f i l l e d w h i l e he takes t h e second, w h i c h has been l o a d e d , t o the  packing-house.  A t the packing-house the t r u c k i s d r i v e n  on t o a ramp which t i p s t h e l o a d towards the conveyor.  The  t r u c k box i s made w i t h the lower h a l f o f one s i d e h i n g e d a t the  bottom.  This sideboard  i s opened  and drops, a l l o w i n g the  f r u i t t o r o l l out on t o a b r o a d , r o l l e r - t y p e conveyor which s l o w l y moves t h e load i n t o t h e p l a n t .  The f r u i t drops o f f  t h i s conveyor on t o a wide b e l t which completes the j o b o f moving t h e f r u i t  i n t o t h e packing-house.  Bulk-handling i n t r a i l e r s  ( 6 ) a l s o c a l l e d Windermere  system (7)« i s another method, which r e q u i r e s l e s s expensive equipment  and i s most g e n e r a l l y used by s m a l l e r packing-houses  where t h e d i s t a n c e from t h e grove i s n o t so g r e a t .  The f r u i t  i s dumped by t h e p i c k e r s d i r e c t l y i n t o low, s p e c i a l l y structed t r a i l e r s .  No e l e v a t o r i s needed  i s low. When f i l l e d t h e t r a i l e r  as t h e t r a i l e r box  i s towed t o the packing-house  and on t o an i n c l i n e d ramp which t i p s The t r a i l e r  con-  i t towards t h e conveyor.  box i s c o n s t r u c t e d w i t h a h i n g e d p a n e l i n one s i d e  which opens and drops, a l l o w i n g the f r u i t  t o r o l l out on t o a  wide conveyor b e l t which t a k e s i t i n t o the packing-house. B u l k - h a n d l i n g i n wire b a s k e t s o r S a n d f o r d system i s t h a t method (7) which i n c l u d e s the use o f metal b a s k e t s and t r a c t o r s equipped w i t h h y d r a u l i c l i f t i n g systems t o c a r r y these b a s k e t s out of t h e grove and dump the f r u i t  into a s e m i - t r a i l e r  truck.  13 -  The t r a i l e r body i s equipped  break the f a l l o f the f r u i t bruising during loading. 10 boxes*  with cloth b a f f l e s to  and t o p r e v e n t s c r a t c h i n g and  The b a s k e t s h o l d the e q u i v a l e n t of  each and every p i c k e r has h i s i n d i v i d u a l  basket.  The basket frame i s c o n s t r u c t e d of s t e e l s t r a p and angle  iron,  w i t h f l a t t e n e d expanded m e t a l welded t o the frame t o form the body.  A s o l i d s t e e l s h e e t bottom reduces the e f f e c t o f sand  e n t e r i n g when t h e b a s k e t s a r e p l a c e d i n t h e g r o v e s .  The  b a s k e t s a r e designed w i t h s l o p i n g s i d e s so t h a t t h e y w i l l i n t o one another o r " n e s t " f o r s t o r a g e or c a r r y i n g . i s designed t o c a r r y a f i l l e d lift  fit  The t r a c t o r  basket on f r o n t and r e a r b u t c a n  and dump o n l y w i t h t h e h y d r a u l i c arms i n f r o n t .  The  u s u a l method i s f o r the t r a c t o r t o b r i n g out two b a s k e t s from trailer the grove t o t h e semi/. The d r i v e r dumps t h e one h e l d i n f r o n t and p i c k s up t h e f i l l e d his  basket l e f t  a t t h e dumping s i t e  p r e v i o u s dumping round and empties  then leaves the f i l l e d  from trailer  t h i s i n t o the semi/.  r e a r basket near t h e dumping s i t e and  p i c k s up t h e two empty b a s k e t s f o r r e t u r n t o the p i c k e r s . s e m i - t r a i l e r has a c a p a c i t y when f u l l y In to  The  loaded of 420 "boxes.  g e n e r a l , the f o l l o w i n g advantages  are recognized  b u l k - h a n d l i n g over t h e s t a n d a r d system by the c i t r u s 1. - E l i m i n a t i o n o f the f i e l d box e i t h e r or  He  industry:  partially  entirely.  2. - R e d u c t i o n i n l a b o r n e c e s s a r y to handle  fruit.  3. - E f f i c i e n c y of p i c k i n g crews i s g r e a t l y i n c r e a s e d . * Standard boxes f o r oranges, lemons and g r a p e f r u i t s weigh r e s p e c t i v e l y 70, 76 and 80 l b s .  - 14 4. - O v e r s i z e d bags may 5.  - Increased morale for  be used  i f desired.  and e a s i e r working c o n d i t i o n s  workers.  6. - Most of the r e q u i r e d l a b o r can be performed  by  women i f n e c e s s a r y . 7.  - Increase " e f f e c t i v e " c a p a c i t y of d e g r e e n i n g rooms by p r i o r e l i m i n a t i o n of r o t s ,  splits,  over and u n d e r s i z e d f r u i t . 8.  - R e d u c t i o n i n grade and s i z e v a r i a t i o n s a h i g h percentage of packout from  giving  degreening  room. 9.  - More even f l o w of f r u i t  through  10. - H i g h e r cannery r e t u r n s f o r  packing-house.  packing-house  eliminations. 11.  - R e d u c t i o n of packing-house fruit  12.  e l i m i n a t e d to  h a n d l i n g charges  on  cannery.  - Washing and Decay c o n t r o l treatments c a n be accomplished  as the f r u i t  e n t e r s the p a c k i n g -  house. 13v  - Cost a n a l y s e s ( 8 ) , between 6 . 2 5 to  25%)  (10),  c e n t s and  show d i r e c t  11.25  s a v i n g s of  c e n t s p e r box  o v e r standard methods.  14. - A l t h o u g h s t a t i s t i c a l  a n a l y s i s showed no  signifi-  cant d i f f e r e n c e between the two t r e a t m e n t s V a l e n c i a oranges, the r e s u l t s of 9 conducted  on  experiments  on t h i s v a r i e t y i n d i c a t e d , a t t h r e e  weeks from p i c k i n g , t h a t a l l types of amounted t o 2 1 . 7  p e r c e n t on  losses  bulk-hamdled  V a l e n c i a s as compared w i t h 26.3 fruit.  (15  p e r c e n t on boxed  - 15 Bulk-handling; o f deciduous  fruit  R e c e n t l y b u l k - h a n d l i n g has been c a r e f u l l y s t u d i e d i n M i c h i g a n (14) b u t p u r e l y as a p r o c e s s o r  operation.  The e x p e r i m e n t s  r e p o r t e d a r e s a i d t o have b e e n under way s i n c e 1955 plenty of data.  and p r o v i d e  The a d v a n t a g e s o f b u l k - h a n d l i n g o v e r t h e use  o f t h e f i e l d box appear t o be t h e f o l l o w i n g : (a)  To t h e grower: 1. - A n e t l a b o r s a v i n g o f 2.67 c e n t s p e r b u s h e l of a p p l e s  handled.  2. - h a u l i n g c o s t s r e d u c e d by 30 c e n t s p e r t o n p e r 100  miles.  3. - when f r u i t  i s stored i n b u l k boxes,  approximately  10 p e r c e n t more c a n be h e l d i n a g i v e n amount of storage  space.  4. - p i c k e r s p i c k about 50 p e r c e n t more f r u i t . 5# - t h e t i m e - c o n s u m i n g t a s k o f l e v e l l i n g  crates  preparatory t o s t a c k i n g i s m a t e r i a l l y reduced. (b)  To t h e p r o c e s s o r : 1. - a s a v i n g o f 3*3 c e n t s p e r bushel,  on l a b o r .  2. - a s a v i n g o f 6.83 c e n t s p e r b u s h e l - c a p a c i t y o u t of t h e a n n u a l c o s t s o f t h e m a t e r i a l . 3. - 1 0 p e r c e n t  more f r u i t c a n be s t o r e d i n a g i v e n  amount o f s p a c e . (c)  To t h e t r u c k e r : 1. - s a v i n g i n t i m e f o r l o a d i n g and u n l o a d i n g . 2. - p o s s i b i l i t y o f c a r r y i n g more f r u i t p e r l o a d , w h i c h u s u a l l y means i n c r e a s e d r e t u r n s . .  (d)  To t h e i n d u s t r y : and  any system w h i c h saves t i m e , money  l a b o r f o r t h e grower, t h e t r u c k e r and t h e  - 16 p r o c e s s o r , b e n e f i t s the e n t i r e i n d u s t r y . show t h a t the t o t a l p e r - b u s h e l  savings  when b u l k boxes are used amount to bushel, just  Figures  realized  13.4-5  cents  per  i n g e t t i n g the f r u i t from o r c h a r d to  warehouse. T r a d i t i o n a l l y , M i c h i g a n growers have p i c k e d  apples  i n t o 1-bush.el c r a t e s which t h e n became the h a n d l i n g and container.  These c r a t e s were assembled by a l o a d i n g crew and  stacked onto p a l l e t s f o r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n to s t o r a g e . ing to  storing  the obvious  Recogniz-  advantages of b u l k h a n d l i n g of a p p l e s  destined  p r o c e s s i n g , s e v e r a l of the more p r o g r e s s i v e growers went to  p a l l e t boxes ( F i g . 7 ) .  The  i n t r o d u c t i o n of G e n e r a l i f t  wire-  bound p a l l e t boxes combines the s t r e n g t h of wood s l a t s  and  g a l v a n i z e d s t e e l wires t o p r o v i d e s t u r d y , l i g h t w e i g h t b u l k c o n t a i n e r s t h a t can be e a s i l y handled F i l l e d w i t h 15-bushel  l o a d s of a p p l e s , p a l l e t boxes are ( F i g . 8)  t r a n s p o r t e d by t r a c t o r l i f t  and  houses where they are s e c u r e l y stacked of  moving and  (15).  i n the o r c h a r d  t r u c k t o the ware-  ceiling-high.  Instead  s p o t t i n g 15 i n d i v i d u a l b u s h e l c r a t e s , the  M i c h i g a n grower now  moves one  of the l i g h t w e i g h t p a l l e t boxes  i n t o p o s i t i o n near the t r e e . It  i s reported that, i n cold  apples can be handled  s t o r a g e , 90 b u s h e l s  i n the space f o r m e r l y taken up by  b u s h e l c r a t e s , a s a v i n g of over 10% i n c o l d s t o r a g e  s i d e s and to  s k i d areas.  The  a i r through  s l a t e s indeed  the  are d i s t a n t  78  space.  V e n t i l a t i o n a l s o i s s a i d t o have been improved t h r o u g h f r e e f l o w of f o r c e d and r e f r i g e r a t e d  of  the  slatted enough  p r o v i d e f o r a good a e r a t i o n and hjDwejver c l o s e enough to  a v o i d b r u i s i n g the f r u i t .  17 -  I n c i d e n t a l l y , some M i c h i g a n  processors b e l i e v e that the apples stored keep b e t t e r t h a n those h e l d  i n field  i n b u l k boxes  c r a t e s ( 1 4 ) , b u t by the  time the p r e s e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n was c o n c l u d e d , no experiment  had y e t been conducted  scientific  i n o r d e r t o check  this  assumption. D i r e c t l y from t h e orchard o r from the warehouse, these 1 5 b u s h e l b i n s are c a r r i e d onto a mechanical "box dumper which l e a n s the box, thus f e e d i n g the conveyor.  T h i s mechanical  dumper has been developed by J . H. L e v i n , of the USDA, and H. P. Gaston, o f M i c h i g a n S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y .  The dumper was  t e s t e d i n M i c h i g a n d u r i n g the 1956 - 1957 p a c k i n g s e a s o n and i s now b e i n g manufactured  f o r under $ 500.  B r u i s e counts made  on 120 b u s h e l s of M c i n t o s h apples showed t h a t the use of a b u l k box dumper caused from 40 t o 50 p e r c e n t l e s s t h a n the f i e l d  bruising  c r a t e method o f h a n d l i n g .  B u l k h a n d l i n g seems then t o be w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d and i t s advantages  q u i t e r e c o g n i z e d i n M i c h i g a n where an o r i g i n a l  way of h a n d l i n g apples i n b u l k has been developed  and commer-  cialised. By the summer o f 1956, the Matson P r u i t of  S e l a h , Washington, e x p e r i m e n t a l l y combined the use o f the  mechanical S t e e l S q u i r r e l with f r u i t of  Company,  emptied  ( i n s t e a d of a l a d d e r ) f o r p i c k i n g ,  i n t o a t o t e b i n and t h e n swaned out by means  a tractor-mounted r e a r f o r k - l i f t .  The S t e e l S q u i r r e l i s an  elevating platform unit  (16) developed by B l a c k w e l d e r Mfg. Co.,  Rio  I t became equipped w i t h a s p e c i a l  Vista, California.  - 18 fork l i f t  - developed by Yakima (Wash.) Implement Co. - f o r  c a r r y i n g a 25-box c a p a c i t y p a l l e t b i n f o r apple p i c k i n g . When the bag i s f i l l e d ,  t h e p i c k e r lowers the p l a t f o r m u n t i l  the bottom o f h i s bag i s on t h e bottom o f the b i n , o r on the apples i n i t , and then opens h i s bag,  thus r e l e a s i n g t h e f r u i t .  Some Washington growers became i n t e r e s t e d above p r o j e c t about two y e a r s ago, as they thought  i n the a larger  orchard c o n t a i n e r was needed i f t h e y went t o any type o f f r u i t h a r v e s t m e c h a n i z a t i o n (17).  Their f i r s t  handling of high quality f r u i t maintenance o f h i g h q u a l i t y . determine  c o n s i d e r a t i o n was  f o r the f r e s h market and Experiments  s a f e depths f o r h a n d l i n g f r u i t  These t e s t s have shown t h a t f r u i t  were f i r s t without  can be handled  run to  bruising. i n b i n s as  deep as i t i s convenient t o p i c k i n t o , o r even up t o about a 3-foot depth of apples f o r t h a t m a t t e r , w i t h no more b r u i s i n g than i s now o b t a i n e d i n normal p i c k i n g .  I n c i d e n t a l l y , i t may  be o f i n t e r e s t t o mention t h a t the New Zealand Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e recommends, i n o r d e r t o a v o i d undue p r e s s u r e on the f r u i t ,  t h a t the b i n s do n o t exceed  18 - 20 i n c h e s i n depth  (5). Manufacturers  i n Washington S t a t e were working, a  y e a r ago, on an e x p e r i m e n t a l bin-dumping equipment f o r b i n s (19)  o f about 25-bushel c a p a c i t y .  Dumpers l i k e  emptying  those  developed i n M i c h i g a n , dump the b i n s w i t h o u t undue b r u i s i n g , but they a r e o f i n t e r m i t t e n t f l o w and o f s m a l l e r c a p a c i t y t h a n needed f o r t h e s i z e of t h e u s u a l Washington f r u i t p a c k i n g E s t i m a t e s , done i n 1953 by the F r u i t  Industries  plants.  -  19 -  Research F o u n d a t i o n , were t h a t b u l k boxes would save a t l e a s t 8 cents i n d i r e c t  c o s t p e r b u s h e l handled, p l u s s a v i n g  coming from b e t t e r h a n d l i n g , p o s s i b l e b e t t e r u t i l i z a t i o n o f s t o r a g e space  and o t h e r i n d i r e c t s a v i n g s .  work, the F o u n d a t i o n b u l k box ( 1 7 ) .  Continuing i t s  e s t a b l i s h e d the f e a t u r e s o f the i d e a l  T h i s i s regarded  as one of the most  important  c o n t r i b u t i o n s of Washington's apple i n d u s t r y ; e s p e c i a l l y  at a  time when a number of boxes o f d i f f e r e n t width, l e n g t h , depth, m a t e r i a l s , a r e b e i n g c o n s t r u c t e d , w i t h o u t r e a l i z i n g the obvious advantages t o t h e i n d u s t r y of s t a n d a r d i z i n g on t h e dimensions and  i f p o s s i b l e on the type o f box.  the most important c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  According to this  study,  o f the i d e a l b u l k box s h o u l d  be the f o l l o w i n g : 1.  - t o keep b r u i s e damage t o a minimum.  2. - t o be o f a n e s t i n g or an e a s i l y knocked down t y p e . 3. - t o be l i g h t i n weight. 4. - t o be designed  i n such a way t h a t dumping w i l l  be made w i t h o u t damage and i n e x p e n s i v e l y . 5. - t o be o f s u c h dimensions  and d e s i g n t h a t s t a c k i n g  i n s t o r a g e , i n the r e f r i g e r a t i o n c a r s and f o r h a u l i n g on a road t r u c k w i l l be easy. 6.  - the d e s i g n o f the b u l k box s h o u l d a s s u r e cooling i n cold  storage.  adequate  How c a n t h i s v e n t i l -  a t i o n be p r o v i d e d without u s i n g c r a c k s t h a t may cause damage on the f r u i t ? 7. - the i d e a l b u l k box s h o u l d be u s e a b l e f o r more than apples. 8.  - the i d e a l b u l k box, i f p o s s i b l e , s h o u l d be u n i f o r m i n the i n d u s t r y .  - 20 These v a l u e s c a n come t o t h e i n d u s t r y q u i c k l y through i n t e n s i f i e d r e s e a r c h on the problem.  Otherwise,  many  who go t o b u l k boxes may f i n d t h e i r c h o i c e o f box p a r t l y o b s o l e t e w i t h i n a few y e a r s . However, t h e i d e a o f b u l k - h a n d l i n g aroused spread  interest  i n the P a c i f i c Northwest o n l y a f t e r  widebeing  promoted by Dr. James C. M a r s h a l l , i n charge of the Dominion Entomological Laboratory, encountered  a t West Summerland, B. C.  Dr. M a r s h a l l  t h i s method o f h a r v e s t i n g (4) when he was i n New  Zealand and A u s t r a l i a , on o t h e r r e s e a r c h work. he p u b l i s h e d s e v e r a l d e s c r i p t i v e a r t i c l e s  On h i s r e t u r n ,  on b u l k - h a n d l i n g  "down-under" i n v a r i o u s j o u r n a l s o f t h e i n d u s t r y , i n a l l the P a c i f i c Northwest.  F o l l o w i n g Dr. M a r s h a l l ' s r e p o r t s , a m i s s i o n  composed o f s e v e r a l B. C. growers j o u r n i e d s o u t h o f t h e equator to  study b u l k h a n d l i n g , and came back e n t h u s i a s t i c enough about  the s u b j e c t t o persuade t h e i r neighbors  t o j o i n i n t h e experiment.  However, t h e r e p o r t p u b l i s h e d (18) by two members o f t h e group on t h e i r r e t u r n p o i n t s o u t t h a t many d i f f i c u l t i e s i n t h e P a c i f i c Northwest i n a d a p t i n g under".  f a c e growers  i d e a s developed  S t a n d a r d i z a t i o n of the s i z e o f t h e b i n s used i s  recommended as one of the f i r s t  steps necessary.  I t appears  t h a t one o f t h e major d i f f e r e n c e s between the f r u i t of  "down  industries  the n o r t h e r n and s o u t h e r n hemispheres i s t h a t i n t h e  Antipodes  p r a c t i c a l l y a l l f r u i t packing  h i m s e l f i n h i s own p a c k i n g shed. pack the f r u i t  i s done by t h e grower  I n a few cases  from a n e i g h b o r i n g o r c h a r d .  a grower may  I n a few r a r e  i n s t a n c e s h a l f a dozen growers have formed c o - o p e r a t i v e s , but these are q u i t e s e l e c t i v e .  The r e p o r t c l a i m s the f o l l o w i n g  - 21 advantages f o rbulk  handling:  1. e l i m i n a t i o n o f : ( a ) s t a c k i n g b o x e s a s t h e y a r e f i l l e d i n the  orchard.  (b) p u t t i n g f u l l (c) t a k i n g f u l l  boxes on t r a i l e r s . boxes from  (d) t r u c k i n g f u l l  b o x e s t o dumper.  (e) dumping f u l l (f)  trailers.  boxes.  c o l l e c t i n g empty boxes l e f t  on  orchard.  (g) r e p a i r i n g p i c k i n g boxes. 2. p i c k e r s h a v e i n c r e a s e d  efficiency.  3. b r u i s i n g a n d s t e m p u n c t u r e s a r e r e d u c e d . 4-. a s u b s t a n t i a l s a v i n g It require  i s made i n c o l d s t o r a g e  i s pointed  the settlement  o u t however t h a t  a change-over would  o f many p r o b l e m s , w h i c h i n c l u d e :  ( a ) The p r o b l e m o f a h i l l s i d e orchards  space-  i n New Z e a l a n d  orchard  (most o f t h e  a r e on f l a t s ) .  (b) S p o t t i n g b i n s f o r g r e a t e s t convenience of p i c k e r s . (c) Organizing  tractor operation  b i n s out and f u l l (d) Handling  full  (e) Organizing out (f)  ones i n .  bins.  succession  at the packing  How many t r a i l e r s  of f u l l  No a c c u r a t e  awaiting  bins  i n and empties  house. and b i n s  (g) Storage problems i n keeping separated  i n g e t t i n g empty  are necessary. growers"  packing.  f i g u r e s were o b t a i n a b l e  e i t h e r i n New Z e a l a n d  A u s t r a l i a o n t h e c o s t o f a c h a n g e - o v e r , b u t i t was that the t o t a l  capital  bins  or  estimated  i n v e s t m e n t c o u l d be p a i d o f f i n t h r e e  - 22 years by savings effected, p r i m a r i l y i n orchard labor and i n picking box r e p a i r .  A d d i t i o n a l gains were credited to a lower  c u l l rate and better grade.  Most important, much of the hard  work was taken out of harvesting. Then, after much thought and discussion, the f r u i t industry i n the Okanagan V a l l e y was prepared to take the f i r s t steps i n i n i t i a t i n g  a bulk handling program.  At least  four f r u i t packing organizations indicated t h e i r intentions (19) to handle a portion of the crop i n 25-bushel containers. The Vernon F r u i t Union alone purchased f i v e thousand of these bins.  This was considered to be the f i r s t major group of  growers to swing over to the bulk method of harvesting i n the Pacific  Northwest. One of the most important steps taken i n the Okanagan  V a l l e y , with regard to the bins, was standardization of outside dimensions.  A committee of the Okanagan Federated  shippers was appointed to make recommendations f o r a standard The following (19) dimensions were approved:  size bin.  O v e r a l l length  :  48 inches  o v e r a l l width  :  43 inches  inside depth  :  24 inches  o v e r a l l height including i n t e g r a l p a l l e t : 29 - 30 inches. A l l bins i n use i n the V a l l e y are of these dimensions and hold 25 bushels of apples or pears.  At about the same time these  dimensions were adopted, the North West Equipment Company, of Wenatchee, Washington, had developed equipment s u i t a b l e f o r automatically dumping bins having approximately the above dimensions.  Mechanical dumping of the bins was l a t e r on adopted  - 23 r a t h e r t h a n the g r a v i t y f l o w from end doors which f u n c t i o n s so s u c c e s s f u l l y where l o n g r e l a t i v e l y s h a l l o w bins...are used, s i m i l a r t o those The  i n New  to  runners  The  The  0.5"  plywood  and  s i d e s appear s a t i s f a c t o r y  b e i n g recommended f o r the new  t h i s season ( 9 ) .  cut diagonally. Two  plywood.  bottoms are now  be b u i l t  are 0 . 5 "  s i d e s of the b i n s i n use  the bottoms, 5 / 8 " but 0 . 7 5 "  Zealand.  The  c o r n e r posts are 4"  bins  x  4"  c o r n e r posts a l s o form l e g s f o r the b i n .  are p r o v i d e d under the l e g s .  A metal b r a c k e t i s  used on two  s i d e s t o t i e the s i d e and bottom t o g e t h e r .  to  t h i s season w i l l be r e i n f o r c e d , however, w i t h  be b u i l t  galvanized s t e e l strap to  0.75"  prevent b u l g i n g ; a n n u l a r  c o r n e r s of most new The  x  0.023"  about  1.5"  Bins  from the  r i n g n a i l s w i l l be used on  most important  the  p i e c e of equipment, as f a r as rear f o r k - l i f t  mounted on the 3 - p o i n t h i t c h of the t r a c t o r ( c o s t : T h i s u n i t i s used to c a r r y p a r t l y f i l l e d  ( P i g . 9)  $85.00).  b i n s w i t h i n the  orchard, to c a r r y f u l l b i n s to a l o a d i n g area, to load  full  b i n s on a t r a i l e r , o r t r u c k deck (where the deck can be lift  i s not over e i g h t e e n  d i s t r i b u t e empty b i n s i n the o r c h a r d . purchased l i f t capable deck.  top  bins.  most growers are concerned, i s a simple  so t h a t the  a  placed  inches or s o ) , and  to  A few growers have  equipment f o r attachment t o a t r a c t o r o r t r u c k ,  of l i f t i n g  two  f u l l b i n s and  l o a d i n g them on a t r u c k  Commercial h a u l e r s a l s o use t h i s type of equipment f o r  l o a d i n g b i n s on t r u c k or  trailers.  Some growers l e a v e the b i n s on a t r a i l e r when p i c k i n g ,  - 24 -  Bulk-Handling i n the Okanagan V a l l e y .  -25and then h a u l the l o a d d i r e c t l y t o the p a c k i n g house on  the  t r a i l e r ( F . i g . 10)I, A t the packing-house, the b i n s a r e tiandled w i t h a r e g u l a r f o r k - l i f t equipment of s u i t a b l e c a p a c i t y . Most of these l i f t s w i l l l i f t t h r e e f u l l b i n s a t a h e i g h t of about 13 f e e t . The b i n s a r e dumped by complete i n v e r s i o n i n a s p e c i a l l y designed  ( F i g . 1 1 ) m e c h a n i c a l dumper ( 9 ) . I n t h i s case the  fruit  l e a v e s from the t o p of the b i n . Some b i n s were made w i t h  end-  g a t e s , These were dumped by e l e v a t i n g one end and a l l o w i n g the f r u i t t o l e a v e the b i n t h r o u g h a gate on the o t h e r end. for  Forcasts  the coming season a r e t h a t a t l e a s t 15,000 b i n s w i l l be used  i n the V a l l e y . Much i n t e r e s t was  shown i n Washingto S t a t e about  the movement f a v o u r i n g b u l k - h a n d l i n g i n the Okanagan and m a t t e r was  the  d i s c u s s e d a t the 53rd c o n v e n t i o n of the Washington  S t a t e H o r t i c u l t u r a l A s s o c i a t i o n , h e l d i n Wenatco.ee i n the e a r l y days of December  1957  I n the Okanagan, l a s t f a l l , a l i m i t e d number of were kept of the t i m e f o r v a r i o u s o p e r a t i o n s . I t was t h a t , i n the same t i m e , a p i c k e r was  records  concluded  (9)  a b l e to p i c k 10 per cent more  f r u i t i n t o bins* than i n t o boxes and one man  could e a s i l y  haul  t w i c e as much f r u i t from the o r c h a r d f l o o r t o a l o a d i n g a r e a . Depending on the l a y - o u t of the s t o r a g e ( 9 ) a s a v i n g of 15 to percent  i n s t o r a g e space was  e f f e c t e d a t the p a c k i n g  40  house.  POSTKHARVSST PHYSIOLOGY From the f o r e g o i n g i t ' w o u l d appear t h a t much i s a l r e a d y known about tine e c o n o m i c a l and m e c h a n i c a l a s p e c t s of b u l k h a n d l i n g of a p p l e s .  In c o n t r a s t t h e r e appears t o be  very  26 little  information  h a n d l i n g on t h e  available  post-harvest  What h a p p e n s t o t h e n e l s and i n t h e h a n d s o f fruit  condition for  Bruising, it  not  fruit the  for  Apples,  consumer i s  energy,  is  example,  i n the  that  r a t e by m a i n t a i n i n g  a higher of  storage),  reduction. certain  the  Higher  storage,  of apples.  effects  the  fruit  a n d the  quality  T h i s r e d u c e s the  of  the  storage  use.  In  found i n the a i r the  fruit  at  this  preserrespiration  3 2 - 3 5 ° P.  type  (21)  is used. similar  c a n be u s e d i n  d i s o r d e r s are  of  concentration T h i s has to a  the  observed mechanical i n j u r y , presence or absence of this  an  temperature  gas s t o r a g e a n d s o  avoided.  o f b u l k - h a n d l i n g on t h e  ;for  sto-  storage,  e x p e r i m e n t s were c o n d u c t e d t o a s c e r t a i n  d i s o r d e r s were e v a l u a t e d  pro-  or o t h e r s u b s t a n c e s ,  oarbon d i o x i d e and a lower  of  The  known a s c o n t r o l l e d a t m o s p h e r e  The r e s p i r a t i o n r a t e ,  tent,  eating  The u s u a l method o f  i s now i n l i m i t e d  temperatures  cold storage  on the  the  i n a g o o d and  affect  use sugar,  temperature  respiration  The f o l l o w i n g tion  fruit  chan-  concern to  l i v i n g material.  by c o l d s t o r a g e .  concentration of  on the  i n marketing  b a d l y b r u i s e d a p p l e s do  are  of r e s p i r a t i o n .  oxygen t h a n i s n o r m a l l y  effect  the  bulk  fruit.  of v i t a l  may d i r e c t l y  fresh state,  Another form of (gas  the  of  appetizing.  ving fresh apples i s  rage  effects  as l o n g as p o s s i b l e .  cess by w h i c h l i v i n g m a t e r i a l s for  the  in storage,  may be a p s y c h o l o g i c a l f a c t o r :  look very  to  physiology of  h a n d l e r who d e s i r e s t o p r e s e r v e  attractive  or  i n regard  loss the  post-harvest  i n weight, rate  of  the  informa-  physiology sugar  softening of  eonthe  certain p h y s i o l o g i c a l storage  purpose.  - 27 -  MATERIALS AND The of Mr.  METHODS  apples were obtained  t h r o u g h the  co-operation  C. E l s e y , manager of the O c c i d e n t a l F r u i t Company L t d . ,  West Summerland, B r i t i s h Columbia. of three  The  investigation consisted  parts: Experiment I : -  One  l o t was  s e l e c t e d at random from Y e l l o w Newtown a p p l e s  s t o r e d i n 25-bushel Okanagan-type b u l k b i n s .  i n t o and  o t h e r , from apples p i c k e d B o t h l o t s had  consisted  stored  been h e l d f o r 85  i d e n t i c a l c o l d storage that i s , at  and  days a f t e r p i c k i n g under  conditions  b u s h e l of  i n the  33°  P and  company warehouse -  placed  c a r e f u l l y by  immediately i n a c o l d s t o r a g e  l o s s i n weight  apples, was  s u g a r s content  evaluated  amount of b r u i s i n g and  t a k i n g a score  of 4 f o r 0.5"  by measuring  and  stem punctures on  the  bruising.  Respiration  determined by p l a c i n g samples i n g a s - t i g h t chambers of  4;£650 cc c a p a c i t y f o r 24 hours at room temperature. end  plant  (shrivelling).  M e c h a n i c a l i n j u r y was the  at  U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia:  mechanical i n j u r y , r e s p i r a t i o n r a t e s , firmness,  recording  private  the f o l l o w i n g a n a l y s e s were conducted i n the  n u t r i t i o n l a b o r a t o r y a t the  and  Each l o t  fruit.  These apples were t r a n s p o r t e d auto t o Vancouver and  The  i n standard b u s h e l boxes.  52-34° E and 85% of r e l a t i v e h u m i d i t y .  of one  picked  of t h i s p e r i o d , the  t h a t i s , the  amount of CO2  percentage of CO2  i n the  g i v e n o f f by gas  At  the  the f r u i t  chamber, was  -  recorded  - 28 (20)  w i t h a D'Orsat gas  -  a n a l y z e r ( F i g . 12).  the apples and t h e i r volume were determined expressed of  for  results  fruit. was  t e s t e d with a B a l l a u f pressure  which i s the s t a n d a r d t h i s purpose.  instrument used by  J u i c e was  expressed  the t o t a l sugars content determined, The  and the  as m i l l i g r a m s o f CO2 e v o l v e d per hour per k i l o g r a m  Firmness (22)  The weight of  l o s s of weight was  tester  horticulturists  from the samples  and  using a refractometer.  r e c o r d e d on each sample over a 24-hour  period. Experiment T h i s experiment one  II;-  i n v o l v e d two  b u s h e l s of Y e l l o w Newtown a p p l e s ,  of which weighed 16,432.6 grams and  handled a l s o 120  apples.  c o n t a i n e d 120  bulk-  The o t h e r weighed 16,434.3 grams and  field-boxed apples.  The f r u i t y  t h i s time, had  graded, which means t h a t i t had been b u l k - h a n d l e d , boxed, " a l l the way"  or  from the o r c h a r d t o the g r a d e r ,  f i n a l l y wrapped and packed.  contained  The a p p l e s were now  fieldand  in their  125th day of s t o r a g e (same c o n d i t i o n s as i n Experiment harvest.  Bulk-handled  i l l u s t r a t e d by F i g . 11  and  t o the f r u i t  on the c o n v e y o r .  In t h i s  Experiment  I.  case,  mechanical  by b o t h h a n d l i n g methods was  evidence. The  as  d e s c r i b e d i n p a r t I , w h i l e boxed  b e s i d e s the e f f e c t s of a l o n g e r s t o r a g e p e r i o d , any  in  I) a f t e r  a p p l e s had been dumped m e c h a n i c a l l y ,  apples were dumped manually  i n j u r y caused  been  d e t e r m i n a t i o n s made were the same as i n  put  Fig.  12  A d'Orsat  Photo apparatus  and r e s p i r a t i o n  by  the a u t h o r  chamber.  - 30 Experiment A t h i r d experiment  III:-  was s e t up t o a s c e r t a i n t h e e f f e c t s o f  d i f f e r e n t types of packaging f i r m n e s s and sugar;  on s h r i v e l l i n g ,  respiration,  content of Mcintosh apples.  The same  d e t e r m i n a t i o n s were p e r f o r m e d as i n E x p e r i m e n t I .  The  a p p l e s , 4-8 i n number, were d i v i d e d i n t o f o u r e q u a l groups and t r e a t e d as f o l l o w s : a) - 12 were l e f t unpacked, b e i n g used as c h e c k samples. b ) - 12 were waxed by b r u s h i n g t h e s u r f a c e s e v e r a l t i m e s w i t h a c o a t i n g o f parawax. c ) - 12 were wrapped i n s t a n d a r d  piled  papers.  d) - 12 were p l a c e d i n t o s e a l e d p o l y t h y l e n e  (150  gauge) l i n e r s . placed  A l l t h e a p p l e s were t h e n / i n c o l d s t o r a g e ( 3 3 - 3 4 ° F and 85% R. H.) f o r 105 d a y s , a f t e r w h i c h p e r i o d t h e above-mentioned d e t e r m i n a t i o n s were made. T h i s experiment  was conducted  t o note whether t h e r e  was any s i m i l a r i t y i n t h e p o s t h a r v e s t response  of b u l k - b i n  handled a p p l e s t o those s t o r e d u s i n g o t h e r t e c h n i q u e s .  - 31 -  EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS Experiment I Results: The effects of bulk b i n and standard box handling on s h r i v e l l i n g , r e s p i r a t i o n , firmness, b r u i s i n g and sugar content of Yellow Newtown apples a f t e r 85 days of storage i n t h e i r f i e l d containers are shown i n summarized data below i n table 1 and the chart of page 36 . The complete data together with s t a t i s t i c a l (23)  analyses  are presented i n the tables I to V I i n c l u s i v e of the  appendix. Table 1. Determinations  average l o s s of weight i n grams respiration mg of COp per kg per hr  Bulk Box handled handled apples apples 1.185  1.745  Difference  0.560**  S i g n i f i c a n t Difference P = 0.01 P = 0.05  0.310  0.3999  3.7281  23.69  10.14**  2.890  bruising score: 4=0.5" t>i ,12.20  13.65  1.45  5.268  firmness in lbs  12.680  12.285  0.395  0.4752  -  sugar content i n percent  13.595  12.935  0.660**  0.482  0.62178  13.55  The above table shows that the bulk-handled  apples  l o s t less weight, respired more slowly and maintained a higher sugar content than the box-handled apples.  On the other hand  there was no s t a t i s t i c a l difference i n b r u i s i n g and firmness  - 32 of the apples handled by the two methods. Experiment I I Results:The effects of bulk b i n and standard box handling on s h r i v e l l i n g , r e s p i r a t i o n , firmness, b r u i s i n g and  sugar  content of Yellow Newtown apples a f t e r 125 days of storage i n t h e i r f i e l d containers are expressed i n summarized data below i n table 2 and the chart of page 36 . The complete data together with s t a t i s t i c a l (23)  analyses  are presented i n the tables VII to XII i n c l u s i v e of the  appendix. Table 2. Determinations  Bulk Box handled handled apples apples  Difference  average loss of weight i n grams  1.195  1.730  respiration mg of Copper kg per hr  18.745  31.245  12.5  bruising score: 4=0.5"hr.  26.15  37.85  11.70  firmness in lbs.  14.45  14.01  sugar content i n percent  14.07  13.53  S i g n i f i c a n t Difference P = 0.01 P = 0.05  0.2436  0.314244  **  0.750  0.9675  **  4.304  5.55216  0.44  *  0.342  0.44118  0.54  **  0.3072  0.396288  0.535**  The above table showing data taken a f t e r 125 days i n storage indicates s i m i l a r trends to those taken 85 days a f t e r storage.  In t h i s case, however, the differences i n r e s p i r a t i o n  between the samples from the two types of handling are i n t e n s i f i e d . Furthermore, differences i n b r u i s i n g are now h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t  whereas i n Experiment  33 -  I t h e y were not s i g n i f i c a n t .  d i f f e r e n c e between t h e l o s s e s of weight  i n both  The  treatments  and t h e d i f f e r e n c e between sugar c o n t e n t s have a l s o highly  remained  significant.  Experiment  III Results:The  e f f e c t s o f d i f f e r e n t t y p e s of p a c k a g i n g on  s h r i v e l l i n g , r e s p i r a t i o n , f i r m n e s s and sugar c o n t e n t o f M c i n t o s h apples a f t e r 105 days o f s t o r a g e are expressed marized d a t a below i n t a b l e The  complete  i n t h e sum-  3.  d a t a are p r e s e n t e d i n t a b l e X I I I o f t h e  appendix. T a b l e 3. Determinations average l o s s of weight i n grams respiration mg of COp p e r kg p e r h r firmness in lbs'  Check 2.10  27.40  8.25  Sugar c o n t e n t i n percent The  11.95  waxed  wrapped  1.10  1.65  22.85  24.15  8.35 12.45  8.20 11.90  Polythylene  liner  0.90  11.70  9.10  13.10  above t a b l e shows t h a t the l o s s o f weight was  l e s s e n e d by a l l t r e a t m e n t s , and t h a t p o l y e t h y l e n e l i n e r markedly d i d s o . R e s p i r a t i o n was a l s o pronouncedly  kept t o a  minimum by t h e p o l y e t h y l e n e l i n e r s which a l s o m a i n t a i n e d ness and sugar content a t a maximum.  firm-  - 34 -  D I S C U S S I O N OF RESULTS The graphically  results  of E x p e r i m e n t s I and I I a r e  i n F i g . 13 i n o r d e r t o f a c i l i t a t e  expressed  the following  discussion. B u l k h a n d l i n g o f Y e l l o w Newtown A p p l e s r e s u l t e d i n an a p p r e c i a b l e decrease  i n t h e r a t e o f r e s p i r a t i o n as compared  w i t h the apples  i n f i e l d boxes.  handled  On t h e  85th  storage, the r e s p i r a t i o n r a t e of the bulk-handled Newtowns was 1 3 . 5 5 mg o f CO2 e v o l v e d p e r h o u r , as compared w i t h apples.  23.69  day i n  Yellow  per kilogram of f r u i t  mg f o r t h e f i e l d b o x  handled  F o r t y d a y s l a t e r , t h e r a t e o f r e s p i r a t i o n was  i n b o t h c a s e s - b u t was p r o c e e d i n g from the f i e l d  boxes.  higher  more r a p i d l y i n t h e s a m p l e s  This maintaining  r e s p i r a t i o n i n the apples  and  of a lower  r a t e of  f r o m t h e b u l k b i n s c o u l d be  explained  as f o l l o w s : In  consequence o f the l a r g e volume of f r u i t  b u l k b i n s i n c o n t r a s t t o t h e s m a l l volume of f r u i t b u s h e l - b o x c o n t a i n e r s , t h e r e was a g r e a t e r i n the b i n s .  T h i s CO2 i n c r e a s e , b e i n g  r e s p i r a t i o n , w o u l d tend  i nthe  i n the  " b u i l d u p " o f CO2  an end-product of  t o s l o w down t h e r a t e o f t h e r e s p i r a t i o n  processes. M o r e o v e r , t h e amount o f o x y g e n a v a i l a b l e and circulating boxes than  around the f r u i t i n the bulk b i n s .  would a l s o tend  would be g r e a t e r i n t h e f i e l d T h i s i n c r e a s e i n a v a i l a b l e oxygen  t o speed up t h e r e s p i r a t i o n  processes.  ~  We  t h e r e f o r e have, i n the bulk b i n s , a decreased oxygen  supply  a v a i l a b l e to the f r u i t  and  an i n c r e a s e d  CO2  supply.  Both these f a c t o r s would slow down r e s p i r a t i o n , i n comparison to the  f i e l d boxes where 0 I t i s recognized  g  i s higher  and  COg,  lower.  t h a t , i f the f i e l d boxes developed a  higher  temperature than the b i n s , t h i s would c o n t r i b u t e to a  higher  r e s p i r a t i o n r a t e of the f r u i t  However, the reverse  i s more l i k e l y  i n the f i e l d boxes. to be t r u e .  owing to the l a r g e r volume of f r u i t , be higher  i n the b i n s .  temperature would a c t u a l l y  In t h i s experiment, no  temperature between the  Namely t h a t ,  two were d e t e c t e d .  difference i n  McMechan r e p o r t e d  to have found no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n the c o o l i n g r a t e b i n s and  boxes w i t h the exceptions  whereby the bins cooled The  a little  (9)  of  of bins w i t h bottom s l o t s  f a s t e r but not s i g n i f i c a n t l y  bins used i n these experiments however were not p r o v i d e d  so. with  such openings. I t would seem that other responsible  f o r the reduced r a t e of r e s p i r a t i o n of the  handled apples. at  The  that l e s s had  bulk-  f a c t t h a t sugars i n the f r u i t were maintained  a s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher  there was  f a c t o r s . t h a n temperature were  l e v e l i n bins than i n boxes i n d i c a t e d  been used i n r e s p i r a t i o n , as a l s o d i d the f a c t  that  less s h r i v e l l i n g .  I t would appear then t h a t we  have a c o n d i t i o n , i n the  b i n s , somewhat a k i n to commercial gas t a i n e d f o r r e l a t i v e l y long p e r i o d s , ture than i n standard  c o l d storage,  bulk  storage where f r u i t  i s main-  at a somewhat higher  tempera-  i n e x c e l l e n t c o n d i t i o n . Gas  sto-  rage i s operated on the p r i n c i p l e that the r a t e of r e s p i r a t i o n - hence  -  37  -  the k e e p i n g q u a l i t i e s of the f r u i t r- i s lengthened (a)  r e d u c i n g the 0£ c o n t e n t of the chamber.  (b)  i n c r e a s i n g the COg  (c)  a c o m b i n a t i o n of b o t h .  c o n t e n t of the chamber.  To f u r t h e r s u b s t a n t i a t e t h i s view, the III  g i v e s added e n l i g h t e n m e n t .  Apples  Experiment  stored i n polyethylene  l i n e r s behaved s i m i l a r l y t o those i n t h e b u l k b i n s . was  by:  reduced;  Respiration  s u g a r s , m o i s t u r e content and f i r m n e s s were main-  t a i n e d at a maximum.  I t i s known t h a t p o l y e t h y l e n e  liners  p l a y the r o l e of a s m a l l c o n t r o l l e d atmosphere s t o r a g e .  Other  workers (24) have found t h a t s t o r a g e t r o u b l e s o f Y e l l o w Newtown A p p l e s It  c o u l d be reduced by p o l y e t h y l e n e l i n e r s .  i s a l s o known (21) t h a t gas  storage reduces  the  amount of p h y s i o l o g i c a l s t o r a g e d i s e a s e s such as brown core and  i n t e r n a l breakdown ( F i g . 18), s o f t s c a l d ( P i g s . 16  17)  and b i t t e r p i t ( P i g . 15).  not designed  While  this investigation  n e v e r t h e l e s s i t was  experiment  was  p r e v i o u s l y mentioned ,  found t h a t these s t o r a g e d i s o r d e r s were  more p r e v a l e n t i n the box handled  fruit  numbers were found t o make a s t a t i s t i c a l 16, 17 and All  was  to o b t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n on these d i s e a s e s and  c o n s e q u e n t l y no planned  15,  and  although  insufficient  a n a l y s i s (see P i g s .  18). the evidence  o b t a i n e d suggests t h a t the b u l k  b i n s behave i n the nature o f gas s t o r a g e u n i t s and f o r t h i s r e a s o n c o n t r i b u t e t o b e t t e r storage of f r u i t the  bushel-boxes.  i n them t h a n i n  - 38 The d a t a p r e s e n t e d about b r u i s i n g are of i n t e r e s t . I t would appear t h a t w h i l e t h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t  differ-  ence i n b r u i s i n g between the apples p i c k e d r e s p e c t i v e l y b u l k b i n s or bushel-boxes  into  and p l a c e d i n s t o r a g e up t o p a c k i n g  time, t h e r e was a marked d i f f e r e n c e a f t e r dumping on t o the conveyor (Fig.  f o r packing.  T h i s i n d i c a t e s t h a t the most  14) damage i s done by dumping t h e f r u i t  house on t o the grader and t h a t the mechanical causes  bruising  i n the packing- • dumping of b i n s  l e s s b r u i s e s and i n j u r y than the manual dumping of f i e l d  boxes. shows that . The r e s u l t of t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n / b u l k - h a n d l i n g o f Y e l l o w Newtown a p p l e s , b e s i d e s b e i n g a more economical h a n d l i n g t h e f r u i t , causes  l e s s i n j u r y t o the f r u i t  s e r v e s i t i n b e t t e r condition:-, than t h a t handled  way o f  and p r e -  in field  boxes.  - 39 -  F i g . 17  Soft s c a l d  F i g . 18 Brown core and i n t e r n a l breakdown.  Photos by the Author.  Some typical bruising and physiological disorders found in the investigation.  - 40 -  CONCLUSIONS  Bulk handling of decrease to  in  the  in standard  occured d u r i n g the the  resulted  b r u i s i n g of Yellow  those handled  on t o  apples  the  conveyor d u r i n g the  an  appreciable  Newtown v a r i e t y  field  dumping o f  in  boxes. fruit  grading  Most  oompared  bruising  from the  containers  process.  € The m e c h a n i c a l dumping o f less the  b r u i s i n g than d i d grading  the  level,  rate  storage  in  manual dumping o f  fruit  handled  of r e s p i r a t i o n  reduced s h r i v e l l i n g ,  maintained  fruit  the  bulk  field  bins  boxes  caused  during  process.  Compared t o kept  the  the  the  sugar  of  in  field  the  boxes,  apples  at  a relatively  was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r  content  at  a higher  bulk-handling  level  firmer and  low  fruit,  minimized  disorders.  The m a r k e t a b i l i t y h a n d l i n g which a l s o ,  of  the  a p p l e s was  as shown by t h e  more e c o n o m i c a l way t o h a n d l e  the  i n c r e a s e d by  literature  fruit  than  bulk-  reviewed,  in f i e l d  is  boxes.  a  - 41 LITERATURE CITED 1.  T r e s s l e r , D. K. and J o s l y n , M. A. The Chemistry and Technology of F r u i t and V e g e t a b l e J u i c e P r o d u c t i o n : 518. New York, The A v i P u b l i s h i n g Company, I n c . , 1954.  2.  McBirney, S. W. P e r s o n a l Communication. Wenatchee, Wash., U.S.D.A. Tree F r u i t Experiment S t a t i o n , March 26th,  1957.  3.  Conway, T. B u l k H a n d l i n g of F r u i t . W e l l i n g t o n , New Zealand, The New Zealand J o u r n a l of A g r i c u l t u r e , November 1954.  4.  M a r s h a l l , J . L e t ' s s c r a p the B u s h e l Box. Vancouver, B.C., C o u n t r y L i f e i n B r i t i s h Columbia, December 1 9 5 6 .  5.  Conway, T. Development i n Mechanised and B u l k H a n d l i n g of F r u i t . W e l l i n g t o n , New Z e a l a n d , The O r c h a r d i s t of New Zealand, June 1 9 5 7 .  6.  S e l t z e r , R. E . B u l k H a n d l i n g Compared w i t h the Use of F i e l d Boxes i n the H a r v e s t i n g of Desert G r a p e f r u i t . Tucson, A r i z o n a , A g r i c u l t u r a l Experiment S t a t i o n , March 1 9 4 9 . (Report No. 89).  7.  P r o s s e r , D. A., G r i e r s o n , W. F., Thor, E r i c , Newhall, W. P. and Samuels, J . K. B u l k H a n d l i n g of F r e s h C i t r u s F r u i t . G a i n e s v i l l e , F l o r i d a , A g r i c u l t u r a l Experiment S t a t i o n , June 1 9 5 5 . ( T e c h n i c a l B u l l e t i n No. 564.)  8.  The Manager, Yuma Mesa P r u i t Growers' A s s o c i a t i o n . P i c k i n g and H a u l i n g C o s t s - G r a p e f r u i t - w i t h F i e l d Box and B u l k - H a n d l i n g Systems, T o t a l C o s t and C o s t per F i e l d Box. Yuma, A r i z o n a , 1948. (Annual R e p o r t )  9.  McMechan, A. D. P e r s o n a l Communication. West Summerland, B.C., Dominion E n t o m o l o g i c a l L a b o r a t o r y , J a n u a r y 24th,  1958.  10.  Thor, E . Cost A n a l y s i s o f Bulk H a n d l i n g Methods f o r F r e s h C i t r u s . G a i n e s v i l l e , F l o r i d a , A g r i c u l t u r a l Experiment S t a t i o n , 1954. (Mimeo Report 55-1)  11.  B o t t i n g , G . W. and S t e e d , J . N. B u l k H a n d l i n g of F r e s h F r u i t . Melbourne, A u s t r a l i a , J o u r n a l of A g r i c u l t u r e , August 1 9 5 5 .  12.  B e t t e n a y , W. J . R e p o r t on V i s i t A u s t r a l i a , August 1 9 5 5 .  13.  N o r t h c o t e , G. S. Modern Methods of H a n d l i n g F r u i t i n New Z e a l a n d . W e l l i n g t o n , New Z e a l a n d , The O r c h a r d i s t of New Zealand, December 5 t h , 1953.  t o New  Z e a l a n d . Melbourne,  - 42 14.  Gaston, H. P. and L e v i n , J . H. H a n d l i n g Apples i n B u l k Boxes. E a s t L a n s i n g , M i c h i g a n , A g r i c u l t u r a l E x p e r i ment S t a t i o n , A p r i l 1956. ( S p e c i a l B u l l e t i n No. 409.)  15.  Ornberg, R. A. The B u l k Way c u t s H a r v e s t C o s t s . W i l l o u g h b y , Ohio, The American F r u i t Grower, J u l y 1957*  16.  McBirney, S. W. L e s s H a n d l i n g Means more Q u a l i t y F r u i t . W i l l o u g h b y , Ohio, The American F r u i t Grower, October,  1957.  17.  F r u i t I n d u s t r i e s R e s e a r c h F o u n d a t i o n . The I d e a l B u l k Box. The Apple R e s e a r c h D i g e s t . Yakima, Wash., A p r i l 1957.  18.  S u t h e r l a n d , D. J . and E l l i s o n , V. E . Report on B u l k H a n d l i n g i n New Zealand and t h e Problems o f A d o p t i n g i t under the C o n d i t i o n s met i n t h e Okanagan V a l l e y . Kelowna, B.C., The B.C. F r u i t Growers' A s s o c i a t i o n , A p r i l 1957.  19.  P o r r i t t , S. W. B u l k H a n d l i n g o f F r u i t . Summerland, B.C., E x p e r i m e n t a l Farm, J u l y 1957• (Bi-monthly R e p o r t )  20.  Loomis, W«. E . and S h u l l , C. A. Experiments i n P l a n t P h y s i o l o g y . C h i c a g o , I l l i n o i s , The McGraw H i l l Company, I n c . , 1939.  21.  Smock, R. M. and Neubert, A. M. Apples and Apple P r o d u c t s . New York, I n t e r s c i e n c e P u b l i s h e r s , I n c . , 1950.  22.  H a l l e r , M. H. F r u i t P r e s s u r e T e s t e r s and t h e i r P r a c t i c a l A p p l i c a t i o n s . Washington, D. C , November 1941. TU.S.D.A. C i r c u l a r No.627.)  23.  Snedecor, G. W. S t a t i s t i c a l Methods. Ames, Iowa, Iowa S t a t e C o l l e g e P r e s s , 1957.  24.  R y a l l , A. L . and Uota, M. F u r t h e r S t u d i e s w i t h S e a l e d P o l y e t h y l e n e L i n e r s f o r Pa.jaro V a l l e y Y e l l o w Newtown A p p l e s . P r o c e e d i n g s of the American S o c i e t y f o r H o r t i c u l t u r a l S c i e n c e , V o l . 69, 1957.  Table I * . Experiment  I.  The e f f e c t s o f b u l k - h a n d l i n g on Y e l l o w Newtown A p p l e s .  Sam- Ap- we i g h t w e i g h t w e i g h t a p p l e s a i r v o l C0 % ple ples before a f t e r lost vol i n can No No (gram) (gram) (gram) ( c c ) (cc) o  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20  7 7 6 5 5 6 6 5 5 6 6 6 4 5 5 4 5 5 5 5  900.6 919.4 861.7 657.3 551.9 722.5 834.2 699.8 804.1 764.5 655.8 801.2 692.3 553.1 618.9 641.4 605.0 621.3  7H.6  645.2  898.9 918.2 860.8 656.6 550.5 720.2 833.0 699.0 803.5 763.0 654.1 799.4 691.4 552.8 617.2 640.7 603.8 620.3 710.2 644.5  1.7 1.2 0.9 0.7 1.4 2.3 1.2 0.8 0.6 1.5 1,7 1.8 0.9 0.3 1.7 0.7 1.2 1.0 1.4 0.7  Total 108 14,261.8 14,238.1 23.7 Mean C o n t . o n n e x t page.  1.185  1126 1149 1077 822 690 903 1Q43 875 1005 956 820 1002 865 691 874 802 756 777 890 807  3524 3501 3573 3828 3960 3747 3607 3775 3645 3694 3830 3648 3785 3959 3776 3848 3894 3873 3760 3843  3.9 4.0 3.8 3.2 3.8 4.1 3.6 2.5 3.7 4.1 2.8 3.4 2.6 2.9 2.8 1.8 2.0 1.8 2.7 2.6  C0 (mg kg/hr 2  pressure sugar b r u i s i n g (lbs) (%)  12.5 15.1 12.9 15.2 22.3 17.4 12.7 11.0 14.1 16.2 13.4 12.6 11.8 17.0 14.0 8.8 10.5 9.2 11.6 12.7  13.2 13.5 14.0 14.2 13.4 14.3 11.6 12.3 11.5 11.7 13.9 11.8 12.7 12.5 11.4 11.8 12.2 11.7 13.2 12.7  12.6 14.2 14.0 13.6 13.2 14.0 13.5 14.2 13.2 12.1 15.0 12.1 13.9 14.1 13.8 13.9 13.1 13.3 14.2 13.9  15 18 16 2 15 5 17 12 8 23 16 17 8 11 8 6 15 16 5 11  271.0  253.6  271.9  244  13.55  12.68 13.595  12.20  Table I (Cont.).  Experiment I . The e f f e c t s of field-box handling on Yellow Newtown Apples.  Sam- Ap- we ight we ight weight apples a i r v o l Q0 % C0 (mg pressure sugar c. kg/hr ple ples before a f t e r l o s t vol. i n can (lbs) No No (gram) (gram) (gram) (cc) (cc) o  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Total Mean  5 6 5 6 6 5 5 5 6 6 5 5 4 4 5 5 4 4 4 4  766.1 897.0 804.4 799.2 739.8 827.1 846.4 749.0 989.5 825.2 710.5 603.2 612.1 557.8 628.3 507.2 676.7 623.6 609.4 580.7  764.2 895.3 803.6 798.1 737.9 825.8 744.5 747.6 987.8 823.4 708.7 601.8 610.0 555.1 627.1 505.3 675.2 620.9 607.6 578.4  1.9 1.7 0.8 1.1 1.9 1.3 1.9 1.4 1.7 1.8 1.8 1.4 2.1 2.7 1.2 1.9 1.5 2.7 1.8 2.3  955 1121 1006 999 925 1034 933 936 1237 1032 888 754 765 691 785 634 846 780 762 726  99 14^53.2 14,218.3 34.9 1.745  3695 3529 3646 3651 3725 3616 3717 3714 3413 3618 3762 3896 3885 3959 3865 4016 3804 3870 3888 3924  5.2 5.4  6.3 5.8 6.5 7.2 6.0 4.7 4.6  4.9 6.6 4.6 4.8 6.4 5.3 5.4  4.1 4.4 4.6 4.0  m  2  20.5 17.4  23.4 21.7 26.8 25.8 24.5 19.1 13.0 17.6 28.6 24.3 24.9 37.2 26.7 35.0 18.9 22.3 24.0 22.1 4-73.8 23.69  bruising  12.2 12.1 13.0 12.5 12.4 12.3 13.5 12.0 11.7 12.2 12.7 12.4 12.3 11.7 12.0 12.2 11.8 12.6 12.1 12.0  12.6 12.5 12.2 13.0 13.5 12.1 14.4 13.5 13.3 14.0 13.4 11.2 13.8 13.4 12.7 . 13.5 12.0 12.3 13.1 12.2  35 29 15 10 7 14 7 4 27 38 10 6 5 18 9 14 10 8 3 4  245.7  258.7  273  12.285  12.935  13.65  - 45 Table I I . Experiment  I.  The c o m p a r a t i v e  e f f e c t s o f b u l k and  b o x - h a n d l i n g on t h e s h r i v e l l i n g * o f Y e l l o w Newtown A p p l e s . Sample A=bulk D e v i a t i o n —  1 2 5 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 ,14 15 16 17 18 19 20  1.7 1.2 0.9 0.7 1.4 2.3 1.2 Q.8 0.6 1.5 1.7 1.8 0.9 0.3 1.7 0.7 1.2 1.0 1.4 0.7  Total  23.7  Mean S  E  p  +  0.285 0.485  0.385 0.585  0.285 0.885 0.485 0.185 0.485  0.515 0.015 0.215 1.115 0.015 0.315 0.515 0.615 0.515 0.015 0.215  4.065 4.065  B=box D e v i a t i o n D e v i a t i o n * +  0.265225 0.000225 0.081225 0.235225 0.046225 1.243225 0.000225 0.148225 0.342225 0.099225 0.265225 0.378225 0.081225 0.783225 0.265225 0.235225 0.000225 0.034225 0.046225 0.235225  -^FW 0.5011  -  1.9 1.7 0.8 1.1 1.9 1.3 1.9 1.4 1.7 1.8 1.8 1.4 2.1 2.7 1.2 1.9 1.5 2.7 1.8 2.3  4.785500 34.9  1.185 gram  ' -A D  Deviation  0.045 0.945 0.645 0.445 0.345 0.045 0.345  0.024025 0.002025 0.893025 0.416025 0.024025 0.198025 0.024025 0.119025 0.002025 0.003025 0.003025 0.119025 0.126025 0.912025 0.297025 0.024025 0.060025 0.912025 0.003025 0.308025  0.155  0.155 C 0.155  0.055 0.055 0.355  0.545 0.955 (  0.245 0.155 0.955 0.055 0.555  3.605 3.605 4.469500  1.745 °-5°H 0.112  S. . B  B  EB  ED  = ^ / ( 0 . 1 1 2 ) ^ + ( 0 . 1 0 8 ) ^ = 0.155 gram  D  = I.745 - 1.185 = 0.560 gram  - y i ^ 0.4850 N/2TT  =  0.4850  = 0.108  a t t h e ' 5 % l e v e l , t = [2) and 0.155 x 2 = 0.310 gram a t t h e 1% l e v e l , t = 2.581 and 0.155 x 2.58 = 0.3999 gram b u t 0.560^> 0.3999; hence, t h e d i f f e r e n c e between b o t h t r e a t ments i s h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t . *Weight i n grams l o s t by each sample over a 24-hour p e r i o d .  - 46 Table I I I . Experiment I . The comparative e f f e c t s of bulk and box-bandling on the r e s p i r a t i o n r a t e * o f Y e l l o w Newtown Apples. p 2 Sample A=bulk D e v i a t i o n B=box D e v i a t i o n D e v i a t i o n D e v i a t i o n + + 1  2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13  14  15  16 17 18 19  20  Total  1.05  0.65  0.85 2.55 0.15 0.95 1.75  4.75 3.05 4.35 1.95 0.85  1.1025 2.4025 0.4225 2.7225 76.5625 14.8225 0.7225 6.5025 0.3025 7.0225 0£225 0.9025 3.0625 11.9025 0.2025 22.5625 9.3025 18.9225 3.8025 0.7225  1.55 1.65 8.75 3.85 0.55 2.65  3.45 0.45  271.0 22.90 22.90 183.9900  20.5 17.4 23.4 21.7 26.8 25.8 24.5 19.1 13.0 17.6 28.6 24.3 24.9 37.2 26.7 35.0 18.9 22.3 24.0 22.1  A -V  =  19  D  D  = ]J (0.69)* =  +  3.H18  (1.27)*  23.69 - 13.55 =  4.59  3.11 2.11 0.81  10.69  6.09  4.91 0.61 1.21  13.51  4.79 1.39 1.59  3.01 11.31 0.31  10.1761 39.5641 0.0841 3.9601 9.6721 4.4521 0.6561 21.0681 114.2761 37.0881 24.1081 0.3721 1.4641 182.5201 9.0601 127.9161 22.9441 1.9321 0.0961 2.5281  23.69 mg/kg/hr  s 5.6844 V/~20~  E. B E  3.19 6.29 0.29 1.99  473.8 40.90 40.90 613.9380  13.55 mg/kg/hr  lean  s  13.5 15.1 12.9 15.2 22.3 17.4 12.7 11.0 14.1 16.2 13.4 12.6 11.8 17.0 14.0 8.8 10.5 9.2 11.6 12.7  =  =  1.27  1.445 mg  10.14 mg  at the 5% l e v e l , t =(2)and 1.445 x 2 = 2.890 mg at the 1% l e v e l , t = 2.58 and 1.445 x 2.58 = 3.7281 mg but 1 0 . 1 4 ^ 3.7281; hence,, the d i f f e r e n c e found i s h i g h l y significant. " " m i l l i g r a m s o f CO  evolved £0  per kilogram  of fruit  and p e r hour.  - 47 T a b l e IV.  Experiment  I.  The comparative  e f f e c t s o f b u l k and  b o x - h a n d l i n g on t h e b r u i s i n g * o f Y e l l o w Newtown A p p l e s . Sample A=bulls D e v i a t i o n D e v i a t i o n * +  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Total  15 18 16 2 15 5 17 12 8 23 16 17 8 11 8 6 15 16 5 11 244  7.84 33.64 14.44 104.04 7.84 51.84 23.04 0.04 17.64 116.64 14.44 23.04 17.64 1.44 17.64 38.44 7.84 14.44 51.84 1.44  35 29 15 10 7 14 7 4 27 38 10 6 5 18 9 14 10 8 3 4  46.00 46.00 565.20  273  10.20 7.20 0.20 4.20  4.20 1.20 4.20 6.20 7.20 1.20  2.80 5.80 3.80 2.80  4.80  10.80 3.80 4.80  2.80 3.80  12.20  Mean  21.35 455.8225 15.35 235-6225 1.8225 1.35 3.65 13.3225 6.65 44.2225 0.25 0.1225 6.65 44.2225 9.65 93.1225 13.35 178.2225 24.35 592.9225 3.65 13.3225 7.65 58.5225 8.65 74.8225 4.35 18.9225 21.6225 4.65 0.1225 0.35 13.3226 3.65 31.9225 5.65 113.4225 10.65 9.65 93.1225 80.80 80.80 2,098.5500  13.65 S.D.  E  A - W  =  _ 10.510 " \T2Cr  E  = \J(±.2l) + (2.34)  D  _ "  Zffl ° ' rl  ^A  Z  D  p  B=box D e v i a t i o n D e v i a t i o n +  10.510 4.473  o  r o  r  2  B  21  v  72,098.  19  = 10.510  2  = 2.634  = 13.65 - 12.20 = 1.45  at the 5% l e v e l , t = 2 and 2.634 x 2 = 5.268 b u t 1.45  <^^.268, and the d i f f e r e n c e found i s n o t s i g n i f i c a n t .  * s c o r e : 0.5" b r u i s i n g = 4.  - 48 T a b l e V.  E x p e r i m e n t I . The c o m p a r a t i v e e f f e c t s o f b u l k and  b o x - h a n d l i n g on t h e f i r m n e s s * o f Y e l l o w Newtown A p p l e s . 2 2 Sample A=bulk D e v i a t i o n D e v i a t i o n B=box D e v i a t i o n D e v i a t i o n + + 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20  13.2 13.5 14.0 14.2 13.4 14.3 11.6 12.3 11.5 11.7 13.9 11.8 12.7 12.5 11.4 11.8 12.2 11.7 13.2 12.7  Total  253.6  Mean  D  A  E D  D  8.30 8.30  17.9720  1.08 0.38 1.18 0.98 0.88 0.18 1.28 0.88 0.48 0.98  1.22 0.02  12.2 12.1 13.0 12.5 12.4 12.3 13.5 12.0 11.7 12.2 12.7 12.4 12.3 11.7 12.0 12.2 11.8 12.6 12.1 12.0  A  -  =  0.007225 0.034225 0.511225 0.046225 0.013225 0.000225 1.476225 0.081225 0.342225 0.007225 0.172225 0.013225 0.000225 0.342225 0.081225 0.007225 0.235225 0.099225 0.034225 0.081225  12.285 l b s  / s f * r . 9725 V=SP =°-  =  =v/(0.217)*  0.085 0.185 0.715 0.215 0.115 0.015 1.215 0.285 0.585 0.085 0.415 0.115 0.015 0.585 0.285 0.085 0.485 0.315 0.185 0.285  2 4 5 . 7 3.135 3.135 3.585500  12.68 l b s  8. . E  0.52 0.02  0.2704 0.6724 1.7424 2.3104 0.5184 2.6244 1.1664 0.1444 1.3924 0.9604 1.4884 0.7744 0.004 0.0324 1.6384 0.7744 0.2304 0.9604 0.2704 0.0004  0.52 0.82 1.32 1.52 0.72 1.62  S  = 0 217  ~  12.680 - 12.285  (0.097) =  * 'B D  E. B 2  =  =  J  3  *19^  0.4344  = 0.4344 =  0.097  0.2376 l b  0.395 l b  a t 5% l e v e l , t = 2, and 0.2376 x 2 = 0.4752 l b b u t 0.395 ^ ^ . 4 7 5 2 ; c o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e d i f f e r e n c e i s n o t significant. * p r e s s u r e - t e s t r e a d i n g i n pounds.  _  Table V I .  Experiment  box-handling  I.  12.6  13.2  11  12.1  15.0  0.395 1.495  12  12.1  1.495  13 14  13.9  15  13.8 13.9  14.2  0.305 0.505 0.205  0.305 0*495  0.295 0.605 0.305  13.9  20  Total  27L9  1.974025 2.235025 0.093025 0.255025  1.405  13.1 13.3 14.2  19  5.660  5.660  A  = y10-0895  =  13.595  at  5%  level, t =  2  at  1%  level, t =  2 . 5 8  and  0 . 6 6 ^ ^  significant.  -  13.3  0.365 1.065 0.465  14.0 13.4  11.2  3.010225  1.735  13.8 13.4  0.865 0.465  12.0 0.935 12.3 0.635 13.1 0 . 1 6 5 12.2 0.735  10.089500  0.748225 0.216225 0.055225 0.319225 0.874225 0.403225  0.235 0.565  0.027225 0.540225  6 . 6 1 5 6 . 6 1 5  258.7  S.D.  -  (0.1777)*  12.935  =  and  0.62178.  12.1 0.835 14.4 1.465 13.5 0.565  0.245025 0.087025 0.366025  0.7287  D  0.065 0.565  13.5  0.093025  0.189225 0.540225 0.004225 0.319225 0.697225 2.146225 0.319225 0.133225 1.134225 0.216225  12.005500  12.935 p e r c e n t  =  +  13.0 13.5  12.7  1629  (0.1629)*  12.5 12.2  0.112225  0.335 0.435 0.735  0.093025  A = v l F = °' D  12.6  Deviation  0.042025  13.595 percent  Mean  S.D.  0.605  14.1  18  E  0.405 0.095  17  E  0.005  13.5  16  0.990025 0.366025 0.164025 0.000025 0.156025 0.164025 0.009025 0.366025 0.156025 2.235025  0.395  14.0  10  e f f e c t s o f b u l k and  D e v i a t i o n * B=box D e v i a t i o n -r •+  0.605 0.405  13.6 13.2  5 6 7 8 9  The comparative  0.995  14.2 14.0  4  -  on the sugar c o n t e n t on Y e l l o w Newtown A p p l e s .  Sample A=bulk D e v i a t i o n + 1 2 3  4 9  o^2ft2  =  =  0.7949  0.1777  0 . 2 4 1 0  0.660  0 . 2 4 1  and 0  = y12.0055  b  x  2  . 2 4 1  =  x  0.482  2 . 5 8=  Consequently,  0.62178  the difference  i s highly  Table V I I * .  Experiment I I . The e f f e c t s of b u l k - h a n d l i n g on Y e l l o w Newtown Apples.  Sam- Ap- we i g h t we i g h t weight apples a i r - v o l C 0 % C 0 % C 0 % c o C0 (mg p r e s - sugar b r u i s i n g d vol. ples before a f t e r lost ple i n can aver /kg/hr sure (%) No (gram) (gram) (gram) ( c c ) (cc) No (lbs) (%) o  1 2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10 11 12  13 14  15  16  17 18  19  20  6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6  813.6 805.8 838.3 829.4 813.1 814.7 819.5 831.4 826.5 825.2 866.0 821.2 800.4 792.5 828.9 820.6 835.8 837.3 801.9 810.5  813.0 804.6 837.3 828.0 812.0 813.2 817.9 830.2 825.5 824.4 865.0 820.5 800.0 791.0 827.1 818.9  833.9  836.0 800.2 810.0  0.6 1.2 1.0 1.4 1.1  1.5  1.6 1.2 1.0 0.8 1.0 0.7 0.4 1.5 1.8  1.7 1.9 1.3 1.7  0.5  1017 1007 1048  1037 1016 1018 1024  1039 1033 1032 1083  1027 1001  991  1036 1026 1045 1047 1002  1015  T o t a l 120 16,432.6\ 16,408^7] 2 3 . ^ Mean  6  "Cont. on next page  1.195  3633  3643 3602 3613 3634 ^ 3632 3626 3611 3617 3618 3567 3623 3649 3659 3614 3624 3605 3603 3648 3635  4.4 4.4 5.2 5.0 5.1 5.2 4.5 4.8 5.2 5.4  5.5  5.4 5.6 5.4 5.8 5.0  5.7  5.8  5.9  5.1  o  4.7 4.4  5.6 5.5  4.6  5.7  4.2  5.2 5.5 5.6 5.5 5.7 5.3 5.7 5.6 5.0 5.6  5.4  5.1  5.4  o  4.4 4.7  5.7 5.1 5.0 6.0  4.4 4.7  5.0 5.0 5.5 5.2 5.1 5.2 5.6  4.9  5.0 5.8 5.0 5.2  2  2  5.5 5.2  16.4 16.6 19.4 18.5  5.6  20.4  4.5 4.5  4.9  4.4 4.9  5.2 5.3 5.5  5.4  5.3  5.4  5.7 5.0  5.4  5.7 5.3 5.2  17.7  15.9 17.4 18.6  19.0 19.2 19.5 19.8 20.4 20.3 18.1  19.0 19.9 19.7 19.1  14.1  15.2 14.0 14.6  13.9 13.9 14.5 14.3  15.0 15.2 15.0 14.7 14.3 13.8  13.9  14.8  13.9  14.4 14.9 14.6  13.9 14.8 13.4 13.9 14.3 13.2 14.2  13.9 14.8  15.1  14.2 13.8  13.8 13.5 13.7  14.2 14.0 14.0 14.3 14.4  374.9 ' 289.0 281.4 18.745 14.45 14.07  21  17  18 16  22 12 23  27 32 32 27  32 35 ' 23 42  31  24 30 25 34 523  26.15  Table V I I ( C o n t . ) .  Experiment I I .  The e f f e c t s o f f i e l d - b o x h a n d l i n g on Y e l l o w Newtown A p p l e s .  Sam- Ap- w e i g h t w e i g h t weight a p p l e s a i r - v o l ples before a f t e r lost vol. i n can ple (gram) (gram) ( c c ) (cc) (gram) No No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20  6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6  826.1 803.8 837.9 828.7 826.2 805.9 813.5 819.9 822.2 809.8 824.4 817.9 825.5 838.8 832.3 829.8 830.4 809.0 810.6 821.6  824.6 802.4 835.9 826.7 824.8 804.2 812.2 818.1 820.3 808.4 821.9 816.2 824.2 836.6 830.9 828.1 828.4 807.3 808.8 819.7  1.5 1.4 2.0 2.0 1.4 1.7 1.3 1.8 1.9 1.4 2.5 1.7 1.3 2.21.4 1.7 2.0 1.7 1.8 1.9  Total / 120/16,434.3 16,399.7 34.6 Mean  6  1.73  1032 1005 1047 1036 1033 1007 1017 1024 1028 1012 1026 1021 1032 1049 1040 1037 1038 1011 1013 1027  3618 3646 3603 3614 3617 3643 3533 3626 3622 • 3638 3624 3629 3618 3601 3610 3613 3612 3639 3637 3623  C0 %  C0 %  C0 %  C0 (mg p r e s - s u g a r b r u i s i n g co aver A g / h r sure (%) (lbs) (%)  8.3 8.0 8.2 8.5 8.7 8.3 9.0 8.9 9.4 9.2 9.6 9.1 9.3 9.4 8.9 8.9 9.1 8.5 8.6 9.0  8.0 7.9 9.0 8.8 9.0 8.3 8.5 8.2 8.6 8.4 8.5 8.3 8.4 8.1 8.4 8.5 9.3 8.9 8.1 8.6  8.0 8.4 9.8 8.9 9.9 8.1 8.0 7.6 8.2 8.2 8.4 9.9 8.6 8.3 8.1 9.0 9.4 8.8 8.3 8.5  8.1 8.1 9.0 8.7 8.9 8.2 8.5 8.2 8.7 8.6 8.8 9.1 8.8 8.6 8.5 8.8 9.3 8.7 8.3 8.7  o  o  o  <—  2  P  29.2 30.1 31.7 31.1 31.9 30.3 31.1 29.8 31.4 31.6 31.7 33.2 31.7 31.5 30.2 31.2 33.1 32.1 30.5 31.5 524.9  15.2 14.7 14.7 13.8 14.3 14.0 13.4 13.2 13.3 13.7 14.1 13.4 14.2 14.5 14.8 14.0 13.9 13.3 13.6 14.1  14.3 14.6 13.8 13.6 13.5 13.2 13.4 13.6 13.0 12.9 13.2 13.5 13.4 14.0 14.2 13.4 14.0 13.0 12.7 13.3  280.2 170.6  31.245 14.01  13.53  45 35 32 45 28 47 37 36 32 38 34 47 38 38 36 40 29 30 47 43 757 37.85  - 52 Table V I I I .  Experiment I I . The comparative e f f e c t s o f bulk  and box-handling on the s h r i v e l l i n g * o f Y e l l o w Newtown Apples. Sample A=bulk D e v i a t i o n + 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8  9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20  0.6 0.595 1.2 0.005 1.0 0.195 1.4 0.205 1.1 0.095 0.305 1.5 1.6 0.405 1.2 0.005 1.0 0.195 0.8 0.395 1.0 0.195 0.495 0.7 0.4 . 0.795 1.5 0.305 1.8 0.605 1.7 0.505 1.9 0.705 1.3 0.105 1.7 0.505 0.5 0.695  T o t a l 23.9 Mean  0.354025 0.000025 0.038025 0.042025 0.009025 0.093025 0.164025 0.000025 0.038025 0.156025 0.038025 0.245025 0.632025 0.093025 0.366025 0.255025 0.497025 0.011025 0.255025 0.483025  •20"  2 Deviation  0.07 O.17  0.0529 0.1089 0.0729 0.0729 0.1089 0.0009 0.1849 0.0049 0.0289 0.1089 0.5929 0.0009 0.1849 0.2209 0.1089 0.0009 0.0729 0.0009 0.0049 0.0289  2.53 2.53  1.9620  0.33 0.03 0.43 1.33 0.03 0.43 0.33 0.03 0.03  0.27 0.27  0.07 0.17 0.77 0.47 O.27  1.73 7695 = 0.4454 19  0.4454  0.23 0.33  1.5 1.4 2.0 2.0 1.4 1.7 1.3 1.8 1.9 1.4 2.5 1.7 1.3 2.2 1.4 1.7 2.0 1.7 1.8 1.9  3.769500 34.6  1.195  S.D. E,  3.655 3.655  B=box D e v i a t i o n +  Deviation  = 0.099  B  1.9620 = 0.3213 19 0.5215 0.071  S2D~  + (0.071) = 0.1218 gram D = |^/(0.099) D of means = 1.730 - 1.195 = 0.535 gram  E  2  2  at the 5% l e v e l , t = 2 and 0.1218 x 2 = 0.2436 at the 1% l e v e l , t = 2.58 and 0.1218 x 2.58 = 0.314244 and 0.53J^>0.314244; hence, the d i f f e r e n c e i s highlysignificant . *weight i n grams l o s t by each sample over a 24-hour p e r i o d .  - 53 Table IX.  E x p e r i m e n t I I . The c o m p a r a t i v e e f f e c t s o f b u l k and  b o x - h a n d l i n g on t h e r e s p i r a t i o n r a t e * o f Y e l l o w Newtown A p p l e s . Sample A=bulk D e v i a t i o n +  1 2  16.4  4  18.5  2.34-5  16.6  19.4-  3  5 6 7 8 9  17.7  12  19-5 19.8  2.14-5  0.24-5 1.045  20.4 15.9  17.418.6  10 n  19.0 19.2  13  14  20.4  16  18.1  15  20.3  17  19.0  18  2.845  0.655  19.1  —  0.060025 1.092025  1.655  2.739025 8.094025  1.809025 0.021025 0.065025  0.255 0.455  0.207025  1.655  1,113025 2.739025  0.570025  1.555  2.418025 0.416025 0.065025  0.255 1.155 0.955  1.334025 0.912025  0.355  0.126025  Deviation  +  2 9 . 2 2.045  0.429025  0.755 1.055  0.645  B=box D e v i a t i o n  5.508025 4.601025  1.345  0.145  19.9 19.7  19 20  Deviation  p  3 0 . 1 1.14-5 31.7 0.455 31.1 0.145 31.9 0.655 30.3 0.945. 3 1 . 1 0.145 2 9 . 8 1.445 31.4 0.155 31.6 0.355 31.7 0.455 33-2 1.955 31.7 0.455 31.5 0.255 3 0 . 2 1.045 3 1 . 2 0.045 33.1 1.855 32.1 0.855 30.5 0 . 7 4 5 31.5 0.255  4.182025 1.3H025 0.207025 0.021025 0.429025 0.893025 0.021025  2.088025 0.024025 0.126025 0.207025 3.822025  0.207025 0.065025  1,092025 0.002025 3.441025  0.731025 0.555025 0.065025  T o t a l 374.9 1 0 . 7 6 0 1 0 . 7 6 0 3 4 . 3 1 8 5 0 0 624.9 7 . 7 0 5 7 . 7 0 5 1 9 . 4 8 9 5 0 0 Mean  18,745  31.245  S E  S.D  A  E  =  D =J  W  =  (0.300)*  °-  5  +  0  •B  E. B  0  (0.226)  Z  19  4895 = 1 . 0 1 2  1.012  y/W  0.226  '= 0 . 3 7 5 mg  D o f means = 31.245 - 1 8 , 7 4 5 = 1 2 . 5 0 0 mg a t 5% l e v e l , t = 2 and 0 . 3 7 5 x 2 = 0 . 7 5 0 at  1%  l e v e l , t = 2 . 5 8 and 0 . 3 7 5 x 2 . 5 8 = 0 . 9 6 7 5  and 1 2 . ^ > 0 . 9 6 7 5 ; hence, t h e d i f f e r e n c e i s h i g h l y  significant.  M i l l i g r a m s of G 0 e v o l v e d per k i l o g r a m o f f r u i t and p e r hour. 2  2  -Sal a b l e X.  Experiment I I .  The c o m p a r a t i v e  e f f e c t s o f b u l k and  b o x - h a n d l i n g o n t h e b r u i s i n g * o f Y e l l o w Newtown A p p l e s . Sample A=bulk D e v i a t i o n —  1  21  2  17  3 4  18 16  5 6  22 23 27  9  15  17 18  19  24 30  2.15  25  1.15  20  Total,  523  60.50  1056.5500  3.85  S.D.  A  E  _  -  ^  3  7,457  0.15  34.2225 0.0225  0.7225 3.4225  14.8225  3.85  83.7225 0.0225 O.O225  9.15 0.15 0.15  36  1.85  2.15  29 30  8.85 7.85  47 43  9.15 5.15  4 9 . 5 0 49.50  3.4225 4.6225 78.3225 61.6225 83.7225 26.5225  720.5500  37.85  T  B  S.D. 'B  7.457  1.66  = y(1.66)*  51.1225 97.0225 83.7225  40  26.15  lean  8.1225 34.2225  9.15  47 38 38  757  51.1225  7.15  9.85 0.85 1.85 5.85  2 Deviation  7.15  2.85 5.85  47 37 36 32 38 34  78.3225  7.85  4.85  60.50  17.2225 200.2225 9.9225 0.7225 34.2225 34.2225 0.7225 34.2225  9.9225 251.2225 23.5225 4.6225 14.8225 1.3225 61.6225  15.85  34  D  0.85 5.85 5.85 0.85 5.85 8.85  3.15  31  16  E  103.0225  27 32 35 23 42  45 35 32 45 28  83.7225 66.4225  32 32  10 11 12 13 14  2 B=box D e v i a t i o n +  26.5225  5.15 9.15 8.15 10.15 4.15 14.15 3.15  12  7 8  +  Deviation  +  (1.37)*  6  E. B =  V  /720. 52 19 «158  _  = 6.158 ^  7  2.152  D o f means = 3 7 . 8 5 - 2 6 . 1 5 = 1 1 . 7 0 a t 5% l e v e l , t = 2 and 2.152 x 2  =  4.304  a t 1% l e v e l , t = 2.58 and 2.152 x 2.58 and 1 1 . 7 0  =  5.55216  5.55216; c o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e d i f f e r e n c e i s h i g h l y  significant. *score: 0.5" b r u i s i n g = 4.  - 55 Table X I .  Experiment  II.  The comparative  e f f e c t s o f b u l k and  b o x - h a n d l i n g on t h e f i r m n e s s * o f Y e l l o w Newtown A p p l e s . Sample A=bulk D e v i a t i o n + 1 2  14.1  15.2  5  4  5  6 7 8 9 10 11 12  13.9 13.9 14.5  0.55 0.55  0.15 0.05  0.15  0.55 0.75 0.55 0.35  15.0  14.7 14.3  13.8 13.9  16  14.8  17  13.9  14.4 14.9 14.6  18  19  20 Total  289.0  Mean  0.15 0.65 0.55  0.55 0.05  0.35 0.45  0.15 4.00 4.00  Deviation  15.2  1.4161 0.4761 0.4761 0.0441 0.0841 0.0001  0.1225 0.5626  = y5fp0= 19 Q/l 0.4684  \f2U~ =y  (0.104)^  1.19  14.7 14.7  0.2025 0.0225 0.3025 0.3025 0.0025 0.0225 0.3025  0.69 0.69  13.8 0.21 14.3 0.29 14.0 0.01 13.4 0.61 13.2 0.81 13.3 0 . 7 1 13.7 0.31 14.1 0.09 13.4 0.61 14.2 0.19 14.5 0.49 14.8 0.79 14.0 0.01 13.9 0.11  0.5625  0.3025  0.0625 0.0225 0.4225  0.3025 0.1225 0.3025 0.0025 0.2025  13.3 0 . 7 1 13.6 0.41  4.1700  280.2  0.3721 0.0361 0.2401 0.6241 0.0001  0.0121  0.09  4.51 4.51  6.0989  14.01 S.D.  0.4684 = +  (0.136)" =  =  098  B  19  0.6112  E. B  0.104  D o f means = 14.45 - 14.01  0.171  0.44  at t h e 5% l e v e l , t = 2 and 0 . 1 7 1 x 2  =  0.342  a t the 1% l e v e l , t = 2.58 and 0 . 1 7 1 x 2.58 = 0.44118 but 0.4^>  0.3721  0.6561 0.5041 0.0961 0.0081  ©.5041 0.1681 0.0081  14.1  0.0225  14.45  E  D  0.75  15.2  15  E  0.45  15.0  14  A  14.0 14.6  14.3  13  SD  0.35  D e v i a t i o n B=box D e v i a t i o n +  0.342; hence, t h e d i f f e r e n c e  * p r e s s u r e - t e s t r e a d i n g i n pounds.  i s significant  0.6112 0.136  - 56 Table X I I .  Experiment I I .  Tbe c o m p a r a t i v e  e f f e c t s o f b u l k and  b o x - h a n d l i n g o n t b e sugar c o n t e n t o f Y e l l o w Newtown A p p l e s . Sample A=bulk D e v i a t i o n 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 ii 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Total Mean  0.23 0.33  0.0289 0.5329 0.4489 0.0289 0.0529 0.7569 0.0169 0.0289 0.5329 1.0609 0.0169 0.0729 0.0729 0.3249 0.1369 0.0169 0.0049 0.0049 0.0529 0.1089  14.3 14.6 13.8 13.6 13.5 13.2 13.4 13.6 13.0 12.9 13.2 13.5 13.4 14.0 14.2 13.4 14.0 13.0 12.7 13.3  3.67 3.67  4.3020  270.6  0.67 0.17 0.87 0.17  0.27 0.27 0.57 0.37 0.07 0.07  281.4  0.73 0.23 0.13 0.73 1.03 0.13  0.13  = yj^jlf^  A  E a  . yms  E  =y  =  .  (0.1063)  D o f means  =  Deviation  0.53 0.83 0.23  0.5929 1.1449 0.0729 0.0049 0.0009 0.1089 0.0169 0.0049 0.2809 0.3969 0.1089 0.0009 0.0169 0.2209 0.4489 0.0169 0.2209 0.2809 0.6889 0.0529  3.86 3.86  4.6820  0.03 0.33 0.13 0.53 0.63 0.33 0.03 0.13 0.13  0.77 1.07 0.27 0.07  0.07  0.47 0.67 0.47  13.53  14.07  S.D.  D  0.17  13.9 14-.8 13.413.9 14-.3 13.2 14-. 2 13.9 14-.8 15.1 14-.2 13.8 13.8 13.5 13.7 14-.2 14-. 0 14-.0 14-. 3 14.4  B=box D e v i a t i o n  Deviation  o. 2  0.4758  S.D.  1 0 6 ;  E  + (0.1109)*  14.07 - 13.53  J  B  B  682 ~V 19 0.4964  "  =  0.4964  0.1109  0.1536 = 0.54%  a t 5% l e v e l , t = 2 and 0.1536 x 2 = 0.3072 a t 1% l e v e l , t = 2.58 and 0.1536 x 2.58 = 0.396288 and 0 . 5 4 ^ 0.396288; c o n s e q u e n t l y , t b e d i f f e r e n c e i s h i g h l y significant.  i  Table X I I I . E x p e r i m e n t I I I . The comparative e f f e c t s o f d i f f e r e n t types o f p a c k a g i n g on s h r i v e l l i n g , r e s p i r a t i o n r a t e , f i r m n e s s and s u g a r c o n t e n t o f M c i n t o s h A p p l e s . Sam- Ap- Type o f we i g h t we i g h t we i g h t Apple A i r :o2% c o % c o % c o % mg C 0 P r e s - S u g a r p l e s packple before a f t e r lost vol vol aver kg/hr^ s u r e (%) No aging No (gram) (gram) (gram) ( c c ) (cc) (lbs) age 2  2  2  9  1  6  none (check)  826.1  824.2  1.9  1053  3597 7.2 7.2  4.9  6.4  22.8  8.4  12.2  2  6  none (check)  875.3  873.0  2.3  1091  3559 8.0 11.7 9.2  9.6  32.0  8.1  11.7  27.4  8.25  11.95  Average  2.1  1  6  wax  1044.3 1043.1  1.2  1303  3347 '8.4 7.3  5.2  6.9  22.1  8.1  12.4  2  6  wax  1030.9 1029.9  1.0  1286  3364 8.2 10.3 7.4  8.6  23.6  , 8.6  12.5  Average  1.1  22.85  8.35  12.45  1  6  Oiled Paper  930.6  928.8  1.8  1161  3489 7.2 7.1  5.9  6.7  20.6  8.4  11.6  2  6  Oiled Paper  951.4  949.9  1.5  1187  3463 8.3 10.1 9.4  9.3  27.7  8.0  12.2  24.15  8.20  11.90  Average  1.65  1  6  2  6  Average  Polygene Bag Polytene Bag  924.2  923.4  0.8  1156  3494 2.5 3.2  4.0  3.2  9.9  9.0  13.3  946.7  945.7  1.0  1183  3467 4.1 5.2  4.2  4.5  13.5  9.2  12.9  11.70  9.10  13.10  0.9  The C 0 c o n t a i n e d i n t h e s e a l e d p o l y e t h y l e n e l i n e r s i n sample 1. 2  averaged  3.6% i n sample 2 and 4.4%  

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