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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Ecological studies of marten (Martes Americana) in Algonquin Park, Ontario Francis, George Reid 1958

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ECOLOGICAL STUDIES OE MARTEN (MARTES AMERICANA) I N ALGONQUIN PARK ONTARIO  by George Reid Francis B.A., University of Toronto, 1956  A Thesis Submitted i n P a r t i a l F u l f i l l m e n t of The Requirements f o r the Degree of Master of Science in the Department of Zoology  We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard  The University of B r i t i s h Columbia A p r i l , 1958  i Abstract. L i v e - t r a p s were s e t f o r max ! n i n a g r i d system c o v e r i n g 5  about f i v e square m i l e s i n A l g o n c - ^ a P a r k , O n t a r i o .  Marten were  tagged and r e c a p t u r e d d u r i n g p a r t s o f t h e summers o f 1954 and 1955, and throughout the e n t i r e summers o f 1956 and 1957; 452 c a p t u r e s o f 55 marten were o b t a i n e d . i n mid-summer  Fewer marten were c a p t u r e d  t h a n i n l a t e s p r i n g o r l a t e summer.  The most complete r e c a p t u r e d a t a I n d i c a t e t h a t s i x minimum f o r a g i n g ranges o f males ranged from 0.50 t o 1.05 square m i l e s a v e r a g i n g 0.74 square m i l e s , and were o c c u p i e d from 8 to 41 days. Males i r r e g u l a r l y s h i f t e d r a n g e , o v e r l a p p i n g f o r a g i n g ranges o f o t h e r m a r t e n , b u t moved i n d e p e n d e n t l y o f one a n o t h e r ; throughout a summer two males moved over an a r e a o f a t l e a s t 1.68 and 1.53 square m i l e s , composed o f t h r e e and f o u r f o r a g i n g ranges respectively. Females o c c u p i e d d i s c r e t e r a n g e s , perhaps t e r r i t o r i e s , f o r months o r maybe y e a r s , and t r a v e l l e d them more t h o r o u g h l y .  Four  such ranges averaged 0.29 square m i l e s . Two n e s t dens were f o u n d , one among b o u l d e r s and the o t h e r i n a h o l l o w cedar l o g .  Immature marten s t a r t e d t o d i s p e r s e t h r o u g h  the a r e a i n August. The r e s i d e n t p o p u l a t i o n o f marten was p r o b a b l y two p e r square m i l e (one male and one female) b u t the t o t a l number o f marten found on the g i v e n a r e a was f o u r o r f i v e p e r square m i l e ; t h e s e l a t t e r were a d j a c e n t a d u l t s and d i s p e r s i n g young. Summer l i v e - t r a p p i n g showed no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e among c a p t u r e s i n d i f f e r e n t f o r e s t t y p e s .  In winter, track  censuses showed t h a t marten p r e f e r r e d c o n i f e r f o r e s t s ! t h i s  ii  preference  c o i n c i d e d w i t h s h a l l o w e r snow t h e r e and the g r e a t e s t  o c c u r r e n c e o f C l e t h r i o n o m y a as f o o d . concentrate  Hence, Marten seemed t o  t h e i r a c t i v i t y i n c o n i f e r f o r e s t s i n w i n t e r and s p r e a d  through a l l a d j a c e n t  f o r e s t s i n summer.  S h e l t e r from c l i m a t i c  extremes appeared t o be t h e most l i k e l y b a s i s f o r h a b i t a t s e l e c t i o n . A n a l y s e s o f 1427 summer s c a t s and 191 w i n t e r and e a r l y s p r i n g s c a t s suggest t h a t f o o d s e l e c t e d depended on i t s a v a i l a b i l i t y . S m a l l mammals formed t h e major p a r t o f t h e d i e t .  S m a l l mammal  t r a p p i n g gave an e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e r e l a t i v e abundance o f d i f f e r e n t s p e c i e s ; a l t h o u g h t h i s was n o t s t r i c t l y comparable to an e v a l u a t i o n b y marten p r e d a t i o n , t h e r e was no r e a s o n t o suppose t h a t p a r t i c u l a r s p e c i e s o f s m a l l mammals were s p e c i f i c a l l y hunted by marten.  The d i e t was h e a v i l y supplemented- w i t h n e s t i n g b i r d s  and r i p e b e r r i e s d u r i n g t h e s e a s o n a l abundance o f t h e s e ; many o t h e r i t e m s were sampled. The  e x t e n t o f the f o r a g i n g range i n summer appeared t o be  independent o f f o r e s t type and a v a i l a b l e f o o d .  In presenting the  t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of  r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree at the  University  o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t freely  a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and  agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e for  s c h o l a r l y purposes may  study.  I further  copying of t h i s  be g r a n t e d by the Head o f  Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e .  Department o f  be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n  Zoology  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver B, Canada. Date  April,  1958.  my  I t i s understood  that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r g a i n s h a l l not  thesis  financial  permission.  iii  TABLE OP CONTENTS PAGE L i s t of tables  vi  L i s t o f g r a p h s , maps and f i g u r e s Acknowledgements  viii  . . . . . . . . .  .  x  Introduction  1  B r i e f H i s t o r y o f the A l g o n q u i n Marten Study  2  The Study A r e a  5  A.  Brief Description  5  B.  Mapping o f t h e F o r e s t Cover  6  LIVE-TRAPPING STUDY  ;  9  Methods Employed  9  A.  Trapping  . •  B.  H a n d l i n g and Tagging Marten  C.  I n f o r m a t i o n Recorded  12  1.  Sex and Weight  12  2.  Age and A g i n g  Assumptions o f Method  •  9  v,'. . .  11  . . .  12 15  I n t e r p r e t i n g , Data f o r Range  16  T r a p p i n g E f f o r t - E f f e c t i v e Trap N i g h t s '  17  Completeness o f R e c o r d  17  . . . . . . .  A.  P e r c e n t o f Maximum Captures  18  B.  C o n t i n u i t y o f Record  18  C.  D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Recapture I n t e r v a l s  21  Results A.  Range S i z e  B.  Movements W i t h i n t h e Range  2 1  2  1  2%  iv PAGE C.  D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Captures W i t h i n The Range . . . .  28  D.  C i r c u i t s and Scent P o s t s  28  E.  Homing  31  P.  T r a v e l l i n g Behaviour  31  G.  Den S i t e s  31  H.  S p a c i a l R e l a t i o n s Among Male Marten  35  I.  Range D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Female Marten  37  J.  Movements o f Male t o Female Marten i n B r e e d i n g  . . . . . . . . . . . .  Season K.  39  D i s p e r s a l ' o f Immature Marten  41  Populations  42  A.  Densities  42  B.  Sex R a t i o s  44  Seasonal A c t i v i t y  .  R e l a t i o n o f Marten t o F o r e s t Cover A.  Winter  B.  Summer  45 46  .-  46 47  FOOD ANALYSES  51  Methods  51  Results  53  A.  Food Items  53  1.  Mammals . . . . . .  53  2.  B i r d s and B i r d Eggs  3.  R e p t i l e s and Amphibians  60  4.  I n s e c t s and Other I n v e r t e b r a t e s . . . . . . .  60  5.  Berries  61  6.  Duff Debris  62  .  59  V  PAGE B.  Pood Trends  63  C.  Pood P r e f e r e n c e o f C a p t i v e Animals  63  D.  R e l a t i o n t o A v a i l a b i l i t y o f S m a l l Mammal Pood Utilized  Management I m p l i c a t i o n s Literature Cited  64 . .  68 71  vi  LIST OF TABLES TABLE I  PAGE Development  o f the Summer Marten P r o j e c t i n  Algonquin Park II III IV V  3  Component F o r e s t Types o f the Marten Study A r e a  .  7  T o t a l A n i m a l C a p t u r e s i n Marten T r a p s , 1954 to 1957  10  E x t e n t of I n f o r m a t i o n on Seventeen S e l e c t e d Marten  19  D i s t r i b u t i o n of R e c a p t u r e I n t e r v a l s f o r Male and Female Marten  VI  21  Range S i z e and Time o f Occupancy A r r a n g e d by D e c r e a s i n g C o n t i n u i t y o f Record  VII  R e l a t i v e Amount o f Movement o f Marten Va'ithin T h e i r Range ( D a i l y Movement Index)  VIII IX  Traps C a p t u r i n g Marten W i t h i n T h e i r Ranges . . . .  •  38  Appearance o f New Marten on the Study Area 41  Marten O c c u r r i n g on 4.5 Square M i l e s o f F o r e s t Summers Only  XIV  37  I n t e r v a l f o r R e - o c c u p a t i o n o f V a c a t e d Ranges -  1956 and 1957 XIII  29  36  A d u l t Female Marten XII  27  Capture D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Two Males I n O v e r l a p p i n g Ranges  XI  .  S p a t i a l R e l a t i o n s Between. Two Male Marten i n O v e r l a p p i n g Ranges  X  22  43  Occurrence of Marten T r a c k s i n B a s i c F o r e s t Types  .  46  vii  TABLE XV  PAGE  Marten C a p t u r e s i n B a s i c F o r e s t Types  48  A n a l y s i s o f Marten S c a t s - Summer, 1955  54  X V I I A n a l y s i s o f Marten S c a t s - Summer, 1956  55  X V I I I A n a l y s i s o f Marten S c a t s - Summer, 1957  56  XVI  XIX XX  A n a l y s i s o f Marten S c a t s - W i n t e r and E a r l y S p r i n g  57  A n a l y s e s o f M a r t e n Food - P e r c e n t Frequency o f Occurrence  . . . . . . . .  . . . .  67  :viii LIST OP GRAPHS, MAPS AND FIGURES  Graph 1  V a r i a t i o n s i n Season A c t i v i t y o f Marten as I n d i c a t e d by Observed v e r s u s E x p e c t e d C a p t u r e s .  Graph 2  W i n t e r Marten A c t i v i t y R e l a t e d t o Snow Depth i n Major F o r e s t Types.  Graphs  S e a s o n a l V a r i a t i o n i n Major Pood Types o f Marten.  3-14 Graph 15 S m a l l Mammals Snap-trapped and S m a l l Mammals E a t e n b y Marten. Map 1  Marten Study A r e a and S m a l l Mammal T r a p - L i n e s .  Map 2  , Minimum f o r a g i n g r a n g e , male No. 55, a d u l t .  Map 3  Minimum f o r a g i n g r a n g e , male no. 58, a d u l t .  Map 4  Minimum f o r a g i n g r a n g e , female no. 37, a d u l t .  Map 5  Minimum f o r a g i n g r a n g e , female no. 4 1 , a d u l t .  Map 6  D i s t r i b u t i o n o f male marten showing range o v e r l a p , 1956.  Map 7  D i s t r i b u t i o n o f male marten showing range o v e r l a p , 1957.  Map 8  D i s t r i b u t i o n o f female marten - J u l y , August 1955 and May 1956.  Map 9  D i s t r i b u t i o n o f female marten - June t o August 1956.  Map 10  D i s t r i b u t i o n o f female marten - May t o August 1957..  Fig. 1  Winter a e r i a l photograph o f a p o r t i o n of the study area.  C o n t r a s t i n g c o n i f e r and hardwood f o r e s t s  can be seen; two hemlock r i d g e s show p r o m i n e n t l y . Fig. 2  S p r i n g a e r i a l p h o t o g r a p h o f a p o r t i o n o f the s t u d y a r e a .  Fig. 3  D i s t r i b u t i o n o f f o r e s t types on the s t u d y a r e a .  Pig. 4  View o v e r a p o r t i o n o f t h e s t u d y area i n t h e f o r e g r o u n d i n d i c a t i n g t h e r o l l i n g topography o f t h e r e g i o n .  ix  Fig. 5  Mixed c o n i f e r f o r e s t b o r d e r i n g O l i v e Lake.  Pig. 6  Hemlock f o r e s t - summer.  Pig. 7  Hemlock f o r e s t - w i n t e r .  Fig. 8  White b i r c h , w h i t e s p r u c e and p i n e f o r e s t - summer.  Fig. 9  Sugar maple, y e l l o w b i r c h , hemlock f o r e s t t y p e - w i n t e r .  X  Acknowledgements; T h i s s t u d y was f i n a n c e d b y the D i v i s i o n o f R e s e a r c h o f the O n t a r i o Department o f Lands and F o r e s t s to whom the w r i t e r i s i n d e b t e d f o r employment throughout t h e p e r i o d . The c o o p e r a t i o n , i n t e r e s t and s u g g e s t i o n s o f Mr. R.O. S t a n d f l e l d , D i r e c t o r o f the W i l d l i f e R e s e a r c h S t a t i o n i n A l g o n q u i n P a r k , g r e a t l y f a c i l i t a t e d the programme's o p e r a t i o n . The s u c c e s s o f t h e s t u d y c a n l a r g e l y be a t t r i b u t e d t o the s u b s t a n t i a l a s s i s t a n c e o f Messrs. D a v i d J o h n s t o n , Douglas B r o d i e , M i c h a e l DanieL, Roger H a n s e l l , Ronald P a x t o n and o t h e r s , a l l o f whom a t times c o n t r i b u t e d t o a p p r o x i m a t e l y 4000 m i l e s o f h i k i n g n e c e s s a r y t o o p e r a t e t h e t r a p l i n e s and c o l l e c t m a t e r i a l f o r the food analyses. A s s i s t a n c e o n o t h e r a s p e c t s o f t h e work was g i v e n on innumerable o c c a s i o n s b y Mr. D a v i d B a t e s and was most s i n c e r e l y appreciated. Acknowledgement i s a l s o due t o Mr. G e r a r d van T e t s , v a r i o u s s t a f f members o f the Department o f P a r a s i t o l o g y , O n t a r i o R e s e a r c h F o u n d a t i o n , and D i v i s i o n o f R e s e a r c h , Department o f Lands and F o r e s t s , f o r h e l p and s u g g e s t i o n s . The w r i t e r a l s o wishes t o thank Dr. I . MoT. Cowan, Head Department o f Z o o l o g y , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia f o r advice during the p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h i s  report.  1  Introduction;  I n r e c e n t decades, a marked d e c r e a s e i n t h e  economic v a l u e o f marten i n e a s t e r n Canada, c o i n c i d e s w i t h a s t e a d y d e c l i n e I n numbers and u n p r e d i c t a b l e f l u c t u a t i o n s i n f u r demands.  Although  c u r r e n t Canadian f u r t r a d e problems are  p r i m a r i l y economic, t h e management o f a - d e p l e t i n g f u r might w i s e l y aim a t i n s u r i n g a s u p p l y o f f u r s h o u l d o f f u r f a s h i o n s p r e c i p i t a t e a sudden demand.  resource  vagaries  Pine f u r species,  such as m a r t e n , r e q u i r e the most c a r e f u l management (Edwards and Cowan, 1957). I n O n t a r i o , de Vos  (1952) showed the d r a s t i c r e d u c t i o n  o f M a r t e n t o t h e i r major c e n t r e s o f abundance i n P a r k and  the Chapleau Game R e s e r v e .  Algonquin  E l s e w h e r e , marten e x i s t e d  I n r a t h e r i s o l a t e d and w i d e l y s c a t t e r e d groups. S i n c e t h e n , marten have shown some i n d i c a t i o n s o f i n c r e a s i n g w h i l e a t the same t i m e , the D i v i s i o n o f P i s h and W i l d l i f e o f the O n t a r i o Department o f Lands and F o r e s t s u n d e r t a k e n r e s t o c k i n g programmes.  Marten f r o m the  has  Algonquin  and Chapleau r e s e r v e s a r e r e l e a s e d i n p a r t s o f O n t a r i o where the o r i g i n a l p o p u l a t i o n has reduced.  e i t h e r been exterminated  or s e r i o u s l y  A subsequent i n t e r e s t i n management p r o c e d u r e s f o r  marten demanded i n f o r m a t i o n on the h a b i t s of the s p e c i e s i n O n t a r i o , and was, Previous  i n p a r t , r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the p r e s e n t  f i e l d work has been done on marten*  study.  Marshall  (1951b) o b t a i n e d i n f o r m a t i o n from t r a c k i n g marten i n B o i s e N a t i o n a l F o r e s t , Idaho.  Live-trapping studies include  p r e l i m i n a r y ones by de Vos and Guenther (1952) a t Chapleau, O n t a r i o and Twin L a k e s , Washington; by L e n s i n k  (1953) i n  2  i n t e r i o r A l a s k a ; and b y M i l l e r e t . a l . (1955) i n W e l l s Gray P a r k , B r i t i s h Columbia.  Newby and Hawley (1954) and Hawley  and Newby (1957) g i v e r e s u l t s o f t h e most I n t e n s i v e s t u d y , from G l a c i e r N a t i o n a l P a r k , Montana.  L e n s i n k e t . a l . (1955)  summarized most major f o o d a n a l y s e s o f marten. E x c e p t f o r t h e i n i t i a l Chapleau p r o j e c t , p r e v i o u s work on marten e c o l o g y has been done i n montane r e g i o n s o f w e s t e r n North America.  Hagmeier's (1955) summary o f p r e s e n t marten  d i s t r i b u t i o n i n America suggests t h a t t h e A l g o n q u i n p o p u l a t i o n Is one o f t h e l a s t which r e m a i n s , to some e x t e n t , i n t h e Deciduous F o r e s t Biome.  The r e s u l t s o f the p r e s e n t s t u d y may  I n d i c a t e h a b i t s o f marten i n former p o p u l a t i o n s o f n o r t h - e a t e r n N o r t h America and p r o v i d e a b a s i s f o r comparison w i t h a r e a s further  west.  B r i e f H i s t o r y o f the A l g o n q u i n Marten Study:  Algonquin Park  i s a p r o v i n c i a l l y a d m i n i s t e r e d a r e a o f about 2700 square m i l e s i n south-central Ontario.  I t was s e t a s i d e from 1893 t o 1914  p r i m a r i l y t o p r o t e c t headwaters and t r i b u t a r i e s o f f o u r r i v e r s , p r o v i d e a p u b l i c p a r k , and p r o t e c t w i l d l i f e . I n 1944, a 30 square m i l e W i l d e r n e s s Area was c l o s e d t o the p u b l i c and r e s e r v e d e x c l u s i v e l y f o r w i l d l i f e r e s e a r c h .  The  O n t a r i o Department o f Lands and F o r e s t s has s i n c e developed t h e W i l d l i f e Research S t a t i o n , t o p r o v i d e f a c i l i t i e s f o r f i e l d r e s e a r c h , on Lake Sasajewun a t t h e s o u t h - e a s t c o r n e r o f t h i s Wilderness Area.  The p r e s e n t marten s t u d y was c a r r i e d on i n  f i v e square m i l e s a d j a c e n t t o Lake Sasajewun.  3  Some marten l i v e - t r a p p i n g was W i l d l i f e R e s e a r c h S t a t i o n f r o m 1951  done by s t a f f o f t o 1953  to o b t a i n  p r e l i m i n a r y i n f o r m a t i o n on t r a p p i n g t e c h n i q u e s preference.  The w r i t e r was  to c o n t i n u e  this.  and  bait  f i r s t engaged i n l a t e summer,  Prom 1955  r e s e a r c h endeavor and  the  on, the marten study became a main  t r a p - l i n e s were expanded to t h e i r  form by mid-summer 1956.  1954,  final  By t h a t t i m e they i n c l u d e d a l l p r e v i o u s  areas t h a t had been t r a p p e d .  The g r i d system o f t r a p p i n g t h e n  i n operation', e n a b l e d range s i z e s o f marten to be d e t e r m i n e d ; a l l previous  t r a p p i n g c o u l d a t b e s t i n d i c a t e movements by  d i s t a n c e s between c a p t u r e s .  Table I i n d i c a t e s the development  o f the l i v e - t r a p p i n g programme.  Results presented  r e p o r t are based on t r a p p i n g i n August 1954, 1955,  and the summers (May  TABLE I : lear  J u l y and  t o August) o f 1956  Development o f the Park Maximum Maximum no. o f miles of traps trap-line  in this  and  August  1957.  summer marten p r o j e c t i n A l g o n q u i n Approximate total trap-nights  Total marten captures  No. of individual marten  1951-53  42  5  6,150  99  31  1954  41  4  1,000  32  14  1955  68  8  3,400  85  18#  1956  142  20  11,250  203  17#  1957  152  20  13,500  139  22#  35,300  556  Total #  linear  i n c l u d e s some i n d i v i d u a l s f r o m p r e v i o u s  years.  4  I n a d d i t i o n to t r a p p i n g , a r a t h e r i n t e n s i v e food s t u d y was  completed from 1955  t o 1957  and  a d e s c r i p t i o n of  types enabled some assessment o f marten to t h e i r Supplementary w i n t e r  forest  habitat.  o b s e r v a t i o n s were made i n 1956  and  1957.  5  The Study  Area:  A.  Brief Description*  The s t u d y a r e a l i e s w i t h i n t h e  A l g o n q u i n - L a u r e n t i d e s S e c t i o n (L4) o f H a l l i d a y ' a L a k e s - S t . Lawrence F o r e s t R e g i o n .  (1937) Great  J a r v i s (1956) s u b d i v i d e s  H a l l i d a y ' s c l a s s e s f u r t h e r such t h a t t h e A l g o n q u i n a r e a o f J a r v i s ' Algonquin-Pontiac Forest Section l i e s quite close to the W i l d l i f e R e s e a r c h  Station.  T h i s a r e a i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by J a r v i s ( o p . c i t . )  as  u p l a n d s , 1200 t o 1700 f t . above sea l e v e l , w i t h s h a l l o w dumped till  c o v e r i n g t h e m o d e r a t e l y r o l l i n g bedrock h i l l s o f g r a n i t e  and g r a n i t e - g n e i s s , and f l u v i a l d e p o s i t s o c c u n i n g c h i e f l y as narrow d e p o s i t s between t h e h i l l s . to  The c l i m a t e i s f a v o r a b l e  t o l e r a n t hardwoods b u t t h e c o l d w i n t e r s and l a t e s p r i n g  f r o s t s r e s t r i c t some s p e c i e s . Sugar maple i s a dominant s p e c i e s , f o r m i n g pure  stands  on the h i l l s e x c e p t o n some r i d g e s where hemlock forms pure stands.  Other c o n i f e r s , c o n s i d e r e d e s s e n t i a l l y as i n t r u s i v e s  from the B o r e a l F o r e s t R e g i o n  ( H a l l i d a y , 1937) occur  around  l a k e shores o r i n pure o r mixed s t a n d s on some o t h e r  sites.  White p i n e a t one time o c c u r r e d throughout t h e r e g i o n b u t logging i n the l a t t e r part of the nineteenth century a t i c a l l y removed p r a c t i c a l l y a l l s t a n d s .  system-  Where p i n e o c c u r r e d  as a c l i m a x o n sand p l a i n s , t h e s i t e s now a r e o c c u p i e d by v a r i o u s s e r a i stages composed o f w h i t e b i r c h , aspen,  balsam  f i r and w h i t e s p r u c e . The a c t u a l marten s t u d y a r e a appears l i t t l e a f f e c t e d by t h i s e a r l y c u t t i n g s i n c e i t was f o r t h e most p a r t q u i t e  6  selective.  The area has numerous o l d tote-roads meandering  through i t ; many have been overgrown to some extent. B.  Mapping of the Forest Cover.  Two sets of a e r i a l  photographs were taken on an area of nine square miles centering on the study area. follows: 3)  1)  Data pertaining to these photos are as  a i r speed:  100 m.p.h.;  photographic equipment:  a l t i t u d e : 4500 f t . ;  3-l/4 x 4-1/-4 Speed Graphic, Kodak  Super XX, exposed l/200 sec. at f l 6 ; pictures:  2)  4)  intervals between  15 sees. (Enough f o r an overlap but not enough f o r  stereoscopic i n t e r p r e t a t i o n ) .  One set was taken In l a t e  winter when the ground was snow covered and hardwood forests contrasted markedly with conifer f o r e s t s , and the second set was taken i n l a t e spring, after the snow had melted but before buds had burst on the hardwoods;  t h i s enabled birches to be  distinguished well from other hardwood species.  Figures 1 and  2 are sample photographs from these two sets. Forest types were outlined on the photographs and the outlines transferred to a base map with a sketchmaster.  The  following four major forest types were distinguished, on the basis of c r i t e r i a given by the Canadian Institute of Forestry (1956): Forest type  Composition  C - conifer CH - mixed, predominantly conifer _ HC - mixed, predominantly hardwood H - hardwood  up to 25$ hardwoods 25% to 50% hardwoods 50% to 75% hardwoods 75% to 100$ hardwoods.  7  The f o u r major t y p e s were then s u b d i v i d e d o n t h e b a s i s o f s p e c i e s c o m p o s i t i o n i n the o v e r s t o r y , i n t o t e n component f o r e s t t y p e s .  I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of overstory species  c o u l d be done l a r g e l y from w i n t e r photographs u s i n g c r i t e r i a such as t h o s e g i v e n by Spurr  (1948).  D i f f i c u l t y was encountered  i n d i s t i n g u i s h i n g , w i t h a e r i a l photographs,  u n d e r s t o r y from  o v e r s t o r y c o n i f e r I n some s t a n d s , hence ground checks were made to v e r i f y t h e i r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . Table I I shows the r e l a t i v e e x t e n t o f each o f t h e s e types on the a c t u a l marten s t u d y a r e a , w i t h i n the l i m i t s o f t h i s a r e a a r b i t r a r i l y set.  (Map 1 ) .  F i g . 3 shows the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f the  f o r e s t types i n n i n e square m i l e s c e n t e r i n g on t h e s t u d y a r e a , and F i g u r e s 4 t o 11 i l l u s t r a t e examples o f some t y p e s . TABLE I I : Component f o r e s t types o f the marten s t u d y a r e a F o r e s t type CONIFER (C) Hemlo ck White p i n e , r e d p i n e B l a c k spruce Mixed - Balsam, w h i t e s p r u c e , b l a c k s p r u c e , w h i t e p i n e , hemlock  Area,in acres#  Percent of t o t a l a r e a (approx.)  357 47 22  12 2 1  104  4  MIXED PREDOMINANTLY CONFIER (CH) White s p r u c e , w h i t e p i n e , b a l s a m , w h i t e b i r c h , aspen Hemlock, sugar maple, y e l l o w b i r c h  93 676  3 23  MIXED PREDOMINANTLY HARDWOOD (HC) White b i r c h , aspen, w h i t e s p r u c e , balsam, white pine Sugar maple, y e l l o w b i r c h , hemlock  57 429  2 15  HARDWOOD (H) Sugar maple White b i r c h $ measured w i t h a dot g r i d superimposed cover.  1120 38 1 24 on a map o f the  forest  8  The remainder o f the r e p o r t i s p r e s e n t e d i n two d e a l i n g w i t h the l i v e - t r a p p i n g programme and f o o d  parts,  studies.  9  LIVE-TRAPPING STUDY Methods Employed: A.  Trapping.  C o l l a p s i b l e w i r e t r a p s , s i z e s 6" x 6" x  24" and 9" x 9" x 32", produced by the N a t i o n a l L i v e Trap Company, Tomahawk, W i s c o n s i n , were used throughout the s t u d y . Both captured  marten r e a d i l y and t h e l a r g e r t r a p s were used  to supplement the a v a i l a b l e s m a l l "marten" t r a p s 1957, the  I n 1956 and  any l a r g e r t r a p s u s e d , were s e t one i n e v e r y f o u r  along  line. T r a p - l i n e s were s e t on a g r i d p a t t e r n as much as  topography and p r a c t i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s a l l o w e d . c o n s t r u c t e d from an o r i g i n a l r e c t a n g u l a r l i n e  The g r i d was  surrounding  K a t h l y n Lake i n 1953; and was presumed t o g i v e a ramdom sample o f f o r e s t t y p e s ; t r a p - s i t e s a l o n g these l i n e s were chosen s u b j e c t i v e l y as t h e b e s t s i t e s - f o r t r a p p i n g m a r t e n , and once chosen were r e t a i n e d throughout t h e c o u r s e o f the s t u d y . Map 1. shows t h e i r l o c a t i o n s . A l l b u t two t r a p s were s e t b y f a l l e n l o g s .  Each was  c a r e f u l l y e n c l o s e d w i t h b a r k , b r u s h and o t h e r d u f f d e b r i s . T r a i l s were c u t a l o n g t h e t r a p - l i n e s and t h r e e d i s t i n c t  routes,  e i g h t , seven and f i v e m i l e s l o n g were a r r a n g e d so t h a t a l l were v i s i t e d d a i l y b e f o r e noon t o i n s u r e r e g u l a r r e l e a s e o f marten. F i g s . 12 and 13 show a t y p i c a l t r a p - s i t e and a marten  captured  in a live-trap. Traps v a r i o u s l y b a i t e d d u r i n g t h e f i r s t y e a r s o f t h e study  (1951 to 1953 and p a r t o f 1955) i n d i c a t e d t h a t a v a r i e t y  10  o f f i s h , meats, sweets and  scented o i l may  a t t r a c t marten but  meats tended to d e s s i c a t e , r o t , or a t t r a c t animals marten. and  The g r e a t e r b a i t  other f i s h scent was  other  than  e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f kippered h e r r i n g noted by Newby and Hawley (1954) whereas  M i l l e r e t . a l . (1955) and L e n s i n k  (1953) captured marten  s u c c e s s f u l l y w i t h a number o f meats and s c e n t s .  Lensink  (1953)  s t a t e s t h a t some t r a p p e r s use o n l y b r i g h t , s h i n y o b j e c t s scent and  without  Loucks (1955) r e p o r t e d a few marten captured i n l i v e -  traps " b a i t e d " with s h i n y t a g s . Raspberry jam and Rexand P o u l t r y O i l - ( f i s h e x t r a c t ) were used as b a i t from 1954 by captured marten. easy to o b t a i n , and  to,.1957; both items were e a g e r l y  Jam  and f i s h o i l were r e l a t i v e l y  1954  to 1957  technique  inexpensive,  easy to handle In l a r g e q u a n t i t i e s .  Traps were r e b a i t e d a t t h r e e day i n t e r v a l s and every d i s t u r b a n c e .  accepted  Table I I I summarizes animal  and shows the s e l e c t i v e n e s s of t h i s  after  captures  from  trapping  f o r marten.  TABLE I I I :  T o t a l Animal Captures i n Marten Traps, 1954  Species  Number o f captures 1957 1954 1955 1956  Percent of  203  139  452  71  1  27  98  139  22  2  14  16  34  5  1  3  2  6  2  1  2  5  Marten  32  78#  Red  13  Raccoon  2  E a s t e r n Chipmunk Fisher  Squirrel  Total  to  Snowshoe Hare # excluding trapping o f f Fewer raccoons  4 3 1 present study a r e a .  would have been captured had  been used e x c l u s i v e l y .  1957 total  small traps  Chipmunks were seldom r e t a i n e d i n t r a p s  11  but f r e q u e n t l y sprung them. B.  H a n d l i n g and Tagging M a r t e n .  h a n d l i n g marten were t r i e d .  S e v e r a l methods o f  Animals were e n t i c e d from  live-  t r a p s I n t o a w i r e cone t h e n h e l d f o r e x a m i n a t i o n and t a g g i n g ; o t h e r s were a n a e s t h e t i z e d i n the cone f i r s t , as suggested by L l e w e l l y n (1953).  T r a n q u i l i z e r s were a d m i n i s t e r e d t o two  marten b u t c o r r e c t dosages and p o s s i b l e h a r m f u l s i d e e f f e c t s were too  p o o r l y u n d e r s t o o d , and t h e t r e a t m e n t t o o time consuming to  adopt. I t was found t h a t one p e r s o n w e a r i n g a s t o u t p a i r o f mink h a n d l i n g g l o v e s c o u l d grasp a marten, e x t r a c t i t from the t r a p and h o l d i t w h i l e a second p e r s o n examined and tagged it.  I t I s p o s s i b l e f o r one p e r s o n to a c c o m p l i s h t h i s alone b u t  the danger o f l o s i n g t h e a n i m a l seemed g r e a t .  Hence, i n t h i s  s t u d y , a l l a n i m a l s were brought back t o t h e l a b o r a t o r y when f i r s t c a u g h t , and a f t e r t h e r e q u i r e d i n f o r m a t i o n was r e c o r d e d , r e l e a s e d a t t h e p o i n t o f c a p t u r e t h e f o l l o w i n g day. When s u b s e q u e n t l y r e c a p t u r e d , t h e a n i m a l s were r e l e a s e d i m m e d i a t e l y at  the t r a p - s i t e . Of v a r i o u s e a r t a g s j u s e d , s t y l e 1005, s i z e No. 3, o f the  N a t i o n a l Band and Tag Company, Newport Kentucky, proved most satisfactory. at  These were r e t a i n e d b e s t by marten when p l a c e d  t h e base o f t h e e a r r a t h e r t h a n the t i p .  A l t h o u g h some  t a g s l a s t e d f o r n e a r l y two y e a r s , most were l o s t  eventually;  i t was thought t h a t w i n t e r f r e e z i n g and subsequent d e c a y o f t i s s u e i m m e d i a t e l y i n c o n t a c t w i t h t h e t a g was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r some o f t h i s , o t h e r s m e r e l y p u l l e d t h r o u g h t h e t h i n e a r t i s s u e .  12  From 1954  to 1957,  T a t t o o model 101,  a l l marten were t a t t o o e d on one  Ketchum M a n u f a c t u r i n g Company, Ottawa,  O n t a r i o , and g r e e n  tatoo i n k served best.  This insured  p o s i t i v e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of a l l s t u d y animals-when of  ear.  the e a s i l y r e a d ear tags was  replacement  necessary.  Sketches o f t h r o a t p a t c h p a t t e r n were done e a r l y i n t h e s t u d y and l a t e r , photographs o f p a t t e r n s were t a k e n on some a n a e s t h e t i z e d marten.  Although throat patterns vary w i d e l y ,  the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l s from them so f r e q u e n t l y proved d i f f i c u l t and u n c e r t a i n , t h a t such r e c o r d s were d i s c o n t i n u e d soon a f t e r t a t t o o s were a p p l i e d . M a r t e n w h i c h d i e d d u r i n g t h e s t u d y were p r e s e r v e d as museum s t u d y s k i n s and d e p o s i t e d at the S t h e r n o u  Research  S t a t i o n , Maple, O n t a r i o . C.  I n f o r m a t i o n Recorded. 1.  Sex and w e i g h t .  n o t i n g the presence  M a r t e n are r e a d i l y aexed by  o f e i t h e r a baculum o r a v u l v a , a l t h o u g h  immature a n i m a l s sometimes r e q u i r e - c l o s e i n s p e c t i o n .  Marten  were weighed t o the n e a r e s t q u a r t e r pound when f i r s t  captured  but t h i s was  d i s c o n t i n u e d i n 1957.  Some i n d i v i d u a l s can change  w e i g h t s r a p i d l y (Newby and Hawley, 1954). 2.  Age and a g i n g .  Hodgson (1956) r e c o r d s a female  marten w h i c h l i v e d on an A l b e r t a f u r farm f o r s i x t e e n y e a r s . M a r k l e y and B a s s e t t (1942) c i t e s l o n g e v i t y r e c o r d s up t o , e l e v e n years and one r e c o r d o f a t l e a s t f i f t e e n y e a r s f o r a Martes m a r t e s .  female  They f u r t h e r found from o b s e r v a t i o n s on a f u r  f a r m , t h a t the youngest marten t o produce a l i t t e r was  three  13  y e a r s o l d and the youngest s e x u a l l y mature male t o s i r e a f i r s t l i t t e r was a l s o t h r e e y e a r s o l d j many attempted matings between the f i r s t and second y e a r s were n o t e d .  Walker (1929)  found no e v i d e n c e o f b r e e d i n g i n two male and two female marten r a i s e d t o twenty-seven months, b u t Hodgson (op. c i t . ) r e c o r d s one f e m a l e w h i c h was s u c c e s s f u l l y b r e d a t about f i f t e e n  months.  Thus i t appears t h a t marten under t h r e e y e a r s o f age can u s u a l l y be c o n s i d e r e d immature. T e n t a t i v e c r i t e r i a have been s e t up f o r a g i n g marten on s k e l e t a l m a t e r i a l .  The s i z e o f the s a g i t t a l c r e s t i s a  f u n c t i o n o f age and s e x ( M a r s h a l l , 1951). t h a t male marten w i t h a c r e s t o v e r 20 mm.  Marshall postulates l o n g , and females w i t h  any c r e s t a t a l l were a d u l t s ; males and females w i t h c r e s t s 30 mmi. and 20 mm.  r e s p e c t i v e l y were c o n s i d e r e d t o be v e r y o l d .  Lensink  (1953) s e t c r i t e r i a w h i c h aged male marten up t o about f i v e y e a r s on h e i g h t and l e n g t h o f c r e s t s and females on e i t h e r minimum s e p a r a t i o n o f t e m p o r a l muscles or subsequent l e n g t h of  crests.  He c o n c l u d e d t h a t males up t o t h r e e years of age  have c r e s t s up to 40 mm. have c r e s t s up t o 20  l o n g and females up t o t h r e e y e a r s  mm.  Newby and Hawley ( 1 9 5 4 ) , r e f e r r i n g t o known age marten, found t h a t " a d u l t males had a pronounced enlargement o f the c o r p o r a c a v e r n o s a and b a s a l p o r t i o n o f the baculum w h i l e j u v e n i l e males l a c k e d t h i s development".  L e n s i n k (op. c i t . ) found t h a t  marten up to t h r e e y e a r s o f age had a baculum w e i g h i n g up to 260 mg.  and M a r s h a l l (op. c i t . ) c o n c l u d e d t h a t the baculum o f  immature marten weighed under, and o f mature marten o v e r , 100 mg. d r y w e i g h t .  14  Such d i f f e r e n c e s appear i n h e r e n t i n d i f f e r e n t p o p u l a t i o n s . Hagmeier (1955) i n h i s taxonomic study on marten s t a t e d ; "One r e s u l t o f the p r e s e n t  s t u d y has been t o show t h a t marten f r o m  d i f f e r e n t l o c a l i t i e s possess bacula o f s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t w e i g h t s a t m a t u r i t y and a c q u i r e s a g i t t a l c r e s t s o f d i f f e r e n t s i z e s a t d i f f e r e n t ages".  Any attempt t o a p p l y e x t a n t c r i t e r i a  to the A l g o n q u i n , o r o t h e r O n t a r i o p o p u l a t i o n s , must be done w i t h reservation. Aa y e t , no s a t i s f a c t o r y method o f a g i n g l i v e marten h a s been d e v i s e d .  B r o a d , t e n t a t i v e age c r i t e r i a were adopted f o r  the p r e s e n t s t u d y and a r e as f o l l o w s : A d u l t s : - f e m a l e s w i t h a s a g i t t a l c r e s t o r w i t h a pronounced l o n g i t u d i n a l d e p r e s s i o n on top o f the head (caused by growth o f t e m p o r a l muscles l a t e r a l l y b e f o r e t h e c o n f l u e n c e o f the t e m p o r a l r i d g e s t o form the c r e s t ) and/or w i t h conspicuous mammae i n d i c a t i n g they had littered. - males w i t h a broad f a c e and c o n s p i c u o u s s a g i t t a l c r e s t ; some l a r g e males w i t h pronounced c r e s t s and n o t i c e a b l y b r o k e n and worn t e e t h were d e s i g n a t e d "old adult". Immatures: - males and females w i t h smooth heads and i n d i s t i n c t i n d i c a t i o n s o f the t e m p o r a l ridges.; mammae o f females v e r y i n c o n s p i c u o u s ; males w i t h narrow f a c e and s m a l l testes. - males w i t h narrow f a c e s and s m a l l s a g i t t a l were c l a s s e d as " y e a r l i n g s " , i . e . between j u v e n i l e and a d u l t . - j u v e n i l e marten (young o f the y e a r ) d u r i n g the summer had a w o o l l y p e l a g e because o f the s p a r c i t y o f guard h a i r s , and r e t a i n e d a r a t h e r s m a l l k i t - l i k e f a c e . C l e a r l y , t h e s e c h a r a c t e r s are so s u b j e c t i v e t h a t must be a c c e p t e d  w i t h due r e s e r v a t i o n s .  they  15  Assumptions o f Method. L i v e - t r a p p i n g d a t a can o n l y - g i v e t h e l o c a t i o n o f animals at c e r t a i n times.  The i n t e p r e t a t i o n o f such d a t a - t o  evaluate  the s i z e o f f o r a g i n g r a n g e s , n e c e s s i t a t e s s e v e r a l a s s u m p t i o n s , summarized as f o l l o w s J  t h e a n i m a l w i l l be caught i n a l l major  p a r t s of i t s range; t r a p p i n g w i l l not g r e a t l y a l t e r the animal's h a b i t s and p o i n t s o f c a p t u r e chosen a c t i v i t y  do i n f a c t , r e p r e s e n t  t h e animal's  area.  Of t h e s e , t h e p o t e n t i a l e f f e c t o n t h e a n i m a l ' s h a b i t s r a i s e s most d i f f i c u l t i e s .  Such e f f e c t s may a c t d i r e c t l y on  i n d i v i d u a l s , o r i n d i r e c t l y t h r o u g h changed p o p u l a t i o n f a c t o r s . A n i m a l s may l e a r n t o a v o i d t r a p s a l t o g e t h e r o r r e t u r n t o c e r t a i n ones f r e q u e n t l y . d e s i r a b l e to recapture  C h i t t y (1937) c o n c l u d e d t h a t i t was  s m a l l mammals as i n f r e q u e n t l y as  necessary to obtain information. e f f e c t s o f , a) induced u n n a t u r a l  T h i s h e l p e d a v o i d some concentrations  o f animals  w i t h i n an a r e a , b) changes i n p r e d a t i o n r a t e , c) spread;: o f i n f e c t i o n b y contaminated f o o d and r e p e a t e d use o f t r a p s , d) changes i n f e e d i n g h a b i t s , e) r e d u c t i o n o f chance matings and f ) d e a t h o f young t h r o u g h p r o l o n g e d absence o f mother. I n f o u r summers, n i n e t e e n  o f f i f t y - f i v e - marten d i e d i n  l i v e t r a p s , most f o l l o w i n g r e p e a t e d c a p t u r e s .  Two o f t h e s e  were l a c t a t i n g f e m a l e s and d e s p i t e i n t e n s i v e s e a r c h i n g , n e i t h e r l i t t e r was f o u n d .  T h u s , t r a p p i n g may have e f f e c t e d t h e s t u d y  p o p u l a t i o n b y i n c r e a s i n g t h e m o r t a l i t y r a t e and i n d u c i n g untimely  s h i f t s 'of r a n g e .  Otherwise t h e r e was no evidence t h a t  o t h e r f a c t o r s g i v e n b y C h i t t y a p p l i e d e x t e n s i v e l y t o marten.  16  I n the same f o u r summers, f o u r hundred and f i f t y  two  c a p t u r e s o f t h e s e f i f t y - f i v e marten g i v e s u f f i c i e n t  evidence  t h a t marten do not h a b i t u a l l y a v o i d t r a p s , a l t h o u g h  probably  some e n t e r more r e a d i l y t h a n o t h e r s .  Two  a d u l t males were  caught f i f t y - s i x and f i f t y - f i v e  times r e s p e c t i v e l y ; , and a  female was  Hawley and ewby (1957) caught  caught f o r t y t i m e s .  one male s e v e n t y - t h r e e t i m e s .  w  A n a l y s e s o f one hundred  and  s i x t e e n r e c a p t u r e s on s u c c e s s i v e n i g h t s showed t h a t s t r a i g h t l i n e d i s t a n c e s between p o i n t s cf c a p t u r e ranged from 0 t o l - l / 2 m i l e s (p. 2 7 ) .  T h i s suggests  that t r a p p i n g d i d not  r e s t r i c t the e x t e n t o f movement, but merely d e l a y e d Consequently,  it.  i n t h i s s t u d y , i t has been assumed t h a t a n a l y s e s  based on the l i v e - t r a p d a t a c o r r e s p o n d w e l l w i t h normal marten activity. I n t e r p r e t i n g d a t a f o r Range. Hayne (1949) l i s t e d t h r e e ways o f i n t e r p r e t i n g such d a t a . 1.  The l o n g e s t d i s t a n c e between r e c a p t u r e s i s taken as the  major a x i s o f an e l l i p t i c a l range o r the diameter  of a  c i r c u l a r one.  range  This t a c i t l y i m p l i e s a symmetrical  and seems too g r e a t an a b s t r a c t i o n based on too l i t t l e d a t a . 2.  A c t u a l c a p t u r e s a r e mapped and a boundary zone i s added  on the o u t e r p e r i p h e r y t o compensate f o r a l a c k o f t r a p s t h e r e . T h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n seems r e s t r i c t e d to data o b t a i n e d from regular co-ordinate trapping. 3.  A r a n g e , e n c l o s i n g an a r e a i n which the animal  was  known t o o c c u r , i s o u t l i n e d by j o i n i n g o u t e r p o i n t s o f  capture.  definitely  17 Burt  (1943) p o i n t s out t h a t ranges may  be amoeboid _ i n  o u t l i n e and d e l i n e a t i o n o f o u t l y i n g p o i n t s may amount o f o v e r l a p w i t h a d j a c e n t ranges and g i v e impressions  of size.  accentuate  the  false  Another somewhat analogous argument  s t a t e s t h a t i t i s e x t r e m e l y u n l i k e l y t h a t any range c o i n c i d e s w i t h the t r a p - l i n e p a t t e r n , so r e a l range must e x t e n d beyond the o u t e r p o i n t s o f c a p t u r e  (Hayne, op. c i t ) .  However, t h i s  "minimum r a n g e " i n t e r p r e t a t i o n has been adopted by the w r i t e r because i t seemed most c o n s e r v a t i v e and o b j e c t i v e . T r a p p i n g E f f o r t - E f f e c t i v e Trap N i g h t s . For comparative p u r p o s e s , t r a p p i n g r e s u l t s were e v a l u a t e d on a per t r a p - n i g h t b a s i s . d e f i n e d as one  t r a p s e t f o r one  One  trap-night i s  n i g h t , or more p r e c i s e l y ,  the i n t e r v a l between s u c c e s s i v e d a i l y v i s i t s to the t r a p . Traps were f r e q u e n t l y sprung b y v a r i o u s s m a l l animals and, t i m e s , many were t o r n out o f t h e i r s e t s by b e a r s .  at  Since i t i s  never determined e x a c t l y when such t r a p s were d i s t u r b e d , i t was assumed t h a t each was  e f f e c t i v e f o r c a p t u r i n g marten f o r  h a l f o f the t r a p - n i g h t i n t e r v a l . t r a p - n i g h t " (ETN)  i s u s e d , and  one  Hence, the t e r m " e f f e c t i v e  i s d e f i n e d as t h e t o t a l t r a p -  n i g h t s minus one h a l f o f the number o f  disturbances.  Completeness of R e c o r d . The  r e c o r d s o f 10 male and  7 female marten have been  s e l e c t e d f o r i n f o r m a t i o n on range s i z e . completeness o f t h e s e r e c o r d s a r b i t r a r y s t a n d a r d s were s e t  An e v a l u a t i o n o f  seemed n e c e s s a r y and up.  two  the  18  A.  P e r c e n t o f Maximum C a p t u r e s .  One c a p t u r e per day  i s d e f i n e d as t h e maximum number f o r a g i v e n a n i m a l .  The  t o t a l number o f c a p t u r e s o f a g i v e n a n i m a l i s e x p r e s s e d as a p e r c e n t a g e o f the t o t a l number o f days i t s a r e a was t r a p p e d . B.  C o n t i n u i t y o f Record.  One c a p t u r e p e r week i s  d e f i n e d as the minimum r e q u i r e m e n t f o r a continuous r e c o r d o f a g i v e n a n i m a l ' s whereabouts.  The number o f a l l r e c a p t u r e s o f  an a n i m a l i n i n t e r v a l s o f seven days o r l e s s i s e x p r e s s e d as a p e r c e n t o f a l l c a p t u r e s o f t h e same i n d i v i d u a l .  A record  c o n t i n u i t y o f 100$ i n d i c a t e s t h a t a l l c a p t u r e s o f the a n i m a l o c c u r r e d w i t h i n t e r v a l s o f a week or l e s s , a l t h o u g h a t t h e extreme, t h i s need o n l y be 14$ (one-seventh)  o f t h e maximum  possible captures. Thus, a h i g h r a t i n g f o r t h e s e two e v a l u a t i o n s i n d i c a t e s a c o n t i n u o u s r e c o r d throughout  the t r a p p i n g season.  High  c o n t i n u i t y and l o w p e r c e n t o f maximum c a p t u r e s i n d i c a t e s a c o n t i n u o u s r e c o r d f o r o n l y a p a r t o f t h e season; low c o n t i n u i t y and consequent low p e r c e n t o f maximum i n d i c a t e s an i n c o m p l e t e r e c o r d throughout t h e t r a p p i n g season.  Again, a r b i t r a r i l y ,  h i g h c o n t i n u i t y o f r e c o r d i s d e f i n e d as 75$ o r o v e r , whereas h i g h p e r c e n t o f maximum need be 14$ o r o v e r .  19 Table IV summarizes r e c a p t u r e i n f o r m a t i o n o f seventeen s e l e c t e d marten. TABLE I V : R e c a p t u r e I n f o r m a t i o n on Seventeen S e l e c t e d Marten MALES:  Age  No. 40 1956 1957  ad.  No. 53 1955 No. 55 1955 1956 Range Range Range  ad.  No. 56  juv.  Total captures  o l d ad. 1 2 3  23 23  106 106  22 22  86$ 82$  14  44  28  85$  10  39 106  20  89$  38 43 45  100$  39  20  89$  41 106  5  56$ 83$ 92$ 100$ 100$ 30$  17 18 10  1955  10  No. 58 1955 1956 Range Range Range Range 1957 No. 67 1956 1957  ad. '  No. 76 1957  ad.  No. 86 1957  juv.  5  1 2 3 4 o l d ad.  No. 88 1957  yearling  No. 91 1957  yearling  T o t a l days a r e a P e r c e n t o f Record was t r a p p e d maximum continuity  100$  12 13 8 7 10  106  27 42 42 64 9  15 9  70 103  19 9  71$  '7  105  7  100$  5  103  6  100?''o  9  101  9  88$  6  103  6  100$  20  TABLE I V : FEMALES: No. 37 1954 1956 1957  continued Age  3yrs. i n 1957  No. 41 1954 1955 1956  ad.  No. 64 1955 1956  ad.  No. 65 1956 1957  ad.  No. 66 1956 1957  ad.  No. 68 1956 1957  ad.  No. 71 1956  2 yrs.?  Total captures  T o t a l days a r e a P e r c e n t o f Record was t r a p p e d maximum continuity  1 25 14  17 106 106  1 12 3  14 21 8  3 2  19 7  2 6  106 32  17  16 10  106 105  15 9  17 11  77 103  22 11  76  23 13  54$  25  100$ 78$  21  G-  D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Recapture I n t e r v a l s .  Table V  summarizes marten r e c a p t u r e s a f t e r v a r y i n g i n t e r v a l s . shows t h a t most o c c u r w i t h i n a p e r i o d o f one week.  It  Of t h e s e ,  a l m o s t 40$ o c c u r on s u c c e s s i v e d a y s , and about 80$ o f male, and 70$ o f female r e c a p t u r e s o c c u r i n i n t e r v a l s up t o t h r e e days. TABLE V:  D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Recapture Female Marten Percent o f a l l I n t e r v a l s Frequency Recaptures of i n Days R e c a p t u r e s , W i t h i n One males Week  I n t e r v a l s f o r Male and Frequency of Recaptures, FemaDas  Percent of a l l Recaptures W i t h i n One Week  1  74  39  33  36  2  52  28  18  19  3  27  14  13  14  4  18  10  12  13  5  9  5  8  9  6  5  3  6  7  7  3  .1  2  2  Results: A.  Range s i z e .  The f o r a g i n g range o f marten, h e r e a f t e r  r e f e r r e d t o as r a n g e , i s d e f i n e d i n t h i s s t u d y t o be any a r e a i n w h i c h a marten c o n c e n t r a t e s I t s a c t i v i t y f o r a week o r more. T h i s i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d from a summer r a n g e , and an a n n u a l r a n g e , w h i c h may c o n s i s t o f a s e r i e s o f f o r a g i n g ranges o c c u p i e d a t different  intervals.  Maps 2 t o 10 show t h e s i z e o f f o r a g i n g ranges o f marten, o c c u p i e d d u r i n g the s t u d y .  The a r e a o f each was determined w i t h  22  a d o t g r i d superimposed on t h e range maps. S i z e and l e n g t h o f occupancy, o f a g i v e n range v a r i e s w i d e l y w i t h male marten.  T a b l e V I g i v e s such r e c o r d s f o r s i x  ranges d e t e r m i n e d w i t h c a p t u r e s o f 100$ c o n t i n u i t y , and n i n e others w i t h high  continuity.  TABLE V I : Male No. 55  F o r a g i n g Range S i z e and Time o f Occupany Arranged by D e c r e a s i n g C o n t i n u i t y o f Record Record Total Minimum Dates o f Minimum C o n t i n u i t y number l e n g t h o f occupancy range of occupancy size, c a p t u r e s (days) sq.miles 100% 17 41 May 18-June 28/56 0.64 !  55  100$  10  12  Aug. 11-23/56  1.05  58  100$  8  18  Aug. 1-19/56  0.89  58  100$  7  10  Aug. 20-30/56  0.58  91  100$  6  9  Aug. 10-19/57  0,81  86  100$  5  8  55  94$  18  34  Aug. 1-9/57 Average J u l y 7-Aug.10/56  0.50 0.74 0.84  58  92$  13  23  J u l y 5-28/56  0.57  55  89$  10  42  J u l y 15-Aug.26/55  0.22  56  89$  10  36  J u l y 20-Aug.25/55  0.17  88  88$  9  24  Aug. 5-29/57  0.30  40  86$  23  68  June 24-Aug.31/56  0.70  53  85$  14  42  J u l y 14-Aug.25/55  0.16  58  83$  12  40  May 18-June 27/56  0.36  40  82$  23  85  May 20-Aug.13/57  0.41  o  The f i r s t s i x minimum ranges average 0.74 square m i l e s w i t h e xtremes o f 0.50 t o 1.05 square m i l e s , f o r p e r i o d s from e i g h t t o f o r t y - o n e d a y s ,  ranging  of t h e l e s s complete r e c o r d s ,  23  t h r e e i n d i c a t e range s i z e s w i t h i n t h e s e l i m i t s .  The remainder  had ranges below one h a l f square m i l e w i t h i n t h e t r a p l i n e s , and the  s l i g h t d i s c o n t i n u i t y o f r e c o r d may i n d i c a t e t h e y ranged  beyond. Males o f t e n change range a t s h o r t and i r r e g u l a r  intervals.  Maps 2 and 3 show t h a t t h i s s h i f t more f r e q u e n t l y i s a g r a d u a l moving away from a p r e v i o u s range r a t h e r t h a n an abrupt change from one t o t h e o t h e r .  The dates o f s h i f t i n t h e s e  i n s t a n c e s were r e c o r d e d a r b i t r a r i l y a t a time when the a n i m a l was f i r s t c a p t u r e d w e l l o u t s i d e o f i t s p r e v i o u s known range. The same male w i l l f r e q u e n t l y occupy a n o l d range a t a l a t e r d a t e b u t t h e r e t u r n to former a r e a s does n o t o c c u r w i t h regular p e r i o d i c i t y . August,1956 overlap.  Male No. 55 o c c u p i e d a d i f f e r e n t range i n  from t h a t o f August 1955, a l t h o u g h t h e r e was some  Male No. 40 o c c u p i e d a range i n J u l y and August 1956  and from May t o J u l y 1957 w h i c h o v e r l a p p e d a p o r t i o n o f t h e range I t o c c u p i e d I n l a t e summer, 1954; i t was absent from t h e r e g i o n t h r o u g h o u t t h e l a t t e r p a r t o f t h e summer o f 1955.  Male  No. 58 o c c u p i e d a range i n the f i r s t o f August 1956, p a r t o f w h i c h was s u b s e q u e n t l y used i n August 1957, wihereas i t s range d u r i n g t h e l a t t e r p a r t o f August 1956 o v e r l a p p e d p a r t o f i t s known range o f August 1955. Male No. 38 o c c u p i e d a range d u r i n g the  summer o f 1955 w h i c h was two m i l e s from p a r t o f i t s range  used i n August 1954. Male No. . 6 7 o c c u p i e d a range i n June and August 1958 from which i t appeared absent i n J u l y , and i n 1957 i t was absent from t h e same range from mid-June t o mid-August. An a c c i d e n t a l c a p t u r e o f t h i s i n d i v i d u a l was made one m i l e from the  o u t e r edge o f the s t u d y a r e a soon a f t e r i t l e f t  i n June.  24  Thus, t h e f o r a g i n g range o f a male marten a t any g i v e n time i s o n l y a p a r t o f t h e e n t i r e summer range w h i c h may be o n l y a p a r t o f i t s a n n u a l r a n g e , and t h i s t o o may v a r y y e a r l y . The t o t a l minimum summer range o f male No. 55 i n 1956 was 1.68 square m i l e s composed o f t h r e e c o n s t i t u e n t r a n g e s a v e r a g i n g 0.84 square m i l e s , and o f male No. 58, 1.53 square m i l e s o f f o u r c o n s t i t u e n t ranges a v e r a g i n g 0.60 square m i l e s . By c o n t r a s t , female marten a r e q u i t e s e d e n t a r y .  Complete  c o n t i n u i t y o f r e c o r d was d i f f i c u l t t o o b t a i n perhaps because o f a d i f f e r e n t i a l t r a p a b i l i t y between males and f e m a l e s . S i x r e s i d e n t female marten were caught an average o f n i n e t e e n times e a c h , whereas f o u r r e s i d e n t males averaged f o r t y - s i x c a p t u r e s each. Maps 4 and 5 and 8 t o 10 show ranges o f f e m a l e marten. Female No. 41 d i e d i n May 1956 i n the r a n g e where i t was f i r s t found i n August 1954.  Complete c o n t i n u i t y o f r e c o r d was  o b t a i n e d f o r a l i m i t e d t r a p p i n g p e r i o d w i t h i n i t s range i n August 1955 and i n May 1956 u n t i l i t d i e d ; t h i s a minimum range s i z e o f 0.24 square m i l e s .  established  Female No. 66  o c c u p i e d a minimum range o f o n l y 0.09 square m i l e s f o r f i f t y one days i n l a t e summer 1956 and was p r e s e n t w i t h i n t h e same a r e a a t v a r y i n g times i n 1957.  Female No. 37 was c a p t u r e d as  a j u v e n i l e i n August 1954 a t t h e p e r i p h e r y o f an a r e a s u b s e q u e n t l y f o u n d , b y more e x t e n s i v e trapping-,--to be i t s range i n 1956 and 1957; p o s s i b l y i t had l i v e d i n the same a r e a f o r f o u r summers. The s i z e o f i t s range throughout the summer o f 1956 was 0.54 square m i l e s , and a t l e a s t 0.41 square m i l e s d u r i n g t h e summer  25  of  1957 a l t h o u g h r e c o r d c o n t i n u i t y was low ( 5 4 $ ) .  Map 4  shows t h a t the l o c a t i o n o f t h i s marten's range had s h i f t e d s l i g h t l y between 1956 and 1957. Female No. 68 o c c u p i e d a range o f 0.29 square m i l e s f o r f i f t y - o n e days i n 1956 and was c a p t u r e d throughout t h e same a r e a i n 1957. The average o f t h e s e f o u r d e t e r m i n a t i o n s o f range s i z e i s 0.29 square m i l e s . Female No. 64 d i e d i n May 1956 i n a range where i t was f i r s t found i n August 1955, and No. 65 d i e d i n June 1957 where i t was f i r s t found i n 1956. Hence, e v i d e n c e suggests t h a t females occupy a range for  a r e l a t i v e l y long time.  I t i s much s m a l l e r than the areas  ranged by males i n e q u a l t i m e s , a l t h o u g h ranges o c c u p i e d by males f o r o n l y a few days o r weeks may be no l a r g e r t h a n a female's range o v e r t h e e n t i r e summer. Only Hawley and Newby (1957) o b t a i n e d l i v e - t r a p d a t a on ranges o f marten.  I n Montana, t h e y found t h a t ranges o f s i x  male marten averaged 0.92 square m i l e s (extremes o f 0.34 t o 1.68) o v e r p e r i o d s r a n g i n g up t o 788 days and ranges o f f i v e female marten averaged 0.27 square m i l e s (extremes o f 0.03 t o 0.70)  over p e r i o d s r a n g i n g up t o 660 days.  These d a t a agree  r e m a r k a b l y w e l l w i t h t h o s e p r e s e n t e d above and i n d i c a t e c o n s i s t e n c y i n h a b i t s o f marten i n w i d e l y v a r y i n g h a b i t a t s . M a r s h a l l (1951b) e s t i m a t e d from w i n t e r t r a c k e v i d e n c e t h a t one marten c o v e r s from one h a l f t o two square m i l e s d a i l y i n Idaho.  I n an e n t i r e w i n t e r season one marten was c o n s i d e r e d  to move over a t e n t o f i f t e e n m i l e square a r e a , c o v e r i n g  certain  p o r t i o n s i n t e n s i v e l y n i g h t b y n i g h t and r e t u r n i n g t o f a v o u r e d  26  s p o t s f o r h u n t i n g a t i n t e r v a l s o f two to t h r e e weeks, and Guenther  de VSos  (1952) c i t e a p r e v i o u s statement of M a r s h a l l ' s  t h a t " t h e p a t t e r n o f movements i s an a d j a c e n t or o v e r l a p p i n g s e r i e s ; o f s m a l l a r e a s t h a t change more or l e s s each day.  In  a complete c y c l e t h e a n i m a l tends to r e t u r n to- i d e n t i c a l f a v o u r a b l e h u n t i n g s p o t s b u t the "tracks by no means always f o l l o w those of, -previous  trips".  D u l k e i t , as c i t e d by L e n s i n k (1953) found t h a t the e n t i r e w i n t e r range o f s a b l e , Martes z i b e l l i n a ,  on G r e a t  Shantar I s l e , U.S.S.R. g e n e r a l l y ranged from 1.9- t o 7.7 m i l e s with- e x c e p t i o n s up t o 11.5 square m i l e s .  T h i s range  however, was made up o f h u n t i n g s e c t i o n s a v e r a g i n g 0.6 miles i n s i z e .  square  square  One male spent t h i r t y - s e v e n days d u r i n g J a n u a r y  and F e b r u a r y i n an a r e a o f o n l y 0.1 square k i l o m e t e r s and o t h e r male i n 0.3 to 0.4 to March. from 0.05  one  square m i l e s from November 5 t h t h r o u g h  Seven o t h e r s a b l e remained i n h u n t i n g s e c t i o n s v a r y i n g to 1.0 square m i l e s f o r at l e a s t a month each.  A  female l i v e d i n 1.5 t o 1.9 square m i l e s from October 2 5 t h to February 18th. T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n suggests t h a t the r a n g i n g h a b i t s as n o t e d f o r A l g o n q u i n marten i n summer, f o l l o w the same p a t t e r n I n d i c a t e d f o r the s p e c i e s the y e a r round i n western montane areas and c o r r e s p o n d s r e m a r k a b l y w e l l t o h a b i t s o f Martes zibellina.  T h i s l a t t e r i s a l l the more i n t e r e s t i n g i n the  l i g h t o f Hagmeier's  (1955) c o n t e n t i o n t h a t M. z i b e l l i n a  M. americana a r e c o n s p e c i f i c . areas r e c o r d e d may,  D i f f e r e n c e s i n magnitude  and of  t o some e x t e n t , be due to d i f f e r e n t methods  o f o b t a i n i n g the i n f o r m a t i o n .  27  B.  Movements w i t h i n the range*  between c a p t u r e s  Straight line  distances  on s u c c e s s i v e days were assumed to show t h e  r e l a t i v e amount o f movement o f marten w i t h i n t h e i r r a n g e . Such d i s t a n c e s were measured on a map and c a l l e d " D a i l y Movement Index".  TABLE V I I summarizes t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n .  A d u l t s moved t w i c e as f a r as immatures i n a g i v e n t i m e perhaps because immature marten do n o t always s e l e c t d e f i n i t e ranges (p. 41) and f e m a l e s moved about t w o - t h i r d s t h a t males d i d i n e q u a l TABLE V I I :  Average and extreme miles.  '  intervals.  R e l a t i v e Amount o f Movement o f Marten W i t h i n T h e i r Range ( D a i l y Movement Index) Adult males  No. o f observations  (63$) the d i s t a n c e  Immature males -  All males  Adult females  58  16  74  34  0.60  0.30  0.54  0.38  (0-1.4) (0-1.2)  Immature females  All females  8  42  0.14  (0-1.0)  0.34  (0-0.4)  A l l a d u l t s : 92 o b s e r v a t i o n s , a v e r a g i n g 0.52 m i l e s . A l l immatures: 23 o b s e r v a t i o n s a v e r a g i n g 0.25 m i l e s .  Hawley and ewby (1957) o b t a i n e d f o r t y c a p t u r e s iNf  on  s u c c e s s i v e days t h r o u g h o u t t h e year on one a d u l t male m a r t e n , and found a range from 0 to 1.6 m i l e s w i t h an average o f 0.44; t h i s c o i n c i d e s w e l l w i t h the above d a t a .  However, a  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f d a t a o b t a i n e d by M i l l e r e t . a l . (1955) g i v e s the average o f seven s u c c e s s i v e r e c a p t u r e s o f male marten i n B r i t i s h Columbia as one m i l e , r a n g i n g from 0 to 4.5 m i l e s , and one s i m i l a r r e c a p t u r e o f a female a t 1.25 m i l e s .  28  C l e a r l y , t h e above d a t a depend l a r g e l y on t r a p s p a c i n g , e s p e c i a l l y t o o b t a i n the g r e a t e r d i s t a n c e r e c o r d s , b u t M i l l e r e t . a l . (op. c i t . ) m e n t i o n the o t h e r p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t s u c h d i f f e r e n c e s a r e r e a l , c o n t i n g e n t on h a b i t a t o r s e a s o n a l  factors.  Such c o n s i d e r a t i o n s seem however, not t o i n v a l i d a t e the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t male marten u s u a l l y t r a v e l f u r t h e r t h a n f e m a l e s a t any g i v e n t i m e . C.  D i s t r i b u t i o n o f c a p t u r e s w i t h i n rang^e.  F o r marten  whose h i g h c o n t i n u i t y o f r e c o r d enabled a d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f r a n g e , t h e number o f t r a p s i n w h i c h e a c h was caught was compared as a p e r c e n t o f the number o f t r a p s a v a i l a b l e w i t h i n the r a n g e .  T h i s e v a l u a t i o n was assumed to i n d i c a t e the e x t e n t  t h a t each a n i m a l covered  i t s range.  TABLE V I I I g i v e s  this  i n f o r m a t i o n , and shows t h a t a l t h o u g h t h e number o f c a p t u r e s o f males averaged o n l y s l i g h t l y fewer t h a n f e m a l e s , ,male:marten were c a p t u r e d i n about one t h i r d o f t h e a v a i l a b l e t r a p s and females i n about one h a l f .  T h i s may suggest t h a t females  more t h o r o u g h l y cover t h e range t h e y D.  C i r c u i t s and s c e n t p o s t s .  select. The range maps show t h a t  marten were c a p t u r e d one o r more times i n some t r a p s and n o t a t a l l i n others. reasonable  The c o n s i s t e n c y o f t h e t r a p p i n g method makes i t  t o assume t h a t a l l t r a p s a r e e q u a l l y e f f e c t i v e f o r  c a t c h i n g m a r t e n , t h u s , the c a p t u r e d i s t r i b u t i o n may i n d i c a t e some r e s t r i c t i o n i n marten movements w i t h i n a g i v e n r a n g e . This has been e x e m p l i f i e d i n TABLE X comparing c a p t u r e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f two males i n o v e r l a p p i n g ranges (p. 3 7 ) .  29  " D a i l y Movement Index" d e t e r m i n a t i o n s  show t h a t marten  e a s i l y t r a v e r s e t h e i r e n t i r e range i n one TABLE V I I I :  i  No.  58  No.  67  89 100 94 100 83 92 100 100 78  Females : No. 41 No. 66 No. 37  live-trapping  Traps C a p t u r i n g M a r t e n W i t h i n T h e i r Ranges  No. o i Record c o n t i n u i t y captures Males: No. 55  day so  can  % of traps obtaining captures  10 17 18 10 12 13 8 7 15  100  15 16 25  100 90  46 39 34 18 42 30 14 25 47 62 60 50  R e c o r d No.of concapt i n u i t y tures Males: No. 40 No. No. No. No. No.  86 82 85 89 100 100 88  53 56 86 91 88  Average •• Females No. 68  • •  Average  *•  88  % of traps obtaining captures  23 23 14 10 5 6 9  33 41 61 61 22 17 39  13  35  17  43  18  54  r e s u l t s cannot be r e l i e d on t o g i v e i n f o r m a t i o n on c i r c u i t s . Female No.  66 was  caught nine t i m e s i n a t r a p b e s i d e a l o g i n  a s m a l l s p r u c e bog.  T h i s may  s e l e c t e d through wet  areas.  Marshall's  i n d i c a t e a more p r e c i s e  (1951b) t r a c k i n g s t u d i e s showed t h a t  route  the  d a i l y movement o f one  marten ranged from an e s t i m a t e d  nine m i l e s .  (1947) s t a t e s t h a t marten "have r e g u l a r  Williams  two  to  runs t h a t take i n a twenty to t w e n t y - f i v e m i l e c i r c u i t w h i c h t h e y cover p e r i o d i c a l l y " , and Remington (1950), r e f e r r i n g to marten i n C o l o r a d o , s t a t e d t h a t the d a i l y range i s one  approximately  to four m i l e s . Schmidt (1943) c i t e s o b s e r v a t i o n s  on t h r e e s p e c i e s of  European marten which note r e g u l a r c i r c u i t r o u t e s w i t h i n  30  established hunting ranges.  Martes f o i n a i s a l l e g e d to have  more r e s t r i c t e d r o u t e s t h a n M. martes o r M.~ z i h e l l i n a .  Routes  a r e marked w i t h s c e n t p o s t s t h a t a r e r e p u t e d to be r e g u l a r l y re-visited.  D e p o s i t i n g s c e n t appears t o be an i n n a t e a c t i o n  i n w h i c h t h e abdominal g l a n d i s r a p i d l y rubbed on any s m a l l p r o j e c t i n g s u r f a c e , p a r t i c u l a r l y stones o r s t i c k s .  Observations  a r e c i t e d on e i g h t e e n c a p t i v e marten and s a b l e l i v i n g t o g e t h e r , each o f which r e t a i n e d i t s own s c e n t p o s t s , r e g u l a r l y r e - v i s i t e d . Marten r e a d i l y r e s c e n t " f o r e i g n " s c e n t p o s t s o f o t h e r I n d i v i d u a l s i n t h e i r range.  Rate o f d e p o s i t i n g s c e n t was  h i g h e s t d u r i n g the r u t and l o w e s t i n m i d - w i n t e r . of  The motions  scent d e p o s i t i o n s t a r t i n young a t the age o f t h r e e months,  but i t i s l a t e r b e f o r e f u n c t i o n a l scent p i l e s a r e e s t a b l i s h e d . L i t t l e i s e x t a n t i n N o r t h American l i t e r a t u r e on marten scents.  H a l l (1926) d e s c r i b e s i n d e t a i l t h e prominent  abdominal g l a n d , and draws a t t e n t i o n t o the f a c t t h a t i t s o c c u r r e n c e had been p r e v i o u s l y o v e r l o o k e d .  Both H a l l  (op.cit.)  and M a r k l e y and B a s s e t t (1942) r e p o r t o b s e r v a t i o n s on c a p t i v e s r u b b i n g t h e i r b e l l i e s a c r o s s p r o j e c t i n g l i m b s and o t h e r o b j e c t s . The same has been observed b y the w r i t e r i n c a p t i v e marten. Remington (1950) c i t e s from t r a c k e v i d e n c e i n C o l o r a d o , a s m a l l spruce protruding s i x to e i g h t i n c h e s above t h e snow t h a t was used as a u r i n a t i n g or " s c e n t p o s t " b y one marten and i n v e s t i g a t e d l a t e r by another w h i c h d e v i a t e d from a l i n e o f t r a v e l about twenty f e e t t o i n v e s t i g a t e i t .  Thomas(1952)  opines that scent e s t a b l i s h e s " i n v i s i b l e t r a i l s " which are " f o l l o w e d b y many martens i n the a r e a " .  31  E. Homing> de Vos animals  On the b a s i s o f work a t C h a p l e a u , O n t a r i o ,  and Guenther (1952) f i n d "...some I n d i c a t i o n t h a t t r a n s p l a n t e d over a d i s t a n c e v a r y i n g from one  to  twelve m i l e s tend to r e t u r n t o the p l a c e where t h e y were first  captured." Male No.  1954  and was  33 escaped a t Lake Sasajewun on August  r e c o v e r e d w i t h i n i t s range a t K a t h l y n Lake the  f o l l o w i n g morning a t a s t r a i g h t l i n e d i s t a n c e o f one Marten No. and was  51 escaped from the same p l a c e on May  recovered  two  t a g g e d , I d e n t i f i c a t i o n was  rendered  24,  1955  Although  not  q u i t e c e r t a i n by a  d i s t i n c t b r i g h t p e l a g e and moult p a t t e r n .  Chitty  commenting on r e p o r t e d homing i n Peromy3cus,  (1937),  n o t e s the  p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t r e t u r n s from s h o r t e r d i s t a n c e s may by the mice h a v i n g l a r g e r home ranges t h a n expected; p o s s i b i l i t y may  mile.  and one h a l f m i l e s away t h r e e days  l a t e r beside i t s o r i g i n a l p o i n t of capture.  P.  26,  be  explained  the same  a p p l y to marten.  T r a v e l l i n g Behaviour.  Numerous s h o r t  observations  on marten a f t e r r e l e a s e from t r a p s , and w i n t e r t r a c k s t u d i e s , r e v e a l some methods o f h u n t i n g and t r a v e l l i n g commonly used by marten.  ,  The number o f marten seen i n , or c l i m b i n g , t r e e s r e p o r d e d f o r t h r e e summers.  Of f o u r hundred and  marten o b s e r v a t i o n s , most o f the animals  was  sixty-one  j u s t r e l e a s e d from  t r a p s , o n l y n i n e concerned marten i n t r e e s .  In s p i t e of a  g r e a t e r p r o b a b i l i t y o f o b s e r v i n g marten on the ground than i n trees, this s t i l l  i n d i c a t e s t h a t most time i s spent on  the  31  ground.  S e v e r a l o f the n i n e o b s e r v a t i o n s were o f marten  f r i g h t e n e d i n t o t r e e s from w h i c h they soon descended. Winter  t r a c k i n g i n d i c a t e d f r e q u e n t c l i m b i n g through  a l o n g d e a d f a l l s i n c o n i f e r f o r e s t s but t h e r e was e v i d e n c e o f extended movement t h r o u g h t r e e s .  One  no  or  clear  marten  t r a c k e d f o r over two m i l e s c l i m b e d t r e e s f o u r t i m e s ; i n t h r e e cases i t c r o s s e d to a second t r e e w i t h i n t e n f e e t o f the then jumped i n t o the snow, i n one h e i g h t o f about f i f t e e n f e e t .  first  i n s t a n c e p r o b a b l y from a  T h i s same marten jumped about  f i f t e e n f e e t over a s m a l l l e d g e i n t o s o f t snow below.  No  o t h e r marten w h i c h were f o l l o w e d showed t h i s behavious but some c l i m b e d around the base o f l a r g e t r e e s and l e a p e d two or t h r e e f e e t i n t o the snow.  forward  One marten a c t u a l l y f l o u n d e r e d  through deep snow r a t h e r than t r a v e l t h r o u g h t r e e s i n hardwoods. T r a c k s have i n d i c a t e d t h a t m a r t e n , when t r a v e l l i n g through snow over a c r u s t , w i l l sometimes s l i d e down s l o p e s on  soft  their  belly. Repeated o b s e r v a t i o n s o f marten i n summer show t h a t f a l l e n l o g s are used f o r runways and a r o u t e i s a c t u a l l y s e l e c t e d t h r o u g h the f o r e s t w h i c h a l l o w s f u l l e s t use of l o g s . In w i n t e r , marten seemed o n l y to r u n down l a r g e l o g s i f the log  l a y v i r t u a l l y p a r a l l e l to the d i r e c t i o n t h e y were g o i n g .  They d i d not d e t o u r f a r to g e t t o one, hence d i d not show the same s e l e c t i o n as i n summer.  P o s s i b l y , snow cover makes t r a v e l  e a s i e r t h a n i t i s through t a n g l e d summer growth. Observations distinct gaits.  and t r a c k s i n d i c a t e t h a t marten have t h r e e  These can be d e s c r i b e d a s :  Bounding, most  32  f r e q u e n t l y used i n l o o s e s o f t snow o r t h r o u g h denser  ground  v e g e t a t i o n ; G a l l o p i n g , w h i l e t r a v e l l i n g on c r u s t covered snow or  open ground; and W a l k i n g , when movement becomes d i f f i c u l t  or  something i s b e i n g i n v e s t i g a t e d . H u n t i n g appears t o be o f a haphazard n a t u r e .  Movement,  though t e n d i n g i n a g i v e n d i r e c t i o n i s q u i t e e r r a t i c , w i t h many t w i s t s and t u r n s , most f o r no apparent r e a s o n .  I n w i n t e r , no  tendency was n o t e d f o r marten to f o l l o w deer t r a i l s , snowshoe trails  o r o t h e r marten t r a c k s f o r more t h a n a s h o r t d i s t a n c e . Remington (1950) t r a c k e d e l e v e n marten i n Colorado  and  found t h a t a l l t r a v e l l e d s i n g l y , seldom c l i m b e d a t r e e , and when t h e y d i d , u s u a l l y jumped back out o f i t .  He n o t e s t h a t  "marten t h o r o u g h l y i n v e s t i g a t e downed l o g s , stumps, b r u s h p i l e s and h o l e s i n o r under r o c k s when h u n t i n g , . . . a l s o d i g t o the ground l e v e l and below i n deep snow; i f w i n d f a l l s  allow,  w i l l t r a v e l as much as f i f t y yards under these l o g s " .  He  cited  two i n s t a n c e s o f marten h a v i n g dug b i t s o f h a i r from h o l e s s i x to  t h i r t y i n c h e s deep i n snow. M a r s h a l l (1951b) i n Idaho, spent n i n e days t r a c k i n g  two  marten oyer an e s t i m a t e d s e v e n t e e n and one h a l f m i l e s , d u r i n g which n e i t h e r animal climbed a t r e e . for  twenty-one  A t h i r d marten, t r a c k e d  m i l e s i n s i x days, climbed trees only e i g h t  t i m e s ; each t r e e had a dense crown and u s u a l l y " w i t c h e s brooms".  Marten u s u a l l y jumped out o f these t r e e s , l a n d i n g  t h i r t y t o f o r t y f e e t from the t r u n k .  He noted t h a t marten  hunt from one snag, w i n d f a l l or dense t a n g l e d clump of low b r u s h t o a n o t h e r , o f t e n t r y i n g to approach s u c h f e a t u r e s by  33  l o n g l e a p s from the u p h i l l s i d e . surprise prey species.  x  T h i s was o s t e n s i b l y to  f i t f a i l e d , t h e n the a n i m a l  searched e v e r y h o l e o r c r e v i c e . t r a c k s f o l l o w e d , one hundred  He f u r t h e r s t a t e s , t h a t o f  and f o r t y - s i x were o f a s i n g l e  a n i m a l , t w e n t y - n i n e were o f two, f i v e o f t h r e e , two o f f o u r and one o f s i x a n i m a l s p r o b a b l y t r a v e l l i n g t o g e t h e r . C o n f l u e n c e o f marten t r a c k s was o f t e n n o t e d i n A l g o n q u i n b u t no way was  found o f d e t e r m i n i n g w h i c h , i f any, were made  simultaneously. de Vos  (1951) remarks  t h a t a marten t u n n e l s q u i t e  f r e q u e n t l y under the snow, w h i l e a f i s h e r does so r a r e l y i n Ontario,  de Vos and Guenther  (1952) b e l i e v e marten r e s t r i c t  t h e i r movements t o the v i c i n i t y o f main watersheds.  The  topography o f A l g o n q u i n i s s u c h t h a t marten a r e never f a r from water. P o p u l a r and s e m i - p o p u l a r w r i t i n g s ( e . g . Cross and Dymond, 1929; B u r t , 1946; H i g g i n s , 1948) p r e d o m i n a t i n g a r b o r e a l h a b i t s o f marten. of  commonly s t r e s s The most extreme  such p r e s e n t a t i o n s , convey i m p r e s s i o n s o f marten r a c i n g  t h r o u g h t r e e t o p s , e a g e r l y k i l l i n g s q u i r r e l s , and exclusively i n hollow trees.  denning  The European p i n e marten (Martes  m a r t e s ) , i s c h i e f l y a r b o r e a l (Schmidt, 1943).  I t would be of  I n t e r e s t , a l t h o u g h d i f f i c u l t , t o a s c e r t a i n the e x t e n t t o w h i c h h a b i t s o f t h i s s p e c i e s were u n c r i t i c a l l y a s c r i b e d t o Martes americana because o f the s u p e r f i c i a l m o r p h o l o g i c a l s i m i l a r i t i e s o f the  two.  34  G.  Den  Sit63.  Two  n e s t dens were found on the A l g o n q u i n  s t u d y a r e a by Mr. D a v i d J o h n s t o n .  A l i v e - t r a p p e d k i t marten was  f o l l o w e d t o one a f t e r i t s r e l e a s e on J u l y 28, 1955.  The  was  forest,  among b o u l d e r s , b e s i d e a s m a l l s p r i n g i n c o n i f e r  entrance  w i t h i n a hundred yards o f K a t h l y n Lake; numerous s c a t s were by t h e e n t r a n c e . a marten was  The second, was  seen r u n n i n g i n t o a h o l l o w l o g and a  observed t o have l a c t a t e d , was a live-trap.  found on June 8, 1957  after  female,  f r i g h t e n e d from the l o g i n t o  Three young were s u b s e q u e n t l y e x t r a c t e d and  the b a s i s o f c r i t e r i a g i v e n by B r a s s a r d and B e r n a r d  on  (1939),  were e s t i m a t e d t o be e i g h t weeks o f age; t h e y were r a i s e d i n captivity. The  l o g was  a f a l l e n cedar on t o p o f a hemlock r i d g e  (near J a c k Lake) and the p o r t i o n used as a n e s t was  approximately  twenty f e e t from t h e e n t r a n c e I n a s e c t i o n o f about t e n i n c h e s diameter, w i t h a r o t t e n centre four inches in.diameter, f u l l of r o t t e d wood powder and f l a k e s . side.  A s m a l l p i l e o f s c a t s was  -Some k n o t h o l e s opened from t h e a t the den e n t r a n c e and o t h e r s  were on a nearby .log l e a d i n g away from the den l o g .  I n the  n e s t m a t e r i a l i t s e l f , t a i l s o f one Peromyscus, one Tamias and two T a m i a s c i u r u s and the l e g s , f e e t and f e a t h e r s o f a b i r d , p r o b a b l y a t h r u s h , were found. young had numerous t i c k s  The a d u l t f e m a l e and a l l t h r e e  (Ixodes ?) i n t h e i r e a r s .  F i g u r e s 14 and 15 i l l u s t r a t e t h i s l a t t e r den s i t e a w i n t e r day  and  den.  Four w i n t e r day den s i t e s were found.  A l l were  underground w i t h an entrance o n l y l a r g e enough f o r a marten t o  35  e n t e r b u t these openings c o u l d be e n l a r g e d by d i g g i n g snow away.  Two  the  e x i s t e d under l a r g e b o u l d e r s , one under a  hummock formed by t r e e r o o t s and one under a f a l l e n l o g completely  covered w i t h snow.  I n summer, s e v e r a l marten  r e l e a s e d from t r a p s were seen e n t e r i n g h o l l o w l o g s w h i c h a l s o s e r v e as dens f o r s h o r t p e r i o d s . t h a t one  den was  used on two  may  W i n t e r e v i d e n c e showed  c o n s e c u t i v e days d u r i n g a s i x t e e n  day p e r i o d i n J a n u a r y ( P i g . 1 5 ) j o t h e r s appeared t o be used f o r o n l y one day a t a t i m e .  Quick (1955) found one  n o r t h e r n B r i t i s h Columbia w h i c h was a month i n e a r l y w i n t e r .  No  den s i t e i n  used by a marten f o r about  evidence was  obtained i n  Algonquin  o f marten spending time i n h o l l o w t r e e s . I n C o l o r a d o , Remington (1952) found a n e s t den i n a r o c k p i l e i n a m o i s t open draw n e x t to a w i l l o w t h i c k e t , n o t e d remains of a hare and a woodpecker a t the s i t e ,  and  i t was  c l o s e to a highway and p u b l i c camp ground. M a r s h a l l (1951b) found t h i r t e e n w i n t e r den s i t e s i n downed l o g s and t h r e e i n h o l e s i n stumps, and Remington (195C) r e p o r t s w i n t e r dens underground i n o l d stumps or under r o c k s j some e v i d e n c e was  o b t a i n e d t h a t marten may  and t h o s e w i t h h o l l o w s H.  use t h i c k l y branched t r e e s  i n them f o r r e s t i n g  sites.  S p a c i a l R e l a t i o n s Among Male Marten . Maps 6 and  give a l l occurrences summers o f 1956  7  o f male marten on the s t u d y a r e a f o r the  and 1957.  o v e r l a p p i n g o f areas occurs  I t i s r e a d i l y seen t h a t  considerable  i n the i n t e r v a l o f an e n t i r e summer.  However the p r o p e n s i t y o f males f o r s h i f t i n g and occupying p o r t i o n s o f a t o t a l range a t one  only  time i s such t h a t not a l l o f  36  these ranges o v e r l a p s i m u l t a n e o u s l y . A d u l t males No. 55 and No. 58 had ranges w h i c h c o n s i d e r a b l y throughout  overlapped  most o f the summer o f 1956. S t r a i g h t  l i n e d i s t a n c e s between p o i n t s o f c a p t u r e o f b o t h marten on the same day were c a l c u l a t e d and a r e summarized i n TABLE I X . The d i s t r i b u t i o n o f such d i s t a n c e s appears random and suggest  that  the movements o f one marten were independent o f the movements o f the o t h e r .  The a l t e r n a t e p o s s i b i l i t y was o f one male  f o l l o w i n g t h e o t h e r a l o n g t h e same r o u t e a f t e r a c e r t a i n t i m e lapse. TABLE I X : S p a t i a l R e l a t i o n s Between Two Male Marten i n O v e r l a p p i n g Ranges Male Male No.55 No.58 Captures T o t a l number of captures (1956)  45  40  Greatest distance between extremes 2.3 o r range ( m i l e s ) .  2.2  o f b o t h marten on t h e same day D i s t a n c e s between No.of c a p t u r e s p e r captures ( m i l e s ) , distance c l a s s . 0 - 0.5 7 0.5 - 1.0 4 1.0 - 1.5 5 1.5 - 2.0 1  Mean d i s t a n c e and extremes: 0.7 (0 - 1.6) m i l e s  The r e c o r d o f i n t e r e s t was t h e c a p t u r e o f b o t h marten i n the same t r a p , one o f t h e l a r g e r model.  Yifrien found by Mr. D a v i d  J o h n s t o n , b o t h were c o n s t a n t l y moving over and under each o t h e r w i t h i n t h e t r a p ; each f l e d d i f f e r e n t ways when r e l e a s e d .  The  most c r e d i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n h o l d s t h a t one chased t h e o t h e r i n t o the t r a p and i m m e d i a t e l y an ( i n n a t e ? ) escape d r i v e r e p l a c e d the former a g g r e s s i v e  behaviour.  37  TABLE X g i v e s the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f c a p t u r e s r e l a t e d t o a v a i l a b l e t r a p s i n the combined ranges o f the two TABLE X:  Capture D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Two  males.  Males i n O v e r l a p p i n g  Ranges  T o t a l t r a p s i n combined r a n g e s ;  90  Traps c a p t u r i n g e i t h e r one or the o t h e r male  Traps c a p t u r i n g b o t h males •  No.of t r a p s  No.of t r a p s  Captures per t r a p  39 13 2 1 2  1 2 3 4  3 4 1 1 1 1  5  Percent of t o t a l traps capturing e i t h e r male; 51  Captures one m a l e : o t h e r male 1 1 2 1 3 1 1 5 1  2 3 4  Percent of traps capturing b o t h males : 12  Whereas o n l y one h a l f o f the a v a i l a b l e e i t h e r marten, t w e l v e p e r c e n t  traps  captured  c a p t u r e d b o t h a t l e a s t once.  T h i s suggests t h a t a l t h o u g h one appeared t o move  independently  o f the o t h e r , movements of b o t h were c o n f i n e d to c e r t a i n p o r t i o n s of the  area. I.  Range D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Female Marten .  Maps 8 t o  g i v e t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f female marten on the s t u d y a r e a , r e v e a l t h a t summer ranges a r e q u i t e d i s c r e t e . i n s t a n c e s o f o v e r l a p p i n g were r e c o r d e d female No.  I n f o u r summers.  and  possible In  1955,  61, an immature, o c c u r r e d i n p a r t o f a range  subsequently  o c c u p i e d by a d u l t No.  f i r s t 1955  c a p t u r e o f No.  No.  c a p t u r e d a t one  72 was  Only two  10  on t h e same day t h a t No.  41 was  4 1 , but d i e d a day a f t e r  obtained.  I n 1956,  the  immature  end of the known range of a d u l t No.  68 was  c a p t u r e d a t the o t h e r end.  Six  68  38  o t h e r immature female m a r t e n , r e c o r d e d f r o m 1955 to 1957, were a l l found i n areas n o t o c c u p i e d b y o t h e r f e m a l e s . Among a d u l t f e m a l e s , f o u r d i e d d u r i n g t h e l i v e - t r a p p i n g . The ranges each p r e v i o u s l y h e l d , were s u b s e q u e n t l y r e - o c c u p i e d , but o n l y a f t e r a l a p s e o f 19 t o 61 days (average 36 days) (TABLE X I ) .  Female No. 65 was c a p t u r e d once a t the edge o f  No. 64's former r a n g e , seven days a f t e r No. 64 had d i e d . TABLE X I :  I n t e r v a l B e f o r e R e - o c c u p a t i o n o f V a c a t e d Ranges A d u l t Female Marten 7  Marten r e - o c c u p y i n g  Marten w h i c h d i e d  range  Interval i n days  No. 95  No. 64  33  No. 41  No. 66  24  Nov  64  No. 71  61  No. 71  No. 65  19 Average:  36  No. 65 then d i s a p p e a r e d and No. 71 s u b s e q u e n t l y r e - o c c u p i e d No. 64's r a n g e .  N i n e t e e n days a f t e r No. 71 d i e d , No. 3 5 w a a  recaptured there again.  T h i s o c c u r r e d a t t h e end o f the t r a p p i n g  season i n 1956 and No. 65 was found i n t h e same area a t the s t a r t of t h e t r a p p i n g i n 1957. When No. 65 d i e d , No. 37 was f i r s t  i c a p t u r e d i n a s m a l l p a r t o f No. 65's range s i x days l a t e r . Such d a t a t a c i t l y i m p l y t h a t female marten occupy t e r r i t o r y , t h a t i s , defended r a n g e .  Vacated ranges may be  t e n t a t i v e l y i n v e s t i g a t e d s e v e r a l days a f t e r abandonment b y o t h e r females and l a t e r , c o m p l e t e l y . r - e - o c c u p i e d .  Some  s p e c u l a t i o n may be a l l o w e d on t h e r o l e o f s c e n t p o s t s i n  39  d e l i m i t i n g such areas.  I f s o , the delay i n re-occupation o f  a v a c a t e d range may be r e l a t e d t o time n e c e s s a r y f o r o l d s c e n t p o s t s to f a d e . Hawley and Newby (1957) noted an even d i s t r i b u t i o n o f marten ranges on t h e i r s t u d y area w i t h l i t t l e o v e r l a p e x c e p t i n one case o f two a d u l t m a l e s . J. Season.  Movements o f Male to Female Marten i n B r e e d i n g I t i s c l e a r from t h e range maps p r e s e n t e d t h a t ranges  of male marten o v e r l a p t h o s e o f f e m a l e s . M a r t e n have one b r e e d i n g season a year i n J u l y and August (Ashbrook and Hanson, 1927).  M a r k l e y and B a s s e t t  (1942)  note t h a t extreme l i m i t s o f t h e mating season d u r i n g seven y e a r s on a f u r f a r m were J u l y 1 0 t h t o September 7 t h , r a n g i n g from twenty-four to f o r t y - s i x - d a y s i n a g i v e n year. are  C e r t a i n males  " e x t r e m e l y r a p a c i o u s " and f e m a l e s a r e a n t a g o n i s t i c to each  o t h e r , so f a t a l i t i e s o c c u r r e d d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d . Enders and L e e k l e y (1941) g i v e c r i t e r i a f o r d e t e r m i n i n g the  e s t r a l s t a g e i n female marten, on s i z e , shape and c o l o u r o f  the  vulva.  Most matings o c c u r d u r i n g maximum s w e l l i n g w h i c h  l a s t s s i x to t h i r t y - n i n e days w i t h s l i g h t r e c e s s i o n s .  Nearly  a l l males a r e h i g h l y polygamous ( M a r k l e y and B a s s e t t , op. c i t . ) . On J u l y 24, 1956, v u l v a e x a m i n a t i o n o f female No. 71 showed i t was i n h e a t .  When i t was f i r s t found i n the l i v e -  t r a p , a second marten thought t o have been a male, was f r i g h t e n e d from t h e v i c i n i t y . On August 1 s t t h e same female was caught by Mr. D a v i d J o h n s t o n and as soon as i t was r e l e a s e d , two o t h e r marten,  40  w h i c h l o o k e d l i k e m a l e s , were o b s e r v e d .  One p a s s e d about  s e v e n t y - f i v e f e e t from t h e female w h i c h remained under a l o g . The  second appeared almost i m m e d i a t e l y and a t t a c k e d the female  which ran i n t o a hollow l o g a f t e r i t freed i t s e l f .  The male  p e r s i s t e n t l y dug a t a c r a c k i n the l o g w h i l e the female s n a r l e d within.  Observer d i s t u r b a n c e s s e v e r a l times f r i g h t e n e d the  male about f i v e f e e t up a nearby t r e e , where i t g r o w l e d , s c o l d e d and f l i c k e d i t s t a i l i n s q u i r r e l - l i k e f a s h i o n b e f o r e r e t u r n i n g to the  the l o g . When the female f i n a l l y r a n o u t , i t was chased by male i n t o a t h i c k e t , a f t e r w h i c h , the g r o w l i n g g r a d u a l l y  diminished.  Next day t h i s female d i e d i n a l i v e - t r a p and  e x a m i n a t i o n showed i t to be r e c e d i n g from f u l l  estrus.  On J u l y 4, 1957, Mr. Douglas B r o d i e r e l e a s e d female No. 37 from a t r a p and i t was w h i c h l o o k e d l i k e a male.  soon a t t a c k e d by a l a r g e r  marten  I t dug i t s claws i n t o the female's  back b u t I t screamed and escaped.  The e n s u i n g chase  was  p u n c t u a t e d by. screams, and o b s e r v e d f o r s e v e r a l m i n u t e s .  Soon  a f t e r , presumably the same male, was seen l y i n g on a l o g nearby. . The female had d i s a p p e a r e d ; i t i s not known i f i t was the  i n heat a t  t ime. In  an a r b i t r a r i l y chosen p e r i o d o f one week b e f o r e and  a f t e r o b s e r v e d e s t r u s i n a g i v e n f e m a l e , t h e l o c a t i o n o f males o v e r l a p p i n g i t s range was noted d u r i n g i n t e r v a l s o f two days from each c a p t u r e o f t h i s female w h i l e i n h e a t .  I n 1956,  d i s t a n c e s t h a t male3 were c a p t u r e d from females Nos. 37 and 71 i n h e a t averaged 0.5 m i l e s and ranged from 0.1 to 1.4 m i l e s around a female i n h e a t , t h e r e f o r e i t seems t h a t a l t h o u g h males  41  do come t o females t h e n , t h e y do not s t a y w i t h , or f o l l o w them f o r l o n g . K. 1956  D i s p e r s a l o f Immature Marten.  I n the summer o f  o n l y f o u r immature marten but e l e v e n a d u l t s were c a p t u r e d  on the s t u d y a r e a , and i n 1957, t e n immature and t w e l v e a d u l t s were c a p t u r e d ; e i g h t o f these twelve a d u l t s were p r e s e n t on the a r e a i n 1956.  TABLE X I I a p p r o x i m a t e l y dates the o c c u r r e n c e  new untagged marten on the t r a p p i n g a r e a i n 1956 and 1957 summarizes them a c c o r d i n g t o sex and age.  of  and  I t shows t h a t of  t w e n t y - f o u r marten which e n t e r e d t h e a r e a a f t e r t r a p p i n g had been c a r r i e d on f o r a week, f i f t e e n were immature animals of t h e s e , about h a l f were thought  and  to be young of the y e a r .  F o u r t e e n o f the f i f t e e n appeared i n August and most d u r i n g the f i r s t two weeks. TABLE X I I :  Appearance o f New Marten on the Study Area 1956 and 1957 Male Female Total a d u l t Immature a d u l t immature W i t h i n one week a f t e r trapping started. 4 6 2 May 24 - 31 June 1-15 June 16 - 30 July 1-15 J u l y 16 - 31 August 1-15 August 16 - 31 Total  3  1 1 4 1 3 8 6  6  30  1 1.  2  1 1  9  2 6 3 9  1  6  1  2  Maps 6 to 10 g i v e the l o c a t i o n s o f t h e s e a n i m a l s .  Three  o f the males appeared t o e s t a b l i s h a range f o r s h o r t p e r i o d s ; No. 86 f o r e i g h t d a y s , No.  91 f o r n i n e days and No. 88 f o r about  42  e i g h t out o f a t w e n t y - f o u r day i n t e r v a l .  None o f the o t h e r  t w e l v e appeared t o occupy a range t h a t was The  clearly discernible.  e i g h t l a s t seen a l i v e were caught an average o f t w i c e e a c h ,  but f i v e o f them were caught o n l y once.  Some showed t e n d e n c i e s  to r e t u r n t o one t r a p - s i t e f o r a few days.  Male No. 87  was  caught i n one t r a p f i v e out o f seven times i n e i g h t days, male No. 73 t h r e e o f f o u r times i n seven d a y s , and male No. 96 t h r e e o f f o u r t i m e s i n t e n days. I t appears t h a t a d i s p e r s a l o f immature m a r t e n o c c u r s d u r i n g l a t e summer.  T h i s i n c l u d e s not o n l y j u v e n i l e young o f  the year but marten i n the " y e a r l i n g " c l a s s as w e l l . s e l e c t a temporary  Some may  range a p p r o x i m a t i n g the s i z e used by a d u l t s ,  w h i l e o t h e r s seem to move a t complete  l i b e r t y , a l t h o u g h sometimes  r e m a i n i n g i n s m a l l r e s t r i c t e d areas f o r a few days a t a t i m e . Hawley and Newby (1957) r e c o r d , as t r a n s i e n t s on s t u d y area i n March 1954,  two j u v e n i l e males w h i c h were c a p t u r e d  s i x m i l e s away i n August 1954 One  their  and A g U  U S  t 1955  respectively.  o t h e r j u v e n i l e ma-le, b e l i e v e d born on t h e i r area  c a p t u r e d about t w e n t y - f i v e m i l e s away i n October.  was  The  former  two " j u v e n i l e s " seem to b e . i n the " y e a r l i n g " group as d e f i n e d i n t h i s s t u d y , and the i n f o r m a t i o n s u g g e s t s - t h a t d i s p e r s a l o f immature marten may f i x e d ranges  occur a t any time i n the y e a r .  Perhaps more  are not o c c u p i e d by marten u n t i l they r e a c h  reproductive maturity. Populations: A.  D e n s i t i e s . Map  d e l i m i t e d which was  1 i n d i c a t e s an a r e a  arbitrarily  assumed t o be t h a t i n w h i c h c a p t u r e d marten  43  lived.  T o t a l f o r e s t e d a r e a w i t h i n these l i m i t s i s 4.5  miles.  TABLE X I I I summarizes the number o f i n d i v i d u a l marten  c a p t u r e d t h e r e i n 1956  and  square  1957.  TABLE X I I I :  Marten O c c u r r i n g i n 4.5 Square M i l e s o f F o r e s t Summers Only 1956 1957 male female male female Adults resident most o f summer 4 3 4 Adults occasionally captured  2  1  4  1  Immatures d i s p e r s i n g through t h e a r e a  1  3  7  3  Total  7  8  14  8  Approximate p o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t y per square m i l e #  4  5  e x c l u d e s two former r e s i d e n t females which d i e d i n May had ranges r e - o c c u p i e d . T h i s suggests  t h a t the r e s i d e n t p o p u l a t i o n o f marten was  about two per square m i l e but the the a r e a was  and  t o t a l number o f marten u s i n g  f o u r t o f i v e per square m i l e i n a g i v e n y e a r .  Hawley and Newby (1957) l i v e - t r a p p e d e i g h t y - f i v e i n d i v i d u a l marten i n two and one h a l f y e a r s i n 6.2 o f Montana f o o t h i l l s .  square m i l e s  Of t h e s e , f o r t y - s e v e n were c a p t u r e d  over  a p e r i o d not l o n g e r than a week and were c l a s s e d as t r a n s i e n t s . Of the o t h e r t h i r t y - e i g h t , no more t h a n twenty-seven r e s i d e d on the a r e a a t any one t i m e .  This completely resident population  f l u c t u a t e d between twenty-seven and f o u r t e e n i n d i v i d u a l s , or c o n s i d e r i n g o n l y those l i v i n g c o m p l e t e l y w i t h i n the  area  boundaries, eleven or three i n d i v i d u a l s r e s p e c t i v e l y . D e n s i t i e s  44  computed on t h i s b a s i s a r e 4.4 the h i g h p o p u l a t i o n and low p o p u l a t i o n . and  The  2.3  or 1.8  or 0.5  l a r g e s t l o s s was  s u s c e p t i b i l i t y to s t r e s s was  at  marten per square m i l e a t the  e v i d e n c e o f l o w e r mean w e i g h t s ,  marten was  marten per square m i l e  among t h e a d u l t f e m a l e s ,  lowered r e p r o d u c t i o n  obtained.  The  and  p o p u l a t i o n drop o f  preceded by an o b s e r v e d drop i n s m a l l mammal  abundance. B.  Sex R a t i o s .  Pur r e t u r n s o f t e n show a preponderance  o f male marten, e s p e c i a l l y among a n i m a l s trapped p a r t o f the w i n t e r . (Yeager, 1950, litters  D o u g l a s , 1953).  c o n s i s t e n t l y show an average one t o one  ( M a r k l e y and B a s s e t t , 1942,  at the  R i t c h i e , 1953)  Pur  first farm  sex r a t i o .  and the above l i v e -  t r a p p i n g s t u d i e s i n d i c a t e t h e same i n r e s i d e n t w i l d p o p u l a t i o n s . Yeager ( o p . c i t ) a s c r i b e s the o s t e n s i b l e m a j o r i t y o f males t o t h e i r w i d e r r a n g i n g h a b i t s w h i c h i n c r e a s e s t h e i r chance of being  caught. Q u a n t i t a t i v e d a t a on p o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t i e s i s a p p a r e n t l y  r e s t r i c t e d t o the Montana and A l g o n q u i n samples and  comparison  i s most t e n t a t i v e because d i f f e r e n t p o p u l a t i o n c o n d i t i o n s  are  involved.  a  However, b o t h i n d i c a t e t h a t any g i v e n a r e a has  r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l r e s i d e n t p o p u l a t i o n compared to the number o f a n i m a l s found. o b t a i n adjacent  Such a sampled a r e a w i l l o c c a s i o n a l l y  r e s i d e n t s and t r a n s i e n t i n d i v i d u a l s . P e r h a p s ,  from the more c o n s e r v a t i v e t o g e t h e r w i t h one  estimates  from A l g o n q u i n ,  from the Montana a r e a  a r e s i d e n t d e n s i t y o f about  two m a r t e n per square m i l e , u s u a l l y one male and one represents  total  a norm.  female,  45  Seasonal A c t i v i t y : T r a p p i n g r e s u l t s s t r o n g l y suggested t h a t fewer marten were c a p t u r e d i n mid-summer t h a n i n l a t e s p r i n g o r l a t e summer. The summer was a r b i t r a r i l y d i v i d e d i n t o h a l f monthly p e r i o d s and f o r e a c h , a comparison o f c a p t u r e s o b t a i n e d w i t h t h e number expected was made. ETN accumulated  The e x p e c t e d number was determined from t h e  i n one p e r i o d compared t o t h a t n e c e s s a r y f o r  each c a p t u r e ; t h i s i n t u r h was t h e average ETN p e r c a p t u r e f o r the e n t i r e summer.  Graph 1 compares the o b s e r v e d and e x p e c t e d  c a p t u r e s f o r 1956 and 1957 and shows t h a t f o r a t l e a s t one month i n mid-summer,"observed c a p t u r e s a r e below the e x p e c t e d , s u g g e s t i n g t h a t marten a c t i v i t y has l e s s e n e d .  D u r i n g t h e low  p e r i o d i n 1956 (June and e a r l y J u l y ) , e l e v e n " D a i l y Movement Index" o b s e r v a t i o n s on f o u r male marten averaged 0.7 m i l e s , the same average as t h i r t y - f o u r o t h e r o b s e r v a t i o n s on t h e same marten throughout the r e s t o f t h e summer.  T h i s suggests t h a t  movements do n o t d i m i n i s h i n e x t e n t , b u t perhaps o n l y i n number, i n mid-summer. I t i s d i f f i c u l t to evaluate a l l the c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r s to s u c h s e a s o n a l v a r i a t i o n .  P o s s i b l y , the i n c r e a s e  i n a v a i l a b l e f o o d a f t e r l a t e s p r i n g reduces t h e n e c e s s a r y a c t i v i t y , and i t may a l s o reduce b a i t e f f e c t i v e n e s s . - The o n s e t o f t h e r u t i n l a t e summer may then i n c r e a s e a c t i v i t y and i n t e n s i f y t h e r e a c t i o n o f marten t o s c e n t e d b a i t . Yeager and Remington (1956) n o t e d t h a t 46 o f 66 (70$) o f marten o b s e r v a t i o n s i n Colorado o c c u r r e d i n June, J u l y and August; t h i s may have i n d i c a t e d more d i u r n a l a c t i v i t y  46  a c t i v i t y d u r i n g t h e b r e e d i n g season. R e l a t i o n of Marten t o Forest A.  Winter.  Cover:  From December 29 t o J a n u a r y 3, 1956-57,  a l l t h e marten t r a p - l i n e s were t r a v e l l e d and the l o c a t i o n o f e v e r y marten t r a c k c r o s s i n g , o r coming w i t h i n f i v e f e e t e i t h e r s i d e o f t h e t r a i l , was r e c o r d e d and a s s i g n e d t o i t s c o r r e c t forest type.  T h i s was assumed t o g i v e an e v a l u a t i o n o f  habitat preference.  TABLE XIV compares t r a c k o c c u r r e n c e s i n  the f o u r b a s i c f o r e s t t y p e s w i t h expected o c c u r r e n c e s , i f t h e t r a c k s were e q u a l l y d i s t r i b u t e d .  T h i s shows t h a t t h e r e a r e  s i g n i f i c a n t l y more t r a c k s f o u n d I n c o n i f e r and s i g n i f i c a n t l y TABLE X I V : Forest  W i n t e r Occurrence o f Marten T r a c k s i n B a s i c F o r e s t Types. C CH H HC  M i l e s censused 3.3 Tracks observed 19 Tracks expected 11.7 Significant difference 4.6  2.5 12 8.8  2.2 9 7.8  7.9 16 28.1 ', 5.2  fewer I n hardwoods, and t h a t mixed f o r e s t s comprised p r e d o m i n a n t l y o f c o n i f e r have s l i g h t l y more t r a c k s t h a n t h o s e w i t h more hardwoods• On J a n u a r y 9, 1957, t w e n t y - f i v e  snow depth measurements  i n each o f t h e f o u r types were made; l o c a t i o n s were p r e s e l e c t e d on a map. and  F i v e measurements o f t o t a l snow d e p t h  l e v e l o f f i r s t c r u s t were t a k e n a t each l o c a t i o n ; f o u r  measurements were made a t r i g h t a n g l e s s i x f e e t away from a c e n t r a l measurement.  47  Graph 2 g i v e s the snow d e p t h and an i n d e x o f marten a c t i v i t y based on t r a c k s per m i l e f o r each f o r e s t .  It  suggests  t h a t an i n v e r s e r e l a t i o n e x i s t s such t h a t w i n t e r marten a c t i v i t y c o i n c i d e s w i t h h e a v i e r cover and r e s u l t a n t s h a l l o w e r , s l o w l y accumulating  snow.  F i e l d o b s e r v a t i o n s showed most marten a c t i v i t y i n hemlock s t a n d s .  Only some spruce-balsam showed marten a c t i v i t y ;  i n s u c h a r e a s , snow i s deeper but t h e r e i s c o n s i d e r a b l e wind s h e l t e r and sometimes numerous openings under blowdown, l o g s and stumps.  I n mixed f o r e s t s , o b s e r v a t i o n s i n d i c a t e d t h a t marten  move c h i e f l y near the c o n i f e r p o r t i o n s .  Track o c c u r r e n c e s  show  t h a t marten are n o t c o n t i n u o u s l y p r e s e n t i n the f a v o u r e d c o n i f e r stands but tend to move from one  to the o t h e r  irregularly.  One marten l i v e d i n the p a n t r y and a t t i c o f the R e s e a r c h S t a t i o n d u r i n g p a r t o f March 1956  Wildlife  and o l d marten s c a t s  were c o l l e c t e d i n the d e s e r t e d M i n n e s i n g Lodge a t t i c i n August B.  Summer.  f o r e s t type was  The  number o f c a p t u r e s o f marten i n any  c a p t u r e s i n the f o u r major types f o r 1956 from each summer's average.  The  TABLE XV compares  and 1957,  to t h a t  comparison between c a p t u r e s  and a f t e r m i d - J u l y g i v e s o n l y t h r e e i n s t a n c e s where the  expected before  observed  c a p t u r e s d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y but these appear  u n r e l a t e d , and a r e b e l i e v e d due of f o r e s t s .  given  assumed to be i n d i c a t i v e o f the e x t e n t o f  a c t i v i t y i n , and p r e f e r e n c e shown f o r , the t y p e .  and expected  1956.  One  to f a c t o r s o t h e r t h a n a s e l e c t i o n  s u c h d i f f e r e n c e r e s t s p r i m a r i l y on n i n e  o f one marten i n a s m a l l b l a c k spruce  bog.  recaptures  4.8  When c o n s i d e r e d over t h e e n t i r e summer f o r each y e a r , t h e r e i s no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e  among c a p t u r e s i n d i f f e r e n t  f o r e s t s , and i t i s c o n c l u d e d t h a t marten do not show s e l e c t i o n for  one o r another t y p e .  TABLE XV:  M a r t e n Captures i n B a s i c F o r e s t Types.  Forest May 1 6 - J u l y 15 captures Expected Significant difference J u l y 16-Aug.31 captures Expected  C 16 22.3  1956 CH HC 15 11 16.1  15.1  -  H 34  C 23  CH 16  44.7  17.0  13.1  -  -  -  39  22  25  41  23.8  18.6  12.1  44.5  7 16.9  1957 HC 10 7.9  H 22 27.0  -  -  24  9  27  16.9  7.1  30.3  Significant difference  yes  E n t i r e summer May 16-Aug.31 captures  55  37  ,36  75  30  40  19  49  46.1  34.8  27.2  89.8  31.7  30.1  15.0  57.3  —  —  —  —  —  —  —  Expected Significant difference  yes  yes  —  A l t h o u g h t h e w i n t e r d a t a a r e f e w , i t seems t h a t  marten  c o n c e n t r a t e t h e i r a c t i v i t y i n c o n i f e r f o r e s t s i n w i n t e r and spread t h r o u g h a l l a d j a c e n t f o r e s t s i n summer. extremes appears a more i m p o r t a n t b a s i s -the s t r u c t u r e o r f l o r a l c o n s t i t u e n t s  S h e l t e r from c l i m a t i c f o r s e l e c t i o n than either  o f -the f o r e s t  itself.  Hawley and Newby (1957) noted t h a t home ranges o f marten sometimes c o i n c i d e d  w i t h t h e edge o f l a r g e open meadows and  49  burns and a l s o o b s e r v e d t h a t on numerous o c c a s i o n s marten seemed to a v o i d e n t e r i n g areas t h a t l a c k overhead c o v e r . W i l l i a m s (1957) o b s e r v e d one marten w h i c h r e f u s e d to f o l l o w a hare i n t o a f o r e s t  clearing.  Records o f marten i n human h a b i t a t i o n s may p a r t i a l l y support t h i s view o f t h e importance o f adequate I n O n t a r i o , de Vos and Guenther  shelter.  (1952) r e p o r t t h a t  f a v o u r e d w i n t e r h a b i t a t i n Chapleau I s cedar swamp r a t h e r than s p r u c e - b i r c h , j a c k . p i n e o r b l a c k spruce f o r e s t s .  MacFie  (1954)  n o t e s t h a t marten i n t h e e x t e n s i v e t i m b e r e d muskeg o f extreme n o r t h - w e s t e r n O n t a r i o l i v e o n s p r u c e , tamarack r i d g e s r a t h e r t h a n i n t h e muskeg  itself.  I n the Rocky M o u n t a i n s , marten i n w i n t e r use dense a l p i n e fir  ( M a r s h a l l , 1951b) o r Engelraann s p r u c e , a l p i n e f i r a t  e l e v a t i o n s r a n g i n g from 9500 t o 11,500 f e e t (Remington, 1950). I n Washington, w i n t e r p r e f e r e n c e was shown f o r Douglas f i r , and hemlock  (de Vos and Guenther, l o c . c i t . ) .  cedar  In i n t e r i o r Alaska,  marten o c c u r o n l y i n a r e a s dominated by spruce f o r e s t "which i s a p p a r e n t l y the b a s i c element o f t h e i r h a b i t a t " .  ( L e n s i n k , 1953).  M a r s h a l l (op. c i t . ) n o t e d t h a t marten a r e l e s s r e s t r i c t e d i n summer months when t h e y a r e t h e n r e p o r t e d f o r a g i n g i n open r o c k s l i d e s , b r u s h s l i d e s and meadows as w e l l as i n f o r e s t s . A l t i t u d i n a l m i g r a t i o n s a r e s u s p e c t e d i n some mountain areas.  As c i t e d by L e n s i n k (op. c i t . ) such movements a r e  r e p o r t e d from mountains t o c o a s t a l beaches i n s o u t h - e a s t e r n A l a s k a , from summer ranges a t 4000 t o 5500 f e e t t o w i n t e r ranges below 3400 f e e t i n t h e Cascade Mountains and, a p p a r e n t l y , t h e r e  50  i s evidence o f an upward w i n t e r movement i n t h e U i n t a Mountains. Hawley and Newby. (1957) found no s e a s o n a l movements o f r e s i d e n t marten i n G l a c i e r P a r k , Montana. I t seems c l e a r from t h i s e v i d e n c e t h a t marten h a b i t s are r e l a t e d to f o r e s t cover i n a most s u p e r f i c i a l way o n l y , w i t h no c l e a r l y defined c o n t r o l l i n g f a c t o r inherent i n the f o r e s t i t s e l f .  51  PART I I : POOD ANALYSES S e v e r a l r e p o r t s on food o f marten are a v a i l a b l e , the most e x t e n s i v e and s y n o p t i c b e i n g b y L  e n  s i n k e t . a l . (1955).  An attempt was made i n the p r e s e n t s t u d y t o do a more i n t e n s i v e s u r v e y t o f i n d s e a s o n a l v a r i a t i o n s i n major f o o d t y p e s . Methods: F r e s h marten s c a t s were c o l l e c t e d d a i l y w h i l e t r a p - l i n e s were o p e r a t e d i n the summers o f 1955, 1956  and 1957.  At the  b e g i n n i n g o f t h e summer t r a p p i n g season, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n 1957, many o l d s c a t s were o b t a i n e d w h i c h p r o b a b l y gave a sample o f w i n t e r and e a r l y s p r i n g f o o d s . M a r t e n s c a t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are perhaps b e s t d e s c r i b e d by Murie  (1954)j f r e s h m a t e r i a l has a p e c u l i a r n a u s e a t i n g odour.  I n s i z e , marten s c a t s t e n d to range between those o f mink and fisher.  The presence o f f i s h e r on the s t u d y area i n t r o d u c e d a  p o t e n t i a l source o f e r r o r i n r e c o g n i z i n g some s c a t s , but a l l dubious m a t e r i a l was  r e j e c t e d t o reduce m i s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n e r r o r s  to a minimum. S c a t s were d r i e d i n the l a b o r a t o r y then a n a l y s e d f o r occurrence of d i f f e r e n t items. D i r e c t comparison  w i t h known m a t e r i a l e n a b l e d  o f b e r r y seeds t o genus and sometimes s p e c i e s .  identification  Seeds from  r a s p b e r r y jam b a i t c o u l d be d i s t i n g u i s h e d from w i l d Rubus s p e c i e s on t h e b a s i s o f s i z e and shape. Mammal h a i r o f t h o s e s p e c i e s l i v i n g on the s t u d y a r e a , c o u l d b e s t be I d e n t i f i e d by d i r e c t comparison  to known h a i r  52  samples.  S i z e , c o l o u r and p r o p o r t i o n s o f v a r i o u s h a i r s a r e  d i a g n o s t i c i n most s p e c i e s and t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f some samples can be c o n f i r m e d b y d i s t i n c t i v e t e e t h , and o c c a s i o n a l l y r e l a t i v e s i z e s o f f e e t and c l a w , r e m a i n s . I n two g r o u p s , t e n t a t i v e d i a g n o s t i c c h a r a c t e r s were used. The  two jumping mice were s e p a r a t e d on r e l a t i v e d i f f e r e n c e i n  c o l o u r g r a d i e n t on the l a r g e b l a c k guard h a i r s .  Zapus shows a  g r a d u a l b l e n d i n g from b l a c k t i p t o white b a s e , whereas Napaeozapus has a c o m p a r a t i v e l y more abrupt the middle o f t h e h a i r .  t r a n s i t i o n f r o m b l a c k to w h i t e a t  Napaeozapus- has few b l a c k h a i r s l a t e r a l l y  so t h a t t u f t s o f f u r t h e r e appear b r i l l i a n t orange.  These  c h a r a c t e r s o v e r l a p t o some e x t e n t and a r e used w i t h r e s e r v a t i o n . Frequency o f o c c u r r e n c e  o f jumping mice i n marten s c a t s i s g i v e n  c o l l e c t i v e l y under Zapodidae; subsequent d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n , b a s e d on the above c h a r a c t e r s , I s g i v e n p a r e n t h e t i c a l l y . There appears t o be no c o n s i s t e n t e x t e r n a l d i f f e r e n c e among shrew h a i r .  Comparison o f c u t i c u l a r s c a l e p a t t e r n s was made,  using Williamson's acetate.  (1951) method o f i m p r e s s i n g h a i r s i n p o l y v i n y l  A g a i n no d i f f e r e n c e s appeared i n s c a l e p a t t e r n s among  Sorex ciner.eus,  Sorex fumeus and M i c r o s o r e x h o y i ,  but B l a r i n a  b r e v i c a u d a u s u a l l y had a more i r r e g u l a r arrangement o f s c a l e s on t h e middle p o r t i o n o f the h a i r s , compared t o a r e g u l a r b l o c k l i k e p a t t e r n o f Sorex spp. S i n c e t h e r e was some o v e r l a p i n t h i s c h a r a c t e r between B l a r i n a and Sorex spp.  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n based  e n t i r e l y on h a i r i m p r e s s i o n s a r e r e c o r d e d p a r e n t h e t i c a l l y b e s i d e those c o n f i r m e d b y o t h e r r e m a i n s i n t h e s c a t .  53  Results t TABLES X V I , X V I I , and X V I I I i t e m i z e d a t e d summer m a t e r i a l from 1955  t o 1957 and TABLE XIX g i v e s dated w i n t e r  items and undated m a t e r i a l .  Graphs 3 t o 14 compare the  s e a s o n a l o c c u r r e n c e o f major f o o d i t e m s .  A l l comparisons  were  made f o r h a l f month i n t e r v a l s except June 1956 when fewer d a t a were o b t a i n e d . A.  Food 1.  Items. Mammals.  Soricidae.  I n 1955 and 1956,  formed o n l y a s m a l l p a r t o f t o t a l food b u t i n 1957  shrews  they  c o n s t i t u t e d about t w e l v e p e r c e n t o f a l l summer items and a t times t o t a l l e d about a t h i r d o f the s m a l l mammals e a t e n .  Evidence  from w i n t e r i n d i c a t e s t h a t shrews c o n s t i t u t e up t o twenty p e r c e n t o f the d i e t .  This i s o f some i n t e r e s t compared to the l a c k o f  shrews i n marten f o o d i n A l a s k a ( L e n s i n k e t . a l . 1955), B r i t i s h Columbia  (Cowan and Mackay, 1950) and Washington (Newby  1951)  a t t r i b u t e d t o an o s t e n s i b l e a v e r s i o n t o the s m e l l o f shrew musk glands.  C a p t i v e s e a g e r l y a c c e p t e d a l l shrews, a l t h o u g h one  p a r t i c u l a r l y musky B i a r i n a was  l e f t uneaten by one marten.  c a p t i v e s h e l d b y Remington (1952) a c c e p t e d Cricetidae.  Two  shrews.  S c a t s presumed t o be from w i n t e r or l a t e  s p r i n g c o n t a i n e d C l e t h r i o n o m y s more than any one o t h e r a n i m a l , b u t fewer are found i n summer.  Snap-traps o b t a i n e d s i x t y - f i v e  p e r c e n t o f t h e C l e t h r i o n o m y 3 i n pure or p r e d o m i n a n t l y  conifer  stands ( p . 6 3 ) ; f o r t y p e r c e n t were from pure c o n i f e r  forests.  The h i g h number e a t e n by marten i n w i n t e r may be e x p l a i n e d by the p r e f e r e n c e marten show f o r the same h a b i t a t t h e n .  54  TABLE X V I :  A n a l y s i s o f Marten Scats - Summer, 1955  Based on dated m a t e r i a l : June 16-30 No. o f s c a t s No. o f items  240 items i n 192 s c a t s July 1-15 16-31  2 4  2 2  54 150  August 1-15 16 -31 17 49  17 35  1 4 3 1 3 (3)  (1)  OCCURRENCES Sorex s p . Clethrionomys Microtus Peromyscus Zapodidae (Napaeozapus) (Zapus) Tamias Tamiasciurus Lepus Odocoileus T o t a l mammals:  1  1  29  12  B i r d sp. B i r d egg s p .  1 1  1  17 1  5 2  1  2 1 1  2  2  31 38 22 2  2 12 9  5 3 1  1  2  Hymenoptera: Vespoidea Pormicoidea Coleoptera spp. Insect sp.  1 1 (1)  1  A r a l i a Nudicaulis Vaccinium spp. Rubus s p p . Cornus c a n a d e n s i s Prunus s e r o t i n a Seed s p . Duff debris (Rubus b a i t t o t a l l e d 8 i t e m s )  2 5 5 12 (9) (3) 3 1 1  2 1  4 2 4 (4) 3 1 15  1 1  3  55 TABLE X V I I :  A n a l y s i s o f M t e n S c a t s - Summer, 1956  Based on dated No. o f s c a t s No. o f items Occurrences Sorex s p . Blarina Clethrionomys Mlcrotus Synaptomys Peromyscus Zapodidae (Napaeozapus) (Zapus) Tamias Tamiasciurus Lepus Odocoileus Alces# T o t a l mammals:  a r  m a t e r i a l : 511 items i n 261 s c a t s May June July 16-31 1-15 16-30 1-15 16-31 2 10 11 72 34 4 23 20 57 140  B i r d sp. B i r d eggs sp.. Snake s p . Amphibian s p . Hymenoptera: Vespoidea Coleoptera: Silphidae spp. Diptera: Mycetophilidae I n s e c t pupa Insect, s p . Gasteropoda: Zonitoides Strobilops Discus Ghilopoda: L i t h o b i u s type Plants: Aralia nudicaulis Vaccinum spp. Rubus spp. Seed s p . Gramineae Duff debris "Tar-like" debris  (1) 5 4  (1)  (1) 2 28  # see t e x t August 1-15 16-31 81 51 153 114 (2) (1) 2 19 1 5 16 (14) (1) 1  (3) 6 10 2 7 1 (1)  3  3  1 2 (2)  2  1  3 1  5 1 2  2  11  1 10  12  55  46  29  1  3 2 2  1 2  28 2  32 3  22 1  4  2  17  24  12  7  5  1  1  1 3 3  3  1 (1)  1  1  2 2 1  1 17 (16) (1) 5 1 1  1  1  4 1 1  2 1 1  1 1  2 1  27 11 5 3  1 9 2  1 7 1  1  34 (Rubus 9 bait tot 18 a i l e d 43 items) 3 3  56 TABLE X V I I I :  A n a l y s i s o f Marten S c a t s - Summer, 1957.  Based on d a t e d m a t e r i a l : 614 i t e m s i n 349 s c a t s May June July 16-31 1-15 16-30 1-15 16.-31 42 56 65 30 33 No. o f s c a t s 60 101 49 106 No. o f items 55 OCCURRENCES Sorex s p . 1 (1) (9) 7 Blarina (1) 4 (3) 5 Parascalops 1 Clethrionomys 7 5 Microtus 10 7 Syhaptomys Peromyscus 12 7 Zapodidae 4 5 (Napaeozapus) (3) (3) (Zapus) (2) (1) Tamias 4 19 Tamiasciurus 2 5 Glaucomys Lepus 2 1 Odocoileus 2 1 T o t a l mammals: 60 75 9 3 B i r d sp. 1 Iirde(pin feathers) 3 B i r d egg s p . 1 2 Snake s p . Amphibian s p . 1  Hymenoptera: Vespoidea Coleoptera s p . Silphidae Emphemeroptera sp • Insect sp. 1  1 2 7 4 2 (2)  Gasteropoda s p . Zonitoides Discus Polygyridae Plants: Aralia nudicaulis Rubus spp. V a c c i n i u m spp. Prunus s e r o t i n a Streptopus roseus Taxus c a n a d e n s i s Seed s p . 7 6 Duff - Debris "Tar-like" debris Rubus b a i t t o t a l l e d 31 i t e m s .  4 9 1 6 3 (3)  7 2  5  26 3 13 3  36 7 3  2  9 14 (12) (2) 1  4 11 7 20 (15) (4) 3  (1) 3 (1) 1 12 14 1 4 13 (8) (5)  45 10 6 2 1 1  60 8 7 1  3 1  2  2  2  1  1  1 2  2  3 4  (4) 6 6  1  3  1 1 2  (3) 2 (9) 2 (3) (1) 2  Augus t 1-15 16-31 52 71 92 151  4  2  1 1 1  1  4 21 4  13 48 8  1  1 1  2 1 1  50 1 1  29 4 1  1  57 TABLE X I X : A n a l y s i s o f Marten Scats - Winter and E a r l y S p r i n g Dated m a t e r i a l :  5 items i n 4 s c a t s ( e a r l y January i t e m from F e b r u a r y 8, 1956. Undated m a t e r i a l : 184 items from 140 s c a t s Dated w i n t e r material  No. o f s c a t s No. o f items  Undated m a t e r i a l 1956 1957  5 6  OCCURRENCES Sorex s p . Blarina Clethrionomys Microtus Synaptomys Peromyscus Zapodidae (Napaeozapus) (Zapus) Tamias Tamiasciurus Sciurus Myotis sp. Lepus Odocoileus T o t a l mammals:  1957) and 1  112 151  28 35 6 (1) 2 14 6 2 1  1 1  2 (16) 8 (3) 23 20 2 12 11 (8) 15)  1 1 1 2 35  18 4 1 1 8 11 140  Bird sp.  1  Snake s p .  1  Hymenoptera: Vespoidea Coleoptera: Silphidae Insect sp.  2 1  Duff debris  M i c r o t u s c o n s i s t e n t l y appeared as a f o o d i t e m I n w i n t e r and  summer.  Numerous t o t e roads and s m a l l openings i n the  f o r e s t p r o b a b l y c o n t r i b u t e d most i n d i v i d u a l s .  Synaptomys i s  c o n s i d e r e d a r a t h e r s c a r c e s p e c i e s i n t h e r e g i o n and o c c u r r e d i n f r e q u e n t l y i n marten s c a t s .  A l t h o u g h Peromyscus comprised  f o r t y p e r c e n t o f mammals snap-trapped  i n 1956, t h e y formed o n l y  58  t w e l v e p e r c e n t of the items i n s c a t s i n 1956 p e r c e n t i n 1957.  and  fourteen  Perhaps the r a t h e r marked p r e f e r e n c e shown  by Peromyscus f o r hardwoods and s t r i c t l y n o c t u r n a l h a b i t s , expose them l e s s to marten p r e d a t i o n . o f 1957,  I n the w i n t e r and s p r i n g  t h e y comprised o n l y e i g h t p e r c e n t  of the i t e m s ; marten,  i t i s r e c a l l e d , showed an avoidance of hardwoods i n w i n t e r . Other s m a l l mammals.  B o t h jumping mice o c c u r r e d ,  Napaeozapus more f r e q u e n t l y t h a n Zapus. was  r e c o r d e d , and one b a t , M y o t i s sp.  w i n t e r s c a t , may  from an u n d a t e d , p r o b a b l y  have been found h i b e r n a t i n g .  Sciuridae. uncommonly.  One mole, P a r a s c a l o p s ,  Red  s q u i r r e l s o c c u r r e d as marten f o o d q u i t e  I n t h r e e summers t h e y a c c o u n t e d f o r no more than  one p e r c e n t o f the items and i n the w i n t e r and o n l y about t h r e e p e r c e n t were s q u i r r e l s .  s p r i n g samples,  This i s of i n t e r e s t  because of a former a l l e g e d importance of r e d s q u i r r e l s as marten food  ( M a r s h a l l , 1946,  1957  c o i n c i d e d w i t h s e v e r a l s i g h t o b s e r v a t i o n s f o r the s p e c i e s  that year; Algonquin Only one r e c o r d was  1951b).  One r e c o r d o f a b l a c k s q u i r r e l i n  i s a t the p e r i p h e r y o f the s p e c i e s range. obtained for. a f l y i n g , s q u i r r e l .  A s c a t c o l l e c t e d f r e s h on J a n u a r y 10, 1957, chipmunk f u r .  T h i s suggests  t h a t h i b e r n a t i n g animals a r e a  p o t e n t i a l f o o d source i n w i n t e r . i n summer and I n June 1957  contained  Chipmunks are eaten  t h e y accounted f o r over one  o f the mammals e a t e n and formed about one h a l f of the  regularly quarter items  found i n s c a t s by a marten den d i s c o v e r e d a t the same t i m e . T h i s c o i n c i d e d w i t h an observed hardwood f o r e s t s .  abundance o f the s p e c i e s i n  59  L a r g e r mammals.  Snowshoe h a r e s o c c u r r e d r a r e l y i n  summer f o o d but I n w i n t e r and e a r l y s p r i n g c o n s t i t u t e d about f i v e percent of a l l items.  Deer, u n d o u b t e d l y c a r r i o n , a l s o  o c c u r r e d more f r e q u e n t l y , i n w i n t e r s c a t s b u t never formed over seven p e r c e n t o f f o o d i t e m s .  Marten t r a c k s i n w i n t e r showed  t h a t w o l f k i l l s o f deer were i n v e s t i g a t e d by marten, b u t not t h o r o u g h l y ; no tendency t o s t a y around c a r r i o n was- o b s e r v e d . M a r s h a l l (1951b) r e c o r d s one marten w h i c h remained f o u r days around an e l k c a r c a s s , and Yeager and Remington a marten f e e d i n g on v i s c e r a o f an e l k k i l l ;  this  (1956) r e c o r d latter  i n d i v i d u a l was thought to be the same one seen a t the k i l l  during  the two s u c c e e d i n g days. One o c c u r r e n c e o f moose h a i r i n 1956 was based on a few h a i r s i n a s c a t which a l s o c o n t a i n e d remains o f b i r d eggs. T h i s s t r o n g l y suggests the h a i r s were p a r t of the nesit l i n i n g . 2.  B i r d s and B i r d Eggs.  B i r d s appear most s u s c e p t i b l e  to marten p r e d a t i o n d u r i n g the n e s t i n g season.  I n the  first  p a r t o f J u l y 1956, b i r d s comprised one h a l f o f marten f o o d ; numerous q u i l l sheathes suggested t h a t most were n e s t l i n g  birds.  I n 1957, b i r d s formed one t h i r d o f marten f o o d towards the end o f J u n e , and o f s i x t e e n i t e m s , t h i r t e e n showed the sheathed feathers of nestlings.  The p r o p o r t i o n o f b i r d s e a t e n i n c r e a s e s  q u i c k l y from s p r i n g t o the n e s t i n g season t h e n d e c r e a s e s over the r e s t o f the summer.  B i r d eggs are t a k e n r e a d i l y and  comprise up t o t e n p e r c e n t o f t o t a l marten f o o d j u s t b e f o r e , o r d u r i n g the peak o c c u r r e n c e of b i r d f o o d i t e m s .  Incubating b i r d s ,  p a r t i c u l a r l y ground n e s t e r s , are perhaps more v u l n e r a b l e to  60  marten p r e d a t i o n .  E v i d e n c e i n one case p o i n t e d s t r o n g l y to a  marten h a v i n g t a k e n an i n c u b a t i n g t h r u s h and i t s eggs; s e v e r a l other occurrences thrushes.  o f b l u e egg fragments suggest p r e d a t i o n on  I n one o t h e r i n s t a n c e , l a r g e w h i t e  fragments,  p o s s i b l y o f grouse eggs, were f o u n d . 3.  R e p t i l e s and Amphibians.  S i x s c a t s i n three  summers, c o n t a i n e d p o r t i o n s o f snake s k i n and s c a l e s . o f b e l l y acutes  The s i z e  and k e e l e d l a t e r a l s c a l e s suggested t h a t most  were g a r t e r snakes, t h e most common l o c a l s p e c i e s .  A l l b u t one  o c c u r r e d i n s p r i n g o r e a r l y summer when most main foods o f marten were r e l a t i v e l y  scarce.  Amphibian remains were n o t always easy t o d e t e r m i n e . Four were n o t e d , and were most p r o b a b l y f r o g s . r e a d i l y accepted 4.  leopard frogs.  I n s e c t s and Other I n v e r t e b r a t e s .  B e e t l e s and wasps  predominated i n i n s e c t remains found i n s c a t s . occurred  C a p t i v e marten  I n 1956, b e e t l e s  i n t h e f i r s t p a r t o f the summer c o i n c i d e n t w i t h an abun-  dance o f C a r a b i d b e e t l e s i n maple f o r e s t s d u r i n g the f i r s t two weeks o f June.  I n s e v e r a l i n s t a n c e s i n e a r l y summer, i d e n t i f i a b l e  remains o f S i l p h i d b e e t l e s , genus N o r o p h o r u s , e  i n d i c a t i o n s o f c a r r i o n as f o o d .  give f u r t h e r  B e e t l e s cease t o be o f any  importance as a f o o d i t e m b y the end o f J u l y .  During the  l a t t e r p a r t o f the summer, e s p e c i a l l y i n 1956, wasps g r a d u a l l y became t h e main component o f i n s e c t f o o d , and i n the f i r s t o f August 1956, comprised s i x t e e n p e r c e n t o f t o t a l f o o d .  part The  most complete remains o f wasps i n s c a t s were s u f f i c i e n t t o i d e n t i f y t h e s p e c i e s as a member o f t h e Vespdidea. I t i s n o t  61  known i f marten a c t u a l l y s e l e c t wasps as f o o d , or i f wasps are eaten w h i l e the a n i m a l r  i s f o r a g i n g near wasp n e s t s .  Remains o f i n s e c t pupa cases appear i n s c a t s o c c a s i o n a l l y and s u g g e s t t h a t marten f o r a g e i n ground to a c e r t a i n e x t e n t .  On August 24, 1954,  litter  a marten was  observed  i n v e s t i g a t i n g c r e v i c e s i n the r o u g h b a r k o f a y e l l o w b i r c h ; perhaps i t was  after  insects.  Other i n v e r t e b r a t e s appear i n f r e q u e n t l y i n marten s c a t s . Eleven occurrences  o f s n a i l s w i t h i n s c a t s , and not under them,  i n d i c a t i n g t h e y had been e a t e n , r e v e a l e d i d e n t i f i a b l e remains of at l e a s t three s p e c i e s . One  c e n t i p e d e was  5.  Berries.  recorded.  W i t h the r i p e n i n g o f b e r r i e s towards the  end o f summer, marten d i e t s changed over c o n s i d e r a b l y and c o n t a i n i n g n o t h i n g but b e r r y seeds appeared.  scats  Quite p o s s i b l y  t h i s f o o d has a l a x a t i v e e f f e c t on marten s i n c e t h e r e was  a  d e c i d e d i n c r e a s e i n the number o f s c a t s found d u r i n g b e r r y season.  A r a l i a n u d i c a u l i s appeared to be a p r e f e r r e d s p e c i e s  i n a l l three years.  B l u e b e r r i e s (probably both  a u g u s t i f o l i u m and V. m y r t i l l o i d e s ) l a t e J u l y and e a r l y August 1955, o f the t o t a l f o o d . R. pubescens)  Raspberries  Vaccinium  were r e a d i l y t a k e n , and i n  c o n s t i t u t e d about on ( b o t h Rubus idaeus  i n the same p e r i o d i n 1957  quarter  and  comprised one  quarter  o f t o t a l f o o d , hence i t appears t h a t e x t e n t o f u t i l i z a t i o n depends on  availability.  Although  d e f i n i t e p r e f e r e n c e appears to be shown f o r the  above s p e c i e s , o c c a s i o n a l o c c u r r e n c e s  o f seeds o f Cornus  62  canadensis,  Frunus s e r o t i n a - , S t r e p t o p u s  c a n a d e n s i s i n d i c a t e d sampling well.  The  r o s e u s and Taxu3  o f v a r i o u s o t h e r b e r r i e s as  eagerness w i t h w h i c h c a p t i v e marten accept sweet  substances may  i n d i c a t e t h a t s e l e c t i o n o f s p e c i e s of f r u i t s  depends l a r g e l y on t h e i r sweetness. On J u l y 22, 1955, s t o p p e d , t h e n detoured  a marten r e l e a s e d from a l i v e - t r a p  a few f e e t to eat a r i p e c l u s t e r o f  A r a l i a n u d i c a u l i s b e r r i e s before  c o n t i n u i n g on; i t i g n o r e d  c l u s t e r s o f r i p e Cornus c a n a d e n s i s b e r r i e s a l s o p r e s e n t . On August 9, 1957,  Mr. Douglas B r o d i e observed a m a r t e n ,  r e l e a s e d from a l i v e - t r a p , r u n about f i f t y f e e t away and on t o a l o g about two  and one h a l f f e e t h i g h .  I t t h e n jumped  on a r a s p b e r r y bush and devoured r i p e b e r r i e s w h i l e the p l a n t down.  This' p r o c e d u r e was  repeated  climb  weighting  f o r a l l raspberry  bushes about the l o g . 6.  Duff d e b r i s .  decayed wood e t c . ) was s c a t was  Duff debris ( c o n i f e r needles,  recorded  composed of i t .  leaves,  o n l y i f one h a l f or more of a  Almost a l l s c a t s c o n t a i n e d d e b r i s to  some e x t e n t and some were composed e n t i r e l y o f i t .  Scats  containing a considerable proportion of debris further indicate t h a t marten f e e d on items i n the ground l i t t e r .  P o s s i b l y some  o f the d u f f m a t e r i a l i s e a t e n f o r m i n e r a l c o n t e n t , perhaps s a l t s from a n i m a l u r i n e .  A few s c a t s c o n t a i n e d b l a c k t a r - l i k e m a t e r i a l ,  p o s s i b l y congealed blood.  One  l i v e - t r a p p e d marten which was Two  s c a t o f t h i s s o r t came from a r e p o r t e d t o have appeared s i c k .  scats contained only f r e s h green grass.  63  B. food.  Food Trends.  S m a l l mammals are t h e major marten  The few d a t e d w i n t e r s c a t s c o n t a i n e d them almost  e n t i r e l y and undated m a t e r i a l presumably  representing winter  and e a r l y s p r i n g f o o d , c o n t a i n e d a t l e a s t e i g h t y p e r c e n t s m a l l mammals.  Graphs 3 t o 14 show v a r i a t i o n s i n s m a l l mammal  o c c u r r e n c e s i n summer marten d i e t s . e a r l y J u l y , depending  I n e i t h e r l a t e June or  on t h e y e a r , b i r d s predominate  over  mammals and i n l a t e summer a t any time from t h e end o f J u l y t h r o u g h t o the end o f August, a g a i n v a r y i n g from y e a r t o y e a r , b e r r i e s r e p l a c e mammals as a predominant  food.  Insects regularly  c o n s t i t u t e p a r t o f summer f o o d b u t may v a r y i n t h e p r o p o r t i o n from y e a r t o y e a r . C.  Food P r e f e r e n c e o f C a p t i v e A n i m a l s .  C a p t i v e marten  In A l g o n q u i n r e a d i l y a c c e p t e d a l l mammals, b i r d s , eggs, raw meat and sweets o f f e r e d .  C r a y f i s h , f i s h , peanut b u t t e r ,  cooked  p o t a t o e s and o r a n g e s , o f f e r e d t o two, were r e f u s e d .  Unnatural  foods marten a r e known t o e a t i n c l u d e canned salmon, r a i s i n s (Walker ,1929),  m i l k , b r e a d , bo-iled r i c e , cornmeal, graham mush,  cooked p r u n e s , (Anonymous, 1936), pancakes, g r a v y , c e r e a l , l e t t u c e , c e l e r y , s p a g h e t t i , (Remington,  fish,  1952), g r e a s e , (Hawbecker,  1946), c a r r o t s , cabbage and t u r n i p s i n a c e r e a l w i t h meat, poached eggs, (Anonymous, 1952), candy, cheese, peanut b u t t e r , ( L e n s i n k et.  a l . 1955), and even f i g newtons, ( O r s b o r n , 1953).  (loc.  c i t . ) notes t h e y i g n o r e d salamanders  and t o a d s .  Remington Clearly,  l i t t l e p r e f e r e n c e i s shown, a l t h o u g h on t h e b a s i s o f o b s e r v a t i o n s i n A l g o n q u i n , meats and sweets a r e most e a g e r l y a c c e p t e d .  64  D. In  1956,  R e l a t i o n t o A v a i l a b i l i t y o f S m a l l Mammal Food U t i l i z e d . an attempt was made t o compare s m a l l mammals e a t e n b y  marten w i t h those o b t a i n e d by s n a p - t r a p p i n g . Two t r a p p i n g methods were employed.  One s e t t w e l v e  t r a p p i n g s t a t i o n s f i f t y f e e t a p a r t on each o f two p a r a l l e l l i n e s two hundred f e e t a p a r t . one b y t h e s t a k e marking  E a c h s t a t i o n had f i v e s n a p - t r a p s ,  t h e l o c a t i o n and t h e o t h e r s a t r i g h t  a n g l e s , f i v e f e e t from t h e s t a k e .  B a i t used was a m i x t u r e o f  peanut b u t t e r , r o l l e d o a t s , bacon and crushed w a l n u t .  These l i n e s  sampled f o r e s t t y p e s C (hemlock and mixed c o n i f e r ) , CH (hemlock, sugar m a p l e ) , HC ( w h i t e - b i r c h , s p r u c e ) and H (sugar maple) f o r t h r e e n i g h t s each i n e a r l y J u n e , J u l y and August.  Locations of  these a r e g i v e n on Map 1. I n f o r m a t i o n was p r o v i d e d by t h e O n t a r i o Research  Foundation  on s n a p - t r a p p i n g which sampled f o r e s t t y p e s HC ( w h i t e - b i r c h , s p r u c e ) , CH ( s p r u c e , w h i t e b i r c h ) and H (sugar maple) f o r t h r e e n i g h t s a month from May t o September.  These l i n e s were l o c a t e d  no f u r t h e r than f o u r m i l e s from t h e marten s t u d y a r e a .  Four  l i n e s o f one hundred t r a p s e a c h , i n c l u d i n g some r a t t r a p s , were i n groups o f f i v e a t r i g h t a n g l e s t o t h e l i n e a t i n t e r v a l s v a r y i n g from f i f t e e n t o f i f t y f e e t .  They were b a i t e d w i t h e i t h e r d r i e d  a p r i c o t s , f i g s , p r u n e s , o r a m i x t u r e o f peanut b u t t e r and r o l l e d oats. R e s u l t s from a l l these l i n e s were combined, to p r e s e n t a g e n e r a l i m p r e s s i o n o f p r o p o r t i o n a l abundance o f s m a l l mammals d u r i n g _ t h e summer.  A p e r c e n t c o m p o s i t i o n o f such a p o p u l a t i o n ,  based o n 359 c a p t u r e s o f s m a l l mammals i n over 20,000 t r a p - n i g h t s , i s compared i n Graph 15 t o a p e r c e n t o f d i f f e r e n t s p e c i e s i n 148  65  occurrences  i n marten s c a t s through the same summer.  There i s a c o n s i d e r a b l e d i f f e r e n c e between the  two  e v a l u a t i o n s o f M i c r o t u s p r i m a r i l y because no a r e a t r a p p e d optimum M i c r o t u s h a b i t a t .  was  I n A u g u s t , about one hundred t r a p -  nights obtained s i x Microtus pensylvanicus i n a grassy tote r o a d and a l o n g p a r t o f a g r a s s y creek edge; t h i s seemed t o i n d i c a t e t h e y were r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e i n such a r e a s . D i s c r e p a n c i e s between the two v a l u e s f o r Peromyscus and Napaeozapu3 seem most l i k e l y due t o h a b i t a t s e l e c t i o n o f these s p e c i e s .  About s i x t y p e r c e n t o f Peromyscus t r a p p e d were  i n sugar maple f o r e s t s and two t h i r d s o f the Napaeozapus found were i n v a r i o u s hardwood o r mixed p r e d o m i n a n t l y  hardwood f o r e s t s .  S i n c e marten move r e a d i l y t h r o u g h a l l f o r e s t t y p e s , these  species  would n o t be c o n t i n u o u s l y a v a i l a b l e . There i s no c o n s i s t e n c y i n the r e l a t i v e number o f any s p e c i e s e a t e n through  the v a r i o u s p e r i o d s o f one  one summer to the n e x t .  one  summer, o r from  D i f f e r e n c e s p r o b a b l y e x i s t i n the  v u l n e r a b i l i t y o f c e r t a i n s m a l l mammals to c a r n i v o r e p r e d a t i o n , and i t i s known t h a t - t r a p - l i n e s are not a f u l l y r e l i a b l e means o f measuring r e l a t i v e abundance o f d i f f e r e n t s p e c i e s 1948).  These and o t h e r f a c t o r s may  (Stickel,  a l t e r d i f f e r e n c e s between a  t r a p p i n g and a p r e d a t i o n e v a l u a t i o n o f s p e c i e s abundance, so t h a t d a t a g i v e n on Graph 15 p r o b a b l y a r e not s t r i c t l y  comparable.  N e v e r t h e l e s s , i t does suggest t h a t the mammals eaten by marten p r o b a b l y a r e s e l e c t e d on the b a s i s o f a v a i l a b i l i t y ; t h i s , w i t h the o b s e r v e d  randomness o f h u n t i n g b e h a v i o u r  i n marten, g i v e s  r e a s o n to suppose t h a t no s p e c i e s o f s m a l l mammal i s s p e c i f i c a l l y hunted.  66  TABLE XX summarizes f o o d s t u d i e s r e p o r t e d t o d a t e , and i s adapted i n p a r t from L e n s i n k e t . a l . (1955).  Composition  i s e x p r e s s e d as a p e r c e n t o f f r e q u e n c y o c c u r r e n c e .  R e s u l t s of  t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y a r e summarized f o r comparison. G e n e r a l l y , the same t y p e s o f food o c c u r i n a l l the samples; v a r i a t i o n s i n r e l a t i v e abundance depends on the a v a i l a b i l i t y o f such foods i n each a r e a , and, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the summer, on the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f the sample t a k e n . t o agree on the marten's  A l l tend  dependence on s m a l l mammals, a l t h o u g h  i n some i n s t a n c e s s q u i r r e l s seemed t o a t t a i n i m p o r t a n c e .  However,  i n one i n s t a n c e , M a r s h a l l (1951b) l a t e r thought t h a t the importance o f s q u i r r e l s as marten f o o d was  "overemphasised".  Quick (1955) found one marten l i v i n g on hares which were l o c a l l y abundant. I t i s g e n e r a l l y agreed t h a t marten f o o d h a b i t s a r e governed c h i e f l y by a v a i l a b i l i t y o f the v a r i o u s foods ( L e n s i n k e t . a l . 1955).  These l a s t w r i t e r s note "the tremendously  i m p o r t a n t p s y c h o l o g i c a l r o l e t h a t f o o d g e t t i n g has i n the marten's  a c t i v i t i e s " and b e l i e v e t h a t marten movements are f o o d  controlled.  Marten are found r e m a i n i n g f o r s e v e r a l days i n  s m a l l a r e a s , o f t e n around l u s h b e r r y p a t c h e s or c h o i c e c a r r i o n . M a r s h a l l (1951b) c o n c l u d e d t h a t a v a i l a b i l i t y o f f o o d p r o b a b l y i s t h e most i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r a f f e c t i n g d a i l y range. A l t h o u g h t h i s may  w e l l be t r u e i n w i n t e r , the w r i t e r  doubts t h a t , i n A l g o n q u i n a t l e a s t , marten have t o range the e x t e n t t h e y do i n summer j u s t t o get f o o d .  67 TABLE XX:  A n a l y s e s o f Marten Pood - P e r c e n t Frequency o f Occurrence Alaska Lensink e t . a l . 1955  Scats Digestive Items  B.C. ## Cowan and MacKay 1950  Washington ## Newby, 1951  Summer W i n t e r Summer W i n t e r W i n t e r W i n t e r Summer Win1 112 78 85 28 17 374 3 16 tracts 64 1 469 107 202 104 127  Shrews Mice and v o l e s S q u i r r e l s and chipmunks Hares  74  Carrion  68  59  80  2 1  2 2  1 5  6 8 6  1  8 40  6 56  13  27  13 11  10 5  41 3  13  3 55 8  8  1  Birds Insects Berries  8  19  18  9  54  4 5  5  Other Montana  Montana ##  Ontario  Marshall 1946 Winter  Thompson 1949 Winter Winter  ( t h i s study)  Scats Digestive tracts Items Shrews Mice and v o l e s S q u i r r e l s and chipmunks Hares Carrion Birds Insects Berries  B.C. ## Q u i c k , 1955  Summer W i n t e r and early spring  64  18  46  745  144  77  20  57  14  15  14  1427 6 30  191 20 50  59 9  55 20 5  60 5 5  4 1 1  12 5 7  7 1  5  8 2  14 9 27  1 2  8  4  7 10 Other . d a t a t a k e n t o n e a r e s t whole p e r c e n t  3  68  Hawley and Newby (1957) n o t e d a drop i n s m a l l mammal abundance p r e c e d i n g a r e d u c t i o n o f a h i g h marten p o p u l a t i o n ; i t was concluded  t h a t f o o d was p r o b a b l y a l i m i t i n g f a c t o r under  such c o n d i t i o n s .  I t i s r e c a l l e d t h a t the e x t e n t o f i n d i v i d u a l  marten's ranges I n t h i s h i g h p o p u l a t i o n was e s s e n t i a l l y t h e same as those i n A l g o n q u i n . Management I m p l i c a t i o n s : A decrease  i n marten abundance i s g e n e r a l l y a t t r i b u t e d  to o v e r - t r a p p i n g o r u n f a v o u r a b l e h a b i t a t m a n i p u l a t i o n .  Marten  are c o n s i d e r e d t o be a c l i m a x o r near c l i m a x f o r e s t s p e c i e s ( M i l l e r e t . a l . 1955), and appear t o s u r v i v e a d e q u a t e l y i f t h e f o r e s t remains t h a t way.  Yeager (1950) has shown the c o n t i n u i n g  abundance o f marten i n B r i t i s h Columbia and Yukon as c o n t r a s t e d to  c o n s i d e r a b l e r e d u c t i o n s i n e a s t e r n Canada.  I t has been noted  i n s e v e r a l i n s t a n c e s (e.g. W i l l i a m s , 1947) t h a t marten are l e f t at h i g h e r a l t i t u d e s i n montane  a r e a s ; these i n a c c e s s a b l e areas  cannot be l o g g e d o r h e a v i l y t r a p p e d whereas e a s t e r n areas a r e q u i t e a c c e s s i b l e to b o t h . The  e x c e e d i n g l y wide range o f mature f o r e s t types i n  w h i c h marten are found s u f f i c i e n t l y i n d i c a t e s t h a t f l o r a l c o n s t i t u e n t s have l i t t l e i m p o r t a n c e , b u t as i n d i c a t e d i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y , s u f f i c i e n t s h e l t e r may.  Yeager ( l o c . c i t . ) notes  t h a t c o n t i n u e d p r o d u c t i v i t y o f marten o c c u r r e d i n a r e a s o f Colorado w h i c h were g r a z e d by sheep.  The A l g o n q u i n o b s e r v a t i o n s  come from an area o f extreme d i v e r s i t y o f f o r e s t s which a r e so s i t u a t e d t o f o r m an e x t e n s i v e mosaic o f s m a l l s t a n d s .  I n areas  o f the p r o v i n c e covered b y v a s t t r a c t s o f even age stands o f one  69  s p e c i e s , e.g. j a c k p i n e , marten may show c o n s i s t e n t and marked f o r e s t type  preference.  In O n t a r i o , much marten range i s under t i m b e r management. The be  e f f e c t t h i s h a s , i f any, on marten p r o d u c t i v i t y has y e t to evaluated. M a r t e n a r e a r e l a t i v e l y l o n g - l i v e d and slow  reproducing  f u r - b e a r e r so t h a t p o p u l a t i o n t u r n o v e r may be c o m p a r a t i v e l y l o w . Females must s u r v i v e two t r a p p i n g seasons b e f o r e t h e y produce young, and a f t e r m a t u r i t y they do n o t n e c e s s a r i l y l i t t e r year.  every  T h i s has been noted f o r c a p t i v e s (Hodgson, 1956) and i n  females observed  during the present study.  L i t t e r s average o n l y  t h r e e i n number ( Y e r b u r y , 1947, Hodgson, op. c i t . ) . a r e a does a c t u a l l y g e t h e a v i l y o v e r - t r a p p e d r e p o p u l a t i o n o f i t may be q u i t e slow.  Hence, i f a n  or o t h e r w i s e  decimated,  The i n d i c a t e d two marten  per square m i l e r e s i d e n t p o p u l a t i o n would be a u s e f u l base f o r s e t t i n g t r a p quotas o n l y i f a r e l i a b l e census t e c h n i q u e f o r marten c o u l d be d i s c o v e r e d , t o r e v e a l the e x c e s s . been d e v i s e d ; f r e q u e n c y o f o c c u r r e n c e  Such has not  o f t r a c k s cannot be r e l i e d  on. I d e a l l y , t r a p p i n g s h o u l d o n l y t a k e s u r p l u s animals b u t i n d i c a t i o n s a r e t h a t t r a p - l i n e s n o r m a l l y do t h i s 1956).  Areas between l i n e s s e r v e as r e s e r v e s .  ( e . g . Quick, Lensink  (1953)  n o t e d , a g a i n i d e a l l y , t h a t a marten r e f u g e c o u l d be s m a l l , w i t h a diameter  a t l e a s t t w i c e the " c r u i s i n g r a d i u s " o f the s p e c i e s  (up t o f i f t e e n m i l e s ) .  The e f f e c t i v e r a d i u s o f d i s p e r s a l i s  then c o n s i d e r e d t o be up t o t h i r t y m i l e s , hence r e f u g e s not be s e p a r a t e d by a d i s t a n c e more than t w i c e t h i s .  should  70  I n areas o f O n t a r i o w h i c h have been e x t e n s i v e l y burned, or l o g g e d t o the e x t e n t t h a t most o f the f o r e s t i s i n e a r l y s e r a i s t a g e , some c o n s i d e r a t i o n c o u l d be g i v e n to r e s e r v i n g remanent s m a l l e r d i s j u n c t areas o f mature f o r e s t f o r marten, i f enforcement problems were not too  great.  71 Literature  Cited:  Anonymous.  1936. R a i s i n g martens i n c a p t i v i t y . Wildlife L e a f l e t No. 63, U.S. Department o f t h e I n t e r i o r .  Anonymous.  1952. Marten r a i s i n g . Canada, 30214- October.  Pur Trade J o u r n a l o f  Ashbrook, F.G. and K.B. Hanson. 1927. B r e e d i n g marten i n c a p t i v i t y . J . o f H e r e d i t y , 18(11):499-503. B r a s s a r d , J.A. and R. B e r n a r d . 1939. O b s e r v a t i o n s on b r e e d i n g and development o f marten. Can. F i e l d N a t u r a l i s t , 53(2):15-21 F e b r u a r y . B u r t , W.H.  1943. T e r r i t o r i a l i t y and home range concepts as a p p l i e d t o mammals. J . o f Mammalogy, 24:346-352. 1946.  The mammals o f M i c h i g a n .  Ann A r b o r .  Canadian I n s t i t u t e o f F o r e s t r y . 1956. S p e c i a l supplement o f the F o r e s t r y C h r o n i c l e . March. C h i t t y , D.  1937. A r i n g i n g t e c h n i q u e f o r s m a l l mammals. J . o f A n i m a l E c o l o g y , 6:36-53.  Cowan, I . McT. and R.H. MacKay. 1950. Food h a b i t s o f the marten (Martes americana) i n t h e Rocky Mountain r e g i o n o f Canada. Can. F i e l d N a t u r a l i s t , 64:100-104. C r o s s , E . C and J.R. Dymond. 1929. The mammals o f O n t a r i o . R o y a l O n t a r i o Museum o f Z o o l o g y Handbook No. 1. D o u g l a s , C.W. 1953. F l u c t u a t i o n s i n sex r a t i o s o f f i s h e r and marten d u r i n g the 1952-53 t r a p p i n g s e a s o n , White R i v e r d i s t r i c t . F i s h and W i l d l i f e Management R e p o r t , O n t a r i o Dept. o f Lands and F o r e s t s , No. 14. Edwards, R.Y. and I . Mc.T. Cowan. 1957. F u r p r o d u c t i o n o f the b o r e a l f o r e s t r e g i o n o f B r i t i s h Columbia. J . o f W i l d l i f e Management, 21:257-267. E n d e r s , R.K. and J.R. L e e k l e y . v u l v a o f t h e marten. 79(1):l-5 January. H a l l , E.R.  1941. C y c l i c changes i n t h e Anatomical Record.  1926. The abdominal s k i n g l a n d o f M a r t e s . Mammalogy, 7:227-229.  J . of  H a l l i d a y , W.E.D. 1937. A f o r e s t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n f o r Canada. Can. Dept. o f Res. and D e v e l . - F o r e s t Res. D i v . B u l l . No. 89.  72 Hagmeier, E.M. 1955. The genus Martes ( M u s t e l i d a e ) i n N o r t h America, i t s d i s t r i b u t i o n , v a r i a t i o n , c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , phylogeny and r e l a t i o n s h i p to O l d World f o r m s . U n p u b l i s h e d PhD t h e s i s . U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . Hawbecker, A.C. 1946. A c t i v i t y o f the S i e r r a p i n e marten. J . o f Mammalogy, 26:435. Hawley, V.D. and P.E. Newby. 1957. M a r t e n home ranges and population fluctuations. J . o f Mammalogy, 38:174-184. Hayne, D.W. 1949. C a l c u l a t i o n Mammalogy, 30:1-18.  o f s i z e o f home r a n g e .  H i g g i n s , R . J . 1948. L o r d s o f the t r e e t o p s . Hodgson, R.G. 1956. The R i t c h i e m a r t e n s . 7:20-24.  J .of  Fauna, 10:43-45. Who's Who i n f u r s ,  J a r v i s , J.M. 1956. An e c o l o g i c a l approach t o t o l e r a n t hardwood silviculture. Can. Dept. N o r t h e r n A f f a i r s and Nat. Resources - F o r e s t R e s . D i v . Tech. Note No. 43. L e n s i n k , C . J . 1953. An i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e marten i n i n t e r i o r A l a s k a . U n p u b l i s h e d M.S. t h e s i s . U n i v e r s i t y o f A l a s k a . L e n s i n k , C . J . , R.O. Skoog and J . L . B u c k l e y . 1955. Food h a b i t s o f m a r t e n i n i n t e r i o r A l a s k a and t h e i r s i g n i f i c a n c e . J . o f W i l d l i f e Management, 19:364-368. L l e w e l l y n , L.M. 1953. T i p s on t r a p p i n g , t a g g i n g and h a n d l i n g s m a l l game and f u r a n i m a l s . Paper p r e s e n t e d to the Northeastern Section of the W i l d l i f e Society. September, 1953. L o u c k s , M.R. 1955. R e p o r t f o r t h e Gogama D i s t r i c t - 1955 Sudbury Fur A d v i s o r y Committee. O n t a r i o Dept. o f Lands and F o r e s t s . April. MacFie, J.A. 1954. Notes on t h e b i r d s , mammals and f i s h o f extreme n o r t h w e s t e r n O n t a r i o . F i s h and W i l d l i f e Management R e p o r t , O n t a r i o Dept. o f Lands and F o r e s t s , No. 16. M a r k l e y , M.H. and C.F. B a s s e t t . Am. M i d . N a t u r a l i s t ,  1952. H a b i t s o f c a p t i v e marten. 28:604-616.  M a r s h a l l , W.H. 1946. W i n t e r f o o d h a b i t s o f t h e p i n e marten i n Montana. J . o f Mammalogy, 27:83-84. 1951. An age d e t e r m i n a t i o n method f o r t h e p i n e marten. J . o f W i l d l i f e Management, 15:276-283.  73  1951b. P i n e marten as a f o r e s t p r o d u c t . F o r e s t r y , 49:899-905.  J . of  M i l l e r , R.G., R . W . R i t c e y and R.Y. Edwards. 1955. L i v e t r a p p i n g marten i n B r i t i s h Columbia. The M u r r e l e t , 36:1-8. Murie, C.J.  1954.  A f i e l d guide to animal t r a c k s .  Boston.  Newby, F.E. 1951. E c o l o g y o f the marten i n the Twin Lakes a r e a . Chelan County, Washington. U n p u b l i s h e d MS t h e s i s . S t a t e C o l l e g e o f Washington. ( C i t e d by L e n s i n k , 1953). Newby, F.E, and V.D. Hawley. 1954. P r o g r e s s on a marten l i v e t r a p p i n g s t u d y . T r a n s . 1 9 t h N. Am. W i l d l i f e C o n f e r e n c e . 452-460. O r s b o r n , E.V. 1953. More on marten r a i s i n g . of Canada, 31:14December.  Fur Trade J o u r n a l  Quick,;, H.F. 1955. Food h a b i t s o f marten (Martes a m e r i c a n a ) i n n o r t h e r n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . Can. F i e l d N a t u r a l i s t , 69:144-147. 1956. E f f e c t s o f e x p l o i t a t i o n on a marten p o p u l a t i o n . J . o f W i l d l i f e Management, 20:267-274. Remington, J.D. 1950. E c o l o g y and economics o f the Rocky Mountain marten. Q u a r t , r e p o r t . Colorado Coop. W i l d l i f e Research U n i t , 3:21-27. 1952. Food h a b i t s , growth and b e h a v i o u r o f two c a p t i v e p i n e marten. J . o f Mammalogy, 33:66-70. R i t c h i e , J.W. Fur  1953.. M a r t e n r a i s i n g f o r t w e n t y - f o u r y e a r s . Trade J o u r n a l o f Canada. .30:10March.  Schmidt, F. 1943. N a t u r g e s c h i c h t e des baum und des s t e i n m a r d e r s . Mono. Der W i l d s a u g e t e r r e Band X:1-258. S p u r r , H.S.  1948.  A e r i a l Photographs i n F o r e s t r y .  Ronald Co.N.Y.  S t i c k e l , L.F. 1948. The t r a p l i n e as a measure o f mammal p o p u l a t i o n s . J . o f W i l d l i f e Management, 12:153-161. Thomas, E.M. 1952.. The f u r b e a r i n g mammals o f Wyoming. Wyoming W i l d l i f e , 16:12-17. Thompson, W.K. 1949. A s t u d y o f marten i n Montana. P r o c . Ann. Conf. Western A s s n . S t a t e Game and F i s h Comm. 29:181-188.  74  de V o s , A.  1951. T r a c k i n g o f f i s h e r and marten. 7:15-20.  Sylva,  1952. E c o l o g y and management o f f i s h e r and marten i n O n t a r i o . T e c h n i c a l B u l l e t i n , O n t a r i o Dept. o f Lands and F o r e s t s . de V o s , A. and S.E. G-eunther. 1952. P r e l i m i n a r y l i v e - t r a p p i n g s t u d i e s o f marten. J . o f W i l d l i f e Management, 16(2) :207-2l4. W a l k e r , E.P. 1929. E v i d e n c e o f t h e g e s t a t i o n p e r i o d o f martens. J . o f Mammalogy, 10:206-209. Williams, CM. 1947. Marten i n Colorado". Comments, 10:12-13.  Colorado C o n s e r v a t i o n  W i l l i a m s , T.R. 1957. Marten and hawk h a r a s s snowshoe h a r e . J . o f Mammalogy, 38(4):517-518. W i l l i a m s o n , V.H.H. 1951. D e t e r m i n a t i o n o f h a i r s by i m p r e s s i o n s . J . o f Mammalogy, 32:80-84. Yeager, L.E. 1950. I m p l i c a t i o n s on some h a r v e s t and h a b i t a t f a c t o r s on p i n e marten management. T r a n s . 1 5 t h N. Am. W i l d l i f e Conference:319-334. ^ e a g e r , L.E. and J.D. Remington. 1956. S i g h t o b s e r v a t i o n s o f C o l o r a d o martens. J . o f Mammalogy, 3 7 ( 4 ) : 5 2 l - 5 2 4 . Y e r b u r y , H. 1947. R a i s i n g martens i n c a p t i v i t y . J o u r n a l o f Canada, 25: September.  Fur Trade  GRAPH 1:  V a r i a t i o n s i n S e a s o n a l A c t i v i t y o f Marten as I n d i c a t e d by Observed v e r s u s E x p e c t e d Captures.  1956  Ont. J  standard  deviaf ion  40 ra <D U 0  -P  ft  Observed  COi  o o 0 May 16-31  June 1-15  June 16-30  July 1-15  July 16-31  August 1-15  Augus t 16-31  June 1-15  June 16-30  July 1-15  July 16-31  August 1-15  August 16-31  1957 40 ©  ?  •p  ft  OS  o  o  t 20 i  o aMay 16-31  GRAPH 2:  W i n t e r Marten A c t i v i t y R e l a t e d to Snow Depth i n M a j o r P o r e s t Types.  GRAPHS 3 t o 14: S e a s o n a l V a r i a t i o n i n M a j o r Pood types o f M a r t e n . 1955  1956 SO<f  (terns -  4  Sca+S  ko  Za •  July  n  Co  f  4-  1957 - 3*f9  L H-H iie**s  ftujuSt  SOTS  5  o  Zo  J ci rye.  Matj  J u l y  u n e  August  Jul»j  A u g u s t  S m a l l mammals 8 l-o  4-  Zo-  n  n Ju  \yflu^  U5t  Moij  June  Ju/u  Robust  Mai<  J u n e  J u l t j  flujust  Birds toO  fee  10  n  uo  11  4o  o  4-  H-o  4, Jo-  So  n J uIu  6o.  ol flugyst  12  Moij  J u n e  J u l w  Insects  flujL<s  +  n May  , n  n  n  J u l ^  June,  A u g u s t  14  13  401  ,11  4-  H-o.  S +-  4-  Zoi.  Z0--  ZO •  n Julij  fluju6t  Mc*y  J u n e .  Ju\y  Berries  fluji;st  M  <*K  June  I I Ju|i)  ftoausf  GRAPH 15:  S m a l l Mammals Snap-trapped and S m a l l Mammals E a t e n by Marten'.  Sorex spp. and B l a r i n a Clethrionomys  i n marten sea  Microtus Synaptomys snap-trapped  Peromyscus ITapaeozapus Zapus 20 40 % composition  60  MAP 1:  M a r t e n Study A r e a and S m a l l Mammal T r a p - l i n e s  • l . location-of  i  live-trap  —  arbitrary""bounda.ry o f s t u d y a r e a  •  l o c a t i o n o f s m a l l mammal t r a p l i n e s , 1956.  MAP 2:  Minimum F o r a g i n g Ranges, Male No. 55, o l d a d u l t  PROJECT: MARTEN WILDLIFE RESEARCH  ECOLOGY [ S T U D Y  A R E A , ALGONQUIN  AREA]  PARK  ONT.  • c a p t u r e s , 1955  © c a p t u r e , Feb. 8, 1956  range, May 18-June 28, 1956 range, J u l y ' 7-Aug. 10, 1956 range, Aug. 11-Aug. 23, 1956  MAP 3:  Minimum F o r a g i n g Ranges, Male Ho. 58, a d u l t  •  c a p t u r e s , 1955 range, - range, range, range,  *  c a p t u r e s , 1957  May 18-June 27, 1956 J u l y 5-Aug. 1, 1956 Aug. 4-Aug. 19, 1956 Aug. 20-Aug.30, 1956  4:  Minimum F o r a g i n g Ranges, Female No. 37, a d u l t  MAP 5:  Minimum F o r a g i n g Range, Female No. 41, a d u l t  MAP  6:  D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Male M a r t e n Showing Range O v e r l a p - 1956  — No. 40 a d u l t ---.Ho. 55 a d u l t No. 58 .old a d u l t No. 67 o l d  adult  • (i) No. 73, j u v e n i l e • U) No. 69, a d u l t • (3) No. 70, a d u l t  MAP  -. —  :—  7:  No. No. No. No. No. No. No.  D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Male M a r t e n Showing Range O v e r l a p - 1957  40 55 67 76 86 88 91  adult adult o l d adult adult juvenile "yearling" "yearling"  • d) Ho. • U) No. • O) No. • wNo. • 00 No. • WNo. • (?)No.  70 77 82 87 89 90 93  adult o l d adult adult juvenile juvenile "yearling" "yearling"  MP  8:  D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Female Marten - J u l y , August 1955 and May 1956.  Ho. 4 1 , a d u l t l i m i t of trapping area No. 64, a d u l t © No. 95, a d u l t No. 61, imm. • No. 63, immature  MAP 9:  D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Female Marten - June t o August 1956  PROJECT: MARTEN WILDLIFE RESEARCH  ECOLOGY [ S T U D Y  AREA, ALGONQUIN  AREA]  PARK  ONT.  0  adult:  Bos. 37, 65, 66, 68, 71.  immature:  Bos. 72, 74, 75.  !  Ma) No. 65 - c a p t u r e s b e f o r e and a f t e r appearance of No. 7] • U) No. 72 < ) No. 74 • (*)No. 75 3  MAP 10:  D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Female Marten - May t o August 1957  PROJECT: MARTEN WILDLIFE RESEARCH  ECOLOGY [ S T U D Y AREA, ALGONQUIN  AREA]  PARK  ONT.  a d u l t : Nos. 37, 65, 66, 6.8, 78. .immature: E o s . 85, 92, 9-4. • U) • U)  Ho. 78 No. 92  • U) No. 85 • (*) No. 94  P i g . 1. W i n t e r a e r i a l photograph o f a p o r t i o n o f the s t u d y a r e a . C o n t r a s t i n g c o n i f e r and hardwood f o r e s t s can be seen; two hemlock r i d g e s show p r o m i n e n t l y .  P i g . 2. S p r i n g a e r i a l photograph o f a p o r t i o n of the s t u d y a r e a .  Fig. 3 .  -Component Forest Types 1) 2) 3) 4) j?) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) b)  Hemlock White pine, red pine Black spruce Balsam, white spruce, "black spruce, white pine, hemlock White spruce, white pine, balsam, white b i r c h , aspen Hemlock, sugar maple, yellow birch White birch, aspen, white spruce, balsam, white pine Sugar maple, yellow birch, hemlock Sugar maple White birch Decadent stands  P i g . 4. View over a p o r t i o n o f the s t u d y a r e a i n the f o r e g r o u n d i n d i c a t i n g the r o l l i n g topography o f the region.  P i g . 6.  Hemlock f o r e s t - summer.  P i g . 8 . White b i r c h , w h i t e spruce and p i n e f o r e s t - summer.  Pig. 9. Sugar maple, y e l l o w b i r c h , hemlock f o r e s t type - w i n t e r .  P i g . 11.  Sugar maple f o r e s t - w i n t e r  P i g . 12. M a r t e n l i v e - t r a p , s e t by l o g . P h o t o , by Mr. D. J o h n s t o n .  P i g . 13. Marten i n a l i v e Photo, by Mr. M. D a n i e l .  trap.  P i g . 14. L o c a t i o n o f a marten n e s t den. A p o r t i o n o f the l o g was removed and the remainder s p l i t open. Photo, by Mr. D. J o h n s t o n .  P i g . 15. L o c a t i o n o f a w i n t e r day den among b o u l d e r s . A f o o t r u l e i n the f o r e g r o u n d i n d i c a t e s the e n t r a n c e used by a marten.  

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