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The effects of stimulus deprivation on stories told to thematic apperception test descriptions Thomson, Marguerite Charlotte 1960

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THE EFFECTS OF STIMULUS DEPRIVATION ON STORIES TOLD TO THEMATIC APPERCEPTION TEST DESCRIPTIONS  by  MARGUERITE CHARLOTTE THOMSON B.A., U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia,  1959  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the Department of Psychology  We accept t h i s to the r e q u i r e d  t h e s i s as conforming standard.  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September, I960  In presenting  t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of  the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the  University  of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference and agree that permission for' extensive f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may  study.  I further  copying of t h i s t h e s i s  be granted by the Head of my  Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s .  I t i s understood  that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed v/ithout my w r i t t e n permission.  Department of  ;/~'/)jJf.  The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Colombia, Vancouver 8, Canada.  THE EFFECTS OF STIMULUS DEPRIVATION ON STORIES TOLD TO THEMATIC APPERCEPTION TEST DESCRIPTIONS  Abstract  The purpose of t h i s study was to i n v e s t i g a t e the h y p o t h e s i s that stimulus d e p r i v a t i o n leads to a n x i e t y which, i n t u r n , causes c o g n i t i v e behavior to become impaired and d i s o r g a n i z e d . T h i s h y p o t h e s i s , which i s d e r i v e d from a model r e c e n t l y developed by Kenny ( 1 9 5 9 ) , assumes that a n x i e t y produces a d i s r u p t i o n i n a person's schema (imag i n a t i v e t r a i n s or sequences o f thought) causing h i s schemata to be more c o n s t r i c t i v e and h i s c o g n i t i v e f u n c t i o n s , t h e r e f o r e , more d i s o r g a n i z e d . In a d d i t i o n , i t i s p r e d i c t e d t h a t , as TAT p i c t u r e s become more d r i v e - s t r u c t u r e d (and, t h e r e f o r e , l e s s ambiguous), a n x i e t y w i l l c o n s t r i c t the schemata o f strong d r i v e s u b j e c t s , and the r i c h n e s s of t h e i r s t o r i e s f o r a given d r i v e should consequently decrease. In t h i s study twenty female s u b j e c t s i n an experimental group were completely deprived of p a t t e r n v i s i o n and audio and t a c t u a l s t i m u l a t i o n was p a r t i a l l y e l i m i n a t e d . A t the end of a twenty minute accommodation p e r i o d members of both the experimental and the c o n t r o l groups were asked to t e l l s t o r i e s around d e s c r i p t i o n s of s i x TAT cards which were arranged i n t o three groups according t o the amount of aggression found i n each d e s c r i p t i o n ( i . e . low, medium and high i n a g g r e s s i v e c o n t e n t ) . The a n x i e t y aroused by the experimental c o n d i t i o n s was expected to be manifested i n the s t o r i e s of the e x p e r i mental group. These s t o r i e s would show g r e a t e r d i s o r g a n i z a t i o n , c o n f l i c t and s t e r e o t y p y than those g i v e n by a c o n t r o l group. Subjects i n the experimental group would  a l s o introduce more aggression i n s t o r i e s given i n response to medium a g g r e s s i v e cards, l e s s a g g r e s s i o n on h i g h aggress i v e cards and the same amount as the c o n t r o l group i n r e s ponse to low a g g r e s s i v e c a r d s . In a d d i t i o n , they would r a t e themselves higher on an a n x i e t y q u e s t i o n n a i r e than would the s u b j e c t s i n the c o n t r o l group. Since e i g h t out of f i f t e e n p r e d i c t i o n s were borne out by the a n a l y s i s , the r e s u l t s a r e i n t e r p r e t e d as being p a r t i a l l y i n support of Kenny's model - that i s , s i n c e experimental s u b j e c t s r a t e d themselves higher on the a n x i e t y q u e s t i o n n a i r e , and i n t r o d u c e d more a g g r e s s i o n i n t h e i r s t o r i e s to the medium a g g r e s s i v e d e s c r i p t i o n s , i t i s bel i e v e d that the c o n d i t i o n of stimulus d e p r i v a t i o n was success f u l i n producing a n x i e t y , which, In t u r n , caused a d i s r u p t i o n i n c o g n i t i v e f u n c t i o n i n g . T h i s d i s r u p t i o n was w i t nessed i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n and p r e s e n t a t i o n of the s t o r i e s given by the s u b j e c t s i n the experimental group.  ACKNOWLEDGMENT I would l i k e to express my sincere app r e c i a t i o n t o Professor D.T. Kenny who not only proposed the subject of my t h e s i s t o me and suggested the methods by which t o proceed with the research but a l s o gave me a great deal of guidance and encouragement during the course of t h i s study.  I am a l s o extremely  grateful  to Professor E.S.W. Belyea, Professor Reva Potashin and Professor W.H. Read f o r t h e i r help and valuable suggestions, and t o Professor D.L.G. Sampson, Mr. A.E. Cox, and Mr. A.F. S h i r r a n f o r t h e i r time, and assistance i n obtaining subjects f o r various phases of the study.  I wish t o thank these, and other  members of the F a c u l t y and S t a f f i n the Department of Psychology f o r t h e i r i n t e r e s t and kind support while I was doing t h i s research.  V  CONTENTS  CHAPTER  PAGE  Abstract I  i i i  STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM The model p r o v i d i n g the b a s i s f o r the study 0>bject of the experiment L i s t o f p r e d i c t i o n s made on the b a s i s of the model  II  REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE  HI  METHOD Procedure p r i o r to the experiment 1. Rank o r d e r i n g of f i f t e e n TAT card d e s c r i p t i o n s 2. S e l e c t i o n and o r d e r i n g of the s i x d e s c r i p t i o n s t o be used in the experiment Subjects Apparatus Experimental procedure  IV  ANALYSIS OF THE DATA AND DISCUSSION OF RESULTS Questionnaire analysis D i s c u s s i o n o f the r e s u l t s o f the questionnaire analysis A n a l y s i s of the s t o r y f o r o r g a n i z a t i o n and p r e s e n t a t i o n D i s c u s s i o n o f the r e s u l t s of the anal y s i s f o r o r g a n i z a t i o n and presentation A n a l y s i s of the s t o r i e s f o r aggression D i s c u s s i o n of the r e s u l t s of the anal y s i s f o r aggression  1 1 1 3 5 11 11 11 12 If? 16 17 20 20 22 26 3k 36 38  SUMMARY REFERENCES APPENDIX A: I n s t r u c t i o n s given to a c l a s s of f i r s t year Psychology students on ranking f i f t e e n d e s c r i p t i o n s of TAT cards APPENDIX B: I n s t r u c t i o n s given to experimental group w i t h regard to experimental apparatus and procedure APPENDIX C: I n s t r u c t i o n s given to c o n t r o l group w i t h regard to adaptation task APPENDIX D: I n s t r u c t i o n s given to c o n t r o l group w i t h regard to adaptation task APPENDIX E: I n s t r u c t i o n s given to both groups f o r story t e l l i n g APPENDIX F: A n x i e t y Questionnaire APPENDIX G: E l a b o r a t i o n of scoring procedures APPENDIX H: Reactions to experiment given v e r b a l l y by experimental group  TABLES  Rank Order Given by 1 3 1 Subjects (3k f e males, 9 7 males) According to Amount of Aggression Expressed i n Each of F i f t e e n TAT Card Descriptions Median Values f o r Card Rankings, F i r s t and T h i r d Q u a r t i l e Values, and the Differences Between F i r s t and T h i r d Quartiles S i g n i f i c a n c e of the D i f f e r e n c e Between the Experimental and Control Subjects on the A n x i e t y Questionnaire S i g n i f i c a n c e of the Differences on the I n d i v i d u a l Items of the A n x i e t y Questionnaire Statements on the Anxiety Questionnaire Which DID and DID NOT Evoke S i g n i f i c a n t Differences Between the Two Groups S i g n i f i c a n c e of Differences Between Experimental and Control Subjects S i g n i f i c a n c e of Differences on Aggression Manifestation  CHAPTER  I  STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM Although a few pioneering  studies have investigated  the r e l a t i o n s h i p of stimulus d e p r i v a t i o n to performance, l i t t l e has been done to provide a model for p r e d i c t i o n , l i n k i n g the p a r t i c u l a r conditions of stimulus d e p r i v a t i o n to intervening v a r i a b l e s and thence to l e v e l of performance on a task.  There i s , indeed, some evidence which gives support  to the idea that given a c o n d i t i o n of external  stimulus  d e p r i v a t i o n , a decline i n performance on a s p e c i f i c task w i l l ensue, but because of the nature of the studies producing t h i s evidence i t i s s t i l l very d i f f i c u l t to make any d e f i n i t e statements about the c r u c i a l v a r i a b l e s i n f l u e n c i n g p e r f o r mance and, consequently, to make any c l e a r - c u t p r e d i c t i o n s . The purpose of t h i s research  i s to i n v e s t i g a t e  the hypothesis that stimulus d e p r i v a t i o n w i l l  lead t o anxiety,  and as a consequence of the anxiety, c o g n i t i v e behaviour w i l l become impaired and disorganized.  The model from which  t h i s hypothesis i s derived i s one r e c e n t l y developed by Kenny  (1959).  This model i s p r i m a r i l y designed to provide the impetus f o r a s e r i e s of integrated studies on the stimulus properties of the Thematic Apperception Test cards.  The  2  c e n t r a l core of t h i s model c o n s i s t s of s t a t i n g two dependent problems:  inter-  ( l ) "...the c r i t i c a l relevance  the stimulus p r o p e r t i e s of the p i c t u r e s i n the  of  determination  of the thematic s t o r i e s " , and (2) "...the l e v e l of persona l i t y f u n c t i o n i n g r e f l e c t e d i n thematic stories."  apperceptive  Several hypotheses, as w e l l as suggestions f o r  the means of studying these hypotheses, r e s u l t from awareness of these two problems. s t i m u l a t i o n (ice.  One  assumption, that sensory  a TAT p i c t u r e ) a f t e r being  categorized  ("perceived" or " i d e n t i f i e d " ) i s a s s i m i l a t e d i n t o schema (imaginative t r a i n s or sequences of thought), has been expanded i n t o a theory of " p e r s o n a l i t y revealingness"  and  becomes p e r t i n e n t to the study presented here. I t i s assumed by the model that anxiety  can  produce a d i s r u p t i o n i n a person's schema making h i s schemata more c o n s t r i c t i v e . As a d i r e c t r e s u l t of the c o n s t r i c t i o n , t h e r e f o r e , c o g n i t i v e behaviour w i l l be disorganized.  In  a d d i t i o n , the model makes some i n t e r e s t i n g p r e d i c t i o n s concerning the i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t s of anxiety and the p r o p e r t i e s of TAT cards.  cue  S p e c i f i c a l l y , the theory p r e d i c t s  that high-drive subjects w i l l reveal themselves more on a set of medium-drive structured TAT cards than on e i t h e r low-or high-drive structured cards.  The r a t i o n a l e f o r t h i s  p r e d i c t i o n r e s t s on the supposition that there i s a c u r v i l i n e a r r e l a t i o n s h i p between stimulus ambiguity and  3  p e r s o n a l i t y revealingness  for high-drive subjects.  In  other words, as p i c t u r e s t i m u l i become more d r i v e - s t r u c t u r e d (and t h e r e f o r e , l e s s ambiguous), a n x i e t y w i l l the schemata of strong d r i v e s u b j e c t s and t h e i r s t o r i e s f o r the given d r i v e should In the present mental group are deprived a u d i t o r y and  decrease.  According  i n terms o f :  (1) g r e a t e r d i f f i c u l t y  TAT  ( r e l a t i v e to a c o n t r o l group) and low-drive  aggression  to the model,  s u b j e c t s * schemata  presenting  w i t h the  and  o p e r a t i o n should arouse a n x i e t y and  i z i n g and cards  i n the e x p e r i -  of normal p a t t e r n v i s i o n ,  c o n s t r i c t i o n i n the experimental be witnessed  the r i c h n e s s of  experiment, s u b j e c t s  tactual stimulation.  t h i s experimental  constrict  the  should  i n organ-  s t o r i e s t o l d to d e s c r i p t i o n s of s i x (2)  i n comparison  c o n t r o l group, g r e a t e r m a n i f e s t a t i o n  in their  s t o r i e s to medium-drive s t r u c t u r e d cards,  r e l a t i v e l y l e s s on the h i g h - d r i v e s t r u c t u r e d cards and same amount on the  low-drive  More s p e c i f i c a l l y , of the experimental  of  the  structured cards. the s t o r i e s t o l d by members  group, when compared to the c o n t r o l  group are p r e d i c t e d to show: A.  Greater  d i s o r g a n i z a t i o n and  stereotypy  through  the f o l l o w i n g measures: (1) More d i s o r g a n i z e d , as measured by:  -  (a) u n c e r t a i n t y of s t o r y or i t s outcome (b) l o o s e l y s t r u c t u r e d s t o r i e s  k  (c) l i t t l e  elaboration  (d) slower r e a c t i o n time to begin f i r s t s t o r i e s (e) slower r e a c t i o n time to begin a l l s t o r i e s (2) More c o n f l i c t f u l , as measured by: (a) r a t i n g s of d i s t r e s s i n g and c o n f l i c t f u l elements i n the s t o r y (b) number of ambivalent (3) More stereotyped,  constructions  as measured by: -  (a) b r i e f n e s s - fewer number of words In each story (b) use of short sentences - number of words per s t o r y d i v i d e d by number of sentences (c) number of word and phrase r e p e t i t i o n s B.  More aggression,  i n response to medium  aggressive  cards. C.  Less aggression,  i n response to the h i g h l y  s t r u c t u r e d cards, and no d i f f e r e n c e between t h e i r s t o r i e s and those of the c o n t r o l group i n response to the low aggressive D.  cards.  They would also rate themselves higher on a quest i o n n a i r e designed to measure anxiety.  CHAPTER  II  REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE In s p i t e of the great i n t e r e s t shown i n the M c G i l l studies on d e p r i v a t i o n , there are a c t u a l l y few  published  studies that have been conducted on the r e l a t i o n s h i p of stimulus d e p r i v a t i o n to behaviour change. The f i r s t study (Bexton, Heron & S c o t t , 1954) appear from the M c G i l l laboratory was  designed to i n v e s t i -  gate the e f f e c t s of prolonged perceptual tive functioning.  i s o l a t i o n on cogni-  Twenty-two subjects were paid $20 to l i e  on a comfortable bed 21+ hours a day.  to  i n a p a r t i a l l y sound-proofed c u b i c l e  They wore translucent goggles which t r a n s -  mitted d i f f u s e l i g h t , gloves and cardboard c u f f s extending from below the elbow to beyond the f i n g e r t i p s . therefore completely  They were  deprived of pattern v i s i o n , and  and t a c t u a l s t i m u l a t i o n were p a r t i a l l y e l i m i n a t e d .  auditory The  length of time that the subjects remained under these conditions v a r i e d from two to three days. As a r e s u l t of these c o n d i t i o n s , the average performance of these subjects, as compared with a c o n t r o l group, was  i n f e r i o r on such tasks as problem s o l v i n g , block  design and the Wechsler D i g i t Symbol Test.  They a l s o reported  both a u d i t o r y and v i s u a l h a l l u c i n a t i o n s , a f e e l i n g of  "otherness"  and b o d i l y "strangeness", some disturbance of v i s u a l perception, as w e l l as an unpleasant r e s t l e s s n e s s and a marked i n a b i l i t y to think s y s t e m a t i c a l l y and Two in 195k was  productively.  very s i m i l a r studies were conducted at M c G i l l  and 1956.  The f i r s t , by Hebb, Sheath and  Stuart  designed "to determine the generalized e f f e c t s of a  sharp loss i n the auditory sphere alone", and to study "the extent of i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n response." (p.  152).  The s i x subjects were paid to wear earplugs f o r three days and to keep a d i a r y recording changes they observed i n themselves during t h i s p e r i o d . the plugs, which was considerably, was  The p h y s i c a l I r r i t a t i o n from  observed to a f f e c t only one person  discounted  as having any major e f f e c t on  other members of the group. As a r e s u l t of the p a r t i a l d e p r i v a t i o n of audio s t i m u l a t i o n , one subject f e l t a lowering i n motivation to study.  Other subjects experienced i r r i t a b i l i t y and  personal  inadequacy, as w e l l as a d e s i r e to keep to themselves and d i f f i c u l t y i n gauging the loudness of t h e i r v o i c e s . In the l a t t e r study made by Heron, Doane and S c o t t , the experimenters themselves served as subjects. Making use of the same apparatus as that employed by the 195k  study of Bexton, Heron and S c o t t , the three experimenter  subjects experienced the f o l l o w i n g e f f e c t s a f t e r three days of d e p r i v a t i o n of pattern v i s i o n :  "(1)  there was f l u c t u a t i o n  7  d r i f t i n g and s w i r l i n g of objects and surfaces i n the v i s u a l field;  (2) the p o s i t i o n of objects appeared to change w i t h head  or eye movements; distorted;  (k)  (3) shapes, l i n e s , and edges appeared  after-images  were accentuated;  (5)  colours  seemed very b r i g h t and saturated, and there seemed t© an exaggeration  of contrast phenomena." (p.  be  18)  Walters and K a r a l (i960) were i n t e r e s t e d i n exami n i n g "the claims by some psychologists that there are s o c i a l d r i v e s analogous to p h y s i o l o g i c a l d e f i c i t states in t h e i r e f f e c t on human behaviour." (p. 105)  (Initially,  then, they were more i n t e r e s t e d i n the e f f e c t s of s o c i a l d e p r i v a t i o n than i n the e f f e c t s of sensory d e p r i v a t i o n found i n the preceding  studies.)  One  of the p r e d i c t i o n s  they derived from the c l a i m concerning s o c i a l drives  was  that I f s o c i a l d e p r i v a t i o n gives r i s e to a d r i v e s t a t e , which has an energizing f a c t o r , the rate of verbal responsiveness (an i n d i c e of s o c i a l responsiveness) would increase. S o c i a l l y deprived subjects would then emit opinion statements f a s t e r than s o c i a l l y s a t i a t e d subjects. gated the hypothesis  They also i n v e s t i -  that s o c i a l reinforcement  would be more  e f f e c t i v e f o l l o w i n g s o c i a l d e p r i v a t i o n than f o l l o w i n g s o c i a l s a t i a t i o n and t h a t , t h e r e f o r e , s o c i a l l y deprived  subjects  would c o n d i t i o n more r a p i d l y than s o c i a l l y s a t i a t e d subjects.  This would be manifested through an increase i n the  rates at which deprived subjects gave opinion statements.  8  As a t h i r d means of studying the c l a i m , the f o l l o w i n g r a t i o n a l e was  used: - "There i s some evidence - by no means  conclusive - that habit strength, at least when b i o l o g i c a l functions are involved, i s influenced by the amount of p r i o r d e p r i v a t i o n (Bindra, 1959).  I f the analogy between  s o c i a l d e p r i v a t i o n and food or sex d e p r i v a t i o n i s pushed to i t s l i m i t s , one might expect a s p e c i f i e d number of r e i n forcements to Increase the habit strength of the responses of deprived Ss more than that of the  conditioned  conditioned  responses of s a t i a t e d Ss." (p. 9 3 ) An e x t i n c t i o n period was  included t© provide some measure of habit strength,  t h e r e f o r e , where deprived subjects were expected to respond more r a p i d l y than s a t i a t e d subjects. Perhaps the best way  to present the procedure used  by Walters and K a r a l to t e s t these hypotheses, and  the  r e s u l t s obtained, i s to quote from the summary of the experiment: (p.  1 0 5 - 1 0 6 )  In the f i r s t experiment, 1 2 adult Ss were interviewed three times, once under each of the following conditions: social deprivation, social s a t i a t i o n , and non-deprivation (an uncontrolled c o n d i t i o n ) . Ss r a t e of verbal response, both over the t o t a l period of the interview and while speaki n g , were selected as indices of verbal responsiveness. No confirmation was obtained of the pred i c t i o n that the mean rate of response of Ss under the three conditions would vary as f o l l o w s : deprivation> nondeprivation> s a t i a t i o n . In the second experiment, 3 6 freshmen were interviewed concerning t h e i r r e a c t i o n s to u n i v e r s i t y l i f e . Before the Interview commenced, 1 8 Ss were exposed to a b r i e f period of s o c i a l dep r i v a t i o n ; the remaining Ss were engaged i n conv e r s a t i o n by two graduate students. A f t e r the operant l e v e l of each S f o r making statements of opinion had been estimated, h a l f the deprived  9  and h a l f the s a t i a t e d Ss were r e i n f o r c e d each time they gave an opinion statement. During t h i s phase of the interview, a l l Ss gave 20 opinion statements. During Phase 3 of the interview, a l l Ss gave 10 unreinforced opinion statements. Each S was then l e f t alone f o r $ min. A f t e r t h i s i n t e r v a l , the interview was resumed f o r a f u r t h e r 5 min. p e r i o d , during which no opinion statements were r e i n f o r c e d . Deprived and s a t l a t e d i Ss did not d i f f e r i n t h e i r operant l e v e l of making statements of opinion. During the second phase of the i n t e r v i e w , s a t i a t e d Ss responded i n the predicted manner; those who were r e i n f o r c e d gave opinion statements at a f a s t e r rate than those who experienced no reinforcement. Results f o r l a t e r phases of the interview seemed to be p r i m a r i l y a f u n c t i o n of the phase during which the reinforcement v a r i a b l e was introduced. The  r e s u l t s did not substantiate the concept of  s o c i a l d r i v e ; the authors suggested, t h e r e f o r e , that  "an  analogy between s o c i a l d e p r i v a t i o n and sensory d e p r i v a t i o n might be more p r o f i t a b l e than one between s o c i a l deprivat i o n and organic d e f i c i t s t a t e s . " (p.  106)  The foregoing studies were designed only as observational studies i n v e s t i g a t i n g the general e f f e c t s of stimulus d e p r i v a t i o n on c o g n i t i v e and perceptual  functions.  However, f o r the sake of c l a r i f y i n g the stage reached by t h i s area of i n t e r e s t , some of the methodological by these studies should be mentioned.  problems r a i s e d  F i r s t of a l l ,  one of the M c G i l l studies employed a c o n t r o l group.  only Second-  l y , these studies made no systematic attempt to i n v e s t i g a t e the influence of degrees of d e p r i v a t i o n on various tasks. T h i r d l y , the studies d i d not i s o l a t e the c r u c i a l v a r i a b l e s in the d e p r i v a t i o n s i t u a t i o n which produced the r e s u l t s .  About a l l one can say, t h e r e f o r e , i s that the t o t a l e x p e r i mental s i t u a t i o n i n some way or other produced the obtained results. In summary, a great deal more i n v e s t i g a t i v e work on various kinds of d e p r i v a t i o n conditions i s required  befor  the d e t a i l e d r e l a t i o n s h i p s between stimulus d e p r i v a t i o n and behaviour change are i s o l a t e d .  CHAPTER I I I METHOD Procedure  p r i o r to the experiment Because of the nature of the experimental  ditions,  con-  i t was n e c e s s a r y t o g i v e v e r b a l d e s c r i p t i o n s of the  TAT cards t o both the experimental and c o n t r o l groups r a t h e r than present the cards themselves. (1957)  Lebo and H a r r i n g t o n  found t h a t method of p r e s e n t a t i o n ( v e r b a l or v i s u a l )  made l i t t l e  d i f f e r e n c e i n the emotional tone, l e v e l of  response and common themes given by s u b j e c t s under conditions.  P r i o r to the experiment  these  proper, t h e r e f o r e ,  f i f t e e n of Murray's d e s c r i p t i o n s o f TAT cards were s e l e c t e d from the t o t a l number as c o n t a i n i n g a c e r t a i n amount of aggression. Psychology  Each member of a c l a s s of 131 f i r s t students was asked  year  to rank order these d e s c r i p t i o n s  according to the amount of a g g r e s s i o n shown i n each. d e s c r i p t i o n s , which were arranged  ( t o prevent  e f f e c t s ) so that there were four complete and  position  s e t s of d i f f e r e n t l y  randomly presented scenes, were of p i c t u r e s 1, 3 B M , k,  6BM, 8BM, 8GF, 9BM, 9GF, 1 1 , 2G.  The  12M, 15, 1 7 G F , 18BM, 18GF and  As t h e r e were four s e t s , i t was so arranged t h a t  each  student r e c e i v e d a d i f f e r e n t l y ordered s e r i e s o f f i f t e e n from h i s neighbour  to make copying and comparing  difficult.  The  instructions  (see Appendix A) asked  the s u b j e c t s  to rank order the v e r b a l d e s c r i p t i o n s i n terms o f the amount of h o s t i l i t y expressed thoughts  i n each.  A l i s t was provided of  or a t t i t u d e s i l l u s t r a t i n g  hostility.  These were  c a t e g o r i z e d as p h y s i c a l h o s t i l i t y a c t s , h o s t i l e a t t i t u d e s and verbal h o s t i l i t y .  Since the c l a s s of 131 students was com-  posed of n i n e t y - s e v e n males and t h i r t y - f o u r females, a study was made to determine  whether there was  sufficient  c o r r e l a t i o n i n the median rankings g i v e n by the two sexes to j u s t i f y combining  t h e i r data.  The c o r r e l a t i o n between  the rankings of males and females was . 9 8 , s i g n i f i c a n t a t l e s s than  . 0 1 level  of s i g n i f i c a n c e .  The rankings of the  two sexes, which are r e p o r t e d i n T a b l e 1 were t h e r e f o r e combined.  The rank order of the c a r d s , from  s i v e t o most a g g r e s s i v e , was as f o l l o w s : 11,  6BM, 9 G F , 1 7 G F , 1 5 ,  12M, 3BM, k,  least  aggres-  9BM, 8 G F , 1 , 2 0 ,  8BM, 1 8 B M , 1 8 G F .  Table 2 r e p o r t s the median values f o r the rankings of the cards along w i t h the f i r s t and second and the d i f f e r e n c e s between these Six  quartiles.  d e s c r i p t i o n s were chosen from the f i f t e e n :  the two which were ranked (9BM  quart!le figures,  as showing the l e a s t  hostility,  - "Four men i n o v e r a l l s a r e l y i n g on the grass t a k i n g  i t easy."; and 8GF - "A young woman s i t s w i t h her c h i n i n her hand l o o k i n g o f f i n t o space."), the two which highest  in h o s t i l i t y ,  ranked  (18BM - "A man i s c l u t c h e d from  behind  TABLE 1 Rank Order Given by 131 Subjects (3I4. females, 9 7 males) According to Amount of Aggression Expressed i n Each of F i f t e e n TAT Card D e s c r i p t i o n s  Rank order given by females (n = 3k)  Rank order given by males (n = 9 7 )  9BM  15  15  15  8GF  Ik  Ik  Ik  1  13  13  13  20  12  12  12  11  9  11  11  6BM  11  10  10  9GF  8  9  9  17GF  10  ft \j  ft  Card No.  All (n = 1 3 D  15  7  7  7  12M  6  6  6  3BM  k  k  3  5  k  8BM  k  3  3  18BM  2  2  2  18GF  1  1  1  N.B. The rank order reports d e s c r i p t i o n s of cards showing least aggression to cards showing most aggression.  TABLE 2 Median Values f o r Card Rankings, F i r s t and T h i r d Q u a r t i l e V a l u e s , and the D i f f e r e n c e s Between F i r s t and T h i r d Q u a r t i l e s  $ 3  Q 3 - Ql  Card Number  Median  Qi  11  9.36  6.33  II.83  5.50  1  12.03  9.55  13.28  3.73  5.21  2.58  6.59  l+.oo  2.1+3  1.77  3.79  2.02  9.53  7.55  11.25  3.70  17GF  8 . I 4  5.72  11.69  5.97  18GF  1.18  .81+  1.52  .68  12M  6.01+  If - 01*.  8.73  1+.68  8BM  5.1+7  3.36  7.73  1+.36  9GF  9.07  6.75  11.38  4.63  20  10.11+  8.02  11.83  3.81  15  7.09  5.22  9.1+3  4.21  8GF  13.66  12.61  11+.20  1.60  3BM  1+.70  3.11  8.75  5.14  9BM  11+.87  1U.55  15.19  .63  4  18BM 6BM  by three hands. and of  The f i g u r e s of h i s a n t a g o n i s t s a r e i n v i s i b l e ,  18GF - "A woman has her hands squeezed around the t h r o a t another woman whom she appears t o be pushing  backwards  a c r o s s the b a n i s t e r of a s t a i r w a y . " ) , and two, which f e l l in  the seventh  and e i g h t h p l a c e s , which were considered t o be  between these two extremes, (17GF - "A b r i d g e over water. A female f i g u r e leans over the r a i l i n g . are t a l l  In the background  b u i l d i n g s and small f i g u r e s of men."; and 1 5 - "A  gaunt man w i t h clenched hands i s standing among That  gravestones.")  i s , the rank order of the s i x d e s c r i p t i o n s t h a t were  chosen f o r the study was, from l e a s t t o most a g g r e s s i v e , 9BM, 8GF, 17GF, 15", l8BM and 18GF. Having thus determined  the s i x cards that were t o  be used, the d e s c r i p t i o n s of these cards were given to a d i f f e r e n t c l a s s of f i f t y - o n e students who were asked them a c c o r d i n g t o the amount of a g g r e s s i o n present  t o rank  i n each.  T h i s was t o provide a check on the s t a b i l i t y of the o r d e r i n g when the other nine TAT card d e s c r i p t i o n s were removed. I n s t r u c t i o n s given t o t h i s group were i d e n t i c a l t o those used previously.  (See Appendix A)  t h i s c l a s s corresponded  The rank order obtained from  e x a c t l y w i t h the previous  ranking,  ( i . e . 9BM, 8 G F , 17GF, 1 5 , 18BM, and 18GF.) Subjects The  s u b j e c t s were f o r t y female v o l u n t e e r s from  year Psychology  first  c l a s s e s a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia  who were assigned, at random, to the experimental and c o n t r o l groups.  The mean age and standard d e v i a t i o n of members of  the experimental group were 18.25  and .85,  respectively.  S i m i l a r values f o r the control group subjects were and  18.03  1.06.  Apparatus In order to achieve a homogeneous v i s u a l f i e l d s i m i l a r to that achieved by Hochberg, T r i e b e l and Seaman (1951), each member of the experimental group was required to wear eyecaps which were cut from t a b l e - t e n n i s b a l l s to f i t the shape of the eye socket. These were held i n place w i t h E l a s t o p l a s t Adhesive which also eliminated v i s u a l cues from the edges of the eyecaps.  A l i g h t was projected through  a red f i l t e r from SVE Skyline Model B (with 300 W. bulb and f3.5 lens) at a distance of four feet from where the subject was seated. L i g h t d i f f u s i o n e f f e c t s were decreased through the use of black screens which extended from e i t h e r side of the p r o j e c t o r to the cushioned, foam rubber headrest. The subject placed her chin on t h i s headrest, which was then adjusted according to her height.  Tactual s t i m u l a t i o n was  cut down as much as p o s s i b l e through holding the limbs away from the body by using foam rubber cushioning under the arms, which f e l l j u s t away from the side of the body, and p l a c i n g the feet on blocks which were spaced i n such a way as to keep the legs from touching each other; the f i n g e r s were fanned  apart.  Audio s t i m u l a t i o n was e f f e c t i v e l y eliminated through  the use of Elnahar Antiphones - a p l a s t i c which can be molded to f i t the outer ear space. The s t o r i e s t o l d by both groups were recorded by a concealed wire recorder. Experimental  procedure  In order to keep the s i t u a t i o n i t s e l f as ambiguous as p o s s i b l e , subjects i n both groups (who were introduced i n t o the experimental s i t u a t i o n one at a time), were advised that no information about the procedure or aim of the e x p e r i ment would be given to them. The subjects i n the experimental group were seated at a table and the necessary apparatus, i . e . eyecaps, earplugs and cushioning, was put on them.  To allow time f o r  the c o n d i t i o n of stimulus d e p r i v a t i o n to have i t s f u l l e f f e c t s , members of t h i s group were then asked to s i t as s t i l l as p o s s i b l e and to keep t h e i r eyes open f o r twenty minutes during which time they were not allowed to t a l k . (See Appendix B f o r exact i n s t r u c t i o n s ) .  Every p o s s i b l e  step was taken to insure a minimum amount of noise and distraction.  The room was darkened and the p r o j e c t o r was  turned on simultaneously. The "accommodation p e r i o d " of twenty minutes was timed from t h i s p o i n t . For the same length of time, twenty minutes, each  member of the c o n t r o l group was required to rate p i c t u r e s of various types of fashions - dresses, coats, s u i t s , e t c . , according  to t h e i r d e s i r a b i l i t y .  This p a r t i c u l a r task was  designed to allow the same c o n d i t i o n s , extraneous to the experimental  c o n d i t i o n s , which were a f f e c t i n g the e x p e r i -  mental group to a f f e c t the c o n t r o l group i n the same way. As i t was meant to be as engrossing  and y e t as a n x i e t y - f r e e  as p o s s i b l e , the subjects were informed that there were no r i g h t or wrong answers and that they were to take t h e i r  time.  Appendix D contains these i n s t r u c t i o n s . A t the end of the twenty minute accommodation p e r i o d , members of both groups were given f u r t h e r i n s t r u c t i o n s concerning t h e i r approach to the TAT s t o r i e s . of the experimental  Members  groups were s t i l l under conditions of  stimulus d e p r i v a t i o n , except that they were spoken to i n a loud voice so that hearing the i n s t r u c t i o n s was p o s s i b l e . Subjects were required to make up as dramatic a s t o r y as p o s s i b l e f o r each of the d e s c r i p t i o n s , incorporating i n t o them (1) the events leading up to the scene, (2) what i s happening at the moment, (3) what the characters are f e e l i n g and t h i n k i n g , and (1+) the outcome.  They could make up any  k i n d of s t o r y they pleased, speaking t h e i r thoughts as they came to mind.  The exact i n s t r u c t i o n s are given i n Appendix E.  Each d e s c r i p t i o n of a TAT card was read twice t o the subject and, at the end of the second d e s c r i p t i o n , she  was t o l d t o begin her s t o r y . presented  The card d e s c r i p t i o n s were  i n random order, each s u b j e c t having  a different  order so as t o minimize s e r i a l p o s i t i o n e f f e c t s . j e c t ' s s t o r i e s were wire recorded. questions  The sub-  In order to e l i m i n a t e  by the c o n t r o l s u b j e c t s concerning  method of  r e c o r d i n g , the experimenter appeared t o be j o t t i n g notes as the s u b j e c t s t o l d t h e i r A f t e r completing the experimental  stories.  the s i x s t o r i e s , the s u b j e c t s i n  and c o n t r o l groups were asked t o r a t e  themselves on an a n x i e t y q u e s t i o n n a i r e which was to assess and  down  the f o l l o w i n g aspects  of anxiety:  fear, tension,  d e s i r e s to escape or a v o i d the experimental  A copy of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e  designed  situation.  i s found i n Appendix F.  As a f u r t h e r means of o b t a i n i n g a d d i t i o n a l cues and  information regarding  t h e i r r e a c t i o n s to the e x p e r i -  ment, s u b j e c t s were asked questions  regarding  as t h e i r thoughts during the experimental  such things  accommodation  p e r i o d , the length o f time they thought they were  sitting  there, what they thought the experiment was about, and so forth.  CHAPTER  IV  ANALYSIS OF THE DATA AND DISCUSSION OF RESULTS T h i s r e s e a r c h was an attempt t o d i s c o v e r whether (1)  c o n d i t i o n s of stimulus d e p r i v a t i o n produce a n x i e t y , and  (2) as a r e s u l t of t h i s a n x i e t y , d i f f i c u l t y and  presenting their s t o r i e s w i l l  s t o r i e s given by the experimental by the c o n t r o l group.  be more evident group than  i n those  i n those  given  The a n a l y s i s of the data and a d i s -  c u s s i o n of the r e s u l t s w i l l following  i n organizing  t h e r e f o r e be r e p o r t e d under the  headings: A. Q u e s t i o n n a i r e a n a l y s i s B. A n a l y s i s of the s t o r i e s f o r o r g a n i z a t i o n and presentation C. A n a l y s i s o f the s t o r i e s f o r a g g r e s s i o n  A. Q u e s t i o n n a i r e a n a l y s i s Before  the r e s u l t s of the experiment proper are  examined, i t i s d e s i r a b l e to see i f the experimental  opera-  t i o n of stimulus d e p r i v a t i o n a c t u a l l y d i d arouse a n x i e t y i n the experimental  situation.  The a n x i e t y q u e s t i o n n a i r e  r e s u l t s provide a check on t h i s matter. (1) 0 n the b a s i s o f the t o t a l  scores t o the twelve  statements s i g n i f i c a n c e of the mean d i f f e r e n c e s was computed and  the r e s u l t s as given i n T a b l e 3.  TABLE 3 S i g n i f i c a n c e of the D i f f e r e n c e Between the Experimental and C o n t r o l Subjects on the Anxiety Questionnaire  Measure  Exp Mean  Con Mean  SE Diff  I n d i v i d u a l scores on the a n x i e t y q u e s t i o n n a i r e  31.20  21.1$  2.28  t  P  4 . 4 I .01  The experimental subjects manifested s i g n i f i c a n t l y more anxiety than the c o n t r o l s u b j e c t s , o f f e r i n g some support f o r the b e l i e f that the experimental operation of stimulus d e p r i v a t i o n d i d arouse anxiety. (2) A chi-square a n a l y s i s was performed to t e s t f o r the s i g n i f i c a n c e of d i f f e r e n c e s between the two groups i n t h e i r r a t i n g s on the i n d i v i d u a l items of the a n x i e t y questionnaire.  For each question the r a t i n g scores from the  experimental and c o n t r o l groups were combined and dichotomized at the median.  Table k presents the obtained c h i -  squares f o r each of the questions, along w i t h the frequencies below and above the median a n x i e t y r a t i n g .  It w i l l  be  observed from Table I4, that s i x of the twelve items produced s i g n i f i c a n t chi-squares.  Amongst those questions which  showed no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between the two groups are questions 2, 3, 8, 9, 1 1 , and 1 2 . The questions which evoked s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t r a t i n g s from the two groups were questions 1 , 1+, 5 , 6, 7, and 1 0 . The l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r t h i s study, which was a o n e - t a i l e d t e s t of s i g n i f i c a n c e was at . 0 5 w i t h 1 degree of freedom. Discussion of r e s u l t s of questionnaire a n a l y s i s In view of the f a c t that h a l f of the  statements  on the questionnaire were able to d i s c r i m i n a t e between the two groups, the question a r i s e s whether there was a d i f f e r ence i n the type of statements that d i s c r i m i n a t e d from those  TABLE k S i g n i f i c a n c e of D i f f e r e n c e s on the I n d i v i d u a l Items of the A n x i e t y Q u e s t i o n n a i r e  Question 1  Above Median  Below Median 5  Chi-Square 6.1+2  Exp Cont  15 6  Exp Cont  6 k  16  3  Exp Cont  10 7  10 13  k  Exp Cont  5  15 16  3.58  k  5  Exp Cont  17 5  3 15  12.22  6  Exp Cont  7 l  13 19  3.91  7  Exp Cont  ik  6 15  6.1+2  8  Exp Cont  ik  6 10  .94  Exp Cont  9 6  11  • 43  10  Exp Cont  19 10  1 10  8.03  11  Exp Cont  12 6  8  2.53  ik  Exp Cont  11 5  9 15  2  9  12  5  10  ik  .13 •iH  Ik  2.60  that d i d not.  To some extent, perhaps, t h e r e was.  I t may  w e l l have been the d i f f e r e n c e s i n tone of the c r u c i a l word or words c o n t a i n e d i n each sentence which determined way  i n which each s u b j e c t ranked h e r s e l f .  the  That i s , w i t h i n  the statements which evoked no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the groups  i n t h e i r r a t i n g s , there may  or more d e f i n i t e meaning conveyed  to the s u b j e c t than those  which achieved s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s . two easy  have been a stronger  Table 5 l i s t s  the  sets of statements w i t h the c r u c i a l words u n d e r l i n e d f o r comparison. The  r a t i n g s may  have been s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e d , f o r  example, by the s o c i a l d e s i r a b i l i t y v a r i a b l e , t h a t i s , the d e s i r e to g i v e s o c i a l l y a c c e p t a b l e answers. e x e m p l i f i e d by questions 1 and 3, 2 and Ij.,  T h i s can be and 5> and 9  where the word " t e r m i n a t e " Is p r o b a b l y a s s o c i a t e d " u n d e s i r a b l e " elements  less with  i n everyday l i f e than " a v o i d . "  Words l i k e "nervous", "worrying", and " r e s t l e s s n e s s " have a much more a c c e p t a b l e c o n n o t a t i o n - and are p r o b a b l y found more f r e q u e n t l y i n everyday c o n v e r s a t i o n , than words " a n x i e t y " , " f e a r " , "emotional f e e l i n g s " and The  "tension".  d i f f e r e n c e i n d e f i n i t e n e s s between statements 6 and  (although they are s i m i l a r fact  like  12  i n meaning) might account f o r the  that one allowed f o r s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n r e s -  ponses and the other d i d n o t .  "I would not mind being a  s u b j e c t i n a s i m i l a r k i n d of experiment" may  have meant  25  TABLE 5 Statements on the A n x i e t y Q u e s t i o n n a i r e Which DID and DID NOT evoke s i g n i f i c a n t D i f f e r e n c e s Between the Two Groups  Question No.  Statements evoking significant differences  Question No.  Statements NOT evoking significant differences  1 iked p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t h i s experiment.  3.  * d i s l i k e d some of the things I had t o do i n t h i s experiment.  k.  I b e l i e v e I was more nervous than others during t h i s experiment.  2.  I experienced some a n x i e t y or f e a r during the experiment.  7.  I found myself worrying about something during the experiment.  11.  I f e e l that my performance i n the experiment was a f f e c t e d by my emotional f e e l i n g a t the time.  5.  I had a d e s i r e to t e r minate the experiment before i t was over.  9.  I would have l i k e d to a v o i d c e r t a i n p a r t s of t h i s experiment.  6.  I would not mind being a subject i n a similar k i n d of experiment.  12.  1  10.  I had p e r i o d s of r e s t l e s s n e s s during the experiment when I found i t hard t o s i t s t i l l .  8.  I would v o l u n t e e r f o r a s i m i l a r k i n d of experiment. I performed under some t e n s i o n during the experiment.  26  to the subject that to show no objections could mean that she would be asked to p a r t i c i p a t e i n a s i m i l a r k i n d of experiment.  Whereas "I would volunteer" gives the  subject  the opportunity to give a s o c i a l l y commendable answer without the actual commitment to p a r t i c i p a t e i n another experiment. Assuming the construct v a l i d i t y of the n a i r e , i t i s believed that members of the  question-  experimental  group did experience anxiety as a r e s u l t of the e x p e r i mental c o n d i t i o n s .  This was  shown through the a n a l y s i s of  both the t o t a l scores to the twelve statements and i n d i v i d u a l statements.  the  The f a c t that s i x of the twelve s t a t e -  ments were unable to produce s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between the responses of the two groups was p o s s i b l y the r e s u l t of the i n f l u e n c e of s o c i a l expectancies  causing the subjects to  " p u l l i n t h e i r horns" on c e r t a i n of the questionnaire  items.  Of course, t h i s l a t t e r speculation needs to be v e r i f i e d before i t s p l a u s i b i l i t y can be a c c u r a t e l y assessed. B. A n a l y s i s of the s t o r i e s f o r o r g a n i z a t i o n and  presentation  Based on the expected d i f f e r e n c e i n performance e f f i c i e n c y between the experimental the a n a l y s i s of the s t o r i e s was  and c o n t r o l groups,  designed to discover whether  the s t o r i e s obtained from the experimental  group, compared  27  w i t h the c o n t r o l group s t o r i e s , would be:  (1) more d i s -  organized, (2) more c o n f l i c t f u l , (3) more stereotyped. The  f o l l o w i n g categories were analyzed through the  use of the t t e s t for s i g n i f i c a n c e between means at the .05 l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e and the r e s u l t s are given i n Table 6. Since the predicted  d i r e c t i o n of the mean r e s u l t s were made  In advance of the data c o l l e c t i o n , a one-tailed  t e s t of  s i g n i f i c a n c e was used. (1) More disorganized, as measured by: (a) U n c e r t a i n t y of story or I t s outcome The  scoring procedure was s i m p l i f i e d by d i v i d i n g  the s t o r i e s i n t o (1) body, and (2) outcome.  One point was  given for every uncertain element occuring i n the body of the story (each uncertain element, however, was counted only once even though i t recurred), t a i n t y In the outcome.  and one point for an uncer-  A l s o omission of outcome was scored  w i t h one p o i n t , as was the i n c l u s i o n of a l t e r n a t i v e outcomes. (See Appendix G for a m p l i f i c a t i o n of scoring  procedure).  I t was expected that the mean of the experimental, group would exceed the mean of the c o n t r o l group. (b) Loosely structured I t was required  stories  of the subjects that they i n c o r -  porate c e r t a i n elements into t h e i r s t o r i e s :  i . e . what the  events were that led up to the scene, what i s happening at the moment, what the characters are f e e l i n g and t h i n k i n g , and  the outcome.  A well-structured  s t o r y , therefore, would  28  TABLE 6 S i g n i f i c a n c e of Differences Between Experimental and Control Subjects  Measure  Exp Mean  Con Mean  SE Diff  U n c e r t a i n t y of s t o r y or i t s outcome  1.43  .81  .23  2.71*"  Loosely structured stories  3.82  4-72  .39  2.34*'  L i t t l e elaboration (transcendence)  6.84  8.78  1.73  1.12*  16.55  6.05  4.01  2.68*'  Reaction time of a l l s t o r i e s  8.12  6.61  1.52  .99  Number of words per second  1.94  1.73  D i s t r e s s i n g and c o n f l i c t f u l statements  .57  Ambivalent  .06  F i r s t s t o r y r e a c t i o n time  constructions  t  .62  .34  .29  .15  1.91*  .04  .03  .57  Number of words i n each s t o r y  66.71  88.37  23.32  .93  Average number of words per sentence  15.76  15.31  1.07  .42  Number of word r e p e t i t i o n s number of words  .061  .039  .0187  * S i g n i f i c a n t at less than . 0 5 l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e ## S i g n i f i c a n t a t less than .01 l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e  1.18*  have each of these elements incorporated i n l o g i c a l sequence, w i t h "what i s happening a t the moment" and "what the characters are f e e l i n g and t h i n k i n g " as interchangeable  elements.  Thus, one point was given f o r each element that was present In the s t o r y , the maximum number being f i v e points (a separat point each f o r " f e e l i n g " and " t h i n k i n g " ) ; and one point was awarded f o r having the events leading up to the s i t u a t i o n followed by what i s happening at the moment (and/or what the characters are f e e l i n g and thinking) and one point f o r the l a t t e r elements being followed by the outcome.  The maximum  number of points f o r the category, t h e r e f o r e , was seven ( f i v e f o r incorporating a l l elements, two f o r l o g i c a l sequenc Appendix G contains a more d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n of scoring procedure.  Here the mean of the c o n t r o l was expected to be  greater than that of the experimental  group,  (c) L i t t l e e l a b o r a t i o n Following a transcendence scheme l a i d down by E d i t h Weisskopf ( 1 9 5 0 ) , a count was made of the number of statements which went beyond pure d e s c r i p t i o n . These were statements which r e f e r r e d to past or f u t u r e events, the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the two or more people, the a s c r i b i n g of emotions, thoughts and desires as w e l l as v e r b a l i z a t i o n s to the story characters, e t c .  W e i s s k o p f s c r i t e r i a were  modified only s l i g h t l y t o account f o r the f a c t that the subjects were unable to see the p i c t u r e s and therefore any  30  p i c t o r a l d e s c r i p t i o n s r e l a t e d by them which went beyond Murray's d e s c r i p t i o n s were a l s o considered as transcendent. For example, a s t o r y given to 1 8 B M begins w i t h - "This man's probably walking along the s t r e e t .  Probably q u i t e w e l l dressed."  'Although "quite w e l l dressed" would not be included as a transcendent statement i n Weisskopf's  index, which was designed  for v i s u a l p r e s e n t a t i o n , i t is^ i n t h i s study as i t goes beyond the d e s c r i p t i o n already given to the subject. The c o n t r o l group mean f o r t h i s category was expected to be greater than the experimental group mean. (d) Slower w i t h regard to r e a c t i o n time to begin f i r s t story A note was made of the time that elapsed between the l a s t word of the f i r s t d e s c r i p t i o n which was read to the subject and the f i r s t word uttered by the subject - whether i t was the f i r s t word of the story or the f i r s t word of an extraneous comment or question preceding the s t o r y . (e) Slower w i t h regard to r e a c t i o n time to begin a l l s t o r i e s The amount of time which elapsed between the l a s t word of each d e s c r i p t i o n read t o the subject and the f i r s t word u t t e r e d i n response t o each of these d e s c r i p t i o n s was  recorded.  31  (f) Longer time to t e l l s t o r i e s - fewer number of words per second Further note was made of the time i t took the subject t o t e l l her s t o r y - t h i s time length i n c l u d i n g the f i r s t to l a s t words of the s t o r y per se.  Extraneous comments  made before the beginning of the s t o r y were not considered part of the s t o r y .  This time length was d i v i d e d into the  number of words per s t o r y t o obtain the number of words per second. (2) More c o n f l i c t f u l , as measured by: (a)  Ratings of d i s t r e s s f u l and c o n f l i c t f u l elements i n the story  A point was awarded f o r each element of d i s t r e s s found i n a s t o r y .  " D i s t r e s s i n g " elements were of two s o r t s :  (1) comments and i n t e r j e c t i o n s which showed d i s t r e s s (for  example, " I don't r e a l l y have any thoughts, that's the  t r o u b l e . " ) , c o r r e c t i o n s and i n a b i l i t y t o complete sentences, and (2) obvious d i s t r e s s manifested by the subject through her main character - ( f o r example, "She doesn't know why she f e e l s t h i s way." - the main character i s not enjoying h e r s e l f at a party and there i s a vague f e e l i n g of uneasiness for which the subject i s unable to account), and apparent i n a b i l i t y to resolve problems - ("He doesn't know what kind of  outcome t o have."). Another count was made of the number of c o n f l i c t i n g  elements that i s , the number of mutually incompatible  32  s i t u a t i o n s - which were found i n a s t o r y . for t h i s category was  score  the r e s u l t of adding d i s t r e s s f u l  c o n f l i c t f u l elements together. t h e r e f o r e , was  The t o t a l  The experimental  and  group,  expected to receive the higher mean score. (b) Number of ambivalent constructions  "Ambivalence" i s defined by Webster as "simultaneous a t t r a c t i o n toward and r e p u l s i o n from...an a c t i o n . " point was  One  given, t h e r e f o r e , f o r every c o n s t r u c t i o n which  showed a d e s i r e , on the part of the subject, to avoid a s i t u a t i o n i n the s t o r y that she has stated and which, i n a d d i t i o n , f i t s w e l l i n t o the sequence and content of the story.  For example, "And  t h i s f i r s t woman - although she  appears to be s t r a n g l i n g the other woman, she could  be,  perhaps, i s e i t h e r holding her back, or maybe she's dragging her....This  one that's f a l l i n g over the banister i s l o s i n g  her balance and the other woman's e i t h e r s t r a n g l i n g her or t r y i n g to save her."  " S t r a n g l i n g " Is an unpleasant word  and the subject i s obviously t r y i n g to avoid using i t . The experimental  group, i t was  p r e d i c t e d , would have the  greater number of ambivalent constructions i n t h e i r s t o r i e s . (3) More stereotyped, as measured by: (a) B r i e f n e s s - fewer number of words i n each story A count was made of the number of words i n each story.  Because i t was  expected that subjects i n the  experimental group would snow g r e a t e r proneness  to r e p e t i -  t i o n than c o n t r o l s u b j e c t s , repeated words were excluded from t h i s count as were c o r r e c t i o n s and statements which were extraneous to the s t o r y .  Apostrophed words, i . e . nouns  plus a b b r e v i a t e d v e r b s , were counted as two words.  (Appendix  G c o n t a i n s an example of a "word" count and a "repeated word" count.) (b) Use of short, sentences - average number of words per s t o r y d i v i d e d by average number of sentences. Owing to the run-on nature of the s t o r i e s ,  two  d e v i c e s were used t o determine what c o n s t i t u t e d a sentence (1) the v o i c e i n f l e c t i o n s used by the speaker, and, i f these weren't h e l p f u l , thought".  (2) the idea of the sentence as "a complete  A p o i n t was awarded f o r each of the sentences,  and here, a g a i n , as f a r as the word count was  concerned,  extraneous comments, and repeated words were excluded from the word count. (c) Number of word or phrase For  ease, and c l a r i t y  repetitions  i n determining what was t o be  i n c l u d e d i n t h i s count, every word (except those found i n the  extraneous comments), which was not i n c l u d e d i n the  "number of words" count was i n c l u d e d Appendix G f o r example.)  in this analysis.  (See  3k  Discussion of the r e s u l t s of the a n a l y s i s of the s t o r i e s for o r g a n i z a t i o n and  presentation  The means f o r the experimental scores obtained  i n the preceding  and c o n t r o l group  categories were analyzed .05  through the use of the t t e s t for s i g n i f i c a n c e at the  l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e ( o n e - t a i l e d t e s t ) and the r e s u l t s are summarized i n Table 6 . was  The general f i n d i n g i s that there  some degree of d i f f e r e n c e shown by the experimental  r e l a t i v e to the c o n t r o l s i n t h e i r a b i l i t y to organize  group and  present t h e i r s t o r i e s . The s i x p r e d i c t i o n s which were borne out by the a n a l y s i s were that members of the experimental  groups would  show (1) greater u n c e r t a i n t y i n t e l l i n g t h e i r s t o r i e s and in g i v i n g outcomes, ( 2 ) greater d i f f i c u l t y i n s t r u c t u r i n g t h e i r s t o r i e s , ( 3 ) l e s s i n c l i n a t i o n toward e l a b o r a t i o n , (k)  that they were more prone to include d i s t r e s s f u l  o o n f l i c t f u l elements i n t h e i r s t o r i e s , (5)  and  that they were  more i n c l i n e d to repeat words and phrases, and that they would show ( 6 ) a longer r e a c t i o n time before t e l l i n g  their  f i r s t story. I t i s b e l i e v e d , then, that the c o n d i t i o n of stimulus d e p r i v a t i o n did have some e f f e c t on the o r g a n i z a t i o n  and  presentation of the s t o r i e s given by the c o n t r o l group. The f a c t that some of the p r e d i c t i o n s were not supported by the a n a l y s i s can be i n t e r p r e t e d as a f a u l t i n the p r e d i c t i o n s  and/or i n the measuring devices.  In a d d i t i o n , i t may be  that members i n the experimental group i t s e l f , though perhaps r e a c t i n g i n a disorganized manner i n a general way, showed i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n the nature of t h i s d i s organization.  Thus, f o r example, the author observed that  w h i l e there seemed to be no great d i f f e r e n c e i n the speed w i t h which subjects i n the c o n t r o l group presented  their  s t o r i e s from a "normal" p r e s e n t a t i o n , some members of the experimental group spoke i n an almost t r a n c e - l i k e fashion and others raced through t h e i r s t o r i e s .  This probably ac-  counts f o r the lack of s i g n i f i c a n c e between the two groups i n the mean number of words per second - even though there was an apparent d i f f e r e n c e between the two groups at the time of presentation of s t o r i e s . I t i s d i f f i c u l t to account f o r the lack of s i g n i f i c a n c e between the two groups i n the other categories i.e.  (1) fewer number of words i n each s t o r y (2) fewer number  of words per sentence and (3) r e a c t i o n time f o r a l l s t o r i e s , although examination of the content of the sentences and s t o r i e s suggests that perhaps rambling rather than s h o r t , c u r t sentences and s t o r i e s r e s u l t e d from the experimental condition.  This rambling, while i t was not p r e d i c t e d ,  might be expected as a residue of the f r e e a s s o c i a t i o n which, by t h e i r own admission, the experimental subjects experienced during the accommodation period;-, (see Appendix H f o r the comments given by t h i s group).  The  f a c t that there was a s i g n i f i c a n t  difference  between the two groups on the r e a c t i o n time f o r the f i r s t s t o r y has some bearing significance  on the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the l a c k of  i n r e a c t i o n times f o r a l l the s t o r i e s .  It  suggests that the e f f e c t s of the accommodation p e r i o d had a greater other  i n f l u e n c e on the f i r s t  r e a c t i o n time than on the  five. The  reason f o r l a c k of s i g n i f i c a n t  differences  between the means f o r the two groups i n "the number of ambiv a l e n t c o n s t r u c t i o n s " category may be because the number of occurrences of ambivalent c o n s t r u c t i o n s was s m a l l .  f o r both groups  (The model, t h e r e f o r e , may have been wrong i n  p r e d i c t i n g a g r e a t e r number of ambivalent c o n s t r u c t i o n f o r the experimental group.) C. A n a l y s i s o f the s t o r i e s f o r aggression Following s t o r i e s given  Kenny's model, i t was expected that the  by the experimental group would show, r e l a t i v e  to the c o n t r o l s : (1) More aggression aggressive  cards,  i n response t o the medium  (2) l e s s a g g r e s s i o n  h i g h l y structured aggressive  cards and (3) the same amount  in response t o the low aggressive Following (1956),  i n response t o the  cards.  Stone's TAT A g g r e s s i v e Content  each s t o r y was considered  i n one of the f o l l o w i n g  Scale  i n d i v i d u a l l y , and placed  categories:  Category  0:  non-Aggressive responses  Category  1:  Verbal  Category  2:  Physical Aggression  Category  3*  Death Concepts  The to  s t o r y r e c e i v e d a p o i n t which was  the category number.  3 was  Aggression  Thus, a s t o r y f a l l i n g  awarded three p o i n t s .  I f a s t o r y had  a l t e r n a t i v e themes, the theme f a l l i n g s i n g l e category was  equivalent  considered.  Often  into  Category  a number of  i n t o the h i g h e s t the a g g r e s s i v e a c t i o n  i s o n l y i m p l i e d , or i s p o t e n t i a l r a t h e r than a c t u a l l y out. to  In such an i n s t a n c e , a "P"  the category number and  otherwise  been a t t r i b u t e d  carried  ( f o r P o t e n t i a l ) i s added  the p o i n t score that would have to the Category  i s cut i n h a l f .  Appendix G contains an example of the s c o r i n g To determine the r e l i a b i l i t y  of the  r a t i n g s , s t o r y p r o t o c o l s of f i v e experimental  procedure. aggression subjects  and  s t o r y p r o t o c o l s of f i v e c o n t r o l s u b j e c t s were s e l e c t e d at random and Kenny.  independently  In order to prevent  which the s u b j e c t f e l l , arranged  for scoring.  between the two level.  scored by the author  and Dr.  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the group i n t o  a l l s t o r i e s were coded and The Pearson c o r r e l a t i o n  r a t e r s was  D.  .88,  coefficient  s i g n i f i c a n t at the  As a consequence of t h i s h i g h degree of  randomly  .01  reliability,  Dr. Kenny's r a t i n g s on a l l the s t o r i e s were used i n the a n a l y s i s of the  data.  final  38  D i s c u s s i o n of the r e s u l t s of the a n a l y s i s f o r a g g r e s s i o n As a r e s u l t of t h i s a n a l y s i s i t was  found t h a t ,  f o l l o w i n g p r e d i c t i o n , the experimental group manifested more a g g r e s s i o n than d i d the c o n t r o l s on the medium a g g r e s s i v e cards - ( t = 1 . 8 l ) .  However, no s i g n i f i c a n t  between the means of the two  groups was  found  differences on the h i g h  and  low a g g r e s s i v e content cards as the t v a l u e s were  and  1.28  respectively.  T a b l e 7 r e p o r t s these  .59  results.  S i n c e the most c r u c i a l p r e d i c t i o n concerning a n a l y s i s f o r a g g r e s s i o n , ( i . e . t h a t the experimental  the  group  would manifest more a g g r e s s i o n than the c o n t r o l s on the medium-drive s t r u c t u r e d cards) was  borne out i n the a n a l y s i s  suggests, a c c o r d i n g to the model, t h a t they were a h i g h d r i v e group.  That  the other two  p r e d i c t i o n s were not sub-  s t a n t i a t e d does not n e c e s s a r i l y weaken t h i s argument. may  be that the p r e d i c t i o n to l e s s m a n i f e s t a t i o n of a g g r e s s i o n  on h i g h - d r i v e s t r u c t u r e d cards i n the experimental s t o r i e s should have taken TAT  It  d e s c r i p t i o n and  i n t o account  groups  the nature of the  i t s e f f e c t on the s u b j e c t .  Thus, the  h i g h a g g r e s s i v e content i n the d e s c r i p t i o n s of the two  high-  d r i v e s t r u c t u r e d cards might have caused members of the trol  con-  group to become anxious which would have r e s u l t e d i n  a c o n s t r i c t i o n of t h e i r  schemata.  T h i s , a g a i n a c c o r d i n g to  the model, would i n t u r n l e s s e n the amount of a g g r e s s i o n the c o n t r o l group would show i n t h e i r  s t o r i e s to these cards  and  TABLE 7 S i g n i f i c a n c e of D i f f e r e n c e s on A g g r e s s i o n  Exp Mean  Con Mean  SE Diff  High a g g r e s s i v e d e s c r i p t i o n s (Cards l8GM and 18GF)  3.40  3.55  .25  .59  Medium a g g r e s s i v e d e s c r i p t i o n s (Cards 17GF and 15)  3.03  2.47  .30  1.81  .20  .60  .31  1.28*  Low a g g r e s s i v e d e s c r i p t i o n s (Cards 9BM and 8 G F )  S i g n i f i c a n t a t l e s s than . 0 5 l e v e l of c o n f i d e n c e ** S i g n i f i c a n t a t l e s s than .01 l e v e l of confidence  t  therefore would bring t h e i r mean score i n t h i s close to that of the experimental  group.  category-  Of course such a  speculation would suggest that the model i s not s u f f i c i e n t l y r e f i n e d to make unambiguous p r e d i c t i o n s i n the absence of some independent means of assessing the degree of anxiety on the high-drive structured cards.  CHAPTER  V  CONCLUDING REMARKS As h a l f ( e i g h t out of f i f t e e n ) of the i n d i v i d u a l p r e d i c t i o n s were borne out by a n a l y s i s of the data c o l l e c t e d i n t h i s r e s e a r c h , the r e s u l t s of t h i s experiment a r e i n t e r p r e t e d as being  p a r t i a l l y i n support  of Kenny's model.  To begin  with,  the c o n d i t i o n s o f stimulus d e p r i v a t i o n were s u c c e s s f u l i n inducing a decrement i n performance e f f i c i e n c y on a v e r b a l task.  S i x of the eleven p r e d i c t i o n s made as a r e s u l t of the  performance e f f i c i e n c y hypothesis data.  A second hypothesis  that i f the experimental consequently  was a l s o s u b s t a n t i a t e d .  T h i s was  c o n d i t i o n s aroused a high d r i v e , and,  a r e s t r i c t i o n of schemata, t h i s  menon would cause a d i r t h experimental  were s u b s t a n t i a t e d by the  In expressions  l a t t e r pheno-  of a g g r e s s i o n i n  group s t o r i e s t o l d t o medium-drive s t r u c t u r e d  cards. That t h i s h i g h d r i v e was a n x i e t y , which was the s u b j e c t of a t h i r d h y p o t h e s i s , was p a r t i a l l y borne out by the q u e s t i o n n a i r e a n a l y s i s .  T h i s t h i r d hypothesis  a n x i e t y i s at l e a s t one of the c r u c i a l  was t h a t  intervening variables  which a f f e c t s performance when the independent v a r i a b l e i s stimulus  deprivation.  S i n c e , however, the q u e s t i o n n a i r e was  constructed w i t h a view to a b s t r a c t i n g a n x i e t y , and nothing e l s e , other f a c t o r s such as boredom or h o s t i l i t y may have Influenced performance.  For example, upon completion of  t h e i r questionnaire, most of the members of the experimental group expressed  f e e l i n g of r e s t l e s s n e s s and timelessness  (they had an exaggerated idea of the length of time of the accommodation p e r i o d ) . Appendix H.)  (Their r e a c t i o n s are included i n  Consequently, while some of the subjects  experienced a n x i e t y as a r e s u l t of stimulus d e p r i v a t i o n , others might have experienced only a sense of boredom. Both c o n d i t i o n s produce r e s t l e s s n e s s , as does the f e e l i n g of h o s t i l i t y which may have been another f a c t o r i n f l u e n c i n g t h e i r performance.  There seems no reason t o doubt that a l l  three f a c t o r s , anxiety, boredom, and h o s t i l i t y may have influenced performance i n some way, a f f e c t i n g some subjects i n an I n d i v i d u a l way, or i n t e r a c t i n g to a f f e c t other subjects i n a d i f f e r e n t way. In conclusion, however, i t can be s a i d w i t h some degree of confidence that anxiety was produced by the cond i t i o n of stimulus d e p r i v a t i o n , and t h a t , as a r e s u l t of schematic r e s t r i c t i o n , i t was manifested through (1) poor performance e f f i c i e n c y and (2) greater aggressive  content  in s t o r i e s given to medium-drive s t r u c t u r e d TAT cards.  CHAPTER VI SUMMARY The purpose of t h i s study was to i n v e s t i g a t e the hypothesis  that stimulus d e p r i v a t i o n leads to a n x i e t y which,  i n t u r n , causes c o g n i t i v e behaviour to become impaired and disorganized.  This hypothesis, which i s derived from a  model r e c e n t l y developed by Kenny (1909), assumes that a n x i e t y produces a d i s r u p t i o n i n a person's schema (imagina t i v e t r a i n s or sequences of thought) causing h i s schemata to be more c o n s t r i c t i v e and h i s c o g n i t i v e f u n c t i o n s , theref o r e , more disorganized.  In a d d i t i o n , i t p r e d i c t s that as  TAT p i c t u r e s become more d r i v e - s t r u c t u r e d (and, t h e r e f o r e , l e s s ambiguous), a n x i e t y w i l l c o n s t r i c t the schemata of strong d r i v e subjects, and the richness of t h e i r s t o r i e s for a given d r i v e should consequently decrease. In the present experiment twenty female subjects in an experimental  group were deprived of s t i m u l i i n the  f o l l o w i n g way: (1) A homogeneous v i s u a l f i e l d , s i m i l a r to that achieved by Hochberg, et a l , was induced through having the subjects wear eyecaps carved from t a b l e - t e n n i s b a l l s .  A  l i g h t was projected through a red f i l t e r and transmitted to the subject, who had her eyes open, through these eyecaps.  (2) A u d i o s t i m u l a t i o n was use of a p l a s t i c which was  molded  e l i m i n a t e d through the  to f i t  the outer ear  space. (3) T a c t u a l s t i m u l a t i o n was p o s s i b l e , even though the s u b j e c t was  cut down as much as seated i n a c h a i r ,  by keeping the arms, l e g s , and f i n g e r s a p a r t , and  extended  away from the body by foam rubber c u s h i o n i n g . The s u b j e c t s i n the experimental group were kept under these c o n d i t i o n s f o r twenty minutes. For the same l e n g t h of time, twenty minutes, the twenty female s u b j e c t s i n the c o n t r o l group were r e q u i r e d t o r a t e f a s h i o n s a c c o r d i n g to d e s i r a b i l i t y - a task which was meant to be as a n x i e t y - f r e e as p o s s i b l e .  T h i s was i n  order to a l l o w the same c o n d i t i o n s , extraneous t o the experimental c o n d i t i o n s , which were a f f e c t i n g  the e x p e r i -  mental group, t o a f f e c t the c o n t r o l group as w e l l . A t the end of the twenty minutes members of both groups were r e q u i r e d t o t e l l of s i x TAT cards (9BM,  8GF,  s t o r i e s around  descriptions  17GF, l£, 18BM and  1 8 G F ) which  had p r e v i o u s l y been rank ordered, and assigned to three groups a c c o r d i n g to the amount of a g g r e s s i o n found i n each d e s c r i p t i o n ( i . e . 9BM and 8GF 17GF  and 15  i n the low a g g r e s s i v e group,  i n the medium a g g r e s s i v e group, and 18BM and 18GF  i n the h i g h a g g r e s s i v e  group.)  The a n x i e t y aroused by the experimental c o n d i t i o n s was  expected t o be witnessed i n terms o f :  A.  Greater i n the  B.  d i s o r g a n i z a t i o n , c o n f l i c t and  stereotypy  stories.  More a g g r e s s i o n ,  i n response to medium a g g r e s s i v e  cards. C.  Less a g g r e s s i o n ,  i n response to the h i g h l y s t r u c -  tured c a r d s , and no d i f f e r e n c e between t h e i r s t o r i e s and  those of the c o n t r o l group i n response  to low a g g r e s s i v e D.  cards.  They should a l s o r a t e themselves higher q u e s t i o n n a i r e designed As  on a  to measure a n x i e t y .  a r e s u l t of the a n a l y s i s , s i x of the  eleven  p r e d i c t i o n s made around o r g a n i z a t i o n and p r e s e n t a t i o n of the s t o r i e s were borne out. that the experimental  The  q u e s t i o n n a i r e a n a l y s i s showed  group manifested  s i g n i f i c a n t l y more  a n x i e t y through t h e i r t o t a l  s c o r e s , and r a t e d themselves  higher  of the i n d i v i d u a l  on s i x out of twelve  They a l s o manifested  more a g g r e s s i o n , as was  response to the medium a g g r e s s i v e c a r d s .  statements. predicted, in  S i n c e e i g h t o f the  f i f t e e n p r e d i c t i o n s made f r o m K e n n y s model were s u b s t a n t i f  ated by the experiment, the r e s u l t s are i n t e r p r e t e d as g i v i n g partial  support  to the model.  The  p r e d i c t i o n s were not borne out may  f a c t that some of the be due  e i t h e r to c e r t a i n  weaknesses inherent i n the model, or to the measures used t o t e s t the hypotheses.  REFERENCES Bexton, W.H., Heron, W., & S c o t t , T.H. E f f e c t s of decreased v a r i a t i o n i n the sensory environment. Canad. J . Psychol., 1954, 8, 70-76. Hebb D.O., Sheath, E:;S., & S t u a r t , E.A. Experimental ness. Canad. J . Psychol.. 1954, 8, 152-156.  deaf-  Heron, W., Doane, B.K., & S c o t t , T.H. V i s u a l disturbances a f t e r prolonged perceptual i s o l a t i o n . Canad. J . Psychol., 1956, 10, 13-18. Hochberg, J.E., T r i e b e l , W., and Seaman, Q., Colour adaptat i o n under conditions of homogeneous v i s u a l s t i m u l a t i o n (Ganzfeld). J . exp. Psychol.. 1951, 4 l , 153-159. Kenny, D.T. A t h e o r e t i c a l and research r e a p p r a i s a l of stimulus f a c t o r s i n the TAT. 1959. To be published. Lebo, D., & Harrington, M. V i s u a l and verbal presentation of TAT s t i m u l i . J . consult. Psychol., 1957, 21, 339-342. Stone, Harold, The TAT aggressive content s c a l e . Tech., 1956, 20, 445-452.  J . proj.  Walters, R.H., & K a r a l , P. S o c i a l d e p r i v a t i o n and verbal behaviour. J . Pers., I960, 28, 89-107. Weisskopf, E d i t h A. A transcendence index as a proposed measure i n the TAT. J . of Psychol., 1950, 29, 379-390.  APPENDIX  A  INSTRUCTIONS GIVEN TO A CLASS OF FIRST YEAR PSYCHOLOGY STUDENTS ON RANKING FIFTEEN DESCRIPTIONS OF TAT CARDS  10  GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS  The p u r p o s e o f t h i s descriptions tility  stud' ' i s t o s c a l e  of six different  (aggression).  p i c t u r e s a l o n g a dimension o f hos-  F o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f t h e s c a l e you w i l l  asked t o rank order the v e r b a l amount  of hostility  expressed  You a r e t o r e g a r d of  social  pictures  descriptions  o r scenes  destructive, Hostile  shooting,  attitudes  quarrelsome,  acts  illustrated  acts,  hitting,  as  descriptions  i n a picture  book.  thoughts or a t t i t u d e s  such as k i l l i n g ,  should  hostility: assaulting,  combative,  self-injury;  such as being m a l i c i o u s ,  domineering,  i n terms o f t h e  descriptions  be v i e w e d a s i l l \ i s t r a t i n g what we mean b y hostility  be  i n them.  the written  Any o f t h e f o l l o w i n g  Physical  a set of written  1  irritable,  embittered,  scorning,  hating,  grouch}/, s u r l y ,  resentful; Verbal  hostility  over-critical, ridiculing  s u c h a s b e i n g venomous,  argumentative,  and  quarreling,  abusive, cursing,  threatening, blaming,  l^ing.  S P E C I F I C DIRECTIONS FOR RANKING DESCRIPTIONS The w r i t t e n fashion  descriptions  on t h e n e x t  to t h e i r  degree  sheet.  the  best  them  You f i r s t  descriptions  befor-  choice  However,  which  c a r e f u l l y the  making any  rankings.  o f one d e s c r i p t i o n  before  t a k e y o u r t i m e a n d make y o u r  examine t h e d e s c r i p t i o n s  e x p r e s s e s t h e most h o s t i l i t y ,  and s e l e c t t h e d e s c r i p t i o n anger or aggression.  d e s c r i p t i o n w h i c h p o s s e s s e s t h e most h o s t i l i t y  in the brackets a t the l e f t .  pressive  of h o s t i l i t y  writing  .  Give  2 i n the brackets  place  Examine t h e d e s c r i p t i o n s  d e c i d e vrhich d e s c r i p t i o n y o u c o n s i d e r  by  read  according  t o make between c e r t a i n o f  Sometimes t h e r a n k i n g  be e a s y .  must  random  ranking. Now  the  You a r e t o r a n k o r d e r  have a d i f f i c u l t  descriptions.  another w i l l  in a  of hostility.  whole s e r i e s o f p i c t u r e You may  have been a r r a n g e d  this before  Before t h e number 1  again,  t o be t h e n e x t most  ex-  d e s c r i p t i o n a r a n k o f two i t s description.  and  P l e a s e complete t h e f o l l o w i n g ; Age:_ Sex: No. o f y r s i o f u n i v e r s i t y ; (2) Continue  t h i s process  f o r the remaining  card d e s c r i p t i o n s u n t i l  you have rank o r d e r e d them a l l from 1 t o 15* Remember, p l e a s e r e examine a l l t h e d e s c r i p t i o n s b e f o r e you a s s i g n a rank. A f t e r you have rank o r d e r e d a l l o f t h e c a r d s , you mav w i s h t o change your o r d e r .  You may change your o r d e r .  But c r o s s o u t your o l d  r a n k i n g and w r i t e your new rank number so t h a t i t may be e a s i l y  identi-  fied. Thank-you f o r your c o - o p e r a t i o n . DESCRIPTIONS (  )  A young woman w i t h a magazine and a purse i n h e r hand l o o k s from behind a t r e e a t a n o t h e r young woman i n a p a r t v d r e s s r u n n i n g a l o n g a beach. Four men i n o v e r a l l s a r e l y i n g on t h e grass t a k i n g i t easy, A woman i s c l u t c h i n g t h e s h o u l d e r s o f a man whose f a c e and body a r e a v e r t e d as i f he were t r y i n g t o p u l l away from h e r . A road s k i r t i n g a deep chasm between h i g h c l i f f s . On the road i n t h e d i s t a n c e a r e obscure f i g u r e s . P r o t r u d i n g fro.'': t h e r o c k y w a l l on one s i d e i s t h e l o n g head and neck o f a dragon. An a d o l e s c e n t boy l o o k s s t r a i g h t out o f t h e p i c t u r e . The b a r r e l o f a r i f l e i s v i s i b l e a t one s i d e , and i n t h e background i s t h e dim scene o f a s u r g i c a l o p e r a t i o n , l i k e a r e v e r i e - i m a g e . A young man i s l y i n g on a couch w i t h h i s eyes c l o s e d . Leaning over him i s t h e gaunt form o f an e l d e r l y man, h i s hand s t r e t c h e d o u t above t h e f a c e o f t h e r e c l i n i n g f i g u r e . A s h o r t e l d e r l y woman stands w i t h h e r back t u r n e d t o a t a l l young man. The l a t t e r i s l o o k i n g downward w i t h a p e r p l e x e d expression. A young boy i s c o n t e m p l a t i n g i n f r o n t o f him.  a v i o l i n which r e s t s on a t a b l e  On t h e f l o o r a g a i n s t a couch i s t h e huddled form o f a boy w i t h h i s head bowed on h i s r i g h t arm. B e s i d e him on t h e f l o o r i s a revolver. A b r i d g e over w a t e r . A female f i g u r e l e a n s over t h e r a i l i n g . . In t h e background ^ r e t a l l b u i l d i n g s and s m a l l f i g u r e s o f men. A woman has h e r hands squeezed around t h e t h r o a t o f another woman whom she appears t o be pushing backwards a c r o s s t h e b a n i s ter o f a stairway. A gaunt man w i t h clenched hands i s s t a n d i n g among  gravestones.  A young woman s i t s w i t h h e r c h i n i n h e r hand l o o k i n g o f f i n t o space.. A man i s c l u t c h e d from behind by t h r e e hands. his antagonists are i n v i s i b l e .  .The f i g u r e s o f  The d i m l y i l l u m i n e d f i g u r e o f a p e r s o n i n t h e dead o f n i g h t l e a n i n g a g a i n s t a lamD p o s t .  APPENDIX  B  INSTRUCTIONS GIVEN TO EXPERIMENTAL GROUP  51  Would you s i t here, p l e a s e . Before we go any f u r t h e r I must e x p l a i n t h a t there i s very l i t t l e tell  about what goes on i n t h i s experiment that I can  you about now.  But i f you l i k e , I w i l l  to your c l a s s , once the experiment  t r y to e x p l a i n  i s over, what took p l a c e .  Meanwhile, about a l l I can do i s give you d i r e c t i o n s and ask t h a t you f o l l o w them e x a c t l y . First,  I want you to s i t on t h i s c h a i r w i t h your  f e e t placed on those two b l a c k b l o c k s .  Now, I w i l l put some  eyecaps over your eyes and I must ask you to keep your open a t a l l times. put  T h i s i s v e r y important.  these r e s t s under your arms.  eyes  Next, I w i l l  Now, w i l l you p l e a s e l e t  your arms r e s t e a s i l y without touching your s i d e s and f a n your f i n g e r s open.  L e t your c h i n r e s t on t h i s  Keep p e r f e c t l y s t i l l  and remember:  (chin-rest). not to c l o s e  your eyes, not to move your f e e t or arms, t o keep your f i n g e r s fanned part and your head completely s t i l l . t a l k a t any time during t h i s phase I want you t o t a l k I w i l l  make t h i s  P l e a s e do not  of the experiment. explicit.  Now I w i l l put the ear plugs on.  When  APPENDIX  C  INSTRUCTIONS GIVEN TO CONTROL GROUP  53  Would you  s i t here,  please.  Before we  go any  f u r t h e r I must e x p l a i n t h a t there  i s very l i t t l e about what goes on can t e l l you  about now.  But  i n t h i s experiment t h a t I  i f you  like,  I will  t r y to  e x p l a i n to your c l a s s , once the experiment i s over, what took p l a c e .  Meanwhile, about a l l I can do  d i r e c t i o n s and  ask that you  i s give  you  f o l l o w them e x a c t l y .  Here are some I n s t r u c t i o n s (See Appendix D) I want you out.  to read and  here i s a q u e s t i o n n a i r e t o be  Take your time w i t h t h i s and  t h i s phase of the experiment. before you  filled  please do not t a l k  I will  probably  stop  that  during  you  are through to give you more i n s t r u c t i o n s .  (20 minute accommodation  period)  FURTHER INSTRUCTIONS Now, You  can j u s t  tionnaire  we  have f i n i s h e d t h a t p a r t of the experiment.  leave the book as i t i s .  here.  I will  put the ques-  APPENDIX  D  INSTRUCTIONS GIVEN TO CONTROL GROUP WITH REGARD TO ADAPTATION TASK  You w i l l be shown s e v e r a l pages of f a s h i o n s , each page r e p r e s e n t i n g a d i f f e r e n t k i n d of c l o t h i n g  article.  (Page 1, f o r example, shows summer c o c k t a i l dresses.) article  i s numbered. After  you have looked  the f a s h i o n s over  decide what you y o u r s e l f would buy  q u e s t i o n n a i r e sheet.  "2nd  t h i r d choices. c h o i c e " and  EXAMPLEi  carefully,  i f p r i c e were no  Put the number of your choice beside  and  Each  object.  "1st c h o i c e " on  the  Then decide which would be your second Put  "3rd  the number of your c h o i c e s  beside  choice".  Supposing Page 30 shows summer s p o r t s wear. You;  J.  would buy number  Number 3 i s your second c h o i c e . Number 6 i s your t h i r d  choice.  Thus; on the q u e s t i o n n a i r e sheet you would PAGE 30?  put:  Summer s p o r t s wear. 1st c h o i c e :  7  2nd  choice:  Remember, take your time and i n your choices as there are no r i g h t  3  3rd  choice:  be frank and  6  honest  or wrong answers.  APPENDIX  E  INSTRUCTIONS FOR GIVING STORIES (For both, experimental and c o n t r o l group)  I am going to describe t o you some scenes, one a t a time, and I want you t o make up as dramatic a s t o r y as you can f o r each.  * I want you t o t e l l me what the events were  that l e d up to the scene, describe what Is happening a t the moment, what the characters are f e e l i n g and t h i n k i n g , and then give me the outcome.**  (Repeat from # to ##)  make up any kind of s t o r y you please.  Y O U can  Speak your thoughts  as they come to your mind. Let y o u r s e l f go f r e e l y .  I will  describe each scene twice and a f t e r the second d e s c r i p t i o n you are to t e l l me the s t o r y .  Do you understand?  you to speak c l e a r l y so I can hear every word. W e l l , then, here i s the f i r s t scene.  I want  APPENDIX  F  QUESTIONNAIRE GIVEN TO SUBJECTS AS A MEANS OF TAPPING ANXIETY  59 REACTIONS TO THE  EXPERIMENT  DIRECTIONS: Read e a c h o f trie s e n t e n c e s p r e s e n t e d b e l o w and d e c i d e where y o u w o u l d r a t e y o u r s e l f on e a c h o f them. Draw a c i r c l e around, t h e number w h i c h b e s t d e s c r i b e s y o u r r e a c t i o n t o the experiment r e f e r r e d t o i n the statement. Be f r a n k and h o n e s t b e c a u s e t h e r e a r e no r i g h t o r wrong r a t i n g s . Do not s k i p any statement.  1,  I liked participating in t h i s experiment.  7  6  5  4  Did not l i k e participating in i t .  I e x p e r i e n c e d some a n x i e t y o r f e a r d u r i n g t h e exL 6 periment. _7 5 A f a i r amount o f experienced fear or anxiety.  3.  4.  I d i s l i k e d some t h i n g s I had. t o do i n t h i s experiment.  6 7 4 5 Were some t h i n g s I d e f i n i t e l y objected to doing i n t h i s experiment.  I b e l i e v e I was no more n e r v o u s t h a n o t h e r s would be d u r i n g chin experiment.  7  6  5  I had a d e s i r e t o t e r minate t h e experiment b e f o r e i t was o v e r .  I w o u l d n o t mind b e i n g a subject i n a similar k i n d o f experiment.  7  6  5  3  3  T h e r e wvs not h i n g I dis-.l i k e d doing.  4  3  4  3  Objections to being a subject i n a similar kind o f experiment.  1.  Calm a n d nonchalant.  3  Wished to t e r minate the experiment , 6.  _2  Enjoyed p a r t T cipating i n i t a g r e a t deal,.  4  Q u i t e a " DbIi TF: more nervous than o t h e r s w o u l d be d u r i n g t h e experiment.  5.  3  2  No more t e n s e than others w o u l d be d u r i n g t h e experiment .  No d e s i r e t o terminate the experiment.  2_  1  No o b j e c t i o n s to b e i n g a subject i n a simil a r k i n d o f expiment.  60 (2)  7.  I found m y s e l f w o r r y i n g about something d u r i n g the experiment.  5  7  4  3  4  3__  4  3  4  3  4  3  4  3  W o r r i e d a b o u t somet h i n g d u r i n g t h e experiment„  I p e r f o r m e d u n d e r some t e n s i o n d u r i n g t h e experiment ,  7  6  7  6  7  6  7  6  Did not worry about anything d u r i n g t h e experiment.  Some t e n s i o n d u r i n g the experiment.  9.  I would have l i k e d t o avoid certain parts of t h i s experiment.  5  Q u i t e a few p a r t s o f t h i s experiment I w o u l d have l i k e d to avoid. 10.  I had p e r i o d s o f r e s t l e s s n e s s d u r i n g the exp e r i m e n t when I f o u n d i t hard t o s i t s t i l l .  Restless during most o f t h e experiment. 11.  I f e e l t h a t my p e r f o r mance i n t h e e x p e r i m e n t vras a f f e c t e d b y my emot i o n a l f e e l i n g at the t ime.  Affected a de-1. 12.  I would v o l u n t e e r f o r a s i m i l a r k i n d o f experiment , 7 Definitely no.  Teax,  Probably no.  Not sure  2  1_  NcTtensioi" during the experiment.  No p a r t s I w o u l d have l i k e d to avoid.  Composed throughout,  Not " a f f e c t e d a t ;i l l .  Probably yes.  Definitely yes.  APPENDIX  G  ELABORATION OF SCORING PROCEDURES  1.  More d i s o r g a n i z e d , as measured by:(a) U n c e r t a i n t y o f s t o r y or i t s outcome. One p o i n t was g i v e n f o r every statement  that raised  a q u e s t i o n t h a t was not answered l a t e r on i n the s t o r y . For example, t o the statement,  "The man w i t h clenched hands i s  angry." the q u e s t i o n i s asked, "Why i s he angry?" q u e s t i o n , and others l i k e commit." ing  If this  i t - "What s o r t of 'harm  " I f she i s ' s i t t i n g  d i d she  1  t h i n k i n g ' , what i s she t h i n k -  about." - was not answered i n some way throughout the  course of the s t o r y , one p o i n t was awarded.  Often  there  was u n c e r t a i n t y w i t h regard to an element i n the s t o r y because the s u b j e c t h e r s e l f showed i n d e c i s i o n through of  " o r " between two elements.  "...the other woman's e i t h e r  s t r a n g l i n g her or t r y i n g to save her."  This l e f t  i t up t o  someone e l s e to decide which course the s t o r y should Rather  the use  take.  than g i v i n g a p o i n t f o r every r e c u r r e n c e of  the same u n c e r t a i n element, o n l y one p o i n t was awarded no matter how many times  i t occurred.  More i n d e c i s i o n and u n c e r t a i n t y was manifested i n the outcomes of s t o r i e s .  In some s t o r i e s , the outcome had  no pertenant r e l a t i o n to the preceding  events, and t h e r e f o r e  could not be c o n s i d e r e d as what would have been the r e a l outcome of these events.  For example, i n one s t o r y ( t o  p i c t u r e 8GF), the g i r l , who has j u s t been t o a p a r t y , i s v e r y discouraged  because she d i d n ' t meet anyone  interesting.  " S h e ' l l probably  look a t h e r s e l f l a t e r and wonder what's  the matter w i t h her and what s o r t of man tractive to.  she would be a t -  S h e ' l l probably end up going to bed  very soundly."  Does she f i n d the " r i g h t man?"  the s t o r i e s given to card l£ ("A  gaunt man  with  and s l e e p i n g  In many of clenched  hands i s standing among g r a v e s t o n e s " ) , the end of the s t o r y c o n s i s t e d of the man c o n s i d e r e d an "end" An  simply l e a v i n g the graveyard.  T h i s _i_s  to the s t o r y r a t h e r than an "outcome."  "outcome" to the graveyard  scene would be, f o r example,  " H e ' l l f i n d there are other t h i n g s to l i v e f o r - ( h i s w i f e and  c h i l d have j u s t been k i l l e d  go on to do what's r e q u i r e d of  i n a car a c c i d e n t ) .  He'll  him."  What appears to be an exception to t h i s r u l e , really carries 9BM.  i t out  (Four men  i s the type of s t o r y given to card  l y i n g on the g r a s s ) .  Q u i t e o f t e n the  given to t h i s card were merely accounts "These men  but  "stories  of a s e r i e s of  are c o n s t r u c t i o n workers on t h e i r  events  lunch - hour.  They're l y i n g on the grass because i t looked n i c e to them. They ate t h e i r  lunch there and now  around r e l a x i n g .  Soon t h e y ' l l  t h e y ' l l get up and f o r card 9BM,  was  - when one  go back to work."  sitting  o'clock comes -  T h i s type of outcome,  awarded a p o i n t .  In another  type of s i t u a t i o n , the outcome i s s t a t e d  but not s a t i s f a c t o r i l y e l a b o r a t e d . on the s t r e e t .  they're j u s t  Thus, a man  i s attacked  "They p u l l him to the ground and he h i t s h i s  head v e r y hard and they run away and he stays there - he does not move."  Question:  Where the outcome was  Is he dead or j u s t  unconscious?  s t a t e d as a n e g a t i v e - "She  does not  push her over (the b a n i s t e r ) " , and the a l t e r n a t i v e was s u p p l i e d , another p o i n t was  awarded.  Some outcomes were  b l a t a n t l y u n c e r t a i n - "There won't n e c e s s a r i l y be any f i n i t e - one outcome, you know, to s o l v e the A p o i n t was  not  de-  problem."  a l s o given i f no outcome was  stated.  Example: (?) "Well, again something  has come between these women.  I t must have been some v e r y strong f o r c e t h a t would cause one woman to be, w e l l , appear  to be choking another  pushing her over the s t a i r s - perhaps  (?)  both loved or something  and  someone that they have  has happened to t h e i r  children.  (?)  Something has come between them. I don't know i f the woman would come to her sense soon enough to r e a l i z e what she  (?) was  doing.  I t would depend on how  enraged  she  was."  (?) - outcome. What has come between the two women? Was i t someone they both loved? Or has something  happened to t h e i r  children?  Would the woman come to her senses soon enough to r e a l i z e what she was How  enraged was  doing?  she?  What i s the outcome? Number of p o i n t s awarded = 6  (b) L o o s e l y Scoring  structured  f o r "Events leading up t o the scene"  was f a i r l y s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d . which e x p l a i n e d ,  imperfect  Any r e f e r e n c e made t o the past  i n p a r t , the reason f o r what was happening  at the moment was included past  stories.  i n t h i s category,  as was any  a c t i o n - that i s an a c t i o n which i s c o n t i n u i n g  i n t o the p r e s e n t .  "He was walking along  the s t r e e t when..."  i s an example of the l a t t e r . "What the c h a r a c t e r s a r e f e e l i n g " was by any r e f e r e n c e  exemplified  to emotion - " r e g r e t " ( f e e l i n g s o r r y f o r  something one has done), "being  startled" (feeling  suddenly  shocked or a f r a i d ) , " l o n e l i n e s s " , or t o a p h y s i c a l s t a t e such as " t i r e d n e s s " or " s i c k n e s s " was considered  as exempli-  f y i n g what the c h a r a c t e r s were f e e l i n g . "She was j u s t s i t t i n g a p o i n t f o r the next category  t h i n k i n g . " was not given  - what the c h a r a c t e r s are  t h i n k i n g - as i t d i d not answer the q u e s t i o n Statements l i k e  "what".  "She d i d n ' t know q u i t e what to do or how to  get him back.", "She's determined to murder her.", and "She can't q u i t e b e l i e v e . " were scored as one p o i n t as they c o n s t i t u t e a c e r t a i n l i n e of t h i n k i n g . "What i s happening a t the moment" excluded and  "feeling"  " t h i n k i n g " so t h a t a s t o r y such as the f o l l o w i n g was  given no score f o r t h i s category.  "This man has probably  l o s t h i s w i f e , h i s son, or somebody very c l o s e to him. I t  s t r u c k him very - i t was a great blow t o him.  P o s s i b l y he  f e e l s a sense of - a sense of g u i l t because he might have contributed  toward t h e i r unhappiness - he might have, i n  f a c t , to t h e i r death - very s l i g h t l y . l o n e l y and has t h i s f e e l i n g The  He's very - very  of remorse."  above s t o r y r e c e i v e d a score  of three  - one  p o i n t f o r "events l e a d i n g up to the scene", one p o i n t f o r "what the c h a r a c t e r s  a r e f e e l i n g " , and one p o i n t f o r the  c o r r e c t sequence of events (past followed (c) L i t t l e  by present.)  elaboration  Example; "These two women have had an argument.  One woman  i s s l i g h t l y older than the other.  And the woman who i s being  pushed backwards over the s t a i r w a y  has v i o l a t e d the r u l e s of  the older woman - t h a t the older woman has f o r l i v i n g by. And  the o l d e r woman has l o s t her temper and now she wishes  to destroy sinful  the younger one because the younger one i s so  i n her mind.  She does not push her over. Number of p o i n t s = 7  (3) More stereotyped,  as measured by:-  (a) b r i e f n e s s - fewer number of words i n each story (b) number of word and phrase r e p e t i t i o n s  EXAMPLE':. (I r e a l l y don't have any thoughts - that's the trouble.  I can't think of anything.)  The woman - the  mother-in-law i s s t r a n g l i n g the - the - her - her. (No.) The daughter i s s t r a n g l i n g her mother-in-law because, j u s t before, they were downstairs and there was a fight....And she grabbed her throat t o p u l l her back because she didn't wasn't going to - wasn't r e a l l y going t o do anything to her. Number of words - 37 Number of repeated words - 17 N.B.  (1) Parentheses i n d i c a t e extraneous comments. (2) Underlined words are counted as repeated words. B. and C. More aggression as measured on low and medium aggressive cards, and less aggression on high aggressive cards. EXAMPLE: "A woman has found that her husband has been having  an a f f a i r w i t h t h i s other woman. And when they next come into contact her f i r s t r e a c t i o n i s to e l i m i n a t e her r i v a l . So she does t h i s apparently by s t r a n g u l a t i o n and a t the same time t r y i n g to push her over the b a n i s t e r .  The woman does  not succeed, however, because the husband comes i n , f i n d s the two and separates them." Category 3 ( P o t e n t i a l ) , therefore number of points = 1^-  APPENDIX  H  REACTIONS TO' EXPERIMENT (GIVEN VERBALLY BY E GROUP)  Subject 1: "I thought  I'd d i e , I got so r e s t l e s s .  that mean how uncomfortable  I felt?  know i f I'd go Into psychology people  Could  I don't  i f you t o r t u r e  like that."  Subject 2: "I n e a r l y f e l l  asleep."  Subject 3: "I was wondering why I had t o do those t h i n g s what i t had to do w i t h Subject k:  "I f e l t  psychology."  as though I was going  to s l e e p .  I was  expecting something to happen to me." Subject 5: "Was I s i t t i n g  there v e r y long?  think you were s i t t i n g hour.  Do most people  they r e f u s e .  there?)  (How long do you About h a l f an  s i t there that long or do  I had the f e e l i n g t h a t you ( E x p e r i -  menter) weren't i n the room. long I was s i t t i n g  there.  I d i d n ' t know how  I thought  about my  b o y f r i e n d a f t e r wondering what was going on. Was i t an endurance t e s t . " Subject 6: "I f e l t  as though I had been s i t t i n g  there f o r  h a l f or t h r e e - q u a r t e r s of an hour." Subject J:  "I thought  1 was going  to go to s l e e p .  as though I had been s i t t i n g I t was probably t e n minutes.  I felt  there f o r an hour.  Subject 8: "I l o s t t r a c k of the time. my eyes open.  F e l t a l o s s of f e e l i n g .  Felt  falling  asleep.  sitting  t h e r e , I might as w e l l be t h i n k i n g  something. Subject 9 :  I wondered i f I had  Thought i f I was going to be  I t c e r t a i n l y had a s t a r t l i n g  "I f e l t q u i t e t i r e d .  shut i n .  or more.  Wanted to move, to s h i f t . l i k e h a l f an  I wondered i f you (Experimenter)  had f o r g o t t e n me - I was m y s t i f i e d . weren't  effect."  I found i t harder t o  I found the time dragging - i t f e l t hour  about  I d i d n ' t know whether my  eyes were open or shut. breath, f e l t  like  organized.  My thoughts  I found i t hard t o t h i n k i n  continuous thoughts - c o u l d n ' t keep d i r e c t i o n s ( i n s t r u c t i o n s ) i n mind.  I f e l t a f r a i d and  tensioned up. Subject 1 0 :  "Wondered what the experiment was about. felt  s l e e p y - my mind wondered.  than I t probably was. a t e s t of p a t i e n c e .  At f i r s t  It felt  I longer  thought i t was  Probably a t e s t on your out-  look on l i f e . " S u b j e c t 11:  "I wondered what the t h i n g was about. l i k e having to t e l l  stories."  I didn't  Subject  12:  "1  kept  t h i n k i n g what i t meant.  - my hands were c o l d . the experiment.  I was  perspirini  Has i t anything t o do w i t h  Wanted to swallow - but couldn't  - l i k e being a s l e e p .  Wondered what i t would be  l i k e to be i n a u r o n a u t i c experiment where you cut o f f f e e l i n g .  I f r e e - a s s o c i a t e d . May have  taken twenty minutes.  Probably an endurance t e s t  I wasn't aware of the time - might have gone c r a z y i f over an hour.  Related s t o r i e s to myself  I was probably o v e r - c a u t i o u s . r e v e a l myself. Subject  13:  I d i d n ' t want to  My thoughts were happy."  "Repeated poems I could remember.  I wasn't  r e s t l e s s - I was able t o s i t and t h i n k . my ideas were f a r - f e t c h e d . - although  Some of  I didn't f e e l  I was up l a t e the n i g h t b e f o r e .  sleepy It  probably took about ten minutes." Subject  lk: "I enjoyed  the experiment."  Note: The other s i x members of the experimental asked  simply  i f there was anything they wanted t o say  about the experiment. nificant  group were  comments.  These s u b j e c t s made no s i g -  

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