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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Planning non-ward care for children of mentally ill parents : an analysis of decisions made by the Children's… Kolodinski, Elsie 1961

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PLANNING NON-WARD CARE FOR CHILDREN OF MENTALLY ILL PARENTS An Analysis of Decisions made by the Children's Aid Society of Vancouver i n the years 1957 to 1959. by ELSIE KOLODINSKI Thesis Submitted i n P a r t i a l Fulfilment of the Requirements f o r the Degree of MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK i n the School of Social Work Accepted as conforming to the standard required for the degree of Master of Soci a l Work School of Social Work 1961 The University of B r i t i s h Columbia I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r a n a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l m a k e i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e a n d s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s m a y b e g r a n t e d b y t h e H e a d o f my D e p a r t m e n t o r b y h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t b e a l l o w e d w i t h o u t m y w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . T h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , V a n c o u v e r 8, C a n a d a . D e p a r t m e n t o i i TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter 1. Basic Concepts of Child Welfare Page Non-ward care defined. Background of s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to children, h i s t o r i c a l survey. Increasing stress upon family l i f e . Mental i l l n e s s as a form of parental incapacity. Impact of mental I l l n e s s upon family l i f e . Planning placement: the parents, the c h i l d and the agency. Objectives and method of study............. 1 Chapter 2. The Parents and Their Children P o l i c y regarding non-ward care. Family status and number.of children sampled. Presenting problems and sources of r e f e r r a l . Other family problems 22 Chapter 3« Implementing Plans for Non-ward Care Decisions by Planning Conference, purposes of the Conference. Time considerations In planning. Economic circumstances of parents and f i n a n c i a l contributions. Use of s o c i a l resources. Length of time childr e n i n non-ward care. Di s p o s i t i o n at time of discharge from non-ward care 35 Chapter 1+.. Non-ward Care: Some Implications for Practice  and P o l i c y Estimate of d i f f e r e n t i a l factors i n non-ward care services, implications of the study for p r a c t i c e . Impli-cation for community planning. Implications for non-ward care theory. L e g i s l a t i o n of other provinces.. 55 Appendices: A. Sample survey schedule B. Non-ward care p o l i c y of the Children's Aid,Society C. Sample information form D. Bibliography i i i TABLES AND SCHEDULES IN THE TEXT Page (a) Tables Table 1. Family status, t o t a l number of children i n the f a m i l i e s , and the number of children taken into non-ward care 23 Table 2 , Presenting problems and the sources of r e f e r r a l . . . . . . . 27 Table 3» The presenting problems and the kinds and number of other problems present 32 Table 1+. Length of time families were known to the Children's Aid Society p r i o r to placement of c h i l d In non-ward care. Number of children returned to t h e i r parents at discharge 4-0 Table 5. Economic circumstances of the parents and f i n a n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the maintenance of children i n non-ward care Table 6. Use of resources other than non-ward care l±6 Table 7« Length of time children were i n non-ward care and the d i s p o s i t i o n a f t e r discharge 5 l (b) Schedule Schedule 1. An estimate of d i f f e r e n t i a l factors with reference to whether the children were returned , to t h e i r parents or did. not return f?6 ABSTRACT T h i s s t u d y makes a n a n a l y s i s o f t h o s e s i t u a t i o n s i n w h i c h c h i l d r e n o f m e n t a l l y i l l p a r e n t s were t a k e n i n t o non-ward c a r e by t h e C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y o f V a n c o u v e r , B.C., I n t h e y e a r s 1957 t o 1959. The p u r p o s e o f t h e s t u d y i s t o d e t e r m i n e t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e f a m i l i e s t o whom t h i s s e r v i c e was g i v e n , what f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c e d p l a n n i n g , t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e f a c t o r o f m e n t a l i l l n e s s , and w h e t h e r t h e p l a n a c h i e v e d i t s s t a t e d p u r p o s e . I n t h e t w e n t y - f o u r f a m i l y c a s e s s t u d i e d , t h e r e was a combined t o t a l o f f i f t y - s i x c h i l d r e n . O n l y t h i r t y - s i x o f t h e s e c h i l d r e n were t a k e n i n t o non-ward c a r e . The m a j o r i t y o f f a m i l i e s i n c l u d e d two p a r e n t s i n t h e home, and i n t h e s e i n s t a n c e s t h e p a r e n t s made g r e a t e r u s e o f t h e i r own r e s o u r c e s . The m a j o r f a c t o r n e c e s s i t a t i n g t h e u s e o f non-ward c a r e was f o u n d t o be th e h o s p i t a l i z a t i o n o f t h e m o t h e r f o r p s y c h i a t r i c t r e a t m e n t . P l a n n i n g f o r t h e c a r e o f t h e c h i l d r e n was s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n f l u e n c e d by emergency r e f e r r a l s , w h i c h gave l i t t l e t i m e t o c a s e w o r k e r s t o a s s e s s t h e f a m i l y s i t u a t i o n p r i o r t o p l a c e m e n t o f t h e c h i l d . T w e n t y - n i n e c h i l d r e n were r e t u r n e d t o t h e i r p a r e n t s . Twenty-two o f t h e s e were r e t u r n e d w i t h i n s i x months. M o s t o f t h e s e f a m i l i e s were unknown t o t h e C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y p r i o r t o t h e r e q u e s t f o r non-ward c a r e and showed c o n s i d e r a b l e p a r e n t a l c a p a b i l i t y . S e v e n c h i l d r e n were e i t h e r - made wards o r were p l a c e d f o r a d o p t i o n . I n t h e s e i n s t a n c e s t h e p a r e n t s r e v e a l e d r e c u r r i n g s o c i a l d y s f u n c t i o n a n d p a r e n t a l i n c a p a c i t y . T h e i r c h i l d r e n r e m a i n e d i n non-ward c a r e f o r l o n g e r p e r i o d s o f time t h a n t h e f i r s t g r o u p b e f o r e a f u t u r e p l a n was made. The r e s u l t s o f t h e s t u d y a r e d i s c u s s e d w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o non-ward c a r e p o l i c y o f t h e C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y a n d t o b a s i c c h i l d w e l f a r e c o n c e p t s . Some r e f e r e n c e i s made t o n o n -ward c a r e and t e m p o r a r y ward c a r e l e g i s l a t i o n o f o t h e r p r o v i n c e s . Some a s s e s s m e n t i s made a b o u t non-ward c a r e . Non-ward c a r e was f o u n d t o be a n i n v a l u a b l e s e r v i c e to f a m i l i e s , b u t t h i s r e s o u r c e must be u s e d j u d i c i o u s l y o r g r a v e damage t o t h e c h i l d a n d t h e c h i l d - p a r e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p may r e s u l t . I m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e s t u d y a r e d i s c u s s e d w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o ( a ) t h e c a s e w o r k e r and p r a c t i c e , (b) community p l a n n i n g , and ( c ) non-ward c a r e t h e o r y . V ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I wish to express my sincere appreciation to Mr. Stanley H. Pinkerton, Executive Director, and to his s t a f f at the Children's Aid Society, Vancouver, B.C., for the co-operation extended me i n obtaining the data for t h i s thesis. I am also grateful to Mrs. Charlotte Cornwall^ Director of Casework Services, who so generously gave of her time and assistance. I am especially indebted to Mr. Douglas Fowler, of the School of Social Work, for his invaluable guidance and encouragement, and to' Dr. Leonard C. Marsh for his construc-t i v e suggestions regarding the material presented. PLANNING NON-WARD CARE FOR CHILDREN OF MENTALLY ILL PARENTS C h a p t e r 1 BASIC CONCEPTS OF CHILD WELFARE The f a m i l y i s , i n N o r t h A m e r i c a n c u l t u r e , r e g a r d e d a s t h e b a s i c u n i t f o r t h e h e a l t h y , e m o t i o n a l and p h y s i c a l g r o w t h o f i t s c h i l d r e n . I n r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e f a c t t h a t no f a m i l y i n a h i g h l y m o b i l e a n d i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t y i s immune f r o m t h e h a z a r d s o f f i n a n c i a l d e p e n d e n c y , p h y s i c a l and m e n t a l I l l n e s s , and s o c i a l d i s o r i e n t a t i o n , c o m m u n i t i e s have made c o n c e r t e d e f f o r t s t o f i n d means o f s t r e n g t h e n i n g t h e f a m i l y u n i t t h r o u g h p r o v i s i o n o f a w i d e v a r i e t y o f community and s o c i a l a g e n c y s e r v i c e s . T h e r e a r e a number o f o c c a s i o n s when a c h i l d , t h o u g h he may have a m o t h e r and a f a t h e r , c a n n o t be l o o k e d a f t e r i n h i s own home, a s , f o r example, i n . s i t u a t i o n s where t h e p a r e n t s a r e i l l , o r t h e c h i l d i s m a n i f e s t i n g b e h a v i o u r p r o b l e m s w i t h w h i c h t h e p a r e n t s c a n n o t d e a l . I n t h e s e i n s t a n c e s , t h e s t r e s s u p o n t h e f a m i l y may be o f t e m p o r a r y d u r a t i o n , o r t h e s t r e s s may be s e v e r e enough t o t h r e a t e n c o m p l e t e d i s r u p t i o n o f t h e f a m i l y . I n s u c h c i r c u m s t a n c e s , a c h i l d w e l f a r e a g e n c y , p u b l i c o r p r i v a t e , may be a b l e t o f i n d a s u b s t i t u t e f a m i l y f o r t h e c h i l d , f o r a t e m p o r a r y p e r i o d o f t i m e , w h i l e t h e p a r e n t s a t t e m p t t o r e s o l v e t h e i r d i f f i c u l t i e s . The c h i l d i n t h e s e c a s e s may n o t be made a w a r d o f t h e s t a t e , a s he m i g h t be I n c a s e s where n e g l e c t h a s b e e n e s t a b l i s h e d a n d t h e g overnment o r a d e l e g a t e d a g e n c y becomes h i s l e g a l g u a r d i a n . R a t h e r , t h e p a r e n t s a g r e e v o l u n t a r i l y t o p l a c e t h e c h i l d i n a f o s t e r home u n t i l t h e y c a n resume r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r h i m i n t h e i r own home. I n B r i t i s h - 2 -Columbia, the child i s then known to be in non-ward care of the agency. Non-ward care i s a preventive measure, whereby assistance to families through temporary care of the children by an agency i s used as a means of relieving family stress; helping families to regain health and st a b i l i t y ; enabling them to resume their parental roles more adequately, and, foremost, to prevent permanent family breakdown. The exception to this is the use of non-ward care for a child whose parents or parent is unable to plan for him immediately and requires time to make a permanent plan for him, as in the case of an unmarried mother who may need time to decide whether adoption placement would be best for herself and the child. Whatever the immediate reason for the need for foster home care, be i t illness of the parents, emotional disturbance of the child, unsatisfactory parent-child relationships, or marital conflict, during the period of non-ward care, every effort should be made by the agency and the parents to strengthen the parental home. It i s important that the child not be deprived of the love of his own parents and the healthy relation-ships of family l i f e in his growing years for any longer than i s absolutely necessary. When temporary foster home care is necessary for a child of an unmarried mother, the mother should be helped to make a permanent decision for the child i n the shortest possible time so that the child may either have a permanent adoption home or return to his mother rather than remain in a temporary foster home indefinitely. - 3 -Background of S o c i a l R e s p o n s i b i l i t y to C h i l d r e n R e c o g n i t i o n t h a t the s t a t e has some r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r i t s c h i l d r e n , over and above p a r e n t a l r i g h t s , was f i r s t s t a t e d i n the l e g a l d o c t r i n e o f parens p a t r i a e (parenthood of the State) i n England i n 1722. T h i s statement formed the b a s i s f o r p r o t e c t i o n s e r v i c e s to c h i l d r e n , when s o c i e t y , through I t s laws and ag e n c i e s , c o u l d assume gua r d i a n s h i p of a c h i l d who was c r u e l l y abused or n e g l e c t e d . I t was not u n t i l the l a t t e r p a r t o f the n i n e t e e n t h century t h a t l e g i s l a t i o n was passed to enable the s t a t e to e x e r c i s e s u p e r - p a r e n t a l a u t h o r i t y on b e h a l f of c h i l d r e n whose w e l l - b e i n g was threatened. The New York S o c i e t y f o r the Preven-t i o n o f C r u e l t y to C h i l d r e n , i n c o r p o r a t e d i n l875> was the f i r s t s o c i a l agency e s t a b l i s h e d to gi v e p r o t e c t i o n s e r v i c e to c h i l d r e n . I n c r e a s i n g i n t e r e s t i n s o c i a l w e l f a r e problems and g r e a t e r under-standing of the needs of c h i l d r e n I n f l u e n c e d a t r e n d towards the establishment o f c h i l d p r o t e c t i v e s e r v i c e s i n many oth e r communities. In Canada, the f i r s t c h i l d p r o t e c t i o n a c t was the Ont a r i o P r o t e c t i o n A c t of 1893. T h i s a c t i n f l u e n c e d s i m i l a r a c t i o n by oth e r p r o v i n c e s and much of Ont a r i o ' s e a r l y l e g i s -l a t i o n was i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the e a r l y l e g i s l a t i o n o f these p r o v i n c e s . I n i t s beginnings, c h i l d welfare l e g i s l a t i o n was o f t e n i n the form of "rescue and punishment" w i t h a zealous attempt being made by w e l l meaning c i t i z e n s to "rescue", or remove c h i l d r e n from p a r e n t a l c o n t r o l and custody without the pa r e n t s consent when th a t c h i l d was c o n s i d e r e d to be i n - k -undesirable circumstances or without proper care. There was no concomitant help given to the parents and action was geared mainly to protection of the c h i l d from cruelty. The f i r s t c h i l d welfare l e g i s l a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia was passed i n 1901. This l e g i s l a t i o n - The Children's Protection Act of 1901 - gave authority for Societies to incorporate under the act and provided for l e g a l transfer of orphaned and neglected children to the state or the s o c i e t i e s . This Act was l a t e r incorporated into the Infants Act of 1911, and revised again i n 1943, at which time i t became known as the Protection of Children Act. On July 17th, 1901, soon after c h i l d welfare l e g i s -l a t i o n In B r i t i s h Columbia was passed, the Children's Aid Society of Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia was incorporated. A major turning-point i n c h i l d welfare thinking came at the turn of the century and was h i s t o r i c a l l y recorded by the White House Conference In the United States i n 1909 i n a statement which stated: "Home l i f e i s the highest and f i n e s t product of c i v i l i z a t i o n . I t i s the great molding force of mind and character. Children should not be deprived of i t except for urgent and compelling reasons... As to the children who... must be removed from t h e i r own homes, or have no homes ... they should be cared f o r In families wherever practicable. The c a r e f u l l y selected foster home i s for the normal c h i l d the best substitute for the natural home...1 Tl Oettinger, Katherine B., "The Growth and Meaning of White House Conferences on Children and Youth", Children, U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare, Washington, D.C., U.S.A., Vol. 7, No. 1, January-February, I960, P. i+. - 5 -A t t h a t t i m e , o v e r f i f t y y e a r s ago, came r e d i r e c t i o n s i n t h i n k i n g w h i c h b r o u g h t new f o c u s on t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n o f f a m i l y t i e s and t h e b e g i n n i n g s o f t h e c o n c e p t t h a t c h i l d r e n s h o u l d n o t be s e p a r a t e d f r o m t h e i r n a t u r a l p a r e n t s i f a t a l l p o s s i b l e . I n s u b s e q u e n t y e a r s s i g n i f i c a n t p i e c e s o f l e g i s l a t i o n i n t h e f i e l d o f c h i l d w e l f a r e were p a s s e d . I n 1919, t h e p o s i -t i o n o f S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f N e g l e c t e d C h i l d r e n was e s t a b l i s h e d by t h e g o v e r n m e n t , and i n 1920, t h e f i r s t A d o p t i o n A c t was p a s s e d . I n 1922, t h e C h i l d r e n o f U n m a r r i e d P a r e n t s A c t was p a s s e d . T h e r e was a n i n c r e a s i n g e m p h a s i s on t h e n e e d s o f c h i l d r e n v i e w e d i n t h e l a r g e r c o n t e x t o f t h e t o t a l f a m i l y s i t u a t i o n , a n d a g r e a t e r a w a r e n e s s o f t h e v a l u e o f m a k i n g h e l p a v a i l a b l e t o f a m i l i e s b e f o r e t h e i r s i t u a t i o n d e t e r i o r a t e d t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t r e m o v a l o f t h e c h i l d became n e c e s s a r y . D u r i n g t h e 1 9 3 0 's a n d 194-0's, t e m p o r a r y f o s t e r home c a r e b e g a n t o be u s e d more e x t e n s i v e l y a s a n a p p r o p r i a t e means o f a s s i s t i n g p a r e n t s d u r i n g p e r i o d s o f t e m p o r a r y s t r e s s , i l l n e s s o r i n c a p a -c i t y . Q u e s t i o n s r e g a r d i n g p u b l i c r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r non-ward c a r e were r a i s e d by t h e L e g i s l a t i v e Committee i n 1926 and i n 1932 when t h e P r o v i n c i a l F i e l d S e r v i c e was e s t a b l i s h e d i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . T h i s p r o b l e m a g a i n a r o s e i n 19k-2 and 1943, when s o c i a l s e r v i c e s u n d e r t h e S o c i a l A s s i s t a n c e B r a n c h ( l a t e r c a l l e d t h e S o c i a l W e l f a r e B r a n c h ) were d e c e n t r a l i z e d and i n 194-7 when t h e G o l d e n b e r g R e p o r t recommended t h a t t h e P r o v i n c e a n d m u n i c i p a l i t i e s s h a r e a l l w e l f a r e c o s t s o n a n - 6 -80-20 basis. In 19k3, when the Protection of Children Act was amended, i t stated that among the objectives of a children's aid society was "the amelioration of family conditions that lead to neglect of children". This gave l e g i s l a t i v e approval and recognition to preventive casework services that were already drawing the attention of s o c i a l workers. No s p e c i f i c l e g i s l a t i o n regarding non-ward care has been made i n B r i t i s h Columbia. However, the provision of non-ward care i s a p o l i c y of the Children's Aid Society, and i s regarded as a s i g n i f i c a n t instrument i n the prevention of family breakdown. I t can be seen that c h i l d welfare services developed ra p i d l y during the l a s t h a l f century as knowledge about the needs of families and children became more understood and widespread. Although "rescue", which may describe an action whereby l e g a l authority i s used i n the removal of a c h i l d from his parents, without the parents consent, must s t i l l be used, there i s a recognition that t h i s i s a l a s t resort. When a c h i l d , i n consideration f o r his well-being, must be removed from his parents to a foster home, parents are encouraged to pa r t i c i p a t e v o l u n t a r i l y , even i f the family was f i r s t referred as a r e s u l t of complaint, and every e f f o r t i s made to return the c h i l d home once the conditions which necessitated his removal have improved. Increasing Stress Upon Family L i f e North American Society has become increasingly complex and i n d u s t r i a l i n nature. U r b a n i z a t i o n has become a common f e a t u r e . As f a m i l i e s move i n t o l a r g e r , i n d u s t r i a l c e n t e r s , f a m i l y t i e s are loosened, breadwinners have become dependent upon wages, and are f a c e d with the hazard and t h r e a t of i n t e r -r u pted wages because o f unemployment, i l l n e s s or d i s a b i l i t y . As a r e s u l t , many f a m i l i e s , e s p e c i a l l y those i n the lower income l e v e l , have become more exposed to s t r e s s e s which t h r e a t e n f a m i l y l i f e . When i l l n e s s b e f a l l s a breadwinner, h i s r e l a t i v e s are no l o n g e r l i a b l e o r able to assume r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r h i s depen-dents. The f a m i l y has i n r e c e n t years become a more s p e c i a l i z e d agency than ever before and there has been a r e d u c t i o n i n the importance o f k i n s h i p u n i t s other than the n u c l e a r f a m i l y . One author goes as f a r as s t a t i n g t h a t a l o n g s i d e the k i n s h i p groups of other s o c i a l o r d e r s the most s t r i k i n g f e a t u r e s o f the American f a m i l y system are i t s small s i z e , the i s o l a t i o n of the p r i n c i p a l u n i t , the c o n j u g a l f a m i l y , from other s e c t o r s of the k i n s h i p system, and the modern f a m i l y ' s apparent f u n c t i o n l e s s n e s s . 1 H e n r i e t t a L. G-ordon b e l i e v e s t h a t an i n c r e a s i n g l y e n l i g h t e n e d s o c i a l o u t l o o k has brought i n t o focus two s i g n i f i c a n t concepts:. One o f these concepts i s th a t no f a m i l y can pro v i d e adequately f o r c h i l d r e n s o l e l y by i t s own e f f o r t s . To meet our s o c i a l g o a l - the f u l l e s t development of the i n d i v i d u a l ' s p o t e n t i a l c a p a c i t y and c r e a t i v e n e s s - an i n c r e a s i n g number of s e r v i c e s are needed to supplement p a r e n t a l care, and these T~. Parsons, T. and Pox, R., " I l l n e s s , Therapy, and the Modern Urban American Family", A Modern I n t r o d u c t i o n to  the Family, Ed. B e l l , and Vogel, E., The Free Press of Glencoe, I l l i n o i s , I 9 6 0 , P. 3i+9. - 8 -s e r v i c e s a r e b e i n g s u p p l i e d by t h e community. P r o p e r h o u s i n g , g o od s a n i t a t i o n , a d e q u a t e s c h o o l s , h o s p i t a l s , r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s . . . a r e s o c i e t y ' s c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f e v e r y c h i l d . . . t h e l a c k o f t h e s e i s e v e r y b i t as s e r i o u s a h a n d i c a p i n b r i n g i n g up c h i l d r e n a s i s i n a d e q u a t e p a r e n t a l c a r e . A s e c o n d c o n c e p t . . . h a s d e v e l o p e d i n r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e s p e c i a l n e e d o f some p a r e n t s f o r community a i d . When p a r e n t s c a n n o t p r o v i d e f u l l y f o r t h e i r c h i l d ' s c a r e and p r o t e c t i o n , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e community's e x p e c t a t i o n s o f p a r e n t s , s p e c i a l s o c i a l s e r v i c e s must be made a v a i l a b l e . 1 Not o n l y have s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s s e r v e d a s a b u l w a r k to t h e f a m i l y , b u t b e c a u s e o f e m e r g i n g s t r e s s e s u p o n the f a m i l y i n c o n t e m p o r a r y l i f e , s o c i a l a g e n c i e s a r e p r e s s e d t o p l a c e more e m p h a s i s , i n t h e f o r m o f p r e v e n t i v e s e r v i c e s , u p o n t h e m e e t i n g o f e m e r g i n g n e e d s . As a n o t h e r a u t h o r s t a t e s : The s t r e s s e s o f A m e r i c a n l i f e , i n c l u d i n g i n d u s t -r i a l i z a t i o n , u r b a n i z a t i o n , i n t e r n a l i m m i g r a t i o n a n d s o c i a l c l a s s , p r e s s h a r d a g a i n s t t h e f r a i l s h e l l o f t h e f a m i l y , a t t e n u a t e d a s i t i s by t h e t h i n n i n g o f l a r g e r k i n s h i p g r o u p s and o f t e n l i m i t e d t o i t s own r e s o u r c e s i n time o f c r i s i s . ^ A c r i s i s may o c c u r i n any f a m i l y , and a l t h o u g h many f a m i l i e s a r e a b l e t o cope w i t h t h i s , o t h e r s must s e e k h e l p e l s e -where. Non-ward c a r e i s one measure o f a s s i s t a n c e t o f a m i l i e s i n t i m e o f emergency. A U n i t e d N a t i o n s c o n f e r e n c e o n t h e m e n t a l -h e a l t h a s p e c t s o f u r b a n i z a t i o n , s p o n s o r e d by t h e W o r l d F e d e r a t i o n f o r M e n t a l H e a l t h i n 1957, n o t e d a se q u e n c e o f " i n d u s t r i a l i z a -t i o n - m e n t a l - h e a l t h p r o b l e m s " , t h e l a s t b e i n g l a r g e l y r e l a t e d t o 1. G o r d o n , H e n r i e t t a L . , Casework S e r v i c e s f o r C h i l d r e n : P r a c t i c e s and P r i n c i p l e s , H o u g h t o n M i f f l i n Co., B o s t o n , 1956, P. 2. 2. S i r j a m a k i , J o h n , " C u l t u r e C o n f i g u r a t i o n s I n t h e A m e r i c a n F a m i l y " , A Modern I n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e F a m i l y , E d . B e l l , a n d V o g e l , E . , The F r e e P r e s s o f G l e n c o e , I l l i n o i s , I 9 6 0 , P. 302. - 9 -t h e f a m i l y a n d i t s f u n c t i o n i n g i n a new s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n . 1 I n c a p a c i t a t e d B a r e n t s : M e n t a l I l l n e s s One f o r m o f p a r e n t a l i n c a p a c i t y i s m e n t a l i l l n e s s . T h i s s t u d y i s c o n f i n e d o n l y t o t h i s p a r t i c u l a r c a u s e o f p a r e n t a l i n c a p a c i t y and w i l l e x p l o r e w h e t h e r t h i s t y p e o f p r o b l e m c a n be m i t i g a t e d i n t e r m s o f t h e s e p a r a t i o n o f t h e p a r e n t a n d c h i l d . T h e r e h a s b e e n new e m p h a s i s p l a c e d u p o n m e n t a l h e a l t h s e r v i c e s i n r e c e n t y e a r s . P e o p l e i n N o r t h A m e r i c a h a v e , i n t h e p a s t d e c a d e s , v a s t l y c h a n g e d t h e i r a t t i t u d e t o w a r d s t h e m e n t a l l y 1 1 1 and no l o n g e r r e g a r d them as o u t c a s t s who must be k e p t i s o l a t e d a n d s e g r e g a t e d f r o m t h e community. S t a t i s t i c s r e g a r d i n g m e n t a l i l l n e s s show what seems t o be a n a l a r m i n g p r o p o r t i o n o f m e n t a l l y i l l among t h e p o p u l a -t i o n . I n 1 9 5 8 * t h e A m e r i c a n H o s p i t a l A s s o c i a t i o n and t h e N a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t e o f H e a l t h r e p o r t e d t h a t o f t h e 1 , 5 5 8 , 6 9 1 b e d s i n a l l h o s p i t a l s , f o r t y - f i v e p e r c e n t were p s y c h i a t r i c . On any one day, f i f t y p e r c e n t o f t h e p a t i e n t s who o c c u p i e d t h e s e b e d s had m e n t a l I l l n e s s . T h i s f i g u r e d i d n o t i n c l u d e t h e many p a t i e n t s b e i n g t r e a t e d i n o u t p a t i e n t c l i n i c s , p r i v a t e o f f i c e s o f p s y c h i a t r i s t s a n d p h y s i c i a n s o u t s i d e t h e p r a c t i c e o f p s y c h i a -t r y , s o c i a l w o r k e r s and i n g e n e r a l h o s p i t a l s who d i d n o t have IT W o r l d F e d e r a t i o n f o r M e n t a l H e a l t h : M e n t a l H e a l t h A s p e c t s o f U r b a n i z a t i o n : r e p o r t o f a p a n e l d i s c u s s i o n c o n d u c t e d a t t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s by WFMH, L o n d o n , 1 9 5 7 , as q u o t e d by G-unnar Dybwad i n " F a m i l y L i f e i n a C h a n g i n g W o r l d " , C h i l d r e n , U.S. D e p t . o f H e a l t h , E d u c a t i o n and W e l f a r e , W a s h i n g t o n , D.C., U.S.A., V o l . 6, No. 1 , J a n u a r y - F e b r u a r y , 1 9 5 9 , P. 3 . - 10 -special arrangements for psychiatric p a t i e n t s . 1 Mental i l l n e s s i s a community concern and one to -which s o c i a l workers i n every f i e l d should give some attention because mental i l l n e s s indicates a breakdown i n s o c i a l functioning and has implications for family health and community well-being. There i s now increasing evidence that greater success i s being achieved i n the f i e l d of mental i l l n e s s . For the f i r s t time i n the history of the United States and Canada there has been a decline i n the number of patients In large national hospitals for the l a s t few years. Though the rate of admission has nearly doubled i n ten years, the discharge rate has also r i s e n r a p i d l y , so that the number of patients i n hospital at a given time has decreased. In Canada, i n the ten years since 1947 the time spent i n mental hospitals by those patients who were discharged was reduced from an average of 1 .3 years to 0 .5 years. Nearly f o r t y percent of the patients going into h o s p i t a l for the f i r s t time were admitted as voluntary patients to psychiatric units i n general hospitals and almost a l l of these were able to return home i n greatly improved state of health.^ Many factors are believed to be responsible for t h i s trend. New methods of treatment are possibly one of the most s i g n i f i c a n t reasons, especially the use of t r a n q u i l i z i n g drugs T~. Woodward, Luther E., "Increasing Social Work Effectiveness i n Meeting Mental Health Needs", Social Work, Journal of the National Association of Social Workers, Albany, N.Y., Vol. 5 , No. 3 , July, I960, P. 5 9 . 2. Canadian Mental Health Association, Milestones  i n Mental Health; a record of achievements, 1918 - 1958, Toronto, 1959. - l i -a s w e l l a s dynamic p s y c h o t h e r a p y and i m p r o v e d f o r m s o f h o s p i t a l t r e a t m e n t . O t h e r i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r s a r e t h e improvement i n t h e q u a l i t y and number o f s t a f f , new b u i l d i n g s and f a c i l i t i e s and new methods o f s o c i a l and r e c r e a t i o n a l t h e r a p y , w h i c h h a s c r e a t e d a more c h e e r f u l a t m o s p h e r e a n d g r e a t e r s o c i a l a c t i v i t y . The g r o w i n g u n d e r s t a n d i n g and s y m p a t h e t i c I n t e r e s t o f t h e p u b l i c h a s b e e n o f g r e a t v a l u e i n h e l p i n g t h e p a t i e n t t o r e t u r n t o h i s community. T h i s t r e n d i s v e r y e n c o u r a g i n g ; t h e g r e a t e r t h e t r e a t a b i l i t y o f m e n t a l i l l n e s s , t h e g r e a t e r t h e hope t h a t m e n t a l l y i l l p e o p l e c a n r e t u r n t o t h e i r f a m i l i e s a n d to t h e i r community. F u r t h e r m o r e , t h i s i m p l i e s t h a t t h e r e i s no l o n g e r so g r a v e a d a n g e r t h a t t o t a l f a m i l y b reakdown w i l l o c c u r b e c a u s e o f m e n t a l i l l n e s s . I mpact o f M e n t a l I l l n e s s u p o n F a m i l y L i f e P e r h a p s t h e r e i s hope t h a t t e m p o r a r y f o s t e r home c a r e f o r t h e c h i l d r e n o f t h o s e m e n t a l l y i l l p a r e n t s who must l e a v e home f o r t r e a t m e n t may i n d e e d be s u c c e s s f u l i f h o s p i t a l i z a t i o n I s no l o n g e r l i a b l e t o be o f l o n g d u r a t i o n i n many i n s t a n c e s . However, m e n t a l i l l n e s s h a s g r e a t e r i m p l i c a t i o n s t h a n t h e l o s s o f a p a r e n t when t h a t p a r e n t n e e d s t o e n t e r a m e n t a l h o s p i t a l f o r t r e a t m e n t . The m e n t a l i l l n e s s o f one p a r e n t c a n have a d e c i d e d e f f e c t u p o n f a m i l y l i f e . A c c o r d i n g t o Dr. Ackerman, m e n t a l i l l n e s s l i m i t e d t o a s i n g l e member o f a f a m i l y g r o u p i s a r a r i t y ; more o f t e n t h a n n o t t h e r e a r e m u l t i p l e i l l n e s s e s . He b e l i e v e s - 12 -that the community at large Is not yet atuned to the idea of viewing emotional i l l n e s s as a problem of the entire family group, as families do not yet present themselves to community c l i n i c s or mental health p r a c t i t i o n e r s as sick u n i t s . Instead, they follow the t r a d i t i o n a l habit of r e f e r r i n g one member of the family for study and treatment. Dr. Ackerman thinks that t h i s f i r s t r e f e r r a l c a l l s attention to the psychopathological d i s -turbances of the entire family group. 1 The impact of mental i l l n e s s upon the s t a b i l i t y and health of the family can have far-reaching e f f e c t s . This study w i l l concern i t s e l f i n part with the question of whether th i s has influenced planning non-ward care for the c h i l d of the mentally i l l parent, and what factors precipitated requests for foster home placement - h o s p i t a l i z a t i o n of the parent, neglect because of parental inadequacy, emotional disturbance of the c h i l d , disruption of parent-child r e l a t i o n s h i p s , or whether there were several of these factors present i n each s i t u a t i o n studied. When does Non-Ward Care seem better than alternative Resources Non-ward care i s but one facet, although a major one, among many other resources that welfare agencies have developed as a means of salvaging the parental home which i s undergoing stress, for the c h i l d . Resources such as c h i l d guidance c l i n i c s , day-care services, homemaker services and casework services are s i g n i f i c a n t preventive services. The s o c i a l worker i n a c h i l d -1. Ackerman, Nathan W., The Psychodynamics of Family  L i f e , Basic Books, Inc., New York, 1958, Pp. 91-92. - 13 -c a r i n g a g e n c y must d e c i d e when t h e u s e o f non-ward c a r e i s more a p p r o p r i a t e t h a n t h e s e o t h e r r e s o u r c e s . I n many c o m m u n i t i e s , homemaker s e r v i c e s a n d d a y - c a r e s e r v i c e s have n o t d e v e l o p e d t o a n a d e q u a t e d e g r e e , and i n s u c h c a s e s where f a m i l y breakdown t h r e a t e n s t o o c c u r , as f o r example where p a r e n t s a r e t e m p o r a r i l y i n c a p a c i t a t e d b e c a u s e o f t h e n e e d f o r h o s p i t a l i z a t i o n , non-ward c a r e c a n be a v i t a l r e s o u r c e f o r a i d i n g t h e f a m i l y i n t h i s moment o f c r i s i s . T h e r e may be many o t h e r i n s t a n c e s where t e m p o r a r y f o s t e r home c a r e o f c h i l d r e n may be a p p r o p r i a t e a n d s h o u l d a l w a y s be d e c i d e d a f t e r s t u d y o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l c a s e , t a k i n g i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n many o t h e r f a c t o r s o t h e r t h a n t h e p r e s e n t i n g p r o b l e m a l o n e . F i n a n c i a l C o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n Non-Ward C a r e H e l p s h o u l d be made a v a i l a b l e t o p a r e n t s r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e i r a b i l i t y t o pay f o r s e r v i c e s . A t t h e same t i m e , p a r e n t s s h o u l d be e n c o u r a g e d t o c o n t i n u e some f i n a n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o t h e i r c h i l d r e n i f t h e y a r e a b l e t o do s o . Payment f o r a c h i l d ' s b o a r d i n g home c a r e i s one o f t h e few a r e a s i n w h i c h t h e p a r e n t c a n c o n t i n u e h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o t h e c h i l d t h a t i s l i v i n g i n a b o a r d i n g home, and s h o u l d be u t i l i z e d w h e r e v e r p o s s i b l e . C o n t i n u i n g a s s u m p t i o n o f some r e s p o n s i b i l i t y by t h e p a r e n t h e l p s t o m a i n t a i n p a r e n t a l I n t e r e s t and t h i s i s d e s i r a b l e . I n V a n c o u v e r , t h e Community C h e s t b e a r s t h e e n t i r e c o s t o f non-ward f o s t e r home c a r e f o r most c h i l d r e n who r e q u i r e t h i s t y p e o f c a r e . F i n a n c i n g t h e p r o g r a m o f non-ward c a r e has i n t h e p a s t y e a r s become a m a t t e r o f c o n t r o v e r s y I n V a n c o u v e r . A r e c e n t s t u d y made b y a member o f t h e Community C h e s t i n - Ik -V a n c o u v e r s t a t e s t h a t w i t h r e s p e c t t o non-ward c a r e , t h e L e g i s l a t i v e Committee o f 1926 s t a t e d t h e i m p o r t a n t p r e m i s e t h a t government had, i f n o t a l e g a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , a t l e a s t a m o r a l one, t o t h o s e c h i l d r e n who r e q u i r e d t e m p o r a r y c a r e away f r o m t h e i r own f a m i l i e s h u t where c o u r t a c t i o n t o remove g u a r d i a n s h i p was u n w a r r a n t e d . A t t h i s t i m e , t h e B o a r d o f a t l e a s t t h e C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e y c o n t i n u e d t o r e g a r d t h i s a s a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f v o l u n t a r y e f f o r t a nd f i n a n c i n g . I n t h e p e r i o d 1950-1952 t h e p u b l i c w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s h a d r e a c h e d a p o i n t o f s u f f i c i e n t d e v e l o p m e n t t o g i v e r i s e t o more t h o u g h t a b o u t t h e m a t t e r o f t r a n s f e r r i n g a d d i t i o n a l f i n a n -c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r non-ward c a r e t o t h e gov e r n m e n t . The p u b l i c w e l f a r e d e p a r t m e n t s e r v i c e s make p r o v i s i o n f o r non-ward c a r e a n d t h i s i s b a s e d u p o n i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f e x i s t i n g c h i l d w e l f a r e l e g i s l a t i o n . P a r t o f t h i s c o s t h as r e v e r t e d t o t h e m u n i c i p a l i t i e s u n d e r v a r i o u s m u n i c i p a l - p r o v i n c i a l f i s c a l a g r e e -ments. T h e r e f o r e , t e m p o r a r y f o s t e r home c a r e f o r c h i l d r e n c a n no l o n g e r be r e g a r d e d a s a n e x p e r i m e n t a l a s p e c t o f c h i l d w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s , b u t i s i n s t e a d an i n t e g r a l and w i d e l y a c c e p t e d p a r t o f a b a s i c c h i l d w e l f a r e p r o g r a m . Y e t t h i s s e r v i c e c o n t i n u e s t o be s u p p o r t e d by t h e Community C h e s t r a t h e r t h a n by p r o v i n c i a l f u n d s , as I n t h e c a s e o f ward c a r e , f o r f a m i l i e s l i v i n g i n V a n c o u v e r . 1 !• Watson, E . F . , A Summary and D i s c u s s i o n o f t h e H i s t o r y and P r o b l e m s o f C h i l d W e l f a r e S e r v i c e s i n V a n c o u v e r , w i t h p a r t i c u l a r r e f e r e n c e t o t e m p o r a r y f o s t e r home (non-ward) c a r e a n d i t s c o s t s , Community C h e s t and C o u n c i l s o f G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r a r e a , May, I 9 6 0 , Pp. 57-58. - i$ -P l a n n i n g P l a c e m e n t : The P a r e n t s , t h e C h i l d and t h e A g e n c y P l a n n i n g t e m p o r a r y f o s t e r home p l a c e m e n t i n v o l v e s p a r e n t s who a r e t e m p o r a r i l y i n c a p a c i t a t e d and who a r e w i l l i n g t o a l l o w t h e i r c h i l d t o be c a r e d f o r by s u b s t i t u t e p a r e n t s , a n a g e n c y t h a t i s a b l e and w i l l i n g t o assume r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e c h i l d , and a c h i l d who i s l i k e l y t o b e n e f i t f r o m p l a c e m e n t . . A l l o f t h e s e s h o u l d a c t i v e l y p a r t i c i p a t e i n the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s i f p l a c e m e n t i s t o be s u c c e s s f u l l y , a c h i e v e d . (a) The P a r e n t s P a r e n t s may have d i f f i c u l t y i n a c c e p t i n g p l a c e m e n t f o r t h e i r c h i l d , o r t h e y may e v e n have a r e l u c t a n c e t o a s k f o r t h i s s e r v i c e . Reasons f o r t h i s m i g h t p o s s i b l y be t h a t t h e y h a v e g u i l t y f e e l i n g s a b o u t r e j e c t i n g t h e c h i l d , f e a r s o c i a l d i s -a p p r o v a l , f e a r d ependency u p o n o t h e r s , be a f r a i d o f a p p e a r i n g i n a d e q u a t e , o r t h e y may n o t f u l l y u n d e r s t a n d what p l a c e m e n t means. T h e r e a r e many c o n f l i c t s t h a t p a r e n t s may have a b o u t p l a c i n g t h e i r c h i l d , and t h e s e c o n f l i c t s must be r e s o l v e d t o some e x t e n t b e f o r e t h e y c a n f e e l c o m f o r t a b l e a b o u t u s i n g t h i s s e r v i c e a n d e v e n t u a l l y m a k i n g t h e b e s t u s e o f i t . The p a r e n t s must be a b l e t o r e l i n q u i s h some o f t h e i r r i g h t s ; be a b l e t o t r a n s f e r some r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o t h e a g e n c y ; and a c c e p t t h e f a c t t h a t t h e c h i l d w i l l have s u b s t i t u t e p a r e n t s f o r a t e m p o r a r y p e r i o d o f t i m e . They s h o u l d be e m o t i o n a l l y p r e -p a r e d t o c a r r y o u t t h e i r p l a n s , u n d e r s t a n d what f o s t e r home c a r e o f f e r s t h e c h i l d a nd what t h e y c a n e x p e c t . I t i s e q u a l l y i m p o r t a n t t h a t t h e y u n d e r s t a n d what i s . a n d w i l l be e x p e c t e d o f them. - 16 -G o a l s s h o u l d be s e t up w i t h t h e p a r e n t s •which a i m t o w a r d s t h e e v e n t u a l r e - e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t h e home, and a j o i n t p l a n drawn up w i t h t h e p a r e n t s so t h a t t h e y c a n p a r t i c i p a t e w i t h t h e a g e n c y t o w a r d t h i s end. T h i s means t h a t t h e p a r e n t s s h o u l d be h e l p e d t o u n d e r s t a n d and a c c e p t t h e i r own n e e d s and p r o b l e m s a s w e l l as t h o s e o f t h e c h i l d . They must be t o some e x t e n t w i l l i n g t o f a c e t h e i r own p r o b l e m s a n d p a r t i c i p a t e f u l l y w i t h t h e s o c i a l w o r k e r i n a n a t t e m p t t o s o l v e t h o s e p r o b l e m s w h i c h may have l e d them t o a s k f o r h e l p . S i n c e i t i s t h e u l t i -mate r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f t h e p a r e n t s t o p l a n f o r t h e i r c h i l d t h e m s e l v e s , a t no time s h o u l d t h e y be l e f t w i t h t h e i m p r e s s i o n t h a t t h e s o c i a l a g e n c y i s a s s u m i n g c o m p l e t e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r th e c h i l d . The p a r e n t s n e e d t o become f u l l y engaged i n p l a n n i n g r e a l i s t i c a l l y f o r the f u t u r e o f t h e i r f a m i l y . The p a r e n t s s h o u l d a l s o h e l p t h e c h i l d t o a c c e p t t e m p o r a r y f o s t e r home p l a c e m e n t , b u t b e f o r e t h e y c a n do t h i s t h e y must f i r s t have a c c e p t e d i t t h e m s e l v e s a s a t e m p o r a r y b u t n e c e s s a r y m e a s u r e . They must h e l p t h e c h i l d u n d e r s t a n d why he must have t o l e a v e home, r e a s s u r e h i m t h a t he i s l o v e d and wanted, h e l p h i m t o u n d e r s t a n d t h a t f o s t e r home p l a c e m e n t i s i n h i s b e s t i n t e r e s t s a n d t h a t t h e y w i l l be t a k i n g h i m home a g a i n a s s o o n as t h e y a r e a b l e t o do s o . (b) The C h i l d When p a r e n t s and t h e c a s e w o r k e r a g r e e t h a t t h e c h i l d be p l a c e d i n f o s t e r home c a r e , t h e c h i l d h as no c o n t r o l o v e r t h e s i t u a t i o n a nd may o f t e n be b e w i l d e r e d and c o n f u s e d . He u n d o u b t -e d l y h as many f e e l i n g s a b o u t p l a c e m e n t , and b o t h n e g a t i v e and - 17 -p o s i t i v e f e e l i n g s t o w a r d s h i s p a r e n t s , s i n c e p l a c e m e n t may mean r e j e c t i o n o r p u n i s h m e n t t o h i m a n d a n i n d i c a t i o n t h a t he i s u n l o v e d and unwanted. S e p a r a t i o n i s i n i t s e l f a t h r e a t e n i n g t h i n g , f o r , he i s t a k e n Jfrom a home w h i c h i s known t o h i m a n d w h i c h g i v e s h i m some s e c u r i t y , t o be p l a c e d w i t h s t r a n g e r s . Demands a r e t h e n p l a c e d u p o n h i m t o a d j u s t t o a new p l a c e and new p a r e n t s . H i s own p a r e n t s have s p e c i a l m e aning f o r e v e r y c h i l d , and e v e n t h e n e g l e c t e d c h i l d who s u f f e r e d i n h i s home r e c e i v e d some s a t i s f a c t i o n s f r o m b e i n g w i t h h i s own p a r e n t s . Pew f o s t e r p a r e n t s c a n r e a l l y t a k e t h e p l a c e o f h i s own p a r e n t s i n t h e c h i l d ' s l i f e , n o r c a n t h e y g i v e h i m t h e e m o t i o n a l n o u r i s h m e n t t h a t he d e r i v e d f r o m h i s own p a r e n t s . S e p a r a t i o n i s a t r a u m a t i c e x p e r i e n c e f o r t h e c h i l d e v e n i f he u n d e r s t a n d s t h a t t h i s i s b e s t f o r him, and few f o s t e r p a r e n t s c a n c o m p l e t e l y compensate f o r t h e s e n s e o f l o s s t h e c h i l d f e e l s u p o n s e p a r a t i o n f r o m h i s own p a r e n t s . E v e r y c h i l d n e e d s some s e n s e o f b e l o n g i n g w h i c h he o f t e n does n o t f i n d i n a t e m p o r a r y home. The c h i l d s h o u l d be i n c l u d e d i n p l a c e m e n t p l a n n i n g i f a t a l l p o s s i b l e , a n d i f he i s o l d enough t o u n d e r s t a n d what I s h a p p e n i n g . A c h i l d i s a f f e c t e d by p l a c e m e n t a t a v e r y e a r l y a g e , and may e x p r e s s h i s f e e l i n g s by b e h a v i o u r e v e n b e f o r e he c a n v e r b a l i z e h i s f e e l i n g s . I f the s o c i a l w o r k e r c a n b u i l d a r e l a -t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e c h i l d , t h e s o c i a l w o r k e r c a n be a g r e a t s o u r c e o f r e a s s u r a n c e when t h e c h i l d f a c e s t h e new and t h e unknown I n p l a c e m e n t . The w o r k e r s h o u l d d e s c r i b e t o t h e c h i l d i n u n d e r -s t a n d a b l e t e r m s why p l a c e m e n t i s n e c e s s a r y , s h o u l d e n c o u r a g e h i m - 18 -t o e x p r e s s h i s f e e l i n g s a b o u t i t , and s h o u l d be s e n s i t i v e t o h i s q u e s t i o n s and t o h i s f e a r s . I f the c h i l d c a n n o t e x p r e s s h i s f e e l i n g s a n d I s n o t i n d i v i d u a l l y u n d e r s t o o d , he may e x p r e s s h i m s e l f l a t e r t h r o u g h m a l a d j u s t m e n t i n p l a c e m e n t , o r w i t h b e h a v i o u r p r o b l e m s . The s o c i a l w o r k e r a l s o s e r v e s a s a l i n k b e t w e e n t h e c h i l d and h i s p a r e n t s and i n t h i s c a p a c i t y c a n do much t o l e s s e n t h e e f f e c t s o f s e p a r a t i o n f o r t h e c h i l d . ( c ) The A g e n c y a n d t h e S o c i a l Worker The s o c i a l w o r k e r needs t o be c l e a r a b o u t t h e f u n c t i o n o f non-ward c a r e and t h e me a n i n g o f p l a c e m e n t t o p a r e n t s and c h i l d , and a l s o s e n s i t i v e t o t h e e f f e c t s o f s e p a r a t i o n u p o n them. I f t e m p o r a r y f o s t e r home c a r e i s t o be an e f f e c t i v e p r e v e n t i v e r e s o u r c e , t h e end r e s u l t o f r e u n i t i n g t h e f a m i l y and r e - e s t a b l i s h i n g p a r e n t a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y s h o u l d be k e p t i n mind a t a l l t i m e s . E v e r y e f f o r t s h o u l d be made t o s a l v a g e t h e home f o r t h e c h i l d , and to h e l p the p a r e n t s t o f u n c t i o n more a d e q u a t e -l y so t h a t t h e c h i l d c a n r e t u r n home t o p a r e n t s who a r e a b l e t o assume t h e i r p a r e n t a l r o l e s more a d e q u a t e l y t h a n p r e v i o u s l y . The s o c i a l w o r k e r s h o u l d r e c o g n i z e t h a t p a r e n t s have a r i g h t t o a s k f o r p l a c e m e n t f o r t h e i r c h i l d . T h i s s e r v i c e c a n be g i v e n e f f e c t i v e l y o n l y i f p a r e n t s v o l u n t a r i l y a s k f o r h e l p a n d when t h e y c a n a c c e p t what t e m p o r a r y p l a c e m e n t o f t h e c h i l d r e n means t o t h e i r f a m i l y . Temporary f o s t e r home p l a c e m e n t s h o u l d h o t however, be p l a n n e d m e r e l y o n t h e b a s i s o f the p a r e n t s ' r e q u e s t f o r t h i s s e r v i c e , s i n c e t h e r e q u e s t i n i t s e l f d oes n o t mean t h a t t h i s I s the b e s t p l a n f o r a p a r t i c u l a r f a m i l y . S e v e r a l f a c t o r s s h o u l d be t a k e n i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n , among w h i c h a r e the n a t u r e o f - 19 -t h e p a r e n t - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s h i p , how s e p a r a t i o n w i l l a f f e c t t h e p a r e n t - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s h i p , and w h i c h t y p e o f c a r e w i l l be most b e n e f i c i a l t o t h e c h i l d . N o r i s t h e f a c t t h a t a p a r e n t i s p h y s i c a l l y o r e m o t i o n a l l y i l l , o r t h a t a c h i l d h as b e h a v i o u r p r o b l e m s a s u f f i c i e n t b a s i s f o r p l a n n i n g f o r f o s t e r home c a r e , s i n c e t h e s e same s i t u a t i o n s c a n sometimes be d e a l t w i t h w h i l e t h e c h i l d r e m a i n s i n the home. The s o c i a l w o r k e r s h o u l d make s u r e t h e s e p a r a t i o n i s a b s o l u t e l y n e c e s s a r y , t h a t t h e r e a r e no o t h e r community r e s o u r c e s t h a t w o u l d be b e t t e r t h a n s u b s t i t u t e f o s t e r home c a r e , and t h a t the p a r e n t s a r e a b l e t o u s e t h i s s e r v i c e . W h i l e t h e p a r e n t s must t h e m s e l v e s d e c i d e what s e r v i c e t h e y w i l l a c c e p t , t h e y must u n d e r s t a n d t h e r e a s o n s why a p a r t i -c u l a r s e r v i c e t h a t t h e y r e q u e s t m i g h t n o t be t h e b e s t p l a n f o r them. I t i s t h e a g e n c y ' s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o engage t h e p a r e n t s i n p l a n n i n g , i n a f t e r p l a c e m e n t c a s e w o r k , and i n c o n s t a n t r e -e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e p l a n . The p a r e n t s s h o u l d be h e l p e d t o r e c e i v e t h e c h i l d b a c k i n t o t h e i r home as s o o n a s t h e y a r e a b l e t o do s o . O t h e r community r e s o u r c e s s u c h a s m e d i c a l t r e a t m e n t , f i n a n c i a l a i d o r m a r i t a l c o u n s e l l i n g s h o u l d be u t i l i z e d d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d o f non-ward c a r e w h e r e v e r n e c e s s a r y . O b j e c t i v e s and Method o f S t u d y Non-ward c a r e s h o u l d be a t e m p o r a r y measure i n h e l p i n g a p a r t i c u l a r f a m i l y , a n d i t s h o u l d be p l a n n e d w i t h t h e o b j e c t i v e t h a t t h e c h i l d s h o u l d n o t be d e p r i v e d o f h i s own home any l o n g e r t h a n i s a b s o l u t e l y n e c e s s a r y . There, a r e g r a v e d a n g e r s i f t h e o b j e c t i v e s o f non-ward - 20 -c a r e a r e n o t c a r e f u l l y c o n s i d e r e d and i f non-ward c a r e i s n o t p l a n n e d r e a l i s t i c a l l y by t h e a g e n c y and p a r e n t s . One a u t h o r s t a t e s : The b e s t s o l u t i o n f o r a c h i l d i n f o s t e r c a r e i s t o r e t u r n home t o p a r e n t s who have worked o u t t h e i r p r o b l e m s and c a n resume t h e i r p a r e n t a l r o l e . T h i s p r e s u p p o s e s a c o n t i n u i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p t h r o u g h v i s i t s t o t h e i r c h i l d r e n , a s e n s e o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t h r o u g h payments f o r t h e i r c a r e when p o s s i b l e , and a c o n t a c t w i t h t r a i n e d s o c i a l w o r k e r s t o a c h i e v e t h e g o a l o f a r e u n i t e d f a m i l y . . . U n d e r p r e s e n t c o n d i t i o n s , i f a y o u n g s t e r s t a y s I n f o s t e r c a r e f o r more t h a n a y e a r and a h a l f , . t h e r e i s a g r e a t d a n g e r t h a t he w i l l s t a y i n d e f i n i t e l y . ^ The p r e s e n t s t u d y e x p l o r e s , a g a i n s t t h e b a c k g r o u n d s e t f o r t h , how p l a n n i n g non-ward c a r e f o r c h i l d r e n o f m e n t a l l y i l l p a r e n t s has b e e n c a r r i e d o u t i n t h e C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y o f V a n c o u v e r . The sample i n t h i s s t u d y c o n s i s t s o f t w e n t y - f o u r f a m i l y c a s e s and a t o t a l number o f t h i r t y - s i x c h i l d r e n who were t a k e n i n t o non-ward c a r e I n t h e y e a r s 1957 t o 1959. The method f o l l o w e d i s to make a n a n a l y s i s o f ( a ) t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e s e f a m i l i e s , (b) t h e b a s i c c o n s i d e r a t i o n s a f f e c t i n g t h e c h o i c e o f t h i s p a r t i c u l a r p l a n , ( c ) w h e t h e r t h e d i a g n o s i s o f the m e n t a l l y i l l p a r e n t i n f l u e n c e d p l a n n i n g , and (d) w h e t h e r a l t e r n a t i v e p l a n s were c o n s i d e r e d . The o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e n e x t s t a g e o f t h e a n a l y s i s a r e (a) w h e t h e r p l a n n i n g was done j o i n t l y , (b) how l o n g t h i s p r o c e s s t o o k , ( c ) w h e t h e r t h e p l a n a c h i e v e d i t s p u r p o s e , and (d) how t h e p l a n w o r k e d o u t w i t h i n a p e r i o d o f one and a h a l f y e a r s . The b a s i c p l a n u s e d i n 1. C h i l d r e n i n Need o f P a r e n t s , C h i l d W e l f a r e L e a g u e o f A m e r i c a , I n c . , New Y o r k , 1959, P. 9. - 21 -e x a m i n i n g t h e i n d i v i d u a l c a s e s i s s e t o u t i n A p p e n d i x A. B o t h t a b l e s and c a s e i l l u s t r a t i o n s a r e u s e d i n p r e s e n t i n g s t a t i s t i c a l m a t e r i a l . I n the f i n a l c h a p t e r , an a t t e m p t i s made t o s o r t o u t any d i f f e r e n t i a l f a c t o r s w h i c h may have i n f l u e n c e d t h e e v e n t u a l d i s p o s i t i o n o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l c a s e s u s e d i n the s a m p l e . C h a p t e r 2 THE CHILDREN AND THEIR PARENTS One o f t h e f u n c t i o n s o f the C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y i s t h e p r o v i s i o n o f s e r v i c e s f o r t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n a n d s t r e n g t h -e n i n g o f t h e f a m i l y when t h e community has e x p r e s s e d c o n c e r n f o r t h e w e l l - b e i n g o f t h e c h i l d r e n , o r when p a r e n t s t h e m s e l v e s r e q u e s t h e l p i n c a r i n g f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n . Some o f t h e h a n d i -c a p s w h i c h b r i n g f a m i l i e s t o t h e a t t e n t i o n o f t h e C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y a r e t h e b r o k e n home, p h y s i c a l a n d m e n t a l I l l n e s s , m e n t a l d e f i c i e n c y , m a r i t a l d i f f i c u l t i e s , d e l i n q u e n c y and low in c o m e . P r o v i s i o n o f t e m p o r a r y (non-ward) c a r e f o r c h i l d r e n , i n f o s t e r homes o r g r o u p l i v i n g homes, i s made a t t h e r e q u e s t o f t h e p a r e n t s a n d r e q u i r e s t h e i r c o n s e n t . The f o l l o w i n g r e a s o n s f o r a d m i s s i o n o f c h i l d r e n i n t o c a r e a r e a c c e p t e d : (1) I n c a s e s o f t e m p o r a r y i l l n e s s o r o t h e r emergency when o t h e r r e s o u r c e s f o r t h e c a r e o f t h e c h i l d r e n a r e n o t a v a i l a b l e . (2) Where c h i l d r e n r e q u i r e s p e c i a l s u b s t i t u t e f o s t e r home c a r e due t o p h y s i c a l o r e m o t i o n a l p r o b l e m s . (3) I n c a s e o f i l l e g i t i m a c y where t h e p a r e n t r e q u i r e s t i m e t o make a d e c i s i o n r e g a r d i n g p l a n s , o r where t h e c h i l d r e q u i r e s t e m p o r a r y c a r e p e n d i n g a d o p t i o n . 1 T h i s c h a p t e r i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h a n a n a l y s i s o f t h o s e c a s e s where c h i l d r e n o f m e n t a l l y i l l p a r e n t s w e r e t a k e n i n t o non-ward c a r e . A t o t a l o f t h i r t y - s i x c h i l d r e n f r o m t w e n t y - f o u r T~. P o l i c y Manual o f t h e C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y . F o r more c o m p l e t e p o l i c y r e g a r d i n g non-ward c a r e see A p p e n d i x B. - 23 -f a m i l y c a s e s was s t u d i e d . The m a r i t a l s t a t u s o f t h e p a r e n t s , t h e number o f f a m i l i e s o f a p a r t i c u l a r k i n d , the t o t a l number o f c h i l d r e n i n t h e f a m i l i e s , and t h e number o f c h i l d r e n t a k e n i n t o non-ward c a r e i s summarized i n T a b l e 1. T a b l e 1» F a m i l y S t a t u s And T o t a l Number  Of C h i l d r e n I n Sample F a m i l y S t a t u s Number o f F a m i l i e s Number o f C h i l d r e n i n F a m i l y ( a ) Number o f C h i l d r e n t a k e n i n t o Non-ward c a r e M a r r i e d C o u p l e s 1 6(b) 43 25 S e p a r a t e d P a r e n t s 6 11 9 U n m a r r i e d M o t h e r s 2 2 2 T o t a l Number o f F a m i l i e s and C h i l d r e n 24 56 36 ( a ) C h i l d r e n u n d e r 18 y e a r s o f age (b) One common-law r e l a t i o n s h i p Out o f t h e t o t a l number o f f a m i l y c a s e s , s i x t e e n o u t o f t w e n t y - f o u r , o r s e v e n t y p e r c e n t o f t h e t o t a l , were s i t u a t i o n s i n w h i c h t h e r e were two p a r e n t s I n t h e home. I n o n l y e i g h t c a s e s was t h e r e f o u n d t o be o n l y one p a r e n t a s s u m i n g r e s p o n s i -b i l i t y f o r t h e c h i l d r e n i n the home. T h i s i n d i c a t e s t h a t i n most o f t h e c a s e s t h e f a m i l y was s t i l l i n t a c t , a n d , non-ward c a r e , a s a r e s o u r c e , was v a l u a b l e i n p r e v e n t i n g e v e n t u a l b r e a k -down o f t h e f a m i l y w h i c h m i g h t have o c c u r r e d h a d t h e f a m i l y b e e n l e f t t o i t s own r e s o u r c e s . - 2k -I n a l l , t h e r e were a t o t a l number o f f i f t y - s i x c h i l d r e n i n t h e f a m i l i e s s a m p l e d . Out o f t h i s number o n l y t h i r t y - s i x c h i l d r e n were t a k e n i n t o non-ward c a r e . I t was n o t e d t h a t s e v e r a l f a m i l i e s were a b l e t o make u s e o f o t h e r r e s o u r c e s , a n d were a b l e t o make a l t e r n a t e p l a n s o f t h e i r own. N o t a b l e among t h e s e o t h e r r e s o u r c e s was t h e h e l p t h a t r e l a t i v e s o f t h e f a m i l i e s were a b l e t o g i v e i n p r o v i d i n g t e m p o r a r y c a r e f o r some o f t h e c h i l d r e n . I n t h e f o l l o w i n g c a s e i l l u s t r a t i o n t h e r e were a t o t a l number o f f o u r c h i l d r e n i n t h e f a m i l y , o n l y one o f w h i c h was t a k e n i n t o non-ward c a r e b y t h e C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y . A c a s e w o r k e r i n t h e S o c i a l S e r v i c e D e p a r t m e n t o f t h e V a n c o u v e r G e n e r a l H o s p i t a l r e f e r r e d t h e A f a m i l y t o t h e C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y . She s t a t e d t h a t M r s . A. was t o be h o s p i t a l i z e d f o r p s y c h i a t r i c t r e a t m e n t , and p l a n s w o u l d be n e c e s -s a r y f o r t h e c a r e o f f o u r c h i l d r e n , aged Ik y e a r s , 11 y e a r s , 22 months and 2 months. F o l l o w i n g t h i s r e f e r r a l , M r s . A. c o n t a c t e d t h e C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y t h e n e x t day a n d o u t -l i n e d t h e f o l l o w i n g p l a n s t h a t she a n d h e r h u s b a n d were c o n s i d e r i n g f o r t h e i r f o u r c h i l d r e n : ( a ) t h e f o u r t e e n - y e a r - o l d c h i l d w o u l d r e m a i n a t home w i t h t h e f a t h e r ; (b) t h e e l e v e n - y e a r - o l d c h i l d and t h e twenty-two month o l d c h i l d w o u l d be c a r e d f o r by r e l a t i v e s ; ( c ) t h e y were a s k i n g h e l p o n l y i n p l a c i n g t h e baby i n a s u b s t i t u t e home. H o s p i t a l i z a t i o n o f t h e m o t h e r was e x p e c t e d t o be f o r o n l y f o u r w e e k s . The f a t h e r was employed a n d c o n s e n t e d t o c o n t r i b u t e t o w a r d s t h e m a i n t e n a n c e o f t h e baby, who was s u b s e q u e n t l y p l a c e d i n a f o s t e r home. I n t h e f a m i l i e s w h i c h h a d two p a r e n t s , o n l y t w e n t y -f i v e c h i l d r e n o u t o f a t o t a l o f f o r t y - t h r e e , o r s i x t y p e r c e n t , were t a k e n i n t o non-ward c a r e . Where t h e r e was o n l y one p a r e n t , e l e v e n o u t o f t h i r t e e n c h i l d r e n , o r e i g h t y - f i v e p e r c e n t o f t h e - 25 -t o t a l , were t a k e n i n t o non-ward c a r e . C l o s e r a n a l y s i s r e v e a l e d t h a t f r e q u e n t l y t h e n o n - m e n t a l l y i l l p a r e n t was a b l e t o assume more r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n p l a n n i n g f o r t h e c a r e o f t h e c h i l d r e n , make g r e a t e r u s e o f r e l a t i v e r e s o u r c e s , and make some c o n t r i b u -t i o n t o t h e c o s t o f t h e c h i l d ' s m a i n t e n a n c e . The f o l l o w i n g c a s e i l l u s t r a t i o n p o i n t s up t h e d i f f e r e n t p l a n s t h a t one f a t h e r was a b l e t o make f o r h i s c h i l d r e n . The B f a m i l y was r e f e r r e d to t h e C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y by t h e c h i l d r e n ' s p a t e r n a l a u n t . She s t a t e d t h a t t h e B f a m i l y had two c h i l d r e n . The mother was 111 and r e c e i v i n g t r e a t m e n t i n C r e a s e C l i n i c . The p a t e r n a l a u n t h a d up u n t i l t h i s t i m e b e e n c a r i n g f o r t h e two c h i l d r e n s i n c e t h e m o t h e r had f i r s t b e e n h o s p i t a l i z e d . However, she was now i l l h e r s e l f a n d c o u l d n o t c o n t i n u e c a r i n g f o r them. S u b s e q u e n t l y , Mr. B. came i n t o t h e o f f i c e t o d i s c u s s h i s p l a n s . He was a b l e t o make a r r a n g e m e n t s f o r a m a t e r n a l a u n t t o c a r e f o r t h e o l d e r c h i l d , and needed h e l p o n l y i n p l a n n i n g f o r th e b a b y. He was employed and a b l e t o assume some f i n a n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h i s c h i l d . The y o u n g e r c h i l d was t h e n p l a c e d I n a f o s t e r home u n d e r a non-ward c a r e a g r e e m e n t . P r e s e n t i n g P r o b l e m and S o u r c e s o f R e f e r r a l The most f r e q u e n t p r e s e n t i n g p r o b l e m i n t h e c a s e s s t u d i e d was t h e h o s p i t a l i z a t i o n o f t h e mother f o r p s y c h i a t r i c t r e a t m e n t . I n t h e p o l i c y manual o f t h e C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y i t I s s t a t e d t h a t one o f t h e r e a s o n s f o r a c c e p t i n g c h i l d r e n f o r t e m p o r a r y p l a c e m e n t on a non-ward c a r e b a s i s , when a l l o t h e r r e s o u r c e s s u c h a s r e l a t i v e s and h o u s e k e e p e r have f a i l e d , i s t h e i l l n e s s o f t h e mo t h e r I n t h e f o l l o w i n g s i t u a t i o n s : ( a) M o t h e r i s t e m p o r a r i l y o u t o f t h e home due t o : c o n f i n e m e n t , o p e r a t i o n , o r t r e a t m e n t i n t h e p s y c h i a t r i c ward o f the V a n c o u v e r G e n e r a l - 26 -H o s p i t a l , C r e a s e C l i n i c , o r TB h o s p i t a l , where p r o g n o s i s i s f a v o r a b l e ; (b) When t h e m o t h e r i s s t i l l i n t h e home b u t t h e d o c t o r h as recommended t h a t t h e c h i l d r e n be p l a c e d i n a sub-s t i t u t e home t e m p o r a r i l y and when a l l o t h e r r e s o u r c e s a r e l a c k i n g I n the f o l l o w i n g i n s t a n c e s : b e c a u s e t h e mother i s s e r i o u s l y r u n down and when p o s s i b l e o p e r a t i o n i s b e i n g c o n -s i d e r e d , a n d , when t h e mo t h e r i s u n d e r g o i n g p s y c h i a t r i c t r e a t -ment a t a n o u t p a t i e n t c l i n i c o r w i t h a p r i v a t e p s y c h i a t r i s t . T h e r e were a l s o a number o f i n s t a n c e s where f a m i l i e s came t o t h e a t t e n t i o n o f t h e C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y b e c a u s e o f c o m p l a i n t s o f n e g l e c t . I n t h e s e i n s t a n c e s , non-ward c a r e was o f f e r e d t o t h e p a r e n t s i n an a t t e m p t t o a l l e v i a t e t h e c o n d i t i o n s o f n e g l e c t and t o work t o w a r d s e v e n t u a l r e s t o r a t i o n o f t h e home f o r t h e c h i l d where i t was n o t p o s s i b l e t o do t h i s w h i l e t h e c h i l d was s t i l l i n t h e home. I l l e g i t i m a c y was a n o t h e r p r o b l e m . I n t h e s e i n s t a n c e s , t h e m o t h e r s were o f t e n r e f e r r e d t o t h e C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y t o o l a t e t o make a p l a n f o r t h e c h i l d p r i o r t o t h e c h i l d ' s b i r t h . Temporary c a r e was o f f e r e d t o h e l p t h e m o t h e r , d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d , t o make a d e c i s i o n r e g a r d i n g p e r m a nent p l a n s f o r h e r c h i l d . I n many c a s e s t h i s p r o b l e m was f u r t h e r c o m p l i c a t e d by t h e m e n t a l i l l n e s s o f t h e m o t h e r , and t h e c a s e w o r k p l a n was o f t e n g e a r e d t o h e l p i n g t h e mo t h e r t o r e l i n q u i s h h e r c h i l d f o r a d o p t i o n . R e f e r r a l s were made t o t h e C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y f r o m a v a r i e t y o f s o u r c e s , f r e q u e n t l y f r o m o t h e r s o c i a l a g e n -c i e s . Many o f t h e s e s o c i a l a g e n c i e s had worked w i t h t h e f a m i l i e s - 27 -f o r a s h o r t w h i l e p r i o r t o t h e r e f e r r a l . The p r e s e n t i n g p r o b l e m s , t h e f r e q u e n c y w i t h w h i c h t h e y o c c u r r e d , t h e s o u r c e s o f r e f e r r a l , a n d t h e number o f f a m i l i e s r e f e r r e d by e a c h s o u r c e a r e summarized i n T a b l e 2 . T a b l e 2 . P r e s e n t i n g P r o b l e m s And S o u r c e s Of R e f e r r a l S o u r c e o f R e f e r r a l P r e s e n t i n g P r o b l e m M e d i c a l S o u r c e O t h e r W e l f a r e A g e n c i e s F r i e n d s , R e l a t i v e s , N e i g h b o r s P a r e n t s T o t a l H o s p i t a l i z a -t i o n o f P a r e n t k 2 3 k 13 N e g l e c t 1 3 1 - 5 I l l e g i t i m a c y ( u n m a r r i e d m o t h e r ) 2 2 mm k P a r e n t " u n a b l e t o co p e " - - - - 2 TOTAL ( R e f e r r a l j S o u r c e s ) 7 7 h 6 24 The most f r e q u e n t r e f e r r a l s o u r c e s were m e d i c a l and s o c i a l a g e n c i e s . I n c l u d e d u n d e r " m e d i c a l s o u r c e s " a r e d o c t o r s , n u r s e s , and s o c i a l w o r k e r s i n h o s p i t a l s e t t i n g s . The l a t t e r made t h e most r e f e r r a l s i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r g r o u p . The s o c i a l a g e n c y t o make t h e most f r e q u e n t r e f e r r a l was t h e C i t y S o c i a l S e r v i c e D e p a r t m e n t , a n d o t h e r s were t h e F a m i l y S e r v i c e A g e n c y , - 28 -C h i l d G u i d a n c e C l i n i c and t h e S o c i a l W e l f a r e B r a n c h . R e f e r r a l s f r o m t h e s e s o u r c e s t o t a l l e d f o u r t e e n o u t o f t w e n t y - f o u r , o r f i f t y - e i g h t p e r c e n t o f t h e t o t a l number. The p a r e n t came t o t h e a g e n c y h i m s e l f i n s i x o u t o f t w e n t y - f o u r i n s t a n c e s , o r t w e n t y - f i v e p e r c e n t o f t h e t o t a l . S e v e r a l had u s e d t h e s e r v i c e s o f t h e C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y p r e v i o u s l y . I n some i n s t a n c e s , t h e r e s o u r c e s o f t h e C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y h a d b e e n unknown t o t h e p a r e n t s i n i t i a l l y , b u t a f t e r t h e y h a d h a d some c o n t a c t w i t h t h e a g e n c y s e v e r a l were a b l e t o make t h e i r own s e c o n d r e f e r r a l s . I n a s k i n g f o r h e l p i n p r o v i d -i n g c a r e f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n , p a r e n t s a r e c a r r y i n g o u t p a r t o f t h e i r p a r e n t a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . T e n r e f e r r a l s , o r f o r t y - o n e p e r c e n t , were made by p a r e n t s , f r i e n d s , r e l a t i v e s o r n e i g h b o r s . I t may t h e r e f o r e be s a i d t h a t many p e o p l e i n t h e community a r e n o t a l t o g e t h e r u n -aware o f t h e s e r v i c e s o f f e r e d by t h e C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y , and a r e a b l e t o s e e k h e l p when t h e n e e d a r i s e s . S e r v i c e s t o f a m i l i e s a r e more c o m p l e t e l y e f f e c t i v e when p a r e n t s v o l u n t a r i l y a s k f o r s e r v i c e and a r e r e a d y t o c o - o p e r a t e i n a c h i e v i n g t h e ends w h i c h t h e y d e s i r e . A l s o , t h e p a r e n t s a l o n e have t h e r i g h t t o p l a n f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n a n d e v e r y e f f o r t must be made t o a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e them i n p l a c e m e n t p l a n n i n g when t h e n e e d f o r s u b s t i t u t e c a r e i s i n d i c a t e d . E v e n when p a r e n t s a r e r e f e r r e d by someone e l s e , t h e p a r e n t s t h e m s e l v e s must make the f i n a l d e c i s i o n w h e t h e r t h e y a r e w i l l i n g and a b l e t o u s e t h e s e r v i c e s o f f e r e d t o them. Not o n l y t h e d y n a m i c s o f p l a c e m e n t , b u t a l s o t h e meaning o f t h e p r o b l e m t o the p a r e n t and h i s f e e l i n g s a b o u t - 29 -i t s h o u l d be e x p l o r e d i f t h e s e r v i c e s a r e t o be e f f e c t i v e . I n t h e moment o f c r i s i s , t h e p a r e n t may be aware o n l y o f h i s immed-i a t e n e e d ; i t i s t h e r e f o r e t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f t h e c a s e w o r k e r t o d i s c u s s w i t h h i m t h o r o u g h l y t h e c o n d i t i o n s u n d e r w h i c h s e r v i c e i s g i v e n , t h e c o n d i t i o n s o f p l a c e m e n t and t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y he w i l l be e x p e c t e d t o c a r r y i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e c h i l d . H o s p i t a l i z a t i o n o f t h e p a r e n t was t h e p r e s e n t i n g p r o b -l e m i n t h i r t e e n o u t o f t w e n t y - f o u r c a s e s , o r i n f i f t y - f o u r p e r -c e n t o f t h e t o t a l c a s e s . I n o n l y one c a s e was i t t h e f a t h e r who was h o s p i t a l i z e d . I n t h e i n s t a n c e s o f h o s p i t a l i z a t i o n o f t h e mo t h e r i t m i g h t be a s k e d w h e t h e r homemaker s e r v i c e s m i g h t n o t be a v a l u a b l e r e s o u r c e i n k e e p i n g most o f the f a m i l y t o g e t h e r . Homemaker s e r v i c e i s a p l a n w h e r e i n a n e x p e r i e n c e d homemaker go e s i n t o a home t o h e l p c a r e f o r t h e c h i l d r e n o f a f a m i l y when t h e c h i l d r e n ' s m o t h e r i s u n a b l e , f o r v a r i o u s r e a s o n s , t o l o o k a f t e r t h e c h i l d r e n h e r s e l f . I n V a n c o u v e r t h e r e i s a s h o r t a g e i n t h e p r o v i s i o n o f t h i s s e r v i c e . Two s o c i a l a g e n c i e s have i m p l e m e n t e d a homemaker o r h o u s e k e e p e r p l a n , b u t o n l y o n a v e r y l i m i t e d b a s i s . The F a m i l y S e r v i c e A g e n c y o f V a n c o u v e r h a s n i n e homemakers o n s t a f f . The homemakers a r e p a i d r e g u l a r s a l a r i e s by t h e a g e n c y . P a r e n t s who u s e t h i s s e r v i c e a r e e n c o u r a g e d t o make some f i n a n c i a l c o n -t r i b u t i o n i f t h e y c a n , b u t t h i s c o n t r i b u t i o n I s u s u a l l y v e r y s m a l l . B e c a u s e o f t h e s h o r t a g e o f homemakers, t h e r e a r e e x p l i c i t e l i g i b i l i t y r u l e s g o v e r n i n g t h e p r o v i s i o n o f t h i s s e r v i c e . Home-maker s e r v i c e i s n o t g i v e n t o t h o s e f a m i l i e s w i t h l e s s t h a n two c h i l d r e n . T h i s s e r v i c e i s a l s o r e g a r d e d a s p a r t o f t h e t o t a l - 30 -c a s e w o r k t r e a t m e n t p l a n and may be p r o v i d e d e v e n when b o t h p a r e n t s a r e I n t h e home. The F a m i l y S e r v i c e Agency w i l l a c c e p t r e f e r r a l s f o r homemaker s e r v i c e f r o m o t h e r s o c i a l a g e n c i e s , b u t r e q u e s t s t h a t a t o t a l a s s e s s m e n t o f t h e f a m i l y s i t u a t i o n be p r o -v i d e d so t h a t t h e y c a n j u d g e t h e a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s o f t h i s s e r v i c e t o a p a r t i c u l a r f a m i l y . T h i s means t h a t i f a f a m i l y a p p l i e s f o r s e r v i c e o n a n emergency b a s i s and i s unknown t o t h e s o c i a l a g e n c y , i t m i g h t n o t . b e p o s s i b l e t o p r o v i d e homemaker s e r v i c e i m m e d i a t e l y , t o meet s u c h a c r i s i s . The C i t y S o c i a l S e r v i c e D e partment has two t y p e s o f p r o g r a m s . One i s c a l l e d h o u s e k e e p e r s e r v i c e s , a n d i s o f f e r e d o n l y t o t h o s e f a m i l i e s who a r e r e c i p i e n t s o f s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e . A. h o u s e k e e p e r may g i v e a s s i s t a n c e t o a f a m i l y f o r a p e r i o d o f t i m e w h i c h may be a n h o u r a day o r f i v e h o u r s a day, f i v e d a y s a week. C o s t s o f t h i s s e r v i c e r a n g e f r o m a b o u t s i x t y c e n t s t o a d o l l a r and t w e n t y - f i v e c e n t s a n h o u r . T h i s c o s t i s s h a r e d by the p r o v i n c e and the c i t y o n a n i n e t y - t e n p e r c e n t a g e b a s i s . A l t h o u g h t h e r e a r e many demands f o r t h i s s e r v i c e , t h e r e a r e o n l y a n a p p r o x i m a t e number o f f i f t e e n h o u s e k e e p e r s a v a i l a b l e . The s e c o n d t y p e o f p r o g r a m I s a s u b s i d i z e d h o u s e k e e p e r p l a n . Those f a m i l i e s who a r e n o t e l i g i b l e f o r s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e , y e t h a v e low income, may a p p l y f o r t h i s s e r v i c e . P a r e n t a l c o n -t r i b u t i o n s a r e made, e v e n i f t h e s e a r e a s low as one d o l l a r a month. The c o s t s a r e b o r n e by t h e c i t y . H o u s e k e e p e r s e r v i c e s t o t h e s e f a m i l i e s a r e I n t e n d e d t o be o f no more t h a n t h r e e months I n d u r a t i o n , o r s i x months u n d e r u n u s u a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s . However, a v e r y r i g i d e v a l u a t i o n i s made when f a m i l i e s a p p l y f o r - 31 -t h i s s e r v i c e , a n d e a c h c a s e i s t h o r o u g h l y d i s c u s s e d by c o n s u l -t a t i o n w i t h m e d i c a l p e r s o n n e l and s o c i a l w o r k e r s b e f o r e a p p r o v a l i s g i v e n . T h i s s e r v i c e makes no p r o v i s i o n f o r emergency s i t u -a t i o n s . A l s o , t h i s p r o g r a m i s s t i l l b e i n g c o n d u c t e d o n a t r i a l b a s i s and o n l y s i x o r s e v e n h o u s e k e e p e r s a r e p r e s e n t l y a v a i l a b l e . Government s u p p o r t f o r t h i s p r o g r a m has n o t y e t b e e n f u l l y s e c u r e d . I t i s e v i d e n t t h a t non-ward c a r e i s a n e s s e n t i a l s e r v i c e I n m e e t i n g emergency n e e d s a t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e . T h e r e a r e , a s y e t , no o t h e r s e r v i c e s i n the community t o d e a l w i t h s i t u a t i o n s r e q u i r i n g c a r e o f c h i l d r e n a r i s i n g o u t o f t h e emer-g e n c y h o s p i t a l i z a t i o n o f a m o t h e r . I n s e v e r a l c a s e s , w h i c h were n o t emergency r e f e r r a l s , homemaker s e r v i c e s were c o n s i d e r e d b u t were e i t h e r n o t f e a s i b l e o r t h e p a r e n t d i d n o t w i s h t o u s e t h i s r e s o u r c e . The f o l l o w i n g I s a c a s e i l l u s t r a t i o n : The C f a m i l y was r e f e r r e d by t h e C h i l d G u i d a n c e C l i n i c . Mrs. C. was t o be h o s p i t a l i z e d i n C r e a s e C l i n i c f o r a p e r i o d o f t h r e e t o s i x months and h e l p was n e e d e d I n p r o v i d i n g c a r e f o r t h e t e n - y e a r - o l d c h i l d . The f a t h e r r e f u s e d home-maker s e r v i c e b e c a u s e , he s a i d , he worked i r r e g u -l a r h o u r s and e a r n e d o n l y a s m a l l income. The r e l a t i v e s c o u l d n o t h e l p i n c a r i n g f o r t h e c h i l d b e c a u s e o f t h e c h i l d ' s b e h a v i o u r p r o b l e m s . O t h e r F a m i l y P r o b l e m s I n many f a m i l y c a s e s t h e r e a r e many p r o b l e m s p r e s e n t o t h e r t h a n t h e p r e s e n t i n g p r o b l e m . I n the c a s e s s t u d i e d , t h i s f a c t o r meant t h a t s e r v i c e c o u l d n o t be o n l y a m a t t e r o f h e l p i n p l a c e m e n t o f t h e c h i l d , b u t t h a t a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount o f work h a d t o be done w i t h t h e f a m i l y t o h e l p s t r e n g t h e n t h e f a m i l y u n i t . - 32 -I n some c a s e s , p a r t i a l breakdown o f t h e f a m i l y had a l r e a d y o c c u r r e d , and i n o t h e r s , t h e c h i l d r e n were e x h i b i t i n g some b e h a v i o u r p r o b l e m s . I n some c a s e s a c o m b i n a t i o n o f t h e s e p r o b l e m s e x i s t e d . T h i s made o v e r - a l l p l a n n i n g f o r t h e f a m i l y more d i f f i c u l t , and non-ward c a r e as a r e s o u r c e h a d to be a s s e s s e d a s c a r e f u l l y a s p o s s i b l e . The p r e v a l e n c e a n d number o f o t h e r p r o b l e m s p r e s e n t i s summarized i n T a b l e 3» T a b l e 3* P r e s e n t i n g P r o b l e m And O t h e r P r o b l e m s P r e s e n t P r e s e n t i n g O t h e r P r o b l e m s P r e s e n t P r o b l e m M e n t a l I l l n e s s Incom-p l e t e Home (a) F i n a n c i a l (b) N e g l e c t B e h a v i o u r P r o b l e m s o f C h i l d r e n TOTAL H o s p i t a l -i z a t i o n o f P a r e n t - 2 3 1 5 11 I l l e g i t -i m a c y k 2 2 - - 8 N e g l e c t 5 k - - - 9 P a r e n t U n a b l e t o Cope 2 - - 2 - k TOTAL PROBLEMS 11 8 5 3 5 32 ( a ) I n c o m p l e t e home - s e p a r a t i o n o r m a r i t a l d i f f i c u l t i e s (b) F i n a n c i a l - s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e - 33 -Cases i n v o l v i n g h o s p i t a l i z a t i o n o f t h e p a r e n t , and n e g l e c t had t h e g r e a t e s t number o f o t h e r p r o b l e m s . F o r e m o s t among t h o s e c a s e s r e q u i r i n g h o s p i t a l i z a t i o n o f t h e p a r e n t were b e h a v i o u r p r o b l e m s o f t h e c h i l d r e n . I n t h e c a s e s w h i c h were r e f e r r e d b e c a u s e o f n e g l e c t , o t h e r t h a n m e n t a l i l l n e s s , a n i n c o m -p l e t e home o r m a r i t a l d i f f i c u l t i e s were f o r e m o s t . The f o l l o w i n g c a s e i l l u s t r a t i o n i n d i c a t e s some o f t h e p r o b l e m s t h a t were p r e -s e n t i n s e v e r a l i n s t a n c e s . The D f a m i l y was known t o t h e C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y s i n c e 1953* The p a r e n t s were r e f e r r e d by t h e F a m i l y S e r v i c e A g e n c y who h a d b e e n w o r k i n g w i t h them b e c a u s e o f m a r i t a l p r o b l e m s . The p a r e n t s were now s e p a r a t e d and t h e m o t h e r was a s k i n g f o r p l a c e m e n t o f a new-born baby. She d i d n o t c a r r y t h i s p l a n t h r o u g h . I n 1956, t h e m o t h e r was r e f e r r e d by t h e C i t y S o c i a l S e r v i c e D e p a r t m e n t as she was e x p e c t i n g a c h i l d , and h e r h u s b a n d was n o t t h e f a t h e r o f t h i s c h i l d . She r e q u e s t e d a d o p t i o n f o r h e r c h i l d , b u t d i d n o t c a r r y t h i s p l a n t h r o u g h . I n 1957, & n e i g h b o r f i l e d a n e g l e c t c o m p l a i n t , b u t was r e f e r r e d t o a n o t h e r a g e n c y , a s t h e m o t h e r was n o t l i v i n g I n V a n c o u v e r a t t h a t t i m e . I n 1958, t h e C i t y S o c i a l S e r v i c e D e p a r t m e n t r e f e r r e d t h e f a m i l y f o r p l a c e m e n t o f t h e t h r e e c h i l d r e n . The m other was " a c t i n g s t r a n g e l y " and a b u s i n g t h e c h i l d r e n . She was a t t h a t t i m e r e -c e i v i n g t r e a t m e n t a t t h e M e n t a l H e a l t h C l i n i c . H e r d o c t o r t h o u g h t t h a t t h e r e was a d a n g e r t h a t t h e m o t h e r m i g h t make s u i c i d a l g e s t u r e s t o w a r d s t h e c h i l d r e n , a n d t h a t i t w o u l d be b e s t i f t h e c h i l d r e n were away f r o m t h e i r m o ther f o r a p e r i o d o f t i m e . T h e r e were no r e l a t i v e s who were a b l e t o c a r e f o r t h e c h i l d r e n . The mother was c o n s i d e r e d by h e r d o c t o r t o be r a t i o n a l enough t o s i g n n o n -w a r d c a r e c o n s e n t s , and the c h i l d r e n were s u b s e -q u e n t l y p l a c e d i n non-ward c a r e . They r e m a i n e d I n f o s t e r home c a r e f o r a p e r i o d o f t h r e e months. D u r i n g t h i s t i m e t h e m o t h e r r e c e i v e d p s y c h i a t r i c h e l p f r o m t h e M e n t a l H e a l t h C l i n i c . The m other was a l l o w e d by h e r d o c t o r and by t h e C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y t o v i s i t t h e c h i l d r e n . She v i s i t e d them r e g u l a r l y . - 34 -A f t e r t h r e e months, t h e m o t h e r ' s c o n d i t i o n had i m p r o v e d and t h e c h i l d r e n were r e t u r n e d t o h e r . As she was i n r e c e i p t o f f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e f r o m t h e C i t y S o c i a l S e r v i c e D e p a r t m e n t , t h a t a g e n c y c o n -t i n u e d t o s u p e r v i s e t h e home c l o s e l y . The f a m i l y was a l s o v i s i t e d by a c a s e w o r k e r f r o m t h e C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y b e f o r e t h e c a s e was c l o s e d i n 1959. D e s p i t e t h e p r e v a l e n c e and s e v e r i t y o f p r o b l e m s p r e s e n t , many f a m i l i e s c a n be h e l p e d t o overcome t h e s e and t o r e - e s t a b l i s h a more s e c u r e and e m o t i o n a l l y s t a b l e home f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n . As t h e above i l l u s t r a t i o n p o i n t s u p, o f t e n a g r e a t v a r i e t y o f r e s o u r c e s a r e n e c e s s a r y t o h e l p a p a r t i c u l a r f a m i l y . The f a c t t h a t t h e r e a r e a l a r g e number o f p r o b l e m s i n a f a m i l y s i t u a t i o n s h o u l d n o t be a d e t e r i n g f a c t o r i n h e l p i n g t h e f a m i l y t o a c h i e v e more a d e q u a t e f u n c t i o n i n g - as l o n g as t h e c h i l d r e n t h e m s e l v e s a r e n o t g r e a t l y e n d a n g e r e d by r e t u r n i n g t o , o r r e m a i n i n g i n , t h e i r p a r e n t a l home. C h a p t e r 3 IMPLEMENTING PLANS FOR NON-WARD CARE A p l a n t o u s e non-ward c a r e a s a n a i d t o a f a m i l y s h o u l d be c a r e f u l l y a s s e s s e d by r e f e r e n c e t o ( a ) t h e need s o f the p a r t i c u l a r f a m i l y , and (b) w h e t h e r t h i s p l a n i s a n e f f e c t i v e means o f h e l p i n g t h e p a r t i c u l a r f a m i l y . I n 195>4, when t h e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y was r e - o r g a n i z e d f r o m F a m i l y and C h i l d C a r e d e p a r t m e n t s t o a g e n e r a l i z e d p r o g r a m b a s e d o n g e o g r a p h i c u n i t s , a w e e k l y P l a n n i n g C o n f e r e n c e was s e t up. T h i s C o n f e r e n c e b r i n g s t o g e t h e r w e e k l y t h e f a m i l y ' s c a s e -w o r k e r w i t h o t h e r s p e c i a l i z e d p e o p l e I n t h e a g e n c y . The a i m o f th e C o n f e r e n c e i s t o d i s c u s s t h e s p e c i a l needs o f a p a r t i c u l a r f a m i l y a n d t o d e c i d e o n t h e b e s t p l a n f o r t h e p a r e n t s and t h e c h i l d r e n . The p e o p l e p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t h i s C o n f e r e n c e i n c l u d e t h e f a m i l y ' s c a s e w o r k e r , h i s s u p e r v i s o r , t h e s u p e r v i s o r o f t h e H o r a e f i n d i n g D e p a r t m e n t , t h e c o u r t s u p e r v i s o r , and t h e D i r e c t o r o f Casework S e r v i c e s . The w o r k e r who p r e s e n t s a f a m i l y c a s e a t t h e C o n f e r e n c e f i r s t c o m p l e t e s a n i n f o r m a t i o n f o r m o u t l i n i n g a few p a r t i c u l a r s a b o u t t h e f a m i l y , and t h e n p r e s e n t s a more d e t a i l -ed s t u d y o f t h e f a m i l y a t t h e C o n f e r e n c e . The i n f o r m a t i o n f o r m i s d e t a i l e d i n A p p e n d i x C. By means o f t h e r e g u l a r w e e k l y c o n f e r e n c e , t h e a g e n c y p e r s o n n e l work o u t p l a n s f o r t h e c h i l d r e n . I f p o s s i b l e , emer-g e n c y c a s e s a r e a l s o p r e s e n t e d a t t h i s t i m e . However, t h i s i s n o t a l w a y s p o s s i b l e t o do, s i n c e t h e p e r s o n n e l t r y t o meet needs a s q u i c k l y a s p o s s i b l e a t t h e t i m e t h e s e n e e d s a r i s e . I n d i v i d u a l c o n s u l t a t i o n s w i t h t h e s u p e r v i s o r s and t h e D i r e c t o r o f Casework - 36 -S e r v i c e s c a n be a r r a n g e d , so t h a t a s s i s t a n c e t o a p a r t i c u l a r f a m i l y c a n be r e n d e r e d more r a p i d l y . T h r o u g h q u i c k c o n s u l t a t i o n , i f t h i s i s n e c e s s a r y , emergency non-ward c a r e a d m i s s i o n s c a n be made. Non-ward c a r e i s a s e r v i c e t o f a m i l i e s , b u t i s n o t a l w a y s t h e most s u i t a b l e p l a n f o r a p a r t i c u l a r f a m i l y who i s h a v i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s i n c h i l d - r e a r i n g . The C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y has a n o v e r - a l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o t h e community t o p r e v e n t t h e n e g l e c t o f c h i l d r e n . C o n s e q u e n t l y , i f a p a r e n t r e q u e s t e d non-w a r d c a r e f o r h i s c h i l d r e n , and t h e a g e n c y p e r s o n n e l d i d n o t t h i n k t h a t t h i s was t h e most s u i t a b l e p l a n , t h e y f e e l t h a t t h e y s t i l l have a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o work w i t h t h e p a r e n t s and t o h e l p them t o a c c e p t a n a l t e r n a t i v e p l a n t h a t w o u l d be i n t h e b e s t i n t e r e s t s o f t h e c h i l d r e n . No-one w o u l d be t u r n e d away w i t h o u t a p l a n . E a c h f a m i l y must be a s s e s s e d I n d i v i d u a l l y , and t h e a g e n c y a t t e m p t s t o make u s e o f o t h e r community r e s o u r c e s . F r e q u e n t l y o t h e r r e s o u r c e s , s u c h a s homemaker s e r v i c e s , a r e n o t r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e , and t h i s i s one i n s t a n c e i n w h i c h non-ward c a r e must o f t e n be u s e d a s a n a l t e r n a t i v e . One o f t h e p r i n c i p l e s f o l l o w e d i n d e c i d i n g t o a c c e p t c h i l d r e n i n t o non-ward c a r e i s t h a t e v e r y e f f o r t s h o u l d be made t o h e l p a n a d e q u a t e o r r e l a t i v e l y a d e q u a t e p a r e n t t h r o u g h a c r i s i s so t h a t he c a n a g a i n c a r e f o r h i s c h i l d r e n . An e x c e p t i o n t o t h i s i s when t h e p a r e n t i s a n u n m a r r i e d m o t h e r , I n w h i c h c a s e non-ward c a r e i s u s e d as a means o f p r o v i d i n g c a r e f o r t h e m o t h e r ' s c h i l d d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d i n w h i c h she a t t e m p t s t o make a d e f i n i t e , p e r m a n ent d e c i s i o n r e g a r d i n g t h e f u t u r e c a r e o f h e r - 37 -c h i l d . On t h e a v e r a g e , a p e r i o d o f t h r e e months i s a l l o w e d t h e m o t h e r t o make h e r d e c i s i o n ; a n d , d u r i n g t h i s t i m e a c a s e w o r k e r t r i e s t o h e l p h e r t o d e c i d e what w o u l d be t h e b e s t p l a n f o r t h e c h i l d . The u n m a r r i e d m other may d e c i d e t o keep h e r c h i l d , b u t more o f t e n she d e c i d e s t o r e l i n q u i s h him. Sometimes a c h i l d may n o t be p l a c e d i n a n a d o p t i o n home i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r t h e m o t h e r s i g n s c o n s e n t s t o h i s a d o p t i o n i f he h a s a h a n d i c a p o r i f a n a d o p t i o n home i s n o t i m m e d i a t e l y a v a i l a b l e . I n t h e s e c a s e s n o n -ward c a r e f o r t h e c h i l d may be a r r a n g e d . P a r e n t a l c a p a b i l i t y i s t h e m a i n c r i t e r i o n i n d e c i d i n g w h e t h e r t o o f f e r non-ward c a r e to a f a m i l y o r w h e t h e r t o p r o c e e d t o w a r d s more permanent ward c a r e . I t i s t h e b e l i e f o f t h e a g e n c y s t a f f t h a t t h e r e s h o u l d be a g r e a t d e a l o f f l u i d i t y b e tween ward a n d non-ward c a r e , and sometimes a n a t t e m p t i s made t o work f r o m one t o t h e o t h e r . I f a s i t u a t i o n I s s u c h t h a t a c h i l d w i l l i n a l l p r o b a b i l i t y r e q u i r e l o n g - t e r m f o s t e r home c a r e and i f t h e r e i s l i t t l e e v i d e n c e t h a t t h e p a r e n t s w i l l be i n a p o s i t i o n t o assume f u l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f t h e c h i l d i n t h e n e a r f u t u r e , p a r e n t s may be e n c o u r a g e d t o a g r e e n o t t o oppose c o u r t a c t i o n t o a d m i t t h e c h i l d i n t o c a r e a s a ward. I f p a r e n t s a r e n o t a b l e t o a c c e p t v o l u n t a r y c o m m i t t a l o f t h e i r c h i l d , a nd i f t h e r e i s i n s u f -f i c i e n t e v i d e n c e o f n e g l e c t , non-ward c a r e may be o f f e r e d i n t h e I n t e r e s t s o f t h e c h i l d , w i t h t h e hope t h a t the C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y c a n o b t a i n g u a r d i a n s h i p o f t h e c h i l d a t a l a t e r d a t e o r t h a t t h e f a m i l y w i l l be a b l e t o make a d e q u a t e p l a n s f o r him. A n o t h e r v a l u a b l e p u r p o s e o f t h e P l a n n i n g C o n f e r e n c e i s t h e s e l e c t i o n o f a n a p p r o p r i a t e f o s t e r home f o r a p a r t i c u l a r - 38 -c h i l d . The s p e c i a l n e e d s o f e a c h c h i l d a r e c o n s i d e r e d . I f t h e r e i s some d o u b t a b o u t t h e a b i l i t y o f t h e c h i l d t o a d j u s t t o a new home, t h e c h i l d may be examined b y t h e s t a f f p s y c h o l o -g i s t . A . p s y c h i a t r i s t i s a l s o a v a i l a b l e o n a w e e k l y b a s i s f o r p s y c h i a t r i c d i a g n o s i s o f I n d i v i d u a l c h i l d r e n and f o r s t a f f c o n -s u l t a t i o n . T h e r e a r e a f a i r l y a d e q u a t e number o f f o s t e r home a v a i l -a b l e t o t h e C h i l d r e n 1 s A i d S o c i e t y f r o m w h i c h t h e most s u i t a b l e home f o r a p a r t i c u l a r c h i l d may be c h o s e n . T h e r e i s , however, a s c a r c i t y o f homes f o r a d o l e s c e n t s . I n some c a s e s c h i l d r e n a r e n o t p l a c e d d i r e c t l y i n t o f o s t e r homes. The C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y h a s t h r e e " g r o u p homes", i n w h i c h a h o u s e m o t h e r and o t h e r domes-t i c s t a f f c a r e f o r c h i l d r e n . T h e s e g r o u p homes a r e known as " r e c e i v i n g homes", b u t i n a c t u a l f a c t a c h i l d may r e m a i n i n one o f t h e s e homes f o r s e v e r a l y e a r s . When th e C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y must f i n d a s u b s t i t u t e home f o r a c h i l d who i s f a i r l y d i s t u r b e d a n d when i t i s b e l i e v e d t h a t t h i s c h i l d c a n n o t a c c e p t s u b s t i t u t e p a r e n t s , he i s o f t e n p l a c e d i n a g r o u p home. A n o t h e r s i t u a t i o n may be one where t h e c h i l d h a s n o t b e e n a b l e t o a c c e p t s u b s t i t u t e p a r e n t s i n a s e r i e s o f f o s t e r homes. I n s u c h a s i t u a t i o n he may be p l a c e d I n a g r o u p home b e c a u s e a n o t h e r move t o a f o s t e r home may be damaging t o him. The C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y I s p r e s e n t l y i m p l e m e n t i n g p l a n s f o r a new r e c e p t i o n home. T h i s home w i l l be u s e d f o r t h e t e m p o r a r y p l a c e m e n t o f a c h i l d p r i o r t o t h e s e l e c -t i o n o f a s u i t a b l e f o s t e r home f o r h i m . D u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d i t w i l l be e a s i e r t o a s s e s s the c h i l d ' s s p e c i a l n e e d s . - 39 -Although group homes do have a valuable contribution to make as part of a child care program, i t should be kept in mind that a point may be reached in a child's l i f e when he can no longer benefit from this type of care i f he remains there too long. Every child needs some individual care, and as soon as he is ready to accept substitute parents he should be placed i n a foster home. Or, i f i t is at a l l possible to reconstruct his parental home he should be returned to his parents. Time Considerations in Planning Sufficient time i s required to help a family to assess i t s situation and to decide -what might be the best plan for the children. In many instances, emergency non-ward care admissions are made due to the fact that many referrals to the Children's Aid Society come in late and many families do not seek help u n t i l a c r i s i s occurs. In times of emergency there is often the danger that a plan may be hurriedly made with l i t t l e preparatory work done with the parents or the children. Where placement must be made in such instances, subsequent casework services to the parents and the children are highly important. The length of time families were known to the Children's Aid Society, which may not have been for the presenting problem alone, and the number of children returned to their families after being i n non-ward care i s summarized in Table k» - ko -T a b l e k» L e n g t h Of Time F a m i l y Known To The  C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y P r i o r To P l a c e m e n t Number o f C h i l d r e n Time C h i l d r e n R e t u r n e d (a) C h i l d r e n Not R e t u r n e d T o t a l One Month 13 . 1 Ik One t o S i x Months 6 1 7 S i x Months t o One Y e a r 3 1 5 One Y e a r to Two Y e a r s - - -Two Y e a r s and O v er 7 k i i T o t a l Number o f C h i l d r e n 2 9 7 36 J ( a ) I n c l u d i n g one c h i l d r e t u r n e d b u t l a t e r a d m i t t e d i n t o ward c a r e . Many o f t h e f a m i l i e s have b e e n known t o t h e C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y f o r a p e r i o d l e s s t h a n one month, and f o u r t e e n o u t o f t h i r t y - s i x c h i l d r e n were t a k e n i n t o non-ward c a r e i n t h i s i n s t a n c e . B e c a u s e o f t h i s f a c t o r t h e r e was l i t t l e t i m e a v a i l -a b l e f o r t h e c a s e w o r k e r i n w h i c h t o work i n t e n s i v e l y w i t h t h e f a m i l i e s p r i o r t o p l a c e m e n t o f t h e c h i l d r e n . Nor were many o f the c h i l d r e n a d e q u a t e l y p r e p a r e d f o r p l a c e m e n t i n a f o s t e r home. S e v e r a l o f t h e c h i l d r e n showed e a r l y m a l a d j u s t m e n t t o t h e f o s t e r - in -homes and only after a period of time did they begin to accept substitute parents. Often a child cannot comprehend an illness which does not keep the parent in bed and i t is d i f f i c u l t to explain to him that a parent who is mentally i l l needs treatment. This factor can make i t very hard for a child to leave his home without feel-ing that his own parents are rejecting him. This w i l l add to his d i f f i c u l t y i n accepting substitute parents. There i s , therefore, a need for earlier referral, so that more time would be available for the caseworker to plan placement carefully with the family. There is what might appear to be a slight paradox i n that the majority of situations in which the children were even-tually returned to their parents were those which had not been known to the agency for a very long period of time. On the other hand, i n those cases where the children were not returned the families had been known for a considerable period of time. One explanation is that a large number of families were able to func-tion adequately for a long period of time and came for help only when a c r i s i s , such as hospitalization of the mother, occurred. In the cases where the children were not returned there was gen-erally a greater prevalence of recurring social dysfunction, and the parents showed some repeated inadequacy in assuming the care of their children. The following are two case summaries. The f i r s t case concerns a family who were unknown to the Children's Aid Society prior to their request for non-ward care. The parents had been able to function adequately u n t i l the mother required hospitalization. Following the mother's recovery, the parents - i+2 -were able to resume the care of their children. On October 27th, a doctor referred the E family for emergency placement of their two children, aged two years and one month. Mrs. E. was suffering from a post-partum psychosis after the birth of the second child, and had been admitted as a voluntary patient on October 25th. Mr. E. came to the Children's Aid Society on the same day. Efforts were made to help him to accept homemaker services, but he refused such service. The children were taken into non-ward care on October 28th. They settled into the foster home f a i r l y well, and the father visited regularly. The mother was eventually discharged from the hospital, and the children were returned home on April 27th, after being i n care for six months. The second case summary illustrates, in contrast to the f i r s t , a situation in which there was a recurring pattern of social dysfunction, and the parent had not shown capability in caring for the child. The child was not returned to the parent. I n t h e P f a m i l y c a s e , t h e m o t h e r was f i r s t known t o t h e C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y i n 1952 when, a t t h e age o f f i f t e e n , she had a c h i l d o u t o f wed-l o c k . The m o t h e r h a d a p o o r f a m i l y b a c k g r o u n d . H e r f i r s t c h i l d was p l a c e d f o r a d o p t i o n . I n O c t o b e r , 1956, t h e m o t h e r , as y e t u n m a r r i e d , was a g a i n r e f e r r e d by a s o c i a l a g e n c y as she was e x p e c t i n g a n o t h e r c h i l d . The c h i l d was b o r n on December 2 9 t h , and a day l a t e r t h e mother l a p s e d i n t o p s y c h o s i s and was c o n f i n e d t o t h e p s y c h i a t r i c ward o f t h e h o s p i t a l . The b a b y was t a k e n i n t o n o n -ward c a r e on J a n u a r y 8 th , 1957• The m o t h e r was n o t c o n s i d e r e d f i t a t t h i s t i m e t o make a d e c i s i o n e i t h e r t o keep h e r c h i l d o r t o r e l i n q u i s h h i m f o r a d o p t i o n . I n F e b r u a r y t h e m o t h e r was t r a n s f e r r e d t o C r e a s e C l i n i c . She was u n d e c i d e d a b o u t what p e r -manent p l a n she wanted f o r h e r c h i l d . She d i d n o t have any p l a n s f o r l o o k i n g a f t e r h i m h e r s e l f , y e t was r e l u c t a n t t o r e l i n q u i s h him. A t one p o i n t she a s k e d t h a t h e r c h i l d be p l a c e d f o r a d o p t i o n b u t t h e c a s e w o r k e r d i d n o t t h i n k t h a t t h i s s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d u n t i l t h e m o t h e r was d i s c h a r g e d f r o m h o s p i t a l . - 1+3 -The mother was discharged in June i n a much improved condition. At this time she did not wish to relinquish her child as she thought she might get married i n a few months time. The caseworker gave her two more months to make a decision, pointing out to her that the child could not remain in non-ward care indefinitely. The mother did not keep her appointments at the agency to discuss her child's future, nor did she v i s i t the child. In August the caseworker recorded on f i l e that i f the mother was not able to take her child by the end of the month i t would seem to be in the best interests of the mother and child to make the child a permanent ward. However, no action was taken. Later, when the mother began to take more interest in social a c t i -vities in the community, she no longer "needed" the baby, and f i n a l l y signed consents to adoption on November 2 1 s t , 19i?7, after the child had been in non-ward care for eleven months. Some of the d i f f i c u l t i e s that may arise in making a permanent plan for a child are illustrated in the preceding case summary. When the parent i s incapable of caring for the child, when she has emotional d i f f i c u l t i e s of her own, and when she is allowed an indefinite period of time to make a decision for her child, this may, in the long-run, be detrimental to the best interests of the child. Economic Circumstances and Financial Responsibility Many parents who come to social agencies for help have low incomes or are in receipt of social assistance. This often makes i t impossible for them to contribute financially towards the care of their children in a substitute home. As a result, financial contributions from this source are almost negligible. The major part of the cost of non-ward care services in Vancouver is borne by the Community Chest and Council. There are a few exceptions. If the child comes into non-ward care at the request - 44 -o f t h e P r o v i n c i a l C h i l d W e l f a r e D i v i s i o n , t h e p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n -ment p a y s t h e c o s t o f t h e c h i l d ' s m a i n t e n a n c e . I f t h e C i t y S o c i a l D e p a r t m e n t r e q u e s t s non-ward c a r e f o r a c h i l d , t h e p r o -v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t a l s o p a y s f o r t h e c o s t . The economic c i r c u m -s t a n c e s o f t h e p a r e n t s , t h e number o f i n s t a n c e s i n w h i c h p a r e n t s were a b l e t o assume some f i n a n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n , and who assumed t h e m a j o r f i n a n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e c h i l d r e n ' s m a i n t e n a n c e i s summarized i n T a b l e £ . T a b l e 5. E c o n o m i c C i r c u m s t a n c e s A n d  F i n a n c i a l R e s p o n s i b i l i t y E c o n o m i c F i n a n c i a l R e s p o n s i b i l i t y J p a r e n t a l C i r c u m s t a n c e s Community C h e s t P r o v i n c i a l Government T o t a l C o n t r i -b u t i o n s B o t h P a r e n t s E m p l o y e d 1 — 1 F a t h e r E m p l o y e d 11 2 13 11 M o t h e r E m p l o y e d 3 - 3 1 S o c i a l A s s i s t a n c e 5 1 6 Unemployment I n s u r a n c e l - 1 -TOTAL 21 3 2k 1 13 - k$ -I n t w e n t y - o n e o u t o f t w e n t y - f o u r i n s t a n c e s , o r e i g h t y -e i g h t p e r c e n t o f t h e t o t a l , t h e Community C h e s t and C o u n c i l p a i d f o r t h e c h i l d r e n ' s c a r e . The p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t p a i d t h e c o s t s I n t h r e e I n s t a n c e s , o r t w e l v e p e r c e n t o f t h e t o t a l . P a r e n t s c o n t r i b u t e d a s m a l l amount t o w a r d t h e c o s t o f t h e i r c h i l d r e n i n t h i r t e e n o u t o f t w e n t y - f o u r c a s e s , o r i n f i f t y -f o u r p e r c e n t o f t h e t o t a l . The a v e r a g e amount o f p a r e n t a l c o n -t r i b u t i o n r a n g e d f r o m t h e p r o v i s i o n o f c l o t h i n g a n d payment o f m e d i c a l b i l l s , t o s i x t y d o l l a r s a month. The g r o u p t h a t assumed t h e l a r g e s t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y was made up o f t h o s e f a m i l i e s where t h e f a t h e r was e m p l o y e d . I n t h e s e c a s e s e l e v e n o u t o f t h i r t e e n , o r e i g h t y - f i v e p e r c e n t , made some f i n a n c i a l c o n t r i b u t i o n . I n s e v e n i n s t a n c e s t h e f a m i l y was r e c e i v i n g s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e a n d c o n s e q u e n t l y u n a b l e to c o n t r i b u t e a n y t h i n g t o w a r d s m a i n t e n a n c e a c o s t s . I t i s n o t e d t h a t t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e f a m i l i e s were w i l l i n g t o assume some f i n a n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i f t h e y were a t a l l a b l e t o do s o . P a r e n t a l c o n t r i b u t i o n s , e v e n i f t h e y a r e o n l y a t o k e n sum, c a n be a v a l u a b l e c a s e w o r k t o o l i n i n v o l v i n g p a r e n t s i n t h e c a r e o f t h e i r c h i l d r e n , and s h o u l d be u s e d whenever p o s s i b l e . I n t he m a j o r i t y o f the c a s e s s t u d i e d one o r b o t h p a r e n t s were employed. T h i s number t o t a l l e d s e v e n t e e n o u t o f t w e n t y - f o u r , o r s e v e n t y - o n e p e r c e n t . S e v e n o u t o f t w e n t y - f o u r , o r t w e n t y - n i n e p e r c e n t were d e p e n d e n t u p o n s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e . T h i s i n d i c a t e d t h a t i n most i n s t a n c e s t h e p a r e n t s were f u n c t i o n -i n g a d e q u a t e l y i n one i m p o r t a n t a r e a and were a b l e t o p r o v i d e f o r many o f t h e i r own need s w i t h o u t e n t i r e dependence u p o n s o c i a l r e s o u r c e s . - 46 - .. Use o f S o c i a l R e s o u r c e s I n some f a m i l i e s t h e r e may be many, p r o b l e m s w h i c h p l a c e s t r e s s u p o n t h e f a m i l y u n i t . E v e r y e f f o r t s h o u l d be made, i n s u c h c a s e s , t o u s e n o t o n l y a g e n c y r e s o u r c e s b u t a l s o o t h e r s o c i a l r e s o u r c e s o f t h e community w h e r e v e r p o s s i b l e . T h i s means t h a t c a s e w o r k e r s s h o u l d be aware o f community r e s o u r c e s and be a b l e t o make a p p r o p r i a t e r e f e r r a l s . The number o f r e s o u r c e s , o t h e r t h a n non-ward c a r e , w h i c h were u s e d t o h e l p i n d i v i d u a l f a m i l i e s i s summarized i n T a b l e 6. T a b l e 6. Use Of R e s o u r c e s O t h e r Than Non-Ward C a r e Use o f O t h e r R e s o u r c e s Use o f R e s o u r c e s when C h i l d r e n D i s c h a r g e d f r o m Non-ward C a r e T o t a l D u r i n g P e r i o d o f Non-ward C a r e H e a l t h A g e n c i e s O t h e r W e l f a r e A g e n c i e s F o l l o w - u p by C.A.S. F a m i l y O n l y R e s o u r c e s H e a l t h A g e n c i e s 5 (a) 7 5 22 O t h e r W e l f a r e A g e n c i e s 1 1 - 1 3 R e l a t i v e s , o r F r i e n d s - - 2 2 4 | TOTAL o t h e r 1 r e s o u r c e s ! 6 7 9 8 29 (a) I n c l u d i n g one r e f e r r a l t o a s c h o o l - kl -The h e a l t h a g e n c i e s whose s e r v i c e s were u s e d were C r e a s e C l i n i c , t h e V a n c o u v e r G e n e r a l H o s p i t a l a n d t h e C h i l d G u i d a n c e C l i n i c . O t h e r w e l f a r e a g e n c i e s were t h e F a m i l y S e r -v i c e A g e n c y , t h e C i t y S o c i a l S e r v i c e D e p a r t m e n t and t h e C h i l d W e l f a r e D i v i s i o n . The most f r e q u e n t l y u s e d s e r v i c e s d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d o f non-ward c a r e were t h o s e o f h e a l t h a g e n c i e s who p r o v i d e d t r e a t m e n t t o t h e m e n t a l l y i l l p a r e n t . Most o f t h e a d m i s s i o n s f o r t r e a t m e n t w e r e _ v o l u n t a r y a d m i s s i o n s . T h a t t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e s e p a r e n t s were w i l l i n g t o r e c e i v e t r e a t m e n t , and t o be h e l p e d t o make a b e t t e r p e r s o n a l a d j u s t m e n t i s a s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r . T h i s same m o t i v a t i o n f o r h e l p c a n be u t i l i z e d I n h e l p i n g them t o f u n c t i o n more a d e q u a t e l y as p a r e n t s . T h e r e i s , t h o u g h , one d a n g e r . B o t h v o l u n t a r y a d m i s -s i o n s t o a h o s p i t a l , and non-ward c a r e a r e made a t t h e r e q u e s t o f t h e p a r e n t ; c o n s e q u e n t l y , d i s c h a r g e must a l s o be made a t t h e i r r e q u e s t . I n some c a s e s t h e d o c t o r may t h i n k t h a t h i s p a t i e n t i s n o t r e a d y f o r d i s c h a r g e and t h e a g e n c y p e r s o n n e l may t h i n k t h a t i t i s u n w i s e f o r t h e c h i l d r e n t o r e t u r n home a t a c e r t a i n t i m e . Not o n l y s h o u l d t h e r e be f a i r l y c l o s e c o l l a b o r a t i o n b etween d o c t o r a n d c a s e w o r k e r , b u t o t h e r s t e p s s h o u l d a l s o be t a k e n t o e n s u r e t h a t t h e b e s t i n t e r e s t s o f t h e c h i l d a r e p r o t e c t e d . One s t e p m i g h t be t h a t a t t h e t i m e t h e c h i l d i s t a k e n i n t o non-ward c a r e i t s h o u l d be i m p r e s s e d u p o n t h e p a r e n t s t h a t t h e i r f r e e d o m t o d e c i d e when t h e y c a n t a k e t h e i r c h i l d home a l s o i mposes u p o n them t h e o b l i g a t i o n t o be c o n s i d e r a t e o f the c h i l d ' s w e l l - b e i n g . - 48 -The use of other community services was prevalent i n most cases. In only three instances was the service of non-ward care alone given. Well integrated planning of community services i s invaluable i n giving assistance to families and i t i s often the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the in d i v i d u a l caseworker to ensure that families who come to him are aware of these services. The number of services used by the families when the children were discharged from non-ward care t o t a l l e d twenty-one out of twenty-nine. Most of these services were given by health or welfare agencies as well as by the caseworker from the Children's Aid Society. The family cases for which no r e f e r r a l was made and where the Children's Aid Society caseworker did not continue to v i s i t were generally families where*the c h i l d had been taken into ward care or placed for adoption. However, i n several family cases, af t e r the children were returned there was no attempt to see the family again and the f i l e was immediately closed. In three of these cases the families came back to the agency themselves to ask for re-admission of the c h i l d at a l a t e r date. This might be an i n d i c a t i o n that i n these instances the family might have benefited from continued casework services which were not offered to them. The following i s a case summary showing the use of several resources as an aid to the family. Mr. G. came to the Children's Aid Society requesting help i n planning for his three children. His wife had had a breakdown and had been hospi-t a l i z e d i n Crease C l i n i c . The r e l a t i v e s were unable to help. I t was anticipated that Mrs. G. might be hospitalized for one year. The children were taken into non-ward care a few days l a t e r . - 49 -P r i o r to placement, the caseworker spoke to the mother's d o c t o r . The mother was going to be t r a n s f e r r e d to Essondale and a leng t h y p e r i o d of h o s p i t a l i z a t i o n was f o r s e e n , although the h o s p i t a l a u t h o r i t i e s gave the mother p e r m i s s i o n to l e a v e the i n s t i t u t i o n f o r short p e r i o d s , and she v i s i t e d the c h i l d r e n . The f a t h e r and s e v e r a l r e l a t i v e s v i s i t e d the c h i l d r e n r e g u l a r l y as w e l l . The c h i l d r e n were a l i t t l e d i s t u r b e d upon placement i n the f o s t e r home and w ere subsequently seen a t the C h i l d Guidance C l i n i c . S e v e r a l con-f e r e n c e s were h e l d a t the C h i l d Guidance C l i n i c w i t h the s t a f f there, the Essondale p e r s o n n e l and the caseworker from the C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y . F u t u r e p l a n n i n g f o r the whole f a m i l y was d i s c u s s e d . The mother ret u r n e d home a f t e r r e c e i v i n g treatment f o r f i v e months. P l a n n i n g f o r the r e t u r n o f the c h i l d r e n was done c a r e f u l l y i n terms o f the mother's a b i l i t y to resume her r o l e i n the home. The two o l d e r c h i l d r e n were r e t u r n e d home a f t e r they had been i n care f o r f i v e and a h a l f months, and the youngest c h i l d was r e t u r n e d a f t e r b e i n g i n care f o r ten months. A f t e r the l a s t c h i l d was re t u r n e d to h i s p a r e n t s , the f a m i l y was r e f e r r e d to the C h i l d Welfare D i v i s i o n , who continued super-v i s i o n o f the home. Length o f Time i n F o s t e r Home Care The p o l i c y statement of the C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y r e g a r d i n g non-ward care f o r c h i l d r e n s p e c i f i e s no time l i m i t f o r c h i l d r e n to remain i n t h i s category of care. Each case i s assessed i n d i v i d u a l l y . I f the parent i s unable to care f o r h i s c h i l d because, f o r example, he r e q u i r e s medical treatment f o r a long p e r i o d o f time, there i s a p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t the c h i l d may remain i n non-ward care f o r s e v e r a l y e a r s . On the other hand, i f the pa r e n t shows no I n t e r e s t i n the c h i l d , he i s helped to make a more permanent p l a n f o r the c h i l d . Sometimes the c h i l d may be taken i n t o ward care with the consent of the parent i f i t i s a n t i c i p a t e d t h at the c h i l d w i l l need s u b s t i t u t e care f o r a long p e r i o d o f time, and i f t h i s i s i n the c h i l d ' s b e s t i n t e r e s t s . - 5o -The p a r e n t must be i n agr e e m e n t w i t h t h i s p l a n and ward c a r e i s g r a n t e d t h r o u g h t h e c o u r t . I f the p a r e n t i s a n u n m a r r i e d m o t h e r who t a k e s no i n t e r e s t i n the c h i l d o r make no a t t e m p t t o make a home f o r him, t h e C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y may a s k t h e c o u r t t o w a i v e t h e p a r e n t ' s c o n s e n t t o a d o p t i o n so t h a t t h e c h i l d c a n be p l a c e d i n a n a d o p t i o n home. A c h i l d may a l s o be t a k e n i n t o n o n -ward c a r e by t h e C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y i n s i t u a t i o n s where a n u n m a r r i e d m o t h e r has s i g n e d c o n s e n t s t o a d o p t i o n b u t a n a d o p t i o n , home i s n o t i m m e d i a t e l y a v a i l a b l e . The l e n g t h o f t i m e t h e c h i l d r e n i n t h i s sample were i n non-ward c a r e , a n d t h e d i s p o s i t i o n a t t h e end o f t h a t t i m e i s summarized I n T a b l e 7» T w e n t y - n i n e o u t o f t h i r t y - s i x c h i l d r e n , o r e i g h t y p e r c e n t , were r e t u r n e d t o t h e i r n a t u r a l p a r e n t s . T h i s i n d i c a t e s a good d e a l o f s u c c e s s I n h e l p i n g f a m i l i e s t h r o u g h a c r i s i s . O n l y s e v e n c h i l d r e n were n o t r e t u r n e d . I n f i v e o f t h e s e c a s e s t h e p l a n h a d b e en t o h e l p a mother to r e l i n q u i s h h e r c h i l d when t h i s seemed t o be t h e b e s t p l a n b o t h f o r h e r a n d t h e c h i l d . I n t h e m a j o r i t y o f I n s t a n c e s t h e e n t i r e f a m i l y u n i t was r e - e s t a b l i s h e d t o g e t h e r , a n d a t o t a l o f twenty-one c h i l d r e n were r e t u r n e d t o b o t h p a r e n t s . Of t h e number r e t u r n i n g t o t h e i r p a r e n t s , t w e n t y - f i v e c h i l d r e n , o r s e v e n t y - s i x p e r c e n t o f t h e t o t a l , r e t u r n e d t o t h e i r own homes w i t h i n s i x months o f t h e t i m e t h a t t h e y were t a k e n i n t o non-ward c a r e . I t i s n o t e d t h e n t h a t t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e c h i l d -r e n were r e t u r n e d t o t h e n a t u r a l home a s so o n as t h e p a r e n t s were a b l e t o c a r e f o r them- a d e q u a t e l y . A s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r i n - 5 i -Table 7. Length Of Time C h i l d r e n I n Non-Ward Care  And D i s p o s i t i o n At Discharge D i s p o s i t i o n a t Discharge Length o f Time C h i l d r e n i n F o s t e r Home Care T o t a l from F o s t e r Home Care 1 mo. 2 mos. 3 mos. mos. 6-8 mos. 8-12| mos. 12 or mos. over Returned to both parents 7 3 _ k 6 1 _ 21 Returned to non-mentally i l l parent 1 2 ... 3 Returned to me n t a l l y i l l parent 3 2 - mi - 5 Number of C h i l d r e n Returned 7 k 3 8 6 1 29 Apprehension, •wardship taken and c h i l d remain-i n g i n F o s t e r Home Care 1 1 1 3 Consents o f parents taken or waived and c h i l d p l a c e d f o r a d o p t i o n i - 2 1 k j Number of j C h i l d r e n not Returned 1 2 1 3 1 7 T o t a l number of C h i l d r e n 7 k k 10 6 1 k 1 36 - 52 -t h e d i s p o s i t i o n o f t h e s e c a s e s i s t h a t h o s p i t a l i z a t i o n o f t h e m o t h e r was r e l a t i v e l y s h o r t - t e r m and t h e m o t h e r s were a b l e t o r e t u r n t o t h e home i n a much i m p r o v e d s t a t e o f h e a l t h . Of t h e t o t a l number, some permanent p l a n -was made w i t h i n s i x months f o r t w e n t y - f i v e c h i l d r e n , o r s i x t y - n i n e p e r c e n t . A l t h o u g h m e n t a l i l l n e s s c a n be a s e r i o u s p r o b l e m , i f t h e s e r v i c e s f o r t r e a t m e n t i n t h e community a r e u t i l i z e d t h e r e i s much hope t h a t f a m i l i e s c a n be r e s t o r e d t o a t l e a s t a minimum l e v e l o f s o c i a l f u n c t i o n i n g . The f o l l o w i n g a r e two c a s e I l l u s t r a t i o n s s h o wing t h e r e a s o n f o r t h e p l a n o f non-ward c a r e and t h e l e n g t h o f time t h e c h i l d r e n r e m a i n e d i n non-ward c a r e . I n t h e f i r s t c a s e non-ward c a r e was g r a n t e d f o r a s h o r t p e r i o d o f time and t h e c h i l d r e n were n o t d e p r i v e d o f t h e c a r e , o f t h e i r p a r e n t s f o r any l o n g e r t h a n was a b s o l u t e l y n e c e s s a r y . The H f a m i l y c a s e was opened on June 11th, 1959, when Mr. H. phoned t h e C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y r e q u e s t i n g h e l p i n p l a n n i n g f o r h i s two c h i l d r e n . He had j u s t t h e p r e v i o u s day taken, h i s w i f e t o C r e a s e C l i n i c f o r t r e a t m e n t . A t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e t h e r e were no r e l a t i v e s who c o u l d h e l p h i m c a r e f o r t h e c h i l d r e n . The f a t h e r was employed and a g r e e d t o pay s i x t y d o l l a r s a month f o r t h e c a r e o f the c h i l d r e n . The f o l l o w i n g day, t h e two c h i l d r e n were a d m i t t e d t o non-ward c a r e . The y o u n g e r c h i l d s e t t l e d i n t o t h e f o s t e r home w e l l , b u t t h e o l d e r c h i l d was q u i t e u p s e t a n d h a d d i f f i c u l t y i n a d j u s t i n g t o th e new home. The f a t h e r v i s i t e d them r e g u l a r l y . On June 22nd, 1959, t h e f a t h e r ' s s i s t e r h ad r e t u r n e d f r o m h o l i d a y s and c o u l d assume the c a r e o f t h e o l d e r c h i l d . C o n s e q u e n t l y , on t h i s d a t e t h e o l d e r c h i l d was r e t u r n e d t o t h e f a t h e r ' s c a r e . On J u l y 23rd, 1959, the mo t h e r r e t u r n e d home and t h e y o u n g e r c h i l d was d i s c h a r g e d t o t h e p a r e n t s . The f a m i l y was v i s i t e d by t h e c a s e w o r k e r a g a i n . The f a t h e r p e r i o d i c a l l y c o n t i n u e d t o s e n d s m a l l amounts o f money t o pay f o r the c h i l d r e n ' s m a i n t e n -a n c e . The c a s e was n o t c l o s e d u n t i l A p r i l 30th, 1960, when t h e f a m i l y was now j u d g e d t o be f u n c t i o n -i n g a d e q u a t e l y . - 53 -I n t h e s e c o n d c a s e , a f u t u r e p l a n was n o t made when the c h i l d was t a k e n i n t o non-ward c a r e , n o r was the s i t u a t i o n p e r i o d i c a l l y r e - a s s e s s e d . The c h i l d r e m a i n e d i n non-ward c a r e f o r a p r o l o n g e d p e r i o d o f t i m e b e f o r e a d e c i s i o n a b o u t h i s f u t u r e was made. Mrs . I . was f i r s t known t o t h e C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y i n 19U-8, a s an u n m a r r i e d m o t h e r . H e r c h i l d was p l a c e d f o r a d o p t i o n . L a t e r t h e m o t h e r m a r r i e d . I n M a r c h , 1958, a n e g l e c t c o m p l a i n t was l o d g e d a g a i n s t h e r h u s b a n d who was c a r i n g f o r one o f two c h i l d r e n b o r n i n t h i s m a r r i a g e . The m o t h e r was a t t h i s time l i v i n g common-law, r e c e i v i n g s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e and c a r i n g f o r t h e o t h e r c h i l d . She h a d b e e n i n C r e a s e C l i n i c f o r s e v e r a l months, and h e r h u s b a n d had p r e v i o u s l y b e e n i n t h e E s s o n d a l e P r o v i n c i a l H o s p i t a l . I n May, 1958, t h e m o t h e r was r e f e r r e d t o t h e C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y by t h e C i t y S o c i a l S e r v i c e D e p a r t m e n t a s she was e x p e c t i n g a n o t h e r c h i l d and was r e q u e s t i n g a d o p t i o n . A f t e r the c h i l d was b o r n , he was t a k e n i n t o non-ward c a r e i n September, 1958. The m o t h e r was n o t q u i t e p r e p a r e d t o s i g n c o n s e n t s t o a d o p t i o n as she d i d n o t want h e r h u s b a n d n o t i f i e d o f t h e b i r t h o f t h i s c h i l d . No t i m e l i m i t was s e t f o r h e r t o make a d e c i s i o n , n o r d i d she k e e p r e g u -l a r a p p o i n t m e n t s . She e v e n t u a l l y s i g n e d c o n s e n t s i n J a n u a r y , 1959. H e r husband r e f u s e d t o s i g n c o n s e n t s . H i s c o n s e n t was w a i v e d i n M a r c h , I960, a n d the c h i l d ' s a d o p t i o n was c o m p l e t e d two months l a t e r . T hese c a s e i l l u s t r a t i o n s show two d i f f e r e n t ways i n w h i c h non-ward c a r e may be u t i l i z e d : t o h e l p p a r e n t s t h r o u g h a c r i s i s o r t o h e l p a m other make a d e c i s i o n r e g a r d i n g h e r c h i l d . I n b o t h c a s e s i t m i g h t be s a i d t h a t non-ward c a r e was s u c c e s s f u l i n terms o f t h e g o a l s t h a t were e n v i s i o n e d . The e v e n t u a l d i s p o s i -t i o n a p p e a r e d t o be one t h a t was i n t h e b e s t i n t e r e s t s o f t h e c h i l d . - Sk -However, a s s e e n i n t h e s e c o n d c a s e i l l u s t r a t i o n , non-ward c a r e c a n be p r o l o n g e d i n d e f i n i t e l y i f t h e p a r e n t s a r e n o t h e l p e d to make a d e c i s i o n f o r t h e i r c h i l d a s s o o n a s p o s s i b l e . I t i s e s s e n t i a l t h a t , i f a permanent p l a n i s t o be made i n t h e i n t e r e s t s o f t h e c h i l d , t h i s p l a n s h o u l d be made w i t h o u t undue d e l a y . P r o l o n g e d non-ward c a r e c a n have l a s t i n g e f f e c t s u p o n the c h i l d . The s e p a r a t i o n o f i n f a n t s f r o m t h e i r m o t h e r I s a p a r t i c u l a r l y s e r i o u s c o n s i d e r a t i o n . An i n f a n t who i s a l l o w e d t o r e m a i n i n a b o a r d i n g home w i t h o u t some p l a n f o r h i s permanent c a r e may be e s p e c i a l l y harmed. E v e r y c h i l d n eeds t o be a b e l o v e d and s e c u r e member o f h i s own f a m i l y , and needs t o have s t a b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h a d u l t s . I f he l a c k s t h e s e s t a b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n h i s f o r m a t i v e y e a r s and i s u n a b l e t o e s t a b l i s h h e a l t h y i d e n t i -f i c a t i o n w i t h a d u l t s , he may grow up e m o t i o n a l l y damaged. T h e r e -f o r e i t i s paramount t h a t he r e c e i v e c o n s i s t e n t m o t h e r i n g f r o m a n e a r l y a g e . C h a p t e r 4. NON-WARD CARE: SOME IMPLICATIONS FOR  PRACTICE AND POLICY Non-ward c a r e i s u s e d i n a v a r i e t y o f s i t u a t i o n s , a n d , one way o f m e a s u r i n g s u c c e s s m i g h t be t o see i f non-ward c a r e a c h i e v e d t h e g o a l s f o r w h i c h i t was i n t e n d e d . I t was f o u n d i n t h e s t u d y t h a t many d i f f e r e n t i a l f a c t o r s were p r e s e n t i n t h e f a m i l y c a s e s , n o t o n l y i n t h e d i f f e r i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e f a m i l i e s , b u t a l s o i n t h e p l a n w h i c h t h e c a s e w o r k e r e n v i s i o n e d a n d h i s s k i l l i n I m p l e m e n t i n g t h i s p l a n . Some o f t h e d i f f e r e n -t i a l f a c t o r s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n S c h e d u l e 1. The c a s e s s e l e c t e d were s e v e n f a m i l y c a s e s i n w h i c h t h e c h i l d r e n were n o t r e t u r n e d , r a t e d a g a i n s t s e v e n f a m i l y c a s e s , r a n d o m l y s e l e c t e d f r o m t h e e n t i r e s ample, i n w h i c h t h e c h i l d r e n were r e t u r n e d t o t h e i r p a r e n t s . G r e a t e r s u c c e s s was a c h i e v e d i n r e t u r n i n g c h i l d r e n t o t h e i r own homes i n t h o s e c a s e s where no f a m i l y b r e a kdown h a d p r e -v i o u s l y o c c u r r e d and two p a r e n t s were i n t h e home. The more s t a b l e t h e f a m i l y u n i t , t h e b e t t e r was t h e p r o g n o s i s f o r t h a t f a m i l y . I n t h e s e c a s e s most o f t h e c h i l d r e n r e t u r n e d home w i t h i n s i x months, w h i l e i n t h e o t h e r g r o u p a l o n g e r p e r i o d o f t i m e was n e c e s s a r y f o r p l a n n i n g . The f i r s t g r o u p o f p a r e n t s a l s o m a i n -t a i n e d c l o s e r c o n t a c t w i t h , o r more s u s t a i n e d i n t e r e s t i n , t h e i r c h i l d r e n . The most s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n t i a l f a c t o r was t h e p l a n c o n s c i o u s l y r e c o r d e d b y t h e c a s e w o r k e r . I f t h e p l a n was one t o h e l p t h e m o t h e r r e l i n q u i s h t h e c h i l d f o r a d o p t i o n , t h i s p l a n was - 56 -S c h e d u l e 1. E s t i m a t e Of D i f f e r e n t i a l F a c t o r s  I n Two K i n d s Of S i t u a t i o n s  ( l l j . Sample G a s e s ; 19 C h i l d r e n ) F a m i l y C a s e s ( l i f ) D i f f e r e n t i a l C h i l d r e n C h i l d r e n Not > [ F a c t o r s R e t u r n e d ,12) | R e t u r n e d (7) I A B C D !E F G TOTAL a l b c d et f l i g I TOTAL f P a r e n t s l i v i n g t o -g e t h e r ( a s o p p o s e d t o i l l e g i t i m a c y o r s e p a r a t i o n ) X X X X X X X 7 - X X X - - - 3 P l a n t o h e l p fam-i l y s t a y t o g e t h e r ( a s o p p o s e d t o h e l p -i n g t h e p a r e n t make • a d e c i s i o n o r t o r e -l i n q u i s h c h i l d X X X X X X X 7 - X - X - - - 2 P a r e n t s assumed j some f i n a n c i a l r e -s p o n s i b i l i t y t o c h i l d X X X X X X X 7 - X "* 1" 1 C h i l d r e t u r n e d home w i t h i n s i x months (a n d n o t a p p r e h e n d e d 1 l a t e r ) X X X X X X X 7 - - - X - - - 1 P h y s i c a l n e g l e c t n o t a f a c t o r i n t h e s i t u a t i o n X X X X X - X 6 X - - - X - X 3 P a r e n t s v i s i t e d c h i l d r e n - X X X - X X 5 X X X - - - - 3 Time l i m i t p l a n n e d , s t a t e d i n r e c o r d ( n o t i n d e f i n i t e ) X - X X - X - k 0 C o n t i n u i n g r e l a t i o n -s h i p w i t h same w o r k e r X X - - X X - k - - X X X X k I n v o l v e m e n t o f m e n t a l h e a l t h p e o p l e i n p l a n n i n g , o r u s e o f d o c t o r ' s r e p o r t X X X X - - - k X X X X x - 5 Use o f o t h e r r e -s o u r c e s w h i l e c h i l d i n c a r e ( o t h e r t h a n m e d i c a l o r p s y c h i a t r i c c a r e ) X X - X X - 5 - X - X - - X 3 TOTAL NUMBER 1 OF FACTORS 9 9 9 8 7 8 6 56 3 6 3 l6 |2|2 3 25 - 5 7 -s u c c e s s f u l , a l t h o u g h i t t o o k a l o n g e r p e r i o d o f t i m e . When n o n -ward c a r e was n e c e s s a r y f o r c h i l d r e n o f u n m a r r i e d m o t h e r s who were m e n t a l l y i l l , t h e b e s t p l a n seemed t o be a d o p t i o n , a n d a l l o f t h e s e m o t h e r s e v e n t u a l l y r e l i n q u i s h e d t h e i r c h i l d r e n . However, i n e v e r y one o f t h e s e c a s e s no t i m e l i m i t was s e t w i t h t h e p a r e n t , and t h e c h i l d f r e q u e n t l y r e m a i n e d i n non-ward c a r e l o n g e r t h a n t h r e e months. S i x months o r e v e n a y e a r may n o t sound l i k e a v e r y l o n g t i m e , b u t f o r a n i n f a n t i t may mean t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n a n e a r l y p e r m a n ent home o r l e n g t h y f o s t e r home c a r e . The i n f a n t n a t u r a l l y f o r m s a deep a t t a c h m e n t t o t h o s e p e o p l e who g i v e h i m d a i l y c a r e . The o l d e r he becomes t h e more d i f f i c u l t i t i s f o r h i m t o move i n t o a new home. R e - p l a c e m e n t c a r r i e s h a z a r d s o f u n d e r m i n i n g t h e c h i l d ' s s e c u r i t y , n e e d f o r c o n s i s t e n t m o t h e r -i n g , a n d t r u s t i n a d u l t s . T h i s p o i n t s up t h a t a s h a r p e r f o c u s u p o n t i m e l i m i t n e e d s t o be made t o a v o i d t h e d a n g e r o f t h e c h i l d r e m a i n i n g i n non-ward c a r e i n d e f i n i t e l y w h i l e h i s p a r e n t i s a l l o w e d by t h e a g e n c y t o evade h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o make a sound p e r manent p l a n f o r h i m . O f f e r i n g non-ward c a r e f o r a p r e s c r i b e d minimum p e r i o d o f t i m e , w i t h t h e p r o v i s i o n t h a t t h e p a r e n t w i l l meet r e g u l a r l y w i t h t h e c a s e w o r k e r t o d i s c u s s b o t h t h e c h i l d ' s p r o g r e s s and t h a t o f t h e p a r e n t i n e s t a b l i s h i n g a home, i s one measure t o s a f e g u a r d t h e d i s c r i m i n a t e u s e o f non-ward c a r e . A p r o g r a m o f r e g u l a r i n t e r v i e w s h e l p s t h e p a r e n t t o d i s c h a r g e h i s r e s p o n -s i b i l i t y i n p l a n n i n g f o r h i s c h i l d . The t i m e l i m i t s h o u l d a l s o be c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e s e v e r i t y o f t h e p r o b l e m . The c a s e w o r k e r f a i l s t h e c h i l d a s w e l l a s t h e p a r e n t i f non-ward c a r e i s n o t - 58 -u s e d c o n s t r u c t i v e l y . I t c a n n o t be e m p h a s i z e d t o o much t h a t n o n -ward c a r e s h o u l d n o t be u s e d f o r any l o n g e r p e r i o d o f t i m e t h a n w i l l be o f b e n e f i t t o t h e c h i l d and t h e p a r e n t s . T h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e n o t e d i n c a s e s where the r e l a t i o n s h i p was c o n t i n u e d w i t h t h e same w o r k e r , o r w h e t h e r t h e r e was a change i n c o n t i n u i t y o f w o r k e r s . R a t h e r , i t seemed t h a t t h e s k i l l o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l w o r k e r was a more s i g n i -f i c a n t f a c t o r . Many p r o b l e m s were a p p a r e n t i n t h e two k i n d s o f s i t u -a t i o n s . However, t h e r e was a g r e a t e r d e g r e e o f s u c c e s s i n r e t u r n i n g t h e c h i l d t o h i s p a r e n t s i n t h o s e c a s e s where n e g l e c t was n o t a l s o a p r o b l e m . I m p l i c a t i o n s o f the S t u d y f o r C h i l d W e l f a r e T h e o r y R e g a r d i n g  Non-Ward C a r e Non-ward c a r e , u s e d a s an i n s t r u m e n t t o h e l p a f a m i l y d u r i n g a p e r i o d o f s t r e s s , o r t o h e l p a n u n m a r r i e d m o t h e r d e c i d e o n a permanent p l a n f o r h e r c h i l d , c a n be a v e r y e f f e c t i v e s e r -v i c e . R e m a r k a b l e s u c c e s s was e v i d e n t i n t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e c a s e s s t u d i e d . T h i s e n c o u r a g i n g i n v i e w o f t h e c o m p l i c a t i o n o f m e n t a l i l l n e s s a n d t h e m u l t i p l i c i t y o f o t h e r p r o b l e m s . However, a c a u t i o n a r y word i s n e c e s s a r y I n t e r m s o f non-ward c a r e t h e o r y . An i n d i s c r i m i n a t e u s e o f non-ward c a r e c a n be damaging t o t h e c h i l d , t h e p a r e n t , and t h e c h i l d - p a r e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p . Examples o f i n d i s c r i m i n a t e u s e a r e t h o s e c a s e s i n w h i c h a c h i l d i s l e f t i n non-ward c a r e f o r a l o n g t i m e w i t h no f u t u r e p l a n . Non-ward c a r e r a r e l y c r e a t e s permanent t i e s b e t w e e n t h e c h i l d and t h e f o s t e r p a r e n t s . The c h i l d does n o t t h e r e f o r e - 59 -g e t a f e e l i n g o f s e c u r i t y , a s e n s e o f b e l o n g i n g o r a sen s e o f i d e n t i t y , w h i c h a r e a l l so v i t a l t o h i m i n h i s f o r m a t i v e y e a r s . Non-ward c a r e i s s e t down i n t h e c h i l d w e l f a r e l e g i s -l a t i o n o f a t l e a s t one p r o v i n c e i n Canada, and a n a t t e m p t has b e e n made I n r e c e n t y e a r s t o a v o i d l o n g - t e r m non-ward c a r e , b y s p e l l i n g o u t s p e c i f i c a l l y c o n d i t i o n s g o v e r n i n g non-ward c a r e . The p r o v i n c e o f S a s k a t c h e w a n has g i v e n l e g a l s a n c t i o n t o t h e p r o -v i s i o n o f non-ward c a r e s e r v i c e . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e l e g i s l a t i o n , an a g r e e m e n t may be made betw e e n t h e p a r e n t s and t h e a g e n c y by w h i c h a c h i l d may be t a k e n I n t o t h e c a r e o f the a g e n c y tempor-a r i l y . S e c t i o n 37 o f The C h i l d W e l f a r e A c t s t a t e s : S e c t i o n 3 7 • - ( 1 ) Any p a r e n t , o r any p e r s o n h a v i n g a c t u a l c u s t o d y o f a c h i l d , who, t h r o u g h n e c e s s i t o u s c i r c u m s t a n c e s , d i s e a s e , i n f i r m i t y , o r o t h e r m i s f o r t u n e l i k e l y t o be o f a t e m p o r a r y d u r a -t i o n , i s u n a b l e t o make a d e q u a t e p r o v i s i o n f o r h i s c h i l d o r the c h i l d i n h i s c u s t o d y , may make a p p l i -c a t i o n t o t h e d i r e c t o r t o have t h e c h i l d p l a c e d t e m p o r a r i l y i n f o s t e r home c a r e . (2) The d i r e c t o r may e n t e r I n t o a n agr e e m e n t w i t h t h e a p p l i c a n t t o a c c e p t t h e c h i l d f o r f o s t e r home c a r e f o r a p e r i o d n o t e x c e e d i n g one y e a r . ( 3 ) Where t h e m i n i s t e r deems i t t o be i n t h e b e s t i n t e r e s t o f t h e c h i l d t o do s o , t h e d i r e c t o r may, u p o n t h e r e q u e s t o f t h e a p p l i c a n t , renew the. agre e m e n t f r o m y e a r t o y e a r . (I).) The d i r e c t o r may, i f he deems i t t o be i n t h e b e s t i n t e r e s t o f the c h i l d , t e r m i n a t e a n a g r e e -ment e n t e r e d i n t o u n d e r t h i s s e c t i o n a n d c a u s e t h e c h i l d t o be b r o u g h t b e f o r e a ju d g e f o r e x a m i n a t i o n , and the j u d g e may, i f on i n v e s t i g a t i o n he deems i t t o be i n t h e b e s t i n t e r e s t s o f t h e c h i l d t o do s o , make s u c h o r d e r u n d e r s e c t i o n 13 a s he deems p r o p e r . P r o v i s i o n i s a l s o made f o r t e m p o r a r y ward c a r e . A c h i l d may be b r o u g h t b e f o r e t h e c o u r t and a c c o r d i n g t o S e c t i o n 1 3 , (b) t h e j u d g e may " o r d e r t h a t t h e c h i l d be c o m m i t t e d t o the m i n i s t e r f o r s u c h s p e c i f i e d t e m p o r a r y p e r i o d n o t e x c e e d i n g t w e l v e months a s i n the c i r c u m s t a n c e s he deems n e c e s s a r y " . - 60 -The child i s discharged from temporary ward care by the court, and the judge determines whether i t i s in the best interests of the child to be returned to his home. Ontario has similar legislation regarding temporary foster home care, but one step further has been taken. Child Welfare legislation i n that province rules that temporary foster home care cannot be offered for longer than two years. Should a child s t i l l require foster home care after that period of time, steps are taken to make more permanent plans and often the child is made a ward of the government of a children's aid society. Subsection 15 of Section 17 states that a child committed tempor-ar i l y may be brought before a judge for further consideration and action and "the judge shall thereupon further Inquire and determine whether the circumstances justify an order returning the child to the parent or guardian or other person in whose charge he is or a further order under subsection 8 or an order or further order under subsection 9 , but in no case shall the order be made at any time that results in the temporary commit-ment of the child for a period of more than twenty-four months from the date of the f i r s t order for the temporary commitment of the child." This legislation attempts to provide some safeguard to the child. During the period of temporary ward care the Children's Aid Society exercises a l l the rights of the legal guardian of such a child, except in regard to adoption proceeding. If legis-lation in British Columbia were to- give some legal sanction to non-ward care, this might have a decided effect upon planning - 61 -temporary care for c h i l d r e n . The in teres t s of the c h i l d would be bet ter safeguarded e s p e c i a l l y i n those cases where a mentally i l l parent , immediately a f t er discharge from h o s p i t a l , requests h i s c h i l d ' s r e t u r n , even when that p lan i s unsound. Implicat ions for the Community I t i s evident that there needs to be greater i n t e r -p r e t a t i o n to the community regarding the need for temporary resources for fami l i e s i n times of c r i s i s . E a r l y r e f e r r a l i s important i f a sound plan i s to be made. There i s also a need for greater development of homemaker serv ices . The majori ty of the placements of c h i l d r e n of mentally i l l parents were necessary, because the mother was out of the home for a short per iod of time. In these instances a greater use of homemaker services might have been made, had these services been a v a i l a b l e . There are great advantages to the c h i l d I f he can remain i n h i s own home, with at l east one parent , and avoid the trauma of separation.' Implications of the Study for Pract i ce The study revealed that non-ward care i s an Invaluable resource i n helping fami l i e s through a c r i s i s . However, the qua l i ty of casework services to the parents and the c h i l d r e n was inf luenced i n many instances by the emergency of the s i t u a t i o n . Chi ldren were i n many cases taken into an agency's care without pre l iminary study to determine the best plan of treatment. F r e -quently th is was unavoidable, but often i t showed not only a need for e a r l i e r r e f e r r a l but also a lack of understanding by the caseworker of the importance of a diagnostic study of the family - 62 -s i t u a t i o n . T h i s p o i n t s up a n e e d f o r g r e a t e r e m p h a s i s and c l a r i t y i n two m a j o r a r e a s o f t h e c a s e w o r k e r ' s a c t i v i t y . F i r s t l y , g r e a t e r u s e s h o u l d he made o f t h e i n t a k e p e r i o d t o d i s c u s s t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f non-ward c a r e w i t h p a r e n t s . E v e n t h o u g h i t m i g h t n o t be p o s s i b l e t o d i s c u s s p l a n n i n g t h o r o u g h l y d u r i n g t h e i n t a k e p r o c e s s , t h e p a r e n t s must be l e f t w i t h t h e c o n v i c t i o n t h a t t h e y w i l l u s e t h e p e r i o d o f p l a c e m e n t t o f i n d a p e r m a n e n t s o l u t i o n t o t h e p r o b l e m o f p r o v i d i n g c o n s i s t e n t , a d e q u a t e c a r e f o r t h e i r c h i l d . A n o t h e r p a r t o f t h e I n t a k e p r o c e s s i s l i m i t e d b y emergency r e f e r r a l s . The p r e s e n t i n g p r o b l e m may o b s c u r e more d e e p l y r o o t e d p r o b l e m s and t h e r e i s a danger t h a t t h e s e may be o v e r l o o k e d i n a n emergency p l a c e m e n t . R e g a r d l e s s o f what f i r s t b r i n g s t h e p a r e n t t o a s o c i a l a g e n c y f o r a s s i s t a n c e , he s h o u l d be h e l p e d t o d e t e r m i n e t h e n a t u r e o f t h e p r o b l e m and t h e d i f f e r -e n t s o l u t i o n s t h a t m i g h t be p o s s i b l e w i t h t h e s c o p e o f h i s own r e s o u r c e s a n d t h o s e o f t h e community. S e c o n d l y , t h e r e n e e d s t o be g r e a t e r c l a r i t y a n d s t a t e -ment o f p u r p o s e by t h e c a s e w o r k e r , and t h i s s h o u l d be s e t down i n t h e c a s e r e c o r d . I n a number o f r e c o r d s t h e r e was no p l a n o u t l i n e d , no s t a t e m e n t o f t h e t i m e l i m i t f o r w h i c h non-ward c a r e was t e n t a t i v e l y e n v i s i o n e d , o r why t h i s p l a n was b e t t e r t h a n a n o t h e r . B e c a u s e o f t h i s , t h e r e was some c o n f u s i o n when the c a s e was t r a n s f e r r e d t o a n o t h e r c a s e w o r k e r , a n d t h e s e c o n d w o r k e r w o u l d o f t e n make no c a r e f u l r e - a s s e s s m e n t o f t h e s i t u a -t i o n . T h i s h a d t h e g r e a t e s t e f f e c t u p o n p l a n n i n g f o r c h i l d r e n o f u n m a r r i e d p a r e n t s . The c h i l d o f t e n r e m a i n e d i n non-ward c a r e - 63 -f o r l o n g e r p e r i o d s o f t i m e -while t h e s e c o n d c a s e w o r k e r a t t e m p t e d t o d i s c u s s w i t h t h e p a r e n t t h e n e c e s s i t y o f e a r l y p l a n n i n g f o r t h e c h i l d . I n some s i t u a t i o n s t h i s c o u l d b e t t e r have b e e n done p r i o r t o t h e c h i l d ' s a d m i s s i o n i n t o c a r e , o r s o o n a f t e r a d m i s s i o n . I n s e v e r a l c a s e s i t was n o t e d t h a t t h e c a s e w o r k e r ' s own c o n f u s i o n c a n be r e f l e c t e d i n t h e p a r e n t ' s a t t i t u d e t o a v o i d r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n p l a n n i n g f o r t h e c h i l d . E v e n t h o u g h non-ward c a r e i s a v e r y v a l u a b l e s e r v i c e , a n d i t s i m p o r t a n c e s h o u l d n o t be m i n i m i z e d , t h e r e a r e u n d o u b t e d l y s e r i o u s s h o r t c o m i n g s i n i n d e f i n i t e non-ward c a r e . I n m8.ny c a s e s i t i s t r u e t h a t t h e l e n g t h o f t i m e a c h i l d n eeds f o s t e r home c a r e c a n n o t be p r e d i c t e d . T h i s i s e s -p e c i a l l y t r u e when one p a r e n t h a s become m e n t a l l y i l l . E v e n s o , t h e p a r e n t s must be h e l p e d t o u n d e r s t a n d t h a t t i m e i s a n i m p o r -t a n t c o n s i d e r a t i o n . The c h i l d w i l l be g r e a t l y h e l p e d i f he knows t h a t t h e r e i s a n end i n view and t h a t he has n o t b e e n abandoned by h i s p a r e n t s , A n o t h e r f a c t o r w h i c h m i g h t be m e n t i o n e d i s t h a t c a s e -w o r k e r s sometimes showed a l a c k o f f o c u s d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d o f non-ward c a r e . T h i s p o i n t s up, p e r h a p s , a g r e a t e r l a c k o f r e c o r d -i n g s k i l l r a t h e r t h a n a l a c k o f c a s e w o r k s k i l l . P l a c e m e n t o f a c h i l d i n a home was sometimes r e c o r d e d as a s i m p l e t r a n s a c t i o n r a t h e r t h a n g i v i n g a n i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e d y n a m i c s o f p l a c e m e n t and what was h a p p e n i n g t o t h e f a m i l y members d u r i n g t h i s t i m e . Some c a s e r e c o r d i n g l a c k e d i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t how t h e p a r e n t s were u s i n g t h e p l a c e m e n t c o n s t r u c t i v e l y o r t h e c a s e w o r k e r ' s own p a r t i n t h e p r o g r e s s o f the c a s e . On t h e o t h e r hand, t h e m a j o r i t y - 61+ -o f t h e c a s e r e c o r d i n g s d i d r e v e a l the s k i l l o f t h e c a s e w o r k e r an d i n t h e s e i n s t a n c e s t h e c a s e w o r k e r showed a g r e a t e r u n d e r -s t a n d i n g o f t h e p r o g r e s s and e v e n t u a l outcome o f t h e c a s e . When t h e r e i s a l a c k . o f d e f i n e d g o a l s , o r I f t h e r e i s no p e r i o d i c r e - a s s e s s m e n t , p l a n n i n g c a n n o t be done r e a l i s t i c a l l y . I n many c a s e s p l a n n i n g was done i n c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h m e n t a l h e a l t h p e r s o n n e l ; p s y c h i a t r i c r e p o r t s were r e v i e w e d and d i s c h a r g e was p l a n n e d a c c o r d i n g l y . I n o t h e r i n s t a n c e s t h e r e was no s u c h c o n s u l t a t i o n and t h e c h i l d was r e t u r n e d on t h e day t h a t t h e p a r e n t a s k e d f o r h i s r e t u r n . I n c a s e s where t h e r e were two p a r e n t s i n t h e home, l i t t l e a t t e m p t was made t o i n v o l v e more t h a n one p a r e n t i n t h e p l a n n i n g . I n one i n s t a n c e , t h e p a r e n t s were s e p a r a t e d and t h e m o t h e r was a s s u m i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e c h i l d r e n u n t i l she was v o l u n t a r i l y a d m i t t e d f o r p s y c h i a t r i c t r e a t m e n t . The c h i l d r e n were t a k e n i n t o non-ward c a r e a t t h e m o t h e r ' s r e q u e s t a n d s o o n a f t e r were r e l e a s e d t o t h e f a t h e r , w i t h o u t n o t i f i c a t i o n t o , o r c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h , t h e m o t h e r . On t h e w h o l e , i t may be s a i d t h a t most c a s e w o r k e r s showed a w a r e n e s s o f t h e o b j e c t i v e s o f non-ward c a r e and made c o n s c i o u s e f f o r t s t o p l a n i n t h e b e s t i n t e r e s t s o f t h e c h i l d . T h i s no doubt i n f l u e n c e d t h e d e g r e e o f s u c c e s s t h a t was a c h i e v e d i n t h e sample s t u d i e d . P l a n n i n g non-ward c a r e a s a s e r v i c e t o f a m i l i e s c a n n o t be t r e a t e d l i g h t l y . The demands u p o n t h e c a s e w o r k e r a r e c o n -s i d e r a b l e b e c a u s e o f t h e r e p e r c u s s i o n s a n u n s o u n d p l a n c a n have f o r b o t h t h e p a r e n t s and t h e c h i l d r e n . Non-ward c a r e i s a v a l u a b l e s e r v i c e t o f a m i l i e s o n l y when i t i s p l a n n e d d i s c r l m i n -a t e l y b o t h b y t h e c a s e w o r k e r and t h e p a r e n t s . The g o a l o f c h i l d - 6 5 - -w e l f a r e c a s e w o r k s e r v i c e s i s t h e p r o m o t i o n o f h e a l t h y p h y s i c a l , m e n t a l and e m o t i o n a l g r o w t h o f c h i l d r e n . T h i s g o a l i s b e s t a c h i e v e d when p r o v i s i o n s c a n be made f o r a c h i l d to grow up w i t h t h e a d v a n t a g e s o f l o v i n g , ' s e c u r e , and s t a b l e f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s . - 66 -APPENDIX A SCHEDULE USED FOR TABULATION OF CASE MATERIAL Name: «• Case number: , Number o f c h i l d r e n Ages o f c h i l d r e n : , D ate o f r e f e r r a l : . . . . . . . . . . . S o u r c e o f r e f e r r a l : P r e s e n t i n g problem:: O t h e r p r o b l e m s M a r i t a l S t a t u s : E c o n o m i c c i r c u m s t a n c e s : D a t e o f Placement:-what o t h e r a g e n c i e s known tot L e n g t h o f t i m e known t o C.A.S. p r i o r t o placement:: F o r how l o n g r . P l a n n i n g E x p l o r a t i o n o f o t h e r r e s o u r c e s p r i o r t o placement:: Use o f o t h e r r e s o u r c e s : L e n g t h o f t i m e non-ward c a r e p l a n n e d f o r ( l o n g - r a n g e p l a n ) : . . . I n v o l v e m e n t o f p a r e n t s i n p l a n n i n g : ^ Of c h i l d r e n : F i n a n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f p a r e n t s t o c h i l d r e n : . I n v o l v e m e n t o f m e n t a l h e a l t h p e r s o n n e l i n p l a n n i n g : P l a c e m e n t C o n t i n u i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h same worker:; V i s i t i n g o f t h e c h i l d r e n b y p a r e n t s : : ( C o n t i n u e d on n e x t page) - 6 7 -D i s p o s i t i o n Were t h e c h i l d r e n r e t u r n e d : . . When:. To whom: O t h e r p l a n : : When: D i s p o s i t i o n i n one and a h a l f y e a r s : F u r t h e r p l a n n i n g Any f o l l o w - u p by t h e C.A.S. a f t e r d i s c h a r g e o f the c h i l d r e n : : How l o n g : Use o f o t h e r r e s o u r c e s a t d i s c h a r g e o r r e f e r r a l : . . . . P r e s e n t s t a t u s , o r p r o g n o s i s : - 68 -APPENDIX B NON-WARD CARE: POLICY OF THE CHILDREN'S AID SOCIETY OF VANCOUVER, B.C. Re a s o n s f o r a c c e p t i n g c h i l d r e n f o r t e m p o r a r y p l a c e m e n t o n a non-ward b a s i s , when a l l o t h e r p o s s i b l e r e s o u r c e s s u c h a s r e l a t i v e s , homemaker, h o u s e k e e p e r , e t c e t e r a , h a v e f a i l e d : -( 1 ) I l l n e s s o f M o t h e r (a) M o t h e r i s t e m p o r a r i l y o u t o f t h e home.due t o -1 . c o n f i n e m e n t 3 . t r e a t m e n t i n Ward R j T.B. H o s p i -2. o p e r a t i o n t a l , C r e a s e C l i n i c (where p r o g -n o s i s i s f a v o r a b l e ) (b) When mother i s s t i l l i n t h e home b u t t h e d o c t o r has recommended t h a t c h i l d r e n be p l a c e d t e m p o r a r i l y and when a l l o t h e r r e s o u r c e s a r e l a c k i n g -1 . b e c a u s e m o t h e r i s s e r i o u s l y r u n down and when p o s s i b l e o p e r a t i o n i s b e i n g c o n s i d e r e d ; 2. when mother i s u n d e r g o i n g p s y c h i a t r i c t r e a t m e n t a t O u t p a t i e n t s ' D e p a r t m e n t o r w i t h a p r i v a t e p s y c h i a t r i s t . (2) C h i l d r e n r e q u i r i n g c o n v a l e s c e n t c a r e b e c a u s e home c o n d i t i o n s a r e u n s u i t a b l e f o r t h e i r i m m e d i a t e r e t u r n . ( C h i l d r e n r e -q u i r i n g f u l l b e d c a r e a r e n o t c o n s i d e r e d s u i t a b l e f o r f o s t e r home p l a c e m e n t . ) M o n g o l i a n a n d g r o s s l y m e n t a l l y d e f e c t i v e c h i l d r e n a r e n o t s u i t a b l e f o r f o s t e r home p l a c e m e n t . ( 3 ) C h i l d r e n w i t h b e h a v i o u r d i f f i c u l t i e s -Temporary p l a c e m e n t w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d a f t e r p s y c h i a t r i c c o n s u l t a t i o n and when C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y b e l i e v e s t h a t c a r e c a n be p r o v i d e d i n a f o s t e r home t o meet t h e c h i l d ' s s p e c i a l n e e d s . (i|) T emporary c a r e w i l l be p r o v i d e d f o r C h i l d r e n o f U n m a r r i e d M o t h e r s -1 . p e n d i n g a d o p t i o n p l a c e m e n t , 2. when a c h i l d ' s p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n and d e v e l o p m e n t r e q u i r e s a p e r i o d o f o b s e r v a t i o n o r t r e a t m e n t , 3 . when a l i m i t e d p e r i o d i s needed t o h e l p m o t h e r make a d e c i s i o n c o n c e r n i n g a d o p t i o n o f c h i l d , 4 . . when I t i s i n t h e w e l f a r e i n t e r e s t s o f b o t h t h e m o t h e r a n d t h e c h i l d t o work o u t s u i t a b l e p l a n s . ( c o n t i n u e d on n e x t page) - 69 -As a general p r i n c i p l e , non-ward care i s not offered i f a a mother leaves the c i t y or the province; apprehension i s the a l t e r n a t i v e . In a l l instances quoted above, a time l i m i t f or temporary care must be set. (f?) I l l e g i t i m a t e children of married women when the plan i s adoption, for example, when consents of the l e g a l husband must be obtained or pending decision to place f o r adoption. (6) Legitimate c h i l d r e n of married parents: 1. pending exploration of reasons f o r requesting adoption, 2. pending confirmation of the f i n a l i t y of the decision to adopt (7) Gases of family breakdown i n which the parent assuming r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for planning for the c h i l d or children i s temporarily unable to make his own plan but maintains an int e r e s t and contributes to the f i n a n c i a l cost and i s working toward a plan to take the children. (8) Requests received through the Child Welfare D i v i s i o n f o r the placement of children from out of town who require care In Vancouver i n order to benefit from sp e c i a l t r a i n i n g courses or to receive medical or psy c h i a t r i c treatment not otherwise av a i l a b l e . .1. As stated i n the Policy Manual of the Children's Aid Society, Vancouver, B.C., P. 3» - 70 -APPENDIX C SAMPLE INFORMATION FORM FOR PLANNING CONFERENCE Datet-Supervisor Worker I F i l e No. Parents 1 Name Marital Status of Parents Residence Religion Racial O r i g i n Names & Birthdates of Children Whereabouts of Children Please note probable plan: Adoption Temp, care Apprehension - 71 -BIBLIOGRAPHY Ackerman, Nathan ¥., The Psychodynamics of Family L i f e , Basic Books Inc., New York, 1958. Arnold, Mildred, "Re-directions i n Ch i l d Welfare", Children, U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare, Washington, D.C, U.S.A., Vol. 4, No. 6 , November-December, 1957 • Baker, Inez M., "Analysis of the Basic Aims and Objectives of Ch i l d Welfare Programs - Foster Care and Adoption", Public  Welfare, American Public Welfare Association, Vol. 10, No. 2 , A p r i l , 1952. Bowlby, John, Maternal Care and Mental Health, World Health Organization, Monograph Series, Geneva, 1952. Braceland, Francis J., "Putting Available Tools to Work", Steps f o r Today Toward Better Mental Health, Report of the 1957 National Health Forum conducted by the National Health Council, Cincinnati, National Health Council, N.Y. Canadian Mental Health Association, Milestones i n Mental Health, a record of achievements, 1918-1958, Toronto, 1959. Children i n Need of Parents, C h i l d Welfare League of America, Inc., New York, 1959. Dybwad, Gunnar, "Family L i f e i n a Changing World", Children, U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare, Washing-ton, D.C, U.S.A., Vol. 6, No. 1, January-February, 1959. Freud, C l a r i c e , "Meaning of Separation to Parents and Children as Seen In Child Placement", Public Welfare, American Public Welfare Association, Vol. 13, No. 1, January, 1955. Glickman, Esther, C h i l d Placement Through C l i n i c a l l y Oriented  Casework, Columbia University Press, N.Y., 1957. r Gordon, Henrietta, Casework Services f o r Children; Practices and P r i n c i p l e s , Houghton M i f f l i n Co., Boston, 1956. Journal of Social Work Process, A publication of the V i r g i n i a P. Robinson Fund, the Alumni Association and the Faculty of the University of Pennsylvania, School of Social Work, Vol. 11, I960. L i t t n e r , N., "Traumatic E f f e c t s of Separation and Placement", Casework Papers, National Conference of Social Work, Family Service Association, N.Y., 1956. - 72 -Lowenberg, Norma B., "Helping Parents to Help t h e i r Children", Public Welfare, American Public Welfare Association, Vol. 17, No. 3, July, 1959. Oettinger, Katherine B., "The Growth and Meaning of White House Conferences on Children and Youth", Children, U.S. Depart-ment of Health, Education and Welfare, Washington, D.C., U.S.A., Vol. 7, No. 1, January-February, I960. Parsons, T., and Fox, R., " I l l n e s s , Therapy, and the Modern Urban American Family", A Modern Introduction to the Family, Ed., B e l l , N. and Vogel, E., The Free Press of Glencoe, I l l i n o i s , I960. Serjamaki, John, "Culture Configurations i n the American Family", A Modern Introduction to the Family, Ed., B e l l , N., and Vogel, E., The Free Press of Glencoe, I l l i n o i s , I960. Watson, E.F., A Summary and Discussion of the History and Prob- lems of Child Welfare Services i n Vancouver, with p a r t i c u -l a r reference to temporary foster home (non-ward) care and i t s costs, Community Chest and Councils of Greater Vancou-ver area, May, I960. Woodward, Luther E., "increasing Social Work Effectiveness i n Meeting Mental Health Needs", Social Work, Journal of the National Association of Social Workers, Albany, N.Y., Vol. 5, No. 3, July, I960. Statutes B r i t i s h Columbia, The Protection of Children Act, Revised Statutes  of B r i t i s h Columbia, I960, Chapter 309. Ontario, The Children's Protection Act, Revised Statutes of  Ontario, 1950, Chapter 53 and l a t e r amendments. Saskatchewan, The Child Welfare Act, Revised Statutes of Saskat- chewan, 1953, Chapter 239 and l a t e r amendments 1959-1960. Reference i s also made i n the text to unpublished material made available by the Children's Aid Society, Vancouver: The Policy Manual of the Children's Aid Society. 

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