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Federal contributions to education for adults and to certain agencies of cultural diffusion: an analytical… Smith, Colin Henderson 1960

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FEDERAL CONTRIBUTIONS TO EDUCATION' FOR ADULTS AND TO CERTAIN AGENCIES OF CULTURAL DIFFUSION : An a n a l y t i c a l Survey of developments i n Canada from 1920 - I960 by COLIN HENDERSON SMITH B.A., Dalhousie U n i v e r s i t y , 1946 B.Ed., U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 195S A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the College of Education We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the req u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA October, I960 In presenting t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree th a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference and study. I f u r t h e r agree that permission f o r extensive copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood tha t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n permission. Department of Education  The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver Canada. Date O c t o b e r 1 i v ABSTRACT FEDERAL CONTRIBUTIONS TO EDUCATION FOR ADULTS AND TO CERTAIN AGENCIES OF CULTURAL DIFFUSION : An a n a l y t i c a l Survey of developments i n Canada from 1920 - I960 This t h e s i s attempts to marshall s u f f i c i e n t e v i d -ence i n support of the contention that the Federal Government, notwithstanding the c o n s t i t u t i o n a l b a r r i e r s t h a t may e x i s t , i s a c t i v e l y engaged i n p r o v i d i n g c e r t a i n forms of 'education f o r Canadian a d u l t s ' . Terms have been defined. Among these the employ-ment of the term 'education f o r a d u l t s ' i n place of 'adult education' i s s i g n i f i c a n t i n that i t attempts to circumvent unnecessary a m b i g u i t i e s . Such terms as 'agencies of c u l t u r a l d i f f u s i o n , ' 'formal education f o r a d u l t s ' and 'informal edu-c a t i o n f o r a d u l t s ' have a l s o been d e f i n e d . Techniques em-ployed to amass the i n f o r m a t i o n r e q u i r e d have been explained. A c l o s e examination of the methods employed i n g i v -i n g Federal f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e i s conducted. The r e c i p i e n t s of such a i d i n c l u d e : departments of the Federal Government, agencies of the Federal Government, F e d e r a l - P r o v i n c i a l co-operative arrangements, volu n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s and i n d i v i d u a l s . D Chosen as more d e t a i l e d examples of Federal a i d i n support of 'formal education f o r a d u l t s ' are the Technical and t V V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g Programs and the U n i v e r s i t y Grants System. Some questions r a i s e d by t h i s study i n c l u d e : 1. Are the a c t i v i t i e s engaged i n to be termed 'education'? 2. Does the Federal Government provide organized education f o r a d u l t s ? 3. Do the a c t i v i t i e s p r e s e n t l y engaged i n by t h a t Government take place because of popular demand? 4. Does the Federal Government give l e a d e r s h i p w i t h -i n the broad terms of t h i s i n q u i r y , or conversely, does i t indulge i n expedients to meet c u r r e n t l y s t a t e d p u b l i c demands? 5. Does the B.N.A. Act block c o n s t r u c t i v e t h i n k i n g about Federal a s s i s t a n c e to education? C e r t a i n b a s i c trends that support the conclusions given have been recognized from the many examples of F e d e r a l involvement i n t h i s f i e l d . The conclusions a r r i v e d at by the a n a l y s i s are: f i r s t , that a 'prima f a c i e ' case has been e s t a b l i s h e d i n sup- • port of the contention that the Federal Government i s a c t i v e l y engaged i n p r o v i d i n g c e r t a i n forms of 'education f o r Canadian x \ A v i a d u l t s ' ; second, that i n many cases there i s a d e l i b e r a t e l y -a r r i v e d - a t plan to do t h i s ; t h i r d , that those a c t i v i t i e s enjoy the popular support of most Canadians; f o u r t h , t h a t the Government i n i t i a t e s these schemes a f t e r the wisdom of such proposed a c t i o n has been mooted by commissions of i n q u i r y ; f i f t h , t hat Federal l e a d e r s h i p i s f a r too r e l u c t a n t i n admit-t i n g t h a t i t so a c t s , and tha t i f i t d i d acknowledge t h a t i t was engaged i n p r o v i d i n g education f o r a d u l t s , i t could do a more e f f i c i e n t job; f i n a l l y , that the expression 'informal education f o r a d u l t s ' does not c o n s t i t u t e 'organized p r o v i s i o n ' of education. Two recommendations formulated from these f i n d i n g s are: 1 . That Se c t i o n 93 of the B.N.A.Act should be reworded. 2. That a nominal Federal 'per c a p i t a ' grant be made to support: a. u n i v e r s i t y extension work b. organized i n f o r m a l education f o r a d u l t s , to be channelled through the Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n f o r Adult Education to n a t i o n a l v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s . ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The w r i t e r wishes to express h i s indebtedness to vari o u s i n d i v i d u a l s who have co n t r i b u t e d i n important ways to the development of t h i s study. Valuable a s s i s t a n c e was pro-vided by the members of the Thesis D i s s e r t a t i o n Committee: Dr. John K. F r i e s e n Chairman Dr. Leonard C. Marsh P r o f e s s o r John E. Gibbard I t i s d o u b t f u l t h a t t h i s study would have proceeded beyond the planning stage had i t not been f o r the sustained a s s i s t a n c e and encouragement of Dr. Leonard C. Marsh. Very v a l u a b l e suggestions and c r i t i c i s m s were made by Dr. John K. F r i e s e n , D i r e c t o r of U n i v e r s i t y Extension of the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Pr o f e s s o r John Gibbard of the College of Education, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, and Mr. Edward M. Hutchinson, Secretary of the N a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t e of Adult Education f o r England and Wales. Dr. Harry L. S t e i n , Supervisor of Graduate S t u d i e s , College of Education, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, was most h e l p f u l i n making t h i s study a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l y p o s s i b l e . P r e s i d e n t N.A.M. MacKenzie of the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia rendered valuable a s s i s t a n c e on the question i i i of U n i v e r s i t y Grants. F i n a l l y , thanks are extended to those many others, i n c l u d i n g my wi f e G l o r i a , who so m a t e r i a l l y a s s i s t e d t h i s study. While a p p r e c i a t i n g a l l a s s i s t a n c e given, the w r i t e r wishes i t to be known that he i s p e r s o n a l l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the opinions expressed and the observations made throughout the study. v v i i TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter Page I . INTRODUCTION 1 The h i s t o r i c a l and c o n s t i t u t i o n a l background 2 D e f i n i t i o n of terms 9 Adult education 9 Adult '. . 15 Educate and education 15 •Informal education f o r adult s . . . . 16 Agencies of c u l t u r a l d i f f u s i o n . . . 17 Statements from p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s 17 The Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n f o r Adult Education 21 The Hypothesis 23 General Methodology 23 Sources of inf o r m a t i o n and general procedures 24 Types of education aided, to be developed i n Chapter I I 27 Methods of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n some t y p i c a l examples to be developed i n Chapter I I I 31 X" v i i i Chapter Page I I . THE EDUCATIONAL CONTENT Formal education f o r a d u l t s 39 Formal education f o r s p e c i a l c a t e g o r i e s 39 Department of Veterans A f f a i r s . . . 39 Department of J u s t i c e 39 V o c a t i o n a l and t e c h n i c a l course o f f e r i n g s 41 Department of Veterans A f f a i r s . . . 41 Department of J u s t i c e 42 Department of Labour 44 Informal education f o r a d u l t s 44 Information w i t h educational components 44 P u b l i c in f o r m a t i o n 44 Enlightenment ( i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the news, d i s c u s s i o n , debate on the f a c t s ) 57 I n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g 60 C i t i z e n s h i p education 65 For New Canadians 65 For Canadianism 67 i x Chapter Page I I I . METHODS OF ADMINISTRATION 90 A d m i n i s t r a t i o n d i r e c t e d by a Department of the Federal Government . . . . 91 Department of C i t i z e n s h i p and Immigration 91 Canadian C i t i z e n s h i p Branch 91 Immigration Branch 93 Indian A f f a i r s Branch 93 Department of N a t i o n a l Health and Welfare 96 A d m i n i s t r a t i o n on a F e d e r a l - P r o v i n c i a l co-operative b a s i s 100 Department of N a t i o n a l Health and Welfare and the Department of Health S e r v i c e s and H o s p i t a l Insurance, B r i t i s h Columbia . . . . . . 100 P r o f e s s i o n a l T r a i n i n g Grant 100 General P u b l i c Health 101 Tuberculosis C o n t r o l Grant 101 Mental Health Grant 101 Federal Department of Labour and the Technical and V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g Programs 104 The Apprenticeship T r a i n i n g Agreement The V o c a t i o n a l and Technical T r a i n i n g Agreement No. 2. . 107 X 107 X Chapter Page The S p e c i a l V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g P r o j e c t s Agreements . 109 A d m i n i s t r a t i o n d i r e c t e d by an approved n a t i o n a l body I l l The N a t i o n a l Research C o u n c i l of Canada Ill C e n t r a l Mortgage and Housing Corporation 117 N a t i o n a l Arrangements f o r Co-operation w i t h Voluntary Bodies 129 The Community Planning A s s o c i a t i o n of Canada 129 The Canadian C i t i z e n s h i p Council . . . 13$ IV. TWO ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLES 150 Technical and V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g Programs . . 151 The B r i t i s h Columbia V o c a t i o n a l School - Burnaby 152 The S p e c i a l V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g P r o j e c t s Agreement . . . 157 T r a i n i n g of Unemployed Persons . . . . 157 T r a i n i n g of Disabled Persons 15$ Youth T r a i n i n g . 159 Student A i d 160 Supervisory T r a i n i n g 161 Y x i Chapter Page T r a i n i n g f o r the Armed Se r v i c e s . . . 162 T r a i n i n g f o r Federal Government Departments 163 Tr a i n i n g i n Primary I n d u s t r i e s . . . I63 V o c a t i o n a l Correspondence Courses . . I64 TheVocational T r a i n i n g Advisory C o u n c i l Minutes of the T h i r t i e t h Meeting May 19-20, i960 166 The U n i v e r s i t y Grants System 170 V. SUMMARIES AND CONCLUSIONS 177 BIBLIOGRAPHY 186 1 CHAPTER I I N T R O D U C T I O N Youth s t u d i e s but cannot a c t ; the a d u l t must a c t , and has no opportunity of study; and we accept the divorce complac-e n t l y . S i r Richard L i v i n g s t o n e "Education f o r a World A d r i f t " A. The h i s t o r i c a l and c o n s t i t u t i o n a l background Considerations a f f e c t i n g education within a Canadian frame of reference are timely indeed, f o r Canada now stands but seven years from i t s centennial. While i t i s pru-dent to look back and contemplate achievements i n the f i e l d of educational development, i t i s also wise to determine the degree of Canada's independence and s e l f - d i r e c t i o n today, and further, i f possible, to trace out some s i g n i f i c a n t trends i n education i n order that one may more accurately predict where the nation i s l i k e l y to arriv e by 1967. Canadian national i d e n t i t y was achieved by the stroke of a pen wielded by a monarch i n a distant land who had never seen t h i s country. By 1867 S i r John A. Macdonald and others respons-i b l e f o r effecting confederation had t r i e d to ensure that ultimate power would re s t , i n issues of doubt, with the cen-t r a l government, f o r had they not themselves witnessed a great C i v i l War that had been waged primarily because the Founding Fathers of America had f a i l e d to c l a r i f y the d i s p o s i t i o n of ultimate power? In spite of t h i s , Canada's Fathers of Con-federation were to have t h e i r intentions subverted through j u d i c i a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and decree emanating from the law 3 l o r d s i n London. For a l l i n t e n t s and purposes the import-ant r e s i d u a l powers under the B r i t i s h North America Act of 1867"'" were t r a n s f e r r e d to the provinces. Section 93 of tha t Act, f o r example, had created by i m p l i c a t i o n and subsequent f o l k l o r e the impression that a l l matters p e r t a i n i n g to edu-c a t i o n were to be deemed to l i e beyond the scope of Federal contemplation, even though that Section only concerned, at most, those formal i n s t i t u t i o n s to be e s t a b l i s h e d to serve i n educating ' c h i l d r e n ' . Canada had achieved freedom of indep-endent a c t i o n by 1931, yet i t f a i l e d to c l a r i f y i t s p o s i t i o n w i t h regard to the important question of 'education f o r a d u l t s ' . World War I relea s e d a new set of economic, s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l and c u l t u r a l f o r c e s . One by one they unleashed t h e i r f u r y upon the n a t i o n . F i r s t came the problem of post-war readjustment, then the country was caught up i n the t o i l s of the stock market crash of 1929 and i t s subsequent depres-s i o n , which, i n i t s t u r n , churned up s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l u nrest. Then came World War I I which was to have a tremendous i n f l u e n c e upon Canadian development. By 1945 Canada was an emerging n a t i o n t h a t was soon to be seen l e a d i n g the second-rank nations of the world i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l d i s c u s s i o n and 1 B r i t i s h North America Act, 1867, 30 & 31 V i c t o r i a , C.3. 4 debate. I t s people's d e s i r e s f o r c u l t u r a l r e c o g n i t i o n and en-couragement were answered by the recommendations of the Massey Report of 1957 . The s t o r y of Canada's development from colony to nati o n i s a long one. By studying i t we perceive among other t h i n g s a f a n t a s t i c a c c e l e r a t i o n of purpose f o l l o w i n g the o Statute of Westminster i n 1 9 3 1 . In 1918 Canadian r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s i n s i s t e d on the r i g h t to s i g n the Treaty of V e r s a i l l e s . Four years l a t e r the Federal Government refused to permit B r i t a i n to i n v o l v e Canada i n a war over the Chanak i n c i d e n t without that country's f i r s t o b t a i n i n g the p r i o r consent of the Canadian Parliament. T r e a t y - s i g n i n g powers were acquired through the s i g n i n g of the 1923 H a l i b u t Treaty i n Washington. Canadians a l s o played a l e a d i n g r o l e i n developing an emerging 'common-wealth of na t i o n s ' concept as expressed i n 1 9 2 6 i n the Bal f o u r D e c l a r a t i o n , which was l a t e r made law by the Sta t u t e of Westminster. Once t h i s n a t i o n was i n a p o s i t i o n to act f r e e l y as a n a t i o n a l independent e n t i t y , l e g i s l a t i o n having f u l l n a t i o n a l s i g n i f i c a n c e was i n i t i a t e d . The year 1932 witnessed 2 The Statute of Westminster, 2 2 George V, C. 4 . 5 a c t i v i t y i n the f i e l d of broadcasting which produced The Canadian Broadcasting Act^ i n 1936. The Trans-Canada A i r -l i n e s Act^ was approved by the Federal Government i n 1937. To combat the se r i o u s inroads wrought by the de-p r e s s i o n the Federal Government w i l l i n g l y p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t e c h n i c a l and v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g programs i n 1938. This met with the u n q u a l i f i e d support of the provinces, although some aspects of t r a i n i n g touched upon education. The year 1939 saw the outbreak of World War I I , and with i n c r e a s i n g tempo, Canada moved from a humble p o s i t i o n among the t h i r d c l a s s nations of the world to one at the f o r e -f r o n t of the second c l a s s powers. That year a l s o saw the establishment of the N a t i o n a l Film Board, and i n the next year the R o w e l l - S i r o i s Commission submitted i t s Report to P a r l i a -ment. The Report represented a four-year study that had been conducted on the e n t i r e question of f e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l r e l a -t i o n s since 1867. In 1941 the Unemployment Insurance Commis-sion began i t s a c t i v i t i e s , and under the j o i n t sponsorship of the CBC and the Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n f o r Adult Education, a Farm Radio Forum was i n i t i a t e d . In 1943 the Marsh Report f o r e -shadowed a b i l l i o n d o l l a r s o c i a l s e c u r i t y scheme f o r post-war 3 Canadian Broadcasting Act, 1 9 3 ° , C .24 . S. 1. 4 Trans-Canada A i r l i n e s Act, 1937, C . 43 . S. 1. 6 l e g i s l a t o r s . That same year a l s o found the C.B.C. and the C.A.A.E. cooperating as they e s t a b l i s h e d C i t i z e n s ' Forum. The s e n s i t i v e question of r a c i a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n was a p p r o p r i a t e l y handled i n 1951 by l e g i s l a t i o n passed by the Federal Govern-ment. F i n a l l y , by l a t e 1956, the expanding and develop-i n g n a t i o n was to f i n d i t s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , a c t i n g w i t h United Nations approval, opposing the ab o r t i v e attempt to invade Egypt. N a t i o n a l purposes were f u r t h e r c l a r i f i e d by the Fowler Commission of 1957, which d e a l t w i t h the i m p l i c a -t i o n s of broadcasting. The subsequent year revealed t h a t the n a t i o n had e s t a b l i s h e d the world's l a r g e s t micro-wave r e -la y network, and t h a t the long-promised Trans-Canada Highway neared completion. Federal a c t i v i t y was a l s o noted i n the opening up of the St. Lawrence Seaway. Canada had been impelled forward s i n c e 1920 by these v a r i e d endeavours. Today we see the nation surrounded by c e n t r i p e t a l f o r c e s t h a t add to i t s u n i t y of purpose. However, the s t o r y i s not as u n i l a t e r a l as one may already have gathered, f o r an ambivalence of purposive d r i v e was soon to make i t s e l f f e l t , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n matters touching upon 'education'. This one word, more than any other, was to hig h -l i g h t the dilemma faced by the Federal Government. There 7 were those who advanced a 'compact theory' of Confederation which h e l d t h a t the provinces entered i n t o Confederation w i t h the Federal Government as c o n t r a c t i n g p a r t i e s possessing • equal s t a t u s and power. Others, more keenly aware of the f u l l h i s t o r i c a l development of Canada, knew that i n matters of the gravest concern, f o r example 'defence', the Federal Govern-ment could act without p r e v i o u s l y c o n s u l t i n g the provinces as to i t s intended a c t i o n s . These two points of view concerning Confederation were oft e n to reappear when the word 'education' was r a i s e d . They were to i n v o l v e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n placed on Section 93 of the B r i t i s h North America Act.5 One should, t h e r e f o r e , examine th a t a l l - i m p o r t a n t Section when consider-i n g any aspect of 'education' t h a t f i n d s i t s e l f enmeshed w i t h i n the context of Canadian f e d e r a l i s m . S e c t i o n 93 s t a t e s : In and f o r each Province the L e g i s l a t u r e may e x c l u s i v e l y make laws i n r e l a t i o n to edu-c a t i o n , subject and according to the f o l l o w i n g p r o v i s i o n s : -1 . Nothing i n any such law s h a l l p r e j u d i c i a l l y a f f e c t any r i g h t or p r i v i l e g e w i t h respect to denominational schools which any c l a s s of persons have by law i n the Province at the Union. 2. A l l the powers, p r i v i l e g e s , and d u t i e s at the Union by law conferred and imposed i n Upper Canada on the separate schools and school t r u s t e e s of the Queen's Roman Cathol-i c subjects s h a l l be and the same are hereby extended to the d i s s e n t i e n t schools of the Queen's P r o t e s t a n t and Roman C a t h o l i c sub-j e c t s i n Quebec. 5 B r i t i s h North America Act, 1 8 6 7 , 30 & 3 1 V i c t o r i a , C . 3 . 8 3. '//here i n any Province a system of separ-ate or d i s s e n t i e n t schools e x i s t s by law at the Union or i s t h e r e a f t e r e s t a b l i s h e d by the L e g i s l a t u r e of the Province, an appeal s h a l l l i e to the Governor-General i n C o u n c i l from any Act or Decision of any P r o v i n c i a l a u t h o r i t y a f f e c t i n g any r i g h t or p r i v i l e g e of the Pr o t e s t a n t s or Roman Cathol-i c m i n o r i t y of the Queen's subjects i n r e l a t i o n to education. 4. In case any such P r o v i n c i a l law as from time to time seems to the Governor-General i n Council r e q u i s i t e f o r the due executions of the p r o v i s i o n s of t h i s s e c t i o n i s not made, or i n case any d e c i s i o n of the Governor-General i n C o u n c i l on any appeal under t h i s s e c t i o n i s not duly executed by the proper P r o v i n c i a l a u t h o r i t y i n tha t b e h a l f , then and i n every such case, and as f a r only as the circumstances of each case r e q u i r e , the Parliament of Canada may make remedial laws f o r the due execution of the p r o v i s i o n s of t h i s s e c t i o n and of any d e c i s i o n of the Governor-General i n C o u n c i l under t h i s section.° From the underlined p o r t i o n s of Section 93 one may s a f e l y i n f e r that when the word 'education' was employed, only those formal i n s t i t u t i o n s which were to be designed to accommodate the education of c h i l d r e n were contemplated. In 1867 u n i v e r s i t y education, which provided f o r m a l i z e d edu-c a t i o n f o r a d u l t s , l a y outside the terms of Se c t i o n 93. The vast uncharted area which l i e s between both f o r m a l i z e d sys-tems, and i n which some education f o r a d u l t s proceeded, i n d i c a t e s the arena i n which most of t h i s present study 6 B r i t i s h North America Act, 1867, 30 & 31 V i c t o r i a , C.3. S.93. (In t h i s and subsequent quotations, the u n d e r l i n i n g i s the author's.) moves. Popular notions concerning the f u l l meaning th a t was to be placed on S e c t i o n 93 of the B.N.A. Act were g r e a t l y to confuse men's t h i n k i n g when i t d e a l t w i t h items having educational s i g n i f i c a n c e . That Canada now possesses the ex-c l u s i v e r i g h t to change her C o n s t i t u t i o n i s a l s o important, f o r w h i l e change i s unnecessary i n order to permit the Fede r a l Government to a s s i s t i n 'education', the myth that i t must r e f r a i n from such a c t i o n may now more e a s i l y be d i s p e l l e d . B. D e f i n i t i o n of terms 1. Adult education: P a r t i c u l a r l y s ince 1920 a new area i n which education was to t h r i v e became apparent. This was an area i n which a d u l t s wished to continue l e a r n i n g w i t h i n some organized frame of reference. At times t h i s de-s i r e f o r continued l e a r n i n g experiences was to be found i n areas l y i n g c l o s e to the growing u n i v e r s i t i e s ; at other times i t concerned i t s e l f w i t h a d u l t s who may never have taken any elementary s c h o o l i n g . Those who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n 'adult education' l a y between these extremes. In t h i s non-formal-i z e d sphere, a c t i v i t i e s became so numerous th a t people sought to give them a name. They have so increased by I960 t h a t i t becomes almost r i d i c u l o u s to ignore t h e i r presence. What l a b e l could p r o p e r l y be a p p l i e d to these many a c t i v i t i e s ? Some s a i d i t should be c a l l e d 'adult education'. 10 When the term was f i r s t used people o f t e n b e l i e v e d t h a t a remedial process was contemplated t h a t should be geared to the norms of those i n s t i t u t i o n s set up to educate c h i l d r e n . However, i t f i n a l l y became apparent to those who gave se r i o u s c o n s i d e r a t i o n to these matters that i n s t i t u t i o n s set up to accommodate youth would never s u f f i c e to s a t i s f y the v a r i e d , heterogenous, and complex demands of a mature and a d u l t s o c i e t y . This newly-recognized f i e l d has been defined by one w r i t e r as f o l l o w s : A l l a c t i v i t i e s w i t h an educational purpose t h a t are c a r r i e d on by people engaged i n the ordin a r y business of l i f e . ' A current i s s u e of Food For Thought c a r r i e s an a r t i c l e by Pr o f e s s o r Ross D. Waller of Manchester U n i v e r s i t y which o u t l i n e s s e v e r a l p o s s i b l e d e f i n i t i o n s f o r the term 'adult education'. In many ways they r e f l e c t the outlook that i s common to the nations whence they came. Probably the most workable term f o r the purposes of t h i s t h e s i s i s one that was given by Edward M. Hutchinson, Secretary of the Na t i o n a l I n s t i t u t e of Adult Education f o r England and Wales: 7 Lyman Bryson, Adult Education, New York, 1936, p. 3. 8 Ross D. Waller, "Prolegomena f o r a Text on Adult Education," Food f o r Thought, Toronto, Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n f o r Adult Education, January I960, pp. 154-159. I 11 Organized p r o v i s i o n to enable men and women to enlarge and i n t e r p r e t t h e i r own l i v i n g experiences.9 I f t h i s d e f i n i t i o n i s combined w i t h the idea of 'continuing education' as developed by Dr. J . Roby Kidd i n h i s paper of February, 1959, on Continuing Education a  Na t i o n a l N e c e s s i t y , ^ we draw much c l o s e r to that of which we wish to t r e a t . I t was p r e d i c t a b l e that something l i k e 'adult education' would emerge during an era of v i o l e n t economic, s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l upheaval. A f t e r I860 i t gathered f o r c e from such i n s t i t u t i o n s as the Danish Folk High Schools, which had been organized under the l e a d e r s h i p of Bishop Gruntvig, who found that men and women f o l l o w i n g a g r i c u l t u r a l occupa-t i o n s were i n t e r e s t e d i n 'the l i v i n g word'. In B r i t a i n the Workers' Educational A s s o c i a t i o n was e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1903 by A l b e r t Mansbridge. As pa r t of the s t o r y behind the u n i v e r s i t y extension movement, i t became recognized as the foremost of a l l B r i t i s h a d u l t education 9 Personal d e f i n i t i o n given by Mr. Edward M. Hutchinson to h i s c l a s s i n Methods of Adult Education No. 518 at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia summer ses s i o n , I960. 10 J . Roby Kidd, Continuing Education a N a t i o n a l N e c e s s i t y , Toronto. Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n f o r Adult Education, (mimeb-graphed], February 1959, pp. 1-19. 1 2 work. I t was a f o c a l p o i n t f o r c o l l e c t i v i s t thought, and i t had a remarkable impact on trade unionism as w e l l as on the B r i t i s h cooperative movement. The W.E.A.'s s t o r y spread to many f o r e i g n c o u n t r i e s i n c l u d i n g A u s t r a l i a . This f o r m e r l y class-conscious movement i s s t i l l i n ex i s t e n c e , although those whom i t had o r i g i n a l l y s a t i s f i e d represented a f a r d i f f e r e n t group from those who f o l l o w i t today. Oxford U n i v e r s i t y by 1 9 0 7 developed the t u t o r i a l -c l a s s i d e a . I t was run over a per i o d of from one to three years i n l e n g t h . Each year, twenty-four two-hour cl a s s e s were conducted. The f i r s t hour took the form of a l e c t u r e , the second, a d i s c u s s i o n p e r i o d . Reports and w r i t t e n essays from the students were r e q u i r e d by those who taught. The cen-t r a l o b j e c t i v e was to teach those who e n r o l l e d 'how' to t h i n k , not 'what' to t h i n k , f o r to be true to i t s high pur-pose education must not depend on 'conditioned t h i n k i n g ' . A s p l i n t e r group l e d by Denis H i r d l e f t the movement because of h i s group's d e s i r e to use the M a r x i s t approach i n h i s s o c i o l o g y c l a s s e s . In the sense that i t was non-partisan, and that i t s i n s t r u c t o r s were sent out by the u n i v e r s i t i e s , i t r e -mains to t h i s day one of the 'purest', but, c e r t a i n l y not the most popular, forms of 'adult education' i n B r i t a i n . Supporting such movements i n the realm of a d u l t education was to be found a most remarkable document e n t i t l e d the " 1 9 1 9 Report". This r e p o r t of the Adult Education 1 3 Committee of the B r i t i s h M i n i s t r y of Reconstruction has been termed by P r o f e s s o r Ross D. Waller: probably the most important s i n g l e contribution-,, ever made to the l i t e r a t u r e of a d u l t education. The Report o u t l i n e s the p o t e n t i a l i t i e s of a d u l t education when a l l i e d w i t h government cooperation on both l o c a l and n a t i o n a l l e v e l s . In the Province of Quebec a School of S o c i a l Sciences was e s t a b l i s h e d during the years immediately f o l l o w -i n g the depression. I t became qu i t e dynamic under the leader-ship of Father Levesque a t L a v a l U n i v e r s i t y . The now world-famous A n t i g o n i s h Movement launched by Father Tompkins, and perpetuated by such men as Dr. M.M. Coady, was c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h farmer and f i s h e r -man cooperatives. The Movement developed out of a d e s i r e to a s s i s t men to r i s e from the p i t of economic stagnation i n t o which they had been thrown during the ' h u n g r y - t h i r t i e s ' . The term T a d u l t education' has from time to time been l i n k e d w i t h the i d e a of s o c i a l reform. This was made apparent i n the w r i t i n g s of such men as Eduard Lindeman: 11 R.D. W a l l e r , "1919-1956 The Years Between," A Design  f o r Democracy, New York, A s s o c i a t i o n Press, 1956, p. 15. y 1 4 Every s o c i a l - a c t i o n group should at the same time be an adult-education group, and I go even so f a r as to b e l i e v e t h a t a l l s u c c e s s f u l a d u l t education groups sooner or l a t e r become s o c i a l - a c t i o n groups. . Because of t h a t f a c t alone the term had been suspect i n some quarters, f o r education, to run true to i t s high purposes, cannot be based on an 'a p r i o r i ' type of reasoning. Rather i t must deal w i t h the unvarnished f a c t s , and then a l l o w people, through the medium of f r e e and frank d i s c u s s i o n , to f o l l o w the argument where i t l e a d s . The term 'adult education' as i t i s p r e s e n t l y em-ployed i n v a r i o u s countries enjoys s p e c i a l and w i d e l y d i f f e r -i n g meanings. In the United States where t h i s term i s u s u a l l y q u i t e narrowly a p p l i e d , t h i s w r i t e r has encountered a v a r i e t y of d e f i n i t i o n s f o r the term. In B r i t a i n , on the other hand, 'adult education' enjoys a much wider d e f i n i t i o n . Because of the l a c k of u n i f o r m i t y surrounding the use of t h i s term, as such, i t w i l l no longer be employed i n t h i s t h e s i s . Rather the w r i t e r proposes to avoid any b a t t l e of semantics, and w i l l adhere to the non-t e c h n i c a l term 'education f o r a d u l t s ' . These words embrace a l l those a c t i v i t i e s which pro-mote e i t h e r the formal or i n f o r m a l education of the general a d u l t populace. 1 2 J o u r n a l of Educational Sociology, September 1 9 4 5 , c i t e d by J . Roby Kidd, How Adults Learn, New York, A s s o c i a t i o n Press, 1 9 5 9 , p. 1 4 2 . 15 2. A d u l t : This term may be defined simply as any person beyond the age l i m i t s imposed by law f o r compulsory school attendance at our elementary and high school i n s t i t u -t i o n s . I t embraces c i t i z e n s who themselves may never have had one-day's formal s c h o o l i n g , those who f o r a l l i n t e n t s and purposes are c l a s s i f i e d as s e l f - e d u c a t e d . I t could a l s o em-brace u n i v e r s i t y graduates who wish to continue l e a r n i n g . The term 'adult' would not i n c l u d e i l l i t e r a t e s and the l i k e , f o r i t i s well-known that c e r t a i n l e v e l s of b a s i c knowledge are e s s e n t i a l before education i n the true sense can begin. 3. Educate and education: Now what do we mean by these terms? The Oxford d i c t i o n a r y defines the verb educate as f o l l o w s : B r i n g up (young persons): give i n t e l l e c t u a l and moral t r a i n i n g t o ; provide s c h o o l i n g f o r ; t r a i n (person, o n e s e l f , a f a c u l t y , to do): t r a i n (animals). ( f . L . educare. educe) ' and the word 'education' i n t h i s manner: B r i n g i n g up (of the young). systematic i n s t r u c t i o n ; course of t h i s , as c l a s s i c a l , commercial, a r t - development of character or mental powers; t r a i n i n g (of animals).14 13 The Concise Oxford D i c t i o n a r y , Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1946, p. 363. 14 I b i d . 16 From the L a t i n word 'educare' we l e a r n that 'to educate' means to t r a i n , but not i n the sense i n which i t i s u s u a l l y employed. I t means, as i t were, to t r a i n the growing vine to i t s vineyard frame. In t h i s manner the young a d u l t , too, i s t r a i n e d to s o c i e t y ' s frame of r e f e r e n c e , whether t h a t reference i s predominantly rooted i n the c l a s s i c s , character development, moral t r a i n i n g or i n t e l l e c t u a l p u r s u i t s . How-ever t h i s ' t r a i n i n g ' must not be done at the s a c r i f i c e of the developing p e r s o n a l i t y of a f r e e man. In no way i s a ' b l i n k e r e d view' contemplated. I t r a t h e r f i n d s i t s e l f con-f i d e n t l y o r i e n t e d , as i t were, between p o i n t s having p r a c t i c a l s o c i a l and s p i r i t u a l import. 4-. Informal education f o r a d u l t s : This term em-braces an outpouring of e f f o r t t h a t i s p r i m a r i l y d i r e c t e d t o -ward the a d u l t population of the country. I t l i e s beyond the ambit of those formal i n s t i t u t i o n s t h a t have been e s t a b l i s h e d to s a t i s f y the needs of both young and o l d a l i k e . In 'inform-a l education f o r a d u l t s ' those who p a r t i c i p a t e are volunteers who take p a r t when they l i k e and d e s i s t when they choose. No c r e d i t s are awarded the p a r t i c i p a n t s , nor would i t be p o s s i b l e under present circumstances, f o r the m u l t i t u d i n o u s p a r t i c i p -a t o r s are u n r e g i s t e r e d , and i n most cases, unknown cooperators I t would i n c l u d e those who make use of 'agencies of c u l t u r a l d i f f u s i o n ' . 1 7 5. Agencies of c u l t u r a l d i f f u s i o n ; These repres-ent the instruments of general education which e n r i c h the mind and r e f i n e the t a s t e . They i n c l u d e such things as: the C.B.C. r a d i o and t e l e v i s i o n networks, N.F.B., N a t i o n a l L i b r a r y , N a t i o n a l Museum, N a t i o n a l G a l l e r y and N a t i o n a l A r c h i v e s , as w e l l as such o r g a n i z a t i o n s as f e s t i v a l s and music s o c i e t i e s , s c u l p t u r e and b a l l e t schools i n r e c e i p t of some Federal a s s i s t a n c e . For the purposes of t h i s t h e s i s both formal and i n formal arrangements e s t a b l i s h e d to accommodate a d u l t s w i l l be considered i n some d e t a i l . Do a d u l t Canadians r e a l l y want general education? The r e h a b i l i t a t i o n program i n i t i a t e d at the end of World War I I gave one emphatic and a f f i r m a t i v e answer to t h i s question By c o n s u l t i n g n a t i o n a l p o l i t i c a l party statements, f u r t h e r evidence of t h i s d e s i r e may be revealed. C. Statements from p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s The f o l l o w i n g observations of the N a t i o n a l L i b e r a l P arty i n New Statements of L i b e r a l P o l i c y , 1958, are found under the s e c t i o n e n t i t l e d 'Youth' on page 23: The r i g h t to education i s a fundamental human r i g h t . L i b e r a l i s m r e q u i r e s e q u a l i t y of opportunity i n education. The f u t u r e of Canada depends on the ade-quate education of our young people to handle the c o m p l e x i t i e s of modern science and modern I 18 o r g a n i z a t i o n . Canada i s l a g g i n g i n un i v e r s i t y -education. P r o p o r t i o n a t e l y to p o p u l a t i o n , f o u r times as many Russians and three times as many Americans go to u n i v e r s i t y . The L i b e r a l P a r t y b e l i e v e s t h a t Canada must end the s i t u a t i o n i n which many young men and women are shut o f f , by l a c k of funds, from education t h a t they have the a b i l i t y and ambition to use to the country's advantage.' On page 21+ these f i n e p o l i c y statements appear: The L i b e r a l p a r t y endorses the p r i n c i p l e t h a t at a l l l e v e l s education should be f r e e C o n s i s t e n t l y ... L i b e r a l governments have given s u b s t a n t i a l a i d to the u n i v e r s i t i e s i n ways that i n v o l v e no l e s s e n i n g of p r o v i n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and c o n t r o l and w i l l recognize t h e i r growing f i n a n c i a l needs. As immediate measures i t w i l l : 1. E s t a b l i s h an extensive scheme of Canada Sch o l a r s h i p s and B u r s a r i e s f o r u n i v e r s i t y students. These would be awarded by open examination, conducted by the N a t i o n a l Conference of Canadian U n i v e r s i t i e s , i n the two o f f i c i a l languages. 2. Supplement the Scholarships and B u r s a r i e s scheme by the establishment of a n a t i o n a l loan fund from which students may borrow, i n t e r e s t - f r e e , money necessary f o r t h e i r higher education. This program would be designed so that Canada would have great numbers of the h i g h l y q u a l i f i e d a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , teachers, engineers, s c i e n t i s t s and others, who are necessary i n these times f o r n a t i o n a l s e c u r i t y , p r o s p e r i t y 15 New Statements of L i b e r a l P o l i c y , R e s o lutions adopted by the Fourth N a t i o n a l L i b e r a l Convention, Ottawa, N a t i o n a l L i b e r a l Federation of Canada, 1958, p. 23 . 19 and progress. The Cooperative Commonwealth Federation's stand on education may be determined under the s e c t i o n headed 'Education and the A r t s ' from a pamphlet e n t i t l e d Let's Go  Forward (The N a t i o n a l C.C.F. Program.) Therein i s read the Party's e d u c a t i o n a l stand: F u l l r e c o g n i t i o n and p r o t e c t i o n of p r o v i n c i a l j u r i s d i c t i o n over education, coupled w i t h generous f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e to the provinces to ensure t h a t every c h i l d has a f u l l oppor-t u n i t y to develop h i s c a p a c i t i e s and that there are adequate f a c i l i t i e s f o r t r a i n i n g the t e c h n i c i a n s , engineers, s c i e n t i s t s , economists, teachers and s o c i a l workers so u r g e n t l y needed i n Canada; P r o v i s i o n of adequate funds to the Canada Co u n c i l to enable i t to carry out i t s important task of s t i m u l a t i n g and encouraging the c r e a t i v e a r t s ; Maintenance and expansion of the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation as a major medium i n the development of our Canadian c u l t u r a l The L i b e r a l Party s t r o n g l y supports continued f o r -mal education f o r a d u l t s , while the Cooperative Commonwealth Federation P a r t y agrees w i t h that stand, and then proceeds to 16 New Statements of L i b e r a l P o l i c y , R e s o lutions adopted by the f o u r t h N a t i o n a l L i b e r a l Convention, Ottawa, N a t i o n a l L i b e r a l Federation of Canada, 1958, p. 23. 17 C.C.F. N a t i o n a l O f f i c e , Let's Go Forward, The. N a t i o n a l  C.C.F. Program, Ottawa, Mutual Press L t d . , p. o. y . 20 plead a strong case i n support of continued i n f o r m a l education f o r a d u l t s as w e l l . From the remarks which f o l l o w one i s able to d i s c e r n the f e e l i n g s of the present P r o g r e s s i v e -Conservative Prime M i n i s t e r of Canada. In a speech d e l i v e r e d at M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y i n 1952 he s a i d : There are some people who b e l i e v e t h a t the p u r s u i t of happiness i s man's supreme good and purpose. To me, freedom i s the purpose of l i f e . And Freedom has to be examined from generation to generation. Laws of themselves w i l l a v a i l nothing. Behind every advance f o r freedom there must be p u b l i c o p i n i o n : there must be good c i t i z e n -s h i p ; there must be v i g i l a n c e and vigour.1° The Prime M i n i s t e r added a few words i n support of the Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n For Adult Education, and from them one may begin to f e e l the workings of the mind of the present Prime M i n i s t e r as he considers the r o l e of education: The Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n f o r Adult Education has made a great and a b i d i n g c o n t r i b u t i o n to Canadian c i t i z e n s h i p . I t has f o s t e r e d educ-a t i o n . I t has made freedom everybody's business. There i s much yet to be done. I f Canadians had a greater knowledge of t h e i r h i s t o r y , and the need of to l e r a n c e as proven by h i s t o r y , a l l would r e a l i z e to a greater 18 Mr. John Diefenbaker i n a speech at M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y i n 1952, Continuing Education a N a t i o n a l Necessity, Toronto, Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n f o r Adult Education (mimeographed), February 1959, p. 1. 21 extent the meaning of our c i t i z e n s h i p . ^ D. The Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n f o r Adult Education The Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n f o r Adult Education claims that i t s s p e c i f i c aim i s 'the imaginative t r a i n i n g f o r c i t i z e n -20 s h i p ' . The A s s o c i a t i o n s t r e s s e s the need f o r a n a t i o n a l purpose i n t h i s area: But i f t h i s work i s to be meaningful (adult s t u d y ) , i f i t i s to be based on sound research and the best e s t a b l i s h e d p r a c t i c e s , employing the most s u i t a b l e books and other ed u c a t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s ; above a l l , i f i t i s to be t r u l y Canadian and not a copy of what i s done i n some other country or c u l t u r e , there must be n a t i o n a l l e a d e r s h i p i n t h i s f i e l d . Such l e a d e r s h i p i s i n the n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t and deserves both the support of the people of Canada through t h e i r N a t i o n a l Government.^1 An extremely well-worded account from the Massey Commission's Report describes the type of p r o v i s i o n r e q uired to enhance both formal and i n f o r m a l education f o r a d u l t s . The Report r e v e a l s new understandings over an area l e f t here-t o f o r e i l l - d e f i n e d and unexplored: 19 Mr. John Diefenbaker i n a speech M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y i n 1952, Continuing Education a N a t i o n a l N e c e s s i t y , Toronto, Can-adian A s s o c i a t i o n f o r Adult Education. (mimeographed) February, 1959, p. 1. 20 Kidd, Continuing Education a N a t i o n a l Necessity, p. 3. 21 I b i d . x 22 Education i s the progressive development of the i n d i v i d u a l i n a l l h i s f a c u l t i e s , p h y s i c a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l , a e s t h e t i c and moral. As a r e s u l t of the d i s c i p l i n e d growth of the e n t i r e p e r s o n a l i t y , the educated man shows a balanced development of a l l h i s powers; he has f u l l y r e a l i z e d h i s human p o s s i b i l i t i e s . Modern s o c i e t y recognizes,apart from the common experiences of l i f e , two means of achieving t h i s end; formal education i n school and u n i v e r s i t i e s , and general non-academic education through books, p e r i o d i c a l s , r a d i o , f i l m s , museums, a r t g a l l e r i e s , l e c t u r e s and study groups. These are instruments of education; when, as often happens, they are used by the sch o o l , they are part of formal education. They are, however, more g e n e r a l l y the means by which every i n d i v i d u a l b e n e f i t s outside school hours, and much more a f t e r h i s school days are over. This p o i n t brings us to the r e l a t i o n of c u l t u r e to education. Culture i s that part of education which enriches the mind and r e f i n e s the t a s t e . I t i s the development of i n t e l l i g e n c e through the a r t s , l e t t e r s and sciences. This development, of course, occurs i n formal edu-c a t i o n . I t i s continued and i t bears f r u i t d uring a d u l t l i f e l a r g e l y through the instruments of general education; and general or a d u l t edu-c a t i o n we are c a l l e d upon to i n v e s t i g a t e .... 2 The P r e s i d e n t of the C.A.A.E. continued by s t a t i n g : The Commission c l e a r e d up one o b j e c t i o n t h a t heretofore always confused any d i s c u s s i o n of education where the F e d e r a l Government 22 E x t r a c t from the Massey Commission Report, Continuing  Education a N a t i o n a l Necessity, p. 4. 23 I b i d . , p. 4. 23 i s a f f e c t e d . I t a f f i r m e d a p r i n c i p l e i n c l e a r and unambiguous f a s h i o n that the n a t i o n a l government has not only the r i g h t but an o b l i g a t i o n to take some part i n the f i e l d s of a c t i v i t y commonly r e f e r r e d to as ' c u l t u r e ' or 'adult education'. 23 E. The Hypothesis Does the Federal Government, i n f a c t , take some part i n the f i e l d s of a c t i v i t y commonly r e f e r r e d to as ' c u l t u r e ' or 'adult education'? I f i t p a r t i c i p a t e s , how extensive and meaningful i s the c o n t r i b u t i o n ? Are a c l e a r l y - d e f i n e d set of n a t i o n a l goals p e r t a i n i n g to education i n evidence, or con-v e r s e l y , do present a c t i v i t i e s represent only a s e r i e s of expedients that are invoked to s a t i s f y the demands of i n t e r -ested pressure groups? F. General Methodology The approach to the main body of the study w i l l f o l l o w along t h i s a x i s . General procedures, sources of i n -formation, types of education and r e l a t e d s e r v i c e s aided w i l l be mentioned i n Chapter I . The a c t u a l range of educational endeavour supported by s u b s t a n t i a l content w i l l be shown i n Chapter I I . Chapter I I I deals w i t h methods of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n by showing some t y p i c a l examples at work. Chapter IV gives 23 E x t r a c t from the Massey Commission Report, Continuing  Education a N a t i o n a l N e c e s s i t y , p. 4. 24 an a n a l y t i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n of two i l l u s t r a t i v e examples of a c t i v i t i e s which enjoy Federal support. In Chapter V summaries and conclusions are presented. 1. Sources of i n f o r m a t i o n and general procedures Seven key sources of information were: the Revised Statutes of Canada 1867-1960, the Canada Year Books and Hand-books, the handbook e n t i t l e d Organization of the Government 2. L. of Canada, and the most recent Annual Reports from various departments of the Federal Government. The l o c a l Federal o f f i c e s were most cooperative indeed. Other sources were Federal p u b l i c a t i o n s , the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia L i b -r a r y , and U n i v e r s i t y Extension research f a c i l i t i e s . The f o l l o w i n g are some general procedures which were adopted. Reliance was placed on the Revised S t a t u t e s of Canada, as w e l l as on a most carefully-worded l e t t e r to the M i n i s t e r i n question, which asked f o r both general as w e l l as s p e c i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n on t h i s whole t o p i c as i t concerned h i s department. At t h i s p o i n t a request was made f o r a copy of the Act under which h i s department p r e s e n t l y operates, and secondly, a copy of the most recent Annual Report covering the a c t i v i t i e s of h i s department; r e l i a n c e was a l s o placed on personal i n t e r v i e w s of key personnel i n the l o c a l Federal 24 Secretary of State of Canada, Organization of the Govern-ment of Canada, Ottawa, Queen's P r i n t e r , 1959. o f f i c e of the department i n question. These i n t e r v i e w s were ex p l o r a t o r y , and inf o r m a t i o n -seeking i n the f i r s t i n s t a n c e , and when the head policy-maker f o r t h i s area was f i n a l l y i n t e r v i e w e d , time was not wasted on s o r t i n g out f a c t s , but r a t h e r was spent i n determining a t t i t u d e s , o p i n i o n s , i n s i g h t s and a p p r e c i a t i o n s held by the policy-maker w i t h regard to the a c t i v i t i e s of h i s department as they a f f e c t e d the question of the general education of Canadian a d u l t s . Here, the technique of having one key question drawn from the w r i t e r ' s experience, t h a t t e s t e d the department's w i l l i n g n e s s to act f l e x i b l y i n the face of a r e c e n t l y s t a t e d need, proved e x c e l l e n t . In e x p l a i n i n g why a c t i o n had not been taken on the i s s u e , the policy-maker revealed the p o l i c y he f e l t to be operative i n h i s Department. The need to be t a c t f u l and st r a i g h t f o r w a r d l y - h o n e s t here cannot be over-emphasized, f o r i f the policy-maker once f e l t t h a t an attempt was d e l i b e r a t e l y being made to have him commit him s e l f to a p o l i c y not attuned to the r e a l i t i e s of the day, l i t t l e i f any progress would have r e s u l t e d . I f one were to ask the policy-maker i f the a c t i o n s of h i s department could be termed 'organized p r o v i s i o n to enable men and women to enlarge and i n t e r p r e t t h e i r own l i v i n g experiences', and then to f o l l o w the a f f i r m a t i v e r e p l y by the remark th a t he was then t a l k i n g about the 'education of a d u l t s ' , one should 26 not be too d i s t r e s s e d i n r e c e i v i n g the r e p l y t h a t what was being given was ' j u s t what the people wanted', and th a t i t d i d not c o n s t i t u t e education at a l l . I t i s at such c r u c i a l p o i n t s t h a t the o l d ambivalence r e - a s s e r t s i t s e l f . In the face of i t one can do nought e l s e but change the t o p i c of conversation, or end the i n t e r v i e w . The note on which the i n t e r v i e w ends must be a pleasant one. I f i t has been happy f o r both p a r t i e s , an i n v i t a t i o n to come again w i l l always be extended by the policy-maker, busy though he may be. These general procedures were adopted i n order to a r r i v e more s a t i s f a c t o r i l y a t the answers to questions l i k e these: a. Are the a c t i v i t i e s engaged i n to be termed 'education'? b. Is there a d e l i b e r a t e l y planned p o l i c y on the. part of the Federal Government to promote the education of adults? c. Do the a c t i v i t i e s p r e s e n t l y engaged i n by the Federal Government take place because of popular demand? d. How does the Federal Government determine "what the people want"? e. F i n a l l y , does the Federal Government give l e a d e r s h i p w i t h i n the broad terms of t h i s 27 i n q u i r y , or conversely, does i t indulge i n expedients to s a t i s f y c u r r e n t l y - s t a t e d p u b l i c demands? By u s i n g the above general procedures, the w r i t e r was able to ob t a i n opinions and c l a r i f i c a t i o n s from important Federal o f f i c e s t a f f only to have the d e t a i l e d and general p o s i t i o n summed up by the top 'policy-makers' a t the l o c a l l e v e l . I f one i s l o o k i n g f o r pat answers to such questions he w i l l search i n v a i n . I f , on the other hand, one hopes to study straws i n order to determine the d i r e c t i o n of the Ottawa wind that p r e s e n t l y blows over Section 93 of the B.N.A. Act, he may take heart, f o r 'education' of one type or another i s s u r e l y being drawn w i t h i n the sphere of Federal contemplation. L i k e Topsy, i t i s growing t h a t way whether i t knows i t or not. 2. Types of education aided, to be developed i n  Chapter I I The f o l l o w i n g c l a s s i f i c a t i o n w i l l be employed to f a c i l i t a t e an a n a l y s i s of Federal p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n v a r i e d types of 'education f o r a d u l t s ' . A. Formal education f o r a d u l t s 1. formal education f o r s p e c i a l cate-g o r i e s 2. v o c a t i o n a l and t e c h n i c a l course o f f e r -ings 28 B. Informal education f o r a d u l t s 1. informa t i o n w i t h educational com-ponents a. p u b l i c i n f o r m a t i o n b. enlightenment ( i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the news, d i s c u s s i o n , debate on the f a c t s ) 2. i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g 3. c i t i z e n s h i p education a. f o r New Canadians b. f o r Canadianism 4. l i b e r a l education supported by-agencies of c u l t u r a l d i f f u s i o n Types of 'education f o r a d u l t s ' f a l l n a t u r a l l y i n t o the two main cat e g o r i e s already d e f i n e d : f i r s t , formal edu-c a t i o n with i t s set curriculum and f i n a l c r e d i t s or c e r t i f i -cate of achievement; and second, i n f o r m a l education w i t h i t s b e n e f i t s of personal enrichment which w i l l more r e a d i l y enable one 'to enlarge and i n t e r p r e t h i s own l i v i n g experienc Formal education may be d i v i d e d i n t o two p a r t s : academic education, and v o c a t i o n a l and t e c h n i c a l t r a i n i n g which needs f u r t h e r c l a r i f i c a t i o n i f i t i s to be shown to r e -l a t e d i r e c t l y to education. Dr. Joad o u t l i n e d the f o l l o w i n g three purposes of education which r e l a t e e q u a l l y as w e l l to a d u l t s as to c h i l d r e n : a) to enable a boy or g i r l to make h i s or her l i v i n g ; b) to equip him to play h i s part as a c i t i z e n of democracy; I 29 c) to enable him to develop a l l the latent powers and f a c u l t i e s of his nature and so enjoy a good l i f e . 2 5 To Dr. Joad the i n d i v i d u a l must f i r s t be equipped to f u l f i l his r o l e i n the economic l i f e of his country. This i s con-firmed by programs of technical assistance organized i n under-developed countries, as the necessary f i r s t step i n educa-tio n must be taken to ensure a sound technical foundation be-fore education i n i t s more purely academic form can proceed. Vocational and technical t r a i n i n g programs f u l f i l t h i s function. C. Hartley Gratton shows the importance of vocation-a l education i n American adult education: In the United States, the vocational courses have predominated and for that reason many people see adult education as a road to an improvement i n pecuniary status. "Know more, earn more." Many observers appear to think that adult educa-t i o n i s vocational education. Such announcements of adult education as they see from time to time tend to confirm t h i s view, whether the advertise-ments specify the offerings of public-schools, or correspondence schools. There are excellent rea-sons why, i n the United States, vocational educa-t i o n should bulk so large; and the reasons e n t i r e l y j u s t i f y i t s extensive development .... Nevertheless, vocational education i s not the whole of adult education.^° 25 C.E.M. Joad, About Education, London, Faber and Faber, 1945, p. 10 . 26 C. Hartley Grattan, In Quest of Knowledge, a H i s t o r i c a l perspective on Adult Education, New York, Association Press, 1955, p. 5 . 3 0 Informal education i n v o l v e s a c t i v i t i e s ranging from the simplest i n f o r m a t i o n - g i v i n g to l i b e r a l education i n i t s f u l l e s t sense. Facts are the raw m a t e r i a l of thought, and without them no i n t e l l i g e n t and c o n s t r u c t i v e t h i n k i n g can be accomp-l i s h e d . From the simplest f a c t s about s a f e t y to the current news r e p o r t s , one must have access to t i m e l y f a c t u a l informa-t i o n i n order to t h i n k c l e a r l y . This important aspect of education cannot be overlooked. Through the p r e s e n t a t i o n of the f a c t s i n d i s c u s s i o n and debate, the p a r t i c i p a n t or observer i s encouraged to consider new i d e a s , and to evaluate opposing viewpoints. His l o g i c a l reasoning powers should be developed, h e l p i n g him to reach h i s own conclusions i n t e l l i -g e n t l y . I n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g provides an opportunity f o r employees engaged i n v a r i o u s occupations to acquire b a s i c knowledge about p a r t i c u l a r aspects of t h e i r occupations. From those experiences, new r e l a t i o n s h i p s are seen and i n s i g h t s acquired t h a t not only add to t h e i r s p e c i a l knowledge of those t a s k s , but a l s o y i e l d more meaning f o r them concerning t h e i r general occupations. Dr. Joad's second purpose of education i s pre-p a r a t i o n f o r democratic c i t i z e n s h i p . In t h i s context there i s an urgent need to ensure that those who come to Canada 31 f o r the purpose of e s t a b l i s h i n g d o m i c i l e are taught c e r t a i n b a s i c knowledge of the economic, s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l and s p i r i t u a l aspects of l i v i n g i n Canada i n order to a s s i s t them i n t h e i r e f f o r t s to adjust to new c o n d i t i o n s . For Canadians, there i s a need to encourage a broadening view of community, and to c l a r i f y i s s u e s of common n a t i o n a l concern so that c i t i z e n s w i l l more e a s i l y r e l a t e to the n a t i o n a l , r a t h e r than the p r o v i n c i a l p a t t e r n . L i b e r a l education encourages the f u l l e s t develop-ment of the mind and s p i r i t of man. Study of the a r t s , s o c i a l sciences and humanities s t i m u l a t e s thought, i n v o l v e s a t r a i n i n g i n values, and promotes 'the good l i f e ' . 3. Methods of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , some t y p i c a l ex-amples to be developed i n Chapter I I I Some s p e c i f i c examples of Fed e r a l involvement i n 'educational' a c t i v i t i e s through the medium of various de-partments and agencies w i l l be revealed. F i r s t , some ex-amples l y i n g d i r e c t l y under, and administered by, a depart-ment of the Federal Government w i l l be i l l u s t r a t e d . Secondly, two general areas j o i n t l y administered by Federal and P r o v i n c i a l Governments w i l l be considered. T h i r d l y , a few examples w i l l be taken from f i e l d s of endeavour administered s o l e l y by approved n a t i o n a l bodies. F i n a l l y , c o n s i d e r a t i o n w i l l be given to some n a t i o n a l arrangements which f a c i l i t a t e cooperation w i t h c e r t a i n voluntary bodies. 4. Two i l l u s t r a t i v e examples, to be analysed i n  Chapter IV Two examples w i l l be given to show d i r e c t Federal p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n matters concerning ' t r a i n i n g ' and 'educa-t i o n ' . Both enjoy the u n q u a l i f i e d support of the F e d e r a l Government. 1. The Technical and V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g Programme. 2. The U n i v e r s i t y Grants System. G. Concluding Remarks The h i s t o r i c a l and c o n s t i t u t i o n a l p o s i t i o n s have been i l l u s t r a t e d . Terms of reference have been defined and the hypothesis has been s t a t e d . Statements concerning a n a t i o n a l p o l i c y on education were sought i n the platforms of n a t i o n a l p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s , as w e l l as i n p o l i c y statements of the C.A.A.E. General methodology, which w i l l be employed throughout the t h e s i s , has been considered i n some d e t a i l . I t i s at t h i s p o i n t t h a t the 'educational content' appears. An attempt w i l l be made to consider l e g i s l a t i o n touching on t h i s f i e l d of i n q u i r y , i n order to determine as w e l l as p o s s i b l e i t s s i g n i f i c a n c e i n the task of p r o v i d i n g 'education f o r Canadian a d u l t s ' . CHAPTER I I T H E E D U C A T I O N A L C O N T E N T "These small and unimportant communities" could, so Lord Durham b e l i e v e d , be elevated " i n t o a s o c i e t y having some objects of a n a t i o n a l importance." Report on the A f f a i r s of B r i t i s h North America 1838 This chapter w i l l consider Federal involvement i n 'education f o r Canadian a d u l t s ' . The Federal Government may be d i r e c t l y concerned through i t s departments, or i n -d i r e c t l y through i t s agencies such as the Canadian Broadcast-in g Corporation and the N a t i o n a l F i l m Board. Such agencies were created by' the Federal Government, and are sustained and guaranteed continued existence by Federal funds. One caveat remains: a t no time i s the cla i m made tha t what f o l -lows purports to represent an exhaustive treatment of t h i s vast s u b j e c t . The objects and purposes of the Federal Government departments and agencies are given i n t h e i r s e v e r a l enact-ments. A group of these statements of purpose has been s e l e c t e d i n order to determine whether or not the Fe d e r a l Government has delegated r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to i t s departments and agencies to engage i n the f i e l d of 'education f o r a d u l t s ' . Among the 'Purposes' of the N a t i o n a l F i l m Board i s the f o l l o w i n g to i n i t i a t e and promote the production and d i s t r i b u t i o n of f i l m s i n the n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t and i n p a r t i c u l a r (a) to produce and d i s t r i b u t e and to promote the production and d i s t r i b u t i o n of f i l m s designed 34 35 to interpret Canada to Canadians and to other nations;1 The mandate of the Board of Broadcast Governors reads as follows: The provision of a varied and comprehensive broadcasting service of a high standard that i s b a s i c a l l y Canadian i n content and character, and further: (h) publish and d i s t r i b u t e , whether g r a t i s or otherwise, such papers, periodicals and  other l i t e r a r y matter as may seem conducive  to any of the objects of the Corporation. (i) c o l l e c t news r e l a t i n g to current events i n any part of the world and i n any manner that i t deems f i t and to establish and subscribe to news agencies, (n) do a l l such other things as the Corporation may deem in c i d e n t a l or conducive to the attainment of any of the objects or the exercise of any of the powers of the Corporation.3 The National Gallery of Canada has i t s own educa-ti o n o f f i c e r . The objects and powers outlined i n the National Gallery Act are: 1 National Film Act, R.S.C. 1950, c. 185, s.9. 2 Broadcasting Act, R.S.C. 1958, c. 22, s.10. 3 Broadcasting Act, R.S.C. 1958, c. 22, s.29. 36 (a) the development, maintenance, care and manage-ment of the n a t i o n a l g a l l e r y and g e n e r a l l y the encouragement of Canadian p u b l i c i n t e r e s t i n the f i n e and a p p l i e d a r t s ; (b) the promotion of the i n t e r e s t s g e n e r a l l y of  a r t i n Canada;4" The Canadian C i t i z e n s h i p Act r e v e a l s t h a t : The M i n i s t e r , w i t h the approval of the Governor i n C o u n c i l , s h a l l take such measures as to him may appear f i t t i n g to provide f a c i l i t i e s to enable a p p l i c a n t s f o r c e r t i f i c a t e s of c i t i z e n s h i p to r e c e i v e i n s t r u c t i o n i n the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s  and p r i v i l e g e s of Canadian c i t i z e n s h i p . 5 ~~ Concerning the Canada Council's objects and poxvers, Section 8 of the Act s t a t e s t h a t : (1) The objects of the Co u n c i l are to f o s t e r  and promote the study and enjoyment of. and the production of works i n , the a r t s , humanities and s o c i a l sciences, and, i n p a r t i c u l a r , but without l i m i t i n g the g e n e r a l i t y of the foregoing the c o u n c i l may, i n furtherance of i t s o b j e c t s , (b) provide, through appropriate o r g a n i -z a t i o n s or otherwise, f o r grants s c h o l a r s h i p s or loans to persons i n Canada f o r study or research i n the  a r t s , humanities or s o c i a l sciences i n Canada or elsewhere or to persons i n other c o u n t r i e s f o r study or research i n such f i e l d s i n Canada; (c) make awards to persons i n Canada f o r outstanding accomplishments i n the a r t s , humanities and s o c i a l sciences; (e) exchange w i t h other c o u n t r i e s or or g a n i z a t i o n s or persons t h e r e i n 4 The N a t i o n a l G a l l e r y Act, R.S.C. 1951, c 16, s. 6. 5 The Canadian C i t i z e n s h i p Act, R.S.C. 1946, c. 15, s. 37. 37 . knowledge or informat i o n r e s p e c t i n g the a r t s , humanities and s o c i a l s c i e n c e s " Apart from these v a r i e d a c t i v i t i e s engaged i n by the Federal Government, a l a r g e and comprehensive Technical and V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g Program was organized through j o i n t auspices of the Federal Department of Labour and P r o v i n c i a l Governments. Among i t s p r o v i s i o n s : 2 (c) 'voc a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g ' means any form of  i n s t r u c t i o n the purpose of which i s to  f i t any person f o r g a i n f u l employment  or to increase h i s s k i l l or e f f i c i e n c y  t h e r e i n , and without r e s t r i c t i n g the g e n e r a l i t y of the foregoing, i n c l u d e s i n s t r u c t i o n to f i t any person f o r employment i n a g r i c u l t u r e , f o r e s t r y , mining, f i s h i n g , c o n s t r u c t i o n , manu-f a c t u r i n g , commerce or i n any other primary or secondary i n d u s t r y i n Canada.' Section 3 (1) of the Act goes very f a r i n a l l o c a t -in g a u t h o r i t y : The M i n i s t e r may undertake p r o j e c t s to provide v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g (a) to f i t persons f o r employment f o r any purpose  c o n t r i b u t i n g to the defence of Canada whether i n i n d u s t r y or i n the armed f o r c e s ; (c) to f i t . unemployed persons f o r g a i n f u l employment; (e) to f i t persons f o r employment f o r any purpose i n the n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t that i s w i t h i n the 6 Canada C o u n c i l Act, 1957, B i l l 47 , s. 8(a) 7 V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g Co-ordination Act, R.S.C. 1952, c.286. s. 2 ( c ) . 38 l e g i s l a t i v e a u t h o r i t y of the Parliament of Canada and i s approved by the Governor i n C o u n c i l . " Under Section 4 headed 'Agreements wi t h provinces' we f i n d : (1) The m i n i s t e r may, wi t h the approval of the Governor i n C o u n c i l , enter i n t o an agreement covering any p e r i o d w i t h any province to provide f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e f o r (b) the c o n t i n u a t i o n a f t e r March 31, 1942, of any p r o j e c t f o r t r a i n i n g h eretofore c a r r i e d on i n the province under the Youth T r a i n i n g Act; (e) the development and c a r r y i n g on of  v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g on a l e v e l equivalent  to secondary school l e v e l ; (f) any t r a i n i n g p r o j e c t f o r the purpose of r e h a b i l i t a t i n g d i s a b l e d persons or f i t t i n g them f o r g a i n f u l employment; and (g) any t r a i n i n g p r o j e c t to increase the s k i l l or e f f i c i e n c y of persons engaged i n a g r i c u l t u r e , f o r e s t r y , mining, f i s h -i n g or i n any other primary i n d u s t r y i n Canada, or i n homemaking.9 Fo l l o w i n g World War I I the Department of Veterans' A f f a i r s provided vast sums of money 'to a s s i s t the student  veteran' to a v a i l h i m s e l f of continued educational opportun-i t i e s . From the foregoing i t seems reasonable to i n f e r t h a t the F e d e r a l Government has delegated i t s a u t h o r i t y to the 8 V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g Co-ordination Act, R.S.C. 1952, c. 286, s. 3(1). 9 I b i d . , c. 286, s. 4. 3? Department of C i t i z e n s h i p and Immigration to c a r r y on inform-a l e d u cational work among New Canadian a d u l t s ; to the Department of Labour to act i n concert w i t h the provinces i n promoting extensive formal t e c h n i c a l and v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g schemes f o r a d u l t s ; and to the Department of Veteran's A f f a i r s to encourage veterans to continue formal education. Other agencies are authorized to engage i n i n f o r m a l education f o r the general Canadian p u b l i c , c h i e f l y i n the realm of c u l t u r a l d i f f u s i o n . The N a t i o n a l F i l m Board i s supposed to ' i n t e r p r e t Canada to Canadians'; the Board of Broadcast Governors i s to provide a high standard of broad-c a s t i n g t h a t i s ' b a s i c a l l y Canadian i n content and character'; the N a t i o n a l G a l l e r y should encourage Canadian p u b l i c i n t e r -est i n the f i n e and a p p l i e d a r t s ; and the Canada C o u n c i l has a broad charter to ' f o s t e r and promote the study and enjoy-ment of the a r t s , humanities and s o c i a l s c i e n c e s ' . I t appears, then, t h a t there i s a d e l i b e r a t e i n t e n -t i o n on the p a r t of the Federal Government to promote both formal and i n f o r m a l education f o r a d u l t s . A sampling of the achievements of Government departments and agencies w i l l now be given. An i n v e s t i g a t i o n as to t h e i r nature w i l l be con-ducted i n order t h a t i t may be decided what types of formal and i n f o r m a l education are promoted. . . . AO A. Formal education f o r a d u l t s 1. Formal education f o r s p e c i a l categories a. Department of Veterans A f f a i r s Through the Department of Veterans A f f a i r s f r e e correspondence courses f o r s e r v i c e and ex-service personnel are o f f e r e d i n academic s u b j e c t s . These i n c l u d e the In t r o d u c t o r y Courses at the elementary school l e v e l , courses on the secondary l e v e l , and courses on s e n i o r m a t r i c u l a t i o n l e v e l . 1 0 b. Department of J u s t i c e Some encouraging h i g h l i g h t s of the p e n i t e n t i a r y system can be seen from t h e i r r e a l i s t i c and modern goals: (a) To create throughout the whole i n s t i t u t i o n an atmosphere i n which self-improvement, and education can t h r i v e as acceptable p u r s u i t s f o r the m a j o r i t y , r a t h e r than f o r the o c c a s i o n a l inmate. (b) I n s o f a r as the academic programme i s con-cerned, to concentrate upon those subjects which w i l l s p e c i f i c a l l y a s s i s t the i n d i v i d u a l to undertake or complete a course of v o c a t i o n -a l t r a i n i n g and, a d d i t i o n a l l y , to encourage inmates who have not that need to pursue t h e i r areas of i n t e r e s t through school-attendance, reading, correspondence courses, 10 Department of Veterans A f f a i r s , Free Correspondence  Courses f o r S e r v i c e and Ex-Service Personnel, B u l l e t i n No. 7. Ottawa, Department of Veterans A f f a i r s . 41 s p e c i a l l e c t u r e s and courses, f i l m s , hobby-a c t i v i t i e s , e t c«-Qg These goals are praiseworthy indeed, p a r t i c u l a r l y when we r e a l i z e t h a t out of 2,975 persons re c e i v e d i n t o f e d e r a l p e n i t e n t i a r i e s i n Canada from A p r i l 1, 1957 to March 31, 1958, the f o l l o w i n g educational s t a t i s t i c s of inmates obtained: 71 or about 2-1/2% were i l l i t e r a t e 1999 or about 67% had an elementary education 905 or about 30$ had some High School or b e t t e r 1 1 Formal c l a s s e s i n academic subjects are provided f o r the inmates of f e d e r a l p e n i t e n t i a r i e s who wish to take advantage of them. c. Department of N a t i o n a l Defence Through the Department of N a t i o n a l Defence p r o v i -s i o n i s made f o r young O f f i c e r Cadets to r e c e i v e u n i v e r s i t y education to degree l e v e l through the Regular O f f i c e r T r a i n -i n g P l a n . 2. V o c a t i o n a l and t e c h n i c a l course o f f e r i n g s a. Department of Veterans A f f a i r s 11 Ralph March, Education of Canadian A d u l t s , M a t e r i a l prepared on Education i n Federal P e n i t e n t i a r i e s by the A s s i s t a n t Commissioner of the P e n i t e n t i a r y S e r v i c e , Ottawa, August 8, I960, p. 2. 42 B u l l e t i n No. 7 ^ i s s u e d by t h i s Department i n d i c -ates on page 4 that the f o l l o w i n g v o c a t i o n a l courses i n A g r i c u l t u r e are a v a i l a b l e to s e r v i c e and e x - s e r v i c e person-n e l without charge: The Business of Farming, S o i l and F i e l d Crops, P o u l t r y R a i s i n g , L i v e s t o c k and Dairy Farming, and H o r t i c u l t u r e . Some other f i e l d s embraced by these courses i n -clude: F o r e s t r y - course 1 (elementary) and F o r e s t r y - course 2 (advanced), and Mining - (Geology and Mineralogy; Prospect-i n g i n Canada; P r a c t i c a l Mining; Business of Prospecting and M i n i n g ) . From the same B u l l e t i n these o f f e r i n g s are a l s o l i s t e d : Mechanical Drawing, Automotive Engineering - i n t e r n a l combustion engines - g a s o l i n e , D i e s e l Engineering - i n t e r n a l combustion engines - D i e s e l , P r a c t i c a l E l e c t r i c i t y , P r i n c i p l e s of Radio, Sheet Metal Work, E l e c t r i c a l Shop Mathem-a t i c s , and Machine Shop Mathematics. b Department of J u s t i c e The Department of Veterans A f f a i r s makes c o r r e s -pondence courses a v a i l a b l e to c e r t a i n groups, i n c l u d i n g non-12 Department of Veterans A f f a i r s . , Free Correspondence  f o r S e r v i c e and Ex-Service Personnel, B u l l e t i n No. 7 . 43 veteran inmates of p e n i t e n t i a r i e s . Some i n t e r e s t i n g ob-j e c t i v e s i n c l u d e d i n a l e t t e r from A s s i s t a n t Commissioner Ralph March of the P e n i t e n t i a r y S e r v i c e , Ottawa, regarding v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g , are noted as f o l l o w s : To provide a d i v e r s i t y of v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g courses, w i t h good i n s t r u c t o r s and w e l l equipped f a c i l i t i e s , and w i t h c u r r i c u l a and standards which are acceptable t o labour and appre n t i c e s h i p a u t h o r i t i e s , so as to promote r e i n t e g r a t i o n of graduates as productive members of s o c i e t y upon r e l e a s e . To ensure th a t the element of con-t r o l l e d t r a i n i n g i s introduced wherever p o s s i b l e i n a l l i n d u s t r i a l and maintenance a c t i v i t i e s -, _ i n which inmates are re q u i r e d to p a r t i c i p a t e . The A s s i s t a n t Commissioner continues i n o u t l i n i n g the extent of v o c a t i o n a l course t r a i n i n g i n Canadian p e n i t e n t i a r i e s : Hampered i n s e v e r a l instances by u n s u i t a b l e and i n s u f f i c i e n t b u i l d i n g s and by excessive numbers of inmates, the Canadian f e d e r a l p e n i -t e n t i a r i e s have nevertheless made s u b s t a n t i a l progress during the past decade or so toward achievement of the foregoing o b j e c t i v e s . W e l l -organized f u l l - t i m e v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g pro-grammes are now p r o v i d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n i n 41 separate c l a s s e s embracing 18 d i f f e r e n t trades. D i s t r i b u t i o n of these a c t i v i t i e s i s as f o l l o w s : Dorchester P e n i t e n t i a r y Federal T r a i n i n g Centre C o l l i n ' s Bay P e n i t e n t i a r y Manitoba Saskatchewan B r i t i s h Columbia 4 courses i n 4 t r a d 16 t» tt 12 « 8 » tt 7 tt 2 tt tt 2 tt 5 » tt 4 n 6 tt tt 6 tt 13 March, Education of Canadian A d u l t s , p. 2. 14 I b i d . , p. 1. 44 c. Department of Labour This Department cooperates c l o s e l y w i t h P r o v i n c i a l Governments i n Technical and V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g Programs. These schemes are paid f o r on a 50/50 b a s i s between the gov-ernments i n v o l v e d . However, i n s p e c i a l instances the Federal Government pays from 75% to 100% of the costs i n v o l v e d . One may conclude that the Federal Government as-sumes a good measure of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the formal educa-t i o n of veterans, inmates of p e n i t e n t i a r i e s and o f f i c e r cadets. These are s p e c i a l categories which comprise only a minor p o r t i o n of the Canadian p o p u l a t i o n . However, the tech-n i c a l and v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g programs are widely a v a i l a b l e to Canadian a d u l t s . B. Informal education f o r a d u l t s 1. Information w i t h educational components a. P u b l i c i n f o r m a t i o n Canadian Broadcasting Corporation C.B.C. r a d i o o f f e r s the f o l l o w i n g programs: C. B.C. Stamp and Camera Clubs; B.C. Gardener, gardening h i n t s from J.P. Dickson; Boats and Boating, t i p s on the maintenance and wise use of small c r a f t ; Ask the Weatherman, wi t h f o r e -c a s t e r Rube Hornstein; This Week at the U. N., r e p o r t s from 45 U. N. headquarters; In Reply, J. Frank W i l l i s answers l i s t e n e r s ' questions concerning the C.B.C; B.C. Farm Broad-cast ; C.B.C. News from Vancouver (national network); Neighborly News with Les Way, selected news items from small l o c a l B.C. Newspapers; Sports Desk with B i l l Good; Business  Barometer, a review of Canadian business and labor; B.B.C. News dir e c t from London. C.B.C.-T.V. offers these programs; C.B.C. News; Plane S a i l i n g , a f i l m on g l i d i n g and other unusual sports from B r i t a i n ; Weekend i n Sports, sports roundup from Toronto by Fred Sgarnbati; Country Calendar (May 8/60 — a review on deficiency payment on eggs and an item on the spreading of f e r t i l i z e r by a i r c r a f t ) ; Scan, questions and answers about C.B.C. programs and polic y , with Doug Haskins; Weather, with Bob Fortune; C.B.C. National News, read by E a r l Cameron; B.C. News from Vancouver; Japan Film (May 9/60 — a f i l m about l i f e i n the Japanese v i l l a g e of Mio Mura); Open House (May 11/60 — Mental Health Services — Dr. Tom Mallinson); Children's Newsreel, in t e r n a t i o n a l news f o r children; Cuisine 30 (May 13/60 — Halibut — Mary Smith, Home Economist with the Canada Department of Fisheries with new and old sugges-tions f o r using h a l i b u t ) ; Town Talk, the a c t i v i t i e s of ser-vice clubs, theatre groups, s o c i a l and charitable organiza-tions i n Vancouver and the lower mainland area; Follow Me (May 13/60 — 'Pulp and Paper' — a v i s i t to Oak F a l l s , B.C. 46 where logs are ground i n t o pulp and converted i n t o paper); The Wedding of P r i n c e s s Margaret; F i v e Rings t o Rome, a f i l m about preparations f o r the I960 Olympic Games i n Rome; and T r i b u l a t i o n and A s s i m i l a t i o n , a two-part examination of the h i s t o r y of the Japanese-Canadians i n Canada. In l i e u of a nation-wide newspaper, the C.B.C. per-forms a va l u a b l e f u n c t i o n as Canada's 'newspaper of the a i r ' , which gives both n a t i o n a l and i n t e r n a t i o n a l news coverage. The C.B.C. a l s o provides b a s i c i n f o r m a t i o n of i n t e r e s t to farmers, housewives and club members. Information of economic and s o c i a l importance i s well-presented. Some very e x c e l l e n t science programs which are u s u a l l y run i n a s e r i e s on r a d i o are: Web of L i f e , a science s e r i e s about animal and i n s e c t l i f e , prepared and narrated by Dr. Ian McTaggart-Cowan of the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, and Science Review news from the world of science introduced by L i s t e r S i n c l a i r . One example i s the program of May 19, I960, e n t i t l e d ' P o r t r a i t of an Element': sulphur-good w i t h s y n t h e t i c s , bad w i t h b a c t e r i a ; w i t h Dr. Howard Clark of the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia and Dr. N.E. Gibbons of the Na t i o n a l Research C o u n c i l . C.B.C.-T.V. a l s o c a r r i e s the program Web of L i f e . An example i s the one of May 15, I960: 'Younger Generation-P a t t e r n of Parenthood', how care f o r the young began w i t h 47 f i s h , was developed by b i r d s and reached i t s highest l e v e l w i t h mammals. Another s e r i e s e n t i t l e d This L i v i n g World fea t u r e d the t o p i c 'Spring' on May 12, I 9 6 0 : the creatures i n springtime: salamanders, b l u e b i r d s , c a t e r p i l l a r s and f r o g s . A popular s e r i e s from Vancouver was e n t i t l e d Why i s i t So?, i l l u s t r a t e d l e c t u r e s by Professor J u l i u s Sumner M i l l e r , s i x h a l f - h o u r programs on physics running from J u l y 19 - August 23, I 9 6 0 , and repeated on the n a t i o n a l network beginning September 4, I 9 6 0 . Modern 'miracle' drugs and t h e i r impact on medical p r a c t i c e was the subject of one of the N a t i o n a l F i l m Board's Documentary ' 6 0 s e r i e s on G.B.C.-T.V. dated May 8 , I 9 6 0 . This h a l f - h o u r f i l m e d p r e s e n t a t i o n c a l l e d 'On P r e s c r i p t i o n Only' delves i n t o the complex a c t i v i t i e s of the pharmaceutic-a l i n d u s t r y and i t s planned chemical warfare a g a i n s t disease, showing how chemists, and other s c i e n t i s t s i n pharmaceutical l a b o r a t o r i e s seek to a i d h e a l i n g by the systematic search f o r new drugs. N a t i o n a l F i l m Board According to i t s own Report: The F i l m Board has a unique d i v i s i o n i n i t s Science F i l m U n i t , which makes f i l m s pre-s e n t i n g b a s i c concepts i n science f o r the general p u b l i c and which are e x t e n s i v e l y used i n schools i n Canada and abroad. 48 ...This year ... the Unit made the f i l m ' B i r t h of a C a t e r p i l l a r ' . I t was the f i r s t of a s e r i e s of very short ( l / 2 - r e e l ) s i l e n t f i l m s and a l l the a c t i o n centered around a t i n y i n s e c t about one-sixteenth of an i n c h long. The s e r i e s i s c a l l e d Fragments of L i f e ; i t has been recommended f o r use by science teachers and at l e a s t f o u r t e e n other subjects are under c o n s i d e r a t i o n as f u t u r e f i l m s . ... In a d d i t i o n to the Fragments of L i f e s e r i e s , the U n i t i s preparing, among other s u b j e c t s , a s e r i e s on l i f e c y c l e s , an ecology s e r i e s (to show the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p of l i v i n g things w i t h each other and w i t h t h e i r environment), a general b i o l o g y s e r i e s , and a general science s e r i e s . In a l l , more than f i f t y i n d i v i d u a l pro-j e c t s are under c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r the next three or f o u r years.15 The Board's newsreel s t o r i e s are b r i e f docu-mentaries on the Canadian scene. They run about three or f o u r minutes i n length and are r e l e a s e d to newsreel companies as semi-e d i t e d , s i l e n t footage f o r i n c l u s i o n i n t h e a t r i c a l and t e l e v i s i o n newsreels a l l over the world. G e n e r a l l y , the Board avoids "spot news" events; most of the items f i l m e d by the Board might be c a l l e d " f e a t u r e " stories.16 The N a t i o n a l F i l m Board made f o r the Department of N a t i o n a l Defence s e v e r a l f i l m s i n c l u d i n g : With the R.C.A.F. i n Europe, a 30-minute colour f i l m , used to acquaint A i r Force 15 N a t i o n a l F i l m Board, Annual Report of the N a t i o n a l F i l m  Board of Canada: 1958-1959, H u l l , Queen's P r i n t e r , 1959, p. 10. 16 I b i d . , p. 14 49 personnel and t h e i r f a m i l i e s w i t h v a r i o u s aspects of l i f e i n Europe.17 and: Canada's Armed Forces 1958, t e l e c a s t i n December over the CBC n a t i o n a l network, gave Canadians a summary of events con-cerning the three branches of the country's armed s e r v i c e s . This f i l m was t y p i c a l of-a number completed during the year; s e r v i c e cameramen shot the footage and the N a t i o n a l F i l m Board d i d the e d i t i n g and completion.18 The Board i s a l s o engaged i n producing f i l m s t r i p s . These, when i n t e l l i g e n t l y employed, g r e a t l y enhance the l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n . Once again examples w i l l be chosen which show inter-departmental cooperation: •••How to Buy F i s h and The Story of P a c i f i c  Salmon,produced f o r the Department of F i s h e r i e s . The f i r s t was f o r the informat i o n of consumers; the second was intended f o r students. 19 and: In the s e r i e s of f i l m s t r i p s on the Mining and  M e t a l l u r g i c a l I n d u s t r i e s of Canada, one on 17 N a t i o n a l F i l m Board, Annual Report of the N a t i o n a l F i l m  Board of Canada: 1958-1959, P. 16. 18 I b i d . 19 I b i d . , p. 17. 50 Aluminum was completed f o r the Department of Mines and Technical Surveys. 2^ There i s a S t i l l Photography Division which attempts to f u l f i l the same purposes which f i l m s t r i p s and the fi l m s achieve on the screen. Concerning t h i s we read: The D i v i s i o n produces photographs and dis t r i b u t e s them so that Canadians may know more about t h e i r own country....21 In summation one finds that the informational ser-vices of the National Film Board are indeed extensive, as described i n t h e i r Annual Report for 1958: The extent of the f i l m resources now available to Canadian users may be gauged from the current National Film Board Catalogue. I t l i s t s 678 f i l m s , grouped under these eleven categories: Agriculture (45 t i t l e s ) ; Citizenship and the Community (96 t i t l e s ) ; Creative Arts (108 t i t l e s ) ; Geography and Travel (58 t i t l e s ) ; Health and Welfare (86 t i t l e s ) ; Industry and Labour (65 t i t l e s ) ; Science, Resources and W i l d l i f e (56 t i t l e s ) ; Sociology (62 t i t l e s ) ; Sports and Recreation (37 t i t l e s ) ; Transportation and Communication (30 t i t l e s ) ; World A f f a i r s (35 t i t l e s ) . 2 2 One could conclude on no better note than that ex-20 National Film Board, Annual Report of the National Film  Board of Canada: 1958-1959, p. 17. 21 Ib i d . , p. 18. 22 I b i d , , p. 27. 51 pressed by one w r i t e r when he s a i d : ...the f a c t that,most NFB f i l m s are made p r i m a r i l y to inform Canadians puts the f o r e i g n audience i n the p o s i t i o n of being i n v i t e d to read over our shoulders, and to p r o f i t from our t e c h n i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n i f they wish, or to enjoy our c u l t u r e without being asked to absorb i t . 2 3 Department of N a t i o n a l Health and Welfare Many p u b l i c a t i o n s have been released to the gener-a l p u b l i c through the Information S e r v i c e s D i v i s i o n of the Department of N a t i o n a l Health and Welfare. The f o l l o w i n g i n f o r m a t i o n i s prepared by the D i v i s i o n of C h i l d and Maternal Health: Care of the Premature I n f a n t ; A Manual f o r Nurses; 24 Keep Them S a f e ; 2 ^ How Safe  i s Your Home?;2^ Before Baby's Born. 2? P u b l i c a t i o n s f o r the Dental Health D i v i s i o n are: 28 Good Habits f o r Good Teeth; Dating the D e n t i s t ; Preparing 23 N a t i o n a l F i l m Board, Annual Report of the N a t i o n a l F i l m  Board, 1958-59, p. 29. 24 Canadian Government P u b l i c a t i o n s Catalogue, 1959, Ottawa, Queen's P r i n t e r , 1959. 25 I b i d . , Cat. No. H53-H59. 2Q7 I b i d . , Cat. No. H53-1258. 27 I b i d . . Cat. No. H53-1358. 28 I b i d . . Cat. No. H55-258. 5 2 the C h i l d f o r Regular Dental Care; 2 <^ Teenagers T o o t h t e s t . 3 Q Produced f o r The Food and Drug D i r e c t o r a t e by the Information S e r v i c e s D i v i s i o n are: Keep Your Home Free From  Poisonings: prevention vs. a n t i d o t e ; 3 1 Fraud - a Menace to  H e a l t h . 3 2 Prepared by the N u t r i t i o n D i v i s i o n are: H e a l t h f u l E a t i n g ; 3 3 Canada's Food R u l e s ; 3 ^ N u t r i e n t Value of Some 35 Common Foods. The C i v i l Defence D i v i s i o n of the Department of N a t i o n a l Health and Welfare has produced the f o l l o w i n g : Basic F i r s t A i d , 3 ^ compiled i n c o l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h St. Johns Ambulance S o c i e t y ; C i v i l Defence i n Schools;3 7 and F i r s t 2 9 Canadian Government P u b l i c a t i o n s Catalogue, 1 9 5 9 , Ottawa, Queen's P r i n t e r , 1 9 5 9 , Cat. No. H55-759. 3 0 I b i d . , Cat. No. H 5 5 - 9 5 9 . 3 1 I b i d . , Cat. No. H 44 - 6 5 8 . 3 2 I b i d . , Cat. No. H 4 4 - 7 5 9 . 3 3 I b i d . , Cat. No. H5 8 - 7 5 9 . 3 4 I b i d . , Cat. No. H 5 8 - 9 5 9 . 3 5 I b i d . , Cat. No. H 5 8 - 2 S 5 8 . 3 6 C i v i l Defence Manual No. 5 , Ottawa, 1 9 5 2 , H8 . 3 . 3 7 C i v i l Defence Manual No. 1 1 , Ottawa, 1 9 5 2 , H8 . 3 . 5 3 A i d and. Home Nursing Supplement, prepared by the Health Planning Group. Department of Labour Some p u b l i c a t i o n s from The Information Branch of The Department of Labour are: Teamwork i n I n d u s t r y , 3 9 a monthly p u b l i c a t i o n ; Working  Together,^ 0 prepared i n the Labour-Management Cooperation S e r v i c e , I n d u s t r i a l R e l a t i o n s Branch; Education and T r a i n -i n g f o r the Unemployed;4l V o c a t i o n a l Correspondence Courses^ 2  Human Rights i n Canada;43 An A n a l y s i s of the E l e c t r i c a l Trade,44 which i n c l u d e s -those items of b a s i c science, math-ematics and other r e l a t e d knowledge which the journeyman must master to enable him to execute e s s e n t i a l operations i n the mechanical and i n s t a l l a t i o n phases of t h i s trade i n a s k i l l f u l and a n a l y t i c a l manner. Other trades are s i m i l a r l y t r e a t e d i n other p u b l i c a t i o n s of the Department of Labour. 3 8 C i v i l Defence Manual No. 10, Ottawa, 1952, H8.3. 3 9 Canadian Government P u b l i c a t i o n s Catalogue, 1959. Cat. No. L12-3. 40 I b i d . , Cat. No. L82 - 6 5 9 . 41 I b i d . , Cat. No. L12-1. 42 I b i d . , Cat. No. L32-259. 43 I b i d . , Cat. No. L33-1058. 44 I b i d . , Cat. No. L39-958. 54 From the Labour Gazette one f i n d s numerous examples of i n f o r m a t i o n having some d i r e c t e d u c a t i o n a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . Among these are to be found the f o l l o w i n g r e p r e s e n t a t i v e items: Volume 58, Number 1 2 ^ contains a r t i c l e s on v o c a t i o n -a l t r a i n i n g f o r older married women, a re p o r t of the Advisory Committee on the R e h a b i l i t a t i o n of Disabled Persons, and coverage of the A t l a n t i c Region Workshop. Volume 59, Number 1^6 t e l l s what was achieved at a meeting of teaching experts; two new r e h a b i l i t a t i o n i n s t i t u t e s weiB opened. Volume 59, Number 247 t e l l s of the problems of handicapped a p p l i c a n t s , and o u t l i n e s v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g f o r nurses a s s i s t a n t s . 'School l e a v e r s ' i n the labour f o r c e are discussed i n Volume 59, Number 5 ^ of the Labour Gazette. Number 649 i n the same volume c a r r i e s a r t i c l e s on L a v a l U n i v e r s i t y ' s 14th I n d u s t r i a l R e l a t i o n s Conference, and Women i n the Teach-i n g P r o f e s s i o n . Volume 59, Number 1 1 ^ contains an a r t i c l e on Education and T r a i n i n g f o r the Unemployed. 45 Labour Gazette, Ottawa, Queen's P r i n t e r , v o l . 5$, No. 12. (December 31, 1958). 46 I b i d . , v o l . 59, No. 1. (January 31, 1959). 47 Department of Labour Labour Gazette, v o l . 59, No. 2. (February 27, 1959). 48 I b i d . , v o l . 59, No. 5. (May 29, 1959). 49 I b i d . . v o l . 59, No. 6. (June 30, 1959). 50 I b i d . , v o l . 59, No. 11. (November 30, 1959). 55 Other sources of i n f o r m a t i o n published by the Department of Labour are: A Canadian Occupations S e r i e s  (Monographs)^ which covers t r a i n i n g requirements and oppor-t u n i t i e s i n many f i e l d s of work. For example, the monograph e n t i t l e d Teacher^ 2 i s a comprehensive 32 page pamphlet. 53 The Department of Labour Annual Report i n c l u d e s sections on Canadian v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g , and i n d i c a t e s n a t i o n a l employment s e r v i c e s . Working and L i v i n g Conditions i n 54 Canada was prepared by the Economics and Research Branch i n c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h the Department of C i t i z e n s h i p and Immigration; E a r l y Post Graduate Years i n the Technical and  S c i e n t i f i c P r o f e s s i o n s i n Canada^ ± s a case study of the 1954 graduating c l a s s of engineers and s c i e n t i s t s . The f i n a l s e l e c t e d p u b l i c a t i o n i s Engineering and S c i e n t i f i c Manpower 51 Department of Labour, Canadian Occupations Monographs, published by the Economic and Research Branch, Ottawa, Queen's P r i n t e r . 52 Canadian Government P u b l i c a t i o n s Catalogue 1959, Cat. No. L43-4459. 53 Department of Labour, Department of Labour Annual Report, Ottawa, Queen's P r i n t e r . 54 Department of Labour, Working and L i v i n g Conditions i n  Canada, Ottawa, Queen's P r i n t e r , A p r i l 1959. 55 Department of Labour, E a r l y Post Graduate Years i n the  Technical and S c i e n t i f i c P r o f e s s i o n s i n Canada, Ottawa, Queen's P r i n t e r , A p r i l 1959. 56 Resources i n Canada,5° t h e i r earnings, employment and edu-c a t i o n , 1957. The Fe d e r a l Department of Labour i n cooperation w i t h 57 the C.B.C. d e l i v e r e d S i x Broadcasts on Apprenticeship-^' e n t i t l e d r e s p e c t i v e l y : 1. The Place of T r a i n i n g i n Industry, d e l i v e r e d by W.H. C l a r k , Vice P r e s i d e n t of the I n d u s t r i a l R e l a t i o n s D i v i s i o n , Ford Motor Co. of Canada. 2. Are Employers L e t h a r g i c About Apprenticeship? by Joseph M. P i g g o t t , P i g g o t t Construction Co. L t d . , Hamilton. 3. Where Do Our S k i l l e d Tradesmen Come From? by L . J . Sparrow, Supervisor of Apprenticeship, Canadian General E l e c t r i c Corporation, Peterborough. 4. What i s a Journeyman? by Percy Bengough, President of the Trades and Labour Congress of Canada, Chairman of the N a t i o n a l Apprentice-shi p Advisory C o u n c i l . 56 Department of Labour, Engineering and S c i e n t i f i c Manpower  Resources i n Canada, Ottawa, Queen's P r i n t e r , June 1959. 57 S i x Broadcasts on Apprenticeship, Prepared by The Federal Department of Labour, Ottawa, Queen's P r i n t e r , 1954. 57 5. What i s Apprenticeship? by J.D. Ferguson, Canadian Manufacturers' A s s o c i a t i o n . 6. Apprenticeship i n Canada, by A.W. Crawford, D i r e c t o r of T r a i n i n g , Federal Department of Labour. These v a r i e d broadcasts were d e l i v e r e d by experts from many quarters. That such a p o o l i n g of well-informed minds could be e f f e c t e d through cooperation on the p a r t of the Department of Labour and the C.B.C. i s noteworthy indeed. The Department of Labour places great emphasis on p u t t i n g the young a d u l t i n t o a c l e a r e r r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the a d u l t community th a t he i s about to enter. To t h i s e f f e c t , great use i s made by s e n i o r high school c o u n s e l l o r s of the Canadian Occupation S e r i e s . Broadcasts on appr e n t i c e s h i p a l -so i n d i c a t e a d e s i r e to put the young a d u l t on h i s i n q u i r y concerning t r a i n i n g p o s s i b i l i t i e s . Pamphlets r e l a t i n g to as-pects of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n and v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g are o u t l i n e d by the Department f o r the b e n e f i t of the general p u b l i c . b. Enlightenment ( i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the news, d i s c u s s i o n , debate on the f a c t s ) . Canadian Broadcasting Corporation Among the many o f f e r i n g s of C.B.C. r a d i o are to be found programs designed to permit an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the 58 news, to encourage d i s c u s s i o n , and to provide f o r debate on a body of f a c t s . Seven i l l u s t r a t i v e samples have been chosen from a r a t h e r wide s e l e c t i o n . From C a p i t a l Report, C.B.C. correspondents re p o r t on the n a t i o n a l and i n t e r n a t i o n a l scene. The program C r i t i c a l l y Speaking provides c r i t i c a l a p p r a i s a l s of current movies, r a d i o and TV programs, and books. The healthy c o n f l i c t of d i s c u s s i o n , so necessary to st i l u m a t e thought, i s i n v a r i a b l y found i n the program, F i g h t i n g Words, a l s o to be found i n C.B.C.-T.V. Venture presents t o p i c s of current p u b l i c i n t e r e s t , o f t e n w i t h v a r i e d opinions expressed. For example, the t o p i c f o r May 15, I960 , was 'Pre-Summit Germany', a panel d i s c u s s i o n taped i n Germany. I t discussed the question of Germany p r i o r to the opening of the Summit Conference of May 16. Concensus i s a program of d i s c u s s i o n and comment on t o p i c a l s u b j e c t s , a l s o presented on T.V. One example i s the.subject 'Should Canada Become Ne u t r a l Now?', heard on May 23, I960 . N a t i o n a l Farm Radio Forum provides Canadian farmers w i t h t h e i r own program, through which they can o b t a i n a sense of u n i t y , exchange ideas, and attack t h e i r common problems. F i n a l l y , C i t i z e n s ' Forum evokes l i v e l y d i s -cussion on current n a t i o n a l i s s u e s , and through i t , the formation of sound and v o c a l p u b l i c opinion i s evinced. As w e l l as F i g h t i n g Words, Venture and Concensus, which have already been mentioned, C.B.C.-T.V. presents the f o l l o w i n g two programs designed to s t i m u l a t e p u b l i c thought. 59 Close-Up, w i t h host J . Frank W i l l i s , f e a t u r e s i n f o r m a l i n t e r -views w i t h l e a d i n g world f i g u r e s . Their candid opinions on is s u e s of p u b l i c moment are sought. For example, the program 'Talking to Toynbee' of June 16, I960, revealed Arnold Toynbee's c o n s i d e r a t i o n s on world government, education, and s u r v i v a l . The 7 0'Clock Show s e r i e s from Vancouver o f f e r s d a i l y i n t e r v i e w s and f e a t u r e s , introduced by Bob Q u i n t r e l l . On the Show of January 14, I960, Pr o f e s s o r J u l i u s Sumner M i l l e r of E l Camino Co l l e g e , C a l i f o r n i a , gave h i s c o n t r o v e r s i a l and provocative comments on 'Education'. N a t i o n a l F i l m Board The Comparisons-^ s e r i e s contrasted and compared aspects of Canadian l i f e w i t h those of f o r e i g n c o u n t r i e s , and was rel e a s e d on t e l e v i s i o n i n midsummer, 1959. Due to the inherent nature of comparisons and c o n t r a s t s , d i s c u s s i o n i s assured. The use of f i l m s as a t o o l to quicken d i s c u s s i o n , and to provide a poin t of departure f o r i t , i s noted i n the f o l l o w i n g statement which r e f e r s to the post World War I I pe r i o d : I t was at t h i s time t h a t the f i l m c o u n c i l s and the l i b r a r i e s were founded. W h i l s t the aim was always to draw l a r g e audiences, 58 N a t i o n a l F i l m Board, Annual Report of the N a t i o n a l  F i l m Board of Canada: 1958-1959, p. 5. 60 emphasis was l a i d on the p r a c t i c a l use of f i l m s and on the advantages th a t may be der i v e d from them through the oppor-t u n i t y they a f f o r d f o r d i s c u s s i o n or f o r i n t e g r a t i o n i n t o a study or information program.59 Department of E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s Some Federal a s s i s t a n c e has been given i n the s e t t i n g up of conferences and seminars. Both the Couchiching and Camp Laquemac conferences were helped, w h i l e i n t e r n a t i o n -a l seminars at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia were par-t i a l l y aided. The seminars i n c l u d e d one on Japan i n the summer of 1957, one of Malaya i n 1958, one on I n d i a i n 1959, and the l a s t on A f r i c a i n I960. No co n s i s t e n t p a t t e r n of help was afforded here, and the convenors of the seminars had to take what l i t t l e a s s i s t a n c e was o f f e r e d . For example, f o r the seminar on A f r i c a , the Department of E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s pro-vided the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n costs of two of t h e i r experts who served on the panel. 2. I n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g Department of N a t i o n a l Health and Welfare This Department provided f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e to the 59 N a t i o n a l F i l m Board, Annual Report of the N a t i o n a l F i l m  Board of Canada: 1958-1959, p.21. 61 F i r s t B r i t i s h Columbia Water Works S c h o o l ^ h e l d at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia from September 6-9, I960 . The Federal Department paid a l l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c o s t s , plus meals 'en route' f o r operators and super v i s o r s of p u b l i c water supply systems who attended and came from p o i n t s i n excess of one hundred miles from Vancouver. Room and board f o r these members was a l s o p a i d out of the Federal grants. The P u b l i c Health Engineering D i v i s i o n of the Department of N a t i o n a l Health and Welfare conducted the f o l -lowing h e a l t h t r a i n i n g program i n 1959: The D i v i s i o n ' s engineers p a r t i c i p a t e d i n s e v e r a l l e c t u r e courses during the past year. In Quebec and Ontario, personnel from great l a k e v e s s e l s attending the var i o u s marine schools, r e c e i v e d i n s t r u c t i o n and inf o r m a t i o n p e r t a i n i n g to water supply treatment, sewage d i s p o s a l and g a l l e y s a n i t a t i o n aboard v e s s e l s . Maritime engineers took par t i n the d e l i b e r a t i o n s of var i o u s d i s t r i c t conferences held f o r the F i s h e r y I n s p e c t i o n O f f i c e r s . They discussed the many aspects of s h e l l f i s h p l a n t s a n i t a t i o n , h i g h l i g h t i n g water supply and sewage d i s p o s a l problems. In the west, l e c t u r e s on environmental s a n i t a t i o n were given to those attending courses f o r S a n i t a r y Inspectors and f o r R.C.M.P. personnel. In a d d i t i o n , the D i v i s i o n prepared and conducted courses f o r 60 F i r s t B r i t i s h Columbia Water Works School, Vancouver, O f f i c e of Short Courses and Conferences, Department of Univer-s i t y Extension, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I960 . 62 r e s t a u r a n t operators l o c a t e d i n the two mid-west N a t i o n a l Parks f o r the purpose of r a i s i n g the standard i n e a t i n g establishments. The above examples do not purport to cover the e n t i r e f i e l d . However, they do i n d i c a t e that departments of government are a c t i v e l y engaged i n p r o v i d i n g some measures of i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g . C i v i l Defence, which l i e s under t h i s Department's j u r i s d i c t i o n , e s t a b l i s h e d i n A r n p r i o r The Canadian C i v i l Defence College during 1953. Concerning i t s a c t i v i t i e s one f i n d s t h a t : The f u n c t i o n of the College i s to t r a i n key C i v i l Defence personnel a t f e d e r a l , pro-v i n c i a l and l o c a l l e v e l s and to t r a i n i n s t r u c t o r s i n the various aspects of C i v i l Defence i n order t h a t p r o v i n c i a l and l o c a l t r a i n i n g programs may be conducted by personnel q u a l i f i e d i n the most up-to-date aspects of C i v i l Defence procedures. During the year, 3,249 C i v i l Defence personnel r e c e i v e d i n s t r u c t i o n at the College.62 Department of C i t i z e n s h i p and Immigration The Canadian C i t i z e n s h i p Branch, which l i e s under the j u r i s d i c t i o n of t h i s Department, has t h i s to say about i t s i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g a c t i v i t i e s . 62 Department of N a t i o n a l Health and Welfare, Annual Report  of the Department of N a t i o n a l Health and Welfare, 1959, Ottawa, Queen's P r i n t e r , 1959, p. 129. 6 3 The Branch continued to encourage and a s s i s t the t r a i n i n g of i n s t r u c t o r s of new-comers i n the technique of teaching a d u l t s a new language. Week-end sessions were held at P o r t A r t h u r - F o r t W i l l i a m , and at Vancouver, whi l e six-week summer courses were arranged by the U n i v e r s i t y of A l b e r t a and the Ontario Department of Education. Assistance was given to the Saskatchewan Department of Education i n the s e t t i n g up of a language /• l a b o r a t o r y f o r use i n i n s t r u c t i n g immigrants. C i t i z e n s h i p i s promoted among Canadians i n a v a r i -ety of ways, and a p a r t i c u l a r emphasis i s beamed towards the development of l e a d e r s h i p ; In order to a s s i s t v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s engaged i n c i t i z e n s h i p education and i n t e -g r a t i o n , the Branch sponsors and p a r t i c i p a t e s annually i n a s e r i e s of r e g i o n a l t r a i n i n g conferences f o r young leaders of various c u l t u r a l groups. These conferences i n c l u d e the Laquemac School of Community Programs conducted by L a v a l U n i v e r s i t y and Macdonald College; the F o r t Qu'Appelle I n s t i t u t e of Human R e l a t i o n s conducted by the Saskatchewan Department of Education; and the Banff Work-shop of Inter-Group R e l a t i o n s conducted by the U n i v e r s i t y of A l b e r t a and the N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l of C h r i s t i a n s and Jews. Assistance was a l s o given t h i s year to r u r a l l e a d e r s h i p conferences held i n Manitoba and A l b e r t a , and to the I n s t i t u t Canadien d TEducation des Adultes f o r a conference of Quebec o r g a n i z a t i o n s on the meaning of democracy and f o r a subsequent s e r i e s of booklets on democratic procedures f o r the use of these o r g a n i z a t i o n s . ^ 6 3 Department of C i t i z e n s h i p and Immigration, Annual Re- port of the Department of C i t i z e n s h i p and Immigration: 1958-59, Ottawa, Queen's P r i n t e r , 1959, p. 11. 61+ I b i d . , p. 12. 64 Due to the f a c t that s p e c i a l problems are met w i t h i n Indian Schools, i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g i s provided by the Indian A f f a i r s Branch f o r i t s teachers: An i n n o v a t i o n to the i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g of teachers was an o r i e n t a t i o n course held e a r l y i n June, 1958, a t North Bay, where the seasonal school teachers were brought together f o r two days before l e a v i n g f o r t h e i r i s o l a t e d schools. At t h i s meeting, held i n the North Bay Teachers' C o l l e g e , they were given an i n t i m a t e p i c t u r e of the area i n t o which they were moving and the people w i t h whom they would be working and were provided w i t h m a t e r i a l s to a i d them w i t h t h e i r summer programme. In a d d i t i o n they were given some p r a c t i c a l i n s t r u c t i o n on the o r g a n i z a t i o n of the classroom- i n s t r u c t i o n , s u i t a b l e classroom a c t i v i t i e s , craftwork, r e c r e a t i o n a l pro-grammes f o r the school and the community and ad u l t education programmes.®5 The N a t i o n a l F i l m Board provides f i l m s to a i d the i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g programs of other bodies, f o r example: St . Lawrence Burns i s a s e r i e s of eigh t f i l m s , s i l e n t , running from 20 minutes to h a l f an hour i n l e n g t h . . . the s e r i e s i s f o r use by f i r e pre-vention experts, f i r e department members, e t c . , as t r a i n i n g films.°° Another s e r i e s has been prepared f o r the use of R.C.A.F. a i r crew t r a i n i n g s t a f f : 65 Department of C i t i z e n s h i p and Immigration, Annual Report  of the Department of C i t i z e n s h i p and Immigration, p. 59. 66 N a t i o n a l F i l m Board, Annual Report of the N a t i o n a l F i l m  Board: 1958-59. pp. 15-16. t 65 . . . t i t l e s of the i n d i v i d u a l f i l m s are P a t t e r n  f o r Staying A l i v e , Stay A l i v e i n the Winter  Bush, Stay A l i v e i n the Winter A r c t i c and  Search and Rescue.c-7 3. C i t i z e n s h i p education a. f o r New Canadians Department of C i t i z e n s h i p and Immigration A v a r i e t y of workbooks and reading m a t e r i a l i s a v a i l a b l e from t h i s Department. A r e p r e s e n t a t i v e l i s t f o l -lows: The Canadian C i t i z e n s h i p s e r i e s ^ (Our Land, Our H i s t o r y , Our System of Government, Our Resources, Our Trans-p o r t a t i o n S e r v i c e s , and The A r t s i n Canada); Canadian S c e n e ; W o r k b o o k s f o r Learning the E n g l i s h Language, Books 70 I to IV made a v a i l a b l e f r e e to immigrants; Reading  M a t e r i a l i n C o n t r o l l e d V o c a b u l a r i e s ; ^ 1 and Information f o r 67 N a t i o n a l F i l m Board, Annual Report of the N a t i o n a l F i l m  Board: 1958-59, p..16. 68 The Canadian C i t i z e n s h i p S e r i e s , Prepared by the Canad-i a n C i t i z e n s h i p Branch, Dept. of C i t i z e n s h i p and Immigration, Ottawa, Queen's P r i n t e r , 1957. 69 Canadian Scene, Prepared by the Canadian C i t i z e n s h i p Branch, Ottawa, Queen's P r i n t e r , 1957. 70 Workbooks f o r Learning the E n g l i s h Language, Toronto, Thomas Nelson and Sons (Can.) L t d . 71 Reading M a t e r i a l i n C o n t r o l l e d V o c a b ularies, Prepared by the Canadian C i t i z e n s h i p Branch, Ottawa, Queen's P r i n t e r , 1957. 6 6 Newcomers to B r i t i s h Columbia.''1'2 Suggestions f o r programs and m a t e r i a l s to be used i n h e l p i n g w i t h the i n t e g r a t i o n of newcomers are o u t l i n e d i n the Annual Report of March 31, 1959. 7 3 N a t i o n a l F i l m Board In the Annual Report of 1958-59 the F i l m Board s t a t e s i t s cooperative a c t i v i t i e s w i t h the Department of C i t i z e n s h i p and Immigration. Films produced to enhance c i t i z e n s h i p education are: The Threshold, a f i l m designed to help new Canadians to a b e t t e r understanding of the Canadian educational system. Women at Work, intended to show p o t e n t i a l immigrants some of the job o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r women i n Canada. The Hands t h a t Heal, made wit h the cooperation of the Canadian Nurses A s s o c i a t i o n , to inform nurses i n other lands of o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n i n t h i s country.74 72 Information f o r Newcomers to B r i t i s h Columbia, Prepared by the Canadian Government C i t i z e n s h i p Branch, 1957. 73 Department of C i t i z e n s h i p - a n d immigration, Annual Re- port of the Department of C i t i z e n s h i p and Immigration. 74 N a t i o n a l F i l m Board, Annual Report of the N a t i o n a l F i l m  Board: 1958-59, pp-. 14-15. 67 b. f o r Canadianism Department of C i t i z e n s h i p and Immigration The r o l e played by the Canadian C i t i z e n s h i p Branch as a c a t a l y s t to quicken c i t i z e n s h i p i n Canada i s h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t . As a few examples from i t s v a r i e d a c t i v i t i e s : ...the Branch advised union l o c a l s on c i t i z e n s h i p education programs f o r t h e i r membership. The Branch p a r t i c i p a t e d i n a labour s t a f f seminar i n the A t l a n t i c pro-v i n c e s , and s t u d i e d educational programs w i t h s e v e r a l l o c a l labour groups i n Quebec and B r i t i s h Columbia.75 N a t i o n a l F i l m Board This very v a l u a b l e inf o r m a t i o n source makes an understanding of the country one of i t s major goals. The Annual Report of the N a t i o n a l F i l m Board r e v e a l s : In g e n e r a l , the Board makes f i l m s about the Canadian people, the i n s t i t u t i o n s , the s o c i a l and economic developments, the i n d u s t r i e s , the n a t u r a l resources, the a r t s and s c i e n c e s , and the i n t e r e s t s of Canada abroad.76 I t would be w e l l to pause and consider the t o t a l i t y 75 Department of C i t i z e n s h i p and Immigration, Annual Re-port of the Department of C i t i z e n s h i p and Immigration: 1 9 5 8 -5 9 , p. 1 2 . 7 6 N a t i o n a l F i l m Board, Annual Report of the N a t i o n a l F i l m  Board of Canada: 1 9 5 8 - 5 9 , p. 3 . I 68 embraced by the above quotation, f o r i f education i s 'to see l i f e s t e a d i l y and to see i t whole', the N a t i o n a l F i l m Board ^ i s p r o v i d i n g Canadians an opportunity to do j u s t t h a t i f they but choose to use w i s e l y the many o f f e r i n g s of the Board. A r e p r e s e n t a t i v e sampling of f i l m s aimed at promoting Canadianism f o l l o w s : Under the t i t l e Temps present, NFB pre-sented on the French network of CBC and through p r i v a t e s t a t i o n s , a s e r i e s of twenty-six f i l m s . . . ten of the h a l f - h o u r f i l m s d e a l t w i t h prominent p e r s o n a l i t i e s of French Canada. These l a t t e r f i l m s were p r o t r a i t s of Canadians who have played an important part i n l i t e r a t u r e , music, p a i n t i n g , anthropology, s o c i a l work and a g r i c u l t u r e . At the same time, the f i l m s were more than f i l m e d biographies f o r they showed how geographical, s o c i a l or human environment i n f l u e n c e d the l i v e s of these prominent people, and how they, i n t u r n exerted an i n f l u e n c e on t h e i r own environment. These f i l m s d e a l t w i t h the l i f e s t o r i e s of such d i s t i n g u i s h e d Canadians as a c t o r Fred Barry, n o v e l i s t Germaine Guevremont, o r g a n i s t Henri Gagnon, p r i e s t Charles F o r e s t , troubadour F e l i x L e c l e r c , p a i n t e r John Lyman, farmer P i e r r e Beaulieu and a n t h r o p o l o g i s t Marius Barbeau.'' Voice of the People - Recreates the events of 1849 when the courage and i n t e g r i t y of Governor General James Bruce, E a r l of E l g i n , saved r e s p o n s i b l e government despite the r i o t o u s parliamentary dispute over the R e b e l l i o n Losses B i l l . 78 77 N a t i o n a l F i l m Board, Annual Report of the N a t i o n a l F i l m  Board of Canada: 1958-59, p. 5. 78 I b i d . 69 C o r r e l i e u - A f i l m about Ozias Leduc, Canadian p a i n t e r , h i s home/ and h i s canvases. Leduc found i n s p i r a t i o n i n the f a m i l i a r l i f e of p a s t o r a l Quebec around picturesque Mont St-H i l a i r e . C a r e f u l l y l i t and photographed, the p a i n t i n g s appear on the screen w i t h the c l a r i t y of the a r t i s t ' s own perception.79 Canadianism i s the c e n t r a l theme of F i l m Board a c t i v i t y : The Board's production program i s concerned p r i m a r i l y w i t h Canada's problems and achievements i n business, i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s , education, i n d u s t r y , s c i e n t i f i c and c u l t u r a l development and s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , but beyond these broad f i e l d s other subjects do appear where a f i l m may co n t r i b u t e to the n a t i o n a l interest.°® 4. L i b e r a l education supported by agencies of c u l t u r a l d i f f u s i o n N a t i o n a l G a l l e r y The P o l i c i e s of the N a t i o n a l G a l l e r y ' s Board.of Trustees have been summed up by the Education O f f i c e r i n t h i s manner: Since 1913 the p o l i c i e s of the N a t i o n a l G a l l e r y have been determined by a Board of Trustees appointed by the Canadian Government. 79 N a t i o n a l F i l m Board, 1958-59, p.6 80 I b i d . , p. 8. Board, Annual Report of the N a t i o n a l F i l m 70 This Board i s composed of nine members repre-senting a l l s e c t i o n s of Canada. I t obtains i t s powers under the N a t i o n a l G a l l e r y of Canada Act which gives i t the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y not only f o r the n a t i o n a l c o l l e c t i o n s of A r t , but a l s o the duty of promoting the a p p r e c i a t i o n and understanding of the f i n e a r t s and i n d u s t r i a l design throughout Canada by means of e x h i b i t i o n s and r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s . F i n ancing i s by annual a p p r o p r i a t i o n s voted by the Parliament of Canada.81 Concerning extension and educational a c t i v i t i e s , the Annual Report s t a t e s : The Department of E x h i b i t i o n Extension S e r v i c e s i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r f o u r areas of N a t i o n a l G a l l e r y a c t i v i t y : t r a v e l l i n g e x h i b i t i o n s , the f i e l d operations of the l i a i s o n o f f i c e r s , the educa t i o n a l s e r v i c e s o f f e r e d to the general p u b l i c , and the p u b l i c l e c t u r e series.°2 Some mention should be made of the I n d u s t r i a l Design D i v i s i o n of the N a t i o n a l G a l l e r y : Lectures on design i n Ottawa and across Canada were arranged by the Design Centre s t a f f through the Speakers' Bureau, a l i s t of people q u a l i f i e d to t a l k about design. Several groups of students v i s i t e d the Design Centre f o r l e c t u r e s and tours of exhibitions.°3 S i D.W. Buchanan, A New B u i l d i n g f o r the N a t i o n a l G a l l e r y of Canada, Ottawa, The N a t i o n a l G a l l e r y of Canada, I960, p.2. mimeographed. 8"2 N a t i o n a l G a l l e r y of Canada, Annual Report of the Nation-a l G a l l e r y of Canada: 1958-59i Ottawa, Mortimer L i m i t e d , 1959, p. 37. 83 I b i d . , pp. 41-42. 71 A r t centres i n every province of Canada are pro-vided s e r v i c e s from the G a l l e r y : ...more and more demands are being made upon the N a t i o n a l G a l l e r y f o r increased s e r v i c e s i n supplying t r a v e l l i n g e x h i b i t i o n s , p u b l i c a t i o n s and other a i d s to a r t a p p r e c i a t i o n . To help these r e g i o n a l groups i s now one of the most e s s e n t i a l tasks of the N a t i o n a l Gallery."^-N a t i o n a l Museum The Education S e c t i o n of the N a t i o n a l Museum i s engaged i n v a r i e d a c t i v i t i e s d i r e c t e d towards the l i b e r a l education of a d u l t s : The Education Section continued to encourage p u b l i c i n t e r e s t . . . t h r o u g h l e c t u r e s , conducted tours,...and s p e c i a l programs. Twenty-two adu l t l e c t u r e s i n E n g l i s h were presented to audiences t o t a l l i n g 8,665 and four l e c t u r e s i n French to a t o t a l audience of 337 The l e c t u r e h a l l of the N a t i o n a l Museum continued to be used by educational and other o r g a n i z a t i o n s who a v a i l e d themselves of i t s f a c i l i t i e s for...accommodating s i z e a b l e numbers of people.°5 84 Buchanan, A. New B u i l d i n g f o r the N a t i o n a l G a l l e r y of Canada, p. 2., mimeographed. $5 N a t i o n a l Museum of Canada, Annual Report: 1958-1959, Ottawa, The N a t i o n a l Museum of Canada, 1959, p. 1., mimeo-graphed. 72 Canadian Broadcasting Corporation A r t i s t i c endeavours are given scope i n C.B.C. ra d i o programming. A sampling of these w i l l f o l l o w : U n i v e r s i t y of the A i r presents a weekly l e c t u r e s e r i e s . On May 17, I960, W.C. Hardy of the U n i v e r s i t y of A l b e r t a , l e c t u r e d oh 'The Roman World', a part of h i s s e r i e s e n t i t l e d 'The Greek and Roman World'. C r i t i c s At Large,on May 17, 1959, featured Alan J a r v i s ' comments on the q u a l i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia a r t , a r c h i t e c t u r e , and s c u l p t u r e , and Joan Lowndes interviev;ed M o l l y Bobak on her a r t teaching tour of parts of B r i t i s h Columbia f o r the U n i v e r s i t y Extension Department. Anthology i s r a d i o ' s l i t e r a r y magazine. On May 31, I960 Father Clement L o c q u e l l gave a repo r t on w r i t i n g i n French Canada, and poetry was presented by A l f r e d Purdy. A recorded performance of Linda d i Chamounix by D o n i z e t t i was heard by opera l o v e r s on May 20, i960. A wide v a r i e t y of good music programs in c l u d e s the D i s t i n g u i s h e d  A r t i s t s s e r i e s (June 7, I960, Human Bress, V i o l i n , and John Newmark, piano), and Parade of Choirs (May 2 8 , I960, Lord Byng High School Glee Club, winner of one of the C.B.C. Broad-cast Awards i n the s p r i n g M u s i c a l F e s t i v a l ) . Music Diary presents up-to-date musical commentary; f o r example, the 73 program of July 3 , I960, was e n t i t l e d 'Music i n Moscow', impressions of the musical l i f e of the Russian c a p i t a l . A discussion of the place and value of the National Gallery i n Canadian c u l t u r a l l i f e on June 19, I960, was e n t i t l e d The National Gallery of Canada. On his show of May 15, I960, John Emerson con-tinued his series c a l l e d V i c t o r i a n Writers with discussion and readings from the works of Emily Bronte, William Makepeace Thackeray and George E l i o t . The 'piece de resistance', of course, i s C.B.C. Wednesday Night with i t s varied offerings, and James Bannerman's introductions. The evening of May IS, I960, i n -cluded a Canadian place, 'In Foul Case' by George Whalley, and a program of 'Music of Today' by Jean Beaudet and the C.B.C. Symphony Orchestra, which included a t a l k by Dr. Arnold Walter of the University of Toronto. A selection of C.B.C.-T.V. offerings w i l l be con-sidered which could f i t t i n g l y be included i n the f i e l d of ' l i b e r a l education'. University of the Air,on May 1$, I960, presented a t a l k e n t i t l e d 'The S o c i a l - P o l i t i c a l ' , one of a series of lectures by Dr. William Robbins of the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, called 'Human Values i n English L i t e r a -ture '. 74 A r t i n A c t i o n showed Pro f e s s o r George Swinton d i s c u s s i n g outdoor sketching, and the a r t i s t ' s use of the world of nature, on May 11, I960. On Open House, May 24, I960, the viewers were taken on a v i s i t to the N a t i o n a l B a l l e t School. Two h a l f - h o u r f i l m s of Marcel Marceau, French pantomimist, were presented i n s p e c i a l programs e n t i t l e d The Wordless Way to Success, one of them dated June 19, I960. F i n a l l y , the E x p l o r a t i o n s s e r i e s has delved i n t o many of the s o c i a l sciences f o r i t s subject matter. Many worthwhile examples could be chosen. However, only the s e r i e s beginning September 30, 1959, w i l l be mentioned. The s e r i e s e n t i t l e d 'The P a t t e r n of Change Among Po l a r Peoples' i n v o l v e d the changing p a t t e r n s of e x i s t e n c e of the Eskimo as a r e s u l t of h i s contact w i t h the white man. P u b l i c Archives The extensive c o l l e c t i o n s of o f f i c i a l records, maps, manuscripts, p i c t u r e s , m i c r o f i l m s , and p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l touching on Canadiana provide our c i t i z e n s w i t h a r i c h s t o r e of c u l t u r a l i n t e r e s t . I t s a t t r a c t i o n s are c l e a r l y recognized by s c h o l a r s throughout the world. 75 Much a s s i s t a n c e was again given to h i s t o r i a n s , w r i t e r s , j o u r n a l i s t s , a r t i s t s , p u b l i s h e r s , f i l m and t e l e v i s i o n producers, and museums. The number of i n q u i r i e s r e c e i v e d continued at a high l e v e l ; requests came not only from a l l ten Canadian provinces, but from other c o u n t r i e s , i n c l u d i n g the United S t a t e s , Great B r i t a i n and France. Source m a t e r i a l r e q u i r e d to meet s p e c i f i c needs was l o c a t e d and photo-graphs, m i c r o f i l m s or photostats were f u r n i s h e d as necessary. In many instances t h i s i n v o l v e d considerable checking and research.$6 Canada C o u n c i l Two funds of f i f t y m i l l i o n d o l l a r s each were set a s i d e : one to provide f o r the U n i v e r s i t y C a p i t a l Grants Fund, and the other, the Endowment Fund. The p o l i c y behind the Endowment Fund can be seen from the Third Annual Report of the Canada C o u n c i l : ...the C o u n c i l must do everything i n i t s power to give encouragement, and to r a i s e the standards of understanding, a p p r e c i a t i o n and enjoyment of the a r t s over the length and breadth of Canada. To that end the C o u n c i l has adopted the p o l i c y of g i v i n g the maximum support allowed by the s i z e of i t s funds to the dissemination of the a r t s . T ravel grants are given to i n d i v i d u a l per-formers, to o r c h e s t r a s , t h e a t r e s , b a l l e t and opera to cover as much of the Dominion as possible.®''7 86 Wm. Kaye Lamb, Dominion A r c h i v i s t , Report on the P u b l i c  Archives f o r the years 1955-195$, Ottawa, Queen's P r i n t e r , 1959, p. 53. $7 The Canada C o u n c i l , The Canada C o u n c i l Third Annual  Report: I960, Ottawa, I960, p. 10. I 76 A r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s e l e c t i o n of grants given i n a i d to v a r i e d c u l t u r a l endeavours throughout the Dominion f o l l o w s : Grants to Organizations A p r i l 1 , 1 9 5 9 - March 3 1 , I 9 6 0 Vancouver Symphony Soc i e t y To tour Okanagan c i t i e s , to improve o r c h e s t r a l # q u a l i t y , to extend school concerts 23,000 Montreal F e s t i v a l s S o c i e t y For I960 F e s t i v a l and 25th anniversary program 50,000 S t r a t f o r d Shakespearean F e s t i v a l For I960 season 35,000 Vancouver F e s t i v a l S o c i e t y For I960 season 35,000 Canadian Opera Company, Toronto For I960 season and 'Western and Eastern Tours .... 72,000 Contact Poetry Readings To provide t r a v e l and a s s i s t a n c e to Canadian poets to present readings of t h e i r own work at the Isaacs G a l l e r y , Toronto 845 Dominion Drama F e s t i v a l To a s s i s t w i t h the f i n a l F e s t i v a l i n Vancouver i n I960 and to support the p u b l i c a t i o n "Theatre-Canada" 10,500 N a t i o n a l B a l l e t G u i l d of Canada For 1959-60 operations 100,000 U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Indian Carving Program To continue the Totem Pole p r o j e c t 15,000 McMaster U n i v e r s i t y To commission a new work i n scu l p t u r e 2,000 Community A r t s C o u n c i l of Vancouver Re a r t c i r c u i t s i n B.C 3,500 77 Winnipeg A r t G a l l e r y A s s o c i a t i o n To continue the extension of the G a l l e r y ' s $ s e r v i c e s 12,000 Royal A r c h i t e c t u r a l I n s t i t u t e of Canada To conduct a n a t i o n a l i n v e n t o r y of b u i l d i n g s of h i s t o r i c value 3,500 Canada Co u n c i l T r a i n To b r i n g young people from a l l provinces of Canada to the S t r a t f o r d Shakespearean F e s t i v a l up to 40,000 Humanities Research C o u n c i l of Canada Travel f o r s c h o l a r s i n the Humanities to attend meetings of t h e i r own o r g a n i z a t i o n s 5,000 S o c i a l Science Research C o u n c i l of Canada For s c h o l a r s i n S o c i a l Sciences to attend meetings of t h e i r own o r g a n i z a t i o n s 5,000 The Opening Proceedings of the Canada Co u n c i l pro-duced, i n May, 1957, some very i n t e r e s t i n g p o l i c y statements. The Chairman made the f o l l o w i n g remarks: D'Arcy McGee's words have a new power and a new i n s p i r a t i o n f o r h i s f e l l o w - c i t i z e n s of today who f e e l the mighty upsurge of Canada i n the present miraculous growth of her m a t e r i a l s t r e n g t h and the s e l f - r e l i a n t r e c o g n i t i o n of our own n a t i o n a l being and u n i t y . We can look ahead w i t h the Gordon Commission to 1980 when we may have a population of 28,000,000 and a gross n a t i o n a l product of $74 b i l l i o n . We can count our b l e s s i n g s because we l i v e i n a wonderful land -a r i c h land - and we are l i v i n g here at a most f o r t u n a t e time. But t h i s amazing growth which holds the promise of yet greater prosperity_and much more l e i s u r e poses i t s own problems. L i f e and business are l i k e l y to become very much more complex. People w i l l need higher s k i l l s to manage themselves, to c o n t r o l t h e i r environment and to use t h e i r machines. 88 The Canada C o u n c i l , The Canada C o u n c i l Third Annual  Report, pp. 80-88. 7a A l l t h i s p o i n t s to the need f o r more  education - more t r a i n i n g of engineers, s c i e n t i s t s  and businessmen, and broader education f o r educ-a t i o n i s t s and a r t i s t s .and humanists, of t h i n k e r s -a l l to give us an enlarged a b i l i t y to deal w i t h our m a t e r i a l environment and a greater c a p a c i t y f o r making the best use of the . l e i s u r e time i t seems, we w i l l l i k e l y have. ° Further on the Chairman s t a t e s : The Canada Co u n c i l i s a new experiment i n any f i e l d . In i t s d e t a i l s , however, i t i s f a m i l i a r : we have numbers of ventures i n education, the a r t s , humanities and s o c i a l sciences: l a r g e sums are set aside.90 Elsewhere: The Canada C o u n c i l should not be another a r t f a c t o r y to compete.with or cut across e x i s t i n g a c t i v i t i e s ; i t should be a powerhouse  to generate i n t e r e s t . 9 1 And f u r t h e r : My colleagues and I are g r e a t l y honoured by the opportunity to serve our f e l l o w c i t i z e n s and to help i n the encouragement and advancement  of education and the c r e a t i v e a r t s i n t h i s land, 89 The Hon. Brooke Claxton, "An Address by the Chairman of The Canada C o u n c i l , " The Canada Co u n c i l Opening Proceedings, Ottawa, May 1957, p. 8. 90 The Hon. Brooke Claxton, "An Address by the Chairman of The Canada C o u n c i l , " The Canada C o u n c i l Opening Proceedings, 91 I b i d . , p. 14. 7 9 a land which i s not only welcoming to i t s c i t i z e n s h i p the b e n e f i c i a r i e s of most of the world's great h e r i t a g e s , but has high hopes that the c i t i z e n s of Canada during the years before us may have much to co n t r i b u t e to the a r t i s t i c treasure-house of a l l mankind.92 The Vice-Chairman of the Canada Council o u t l i n e d to give every i n d i v i d u a l i n our country an  opportunity to develop f r e e l y the best p a r t  of h i m s e l f , h i s mind. His mind eagerly i n  search of Truth and seeking f o r Beauty. His mind wi t h i t s a b i l i t y to l e a r n , to  comprehend and to create. Such cooperation should r e s u l t i n the expansion of humanism In consequence, while s t r e s s i n g the progress of the a r t s , humanities and s o c i a l sciences i n Canada, we s h a l l at the same time provide f o r our f e l l o w c i t i z e n s numerous o p p o r t u n i t i e s of i n t e r c h a n g i n g t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e c u l t u r a l values and of enjoying the same works together important achievement: the u n i t y of Canada. Several Federal departments and agencies are pres-e n t l y engaged i n c o l l e c t i n g and pr e s e r v i n g s i g n i f i c a n t 9 2 The Hon. Brooke Claxton, "An Address by the Chairman of the Canada C o u n c i l , " The Canada Council Opening Proceedings, p. 1 5 . 9 3 The Very Reverend Georges-Henri Levesque, "An Address by the Vice-Chairman of the Canada C o u n c i l , " The Canada C o u n c i l  Opening Proceedings, Ottawa, May 1 9 5 7 , p. 1 7 . 9 4 I b i d . , p. 2 0 . the main purpose of that o r g a n i z a t i o n : i n Canada.... 9 3 And i n conclusion, he s t a t e s : as w e l l . We s h a l l thus 80 i n f o r m a t i o n which c o n s t i t u t e s the c u l t u r a l h e r i t a g e of Canada. In t h i s sense many of these agencies are a c t i n g as ' s t o r e -houses of the nation's c u l t u r a l h e r i t a g e ' , and are c o n t r i b u t -i n g to a more u n i f i e d over-view of the f i n e s t achievements of Canadian people. N a t i o n a l Museum According to the Museum's mandate under the Depart-ment of Northern A f f a i r s and N a t u r a l Resources Act: The M i n i s t e r has the c o n t r o l , management and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the N a t i o n a l Museum of Canada, and s h a l l c o l l e c t , c l a s s i f y and arrange f o r e x h i b i t i o n i n the Museum of such specimens as are necessary to a f f o r d complete and exact knowledge of the geology, mineralogy, palaeontology, archaeology, ethnology and fauna and f l o r a of Canada.95 N a t i o n a l L i b r a r y An important f u n c t i o n of the N a t i o n a l L i b r a r y of Canada i s the gathering of a comprehensive c o l l e c t i o n of books produced i n Canada, of books i l l u s t r a t e d or w r i t t e n by Canadians, and of books about Canada. Persuant to r e v i s e d de-p o s i t r e g u l a t i o n s e f f e c t i v e June 1, 1958, the L i b r a r y may purchase works published abroad that are of Canadian i n t e r e s t . 95 An Act r e s p e c t i n g the Department of Northern A f f a i r s and  N a t i o n a l R e s o u r c e s , B i l l 6, as passed by the House of Commons, 10th December, 1953, s. 9. 81 N a t i o n a l G a l l e r y From an a r t i c l e prepared by the As s o c i a t e D i r e c t o r , "A New B u i l d i n g f o r the N a t i o n a l G a l l e r y of Canada," i t i s perceived t h a t the g a l l e r y : . . . i s a l s o an a r t reference l i b r a r y of n a t i o n a l importance.°° And elsewhere i n the same a r t i c l e : ...the N a t i o n a l G a l l e r y of Canada i s r a p i d l y becoming a n a t i o n a l a r t centre and museum i n the most complete sense of the term.97 N a t i o n a l F i l m Board On page 19 of the Annual Report, t h i s i n t e r e s t i n g question i s posed: In the course of time can a f i l m take i t s place among the ar c h i v e s of a country as an h i s t o r i c a l document?98 The question i s answered i n the a f f i r m a t i v e by the Supervisor of Production Research: 96 D.W. Buchanan, "A New B u i l d i n g f o r the N a t i o n a l G a l l e r y of Canada," Ottawa, The N a t i o n a l G a l l e r y of Canada,(mimeo-graphed) , I960, p. 6. 97 I b i d . , p. 7 . 98 N a t i o n a l F i l m Board, N a t i o n a l F i l m Board Annual Report: 1958-59, p. 19. 8 2 The work of the N.F.B. must always meet the needs of the present and the immediate. But the f a c t remains that the motion p i c t u r e w i l l always be a m i r r o r of a people's h i s t o r y , even more so i n Canada where i t s documentary character i s being preserved.9 9 Department of C i t i z e n s h i p And Immigration From the 1 9 5 9 Annual Report one reads concerning the accumulation and documentation of inform a t i o n p e r t a i n i n g to Canada's ethnic groups: The Branch continued to b u i l d up i t s docu-mentation l i b r a r y d e a l i n g w i t h the v a r i o u s ethnic groups and o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n Canada, as w e l l as the E n g l i s h and French-speaking vo l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s . Information on some $ 0 0 ethnic o r g a n i z a t i o n s and 4 0 0 other Canadian v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s had been accumulated by the end of the f i s c a l year. S p e c i a l emphasis was placed on surveys of o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n Montreal, Winnipeg, the A t l a n t i c provinces, and southwestern Ontario. The Branch completed monographs on the Canadian P o l i s h Congress, on the U k r a i n i a n Canadian Committee, and on Canadians of Slovak and B y e l o r u s s i a n o r i g i n . . The Branch provided a s s i s t a n c e to the I n s t i t u t e of P u b l i c A f f a i r s at Dalhousie U n i v e r s i t y f o r a survey of the adjustment of coloured people i n Nova S c o t i a . 1 0 0 9 9 N a t i o n a l F i l m Board, N a t i o n a l F i l m Board Annual Report:  1 9 5 8 - 5 9 , p. 2 2 . 1 0 0 Department of C i t i z e n s h i p and Immigration, Annual Report  of C i t i z e n s h i p and Immigration: 1 9 5 8 - 5 9 , Ottawa, Queen's P r i n t e r , 1 9 5 9 , p. 1 1 . 83 From the data presented, c e r t a i n s i g n i f i c a n t trends are d i s c e r n i b l e i n F e d e r a l Government a c t i v i t i e s . The f i r s t , and perhaps the most important, i s the move to d i f f u s e c u l -t u r e and to promote l i b e r a l education. There appears to be a c o n s i s t e n t d issemination of ' c u l t u r e 1 from the c e n t r a l agencies across Canada. C.B.C. r a d i o and t e l e v i s i o n broadcasts a wide v a r i e t y of programs of a r t i s t i c , s c i e n t i f i c , h i s t o r i c a l , s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l i n t e r e s t throughout the country. Many of the c o n t r o v e r s i a l o f f e r i n g s should provoke i n t e l l i g e n t d i s c u s s i o n . The N a t i o n a l G a l l e r y s u p p l i e s t r a v e l l i n g ex-h i b i t i o n s and other a i d s to a r t a p p r e c i a t i o n throughout the dominion. One of the main purposes of the Canada Co u n c i l i s the dissemination of the a r t s : ...the C o u n c i l must do everything i n i t s power to give encouragement, and to r a i s e the stand-ards of understanding, a p p r e c i a t i o n and enjoy-ment of the a r t s over the l e n g t h and breadth of Canada. To t h a t end the C o u n c i l has adopt-ed the p o l i c y of g i v i n g the maximum support allowed by the s i z e of i t s funds to the d i s -semination of the a r t s . Travel grants are g i v -en to i n d i v i d u a l performers, to orchestras, t h e a t r e s , b a l l e t and opera to cover as much of the Dominion as possible.101 To give e f f e c t to t h i s p o l i c y , the Vancouver Symphony Orchestra was granted money to tour Okanagan c i t i e s and to extend school 101 The Canada C o u n c i l , The Canada C o u n c i l Third Annual Re-p o r t : I960, Ottawa, I960, p. 10. $4 concerts; the Canadian Opera Company of Toronto r e c e i v e d a grant f o r western and eastern t o u r s ; and the Community A r t s Council of Vancouver was awarded a grant f o r a r t c i r c u i t s i n B.C. On the other hand, f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e i s given to b r i n g people to c u l t u r a l centres: the Canada Co u n c i l Train brings young people from a l l provinces of Canada to the S t r a t -f o r d Shakespearean F e s t i v a l ; s c h o l a r s i n the S o c i a l Sciences and the Humanities were granted a i d to attend meetings of t h e i r own o r g a n i z a t i o n s ; and poets were enabled to present readings of t h e i r own work at the Isaacs G a l l e r y , Toronto. Canada C o u n c i l moneys a l s o a s s i s t a r t i s t s , poets, musicians, s c h o l a r s and the l i k e to develop t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l a b i l i t i e s more f u l l y . For example, $2,000 was a l l o c a t e d to each of s e v e r a l u n i v e r s i t i e s to commission a new work i n s c u l p -t u r e . As a r e s u l t , competitions i n s c u l p t u r e were held at some of the u n i v e r s i t i e s . The Chairman of the Canada Council estimates the im-portance of t h a t o r g a n i z a t i o n as 'a powerhouse to generate i n t e r e s t ' a n d 'to help i n the encouragement and advancement 102 The Hon. Brooke Claxton, "An Address by the Chairman of the Canada C o u n c i l , " The Canada Council Opening Proceedings, Ottawa, May 1957, p. 14. 85 of education and the c r e a t i v e a r t s i n t h i s l a n d ' . 1 ^ Th@ Vice-Chairman declares that i t s purpose i s 'to g i v g every i n d i v i d u a l i n our country an opportunity to develop f r e e l y the best p a r t of h i m s e l f , h i s mind'. 1 0^ Secondly, there seems to be a trend to e s t a b l i s h a  c r i t e r i o n of excellence d i r e c t e d towards n a t i o n a l norms. The mandate of the Board of Broadcast Governors r e q u i r e s 'the p r o v i s i o n of a v a r i e d and comprehensive broadcasting s e r v i c e of a high standard'. 1 0- 5 One of the main ob j e c t s of the Canada Council i s the improvement of a r t i s t i c standards i n Canada: The C o u n c i l must be f r e e to help maintain and improve at l e a s t some of the o r g a n i z a t i o n s whose standards and e x c e l l e n t achievements may serve as example and i n s p i r a t i o n to a l l the country, provide a goal toward which not only l o c a l groups but i n d i v i d u a l s may be encouraged to press, and make i n c r e a s i n g l y a v a i l a b l e op-p o r t u n i t i e s f o r careers which members of Canada's growing corps of t r a i n e d and g i f t e d i n d i v i d u a l s • wish to follow.10° A s i m i l a r trend towards e s t a b l i s h i n g n a t i o n a l norms 103 The Hon. Brooke Claxton, "An Address by the Chairman of the Canada C o u n c i l , " The Canada Co u n c i l Opening Proceedings, Ottawa, Flay, 1957, p. 15. 104 The Very Reverend Georges-Henri Levesque, "An Address by the Vice-Chairman of the Canada C o u n c i l , " I b i d . , p. 17. 105 Broadcasting Act, 1958, c.22, s. 10. 106 The Canada C o u n c i l , The Canada Co u n c i l Third Annual  Report; I960, Ottawa, i960, p. 10. 86 may be noted i n the f i e l d of v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g . B r i t i s h Columbia's cooperation w i t h the Federal Government i n t h i s respect i s st a t e d thus: ...The Curriculum Branch works i n close harmony wi t h the Canadian V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g Branch i n Ottawa, which i s g i v i n g l e a d e r s h i p to producing trade a n a l y s i s f o r each of the s k i l l e d trades so th a t we may e v e n t u a l l y have trade standards and q u a l i f i c a t i o n s which are acceptable to a l l Prov-inces i n Canada. T h i r d l y , there i s a trend to promote Canadianism  based on i n t e l l i g e n t understanding. The N a t i o n a l F i l m Board i s p r i m a r i l y engaged i n ' i n t e r p r e t i n g Canada to Canadians'. I t concerns i t s e l f w i t h n a t i o n a l problems and achievements covering a wide v a r i e t y of t o p i c s among which i s to be found 'education'. The N.F.B. gears i t s programs to items t h a t are deemed to be ' i n the n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t ' . The Department of C i t i z e n s h i p and Immigration helps v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s w i t h c i t i z e n s h i p education. A f u r -t h e r move towards strengthening Canadianism may be seen i n N a t i o n a l G a l l e r y p o l i c y . That p o l i c y : ...has always been to b u i l d up both the f i n e s t p o s s i b l e c o l l e c t i o n of European art...and the most c o m p l e t e . . . c o l l e c t i o n of Canadian a r t i n 107 B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Education, P u b l i c  Schools of the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia, Eighty-seventh Annual Report 1957/5$, V i c t o r i a , Queen's P r i n t e r . 1959. P. W41. 8 7 existence. As f o r the Canadian c o l l e c t i o n , i t ^ represents p r a c t i c a l l y every a r t i s t at his best. Because Canadianism i s being promoted through studies of c i t i z e n s h i p , and by means of films and agencies of cultur-a l d i f f u s i o n , we f i n d an emerging nationalism based on the l i b e r a l a r t s . I t i s a Canadianism that i s not r e s t r i c t e d by i t s own national boundaries, but rather one that considers Canada i n i t s proper se t t i n g which i s the world of nations. Consequently, r a t i o n a l i t y rather than 'jingoism' i s the end-product of t h i s i n t e r e s t i n g and developing trend. A fourth trend i s to increase the competency of  present and future employees i n s k i l l e d and semi-skilled occupations i n order to r e s i s t the threat of unemployment. This was f i r s t indicated i n pre-World War I I apprenticeship programs i n s t i t u t e d by the Federal Government to solve unem-ployment problems caused by the depression. I t became appar-ent again during the early years of the war when the Govern-ment established a Youth Training Program to achieve the same end. Following the war, the Department of Veterans A f f a i r s embarked on a gigantic scheme that was designed to a s s i s t student-veterans to continue t h e i r education. Today that same 108 D.W. Buchanan, "A New Building for the National Gallery of Canada," the National Gallery of Canada, I960, p. 2, mimeographed. 88 Department continues to supply veterans w i t h academic and v o c a t i o n a l correspondence courses. The Department of J u s t i c e provides v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n -i n g to f i t the inmates of Fed e r a l p e n i t e n t i a r i e s f o r f u t u r e employment, whi l e the Department of Labour o f f e r s i n f o r m a t i o n at no charge on va r i o u s occupations, and p a r t i c i p a t e s under the V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g Co-ordination Act to f i t persons more adequately f o r g a i n f u l employment. I n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g programs i n many f i e l d s are a l -so encouraged by the Government to increase the s k i l l and e f f i c i e n c y of employees i n a rapidly-changing t e c h n o l o g i c a l age. A f i f t h trend i s to con s o l i d a t e s c i e n t i f i c a l l y a l l s i g n i f i c a n t data c o n t r i b u t i n g to a more i n t e l l i g e n t under-standing of the country. The N a t i o n a l Archives, Museum, G a l l e r y , L i b r a r y , and F i l m Board are a l l r a p i d l y becoming Storehouses of Canada's c u l t u r a l h e r i t a g e ' . Even the Depart-ment of C i t i z e n s h i p and Immigration i s p a r t i c i p a t i n g by c o l -l e c t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n about Canada's va r i o u s ethnic groups. These trends i n d i c a t e that the development of a more i n t e l l i g e n t , c r e a t i v e , humanistic c i t i z e n r y i s being encour-aged by Federal a c t i v i t i e s . This process i s strengthened through a promotion of the l i b e r a l a r t s across the n a t i o n . Those a r t s are supported by agencies of c u l t u r a l d i f f u s i o n , and are 89 nourished by n a t i o n a l storehouses which contain Canada's c u l t u r a l h e r i t a g e . The trend towards n a t i o n a l norms and higher standards gives f u r t h e r emphasis to t h i s developing n a t i o n a l p a t t e r n . With a more u t i l i t a r i a n purpose, the Federal Government co-operates i n o r g a n i z i n g v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g programs i n order to produce more employable Canadians, so that the economic l i f e of the country may proceed e f f i c i -e n t l y . CHAPTER I I I M E T H O D S O F A D M I N I S T R A T I O N The word "Canadian" means c i t i z e n s h i p i n a North American n a t i o n . I t a l s o means membership i n a great Family of Nations, and a proud sharing of t r a d -i t i o n s w i t h the people of t h i s I s l a n d . Rt. Hon. Vincent Massey C.H. Address to the Canadian Club, London, England, 1 J u l y , 1953. Federal f i n a n c i a l c o n t r i b u t i o n s promoting 'educa-t i o n f o r Canadian a d u l t s ' w i l l be studied as they p e r t a i n to both formal and i n f o r m a l education. The f o l l o w i n g r e -p r e s e n t a t i v e examples w i l l be given: two Federal Depart-ments at work; two F e d e r a l - P r o v i n c i a l co-operative schemes; two agencies of the Federal Government; and two examples of v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s i n r e c e i p t of some Federal help. A study w i l l be made of the manner i n which Feder-a l moneys f i l t e r down through these v a r i o u s a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n s to a s s i s t i n p r o v i d i n g 'education f o r a d u l t s . ' A. A d m i n i s t r a t i o n d i r e c t e d by a Department of the Federal  Government 1. Department of C i t i z e n s h i p and Immigration a. Canadian C i t i z e n s h i p Branch This Branch i s t a k i n g an a c t i v e p a r t i n h e l p i n g community o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n 'informal education.': A c o n t i n u i n g f u n c t i o n of the Branch i s to a s s i s t i n the establishment and a c t i v i t i e s of l o c a l committees and c o u n c i l s designed to co-ordinate the work of v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n the c i t i z e n -ship f i e l d . During the year, the Branch sponsored r e g i o n a l conferences i n Winnipeg, Hamilton, and V i c t o r i a , where l o c a l c i t i z e n s h i p c o u n c i l s met to 92 d i s c u s s common problems and exchange experiences. 1 Such s e r v i c e s i n c l u d e d : working w i t h the Upper S t . John V a l l e y C i t i z e n s h i p C o u n c i l i n developing placement o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r immigrants; h e l p i n g the Montreal Council to conduct a survey of language c l a s s f a c i l i t i e s i n t h a t c i t y ; ad-v i s i n g the Edmonton Council i n the development of a s e r i e s of preparatory l e c t u r e s f o r a p p l i c a n t s f o r c i t i z e n s h i p ; and a s s i s t i n g the Vancouver Cou n c i l to organize- sessions at which a panel of experts gave f r e e t e c h n i c a l advice to immigrants on a v a r i e t y of problems. P r o j e c t s such as the one which f o l l o w s support the development of c i t i z e n s h i p : A major p r o j e c t of the Branch was the Second N a t i o n a l C i t i z e n s h i p Seminar at M i n a k i , Ontario, from August 24th to 28th, 1958. With over eighty delegates i n attendance r e p r e s e n t i n g a wide range of organizations.from various parts of Canada, c o n s i d e r a t i o n was given to the needs of v o l u n t a r y groups i n t e r e s t e d i n immigrant w e l f a r e , i n t e g r a t i o n of the Indian Canadian i n urban communities and general c i t i z e n s h i p programs.3 Besides these a c t i v i t i e s : The Branch provided a s s i s t a n c e to the Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n f o r Adult Education' f o r two major s t u d i e s : one on the f u n c t i o n of v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n Canadian s o c i e t y ; the other, on the best way to manage conferences f o r the pur-pose of t r a i n i n g community leaders.4 1 Department of C i t i z e n s h i p and Immigration, Annual Report  of the Department of C i t i z e n s h i p and Immigration": 1958-1959, Ottawa, Queen's P r i n t e r , 1959, p. 10. 2 I b i d . , p. 10. 3 I b i d . 4 I b i d . 93. Greater understanding i s achieved by a c t i o n s l i k e the example which f o l l o w s : The Branch acted as c o n s u l t i n g member to the Canadian Commission on U.N.E.S.C.O. whose major p r o j e c t at present i s the promotion of understand-i n g between o r i e n t a l and o c c i d e n t a l c u l t u r e s . 5 Intergovernmental cooperation was another aspect of the a c t i v i t i e s of t h i s Branch: During the year, the Branch arranged programs of study f o r Government o f f i c i a l s from A u s t r a l i a and A u s t r i a , Colombo Plan t r a i n e e s , and research students i n t e r e s t e d i n i n t e g r a t i o n programs f o r immigrants. 0 b. Immigration Branch Prospe c t i v e c i t i z e n s r e c e i v e d some form of 'educa-t i o n ' i n other c o u n t r i e s , f o r example: Immigration o f f i c e r s made v i s i t s to 1,735 centres throughout the United Kingdom and I r e l a n d during 1958 g i v i n g l e c t u r e s and'film shows at 334 meetings which were attended by 15,968 persons. Of that number 10,296 prospective immigrants r e -ceived f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n and-guidance from c o u n s e l l i n g o f f i c e r s i n personal interviews.7 c. Indian A f f a i r s Branch Apart from the formal i n s t i t u t i o n s e s t a b l i s h e d by 5 Department of C i t i z e n s h i p and Immigration, Annual Report  of the Department of C i t i z e n s h i p and Immigration: 1958-1959,~ Ottawa, Queen's P r i n t e r , 1959, p. 10. 6 I b i d . , p. 12. 7 I b i d . , p. 26. 94 the Federal Government to help educate the young, steps are being taken towards promoting the education of a d u l t Indians, The Annual Report of the Department of C i t i z e n s h i p and  Immigration shows t h a t : Indian schools and communities are en-couraged and given monetary a s s i s t a n c e to j o i n l o c a l f i l m c o u n c i l s . $ In cooperation w i t h the N a t i o n a l F i l m Board: Two more f i l m s t r i p s i n the s e r i e s ?r¥e Learn E n g l i s h " , designed f o r a d u l t c l a s s e s , were com-p l e t e d and a t h i r d one commenced. These new s t r i p s are e n t i t l e d : "The Home"; "Family Health"; and "The Community", I t i s now p o s s i b l e to use the f i l m s t r i p s not only f o r teaching E n g l i s h but a l s o as a teaching a i d i n home and community improvement.9 The above a c t i v i t i e s represent the purely i n f o r m a l aspects of education provided f o r Indian a d u l t s . The ex-amples which f o l l o w , having a c e r t a i n amount of v o c a t i o n a l s i g n i f i c a n c e and c o n t i n u i t y , take on some of the aspects of both formal and i n f o r m a l education. The Branch a l s o has o f f e r e d courses i n car-pentry and homemaking on reserves. In northern Saskatchewan f o r example, 14 f a m i l i e s gathered a t 8 Department of C i t i z e n s h i p and Immigration, Annual Report  of the Department of C i t i z e n s h i p and Immigration: 1958-1959T Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r , 1959, p. 57. 9 I b i d . , p. 62 95 Beauval where mothers were given t r a i n i n g i n homemaking while the men were shown how to r e p a i r and b u i l d houses. . Indians who l i v e c lose to urban centres were encouraged to e n r o l i n n i g h t courses i n carpentry, a g r i c u l t u r e , motor mechanics, welding, h a n d i c r a f t , homemaking and other vocations.10 The Extension Department of the U n i v e r s i t y of Sask-atchewan, i n cooperation w i t h t h i s Branch, gave courses i n homemaking and a g r i c u l t u r e , and s i m i l a r courses were o f f e r e d i n A l b e r t a and Manitoba w i t h the cooperation of l o c a l educa-t i o n i s t s . In V i c t o r i a High School, Edmonton, 21 young men were e n r o l l e d i n a ten-week course aimed at p r o v i d i n g them w i t h jobs as carpenters' h e l p e r s . Dealing w i t h occupational aspects of l i f e : The Branch a l s o used the guidance f a c i l i t i e s of- the N a t i o n a l Employment S e r v i c e , the provinces, u n i v e r s i t i e s and high s c h o o l s . H Under the general heading of Adult Education we read: During the year, a t o t a l of $57 Indian a d u l t s were e n r o l l e d i n education c l a s s e s . Of these, 263 e n r o l l e d i n l i t e r a c y courses, 1$4 i n c o n t i n u a t i o n courses and 410 i n h a n d i c r a f t s , trade or v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g . 1 2 10 Department of C i t i z e n s h i p and Immigration, Annual Report  of the Department of C i t i z e n s h i p and Immigration: 195&-1959, Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r , 1959, p. 5$. 11 I b i d . , p. 59. 12 I b i d . , p. 62. 9 6 Formal education has been promoted i n t h i s manner: In 1 9 5 6 a system of s c h o l a r s h i p s was e s t a b l i s h e d to a s s i s t Indian students attending non-Indian schools. The  Annual Report for. 1 9 5 9 shows t h a t : ...This year a simple bursary programme was de-v i s e d to a s s i s t some schol a r s who could not q u a l i f y f o r r e g u l a r t u i t i o n g rants. This year f i f t e e n Indian students were awarded s c h o l a r s h i p s ranging from $ 4 2 0 to $ 1 , 0 0 0 according to the type of course chosen. Two s c h o l a r s h i p winners are a t t e n d i n g u n i v e r s i t y ; three, teacher t r a i n i n g ; f o u r , n u r s i n g ; and s i x , v o c a t i o n a l schools. A s s i s t a n c e i n a t t e n d i n g high school or other educational or p r o f e s s i o n a l courses was given to 1 , 8 7 6 students, i n c l u d i n g f i f t e e n s c h o l a r s h i p winners. 1 3 2 . Department of N a t i o n a l Health and Welfare a. Health Branch From the I n t r o d u c t i o n e n t i t l e d 'Health Branch' i s found one of the c l e a r e s t statements ever encountered con-cerning the d i f f i c u l t i e s inherent i n implementing a i d w i t h -i n the context of a f e d e r a l system of government. I t i s ex-p l a i n e d i n t h i s f a s h i o n : ...How can a Federal Government agency c a r r y i n g so l i t t l e a u t h o r i t y e x e r c i s e e f f e c t i v e c o n t r o l or maintain standards over a wide range of h e a l t h a c t i v i t i e s on a n a t i o n a l b a s i s ? 1 3 Department of C i t i z e n s h i p and Immigration, Annual Report  of the Department of C i t i z e n s h i p and Immigration: 1 9 5 8 - 5 9 , Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r , 1 9 5 9 , p. 5 9 . 97 The answer, of course, i s that there i s very-l i t t l e f e d e r a l c o n t r o l of any ki n d e x e r c i s e d and then only i n those l i m i t e d areas which must of n e c e s s i t y be considered i n a n a t i o n a l r a t h e r than a p r o v i n c i a l or l o c a l context. While the Depart-ment i s th e r e f o r e charged by s t a t u t e w i t h the r e s -p o n s i b i l i t y of a d m i n i s t e r i n g c e r t a i n Acts and executive orders, the r e a l a u t h o r i t y and respons-i b i l i t y i n most f i e l d s of h e a l t h f a l l s to the provinces.14 The i n t r o d u c t o r y remarks taken from the same source continue: This i s not to say, however, th a t the Department of N a t i o n a l Health e x e r c i s e s no e f f e c t -i v e i n f l u e n c e i n the broad n a t i o n a l sphere of h e a l t h s e r v i c e s and medical care. Indeed, the concept of v i r t u a l p r o v i n c i a l sovereignty which our f r i e n d s from abroad f i n d so i l l o g i c a l or even confusing i n con t r a s t to t h e i r own organ-i z a t i o n , may f r e e the Fed e r a l Department i n Canada of many a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and d e t a i l s which, i n a country of such vast extent, can be most s a t i s f a c t o r i l y d e a l t w i t h on a r e g i o n a l or l o c a l l e v e l . In other words, the Department's resources can, to a maximum extent be devoted to promotion, f i n a n c i a l and t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e and c o - o r d i n a t i o n of the programs of the va r i o u s provinces. This i s e s s e n t i a l l y the part the Department plays i n Canadian health...the r e p o r t s on a c t i v i -t i e s of the var i o u s d i r e c t o r a t e s and d i v i s i o n s w i l l i l l u s t r a t e t h i s constant trend towards  c e n t r a l c o o r d i n a t i o n and d e c e n t r a l i z e d executive  a u t h o r i t y . ^ Those f u n c t i o n s which are based on s t a t u t o r y r e s p o n s i b i l i t y are c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e d . For the remainder, the reader w i l l r e a d i l y d i s -cern the r e l a t i v e emphasis placed on promotion of adequate standards, t e c h n i c a l "or f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e or c o - o r d i n a t i o n of p r o v i n c i a l a c t i v i t i e s . 14 Department of N a t i o n a l Health and Welfare, The Department  of N a t i o n a l Health and Welfare Annual Report: 1959, Ottawa, Queen's P r i n t e r , 1959, p. 11. 15'Ibid. (* This and subsequent u n d e r l i n i n g i s the author's) 98 From the above p o l i c y statement concerning the a c t -i v i t i e s of the Department of N a t i o n a l Health and Welfare, i t i s seen at once that only those i s s u e s f a l l i n g s p e c i f i c a l l y under F e d e r a l mandate w i l l be d e a l t w i t h d i r e c t l y by the Federal Department. Two examples of i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g l y -i n g i n t h i s f i e l d i n c l u d e a c t i v i t i e s proceeding under the N a r c o t i c s C o n t r o l D i v i s i o n and C i v i l Defence. An i n t e r e s t i n g e d u c a t i o n a l program i s pursued by the members working f o r the N a r c o t i c s Control D i v i s i o n : One of the more important phases of n a r c o t i c education i s the l e c t u r i n g to graduating c l a s s e s i n medicine and pharmacy at u n i v e r s i t i e s across Canada. This program was continued i n the past year... Talks were a l s o given to c u s t o d i a l o f f i c e r s from p e n i t e n t i a r i e s , m u n i c i p a l p o l i c e and other i n t e r e s t e d o r g a n i z a t i o n s at the Calder-wood S t a f f T r a i n i n g College at Kingston.1° On March 23, 1959, the Federal Government agreed to accept 75% of approved p r o j e c t expenditures on C i v i l Defence i n s t e a d of i t s o r i g i n a l commitment of 50$. At the C i v i l Defence Colle g e , A r n p r i o r : Courses were provided... f o r p h y s i c i a n s and d e n t i s t s , nurse educators and nurse s p e c i -a l i s t s , pharmacists, and c a s u a l t y s i m u l a t i o n i n s t r u c t o r s . During the year the f i r s t course f o r v e t e r i n a r i a n s was h e l d . The i n t e g r a t i o n of the C i v i l Defence as-pects of home nur s i n g w i t h the home nursing 16 Department of N a t i o n a l Health and Welfare, The Depart-ment of N a t i o n a l Health and Welfare Annual Report: 1959, Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r , 1959, p. 94. 99 programs of the Canadian Red Cross S o c i e t y and the St. John Ambulance A s s o c i a t i o n increased the number of people r e c e i v i n g t h i s t r a i n i n g . 1 7 In a l l f a i r n e s s , however, i t must be admitted t h a t i n order to s e l l C i v i l Defence to the people of Canada, the most elabor-ate m o t i v a t i o n a l techniques have to be used. Even then, they sometimes f a i l , as was seen t h i s summer at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia where prospective candidates l i v i n g f u r t h e r than one hundred mi l e s from the U n i v e r s i t y were to be paid t h e i r t r a v e l l i n g expenses, and s t i l l an i n s u f f i c i e n t number of r e g i s t r a n t s was obtained to j u s t i f y the h o l d i n g of a course. The Departments pay f o r the educational a c t i v i t i e s which they promote out of moneys voted by Parliament. The Department of C i t i z e n s h i p and Immigration works e x t e n s i v e l y i n the f i e l d of c i t i z e n s h i p education by p r o v i d i n g i n f o r m a t i o n , and co-operating w i t h v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s by sponsoring conferences and seminars, and a d v i s i n g c i t i z e n s h i p c o u n c i l s and committees. Through the Indian A f f a i r s Branch both formal and i n f o r m a l education are provided d i r e c t l y to Indian a d u l t s . The Department of N a t i o n a l Health and Welfare s u p p l i e s i n f o r m a t i o n , but i t s only d i r e c t educational endea-17 Department of N a t i o n a l Health and Welfare, The Depart-ment of N a t i o n a l Health and Welfare Annual Report: 1959, Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r , 1959, p. 127. 100 vour i s the i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g f o r those d i v i s i o n s which are of s t r i c t l y n a t i o n a l concern. B. A d m i n i s t r a t i o n on a F e d e r a l - P r o v i n c i a l cooperative b a s i s I t should now be determined how Federal moneys are employed i n cooperative arrangements w i t h the provinces to f a c i l i t a t e 'education f o r a d u l t s ' . 1. Department of N a t i o n a l Health and Welfare and  the Department of Health Services and H o s p i t a l  Insurance, B r i t i s h Columbia. Federal grants are given only when a P r o v i n c i a l Department of Health Services a p p l i e s f o r them by submitting; ...a programme f o r the u t i l i z a t i o n of i t s share of any of the s a i d grants i n a manner and to an extent deemed s a t i s f a c t o r y to the M i n i s t e r . . . . 1 $ The f o l l o w i n g d i r e c t grants to the provinces con-t r i b u t e , among other t h i n g s , to i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g : a. P r o f e s s i o n a l T r a i n i n g Grant: Each province i s apportioned $10,000 and the balance i s a l l o t t e d according to p o p u l a t i o n , based on a 100 per c a p i t a grant. Under t h i s Grant, B.C.'s share i s $157,699. I t i s aimed among other th i n g s at g i v i n g a s s i s t a n c e 1$ Treasury Board, Department of Finance, General Health Grants Rules, I960, A summary of F e d e r a l Order-in-Council P.C. 1960-18/257 - approved 3rd March, I960, p. 3, mimeographed. 101 to an extended program f o r the t r a i n i n g of per-sonnel : Continued a s s i s t a n c e was given to t r a i n e e s of the Canadian H o s p i t a l A s s o c i a t i o n extension course f o r H o s p i t a l a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and medical records l i b r a r i a n s , and these courses are contin u i n g to prove to be of considerable b e n e f i t to the h o s p i t a l s and the t r a i n e e s . P r o v i n c i a l h e a l t h , m e t r o p o l i t a n h e a l t h , and h o s p i t a l personnel also' r e c e i v e d short-term postgraduate and u n i v e r s i t y t r a i n i n g . 19 b. General P u b l i c Health A second food s e r v i c e i n s t i t u t e f o r h o s p i t a l cooks was held a t the P r i n c e George H o s p i t a l and was con-ducted by the B r i t i s h Columbia Health Insurance Ser-v i c e and the Health Branch. Approximately twenty-f i v e s t a f f members "attended from various h o s p i t a l s throughout the Province.20 c. Tuberculosis C o n t r o l ... a s s i s t a n c e was continued f o r s p e c i a l i z e d t u b e r c u l o s i s t r a i n i n g f o r s t a f f members of the D i v i s i o n . 2 1 d. Mental Health Grant ...bursaries f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g were i n -creased i n number. There are s i x p s y c h i a t r i s t s , 19 Health Branch, Department of Health S e r v i c e s and Hospit-a l Insurance, S i x t y - t h i r d Annual Report of the P u b l i c Health  S e r v i c e s of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a : 1959, V i c t o r i a : Queen's P r i n t e r , I960, p.AA34. • • 20 I b i d . , p.AA36. 21 I b i d . , p.AA35. 102 ten s o c i a l workers, s i x r e g i s t e r e d nurses, and three c l i n i c a l p s y c h o l o g i s t s undergoing t r a i n i n g , who w i l l be r e t u r n i n g to the Mental Health S e r v i c e s Branch i n I960. ... A s s i s t a n c e was continued to the course f o r t r a i n i n g s e n i o r school c o u n s e l l o r s sponsored by the Vancouver School Board.22 D i r e c t F ederal Grants are made to the provinces f o r the purchase of h e a l t h education equipment, and f o r the pro-v i s i o n of h e a l t h educators and p u b l i c h e a l t h i n s t r u c t o r s . As one example, Saskatchewan was the r e c i p i e n t of the f o l l o w i n g g rants: SASKATCHEWAN -Support to the Department of Education through p r o v i s i o n of funds f o r the employment of p u b l i c h e a l t h i n s t r u c t o r s on s t a f f of Normal Schools. Expenditure 1948-57: •Staff and equipment to the -D i v i s i o n of Health Education f o r the maintenance and im-provement of i t s s e r v i c e s Expenditure 194-8-60; Approval 1960-61: -Purchase of h e a l t h education f o r the C i t y of Saskatchewan Health Department f o r use i n t h e i r h e a l t h education program Expenditure 194$-50 FEDERAL ASSIST-65,641.80 ANCE 1359,760.98 40,509.00 972.15 22 Health Branch, Department of Health Services and Hospit-a l Insurance, S i x t y - t h i r d Annual Report of the P u b l i c Health  Services of B r i t i s h Columbia: 1959, V i c t o r i a : Queen's P r i n t e r , I960, p.AA36. 103 - P r o v i s i o n of books on h e a l t h education f o r use i n the P u b l i c L i b r a r y , P u b l i c Inform-a t i o n D i v i s i o n Expenditure 1950-51: -Employment of a h e a l t h educator f o r the Weyburn-Estevan Health Region Expenditure 1953-56 -Employment of a h e a l t h educa-t o r f o r the liegina R u r a l Health Region Expenditure 1955-58:: -Employment of a h e a l t h educa-t o r f o r North B a t t l e f o r d Health Region FEDERAL ASSIST-ANCE 351.26 9,912.00 7,936.00 Saskatchewan Sub Tot a l : $485,083.19 The P r i n c i p a l Medical O f f i c e r i n charge of Nation-a l Health Grants provides the f o l l o w i n g i n f o r m a t i o n : see page 104:-23 Health Education Services under the General Public-Health Grant 1948-61, i n f o r m a t i o n s u p p l i e d by Gordon E. Wride, P r i n c i p a l Medical O f f i c e r , N a t i o n a l Health Grants, Depart-ment of N a t i o n a l Health and Welfare, Ottawa, August 29, I 9 6 0 , t y p e w r i t t e n . 104 HEALTH EDUCATORS TRAINED UNDER THE NATIONAL HEALTH GRANTS 1 9 4 8 - 6 1 PROVINCE NO.TRAINED New foundland 1 Pr i n c e Edward I s l a n d 1 Nova S c o t i a 1 New Brunswick 1 Quebec (*) 1 Ontario 3 Manitoba 4 • Saskatchewan 4 A l b e r t a 1 B r i t i s h Columbia 7 TOTAL; • 24 (#') In a d d i t i o n 266 school teachers were t r a i n e d i n p u b l i c h e a l t h at the U n i v e r s i t y of Montreal. 4 2• Federal Department of Labour and the Technical and  V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g Programs This cooperative arrangement i s the most extensive and comprehensive 'educational' endeavour undertaken j o i n t l y by the Fed e r a l and P r o v i n c i a l governments. 24Information s u p p l i e d by Gordon E. Wride, P r i n c i p a l Medi-c a l O f f i c e r , N a t i o n a l Health Grants, Department of N a t i o n a l Health and Welfare, Ottawa, August 29, I960, t y p e w r i t t e n . 1 0 $ . The V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g Co-ordination Act delegates a u t h o r i t y to the Federal M i n i s t e r of Labour, and i s operated through a s p e c i a l l y designated C o u n c i l , which i s composed of an equal number of employer and employee r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , as w e l l as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from.other groups i n Canada as the Governor i n C o u n c i l may decide. Section 4 of the V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g Co-ordination Act, e n t i t l e d 'Agreements w i t h provinces,' defines the powers of the M i n i s t e r of Labour i n matters i n f l u e n c i n g p r o v i n c i a l a c t i o n : 4 . ( 1 ) The M i n i s t e r may, with the approval of the Governor i n C o u n c i l , enter i n t o an agreement covering any p e r i o d w i t h any province to pro-vide f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e f o r (a) any p r o j e c t , undertaken i n the province, to provide v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g f o r any of the purposes set out i n s e c t i o n 3 ; (b) the c o n t i n u a t i o n a f t e r March 3 1 , 1 9 4 2 , of any p r o j e c t f o r t r a i n i n g h eretofore c a r r i e d on i n the province under the Youth T r a i n i n g Act; (c) any v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g p r o j e c t f o r the conservation or development of the n a t u r a l resources vested i n the Crown i n the r i g h t of the province; (d) the development and c a r r y i n g on by the province of any p r o j e c t recommended by the C o u n c i l to provide v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g f o r apprentices or supervisors i n any i n d u s t r y ; (e) the development and c a r r y i n g on of v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g on a l e v e l equivalent to second ary school l e v e l ; (f) any t r a i n i n g p r o j e c t f o r the purpose of r e h a b i l i t a t i n g d i s a b l e d persons or f i t t i n g them f o r g a i n f u l employment; and (g) any t r a i n i n g p r o j e c t to increase the s k i l l or e f f i c i e n c y of persons engaged i n a g r i -c u l t u r e , f o r e s t r y , mining, f i s h i n g or i n any other primary i n d u s t r y i n Canada, or 106 i n homemaking. (2) No agreement made i n respect of any of the matters set out i n paragraphs (b) to (g) of subsection (1) s h a l l provide f o r payment to a province of a percentage of the cost of any p r o j e c t , i n c l u d i n g the cost of any t r a i n i n g f a c i l i t i e s connected therewith, i n excess of the percentage of such cost c o n t r i b u t e d by the province.25 The Federal Government r e s t r a i n s i t s e l f most j u d i c i o u s l y i n i t s agreements wi t h the provinces. From the Annual Report of the D i r e c t o r of Canadian V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g f o r the f i s c a l year ending March 31, 1959: Education, i n so f a r as governments are concerned, i s a p r o v i n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and, since v o c a t i o n -a l t r a i n i n g i s g e n e r a l l y regarded as an i n t e g r a l part of the e s t a b l i s h e d educational system i n each province, the f e d e r a l Department of Labour has r e -f r a i n e d from operating i t s own t r a i n i n g programs and has r e l i e d on the provinces to provide s u i t a b l e ^ t r a i n i n g f o r a l l purposes as set f o r t h i n the Act.2o P r o j e c t s undertaken e x c l u s i v e l y f o r the Federal Government (notably f o r the armed s e r v i c e s ) , are paid f o r by the provinces i n which they are c a r r i e d out. They, i n t u r n , are reimbursed f o r a l l such outlays by the Federal Govern-ment. This method of f i n a n c i n g h i g h l i g h t s the cooperative s p i r i t evolved by these F e d e r a l - P r o v i n c i a l agreements. Where 25 V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g Co-ordination Act, R.S.C. 1952, C. 286 as amended by S.C. 1953-54, C. 45 s. 2. ( c ) . 26 Department of Labour, Report of the D i r e c t o r of  Canadian V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g , Ottawa, Queen's P r i n t e r , 1959, p. b. 1 0 7 - p r o j e c t s are undertaken on behalf of both Federal and P r o v i n -c i a l governments, there i s an equal sharing of the c o s t s . Under the V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g Co-ordination Act three Agreements are to be found: 1 . ' The Apprenticeship T r a i n i n g Agreement During the f i s c a l year ending March 3 1 , 1 9 5 9 , Canada had over 1 8 , 5 0 0 apprentices i n more than f i f t y d i f -f e r e n t t r a d e s . The number of apprentices r e g i s t e r e d w i t h the Department of Labour had increased over the previous year by more than one thousand. Since 1 9 4 4 the Federal Government has shared e q u a l l y w i t h the provinces a l l costs i n c u r r e d under the s p e c i a l a pprenticeship t r a i n i n g programs. In f a c t , during the year i n question, Federal expenditures alone t o t a l l e d w e l l over one and a h a l f m i l l i o n d o l l a r s . 2. The V o c a t i o n a l and Technical T r a i n i n g Agree-ment Mo. 2. A l l provinces except Quebec p a r t i c i p a t e d under t h i s Agreement which began on A p r i l 1 , 1 9 5 7 , and at the time of commencement a l l o c a t e d f o r t y m i l l i o n d o l l a r s of Federal help to run over a f i v e - y e a r p e r i o d . Twenty-five m i l l i o n of t h i s i s provided e x c l u s i v e l y f o r c a p i t a l p r o j e c t s such as trade and t e c h n i c a l i n s t i t u t e s , though approved v o c a t i o n a l high schools are a l s o e l i g i b l e to share. This c a p i t a l grant i s a l l o c a t e d to the provinces on the b a s i s of population i n the 1 5 - 1 9 age 108 group. The remaining f i f t e e n m i l l i o n d o l l a r s i s to cover oper-a t i n g costs of s i m i l a r i n s t i t u t e s and schools, or conversely, a province may c l a i m up to h a l f i t s annual allotment against c a p i t a l costs of such i n s t i t u t i o n s . The Federal p r o p o r t i o n of help i s portioned out on t h i s b a s i s : The Agreement provides f o r annual a l l o t -ments t o t a l l i n g §2,500,000 i n each of the f i r s t two years of operation, $3,000,000 i n the t h i r d year, and $3,500,000 i n both the f o u r t h and f i f t h years. The annual allotments c o n s i s t of i n i t i a l allotments of $30,000 to each province and $20,000 to each of the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s and the Yukon, the remainder being a l l o t t e d on the b a s i s of the population i n the 15-19 age group.2? Under t h i s arrangement a l l provinces but Quebec were able to r e p o r t at the end of the f i s c a l year, March 31, 1959, that they had i n progress, or i n the b l u e p r i n t stage, plans f o r b u i l d i n g and equipment p r o j e c t s f o r new schools or extensions of e x i s t i n g schools. A study of a c t i v i t i e s r e -v e a l s t h a t the f o l l o w i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s were being b u i l t : Of these p r o j e c t s , 51 per cent are f o r i n s t i t u t e s of technology, 26 per cent f o r combined i n s t i t u t e s of technology and trade schools, 18 per cent f o r trade or occupational t r a i n i n g schools and 5 per 27 Department of Labour, Report of the D i r e c t o r of Canadian V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g , Ottawa, Queen's P r i n t e r , 1959, p. 7. 1 0 9 28 cent f o r v o c a t i o n a l high schools. 3• The S p e c i a l V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g P r o j e c t s  Agreements On A p r i l 1 , 1 9 5 9 the former V o c a t i o n a l and Tech-n i c a l T r a i n i n g Agreement No. 2 . was supplanted by the S p e c i a l V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g P r o j e c t s Agreement, which i s p r e s e n t l y being considered by the provinces before i t s formal adoption. Because of the inchoate nature of the new Agreement, only those arrangements that have themselves been operative dur-i n g recent years, and are being continued, w i l l be discussed. 29 The f o l l o w i n g p r o j e c t s are l i s t e d under the new Agreements: a. T r a i n i n g of Unemployed Persons b. 'Training of Disabled Persons c. Youth T r a i n i n g d. Student A i d e. Supervisory T r a i n i n g f . T r a i n i n g i n Primary I n d u s t r i e s These p r o j e c t s are a l l financed on a 5 0 / 5 0 F e d e r a l -28 Department of Labour, Report of the D i r e c t o r of Canadian V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g , Ottawa, Queen's P r i n t e r , 1 9 5 9 , p. 7-8. 2 9 Department of Labour, S p e c i a l V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g Pro-j e c t s Agreement, Ottawa, Canadian V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g Branch, 1 9 5 9 , mimeographed. 110 P r o v i n c i a l cooperative b a s i s . "Appendix Y"-^ ° mentions those expenses that s h a l l be deemed allowable under the S p e c i a l V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g P r o j e c t s Agreement. I t i n c l u d e s among other t h i n g s : s a l a r i e s , t r a v e l l i n g expenses, allowances, equipment, premises, m a t e r i a l s , s u p p l i e s , textbooks, and ex-pendable t o o l s f o r any c l a s s e s under t h i s agreement. I t a l s o i n c l u d e s f e e s , p u b l i c u t i l i t i e s , a d v e r t i s i n g and p r i n t i n g , compensation and f i r s t a i d , and other general items that are i n c i d e n t a l to any matter mentioned i n the above. In both of these examples of F e d e r a l - P r o v i n c i a l cooperation, the Federal Department makes the funds a v a i l a b l e , but they are used only at the request of the i n d i v i d u a l pro-v i n c e , and upon the approval of the Federal a u t h o r i t y . The Department of N a t i o n a l Health and Welfare a l l o c a t e s a s p e c i f i c sum f o r general h e a l t h . a c t i v i t i e s to each province, and the p r o v i n c i a l h e a l t h department must submit i t s plans f o r approval before r e c e i v i n g the grant. The Department of Labour matches the p r o v i n c i a l ex-penditure f o r v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g p r o j e c t s approved by the C o u n c i l . 30 Department of Labour, S p e c i a l V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g Pro-j e c t s Agreement Appendix "Y", Ottawa, Canadian V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g Branch, 1959, mimeographed. I l l C. A d m i n i s t r a t i o n d i r e c t e d by an approved n a t i o n a l body An approved n a t i o n a l body, f o r the purposes of t h i s study, i s an o r g a n i z a t i o n or a n . a s s o c i a t i o n that has been created by the Federal Government to achieve c e r t a i n s p e c i f i c purposes. Such a body has an independent existence, and de-termines how the p r o v i s i o n s of the a c t under which i t func-t i o n s w i l l be implemented. 1 . The N a t i o n a l Research C o u n c i l of Canada Research i n v o l v e s a c r i t i c a l and exhaustive i n v e s t -i g a t i o n which may r e v i s e accepted conclusions i n the l i g h t of newly-discovered f a c t s . Research i n t o n e a r l y a l l f i e l d s of science and the humanities i s one of the main f u n c t i o n s of a u n i v e r s i t y , and forms part of 'formal education f o r a d u l t s ' . Through employing the c o r r e c t methods r e q u i r e d by sound r e -search, a d u l t s become more p r o f i c i e n t at s o l v i n g problems. The newly-acquired i n s i g h t s gained c o n t r i b u t e d i r e c t l y to the education of those engaged i n research. The f i n d i n g s are then made a v a i l a b l e f o r the general education of a d u l t s . The formation of the C o u n c i l i n 1 9 1 6 3 1 was f o l l o w -ed by The Research C o u n c i l A c t 3 2 of 1 9 1 7 . I t f u n c t i o n s under 3 1 O r d e r - i n - C o u n c i l , P r i v y C o u n c i l 1 2 6 6 , June 6, 1 9 1 6 . 3 2 The Research C o u n c i l Act, Supreme Court, 1 9 1 7 , Chapter 2 9 , now the Research C o u n c i l Act, R.S.C. 1 9 5 2 , Chapter 2 3 9 as amended. 112 the a u t h o r i t y of the Committee of the P r i v y C o u n c i l on S c i e n t i f i c and I n d u s t r i a l Research which advises the Federal Government on a l l matters p e r t a i n i n g to i n d u s t r i a l and s c i e n t i f i c research i n Canada. This Committee operates under the Honorary Advisory C o u n c i l f o r S c i e n t i f i c and I n d u s t r i a l Research which i s 'the a c t u a l governing body of the N a t i o n a l Research C o u n c i l ' . ^ The C o u n c i l i s financed d i r e c t l y by the Federal Government a c t i n g through the Committee of- the P r i v y C o u n c i l on S c i e n t i f i c and I n d u s t r i a l Research. The.National Research L a b o r a t o r i e s are organized i n t o ten d i v i s i o n s and two r e g i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s . The Ten D i v i s i o n s (1) The D i v i s i o n of Applied B i o l o g y deals w i t h a wide v a r i e t y of t o p i c s ranging from food storage and t r a n s -port' to fundamental work concerning the chemical make up of l i v i n g organisms. E a r l y i n I960 i t p a r t i c i p a t e d i n an i n t e r -n a t i o n a l study on c o l d adaptation i n Eskimos at Pangnirtung, B a f f i n I s l a n d . (2) The D i v i s i o n of B u i l d i n g Research, apart from p r o v i d i n g Canada w i t h a research s e r v i c e f o r the con- . s t r u c t i o n i n d u s t r y , has p r i n t e d and published Housing 33 Secretary of State of Canada, Organization of the Govern-ment of Canada, Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r , 1959, p. 220. 113 Standards. In i t are l a i d down the minimum requirements f o r the planning, c o n s t r u c t i o n and m a t e r i a l s f o r detached, semi-detached, duplex, and row houses. This one book i s the master book used by C.M.H.C. i n a l l i t s b u i l d i n g operations. I t i s i n close accord w i t h the N a t i o n a l B u i l d i n g Code of Canada of 1953. From the Explanatory Note that prefaces Housing Standards: These Housing Standards w i l l be used by Ce n t r a l Mortgage and Housing Corporation i n t h e i r operations under the N a t i o n a l Housing Act 1954.35 Because these standards are r e q u i r e d i n C.M.H.C. houses, thousands of Canadians l i v e i n b u i l d i n g s that meet the requirements demanded by sound research and study. (3) The D i v i s i o n of Appl i e d Chemistry i s en-gaged i n a long-term research i n the development of n a t i o n a l resources. C u r r e n t l y a p r o j e c t i s under way which i s of both m i l i t a r y and i n d u s t r i a l importance. I t uses l i g n i n , which i s a by-product of the pulp i n d u s t r y , i n s t e a d of carbon black i n r e i n f o r c i n g rubber. (4) The D i v i s i o n of Pure Chemistry handles b a s i c i n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n the. f i e l d s of p h y s i c a l and organic 34 D i v i s i o n of B u i l d i n g Research, N a t i o n a l Research C o u n c i l , Housing Standards, Ottawa: 195$. 35 D i v i s i o n of B u i l d i n g Research, N a t i o n a l Research C o u n c i l , Housing Standards, Ottawa: 1958, Explanatory Note. 114 chemistry. One of i t s t h i r t e e n s e c t i o n s f i n d s a small group i n t e r e s t e d i n the chemistry of f a t s and o i l s , w hile another i s engaged i n f i b r e research. (5) The D i v i s i o n of Mechanical Engineering concerns i t s e l f w ith c e r t a i n aspects of h y d r a u l i c and mechanic-a l engineering as w e l l as of naval a r c h i t e c t u r e . .With the St. Lawrence Seaway completed, harbour improvement studies are being conducted by t h i s D i v i s i o n on s e v e r a l p o r t s , as f o r ex-ample, S a i n t John and Port C a r t i e r . (6) The Di v i s i o n of Radio and E l e c t r i c a l Engin-eering has defence p r o j e c t s as one of i t s main concerns. How-ever, questions about e l e c t r o n i c s , r a d i o physics and e l e c t r i c -a l engineering a l s o l i e w i t h i n the ambit of i t s research. (7) The N a t i o n a l A e r o n a u t i c a l Establishment was e s t a b l i s h e d as a separate d i v i s i o n of N.R.C. as l a t e as January, 1959. In i t many branches of a e r o n a u t i c a l research are handled f o r purposes touching on defence and c i v i l i a n a v i a t i o n . (8) The D i v i s i o n of Applied Physics i s in v o l v e d c o n s t a n t l y on research problems d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to the growth of Canada. I t l a y s down b a s i c p h y s i c a l standards t h a t g r e a t l y a s s i s t i n d u s t r i a l undertakings. (9') The D i v i s i o n of Pure Physics a t t a c k s funda-115 mental problems i n t h e o r e t i c a l f i e l d s and by so a c t i n g i t opens man's mind to even wider p o s s i b i l i t i e s concerning f u t u r e progress i n the a p p l i e d f i e l d s . (10) The D i v i s i o n of Medical Research gives support to teaching h o s p i t a l s , and i t supports extra-mural research i n the medical schools. I t a l s o awards postgradu-ate f e l l o w s h i p s f o r the purpose of t r a i n i n g medical s c i e n t -i s t s i n the research f i e l d . Basic medical science.s are the c h i e f r e c i p i e n t s of such help. Experimental work i n pathology and surgery i s a l s o given a i d . The Two Regional I n s t i t u t i o n s (1) The A t l a n t i c Regional Laboratory, l o c a t e d i n H a l i f a x , Nova S c o t i a , c a r r i e s out b a s i c research that i s r e -l a t e d d i r e c t l y to the development of Maritime n a t u r a l r e -sources. For example : A chemical examination i s being made of an e x t r a c t of a red alga p l e n t i f u l i n some A t l a n t i c areas and which the United States now imports from Denmark f o r commercial use.36 (2) The P r a i r i e Regional Laboratory, l o c a t e d a t Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, s t u d i e s b i o l o g i c a l , engineering and chemical processes, aimed at t u r n i n g a g r i c u l t u r a l crops i n t o * 36 N a t i o n a l Research Council of Canada, Organization and  A c t i v i t i e s , Ottawa: 195$, p. 26. 116 i n d u s t r i a l raw m a t e r i a l s or commercial products: The Laboratory t h e r e f o r e works to a r r i v e at a greater understanding of the p l a n t s and micro-organisms- of the P r a i r i e r e g i o n . Crops and i n d u s t r i e s best s u i t e d to the i r r i g a t i o n acreage to be opened up by the South Saskatchewan R i v e r P r o j e c t are being reviewed.37 The D i v i s i o n of A d m i n i s t r a t i o n and Awards provide l a r g e sums of money i n the form of g r a n t s - i n - a i d of research, c h i e f l y to u n i v e r s i t i e s : The u n i v e r s i t y support programme began w i t h the establishment of the N a t i o n a l Research C o u n c i l i n the year 1917, and continued at a modest l e v e l up to and during World War I I . Commencing i n 1946, the programme.has shown an a c c e l e r a t i n g growth i n keeping w i t h i n c r e a s i n g enrolments a t the u n i v e r s i t i e s , and the r e s u l t i n g expansions of u n i v e r s i t y s t a f f and f a c i l i t i e s f o r research. The g r e a t e s t growth has taken place i n recent years. The t o t a l budget f o r the f i s c a l year 1958-59 i s almost 6.7 m i l l i o n d o l l a r s : f i v e years ago i t was 2.6 m i l l i o n . The types of u n i v e r s i t y support provided are described as: DIRECT, consisting- of research and t r a v e l grants f o r members of u n i v e r s i t y s t a f f s , and postgraduate s c h o l a r s h i p s f o r students; and INDIRECT, c o n s i s t i n g of c o n t r i b u t i o n s , grants and s u b s i d i e s to Canadian and i n t e r n a t i o n a l s c i e n t i f i c o r g a n i z a t i o n s and f u n c t i o n s , the p u b l i c a t i o n of Canadian Journals of Research, and the a d m i n i s t r -a t i v e expenses of the programme. The 1958-59 budget f o r DIRECT support i s $5,900,000, of which 84% provides f o r approximately 700 research grants of v a r y i n g types and amounts to members of u n i v e r s i t y s t a f f s . The remaining 16% provides f o r postgraduate s c h o l a r s h i p s awarded to more than 400 students; an a d d i t i o n a l l a r g e number of students r e c e i v e v a r y i n g degrees of 3 6 N a t i o n a l Research C o u n c i l of Canada, Organization and  A c t i v i t i e s , Ottawa: 1958, p. 26. 117 remuneration from research grants to members of u n i v e r s i t y s t a f f s . ...The. prime purpose of the programme i s to promote and encourage research at the u n i v e r s i t i e s . A major share of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r i t s d i r e c t i o n r e s t s w i t h u n i v e r s i t y personnel.3$ P r o v i n c i a l research c o u n c i l s , the Royal Soc i e t y of Canada, s p e c i a l a c t i v i t i e s and i n t e r n a t i o n a l a f f i l i a t i o n s are now r e c e i v i n g a s s i s t a n c e through g r a n t s - i n - a i d from the N.R.C. 2. Ce n t r a l Mortgage and Housing Corporation With World War I I drawing r a p i d l y to a c l o s e , the Canadian Government i n 1945 soon became i n v o l v e d i n the tremendous problems inherent i n post-war r e c o n s t r u c t i o n and development. I t s e x i s t i n g Housing Acts appeared to be i n -adequate to meet the challenge of the time. Consequently, i n order to give more meaning and e f f e c t i v e n e s s to those Acts, the Parliament passed the C e n t r a l Mortgage and Housing Cor-39 p o r a t i o n Act i n that same year. Through t h a t Act of P a r l i a -ment a Crown corporation named the C e n t r a l Mortgage and Housing Corporation was created. 3$ N a t i o n a l Research C o u n c i l of Canada, Report on Univers-i t y Support: 1958-59, Ottawa, N a t i o n a l Research C o u n c i l , November 1958, A b s t r a c t . 39 C e n t r a l Mortgage and Housing Corporation Act, R.S.C. 1945, c. 15, s. 1. 11$ Under the mandate of the newly created corporate en-t i t y , s e v e r a l i n t e r e s t i n g d u t i e s devolved upon i t , namely, to i n v e s t i g a t e housing c o n d i t i o n s , to sponsor t e c h n i c a l research i n housing matters, and to cause the d i s t r i b u t i o n of informa-t i o n l e a d i n g to the improvement of housing accommodation and the adoption of community plans. P a r t V of the N a t i o n a l Housing Act, e n t i t l e d Hous-in g Research and Community Planning, s t a t e s t h a t : 32. For the purpose of c a r r y i n g out i t s r e s -p o n s i b i l i t y under t h i s P a r t , the Corporation may cause (a) i n v e s t i g a t i o n s to be made i n t o housing c o n d i t i o n s and the adequacy of e x i s t i n g housing accommoda-t i o n i n Canada or i n any part of Canada and i n t o measures th a t may be taken f o r the improvement thereof; (b) s t u d i e s to be made of i n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n t o housing c o n d i t i o n s and housing accommodation made elsewhere than i n Canada and i n t o measures and plans or proposals taken or adopted or proposed elsewhere than i n Canada f o r the im-provement thereof; (d) plans and designs to be prepared f o r houses that have a low cost of c o n s t r u c t i o n and i n the opinion of the Corporation w i l l provide s u i t a b l e accommodation and arrangements to be made f o r the s a l e or d i s t r i b u t i o n of the plans and designs i n such manner as i t sees f i t ; (e) i n f o r m a t i o n to be prepared and d i s t r i b u t e d and p u b l i c l e c t u r e s to be d e l i v e r e d to promote an understanding of the a d v i s a b i l i t y of, and the p r i n c i p l e s u n d e r l y i n g l a n d , community and r e g i o n a l planning; ( f ) s t u d i e s to be made of land u t i l i z a t i o n and com-munity planning and arrangements to be made f o r the f u r n i s h i n g of informat i o n and advice w i t h 119 regard to the establishment of community-planning agencies, and the planning of r e g i o n -a l areas, communities and s u b - d i v i s i o n s , i n co-operation w i t h any l o c a l or other a u t h o r i t y having j u r i s d i c t i o n over community planning and land s u b d i v i s i o n s or otherwise w i t h a view to promoting c o - o r d i n a t i o n between l o c a l com-munity planning and the development of p u b l i c s e r v i c e s ; and (g) g e n e r a l l y such steps to be taken as i t may deem necessary or a d v i s a b l e to promote con-s t r u c t i o n of housing accommodation that i n i t s opinion i s sound and economical and to encour-age the development of b e t t e r housing and sound community planning.40 The f o l l o w i n g f a c t s r e v e a l that C.M.H.C. embarked on a program aimed at a c h i e v i n g those v a r i e d goals: Expenditures on housing research and community planning between 1946 and 1953 amounted to $3.5 m i l l i o n , about $0.9 m i l l i o n of which was spent outside the Corporation. Between 1954 and 1959 expenditures on t h i s work amounted to $4.4 m i l l i o n , w i t h $1.1 m i l l i o n f o r p r o j e c t s c a r r i e d out through arrangements made w i t h depart-ments or agencies outside the Corporation.41 The Corporation i s r e s p o n s i b l e to the M i n i s t e r of P u b l i c Works, and i s financed by funds from the Consolidated 40 N a t i o n a l Housing Act, 1954, s.c. 1953-54, Chapter 2 3 , as amended, s . 3 2 . 41 C e n t r a l Mortgage and Housing Corporation, Housing Re-search and Community Planning, i n f o r m a t i o n obtained from the B.C. Regional O f f i c e , C e n t r a l Mortgage and Housing Corpora-t i o n , Vancouver, August, I960, mimeographed. 1 2 0 Revenue Fund: The M i n i s t e r , at the request of the Corporation and w i t h the approval of the Governor i n C o u n c i l , may, from time to time out of unappropriated moneys i n the Con-s o l i d a t e d Revenue Fund, pay to the Corpora-t i o n an amount or amounts not exceeding a t o t a l amount of twenty-five m i l l i o n d o l l a r s , which s h a l l c o n s t i t u t e the c a p i t a l of the C o r p o r a t i o n . 4 2 Concerning the important f i e l d of community p l a n -ning and housing design, Part V of the N a t i o n a l Housing Act of 1954Z|'3 d i r e c t s C.M.H.C. t o : ...cause i n v e s t i g a t i o n s to be made i n t o hous-i n g c o n d i t i o n s and the adequacy of e x i s t i n g housing accommodation i n Canada or i n any p a r t of Canada and to cause steps to be taken f o r the d i s t r i b u t i o n of i n f o r m a t i o n l e a d i n g to the c o n s t r u c t i o n or p r o v i s i o n of more adequate and improved housing accommodation and the under-standing and adoption of community plans i n Canada. The c a r d i n a l examples under Pa r t V are f i r s t , the very s u b s t a n t i a l annual grants made to the Community Planning A s s o c i a t i o n of Canada (averaging $ 7 5 , 0 0 0 per y e a r ) , and sec-ond, the d i r e c t support given to formal education i n t h i s 4 2 C e n t r a l Mortgage and Housing Corporation Act, s.c. 1 9 4 5 , c. 1 5 , s. 1 7 . 4 3 N a t i o n a l Housing Act, R.S.C. 1 9 5 2 , c. l £ 8 , s. 3 4 . 121 f i e l d a t Canadian u n i v e r s i t i e s . A s s istance i s afforded f o u r Canadian u n i v e r s i t i e s i n which postgraduate courses are given i n community planning. The u n i v e r s i t i e s r e c e i v i n g such a i d are the U n i v e r s i t i e s of Toronto, M c G i l l , Manitoba and B r i t i s h Columbia. Beginning i n I960, a new grant was extended to one f o u r t h year student i n each of the schools of a r c h i t e c t u r e . (There are f i v e schools of a r c h i t e c t u r e i n Canada, f o u r at those u n i v e r s i t i e s already mentioned, and a f i f t h , l ' E c o l e des Beaux-Arts de Montreal.) This a s s i s t a n c e i s designed f o r e x c e p t i o n a l l y t a l e n t e d and i n t e r e s t e d undergraduates who wish to t r a v e l f o r a peri o d of up to s i x weeks through the United States and Canada i n order to examine housing p r o j e c t s . From the Annual Report of C.M.H.C. we read: A grant was aut h o r i z e d to provide t r a v e l l i n g f e l l o w -ships f o r a r c h i t e c t u r a l students i n t e n d i n g to spec-i a l i z e i n the design and c o n s t r u c t i o n of houses.44 Mr. L a r r y Doyle, a student at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, was able to take advantage of t h i s o f f e r during the summer months.of I960 . The remaining weeks of h i s summer v a c a t i o n were spent working i n the o f f i c e s of the B.C. Branch of C.M.H.C. In a d d i t i o n to these emoluments, Mr.Doyle 44 C e n t r a l Mortgage and Housing Corporation, Annual Report: 1959 (Ottawa: C e n t r a l Mortgage and Housing Corporation, I 960 ) , p. 26. 1 2 2 r e c e i v e d a C.M.H.C. sc h o l a r s h i p designed to help him complete h i s degree. Postgraduates r e c e i v e more s u b s t a n t i a l help. Under 4 5 the terms of Pa r t V of the N a t i o n a l Housing Act of 1954 C.M.H.C. o f f e r s both f e l l o w s h i p s and b u r s a r i e s to a s s i s t s u i t a b l y q u a l i f i e d persons w i t h t h e i r f u r t h e r s t u d i e s i n com-munity and r e g i o n a l planning, housing, and the r e l a t e d f i e l d s of urban a n a l y s i s and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . The .Planning Fellowships are to be awarded to com-petent students, t o t a l l i n g not more than f i f t e e n , who are p r e s e n t l y e n r o l l e d i n postgraduate s t u d i e s i n community p l a n -ning. Together w i t h these o p p o r t u n i t i e s , a l i m i t e d number of Bur s a r i e s i s a l s o a v a i l a b l e . These are designed to a s s i s t students to undertake postgraduate study i n the f i e l d s of housing and town and c i t y development other than by r e g i s t e r -i n g f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l courses i n planning. Each i s valued at eight'hundred d o l l a r s . A p p l i c a t i o n s are to be submitted to the D i r e c t o r of the Development D i v i s i o n of C.M.H.C. i n Ottawa. Beyond these a t t r a c t i v e o f f e r i n g s , Senior Fellow-ships are to be awarded to one or two persons having outstand-i n g q u a l i f i c a t i o n s to enable o r i g i n a l work of a high c a l i b r e 4 5 N a t i o n a l Housing Act, 1 9 5 4 , s.c. 1 9 5 3 - 5 4 , Chapter 2 3 , as amended. 1 2 3 to be conducted i n the area of housing design and management, or urban a n a l y s i s and development. A p p l i c a n t s i n t h i s case must be inte r v i e w e d by members of C.M.H.C.'s Advisory Group. Together w i t h these e f f o r t s , C.M.H.C. makes a v a i l -able to any Canadian u n i v e r s i t y p r e s e n t l y engaged i n g i v i n g postgraduate courses i n r e g i o n a l planning a modest teaching grant to one f u l l - t i m e f u l l y - q u a l i f i e d person. In the f i e l d of research, C.M.H.C. a v a i l s i t s e l f of the s e r v i c e s of the N a t i o n a l Research C o u n c i l . The Council has, i n f a c t , published d e t a i l e d b u i l d i n g s p e c i f i c a -t i o n s that are necessary i f sound c o n s t r u c t i o n i s to be achieved. As w e l l as t h i s , research on mortgage f i n a n c i n g i s a l s o engaged i n under S e c t i o n 2 6 of the Corporation's Act. C.M.H.C. a c t i v i t i e s a l s o i n c l u d e d a grant to the Ontario Research Foundation to continue research i n t o the development of a s e l f - c o n t a i n e d household sewage p u r i f i c a t i o n unit.45 Urban renewal Studies were organized under C.M.H.C.'s d i r e c t i o n . Concerning them we read: 4 5 . C e n t r a l Mortgage and Housing Corporation, Annual Report: 1 9 5 9 , Ottawa: C e n t r a l Mortgage and Housing Corporation, 1 9 6 0 , p. 2 6 . 124 Grants were made under the p r o v i s i o n s of the Act to ten m u n i c i p a l i t i e s to a s s i s t them i n c a r r y i n g out s t u d i e s to i d e n t i f y substandard areas and to formulate proposals f o r the s o l u t i o n of problems c o n t r i b u t i n g to b l i g h t . Sydney, St. John's, Montreal, Quebec, Sudbury, S a u l t Ste, M a r i e , Winnipeg, Dawson Creek, Vancouver and V i c t o r i a undertook urban renewal s t u d i e s i n 1 9 5 9 . ^ Three s t u d i e s d i r e c t e d towards urban redevelopment r e c e i v e d Federal grants. One of these was Toronto's t h i r d such study, l o c a t e d at Moss Park. H a l i f a x r e c e i v e d help f o r i t s second renewal plan, while Windsor was able to begin on i t s f i r s t such scheme. In i t s attempt to f i n d improvements i n the design of housing accommodation, the Corporation has d i r e c t e d i t s a t t e n t i o n towards the small s i n g l e - f a m i l y home. The b a s i c p r i n c i p l e s u n d e r l y i n g good d w e l l i n g design have a l s o been under constant study. E f f o r t s have been taken to obt a i n good house designs from the a r c h i t e c t u r a l p r o f e s s i o n , and v a r i o u s means have been employed to encourage the producers and con-sumers of new housing to recognize and choose the most e f f e c t -i v e designs. For s e v e r a l years now the Corporation has o f f e r e d f o r s a l e working drawings of small house designs which come up to 47 C e n t r a l Mortgage and Housing Corporation, Annual Report: 1959, Ottawa: C e n t r a l Mortgage and Housing Corporation, T9cO, p. 26. 1 2 5 the N.H.A. s p e c i f i c a t i o n s . These are s o l d i n sets of f o u r , f o r ten d o l l a r s a s e t . P e r i o d i c a l catalogues i l l u s t r a t i n g the a v a i l a b l e plans are a l s o p u b l i s h e d . The number of sets of working drawings s o l d has ranged from 6 , 5 0 0 to 1 2 , 3 0 0 i n a year.4 - 8 ) C.M.H.C. has r e c e n t l y placed more emphasis on pro-moting i n f o r m a l education. This i s expressed by the Corporation's Information O f f i c e r f o r the B.C. Region: ... I enclose a few notes showing the d i r e c t scope of C.M.H.C.Ts a c t i v i t i e s i n promoting ad u l t educa-t i o n i n the f i e l d s of community planning and hous-i n g . Much more important are the i n d i r e c t methods of education of a d u l t s through our informat i o n services.49 The Corporation now makes greater use of v i s u a l a i d s . The f i l m s t r i p , f l a s h card d i s p l a y s , records, and the e v e r w i l l i n g expert, a l l employed together, c o n s t i t u t e the most popular technique to teach community planning. A most comprehensive course on 'Housing' i s co-sponsored by C.M.H.C. and the Department of U n i v e r s i t y Ex-te n s i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. One or two experts 4 8 C e n t r a l Mortgage and Housing Corporation, Community Planning and Housing Design, two mimeographed sheets obtained from the B.C. Regional O f f i c e , C e n t r a l Mortgage and Housing Corporation, Vancouver, August, I 9 6 0 . 4 9 Personal Correspondence of the Author, l e t t e r from L.M. Skuce, Information O f f i c e r , B.C. Region, C e n t r a l Mort-gage and Housing Corporation, August 3 1 , I 9 6 0 . 126 from the Corporation p a r t i c i p a t e i n d e l i v e r i n g these l e c t u r e s , and i n answering the many questions t h a t a r i s e during the course. The course i s o u t l i n e d below: BUYING OR BUILDING YOUR HOME This course i s designed to meet the needs of people i n t e r e s t e d i n b u i l d i n g or buying a home. Experts i n matters of f i n a n c i n g , l e g a l aspects of home purchase, s i t e s e l e c t i o n , good design, a v a i l a b l e a r c h i t e c t u r a l s e r v i c e s , i n t e r i o r d e c o ration, c o n s t r u c t i o n and b u i l d i n g m a t e r i a l s w i l l a l l c o n t r i b u t e to t h i s course that w i l l provide i n v a l u a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n to a l l who are l o o k i n g forward to home ownership. Reference m a t e r i a l s w i l l be su p p l i e d by arrangement w i t h the C e n t r a l Mortgage and Housing Corporation, co-sponsors of the c o u r s e . 5 0 The manner i n which C.M.H.C. i s operated has been so p l e a s i n g to both the consumer and producer of house develop-ment p r o j e c t s t h a t : In 1959, f o r the f i r s t time, p u b l i c funds exceeded funds from approved lenders i n mort-gage loan commitments under the N a t i o n a l Housing Act • • • In terms of d w e l l i n g u n i t s , 58,082 were financed under the Act i n 1959. Of these, 7 7 2 were under J o i n t F e d e r a l - P r o v i n c i a l arrangements. Of the 5 7 , 3 1 0 dwellings financed by mortgage loans, 32,228" were w i t h p u b l i c funds and 25,082 by approved l e n d e r s . 5 1 C.M.H.C, i n keeping w i t h i t s r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s 50 Extension Department, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Evening Classes Session 19oQ-6l,Vancouver, I960, p. 20. 51 C e n t r a l Mortgage and Housing Corporation, Annual Report: 1959, Ottawa: C e n t r a l Mortgage and Housing Corporation, 1960, p. 17. 1 2 7 under the Housing Act, causes a wider p u b l i c understanding of sound community development by c h a n n e l l i n g i n f o r m a t i o n and f i n a n c i a l help to c e r t a i n v o l u n t a r y bodies. Chief among these are the-Canadian Housing Design C o u n c i l and the Community Planning A s s o c i a t i o n of Canada. The Canadian Housing Design C o u n c i l i s a v o l u n t a r y body, notwithstanding the f a c t that one of i t s C o u n c i l mem-bers i s the President of C.M.H.C. This C o u n c i l i s composed of p u b l i c - s p i r i t e d people from a l l parts of the country. I t i n c l u d e s persons connected w i t h business, a r c h i t e c t u r e and house b u i l d i n g , as w e l l as the Canadian consumer. Members al s o i n c l u d e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from the N a t i o n a l Council of Women, the Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n of Consumers, the N a t i o n a l House B u i l d e r s A s s o c i a t i o n , and the Royal A r c h i t e c t u r a l ' I n s t i t u t e of Canada. Through the a c t i v i t i e s of t h i s C o u n c i l , a s e r i e s of r e g i o n a l and n a t i o n a l awards f o r b u i l d e r s ' houses has been i n - ' i t i a t e d . I t s award-winning designs are e x h i b i t e d i n v a r i o u s p a r t s of the country, and l a t e r are published i n t e c h n i c a l and housing magazines. A program of post-war a r c h i t e c t u r e -designed housing i s p r e s e n t l y being developed across Canada. Under P a r t V of the N a t i o n a l Housing Ac p r o v i s i o n i s made 5 2 N a t i o n a l Housing Act, 1 9 5 4 , s.c. 1 9 5 3 - 5 4 , Chapter 2 3 , as amended. 128 f o r the support of the Canadian Design C o u n c i l . The p r i n c i p a l instrument used by C.M.H.C. to f u l f i l i t s r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i s the Community Planning A s s o c i a t i o n of Canada, an independently incorporated n a t i o n a l s o c i e t y of volu n t e e r s , which w i l l be-studied n e x t i n connection w i t h ' n a t i o n a l arrangements f o r cooperation w i t h v o l u n t a r y bodies'. In summation, the C e n t r a l Mortgage and Housing Cor-p o r a t i o n and the N a t i o n a l Research C o u n c i l are independent e n t i t i e s created by the F e d e r a l Government, and supported d i r e c t l y by Federal funds. Both support 'formal education f o r a d u l t s ' by con-t r i b u t i n g moneys d i r e c t l y from t h e i r funds: C e n t r a l Mortgage and Housing Corporation give b u r s a r i e s , s c h o l a r s h i p s and t r a v -e l l i n g f e l l o w s h i p s to students of Community Planning and House Design; the N a t i o n a l Research C o u n c i l gives s c h o l a r -ships and research grants to u n i v e r s i t i e s . C.M.H.C. a l s o f i n a n c e s housing research and urban.studies d i r e c t l y . Some moneys are channelled by C.M.H.C. through v o l u n t a r y bodies such as the Community Planning A s s o c i a t i o n of Canada and the Canadian Housing Design C o u n c i l f o r 'inform-a l education f o r a d u l t s ' i n community planning and good, housing design. 129 D. N a t i o n a l Arrangements f o r Cooperation w i t h Voluntary- Bodies 1• The Community Planning A s s o c i a t i o n of Canada A group of p u b l i c - s p i r i t e d c i t i z e n s , a c t i n g w i t h some Federal a s s i s t a n c e , formed the Community Planning A s s o c i a t i o n of Canada i n 1947. I t was e s t a b l i s h e d during the post-war b u i l d i n g 'boom', and was created to arouse p u b l i c i n t e r e s t and concern over problems a r i s i n g therefrom. Valuable farming land was being wasted by developers who were i g n o r a n t l y passing up e x c e l l e n t b u i l d i n g s i t e s t h a t were otherwise p r a c t i c a l l y u s e l e s s . C.P.A.C. r e a l i z e d f u r t h e r , t h a t i f town planners were to be used i n t e l l i g e n t l y , town c o u n c i l members and c i t i z e n s a l i k e must r e c e i v e general edu-c a t i o n i n the f i e l d of town planning and development. Long range planning on such matters had r a r e l y i f ever r e c e i v e d the a t t e n t i o n of Canadians before 1947. Now Canadians were to be taught t h a t town planning was j u s t good common sense. Moreover, a s u i t a b l e climate had to be created i n which the t r a i n e d p r o f e s s i o n a l could operate to h i s maximum e f f i c i e n c y . The C.P.A.C. was to become the p r i n c i p a l instrument f o r a c h i e v i n g these purposes: Apart from i n f o r m a t i o n provided d i r e c t l y by the Corporation to the o f f i c i a l , trade and pro-f e s s i o n a l groups w i t h whom i t dea l s , the Corpora-t i o n has a s t a t u t o r y r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r causing a wider p u b l i c understanding of sound community development. The p r i n c i p a l instrument f o r t h i s 130 i s an independently incorporated n a t i o n a l s o c i e t y of v o l u n t e e r s , the Community Planning A s s o c i a t i o n of Canada. This A s s o c i a t i o n conducts l o c a l a c t i v i t i e s aimed to s t i m u l a t e i n t e r e s t i n community development. I t produces n a t i o n a l p u b l i c a t i o n s which appear a few weeks apart i n both E n g l i s h and French. The annual grants to t h i s A s s o c i a t i o n under Part V of the NHA have i n recent years been of the order of $75,000; these are supplemented by grants from provinces and m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , and by the fees p a i d to the A s s o c i a t i o n by i n d i v i d u a l s anc c o r p o r a t i o n s . The heightened demand f o r competent planning personnel and the improvement i n the standard of community planning work being done are i n considerable measure a t t r i b u t a b l e to the a c t i v i t i e s of the Community Planning A s s o c i a t i o n . 53 Since i t s i n c e p t i o n C.P.A.C. recognized the need to u t i l i z e the s e r v i c e s of s k i l l e d and p r o f e s s i o n a l planners i f any headway was to be achieved i n the .highly s p e c i a l i z e d f i e l d of planning. To give support to those pursuing postgraduate s t u d i e s i n community planning at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l -umbia, C.P.A.C. was ins t r u m e n t a l i n g e t t i n g two l o c a l business f i r m s to provide moneys f o r three c o n t i n u i n g s c h o l a r s h i p s . One of these was given by the B.C. Telephone Company, L i m i t e d , w h i l e the remaining two came from the B.C. E l e c t r i c Company L i m i t e d . I t recognized, too, that i t had to a l e r t p u b l i c 53 C e n t r a l Mortgage and Housing Corporation, Housing Research and Community Planning, i n f o r m a t i o n obtained from the B.C. Region-a l O f f i c e , C e n t r a l Mortgage and Housing Corporation, Vancouver, August I960, mimeographed. 1 3 1 opinion concerning the need f o r more and b e t t e r community planning. To t h i s end planning was d i r e c t e d toward 'informal education' i n planning problems. The Vancouver Branch of C.P.A.C. has done many things to advance i t s cause. A booklet e n t i t l e d Community  P l a n n i n g ^ was published, and a copy of i t was sent r e g u l a r -l y to every e d i t o r , M.L.A., reeve, and c l e r k i n every muni-c i p a l i t y . Courses were organized on the l o c a l l e v e l . In 1954 an evening course was arranged through the Department of U n i v e r s i t y Extension at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, conti n u i n g from October u n t i l March. The next year i t was replaced by a one week's i n t e n s i v e course wherein key l e c t -u r e r s were obtained i n order to add to the value of each s e s s i o n . This p a r t i c u l a r type of course was so s u c c e s s f u l that i t has been continued ever s i n c e . F l y e r s of most a t t r a c t i v e design were widely c i r c u l a t e d to announce the course, and follow-up m a t e r i a l s were p r i n t e d . Some r e s u l t s included a s s i s t a n c e given K i t i m a t and other 'new town' devel-opments . Pr o f e s s o r Robinson conducts h i s own course on commun-i t y planning and r e l a t e d matters through the cooperation of 54 Community Planning A s s o c i a t i o n of Canada, Community P l a n -ning, Ottawa, Community Planning A s s o c i a t i o n of Canada, p e r i o d i c a l . 132 the Department of U n i v e r s i t y Extension and the Vancouver School Board. Conferences of v a r i e d length have been conducted i n the f o l l o w i n g manner: 1. Two and a h a l f day conferences A two and a h a l f day conference held t h i s year i n -d i c a t e s a popular type of community planning study. In t h i s case the press and r a d i o were' c a l l e d upon to catch up the idea and s p i r i t behind the agenda.. C.B.U.T.'s program "Suburban L i v i n g " gave i t greater meaning. Two hundred and eight people attended t h i s course. At the conclusion of the conference, many conference speeches were compiled, and l a t e r they were given wide c i r c u l a t i o n . (An e x c e l l e n t example of t h i s type of compilation was the one e n t i t l e d "The M e t r o p o l i -tan Planning Regional Conference,"55 which covered a c t i v i t i e s of the 1953 Conference of February 27th, which 108 people attended.) On October 2 and 3 of the same year, 206 people reg-i s t e r e d f o r the 6th Regional Conference, which was held i n conjunction w i t h the North West Chapter of the American I n s t i -55 B.C. Regional Branch O f f i c e , C.P.A.C, The M e t r o p o l i t a n Planning Regional Conference, Vancouver, 1953, mimeographed. 133 tute of Planners at the Stanley Park P a v i l i o n , Vancouver, B.C That two and a h a l f day conference produced a t y p i c a l agenda: a. Land Use C o n f l i c t i i n planning f o r r e c r e a t i o n - D.L. Macmurchie i i i n planning f o r i n d u s t r y - I r a M. Robinson i i i i n planning f o r a g r i c u l t u r e - Dr. J.L. Robinson i v i n planning f o r homes - R.W. C h r i s t i a n s o n b. Planning A d m i n i s t r a t i o n and the Planners - G. Sutton Brown c. Regional Planning i n the Lower Mainland of B.C. - J.W. Wilson d. Zoning i mixed r e s i d e n t i a l uses and d e n s i t i e s -• - Dr.. H.P. .Oberlander i i non-conforming uses - Jonathan Cunningham i i i shopping centres - Myer R. Wolfe e. New Town - K i t i m a t - C y r i l Henderson 56 2. One day up-country conferences The one day up-country conference i s becoming i n c r e a s i n g l y more popular. This year Kelowna and d i s t r i c t was bl a n k e t t e d w i t h f l y e r s , newspaper advertisements, and rad i o spots t e l l i n g of the coming conference. Then a mobile u n i t or team went from Vancouver to Kelowha. As many as 108 were i n attendance. A f l y e r e n t i t l e d "Conference Echoes"57 56 B.C. Regional Branch O f f i c e , C.P.A.C, 6th Regional Conference, Vancouver, 1953, mimeographed. 57 B.C. Regional Branch O f f i c e , C.P.A.C, Conference Echoe Vancouver, I960, mimeographed. 134 was given wide c i r c u l a t i o n a f t e r the conference concluded. This type of conference i s very popular. Another w i l l be held i n I960 on Vancouver I s l a n d , as w e l l as that a l -ready mentioned. Last year the conference h e l d i n T r a i l r e -ceived very favourable n o t i c e . , The A s s o c i a t i o n keeps a ready supply of a v a i l a b l e l i t e r a t u r e on hand f o r those who wish i t . Chief among these are How to Subdivide,58 a b a s i c manual on a l l aspects of good s u b d i v i s i o n ; A Case f o r S a t e l l i t e Towns;59 B i g C i t i e s Get-t i n g out of Hand?°0 a C i t i z e n s ' Forum pamphlet; Housing  and Urban Growth i n Canada,°1 a b r i e f to the Royal Commission on Canada's Economic Prospects; and P r i n c i p l e s of Small House  Gro u p i n g s . 0 2 C i t i z e n s , encouraged by the Community Planning 58 Community Planning A s s o c i a t i o n of Canada, How to Sub-d i v i d e , Ottawa, C.P.A.C, 1950. 59 Community Planning A s s o c i a t i o n of Canada, A C ase f o r S a t e l l i t e Towns, Ottawa, C.P.A.C, 1953. 60 Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n f o r Adult Education, B i g C i t i e s  G e t t i n g Out of Hand?, Toronto, C.A.A.E., 1958. 61 C e n t r a l Mortgage and Housing Corporation, Housing and  Urban Growth i n Canada, Ottawa, C.M.H.C, 1956. 62 C e n t r a l Mortgage and Housing Corporation, P r i n c i p l e s of  Small House Groupings, Ottawa, C.M.H.C, 1956. 135 A s s o c i a t i o n of Canada, are being exhorted to avoid unplanned development i n order t h a t they might not repeat the c o s t l y e r r o r s of yesterday. I n e v i t a b l y the number of c i t y d w e l l e r s i s bound t o increase as one C.P.A.C. brochure i n d i c a t e s : Every f i v e years, two m i l l i o n people are added to our urban population. ° 3 Along w i t h these tasks came the more d i f f i c u l t one of seeing to i t that a l l l e v e l s of government gave adequate support to the endeavours i n d i c a t e d through C.P.A.C. a c t i v i -t i e s . The C.P.A.C. has been i n s t r u m e n t a l , under the watch-f u l guidance of Pro f e s s o r I r a Robinson, i n h e l p i n g to form the Planning I n s t i t u t e of B r i t i s h Columbia, now i n i t s second year of operation. Along w i t h t h a t achievement, and through the i n s i s t e n c e of C.P.A.C. o f f i c i a l s and members, Vancouver C i t y H a l l was f i n a l l y induced to consider the establishment of a Planning Department. F i r s t a survey was conducted, and when a l l signs pointed to the wisdom of such a step, a Depart-ment was i n f a c t e s t a b l i s h e d . The Vancouver Branch of the C.P.A.C. a l s o i n i t i a t e d the Lower Mainland Regional Planning Board which i s i n i t s eleventh year of operation. 63 Community Planning A s s o c i a t i o n of Canada, C.P.A.C., Ottawa, C.P.A.C, I 9 6 0 , Pamphlet. 136 Through the e f f o r t s of C.P.A.C. the dangers of sprawl are brought to the a t t e n t i o n of municipal a u t h o r i t i e s . More favourable standards f o r s u b d i v i s i o n s and housing c o n s t r u c t i o n are e s t a b l i s h e d . Recreation areas, school and parks are pro-vided which r e l a t e more i n t e l l i g e n t l y to the areas i n which they are placed. Ugliness and waste are being replaced by beauty and economy. More e f f i c i e n t c i v i c a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i s the r e s u l t of C.P.A.C. a c t i v i t y , as we have seen i n the case of the Vancouver C i t y H a l l , which had no planning d i v i s i o n p r i o r to 1947. However, the A s s o c i a t i o n i s f u l l y aware th a t a great deal has yet to be accomplished. General education f o r a d u l t c i t i z e n s i s advanced by means of f i l m s , e x h i b i t s and a ready supply of i n f o r m a t i o n . Cooperation with agencies of the Federal Government i s noted i n the Comparisons Suburban L i v i n g s e r i e s of J u l y , I960. The s e r i e s was organized through the N a t i o n a l F i l m Board. In that i n s t a n c e the N.F.B. worked i n the c l o s e s t p o s s i b l e l i a i s o n w i t h the C.P.A.C. Because of t h i s f a c t i t i s now deemed advisable t h a t a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s e l e c t i o n of f i l m s should be mentioned i n order t h a t one can f e e l the organic i n t e r a c t i o n of governmental agencies at work w i t h v o l u n t a r y bodies. These i n c l u d e B u i l d i n g a Housed and 64 N a t i o n a l F i l m Board, B u i l d i n g a House, NFB, 8 mins, B&W, 1940. 1 3 7 6 5 6 6 The Challenge of Housing. Farm E l e c t r i f i c a t i o n e x plains Manitoba's r u r a l e l e c t t i f i c a t i o n p l a n . I t shows how com-munities organize to secure power under the area coverage p l a n . Extension of power l i n e s as w e l l as the w i r i n g of farm b u i l d i n g s are i l l u s t r a t e d . This f i l m ends by d i s p l a y i n g s e v e r a l uses to which power can be put on the farm. Farm  Homes B e a u t i f u l , prepared by the N.F.B. f o r the Federal Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , explained how b u i l d i n g methods could be streamlined through j i g assembly and o n - s i t e f a b r i c -a t i o n . Kitchen Come True^$ shows how an old-fashioned farm k i t c h e n may be renewed. P r a i r i e Homes^9 s t r e s s e s the im-portance of t r e e , shrub, and flower l a y o u t . Tale of Two  Ci t i e s ^ Q was produced by Crawley F i l m s L t d . , f o r C.M.H.C. I t described the 3 3 year o l d development plan that has been undertaken by S t r a t f o r d , Ontario. 6 $ N a t i o n a l F i l m Board, The Challenge of Housing, NFB, 1 0 mins. 6 6 N a t i o n a l F i l m Board, Farm E l e c t r i f i c a t i o n , , N F B , 2 2 mins. 6 7 N a t i o n a l F i l m Board, Farm Homes B e a u t i f u l , NFB, 2 2 mins. Colour, 1 9 4 7 . 68 N a t i o n a l F i l m Board, Kitchen Come True, NFB, 18 mins., B&W, 1 9 4 7 , Revised. 6 9 N a t i o n a l F i l m Board, P r a i r i e Homes, NFB, 2 2 mins., Colour, 1 9 4 7 . 7 0 Crawley Films L t d . , f o r C.M.H.C, Tale of Two C i t i e s , 2 5 mins., Colour, 1 9 4 7 . 138 C.P.A.C. i n i t i a t e d the l i n k w i t h the N.F.B. Then the Board sent out a key a d v i s o r from Montreal to show an assortment of important planning f i l m s . At t h i s j uncture the l o c a l C.P.A.C. a u t h o r i t i e s took the i n i t i a t i v e by s e t t i n g up a booth i n the main f o y e r of the C a p i t o l Theatre, and from i t d i s p l a y e d C.P.A.C. cards, and d i s t r i b u t e d i t s brochures. Other r e s u l t s of C.P.A.C. a c t i v i t i e s i n c l u d e the designing of a steel-A-frame upon which C.P.A.C. e x h i b i t s can be mounted. The e x h i b i t s are then given more meaning by us i n g photographs together w i t h appropriate records i n support of them. This assembly has been moved by 'caravan 1 r-to s e v e r a l places i n the i n t e r i o r of B r i t i s h Columbia. I t al s o has been used c o n s i s t e n t l y since 1947 when the C.P.A.C. was f o r t u n a t e l y able to e s t a b l i s h a booth, or part of one at l e a s t , at the P a c i f i c N a t i o n a l E x h i b i t i o n i n Vancouver. The r o l e played by t h i s voluntary body c o n t r i b u t e s d i r e c t l y to i n c r e a s i n g p u b l i c awareness of community problems. By advancing sound ideas, C.P.A.C. has encouraged c i t i z e n s to thi n k c l e a r l y and s e r i o u s l y about community planning. 2. The Canadian C i t i z e n s h i p C o u n c i l At the 20th Annual Meeting of the Canadian C i t i z e n -ship C o u n c i l held i n Ottawa on May 17th, I960, i t s P r e s i d e n t had t h i s to say; 139 Most of us here w i l l remember those dark days of 1940. I t was a time of u n c e r t a i n t y . The r e -ports from the war f r o n t were disco u r a g i n g , i f not ominous. And every e f f o r t , ... was being made to b r i n g every Canadian f u l l y behind the war e f f o r t . Much of t h i s ... was i n the form of propaganda against the enemy .... Save f o r an o c c a s i o n a l men-t i o n of making a brave new s o c i e t y f i t f o r heroes, very l i t t l e emphasis was placed.on the values i n our s o c i e t y , our way of l i f e , the things which we were f i g h t i n g f o r . This s i n g l e - t r a c k e d emphasis.... d i d provide considerable concern to a number of educators and other t h o u g h t f u l c i t i z e n s . "What" they asked, "... What i s a l l t h i s going to do to the concepts, the sense of values of our c i t i z e n s , and p a r t i c u l a r l y of our young people."71 In order to f i n d an answer to these questions, a n a t i o n a l conference was c a l l e d under the j o i n t sponsorship and chairmanship of the M i n i s t e r s of Education of Ontario and New Brunswick. From t h i s Ottawa conference developed an or-g a n i z a t i o n dedicated to the task of promoting c i t i z e n s h i p i n Canada. The newly created o r g a n i z a t i o n was named the Canadian C o u n c i l on Education f o r C i t i z e n s h i p . With the pass-i n g of time i t changed to the Canadian C i t i z e n s h i p C o u n c i l . A l e t t e r from i t s newly-appointed Executive-D i r e c t o r s t a t e s : ... our primary purpose i s i n the f i e l d of informa-t i o n about c i t i z e n s h i p to people i n key c i t i z e n -71 Gordon Henderson, Q.C., Report of the President of the Canadian C i t i z e n s h i p C o u n c i l to the 20th Annual Meeting i n Ottawa, Ottawa, The Canadian C i t i z e n s h i p C o u n c i l , i960, p. 1. mimeographed. 140 ship education roles.72 The remarks on the i n s i d e cover of the 19th Annual  Report serve as a statement of purpose: The Canadian C i t i z e n s h i p Council i s the meeting place of c i t i z e n s and c i t i z e n s - t o - b e i n t e r e s t e d i n the healthy growth of r e s p o n s i b l e c i t i z e n s h i p i n Canada. A n a t i o n a l non-governmental a s s o c i a t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l s , o r g a n i z a t i o n s and government agencies, i t s p o l i c y and program are determined by i t s members, and o v e r - a l l d i r e c t i o n i s given by a Board of D i r e c t o r s e l e c t e d annually. A small permanent s t a f f operates out of Ottawa. I t i s the only n a t i o n a l v o l u n t a r y body "working 'round the c l o c k ' " i n the important areas of c i t i z e n s h i p and immigration.73 The people i n key c i t i z e n s h i p education r o l e s , a l -ready mentioned, form a small N a t i o n a l C o n s u l t a t i v e Corps of eighty c i t i z e n s . They come from a l l p a r t s of Canada, and form one agency through which the C o u n c i l a r t i c u l a t e s i t s program. The Corps gives e x c e l l e n t s e r v i c e to t h i s cause: So- u s e f u l has t h i s Corps proven to be i n a l e r t i n g our N a t i o n a l O f f i c e of developments a f f e c t i n g c i t i -zenship, i n gath e r i n g important i n f o r m a t i o n from time to time, i n a d v i s i n g Board and S t a f f on a var-i e t y of matters, and, on occasion r e p r e s e n t i n g the Council at events where we would not otherwise be so represented, that i t has been decided to add to 73 Gordon F.. Henderson, Q.C., A Sense of Urgency and The  Time-Sense of a G e o l o g i s t , 19th Annual Report of the Canadian C i t i z e n s h i p C o u n c i l : 1959, Ottawa, Canadian C i t i z e n -ship C o u n c i l , 1959, i n s i d e f r o n t cover. 141 the numbers i n t h i s Corps s u b s t a n t i a l l y . For over twelve years now Mr. John Kidd has been the E x e c u t i v e - D i r e c t o r of the Canadian C i t i z e n s h i p C o u n c i l . Largely through h i s e f f o r t s the Cou n c i l has continued to ex-pand i t s range of a c t i v i t i e s i n the f i e l d of 'informal educa-t i o n f o r a d u l t s ' . I n May 1959, the C o u n c i l : ... d i s t r i b u t e d n e a r l y 18,000 pieces of promotion-a l m a t e r i a l . Since then a mutual agreement has been worked out wit h the Canadian C i t i z e n s h i p Branch by which they have undertaken the production of the m a t e r i a l . 7 5 In t h a t same year the Council brought out a c i t i z e n -ship f i l m program handbook which re c e i v e d the expert tech-n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e of the s t a f f members of the Canadian F i l m I n s t i t u t e , as w e l l as a grant from the Canadian C i t i z e n s h i p Branch to cover p r i n t i n g c o s t s . A p u b l i c a t i o n e n t i t l e d C i t i z e n s h i p Items? 0 focusses a t t e n t i o n on the wide v a r i e t y of a c t i v i t i e s promoted to develop c i t i z e n s h i p across Canada. 74 Gordon F. Henderson, Q.C., A Sense of Urgency and The  Time-Sense of a Geol o g i s t , 19th Annual Report of the Canadian C i t i z e n s h i p C o u n c i l : 1959, Ottawa, Canadian C i t i z e n s h i p C o u n c i l , 1959, p. 6. 75 I b i d . , p. 9 . 76 Canadian C i t i z e n s h i p C o u n c i l , C i t i z e n s h i p Items, Ottawa, "Le D r o i t " P r i n t e r s , p e r i o d i c a l . 142 Mr. Kidd prepared a very comprehensive booklet of 69 pages e n t i t l e d New Roots i n Canadian Soil.77 i t r e -f l e c t s the s p i r i t of cooperative e n t e r p r i s e t h a t i s i n v o l v e d i n matters p e r t a i n i n g to c i t i z e n s h i p . F l y e r s such as Canadian C i t i z e n s h i p Counci and A Hundred Thousand ... i n have a l s o been p r i n t e d and then widely d i s t r i b u t e d across the country. On Canadian C i t i z e n s h i p Day the C o u n c i l has promoted appropriate ceremonies i n every province. I t s members have given f r e e l y of t h e i r time with, regard to c o u n s e l l i n g and help. This present year w i l l see the completion of a sur-vey of l o c a l C i t i z e n s h i p C o u n c i l s . This year, too, saw the Canadian C i t i z e n s h i p C o u n c i l a s s i s t i n a two-week r e s i d e n t i a l seminar on Canada f o r American business executives held at Goddard College, Vermont. The Council took the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r g e t t i n g the speakers and l e a d e r s , making the arrangements, and preparing the complete program. 77 John P. Kidd, New Roots i n Canadian S o i l , Ottawa, Canadian C i t i z e n s h i p C o u n c i l . 78 Canadian C i t i z e n s h i p C o u n c i l , Ottawa, Canadian C i t i z e n -ship C o u n c i l , f l y e r . 79 Canadian C i t i z e n s h i p C o u n c i l , A Hundred Thousand ...  i n '58, Ottawa, Canadian C i t i z e n s h i p C o u n c i l , f l y e r . 143 The Council has helped the U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto as w e l l as other o r g a n i z a t i o n s on the problems and p o t e n t i a l -i t i e s of edu c a t i o n a l t e l e v i s i o n . I t s s t a f f members t r a v e l l e d over e i g h t thousand miles to counsel i n twenty communities i n 1959. An example of the type of c o u n s e l l i n g given i s recorded i n the Executive D i r e c t o r ' s l e t t e r of August 18, I960: For example r e c e n t l y F r o n t i e r College has been co n s i d e r i n g an experimental program of a d u l t education i n i s o l a t e d camp s e t t i n g s across Canada. In a recent session I sat i n and p a r t i c i p a t e d i n a d i s c u s s i o n about the nature of the courses to be undertaken and I suspect that t h i s might be considered a c o n s u l t a t i v e role.^O That same year the s t a f f r e c e i v e d and answered over f i f t y requests per week, and f o l l o w e d those up by d i s t r i b u t -i n g over n i n e t y - f i v e thousand items of c i t i z e n s h i p m a t e r i a l . One of the Canadian C i t i z e n s h i p Council's most im-portant tasks during the past f o u r years has been to arouse i n -t e r e s t and help i n l a y i n g plans f o r the Canadian c e n t e n n i a l of 1967. In support of t h i s o b j e c t i v e , i t has now placed i n c i r c u l a t i o n a f l y e r e n t i t l e d Towards Nineteen Sixty-Seven 81 100. Working i n conjunction w i t h the Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n 80 Personal Correspondence of the Author, l e t t e r from Alan C l a r k e , Executive D i r e c t o r , Canadian C i t i z e n s h i p C o u n c i l , Ottawa, August 18, I960. 81 Canadian C i t i z e n s h i p C o u n c i l , Towards Nineteen S i x t y -Seven 100, Ottawa, Canadian C i t i z e n s h i p C o u n c i l , f l y e r . 1 4 4 f o r Adult Education, the Cou n c i l has c a l l e d three 'Planning Ahead For Canada's Centenary' conferences. The C o u n c i l ' s a c t i v i t i e s are supported by funds from many quarters: from business co r p o r a t i o n s , 65$, from i n d i v i d -u a l s and o r g a n i z a t i o n s , 22%, from government, 8%, and from other u n s p e c i f i e d donors, 5%. The money so r a i s e d i s spent i n the f o l l o w i n g manner: f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l and t e c h n i c a l ser-v i c e s , 4 0 $ ; f o r i n f o r m a t i o n and p u b l i c a t i o n , 3 0 $ ; f o r r e -search, conferences and planning, 18%; and f o r o f f i c e and overhead, 12$. Here i t i s important to observe that at l e a s t n i n e t y - e i g h t per cent of the Canadian C i t i z e n s h i p Council's s e r v i c e s and m a t e r i a l s are provided as a f r e e s e r v i c e to those of the general p u b l i c who wish to a v a i l themselves of i t . On the t o p i c of Federal f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e to the C o u n c i l , i t s Executive D i r e c t o r had t h i s to say on August 18, I960: In answer to your question about whether the Federal Government r e g u l a r l y s u b s i d i z e s the Co u n c i l , I would answer yes i n terms of s p e c i f i c p r o j e c t s have ranged from $700 to $2,500 annually, f o r example the amount t h i s year i s $1,500. We make our submissions each summer f o r the f o l l o w i n g f i s c a l year. Most of the p r o j e c t s we r e c e i v e grants f o r are p u b l i c a t i o n s and I have i n c l u d e d "New Roots i n Canadian S o i l " , one of our most recent p u b l i c a -t i o n s . 2 82 Personal Correspondence of the Author, l e t t e r from Alan C l a r k e , Executive D i r e c t o r , Canadian C i t i z e n s h i p C o u n c i l , Ottawa, August 18, I960. 145 On January 1 s t , 1957, the C.B.C, at the request of the C o u n c i l , put on a s p e c i a l broadcast to recognize the Tenth Anniversary of the coming i n t o f o r c e of the Canadian C i t i z e n s h i p Act. The C.B.C a l s o under the advice and c o u n s e l l i n g of the Canadian C i t i z e n s h i p C o u n c i l , ran a d a i l y five-minute'broadcast over the ^rans-Canada Network. This broadcast t o l d Canadians what was going on i n t h e i r n a t i o n a l c a p i t a l from day t o day. These examples serve to i l l u s t r a t e the cooperative arrangements worked out' by Federal and vo l u n t a r y agencies i n the cause of Canadianism. However, a l l was not pure gain. Some setbacks were bound to occur as we s h a l l see as we consider some of P r e s i d e n t Gordon Henderson's remarks which were d e l i v e r e d at the Seventeenth Annual Meeting of the Canadian C i t i z e n s h i p C o uncil on May 16th, 1957: These then are some of our accomplishments. What then are some of the t h i n g s t h a t we d i d n ' t accomplish, f o r i n my view an Annual Report should contain some mention, however b r i e f , of them. We were not s u c c e s s f u l i n persuading the Federal Government to hold a s p e c i a l ceremony or Court Session January 1st l a s t i n commemoration of the Tenth Anniversary of the coming i n t o f o r c e of the Canadian C i t i z e n s h i p Act. Nor were we suc-c e s s f u l i n persuading the Canadian Government to i n s t i t u t e a s p e c i a l N a t i o n a l Observance through a Ceremony on Parliament H i l l of Canadian C i t i z e n -ship Day, although both these requests were sym-p a t h e t i c a l l y r e c e i v e d ... We were not s u c c e s s f u l i n f i n d i n g a way of o r g a n i z i n g low-priced tours to the Nation's C a p i t a l f o r young people, but we w i l l continue to explore ways of doing t h i s during the coming year. We were not s u c c e s s f u l i n work-i n g out ways by which the ethn i c groups and 146 s o c i e t i e s i n Canada could come together i n a Nat i o n a l Conference to deal w i t h t h e i r common problems, but the groundwork that has been done on t h i s i n the past year suggests that such a conference may w e l l become a r e a l i t y during the next year. 8 3 From i t s humble and modest o r i g i n s the Canadian C i t i z e n s h i p C o u n c i l has developed powerful support f o r that which i s Canadian. C a t a l y t i c a l l y , i t acts to quicken t h i n k -i n g about c i t i z e n s h i p matters. I t has continuously cross-f e r t i l i z e d and stimulated such high-purposed a c t i o n s and thought. The Community Planning A s s o c i a t i o n of Canada and the Canadian C i t i z e n s h i p C o u n c i l , then, are both v o l u n t a r y bodies engaged i n 'education f o r a d u l t s ' . F i n a n c i a l l y , the C.P.A.C. i s more favoured as i t r e c e i v e s a s u b s t a n t i a l annual grant of #75,000 from C.M.H.C, a corp o r a t i o n of the Federal Government, plus grants from provinces and m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , and fees from i t s own members. The Canadian C i t i z e n s h i p C o u n c i l r e c e i v e s no guaranteed Federal support, but rec e i v e s v a r i e d amounts annually f o r s p e c i f i c p r o j e c t s , c h i e f l y pub-l i c a t i o n s . Federal grants from the C i t i z e n s h i p Branch, Department of C i t i z e n s h i p and Immigration, during the past two 8 3 Gordon F. Henderson, Report of President Gordon F. Henderson to the Seventeenth Annual Meeting of the Canadian Citizenship Council, May 16th, 1957, Ottawa, Canadian C i t i z e n -ship Council, 1957, p. 5, mimeographed. 147 years ranged from $700 to $2,500 annually, only 8% of the Council's t o t a l budget. The remainder was made up of c o n t r i -butions from business corporations, o r g a n i z a t i o n s and i n d i v i d u -a l s . From the examples given of v a r y i n g methods of Federal f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e some appear more valuable than others. The most i d e a l way of f i n a n c i n g 'education f o r a d u l t s ' seems to be through a u n i t e d demand and support from i n d i v i d u -a l s , o r g a n i z a t i o n s , and governments on m u n i c i p a l , p r o v i n c i a l and f e d e r a l l e v e l s . The example of the Community Planning A s s o c i a t i o n of Canada appears to come c l o s e s t to t h i s i d e a l because i t has been s u c c e s s f u l i n o b t a i n i n g the a c t i v e sup-port of i n d i v i d u a l s , o r g a n i z a t i o n s , and governments on a l l l e v e l s . The operating expenses of such volu n t a r y bodies should r e c e i v e l a r g e and s u b s t a n t i a l c o n t r i b u t i o n s r e g u l a r l y from the Federal Government when t h e i r importance i s i l l u s -t r a t e d by wide and popular demands s e r i o u s l y addressed to p u b l i c betterment. The expert s e r v i c e s of t h e i r t r a i n e d per-sonnel could then be concentrated on g i v i n g e f f e c t to the ex-pressed purposes of the A s s o c i a t i o n i n s t e a d of being expended i n a search f o r funds. The co-operative arrangements between Federal and P r o v i n c i a l governments, promote sound t e c h n i c a l and v o c a t i o n a l programs. Because c o n t r i b u t i o n s come from both governments concerned, widespread d i s c u s s i o n i s r e q u i r e d before proceeding 148 w i t h any scheme. The Council which approves P r o v i n c i a l pro-j e c t s i s composed of a f a i r l y wide sampling of r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from Federal and P r o v i n c i a l governments and p u b l i c organiza-t i o n s . This exchange of ideas n a t u r a l l y should l e a d toward the development of n a t i o n a l norms. Although there i s a trend to provide e q u a l i t y of opportunity across Canada, a weakness i s t h a t the w e a l t h i e r provinces may take b e t t e r advantage of schemes organized on a 50/50 share b a s i s . In the case of h e a l t h , Federal help i s only ex-tended upon the i n d i v i d u a l request of the province concerned. This u n i l a t e r a l outlook and approach tends to depress f u l l development. I t l a c k s a w e l l - i n t e g r a t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e c o u n c i l f o r the purpose of exchanging ideas. The trend towards b e t t e r n a t i o n a l standards and e q u a l i t y of opportunity across Canada i s confirmed by the a c t i v i t i e s of the N a t i o n a l Research Council and the C e n t r a l Mortgage and Housing Corporation. By o r g a n i z i n g a separate e n t i t y such as N.R.C. and by ensuring t h a t i t s operations are c o n t r o l l e d by a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s e l e c t i o n of w e l l - t r a i n e d spec-i a l i s t s , the Federal Government i s able to a l l o t very l a r g e sums of money to schol a r s f o r the purpose of promoting r e -search without being accused of u n f a i r n e s s . For such a h i g h l y s p e c i a l i z e d task, t h i s i s an admirable way t o dispense Federal funds. These agencies of the Federal Government are f r e e from the charge t h a t they r e f l e c t the p o l i c y of any 149 s i n g l e p o l i t i c a l p a rty. For the purposes f o r which i t was designed, C.M.H.C.'s method of g i v i n g f i n a n c i a l support to vo l u n t a r y bodies has been c r i t i c i z e d because those bodies obtain no guarantee t h a t t h e i r annual grants w i l l not decrease. Con-sequently, planning on more than an annual b a s i s i s impossible. There e x i s t s an assumption t h a t v o l u n t a r y bodies ought to r a i s e , at l e a s t , some of t h e i r own moneys. This has been recognized i n the p o l i c i e s f o l l o w e d by United States foundations. I f the p r o j e c t doesn't succeed i n some s e l f -f i n a n c i n g , the grant lapses a f t e r a reasonable time. In Canada the C.A.A.E. has continued i n existence because of i t s s e l f - f i n a n c i n g measures, while C.P.A.C. on the other hand has not been as capable i n that respect. Yet, p a r a d o x i c a l l y enough, i t i s the C.P.A.C. that obtains a $75,000 annual Federal grant while the C.A.A.E. obtains only token a s s i s t a n c e from Ottawa. The general t o p i c of j u s t how government, business and volunteers can best make t h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n s to such worthy endeavours deserves the widest p o s s i b l e c o n s i d e r a t i o n . CHAPTER IV T W O I L L U S T R A T I V E E X A M P L E S "Our aim," wrote R.H. Tawney i n 1 9 1 9 , n i s to make higher education as u n i v e r s a l as c i t i z e n -s hip, because one of the c o n d i t i o n s of good c i t i z e n s h i p i s higher education. That purpose i s not the l e s s s i g n i f i c a n t because i t i s r e a l i z e d only on the most humble s c a l e at present". Although formal education i s p r i m a r i l y a p r o v i n c i a l matter, the B.N.A. Act has made p r o v i s i o n f o r Federal p a r t i -c i p a t i o n i n areas of education which are of n a t i o n a l concern. The Report of the N a t i o n a l Conference of Canadian U n i v e r s i t i e s  on Post-War Problems st a t e s t h a t : The B r i t i s h North America Act removes from the j u r i s d i c t i o n of the provinces "such works as ... are ... declared by the Parliament of Canada to be f o r the general advantage of Canada or f o r the advantage of two or more of the pro v i n c e s . " Under t h i s a u t h o r i z a t i o n the Government has engaged i n a great v a r i e t y of educational a c t i v i t y . 1 Two prime examples of d i r e c t Federal involvement i n formal ed-uc a t i o n are the Technical and V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g Programs and the U n i v e r s i t y Grants System. Each of these w i l l be s t u d i e d i n d e t a i l i n order to determine the extent of Federal c o n t r i b u t i o n s to formal education f o r a d u l t s . A. Technical and V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g Programs The Federal Government i n 1910 took the i n i t i a t i v e by appointing a Royal Commission to study the needs and equip-1 Report of the N a t i o n a l Conference of Canadian U n i v e r s i - t i e s on Post-War Problems, adopted at the meeting held at MeMaster U n i v e r s i t y , Hamilton, June 13, 1944, U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto Press, 1944, p. 3$. 150 151 ment of the country i n t e c h n i c a l education and i n d u s t r i a l t r a i n i n g : ... i t i n v e s t i g a t e d p r a c t i c e i n Great B r i t a i n , France, Germany, the United S t a t e s , and other c o u n t r i e s . I t made f a r - r e a c h i n g recommenda-t i o n s and proposed grants to the provinces to fina n c e the programme. The Commission a l s o recommended "that ex-i s t i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s of c o l l e g e rank should r e -ceive whatever a d d i t i o n a l f i n a n c i a l support may be necessary to enable them to f i l l t h e i r place i n a n a t i o n a l system of i n d u s t r i a l t r a i n -i n g and t e c h n i c a l education." I t wished such support to provide against the a l t e r n a t i v e of "fees so high as to exclude s u i t a b l e young persons who may seek the highest grades of t e c h n i c a l i n s t r u c t i o n . " 2 World War I intervened, but f i n a l l y : ... i n 1 9 1 9 the Technical Education Act was passed f o r the purpose of f u r t h e r i n g t e c h n i c a l , v o c a t i o n a l , or i n d u s t r i a l education. Grants were made to each province f o r a ten-year per-i o d , w i t h permission to use the money to devel-op whatever system was already i n exist e n c e . The t o t a l sum thus spent was $ 9 , 6 9 7 , 6 6 0 . 3 F u l f i l l i n g the purposes of the preceding Act, the Vo c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g Co-ordination Act of 1 9 4 2 now provides the 2 Report of the Na t i o n a l Conference of Canadian U n i v e r s i t i e s  on Post-War Problems, adopted at the meeting held at McMaster U n i v e r s i t y , Hamilton, June 1 3 , 1 9 4 4 , U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto Press, 1 9 4 4 , p . 3 8 . 3 I b i d . , p. 3 4 . i-52 a u t h o r i t y f o r v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g . Under the Act, as pre-v i o u s l y mentioned, v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g i s financed on a 50/50 F e d e r a l - P r o v i n c i a l b a s i s , and i s administered by a s p e c i a l n a t i o n a l l y - r e p r e s e n t e d C o u n c i l . F i r s t , an example w i l l be given of one i n s t i t u t i o n p r e s e n t l y operative under the Act. Second, p r o j e c t s admin-i s t e r e d under the S p e c i a l V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g P r o j e c t s Agree-ment w i l l be described. T h i r d , observations concerning those schedules made by members of the V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g Advisory C o u n c i l w i l l be presented. 1. The B r i t i s h Columbia V o c a t i o n a l School-Burnaby. This j o i n t l y - o p e r a t e d p r o j e c t of the Federal Govern-ment of Canada and the P r o v i n c i a l Government of B r i t i s h Columbia o u t l i n e s i t s main purpose i n i t s 'Prospectus': ... the-school i s p r i m a r i l y concerned w i t h the development of s k i l l s and t e c h n i c a l background of i n t e l l i g e n t young men capable of f i l l i n g the needs of i n d u s t r y i n the B r i t i s h Columbia area.^" Labour and management r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s s i t with 4 Department of Education, B r i t i s h Columbia V o c a t i o n a l  School - Burnaby, V i c t o r i a , Queen's P r i n t e r , 1959, p. 1 l-5>3 t e c h n i c a l experts on Advisory Committees. The experts are included i n order to ensure the maintenance of t r a i n i n g standards which are acceptable to i n d u s t r y . The Federal Department of Labour's Apprenticeship Branch sponsors an extensive program of t r a i n i n g f o r appren-t i c e s and pre-indentured apprentices. From the Prospectus: Apprentices i n the Vancouver Area, i n -dentured i n many trades, attend evening c l a s s e s at the School and i n a d d i t i o n many hundreds of Apprentices are brought i n from o u t l y i n g areas f o r short concentrated periods of i n s t r u c t i o n . 5 A l l a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r admission must be made to the D i r e c t o r of Apprenticeship. Those accepted are then afforded an opportunity to r e c e i v e c o u n s e l l i n g r e l a t e d to t r a i n i n g problems from the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t a f f at the School. O f f e r s to a s s i s t the students i n l a t e r job-placements are also ex-tended by the School, although no guarantees are made. The term runs from September to March, and each candidate i s expected to pay f i f t e e n d o l l a r s a month i n most cases. The promise of awarding c e r t i f i c a t e s f o r each course s u c c e s s f u l l y completed i s a l s o extended to those e n r o l l i n g . 5 Department of Education, B r i t i s h Columbia V o c a t i o n a l  School - Burnaby, V i c t o r i a , Queen's P r i n t e r , 1959, p . l . 154 Groups towards which t h i s program i s d i r e c t e d are: 1. Students who have or w i l l have completed t h e i r High School education and wish to take short i n -t e n s i v e courses i n the s k i l l e d t r a d e s . 2. Students who have l e f t the r e g u l a r P u b l i c and High School educational system p r i o r to gradu-a t i o n and d e s i r e s p e c i a l i z e d v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g . 3. Those who d e s i r e f u r t h e r t r a i n i n g f o r up grading i n t h e i r own p a r t i c u l a r occupation. 4. Those who due to d i s a b i l i t y or d e s i r e f o r change from t h e i r present occupations wish to r e h a b i l i t a t e themselves i n some new l i n e of endeavour. 5. New Canadians who need to f a m i l i a r i z e themselves with our l o c a l job customs, c o n d i t i o n s , methods and requirements p r i o r to seeking employment." Emphatic emphasis i s placed on the f a c t t h a t ' I t i s not.the i n t e n t of those o f f e r i n g these - courses to a t t r a c t students away from t h e i r present High School programmes'.''7 B a s i c p r e r e q u i s i t e s f o r admission i n c l u d e a minimum age of s i x t e e n . This requirement n i c e l y b r i n g s those i n -volved w i t h i n the d e f i n i t i o n of 'adult' f o r the purposes of t h i s study. Those e n r o l l i n g are a l s o expected to have completed at l e a s t Grade X as t h e i r b a s i c general education, although t h i s requirement may be waived where: ... i n d i v i d u a l s possess compensating q u a l i t i e s of c i t i z e n s h i p , good working h a b i t s , m a t u r i t y , 7 Department of Education, B r i t i s h Columbia V o c a t i o n a l School - Burnaby, V i c t o r i a , Queen's P r i n t e r , 1959, p. 3. 1 5 5 i n t e r e s t s and i n t e l l i g e n c e which outweigh the b a s i c educational requirements. ° Under the Pre-Indentured Apprenticeship P l a n , f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e i s a u t o m a t i c a l l y given to those p a r t i -c i p a t i n g , w h i l e those t a k i n g the Pre-Employment or Up grad-i n g plans w i l l only be s i m i l a r l y a s s i s t e d where proof of need can be e s t a b l i s h e d . This they would have to e s t a b l i s h by-way of w r i t t e n a p p l i c a t i o n to t h e i r l o c a l N a t i o n a l Employ-ment Ser v i c e O f f i c e . A l l such a p p l i c a t i o n s must then be r e g i s t e r e d at that O f f i c e . The Burnaby V o c a t i o n a l School's 'Prospectus'9 gives the f o l l o w i n g p e r t i n e n t data concerning course o f f e r -ings : Course Aeronautics Auto Mechanics Boat B u i l d i n g B r i c k l a y i n g P r e r e q u i s i t e s Grade X I I plus Math 9 1 & Physics 9 1 and colour v i s i o n Grade X minimum i s d e s i r e d Grade X minimum i s d e s i r e d Grade X minimum i s d e s i r e d Duration 2 years 6 months 6 months 6 months 8 Department of Education, B r i t i s h Columbia V o c a t i o n a l  School - Burnaby, V i c t o r i a , Queen's P r i n t e r , 1 9 5 9 , P - 3 . 9 Department of Education, B r i t i s h Columbia V o c a t i o n a l  School - Burnaby, V i c t o r i a , Queen's P r i n t e r , 1 9 5 9 , p. Course Carpentry-E l e c t r i c a l E l e c t r o n i c s Heavy Duty Mechanics La t h i n g M i l l w o r k & J o i n e r y Plumbing & S t e a m f i t t i n g Sheet Metal S t r u c t u r a l S t e e l E r e c t i o n Welding - General Welding Up grading Welding Tests 156 P r e r e q u i s i t e s Grade X minimum i s d e s i r e d Grade X I I plus Math 91 & Physics 91 p r e f e r r e d Grade X I I plus Math 91 & Physics 91 p r e f e r r e d Grade X miiaimum i s d e s i r a b l e . 4 months • duty as a heavy duty apprentice i n i n d u s t r y may a l s o be r e q u i r e d Grade X d e s i r a b l e Grade X d e s i r a b l e Grade X d e s i r a b l e Grade X d e s i r a b l e Grade X d e s i r a b l e plus p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s s u i t e d to the trade Grade X d e s i r a b l e Duration 6 months 6-10 months 6-10 months 6 months 6 months 6-10 months 6 months 6 months 6 months 6-10 months depends on i n d i v i d u a l r e q u i r e -ments People may en r o l f o r brush-up p r a c t i c e before t h e i r t e s t s . The o f f e r i n g s l i s t e d above may be taken as Pre-Indentured Apprenticeship Courses except f o r the Aeronautics 1-5.7 and Welding courses. Students e n t e r i n g the welding course, without having had any previous experience at any job what-soever, make t h e i r arrangements to take t h i s course through t h e i r l o c a l school board which then pays f o r i t i n conjunc- ' t i o n w i t h the P r o v i n c i a l Government. 2. The S p e c i a l V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g P r o j e c t s  Agreement The S p e c i a l V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g P r o j e c t s Agreement, soon to be confirmed and made o p e r a t i v e , i n c l u d e s those schemes formerly c a r r i e d out under e a r l i e r programs. The p r o j e c t s are termed 'Schedules' f o r the purposes of c l a s s i -f i c a t i o n . a. T r a i n i n g of Unemployed Persons - Schedule A l l provinces except Quebec, P.E.I, and Newfound-land p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the plan f o r T r a i n i n g of Unemployed Persons. T r a i n i n g was provided f o r 3,568 unemployed persons, a l l r e g i s t e r e d w i t h the N a t i o n a l Employment S e r v i c e , and f o r whom no s u i t a b l e work was a v a i l a b l e . The personnel were chosen j o i n t l y by p r o v i n c i a l o f f i c i a l s and the Na t i o n a l Employment S e r v i c e , and were given short i n t e n s i v e courses of t r a i n i n g f o r occupations which o f f e r e d a reasonable opportun-i t y f o r r e g u l a r employment. 1-58 Although the number was not as great as the Branch would have d e s i r e d , the t o t a l was 35% higher than i n the previous year. The decrease i n demand f o r u n s k i l l e d labour probably accounts f o r t h i s increased enrollment. Lack of f a c i l i t i e s hampered f u l l development of t h i s phase of the p r o j e c t . However, b u i l d i n g i s c o n t i n u i n g , and w i l l a l l e v i a t e the s i t u a t i o n i n the f u t u r e . There were many i n t e r e s t i n g f a c e t s of t h i s program. In Saskatchewan e x t r a f a c i l i t i e s were provided to t r a i n one hundred and f i f t y unemployed persons i n motor mechanics and the b u i l d i n g trades. Hand i n hand w i t h t h i s went the t r a i n -i n g of p i p e - l i n e welders xvith s p e c i a l emphasis noted i n the p r a i r i e provinces. To meet the probable f u t u r e demand there f o r s p r i n g operations, about 200 unemployed men were t r a i n e d as p i p e - l i n e welders and welders' h e l p e r s . b. T r a i n i n g of Disabled Persons - Schedule "R" 1,251 people r e c e i v e d t r a i n i n g under t h i s program. I t provides v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g f o r those persons p h y s i c a l l y handicapped with c o n t i n u i n g d i s a b i l i t i e s who r e q u i r e t r a i n i n g or r e t r a i n i n g to f i t them f o r g a i n f u l employment. Schedule "R" i n c l u d e s medical assessment and treatment, v o c a t i o n a l assessment and t r a i n i n g when considered necessary, and job placement. 159 The Report of the D i r e c t o r of Canadian V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g s t a t e s : I t was agreed among the departments and agencies i n t e r e s t e d i n t h i s program t h a t there was a growing need f o r more and b e t t e r assessment of the a p t i t u d e s , i n t e r e s t s , and a b i l i t i e s of the s e l e c t e d students. Consequently p r o v i s i o n was made i n r e v i s i n g the r e g u l a t i o n s f o r f e d e r a l sharing of the cost of ed u c a t i o n a l assessment i n pr e p a r a t i o n f o r t r a i n i n g . 1 0 Under the terms of Schedule "R" t h i s i n t e r e s t i n g observation i s made: This i s the only program p r o v i d i n g f o r u n i v e r s i t y t r a i n i n g under the f e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g Agreement other than Student A i d . Several d i s a b l e d persons are studying engineering, education, pharmacy, a r c h i t e c t u r e and j o u r n a l i s m . i l c. Youth T r a i n i n g - Schedule "0" Almost f i v e thousand persons were e n r o l l e d i n t h i s program during the year ending on March 3 1 , 1 9 5 9 . Short t r a i n i n g courses v a r y i n g from a few days to s e v e r a l months are conducted i n such su b j e c t s as f i s h i n g , f o r e s t r y , a g r i c u l -t u r e , and homemaking; a l i m i t e d number of secondary indus-10 Department of Labour, Report of the D i r e c t o r of  Canadian V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g , Ottawa, Queen's P r i n t e r , 1959, P. 9. 11 I b i d . 160' t r i a l occupations are al s o i n c l u d e d . I t i s of i n t e r e s t to note that those e l i g i b l e to e n r o l must be s i x t e e n years of age, and must not have had previous g a i n f u l employment. Others e l i g i b l e i n c l u d e n u r s e s - i n - t r a i n i n g , u n i v e r s i t y s t u -dents, fishermen, and farmers who are workihg on t h e i r own farms. Many programs conducted under Schedule "0" had o r i g -i n a t e d and developed from the e a r l i e r Youth T r a i n i n g Agree-ment. Under Schedule "0" great progress i s made i n Nova S c o t i a and Newfoundland where f i s h e r i e s courses are conducted. d. Student A i d - Schedule "H" Each province has a committee composed of repre-s e n t a t i v e s , the Department of Education and the Federal government. Awards are determined by s c h o l a s t i c a b i l i t y and f i n a n c i a l need. Those cat e g o r i e s e l i g i b l e f o r a i d inc l u d e n u r s e s - i n - t r a i n i n g who e n r o l i n approved courses designed f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l nurses; students attending an approved i n -s t i t u t e of technology i n a f u l l - t i m e course p r o v i d i n g a min-imum of two school years of t r a i n i n g f o r t e c h n i c i a n s ; and students i n degree-granting courses, excluding theology. The maximum awards allowed during any year are two hundred d o l l a r s per t r a i n e e nurse, and one thousand d o l l a r s per u n i v e r s i t y student. 161-I t appears from the D i r e c t o r ' s Report that these f i g u r e s must be modified: Due p a r t l y to the i n c r e a s i n g numbers of candidates f o r a i d and to the f a c t t h a t f o r the past f i v e years the amount of f e d e r a l funds a v a i l a b l e f o r t h i s program has been f i x e d , amounts allowed to i n d i v i d u a l students have been considerably l e s s than the maximum amounts authorized.12 From t h i s statement i t may be i n f e r r e d that the 'Student A i d ' Program i s being somewhat s t i f l e d , p a r t i c u l a r l y when the purchasing power of the d o l l a r has been d e c l i n i n g q uite s t e a d i l y (at a r a t e of j u s t l e s s than 2°/o per year) during t h a t time. During the year, 2,901 u n i v e r s i t y students and n u r s e s - i n - t r a i n i n g were awarded o u t r i g h t grants, loans or a combination of both under sub schedules of Schedule "0". Since the i n c e p t i o n of the program i n 1939, 47,640 such students have been a s s i s t e d . 1 3 e. Supervisory T r a i n i n g - Schedule "Q" This program has been conducted since World War I I . I t i s designed to provide t r a i n i n g i n job i n s t r u c t i o n , job r e l a t i o n s , job methods, and job s a f e t y f o r s u p e r v i s o r s 12 Department of Labour, Report of the D i r e c t o r of Canadian  V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g , Ottawa, Queen's P r i n t e r , 1959, p. 10. 13 I b i d . , p. 9. 162 and foremen i n commercial and i n d u s t r i a l establishments. B r i t i s h Columbia, A l b e r t a and Ontario were the r e c i p i e n t s of F e d e r a l l y - a s s i s t e d programmes i n t h i s f i e l d . There were 1,407 persons r e c e i v i n g t r a i n i n g during the year ending on March 31, 1959, at a cost to the Federal Government of almost $3,000.' f. T r a i n i n g f o r the Armed Services -Schedule »K» i . armed s e r v i c e s personnel One hundred and s e v e n t y - f i v e r e c e i v e d t r a i n i n g d uring the year ending March 31, 1959, i n e l e c t r i c a l and ve-h i c l e mechanics, as w e l l as i n e l e c t r o n i c s . The complete cost of running such a program was i n c u r r e d by the Federal Government. Their t r a i n i n g supplements that p r e s e n t l y a v a i l -able i n s e r v i c e i n s t i t u t i o n s . i i . f u l l - t i m e c i v i l i a n teachers This program saw one hundred and t h i r t y - o n e f u l l time c i v i l i a n teachers employed i n four a i r f o r c e and seven army v o c a t i o n a l and trade t r a i n i n g centres. Eleven p a r t -time teachers were a l s o provided f o r a i r f o r c e reserve u n i t personnel. These teachers have been r e c r u i t e d through co-operation w i t h the p r o v i n c i a l a u t h o r i t i e s . The method used f o r e f f e c t i n g t h i s arrangement i s the f o l l o w i n g : 1-63 P r o v i n c i a l a u t h o r i t i e s s e l e c t , h i r e and pay the teachers, and are reimbursed by the Department of Labour from funds provided by the Department of N a t i o n a l Defence.14 g. T r a i n i n g f o r Federal Government Depart-ments - Schedule T,G!f This schedule i s organized to provide employees of the Federal Government w i t h t r a i n i n g or r e t r a i n i n g r e -quested by agencies or departments of that government. The Federal Government pays the complete costs which accrue from such a c t i v i t i e s . F u l l - t i m e t r a i n i n g may be given on a s h i f t b a s i s f o r f i v e or f i v e and a h a l f days per xveek. There should be approximately t h i r t y - f i v e hours of t r a i n i n g per week, which i n c l u d e s both p r a c t i c a l shop experience, and any r e l a t e d t e c h n i c a l i n s t r u c t i o n that may be r e q u i r e d . h. T r a i n i n g i n Primary I n d u s t r i e s -Schedule "P» In t h i s case the f i n a n c i a l arrangement between Federal and p r o v i n c i a l governments i s on a 50/50 b a s i s . Rule 1 e n t i t l e d ' E l i g i b i l i t y of the Regulations' governing t h i s p r o j e c t agreement s t a t e s : 14 Department of Labour, Report of the D i r e c t o r of Canadian V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g , Ottawa, Queen's P r i n t e r , 1959, p. 10. 164 Those e l i g i b l e f o r t r a i n i n g s h a l l be persons, male or female who are over the minimum school l e a v i n g age, who are not i n attendance.at a r e g u l -ar elementary or secondary school and who are engaged i n or d e s i r e to engage i n one of the prim-ary i n d u s t r i e s of A g r i c u l t u r e , F o r e s t r y , F i s h i n g , Mining or Homemaking.15 Under Rule 3 e n t i t l e d ' T r aining' the f o l l o w i n g i n f o r m a t i o n i s given: Pre-employment or up grading t r a i n i n g i n f u l l - t i m e or part-time classe.s may be given. T r a i n i n g may be given i n r e g u l a r muni-c i p a l or p r o v i n c i a l schools cr i n s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g centres e s t a b l i s h e d f o r the pur-pose by the Province. So f a r as pos-s i b l e use s h a l l be made of e x i s t i n g f a c -i l i t i e s . ! 0 i . V o c a t i o n a l Correspondence Courses -Schedule "C" An a d v i s o r y body, the I n t e r p r o v i n c i a l V o c a t i o n a l Correspondence Courses Committee, i s convened under the aus-pices of the Federal Government. I t i s comprised-of prov-i n c i a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s who s p e c i a l i z e i n v o c a t i o n a l corres-pondence course planning. This Committee advises on the pre-p a r a t i o n and r e v i s i o n of courses and other matters p e r t a i n i n g (c) (d) 1.5 Department of Labour, S p e c i a l V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g  P r o j e c t s Agreement Schedule "p", Ottawa, Canadian V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g Branch, 1959, mimeographed. 16 I b i d . 165' the Schedule "C" Agreement. These courses are a l s o operated on a 50/50 b a s i s between both Federal and p r o v i n c i a l governments. In t h i s case more than one 'hundred v o c a t i o n a l courses were prepared by various p r o v i n c i a l governments, and were r e a d i l y made a v a i l a b l e t o - a l l parts of Canada through t h i s mutually bene-f i c i a l Agreement. Approximately 6,500 students were r e g i s -t ered i n the courses during the f i s c a l year ending March 31, 1959. The s e r v i c e s of an i n t e r p r o v i n c i a l committee are f r e q u e n t l y used i n t h i s connection. The Federal Government shares j o i n t l y i n the undertakings, provided the r e s t of Canada may obtain the course at the same p r i c e as that charged i n the author province. The f o l l o w i n g statements i s from the Report of the  D i r e c t o r of Canadian V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g : During the year B r i t i s h Columbia completed and was reimbursed f o r h a l f the cost of a course i n t y p e w r i t i n g . Under prep a r a t i o n i n the French language were courses i n plumbing and b l u e p r i n t reading f o r the b u i l d i n g trades. Work was con-t i n u e d on E n g l i s h language courses, i n carpentry, r a d i o , machine shop p r a c t i c e and arc welding.17 17 Department of Labour, Report of the D i r e c t o r of Canadian  V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g , Ottawa, Queen's P r i n t e r , 1959, p. 11. 1.66 3• The Vo c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g Advisory Council Minutes of the T h i r t i e t h Meeting May 19-20, I960-F i f t y - t w o people, r e p r e s e n t i n g a comprehensive c r o s s - s e c t i o n of Canadian o r g a n i z a t i o n s and agencies i n t e r e s t -ed and in v o l v e d i n t e c h n i c a l and v o c a t i o n a l education, were present at the T h i r t i e t h Meeting of the V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g Advisory C o u n c i l . The question of having n a t i o n a l l y recognized standards was r a i s e d by Mr. Bridge, a Technical T r a i n i n g S p e c i a l i s t from the V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g Branch, Department of Labour, Ottawa: Mr. Bridge presented the Advanced Technical T r a i n i n g s e c t i o n of the T r a i n i n g Branch r e p o r t . From t h i s ' t h e r e arose a d i s c u s s i o n of the de-s i r a b i l i t y of having n a t i o n a l l y recognized stand-ards at the t e c h n i c a l i n s t i t u t e l e v e l . Members al s o discussed how and by whom such standards might be set.-*-* Comments i n d i c a t e d a l s o a tendency to look to Ottawa f o r guidance i n s e t t i n g adequate stand-ards. There was general agreement th a t the T r a i n -i n g Branch should take an a c t i v e p a r t i n s e t t i n g up an advi s o r y body f o r t h i s purpose and should provide an important part of i t s membership. Mr. Doyle suggested t h a t the newly chartered Canadian V o c a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n might render v a l u -able s e r v i c e i n t h i s regard. I t was f e l t t h a t , once n a t i o n a l standards had been agreed upon, the provinces would be i n a p o s i t i o n to plan ade-quate teaching i n s t i t u t i o n s and would know the type 18 Department of Labour, V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g Advisory  C o u n c i l Minutes of T h i r t i e t h Meeting May 19-20. I960, Ottawa, I960, mimeographed. 167 19 of s t a f f they needed to r e c r u i t . To emphasize the trend towards the establishment of n a t i o n a l norms, f u r t h e r steps towards u n i f o r m i t y i n pro-v i n c i a l trade examinations are being taken: I n t e r p r o v i n c i a l examinations are now o f f i c i a l l y used i n the Motor V e h i c l e Repair Trade (Mechanical) and the E l e c t r i c a l Construction Trade. The Plumbing examination i s now on a t r i a l b a s i s and examinations f o r the Carpentry and Sheet Metal trades are being prepared.20 One of the major reasons f o r o r g a n i z i n g t e c h n i c a l and v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g programs was to equip the unemployed wit h s k i l l s so that they could be added to the labour f o r c e . The D i r e c t o r of Canadian V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g , Mr. CR. Ford, c a l l e d f o r organized planning: Mr. Ford considered that a p o l i c y of pro-v i d i n g through r e g u l a r t r a i n i n g channels f o r the day-to-day needs of t r a i n i n g f o r the un-employed was s u p e r i o r to one of w a i t i n g u n t i l a p r e s s i n g need forced the establishment of s p e c i a l f a c i l i t i e s and classes.21 19 Department of labour, V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g Advisory  Council Minutes of T h i r t i e t h Meeting May 19-20, I960, Ottawa, I960, mimeographed. 20 Report of V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g Branch to the V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g Advisory C o u n c i l , p. 6, V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g Advisory C o u n c i l Minutes of T h i r t i e t h Meeting May 19-20, I960, Ottawa, mimeographed. 21 I b i d . .168 Mr. R.H. MacCuish, Trade T r a i n i n g S p e c i a l i s t from the V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g Branch, observed: A l b e r t a and Saskatchewan had set up emergency c l a s s e s to care f o r many who were sea s o n a l l y un-employed. Mr. MacCuish observed that the M i n i s t e r ' s address to C o u n c i l had c a l l e d f o r two types of t r a i n i n g to combat unemployment. One was a long range program to keep c h i l d r e n i n school and to prepare them adequately f o r p r o f i t a b l e employment i n steady jobs. The second was the shorter range program of t r a i n i n g to r e h a b i l i t a t e workers who had l o s t t h e i r employment.22 The importance of a sound general educational back-ground before commencing t e c h n i c a l and v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g was emphasized: Mr. Brown, Deputy M i n i s t e r of Labour f e l t t h a t serious a t t e n t i o n must be devoted to adapt-i n g and developing education and t r a i n i n g to conform more c l o s e l y w i t h employment needs and a t t r a c t i n g or persuading more students to remain i n school u n t i l they have obtained a sound b a s i c education upon which to b u i l d a s p e c i f i c s k i l l . 2 3 Members of the Council are aware of the need to i n t e g r a t e academic education w i t h v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g during the t r a n s i t i o n a l p e r i o d . 22 Department of.Labour, V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g Advisory  C o u n c i l Minutes of T h i r t i e t h Meeting May 19-20, I960, Ottawa, p. 5, mimeographed." 23 I b i d . , Report from the Apprenticeship T r a i n i n g Advisory Committee to the V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g Advisory C o u n c i l , Appendix "C", p. 1. 1-69 Mr. Rendall s a i d thought i s being given i n some Ontario c i t i e s to g i v i n g the f i r s t two years of v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g i n composite high schools, then sending students to a s p e c i a l i z e d t e c h n i c a l school f o r the l a s t two years of study. 4 I t i s v i t a l to r e a l i z e that the Cou n c i l considers Student A i d , the Schedule p r o v i d i n g f o r f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e to advanced t e c h n i c a l , n u r s i n g and u n i v e r s i t y student, an important p a r t of t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . The f o l l o w i n g r e s -o l u t i o n s were passed: WHEREAS i t i s v i t a l l y important that Canada's ex-panding economy be assured of a s t e a d i l y i n c r e a s i n g supply of p r o f e s s i o n a l and t e c h n i c a l l y t r a i n e d workers, and WHEREAS i n the considered opinion of t h i s C o uncil f u l l employment r e q u i r e s , among other t h i n g s , a work f o r c e that i s b a s i c a l l y prepared to undertake and s u c c e s s f u l l y perform the jobs which are a v a i l -a b l e . This i n v o l v e s our long range educational programme and i t s content. And yet many of our young people are dropping out of school or gradu-a t i n g w i t h l e s s than s u f f i c i e n t education and t r a i n i n g to get and hold job o p p o r t u n i t i e s that are a v a i l a b l e . Many young people have been un-able to f i n d t r a i n i n g f a c i l i t i e s which they so badly need. I t i s t h e r e f o r e e s s e n t i a l to have a w e l l balanced programme to provide the p o t e n t i a l i n d u s t r i a l workers, the s e r v i c e and commercial workers, and the p r o f e s s i o n a l and t e c h n i c a l per-sonnel i n proportion of the needs of our economy and the a b i l i t y of our young people. 24 Department of Labour, V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g Advisory  C o u n c i l Minutes of T h i r t i e t h Meeting May 19-20, I960, Ottawa, I960, p. 8, mimeographed. 1-70' WHEREAS the f i n a n c i a l burden on the i n d i v i d u a l i n a t t a i n i n g advanced education continued to increase thus d e p r i v i n g many young people of educational o p p o r t u n i t i e s and the nation of s k i l l e d personnel, t h e r e f o r e , BE IT RESOLVED t h a t t h i s C o u n c i l .finds the Federal Government's c o n t r i b u t i o n to the Students' A i d Programme d e f i n i t e l y inadequate and u n r e a l i s t i c . BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED that t h i s C o uncil r e g r e t s that the Government has not increased i t s con-t r i b u t i o n to the Programme since 1 9 5 4 , whereas P r o v i n c i a l Governments have incre a s e d t h e i r share qu i t e s u b s t a n t i a l l y . BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED that t h i s C o u n c i l s e r i o u s l y advises the Department of Labour to request an inc r e a s e , at the e a r l i e s t p o s s i b l e date i n i t s share to the Students' Aid Programme to an amount which i s at l e a s t equal to the t o t a l c o n t r i b u t i o n s of the provinces and that t h i s be considered as the f i r s t step towards a greater Federal percentage c o n t r i b u t i o n at a l a t e r date.2 5 The request made f o r an increase i n the allotment f o r student a i d f o r 1960-61 was not granted. B. The U n i v e r s i t y Grants System Since 1911 p r a c t i c a l l y a l l Canadian u n i v e r s i t i e s have been organized i n t o an a s s o c i a t i o n c a l l e d the N a t i o n a l Confer-ence of Canadian U n i v e r s i t i e s (N.C.C.U.). Through t h i s body 2 5 Department of Labour, V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g Advisory  C o u n c i l Minutes of T h i r t i e t h Meeting May 19-20, I960, Ottawa, I960, mimeographed, p.11. 171 i t became p o s s i b l e at a much l a t e r time f o r Canadian u n i v e r -s i t i e s and c o l l e g e s to negotiate f o r d i r e c t F e deral a i d . In 1941 the Federal Government passed an Order-in-C o u n c i l e n t i t l e d 'The Post-Discharge He-Establishment Order' which f o r the f i r s t time made plans f o r the a s s i s t a n c e of those engaged i n u n i v e r s i t y s t u d i e s . The Order became popul-a r l y known as P.C. 7633. One Report describes i t i n these terms: The u n i v e r s i t i e s are p a r t i c u i l a r l y concerned w i t h one s e c t i o n of the order which promises that i f a returned man or woman i s accepted i n t o a r e g u l -ar u n i v e r s i t y course w i t h i n f i f t e e n months of d i s -charge, the Dominion Government w i l l pay the f u l l t u i t i o n fees and w i l l , i n a d d i t i o n , give the stud-ent a subsistence allowance w i t h e x t r a payments f o r dependents.26 During the war years i n t e r e s t e d e d u c a t i o n i s t s ad-vanced the question of Federal a i d to education notwithstand-i n g the a l l e g e d c o n s t i t u t i o n a l b a r r i e r s . Representations were made, and b r i e f s were submitted to the Massey Commission for. i t s c o n s i d e r a t i o n . Federal Government help was asked f o r s c h o l a r s h i p s and loans. A motion was made which suggested that the f o l l o w i n g procedure be adopted. The Federal Govern-ment could pay a 'per c a p i t a ' grant based on p o p u l a t i o n , and 26 Report of the N a t i o n a l Conference of Canadian Univers-i t i e s on Post-War Problems, adopted at the meeting held at McMaster U n i v e r s i t y , Hamilton, Ont., June 13, 1944, Univers-i t y of Toronto Press, 1944, p. 9 . 172. w i t h i n each province a committee could be e s t a b l i s h e d to handle money. The members of the committee should comprise repres-e n t a t i v e s from the u n i v e r s i t i e s and c o l l e g e s w i t h i n each prov-ince as w e l l as those from the p r o v i n c i a l Departments of Education, w i t h the Federal Government holding a watching b r i e f w h i l e a c t i n g i n the r o l e of c o n s u l t o r and a d v i s o r . The money could then be d i s t r i b u t e d w i t h i n each province. This r e s o l u t i o n was i n c l u d e d i n abbreviated form i n the Massey Report. I t became the f i r s t recommendation approved by Gov-ernment and Parliament, and repeived the u n q u a l i f i e d support of these bodies. In t h i s way a 500 per c a p i t a grant was'established. The precedent f o r g r a n t i n g Federal a i d i n support of formal u n i v e r s i t y education had been s e t . The Premier of Quebec accepted i t d u r i n g i t s f i r s t year of operation, but refused i t i n l a t e r years, c l a i m i n g t h a t t h i s was an i n t e r f e r e n c e with p r o v i n c i a l r i g h t s . By 1956 the N.C.C.U. was s u c c e s s f u l i n advancing i t s p l e a f o r a doubling of t h i s grant. At.the request of the Government of Canada i t was incorporated i n 1957 so t h a t i t might act as an agent i n both r e c e i v i n g and d i s t r i b u t i n g moneys to i n d i v i d u a l c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s . However, f o r greater e f f i c i e n c y and f o r other reasons, i t was decided that 173 the f u n c t i o n s of the N.C.C.U. should be taken over by a new body, the Canadian U n i v e r s i t i e s Foundation (C.U.F.), which would handle the Federal Government grants and c e r t a i n other a c t i v i t i e s . The N a t i o n a l Conference of Canadian U n i v e r s i t i e s and Colleges (N.C.C.U.C.) was continued as a r a t h e r l o o s e l y -organized meeting of u n i v e r s i t y and c o l l e g e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s committed to a d i s c u s s i o n of common problems and other ap-p r o p r i a t e f u n c t i o n s . A f t e r the 1957 e l e c t i o n , the new Government i n -creased the grant to $1.50 'per c a p i t a ' . While o r i g i n a l l y i t was contemplated that approx-imately twenty-one i n s t i t u t i o n s would share i n these Federal grants, t h i s number has grown to over n i n e t y . The C.U.F. was to act as the d i s t r i b u t i n g agency through which the grants were t o pass. A l l provinces except Quebec have p a r t i -c i p a t e d i n the pl a n . However, i t i s hoped and expected t h a t i n the near f u t u r e a formula w i l l be devised which w i l l be s a t i s f a c t o r y to the Governments of Canada and of Quebec, and to a l l Canadian u n i v e r s i t i e s as w e l l . To summarize, the Federal Government provides funds f o r the support of con t i n u i n g formal education a f t e r the sc h o o l - l e a v i n g age has been reached. I t has recognized the need of the provinces f o r Federal support f o r v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n -i n g and u n i v e r s i t y education, notwithstanding the B.N.A. Act. 174 Further, the M i n i s t e r of J u s t i c e has r e c e n t l y intimated t h a t the Federal Government i s contemplating g i v i n g d i r e c t a i d to the M u n i c i p a l i t i e s f o r education, among other t h i n g s . J u s t i c e M i n i s t e r F u l t o n h i n t e d Thursday nig h t the f e d e r a l government i s contemplating d i r e c t f i n a n c i a l a i d t o m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . He s a i d the government i s not s a t i s f i e d money given provinces under the tax-share agreements i s being used f o r the purpose f o r which i t i s intended - or i n the best p o s s i b l e way. For instance,- education, he s a i d , "Quebec i s not the only province which j e a l o u s l y guards i t s r i g h t to spend grants i n the way i t sees f i t . " 2 ' I f such a suggestion were implemented, then p r a c t i c a l l y a l l f a c e t s of formal education would be supported by some means of d i r e c t Federal a i d . Means have ob v i o u s l y been found to i n t e r p r e t the B.N.A. Act i n order to permit the Federal Government to con-t r i b u t e d i r e c t l y to formal education through v o c a t i o n a l schools and u n i v e r s i t i e s . I t should then be p o s s i b l e to i n t e r p r e t the Act to provide i n f o r m a l education f o r a d u l t s . The v i t a l importance of i n f o r m a l c o n t i n u i n g educa-t i o n has been eloquently expressed by S i r Winston C h u r c h i l l . He emphasizes the need f o r support of the St a t e : 27 "Fulton gives UBCM h i n t of ' d i r e c t a i d ' , " The Province, Vancouver, 23 September I960, p. 1. 175 There i s , perhaps, no branch of our vast educational system which should more a t t r a c t w i t h i n i t s p a r t i c u l a r sphere the a i d and en-couragement of the State than a d u l t education. How many must there be..., a f t e r the d i s t u r b -ance of two d e s t r u c t i v e wars, who t h i r s t i n l a t e r l i f e to l e a r n about the humanities, the h i s t o r y of t h e i r country, the p h i l o s o p h i e s of the human race, and the a r t s and l e t t e r s which s u s t a i n and are borne forward by the... E n g l i s h language? This ranks i n my opinion f a r above science and t e c h n i c a l i n s t r u c t i o n , which are w e l l - s u s t a i n e d and not without t h e i r rewards i n our present system. The mental and moral outlook of f r e e men studying the past w i t h f r e e minds i n order to d i s c e r n the f u t u r e de-mands the highest measures which our hard-pres-sed finances can s u s t a i n . I have no doubt my-s e l f that a man or woman ea r n e s t l y seeking i n grown-up l i f e to be guided to wide and suggest-i v e knowledge i n i t s l a r g e s t and most u p l i f t e d sphere w i l l make the best of a l l the p u p i l s i n t h i s age of c l a t t e r and buzz, of gape and g l o a t . I t has been shown e a r l i e r that the Government of Canada does c o n t r i b u t e to the i n f o r m a l education of a d u l t s through i t s Departments, i t s agencies of c u l t u r a l d i f f u s i o n , and a s s i s t a n c e to vo l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s . However, the b a s i c "weakness i n the whole program i s t h a t no Federal p r o v i s i o n i s made f o r organized courses of study p r o v i d i n g some c o n t i n u i t y of the l e a r n i n g experience f o r 'adults engaged i n the ordin a r y business of l i f e T . Such conti n u i n g education could be f i n -anced by usi n g a method f o r the p r o v i s i o n of Federal funds-28 Statement by S i r Winston C h u r c h i l l , 1953, c i t e d i n J. Roby Kidd, Continuing Education a N a t i o n a l N e c e s s i t y , Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n f o r Adult Education, mimeographed, February 1959, p. 2. 1 7 6 s i m i l a r to that of the U n i v e r s i t y Grants System. The case f o r Federal a s s i s t a n c e i n support of a d u l t education was given as long ago as 1 9 4 4 : The Conference... hopes that the Dominion and P r o v i n c i a l Governments w i l l give generous a s s i s t a n c e to every e f f e c t i v e type of a d u l t education. I t b e l i e v e s that t h i s a s s i s t a n c e should be given through e x i s t i n g agencies such as the Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n f o r Adult Education and the u n i v e r s i t i e s , both of which are already engaged i n t h i s work. Although some u n i v e r s i t y professors may doubt that a d u l t education i s a proper f u n c t i o n f o r a u n i v e r s i t y no one can deny that we are i n f a c t deeply committed, and that there are no a l t e r n a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n s to r e p l a c e us e f f e c t i v e l y . The work must be done and the u n i v e r s i t i e s must help to do i t . 2 9 29 Report of the N a t i o n a l Conference of Canadian U n i v e r s i t i e s on Post-War Problems, adopted at the meeting held at McMaster U n i v e r s i t y , Hamilton, Ont., June 1 3 j 1944, U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto Press, 1944, p. 27. CHAPTER V S U M M A R I E S A N D C O N C L U S I O N S "That the necessary conclusion i s t h a t a d u l t education must not be regarded as a lu x u r y f o r a few ex c e p t i o n a l persons here and there, nor as a t h i n g which con-cerns only a short span of e a r l y manhood, but that a d u l t education i s a permanent, an inseparable aspect of c i t i z e n s h i p , and the r e f o r e should be both u n i v e r s a l and l i f e l o n g . " From the "1919 Report" of Arthur L. Smith, Chairman of the Adult Education Committee of the B r i t i s h M i n i s t r y of Reconstruction. The Government of Canada, through i t s agencies of c u l t u r a l d i f f u s i o n , i s e s t a b l i s h i n g a c r i t e r i o n of e x c e l l -ence d i r e c t e d towards n a t i o n a l norms. I t has promoted i n a v a r i e t y of ways a brand of Canadianism t h a t i s founded on i n t e l l i g e n t and mature understanding of l o c a l , p r o v i n c i a l , n a t i o n a l and i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s s u e s . A i d has been given d i r e c t l y i n support of formal u n i v e r s i t y education. The Government has s c i e n t i f i c a l l y c onsolidated a l l important data necessary f o r a more reasoned understanding of Canada. Conclusion 1. A 'prima f a c i e ' case has been proved that t h Federal Government i s a c t i v e l y and i n t e n t i o n a l l y promoting 'education f o r a d u l t s ' . I t has done t h i s by p r o v i d i n g the req u i r e d moneys through i t s departments and agencies, as by a s s i s t i n g s p e c i f i c a l l y designated v o l u n t a r y bodies and i n -d i v i d u a l s . Statements emanating from n a t i o n a l p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s i n d i c a t e t h a t Federal aid-, as at present extended, r e c e i v e s popular approval. No e f f e c t i v e o p p o s i t i o n v o i c e ha ever been r a i s e d a g a i n s t such a c t i v i t i e s as the grants to veterans, the t e c h n i c a l and v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g grants, the grants to the N a t i o n a l F i l m Board (which i s already a most sacrosanct i n s t i t u t i o n ) , and the most generous grants ex-tended to the Canada C o u n c i l . Conclusion 2. The a c t i v i t i e s mentioned enjoy the popular support of most Canadians. 178 179 P u b l i c demand has often encouraged the Federal Gov-ernment to e s t a b l i s h Royal Commissions of i n q u i r y , and from the recommendations of those bodies, a c t i o n has u l t i m a t e l y been taken by the Government, which co n t r i b u t e d d i r e c t l y to p r o v i d -i n g 'education f o r a d u l t s ' . The Royal Commission of 1910 was e s t a b l i s h e d to study the needs and equipment of the country i n t e c h n i c a l education, and was the forerunner of the 1919 Technical Education Act. From the . a c t i v i t i e s of the Canadian Radio Broadcasting Commission of 1932 the C.B.C. was i n c o r -porated f o u r years l a t e r . The Massey Royal Commission stim-u l a t e d Canada Council and U n i v e r s i t y Grants l e g i s l a t i o n . Conclusion 3. These few examples i l l u s t r a t e t h a t the Federal Government i n i t i a t e s schemes i n support of education f o r a d u l t s a f t e r the wisdom of such proposed a c t i o n has been r e -commended by commissions of i n q u i r y . The Federal Government has provided d i r e c t organ-i z e d a s s i s t a n c e to promote formal t e c h n i c a l and u n i v e r s i t y education. Informal education, supported by agencies of c u l -t u r a l d i f f u s i o n , has been provided on an i n c r e a s i n g l y widen-i n g s c a l e . The d i s t i n g u i s h i n g f e a t u r e between these two i s the f a c t that i n f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n a l p r o v i s i o n has not been or-ganized. Canadians now know that they w i l l be g e t t i n g q u a l i t y programs from the C.B.C, award-winning f i l m s from the N.F.B., l e c t u r e s i n support of c i t i z e n s h i p and the l i k e , yet no regu-180-l a r s e r i e s of courses i s o f f e r e d to them by such agencies. The whole e f f o r t i n t h i s f i e l d of Federal a c t i o n i s p r a i s e -worthy but sporadic, educative but u n r e l i a b l e i n that i t l a c k s o r g a n i z a t i o n . The C.B.C. r a d i o and T.V. a u t h o r i t i e s are c a r e f u l to p o i n t out t h a t they develop t h e i r programs only on a thirteen-week b a s i s . By so a c t i n g , they make i t most d i f -f i c u l t to organize r a d i o and T.V. courses f o r general a d u l t education. Each f i n e e f f o r t i s l o s t i n i s o l a t i o n . Edward M. Hutchinson's d e f i n i t i o n of 'informal edu-c a t i o n f o r a d u l t s ' or 'adult education' gives emphasis to t h i s p o i n t of view. The d e f i n i t i o n , s t a t e d e a r l i e r , f o l l o w s : organized p r o v i s i o n to enable men and women to enlarge and i n t e r p r e t t h e i r own l i v i n g experiences. Conclusion 4. The a c t i v i t i e s of the Federal Government aimed at p r o v i d i n g d i r e c t 'informal education f o r a d u l t s ' are not organized to develop l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n s which are t r u l y edu-c a t i v e . The Government has recourse to evasive terminology to mask i t s a c t i o n s . R a r e l y does i t come out and f r e e l y admit 1 Personal d e f i n i t i o n given by Mr. Edward M. Hutchinson to h i s c l a s s i n Methods of Adult Education No. 518 at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia summer s e s s i o n , I960. 181 that i t s a c t i o n s c o n s t i t u t e 'education'. The Broadcasting Act declares that one of i t s main objects i s 'the p r o v i s i o n of a v a r i e d and comprehensive broadcasting s e r v i c e of a high 2 standard t h a t i s b a s i c a l l y Canadian i n content and character'. The N a t i o n a l F i l m Board s t a t e s t h a t i t was created to encour-age 'the production and d i s t r i b u t i o n of f i l m s designed to i n t e r p r e t Canada to Canadians and other nations'.3 The N a t i o n a l G a l l e r y s t a t e s that i t s purposes i n c l u d e 'generally the encouragement of Canadian p u b l i c i n t e r e s t i n the f i n e and a p p l i e d a r t s ' . ^ The Canada Co u n c i l was designed 'to f o s t e r and promote the study and enjoyment of, and the production of works i n the a r t s , humanities and s o c i a l sciences'.5 From the s t a t e d purposes of the Canada Co u n c i l grants a s s i s t i n g u n i v e r s i t i e s , one f i n d s . a most d e l i g h t f u l example of evasive terminology: 'The remaining $50 m i l l i o n i s being used up over a period of ten years to a s s i s t Canadian . U n i v e r s i t i e s w i t h t h e i r p h y s i c a l b u i l d i n g programs. 0 Conclusion 5. Federal 2 Canadian Broadcasting Act, S.C., 1952-53, c. 22, s.10. 3 N a t i o n a l F i l m Act, R.S.C., 1952, c. 185, s.9. 4 N a t i o n a l G a l l e r y Act, R.S.C., 1952, c. 186, s.6. 5 Canada C o u n c i l Act, S.C., 1957, c.3, s.8. 6 Personal Correspondence of the Author, l e t t e r from P a t r i c k MacAdam, Progressive Conservative P a r t y N a t i o n a l Head-quarters, J u l y 21, I960. 182 l e a d e r s h i p i s f a r too r e l u c t a n t i n a d m i t t i n g that i t does what i t intends to do. I t has recourse to evasive t e r m i n o l -ogy to mask i t s purposes. I f the Federal Government f r e e l y admitted that i t were engaged i n p r o v i d i n g i n f o r m a l education f o r the a d u l t p o p u l a t i o n , i t could more e f f e c t i v e l y accomp-l i s h i t s aims, r a t h e r than indulge i n ambivalent phrases which only h i g h l i g h t i t s own 'muddleheadedness'. This age sees a wider i n t e r p r e t a t i o n being placed upon such words as 'maturity' and 'community'. These two ideas s p e l l out the c e n t r a l goal of education which i s c i t i -zenship. Consequently, those a c t i v i t i e s that are p a r t i c i -pated i n by the greatest p o s s i b l e number of c i t i z e n s and c i t i z e n s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , as f o r example, the C.P.A.C, should enjoy the greatest p o s s i b l e measure of n a t i o n a l sup-, po r t . Furthermore, i n t h i s era of world growth and develop-ment, increa-sed emphasis i s being placed on values inherent i n c i t i z e n s h i p and freedom and the r u l e of law. For continued n a t i o n a l s u r v i v a l , i d e o l o g i c a l con-s i d e r a t i o n s may even surpass i n importance those d i r e c t e d t o -wards maintaining conventional standing armies. While i n no way should Canada's defences be weakened, i t i s p o s s i b l e that those defences may best be strengthened by g i v i n g c i t i z e n -s hip the importance i t deserves. Conclusion 6. As an urgent n a t i o n a l n e c e s s i t y , a d u l t education must r e c e i v e immediate and d i r e c t f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e from governments on a l l l e v -e l s . For i t s p a r t , the Federal Government can best assure that t h i s goal i s achieved by g i v i n g l a r g e d i r e c t grants to support t h i s cause. I t has already been seen that three of the four pro-v i s i o n s of Sec t i o n 93 of the B.N.A. Act mention such things as denominational schools, separate schools, and school t r u s -tees. By i n f e r e n c e , i t i s reasonable to assume that the Fathers of Confederation e n t e r t a i n e d not the s l i g h t e s t i n -t e n t i o n of p r o v i d i n g education f o r a d u l t s i n 1867. Only those inchoate f o r m a l i z e d i n s t i t u t i o n s organized to accommod-ate the youth of Canada were considered. Formalized compuls-ory school attendance had not even been developed by that time. Why then i s i t assumed that Section 93 should i n h i b i t the i n f o r m a l educational a c t i v i t i e s of the Federal Govern-ment? Furthermore., i t has already been shown t h a t the B.N.A. Act was invoked so that the Government might provide f o r tech n i c a l and u n i v e r s i t y education. Conclusion 7 . I t i s an un-warranted assumption that t h a t which was contemplated by Sect i o n 93 of the B.N.A. Act was meant to s t i f l e the f u t u r e growth of t h i s country i n those f i e l d s that concern them-selves w i t h 'education f o r a d u l t s ' . From these Conclusions the two major recommendation 184 of t h i s study are drawn. RECOMMENDATION 1. Amendments should be made to t h i s ambiguous Section d e s i g n a t i n g c l e a r l y t h a t (a) p r o v i n c i a l a u t h o r i t y over those formal i n s t i t u t i o n s to provide education f o r the young should s t r i c t l y remain w i t h i n the competence of p r o v i n c i a l author-i t i e s ; and (b) that i n those areas i n v o l v i n g the education of a d u l t s , no such l i m i t i n g r e s t r i c t i o n s were designated. RECOMMENDATION 2. I t i s recommended that a 500 'per c a p i t a ' grant be requested from the Canadian Government f o r the purpose of pro-v i d i n g organized 'informal education f o r a d u l t s ' . Half of the moneys so r a i s e d should go to p r o v i n c i a l committees com-posed of r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from the Departments of Education, c o l l e g e and u n i v e r s i t y heads, as w e l l as a few Federal mem-bers h o l d i n g 'watching or c o n s u l t i n g b r i e f s ' . These moneys should then be d i s t r i b u t e d to a l l recognized bodies promoting ' u n i v e r s i t y extension'. The remainder of the grant should be a l l o c a t e d to a wide and r e p r e s e n t a t i v e group of volun t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s w i t h the Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n f o r Adult Education a c t i n g as the c o - o r d i n a t i n g agency to administer the moneys. The voluntary o r g a n i z a t i o n s would then be ensured c o n t i n u i t y , enabling them to engage i n long-range planning, and to make 18 5 t h e i r maximum c o n t r i b u t i o n to the education of Canadian a d u l t s . B I B L I O G R A P H Y 187 BIBLIOGRAPHY Books Bryson, Lyman. Adult Education. New York, 1936. The Concise Oxford D i c t i o n a r y . Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1946, Grattan,C. H a r t l e y . In Quest of Knowledge, a H i s t o r i c a l Per-spe c t i v e on Adult Education. New York, A s s o c i a t i o n Press, 1955, pp. x i v 4 335. Joad, C.E.M. 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