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Fellowship centres for urban Canadian Indians : a comparative assessment of the "Coqualeetza" movement… Evans, Marjorie Gertrude 1961

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FELLOWSHIP CENTRES FOR URBAN CANADIAN INDIANS  A comparative assessment o f the "Coqualeetza" movement i n Vancouver, and other comparable developments i n eight Canadian c i t i e s .  by MARJORIE  GERTRUDE EVANS  Thesis Submitted i n P a r t i a l Fulfilment of the Requirements f o r the Degree of MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK i n the School o f S o c i a l Work  Accepted as conforming to the standard required f o r the degree of Master of S o c i a l Work  School of S o c i a l Work  1961 The University o f B r i t i s h Columbia  In the  presenting  requirements  of  British  it  freely  agree.that for  an  advanced  for  available  I  copying  gain  shall  by or  not  of  his  May  5,  at  the  reference  and  study.  I  extensive  may  be  allowed  of  copying  granted  this  without  by  of  the  It thesis  Work Columbia,  this of  thesis my  understood  for  my w r i t t e n  make  further  Head  is  of  University shall  representatives.  Social  1961  degree  fulfilment  Library  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h V a n c o u v e r 8, C a n a d a . Date  p a r t i a l  the  publication be  i n  that  for  purposes  or  agree  for  permission  that  Department  thesis  Columbia,  scholarly  Department  this  financial  permission.  iii  :STRACT  The c o n t i n u e d " s t e r e o t y p i n g " o f I n d i a n s , because o f i m p e r f e c t knowledge and a l a c k o f a p p r e c i a t i o n o f t h e i r h i s t o r y and c u l t u r e , i s a b a r r i e r t o u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e i r p r e s e n t p o v e r t y and underdevelopment. I n r e c e n t y e a r s , more a t t e n t i o n i s b e i n g p a i d t o t h e number o f I n d i a n s who a r e m i g r a t i n g t o the c i t i e s from t h e r e s e r v e s . There a r e two main r e a s o n s f o r t h i s ; one i s t h e hope o f f i n d i n g employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s ; the o t h e r i s to t a k e f u r t h e r t r a i n i n g , which may be academic, t e c h n i c a l or v o c a t i o n a l . T h i s s t u d y examines t h e needs o f t h e I n d i a n i n t h e c i t y , how t h e y d i f f e r from t h e needs o f o t h e r m i g r a n t s , and what i s b e i n g done t o p r o v i d e f o r them. I n many i n s t a n c e s i t has been d i f f i c u l t f o r the I n d i a n t o a d j u s t to l i f e i n an i n d u s t r i a l u r b a n c e n t r e . The c u l t u r a l v a l u e s a r e q u i t e d i f f e r e n t from t h o s e t o which he i s accustomed on I n d i a n r e s e r v e s o r from most o f t h e s m a l l communities w i t h which he i s f a m i l i a r . In h i s need f o r companionship and u n d e r s t a n d i n g , he has seldom been a b l e to a v a i l h i m s e l f o f o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o use e x i s t i n g r e s o u r c e s i n t h e c i t i e s , p a r t l y through u n f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h the s e r v i c e s o f f e r e d , p a r t l y through shyness o r f e a r o f r e b u f f . A c r o s s Canada, a s s o c i a t i o n s have been formed by I n d i a n s , and i n many cases w i t h the c o o p e r a t i o n o f non-Indian w e l l - w i s h e r s , to meet t h e s o c i a l needs o f t h e s e newcomers. A q u e s t i o n n a i r e was u s e d to g a i n i n f o r m a t i o n from a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e number throughout Canada, e s p e c i a l l y on ( a ) the o b j e c t i v e s o f the a s s o c i a t i o n s , (b) t h e a c t i v i t i e s t h e y sponsored, and ( c ) t h e problems t h e y h e l p e d t o s o l v e . However, s i n c e so few have had more than a few month's e x p e r i e n c e , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o r e g a r d t h i s l a r g e l y as an e x p l o r a t o r y study. The a s s o c i a t i o n s are p r o v i d i n g new s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s and p e r s o n a l s e r v i c e s f o r the I n d i a n s i n t h e c i t i e s . I n so d o i n g t h e y h e l p them f e e l a sense o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n , and t h e y a l s o i n c r e a s e t h e I n d i a n ' s sense o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and p o s s i b l e l e a d e r s h i p . There i s i n c r e a s i n g awareness t h a t t h e I n d i a n needs h e l p i n s o l v i n g some o f h i s problems, but t h a t he s h o u l d be h e l p e d i n the ways he chooses, and i n the manner he f i n d s most c o m f o r t a b l e . I n d i a n F r i e n d s h i p C e n t r e s can be a v a l u a b l e base t o f a c i l i t a t e h i s adjustment to t h e c i t y , and h i s i n t e g r a t i o n i n t o Canadian s o c i e t y g e n e r a l l y . There i s o b v i o u s room f o r the employment o f q u a l i f i e d s o c i a l workers, as w e l l as v o l u n t e e r s , i n t h i s a c t i v i t y .  iv  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS  I am i n d e b t e d  t o t h e v a r i o u s people who gave o f t h e i r  time,  knowledge and e x p e r i e n c e i n t h e needs and problems o f t h e I n d i a n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y t o those who so g e n e r o u s l y answered my e n q u i r i e s about associations.  their  I w i s h t o express my s i n c e r e a p p r e c i a t i o n t o D r . Marsh  for h i s kind assistance  and a d v i c e .  I a l s o owe much t o my f r i e n d s f o r  t h e i r encouragement and m o r a l s u p p o r t .  ii  TABLE OF CONTENTS Page Chapter 1.  The Canadian I n d i a n :  The Growth i n P u b l i c Concern,  1946-1960  E a r l y c o n t a c t s between I n d i a n s and Whites. M i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g and adverse a t t i t u d e s : the background. Post-war d e v e l o p ments. M i g r a t i o n to t h e c i t i e s . The needs o f people coming from r u r a l to u r b a n s e t t i n g s . The purpose o f t h e study  Chapter 2.  The  Development o f I n d i a n O r g a n i z a t i o n s i n Urban  Centres  Membership. Purpose o f the o r g a n i z a t i o n s . O b j e c t i v e s . The c h a l l e n g e o f f u l l c i t i z e n s h i p . M e e t i n g p l a c e s and programmes. S e r v i c e s p r o v i d e d by t h e a s s o c i a t i o n s  Chapter 3.  A Vancouver A s s o c i a t i o n :  The C o q u a l e e t z a  Implications:  32  C i t i z e n s ' Response to a Need  P e r s o n a l s e r v i c e s and s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Education o f t h e community. A b a s i c n e c e s s i t y . Precedent f o r t h e i d e a o f a Centre  Appendices: A. B. C. D.  15  Fellowship  Alumni group o r g a n i z e s . Membership and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . Early activities. The I n f o r m a t i o n C e n t r e . Moves t o o r g a n i z e the community. C u r r e n t F e l l o w s h i p a c t i v i t i e s  C h a p t e r 4.  1  I n d i a n F e l l o w s h i p O r g a n i z a t i o n s i n Canadian C i t i e s . Q u e s t i o n n a i r e sent to I n d i a n F r i e n d s h i p and Youth C l u b s . C o n s t i t u t i o n of the Coqualeetza F e l l o w s h i p . Bibliography.  47  F E L L O W S H I P  C E N T R E S  C A N A D I A N  FOR  I N D I A N S  URBAN  CHAPTER 1  THE CANADIAN INDIAN:  THE GROWTH IN PUBLIC CONCERN 1946-60  I t would be d i f f i c u l t when i n t e r e s t was  first  t o name any exact date o r p e r i o d as t h e  time  expressed i n the w e l f a r e o f the Canadian I n d i a n  i n h i s development as a p a r t i c i p a t i n g Canadian c i t i z e n .  and  There have always  been i n s t a n c e s o f i n d i v i d u a l and group concern f o r the w e l l - b e i n g o f t h e o r i g i n a l s e t t l e r s o f t h i s c o u n t r y s i n c e t h e e a r l y days o f c o l o n i z a t i o n .  This  i n t e r e s t , however, seems t o have g a i n e d more impetus and purpose i n t h e l a s t two  decades through a v a r i e t y o f reasons as d i v e r s e as t h e development o f  a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h i n Western Canada, and the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s , and the formation o f the U n i t e d Nations.  E a r l y C o n t a c t s between I n d i a n s and White T h i s study i n t e n d s t o t o u c h o n l y l i g h t l y on t h e h i s t o r i c a l background o f r e l a t i o n s between t h e I n d i a n s and the e a r l y immigrants,  but  were i m p o r t a n t i n d e v e l o p i n g t h e a t t i t u d e s and b e l i e f s h e l d by b o t h and W h i t e s c o n c e r n i n g each o t h e r John C o l l i e r , Affairs,  Indians  today.  a former U n i t e d S t a t e s Commissioner o f I n d i a n  compared Canada's e a r l y I n d i a n p o l i c y f a v o u r a b l y w i t h t h a t o f the  United States. of  they  "... from t h e f i r s t ,  ( i t was)  based on t h e E n g l i s h p o l i c y  r e s p e c t i n g t h e I n d i a n l a n d h o l d i n g s and k e e p i n g  ... The Hudson's Bay Company ... was  itself  f a i t h w i t h the  tribes.  a conserver o f I n d i a n l i f e  and  1 society."  He  q u a l i f i e d h i s p r a i s e w i t h statements  about the narrowness  1. John C o l l i e r , I n d i a n s o f the Americas; Mentor Books, New ( C o p y r i g h t 1947), Seventh p r i n t i n g 1959, p. 175.  York;  2  of Canada's p o l i c y , because i t gave no o f f i c i a l acknowledgement to the greatness of Indian heritage and Indian society.  He thought our Indian record  was free of the blemishes of other nations i n the Western hemisphere, but that i t lacked "genius, v i s i o n , adventurousness".  For i n 1941,  the period  when he was writing, Canada had not joined the "movement of Indian regeneration".  1  The white European s e t t l e r s , who  spread across our country i n the  nineteenth century i n the wake of the fur traders, thought l i t t l e of the current or future welfare of the Indians. t h e i r own  survival.  They were more concerned about  There was l i t t l e attempt to understand the Indians and  t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l ways of l i f e ; often the native and so-called "heathen" customs were held i n contempt.  The various conceptions held by these immigrants  about the Indians are outlined by Dr. Frank Vallee, anthropologist and present Chairman of the Indian-Eskimo Association Research Committee. "To the fur trader, they were producers of furs and consumers of whatever he had to o f f e r i n exchange. To the missionary, they were souls to be saved, people to be protected from some of the most deplorable features of European society. To the soldier, they were a l l i e s or_ enemies, depending on how they were aligned with t h i s or that f a c t i o n . " While there were agreements and t r e a t i e s made with the Indians, which gave some recognition and protection of t h e i r r i g h t s , o f f i c i a l p o l i c y of  the Hudson's Bay Company and the early governments was l a r g e l y " l a i s s e z  faire". At the time of Confederation i n 1867,  the B r i t i s h North America Act  assigned authority to the various governments of the newly-formed Dominion of Canada and stipulated that "exclusive L e g i s l a t i v e authority" of the Federal  1.  Ibid, p.  176.  2. Dr. Frank Vallee, "Four Centuries of Change", The F i r s t Canadians, Radio series, Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, October 10, 1959* p. !•  3 Government extended to Indians and lands reserved f o r Indians.  Because the  Federal Government assumed r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the administration o f Indian a f f a i r s , i t was deemed necessary to define those persons who should receive protection as Indians, since there was already considerable r a c i a l mixture with Whites.  The Indian Act o f 1876 and the revised Act of 1951 set out  d e f i n i t i o n s o f those classed as Indian within the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f the l e g i s lation.  Now "Indian status" has a special meaning both for the people  enumerated i n the Indian Register kept by the Indian A f f a i r s Branch and f o r the o f f i c i a l s who administer the Provisions of the Act. Both custom and law have influenced the use o f the term "Indian" f o r the descendants of the o r i g i n a l s e t t l e r s o f t h i s continent.  In Canada,  or for that matter i n t h i s western hemisphere, i t i s widely used to designate those persons who show evidence o f Indian forebears through either c u l t u r a l or b i o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , regardless o f whether they have "Indian status". The a l l - i n c l u s i v e d e f i n i t i o n w i l l be used i n t h i s present study, because, when a person o f Indian descent comes to an urban centre from either an Indian reserve or a small community, the extent of h i s c u l t u r a l or b i o l o g i c a l charact e r i s t i c s may a f f e c t h i s own adaptation to the ways o f the c i t y as w e l l as h i s  1 acceptance by others. Misunderstanding  and Adverse Attitudes:  The Background  The basic study on contemporary Indian l i f e i n B r i t i s h Columbia, the "Hawthorn Report",  2  records the contradictory and often inconsistent  1. The term "non-Indian" w i l l be used instead of "White", except when r e f e r r i n g to the early s e t t l e r s ; p a r t l y to emphasize that Canada i s no longer populated just by "Red" men and "White" men, and p a r t l y i n the b e l i e f that "White" underlines the b i o l o g i c a l differences, when the c u l t u r a l ones are the greater stumbling-block at the present time. 2. H. B. Hawthorn, C. S. Belshaw and S. M. Jamieson, The Indians of B r i t i s h Columbia; a Study o f Contemporary S o c i a l Adjustment. U n i v e r s i t y o f Toronto Press; 1958.  4 attitudes of the Whites toward the Indians i n t h i s coastal province.  These  are given i n the form of overlapping phases divided i n time by h i s t o r i c a l or p o l i t i c a l events: "(1) Up to about 1849 (the time of establishment of the colony of Vancouver Island). The Whites recognized t h e i r dependence on the Indian who was seen as a desirable trapper, trader, worker or as a soul to be saved. (2) 1830-1916 (the l a t t e r year being the termination o f the Royal Commission on reserves). The Indian was seen as the occupant of desired land a b a r r i e r to getting other resources such as gold. He was also a threat because o f v i o l e n t behaviour, as i n the early days o f V i c t o r i a , or a nuisance because o f h i s contrasting morals and i n s t i t u t i o n s . Nevertheless he was the Vanishing Red Man, for whose treatment no permanent solutions were therefore needed. At the same time the views o f the e a r l i e r period continued. (3) 1850-1946 This phase was almost concurrent with (2), but developed somewhat more slowly. The Indian was here seen as a person to be Westernized by a p o l i c y determined and administered by the Whites; he was the proper charge of the churches f o r schooling. He would eventually vanish but not as r a p i d l y as once expected. (4) From 1951 (the date o f the revised Indian A c t ) . Novr the Indian i s not vanishing at a l l . He i s a person with an increasing say i n h i s own future, who has outgrown some forms of guardianship by government and churches. Headed f o r assimilation, he i s an economic factor and a neighbour whose d e s i r a b i l i t y i s a matter of varied opinion." The shorter period of white settlement i n B r i t i s h Columbia f o r these changes of attitudes occurring within a century.  accounts  However, t h i s  synopsis can serve as a guide to understanding the reasons f o r some nonIndian attitudes toward those o f Indian ancestry i n Canada. Another explanation for the many current b e l i e f s and attitudes i s the general l a c k of knowledge about the Indian, with l i t t l e desire or opport u n i t y to obtain more.  Few think i t necessary to be well-informed.  Also,  '  i n t e r e s t i n g r e l i a b l e material i s scarce. Many people form t h e i r ideas and opinions from such sources as:  the comics, legends, children's story-books,  poorly written text-books, movies, radio, t e l e v i s i o n , newspapers, magazines and novels.  1.  op. c i t . p. 59.  5  Commenting on t h e b e l i e f s g a i n e d from t h e s e sources o f i n f o r m a t i o n , t h e Legasse r e p o r t s t a t e s t h a t f o u r s t e r e o t y p e s o f I n d i a n l i f e  e x i s t i n the  minds o f the White Canadian: "The f i r s t image t h a t a young Canadian r e c e i v e s i s t h a t o f a p e o p l e w i t h p a i n t e d f a c e s , f e a t h e r e d headdresses, bows and arrows and p i n t o h o r s e ... The second p i c t u r e t h a t Canadians r e c e i v e i s c o n t a i n e d i n h i s t o r y books where I n d i a n s a r e shown as a n a t i o n o f t r a p p e r s and canoemen, an angry p e o p l e s e e k i n g w h i t e s c a l p s , men a t war w i t h each o t h e r , and o f f a l t e r i n g a l l e g i a n c e s e a s i l y i n f l u e n c e d by White men c a r r y i n g f i r e w a t e r . The t h i r d p i c t u r e , t h i s one taught by t h e p r e s s and o t h e r media o f p u b l i c i n f o r m a t i o n , i s one o f an i m p o v e r i s h e d p e o p l e w i t h l a r g e d i s e a s e d f a m i l i e s i n overcrowded homes. I t i s a p i c t u r e o f p e o p l e who a r e immoral, l a z y , f r e q u e n t l y i n e b r i a t e d , u n a m b i t i o u s and unwanted. The f o u r t h p i c t u r e o f the p e o p l e o f I n d i a n d e s c e n t o f t e n c o - e x i s t s w i t h t h e t h i r d one. I t i s d e r i v e d from the statements o f w e l l meaning p e r s o n s who w i s h t o promote the w e l f a r e o f I n d i a n s and M e t i s . I t shows young p e o p l e a t t e n d i n g h i g h s c h o o l s and v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t e s . A d o l e s c e n t s who have abandoned the " s h i f t l e s s ways o f t h e i r p e o p l e " and a r e l i v i n g " d e c e n t l y " l i k e t h e White man. They a r e I n d i a n s and M e t i s who a r e s a i d to be "advanced" because t h e y no l o n g e r " l i v e l i k e I n d i a n s " . The a u t h o r s o f t h i s l a s t p i c t u r e attempt t o e s t a b l i s h a c o n t r a s t between t h e new and Jhe o l d g e n e r a t i o n when a c t u a l l y b o t h are p a r t o f t h e same continuum." As Dr. Legasse mentions, t h e two l a t t e r images are t o o o f t e n seen as e x e m p l i f y i n g t h e o n l y t y p e s o f p r e s e n t - d a y between.  I n d i a n , w i t h no g r a d a t i o n s i n  Y e t the young I n d i a n would n o t be u s i n g the o p p o r t u n i t y t o  b e n e f i t from e d u c a t i o n , i f t h e r e were n o t some on t h e r e s e r v e s who  achieve  have the  s p i r i t t o encourage t h e i r c h i l d r e n t o make a p l a c e f o r t h e I n d i a n i n Canadian society.  The  b e l i e f seems to be t h a t I n d i a n youth i s o n l y s e e k i n g  because o f non-Indian  education  support and encouragement, and i n s p i t e o f t h e i r e l d e r s .  Many o f the o l d e r I n d i a n s a r e o n l y too g l a d t h a t r e g u l a t i o n s have changed s u f f i c i e n t l y to p e r m i t t h e i r c h i l d r e n t o r e c e i v e more e d u c a t i o n t h a n they d i d themselves.  I t i s t h e o l d e r ones who  wish t o i n c r e a s e g e n e r a l knowledge about  the h e r i t a g e o f t h e I n d i a n s , so t h a t t h e young, who  are m i x i n g more w i t h  1. Jean H. Legasse, The P e o p l e o f I n d i a n A n c e s t r y i n M a n i t o b a ; a S o c i a l and Economic Study. Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e and Immigration; Winnipeg, M a n i t o b a ; 1959.  Vol.1, p.  170.  6  non-Indians,  w i l l n o t r e j e c t t h e i r people and t h e i r p a s t through l e a r n i n g  facts  and f i c t i o n w h i c h m o s t l y d i s c r e d i t s t h e i r r a c e . Dr. Frank V a l l e e b e l i e v e s t h a t I n d i a n s w i s h t o be h e l d i n h i g h e r esteem by t h e i r f e l l o w - C a n a d i a n s .  I n a r a d i o b r o a d c a s t he remarked,  "the  low esteem and even contempt i n which t h e I n d i a n s a r e h e l d by many can t r a c e d t o two  s o u r c e s ; the m a t e r i a l p o v e r t y o f t h e I n d i a n s , and t h e  be  remarkable  2 l a c k o f sound knowledge on h i s t o r y and ways o f l i f e The above statement,  o f these people."  which comments on t h e sources o f some c u r r e n t  a t t i t u d e s towards I n d i a n s , c a l l s t o mind a s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n o f former in  another  country:  one f a m i l i a r to a l l s o c i a l workers from t h e i r s t u d i e s o f  t h e development o f t h e s o c i a l s e r v i c e s i n n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y England. of  times  Most  t h e " r i c h " r e g a r d e d t h e "poor" w i t h p i t y t i n g e d w i t h contempt; t h e y l a c k e d  knowledge o f t h e reasons f o r t h e d i s p a r i t i e s i n the o u t l o o k o f t h e lower c l a s s e s toward l i f e .  The i s o l a t i o n o f the two  c l a s s e s had  "created d i f f e r e n t  customs, speech, p l e a s u r e s , and above a l l d i f f e r e n t e t h i c a l s t a n d a r d s " . The r i c h were o n l y too r e a d y t o b e l i e v e t h a t p o v e r t y among t h e lower was  a r e s u l t o f i n f e r i o r i t y , i g n o r a n c e , and " g o d l e s s n e s s " .  a b l e t o r e a l i z e how  d e m o r a l i z i n g undernourishment  1  classes  They were n o t  and i l l - h e a l t h c o u l d be,  and t h a t g r u d g i n g l y - g i v e n p h i l a n t h r o p y c o u l d n o t equip p e o p l e t o cope w i t h t h e s o c i a l changes brought nation.  The poor had few r i g h t s o r p r i v i l e g e s and i t was  i n c a p a b l e o f t a k i n g on In of  about by the i n c r e a s i n g i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n o f t h e  responsibilities.  h i s r e v i e w o f t h e s o c i a l c l i m a t e i n E n g l a n d i n the e a r l y p a r t  the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , E. T. Ashton  1.  f e l t t h e y were  Dr. Frank V a l l e e , op. c i t . ,  p.  states:  1.  2. A. F. Young and E. T. Ashton, B r i t i s h S o c i a l Work i n the N i n e t e e n t h Century. Routledge and Kegan P a u l ; London; 1 9 5 6 , p. 2 2 6 .  7  "The needs o f the p e o p l e were grave. The n e c e s s i t y f o r a r e v o l u t i o n a r y approach t o mass m i s e r y was p r o v e d by the widespread i n t e r e s t i n t h e r e f o r m o f t h e Poor Laws. The p e o p l e themselves, i n a l l k i n d s o f movements, newspapers, pamphlets, p r o t e s t s and v i o l e n c e i t s e l f were a s k i n g f o r h e l p i n p i t i f u l terms. They had s u p p o r t e r s from among a l l s o c i a l c l a s s e s , p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s and r e l i g i o u s c r e e d s . " I n t e r e s t was  aroused.  G r e a t e r knowledge o f the a p p a l l i n g c o n d i t i o n s  and o f the people themselves was  sought by t h e c l e r g y i n t h e slums, by  s t u d e n t s a t t h e u n i v e r s i t y s e t t l e m e n t s , by humanitarians E v e n t u a l l y f u l l - s c a l e s o c i a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n s were made.  i n a l l walks o f  life.  A l l this gradually  l e d t o t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f measures which improved socio-economic f o r the l o w e r  the  conditions  c l a s s e s and g a i n e d them s u f f r a g e , b e t t e r working c o n d i t i o n s ,  u n i v e r s a l education,  and w e l f a r e p r o v i s i o n s .  I t i s p o s s i b l e t o see a number o f s i m i l a r i t i e s between t h e  situation  o f t h e I n d i a n o f t h e e a r l y t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y i n Canada and the "poor" o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y i n England.  First,  i n f e r i o r and i n c a p a b l e o f "advancing" s o - c a l l e d " s u p e r i o r " standards.  the g e n e r a l b e l i e f t h a t the I n d i a n and assuming any o f the white man's  Secondly,  t h e s t a t u s o f t h e I n d i a n has been  comparable to t h e s e c o n d - c l a s s c i t i z e n s h i p o f t h e p o o r . t h e o f t - r e p e a t e d phrase contemplating at l a s t ,  was  "one law f o r the r i c h and another  One  i s reminded o f  f o r t h e poor", when  the l e g a l b a r r i e r s w h i c h r e s t r i c t t h e I n d i a n even now.  He  has,  a c h i e v e d the v o t e i n f e d e r a l e l e c t i o n s , but the laws and r e g u l a t i o n s  concerning  e d u c a t i o n , p r o p e r t y r i g h t s and l i q u o r are, f o r him,  t o t h o s e g o v e r n i n g o t h e r Canadian c i t i z e n s .  vastly different  T h i r d l y , an approach toward  r i g h t i n g and e l i m i n a t i n g some o f t h e s e i n j u s t i c e s i s b e i n g made.  There  has  been a growing, i f not a widespread, i n t e r e s t i n t h e needs and problems o f t h e I n d i a n s i n c e W o r l d War  II.  a c h i e v e some o f t h e s e reforms,  1.  I b i d , p.  7.  There i s g r e a t e r awareness t h a t i n o r d e r t o the I n d i a n needs t o be educated  to t a k e h i s  8  p a r t i n a c h i e v i n g them.  The  I n d i a n s themselves have formed o r g a n i z a t i o n s .  Newspapers have p u b l i s h e d a r t i c l e s and r e p o r t s .  Members o f r e l i g i o u s ,  e d u c a t i o n a l , w e l f a r e and l a b o u r o r g a n i z a t i o n s have spoken out f o r the of Indians.  A f u r t h e r i n d i c a t i o n o f concern  the E d i t o r " appearing and  i s t h e number o f " L e t t e r s t o  i n t h e p r e s s from i n d i v i d u a l s t h a t d e p l o r e t h e  s o c i a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n s a g a i n s t the  rights  legal  Indian.  Post-War Developments There have been many attempts t o improve the s i t u a t i o n o f the i n Canada s i n c e post-war m e n t a l i t y r e v i v e d i n t e r e s t i n r e f o r m .  Indian  Here a r e some  o f the m a n i f e s t a t i o n s : 1946  F o r m a t i o n o f J o i n t Committee o f Senate and House o f Commons on I n d i a n A f f a i r s .  1948  R e p o r t o f t h i s P a r l i a m e n t a r y Committee a f t e r h e a r i n g over hundred b r i e f s from I n d i a n and non-Indian s o u r c e s .  1950  I n d i a n A f f a i r s B r a n c h t r a n s f e r r e d t o t h e F e d e r a l Department o f C i t i z e n s h i p and Immigration from the Department o f Mines and Resources.  1951  R e v i s i o n o f I n d i a n Act and subsequent changes i n a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p o l i c y a f f e c t i n g h e a l t h , w e l f a r e , economy, and e d u c a t i o n .  19541959  Commissioning and p u b l i c a t i o n o f socio-economic surveys on the people o f I n d i a n o r i g i n i n two p r o v i n c e s , one by the F e d e r a l government, t h e o t h e r by a p r o v i n c i a l government.  1957  F o r m a t i o n o f N a t i o n a l Commission on the I n d i a n Canadian, a s t a n d i n g committee o f t h e Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n o f A d u l t E d u c a t i o n , which was l a t e r i n c o r p o r a t e d as a s e p a r a t e v o l u n t a r y agency under the t i t l e "Indian-Eskimo A s s o c i a t i o n o f Canada" i n I960. I t has p u b l i s h e d a q u a r t e r l y B u l l e t i n s i n c e 1958, chronicling events and developments c o n c e r n i n g the n a t i v e p e o p l e throughout Canada.  1958  Appointment o f Senator James G l a d s t o n e , Chamber o f t h e Canadian P a r l i a m e n t .  1959  E s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a second J o i n t Committee o f Senate and House o f Commons on I n d i a n A f f a i r s , which w i l l soon be p u b l i s h i n g i t s r e p o r t on the b r i e f s and recommendations p r e s e n t e d .  1.  four  an I n d i a n , t o the Upper  B r i t i s h Columbia - the F e d e r a l government. M a n i t o b a - ^ e Manitoba government.  9  I960  L e g i s l a t i o n g r a n t i n g t h e r i g h t t o vote i n f e d e r a l e l e c t i o n s to a l l I n d i a n s who have reached t h e age o f twenty-one y e a r s . There are. p o l i t i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s i n some o f t h e s e happenings, b u t  they a r e a l s o i n d i c a t i v e o f s o c i a l t r e n d s : I n d i a n , t o i n c l u d e him i n t h e p o l i t i c a l  t o improve c o n d i t i o n s f o r t h e  scene, and t o h e l p a l t e r some a t t i t u d e s  toward him. The measures i n t r o d u c e d by t h e F e d e r a l Government a r e i n p a r t a r e s u l t o f t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n s by I n d i a n and non-Indian groups, by church, w e l f a r e and o t h e r o r g a n i z a t i o n s , t o t h e J o i n t P a r l i a m e n t a r y Committee.  There  i s a need f o r t h e "man on t h e s t r e e t " t o r e a l i z e t h a t t h e I n d i a n i s n o t s o l e l y t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f t h e F e d e r a l Government, t h a t he i s a neighbour who r e q u i r e s some n e i g h b o u r l y h e l p , as do l a n d e d immigrants, i n o r d e r t o become an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f t h e Canadian n a t i o n .  F o r t h i s reason,  the formation o f a  n a t i o n a l v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l s and o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e f u t u r e o f t h e I n d i a n i s o f p a r t i c u l a r importance. to  I t i s attempting  h e l p by c o o r d i n a t i n g c i t i z e n e f f o r t s and by p u b l i c i s i n g them. Perhaps t h e wheel i s t u r n i n g f u l l  circle:  w i t h t h e growing  f a m i l i a r i t y o f U n i t e d N a t i o n s programmes f o r t h e s o - c a l l e d "underdeveloped c o u n t r i e s " , there i s b e t t e r r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t there are underdeveloped i n o u r own c o u n t r y !  areas  Moreover, t h e r e p o r t s and commentaries on t h e i s s u e s o f  segregation versus de-segregation  o f t h e Negro i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and on  t h e p o l i c i e s o f a p a r t h e i d i n South A f r i c a a r e , and w i l l be, c a u s i n g Canadians to pause and c o n s i d e r t h e s i t u a t i o n o f t h e I n d i a n i n t h e i r  midst.  In r e c e n t y e a r s , o f course, t h e r e have been many a l t e r a t i o n s i n a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p o l i c y towards t h e I n d i a n s .  As another  anthropologist,  Dr. R. W. Dunning o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f Manitoba, s a i d i n t h e p r e v i o u s l y quoted r a d i o s e r i e s ,  10  "Overall, the Department of Health and Welfare has achieved spectacular results in the area of health. The Indian Affairs Branch has achieved a great deal in the areas of housing, improving the local reserve economy by such measures as the revolving fund loan and fur conservation schemes. But more important they increased enormously the educational services on the reserve. This reflects their philosophy that the best preparation for Indian integration i s to offer them the same education as other Canadians receive." While there have been changes in the o f f i c i a l attitude of the administration, the Hawthorn report on Indians in British Columbia records that there i s s t i l l "a minority of superintendents whose outlook i s racist 2 in principle".  To put i t bluntly, a few s t i l l regard the Indian as inferior.  One can imagine how this opinion would colour their dealings with the people under their administration. This so-called "expert" opinion would also influence others in these districts who have l i t t l e direct contact with the Indian and already entertain many myths about his capacity and potential. The Indian has cause to resent the image of him that appears in the movies and comic strips, and i t will take much more than the recent wellintentioned documentary films and broadcasts of our national communication services, the National Film Board, and the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, to dissolve the long-held notions of the general public. However, with the concerted attempts of citizens' voluntary groups and the wider participation of Indians i n the lives of their neighbours outside the reserves, a more balanced picture should develop. Migration to the Cities There has been an increasing movement away from the reserves in the past ten years.  Due to the i n a b i l i t y of the reserve economy to support  1. Dr. R. W. Dunning, "Indian Reserves and the Reserve Economy", The F i r s t Canadians. Radio series, Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, October 17, 1959. 2.  H. B. Hawthorn, op. cit.,  p. 487.  11  the m u l t i p l y i n g p o p u l a t i o n even a t a s u b s i s t e n c e l e v e l , many I n d i a n s have sought employment i n the c i t i e s when t h e y were n o t a b l e t o o b t a i n j o b s i n the d i s t r i c t s  surrounding  the reserves.  Too,  the i n c r e a s e d o p p o r t u n i t y f o r  governmental a s s i s t a n c e toward e d u c a t i o n beyond Grade V I I I has meant t h a t many young p e o p l e training.  a r e a l s o coming t o t h e c i t i e s ,  at l e a s t temporarily, f o r further  I t has n o t been easy f o r a l l t h e s e p e o p l e t o adapt b o t h t o  the  d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r a l e x p e c t a t i o n s o f the n o n - I n d i a n community and to t h e f e r e n c e s i n urban l i v i n g . city life  Some have found  dif-  themselves unable to a d j u s t t o  and have r e t u r n e d to the s e c u r i t y o f the r e s e r v e .  A few,  dis-  couraged and overwhelmed by t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s c o n f r o n t i n g them, d r i f t t o t h e " s k i d r o a d " a r e a s where t h e i r t a n g l e s w i t h the law are e a s i l y i n t e r p r e t e d as a p r o p e n s i t y f o r the I n d i a n t o become d e l i n q u e n t . I n d i a n s who  H a p p i l y , t h e r e i s now  new  note.  and  s e l f - s u p p o r t i n g i n the c i t i e s , t h r o u g h b e t t e r p r e p a r a t i o n o r p o s s i b l y  have been equal to t h e t a s k o f becoming e s t a b l i s h e d  more p r o p i t i o u s c i r c u m s t a n c e s  a t the time o f t h e i r a r r i v a l ,  about h e l p i n g t h e newcomers to s e t t l e i n t o t h i s new  i t has  endeavoured to a s s i s t those  a r e now  concerned  environment.  The F e d e r a l Government has n o t been unaware o f t h e S i n c e 1957  a  seeking  difficulties.  jobs by h a v i n g  Place-  ment O f f i c e r s o f the I n d i a n A f f a i r s Branch work c l o s e l y w i t h the N a t i o n a l Employment S e r v i c e s j a l s o t h e o f f i c e o f the R e g i o n a l S u p e r i n t e n d e n t s Indian Schools takes  of  some i n t e r e s t i n t h o s e r e c e i v i n g t u i t i o n a s s i s t a n c e .  However, t h e r e i s l i t t l e  help r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e f o r those without  Indian  status.  The Needs o f P e o p l e Coming From R u r a l to Urban S e t t i n g s What are t h e needs o f t h e newcomer t o town?  He needs t o have a  p l a c e t o l i v e o r to s t a y u n t i l he f i n d s accommodation t h a t i s s u i t a b l e . needs to l e a r n h i s way  about t h e c i t y .  He l o o k s f o r d i v e r s i o n s o r  He  interests  12  to  occupy h i s l e i s u r e time.  He  seeks s o c i a l c o n t a c t s through c l u b and  o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n o r d e r t o f i n d companionship, loneliness.  f r i e n d s , and a v o i d  The newcomer o f I n d i a n d e s c e n t has a l l t h e s e needs, and i f he  has known l i t t l e may  make new  church  but the l i f e o f t h e r e s e r v e and t h e r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l , he  have a l o t more.  I f he asks f o r d i r e c t i o n s o r f o r i n f o r m a t i o n , he may  snubbed by some p r e j u d i c e d p e r s o n .  be  Even t h e p o l i c e sometimes tend to r e g a r d  1 him w i t h s u s p i c i o n .  These a r e such l i v i n g r e a l i t i e s t h a t t h e W e l f a r e C o u n c i l  o f G r e a t e r Winnipeg compiled a l i s t o f d i f f i c u l t i e s t h a t I n d i a n newcomers may  have: (a)  F i n d i n g t h e i r way about t h e c i t y ( t r a n s i t system, d i r e c t i o n s , streets, etc.) (b) Knowing about housing s t a n d a r d s and how t o o b t a i n s a t i s f a c t o r y housing. (c) F i n d i n g s u i t a b l e temporary accommodation. (d) The p r o p e r use o f money and f a m i l y b u d g e t i n g . ( e ) The r u d i m e n t a r y l e v e l s o f p e r s o n a l hygiene, c o r r e c t a t t i r e f o r d i f f e r e n t o c c a s i o n s and p e r s o n a l b e h a v i o u r . ( f ) - U n d e r s t a n d i n g employer expectancy i n such m a t t e r s as r e g u l a r i t y , p u n c t u a l i t y , d e p e n d a b i l i t y , and performance; the r e s o u r c e s o f the N a t i o n a l Employment S e r v i c e . (g) The use o f community m e d i c a l and h o s p i t a l f a c i l i t i e s . (h) Knowledge o f e d u c a t i o n o p p o r t u n i t i e s , s c h o l a r s h i p s . (i) Making and m a i n t a i n i n g c o n t a c t s w i t h c h u r c h groups. (j) The u s e o f community h e a l t h , w e l f a r e and r e c r e a t i o n s e r v i c e s , (k) D i s c r i m i n a t i o n by n o n - I n d i a n s . 2  The Purpose o f t h e  Study  The purpose point. of  o f t h e p r e s e n t study i s easy t o b r i n g t o a f o c u s a t t h i s  I n s e v e r a l Canadian  c i t i e s where t h e r e has been a n o t i c e a b l e i n f l u x  I n d i a n s coming t o seek employment o r t o t a k e f u r t h e r e d u c a t i o n o r v o c a t i o n a l  t r a i n i n g , attempts have been made by t h e e s t a b l i s h e d I n d i a n r e s i d e n t s t o h e l p  1. There have been i n c i d e n t s i n Vancouver o f I n d i a n s t u d e n t s on t h e i r way to t h e i r b o a r d i n g houses i n r e s i d e n t i a l d i s t r i c t s , b e i n g p i c k e d up f o r q u e s t i o n i n g because t h e y a r e o u t s i d e the downtown a r e a . 2. The W e l f a r e C o u n c i l o f G r e a t e r Winnipeg, " R e f e r r a l S e r v i c e f o r People o f Indian O r i g i n " . Appendix I I , June 3, 1958.  13  to meet their need as they adapt to city l i f e .  In some cases, a group has  been encouraged by interested non-Indian citizens to form an association with them; in others, members of the clergy or Indian Affairs Branch employees have fostered the idea; or, an organization has been initiated by the Indians themselves.  In most areas, these associations aim to set up some sort of  permanent Centre for their services and activities; in the meantime, they attempt to accomplish as much as possible, through meetings in private homes or in rented halls, through sponsoring sports, dances and other educational and recreational events. Certain questions arise from the nature of these organizations. Do they f u l f i l l a need that is not being met by other existing agencies in the communities, or are they duplicating services already available? Do they make i t easier for the newcomer to use other available resources in the city, or do they tend to make him feel segregated from the non-Indian population? The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of these associations in meeting the needs of the Indian in the city.  It attempts to  assess the significance of these associations to both the newcomer and the city resident of Indian descent. Various methods have been utilized to this end. Where names and addresses were available, information was requested of a l l organizations with Indian membership known to aim at promoting understanding between Indians and non-Indians, and at facilitating the integration of Indians into the Canadian urban community. The replies received indicate that this should be regarded as an exploratory study. Different kinds of organizations are being formed, but few have been in existence over a year. However, something can certainly be gained from assessing the main principles which activate them, and their achievements so far.  14  The  aims and objectives of a l l the associations, t h e i r membership  regulations and some of t h e i r services and a c t i v i t i e s , are reviewed i n Chapter 2.  This i s then followed by a detailed description of the formation and  history of a l o c a l association, the Coqualeetza Fellowship which was i n B r i t i s h Columbia.  a pioneer  CHAPTER 2  THE DEVELOPMENT OF INDIAN ORGANIZATIONS IN URBAN CENTRES  Many c i t y r e s i d e n t s , both I n d i a n and n o n - I n d i a n , have been concerned about t h e s i t u a t i o n o f t h e I n d i a n s who a r e m i g r a t i n g i n g r e a t e r numbers t o t h e l a r g e r Canadian urban c e n t r e s .  I n t h e p a s t , u n f o r t u n a t e l y , concern  has been  l a r g e l y c e n t r e d on t h e p l i g h t o f t h e d i s c h a r g e d I n d i a n p r i s o n e r o r t h e unf o r t u n a t e d i s t r e s s e d I n d i a n who d r i f t s i n t o t h e c i t y slums and f i n d s r e f u g e o n l y on t h e f r i n g e s o f t h e underworld.  Moreover, t h i s concern  has n o t been  so much f o r t h e p a r t i c u l a r i n d i v i d u a l ; r a t h e r , i t has been concern "problem" h i s p r e s e n c e c r e a t e s f o r t h e slum m i s s i o n s , t h e s o c i a l  f o r the  agencies,  t h e p o l i c e , and t h e c o u r t s . These c o n d i t i o n s s t i l l t i o n t h a t young I n d i a n p e o p l e ,  exist.  But, t h e r e i s now a growing r e a l i z a -  i n c l u d i n g s t u d e n t s , who a r e a r r i v i n g i n t h e  c i t i e s , may need h e l p o f a d i f f e r e n t k i n d . k i n d s o f home and s c h o o l backgrounds. and i m p e r s o n a l i t y o f c i t y l i f e ,  They come from many d i f f e r e n t  Few a r e p r e p a r e d  f o r the complexity  o r f o r t h e m a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f p r e j u d i c e and  d i s c r i m i n a t i o n a g a i n s t them which soon show up.  Most o f them have been  encouraged t o take f u r t h e r e d u c a t i o n o r v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g ; o t h e r s a r e l o o k i n g f o r employment o r p o s s i b l y b e g i n n i n g t h e i r f i r s t  jobs i n town.  They  come t o t h e c i t i e s w i t h g r e a t e x p e c t a t i o n s ; n e v e r t h e l e s s , i n t e r e s t e d p e r s o n s have n o t i c e d t h e l o n e l i n e s s and, sometimes, t h e discouragement t h a t a s s a i l s t h e s e young.people i n t h e i r new environment. The  sympathy and i n t e r e s t f e l t f o r t h e s e newcomers has s t i m u l a t e d  the growth o f a new k i n d o f o r g a n i z a t i o n i n c i t i e s i n v a r i o u s p a r t s o f Canada. The  f o r m a t i o n o f c i t y - l o c a t e d c l u b s by I n d i a n s and w i t h I n d i a n s i s a  phenomenon t h a t s h o u l d be b e t t e r r e c o g n i z e d , and i t needs encouragement.  In  16  many ways, t h e s e c i t i z e n - s p o n s o r e d c l u b s are as important  to the f u t u r e o f  t h e I n d i a n p e o p l e as t h e government-sponsored programmes t o improve r e s e r v e economy by community development. by these  c l u b s , t h e r e w i l l be  p a r e d t o a s s i s t t h e i r own  I f students  some among them who  p e o p l e i n improving  the  and o t h e r s a r e  helped  w i l l thus be b e t t e r p r e -  c o n d i t i o n s both on and o f f t h e  reserves. I n Canada, a t l e a s t  some f i f t e e n c i t i e s i n s i x p r o v i n c e s a r e  now  1 known to have a c t i v e urban o r g a n i z a t i o n s f o r N a t i v e I n d i a n s .  In  t i o n f o r the p r e s e n t  friendship  study,  t w e l v e c l u b s , two  c o u n c i l s , and two  c e n t r e s were l e a r n e d about and w r i t t e n t o f o r i n f o r m a t i o n .  prepara-  A schedule  of  2 questions was drawn up, the p r e s i d e n t s were asked f o r responses, were r e c e i v e d from a l l but a few.  and  these  I t appears t h a t seven o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n s have been formed w i t h i n  3 the past year  , whereas t h e o l d e s t was  formed t e n y e a r s ago.  They have  d i f f e r e n t names, t h e y have d i f f e r e n t r e g u l a t i o n s f o r membership, but aims and o b j e c t i v e s a r e v e r y much a l i k e . too important,  their  W h i l e perhaps the names a r e n o t  some s i g n i f i c a n c e can be seen i n t h e i r c h o i c e .  The  designation  " I n d i a n " i s used by many a s s o c i a t i o n s whose membership i s e x c l u s i v e l y I n d i a n and by o t h e r s t h a t have s t r o n g I n d i a n p a r t i c i p a t i o n . p r i d e o f r a c e o r may "Native"  This could r e f l e c t  simply r e f l e c t a l o c a l preference,  f o r the  designation  seems t o be used more by t h o s e o r g a n i z a t i o n s l o c a t e d i n t h e  provinces.  On  the o t h e r hand, some a v o i d the c o n n o t a t i o n  "Indian"  prairie  or  " N a t i v e " a l t o g e t h e r , and have chosen names o f I n d i a n o r i g i n f o r t h e i r  1. See Appendix A. writing. 2. See Appendix B.  3.  I960.  There may  be o t h e r s n o t known a t the time o f  titles,  17  p o s s i b l y f e e l i n g t h a t t h i s would seem l e s s s e p a r a t i s t .  Membership Membership r e g u l a t i o n s o f t h e a s s o c i a t i o n s f a l l i n t o f o u r The f i r s t  a l l o w s membership o n l y t o I n d i a n s ( a l t h o u g h  categories.  one o r g a n i z a t i o n i s now  i n c l u d i n g E s k i m o s ) ; a second i n v i t e s non-Indians as h o n o r a r y members w i t h o u t v o t i n g p r i v i l e g e s ; t h e t h i r d p e r m i t s n o n - I n d i a n members t o v o t e , them from h o l d i n g  executive  but p r o h i b i t s  o f f i c e ; t h e f o u r t h o f f e r s f u l l membership t o  I n d i a n s and n o n - I n d i a n s a l i k e . The two e x c l u s i v e l y I n d i a n memberships were r e p o r t e d Ontario  cities.  T h i s c o u l d i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e I n d i a n s i n t h i s p a r t o f Canada  have had b e t t e r o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r d e v e l o p i n g t h e i r i d e n t i t y as I n d i a n s , misgivings  by c l u b s i n  a preference  a greater pride i n  t o o p e r a t e on t h e i r own,  about n o n - I n d i a n i n t e r f e r e n c e .  l a r g e r reservations i n Ontario  leadership,  o r more  C e r t a i n l y t h e fewer bands and  would g i v e t h e I n d i a n s a g r e a t e r  sense o f  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h one another than t h e I n d i a n s o f B r i t i s h Columbia f e e l w i t h t h e i r numerous, eastern  small,, and s c a t t e r e d r e s e r v a t i o n s . ^  could  Also, i n t h i s  s e c t i o n o f Canada t h e I n d i a n s have a p a r t i c u l a r sense o f p r i d e i n  t h e i r heritage,  f o r t h e y a r e s t r o n g l y aware o f t h e i r f o r e f a t h e r s ' r e l a t i o n s  w i t h t h e B r i t i s h , as l o y a l and honoured a l l i e s d u r i n g t h e c o l o n i a l wars o f 2 the  seventeenth c e n t u r y .  T h i s h i s t o r i c e r a i s w e l l documented; t h e y keep  i t s memories f r e s h i n t h e i r own minds and, f o r v a r i o u s o t h e r reasons, do n o t let  the r e s t o f Canada n o r t h e F e d e r a l government f o r g e t i t . Those a s s o c i a t i o n s , i n the two c a t e g o r i e s  p r i v i l e g e s o f the non-Indian membership, 1*  2.  that r e s t r i c t the  are p o s s i b l y guarding against  Ontario: 164 r e s e r v a t i o n s , 11 bands. B r i t i s h Columbia: 1,629 r e s e r v a t i o n s ,  204 bands.  E p i t o m i z e d by Mohawk C h i e f Joseph B r a n t o f t h e S i x N a t i o n s .  being  18  unduly i n f l u e n c e d o r c o n t r o l l e d . decision-making  They are, probably,. o n l y too aware t h a t '  w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e i r own a f f a i r s has t o o o f t e n i n t h e p a s t  been taken o u t o f t h e i r hands.  Honorary o r a s s o c i a t e membership f o r non-  I n d i a n s a l l o w s s i n c e r e and i n t e r e s t e d persons  t o show t h e i r  support, w h i l e p e r m i t t i n g t h e I n d i a n s t o develop  sympathetic  and c o n t r o l t h e p o l i c y and  a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e c l u b through t h e i r own l e a d e r s h i p .  L i k e w i s e , when I n d i a n  d e s c e n t i s mandatory f o r e x e c u t i v e p o s i t i o n s , t h e r e i s l e s s o p p o r t u n i t y f o r t h e non-Indian  members to i n f l u e n c e and r u n t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n .  r e s t r i c t i o n s are mainly  Since  seen i n t h e western p r o v i n c e s , c o u l d t h i s  these  signify  t h a t t h e I n d i a n s o f t h e p l a i n s and t h e c o a s t do n o t f e e l as w e l l p r e p a r e d as t h e i r e a s t e r n c o u n t e r p a r t s t o cope w i t h e x i s t i n g c o n d i t i o n s ? see themselves as n e e d i n g  They may  a s s i s t a n c e , m o r a l o r economic, from t h e n o n - I n d i a n  population; p o s s i b l y sensing a l a c k o f w e l l - e s t a b l i s h e d , coordinated opinion among themselves,  t h e y have more need t o p r o t e c t t h e m s e l v e s from  c o n t r o l ; a l s o t h e non-Indian churches,  support i n t h e west has been m o s t l y  and, no doubt, t h e c l u b s a r e g u a r d i n g a g a i n s t b e i n g  non-Indian from t h e  considered  principally religious associations. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t t h e a s s o c i a t i o n which extends e q u a l r i g h t s and p r i v i l e g e s t o a l l members, whether I n d i a n o r non-Indian, i s l o c a t e d i n what c o u l d s t i l l be c a l l e d a p i o n e e r a r e a o f Canada - t h e Yukon Territory.  P o s s i b l y on t h i s n o r t h e r n f r o n t i e r ,  o f t h e i r dependence on one another, b e n e f i t t h e whole community.  t h e p e o p l e a r e more m i n d f u l  and r e a l i z e t h a t h e l p f o r one group w i l l  I n t h e i r c o n s t i t u t i o n , t h e y express  their  i n t e n t i o n t o "remain s t r i c t l y n o n - p o l i t i c a l and non-denominational i n character". O n l y one o f t h e a s s o c i a t i o n s r e p o r t s a preponderance o f members i n t h e e i g h t e e n t o t w e n t y - f i v e age group, and i t was o r g a n i z e d under t h e  19  s p o n s o r s h i p o f t h e Young Men's C h r i s t i a n A s s o c i a t i o n . The o t h e r s t a k e a keen i n t e r e s t i n the young a d u l t group, but a r e composed o f members from all  age  groups. Where t h e r e are membership f e e s , t h e charges a r e p u r e l y nominal  ones.  Some a s s o c i a t i o n s merely have an attendance  d o n a t i o n s a t t h e meetings. uniqueness,  fee, while others i n v i t e  Once a g a i n t h e Yukon a s s o c i a t i o n e x h i b i t s i t s  f o r t h e By-Laws s t a t e , "The membership dues s h a l l be one  dollar  p e r p e r s o n , o r a c o n t r i b u t i o n o f h a n d i c r a f t o r work which i s c o n s i d e r e d by t h e d u l y - e l e c t e d o f f i c e r s t o be worth a t l e a s t t h a t amount."  Purpose o f t h e O r g a n i z a t i o n s The main r e a s o n f o r forming t h e s e a s s o c i a t i o n s has been t o p r o v i d e an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r t h e I n d i a n t o meet w i t h o t h e r s o f h i s e t h n i c group, t o be welcomed d u r i n g t h e i n i t i a l p e r i o d o f c o p i n g w i t h the s t r a n g e n e s s o f the c i t y , t o share e x p e r i e n c e s w i t h o t h e r s who  are attempting to put i n t o  p e r s p e c t i v e the o f t e n i n c o n s i s t e n t v a l u e s o f t h e non-Indians c o n f l i c t w i t h t h o s e o f t h e i r own  culture.  proper  which sometimes  As one group says, " t o make them  f e e l a t home so t h a t the -notion t o hop t h e n e x t t r a i n may  be  dissipated."  T h e i r p u r p o s e i s t o p r o v i d e a f r i e n d l y atmosphere i n which t o spend some l e i s u r e time, and t o t h i s end, most o f t h e a s s o c i a t i o n s aim t o g i v e p r i o r i t y to the establishment o f a "Centre".  In t h i s setting,  provision  c o u l d be made f o r : (1)  f e l l o w s h i p and  (2)  a c t i v i t i e s o f a r e c r e a t i o n a l or e d u c a t i o n a l nature,  (3)  c o u n s e l l i n g and The  guidance  socialization,  guidance.  f u t u r e o f any n a t i o n o r s o c i e t y depends upon t h e d i r e c t i o n  g i v e n t o t h e g e n e r a t i o n who  a r e f a c i n g o r about t o assume a d u l t  and  20  responsibilities.  Many I n d i a n s and  some sympathetic non-Indians  recognize  the need t o encourage and a s s i s t these young I n d i a n p e o p l e t o take p l a c e i n modern Canadian  s o c i e t y , so t h a t t h e y may  their  i n turn help others of  t h e i r r a c e t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e contemporary scene, r e g a i n t h e r e s p e c t and d i g n i t y t h a t once was  theirs,  and y e t r e t a i n t h e i r 1  As t h e Reverend Andre* Renaud  identity.  s a i d i n an address t o t h e  Conference  on I n d i a n s and M e t i s o f t h e G r e a t e r Winnipeg W e l f a r e C o u n c i l i n 1958,  11  ... i t  i s n o t enough, f o r t h e p r o s p e c t i v e t o w n - r e s i d e n t o f I n d i a n d e s c e n t , t o have t e c h n i c a l o r p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g , t o speak the same language t h e same way  as the o t h e r s t o a c h i e v e socio-economic  o f h i s address was  o f t h e i r own.  adjustment."  t h a t I n d i a n s s h o u l d n o t o n l y be encouraged  t o g e t h e r i n the c i t i e s ,  and d r e s s The theme  to a s s o c i a t e  but should a l s o be h e l p e d t o l o c a t e i n m e e t i n g - p l a c e s  He p o i n t e d o u t t h a t t h e I n d i a n f a c e s many c u l t u r a l  on h i s a r r i v a l i n the c i t i e s ,  differences  and t h a t he has c o n t i n u a l l y t o p u t e f f o r t  into  g u e s s i n g a t and i n t e r p r e t i n g the ways and r e a c t i o n s o f t h e p e o p l e he meets and i n t o a d j u s t i n g t o them.  He w i l l  be b e t t e r a b l e t o do a l l o f t h e s e  t h i n g s , i f he has as a r e s o u r c e the support o f o t h e r s i n a l i k e  position.  Objectives As a l r e a d y i n d i c a t e d , t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n s have many s i m i l a r o b j e c t i v e s . None o c c u r s more f r e q u e n t l y i n the l i s t s o f o b j e c t i v e s t h a n t h e aim o f b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g between I n d i a n s and non-Indians,  as f o r example:  "To a s s i s t i n t h e promotion o f b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g I n d i a n h e r i t a g e and a l l o t h e r p e o p l e ..." "To c r e a t e b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g citizens."  ... between t h o s e o f  ... between I n d i a n s and  non-Indian  "To promote ... u n d e r s t a n d i n g between t h e N a t i v e s o f Canada o f I n d i a n  1. E d u c a t i o n a l i s t and G e n e r a l D i r e c t o r o f t h e I n d i a n and Eskimo W e l f a r e Commission o f t h e O b l a t e F a t h e r s i n Canada.  21  d e s c e n t and the Canadian  public."  " ... f o r b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g between N a t i v e s and non-Indian  people."  There i s c o n s i d e r a b l e s i g n i f i c a n c e i n the c h o i c e o f t h i s word: understanding.  The C o n c i s e O x f o r d D i c t i o n a r y o f f e r s s e v e r a l meanings:  i n t e l l i g e n c e ( i n t h e v e r b a l s e n s e ) ; power o f apprehension; agreement, harmony, union o f sentiments.  Each o f t h e s e meanings i s i m p o r t a n t i n i t s own  a c h i e v e t h e substance o f a l l t h r e e would be an accomplishment. t o comprehend, t o p e r c e i v e t h e n a t u r e o f , t o know how  To  to.deal with.  way,  to  understand: A l l the  c l u b s i m p l y t h a t t h e r e i s some u n d e r s t a n d i n g , because t h e y s t a t e the need for  "better understanding". There i s more t o t h i s m a t t e r o f the need f o r b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g  between I n d i a n s and n o n - I n d i a n s  than appears  at f i r s t g l a n c e .  Nevertheless,  t h e r e c o g n i t i o n o f a need and t h e d e s i r e f o r i t s f u l f i l l m e n t a r e important s t e p s i n t h e p r o c e s s o f p r o d u c i n g measures t h a t l e a d t o f u l f i l l m e n t o f t h e need.  A t t h i s p o i n t , b o t h I n d i a n s and non-Indians  r e q u i r e knowledge o f  o t h e r ' s v a l u e s and t h e b e h a v i o u r and a t t i t u d e s t h a t a r e produced a l s o the r e a s o n f o r the d i f f e r e n c e s i n these v a l u e s .  each  by them,  I n any s i t u a t i o n where  t h e r e a r e d i f f e r e n c e s which need to be r e s o l v e d , whether o f o p i n i o n s o r o f v a l u e s , t h e y a r e seldom s a t i s f a c t o r i l y s e t t l e d without s e r i o u s e f f o r t by a l l concerned t o u n d e r s t a n d them. Both the I n d i a n and the n o n - I n d i a n need t o know and u n d e r s t a n d more about t h e i r own between them.  p r o c l i v i t i e s b e f o r e a harmonious u n d e r s t a n d i n g i s r e a c h e d The I n d i a n r e q u i r e s a g r e a t e r knowledge o f t h e c u l t u r e o f h i s  f o r e f a t h e r s ; w h i l e he may  have l e a r n e d o f the p a s t from t h e o l d e r p e o p l e o f  h i s band, he has been s u b j e c t e d t o so many d i s t o r t e d f a c t s from  non-Indian  s o u r c e s t h a t he i s u n l i k e l y t o have a w e l l - d e f i n e d image o f h i m s e l f o r h i s people.  He needs a sense o f h i s own  worth i n o r d e r t o be a b l e t o cope w i t h  22  t h e changes t h a t c o n f r o n t a l l who The non-Indian  make t h e move from r u r a l to urban l i v i n g .  r e q u i r e s a g r e a t e r r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t h i s c u l t u r a l ways a r e by  no means s u p e r i o r to those o f o t h e r s . o t h e r Canadians must understand I n d i a n and  As Reverend Andre Renaud emphasized,  t h e v a l u e s and c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s o f t h e  s h o u l d r e s p e c t them, p a r t i c u l a r l y w h i l e t h e I n d i a n i s t r y i n g t o  m i n i m i z e t h o s e t h a t handicap d i f f e r e n c e s " , he s a i d ,  h i s acceptance  i n urban s o c i e t y .  "Other  "must be r e s p e c t e d as v a l i d l y human, even more t h a t  t h e i r e x p r e s s i o n must be encouraged f o r t h e mental h e a l t h o f t h e and  f o r the o v e r a l l enrichment o f the  individual  community."  What are some o f t h e c u l t u r a l v a l u e s t h a t c r e a t e d i f f i c u l t i e s i n t h e s o c i a l adjustment o f I n d i a n s ?  Dr. Ben R e i f e l sees them as b e i n g  the  2 concepts o f time,  s a v i n g , and work;  S t a t e s Bureau o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s , who speak w i t h some a u t h o r i t y .  ... t h e r e was  I t was  seasons."  was  c o u l d have a l l t h a t  o f food, c l o t h i n g , and s h e l t e r by l i v i n g i n harmony never any need t o c o o r d i n a t e t h e e f f o r t s o f the  group except i n some g e n e r a l way moon, and  can  no need f o r the I n d i a n t o be o r i e n t e d t o  The I n d i a n had no need to save because "he  he r e q u i r e d i n t h e way with nature  i s o f German and S i o u x descent,, he  He p o i n t s out t h a t b e f o r e N o r t h America  s e t t l e d by the Europeans, t h e r e was the f u t u r e .  as an Area D i r e c t o r w i t h t h e U n i t e d  around the n a t u r a l o b j e c t s , such as t h e  sun,  The d a i l y t e d i o u s work t a s k s were t h e l o t o f the women.  t h e men's r o l e to guard and d e f e n d the t r i b e and t o assume t h e "more  rigorous t a s k o f hunting  so t h a t t h e p e o p l e would have f o o d , c l o t h i n g ,  and  shelter." 1.  Rev.  Andre Renaud; Address t o t h e Conference  o f t h e G r e a t e r Winnipeg W e l f a r e C o u n c i l , January  25,  on I n d i a n and  Metis  1958.  2. Dr. Ben R e i f e l ; "To Be o r To Become; C u l t u r a l F a c t o r s i n S o c i a l Adjustment o f I n d i a n s " , E x e e r p t s o f an address g i v e n to t h e N o r t h e r n Montana Work Conference on I n d i a n E d u c a t i o n , p u b l i s h e d i n I n d i a n E d u c a t i o n , A p r i l 15, 1957; r e p r i n t e d by the N a t i o n a l Commission on the I n d i a n Canadian.  23  Dr. R e i f e l r e g r e t s t h a t knowledge o f t h e importance o f such as time,  s a v i n g , and work i n t h e adjustment p r o c e s s was  e a r l i e r times.  concepts  not a v a i l a b l e i n  O n l y i n t h e p a s t f o r t y y e a r s o r so have a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l  s t u d i e s been r e c o g n i z e d as having much p r a c t i c a l b e a r i n g on t h e s u c c e s s f u l i n t e g r a t i o n o f t h e I n d i a n i n t o modern s o c i e t y . I n Canada t h e r e s e r v e system and t h e p r a c t i c e o f segregated t i o n has p e r p e t u a t e d  t h e I n d i a n ' s i g n o r a n c e o f European c u l t u r a l a t t i t u d e s  toward t h e s e c o n c e p t s .  The  c h u r c h - a f f i l i a t e d s c h o o l s sponsored by t h e F e d e r a l  Government have t e n d e d t o f o s t e r the moral, r a t h e r t h a n t h e s o c i a l , of  u s i n g time,  s a v i n g , and work.  aspects  I t i s l i t t l e wonder t h a t t h e I n d i a n has  been a b l e t o i n c o r p o r a t e t h e s e v a l u e s r e a d i l y i n t o h i s way would o n l y have meaning f o r p e o p l e community.  educa-  i n an i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c ,  of l i f e ,  f o r they  c o m p e t i t i v e type o f  Up u n t i l t h e l a s t few decades, t h e r e were few o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o  o t h e r t h a n r e t u r n t o h i s home.  soon  found  o u t when he r e t u r n e d t o t h e r e s e r v e t h a t t h e s e would n o t a l l o w him t o l i v e much d i f f e r e n t l i f e  do  When an I n d i a n c h i l d l e a r n e d about t h e  " v i r t u e s " o f p u n c t u a l i t y , t h r i f t and work a t s c h o o l , he p r o b a b l y  did  not  from h i s e l d e r s .  He  a  p r o b a b l y found t o o , t h a t h i s e l d e r s  not approve o f t h e White man's ways, n o r would t h e y a c c e p t  such i d e a s  -  from the young. The numerous s t u d i e s by a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s have a l s o shown t h a t w h i l e t h e r e a r e many v a r i a t i o n s i n s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e , most I n d i a n s o c i e t i e s on c o n t i n e n t p l a c e emphasis on group a c t i v i t y and c o o p e r a t i o n .  Nevertheless,  t h e i n d i v i d u a l has a p l a c e i n t h e group; he has p e r s o n a l s i g n i f i c a n c e t h i s g i v e s him a sense o f s e c u r i t y . to  t h e group.  this  What he i s and what he does i s  and  important  He l e a r n s as a c h i l d t h a t h i s i n d i v i d u a l c o n t r i b u t i o n has  meaning f o r the l i f e  o f the group and t h e r e f o r e i s b e t t e r p r e p a r e d  r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f h i s a d u l t r o l e i n the group.  t o assume  2 4  In c o n t r a s t to t h i s , had  the I n d i a n  has n o t been made t o f e e l t h a t  a p l a c e i n the l a r g e r sphere o f Canadian l i f e .  There has  been so  he  little  r e c o g n i t i o n o f the p o s s i b i l i t y o f h i s c o n t r i b u t i n g t o the common good, t h a t for  a t i m e he almost gave up  c a p a b l e even o f h a n d l i n g  the s t r u g g l e , because he was  a f f a i r s i n h i s own  p a r t i c u l a r l y f i t t i n g t h a t many s h o u l d now t i o n and  cooperation One  Indian  community.  seek the  as t h e y mingle i n the  not  regarded  I t seems, t h e r e f o r e ,  s e c u r i t y o f group a s s o c i a -  c i t i e s among o t h e r  Canadians.  would t h i n k t h a t t h e promotion o f g r e a t e r knowledge about  c u l t u r e was  i m p l i c i t i n the o b j e c t i v e f o r " b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g  between I n d i a n s and non-Indians", but a few be more e x p l i c i t ,  and l i s t  o f the o r g a n i z a t i o n s p r e f e r  t h i s as a s e p a r a t e  "To promote r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e n o b i l i t y o f t h e I n d i a n i t s c o n t r i b u t i o n to Canadian s o c i e t y . "  and t r a d i t i o n s  heritage,  "To f o s t e r b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g by non-Natives o f t h e customs t r a d i t i o n s and i n h e r e n t q u a l i t i e s o f the o r i g i n a l Canadians."  h i s t o r y and  and  and  i s o n l y r i g h t t h a t s p e c i a l emphasis should be p l a c e d on the customs o f the I n d i a n s .  to c o u n t e r a c t  some o f the i m p r e s s i o n s o f "white s u p e r i o r i t y " g a i n e d f r o m f i c t i o n a l w r i t i n g about European s e t t l e m e n t  America.  preoccupation  The  present  contemporary s o c i e t y , and  h i s f u t u r e c o n t r i b u t i o n t o the l i f e  o f the  to nation,  to the c u l t u r e o f N o r t h  There have been some i n v e s t i g a t i o n s  o f c u l t u r a l i n f l u e n c e s and  the  i n North  w i t h t h e adjustment o f t h e I n d i a n  the c o n t r i b u t i o n s made by h i s a n c e s t o r s  American s o c i e t y .  early  Indeed, such an emphasis i s n e c e s s a r y  b i a s e d h i s t o r i c a l and  ignores  to  aim:  "To become a c q u a i n t e d w i t h t h e h i s t o r y , c u l t u r e , r e l i g i o n , o f the I n d i a n p e o p l e , and to a s s i s t i n p r e s e r v i n g them."  It  as  1  i n t o the  "interchange  t h e i r s u b t l e m i x t u r e " , but t h e i r w i d e r p u b l i c  acknowledgement seems d e s i r a b l e .  T h i s c o u l d h e l p t o d i s s o l v e some o f  1. A. I r v i n g Hal,Lowell, "The Impact o f t h e American I n d i a n on Culture." American A n t h r o p o l o g i s t , V o l . 5 9 , No. 2 , A p r i l 1 9 5 7 .  the  American  25  f e e l i n g s o f resentment w h i c h t h e I n d i a n has, and h e l p t o i n c r e a s e r e s p e c t for  h i s race.  The C h a l l e n g e o f F u l l  Citizenship  The o p p o r t u n i t y f o r f r i e n d s h i p between i n d i v i d u a l s and understanding  between p e o p l e s i s regarded  as t h e f o u n d a t i o n f o r t h e e v e n t u a l  i n t e g r a t i o n o f t h e I n d i a n i n t o Canadian s o c i e t y .  These alone, however, w i l l  not p r e p a r e t h e I n d i a n t o become a p a r t i c i p a t i n g c i t i z e n , his  own and h i s n e i g h b o u r s '  sympathetic  c o n t r i b u t i n g toward  future.  Dr. Gordon Hamilton  g i v e s t h e answer o f g e n e r i c casework when she  says t h a t " i t i s o n l y i f t h e i n d i v i d u a l i s r e s p e c t e d and allowed t o develop through  education,  s c i e n c e and f r e e i n s t i t u t i o n s t h a t he i s capable o f c r e a t i n g  the c o n d i t i o n s under which he l i v e s . "  1  T h i s i s j u s t as a p p l i c a b l e t o t h e  I n d i a n , and i t i s e x p l i c i t i n t h e Hawthorn r e p o r t t h a t "the I n d i a n p o p u l a t i o n s h o u l d be a b l e t o take f u l l and u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d p a r t i n o r g a n i z e d  political,  2 e d u c a t i o n a l and o t h e r n a t i o n a l and p r o v i n c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s , to  be a b l e t o make p o s i t i v e c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o Canadian  ..."  i n order  life.  The o r g a n i z a t i o n s under study r e c o g n i z e t h e v a l i d i t y o f such statements,  and some o f them express t h e i r aims, as f o l l o w s :  "To work ... f o r t h e promotion o f b e t t e r f a c i l i t i e s f o r h e a l t h and e d u c a t i o n f o r I n d i a n p e o p l e . " "To m a i n t a i n a c r e a t i v e a t t i t u d e towards improving and o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r I n d i a n s . " "To  t h e environment  a s s i s t i n e l i m i n a t i n g some o f t h e problems o f o u r N a t i v e R e g a r d l e s s o f how t h e s e o b j e c t i v e s a r e expressed,  people."  t h e y show t h a t  t h e a s s o c i a t i o n s i n t e n d t o concern themselves w i t h t h e broad i s s u e s o f I n d i a n  1. Gordon H a m i l t o n , Theory and P r a c t i c e o f S o c i a l Casework; Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , New York, 2nd. Ed., 1951, p . 8. 2.  H. B. Hawthorn e t a l , op. c i t . ,  p . 13.  26  w e l f a r e , and n o t l i m i t t h e i r work t o l o c a l needs.  The more r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s  t h e r e a r e f o r improvements i n f a c i l i t i e s f o r the I n d i a n s , t h e sooner w i l l be  they  realized. A g a i n s t g r e a t odds, I n d i a n l e a d e r s have been working toward  g r e a t e r involvement Now  of t h e i r people  i n the management o f I n d i a n  t h a t these v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s o f urban Indians,  affairs.  some w i t h  non-  I n d i a n membership, are working toward the same g o a l s , t h e r e s h o u l d be more hope f o r f u t u r e p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Many I n d i a n s and and encouraging  c e r t a i n n o n - I n d i a n s see t h e need f o r d e v e l o p i n g  l e a d e r s h i p q u a l i t i e s among t h e I n d i a n p e o p l e .  a u s p i c e s o f the I n d i a n A f f a i r s Branch, L e a d e r s h i p  Under t h e  T r a i n i n g Courses a r e  held f o r "reserve" Indians,  and they are b e i n g w e l l a t t e n d e d .  t i o n s a l s o seek "to develop  t h e l e a d e r s h i p q u a l i t i e s which most  l i e dormant i n our young p e o p l e . " mean encouraging  As they f o s t e r g r e a t e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n and to develop  confidence that w i l l  The a s s o c i a certainly  I n some a s s o c i a t i o n s , t h i s may  l e a d e r s h i p i n o r g a n i z i n g t h e i r own  s p o r t s and  simply  social  activities.  " s o c i a l i z i n g " , the c l u b s a r e h e l p i n g  enable t h e young person  show i n i t i a t i v e i n the l a r g e r community.  being  to p a r t i c i p a t e  and  C a r r y i n g o u t the d u t i e s o f  e x e c u t i v e o f f i c e r s i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n s w i l l be e x c e l l e n t t r a i n i n g  too.  T h i s i s n o t meant t o i m p l y t h a t l e a d e r s h i p i s e n t i r e l y l a c k i n g , f o r among the o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n t h i s present  survey,  a t l e a s t two were  completely  o r g a n i z e d through t h e i n i t i a t i v e o f I n d i a n s . I t i s a sad r e f l e c t i o n on t h i s c o n t i n e n t ' s supposedly p r i n c i p l e s t h a t t h e I n d i a n has and acceptance,  to r e a l i z e t h a t he  s h o u l d work toward e q u a l i t y  and t h a t many Canadians b e l i e v e t h a t the I n d i a n s h o u l d p r o v e  h i s worth b e f o r e he i s g i v e n r e s p e c t and connection,  democratic  equality of opportunity.  In  this  Dorothy Lee, GreeK-born, American a n t h r o p o l o g i s t , says t h a t  she  27  b e l i e v e s t h a t " t h e p r i n c i p l e o f e q u a l i t y i s adequate t o democracy o n l y when it  d e r i v e s n a t u r a l l y from t h e t e n e t o f the d i g n i t y o f man, o n l y when i t i s  a by-product o f the absolute comments f u r t h e r s a y i n g ,  and permeating r e s p e c t  f o r human worth."  " I n t h e Western w o r l d , a t any r a t e i n r e c e n t  t h e r o l e s o f t h e s e two p r i n c i p l e s have been r e v e r s e d t o a c e r t a i n e q u a l i t y has n o t been viewed as i n c i d e n t a l t o r e s p e c t but has been c o n s i d e r e d  She years,  extent;  f o r i n d i v i d u a l worth,  i n s t e a d as a measure t o b r i n g about r e s p e c t f o r  1  human worth." These n e x t o b j e c t i v e s a r e an- i n d i c a t i o n o f how s e g r e g a t e d and how u n e s s e n t i a l t h e I n d i a n has f e l t j has  accorded l i t t l e  Indian  they i l l u s t r a t e ,  t o o , t h a t Canadian s o c i e t y  r e s p e c t and acceptance t o t h o s e o f I n d i a n  status or  descent.  "To  become an e s s e n t i a l p a r t o f Canadian s o c i e t y . "  "To work towards achievement o f e q u a l i t y o f o p p o r t u n i t y . " "To r i s e i n s t a t u s where we can be an a s s e t t o t h e community c o l l e c t i v e l y and i n d i v i d u a l l y . " Hopefully,  a more f a v o u r a b l e  s o c i a l and economic c l i m a t e  will  e v e n t u a l l y b r i n g about t h e i r achievement. The  r e m a i n i n g o b j e c t i v e s a r e concerned s p e c i f i c a l l y w i t h t h e  p r o v i s i o n o f f e l l o w s h i p , guidance, and a c t i v i t i e s f o r t h e I n d i a n p e o p l e when t h e y come t o t h e c i t y , The  e i t h e r on a temporary b a s i s o r t o s e t t l e permanently.  need f o r t h e s e s e r v i c e s was o u t l i n e d e a r l i e r i n t h e c h a p t e r ,  purpose o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n , them f u r t h e r when r e v i e w i n g  t h e r e f o r e , i t w i l l be a p p r o p r i a t e the services provided  under t h e  to interpret  by t h e a s s o c i a t i o n s .  1. Dorothy Lee, Freedom and C u l t u r e . P r e n t i c e - H a l l , I n c . , Englewood C l i f f s , N. J . , 1 9 5 9 , p . 3 9 .  28  Meeting Places No  and  Programmes  conclusions  s i t u a t i o n s , but  should  speculations  be drawn w i t h o u t f u r t h e r knowledge o f  can  be made about the  significance of  p l a c e s i n which t h e a s s o c i a t i o n s h o l d t h e i r meetings. t i o n s meet i n members' homes, two r e n t h a l l s , w h i l e a few  may  mean l i m i t e d f i n a n c e s ,  A number o f t h e  on t h e o t h e r  t h e r e i s no  others  When the meetings  hand, i t c o u l d mean t h a t  and the group does n o t  are  community  r e c e i v e much s u p p o r t .  o f t h e a s s o c i a t i o n s meets weekly i n Y.M.C.A. rooms.  i n g t o know i f i t r e c e i v e s any  associa-  i n d i c a t e a s m a l l , but a c t i v e membership, i t  i n t e r e s t i n I n d i a n needs i s low, One  the  have the use o f Y.M.C.A. c l u b rooms,  a r e donated the use o f h a l l s .  h e l d i n members' homes, i t may  local  I t would be i n t e r e s t -  h e l p from a s o c i a l group worker; o t h e r w i s e  i n d i c a t i o n t h a t members o f t h e  s o c i a l work p r o f e s s i o n have been  a c t i v e i n t h e a s s o c i a t i o n s , e i t h e r as p a r t i c i p a t i n g c i t i z e n s o r as p r o f e s s i o n als. The  Yukon a s s o c i a t i o n appears to have the  p a r t o f the community, f o r i t has had f o r meetings, and now  u s e s them on  support o f a  considerable  seven h a l l s p l a c e d a t i t s d i s p o s a l  a rotational basis.  The members meet i n h a l l s  t h a t b e l o n g to the E l k s ( a s e r v i c e o r g a n i z a t i o n ) , the W h i t e h o r s e C i v i c C e n t r e , and  the H i g h School,  church h a l l s .  Of  course, i t i s n o t  s p i r i t o f a c i t y the industrialized,  a l s o i n the A n g l i c a n ,  q u i t e f a i r to compare t h e  United  community  s i z e o f Whitehorse w i t h some o f the o t h e r more complex,  and much l a r g e r u r b a n c e n t r e s .  o r g a n i z a t i o n p r i n c i p l e s are f o l l o w e d example, the  B a p t i s t , C a t h o l i c , and  establishment  Yet, when good community  a g r e a t d e a l can be accomplished, as f o r  of the Indian  and M e t i s F r i e n d s h i p C e n t r e i n  1 Winnipeg i n d i c a t e s . In C a l g a r y ,  1.  See  Chapter  a d i f f e r e n t p r a c t i c e has  3.  developed.  T h i s group  was  29  o r g a n i z e d i n c o o p e r a t i o n w i t h the l e a d e r s o f t h r e e o f t h e n e i g h b o u r i n g reserves.  Indian  T h e i r meetings a r e h e l d i n the c i t y e v e r y second month, w h i l e  the  I n d i a n s o f one o f t h e r e s e r v e s a c t as h o s t s f o r t h e i n t e r v e n i n g ones.  This  combination  one  locality,  i s r e p o r t e d to be v e r y s u c c e s s f u l .  What i s a p p r o p r i a t e i n  however, i s n o t always s u i t a b l e i n another; n e v e r t h e l e s s ,  this  t y p e o f c o n t a c t w i t h l o c a l r e s e r v e s might p r o v e t o be w o r t h w h i l e . Except  f o r t h e one  c l u b , t o which r e f e r e n c e has been made, the  a s s o c i a t i o n s f o l l o w a p a t t e r n o f one meeting a month.  A t t h e s e meetings  t h e r e a r e programmes o f one k i n d o r another, ' p o s s i b l y a guest d i s c u s s i o n , o r a f i l m on  some s u b j e c t o f i n t e r e s t to the members.  s u b j e c t s i n c l u d e such t o p i c s a s :  education,  a  These  d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , segregation,  a l c o h o l , the John Howard S o c i e t y , I n d i a n h i s t o r y and lems.  speaker,  c u l t u r e , Indian prob-  F o r t h e most p a r t , c o n t r o v e r s i a l and p o l i t i c a l i s s u e s a r e avoided,  as  t h e y a r e deemed b e s t l e f t to the t r i b a l o r r e g i o n a l I n d i a n o r g a n i z a t i o n s . Some c l u b s o c c a s i o n a l l y have evenings devoted t o "sing-songs", c o n c e r t s , o r d i s p l a y s o f I n d i a n dances. younger members may  amateur  Between t h e r e g u l a r meetings,  the  meet to p a r t i c i p a t e i n s p o r t s , f o r such a c t i v i t i e s  are  sponsored by the a s s o c i a t i o n s ; depending on c l i m a t e and i n t e r e s t ,  these  include:  s o c c e r , s o f t - b a l l , hockey, b a s k e t b a l l , v o l l e y - b a l l ,  indoor  bowling.  One  basis.  As one  o r two  and  o f t h e c l u b s sponsor dances on a monthly o r semi-monthly  o f the a s s o c i a t i o n s r e p o r t s , t h e y do t r y t o  emphasize  " f r i e n d s h i p through s o c i a l i n t e r c o u r s e " and l i k e t o a f f o r d some o p p o r t u n i t y a t each meeting f o r the members to m i n g l e i n a f r e e and f r i e n d l y f a s h i o n .  S e r v i c e s P r o v i d e d by. t h e A s s o c i a t i o n s The three l e v e l s :  a s s o c i a t i o n s seek to r e n d e r s e r v i c e t o t h e I n d i a n i n town on activities,  f e l l o w s h i p , and  guidance.  On t h e o t h e r hand, i t  c o u l d be s a i d t h a t t h e r e i s a t h r e e - f o l d approach, f o r on  each l e v e l t h e r e i s  30  some element o f the o t h e r The  two.  r e v i e w o f the programmes o f the meetings has  afforded a look  a t some o f t h e  a c t i v i t i e s i n which the a s s o c i a t i o n s a r e engaged.  range from t h e  educational  o f s p o r t s and  t a l k s and d i s c u s s i o n s  These  to the r e c r e a t i o n a l p u r s u i t s  dances, and p r o v i d e f o r both s t i m u l a t i o n and  relaxation.  This  p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a c t i v i t i e s o f common i n t e r e s t encourages a sense o f comrades h i p , and  when t h e r e i s o p p o r t u n i t y  atmosphere, p r e j u d i c e s  do  f o r an exchange o f i d e a s i n a f r i e n d l y  d i s s o l v e , and  C e r t a i n o f the t o p i c s d i s c u s s e d  greater understanding  a t t h e meetings are  follows.  s e l e c t e d f o r the  guidance  o f t h e newcomer. Fellowship  or f r i e n d s h i p i s the  guiding  p r i n c i p l e of these  organiza-  t i o n s , whether the membership i s a l l I n d i a n o r whether non-Indians are I n the former s i t u a t i o n , the I n d i a n t h o s e who  have some u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f what he  be the o n l y one school,  i s a b l e to e n j o y the  companionship o f  i s f a c i n g i n the  f e e l i s o l a t e d and  r e s t o f t h e t i m e ; the warmth w i t h which he h e a l the r e a l o r imagined s l i g h t s he has  He  s t r a n g e much o f  i s a c c e p t e d i n the  received,  and  may  get t o know one  f l o u r i s h outside  another b e t t e r , and  the a s s o c i a t i o n s .  In  association  for Indians  another as i n d i v i d u a l s .  work t o g e t h e r w i t h a common i n t e r e s t to improve c o n d i t i o n s t h e y come to u n d e r s t a n d one  the  f o r the  As  and they  Indians,  f r i e n d s h i p s develop which  some cases, h o s p i t a l i t y i s o f f e r e d  t o the newcomers i n the homes o f b o t h I n d i a n  and non-Indian  residents,  p a r t i c u l a r l y to the young s t u d e n t s whose means would be l i m i t e d . The  a s s o c i a t i o n s r e p o r t t h a t t h e y g i v e guidance and  about housing, employment, p e r s o n a l  will  ease h i s f e e l i n g s o f  The l a t t e r s i t u a t i o n a f f o r d s an o p p o r t u n i t y  non-Indians t o m i n g l e and  can  city.  o f h i s r a c e at h i s p l a c e o f employment, i n h i s c l a s s a t  o r a t h i s boarding-house, and  homesickness.  included.  problems, and  counselling  also i n matters of dress  31  and  deportment.  One  can c o n c l u d e t h a t i t i s u s u a l l y the  executive  more e x p e r i e n c e d members t h a t are a v a i l a b l e f o r such a d v i c e . i n d i c a t i o n t h a t members are h e l p e d to use a g e n c i e s o f the community.  One  the other resources  of the presidents,  an I n d i a n ,  c u r r e n t l y meeting temporary f i n a n c i a l needs h i m s e l f , want new  members "to be  and  the  There i s a l s o and is  because he does n o t  s e l f - c o n s c i o u s about appearance ... f o r l a c k o f funds  f o r s m a l l needs". A l l t h e a s s o c i a t i o n s were asked, " I f more money were a v a i l a b l e , what p r o j e c t of the  c l u b would take p r i o r i t y ? "  t o have a r e c r e a t i o n a l o r s o c i a l c e n t r e . replied,  The  responses show t h a t most seek  Although, one  president  " S e v e r a l .members are b a r e l y a b l e t o make ends meet."  laconically  However,  the  predominant thought i s t h e r e i s a need f o r c l u b rooms o r some type o f permanent l o c a t i o n where members c o u l d meet t h e i r f r i e n d s and  spend some o f t h e i r l e i s u r e  time, and where I n d i a n p e o p l e c o u l d o b t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n through r e - d i r e c t i o n to an a p p r o p r i a t e w h i l e new  and  assistance,  agency o r by c o u n s e l l i n g .  a s s o c i a t i o n s are " f l o u r i s h i n g " , i n the  Evidently,  sense t h a t t h e y are growing  i n numbers, i t would be a m i s t a k e t o assume t h a t t h i s growth i s easy. are a r e s p o n s e to a need.  either  They  I t i s d o u b t f u l y e t whether the need i s u n d e r s t o o d  by the n a t i o n a t l a r g e o r by more than an e n l i g h t e n e d  minority.  CHAPTER 3  A VANCOUVER ASSOCIATION:  THE COQUALEETZA FELLOWSHIP  The o r g a n i z a t i o n known as t h e C o q u a l e e t z a F e l l o w s h i p demands study f o r a number o f r e a s o n s .  I t i s , o f course, c o n v e n i e n t t o study  because i t i s based l o c a l l y i n the c i t y o f Vancouver.  But, Vancouver i s an  important c e n t r e f o r I n d i a n s , and a r a p i d l y growing urban a r e a which a t t r a c t s them.  I n any case, however, t h e Vancouver s o c i e t y was  i f n o t the f i r s t ,  one o f the  earliest,  o f such o r g a n i z a t i o n s to form i n a c i t y on a s m a l l i n -  f o r m a l s c a l e , ( a s opposed t o t h e l a r g e o r g a n i z a t i o n s o f I n d i a n s formed on a regional or p r o v i n c i a l b a s i s ) .  The group has l o n g had as an o b j e c t i v e the  s e t t i n g up o f a c e n t r e f o r N a t i v e P e o p l e i n Vancouver, and was first  p r o b a b l y the  a s s o c i a t i o n i n Canada t o e s t a b l i s h an I n f o r m a t i o n C e n t r e f o r people o f  I n d i a n d e s c e n t who In  might need a d v i c e o r h e l p i n an urban  setting.  o r d e r t o a p p r e c i a t e some o f the d i f f i c u l t i e s t h a t have con-  f r o n t e d t h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n o v e r t h e y e a r s , and t o u n d e r s t a n d  some o f t h e  m i s t a k e n i d e a s c o n c e r n i n g i t s p r e s e n t s t a t u s , i t i s worthwhile  to review  the  1 h i s t o r y o f i t s f o r m a t i o n , and o u t l i n e i t s v a r i o u s u n d e r t a k i n g s . d i r e c t q u o t a t i o n s w i l l be made f r e q u e n t l y , as the S o c i e t y ' s own of  Use  of  version i s  p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t when t h e r e a r e so many m i s c o n c e p t i o n s r e g a r d i n g t h e  n a t u r e and aims o f t h e group. i s non-denominational,  F o r i n s t a n c e , i t i s n o t w i d e l y known t h a t i t  t h a t membership i s open t o a l l those o f I n d i a n descent,  r e g a r d l e s s o f s t a t u s , and t h a t i n t e r e s t e d non-Indian members a r e a l s o welcome, though t h e y may  n o t h o l d e x e c u t i v e p o s i t i o n s i n the  club.  1. Much o f the m a t e r i a l i n t h i s c h a p t e r i s t a k e n f r e e l y from t h e monograph p r i n t e d by the o r g a n i z a t i o n on i t s h i s t o r y and a c t i v i t i e s up t o , and i n c l u d i n g , the y e a r 1959, supplemented by o t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n o b t a i n e d d u r i n g t h e c o u r s e o f t h i s p r e s e n t study.  33  Alumni Group Organizes The Coqualeetza Fellowship derives i t s name from an Indian Residential School, which had been located at Sardis in southern British Columbia.  This school, originally under the auspices of the Methodist  Church, later the United Church, i s no longer i n existence.  But on  February 14th, 1950, a group of ex-students and teachers held a party in Vancouver to honour the eighty-seventh birthday of the Reverend Doctor G. H. Raley, a former principal of the Coqualeetza School.  By this time,  the school buildings had been sold by the Home Mission Board of the Church to the Federal Government (since 194l)> and were i n use as a tuberculosis sanatorium under the direction of the Indian Health Services.  A few of the  ex-students were l i v i n g in the city, but many of them came from a l l over the province for this special occasion.  It was to this assembled group that  Dr. Raley suggested the formation of an Alumni group in Vancouver for their mutual benefit and enjoyment.  An Alumni association was not an entirely new  idea, for a number of ex-students had established such an organization at Skidegate on the Queen Charlotte Islands in 1927. Dr. Raley had long had the welfare of Indians at heart.  His  association with them dated back to 1893, when he f i r s t went to serve as a 1 missionary in the Indian village of Kitimaat.  His duties there included  being Justice of the Peace, postmaster, judge, doctor and meteorologist.  He  published the f i r s t newspaper in that northern area, and was also instrumental 2 in assembling a dictionary of the northern dialects. He was a dedicated 1. The modern company town does not use the old spelling, and Dr. Raley protested this, when he was a special guest at inaugural ceremonies. 2.  The Vancouver Sun, September 15* 1958, (Obituary of Dr. Raley).  34  and e n l i g h t e n e d e d u c a t o r .  H i s c h a r a c t e r and p e r s o n a l i t y f o s t e r e d a f i n e  s c h o o l s p i r i t and many bonds o f l o y a l t y between s t u d e n t s and s t a f f .  The  s t u d e n t s r e c e i v e d a p r e p a r a t i o n f o r l i f e t h a t was t h e b e s t he c o u l d o f f e r under t h e r e g u l a t i o n s l a i d down a t t h a t time  (1914  to  1934).  Through l o c a l  arrangements, s e v e r a l s t u d e n t s each y e a r c o n t i n u e d through h i g h s c h o o l i n nearby C h i l l i w a c k , w h i l e c o n t i n u i n g t o r e s i d e a t t h e S a r d i s S c h o o l . e a r l y as 1930,  As  i t was h i s b e l i e f t h a t " f o l l o w up" s e r v i c e s s h o u l d be p r o v i d e d  i n Vancouver, s i n c e i t was t h e main c e n t r e o f t h e p r o v i n c e ; he saw t h i s as p o s s i b l y a r e s i d e n c e "which would s e r v e n o t o n l y as a home, b u t as a s o c i a l c e n t r e f o r young p e o p l e who a r e employed o r a r e p u r s u i n g p o s t - g r a d u a t e  study  1 i n the c i t y . " A f t e r h i s r e t i r e m e n t , Dr. R a l e y kept i n t o u c h w i t h as many o f t h e ex-students  as p o s s i b l e , f o r he r e a l i z e d t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s t h e y f a c e d ; he,  nonetheless,  b e l i e v e d i n t h e i r c a p a c i t y t o h e l p themselves,  and t h i s was  i m p l i c i t i n h i s s u g g e s t i o n o f an Alumni S o c i e t y i n Vancouver to work toward a Native centre. instigator  The p r e s e n t o r g a n i z a t i o n pays him t r i b u t e as "the prime  ... whose support was o f i n v a l u a b l e h e l p i n i n t e g r a t i n g t h e  members i n t o a working group". The meeting a c t e d upon h i s s u g g e s t i o n .  So began a unique and  t i m e l y u n d e r t a k i n g t o work toward D r . R a l e y ' s i d e a o f a c e n t r e f o r n a t i v e Indian people.  The e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a c e n t r e was r e g a r d e d as n e c e s s a r y t o  a c h i e v e t h e o b j e c t i v e s t h e y s e t f o r themselves, the c u r r e n t C o n s t i t u t i o n .  which a r e now w r i t t e n i n t o  2  1. D r . G. H. R a l e y ' s foreword i n t h e C o q u a l e e t z a R e s i d e n t i a l Commencement Annual, June 1930.  School  2. See Appendix C. C o q u a l e e t z a F e l l o w s h i p C o n s t i t u t i o n , r e v i s e d March 26, 1956. T h i s c o n s t i t u t i o n has a l r e a d y p r o v e d o f i n t e r e s t t o o t h e r a s s o c i a t i o n s which a r e forming elsewhere. At a r e c e n t F e l l o w s h i p meeting, o b s e r v e d by t h e w r i t e r , t h e r e were two r e q u e s t s f o r i t among t h e correspondence.  35  They aim t o a s s i s t p e r s o n s o f I n d i a n descent t o become i n t e g r a t e d i n t o the Canadian community t h r o u g h t h e promotion o f h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n , employment, "constructive" ( s i c ) a c t i v i t i e s ,  welfare f a c i l i t i e s ,  and, t h r o u g h t h e  promotion o f " b e t t e r knowledge and u n d e r s t a n d i n g between t h e N a t i v e s o f Canada o f I n d i a n d e s c e n t and t h e Canadian p u b l i c . "  One  can but surmise  t h a t t h e term " c o n s t r u c t i v e " a c t i v i t i e s i s used t o emphasize  a positive  approach t o r e c r e a t i o n a l and l e i s u r e - t i m e a c t i v i t i e s , w i t h o u t a c t u a l l y adv o c a t i n g an a v o i d a n c e o f a l c o h o l and gambling which c o u l d be t o mind, s p i r i t and body.  "destructive"  The promotion o f Canadian N a t i v e c u l t u r e i s a l s o  w r i t t e n i n t o the C o n s t i t u t i o n . From t h i s b e g i n n i n g , membership was  extended t o i n c l u d e anyone  who  i s i n t e r e s t e d i n the c u l t u r e and the w e l f a r e o f I n d i a n s , and the name o f t h e s o c i e t y was  changed from t h e " C o q u a l e e t z a Alumni A s s o c i a t i o n " t o the  "Coqualeetza Fellowship".  These changes were made a t the time o f i n c o r p o r a -  t i o n under the S o c i e t i e s A c t o f B r i t i s h Columbia i n 1953. p o i n t a t which the F e l l o w s h i p was  T h i s was  d e c l a r e d t o be n o n - s e c t a r i a n and  also the non-  political.  Membership and  Administration  Membership, as mentioned p r e v i o u s l y , i s open t o n a t i v e I n d i a n s and t o non-Indians who ship.  a r e i n t e r e s t e d i n the aims and o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e F e l l o w -  There seems t o be a s m a l l number o f a c t i v e c o n t i n u i n g members, w i t h  the remainder changing as some f i n d t h e i r p l a c e s i n o t h e r o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n t h e w i d e r community, o r , as i n the case o f many o f the s t u d e n t s , t h e y r e t u r n t o t h e i r homes o r l o c a t e elsewhere.  The membership, however, has grown from  about twenty a t the time o f f o r m a t i o n t o a p p r o x i m a t e l y one hundred i n t h e c u r r e n t y e a r (1960-1961).  I t i s d i s a p p o i n t i n g t o note t h a t t h e m a j o r i t y o f  non-Indian members a r e w e l l advanced i n y e a r s j t h i s may w e l l be because many  36  are ex-teachers  from I n d i a n s c h o o l s o r were m i s s i o n a r i e s t o t h e I n d i a n s .  I t a l s o l e a d s one  to s u s p e c t a l a c k o f i n t e r e s t i n I n d i a n s i n t h i s  community,  a l a c k o f membership r e c r u i t m e n t , o r even a l a c k i n p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s advertising.  Whatever t h e cause o f the imbalance i n age groupings,  r e s u l t i n many m a t t e r s o f i n t e r e s t t o t h e younger I n d i a n members o f  and i t could the  a s s o c i a t i o n b e i n g seen from e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t v i e w p o i n t s , due more to t h e gap  between g e n e r a t i o n s t h a n to any  cultural differences.  Since the  I n d i a n s have v o t i n g p r i v i l e g e s , one wonders whether sometimes t h e i r a r e c a r r i e d out,  nonideas  simply because t h e younger members a r e too t i m i d t o s t a t e  t h e i r o p i n i o n s o r too p o l i t e to oppose t h e i r e l d e r s s t r o n g l y , and t h e y l e t  1 themselves be o v e r r i d d e n . The E x e c u t i v e Committee o f t h e F e l l o w s h i p c o n s i s t s o f a P r e s i d e n t , a V i c e - P r e s i d e n t , a T r e a s u r e r , a S e c r e t a r y and f o u r T r u s t e e s . i t i s s t a t e d i n the By-Laws o f t h e S o c i e t y , must be N a t i v e  A l l of these,  Indians.  There are f i v e s t a n d i n g committees which are a p p o i n t e d by E x e c u t i v e Committee.  The  the  committees and t h e i r d u t i e s a r e o u t l i n e d i n the  By-Laws as f o l l o w s : "(a)  (b)  An A r t s and H a n d i c r a f t s Committee, whose d u t y i t s h a l l be t o g a t h e r and d i s p l a y such a r t i c l e s f i n i s h e d by N a t i v e people o f B r i t i s h Columbia and o t h e r p a r t s o f America. A S o c i a l Committee, whose d u t y i t s h a l l be t o encourage s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s , r e c r e a t i o n s , c o n c e r t s , dances and o t h e r amusements and s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s , and t o encourage and p r o v i d e f o r l i b r a r y and e d u c a t i o n a l s t u d i e s and f a c i l i t i e s , i n c l u d i n g l e c t u r e s and ent ertainment.  1. I t may be i n t e r e s t i n g t o mention t h a t t h e E x e c u t i v e members, who r e p l i e d to the q u e s t i o n n a i r e , were r e l u c t a n t t o g i v e any answer to q u e s t i o n 7b: "Are t h e r e d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e needs (and/or problems) as seen by I n d i a n s and n o n - I n d i a n s ? " T h i s may o r may n o t have s i g n i f i c a n c e ^ i t may s i m p l y i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e q u e s t i o n s h o u l d have c o n t a i n e d the phrase, " i n your o p i n i o n " . A t any r a t e , t h e y s a i d t h e y c o u l d n o t speak f o r t h e non-Indian viewpoint.  37  (c)  A G e n e r a l W e l f a r e Committee, whose duty i t s h a l l be t o keep i n t o u c h w i t h and v i s i t any member o r t h e f a m i l y o f such member, i n case o f s i c k n e s s o r d e a t h o f any member, o r i n t h e f a m i l y o f any member.  (d)  A S o c i a l S e r v i c e Committee, whose d u t y i t s h a l l be t o a s s i s t N a t i v e p e o p l e d i s c h a r g e d from i n s t i t u t i o n s .  •(e)  A Nomination Committeej whose duty i t s h a l l be t o p r e s e n t a s l a t e o f o f f i c e r s and t o t a k e c a r e o f any v a c a n c i e s . " In  r e c e n t y e a r s t h e G e n e r a l W e l f a r e and t h e S o c i a l S e r v i c e  Committees have expanded t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s , to  however, t h e s e w i l l be r e f e r r e d  i n greater d e t a i l i n l a t e r sections o f t h i s chapter.  Early  Activities In  k e e p i n g w i t h t h e aim o f c r e a t i n g b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g and  knowledge o f t h e s k i l l s and a r t i s t r y t h a t I n d i a n c u l t u r e has developed, and of  encouraging N a t i v e a r t s and c r a f t s ,  a d i s p l a y o f examples o f a l l a r t forms  was sponsored by t h e S o c i e t y a t t h e Vancouver A r t G a l l e r y d u r i n g t h e summer of  1953.  T h i s was f o l l o w e d by o t h e r d i s p l a y s t o f o s t e r i n t e r e s t and more o f  a market f o r t h e a r t i c l e s t h a t a r e s t i l l b e i n g made by N a t i v e c r a f t s m e n . A l s o o f concern i s t h e e d u c a t i o n o f t h e p u b l i c t o awareness o f t h e authent i c i t y o f v a r i o u s i t e m s t h a t axe s o l d i n t h e s t o r e s , f o r many s o l d as s o u v e n i r s a r e b u t cheap c o p i e s o f I n d i a n c r a f t .  An e x h i b i t o f I n d i a n h a n d i -  c r a f t s has now become an annual f e a t u r e a t t h e P a c i f i c N a t i o n a l E x h i b i t i o n . The l o c a l members among t h e e x - s t u d e n t s have m o s t l y themselves i n t h e c i t y through t h e i r own e f f o r t s .  established  As w i t h any o t h e r e t h n i c  group, o r , f o r t h a t m a t t e r any o t h e r s e r v i c e o r g a n i z a t i o n , t h e members meet to  fulfill  some o f t h e i r own i n t e r e s t s , and t h e y a l s o endeavour t o a s s i s t  t h o s e l e s s f o r t u n a t e than t h e m s e l v e s .  A p a r t i c u l a r concern was f e l t f o r t h e  women and g i r l s who were i n d i f f i c u l t i e s b e f o r e t h e C o u r t , and were sentenced to  terms a t O a k a l l a P r i s o n and t h e G i r l s ' I n d u s t r i a l S c h o o l .  These p e r s o n s  38  were often from other parts of the Province, and i t was unlikely that they had much contact with relatives or friends.  Beginning i n 1954,  v i s i t s to  them were made during their imprisonment, and various types of help were offered to them on their release, such as financial assistance, possibly clothing, and often a box-lunch for the trip home.  If they were unable or  unwilling to return to their reserves, for one reason or another, attempts were made to help them establish themselves satisfactorily, and to obtain employment for them. It soon became apparent to the Fellowship members that many Indians were encountering distressing, though less obvious, difficulties in the urban environment, and could use friendly assistance and direction when they came from the reserves to the city. "The students coming for higher education were of particular concern to us; mothers with sick children coming in for medical help and strange to the ways of a big city; young people and couples coming in from the reservations looking for work; Indians from a l l walks of l i f e needing direction and help, and above a l l , friendship and understanding in an environment which was foreign to their way of l i f e . " For many residents of British Columbia, Vancouver i s "Mecca", so i t i s only natural that Indians, too, should seek to v i s i t i t , and also hope to find the employment which i s not available in their own d i s t r i c t s .  In  addition, technical, vocational and advanced educational training i s more readily available here for students in the schools, hospitals, and at the University.  So too, when medical attention i s required for unusual diseases  or accidents, Vancouver i s the centre that has the most up-to-date f a c i l i t i e s , particularly for children, and this necessitates trips to the city.  Anyone  coming from a small community can be overwhelmed by the "rush and bustle" and the impersonality of a city, and these factors can make particular d i f f i c u l ties for some Indians who come to Vancouver from reserves or small towns i n remote areas, especially for those who are unaccustomed to coming into contact  39  w i t h many n o n - I n d i a n s .  These and o t h e r s c o u l d use a d v i c e r e g a r d i n g accom-  modation and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , and p o s s i b l y a s s i s t a n c e o f o t h e r k i n d s .  The I n f o r m a t i o n In  Centre  o r d e r t o be a b l e t o o f f e r s e r v i c e s from a permanent base,  o r g a n i z a t i o n sought and found a c e n t r a l l y l o c a t e d o f f i c e . l y opened i n November 1956  as t h e I n f o r m a t i o n C e n t r e .  T h i s was  the  official-  A l t h o u g h t u c k e d away  on the t h i r d f l o o r o f an o l d o f f i c e b u i l d i n g , i t has advantages as i t i s s i t u a t e d i n the c e n t r e o f t h e b u s i n e s s and shopping boat and bus depots.  c l o s e to  train,  I t i s a l s o w i t h i n a couple o f b l o c k s o f the l o c a l  o f f i c e o f t h e I n d i a n A f f a i r s Branch, the  district,  which o f t e n r e f e r s those who  c o u l d use  service. The F e l l o w s h i p t a k e s p r i d e i n the f a c t t h a t d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d o f  the M a n i t o b a survey i n 1957,  Mr.  Jean Legasse  v i s i t e d t h e i r I n f o r m a t i o n C e n t r e , and was  (Director of that  survey)  s u f f i c i e n t l y impressed w i t h t h e  s e r v i c e s o f f e r e d t o recommend t h a t a s i m i l a r o f f i c e be e s t a b l i s h e d f o r t h e I n d i a n and M e t i s i n t h e C i t y o f Winnipeg. appointment i n t h i s ,  There i s a l s o cause f o r d i s -  s i n c e t h e Winnipeg endeavour o b t a i n e d community  government support, and was  and  a b l e to p l a n f o r a c e n t r e l a r g e enough t o  accommodate r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s as w e l l as an i n f o r m a t i o n o f f i c e . Winnipeg I n d i a n and M e t i s F r i e n d s h i p C e n t r e opened i n A p r i l 1959;  This  but a t  t h e time o f w r i t i n g , t h e Vancouver one has n o t been r e a l i z e d . The members m a i n t a i n e d  t h e i r I n f o r m a t i o n C e n t r e themselves  for  o v e r two y e a r s , a l t h o u g h t h e i r s l i m f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s were s t r a i n e d t h e r e n t a l charges and o t h e r c o s t s . for  They even employed a p a i d s e c r e t a r y  a few months; however, the o f f i c e was  v o l u n t e e r s from among t h e membership.  by  e v e n t u a l l y manned c o m p l e t e l y  The o f f i c e i s open d a i l y ,  except  Sundays; because t h i s i s daytime duty, i t i s m o s t l y c a r r i e d o u t by  the  by  40  m a r r i e d o l d e r members, I n d i a n and n o n - I n d i a n .  A t times  some g e n e r a l  mation i s a l l t h a t i s r e q u i r e d ; a t o t h e r s a few telephone  infor-  calls will  help  to l o c a t e some f r i e n d s o r r e l a t i v e s o r some accommodation; a g a i n perhaps t h e person needs t o be a s s i s t e d t o approach an a p p r o p r i a t e w e l f a r e agency o r o t h e r type o f o r g a n i z a t i o n .  Whatever t h e r e q u e s t ,  a l l who come t o t h e  o f f i c e a r e made t o f e e l welcome, and an attempt i s made t o h e l p them i n t h e b e s t way p o s s i b l e .  Moves t o O r g a n i z e  t h e Community  Through D r . R a l e y and o t h e r s , t h e Home M i s s i o n Board o f t h e U n i t e d Church had k e p t i n touch w i t h t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e F e l l o w s h i p the y e a r s .  over  The Women's M i s s i o n a r y S o c i e t y o f t h i s Church had a l s o become  concerned about the many problems encountered by I n d i a n s i n Vancouver. L a r g e l y through t h e e f f o r t s o f t h e s e groups, a meeting was c a l l e d i n the s p r i n g o f 1956  t o which r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f v a r i o u s o r g a n i z a t i o n s who had  c o n t a c t s w i t h I n d i a n s were i n v i t e d .  As a r e s u l t o f t h i s meeting, t h e N a t i v e  I n d i a n S e r v i c e C o u n c i l was formed. W h i l e t h e C o u n c i l perhaps d i d n o t t a k e i n t o account t h e "community power s t r u c t u r e " , i t was i n many ways a t i m e l y and welcome measure.  Certain-  l y i t was an attempt a t c o n c e r t e d e f f o r t t o t a c k l e some o f t h e problems t h a t Indian people  experience  i n the c i t y .  I t i s unfortunate  t i v e from o n l y one I n d i a n o r g a n i z a t i o n was i n c l u d e d .  that a representa-  T h i s i s n o t t o imply  t h a t t h e group d i d n o t a c t w i t h t h e b e s t o f i n t e n t i o n s , b u t i t d i d mean t h a t t h e C o u n c i l tended t o approach t h e s i t u a t i o n from t h e n o n - I n d i a n p o i n t o f view.  The l o n e v o i c e o f t h e F e l l o w s h i p r e p r e s e n t a t i v e would have had t o have  been a v e r y p o w e r f u l  one t o have had much i n f l u e n c e , whereas i f some o f t h e  l e a d e r s o f t h e l o c a l r e s e r v e s o r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f o t h e r n a t i v e I n d i a n groups had been i n c l u d e d , o t h e r o p i n i o n s and o t h e r q u e s t i o n s might have been d i s c u s s e d .  41  Added to this was the fact that the welfare organizations on the Council mostly had dealings with the "problems":  the unmarried mothers, the neglected  children, the ex-prisoners, those up before the Court, the unemployed, the so-called "vagrants", and so on. This meant that efforts were often concentrated on "helping" through this one Indian organization.  In mid-summer of 1958 the United  Church of Canada, through the Native Indian Service Council, appointed a field worker for the Coqualeetza Fellowship. ment was made by the Anglican Church.  A year later a similar appoint-  Incidentally, up to the present time,  the field workers have been women, and have been non-Indian.  If this practice  i s to continue, perhaps thought should be given to the appointment of a male worker; although a few Indian women have recently been elected chief of their reserves, traditionally Indians are more used to the counsel of men.  These  appointments have resulted in appearing to give substance to the prevalent impression that the Fellowship i s a religious organization, and one for Protestants only; whereas almost from the beginning, the Indian members have wished i t to be completely non-denominational, in order to welcome anyone of Indian origin who resides in Vancouver permanently or temporarily. Yet several of the Indian members who were active in the early days of the Coqualeetza Fellowship have dropped their membership, and these may be some of the reasons for withdrawing their interest and support. A further effect of the appointment of the two f i e l d workers has been to rather underrate the pioneer work of the Fellowship members, to overshadow their current activities for the native people, as well as to emphasize that the present concern i s with Indians i n trouble.  A paragraph  from the 1959 annual presidential report of the Fellowship reveals that there i s some concern regarding these misapprehensions about the types of activity  42  and s e r v i c e , which a r e enumerated as f o l l o w s : "Over 400 c o n t a c t s have been made w i t h I n d i a n people, m o s t l y at t h e o f f i c e , d u r i n g t h e p a s t 14 months. T h i s i s e x c l u s i v e o f h o s p i t a l v i s i t i n g , o f which a g r e a t d e a l i s done, both by t h e f i e l d workers and members o f t h e " F e l l o w s h i p " . Some people seem t o be under t h e i m p r e s s i o n t h a t most o f o u r work a t t h e "Centre" handled by t h e f i e l d workers i s among those I n d i a n s i n t r o u b l e w i t h the law. O n l y 20$ o f o u r work i s among t h i s group, and a s t i l l s m a l l e r p e r centage o f men from s k i d r o a d a r e d i r e c t e d t o p l a c e s where t h e y can get f o o d and s h e l t e r . Most o f t h e work i s h e l p i n g n a t i v e p e o p l e t o f i n d accommodation i n t h e c i t y , g i v i n g some temporary a s s i s t a n c e and used c l o t h i n g where n e c e s s a r y u n t i l work i s found f o r them; meeti n g p l a n e s and boats, a r r a n g i n g h o s p i t a l i t y where n e c e s s a r y and h e l p i n g s t u d e n t s and a l l n a t i v e p e o p l e coming t o t h e c i t y f e e l welcome." There i s some i n d i c a t i o n t h a t t h e f i e l d workers found t h e i r somewhat tenuous,  working  position  as t h e y d i d from t h e o f f i c e o f t h e F e l l o w s h i p ,  and a t f i r s t were i n doubt as t o whom t h e y were r e s p o n s i b l e , t h e i r the C o u n c i l , o r the F e l l o w s h i p .  church,  The s i t u a t i o n i s s a i d t o have been  clarified  by h a v i n g them r e p o r t t o t h e women's a u x i l i a r i e s o f t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e churches,  1 since these p a i d t h e i r s a l a r i e s . in  r a t h e r an anomalous p o s i t i o n ,  T h i s would appear t o l e a v e t h e F e l l o w s h i p s i n c e t h e E x e c u t i v e Committee would be  unable t o have much s a y i n r e g a r d t o t h e s e r v i c e s c a r r i e d o u t i n t h e i r name. The f i e l d workers h e l p i n whatever way t h e y can, as the above account i n d i c a t e s ; t h e y a l s o t a k e p a r t i c u l a r c a r e t o make c o n t a c t s w i t h t h e r e l i g i o u s denominations  o f any n a t i v e who i s known t o be a r r i v i n g t o r e s i d e i n Vancouver,  so t h a t he o r she may be welcomed i n t o a c o n g r e g a t i o n o f t h e i r own c h u r c h . A t t h e same time, members o f t h e F e l l o w s h i p s t i l l c o n t i n u e to t a k e v o l u n t e e r duties at the o f f i c e ,  and c a r r y on some o f t h e p e r s o n a l s e r v i c e  Since the beginning o f donated  1959*  themselves.  the N a t i v e I n d i a n S e r v i c e C o u n c i l has  funds t o t h e F e l l o w s h i p t o u n d e r w r i t e t h e r e n t and t e l e p h o n e  bills  1. D. H. Goard, P r e s i d e n t , N a t i v e I n d i a n S e r v i c e C o u n c i l , i n an i n t e r view w i t h t h e w r i t e r .  43  o f the I n f o r m a t i o n C e n t r e o f f i c e . a s s i s t a n c e may  The  have made t h e E x e c u t i v e  a c c e p t measures i n t r o d u c e d  need t o accept t h i s  financial  Committee f e e l under o b l i g a t i o n to  o r suggested by the C o u n c i l .  W h i l e the  Indian  members would n o t deny t h a t t h e r e i s much work t h a t can be done f o r some o f t h e i r p e o p l e by  c h u r c h - a f f i l i a t e d workers, i t would g i v e t h e a s s o c i a t i o n  more autonomy and more p r e s t i g e , i f t h i s work were done from the church o f f i c e s ,  and would be a f a r more e q u i t a b l e arrangement f o r  respective the  Fellowship. The  C o u n c i l has  a l s o t r i e d t o i n t e r e s t the F e d e r a l Government i n  c o n t r i b u t i n g funds toward t h e F e l l o w s h i p ' s Vancouver, but has been u n s u c c e s s f u l  o b j e c t i v e of a Native Centre i n  i n obtaining  such a i d .  Knowing.that  F e d e r a l a s s i s t a n c e had been g r a n t e d f o r a C e n t r e i n Winnipeg, t h e requested information  from the Department o f C i t i z e n s h i p and  regarding  i t s p o l i c y f o r g i v i n g grants  Mr.  Sim,  R.  A.  toward such p r o j e c t s .  o f the L i a i s o n D i v i s i o n , s t a t e s t h e r e i s no  t h a t d e c i s i o n s to g i v e grants  v a r y w i t h the  situation.  Winnipeg s i t u a t i o n t o i l l u s t r a t e some o f t h e f a c t o r s  He  writer  Immigration In h i s reply,  statutory policy, describes  the  considered.  "The sponsor o f t h i s C e n t r e was the Winnipeg W e l f a r e C o u n c i l . Over the y e a r s members o f t h i s C o u n c i l had demonstrated an i n c r e a s i n g awareness o f the c o m p l e x i t y o f t h e I n d i a n s i t u a t i o n w i t h i n the c i t y o f Winnipeg, as w e l l as throughout t h e p r o v i n c e . For instance, s i n c e 1953 t h e y have h e l d an annual I n d i a n and M e t i s c o n f e r e n c e . Not o n l y were c o u n c i l members concerned w i t h the problem, but a l s o a number o f o u t s t a n d i n g c i t i z e n s i n the community had made i t t h e i r b u s i n e s s to keep i n f o r m e d on the problem. I n our o p i n i o n , t h i s combination o f concerned p r o f e s s i o n a l p e o p l e and concerned c i t i z e n s made an e x c e p t i o n a l l y s t r o n g community base f o r a p i l o t p r o j e c t . I t was hoped t h a t by a s s i s t i n g t h i s p r o j e c t , an i n d i c a t i o n o f p o s s i b l e r e s u l t s and d i f f i c u l t i e s would be o b t a i n e d and t h a t o t h e r communities c o u l d b e n e f i t from t h i s e x p e r i e n c e . When g i v i n g f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e , we p r e f e r s u p p o r t i n g a p r o j e c t where t h e r e i s a l i k e l i h o o d o f i n i t i a l s h a r i n g o f f i n a n c i a l c o s t and p o t e n t i a l w i t h i n the community t o support the p r o j e c t e n t i r e l y a f t e r i t s v a l u e has been demonstrated. I n t h i s r e s p e c t the G r e a t e r W e l f a r e C o u n c i l r e q u e s t e d the Branch t o assume 40$ o f the c o s t o f t h e i r p r o j e c t d u r i n g t h e f i r s t two y e a r s . "  44  These statements p o i n t o u t o n l y too c l e a r l y t h a t u n t i l  recently,  community i n t e r e s t and concern f o r the problems o f t h e I n d i a n s i n Vancouver has been t r i e d and found wanting.  1  I t would seem, t h e r e f o r e , t h a t  Vancouver c i t i z e n s w i l l need t o be b e t t e r i n f o r m e d , s t a n d i n g o f the needs o f the I n d i a n b e f o r e i t w i l l  and a t t a i n g r e a t e r undersupport  wholeheartedly  the i d e a o f a N a t i v e Centre.  Current Fellowship A c t i v i t i e s " S o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s a r e f r e q u e n t l y r e g a r d e d as mere stop gaps o r as b a i t t o a t t r a c t membership ... P r o p e r l y used, s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s can s e r v e t h e same o r a b e t t e r purpose than the more e d u c a t i o n a l . They c a l l f o r t h q u a l i t i e s o f l e a d e r s h i p , s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , c o u r t e s y , and r e s p e c t f o r o t h e r s which most o r g a n i z a t i o n s would admit was t h e i r c h i e f aim." 2  These comments might have been made i n s u p p o r t o f t h e  social  a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h a r e r e g a r d e d as an e s s e n t i a l p a r t o f t h e monthly meetings of the Coqualeetza F e l l o w s h i p .  V a r i o u s t y p e s o f programmes o f t o p i c a l o r  e d u c a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t a r e arranged, w i t h a speaker, d i s c u s s i o n o r f i l m s ,  but  t h e s o c i a l events and t h e i n f o r m a l m i n g l i n g a t refreshment t i m e a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y i m p o r t a n t f o r t h e newcomers and  students.  The meetings a r e h e l d i n  members' homes; but r e c e n t l y , w i t h the i n f l u x o f s t u d e n t s , t h e r e has  also  been a monthly dance, and t h i s has n e c e s s i t a t e d r e n t i n g a h a l l f o r t h e s e events.  The  annual meeting  and " S o c i a l " h e l d each November, a l s o means  p a r t i n g w i t h hard-earned money f o r l a r g e r Another  accommodation.  r e c e n t i n n o v a t i o n f o r t h e b e n e f i t o f t h e students i s t h e  1. A s u r v e y i s now b e i n g undertaken by t h e G r e a t e r Vancouver Community Chest and C o u n c i l r e s e a r c h p e r s o n n e l w i t h a g r a n t from t h e F e d e r a l Department o f C i t i z e n s h i p and Immigration t o examine the needs o f I n d i a n s i n t h e a r e a . H o p e f u l l y , t h i s may l e a d to the o r g a n i z a t i o n o f g r e a t e r community s u p p o r t f o r a C e n t r e . 2. Sheelah F o r s t e r , "Church, S e t t l e m e n t and Community C e n t r e " , S o c i a l Group Work i n G r e a t B r i t a i n , P e t e r K u e n s t l e r , E d i t o r ; F a b e r and Faber L t d . , London, 1954, p. 101.  45  f o r m a t i o n o f a s o c c e r team f o r t h e boys, and a b a s k e t b a l l team f o r t h e g i r l s . Games a r e p l a y e d weekly, sometimes bi-weekly, and  e x h i b i t i o n events.  states,  and i n c l u d e b o t h c o m p e t i t i v e  I n r e p o r t i n g about t h e s o c c e r team, t h e P r e s i d e n t  "when l a s t y e a r , games were p l a y e d on Sunday, we n o t i c e d a few o f  our boys had been on p a r t i e s t h e n i g h t b e f o r e . note t h e d i f f e r e n c e .  T h i s y e a r we were proud t o  These boys had something t o occupy t h e i r Sundays, so  t h e r e f o r e avoided the p a r t i e s . "  The F e l l o w s h i p has managed t o equip  both  teams w i t h a s i m p l e t y p e o f u n i f o r m t h a t a f f o r d s them some r e c o g n i t i o n and self-esteem. In to  t h e s p r i n g o f each y e a r , t h e F e l l o w s h i p has a bazaar and t e a  r a i s e money f o r t h e i r proposed  C e n t r e ; any p r o f i t s from t h e admission  charges t o t h e Annual S o c i a l a r e a l s o s e t a s i d e f o r t h i s purpose. membership dues a r e o n l y a d o l l a r , n o t p r o v i d e much income.  and s t u d e n t s ' f e e s h a l f o f t h a t , t h e y do  Appeals t o t h e v a r i o u s I n d i a n r e s e r v e s f o r donations  have n o t been too s u c c e s s f u l .  There has been some response t o r e q u e s t s f o r  help with the sports a c t i v i t i e s o f the students, but very l i t t l e be ear-marked f o r t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f the C e n t r e . c o u l d make i t s purpose,  Since  that could  Perhaps t h e F e l l o w s h i p  f u n c t i o n , and aims b e t t e r known t o t h e r e s e r v e s ,  because from t h e s e p l a c e s come t h e people who c o u l d d e r i v e b e n e f i t from i t s p r e s e n t a c t i v i t i e s and i t s f u t u r e p l a n s . P r e s i d e n t was asked how p e o p l e Centre,  come t o know o f t h e c l u b and i t s I n f o r m a t i o n  she r e p l i e d t h a t news m o s t l y g e t s around by word o f mouth. In  of  T h i s seems needed, f o r when t h e  c o n c l u d i n g t h i s assessment o f t h e C o q u a l e e t z a - F e l l o w s h i p , one  the most s i g n i f i c a n t i t e m s must be i t s i n c o n s p i c u o u s n e s s .  Despite the  f a c t t h a t Vancouver has f o r t e n y e a r s had an I n d i a n group working toward h e l p i n g t h e i r people a d j u s t t o l i f e few p e o p l e know o f i t s e x i s t e n c e .  i n a modern urban community,  surprisingly  I t i s n o t l i s t e d i n the' handbook on W e l f a r e  and R e c r e a t i o n Resources p u b l i s h e d b y t h e Community Chest and C o u n c i l ,  46  although most of the other ethnic groups have one or more associations listed.  It i s not readily available in the telephone directory, since i t  is l i s t e d simply as "Coqualeetza Fellowship", and this name would not be widely known, except to the initiated, the well-informed, and people working at the Indian Affairs Branch.  A separate "extra listing" of the telephone  under "Indian Information Centre" or "Native Indian Information Centre" might make i t easier for a stranger to town to find the assistance and friendship he i s wanting. If the Fellowship is to gain interest and support for i t s objectives from the Indians on the reserves, the Indians in the city, and the non-Indians in the community, more information and other means of circulating i t are required.  In the overall assessment which follows,  this w i l l be kept in mind.  CHAPTER 4  IMPLICATIONS;  CITIZENS' RESPONSE TO A NEED  The m a t e r i a l s g a t h e r e d  i n t h i s study g i v e encouraging evidence o f  a more e n l i g h t e n e d approach toward I n d i a n m a t t e r s .  T h i s i s apparent i n t h e  v a r i o u s a l t e r a t i o n s i n t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p o l i c y o f t h e Canadian Government, which i s aiming  a t i n t e g r a t i o n o f t h e I n d i a n s i n t o Canadian s o c i e t y .  There i s  growing awareness t h a t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e f u t u r e o f t h e p e o p l e o f I n d i a n descent  does n o t r e s t s o l e l y w i t h t h e f e d e r a l government, n o t j u s t because  many a r e w i t h o u t Indians  " I n d i a n s t a t u s " , b u t because many p r o v i n c i a l laws keep  from h a v i n g  t h e r i g h t s and p r i v i l e g e s t h a t o t h e r c i t i z e n s  enjoy.  Moreover, many c i t i z e n s a r e r e c o g n i z i n g t h a t s u c c e s s f u l i n t e g r a t i o n w i l l n o t o c c u r , u n l e s s I n d i a n s a r e welcomed and encouraged t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e o r d i n a r y v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s , such as t h e P a r e n t - T e a c h e r A s s o c i a t i o n s , f o r example, i n communities where t h e i r  c h i l d r e n attend school.  t h e r e a r e few enough o f t h e s e gestures^  At present,  b u t t h e y should i n c r e a s e as more  1 p e o p l e become aware t h a t I n d i a n s Unfortunately,  can and w i s h t o make c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o them.  bad news g e t s t h e most p u b l i c i t y .  h e a r d about t h e achievements o f some I n d i a n s , as unusual o r e x c e p t i o n a l .  Too l i t t l e i s  and they a r e o f t e n  regarded  Yet, many a r e l i v i n g and working q u i e t l y as  1. A t t h e f i r s t annual c o n f e r e n c e o f t h e Indian-Eskimo A s s o c i a t i o n o f Canada, i n November I960, t h e P r e s i d e n t s a i d , "The IEA i n v i t e s a l l Canadians - n a t i v e and o t h e r w i s e - t o j o i n w i t h u s i n a g r e a t crusade t o remove t h e b a r r i e r s , and t o c r e a t e c o n d i t i o n s f a v o u r a b l e t o advancement, whereby t h e n a t i v e p e o p l e b y t h e i r own e f f o r t s can take t h e i r r i g h t f u l p l a c e i n the l i f e o f our country." Among t h e v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s r e p r e s e n t e d at t h e c o n f e r e n c e were t h e Canadian C i t i z e n s h i p C o u n c i l , Canadian T u b e r c u l o s i s A s s o c i a t i o n , Canadian W e l f a r e C o u n c i l , Canadian H a n d i c r a f t s G u i l d , C o - o p e r a t i v e Union o f Canada, I m p e r i a l Order Daughters o f t h e Empire, F e d e r a t e d Women's I n s t i t u t e s o f Canada, Boy Scouts A s s o c i a t i o n , Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n o f A d u l t E d u c a t i o n , Canadian Home and S c h o o l and P a r e n t - T e a c h e r F e d e r a t i o n , and t h e A n g l i c a n , B a p t i s t , P r e s b y t e r i a n , U n i t e d , and Roman C a t h o l i c churches, t h e S o c i e t y o f F r i e n d s and t h e B a h a ' i N a t i o n a l Assembly.  48 responsible citizens, for  and  t r y i n g to h e l p t o b r i n g about b e t t e r c o n d i t i o n s  l e s s f o r t u n a t e members o f t h e i r The  survey,  race.  v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s which have come under r e v i e w i n t h i s  are expressions  o f t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t h a t I n d i a n and n o n - I n d i a n  c i t i z e n s a r e assuming, i n o r d e r t o f o s t e r g r e a t e r acceptance o f t h e  Indian  as a p a r t i c i p a t i n g member o f the community, and t o a s s i s t him through early d i f f i c u l t i e s  he may  f a c e as he  o t h e r Canadians i n t h e c i t i e s .  How  the  seeks to make a p l a c e f o r h i m s e l f among much o f a p r o v i s i o n a l assessment o f them  can be made at t h i s time?  P e r s o n a l S e r v i c e s and S o c i a l R e l a t i o n s h i p s The  a s s o c i a t i o n s are a response t o a need.  v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s w i t h p e o p l e who  The need f o r f r i e n d l y  are understanding,  and who  are w e l l -  informed  about t h e problems the I n d i a n newcomer may  cities.  The p a r t i c u l a r s o c i a l needs t h e y meet a r e those o f p e r s o n a l s e r v i c e s  and  be e n c o u n t e r i n g  i n the  social relationships. The p r o v i s i o n o f p e r s o n a l s e r v i c e s by f e l l o w - c i t i z e n s i n the form  o f c o u n s e l l i n g and guidance i s r a t h e r r e m i n i s c e n t o f t h e s e r v i c e s p e r f o r m e d by the C i t i z e n ' s A d v i s o r y Bureaus, which came i n t o e x i s t e n c e i n wartime  1 Britain.  I t s p r i n g s from the motive o f mutual a i d r a t h e r t h a n p h i l a n t h r o p y  o r i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d s e r v i c e s , and  t h e r e f o r e , i s more e a s i l y requested,  • i s more conducive to s e l f - r e s p e c t . Members are p r e p a r e d s e r v i c e s of other agencies.  community r e s o u r c e s ,  Information  and  and  to i n t e r p r e t the  r e f e r r a l s a r e made to  existing  i s a l s o g i v e n about the c i t y , r e g a r d i n g where and  how  1. "The C.A.B. s e r v i c e bloomed i n t h e dark days o f war which produced on t h e one hand an overwhelming burden o f problems and, on the o t h e r , r e g u l a t i o n s d e s i g n e d t o p r o t e c t t h e community but n o t always i n t e l l i g i b l e t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l member." ( B r i t i s h ) N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l o f S o c i a l S e r v i c e , A d v i s i n g The C i t i z e n , handbook f o r C i t i z e n ' s A d v i s o r y Bureaus; 1948.  49  to  f i n d temporary o r permanent accommodation, and r e g a r d i n g how  a p p l y f o r employment.  t o seek  O f t e n the person g i v i n g t h e c o u n s e l l i n g can  and  anticipate  the a d v i c e r e q u i r e d , because he has been f a c e d w i t h t h e same minor v e x a t i o n s and d i f f i c u l t i e s .  Sometimes he can g i v e guidance  d r e s s and conduct;  these c r i t i c i s m s ,  a c c e p t e d from a member o f one's own  w i t h regard t o matters  of  even though c o n s t r u c t i v e , a r e more e a s i l y r a c e , o r from someone who  i s friendly  and  known to have one's i n t e r e s t a t h e a r t . As t h e s e s e r v i c e s a r e reviewed, a r e not, i n g e n e r a l , w e l l p r e p a r e d  i t can be seen t h a t e x i s t i n g  to p r o v i d e s e r v i c e f o r the I n d i a n on h i s  a r r i v a l t o t h e c i t y ; moreover, the I n d i a n may  n o t know what r e s o u r c e s  a v a i l a b l e , o r which ones to approach u n t i l h i s predicament i s s e v e r e . a s s o c i a t i o n s can h e l p t o p r e v e n t  the  The by  life  city. The  for,  are  s o c i a l d i s o r g a n i z a t i o n of the i n d i v i d u a l  p r o v i d i n g p e r s o n a l i n t e r e s t i n h i s w e l l - b e i n g w h i l e he i s a d j u s t i n g t o in  agencies  second and e q u a l l y i m p o r t a n t need t h a t t h e a s s o c i a t i o n s p r o v i d e  i s the o p p o r t u n i t y f o r s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s d u r i n g l e i s u r e time.  t h e y seem to p r o v i d e the many o p p o r t u n i t i e s t h a t are r e g a r d e d  In fact,  as n e c e s s a r y f o r  the f u l l development o f p e r s o n a l i t y , and which i n t h i s study i s r e g a r d e d n e c e s s a r y f o r a s s i s t i n g t h e I n d i a n to develop "(a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f)  f u l l y as a Canadian  s e l f e x p r e s s i o n and development o f broad  and a b s o r b i n g  as  citizen: interests,  v a r i e d r e c r e a t i o n a l experiences, r e l a x a t i o n from t e n s i o n s o f work and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , c o n s t r u c t i v e s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h people, broad p e r s p e c t i v e s and s a t i s f a c t i o n s d e r i v e d from c u l t u r a l communication, and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r community l i f e . " Any newcomer to the c i t y may  have d i f f i c u l t i e s at f i r s t  i n finding  1. N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n o f S o c i a l Workers, " P u b l i c R e c r e a t i o n and L e i s u r e time S e r v i c e s " ; G o a l s o f P u b l i c S o c i a l P o l i c y , adapted May 1958, NASW, New York, p. 30.  50  groups o f p e o p l e w i t h whom he has i n t e r e s t s i n common. unaccustomed t o b e i n g on h i s own, may  The I n d i a n , who  away from f a m i l y and f a m i l i a r  is  surroundings,  have s p e c i a l d i f f i c u l t i e s t h a t o n l y an a s s o c i a t i o n which i n c l u d e s mem-  b e r s o f h i s own  r a c e can s o l v e .  The customs and ways o f the c i t y a r e d i f -  f e r e n t , and he a l s o has t o cope w i t h t h e c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s o f the I n d i a n m a j o r i t y , and v a r y i n g m a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f D i s c r i m i n a t i o n . knowledge o f a v a i l a b l e r e c r e a t i o n a l r e s o u r c e s , and may funds t o use them when he i s aware o f them. a n x i e t y about acceptance by n o n - I n d i a n  He  non-  lacks  have i n s u f f i c i e n t  In h i s loneliness,  and i n h i s  people, he p a r t i c u l a r l y needs t h e  companionship o f h i s p e e r s , and needs t o b e l o n g t o a group w h i c h g i v e s him a sense o f i d e n t i t y and a sense o f worth. There i s no r e a s o n t o b e l i e v e t h a t t h e s e a s s o c i a t i o n s , formed by and w i t h h i s own population.  p e o p l e , make t h e I n d i a n f e e l segregated from the  non-Indian  These are v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s , and he i s f r e e t o use them o r  n o t use them; when he does,  he f i n d s that..he i s h e l p e d to g a i n v a l u a b l e i d e a s  about o t h e r a v a i l a b l e f a c i l i t i e s i n the c i t y .  On t h e c o n t r a r y , t h e y should  g r a d u a l l y h e l p him t o overcome the f e e l i n g o f s e g r e g a t i o n t h a t he has over the years, f o r they w i l l a f f o r d o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r f r i e n d l y and communication w i t h The  had  relations  non-Indians.  a s s o c i a t i o n s a l s o aim a t c r e a t i n g b e t t e r knowledge and under-  s t a n d i n g between I n d i a n s and non-Indians,  by i n f o r m i n g the Canadian  public  o f t h e h e r i t a g e o f t h e I n d i a n s and t h e i r c o n s i d e r a b l e c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o and h i s t o r y o f Canada. t i o n o f t h e i r own  T h i s i s g i v i n g the young I n d i a n s a g r e a t e r a p p r e c i a -  c u l t u r e , which some o f them t e n d t o negate  t o be a c c e p t e d by non-Indians. r e a s o n s why  life  i n their  desire  The young p e r s o n becomes more aware o f the  h i s e l d e r s have r e s i s t e d a s s i m i l a t i o n , which would mean t h a t  I n d i a n i d e n t i t y and v a l u e s were l o s t , and p r e f e r The Reverend Andre Renaud was  integration.  speaking t o the q u e s t i o n o f the  51  d e s i r a b i l i t y o f I n d i a n a s s o c i a t i o n s , when he  said,  " A f t e r a l l , our Canadian s o c i e t y , even a t t h e l o c a l l e v e l , i s p l u r a l i s t , f e d e r a l i s t i n i t s c o h e s i o n p a t t e r n . Each one o f us f i t s i n t o i t through the v a r i o u s a s s o c i a t i o n s , c l u b s , e t c . , t h a t are p a r t i c u l a r to our subgroup. Our new Canadians from Europe have ... e t h n i c a s s o c i a t i o n s which o f f e r under one r o o f the v a r i e t y of s e r v i c e s and f u n c t i o n s which our own v a r i o u s c l u b s and o r g a n i z a t i o n s p r o v i d e . I t has p r o v e d e a s i e r f o r them t o i n t e g r a t e i n t o our way o f l i f e and s o c i e t y through t h e s e a s s o c i a t i o n s which, a f t e r two o r t h r e e generat i o n s , when the m a j o r i t y o f members a r e f u l l y i n t e g r a t e d , r e s t r i c t t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s to p u r e l y c u l t u r a l e x p r e s s i o n i n t h e narrow sense o f t h e word. Why s h o u l d the I n d i a n Canadian n o t be p e r m i t t e d t o develop such c u l t u r a l a s s o c i a t i o n s o f t h e b e t t e r t y p e ? They a r e human j u s t l i k e the r e s t o f u s . They need more t h a n a job and a p l a c e t o s t a y i n , t h e y need the company o f t h e i r p e e r s . " 1 E d u c a t i o n o f t h e Community As a l r e a d y i n d i c a t e d , members o f t h e a s s o c i a t i o n s a r e f o s t e r i n g the promotion o f g r e a t e r knowledge on I n d i a n m a t t e r s , about b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g  i n order to b r i n g  between I n d i a n s and non-Indians.  I n d i a n members  r e a l i z e o n l y too w e l l , t h a t non-Indians g e n e r a l l y have l i t t l e knowledge about t h e i r p a s t h i s t o r y , and a v e r y hazy p i c t u r e o f p r e s e n t c o n d i t i o n s , o r t h e reasons f o r them. of  Undoubtedly i n r e c e n t y e a r s ,  s i n c e the  t h e J o i n t P a r l i a m e n t a r y Committee on I n d i a n A f f a i r s ,  news i t e m s , matters.  establishment  t h e r e have been more  and more r e p o r t s and d i s c u s s i o n s i n the n a t i o n a l p r e s s on  Outstanding  these  c o n t r i b u t i o n s have been made by t h e N a t i o n a l F i l m  Board and the Canadian B r o a d c a s t i n g C o r p o r a t i o n programmes which p r e s e n t problems and needs o f the I n d i a n s from many p o i n t s o f view. of  t h e s e c o n t r i b u t i o n s has been t h e demonstration  a r e n o t t h e same i n a l l p a r t s o f t h e  of  country.  Not  the  the l e a s t  t h a t " I n d i a n s " and c o n d i t i o n s  2  1. Rev. Andre Renaud, Address t o t h e Conference on I n d i a n s and t h e G r e a t e r Winnipeg W e l f a r e C o u n c i l , January 1958.  Metis  2. V a l u a b l e work has been done from many q u a r t e r s f o r more i n f o r m e d p o l i c y f o r Eskimos. T h i s i s , however, important enough f o r a f u l l s t u d y by i t s e l f .  52  Too many people, however, s t i l l believe that the Indians had l i t t l e of value until the "white" settlers arrived on this continent, and that they did not acquire the benefits of "civilization" because they were incapable of doing so.  There is l i t t l e realization that when Indians have  opportunities for education, they can compete successfully with other Canadians, and that there are many eminent men and women among them.  Indians  are usually anxious to point out that their racial group includes a l l kinds of people, just as there are good, bad, and indifferent among other ethnic groups; they would like to be judged on their merits as individuals, rather than be condemned for outward differences.  A prayer, quoted i n a newsletter  produced by the Moose Jaw Society, i s one that could well be used by nonIndians, "Great Spirit, grant that I may not c r i t i c i z e my neighbour, t i l l I have walked a mile i n his moccasins." Many Indian members of the associations are well able to speak before groups or meetings which express a desire to learn more about Indian affairs.  It seems that more are preparing themselves to do so in the future,  by taking public speaking classes.  In the Vancouver group, the Coqualeetza  Fellowship, the President and other members are very conscientious, and generous with their time when such requests are made, for they are dedicated to helping to promote better understanding between Indians and non-Indians. They bear with good grace the many ignorant questions that are asked, and attempt to correct wrong impressions with courtesy. It i s noteworthy that recently the Fellowship protested the use of certain words, such as "squaw", that now have a derogatory implication, to one of Canada's national magazines; but what i s more remarkable, the magazine reprinted the letter for a l l to see, a silent apology, perhapsI As a service organization composed of the native Indian peoples of British  53  Columbia, t h e y asked  t h a t " i n f u t u r e r e p o r t s o f t h e Canadian I n d i a n a more  d i g n i f i e d approach be u s e d . "  A r a t h e r heavy f a c e t i o u s n e s s , when w r i t i n g  about c e r t a i n e t h n i c groups, seems to be a f a i l i n g o f too many who the popular p r e s s .  The l o c a l newspapers seldom m i s s an  write for  o p p o r t u n i t y to  t h e e x p r e s s i o n s "pow-wow" and "on t h e war-path" when t h e y r e p o r t on meeting o f an  a  I n d i a n o r g a n i z a t i o n ; t h i s r e f l e c t s on t h e w r i t e r , but i t a l s o  r e t a r d s t h e p r o p e r acceptance g i v e them due  use  o f the I n d i a n p e o p l e , because i t does n o t  respect.  A Basic Necessity T h i s attempt t o educate the g e n e r a l p u b l i c i s one t h i n g , b u t p r o v i s i o n o f a base f o r a c t i v i t i e s i s another. Coqualeetza  In i t s c o n s t i t u t i o n ,  the  the  F e l l o w s h i p s t a t e s t h a t i n o r d e r to a c h i e v e i t s o b j e c t i v e s , t h e  e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a N a t i v e C e n t r e i n Vancouver i s a b a s i c n e c e s s i t y .  Other  a s s o c i a t i o n s a l s o r e g a r d a s o c i a l o r r e c r e a t i o n a l c e n t r e as a p r o j e c t w i t h top p r i o r i t y .  I n t h e l a t t e r case, i t may  w e l l be t h e r e p o r t s on t h e  success  o f the Winnipeg I n d i a n and M e t i s F r i e n d s h i p C e n t r e , t h a t cause them t o aim a t p r o v i d i n g t h e s e f a c i l i t i e s i n t h e i r own  cities.  F e l l o w s h i p r e c e i v e d the i d e a from a man  who  t h i r t y y e a r s ago.  Yet,  However, t h e  Coqualeetza  proposed such a C e n t r e  t h i s group has been u n a b l e  over  t o s e t up more than  an  I n f o r m a t i o n O f f i c e i n Vancouver, w h i l e i n t h e c i t y o f Winnipeg, t h e F r i e n d s h i p C e n t r e w i l l soon be e n t e r i n g i t s t h i r d y e a r o f o p e r a t i o n . D e s p i t e t h e f a c t t h a t Vancouver has l o n g had an I n d i a n group h e l p i n g p e o p l e to a d j u s t to l i f e i n a modern urban community, v e r y few know o f i t s e x i s t e n c e .  people  Whether t h i s i s because F e l l o w s h i p a c t i v i t i e s were  overshadowed by t h e f o r m a t i o n o f the N a t i v e I n d i a n S e r v i c e C o u n c i l , and appointment o f c h u r c h - a f f i l i a t e d f i e l d workers, i s n o t t o o c l e a r .  the  Certainly  many I n d i a n s withdrew t h e i r support from the F e l l o w s h i p a t t h e time o f t h i s  5 4  intervention.  Perhaps t o o , the i n f l u x o f European immigrants t o Vancouver i n  the l a s t f i v e y e a r s , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e Hungarians, has d e t r a c t e d from t h e i n t e r e s t t h a t might have been f o s t e r e d on b e h a l f o f the I n d i a n s .  The  impres-  s i o n g a i n e d i s t h a t the N a t i v e I n d i a n S e r v i c e C o u n c i l l o o k e d to t h e F e d e r a l Government and t h e churches,  r a t h e r than t o t h e P r o v i n c i a l Government  t h e community, f o r support f o r t h e proposed C e n t r e . G r e a t e r Winnipeg W e l f a r e C o u n c i l has,  since  conference,  1 9 5 4 *  the o t h e r hand,  even b e f o r e the P r o v i n c i a l  n o t i c e d the e f f o r t s o f the I n d i a n s , and conference  On  sponsored  the  survey,  an annual I n d i a n and  which has k e p t i t s c i t i z e n s i n f o r m e d .  one recommendation r e a d as f o l l o w s :  and  At the  Metis 1 9 5 8  "That a r e f e r r a l s e r v i c e  f o r I n d i a n and p a r t - I n d i a n newcomers t o Winnipeg be e s t a b l i s h e d to g u i d e c o u n s e l i n m a t t e r s o f housing, The  e d u c a t i o n and o t h e r community  and  services."  c i t i z e n s o f Winnipeg assumed a share, through t h e Winnipeg  Foundation  w i t h t h e P r o v i n c i a l and F e d e r a l governments, o f a budget f o r a two-year t r i a l period.  I t was  a p p a r e n t l y t h e i r i n t e r e s t i n the c o m p l e x i t y o f t h e  I n d i a n problem, and t h e i r p o t e n t i a l to support the p r o j e c t e n t i r e l y l a t e r  on,  1  which enabled  them t o o b t a i n a g r a n t from t h e F e d e r a l Government.  S i n c e most o f t h e a s s o c i a t i o n s hope t o e s t a b l i s h a Centre, i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e set-up: a)  b  )  A board of d i r e c t o r s , o f whom a r e I n d i a n s .  composed o f f i f t e e n Winnipeg c i t i z e n s ,  some  A C o u n c i l o f e l e v e n I n d i a n people, which was formed t o guide, a d v i s e , and to h e l p p l a n t h e programme and a c t i v i t i e s .  c)  An a d v i s o r y Committee o f some t h i r t y p e o p l e r e p r e s e n t i n g Community and W e l f a r e S e r v i c e s , formed to a s s i s t t h e Board, and h e l p e v a l u a t e the work done.  d)  Staff: office  1.  Department o f . C i t i z e n s h i p & Immigration  E x e c u t i v e D i r e c t o r , A s s i s t a n t D i r e c t o r , and help.  part-time  l e t t e r t o the w r i t e r .  55  Once a permanent C e n t r e i s e s t a b l i s h e d , and s t a f f a r e employed, the o p e r a t i o n t a k e s on o t h e r dimensions.  F o r example, the  semi-annual  1 report  o f t h e F r i e n d s h i p C e n t r e s t a t e s t h a t t h e work d i v i d e s i n t o f o u r  areas.  First,  d i r e c t s e r v i c e s a v a i l a b l e t o t h o s e a t t e n d i n g the C e n t r e :  i n f o r m a l c o u n s e l l i n g as r e q u e s t e d , and v a r i o u s e d u c a t i o n a l and programmes i n t h e evenings. separate e n t i t y .  Another  recreational  R e f e r r a l t o e x i s t i n g a g e n c i e s i s seen as a  phase o f t h e work i s approaching  established  a g e n c i e s t o d e v e l o p programmes; f o r i n s t a n c e , t h e use o f a h i g h s c h o o l gymnasium was  o b t a i n e d f o r v o l l e y b a l l games, a f t e r the R e c r e a t i o n D i v i s i o n  o f the W e l f a r e C o u n c i l was  consulted.  F i n a l l y , t h e study and  documentation  o f problems encountered means t h a t recommendations can be made to community groups and t h e governments r e g a r d i n g needs. The r e p o r t s show t h a t p e o p l e o f a l l ages use t h e Centre, t h e m a j o r i t y a r e under t h i r t y y e a r s o f age. has a o n e - t h i r d t u r n o v e r each month.  The group changes, and  although probably  On the whole, the group i s s a i d to be  "above average i n e d u c a t i o n and behaviour standards, many b e i n g h i g h s c h o o l and M. T. I . ( T e c h n i c a l ) graduates, o r young working p e o p l e who i n the c i t y f o r some t i m e . "  The  s t a f f i s concerned  have been  t h a t t h e y do n o t r e a c h  many o f the l e s s p r i v i l e g e d young p e o p l e ; t h e y come o c c a s i o n a l l y f o r couns e l l i n g , but r a r e l y use t h e C e n t r e f o r s o c i a l and r e c r e a t i o n a l The E x e c u t i v e D i r e c t o r mentions t h a t non-Indians  purposes.  are n o t apt t o  see the v e r y g r e a t need f o r s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n and i n c r e a s e d r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n the group.  When t h e y are i n t e r e s t e d , t h e y t e n d t o take too a c t i v e a  r o l e i n the a c t i v i t i e s .  On t h e o t h e r hand, t h o s e who  come i n t o the group  on an equal b a s i s a r e a g r e a t h e l p , f o r t h e I n d i a n s need o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r l e a d e r s h i p , as w e l l as f o r s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h 1.  The p e r i o d from A p r i l t o November, I960.  non-Indians.  56  Two p r o j e c t s b e i n g undertaken by t h e I n d i a n C o u n c i l t h i s i n d i c a t e p r i d e i n t h e Centre, is  and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r i t s f u t u r e .  year The one  the p u b l i c a t i o n o f a mimeographed magazine c o n t a i n i n g a r t i c l e s w r i t t e n  by t h e members on a number o f s u b j e c t s p e r t a i n i n g t o I n d i a n m a t t e r s  and t h e  a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e C e n t r e ; t h e o t h e r i s t h e assumption o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o r a i s e a s p e c i f i c sum toward t h e budget o f t h e C e n t r e . The  initial  success o f t h e Winnipeg endeavour i s a c h a l l e n g e t o  t h e c i t i z e n s i n o t h e r urban c e n t r e s .  The need f o r a C e n t r e and i t s u s e f u l -  n e s s has been w e l l demonstrated d u r i n g t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l p e r i o d , and i t i s now e s t a b l i s h e d on a permanent b a s i s .  Precedent  f o r t h e Idea o f a C e n t r e Even i f t h e r e were n o t t h i s evidence o f t h e s u c c e s s f u l completion  of  a two-year t r i a l p r o j e c t i n Winnipeg, t h e r e would s t i l l be ample  justifica-  t i o n f o r c i t i z e n s to a s s i s t t h e e f f o r t s o f these a s s o c i a t i o n s i n t h e i r p l a n s to  e s t a b l i s h "Fellowship" or "Friendship" centres.  o r neighbourhood houses t o f u l f i l l twentieth century. t h e s e developed,  The i d e a o f s o c i a l  centres  s o c i a l needs i s n o t a phenomenon o f t h e  The s e t t l e m e n t s o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h century, from which  were t h e means o f a l l e v i a t i n g many o f t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s , and  meeting some o f t h e needs o f t h e " d e p r i v e d p o o r " i n t h e c i t i e s o f England, and t h o s e o f t h e " d e p r i v e d immigrants"  i n t h e c i t i e s of the United States.  A l t h o u g h ^ t h e p r e s e n t s i t u a t i o n o f t h e I n d i a n s i n today's Canadian is  d i f f e r e n t f o r many reasons,  i t cannot be d i s m i s s e d as b e i n g  cities  entirely  u n l i k e t h o s e o f t h e u n d e r p r i v i l e g e d groups o f t h e l a s t c e n t u r y ; t h e y have been, and many s t i l l  a r e , d e p r i v e d , and i n t h e c i t i e s t h e y a r e m i g r a n t s  f a c i n g adjustment t o a d i f f e r e n t  culture.  A comparison has a l r e a d y been made i n an e a r l i e r c h a p t e r o f t h e g e n e r a l c o n d i t i o n s t h e poor f a c e d i n t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y and t h e s i t u a t i o n  57 w i t h which t h e I n d i a n i s t r y i n g t o cope today:  l a c k o f education, l a c k o f  the type o f s k i l l s r e q u i r e d i n i n d u s t r y , and g e n e r a l i s o l a t i o n from t h e main stream o f t h e l i f e o f t h e n a t i o n .  T h e r e f o r e , when one c o n s i d e r s t h e c o n t r i b u -  t i o n s o f the s e t t l e m e n t s t o t h e c l i m a t e o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g  t h e poor, t o t h e  knowledge o f t h e i r needs, and t o s o l u t i o n s f o r some o f t h e i r problems, t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f n a t i v e c e n t r e s w i t h programmes s u i t e d t o h e l p i n g t h e I n d i a n seems t o h o l d an answer t o t h e dilemma.  In mentioning  t h e s e t t l e m e n t s , one  i s reminded t h a t t h e programmes f o r a d u l t e d u c a t i o n and t h e p r a c t i c e o f s o c i a l work e v o l v e d from t h i s movement.  The importance o f e d u c a t i o n i n t h e narrow  sense o f s c h o o l i n g o r t r a i n i n g t h e I n d i a n c h i l d o r a d u l t f o r h i s p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n Canadian l i f e  i s r e c o g n i z e d ; b u t t h e r e i s l e s s awareness o f t h e im-  p o r t a n c e o f e d u c a t i o n i n i t s w i d e r sense, of  b o t h I n d i a n and non-Indian The  understanding for  t h e e d u c a t i o n o f t h e mind and h e a r t  f o r t h i s entry into the l i f e o f the nation.  challenge t o the c i t i z e n s o f the nation i s the c a l l f o r b e t t e r and communication between I n d i a n and non-Indian,  and, t h e r e f o r e ,  the promotion o f r e s o u r c e s which w i l l f o s t e r t h e achievement o f b e t t e r  r e l a t i o n s h i p s , and which w i l l p r o v i d e support and encouragement f o r t h e I n d i a n as he seeks t o i n t e g r a t e i n t o Canadian s o c i e t y . c e n t r e s i s a prime r e s o u r c e .  The e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f I n d i a n  The I n d i a n does n o t have l o n g - e s t a b l i s h e d  members o f h i s e t h n i c group t o p r o v i d e t h e funds f o r t h e s e e n t e r p r i s e s , so he s h o u l d be h e l p e d i n h i s e f f o r t s by t h e c i t i z e n s o f each community. I n t h e meantime, t h e a s s o c i a t i o n s a r e a s s i s t i n g t h e I n d i a n t o a d j u s t to  urban l i v i n g  by g i v i n g him o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o be w i t h h i s p e e r s , t o a c h i e v e  a sense o f b e l o n g i n g ,  t o develop  a sense o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n .  As t h e i r sense o f  worth and d i g n i t y a r e r e c o g n i z e d , and t h e i r r i g h t t o s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n i s observed, will  Canadians o f I n d i a n a n c e s t r y w i l l g a i n c o n f i d e n c e and many o f them  show unexpected competences t o make c o n t r i b u t i o n s , and t o take on r e s p o n -  s i b i l i t i e s t h a t w i l l add t o t h e s t r e n g t h o f Canadian  society.  58 APPENDIX A I n d i a n F e l l o w s h i p O r g a n i z a t i o n s i n Canadian C i t i e s ( a s a t I960) Name o f O r g a n i z a t i o n  Place  Date  Organized  Alberta Calgary  x x  "  (1) (2)  Calumet C l u b name n o t d e c i d e d Canadian N a t i v e S o c i e t y o f Edmonton  Edmonton  1958  October I960 F a l l I960  B r i t i s h Columbia #  in  Kami oops P r i n c e Rupert Vancouver Vancouver  (1) (2)  # x  The Pas Winnipeg  (1)  x  Winnipeg  x x  F r i e n d s h i p House Coqualeetza Fellowship Native Indian Service Council  process ? February 1950 March 1956  Manitoba  II  (2) (3)  Indian & Metis Friendship Centre Bosco I n d i a n & M e t i s C l u b I n d i a n Urban A s s o c i a t i o n  April  1959  November  1959  September  I960  Ontario # x x  London Ottawa Toronto  The  (1) (2)  #  Indian A s s o c i a t i o n of Ottawa Toronto I n d i a n Y o u t h C l u b ?  October  1958  9  Toronto  Quebec Montreal  Indian A s s o c i a t i o n o f Montreal  F a l l I960  Saskatchewan x  Moose Jaw Prince Albert  Native Youth S o c i e t y Indian & Metis Service Council Canadian N a t i v e S o c i e t y  October I 9 6 0  May I960 F a l l I960  #  Regina Saskatoon  x  Whitehorse  x  R e p l y r e c e i v e d to survey  #  I n s u f f i c i e n t d a t a a v a i l a b l e t o p e r m i t r e q u e s t f o r i n f o r m a t i o n , a t time o f study.  Yukon Yukon I n d i a n Advancement Association  January  1957  questionnaire  59  APPENDIX B  M a r j o r i e Evans, S c h o o l o f S o c i a l Work, U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, 8, B.C.  SURVEY OF INDIAN FRIENDSHIP AND YOUTH CLUBS  Name o f C l u b Place Date o f O r g a n i z a t i o n  1.  F o r what reasons was y o u r Club formed? Provide leisure-time a c t i v i t i e s P r o v i d e f r i e n d s h i p f o r newcomers t o t h e c i t y Promote u n d e r s t a n d i n g between I n d i a n s and Non-Indians . . . . G i v e guidance  ( i f so, what k i n d s )  Others ( p l e a s e s p e c i f y )  2. a) Mho were most a c t i v e i n t h e f o r m a t i o n o f your Residents of the c i t y :  Indian  Club?  Non-Indian  Newcomers ( e . g . s t u d e n t s e t c . ) Government p e r s o n n e l ( e . g . Placement o r W e l f a r e O f f i c e r s ) . . Church p e r s o n n e l Other a g e n c i e s ( e . g . YMCA, YWCA)  b) A r e the most a c t i v e p e o p l e knowledgeable about I n d i a n Yes  problems:  . . . . No . . . . I f yes, where have t h e y l e a r n e d o f them?  60  3. a) Where does your o r g a n i z a t i o n h o l d i t s meetings? (e.g.  b) How 4. a) How  p r i v a t e homes, own  o f t e n are meetings  c l u b rooms, "Y".  held?  Please specify)  Weekly . . . .  Monthly  . . .Other  many members b e l o n g t o the C l u b a t the end o f y o u r f i r s t Indians  . . .  year?  Non-Indians  b) What i s p r e s e n t membership ( I 9 6 0 ) ?  . . . I n d i a n s . . Non-Indians  . . .  c) Does membership i n c l u d e p e o p l e o f a l l age groups? OR  are members m a i n l y between ages o f 18 to 2 5 ?  d) A p p r o x i m a t e l y what p r o p o r t i o n o f your members have l i v e d i n town under 6 months? 5.  over 2 years? . . . .  a) I s your programme c o n f i n e d t o r e g u l a r meetings  over 5 y e a r s . . . ., . . . OR  do groups o f  members meet f o r a c t i v i t i e s a t o t h e r times? b) What are t h e most f a v o u r e d a c t i v i t i e s  ( e . g . s p o r t s , dances,  hobbies,  discussions). Please give d e t a i l s  6.  a) Are you a b l e t o f i n a n c e your c l u b through membership f e e s ? OR  do you r e c e i v e f u n d s from o t h e r sources?  latter,  I f the  what have been the main sources  b) I f more money were a v a i l a b l e , what p r o j e c t o f t h e c l u b would t a k e priority?  61  a) What a r e the c h i e f problems f o r which your A s s o c i a t i o n seems t o help provide solutions?  (Add n o t e s on back i f n e c e s s a r y ) . . .  b) Are t h e r e d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e needs (and/or problems) as seen by I n d i a n s and Non-Indians? ( G i v e examples, on back i f n e c e s s a r y )  62  APPENDIX C  Coqualeetza  Fellowship  CONSTITUTION 1.  The name o f t h e S o c i e t y i s "THE COQUALEETZA FELLOWSHIP".  2.  The o b j e c t s o f t h e F e l l o w s h i p a r e : (a)  To promote b e t t e r knowledge and u n d e r s t a n d i n g between t h e N a t i v e s o f Canada o f I n d i a n d e s c e n t and t h e Canadian public.  (b)  To s t i m u l a t e h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n among such N a t i v e s .  (c)  To encourage c o n s t r u c t i v e a c t i v i t i e s among such N a t i v e s .  (d)  To a s s i s t i n t h e w e l f a r e o f t h e c h i l d r e n o f such N a t i v e s .  (e)  To a s s i s t i n s e c u r i n g jobs f o r such N a t i v e s .  (f)  To promote Canadian N a t i v e C u l t u r e .  (g)  To s t i m u l a t e c o m p e t i t i v e s p o r t s among a l l Canadians.  3.  To a c c o m p l i s h t h e f o r e g o i n g aims, t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a N a t i v e Centre i s a b a s i c n e c e s s i t y .  4.  The o p e r a t i o n s o f t h e F e l l o w s h i p a r e t o be c h i e f l y c a r r i e d on i n t h e C i t y o f Vancouver, i n t h e P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h Columbia, w i t h power t o o p e r a t e i n d e p e n d e n t l y a t any p l a c e i n the s a i d P r o v i n c e .  March 26,  1956.  63  BIBLIOGRAPHY Books Bruno, Frank J . Trends i n S o c i a l Work: New York; 1957. C o l l i e r , John. (Copyright  1874-1956; Columbia U n i v e r s i t y ,  I n d i a n s o f t h e Americas; Mentor Books, New York;  1947), Seventh p r i n t i n g 1959.  H a m i l t o n , Gordon. Theory and P r a c t i c e o f S o c i a l Casework; Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , New York; 2nd E d . 1951. Hawthorn, H. B., Belshaw, C. S. and Jamieson, S. M. The I n d i a n s o f B r i t i s h Columbia, a Study o f Contemporary S o c i a l Adjustment; U n i v e r s i t y o f K u e n s t l e r , P e t e r , ed. S o c i a l Group Work i n Great B r i t a i n ; Faber & Faber L t d . , London; 1955. Lee, Dorothy. Freedom and C u l t u r e ; N. J . ; 1959.  P r e n t i c e - H a l l , I n c . , Englewood  Cliffs,  Legasse^ Jean H. The P e o p l e o f I n d i a n A n c e s t r y i n Manitoba, a S o c i a l and Economic Study; Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e and Immigration, Winnipeg, Manitoba; 1959. Young, A. F. and Ashton, E . T. B r i t i s h S o c i a l Work i n t h e N i n e t e e n t h C e n t u r y ; R o u t l e d g e and Kegan P a u l , London; 1956.  Miscellaneous ( A r t i c l e s ,  B u l l e t i n s , Pamphlets, R e p o r t s )  Canada, Department o f C i t i z e n s h i p and Immigration. "The I n d i a n P e o p l e o f Canada", C i t i z e n ; V o l . k» No. 1, F e b r u a r y 1958. Canada, Department o f C i t i z e n s h i p and Immigration. a R e f e r e n c e Paper; 1959.  The Canadian I n d i a n ,  C o q u a l e e t z a R e s i d e n t i a l S c h o o l ; Commencement Annual; 1927  and 1930.  Dunning, D r . R. W. " I n d i a n R e s e r v e s and t h e R e s e r v e Economy", The F i r s t Canadians. Canadian B r o a d c a s t i n g C o r p o r a t i o n ; October 1959. H a l l o w e l l , A. I r v i n g . "The Impact o f t h e American I n d i a n on American Culture". American A n t h r o p o l o g i s t ; V o l . 59, No. 2, A p r i l 1957. Indian-Eskimo A s s o c i a t i o n .  B u l l e t i n s ; V o l . 1,  N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n o f S o c i a l Workers. New York; May 1958.  Nos. 1-4,  I960.  Goals o f Public S o c i a l P o l i c y ;  64  National Commission on the Indian Canadian.  Bulletins; 1958 and 1959.  National Council of Social Service. Advising the Citizen, a Handbook for Citizen's Advisory Bureaus; Great Britain; 1958. Reifel, Dr. Ben. "To Be or To Become; Cultural Factors in Social Adjustment of Indians"; Indian Education, April 15, 1957; reprinted by the National Commission on the Indian Canadian. Renaud, Rev. Andre'. Address to the Conference on Indian and Metis of the Winnipeg Welfare Council; January 25, 1958. Vallee, Dr. Frank. "Four Centuries of Change"; The First Canadians; Canadian Broadcasting Corporation; October 1959. Welfare Council of Greater Winnipeg. Referral gervice of People of Indian Origin; Monograph; June 3, 1958.  

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