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Menno Home: a parochial housing project for the aged : a comparative assessment; Vancouver 1961 Schroeder, Peter 1961

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MENNO HOME: A PAROCHIAL HOUSING PROJECT FOR THE AGED A Comparative Assessment; Vancouver 1961 by PETER SCHROEDER Thesis Submitted i n P a r t i a l Fulfilment of the Requirements for the Degree of MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK i n the School of S o c i a l Work Accepted as conforming to the standard required for the degree of Master of Soc i a l Work School of Soc i a l Work 1961 The University of B r i t i s h Columbia I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r a n a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l m a k e i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e a n d s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s m a y b e g r a n t e d b y t h e H e a d o f my D e p a r t m e n t o r b y h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t b e a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . T h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , V a n c o u v e r 8, C a n a d a . D e p a r t m e n t o f . . - i i i -ABSTRACT The m a i n t a s k o f any group a t t e m p t i n g t o p r o v i d e p r o p e r h o u s i n g f o r t h e aged i s t h a t o f m a k i n g i t more t h a n s i m p l y " a p l a c e t o s t a y . " The M e n n o n i t e community, t o o , i s f a c e d w i t h t h i s t a s k as I t l o o k s f o r a n answer t o t h e h o u s -i n g d ilemma o f i t s o l d e r members. T h i s s t u d y u n d e r t a k e s t o s u r v e y one k i n d o f answer - t h a t o f Menno Home. T h i s s u r v e y o f a M e n n o n i t e Home l o c a t e d i n C l e a r -b r o o k , B.C., i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h i s t y p e o f h o u s i n g t e n d s t o c u t i t s r e s i d e n t s o f f f r o m t h e s t r e a m o f l i f e . The p a r t i c i -p a t i o n o f t h e s e e l d e r l y p e o p l e i n community a f f a i r s becomes v e r y l i m i t e d . The s t u d y b e g i n s w i t h a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e a g i n g p r o c e s s i n g e n e r a l . I t d e s c r i b e s some t y p e s o f h o u s i n g p r o -j e c t s w h i c h h a v e b e e n u n d e r t a k e n on b e h a l f o f t h e aged. In t h e s e c o n d c h a p t e r t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f Menno Home I s r e v i e w e d , and a d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e h o u s i n g u n i t i s u n d e r -t a k e n . I n t h e f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r t h e s e r v i c e s t h a t a r e o f f e r -e d a r e t r a c e d a g a i n s t the b a c k g r o u n d o f a s t r o n g and d e v o t e d c h u r c h - o r i e n t e d a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . A c o m p a r i s o n i s drawn w i t h o t h e r homes f o r t h e aged. T h i s i s done t h r o u g h t h e u s e o f s e v e r a l s t u d i e s u n d e r t a k e n b y M a s t e r o f S o c i a l Work s t u d e n t s i n p r e v i o u s y e a r s . I n t h e f i n a l c h a p t e r t h e n e e d s o f t h e r e s i d e n t s of Menno Home a r e c o n s i d e r e d . T h i s i s f o l l o w e d b y a d i s c u s s i o n o f what s o c i a l w o r k e r s w o u l d be a b l e t o do t o make a b e n e f i -c i a l c o n t r i b u t i o n t o Merino Home. Menno Home i s f o u n d t o be q u i t e s i m i l a r t o o t h e r i n s t i t u t i o n s d e d i c a t e d t o t h e same p u r p o s e s . The v a r i a t i o n s t h a t a r e e v i d e n t c o n s i s t i n d i f f e r e n t p o l i c i e s o f a d m i s s i o n , d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and some d i f f e r e n c e s i n the p h y s i c a l p l a n t i t s e l f . However, t h e d i s t i n g u i s h i n g f e a -t u r e o f Menno Home l i e s I n i t s s t r o n g k i n s h i p t o t h e Mennon-i t e c h u r c h , and i n t h e f a c t t h a t i t s e r v e s a l m o s t e x c l u s i v e l y a r u r a l , M e n n o n i t e , German o r Low German s p e a k i n g g r o u p . Menno Home w o u l d l e n d i t s e l f w e l l t o t h e i n f l u e n c e o f a c a p -a b l e s o c i a l w o r k e r , as t h a t w o r k e r c o o p e r a t e s w i t h t h e C h r i s t i a n m i n i s t e r s now en g a g e d i n s e r v i n g t h e r e s i d e n t s o f Menno Home. - i v -ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS To Dr. Leonard C. Marsh of the School of S o c i a l Work, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, who has provided constant guidance and encouragement i n thi s study. His inte r e s t s i n the problems of the aged, and hi s extensive knowledge of pre-sent and projected housing projects, have been a valuable r e-source at a l l times. To Reverend Gerhard Peters, Chairman of the Mennonite Benevolent Society, who provided information dealing with the background of Menno Home, and who gave encouragement for t h i s study. To Mr. John Dyck, Manager of Menno Home, who made a v a i l -able some of the s t a t i s t i c s used i n t h i s study, and who pro-vided information about the physical c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Menno Home. - i i TABLE OP CONTENTS Chapter 1. Housing f o r the Aged Page The aging process. The place of the aged to-day. Types of housing for older people. Development of services f o r the aged. Scope of present study • ...... 1 Chapter 2. Merino Home: F a c i l i t i e s and Residents Developments of Mennonite Benevolent Society. Menno Inva l i d Home. The buildings. Administration. Admissions procedure and p o l i c y . Comparison with other homes. Residents of Menno Home 17 Chapter 3 . Menno Home: Welfare Services i n Housing The types of services rendered. What other i n s t i t u t i o n s o f f e r . Counseling services. The minis-ter and the s o c i a l worker 35 Chapter Menno Home: New Potentials Needs of residents of Menno Home. Is s o c i a l work relevant for Menno Home? A counseling service. Admission and e l i g i b i l i t y . Recreational a c t i v i t i e s . Conclusions 50 Appendices: A. Sample Application Form B. Bibliography TABLES AND ILLUSTRATIONS (a) Tables Table 1. Age d i s t r i b u t i o n of Menno Home residents 29 Table 2. Source of income, Merino Home residents 33 (b) I l l u s t r a t i o n s F i g . 1. Menno Home (195^) 19(b) Fi g . 2. Cottage (1951|-) .. 19(b) Fi g . 3 . Menno Inva l i d Home (I960) 19(b) H M O HOME: A PAROCHIAL HOUSING PROJECT POR THE AGED CHAPTER 1 HOUSING FOR THE AGED In a t y p i c a l Mennonite community, i n a farming area, old people are increasingly l e f t to themselves and so must depend on t h e i r own resources f o r happiness. I t i s true that there are rest homes, which provide care for the aged and furnish f a c i l i -t i e s i n an e f f o r t to keep them contented. However, true happi-ness must depend on the personal resources of the i n d i v i d u a l as they are given an opportunity f o r expression within a setting that i s ready to off e r more than mere accomodation. The cru* c i a l problem f o r the Mennonite community at the moment arises out of the urgent need to reconcile the needs and p o t e n t i a l of i t s senior c i t i z e n s with the present tendency to place a l l per-tinent values on the energy and boldness of youth. The Mennonite denominations are urgently looking for a solution to these problems. Being, t r a d i t i o n a l l y , an agrarian people, the problem f o r the Mennonites i n Canada has never be-fore assumed such gigantic proportions. From the community o r i g i n a l l y self-contained, self-maintained and rotted to the s o i l , has sprouted and grown to f u l l bloom a migratory people l o s i n g basic t i e s with i t s own agrarian o r i e n t a t i o n . Mennon-i t e s , In common with others, tend to move too often and too f a s t to b u i l d the strong home l i f e and c u l t i v a t e l i f e - l o n g friendships as was done i n former years. The r e s u l t i s a f e e l -ing of loneliness and i s o l a t i o n even when mixed i n with the general populace. Having l o s t t h e i r roots, older Mennonite people f e e l that t h e i r worth to others i s meager, and soon de-tect within themselves a nagging loss of s e l f - r e s p e c t . The solu-t i o n to the problem i s slow i n coming about for various reasons: one being that not enough e f f o r t has been put into seeking the guidance of the professions that have concerned themselves with the aged. An e f f o r t w i l l be made to discover what s o c i a l work thinking i s as i t r e l a t e s to the aged, and then to f i n d avenues i n which t h i s thinking can be made useful f o r Mennonites who are operating and contemplating homes for the aged. One of the basic assumptions of s o c i o l o g i c a l and anthro-p o l o g i c a l approaches to the study of old age i s that the cate-g o r i z a t i o n of p a r t i c u l a r stages i n l i f e i s v a l i d not only on chronological and p h y s i o l o g i c a l bases, but also on the basis of s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l patterns. Pollak has noted that s o c i a l science has increasingly singled out various population groups as subjects f o r study, such as minority groups, economic groups and various deviant groups which have been considered to be a s o c i a l problem. 1* In keeping with t h i s trend to single out f o r 1. Pollak, Otto, S o c i a l Adjustment i n Old Age, S o c i a l Science Research Council; New York; 19k®, pp.2-3. - 3 -study c e r t a i n age groups the aged, too, have come under closer scrutiny. Thus, we may conclude that age grades are not merely ar b i t r a r y categorizations f o r the sake of s c i e n t i f i c study, but they are recognized as having various common denominator s o c i a l connotations. The Aging Process Aging i s a complex process r e l a t e d to the passage of time. Pollak r e f e r s to aging as "a process of change and, as such, a phenomenon of v a r i a t i o n correlated with the dimensioned? time." He thus accounts t h e o r e t i c a l l y for the interdependence of the chronological and the functional factors i n aging, admitting, though, that the way i n which these factors a f f e c t people varies with the i n d i v i d u a l . In other words, aging proceeds at d i f f e r -ing rates f o r d i f f e r e n t people. Every human organism undergoes c e r t a i n progressive changes with age which are not necessarily the r e s u l t of disease. These changes Involve physical d e t e r i o r a t i o n of body systems, which r e s u l t s i n decreasing e f f i c i e n c y of performance, p a r t i c u l a r l y of the manual type. Charles S. Becker says, Aging consists of two simultaneous components; Anobolic, bu i l d i n g up and catabolic, breaking down. I t i s well recognized that the f i r s t two decades of l i f e are es s e n t i a l l y anabolic... while the l a s t two or three are predominantly catabolic. 2 1. Pollak, Otto, op. c i t . , p.10. 2. Becker, Charles S., "Physical Functioning of Older People" Towards Better Under standing of the Aged, New York; 1956 • p.25Ij.. Selye attributes physical d e t e r i o r a t i o n to what he c a l l s " s t r e s s . " He describes strees as e s s e n t i a l l y "the wear and 1 tear i n the body caused by l i f e at any one time." He contends that true age depends l a r g e l y upon the extent of this wear and tear. Psychological research bears out the tendency f o r i n t e l l i -gence te s t scores to reach t h e i r peak i n the l a t e teens or early twenties and thereafter decline gradually. I t i s known,however, that the a b i l i t y to learn continues f o r much longer than the age stage these scores would suggest. A recent study on the learning a b i l i t y of older persons suggests that, although older people may have some i n i t i a l resistance to learning, and also somewhat slower comprehension and more l i m i t e d speed, as com-pared with younger people, these d i f f i c u l t i e s may be overcome by persuasion and suitable adjustments In teaching procedures 2 and t r a i n i n g techniques. Donahue writes that, I t i s possible, however, f o r mental function to be main-tained at maximum performance or even to be increased for many years. Cerebral capacity begins to weaken only i n l a t e r years and then r e l a t i v e l y slowly. At the age of seventy, a person i s s t i l l as capable as at f i f t y . At eighty, the i n t e l l e c t i s equivalent of that of the twenties. At ninety, the return i s back to the teens, a period often considered the best of l i f e . 3 1. Selye, Hans, The Stress of L i f e , New York; 195°. p.25"k. 2 . Grueriberg, E.M., and Kaufman, K., "Mental Health," Charter  Por Aging, p.373. 3 . Donahue, Wilma, "The Human Machine at Middle L i f e , " Aging  i n Today's Society, p.112. I t i s a known fac t that o f f i c e s of v i t a l and urgent r e -s p o n s i b i l i t y are entrusted to the care of older people to a large degree. The a b i l i t y to be involved i n abstract thinking, while slower, i s s t i l l acute. Older people are s t i l l able to lea r n from new experiences and novel s i t u a t i o n s . Taking part i n a Symposium on Health, Dr. D. L. Sampson said, i n r e f e r r i n g to psychological research on aging, that, Learning a b i l i t y was another f a c u l t y which waned with the years, but again at very variable rates. There was noth-ing a c t ually to prevent the e l d e r l y from learning new material, but they took longer at i t , and they generally succeeded best with material which had some f a m i l i a r i t y . In general, attitudes and i n t e r e s t s were of p i v o t a l im-portance, and the decline which took place could well be o f f s e t through experience and the r i g h t kind of motiva-t i o n . 1 Various and obvious s o c i a l changes come with aging. Some of the more obvious ones Include retirement from f u l l time em-ployment by men and the relinquishment of household duties by women. The r e s u l t s are, of course, lowered income, loss of vo-cational associates and an excess of free time. Changes i n family r e l a t i o n s h i p s occur through loss of spouse or when c h i l -dren leave home, these changes frequently necessitating changes i n l i v i n g arrangements also. One other team of research associ-ates, i n a d e f i n i t i o n study of o l d age, points out that, The problems associated with old age are often a consequence of the breakdown of the o l d person's f a m i l i a r patterns of l i v i n g which usually involves relinquishment of s o c i a l re-lationships and r o l e s t y p i c a l of old age. 2 1. Sampson, Dr. D. L., "Psychological Changes," The Needs and  Problems of the Aging. A report of Proceedings of the F i r s t B.C. Conference on the Needs and Problems of the Aging. Van-couver, 1957. p«12. 2. Cavan, Ruth S., et a l , Personal Adjustment i n Old Age; Chicago; 19k9. p.6. - 6 -Old age i s not to be determined s o l e l y on the basis of the number of years l i v e d , nor s o l e l y on the person's adequacy of functioning, but rather must take into account a t h i r d d i -mension - that of the immediate setting within which the aged person finds himself, and i t s impact upon him. The Mennonite f a i t h holds that people who l i v e according to the teachings of the New Testament are prepared to meet old age, for i t i s con-sidered a time when, as the more strenuous a c t i v i t i e s slow down more attention can be given to the deeper values i n l i f e . I t holds, too, that a person does not become "old" when he reaches a c e r t a i n age, but when he ceases to grow mentally and s p i r i t u -a l l y . The Place of the Aged i n Today's Society In Canada, immigration has been a strong influence on upper l e v e l s of the age d i s t r i b u t i o n of the population. The proportion of the Canadian population at what i s generally re-garded as "retirement age," that i s , 65 years and over, has a l -most doubled since l88l, r i s i n g from percent i n that year 1 to 7.8 percent i n 195l» The heavy immigration, p a r t i c u l a r l y during the years p r i o r to 1911). i s beginning to show up i n the number of people who have reached the higher age range and have thus increased the proportion of older people co n s t i t u t i n g the population. 1. The Canada Year Boofc. Ottawa; Table 10; p.162. - 7 -For Mennonite people, immigration has had i t s special e f f e c t . The f i r s t major migration from Europe to Canada occurred i n 1870, when a large group s e t t l e d i n the Waterloo -Kitchener d i s t r i c t i n Ontario. Almost simultaneously, another sizeable group s e t t l e d i n Manitoba i n what i s now the Steinbach area, east of the Red River. Up u n t i l recent times these people were s t i l l productive members of the household, contributing to the labour force on the farm, i n the shops, and i n the home. Now, because of t h e i r age, they are not producers and, therefore, not contributing materially to the upbuilding of a community. H i s t o r i c a l l y , t h i s s i t u a t i o n would not have presented too great a problem since, although f i n d i n g i t necessary to give up many of the former ac-t i v i t i e s , the elder l y person was s t i l l presumed to embody per-tinent wisdom and advice which he was able to dispense as a r e s u l t of l i f e - l o n g observation and application. Even i f the older people were immobilized, or bed-ridden, they did'not con-s t i t u t e too great a burden for the family, since the practice of l i v i n g i n c l o s e l y - k n i t co lonies provided for ease i n communica-t i o n with r e l a t i v e s and neighbors, thus removing the fear of loneliness or being l e f t alone to struggle with t h e i r d i f f i c u l -t i e s . Presently, however, with the trend towards higher educa-t i o n , with better communication and better transportation, and because of greater s o c i a l m o b i l i t y , the younger generation can ob-t a i n s u f f i c i e n t knowledge to get along without the sa l i e n t advice of - 8 -older r e l a t i v e . This has a l l but robbed the older person of the r o l e or status he knew people his age enjoyed when he was young. In complex i n d u s t r i a l societies the roles of the older person are not at a l l c l e a r l y defined. Many of the former family functions have been abondoned, or have been taken over by i n s t i t u t i o n s other than the home. Mennonite families mov-ing into I n d u s t r i a l i z e d areas have not remained immune to these trends. Some of the moral and r e l i g i o u s sanctions which formerly reinforced family t i e s and f i l i a l obligations towards e l d e r l y parents have, to a large degree, been relaxed, or else have disappeared altogether. Associated with the changes i n family l i f e are changes i n the e l d e r l y person's p o s i t i o n i n the community. Fi n a n c i a l need e x i s t s , yet employment i s not r e a d i l y available f o r older people, with the r e s u l t that they must frequently look to either the church, the family or the community for assistance. Although older people within the Mennonite community do carry respon-s i b l e positions i n many cases, the tendency seems to be that they are considered incapable of serving adequately on Committees or Boards since t h e i r education and o v e r a l l experience has been too l i m i t e d to provide the technical and communicating s k i l l s necessary to f u l f i l l these functions. In degrees varying with the person, the role of the older person i n the community has shi f t e d from one of independence and helpfulness to one of -9-dependence and ineffectiveness. This i s more true of those who have moved into urban or i n d u s t r i a l areas. This i s because of the f a c t that many l i v i n g i n r u r a l areas s t i l l own quite valuable property, and have a voice i n public a f f a i r s by v i r -tue of this equity and t h e i r a b i l i t y to manage i t . Types of Housing f o r Older People Housing designed to accommodate e l d e r l y people has generally included two major types. The f i r s t i s the type de-signed to keep the e l d e r l y person within the main stream of &he community, accomplished through the p r o v i s i o n of smaller, co t t -age-style unit c l u s t e r s , ^he second, i s designed to give such people more privacy and, while not segregating them, make i t possible for them to have enough common space where they can meet among themselves. Some i n s t i t u t i o n s have made a de l i b e r -ate attempt to provide housing which would r e f l e c t both trends. A possible t h i r d type of housing would be nursing or convale-scent homes, where medical care could be dispensed to those r e -quiring i t . However, for the purpose of t h i s study, discussion w i l l be l i m i t e d to the f i r s t two general types noted above. With respect to the f i r s t type, i t i s thought that segre-gation of the aged into housing units i s apt to give r i s e to restlessness and discontent. Old people as a rule l i k e to main-t a i n contact with the re s t of the community. There was a time when the i d e a l s i t e f o r a home for the aged was considered to be i n the deep country away from noise and d i s t r a c t i o n , and some of the older housing projects s t i l l give evidence of th i s way of thinking. An objective look at the l i v e s of most older people, however, seems to indicate the problem to be too much silence and too l i t t l e d i s t r a c t i o n . At the f i r s t B.C. Conference on aging i n 1957, Dr. L. C. Marsh, i n stressing the importance of suitable housing as one aspect "of the general problem of the Welfare of the aged," said, I think we are a l l agreed that the practice of segregat-ing the aging members of our communities i n neat and hygienic but s o c i a l l y impoverished projects o f f by them-selves i s cruel and unnecessary. We need some sort of viable a l t e r n a t i v e . As I see i t , the key word here i s neighborhood. Now t h i s i s an elusive idea to l a y hold of, and d e f i n i t i o n i s not easy. But i f we think of those p a r t i c u l a r physical l i v i n g arrangements which lead to the maximum of meaningful human intercourse, which conduce to a s a t i s f y i n g sense of geographically-focus sed c o l l e c t -ive i d e n t i t y , which tend to ensure that the pleasures of fellowship are a normal expectation of one's d a i l y routine, then I think we s h a l l have embraced the esse n t i a l elements of the idea. 1 The second type comprises c e n t r a l housing i n which the el d e r l y people make up t h e i r own community. Here people may have t h e i r own rooms and apartments, l i v e independently, manage t h e i r own l i v e s , and know that there w i l l be a superintendent who would look after t h e i r needs should an unexpected need occur. The alternative to t h i s , s t i l l dnder this general type, i s to have people assigned to rooms, but eating i n common dining h a l l s . Under these conditions, the residents would not be able 1. Marsh, L. C., "Good Housing and the Good L i f e , " The Needs  and Problems of the Aging. Vancouver; 1957. P»l6. - 11 to manage t h e i r l i v e s independently i n c e r t a i n important areas of l i f e . The way i n which older people are housed has a d i r e c t hearing on family r e l a t i o n s h i p s . The trend to independence i n l i v i n g arrangements for the older person stimulated by the change i n Income status of the past decade, may have been started because of the pressure created by a lack of housing adequate f o r everyone i n the family. A change i n l i v i n g arrange-ments i n l a t e r years comes about not only because family and economic circumstances are d i f f e r e n t but also because i n d i v i d u a l needs have changed. Many older people need housing that affords companionship, personal attention, recreation and medical care. Housing for the aged, whether Government sponsored or p r i v a t e l y financed, must cater to some, and maybe to a l l of the above needs. Hertha Kraus offers a sensible approach i n suggesting that companion apartments be made available f o r e l d e r l y people "whose idea of fun i s doing something with others" and "for people who l i k e to be good neighbors." She says that, Aging people of such background and long-established habits of cooperation may be suited by a dwelling which allows f o r both privacy and group experience i n the same u n i t . ^ After l i s t i n g some of the features that such a unit might have, the author points out some of the advantages that would arise from i t . She says, 1. Kraus, Hertha, Housing Our Older C i t i z e n s . Reprinted from "She Annals of the American Academy of P o l i t i c a l and Soc i a l  Science. Philadelphia, 1952. - 12 -I t i s l i k e l y to meet such personal needs as the desire fo r sheltered independence, f o r belonging, for recogni-t i o n , f o r s o c i a b i l i t y and f r i e n d l y r e l a t i o n s . . . I t lends the support of neighborly help and, i n c i d e n t a l l y , pro-vides a new outlet f o r resourcefulness, i n i t i a t i v e , and s k i l l s , as applied to d a i l y and f a m i l i a r problems. 1 Menno Home i s representative of the type of housing Mennonites seek to provide for t h e i r aged population. In Canada there are approximately 15 such i n s t i t u t i o n s d i s t r i b u t e d across the f i v e western provinces. In the succeeding chapters, several of the di f f e r e n t types of housing projects i n the general Vancouver area w i l l be discussed and the s i m i l a r i t i e s and differences of Menno Home w i l l be more apparent. Development of Services f o r the Aged S o c i a l work i s slowly being accepted by the Mennonites. The apparent apprehension has been nurtured by the strong c u l -t u r a l o r i e n t a t i o n to r e l i g i o u s i n s t i t u t i o n s which i s characteri-s t i c of Mennonites. They are people strongly rooted i n religiQus b e l i e f s o r i g i n a t i n g with C h r i s t , and furthered, i n turn, by the Apostles, the early church fathers, by Reformers such as Luther, Zwingli, Knox, and by Anabaptists such as Blaurock, ©rebel, Manz, and, f i n a l l y , pinpointed by Menno Simons, under whose credentials as a r e l i g i o u s leader the Mennonite church took form. With such a strong emphasis on r e l i g i o u s t r a d i t i o n they hold that t h e i r 1. Kraus, Hertha, op. c i t . , p.135. - 13 -b e l i e f s are s u f f i c i e n t to solve a person's private problems as well as h i s p u b l i c l y known ones. C h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y , the Mennonites have maintained that to be an "overcomer" i t i s necessary to follow Christ's entreaty to a l l to enter the "new b i r t h i n C h r i s t . " I f t h i s i s done unreservedly, d i f f i c u l t i e s of an emotional and s o c i a l nature w i l l gradually be solved as C h r i s t - l i k e mannerisms, and C h r i s t i a n concepts of l i f e and of service, are put into p r a c t i c e . However, Mennonites are also accepting the idea that i n order to be of service to others, i t i s necessary to u t i l i z e a more studied approach to the problem that may be presented. Mennonites are increasingly accepting the profession of s o c i a l work as one d i s c i p l i n e that offers a s c i e n t i f i c enquiry into the etiology of the i l l s of man. In part t h i s increasing acceptance i s no doubt due to what Sue Spencer terms a w i l l i n g -ness on the part of s o c i a l work p r a c t i t i o n e r s to admit that they must operate within the l i m i t s of competence, and admit t h e i r own r e l i a n c e on other d i s c i p l i n e s . Sue Spencer says, ...the s o c i a l work profession i s increasingly affirming i t s i n a b i l i t y to solve the world's problems alone, and i s seeking to share appropriately with other groups re-s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i t had considered i t s own. These aspects of the S o c i a l Work profession's maturation process have set the stage f o r : (1) a willingness to ad-rait f a i l u r e or uncertainty, ' 2 ) a readiness to seek help from other community groups, and (3) a determination to broaden the base of knowledge provided i n the profession-a l Schools of S o c i a l Work. 1 1. Spencer, Sue W., "Religious and S p i r i t u a l Values i n S o c i a l Casework Pra c t i c e , " S o c i a l Casework, V o l . 38> No. 10, December, 1957. p.522. - 114. " Although s o c i a l work has made i t s more s i g n i f i c a n t con-t r i b u t i o n s i n f i e l d s other than services f o r the aged, i t i s now making s i g n i f i c a n t contributions here also. Social work teachers recognize that the aging person brings to his s i t u a -t i o n h i s former patterns of behavior, h i s experience i n solv-ing other l i f e problems and making the necessary adjustments, and he brings his emotional needs. S o c i a l workers have sought to help the aged person assess his p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n and to acquire whatever insight i s feasi b l e i n moving to change his l i f e s i t u a t i o n or to make an acceptable adjustment to i t . They have served as coordinators i n u t i l i z i n g available r e -sources to meet the person's needs. As a constituent part of an i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y team, s o c i a l workers have pointed to the meaning of family r e l a t i o n s h i p s , c u l t u r a l influences, the many aspects of s o c i a l and economic problems, the sp e c i a l i z e d services needed and the kinds of resources av a i l a b l e . In determining the necessity for a housing project, as well as the type of units to be onstructed, s o c i a l workers have been i n a p o s i t i o n to f u r n i s h information regarding the requirements and desires of the people to be housed. In one l o c a l study of housing for old people, MacKinnon and Angel suggest that, A S o c i a l Worker's constribution does not necessarily end when the i n i t i a l planning of a project i s completed, as he can also be of assistance i n e l i g i -b i l i t y p o l i c i e s , and i n interpreting these to the - 15 -admissions committee. Another area of competence for the s o c i a l worker would he int e r p r e t i n g the project to applicants; ...^ It i s e s s e n t i a l that the various bodies necessary to planning f o r the housing of the aged be coordinated to make a housing project meaningful, and more than mere shelter. This w i l l mean bringing together town planning o f f i c i a l s , welfare representatives, p o l i t i c i a n s (If involved), medical personnel and programme and a c t i v i t y personnel. S o c i a l workers, through s k i l l i n the area of rel a t i o n s h i p s , have made important c o n t r i -butions i n t h i s area of the coordination of available resources and services. Scope of Present Study This study i s an enquiry into the manner i n which a seg-ment of the Mennonite population, namely that of the Matsqui Municipality i n B.C., has sought to provide for the care of the aged people who are members of t h e i r Brotherhood. I t w i l l also attempt to define what contributions s o c i a l work theory and practice may make towards a parochial i n s t i t u t i o n dedicated to the cause of looking aft e r i t s older generation. The Mennonite Church, both i n Canada and i n The United States, has long sought to provide services f o r i t s aged. Homes of s i g n i f i c a n t size are today located i n f i v e provinces: Ontario, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta and B.C. However, most of these Vi MacKinnon, D.P., and Angel, J.H., Housing Needs and  Preferences Among Senior Citizens (West Vancouver). Master of So c i a l Work Thesis, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1957. p.10. - 16 -homes follow a ce r t a i n stereotype of construction and service, so that the need for v a r i a t i o n i s quite evident. This w i l l involve a good deal of study of the needs of senior c i t i z e n s , and an assessment of the po t e n t i a l within the community to pro-vide the needed services. In t h e i r search f o r an answer the Mennonites are ready to entertain suggestions from a l l q u a l i f i e d sources and, with the increasing number of Mennonites engaged i n s o c i a l work, t h i s profession should be able to make a s i g n i f i c a n t contribution. For purposes of this study, Menno Home has been chosen since i t represents f a i r l y the general endeavor of the Mennonite; church to provide accommodation f o r i t s senior c i t i z e n s . Com-paring Menno Home with other Mennonite i n s t i t u t i o n s Is not con-sidered e s s e n t i a l , since any v a r i a t i o n would indicate degree rather than essence. However, an attempt w i l l be made to point? out s a l i e n t features noted In studies of other homes i n the general Vancouver area because of the value this might have f o r the i n s t i t u t i o n under consideration here. This w i l l be done through u t i l i z a t i o n of several tie ses concerned with housing for the aged. In pointing out the features of other homes, some comparisons can be drawn between the features of the plants as such, the administration, intake procedure, and the types of services that the i n s t i t u t i o n s o f f e r . CHAPTER 2 MENNO HOME: FACILITIES AND RESIDENTS Menno Home i s the outgrowth of a conviction on the part of the B r i t i s h Columbia Mennonite Youth Organization that they ought to undertake a project whereby they could help the older generation of people of Mennonite f a i t h to f i n d happiness In th e i r t w i l i g h t years. When they f i r s t explored the region f o r a suitable l o c a t i o n on which a project could be started, the Executive of the Organization discovered that the f i n a n c i a l undertaking would be much too great for them. They therefore r e f e r r e d the project to the two major Mennonite Conferences i n B r i t i s h Columbia, namely, the General Conference of Mennonites, and the Mennonite Brethren Conference. After some negotiation, these two bodies were not convinced that a pr o f i t a b l e working agreement could be forthcoming, so the idea of forming a Mennonite Benevolent Society was conceived. A meeting f o r pur-poses of organizing such a Society was c a l l e d i n 1952, but only ten people appeared. However, i n March of the following year, - 18 -another meeting took place i n Abbotsford; t h i s was more success-f u l , and at that time the Mennonite Benevolent Society came i n -to being. The Society's Constitution states that "the objects for which the Society i s formed are to provide a haven and asylum and supervised care for the aged and infi r m . " I t states, further that "the operations of the Society are to be c a r r i e d on c h i e f l y i n the municipality of Matsqui. One a r t i c l e i n the Constitution deals with membership thus, "Any member of good standing of some Mennonite congregation s h a l l be q u a l i f i e d to become a member of the Society. New members to pay an entrance fee of 150.00." O r i g i n a l l y an annual fee of $3.00 was also projected, but t h i s clause has since been eliminated. At the present time, the Society i s made up of 3&0 members, approximately eighty percent coming from the General Conference and twenty percent from the Mennonite Brethren Conference. The Board of Directors consists of members elected on the basis of personal q u a l i f i c a t i o n s rather than on Conference orientation, although attention i s given to maintaining some equity i n re -l a t i o n to Conference representation on the Board. In March, 1953» a l o t facing Marshall Road was purchased, nine and a h a l f acres: i n size.. A b r i e f campaign among the membership of the Mennonite churches i n the Matsquie area was undertaken, with the r e s u l t that construction of Menno Home was started i n September of the same year. The bu i l d i n g was ready - 19 -for occupancy in May, 195l"-> and o f f i c i a l l y opened on May 3 0 , 1954. Menno Invalid Homer During the summer of I960, another building which had been erected on the same premises was o f f i c i a l l y opened. It became urgent to have this provision because provincial regulations would not permit invalids to be taken care of i n Menno Home. This building, licenced under the name Menno Invalid Home, has been designed to accommodate thirty-five persons. However, at the time of this writing there are only twenty four patients being taken care of since the home i s not staffed to look after a larger number. Thus, Menno Invalid Home i s a species of housing, but It serves a clientele who have the added problem of chronic illness or physical di s a b i l i t y . For this reason, i t w i l l not be con-sidered further i n this present study. The Buildings Structurally, Menno Home is a long, rather narrow build-ing, 223 feet i n length and 28 feet wide. It is a one-storey building with two short wings jutting out of the east side of i t , one at the centre of the building and the other at the northern end. The Home is of frame construction, painted white with pink.trim. The centre wing houses the combined sitting Pig. 1 MENNO HOME (195l(.) Pig. 3 MENNO INVALID HOME (i960) - 20 « room and dining room. The northern wing was o r i g i n a l l y i n -tended, and i n i t i a l l y used, as an infirmary, but has now been converted to ordinary rooms since the construction of Menno Inval i d Home. For p r a c t i c a l purposes, the b u i l d i n g divides into two wings with the central kitchen and the dining room - s i t t i n g room separating the two. Each wing has a f u l l length hallway with rooms on both sides. Each wing has i t s own washroom and two showers. There i s a small sunroom running the f u l l width of the b u i l d i n g , facing Marshall Road. The basement serves as a sub-strueture f o r the southern h a l f of the b u i l d i n g . I t houses the laundry room, f r u i t stor-age space, the b o i l e r room, a workshop, storage room with t h i r t y s i x lockers, and f i v e rooms which are occupied as l i v i n g quarters by some of the s t a f f . The b u i l d i n g houses t h i r t y f i v e persons, men and women. There are f i v e double rooms and twenty s i x single rooms. Each room i s supplied with the minimum necessary f u r n i t u r e . The rooms are rather small, and seem somewhat crowded when the tenants add a few of t h e i r own possessions to those already i n the room. Menno Home has been b u i l t on a s l i g h t i n c l i n e just on the eastern foot of a small h i l l , the buildings facing east. The surrounding d i s t r i c t i s e n t i r e l y r e s i d e n t i a l , composed mainly of single dwelling homes with small farms or large l o t s . The - 21 -d i s t r i c t i s quiet, with no schools, parks or playgrounds i n the Immediate neighborhood. There i s a moderate volume of t r a f f i c on Marshall Road. The nearest business section i s i n Abbotsford, about one mile d i s t a n t . In addition to the main b u i l d i n g there i s one small c o t t -age on the property which was b u i l t on a private basis by an older couple. The agreement i s that as long as either party l i v e s , the cottage remains t h e i r property and i s at a l l times at t h e i r disposal. They have w i l l e d the cottage, on t h e i r death, to the Mennonite Benevolent Society. The cottage consists of a l i v i n g room, bedroom, bathroom and small u t i l i t y room. The residents have t h e i r meals pro-vided fori; them i n the main b u i l d i n g . The cottage i s located just east of the main b u i l d i n g and so placed that i f other people desire to undertake a similar venture, a cottage v i l l -age could be started similar t o the idea suggested by Helen 1 Kraus. However, being located as i t i s between Menno Home and Menno In v a l i d Home, i t looks unduly conspicuous, and cases the grounds to appear rather c l u t t e r e d . There are several additional buildings on the property. Two small residences facing Marshall Road serve as l i v i n g quarters f o r the administrators of the two homes. These two buildings are situated on either side of the driveway. Since 1. Kraus, Helen, op. c i t . p.134 - 22 -the buildings were on the property before i t was purchased by the Society, they have merely been taken over by the admini-s t r a t o r s , and l e f t where they were. These houses, too, tend to detract from the general appearance of the t o t a l project. Near the northern boundary of the property, a f a i r sized barn houses two cows and some chickens, the property of the Society. The milk supplied by these cows i s s u f f i c i e n t for the needs of the Home; and a large garden supplies a portion of the vegetables needed. Much of the property i s fenced i n to pro-vide pasture f o r the c a t t l e . Menno Home i s a very modest looking structure, situated i n a semi-rural area. The s i m p l i c i t y of structure and decora-t i o n i s deliberate since i t i s both economical, and f i t s i n with the Mennonite emphasis on s i m p l i c i t y . I t i s conveniently located f a i r l y close to various Mennonite churches so that those who so desire may get to thei r church without unduly i n -conveniencing anyone, A unique feature of Menno Home i s the fact that i t may ra i s e some of i t s own produce. Since most of the residents were connected with farm l i f e i n some form or another, this unique feature i s a d i s t i n c t a t t r a c t i o n . Administration Menno Home i s the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the Board of Directors of the Mennonite Benevolent Society under the chairmanship of - 23 -Rev. Gerhard I . Peters. This Board rte ets every month to con-sider problems and to make new plans for further areas of ser-v i c e . To look a f t e r the d e t a i l s of running the Home, the Board has employed a manager. The present manager has no p a r t i c u l a r t r a i n i n g i n this f i e l d . His duties include bookkeeping, pur-chasing supplies, maintenance of buildings and the performance of innumerable routine tasks. The management of Menno Home as at present seems to be adequate for immediate needs. The f i r s t task of a new i n s t i t u -t i o n w i l l be the r o u t i n i z i n g of a c t i v i t i e s and of services. However, as they become more or les s automatic management w i l l need to look farther a f i e l d , e s t a b l i s h i n g a program of unique-ness for the Home involved. Certainly, when the younger of the old people enter the Home demands f o r variety of a c t i v i t i e s w i l l be made. When that time comes, management w i l l need to do more than merely provide custodial care. At present Menno Home also employs a matron, a p r a c t i c a l nurse, who manages the household duties of Menno Home. The manager and matron are husband and wife. This arrangement appears to be quite adequate f o r Menno Home at present. How-ever, as Menno Home grows, and accepts younger adults, and possibly more adults who are not of the Mennonite f a i t h , i t w i l l be necessary to develop a program of inte r e s t s which take into account the habits and attitudes of the various residents. In other words, i t w i l l require either an administrator trained i n - 2k -group work with the older people, or else the employing of a programme di r e c t o r who would arrange f o r recreation, group discussions and public r e l a t i o n s , leaving to a resident care-taker smaller tasks, such as providing t a x i service f o r the residents and procuring drugs as prescribed by the physician. The programme director would regulate the various volumtary services that are being offered by the churches, women's groups and individuals of the community. Admissions Procedure and Policy Except for a regular form giving pertinent date of a p p l i -cants, admissions procedures are not at a l l formalized. The manager i s at l i b e r t y to determine whether the applicant next on the waiting l i s t could be accepted by the i n s t i t u t i o n . In cases of doubt, he may take h i s concerns to the monthly meeting of the Board. The reason why no separate admissions committee has been appointed thus f a r i s because the waiting l i s t at any time has been small, so that the i n s t i t u t i o n has accepted with-out h e s i t a t i o n whoever was on waiting l i s t and immediately available. Should the waiting l i s t become lengthy, as i t l i k e l y w i l l In a short while, i t w i l l be necessary to devise some method of screening applicants. This point w i l l be discussed i n chapter k. The admissions p o l i c y provides f o r e l d e r l y people of any f a i t h or race to be taken i n should the applicant wish to be - 25 -admitted. I n i t i a l l y , Menno Home was conceived of as serving the Mennonite people exclusively, but the Board has seen f i t to open the doors of the I n s t i t u t i o n to other f a i t h s also. The reason so few of other f a i t h s or cultures have availed themselves of t h i s opportunity i s because the general atmos-phere of the i n s t i t u t i o n i s known to carry d i s t i n c t Mennonite culture undertones. Much of the conversation takes place either i n German or Low-German; the worship services are con-ducted i n German so that people of other n a t i o n a l i t i e s f e e l l e f t out. Comparison.:, with Other Homes A comparative view of Mennonite housing for the aged can be made by reference to a study conducted i n 1957 of four selected housing projects for older people i n Vancouver and 1 area. The four homes covered i n th i s survey are The Pair Haven, Lions' View, Dana Home and The West Vancouver Housing Project. The Pair Haven i s a home sponsored by the United Church. It consists of a large number of buildings, the main b u i l d i n g being a large two-storey structure. There are f i v e single cottages where couples reside, twenty duplex cottages and four one-storey multiple dwellings. These smaller buildings are located on both sides and behind the main structure. Lions' View i s sponsored by the B r i t i s h Columbia Housing Foundation, 1. Sharp, P a t r i c i a Louise, Housing Projects f o r Old People, Master of S o c i a l Work Thesis; Vancouver, 1957. - 26 -which i s a private c orporation. This i s a low-rental housing project f o r people with l i m i t e d Incomes. There are three two-storey apartment buildings. The res t of the buildings are one-storey structures placed around a central lawn area. Dania Home resulted from e f f o r t s of a small group of ci t i z e n s of Danish o r i g i n who wanted to provide housing similar to that prevalent i n Denmark. Dania Home i s a remodelled farm house which has had wings added on to i t . In addition to thi s central b u i l d i n g , there are four small cottages and one duplex. The main bu i l d i n g i s a two-storey b u i l d i n g . The West Vancouver Housing Project i s sponsored by the West Vancouver Kiwanis Club. There are, i n a l l , s i x , buildings; a two storey apartment b u i l d i n g , four one-storey duplexes and a "community centre." A f t e r having described the physical d e t a i l s of the v a r i -ous homes, the survey considers the extent to which there are s i m i l a r i t i e s and differences i n the four housing projects studied. The s i m i l a r i t i e s l i e i n the f a c t that a l l four pro-jects included i n the physical arrangements both main buildings and smaller u n i t s . The differences appear i n the variations of design and functional set-up of the various homes. Menno Home, although considerably smaller than the homes mentioned above, also has s i m i l a r i t i e s and c e r t a i n differences, when compared with them. Pair Haven consists of a large number of buildings housing 132 persons. The large main bu i l d i n g i s - 27 -c e n t r a l l y placed, with the smaller units uniformly spaced around i t . Menno Home at t h i s time has only one smaller u n i t , but the Idea i n both instances Is s i m i l a r . Lions' View d i f f e r s from Dania i n that Dania has a number of single cottages whereas the smaller units of Lions' View s t i l l provide from four to s i x apartments. The West Vancouver Housing Project d i f f e r s from the others p a r t i c u l a r l y i n including a "community center" f o r the use of tenants. I t d i f f e r s from Menno Home i n having a common room where the residents may gather for t h e i r various a c t i v i t i e s . Menno Home has only one central area which must serve both as common room and dining area. Administratively there are s i m i l a r i t i e s and differences. Dania Home, f o r example, has Its d a i l y management taken care of by a matron who l i v e s i n the Home. She i s assisted by a s t a f f of three to help with the cooking and the cleaning. The residents are at l i b e r t y to help with the work should they wish to do so. Menno Home also has a matron with three a s s i s t -ants. However, Dania Home i s a bigger i n s t i t u t i o n , and should require more help were i t not f o r the fact that the residents themselves do some of the work i n contrast with Menno Home where a l l the work Is done by the s t a f f . The West Vancouver Housing Project i s managed by the Secretary-Treasurer of i t s Board of Directors. One couple occupying a cottage receives a rent reduction i n exchange f o r - 28 -some caretaking duties. This type of management d i f f e r s only s l i g h t l y from that of Pair Haven where the administration i s ca r r i e d out by the Board of Dire c t o r s . The work of the Board i s conducted by several committees: Finance, Building, Business, Ma nagement, Admitting, P u b l i c i t y , Landscape, V i s i t i n g and the M i n i s t e r i a l Advisory Committee. A couple l i v i n g - i n serve as caretaker and matron. This arrangement i s somewhat s i m i l a r to that of Menno Home. It may be seen, then, that P a t r i c i a Sharp's comment that "each (Home) has c e r t a i n q u a l i t i e s to commend i t , none i s en-t i r e l y without drawbacks," does hold true also f o r Menno Home. The r e a l problem i n developing a housing project of any s i g n i f i -cant size i s that the physical structure must be present before any programme can be entered i n upon. No organization can possibly anticipate a l l the innovations that the needs and de-sir e s "of the future residents may i n i t i a t e . Even seeking ad-vice from l o c a l i t i e s where projects have been operating f o r some time can be of help only to the extent that the l o c a l situations and the cltur e groups served are s i m i l a r . To ad-mit and allow for variations i n the pe r s o n a l i t i e s of i n d i v i d u a l older people precludes the recognition of variations i n the personality of communities of older people. Menno Home i s no exception i n thi s respect, and so w i l l need to look at possible modifications, some of which w i l l be suggested i n Chapter k. - 29 -Residents of Menno Home The majority of the old people now re s i d i n g at Menno Home were admitted between the ages of 70 and 80 . Average age at admittance was 77. TABLE I. Age D i s t r i b u t i o n of Menno Home Residents Age: At Time of Entry Into B.C. At Time of Entry Into B.C. Present Age Under 60 9 - -60 - 64 6 1 -65 - 69 8 mm 1 70 - 7k 6 9 75 - 79 5 8 . 6 80 + 3 14 21 TOTAL 37 37 37 The average age at time of admittance to Menno Home Is higher than that of other homes located i n urban areas. For instance, the average age at time of admittance to Taylor 1 Manor (an i n s t i t u t i o n i n Vancouver) was 66 or 67. Comparing Menno Home and Taylor Manojb, i t i s to be noted that admittance ages for the tenants of Menno Home i s higher by about ten years. The difference l i k e l y stems from the area of residence p r i o r to 1 . Guest, Dennis T., Taylor Manor, A Survey of the F a c i l i t i e s  of Vancouver's Home For The Aged. Master of So c i a l Work Thesis, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, 1952. p . 6 0 - 30 -attendance. While Taylor Manor draws most of i t s tenants from the urban areas where retirement age i s 65 and Old Age Pension becomes e f f e c t i v e f o r those f i n a n c i a l l y needy, the residents of Menno Home reside on farms where they can be employed to an older age. Then, too, since Menno Home Is a r e l a t i v e l y new i n s t i t u t i o n , i t i s understandable that the oldest of the older members would apply f o r acceptance f i r s t . Of the 37 residents at the time of thi s survey, by f a r the larger number were women. There i s only one couple In the Home at present. Twenty seven of the residents are either widows or widowers, four are single and s i x married (includ-ing the resident couple). Although there may be numerous reasons for the wide margin of women over men, one i s of par-t i c u l a r significance for Mennonites. During the 1920's and again a f t e r the Second World War, scores of Mennonite women migrated to Canada with t h e i r children, not knowing where thei r husbands might be, or even whether they were a l i v e . Families i n Russia were frequently scattered by Revolutionary uprisings when members of a family were sent to S i b e r i a , or else forced to f l e e because they refused to j o i n the Bolshevik army. These widows, who have now grown old, were not able to save enough money while i n Canada to enable them to l i v e i n -dependently i n old age. Also, t h e i r sons and daughters could not be expected to house t h e i r parents; indeed, they also usually started out with l i v i n g quarters barely s u f f i c i e n t to - 31 -house t h e i r own growing f a m i l i e s . In many cases the married partners were presumed to be a l i v e , but were s t i l l behind the "Iron Curtain," and agencies such as the Mennonite Central Committee have not been able to locate too many to date. The majority of the inmates were born outside Canada. Twenty seven entered B r i t i s h Columbia after the close of the Second World War. The remaining residents, entered either during or before the War; the f i r s t of the group a r r i v i n g i n 1923. A l l but I4. had by the time of admission obtained Cana-dian c i t i z e n s h i p . Mennonite migration to B r i t i s h Columbia from the P r a i r i e provinces increased manifold during the l a t e 191^0*s and early 1950's. This sudden in t e r e s t i n B r i t i s h Columbia was due..to at least three factors: a) the bui l d i n g boom, with a l l the employment opportunities i t provided for the tradesmen from the "old country," and for farm labourers from the P r a i r i e s ; b) the warmer climate; c) the opportunity to buy f r u i t farms and chicken ranches, two highly prized methods of l i v e l i h o o d . Approximately h a l f of the occupants of Menno Home gave th e i r "home address" as that of either children or close r e l a t i v e s . One Individual came to the Home from a d i f f e r e n t i n s t i t u t i o n . The r e s t l i v e d p r i v a t e l y , either i n small semi-urban residences or on small farms near Yarrow, Sardis, Clear-brook and v i c i n i t y . T h i r t y one of the residents mentioned t h e i r next-of-kin residing i n the area as either son or - 32 -daughter. This gives evidence that the representation at the Home could not be housed by t h e i r own children, or else that the residents themselves questioned the a d v i s a b i l i t y of moving i n with t h e i r own ch i l d r e n . Most of the people i n the Home have been able to q u a l i f y for the B r i t i s h Columbia supplementary pension. The exception includes four who came to B r i t i s h Columbia recently. Two are being subsidized by the B r i t i s h Columbia Mennonite R e l i e f Organization to the extent of $10.00 per person per month. Two of these four do not q u a l i f y for the Dominion Old Age Pension and so are supported i n the entire amount by the Mennonite R e l i e f Organization. This Organizationwas esta-blished f o r the express purpose of helping people who f o r various reasons need assistance, but who do not qu a l i f y f o r any of the contributory insurance plans available f o r the general public. One of the residents i s on s o c i a l assistance, and one pays the balance needed f o r maintenance i n the Home out of private savings. A l l the residents of Menno Home who were sick and unable to look a f t e r themselves were transferred into Menno Inval i d Home when i t was opened i n I960. Only those who do not require extra care are accepted i n Menno Home. - 33 -TABLE I I . Source of Income Source of Income Number Dominion Old Age Pension with Bonus 31 Old Age Pension and Mennon-i t e R e l i e f Organization 2 Mennonite R e l i e f Organiza-t i o n only 2 Old Age Pension and Private Funds 1 S o c i a l Assistance 1 TOTAL 37 Good housing alone cannot solve a l l the varied and com-plex problems that face the older generation. Yet, to deny the importance of good housing i s to deny the need for hous-ing altogether. Geneva Mathiesen says that something to do, and a place to l i v e "are the two great needs that time puts upon a l l those who l i v e into old age." Just to provide shelter for them i s not enough. On the occasion of the Symposium on aging i n 1957, Mr. Michael wheeler (at that time Research Planner with the C i t y of Vancouver) summed up the Vancouver s i t u a t i o n as follows: There were 17 housing projects for senior c i t i z e n s i n B r i t i s h Columbia, y i e l d i n g a t o t a l of around 500 separ-ate u n i t s . . . (but) probably ten times as many as t h i s were required i f the housing needs of the e l d e r l y of the Province were to be met... He reminded the Con-ference, however, that i t was misleading to hold the problem i n categorical i s o l a t i o n and to think of senior c i t i z e n s projects as the only solution to the problem. He endorsed the view e a r l i e r enunciated by Dr. Marsh that the housing needs of the e l d e r l y were i n essence the same as those of the res t of the community, and he pointed out that the problem d i d not spring into existence at the age of 6 5 . I f a married couple did not have a house by the time they were i n t h e i r f i f t i e s , they were u n l i k e l y to acquire one afterwards, and even i f they did, declining income and waning physical powers created d i f f i c u l t i e s i n looking after i t . The residents of Menno Home seem to be average older c i t i z e n s , with problems common to a l l the aged. Menno Home seeks to help i t s residents not only with housing but also with the s o c i a l amenities, which w i l l be discussed i n the following chapter. 1. Mathiesen, Geneva, "Better Buildings For The Aging," Buildings For The Aging. The National Committee on the Aging of the National Welfare Assembly; Chicago, 1956. CHAPTER 3 MENNO HOME: WELFARE SERVICE IN HOUSING The modern home for the aged increasingly serves men and women of advanced age, and those faced with the fac t or fear of f r a i l t y , i n f i r m i t y or i l l n e s s . To bedrand-board ser-vices have now been added many other services to maintain s o c i a l , physical and s p i r i t u a l well-being. In many homes not the least of these i s s o c i a l service. The manner i n which these services are provided varies somewhat. The Cor-poration of Burnaby, for instance, has one s o c i a l worker assigned to Homes where re c i p i e n t s of s o c i a l assistance are housed. This s o c i a l worker v i s i t s her c l i e n t s r e gularly, but serves also as consultant to the regular s t a f f of the various Homes. Other Homes make use of the r e f e r r a l system In guid-ing an el d e r l y resident to where he can obtain the assistance the Home cannot provide. The Middlechurch Home for the Aged i n Manitoba, has employed a s o c i a l worker as f u l l time ad-ministrator. This administrator was trained i n Denmark, and has brought to t h i s i n s t i t u t i o n many of the ideas that have been found to be of advantage through research and experimen-- 36 -t a t i o n done i n t h a t c o u n t r y . Menno Home h a s n o t a v a i l e d i t s e l f o f any o f t h e s o c i a l s e r v i c e s . One r e a s o n f o r t h i s i s t h e s e r v i c e s t h a t a r e t o b e o f f e r e d a r e l a i d down b y a B o a r d o f D i r e c t o r s whose members b e l o n g t o t h e v a r i o u s M e n n o n i t e c h u r c h e s . I t i s n a t u r a l , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t s e r v i c e s r e n d e r e d a r e a l i g n e d t o t h e r e s o u r c e s t h a t a r e a v a i l a b l e t h r o u g h t h e s e c h u r c h e s . S e c o n d l y , Menno Home i s s t i l l a y o u n g i n s t i t u t i o n s e e k i n g t o c l e a r a p a t h t o -wards s e r v i c e s t h a t w o u l d be m e a n i n g f u l f o r t h e r e s i d e n t s , and t h e i n s t i t u t i o n as s u c h . Time i s an i m p o r t a n t commodity as management l e a r n s t h e a r t o f r u n n i n g an i n s t i t u t i o n and de-v e l o p i n g a programme w h i c h c o u l d i n v o l v e a l l p r o f e s s i o n s known t o have made c o n t r i b u t i o n s w i t h r e s p e c t t o homes f o r t h e a g e d . The s e r v i c e s r e n d e r e d b y Menno Home may be s e e n as coming, f r o m two s o u r c e s : a) t h o s e o f f e r e d b y t h e i n s t i t u t i o n as s u c h and, b ) t h o s e o f f e r e d b y t h e s u r r o u n d i n g i m m u n i t y , i n c l u d i n g the n e a r b y c h u r c h e s . The s e r v i c e s o f f e r e d b y Menno Home i t s e l f , o u t s i d e o f p r o v i d i n g f o r t h e b a s i c e v e r y d a y r e q u i r e m e n t s , h a v e so f a r b e e n q u i t e l i m i t e d . T h i s i s l i k e l y due t o t h e f a c t t h a t t h e r e i s no programme d i r e c t o r whose time c o u l d be s p e n t o n programming a l o n e . The management i t s e l f i s t o o o c c u p i e d w i t h r o u t i n e s t o be a b l e t o e v e n i n i t i a t e e x t r a s e r v i c e s , n o t t o sp e a k o f t h e n e e d f o r r e s e a r c h t o d e t e r m i n e what i n t h e way o f e x t r a s e r -v i c e s c o u l d be o f f e r e d . - 37 -S e v e r a l d o c t o r s w i t h i n t h e C l e a r b r o o k a r e a h a v e made t h e i r s e r v i c e s a v a i l a b l e t o t h e r e s i d e n t s o f Menno Home. E a c h o c c u p a n t o f Menno Home i s p e r m i t t e d t o c h o o s e one o f t h e s e p h y s i c i a n s as t h e i r d o c t o r . When a p a t i e n t a s s i g n e d t o a c e r t a i n d o c t o r i s i l l , r e g u l a r v i s i t s a r e made b y t h a t p h y s i c i a n . G e n e r a l l y , h o w e v e r , he c a l l s o n l y when r e q u e s t e d b y t h e management. R e s i d e n t s who g e t v e r y i l l a r e t r a n s f e r r e d t o t h e l o c a l h o s p i t a l f o r m e d i c a l a t t e n t i o n , r e t a i n i n g t h e i r room a t t h e Home, r e a d y f o r t h e i r r e t u r n . However, when t h e i l l n e s s t u r n s o u t t o be c h r o n i c o r d i s a b l i n g , o r b o t h , t h e p e r s o n i s t r a n s f e r r e d t o Menno I n v a l i d Home. One g o od f e a t u r e o f t h i s a r r a n g e m e n t a r i s e s o u t o f the f a c t t h a t s i n c e the two p r o j e c t s a r e s i t u a t e d o n t h e same g r o u n d s , t h e t r a n s f e r i n t o t h e I n v a l i d Home does n o t b r i n g w i t h i t d i s p l a c e m e n t f e a r s i t o t h e r w i s e c o u l d w e l l h a v e . The r e s i d e n t s o f t h e Home a p p r e c i a t e t h e m e d i c a l f a c i l i t i e s t h e Home p r o v i d e s , and r e s t i n t h e amount o f s e c u r i t y t h a t i t b r i n g s w i t h i t . M i n o r i l l n e s s e s o f the i n m a t e s a r e l o o k e d a f t e r b y t h e m a t r o n ; a p r a c t i c a l n u r s e . D r u g s and o t h e r n e e d e d s u p p l i e s a r e p a i d f o r t h r o u g h t h e M e d i c a l S e r v i c e s D i v i s i o n o f t h e P r o v i n c e f o r t h o s e on S o c i a l A s s i s t a n c e . The Home s u p p l i e s t h e d r u g s f o r t h o s e n o t on S o c i a l A s s i s t a n c e , b u t who c a n n o t p a y f o r them t h e m s e l v e s . I n Menno Home, c o m p l e t e room s e r v i c e i s p r o v i d e d . The m a t r o n and h e r s t a f f see t o i t t h a t t h e b e d s a r e made, t h e - 38 -rooms kept tidy, and that the d a i l y routines are on schedule. They also prepare and serve three f u l l meals per day. In addition, f o r those residents desiring i t , two snacks per day are provided; one at about three o'clock i n the afternoon and another p r i o r to r e t i r i n g at night. Outside of a few opportunities provided for the male residents to work about the yard, there are no outlets where-by the residents may spend their time. Some of the female residents spend a good deal of time k n i t t i n g , hand sewing and crocheting. One reason why so l i t t l e i n the way of recreation i s available r e s u l t s from the assumption that because of the higher age range, most of the residents would not be too i n -terested i n 'recreation of the general sort. The people there-fore spend most of t h e i r time either by themselves i n t h e i r rooms, or else s i t t i n g i n the central d i n i n g - s i t t i n g area t a l k -ing with fellow residents. V i s i t i n g hours are l i m i t e d to two periods per day, namely, from two to four o'clock and seven to nine p.m. This provides the main contact with the surrounding community that the residents have, for the shopping centre and community stores are too remote for the residents to v i s i t frequently. A welcome feature of Menno Home l i e s i n i t s l o c a t i o n . Being s e t t l e d as i t i s i n a semi-rural QD mmunity, i t i s possible for the older persons to go for v/alks, to get acquaint-- 39 -e d with, a t l e a s t some o f t h e n e i g h b o r s and t o e n j o y t h e r u r a l s e t t i n g g e n e r a l l y . I t a l s o p r o v i d e s f o r l o c a l p e o p l e t o v i s i t t h e i r r e l a t i v e s I n t h e Home f r e q u e n t l y , f o r t h e Home i s e a s i l y a c c e s s i b l e . A f u r t h e r f e a t u r e o f Menno Home i s t h a t i t p r o v i d e s a number o f r e l i g i o u s s e r v i c e s . The C h a i r m a n o f t h e B o a r d , a member o f t h e C h r i s t i a n M i n i s t r y , u n d e r t a k e n what i s c a l l e d "An Hour o f B i b l e S t u d y " e v e r y Wednesday a f t e r n o o n . T h i s p e r i o d c o n s i s t s o f some s i n g i n g where a l l t a k e p a r t , a d i s -c u s s i o n o r d i s s e r t a t i o n o n a p a r t i c u l a r p o r t i o n f r o m t h e S c r i p -t u r e s and p a r t i c i p a t i o n b y a l l so i n c l i n e d i n a u d i b l e p r a y e r . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e s e r v i c e s r e n d e r e d b y t h e Home i t s e l f t h e r e a r e v a r i o u s f u n c t i o n s w h i c h t h e s u r r o u n d i n g community, t h r o u g h t h e i r M i n i s t e r s , L a d i e s ' O r g a n i z a t i o n s and Y o u t h G r o u p s , p r o v i d e b y way o f r e l i g i o u s s e r v i c e s . U s u a l l y t h e w o r s h i p s e r v i c e s a r e a r r a n g e d f o r Sunday a f t e r n o o n s when t h e v a r i o u s o r g a n i z a t i o n s t a k i n g p a r t s e r v e o n a r o t a t i o n b a s i s . E x t r a programmes a r e r e n d e r e d b y L a d i e s A i d s who u s u a l l y make t h i s an o c c a s i o n t o d e l i v e r t o t h e Home some o f t h e p r o d u c t s t h e y h a v e g a t h e r e d f o r t h e i n s t i t u t i o n . M i n i s t e r s o f t h e v a r i o u s c h u r c h e s a r e a l s o a s k e d t o s e r v e t h e r e s i d e n t s on s p e -c i a l o c c a s i o n s s u c h as C h r i s t m a s , Good F r i d a y and E a s t e r . The w o r s h i p s e r v i c e s a r e u s u a l l y c o n d u c t e d i n a manner, as n e a r l y a k i n t o t h e way t h e y a r e c o n d u c t e d i n t h e c h u r c h e s , as p o s s i b l e . T h i s i s i n t e n t i o n a l , f o r i t i s t o s e r v e as one - ko -area of l i f e that has continuity regardless of place or l o -cation. The Services include hymn singing, special musical selections by outside groups, a sermonette, maybe the r e c i -t a t i o n of a poem and other smaller v a r i a t i o n s . One further a c t i v i t y on the part of the community i s to provide t a x i service for individuals i n the Home who wish to attend worship services i n some p a r t i c u l a r church. Fre-quently these members w i l l entertain the residents as dinner guests before returning them to the Home. 1 Different choirs or choral groups v i s i t the Home frequently just to sing for the residents some of the songs and hymns long f a m i l i e r to them. After ths singing service, the members of the v i s i t i n g group make a point of contacting the residents to exchange f r i e n d l y greetings. The residents appreciate this informal type of a c t i v i t y on the part of the community. Personal counseling i s also available f o r the residents, but i n Menno Home thi s i s supplied by the pastors. The pastors of the approximately f i f t e e n Mennonite churches are available at any time, should t h e i r services be requested. In many instances, the residents are members of a church quite distant . therefore, the pastors are cooperating i n serving the people i n whatever way they can. What Other I n s t i t u t i o n s Offer An assessment of any one project cannot be made on i t s - 1 0 . -terms alone. For t h i s reason, some other housing projects w i l l be re f e r r e d to here. 1 In the study of Taylor Manor, which i s an older type i n s t i t u t i o n , the l e i s u r e time a c t i v i t i e s of a number of the residents of Taylor Manor were evaluated. The author notes that i n twenty-five cases, the adjustment i n the area of l e i s u r e and recre a t i o n i s seen as "average" i n f i v e and "poor" i n twenty cases. The study revealed that reading was the most popular pasttlme. Hobbies rated low. I t was found that " s o l i t a r y pursuits such as wri t i n g l e t t e r s , reading, l i s t e n i n g to the radio, were common methods of passing the time." Group a c t i v i t i e s such as playing golf, p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n community or church work, were not rated as favorite i n -ter e s t s , Taylor Manor i s geared to complying with these more private pursuits of the residents by providing a l i b r a r y and a large recreation room. The "New V i s t a " i s a low-rental housing project consist-ing of duplex bungalows and apartment blocks. Selection of residents i s based on c r i t e r i o n of the f i n a n c i a l s i t u a t i o n and health of the applicants. In a study of this housing pro-2 ject by Dorothy Barberie , several of the a c t i v i t i e s are noted. One good example Is the Bookmobile service which i s 1. Guest, Dennis T., op. c i t . p. 1L7 2. Barberie, Dorothy Joan, The "New V i s t a " ; A Housing Project, Burnaby, B.C. .Master of Social Work Thesis, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1957. - h-2 -o p e r a t e d by the Burnaby P u b l i c L i b r a r y . The L i b r a r y Van d r i v e s up t b ' t h e b u i l d i n g so t h a t the r e s i d e n t s may s e l e c t t h e i r r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l . O u t l i n i n g other a c t i v i t i e s , the author of t h i s study says, W i t h i n the p r o j e c t the tenants have i n i t i a t e d a ip e c r e a t i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n to meet some o f t h e i r needs f o r s o c i a l o u t l e t s . . . The tenants have broadened t h e i r C o n s t i t u t i o n to i n c l u d e , as members, any f r i e n d s o f the tenants or people from the neighborhood who w i s h to j o i n . . . The p r e s e n t r e c r e a t i o n a s s o c i a t i o n was helped i n f o r m a t i o n by a member of the Board o f D i -r e c t o r s who was a l s o a p r o f e s s i o n a l group worker. I t has been found t h a t merely h e l p i n g the tenant a s s o c i a t i o n to form, however, i s not enough. They appear to need some a s s i s t a n c e i n m a i n t a i n i n g imagina-t i o n , i n i t i a t i v e and v i s u a l i z i n g new and broader p r o -grammes o f a c t i v i t i e s . There would a c t u a l l y be s u f f i c i e n t work f o r a part-time group worker i f there were f i n a n c i a l p r o v i s i o n f o r such a person. 1 The M i d d l e c h u r c h Home f o r the Aged, l o c a t e d near Winni-peg, which i s a r u r a l and Danish model, o f f e r s gardening as a hobby to men so i n c l i n e d . Small p l o t s are assign e d to the e n t h u s i a s t s , and then become t h e i r domains. Other men are assi g n e d to bee-keeping. S e v e r a l of the women have assumed the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f l o o k i n g a f t e r s m a l l f l o w e r beds. Another i n t e r e s t i n g e n t e r p r i s e i s a monthly paper e d i t e d and p u b l i s h e d by the r e s i d e n t s . The paper describes, the events o f the Home, p r o v i d e s s o c i a l i n f o r m a t i o n and i n t e r p r e t s on b e h a l f o f the management any new p o l i c i e s of the Home which might have a b e a r i n g on the i n t e r e s t s o f the ten a n t s . 1 . B a r b e r i e , Dorothy Joan, op. c i t . p. 3 U -- 43 -Many of the above features could conveniently be i n -corporated i n the programme at Menno Home, because of i t s r u r a l setting, and because of the willingness on the part of the Board to make Menno Home a pleasant experience. Counseling Services Counseling services f o r residents of Menno Home have been l i m i t e d to those offered by the Ministers of the v a r i -ous churches (not only Mennonite) and p a r t i c u l a r l y to those offered by the Chairman of the Board. The reason for the emphasis on s p i r i t u a l counseling rests on the b e l i e f of the Mennonite f a i t h that a l l of l i f e i s a struggle to get back into- favour with the Creator. L i f e " i n this world" i s but a sojourn;'man i s a stranger here. However, man cannot f i n d t h i s way back to God on his own, and must, therefore accept the off e r of the "new l i f e " from Jesus C h r i s t who says, "I am the way, the truth and the l i f e . No man commeth unto the Father buy by me." S p i r i t u a l counseling i s , therefore, necessary for those who, towards the end of th e i r l i f e , are unable to reconcile the demands of thi s "new way" with the p r a c t i c a l , everyday aspects of l i v i n g . I t i s necessary, too, for encouragement to those who may not be plagued by this con-f l i c t , but who s t i l l long to grow In the f a i t h . S o c i a l workers recognize the value and the power r e l i g i o n -10*- -may have within the older person, and r e a l i z e , also, that this power and influence could well be used f o r the good of that person. Sue Spencer says, Physicians, p s y c h i a t r i s t s , s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s and others concerned with i l l n e s s , economic dependency, family breakdown and deliquency are expressing openly t h e i r i n t e r e s t i n understanding the place of r e l i g i o u s and s p i r i t u a l values i n human l i f e and i n a s s i s t i n g people i n the appropriate use of r e l i g i o n i n t h e i r d a i l y l i v e s . 1 Speaking further about ways i n which human needs f i n d expression i n r e l i g i o u s f a i t h , Miss Spencer notes that one such way i s , "The b e l i e f that there i s a purpose behind the Universe i n which we l i v e and a power that controls the uni-verse and the destinies of a l l who l i v e i n i t (or the doc-trine of a deity who loves us and i s concerned about our wel-fare." And a second way i s , "The b e l i e f that man can reach out and make contact with t h i s higher power, and, i n ways that sometimes seem miraculous, but often are natural and unspectacular, can draw from th i s source the strength to l i v e a better l i f e and to perform at a higher l e v e l than would otherwise be possible. The t h i r d way Miss Spencer mentions i s p a r t i c u l a r l y applicable to old age, for i t e n t a i l s , "The b e l i e f that man's l i f e should be concerned with the welfare of others and that he should subjugate s e l f i s h interests and desires to the w i l l of God for h i s l i f e . < L 1. Spencer, Sue ¥., "Religious and S p i r i t u a l Values i n S o c i a l Casework Practice," S o c i a l Casework; December, 1957. V o l . 3 8 , No.10, p.518. 2. I b i d , p.520. - kS -That s p i r i t u a l counseling i s of p a r t i c u l a r significance f o r most of the residents of Menno Home arises out of the fact that Menno Home, i s , after a l l , a parochial i n s t i t u t i o n , designed to serve people whose l i f e has been an e f f o r t to l i v e i n conformity with C h r i s t i a n teachings. Continuing these services represents a r e a l strength to people for whom many other meaningful t i e s have been disrupted. The Minister And The S o c i a l Worker  Parochial i n s t i t u t i o n s are not peculiar to the Mennon-i t e s . The United Church and the Presbyterian Church as well as various other denominations, have established housing pro-jects for the aged i n the d i f f e r e n t provinces. These paroch-i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s have been established not only to provide shelter f o r the aged, but also to provide s p i r i t u a l care. For t h i s reason, reference to the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the Minister and the So c i a l Worker w i l l be made. Alan Keith-Lucas says, For some time the r e a l l y important question i n the rapproachment between r e l i g i o n and s o c i a l work has not been 'How do s o c i a l workers and r e l i g i o u s work-ers cooperate?' or even, 'How do we as s o c i a l work-ers take into account or make use of our c l i e n t ' s r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f s ? ' I t has been, 'How does a so c i a l worker who professes through h i s r e l i g i o n a a p a r t i c u l a r view of man reconcile t h i s view with his professional p r a c t i c e , i n which he also believes?'1 1. Keith Lucas, "Some Notes on Theology and S o c i a l Work," Soci a l Casework, February, I960, Vol. 1|1. No. 2. p . 8 7 . - k6 -Leroy Waterman f e e l s that one reason why s o c i a l workers have not been prone to u t i l i z e the C h r i s t i a n Minis-try as a resource i n many instances i s because i t s highest authorities (of the dominant r e l i g i o n s ) "cannot agree as to what constitutes the content of r e l i g i o n . However, Waterman does claim that there i s a constant aim i n a l l r e l i g i o n . He says, When man awakened to the abiding values of personality, the r e v e l a t i o n , for i t was also that, was so arresting, so a l l u r i n g , that his e f f o r t s to preserve those values constitute the most persistent, enduring and consistent endeavor that s t i l l characterizes man as man. Therein the aim of r e l i g i o n stands revealed, as constant through the ages as the magnetic needle that always points to the pole. 1 S o c i a l workers r e a l i z e the abiding values of personality. C l a s s i c a l terminology accepts man as having dignity and worth, and as having a r i g h t to s e l f respect. Whereas the Mennonite church sees these values as deriving from the fact that they have been vested by the Creator-God, s o c i a l work p r i n c i p l e s usually attribute man's higher status to h i s i n t e l l i g e n c e and r e f i n e d modes of response, as well as to the fact that cer-t a i n natural, irrevocable r i g h t s reside with the person as part of a fundamental concept of democratic theory. The difference f o r p r a c t i c a l purposes, relates to the orientation of each, the church stressing that the use of these values must be accounted f o r as required by the Creator, while s o c i a l 1. Waterman, Leroy, "Religions and Religious Observances i n Old Age." T i l b i t t s & Donahue (ed.), Aging i n Today's Society, Prentice-Hall Inc.; Englewood C l i f f s , N.J.; I960, p.311. - kl -work s t r e s s e s t h a t t h e y o u g h t t o be r e g a r d e d as b e i n g n e c e s s -a r y f o r p r e s e n t s o c i a l f u n c t i o n i n g . However, the method e a c h employs t o h e l p t h e i n d i v i d u a l c o u l d s t i l l be u s e d as r e s o u r c e s b y t h e two g r o u p s . H e n r y Morrow, i n a s t u d y o f t h e community s e r v i c e s o f an o l d e s t a b l i s h e d c h u r c h i n V a n c o u v e r w r o t e i n 191+85 F r e q u e n t l y , P r o t e s t a n t M i n i s t e r s who i n t e l l e c t u a l l y r e c o g n i z e t h e p l a c e o f t h e p u b l i c and p r i v a t e a g e n c i e s i n t h e f i e l d o f s o c i a l work f a i l t o u s e t h e s e r v i c e s w h i c h a r e a v a i l a b l e w i t h i n t h e community. P e r s o n a l p r o b l e m s , m i n o r e m o t i o n a l d i s t u r b a n c e s and m a r i t a l p r o b l e m s a r e d i s c u s s e d w i t h p a r i s h i o n e r s w i t h o u t any c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f u s i n g s o c i a l a g e n c i e s s a v e as r e -s o u r c e s f o r r e l i e f , t o p r o v i d e c a r e f o r a n e g l e c t e d c h i l d , o r t o p r o v i d e m e d i c a l t r e a t m e n t . The A g e n cy i s a r e s o u r c e . The c o n v e r s e i s a l s o t r u e . S o c i a l A g e n c i e s may e a s i l y f o r g e t t o c o n s i d e r t h e s t r e n g t h o f t h e m i n i -s t e r ' s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o the c l i e n t and do n o t t a k e him i n t o t h e i r c o n f i d e n c e as t h e y t a k e s c h o o l t e a c h e r s , n u r s e s and d o c t o r s . So, f r e q u e n t l y , t h e two p r o f e s s i o n s p a r a l l e l e a c h o t h e r . ^ What Morrow ha s s a i d i s t r u e o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p b e -t ween t h e M e n n o n i t e M i n i s t r y and S o c i a l Work. The r e a s o n b e -h i n d t h i s s t r a i n e d r e l a t i o n s h i p i s w e l l e x p r e s s e d i n a v e r y r e c e n t l o c a l s t u d y on i n t e r p r o f e s s i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , u n d e r t a k e n b y A l f r e d a S k e n f i e l d i n I 9 6 0 . M i s s S k e n f i e l d r e c o g n i z e s t h a t , " W i t h i t s t r a d i t i o n o f c e n t u r i e s o f w e l f a r e work, t h e c h u r c h f o u n d i t d i f f i c u l t t o a c c e p t the y o u n g "up-s t a r t , * s o c i a l xtfork, w i t h i t s e m p h a s i s on s c i e n t i f i c method and o f t e n , a s e e m i n g d i s r e g a r d o f a l l t h a t t h e c h u r c h h a d 1. Morrow, H e n r y M., The Community S e r v i c e s o f F i r s t U n i t e d  C h u r c h , M a s t e r o f S o c i a l Work T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a S c h o o l o f S o c i a l Work, I9I4.8. p.l+9 - k8 -done and was d o i n g . . . T h e r e a r e p r o b l e m s o f s e m a n t i c s ; What i s meant b y ' s i n ? ' ' p e r m i s s i v e n e s s ? 1 - p r o b l e m s o f s e l f de-t e r m i n a t i o n o v e r a g a i n s t t h e o l o g i c a l dogma - p r o b l e m s o f p o i n t s 1 o f v i e w b e t w e e n m i n i s t e r and n o n - r e l i g i o u s c a s e w o r k e r . " E s s e n t i a l l y , t h e s o c i a l w o r k e r i s t r a i n e d t o l o o k . a t and d i a g n o s e p e r s o n a l i t y d i f f i c u l t i e s a n d t o h e l p p e o p l e t o make p r o p e r a d j u s t m e n t t o l i f e . S i n c e t h e s o c i a l w o r k e r i s u s u a l l y w o r k i n g i n a c e r t a i n a g e n c y , he o r she o f f e r s a s p e c i f i c s e r -v i c e t o t h e community. B e i n g d e p e n d e n t on p s y c h i a t r y and s o c i o l o g y f o r much o f h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e c l i e n t , and o f t h e t e c h n i q u e s t o be u s e d i n d e a l i n g w i t h v a r i o u s p r o b l e m s , t h e s o c i a l w o r k e r i s p r e p a r e d t o w o r k i n t e n s i v e l y w i t h s e l e c t e d p r o b l e m s , as t h e s e a r e s c r e e n e d b y i n t a k e p r o c e s s e s i n t h e agency where t h e w o r k e r i s employed. The M i n i s t e r , b e c a u s e o f t h e n a t u r e o f h i s c a l l i n g , must s e r v e a l l t y p e s o f c l i e n t e l e w i t h e v e r y t y p e o f p r o b l e m . T h e r e i s a g r e a t n e e d f o r h i g h l y t r a i n e d c o u n s e l o r s i n moder n h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s f o r t h e aged, and Menno Home i s no e x c e p t i o n . I t i s t r u e , o f c o u r s e , t h a t any p e r s o n t r a i n e d as a c o u n s e l o r w o u l d n e e d t o r e c o g n i z e t h a t Menno Home i s a p a r o -c h i a l i n s t i t u t i o n , s u p p o r t e d b y p e o p l e who a r e i n t e n t o n p r o -v i d i n g f o r t h e i r a g ed a Home w h i c h w i l l s u p p o r t t h e b e l i e f s t h e s e p e o p l e h a v e c h e r i s h e d f o r so l o n g . Menno &ome c a n b e -1. S k e n f i e l d , A l f r e d a , The S o c i a l Worker and M i n i s t e r i n W e l f a r e S e r v i c e s , M a s t e r o f S o c i a l Work T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I960, p.7. - 1+9 -come just that through the u t i l i z a t i o n of the knowledge of various professions. Alfreda Skenfield has put i t this way: The coming together of clergy and social workers, possi-ibly i n the company of the doctor and psychiatrist, for the purpose of knowing each other i s one of the answers to the many questions posed herein. That there are many settings i n which this can be done, and is being done, is apparent. If each group makes the most of these and creates other opportunities, wherever possible, the tenta-tive approaches to each other w i l l become continued intermingling with resultant understanding, acceptance and sharing of s k i l l s to the ultimate benefit of the individual who is crying for help.' It would appear, then, that the minister and the social worker have much to offer to each other. There are special po s s i b i l i t i e s i n a housing situation where inmates and staff may develop their sense of "community" within the Home, to which both have much to contribute. 1. Skenfield, Alfreda, op. c i t . p.77. CHAPTER k MENNO HOME: NEW POTENTIALS Entrance into a home f o r the aged i s an event r a d i a t i n g various degrees of pleasure and pain, s a t i s f a c t i o n and depriva-t i o n . Contrary to the old concept that held t h i s step to be the "end of the road" f o r a l l who entered, i t i s now being viewed as a p o t e n t i a l for a new new of l i f e . But to make thi s possible requires adequate accommodati on with the necessary f a c i l i t i e s such as suitable furniture f o r both the l i v i n g quarters and the lounge, s u f f i c i e n t kitchen f a c i l i t i e s to prepare and serve meals e f f i c i e n t l y . The rooms, and i n t e r i o r generally, should be decorated i n cheerful, pleasant colors to lend to the i n s t i t u -t i o n a home-like, warm atmosphere. I t requires a good counsel-ing service for the residents, so that any private concerns they may have can be dealt with. There should be provision f o r group a c t i v i t i e s i n which a l l the residents would be welcome to take part. Furthermore, to make a home more than a "dwelling place" requires a s t a f f capable of viewing keenly the broad drama of l i f e as i t takes place i n that home, observing the interplay of pers o n a l i t i e s and the degree of i n d i v i d u a l and group adjustment - 51 -and m a l a d j u s t m e n t w h i c h e x i s t s . The B o a r d o f D i r e c t o r s and t h e Management o f Menno Home a r e c e r t a i n l y I n t e n t on m a k i n g Menno Home more t h a n a s h e l t e r f o r t h o s e who e n t e r . T hey have a t t e m p t e d t o make t h e r e s i d e n t s f e e l welcome, and a l s o v i t a l t o t h e i n s t i t u t i o n . B u t t h e methods t h a t h a v e b e e n e m p l o y e d t o e f f e c t t h i s a r e m o s t l y t h o s e t h a t h a v e t r a d i t i o n a l l y b e e n u s e d . The new o c c u -p a n t s have b e e n made as c o m f o r t a b l e as p o s s i b l e . P r o v i s i o n h a s b e e n made f o r t h e i r m e d i c a l and s p i r i t u a l n e e d s , and most b a s i c e s s e n t i a l s h a v e b e e n f u r n i s h e d . However, i n s p i t e o f t h e s e b a -s i c s e r v i c e s , man s t i l l r e q u i r e s o u t s i d e i n s t i t u t i o n s s u c h as t h e s c h o o l s , c h u r c h e s , h o s p i t a l s , c l u b s t o g i v e p e r s p e c t i v e and b a l a n c e t o t h e i r l i f e . S i n c e many o f t h e r e s i d e n t s a r e n o t c a p a b l e o f s e e k i n g o u t t h e s e o u t s i d e s e r v i c e s , i t i s n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e s e r v i c e t o move i n t o t h e Home. The b e g i n n i n g o f p r o g r a m s f o r t h e a g e d i s i n income m a i n t e n a n c e and h e a l t h s e r v i c e s . Weaknesses i n t h e s e two a r e a s w i l l show up i n h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s . However, t h e p r o j e c t s them-s e l v e s a r e b e s t a d v a n c e d b y t a k i n g as b r o a d a v i e w o f t h e i r s e r v i c e s as t h e y a r e a b l e . Heeds o f R e s i d e n t s o f Menno Home Mo s t o f t h e n e e d s b a s i c t o r e s i d e n t s o f Menno Home a r e a l s o b a s i c t o a l l o t h e r p e o p l e . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , many o f t h e s e n e e d s a r e o f t e n n o t p r o p e r l y r e c o g n i z e d u n t i l t h e r e s o u r c e s - 52 -w h i c h o r d i n a r i l y w o u l d p r o v i d e s u b s t i t u t i o n s o r a l t e r a t i o n s a r e no l o n g e r a v a i l a b l e . F i r s t , o l d f o l k s h a v e a n e e d f o r r e s p e c t . One r e a l r e a s o n f o r r e s p e c t i s t h a t t h e y a r e human b e i n g s who h a v e t h r o u g h many t r i a l s a nd e x p e r i e n c e s l e a r n e d t o cope w i t h l i f e ' s p r o b l e m s . The a d v i c e and g u i d a n c e t h e y a r e a b l e t o d i s p e n s e as i t r e l a t e s t o a s p e c i f i c s i t u a t i o n i s t o be h o n o r e d s i n c e i t i s b a s e d o n th e r e s u l t s o f d e c i s i o n s t h e y h a v e b e e n o b l i g e d t o make t h r o u g h -o u t t h e y e a r s . A d d i t i o n a l l y , M e n n o n i t e s , as a l s o members o f v a r i o u s o t h e r f a i t h s , h o l d t h a t one o f t h e b a s i c s c r i p t u r a l a s s u m p t i o n s i s t h a t t h e r e w i l l be r e s p e c t f o r p a r e n t s . I t was w r i t t e n i n -t o t h e F i f t h Commandment, "Honor y o u r f a t h e r and y o u r m o t h e r , " and i t was p a r t o f t h e c u l t u r a l t e a c h i n g o f J u d a i s m . H o n o r , i n t h i s c o n t e x t , i s n o t to be m e r e l y a s e n t i m e n t a l g e s t u r e o f p a t r o n a g e , b u t a d e e p - s e a t e d d e v o t i o n . The M e n n o n i t e f a i t h h a s i n h e r i t e d t h i s i d e a o f r e s p e c t f o r t h e e l d e r l y f r o m J u d a i s m . Not u n t i l r e c e n t changes i n t h e econ o m i c and s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e t o o k p l a c e h as t h e M e n n o n i t e f a i t h w a v e r e d i n i t s a t t i t u d e t o w a r d o l d e r p e o p l e . The r e s i d e n t s o f Menno Home know o f t h i s c h a n g i n g a t t i t u d e , and may v i e w i t as f a i l u r e on t h e i r p a r t t o t r a i n t h e i r y o u n g e r g e n e r a t i o n p r o p e r l y . S e c o n d l y , t h e r e i s t h e n e e d t o f e e l u s e f u l . I t i n v o l v e s a f e e l i n g t h a t d e r i v e s f r o m s e r v i c e t o o t h e r s . The o l d e r p e o p l e n e e d t o t h i n k o f t h e m s e l v e s as stex^ards o f a l i f e t h a t i s f u l -- 5 3 -f i l l i n g t h e p u r p o s e s f o r w h i c h i t was o r d a i n e d . U n w i t t i n g l y , y o u n g e r g e n e r a t i o n s f r e q u e n t l y c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e l o s s o f s t e w a r d s h i p b y f a i l i n g t o p r o v i d e u s e f u l t h i n g s f o r t h e aged t o a c c o m p l i s h . "Use us o r l o s e u s " i s as t r u e o f t h e s e p t u a -g e n a r i a n as o f any o t h e r age g r o u p , b u t i s p a r t i c u l a r l y k e e n f o r them. T h i r d , i s t h e n e e d f o r s e c u r i t y . The y e a r n i n g f o r e m o t i o n a l s e c u r i t y a t a l l a g e s , a p p a r e n t l y , i s a d e e p r o o t e d large imbedded i n m a n k i n d . P e o p l e do d e p e n d on o t h e r s , be i t p a r e n t s , c h i l d r e n , s p o u s e , a s s o c i a t e s , f o r t h e dynamic e m o t i o n -a l s e c u r i t y t h a t i s t h e b e d r o c k o f h a p p i n e s s . R e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h o t h e r p e o p l e , t h e r e f o r e , i s a b a s i c m a t t e r i n any good h o u s i n g p r o j e c t . T h e s e c a n b e . p a r t i c u l a r l y m e a n i n g f u l when t h e y become s t r u c t u r e d t h r o u g h g r o u p w o r k e r l e a d e r s h i p e l i c i t -i n g f u l l g r o u p p a r t i c i p a t i o n . E c o n o m i c s e c u r i t y i n v o l v e s t h e a s s u r a n c e t h a t f o o d , s h e l t e r and c l o t h i n g w i l l , u n d e r o r d i n a r y c i r c u m s t a n c e s , be g r a n t e d . I t i n v o l v e s a l s o t h e w i s h on t h e p a r t o f t h e a g e d p e k s o n t h a t t h e r e w i l l be some s a v i n g s , e v e n i f meager, w h i c h may be p a s s e d on t o t h e c h i l d r e n and t o w o r t h w h i l e p r o j e c t s . M e n n o n i t e t e a c h i n g has a l w a y s b e e n t h a t " i t i s more b l e s s e d t o g i v e t h a n t o r e c e i v e . " I n a b i l i t y t o s h a r e f i n a n c e s i s p a r t o f t h e aged p e r s o n ' s f e e l i n g t h a t h i s l i f e and t i m e a r e e s s e n t i a l l y u s e l e s s . Y o u n g e r g e n e r a t i o n s o f t e n f a l s e l y b e l i e v e t h a t o l d e r p e o p l e do n o t r e q u i r e any f u n d s . I t i s t r u e , o f c o u r s e , t h a t -5k -t h e y u s u a l l y do n o t demand much f o r t h e m s e l v e s , b u t t h e a b i l i t y t o s h a r e a l i t t l e o f s o m e t h i n g l i k e money r e p r e s e n t s t h e f a c t t h a t a l o n g w i t h t h e money goes the g i f t o f g o o d - w i l l . The O l d Age P e n s i o n , and t h e s u p p l e m e n t a r y b e n e f i t s , h a v e g r e a t l y c o n t r i b u t e d t o a g r e a t e r s e n s e o f economic s e c u r i t y . , I f n o t h i n g e l s e , t h e y a t l e a s t g u a r a n t e e t h a t , n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g e m e r g e n c i e s o f a g r a v e s o r t , d e p e n d i n g on t h e i r f a m i l i e s w i l l n o t be t o o e x t e n s i v e . A r e l a t e d n e e d e x p e r i e n c e d b y a l l o l d p e o p l e i s t h e p o s s i b i l i t y f o r e x p r e s s i o n o f i n t e r e s t . O l d p e o p l e r e q u i r e a venues w h e r e b y t h e y may show t h e i r i n t e r e s t I n l i f e , and i n t h e a f f a i r s o f t h e community i n g e n e r a l . P r e v i o u s t o e n t r y i n t o t h e Home, c i r c u l a t i o n w i t h i n the community b r o u g h t i s s u e s t o t h e i r a t t e n t i o n w h i c h t h e y c o u l d e x p r e s s i n t e r e s t i n a n d s t a t e o p i n i o n s a b o u t . B e i n g r e moved f r o m the community t o a c e r t a i n e x t e n t , o t h e r ways o f e x p r e s s i n g i n t e r e s t s and p r o v i d -i n g f o r e x p r e s s i o n o f t a l e n t s a r e n e e d e d . The way i n w h i c h t h e b a s i c n e e d s o f p h y s i c a l , e m o t i o n a l and s o c i a l s e c u r i t y and t h e i r f u l f i l l m e n t f i t t o g e t h e r g i v e s m e a n i n g t o l i f e . A good h o u s i n g p r o j e c t w i l l t a k e t h i s i n t o a c c o u n t , and w i l l s e e k t o e s t a b l i s h f a c i l i t i e s and s e r v i c e s w h i c h w i l l i n t h e m s e l v e s be o f r e a l v a l u e . - 55 -Is S o c i a l Work Relevant for Menno Home ? The professional s o c i a l workers of B r i t i s h Columbia, and indeed generally, have for quite a number of years been v i t a l l y interested i n housing projects for the aged. This i n -terest arises out of the fac t that housing projects as such cannot be divorced from the basic needs of older people. I f , however, these basic needs are not understood, i t follows that the housing project cannot be planned on the basis of need. So c i a l workers have sought to understand the dynamics of the behavior of the di f f e r e n t age groups, and many have made special e f f o r t s to understand the fears, longings and ambitions of the aged. Since Menno Home Is a r e l a t i v e l y small i n s t i t u t i o n , i t would at thi s stage l i k e l y not be pro f i t a b l e to employ a f u l l time group worker or caseworker, or one trained i n both f i e l d s . However, i t would be p r o f i t a b l e f o r both the s t a f f , and the Board of Directors, to consider employing a s o c i a l work con-sultant, who:(a) could advise the Board regarding admissions p o l i c y and procedure and (b) could develop knowledge on what community resources are available to the aged. This consultant could also (c) advise the Board on recent findings i n g e r i a t r i c research i n the f i e l d s of vocational r e h a b i l i t a t i o n , health services, housing, and rec r e a t i o n a l programmes. Given time and the opportunity to know the residents, this consultant could become increasingly h e l p f u l to the administration i n (d^ assessing - 56 -t h e needs o f t h e r e s i d e n t s , d i s c u s s i n g v a r i o u s and p a r t i c u l a r c o n c e r n s as t h e y a r i s e , and d e t e r m i n e w i t h them what c o u l d b e done u n d e r t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s . I n t h i s way the c o n s u l t a n t c o u l d a s s i s t ( e ) i n d e v e l o p i n g a p r o g r a m o f a c t i v i t i e s t h a t w o u l d be b e n e f i c i a l n o t o n l y t o t h e r e s i d e n t , b u t a l s o t o t h e i n s t i t u t i o n . A C o u n s e l i n g S e r v i c e R e f e r r i n g t o some a r e a s i n w h i c h s p e c i a l s k i l l s w i l l b e r e q u i r e d I n programmes f o r a g e d , L i l l i a n S i b u l k i n p a y s p a r t i c u -l a r a t t e n t i o n t o c o u n s e l i n g n e e d s : Some a g e n c i e s a d d r e s s t h e m s e l v e s s o l e l y t o t h e a g i n g p e r s o n and g i v e l i t t l e o r no a t t e n t i o n t o f a m i l y t i e s o r t o l a c k o f s o c i a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l s u p p o r t s w i t h -i n t h e f a m i l y . Our ( S o c i a l Work) p r a c t i c e i s t o c o n -s i d e r t h e o l d e r p e r s o n w i t h i n t h e c o n t e x t o f h i s f a m i l y , b u t a l s o when he i s l i v i n g a p a r t f r o m them... The c a s e w o r k e r must al w a y s k eep i n p e r s p e c t i v e t h e p r o b l e m s o f t h e o l d e r c l i e n t , t h e p r o b l e m s o f h i s r e l a t i v e , a n d n a t u r e o f f a m i l y t i e s i n p l a n n i n g s e r v i c e t h a t w i l l i m -p r o v e t h e s o c i a l f u n c t i o n i n g o f e a c h . ' S p e c i a l s k i l l i s n e e d e d i n d e a l i n g w i t h t h e o l d e r p e r s o n whose c a p a c i t y t o t h i n k h as d e t e r i o r a t e d . S i n c e c l i e n t s o f t h i s t y p e c a n n o t c o n c e n t r a t e o n t h e one p o i n t u n d e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n , t h e c o u n s e l o r m#st l e a r n t o a s k q u e s t i o n s and r e - d i r e c t t h e d i s -c u s s i o n so as t o g i v e t h e i n t e r v i e w t h e n e e d e d f o c u s . S i n c e 1. S i b u l k i n , L i l l i a n , " S p e c i a l S k i l l s i n W o r k i n g w i t h t h e O l d e r P e r s o n , " S o c i a l Casework, A p r i l , 1959, V o l . k O . p.210. - 57 -a b s t r a c t t h i n k i n g i s n o t as a c u t e as i n p r e v i o u s y e a r s , s k i l l w i l l be n e e d e d t o e l i c i t d u r i n g t h e i n t e r v i e w c l u e s t h a t m i g h t l e a d t o a d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f what t h e p e r s o n ' s r e a l n e e d s and C o n c e r n s a r e . A d m i s s i o n and E l i g i b i l i t y One p a r t i c u l a r a r e a i n w h i c h a s o c i a l w o r k e r c o u l d be h e l p f u l i s i n " i n t a k e , " E n t e r i n g a home o f t e n r e p r e s e n t s a d r a s t i c b r e a k w i t h p a s t l i f e . The e x p e r i e n c e s may be q u i t e t r a u m a t i c i f no i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f s u c h a move i s g i v e n , o r e l s e i f no s u p p o r t d u r i n g s u c h a t r a n s i t i o n i s o f f e r e d . Many p e r s o n s who a p p l y f o r a d m i s s i o n do so i n d e s p e r a t i o n . I n some I n s t a n c e s , p e o p l e c o u l d be h e l p e d t o e x p l o r e community r e -s o u r c e s w h i c h w o u l d p e r m i t o t h e r p l a n s t h a t m i g h t be more s u i t e d t o t h e p e r s o n ' s n e e d s . Menno Home h a s , up t o t h e p r e s e n t , n o t h a d l o n g w a i t i n g l i s t s . T h i s h a s meant t h a t t h e Home has a c c e p t e d v i r t u a l l y any p e r s o n who c o u l d be a d m i t t e d w i t h i n the framework o f e s t a b l i s h e d h e a l t h and l e g a l r e g u l a t i o n s . However, t h e t i m e w i l l l i k e l y come when t h e w a i t i n g l i s t w i l l be l o n g e r , a n d when s e l e c t i o n o f t e n a n t s , who c o u l d most b e n e f i c i a l l y u s e t h e Home e x p e r i e n c e , w i l l n e e d t o be made. I f a t r a i n e d s o c i a l w o r k e r c o u l d e v e n t u a l l y be employed, e v e n i f on a p a r t - t i m e b a s i s t o s t a r t o u t w i t h , t h a t w o r k e r c o u l d p r e p a r e t h e a p p l i c a n t f o r what may w e l l be h i s f i r s t e x p e r i e n c e i n s u c h i n t i m a t e , c o r p o r -a t e l i v i n g . On a c o n t i n u i n g b a s i s , the w o r k e r c o u l d h e l p t h e - 58 -new r e s i d e n t with, p r o b l e m s o f a d j u s t m e n t t o t h e home and t o t h e o t h e r r e s i d e n t s . The w o r k e r w o u l d be i n c l i n e d t o k e e p t h e f a m i l y o f t h e o c c u p a n t i n f o r m e d as t o t h e p e r s o n ' s p r o g r e s s and a d j u s t m e n t , a n d h e l p i n g them t o c a r r y a s h a r e o f r e s p o n s i -b i l i t y f o r t h e o l d e r p e r s o n ' s w e l l - b e i n g . F u r t h e r , t h e w o r k e r c o u l d h e l p i n w o r k i n g o u t a l t e r n a -t i v e p l a n s o f h o u s i n g f o r a p p l i c a n t s r e j e c t e d f o r w h a t e v e r r e a s o n . One s u c h a l t e r n a t i v e may, f o r i n s t a n c e , be "homemaker s e r v i c e . " L o u i s K u p l a n s a y s , I t h i n k we n e e d t o d e v e l o p a s t r u c t u r e o f s e r v i c e s w h i c h w i l l remove t h e p r e s e n t h e a v y e m p h a s is on i n s t i t u t i o n a l c a r e and p l a c e i t i n s t e a d , where i t r i g h t l y b e l o n g s o n t h e home. We n e e d , f o r example, a s y s t e m o f v i s i t i n g h o u s e k e e p i n g s e r v i c e s w h i c h w i l l h e l p o l d p e o p l e cope w i t h t h e p h y s i c a l p r o b l e m s o f m a i n t a i n i n g a home. We n e e d a s y s t e m o f f r i e n d l y v i s i t o r s e r v i c e s t o h e l p o v e r -come t h e l o n e l i n e s s a n d i s o l a t i o n w h i c h a r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h o l d age. We ne e d , a l s o , a s y s t e m o f v i s i t i n g n u r s -" i n g s e r v i c e s so t h a t we c a n a v o i d t h e a l l t o o common e x p e d i e n t o f c o m m i t t i n g t h e e l d e r l y t o h o s p i t a l as s o o n as t h e y f a l l i l l . 1 One f a c t o r w h i c h w i l l remove i n t a k e p r e s s u r e o f f Menno Home i s t h a t s t i l l a n o t h e r Home i s b e i n g b u i l t i n C l e a r b r o o k . T h i s new kO b e d home i s u n d e r t h e M e n n o n i t e B r e t h r e n C h u r c h , and w i l l c a t e r p r i m a r i l y t o i t s own c o n s t i t u e n t g r o u p . T h i s w i l l mean t h a t a t l e a s t s e v e r a l o f t h e M e n n o n i t e B r e t h r e n r e s i -d e n t s now a t Menno Home w i l l l i k e l y t r a n s f e r t o t h e i r own i n -s t i t u t i o n . When t h i s h a p p e n s , t h e p r e s e n t w a i t i n g l i s t o f f i v e 1. K u p l a n , L o u i s , " L e i s u r e Time S e r v i c e s f o r t h e A g e d and P a t t e r n s o f O r g a n i z a t i o n . " P r o c e e d i n g s , t h e f i r s t B.C. C o n f e r -e n c e on The Heeds and P r o b l e m s o f t h e A g i n g . The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , p . 3 2 . -59 -w i l l be depleted. However, once i t Is known that long waiting periods are not necessary, applicants w i l l request immediate entrance once the decision to enter the Home has been made. Accepting a l l who apply may present the d i f f i c u l t y of having i n the Home r e s i -dents who simply do not f i t i n . Here, too, a trained s o c i a l worker aware of community resources could make r e f e r r a l s on behalf of the c l i e n t s to other services which might more nearly s a t i s f y the needs of the person concerned. A further area i n which a s o c i a l worker could be h e l p f u l i s that of providing protective services. These are services which are required where the person's capacity to act prudently i n h i s own behalf are diminished, and which demand varying measures of intervention with the Intent of protecting the i n -terests of the aged person. Reviewing a great variety of such services which might be relevant, Mary Hemming and Marcella Parror, writing on this point, suggest that, The nature of the protective problem i s such that re-sources of many kinds must be r e a d i l y available, to be used immediately and f l e x i b l y , to supplement those of the c l i e n t , h is family, and friends. Among these resources are medical and ps y c h i a t r i c care, l e g a l ser-v i c e s , nursing care, h o s p i t a l and home nursing care, family home care, housekeeper and homemaker services, drugs, ambulance service, and funds f o r immediate needs such as rent, (clothing, and food. The s o c i a l worker i s at the hub i n mobilizing each needed.resource quickly, both for diagnosis and treatment. 1. Hemming, Mary, L., and Parror, Marcella S., "Protective Services for Older People." Social Casework, January, I 9 6 0 , V o l . k 2 . p.19. - 60 -Although Menno Home already provides many of the above services, there are some that could more reasonably be handled by u t i l i z i n g resources, public and private, which are generally available for senior c i t i z e n s i n the community or province. I t would seem p r o f i t a b l e f o r Menno Home to take steps to employ a s o c i a l work consultant f o r the Board of Directors and the Administration. Some i n s t i t u t i o n s elect such a person to the Board, and then assign c e r t a i n duties to this consultant. Eventually, the services would be developed s u f f i c i e n t l y , both i n q u a l i t y and quantity, to warrant contemplation of h i r i n g a fu l l - t i m e group worker or caseworker. An alternative to the above might be to make provision fo r a s o c i a l worker - chaplain to be employed f u l l time. There are students i n Schools of S o c i a l Work who are also graduates of B i b l i c a l Seminaries. These could be used to advantage i n de-veloping a program for Menno Home that would minister to "the whole man." Recreational A c t i v i t i e s The residents of housing projects have free time they some-times just "do not know what to do with." They need an a c t i v i t y program geared to t h e i r i n t e r e s t s , capacities, and needs. Of course, since the residents of Menno Home at present are on the average between 70 and 80 years of age, there may be the temptation to think that people of this age would not be too interested i n - 61 -v a r i o u s a c t i v i t i e s and t h a t , t h e r e f o r e , i t w o u l d he s e n s e l e s s t o e v e n b o t h e r p l a n n i n g a p r o g r a m . However, i t i s l i k e l y t h a t , i n t i m e , p e o p l e I n t h e 65 t o 75 age r a n g e may be t h e p r e d o m i n a n t g r o u p , e s p e c i a l l y s i n c e M e n n o n i t e s t o d a y a r e g o i n g i n t o v a r i o u s i n d u s t r i e s where t h e c o m p u l s o r y r e t i r e m e n t age i s 65 f o r men a n d 60 f o r women. B e i n g d e p r i v e d o f a r e g u l a r i n c o m e , t h e y move I n -t o h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s w h i c h t h e y c a n a f f o r d . However, a t t h i s age t h e r e i s s t i l l a good d e a l o f e n e r g y and a m b i t i o n a v a i l a b l e , and i t w i l l n e e d t o be c h a n n e l e d i f t h e Home i s t o p r o v i d e a b e n e f i -c i a l "way o f l i f e . " A l m o s t e v e r y t h i n g t h a t o l d e r p e o p l e l i k e t o do t o g e t h e r c a n be i n c l u d e d i n t h e p r o g r a m . C e r t a i n games s u c h as c h e s s , c h e c k e r s , C h i n e s e c h e c k e r s a r e a c t i v i t i e s t h a t o l d e r p e o p l e e n j o y t h o r o u g h l y i n t h e i r own homes, and c o u l d w e l l i n v e s t t h e m s e l v e s i n w h i l e i n an i n s t i t u t i o n . T h e r e a r e s e v e r a l a r e a s w h i c h c a n be e x p l o r e d . As s u g g e s t e d i n t h e s t u d y b y P a t r i c i a S h a r p , The P a i r H a v e n Home h a s a S o c i a l Committee w h i c h was e s t a b l i s h e d b y t h e B o a r d o f D i r e c t o r s , w i t h one o f t h e B o a r d members a c t i n g as c h a i r m a n . T h i s c o m m i t t e e p l a n s p r o g r a m s , i n c l u d i n g o c c a s i o n a l t r i p s w h i c h t h e r e s i d e n t s o f t h a t home e n j o y i m m e n s e l y . The r e s i d e n t s o f F a i r H a v e n have a l o u n g e w h i c h t h e y u s e f o r many and v a r i e d a c t i v i t i e s . Some homes e n j o y p r o v i s i o n s whereby p r o g r a m s a r e i n i t i a t e d b y o u t s i d e r s . D a n i a Home h a s a number o f i n t e r e s t e d g r o u p s w h i c h c o n t a c t t h e m a t r o n t o o f f e r t h e i r s e r v i c e s . A l t h o u g h r e s i d e n t s - 62 -of Dania do not participate i n planning the programs and acti -v i t i e s , they do enjoy them and turn out in good numbers for them. Other activities that could be of benefit to residents of Menno Home would be musical programs, discussion groups around various areas of interest, craftwork, sewing, knitting and making bandages for the Red Cross or some other such organization. The residents could well be encouraged to participate i n activities similar to those they took part In in earlier years, even i f on a much smaller scale. Since most of the residents come from a rural, farming background, they could be encouraged to take part in some gardening or general maintenance work around the buildings. Done properly, such activities would help the aged person to realize that there can be continuity in l i f e as l i f e advances from stage to stage; that there need not be an abrupt end to a l l activities even though circumstances place them in a home for the aged. To create the most effective activity program, i t is necessary to let the residents take part i n the planning. The family, or even the referral source, may question the capacity of older people to be useful planning participants, but the re-sponsible program in i t i a t o r w i l l need to determine to what ex-tent i t i s fair to c a l l upon the residents to do their own plann-ing. Many of the ordinary problems the residents of Menno Home - 6 3 -face are looked after by the management, and by the Mennonite ministers i n the community. However, some of the problems could be lessened i f the residents were given i n t e r e s t i n g things to do. A trained s o c i a l worker would be able to as s i s t the residents i n developing a program of a c t i v i t i e s geared to cor-porate interests of Menno Home occupants. This would mean an assessment of former in t e r e s t s as well as a condideration of what things are s t i l l within t h e i r capacity. In the l i g h t of the considerations set out here, I t Is a major recommendation of this study that steps should be taken to provide a lounge about equal i n size to the present dining area f o r recreational and worship purposes. In the opinion of the writer, t h i s could best be done by adding a wing, s i m i l a r to the one now housing the dining area, o f f the kitchen on the west side of the bu i l d i n g . This new part could then be used as dining area, and the present dining room could serve as a lounge. This would also permit the residents to profer a cup of tea to th e i r occasional guests. A further recommendation i s that garden plots, f o r the men capable and interested, be developed. Some of the produce thus r e a l i z e d could be u t i l i z e d by the i n s t i t u t i o n , giving the r e s i -dent the s a t i s f a c t i o n that he was able to contribute to the Home i n ways other than cash. A group worker could be used to help the Home f a c i l i t a t e the above a c t i v i t i e s by selecting residents who would be interested. - 6k -A f t e r a l l , the purpose of a group work program i n a home for the aged must be to help people to help themselves, through.the de-velopment of an in t e r e s t i n g and v i t a l group experience. This could take place through discussion groups, panel discussions, short talks or through question and answer periods. It may be d i f f i c u l t , but i t s p o s s i b i l i t i e s are always worth exploring. I t i s too easy i n the area of leisure-time a c t i v i t i e s to "do f o r " older people rather than "do with" them. What Louis Kuplan says about doing things f o r older people i n the way of planning for t h e i r future applies to recreation as much as to any other area: I believe that we must not rewove from people responsi-b i l i t y f or themselves and f o r others purely because of age. But we tend to do just that. In essence, what we do with our old people i s to k i l l them with kindness be-cause we take away from them the i r sense of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . We think we are being kind to our older people, to our parents, when we t e l l them not to work on the dishes, not to cook, not to mend, not to keep house or not to do v a r i -ous things they want to do... Let us encourage the reten-t i o n of a sense of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for the aged and f o r others. 1 To f u l f i l l the requirements necessary to s t a r t a good a c t i v i t y program, and to involve the residents themselves not only i n planning, but i n carrying out the plan, demands adequate t r a i n -ing. This i s where the group worker, grounded i n the knowledge of c o l l e c t i v e human behavior, could make a substantial contribution to the leisure-time a c t i v i t i e s of Menno Home. 1. Kuplan, Louis, Building a Philosophy Towards Aging, The Univer-s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of University Extension, January, 1958. - 65 -Conclusions The sponsors of Menno Home are to be commended not only for getting the Home b u i l t , and made a r e a l i t y from i t s f i r s t d i f f i c u l t beginnings, but for t h e i r continuing a c t i v i t y on behalf of the old people w i t h i n the community. The overwhelming majority of the tenants spoken to by the w r i t e r expressed s a t i s f a c t i o n with t h e i r l i v i n g quarters. The most.significant hesitance on the part of some was that they f e l t so lonely. Menno Home i s another example of the tendency to concentr-ate only on housing for the older person rathar. than providing public housing for old persons within the low income bracket. This has served to i s o l a t e the older person from the rest of the commun-i t y , with the r e s u l t that they cannot benefit from the many ser-vices the community o r d i n a r i l y affords for those able to get around. What i s worse, these experienced older people cannot contribute i n a s i g n i f i c a n t sense to the welfare of the community at large. Recourse to parks, stores, l i b r a r i e s , churches and c i v i c a c t i v i -t i e s i s a l l too often quite not possible for these residents. I t can be f a i r l y said that simply to provide housing for the aged i s not enough to keep them content. They s t i l l desire, at least i n most instances, to remain a part of the community, sharing i n i t s i n t e r e s t s , and i n i t s general endeavors. However, for many of the residents of such homes t h i s i s impossible. Therefore, i t becomes the duty of the administration to provide a program of a c t i v i t i e s that i s as nearly akin to ordinary, private - 66 -l i v i n g as the resources and circumstances would allow. This means that the residents w i l l need to be advised and guided i n providing t h e i r own a c t i v i t i e s and entertainment. To make these a c t i v i t i e s meaningful requires the insights of a person w e l l versed In both s o c i a l and community re l a t i o n s h i p s . Menno Home makes extensive e f f o r t s to serve i t s residents w e l l . The Mennonite Church Mi n i s t e r s , and the Ministers of other f a i t h s whose services may be required, are available at any time to anyone who may request t h e i r presence. The services these men render could p r o f i t a b l y be coupled with the experience, t r a i n i n g and good w i l l of a s o c i a l worker, r e s u l t i n g i n a progr-amme of a c t i v i t i e s that would minister to "the whole man."" - 67 -APPENDIX A Mennonite Benevolent Society Date Admitted : 1. Name Age 2. Address from which admitted 3. Date, month and year of birth 4. Place of birth , 5. Came to B.C 6. Marital Status 7. Nationality 8. Religion 9. What Church 10. Name and Address of Next of Kin : A Phone B .- Phone 11. Old-Age Securtiy (Pension) File No Amount $ ... 12. Old-Age Assistance (Bonus) File No Amount $ ... 13. Social Welfare Registration File No Amount $ ... 14. Social Responsibility of 15. Medical Identity No 16. Person or Organization responsible for maintenance : ; Amount $ 17. Address of Person or Organization responsible for maintenance : 18. Maintenance charges $ 19. Date of discharge 20. Reason for discharge .. 21. Address discharged to M E N N O N I T E B E N E V . S O C I E T Y M E N N O - H O M E M A R S H A L L RD. , R. R. 5 „ & B B 0 T S E 0 R D , B . Q< Uk. 3 - v Y / / , 22. Remarks - 68 -APPENDIX B BIBLIOGRAPHY General Bonhoeffer, D i e t r i c h , The Cost of Di s c i p l e s h i p . SCM Press Limited, London, 1959. Cavan, R., Burgess, E. W., Havighurst, R. J., and Goldhamer, H., Personal Adjustment i n Old Age. Science Research Associates Inc., Chicago, 19k9. Pollak, Otto, S o c i a l Adjustment i n Old Age. S o c i a l Science Research Council, New York, 19k8. Selye, Hans, The Stress of L i f e . McGraw-Hill Co.,. New York, 1956. ! Smith, Henry C , The Story of the Mennonites. Mennonite Publication O f f i c e , Newton, Kansas, 1951. Thiessen, Henry C , Introductory Lectures i n Systematic Theo- logy. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, Grand Rapids, Michigan, 1951. T i b b i t s , Clark and Donahue, Wilma, Aging i n Today's Society. Prentice H a l l Incorporated, EnglewoodCliffs, N.J., I960. A r t i c l e s Angell, S y l v i a , "The Role of the S o c i a l Worker i n a Home for the Aged." The Soc i a l Worker, January, I960, V o l . 2 8 , No. 1. pp. 16-22. H emmy, Mary L., and Parrar, Marcella, "Protective Services for Older People." S o c i a l Casework, February, I960, V o l . k l , No. 2. pp. 60-61. McCabe, A l i c e R.,. "Pastoral Counseling and Casework." The  Family, November, 19k3, Vol. 2k. pp. 256-261. - 69 -S i b u l k i n , L i l l i a n , "Special S k i l l s i n Working With Older People." S o c i a l Casework, A p r i l , 1959, Vol. kO, No. k. pp. 208-213. Spencer, Sue, "Religious and S p i r i t u a l Values i n S o c i a l Case-work Prac t i c e . " S o c i a l Casework, December, 1957, V o l . 38, No. 16. pp. 519-^26^ Public Documents Canada Year Book, 19,56. Queen's Pr i n t e r , Ottawa, 1956. pp. 160-165. Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s , Ninth Census of Canada, 1951. pp. 6 k - 6 5 . Reports Charter for the Aging. New York State conference convened by Governor Harriman at the State Capitol i n Albany, 1955. pp. 371-387. Housing Management. Issued by The Ministry of Health. His Majesty's Stationery O f f i c e , London, 1950. Housing Our Older C i t i z e n s . Reprinted from The Annals of the  American Academy of P o l i t i c a l and S o c i a l Science, P h i l a -delphia, 1952. Pedersen, D., Public Housing Management. Reprinted from The  Journal of Property Management, National Association of Real Estate Boards, September, 19k2. The F i r s t B.C. Conference on The Needs and Problems of the  Aging. Sponsored by the Community Chest and Council of Greater Vancouver, and The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, May, 1957. Vancouver Housing Association, Building for Senior C i t i z e n s . Vancouver, 1959. - 70 -Pamphlets Becker, Charles S., Toward Better Understanding of the Aged. Council on S o c i a l Work Education, New York, 1 9 5 8 . Kuplan, Louis, Building A Philosophy Towards Aging. Occasional Papers on Adult Education. The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of University Extension, 1958. Theses Barberie, Dorothy Joan, The "New V i s t a " : A Housing Project,  Burnaby, B.C. Master of So c i a l Work Thesis, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, B.C., 1959. Guest, Dennis, T., Taylor Manor: A Survey of the F a c i l i t i e s  of Vancouver's Home for the Aged. Master of S o c i a l Work Thesis, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, B.C., 1 9 5 2 . MacKinnon, Dolina F., and Angel, Jerome H., Housing Needs  and Preferences Among Senior C i t i z e n s (West" Vancouver). Master of S o c i a l Work Thesis, University of B r i t i s h Colum-b i a , Vancouver, B.C., 1 9 5 7 . Morrow, Henry McFarlane, The Community Services of F i r s t  United Church. Master of So c i a l Work Thesis, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, B.C., 19k8. Sharp, P a t r i c i a , Housing Projects for Old People. Master of Soci a l Work Thesis, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, B.C., 1957. Skenfield, Alfreda, S o c i a l Worker and Minister i n Welfare Services. Master of S o c i a l Work Thesis, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, B.C., 19.6Q. 

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