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The return of guardianship to natural parents : an exploratory study of a sample group of children apprehended… Vicelli, Letti Jane 1961

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THE RETURN OF GUARDIANSHIP TO NATURAL PARENTS An Exploratory Study of a Sample Group of Children Apprehended Under the Protection of Children Act i n a Rural Area i n B r i t i s h Columbia, i n the Decade 1950 - I960.  by  LETTI JANE VICELLI  A thesis submitted i n partial fulfilment of the requirements equivalent to those of the degree of Master of Social Work.  Accepted as conforming to the required standard.  School of Social Work  1961  The University of B r i t i s h Columbia  In the  presenting  requirements  of  British  it  freely  agree for  this  thesis  an  advanced  for  Columbia, available  that  copying  gain  shall  by  his  or  not  degree  fulfilment  at  the  Library  shall  Reference  and  study.  I  extensive  may  be  granted  representatives.  allowed  of  copying  this  without  by  of  the  It thesis  is  Head  of  S  o  c  i  a  l  W  o  r  k  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h V a n c o u v e r 8, Canada. Date  M  ^  5  >  1  9  6  1  *  Columbia,  of  thesis my  understood f i n a n c i a l  permission.  L e t t i i,ane V i c e l l i  Department  make  further this  for  my w r i t t e n  of  University  the  publication be  p a r t i a l  that  for  purposes  or  that  agree  for  permission  scholarly  Department  I  i n  11 TABLE OF CONTENTS Page Chapter I.  The Concept of Guardianship Protection  i n Child  The r i g h t s of parents. The r i g h t s of c h i l d r e n . The f a m i l y and the development of i d e n t i t y . Legal d e f i n i t i o n of guardianship i n B r i t i s h Columbia s t a t u t e s . The P r o t e c t i o n of Children Act (R.S. 1948, B.C.) Changing trends i n p r o t e c t i o n , 1940-1960. P r o t e c t i o n of c h i l d r e n as a s o c i a l work r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . Nature and scope of the study. Chapter I I . Removal of Guardianship  from Natural  Parents  Objective f a c t o r s which i n d i c a t e parental inadequacy. Strengths and weaknesses i n the family c o n s t e l l a t i o n s . The nature of community concern and a c t i o n . The r o l e of the s o c i a l welfare agency. The c l i e n t - s o c i a l worker r e l a t i o n s h i p . The part played by the j u v e n i l e court Chapter I I I . Restoration of Guardianship Parents  58  the Rights of Children and  Assessment of parental strengths. The use of agency s e r v i c e s and community resources. Agency contact with natural parents. The s o c i o - l e g a l process. L i m i t a t i o n s of the study.' Future goals f o r c h i l d p r o t e c t i o n work Appendices: A. B.  29  to Natural  Objective f a c t o r s which i n d i c a t e parental capacity. Parental strengths and weaknesses. Parental e f f o r t from the time of committal. Nature of agency contact. The r o l e of the s o c i a l worker. The juvenile court Chapter IV. Safeguarding Parents  1  Sample Record Forms Bibliography  76  iii SCHEDULES IN THE TEXT Page Schedule 1.  An Evaluation of Parental Performance, at the Time of Removal of Guardianship. ...  31  Schedule 2.  Descriptive S o c i a l Data  36  Schedule 3*  S o c i a l Diagnosis. Elements at the Time of Apprehension  38  Schedule 4.  M a r i t a l Status  41  Schedule 5»  Community Resources U t i l i z e d P r i o r to Committal Agency Services Offered P r i o r to Apprehension. Maintenance Orders Made Against the Parents An Evaluation of Parental Performance, at the Time of Restoration of Guardianship. ..  Schedule 6. I Schedule 7. Schedule 8. Schedule 9»  43 45 56 60  M a r i t a l Status at the Time of the Return of the Children  62  Schedule 10. Dates of Committal and Return  62  Schedule 11. Diagnostic Factors at the Time of Restoration of Guardianship Schedule 12. Types of Rescinding Orders  63 73  iv ABSTRACT The P r o t e c t i o n o f C h i l d r e n A c t i n B r i t i s h Columbia makes p r o v i s i o n f o r the removal and t h e r e s t o r a t i o n o f g u a r d i a n s h i p t o n a t u r a l p a r e n t s . T h i s p r o c e s s , which i s d e s i g n e d t o s a f e g u a r d the r i g h t s o f b o t h p a r e n t s and c h i l d r e n , i n v o l v e s the two d i s c i p l i n e s o f s o c i a l work and t h e law. The s o c i a l worker i s d i r e c t l y concerned w i t h the d e c i s i o n t o apprehend a c h i l d and, s u b j e c t t o the d e c i s i o n o f t h e c o u r t , s e p a r a t e him from n e g l e c t f u l p a r e n t s . He i s a l s o concerned with e n a b l i n g the parents t o ameliorate the circumstances o f n e g l e c t , and t o a s s i s t them t o a p p l y t o the c o u r t f o r the r e s t o r a t i o n of parental r i g h t s . The s o c i a l work p r o c e s s thus goes on b e f o r e t h e apprehension, d u r i n g the c o u r t h e a r i n g , and a f t e r t h e committal o f t h e c h i l d . The f i n a l d i s p o s i t i o n i n b o t h t h e removal and t h e r e s t o r a t i o n o f g u a r d i a n s h i p i s made by the judge o f t h e j u v e n i l e c o u r t . T h i s s t u d y i s undertaken t o i l l u m i n a t e t h e elements i n v o l v e d i n s o c i a l work r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n t h i s area o f c h i l d welfare p r a c t i c e . A sample group o f f a m i l i e s was s e l e c t e d , and t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e a s s e s s e d f o r a n a l y t i c a l and i l l u s t r a t i v e purposes. The s t u d y c o n c e n t r a t e s on two s e t s o f f a c t o r s : (1) those p r e s e n t a t t h e time o f removal o f g u a r d i a n s h i p , and (2) t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s which e n a b l e d the r e s t o r a t i o n o f p a r e n t a l rights. The d a t a are e v a l u a t e d on t h e b a s i s o f (a) p a r e n t a l s t r e n g t h s , (b) the n a t u r e o f community concern and a c t i o n , ( c ) t h e r o l e o f t h e s o c i a l agency, (d) t h e n a t u r e o f t h e c l i e n t - s o c i a l worker r e l a t i o n s h i p , and (e) the p a r t p l a y e d by the j u v e n i l e c o u r t . P a r e n t a l s t r e n g t h s are r a t e d on t h e b a s i s of o b j e c t i v e and s u b j e c t i v e c r i t e r i a , developed from c o n c e p t s pertinent to social diagnosis. The s t u d y b r i n g s out t h e need f o r d e f i n i t i v e c r i t e r i a on which t o r a t e p a r e n t a l adequacy, i n o r d e r t h a t t h e grave d e c i s i o n t o s e p a r a t e the c h i l d from h i s p a r e n t s may he made w i t h t h e g r e a t e s t p o s s i b l e a c c u r a c y i n d i a g n o s i s . There i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r s o c i a l workers t o d e f i n e the type o f n e g l e c t which embraces p s y c h o l o g i c a l as w e l l as p h y s i c a l f a c t o r s , and t o i n t e r p r e t t h i s d e f i n i t i o n t o t h e l a r g e r community f o r incorporation into legislation. Changing t r e n d s i n c h i l d p r o t e c t i o n t h e o r i e s s h o u l d be made known t o t h e judges o f the j u v e n i l e c o u r t i n order t h a t the s o c i o - l e g a l process i s conducted t o t h e b e s t advantage o f b o t h p a r e n t s and c h i l d r e n . The s o c i a l agency must m a i n t a i n c o n t a c t w i t h n a t u r a l p a r e n t s a f t e r t h e removal o f t h e i r c h i l d r e n , as i t has been shown t h a t change c a n take p l a c e i n p a r e n t a l c a p a c i t y , o r p a r e n t a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s such as r e m a r r i a g e . T h i s i s an a r e a c l e a r l y worthy o f f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h .  V  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I wish t o convey my s i n c e r e a p p r e c i a t i o n t o Mr. E d . L . C o u g h l i n , A d m i n i s t r a t o r , S o c i a l S e r v i c e Buraaby,  Department,  f o r h i s k i n d n e s s i n making a v a i l a b l e the case r e c o r d s  used i n t h i s s t u d y , and t o Mr. W i l f . Rasmussen f o r h i s time and d i r e c t i o n i n t h i s r e g a r d .  I n the d i r e c t p r e p a r a t i o n o f  t h i s t h e s i s , I g r a t e f u l l y acknowledge t h e i n t e r e s t and guidance o f Dr. Leonard C. Marsh and Mr. Douglas Fowler o f the F a c u l t y o f t h e S c h o o l o f S o c i a l Work, U n i v e r s i t y o f British  Columbia.  THE RETURN OF GUARDIANSHIP TO NATURAL PARENTS  CHAPTER I THE  CONCEPT OP One  GUARDIANSHIP IN CHILD PROTECTION  b a s i c premise  t h a t the c h i l d has  i n c h i l d p r o t e c t i o n work today i s  a r i g h t t o h i s own  p a r e n t s , and t h a t t h e s e  p a r e n t s have a r i g h t t o a s s i s t a n c e from the l a r g e r community i f t h e y cannot  f o r any r e a s o n meet the needs o f the  L e g i s l a t i o n has been d e v i s e d t o s a f e g u a r d the c h i l d p a r e n t a l abuse, a t the same time p r o t e c t i n g the  child. from  guardianship  o f p a r e n t s by a l l o w i n g them due h e a r i n g under the law  and  p r o v i d i n g a r e c o u r s e f o r the l e g a l r e t u r n o f g u a r d i a n s h i p under improved c i r c u m s t a n c e s .  A major r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t  c h i l d p r o t e c t i o n i n Canada d e s c r i b e s the i n t e n t o f the  on legi-  s l a t i o n as f o l l o w s : I t d e n i e s p a r e n t a l r i g h t s o n l y when a l l e f f o r t s t o salvage the f a m i l y as a u n i t have f a i l e d , and i t r e s p e c t s the i n h e r e n t d i g n i t y and worth o f the p a r e n t as a p e r s o n b e f o r e , d u r i n g and a f t e r removing g u a r d i a n ship . 1 The  i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r s o c i a l work i n p r e s e r v i n g the r i g h t s o f  1 Canadian W e l f a r e C o u n c i l , C h i l d P r o t e c t i o n i n Canada, Ottawa 1 9 5 4 , R e p r i n t e d 1 9 5 8 , p . 3 1 .  2 p a r e n t s and c h i l d r e n are m a n i f o l d .  The b a s i c p r i n c i p l e s o f  s o c i a l work e n u n c i a t e t h e b e l i e f i n the worth o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l , h i s a b i l i t y t o change and grow i n m a t u r i t y , and h i s r i g h t t o be h e l p e d b y t h e l a r g e r community t o achieve h i s p o t e n t i a l .  The  p r e s e r v a t i o n o f t h e f a m i l y u n i t as the medium f o r t h e psychos o c i a l development o f the e h i l d i s an i n t e g r a l casework function.  Some o f t h e i s s u e s r e v o l v e around the l e n g t h o f  time a c h i l d s h o u l d remain i n a s i t u a t i o n which may be p h y s i c a l l y and e m o t i o n a l l y damaging, even though the p a r e n t s may  show some p o t e n t i a l f o r change.  C o n f l i c t may e x i s t between  the r i g h t s o f c h i l d r e n , t h e r i g h t s o f t h e i r p a r e n t s and t h e r i g h t s o f t h e community i n which t h e y l i v e ,  and s o c i a l work  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s one o f k e e p i n g these i n balance and p e r spective . The R i g h t s o f P a r e n t s P a r e n t s throughout  t h e ages have been c o n s i d e r e d t h e  n a t u r a l g u a r d i a n s o f the c h i l d r e n b o r n t o them.  The concept  o f g u a r d i a n s h i p has e v o l v e d through the c e n t u r i e s , k e e p i n g pace w i t h s o c i e t a l m o d i f i c a t i o n i n v a l u e s and a t t i t u d e s c o n c e r n i n g t h e needs o f c h i l d r e n . Under t h e E n g l i s h Common Law, from which Canadian and American p r e s e n t - d a y  l e g i s l a t i o n i s patterned, the f a t h e r  had complete c u s t o d y and c o n t r o l over h i s c h i l d r e n , w h i l e the mother c o u l d c l a i m no r i g h t s on t h e i r b e h a l f .  T h i s Law  deemed t h a t t h e f a t h e r must g i v e h i s c h i l d r e n some measure o f  3  p r o t e c t i o n and t r a i n i n g , b u t u n t i l t h e Poor Law was passed i n the e a r l y seventeenth support.  c e n t u r y , he was n o t l i a b l e f o r t h e i r  When these Laws were brought over t o N o r t h  America  by t h e e a r l y s e t t l e r s , t h e power o f the f a t h e r was s t i l l absolute.  G r a d u a l l y , due t o the m o t i l i t y o f t h e p i o n e e r s , and  the more predominant r o l e the women and mothers had t o assume i n a s s i s t i n g t o c a r v e out a l i v i n g i n t h e new l a n d , a note o f p a r t n e r s h i p began t o creep i n t o t h e i d e a o f c h i l d c a r e and control.  L e g i s l a t i o n has r e f l e c t e d these changing  attitudes.  W i t h i n t h i s t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y , i n b o t h t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and Canada, s t a t u t e s have been p a s s e d which g i v e p a r e n t s  joint  g u a r d i a n s h i p o f t h e i r minor c h i l d r e n . W i t h i n t h e l a s t t h r e e decades, a major t r e n d i n thought  has f u r t h e r i n f l u e n c e d the concept  of parental r i g h t s .  The use o f t h e p s y c h o a n a l y t i c a l approach, which has had a profound  impact  on t h e f o r m u l a t i o n o f s o c i a l work p r i n c i p l e s  i n c h i l d c a r e , emphasizes t h e e f f e c t o f e a r l y e x p e r i e n c e s on the d e v e l o p i n g p e r s o n a l i t y .  S t u d i e s conducted  by t h e World  H e a l t h O r g a n i z a t i o n s i n c e t h e l a s t World War have p o i n t e d out the dangers t o p h y s i c a l and mental h e a l t h when the i n f a n t o r young c h i l d i s d e p r i v e d o f a c o n s i s t e n t and l o v i n g mother  2 figure.  The s o c i o l o g i c a l concept  o f r o l e performance as a  means o f a n a l y s i s o f s o c i e t a l f u n c t i o n i n g , p u r p o r t s t h a t r o l e s 2 Bowlby, John, M a t e r n a l Care and Mental H e a l t h . P a l a i s des N a t i o n s , Geneva, World H e a l t h O r g a n i z a t i o n Monograph S e r i e s , 1952.  4 must be f i r s t  l e a r n e d by c l o s e a s s o c i a t i o n with, and  v a t i o n o f one  trusted figure.  These t h e o r i e s and.  s t r e s s the m o t h e r - r o l e as the predominant one The  obser-  studies  i n child-rearing.  f a t h e r i s s a i d to assume a secondary p o s i t i o n i n the  life  o f h i s c h i l d r e n , p r o v i d i n g economic and  t o the mother, so t h a t she may obligation.  S o e i a l and  early  emotional support  b e t t e r f u l f i l the  economic n e c e s s i t i e s and  primary the  structure  o f community l i f e keep the f a t h e r away from the home and  out  of contact  day.  w i t h h i s c h i l d r e n f o r the  These g r a d u a l  and  tendency o f the in  g r e a t e r p a r t o f the  s u b t l e changes are a g a i n r e f l e c t e d i n the  c o u r t s of law t o award custody t o the mother  cases of d i s p u t e , unless  she has  v i o l a t i o n o f the moral code. c h i l d i s the prime  been g u i l t y o f a  In a l l cases,  the w e l f a r e  The  two  j o i n t r i g h t s o f p a r e n t s are those o f "custody"  " c o n t r o l " of t h e i r c h i l d r e n .  I n r e t u r n , t h e y are m o r a l l y  l e g a l l y bound t o p r o t e c t , m a i n t a i n and t h i s , t h e y must a p p l y  l a r g e r community.  educate them.  a degree o f d i s c i p l i n e  commensurate t o the needs o f the  d u t i e s f o r any  the  concept o f r i g h t s  c a r r i e s the r e c i p r o c a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f d u t i e s .  the  of  consideration.  I n a democratic s o c i e t y , the  b a s i c and  serious  c h i l d and  To  and and do  and. c o r r e c t i o n ,  t o the v a l u e s  I f p a r e n t s are unable t o e x e r c i s e  of these  reason, e i t h e r environmental or p s y c h o l o g i c a l ,  3 K i b b l e , Margaret A., M.D., Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , New  The R i g h t s o f I n f a n t s . York, 1953» P* 101.  5 t h e y have a r i g h t , through  the democratic  i d e a l , t o he p r o -  v i d e d w i t h a measure o f a s s i s t a n c e from the s t a t e .  This  p r i n c i p l e i s the b a s i s o f f a m i l y - c e n t r e d , casework. The  s t a t e does n o t tamper w i t h the r i g h t s o f p a r e n t s ,  except when the w e l f a r e o f the c h i l d i s s e r i o u s l y  threatened  and when a l l p r o f e s s i o n a l e f f o r t s t o keep t h e f a m i l y t o g e t h e r have f a i l e d .  Removal o f g u a r d i a n s h i p c a n o n l y take p l a c e  through due p r o c e s s o f law. The R i g h t s o f C h i l d r e n The  c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e c h i l d as an i n d i v i d u a l i s  a recent concept.  The D e c l a r a t i o n o f the R i g h t s o f t h e C h i l d  was drawn up i n 1924 and adopted by the League o f N a t i o n s as a universal ideal —  t o meet the b a s i c needs o f a c h i l d ,  r e g a r d l e s s o f r a c e , n a t i o n a l i t y o r c r e e d , and t o p r o t e c t the c h i l d from e x p l o i t a t i o n .  I n N o r t h America, t h e r i g h t s o f t h e  c h i l d , were f i r s t d e f i n e d as such i n t h e C h i l d r e n ' s C h a r t e r , 4 drawn up i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s White House Conference  of  1930.  Canadian t r e n d s i n c h i l d c a r e have l a r g e l y p a t t e r n e d thems e l v e s on those o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . c o u n t r i e s a t t e n d the nation-wide  Delegates  conferences  from b o t h  on c h i l d r e n , and  most o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e u s e d s e t t i n g out the p r i n c i p l e s o f good c h i l d c a r e f o r our Canadian a g e n c i e s o r i g i n a t e s from the U n i t e d 4 White House Conference on C h i l d H e a l t h and P r o t e c t i o n , c a l l e d i n 1930 by P r e s i d e n t Hoover, The Century Co., New York, 1931.  6  S t a t e s , although, many Canadian a u t h o r s c o n t r i b u t e . The  t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y has seen major changes i n a l l  a s p e c t s o f c h i l d c a r e , w i t h a r e c e n t t r e n d towards z a t i o n and i n d i v i d u a l i z e d t r e a t m e n t .  speciali-  The u n i v e r s a l p h i l o s o p h y  u n d e r l y i n g t h e r i g h t s o f c h i l d r e n has been b u i l t on b o t h e m o t i o n a l and r a t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e s .  The h u m a n i t a r i a n  i s one o f t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f t h e weak and h e l p l e s s .  impulse The  r a t i o n a l approach p r e s e n t s an awareness t h a t , f o r s e l f p e r p e t u a t i o n , s o c i e t y must depend on the c a l i b r e o f i t s progeny.  O p p o r t u n i t i e s must he c r e a t e d f o r t h e c h i l d r e n t o  grow and d e v e l o p  t o the f u l l e s t p o t e n t i a l , i n order t h a t they  may take t h e i r p l a c e s as f u t u r e r e s p o n s i b l e c i t i z e n s t o c a r r y on t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s o f s o c i e t y .  From t h i s p h i l o s o p h y stems  the d o c t r i n e o f "parens p a t r i a e " which r e c o g n i z e s t h e superi o r i t y of the s t a t e over the r i g h t s o f p a r e n t s . The  F i r s t White House Conference  on c h i l d r e n was  c a l l e d by P r e s i d e n t Theodore R o o s e v e l t i n 1909• at t h a t time was w i t h t h e dependent c h i l d .  The c o n c e r n  The most  striking  recommendation made was t h a t t h e c h i l d was n o t t o be removed from h i s own home f o r reasons  o f p o v e r t y a l o n e , and t h a t a  C h i l d r e n ' s Bureau s h o u l d be s e t up under F e d e r a l Government 5  a u s p i c e s t o study t h e dependency problems o f c h i l d r e n . * ^ There was a l s o a b e g i n n i n g r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t f o s t e r homes 5 P r o c e e d i n g s o f the M i d c e n t u r y White House Conference on C h i l d r e n and Youth, H e a l t h P u b l i c a t i o n s I n s t i t u t e , R a l e i g h , N.C., 1951.  7 s h o u l d he used i n p l a c e o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n o r orphanage. The  second White House Conference took p l a c e a t the  r e q u e s t o f P r e s i d e n t Woodrow W i l s o n i n 1919, f o l l o w i n g t h e F i r s t World War.  The scope was a "broader one, t a k i n g i n t h e  s p e c i f i c problems  o f c h i l d h e a l t h and l a b o u r , the h e a l t h o f  mothers,  s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n o f laws p e r t a i n i n g t o c h i l d r e n  throughout the v a r i o u s s t a t e s , and a c o n c e r n w i t h s t a n d a r d s of c h i l d w e l f a r e g e n e r a l l y .  As the C h i l d r e n ' s Bureau had  been i n o p e r a t i o n f o r seven y e a r s , t h i s c o n f e r e n c e was e n a b l e d t o be more s p e c i f i c i n theme through t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n from a l l the S t a t e s o f d e l e g a t e s who were a l s o members o f the Bureau, and i n c l o s e c o n t a c t w i t h t h e problems  involved.  The Conference o f 1930, t h i s time under H e r b e r t Hoover, was much more g e n e r a l i n scope.  President The theme  was e n l a r g e d t o i n c l u d e a l l c h i l d r e n , n o t m e r e l y the ones i n need o f p r o t e c t i o n , o r o f s p e c i a l c a r e .  Dr. Ray Lyman W i l b u r ,  i n h i s c a p a c i t y as chairman o f t h e c o n f e r e n c e , d e s c r i b e d the i n t e n t as f o l l o w s :  " t o g e t a composite p i c t u r e o f t h i s com-  p l e x American c h i l d , t o f i n d out how he r a t e s p h y s i c a l l y , m e n t a l l y , m o r a l l y , what o u r r a p i d l y c h a n g i n g c i v i l i z a t i o n i s d o i n g t o make o r mar him, t o determine where our s o c i a l , e d u c a t i o n a l , and governmental machinery i s a t f a u l t i n t r a i n i n g him t o h i s utmost  c a p a c i t i e s , and where i t may be  6 P r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e M i d c e n t u r y White House Conference on C h i l d r e n and Youth.  8 s t r e n g t h e n e d , was one  a c h a l l e n g i n g task"."*  7  The  challenge  o f s t u d y and r e s e a r c h , and the i n f e r e n c e was  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the t a s k .  one  was  of state  However, t h e s e were the  times  o f d e p r e s s i o n , and p r e s s i n g and immediate problems o f economy and war two  o c c u p i e d the e n e r g i e s o f the government f o r the next  decades. I n 1950,  House Conference  P r e s i d e n t Truman c a l l e d the f o u r t h White on C h i l d r e n and Youth.  I n h i s opening  a d d r e s s , he e x p r e s s e d the r a t i o n a l i n t e n t : "we  must bend e v e r y  e f f o r t toward p r o d u c i n g i n f u t u r e g e n e r a t i o n s more i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h the m a t u r i t y and s t a b i l i t y i t t a k e s t o meet and d e a l w i t h  8 difficult  s i t u a t i o n s , and w i t h new  T h i s meeting  and p e r p l e x i n g problems."  brought t o g e t h e r p r o f e s s i o n a l people  w i t h e v e r y phase o f c h i l d c a r e .  The  connected  c e n t r a l theme was  the  i n d i v i d u a l i z a t i o n o f the c h i l d , and the v i t a l p a r t the f a m i l y p l a y s i n h i s h e a l t h y p e r s o n a l i t y development.  Community  p l a n n i n g and s e r v i c e s t o a s s i s t the f a m i l y i n t h i s t a s k were d i s c u s s e d i n a t l e a s t t h r e e o f the major p a p e r s .  I n the  Q "Pledge t o C h i l d r e n " d i f f e r e n t wording  7  the c o n f e r e n c e d e l e g a t e s r e - a f f i r m e d i n  and expanded c o n t e n t , the r i g h t s as s e t  down i n the C h a r t e r o f 1930.  B a s i c a l l y , each c h i l d " r e g a r d l e s s  7 W i l b u r , Hay Lyman, Foreword, The White House  1250.  Conference  8 Truman, H a r r y S., Opening A d d r e s s , P r o c e e d i n g s o f the M i d c e n t u r y White House Conference on C h i l d r e n and Youth 1950. 9 Pledge  o f C h i l d r e n , i b i d . , p.  28.  9 of  r a c e , o r c o l o r , o r s i t u a t i o n " " ^ has  from danger, p h y s i c a l and m o r a l .  a right to protection  He has  a r i g h t to  spiritual,  moral and academic t r a i n i n g , and the o p p o r t u n i t y f o r a c h i e v e ment a c c o r d i n g t o h i s i n d i v i d u a l a b i l i t i e s .  He has  good h e a l t h , b e g i n n i n g w i t h p r e - n a t a l c a r e , and home w i t h a good s t a n d a r d of l i v i n g . community i n t e r e s t and has  and d i s c i p l i n e him,  two p a r e n t s who  and h e l p him  w i t h a sense o f p e r s o n a l worth. for  to a  secure  He has a r i g h t t o  action i n h i s welfare.  a r i g h t to a f a m i l y —  a r i g h t to  Above a l l , he  w i l l love,  guide  t o become a r e s p o n s i b l e a d u l t I f h i s n a t u r a l f a m i l y cannot  any r e a s o n p r o v i d e f o r h i s needs, h i s l a r g e r  must s t e p i n , e i t h e r t o p r o v i d e the f a m i l y w i t h  community resources  which w i l l enable them t o f u n c t i o n as a u n i t once more, o r to r e c o g n i z e p r o f e s s i o n a l l y t h a t a s e p a r a t i o n must take p l a c e . Even though g u a r d i a n s h i p has been removed f r o m h i s p a r e n t s , the c h i l d has a r i g h t t o have community s e r v i c e s p r o v i d e d t o them, t o b u i l d on any  s t r e n g t h s t h a t may  again r e s u l t i n a  re-united family. The  concept  of g u a r d i a n s h i p t h e r e f o r e , i m p l i e s  p a r e n t a l r i g h t s and d u t i e s , so f a r as these are used benef i c i a l l y t o meet the needs o f t h e i r c h i l d r e n . Byrd T a y l o r p o i n t s out t h a t "throughout  Hasseltine  the h i s t o r y o f  g u a r d i a n s h i p , the w e l f a r e o f the c h i l d has been more and more  p.  10 The 45.  C h i l d r e n ' s C h a r t e r , White House Conference  1930%  10 c l e a r l y perceived  t o be  the paramount i s s u e .  While the  law  has  e n l a r g e d the mother's r i g h t s , the r i g h t s o f b o t h p a r e n t s  are  s u b o r d i n a t e t o the b e s t  a u t h o r i t y o f the  s t a t e now  the p a r e n t s , and  the  i n law The  and  i n t e r e s t o f the  Ps-aily and  overshadows the n a t u r a l r i g h t s o f  d u t y of the  s t a t e becomes more  the Development o f  Identity  and  the r i g h t s o f p a r e n t s are  T h i s s m a l l group c o n s i s t i n g o f p a r e n t s and  and  c h i l d r e n , which  Psychologically,  secure base from which the  d e v e l o p a growing awareness o f h i m s e l f newborn i n f a n t has no  p r i m i t i v e sensations perception  or discomfort.  confines  i n f a n t d e v e l o p s a body ego, o f h i s body.  can  as an i n d i v i d u a l .  d e v e l o p s a l o n g w i t h the m a t u r i n g  system, the  the  child  conception of s e l f , aside  of pleasure  nuclear  among them p r o t e c t i o n ,  emotional f u l f i l m e n t .  f a m i l y p r o v i d e s the  the  maintained.  been termed by N o r t h American s o c i o l o g i s t s the  f a m i l y , performs many f u n c t i o n s ,  The  evident  f a m i l y i s the m i l i e u i n which the needs o f  c h i l d r e n are met  teaching  The  s o c i a l practice"."'*''"  The  has  child.  As  from sensory  neurological  or a r e a l i z a t i o n of  Modern t h e o r i e s o f  development s t a t e t h a t the type of .handling  personality  the  child  receives  a t t h i s stage w i l l i n f l u e n c e h i s f e e l i n g s about h i m s e l f . he  grows o l d e r , i f he  As  i s a l l o w e d t o e x p l o r e and make m i s t a k e s  11 T a y l o r , H a s s e l t i n e Byrd, Law of Guardian and Ward. U n i v e r s i t y o f Chicago P r e s s , Chicago, 1935, PP« 25-26.  11  w i t h the  support  l i m i t s and dards and  of l o v i n g , guiding parents  who  g o a l s , he w i l l g r a d u a l l y i n c o r p o r a t e c o n t r o l s i n t o h i s own  beyond the f a m i l y c i r c l e i n a d o l e s c e n c e , he of home and  their  stan-  When he moves out  i n t o h i s p e e r group, and  particularly  can r e t r e a t back i n t o the f a m i l i a r s e t t i n g  c h i l d h o o d while  The  values.  set r e a l i s t i c  f a m i l y has  l e a r n i n g t o be  an  adult.  a major p a r t t o p l a y i n s h a p i n g the  f u t u r e s t a b i l i t y o f the c h i l d .  Through p a r e n t a l example,  c h i l d i s g u i d e d t h r o u g h the d i f f i c u l t p e r i o d s o f s e x u a l flict,  and  allowed  t o assume h i s p r o p e r s e x u a l  as a c h i l d , and  w e l l - d e f i n e d , and  con-  identification,  which i s v i t a l t o normal f u n c t i o n i n g as an a d u l t . r o l e s are r e a s o n a b l y  the  If familial  i f the c h i l d i s  a l s o as a p e r s o n a l i t y t h a t i s unique  accepted  and  important as a human b e i n g , he w i l l develop a sense o f i d e n t i t y and p e r s o n a l  worth as a s o c i a l b e i n g .  Acceptance  s e l f i s a p r e - r e q u i s i t e t o acceptance o f o t h e r s , and p e r s o n a l i t y g r o p i n g f o r i t s own  a  i d e n t i t y w i l l be unable t o  form r e l a t i o n s h i p s which can g i v e p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y as w e l l receive.  I n c o n s i d e r i n g the f u n c t i o n s o f the f a m i l y ,  c u r r e n t w r i t e r s s t a t e , "The goal of childhood  of  as  two  development o f i d e n t i t y i s the  s o c i a l i z a t i o n and  c r i t e r i o n f o r the e v a l u a t i o n of the  t h e r e f o r e i s the family".  primary  12  1 2 M e i s e l s , Joseph F. and Loeb, M a r t i n , B., "Unanswered Q u e s t i o n s about F o s t e r Care," E l i z a b e t h McCormlck Memorial Fund, P r o c e e d i n g s on the Conference on R e s e a r c h i n the C h i l d r e n ' s F i e l d . N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n o f S o c i a l Workers, New York, 1 9 5 6 , p. 9 .  12 Legal D e f i n i t i o n of Guardianship i n B r i t i s h Columbia Statutes J u s t i c e Coady, i n a judgment d e l i v e r e d i n the Supreme Court of B r i t i s h Columbia i n 1944,  states that he can  f i n d no l e g a l d e f i n i t i o n of guardianship i n B r i t i s h Columbia statutes r e l a t i n g to c h i l d w e l f a r e . ^ 1  In a study prepared by  the Community Chest and Council of Greater Vancouver i n 1947, i t was found that the term "guardianship" was used with varying i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i n each of nine acts r e l a t i n g to 14  c h i l d r e n i n B r i t i s h Columbia.  The P r o t e c t i o n of Children  Act states i n Section 8(12) "the Superintendent s h a l l receive the c h i l d i n t o h i s custody, and i s thereupon the l e g a l 15 guardian of the c h i l d " .  y  No d e f i n i t i o n f o l l o w s .  The inference  i s drawn that a l l parental powers w i l l cease and the r i g h t s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of the parent w i l l he vested i n the Superintendent of C h i l d Welfare. l i m i t i n g than parenthood  Legal guardianship i s more  i n that the new  guardian cannot  alter  the previous r e l i g i o n of the c h i l d , nor l a y claim to any monies i n h i s name, nor consent to adoption of the c h i l d . The p r o v i s i o n s f o r termination of l e g a l guardianship are c l e a r l y defined i n section 10(1) of the P r o t e c t i o n of 13 Western Weekly Reports. Volume 2, C i t a t i o n 60, B. C. Report 352, Burroughs and Company Limited, Law Publishers, Calgary, 1944. 14 Community Chest and Council of Greater Vancouver, C h i l d Welfare L e g i s l a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia, p r i n t e d p r i v a t e l y Vancouver, B. C. Revised 1947• 15 P r o t e c t i o n of Children Act, P r o v i n c i a l Statutes of B r i t i s h Columbia, R.S. 1948, c. 47, s. 1, Queen's P r i n t e r , V i c t o r i a , B. C , Section 8(12).  13 Children Act as follows:  "The s o c i e t y to the care of which  any c h i l d i s committed under t h i s Act i s r e l i e v e d of that guardianship  by order of the Judge or by the f a c t that the  c h i l d has reached the age of twenty-one, or, i f a female, i s married."""*^ The P r o t e c t i o n of Children Act, R.S. 1948, B r i t i s h Columbia The f i r s t piece of l e g i s l a t i o n designed f o r the p r o t e c t i o n of c h i l d r e n i n B r i t i s h Columbia came i n t o being i n 1 9 0 1 , when a group of c i t i z e n s p e t i t i o n e d the government on behalf of a young c h i l d who was being maltreated drunken mother.  by her  At the same time, t h i s group of c i t i z e n s was 17  incorporated i n t o the Children's A i d Society. '  In 1911, the  Infants' Act was passed, which incorporated the previous statute, as well as made p r o v i s i o n f o r contracts, and agreements i n the names of i n f a n t s .  This amalgamated  piece of l e g i s l a t i o n proved too unwieldly, P r o t e c t i o n of Children Act was passed.  settlements  and i n 1943 a new  In 1948, t h i s was  revised to include several amendments, and now stands i n the  18 statute books i n t h i s form. 16 P r o t e c t i o n of Children Act, Section 10(1). 17 Angus, Anne Margaret, Children's A i d Society of Vancouver, B. C , 1901-1951•. A F i f t i e t h Anniversary P u b l i c a t i o n , Vancouver, p. 5. 18 P r o t e c t i o n of Children Act.  14 Up Columbia was and  1927»  to  the work o f p r o t e c t i o n i n B r i t i s h  c a r r i e d on by two  Children's Aid S o c i e t i e s ^ 1  the S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f N e g l e c t e d C h i l d r e n as the  representative.  S e r v i c e s were meagre, p a r t i c u l a r l y t o  more remote p r o v i n c i a l a r e a s , began t o r e q u e s t vital  role.  government  t h a t the  and  the  two  p r i v a t e agencies  government take a more d i r e c t  s t a r t e d i n 1927.  It i s significant  t o note t h a t t h i s i s the o n l y c h i l d w e l f a r e  survey t h a t  been c a r r i e d out t o encompass the t o t a l program o f t o c h i l d r e n throughout B r i t i s h Columbia.  The  s t a f f f o r the C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y , and home r a t h e r t h a n i n s t i t u t i o n a l c a r e .  main recommend-  and h e r by the  child of  the n e c e s s a r y p r i o r i t y o f measures d e a l i n g w i t h  relief. In  the  However, recommendations  program were h e l d up because o f the d e p r e s s i o n  economic  executive  a program o f f o s t e r  more s p e c i f i c governmental p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the  the 193Cs and  has  services  a t i o n s of t h i s s u r v e y l e d t o a h i r i n g o f p r o f e s s i o n a l  welfare  and  T h i s a c t i o n l e d t o the B r i t i s h Columbia C h i l d  Welfare Survey, which was  for  the  1935t  the S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f N e g l e c t e d  Children  s m a l l hand o f f i e l d workers were f o r m a l l y e s t a b l i s h e d government as the  C h i l d Welfare D i v i s i o n , and  given  s t a t u s o f a department i n the P r o v i n c i a l S o c i a l Welfare  Branch i n V i c t o r i a .  The  head o f t h i s d i v i s i o n became known  19 The C a t h o l i c C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y was B r i t i s h Columbia i n 1905.  incorporated  in  15 as the S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f C h i l d W e l f a r e , who c o n t i n u e d  to pro-  v i d e d i r e c t i o n and s u p e r v i s i o n t o h e r s t a f f o f workers i n t h e i r e f f o r t s t o provide  s e r v i c e s throughout the p r o v i n c e .  J u r i s d i c t i o n a l b o u n d a r i e s d i d n o t e x i s t f o r the C h i l d r e n ' s Aid. S o c i e t i e s , r e s u l t i n g i n u n s a t i s f a c t o r y r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the p r i v a t e and government p o l i c i e s and a c o n f u s i o n i n s e r v i c e s t o the c h i l d r e n .  The new A c t o f 1943 p r o v i d e d  f o r the l e g a l  appointment o f a S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f C h i l d W e l f a r e , the i n c o r p o r a t i o n o f c h i l d r e n ' s a i d s o c i e t i e s , and a p r o v i s i o n f o r these l a t t e r t o d e f i n e t h e i r own b o u n d a r i e s . a l s o made i n t h e p r e s e n t  act f o r interchange  P r o v i s i o n was of  guardianship  between the S u p e r i n t e n d e n t and t h e S o c i e t i e s , t o c o v e r o f c h i l d r e n moving t o and from p r o v i n c i a l and urban  instances  areas.  P r e s e n t l y i n B r i t i s h Columbia, t h e r e a r e t h r e e c h i l d r e n ' s a i d 20 societies,  whose g e o g r a p h i c a l  s e r v i c e s are w e l l - d e f i n e d . has  b o u n d a r i e s as w e l l as a v a i l a b l e  The S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f C h i l d Welfare  j u r i s d i c t i o n i n a l l matters p e r t a i n i n g t o c h i l d r e n i n the  remaining areas of the p r o v i n c e . The  P r o t e c t i o n of Children Act recognizes  as an i n d i v i d u a l whose w e l f a r e t e c t i f the n a t u r a l p a r e n t s  the s t a t e i s o b l i g e d t o p r o -  a r e unable o r i n c a p a b l e o f  assuming t h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . parents  the c h i l d  The A c t p r o t e c t s t h e r i g h t s o f  as w e l l as the r i g h t s o f c h i l d r e n , by a l l o w i n g the  20 C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y o f Vancouver, B. C ; C a t h o l i c C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y , Vancouver, B. C ; F a m i l y and C h i l d r e n ' s S e r v i c e , V i c t o r i a , B. C.  16 p a r e n t s t o r e t u r n t o c o u r t under S e c t i o n 11 t o p e t i t i o n f o r the r e t u r n o f t h e i r c h i l d .  A higher  a u t h o r i t y i s made  a v a i l a b l e under S e c t i o n 18, which s t a t e s t h a t t h e L i e u t e n a n t Governor i n C o u n c i l may a t any time d i s c h a r g e  a child,  pro-  v i d i n g a r e p o r t i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e c h i l d i s p r o c u r e d from t h e Superintendent o r the s o c i e t y h o l d i n g provides  guardianship.  a measure o f a p p e a l f o r t h e p a r e n t s .  This  The A c t i s i n  no way p u n i t i v e , n o r d e s i g n e d t o i n v o l v e the p a r e n t s i n a c r i m i n a l charge.  Prevention  i s recognized  as w e l l as  protection.  The i n t e r p r e t a t i o n f o r a c h i l d r e n ' s a i d s o c i e t y  i s declared  as "one t h a t has among i t s o b j e c t s t h e p r o t e c t i o n  o f c h i l d r e n f r o m c r u e l t y , the s a f e g u a r d i n g  o f the young, t h e  amelioration of f a m i l y conditions that lead t o the neglect o f c h i l d r e n , o r t h e care  and c o n t r o l o f c h i l d r e n i n need o f  21 protection".  I n s e c t i o n 8, ( r e f e r r i n g t o t h e power o f t h e  judge t o make o r d e r s ) he may do one o f t h r e e the  c h i l d t o t h e care  things:  commit  and c u s t o d y o f a c h i l d r e n ' s a i d s o c i e t y  or t h e S u p e r i n t e n d e n t , r e t u r n t h e c h i l d t o h i s p a r e n t s , o r r e t u r n t h e c h i l d t o h i s p a r e n t s under s u p e r v i s i o n o f a c h i l d r e n ' s a i d s o c i e t y o r the Superintendent.  The i n t e n t  here i s t h a t a c h i l d must n o t be removed from h i s own home i f t h e p a r e n t s c a n be h e l p e d t o care f o r him. S e c t i o n 7 s p e c i f i e s the p e r s o n s who are a u t h o r i z e d t o apprehend c h i l d r e n and b r i n g them b e f o r e  21 P r o t e c t i o n o f C h i l d r e n A c t , S e c t i o n 2.  a judge as n e e d i n g  17 protection.  These p e r s o n s a r e t h e S u p e r i n t e n d e n t  or her  a u t h o r i z e d d e l e g a t e s , p o l i c e and p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r s . types  The  o f c h i l d r e n who may be apprehended are a l s o d e s c r i b e d  i n t h i s s e c t i o n , which i n essence d e f i n e s n e g l e c t under t h e meaning o f t h i s A c t .  The s o c i a l work r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s one  o f p r e s e n t i n g t h e type o f evidence  t o t h e c o u r t which w i l l  prove t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a s p e c i f i c n e g l e c t s i t u a t i o n as d e s c r i b e d i n the Act.  R e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the parents  n i z e d , even though g u a r d i a n s h i p  i s recog-  i s removed, by t h e p r o v i s i o n  under S e c t i o n 32 f o r an o r d e r o f maintenance a g a i n s t them f o r the support  of the c h i l d .  the p a r e n t s m a i n t a i n  I n many c a s e s , t h i s o r d e r c a n h e l p  a measure o f s e l f - r e s p e c t , and can be  used as a s t r e n g t h by the s o c i a l worker i n c o n t i n u i n g  contact  w i t h the f a m i l y . S e c t i o n 11 p r o v i d e s f o r t h e r e t u r n o f t h e c h i l d t o h i s own home, e i t h e r permanently o r t e m p o r a r i l y , e i t h e r under supervision or not,  and e i t h e r on a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e s o c i e t y ,  the S u p e r i n t e n d e n t ,  or the parents.  F i v e c l e a r days' n o t i c e  o f the i n t e n t i o n t o make t h i s a p p l i c a t i o n must be g i v e n t o the S u p e r i n t e n d e n t , The  e i t h e r by t h e s o c i e t y o r t h e p a r e n t s .  judge, i n h i s d i s p o s i t i o n , w i l l c o n s i d e r t h e " b e n e f i t o f  22 the c h i l d " ,  and w i l l u s u a l l y a s k f o r a f u l l r e p o r t f r o m t h e  agency i n v o l v e d w i t h t h e c h i l d and t h e p a r e n t s ,  i n order t o  a s c e r t a i n t h e changes t h a t have taken p l a c e i n the f a m i l y 22 P r o t e c t i o n o f C h i l d r e n A c t . S e c t i o n 11(1)  and 11(2).  18 circumstances to a l t e r the o r i g i n a l s i t u a t i o n of neglect. Usually, the parents are counselled and encouraged by the s o c i a l worker to make the a p p l i c a t i o n t o the court when conditions are appropriate to the return of the c h i l d .  This  a c t i o n serves t o strengthen t h e i r growing sense of responsibility.  However, the Superintendent or the s o c i e t y w i l l  make the p e t i t i o n to the court under s p e c i a l circumstances which may prevent the parent from doing so. The Act i s administered  by the Superintendent of  C h i l d Welfare f o r B r i t i s h Columbia.  She i s responsible to  the minister appointed by the cabinet to have charge of the administration of t h i s Act.  The C h i l d Welfare D i v i s i o n , of  which she i s the department head, i s a part of the p r o v i n c i a l Department of S o c i a l Welfare.  Decentralized authority i n  w r i t i n g t o act i n her name has been delegated to s p e c i f i c and responsible members of the f i e l d s t a f f , i n the matter of apprehension of c h i l d r e n , and the presentation of evidence i n court i n support  of both the actions f o r removal and  r e s t o r a t i o n o f guardianship. Changing Trends i n P r o t e c t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia 1940 - I960 During the 194-0's, a w e l l - i n t e g r a t e d p u b l i c welfare program, of which the C h i l d Welfare D i v i s i o n was a i n t e g r a l p a r t , was evolving i n B r i t i s h Columbia.  Generalized p u b l i c  services were decentralized into r e g i o n a l and f i e l d o f f i c e s throughout the province, with well-defined channels of  19  communication to the d i v i s i o n a l heads i n V i c t o r i a . welfare hecame a part of the generalized  Child  caseloads of  the  p r o v i n c i a l s o c i a l workers, except i n the areas where the children's was  a i d s o c i e t i e s functioned.  The  idea of prevention  incorporated i n t o the S o c i a l Assistance Act of 1945,^  which provided f o r "remedial s e r v i c e s " as well as f i n a n c i a l assistance  to f a m i l i e s i n d i s t r e s s .  The Welfare I n s t i t u t i o n s  04.  Licensing Act  requires  the inspection  homes hoarding more than one F a c i l i t i e s were established  and l i c e n s i n g of  i n f a n t on a private  basis.  i n the C h i l d Guidance C l i n i c f o r  p s y c h i a t r i c diagnosis of c h i l d r e n showing signs of emotional disturbance.  I n s t i t u t i o n a l care had been replaced by  i n d i v i d u a l f o s t e r homes almost e n t i r e l y by 1935,  and by  1948,  i t became apparent that some c h i l d r e n could not t o l e r a t e t h i s type of placement, and the idea of group l i v i n g f a c i l i t i e s f o r these c h i l d r e n who t i e s was  cannot hear the closeness of parental  being considered.  o  During t h i s l a s t decade, the Superintendent expressed increasing concern, i n her annual reports of C h i l d Welfare D i v i s i o n , f o r the q u a l i t y of services c h i l d r e n i n the province.  has the  to  Trends i n p r o t e c t i o n p o l i c i e s have  followed the general pattern f o r the United States and  Canada.  23 S o c i a l Assistance Act, P r o v i n c i a l Statutes of B r i t i s h Columbia, E.S. 1948, C. 310, S . l . ( O r i g i n a l l y enacted 1945). 24 Welfare I n s t i t u t i o n s Licensing Act. P r o v i n c i a l Statutes of B r i t i s h Columbia, R.S. 1948, C. 363, s . l .  20 The  emphasis remains on the c h i l d i n h i s own home, w i t h  case-  work s e r v i c e s o f f e r e d t o b u i l d on e x i s t i n g f a m i l y s t r e n g t h s . I f the c h i l d must be removed, s e r v i c e must c o n t i n u e t o be g i v e n t o t h e p a r e n t s w i t h a view t o e v e n t u a l r e u n i o n .  The  p a r e n t s must n o t be d e s e r t e d o r r e j e c t e d i f t h e c h i l d i s s e p a r a t e d from them.  I n c a s e s where r e u n i o n w i l l n o t be  f e a s i b l e , b o t h the c h i l d and h i s f a m i l y must be p r e p a r e d f o r a long-term  separation.  When i t becomes e v i d e n t t h a t f a m i l y  t i e s c a n no l o n g e r be r e p a i r e d , a d o p t i o n s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d f o r t h e c h i l d , i n o r d e r t h a t he might i d e n t i f y h i m s e l f w i t h a new and s t a b l e f a m i l y t o whom he w i l l l e g a l l y  belong.  There i s i n c r e a s i n g r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t p a r t i c u l a r problems o f c h i l d r e n c a n p r e c i p i t a t e f a m i l y d i s t u r b a n c e , and placement f o r a time combined w i t h s k i l l f u l casework treatment may be the means o f p r e s e r v i n g the f a m i l y u n i t .  In t h i s  latter  i n s t a n c e , t h e r e s o u r c e o f non-ward c a r e may be used t o r e l i e v e p r e s s u r e s on t h e p a r e n t s and the c h i l d .  Non-ward c a r e  i n v o l v e s t h e s e p a r a t i o n o f p a r e n t s and c h i l d , w i t h the complete c o - o p e r a t i o n and consent The  o f t h e p a r e n t t o the p l a n .  c o u r t i s n o t i n v o l v e d , and the p a r e n t r e t a i n s h i s l e g a l  guardianship.  This resource i s a c o n s t r u c t i v e p a r t of the  c h i l d w e l f a r e program i n B r i t i s h Columbia, and can a l s o be used when a p a r e n t i s i n c a p a c i t a t e d t e m p o r a r i l y through  illness  o r o t h e r means, t o s u s t a i n t h e f a m i l y .  The  Superintendent  o f C h i l d Welfare has kept w e l l  a b r e a s t o f t h e s e t r e n d s , and h e r annual r e p o r t s b r i n g out  21 the i n c r e a s i n g need f o r family-centred casework s e r v i c e s , f o r treatment f a c i l i t i e s f o r the disturbed c h i l d , g r o u p - l i v i n g programs f o r adolescent wards who members of a new  are incapable of becoming  family, as well as t r a i n i n g programs and  f a c i l i t i e s f o r the retarded c h i l d .  From 1949,  she expresses  ever-growing concern that pressuring demands on the  field  s t a f f are not allowing s u f f i c i e n t time f o r preventive s e r v i c e s . She arranged f o r the appointment of a F i e l d Consultant  at  t h i s time " i n order that both f i e l d and D i v i s i o n could share more c l o s e l y i n evaluating the standards of preventive work, before we can continue  to f e e l with any c e r t a i n t y that removal  of a c h i l d from h i s home i s i n a l l instances i n h i s best 25 interests".  y  Subsequent reports emphasize the c o n t r i b u t i o n  of inadequate s o c i a l assistance rates to family breakdown, and the importance of providing resources to ease family pressures i n order to maintain parental strengths. she stresses the need f o r more t r a i n e d s t a f f who the necessary time to work based on sound c h i l d principles.  As r i s i n g caseloads  Above a l l ,  can devote welfare  increased the burden on the  f i e l d s t a f f , the S o c i a l Welfare Branch announced a p o l i c y of c u r t a i l i n g preventive service to f a m i l i e s who r e c e i p t of f i n a n c i a l assistance.  were not i n  The numbers of c h i l d r e n  taken i n t o care annually began to increase.  In March I960, 26 the c h i l d r e n i n care i n B r i t i s h Columbia numbered 4,942,  25 McKay, Ruby, Report of the C h i l d Welfare D i v i s i o n , Annual Reports of the S o c i a l Welfare Branch of the Department of Health and Welfare, V i c t o r i a , B. C , 1949, p. 34. 26 I b i d . . I960, p.  36.  22 t r i p l e tlie number i n 1950,  and an increase of 12?  children  over the previous year. In the l a t e f a l l of I960, the Superintendent of C h i l d Welfare submitted her r e s i g n a t i o n to take e f f e c t on December 31»  I960.  Her reasons, which she issued i n a public  statement to the press, were those of i n a b i l i t y to carry out her duties as a p r o f e s s i o n a l person to the c h i l d r e n under her care, due to r e s t r i c t i v e governmental p o l i c i e s . ^  A wave of  p u b l i c protest followed Miss McKay's a c t i o n , and demands were made to the government by p r o f e s s i o n a l and citizens': groups f o r an enquiry i n t o the c h i l d welfare program i n the The  province.  B r i t i s h Columbia A s s o c i a t i o n of S o c i a l Workers, i n a  b r i e f o u t l i n i n g i t s views and recommendations f o r improved s e r v i c e s , points out that " i n the f i s c a l year 1959-1960, as a r e s u l t of i n s u f f i c i e n t s t a f f and i n s u f f i c i e n t t r a i n i n g i n some instances, ventive  services to f a m i l i e s —  and r e h a b i l i t a t i v e service — 28  the caseload time of 100%".  The  the greatest precomprised only 1.9%  government has  of  indicated  that no survey i n t o the c h i l d welfare program w i l l be c a r r i e d out at t h i s time, but they have recognized the need f o r a d d i t i o n a l caseworkers i n the f i e l d and w i l l include i n t h e i r estimates p r o v i s i o n f o r t h i s . 2? McKay, Ruby, Statement i n the Vancouver Sun, D i v i s i o n of P a c i f i c Press, Vancouver, B. C , January 7» 1961. 28 Statement, B. C. A s s o c i a t i o n of S o c i a l Workers, P r i n t e d p r i v a t e l y Vancouver, B. C , February 3» 1961.  23 The S u p e r i n t e n d e n t s t a t e s t h a t the t o t a l o f 258 wards were d i s c h a r g e d i n the f i s c a l y e a r ended March I960.  31,  Out o f t h i s number, 123 were p l a c e d f o r a d o p t i o n and  58 r e t u r n e d t o t h e i r own p a r e n t s under r e s c i n d a l o f c o m m i t t a l . She comments on the d e s i r a b i l i t y o f t h i s t r e n d , and i n d i c a t e s t h a t good c h i l d w e l f a r e p r a c t i c e i s o r i e n t e d t o p r o v i d i n g permanent p a r e n t s f o r e v e r y c h i l d , so t h a t he may know the s e c u r i t y n e c e s s a r y f o r normal development. P r o t e c t i o n o f C h i l d r e n as a S o c i a l Work R e s p o n s i b i l i t y P r o t e c t i o n l e g i s l a t i o n came i n t o b e i n g as a r e s u l t of  community concern f o r i t s c h i l d r e n .  s h o u l d the community  To what r e s o u r c e s  e n t r u s t t h i s c o n c e r n , t h a t i t may he  translated into effective policy?  U n t i l the mid 1 9 3 0 ' s , t h e  p r i m a r y r e a s o n s f o r s e p a r a t i n g c h i l d r e n from t h e i r were those o f economic dependency.  W i t h i n the l a s t  families thirty  y e a r s , when f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e programs and home-maker and day c a r e s e r v i c e s enable p a r e n t s t o c o n t i n u e t h e i r r o l e s , the c i r c u m s t a n c e s under which t r a n s f e r o f g u a r d i a n s h i p becomes n e c e s s a r y have changed.  C h i l d r e n now are t a k e n i n t o c a r e  because t h e i r homes have been broken by p a r e n t a l c o n f l i c t s , or  because the p a r e n t s , f o r r e a s o n s o f t h e i r own  psychological  i n a d e q u a c i e s , a c t out and s u b j e c t the c h i l d t o s e r i o u s forms o f p h y s i c a l n e g l e c t and e m o t i o n a l r e j e c t i o n .  29 McKay, Report o f t h e C h i l d Welfare D i v i s i o n f o r the f i s c a l y e a r ended March 3 1 , I 9 6 0 , p . 3 8 .  24 Current a u t h o r i t i e s i n c h i l d care  speak o f t h e  " p a r e n t a l image", t h e f a n t a s i e d p i c t u r e o f t h e good p a r e n t which t h e c h i l d w i l l c a r r y w i t h h i m t o the d e t r i m e n t o f adjustment i n t h e " b e s t " f o s t e r home.  H e n r i e t t a Gordon t e l l s  us t h a t t h e i n c r e a s i n g l y deeper u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f b e h a v i o u r has h e l p e d us t o t h e " r e - d i s c o v e r y  of parents"  and t o t h e  r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t " c h i l d r e n s e p a r a t e d from t h e i r f a m i l i e s l i v e d  •50 i n one p l a c e  and l o v e d i n a n o t h e r " .  Dorothy H u t c h i s o n s t a t e s  t h a t "knowledge o f p a t h o l o g i c a l b e h a v i o u r and t h e dynamics o f such b e h a v i o u r " —  allows  t h e "knowledgeable p e r s o n t o t e l l  the d i f f e r e n c e between*.paranoid r e j e c t i o n and r e j e c t i o n by  31  discouragement and f r u s t r a t i o n " . - ^ S o c i a l work i s a p r o f e s s i o n d e d i c a t e d  t o the w e l f a r e  of t h e i n d i v i d u a l , w i t h a f i r m b e l i e f i n h i s a b i l i t y t o change and  grow.  Three b a s i c methods a r e committed t o t h i s cause,  the e n a b l i n g organization.  s k i l l s i n casework, group work and community The g o a l o f s o c i a l work i s the improved  social  f u n c t i o n i n g o f the i n d i v i d u a l i n h i s f a m i l y u n i t , i n the context  o f t h e w i d e r environment, so t h a t h e may enhance h i s  own p o t e n t i a l and t h a t o f h i s community.  I n order  to a t t a i n  t h i s g o a l , p r a c t i t i o n e r s i n s o c i a l work have u t i l i z e d two frames o f r e f e r e n c e  i n t h e i r study o f the human p e r s o n a l i t y  30 Gordon, H e n r i e t t a L., Casework S e r v i c e s f o r C h i l d r e n , Houghton M i f f l i n Co., Boston, 1956, P r e f a c e v i i i . 31 H u t c h i s o n , Dorothy, "The Placement Worker and the C h i l d ' s Own P a r e n t s , " S o c i a l Casework, F a m i l y S e r v i c e A s s o c i a t i o n o f America, v o l . XXXV, No. 7, New York, J u l y 1954, p. 294.  25 and t h e dynajaic f o r c e s which mould each human b e i n g in"to h i s own p a t t e r n o f u n i q u e n e s s .  The s o c i o l o g i c a l approach o f r o l e  performance, combined w i t h t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g  of  the i n n e r p s y c h i c f o r c e s , a l l o w s h a r p e r d i a g n o s t i c s k i l l s i n a n a l y z i n g t h e meaning o f b e h a v i o u r and a s s e s s i n g t h e s t r e n g t h s o f the i n d i v i d u a l i n c o p i n g with c u l a r l y during the l a s t  stress situations.  Parti-  t w e n t y - f i v e y e a r s , s o c i a l work has  developed a f u n d o f knowledge and a s c i e n t i f i c method i n treatment o f s o c i a l problems.  T h i s knowledge o f t h e causes o f  b e h a v i o u r and t h e f o r c e s t h a t c a n s t i m u l a t e o r i n h i b i t  per-  s o n a l i t y f u n c t i o n i n g a c c o r d i n g t o the norms and v a l u e s o f t h e l a r g e r community, combined w i t h t h e p h i l o s o p h y  o f t h e worth  o f each i n d i v i d u a l , ensures t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l l y r e s p o n s i b l e h e l p t h e community d e s i r e s f o r i t s c h i l d r e n , and t h e i r The  parents.  r o l e o f t h e community i n p r o t e c t i o n i s t h e  maintenance o f an e n l i g h t e n e d program o f s e r v i c e s through an intellectual  awareness o f t h e problems, and t h e p r o v i s i o n o f  p r o f e s s i o n a l l y t r a i n e d s o c i a l workers t o c a r r y out t h i s program e f f e c t i v e l y as w e l l as e c o n o m i c a l l y .  The program o f  s e r v i c e s i s p u t i n t o e f f e c t through t h e s o c i a l a g e n c i e s . present  At  i n B r i t i s h Columbia t h e r e i s much room f o r an assessment  o f t h e t o t a l p a t t e r n o f s e r v i c e s t o c h i l d r e n , and t h r o u g h a m e a n i n g f u l community o r g a n i z a t i o n system, s t i m u l a t e a g r e a t e r degree o f teamwork between t h e a g e n c i e s agencies  involved.  The s o c i a l  have a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o examine t h e p r o c e d u r e s by  which g u a r d i a n s h i p  can he s a f e g u a r d e d , and what s o c i a l and  26 j u d i c i a l s e r v i c e s are n e c e s s a r y f o r the adequate p r o t e c t i o n of c h i l d r e n .  They s h o u l d he concerned  with s e t t i n g of s t a n -  dards, r e v i s i o n o f l e g i s l a t i v e p o l i c i e s , and a a p p r a i s a l o f the e x i s t i n g  continuous  services.  Nature and Scope o f the Study The p r e s e n t study i s undertaken  as an e x p l o r a t i o n  of a s m a l l s e c t i o n of the g u a r d i a n s h i p problem, i n which g u a r d i a n s h i p i s removed and e v e n t u a l l y r e s t o r e d t o n a t u r a l p a r e n t s by the j u v e n i l e c o u r t .  The  sample f a m i l i e s chosen  r e p r e s e n t the t o t a l e x p e r i e n c e i n t h i s a s p e c t o f c h i l d  welfare  i n the f i l e s of the S o c i a l S e r v i c e Department, Burnaby, B r i t i s h Columbia, f o r the decade 1950  - I960.  T h i s span o f  time i s chosen because r e c o r d s p e r t a i n i n g t o c h i l d r e n i n p u b l i c a g e n c i e s i n B r i t i s h Coltunbia are kept o n l y t e n y e a r s a f t e r c l o s u r e o f the c a s e , and m a t e r i a l p r e v i o u s t o 1950 have been d e s t r o y e d .  (However, s i n c e some o f t h e s e  were apprehended p r i o r t o 1950,  the e x p o s i t i o n of  will  children  changing  t r e n d s i n c h i l d p r o t e c t i o n i n the p r e s e n t c h a p t e r c o v e r s a twenty-year  span.)  i s o n l y seven,  The t o t a l number o f f a m i l i e s thus  i n v o l v i n g 26 c h i l d r e n , but t h e i r  i s assessed f o r i l l u s t r a t i v e The  inadequate  (a)  Why  experience  purposes.  c a s e s are a n a l y z e d i n an attempt  following questions:  to answer the  were the p a r e n t s c o n s i d e r e d  a t one p o i n t and adequate a t another?  p a r e n t s change?  covered  I f so, what was  the n a t u r e  (b) D i d the  o f the change?  27 By what c r i t e r i a can p a r e n t a l s t r e n g t h s he assessed?" ' ( c ) What type o f agency c o n t a c t was m a i n t a i n e d n a t u r a l parents?  How  w i t h the  d i d t h i s c o n t a c t c o n t r i b u t e t o the  r e t u r n o f the c h i l d r e n ?  (d) D i d the j u v e n i l e c o u r t c o n c u r  w i t h the recommendations  o f the agency i n making the d i s -  position? the c o u r t ?  What was the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the agency and and (e) What are the i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r improved  c h i l d w e l f a r e p r a c t i c e i n p r o t e c t i o n work? A s e t of questions are devised to cover  factors  c o n c e r n i n g t h e removal o f g u a r d i a n s h i p , and these are s e t out i n c h a p t e r 2; another  s e t o f q u e s t i o n s r e l a t i n g t o the  r e s t o r a t i o n o f g u a r d i a n s h i p f u r n i s h the m a t e r i a l f o r c h a p t e r 3» F i n d i n g s and l i m i t a t i o n s o f the s t u d y , as w e l l as i m p l i c a t i o n s for  f u t u r e s t u d y and r e s e a r c h are c o n t a i n e d i n c h a p t e r 4.  far  as the w r i t e r i s aware, t h e r e has been no p r e v i o u s  As  r e s e a r c h on the t o p i c o f t h e r e t u r n o f g u a r d i a n s h i p t o n a t u r a l p a r e n t s under t h e P r o t e c t i o n o f C h i l d r e n A c t i n B r i t i s h Columbia.  Nor has a s e a r c h r e v e a l e d any comprehensive  s t a t i s t i c s on the amount o f a c t i v i t y i n t h i s  field.  The M u n i c i p a l i t y o f Burnaby i s chosen as the s e t t i n g for  t h i s s t u d y f o r i t s p r o x i m i t y and a c c e s s i b i l i t y o f r e c o r d s .  T h i s a r e a l e n d s i t s e l f t o study because o f the e n l i g h t e n e d approach o f the s o c i a l s e r v i c e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n t o the problems of p o l i c y , i n c l u d i n g the v a l u e o f r e s e a r c h i n s e t t i n g and improving  standards  generally.  The department head o f the  28 S o c i a l S e r v i c e Department i s the m u n i c i p a l  administrator,  r e s p o n s i b l e t o the Reeve o f the M u n i c i p a l i t y . p e r t a i n i n g t o c h i l d r e n , the  j u r i s d i c t i o n i s t h a t of  Superintendent of C h i l d Welfare. p r o v i n c i a l representative  In matters  The  s u p e r v i s o r i s the  g i v i n g d i r e c t i o n to both  and p r o v i n c i a l s o c i a l workers.  the  municipal  T h i s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n has  recog-  n i z e d the importance o f c o n s i s t e n t s e r v i c e s t o c h i l d r e n , and has  designated  c h i l d welfare  c e r t a i n s o c i a l workers t o c a r r y o n l y caseload.  the  CHAPTER I I GUARDIANSHIP REMOVED FROM NATURAL PARENTS A search, o f the f i l e s i n the S o c i a l S e r v i c e  Depart-  ment, Burnaby, B r i t i s h Columbia, f o r t h e t e n - y e a r p e r i o d 1950 - I960, r e v e a l e d guardianship and  o n l y a s m a l l number o f f a m i l i e s where  was removed under t h e P r o t e c t i o n o f C h i l d r e n A c t  e v e n t u a l l y r e s t o r e d t o the p a r e n t s under t h e same A c t .  These c a s e s — children —  o n l y seven i n a l l ,  cannot p r o v i d e  though i n v o l v i n g 26  f u l l y conclusive  r e s u l t s , h u t they  are worth e x a m i n a t i o n , and a n a l y s i s o f the common and d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g f a c t o r s may serve  as guidance f o r p o l i c y as w e l l  as a base f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h  into this  aspect  of c h i l d welfare The  practice.  c a s e s were i n t e n s i v e l y a n a l y z e d , and f o r t h e  purpose o f t h i s c h a p t e r ,  s i x major q u e s t i o n s  (1) What o b j e c t i v e f a c t o r s were p r e s e n t parental  inadequacy?  discerned? action?  little-explored  were asked:  that indicated  (2) What s u b j e c t i v e f a c t o r s c o u l d be  (3) What was t h e n a t u r e o f community c o n c e r n and  (4) What was t h e r o l e o f the s o c i a l w e l f a r e  agency?  1 P r o t e c t i o n o f C h i l d r e n A c t , S e c t i o n 1. F o r t h e purpose o f t h i s t h e s i s , the term "the A c t " r e f e r s t o t h e P r o t e c t i o n o f Children Act.  30 (5)  What was  the n a t u r e o f the c l i e n t - s o c i a l worker r e l a t i o n -  s h i p ? and f i n a l l y court?  (6)  What was  E a c h f a m i l y f i l e was  the p a r t p l a y e d by the  juvenile  c a r e f u l l y s c r u t i n i z e d on the b a s i s  o f t h e s e q u e s t i o n s , and the i n f o r m a t i o n g a i n e d i s d i s c u s s e d , under s e c t i o n s , i n t h i s c h a p t e r . O b j e c t i v e F a c t o r s Which I n d i c a t e P a r e n t a l Inadequacy The  " r i g h t s o f p a r e n t s " under the law are p r i m a r i l y  those o f c u s t o d y and c o n t r o l o f t h e i r minor c h i l d r e n . r e t u r n , they c a r r y a r e c i p r o c a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y : m a i n t a i n and educate  them.  to protect,  These r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s are  down i n l e g i s l a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia P r o t e c t i o n of C h i l d r e n Act.  In  laid  under the form o f the  I f t h e y are n o t met,  the S t a t e  has the power t o take o v e r the c h i l d r e n under S e c t i o n 7 o f the A c t , which s e t s out "the t y p e s o f c h i l d r e n who apprehended".  may  be  I t i s c l e a r t h a t i t r e c o g n i z e s i n the main  the a r e a o f p h y s i c a l o r t a n g i b l e n e g l e c t .  What i s " n e g l e c t " ?  Judgements must o f n e c e s s i t y be based on the e m p i r i c a l v a t i o n s made i n r e c o r d i n g by the many s o c i a l workers  obser-  concerned.  To cope w i t h t h i s , a r a t i n g s c a l e has been d e v i s e d to c o v e r the b r o a d areas o f p a r e n t a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y — t e c t i o n , maintenance and e d u c a t i o n .  c o n t r o l , pro-  This r a t i n g scale  attempts  t o grade the o b j e c t i v e f a c t o r s , which a r e the a s p e c t s more obvious t o the community, and which l e a d t o the f i l i n g o f the o r i g i n a l c o m p l a i n t of p a r e n t a l inadequacy. been d i s t i n g u i s h e d : standards;  (1)  income; (2)  S i x areas have  housing;  (4-) c h i l d ' s s c h o o l attendance;  (5)  (3)  living  medical care  31 and (6) d i s c i p l i n e  and c o n t r o l .  The sample f a m i l i e s u s e d are  l i s t e d A- t o G- i n c l u s i v e , and the same a l p h a b e t i c a l i s r e t a i n e d throughout the s t u d y .  symhol  The r a t i n g s o f "good",  " f a i r " and "poor" w i l l he e x p l a i n e d  i n r e l a t i o n t o each  g o r y used, and the s o c i a l work c o n c e p t s  cate-  involved.  Schedule 1 An E v a l u a t i o n  Families  o f P a r e n t a l Performance a t the Time o f Removal o f G u a r d i a n s h i p  Income Housing L i v i n g C h i l d ' s Provision Discipline Level Stan- School Medical and dards Attendance Care Control  A  poor  poor  poor  poor  poor  poor  B  poor  fair  poor  -  poor  poor  C  poor  poor  poor  poor  poor  poor  D  fair  poor  poor  poor  poor  poor  E  fair  fair  fair  good  poor  fair  F  poor  fair  poor  good  poor  fair  G  good  good  fair  good  poor  poor  The income l e v e l i s concerned w i t h maintenance o f the  f a m i l y u n i t by the head of the h o u s e h o l d .  cases examined, i n a l l i n s t a n c e s the  f a m i l y c i r c l e , and the man  I n t h e seven  two p a r e n t s were p r e s e n t i n  was  the F- f a m i l y , the r e l a t i o n s h i p was  the economic s u p p o r t . common-law, the w i f e  h a v i n g s e p a r a t e d from the n a t u r a l f a t h e r o f the c h i l d r e n .  In  32 I n the G- f a m i l y , the female p a r e n t was  a step-mother,  f a t h e r h a v i n g d i v o r c e d the n a t u r a l mother.  the  "Good" stands f o r  s t e a d y employment and adequate maintenance.  "Pair"  covers  spasmodic employment o r l a c k of adequate s u p p o r t i n s p i t e good e a r n i n g power.  of  "Poor" r e v e a l s an u n s t a b l e work r e c o r d ,  combined w i t h many moves throughout to s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e .  the p r o v i n c e , and r e c o u r s e  That a minimum s u b s i s t e n c e l e v e l  will  p l a c e added s t r a i n on f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s and h a s t e n f a m i l y breakdown i s o b v i o u s enough:  but the f a c t s are p a r t i c u l a r l y  well-known t o s o c i a l a g e n c i e s , and have been the s u b j e c t of a s p e c i a l s t u d y compiled by the Community Chest and C o u n c i l o f  2 G r e a t e r Vancouver.  The  one  "good" p r o v i d e r r e p r e s e n t e d the  f a t h e r - s t e p - m o t h e r s i t u a t i o n , where the f a t h e r p r o v i d e d a d e q u a t e l y i n m a t e r i a l t h i n g s , but showed extreme e m o t i o n a l c r u e l t y towards h i s 14-year  o l d son.  The two  " f a i r " providers  were s t e a d i l y employed, b u t , t h r o u g h t h e i r own inadequacies, f a i l e d to maintain t h e i r f a m i l i e s  personality suitably.  The m a j o r i t y o f f a m i l i e s were i n r e c e i p t o f s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e . Housing  i s p r i m a r i l y a f u n c t i o n of income, and i s  graded as t o s u i t a b i l i t y o f accommodation f o r the s i z e o f the f a m i l y , and the adequacy o f u t i l i t i e s and water s u p p l y .  such as h e a t ,  L i v i n g s t a n d a r d s comprise  light  the adequacy o f  f o o d , c l o t h i n g and p h y s i c a l c l e a n l i n e s s f o r the c h i l d r e n ,  as  2 The Adequacy o f S o c i a l Allowances Committee, Report t o the Community Chest and C o u n c i l on the Adequacy o f S o c i a l A s s i s t a n c e Allowances i n the C i t y of Vancouver, p r i n t e d p r i v a t e l y , Vancouver, B. C , 1958.  33 w e l l as t h e s t a n d a r d s o f housekeeping health.  necessary to maintain  I n some c a s e s , garbage was l i t t e r e d throughout t h e  house, and t h e c h i l d r e n c o v e r e d w i t h s o r e s and vermin r e s u l t o f t h e low s t a n d a r d o f c a r e .  as a  I n t h e c a s e s where t h e  type o f h o u s i n g d i f f e r e d from t h e l i v i n g s t a n d a r d s , i t was found t h a t t h e male p a r e n t f i g u r e d i s p l a y e d more s t r e n g t h s than h i s m a r i t a l p a r t n e r .  The near s i m i l a r i t y between income  p r o v i s i o n and h o u s i n g i s e v i d e n t . S c h o o l attendance  can he an important p o i n t e r i n  d i a g n o s i n g a c h i l d ' s adjustment  i n t h e home s i t u a t i o n .  c h i l d may he p l a y i n g t r u a n t f o r a number o f r e a s o n s .  A He may  he a c t i n g out h i s h o s t i l i t i e s towards p a r e n t a l o r a u t h o r i t a t i v e f i g u r e s , o r he may he f e a r f u l and i n s e c u r e among h i s own p e e r group due t o home t e n s i o n s .  P a r e n t s who have them-  s e l v e s been p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y d e p r i v e d a r e unable secure sense  of identity to their children.  to give a  Repeated absences  from s c h o o l a r e a l s o i n d i c a t i v e o f l a c k o f p a r e n t a l d i s c i p l i n e or c o n t r o l .  The law i n B r i t i s h Columbia s t a t e s t h a t  a c h i l d must a t t e n d s c h o o l up t o h i s f i f t e e n t h y e a r , and t h e p a r e n t s must see t h a t he does s o . I f t h e y a r e r e m i s s i n t h i s , t h e y may he p r o s e c u t e d .  One r e c e n t measure o f c o n t r o l , used  i n c a s e s o f r e p e a t e d t r u a n c y , i s the w i t h h o l d i n g o f t h e f a m i l y allowance payments t o the p a r e n t s .  In grading t h i s  category,  "poor" r e p r e s e n t s c a s e s where f a m i l y allowance has been w i t h h e l d o r a s t e r n warning g i v e n .  "Good" i n d i c a t e s no t r u a n c y .  34 The p r o v i s i o n o f m e d i c a l oare i s p a r t o f the p a r e n t a l d u t y t o p r o t e c t h i s c h i l d from harm.  This w i l l  i n v o l v e e n s u r i n g t h a t the c h i l d r e c e i v e s r o u t i n e c a r e , m e d i c a l , o p t i c a l and d e n t a l , as w e l l as p r e v e n t i v e c a r e i n the form o f innoculations. vision.  T h i s c a t e g o r y i s a l s o r e l a t e d t o income p r o -  The f a m i l i e s on s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e i n t h i s study were  a l l p r o v i d e d w i t h f u l l m e d i c a l coverage, which i n c l u d e d f r e e m e d i c a l c a r e , h o s p i t a l , o p t i c a l and d e n t a l s e r v i c e s , most drugs.  Despite t h i s , l i t t l e  advantage o f these s e r v i c e s . no a t t e n t i o n was  The  e f f o r t was  made t o take  "poor" r a t i n g i n d i c a t e s t h a t  p a i d t o t h e m e d i c a l needs o f the  u n l e s s t h e y were g r o s s and  and  children  critical.  D i s c i p l i n e i s a n e c e s s a r y a s p e c t o f c o n t r o l , hut the adequate p a r e n t tempers t h i s w i t h l o v e o f h i s c h i l d r e n . C u r r e n t w r i t e r s on c h i l d development are s a t i s f i e d t h a t c i p l i n e i s not e f f e c t i v e unless i t i s r e a l i s t i c , and based of  on r e s p e c t .  dis-  consistent  The r e s p e c t i d e a l l y s h o u l d be mutual  —  the c h i l d f o r h i s p a r e n t , and o f the p a r e n t f o r h i s c h i l d .  C h i l d r e n l e a r n t o i n t e r n a l i z e c o n t r o l s t h r o u g h p a r e n t a l example. However, i f the p a r e n t s , as a r e s u l t o f t h e i r own  deprived  backgrounds, do n o t have s u i t a b l e c o n t r o l s themselves,  they  cannot impart the norms of a c c e p t a b l e b e h a v i o u r t o t h e i r children.  I n t h i s p a r t of the p r e s e n t study, r a t i n g s o f  have been a p p l i e d where t h e r e i s no c o n t r o l and the were " r u n n i n g w i l d " i n the a r e a . obedience  children  " F a i r " i n d i c a t e s some  o f the c h i l d f o r h i s p a r e n t .  "poor"  35 The  general p i c t u r e i s r e v e a l i n g of  performance i n a l l a r e a s .  sub-standard  Economic, h o u s i n g and  s t a n d a r d s range from f a i r t o p o o r i n a l l hut one the n e g l e c t was  i n the main s u b j e c t i v e .  living i n s t a n c e where  S c h o o l attendance  is  p o o r e s p e c i a l l y i n the homes w i t h the l a r g e r numbers of children.  The p r o v i s i o n of m e d i c a l c a r e and d i s c i p l i n e  major a r e a s o f n e g l e c t .  Income p r o v i s i o n and h o u s i n g  shared a s p e c t s o f f a m i l y l i f e ,  where both p a r e n t and  share the same comfort and d i s c o m f o r t .  are  are child  I n the p r o v i s i o n o f  m e d i c a l c a r e and the a r e a o f d i s c i p l i n e , where the p a r e n t must make some e f f o r t beyond h i m s e l f , the weakness o f the p a r e n t a l r o l e r e v e a l s i t s e l f more s t r o n g l y . S t r e n g t h s and Weaknesses i n the F a m i l y C o n s t e l l a t i o n s The performance o f the p a r e n t a l r o l e cannot  be  e v a l u a t e d on o b j e c t i v e m a n i f e s t a t i o n s a l o n e , a l t h o u g h  gross  d e v i a t i o n i n performance i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r community a c t i o n and  complaint. The  f o l l o w i n g d a t a r e v e a l s no  significant  age  d i f f e r e n c e between the p a r e n t s , and t h a t the m a j o r i t y were m a r r i e d i n t h e i r l a t e t e e n s and e a r l y t w e n t i e s . marriage  o f mixed r a c i a l o r i g i n i s t h a t o f  i s of Indian race.  Education standards vary:  beyond the grade 12 l e v e l , and one of  The  where the w i f e none  is illiterate.  y e a r s between the date o f marriage  only  proceeded The  and t a k i n g the  span  children  i n t o c a r e , i n no i n s t a n c e l e s s t h a n s i x , would suggest  either  36 Schedule 2 Descriptive S o c i a l Data  Parents  Number Years Married  Age when Married  Education  Number of Children  Date Taken into Care  A Woman Man  15  17 18  Limited Limited  8  1956  3 Woman Man  6  18 22  Grade 9 Grade 11  3  1950  13  19 19  Grade Grade  7 6  4  1948  7  21 23  Grade 3 Limited  6  1958  E Woman Man  7  29 29  Grade 12 L i mi ted  2  1956  P Woman Man  13  2  I960  G Woman Man  14  1  1956  C Woman Man D Woman Man  22 not stated 16 21  Limited —  Limited Grade 11  a gradual d e t e r i o r a t i o n of standards or a p r e c i p i t o u s c r i s i s situation.  Later exploration w i l l reveal the extent of com-  munity help and agency preventive  s e r v i c e s given i n order to  maintain the family u n i t . In the use of s o c i a l casework method, recent  teaching  makes known that the areas of d i f f i c u l t y i n s o c i a l functioning can be most e f f e c t i v e l y assessed through the exploration and the understanding of c e r t a i n basic f a c t o r s .  Five can be  37 d i s t i n g u i s h e d f o r d e s c r i p t i v e purposes.  These a r e the g e n e t i c  components, such as i n t e l l i g e n c e and p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ; the e f f e c t o f e a r l y e x p e r i e n c e s on p r e s e n t b e h a v i o u r , which t a k e s i n the concept o f the p s y c h i c  s t r u c t u r e ; the p e r c e p t i o n  and performance o f s o c i a l r o l e s ; the a r e a s o f s t r e s s and t h e i n d i v i d u a l r e a c t i o n t o s t r e s s ; and t h e h o m e o s t a t i c p r o c e s s used by t h e i n d i v i d u a l t o r e l i e v e t e n s i o n s degree o f b a l a n c e i n h i s l i f e .  and t o a c h i e v e some  I n an attempt t o f o r m u l a t e  some c r i t e r i a on which t o base p a r e n t a l  strengths  and weak-  n e s s e s , seven c a t e g o r i e s have been e v o l v e d f r o m the above diagnostic  components. Medically,  genetic  trait,  i n t e l l i g e n c e has been p r o v e n t o be a  and f o r our p u r p o s e s i s a prime f a c t o r i n  a f f e c t i n g t h e l e v e l o f competency i n parenthood.  The e a r l y  home backgrounds o f the p a r e n t s s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e t h e i r s t a t e of present emotional h e a l t h . have a s t r o n g b e a r i n g  P h y s i c a l and e m o t i o n a l  health  on the way i n which an i n d i v i d u a l  r e a c t s t o s t r e s s s i t u a t i o n s , as w e l l as on h i s treatment o f his  child.  The q u a l i t y o f m a r i t a l and p a r e n t a l  t i e s w i l l be  i n d i c a t i v e o f r o l e performance, as w e l l as the a b i l i t y t o form e n d u r i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s , and t h i s a r e a w i l l have major i n f l u e n c e on the e v e n t u a l r e t u r n o f t h e c h i l d . relatives will  suggest whether t h e r e  i s any s t r e n g t h  wider k i n s h i p group t o s u s t a i n t h i s f a m i l y . "good", " f a i r " f i l e material.  Contact with i n the  The r a t i n g s o f  and "poor" are a g a i n s u b j e c t i v e  and based on  However, the f a m i l y f i l e s on c a s e s r e q u i r i n g  38 many s e r v i c e s a r e o f n e c e s s i t y q u i t e f u l l ,  and the s u b j e c t i v e  r a t i n g s made a r e borne out b y r e c o r d i n g t h a t i s u s u a l l y d e t a i l e d , and i n the m a j o r i t y o f c a s e s , p r e e i s e .  Schedule 3 S o c i a l Diagnosis.  Elements a t t h e Time o f Apprehension  Families Early I n t e l l i P h y s i c a l Emotional Back- genee Health Health ground  Relationships Mari- Paren- Relatal tal tive  A Woman Man  poor fair  good fair  fair fair  poor poor  good good  good fair  poor poor  B Woman Man  poor fair  fair good  good good  poor fair  poor poor  poor fair  poor good  C Woman Man  poor poor  poor poor  fair good  poor poor  poor poor  poor poor  poor poor  D Woman Man  poor poor  poor fair  fair good  fair fair  good good  good good  poor poor  E Woman Man  poor poor  good fair  fair good  poor fair  poor poor  poor fair  poor poor  P Woman Man  poor fair  poor fair  fair good  poor fair  poor poor  poor good  poor good  G Woman Man  fair fair  fair fair  fair good  poor poor  poor poor  fair poor  fair poor  E a r l y home backgrounds were g e n e r a l l y d e p r i v e d . " P a i r " i n d i c a t e s t h e l o s s o f one p a r e n t and/or g e n e r a l p a r e n t a l inadequacy w i t h a minimum o f r e j e c t i o n .  "Poor"  i n d i c a t e s d e p r i v a t i o n r a n g i n g from p a r e n t a l r e j e c t i o n t o p h y s i c a l abuse.  The concept here i s t h a t p a r e n t s who have n o t  39 themselves r e c e i v e d a modicum o f l o v e , guidance and  security  are unable p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y t o meet the norms r e q u i r e d by for their children. t h e i r own  These p a r e n t s are s t i l l  society  s e a r c h i n g t o meet  needs, which were not s a t i s f i e d through c h i l d h o o d  experiences.  I n t e l l i g e n c e i s graded e m p i r i c a l l y r a t h e r t h a n  on p s y c h o l o g i c a l t e s t i n g , except f o r Mrs. A- and Mrs. E-,  who  had been i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d f o r mental i l l n e s s and t e s t e d i n that setting.  I t can he seen t h a t t h e r e i s a l a c k o f c o r -  r e l a t i o n between i n t e l l i g e n c e and e m o t i o n a l h e a l t h i n these two  c l i e n t s who  had been t e s t e d .  I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t the mani-  f e s t a t i o n s o f t h e i r e m o t i o n a l d i s t u r b a n c e may  have obscured  the t r u e i n t e l l e c t u a l p o t e n t i a l i n the o t h e r p a r e n t s r a t e d . The r a t i n g o f "good" i s g i v e n to the average range;  "fair"  c o v e r s the d u l l - n o r m a l ; and "poor" the below average. Good p h y s i c a l h e a l t h i n d i c a t e s an absence  of chronic  c o m p l a i n t ; f a i r h e a l t h c o v e r s the a r e a o f psychosomatic  ill-  n e s s such as asthma, d e r m a t i t i s , and stomach and c h e s t comp l a i n t s which are not o r g a n i c a l l y i n d u c e d ; poor h e a l t h an i l l n e s s which i s i n c a p a c i t a t i n g .  A l t h o u g h judgements may  not  he e n t i r e l y a c c u r a t e i n the case r e c o r d s , the s i g n i f i c a n t i t e m i s t h a t h a l f o f these p a r e n t s complained o f c o n d i t i o n s t h a t are r e p u t e d t o be e m o t i o n a l l y i n d u c e d , and none were i n poor health.  E m o t i o n a l h e a l t h i s graded " f a i r " t o c o v e r immature  b e h a v i o u r , such as i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and dependence, which caused the p a r e n t s t o n e g l e c t t h e i r c h i l d r e n . i n d i c a t e s mental i l l n e s s ,  "Poor"  severe a l c o h o l i s m , b r e a k i n g the  law,  40 and  the need t o i n f l i c t p h y s i c a l  The  close  and  emotional health  c r u e l t y on t h e c h i l d r e n .  s i m i l a r i t y i n the g r a d i n g s o f e a r l y home backgrounds  on p r e s e n t b e h a v i o u r .  indicates  the e f f e c t o f e a r l y  There a r e i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a t i o n s ,  may be due t o the i n t e r a c t i o n between m a r i t a l The  experience  area of relationship  which  partners.  i s concerned w i t h  interaction  between i n d i v i d u a l s , and t h e n a t u r e o f t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p can be  used d i a g n o s t i c a l l y t o a s s e s s areas o f s t r e n g t h s and weak-  n e s s e s i n s o c i a l r o l e performance.  M a r i t a l t i e i s graded  "good" i n the f a m i l i e s where the p a r e n t s had never s e p a r a t e d , and  t h u s were a b l e t o d e r i v e s t r e n g t h from one a n o t h e r .  indicates  "Poor"  a s e p a r a t i o n o r d i v o r c e s i t u a t i o n a t t h e time o f  c o m m i t t a l , o r a poor marriage r e l a t i o n s h i p s e p a r a t i o n a f t e r the c o m m i t t a l .  which r e s u l t e d i n  The f i v e m a r r i a g e s  "poor" under t h i s c a t e g o r y broke up permanently. of the c h i l d r e n i n t h e s e i n s t a n c e s was r e s t o r e d of t h e m a r i t a l  p a r t n e r s , under d i f f e r e n c e  rated  (Guardianship t o o n l y one  i n circumstances  which w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n c h a p t e r 4 ) • Parental t i e i s rated  "good" when the r e l a t i o n s h i p  appeared t o be one o f a f f e c t i o n ; indifference; type.  " f a i r " i s a relationship of  and "poor" i n d i c a t e s r e j e c t i o n o f a p u n i t i v e  The r a t i n g s  show a g e n e r a l d i f f e r i n g i n r e l a t i o n s h i p  of each p a r e n t towards h i s c h i l d r e n except i n t h e Cwhere r e l a t i o n s h i p the  D- f a m i l y ,  family,  i s poor w i t h b o t h mother and f a t h e r , and  where i t i s good.  Contact with r e l a t i v e s i s  41 predominantly  poor, which i n d i c a t e s t h a t the p a r e n t s them-  s e l v e s had s u f f e r e d r e j e c t i o n by t h e i r own  Schedule Marital  Families  families.  4  Status  Marriage  Divorce  Separation  A  1941  -  1956  both  parents  B  1944  1956  1950  both  parents  C  1935  1946  1948  mother  D  1951  -  -  1958  both  parents  E  1949  1957  1956  both  parents  I960  mother  1956  father  F Or  .  1947  -  1932  1946  Committal . * C h i l d r e n Eemoved from  -  1958  -  * I n d i c a t e s c u s t o d y — l e g a l g u a r d i a n s h i p under the P r o t e c t i o n o f C h i l d r e n A c t i s always removed from both p a r e n t s .  The Nature o f CoTmmmity Concern and A c t i o n As the l a r g e r s o c i e t y has a v e s t e d i n t e r e s t i n the w e l f a r e o f i t s c h i l d r e n , t h e i r p r o t e c t i o n becomes a community c o n c e r n , and l e g i s l a t i o n t o p r o t e c t the r i g h t s o f b o t h c h i l d r e n and p a r e n t s came i n t o b e i n g because o f t h i s The  concern.  community demands a c c e p t a b l e s t a n d a r d s of c a r e f o r i t s  c h i l d r e n , and r e c o g n i z e s i t s duty t o h e l p the p a r e n t s  achieve  42 t h i s standard.  I n the sample s t u d i e d , many c i t i z e n s i n t h e  a r e a i n which t h e f a m i l y r e s i d e d endeavoured t o o f f e r i n many t a n g i b l e ways, b e f o r e a s o c i a l agency. ways —  the help  assistance  and a f t e r t a k i n g t h e problem t o  Community concern e x p r e s s e d i t s e l f i n two o f p r i v a t e c i t i z e n s , and t h e a s s i s t a n c e  r e n d e r e d by o r g a n i z e d  resources,  such as t h e p u b l i c h e a l t h  n u r s e , t h e s c h o o l , the p o l i c e , t h e p s y c h i a t r i c s e r v i c e s , and the  s o c i a l welfare  together  Neighbours undertook t o band  and c l e a n t h e homes under f i l t h y , unheated,  conditions. support  agency.  deplorable  They s u p p l i e d f o o d t o t h e f a m i l y and t r i e d t o  the parents  i n their efforts.  i n t h e absence o f p a r e n t s ,  They f e d the c h i l d r e n  and s u p p l i e d c l e a n warm c l o t h i n g .  I t was o n l y when t h e y found t h a t t h e i r e f f o r t s were not b e t t e r i n g the c o n d i t i o n s , n o r h e l p i n g the p l i g h t o f the c h i l d r e n , t h a t a c t i o n t o approach t h e s o c i a l agency was t a k e n . The  p u b l i c h e a l t h nurse, the teachers  and t h e p o l i c e a l l t r i e d  t o encourage and c o u n s e l t h e f a m i l i e s r e g a r d i n g h e a l t h and prevention, vision.  r e g u l a r attendance a t s c h o o l and p r o p e r s u p e r -  P s y c h i a t r i c treatment was made a v a i l a b l e t o f o u r o f  the p a r e n t s  and one o f t h e c h i l d r e n .  The  f a c t s i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e involvement o f community  c i t i z e n s and groups was h i g h . the  I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t  f a m i l i e s who moved about a g r e a t d e a l s e t up s i m i l a r  patterns  o f d i s t u r b e d b e h a v i o u r i n e v e r y a r e a i n which t h e y  moved, and t h e community a s s i s t e d and s u s t a i n e d them f o r a time i n each l o c a l e i n s i m i l a r ways.  I n f a m i l i e s D-, E - , and  43 F-, a c r i s i s s i t u a t i o n p r e c i p i t a t e d t h e removal children —  desertion,  mental  i l l n e s s and imprisonment.  c a s e s h u t F- were known t o a s o c i a l agency. a t one time i n r e c e i p t  o f the  of s o c i a l assistance  All  F a m i l y F- had been and m a r g i n a l c a r e  o f the c h i l d r e n was t h e n n o t e d , a l t h o u g h p r o t e c t i o n  action  was n o t c o n s i d e r e d u n t i l the mother was t a k e n t o p r i s o n and the c h i l d r e n l e f t w i t h no p a r e n t i n the home.  Schedule Community Resources  Families  Private Citizens  Public Health  5  U t i l i z e d P r i o r t o Committal  School  Police  Psychiatric Services  A  X  X  X  X  x  B  X  X  0  X  X  C  X  X  X  X  0  D  X  X  X  X  0  E  X  X  X  X  X  F  0  0  0  X  0  G  X  X  X  X  X  (2)  The Role o f the S o c i a l Welfare Agency The  c h i l d w e l f a r e agency i n a community i s d e s i g n e d  t o t r a n s l a t e t h e s t a n d a r d s o f c h i l d c a r e , s e t by the community, into practice.  I n most p a r t s  o f the P r o v i n c e , these  services  44are p a r t o f a g e n e r a l p u b l i c w e l f a r e program.  The t w e n t y - s i x  c h i l d r e n i n v o l v e d i n t h i s s t u d y were a l l t a k e n i n t o care i n v a r i o u s p a r t s o f B r i t i s h Columbia.  Three c a s e s , i n v o l v i n g n i n e  c h i l d r e n were h e a r d i n the J u v e n i l e C o u r t , Burnaby.  The  remainder came under the j u r i s d i c t i o n o f o t h e r J u v e n i l e c o u r t s i n the P r o v i n c e .  A c h i l d i s t a k e n i n t o care i n the a r e a i n  which t h e n e g l e c t s i t u a t i o n o c c u r s f o r purposes o f expediency i n p r e s e n t i n g evidence  and working w i t h t h e home s i t u a t i o n .  S i n c e the c h i l d w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia a r e a l l governed by the same l e g i s l a t i o n , and a l l come under the a u t h o r i t y o f the Superintendent i n s t a n d a r d s and p o l i c y e x i s t s .  of C h i l d Welfare,  a uniformity  I n the sample s t u d i e d , the  s o c i a l w e l f a r e agency a d m i n i s t e r e d t h e f i n a n c i a l and f a m i l y s e r v i c e s as w e l l as the c h i l d The  welfare.  s e r v i c e s o f the agency have been d i v i d e d i n t o  five sections.  These s e r v i c e s were o f f e r e d p r i o r t o appre-  hension o f the c h i l d r e n i n order to prevent The  f a m i l y breakdown.  agency r e c o g n i z e d t h a t the b a s i c needs o f  c h i l d r e n must be met, such as f o o d , c l o t h i n g and s h e l t e r , and a d m i n i s t e r e d s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e t o t h e f o u r f a m i l i e s where the husband was n o t s t e a d i l y employed.  Home-maker s e r v i c e s  and non-ward care was o f f e r e d i n an attempt t o a l l e v i a t e the pressures of c a r i n g f o r the c h i l d r e n i n a s t r e s s  situation.  I n f a m i l i e s A- and E - , b o t h home-maker s e r v i c e and non-ward c a r e were g i v e n i n two i n s t a n c e s o f mental breakdown o f t h e  45 Schedule 6 Agency S e r v i c e s O f f e r e d P r i o r t o Apprehension  Families  Social Assistance  Homemaker  A  X  X  X  X  X  B  X  0  0  X  X  C  X  0  X  X  X  D  0  0  0  X  X  E  o  X  X  X  X  F  X  0  0  X  0  G  0  o  0  X  X  mothers.  Nonward care  Investigation of relatives  Preventive Casework service  I n f a m i l y G- non-ward care was used i n p l a c e o f house  keeper s e r v i c e due t o the inadequacy o f the home f o r e i t h e r homemaker o r c h i l d r e n . father deserted  T h i s s e r v i c e was g i v e n when t h e  and the mother r e s o r t e d t o a l c o h o l i s m and l e f t  h e r c h i l d r e n u n f e d and u n s u p e r v i s e d .  I n a l l cases,  relatives  were i n t e r v i e w e d t o see i f t h e y c o u l d h e l p r e l i e v e the s t r a i n on t h e f a m i l i e s , e i t h e r by support the c h i l d r e n .  o r by temporarily t a k i n g  I t was found t h a t most o f the r e l a t i v e s were  inadequate p e o p l e themselves who had r e j e c t e d the p a r e n t s i n question.  I n f a m i l i e s A- and E - , some a s s i s t a n c e was g i v e n  by the m a t e r n a l r e l a t i v e s , who g r a d u a l l y withdrew from the situation.  Preventive  hut f a m i l y F-.  casework s e r v i c e was g i v e n i n a l l cases  I n t h i s s i t u a t i o n , the mother was  imprisoned.  46 The p l i g h t o f t h e c h i l d r e n was made known when the commonlaw f a t h e r f o u n d h i m s e l f unable t o l o o k a f t e r c h i l d r e n , who were n o t h i s own, and asked f o r placement. The Agency has t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r d e t e r m i n i n g whether t h e n e g l e c t s i t u a t i o n i s amenable t o t r e a t m e n t , o r whether t h e c h i l d must he removed.  This d e c i s i o n should not  he made by one s t a f f member a l o n e , and the agency must h e a r responsibility.  I n a l l c a s e s , t h e d e c i s i o n t o apprehend t h e  c h i l d was made i n c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h t h e s o c i a l worker i n v o l v e d and t h e d i s t r i c t s u p e r v i s o r . The  agency has t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o ensure  that  the p r o c e d u r e s r e q u i r e d by t h e A c t are c o r r e c t l y f o l l o w e d . Only t h e s o c i a l worker who has been d u l y a u t h o r i z e d by t h e S u p e r i n t e n d e n t t o a c t i n h e r name may remove a c h i l d from h i s p a r e n t s and may conduct t h e h e a r i n g i n t h e j u v e n i l e c o u r t . W i t h i n seven days o f a p p r e h e n s i o n , t h e c h i l d r e n must be p r e s e n t e d b e f o r e t h e judge o f t h e j u v e n i l e c o u r t t o be i d e n t i f i e d e i t h e r by h i s p a r e n t o r p e r s o n h a v i n g c u s t o d y .  T h i s procedure  s h o u l d he s u p p o r t e d by the b i r t h r e g i s t r a t i o n s o f t h e c h i l d r e n i n v o l v e d , which may be o b t a i n e d f o r t h i s purpose  i n photostatic  copy from the D i v i s i o n o f V i t a l S t a t i s t i c s i n V i c t o r i a .  The  judge may t h e n a d j o u r n the case t o a l l o w time f o r t h e n o t i f i c a t i o n o f the p a r e n t s and the S u p e r i n t e n d e n t as r e q u i r e d b y  3 P r i o r t o d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n o f C h i l d Welfare S e r v i c e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia, i n 1958, t h e consent o f t h e S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f C h i l d W e l f a r e was a l s o r e q u i r e d .  4? the Act, and the period of f i v e c l e a r days must be allowed between the acknowledgement of these n o t i f i c a t i o n s and the date of the court hearing.  3_e r i g h t s of parents are protected  i n that every e f f o r t must be made to present the n o t i f i c a t i o n s to both parents, e i t h e r t o serve them p e r s o n a l l y and i n t e r p r e t t h e i r meaning, or to make contact with other agencies i n t h e i r area of residence to c a r r y out t h i s procedure.  If a  parent cannot be traced i n spite of a l l reasonable e f f o r t , an a f f i d a v i t i s prepared by the agency and f i l e d with the court, as to the steps taken to locate t h i s parent, without success. The agency must i n s t r u c t i t s s o c i a l workers i n the presentation of the evidence and matters of court procedure, so that the r i g h t s of both c h i l d r e n and parents are preserved, and a r e l a t i o n s h i p of respect w i l l e x i s t between the s o c i a l agency and the court. One large area of agency r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n t o the c i t i z e n s and groups most concerned i n the community the concept of p s y c h o l o g i c a l neglect as d i s t i n c t from neglect due to inadequate housekeeping  standards.  So  often the strong a f f e c t i o n a l c h i l d - p a r e n t a l t i e i s overlooked by w e l l - i n t e n t i o n e d community groups, who are aware only of a c h i l d who i s constantly d i r t y , poorly c l a d , and running w i l d due t o l a c k of proper supervision, while h i s parents appear unco-operative, and unable t o apply any of the help or advice which has been given t o them.  Community pressure can be very  strong i n these cases of marginal care, and may be i n t i m i d a t i n g  48 t o some s o c i a l workers. worker i n r e c o g n i z i n g  The agency must s u p p o r t t h e s o c i a l  t h e d i s t i n c t i o n between e m o t i o n a l  r e j e c t i o n and inadequate c a r e due t o p a r e n t a l  inability.  The  c o n f e r e n c e method i s e f f e c t i v e i n i n t e r p r e t i n g t h i s concept t o the groups concerned, o f t e n the p u b l i c h e a l t h n u r s e s and the  school  staff. In t h e f i n a l  a n a l y s i s , t h e d e c i s i o n t o take a c h i l d  i n t o care and s e p a r a t e him from h i s own p a r e n t s i s a grave one,  and must be based on c a r e f u l assessment o f a l l t h e f a c t o r s  involved.  T h i s cannot be a community d e c i s i o n , b u t must be  the p r o f e s s i o n a l d e c i s i o n o f t h e c h i l d w e l f a r e agency, on behalf  of the Superintendent o f C h i l d Welfare.  I t cannot be  minimized that the d e c i s i o n c a l l s f o r a f i e l d s t a f f o f w e l l t r a i n e d and s k i l f u l p r a c t i t i o n e r s , who have, as Dorothy H u t c h i s o n so a b l y e x p r e s s e s , "tough minds, as w e l l as warm It  hearts".  F i l e reference  r e l a t i o n s i s scanty.  t o t h i s a r e a o f agency p u b l i c  However, t h e l o n g p e r i o d s o f p r e v e n t i v e  casework s e r v i c e p r i o r t o c o m m i t t a l would serve t o i n d i c a t e t h a t a c t i o n was n o t t a k e n h a s t i l y , and a c e r t a i n amount o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n g i v e n t o t h e groups i n t h e community The  Nature o f t h e C l i e n t - S o c i a l Worker The  involved.  Relationship  r o l e o f t h e s o c i a l worker i n p r o t e c t i o n work  4 H u t c h i s o n , Dorothy, "The Placement Worker and t h e C h i l d ' s Own P a r e n t s , " S o c i a l Casework, v o l . XXXV, No. 7, F a m i l y S e r v i c e A s s o c i a t i o n o f America, New York, J u l y 1954, p . 293.  49 revolves principle  around t h e s k i l f u l use o f a u t h o r i t y . of self-determination  i s being  i n p r e s e n t - d a y s o c i a l work methodology.  The s o c i a l work  examined c a r e f u l l y I t i s now  recognized  t h a t an a d u l t w i t h an immature ego s t r u c t u r e , which i s symptomatic o f v a r i o u s  degrees o f c h a r a c t e r  d i f f e r e n t i a l treatment a c c o r d i n g  d i s o r d e r , has a need f o r  t o h i s ego s t r e n g t h s . ^  The  b e h a v i o u r o f some o f t h e p a r e n t s s t u d i e d i s i n d i c a t i v e o f t h e normal f u n c t i o n i n g i n a c h i l d .  Consequently treatment must he  based on the r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e degree o f p e r s o n a l i t y d i s o r d e r , and  l i m i t s set accordingly.  C h i l d welfare  a u t h o r i t i e s are  agreed t h a t the s o c i a l work r e l a t i o n s h i p d u r i n g t h e s e p a r a t i o n p r o c e s s becomes a t r a n s f e r e n c e  s i t u a t i o n , c o n t a i n i n g the  elements o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e n e g l e c t f u l p a r e n t s and  t h e i r own p a r e n t s .  T h i s c a n be a c o n s t r u c t i v e  maturing  e x p e r i e n c e , which w i l l a l l o w ego-growth and perhaps an e v e n t u a l re-establishment skill  o f t h e f a m i l y , i f h a n d l e d by the worker w i t h  and an absence o f r e j e c t i o n . When a s o c i a l worker r e c o g n i z e s  h i s f e a r s about t h e a p p r o p r i a t e  these p r i n c i p l e s ,  use o f a u t h o r i t y w i t h neg-  l e c t f u l p a r e n t s w i l l be g r e a t l y m i n i m i z e d .  Another d i f f i c u l t y  i s t h e atmosphere o f h o s t i l i t y i n which t h e s o c i a l worker must f u n c t i o n i n the p r o t e c t i o n s e t t i n g .  As w e l l as a s c i e n -  t i f i c u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e p e r s o n a l i t y development o f the p a r e n t s ,  5 H o l l i s , F l o r e n c e , " P e r s o n a l i t y D i a g n o s i s i n Casework," Ego P s y c h o l o g y and Dynamic Casework, e d . Howard P a r a d , F a m i l y S e r v i c e A s s o c i a t i o n o f America, Hew York, I960, pp. 83-96.  50 the i n t e r a c t i o n o f one  on the o t h e r , and the nature o f the  c h i l d - p a r e n t a l t i e , the s o c i a l worker must p o s s e s s a s t r o n g degree o f s e l f awareness.  There i s g r e a t d i f f i c u l t y i n  m a i n t a i n i n g o b j e c t i v i t y towards p a r e n t s who children.  are a b u s i n g  their  T h i s o b j e c t i v i t y i s o n l y s u s t a i n e d when the t h e o r i e s  o f c h i l d p r o t e c t i o n work are w e l l u n d e r s t o o d , knows the meaning o f h i s own  and the worker  f a m i l y t o the c h i l d .  The  social  work p r i n c i p l e s o f the worth o f the i n d i v i d u a l , h i s p o t e n t i a l f o r growth and change, and h i s r i g h t t o be h e l p e d  through  s k i l f u l measures t o a t t a i n t h i s p o t e n t i a l are i n t e g r a l t o work w i t h inadequate  parents.  There must be the u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h a t  h o s t i l i t y i s the e x p r e s s i o n o f i n s e c u r i t y and inadequacy,  and  t h i s same h o s t i l i t y can be used c o n s t r u c t i v e l y i f i t i s acknowledged and  explored.  There i s no attempt  i n t h i s study to examine the  n a t u r e o f the casework treatment. but D-,  With a l l the  families  more t h a n one w e l f a r e department became i n v o l v e d , due  t o moves o f the p a r e n t s n e c e s s i t a t i n g v a r i o u s s e r v i c e s throughout  the p r o v i n c e .  I n f a m i l y F-, two  s o c i a l workers  were i n v o l v e d , and the p e r i o d o f time between committal r e s t o r a t i o n o f g u a r d i a n s h i p was all  approximately  and  s i x months.  In  o t h e r c a s e s , the numbers o f workers i n v o l v e d i n b o t h  p r e v e n t i o n and p r o t e c t i o n p r e c l u d e d a c o n s t r u c t i v e c o n t i n u i t y of s e r v i c e .  F a m i l y D- i s an e x c e p t i o n t o t h i s , w i t h t h r e e  s o c i a l workers i n a time-span  of two  y e a r s , g i v i n g the  type  of supportive s e r v i c e that i s e n a b l i n g t h i s f a m i l y to f u n c t i o n .  51 The c a s e s a l l i l l u s t r a t e the e f f o r t s o f the workers to g i v e s u p e r v i s i o n and c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e s t o the f a m i l i e s , and t o m a i n t a i n a r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the p a r e n t s based on r e c o g n i t i o n of t h e i r e m o t i o n a l d i s a b i l i t i e s .  F a m i l y A- was  openly  h o s t i l e a t a l l t i m e s , and c o u n t e r a c t e d most s o c i a l work e f f o r t s t o o f f e r s e r v i c e w i t h a move t o another a r e a . a l s o e x p r e s s e d much h o s t i l i t y , a l t h o u g h t h i s was  what was  desired.  G—  recognized  by the s o c i a l workers as a d e f e n c e , as the removal c h i l d was  Mr.  o f the  The n a t u r e o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p  w i t h the r e s t o f the f a m i l i e s was  c o - o p e r a t i v e , w i t h much  dependency shown by the p a r e n t s on the s o c i a l worker. Another dilemma o f the worker i n p r o t e c t i o n i s the problem  o f "who  i s the c l i e n t ? " and the d u a l r o l e which has  t o he p l a y e d w i t h b o t h p a r e n t s and c h i l d r e n .  Although  work s e r v i c e s are f o c u s s e d on the needs o f the c h i l d , i n t e g r a l c l i e n t i s the f a m i l y and i t s maintenance.  casethe  Norma  K n o l l Page t e l l s us t h a t " i t i s p r i m a r i l y through and by the p a r e n t s t h a t the agency's u l t i m a t e s e r v i c e t o the c h i l d  can  be a c h i e v e d ; t h e r e f o r e , the s t r e n g t h o f the s e r v i c e l i e s i n the c a p a c i t y t o improve the q u a l i t y o f the p a r e n t - c h i l d  6 relationship". The  J u v e n i l e Court The j u v e n i l e c o u r t i s the l e g i s l a t i v e  spokesman o f  6 Page, Norma K n o l l , P r o t e c t i v e S e r v i c e . C h i l d Welfare League o f America, New York, 194-7, P» 11 •  52 the community c o n c e r n f o r i t s c h i l d r e n .  The p r o c e e d i n g s  heard  under t h e P r o t e c t i o n o f C h i l d r e n A c t a r e n o n - c r i m i n a l , .and are d e s i g n e d t o he n o n - p u n i t i v e , e i t h e r t o p a r e n t o r c h i l d .  A  r e c e n t s t u d y conducted b y t h e American Humane A s s o c i a t i o n c a l l s t h i s a " s o c i o - l e g a l process  ... which s u b s t i t u t e s t h e  community's c o n t r o l and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the c h i l d , as e x e r c i s e d by the c o u r t , i n p l a c e o f t h e b a s i c  responsibility  of t h e p a r e n t s , which was found t o be i n a d e q u a t e .  I t i s not  7  a p u n i t i v e a c t , and i t i s n o t i r r e v o c a b l e " , ' The  j u v e n i l e c o u r t f i r s t becomes i n v o l v e d upon t h e  r e c e i p t o f a c o m p l a i n t from the S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f C h i l d through one o f h e r a u t h o r i z e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s .  Welfare  The c h i l d r e n  are p r e s e n t e d and i d e n t i f i e d i n c o u r t , and t h e p a r e n t s d u l y n o t i f i e d o f t h e h e a r i n g as r e q u i r e d by the A c t ,  Confidentiality  i s p r e s e r v e d f o r t h e f a m i l y u n i t , and those n o t concerned the h e a r i n g d i r e c t l y a r e e x c l u d e d from t h e courtroom.  with  The  c h i l d r e n a l s o a r e n o t p r e s e n t when e v i d e n c e i s p r e s e n t e d . T h i s procedure  i s designed t o preserve the c h i l d - p a r e n t a l t i e .  As i n o t h e r c o u r t s , the laws o f evidence  prevail.  I t i s t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f t h e s o c i a l worker t o p r e s e n t t h e case t o t h e c o u r t , which i s done b o t h by q u e s t i o n i n g w i t n e s s e s and g i v i n g evidence o f h i s own knowledge o f t h e case.  The p a r e n t s have a r i g h t t o g i v e e v i d e n c e on t h e i r own  7 D e F r a n c i s , V i n c e n t , The Fundamentals o f C h i l d P r o t e c t i o n , C h i l d r e n ' s D i v i s i o n o f t h e American Humane A s s o c i a t i o n , ' Denver, C o l o r a d o , 1 9 5 5 , P. 4 7 .  53 b e h a l f , and have the r i g h t t o be r e p r e s e n t e d judge d e c i d e s  by counsel.  whether the c h i l d r e n a r e n e g l e c t e d w i t h i n t h e  meaning o f t h e A c t , and t h e n makes h i s d i s p o s i t i o n . deems t h a t t h e c h i l d r e n a r e n o t n e g l e c t e d , case.  I f he  he may d i s m i s s t h e  I f he f i n d s t h a t t h e c h i l d r e n a r e i n need o f p r o t e c t i o n ,  he may s e t out h i s f i n d i n g s i n an o r d e r as p r o v i d e d 8 sub-section choices  The  (6)  of the Act.  This s e c t i o n provides  i n t h e d i s p o s a l o f the m a t t e r .  c h i l d t o the p a r e n t s , the S u p e r i n t e n d e n t .  by S e c t i o n three  He may r e t u r n t h e  w i t h o r a g a i n s t the recommendation o f He may r e t u r n t h e c h i l d t o h i s p a r e n t s  under the s u p e r v i s i o n o f the S u p e r i n t e n d e n t , o r he may commit the c h i l d t o the care and custody o f a c h i l d r e n ' s a i d s o c i e t y Q  or the Superintendent. Unfortunately,  there i s l i t t l e w r i t t e n r e c o r d kept  on the f i l e s on t h e c o u r t p r o c e d u r e , and r e c o r d i n g on t h i s process  i s almost n o n - e x i s t e n t .  Some o f the o l d e r  files  c o n t a i n a copy o f the c o u r t t r a n s c r i p t , h u t t h i s p r a c t i c e has been d i s c o n t i n u e d f o r about t e n y e a r s .  There i s v a l u e  i n r e c o r d i n g court process  attitudes at t h i s  because p a r e n t a l  time w i l l have meaning f o r t h e s o c i a l worker i n terms o f f u t u r e treatment.  Most s o c i a l workers i n p r o t e c t i o n cases are aware  t h a t the a t t i t u d e o f the judge towards the p a r e n t s h e a r i n g i s v e r y important f o r t h e i r f u t u r e  8 P r o t e c t i o n o f C h i l d r e n Act,  Section  during the  rehabilitation.  8(6).  54 Many l a y - m a g i s t r a t e s who a c t as judges  of the juvenile  court  become e m o t i o n a l l y i n v o l v e d w i t h t h e c a s e s , e s p e c i a l l y i n the s m a l l e r communities where t h e y have i n t i m a t e c o n t a c t , and t h i s involvement  may sometimes obscure  their  objectivity.  Through a good program o f agency p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s , t h e judge s h o u l d be made aware o f the b a s i c p r i n c i p l e s o f good c h i l d w e l f a r e p r a c t i c e , and t h e p o t e n t i a l f o r change i n even the most inadequate The  parent.  court should i n t e r p r e t t o the parents  their  r i g h t t o r e t u r n to t h e c o u r t under S e c t i o n e l e v e n of t h e A c t , and a p p l y f o r t h e r e t u r n o f g u a r d i a n s h i p , and s h o u l d make c l e a r the circumstances  under which t h i s would be c o n s i d e r e d .  I t s h o u l d a l s o be p o i n t e d out t h a t i n t h i s r e g a r d the Superintendent can i n i t i a t e  a c t i o n t o r e t u r n the c h i l d to h i s  p a r e n t s , i f t h i s i s d e s i r a b l e from the s t a n d p o i n t o f t h e child.  The s o c i a l worker s h o u l d l a t e r re-emphasize these two  c o n d i t i o n s w i t h t h e p a r e n t s , i n the event t h a t t h e y d i d n o t understand  t h e judge f u l l y because o f t h e i r own e m o t i o n a l  t e n s i o n i n the courtroom. I n t h e m a t t e r o f maintenance, t h e judge has a r i g h t t o make an o r d e r a g a i n s t the p a r e n t s f o r maintenance o f t h e c h i l d w h i l e i n c a r e , under S e c t i o n 32, Act.  s u b s e c t i o n (6) o f t h e  T h i s o r d e r s h o u l d be based on t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s  o f the  p a r e n t , and s h o u l d n o t b r i n g h a r d s h i p t o t h e r e m a i n i n g f a m i l y . When t h e judge i s c o n s i d e r i n g t h e amount which the  55  parent i s to "be assessed, lie must be presented by the s o c i a l worker with a n o t a r i z e d statement, duly audited, which shows the average per diem cost of maintaining and supervising a c h i l d i n care f o r the immediately preceding f i s c a l year. This statement of per diem costs i s prepared annually by the auditors of the three children's a i d s o c i e t i e s , and i s issued to a l l the s o c i a l agencies concerned with p r o t e c t i o n of children.  The Act requires the presentation of the statement  to the judge under Section 3 2 , subsection ( 2 ) "Basis f o r determinig reasonable cost". The judge w i l l consider with the parents t h e i r income, expenditures and o b l i g a t i o n s when making t h i s order. This i s also a point where the judge can allow the parent to r e t a i n a measure of s e l f respect, i f he can i n t e r p r e t maintenance as a strengthening rather than a punitive device. The data i n the f o l l o w i n g schedule shows the v a r i e t y of orders which can be made against the parents.  In  1948,  the per diem rate was c a l c u l a t e d at $1.08 per c h i l d .  In  1956,  q Mr. E- was assessed at the per diem f i g u r e of  $ 2 , 0 9 9 .  No  record i s kept on the agency f i l e on whether these orders are ever honoured.  The parent i s i n s t r u c t e d to send h i s remit-  tance to the Superintendent of C h i l d Welfare, V i c t o r i a , and 9 Per diem rate f o r the f i s c a l year ended I960 i s $3.0289, as per n o t a r i z e d statement, Ross Touche and Company, auditors f o r the Children's A i d Society, Vancouver, B. C.  56 Schedule  7  Maintenance Orders Made A g a i n s t the P a r e n t s  Families  Date  Order Made (monthly p e r c h i l d )  Employment History  Number o f Children  A  1956  none  poor  8  B  1950  none  poor  3  C  1948  $5-  poor  4  D  1958  $15-  fair  6  $65.  good  2  *  E  1956  F  I960  none  poor  2  G  1956  $20.  good  1  * r e p r e s e n t s t h e f u l l p e r diem r a t e .  the a c c o u n t i n g o f f i c e i n t h a t a r e a p r o c e s s e s the t r a n s a c t i o n . P a r e n t s a r e n o t p r e s s e d f o r payment through the c o u r t .  There  i s room f o r the more c o n s t r u c t i v e use o f maintenance as an a i d i n casework f o r the f i e l d  o f f i c e i n work w i t h p a r e n t s .  The complaint o f n e g l e c t i s made under S e c t i o n 7 o f the A c t .  T h i s s e c t i o n l i s t s f i f t e e n "types o f c h i l d r e n  may be apprehended".  who  I n t h e sample chosen, t h e c a t e g o r y used  i n e v e r y i n s t a n c e was t h e p o r t i o n of s u b - s e c t i o n (k) which r e a d s "who has no p a r e n t c a p a b l e o f e x e r c i s i n g p r o p e r p a r e n t a l control".  The c o m p l a i n t on the F- f a m i l y added s u b - s e c t i o n  ( j ) "whose o n l y p a r e n t i s u n d e r g o i n g  imprisonment".  When the  57 judge i s r e a d y t o e x e r c i s e h i s powers t o make an o r d e r under the A c t , he w i l l p l a c e h i s s i g n a t u r e on the committal and the p a r e n t s  and the s o c i a l  order, ® 1  agency a r e o b l i g e d t o abide b y  the d e c i s i o n o f t h e c o u r t . Summary The  a n a l y s i s r e v e a l s p a r e n t a l inadequacy g e n e r a l l y  i n meeting t h e b a s i c needs o f t h e i r c h i l d r e n , e n v i r o n m e n t a l a s - w e l l as e m o t i o n a l .  The f a m i l y problems made themselves  known i n t h e community t h r o u g h the b e h a v i o u r o f the p a r e n t s and  t h e a c t i n g out o f t h e c h i l d r e n , and much c o n s t r u c t i v e  h e l p was g i v e n by n e i g h b o u r s and o t h e r community groups t o t r y t o h e l p the f a m i l y .  Meanwhile, the s o c i a l agency was u s i n g  the r e s o u r c e s w i t h i n i t s framework i n attempts t o p r e v e n t f u r t h e r f a m i l y breakdown. ameliorate  When these r e s o u r c e s  f a i l e d to  t h e c o n d i t i o n o f n e g l e c t , t h e agency made a  d e c i s i o n , based on damage t o t h e c h i l d as w e l l as on t h e assessment o f p a r e n t a l s t r e n g t h s , t o apprehend t h e c h i l d r e n and p l a c e a complaint The  before  t h e judge o f t h e j u v e n i l e c o u r t .  s o c i a l worker a t t a c h e d t o t h e agency a c t e d as t h e a u t h o r i z e d  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f the Superintendent the c o u r t p r o c e e d i n g s , and c h i l d r e n b e f o r e  o f C h i l d Welfare t h r o u g h  and o f f e r e d support  t o both  and d u r i n g t h e s e p a r a t i o n  parents  process.  10 A copy o f t h e complaint form and the committal o r d e r i n use i n the j u v e n i l e c o u r t s i n B r i t i s h Columbia i s appended.  CHAPTER I I I RESTORATION OP GUARDIANSHIP I n a l l o f the sample f a m i l i e s s t u d i e d ,  guardianship  was r e s t o r e d t o the n a t u r a l p a r e n t s under s e c t i o n 11 o f the P r o t e c t i o n of Children Act. he  asked:  (1) What o b j e c t i v e f a c t o r s are now p r e s e n t t o  i n d i c a t e there hood?  The f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s may now  has been r e s t o r a t i o n o f c a p a c i t y f o r p a r e n t -  (2) What s i g n i f i c a n t changes t o o k p l a c e  of committal i n the way o f p a r e n t a l present parental contact  strengths  effort?  and weaknesses?  from the time  (3) What a r e t h e (4) What type o f  was m a i n t a i n e d w i t h the p a r e n t s by the agency?  (5) What r o l e d i d the s o c i a l worker p l a y i n t h i s a c t i o n ? and (6) What was t h e p a r t p l a y e d question  by the j u v e n i l e c o u r t ?  w i l l constitute a section of this  Each  chapter.  S e c t i o n e l e v e n o f the P r o j e c t i o n o f C h i l d r e n A c t i s d i v i d e d i n t o two s u b - s e c t i o n s .  S u b - s e c t i o n (1) c o v e r s t h e  r e t u r n o f t h e c h i l d t o h i s p a r e n t s on a p p l i c a t i o n o f the c h i l d r e n ' s a i d s o c i e t y or the Superintendent.  I f t h e judge  i s s a t i s f i e d t h a t t h i s a c t i o n would he " f o r the b e n e f i t o f the  c h i l d " , * " he may r e s c i n d the o r d e r permanently, o r he may 1  1 P r o t e c t i o n of Children Act,  S e c t i o n 11 (1) and ( 2 ) .  59 a l l o w the c h i l d t o r e t u r n home under the s u p e r v i s i o n o f the S u p e r i n t e n d e n t . o r the c h i l d r e n ' s a i d s o c i e t y f o r a temporary p e r i o d , w h i l e n o t a l t e r i n g the g u a r d i a n s h i p .  At the  f a c t o r y c o m p l e t i o n of t h i s p e r i o d , the judge may  satis-  make a  permanent o r d e r r e s t o r i n g g u a r d i a n s h i p t o the n a t u r a l p a r e n t s or parent.  S e c t i o n 11(2) c o v e r s the same a c t i o n on  c a t i o n of the p a r e n t s .  appli-  The p a r e n t s must make a p p l i c a t i o n f o r  the r e t u r n o f t h e i r c h i l d r e n , u s u a l l y i n w r i t i n g , t o the j u v e n i l e c o u r t .  directly  A t the same time the A c t s t a t e s t h a t  t h e y must g i v e f i v e c l e a r days' n o t i c e t o t h e t h a t t h e y i n t e n d t o take t h i s a c t i o n .  Superintendent  T h i s a s p e c t o f the  s t u d y i n r e l a t i o n t o the c a s e s chosen w i l l he d e a l t w i t h more t h o r o u g h l y under the s e c t i o n "Role o f the j u v e n i l e c o u r t " . T h e , c h i l d r e n were r e s t o r e d t o b o t h n a t u r a l p a r e n t s o n l y i n two was  distinct  f a m i l i e s , A- and D-.  In b o t h these i n s t a n c e s t h e r e  improvement i n b o t h p a r t n e r s , w i t h the male t a k i n g  the i n i t i a t i v e  i n improving economic s t a n d a r d s .  Schedule  which f o l l o w s has been d e v i s e d d i f f e r e n t l y from Schedule because, except i n the two were r e t u r n e d t o o n l y one concerned The  c a s e s l i s t e d above, the o f the p a r t n e r s .  8 1  children  The p a r t n e r n o t  w i t h the r e s t o r a t i o n o f g u a r d i a n s h i p i s n o t  graded.  c a t e g o r i e s r e s p e c t i n g school attendance, p r o v i s i o n of  m e d i c a l c a r e and d i s c i p l i n e are n o t p e r t i n e n t as the are out o f the home.  The two  children  c a t e g o r i e s o f work h a b i t s and  s o c i a l c o n t a c t s have b e a r i n g on the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f  stability.  S o c i a l c o n t a c t s i n d i c a t e e f f o r t s made t o e s t a b l i s h some  60 i d e n t i t y w i t h the community b y t a k i n g p a r t i n a c t i v i t i e s and joining  organizations.  Schedule 8 An E v a l u a t i o n o f P a r e n t a l Performance a t t h e "Dime o f R e s t o r a t i o n of Guardianship  Families  A Woman Man B Woman Man  Income Level  Work Habits  good  good _  good  good  Social Contacts fair good _  good  _  Housing  good good _  good _  Living Standards fair fair  _ good  C Woman Man  fair  fair  fair  fair  fair  D Woman Man  good  good  fair good  fair fair  fair fair  good  good  E Woman Man F Woman Man G Woman Man  _,  —.  good mm  good good ***"  good  fair  _  _  good — —•  _  good  good  good  good  good  good  ***•  ***"  The most s i g n i f i c a n t e n v i r o n m e n t a l improvement took p l a c e i n f a m i l y A-, which i n v o l v e d e i g h t c h i l d r e n .  The man  o b t a i n e d s t e a d y work as a mechanic, and remained i n the same l o c a l i t y f o r two y e a r s .  The couple e s t a b l i s h e d themselves  i n a moderate home, which the w i f e attempted t o keep c l e a n and  f a i r l y comfortable.  F a m i l y D- i n v o l v e d s i x c h i l d r e n ,  61 the two e l d e s t h a v i n g been i l l e g i t i m a t e c h i l d r e n o f t h e I n d i a n mother.  A g a i n the f a t h e r improved h i s work h a b i t s , and ob-  t a i n e d new h o u s i n g .  The mother, w i t h the h e l p o f neighbours  and t h e p u b l i c h e a l t h n u r s e , began t o l e a r n adequate o f c l e a n l i n e s s and c a r e , and t o take The  standards  some i n t e r e s t i n h e r home.  o t h e r f a m i l i e s , which ended i n d i v o r c e o r s e p a r a t i o n ,  r e s u l t e d i n t h e r e - e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f one p a r e n t , e i t h e r i n re-marriage  as i n Mr. B-, Mr. E - and Mrs. G-, o r a common-law  r e l a t i o n s h i p , as i n Mr. C-, o r r e m a i n i n g s i n g l e i n the home o f h i s p a r e n t s as i n Mr. F-.  I n each case, t h e r e was  cant change i n economic and l i v i n g  signifi-  standards.  P r e s e n t P a r e n t a l S t r e n g t h s and weaknesses As o n l y p a r e n t s A- and D- d i d n o t b r e a k the m a r i t a l t i e p r i o r t o the r e t u r n o f the c h i l d r e n , i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note  the g r a d i n g i n Schedule  3 under t h i s c a t e g o r y .  Families  A- and D- a r e graded as "good" and the o t h e r s as "poor".  It  would t h e n f o l l o w t h a t p a r e n t a l i n t e r a c t i o n i s a major f a c t o r i n c o n s i d e r i n g the s t r e n g t h s and weaknesses o f each p a r e n t and h i s c a p a c i t y f o r parenthood.  I n t h e t h r e e i n s t a n c e s where  the c h i l d was removed from t h e c u s t o d y o f one p a r e n t , he was r e t u r n e d t o the o t h e r p a r e n t who h a d r e - e s t a b l i s h e d i n separate d o m i c i l e . The r a t i n g i n Schedule  11 was d e v i s e d w i t h t h e same  d i a g n o s t i c p r e c e p t s i n mind as Schedule  3»  Again the parent  n o t i n v o l v e d i n the r e t u r n o f the c h i l d i s n o t graded.  62 Schedule  9  M a r i t a l S t a t u s a t the Time o f the R e t u r n o f t h e C h i l d r e n  Families  Marriage  B  1941 1944  C  1935  D  1951 1949 1947 1932  A  E  P G  Divorce  —  Separation  * R e t u r n under S e c t i o n 11, ** P.C.A.  1959  —  1946 -  1956  1957 -  1957 1956 1959 1957 I960  1958  1946  1956  —  * Does n o t i n d i c a t e permanent r e s c i n d a l i n a l l c a s e s , h u t a r e t u r n under s u p e r v i s i o n . ** P.C.A. i n d i c a t e s P r o t e c t i o n o f C h i l d r e n A c t , R.S. B r i t i s h Columbia, 1948. Schedule Dates o f Committal  Families  Committal  *Child Removed from  Return * C h i l d Returned to  No.  8  1959  both  both  3 4  1957 1956  father  6 1  father  3  1959  parents  1957 I960  father  5 1  mother  6 2 2  father  2  father  1  1956  mother  1  C  mother  D  1958  both  E  both  F  1956 I960  G  1956  B  and R e t u r n  both  1956 1950 1948  A  No.  10  * Custody o n l y , f o r t h e purpose  of t h i s  schedule.  63 Schedule 11 D i a g n o s t i c F a c t o r s a t t h e Time o f R e s t o r a t i o n o f G u a r d i a n s h i p  Relationship Family  A Woman Man B Woman Man  Emotional Health fair fair  Physical Health fair good  Contact with Relatives  Child-Parental Tie  good poor  fair fair  _  fair  good  _  good  good  —  _  C Woman Man  poor  good  fair  fair  D Woman Man  poor fair  fair good  poor poor  good good  E Woman Man F Woman Man G Woman Man  _  fair —  _  good _  _  _  poor  good  _  _  fair  good  good  good  fair  good  good  good  ***•  mm  *****  I n t e l l i g e n c e and e a r l y home background e x p e r i e n c e s remain t h e same, t h e r e f o r e t h e y are n o t i n c l u d e d .  There h a s been a s l i g h t  improvement i n p h y s i c a l h e a l t h , which l e n d s i t s e l f t o t h e t h e o r y t h a t p s y c h o s o m a t i c c o m p l a i n t s w i l l ease w i t h t h e l e s s e n i n g o f s t r e s s s i t u a t i o n s i n an i n d i v i d u a l ' s  life.  E m o t i o n a l h e a l t h h a s n o t changed a p p r e c i a b l y , which adheres to  t h e t h e o r y o f the a l l i a n c e o f e m o t i o n a l s t a b i l i t y t o e a r l y  experiences.  The s l i g h t changes i n f a m i l i e s A- and C- c a n  he e x p l a i n e d b y a l e s s e n i n g o f severe s t r e s s  situations,  64 which m i n i m i z e d  the need t o a c t o u t .  The p a r t n e r who  reclaimed  the c h i l d r e n i n a l l cases r a t e d h i g h e r than h i s mate, except i n f a m i l i e s C- and G-.  I n C-,  t h r e e o f the f o u r hoys  hended r e t u r n e d t o t h e i r f a t h e r as t h e y r e a c h e d  appre-  their  teens.  They had r e p e a t e d l y r u n away from t h e i r f o s t e r homes, and become i n v o l v e d i n d e l i n q u e n c i e s .  Guardianship  was  returned  i n t h i s case, n o t so much f o r h i s s t r e n g t h s , as f o r the inability  o f the S u p e r i n t e n d e n t  to p l a n f u r t h e r f o r these  d i s t u r b e d boys. Eenewed c o n t a c t w i t h r e l a t i v e s became g e n e r a l l y apparent.  T h i s might i n d i c a t e a renewal o f support a f t e r  marriage  had broken up.  t a c t was  p o s i t i v e and c o n s t r u c t i v e , w i t h the  I n a l l c a s e s , t h i s renewal of congrandparents  making arrangements f o r the care o f the 3?- c h i l d r e n . p a r e n t a l t i e i s graded  the  on the i n t e r e s t d i s p l a y e d by  p a r e n t s i n the c h i l d r e n a f t e r t h e y were removed.  Childthe  No  attempt  i s made t o a s s e s s the f e e l i n g s o f the c h i l d r e n , f o r the purpose of t h i s s t u d y . was  In a l l i n s t a n c e s , s i g n i f i c a n t  shown by e n q u i r y , c o n s t r u c t i v e v i s i t s ,  Christmas  and o t h e r days important  the r e q u e s t f o r r e t u r n .  Schedule  returned i n r e l a t i o n to those  remembering  t o the c h i l d , and 10  s e t s out the  taken i n t o c a r e .  t o a v o i d too much p r e s s u r e  s u f f e r e d t h r e e mental breakdowns. younger c h i l d r e n are s t i l l  finally  children  The  c h i l d r e n were r e t u r n e d g r a d u a l l y on a d v i c e o f the clinic  interest  A-  psychiatric  on the mother, who At t h i s p o i n t , the  had two  i n c a r e , a l t h o u g h the couple  will  65 shortly p e t i t i o n for their return. cope w i t h the two  and  back i n the f u t u r e .  His strengths  has  other  r e a l i s t i c plan. i s not  B- f e e l s unable t o  younger c h i l d r e n , who. are s t i l l  He m a i n t a i n s c o n t a c t  he now  Mr.  e x p r e s s e s the  d e s i r e t o have them  are  somewhat l i m i t e d , and  o b l i g a t i o n s , t h e r e f o r e t h i s may In f a m i l y D-  i n care.  not he  a  the y o u n g s t e r r e m a i n i n g i n care  the n a t u r a l son of the f a t h e r .  He  i s an I n d i a n  hoy,  e n r o l l e d i n a s p e c i a l s c h o o l because o f m i l d mental r e t a r d ation.  The  f a m i l y has  from the home has The  him home f o r h o l i d a y s , and h i s absence  a l s o eased a g r e a t d e a l o f f a m i l y s t r e s s .  youngest E - c h i l d was  of b o t h p a r e n t s . G- were  A l l the  p l a c e d f o r a d o p t i o n w i t h the  c h i l d r e n i n v o l v e d i n f a m i l i e s P-  In g e n e r a l , show t h a t t h e r e has  Committal  the o b j e c t i v e and  subjective  S t r e n g t h s i n a l l a r e a s improved f o r the a n e u r o t i c marriage t i e was s l i g h t l y , and  t h e r e was  broken.  w i t h r e l a t i v e s was  D-,  and work h a b i t s .  competent p a r t n e r when  Physical health  improved  l e s s need to a c t out e m o t i o n a l l y  the l e s s e n i n g o f t e n s i o n and  much s u p p o r t .  findings  been marked improvement i n p h y s i c a l  s t a n d a r d s , as w e l l as s t a b i l i t y i n r e s i d e n c e  extent  and  returned.  P a r e n t a l E f f o r t s from the Time o f  contact  consent  stress.  with  As these f a c t o r s improved,  renewed, which seemed to o f f e r  P a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h p a r e n t s A-  the removal of the  and  c h i l d r e n provided  f o r the f a m i l y p a t t e r n to s t a b i l i z e i t s e l f .  t o some the  incentive  These two  cases  66 serve t o i l l u s t r a t e that, i f e m o t i o n a l  t i e s a r e s t r o n g between  the members o f t h e f a m i l y , even t h e most d e p l o r a b l e p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n s c a n be amenable t o change. not be l e f t  i n circumstances  p a r e n t s cannot The  However, a c h i l d  can-  i n j u r i o u s to h e a l t h i f the  be h e l p e d w h i l e t h e c h i l d i s i n t h e home. d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e A- p a r e n t s t o have t h e i r  c h i l d r e n back was hampered s e r i o u s l y by community surrounding the circumstances  o f apprehension,  and the many  f r u i t l e s s years of e f f o r t t o help t h i s family. were t a k e n i n t o care on New Year's Eve,  feeling  The c h i l d r e n  a f t e r t h e y had been  l e f t u n s u p e r v i s e d i n an unheated house i n t h e i n t e r i o r o f t h e Province.  The water tank had b u r s t , and the cramped q u a r t e r s  had q u i c k l y t u r n e d i n t o the semblance o f an i c e r i n k . the c o n d i t i o n was d i s c o v e r e d by a neighbour, had  a l l developed  frostbite.  the c h i l d r e n  The p a r e n t s e v e n t u a l l y moved  from t h e a r e a , and began t o develop  standards o f s t a b i l i t y .  With the p r e s s u r e o f t h e c h i l d r e n removed, they on improving t h e i r l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s . to  When  concentrated  As b e g i n n i n g  efforts  see t h e i r c h i l d r e n were d e n i e d them, i n the i n t e r e s t s o f  the c h i l d r e n ' s adjustment,  the A-'s developed  a growing  h o s t i l i t y towards t h e s o c i a l agency, and made r e p e a t e d r e q u e s t s t o a l l l e v e l s o f government f o r some a c t i o n t o have t h e i r children returned.  A f t e r three years of concerted  p a r e n t a l e f f o r t and g r e a t l y improved l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s , the two  o l d e s t c h i l d r e n were r e t u r n e d under s u p e r v i s i o n . The  s i t u a t i o n h e l d , and a t t h e time  o f w r i t i n g s i x out o f e i g h t  67 c h i l d r e n are back w i t h the Mrs.  G-  parents.  s e r v e s t o i l l u s t r a t e the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n o f a  mother a f t e r b e i n g d i v o r c e d by h e r husband, who c u s t o d y o f the c h i l d .  The  community became i n c e n s e d by  maltreatment t h i s y o u n g s t e r f a t h e r and was  step-mother.  found he was  had r e t a i n e d  was  r e c e i v i n g a t the hands o f the  When the boy was  taken into care, i t  s u f f e r i n g from mental d i s t u r b a n c e  r e q u i r e d treatment  a t Crease  Clinic.  mother came f o r w a r d t o o f f e r him  and  On h i s d i s c h a r g e  a home.  Although  not seen h e r son f o r t e n y e a r s , she p r o v i d e d the  she  t o f i n i s h s c h o o l and get a j o b .  w i t h another man,  interest  committed.  able  F- r e p r e s e n t s a f a t h e r  l e f t him t o come t o B r i t i s h Columbia  t a k i n g the two  y e a r s l a t e r , she was came f o r w a r d  Mr.  the had  and a f f e c t i o n n e c e s s a r y f o r h i s adjustment, and he was  i n A l b e r t a , whose w i f e had  the  c h i l d r e n with her.  Two  i m p r i s o n e d f o r f o r g e r y , and the f a t h e r  on n o t i f i c a t i o n t h a t h i s c h i l d r e n had been They were r e t u r n e d t o him,  them up i n the home of h i s p a r e n t s . I n d i a n mother has  and he  i s bringing  I n f a m i l y D-,  the  stopped d r i n k i n g , and i s r e c e i v i n g a good  measure o f h e l p from community groups i n the m a i n t a i n i n g o f housekeeping s t a n d a r d s .  The  c r i t e r i a chosen f o r a s s e s s i n g  p a r e n t a l s t r e n g t h s and weaknesses i n d i c a t e improvement i n c a p a c i t y , both o b j e c t i v e l y and  subjectively.  The Nature o f Agency Contact The  f a m i l y where most e f f e c t i v e casework c o n t a c t  68 was  m a i n t a i n e d was  D-.  T h i s may  he because the c o u p l e  t o g e t h e r , and a l t h o u g h t h e y found new i n the o r i g i n a l l o c a l e .  d o m i c i l e , they  remained  remained  They a l s o showed immediate s i g n s of  improvement and a c o n s t a n t i n t e r e s t i n t h e i r c h i l d r e n . A- a l s o remained  Family  t o g e t h e r , hut t h e i r r e p e a t e d moves f o r the  f i r s t y e a r a f t e r committal and t h e i r i n t e n s e h o s t i l i t y towards s o c i a l a g e n c i e s made c o n s t r u c t i v e work d i f f i c u l t . p o s i t i v e work done was  the i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f r e l a t i v e  f o r some of the c h i l d r e n w i t h the m a t e r n a l  supportive.  encouraged  most placement  grandmother.  A l t h o u g h Mrs. A- e x p r e s s e d much ambivalence the c o n t a c t was  The  about h e r mother,  and p r o v e d t o he c o n s t r u c t i v e  and  The number o f l e t t e r s w r i t t e n by t h i s couple t o  government were c o n s t a n t l y r o u t e d back t o the s o c i a l agency through the S u p e r i n t e n d e n t  of C h i l d W e l f a r e .  The  pressure  o f these l e t t e r s combined w i t h the almost i n c r e d i b l e change i n s t a n d a r d s s e r v e d t o keep agency c o n t a c t a l i v e t o the  fact  t h a t these p a r e n t s were making the b e s t e f f o r t o f which they were c a p a b l e .  Contact was  m a i n t a i n e d w i t h the two  fathers  B- and E - when t h e y were asked t o s i g n a d o p t i o n consents the l e g a l f a t h e r s o f the c h i l d r e n horn t o t h e i r wives mately,  and s e r v i c e was  basis.  I n t e r e s t was  c h i l d r e n who  illegiti-  g i v e n t o t h e s e mothers on an a d o p t i o n  t h e n e x p r e s s e d as t o the r e t u r n o f t h e i r  were i n c a r e , and a c o n s t r u c t i v e c o n t a c t  was  m a i n t a i n e d from t h a t p o i n t .  C o n t a c t was  as  l o s t w i t h Mrs.  C-, who  m o r a l l y on s k i d r o a d , and the f a t h e r was  deteriorated  brought  i n t o the  69 s i t u a t i o n as the boys grew o l d e r and developed problems which c o u l d not be h a n d l e d  the types o f  i n f o s t e r home placement.  T h i s f a m i l y i s an example o f an e x t r e m e l y d e p r i v e d background r e s u l t i n g i n d i s o r d e r e d b e h a v i o u r which m a n i f e s t s i t s e l f i n the c h i l d r e n .  The  specialized services required f o r children  w i t h i n t e n s e p e r s o n a l i t y d i s t u r b a n c e s are l a c k i n g i n B r i t i s h Columbia, and a p u b l i c w e l f a r e agency i s not s t r u c t u r e d t o g i v e i n t e n s i v e treatment  of t h i s nature.  The  s e r v i n g of the  n o t i f i c a t i o n of c o u r t h e a r i n g r e q u i r e d the agency t o l o c a t e Mrs. of  G-,  who  had  the P r o v i n c e .  s i n c e r e m a r r i e d and moved t o a remote She  c l a i m e d h e r son who  was  mentally  and w i t h the h e l p o f the agency i n the a r e a where she was  a b l e t o g i v e him a good degree o f support and  section ill, lived,  stability.  G e n e r a l l y , agency c o n t a c t d i d n o t c o n t i n u e t o be m a i n t a i n e d w i t h the f a m i l i e s whose p a r e n t s had u n l e s s another type o f s e r v i c e was  required.  separated, T h i s i s due  the many s t a f f p r e s s u r e s i n c a s e l o a d management today.  to  However,  t h e s e cases s t u d i e d do show a t r e n d towards one p a r e n t g a i n i n g added s t r e n g t h s once a poor m a r i t a l t i e i s d i s s o l v e d . i s a need f o r f i n e r d i a g n o s t i c s k i l l s  There  on the s t r e n g t h s and  weaknesses o f p a r e n t s as i n d i v i d u a l s , so t h a t the  one  r e s p o n s i b l e p a r e n t can be a s s i s t e d t o c a r e f o r h i s c h i l d , even i f the o r i g i n a l marriage  cannot be  maintained.  The p e t i t i o n o f the p a r e n t t o the j u v e n i l e c o u r t to  have g u a r d i a n s h i p r e s t o r e d must be accompanied by a r e p o r t  70 from the S u p e r i n t e n d e n t  of C h i l d Welfare.  The s o c i a l  agency  i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the c o m p i l a t i o n o f t h i s r e p o r t and t h e recommendation t h a t accompanies i t .  Again,  t h i s i s an a r e a  where j o i n t d e c i s i o n s are made i n c o n s u l t a t i o n .  The agency  i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a s t u t e d i a g n o s i s , n o t b l i n d e d by former circumstances, neglect.  and y e t n o t n e g a t i n g  t h e former s i t u a t i o n o f  S e v e r a l l e t t e r s were r e c e i v e d from conimunity  c i t i z e n s a g a i n s t the r e t u r n o f t h e c h i l d r e n t o t h e A- p a r e n t s . These l e t t e r s were sent i n form the s c h o o l , and t h e m e d i c a l c l i n i c , who had been v e r y f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e p a s t g r o s s and  its toll  on t h e c h i l d r e n .  neglect  The agency i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f change as w e l l as the r i g h t s o f p a r e n t s . More t h a n t h i s , t h e agency must r e a l i z e t h e tremendous d e c i s i o n made i n s u p p o r t i n g t h e r e t u r n o f c h i l d r e n t o t h e i r parents.  I f the strengths o f the parent  a measure o f a c c u r a c y ,  are not assessed  the c h i l d w i l l have t o f a c e more  r e j e c t i o n , n e g l e c t and a f u r t h e r removal c a u s i n g p s y c h o l o g i c a l damage.  with  A search of c h i l d welfare  severe files  tells  t h i s story only too w e l l .  The  R o l e o f t h e S o c i a l Worker i n t h e R e s t o r a t i o n o f G u a r d i a n s h i p The  main r o l e o f the s o c i a l worker i n t h i s a r e a i s  the making o f a v a l i d d i a g n o s i s on p a r e n t a l s t r e n g t h s , and the p a r e n t a l a b i l i t y t o resume t h e c a r e have been removed from them. supported  o f t h e c h i l d r e n which  T h i s d i a g n o s i s i s n o t always  by t h e j u v e n i l e c o u r t .  However, t h e case must be  71 p r e s e n t e d on v a l i d e v i d e n c e , always b e a r i n g i n mind the r i g h t of a c h i l d t o h i s own p a r e n t s , no m a t t e r how ment may  ideal h i s adjust-  appear i n f o s t e r home s e t t i n g . I t has been s t a t e d t h a t a minimum o f c o n t a c t  m a i n t a i n e d w i t h the f a m i l i e s who had s e p a r a t e d .  was  I n f a m i l y A-,  the h o s t i l i t y o f the p a r e n t s p r e c l u d e d c o n s t r u c t i v e casework treatment.  The r e t u r n o f the f i r s t  two c h i l d r e n was  by the agency, b u t the c o u r t d i d not concur,  opposed  and g r a n t e d a  r e s c i n d i n g o r d e r which r e t u r n e d them under s u p e r v i s i o n . G r a d u a l l y , one worker began t o s e t up a c o n s t r u c t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p , from which the f a m i l y d e r i v e d the type o f support which e n a b l e d them t o f u n c t i o n and g r a d u a l l y ask f o r the r e t u r n o f the o t h e r c h i l d r e n . positive  F a m i l y D- i s b e t t e r i l l u s t r a t i v e o f  s o c i a l work treatment  f o r reasons  of a c c e s s i b i l i t y  of the f a m i l y , and the r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e i r own d e s i r e t o change.  The worker i n t h i s case r e c o g n i z e d the need t o b u i l d  up the f e e l i n g o f s e l f - w o r t h o f the I n d i a n mother, and the d e s i r a b i l i t y o f making use o f community a s s i s t a n c e i n k e e p i n g up  resources to o f f e r  standards.  I n g e n e r a l , the s o c i a l work r o l e i s p a r a l l e l t o agency p u r p o s e .  I n s p i t e o f s t a f f s h o r t a g e s and many c a s e l o a d  p r e s s u r e s , the g o a l i s the support o f p a r e n t s , on a s t u t e d i a g n o s i s o f s t r e n g t h s , w i t h the e v e n t u a l r e u n i o n o f the f a m i l y i n mind.  72 The  J u v e n i l e Court The  j u v e n i l e c o u r t does n o t c o n c e r n i t s e l f  with  matters o f c u s t o d y , as t h i s i s d e a l t w i t h by the Supreme Court o f B r i t i s h Columbia under the E q u a l G u a r d i a n s h i p p Infants Act,  of  Under the P r o t e c t i o n o f C h i l d r e n A c t , the  j u v e n i l e c o u r t removes g u a r d i a n s h i p from b o t h p a r e n t s , under s e c t i o n 8, and r e t u r n s g u a r d i a n s h i p t o b o t h p a r e n t s under s e c t i o n 11.  Consequently,  even i f p a r e n t s are s e p a r a t e d ,  and  a c t i o n i s commenced by one r e s p o n s i b l e p a r e n t , n o t i f i c a t i o n o f h e a r i n g i s sent t o b o t h p a r e n t s by the S u p e r i n t e n d e n t C h i l d Welfare o r h e r d e l e g a t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . judge  of  I f the  sees f i t t o make an o r d e r r e s t o r i n g g u a r d i a n s h i p , t h i s  o r d e r r e s t o r e s the r i g h t s o f b o t h p a r e n t s .  In p r a c t i c e ,  p a r e n t p e t i t i o n i n g the c o u r t w i l l r e t a i n c u s t o d y o f the  the child,  but i f he d e s i r e s s o l e c u s t o d y , he must commence s e p a r a t e a c t i o n as mentioned above i n the Supreme C o u r t . Schedule  12 i l l u s t r a t e s t h a t the p a r e n t s  applied  t o the c o u r t i n 4 c a s e s , and the S u p e r i n t e n d e n t i n t h r e e . Ward B- was  a l l o w e d w i t h p e r m i s s i o n o f the c o u r t t o v i s i t h i s  f a t h e r f o r the summer. the f a t h e r was  H i s adjustment  was  satisfactory,  and  made aware o f h i s r i g h t s under -the A c t t o  apply f o r r e s c i n d a l of committal.  However he was  lax i n  2 Equal Guardianship of Infants Act. P r o v i n c i a l S t a t u t e s of B r i t i s h Columbia, R.S. 1948, c. 139, S. 1, Queen's P r i n t e r , V i c t o r i a , B. C.  73 Schedule 12 Types o f R e s c i n d i n g  Orders  F a m i l i e s C o u r t o f C h i l d Returned Under Supported Type o f Committal 11(1) 11(2) by Agency R e t u r n A  no  B  no  C  no  D  yes  E  no  under supervision  X  yes  supervision  X  yes  supervision  X  yes  supervision  yes  X  yes  complete  F  yes  X  yes  complete  G  yes  yes  under supervision  X  X  complying w i t h the r e g u l a t i o n s as he was working away f r o m t h e area,  t h e hoy was l i v i n g w i t h him,  the r e q u e s t  to the Court.  and t h e S u p e r i n t e n d e n t made  F a m i l y C- was one i n which t h e  S u p e r i n t e n d e n t wished g u a r d i a n s h i p  t r a n s f e r r e d hack t o the  f a t h e r because o f t h e i n a b i l i t y o f h i s t h r e e boys t o a d j u s t i n f o s t e r home s e t t i n g .  At t h i s p o i n t t h e y were i n t h e i r t e e n s  and v i s i t i n g t h e f a t h e r r e g u l a r l y . S e c t i o n 11(1)  Case G- was h e a r d under  because o f t h e i n a b i l i t y o f t h e mother t o come  to Burnaby f o r r e a s o n o f h e r young f a m i l y . The  h e a r i n g was h e l d i n the o r i g i n a l c o u r t o f  committal i n f o u r i n s t a n c e s ,  and i n another j u r i s d i c t i o n i n  74 three.  There i s n o t h i n g i n the A c t s t a t i n g t h a t t h e h e a r i n g  must he h e l d i n the same Court, hut t h i s i s u s u a l l y the p r a c t i c e because o f the convenience  o f t r a n s c r i p t s and l e g a l  documents such as b i r t h c e r t i f i c a t e s and n o t i f i c a t i o n s t o p a r e n t s which were o r i g i n a l l y f i l e d .  Case A- c o u l d n o t he  h e l d i n the o r i g i n a l c o u r t because of the p r e j u d i c e o f the e l d e r l y m a g i s t r a t e towards t h e c o u p l e .  He r e f u s e d t o s e t a  h e a r i n g date on r e c e i v i n g t h e i r p e t i t i o n .  T h i s was i n a l l  c o n t r a v e n t i o n o f the r i g h t s o f p a r e n t s , hut i t was  thought  by t h e agency t h a t f o r c i n g t h e i s s u e would n o t e r a d i c a t e the p r e j u d i c e , and the h e a r i n g was h e l d i n the c o u r t o f p r e s e n t domicile.  I n cases B- and C- due t o t h e moves o f the p a r e n t  and the a v a i l a b i l i t y o f w i t n e s s e s  i n the l o c a l a r e a , the  h e a r i n g was a l s o h e l d i n Burnaby. The A- p a r e n t s .  agency supported a l l p e t i t i o n s b u t t h a t o f the These p a r e n t s r e t a i n e d c o u n s e l , who  submitted  t h a t p a s t evidence o f n e g l e c t s h o u l d he i n a d m i s s i b l e , and the case based  on p r e s e n t c i r c u m s t a n c e s  of the parents.  The judge  went a l o n g w i t h t h i s submission and g r a n t e d an o r d e r t o the parents.  Complete r e s c i n d a l was g r a n t e d i n o n l y two c a s e s .  Mr. E - had r e m a r r i e d , and had always kept i n touch w i t h h i s young daughter.  Mr. F- was t a k i n g h i s two c h i l d r e n t o the  farm home o f h i s p a r e n t s , approved The remainder  were g r a n t e d r e t u r n of the c h i l d r e n under t h e  s u p e r v i s i o n o f the S u p e r i n t e n d e n t year.  by A l b e r t a a u t h o r i t i e s .  A l l cases have completed  f o r t h e p e r i o d o f one  s u c c e s s f u l l y the w a i t i n g  75 p e r i o d and have been g r a n t e d f u l l  guardianship  rights.^  Summary I n summary, g e n e r a l improvement can he n o t e d i n p a r e n t a l s t r e n g t h , b o t h i n a h i g h e r s t a n d a r d o f l i v i n g and i n e m o t i o n a l adequacy.  The m a j o r i t y o f t h e cases r e s u l t e d i n  a s e v e r i n g o f t h e marriage  and a r e - e s t a b l i s h m e n t  of the  s t r o n g e r p a r t n e r , who e v e n t u a l l y assumed r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r a t l e a s t some o f t h e c h i l d r e n .  again  The two f a m i l i e s who  remained t o g e t h e r made d i s c e r n i b l e e f f o r t s t o b e t t e r t h e i r g e n e r a l l i v i n g standards w i t h t h e community.  and e s t a b l i s h some i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  The agency r e c o g n i z e d t h e i r e f f o r t s and  o f f e r e d b o t h s u p p o r t i v e casework s e r v i c e and t h e h e l p o f community r e s o u r c e s .  When t h e c o u r t was p e t i t i o n e d f o r t h e  r e t u r n o f the c h i l d r e n , t h e s o c i a l worker, i n c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h the s u p e r v i s o r and the r e g i o n a l a d m i n i s t r a t o r , s u b m i t t e d recommendations i n support o f the p a r e n t s i n a l l b u t one c a s e . I n t h i s f a m i l y , the s t r e n g t h o f t h e m a r i t a l t i e and t h e need o f these p a r e n t s f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n was o f f s e t by t h e i r p a s t h i s t o r y o f g e n e r a l inadequacy and t h e i r h o s t i l i t y t o the agency.  These p a r e n t s have c o n t i n u e d t o f u n c t i o n w i t h agency  help.  3 A copy o f the Order r e s t o r i n g g u a r d i a n s h i p i s appended  .CHAPTER IV SAFEGUARDING THE RIGHTS OP CHILDREN AND PARENTS One of the leading writers on contemporary c h i l d welfare p r a c t i c e has s a i d "when an i n d i v i d u a l has a deep need f o r parenthood, there i s no t e l l i n g how he w i l l respond to the challenge  to r e t a i n that coveted r o l e " .  1  The sample f a m i l i e s  studied reveal some i n t e r e s t i n g i n d i v i d u a l responses to t h i s challenge, and also illuminate the e f f o r t s made by the s o c i a l work agency to safeguard c h i l d - p a r e n t a l r i g h t s .  The "deep  need" f o r parenthood e x i s t s , hut i t i s often masked by behaviour patterns which may subject the c h i l d to both p h y s i c a l and psychological abuse.  The challenge  to the s o c i a l work  agencies concerned with p r o t e c t i o n of c h i l d r e n i s to develop a v a l i d technique which w i l l t e s t the q u a l i t y o f the c h i l d parental t i e . Assessment of Parental Strengths The r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r evaluating parental  strengths  i s a grave one, f o r i t i s on t h i s assessment that the d e c i s i o n on whether to separate the c h i l d from h i s parents i s made.  1 Gordon, Henrietta L., foreword, Page, Norma K n o l l , Protective Service, C h i l d Welfare League of America, Inc., New York, 194-7.  77 It  i s a g a i n on t h i s e v a l u a t i o n o f p a r e n t a l c a p a c i t y t h a t a  recommendation i s made hy t h e S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f C h i l d W e l f a r e for  or against the r e s t o r a t i o n o f guardianship.  s e r i o u s gaps i n good c h i l d w e l f a r e  One o f t h e  p r a c t i c e today i s the  absence o f a s e t o f c r i t e r i a t o determine p a r e n t a l adequacy. The  many v a r i a b l e s encountered add t o t h e c o m p l e x i t y o f  d e v i s i n g such a l i s t ,  which would he used hy t h e caseworker  as a s c i e n t i f i c base on which to d i s c e r n a r e a s o f s t r e n g t h and b u i l d on them.  Two r e c e n t s t u d i e s undertaken hy t h e  Canadian W e l f a r e C o u n c i l i n Canada  2  and hy the E l i z a b e t h x  MeCormick Memorial Fund i n New York,-' s t r e s s t h e need f o r formal research of c h i l d r e n .  i n t h i s area of diagnosis, p r i o r to separation  The r e p o r t o f t h e C h i l d W e l f a r e League o f  America, a f t e r an i n t e n s i v e s u r v e y o f f u n c t i o n s and program in  i t s own o p e r a t i o n ,  s t a t e s "Some guide l i n e s f o r t h e f u t u r e  can he c l e a r l y c h a r t e d a t t h i s t i m e . its  member a g e n c i e s s h o u l d devote an i n c r e a s i n g p r o p o r t i o n o f  t h e i r resources in  F i r s t , t h e League and  t o s e r v i c e t h a t w i l l enable c h i l d r e n t o remain  t h e i r own homes."^  These t h r e e  hy l e a d i n g c h i l d w e l f a r e  s t u d i e s have been conducted  a u t h o r i t i e s i n U n i t e d S t a t e s and  Canada w i t h i n the l a s t decade, and i n essence, a l l emphasize the n e c e s s i t y f o r p r e v e n t i v e  work and d i a g n o s t i c  skill.  2 Canadian W e l f a r e C o u n c i l , C h i l d P r o t e c t i o n i n Canada. Ottawa, 1 9 5 4 , R e p r i n t e d January, 1 9 5 8 . 3 E l i z a b e t h McCormick Memorial Fund, P r o c e e d i n g s on t h e Conference on Research i n t h e C h i l d r e n ' s F i e l d . N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n o f S o c i a l Workers, New York, 1 9 5 6 . 4 The C h i l d W e l f a r e League o f America, Today and Tomorrow. G e n e r a l R e p o r t o f t h e Committee on F u n c t i o n s and Program, New York, May, 1 9 5 5 .  78 The  c r i t e r i a used i n the p r e s e n t  study are based  b o t h on o b j e c t i v e f a c t o r s i n v o l v e d i n p a r e n t a l c u s t o d y and c o n t r o l , and on s u b j e c t i v e concepts i n t e g r a l t o s o c i a l diagnosis. beginning  While t h e f a m i l i e s s t u d i e d p r o v i d e  only a  sample, the major f a c t o r i n t h i s a n a l y s i s i s t h a t ,  i n f i v e f a m i l i e s out o f t h e seven, the marriage t i e was broken, and the p a r e n t  who was s t r o n g e r was able t o r e - e s t a -  b l i s h h i m s e l f i n a new s i t u a t i o n and ask f o r the r e t u r n o f all  o r some o f the c h i l d r e n .  parents  remained t o g e t h e r ,  s t r e n g t h throughout.  I n the two f a m i l i e s where t h e  the c l o s e m a r i t a l t i e r a t e d as a  I t i s i n d i c a t e d t h a t each p a r e n t  plays i n d i v i d u a l strengths  dis-  and weaknesses which e x e r t v a r i e d  i n f l u e n c e on t h e m a r i t a l r e l a t i o n s h i p .  Of c o u r s e ,  as w e l l  as the assessment o f j o i n t c a p a c i t y f o r parenthood, i n d i v i d u a l diagnosis  s h o u l d be made.  On t h e b a s i s o f t h i s , emphasis c a n  be p l a c e d , i n casework treatment, on e n a b l i n g the s t r o n g e r parent the  t o assume more c o n s i s t e n t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n the care o f  family. The  f a m i l i e s studied illustrate that preventive  work  was attempted i n a l l but the one c r i s i s s i t u a t i o n , when the one  r e s p o n s i b l e parent  was sentenced t o p r i s o n .  v e n t i v e work s h o u l d be based on a s t u t e d i a g n o s t i c of p a r e n t a l strengths,  This  pre-  evaluation  and the c h i l d r e n s h o u l d n o t be sub-  j e c t e d t o severe n e g l e c t  over l o n g p e r i o d s i f the p a r e n t s  do  now show p o s i t i v e movement i n a m e l i o r a t i n g the n e g l e c t f u l situation.  I t has been shown t h a t t h e removal o f t h e c h i l d r e n  79 i s i n c e r t a i n i n s t a n c e s n e c e s s a r y to r e l i e v e f a m i l y p r e s s u r e s . T h i s removal becomes the homeostatic ents t o r e - d e f i n e t h e i r s t a n d a r d s  device that allows  as i n f a m i l y A-.  par-  Criteria  f o r p a r e n t a l adequacy s h o u l d then be examined i n the l i g h t s h o r t - t e r m as w e l l as Ions-range g o a l s .  I f a removal o f  p r e s s u r e s i s d e s i r e d , a p e r i o d of non-ward c a r e can be T h i s enables  the s e p a r a t i o n o f the c h i l d w i t h the  o f the p a r e n t , who  s t i l l r e t a i n s guardianship.  p a r e n t a l r e j e c t i o n i s minimized  of  granted.  co-operation  F e e l i n g of  f o r the c h i l d , and  same time the p a r e n t m a i n t a i n s h i s s e l f - r e s p e c t .  at the However,  t h i s d e v i c e s h o u l d be used d i a g n o s t i c a l l y i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h i n t e n s i v e casework s e r v i c e , i n o r d e r t h a t t h i s s e r v i c e does not become a means f o r e v a s i o n of p a r e n t a l d u t y and  agency  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o the c h i l d and h i s p a r e n t s . The Use  o f Agency S e r v i c e s and Community Resources P r e v e n t i v e work r e q u i r e s a s k i l f u l use  of the  r e s o u r c e s w i t h i n the community as w e l l as the s e r v i c e s o f f e r e d by the agency.  The  s o c i a l worker has  an i n t e g r a t i v e f u n c t i o n  i n t h a t , through h i s knowledge o f the r e s o u r c e s i n the  community,  he makes these a v a i l a b l e t o the c l i e n t as t h e y seem appropriate.  A c h i l d w e l f a r e department which i s a d i v i s i o n w i t h i n  the p u b l i c w e l f a r e agency has a c c e s s t o f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e and the o t h e r s e r v i c e s a v a i l a b l e under the p u b l i c w e l f a r e framework. s e r v i c e s was  I n a l l f a m i l i e s under study, a combination o f f e r e d by the agency.  of  Financial assistance,  80 home-maker s e r v i c e  and non-ward care were g i v e n i n an attempt  t o reduce the s t r e s s  situations  f o r the parents.  In every  i n s t a n c e , r e l a t i v e s were c o n t a c t e d and i n t e r v i e w e d , t o see i f the  larger family  c o u l d o f f e r a r e s o u r c e f o r the c h i l d r e n o r  support t o t h e p a r e n t s . utilized,  S e r v i c e s i n t h e community were  such as the C h i l d Guidance C l i n i c , i n o r d e r t o  s u b s t a n t i a t e agency assessment o f the p a r e n t - c h i l d through a s p e c i a l i z e d d i a g n o s t i c from one f a m i l y  team.  relationship  P r e s s u r e was removed  group hy the r e f e r r a l and u l t i m a t e placement 5  of t h e i l l e g i t i m a t e son o f the mother i n a s p e c i a l  school.-'  T h i s y o u n g s t e r was m e n t a l l y handicapped and r e j e c t e d step-father,  with resultant  s t r a i n on the m a r i t a l  L i a i s o n was m a i n t a i n e d w i t h the p s y c h i a t r i c  hy h i s  situation.  c l i n i c s i n the  i n s t a n c e s o f h o s p i t a l i z a t i o n f o r mental breakdown o f the p a r e n t , and c l i n i c a l recommendation f o r c o n t i n u i n g casework service  was f o l l o w e d on d i s c h a r g e .  w i t h s c h o o l , p o l i c e and p u b l i c  C o n t a c t was m a i n t a i n e d  health  p e r s o n n e l so t h a t the  b e s t j o i n t endeavour c o u l d he p u t f o r t h t o a l l e v i a t e s t r a i n on t h e f a m i l y .  I t was o n l y when these e f f o r t s brought  l i m i t e d r e s u l t s , and the c h i l d r e n were found t o he s u f f e r i n g continuing physical was  and e m o t i o n a l damage, t h a t  separation  effected. The  b e h a v i o u r o f b o t h p a r e n t s and c h i l d r e n i n t h e  5 T h i s i n s t i t u t i o n , which i s p r i v a t e l y o p e r a t e d , i s l i c e n s e d under the W e l f a r e I n s t i t u t i o n s L i c e n s i n g A c t , and o f f e r s h o a r d i n g home and s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s t o c h i l d r e n o f minimal i n t e l l i g e n c e .  81 community i n which they r e s i d e b r i n g s t o p u b l i c awareness t h e condition of neglect. neighbours  The s t u d y i n d i c a t e s t h a t immediate  and community groups then make c o n c e r t e d e f f o r t s t o  h e l p t h e f a m i l y , by p r o v i d i n g p r a c t i c a l h e l p such as f o o d , f u e l and c l o t h i n g , as w e l l as support i n t h e way o f encouragement and a d v i c e .  When t h e n e g l e c t s i t u a t i o n p e r s i s t s ,  community p r e s s u r e t o remove t h e c h i l d r e n i s p l a c e d on the agency.  The agency has a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o handle  this  p r e s s u r e w i s e l y , and t o make i t s own p r o f e s s i o n a l d e c i s i o n while s t i l l maintaining p u b l i c confidence. Dorothy H u t c h i s o n wrote a few y e a r s ago: we need i s a d e f i n i t i o n o f n e g l e c t — one way, t h e law another, This i s s t i l l essence  true.  "one t h i n g  the community d e f i n e s i t  the c h i l d h i m s e l f s t i l l  another".  The community and the law, which i s i n  t h e e x p r e s s i o n o f t h e community, see n e g l e c t i n i t s  d i s c e r n i b l e o r p h y s i c a l form.  The c h i l d may appear hungry and  d i r t y , s c a n t i l y c l a d and c o l d , w h i l e the o v e r t b e h a v i o u r p a r e n t s suggests  a complete d i s r e g a r d f o r h i s c o m f o r t s .  of the Yet  sometimes, i n t h i s same s i t u a t i o n , the t i e between c h i l d and p a r e n t s may be s t r o n g , n u r t u r e d by the presence measure o f a f f e c t i o n . and may be obscured  o f a good  T h i s bond may n o t be e a s i l y  by t h e o v e r t b e h a v i o u r  meeting t h e i r own d e s i r e s .  detected,  o f the p a r e n t s i n  However, t h e s o c i a l worker must  6 Hutchison, Dorothy, "The Placement Worker and the C h i l d ' s Own Parents," S o c i a l Casework, Family Service A s s o c i a t i o n of America, New York, v o l . XXXV, No. 7, J u l y 1954, p. 294.  82 e v a l u a t e the s t r e n g t h o f the c h i l d - p a r e n t a l t i e hy unders t a n d i n g the meaning of the b e h a v i o u r p a t t e r n and the l o g i c a l d e f e n c e s used, and through h i s d i a g n o s t i c determine  psycho-  skills,  the q u a l i t y o f the a f f e c t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p and i t s  e f f e c t on the e m o t i o n a l development of the c h i l d . many problems around  There  an a p p r o p r i a t e d e f i n i t i o n f o r e m o t i o n a l  r e j e c t i o n , which has deep s o c i a l i m p l i c a t i o n s hut no recognition.  C h i l d development t h e o r i e s o f t o d a y  legal  almost  u n i v e r s a l l y s t r e s s t h a t the a f f e c t i o n a l needs o f the must he met,  are  child  p r e f e r a b l y through p a r e n t a l l o v e , and t h a t  these  needs are j u s t as important as the e s s e n t i a l s of s h e l t e r , f o o d and c l o t h i n g .  There  i s a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y upon s o c i a l  a g e n c i e s t o c o n c e r n themselves  s e r i o u s l y w i t h the b a s i c  d e f i n i t i o n of n e g l e c t as i t a f f e c t s the r i g h t s o f c h i l d r e n p a r e n t s , and through i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and  and  s o c i a l action, to b r i n g  t h i s d e f i n i t i o n t o the l e v e l o f community awareness. Agency Contact M a i n t a i n e d w i t h N a t u r a l P a r e n t s I n a l l the f a m i l i e s s t u d i e d , w i t h the e x c e p t i o n o f f a m i l y D-,  agency c o n t a c t w i t h the n a t u r a l p a r e n t s  after  committal, w i t h a view t o r e - u n i t i n g the f a m i l i e s , was F a m i l y D-  i s a good example of p r e v e n t i v e casework s e r v i c e ,  a s t u t e d i a g n o s i s and c o n t i n u i n g c o n t a c t . t h e r e was  minimal.  In t h i s case, while  r e c o g n i t i o n hy the s o c i a l worker o f the s t r o n g  m a r i t a l t i e and the bond of a f f e c t i o n between p a r e n t s c h i l d r e n , i t was  and  a l s o apparent t h a t the c h i l d r e n were s u f f e r i n g  83  p h y s i c a l l y , and t h a t t h e i r removal  was n e c e s s a r y b e f o r e the  p a r e n t s would become s u f f i c i e n t l y m o t i v a t e d t o change t h e i r standards o f c a r e .  Contact w i t h t h i s f a m i l y was w i t h i n t h e  c o n f i n e s o f one agency, which m a i n t a i n s a s t a b l e  staff  complement engaged i n c h i l d w e l f a r e work, which enabled a c o n s i s t e n c y o f s u p p o r t i v e casework s e r v i c e t o b u i l d on e x i s t i n g parental strengths.  I n a l l the o t h e r case s t u d i e s , many  a g e n c i e s and s o c i a l workers were i n v o l v e d , which p r e c l u d e d continuity of service. I n c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e f i v e f a m i l i e s where m a r i t a l t i e s were s e v e r e d , two s e p a r a t e d permanently c h i l d r e n had been removed.  a f t e r the  I n both these i n s t a n c e s , the  c h i l d r e n were e v e n t u a l l y r e s t o r e d t o t h e f a t h e r s w i t h the i n i t i a t i v e t a k e n by them on t h e i r r e m a r r i a g e . had s e p a r a t e d p r i o r t o apprehension, from t h e c u s t o d y o f one p a r e n t .  The o t h e r t h r e e  and t h e c h i l d r e n removed  I n each o f these c a s e s , t h e  c h i l d was r e s t o r e d t o the c u s t o d y o f t h e o t h e r p a r e n t , who was  a l e r t e d t o the n e g l e c t c o m p l a i n t on r e c e i p t  n o t i f i c a t i o n from the S u p e r i n t e n d e n t .  There  of t h e r e q u i r e d  i s a s t r o n g need  f o r c o n t i n u i n g s e r v i c e s t o p a r e n t s a f t e r the removal  of t h e i r  c h i l d r e n , p a r t i c u l a r l y a f t e r the b r e a k i n g o f a m a r i t a l t i e . E n e r g i e s t h a t were d i s s i p a t e d i n m a r i t a l c o n f l i c t might now be used c o n s t r u c t i v e l y i n r e - e s t a b l i s h i n g a home f o r t h e c h i l d , on t h e premise  t h a t one own p a r e n t who wants h i s c h i l d , c a n  meet h i s e m o t i o n a l needs b e t t e r than two s u b s t i t u t e p a r e n t s . When a r r i v i n g a t t h e d e c i s i o n t o apprehend, t h e agency must  84 assume r e s p o n s i b i l i t y under the Act'' f o r c o n t a c t i n g b o t h p a r e n t s , even though t h e y he s e p a r a t e d .  T h i s s h o u l d n o t he  done s o l e l y t o n o t i f y the absent p a r e n t of the c o u r t p r o c e e d i n g s b u t w i t h a view t o d e t e c t i n g e x i s t i n g interest  i n the c h i l d .  s t r e n g t h s and  The agency s h o u l d n o t abandon p a r e n t s  when t h e c h i l d r e n have been committed, as t h e i r f e e l i n g s o f f r u s t r a t i o n and f a i l u r e must he m i n i m i z e d f u n c t i o n as r e s p o n s i b l e p e o p l e .  i f they are to  C o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e s should  he g i v e n h y t h e s o c i a l worker, and i f r e - u n i o n i s n o t p o s s i b l e , the p a r e n t s s h o u l d he h e l p e d t o r e l i n q u i s h t h e c h i l d p e r manently f o r a d o p t i o n . The matter  o f maintenance payments f o r t h e c h i l d  w h i l e i n c a r e has v e r y important  casework i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r  p a r e n t s , as t h i s i s one t a n g i b l e way i n which t h e i r sense o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y can be m a i n t a i n e d . matter  The study shows t h a t the  o f maintenance i s h a n d l e d e n t i r e l y through t h e C h i l d  Welfare D i v i s i o n i n V i c t o r i a , and t h e d i s t r i c t o f f i c e s a r e n o t n o t i f i e d whether r e g u l a r payments a r e made o r n o t , t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i s sent upon r e q u e s t .  although  P r o v i s i o n i s made i n  the A c t f o r t h e r e d u c t i o n o f maintenance o r d e r s by the Court i f t h e p a r e n t shows cause t h a t he i s unable o r i g i n a l l y ordered.  t o meet the amount  The s o c i a l worker s h o u l d be i n s t r u m e n t a l  i n c o u n s e l l i n g a l o n g these l i n e s i f t h e meeting o f t h e o r d e r p r o v i d e s a h a r d s h i p , and t h i s o b s t a c l e i s c a u s i n g a d d i t i o n a l  7 P r o t e c t i o n o f C h i l d r e n A c t , S e c t i o n 1.  85 family  stress I d e a l l y , agency c o n t a c t a f t e r committal  should  p r o v i d e t h e k i n d o f s e r v i c e which would enable t h e p a r e n t s t o resume c a r e o f t h e c h i l d or t o g i v e the c h i l d up t o new p a r e n t s through  a d o p t i o n placement.  However, the r e a l i t y  s i t u a t i o n i s t h a t t h e m a j o r i t y o f p a r e n t s who have been deemed n e g l e c t f u l cannot make the type o f d e c i s i o n which i s c e n t r e d w h o l l y around t h e w e l f a r e o f t h e c h i l d .  The s o c i a l worker  must r e c o g n i z e e a r l y i n t h e casework s i t u a t i o n t h e p o t e n t i a l o f n a t u r a l p a r e n t s , and h e l p them t o a c h i e v e s a t i s f a c t i o n o f some o f t h e i r e m o t i o n a l needs.  I n time, t h e y might he brought  t o a l e v e l o f ego s t r e n g t h where a r e a l i s t i c d e c i s i o n can be made w i t h the b e s t i n t e r e s t o f t h e c h i l d as t h e f o c u s . The  Socio-legal  Process  G u a r d i a n s h i p c a n be removed and r e s t o r e d o n l y by due p r o c e s s o f law. The judge  r u l e s on t h e e v i d e n c e  presented  whether the c h i l d i s n e g l e c t e d under t h e terms o f t h e A c t . The  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r l a y i n g the c o m p l a i n t  o f n e g l e c t i n the  c o u r t , and p r e s e n t i n g the evidence i n s u p p o r t o f t h e complaint, i s t h a t o f t h e s o c i a l worker. Superintendent  Counsel may be p r o v i d e d hy t h e  through the Department o f t h e A t t o r n e y G e n e r a l ,  hut t h i s i s done o n l y under s p e c i a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s .  The  p a r e n t s have a r i g h t a t a l l times t o be r e p r e s e n t e d by c o u n s e l . The h e a r i n g under the P r o t e c t i o n o f C h i l d r e n A c t i s n o t d e s i g n e d t o p u t t h e p a r e n t s on t r i a l ,  hut to deem whether t h e  86 c h i l d i s i n need o f p r o t e c t i o n . i n a l l the c a s e s  The complaint  s t u d i e d was p r e s e n t e d  s e c t i o n 7» s u b - s e c t i o n who has no p a r e n t  o f n e g l e c t used  t o the c o u r t under  (k) o f the A c t , which s t a t e s "a c h i l d ...  capable  of e x e r c i s i n g proper p a r e n t a l c o n t r o l " .  T h i s phrase c o n t a i n s an element o f a m b i g u i t y which b e a r s r e - d e f i n i n g , and l e n d s f u r t h e r emphasis t o the importance o f e s t a b l i s h i n g more d e f i n i t i v e c r i t e r i a o f p a r e n t a l The  o t h e r f o u r t e e n c a t e g o r i e s under S e c t i o n 7,  capability.  under which  c h i l d r e n may be apprehended, a r e more c l e a r l y d e f i n e d i n terms of t a n g i b l e or p h y s i c a l n e g l e c t , while sub-section neglect.  the v e r y vagueness o f  (k) a l l o w s the i n c l u s i o n o f a measure o f e m o t i o n a l  C h i l d welfare  of n e g l e c t c o m p l a i n t s  agencies  a r e agreed t h a t t h e m a j o r i t y  are p r e s e n t e d  t o the j u v e n i l e c o u r t  under t h i s s u b - s e c t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia. and  the e n s u i n g  Emotional r e j e c t i o n  p s y c h o l o g i c a l damage i s a major c o n s i d e r a t i o n  i n c h i l d w e l f a r e p r a c t i c e t o d a y , and i t i s e v i d e n t t h a t v i s i o n i n law t o cover t h i s important be more d i s t i n c t l y made.  phase o f n e g l e c t  proshould  S o c i a l workers who a r e d a i l y con-  v e r s a n t w i t h t h e problem s h o u l d take r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r m o d i f i c a t i o n and changes i n c h i l d w e l f a r e p o l i c y , b y i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f changing t r e n d s t o the g o v e r n i n g u l t i m a t e l y enacts The represent  body which  and amends l e g i s l a t i o n .  judges o f t h e j u v e n i l e c o u r t s i n B r i t i s h  a v a r i e t y o f t r a i n i n g and e x p e r i e n c e .  judges have degrees i n law, w h i l e  Columbia  Some o f t h e  the m a j o r i t y a r e r e s p e c t e d  community c i t i z e n s who a r e a p p o i n t e d  as l a y - m a g i s t r a t e s .  87 C h i l d p r o t e c t i o n as i t i n v o l v e s t h e aou.se o f c h i l d r e n i s an a r e a charged w i t h emotion,  and each i n d i v i d u a l concerned i n  t h i s work b r i n g s i n t o i t h i s own v a l u e s and a t t i t u d e s , and interpretations of neglect.  In order t o safeguard the r i g h t s  o f c h i l d r e n and t h e i r p a r e n t s , t h e s o c i a l a g e n c i e s have a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o i n t e r p r e t t o these judges the changing trends i n c h i l d welfare theories.  The S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f  C h i l d Welfare i s an a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t a t t h e annual of magistrates.  conference  However, i n d i v i d u a l a g e n c i e s c a n make con-  s t r u c t i v e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n w i t h i n t h e i r own a r e a s , hy maint a i n i n g a good p r o f e s s i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the judge. T h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p c a n he f u r t h e r enhanced hy s o c i a l work knowledge o f b a s i c c o u r t p r o c e d u r e s , i n o r d e r t h a t t h e h e a r i n g s under t h e A c t can be conducted  i n d i g n i t y and  awareness o f t h e p r o p e r i n t e n t o f t h e p r o c e e d i n g s .  In the  sample s t u d i e d , t h e judge c o n c u r r e d w i t h t h e recommendation of t h e S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f C h i l d Welfare A-,  i n a l l i n s t a n c e s hut  where t h e S u p e r i n t e n d e n t was o p p o s i n g the r e t u r n o f t h e  children.  T h i s does n o t i n d i c a t e l i a i s o n , but a common  understanding o f the p r i n c i p l e s i n v o l v e d .  In a l l instances  except two, t h e judge o r d e r e d t h e c h i l d r e n r e t u r n e d under the s u p e r v i s i o n o f t h e S u p e r i n t e n d e n t f o r the p e r i o d o f one year.  The c o m b i n a t i o n o f s k i l l e d s o c i a l assessment and the l e g a l a u t h o r i t y s e r v e s t o g i v e s u p p o r t t o d i s t u r b e d parents.  I n s p i t e o f many h o s t i l i t i e s which may be e x p r e s s e d ,  88 the p a r e n t s are made aware of t h e i r r i g h t s under the A c t t o a p p l y f o r the r e t u r n o f t h e i r c h i l d r e n , and the o f casework h e l p towards t h i s g o a l .  availability  At the same time,  r i g h t s o f c h i l d r e n are p r o t e c t e d , i f t h e i r p a r e n t s  the  are  incapable. L i m i t a t i o n s o f the Study T h i s t h e s i s makes a b e g i n n i n g i n the e x p l o r a t i o n o f s o c i a l work r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n the a r e a o f r e s t o r a t i o n of guardianship.  The  sample f a m i l i e s are used  and i t i s n o t r e a s o n a b l e such a s m a l l sample.  illustratively,  t o expect c o n c l u s i v e r e s u l t s f r o m  However, t h e y do i l l u m i n a t e the range  and v a r i e t y o f problems i n v o l v e d , and the need f o r examination  of p r i n c i p l e s .  j e c t e d from t h i s i n i t i a l  continuous  F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h c o u l d be  pro-  study, which has n o t been a b l e t o  i s o l a t e many o f the v a r i a b l e s .  F o r example, the  assessments  made o f p a r e n t a l s t r e n g t h s are based on r e c o r d e d m a t e r i a l which r e p r e s e n t s the judgements of many workers B r i t i s h Columbia, w i t h v a r i o u s s t a n d a r d s experience.  throughout  of t r a i n i n g  A l s o , t h e r e has been no attempt made to  and analyze  the q u a l i t y o f the p r e v e n t i v e work done, o r o f the casework method d u r i n g and a f t e r the s e p a r a t i o n p r o c e s s . Future  Goals i n C h i l d P r o t e c t i o n Some p r i n c i p l e s , i t can be argued, s t a n d out more  c l e a r l y , as a r e s u l t o f these c a s e s .  The  g o a l s of  child  89 p r o t e c t i o n , i n t h e i r most b a s i c form, do c o n c e r n t h e s a f e g u a r d i n g o f t h e r i g h t s o f p a r e n t s and c h i l d r e n .  S o c i a l work  as a p r o f e s s i o n i s most i n v o l v e d i n t h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y because o f i t s p s y c h o - s o c i a l  approach t o human problems.  improvement o f s e r v i c e s depend on two main r e s o u r c e s , and  q u a l i f i e d personnel.  The r e c e n t  The  research  s t u d y conducted by t h e  E l i z a b e t h McCormick Memorial Fund has r e v e a l e d t h a t t h e r e i s a d i s t i n c t l a c k of c l a r i t y i n present-day c h i l d welfare  theory:  t h e o r i e s a r e a c c e p t e d i n s t r u c t u r e , r a t h e r t h a n c o n t e n t , and there  i s "no v a l i d t e s t i n g o f hypotheses r e s u l t i n g from t h e  a assumptions u n d e r l y i n g  c h i l d - r e a r i n g i n our c u l t u r e " .  The  need f o r c r i t e r i a on which t o base p a r e n t a l adequacy, and under what c o n d i t i o n s a c h i l d s h o u l d parents,  i svital.  be s e p a r a t e d  from h i s  A d e f i n i t i o n o f n e g l e c t which w i l l  cover  the p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y damaging a r e a o f e m o t i o n a l r e j e c t i o n , as w e l l as p h y s i c a l abuse, and an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h i s i n l e g a l terms, p r e s e n t s sion.  a current  challenge  t o t h e s o c i a l work p r o f e s -  R e s e a r c h may he able t o make c l e a r e r t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e  o f h i s own f a m i l y t o t h e c h i l d , when t h e c h i l d s u f f e r s "neglect",  and t o i d e n t i f y t h e most c o n s t r u c t i v e  which w i l l keep such a f a m i l y u n i t t o g e t h e r . .temporary s e p a r a t i o n s long-term goals  should  The v a l u e o f  be t e s t e d , i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e  of a re-united family.  s t r e s s the r e d i s c o v e r y  services  Current  theories  o f t h e f a m i l y as t h e most important  8 E l i z a b e t h McCormick Memorial Fund, op. c i t . , p . 3«  90  " s o c i a l i z i n g " device, and the f e a r that, because of t h i s new emphasis, the c h i l d may be l e f t too long i n h i s own home, to h i s detriment, while preventive s e r v i c e s are given the parents. In a recent address to the Ontario Childrens* A i d S o c i e t i e s , a prominent c h i l d p s y c h i a t r i s t stated:  "Keeping a c h i l d i n  a family where there are healthy behaviour patterns w i l l prepare a c h i l d to produce healthy behaviour patterns, but keeping a c h i l d i n a family where there are many disorganized and unhealthy modes of l i v i n g w i l l only prepare the c h i l d to Q  repeat the same i n h i s own adult l i f e " .  Such a concept needs  t e s t i n g i n terms of the strength of a f f e c t i o n a l t i e s between c h i l d and parent.  Research can perhaps c l a r i f y the s o c i a l  work r o l e i n p r o t e c t i o n , i n view of the c o n f l i c t involved i n the i d e a l of keeping the family together and the necessity f o r separation. Society i s deeply concerned with the welfare of i t s children.  The p r o t e c t i o n of the r i g h t s of c h i l d r e n and  t h e i r parents i s a serious r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , with deep implications f o r the future of the p a r t i e s involved.  This  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y must be placed i n the hands of q u a l i f i e d p r a c t i t i o n e r s , who have developed t h e i r s k i l l s i n s o c i a l work method through formal t r a i n i n g , and who are versed i n the knowledge of the development of p e r s o n a l i t y and the meaning  9 Rosen, E. J . , "Current A t t i t u d e s as They A f f e c t Neglected Children," The S o c i a l Worker, Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n of S o c i a l Workers, Ottawa, Ontario, v o l . 28, No. 4, October I960, pp. 11-12.  91 of b e h a v i o u r .  This w i l l  enable t r e a t m e n t - o r i e n t e d g o a l s i n  p r o t e c t i o n work, based on v a l i d assessment o f p a r e n t a l strengths.  The need f o r i n c r e a s e d r e s e a r c h programs and more  t r a i n e d p e r s o n n e l i n s o c i a l work i s b e i n g r e c o g n i z e d i n c r e a s i n g l y i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s and Canada.  Perhaps one o f  the o v e r - a l l g o a l s f o r t h e s o c i a l work p r o f e s s i o n s h o u l d i n v o l v e the type o f s o c i a l a c t i o n which w i l l produce the f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s needed t o c a r r y out these programs o f s o c i a l work e d u c a t i o n and r e s e a r c h .  APPENDICES  92 APPENDIX A  " PROTECTION OF CHILDREN ACT " ("Revised Statutes of British Columbia, 1948," Chapter 47)  COMPLAINT i,  (Name of person laying complaint.)  (Occupation.)  (Employer.)  duly authorized in this behalf in accordance with section 7, " Protection of Children Act" of the Province of British Columbia, say that (Full legal names of child or children.)  apprehended in on the  (Place of apprehensi6n.)  -day of_.  19  ,  (" is a child "/" are children ")  apparently under the age of eighteen years, in need of protection within the meaning of the said Act, by reason of section 7, subsection  . (Quote exactly the relevant clause or clauses from the Act.)  TAKEN AND SWORN before me at.  in the Province of British Columbia, this.. day of  „  (Signature of person laying complaint.)  , 19.  A Judge as defined in section 2, " Protection of Children Act."  To be completed in duplicate. Original to be left with Court. Duplicate to be placed on District Office file.  C.w. 24—o  93 PROVINCE OF BRITISH C O L U M B I A PROTECTION  OF CHILDREN  ACT  (Revised Statutes of British Columbia, 1948, Chapter 41' f  ORDER WHEREAS (Full legal names of child or children.)  apprehended on the  ;  __-__.-___.J-  __„.;_..„_. day.of /.___  _•__--__:.__=____;;.,-., 19.:  , and first brought before  (Name of Judge presiding at first hearing or " me " if same Judge throughout.)  on the  day of  , 19  .V: \ '\\\:>\ '•..')!.. v  , by.  . .. •  (Name.)  •  . ,.  ,, •  (Occupation.)  •  (Employer.)  -.  '• '  C  -  .duly  authorized in this behalf in accordance with section 7, Protection of Children Act, to determine if trie said  AND  -'..—J*.  I'll  (Child is/children are.)  in heed of protection within the meaning of the said A c t .  W H E R E A S due notice of'this investigation'was given to the Superintendent of Child Welfare' for  the Province of British Columbia; to.  _  .'_._'.__:.—:'.'.:...;...:___  . ' S . J ; .  VrV. .  1  :'___„__ .7;_  .  . <U V ,  (Names of other persons notified of hearing.)  ". ':V-.  .. -• ••.-.i."' .r„" ',  if;!.-.  '  . i: •>,  .  r  •'.;••.']•-...'  U P O N H E A R I N G the evidence adduced, and upon hearing  (Names of persons giving evidence or representing principals.)  I D O F I N D that the said  in need of protection within the meaning (Child is/children are.)  of the said A c t , by reason of section 7, subsection  ! 1  :  (Quote exactly the relevant clause or clauses from the Act.)  I D O F U R T H E R F I N D the following as facts in regard to the said . (Child/children.) Abandoned Surname  Christian Name(s)  Date of Birth  Nationality  (Complete information for all spaces; do not use ditto marks.)  Religion  By By Father? Mother? (Yes/No) (Yes/No)  (OVER)  Being the children of :-  Father  Mother  Name Place of abodeOccupation Living?  (Yes/no.)  (Yes/no.)  I DO ORDER that the said  be delivered into the custody  (Child/children.)  Of.. "  •  '(Name of agency, Superintendent of Child Welfare, or parent.)  -  -  pursuant to the provisions of section 8, subsection (5), clause  '  of the (Insert (o), (6), or (c), whichever clause applicable.)  Protection of Children Act.  ,  AND I DO F U R T H E R O R D E R that  i .n:„: :•  shall pay to  •  the sum of $  ~-.  (Name of local area found to be responsible.) i:  •  (Name of agency/Superintendent of Child Welfare.)  •.„.„.,......per-week maintenance for each child in respect of the said.  (Child/children.)  .in accordance with section 32, subsection (9), of the Protection of Children Act AND I DO F U R T H E R O R D E R that of the said  , shall pay to the  (Child/children.)  for each child the sum of $  ,,  . , parent  (Name of local area/Superintendent of Child Welfare.)  i——_ weekly so long as the responsible local area shall pay on the order,  the said payments to commence  :  (Dale.)  , 19  Given under my hand and seal at..  in the Province of British Columbia, this day of  :.:  F O R M C . W . 22—1M-1060-8091  „—-  A Judge as defined in section 2, Protection of Children Act. , A.D. 19.  94 IN THE MATTES OE THE PROTECTION OP CHILDREN ACT ( b e i n g Chapter 47, R.S.B.C. 1948) and IN THE MATTER OF infant children BEFORE  (Judge's name t o be) i n s e r t e d here) )  the  ) of  The  application  A.D. 1960_.  of  f o r an  o r d e r t e r m i n a t i n g t h e custody, c o n t r o l  and g u a r d i a n s h i p o f the  S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f C h i l d Welfare f o r t h e P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h Columbia i n r e s p e c t t o t h e i n f a n t  child  (or c h i l d r e n )  , coming on f o r h e a r i n g t h i s day: UPON HEARING t h e evidence adduced on b e h a l f o f t h e s a i d AND UPON HEARING t h e p a r e n t s , and ( s o c i a l worker) on b e h a l f o f t h e s a i d S u p e r i n t e n d e n t  of Child  Welfare. THIS COURT DOTH ORDER t h a t t h e c u s t o d y and c o n t r o l o f the i n f a n t c h i l d  (or c h i l d r e n )  be  permanently awarded t o t h e s a i d  .  AND THIS COURT DOTH FURTHER ORDER t h a t t h e s a i d (or c h i l d r e n )  child  be r e t u r n e d  by t h e s a i d S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f C h i l d Welfare t o the c u s t o d y and c o n t r o l  o f the s a i d  (Parents),  and t h a t t h e g u a r d i a n s h i p o f the s a i d S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f C h i l d Welfare  o f the s a i d c h i l d  be and i s hereby  (or c h i l d r e n )  terminated.  A Judge o f  .  95 APPENDIX B BIBLIOGRAPHY Books Abbott, Grace. The C h i l d and t h e S t a t e . V o l . 1, of Chicago P r e s s , Chicago, 194-9.  The U n i v e r s i t y  Bowlby, John. M a t e r n a l Care and M e n t a l H e a l t h . World H e a l t h O r g a n i z a t i o n , P a l a i s des N a t i o n s , Geneva, 1952, Monograph S e r i e s , Revised 1954. C a s s i d y , H a r r y M. P u b l i c H e a l t h and Welfare The R y e r s o n P r e s s , Toronto, 1945•  Reorganization.  C h a r n l e y , Jean. The A r t o f C h i l d Placement. U n i v e r s i t y o f Minnesota P r e s s , M i n n e a p o l i s , 1955• E r i c k s o n , E r i k H. C h i l d h o o d and S o c i e t y . Imago P u b l i s h i n g Co. L t d . , London, 1 9 5 0 . P r e d e r i c k s e n , H a z e l . The C h i l d and H i s W e l f a r e . W. H. Preeman and Company, San F r a n c i s c o , 1957* Glickman, E s t h e r . C h i l d Placement Through C l i n i c a l l y O r i e n t e d Casework. Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , New York, 1 9 5 7 . Gordon, H e n r i e t t a L . Casework S e r v i c e s f o r C h i l d r e n . Houghton M i f f l i n Company, The R i v e r s i d e P r e s s , Cambridge,  1956.  Heywood, Jean S. C h i l d r e n i n Care. Humanities P r e s s , New York,  1959.  Lundberg, Emma O c t a v i a . Unto the L e a s t o f These. D. C e n t u r y Company, I n c . , New York, 194-7*  Appleton-  P a r a d , Howard J . , E d . Ego P s y c h o l o g y and Dynamic Casework. F a m i l y S e r v i c e A s s o c i a t i o n o f America, New York, I 9 6 0 . R i b b l e , Margaret A. The R i g h t s o f I n f a n t s . Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , New York, 1953 • T a y l o r , H a s s e l t i n e Byrd. Law o f Guardian and Ward. The U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago P r e s s , Chicago, 1935* Towle, C h a r l o t t e . Common Human Needs. American A s s o c i a t i o n o f S o c i a l Workers, New York, 1955*  96 A r t i c l e s and Pamphlets Adequacy of S o c i a l Allowances Committee, Community Chest and Council. Report on the Adequacy of S o c i a l Assistance Allowances i n the C i t y of Vancouver. P r i n t e d p r i v a t e l y , Vancouver, September 1 9 5 8 . Angus, Anne Margaret. Children's A i d Society of Vancouver. B. C . 1901-1951. A F i f t i e t h Anniversary P u b l i c a t i o n , p r i n t e d p r i v a t e l y , Vancouver, 1 9 5 1 . B. C. A s s o c i a t i o n of S o c i a l Workers. Statement i n Regard to P u b l i c S o c i a l Welfare Services i n B r i t i s h Columbia, p r i n t e d p r i v a t e l y , Vancouver, February 1 9 6 1 . Canadian Welfare Council. C h i l d Protection i n Canada. Ottawa, 1954, r e p r i n t e d 1 9 5 8 . C h i l d Welfare League of America. Today and Tomorrow. General Report of the Committee of Functions and Program, New York, May 1 9 5 5 . Community Chest and Council of Greater Vancouver. C h i l d Welfare L e g i s l a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Vancouver, B. C , 1 9 4 7 . De F r a n c i s , Vincent. The Fundamentals of C h i l d P r o t e c t i o n . Children's D i v i s i o n , The American Humane Association, Denver, Colorado, 1955* Department of S o c i a l Welfare, Province of B r i t i s h Columbia. Annual Reports of the Superintendent of C h i l d Welfare. Queen's P r i n t e r , V i c t o r i a , 194-7-1960. E l l i o t t , Sarah Anne, and Keith-Lucas, Alan. "A Mother's Movement toward R e s p o n s i b i l i t y During her Child's Placement." S o c i a l Casework, Family Service Association of America, Hew York, v o l . XXXV, No. 4 , A p r i l 1 9 5 4 , pp. 166-169. E l i z a b e t h McCormick Memorial Fund. Proceedings on the Conference on Research i n the Children's F i e l d . National Association of S o c i a l Workers, New York, 1 9 5 6 . Herzog, E l i z a b e t h . "One Research Project - A Case History." S o c i a l Casework, Family Service A s s o c i a t i o n of America, New York, v o l . XXXIV, No. 5 , Hay 1 9 5 3 , pp. 1 9 1 - 1 9 8 . Hutchison, Dorothy. "The Placement Worker and the Child's Own Parents." S o c i a l Casework, Family Service A s s o c i a t i o n of America, New York, v o l . XXXV, No. 7 , J u l y 1 9 5 4 , pp. 292-296.  97 Jewish C h i l d Care A s s o c i a t i o n of New York. Changing Concepts i n C h i l d Care. New York, 1954-. Judgement of J u s t i c e Coady, Supreme Court, B r i t i s h Columbia. Western Weekly Reports, v o l . 2, C i t a t i o n 60, B. C. Report 3 5 2 , Burroughs and Company Limited, Law Publishers, Calgary, 1944. Mulford, Robert M. and Associates. Caseworker and Judge i n Neglect Cases. C h i l d Welfare League of America, Inc., New York, August 1956. Page, Norma K n o l l . Protective Service; Casework With Parents. C h i l d Welfare League of America, Inc., New York, (undated 1947 or l a t e r ) . Proceedings of the Midcentury White House Conference on Children and Youth. Health Publications I n s t i t u t e , Inc., Raleigh, N. C , 1951. Rosen, E. J . "Current Attitudes as they A f f e c t Neglected Children." The S o c i a l Worker, Canadian Association of S o c i a l Workers, Ottawa, v o l . 28, No. 4 , October I 9 6 0 , pp. 8 - 1 7 . Watson, E. P. A Summary Discussion of the History and Problem of C h i l d Welfare Services i n Vancouver. Family and C h i l d Welfare D i v i s i o n , Coimrmnity Chest and Councils of the Greater Vancouver Area, May I 9 6 0 . Weissman, I r v i n g . "Guardianship R e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r Children." P u b l i c a t i o n s , P u b l i c a t i o n No. P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , Washington,  A Way of F u l f i l l i n g Public U. S. Children's Bureau 3 3 0 , United States Government 1949.  White House Conference 1930 on C h i l d Health and P r o t e c t i o n . The Century Company, New York, 1931. P r o v i n c i a l Statutes of B r i t i s h Columbia Equal Guardianship of Infants Act. R.S. 1948, c. 139,  s. 1.  P r o t e c t i o n of Children Act. R.S. 1948, c. 47, s. 1. S o c i a l Assistance Act. R.S. 1948, c. 3 1 0 ,  s. 1.  Welfare I n s t i t u t i o n s L i c e n s i n g Act. R.S. 1948, c. 3 6 3 , s. 1.  

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