UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Some aspects of religion in British Columbia politics. Ellis, Walter E. 1959

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SOME ASPECTS OF RELIGION IN BRITISH COLUMBIA POLITICS by . W a l t e r E. W. E l l i s B. A., U n i v e r s i t y o f A l b e r t a , 1956 A T h e s i s S u b m i t t e d i n P a r t i a l F u l f i l l m e n t o f the R e q u i r e m e n t s f o r t h e Degree of MASTER OF ARTS i n the Department o f P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e s t a n d a r d r e q u i r e d f r o m c a n d i d a t e s f o r t h e degree M a s t e r o f A r t s The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a A p r i l , 1959 ABSTRACT The purpose o f t h i s t h e s i s i s to study some a s p e c t s o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p between r e l i g i o n and p o l i t i c s i n the pr o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h Columbia. Three f a c e t s o f the problem are c o n s i d e r e d . F i r s t , the a t t i t u d e s of clergymen t o t h e i r r o l e i n p o l i t i c a l a f f a i r s j as w e l l as t h e i r a t t i t u d e s towards p r a c t i c a l p o l i t i c a l i s s u e s , and t h e i r v o t i n g b e h a v i o r . To o b t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e s e s u b j e c t s , a q u e s t i o n n a i r e approach was u t i l i z e d . The second f a c e t s t u d i e d i s the h i s t o r y of a r e l i g i o u s l y based pressure group w i t h i n the p r o v i n c e . The temperance movement was chosen. Research m a t e r i a l u t i l i z e d i n c l u d e d minutes and l e t t e r s o f the temperance o r g a n i z a t i o n s ; l e t t e r s o f governmental o f f i c i a l s ; newspaper r e p o r t s ; and p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w s . T h i r d , the r e l i g i o u s a f f i l i a t i o n s o f members of the B r i t i s h Columbia L e g i s l a t u r e , and the r e l a t i o n s h i p between r e l i g i o n and c a b i n e t appointments are c o n s i d e r e d . T h i s work i s not a comprehensive study o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p between r e l i g i o n and p o l i t i c s i n B r i t i s h Columbia; but i t does s t r e s s the i n t e r - r e l a t i o n s h i p between the two, which must be considered i n i n t e r p r e t i n g our p o l i t i c a l h i s t o r y . Some suggestions are made towards improving the techniques used by the r e l i g i o u s community i n attempting t o exert p o s i t i v e p o l i t i c a l i n f l u e n c e . In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by t h e Head o f my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g or p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department of Economfc s and P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver 8, Canada. Date A p r i l 17, 1959.  TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE INTRODUCTION . . 1 CHAPTER I. A t t i t u d e s o f the C l e r g y Towards P o l i t i c a l A c t i v i t i e s and I s s u e s . . . 8 A t t i t u d e s o f M i n i s t e r s Towards P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n P o l i t i c a l A f f a i r s 20 A t t i t u d e s o f M i n i s t e r s Towards P o l i t i c a l I s s u e s 42 V o t i n g B e h a v i o r of M i n i s t e r s and F a c t o r s A f f e c t i n g t h a t B e h a v i o r . . 68 I I . The Temperance Movement, a R e l i g i o u s l y Based P r e s s u r e Group . . . 99 I I I . R e l i g i o u s A f f i l i a t i o n o f Members of the B r i t i s h Columbia L e g i s l a t u r e 1871-1958 166 Methodology 168 P o p u l a t i o n and R e l i g i o u s A f f i l i a t i o n of Members o f the B r i t i s h Columbia L e g i s l a t u r e 171 R e l i g i o u s A f f i l i a t i o n and P a r t y Membership 180 Ca b i n e t F o r m a t i o n and R e l i g i o u s R e p r e s e n t a t i o n 191 IV. O b s e r v a t i o n s and C o n c l u s i o n s 202 FOOTNOTES ' 214 BIBLIOGRAPHY 233 APPENDICES 240 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Thanks i s e x p r e s s e d t o my c o u n s e l l o r , Dr. J e a n Laponce, f o r h i s h e l p and c o o p e r a t i o n d u r i n g the work on t h i s t h e s i s ; t o Dr. D a v i d C o r b e t t f o r h i s comments and s u g g e s t i o n s ; t o M i s s M. B. P a t o n f o r p e r m i s s i o n t o u t i l i z e m a t e r i a l of the temperance f e d e r a t i o n s ; and e s p e c i a l l y t o Mrs. Anne A r t h u r f o r h e r p a t i e n t c o o p e r a t i o n i n t y p i n g t h e work. W a l t e r E. W. E l l i s SOME ASPECTS OP RELIGION IN BRITISH COLUMBIA POLITICS INTRODUCTION Man i s a g r e g a r i o u s c r e a t u r e and l i v e s i n a s o c i e t y i n which he i s c a l l e d upon to p l a y many r o l e s and take p a r t i n many a s s o c i a t i o n s . The i n d i v i d u a l b e l o n g s t o many groups: f a m i l y , t r a d e u n i o n , s e r v i c e c l u b , and church; a l l make demands upon h i s l o y a l t y and s e r v i c e . O r g a n i z e d groups h e l p t o c o n c e n t r a t e the e n e r g i e s of i n d i v i d u a l s towards t h e i r d e s i r e d e n d s . 1 O r g a n i z e d groups of people are s t r u c t u r e s of power because they c o n c e n t r a t e human w i t , energy and muscle i n the achievement of d e s i r e d purposes. I n the p o l i t i c a l r e a l m the i n t e r p l a y of group f o r c e s determines what government p o l i c y s h a l l be, and the way the s t a t e s h a l l be p governed. The exact amount of a c t i v i t y i n the p o l i t i c a l sphere undertaken by any s o c i a l group w i l l be determined by the p h i l o s o p h y of the members of the group as to what p r o p e r l y c o n s t i t u t e s i t s i n t e r e s t s and f i e l d of a c t i v i t y . 2 Man i s a l s o a s p i r i t u a l c r e a t i o n so t h a t one of the many a s s o c i a t i o n s which he e s t a b l i s h e s i n any s o c i e t y i s an a s s o c i a t i o n based upon h i s r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f s and moral sentiments. The a t t i t u d e s of persons towards t h e i r churches or r e l i g i o u s i n s t i t u t i o n s i s Important because t h a t a t t i t u d e w i l l determine, In p a r t , the degree to which the s p i r i t u a l f o r c e s of the community make themselves v o c a l and attempt t o i n f l u e n c e o t h e r aspects o f human i n t e r a c t i o n . The a t t i t u d e s of churchmen w i l l determine t h e i r i n t e r e s t and a c t i v i t y i n the p o l i t i c a l p r ocesses as i n any ot h e r f i e l d o f human endeavour. The r e l a t i o n o f the r e l i g i o u s group to the s t a t e i s a complicated q u e s t i o n , one which has concerned t h e o l o g i a n s , p h i l o s o p h e r s , and p o l i t i c a l s c i e n t i s t s f o r c e n t u r i e s . Nevertheless, c o n t r o v e r s y s t i l l c e n ters around what areas of l i f e should f a l l under the a u t h o r i t y and i n f l u e n c e o f the church. I n North America, and p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s , the f a c t t h a t no r e l i g i o u s i n s t i t u t i o n c o u l d c l a i m the support o>f a m a j o r i t y of the p o p u l a t i o n r e s u l t e d i n the o n l y p l a u s i b l e s o l u t i o n — t h e development o f a p h i l o s o p h y o f c h u r c h - s t a t e r e l a t i o n s which demanded acceptance o f the p r i n c i p l e of complete i n s t i t u t i o n a l s e p a r a t i o n . However, the s e p a r a t i o n t h e o r y has s i n c e been co r r u p t e d to such a degree t h a t many persons, both w i t h i n and without the churches, r e f u s e to all o w any p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n to be taken on the p a r t of the church to i n f l u e n c e the p u b l i c l i f e of the community. The r e l i g i o u s group must be concerned o n l y w i t h the s p i r i t u a l w e l f a r e o f man and l e a v e the o t h e r spheres of man's a c t i v i t y to the ot h e r groups s p e c i f i c a l l y developed 3 to d e a l w i t h them. The s e p a r a t i o n theory has been c o r r u p t e d to become a compartmentalizing and s e g r e g a t i n g a t t i t u d e to l i f e which some people c o n s i d e r to be a modern C h r i s t i a n heresy.3 R e l i g i o u s people have come to b e l i e v e t h a t t h e r e i s a p o s i t i v e v i r t u e i n remaining n e u t r a l i n l o c a l and n a t i o n a l p o l i t i c s . ^ They b e l i e v e t h a t p o l i t i c s i s a w o r l d l y and d i r t y p u r s u i t , from which the s p i r i t u a l f o r c e s must separate themselves and stand a l o o f . But whether d i r e c t a c t i o n i s taken o r not, i n d i v i d u a l s and groups are i n e v i t a b l y making p o l i t i c a l d e c i s i o n s . The i n a c t i v i t y of some means t h a t p o l i t i c a l i n f l u e n c e and a c t i o n i s l e f t to o t h e r s , and "masterly i n a c t i v i t y " i n f a c t becomes a method f o r u p h o l d i n g and p r e s e r v i n g the p o l i t i c a l system as i t i s . Understood p r o p e r l y , the a c t i v i t y of the r e l i g i o u s group i s not o n l y p i e t i s t i c and s u b j e c t i v e , i t i s a l s o extremely p r a c t i c a l , f o r i t attempts to guide and d i r e c t the a c t i v i t i e s and a c t i o n s of men and aims at e x p l a i n i n g and r e l a t i n g man to h i s e x i s t i n g e n v i r o n m e n t E v e r y sphere of human a c t i v i t y must be open to moral and r e l i g i o u s i n f l u e n c e s ; f o r a l l problems and i s s u e s are at base moral and r e l i g i o u s i n n a t u r e . Thus, to deny to r e l i g i o u s f o r c e s a p l a c e i n the p o l i t i c a l p r ocess i s to remove the sphere o f p o l i t i c s from the i n f l u e n c e of man as he a s s o c i a t e s at h i s h i g h e s t and b e s t . One w r i t e r has commented: The e v i d e n t c o n c l u s i o n of such people seems to be t h a t the church has no r i g h t to engage i n p o l i t i c s . I n d i v i d u a l p e r s u a s i o n , not l e g i s l a t i o n should be the method employed to advance God's Kingdom. . . . Such a view i s of v e r y d o u b t f u l v a l i d i t y . Business, r e l i g i o n , c l u b l i f e , p o l i t i c s are not so many d i s t i n c t e n t i t i e s . They are p a r t s o f a f u l l s o c i a l p e r s o n a l i t y . The b u s i n e s s man does not l a y a s i d e h i s economic p h i l o s o p h y when he c o n s i d e r s a p o l i t i c a l problem. Churchmen do not d i v e r t themselves of t h e i r r e l i g i o n when they t u r n to vote. . . . R e p r e s e n t a t i v e government i s not adequately p i c t u r e d when viewed as the mere s e l e c t i o n o f a number of p o l i t i c a l s e r v a n t s . I t embraces a l s o the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s , who ad v i s e , coerce, and c a j o l e those s e r v a n t s . To deny to the churches r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n the l a t t e r sense i s not o n l y to d e f e a t r e a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e government, but to deny our p u b l i c s e r v a n t s the counsel o f an Important body o f o p i n i o n . C h r i s t i a n people and the churches are bound to " i n t e r f e r e " i n p o l i t i c s because by v o c a t i o n they are agents o f God's purpose, o u t s i d e the scope o f which no human i n t e r e s t or a c t i v i t y can f a l l . ? However, to s t a t e t h a t there i s a p l a c e f o r r e l i g i o u s groups and moral sentiments i n our p o l i t i c a l processes i s not to. r e s o l v e the q u e s t i o n o f how b e s t t h a t i n f l u e n c e can be undertaken. Nor does i t answer the q u e s t i o n o f the degree to which r e l i g i o u s f a c t o r s have p l a y e d a p a r t i n the p o l i t i c a l l i f e o f the community. I t does not l e a d t o an understanding o f the problems and p i t f a l l s t h a t have l e d C h r i s t i a n s to a c c e p t i n g a compartmentalizing p h i l o s o p h y , and to d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t w i t h p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n . The purpose o f t h i s paper w i l l be to study some aspects of r e l i g i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia p o l i t i c s i n an attempt to gauge the e f f e c t i v e n e s s and degree to which r e l i g i o n has p l a y e d a p a r t i n p r o v i n c i a l a f f a i r s . I t i s hoped t h a t by stu d y i n g some aspects o f r e l i g i o n i n p r o v i n c i a l p o l i t i c s some i n s i g h t can be gained i n t o the way r e l i g i o u s i n f l u e n c e can be made more e f f e c t i v e and p r a c t i c a l i n the r e s o l u t i o n o f p o l i t i c a l questions and the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of honest government. 5 Members o f any group are i n f l u e n c e d g r e a t l y by the a t t i t u d e s o f t h e i r l e a d e r s . C o n v e r s e l y , the a t t i t u d e s o f group l e a d e r s are determined i n p a r t by the g o a l s which the members wish t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n s t o pursue. T h i s i s l i k e l y t o be as t r u e f o r r e l i g i o u s o r g a n i z a t i o n s as i t i s f o r s e c u l a r ones. The a t t i t u d e o f the church t o p o l i t i c a l a f f a i r s i s g e n e r a l l y determined by the c l e r g y * s c o n c e p t i o n o f i t s own l e a d e r s h i p r o l e . The c l e r g y as an e l i t e group are l o o k e d up t o and i m i t a t e d i n every sphere of human a c t i v i t y , i n c l u d i n g those spheres of l i f e not d e f i n e d as n a r r o w l y r e l i g i o u s . T h e i r s t y l e o f l i f e , f a m i l y b e h a v i o u r , and s o c i a l c o n t a c t s are watched c l o s e l y by o t h e r s , and are i n f l u e n t i a l when o t h e r Q persons attempt t o f o l l o w t h e i r examples. Thus, the c l e r g y i s i n a p a r t i c u l a r l y f a v o u r a b l e p o s i t i o n to i n f l u e n c e the t h i n k i n g and a c t i v i t y o f s o c i e t y , and of the members of t h e i r r e l i g i o u s i n s t i t u t i o n s i n p a r t i c u l a r . One of the major f a c t o r s which w i l l determine the p o t e n t i a l of the church as a p o l i t i c a l f o r c e w i l l be the i n f l u e n c e e x e r t e d by i t s c l e r g y . The a t t i t u d e s o f the m i n i s t e r s towards p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n , and the f a c t o r s which i n f l u e n c e t h e i r a c t u a l p o l i t i c a l b e h a v i o u r i s one q u e s t i o n which must t h e r e f o r e be c o n s i d e r e d . 6 Moral sentiments and r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f s permeate every sphere of human s o c i a l a c t i v i t y . And i t can be argued t h a t e f f e c t i v e moral i n f l u e n c e can be and has been be s t undertaken by v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s of i n d i v i d u a l s formed o u t s i d e o f the i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d r e l i g i o u s o r g a n i z a t i o n s as narrowly d e f i n e d . Such groups w i t h s p e c i f i c and more l i m i t e d alms can a c t without " i n t e r f e r i n g " w i t h the narrower " s p i r i t u a l f u n c t i o n s of the church" and without the i n h e r e n t danger o f a l i e n a t i n g supporters and adherents o f the church from r e l i g i o u s i n f l u e n c e by " i n t e r f e r e n c e " i n s e c u l a r p o l i t i c a l a f f a i r s . By st u d y i n g the a c t i v i t i e s and i n f l u e n c e of one such l i m i t e d v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia p o l i t i c s i t i s hoped t h a t t h i s theory can be checked, and the s t r e n g t h and weaknesses o f t h i s form of moral o u t l e t c o n s i d e r e d . F i n a l l y , moral a t t i t u d e s and r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f s w i l l permeate the broader and more i n c l u s i v e p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s which aim d i r e c t l y at the a c q u i s i t i o n and u t i l i s a t i o n o f p o l i t i c a l power. Obviously, moral and r e l i g i o u s sentiments, i f separated from p a r t y , would l e a v e a v a s t area o f s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n unattended. The i n f l u e n c e of denominational d i v i s i o n s i n the fo r m a t i o n of p o l i t i c a l movements and i n the e l e c t i o n s of members to parliament—members who w i l l not d i v e s t themselves of t h e i r r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f s when conducting the n a t i o n ' s b u s i n e s s — i s another aspect which should be c o n s i d e r e d . From t h i s study of the a t t i t u d e s and p h i l o s o p h y o f the r e l i g i o u s e l i t e , the r e l i g i o u s l y based p r e s s u r e group, and the i n f l u e n c e o f r e l i g i o n i n p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s and l e g i s l a t i v e 7 r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , i t i s hoped t h a t some understanding o f the l e v e l and i n f l u e n c e of r e l i g i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia's p u b l i c l i f e can be gleaned. Such a study should a l s o p o i n t the way to m o d i f i c a t i o n s t h a t , i f i n s t i t u t e d , c o u l d g i v e an even g r e a t e r i n f l u e n c e to r e l i g i o u s f o r c e s i n the sphere o f p o l i t i c a l a f f a i r s and the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of moral government. CHAPTER I ATTITUDES OP THE CLERGY TOWARDS POLITICAL ACTIVITIES AND ISSUES The c l e r g y are the l e a d e r s of the i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d churches and the a t t i t u d e s of the c l e r g y towards the r o l e o f the church i n s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n i s l i k e l y to be a major f a c t o r : i n determining i t s p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n and i n f l u e n c e . The m i n i s t e r s , f u n c t i o n i n g as c o u n s e l l o r s and through the p u l p i t are i n a p o s i t i o n to a r t i c u l a t e the views o f the church on s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l i s s u e s . They are i n a p o s i t i o n to r e f l e c t the views and a s p i r a t i o n s of t h e i r p a r i s h i o n e r s , or to be an i n f l u e n t i a l f a c t o r i n changing these views. The a t t i t u d e s taken by C h r i s t i a n s towards p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y and towards i n d i v i d u a l i s s u e s are l i k e l y to be very much i n f l u e n c e d by the p o l i t i c a l behaviour and a t t i t u d e of the c l e r g y . Conversely, the a t t i t u d e of the r e l i g i o u s e l i t e i s l i k e l y to r e f l e c t the p o l i t i c a l p h i l o s o p h y and behaviour p r e s c r i b e d f o r them by t h e i r f o l l o w e r s . Thus, i n any study of the p l a c e of r e l i g i o n i n p o l i t i c s the a t t i t u d e s of church l e a d e r s must be one of the f i r s t and major f a c t o r s c o n s i d e r e d . 9 One may study the a t t i t u d e s of m i n i s t e r s towards t h e i r p o l i t i c a l r o l e and towards p o l i t i c a l q u e s t i o n s by r e a d i n g the pronouncements of the churches while i n conference, o r through t h e i r o f f i c i a l p u b l i c a t i o n s . A l t e r n a t i v e l y , one cou l d t u r n to the l a t e s t w r i t i n g s of the top minds i n the f i e l d s o f theology and r e l i g i o n . However, such approaches would not be r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the a c t u a l p o s i t i o n of the l o c a l p a s t o r as he works and i n f l u e n c e s h i s con g r e g a t i o n . S t u d i e s u s i n g such methods would r e f l e c t o n l y the s t a t e d p o l i c i e s of the churches o r the b e s t t h i n k i n g i n the f i e l d s of theology and p o l i t i c s . They would not r e f l e c t the p o s i t i o n o r a t t i t u d e of the average p a s t o r , the member of the r e l i g i o u s e l i t e who Is i n the bes t p o s i t i o n to I n f l u e n c e the t h i n k i n g of the churchmen and p a r i s h i o n e r s w i t h whom they come i n c o n t a c t . In an attempt to study the a t t i t u d e s of m i n i s t e r s towards t h e i r r o l e i n p o l i t i c a l a f f a i r s , t h e i r a t t i t u d e s towards c e r t a i n p o l i t i c a l i s s u e s , and t h e i r v o t i n g behaviour, i t was decid e d to do a case study of m i n i s t e r s i n one p a r t i c u l a r community. Such a study would i n c l u d e the p a s t o r s o f l a r g e churches and a l s o those who work i n sm a l l m i s s i o n s . The i n f l u e n c e o f such f a c t o r s as economic s t a t u s , socio-economic environment o f the p a s t o r ' s p a r i s h , and denominational d i s t i n c t i v e s on a m i n i s t e r ' s p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e s c o u l d be con s i d e r e d . I t was hoped t h a t a survey of m i n i s t e r s i n one community would g i v e a b e t t e r understanding o f the views of the r e l i g i o u s l e a d e r s most l i k e l y t o i n f l u e n c e the t h i n k i n g and p o l i t i c a l behaviour of the average church member and C h r i s t i a n v o t e r . 10 The f i r s t problem i n a p p r o a c h i n g such a case study was the one of f i n d i n g a community t h a t had s u f f i c i e n t l y v a r i e d socio-economic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t o make the study o f a f a i r l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e n a t u r e . The a r e a chosen was the M e t r o p o l i t a n A r e a of G r e a t e r Vancouver, an a r e a which had a p o p u l a t i o n o f 5 3 0 , 0 0 0 a t the time of the 1951 Canadian census.^ The a r e a i s w e l l s u i t e d t o such a study because of i t s v a r i e d s o c i a l and economic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . As i n any l a r g e c o a s t a l p o r t , slum and p r o s p e r o u s a r e a s are to be found. A p e r u s a l of the income d a t a g i v e n i n the 1951 census shows t h a t a t t h a t time t h e r e were 13,224 wage-earning males who had an annual income of l e s s than one thousand d o l l a r s . There were a l s o 4-,24-3 males unemployed. These two f i g u r e s combined r e p r e s e n t e d w e l l over 13 p e r cent of the area's l a b o u r f o r c e . Twenty-six per cent of the male l a b o u r f o r c e earned between one thousand and two thousand [ d o l l a r s . The upper income group, those w i t h incomes of over t h r e e thousand d o l l a r s , amounted t o 23 per cent of the male workers i n the Vancouver a r e a . The median income f o r wage-earners i n the Vancouver ar e a i n 1951 was 2 ,351 d o l l a r s . E c o n o m i c a l l y , the c i t y may be seen as a community where p o v e r t y and extreme w e a l t h e x i s t s i d e by s i d e . From the s t a n d p o i n t o f e t h n i c c o m p o s i t i o n Vancouver i s a p r e d o m i n a n t l y B r i t i s h community. Seventy-one per cent of 11 the p o p u l a t i o n are of B r i t i s h I s l e s r a c i a l o r i g i n s . The r e m a i n i n g 29 per cent of the p o p u l a t i o n i s d i v i d e d , w i t h 15 per cent b e i n g o f Western European and 8 p e r cent of E a s t e r n European r a c i a l o r i g i n s . There i s a l s o a c o n s i d e r a b l e A s i a n community w i t h i n the G r e a t e r Vancouver are a ; i t accounts f o r 2.5 per cent of the p o p u l a t i o n . The G r e a t e r Vancouver a r e a i s a l s o a heterogeneous r e l i g i o u s community. However, as would be expected, the main E n g l i s h s p e a k i n g c h u r c h e s , those w i t h A n g l i c a n and C a l v i n i s t r o o t s , account f o r 67 p e r cent of the p o p u l a t i o n . Churches wi t h C a t h o l i c t r a d i t i o n s , the Roman C a t h o l i c and Orthodox Churches, account f o r 12 and 1.7 per cent of the p o p u l a t i o n r e s p e c t i v e l y . The percentage of the p o p u l a t i o n c l a i m i n g a f f i l i a t i o n w i t h the B a p t i s t Churches i s 4.1 p e r c e n t . L u t h e r a n s , composed p r e d o m i n a n t l y of people of German and S c a n d i n a v i a n r a c i a l o r i g i n s , account f o r another 4.8 p e r c e n t . A p e r u s a l of the s t a t i s t i c s o f p o p u l a t i o n by r e l i g i o u s a f f i l i a t i o n a l s o shows t h a t over 8 p e r cent of the p o p u l a t i o n b e l o n g t o s m a l l e r r e l i g i o u s denominations and groups. T h i s f i g u r e i s somewhat l a r g e r t han t h a t r e c o r d e d f o r any o t h e r western Canadian c i t y . I n Edmonton 5*1 per c e n t of the p o p u l a t i o n f a l l w i t h i n t h i s c a t e g o r y ; i n Regina, 4.8 per c e n t . 1 ^ T h i s h i g h f i g u r e may be e x p l a i n e d p a r t l y by the e x i s t e n c e of the l a r g e A s i a n community i n the G r e a t e r Vancouver a r e a . Thus, over 50 per cent of the A s i a n s i n the 1951 census l i s t e d an o t h e r than C h r i s t i a n r e l i g i o u s a f f i l i a t i o n . The r e m a i n i n g s e c t o r of the p o p u l a t i o n , which makes up about 12 6 o f t h i s 8 per c e n t , adhere t o what may be c o n s i d e r e d s e c t - t y p e r e l i g i o u s denominations; t h a t i s , denominations showing at l e a s t some of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a t t r i b u t e d to t h a t type of r e l i g i o u s i n s t i t u t i o n . Examples of the denominations found under t h i s g r o uping a r e : the S a l v a t i o n Army, the Church o f the Nazarene, the Mennonite, P e n t e c o s t a l , and o t h e r " h o l i n e s s " movements. 1 1 c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the M e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a because of the problem of f i n d i n g a g e o g r a p h i c a l a r e a which c l o s e l y c o r r e s p o n d s t o t h a t used i n the survey. The b o u n d a r i e s of the f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l c o n s t i t u e n c i e s do not c o i n c i d e , w i t h p a r t s of s e v e r a l c o n s t i t u e n c i e s f a l l i n g o u t s i d e of the b u i l t - u p m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a . However, by employing a system of i n c l u d i n g o n l y those c o n s t i t u e n c i e s which f a l l c o m p l e t e l y w i t h i n the b o u n d a r i e s of the survey, c e r t a i n broad t r e n d s can be a s c e r t a i n e d and g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s made upon them. A survey of t h e p r o v i n c i a l statement of v o t e s f o r the 195& p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n shows the 12 f o l l o w i n g d i s t r i b u t i o n i n t o t a l and percentage v o t e by p a r t y : TABLE 1 T o t a l and Percentage Vote by P a r t y  1956 P r o v i n c i a l E l e c t i o n ( T o t a l v o t e s cast—3 2 9,064) P a r t y T o t a l Vote Percentage Vote S o c i a l C r e d i t 151,740 46.11 C. C. P. 90,166 27.40 I t i s d i f f i c u l t to d e s c r i b e the g e n e r a l p o l i t i c a l L i b e r a l 78,828 21.82 Prog. Cons. 12,355 3.75 Others 3,109 .94 These figures are computed from the four constituencies which f a l l completely within the survey area. Three of the constituencies, Vancouver Burrard, Vancouver East and Vancouver Centre, are double member constituencies. The fourth,riding, Vancouver Point Grey, is a triple member constituency. Of the nine members elected in the four constituencies, eight represent the Social Credit and the other the C. C. P. party. A perusal of the statement of votes issued after the recent Federal General Election indicates a different voting pattern entirely.^3 The Federal percentage vote by party in the six constituencies which f a l l completely within the survey area are indicated below: TABLE 2 Total and Percentage Vote by Party 1957 Federal General Election (Total votes--170.086) Party Total Vote Percentage Vote Liberal 29,739 lT.i+8 Prog. Cons. 71,427 41.99 C C. F. 33,928 19.94 Social Credit 33,388 19.63 Others 1,604 .94 Of the six ridings, four—Vancouver Burrard, Vancouver Quadra, Vancouver South, and Vancouver Centre—are represented by Progressive Conservative members. The C. C. F. party held;; 14 the o t h e r two c o n s t i t u e n c i e s , Vancouver Kingsway and Vancouver E a s t . T h i s b r i e f s k e t c h of the g e n e r a l economic, e t h n i c , r e l i g i o u s , and p o l i t i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the a r e a should serve to show the g r e a t h e t e r o g e n e i t y of the p o p u l a t i o n under d i s c u s s i o n . E v e r y economic l e v e l i s r e p r e s e n t e d , and there i s a f a i r d i s t r i b u t i o n of p o p u l a t i o n b o t h by e t h n i c o r i g i n and by r e l i g i o u s a f f i l i a t i o n . The a r e a a l s o l e n d s i t s e l f w e l l to such a study because of i t s e r r a t i c p o l i t i c a l h i s t o r y . T h i s study w i l l p r o v i d e an o p p o r t u n i t y t o i n v e s t i g a t e the e f f e c t t h a t r e c e n t developments i n the P r o v i n c i a l and F e d e r a l f i e l d s have had upon the t h i n k i n g of the c l e r g y i n p o l i t i c a l m a t t e r s . While t h i s study, of n e c e s s i t y , has been l i m i t e d t o the c l e r g y of P r o t e s t a n t r e l i g i o u s denominations, i t s h o u l d g i v e a f a i r l y a c c u r a t e i n d i c a t i o n o f the a t t i t u d e s of a sample of m i n i s t e r s who serve the v a s t m a j o r i t y of v o t e r s i n the G r e a t e r Vancouver a r e a . The a t t i t u d e s of t h e P r o t e s t a n t c l e r g y t o p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y , and t h e i r i n f l u e n c e , i s l i k e l y to be f e l t by w e l l over 80 per cent of the p o p u l a t i o n . O n l y about 15 p e r cent of the p o p u l a t i o n b e l o n g t o r e l i g i o u s groups whose p a s t o r s were not p o l l e d i n t h i s survey. They were the p r i e s t s of the Roman C a t h o l i c and the Greek and U k r a i n i a n Orthodox Churches. A f t e r the g e n e r a l a r e a f o r the study had been chosen the nex t problem which developed was t h a t of c h o o s i n g a s a t i s f a c t o r y method f o r the c o l l e c t i o n of i n f o r m a t i o n and d a t a 15 r e g a r d i n g the a t t i t u d e s o f m i n i s t e r s to p o l i t i c a l questions and I s s u e s . O b v i o u s l y much of the i n f o r m a t i o n r e q u i r e d f o r such a study would be of the type n o r m a l l y c o n s i d e r e d by most people to be c o n f i d e n t i a l . Most people would c o n s i d e r t h e i r a s s o c i a t i o n s and p o l i t i c a l l e a n i n g s to be no one's bus i n e s s but t h e i r own. T h i s would be doubly a p p l i c a b l e f o r m i n i s t e r s , s i n c e many might f e e l t h a t such i n f o r m a t i o n c o u l d be used a g a i n s t them, and co u l d have s e r i o u s r e p e r c u s s i o n s should i t get back to t h e i r c o n g regations. With t h i s c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n mind i t was deci d e d to use a q u e s t i o n n a i r e approach f o r the s t u d y . x 4 The q u e s t i o n n a i r e s would be sent to the m i n i s t e r s , and would be r e t u r n e d unsigned so t h a t o n l y the respondent's denomination and the approximate economic environment of h i s p a r i s h would be known to the i n v e s t i g a t o r . However, i t was f e l t t h a t there might be some r e t i c e n c e to answer the qu e s t i o n s d e s p i t e t h i s p r e c a u t i o n , and t h e r e f o r e one m i n i s t e r from each o f the major denominations and r e l i g i o u s o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n the area was approached i n an attempt to o b t a i n h i s consent to h a v i n g h i s name used to endorse the bona f i d e n ature o f the p r o j e c t . Most o f the m i n i s t e r s approached were w i l l i n g to al l o w t h e i r names to be used, but g e n e r a l l y they requested t h a t changes be made i n the wording of some o f the q u e s t i o n s . O f t e n the changes were o f such a nature as to completely change the c o n s t r u c t i o n and content of the que s t i o n . However, a f t e r s e v e r a l open-ended questions and p l a c e s f o r comments were added, p e r m i s s i o n was g i v e n by most of the m i n i s t e r s concerned. Only one o u t r i g h t r e f u s a l was made, 16 but another m i n i s t e r from t h a t denomination proved most c o - o p e r a t i v e and allowed h i s name to stand as endorsing the bona f i d e nature of the study. U n f o r t u n a t e l y , such c o - o p e r a t i o n was not r e c e i v e d from the a u t h o r i t i e s o f the Roman C a t h o l i c Church. Contact was f i r s t made w i t h a p r i e s t known to the i n v e s t i g a t o r . He s t u d i e d the q u e s t i o n n a i r e and suggested a few minor changes i n wording. A f t e r some d i s c u s s i o n he o f f e r e d to endorse the p r o j e c t h i m s e l f , but he made i t c l e a r that u n l e s s the p e r m i s s i o n o f the Archbishop were granted there was l i t t l e chance o f g e t t i n g any response from the c l e r g y o f h i s denomination. He suggested t h a t a w r i t t e n request be made to the Archbishop through the Chancery O f f i c e . T h i s was done, but when no r e p l y was r e c e i v e d he was approached again. The p r i e s t o f f e r e d to w r i t e a l e t t e r to the Archbishop on b e h a l f of the p r o j e c t , and t h i s was done. Some time l a t e r a l e t t e r was r e c e i v e d from the p r i e s t Informing the w r i t e r t h a t the Archbishop would not g i v e h i s consent to the qu e s t i o n n a i r e i n i t s pr e s e n t form, t h a t he f e l t i t was too "exhaustive" and would p r o b a b l y be f i l e d i n the waste paper basket. The Archbishop, however, expressed h i s w i l l i n g n e s s to s a n c t i o n something of a s h o r t e r nature i f i t were a c c e p t a b l e to him. However, i t was decided at t h i s p o i n t t h a t s i n c e the q u e s t i o n n a i r e had a l r e a d y been sent t o the P r o t e s t a n t c l e r g y , a r e v i s e d form would p r o v i d e l i t t l e room f o r comparison, and t h e r e f o r e a l l thought of i n c l u d i n g the C a t h o l i c c l e r g y i n the study was abandoned. F u r t h e r to assure t h a t the P r o t e s t a n t m i n i s t e r s would take time to answer the q u e s t i o n n a i r e most of the questions were worded i n such a way t h a t they c o u l d be answered by e i t h e r "yes" or "no." While t h i s was c r i t i c i z e d from the standpoint of o v e r s i m p l i f i c a t i o n , i t c e r t a i n l y meant t h a t the q u e s t i o n n a i r e c o u l d be completed i n a much more l i m i t e d time. A stamped s e l f -addressed envelope was i n c l u d e d w i t h each q u e s t i o n n a i r e and c o v e r i n g l e t t e r . x 5 In a l l , 185 q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were sent, of which 167 reached t h e i r d e s t i n a t i o n s . Of these 78 were r e t u r n e d completed or p a r t i a l l y completed: a r e t u r n of about l|i> p e r cent. A., few more answers were r e c e i v e d , some b e i n g from persons who had l e f t the d i s t r i c t , and some from wives whose husbands were i l l or who f o r some oth e r reason c o u l d not complete the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . The number of q u e s t i o n n a i r e s sent out to the v a r i o u s denominations, the number r e t u r n e d , and the percentage r e t u r n e d w i l l be found i n T a b l e 3 below. For purposes of the study the s m a l l e r denominations, most of which show to some degree s e c t - t y p e r e l i g i o u s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , w i l l be grouped together under the heading o f "Others." Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s Sent and Returned by R e l i g i o u s Denominations TABLE 3 Denomination Sent Returned °>6 Returned A n g l i c a n B a p t i s t 21 hi 19 13 8 5 23 10 2 38.09 25.00 42.59 30.30 Lutheran P r e s b y t e r i a n U n i t e d Church Others 21 a. S a l v a t i o n Army b. Ch. of Nazarene c. Mennonite d. M i s s i o n a r y A l l i a n c e e. P e n t e c o s t a l f . Misc. 20 52 33 10 5 k 3 5 6 3 1 1 3 18 An e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h e h i g h e r p e r c e n t a g e r e t u r n f r o m B a p t i s t r e s p o n d e n t s may be t h a t t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r ' s d e n o m i n a t i o n a l a f f i l i a t i o n was known t o be B a p t i s t , and c o n s e q u e n t l y t h e m i n i s -t e r s o f t h a t d e n o m i n a t i o n were more i n c l i n e d t o t a k e t h e t i m e t o complete t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e . There was a l s o a t e n d e n c y f o r the s m a l l d e n o m i n a t i o n s t o r e t u r n p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y f e w e r q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . P e r h a p s t h e f a c t t h a t t h e i r r e p l i e s might be more e a s i l y t r a c e d may have been one f a c t o r i n t h e i r s m a l l r e s p o n s e . On t h e o t h e r hand t h e i r g e n e r a l t h e o l o g i c a l c o n s e r v a t i s m may a l s o have been a d e t e r m i n a n t . The i n v e s t i g a t o r a l s o t h o u g h t i t a d v i s a b l e t o c a r r y out s e v e r a l i n t e r v i e w s i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . S i x i n t e r v i e w s were h e l d , one w i t h a m i n i s t e r o f e a c h o f t h e major d e n o m i n a t i o n a l d i v i s i o n s c i t e d i n T a b l e 3 above. B e f o r e we p r o c e e d t o an a n a l y s i s o f t h e d a t a and i n f o r m a t i o n g l e a n e d f r o m the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , c e r t a i n o f t h e p r o blems and weaknesses o f t h i s t y p e o f s t u d y s h o u l d be m e n t i o n e d . The s t u d y s u f f e r s f r o m most o f t h e weaknesses o f any q u e s t i o n n a i r e o r s u r v e y . As many o f t h e m i n i s t e r s p o i n t e d o u t , the q u e s t i o n s are o f t e n o v e r s i m p l i f i e d and c a nnot be answered by a s i m p l e "yes" o r "no." E v e n when such answers a r e g i v e n t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r may have a d i f f i c u l t t i m e i n t e r p r e t i n g what was i n t h e mind o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t when he r e p l i e d . G e n e r a l l y , q u e s t i o n s o f t h e t y p e u s e d i n t h i s s t u d y a r e . a l s o open f o r i n t e r p r e t a t i on. The q u e s t i o n a l s o a r i s e s as t o the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e n e s s of the r e p l i e s r e c e i v e d . I s i t v a l i d t o assume t h a t the m i n i s t e r s who responded r e p r e s e n t the a t t i t u d e of the average clergyman? I t i s q u i t e p o s s i b l e t h a t the m i n i s t e r s who r e p l i e d were the ones most i n t e r e s t e d and a c t i v e i n p o l i t i c a l a f f a i r s . I f such i s the case the v a l i d i t y of any g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s made w i l l be s u b j e c t to t h i s l i m i t a t i o n . A t h i r d weakness l i e s i n the l i m i t e d number o f q u e s t i o n n a i r e s r e t u r n e d . O b v i o u s l y , the twenty-three r e p l i e s r e c e i v e d from the U n i t e d Church c l e r g y are more l i k e l y t o r e p r e s e n t the g e n e r a l a t t i t u d e of t h a t denomination than are f i v e P r e s b y t e r i a n s l i k e l y to r e p r e s e n t t h e i r Church's p o i n t of view. S i m i l a r l y , a t o t a l of s e v e n t y - e i g h t r e t u r n s i s a v e r y l i m i t e d sample. But i t at l e a s t p r o v i d e s some b a s i s f o r comparison of r e s u l t s done i n s i m i l a r f i e l d s elsewhere. I t i s hoped t h a t these major d e f e c t s w i l l be kept i n mind and c o n s i d e r e d by a l l i n t h e i r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of t h e i n f o r m a t i o n put f o r w a r d i n t h i s r e p o r t . A f t e r t h i s b r i e f d i s c u s s i o n of methodology i t i s now p o s s i b l e t o t u r n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the f i r s t q u e s t i o n posed under the s e c t i o n , — "What i s the a t t i t u d e o f m i n i s t e r s t o the r o l e of the Church and C l e r g y i n p o l i t i c a l a f f a i r s ? " 20 A t t i t u d e s of M i n i s t e r s Towards P a r t i c i p a t i o n  i n P o l i t i c a l A f f a i r s The problem of how the c l e r g y view t h e i r r o l e and t h a t of the c o r p o r a t e church i n p o l i t i c a l a f f a i r s may be c o n s i d e r e d by attempting to answer t h r e e b a s i c q u e s t i o n s . The main i s s u e i s to attempt to determine the l i m i t s which the respondents would p l a c e upon themselves i n p a r t i c i p a t i n g , or attempting to i n f l u e n c e t h e i r f o l l o w e r s on p o l i t i c a l q u e s t i o n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y at the time o f an e l e c t i o n campaign. In order to study t h i s f a c e t of the problem the c l e r g y were asked to answer s i x q u e s t i o n s concerning t h e i r p e r m i s s i v e n e s s i n u n dertaking p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t i e s . The questions were modeled upon those used by Benjamin B. Ringer and Charles Y. Glock i n t h e i r study, The P o l i t i c a l Role of the Church as D e f i n e d by i t s  P a r i s h i o n e r s . T h e q u e s t i o n s the m i n i s t e r s were asked to answer were the f o l l o w i n g : Do you b e l i e v e i t would be proper f o r a m i n i s t e r or p r i e s t t o : a. urge h i s p a r i s h i o n e r s to vote? b. encourage the membership of h i s church or p a r i s h to study p o l i t i c a l Issues and candidates? c. d i s c u s s p o l i t i c a l i s s u e s from the p u l p i t ? d. permit candidates to speak or h o l d p o l i t i c a l meetings i n church or p a r i s h h a l l s ? e. endorse candidates f o r o f f i c e ? f . endorse the g e n e r a l p l a t f o r m of a p o l i t i c a l p a r t y ? 21 The t a b u l a t e d answers to the q u e s t i o n s are i n d i c a t e d i n T a b l e 4 below: TABLE 4 A t t i t u d e s of M i n i s t e r s Towards the Role  of the Church and C l e r g y i n P o l i t i c a l A f f a i r s (by R e l i g i o u s Denomination, i n Percentage) Denomination Number A f f i r m a t i v e answers t o q u e s t i o n s r e p l i e s (except q u e s t i o n C) w i t h p e r c e n t a g e s  r e c e i v e d o f t o t a l r e c e i v e d A B- • c D E F Yes Q No A n g l i c a n 19 94.7 8 9 - 4 5.26 26.3 68 .4 47 .3 5 .2 5.2 (18) (17) (1) (5) (13) (9) (1) (1) B a p t i s t 13 100 100 - 53.8 46 .1 7.69 - mm (13) (15) (7) (6) (1) L u t h e r a n 8 100 100 12.5 25 62.5 50 12 .5 (8) (8) (1) (2) (5) (4) (1) P r e s b y t e r i a n 5 100 100 20 80 20 20 (5) (5) (1) (4) (1) (1) U n i t e d Church 23 87 86.9 26 34.7 34.7 43.4 13 8.6< (21) (20) (6) (8) (8) (10) (3) (2) Others 10 100 90 - 30 60 10 10 (10) (9) (3) < :e) (1) (1) T o t a l number 78 75 69 8 26 42 26 6 4 Percentage 96.2 88.5 10.3 33 53 33 6 .4 5 . 1 The answers the m i n i s t e r s gave to these s i x q u e s t i o n s show c l e a r l y t h a t they are w i l l i n g t o take some p a r t i n the p o l i t i c a l l i f e of the community, but t h a t i t i s t o be l i m i t e d g e n e r a l l y t o the scope of encouragement of i n t e r e s t i n p o l i t i c a l 22 a f f a i r s . Almost a l l of the respondents, or 96 p e r c e n t , f e l t t h a t they c o u l d urge t h e i r p a r i s h i o n e r s to v o t e , w h i l e 88 p e r cent of the p a s t o r s f a v o u r e d e n c o u r a g i n g the membership of t h e i r churches to.:study p o l i t i c a l i s s u e s and c a n d i d a t e s . Denomination d i d not seem to be a determinant i n t h i s r e s p e c t . I f the m i n i s t e r s answered two q u e s t i o n s i n the a f f i r m a t i v e they were i n v a r i a b l y the q u e s t i o n s on encouragement of v o t i n g and encouragement of p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y . I f f o u r were answered i n the a f f i r m a t i v e the two q u e s t i o n s the m i n i s t e r s d i d not support were the q u e s t i o n s o f endorsement of c a n d i d a t e s and the p l a t f o r m s of p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s . The t h i r d q u e s t i o n , t h a t of d i s c u s s i n g p o l i t i c a l i s s u e s from the p u l p i t , r a i s e d c o n t r a d i c t i o n s i n the minds of most of the m i n i s t e r s p o l l e d . Most were not w i l l i n g t o g i v e a b l a n k e t answer f o r o r a g a i n s t such a c t i v i t y . F o r t h i s r e a s o n i t was n e c e s s a r y t o add a " q u a l i f i e d " column t o the above t a b l e . L e s s than t e n per cent of the respondents answered "yes" to the q u e s t i o n w ithout adding some s o r t of comment. T h i r t y - t h r e e p e r cent gave a q u a l i f i e d answer. The r e m a i n i n g f i f t y - f o u r p e r cent o f the m i n i s t e r s f e l t t h a t the d i s c u s s i o n of p o l i t i c a l i s s u e s from the p u l p i t would be unwise and u n d e s i r a b l e . However, a comparison of the a t t i t u d e s on t h i s q u e s t i o n w i t h the a t t i t u d e s of a d u l t Canadians i n a p u b l i c o p i n i o n p o l l h e l d i n 1946 shows t h a t the c l e r g y are s t i l l more w i l l i n g t o d i s c u s s such matters than the members of t h e i r c o n g r e g a t i o n s are to have them do s o . " ^ I n t h a t p a r t i c u l a r p o l l the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e sample of a d u l t Canadians was asked, "Do you t h i n k clergymen should or should not d i s c u s s p o l i t i c s d u r i n g the sermon?" The response was h e a v i l y n e g a t i v e w i t h 75 per cent answering t h a t they s h o u l d not, 15 p e r cent answering t h a t they should, and 10 p e r cent answering t h a t they were undecided. Among the c l e r g y p e r cent f e l t t h a t there would be times when some p o l i t i c a l i s s u e s should be d i s c u s s e d from the p u l p i t . I t should be noted t h a t the A n g l i c a n c l e r g y and those w i t h s e c t -type r e l i g i o u s a f f i l i a t i o n s were l e s s w i l l i n g to al l o w such a c t i v i t y than were the m i n i s t e r s o f the o t h e r churches. Of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t i s the f a c t t h a t the U n i t e d Church c l e r g y was most p e r m i s s i v e i n t h i s r e g a r d . One reason f o r t h i s may be that t h e i r members are more l i k e l y to approve of such a c t i v i t y ; f o r the o p i n i o n p o l l s t a t e s t h a t "members o f the U n i t e d Church tend s l i g h t l y more to approve o f the p r a c t i c e than do adherents 18 of the ot h e r churches." Of course the theology of the d i f f e r i n g churches Is a major f a c t o r and w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d a t a l a t e r time. But i t i s of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t to note t h a t there i s a w e r a l l g e n e r a l agreement among the c l e r g y as to the amount and type of p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y t h a t can be s a f e l y undertaken by them. Response to the ot h e r three questions, the use of p a r i s h f a c i l i t i e s f o r p o l i t i c a l meetings, the e n d o r s a t i o n of candidates, and p a r t i e s , corresponded to the trends shown i n the study by C l o c k and Ringer. The more the a c t i v i t y would t h r u s t the m i n i s t e r i n t o p o l i t i c a l , and p a r t i c u l a r l y p a r t i s a n a f f a i r s , the l e s s i t was supported. The m i n i s t e r s were p r i m a r i l y concerned not t o a s s o c i a t e themselves w i t h c a n d i d a t e s or p a r t i e s as such. Only 6 per cent of the m i n i s t e r s were w i l l i n g t o endorse c a n d i d a t e s f o r p u b l i c o f f i c e ; o n l y 5 p e r cen t would endorse the p l a t f o r m of a p o l i t i c a l p a r t y , and t h e n o n l y under s p e c i a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s . I n sum, the answers t o these q u e s t i o n s show t h a t the m i n i s t e r s are w i l l i n g t o encourage an i n t e r e s t i n p o l i t i c a l a f f a i r s among the members of t h e i r churches, but t h e y are l e s s w i l l i n g t o undertake any a c t i v i t y t h a t would t h r u s t them a c t i v e l y i n t o the p o l i t i c a l arena. However, t h e r e are ar e a s i n which the c l e r g y i s ready and w i l l i n g t o become more a c t i v e . A d i s c u s s i o n of these a r e a s , w i t h examples taken from the answers of some of the respondents may be of v a l u e . I t i s c l e a r from t h e i r r e p l i e s t h a t many m i n i s t e r s would p r e f e r t o be more a c t i v e i n d i s c u s s i o n of p o l i t i c a l q u e s t i o n s , but they f e e l p r i m a r i l y i n h i b i t e d from d o i n g so because of the a t t i t u d e s of t h e i r a dherents. They r e a l i z e t h a t i n many i n s t a n c e s p o l i t i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s r u n as deep as the r e l i g i o u s attachments of t h e i r p a r i s h i o n e r s . O v e r t p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n on t h e i r p a r t c o u l d r e s u l t i n a s p l i t w i t h i n the member-sh i p of t h e i r churches. One p a s t o r s t a t e d : F o r one r e a s o n o r another, d i s c u s s i o n o f p o l i t i c s seems more l i k e l y to arouse r e s e n t f u l f e e l i n g s t h a n any o t h e r t a l k . No m i n i s t e r serves a c h u r c h whose members are of one p o l i t i c a l p a r t y . I t i s not wise f o r the m i n i s t e r t o f o r f e i t the good w i l l of any of h i s p e o p l e . Arguments such as t h i s were heard p r i m a r i l y from m i n i s t e r s of the more l i b e r a l r e l i g i o u s denominations. The more c o n s e r v a t i v e t h e o l o g i c a l denominations, f o r example the P r e s b y t e r i a n , A n g l i c a n and B a p t i s t Churches, were more opposed to such a c t i v i t y on d o c t r i n a l grounds. T h i s was a l s o t r u e of 25 the s e c t - t y p e r e l i g i o u s denominations. They f e l t t h a t s e p a r a t i o n of the spheres o f church and s t a t e must be maintained, and expressed the f a i t h t h a t the p r e a c h i n g of C h r i s t i a n p r i n c i p l e s would l e a d t h e i r laymen to undertake the n e c e s s a r y a c t i v i t y i n the s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l spheres. One A n g l i c a n m i n i s t e r r e p l i e d : In my o p i n i o n the purpose of the Church i s to p r o c l a i m the Gospel, and to s e t an example of c o r p o r a t e C h r i s t i a n l i v i n g . As a w e l l i n s t r u c t e d C h r i s t i a n i s a w e l l a d j u s t e d c i t i z e n the Church i s bound to have some concern w i t h p o l i t i c a l i s s u e s , but t h a t concern i s to be expressed i n the p r o c l a m a t i o n of C h r i s t i a n p r i n c i p l e s . . . i t i s the business of C h r i s t i a n p o l i t i c i a n s and economists to apply these i n t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e spheres. I t i s not the business of the Church to be mixed up i n p a r t y p o l i t i c s . I t seems c l e a r t h a t the c l e r g y see t h e i r f u n c t i o n as one of a c t i n g as a c a t a l y s t to encourage a c t i v i t y i n the p o l i t i c a l sphere. They f e e l t h a t i t i s t h e i r task to encourage good c i t i z e n s h i p . For them good c i t i z e n s h i p i s o f t e n equated w i t h church membership and being a c t i v e i n the weekday o r g a n i z a t i o n s of the church. T h i s view of t h e i r f u n c t i o n corresponds c l o s e l y to the a t t i t u d e which any s e r v i c e c l u b might take. They would encourage i n t e r e s t In p u b l i c a f f a i r s , and i n s p e c i a l cases they would even c o n s i d e r sponsoring p o l i t i c a l meetings; p a r t i c u l a r l y p a n e l d i s c u s s i o n s where the candidates of the v a r i o u s p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s c o u l d d i s c u s s p o l i t i c a l questions and p r e s e n t t h e i r p l a t f o r m s . They tended to the somewhat n a i v e b e l i e f t h a t adequate a t t e n t i o n to r e l i g i o u s r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s would ensure t h a t t h e i r people would apply " C h r i s t i a n p r i n c i p l e s " to t h e i r p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t i e s . A p r oper r e l a t i o n s h i p to God would ensure proper a c t i o n s and proper use of the f r a n c h i s e . The c l e r g y a l s o seem to have drawn a f a i r l y w e l l d e f i n e d l i n e between i s s u e s which they f e e l may be d i s c u s s e d i n 26 sermons and those which may n o t . P r a c t i c a l l y a l l r e p l i e d t h a t i f a c l e a r moral i s s u e were i n v o l v e d they would be w i l l i n g to take a n / a c t i v e p a r t i n the r e s o l u t i o n of t h a t p a r t i c u l a r problem. They were a l l agreed t h a t some l i n e c o u l d be drawn between moral questions and what they g e n e r a l l y termed " p a r t i s a n p o l i t i c a l q u e s t i o n s . " Moral i s s u e s seemed to be l i m i t e d i n t h e i r minds to those g e n e r a l l y r e f e r r e d to as concerning p e r s o n a l m o r a l i t y . I t a l s o extended to what was l a b e l l e d "questions of p r i n c i p l e . " The c l e r g y seemed ready to speak up on questions such as s e g r e g a t i o n , the use of the Lord's Day, a l c o h o l i s m , community immorality and i s s u e s t h a t might endanger the c l a s s i c p e r s o n a l freedoms. They would draw the l i n e somewhere between those i s s u e s which might be c o n s i d e r e d i s s u e s of p r i n c i p l e , and economic i s s u e s . In the minds o f most m i n i s t e r s the economic sphere, except i n cases of gross e x p l o i t a t i o n , i s an area o f i n t e n s e p a r t i s a n and p e r s o n a l f e e l i n g and should be l e f t alone. Thus, we may say t h a t m i n i s t e r s are w i l l i n g to take an a c t i v e p a r t i n p o l i t i c a l a f f a i r s under f o u r p a r t i c u l a r circumstances. They are w i l l i n g to act where there i s a t h r e a t to the fundamental freedoms, and the democratic way of l i f e . S a i d one p a s t o r , "I would answer yes to a l l the questions i f there were a s e r i o u s t h r e a t to our P a r l i a m e n t a r y system or democracy." The m i n i s t e r s would a c t where the Church f e e l s t h a t the s t a t e i s encroaching upon the r i g h t s to f r e e development of r e l i g i o u s i n s t i t u t i o n s — e n c r o a c h i n g upon the sphere of the Church. One m i n i s t e r commented t h a t he would " c e r t a i n l y d i s c u s s any attempt -by r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the s t a t e to encroach on the d i v i n e r i g h t s o f the Church." The t h i r d s i t u a t i o n where the c l e r g y i s prepared to descend i n t o the p o l i t i c a l arena i s a case where open c o r r u p t i o n or p o l i t i c a l immorality has been uncovered. S e v e r a l m i n i s t e r s observed t h a t " i n cases o f c o r r u p t i o n i n p o l i t i c s (they) b e l i e v e d the m i n i s t e r should d e f i n i t e l y do a l l i n h i s power to c o r r e c t I t . " One respondent went so f a r as to say that he would even take a stand f o r "one candidate o r p a r t y , " and work and preach u n t i l i t had been c o r r e c t e d . The c l e r g y were f i n a l l y w i l l i n g to d i s c u s s p o l i t i c a l i s s u e s i n cases where the Church had taken a d e f i n i t e stand as a c o r p o r a t e body on some p o l i t i c a l or s o c i a l q u e s t i o n , such as s e g r e g a t i o n , r e l i g i o u s e d u c a t i o n of c h i l d r e n , or amendment o f d i v o r c e laws. Prom t h i s d i s c u s s i o n i t can be seen t h a t i n the minds of most m i n i s t e r s there i s a d e f i n i t e l i n e between a p a r t i s a n p o l i t i c a l q u e s t i o n , and a moral q u e s t i o n which can be r e s o l v e d through the a d a p t a t i o n of w e l l - d e f i n e d C h r i s t i a n p r i n c i p l e s . They f e e l t h a t the c l e r g y have no r i g h t to i n t e r f e r e i n the f i r s t case, but that they have a d e f i n i t e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o do so i n the second. The f o l l o w i n g comment seems to sum up w e l l the g e n e r a l a t t i t u d e of most m i n i s t e r s to the q u e s t i o n of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n p a r t i c u l a r p o l i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n s . The respondent commented: 28 There are p o l i t i c a l i s s u e s t h a t are p u r e l y p a r t y i s s u e s ; there are other i s s u e s which have to do w i t h fundamental b e l i e f s . . . but which may become p o l i t i c a l i s s u e s under c e r t a i n circumstances. There c o u l d w e l l be d i f f e r e n c e s of o p i n i o n w i t h i n the Church r e g a r d i n g the f i r s t . The Church has no c h o i c e (but to act) i n the second case. T h i s leads us d i r e c t l y to c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the second f a c e t of the problem of church and c l e r g y p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n p o l i t i c a l a f f a i r s . The p r e c e d i n g d i s c u s s i o n has made i t c l e a r that most m i n i s t e r s were agreed upon the l i m i t s which they should p l a c e upon themselves i n p o l i t i c a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n . But the data d i d show that on c e r t a i n types of i s s u e s the c l e r g y f e l t a d e f i n i t e o b l i g a t i o n to speak out. Immediately the q u e s t i o n comes to mind of the l i m i t s to which the c l e r g y would be w i l l i n g to see t h e i r denominations go i n p u r s u i n g a p a r t i c u l a r matter which they c o n s i d e r e d of extreme importance. In o t h e r words, what l i m i t s would the c l e r g y p l a c e upon the Church i n i t s u n d e r t a k i n g of p r e s s u r e group a c t i v i t i e s ? Would the m i n i s t e r s be w i l l i n g to see t h e i r Church lobby the government, or would they l i m i t i t s scope o f a c t i o n to the i n f l u e n c e i t can exert upon i t s members? In an attempt to r e s o l v e t h i s matter the m i n i s t e r s were asked to answer the f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s . Where your Church has taken a committed p o s i t i o n on a p o l i t i c a l i s s u e , do you t h i n k i t would be proper f o r i t to submit a b r i e f , or s t a t e i t s p o s i t i o n t o : a. a l o c a l o r m u n i c i p a l government? b. the c a b i n e t s of the n a t i o n a l and/or p r o v i n c i a l governments? 29 c. the n a t i o n a l o r p r o v i n c i a l executives o f the va r i o u s p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s ? d. Boards of I n q u i r y o r Royal Commissions s e t up by the governments to study a p a r t i c u l a r p o l i t i c a l question? I t was f a i r l y c l e a r from the r e p l i e s r e c e i v e d t h a t most of the m i n i s t e r s saw o n l y a v e r y few questions or i n s t a n c e s t h a t might a r i s e where such a c t i v i t y would be warranted, and most p o i n t e d out t h a t members w i t h a p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t might pursue i t through o r g a n i z a t i o n s such as the Lord's Day A l l i a n c e o r the A l c o h o l Research C o u n c i l . However, although to many of the m i n i s t e r s t h i s q u e s t i o n appeared to be a p u r e l y academic one, they were c e r t a i n l y w i l l i n g to act as a co r p o r a t e p r e s s u r e group i n matters which they c o n s i d e r e d to be of the gr a v e s t importance. Many m i n i s t e r s r e f e r r e d to the a c t i v i t i e s of t h e i r committees on s o c i a l s e r v i c e s as being the most e f f e c t i v e and expedient l e v e l where such a c t i v i t y would be undertaken. A r e c o r d of the respondents' answers have been t a b u l a t e d i n Table 5 below: TABLE 5 Permissiveness to Church A c t i v i t y as a Pressure Group. by Denomination M u n i c i p a l Government P o l i t . P a r t y Comm 'n. Denomination Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No A n g l i c a n 13 2 lk 1 12 3 14 2 B a p t i s t 10 - 10 - 9 - 10 -Lutheran 6 2 6 2 5 3 6 2 P r e s b y t e r i a n 4 - 4 - 4 - 4 -U n i t e d Church 22 1 22 1 21 2 21 2 Others 4 1 4 1 3 2 4 1 T o t a l 57 6 60 5 55 10 59 7 Percentage 15.4 T o t a l s 90.5 9.5 92.3 7.8 84.6 89.4 10. 30 A p e r u s a l of the t a b l e w i l l show t h a t over 85 per cent of the m i n i s t e r s were agreed upon the p r o p r i e t y o f a c t i n g to put p r e s s u r e upon the f o u r types of p o l i t i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s named above. But here a g a i n the p a s t o r s were more w i l l i n g to exert p r e s s u r e on l o c a l and n a t i o n a l governments than they were to approach p o l i t i c a l p a r t y o r g a n i z a t i o n s . Ninety-two p e r cent of the m i n i s t e r s were w i l l i n g to submit a b r i e f , or s t a t e the Church's p o s i t i o n to ca b i n e t s of the n a t i o n a l or p r o v i n c i a l governments, but o n l y 8I(. p e r cent were w i l l i n g to do the same to executives of the v a r i o u s p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s . While the m i n i s t e r ' s a t t i t u d e s towards d i r e c t p r e s s u r e group a c t i v i t y was l i m i t e d to the spheres of a c t i v i t y mentioned above, i t was c l e a r t h a t there were other o r g a n i z a t i o n s and i n s t i t u t i o n s through which the Church and c l e r g y might attempt to i n f l u e n c e p u b l i c o p i n i o n , and the government. There were o r g a n i z a t i o n s whose i n f l u e n c e c o u l d be exe r t e d i n f a v o u r o f a p a r t i c u l a r p o l i c y or program f a v o u r e d by the Church. The qu e s t i o n was then to what degree d i d the m i n i s t e r s belong t o s e c u l a r o r g a n i z a t i o n s t h a t c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d i n the broad sense p o t e n t i a l p r e s s u r e groups? What a c t i o n - t y p e o r g a n i z a t i o n s were the m i n i s t e r s i n a p o s i t i o n to i n f l u e n c e ? To t e s t the degree of c l e r g y p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n such o r g a n i z a t i o n s the m i n i s t e r s were asked to r e c o r d t h e i r membership or a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n ten o r g a n i z a t i o n s which ranged from s e r v i c e c l u b s to c r a f t or l a b o u r unions. The questions asked were: 31 Are you now, or have you ever been a member of any of the f o l l o w i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s : a. a s e r v i c e c l u b . b. the Canadian Legion, the Army and Navy Veterans, or some other m i l i t a r y s e r v i c e a s s o c i a t i o n . c. the Knights o f Columbus, or Orange o r d e r . d. a c r a f t or l a b o u r u n i o n . e. a consumer or producer's c o o p e r a t i v e a s s o c i a t i o n . f . the Chamber of Commerce, Board of Trade, o r Canadian Manufacturers' A s s o c i a t i o n . g. the Lord's Day A l l i a n c e . h. a Temperance F e d e r a t i o n . i . a Canadian p o l i t i c a l p a r t y , j . the Masonic o r d e r . A t a b u l a t i o n of the answers to the questions i s i n d i c a t e d i n Table 6, below: TABLE 6 C l e r g y Membership i n Action-Type O r g a n i z a t i o n s  by Denomination Denomination T o t a l a b c d e f h i i A n g l i c a n 19 5 12 — 5 2 2 3 - 1 8 B a p t i s t 13 2 1 1 3 2 - 6 8 2 1 Lutheran 8 - - - 3 3 P r e s b y t e r i a n 5 1 1 1 - - - 2 2 1 2 U n i t e d Church 23 10 k 1 5 5 6 8 10 5 3 Others 10 2 - 1 k 2 2 k 2 2 -T o t a l 78 20 18 k 20 14 10 23 22 11 Ik Percent T o t a l 25.6 23 5.1 25.6 17.9 12j8 29.5 28.2 lijj. 17.9 A p e r u s a l of the t a b l e w i l l show t h a t on the whole most m i n i s t e r s are not a c t i v e i n o r g a n i z a t i o n s o u t s i d e of t h e i r narrow Church a s s o c i a t i o n s . The above f i g u r e s w i l l a c t u a l l y o v e r - r e p r e s e n t t h e i r a s s o c i a t i o n s because i t asks the q u e s t i o n of what o r g a n i z a t i o n s they have been members, and not what o r g a n i z a t i o n s they are members of at p r e s e n t . T h i s small amount of o u t s i d e p a r t i c i p a t i o n would tend to c o n f i r m the c o n c l u s i o n s of Rev. John S h a f f e r , who s t u d i e d the a s s o c i a t i o n s of 811 m i n i s t e r s i n the Los Angeles a r e a j ^ S h a f f e r found t h a t two-thirds of the m i n i s t e r s he surveyed e i t h e r d i d not belong to or took no a c t i v e p a r t i n a l o n g l i s t of o r g a n i z a t i o n s which i n c l u d e d the Parent-Teacher A s s o c i a t i o n , Y. M. C. A., Chamber of Commerce, s e r v i c e c l u b s and the l i k e . " I t i s obvious," S h a f f e r says, "that m i n i s t e r s are l i t t l e i n v o l v e d i n a c t i o n - t y p e o r g a n i z a t i o n s . " Although the g e n e r a l apathy of m i n i s t e r s towards o u t s i d e a s s o c i a t i o n s seems to be confirmed, the type of a s s o c i a t i o n s to which they do belong are of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t , and g e n e r a l l y tend to correspond to denominational l i n e s . One reason f o r t h i s may be a f i n a n c i a l one. The m i n i s t e r s who served l a r g e r churches, although o f t e n b u s i e r , found i t p o s s i b l e to pay the f e e s and dues t h a t are i n v o l v e d i n Lodge and S e r v i c e club a s s o c i a t i o n s . S e v e r a l p a s t o r s t h a t were i n t e r v i e w e d s t a t e d that they would l i k e to belong to a S e r v i c e c l u b but j u s t d i d not have the money which such membership r e q u i r e d . G e n e r a l l y , m i n i s t e r s of the U n i t e d and A n g l i c a n Churches j o i n e d S e r v i c e c l u b s . Members of the A n g l i c a n c l e r g y 33 a l s o tended to be d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y concentrated i n m i l i t a r y s e r v i c e a s s o c i a t i o n s , and with, the Masonic Order. The Lutheran p a s t o r s were most h o s t i l e to the Masonic Lodge, f e e l i n g t h a t i t undermined the b a s i c C h r i s t i a n t e a c h i n g s . The d i v i s i o n of the Churches on matters of Sunday observance, and the consumption and use of a l c o h o l i c beverages i s seen by the f a c t t h a t the Churches w i t h e v a n g e l i c a l and f r e e Church r o o t s , the U n i t e d , B a p t i s t , P r e s b y t e r i a n and s e c t - t y p e denominations, were most a c t i v e i n the two p r e s s u r e groups concerned w i t h such a c t i v i t y . They are the Lord's Day A l l i a n c e and the A l c o h o l Research and Educa t i o n C o u n c i l . The A n g l i c a n and Lutheran Churches show l e s s concern f o r such o r g a n i z a t i o n s . Another matter of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t Is the f a c t t h a t a good number of the respondents r e p o r t e d having some a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h l a b o u r unions, p r o b a b l y d u r i n g t h e i r c o l l e g e days. Over 25> per cent of the m i n i s t e r s who r e p l i e d had at some time been members of union o r g a n i z a t i o n s . The m i n i s t e r s were a l s o asked to r e g i s t e r which o f the o r g a n i z a t i o n s l i s t e d they would urge t h e i r members to support. While many f a i l e d to answer t h i s p a r t of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e , those that d i d showed g e n e r a l i n d i f f e r e n c e to the o r g a n i z a t i o n s l i s t e d . They were e q u a l l y w i l l i n g to see t h e i r members belong to l a b o u r unions as they were to have them belong to a Manufacturers* A s s o c i a t i o n , or the Chamber of Commerce. As one might expect, the F r e e Church denominations were more w i l l i n g to encourage c o - o p e r a t i o n w i t h the Lord's Day A l l i a n c e and the Temperance o r g a n i z a t i o n s . I t was a l s o observed t h a t the Churches of more fun d a m e n t a l i s t theology were l e s s w i l l i n g to see t h e i r members undertake o u t s i d e a s s o c i a t i o n s of any k i n d . T h i s i s an evidence of t h e i r c l o s e d and s e p a r a t i s t t e n d e n c i e s . F o r them i t d i d not seem to be a matter of " p r i o r l o y a l t y " as w i t h the e s t a b l i s h e d denominations, but r a t h e r a matter of u n d i v i d e d and a l l i n c l u s i v e l o y a l t y and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the l i f e of the c l o s e d r e l i g i o u s community.20 As has been observed al r e a d y , the c l e r g y are most r e l u c t a n t to undertake any a c t i v i t y t h a t might even remotely become a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p a r t i s a n p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y . I t has been observed that one of the reasons f o r t h i s seems to be t h a t they f e a r such a c t i v i t y would immediately r e s u l t i n f r i c t i o n w i t h i n the f a m i l y of the Church i t s e l f . They are a l s o conscious o f the f a l l i b i l i t y of t h e i r own judgments, and they f e e l t h a t on many i s s u e s of a " p a r t i s a n n a t u r e " there i s no one p o s i t i v e o r c o r r e c t p o s i t i o n . They f e e l t h a t t h e r e are many matters upon which honest disagreement w i l l i n e v i t a b l y a r i s e . But, unhappily, there was another f a c t o r which c e r t a i n l y appeared i n the comments the m i n i s t e r s made towards p a r t i s a n p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y . The g e n e r a l s t e r e o t y p e o f p a r t y p o l i t i c s as b e i n g a " d i r t y game" seems to have i n f i l t r a t e d even i n t o the ranks of the c l e r g y . There i s a d e f i n i t e tendency f o r some of them to c o n s i d e r the jockeying f o r p o l i t i c a l power and i n f l u e n c e as e s s e n t i a l l y a besmirching a c t i v i t y from which C h r i s t i a n s , and m i n i s t e r s i n p a r t i c u l a r , should keep a l o o f . As w i l l be seen i n c o n s i d e r i n g the v o t i n g behaviour of the m i n i s t e r s , a good percentage claimed to be independent v o t e r s : to vote f o r "the candidate, not the p a r t y . " Comments l i k e , "I do not l i k e p a r t y p o l i t i c s . (When I vote) a l o t would depend upon the candidate h i m s e l f and the i s s u e s i n v o l v e d , " and "I am not a p a r t y man. A l o t would depend upon the men running i n my c o n s t i t u e n c y , " were f a i r l y common. Other m i n i s t e r s seemed to f e e l t h a t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n p a r t y p o l i t i c s removed from the m i n i s t e r h i s independent sense of judgment. For them independent judgment depends upon being able to stand back and view the b a t t l e from an " o b j e c t i v e s i t u a t i o n . " T h i s seems to be a f a i r l y common a t t i t u d e of clergymen In North America. In the Symposium h e l d by the N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l of Churches i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s , one of the p a n e l made the f o l l o w i n g comment:21 There i s a danger of becoming I d e n t i f i e d , even w i t h a good cause, t h a t we may l o s e our o b j e c t i v e C h r i s t i a n c r i t i c i s m of a l l causes and movements, and e s p e c i a l l y the one i n which we b e l i e v e . A clergyman must always be i n a p o s i t i o n to c r i t i c i z e the movements and e f f o r t s o f p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n which he supports as a c i t i z e n . While t h e r e i s no doubt a good b i t of t r u t h i n t h i s argument, there i s a l s o the danger t h a t the argument may be used to j u s t i f y i n a c t i o n when a c t i o n i s p a r t i c u l a r l y n ecessary. In t h i s r e s p e c t the comment of W i l l i a m Muehl, upon the l a c k of understanding of the p o l i t i c a l p r o c e s s , seems to be at l e a s t p a r t l y a p p l i c a b l e to the c l e r g y . 2 2 He says t h a t "the American people have a very s t r o n g d e s i r e to d e c l a r e themselves on p r i n c i p l e s . They t h i n k and t a l k p o l i t i c s i n terms of men, not i s s u e s . . . . Very few Americans have any c o n c e p t i o n of 36 p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s as the b a s i s of p o l i c y making and I n t e g r a t i o n i n government." He asks the q u e s t i o n whether C h r i s t i a n s should become a c t i v e i n p a r t y a f f a i r s and answers i t thus:^-^ He most c e r t a i n l y should u n l e s s he can show a compelling reason f o r choosing some oth e r means of d i s c h a r g i n g h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to the realm of p o l i t i c s and some more e f f e c t i v e means of w i t n e s s i n g h i s f a i t h amid the t u r m o i l and need of s o c i a l complexity. The burden o f p r o o f i s on the one who stays o u t s i d e of a p a r t y , not on the one that goes i n . I t seems t h a t a p r e r e q u i s i t e to any i n c r e a s e i n the p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f m i n i s t e r s i n p o l i t i c a l a f f a i r s i s a g e n e r a l education o f the c l e r g y as to the r o l e of the p o l i t i c a l p a r t y i n the c o r p o r a t e l i f e of the community. I f the c l e r g y has a proper a p p r e c i a t i o n o f the p l a c e o f the p a r t y In the democratic system he w i l l then be i n a p o s i t i o n to impart t h i s e d u c a t i o n to h i s p a r i s h i o n e r s , and thus remove much of the cause which prevents both laymen and c l e r g y from p a r t i c i p a t i n g a c t i v e l y i n the p o l i t i c a l l i f e of the community. But t h i s d i s c u s s i o n has not answered the q u e s t i o n of to what extent the c l e r g y has a c t u a l l y p a r t i c i p a t e d i n p a r t y a f f a i r s . In o r d e r to a s c e r t a i n the extent of such p a r t i c i p a t i o n the m i n i s t e r s were asked i f they were now, o r ever had been members of a Canadian p o l i t i c a l p a r t y . Ten of the s e v e n t y - e i g h t m i n i s t e r s who responded, or 12.8 p e r cent, s a i d t h a t they had at some time been a f f i l i a t e d w i t h a p o l i t i c a l p a r t y . The q u e s t i o n was then asked, "Have you ever h e l d a p o s i t i o n of the executive of any p o l i t i c a l p a r t y , l o c a l , p r o v i n c i a l , or f e d e r a l ? " Three m i n i s t e r s , or 3*8 per cent of those p o l l e d , r e p l i e d t h a t 37 they had. The d i s t r i b u t i o n of these respondents by r e l i g i o u s denomination Is shown i n Table 7, below. But, of course, t h i s does not take i n t o account a l l the c l e r g y a c t i v e i n p a r t y a f f a i r s , s i n c e the m a j o r i t y of m i n i s t e r s who are s u c c e s s f u l i n b e i n g e l e c t e d to p o l i t i c a l o f f i c e s f i n d i t necessary to g i v e up t h e i r r e l i g i o u s a c t i v i t i e s . TABLE 7 P a r t y A f f i l i a t i o n and Candidature, by Denomination Denomination P a r t y Mem'ship Exec. Member 1* Yes No 2 Yes No Yes 3 No A n g l i c a n 1 1 10 8 7 11 4 • 15 B a p t i s t 3 1 7 4 7 4 1 10 Lutheran 1 - 5 3 4 4 2 6 P r e s b y t e r i a n 1 - 4 1 3 2 3 2 U n i t e d Church 3 1 16 2 12 5 4 13 Others 1 - 7 3 4 6 l 9 T o t a l s 10 3 49 21 37 32 15 55 Per cent T o t a l 12.82 3.84 70 30 53.6 46.4 21.4 78.6 * 1. Do you t h i n k i t would be proper f o r a m i n i s t e r or p r i e s t to become a candidate f o r p u b l i c o f f i c e ; f o r m u n i c i p a l c o u n c i l s , s c h o o l boards, e t c . ? 2. f o r p r o v i n c i a l or f e d e r a l p a r l i a m e n t s ? 3'. Would you p e r s o n a l l y ever become a c a n d i d a t e f o r p u b l i c o f f i c e ? While i t would be i m p o s s i b l e to draw any f a s t c o n c l u s i o n s i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note t h a t the three U n i t e d Church m i n i s t e r s who r e c o r d e d having been members of p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s i n v a r i a b l y voted f o r p a r t i e s w i t h l i b e r a l p o l i t i c a l i d e a s . The o t h e r m i n i s t e r s who r e p l i e d were a s s o c i a t e d p r i m a r i l y w i t h c o n s e r v a t i v e p o l i t i c a l movements. However, the reluctance of m i n i s t e r s to become a c t i v e i n p o l i t i c a l a f f a i r s does not mean t h a t they would dis c o u r a g e completely members of the c l e r g y from undertaking candidacy f o r some p u b l i c o f f i c e s . Seventy p e r cent of the respondents agreed that a m i n i s t e r c o u l d take p a r t i n m u n i c i p a l a f f a i r s without s e p a r a t i n g h i m s e l f from h i s charge. Denomination d i d not seem to be a f a c t o r i n t h e i r g e n e r a l agreement i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r f i e l d . However, i t was p o i n t e d out by s e v e r a l of the m i n i s t e r s that i n B r i t i s h Columbia the e l e c t i o n o f m i n i s t e r s to p o s i t i o n s on School Boards i s f o r b i d d e n by s t a t u t e . As would be expected, the c l e r g y were much l e s s w i l l i n g to allow each o t h e r to become candidates f o r p r o v i n c i a l o r f e d e r a l p a r l i a m e n t s . However, 54 P e r cent were s t i l l w i l l i n g to allow the p a s t o r to do so p r o v i d e d he d i d i t as a " p r i v a t e c i t i z e n . " One m i n i s t e r commented t h a t - " a m i n i s t e r (had) a r i g h t to become a candidate as a c i t i z e n , but o f course he would drop h i s s t a t u s as a clergyman." I t i s on t h i s q u e s t i o n of " c i t i z e n -s h i p " versus " p a s t o r a l f u n c t i o n " t h a t most of the c o n t r o v e r s y seems to c e n t r e . A Symposium of m i n i s t e r s sponsored by the N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l of Churches of C h r i s t i n the Un i t e d S t a t e s brought t h i s out q u i t e c l e a r l y . The m i n i s t e r s agreed t h a t as a c i t i z e n the m i n i s t e r had " e x t r a - p r o f e s s i o n a l " r o l e s to perform, and t h a t i t was i l l o g i c a l to deny him membership i n p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s when he was expected to be a model c i t i z e n i n every other sphere of s o c i a l a c t i v i t y . One Methodist m i n i s t e r commented: 25 I b e l i e v e t h a t the pre a c h e r as an i n d i v i d u a l has the r i g h t to h i s share of p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y and to de p r i v e him of t h i s would be to deny him h i s r i g h t s as a c i t i z e n . Of course t h i s r a i s e s the q u e s t i o n at once as to when he acts and speaks as a c i t i z e n and when as the m i n i s t e r of a church. There l a y the i s s u e . The p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y o f any m i n i s t e r i n e v i t a b l y r e f l e c t s upon h i s Church, and i n a wider sense upon the r e l i g i o u s denomination which he r e p r e s e n t s . T h e r e f o r e the m i n i s t e r must be w i l l i n g t o g i v e up p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n that p a r t i c u l a r sphere o f s o c i a l l i f e . I f , however, th e r e should come a time when the m i n i s t e r f e l t c a l l e d upon to enter p u b l i c l i f e he might do i t , but he must f i r s t separate h i m s e l f from f h i s Church. Some m i n i s t e r s , however, were not w i l l i n g to see one of t h e i r number enter p o l i t i c s even then. They f e l t t h a t the m i n i s t e r would s t i l l be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h h i s Church and denomination, and that h i s r e l i g i o u s a s s o c i a t i o n s would be used as a "vote-g e t t i n g " d e v i c e . S e v e r a l of the m i n i s t e r s i n d i s c u s s i n g t h i s q u e s t i o n c i t e d cases which they f e l t corresponded to t h i s p a t t e r n i n both p r o v i n c i a l and f e d e r a l p o l i t i c s . They f e l t t h a t some p a r t i e s would o f f e r a nomination to a clergyman mainly f o r the purpose of u s i n g him as an example o f t h e i r p o l i t i c a l r i g h t e o u s n e s s or s u p e r i o r m o r a l i t y . For o t h e r m i n i s t e r s the q u e s t i o n was one o f p r i o r l o y a l t i e s . One S a l v a t i o n Army O f f i c e r commented: I f e e l r e g a r d i n g membership i n e i t h e r f e d e r a l or p r o v i n c i a l Parliaments t h a t f o r the m i n i s t e r t h i s i s p o s i t i v e l y "an out." The m i n i s t r y , i n any of the g r e a t world-wide churches such as mine, i s or should be c o n s i d e r e d the most important c a l l i n g i n the world; f o r i t i s j u s t t h a t and not a trade, job, or p r o f e s s i o n . . . . I f so then I f e e l t h a t the Holy S p i r i t has not c a l l e d me to accept m i n i s t e r i a l powers and p r e r o g a t i v e s t h a t I may step i n t o the p o l i t i c a l arena. I t i s a p l a c e f o r C h r i s t i a n s , most c e r t a i n l y , but not f o r m i n i s t e r s . The m i n i s t r y of the Word of God must be separate and unhindered. The next problem which came to mind w i t h i n t h i s framework of thought was the problem o f whether m i n i s t e r s f e l t the time might come when they would become candidates f o r p u b l i c o f f i c e . T h e r e f o r e they were asked the question, "Would you p e r s o n a l l y ever become a candidate f o r p u b l i c o f f i c e ? " Twenty-one per cent of the respondents r e p l i e d i n the a f f i r m a t i v e the o t h e r seventy-nine p e r cent responded i n the n e g a t i v e . I t seems c l e a r t h a t many of the m i n i s t e r s saw i t as o n l y a h y p o t h e t i c a l q u e s t i o n , but the f a c t t h a t i t i s not i s seen by the r e p l i e s of two m i n i s t e r s who r e c o r d e d that they had been o f f e r e d nominations but had r e f u s e d them. A B a p t i s t m i n i s t e r of S o c i a l C r e d i t p e r s u a s i o n commented t h a t "(he) was o f f e r e d and r e f u s e d to become a candidate f o r the f e d e r a l t h i s year." "My p o s i t i o n as p a s t o r i s s u p e r i o r , " he s a i d . A U n i t e d Church m i n i s t e r who had not even been a c a r d - h o l d i n g member of a p a r t y recorded that he had been approached concerning a nomination but t h a t he had r e f u s e d i t . From the above d i s c u s s i o n c e r t a i n broad g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s about the a t t i t u d e s o f m i n i s t e r s to the r o l e of the Church and 41 c l e r g y i n p o l i t i c a l a f f a i r s can be made. On the matter of p a r t i c i p a t i o n and d i s c u s s i o n of p o l i t i c a l questions and s o c i a l problems most m i n i s t e r s are w i l l i n g to see the Church act as a c a t a l y s t o r "leaven" to encourage C h r i s t i a n s to take an a c t i v e i n t e r e s t i n a l l f i e l d s o f s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l l i f e . They would encourage t h e i r people to b r i n g a l l i s s u e s b e f o r e the "judgment bar of C h r i s t i a n c o n s c i e n c e . 1 , 2 7 They see a d e f i n i t e range of is s u e s t h a t can be c o n s i d e r e d moral questions and can r e a d i l y be d i s c u s s e d , but they would r e f r a i n from any a c t i v i t y t h a t might be con s i d e r e d narrowly p o l i t i c a l or p a r t i s a n i n na t u r e . In t h i s r e s p e c t the c o n s e r v a t i v e and s e c t - t y p e r e l i g i o u s denominations are l e s s p e r m i s s i v e than the Churches which have been i n f l u e n c e d to a g r e a t e r extent by the l i b e r a l or " s o c i a l g o s p e l " t h e o l o g i c a l movements. I t may be noted a t t h i s p o i n t that the l e v e l o f per m i s s i v e n e s s of clergymen, as w i t h laymen, i s p r e d i c t i v e of t h e i r a t t i t u d e s to many of the i s s u e s g e n e r a l l y pa c o n s i d e r e d to be of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t to the Church. T h e i r l e v e l of permissiveness to p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y i s a l s o p r e d i c t i v e of t h e i r a t t i t u d e s towards the v a r i o u s p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s , and consequently t h e i r v o t i n g behaviour. On the second q u e s t i o n , t h a t of the a c t i v i t y o f the Churches as p r e s s u r e groups, t h e r e was unanimous agreement t h a t such a c t i v i t y should be undertaken i n p a r t i c u l a r circumstances when b a s i c p r i n c i p l e s , or matters of d i r e c t i n t e r e s t to the Churches were a t stake. The m i n i s t e r s g e n e r a l l y f e l t t h a t i f a matter were important enough f o r the Church to make a d e f i n i t e pronouncement upon i t then i t was important enough to be pursued by every p o s s i b l e means a v a i l a b l e . k2 I t was on the matter of p a r t y membership and d i r e c t p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y t h a t the m i n i s t e r s found t h e i r g r e a t e s t problem. There was g e n e r a l agreement amongst them t h a t the c l e r g y c o u l d o n l y p a r t i c i p a t e i n such a c t i v i t y a t t h e i r p e r i l . I t has a l s o been p o i n t e d out that the m i n i s t e r s g e n e r a l l y seemed to have l i t t l e a p p r e c i a t i o n o f the importance of p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s i n the democratic system of government. Thus, while on the average about twenty to t w e n t y - f i v e per cent of the m i n i s t e r s p a r t i c i p a t e d i n other " a c t i o n - t y p e o r g a n i z a t i o n s , " 2 ^ o n l y twelve p e r cent of the respondents had ever h e l d a membership i n a p o l i t i c a l p a r t y . The m i n i s t e r s were g e n e r a l l y agreed that i f a m i n i s t e r entered p u b l i c l i f e he should remove h i m s e l f from any d i r e c t a s s o c i a t i o n with the Church. A t t i t u d e s of M i n i s t e r s Towards P o l i t i c a l Issues S o c i o l o g i s t s l i k e T r o e l t c h and Y i n g e r have tended i n t h e i r s t u d i e s to c o n s i d e r p r i m a r i l y the mechanisms through which the Church and c l e r g y adapt to the dominant s e c u l a r p o i n t s of view e x i s t i n g w i t h i n t h e i r s o c i e t y . "The Church," they conclude, "seldom a c t s to f o s t e r s o c i a l change, but r a t h e r f u n c t i o n s to p r e s e r v e the s t a t u s quo."3^ Thus f a r we have been concerned w i t h the a t t i t u d e s of m i n i s t e r s to t h e i r a c t i v i t y w i t h i n the p o l i t i c a l sphere, and we have n o t i c e d some of the f a c t o r s which tend to l i m i t them i n that r e s p e c t . But the q u e s t i o n of how the m i n i s t e r s view questions of p o l i t i c a l importance remains unanswered. Are m i n i s t e r s w e l l informed and able to g i v e l e a d e r s h i p on some of the p o l i t i c a l questions o f r e l i g i o u s s i g n i f i c a n c e w i t h which t h e i r p a r i s h i o n e r s are r e q u i r e d to d e a l ? Are m i n i s t e r s p r i m a r i l y d i v i d e d along denominational l i n e s on s o c i a l i s s u e s , or i s th e r e a c o n s i d e r a b l e d i v i s i o n of o p i n i o n between the m i n i s t e r s o f the same denomination on c e r t a i n p o l i t i c a l questions? F i n a l l y , i s there a concensus of o p i n i o n on i s s u e s o f an i d e o l o g i c a l or moral c h a r a c t e r , but divergence of o p i n i o n on i s s u e s o f an economic import? These are a few of the qu e s t i o n s which might be c o n s i d e r e d . These questions are of p a r t i c u l a r importance i n d e t e r -mining the a c t u a l p o t e n t i a l o f the c l e r g y a c t i n g as an e l i t e and i m i t a b l e group i n the p o l i t i c a l process;3 1 f o r i f the c l e r g y i s uninformed t h e i r l e a d e r s h i p value i s l i m i t e d ; i f they are ignorant o f the g e n e r a l agreement or disagreement t h a t e x i s t s on c e r t a i n i s s u e s they w i l l f a i l to a c t to m o b i l i z e o p i n i o n on questions o f v i t a l i n t e r e s t to the Church. In o r d e r to t e s t the a t t i t u d e of m i n i s t e r s i n these r e s p e c t s they were asked to answer a group o f questions which are of presen t p o l i t i c a l importance, and g e n e r a l l y have v a r i e d r e l i g i o u s i m p l i c a t i o n s . The questions were d i v i d e d r o u g h l y i n t o two groups. The f i r s t concerned the c l a s s i c t r a d i t i o n o f Church-s t a t e r e l a t i o n s and such r e s t r i c t i v e s o c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n as Sunday observance, d i v o r c e law, and l i q u o r c o n t r o l . The second set o f questions was designed to t e s t the a t t i t u d e s of the m i n i s t e r s to i s s u e s of an economic nature. Here the m i n i s t e r s kk were asked to s t a t e t h e i r a t t i t u d e s towards i n c r e a s e d governmental c o n t r o l s , and to the p l a c e o f l a b o u r unions w i t h i n our economic framework. However, b e f o r e moving to a d i s c u s s i o n of the respondents' r e p l i e s , the reader should again be c a u t i o n e d as to the p i t f a l l s of a study based p r i m a r i l y upon the q u e s t i o n n a i r e approach. As many of the respondents p o i n t e d out, such questions can seldom be answered by a simple "yes" or "no." I t i s a l s o d i f f i c u l t to i n t e r p r e t what was i n the mind of the respondent and the r e s e r v a t i o n s he might have h e l d which do not appear i n the w r i t t e n answers which were r e c e i v e d . The f i r s t three questions the m i n i s t e r s were asked to answer had to do w i t h the problems of r e l i g i o u s i n s t r u c t i o n i n p u b l i c s c h o o l s , and tax exemptions f o r r e l i g i o u s p r i v a t e s c h o o l s and i n s t i t u t i o n s . The m i n i s t e r s were asked: 1. Should r e l i g i o u s i n s t r u c t i o n i n p u b l i c schools be compulsory? 2. Should v o l u n t a r y r e l i g i o u s i n s t r u c t i o n be allowed i n p u b l i c schools? 3. Do you f a v o u r tax exemptions f o r r e l i g i o u s p r i v a t e schools and i n s t i t u t i o n s ? The respondents' r e p l i e s are g i v e n by denomination i n Table 8, below: 45 TABLE 8 ( i n p e rcentages) Question 1 A n g l i c . B a p t i s t Luth. Presby. U n i t e d Other T t l . Yes 47 . 3 (9) 7 .6 (1) 1 2 . 5 (1) — 4 0 . 0 (8) 4 0 . 0 (4) 30.6 23 No 5 2 . 6 (10) 92 . 3 (12) 8 7 . 5 (7) 100.0 (5) 6 0 . 0 (12) 6 0 . 0 (6) 6 9 . 3 52 Question 2 Yes 8 8 . 8 (16) 75.0 (9) 62.5 (5) 100.0 (5) 8 9 . 5 (17) 8 7 . 5 (7) 8 4 . 2 59 No 11.1 (2) 25.0 (3) 37.5 (3) — 1 0 . 5 (2) 1 2 . 5 (1) n Question 3 Yes 47.4 (9) 7.7 (1) 71.4 (5) 6 0 . 0 (3) i5.o (3) 5o.o (5) 36.1 26 No 5 2 . 3 (10) 9 0 . 9 (10) 28 . 5 (2) 4 0 . 0 (2) 8 5 . 0 (17) 5o.o (5) 53.9 46 A study of Table 8 w i l l show t h a t , while i n every i n s t a n c e the q u e s t i o n cut across denominational l i n e s , i n g e n e r a l the P r o t e s t a n t c l e r g y are not w i l l i n g to see anything t h a t might be i n t e r p r e t e d as s t a t e i n t e r v e n t i o n , o r t h e o c r a t i c tendencies i n f i l t r a t e our prese n t s e c u l a r e d u c a t i o n a l system. The A n g l i c a n c l e r g y were more w i l l i n g to see compulsory r e l i g i o u s i n s t r u c t i o n , w h i le the m i n i s t e r s o f every denomination f e l t t h a t v o l u n t a r y r e l i g i o u s i n s t r u c t i o n should be allowed i f some s a t i s f a c t o r y system c o u l d be d e v i s e d . Over e i g h t y - f o u r p e r cent of the respondents favoured some form of v o l u n t a r y r e l i g i o u s i n s t r u c t i o n . The United Church m i n i s t e r s thought t h a t r e l i g i o u s i n s t r u c t i o n s hould be g i v e n i n the form of a u s u a l course on the c u r r i c u l u m from which i n t e r e s t e d students might choose. M i n i s t e r s of the B a p t i s t and Lutheran Churches tended to be more s u s p i c i o u s of such t r a i n i n g . T h e i r concern was w e l l s t a t e d by one p a s t o r who commented t h a t "many teachers are not q u a l i f i e d to g i v e r e l i g i o u s i n s t r u c t i o n e i t h e r e x p e r l e n t i a l l y or e d u c a t i o n a l l y . " On the q u e s t i o n of tax exemptions f o r r e l i g i o u s p r i v a t e schools and i n s t i t u t i o n s the u s u a l denominational l i n e s were drawn. The A n g l i c a n c l e r g y were more w i l l i n g to allow exemptions or grants to schools, " h o s p i t a l s , and homes f o r the aged operated by the Churches, p r o v i d e d they were s t r i c t l y n o n - p r o f i t o r g a n i z a t i o n s , and t h a t proper standards were upheld." The m i n i s t e r s of Churches w i t h a B a p t i s t or Methodist t r a d i t i o n were most opposed to such exemptions; although some e v a n g e l i c a l m i n i s t e r s who have had c o n s i d e r a b l e experience w i t h r e l i g i o u s education and the r u n n i n g o f s o c i a l s e r v i c e i n s t i t u t i o n s tended to have l o s t much of t h e i r d o c t r i n a i r e a t t i t u d e i n t h a t r e s p e c t . Seventy-one per cent o f the Lutheran m i n i s t e r s favoured exemptions, while h a l f of the f u n d a m e n t a l i s t respondents, members of the S a l v a t i o n Army and the C h r i s t i a n Reformed Churches favoured some remittances or exemptions f o r such r e l i g i o u s i n s t i t u t i o n s . Perhaps the most s i g n i f i c a n t p o i n t e l i c i t e d from the f i r s t group of questions was t h a t almost 85 per cent o f the respondents favoured some system of v o l u n t a r y r e l i g i o u s i n s t r u c t i o n . Where such a wide degree of agreement e x i s t s there i s a s t r o n g b a s i s f o r i n t e r d e n o m i n a t i o n a l c o - o p e r a t i o n and the a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n of the c l e r g y i n educating o p i n i o n to the p o i n t where an adequate and e f f i c i e n t system of v o l u n t a r y r e l i g i o u s i n s t r u c t i o n can be i n t r o d u c e d i n t o the c u r r i c u l u m o f our e x i s t i n g p u b l i c s c h o o l system. Perhaps the next three f i e l d s f o r which the m i n i s t e r s ' o p i n i o n s were compiled are the most c o n t r o v e r s i a l at the p r e s e n t time. These are the f i e l d s of Sabbath observance, l i q u o r c o n t r o l , and c e n s o r s h i p . The f i r s t q u e s t i o n , t h a t o f r e v i s i o n of the Lord's Day Act, was o f p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t because of the l o n g and continued s t r u g g l e f o r the i n s t i t u t i o n o f commercial Sunday s p o r t s i n the Greater Vancouver area. Pour p l e b i s c i t e s have been h e l d on t h i s q u e s t i o n s i n c e December of 1950.-^ In the f i r s t p l e b i s c i t e commercial Sunday s p o r t was d e f e a t e d by a comfortable margin. However, i n the f i n a l p l e b i s c i t e h e l d i n December of 1957 i t was upheld by a f o u r t e e n per cent m a j o r i t y . Thus, w i t h the i s s u e c o n t i n u a l l y b e f o r e the p u b l i c f o r over seven y e a r s , i t might be expected t h a t the c l e r g y would be f a m i l i a r w i t h the p r e s e n t laws concerning Sunday observance; that they would have d e f i n i t e o p i n i o n s as to a s o l u t i o n to the problem, or a w e l l reasoned defense of the p r e s e n t system. In d i s c u s s i n g t h i s q u e s t i o n , i t was decided t h a t , s i n c e the q u e s t i o n was not one o f commercial s p o r t alone, but of g e n e r a l Sunday observance, the m i n i s t e r s should be asked the more general q u e s t i o n , "Would you favour a r e v i s i o n of the Lord's Day Act i n the l i g h t of p r e s e n t s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s and r e l i g i o u s thought?" 3 3 The m i n i s t e r s were then asked, " I f you would favour a r e v i s i o n of the Lord's Day Act what s p e c i f i c changes would you envisage?" TABLE 9 R e v i s i o n of the Lord's Day Act ( i n p e rcentages ) A n g l i c a n B a p t i s t Lutheran P r e s b y t . U n i t e d Others T o t a l Yes 7 0 . 5 5 0 . 0 75.0 75.0 7 3 . 6 2 0 . 0 61.k (12) (6) (6) (3) -(14) (2) ~W No 2 9 . 5 5 0 . 0 2 5 . 0 2 5 . 0 2 6 . 3 8 0 . 0 38.5 (5) (6) (2) (1) (5) (8) 27 As T a b l e 9 shows, more than s i x t y per cent o f the m i n i s t e r s f e l t t h a t some changes should be made i n the Lord's Day A c t . Only among the e v a n g e l i c a l s d i d a m a j o r i t y oppose such a r e v i s i o n . A m a j o r i t y of the m i n i s t e r s took t h a t a t t i t u d e t h a t , as one A n g l i c a n m i n i s t e r put i t , "Time makes a n c i e n t good uncouth." However, the m i n i s t e r s s t r e s s e d the s c r i p t u r a l b a s i s of Sunday, t h a t i t was a d i v i n e l y ordained day of r e s t , and expressed concern t h a t no changes be made tha t j w o u l d debase the r e l i g i o u s s i g n i f i c a n c e of the day. Some f e l t t h a t Sunday was a day f o r " r e - c r e a t i o n " and t h a t a l i b e r a l i z a t i o n of the law need not debase or c o n t r a d i c t the s c r i p t u r a l p r i n c i p l e s embodied i n the A c t . In g e n e r a l the m i n i s t e r s who supported a r e v i s i o n of the Act f e l l i n t o one of three groups. The f i r s t group o f m i n i s t e r s f e l t t h a t the wording of the Act should be c l a r i f i e d and made a p p l i c a b l e to pr e s e n t c o n d i t i o n s ; that the pr e s e n t ban agai n s t commercial performances should be continued; and th a t S e c t i o n 16 of the Act should be amended to make p r o s e c u t i o n f o r v i o l a t i o n of the Act immediate, and not dependent upon the consent of the Attorney-General.34 The second group of p a s t o r s , which i n c l u d e d a m a j o r i t y o f those i n the A n g l i c a n and Lutheran Churches, f e l t t h a t the Act was not based on C h r i s t i a n t e a c h i n g ; t h a t i t was p u r i t a n i c a l r a t h e r than C h r i s t i a n . They f e l t t h a t the Act d i d more harm than good to the Churches. For example, one A n g l i c a n p a s t o r commented t h a t commercial Sunday s p o r t s should be allowed to "remove from the Church the charge o f d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n i t s own i n t e r e s t . " The A n g l i c a n s r e f e r r e d to r e p o r t s made by the Reverend S t a n l e y Higgs which had been w i d e l y c i r c u l a t e d throughout the M e t r o p o l i t a n area. The m i n i s t e r s o f the Lutheran Church g e n e r a l l y took the view t h a t a "removal o f the extreme p u r i t a n i c a l aspects o f the law" should be encouraged. L i k e the A n g l i c a n s they d i d not see the i s s u e i n s t r i c t t h e o l o g i c a l terms, and s t r e s s e d the " f u t i l i t y o f t r y i n g to enforce r e l i g i o u s observance on C h r i s t i a n s and n o n - C h r i s t i a n s a l i k e . " In g e n e r a l , i t was the m i n i s t e r s of these two denominations, along w i t h some of the most l i b e r a l p a s t o r s o f 50 the U n i t e d Church, who favoured the i n t r o d u c t i o n of l i m i t e d commercial entertainments on the Sabbath Day. The m i n i s t e r s of the U n i t e d and B a p t i s t Churches p r o f e s s e d a gre a t I n t e r e s t i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r problem, but were i n g e n e r a l l e s s agreed as denominations as to what would be a proper s o l u t i o n . Some saw "present day p r e s s u r e s as predominantly f i n a n c i a l " and d e p l o r e d the " c y n i c a l motives" behind the move f o r r e v i s i o n of the Lord's Day A c t . Others took the p o s i t i o n that when there was c o n c l u s i v e evidence "that a m a j o r i t y o f the p o p u l a t i o n f a v o u r e d commercialized s p o r t s on Sunday the law should be a d j u s t e d . " However, many o f the m i n i s t e r s remained vague as to ju s t what changes were r e q u i r e d . They d i s c u s s e d such t h i n g s as a l l o w i n g c o m m e r c i a l " c u l t u r a l p u r s u i t s , " but not commercial s p o r t s . For example, one U n i t e d Church m i n i s t e r f e l t t h a t they should "allow good music without q u e s t i o n and a l l forms of q u i e t non-commercial s p o r t . " How these m i n i s t e r s were able to draw the l i n e between upper middle c l a s s r e c r e a t i o n a l p u r s u i t s , and those of a s p e c t a t o r v a r i e t y f r e q u e n t e d more by those o f lower economic statu s was d i f f i c u l t to d i s c e r n . Unhappily, the answers g i v e n by the respondents were of l e s s i n t e r e s t from the standpoint of t h e i r a t t i t u d e to p o l i t i c s than were t h e i r admissions of ignorance as to what the law r e a l l y was, even though t h i s i s s u e should have been a matter o f prime concern to the Churches i n re c a n t y e a r s . One B a p t i s t m i n i s t e r r e p l i e d , "To be f r a n k I know as much as the 51 average v o t e r about the A c t . I have never r e a d i t . " A U n i t e d Church m i n i s t e r answered, " I have not r e a d the A c t . There has been much news and propaganda about i t . How c o r r e c t i t i s I do not know. U s u a l l y l e g i s l a t i o n i s of n e c e s s i t y r e v i s e d from time t o time." A P r e s b y t e r i a n m i n i s t e r h i t a t the r o o t of the i s s u e when he commented t h a t "the A c t s h o u l d be i n t e r p r e t e d i n terms of t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y l i f e . " "But," he c o n t i n u e d , "how can anyone suggest changes when not one p e r cent of the c l e r g y (a guess) have ever seen i t as i t stands i n t o t o . " Was t h i s not the p o i n t ? The c l e r g y as a group are not w e l l v e r s e d i n the s t a t u t o r y p r o v i s i o n s f o r c o n t r o l and p r o t e c t i o n of s o c i e t y ; even on q u e s t i o n s of d i r e c t i n t e r e s t t o the r e l i g i o u s community. The c l e r g y as a group do not have knowledge of l e g i s l a t i o n which one would expect t o be of v i t a l 35 i n t e r e s t t o them. y C l e a r l y , i f t h e c l e r g y as an e l i t e group are not w e l l informed on p o l i t i c a l i s s u e s o f v i t a l i n t e r e s t t o the Church they are i n no p o s i t i o n t o g i v e e n l i g h t e n e d and i n t e l l i g e n t l e a d e r s h i p t o the f l o c k s which t h e y are c a l l e d upon to l e a d . True, some of the p a s t o r s p o i n t e d t o s p e c i a l boards f o r s o c i a l s e r v i c e and r e s e a r c h whose s p e c i f i c f u n c t i o n was t o i n v e s t i g a t e and r e p o r t on q u e s t i o n s such as t h e s e . However, t h e i r r e p o r t s , because o f l a c k o f time, o f t e n were not r e a d ; and when r e a d the problem of e f f e c t i v e l y t r a n s m i t t i n g e n l i g h t e n e d 52 church p o l i c y to the l o c a l c o n g r e g a t i o n remained. Many of the m i n i s t e r s seem to be conscious o f t h i s d e f i c i e n c y i n t h e i r m i n i s t r y and are concerned about the tendency to wait f o r other groups, u s u a l l y u n f r i e n d l y to the church, to a g i t a t e f o r r e v i s i o n o f what some c o n s i d e r e d outmoded s t a t u t e s . However, they p o i n t to the problem o f the i n c r e a s e d and v a r i e d demands made upon t h e i r l i m i t e d time, o f the i n c r e a s e d n e c e s s i t y f o r p a s t o r a l c o u n s e l l i n g , and of the ever i n c r e a s i n g time spent i n necessary a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d u t i e s . One B a p t i s t p a s t o r summed up the s i t u a t i o n w e l l when he s t a t e d , " C e r t a i n l y I would l i k e more time f o r r e a d i n g and study, but the demands of my Church make i t p h y s i c a l l y i m p o s s i b l e f o r me to do more than I am doing a t the p r e s e n t time." The problem of l i q u o r c o n t r o l i s the second q u e s t i o n o f p o l i t i c a l and r e l i g i o u s s i g n i f i c a n c e upon which the m i n i s t e r s were asked to express an o p i n i o n . In order to t e s t t h e i r a t t i t u d e s the m i n i s t e r s were asked two q u e s t i o n s : 1. Would you f a v o u r the i n s t i t u t i o n o f more s t r i n g e n t l i q u o r laws? 2. Do you f e e l t h a t n a t i o n a l i z a t i o n by the p r o v i n c i a l governments of breweries and d i s t i l l e r i e s would be j u s t i f i e d ? The responses to these two que s t i o n s were compiled and are shown by r e l i g i o u s denomination i n Table 10, below: 53 TABLE 10 The C l e r g y and the L i q u o r Question ( i n p ercentages) Ques. 1 A n g l i c a n B a p t i s t L u t h . P r e s b y t . U n i t e d Other T o t a l Yes 21.0 92.3 50.0 60 . 0 73-6 87 .5 61.1 (4) (12) (4) (3) (14) (7) 44 No 78.9 7.6 50.0 40.0 26.3 12.5 38.8 (15) (1) (4) (2) (5) (1) 28 Ques. 2 Yes 21.0 50.0 50.0 20.0 84.2 42.8 48.4 (4) (4) (4) (1) (16) (3) 32 No 78.9 50.0 50.0 80.0 l 5 . 7 57.1 51.5 (15) (4) (4) (4) (3) (4) 34 As might be expected, a p e r u s a l o f Table 10 w i l l show th a t the views of the m i n i s t e r s as to the adequacy of p r e s e n t l i q u o r laws depends upon the t r a d i t i o n a l o u t l o o k and theology of the d i f f e r e n t denominations. Opinion was separated g e n e r a l l y by the denominational l i n e , although i n every case a m i n o r i t y w i t h i n each denomination took the opposing view. T h i s may be e x p l a i n e d p a r t l y by the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n put on the word " s t r i n g e n t . " Seventy-eight p e r cent o f the A n g l i c a n respondents f e l t t h a t the p r e s e n t l i q u o r laws were g e n e r a l l y s a t i s f a c t o r y , and were g e n e r a l l y opposed to any more s t r i n g e n t system where the q u e s t i o n o f o u t l e t s was concerned. They s t r e s s e d the p o i n t t h a t "more knowledge (was) needed about the c o r r e c t use o f wines and s p i r i t s . " One A n g l i c a n m i n i s t e r f e l t t h a t the law could be made more s t r i n g e n t " i n r e s p e c t o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y being imposed upon t a v e r n keepers f o r the s e r v i n g o f too much l i q u o r to s i n g l e p a t r o n s . " Although the Lutheran m i n i s t e r s d i d not see the q u e s t i o n o f d r i n k i n g as a moral i s s u e , they were e q u a l l y d i v i d e d when i t came to support o f more s t r i n g e n t l i q u o r laws. L i k e the A n g l i c a n s they s t r e s s e d temperate use o f a l c o h o l i c beverages and were concerned about the tendency to i n c r e a s e d consumption. They f e l t the danger l a y i n the c o n t i n u e d "high p r e s s u r e a d v e r t i s i n g , " and f a v o r e d some system to c o n t r o l t h i s f a c e t o f the q u e s t i o n . M i n i s t e r s o f the U n i t e d , B a p t i s t and f u n d a m e n t a l i s t denominations s t i l l f e e l the n e c e s s i t y f o r s t r o n g e r l i q u o r c o n t r o l s . Ninety-two p e r cent o f the B a p t i s t , 87 per cent of the f u n d a m e n t a l i s t , and 73 p e r cent o f the U n i t e d Church respondents were i n favour o f more s t r i n g e n t l i q u o r laws. While they expressed concern about the s h i f t i n p u b l i c o p i n i o n i n favour o f Increased o u t l e t s , they were most concerned t h a t the present laws should be enforced to a g r e a t e r degree than they are a t the p r e s e n t time. As w i l l be seen i n the next chapter, the m i n i s t e r s o f these denominations have turned from a s t r e s s upon the l e g i s l a t i v e to a s t r e s s upon the e d u c a t i o n a l aspects o f the l i q u o r q u e s t i o n . The answer o f one U n i t e d Church m i n i s t e r was t y p i c a l . He s a i d , "Even the enforcement o f p r e s e n t laws would 55 h e l p . But more s t r i n g e n t laws would be o n l y a p a r t i a l answer to the problem." Another m i n i s t e r s t a t e d t h a t he would f a v o u r more s t r i n g e n t l i q u o r laws but t h a t "a more thoroughgoing system o f a l c o h o l education i s much more important." A B a p t i s t m i n i s t e r s a i d t h a t he would favour more s t r i n g e n t laws, "but not beyond p u b l i c support." In r e l i g i o u s c i r c l e s one of the s o l u t i o n s suggested to the l i q u o r problem has been the n a t i o n a l i z a t i o n by the p r o v i n c i a l governments o f breweries and d i s t i l l e r i e s ; the argument being t h a t i f t h i s were done, many o f the p r e s s u r e s i n f avour o f i n c r e a s e d s a l e s and consumption co u l d be removed. The respondents were about e q u a l l y d i v i d e d on the q u e s t i o n . F o r t y -e i g h t p e r cent favoured n a t i o n a l i z a t i o n o f breweries and d i s t i l l e r i e s , w h i l e 5 l per cent were opposed to such a move. The A n g l i c a n , P r e s b y t e r i a n , and f u n d a m e n t a l i s t c l e r g y were g e n e r a l l y more opposed to such a move, p a r t l y on the grounds o f d i s l i k e o f government ownership, but a l s o because they f e l t t h a t the system would d e t e r i o r a t e i n t o a f u r t h e r "money-making scheme" f o r the government. S e v e r a l o f the m i n i s t e r s were qu i c k to p o i n t out t h a t the q u e s t i o n was wrongly worded s i n c e to have e f f e c t i v e c o n t r o l o f f e d e r a l l y c h a r t e r e d companies and i n t e r -p r o v i n c i a l trade n a t i o n a l i z a t i o n would have to be done by the f e d e r a l government a t Ottawa. In l i n e w i t h the g e n e r a l p o l i c y o f the Church the U n i t e d c l e r g y were s t r o n g l y i n f a v o u r o f n a t i o n a l i z a t i o n o f the l i q u o r b u s i n e s s . Over e i g h t y - f o u r per c e n t favoured i t as a 56 means of l e s s e n i n g a d v e r t i s i n g and d e c r e a s i n g o v e r a l l consumption. The B a p t i s t c l e r g y was s p l i t on the i s s u e , w i t h some h o l d i n g a p o s i t i o n s i m i l a r to t h a t taken by the m i n i s t e r s of the U n i t e d Church. However, another s e c t i o n o f the Church f e l t t h a t government ownership was extremely dangerous. S a i d one p a s t o r , "I would fa v o u r i t no more than the n a t i o n a l i z a t i o n o f the white s l a v e t r a f f i c o r the opium t r a d e . " On the t h i r d q u e s t i o n , t h a t o f the p r i n c i p l e of c e n s o r s h i p , the m i n i s t e r s were g e n e r a l l y agreed. When asked the q u e s t i o n , "Do you support the p r i n c i p l e o f Boards of C e n s o r s h i p f o r books, t e l e v i s i o n , and the movies?" 86 per cent responded t h a t they d i d . The f i g u r e s by r e l i g i o u s denomination are shown i n Table 11, below: TABLE 11 Censorship Boards ( i n percentage's) A n g l i c a n B a p t i s t ' L u t h e r a n F r e s b y t . Unlted Other T o t a l Yes 83.3 92 .3 87.5 100.0 75.0 100.0 86.5 (15) (12) (7) (5) (15) (10) 6IL No 17.5 7.6 12.5 — 25.0 — 13-5 (3) ( l ) ( l ) (5) 10 The f u n d a m e n t a l i s t , P r e s b y t e r i a n and B a p t i s t p a s t o r s were most unanimous, su p p o r t i n g the p r i n c i p l e o f c e n s o r s h i p boards by percentages of 100 and 93 p e r cent r e s p e c t i v e l y . The U n i t e d Church m i n i s t e r s were l e s s e n t h u s i a s t i c , w i t h only 75 p e r cent i n f a v o u r o f such a system. S i m i l a r l y , the U n i t e d Church 57 p a s t o r s were l e s s p e r m i s s i v e i n the degree o f power they would a l l o w the Boards. They s t r e s s e d the p o i n t t h a t p o l i c y and membership should be "re-examined from time to time." Another q u e s t i o n of g r e a t importance to the Church, and a q u e s t i o n on rtiich the claims o f s t a t e and Church have o f t e n c l a s h e d i s the q u e s t i o n of d i v o r c e , and the r e g u l a t i o n s and s t a t u t e s f o r the g r a n t i n g of d i v o r c e decrees. The C a t h o l i c Church has taken the p o s i t i o n t h a t " d i v i n e law does n o t p r o v i d e f o r d i v o r c e on any ground, but merely f o r s e p a r a t i o n without r i g h t of r e m a r r i a g e . " ^ G e n e r a l l y the p r o t e s t a n t Churches have taken the p o s i t i o n t h a t d i v o r c e i s j u s t i f i e d on grounds o f a d u l t e r y , and that remarriage should be d e a l t w i t h a c c o r d i n g to the m e r i t s o f each i n d i v i d u a l case. A c c o r d i n g l y the m i n i s t e r s were asked the q u e s t i o n s : Under p r e s e n t c i v i l law the o n l y grounds f o r the g r a n t i n g of a d i v o r c e i s a d u l t e r y . Would you favour an amendment to p r e s e n t l e g i s l a t i o n t h a t would permit the g r a n t i n g of a d i v o r c e f o r grounds o t h e r than a d u l t e r y ? (E.G. d e s e r t i o n , mental c r u e l t y . ) TABLE 12 D i v o r c e Law ( i n p ercentages ) A n g l i c a n B a p t i s t Lutheran P r e s b y t . U n i t e d Other T o t a l Yes 38.8 20.0 50.0 60.0 90.9 10.0 50.7 (7) (2) ( I I ) (3) (20) (1) 37 No 61.1 80.0 50.0 ILO.O 9.1 90.0 b,9.3 (11) (8) (k) (2) (2) (9) 36 58 The f i g u r e s i n T a b l e 12 show t h a t the d i v o r c e q u e s t i o n i s by no means s e t t l e d i n the minds of many of the m i n i s t e r s . T h e i r comments s e r v e d t o c o n f i r m t h i s i m p r e s s i o n . As might be expected, the p a s t o r s o f churches which adhere t o more c o n s e r v a t i v e t h e o l o g y were most opposed t o any changes i n the grounds f o r g r a n t i n g of d i v o r c e . The m i n i s t e r s of t h e f u n d a m e n t a l i s t and B a p t i s t Churches were most opposed, w i t h the A n g l i c a n c l e r g y g e n e r a l l y t a k i n g a s i m i l a r p o s i t i o n . However, t h i s does not mean t h a t the m i n i s t e r s were not c o n s c i o u s of the problems i n v o l v e d w i t h the p r e s e n t system. F o r example, one m i n i s t e r commented "T/hile I r e g r e t the h y p o c r i s y which our laws encourage, I p r e f e r our s i t u a t i o n to t h a t which i s p r e v a l e n t i n many of t h e s t a t e s i n the U. S. A., where the law seems almost t o encourage men and women to d r i f t i n and out o f marriage without r e g a r d i n g i t as a b i n d i n g c o n t r a c t . " A n o t h e r m i n i s t e r f e l t t h a t the s c r i p t u r a l b a s i s f o r d i v o r c e was a d u l t e r y and t h a t the p r e s e n t law was t w i s t e d such t h a t no "amendment would be regarded by those who wish t o t w i s t the law s t i l l f u r t h e r . " E x cept on the l i q u o r q u e s t i o n , the c l e r g y o f the U n i t e d Church are the most l i b e r a l . T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y e v i d e n t i n t h e i r a t t i t u d e toward the d i v o r c e i s s u e . Over n i n e t y per cent of the U n i t e d Church respondents f e l t t h a t the d i v o r c e laws s h o u l d be amended. They j u s t i f i e d t h e i r a t t i t u d e s g e n e r a l l y on one of the f o l l o w i n g grounds: e i t h e r t h a t the present law encouraged h y p o c r i s y and p e r j u r y by persons who, w h i l e r e f u s i n g t o commit a d u l t e r y , admit 59 to i t i n o r d e r to o b t a i n a d i v o r c e ; or on the ground t h a t i n cases of d e s e r t i o n , o r where a p a r t n e r i s m e n t a l l y i m p a i r e d , o n l y d i v o r c e can g i v e the i n j u r e d p a r t y an o p p o r t u n i t y to b e g i n a g a i n t o b u i l d a normal and happy l i f e . I t should be noted, however, t h a t a l l the m i n i s t e r s were agreed t h a t i f changes were made, the grounds and terms f o r d i v o r c e s h o u l d be r i g i d l y d e f i n e d and l i m i t e d . Most who f a v o u r e d e x t e n s i o n f a v o u r e d i t on grounds of d e s e r t i o n or p h y s i c a l impairment, but not f o r mental c r u e l t y . They s t a t e d t h a t such terms had been u t i l i z e d i n the p a s t t o cover a l l forms of l i c e n c e . Another i s s u e of c o n t i n u i n g i n t e r e s t , a l t h o u g h l e s s d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o r e l i g i o n , i s the q u e s t i o n of c a p i t a l punishment. To t e s t the m i n i s t e r s ' o p i n i o n on t h i s i s s u e t h e y were asked the f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n : "Would you f a v o u r the a b o l i t i o n of c a p i t a l punishment?" TABLE 15 C a p i t a l Punishment ( i n p ercentages) A n g l i c a n B a p t i s t L u t h e r a n P r e s b y t . U n i t e d Other T o t a l l e s 58.8 25-0 25.0 25.0 77.2 30.0 44.6 (7) (3) (2) (1) (17) (3) 33 No 61.1 75-0 75-0 (11) (9) (6)" 75-0 22.7 70.0 55.4 (3) (5) (7) 41 60 An a n a l y s i s o f t h e r e t u r n s by d e n o m i n a t i o n shows a g a i n , t h a t w h i l e t h e r e i s c o n s i d e r a b l e d i v e r g e n c e o f o p i n i o n between the m i n i s t e r s g e n e r a l l y , and a g r e a t e r d i v e r g e n c e t h a n u s u a l w i t h i n the d e n o m i n a t i o n s , g e n e r a l l y t h e q u e s t i o n o f c a p i t a l pLinishment f i n d s t h e c l e r g y s e p a r a t e d on d e n o m i n a t i o n a l l i n e s . The m i n i s t e r s o f a l l t h e Churches e x c e p t the U n i t e d C h u r c h f a v o u r e d t h e use o f c a p i t a l punishment by a r a t i o o f a b o u t t h r e e to o n e — t h e A n g l i c a n c l e r g y b e i n g s l i g h t l y more l i b e r a l i n t h e i r a t t i t u d e . However, t h e m i n i s t e r s o f t h e U n i t e d C h u r c h c o m p l e t e l y r e v e r s e d t h i s f i g u r e , w i t h 77 T ? e r c e n t o f t h e i r r e s p o n d e n t s f a v o u r i n g t h e a b o l i t i o n of c a p i t a l punishment. Thus, because the l a r g e s t group of r e s p o n d e n t s were f r o m t h a t C h u r c h , th e t o t a l f i g u r e s show 4 4 p e r c e n t o f t h e c l e r g y i n f a v o u r , and 55 p e r c e n t opposed t o t h e a b o l i t i o n o f t h e d e a t h p e n a l t y f o r c a p i t a l c r i m e s . From a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e m i n i s t e r s ' r e p l i e s t o t h e q u e s t i o n s c o n s i d e r e d above, c e r t a i n g e n e r a l c o n c l u s i o n s may be drawn. I t seems c l e a r t h a t on most q u e s t i o n s of a p o l i t i c a l and r e l i g i o u s n a t u r e t h e a t t i t u d e s o f t h e m i n i s t e r s t e n d t o f o l l o w d e n o m i n a t i o n a l l i n e s . However, on most i s s u e s t h e r e i s a s i g n i f i c a n t p e r c e n t a g e o f t h e m i n i s t e r s i n e a c h d e n o m i n a t i o n who d e v i a t e f r o m the p o s i t i o n of t h e m a j o r i t y w i t h i n t h e i r C h u r c h . The q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e t u r n s t e n d e d to c o n f i r m t h e i d e a t h a t m i n i s t e r s are n o t f o r w a r d i n p r o p o s i n g changes to l a w s even when t h e r e i s agreement amongst them t h a t some changes may be n e c e s s a r y . The s u r v e y a l s o p o i n t e d out the l i m i t e d e x t e n t t o w h i c h th e c l e r g y were i n f o r m e d on l a w s d i r e c t l y a f f e c t i n g t h e 61 i n t e r e s t o f the Churches and the r e l i g i o u s community a t l a r g e . I t must be r e l u c t a n t l y concluded t h a t u n l e s s a more e f f i c i e n t method i s found f o r educating and t r a n s m i t t i n g the necessary i n f o r m a t i o n to the average clergyman, h i s e f f e c t i v e n e s s as a member o f the i n t e l l e c t u a l e l i t e In i n f l u e n c i n g and l e a d i n g h i s congregation w i l l be g r e a t l y and permanently impaired. In a p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n the q u e s t i o n o f the economic order was d i s c u s s e d , and the c o n c l u s i o n was suggested t h a t m i n i s t e r s were p a r t i c u l a r l y c a u t i o u s not to d i s c u s s p o l i t i c a l q u estions which had an economic b a s i s . In order to t e s t the a t t i t u d e s o f the m i n i s t e r s to our economic system they were g i v e n a number o f q u e s t i o n s concerning government c o n t r o l and the p l a c e of l a b o u r unions w i t h i n the framework o f our economic r system. The f i r s t q u e s t i o n put to the respondents was, "Would you support i n c r e a s e d governmental c o n t r o l s o f b u s i n e s s and p r i v a t e i n d u s t r y ? " TABLE li}. Governmental Economic C o n t r o l s ( i n percentages) A n g l i c a n B a p t i s t Lutheran P r e s b y t . U n i t e d Other T o t a l Yes 17.6 20.0 12.5 60.0 25.7 (3) (2) (1) (12) 18 No 82.3 80.0 87.5 100.0 ILO.O 100.0 74.2 (14) (8) (7) (5) (8) (10) 52 62 A p e r u s a l o f Table II4. w i l l show t h a t g e n e r a l l y the c l e r g y were not w i l l i n g to see any d r a s t i c changes i n the economic system under which we l i v e . Almost three q u a r t e r s of the respondents opposed any i n c r e a s e i n government economic c o n t r o l s . However, t a k i n g the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n , i t might be s t a t e d t h a t the m i n i s t e r s are even more l i b e r a l i n t h i s r e s p e c t . On questions o f economic import denominational d i f f e r e n c e s are predominant. The U n i t e d Church c l e r g y u s u a l l y take a p o s i t i o n opposed to the m i n i s t e r s o f the o t h e r denominations, w i t h s i x t y per cent o f the United Church respondents f a v o u r i n g i n c r e a s e d governmental p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the economic system. However, a study o f Table I i i alone would l e a v e an impression t h a t the c l e r g y are g e n e r a l l y more c o n s e r v a t i v e w i t h r e s p e c t to governmental i n t e r v e n t i o n than they r e a l l y a re. Table 10 has a l r e a d y shown t h a t a much l a r g e r percentage, f o r t y - e i g h t per cent, favoured n a t i o n a l i z a t i o n o f the brewing and d i s t i l l i n g i n t e r e s t s i n the i n t e r e s t o f decreased consumption and more e f f e c t i v e c o n t r o l s . Another example can be g i v e n to show the more pragmatic a t t i t u d e o f the c l e r g y toward government p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n economic a c t i v i t i e s . In t h i s p a r t i c u l a r case the m i n i s t e r s were asked the f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n : There has been some d i s c u s s i o n o f tiie method which should be used for" the development o f B. C.'s h y d r o e l e c t r i c power r e s o u r c e s . Would you f a v o u r development by the B. C. Power Commission, or by some p r i v a t e pox^er company? 63 TABLE 15 H y d r o e l e c t r i c Power Development ( i n p e r c e n t a g e s ) A n g l . B a p t i s t L u t h . Presbyt. U n i t e d Other T o t a l B.C. Power 82.3 75.0 57.1 66.6 90.0 1+2.8 75.8 Commission (14) (6) (4) (2) (18) (3) 47 P r i v a t e P. 17.6 25.0 42.8 33.3 10.0 57.1 24.2 (3) (2) (3) (1) (2) (4) 15 The f i g u r e s i n Table 15 show t h a t 75 per cent o f the respondents favoured development i n t h i s s p e c i f i c i n s t a n c e by a government c o n t r o l l e d p u b l i c c o r p o r a t i o n . G e n e r a l l y , except f o r the f u n d a m e n t a l i s t c l e r g y and some A n g l i c a n s , who are d o c t r i n a l l y most opposed to government, the o t h e r m i n i s t e r s seem to take a pragmatic approach to economic o r g a n i z a t i o n weighted c o n s i d e r a b l y i n f a v o u r of the f r e e e n t e r p r i s e system. When asked a g e n e r a l q u e s t i o n about economic c o n t r o l the m a j o r i t y jump to the defense of the e x i s t i n g system, but g i v e n s p e c i f i c examples where charges of monopoly e x p l o i t a t i o n have been l a i d , they tend to be much more l i b e r a l i n t h e i r r e p l i e s . - * 7 There i s l i t t l e doubt, however, t h a t the m i n i s t e r s who have been i n f l u e n c e d most by the " s o c i a l g o s p e l " type o f l i b e r a l theology are much l e s s enamoured of the p r e s e n t economic system. T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e o f a m a j o r i t y o f m i n i s t e r s w i t h i n the U n i t e d Church. A f i n a l s e t o f q u e s t i o n s were posed to the m i n i s t e r s concerning t h e i r a t t i t u d e s towards o r g a n i z e d l a b o u r , and u n i o n 6l|. a c t i v i t y w i t h i n the economic o r d e r . They were asked the f o l l o w i n g f i v e q u e s t i o n s : 1. Do you support i n p r i n c i p l e the e x i s t e n c e o f l a b o u r unions? 2. . . . compulsory c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g ? 3. . . . the c l o s e d shop? 1L. . . . the r i g h t to s t r i k e ? 5. . . . the guaranteed annual vjage? A computation of the d a t a on unions by r e l i g i o u s denomination i s g i v e n i n Table 16, below: TABLE 16 The C l e r g y and Union A c t i v i t y ( i n p ercentages) Ques. 1 A n g l i c a n B a p t i s t Lutheran Presby. U n i t e d Other T o t a l Yes 9 4 . 7 92 .3 100.00 80.0 100.0 100.0 9 6 . 0 (18) (12) (8) (k) (22) (8) 72 No 5.2 7.6 — 20.0 - - - - k (1) (1) (1) 3 Ques. 2 Yes k-k.k 58.3 59.0 33.3 8I4..2 85.7 63.0 (8) (7) (3) (1) (16) (6) la No 55.5 41.6 50.0 66.6 15.7 14.2 3 6 . 9 (10) (5) (3) (2) (3) (1) 2ii Ques. 3 Yes 15.7 — — - - 35.2 — 14.3 (3) (6) 9 No 81L.2 100.0 100.0 100.0 6IL. 7 100.0 8 5 . 7 (16) (11) (6) ( I I ) (11) (6) 5 4 65 Ques. l i A n g l i c a n B a p t i s t Lutheran Presby. U n i t e d Other T o t a l Yes 85.0 84.6 87.5 75.0 100.0 88.8 89-3 (17) ( I D (7) (3) (21) (8) 67 No 15.0 15.3 12.5 25.0 — l l . l 10.7 (3) (2) ( l ) (1) (1) 8 Ques. 5 72.2 55.5 66.6 100.0 90.0 62.5 75.4 Yes (13) (5) (4) (4) (18) (5) 49 No 27.7 44-4 33.3 — 10.0 37.5 24.6 (5) (4) (2) (2) (3) 16 There i s l i t t l e doubt t h a t the c l e r g y as a whole support and recognize the l e g i t i m a t e c l a i m s o f unions under our p r e s e n t system. However, the f a c t t h a t n i n e t y - s i x per cent o f the m i n i s t e r s supported unions i n p r i n c i p l e must be m o d i f i e d somewhat by the r e p l i e s and comments they added to t h e i r q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . A good number c i r c l e d the words " i n p r i n c i p l e " ; w h i l e o t h e r s added comments l i k e , "Yes, but they are a l s o dangerous," and "Whilst I see the need o f l a b o u r unions and b e l i e v e they c o u l d have a u s e f u l f u n c t i o n I t h i n k as c o n s t i t u t e d they are becoming a p u b l i c menace through sheer greed and s e l f i s h n e s s . " The three respondents who opposed the unions s i m i l a r l y m o d i f i e d t h e i r answers. The P r e s b y t e r i a n m i n i s t e r answered "no" to the q u e s t i o n and added, "not i n p r e s e n t p r a c t i c e . " The B a p t i s t m i n i s t e r s t a t e d t h a t he d i d not support unions as they were " p r e s e n t l y o p e r a t i n g . " However, t h i s same p a s t o r favoured such p r o g r e s s i v e f e a t u r e s as compulsory c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g and the guaranteed annual wage. 66 I t seems c l e a r t h a t the m i n i s t e r s as a group were concerned w i t h the s t a t e t h a t o r g a n i z e d l a b o u r was In a t the time o f the t a k i n g o f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e , November 1957. No doubt one o f the f a c t o r s c o n t r i b u t i n g to t h i s concern was the exposure o f c o r r u p t i o n w i t h i n the Teamsters Union which was then dominating the news. N e v e r t h e l e s s , the c l e r g y g e n e r a l l y seem to have imbibed many o f the p o p u l a r misconceptions about the l a b o u r movement. For example, s e v e r a l m i n i s t e r s commented t h a t they would favour the r i g h t to s t r i k e , but "not when ordered by some b i g union boss." An A n g l i c a n m i n i s t e r commented t h a t "Often s t r i k e s are not the t r u e d e s i r e of the workers, but the orders o f the h igher-ups." Even m i n i s t e r s sympathetic to the l a b o u r movement h e l d p o p u l a r misconceptions. One B a p t i s t m i n i s t e r s t a t e d : I would f a v o u r the trade unions being asked by the u n i v e r s i t i e s to c o n s i d e r a s p e c i a l c h a i r or course f o r a l l Trade Union o f f i c i a l s . I t h i n k union l e a d e r s need a background o f knowledge o f . . . economics, p u b l i c speaking and l e a d e r s h i p . We need the b e s t p o s s i b l e l e a d e r s h i p f o r our trade unions. I f r e c e n t s t u d i e s i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s of top u n i o n l e a d e r s h i p can be r e l i e d upon as a p p l i c a b l e to Canada (a good p r o p o r t i o n o f our unions b e i n g i n t e r n a t i o n a l ) then i t i s c l e a r that union l e a d e r s a t a g i v e n l e v e l are a t l e a s t as w e l l educated as l e a d e r s i n government and i n d u s t r y a t the same p o s i t i o n i n the h i e r a r c h y . ^ The s t e r e o t y p e o f the uneducated u n i o n l e a d e r seems to be c o n t i n u i n g , although the c o n d i t i o n i s c e r t a i n l y a t h i n g o f the p a s t . S i m i l a r l y , i f the m i n i s t e r s were f a m i l i a r w i t h B r i t i s h Columbia Labour Law, they would r e a l i z e t h a t "ordered s t r i k e s " are i m p o s s i b l e , s i n c e no s t r i k e can occur without the t a k i n g o f 39 a Government-supervised s t r i k e vote. With r e s p e c t t o p e r m i s s i v e n e s s , the answers the m i n i s t e r s gave to the f i v e questions c o u l d g e n e r a l l y be p r e d i c t e d . I f the p a s t o r s answered three o f the q u e s t i o n s i n the a f f i r m a t i v e they were the q u e s t i o n s concerning the p r i n c i p l e of unions, t h e i r r i g h t to s t r i k e , and compulsory c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g . S i m i l a r l y , i f the m i n i s t e r s answered f o u r q u e s t i o n s i n the a f f i r m a t i v e , the q u e s t i o n they d i d not support was that o f the " c l o s e d shop." The respondents* r e p l i e s to the q u e s t i o n s on the c l o s e d shop and the guaranteed annual wage were p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t e r e s t i n g . Only lk. per cent o f the m i n i s t e r s favoured a c l o s e d shop; most f e l t t h a t i t was an encroachment on the " r i g h t to work" and the p e r s o n a l l i b e r t y o f the i n d i v i d u a l s concerned. However, the m i n i s t e r s o f the U n i t e d Church, i n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f a s h i o n , took a more l i b e r a l a t t i t u d e , w i t h 35 per cent o f them f a v o u r i n g the p r i n c i p l e o f the c l o s e d shop. The guaranteed annual xvage was a q u e s t i o n t h a t caught the i m a g i n a t i o n o f a m a j o r i t y o f the c l e r g y . P r a c t i c a l l y a l l t h e i r comments were concerned w i t h the problem o f making the system work. Those who opposed the guaranteed annual wage d i d so g e n e r a l l y on the grounds that i t c o u l d not be undertaken without a r e v o l u t i o n a r y shake-up i n the economic system. S t i l l , over 75 per cent of the respondents favoured the i n s t i t u t i o n 68 o f the guaranteed annual wage. The U n i t e d , P r e s b y t e r i a n , and A n g l i c a n c l e r g y were more sympathetic to the i d e a than were the m i n i s t e r s o f the B a p t i s t , Lutheran, and f u n d a m e n t a l i s t groups. In l i n e w i t h p r e s e n t Church p o l i c y , 90 per cent of the U n i t e d clergymen favoured the i n s t i t u t i o n of the guaranteed annual wage. In sum, we may conclude t h a t on economic matters as w e l l as those of a p u r e l y s o c i a l n a t u r e the m i n i s t e r s tend to t h i n k i n denominational terms. However, i n p r a c t i c a l l y every case the i s s u e s tend to cut a c r o s s denominational boundaries. The clergymen o f the U n i t e d Church, and o t h e r s who have been i n f l u e n c e d by " s o c i a l g o s p e l " theology tend to be more p e r m i s s i v e and l i b e r a l on q u e s t i o n s of government c o n t r o l and union a c t i v i t y . There are a l s o economic i s s u e s , l i k e the guaranteed annual wage, upon which there i s s u b s t a n t i a l agreement. I t i s i n these f i e l d s t h a t i n t e r d e n o m i n a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s would be e f f e c t i v e as p r e s s u r e groups, and c o u l d f u n c t i o n e f f i c i e n t l y as a medium of e d u c a t i o n i n g e t t i n g p o p u l a r support f o r such measures throughout the Churches. V o t i n g Behaviour of M i n i s t e r s  and F a c t o r s A f f e c t i n g t h at Behaviour As has been p o i n t e d out i n the i n t r o d u c t i o n to t h i s study, the a t t i t u d e s of m i n i s t e r s to p o l i t i c a l a f f a i r s are o f p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t because the m i n i s t e r i s the s p i r i t u a l l e a d e r of an o r g a n i z e d group w i t h i n s o c i e t y , and as such i s i n a d e f i n i t e p o s i t i o n to i n f l u e n c e the members and adherents o f h i s c o n g r e g a t i o n . C e r t a i n l y , the amount o f i n f l u e n c e which a m i n i s t e r can exert i s l i m i t e d g r e a t l y by the sense of "In-group f e e l i n g " which e x i s t s w i t h i n h i s Church. In t h i s r e s p e c t the m i n i s t e r o f a s e c t - t y p e r e l i g i o u s i n s t i t u t i o n i s most f a v o u r a b l y p l a c e d . In such groups s e p a r a t i s t tendencies g i v e l i t t l e o p p o r t u n i t y f o r the claims of s e c u l a r i n t e r e s t s to come i n t o c o n f l i c t w i t h the s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t s of the r e l i g i o u s community. Thus, the cohesiveness o f the s e c t group p r o v i d e s a s t r o n g f o u n d a t i o n f o r the development o f any p o l i t i c a l movement which can g a i n i t s support. In such a s i t u a t i o n a l l t h a t i s r e q u i r e d i s the appearance o f a r e l i g i o u s l y minded p o l i t i c a l l e a d e r to g a i n these groups' p o l i t i c a l support. T h i s i s the e x p l a n a t i o n g i v e n by H. H. Walsh f o r the r i s e to power o f the S o c i a l C r e d i t movement throughout the west.^O But the m i n i s t e r s o f the more i n c l u s i v e Churches have an i n f l u e n c e over a l a r g e r number o f people, even though t h i s i n f l u e n c e i s l i k e l y to be l e s s i n t e n s e . T h e r e f o r e , i t i s o f i n t e r e s t to d i s c o v e r how m i n i s t e r s o f the v a r i o u s denominations g e n e r a l l y vote, and to attempt to analyze the f a c t o r s which determine the way the m i n i s t e r w i l l use h i s f r a n c h i s e . In order to t e s t the v o t i n g behaviour o f clergymen, the m i n i s t e r s p o l l e d were asked to answer the b a s i c q u e s t i o n used by the Canadian I n s t i t u t e of P u b l i c Opinion i n t h e i r pre-e l e c t i o n surveys. The m i n i s t e r s were asked: I f a Dominion e l e c t i o n were h e l d today, would you vote f o r the candidate o f the P r o g r e s s i v e - C o n s e r v a t i v e , L i b e r a l , C. C. P., S o c i a l C r e d i t , o r o t h e r p a r t y . 70 They were a l s o asked to answer a s i m i l a r question w i t h regard to t h e i r preferences i n the p r o v i n c i a l f i e l d . The f i r s t t h i n g which became obvious i n compiling the answers to t h i s p o r t i o n o f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e was the r e t i c e n c e of the m i n i s t e r s to answer t h i s type of question. Some objected to a question of t h i s nature being placed i n the q u e s t i o n n a i r e at a l l . Two A n g l i c a n m i n i s t e r s commented th a t such questions v i o l a t e d the p r i n c i p l e of e l e c t o r a l independence. One s t a t e d that "the b a l l o t i s p r i v a t e , personal and s e c r e t . Every v o t e r i s e n t i t l e d to vote as he sees f i t . I t i s a v i o l a t i o n o f democratic usage to p i n down any v o t e r about the use of h i s f r a n c h i s e . " The other A n g l i c a n clergyman simply r e p l i e d t h a t "you ought not to ask any man t h i s question and expect to get i t answered." Thus, whi l e 78 m i n i s t e r s returned q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , only 5 l l i s t e d t h e i r e l e c t o r a l choice i n the f e d e r a l , and i|_8 i n the p r o v i n c i a l f i e l d s . This represented 66 and 6 l per cent of the respondents r e s p e c t i v e l y . However, there was a f a r more s i g n i f i c a n t reason f o r most of the m i n i s t e r s r e f u s i n g to answer the question. The vast m a j o r i t y o f those who d i d not answer commented that they could not because they were independent voter's and thus found i t impossible to i n d i c a t e a party choice. Comments l i k e , " I t would g r e a t l y depend upon the i n d i v i d u a l candidates and other i s s u e s , " and " i n a l l cases I would vote f o r the man or woman best s u i t e d f o r the job r e g a r d l e s s of p a r t y " were q u i t e common. One United Church m i n i s t e r s t a t e d , "Surely i t i s impossible to answer on the b a s i s g i v e n , as anyone who i s v o t i n g w i t h common sense and 71 f o r e s i g h t would ask and seek to know what the i s s u e s are which are i n v o l v e d . " S e v e r a l of the m i n i s t e r s i n d i c a t e d that they had voted f o r a l l , or most o f the p a r t i e s a t one time or another. A p a r t i a l reason f o r t h i s s i g n i f i c a n t p r o p o r t i o n o f independent v o t e r s i s pro b a b l y the tendency noted p r e v i o u s l y f o r m i n i s t e r s to c o n s i d e r p a r t y p o l i t i c s w i t h s u s p i c i o n and to c o n s i d e r too c l o s e a f f i l i a t i o n as r e s u l t i n g i n a l o s s o f independent judgment. There i s one o t h e r f a c t o r w i t h r e g a r d to v o t i n g r e p l i e s which should be mentioned here. There were s e v e r a l m i n i s t e r s , p a r t i c u l a r l y among the Lutheran and se c t - t y p e r e l i g i o u s denominations who commented t h a t they were not Canadian c i t i z e n s , or t h a t they had been r e s i d e n t i n Canada f o r o n l y a short time. The continued dependence o f these denominations upon c l e r g y brought up and t r a i n e d o u t s i d e o f Canada w i l l c e r t a i n l y have i t s e f f e c t s i n the e x e r t i n g o f e f f e c t i v e l e a d e r s h i p i n the f i e l d o f good c i t i z e n s h i p and p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y . The f i r s t q u e s t i o n which should be asked i n d i s c u s s i n g the m i n i s t e r s ' v o t i n g behaviour i s the q u e s t i o n o f whether there are any major trends i n the way m i n i s t e r s vote t h a t d i f f e r from the v o t i n g behaviour o f the ge n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n w i t h i n the g i v e n area. There has been a d e f i n i t e c o n c e p t i o n t h a t r e l i g i o u s i n s t i t u t i o n s are g e n e r a l l y c o n s e r v a t i v e and th a t the c l e r g y may be expected to support the e x i s t i n g p o l i t i c a l framework or "s t a t u s quo." In o t h e r words one might expect the m i n i s t e r s to vote to the r i g h t o f c e n t r e . 72 In order to t e s t t h i s c o n c e p t i o n , the m i n i s t e r s ' r e p l i e s were compared t o the votes by p o p u l a t i o n compiled f o r the M e t r o p o l i t a n area. The l i m i t a t i o n s of boundaries were d i s c u s s e d i n the i n t r o d u c t i o n , and t h a t f a c t o r , along w i t h the very l i m i t e d sample, should be kept i n mind i n i n t e r p r e t i n g the data g i v e n i n Table 17 below, and throughout the c h a p t e r . ^ TABLE 17 Comparison of M i n i s t e r i a l V o t i n g Behaviour  w i t h General Returns by P o p u l a t i o n ( i n Percentages) F e d e r a l E l e c t i o n : C o n s e r v a t i v e L i b e r a l C . 0.F. S o c i a l C r e d i t P o p u l a t i o n _ iH 17 28 19 Respondents 61 .5 9.6 1 5 . 3 13 .4 P r o v i n c i a l E l e c t i o n : P o p u l a t i o n 3 21 27 46 Respondents 20.8 1 4 . 6 2 0 . 8 4 3 . 7 Respondents' Average both Prov. and Fed. 4 l . l 12.1 1 8 . 0 2 8 . 5 A c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the t a b l e w i l l show t h a t i n both the f e d e r a l and the p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n s the C o n s e r v a t i v e P a r t y r e c e i v e d a s m a l l e r percentage vote than they d i d from the m i n i s t e r s who responded to the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . Only three per cent o f the p o p u l a t i o n voted C o n s e r v a t i v e i n the p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n , but twenty per cent o f the m i n i s t e r s i n d i c a t e d they 73 would vote f o r that p a r t y . C e r t a i n l y , such f a c t o r s as the r e c e n t f e d e r a l e l e c t i o n , and the happenings i n p r o v i n c i a l a f f a i r s may have i n f l u e n c e d the m i n i s t e r s i n t h e i r r e p l i e s . However, the m i n i s t e r s s t i l l showed t h a t they favoured the C o n s e r v a t i v e s by a d i s p r o p o r t i o n of 20 per cent over the g e n e r a l e l e c t i o n r e t u r n s i n the f e d e r a l f i e l d . S i m i l a r l y , the m i n i s t e r s gave a s m a l l e r r e t u r n to the C, C. P. p a r t y than the p o p u l a t i o n a t l a r g e . Only 15> per cent o f the m i n i s t e r s r e g i s t e r e d a s o c i a l i s t c h o i c e , but 28 per cent o f the p o p u l a t i o n d i d so i n the l a s t f e d e r a l e l e c t i o n . Thus, on the b a s i s of these very l i m i t e d r e t u r n s i t may be suggested t h a t our f i n d i n g s seem to g i v e some credence to the b e l i e f t h a t clergymen are more c o n s e r v a t i v e than the p o p u l a t i o n a t l a r g e , or more a c c u r a t e l y , t h a t the P r o t e s t a n t c l e r g y are more c o n s e r v a t i v e . There are many f a c t o r s which may be determinants o f t h i s t r e n d b e s i d e s the r e l i g i o u s a s s o c i a t i o n s o f the respondents. For example, the c l e r g y may g e n e r a l l y be c o n s i d e r e d to be members of the middle c l a s s because o f t h e i r o c c u p a t i o n , and e d u c a t i o n a l and s t a t u s p o s i t i o n . These f a c t o r s w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d l a t e r i n the chapter, but i t i s enough to say t h a t t h i s might g i v e a c e r t a i n d i s p o s i t i o n to support the e x i s t i n g p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e . John M e i s e l , In h i s study of R e l i g i o u s A f f i l i a t i o n and  E l e c t o r a l Behavior, s t a t e s t h a t the "voter Is c a l l e d upon to r e f l e c t i n h i s b a l l o t . . . h i s own i n t e r e s t s . " ^ 2 He asks the 74 q u e s t i o n "How are these i n t e r e s t s to be d e f i n e d ? " In o t h e r words, what are the major f a c t o r s which determine how a person o r group of persons w i l l vote? T h i s i s the q u e s t i o n which the w r i t e r w i l l attempt to answer i n the next p o r t i o n o f t h i s chapter. Perhaps the most e f f e c t i v e way to approach t h i s q u e s t i o n i s to s t a t e c e r t a i n commonly h e l d hypotheses about the f a c t o r s which a f f e c t v o t i n g behaviour and then t e s t t h e i r v a l i d i t y w i t h r e s p e c t to the r e t u r n s from the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . The f i r s t f a c t o r advanced as a determinant of v o t i n g behaviour i s the economic p o s i t i o n o f the persons i n v o l v e d . The economic d e t e r m i n i s t s forward the argument t h a t a person's c l a s s p o s i t i o n , s t a t u s , and i n t e r e s t s are g e n e r a l l y determined by the l e v e l of h i s income. Thus, i f one can determine a person's income i t should be p o s s i b l e to make a broad g e n e r a l i z a t i o n about h i s v o t i n g behaviour. In o r d e r to t e s t t h i s h y p o t h e s i s to see i f t h e r e was any r e l a t i o n s h i p between the income and p o l i t i c a l p r e f e r e n c e s of m i n i s t e r s , they were asked to s t a t e the approximate l e v e l o f ' t h e i r income. While there i s some d i f f i c u l t y i n u s i n g t h i s c r i t e r i o n because o f the d i f f e r e n t arrangements f o r manse r e n t s and expenses i t i s f e l t to be s t i l l p o s s i b l e to get a f a i r l y v a l i d i d e a of a m i n i s t e r ' s f i n a n c i a l s i t u a t i o n from h i s cash income alone. The f i r s t c o r r e l a t i o n which was made was a computation o f the t o t a l number of votes g i v e n to each p a r t y i n the f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l spheres. The t o t a l vote f o r each p a r t y i n the two spheres were then added together. The number o f votes 75 g i v e n each p a r t y by m i n i s t e r s who l i s t e d t h e i r incomes i n the brackets shown below was then computed i n t o a percentage.^ 3 P a r t y Percentage Income Bracket = Absolute Vote by P a r t y i n Income Bracket T o t a l Vote f o r P a r t y i n a l l Brackets TABLE 18 C l e r i c a l V o t i n g P r e f e r e n c e by P e r s o n a l Income (P ercentag e F i g u r e s) Income Range L i b e r a l C.C.F. Co n s e r v a t i v e S o c i a l C r e d i t 2000-2999 20.0 (2) 16.2 (7) 11.5 (3) 3000-3999 20.0 (2) 11.7 (2) 39.5 (17) 53.8 ak) ILOOO-IL999 60.0 (6) 7 6 . 4 (13) 25.6 (11) 26.9 1 7 ) 5000-5999 11.7 12) 13.9 ( 6 ) 6000-over 4.6 (2) 7.7 (2) T o t a l 100 (10) 100 (17) 100 (43) 100 (26) In t e s t i n g the r e l a t i o n o f income to p a r t y p r e f e r e n c e the f o l l o w i n g s u g g e s t i o n was made: t h a t persons of lower income are l i k e l y to vote f o r p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s of more l i b e r a l economic and s o c i a l a t t i t u d e s . Thus we might expect the m i n i s t e r s i n the 76 lower income brack e t s to vote f o r the C. C. P. o r L i b e r a l p a r t i e s , w h i l e the m i n i s t e r s w i t h h i g h e r incomes might be expected to vote f o r the C o n s e r v a t i v e o r S o c i a l C r e d i t p a r t i e s . However, a study of Table 18 w i l l show t h a t g e n e r a l l y t h i s was not the case. The C. C. P. r e c e i v e d i t s support from m i n i s t e r s who had h i g h e r than average incomes. In f a c t 76 per cent o f t h e i r support came from m i n i s t e r s whose income was i n the f o u r to f i v e thousand d o l l a r range. On the o t h e r hand, 45 per cent o f the m i n i s t e r s who voted C o n s e r v a t i v e and 6I4. p e r cent o f the m i n i s t e r s who voted S o c i a l C r e d i t had incomes o f l e s s than f o u r thousand d o l l a r s . However, both these p a r t i e s a l s o had support i n the h i g h e r income b r a c k e t s . Thus, although t h i s sample i s very s m a l l , i t would p o s s i b l y not be s t r e t c h i n g a p o i n t to suggest t h a t the income o f m i n i s t e r s i s not a major f a c t o r i n determining t h e i r p o l i t i c a l a t t i t u d e s . T h i s impression was strengthened i n the i n t e r v i e w s and d i s c u s s i o n s that the w r i t e r had w i t h Church l e a d e r s f o l l o w i n g completion o f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . Before l e a v i n g the q u e s t i o n o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p between income and p o l i t i c a l p r e f e r e n c e , i t might h e l p to g i v e more weight to the c o n c l u s i o n i f the f i g u r e s are computed i n another way. We have seen t h a t there i s l i t t l e r e l a t i o n s h i p between income and p a r t y when the percentages are computed a g a i n s t the t o t a l vote g i v e n to each p a r t y . However, the votes g i v e n to each p a r t y may be computed a g a i n s t the t o t a l i n each income b r a c k e t . I t can be assumed t h a t i f income were not a f a c t o r i t would l e a v e 77 each p a r t y w i t h the same percentage vote as the p a r t y r e c e i v e d from a l l the respondents TABLE 19 P o l i t i c a l P r e f e r e n c e by Income Group (Percentage and Absolute) Income L i b e r a l C.C.P. Conserv. S o c i a l C r e d i t T o t a l 2000-2999 1 6 . 6 (2) 5 8 . 3 (7) 2 5 . 0 (3) 100 (12) 3000-3999 5 . 7 (2) 5 . 7 (2) 1+8.6 (17) 4o.o (14) 100 4000-14,999 1 6 . 2 (6) 35.1 (13) 2 9 . 7 (11) 1 8 . 9 (7) 100 5000-5999 2 5 . 0 (2) 75.0 (6) 100 6 0 0 0-over 5 0 . 0 (2) 5o.o (2) 100 P a r t y Percentage 12.1 1 8 . 0 41.1 2 8 . 5 Here a g a i n we f i n d l i t t l e r e l a t i o n s h i p between p a r t y p r e f e r e n c e and economic l e v e l . While the lower b r a c k e t and the two h i g h e r ones are l i k e l y to be poor i n d i c a t o r s because o f the small number o f a b s o l u t e r e t u r n s , i t w i l l be noted t h a t the middle b r a c k e t s tend to show a n e g a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p a l s o . F o r example, the average percentage vote f o r the C o n s e r v a t i v e p a r t y i n both the f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l f i e l d s was 4 l p e r cent. While the C o n s e r v a t i v e s d i d show the l a r g e s t percentage r e t u r n i n the top two income c a t e g o r i e s , they a l s o showed a 58 p e r cent r e t u r n i n the lowest two to three thousand d o l l a r income b r a c k e t . I t was i n the f o u r to f i v e thousand d o l l a r range t h a t they f e l l w e l l below t h e i r average percentage, w i t h o n l y 29 p e r cent o f the m i n i s t e r s i n t h a t bracket r e g i s t e r i n g a C o n s e r v a t i v e c h o i c e . S i m i l a r l y , as has been s t a t e d , we might have expected the C. C. P. to r e c e i v e a b e t t e r than average r e t u r n i n the lowest income group. However, w h i l e they had an average r e t u r n o f 18 per cent i n the two e l e c t o r a l f i e l d s , they showed t h e i r g r e a t e s t s t r e n g t h i n the f o u r to f i v e thousand d o l l a r income range, where they r e c e i v e d 35 per cent o f the t o t a l vote. A p e r u s a l o f Table 19 w i l l a l s o show t h a t L i b e r a l and S o c i a l C r e d i t supporters d i d not congregate i n any p a r t i c u l a r income brac k e t . The second p o i n t which might be r a i s e d i n d i s c u s s i n g the determinants which i n f l u e n c e a m i n i s t e r ' s v o t i n g behaviour i s the f a c t o r o f the socio-economic environment o f the clergyman's p a r i s h . I t might be argued t h a t , while most m i n i s t e r s are educated and s o c i a l i z e d to be m i d d l e - c l a s s i n t h e i r outlook, c o n t i n u e d c o n t a c t w i t h a h i g h e r or lower c l a s s community might l e a d to the m i n i s t e r a c c e p t i n g the standards and p o l i t i c a l ideas h e l d by the m a j o r i t y of the people w i t h i n h i s p a r i s h . In o t h e r words, the m i n i s t e r who works i n a r i c h suburban Church i s l i k e l y to vote f o r c o n s e r v a t i v e p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s , w h i l e the m i n i s t e r who works i n the slums i s l i k e l y to adopt a more r a d i c a l a t t i t u d e towards p o l i t i c a l q u e s t i o n s . 79 C e r t a i n l y some credence must be g i v e n to t h i s argument, but p r o b a b l y i t i s more v a l i d on the r e g i o n a l than on the community l e v e l . As l a t e r f i g u r e s w i l l show, the s t a t e of f l u x of B r i t i s h Columbia's p o l i t i c s has d e f i n i t e l y i n f l u e n c e d m i n i s t e r i a l thought. The e f f e c t of r e g i o n a l s i t u a t i o n s on v o t i n g p r e f e r e n c e would be an i n t e r e s t i n g f i e l d f o r study, f o r i t i s c e r t a i n l y r e a s o n a b l e to assume t h a t m i n i s t e r s of a denom-i n a t i o n i n O n t a r i o are more l i k e l y t o vote f o r the p a r t y t h a t i s i n the ascendancy t h e r e than they are to vote f o r the newer p o l i t i c a l movements which have a r i s e n i n Canada 1s western p r o v i n c e s . S i m i l a r l y , i t i s more l i k e l y t h a t a m i n i s t e r of the same denomination i n Saskatchewan o r A l b e r t a would be i n f l u e n c e d to vote f o r the p a r t i e s i n power t h e r e than would t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s i n the maritime p r o v i n c e s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , the l o c a l p a r i s h c o n d i t i o n s s h o u l d not be d i s m i s s e d without some c o n s i d e r a t i o n . Thus i n o r d e r t o t e s t the r e l a t i o n of p a r i s h socio-economic s t a t u s t o p o l i t i c a l p r e f e r e n c e the m i n i s t e r s were asked to c l a s s i f y t h e i r Church or p a r i s h under one of the following headings: a c e n t r a l downtown Church; a wealthy suburban Church; a middle c l a s s Church; working c l a s s Church; Church i n a slum are a ; or a Church semi-r u r a l . The mast i n t e r e s t i n g f a c t noted i n the respondents' r e p l i e s wa-s t h a t the v a s t m a j o r i t y of m i n i s t e r s c l a s s i f i e d t h e i r Churches as b e i n g e i t h e r m i d d l e - c l a s s or w o r k i n g c l a s s i n c o m p o s i t i o n . S e v e r a l went i n t o l o n g e x p l a n a t i o n s of the r e a s o n s 80 f o r t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r c h o i c e . T h i s may i n some measure r e f l e c t the tendency noted by s o c i o l o g i s t s f o r persons to i d e n t i f y themselves w i t h middle o r working c l a s s s i t u a t i o n s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , the socio-economic i d e n t i f i c a t i o n even though s u b j e c t i v e i n nature may be some i n d i c a t i o n o f , or show some r e l a t i o n t o , pa r t y p r e f e r e n c e . The i n f o r m a t i o n was processed and i s g i v e n i n Table 20, below: TABLE 20 S u b j e c t i v e I d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f Socio-Economic S i t u a t i o n  of P a r i s h w i t h P o l i t i c a l P r e f e r e n c e s o f M i n i s t e r s ( i n p e rcentages ) P a r i s h I d e n t i f i c a t i o n L i b e r a l C.C.F. C o n s e r v a t i v e S o c i a l C r e d i t Working C l a s s 36.3 38.8 33.3 61.2 (4) (7) (14) (19) Middle C l a s s . 45.4 33.3 45.2 32.2 (5) (6) (19) (10) Wealthy Suburban 9.0 11.1 11.9 3.2 (1) (2) (5) (1) S e m i - r u r a l 9.0 16.6 9.5 3.2 C D (3) (4) (1) 100$ 100$ 100$ 100$ Here agai n i t would be d i f f i c u l t to say t h a t the m i n i s t e r i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n f l u e n c e d by the economic and s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s which e x i s t w i t h i n h i s p a r i s h . In an i n t e r v i e w h e l d w i t h a m i n i s t e r who had spent the g r e a t e s t p o r t i o n o f h i s time 81 working i n slum o r lower working c l a s s c o n d i t i o n s the w r i t e r d i d not f i n d t h a t he had any d e s i r e to change the b a s i c economic or s o c i a l o rder. C e r t a i n l y t h i s m i n i s t e r was aware o f c e r t a i n i n j u s t i c e s , but he c o u l d not see any p o l i t i c a l method o f r e s o l v i n g them. I t Is to be noted, however, t h a t the m a j o r i t y o f m i n i s t e r s who voted S o c i a l C r e d i t l i s t e d t h e i r p a r i s h as being i n working c l a s s d i s t r i c t s . However, as w i l l be p o i n t e d out l a t e r i n t h i s chapter, t h i s seemed to be the r e s u l t o f reasons other than s t r i c t l y economic ones. S i m i l a r l y , the m i n i s t e r s who showed a C. C. P. p r e f e r e n c e were s l i g h t l y o v e r - r e p r e s e n t e d i n r u r a l p a s t o r a t e s , and s l i g h t l y under-represented i n the middle c l a s s p a r i s h e s . The L i b e r a l and C o n s e r v a t i v e support was f a i r l y w e l l d i s t r i b u t e d between middle and working c l a s s p a r i s h e s . C e r t a i n l y , i n d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h m i n i s t e r s and theology students, the impression was strengthened t h a t m i n i s t e r s do not see e i t h e r t h e i r own economic s i t u a t i o n , n o r the socio-economic environment of t h e i r p a r i s h as b e i n g major f a c t o r s i n determining t h e i r p o l i t i c a l p r e f e r e n c e s . Most p r i d e d themselves i n being " o b j e c t i v e , " i n judging i s s u e s on t h e i r m e r i t s . They tended to be i n d i g n a n t i f the s u g g e s t i o n was made t h a t they p e r s o n a l l y would l e t s e l f i s h o r p e r s o n a l i n t e r e s t s determine the way they used t h e i r f r a n c h i s e . N e v e r t h e l e s s , they were a l l q u i t e w i l l i n g to admit t h a t these were probably major f a c t o r s i n determining the v o t i n g behaviour o f the community at l a r g e . 82 Because of the l i m i t e d sample, such f a c t o r s as r a c i a l and e t h n i c o r i g i n , and the p l a c e o f b i r t h and educa t i o n o f the respondents c o u l d not be s t u d i e d . These f a c t o r s are l i k e l y to come i n t o p l a y when a person i s marking h i s b a l l o t . But such q u e s t i o n s c o u l d b e s t be s t u d i e d by t a k i n g a c r o s s s e c t i o n o f m i n i s t e r s w i t h i n one denomination f o r the whole of Canada, r a t h e r than t r y i n g to l i m i t the study to a broad range o f denominations w i t h i n a narrow g e o g r a p h i c a l area. The f i n a l h y p o t h e s i s about what f a c t o r s determined a m i n i s t e r ' s p o l i t i c a l p r e f e r e n c e which was co n s i d e r e d was t h a t the r e l i g i o u s denomination o f the m i n i s t e r would be a d e c i s i v e f a c t o r i n determining h i s use o f the f r a n c h i s e : In o t h e r words, t h a t there was a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between r e l i g i o u s denomination and p o l i t i c a l p r e f e r e n c e s . C e r t a i n l y t h i s h y p o t h e s i s has some v a l i d i t y f o r the p o p u l a t i o n a t l a r g e . S t u d i e s such as those completed by L i s t o n Pope and John M e i s e l show t h a t t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p occurs both i n Canada and the U n i t e d S t a t e s . ^ In order to t e s t t h i s h y p o t h e s i s the assumption can be made th a t i f r e l i g i o u s a f f i l i a t i o n were o f no g r e a t s i g n i f i c a n c e i n v o t i n g , the percentage o f votes g i v e n by m i n i s t e r s o f each r e l i g i o u s denomination to each o f the p a r t i e s would be w i t h i n a narrow range comparable to the percentages obtained by the p a r t i e s among the m i n i s t e r s as a whole. The r e t u r n s o f respondents showing v o t i n g p r e f e r e n c e r e l a t e d to denominational a f f i l i a t i o n are g i v e n i n Tables 21 and 22 below. Table 21 r e p r e s e n t s the r e t u r n s computed f o r the f e d e r a l f i e l d . 83 TABLE 21 P o l i t i c a l Preference by R e l i g i o u s D e n o m i n a t i o n — F e d e r a l ( i n p e rcentages) Denomination C o n s e r v a t i v e L i b e r a l C.C.F. Socred T o t a l A n g l i c a n 8 3 . 3 (10) 1 6 . 6 (2) 100$ (12). B a p t i s t 6 0 . 0 (6) 2 0 . 0 (2) 1 0 . 0 (1) 1 0 . 0 (1) 100 (10) Lutheran 6 6 . 6 (4) 1 6 . 6 (1) 1 6 . 6 (1) 100 (6) P r e s b y t e r i a n 5 o . o (2) 5 o . o (2) 100 (4) U n i t e d Church 4 6 . 1 (6) 7.7 (1) 4 6 . 1 (6) 100 (13) Other 57.1 (4) 1 4 . 2 (1) 2 8 . 5 (2) 100 (7) M i n i s t e r i a l Percentage by P a r t y — F e d e r a l 61.5 9 . 6 1 5 . 3 1 3 . 4 Table 22 shows the r e t u r n s computed f o r the P r o v i n c i a l f i e l d . TABLE 22 84 ( i n p ercentages) Denomination C o n s e r v a t i v e L i b e r a l C.C.F. Socred T o t a l A n g l i c a n 2 2 . 2 (2) 11.1 (1) 6 6 . 6 (6) 100$ (9) B a p t i s t 2 2 . 2 (2) 11.1 (1) 11.1 (1) 5 5 . 5 (5) 100 (9) Lutheran 1 6 . 6 (1) 5 o . o (3) 1 6 . 6 (1) 1 6 . 6 (1) 100 (6) P r e s b y t e r i a n 25.0 (1) 7 5 . 0 (3) 100 (4) U n i t e d Church 2 3 . 0 (3) 7.6 (1) 61.5 (8) 7.6 (1) 100 (13) Other li4 , .2 (1) 1 4 . 2 (1) 7 1 . 4 (5) 100 (7) M i n i s t e r i a l Percentage by P a r t y — P r o v i n c i a l 2 0 . 8 1 4 . 6 2 0 . 8 4 3 . 7 100 A study o f the t a b l e s would c e r t a i n l y tend to show th a t the m i n i s t e r s o f some denominations are more committed to the candidates o f one p a r t y than to another. F o r example, the m i n i s t e r s of the A n g l i c a n Church showed a p r e f e r e n c e f o r the C o n s e r v a t i v e p a r t y f e d e r a l l y of over 83 per cent, while the clergymen o f the United Church s p l i t evenly between the C o n s e r v a t i v e and C. C. F. p a r t i e s . However, t h i s C. C. F. vote i s even more s i g n i f i c a n t when i t i s c o n s i d e r e d t h a t the m i n i s t e r s as a whole gave them a percentage of only 15 per cent. The 85 m i n i s t e r s o f the Lutheran and s e c t - t y p e r e l i g i o u s denominations showed a p r e f e r e n c e f o r the c o n s e r v a t i v e p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s . In the p r o v i n c i a l sphere the p a r t y p r e f e r e n c e s h i f t e d , but the r e l a t i o n s h i p between denomination and p a r t y was, i f anything, more pronounced. In the p r o v i n c i a l sphere the m i n i s t e r s o f the A n g l i c a n Church, and those o f the s m a l l e r denominations, showed a p r e f e r e n c e f o r the S o c i a l C r e d i t p a r t y , while the U n i t e d Church m i n i s t e r s a g a i n showed a p r e f e r e n c e f o r the C. C. P. Thus i t may be s a f e to say t h a t the above data seems to show a d e f i n i t e r e l a t i o n s h i p between r e l i g i o u s denomination of m i n i s t e r s and t h e i r p o l i t i c a l p r e f e r e n c e s . In s p i t e o f income o r socio-economic environment, the A n g l i c a n , P r e s b y t e r i a n and fundamentalist m i n i s t e r s tend to support c o n s e r v a t i v e p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s , w h i l e the m i n i s t e r s of the U n i t e d Church show a p r e f e r e n c e f o r the more l i b e r a l ones. I t might a l s o be remarked that M e i s e l ' s f i n d i n g t h a t A n g l i c a n s and to a l e s s e r extent United Churchmen were "more p o l i t i c a l l y committed" than were adherents o f the o t h e r r e l i g i o u s denominations e x c l u d i n g the C a t h o l i c s , would tend to h o l d f o r the p a s t o r s as w e l l . ^ I f the premise i s accepted that there i s a r e l a t i o n s h i p between denomination and p o l i t i c a l a f f i l i a t i o n s the immediate q u e s t i o n w i l l a r i s e as to the u n d e r l y i n g f a c t o r s determining t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p . We have a l r e a d y seen t h a t economic determinants do not seem to be important f a c t o r s , and we have noted the m i n i s t e r s ' c l a i m to c o n s i d e r i s s u e s and candidates 86 independently. There are two suggestions which might be made about the u n d e r l y i n g f a c t o r s determining the m i n i s t e r s ' p o l i t i c a l p r e f e r e n c e s . The f i r s t o f these suggestions would be that the m i n i s t e r s do i n f a c t vote a c c o r d i n g to p e r s o n a l i t i e s and i s s u e s i n the sense t h a t they determine t h e i r i n t e r e s t s and judge the government's r e c o r d a g a i n s t i t . The second s u g g e s t i o n would be t h a t clergymen o f the d i f f e r e n t denominations have a d e f i n i t e p h i l o s o p h y , o r system o f normative v a l u e s , which would gi v e them a p r e - d i s p o s i t i o n to be sympathetic to one p o l i t i c a l p a r t y r a t h e r than another. I t w i l l be the purpose o f the next p o r t i o n of t h i s chapter to c o n s i d e r these two suggestions. The s u g g e s t i o n t h a t m i n i s t e r s , l i k e o ther persons, tend to vote a c c o r d i n g to t h e i r f e e l i n g on government a c t i o n d i r e c t l y a f f e c t i n g t h e i r own s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t s and those o f t h e i r Church i s c e r t a i n l y not a new i d e a . Underwood, i n h i s study o f r e l i g i o u s dynamics i n one i n d u s t r i a l community i n the U n i t e d St a t e s made the f o l l o w i n g statement about the a t t i t u d e s o f m i n i s t e r s towards p o l i t i c a l i s s u e s : ^ The Church l e a d e r s have a l l s t r o n g l y condemned the s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t type o f p o l i t i c s as b e r e f t o f e t h i c s or h i g h p r i n c i p l e . But when i t comes to promotion o f f i n a n c i a l , education o r o t h e r t r a d i t i o n a l I n s t i t u t i o n a l causes o f the churches, the l e a d e r s have used t h e i r i n f l u e n c e i n such a way as to encourage the s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t k i n d o f p o l i t i c s . Indeed most p o l i t i c i a n s f e e l t h a t they are u s u a l l y approached d i r e c t l y o n l y f o r these purposes. S i m i l a r l y , i n Canadian p o l i t i c s t here i s ample i n f o r m a t i o n both i n h i s t o r y and i n r e s e a r c h to b o l s t e r t h i s o p i n i o n . M e i s e l came to the c o n c l u s i o n i n h i s study o f r e l i g i o u s a f f i l i a t i o n and e l e c t o r a l behaviour i n K i n g s t o n , O n t a r i o , t h a t f o r laymen "not 87 the a p p l i c a t i o n of one's r e l i g i o u s p r i n c i p l e s . . . but the p o l i t i c a l t r a d i t i o n a s s i g n e d to the r e l i g i o u s o r g a n i z a t i o n viewed as a s o c i a l group (seemed) to be the d e c i s i v e f a c t o r i n v o t i n g b e h a v i o u r . " ^ However, on the b a s i s o f a study o f p o l l s h e l d i n C a t h o l i c r e l i g i o u s i n s t i t u t i o n s , he f e l t t h a t the l e a d e r s and those c l o s e to the Church took a more pragmaticeview i n c a s t i n g t h i e r b a l l o t s . They voted L i b e r a l f e d e r a l l y , but C o n s e r v a t i v e p r o v i n c i a l l y because they were " s a t i s f i e d with the p r o v i n c i a l admini s t r a t ion. " ^ 9 There are s i g n s t h a t t h i s pragmatic view i s a l s o taken by the C a t h o l i c Church i n B r i t i s h Columbia. When the S o c i a l C r e d i t government granted tax concessions f o r C a t h o l i c p r i v a t e schools the f o l l o w i n g r e p o r t was g i v e n i n an I n f l u e n t i a l C a t h o l i c magazine of a speech made by the Archbishop of B r i t i s h Columbia. I t r e a d : ^ 0 G r a t i t u d e o f B. C. C a t h o l i c people was expressed Sunday by h i s e x c e l l e n c y , Most Rev. W. M. Duke. . . on the o c c a s i o n o f the new p r o p e r t y tax exemption granted C a t h o l i c schools by the P r o v i n c i a l Government. . . . The Archbishop s a i d d u r i n g 9:15 mass at Holy Rosary Ca t h e d r a l ( t h a t t h i s ) . . . was good news f o r our C a t h o l i c people. I t w i l l c a t c h the eye o f a l l C a t h o l i c v o t e r s and workers o f a l l ages and grades a c r o s s our g r e a t country. This statement c o u l d c e r t a i n l y be i n t e r p r e t e d as g i v i n g open sa n c t i o n to the p r e s e n t government. There i s equal evidence to support the view t h a t p r a c t i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s are a f a c t o r i n determining the v o t i n g behaviour o f the P r o t e s t a n t r e l i g i o u s denominations. For example, Rev. J . B. Richards claims t h a t the S o c i a l C r e d i t gains i n B r i t i s h Columbia r e s u l t e d p a r t l y from t h e i r a s s o c i a t i o n 88 i n the minds o f many Church people with the temperance movement.^ 1 T h i s view i s a l s o supported by James Nyman who made a case study o f the Mennonite vote i n the C h i l l i w a c k a r e a of B r i t i s h Columbia. He p o i n t s out the f a c t t h a t i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n a c l o s e l y k n i t s e c t who had t r a d i t i o n a l l y voted L i b e r a l changed t h e i r support to S o c i a l C r e d i t when i t became known t h a t the l o c a l L i b e r a l members drank h e a v i l y and t h a t they supported a very l i b e r a l l i q u o r p o l i c y . ^ 2 C e r t a i n r e t u r n s from the q u e s t i o n n a i r e a l s o might be i n t e r p r e t e d as s u p p o r t i n g t h i s p o i n t o f view. A p e r u s a l o f Tables 21 and 22 w i l l show t h a t amongst a l l the denominations, but p a r t i c u l a r l y among the A n g l i c a n s , t h e r e was a s h i f t from the C o n s e r v a t i v e p a r t y i n the f e d e r a l to the S o c i a l C r e d i t p a r t y i n the p r o v i n c i a l f i e l d . There was a l s o a tendency f o r the United Church m i n i s t e r s to i n c r e a s e t h e i r support f o r the C. C. P. i n the p r o v i n c i a l sphere. T h i s s h i f t i n p a r t i e s and i n s t r e n g t h o f support may i n p a r t be i n t e r p r e t e d as a matter o f p r a c t i c a l s e l f i n t e r e s t . However, i t would be mistaken to accept t h i s view as the major e x p l a n a t i o n f o r the r e l a t i o n s h i p t h a t e x i s t s between r e l i g i o u s denomination and p o l i t i c a l p r e f e r e n c e among the c l e r g y . I t i s u n f o r t u n a t e t h a t there was not more i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e as to m i n i s t e r i a l a t t i t u d e s w i t h i n the d i f f e r e n t P r o t e s t a n t denominations. N e v e r t h e l e s s , i t i s the w r i t e r ' s c o n t e n t i o n t h a t such a r e l a t i o n s h i p cannot be c o n s i d e r e d as s o l e l y an example of s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t p o l i t i c s i n any i n v i d i o u s sense. Because o f the nature o f the Church, a c t i o n which i s taken from a d e f i n i t e concept o f r i g h t and m o r a l i t y should not 89 be i n t e r p r e t e d as normal s e l f i s h i n t e r e s t . I t i s argued here t h a t i f s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t i s i n f a c t the b a s i c determinant o f a m i n i s t e r ' s v o t i n g behaviour, i t i s based on a completely d i f f e r e n t s et o f values from those normally d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s c o ntext (personal economic g a i n and b e n e f i t ) . The second sug g e s t i o n advanced to e x p l a i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p between p o l i t i c a l p r e f e r e n c e and r e l i g i o u s denomination was t h a t the clergymen o f the d i f f e r e n t denominations have d e f i n i t e and d i s t i n c t i v e p h i l o s o p h i e s , o r systems o f normative v a l u e s . These p h i l o s o p h i c a l a t t i t u d e s w i l l g i v e the clergymen o f some denominations a p r e d i s p o s i t i o n to be more sympathetic to the p l a t f o r m o f one p o l i t i c a l p a r t y than to t h a t of another. I t I s b e l i e v e d here that a good case can be made f o r c l a i m i n g t h a t t h i s i s a most important f a c t o r i n determining a m i n i s t e r ' s p o l i t i c a l outlook. An attempt w i l l be made to d i s c u s s and c o n s i d e r some o f the reasoning t h a t would j u s t i f y t h i s c o n c l u s i o n . The f i r s t s u g g e s t i o n which can be made i s t h a t m i n i s t e r s c e r t a i n l y have a g r e a t e r tendency to t h i n k i n terms of i d e a s and p h i l o s o p h i e s than does the average man. S i m i l a r i t i e s among m i n i s t e r s i n t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g , t h e i r c l a s s p o s i t i o n and t h e i r o c c u p a t i o n a l g o a l s should g i v e them a common out l o o k on p a r t y a f f i l i a t i o n . Thus the d e v i a t i o n i n v o t i n g p r e f e r e n c e s which correspond to denominational boundaries may be t r a c e d reasonably to the f a c t t h a t denomination i s the r e s u l t o f c e r t a i n disagreements i n the realm of t h e o l o g i c a l i d e a s and i n some cases moral a t t i t u d e s . We have a l r e a d y seen t h a t m i n i s t e r s tend 90 to agree on many s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l i s s u e s . 7/hen th e y d i s a g r e e i t i s p r i m a r i l y because o f the v a r y i n g t h e o l o g i c a l p o s i t i o n s they h o l d . T h e r e f o r e we should ask o u r s e l v e s the q u e s t i o n s : what are the d i s t i n c t i v e s of orthodox " e s t a b l i s h e d " churches t h a t would make them t e n d t o support the C o n s e r v a t i v e or S o c i a l C r e d i t p a r t i e s ? What are the d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e o l o g i c a l o u t l o o k and t r a d i t i o n t h a t would t e n d t o make the m i n i s t e r s o f the U n i t e d Church support the C. C. F.? There are two f e a t u r e s of orthodox t h e o l o g y which miqht e x p l a i n the tendency f o r t h e m i n i s t e r s o f the more t r a d i t i o n a l i s t i c churches t o vote C o n s e r v a t i v e o r S o c i a l C r e d i t . The e s t a b l i s h e d denominations, the A n g l i c a n s and P r e s h y t e r i a n s , r e p r e s e n t i n t h e i r t h e o l o g y a deeper r e v e r e n c e f o r a h i e r a r c h i c a l s t r u c t u r e , and f o r h i s t o r i c a l c o n t i n u i t y of the c h urch, than do the members, o f the F r e e Church movements. I n t h i s sense t h e i r t h e o l o g y i s more t r a d i t i o n a l i n emphasis than t h a t of the o t h e r denominations. However, the m i n i s t e r s i n these churches are more t r u l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of American C o n s e r v a t i s m i n t h a t t h e r e has been a g r e a t e r s t r e s s upon the i n d i v i d u a l a g a i n s t the community concept o f s o c i e t y t h a t e x i s t s among the c o n s e r v a t i v e s of Europe. There c o n s e r v a t i s m has been l i m i t e d by the economic i n d i v i d u a l i s m 53 c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of a f r o n t i e r s o c i e t y . ^ I t i s a l s o t r u e t h a t the more orthodox " e s t a b l i s h e d " denominations were l e s s i n f l u e n c e d by the l i b e r a l t h e o l o g i c a l movements than were the other denominations. They h e l d more c l o s e l y t o a p e s s i m i s t i c d o c t r i n e of man and t o a c l o s e d d o c t r i n a l system. They were, t h e r e f o r e , l e s s w i l l i n g t o 91 conceive of planned s o c i a l change or i n n o v a t i o n as a method f o r the a l l e v i a t i o n o f s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l i l l s . Thus, a t r u l y c o n s e r v a t i v e a t t i t u d e on t h e o l o g i c a l q u e s t i o n s based on a deep a p p r e c i a t i o n o f h i s t o r y and upon a l e s s o p t i m i s t i c view of the n a ture of man can l e a d to a more c o n s e r v a t i v e a t t i t u d e towards p o l i t i c s and towards the p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r s o c i a l change. Prom t h i s standpoint, the s t r e s s upon the primary worth o f the I n d i v i d u a l , and the s t r e s s upon economic l a i s s e z -f a i r e . which are the d i s t i n c t i v e f e a t u r e s o f both the C o n s e r v a t i v e and S o c i a l C r e d i t p l a t f o r m s , may c e r t a i n l y a t t r a c t m i n i s t e r s o f the orthodox denominations to t h e i r support. In o t h e r words, i n the minds o f the m i n i s t e r s who voted c o n s e r v a t i v e f e d e r a l l y , but S o c i a l C r e d i t p r o v i n c i a l l y , there was no b a s i c d i f f e r e n c e i n the p h i l o s o p h i c a l d o c t r i n e s u n d e r l y i n g the two p a r t i e s . On the o t h e r hand, the f a c t t h a t the U n i t e d Church m i n i s t e r s tended to support a p a r t y which i s more l i b e r a l and s o c i a l i s t i c i n i t s p r i n c i p l e s may be e x p l a i n e d by the f a c t t h a t the U n i t e d Church i s i n f a c t the product o f amalgamation o f two denominations which were g r e a t l y i n f l u e n c e d by l i b e r a l t h e o l o g i c a l p r i n c i p l e s - - t h e C o n g r e g a t i o n a l i s t and Methodist Churches. Union was a l s o e f f e c t e d w i t h the more l i b e r a l s e c t o r s o f the P r e s b y t e r i a n Church. Thus, w h i l e Methodism and C o n g r e g a t i o n a l i s m were most i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c i n t h e i r o r i g i n a l m a n i f e s t a t i o n s , the i n f l u e n c e o f n i n e t e e n t h century s c i e n t i f i c t h e o r i e s and modern B i b l i c a l c r i t i c i s m , l e d to a b e l i e f i n the 92 gradual e v o l u t i o n of man towards a b e t t e r s o c i e t y , and by ex t e n s i o n to a s t r e s s upon man i n h i s s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . A b e l i e f i n "reason" and "progress" l e d to a s t r e s s upon the s o c i a l aspects o f r e l i g i o n . L i b e r a l theology and the s o c i a l gospel "was a p r o t e s t a g a i n s t r e l i g i o n as a manner o f saving i n d i v i d u a l s o u l s . What i n nature was e v o l u t i o n was con c e i v e d i n human s o c i a l h i s t o r y as p r o g r e s s . " ^ The new theology adopted a more o p t i m i s t i c a t t i t u d e towards mankind and towards man's a b i l i t y t o a l t e r h i s environment. Such an a t t i t u d e f i t t e d i n w e l l w i t h the optimism o f f r o n t i e r s o c i e t y . As a r e s u l t o f t h i s a t t i t u d e l i b e r a l t h e o l o g i a n s tended to s o f t - p e d a l s i n and they accepted the a t t i t u d e t h a t "every day man was g e t t i n g b e t t e r and b e t t e r . " T h i s t h e o l o g i c a l b e l i e f , o f course, w i l l l e a d to a more l i b e r a l a t t i t u d e i n the realm o f p o l i t i c s . The m i n i s t e r who supports such a t h e o l o g i c a l creed w i l l be more w i l l i n g to see the p o s s i b i l i t y o f u s i n g the government and oth e r s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s to c o r r e c t the e v i l s i n h e r e n t i n an i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t y . They w i l l adopt what Underwood has c a l l e d the " s i t u a t i o n a l e t h i c . " 5 5 Thus i t may be suggested t h a t the tendency o f the U n i t e d Church m i n i s t e r s to support the more l i b e r a l p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s has i t s b a s i s i n t h e i r b e l i e f i n more l i b e r a l t h e o l o g i c a l p r i n c i p l e s . These p r i n c i p l e s r e s u l t e d i n c l o s e a s s o c i a t i o n o f some o f t h e i r m i n i s t e r s , p a r t i c u l a r l y the Me t h o d i s t s , w i t h the r i s e and development o f the C. C. P. p a r t y : f o r a s o c i a l i s t p a r t y i s based on the same o p t i m i s t i c p r i n c i p l e s as those which i n the pas t have been a s s o c i a t e d w i t h l i b e r a l t h e o l o g i c a l a t t i t u d e s . 93 However, the development o f the new orthodoxy, w i t h i t s r e b e l l i o n a g a i n s t the o p t i m i s t i c t h e o l o g i c a l p r i n c i p l e s of l i b e r a l i s m , has gained s t r e n g t h and i s now the predominant theology taught i n the seminaries o f the U n i t e d Church of Canada. Walsh s t a t e s t h a t : ^ ^ Many s o c i a l l y conscious clergymen have abandoned the o p t i m i s t i c o u t l o o k o f the s o c i a l reformers and are g i v i n g guarded approval to the p e s s i m i s t i c redemptive theology o f c o n t i n e n t a l Europe. N e v e r t h e l e s s , w h i l e there has been some r e t u r n to renewed emphasis upon i n d i v i d u a l s a l v a t i o n , the l e a d i n g American neo-orthodox t h e o l o g i a n s who belong to the F r o n t i e r F e l l o w s h i p s t i l l s t r e s s community and s o c i a l j u s t i c e to a g r e a t e r degree than do orthodox o r f u n d a m e n t a l i s t clergymen. Thus, the a s s o c i a t i o n o f U n i t e d Church m i n i s t e r s w i t h p o l i t i c a l r e f orm movements may be expected to c o n t i n u e . A p e r u s a l o f Tables 21 and 22 w i l l a l s o show t h a t m i n i s t e r s o f the f u n d a m e n t a l i s t denominations tend to vote f o r candidates of the c o n s e r v a t i v e p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s . I t can be argued t h a t , s i n c e the m a j o r i t y o f t h e i r people belong to lower income groups i t would be to t h e i r advantage to support the more l i b e r a l p o l i t i c a l movements.^ 7 However, t h i s i s n o t the case and here too p h i l o s o p h i c a t t i t u d e s can be g i v e n as a reason f o r t h i s c o n t r a d i c t o r y behaviour. A study of the theology preached i n the f u n d a m e n t a l i s t Churches w i l l show t h a t i t i s based on the d e s i r a b i l i t y o f a c c e p t i n g the norms and v a l u e s o f the middle c l a s s . The s t r e s s upon p e r s o n a l r e g e n e r a t i o n and the l i v i n g o f a p i e t i s t i c l i f e which s t r e s s e s temperance, i n d u s t r y , and hard work, a l s o i n v o l v e s the b a s i c C a l v i n i s t i c i d e a l t h a t a r i g h t p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p to God w i l l r e s u l t i n i n d i v i d u a l success and f i n a n c i a l improvement.58 The s e c t theology a l s o tends to d i s t r u s t i n s t i t u t i o n s o f any k i n d . I n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d r e l i g i o n i s suspected of tending towards c o r r u p t i o n , and by e x t e n s i o n persons who h o l d t h i s view might be expected to see " b i g government" as a s i m i l a r danger. Then again, the f u n d a m e n t a l i s t preaches s e p a r a t i o n from the world. A person h o l d i n g such a d o c t r i n e c o u l d not be expected to support a c t i v e l y any program f o r o r g a n i z e d p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l change. Thus, the i n d i v i d u a l i s m , the s t r e s s upon economic rewards, and the s u s p i c i o n of s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s a l l would g i v e the m i n i s t e r s o f the f u n d a m e n t a l i s t denominations a p r e d i s p o s i t i o n to support the C o n s e r v a t i v e or S o c i a l C r e d i t p a r t i e s . In summary, the view has been d i s c u s s e d t h a t narrow i n t e r e s t i s the b a s i s o f clergymen's e l e c t o r a l behaviour. While r e c o g n i z i n g i t s v a l i d i t y , the w r i t e r has tended to d i s c o u n t i t as a major f a c t o r i n determining a m i n i s t e r ' s p o l i t i c a l p r e f e r e n c e . An attempt has been made to s t r e s s the f a c t t h a t even i f t h i s be t r u e , the a t t i t u d e s o f m i n i s t e r s towards p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s have t h e i r b a s i s more i n a p a t t e r n o f b e l i e f and ideas than i n a narrowly d e f i n e d p e r s o n a l s e l f - i n t e r e s t . The w r i t e r has attempted to p o i n t out t h a t there are d e f i n i t e p o i n t s o f divergence i n t h e o l o g i c a l t e a c h i n g which h e l p to determine both the h i s t o r i c a l and p r e s e n t p o s i t i o n o f the v a r i o u s denominations w i t h r e g a r d to p o l i t i c a l p r e f e r e n c e s . 95 Before c o n c l u d i n g t h i s d i s c u s s i o n o f the p o l i t i c a l p r e f e r e n c e s o f m i n i s t e r s o f the v a r i o u s P r o t e s t a n t denominations, there i s one o t h e r aspect of the problem which should be c o n s i d e r e d . I t i s the problem of how the m i n i s t e r s o f the v a r i o u s denominations view t h e i r contemporaries w i t h i n the o t h e r Churches. In o t h e r words, do the m i n i s t e r s have an a c c u r a t e p i c t u r e o f the way the m i n i s t e r s o f the o t h e r denominations t h i n k o r vote? In order to t e s t t h i s aspect o f the problem the m i n i s t e r s were asked to answer the f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n : Some people b e l i e v e t h a t t h e r e i s a r e l a t i o n s h i p between the r e l i g i o u s denomination of some c l e r g y and t h e i r p o l i t i c a l a f f i l i a t i o n s . How would you expect the m i n i s t e r s or p r i e s t s o f the f o l l o w i n g churches to vote? The q u e s t i o n n a i r e then gave a l i s t o f a l l the major denominations, i n c l u d i n g the Roman C a t h o l i c Church. Most o f the m i n i s t e r s f a i l e d to answer the q u e s t i o n . The m a j o r i t y commented e i t h e r t h a t they d i d not b e l i e v e t h a t any r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t e d , o r they l e f t the q u e s t i o n completely blank. The m i n i s t e r s t h a t d i d attempt the q u e s t i o n u s u a l l y l e f t a m a j o r i t y o f the denominations blank and o n l y l i s t e d two o r three denominations whose c l e r g y they f e l t might be committed to one p a r t y or another. Table 23 shows the d i s t r i b u t i o n of r e p l i e s t h a t a t t r i b u t e d some r e l a t i o n s h i p between m i n i s t e r i a l v o t i n g p r e f e r e n c e and r e l i g i o u s denomination. TABLE 23 A t t r i b u t e d V o t i n g Behaviour o f Clergymen by Denomination Denomination Conserv. L i b e r a l C.C.P. Socred A n g l i c a n 20 2 B a p t i s t 2 1 5 7 Lutheran 2 l h P r e s b y t e r i a n 8 U n i t e d Church k 7 9 2 E v a n g e l i c a l P r o t e s t a n t Groups 3 Roman C a t h o l i c 2k An a n a l y s i s o f the data and comments g i v e n by the respondents to t h i s q u e s t i o n brought to l i g h t three s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t s . The f i r s t was the tendency f o r the respondents to a t t r i b u t e s e l f i s h motives to the c l e r g y o f the Roman C a t h o l i c Church. One P r e s b y t e r i a n m i n i s t e r commented t h a t "the Roman C a t h o l i c s would vote f o r t h a t p a r t y which would be s t f u r t h e r i t s own ends i n t h i s country." An A n g l i c a n m i n i s t e r s t a t e d , "I t h i n k most Roman C a t h o l i c s support the L i b e r a l p a r t y . The r e s t o f us, I presume, vote as we see f i t . " An even more p r e j u d i c e d a t t i t u d e was taken by one B a p t i s t m i n i s t e r , who commented: "The R. C.'s w i l l vote f o r the p a r t y they are t o l d to vote f o r . I t r u s t the r e s t are f r e e men who would not be t o l d how to vote by t h e i r denomination." S i m i l a r l y , a much l a r g e r number o f m i n i s t e r s had ex p e c t a t i o n s on how the C a t h o l i c clergymen would vote. Of the t h i r t y - f i v e m i n i s t e r s who answered \ 97 t h i r t y - f o u r expected the C a t h o l i c s to vote f o r the L i b e r a l p a r t y . Secondly, the m i n i s t e r s were g e n e r a l l y agreed that the A n g l i c a n c l e r g y c o u l d be expected to vote f o r the C o n s e r v a t i v e p a r t y . A l a r g e m a j o r i t y a l s o expected the m i n i s t e r s of e v a n g e l i c a l P r o t e s t a n t groups to vote S o c i a l C r e d i t . As f o r the o t h e r denominations there seemed to be much l e s s agreement. The respondents saw the P r e s b y t e r i a n s as t i e d to the o l d l i n e p a r t i e s , but they were more confused i n t h e i r e x p e c t a t i o n s w i t h regard to the Lutheran and B a p t i s t m i n i s t e r s . T h i s might have been expected because o f the wide range o f t h e o l o g i c a l p o s i t i o n s h e l d by the d i f f e r e n t groups w i t h i n these two denominations. S i m i l a r l y , there.was no a b s o l u t e agreement upon the p r e f e r e n c e s o f the U n i t e d Church m i n i s t e r s . However, the t a b l e does show t h a t the respondents expected them to have a l i b e r a l p o l i t i c a l a f f i l i a t i o n . Indeed, s e v e r a l m i n i s t e r s answered t h a t they would expect the U n i t e d Church c l e r g y to vote " e i t h e r C. C. P. o r L i b e r a l . " I f the e x p e c t a t i o n s o f the respondents are compared wit h the r e t u r n s shown i n Tables 21 and 22, i t w i l l be seen t h a t , g e n e r a l l y , the m i n i s t e r s have a f a i r l y good i d e a of where the o t h e r denominations stand on p o l i t i c a l q u e s t i o n s and p a r t y p r e f e r e n c e s . The m i n i s t e r s ' e x p e c t a t i o n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h regard to the major denominations, seemed to be q u i t e a c c u r a t e . I f t here was some c o n f u s i o n w i t h regard to the minor denominations t h i s i s no doubt p a r t l y the r e s u l t o f the presence o f prominent churchmen o f these denominations i n more than one p a r t y o r g a n i z a t i o n . 98 In c o n c l u s i o n , a s h o r t summary of some o f the suggestions put forward i n t h i s s e c t i o n may be o f value. The f i r s t s uggestion which was made was t h a t m i n i s t e r s o f P r o t e s t a n t denominations tend to vote to the r i g h t o f c e n t r e . Secondly, i t was suggested t h a t n e i t h e r the m i n i s t e r ' s p e r s o n a l income, nor the socio-economic environment o f h i s p a r i s h p l a y e d a major r o l e i n determining h i s p o l i t i c a l p r e f e r e n c e s . T h i r d l y , i t was h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t a d i r e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t s between the r e l i g i o u s denomination o f m i n i s t e r s and t h e i r p o l i t i c a l l o y a l t i e s . There seemed to be two f a c t o r s t h a t might c o n t r i b u t e to t h i s p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p . F i r s t , the m i n i s t e r s might vote f o r one p a r t y because i t best represented the p r a c t i c a l i n t e r e s t s of the denomination and i t s people. Secondly, the m i n i s t e r s ' p r e f e r e n c e s are based on i d e a s and p h i l o s o p h i c a t t i t u d e s which are the major determinant o f t h e i r v o t i n g behaviour. Of these two suggestions the second seemed to be of more consequence than the f i r s t . The suggestion was made t h a t m i n i s t e r s , more than o t h e r i n d i v i d u a l s , tend to i n t e r p r e t t h e i r p e r s o n a l i n t e r e s t s i n terms of i d e a s and moral concepts. T h i s would r e s u l t i n r e i n f o r c i n g the o p i n i o n expressed t h a t t h e o l o g i c a l a t t i t u d e s were perhaps the major f a c t o r i n determining a m i n i s t e r ' s p o l i t i c a l o p i n i o n s . F i n a l l y , the p o i n t was made t h a t , w h i l e most m i n i s t e r s s t a t e d they d i d not a s s o c i a t e any r e l a t i o n s h i p between denomination and p o l i t i c a l p r e f e r e n c e , o f those who d i d , t h e i r o p i n i o n s r e p r e s e n t e d a p a t t e r n c l o s e to t h a t which the v o t i n g p r e f e r e n c e data i n d i c a t e d . However, none o f the m i n i s t e r s mentioned the d e v i a t i o n between f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l o p i n i o n which o c c u r r e d w i t h clergymen o f the orthodox and f u n d a m e n t a l i s t denominations. CHAPTER I I THE TEMPERANCE MOVEMENT, A RELIGIOUSLY BASED PRESSURE GROUP A group of people who w i s h to i n f l u e n c e governmental p o l i c y o r l e g i s l a t i o n may attempt t o do so d i r e c t l y t h rough the f o r m a t i o n of s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t o r g a n i z a t i o n s e s t a b l i s h e d f o r a l i m i t e d and s p e c i f i c purpose. Such o r g a n i z a t i o n s , through t h e i r c o n t r o l of v o t e s , o r the f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s which i n d i r e c t l y c o n t r o l o p i n i o n , may f o r c e the government t o enact l e g i s l a t i o n which b e n e f i t s them or accomplishes t h e i r 59 p a r t i c u l a r purposes. y Those i n t e r e s t s which are able t o make themselves p o l i t i c a l l y a r t i c u l a t e are the i n t e r e s t s which f i n d p r o t e c t i o n and p r i v i l e g e i n law. . . . The f a c t w i l l remain t h a t l e g i s l a t i o n f r e q u e n t l y f i n d s i t s source, not i n the b r a i n of an independent courageous statesman, but i n the deviou s channels o f p r e s s u r e p o l i t i c s . Such p r e s s u r e groups are not l i m i t e d t o o r g a n i z a t i o n s h a v i n g s e l f i s h or p e r s o n a l i n t e r e s t s alone. Any group of men may u n i t e and e x e r t p r e s s u r e i f they have the f i n a n c i a l c o n t r o l o r p o l i t i c a l s t r e n g t h r e q u i s i t e t o o b t a i n a h e a r i n g . T-bus, i n s t u d y i n g the i n f l u e n c e o f the r e l i g i o u s community i n B r i t i s h Columbia p r o v i n c i a l p o l i t i c s one must study, not o n l y the a t t i t u d e s and i n f l u e n c e of t h e c l e r g y as an e l i t e group, but a l s o the i n f l u e n c e of groups formed O o u t s i d e the Churches, h a v i n g a moral purpose and the d i r e c t or i n d i r e c t support of the r e l i g i o u s community and i t s members. Indeed, such o r g a n i z a t i o n s , independent of the Church, may have d e f i n i t e advantages over the o p e r a t i o n o f the denominations and c l e r g y d i r e c t l y i n the p o l i t i c a l p r o c e s s e s . I t can be argued t h a t the Church f i n d s i t i m p o s s i b l e to take d i r e c t p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n p a r t i s a n a f f a i r s , because of the p o s s i b i l i t y o f a l i e n a t i n g c e r t a i n of i t s members and adh e r e n t s . I t has been shown t h a t t h i s has been a major f a c t o r i n the l i m i t i n g o f the c l e r g y , and i n t h e i r r e l u c t a n c e t o become more a r t i c u l a t e on q u e s t i o n s of p o l i t i c a l importance. However, the a c t i v i t y o f the c l e r g y , or of members of the Churches, i n s i n g l e i n t e r e s t o r g a n i z a t i o n s a c t i n g upon the government and the p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s , i s f a r l e s s l i k e l y t o g i v e r i s e t o such a c o n f l i c t . ^ Where i t i s out of the q u e s t i o n f o r the v a r i o u s Churches to e n t e r the f i e l d o f p o l i t i c s d i r e c t l y , the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n t o pursue some l i m i t e d and s p e c i f i c purpose may be the answer. . . . V o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s of t h i s type a l l o w the c l e r g y and members of the Churches t o a s s o c i a t e f r e e l y , and to pursue o b j e c t i v e s t h a t are. c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e i r moral a t t i t u d e s w i thout the r i s k o f such a c t i v i t y a d v e r s e l y a f f e c t i n g or c a u s i n g d i s s e n s i o n w i t h i n the s p i r i t u a l f a m i l y . Such 101 o r g a n i z a t i o n s a l l o w the denominations to u n i t e f o r a common purpose, where u n i t e d a c t i o n would he i m p o s s i b l e i n o t h e r f i e l d s because of t h e i r b a s i c t h e o l o g i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s . The problem t o be c o n s i d e r e d i n t h i s s e c t i o n i s t h a t of the v a l u e o f the p r e s s u r e group i n p u r s u i n g a moral purpose. I s the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t o r g a n i z a t i o n s the s o l u t i o n t o the problem of e f f e c t i v e moral i n f l u e n c e i n p o l i t i c a l a f f a i r s ? A study o f the o r g a n i z a t i o n , p o l i c y , and e f f e c t i v e -ness o f the temperance movements i n B r i t i s h Columbia s h o u l d g i v e an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the l i m i t a t i o n s or advantages of e s t a b l i s h i n g p r e s s u r e groups t o pursue moral purposes through p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n . The f i r s t c o l o n i s t s who s e t t l e d i n B r i t i s h Columbia were o f O l d Country s t o c k and came from a s o c i e t y where l i q u o r was f r e e l y used. L a t e r the d i s c o v e r y o f g o l d r e s u l t e d i n an i n f l u x o f hardy miners who found d i v e r s i o n from the r i g o r s o f f r o n t i e r l i f e by f r e e i n d u l g e n c e i n the use of s p i r i t s . The s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s which r e s u l t e d i n p a r t from the f r e e use of l i q u o r caused concern among the more r e l i g i o u s elements w i t h i n the p r o v i n c e . I n t h i s way the l i q u o r q u e s t i o n became a l i v e 61 p o l i t i c a l i s s u e . When B r i t i s h Columbia was c o n s t i t u t e d a c o l o n y i n 1858 the q u e s t i o n o f l i q u o r was one of the f i r s t w i t h which the C o u n c i l and the Assembly had to d e a l . P r e s s u r e s and counter p r e s s u r e s were a l r e a d y a c t i v e as e a r l y as 1859* when i t was r e c o r d e d t h a t the C o u n c i l and the Assembly were at 102 62 "loggerheads" over an a p p r o p r i a t e l i c e n s i n g p o l i c y . The r e t a i l l i q u o r d e a l e r s were v o c a l i n the p o l i t i c s o f the c o l o n y , and they were "being countered by the f o r m a t i o n of f r a t e r n a l temperance a s s o c i a t i o n s such as the Sons of Temperance, who had formed a lodge i n the c a p i t a l c i t y and was expanding i t s 65 o r g a n i z a t i o n throughout the p r o v i n c e . ' The a c t i v i t y of the l i q u o r i n t e r e s t s i n p r e s s u r i n g the government was r e c o r d e d a g a i n two y e a r s l a t e r when the p r e s s r e p o r t e d t h a t the " r e t a i l l i q u o r d e a l e r s had met t o p r o t e s t the s i z e of the government's 64 l i c e n s i n g t a x . " The next twenty y e a r s w i t n e s s e d the growth and decay of many s m a l l e r temperance groups and o r g a n i z a t i o n s . Church groups and women's o r g a n i z a t i o n s such as the Bands of Hope and Epworth Leagues were formed i n s c a t t e r e d communities throughout the p r o v i n c e . At the same time the f r a t e r n a l o r d e r s , p a r t i c u l a r l y the R o y a l Templars o f Temperance were formi n g 65 lodges i n many towns and hamlets. ^ The s h i f t i n sentiment from temperance t o a p o l i c y of t o t a l a b s t i n e n c e was a l s o d e v e l o p i n g as w i t n e s s e d by the f o r m a t i o n i n Vancouver i n the s p r i n g of 1 8 7 3 of the Vancouver T o t a l A b s t i n e n c e A s s o c i a t i o n . However, the most noteworthy development i n the h i s t o r y of the temperance movement b e f o r e the t u r n of the c e n t u r y d i d not o c c u r u n t i l t e n y e a r s l a t e r when Miss F r a n c e s W i l l a r d , t r a v e l l i n g up from C a l i f o r n i a , at a meeting c h a i r e d by the Premier,, John Robson, succeeded i n e s t a b l i s h i n g i n V i c t o r i a the p r o v i n c e ' s f i r s t Women's C h r i s t i a n Temperance 67 Union. ' I n F e b r u a r y of 1886, M i s s Sarah Bowes, an o r g a n i z e r 103 f r o m e a s t e r n Canada, a r r i v e d t o h e l p i n t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f W.C.T.U. groups t h r o u g h o u t t h e p r o v i n c e . As a r e s u l t o f h e r work, u n i o n s were formed i n Vancouver and t h r o u g h o u t the . 4 . . 68 i n t e r i o r . The temperance u n i o n s n o t o n l y p r o v i d e d a f o c a l p o i n t f o r t h e r a l l y i n g o f temperance s e n t i m e n t , t h e y a l s o p r o v i d e d an o u t l e t t h r o u g h w h i c h p r o j e c t s o f m o r a l r e f o r m and s o c i a l s e r v i c e c o u l d be u n d e r t a k e n . D u r i n g t h e 1880's and u n t i l t h e e a r l y 1900's the u n i o n s p a r t i c i p a t e d i n programs o f c h i l d r e n ' s w e l f a r e w h i c h i n c l u d e d t h e r a i s i n g o f f u n d s f o r an orphanage and home f o r r e f u g e e s . The u n i o n s a l s o s u p p o r t e d a h o s p i t a l i n New W e s t m i n s t e r w h i c h o f f e r e d s p e c i a l m a t e r n i t y 69 s e r v i c e s . The Temperance and M o r a l R eform A s s o c i a t i o n was a c t i v e i n V i c t o r i a d u r i n g t h e same p e r i o d , and l o c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s o f a s i m i l a r n a t u r e were formed i n many of t h e 70 major u r b a n c e n t e r s t h r o u g h o u t t h e p r o v i n c e . Temperance s e n t i m e n t i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a d u r i n g t h e l a s t two decades o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y was c e r t a i n l y n o t n e g l i g i b l e , t h e p r o v i n c e h a v i n g s u p p o r t e d p r o h i b i t i o n by a 71 m a j o r i t y o f 975 v o t e s i n t h e d o m i n i o n p l e b i s c i t e o f 1898. However, w h i l e t h e r e was a g r e a t p r o l i f e r a t i o n o f temperance o r g a n i z a t i o n s , o r o t h e r C h u r c h g r o u p s i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e temperance movement, t h e y seem t o have had l i t t l e e f f e c t i n s h i f t i n g t h e c h a r a c t e r o f t h e p r o v i n c e ' s l i q u o r l e g i s l a t i o n . A t t h e t u r n o f t h e c e n t u r y t h e g r a n t i n g o f l i c e n s e s was s t i l l 104 i n the hands of boards w i t h i n the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s and appointment of l i q u o r commissioners was a matter of p o l i t i c a l 72 patronage. The a l l - n i g h t s a l o o n s were the t h r i v i n g s o c i a l c e n t r e s f o r workmen i n the b u s t l i n g p i o n e e r communities. D u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d the temperance s u p p o r t e r s t r i e d t o persuade the governments t o c l o s e the a l l - n i g h t s a l o o n s . They a l s o asked t h a t p o p u l a r c o n t r o l r e p l a c e patronage as the b a s i s f o r appointment of l i c e n s e and p o l i c e commissioners. ^ However, i n 1907 > when t h e i r p r e s s u r e d i d not b r i n g r e s u l t s , the W.C.T.U. i n a u g u r a t e d an a l l - o u t campaign f o r the s e c u r i n g of a l o c a l o p t i o n law. A t t h a t time B r i t i s h Columbia was the on l y p r o v i n c e i n Canada t h a t d i d n o t have a system of 74 r e s t r i c t i v e l i q u o r l e g i s l a t i o n . ' I t was f e l t i n temperance c i r c l e s g e n e r a l l y t h a t the movement was s u f f e r i n g f r o m a d i v i s i o n i n o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r e n g t h , and t h a t g r e a t e r c o - o p e r a t i o n c o u l d o n l y be a c h i e v e d by the f o r m a t i o n o f a provi n c e - w i d e o r g a n i z a t i o n to f o s t e r c o - o p e r a t i o n and c o - o r d i n a t i o n among the temperance f o r c e s . A c a l l was i s s u e d t o r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f a l l temperance o r g a n i z a t i o n s t o a Convention which was h e l d i n Vancouver i n November of 1908 a t which time the B r i t i s h Columbia L o c a l O p t i o n League was formed. The o r g a n i z a t i o n was to be composed o f an A d v i s o r y C o u n c i l made up of the c h i e f p r e l a t e s of a l l the major P r o t e s t a n t denominations, the Roman C a t h o l i c Church, and the heads of the v a r i o u s f r a t e r n a l and women's o r g a n i z a t i o n s . The Rev. Dr. D. Spencer of V i c t o r i a was app o i n t e d i t s f i r s t s u p e r i n t e n d e n t , and the f i r s t s t e p s were 105 taken towards the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a p a i d o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t a f f . In o r d e r not t o s p l i t the temperance f o r c e s the aims of the o r g a n i z a t i o n were l i m i t e d to " s e c u r i n g a l o c a l o p t i o n law and p u t t i n g the same i n o p e r a t i o n i n every m u n i c i p a l i t y 75 throughout B r i t i s h Columbia." The League planned the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of l o c a l o p t i o n o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n e v e r y community. These groups would work towards the passage of the l o c a l o p t i o n law and then t u r n t h e i r a t t e n t i o n to making i t s p r o v i s i o n s a p p l y to t h e i r l o c a l m u n i c i p a l i t y . By the s p r i n g of the f o l l o w i n g y e a r over f i f t y Leagues had been e s t a b l i s h e d , and the o r g a n i z a t i o n , supported by p e t i t i o n s from i n d i v i d u a l s , l o c a l c o n g r e g a t i o n s , and temperance o r g a n i z a t i o n s was making r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s t o the p r o v i n c i a l government. Spencer, supported by 150 " p e t i t i o n e r s i n b o o t s " p r e s e n t e d the Premier and h i s c a b i n e t w i t h one p e t i t i o n s i g n e d by 9,473 e l e c t o r s . ? 6 The response of McBride's government to the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of the L o c a l O p t i o n League was the announcement t h a t the government wished t o keep the i s s u e f r e e from p a r t y p o l i t i c s and would submit the q u e s t i o n of l o c a l o p t i o n to a p r o v i n c i a l p l e b i s c i t e . A l t h o u g h the members o f the League d i d not f a v o u r the p l e b i s c i t e they accepted the government's d e c i s i o n and began t h e i r campaign. However, a m b i g u i t i e s i n the wording of the q u e s t i o n ; the f a c t t h a t i t was m i s r e p r e s e n t e d as a p p l y i n g t o o r g a n i z e d m u n i c i p a l i t i e s o n l y , which would f o r c e 106 the l i q u o r t r a de i n t o u n o r g a n i z e d d i s t r i c t s ; and the f a c t t h a t the terms r e q u i r e d a m a j o r i t y o f f i f t y per cent of the e l e c t o r s who v o t e d f o r c a n d i d a t e s , h i n d e r e d the League. I n s p i t e of these s e t b a c k s the r e s u l t of the vote showed an a b s o l u t e 77 m a j o r i t y of 3,695 f o r l o c a l o p t i o n . When the government r e f u s e d t o accept the vote as a d i r e c t i v e because i t f e l l s h o r t of the n e c e s s a r y m a j o r i t y the League t u r n e d i t s a c t i v i t i e s t o the F e d e r a l f i e l d and o b t a i n e d an amendment t o the Canada Temperance A c t which made i t s l o c a l o p t i o n p r o v i s i o n s a p p l i c a b l e 78 to the p r o v i n c e ' s o r g a n i z e d m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . I n the p e r i o d f o l l o w i n g the p l e b i s c i t e o f 1909, the League c o n c e n t r a t e d upon s e c u r i n g improvements t o the e x i s t i n g l i c e n s i n g laws, l i m i t i n g the hours f o r consumption and s a l e , and i n c r e a s e d law enforcement. These measures the p r o v i n c i a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n was w i l l i n g t o enact, f o r they " r e f l e c t e d the p o l i c y g e n e r a l l y f a v o u r e d by the C o n s e r v a t i v e s i n Canada, t h a t i s , a p o l i c y of ' ' r e s t r i c t i v e l i q u o r l e g i s l a t i o n a l o n g l i n e s o f 79 s t r i n g e n t r e g u l a t i o n , but opposed t o t o t a l p r o h i b i t i o n . ' " J Meanwhile, the thought o f temperance f o r c e s throughout Canada and the U n i t e d S t a t e s had been s h i f t i n g from acceptance of l o c a l o p t i o n t o acceptance of a p o l i c y of complete p r o h i b i t i o n of the manufacture and s a l e of a l c o h o l i c beverages. I t i s not s u r p r i s i n g , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t the temperance f o r c e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia s h o u l d f o l l o w the l e a d of temperance movements elsewhere by a d o p t i n g such a p o l i c y . 107 In the eyes of temperance advocates the advent of war made the economic arguments f o r p r o h i b i t i o n more pronounced. I f the Empire were t o be v i c t o r i o u s , complete e f f i c i e n c y and s e l f - s a c r i f i c e were n e c e s s a r y . Thus, i n the s p r i n g of 1915, temperance s o c i e t i e s bombarded the government w i t h p e t i t i o n s and l e t t e r s r e q u e s t i n g t h e i n s t i t u t i o n of p r o h i b i t i o n of the s a l e o f l i q u o r as a war measure. I n August, when a d e l e g a t i o n of the P r o v i n c i a l S o c i a l S e r v i c e Commission w a i t e d upon the Premier, S i r R i c h a r d McBride, they were info r m e d t h a t " i t had been d e c i d e d a f t e r c a r e f u l d e l i b e r a t i o n , t o submit the whole 80 q u e s t i o n to a p l e b i s c i t e of the e l e c t o r a t e . " T h i s announcement r e s u l t e d i n immediate a c t i o n on the p a r t of churches and temperance o r g a n i z a t i o n s throughout the p r o v i n c e . L e t t e r s were d i s t r i b u t e d c a l l i n g a l l i n t e r e s t e d groups t o a C o n v e n t i o n to be h e l d i n Vancouver on August 25, 1915' Mr. Jonathan Rogers, P r e s i d e n t of the Vancouver Board of Trade, and Mr. John N e l s o n of the Vancouver World h e l p e d t o o r g a n i z e the Convention, the one p r o v i d i n g o f f i c e space and s t e n o g r a p h i c f a c i l i t i e s , the o t h e r i n c r e a s i n g newspaper and e d i t o r i a l coverage.^"*" The Convention, which was attended and addressed by such able l e a d e r s as Rev. P r i n c i p a l L l o y d , P r e s i d e n t of the Dominion A l l i a n c e C o u n c i l , and Mrs. N e l l i e McClung, L i b e r a l M. P., r e s u l t e d i n the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of the B r i t i s h Columbia P r o h i b i t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n and the a d o p t i o n of t h e f o l l o w i n g 82 r e s o l u t i o n : 108 . . . be i t r e s o l v e d t h a t the d e l e g a t i o n from a l l p a r t s of the P r o v i n c e of B. C , d u l y assembled i n c o n v e n t i o n , do hereby p l a c e themselves on r e c o r d i n f a v o r of the p r i n c i p l e of p r o h i b i t i o n , and r e q u e s t the P r o v i n c i a l Government t h a t t h e y do on the e a r l i e s t l e g a l date p r e s e n t to the e l e c t o r a t e of the P r o v i n c e of B. C. a b i l l t o be drawn by a committee of t h i s c o n v e n t i o n s i m i l a r i n wording and i n i n t e n t to t h a t endorsed by the e l e c t o r s of A l b e r t a on the 21st day o f J u l y , 1915> and e n t i t l e d , the L i q u o r A c t . M i n d f u l of t h e i r unhappy e x p e r i e n c e w i t h the p l e b i s c i t e of 1909, the p r o h i b i t i o n i s t s demanded t h a t a d e f i n i t e b i l l be p r e s e n t e d to the e l e c t o r a t e i n the form o f a referendum; they a l s o s t a t e d t h a t "the a f o r e s a i d (referendum should) not be (taken) a t the time of an e l e c t i o n , t h i s b e i n g an i s s u e s eparate and d i s t i n c t from p a r t y p o l i t i c s . " ' The C o n v e n t i o n concluded without the a d o p t i o n of a c o n s t i t u t i o n . However, the b a s i c o r g a n i z a t i o n a l u n i t s were e s t a b l i s h e d and an i n t e r i m e x e c u t i v e a p p o i n t e d . The c e n t r a l organ of the A s s o c i a t i o n was to be the Committee of One Hundred whose f u n c t i o n i t was t o e s t a b l i s h committees throughout the 84 e l e c t o r a l d i s t r i c t s of the p r o v i n c e . The p l a n o f o r g a n i z a t i o n may have been taken from a p l a n of campaign used by the A n t i -Saloon League i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s , f o r O n t a r i o f o l l o w e d s u i t i n October when "a committee of one hundred c i t i z e n s of O n t a r i o (was) formed to secure the n o m ination of c a n d i d a t e s . . . p l e d g e d to the a b o l i t i o n of t a v e r n s , shop and c l u b l i c e n s e s and the p r o h i b i t i o n of a l l s a l e s of i n t o x i c a t i n g l i q u o r s f o r beverage p u r p o s e s . " 8 5 Mr. Jonathan Rogers was a p p o i n t e d p r e s i d e n t , and a working n u c l e u s of the Committee, both clergymen and laymen from the Vancouver area, was e s t a b l i s h e d to b e g i n the work of o r g a n i z a t i o n . 109 The Committee f i r s t attempted to "bring w i t h i n the a s s o c i a t i o n the g r e a t e s t p o s s i b l e c o n s t i t u e n c y o f o p i n i o n . R e p r e s e n t a t i o n s were made to the C a t h o l i c Church and i t was proposed t h a t Rev. F a t h e r 0 ' B o y l e be a p p o i n t e d v i c e - p r e s i d e n t . However, the C a t h o l i c Church was c o o l e r toward p r o h i b i t i o n than i t had been t o the l o c a l o p t i o n movement, and a l t h o u g h l i m i t e d support was promised, as f a r as can be a s c e r t a i n e d , the h i e r a r c h y gave but l i m i t e d support to the C o m m i t t e e . ^ As a r e s u l t , Mr. John Nelson, a s s o c i a t e e d i t o r of the Vancouver World was o f f e r e d the p o s i t i o n o f v i c e - p r e s i d e n t and he a c cepted. The Committee immediately attempted to g a i n the support of o r g a n i z e d l a b o u r . Mr. Simpson, a prominent l a b o u r c a n d i d a t e , was r e q u e s t e d to a c t as chairman of an o r g a n i z a t i o n meeting h e l d on the 23rd of September i n Nanaimo, and R. H. Neelands, s e c r e t a r y of the T y p o g r a p h i c a l U nion, was a p p o i n t e d on to one of the committees t h a t was b e i n g e s t a b l i s h e d . I n March of 1916, Mr. George Hardy was r e t a i n e d on a p r o f e s s i o n a l b a s i s to work among the l a b o u r o r g a n i z a t i o n s w i t h i n the o o p r o v i n c e . The A s s o c i a t i o n o p e r a t e d on an "ad hoc" b a s i s u n t i l March of 1917, when the C o nvention adopted a c o n s t i t u t i o n . The C o n v e n t i o n a f f i r m e d t h a t the o b j e c t s of the A s s o c i a t i o n .89 were: 2 (1) To o b t a i n the p r o h i b i t i o n of the manufacture, i m p o r t a t i o n and s a l e of wine, beer and o t h e r s p i r i t u o u s or fermented l i q u o r s f o r beverage purposes (a) i n or i n t o the P r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h Columbia; (b) i n or i n t o the Dominion of Canada, and t o t h i s end to cooperate w i t h any movement, s o c i e t y , o r o r g a n i z a t i o n h a v i n g the same o b j e c t i n view. 110 3 I n a d d i t i o n to o b t a i n i n g such P r o h i b i t i o n to d e v i s e , promote and a s s i s t such e f f o r t o r e f f o r t s as w i l l make such p r o h i b i t i o n t h o r o u g h l y e f f e c t i v e . The c e n t r a l body of the o r g a n i z a t i o n was to be the G e n e r a l C o u n c i l , or Committee of One Hundred, which was t o meet a n n u a l l y and e l e c t the o f f i c e r s of the A s s o c i a t i o n . An E x e c u t i v e Committee, c o n s i s t i n g o f the o f f i c e r s , the c h i e f o f f i c i a l s of the W.C.T.U., and t h e Chairmen of the S t a n d i n g Committees, a l o n g w i t h f i f t y o t h e r s , was to c a r r y out the work of the A s s o c i a t i o n between c o n v e n t i o n s . L o c a l C o u n c i l s c o u l d be e s t a b l i s h e d i n each community, and each ward i n a c i t y . Membership was open, the f e e b e i n g determined by each l o c a l c o u n c i l . P r o v i s i o n was a l s o made f o r the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of 90 D i s t r i c t C o u n c i l s and Conventions where such were f e a s i b l e . The p r o h i b i t i o n i s t s adopted a p l a n of c e n t r a l i z e d o r g a n i z a t i o n s i m i l a r t o t h a t used by the A n t i - S a l o o n League i n 91 the U n i t e d S t a t e s . The s m a l l E x e c u t i v e Committee was d e l e g a t e d the power to a d m i n i s t e r and d i r e c t the a f f a i r s of 92 the A s s o c i a t i o n . The C o n s t i t u t i o n s t a t e d : The e x e c u t i v e committee s h a l l have charge of the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , o r g a n i z a t i o n , membership, f i n a n c e s and b u s i n e s s of the movement and s h a l l give d i r e c t i o n t o the d i s t r i c t c o u n c i l s and l o c a l c o u n c i l s as i t may from time to time deem n e c e s s a r y o r e x p e d i t i o u s i n the i n t e r e s t s of t h i s movement, s u b j e c t t o the p r o v i s i o n s of t h i s c o n s t i t u t i o n and i n s t r u c t i o n s of the g e n e r a l c o u n c i l . I n p r a c t i c e the system was soon found t o be q u i t e cumbersome, and u n t i l the o r g a n i z a t i o n of the B. C. Temperance League i n 1934, the A s s o c i a t i o n o p e r a t e d on the b a s i s of a I l l y e a r l y c o n v e n t i o n of persons r e p r e s e n t i n g Church, groups, temperance a s s o c i a t i o n s , and c h a p t e r s of the W.C.T.U.; an e x e c u t i v e a p p ointed t o g i v e p r o v i n c i a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n ; an e x e c u t i v e committee which was the working e x e c u t i v e of the o r g a n i z a t i o n ; and a p a i d s t a f f composed g e n e r a l l y of an ex e c u t i v e s e c r e t a r y , a stenographer, and one o r more workers to whom a l i m i t e d r e t u r n was g i v e n when the f i n a n c e s of the o r g a n i z a t i o n so p e r m i t t e d . No movement c o u l d operate without f i n a n c e s , and the A s s o c i a t i o n found i t s e l f w i t h f i n a n c i a l problems from the b e g i n n i n g . The major source o f revenue came from membership f e e s which i n c l u d e d a s u b s c r i p t i o n to the A s s o c i a t i o n ' s p u b l i c a t i o n s , and from d o n a t i o n s from p r i v a t e c i t i z e n s . y Some b u s i n e s s concerns a l s o p r o v i d e d funds t o h e l p meet the expenses and l i m i t e d support was g i v e n the A s s o c i a t i o n t hrough c o n t r i b u t i o n s from Church c o n g r e g a t i o n s , through s p e c i a l c o l l e c t i o n s , or as s t a t e d sums from Church budgets. However, the A s s o c i a t i o n l o o k e d w i t h d i s f a v o r on such f i x e d Church c o n t r i b u t i o n s , f e e l i n g t h a t funds c o u l d b e t t e r be o b t a i n e d through i n d i v i d u a l g i v i n g s . The P r o h i b i t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n was never as s u c c e s s f u l as the A n t i - S a l o o n Leagues of the U n i t e d S t a t e s i n i n s t i t u t i n g qh. a system of pledges and monthly c o n t r i b u t i o n s . A l t h o u g h d u r i n g the campaign f o r p r o h i b i t i o n the Dominion A l l i a n c e a i d e d w i t h a c o n t r i b u t i o n of $2,500, c e n t r a l i z e d c o - o p e r a t i o n on a n a t i o n a l l e v e l was extremely weak and the A s s o c i a t i o n never c o u l d count on funds from o u t s i d e the p r o v i n c e i n any 112 q u a n t i t y . The P r e s b y t e r i a n C h u r c h a i d e d f i n a n c i a l l y t h r o u g h the appointment and payment of a campaign manager, l a t e r t h e p r o v i n c i a l o r g a n i z e r , b u t t h i s s u p p o r t c e a s e d i n 1925 w i t h 95 t h e advent o f C h u r c h u n i o n . y ^ The o n l y o t h e r r e l i a b l e s o u r c e of f u n d s l a y i n a s m a l l payment made b y t h e C h r i s t i a n S c i e n c e Churche s. An a n a l y s i s o f t h e f i n a n c i a l c o n t r i b u t i o n s o f t h e A s s o c i a t i o n w i l l show t h e d e n o m i n a t i o n s w h i c h , i n f a c t , s u p p o r t e d the p r o h i b i t i o n movement. The Roman C a t h o l i c s and A n g l i c a n s were n o m i n a l l y r e p r e s e n t e d on some c o m m i t t e e s , b u t t h e i r f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t was m i n i m a l . The o r g a n i z a t i o n r e c e i v e d t h e most c o n s i s t e n t and w h o l e h e a r t e d f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t f r o m t h e P r e s b y t e r i a n , M e t h o d i s t , and B a p t i s t C h u r c h e s . The f a c t t h a t the p r o h i b i t i o n movement g a t h e r e d i t s s u p p o r t f r o m t h e same c o n s t i t u e n c y w h i c h made up t h e m a j o r i t y of s u p p o r t e r s of t h e L i b e r a l P a r t y i s an i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r i n c o n s i d e r i n g t h e c o u r s e of a c t i o n t a k e n by t h e A s s o c i a t i o n i n t h e f i g h t f o r t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n of p r o v i n c i a l p r o h i b i t i o n . J The. adjournment o f t h e C o n v e n t i o n i n A u g u s t o f 1915 had been th e s i g n a l f o r a c o n c e r t e d d r i v e t o o r g a n i z e f o r t h e r e f e r e n d u m . The E x e c u t i v e C o u n c i l i m m e d i a t e l y a d o p t e d a budget of $2,337 f o r t h e month of O c t o b e r and s e t t o work under t h e l e a d e r s h i p o f R o g e r s and McGuire t o h o l d o r g a n i z a t i o n m e e t i n g s t h r o u g h o u t t h e p r o v i n c e . By November the A s s o c i a t i o n was p r e p a r e d t o f i g h t t h e p l e b i s c i t e . However, when the C o u n c i l met i n Vancouver on November 2, no word had been r e c e i v e d f r o m t h e P r e m i e r as t o t h e d a t e o f t h e r e f e r e n d u m , t h e o n l y 113 word "being t h a t i t would be h e l d at the time of the next p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n . The E x e c u t i v e d i d not want a l o n g campaign and ". . . i t was d e c i d e d t h a t i f no r e p l y were- r e c e i v e d soon a l l i n f o r m a t i o n and correspondence would be p u b l i s h e d i n the 97 l o c a l p r e s s . " ' A t the same time a r e s o l u t i o n was passed s t a t i n g t h a t the committee d e e p l y r e g r e t t e d the a t t i t u d e t a k e n by the Premier i n q u e s t i o n s which the P r o h i b i t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n deemed v i t a l . The r e s o l u t i o n was f o l l o w e d by the f o l l o w i n g p l e d g e : J The u n d e r s i g n e d i n c l u d e a d e f i n i t e pledge on the p a r t of those s i g n i n g i t t o put a s i d e f o r the time, t h e i r p a r t y p o l i t i c s and by t h e i r vote and i n f l u e n c e , support those who w i l l assure us of the p a s s i n g of p r o h i b i t o r y l e g i s l a t i o n or t h e i r b e s t endeavours toward t h a t end. Copies of the r e s o l u t i o n were sent t o a l l the o r g a n i z a t i o n s and Church groups throughout the p r o v i n c e ; and to i n d i v i d u a l s who were t o s i g n the pledge and send i t to t h e i r l o c a l M. L. A . 1 s or t o McBride. A l t h o u g h the l e a d e r s of the p r o h i b i t i o n movement attempted t o keep the q u e s t i o n c o m p l e t e l y c l e a r from p a r t y p o l i t i c s , the unhappy e x p e r i e n c e s of the L o c a l O p t i o n League i n the p l e b i s c i t e of 1909, c o u p l e d w i t h the g e n e r a l makeup of the A s s o c i a t i o n membership to gi v e the o r g a n i z a t i o n a g e n e r a l p r e d i s p o s i t i o n t o support the L i b e r a l cause. The L i b e r a l p a r t y had p l a c e d temperance i n i t s p l a t f o r m i n 1912 a l o n g w i t h womaa's suffrage. 9 9 Both were desig n e d t o appeal t o the p r o h i b i t i o n i s t s and t o the Women's C h r i s t i a n Temperance Unions. The temperance o r g a n i z a t i o n s 114 wanted p r o h i b i t i o n ; t h e W.C.T.U. s u p p o r t e d f e m a l e s u f f r a g e f o r i t s own s a k e , and a s a n o t h e r means of d e f e a t i n g " o l d J o h n B a r l e y c o r n . To a m a j o r i t y o f t h e p r o h i b i t i o n i s t s t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e p a r t y was t h e p a r t y w i t h a "wfet l i q u o r p o l i c y , " and i t s l e a d e r s were c h a r a c t e r i z e d as w o r k i n g h a n d - i n - g l o v e w i t h t h e l i q u o r i n t e r e s t s . The C o n s e r v a t i v e s on t h e E x e c u t i v e soon began t o sense the temper of t h e A s s o c i a t i o n . One member o f t h e committee w r o t e P r e m i e r M c B r i d e as f o l l o w s : 1 ^ 1 I am a f r a i d we are g o i n g t o be u n a b l e t o keep t h i s q u e s t i o n out o f p o l i t i c s , as some o f us have s t r i v e d so h a r d t o do. . . . Of c o u r s e you know ou r committee i s composed o f b o t h p a r t i e s , and t o d a y we d i d n o t have t h e m a j o r i t y . . . . I do f e e l S i r R i c h a r d t h a t i f you w o u l d d e c i d e t o say t h a t you w o u l d a t t h e n e x t s e s s i o n o f t h e l e g i s l a t u r e b r i n g down a p r o h i b i t o r y b i l l . . . and t h e n a p p e a l t o t h e c o u n t r y on t h a t a l o n e t h a t you w o u l d sweep the c o u n t r y a g a i n . . . . I t would c e r t a i n l y knock some o f t h e s e f e l l o w s o f f t h e i r pegs, as t h e y would n o t have a l e g t o s t a n d on and would be honour bound by t h e i r p o s i t i o n t o come i n and s u p p o r t the government. The P r e m i e r r e p l i e d t h a t he was s o r r y he c o u l d n o t meet t h e v i e w s o f t h e A s s o c i a t i o n more c l o s e l y , b u t t h a t what 102 t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e p e o p l e wanted he was r e a d y t o c a r r y o u t . When the committee met a g a i n i n F e b r u a r y o f 1916 no f u r t h e r p r o g r e s s had been made and the E x e c u t i v e f e l t t h a t ". . . a l a c k of a c l e a r l y d e f i n e d o b j e c t i v e and c l e a r - c u t i s s u e s " p l a c e d the o r g a n i z a t i o n i n danger of becoming a 103 " p o l i t i c a l n o n e n t i t y . " The s u g g e s t i o n made by t h e Rev. R. J . BAcIntyre t h e p r e v i o u s November t h a t c a n d i d a t e s be r u n i n b y - e l e c t i o n s had 115 been s h e l v e d . But t h e committee d e c i d e d t h a t some immediate a c t i o n was n e c e s s a r y and a r e s o l u t i o n was p a s s e d t h a t "each o f the c a n d i d a t e s f o r b y - e l e c t i o n s , s h o u l d be i m m e d i a t e l y and e x h a u s t i v e l y i n t e r v i e w e d i n r e g a r d t o t h e i r c o u r s e on p r o h i b i t i o n , 1 0 4 and t h a t t h e s e i n t e r v i e w s s h o u l d be g i v e n t h e w i d e s t p u b l i c i t y . " The committee d e t e r m i n e d t o c o n t a c t Bowser, the new C o n s e r v a t i v e P r e m i e r and r e q u e s t an immediate p l e b i s c i t e . A d e f i n i t e r e p l y was r e q u e s t e d "so as t o a v o i d t h e p o s s i b i l i t y of the c o r r e s p o n d e n c e and t h e whole q u e s t i o n b e i n g b r o u g h t i n t o p a r t y p o l i t i c s , a r e s u l t w h i c h we have e a r n e s t l y s t r i v e n t o a v o i d . " 1 0 5 When no immediate r e p l y was r e c e i v e d t h e A s s o c i a t i o n d e c i d e d t o e n t e r t h e e l e c t i o n campaigns. The d e c i s i o n was n o t t a k e n w i t h o u t some o p p o s i t i o n . The o r g a n i z a t i o n r e c e i v e d a p r o t e s t f r o m a t l e a s t one s o u r c e , when a Mr. Morgan o f t h e Vancouver I s l a n d e x e c u t i v e sent a- l e t t e r p r o t e s t i n g any a c t i o n b e i n g t a k e n t o d i r e c t l y i n f l u e n c e t h e f o r t h c o m i n g e l e c t i o n s . 1 0 ^ However, t h e A s s o c i a t i o n d e t e r m i n e d t o oppose t h e government and as a r e s u l t two new C o n s e r v a t i v e c a b i n e t a p p o i n t e e s were d e f e a t e d . The P r e m i e r h i m s e l f a t t r i b u t e d t h e d e f e a t s t o t h e 1 0 7 " a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e p r o h i b i t i o n i s t s . " ' A t t h e L i b e r a l c o n v e n t i o n t h e p a r t y p l a c e d a p l a n k i n i t s p l a t f o r m f a v o u r i n g p r o h i b i t i o n , and by M a r c h 28 t h e o r g a n i z e r was a b l e t o report t h a t t h e A s s o c i a t i o n had r e c e i v e d a d e f i n i t e commitment from B r e w s t e r , t h e L i b e r a l l e a d e r , t h a t he w o u l d s u p p o r t a P r o h i b i t i o n A c t coming i n t o e f f e c t on 116 January 1, 1917» s u b j e c t t o a s a t i s f a c t o r y vote i n the referendum. With t h i s assurance the o r g a n i z a t i o n became more d e f i n i t e l y committed t o the L i b e r a l p a r t y , and p r e p a r a t i o n s were made to have men sympathetic t o p r o h i b i t i o n nominated by the p a r t y i n as many c o n s t i t u e n c i e s as p o s s i b l e . I n the same month a committee o f one hundred appeared b e f o r e the p r o v i n c i a l c a b i n e t e x p l a i n i n g t h e i r stand a g a i n s t any compensation b e i n g p a i d to the l i q u o r i n t e r e s t s s h o u l d p r o h i b i t i o n be e s t a b l i s h e d . On March 2 t e n thousand c o p i e s of the Vancouver World were d i s t r i b u t e d c o n t a i n i n g f u l l r e p o r t s of the d e p u t a t i o n s and 109 r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s made by the A s s o c i a t i o n to the C a b i n e t . J I n A p r i l the P r o h i b i t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n adopted a budget of $17,000 f o r continuance of i t s campaign, and v o t e d a sum of $500 t o the Vancouver World as a c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r i t s support i n g e t t i n g a p r o h i b i t o r y b i l l t h r o u g h the House. A t the same time p l a n s were made f o r the p u b l i s h i n g o f an a s s o c i a t i o n b u l l e t i n i n order to counter the a n t a g o n i s t i c a t t i t u d e of the V i c t o r i a and Vancouver papers, the remainder o f which were c o n s i d e r e d t o be " a n t a g o n i s t i c t o the p r o h i b i t i o n cause. By J u l y the campaign f o r p r o h i b i t i o n was r e a c h i n g h i g h gear. On J u l y 8 Reverend Henderson was c o n t r i b u t e d as campaign manager by the P r e s b y t e r i a n Church w i t h o u t cost."'"''""*' B i l l y Sunday had been r e t a i n e d to h o l d monster r a l l i e s i n the Vancouver and V i c t o r i a arenas, b o t h o f which had been g r a n t e d to the A s s o c i a t i o n "without c o s t s . " The o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s o 117 r e t a i n e d a Mr. C a l l o p y a t a f i x e d s a l a r y t o l o o k a f t e r the a d v e r t i s i n g work d u r i n g the campaign. Arrangements were under way f o r the d i s t r i b u t i o n of 20,000 c o p i e s o f l i t e r a t u r e on p o l l i n g day by boys and g i r l s r e c r u i t e d from the Churches i n 112 Vancouver and throughout the p r o v i n c e . The c h i e f pamphlet i s s u e d by the A s s o c i a t i o n was an i n g e n i o u s p o l i t i c a l d e v i c e d i r e c t l y a p p e a l i n g t o the p a t r i o t i c sentiments of the e l e c t o r a t e ; a sentiment t h a t was running h i g h as a r e s u l t of the l o s s e s b e i n g i n f l i c t e d on the t r o o p s o v e r s e a s . The f r o n t of the pamphlet showed a p i c t u r e of the K i n g framed by the U n ion Jack and Red E n s i g n . I t c a r r i e d the c a p t i o n " f o l l o w the K i n g , " a r e f e r e n c e t o h i s announcement of A p r i l , 1915, t h a t "no wines, beers or s p i r i t s would be used i n H i s 1 1 5 M a j e s t y ' s Houses" a f t e r t h a t date. y The f o l d e r a l s o c o n t a i n e d the statement of L l o y d George t h a t "we are f i g h t i n g Germany, A u s t r i a , and D r i n k , and as f a r as I can see, the g r e a t e s t of these t h r e e d e a d l y f o e s i s D r i n k . " In l i n e w i t h A n t i - S a l o o n League a c t i v i t i e s i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s the brewing i n t e r e s t s were d e p i c t e d as u n p a t r i o t i c German-dominated i n t e r e s t s , indeed as the f i r s t rank of t h a t c o u n t r y ' s espionage r i n g 114-whose aim was to undermine the A l l i e d powers. While the P r o h i b i t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n was e s t a b l i s h i n g i t s e l f and p r e p a r i n g i t s campaign the l i q u o r i n t e r e s t s d i d not remain i n a c t i v e . To some extent the p r o h i b i t i o n i s t s were c e n t e r i n g t h e i r campaign upon the economic e f f e c t s of the l i q u o r t r a f f i c and n e g l e c t i n g the moral a p p e a l . T h e i r 118 o p p o s i t i o n was not l o n g i n r e a l i z i n g t h i s weakness. They would f i g h t the p r o h i b i t i o n i s t s on t h e economic b a t t l e f i e l d . One a n t i - p r o h i b i t i o n i s t c o n g r a t u l a t i n g M c B r i d e on h i s " f a i r -minded" a t t i t u d e t o w a r d s t h e q u e s t i o n made t h e comment t h a t , , " s i n c e t h e p r o h i b i t i o n p a r t y has f r a n k l y f o r s a k e n t h e m o r a l grounds f o r t h e economic, i t would seem t h a t t h e y can be 115 f o r c i b l y met w i t h t h e r e v i s e d o p i n i o n i n d i c a t e d . " y Thus, as e a r l y as A u g u s t 16, 1915, M c B r i d e r e c e i v e d r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s f rom such i n f l u e n t i a l c o n c e r n s as Evans Coleman L i m i t e d , G e n e r a l C o n t r a c t o r s , and t h e Y o r k s h i r e G u arantee and S e c u r i t i e s C o r p o r a t i o n , p r o t e s t i n g t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f p r o h i b i t o r y l e g i s l a t i o n w h i c h would " t e n d t o damage t h e v e s t e d i n t e r e s t s w i t h i n t h e p r o v i n c e ."'*""'"^  P r o h i b i t i o n , i t was a r g u e d , w o u l d r e s u l t i n d i s c o u r a g i n g c a p i t a l f r o m e n t e r i n g t h e p r o v i n c e . A m e e t i n g of V a n c o i i v e r b u s i n e s s m e n h e l d a t t h a t t i m e u r g e d t h e government t h a t "owing t o t h e magnitude o f t h e i n t e r e s t s i n v o l v e d t h i s m e e t i n g i s opposed t o any emergency l e g i s l a t i o n t e n d i n g t o P r o h i b i t i o n even d u r i n g t h e c o n t i n u a n c e o f t h e war, 117 w i t h o u t a g e n e r a l r e f e r e n d u m o f t h e p e o p l e o f t h i s p r o v i n c e . " One element s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e government s e t up a R o y a l Commission t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e w h o l e o f t h e l i q u o r 118 p r o b l e m . However, M c B r i d e r e p l i e d t h a t : I t has now come t o a q u e s t i o n as t o what t h e p e o p l e want, and any s u g g e s t i o n t o r e f e r the m a t t e r t o a R o y a l Commission would be r e g a r d e d as an e f f o r t t o s i d e t r a c k o r d e l a y i t . 119 When the referendum was announced the l i q u o r i n t e r e s t s m a r s h a l l e d t h e i r f o r c e s and began a c o n c e r t e d e f f o r t t o d e f e r the h o l d i n g of the referendum. M. A. Tuck, s e c r e t a r y of the Merchants' P r o t e c t i v e A s s o c i a t i o n , wrote McBride s t a t i n g t h a t the p r o h i b i t i o n p a r t y was d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e groups, "the one i n f a v o u r of p r o h i b i t i o n at once, another 'no p r o h i b i t i o n d u r i n g the war,' and s t i l l another v e r y l a r g e c l a s s i n f a v o u r 119 of p r o h i b i t i o n w i t h compensation." 7 I t was suggested t h a t any referendum taken b e f o r e the end of the war would not r e p r e s e n t the o p i n i o n of the p e o p l e , and t h a t u n t i l the t r o o p s r e t u r n e d i t should be postponed. P r o h i b i t i o n i s t s were bombarding the c a b i n e t and M. L. A.'s w i t h p e t i t i o n s and l e t t e r s and the l i q u o r i n t e r e s t s 120 determined to do the same. On November 26, 1915» a d e l e g a t i o n p r e s e n t e d McBride w i t h a p e t i t i o n of 35,94-7 s i g n a t u r e s r e q u e s t i n g t h a t no p r o h i b i t o r y l e g i s l a t i o n , referendum or p l e b i s c i t e be i n t r o d u c e d f o r the d u r a t i o n of the war; t h a t the p r i n c i p l e of compensation be r e c o g n i z e d and t h a t no referendum be h e l d except at a g e n e r a l e l e c t i o n . The government c o n t i n u e d to r e c e i v e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s from b u s i n e s s concerns under t h e i r o f f i c i a l l e t t e r h e a d s , from the Merchants' P r o t e c t i v e A s s o c i a t i o n s , the L i c e n s e d V i n t n e r s A s s o c i a t i o n s , and the Workers' E q u a l R i g h t s A s s o c i a t i o n . The a n t i - p r o h i b i t i o n i s t s d i d not n e g l e c t t h e i r p o t e n t i a l l a b o u r support. They p r e s e n t e d the P r o h i b i t i o n A c t as a p i e c e of c l a s s l e g i s l a t i o n d e s i g n e d to deny the working man h i s f i n a l sources of p l e a s u r e . L i q u o r was to be taken 120 away from the worker i n the i n t e r e s t s of e f f i c i e n c y , w h i l e l e f t w i t h i n the r e a c h of the upper c l a s s e s . An o r g a n i z a t i o n p u r p o r t i n g to r e p r e s e n t the b a r and d i s t i l l e r y workers, who would have been a d v e r s e l y a f f e c t e d by p r o h i b i t i o n , was a l s o formed under the name of the B.. C. Workers' E q u a l R i g h t s A s s o c i a t i o n . I n the f i r s t and o n l y i s s u e of t h e i r p u b l i c a t i o n , The A n t i - P r o h i b i t i o n i s t , the o r g a n i z a t i o n p r i n t e d 121 the f o l l o w i n g statement: Our j o b s are at stake too . The p r e m i e r ' s a t t e n t i o n i s c a l l e d t o the f a c t t h a t the members of the B. C. Workers' E q u a l R i g h t s A s s o c i a t i o n are v o t e r s and t a x p a y e r s i n B r i t i s h Columbia, and would be a d v e r s e l y a f f e c t e d by the enactment of p r o h i b i t i o n i n t h i s p r o v i n c e . The o r g a n i z a t i o n made a d i r e c t appeal to t r a d e u n i o n sentiment 122 when i t s p r e s i d e n t , Mr. George J . G e r r a r d , s t a t e d : We b e l i e v e t h a t the c a r d i n a l p r i n c i p l e of t r a d e s u n ionism, "an i n j u r y to one i s the c o n c e r n of a l l , " i s s t i l l a l i v i n g f o r c e n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g the apathy of many who n o m i n a l l y g i v e a d h e s i o n to i t . Thus, the a c t i v i t y of the s t r o n g P r o h i b i t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n was met w i t h equal p r e s s u r e on the p a r t of the l i q u o r i n t e r e s t s . I t i s t h e r e f o r e not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t the campaign was "a b a t t l e r o y a l conducted e n t i r e l y i n e x c l a m a t i o n p o i n t s , f e a t u r i n g w i l d and l a r g e l y u n s u b s t a n t i a t e d charges and 123 c l a i m s . " ^ On the one hand was found a d e d i c a t e d and m i l i t a n t moral f o r c e which had caught the v i s i o n , somewhat o v e r s i m p l i f i e d perhaps, of d e s t r o y i n g one of the g r e a t s o c i a l e v i l s a f f e c t i n g s o c i e t y ; on the o t h e r were v e s t e d i n t e r e s t s s t r u g g l i n g to support a system t h a t was f o r them most p r o f i t a b l e . 121 At the same time the quest ion became a d e f i n i t e p o l i t i c a l i ssue with par ty connotat ions . On the one hand stood the Conservative government wi th i t s membership d i v i d e d s t rongly on the i s s u e , and i n a p o s i t i o n where p a r t y s t r a t e g i s t s f e l t that they could not a f f o r d to a l i e n a t e e i t h e r the support of the a n t i - p r o h i b i t i o n i s t s or the p r o h i b i t i o n i s t s . For them the only s o l u t i o n was to stand back and l e t the opposing p a r t i e s f i g h t the b a t t l e f o r themselves. They hoped that by t a k i n g the r o l e of the d i s i n t e r e s t e d referee the government could weather the temperance storm without too much l o s s of support . On the other side stood the L i b e r a l p a r t y . I t was i n o p p o s i t i o n , and with no favours to bestow i t could h a r d l y appeal to the l i q u o r i n t e r e s t s . The par ty a lso drew most of i t s support from the p r o h i b i t i o n i s t elements w i t h i n the p o p u l a t i o n and i t had l i t t l e to lose by making a d i r e c t appeal and t a k i n g a d e f i n i t e stand i n favour of the p r o h i b i t i o n i s t s . Thus i t was that on e l e c t i o n day the re turns showed 124 a major i ty of 10,512 i n favour of the P r o h i b i t i o n A c t . Having thus won t h e i r b a t t l e against the l i q u o r i n t e r e s t s the p r o h i b i t i o n i s t s turned t h e i r f u r y upon the amoral referee and helped to demolish the Conservative m a j o r i t y , sending a triumphant L i b e r a l government i n t o power. The L i b e r a l o p p o s i t i o n had taken sides on the p r o h i b i t i o n and were the v i c t o r s . The Conservat ives had attempted to s i t on the fence and were defea ted . 122 E x p e c t i n g t h a t v i c t o r y had been a c h i e v e d and t h a t the P r o h i b i t i o n A c t w o u l d soon become law, t h e A s s o c i a t i o n began i m m e d i a t e l y making p l a n s t o c l o s e t h e l o o p h o l e s i n t h e new P r o h i b i t i o n A c t . The e x e c u t i v e r e a l i z e d t h a t the s u c c e s s of t h e A c t depended upon a p r o p e r s y s t e m o f e n f o r c e m e n t , t h e t a s k w h i c h was t o be t h e c h i e f c o n c e r n o f t h e m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . Thus, by November, 1916, t h e y had f o rmed a committee t o c o n s u l t w i t h th e P r e m i e r and draw up a b r i e f embodying t h e amendments 125 t o t h e A c t w h i c h t h e y p r o p o s e d . ^ One month p r e v i o u s l y , t h e l o c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s and temperance groups had r e c e i v e d l e t t e r s w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o t h e i r t a k i n g an a c t i v e p a r t i n m u n i c i p a l e l e c t i o n s . The n e c e s s i t y o f e l e c t i n g a l d e r m e n , c o u n c i l l o r s and 126 p o l i c e c o m m i s s i o n e r s who w ould e n f o r c e the l a w was s t r e s s e d . There was a l r e a d y t a l k o f t h e f o r t h c o m i n g D o m i n i o n e l e c t i o n s , and o f t h e n e c e s s i t y o f e l e c t i n g members who w ould s u p p o r t n a t i o n w i d e p r o h i b i t i o n , o r f a i l i n g t h a t , who w o u l d s u p p o r t an e x t e n s i o n o f t h e w a r t i m e r e s t r i c t i o n s on t h e i m p o r t a t i o n o r e x p o r t a t i o n o f l i q u o r s under t h e f e d e r a l government's powers o v e r i n t e r - p r o v i n c i a l t r a d e and commerce. However, t h e v i c t o r y o f t h e p r o h i b i t i o n i s t s o v e r t h e l i q u o r i n t e r e s t s was n o t t o be so s i m p l e . To p a c i f y t h e a n t i -p r o h i b i t i o n i s t s t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e government had p a s s e d t h e 127 " S o l d i e r s ' V o t e s A c t , " ' w h i c h a l l o w e d f o r t h e t r o o p s o v e r s e a s t o v o t e i n t h e r e f e r e n d u m . As f a r as can be a s c e r t a i n e d , t h e P r o h i b i t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n d i d n o t s e r i o u s l y p r o t e s t t h e measure, and f o r t h w i t h t h e y d i s p a t c h e d Mr. W. D. B a y l e y t o r e p r e s e n t t h e i r i n t e r e s t s i n t h e t a k i n g o f t h e r e f e r e n d u m among the 123 t r o o p s . However, as d e f e r r e d v o t i n g c o n t i n u e d i t became c l e a r t h a t t h e v a s t m a j o r i t y o f t h e s o l d i e r s ' v o t e s were w i t h t h e o p p o s i t i o n . I m m e d i a t e l y t h e A s s o c i a t i o n began t o make r e p r e s e n t a -t i o n t o P r e m i e r B r e w s t e r . I n F e b r u a r y , 1 9 1 7 , he r e c e i v e d r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s a s k i n g t h a t immediate a c t i o n be t a k e n t o b r i n g 128 t h e P r o h i b i t i o n A c t i n t o e f f e c t . To a l l s u c h i n q u i r i e s he r e p l i e d t h a t " t h e r e a ppeared t o be some doubt as t o whether t h e p r o h i b i t i o n r e f e r e n d u m had s e c u r e d t h e n e c e s s a r y number o f b a l l o t s t o make i t become law, and t h a t no d e c i s i o n as t o t h e p o l i c y o f t h e government c o u l d be made u n t i l t h e r e s u l t o f t h e 129 o f f i c i a l c ount o f t h e o v e r s e a s v o t e had been r e c e i v e d . " J When the f i n a l r e s u l t s o f t h e b a l l o t i n g were made known t h e f i g u r e s showed t h a t t h e p r o h i b i t i o n r e f e r e n d u m had 130 been d e f e a t e d . ^ However, rumours o f i r r e g u l a r i t i e s i n t h e v o t i n g were wide s p r e a d , and t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n had r e c e i v e d c o m p l a i n t s f r o m B a y l e y c o n c e r n i n g t h e b a l l o t i n g p r o c e d u r e s . I m m e d i a t e l y t h e A s s o c i a t i o n f o r w a r d e d i t s c h a r g e s t o the government and u r g e d immediate a d o p t i o n o f p r o h i b i t i o n . The o r g a n i z a t i o n s and p e t i t i o n e r s n o t o n l y p o i n t e d t o t h e supposed i r r e g u l a r i t i e s i n t h e v o t i n g p r o c e d u r e , t h e y a l s o made r e f e r e n c e t o t h e L i b e r a l P a r t y ' s p l a t f o r m and t o t h e s u p p o r t g i v e n t h e p a r t y by the p r o h i b i t i o n i s t s d u r i n g t h e e l e c t i o n campaign. 1 3 1 Dr. N. W o l v e r t o n o f N e l s o n wrote B r e w s t e r d e s c r i b i n g t h e temper i n w h i c h t h e p r o h i b i t i o n i s t s had g r e e t e d t h e i r 124 d e f e a t . He s t a t e d .132 Because of t h e i r c o n f i d e n c e i n t h e L i b e r a l P a r t y as r e g a r d s temperance l e g i s l a t i o n , by f a r t h e g r e a t e r p a r t o f t h e p r o h i b i t i o n i s t s v o t e d w i t h u s . They b e l i e v e t h a t t h e d e f e r r e d v o t e was p l a n n e d i n t h e i n t e r e s t o f t h e w e t s ; t h a t t h e v o t e i n E n g l a n d and P r a n c e was o u t r a g e o u s l y m a n i p u l a t e d and t h a t a f a i r v o t e would show a l a r g e m a j o r i t y f o r p r o h i b i t i o n . They are n o t o n l y i n e a r n e s t b u t are a n g r y a t b e i n g d e f e a t e d by f r a u d . . . . I b e l i e v e t h a t i f th e government does n ot g i v e ( p r o h i b i t i o n ) we s h a l l L o s e t h e P r o h i b i t i o n Vote A t The Next E l e c t i o n . I n March t h e A s s o c i a t i o n made p l a n s t o have one C o n s e r v a t i v e and one L i b e r a l i n t r o d u c e the q u e s t i o n of t h e o v e r s e a s v o t e on t h e f l o o r o f t h e House. L e t t e r s were s e n t out t o a l l c o n s t i t u e n c i e s a s k i n g l o c a l groups t o get i n t o u c h w i t h t h e i r M. L. A.'s c o n c e r n i n g "a War Measure f o r t h e p r o v i n c e . " P l a n s were made t o h o l d mass m e e t i n g s t h r o u g h o u t the p r o v i n c e and t o have such r e s o l u t i o n s f o r w a r d e d t o t h e government and t o t h e M. L. A. i n whose c o n s t i t u e n c y the m e e t i n g was t o be h e l d . Charges o f c r o o k e d d e a l i n g s i n t h e t a k i n g o f t h e o v e r s e a s v o t e were a l s o p u b l i s h e d and c i r c u l a t e d t h r o u g h t h e A s s o c i a t i o n ' s o f f i c i a l o r g a n , t h e B u l l e t i n . On May 10 Mr. W. Savage, who had been i n V i c t o r i a l o b b y i n g f o r the A s s o c i a t i o n , a s s u r e d t h e e x e c u t i v e t h a t " t h e y 134 were a s s u r e d of a b i l l and s a t i s f a c t o r y t r e a t m e n t . " Such a c t i v i t y p l a c e d t h e government i n a p e c u l i a r p r e d i c a m e n t . The a d m i n i s t r a t i o n had t o choose between p a s s i n g t h e l e g i s l a t i o n i n s p i t e o f t h e r e f e r e n d u m , o r a c c e p t i n g t h e r e s u l t s and i n c u r r i n g t h e w r a t h o f t h e p r o h i b i t i o n i s t s . The 125 P r e m i e r was most c o n c e r n e d , and i n A p r i l i n answer t o c o r r e s p o n d e n c e f r o m one s u p p o r t e r he made t h e f o l l o w i n g 135 o b s e r v a t i o n : " The Government cannot a f f o r d t o be stampeded; i t does n o t l a c k c o u r a g e ; i t i s m o r a l l y sound a t h e a r t . . . . The h e r i t a g e handed t o t h i s government i n t h e P r o h i b i t i o n Referendum i s one w h i c h i s t a x i n g the p a t i e n c e , f o r b e a r a n c e , and s e v e r a l o t h e r t h i n g s t o a degree w h i c h y o u , as a man somewhat e x p e r i e n c e d i n p u b l i c l i f e w i l l be a b l e t o a p p r e c i a t e . I am w r i t i n g you t h u s f r a n k l y because I w i s h y o u t o f e e l t h a t t h e Government does n o t i n t e n d t o be c a j o l e d by r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s made on b e h a l f of p r o h i b i t i o n o r a g a i n s t i t , u n t i l i t r e a c h e s a d e c i s i o n w h i c h s h a l l be t e n a b l e . The t e n a b l e p o l i c y was d e c i d e d upon and t h e P r e m i e r announced the appo i n t m e n t o f a R o y a l Commission t o s t u d y t h e ch a r g e s o f i r r e g u l a r i t i e s i n t h e t a k i n g o f t h e s o l d i e r s ' v o t e o v e r s e a s . The members o f the R o y a l Commission a r r i v e d i n E n g l a n d i n June o f 1917 and i m m e d i a t e l y began t h e i r i n v e s t i g a -t i o n s . Mr. V/. D. B a y l e y , who had a t t e n d e d t h e c o u n t i n g o f t h e b a l l o t s b e f o r e S i r R i c h a r d M c B r i d e , and R. Lawson Coad were c o u n s e l f o r t h e p r o h i b i t i o n i s t s . Mr. M. A. Tuck and Mr. J o s e p h M a r t i n r e p r e s e n t e d t h e M e r c h a n t s ' P r o t e c t i v e A s s o c i a t i o n . A f t e r s e v e r a l months o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n t h e Commission s u b m i t t e d a r e p o r t s u b s t a n t i a l l y c o r r o b o r a t i n g t h e c h a r g e s made 136 by t h e P r o h i b i t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n . ' A s o r t i n g o f t h e c a r d -i n d e x e s by a l p h a b e t i c a l o r d e r showed t h a t 698 s o l d i e r s had v o t e d t w i c e ; a n o t h e r 52 t h r e e o r f o u r t i m e s ; w h i l e a n o t h e r 1,266 v o t e r s who r e g i s t e r e d and c a s t b a l l o t s c o u l d n o t be 126 t r a c e d i n the m i l i t a r y r e c o r d s . F u r t h e r the r e p o r t showed tha t the i r r e g u l a r i t i e s had begun a f t e r September 16 about the time t h a t the home vote had become known. What was even more s i n i s t e r , proof was presented to show that l i q u o r had been d i s t r i b u t e d at at l e a s t one p o l l i n g s t a t i o n and t h a t votes had been c a s t under the names of s o l d i e r s k i l l e d or m i s s i n g i n a c t i o n . I n c o n c l u d i n g t h e i r r e p o r t the Commissioners recommended that only 3,796 out of a t o t a l of 8,488 votes c o u l d be considered l e g i t i m a t e . As a r e s u l t of the Commission's r e p o r t a f i n a l t a l l y showed an o v e r a l l m a j o r i t y of 3,875 i n favour of the P r o h i b i t i o n Act. As a consequence i t was passed by the Assembly w i t h one d i s s e n t i n g vote and became e f f e c t i v e on October 1, 1917' A f t e r the P r o h i b i t i o n A c t became law, the o r g a n i z a t i o n turned i t s e f f o r t s to a concerted attempt to make the system work. S p e c i a l committees were e s t a b l i s h e d w i t h i n the e x e c u t i v e ; a Law and Order Committee to concern i t s e l f w i t h enforcement, and a committee to c o n s i d e r how the h o t e l k e e p e r s might be saved from unnecessary l o s s and t h e i r p r o p e r t i e s best u t i l i z e d to serve t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e communities. T h i s committee was a l s o charged w i t h i n v e s t i g a t i n g what s u b s t i t u t e s could be found to r e p l a c e the bars which had p r o v i d e d the c h i e f s o c i a l 137 centers d u r i n g the p r e c e d i n g p e r i o d . > f I n the e l e c t o r a l f i e l d the executive sent a r e s o l u t i o n to Mayor M. McBeath of Vancouver s t a t i n g t h a t success depended upon enforcement i n Vancouver and r e q u e s t i n g "Mayor McBeath to 127 o f f e r h i m s e l f f o r r e - e l e c t i o n a t t h e f o r t h c o m i n g M u n i c i p a l 158 E l e c t i o n s . " ^ The r e s o l u t i o n a l s o s t a t e d t h a t " i n t h e e v e n t o f t h e r e "being an e l e c t i o n c o n t e s t t h e P e o p l e ' s P r o h i b i t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n w i l l a s s i s t i n c a r r y i n g on t h e n e c e s s a r y campaign t o s e c u r e h i s e l e c t i o n , by u s i n g i t s v a r i o u s ward o r g a n i z a t i o n s 159 and any o t h e r means i n i t s power." ^ J I n December t h e e x e c u t i v e e s t a b l i s h e d a committee of t h r e e t o make a s e l e c t i o n o f men f o r the p o s i t i o n o f P o l i c e 140 C o m m i s s i o n e r s and a r r a n g e as f a r as p o s s i b l e f o r t h e i r e l e c t i o n . I n t h e m u n i c i p a l e l e c t i o n s , as i n t h e p r o v i n c i a l and f e d e r a l , t h e A s s o c i a t i o n e x a c t e d t h e u s u a l p l e d g e from i t s s u p p o r t e r s ; n e i t h e r t o v o t e f o r o r s u p p o r t any c a n d i d a t e o f any p a r t y who was n o t s a t i s f a c t o r y t o the A s s o c i a t i o n . Where no such c a n d i d a t e was named t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n would a t t e m p t t o s e c u r e a n o m i n a t i o n s a t i s f a c t o r y t o t h e i r A s s o c i a t i o n . I n the p r o v i n c i a l f i e l d t h e p r o h i b i t i o n i s t s were a c t i v e i n a t t e m p t i n g t o s e c u r e f a v o u r a b l e a p p o i n t m e n t s . As e a r l y as J a n u a r y 2, 1917, the A s s o c i a t i o n approached t h e P r e m i e r w i t h r e s p e c t t o the a p p o i n t m e n t o f L i c e n s e C o m m i s s i o n e r s 141 who w o u l d be e n d o r s e d by i t s committee. The s e c r e t a r y o f t h e A s s o c i a t i o n r e p o r t e d i n e a r l y September t h a t r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s made on b e h a l f o f t h e E x e c u t i v e Committee had " r e s u l t e d i n Mr. W. C. P i n d l a y r e c e i v i n g t h e a p p o i n t m e n t from t h e Government i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h enforcement o f t h e A c t . "142 The appointment was one w h i c h the A s s o c i a t i o n was t o r u e , f o r i n December o f 1918 he was d i s m i s s e d f o r i l l e g a l i m p o r t a t i o n and s a l e o f l i q u o r w i t h i n t h e p r o v i n c e . 128 U n f o r t u n a t e l y t h e r e c o r d s o f t h e A s s o c i a t i o n f r o m the p e r i o d f o l l o w i n g 1919 u n t i l 1925 have been d e s t r o y e d , o r are n o t a v a i l a b l e . However, i t i s c l e a r t h a t t h r o u g h o u t t h e p e r i o d t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n d i d e v e r y t h i n g p o s s i b l e t o make t h e p r o h i b i t i o n l e g i s l a t i o n work. Y e a r l y r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s were made t o t h e government t o l i m i t abuses i n t h e use o f m e d i c a l p r e s c r i p t i o n s t o s e c u r e l i q u o r , and t o e f f e c t b e t t e r l a w e n f o r c e m e n t . The o r g a n i z a t i o n e v e n r e s o r t e d t o t h e use o f d e t e c t i v e s i n an a t t e m p t t o get b e t t e r e n forcement t h a n t h e 143 m u n i c i p a l a u t h o r i t i e s w o u l d p r o v i d e . ^ However, a change i n p u b l i c o p i n i o n had r e s u l t e d s i n c e t h e war, and t h e abuses o f m e d i c a l p r e s c r i p t i o n s , c o n t i n u e d i m p o r t a t i o n , and s m u g g l i n g l e d t h e m u n i c i p a l i t i e s and t h e government t o t h e b e l i e f t h a t p r o h i b i t i o n w i t h o u t f e d e r a l c o n t r o l w o u l d be i m p o s s i b l e . W h i l e t h e P r o h i b i t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n s were making r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s t o c l o s e t h e l o o p h o l e s i n t h e A c t t h e l i q u o r i n t e r e s t s were p r e s s i n g f o r r e p e a l . By 1920 t h e Government d e c i d e d t h a t some a c t i o n s h o u l d be t a k e n and t h e q u e s t i o n was s u b m i t t e d t o a p l e b i s c i t e o f t h e e l e c t o r a t e . I n t h i s i n s t a n c e t h e e l e c t o r a t e was a s k e d t h e 144 f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n : W h i c h do you p r e f e r : (1) M a i n t e n a n c e o f t h e p r e s e n t P r o h i b i t i o n A c t o r (2) An a c t t o p r o v i d e f o r G o v e r n m e n t a l c o n t r o l and s a l e , i n s e a l e d p a c k a g e s , o f s p i r i t u o u s and m a l t l i q u o r ? The campaign b r o u g h t a r e p e t i t i o n o f t h e b i t t e r f i g h t w h i c h had t a k e n p l a c e i n t h e 1916 r e f e r e n d u m . However, the p r o h i b i t i o n i s t s were f o r c e d t o s u p p o r t an A c t t h a t w i t h o u t 129 amendments had p r o v e n u n e n f o r c e a b l e ; w h i l e t h e l i q u o r i n t e r e s t s u n der a new g a r b , t h e M o d e r a t i o n League, were f r e e t o p a i n t a f i n e p i c t u r e o f t h e b e n e f i t s t h a t w o u l d a c c r u e f r o m a system o f g o v e r n m e n t a l c o n t r o l and s a l e . U n l i k e t h e campaign o f 1916, the p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s s t a t e d no d e f i n i t e p o l i c y , and t h e A s s o c i a t i o n , a l t h o u g h somewhat d i s i l l u s i o n e d w i t h t h e L i b e r a l s ' h a n d l i n g o f t h e s i t u a t i o n , a g a i n a d o p t e d t h e p o l i c y o f s u p p o r t i n g men f a v o u r a b l e t o t h e i r cause and o p p o s i n g t h o s e i n any p a r t y who were s o l d out t o t h e "wets." They gave t h e i r w h o l e h e a r t e d s u p p o r t t o P r e m i e r O l i v e r , Mrs. M. E. S m i t h and George B e l l , a l l L i b e r a l s , b u t opposed J . deB. F a r r i s and I a n McKenzie ( b o t h L i b e r a l s ) and Hawthorn-t h w a i t e , a S o c i a l i s t member. A l t h o u g h t h e A s s o c i a t i o n c a r r i e d on t h e i r u s u a l campaign, w i t h d i s t r i b u t i o n o f l i t e r a t u r e , t h e h o l d i n g o f p u b l i c m e e t i n g s and Ch u r c h s e r v i c e s , and e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f p o l l and d i s t r i c t o r g a n i z a t i o n s , when t h e r e s u l t s had b e e n c o m p i l e d r e t u r n s showed t h a t o n l y 4-9,224- had v o t e d f o r a c o n t i n u a t i o n o f p r o h i b i t i o n , w h i l e 75,964- had g i v e n a " b l a n k cheque" f o r 14-5 a government l i q u o r c o n t r o l system. y The l a r g e m a j o r i t y i n f a v o u r o f government c o n t r o l r e s u l t e d i n immediate a c t i o n on the p a r t o f t h e government and on June 15, 1921, t h e new government c o n t r o l s y s t e m under t h e L i q u o r C o n t r o l B o a r d was e s t a b l i s h e d . I n s p i t e of t h e abuses w h i c h c o n t i n u e d u n d e r t h e l i c e n s i n g s ystem, t h e P r o h i b i t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n was now d e f i n i t e l y 130 on t h e d e f e n s i v e . A l t h o u g h t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n r e m a i n e d s o l v e n t , i t s b u d g e t s dropped f r o m a h i g h o f $17,000 i n 1916 t o a f i g u r e a p p r o a c h i n g $6,000 by 1924-. The p a i d s t a f f had been r e d u c e d t o t h e e x e c u t i v e s e c r e t a r y , Rev. W. G. W. F o r t u n e , one s t e n o g r a p h e r , and s e v e r a l c a s u a l o r g a n i z e r s . The B u l l e t i n was b e i n g p u b l i s h e d o n l y p e r i o d i c a l l y . A l t h o u g h t h e A s s o c i a t i o n c o n t i n u e d i t s f i g h t f o r p r o h i b i t i o n and s u c c e e d e d i n a s i m i l a r p l e b i s c i t e i n 1924 i n d e f e a t i n g t h e p r o p o s a l f o r i n t r o d u c i n g b e e r by t h e g l a s s , t h e government d e c i d e d t h a t t h o s e c o m m u n i t i e s w h i c h had v o t e d wet 146 s h o u l d have such o u t l e t s . A s y s t e m o f l o c a l o p t i o n was i n t r o d u c e d whereby p o l l i n g d i v i s i o n s w h i c h f a v o u r e d t h e s a l e of b e e r by f i f t y - f i v e p e r c e n t c o u l d have i t s o l d i n l i c e n s e d p r e m i s e s . W i t h t h e s e changes t h e work o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n s h i f t e d t o f i g h t i n g l o c a l o p t i o n p l e b i s c i t e s and t o making o f f i c i a l p r o t e s t s t o t h e government and t h e L i q u o r C o n t r o l C o m m i s s i o n e r s a g a i n s t any e x t e n s i o n i n t h e number of government l i q u o r s t o r e s , o r l i c e n s e d p r e m i s e s . The f o l l o w i n g y e a r saw s e v e r a l changes i n t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f the A s s o c i a t i o n . The l o s s o f P r e s b y t e r i a n s u p p o r t as a r e s u l t o f C h urch U n i o n h u r t t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n i m m e a s u r a b l y , and w i t h the l o s s o f t h e i r o r g a n i z e r the Rev. W. G. W. F o r t u n e , th e A s s o c i a t i o n f o u n d i t s e l f i n s e r i o u s d i f f i c u l t i e s . R e p r e s e n t a t i o n s were made t o t h e U n i t e d C h u r c h o f Canada, w h i c h o f f e r e d t o p r o v i d e an o r g a n i z e r who would 131 spend th e m a j o r i t y o f h i s t i m e d o i n g temperance work, but i t was on t h e s t i p u l a t i o n t h a t t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n w o u l d n o t a p p r o a c h 14-7 i n d i v i d u a l U n i t e d Churches d i r e c t l y t o s o l i c i t f u n d s . ' The o f f e r was d e c l i n e d . O n l y i n d i v i d u a l B a p t i s t and C h r i s t i a n S c i e n c e Churches c o n t i n u e d t o g i v e s i g n i f i c a n t f i n a n c i a l c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o t h e A s s o c i a t i o n . , I n A p r i l t h e A s s o c i a t i o n a p p o i n t e d Rev. R. J . M c l n t y r e , a f o r m e r M e t h o d i s t , t o t h e p o s i t i o n o f e x e c u t i v e s e c r e t a r y , f i l l i n g t h e p o s i t i o n l e f t v a c a n t by Rev. W. G. W. F o r t u n e . The work o f t h e A s s o c i a t i o n i n 1926 was c e n t e r e d around p r e p a r a t i o n s f o r t h e c i r c u l a t i o n o f a p e t i t i o n r e q u e s t i n g a p l e b i s c i t e on t h e r e m o v a l o f b e e r p a r l o r s i n V a n c o u v e r , and i n t h e f o r m a t i o n o f a Young P e o p l e ' s Committee o f One Thousand, each o f w h i c h was t o get " t w e n t y - f i v e p e r s o n s whose names were on t h e v o t e r s ' l i s t t o agree t o c a s t t h e i r b a l l o t s i n f a v o u r o f d.4-8 p r o h i b i t i o n s h o u l d t h e p l e b i s c i t e be h e l d . However, d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h e p r o g r e s s b e i n g made, and the methods b e i n g p u r s u e d by t h e A s s o c i a t i o n was p r e s e n t i n s e v e r a l q u a r t e r s , and a t t h e C o n v e n t i o n w h i c h began on November 11 m a t t e r s came t o a head. The c h a i r m a n o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n committee, Mr. W. Savage, p l a c e d b e f o r e t h e C o n v e n t i o n a p r o p o s a l t h a t t h e c a r r y i n g on o f t h e p r o h i b i t i o n work be l e f t i n t h e hands o f the s e r v i c e c l u b s w i t h i n t h e U n i t e d , B a p t i s t , and P r e s b y t e r i a n C h u r c h e s . He a t t r i b u t e d t h e f a l l i n g away of l a y s u p p o r t t o t h e g r o w t h o f laymen's s o c i e t i e s w i t h i n t h e d e n o m i n a t i o n s , and f e l t t h a t such i n t e r e s t c o u l d be renewed by t u r n i n g t h e work 132 149 over t o t h e s e a s s o c i a t i o n s . There was much o p p o s i t i o n t o t h i s p r o p o s a l and i t was f i n a l l y s h e l v e d . However, an even more r e v o l u t i o n a r y p r o p o s a l was b r o u g h t f o r w a r d . Mr. 0. S. Moore p r e s e n t e d on t h e f l o o r o f the C o n v e n t i o n a l o n g r e s o l u t i o n i n f a v o u r o f t h e f o r m i n g o f a "Bone Dr y P r o h i b i t i o n P a r t y , " and a n o t h e r i n f a v o u r o f 150 s u p p o r t i n g t h e p a r t y i n i t s e l e c t o r a l b a t t l e s i n O n t a r i o . ^ The r e s o l u t i o n p l a c e d t h e i s s u e c l e a r l y b e f o r e t h e C o n v e n t i o n . Many members had come t o the p o i n t where t h e y had l o s t f a i t h i n t h e e x i s t i n g p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s , and i n t h e i r a b i l i t y t o i n f l u e n c e m a t e r i a l l y t h e i r p o l i c i e s and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . Was t h e f o r m a t i o n o f an i n d e p e n d e n t p o l i t i c a l p a r t y t h e answer? The e x e c u t i v e s e c r e t a r y , Rev. R. J . M c l n t y r e , Dr. Hugh Dobson, o f t h e U n i t e d C hurch Committee on S o c i a l S e r v i c e and E v a n g e l i s m , and Mr. W. Savage l e d t h e o p p o s i t i o n t o the scheme. They p o i n t e d out t h e dangers o f f o r m i n g an i n d e p e n d e n t p a r t y . By so d o i n g t h e y w o u l d c o m p l e t e l y l o s e t h e i r i n f l u e n c e w i t h the e x i s t i n g p a r t i e s , s i n c e t h e i r c o n t r o l o f the b a l a n c e o f v o t e s would be removed. On t h e o t h e r hand, t h e r e was l i t t l e hope of s u c h a p a r t y f o r m i n g t h e government. F u r t h e r m o r e , h i s t o r y had shown t h a t one i s s u e was t o o n a r r o w a p l a t f o r m f o r t h e f o r m a t i o n o f any p o l i t i c a l p a r t y . What o t h e r p l a n k s c o u l d be added, and would n o t d i s a g r e e m e n t s o v e r the r e m a i n i n g program l e a d t o a d i v i s i o n o f p r o h i b i t i o n sentiment ? 1 5 1 A f t e r much d i s c u s s i o n i t was agreed t h a t t h e C o n v e n t i o n w ould a d j o u r n and t h a t a s p e c i a l c o n v e n t i o n w o u l d be c a l l e d i n 133 January of 1927 to d i s c u s s the r e s o l u t i o n . I n s t e a d , the A s s o c i a t i o n p u b l i s h e d a l e t t e r which was d i s t r i b u t e d among the membership drawing a t t e n t i o n to the p a r t y d i v i s i o n which had r e s u l t e d i n the establishment of the sale of beer by the g l a s s . They p a r t i c u l a r l y noted the members whose c o n s t i t u e n c i e s had voted dry, but who had supported the L i b e r a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n 152 by p a s s i n g the l e g i s l a t i o n . ^ The s p e c i a l convention was h e l d the f o l l o w i n g January. A f t e r much d i s c u s s i o n and a strenuous debate the r e s o l u t i o n was defeated by a d i v i s i o n of 207 a g a i n s t , and 46 i n favour of 153 the f o r m a t i o n of a p r o h i b i t i o n p a r t y . The matter was brought forward again at the convention of 1929 and the f a c t i o n i n favour of a p a r t y was defeated. The r e f u s a l of the P r o h i b i t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n to accept t h i s p r o p o s a l r e s u l t e d i n a s p l i t w i t h i n the movement. The Bone Drys not only seceded from the A s s o c i a -t i o n , they a l s o charged i t s o f f i c i a l s w i t h r u n n i n g a business i n t h e i r own i n t e r e s t s . . Wrote 0. S. Moore to one p r o h i b i t i o n i s t ] " ^ T e l l i n g the people what they want to hear, " s t i c k t o your p a r t y , " i s a c l e v e r t r i c k to p u l l the d o l l a r s out of congregations and the W.C.T.U.; but, thank God, there are s l i g h t signs of the e l e c t o r a t e s , here and t h e r e , t h i n k i n g "on these t h i n g s . " The p o l i c y adopted by the P r o h i b i t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n was soon v i n d i c a t e d . I n the e l e c t i o n of 1930 the Bone Dry p a r t y nominated only one candidate who r e c e i v e d only 262 votes i n h i s r i d i n g . The A s s o c i a t i o n was l e f t f r e e to pursue a p o l i c y of suppo r t i n g i t s f r i e n d s and p u n i s h i n g i t s enemies r e g a r d l e s s of the p a r t y which was i n v o l v e d . W r i t i n g to the 1 J 4 head o f t h e Tacoma Temperance A s s o c i a t i o n Rev. R. J . M c l n t y r e 155 commented: " The P r o h i b i t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n had no c a n d i d a t e s i n t h e f i e l d . The Bone D r y P o l i t i c a l P a r t y had a c a n d i d a t e , b u t he s e c u r e d o n l y 262 v o t e s . T h i s w i l l p r o b a b l y show them the f o l l y of b e i n g a P o l i t i c a l P a r t y . D u r i n g t h e decade from 1925 t i l l 1935 t h e A s s o c i a t i o n was s t i l l s t r o n g enough t o be a f a c t o r i n the p o l i t i c a l campaigns t h a t were f o u g h t i n t h e m i n i c i p a l , p r o v i n c i a l , and f e d e r a l f i e l d s . The major p o r t i o n o f i t s a c t i v i t y i n t h e m u n i c i p a l f i e l d was c e n t e r e d i n the a r e a o f G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r . Mayor W. H. M a l k i n (1929-30) and m a y o r a l t y c a n d i d a t e T. W. F l e t c h e r (1932) b o t h r e c e i v e d t h e w h o l e h e a r t e d s u p p o r t o f t h e A s s o c i a t i o n . I n 1933 t h e temperance p e o p l e d e t e r m i n e d t h a t Mayor L. D. T a y l o r , whom t h e y c h a r a c t e r i z e d as b e i n g c o m p l e t e l y "wet" must be d e f e a t e d . M c l n t y r e c a s t about f o r a c a n d i d a t e . He had r e c e i v e d a l e t t e r f r o m G e r a l d McGeer, L i b e r a l member f o r V a n c o u v e r B u r r a r d , who, a t t r i b u t i n g h i s v i c t o r y t o t h e temperance f o r c e s 156 i n t h a t e l e c t i o n , had s t a t e d : y P e r m i t me t o t h a n k you v e r y much f o r y o u r s u p p o r t i n t h e r e c e n t campaign. I f o u n d many i n s t a n c e s o f where a word f r o m you h e l p e d m a t e r i a l l y i n t h e r e d u c t i o n o f our opponent's v a s t m a j o r i t y and where i t h e l p e d t o a l l a y much of t h e s l a n d e r t h a t was c a r r i e d on a g a i n s t me. M c l n t y r e w o u l d be r e a d y t o s u p p o r t h im s h o u l d he e n t e r m u n i c i p a l p o l i t i c s . I n West P o i n t G rey and S o u t h V a n c o u v e r , u n t i l t h e i r a malgamation w i t h V a n c o u v e r , t h e A s s o c i a t i o n was a l s o a s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r . Reeve A l e c P a t on:.; o f P o i n t G r e y , and W. C. A t h e r t o n , C o u n c i l l o r , b o t h r e c e i v e d s u p p o r t f r o m t h e 1 3 5 157 temperance o r g a n i z a t i o n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y the W . C . T . U . group. The l a d i e s drove c a r s , canvassed, telephoned and s c r u t i n e e r e d , support ing t h e i r candidates f o r the aldermanic , school and parks hoard p o s i t i o n s . With amalgamation the A s s o c i a t i o n gave i t s support to Atherton f o r p o l i c e commissioner and to J . J . McRae, another c i t y alderman. In 1 9 3 4 , the A s s o c i a t i o n again supported Mr. Gerald McGeer as mayoralty candidate , who made a d e f i n i t e b i d f o r the Church and temperance vote by h o l d i n g meetings and making campaign speeches i n some of the Vancouver Churches. However, once he was i n power the temperance forces found him l e s s co-operat ive and they soon became d i s i l l u s i o n e d w i t h h i s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . The l a s t mayor to receive the support of the A s s o c i a t i o n was Mayor L y l e T e l f o r d who was c h a r a c t e r i z e d as being a strong temperance supporter . However, many temperance people were reliuctant to support a C . C. IT. candidate , and t h i s , coupled wi th the general d e c l i n e i n the s t rength of t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n , meant that the support was much more l i m i t e d than 158 i n previous e l e c t i o n s . ^ The year 1 9 3 5 p r a c t i c a l l y marks the end of the temperance vote as a f a c t o r i n Vancouver 's municipal p o l i t i c s . The i n f l u e n c e of the A s s o c i a t i o n should not , however, be under-est imated. Information from i t s supporters on c o u n c i l and i n the p o l i c e commission kept i t s members i n touch with p r a c t i c a l l y every phase of c i v i c government. There i s evidence to show that c o n f i d e n t i a l p o l i c e records were a v a i l a b l e to 136 M c l n t y r e and t h a t he was c a l l e d i n t o c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h the 159 mayors and p o l i c e commissioners on s e v e r a l o c c a s i o n s . " ^ The P r o h i b i t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n c o n t i n u e d a c t i v e i n the p r o v i n c i a l f i e l d as w e l l . " T h e i r b a s i c s t r a t e g y was to work through f r i e n d l y members i n the c a b i n e t s and i n a l l of the p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s . " " 1 " ^ Before each e l e c t i o n the A s s o c i a t i o n would send out q u e s t i o n n a i r e s to a l l the c a n d i d a t e s . When r e p l i e s had been r e c e i v e d the o r g a n i z a t i o n would send a b u l l e t i n t o i t s members n o t i n g those c a n d i d a t e s whose r e p l i e s 161 were s a t i s f a c t o r y to the A s s o c i a t i o n . These b u l l e t i n s were passed down to the v o t e r s through the l o c a l a s s o c i a t i o n s and the W.C.T.U. groups. Rev. R. J . M c l n t y r e a l s o p u b l i s h e d them over h i s weekly r a d i o program, on time t h a t was donated as a c o n t r i b u t i o n from the U n i t e d Church o f Canada. The A s s o c i a t i o n aimed at h o l d i n g the balance of power i n important c o n s t i t u e n c i e s and f e l t t h a t i t c o u l d i n f l u e n c e the vote enough t o be an important f a c t o r i n the Vancouver and V i c t o r i a r i d i n g s , i n C h i l l i w a c k , and the c o n s t i t u e n c i e s throughout the Okanagan. By the time of the p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n i n 1929 the A s s o c i a t i o n had c o m p l e t e l y l o s t f a i t h i n the L i b e r a l p r o v i n c i a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . The L i b e r a l government's i n t r o d u c t i o n of the l i q u o r c o n t r o l system was c h a r a c t e r i z e d as p l a c i n g the p a r t y more s q u a r e l y under the c o n t r o l o f the "wets" than the C o n s e r v a t i v e s had been b e f o r e . Furthermore, the a c t i v i t i e s of H. H. Stevens and C. W. Sawers convinced M c l n t y r e t h a t the A s s o c i a t i o n c o u l d expect b e t t e r t h i n g s of a C o n s e r v a t i v e 137 165 government. y M c l n t y r e , w r i t i n g l a t e r t o one o f h i s s u p p o r t e r s , s t a t e d t h a t "the New C o n s t i t u t i o n C l u b w i t h i n t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e 164 p a r t y won't p e r m i t any c o n n e c t i o n w i t h l i q u o r i n t e r e s t s . " Thus, e x c e p t i n v e r y s p e c i a l i n s t a n c e s t h e s t r e n g t h o f t h e A s s o c i a t i o n was p l a c e d a t t h e d i s p o s a l o f t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e c a n d i d a t e s . A l t h o u g h i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o gauge, t h e l o s s o f a p a r t o f t h e temperance v o t e may have been a c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r t o the d e f e a t o f t h e L i b e r a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n 1929• The p r o h i b i t i o n i s t s soon f o u n d t h a t t h e y had jumped f r o m t h e f r y i n g pan i n t o t h e f i r e . I n 1929, P o o l e y the A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l was r e p o r t e d t o have s t a t e d t o an A m e r i c a n aud i e n c e t h a t " p r o h i b i t i o n i n B r i t i s h c o u n t r i e s would b r i n g 165 about a r e v o l u t i o n . " ^ Meanwhile M c l n t y r e r e p o r t e d no i n c r e a s e i n c o - o p e r a t i o n f r o m t h e L i q u o r C o n t r o l B o a r d . I n 1930 the government i n c u r r e d t h e w r a t h o f p r o h i b i t i o n i s t s by t h e a p p o i n t m e n t o f H. B. Thomson, a f o r m e r w h o l e s a l e l i q u o r d e a l e r as c h a i r m a n o f t h e B o a r d . F o r t h e f i r s t t i m e P r e m i e r T o l m i e r e f u s e d t o see a d e l e g a t i o n f r o m t h e A s s o c i a t i o n d u r i n g t h e l e g i s l a t i v e s e s s i o n . The P r o h i b i t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n c o n t i n u e d a c t i v e i n t h e f e d e r a l f i e l d . The" o r g a n i z a t i o n w o u l d send out t h e i r q u e s t i o n -n a i r e s t o c a n d i d a t e s and o r g a n i z e i n the i n t e r e s t s o f i t s s u p p o r t e r s . I t a l s o worked c l o s e l y w i t h t h e D o m i n i o n A l l i a n c e i n a t t e m p t i n g t o i n f l u e n c e the p a r t y c o n v e n t i o n s and t h e n o m i n a t i o n o f c a n d i d a t e s . 1 ^ 7 When the members had been e l e c t e d i n f o r m a t i o n on t h o s e who c o u l d be c o u n t e d upon t o s u p p o r t 138 temperance l e g i s l a t i o n was f o r w a r d e d t o t h e Do m i n i o n A s s o c i a t i o n f o r f o l l o w - u p . However, t h e f e d e r a l n a t u r e o f t h e temperance movement r e s u l t e d i n a weak n a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . The B. C. P r o h i b i t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n seldom met i t s assessment f o r t h e work of t h e D o m i n i o n A l l i a n c e , and a l t h o u g h i t made use o f the Temperance A d v o c a t e a f t e r t h e B u l l e t i n , and t h e D r y By N i n e c e a s e d p u b l i c a t i o n , f u n d s were g e n e r a l l y f o r w a r d e d t o t h e O n t a r i o A s s o c i a t i o n ' s t r e a s u r y . By 1934- t h e c o n t i n u i n g d r o p i n p r o h i b i t i o n s e n t i m e n t was seen by t h e unhappy f i n a n c i a l p o s i t i o n o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n . The A s s o c i a t i o n was f a c e d w i t h a d e f i c i t o f o v e r $3,000, and i t s membership was c o n t i n u i n g t o d e c l i n e . F i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t f r o m t h e C h r i s t i a n S c i e n c e C hurches had c e a s e d , as had i t s s u p p o r t f r o m many o f t h e l a r g e r U n i t e d C h u r c h e s . The d r o p i n t h e A s s o c i a t i o n ' s i n f l u e n c e b e f o r e t h e government and c i t y c o u n c i l was a l s o e v i d e n t . The r e p e a l o f p r o h i b i t i o n i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s now made c o n t i n u e d a d v o c a t i o n o f a bone-dry • p o l i c y u n t e n a b l e . One f a c t i o n u n d e r t h e l e a d e r s h i p o f t h e P r e s i d e n t , Rev. Dr. E l b e r t P a u l , f e l t t h a t t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n had not t h e mo r a l r i g h t t o c o n t i n u e i t s o p e r a t i o n s and i n c u r f u r t h e r d e b t . A n o t h e r group f e l t t h a t by a s h i f t i n p o l i c y and t h e a d o p t i o n o f a new name and c o n s t i t u t i o n the o r g a n i z a t i o n m ight g a i n 1 CO s u p p o r t and t h u s c o n t i n u e . 0 0 On May 10, 1934, a t the a n n u a l C o n v e n t i o n , t h e A s s o c i a t i o n v o t e d t o adopt a new c o n s t i t u t i o n and the name o f t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a Temperance League. The 139 purpose o f t h e League was t o he "the s o l u t i o n o f t h e l i q u o r p r o b l e m i n the i n t e r e s t o f human w e l f a r e . " Methods f o r r e a c h i n g t h i s o b j e c t i v e were d e f i n e d as " e v a n g e l i s m , a b s t i n e n c e , e d u c a t i o n 169 and l e g i s l a t i o n . " J The b a s i c s t r u c t u r e o f t h e League r e m a i n e d t h a t o f the o l d P r o h i b i t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n . F o r a s m a l l f e e membership was open t o i n d i v i d u a l s and temperance o r g a n i z a t i o n s . The e x e c u t i v e was t o be a p p o i n t e d a t an A n n u a l C o n v e n t i o n , and t h e work o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n was p l a c e d i n the hands o f a sub-e x e c u t i v e r e c r u i t e d f r o m the G r e a t e r Vancouver a r e a . The c o n s t i t u t i o n p r o v i d e d f o r the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f s i x c o m m i t t e e s : f i n a n c e , e d u c a t i o n , p u b l i c i t y , l e g i s l a t i o n , membership and n o m i n a t i o n s . The G e n e r a l S e c r e t a r y was t o be an e x - o f f i c i o member o f t h e e x e c u t i v e and was employed t o s u p e r v i s e t h e a c t i v i t i e s of t h e League. The change i n name and t h e a d o p t i o n o f a new c o n s t i t u t i o n d i d n o t r e s u l t i n any a p p r e c i a b l e improvement i n the League's p o s i t i o n . A s a r e s u l t o f d i s a g r e e m e n t s o v e r c o n t i n u a t i o n o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n one segment o f t h e a s s o c i a t i o n f e l l away; d i s a g r e e m e n t s o v e r p o l i c y and a g e n e r a l s h i f t i n p u b l i c o p i n i o n l e d t o f u r t h e r d e f e c t i o n s . By 1935 t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n had i n c u r r e d a d e f i c i t i n t h e G e n e r a l S e c r e t a r y ' s s a l a r y o f o v e r $4,000. Throughout t h e d e p r e s s i o n t h e f i n a n c e s r a i s e d by t h e Temperance League r e m a i n e d c l o s e t o $1,500 p e r y e a r i n s p i t e o f c o n t i n u e d f i n a n c i a l d r i v e s . However, Rev. R. J . M c l n t y r e was a d e d i c a t e d w o r k e r and r e f u s e d t o r e s i g n h i s p o s t as 140 G e n e r a l S e c r e t a r y . I n 1936 he a g r e e d t o a d r o p i n s a l a r y t o $1,500 p e r annum. H i s C h r i s t i a n f a i t h was so s t r o n g t h a t he l a b o u r e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e d e p r e s s i o n and t h r o u g h o u t t h e second W o r l d War f o r r e m u n e r a t i o n t h a t f e l l as low as $900 p e r y e a r . H a v i n g l o s t h i s home i n 1941 because o f i n a b i l i t y t o meet t h e mortgage payments he s t i l l c o n t i n u e d i n t h e work w h i c h he 170 c o n s i d e r e d t o be h i s chosen c a l l i n g . ' P o l i t i c a l l y t h e League c o n t i n u e d t h e work o f t h e P r o h i b i t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n , b u t a f t e r 1933 "the A s s o c i a t i o n f o u n d i n c r e a s i n g d i f f i c u l t y i n f i n d i n g c a n d i d a t e s and members who wou l d a c c e p t i t s p o l i c y i n r e t u r n f o r t h e League's s u p p o r t . Thus t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n was tempted t o endorse any s m a l l p o l i t i c a l movement w h i c h d e v e l o p e d : movements t h a t c o u l d a f f o r d t o a c c e p t i t s p o l i c y k n o w i n g t h e r e was l i t t l e hope o f t h e i r b e i n g i n a p o s i t i o n t o b r i n g i t to f r u i t i o n . I n J a n u a r y o f 1933 "the e x e c u t i v e p l a c e d on r e c o r d i t s s i n c e r e a p p r e c i a t i o n of t h e p o l i c y o f t h e New P a r t y l e d by W. H. Bowser and D u g a l d Donaghy who announced t h a t "not one c e n t o f money w o u l d be r e c e i v e d 171 by t h e p a r t y f r o m t h e l i q u o r i n t e r e s t s f o r campaign p u r p o s e s . " ' C o p i e s o f t h e r e s o l u t i o n were f o r w a r d e d t o t h e l e a d e r s o f t h e o t h e r p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s . I n 1935 t h e e x e c u t i v e members o f t h e League were approached b y H. H. S t e v e n s o f t h e R e c o n s t r u c t i o n 172 P a r t y who s o l i c i t e d t h e i r s u p p o r t . ' A f t e r t h e r e p e a l o f p r o h i b i t i o n i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , the l e a d e r s o f t h e League i n s e e k i n g f o r a t e n a b l e p o l i c y were a t t r a c t e d t o t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f r i d d i n g t h e m s e l v e s o f t h e i r b i t t e r e s t enemies t h r o u g h an a b o u t - f a c e and s u p p o r t o f 141 government o w n e r s h i p and c o n t r o l o f t h e b r e w e r i e s and 17-5 d i s t i l l e r i e s . As e a r l y as J u l y o f 1930 M c l n t y r e w r o t e : You w i l l be i n t e r e s t e d t o l e a r n t h a t t h e temperance f o r c e s o f t h e West c o n s i d e r t h a t t h e n e x t s t e p t oward p r o h i b i t i o n i s t h e e l i m i n a t i o n o f p r i v a t e i n t e r e s t s i n t h e m a n u f a c t u r e and s a l e o f l i q u o r w h i l e u n d e r th e Government C o n t r o l System. T h i s i t i s b e l i e v e d would g e t r i d o f o u r w o r s t enemies, th e b r e w e r s and d i s t i l l e r s , and a l s o , w o u l d cause b e e r by t h e g l a s s , i f s o l d a t a l l , t o be s o l d b y t h e government r a t h e r t h a n by p r i v a t e i n t e r e s t s . A t t h e C o n v e n t i o n of 1931 L r . Hugh Dobson s u b m i t t e d a r e p o r t i n f a v o u r o f n a t i o n a l i z a t i o n , b u t t h e r e was much o p p o s i t i o n and t h e m a t t e r was s h e l v e d . However, the f o l l o w i n g y e a r t h e s u b - e x e c u t i v e s u p p o r t e d t h e p o l i c y and won a p p r o v a l from t h e C o n v e n t i o n . The e f f e c t o f t h e a d o p t i o n o f t h i s p o l i c y by t h e League cannot be u n d e r e s t i m a t e d . I t meant t h a t , i m m e d i a t e l y the S o c i a l i s t and l a t e r t h e C. C. j?. p a r t i e s a d o p t e d such a p l a n k , t h e A s s o c i a t i o n became committed t o t h e i r s u p p o r t . Temperance p e o p l e who r e f u s e d t o a c c e p t such a p l a t f o r m , o r who were d o c t r i n a l l y opposed t o s o c i a l i s m , w i t h d r e w from t h e A s s o c i a t i o n . The f a c t t h a t t h e League was g i v i n g a m a j o r i t y of i t s s u p p o r t t o s o c i a l i s t c a n d i d a t e s s e r v e d t o d i m i n i s h i t s l o b b y i n g e f f e c t i v e n e s s w i t h t h e governments a t V i c t o r i a and w i t h i n t h e o t h e r p a r t y o r g a n i z a t i o n s . I ndeed i t i s t h e c l a i m of one o b s e r v e r t h a t d u r i n g t h e 1930's the e f f e c t i v e temperance l o b b y i n g was done by i n d i v i d u a l c l e r g y m e n t h r o u g h t h e i r c o n t a c t s w i t h c a b i n e t members and i n t h e p a r t y c a u c u s e s . l ? ^ D u r i n g t h e p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n s w h i c h f o l l o w e d , as f a r as can be a s c e r t a i n e d , the League e x e c u t i v e gave i t s s u p p o r t 142 t o the C. C. F. c a n d i d a t e s g e n e r a l l y , and t o such s t a l w a r t s as Mrs. P a u l S m i t h , L e s l e y E y r e s , and Mrs. L a u r a J a m i e s o n , who d u r i n g t h e i r terms i n the House were members o f t h e 175 League's P o l i t i c a l Committee. A l t h o u g h t h e A s s o c i a t i o n ' s l o b b y i n g a c t i v i t i e s were l i m i t e d t h e s e c r e t a r y c o n t i n u e d c o r r e s p o n d e n c e w i t h C a b i n e t m i n i s t e r s , and w i t h W. F. Kennedy o f t h e L i q u o r C o n t r o l B o a r d on q u e s t i o n s o f i n c r e a s e d o u t l e t s and t h e h o l d i n g o f l o c a l o p t i o n p l e b i s c i t e s . Through League members M c l n t y r e r e c e i v e d d a i l y r e p o r t s o f p r o c e e d i n g s of t h e House and i n f o r m a t i o n on p o s s i b l e 176 changes i n l e g i s l a t i o n . ' The C. C. F. members o f t h e o p p o s i t i o n a i d e d by p l a c i n g q u e s t i o n s w h i c h he had p r e p a r e d 177 on the O r d e r P a p e r . L i k e t h e A n t i - S a l o o n League i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s the Temperance League c o n t i n u e d t o a c c e p t s u p p o r t f r o m any o r g a n i z a t i o n o r i n d i v i d u a l t h a t was i n sympathy w i t h i t s a i m s . I n r e t r o s p e c t i t i s c l e a r t h a t s u c h a p o l i c y may n o t be t h e most e f f e c t i v e one t o f o l l o w . An example o f t h i s may be seen by r e c o r d i n g t h e a c t i v i t i e s of t h e League d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d o f t h e m i d d l e t h i r t i e s , when a g i t a t i o n was d e v e l o p i n g f o r t h e s a l e o f l i q u o r by t h e g l a s s i n c a b a r e t s and r e s t a u r a n t s . D u r i n g t h e f a l l o f 1934, Rev. R. J . M c l n t y r e began t o h e a r rumours t h a t a move was on f o o t and a p e t i t i o n was b e i n g c i r c u l a t e d i n Vancouver w i t h t h e v i e w t o o b t a i n i n g t h e s a l e o f l i q u o r by the g l a s s . H i s i n f o r m a t i o n was c o n f i r m e d when 14-5 i n F e b r u a r y be r e c e i v e d a l e t t e r from W. F. Kennedy, L i q u o r C o n t r o l Commissioner, wbicb s t a t e d i n p a r t : 1 ^ I note t h a t your o r g a n i z a t i o n i s g e t t i n g r e a d y t o oppose tbe suggested l e g i s l a t i o n f o r tbe s a l e of beer and wine w i t h meals, and w h i l e I have r e c e i v e d no d i r e c t i n f o r m a t i o n on . t h i s p o i n t , i t i s q u i t e e v i d e n t , from rumors, t h a t an e f f o r t w i l l be made at the coming s e s s i o n of the House t o have t h i s p r o v i s i o n p l a c e d i n tbe government l i q u o r a c t , but, n a t u r a l l y , i t w i l l be n e c e s s a r y f o r them t o convince the l e g i s l a t u r e of the wisdom o f such a c t i o n b e f o r e i t becomes law. The League immediately made arrangements f o r the h o l d i n g o f a p r o t e s t meeting to be addressed by Mayor MeGeer, and- through t h e i r s u p p o r t e r s on tbe u i t y C o u n c i l they were i n s t r u m e n t a l i n h a v i n g a unanimous p r o t e s t on b e h a l f of tbe 179 c i t y d i s p a t c h e d t o the p r o v i n c i a l government. ' J Members of the l e g i s l a t u r e w e r e . c i r c u l a r i z e d " p o i n t i n g out tbe p o s i t i o n of the Temperance League i n r e g a r d t o i n c r e a s e d f a c i l i t i e s f o r the s a l e o f l i q u o r and t h a t i f they oppose tbe League 180 i t w i l l f i g h t t h e i r r e - e l e c t i o n . " I n September of 1935 word was a g a i n r e c e i v e d t h a t p e t i t i o n s were b e i n g c i r c u l a t e d , t h i s time from V i c t o r i a . They had been s i g n e d by temperance people who d i d not r e a l i z e the i m p l i c a t i o n s o f such a p l e b i s c i t e . M c l n t y r e i n t e r v i e w e d tbe A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l and got a commitment t h a t no p l e b i s c i t e would be g r a n t e d u n t i l tbe l e g i s l a t u r e met a t the f o l l o w i n g 181 s p r i n g s e s s i o n . The League immediately went i n t o a c t i o n c i r c u l a r i z i n g i t s members and h a v i n g W.C.T.U., m i n i s t e r i a l a s s o c i a t i o n s , 144 and Church groups pass r e s o l u t i o n s a g a i n s t the p l e b i s c i t e and send them to t h e i r members of p a r l i a m e n t and t o the government. P l a n s were a l s o made f o r the f o r m a t i o n of a Youth Group i n Vancouver t o p r o t e s t the p l e b i s c i t e on b e h a l f of the y o u t h of the p r o v i n c e . L e t t e r s were sent t o a l l young p e o p l e ' s o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n the Vancouver a r e a , and an o r g a n i z a t i o n meeting was h e l d i n the o f f i c e s of the B. 0. 1 ftp Temperance League. The o r g a n i z a t i o n s which responded t o the c a l l i n c l u d e d s e v e r a l Church young pe o p l e ' s a s s o c i a t i o n s , r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the Young Canada Club, and o f f i c i a l s of the Young S o c i a l i s t and Young Communist Leagues. P l a n s were made f o r the h o l d i n g o f a p r o t e s t parade, but when t h i s f e l l t hrough because o f l a c k of support, a r a l l y was h e l d i n F i r s t united Church i n s t e a d . A t t h a t r a l l y one of t h e major y o u t h 183 speakers was air. Maurice Kush of the Young Communist League. In F e b r u a r y , 1936, M c l n t y r e r e p o r t e d t h a t Mr. Watt of the Y.M.C.A. and Mr. Rush of the Young Communist League c o u l d go to V i c t o r i a as our r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s " t o i n t e r v i e w the c a b i n e t . " 1 8 4 Meanwhile, the W.C.T.U. were a l s o c a r r y i n g on a c t i v i t i e s t h a t were i l l - d e s i g n e d t o i n c r e a s e the i n f l u e n c e of temperance l o b b y i s t s . They had adopted a p l a t f o r m of temperance, v o t e s , and peace, and w i t h the outbreak of the C h i n a War and the d i s q u i e t i n g r e p o r t s from Europe, the l a d i e s began t o f e a r the p o s s i b i l i t y of another war t o which t h e i r sons would be c a l l e d , n e ver t o r e t u r n . When i t became known t h a t copper and the s a l e of s c r a p m e t als t o Japan was / 145 c o n t i n u i n g the Vancouver unions p l a n n e d a p r o t e s t march. They approached Mrs. L a u r a Jamieson, who t o l d them of " e f f i c i e n t o r g a n i z e r s " who might h e l p them o r g a n i z e t h e i r 185 march. ' A l t h o u g h t h e i r p r o p o s a l t o march t o the docks where s h i p s were being l o a d e d was f o r b i d d e n , the C i t y C o u n c i l r e f u s i n g t o grant them the n e c e s s a r y p e r m i t , the l a d i e s , s upported by the Rev. W. A. Cameron, c a r r i e d out t h e i r t h r e a t and h e l d a d e m o n s t r a t i o n . P r o t e s t s o f government p o l i c y w i t h r e g a r d t o such shipments were c o n t i n u e d by the u n i o n s u n t i l the outbreak of the Second ¥/orld War. Without d i s p u t i n g the m e r i t s of the cause such a c t i v i t i e s undertaken by the temperance f o r c e s were i l l -d e s i g n e d to appeal t o the s o - c a l l e d r e s p e c t a b l e elements w i t h i n the Churches, and were h a r d l y of the s o r t t h a t would impress the government. The s u g g e s t i o n has been made t h a t i t was the l a t e n t r e a c t i o n i n the Churches r a t h e r than the o v e r t a c t i v i t y o f the Temperance League which warded o f f an i n c r e a s e i n l i q u o r o u t l e t s b e f o r e the war. The outbreak o f war brought an immediate r e a c t i o n from the Temperance League e x e c u t i v e . Meeting on September 11, 1939, the s u b - e x e c u t i v e passed r e s o l u t i o n s c a l l i n g upon the f e d e r a l government to pass o r d e r s - i n - c o u n c i l p l a c i n g the I O C most d r a s t i c r e s t r i c t i o n s on: 1. A l l forms of l i q u o r a d v e r t i s i n g . 2. The manufacture of beverage a l c o h o l , which wastes the f o o d s u p p l y o f the n a t i o n . 3. The i m p o r t a t i o n and s a l e o f l i q u o r , which a d v e r s e l y a f f e c t s p u r c h a s i n g power, reduces i n d u s t r i a l e f f i c i e n c y and tends to cause s e r i o u s d i s o r d e r . / 14-6 A s i m i l a r p l e a , made i n the name of i n c r e a s e d e f f i c i e n c y , was a l s o made to the p r o v i n c i a l government and i t was proposed t h a t " a l l l i c e n s e d premises be c l o s e d f o r the d u r a t i o n of the war."^'' However, the arguments t h a t had been used d u r i n g the p r e v i o u s war w i t h such e f f e c t i v e n e s s proved o f l i t t l e v a l u e . A l t h o u g h t h r o u g h the e f f o r t s of s e v e r a l M.L.A.'s, p a r t i c u l a r l y Mr. L e s l e y E y r e s and Mrs. P a u l Smith, the government agreed t o postpone any referendums u n t i l a f t e r the 188 war, the League was unable t o get any major c o n c e s s i o n s r e d u c i n g the s a l e of l i q u o r w i t h i n the p r o v i n c e . R e s t r i c t i o n s t h a t were imposed were j u s t i f i e d on the grounds of the c o n s e r v a t i o n of g r a i n and l i q u o r s u p p l i e s , and n o t from any sympathy w i t h the cause o f t o t a l a b s t i n e n c e . Whereas i n the p r e v i o u s war l i q u o r was l o o k e d upon as a d e t e r r e n t t o e f f i c i e n c y , i t was now c o n s i d e r e d a r e s p e c t a b l e s o c i a l mos, and one c o n t r i b u t i o n t h a t c o u l d be made t o " g e t t i n g the t r o o p s ' 189 minds o f f the war f o r a time." The League's a c t i v i t i e s c o n t i n u e d t o be e c l i p s e d throughout t h e war y e a r s , and i t s i n f l u e n c e c o n t i n u e d t o d i m i n i s h . I n 1939, as a r e s u l t o f c e n s o r s h i p and the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f i t s r a d i o program as one o f a p o l i t i c a l n a t u r e , the League was f o r c e d t o cease b r o a d c a s t i n g . I t co n t i n u e d to send out q u e s t i o n n a i r e s at e l e c t i o n time, but they were p o o r l y answered and i t was r e p o r t e d t h a t "the p a r t y l e a d e r s had inform e d the League t h a t t h e y were of the 14? o p i n i o n t h a t i t was c o n t r a r y t o the B. C. E l e c t i o n s A c t . " 1 ^ 0 The A s s o c i a t i o n c o n t i n u e d t o f i n d i t s e l f i n f i n a n c i a l d i f f i c u l t i e s and a l t h o u g h l o c a l o p t i o n c o n t e s t s c o n t i n u e d t o 'be i t s major concern, d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t w i t h p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n l e d t o a renewed s t r e s s upon the v a l u e o f " v o l u n t a r y t o t a l a b s t i n e n c e " and t o a s t r e s s upon a renewed program of a l c o h o l e d u c a t i o n . A t the C o n v e n t i o n i n December of 1943 the League passed a r e s o l u t i o n c a l l i n g f o r i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f the f e a s i b i l i t y of opening c l i n i c s f o r the treatment of a l c o h o l i c s and drug a d d i c t s and s t r e s s i n g the o e l i e f t h a t persons s h o u l d be committed to such i n s t i t u t i o n s r a t h e r than t o p r i s o n s f o r 191 punishment and treatment. 7 I n May o f 1944 l e t t e r s were d i s p a t c h e d t o the M i n i s t e r of E d u c a t i o n a s k i n g f o r the appointment of a d i r e c t o r t o t e a c h temperance hygiene i n the s c h o o l s . They a l s o asked f o r the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f an a d v i s o r y and p r o m o t i o n a l committee t o a i d the Department i n e s t a b l i s h i n g 192 an e f f e c t i v e system o f a l c o h o l e d u c a t i o n . y The war had h a r d l y ended when the q u e s t i o n of i n c r e a s e d l i q u o r o u t l e t s reappeared i n the p a p e r s . I t was r e c o r d e d t h a t Bishop Sexton of the A n g l i c a n c h u r c h had made statements t o the p r e s s a d v o c a t i n g the s a l e of beer and wines i n c a f e s and r e s t a u r a n t s . The temperance f o r c e s had never b e f o r e e x p e r i e n c e d such a d i r e c t blow from w i t h i n the ranks o f the c l e r g y and they immediately m a r s h a l l e d t h e i r s u p p o r t e r s t o meet i t . A t a meeting of p r o t e s t h e l d the f o l l o w i n g month 148 i n Chalmers U n i t e d Church, Vancouver, the League passed a r e s o l u t i o n opposing the e x t e n s i o n of the type and number of l i q u o r o u t l e t s . J ' They a g a i n demanded t h a t a J u d i c i a l R o y a l Commission be e s t a b l i s h e d to make a study of the l i q u o r s i t u a t i o n throughout the p r o v i n c e . The p o s s i b i l i t y of i n c r e a s e d o u t l e t s t o g e t h e r w i t h peace produced an i n c r e a s e d i n t e r e s t i n and support of the a c t i v i t i e s o f the League. By June of 1945 the G e n e r a l S e c r e t a r y was able t o r e p o r t t h a t the League was a b l e t o make a payment towards c o v e r i n g p a r t of the debt i n c u r r e d d u r i n g the war and d e p r e s s i o n y e a r s , and t h a t t h e r e was l e s s than $1500 now o u t s t a n d i n g . The June C o n v e n t i o n showed to a marked degree the s h i f t t h a t was t a k i n g p l a c e i n the p o l i c y and t h i n k i n g of the temperance f o r c e s . E d u c a t i o n f o r v o l u n t a r y t o t a l a b s t i n e n c e was the keynote of the c o n v e n t i o n , f o r i t was becoming c l e a r to the temperance people t h a t the p o l i c i e s and methods th e y had been a d o p t i n g were now outmoded. Ho l o n g e r c o u l d they p o i n t the f i n g e r of s c o r n at the " l i q u o r i n t e r e s t s . " W i th d r i n k i n g a s o c i a l l y a c c e p t e d t h i n g i t had t o be met w i t h more s o p h i s t i c a t e d arguments and improved propaganda s i m i l a r t o t h a t which was b e i n g developed by the l i q u o r i n t e r e s t s and which had become a cause f o r much concern. As e a r l y as May of 1944 the League i n c o n v e n t i o n had p a s s e d a r e s o l u t i o n e x p r e s s i n g concern at the attempt by brewers t o e s t a b l i s h a c o n n e c t i o n w i t h the r e c r e a t i o n a l l i f e 14-9 of the y o u t h and a d u l t s of the p r o v i n c e . I t saw the sp o n s o r s h i p of amateur a t h l e t i c s as another method used by the i n t e r e s t s t o g a i n r e s p e c t a b i l i t y f o r themselves and acceptance o f t h e i r p r o d u c t . J A t the c o n v e n t i o n i n 1948 another f a c e t o f the problem concerned the League. T h i s was the s p o n s o r s h i p by l i q u o r i n t e r e s t s o f s c h o l a r s h i p s a t c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s , and the making of s p e c i a l g r a n t s t o e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s . A t t h a t time the f o l l o w i n g r e s o l u t i o n was p a s s e d : * ^ 5 The f e d e r a t i o n views w i t h deep concern the acceptance by some u n i v e r s i t i e s o f s c h o l a r s h i p s from l i q u o r making c o r p o r a t i o n s . . . . l ' n e l i q u o r b u s i n e s s has r e c e n t l y developed the a r t o f i n d i r e c t a d v e r t i s i n g , s e e k i n g t o c r e a t e a f a v o r a b l e p u b l i c o p i n i o n . I n t h i s c o n n e c t i o n we have n o t i c e d the c o u p l i n g of the names o f l i q u o r f i r m s w i t h those o f u n i v e r s i t i e s i n c e r t a i n i n s t a n c e s . The s p e c i a l C o n v e n t i o n h e l d i n May, 1947, to honor Rev. R. J . M c l n t y r e , the r e t i r i n g G e n e r a l S e c r e t a r y , n oted w i t h a p p r o v a l the government's r e f u s a l t o h o l d a p l e b i s c i t e on the q u e s t i o n o f the s a l e of beer and wines i n r e s t a u r a n t s . The e x e c u t i v e c i t e d w i t h p a r t i c u l a r a p p r o v a l the statement of the A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l , Gordon Wismer, t h a t "the clamour d i d n ot appear to come from the p u b l i c so much as from 196 s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t s . " T h e i r r e s o l u t i o n s c o n g r a t u l a t e d him 197 on h i s "courageous stand a g a i n s t l i q u o r m r e s t a u r a n t s . " From May of 1947 u n t i l A p r i l o f the f o l l o w i n g y e a r the a c t i v i t y of the League was l i m i t e d due to the l a c k o f an E x e c u t i v e S e c r e t a r y . The o f f i c i a l s had found i t d i f f i c u l t t o f i n d an e x p e r i e n c e d a p p l i c a n t and were r e l u c t a n t t o make 150 an appointment w i t h the League's f i n a n c e s i n such a p r e c a r i o u s p o s i t i o n . However, i n F e b r u a r y , 1948, on the recommendation of Dr. E l b e r t P a u l , Chairman of the Committee of Twelve, i t was d e c i d e d to accept the a p p l i c a t i o n of Rev. Aubrey S m a l l , a B a p t i s t m i n i s t e r from Q u e b e c . 1 ^ 8 The new E x e c u t i v e S e c r e t a r y a r r i v e d i n time f o r the s p r i n g c o n v e n t i o n and immediately attempted t o expand the c o n s t i t u e n c y from which the o r g a n i z a t i o n might g a i n support. C o n t a c t was made w i t h the A r c h b i s h o p Duke of the Roman C a t h o l i c Church who a p p o i n t e d a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e to the Church C o n t a c t s Committee; however, no f i n a n c i a l support was f o r t h c o m i n g . The new d i r e c t o r , a l t h o u g h a h a r d worker, seemed to l a c k the n e c e s s a r y q u a l i t i e s of o r a t o r y and p e r s o n a l i t y r e q u i r e d to put the o r g a n i z a t i o n on i t s f e e t . A l t h o u g h the movement co n t i n u e d t o p r e s s the government f o r the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a J u d i c i a l R o y a l Commission, b e i n g supported by the C. C. F. and members i n the C o a l i t i o n caucus, 199 i t s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s were to no a v a i l . J J I n s p i t e of the d i f f i c u l t i e s of g e t t i n g t h i r t y - f i v e p e r cent of the v o t e r s i n d i s t r i c t s t o s i g n a p e t i t i o n the l i q u o r i n t e r e s t succeeded i n i n s t i g a t i n g t w e n t y - f i v e p l e b i s c i t e s under the L i q u o r C o n t r o l P l e b i s c i t e s A c t between March of 1948 and November of 1950. Of these s i x t e e n were s u c c e s s f u l , w h i l e nine f a i l e d to secure the f i f t y - f i v e per cent n e c e s s a r y f o r the i n s t i t u t i o n of the s a l e of beer by the glass.200 The f i n a n c i a l p o s i t i o n of the League a g a i n became c r i t i c a l w i t h a d e f i c i t by December of 1950 of over $2500. 151 Because of t h i s the c o n v e n t i o n h e l d i n May of the f o l l o w i n g year d i s c u s s e d the p o s s i b i l i t y of another change i n name and i n i t s c o n s t i t u t i o n i n an attempt to g i v e the o r g a n i z a t i o n new l i f e . The c o n v e n t i o n adjourned w i t h o u t any a c t i o n b e i n g 201 taken. I n November the E x e c u t i v e S e c r e t a r y and h i s stenographer r e s i g n e d . The o r g a n i z a t i o n was w i t h o u t s t a f f and d e e p l y i n debt j u s t at the moment when another b a t t l e t o i n c r e a s e l i q u o r o u t l e t s was g a i n i n g momentum. I n A p r i l of 1950 one of Vancouver's l e a d i n g c o l u m n i s t s , Jack S c o t t , began an a t t a c k through h i s columns upon the e x i s t i n g p r o v i n c i a l l i q u o r laws. He proposed t h a t a l l p e r s o n s who f a v o u r e d the s a l e o f l i q u o r by the g l a s s c o n t a c t the government through l e t t e r s and t e l e g r a m s s t a t i n g t h e i r demands f o r a change. The League e x e c u t i v e immediately c o n t a c t e d Wismer, the Attorney-Oe-neral, and p r o t e s t e d a g a i n s t the proposed e x t e n s i o n o f l i q u o r o u t l e t s . They e r r o n e o u s l y thought t h a t he was sympathetic to t h e i r views and t h a t they c o u l d count on h i s s u p p o r t . Wismer suggested t h a t the League send out q u e s t i o n n a i r e s t o i t s members a s k i n g them whether they thought t h a t the s a l e of l i q u o r by the g l a s s would l e a d t o moderation i n d r i n k i n g . The answers were to be sent t o h i s department. He c o n t i n u e d : The reason I was p a r t i c u l a r l y anxious to get these answers i n t h i s way was because of the answers i n f a v o u r of c o c k t a i l b a r s r e q u e s t e d by Jack S c o t t are p o u r i n g i n and I am a f r a i d I w i l l be p l a c e d i n a bad p o s i t i o n i f those who are a l l e g e d l y i n f a v o u r of temperance do not so i n d i c a t e . . The League responded by sending out i n d i v i d u a l c ards t o i t s membership. But i t was t o no a v a i l , and the announcement v/as made t h a t a p l e b i s c i t e on the s a l e of l i q u o r s and wines i n d i n i n g rooms and r e s t a u r a n t s would be p l a c e d b e f o r e the v o t e r s a t the next p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n . The announcement of the proposed p l e b i s c i t e found the temperance f o r c e s i l l p r e p a r e d . They were w i t h o u t s t a f f , and i t was g e n e r a l l y conceded t h a t the League was a s s o c i a t e d i n the minds of many persons w i t h a d i s c r e d i t e d p o l i c y of p r o h i b i t i o n and would be a l i a b i l i t y i n any f i g h t a g a i n s t i n c r e a s e d l i q u o r o u t l e t s . The matter was one of c o n c e r n t o the c l e r g y , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n Vancouver, and on F e b r u a r y 25, 1952, a t the c a l l o f A n g l i c a n B i s h o p Godfrey G. Gower, then p r e s i d e n t o f the Vancouver M i n i s t e r i a l A s s o c i a t i o n , a meeting of i n t e r e s t e d c l e r g y v/as h e l d a t Canadian Memorial U n i t e d Church. Mr. A. W. Cowley r e p o r t e d t o the meeting t h a t i t had been d e c i d e d t o e s t a b l i s h a r e s e a r c h committee t o study the l i q u o r q u e s t i o n and p r e s e n t a r e p o r t t o the p u b l i c b e f o r e the p l e b i s c i t e was to be v o t e d u pon.^ 0^ He r e p o r t e d t h a t Wismer had been i n t e r v i e w e d w i t h a p r o s p e c t of d e f e r r i n g the p l e b i s c i t e . They had a l s o p r o t e s t e d the wording o f the q u e s t i o n , f e e l i n g " t h a t the words ' i n l i c e n s e d premises* had been p u r p o s e l y l e f t vague f o r reasons not known t o the public."204-I t was f e l t t h a t the government, p a r t i c u l a r l y the A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l , had not a c t e d i n good f a i t h . Constant 153 e f f o r t s had been made t o have a R o y a l Commission i n v e s t i g a t e the l i q u o r problem, but they had been of no a v a i l . Now the government was h o l d i n g the p l e b i s c i t e on the ground t h a t i t c o u l d no l o n g e r d e l a y i t ; t h a t p u b l i c o p i n i o n would not stand f o r what would appear t o be an attempt t o s i d e - t r a c k the q u e s t i o n . The p u b l i c was b e i n g asked t o vote on the q u e s t i o n of the s a l e o f l i q u o r i n l i c e n s e d premises w i t h o u t r e q u i s i t e knowledge f o r an informed o p i n i o n , and upon a q u e s t i o n t h a t was ambiguous i n i t s n a t u r e . He r e p o r t e d t h a t "Mr. Wismer informed them t h a t he c o u l d make no commitment, but t h a t d e f i n i t e l y a p l e b i s c i t e i s i n e v i t a b l e , and i f any changes were desired i n wording, r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s p r o b a b l y c o u l d be made t o the committee which was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the 205 wording o f the p l e b i s c i t e . " y The meeting d e c i d e d t o malce a c o n c e r t e d attempt t o get a c l e a r - c u t mandate t o a c t i n the i n t e r e s t s of a l l the r e l i g i o u s denominations. The e x e c u t i v e immediately went i n t o a c t i o n and by March 10 i t was r e p o r t e d t h a t a s i m i l a r group had been o r g a n i z e d i n the Okanagan V a l l e y and t h a t p l a n s were a l r e a d y under way to have a r e s p o n s i b l e l o c a l p l e b i s c i t e committee s e t up i n e v e r y community. On A p r i l 2 Mr. George Hougham was abl e t o r e p o r t t h a t V i c t o r i a had been o r g a n i z e d and t h a t a committee of t h r e e i n c l u d i n g h i m s e l f , B i s h o p Gower and Canon Higgs had approached Wismer and t h a t as a r e s u l t of i t s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s a l e t t e r had been r e c e i v e d p r o m i s i n g t h a t the government would announce 154 the f o r m a t i o n of "a group of r e s p o n s i b l e c i t i z e n s i n t o a committee t o i n q u i r e i n t o a l l phases of the l i q u o r problem," 206 a f t e r the p l e b i s c i t e had been t a k e n . The group had l i t t l e s u c c e s s i n g e t t i n g the wording of the p l e b i s c i t e improved and a t a meeting h e l d . i n the Y.M.C.A. on A p r i l 17 i t was f i n a l l y d e c i d e d t h a t "a 'yes' m a j o r i t y and the p r o b a b l e consequent i n c r e a s e i n o u t l e t s f o r s a l e of a l c o h o l i c beverages would n o t be i n the p u b l i c i n t e r e s t " and t h a t the committee s h o u l d d e f i n i t e l y o r g a n i z e t o f i g h t the p l e b i s c i t e . On May 7» 1 9 5 2 , Bishop Gower accep t e d the p r e s i d e n c y of the A l c o h o l R e s e a r c h C o u n c i l , the name adopted by the o r g a n i z a t i o n , and A. W. Cowley was a p p o i n t e d as temporary o r g a n i z e r . O f f i c e space was g r a n t e d the a s s o c i a t i o n by S t . Andrews-Wesley U n i t e d Church, and the C o u n c i l , w i t h the f u l l s u p p o rt o f the B. C. Temperance League b e h i n d them, s t a r t e d i t s d r i v e t o c h a l k up as l a r g e a vote as p o s s i b l e a g a i n s t the s a l e o f l i q u o r by the g l a s s . A t an open meeting h e l d on the same day the C o u n c i l i s s u e d a manifesto o u t l i n i n g i t s aims and program. I t 207 i n c l u d e d the f o l l o w i n g statement: ' A "no" vote i s not a vote f o r the " s t a t u s quo." We are not s a t i s f i e d w i t h the p r e s e n t s i t u a t i o n and want changes made, but we want a "no" vote u n t i l i t has been d e c i d e d what changes s h o u l d be made f o r the p u b l i c i n t e r e s t . 155 The C o u n c i l o r g a n i z e d i n the u s u a l manner. R e g i o n a l and. l o c a l committees were s e t up t o d i s t r i b u t e l i t e r a t u r e and conduct the campaign i n the v a r i o u s e l e c t o r a l d i s t r i c t s . Radio time was secured, but d i f f i c u l t y was encountered when the U n i t e d Church i n f o r m e d the e x e c u t i v e t h a t no f u r t h e r b r o a d c a s t s c o u l d be made by them, the s t a t i o n s h a v i n g c l a s s i f i e d the p l e b i s c i t e as a p o l i t i c a l i s s u e . N e v e r t h e l e s s , Bishop Gower secured time the Sunday noon p r e v i o u s t o the e l e c t i o n and made a p e r s o n a l a p p e a l t o the v o t e r s . Arrangements were a l s o made to have c a r s a v a i l a b l e t o d r i v e v o t e r s t o the p o l l s . The C o u n c i l f e l t t h a t p r o f e s s i o n a l a d v e r t i s i n g of a q u a l i t y e q u a l t o t h a t b e i n g produced by i t s opponents, the Committee f o r a Common Sense L i q u o r Law, was n e c e s s a r y , and f o r t h w i t h i t c o n t a c t e d the James L o v i c k A d v e r t i s i n g Agency which c a r r i e d on the campaign i n the s e c u r i n g of newspaper a d v e r t i s i n g and r a d i o time. The C o u n c i l adopted two s l o g a n s i n l i n e w i t h i t s c o n t e n t i o n t h a t a "yes" vote was a b l a n k cheque i s s u e d t o the government and t h a t a commission s h o u l d have r e p o r t e d b e f o r e the t a k i n g of the v o t e . I t c e n t e r e d i t s campaign around the q u e s t i o n "Would you s i g n a b l a n k cheque" and the s l o g a n "Vote 'no' u n t i l you Know." The C i t i z e n s ' Committee countered w i t h such i n g e n i o u s s l o g a n s as "We're no A n g e l s , " c a r i c a t u r i n g the c l e r g y , and "We're no D e v i l s " c a r i c a t u r i n g the propaganda u t i l i z e d by the " d r y s " d u r i n g t h e p r o h i b i t i o n e r a . 156 A l though the members of t h e committee f e l t t h a t the p l e b i s c i t e was d e s i g n e d to secure a "yes" v o t e and t h e n have the Commission work w i t h i n the framework of a f a v o r a b l e p l e b i s c i t e , they determined t h a t no d i r e c t p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n should be taken. The C o u n c i l had a l r e a d y r e c e i v e d commitments from the L i b e r a l and C. C. j?. p a r t i e s to submit the q u e s t i o n to a R o y a l Commission a f t e r the e l e c t i o n . The C o n s e r v a t i v e s i n a d d i t i o n committed themselves t o a p o l i c y of l o c a l 208 o p t i o n . No q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were sent to c a n d i d a t e s i n the p r o v i n c i a l campaign and no p l e a s were i s s u e d f o r temperance v o t e r s to s u p p o r t any p a r t i c u l a r c a n d i d a t e or p a r t y . I t was an expensive campaign and the C o u n c i l f a c e d a b i l l f o r almost $27,000 to cover the s e r v i c e s o f the a d v e r t i s i n g agency a l o n e . The e x e c u t i v e was o n l y able t o r a i s e f o u r thousand d o l l a r s from i t s f o l l o w e r s but the Agency informed the C o u n c i l t h a t 565 of i t s c l i e n t s who endorsed the p h i l o s o p h y and program of the C o u n c i l had u n d e r w r i t t e n the b a l a n c e of the campaign c o s t s , which amounted t o almost $23,000. They hastened t o assure the e x e c u t i v e t h a t none of these c l i e n t s were i n any way a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the l i q u o r 209 i n t e r e s t s . J The referendum was h e l d on June 12, 1952, and when the r e s u l t s of the p l e b i s c i t e were compiled i t showed t h a t a p p r o x i m a t e l y s i x t y p e r cent of t h e e l e c t o r a t e were i n f a v o u r 210 of t h e s a l e of l i q u o r by the g l a s s i n l i c e n s e d p r e m i s e s . However, a c o n s i d e r a b l e c o n s t i t u e n c y of o p i n i o n had v o i c e d a 157 p r o t e s t , and on the b a s i s o f the former government's promise, the C o u n c i l approached the new S o c i a l C r e d i t government u r g i n g the appointment o f an "independent Commission of E n q u i r y t o study the problem o f the s a l e and d i s t r i b u t i o n o f a l c o h o l i c beverages, and t o recommend such changes i n the pr e s e n t L i q u o r C o n t r o l A c t as they c o n s i d e r t o be i n the 211 p u b l i c i n t e r e s t . " They s t r e s s e d the p o i n t t h a t no changes be made i n the law u n t i l such a commission had r e p o r t e d . P a r t i a l l y as a r e s u l t o f the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s made by the C o u n c i l the Stevens Commission was a p p o i n t e d and h e a r i n g s were h e l d throughout the p r o v i n c e i n the f a l l o f 1952. In November, as a r e s u l t o f n e g o t i a t i o n s w i t h the B. C. Temperance League, the two o r g a n i z a t i o n s merged t o form the B r i t i s h Columbia A l c o h o l R e s e a r c h and E d u c a t i o n C o u n c i l . The temporary o r g a n i z e r , Mr. A. W. Cowley, was a p p o i n t e d t o a permanent p o s i t i o n as the o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s f i r s t E x e c u t i v e -S e c r e t a r y . I n January, 1955, the e x e c u t i v e met t o c o n s i d e r a summary of the Stevens Commission R e p o r t , which had been secured from the A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l ' s O f f i c e , a l t h o u g h i t was not y e t ready f o r r e l e a s e t o the g e n e r a l p u b l i c . The r e p o r t recommended t h a t as f a r as p o s s i b l e l i q u o r be s e r v e d a l o n g w i t h f o o d ; t h a t a three-man board, bonded f o r $50,000, be e s t a b l i s h e d w i t h a s p e c i a l enforcement d i v i s i o n t o work a l o n g w i t h l o c a l p o l i c e ; t h a t there be an e x t e n s i o n o f the e d u c a t i o n a l program; and t h a t an A l c o h o l R e s e a r c h F o u n d a t i o n 158 and a r e h a b i l i t a t i o n c e n t e r f o r the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n of h a b i t u a l 212 drunkards be e s t a b l i s h e d . A l l of these p o i n t s had been c o n t a i n e d i n the b r i e f s submitted to the Commission by the A l c o h o l Research and E d u c a t i o n C o u n c i l , o r had been supported by them. The o n l y f e a t u r e of the r e p o r t w i t h which the a s s o c i a t i o n d i s a g r e e d was the p r o v i s i o n t h a t " l o c a l o p t i o n " be u t i l i z e d only where o b j e c t i o n s a g a i n s t i n c r e a s e d o u t l e t s were f i l e d . L e g i s l a t i o n based on the Commission's r e p o r t was i n t r o d u c e d and p a s s e d at the l e g i s l a t i v e s e s s i o n h e l d the f o l l o w i n g s p r i n g . S i n c e 1953 the work of the A l c o h o l R e s e a r c h and E d u c a t i o n C o u n c i l has c o n t i n u e d . I t has been a program based on the b e l i e f t h a t the " u l t i m a t e s o l u t i o n t o the problem i s i n the c r e a t i o n of a moral c l i m a t e i n our P r o v i n c e , which w i l l make i t easy, not d i f f i c u l t , f o r our p e o p l e , and p a r t i c u l a r l y youth, t o p r a c t i s e the a b s o l u t e s t a n d a r d of 213 a b s t i n e n c e , which c u t s the tap r o o t of the problem." The C o u n c i l , u n t i l the d e a t h of Mr. Cowley, was d o i n g p a r t i c u l a r l y good work i n a l c o h o l e d u c a t i o n i n the h i g h s c h o o l s , w i t h over 15,000 s t u d e n t s h a v i n g been l e c t u r e d by the o r g a n i z e r . I t a l s o c o n t i n u e d on guard a g a i n s t abuses under the new system of l i q u o r o u t l e t s . The C o u n c i l ' s c h i e f concern has been the government's tendency t o c u t the a p p r o p r i a t i o n f o r t h e work of the A l c o h o l R e s e a r c h C o u n c i l . However, the death o f Cowley has a g a i n set the o r g a n i z a t i o n a d r i f t , and i t i s now supported o n l y by the more l i m i t e d 159 c o n s t i t u e n c y of U n i t e d , B a p t i s t and W.C.T.U. groups which formed the backbone of the o l d Temperance League. N e v e r t h e l e s s , the f a c t t h a t the rudiments of an o r g a n i z a t i o n s t i l l e x i s t s , ready to a c t as a c o u n t e r p r e s s u r e to the l i q u o r i n t e r e s t s , s h o u l d not be u n d e r e s t i m a t e d . From t h i s study of the work and a c t i v i t y of the temperance movement i n B r i t i s h Columbia i t i s now p o s s i b l e to r e t u r n t o the q u e s t i o n of the v a l u e of the p r e s s u r e group i n p u r s u i n g moral purposes and o f the wisdom of u s i n g s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n b r i n g i n g the i n f l u e n c e o f the r e l i g i o u s community t o bear on q u e s t i o n s of a p o l i t i c a l n a t u r e . A study of the temperance movement i n B r i t i s h Columbia shows t h a t where there i s a c o n s i d e r a b l e body of o p i n i o n m o b i l i z e d b e h i n d what i s c o n s i d e r e d a moral cause governments are f o r c e d t o l i s t e n and to a c t i n accordance w i t h t h a t o p i n i o n . The p e r i o d of d e c l i n e i n temperance sentiment should not l e a d one t o the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t the p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t i e s o f the movement were of no a v a i l , f o r w h i l e the e x p r e s s e d aims of the l e a g u e s were not r e a l i z e d , the v e r y e x i s t e n c e of a s m a l l , but d e d i c a t e d group of p e r s o n s i n t e r e s t e d s p e c i f i c a l l y i n the l i q u o r problem a c t e d as a brake upon the speed w i t h which the l i q u o r laws were m o d i f i e d . The governments c o n t i n u a l l y had t o take cognizance o f the f a c t t h a t t h e r e was an o p p o s i t i o n and t h a t o t h e r groups and f a c t o r s had t o be c o n s i d e r e d . The temperance f o r c e s a l s o a c t e d as a 160 b u f f e r which, the governments c o u l d u t i l i z e t o o f f s e t the p r e s s u r e of the l i q u o r l o b b i e s . The f a c t t h a t the leagues were on guard ready to r a l l y the r e l i g i o u s and moral f o r c e s a g a i n s t any extreme d e v i a t i o n from what the l a r g e r and l e s s d e d i c a t e d body o f o p i n i o n might d e s i r e a c t e d as a s t e a d y i n g i n f l u e n c e i n the f o r m a t i o n of government p o l i c y . The work of the a s s o c i a t i o n s a l s o r e s u l t e d i n more r e c e n t y e a r s i n a i d i n g the a d o p t i o n o f such p r o g r e s s i v e p o l i c i e s as the f o r m a t i o n o f t h e A l c o h o l R e s e a r c h C o u n c i l . The temperance movement can take c r e d i t f o r p i o n e e r i n g many of the improvements now b e i n g adopted by l e g i s l a t u r e s i n a t t a c k i n g the l i q u o r q u e s t i o n . F o r example, c o n t i n u e d a g i t a t i o n on the p a r t o f the temperance and m i n i s t e r i a l a s s o c i a t i o n s was a major f a c t o r i n the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of the Stevens Commission, which r e s u l t e d i n a study and a i r i n g of the whole q u e s t i o n o f t h e consumption and s a l e of a l c o h o l i c beverages w i t h i n the p r o v i n c e . Many of the recommendations made by the Commission were f i r s t s e r i o u s l y c o n s i d e r e d and put f o r w a r d by the temperance a s s o c i a t i o n s . However, a s u r v e y of the work of the temperance o r g a n i z a t i o n s a l s o s e r v e s to show many of the dangers which a p r e s s u r e group formed on. the b a s i s of moral a t t i t u d e s s h o u l d a v o i d when o p e r a t i n g under a system of r e s p o n s i b l e government. F i r s t , the o r g a n i z a t i o n s must be w i l l i n g , i n t a k i n g a moral a t t i t u d e toward a q u e s t i o n , t o show t o l e r a n c e f o r persons who do not h o l d the same view, or who h o l d i t l e s s 161 s t r o n g l y . They must he humble, r a t h e r than proud i n at t e m p t i n g to i n f l u e n c e government p o l i c y . The temperance f o r c e s were too prone t o impute p e c u n i a r y and e v i l motives to a l l who opposed t h e i r cause. The ado p t i o n of such an extreme p o s i t i o n can r e s u l t o n l y i n the a l i e n a t i o n of p o t e n t i a l s u p p o r t e r s and i n a d i m i n u t i o n of the e f f e c t i v e i n f l u e n c e and p r e s s u r e which the group c o u l d o t h e r w i s e e x e r t . Secondly, a s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t o r g a n i z a t i o n which, as p a r t o f i t s program, attempts t o e x e r t p o l i t i c a l p r e s s u r e must p i c k and choose those persons and o r g a n i z a t i o n s w i t h whom i t becomes a s s o c i a t e d . ' A c c e p t i n g the support of o r g a n i z a t i o n s o r groups t h a t are i n sympathy w i t h the aims of the a s s o c i a t i o n i s not wise i f the o t h e r groups h o l d the same p o s i t i o n , but f o r a d i f f e r e n t r e a s o n , or i f by a c c e p t i n g t h e i r s u p p ort one l o s e s a l a r g e r and more d e d i c a t e d f o l l o w i n g , or becomes d i s c r e d i t e d i n the eyes of the p o l i t i c i a n s and o f f i c i a l s w i t h whom i t hopes to have i n f l u e n c e . T h i r d l y , i t i s c l e a r t h a t p r e s s u r e groups cannot operate as e a s i l y o r use the same methods under a system of c a b i n e t o r r e s p o n s i b l e government as they can under a system of p r e s i d e n t i a l o r c o n g r e s s i o n a l government. I n the l a t t e r i n s t a n c e i t i s much e a s i e r to g a i n the e a r of the e x e c u t i v e , o r t o r e c r u i t a m a j o r i t y i n the l e g i s l a t u r e s . By e l e c t i n g enough s u p p o r t e r s , r e g a r d l e s s of p a r t y , the p r e s s u r e group i s i n a p o s i t i o n t o have i t s l e g i s l a t i v e program adopted. S i m i l a r l y , i f i t can g a i n the ear of the e x e c u t i v e , i t w i l l 162 have a g r e a t e r v o i c e i n the d r a f t i n g and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of law than i s u s u a l l y p o s s i b l e under the c a b i n e t system. Under a system of r e s p o n s i b l e government the o p e r a t i o n o f the p r e s s u r e group i s much more d i f f i c u l t . Major l e g i s l a t i o n must be i n t r o d u c e d by the government, and i f the l e g i s l a t i o n i s d e f e a t e d the government w i l l f a l l . Attempts have been made to u t i l i z e p l e b i s c i t e s i n o r d e r to take moral i s s u e s out of p a r t i s a n p o l i t i c s but t h i s has f a i l e d . Where a p o l i c y has been adopted as a r e s u l t of such a p l e b i s c i t e l e g i s l a t i o n has g e n e r a l l y been e n a c t e d on the b a s i s of an open v o t e . However, the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the law w i l l s t i l l be a matter of heated p o l i t i c a l debate; f o r i t i s too much t o expect t h a t the p a r t i e s i n o p p o s i t i o n w i l l be w i l l i n g t o take the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the law out of p o l i t i c s as w e l l . Thus, on moral q u e s t i o n s as on o t h e r s the i s s u e w i l l i n e v i t a b l y become one o f government p o l i c y and the p r e s s u r e group must command enough support t o have the government take a d e f i n i t e stand on the i s s u e , one t h a t i t i s ready t o uphold b e f o r e the l e g i s l a t u r e and e l e c t o r a t e . Where i n the o p i n i o n o f t h e government the p o l i c y advocated by the p r e s s u r e group i s n o t supported by enough v o t e s t o make i t of v a l u e to adopt i t s program, t h e r e i s a t e m p t a t i o n f o r the p r e s s u r e group t o t u r n i t s wholehearted support t o the p a r t i e s i n o p p o s i t i o n . The o p p o s i t i o n , p u r s u i n g i t s proper f u n c t i o n , i s out t o c r i t i c i z e government p o l i c y and t o make p o l i t i c a l c a p i t a l a t the expense of the 163 a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . They may make a d i r e c t appeal t o the p r e s s u r e group by i n t r o d u c i n g amendments to government l e g i s l a t i o n , o r by a d v o c a t i n g a p o l i c y supported by the group on the h u s t i n g s and i n the l e g i s l a t u r e . F o r example, i n 1923 the C o n s e r v a t i v e o p p o s i t i o n proposed an amendment t o the proposed p l e b i s c i t e so t h a t u n l e s s f i f t y p e r c e n t of the v o t e r s supported the s a l e of beer by the g l a s s i t would not be i n t r o d u c e d . Had t h e i r motion passed the government would have been d e f e a t e d . However, the y r e v e r s e d t h e i r p o l i c y the f o l l o w i n g y e a r and the m a j o r i t y supported the l e g i s l a t i o n 214-proposed by the L i b e r a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . S i m i l a r l y , f o r s e v e r a l s e s s i o n s a f t e r 194-7 the C. C. F. group i n the House i n t r o d u c e d motions f a v o u r i n g the s e t t i n g up of a R o y a l Commission to study the l i q u o r q u e s t i o n . However, such was not the government's p o l i c y a t t h a t time. I n these ways the o p p o s i t i o n was a b l e t o support, or appear t o support, the temperance o r g a n i z a t i o n s , knowing f u l l w e l l t h a t i t was o n l y when the p a r t y was e l e c t e d t h a t they would be c a l l e d upon to i n s t i t u t e an a l t e r n a t i v e p o l i c y . F o r a p r e s s u r e group t o g i v e i t s wholehearted support t o an o p p o s i t i o n group under a system of r e s p o n s i b l e government i s most unwise, f o r u n l e s s the government i s d e f e a t e d they cannot hope t o have t h e i r l e g i s l a t i o n adopted and the open h o s t i l i t y of the p r e s s u r e groups can o n l y r e s u l t i n a d i m i n u t i o n of the i n f l u e n c e they are able t o e x e r t upon the c a b i n e t and i n the government caucus. 164 I n sum, a study of the temperance movement i n B r i t i s h Columbia w i l l serve to show some of the e r r o r s i n t o which a p r e s s u r e group based on a moral a t t i t u d e may f a l l . S t r o n g moral sentiments may give r i s e to i n t o l e r a n c e and t o an a t t i t u d e which i s n e g a t i v e r a t h e r t han p o s i t i v e i n i t s emphasis. There i s no guarantee t h a t such an o r g a n i z a t i o n w i l l adopt the p o l i c y b e s t d e s i g n e d to b r i n g about the good ends which i t e n v i s a g e s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , the h i s t o r y of the l i q u o r q u e s t i o n a l s o shows the v i t a l n e c e s s i t y o f h a v i n g a group, no matter how s m a l l , t o stand a g a i n s t the more p e c u n i a r y s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t s which attempt t o have l e g i s l a t i o n passed i n t h e i r f a v o u r . P r o p o s a l s t h a t o r g a n i z a t i o n s l i k e the temperance u n i o n s and moral r e f o r m a s s o c i a t i o n s s hould a b d i c a t e t h e i r p o s i t i o n t o Church c o u n c i l s o r t o a branch of the Canadian C o u n c i l of Churches s h o u l d be most c a r e f u l l y 215 s c r u t i n i z e d . ' I t i s p r o b a b l y t r u e t h a t t h e i r f i n a n c i a l problems would be s o l v e d i n p a r t , but there i s a danger t h a t the q u e s t i o n w i l l get l o s t i n the w e l t e r o f a c t i v i t i e s t h a t are undertaken by Church boards and c o - o r d i n a t i o n a g e n c i e s . The o u t l e t f o r per s o n s w i t h a s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t i n one s p e c i f i c moral q u e s t i o n would d e f i n i t e l y be l o s t . The c o n t r i b u t i o n t h a t can be made by a s m a l l p r e s s u r e group i n the working out of p o l i t i c a l q u e s t i o n s which i n v o l v e the r e s o l u t i o n of t i c k l i s h moral i s s u e s i s c e r t a i n l y not n e g l i g i b l e . No s u b s t i t u t e can c o m p l e t e l y take the p l a c e of the v o l u n t a r y b a s i s upon which such o r g a n i z a t i o n s are e s t a b l i s h e d . When i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h i n such o r g a n i z a t i o n s have a p r o p e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the f u n c t i o n s and p o s s i b i l i t i e s of t h e i r a s s o c i a t i o n , and of the dangers which they must a v o i d i n e x e r t i n g p o l i t i c a l p r e s s u r e , t h e y w i l l then be b e t t e r s i t u a t e d to a c t as a " l e a v e n i n g " i n f l u e n c e i n the p o l i t i c a l p r o c e s s e s under a system of r e s p o n s i b l e government. / CHAPTER I I I RELIGIOUS AFFILIATION OF MEMBERS OF THE BRITISH COLUMBIA LEGISLATURE — 1 8 7 1 - 1 9 5 8 Thus f a r we have c o n s i d e r e d two i n d i r e c t ways t h r o u g h w h i c h t h e r e l i g i o u s community may i n f l u e n c e the p o l i t i c a l p r o c e s s e s , f i r s t t h r o u g h t h e i n f l u e n c e o f the c l e r g y and second t h r o u g h the a c t i v i t i e s of s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t p r e s s u r e g r o u p s . However , t h e r e i s a t h i r d and more d i r e c t way t h r o u g h wh ich r e l i g i o u s p e r s o n s c a n i n f l u e n c e the p o l i t i c a l l i f e o f t h e communi t ies i n w h i c h t h e y l i v e . I t i s t h r o u g h the a c t i v e membership o f d e v o t e e s o f the v a r i o u s r e l i g i o u s d e n o m i n a t i o n s , b o t h c l e r g y and l a y m e n , w i t h i n the r a n k s and c a u c u s e s o f the v a r i o u s p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s . Here the members o f the C h u r c h e s can have a d i r e c t i n f l u e n c e i n the f o r m u l a t i o n of p a r t y p o l i c y . v Here t h e y c a n work t o secure the n o m i n a t i o n and u l t i m a t e e l e c t i o n o f s a t i s f a c t o r y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s t o the f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l p a r l i a m e n t s . However , the f a c t s h o u l d be s t r e s s e d t h a t t h e s e m e t h o d s . o f i n f l u e n c e do n o t o p e r a t e i n d i v i d u a l l y b u t t h a t they i n t e r a c t w i t h one a n o t h e r . The r e l i g i o u s e l i t e a c t s 167 upon the p r e s s u r e group, the p r e s s u r e group upon the government, and b o t h upon the p o l i t i c a l p a r t y o r g a n i z a t i o n s . I t has p r e v i o u s l y been shown t h a t the c l e r g y and the temperance o r g a n i z a t i o n s a c t i v e l y attempted to i n f l u e n c e p a r t y p o l i c y and a l s o nominations a t the c o n s t i t u e n c y l e v e l . While a study of r e l i g i o u s i n f l u e n c e upon the p r o v i n c i a l p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s would be a p r o j e c t i n i t s e l f t h e r e are c e r t a i n f e a t u r e s of r e p r e s e n t a t i o n which can be c o n s i d e r e d , namely the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of r e l i g i o u s a f f i l i a t i o n of members of the p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t u r e . Three f a c e t s o f the q u e s t i o n of r e l i g i o u s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d . The f i r s t i s the q u e s t i o n of the r e l i g i o u s c o m p o s i t i o n of the B r i t i s h Columbia p a r l i a m e n t from 1871 u n t i l the p r e s e n t time. I t would be expected t h a t i f denominations were e q u i t a b l y r e p r e s e n t e d they would have a percentage r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n the Assembly equal to t h e i r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n by p o p u l a t i o n i n the p r o v i n c e as a whole. I t w i l l be of i n t e r e s t to see i f l e g i s l a t i v e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n f o l l o w s the s h i f t s i n d e n o m i n a t i o n a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n throughout the p r o v i n c e over time. The second q u e s t i o n to be c o n s i d e r e d i s t h a t of the r e l a t i o n of r e l i g i o u s a f f i l i a t i o n t o p a r t y caucus membership. I s t h e r e a d i v i s i o n df p a r t y and r e l i g i o u s denomination a l o n g s i m i l a r bounday l i n e s ? Do the h i s t o r i c a l c a r i c a t u r e s of A n g l i c a n - C o n s e r v a t i v e and C a t h o l i c and P r e s b y t e r i a n - L i b e r a l h o l d t r u e i n a study of the r e l i g i o u s 168 a f f i l i a t i o n of members of the p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t u r e s ? The f i n a l q u e s t i o n i s t h a t o f whether r e l i g i o u s a f f i l i a t i o n has been a f a c t o r i n the appointment of members to c a b i n e t p o s i t i o n s . I f some c o r r e l a t i o n can be shown between denomination, p o l i t i c a l p a r t y , and c a b i n e t r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i t may be a s u b s t a n t i a l c l u e i n the under-s t a n d i n g o f the p o l i c i e s adopted by the v a r i o u s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s and a measure of the i n f l u e n c e which the d i f f e r e n t r e l i g i o u s denominations have had i n the f o r m u l a t i o n and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of government p o l i c i e s . Methodology Before b e g i n n i n g an a n a l y s i s of the r e l i g i o u s a f f i l i a t i o n s o f members of the p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t u r e s some mention s h o u l d be made o f the methods used i n c o m p i l i n g d a t a f o r t h i s s e c t i o n o f the paper. The c h i e f s o u r c e s o f i n f o r m a t i o n were the P a r l i a m e n t a r y Companions and Canadian  P a r l i a m e n t a r y Guides. ~ S e l e c t e d y e a r s were chosen f o r study, g e n e r a l l y the y e a r s d i r e c t l y f o l l o w i n g p r o v i n c i a l g e n e r a l e l e c t i o n s . The names, c o n s t i t u e n c i e s , and r e l i g i o u s denominations of the members were compiled and are l i s t e d i n Appendix VI below. U n f o r t u n a t e l y the P a r l i a m e n t a r y Companions do not r e c o r d the a f f i l i a t i o n o f members of the Assembly f o r the y e a r s p r i o r t o 1900. S i m i l a r l y , about 30 per cent o f the membership f a i l e d to l i s t t h e i r r e l i g i o u s a f f i l i a t i o n a f t e r t h a t d a t e . 169 In these i n s t a n c e s o t h e r sources o f i n f o r m a t i o n had t o be approached. Recourse was had to the v e r t i c a l f i l e s found i n the P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s a t V i c t o r i a . Where the r e l i g i o u s a f f i l i a t i o n o f members c o u l d n o t be found from t h i s source the o b i t u a r i e s or news r e p o r t s o f f u n e r a l s found i n V i c t o r i a and Vancouver newspapers proved most u s e f u l . The assumption was made t h a t the member would be b u r i e d by the denomination of which he was a member or adherent. Another source o f i n f o r m a t i o n u t i l i z e d was the p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w . Phone c a l l s t o members i n the Vancouver and V i c t o r i a areas a l s o h e l p e d t o add t o the number of M. L. A.'s whose r e l i g i o u s a f f i l i a t i o n s were a s c e r t a i n e d . By u s i n g t h e s e methods the a f f i l i a t i o n o f ap p r o x i m a t e l y 65 p e r cent of the members of the Assembly b e f o r e 1900 and of a p p r o x i m a t e l y 80 per cent o f the members a f t e r t h a t date are now a v a i l a b l e . By c h o o s i n g the y e a r s d i r e c t l y f o l l o w i n g g e n e r a l e l e c t i o n s i t can be assumed t h a t o n l y those members e l e c t e d i n b y e - e l e c t i o n s and not r e t u r n e d at the f o l l o w i n g g e n e r a l e l e c t i o n remain u n l i s t e d . Of n e c e s s i t y the assumption has been made t h a t the members whose r e l i g i o u s a f f i l i a t i o n s were not a v a i l a b l e would be d i s t r i b u t e d i n r o u g h l y the same manner as the o t h e r members of the Assembly. TABLE I Comparative Study — R e l i g i o u s A f f i l i a t i o n BAembers B. C. L e g i s l a t u r e to T o t a l P o p u l a t i on (Percentages) 1871-•1905 DENOMINATION YEAR 1873 1877 1880 Cen. 1881 1887 1890 Cen. 1890 1897 1901 Cen. 1901 A n g l i c a n 6 8 . 7 11 5 0 . 0 8 15.8 5 0 . 6 12 42 . 8 9 24 . 0 6 3 . 6 14 5 9 . 0 13 2 2 . 8 44 . 8 13 B a p t i s t . 9 3.1 3 . 6 3.4 1 L u t h e r a n 1.0 2.1 3 - 0 Pre s b y t . 2 5 . 0 4 24 . 0 4 8 . 2 7 2 3 . 5 4 14 . 3 3 15.6 2 2 . 7 5 2 2 . 7 5 1 9 . 0 2 0 . 7 6 M e t h o d i s t 7.1 9 . 5 2 15.2 4 . 5 1 4 . 5 1 14 . 0 1 3 . 8 4 Roman Cath. 1 2 . 5 2 2 0 . 3 5 . 6 1 19 . 0 4 2 1 . 2 9 . 1 2 9.1 2 18 . 8 1 0 . 3 3 E p i s c o p a l Ref. 6 . 2 1 1 2 . 5 2 1.2 4 . 8 1 4 . 5 1 P r o t e s t a n t 3.4 1 Mormon 4 . 8 1 No R e l i g i o n 3.4 1 T o t a l 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 16.5% 33% 3.7% 19% O 100% 100% Membership or 36% 36% Cen. unknown 38.7% 32% 100% 171 P o p u l a t i o n and R e l i g i o u s A f f i l i a t i o n of Members  of the B r i t i s h . Columbia L e g i s l a t u r e A study o f the r e l i g i o u s a f f i l i a t i o n s o f members of the B r i t i s h Columbia l e g i s l a t u r e s i n c e C o n f e d e r a t i o n shows a s h i f t i n g p a t t e r n o f r e l i g i o u s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n which d i f f e r s from the p a t t e r n of r e p r e s e n t a t i o n f o r Canada as a 217 whole. ' Prom 1871 u n t i l the t u r n o f the c e n t u r y the A n g l i c a n and P r e s b y t e r i a n elements dominated p r o v i n c i a l p o l i t i c s . However, t h e i r i n f l u e n c e has g r a d u a l l y d e c l i n e d and they are now more p r o p o r t i o n a l l y r e p r e s e n t e d i n the Assembly. Throughout t h e whole p e r i o d the Roman C a t h o l i c Church has been g r o s s l y u n d e r - r e p r e s e n t e d . S i n c e the middle of the 1930's extremely l i b e r a l r e l i g i o u s c u l t s and a g n o s t i c s have been o v e r - r e p r e s e n t e d i n the l e g i s l a t u r e . However, t h e i r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n has dec r e a s e d somewhat i n r e c e n t y e a r s . I n l i n e w i t h the t r e n d throughout Canada as a whole the U n i t e d Church i s coming t o be p i Q p r o p o r t i o n a l l y o v e r - r e p r e s e n t e d . The p r e s e n t decade w i t n e s s e s a r i s e i n the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the more e v a n g e l i c a l and f u n d a m e n t a l i s t i c r e l i g i o u s s e c t s . The f i n d i n g s o f Norman Ward i n the f e d e r a l f i e l d w i t h r e s p e c t t o u n d e r - r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of c o n t i n e n t a l European 219 elements and other immigrant groups seems t o be con f i r m e d . A l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n o f the p r o v i n c e ' s Roman C a t h o l i c p o p u l a t i o n i s of c o n t i n e n t a l European o r i g i n , y e t a m a j o r i t y TABLE I I Membership B. C. L e g i s l a t u r e t o T o t a l P o p u l a t i o n (Percentages) 1903-1925 DENOMINATION YEAR 1905 1908 1910 1911 Cen. 1914 1918 1921 Cen. 1922 1925 A n g l i c a n 3 6 . 8 14 4-1.7 15 4 4 . 7 17 2 5 . 7 5 4 . 3 19 17.6 6 3 0 . 7 26 . 8 11 35-7 15 B a p t i s t 5 . 3 2 5 . 5 2 2 . 6 1 4 . 4 11.8 2 3 . 8 4 . 8 2 — L u t h e r a n 4 . 9 3 - 4 2 . 4 1 Pre sbyt. 31.6 12 3 3 . 3 12 26 . 3 10 2 0 . 9 28 . 6 10 3 8 . 2 13 2 3 . 4 3 9 . 0 16 28 . 6 12 M e t h o d i s t 1 5 . 8 6 11.1 4 18 . 4 7 1 3 . 3 14 . 3 5 17 .6 6 1 2 . 4 12.2 5 16 . 7 7 Roman Cath. 2 . 6 1 2 . 8 1 5 . 3 2 14 . 9 2 . 8 1 2 . 9 1 1 2 . 1 4 . 9 2 4 . 8 2 P r o t e s t a n t 2 . 6 1 5 . 5 2 2 . 6 1 4 . 9 2 2 . 4 1 E p i s c o p a l 2 . 6 ' 1 2 . 4 1 Congregation-a l i s t 2 . 9 1 2 . 4 1 2 . 4 1 U n i t a r i a n 2 . 6 1 2 . 9 1 2 . 4 1 2 . 4 ( A g n o s t i c ) 1 Others Masons 5 . 9 2 2 . 4 1 B e l i e v e r - not a f f i l i a t i o n TOTAL 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 173 of the Roman C a t h o l i c M. L. A.'s have come from E n g l i s h speaking r a c i a l backgrounds. Only two L u t h e r a n members have ever been e l e c t e d . No member of an Orthodox Church has ev e r sat i n the Assembly. S i m i l a r l y , n e i t h e r the Jews nor the C o n f u c i a n s have ever had r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n the p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t u r e . I n 1871 when B r i t i s h Columbia c o n f e d e r a t e d t o form the s i x t h Canadian p r o v i n c e the p o l i t i c a l ascendancy of the E n g l i s h c o l o n i a l , and p a r t i c u l a r l y the A n g l i c a n element c o n t i n u e d . I n 1873, 68 per cent of the members i n the Assembly belonged t o the Church of England; s i x per cent t o the E p i s c o p a l Reformed Church, an o f f s h o o t of t h e A n g l i c a n communion l o c a l l y . Another 24 per cent of the members b e l o n g to the P r e s b y t e r i a n Church. Other denominations, i n c l u d i n g the Roman C a t h o l i c Church, were as f a r as can be a s c e r t a i n e d , unrepre sented. By 1877 the A n g l i c a n r e p r e s e n t a t i o n had been reduced somewhat w h i l e t h a t of the E p i s c o p a l Reformed Church had r i s e n . The Roman C a t h o l i c Church was now r e p r e s e n t e d by 12 p e r cent of the members i n the Assembly. The f i r s t Canadian census i n which the B r i t i s h Columbia p o p u l a t i o n i s r e c o r d e d i s the census o f 1880, and 220 here the i n f o r m a t i o n i s v e r y i n c o m p l e t e . Over 38 per cent of the p o p u l a t i o n i s not l i s t e d by r e l i g i o u s a f f i l i a t i o n . As a consequence the f i g u r e s i n T a b l e I sh o u l d be i n c r e a s e d p r o p o r t i o n a l l y i n o r d e r to give a p r o p e r p i c t u r e o f the 174-d e n o m i n a t i o n a l c o m p o s i t i o n of the p r o v i n c e . Even when t h i s i s done a p e r u s a l of the Tab l e w i l l show t h a t throughout the 1870's and 1880's the Church of Engl a n d and the E p i s c o p a l Reformed Church were g r e a t l y o v e r - r e p r e s e n t e d i n the l e g i s l a t u r e . The same i s a l s o t r u e of the P r e s b y t e r i a n Church. D u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d the p r o p o r t i o n of Roman C a t h o l i c s i n the p o p u l a t i o n was at i t s h e i g h t ; but they remained under-r e p r e s e n t e d i n the Assembly. P o r example, i n 1880 20 per cen t of the p o p u l a t i o n l i s t e d themselves as adherents of the Roman C a t h o l i c Church. Y e t from 1871 u n t i l the t u r n of the c e n t u r y C a t h o l i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n the l e g i s l a t u r e hovered around t e n p e r cent of the t o t a l membership. Only i n 1887 d i d C a t h o l i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n approach a percentage n e a r i n g t h a t of t h e i r o v e r a l l p o p u l a t i o n percentage throughout the p r o v i n c e . Census d a t a t o 1900 shows a slow but steady i n c r e a s e i n the number of B a p t i s t and L u t h e r a n adherents i n the p r o v i n c e ' s p o p u l a t i o n . Yet as f a r as i n f o r m a t i o n i s a v a i l a b l e n e i t h e r denomination had r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n the Assembly. The M e t h o d i s t Church, a communion which was e x t e n d i n g i t s membership, h a v i n g i n c r e a s e d from 7 to 15 per cen t between 1880 and 1890, was a l s o i n a d e q u a t e l y r e p r e s e n t e d i n the l e g i s l a t u r e i f o v e r a l l p o p u l a t i o n f i g u r e s are t a k e n as an e q u i t a b l e b a s i s f o r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . As f a r as can be 175 a s c e r t a i n e d , the minor s e c t s and c u l t s were s i n g u l a r l y -absent from the l e g i s l a t i v e h a l l s d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d . The census d a t a f o r the p e r i o d from 1900 i s more complete and thus a much more a c c u r a t e p i c t u r e o f the r e l i g i o u s c o m p o s i t i o n o f the p o p u l a t i o n can be developed. A t the t u r n o f the c e n t u r y adherents of the Church of E n g l a n d accounted f o r 25 per cent of the p o p u l a t i o n . However, i n the same yea r they had 44 p e r cent of t h e membership i n the l e g i s l a t u r e . In 1905 and 1908 the A n g l i c a n s were s t i l l about doubly r e p r e s e n t e d i f p o p u l a t i o n p e r c e n t a g e s are t a k e n as an e q u i t a b l e b a s i s f o r measurement. S i m i l a r l y the P r e s b y t e r i a n element accounted f o r an o v e r - r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y 10 per cent of the membership of the Assembly. Between 1900 and 1910 the s m a l l e r P r o t e s t a n t denominations began to make t h e i r appearance i n the l e g i s l a t u r e . D u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d the M e t h o d i s t s extended t h e i r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n u n t i l i t was p r o p o r t i o n a t e t o p o p u l a t i o n . The B a p t i s t Church r e c e i v e d i t s f i r s t r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n 1901 and extended i t a g a i n i n 1905* As f a r as can be a s c e r t a i n e d the Roman C a t h o l i c Church had but one member i n the l e g i s l a t u r e d u r i n g the f i r s t decade of the ce n t u r y , thus a c c o u n t i n g f o r l e s s t h an 5 p e r cent of the t o t a l l e g i s l a t i v e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . T h i s marks the b e g i n n i n g of a d e c l i n e i n C a t h o l i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n which was t o c o n t i n u e , p a r t i c u l a r l y throughout the p e r i o d s of C o n s e r v a t i v e ascendancy. I t i s noteworthy t h a t throughout TABLE I I I Membership B. C. L e g i s l a t u r e t o T'otal P o p u l a t i o n (Percentages) 1925-1954 DENOMINATION YEAR 1950 1950 Cen. 1935 1938 1941 Cen. 1942 1947 1951 Cen. 1950 1953 1954 A n g l i c a n 31.8 14 2 9 . 5 2 3 . 7 9 15-2 7 3 0 . 0 2 0 . 4 9 3 8 . 6 17 2 7 . 0 2 5 . 8 10 3 0 . 9 13 28 . 9 15 B a p t i s t 2 . 3 1 3 . 4 2.6 1 2 . 2 1 3 . 6 4 . 5 2 6 . 8 3 3 . 4 7.1 3 1 1 . 9 5 6.6 5 L u t h e r a n 2.3 1 5 . 5 2.6 1 2 . 2 1 5.1 2 . 5 1 5 . 2 P r e s b y t . 2 0 . 4 9 12.1 15.8 6 1 7 . 4 8 11.5 15.9 7 11.4 5 8 . 3 9 . 5 4 2 . 3 1 2 . 2 1 U n i t e d Ch. 31.8 14 2 3 . 7 51.6 12 3 9 . 1 18 24 . 5 2 5 . 0 11 2 5 . 0 11 2913 3 0 . 9 13 3 8 . 0 16 4 4 . 4 20 Roman Cath. 4 . 5 2 1 3 . 0 7 . 9 3 6 . 5 4 15.8 11 .4 5 14 . 4 9 . 5 4 2 . 4 1 6.6 3 P r o t e s t a n t 2 . 5 1 2 . 3 1 2 . 4 , 1 2 . 2 1 A g n o s t i c 2 . 5 1 7-9 3 6 . 5 3 9-1 4 4 . 5 2 4.8 2 4 . 4 2 U n i t a r i a n 2 . 6 1 2 .2 1 4 . 5 2 4.8 2 E p i s c o p a l 2 . 5 1 Nazarene 2.4 1 2.2 1 P e n t e c o s t a l ( P u l l Gospel) 2 . 4 1 4.4 2 Not A f f i l . 2 . 3 ( D 2 . 3 ( 1 ) Masonic 2 . 2 ( 1 ) Huguenot 2 . 3 ( 1 ) U n i t a r i a n or A g n o s t i c 2.6(1) 2.6(1) 2 . 3 ( 1 ) TOTAL 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 177 the y e a r s the C a t h o l i c members were p r i m a r i l y of E n g l i s h descent and not of C o n t i n e n t a l European r a c i a l o r i g i n . T a b l e I I w i l l show t h a t the o v e r - r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the A n g l i c a n elements c o n t i n u e d u n t i l the d e f e a t of the C o n s e r v a t i v e Bowser a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n 1916. A f t e r the e l e c t i o n o f t h a t year the A n g l i c a n r e p r e s e n t a t i o n dropped from 54 t o l e s s than 18 p e r cent. A t the same time P r e s b y t e r i a n r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n c r e a s e d t o 38 p e r c e n t . M e t h o d i s t s accounted f o r another 14 per cent o f the t o t a l Assembly membership. P o r the f i r s t time the B a p t i s t s were o v e r - r e p r e s e n t e d , h a v i n g e l e c t e d f o u r members o r 12 per cent of the o v e r a l l membership of the l e g i s l a t u r e . The C o n g r e g a t i o n a l i s t and U n i t a r i a n Churches each had one adherent i n the Assembly. Only one Roman C a t h o l i c was e l e c t e d a l t h o u g h p r o p o r t i o n a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s h o u l d have g i v e n them a t l e a s t f o u r members. No s i g n i f i c a n t changes occur a g a i n u n t i l 1924 when f o r the f i r s t time a L u t h e r a n was e l e c t e d t o the l e g i s l a t u r e . ' Prom 1930 t h r o u g h u n t i l 1950 a new p a t t e r n of r e l i g i o u s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n emerges w i t h the A n g l i c a n s no l o n g e r b e i n g p r o p o r t i o n a l l y o v e r - r e p r e s e n t e d . G e n e r a l l y the denominations are r e p r e s e n t e d a c c o r d i n g t o p o p u l a t i o n w i t h the e x c e p t i o n of the Roman C a t h o l i c Church which remains u n d e r - r e p r e s e n t e d , and of the U n i t e d Church which was over-r e p r e s e n t e d . The P r e s b y t e r i a n Church remained s l i g h t l y o v e r - r e p r e s e n t e d , but t h e i r numbers d i m i n i s h e d w i t h the 178 p a s s i n g o f some of the o l d e r members and as a r e s u l t of a decrease i n the s t r e n g t h o f the denomination which r e s u l t e d from Church u n i o n . T a b l e I I I w i l l show t h a t the o t h e r s i g n i f i c a n t change i n the r e l i g i o u s c o m p o s i t i o n o f the l e g i s l a t u r e which o c c u r r e d d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d was an i n c r e a s e i n the number of M. L. A.'s who c l a s s e d themselves as a g n o s t i c s o r members of 221 denominations w i t h e x t r e m e l y l i b e r a l t h e o l o g i c a l b e l i e f s . T h i s t r e n d reached i t s g r e a t e s t p r o p o r t i o n i n 1942 when over 15 p e r cent o f the members of the l e g i s l a t u r e were U n i t a r i a n s or a g n o s t i c s . T h i s f i g u r e emphasizes the p r o p o r t i o n a l o v e r -r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of such groups. The p r e s e n t decade w i t n e s s e s the b r e a k t h r o u g h i n t o p r o v i n c i a l p o l i t i c s o f members of r e l i g i o u s groups t h a t h e r e t o f o r e were c o n s i d e r e d p r i m a r i l y s e c t - t y p e r e l i g i o u s i n s t i t u t i o n s . These groups i n c l u d e the more f u n d a m e n t a l i s t i c B a p t i s t and H o l i n e s s movements which sprang up as a r e a c t i o n to the l i b e r a l t e n d e n c i e s which r e s u l t e d from the expansion of B i b l i c a l c r i t i c i s m d u r i n g the l a t t e r p o r t i o n o f the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . In .1953 B a p t i s t r e p r e s e n t a t i o n jumped to almost 12 per cent o f the t o t a l membership of the Assembly. At the same time two m i n i s t e r s , one from the Church o f the Nazarene and one from the P e n t e c o s t a l A s s e m b l i e s o f Canada, were a l s o e l e c t e d . A t the o t h e r extreme the U n i t a r i a n s and a g n o s t i c s a l s o remained o v e r - r e p r e s e n t e d . TABLE IV Membership, B. C. L e g i s l a t u r e — P o l i t i c a l P a r t y and R e l i g i o u s A f f i l i a t i o n DENOMINATION YEAR PARTY A n g l i c a n B a p t i s t L u t h e r a n M e t h o d i s t Pre sbyt, R. C. Other ' C o n s e r v a t i v e 65% 11 29% 5 U n i t . 6% P r o t . 6% (1) (1) 1905 L i b e r a l 17% 3 11% 2 28% 5 33% 6. 6% Cong. 6% 1 (1) S o c i a l i s t 50% 1 50% 1 Independent 50% 1 C o n s e r v a t i v e 61% 14 4% 1 50% 1 26% 6 4% P r o t . 4%. (1) L i b e r a l 10% 2 58% 11 26% 5 P r o t . 5% (1) 1908 S o c i a l i s t 50% 1 C o n s e r v a t i v e 50% 16 50% 1 19% 6 25% 8 6% 2 1910 L i b e r a l 25% 1 50% 2 Prot.2 5 % (1) S o c i a l i s t 50% 1 C o n s e r v a t i v e 58% 19 50% 1 12% 4 .-27% 9 1914 L i b e r a l 100% 1 S o c i a l i s t 100% 1 180 The L u t h e r a n s were w i t h o u t r e p r e s e n t a t i o n from 1942 u n t i l the e l e c t i o n of 1956. At the same time the U n i t e d Church, whose r e p r e s e n t a t i o n had been p r o p o r t i o n a l throughout the 1940's, showed a marked i n c r e a s e b o t h i n p o p u l a t i o n percentage and i n Assembly membership. A c c o r d i n g t o the 1950 census 29 per cent of the p r o v i n c i a l p o p u l a t i o n were members or adherents o f the U n i t e d Church. However, th e y were r e p r e s e n t e d by 38 p e r cent of the members of the l e g i s l a t u r e i n 1955. The f i g u r e had i n c r e a s e d t o 44 per cent by 1957. R e l i g i o u s A f f i l i a t i o n and P a r t y Membership The second q u e s t i o n to be c o n s i d e r e d i s t h a t of the r e l a t i o n s h i p of r e l i g i o u s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n t o p a r t y membership. In a study of the membership of the Canadian p a r l i a m e n t i t was e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t c e r t a i n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c p a t t e r n s o f r e l i g i o u s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n e x i s t e d w i t h i n the 222 d i f f e r e n t p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s . I n Canada, Jews are e x c l u s i v e l y r e p r e s e n t e d by the L i b e r a l p a r t y . C a t h o l i c s are c o n c e n t r a t e d i n the L i b e r a l caucus. A n g l i c a n s are h e a v i l y c o n c e n t r a t e d i n the C o n s e r v a t i v e p a r t y . O t h e r P r o t e s t a n t denominations are more e v e n l y d i s t r i b u t e d between the two major p a r t i e s than i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s . I n both Canadian minor p a r t i e s — the C. C. P. and the S o c i a l C r e d i t — the U n i t e d Church i s over-r e p r e s e n t e d and C a t h o l i c s are g r e a t l y under-r e p r e s e n t e d . B a p t i s t s are s t r o n g i n the C. C. P., weak i n the S o c i a l C r e d i t . The Church of E n g l a n d i s v e r y much u n d e r - r e p r e s e n t e d i n the C. C. P. and o v e r - r e p r e s e n t e d i n S o c i a l C r e d i t . 181 I t w i l l be of i n t e r e s t t o see whether a s i m i l a r p a t t e r n p r e s e n t s i t s e l f i n a study o f B r i t i s h Columbia's p r o v i n c i a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . The p e r i o d from C o n f e d e r a t i o n u n t i l 1903 was one i n which p r o v i n c i a l p o l i t i c s was marked by the i n s t a b i l i t y of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s r e s u l t i n g from the f a c t t h a t no s t a b l e p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y system e x i s t e d . C a b i n e t s were changed and r e s h u f f l e d t o a l l o w f o r a s a t i s f a c t o r y balance of i n t e r e s t s . As f a r as can be a s c e r t a i n e d , these adjustments tended t o f o l l o w roughly, f e d e r a l p a r t y l i n e s . A m a j o r i t y o f the members were s u p p o r t e r s o f the L i b e r a l - C o n s e r v a t i v e p a r t y f e d e r a l l y and t h i s h e l p s t o e x p l a i n the o v e r - r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of members o f the Church o f E n g l a n d i n the Assembly. I t i s o n l y a f t e r 1903, when p a r t y government was f i n a l l y i n t r o d u c e d , l a r g e l y through the e f f o r t s o f S i r R i c h a r d McBride, t h a t an adequate assessment of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between r e l i g i o u s a f f i l i a t i o n and caucus membership i s 225 p o s s i b l e . y From 1903 u n t i l 1916 the C o n s e r v a t i v e p a r t y enjoyed the ascendancy i n p r o v i n c i a l p o l i t i c s . A p e r u s a l of the t a b l e s w i l l show t h a t a gre a t p r o p o r t i o n of t h e i r M. L. A.'s were A n g l i c a n s . Indeed, u n t i l the d e f e a t of the C o n s e r v a t i v e Bowser a d m i n i s t r a t i o n w e l l over 50 per cent of the members of the government caucuses were A n g l i c a n s . P r e s b y t e r i a n s accounted f o r another 25 per cent o f the C o n s e r v a t i v e Assembly membership. The Roman C a t h o l i c s never had more than Membership, B. C. L e g i s l a t u r e -TABLE V - P o l i t i c a l P a r t y and R e l i g i o u s A f f i l i a t i o n DENOMINATION YEAR PARTY A n g l i c a n B a p t i s t L u t h e r a n M e t h o d i s t Pre sbyt. R. C. Other C o n s e r v a t i v e 12% 1 . 12% 1 23% 2 1918 L i b e r a l 4% 1 13% 3 17% 4 43% . 10 4% 1 Mason 9%(2) S o c i a l i s t 100% (1) Independent 100% (1) C o n s e r v a t i v e 46% 6 8% 1 15% 2 31% 4 1922 L i b e r a l 14% 3 5% 1 9% 2 50% 11 9% 2 U n i t . 5%(1) Cong. 5%(1) P r o t . 5%(D S o c i a l i s t P r o t . 100%(1) Independent 50% (1) 50% (1) P e o p l e ' s P a r t y 100% (1) Labour 50% (1) P r o t . 50%(1) C o n s e r v a t i v e 60% 9 8% 13% 1 2 13% 2 8% 1 1925 L i b e r a l 14% 3 19% 4 48% 10 5% 1 U n i t . 5%(1) Cong. 5 % ( l ) Agnos.5%(l) People 1 s P a r t y 100% (1) Independent 100% (1) Lahour 66% 2 * R a d i c a l T - Church of England 100% (1) P r o t . 3 3 % ( D 183 two C o n s e r v a t i v e members d u r i n g tbe p e r i o d . A s l i g b t t r e n d towards g r e a t e r M e t h o d i s t r e p r e s e n t a t i o n w i t h i n the p a r t y i s shown. When the C o n s e r v a t i v e s were d e f e a t e d i n 1916 a L i b e r a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n was formed under the l e a d e r s h i p of H. C. Brewster. A d i f f e r e n t p a t t e r n of r e l i g i o u s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i s immediately e v i d e n t . As T a b l e V w i l l show, a m a j o r i t y o f t b e new L i b e r a l members bel o n g e d to the P r e s b y t e r i a n , B a p t i s t , and M e t h o d i s t Churches. On the o t h e r hand a m a j o r i t y o f the o p p o s i t i o n members belonged t o the P r e s b y t e r i a n o r A n g l i c a n denominations. I n 1918 4.3 p e r cent o f the L i b e r a l members were P r e s b y t e r i a n , 17 per cent M e t h o d i s t s , 13 p e r cent B a p t i s t s , and 4- p e r cent Roman C a t h o l i c s . In 1922 P r e s b y t e r i a n r e p r e s e n t a t i o n w i t h i n the L i b e r a l caucus i n c r e a s e d t o 50 p e r cent and A n g l i c a n r e p r e s e n t a t i o n from 4- to 14- p e r c e n t . N e v e r t h e l e s s , tbe b a s i c p a t t e r n c o n t i n u e s throughout the p e r i o d o f L i b e r a l c o n t r o l . The m a j o r i t y of C o n s e r v a t i v e M. L. A.'s are A n g l i c a n , the m a j o r i t y of L i b e r a l s P r e s b y t e r i a n , M e t h o d i s t o r B a p t i s t . From 1900 u n t i l the r e t u r n o f the C o n s e r v a t i v e s i n 1928, minor p a r t y r e p r e s e n t a t i o n was too s m a l l t o show any d e f i n i t e t r e n d s . The S o c i a l i s t members seem t o have been l i t t l e concerned w i t h r e l i g i o u s a f f a i r s and they d i d not l i s t t h e i r a f f i l i a t i o n s i n the Canadian P a r l i a m e n t a r y Guide. I n 1922 a s m a l l group c a l l e d the P e o p l e ' s P a r t y e l e c t e d a TABLE V I Membership, B. C. House — P o l i t i c a l P a r t y and R e l i g i o u s A f f i l i a t i o n DENOMINATION YEAR PARTY A n g l i c a n B a p t i s t L u t h e r a n U n i t e d Ch. P r e s b y t . R. C. O t h e r C o n s e r v a t i v e 4 2 % 13 3% 3% 35% 1 1 11 10% 3 3% 1 P r o t . 3% 1 1930 L i b e r a l 8% 1 25% 3 50% 6 8% 1 Agnos.8% 1 L a b o u r 100% 1 1935 C o n s e r v a t i v e 50% 1 50% 1 C. C. F. 20% 1 Agnos.80% 4 L i b e r a l 14% 4 4% 4 3 % 1 12 2 1 % 6 11% 3 U n i t . 4% P r o t . 4% L a b o u r 100% 1 Independent 100% 1 C o n s e r v a t i v e 25% 2 13% 1 37% 25% 2 C« C. P. 1938 29% 2 Agnos.43%(3) B e l i e v e r , n o t a f f i l i a . 1 4 % ( 1 ) U n i t . o r A g n . l 4 % ( l ) L i b e r a l 10% 3 4 3 % 13 20% 6 13% P r o t . 1 4 Mason 1 U n i t . 3 % ( D L a b o u r 100% ( 1) Independent 100% (1) 185 P r e s b y t e r i a n clergyman as t h e i r o n l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e . I n 1925 the p a r t y was r e p r e s e n t e d by one member, an A n g l i c a n . Two of the three Labour members e l e c t e d at the same time were A n g l i c a n s , the t h i r d l i s t i n g h i m s e l f as a P r o t e s t a n t . The r e t u r n of the C o n s e r v a t i v e s to power i n 1928 marked a resurgence i n A n g l i c a n r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . However, the growth of U n i t e d Church i n f l u e n c e w i t h i n the p a r t y i s seen by the f a c t t h a t U n i t e d Churchmen accounted f o r 35 per cent o f the C o n s e r v a t i v e caucus membership. A f u r t h e r 10 per cent o f the C o n s e r v a t i v e M. L. A.'s were P r e s b y t e r i a n s . I n the same p a r l i a m e n t 50 per cent of the L i b e r a l o p p o s i t i o n members were P r e s b y t e r i a n s , another 25 per cent b e i n g members or adherents of" the U n i t e d Church. There were no S o c i a l i s t s i n the Assembly and o n l y one A n g l i c a n Labour member. The C o n s e r v a t i v e s were d e f e a t e d i n the f a l l of 1954. A L i b e r a l government was formed under the l e a d e r s h i p o f Premier P a t t u l l o which was composed by r e l i g i o u s a f f i l i a t i o n o f f o u r A n g l i c a n s , s i x P r e s b y t e r i a n s , three Roman C a t h o l i c s , one B a p t i s t , one U n i t a r i a n , one P r o t e s t a n t , and twelve U n i t e d Church-men. The C . C. F. p a r t y had r i s e n as a f o r c e i n p r o v i n c i a l p o l i t i c s and c o n s t i t u t e d the o f f i c i a l o p p o s i t i o n . I t i s d i f f i c u l t to e s t a b l i s h the a f f i l i a t i o n o f many of the C. C. F. members TABLE V I I Membership, B. C. L e g i s l a t u r e — P o l i t i c a l P a r t y and R e l i g i o u s A f f i l i a t i o n YEAR PARTY A n g l i c a n Bapt. DENOMINATION Lutheran U n i t e d Ch. P r e s b y t . R. C. Other T o t a l Conservative 25% 3 8% 1 4-2% 5 17% 2 100% 194-2 C. C. F 15% 2 Agnos.$8%(5) U n i t . 8 % ( l ) B e l . 8%(1) Ch.Sc.8%(l) 1 0 7 0 Hug'nt 8%(1) Ag.or Un.8%(l) . L i b e r a l 15% 25% 5 "259T 5 25% _1_ U n i t . Labour 100% (1) Conservative 57% 7% 21% 14-% 8 i 3 a 194-7 C. C. F. 36% 4 18% 2 9% 1 Agn. 27%(3) B e l . 9% C D C o a l i t i o n 40% 2 20% 1 20% 1 20% 1 L i b e r a l 8% 1 8% 1 4-2% 5 17% 2 17% 2 P r o t . 8% 1 Labour 100% (1) Conservative 33% 4 8% 1 33% 4 16% 2 Mason 8% (1) C. C. F. 1950 29% 2 14% 1 14% 1 Agnos.43% 3 100% C o a l i t i o n 4-0% 2 20% 1 20% 1 P r o t . 20% 1 L i b e r a l 6% 1 6% 1 41% 7 12% 2 . 12% 2 Mason 17% 3 Labour 100% 1 187 because as a r u l e t h e y have not r e c o r d e d t h e i r r e l i g i o u s denominations i n the P a r l i a m e n t a r y Guides. However, a t t h i s time the C. C. F. caucus was composed of one A n g l i c a n and f o u r ffi. L. A.'s who c o n s i d e r e d themselves a g n o s t i c s . I t i s c l e a r t h a t the s h i f t i n the r e l i g i o u s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f the Assembly c o i n c i d e d w i t h the d e c l i n e i n c o n s e r v a t i v e thought and the r i s e o f l i b e r a l and s o c i a l i s t p o l i t i c a l p h i l o s o p h i e s d u r i n g the p e r i o d of the Great D e p r e s s i o n . L a t e r i n P a t t u l l o ' s L i b e r a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n the C a t h o l i c s enjoyed t h e i r g r e a t e s t r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s i n c e 1897. In 1938 13 p e r cent o f t h e L i b e r a l M. L. A.'s belonged t o the Roman C a t h o l i c Church. D u r i n g the p e r i o d of C o a l i t i o n r u l e which f o l l o w e d , the r e l i g i o u s denominations were e q u i t a b l y r e p r e s e n t e d on the government s i d e of the Assembly. The C o n s e r v a t i v e s p r o v i d e d a m a j o r i t y o f t h e government * s ' A n g l i c a n r e p r e s e n t a -t i v e s w h i l e the L i b e r a l p a r t y p r o v i d e d a m a j o r i t y of the U n i t e d , P r e s b y t e r i a n and B a p t i s t s u p p o r t e r s . The p a t t e r n s e t by the e a r l y S o c i a l i s t members co n t i n u e s t o be seen i n the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e C. C. F. p a r t y . A m a j o r i t y o f the members were e i t h e r a g n o s t i c s , or members of extremely l i b e r a l r e l i g i o u s c u l t s . F o r example, i n 194-2, 38 per cent o f t h e C. C. F. members were a g n o s t i c s , w h i l e another 28 p e r cent of the caucus members belonged t o groups l i k e the U n i t a r i a n and C h r i s t i a n S c i e n c e Churches. In l a t e r y e a r s there i s a t r e n d f o r the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of 188 the U n i t e d Church w i t h i n the caucus t o i n c r e a s e . N e v e r t h e l e s s , the g e n e r a l i z a t i o n can d e f i n i t e l y he made t h a t the p a r t y drew i t s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n from the most l i b e r a l elements of the e s t a b l i s h e d Churches, or from t h a t s m a l l m i n o r i t y who admit 224-to h a v i n g no r e l i g i o u s a f f i l i a t i o n s whatsoever. The d e f e a t o f the Johnson-Anscomb C o a l i t i o n i n 1952 and the e l e c t i o n o f the Bennett a d m i n i s t r a t i o n marked the f i r s t s i g n i f i c a n t entrance o f the S o c i a l C r e d i t p a r t y i n t o p r o v i n c i a l p o l i t i c s . A study of S o c i a l C r e d i t r e p r e s e n t a t i o n b r i n g s to l i g h t a d i s t i n c t i v e p a t t e r n of r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . The movement seems t o have been a c o a l i t i o n of the former C o n s e r v a t i v e - A n g l i c a n elements w i t h the r i s i n g f u n d a m e n t a l i s t i c r e l i g i o u s s e c t s . I n the e l e c t i o n o f 1952 the p a r t y e l e c t e d e i g h t e e n members. S i x o f the s e members belonged t o the Church o f England, another s i x t o the U n i t e d Church. F o u r of t h e i i . L. A.'s were B a p t i s t s , w h i l e the other two belonged t o H o l i n e s s movements — the P e n t e c o s t a l A s s e m b l i e s and the Church of the Nazarene. The p a r t y extended i t s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n the e l e c t i o n of 1955 hy the a d d i t i o n o f one P r e s b y t e r i a n and two Roman C a t h o l i c s t o i t s ranks. T a b l e VIHshows t h a t i n t h a t year the A n g l i c a n s and U n i t e d s each had 51 per cen t of the caucus membership, w h i l e the B a p t i s t s accounted f o r another 15 per cent. Twelve per cent of the S o c i a l C r e d i t Iff. L. A.'s belonged t o H o l i n e s s s e c t s , a f u r t h e r 8 per cent t o the Roman C a t h o l i c Church. The e l e c t i o n of 1956 r e s u l t e d i n a TABLE V I I I Membership, B. C. L e g i s l a t u r e — P o l i t i c a l P a r t y and R e l i g i o u s A f f i l i a t i o n 1953 PARTY A n g l i c a n B a p t i s t DENOMINATION Lut h e r a n U n i t e d Ch. P r e s b y t . R. C. Other C o n s e r v a t i v e 100% 1 C. C. F. 24% 5 41% 7 6% 1 U n i t . l l % ( 2 ) Agn . l 8 % ( 3 ) L i b e r a l 53.3% 2 16.6% 1 35.3% 2 16.6% 1 Socred. 33-3% 22.2% 35-3% Pent . 5 - 5 % ( 1 ) 6 4 __6 .Naz. 5«5%(1) Labour 100% (1) C o n s e r v a t i v e 100% 1 C. C. F. 1954 23% 3 53.8% 7 7.6% 1 Agn. 15-5% 2 L i b e r a l 25% 1 75% 5 Labour 100% (1) 1954 SOCRED 30.7% 8 15.5% 4 30.7% 8 5.8% 1 7.6% 2 P e n t . ( l ) Naz. (1) F u l l G . ( l ) C. C. F. 22.2% 2 44.4% 4 11.1% 1 Agn.22.2% 2 L i b e r a l 50% 1 50% 1 Socred. 18.7% 6 12.5% 4 5.1% 1 46.8% 15 • 5.1% 1 6.2% 2 P e n t . ( l ) Mason(l) F u l l G . ( l ) Labour 100% (1) 190 l a n d s l i d e f o r the S o c i a l C r e d i t p a r t y . I t a l s o marked an i n c r e a s e i n the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of U n i t e d Churchmen w i t h i n the p a r t y caucus. I n sum, the c o n c l u s i o n must be r e a c h e d t h a t each p o l i t i c a l p a r t y has i t s own d i s t i n c t i v e p a t t e r n o f r e l i g i o u s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . I n the case of the C o n s e r v a t i v e and L i b e r a l p a r t i e s t h e i r p r o v i n c i a l p a t t e r n s correspond c l o s e l y t o those of t h e i r p a r t i e s n a t i o n a l l y . A n g l i c a n s are h e a v i l y c o n c e n t r a t e d i n the C o n s e r v a t i v e p a r t y , but l e s s so than a t the t u r n of the c e n t u r y . The P r e s b y t e r i a n s and M e t h o d i s t s were c o n c e n t r a t e d i n the L i b e r a l caucuses. I n more r e c e n t y e a r s the L i b e r a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n has shown a c o n c e n t r a t i o n of U n i t e d , P r e s b y t e r i a n and C a t h o l i c members. I t i s c l e a r t h a t the C. C. P. p r o v i n c i a l l y has had a d i f f e r e n t p a t t e r n o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n than has the p a r t y f e d e r a l l y . A l t h o u g h t h e r e has been at l e a s t one C a t h o l i c member, adherents of the U n i t e d and A n g l i c a n Churches, a l o n g w i t h an o v e r - r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of U n i t a r i a n s and a g n o s t i c s have dominated the p a r t y caucuses. Whereas B a p t i s t s are s t r o n g i n the C. C. F. o r g a n i z a t i o n f e d e r a l l y they have never had r e p r e s e n t a t i o n w i t h i n the p r o v i n c i a l caucus at any time. The predominance o f the l i b e r a l e x t r e m i s t s seems a l s o to have a l i e n a t e d the e v a n g e l i c a l groups from i n t e r e s t i n g themselves w i t h the p a r t y ' s a f f a i r s . The A n g l i c a n s have g e n e r a l l y been p r o p o r t i o n a l l y r e p r e s e n t e d i n the C. C. F. . p r o v i n c i a l caucuses. 191 I n l i n e w i t h the f e d e r a l p a t t e r n , the Church of England i s o v e r - r e p r e s e n t e d i n the S o c i a l C r e d i t p a r t y . C o n t r a r y t o the f e d e r a l p a t t e r n the B a p t i s t s are a l s o over-r e p r e s e n t e d . There seems to have been a d e l i b e r a t e attempt to get Roman C a t h o l i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n the e l e c t i o n of 1953, so t h a t c o n s i d e r i n g the u n d e r - r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the C a t h o l i c s g e n e r a l l y , they are n o t u n d e r - r e p r e s e n t e d i n the S o c i a l C r e d i t caucus. There i s a growing tendency f o r the U n i t e d Church to dominate the p a r l i a m e n t a r y membership, but the p a r t y has b e e n - c a r e f u l t o g i v e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n t o the s a m l l e r L u t h e r a n and P r e s b y t e r i a n denominations as w e l l . C a b i n e t F o r m a t i o n and R e l i g i o u s R e p r e s e n t a t i o n The q u e s t i o n of c a b i n e t f o r m a t i o n and r e l i g i o u s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i s a d i f f i c u l t one to r e s o l v e ; but i t i s an important one, f o r t h e c a b i n e t i s i n f a c t the " c e n t r e of 225 g r a v i t y " of the system o f r e s p o n s i b l e government. y I t i s , f o r v i r t u a l l y a l l purposes, the r e a l e x e c u t i v e . I t f o r m u l a t e s and c a r r i e s out a l l e x e c u t i v e p o l i c i e s ; i t i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f a l l government departments; and i t a l s o p r e p a r e s by f a r the g r e a t e r p a r t of the l e g i s l a t i v e programme and e x e r c i s e s almost e x c l u s i v e c o n t r o l over a l l m a t t e r s of f i n a n c e . Thus, because the c a b i n e t i s such an important i n s t i t u t i o n any group or i n t e r e s t must be concerned to ensure t h a t i t s i n t e r e s t s w i l l be p r o p e r l y c o n s i d e r e d when p o l i c y i s b e i n g f o r m u l a t e d and d e c i s i o n s are b e i n g made. I t has been e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t i n c a b i n e t f o r m a t i o n at the f e d e r a l l e v e l , b o t h r a c i a l and r e l i g i o u s f a c t o r s , as w e l l as the b u i l t - i n requirement o f f e d e r a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n p l a y s an important p a r t . The q u e s t i o n i s t o a s c e r t a i n i f s i m i l a r c o n s i d e r a t i o n s are taken i n t o account when c a b i n e t s are formed under the B r i t i s h Columbia p r o v i n c i a l system. A denomination might be a b l e to a f f o r d b e i n g under-r e p r e s e n t e d i n the Assembly, but might s u f f e r g r e a t l y s h o u l d i t l a c k some spokesman when government p o l i c y was b e i n g f o r m u l a t e d . T a b l e IX w i l l show t h a t u n t i l the t u r n of the c e n t u r y the A n g l i c a n element was o v e r - r e p r e s e n t e d i n the c a b i n e t s as i n the Assembly; w h i l e the Roman C a t h o l i c Church, alth o u g h u n d e r - r e p r e s e n t e d by p o p u l a t i o n i n the House, seems to have had a much more e q u i t a b l e and c o n s i s t e n t r e p r e s e n t a t i o n w i t h i n the s e a t s o f power. A t l e a s t two a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s , those o f A. E . B. and Theodore D a v i e , were l e d by C a t h o l i c f i r s t m i n i s t e r s , and i n the s m a l l c a b i n e t s of t h a t e r a the Roman C a t h o l i c Church seldom l a c k e d some r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . There was a P r e s b y t e r i a n or M e t h o d i s t r e p r e s e n t a t i v e i n a l l but two of the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s d u r i n g t h a t time. D u r i n g the p e r i o d of C o n s e r v a t i v e ascendancy, from 1903 u n t i l 1916, the c a b i n e t s were made up almost c o m p l e t e l y of A n g l i c a n and P r e s b y t e r i a n members. As f a r as can be a s c e r t a i n e d , no B a p t i s t , M e t h o d i s t , o r L u t h e r a n was ever a member i n McBride's or Bowser's c a b i n e t s . I n 1903, a prominent C a t h o l i c layman, A. E. 227 M c P h i l i p s , was a p p o i n t e d to McBride's c a b i n e t . ' However, TABLE IX Cabinet Membership and R e l i g i o u s A f f i l i a t i o n 1873--1958 YEAR DENOMINATION A n g l i c a n B a p t i s t Lutheran Pres b y t . Methodist R. C. U n i t e d Other 1872 4 1-Episcopal 1876 2 1 1 1885 2 1 1887 1 1 1 1891 2 1 1 1897 3 1 1901 1 1 1 1905 2 2 1 - U n i t a r i a n 1-Protestant 1908 2 3 1-Protestant 1910 5 5 1916 5 3 1918 1 2 3 * 1 1 1922 4 1 1 1-Cong'ist 1925 5 1 1 1950 4 1 2 2 1955 2 2 5 1958 1 2 2 5 1-Protestant 1942 1 1 1 2 2 1 - U n i t a r i a n 1947 2 1 2 1 3 1-Protestant 1950 2 1 1 5 1953 1958 3 2 1 1 5 l - P e n t e c o s t a l 7 l - P e n t e c o s t a l The Brewster A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of 1916 — f i r s t B a p t i s t c h i e f m i n i s t e r . vo 194 on g o i n g back f o r r e - e l e c t i o n , which h i s appointment n e c e s s i t a t e d , he was d e f e a t e d and he sub s e q u e n t l y r e s i g n e d . Prom what i n f o r m a t i o n i s a v a i l a b l e no f u r t h e r attempts were made to gi v e the Roman C a t h o l i c s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n the ca b i n e t d u r i n g the r e m a i n i n g p e r i o d of C o n s e r v a t i v e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . Thus, f o r almost twenty y e a r s , the Roman C a t h o l i c Church remained without r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n the p r o v i n c i a l c a b i n e t s . That adequate Church r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n the Assembly and i n the p r o v i n c i a l c a b i n e t s was c o n s i d e r e d important d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d o f p r o v i n c i a l p o l i t i c s seems c e r t a i n , a l t h o u g h documentary evidence o f i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o o b t a i n . N e v e r t h e l e s s , there i s evidence t h a t the Roman C a t h o l i c Church was most concerned about i t s l a c k o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n bot h the c a b i n e t and the l e g i s l a t u r e . W ith the d e f e a t of the Bowser a d m i n i s t r a t i o n a t the g e n e r a l e l e c t i o n o f 1916, the C a t h o l i c Church l o o k e d forward t o a change. They expected t h a t the appointment of a L i b e r a l government under W. H. Brewster would l e a d t o r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e i r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s by the appointment of a C a t h o l i c t o the c a b i n e t . There i s evidence t h a t r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s were immediately made t o Brewster on b e h a l f of the C a t h o l i c Church from at l e a s t one sou r c e . However, when the o n l y C a t h o l i c L i b e r a l i n the caucus was not appointed, the premier r e c e i v e d the f o l l o w i n g l e t t e r from 229 one o f V i c t o r i a ' s prominent C a t h o l i c laymen: 195 I had hoped t h a t the announcement o f the p e r s o n n e l o f your c a b i n e t would have a f f o r d e d me the o p p o r t u n i t y of t h a n k i n g you f o r h a v i n g g i v e n C a t h o l i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . . . but you have seen f i t to i g n o r e the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of 50,000 C a t h o l i c p e o p l e . We have s u f f e r e d i n s i l e n c e i n t h i s r e s p e c t f o r a c o n s i d e r a b l e time, but f e l t t h a t w i t h the advent o f a L i b e r a l government we had r e a s o n s t o b e l i e v e t h a t the r i g h t s of the m i n o r i t y would be c o n s i d e r e d , but i t seems t h a t the P r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h Columbia i s d e s t i n e d t o be a P r o v i n c e of c e r t a i n o u t s t a n d i n g f e a t u r e s . . . and the one p r o v i n c e i n Canada t h a t r e f u s e s C a t h o l i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n i t s C a b i n e t . I beg to e x p r e s s my p e r s o n a l r e g r e t s and keen disappointment i n the stand you have taken, p a r t i c u l a r l y a f t e r h a v i n g a s s u r e d people a l l over the P r o v i n c e t h a t I f e l t we were going t o get the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n we a l l d e s i r e d so much. The f o l l o w i n g F e b r u a r y one of the c a b i n e t m i n i s t e r s from Vancouver passed away, and the C a t h o l i c s a g a i n made r e p r e s e n t a t i o n to B r e w s t e r f o r an appointment t o the c a b i n e t . They proposed t h a t a C a t h o l i c be a p p o i n t e d b e f o r e the h o l d i n g of a b y e - e l e c t i o n t o f i l l the v a c a n t s e a t . T h i s , they assure d the premier, would r e s u l t i n the sure r e t u r n of a government s u p p o r t e r . A l e t t e r from A. H. Casey, S e c r e t a r y - T r e a s u r e r of the Vancouver C a t h o l i c Union, was sent to Brewster which 230 i n c l u d e d the f o l l o w i n g r e s o l u t i o n and comments: R e s o l v e d : That the Vancouver C a t h o l i c U n i o n s t r o n g l y urges the c l a i m s of the C a t h o l i c s of Vancouver and of the P r o v i n c e g e n e r a l l y t o r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n the B. C. C a b i n e t , and t h a t , i n view of the p e n d i n g readjustment of p o r t f o l i o s r e n d e r e d n e c e s s a r y by the r e g r e t t e d death of the Hon. R a l p h Smith — one of the C a b i n e t members from the C i t y of Vancouver — the Vancouver C a t h o l i c U n i o n h e a r t i l y endorses the s p e c i a l c l a i m s of Mr. P a t r i c k D o n n e l l y of the C i t y of Vancouver f o r appointment to the B. C. C a b i n e t . 196 Tlie C a t h o l i c c l a i m to r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n the C a b i n e t i s sub m i t t e d as one of j u s t i c e and of r i g h t , and our p r e s e n t d e s i r e t o o b t a i n such r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i s i n t e n s i f i e d by the f a c t t h a t t h e r e has i n the p a s t ( i t i s t o be r e g r e t t e d ) been much unwarranted d i s c r i m i n a t i o n a g a i n s t C a t h o l i c s i n the matter of e l e c t i o n s t o p u b l i c o f f i c e and of appointments t o p u b l i c p o s i t i o n s . The premier r e p l i e d t h a t no changes i n the c a b i n e t were e n t e r t a i n e d u n t i l a t l e a s t the c l o s i n g of the s p r i n g s e s s i o n , but added t h a t "when the q u e s t i o n of the Vancouver b y e - e l e c t i o n comes t o be s e r i o u s l y c o n s i d e r e d , the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s made by your s o c i e t y w i l l r e c e i v e p r o p e r 251 c o n s i d e r a t i o n . " ^ The Roman C a t h o l i c element d i d not have t o wa i t f o r the Vancouver b y e - e l e c t i o n . I n e a r l y June t h e r e were rumours t h a t John H a r t , one of t h e L i b e r a l members from V i c t o r i a , would be ap p o i n t e d t o the c a b i n e t . One of t h e l o c a l V i c t o r i a 252 papers commented: ^ Mr. H a r t ' s name has been mentioned f o r some time. In f a c t b e f o r e the L i b e r a l c a b i n e t was formed i n the f i r s t i n s t a n c e he was p o p u l a r l y supposed t o have been i n l i n e f o r a p o r t f o l i o . . . . But i n the m u l t i t u d e o f a s p i r a n t s f o r c a b i n e t rank Mr. H a r t ' s c l a i m s , i f any, to the honor were a p p a r e n t l y not s u b s t a n t i a l enough t o secure him the o f f i c e . The same news r e p o r t a l s o c o n t a i n e d a r e p o r t t h a t "Mr. P a t r i c k D o n n e l l y the d e f e a t e d L i b e r a l c a n d i d a t e at the r e c e n t g e n e r a l e l e c t i o n announced t h e r e was l i t t l e l i k e l i h o o d of the bye-e l e c t i o n s b e i n g h e l d u n t i l a f t e r August 10th." I t was not many days l a t e r t h a t John H a r t , the former g e n e r a l o r g a n i z e r f o r the L i b e r a l p a r t y i n the p r o v i n c e , and the o n l y C a t h o l i c 197 member o f the caucus, was ap p o i n t e d t o the p o s i t i o n of M i n i s t e r o f F i n a n c e i n the Brewster a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . The b y e - e l e c t i o n f o r Vancouver was not h e l d u n t i l January 24, 1918, but b e f o r e t h i s date Mr. D o n n e l l y had a l r e a d y been L i b e r a l s t a n d a r d - b e a r e r f o r the f e d e r a l 2.7>7) c o n s t i t u e n c y o f B u r r a r d . ^ A l t h o u g h d e f e a t e d , t h e r e was no mention of h i s name i n the d i s c u s s i o n s o f p o s s i b l e nominees 234 f o r t he p r o v i n c i a l b y e - e l e c t i o n . ^ The d i s s e n s i o n w i t h i n the L i b e r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n over f o r m a t i o n o f the f e d e r a l U n i o n i s t government r e s u l t e d i n the p a r t y f a i l i n g t o nominate a c a n d i d a t e . However, the p a r t y supported Mrs. R a l p h Smith, widow o f the former F i n a n c e M i n i s t e r , who had d e c i d e d t o r u n as an independent c a n d i d a t e . She was e l e c t e d by a l a r g e ma j o r i t y . Wot o n l y d i d t h e v i c t o r y o f the L i b e r a l s r e s u l t i n the e v e n t u a l r e t u r n o f Roman C a t h o l i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n t o the c a b i n e t , i t a l s o h e r a l d e d a s h i f t i n c a b i n e t r e p r e s e n t a t i o n among the P r o t e s t a n t denominations as w e l l . When John O l i v e r was e l e v a t e d to the p r e m i e r s h i p i n 1918 h i s c a b i n e t had but one A n g l i c a n member; the m a j o r i t y o f h i s c a b i n e t b e i n g composed of members of the P r e s b y t e r i a n and B a p t i s t Churches. One Roman C a t h o l i c and one Me t h o d i s t completed the membership. By 1922, as a r e s u l t of deaths and changes i n membership, P r e s b y t e r i a n s t r e n g t h had been d e c r e a s e d to f o u r , w h i l e the A n g l i c a n and B a p t i s t r e p r e s e n t a t i o n had been c o m p l e t e l y wiped out. D u r i n g the r e m a i n i n g p e r i o d o f L i b e r a l r u l e the C a t h o l i c s 198 c o n t i n u e d t o be r e p r e s e n t e d by one member i n the p r o v i n c i a l c a b i n e t . A p e r u s a l o f T a b l e IX w i l l show t h a t a r e t u r n t o C o n s e r v a t i v e government under Tolmie r e s u l t e d i n a t y p i c a l s h i f t i n c a b i n e t r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . F o u r members of the nine-man c a b i n e t were adherents o f the Church of E n g l a n d . The P r e s b y t e r i a n and U n i t e d Churches each had two r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . The L u t h e r a n Church r e c e i v e d i t s f i r s t c a b i n e t r e p r e s e n t a t i o n at t h i s time. Under P a t t u l l o ' s L i b e r a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n a s h i f t t o g r e a t e r P r e s b y t e r i a n , U n i t e d , and C a t h o l i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a g a i n becomes apparent. The C a t h o l i c s enjoyed t h e i r g r e a t e s t c a b i n e t r e p r e s e n t a t i o n d u r i n g P a t t u l l o ' s L i b e r a l regime and i n the H a r t C o a l i t i o n which f o l l o w e d : b e i n g r e p r e s e n t e d by two m i n i s t e r s at t h a t time, the one, i n the l a t t e r i n s t a n c e , b e i n g the Prime M i n i s t e r h i m s e l f . Throughout the whole p e r i o d of the L i b e r a l -C o n s e r v a t i v e C o a l i t i o n the r e l i g i o u s denominations of the p r o v i n c e were most e q u i t a b l y r e p r e s e n t e d i n the c a b i n e t . The C o n s e r v a t i v e p a r t y p r o v i d e d the m a j o r i t y of the Church of England, and one L u t h e r a n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e . The L i b e r a l p a r t y accounted f o r a m a j o r i t y o f the U n i t e d , C a t h o l i c and P r e s b y t e r i a n members. With the r e s i g n a t i o n of H a r t the C a t h o l i c s a g a i n l o s t t h e i r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n and the s i t u a t i o n c o n t i n u e d throughout t h e p e r i o d of the Johnson-Anscomb C o a l i t i o n . 199 The d e f e a t o f Premier Byron Johnson's government r e s u l t e d i n the f o r m a t i o n o f a m i n o r i t y S o c i a l C r e d i t government under the l e a d e r s h i p o f the former C o n s e r v a t i v e member, W. A. C. Bennett. I t has a l r e a d y been n o t e d t h a t w i t h i n the S o c i a l C r e d i t caucus the A n g l i c a n element r e a p p e a r s , and t h a t the movement membershipwise seems to have been the r e s u l t of a u n i o n of A n g l i c a n s w i t h persons of f u n d a m e n t a l i s t i c r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f . A s i m i l a r p a t t e r n of r e p r e s e n t a t i o n was taken over i n the f o r m a t i o n of t h e c a b i n e t . F i v e U n i t e d Churchmen, three A n g l i c a n s , one B a p t i s t , and one P e n t e c o s t a l i s t were ap p o i n t e d i n the c a b i n e t . The S o c i a l C r e d i t p a r t y had no Roman C a t h o l i c , L u t h e r a n , or P r e s b y t e r i a n members, so tha-t these denominations c o u l d not be r e p r e s e n t e d . Whether the d i s p r o p o r t i o n of r e p r e s e n t a t i o n was o f concern to the new government, or whether r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s were made by the Churches, i t has been i m p o s s i b l e t o determine. However, i t i s noteworthy t h a t i n the e l e c t i o n c a l l e d as a r e s u l t of the d e f e a t of the government, two Roman C a t h o l i c S o c i a l C r e d i t members were e l e c t e d . N o t w i t h s t a n d i n g , no major changes were made to the c a b i n e t f o l l o w i n g the government's r e t u r n t o o f f i c e , and t h e C a t h o l i c Church remained without a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e on the c a b i n e t . The d i s p r o p o r t i o n of U n i t e d Church membership which r e s u l t e d from the e l e c t i o n of 1956 a l s o r e s u l t e d i n changes i n the f o r m a t i o n of t h e c a b i n e t , w i t h the U n i t e d Church 200 h a v i n g seven r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s i n the complement of twelve. The A n g l i c a n Church had two members, w h i l e the f u n d a m e n t a l i s t groups were r e p r e s e n t e d by one B a p t i s t and one P e n t e c o s t a l a p p o i n t e e . I t i s a l s o noteworthy t h a t the f i r s t L u t h e r a n S o c i a l C r e d i t member e l e c t e d was immediately a p p o i n t e d t o become M i n i s t e r of E d u c a t i o n . However, a l t h o u g h the two Roman C a t h o l i c M. L. A.'s were r e t u r n e d , no C a t h o l i c has been appointed t o the c a b i n e t . I n sum, an a n a l y s i s of membership of p r o v i n c i a l c a b i n e t s shows t h a t c a b i n e t makeup tends t o f o l l o w the t r e n d s of p a r t y membership w i t h i n the Assembly. C o n s e r v a t i v e c a b i n e t s show a l a r g e A n g l i c a n membership, a l e s s e r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n from the o t h e r P r o t e s t a n t denominations, and a tendency t o i g n o r e C a t h o l i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l t o g e t h e r . L i b e r a l c a b i n e t s have a s m a l l e r A n g l i c a n r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , and a l a r g e r c o n t i n g e n t of B a p t i s t , U n i t e d , and Roman C a t h o l i c m i n i s t e r s . The p r e s e n t S o c i a l C r e d i t c a b i n e t r e f l e c t s the o v e r - r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of U n i t e d Churchmen i n the l e g i s l a t u r e , as w e l l as the i n f l u e n c e of the A n g l i c a n and f u n d a m e n t a l i s t elements a l r e a d y mentioned. Where the s m a l l e r denominations have had members on the government s i d e of the Assembly they have tended a l s o to have r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n the c a b i n e t as w e l l . Thus i t may be concluded t h a t the P r o t e s t a n t denominations have g e n e r a l l y been f a i r l y w e l l r e p r e s e n t e d i n the s e a t s of power. The Roman C a t h o l i c Church has f a r e d l e s s w e l l . There have been th r e e l o n g p e r i o d s i n which the Roman C a t h o l i c 201 element has been c o m p l e t e l y w i t h o u t c a b i n e t r e p r e s e n t a t i o n : f i r s t , d u r i n g the McBride-Bowser a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s ; second, d u r i n g the p e r i o d of the Tolmie regime, and f i n a l l y d u r i n g the p e r i o d of the Johnson-Anscomb c o a l i t i o n and f o l l o w e d by the p r e s e n t S o c i a l C r e d i t government. There i s some evidence t h a t r e l i g i o u s a f f i l i a t i o n was c o n s i d e r e d a d e f i n i t e f a c t o r i n appointments t o the c a b i n e t d u r i n g the two decades f o l l o w i n g the t u r n of the cen t u r y . Whether t h i s i s s t i l l the case i s d i f f i c u l t t o determine, and must be the s u b j e c t of f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h when other source m a t e r i a l becomes a v a i l a b l e . But i t seems c l e a r t h a t , i n g e n e r a l , p o l i t i c a l l e a d e r s have e i t h e r c o n s i d e r e d the r e l i g i o u s vote t o be too r i g i d t o be worth c o n s i d e r i n g , or t h e y have f e l t t h a t o t h e r f a c t o r s outweighed any i n f l u e n c e t h a t r e l i g i o n might e x e r t upon the v o t e r s a t the time of an e l e c t i o n campaign. CHAPTER IV OBSERVATIONS, AND CONCLUSIONS Prom t h i s study of some a s p e c t s of r e l i g i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia p o l i t i c s c e r t a i n t e n t a t i v e c o n c l u s i o n s can be r e a c h e d c o n c e r n i n g t h e e x t e n t t o which r e l i g i o n has been a f a c t o r i n p r o v i n c i a l p o l i t i c s and a l s o as t o the methods used by r e l i g i o u s and moral f o r c e s t o g a i n i n f l u e n c e i n the p o l i t i c a l l i f e o f the p r o v i n c e . P o l i t i c a l q u e s t i o n s o f a r e l i g i o u s n a t u r e tended t o be at i s s u e more op e n l y d u r i n g the f i r s t two decades of the ce n t u r y than i n l a t e r y e a r s . R e l i g i o u s i n s t i t u t i o n s and o r g a n i z a t i o n s were t h e n more openly a c t i v e i n B r i t i s h Columbian p o l i t i c a l a f f a i r s . There i s evidence t o show t h a t r e l i g i o u s a f f i l i a t i o n was c o n s i d e r e d i n the making o f a p p o i n t -ments t o the c a b i n e t . The i s s u e of p r o h i b i t i o n was, w i t h o t h e r s , a prime f a c t o r i n the e l e c t i o n o r d e f e a t of governments. Pr e s s u r e was a l s o brought t o bear by r e l i g i o u s groups on i s s u e s o t h e r than those c o n s i d e r e d i n t h i s paper. 2 0 3 E v i d e n c e e x i s t s t o show t h a t Sunday observance, the i n s t i t u t i o n of p r a y e r s at l e g i s l a t i v e s e s s i o n s , and the s c h o o l s q u e s t i o n were i s s u e s which came under the a c t i v e s u r v e i l l a n c e of the Churches. These s u b j e c t s would p r o v i d e i n t e r e s t i n g and rewarding f i e l d s f o r f u r t h e r study and i n v e s t i g a t i o n . In more r e c e n t y e a r s r e l i g i o u s f a c t o r s seem t o have been of l e s s importance, or at l e a s t l e s s a r t i c u l a t e , than i n p r e v i o u s decades. T h i s f a c t has been t r a c e d p a r t l y t o d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t on the p a r t of Churchmen w i t h p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n . However, t h i s i s c e r t a i n l y not the o n l y f a c t o r . The degree to which r e l i g i o n has l o s t i t s p l a c e as one of the p r i m a r y l o y a l t i e s of man, and the s e p a r a t i o n of r e l i g i o u s i n s t i t u t i o n s from c o n t a c t w i t h the common man may be o t h e r s , a l t h o u g h the importance of these f a c t o r s i s c e r t a i n l y open to argument. N e v e r t h e l e s s , r e l i g i o n has not been c o m p l e t e l y s e p a r a t e d from p o l i t i c s i n the r e c e n t p o l i t i c a l h i s t o r y of B r i t i s h Columbia. P o l i t i c a l p a r t y membership s t i l l c o r r e sponds r o u g h l y t o d e n o m i n a t i o n a l d i v i s i o n s . Our two major p r o v i n c i a l p a r t i e s b o t h c l a i m t o be based upon s u p e r i o r moral and e t h i c a l p r i n c i p l e s . L i q u o r l e g i s l a t i o n , Sunday observance, and the s c h o o l s q u e s t i o n are s t i l l i s s u e s which the p r o v i n c i a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s are c o n t i n u a l l y f o r c e d to c o n s i d e r . As r e c e n t l y as 1 9 5 2 the q u e s t i o n of separate s c h o o l s gave r i s e t o the f o r m a t i o n of t h e C h r i s t i a n Democratic p a r t y . The 204-advent o f S o c i a l C r e d i t has w i t n e s s e d the r i s e o f the new f u n d a m e n t a l i s t i c denominations as f a c t o r s i n p r o v i n c i a l a f f a i r s . On the o t h e r hand r e l i g i o n does not seem t o have been as important a f a c t o r i n B r i t i s h Columbia's p o l i t i c s as i t has been i n some of the o t h e r p r o v i n c e s . There was l i t t l e o f the open p r e j u d i c e and acrimo n i o u s debate which was a f e a t u r e o f the p o l i t i c a l s t r u g g l e s i n Manitoba, O n t a r i o , and Quebec. The r e c r u i t m e n t of our p o l i t i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n has been open t o the m i n o r i t y r e l i g i o u s groups. The Roman C a t h o l i c Church has been u n d e r - r e p r e s e n t e d , but t h i s seems to have been a matter o f socio-economic c o n d i t i o n s r a t h e r than r e l i g i o u s p r e j u d i c e or d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . However, d u r i n g the e a r l y p o l i t i c a l h i s t o r y of the p r o v i n c e , and c e r t a i n l y now, r e l i g i o n seems t o have been more a l a t e n t than an open f a c t o r i n p o l i t i c a l a f f a i r s . And i t i s t h i s l a t e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p which s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d , s t r e s s e d , and u n d e r s t o o d . The r e l i g i o u s and moral a t t i t u d e s of people have determined the p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s they j o i n e d , the p l a t f o r m s adopted by those o r g a n i z a t i o n s , and thus the d e c i s i o n s made .both by the l e g i s l a t o r s and the p o l i t i c a l p r e s s u r e groups. There i s n o t h i n g t o l e a d one t o b e l i e v e t h a t t h i s l a t e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between r e l i g i o n and p o l i t i c s w i l l not c o n t i n u e . T h e r e f o r e i t i s most important t h a t the r e l i g i o u s i n f l u e n c e e x e r t e d i n p o l i t i c a l a f f a i r s be a p o s i t i v e i n f l u e n c e and not s o l e l y the o p e r a t i o n o f another 205 narrow i n t e r e s t . I t i s the w r i t e r ' s b e l i e f t h a t c e r t a i n changes are n e c e s s a r y i f r e l i g i o u s i n f l u e n c e i s t o be s t r e n g t h e n e d as a p o s i t i v e f o r c e i n the r e s o l u t i o n of p o l i t i c a l q u e s t i o n s and i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of r e s p o n s i b l e and honest government. Our study o f the c l e r g y as the r e l i g i o u s e l i t e s e rved to show the c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p which e x i s t s between d i s t i n c t i v e t h e o l o g i c a l p o s i t i o n s and a t t i t u d e s on p r a c t i c a l p o l i t i c a l q u e s t i o n s and i s s u e s . I t i s not n e c e s s a r y to e n t e r the c o n t r o v e r s y over th e p r i o r i t y o f a s s o c i a t i o n s — whether one's Church i s chosen to r e f l e c t one's v i t a l i n t e r e s t s and a t t i t u d e s i n the s e c u l a r sphere, or whether r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f g i v e s r i s e t o d i s t i n c t i v e p o l i t i c a l and economic a t t i t u d e s — t o note t h a t t h i s c o r r e l a t i o n does e x i s t . The r e l i g i o u s community can become more p o l i t i c a l l y e f f e c t i v e o n l y when there i s a g e n e r a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g and a p p r e c i a t i o n of t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p . E e l i g i o u s persons, b o t h c l e r g y and laymen, should u n d e r s t a n d the h i s t o r y of t h e i r denominations and the d i s t i n c t i v e t h e o l o g i c a l p r i n c i p l e s which r e s u l t e d i n t h e i r f o r m a t i o n . They should know what c o r r e l a t i o n e x i s t s between denomination and p o l i t i c a l a f f i l i a t i o n and p o s s e s s a w e l l -reasoned argument f o r t h e i r correspondence w i t h , or d i v e r g e n c e from t h i s norm. An u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the d i s t i n c t i v e t h e o l o g i c a l p r i n c i p l e s which, h o n e s t l y h e l d , g i v e r i s e t o support o f d i v e r g e n t p o l i t i c a l and economic p h i l o s o p h i e s should l e a d t o a g r e a t e r t o l e r a n c e of o p p o s i t i o n and s h o u l d l a y the b a s i s f o r c l o s e r c o - o p e r a t i o n between r e l i g i o u s 206 groups on q u e s t i o n s where g e n e r a l agreement e x i s t s . I t has been e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t the c l e r g y do not have a good grounding or u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the b a s i c p o l i t i c a l p r o c e s s e s through which the community i s governed. They have imbibed many of the m i s c o n c e p t i o n s and o v e r s i m p l i f i c a t i o n s t h a t e x i s t i n the minds of the g e n e r a l p u b l i c about our system of government. There i s l i t t l e a p p r e c i a t i o n of the p l a c e o f the p o l i t i c a l p a r t y and of the p r e s s u r e group i n b r i n g i n g about the h a r d compromises which are n e c e s s a r y i n the f o r m u l a t i o n and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of government p o l i c y . Consequently the c l e r g y are s u s p i c i o u s of membership or open p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n such a s s o c i a t i o n s . T h e i r p o s i t i o n i s r e i n f o r c e d g r e a t l y by the a t t i t u d e s of t h e i r p a r i s h i o n e r s who would f u r t h e r l i m i t t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s i n t h i s r e s p e c t . • C l e a r l y i f the Church i s t o become more a c t i v e i n the p o l i t i c a l l i f e o f the community, f i r s t the c l e r g y must have a b e t t e r knowledge of the b a s i c elements of p o l i t i c a l s c i e n c e , and t h e n t h e y must be a b l e t o impart t h a t u n d e r s t a n d i n g to t h e i r c o n g r e g a t i o n s . The c l e r g y has a g r e a t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r e d u c a t i o n and i n s t r u c t i o n of t h e i r f o l l o w e r s . They have set t h e i r c o n f i n e s a t a c t i n g as a " l e a v e n " to encourage good c i t i z e n s h i p on the p a r t of t h e i r p a r i s h i o n e r s . But a c t i o n without u n d e r s t a n d i n g and knowledge i s as l i k e l y t o be d e t r i m e n t a l a c t i o n when undertaken by a r e l i g i o u s group as i t i s when undertaken by a s e c u l a r one. W e l l - i n f o r m e d o p i n i o n i s a p r e r e q u i s i t e t o p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n , and w e l l - i n f o r m e d o p i n i o n b e g i n s w i t h an u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the b a s i c elements 207 of economics and p o l i t i c a l s c i e n c e , and i n t h i s i n s t a n c e , of t h e h i s t o r i c a l and p r e s e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p of t h e o l o g i c a l p r i n c i p l e s t o p o l i t i c a l p h i l o s o p h i e s and p o l i c i e s . The problem than i s to b e g i n w i t h a b e t t e r p o l i t i c a l l y educated e l i t e group, and the p l a c e to b e g i n must be w i t h the s t u d e n t s who are p r e p a r i n g themselves f o r f u l l - t i m e r e l i g i o u s s e r v i c e . T h i s c o u l d be done by i n s t i t u t i n g a s e r i e s of courses i n the p r i n c i p l e s of p o l i t i c a l s c i e n c e , economics, and s o c i o l o g y i n t o a p r e r e q u i s i t e program f o r e n t r ance to d i v i n i t y c o u r s e s ; or a l t e r n a t i v e l y , by g i v i n g s p e c i a l l y d e s i g n e d c o u r s e s i n the s e m i n a r i e s themselves. In B r i t i s h Columbia the s e m i n a r i e s are a l r e a d y c o - o p e r a t i n g i n l i m i t e d f i e l d s of c u r r i c u l u m development. T h i s c o - o p e r a t i o n , a l o n g w i t h the i n c r e a s e i n the number of such i n s t i t u t i o n s on the campus, bodes w e l l f o r the f u t u r e * The course o u t l i n e d above, g i v e n on an i n t e r d e n o m i n a t i o n a l b a s i s , c o u l d be geared not o n l y to t e a c h i n g economic and p o l i t