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Factors affecting the size and location of nucleated settlements in an irrigated agricultural area :… Downing, Jean Crawford 1959

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FACTORS AFFECTING THE SIZE AND LOCATION OF NUCLEATED SETTLEMENTS IN AN IRRIGATED AGRICULTURAL AREA A Case Study of the South Saskatchewan River Project Area by JEAN CRAWFORD DOWNING REPORT ON A PROJECT SUBMITTED IN LIEU OF A THESIS IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in the Department of COMMUNITY AND REGIONAL PLANNING We accept this report as conforming to the standard required from .> candidates for the degree of MASTER OF ARTS Members of the Department of Community and Regional Planning THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA May 1959 Abstract FACTORS AFFECTING THE SIZE AMD LOCATION OF NUCLEATED SETTLEMENTS  IM AH IRRIGATED AGRICULTURAL AREA  A Case Study of the South Saskatchewan River Project Area The purpose of this thesis i s to examine the factors affecting the size and location of urban and rural nucleations i n an irrigated agricultural area* The locale selected for study i e an area i n Central Saskatchewan which w i l l become Irrigable upon completion of the South Saskatchewan River Project - a multi-purpose project designed to provide irrigation for half a million acres of land, a source of hydro electric power, and a 150-mile long reservoir with an important recreation potential. The approach i e based on Christaller's theory of central places. This theoretical model assumes an "ideal" landscape, where the terrain i s f l a t , there are no barriers to movement, land has equal f e r t i l i t y and population i s distributed uniformly. The theory explains the settlement pattern as a hierarchy of central places, c l a s s i f i e d by functions, and arranged spatially i n a regular pattern of interlocking hexagons. The applicability of the theory i s examined in two agricultural areas -Southwest Wisconsin (based on a study by John E. Brush) and Saskatchewan (based on a study by the Royal Commission on Agriculture and Rural L i f e ) . These studies conclude that the central place theory provides a useful framework of analysis against which to measure deviations and to explain iv the reasons for the differences from the theoretical model. Experience in planning for nucleated settlements in irrigated areas is not extensive. As a means of pointing up some of the problems of Saskatchewan development by comparison and by contrast, consideration i s given to selected experience in regional planning In the Netherlands Polders and in Israel. Studies related to development of the Columbia River Basin in the State of Washington are also considered. The experience elsewhere shows, particularly, the essential relationship of settlement planning to a clearly formulated policy of comprehensive development, the necessity for planning location and size of urban and rural nucleations in relation to the employment base for the region, and the importance of development sequence to effective implementation of a plan. With this theoretical and actual experience in planning for nucleated settlements elsewhere as a background, the present settlement pattern in the South Saskatchewan River Project area is then analyzed, using a functional classification of central places as the starting point, considering the size and shape of service areas, and the factors i which distort the pattern from the theoretical model of Christaller. The effects of soil condition, hydrographic factors and transportation are discussed and illustrated by maps. Use of the service center analysis for planning purposes is then considered. It i s apparent that the theory provides a system of hierarchical classification that i s valuable for analytical purposes to provide an understanding of service center relationships, and that the V delineation of trading areas is a further useful tool. The changes which may be brought about by the South Saskatchewan River Project can then be projected, not by a forced attempt at formal adherence to a theory, but by reasoned consideration of the impact of a more intensive agricultural use and recreational potential on particular parts of the region. The method is one of expanding and adjusting service center areas, based on such, factors as the population to be served, road distances between service centers, and comparative drawing power of larger centers. This permits proposals to be made for general location of service centers of different levels in the hierarchy, reclassification of some existing centers, and desirable sequence of development. The value of the study lies in the practical application of the theoretical concept - its use in planning the nucleated settlement pattern of the future. Such planning is advantageous to the region, in permitting more efficient development, with a minimum number of central places of appropriate rank to serve the population. It is also advan-tageous to the central places in clarifying the opportunities and limitations of their respective roles. Each center is then in a position to develop its functions with the conscious goal of f u l l achievement of appropriate service center status. APPROVED: In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and study. I f u r t h e r agree t h a t permission f o r e x t e n s i v e copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by t h e Head o f my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department of The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver 8\ Canada. 7' Date ACKHOWLEDGMEHTS Assistance from many sources has contributed to my completion of the course in Community and Regional planning and the production of this study. I wish $o acknowledge specifically the granting of educational leave by the Saskatchewan Government from the Economic Advisory and Planning Board and assistance from Central Mortgage and Housing Corporation and from The Briti s h Columbia Electric Company Limited. My thanks go also to Dr. R. I. Ruggles, who offered a course in settlement geography of unusually broad scope which generated interest and enthusiasm in this study. More general but just as important was the contribution of Dr. B. Savery, whose lectures i n philosophy had a revitalizing influence and set a goal for which to strive in c l a r i t y of thought. Data essential to the study was obtained from Mr. B. Sufrin, economist in charge of research on proposed local government administrative boundaries, for the Local Government Continuing Committee, Regina, Saskatchewan. His willing cooperation was invaluable. The assistance of-the University of Briti s h Columbia Library Reference staff i s gratefully acknowledged, particular thanks are due to Miss Melva J . Dwyer, Fine Arts Librarian, for constructive and willing aid at a l l times. The process of production of this study was instigated and aided by the advice and active assistance of Mr. Franklin A. Wiles. I also wish to thank Mrs. June Homer for cooperation in producing an intelligent translation of the manuscript into i t s f i n a l form. CONTENTS Chapter Page INTRODUCTION * 1. A THEORY OF LOCATION OF NUCLEATED SETTLEMENTS AND ITS APPLICABILITY TO WISCONSIN AND SASKATCHEWAN 1 The Central Place Theory 3 The Settlement Pattern in Southwestern Wisconsin 9 Service Centers in Saskatchewan 18 2. EXPERIENCE IN PLANNING THE LOCATION AND SIZE OF RURAL AND URBAN NUCLEATIONS IN SELECTED IRRIGATED AREAS 31 The Columbia Basin Project 33 Regional Planning in the Polders, Holland 51 Rural Planning and Development in Israel 59 Conclusions 79 3. THE PRESENT SETTLEMENT PATTERN IN THE SOUTH SASKATCHEWAN RIVER PROJECT AREA 86 Source of Data - The Local Government Continuing Committee, Saskatchewan 87 Spatial Arrangement of Service Centers 99 Trading Areas 102 4. THE IMPACT OF THE SOUTH SASKATCHEWAN RIVER PROJECT ON NUCLEATED SETTLEMENTS IN THE PROJECT AREA 107 The South Saskatchewan River Project 111 General Discussion of Factors Affecting the pattern of Nucleated Settlements in the project Area 115 Examples of the Impact of the South Saskatchewan River Project on Nucleated Settlements in the Project Area 124 Conclusions 130 BIBLIOGRAPHY 131 SOURCES OF FIGURES 134 TABLES Page 1. Population Distribution in the Columbia Basin, 1950 35 2. Proposed Geographical and Occupational Distribution of Population, North-East Polder 57 3* Comparison of the Valley of Jezreel and the North-East Polder 68 4. Service Centers in the South Saskatchewan River Project Area, Saskatchewan 94 MAPS 1. Service Centers 93 2. Soils - Least Productive *• * 3. Rural Population Density by Township, 1956 * 4. Transportation * 5. Trading Areas * 6. Regional Map - Site of South Saskatchewan Dam 108 7. Irrigable Areas and Reservoirs * * In pocket 1. 2. PHOTOGRAPHS Town of Outlook, Saskatchewan South Saskatchewan River Dam Site 9* 109 FIGURES Page 1. Theoretical Shape of Tributary Areas 5 2. Chri3taller' s Theoretical Spatial Arrangement of a Hierarchy of Central Places 6 3. Distribution of Agglomerated Settlements, Wisconsin 10 4. Spatial Arrangements, Kolb 14 5. Traffic Areas, Wisconsin 16 6. Traffic Relations of Villages to Towns or Cities, Wisconsin 17 7. Distribution of Service Centers in Saskatchewan 26 8. Diagram of S p l i t Centers 27 9. Principal Centers of Saskatchewan 28 10. Columbia Basin Project Location 34 11. Columbia Basin Town and Village Growth 36 12. Rural service Centers, Middle Yakima Valley 40 13. Diagrammatic Local Trade Area Structure 45 14* The Partial Reclamation of the Zuydersea 52 15. Plan of the North-East Polder in the Netherlands 54 16. Planning Regions, Israel 62 17. Regional Plan for the Valley of Jezreel, Israel 67 Note: Sources of the above Figures are l i s t e d on pages 154-5. INTRODUCTION I INTRODUCTION The decision by the Government of Canada and the Government of Saskatchewan, in the f a l l of 1958, to undertake construction of the South Saskatchewan River Project suggested the subject of the present study. This multi-purpose project, which has been mooted for many years, will provide irrigation for about half a million acres of land* in Central Saskatchewan, power generating facilities, and a reservoir with an important recreational potential. Such a Project may be expected to produce dramatic changes both in the areas to be irrigated and throughout the Province. The South Saskatchewan River rises on the eastern slopes of the mountains in Alberta and flows through the southern part of Saskatchewan, turning north at the "elbow*1 of the river and proceeding through Saskatoon to its junction with the North Saskatchewan River east of Prince Albert, from whence the Saskatchewan River flows to Lake Winnipeg. The integrated development of the entire river basin has been advocated, as a means of realizing the maximum potentialities of the river and its tributaries. 1 Such a view is undoubtedly valid, but for purposes of the present study the project i s accepted as defined in the agreement between the Government of Canada and the Government of See Report of the Royal Commission on the South Saskatchewan River Project. Ottawa, 1952, and Royal Commission on Agriculture and Rural Life report on Farm Income. Regina, 1957, p. 175. x i i Saskatchewan. The present study is focussed on the impact of the South Saskatchewan River Project on the pattern of nucleated settlements in the Project area. It is assumed that irrigation, power and recreation development in the Project area will create changes both in individual villages and towns and in their relative importance. By discussing the factors affecting the size and location of nucleations, an attempt is made to determine what some of these changes may be. The approach to the study is reviewed briefly in the Abstract. Chepter 1 A THEORY OF LOCATION OF NUCLEATED SETTLEMENTS AND ITS APPLICABILITY TO WISCONSIN AND SASKATCHEWAN "The ideal hierarchy of community associations, centred in village, town, c i t y or city sub-centre, i s not to be thought of as something drawn out of the blue by the planner or the architect. I t does really exist in the fabric of our society, and the geographical structure of this society must be thoroughly mastered i f we are to discover and r e c t i f y i t s maladjust-ments and to elaborate principles of planning in accordance with i t s needs." Robert E. Dickinson r Chapter I A THEORY OF LOCATION OF NUCLEATED SETTLEMENTS AMD  ITS APPLICABILITY TO WISCONSIN AND SASKATCHEWAN The analysis of settlement patterns has taken two major forms -the development of theoretical models, and the investigation of existing communities and their interrelationships. An early student of rural society described the community as "that territory with its people, which lies within the team haul of a given center".''" A few years later, Dr. C. J. Galpin introduced the technique of mapping to record the community relations of centers in Walworth County, Wisconsin. He concluded that the "trade zone about one of these rather complete i t agricultural civic centers forms the boundary of an actual, i f not legal, community, within which the apparent entanglement of human l i f e i s resolved into a fairly unitary system of interrelatedness."2 Thus emerged the idea that a community could be defined both in spatial terms and In terms of functions. The f i r s t comprehensive theoretical analysis of the settlement Warren H. Wilson, The Evolution of the Country Community. Boston, 1912. The Social Anatomy of an Agricultural Community. Wisconsin * Agricultural Experiment Station Research Bulletin 34» 1915. 2 pattern was developed by Walter Christaller, in 1 9 3 3 H e worked out a theoretical model, which he then tested by examining the actual settlement pattern in Southern Germany. Christaller* s central-place theory i s pertinent to the present study because i t assumes an ideal landscape, that i s , one which i s f l a t , without impediments to movement, . where the land has equal f e r t i l i t y , and where population i s distributed uniformly. Such assumptions apply most closely to prairie regions with an agricultural base, such as the mid-western plains of North America. Christaller 1 s theoretical model has been used as the frame of reference for studies of nucleated settlements i n many countries. The two studies which have particular interest and significance for the present analysis are the investigation of central places in southwestern Wisconsin and the study of service centers i n Saskatchewan.^ This chapter w i l l be devoted to a discussion of Christaller's theory and these two studies, as a basis for subsequent consideration of the settlement pattern of the South Saskatchewan River Project area, now and i n the future. Walter Christaller, Die Zentralen Orte i n Suddeutschlandf Jena, 1 9 3 3 , as summarized i n Edward Ullman, "A Theory of Location for C i t i e s " , American Journal of Sociology. Vol. 4 6 , May 1 9 4 1 . 1 John E. Brush, "The Hierarchy of Central Places i n Southwestern Wisconsin", Geographical Review. Volume 4 3 , No. 3, July 1953; Service Centers. Royal Commission on Agriculture and Rural L i f e , Regina, 1957. 3 TEE CENTRAL-PLACE THEORY The theory of central places advanced by Walter Christaller i s based on the idea that a hamlet, village, town or c i t y develops for the purpose of providing services to a surrounding area of productive land.^ The services performed for the surrounding area are referred to as 8central 1 1 functions, and the settlements as "•central11 places. ChristeHer's theoretical model of the settlement pattern i s based on assumptions which acknowledge only one variable - the number of functions i n the central place. He assumes an ""ideal** landscape, i n which the topography i s f l a t , land f e r t i l i t y i s uniform, and the resources are equally distributed. Additional assumptions are that there are no physical or human impediments to mobility, that the rural population Is evenly distributed, that a l l of the people have incomes adequate to be i n the market for goods and services, that a l l goods and services i n the area are offered by the central places, and that each central ""good11 has a uniform price. Different types of goods and services require different levels of aggregate purchasing power, before they w i l l be offered on the market. Each type of good w i l l seek a market area sufficient in size to assure the requisite minimum demand. Given C h r i s t a l l e r 1 s assumptions of uniform population distribution and purchasing power, the size of the market area This section i s based on Edward Ullman, ibid.;and Robert E. Dickinson, City Region and Regionalsim. A Geographical Contribution to Himian Ecology. London, 1952. 4 w i l l vary from one good or service to another. This implies a hierarchy of centers, offering different ranges of central goods and services. The highest order centers offering highest order goods w i l l have the largest market areas, while the lowest order centers offering a narrower range of goods w i l l have the smallest market areas. Ideally, the tributary area of a hamlet would l i e within the tributary area of a village, the tributary area of a village within that of a town, and the tributary area of a town within that of a ci t y . Thus, the f u l l range of goods would be available i n a l l parts of the region. The ideal spatial arrangement of central places i s one which satisfies the maximum demand for a l l goods and minimizes the number of central places. For a central place i n isolation, a circular tributary area with the central place in the middle i s the most efficient shape. The introduction of additional centers would result, however, in either overlapping circles with duplicated services, or tangential circles with unserved i n t e r s t i t i a l areas. Christaller therefore advocated a hexagon as the most efficient shape for the tributary area of a central place, since i t i s the closest figure to a circle which w i l l completely cover an area. Towns offering a similar range of goods would be spaced at equal distances from each other, competing at the outer edges of their service area. At these border points, centers of a lower status would be able to offer local goods more eff i c i e n t l y . A center of a higher order would, therefore, have on the periphery of i t s service area six equally spaced centers of a lower order. Thus, in Christaller 1s 5 theory* central places of lower and higher orders would be arranged spatially i n an interlocking series of hexagonal service areas. Fig. 1. Theoretical Shape of Tributary Areas Goods offered by the central places follow a gradation, varying with the size of the tributary area. As i t i s a stepped gradation, the settlements can be c l a s s i f i e d according to the goods they offer. The hierarchy of centers worked out by Christaller, based on South Germany, included seven classes of central place, ranging from a hamlet to a regional capital: Market Hamlet M Marktort Township center A Amtsort County seat K Kreisstadt D i s t r i c t c i t y B Bezirksstadt Small state capital G Gaustadt Provincial head cit y P Provinzhauptstadt Regional capital c i t y L Landeshauptstadt F i g . 2. Christaller's Theoretical Spatial Arrang&Tient of a Hierarchy of Central Places The corollaries of Christaller's theory involve several useful locational rules, based on the interlocking system of centers and the mathematical relationships of the hexagons: 1. The tributary area of any higher center invades the areas of the six nearby hamlets and supersedes the hamlet's services with sex*vices the hamlets do not provide. 2. Each center of a rank above the hamlet has a ring of six centers around I t of the next lower rank. As the rank gets higher, a series of rings of a l l lower centers intervenes. 3. Each center of a lower rank i s equidistant from three centers of a higher rank (but not necessarily of the same higher rank). 7 4. The number of centers in any given rank i s twice the number of a l l higher ranking centers. 5. Each center of a higher rank has a service area three times as large as that of the next lower rank. 6. The distance between centers of each higher rank Increased by \ 3* Christaller proceeded from his theoretical model to an investigation of the distribution and characteristics of settlements in South Germany. It i s unnecessary to detail herein his method or his findings, but his general conclusions are of interest. Where actual conditions most closely resembled the assumptions of the theory, the model provided a reasonable explanation of the settlement pattern. This occurred in thinly populated agricultural areas of flat terrain. The pattern broke down when the physical and human conditions diverged from the model* Industry, for example, seemed to be a more important factor than central service in some parts of Germany. Subsequent studies of settlement patterns in various countries have shown some of the uniformities of Christaller*a model and have revealed also deviations from i t . The two major points on which the theory has been criticized are i t s failure to take into account the influence of industrial location or major transportation routes. In highly industrialised areas concentrations of industry often arise in response to availability of resources and transportation and, once established, attract further development. The central place pattern ie thereby sometimes distorted beyond recognition* 8 Transportation routes, particularly railways, tend to create linear patterns in contrast to the areal pattern of central place services. Such a linear arrangement of centers changes the shape of tributary areas, elongating them with their long axes at right angles to the transport route. Where a second parallel transport route exists, the tributary areas may be squeezed back into roughly concentric form or into oval shapes with their long axes parallel to the railway l i n e . In recent writings, Christaller acknowledges that transportation may 7 exert an influence on the settlement pattern. He feels that this influence i s limited to low-ranking centers, drawing them to the main route between higher ranking centers. In South Germany, Christaller argues that the settlements were established before transportation played a significant role and i t s effect i s therefore negligible. Other factors which distort the theoretical pattern include uneven distribution of resources, terrain differentiation, and hydrographic factors which may act either as a barrier to movement or as a cohesive factor. The effects of such factors were excluded from the theory by the original assumptions, so do not invalidate the theory, even though they account for divergence from the model. Also having a bearing on the location of settlements are p o l i t i c a l and economic considerations, chance selection of sites, and the h i s t o r i c a l persistence of centers over time. As noted by John E. Brush, Ibid.. Christaller's latest statement of general principles i s contained in "Das Grundgerust der raumlichen Ordnung in Europa: Die Systeme der europaischen zentralen Orte, 0  Frankfurter Geogr. Hefte. Vol.24, No. 1, 1950. 9 Despite the highly theoretical nature of Christaller's iaodel, and the fact that local factors have been found to distort the theoretical expectations, the central-place concept remains a valuable analytical tool, providing a consistent framework of reference with which to investigate actual settlement and to measure deviations from a norm* THE SETTLEMENT PATTERS IK SOUTHWESTERN WISCONSIN The conditions assumed for the theoretical analysis of Christaller seemed to Dr. John E. Brush to be f u l f i l l e d as nearly as possible in the American Middle West. He f e l t that i f the spatial arrangements worked out in theory were to apply to any actual pattern of settlement, i t should be in agricultural areas removed from manufacturing and urbanizing influences. He therefore undertook an analysis of a portion of southwestern Wisconsin, selecting an area characterized by an even distribution of population and dependent on agriculture. In this dairy fanning area the ratio of non-agricultural to agricultural employment was roughly 1 to 2, with most of the non-agricultural workers employed in trade and services i n the agglomerated settlements. ; This section i s based on John E. Brush, Ibid 10 Fig. 3. Distribution of Agglomerated Settlements, Wisconsin The 234- settlements included i n the study area were assigned functional status by Brush on the basis of their particular sets of functions. The application of his functional c r i t e r i a produced a threefold classification, including hamlets, villages and towns. The functional c r i t e r i a for each of these three levels of center are outlined below. HunQF»fr« The hamlet was described by Brush as the smallest 11 agglomerated settlement. Using Trewarths.* s minimum requirements, he defined a hamlet i n terms of three aspects - number of buildings i n use, clustering, and number of r e t a i l or service units.^ The requirements were at least five residential structures or other buildings used for commercial or cultural purposes, clustered within ^ mile linear distance, plus at least one but not more than nine r e t a i l and service units. The most typical functions i n hamlets were found to be grocery stores and elementary schools- In addition, taverns, f i l l i n g stations and churches were often present. Villages Villages were described as incomplete trade centers, lacking many features of an urban center, but playing a significant role in providing goods and services. Brush'3 c r i t e r i a for villages, which were developed empirically, emphasized both the number and types of r e t a i l and service units. The village required at least ten r e t a i l and service units of a l l types, plus at least four r e t a i l businesses other than those found in hamlets, and three other essential services. Thus, in addition to grocery stores, taverns and f i l l i n g stations, a village needed four other businesses, such as automobile, implements, appliances, lumber, hardware or livestock feed outlets, and three other essential services, such as auto repair, banking, telephone exchange or postal delivery. Towns Towns had a greater multiplicity of functions and were more specialized urban centers. The requisites for classification as a 9 G. T. Trewartha, "The Unincorporated Hamlet: One Element of the American Settlement Fabric", Annals of the Association of American  Geographers. Vol. 33, 1943* 12 town in Brush's study were et leest f i f t y r e t e l l units, thirty of which were in addition to the types found in hamlets. Further, towns were to have banks and weekly newspapers, high schools, and four other professions, such as physician, dentist, veterinarian or lawyer. Brush cited four main causes for development of the multiple functions which contributed to the importance of towns as trade centers. 1. The aggregation of people in the town provided a market large enough to permit some specialization. 2. The larger trade area permitted towns to add new types of trade and services, e.g. professional services. 3. The larger farm market enabled towns to offer goods and services solely for farmers, and attracted food-processing plants which used raw materials from the surrounding area. 4. The concentration of business and population permitted the town to develop as a distributing center, adding wholesaling to i t s other functions. Spacing of Centers. Brush continued from his functional classification of settlements to a study of their spatial relationships. He found that smaller centers showed an interlocking loeational pattern and a linkage to larger centers. Closest to the towns were the hamlets, with villages located beyond. This aspect of spatial arrangement agreed with Christaller'6 theory. The mean distance between centers in Wisconsin was 5.5 miles between hamlets and other centers, 9.7 miles between villages and other villages end towns, and 21.2 miles between towns. These figures 13 approximated Christaller's rule that the distance between centers of each successive class increased by T3» Some other characteristics of the Wisconsin settlement pattern differed from Christaller*s theoretical model. Brush observed a pronounced tendency for the centers to occur in rows or clusters. He found that low-ranking centers were grouped together in areas farthest from large centers. Hamlets were not equidistant from each other and from centers of other rank, but were 4.8 miles from other hamlets, 5.6 miles from the nearest villages and 6.9 miles from the nearest towns. Brush turned to the centrifugal concept of the American sociologist, J. H. Kolb, to explain this spatial arrangement.^ Kolb's classification scheme included five types of service centers: Single-service Neighborhood or hamlet Limited and simple service Small village Semi-complete or intermediate Village or small town Complete and partially specialized Town or «m«n city Urban and highly specialized City The service areas of the higher ranking centers, such as towns and cities, had three distinct parts, according to Kolb - the primary service area in which the town provided the bulk of the service; the secondary service area in which there was competition from other centers, and the specialized service area in which the town attracted only specialized trade. J. H. Kolb and E. de S. Brunner, A Study of Rural Society. 1952 Single-service centers (A) occurred near the periphery of the secondary service areas of semi-complete centers (C). The limited service centers (B) were located beyond, but were s t i l l within the specialized service area of C centers. Although A centers were closer to B than to C centers, they were Sp.Ciol'ied outside the primary service area of \ ; / \ S«COndor, the B centers. Kolb argued that / / because of the greater p u l l exerted by the larger trade centers than by the smaller ones, due to the larger Pr'mary " — aggregate of services offered, Fig. 4. Spatial Arrangements Kolb smaller centers were l i k e l y to develop closer to each other than to large centers. In addition to the centrifugal clustering of smaller centers, Brush observed linear tendencies in the arrangement of settlements. These he was able to explain by the impetus to growth offered by the -ft railway or to the effect of the terrain, e.g. where settlements occurred in valleys along the river. Brush summed up his conclusions on settlement location in the following words: The spatial pattern of agglomerated settlements i s the result of site and transport influences during the nineteenth century. Inertia of the settlement pattern i s so great that centers have not died out completely, though rural population has decreased. Railroads, once the l i f e lines of trade, have lost nearly a l l their local t r a f f i c , having been replaced by trucks and passenger cars. Hamlets have regressed as trade centers but remain viable as residential settlements, retaining some of their central services. Villages are important, though incomplete, local centers; their functional attributes have changed and even increased in variety, while their 15 population has generally remained stable or increased slightly during the past forty years. Towns are the only centers that continue to make large gains in population, mafring relatively and absolutely the greatest gains in new functional units. Thus the functional status of settlements is dynamic, influenced by economic and technological changes. But their locational pattern remains fixed. H Tributary Areas Having classified the trading centers by applying associated functional criteria, and compared the locational pattern of settlements to theoretical models, Brush then delineated the tributary areas of the trade centers. His method was to use traffic data to identify points of traffic convergence. The traffic divides, where few vehicles travelled, he interpreted as the boundaries of the tributary areas of towns and villages. Such a method permitted delimitation of traffic areas for the towns and villages, but there was not sufficient traffic convergence at hamlets to enable identification of its tributary area. Brush felt that traffic analysis was a satisfactory method of defining tributary areas, arguing that the poorly defined area of the traffic divide was a true reflection of the overlapping tributary areas for various commodities. Given universal automobile ownership, the movement of vehicles measured the combined influences attracting people to a trade center. Thus the area of traffic convergence represented the area of absolute dominance of trade near the center. John E. Brush, ibid.. page 395 16 The analysis of t r a f f i c data corroborated the conclusions on spacing of trade centers. Clustering of centers was again observed. This clustering apparently affected the shape of the tributary areas. They tended to be elongated with their long axes at right angles to the axes of rows of centers. The villages were located in belts between towns. Hamlets occurred at the margins of town or village areas, i n the t r a f f i c divides, and also within the town areas of dominance. TRAFFIC AREAS LOCAL T R A » H C A * E A S or TOWNS ANO V ILLAGES Fig. 5. Traffic Areas, Wisconsin 17 Chxistaller's hexagonal system called for village tributary areas to be three times as large as hamlet areas. Brush was unable to identify hamlet areas, but found village areas to be considerably smaller than the theoretical size. He attributed this to their linear spatial arrangement and to the encroachment of town areas. TRAFFIC RELATIONS OF VILLAGES Fig. 6. Traffic Relations of Villages to Towns or Cities, Wisconsin The local tributary areas of towns, according to Christaller, were equal in size to those of villages. Brush found that average town areas were four times the theoretical size (129.1 square miles for towns 18 compared to 32.2 square miles for villages). He felt that this supported Kolb'8 observations, reflecting the greater attraction exerted by the town's greater assemblage of central services. The relationship of the towns to the villages shown on the map indicated that the average town had four or five villages within i t s range of influence, or hinterland. Brush found that some villages were linked to two towns and some were linked to the cities just outside the: study area. He estimated that each town served an area of 128.8 square miles beyond the periphery of its local tributary area. On this basis, towns seemed to be disproportionately small in relation to the population of their hinterlands. SERVICE CENTERS IM SASKATCHEWAN Christaller 1 s theory formed the framework of reference for the Royal Commission on Agriculture and Rural Life in Saskatchewan, in i t s 12 report on Service Centers. Appointed by the Government of Saskatchewan "to investigate and make recommendations regarding the requirements for the maintenance of a sound farm economy and the improvement of social conditions and amenities in rural Saskatchewan", the Commission produced a series of fourteen reports dealing with farm and rural problems. The study of service centre structure and trading areas was undertaken with the primary aim of finding a sound basis for the coordination of government services. The Commission felt that the This section is based on Service Centers. Royal Commission on Agriculture and Rural Life, Regina, Saskatchewan, 1957. 19 service center structure could provide a common denominator for delineating administrative regions for agencies which had similar needs in terms of regional size, focal centers and road access. The Commission restricted i t s analysis of service centers to an area in the southwest portion of Saskatchewan. The centers i n this area were cl a s s i f i e d according to the diversity of their functions, and their locational pattern was compared to the theoretical model of Christaller. The Commission* s method and general conclusions are a valuable contribution to an understanding of service center structure i n Saskatchewan. They w i l l therefore form the substance of this section, providing the necessary background for consideration of the South Saskatchewan River Project area. One of the recommendations of the Royal Commission on Agriculture and Rural L i f e was that a comprehensive analysis of service centers be undertaken for the entire province. This recommendation has been acted upon and the study has been carried out by the Local Government Continuing Committee. Data from the Committee forms the basis for analysis of the settlement pattern of the South Saskatchewan River Project Area in Chapter 3* Classification of Service Centers The Royal Commission on Agriculture and Rural L i f e rel i e d on diversity of services as the principal basis for classifying service centers in Saskatchewan. Services were tabulated for each center i n the area studied, which was the southwest quarter of the settled portion of 20 the province. In order that the services used for classification purposes would reflect as closely as possible services related to the population of the tributary area of the center, some adjustments were made. Excluded from classification were, i n general, domestic service, maintenance and operation, manufacturing, and administrative services. More precisely, the excluded group covered salesmen, labourers, mail carriers, caretakers, railway employees not concerned with railway users, manufacturing activity, and municipal, school, welfare and agricultural offices. The reason for omitting the la t t e r administrative group was npt that they lacked central significance, but that the major purpose of the Saskatchewan study was to measure the effectiveness of location of government services. A wide variation was found i n the degree of development of various centers. For this reason, considerable subjective judgment had to be exercised i n the classification process. The method used was to select the ci t y f i r s t , and then to decide the next lower class of center on the basis of size, location and distance. In this way, the Commission selected five types of centers, and proceeded to examine their service diversity. The entire range of services was then divided into the following class intervals: Rank of Center Humber of Services Hamlet Village 2 to 10 11 to 25 26 to 50 51 to 100 101 to 200 Town Greater Town City 21 Services which were typically found i n a center of a given rank but were not found in centers of lower rank, termed "characteristic incremental services", were identified from a frequency distribution of central services. Hamlet The Hamlet was ranked as the lowest functional unit. I t s role was to 3erve the basic needs of the adjacent rural population. In addition, i t provided auxiliary services i n transportation and communication, assembling farm products, r e t a i l trade, commercial, and public service. The significant services of the hamlet were the grain elevator and the general store. The general store seemed to be the most important establishment and was considered a minimum requirement for designation as a Hamlet. Other characteristic services were a postmaster, railway depot, telegraph service, garage, one-room school and church. Central employment in a Hamlet averaged 7 to 10 persons. The typical population range was from 20 to 80 persons, and there were from 5 to 20 residential structures. village 9 The Village had closer ties than the Hamlet with the surrounding rural area, due to i t s more diversified services. Termed by the Commission the "farmer's town", the Village provided the farmer with his urgent needs for both l i v i n g and working. 22 The lower ranking services which f i r s t appeared in the Hamlet were more strongly developed in the Village. Typically, there were two general stores and two garages. The school was usually a consolidated school, offering both elementary and high school education. The Village also had a post office and railway depot, 3 or 4- grain elevators with a capacity of about 200,000 bushels, and 2 or 3 churches. In addition to the general functions of the Hamlet, the Village sometimes offered services in the sphere of banking and finance, usually i n the form of a credit union. Village services which were oriented to the agricultural community were the lumber yard, hardware store, fuel dealer, blacksmith shop, municipal office and telephone off i c e . Derived from these basic center functions were such other services as the grocery store, barber shop, beer parlour, cafe, credit union and church. Employment in central services ranged from 20 to 40 persons. There were usually from 100 to 300 persons liv i n g in the Village, occupying about 25 to 75 dwelling units. Town The Town offered a wider diversity of services and a larger tributary area -than the Hamlet and Village. Among the lower ranking services, Towns had a greater number of units and higher sales volumes per unit. There were, for example, usually L or 5 grain elevators, with a capacity of 300,000 to 400,000 bushels. The Town was the lowest-ranking center i n which public services were significant. These included a hospital, physician, dentist, 23 barrister, local newspaper, theatre, community club and bank. Retail trade shoved an advance i n differentiation over the Village. Two significant incremental r e t a i l trade services were clothing and household appliance stores, both providing services for which there was a widespread demand which was not met i n lower ranking centers. The population of the town centers ranged from 4OO to 1 ,000 persons, and these centers contained from 100 to 250 residential structures. Transitional centers between Villages and Towns had only one or two of the higher ranking services. Some of the reasons cited by the Commission for the occurrence of these services were the size of the population i n the center, mistaken government decisions for location of services such as hospitals, and l o c a l i n i t i a t i v e In such endeavors as lo c a l newspaper publication. r Greater Town The Greater Town showed a change in functions from the Town, Village and Hamlet. Here the urban population ( 1 ,500 to 5 ,000) played an important role for the f i r s t time, in contrast to the lower ranking canters which were based solely on agricultural service. The two key characteristics of the Greater Town were i t s specialized services and i t s Importance in the social and economic l i f e of the province. Lower ranking services occurred i n the Greater Towns in largerj numbers or with increased capacity. There were, for example, more farm Implement dealers, garages and automotive services. Some services showed 24 an increase i n capacity instead of in the number of units, such as newspaper circulation, number of hospital beds, and theatre seats. Incremental services were numerous i n the Greater Towns. Wholesale trade f i r s t appeared at this l e v e l , in a minor but significant role. Greater Towns provided services which were needed by rural residents, such as apparel and accessory stores, and furniture stores, but which were not provided by centers of lesser rank because of infrequent demand for them and the need for a larger population base for economic operation. Public administration and transportation were also important functions of the Greater Towns. City. The City Center provided more adequately than the lower ranking centers a l l of the main types of central function. Greater diversity and specialization were evident in retailing, commercial services, transportation, banking and finance, and wholesale trade. I t was also a logical center, according to the Commission, for regional administration services. City population ranged from 4,000 to 20,000. Service establishments of types occurring in lower ranking centers were, i n the City, both larger and more numerous. The City added many incremental services, particularly i n r e t a i l trade, commercial and public services. Provincial City A sixth class of center, the Provincial City, was identified by the Commission although i t s services were not tabulated. Such a center was characterized by greater specialization and was the provincial 25 headquarters for various a c t i v i t i e s . Two significant province-wide functions usually associated with a Provincial City were the provincial government and university functions. Location of Service Centers Before analysing the distribution of centers, the Commission considered some of the influences which, i n Saskatchewan, might be expected to cause deviations from the Christaller theoretical pattern. The most important factors were transportation and consumer mobility. Also influential were topography, unequal distribution of resources and population, historical accident and local leadership. In the f i e l d of transportation, two significant agricultural factors h i s t o r i c a l l y affected the location of nucleated settlements. F i r s t was the distribution of land offering the best agricultural potential. Branch lines of the railway penetrated areas where land was of good quality, and generally tended to avoid sub-marginal lands. Second was the grain marketing need for shipment points located along the railway lines at close intervals. Thus the influence of agriculture was reflected i n tendencies to both areal discrimination and l i n e a l attraction of settlements. These tendencies were offset to some degree by the extensive acreage of good agricultural land, which resulted in a f a i r l y dense network of railway lines. Development of a highway and road network added to the general coverage provided by transport f a c i l i t i e s . Today the v i s i b l e evidence of the transport influence i s most apparent in linear location of Village and Hamlet centers. it 26 The effect of transport was to encourage centers to cluster along the main communication lines, to lower the rank of centers located on secondary lines, and to reduce the number of centers i n areas with inadequate transportation. The clustering of centers forced the tributary areas out of their concentric shape, into areas elongated at right angles to the transportation route. Fig. 7. Distribution of Service Centers i n Saskatchewan The Commission differentiated between the pattern of settlement i n densely populated and sparsely populated areas. In areas of sub-marginal land, which supported lower population density, centers were 27 farther apart, and gaps in the system of centers occurred. Neighboring centers with s p l i t functions also distorted the pattern. These were due, said the Commission, to historical accident, settlement i n stages, or competition of local leaders. S p l i t functions could occur between centers of any given rank, but the distance separating the split-function centers of higher rank would be greater. Regina and Saskatoon were cited as examples of split-function centers at the Provincial City l e v e l . The effect of the s p l i t was to increase the number of sa t e l l i t e centers to eight, as indicated in Figure 8. This was roughly comparable to the locational pattern of the principal centers of Saskatchewan, as shown in Figure 9. 9 i o ! JO o 9 x i * i i ex or O 9 i i A: II6 6 JO JO F i g . 8. Diagram of S p l i t Centers Two other anomolies noted by the Commission were isolated centers and extended centers. The isolated centers appeared at frontiers of settlement or in areas cut off by a topographical barrier. Extended centers were interconnected to the service center system only through 28 another center of similar rank. The commission concluded that distribution of centers by function and size in southwest Saskatchewan met the general theoretical expectations. According to their functional classification, there were 2 Cities, 8 Greater Towns, 26 Towns, 65 Villages, and 155 Hamlets. In instances where the location of centers varied from the symmetrical pattern, the influence of transportation explained most of the distortion. O Noft: Arcru %n prvportwoal to population. F i g . 9. Principal Centers of Saskatchewan /I i: 29 Vithin tha swift Current System of Greater Towns, the number of centers of each rank were compared with the minimum number required in the model. The comparative figures were: Theoretical Actual Cities 1 1 Greater Towns 6 6 Towns 6 7 Villages 24 21 Hamlets 54 60 The average distance between centers also showed reasonable agreement with the relative distances in the hexagonal structure. Actual distances were affected by discrepancies in the expected numbers of centers and by the linear location along transportation routes. Theoretical Distances Actual Average Case I Case II Distance Hamlet to Village 10.0 12.0 10.0 Village to Town 17.3 20.8 I 4 . 8 Town to Greater Town 30.0 36.0 32.5 Greater Town to City 52.0 62.3 63.0 Adaptation of location to the railway was evident among the lower ranking centers. In about two-thirds of the centers convenience of transportation seemed to be a more important factor than service convenience. Many canters were related to only one higher ranking center, rather than to two or three, as the theoretical pattern called for. The frequency of these separated centers was attributed to topographical barriers, submarginal land, and the international border. 30 Assessing the value of the theory in the li g h t of i t s findings, the Commission concluded that the theory of central places offered a satisfactory explanation of differences i n the size and functions of centers. I t also was a guide to distribution of the centers, both i n terms of the number of centers of different ranks and their locations. Deviations from the model could be explained by the effects of such factors as transport routes, topography and s o i l s . IV Chapter 2 EXPERIENCE IN PLANNING THE LOCATION AND SIZE OF RURAL AND URBAN NUCLEATIONS IN SELECTED IRRIGATED AREAS "There i s , of course, no pos s i b i l i t y of applying ready-made formulae of existing or ideal regional structure to practical needs everywhere. The study of other countries 1 experience in the f i e l d of regional development has quite another purpose: i t helps to throw into sharper r e l i e f the uniqueness of one's own planning and development problems." Artur Glikson Chapter 2 EXPERIENCE IK PLANNING THE LOCATION AMD SIZE OF RURAL  AND URBAN NUCLEATIONS IN SELECTED IRRIGATED AREAS Planning for the spacing and size of community nucleations i s one aspect of regional planning. As a part of regional or national planning programs in other countries, some experience has been gained with respect to planned community location and desirable size. I t i s f e l t that some familiarity with the experience elsewhere can be valuable i n planning for the South Saskatchewan River Project area. The areas selected for investigation for the purposes of this study are agricultural areas where large-scale irrigation projects have been carried out. Three areas w i l l be discussed: the Columbia River Basin in the State of Washington, U.S.A.; the polders i n the Netherlands, particularly the North-East Polder; and three regions i n the State of Israel. The Columbia River Basin development resembles most closely the situation in the South Saskatchewan area, where dry land wheat farming w i l l be replaced with irrigated land, offering an opportunity for more diversity in crop types and promising significant changes in the size of farm holdings and i n the role of community service centers. The Netherlands situation has a very different basis. Here the land i s claimed from the sea, by means of diking and drainage, to provide new 33 irrigated land for agricultural use. This is probably as close as a planner can get to a pure situation uncompromised by existing facilities which often exercise some influence over the planning of the area. Here the planner has an area of fertile land to transform into a dynamic community. With no existing hamlets or villages, no existing road net-work, the location of communities, theoretically, can be decided in terms of the best possible service to the population. The Israeli experience i s affected significantly by the pressing factor of time. The influx of thousands of immigrants, many of them with an urban background, demands that homes be found for them. This tends to disrupt the logical sequence of rural-urban development. Indeed, the contrasts between planned development In Israel, in the Columbia Basin and in the Netherlands should point up the differences in the settlement pattern resulting from the different factors which mold planning policy. THE COLUMBIA BASIN PROJECT The Columbia Basin project, in the State of Washington, i s a multi-purpose project designed to store and deliver stored water for land reclamation, to generate electric energy, to control floods, to improve navigation and to regulate stream flow. The lands to be irrigated with water impounded behind Grand Coulee Dam l i e in the Big Bend of the Columbia River, beginning about 60 miles south of Grand Coulee* The Project area contains some 2^ million acres, of which about 1 million acres i s suitable for irrigation. 34 Fig. 10. Columbia Basin Project Location The Project was started in 1933> with construction of the Dam. By 1942 the Dam was completed and some of the power generating units were put into operation. Work on the irrigation works started after World War II. The i n i t i a l irrigation, in the Pasco area in 1948, used water pumped from the Columbia River. The large-scale program, using water from the reservoir behind the Dam, did not get under way until 1952. Since that time, from 34,000 to 66,000 acres have been added each year, 35 so that by 1958 over 380,000 acres were irrigated. 1 About half of the 1,029,000 acres planned for Irrigation ultimately should be served^ by 1963. Columbia Basin population in 1950 was 30,232, with 12$ on farms, 16$ rural non-farm, and 72$ in towns and villages. The detailed distribution of the population i s shown in Table 1. Table 1. POPULATION DISTRIBUTION IH THE COLOMBIA BASIN. 1950 Urban (2,500 and over) Pasco 10,278 Ephrata 4,589 Moses Lake 2,679 Large Village (1,000 to 2,499) Soap Bake 2,091 Small Village (200 to 999) Quincy 804 Othello 526 Connell 465 Warden 322 Total - Urban and Village 21,704 Open-Country settlement: Farm 3,645 * Non-farm 4,883 * 30,232 * Estimated by Bureau of Reclamation Source: Indications of Business and Industrial Development that will result from the Irrigation of the Columbia River Basin Project. Ephrata, Washington, Jan. 1953* using census of population 1950. 1 Growth of Agricultural Proceeeing and Marketing Facilities. Columbia Basin Project, Washington, U.S. Dept. of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation, August 1958. 36 In an irrigated area i n Southwest Idaho, the population distribution i n 1950 was 29% farm, 13% rural non-farm, and 58% town and village population. The Bureau of Reclamation suggested in 1953 that the future population of the Columbia Basin Project might be distributed in a manner roughly comparable to the Idaho breakdown, when the Project i s more f u l l y developed. Fig. 11. Columbia Basin Town and Village Growth Indication of Business and Industrial Development that w i l l result from  the Irrigation of the Columbia River Basin Pro.iect. U.S. Dept. of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation, Columbia River D i s t r i c t , project Development Division, Economics Branch, Ephrata, Washington, Jan.1953. 37 The series of reports dealing with problems of planning for development of the Columbie Basin Project, prepared by the Columbia Basin Joint Investigations for the United States Department of the Interior Bureau of Reclamation, included a study of "the optimum number of towns and their advantageous p l a c e m e n t " T h i s Towns and Villages report i s i n two parts - the f i r s t , the Middle Yakima Valley i n Washington State, and the second, town development i n other irrigated areas, in Idaho, Oregon, Montana and Wyoming. The findings of the report which are pertinent to the present study form the subject matter of this section. The Middle Yakima Valley The Yakima Valley investigations were originally carried out i n 194l<. The purposes of the study were twofold: (l) to establish the character of towns which seemed to serve best the needs of farm families i n an area of irrigation agriculture similar to that expected i n the Columbia River Basin Project; and (2) to determine the support required for the establishment and maintenance of the more effective types of towns. The conclusions on these two points were expected to suggest c r i t e r i a for planning the number and location of towns which would best serve the settlers i n the Columbia River Basin. The area investigated i s approximately 150 miles southeast of Seattle, 160 miles southwest of Spokane and L40 miles northeast of 3 Towns and Villages. Columbia Basin Joint Investigations, Columbia Basin Project, Washington, Problem 18, Boise, Idaho, June 1947. 38 Portland. Yakima, the chief commercial center i n the immediate v i c i n i t y , i s a few miles northwest of the area. The Yakima River i s a physical feature of major importance, providing water for irrigation but also acting as a barrier to transportation, thus impairing easy access to towns from certain directions. The study concerned i t s e l f principally with the rural service functions of six towns in the Middle Valley of the Yakima River. Towns Placed i n their regional setting and ranked according to the number of functions performed and the area served, the six towns covered by the study were considered to be centers of the third and fourth order. Such a classification, by function, i s based on C h r i s t a l l e r 1 s theory and, as we have seen in the previous chaper, has been applied i n many areas, including Wisconsin and Saskatchewan. Towns i n the Middle Yakima Valley had fewer functions and only local service importance compared to such regional centers of the f i r s t order as Seattle, Spokane, Tacoma and Portland, or a center of the second order, such as Yakima. Centers of the f i r s t order served the agricultural area through whole-salers and distributors, daily newspapers, radio programs, and mail order goods shipped from warehouses in the metropolitan areas. These centers were also important markets for agricultural products collected in the towns from the surrounding farming area. Yakima, of second rank, provided services related to agricultural communities. I t was a secondary wholesale center, had a daily newspaper, a radio station, and was the primary shopping center of 39 the valley, with a wide variety of shopping and specialty goods. Towns of the third order were referred to as local shopping centers. They offered shopping goods and services which were adequate for most requirements. None of the three local shopping centers i n the Yakima Valley had as wide a diversity of services as Yakima, and none had the added functions of the larger center. The three towns of the fourth order had few significant r e t a i l establishments of shopping and specialty classes, no professional offices and few commercial amusements. The commercial establishments, which had largely "convenience" goods, served a function comparable to that of the rural service centers. The primary function of towns of both the third and fourth order was as a local marketing center for the products of irrigation agriculture and as local distribution centers for commodities needed by farmers on irrigated land. They served also as social centers for people both i n the town and in the nearby rural community. The significant difference between the third and fourth order towns was the extent to which their functions were performed. Rural Service Centers The twenty-five rural service centers i n the area studied provided limited services. They were cl a s s i f i e d into three groups, according to the complexity of the service structure and the number of establishments. The typical rural service center of the least complex type consisted of a single commercial establishment offering not more Fig. 12. Rural Service Centers, Middle Yakima Valley 41 than two types of service. Centers of intermediate complexity generally had two or three establishments, with a like number of different types of service. The most complex group were centers with more than three types of service. Three significant facts concerning distribution of the rural service centers were apparent! (l) She rural service centers were, in general, not found within four miles by road from the local shopping centers; (2) Many centers were located close to the fourth order towns; and (3) Transportation facilities differed for the three groups, e.g. centers of maximum complexity tended to have r a i l facilities while the least complex centers did not. Also, a l l centers of least and intermediate complexity were on paved highways, while only four out of seven of the most complex centers were on paved highways. This was interpreted as an indication of the need for a means of handling bulky commodities at larger rural service centers. The possibility of providing satisfactory service by truck was raised in the report as a matter which would require special investigation. Trade Areas The trade area of a town was defined as the "area within which most of the residents go more frequently to that town than to any other". By assuming that frequency of travel to a center was a fair measure of the frequency with which the services there were patronized, the study was also able to describe the trade area for each town as that ".within which residents patronize the town* s services more frequently than the services of any other town11. 42 The study did not attempt to delimit service areas for individual commodities. The object was to define a single-boundary trade area. This was done by using basic data obtained from a travel-destination survey made by the Washington State Department of Highways i n cooperation with the united States Bureau of •Public Roads i n 1936 and 1937. This survey obtained through high school students detailed information on automobile travel of the students' families during the preceding twelve-month period. Data included the number and destination of trips for both pleasure and business purposes, mileage per t r i p and the routes used. The preliminary boundaries of trade areas were drawn by plotting data for 280 families, showing location of each family and the percentage of their automobile trips to various destinations. This permitted delimitation for each of the six towns of the area within which most families made the greatest percentage of trips to that town. Tentative boundaries were then checked by 209 f i e l d interviews, along roads crossing the tentative boundaries. The family in one out of every two dwellings was interviewed to determine the town to which tr i p s were made more frequently than to any other. The tentative boundaries were then adjusted as required by the new information. The outer boundaries of the trading areas coincide with the limits of the irrigable land. Beyond i s dry land which i n the Middle Yakima Valley i s largely uninhabited. In the case of one town, located at the outer boundary, there was some support from the sparse population of the land not irrigated. Support from beyond the irrigated area was considered to be insignificant for the other towns studied. I t i s apparent that the degree to which the dry land farming area should be 43 taken into account in studying other irrigation projects w i l l depend upon the s o i l conditions and density of settlement. In the South Saskatchewan Project, for example, some blocks of irrigable land are contiguous to productive land containing a farm population whose support could not be ignored without unjustified distortion of the findings. Support Heeded for parts of the Trade Area Structure The population within the entire trade area was used as a rough measure of the aggregate support required for maintenance of the services at the center. This was considered to be an adequate measure because a l l of the towns were of local service importance. I t would not have been considered adequate i f Yakima, for example, had been included, since i t depended on the patronage of residents of the entire Yakima Valley. The v a l i d i t y of the measurement was confirmed by the comparatively constant relationships found between population of the trade areas and numbers of services i n the trade centers. The general conclusions regarding the different types of centers i n the Yakima Valley indicated that there were three towns serving as lo c a l shopping centers. The other three incorporated towns had been important prior to the widespread use of the automobile but had f a i l e d to retain their importance. Many of the rural service centers had survived and seemed to have an important role, but the need for others was questionable. Expressed in terms of road distances, the conclusions were as follows: (i) at road distances of 7 or more miles from local shopping centers, relatively complex rural service centers are needed, 44 ( i i ) at road distances of 5 to 7 miles from such towns, rural service centers of moderate complexity are l i k e l y to succeed, and ( i i i ) within 5 miles by road of such towns, rural service centers are not needed and, except under special conditions, are not apt to prove successful. Desirable Rural Area Structure The study of the Yakima Valley data led to the conclusions that there were two essential types of service center - the local shopping center and the rural service center. The local shopping center would be ideally represented by a town of at least 2,000 population, and should provide a l l the basic services required by farm families. The rural service center might consist of no more than the building, or a few buildings, at which the convenience types of service would be provided. There appeared to be l i t t l e j u s t i f i c a t i o n for villages of intermediate sizes to provide economic services. The relationship between the two essential types of centers, and conditions under which the desirable structure could be expected to develop i s indicated diagrammatically in Figure 13. The basic requirement for a satisfactory l o c a l shopping center was considered to be the presence within reasonably close distance of a relatively large farm population. With 1,000 farm families in -the trade area having purchasing power l i k e that of families i n the Middle Yakima Valley, and l i k e that anticipated i n the Columbia Basin Project, patronage would be adequate to support a l o c a l shopping center of the desired quality. A patronage base of about 600 farm families apparently would be Fig. 13. D I A G R A M M A T I C L O C A L TRADE AREA S T R U C T U R E L E G E N D : L O C A L S H O P P I N G C E N T E R TRADE A R E A 8 0 U N D A R Y OF LOCAL SHOPPING C E N T E R This trade oreo ideally includes at leost IOOO farm fam-i l ies ; the minimum requirement for a sat isfactory local shop-ping center is about 6 0 0 farm families. With 1000 famil ies , approximate, minimum populat ion obtained at mature development is as fo l lows 1 Desirable maximum extent of trade area, provided ideal conditions noted above are met. Form Rural n o n - f a r m Town and suburbs Total 4 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 8 0 0 0 R U R A L S E R V I C E C E N T E R (T r ibutary area indicated by hexagonol f igure. ) 46 sufficient and could be expected to support a reasonably satisfactory local shopping center where distance, or other considerations, limited the trade area. Distance was cited as a secondary but important element i n the development of local shopping centers. People would not regularly travel farther than necessary to obtain the services desired. But adequate patronage, rather than arbitrary distance, was considered the important factor in the location and spacing of towns for the Columbia Basin Project. I t was pointed out that undue increases in the spacing between towns from those indicated by adequate patronage bases would stimulate the development of centers at intermediate locations which had no sound prospect for growth as satisfactory shopping centers, or would place farm families i n the intermediate zone at a disadvantage with respect to easy access to the requisite services. The Yakima Valley data provided a working guide to the distance people might reasonably be expected to travel to a l o c a l shopping center. Ten miles by road did not appear to be an unreasonable distance, i n view of the distances regularly travelled in the Yakima Valley. In areas where the patronage base within a ten-mile radius was inadequate, the distance from the outer limits of the trade area to the center should be greater. However, where population density and other conditions permit-ted, distances shorter than ten miles were considered desirable. In view of the location aud character of rural service centers i n relation to local shopping centers in the Yakima Valley, six miles was 47 indicated as the closest distance to a local shopping center at which the u t i l i t y and the prospects for success of a rural service center seemed to be assured. About 100 farm families with purchasing power comparable to that of families in the study area apparently would provide an adequate patronage base for such minimum services as a combination grocery store and automobile f i l l i n g station. With a density of farm population such as that in the Yakima Valley, and that antici-pated in most parts of the Columbia Basin Project, the minimum adequate patronage would be found within a tributary area of two-mile radius. At least in areas closer to the local shopping centers, two miles appeared to be also about the maximum Battraction B radius of the average rural service center. Population distribution data for the Yakima Valley indicated that for each farm person in the trade area of a local shopping center there was at least one non-farm person. The report suggested that this ratio, applied to prospective farm population, would provide a means of estimating the probable minimum population within prospective trade areas of the Columbia Basin. The results would be minimum estimates, because the number of non-farm residents in some trade areas undoubtedly would be increased appreciably by the growth of towns into metropolitan centers serving a wide area, and by the possible development in some towns of industries in addition to those reflected in the Yakima Valley data. On the minimum basis, i t was estimated that about 75% of the non-farm population would probably reside in the towns, and about 25% in the rural areas. Thus, the distribution of total population of the trade area (minimum) might be expected to be about 50% farm, 37.5% town, and 48 12.5$ rural non-farm. Tovn Development in Other Irrigated, AreaB The second part of the Tovns and Villages report undertook to check the conclusions based on the Yakima Valley data, by considering aspects of town development in other irrigated areas. The three areas considered were a large area i n southwestern Idaho and adjacent Oregon; a similar area in south central Idaho; and small irrigation projects i n Montana and Wyoming. The aspects checked were: (i) requisite patronage support for l o c a l shopping centers, ( i i ) spacing of loc a l shopping centers, and ( i i i ) distribution of population between farm and non-farm groups within the trade areas of centers. Methods of study differed from those used in the Yakima Valley. Some of these differences may be noted. This part of the report was based on available map and census materials, rather than on f i e l d investigation. The towns were classified according to population, with a population of 1,500 or more being used as the criterion of a loc a l shopping center. (This figure was derived from the Yakima Valley data, where the smallest place with the characteristics of a l o c a l shopping center had a population of 1,449.) Trade area boundaries were estimated on the basis of Yakima Valley findings, with adjustments being made to census data boundaries. Thus, the trade area data provided a rough approximation only, for general checking purposes. Purchasing power of farm families was compared with the Yakima Valley, using level of l i v i n g indices. These were obtained by county for 1940, from a study by the 49 Bureau of Agricultural Economics of the United States Department of Agriculture. I t i s unnecessary for purposes of the present study to go into the findings regarding the irrigated areas i n Idaho, Oregon, Montana and Wyoming. I t i s sufficient to note that, in general, the data supported the findings in the Yakima Valley. The few exceptions were explained by special circumstances. The Columbia Basin - Planning For Towns and Villages The Community Development Section of the Bureau of Reclamation was responsible for planning new communities in the Columbia Basin Project area. In addition to the development of existing communities, JL six new towns were recommended, based upon the following general c r i t e r i a . A. For the most effective community integration, social and commercial services for rural people should be located in the same center. B. The economic services offered at a center must be extensive and varied enough to meet most of the needs of the rural people or they w i l l not support them. C. Studies indicated that i t requires a town of at least 1,000 population to provide adequately the economic services demanded by rural people. D. As towns exceed 3,500 to 4,000 population they tend to become unsatisfactory as social centers for rural people. Letter from Hugh H. Moncrief, Administrative Assistant to the Project Manager, Columbia Basin Project, Ephrata, Washington, April 13,1959. 50 E. A trade area containing 700 productive family size farms yielding average annual farm incomes of not less than |l,500 i s approximately the minimum size necessary to support the type of center satisfactory for the location of services for rural people. F. A high school serving the community should be located i n each service center to integrate the community and provide a nucleus for the development of recreational and social f a c i l i t i e s . No data i s available concerning the planning, i f any, of sa t e l l i t e relationships among the various service centers, but Moses Lake, Pasco, Ephrata and Othello were apparently expected to be the four major centers of population. The planned development of communities has not been followed through in the Columbia Basin Project. In June 1953 the Community Development Section was "deactivated". Only one town has been established at a site recommended by the Bureau. This i s the Town of George, i n the Burke Junction v i c i n i t y , which was planned by the Bureau for i t s personnel during the dam construction period.-* Two other towns have been established. One i s the Town of Royal, located in the Lover Crab Creek Valley, which was developed by a private corporation, after a f e a s i b i l i t y study.^ The study included estimates of population potential, financial capacity of the population, and possible locations of other towns. The need for storage f a c i l i t i e s for crops was considered, as well as the effect of recreational attractions. 5 Ibid. Letter February 25, 1959. ^ M. R. Wolfe, "Urbanization and a ftew Town in the Columbia Basin", Town Planning Review. Vol. XXVIII, No. 2, July 1957. 51 The purpose of the studies for the new town of Royal was to determine whether a particular town development was economically feasible. Similar studies undertaken by a public instead of a private agency should take a broader view, aiming towards a pattern of settlement that would be most efficient for the whole region. The results of planning for individual towns and planning for a region as a unit, with an interrelated settlement pattern, are likely to be vastly different. It is therefore most unfortunate that the operation of the Community Development Section was terminated. REGIONAL PLANNING INtffHE POLDERS. HOLLAND 7 Extensive areas of fertile Land are found along the coast of Holland, at a level of two to five meters below sea-level. The goal of the Zuiderzee Reclamation Plan was to develop 220,000 hectares of this land by dike building and drainage. The f i r s t step in the plan was to erect the Zuiderzee Dike, cutting off the Wadden and the North Sea from the Isselmeer. This project, made possible by modern engineering, was completed in 1932. The Zuiderzee Dike, by excluding the sea, enabled creation of a fresh water lake which could be used as a reservoir to supply water for agriculture, towns and industry] i t permitted drainage of the neighboring land and regulation of the water level: i t eliminated the sea tides and prevented floods; and i t provided a communications This section is based on Artur Glikson, Regional Planning and  Development. Leiden, Holland, 1955• 52 link between Northern Holland and Eriesland. Construction and maintenance of this 30—kilometer sea wall made i t possible to use lighter construction for some 320 kilometers of dikes protecting the polders around the Zuiderzee. (See Figure 14). Fig. 14. The Partial Reclamation of the Zuydersea Before the Zuiderzee Dike was completed, a small experimental polder of about 100 acres was developed near the village of Andijk, in the Province of North Holland. Here experimental plots were seeded with crops which would be cultivated later in the larger polders. Fresh Fields and Polders New. The Story of the Zuiderzee Works. The Netherlands Abroad, Amsterdam, Holland, 1955. 53 The f i r s t polder to be developed was the Wieringermeer, in the Province of North Holland. The villages in this polder contain shops, churches, schools, and other services and institutions. These villages have been criticized as being located too close together in the central part of the polder, where their spheres of influence overlap, and being too far from the outer boundaries of the polder. The latter results in lack of integration with the portions of the country adjacent to the polder, as well as inadequate service to the farmers who have too far 9 to travel to the nearest village. The experience gained in the Vieringermeer development was used in planning the North-East Polder, which was started in 1937 and drained by 1942. The plan was to settle 40,000 people on the 48,000 hectares (120,000 acres) of land in the polder. Farm size varies, with holdings of 30, 60, 90 and 120 acres. Types of crops also vary. At the end of 1955, there were 1,213 farms ready for operation, including 1,142 agricultural farms, 33 horticultural farms, and 38 fruit-growing farms. Small farm units are located near the villages and larger farms are farther away, as the farmers with more extensive acreage are better able to provide their own transportation. The maximum distance from a farm to the nearest village is 5 kilometers, or about 3 miles. This was considered a reasonable distance to travel at the time that the North-East Polder was planned, before World War II, when bicycles were Weiger Bruin, "The Villages of the North Eastern Polder", North Eastern Polder. Amsterdam, 1955. • v.iu t« CiT.il fs r tu — — •dr. of n*w l l A i Fig. 15. Plan of the Morth-East Polder in the Motherlands 55 the typical means of transportation. The ten villages in the polder are located in a ring around the central town of Emmeloord. A l l the main roads lead to the town, and the villages are also linked to each other by a circular route. These regional roads, which provide efficient connections, are more closely related to the canal system for irrigation than to the landscape plan of the polder. Glikson suggests that the number of rectilinear, monotonous lines might have been reduced by developing an overall land-scape plan for the region and conforming to i t . The development policy for the polder i s based on agriculture exclusively. The goals do not include the easing of population pressure in Holland, nor industrial development unrelated to agriculture. The population density of the polder ie low, representing about one-third of the density for the country as a whole. The agricultural orientation i s reflected in the geographic pattern for the region, with i t s town and several villages, and their respective spheres of primary and secondary influence. This pattern may be compared to two levels in the hierarchy of settlements described by Christaller*s theoretical model of central places which has been discussed in Chapter 2. It is based on efficient marketing of goods from a minimum number of central places, and service to the population supported by the surrounding productive land with a minimum of aggregate travel. The Borth-East Polder 1a 40,000 residents will be distributed on farms (25%), in the ten villages (50%), and in the central town (25%). 56 The role of the v i l l a g e i s to provide such services as commerce, education and r e l i g i o n , and to provide a dwelling place f o r some of the a g r i c u l t u r a l laborers. Population i n a v i l l a g e w i l l range from 1,000 to 2,500. The minimum of 1,000 persons i s based on the smallest number desirable f o r s o c i a l contacts, a school and a small nucleus of shops. One c r i t i c i s m of the planned v i l l a g e size i s that i t i s influenced too 10 much by the t r a d i t i o n a l size of v i l l a g e s i n Holland. Planning of the occupational d i s t r i b u t i o n of the ultimate population i n the Polder was based on experience and on research into the socio-economic structure of regions. I t takes into account the stages of development, assuming settlement at a rate of 260 farmers a year. In the early years of development, the proportion of temporary laborers i s higher, f o r example, and the proportion of service occupations i s lower than i n the l a t e r stages. The proposed geographic and occupational d i s t r i b u t i o n of the ultimate population i s shown i n Table 2. Ho l e s s important than the planning p r i n c i p l e s applied to polder development, are the p o l i c i e s of implementation. A f t e r drainage of the polder was completed, State farms were established to plough the land, grow the f i r s t crops and prepare the s o i l for farming. This period of State-farming enabled research and experiment, preceding d i s t r i b u t i o n of the land to tenants. Workers 1 camps were established A. J . Venstra, "The Colonization of the North Eastern Polder", North Eastern Polder. Amsterdam, Holland, 1955. 57 near the sites of future villages, and such development work as erecting farm buildings, constructing roads, digging canals, and in s t a l l i n g e l e c t r i c i t y , was started. When the f i r s t permanent farms were rented, six years after drainage was completed, they were completely developed. Such a procedure was used i n order to assure organic development of the Polder. Table 2 PROPOSED GEOGRAPHICAL AMD OCCUPATIOMAL DISTRIBUTIOB OF POPULATIOH HORTH EAST POLDER Occupations (including families) On farms Ho. In villages Mo. % In central town Mo. % Total % Tenant farmers 6,500 - - - - 16 Agric. laborers 3,500 9,000 45 1,000 10 34 Industry - - - 4,000 40 10 Commerce & communications - 4,950 25 2,250 22.5 18 Crafts - 4,670 23 2,125 21,5 17 Education - 550 3 250 2.5 2 Miscellaneous 830 L 375 3.5 3 Total 10,000 20,000 10,000 Percentage 25% 50% 25% 100% Source: A. Glikson, Regional Planning and Development, pub. by A. W. Sijthoff»s Uitgeversmaatschappij M.V., Leiden, 1955. Preparation of the farms and farm settlement i s f u l l y integrated with construction of the town and villages and settlement of the non-farm 58 population. Both farmers and workers in other occupations are carefully selected from numerous applicants. According to Glikson, "Holland uses the highest quality population and the most advanced technological means at its disposal for the creation of the Zuiderzee Polder regions, and the synchronization of the Polder developmental operations has achieved true perfection." 1 1 The policy regarding sequence of development of the villages and town is an important aspect of effective implementation of the plan. In the earlier polder development, the Wieringermeer, a similar arrangement of service centers was planned, with a central town and subordinate villages surrounding i t . The f i r s t farms settled were located near one of the village sites, so this village was developed f i r s t . The result was that i t attracted central regional services and developed as a small town, while the planned regional center did not grow and was unable to assume i t s planned town status. Taking advantage of this earlier experience, the importance of the time factor i s acknowledged in the development in the North-East Polder and development of the villages i s deferred until Emmeloord, the central town, becomes established. The Polder management encourages the establishment in Emmeloord of more stores and services than are perhaps justified by the population now living in the vicinity. By so doing, the settlers experience some temporary difficulties, as they are a considerable Glikson, op. cit 59 distance from a service center. But such an "a r t i f i c i a l 1 1 stimulus during the early years is considered both justifiable and necessary to ensure appropriate long-range development of the central town. The Eastern Flevoland polder, an area of 133,000 acres, i s currently being developed, and changing conditions are taken into account in planning this polder. The change in -the mode of transportation from bicycles to gaaH motor-bicycles, for example, has permitted an increase in the •reasonable" distance from farm to village. The result is that in the Eastern Flevoland polder six villages will serve 133,000 acres, compared to ten villages in the North-East Polder to serve 120,000 acres. Because i t can serve a larger trading area, containing more families, the minimum village population in the Eastern Flevoland will be 2,000, compared to 1,000 in the North-East Polder. 1 2 RURAL PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT IN ISRAEL In the ten years immediately following establishment of the State 13 of Israel in 1948, about 1 million immigrants arrived in Israel. Combined with the natural increase, this influx brought the population to approximately 2 million in 1958, compared to 850,000 in 1948. Letter dated January 12, 1959, from Van Rynvan Alkomade, Secretary, "The Netherlands Abroad1*, Amsterdam, Holland. Artur Glikson, Rural Planning and Development in Israel - Two Case  Studies. United Nations Economic and Social Council, Working Paper No. 46, 1958. 60 Israel i s a small country, with an area of about 8,000 square miles. More than half of the total area is desert (the Hegev) or i s unfit for cultivation, and much of the remainder i s suitable only for pasture. It vas, therefore, necessary to develop the country at a high population density. Land, people and time were the three chief factors cited by Arieh Sharon as determinants of planning objectives in I s r a e l i fie noted that the land varies widely in such natural characteristics as climate, soil and topography. The population has a diverse cultural background, ranking social composition a vital consideration in planning, in order to achieve integration of the old and the new population without undue difficulty. The time factor i s more urgent in Israel than in most countries because of the vast numbers of immigrants. To take care of them, a quick tempo of development i s required, with high priority on Immediate needs. The pressure of time called for compromise which, as Sharon pointed out, might prove detrimental to planning. The Israeli population is expected to be about 80$ urban. In order to guide the stream of immigrants in the direction most desirable from the national and economic standpoint, plans were prepared for a balanced distribution of population. To achieve decentralization, twenty-four planning regions were proposed, each delimited by geographical and economic factors, such as soils, mineral resources and communications. This introductory section i s based on Arieh Sharon, Physical Planning  in Israel. Tel Aviv, 1951. Each planning region would have an urban center to serve as a communication and trade center, as well as the cultural and social focus of the region. The proposed regions are shown in Figure 16. The proposed distribution of population, so important to the nation, could not be accomplished without a consistent planning and development policy. A National Master Plan for Israel was therefore prepared, which would coordinate development of the agricultural potentialities, the location of industry, a system of communications, a nation-wide plan for parks and forests, and planning for new towns. In I948 Israel had only two types of nucleated settlement - the small agricultural village and the large town with regional and national functions. The National plan proposed to introduce three new forms, of settlement to act as cultural and economic centers, providing a graded continuity of settlements. The five types proposed were developed from a survey of existing settlements and consideration of future needs. 1. Village (population about 500) - a basic agricultural c e l l 2. Rural Center (population about 2,000) - several agricultural units linked to a common service center 3. Rural-Urban Center (population 6,000 to 12,000) - economic, cultural, commercial and industrial services for numerous nearby villages 4. Medium Town (population 40,000 to 60,000) - the center of a region 5. Large Town (population over 100,000) - regional and national focal point The Village would contain up to 100 families, each farming an irrigated area of some 2,000 to 3,000 dunaas, or larger areas of PLANNING REGIONS IN ISRAEL Population Region June 15 1948 First Stage 1. Huleh 4,450 50,000 2. Safed 3,750 59,000 3. Kinneret 14,000 95,500 4. Asher 4,450 122,000 5. Nazareth 200 81,500 6. Bet Shean 9,650 55,000 7. Afuia 5,400 86,000 8. Western Valley 19,450 95,000 9. Haifa * 95,000 260,000 10. Carmel 4,350 63,000 11. Northern Sharon 16,600 92,000 12. Central Sharon 24,100 117,000 13. Southern Sharon 24,100 92,000 14. Dan 26,900 83,500 15. Tel Aviv * 287,380 450,000 16. Rishon Lezion 16,120 70,000 17. Yavneh 16,900 70,000 18. Ludd 1,000 78,000 19. Yehuda 1,350 55,500 20. Jerusalem * 76,800 220,000 21. Darom 3,100 165,000 22. Beersheba 750 120,000 23. Sdom 40,000 24. Elath 22,000 655,300 2,650,000 * Town Regions Source: Arieh Sharon, Physical Planning in Israel, Tel Aviv, 1951. 63 extensive agriculture. 1^ I t would contain a school, community h a l l , and such economic services as a garage, store-houses and smithy. The Rural Center would be linked to 3 to 5 Moshay im (cooperative v i l l a g e s ) , resembling parts of a large village with 400 to 500 families. I t s services would include cooperative consumer stores, bakery and restaurant, store-houses and refrigeration plants, packing houses and garages, areas for handicrafts and l i g h t industries, schools with sports grounds, a community h a l l and synagogue. There would also be secretariat, dispensary, police station, and residential quarters for institutional employees. The rural canter would be located between the villages, with cultivated lands surrounding i t . The Rural-Urban Center would serve an agricultural area of about 100,000 dunams, with about 30 villages and a rural population of about 15,000. I t would be a large center containing regional services and handicrafts, industry using the agricultural produce of the v i c i n i t y , a building materials industry, and special industries based on l o c a l resources or l o c a l i n i t i a t i v e . Such regional services as agricultural and vocational schools, administrative, commercial, cultural and health institutions, would also appear i n these centers. The Medium Town would serve as the central ci t y for a planning region. Consideration of the topographical and physical data and the economic p o s s i b i l i t i e s of a region with a population of 75,000 to Four dunam equals one acre. 1 64 120,000 at the end of the f i r s t stage of development suggested a town population of 40,000 to 60,000. This size presumably would permit healthy economic development, provision of municipal services at reasonable unit cost, and promotion of cultural and social activities. Regional services would include banking, administrative and medical institutions, agricultural crafts and industries, end education and communal buildings. The chief purpose of the Medium Towns would be to absorb national industries, thereby preventing undue growth of the largest conurbations. The Large Town would have special functions related to national and international trade and communication. The three large towns in Israel are Jerusalem, Tel Aviv and Haifa. An indication of the progress made in rural settlement in Israel i s the fact that by 1958 about 200,000 immigrants had settled in villages, and nearly 400,000 in smnl1 and medium towns in rural regions."*"^ This amount of rural settlement was costly but Glikaon considers i t a sound investment. The reasons for this are several - i t enhanced prospects of economic independence, provided favorable conditions for absorbing new immigrants, directed growth away from large cities, and helped to achieve homogeneous settlement of the whole country. Gllkson also notes the excellent results from industrial development in rural towns. The combination of agricultural and indus-t r i a l development was undertaken as a means of achieving intensive Artur Glikson, Ibid. 65 settlement i n rural regions. Wherever a comprehensive regional concept formed the basis for planned rural-urban development, the pace of development and the ease of transition were spectacular. The factors of land, people and time, which operated so forcefully i n molding national planning policy i n Israel, do not, of course, have the same urgency in Canada. Nevertheless, Israel* s progress i n rural planning andddevelopment suggests methods which are worth examining. In the remainder of this section, consideration w i l l be given to three regions - the Afula region, the Huleh region and the Lakhish region. The Valley of Jezreel, i n the Afula region, i s an agricultural area which also serves an important role i n national and international com-munications. The Huleh region i s an agricultural area of intensive cultivation, where swamp drainage followed by irrigation brought significant changes i n agricultural production. In the Lakhish region, dry farming has been replaced by f i e l d crops on irrigated land. The Valley of Jezreel The Valley of Jezreel i s bounded by h i l l s and highlands and, on 17 the east, by the Jordon River. Communications routes through the area are of national and international importance. In addition, the Valley has historic significance and such natural attractions as scenic beauty and an excellent climate. This section i s based on Artur Glikson, Regional Planning and  Development. Leiden, 1955. 66 There are four sub-regions in the Valley of Jezreel, each with an urban center. These are the Beisan Valley (Beisan), the North-eastern sub-region (Mujdil), the Western sub-region (Yokn'am), and the Central sub-region (Afula). Afula i s centrally located between the two main parts of the Valley and i s a communication center of importance, being on the east-west r a i l route from Haifa to the Jordan Valley, and having a r a i l connection to the south. National as well as regional roads converge at Afula. These reasons made i t a lo g i c a l choice for development as the most important center of the region, with a sphere of influence extending over the entire Valley of Jezreel. Glikson draws some interesting comparisons between development i n the Valley of Jezreel in Israel and development of the North-East Polder in the Netherlands, which was discussed earlier. The area of agricultural land in the Jezreel Valley (67,000 Hectares) i s about l£ times "the agricultural area in the North-East Polder. The communications system resembles in general outline that i n the Bolder, with a national route traversing the Valley and a regional network linking towns and villages to the regional center of Afula. The Valley of Jezreel was developed during the period from 1948 to 1952. In 1948 the population was about 34,300, including 30,600 agriculturists and 3,500 urban dwellers. By 1952, total population had increased to 60,000, with 37,900 agriculturists and 22,100 urban dwellers. In the same period the population of Afula had quadrupled. Population density i n the Valley was 51 persons per square kilometer of arable land in 1948. By 1952, the density was 90 persons U*IUI uniiH VI LAG! NATIONAL ftOAD MGIONAL «OAO HAN. WAT VYAOI JOUST ITATt KXJNOt. Fig. 17. Regional Plan for the Valley of Jezreel, Israel 68 per square kilometer, similar to that for the North-East Folder. The preliminary plan for the Valley of Jezreel suggested a s t i l l more intensive development - a density of 240 persons per square kilometer. A comparison of the Polder and the Valley, i n terms of area, population, and population density, appears in Table 3* Table 3 COMPARISON OF THE VALLEY OF JEZREEL AMD THE HORTH-EAST POLDER Horth-East Polder Plan Area (hectares) Total Agrlc. Population Pop. Density , Per Sq. Km. Total Rural Urban Total Arable % ~% 48,000 40,000 40,000 75 25 J ezreel Valley 1948 1952 Plan 92,000 67,000 34,300 90 10 60,000 63 37 160,000 44 56 83 37 65 174 100 51 90 240 Source: Artur Glikson, Regional Planning and Development. Leiden, 1955, P. U 4 . The agricultural area i n both the North-East Polder and the Valley of Jezreel was su f f i c i e n t l y extensive to j u s t i f y a town. The Polder had the advantage, says Glikson, of a tradition of town development related to an agricultural region. In Israel, farmers li v e d i n the villages instead of on separate farms and there was l i t t l e , i f any, relationship between agriculture and regional towns. Apart from agriculture, the strategic geographical location of the Valley with respect to national transportation provided a more favorable urban development potential than i n the Polder. 69 Opportunities for regional industry related to agriculture were similar i n Emmeloord, the regional center of the Polder, and i n Afula. But actual development i n these central towns reflected the different emphasis on industry in the two regions and the decisions regarding relative importance of urban centers i n providing employment opportunities. The difference in planning goals for the Polder and for Israel affected the rural-urban population ratio. The aim in the Polder was optimum growth of an agricultural region. The aim in Israel was intensive and rapid settlement at locations with a development potential. The pace of development of services and industry i n Emmeloord was synchronized with the needs of regional agriculture. The urban population was, therefore, relatively low in number in relation to the area of the Polder. Urban population was expected to comprise only about 25% of the total population. In Israel, by contrast, the rate of urban development exceeded the rate of agricultural development and the pace at which urban f a c i l i t i e s were installed. The technological operations necessary in the Jezreel Valley for irrigation and power development were comparable in extent, to the drainage operations i n the Netherlands Polder. Even though these projects were just beginning in Israel, 10,000 people had been settled in Afula. The policy was to settle immigrants i n the v i c i n i t y of their future sources of livelihood despite the fact that this required a r t i f i c i a l economic support temporarily. The State employed immigrants i n development of communi-cations and irrigation u n t i l such time as regional services and 70 industrial needs could absorb the workers. The plan for the Valley of Jezreel provided for a hierarchy of settlements, with Afula as the major center. The logi c a l sequence of development, argues Glikson, would have been to develop Afula f i r s t and to postpone development of lesser centers. Actually, development of three of the four planned centers in the Valley started at the same time. Each center was near some development project, such as irriga t i o n , afforestation, road building or drainage, so the opportunity was taken to combine the establishment of the permanent settlements with provision of a labor force for development operations. Workers' camps, instead of being dismantled after, completion of the work, as i n the Polder, formed the basis for stable urban settlement. Thus the chronological order of settlement was determined by resource development needs for the region, rather than the consolidation of regional development. This transitional stage in regional development in Israel, Glikson points out, was an obstacle to regional integration, but was a practical necessity in order to absorb the immigrants. The Huleh Region 18 The Huleh region l i e s in the northern corner of Israel. I t has f e r t i l e soils, an abundant water supply, and a variety of land conditions i n the valley and on the slopes and ridges of the Galilee and This section i s based on Artur Glikson, Rural Planning and Development  in Israel - Two Case Studies. United Nations Economic and Social Council, Working Paper No. 46, 1958. 71 Lebanon mountains. This permits varied land uses, ranging from irrigated farming to sheep raising and forestry. Although the new urban center of this region. Kiryath Shmoneh, i s only 20 kilometers from Haifa, the Huleh Valley i s an isolated area. t Road connections must traverse terrain where mountains rise to 900 m. above sea l e v e l and the sea of Genassareth f a l l s to 200 m. below sea l e v e l . In 1948. the Jewish population of the Huleh region was 4,500 persons, l i v i n g i n 18 villages, most of which were collective farms. By 1958, the population had grown to more than 21,000, a figure well below the capacity of the region. Much of the rapid population growth occurred i n Kiryath Shmoneh (Khalsa), which was established i n 1949 as the economic, administrative, and social center of the region. Mixed farming, which used to be typical of the Huleh region, has been replaced to a great extent by irrigated cultivation of crops suited to the s o i l , water and climate of l o c a l areas. The size of the farming unit per family was fixed by the Government Agricultural Planning Center at 3 hectares. Crops include f r u i t orchards and irrigated cash crops such as potatoes, cotton and peanuts. Dairy farming i s f a i r l y well developed, and cattle and sheep breeding are increasing as natural 72 pastures are brought into use. In the f e r t i l e marsh areas, reclaimed under the Huleh Reclamation Project, new crops were introduced, such as rice, sugar cane, asparagus, medical herbs, and bulbs. The changes i n agricultural practice in the Huleh region had several effects: produce became more varied, improving Israel's prospects of economic independence; progress was made i n consolidating agricultural settlement; employment was created for new immigrants; the processing of agricultural produce in Kiryath Shmoneh was started; and several service industries were established i n the new town. The preferred location for new industry was Kiryath Shmoneh. Typical new industries were an automobile service station, bakery, packing plant, cold storage plant, and a stone and gravel quarry. Plans had been made by 1958 for a cotton gin, textile factory, rice grinding plant, and a canning factory. A few new industries were based on resources other than l o c a l agriculture. Mats and baskets were produced i n Kiryath Shmoneh from the reeds of the Huleh marshes. Peat was processed and sold as f e r t i l i z e r . Recently discovered iron ore near Kiryath Shmoneh could be enriched and processed economically i f a local plant were started. Other enterprises which were established after the basic industries were building materials factories, a small radio factory, a motorcycle assembly plant, and a diamond cutting plant. The major communication route in the Huleh region connects Israel with Lebanon, following the dividing li n e between the mountain slope and the valley. Kiryath Shmoneh was located on this main road and 73 rural settlements were connected to the town by lateral roads branching from the main road. Most of the 27 villages in the region were from 7 to 12 kilometers from the town, and the maximum distance was IB kilometers. A regional ring road system was planned to improve com-munication between the villages and Kiryath Shmoneh. No final assumptions were made in i t i a l l y regarding the future economic development of the regional town, which might change drastically with the development of heavy industry. The f i r s t master plan prepared for Kiryath Shmoneh provided for a population of 15,000. In 1958, with a population of 13,000, the regional center had become an Important market for local agricultural produce. It was becoming a country town, attracting villagers to such regional services as the two banks, the post office, offices of the Regional Council of Upper Galilee, various cooperative commercial firms, and the new health center. The modern shopping center, completed in 1958, was expected to add shopping to the villagers 1 reasons for visiting the regional town. The economy of the Huleh region was s t i l l in a transitional stage in 1958. Over 40$ of Kiryath Shmoneh* s workers were engagedeither in resource development, such as soil conservation, drainage, irrigation and afforestation, or the provision of services, such as construction of roads and houses, electrification and telephone installations. Activities were s t i l l financed largely by public funds, invested In types of development which were designed to strengthen the region's economy. The occupational structures of the established villages and the new town were in sharp contrast. The klbutzia had a high percentage of 74 specialists, such as artisans, managers and educators, while the population of Kiryath Shmoneh consisted largely of unskilled workers. The absence of artisans, specialists and professional people handicapped development of the new town. The Government improved the situation to some degree by successfully encouraging 150 specialists to settle at Kiryath Shmoneh. Progress of a new Immigrant town, according to Glikson, requires settlement of teachers, doctors, administrators, and engineers, at the same time as the rest of the population. Many residents of Kiryath Shmoneh worked in the villages as laborers and farm hands, while the village population supplied managers for industries, banks and shops, nurses, health officers and social workers i n Kiryath Shmoneh. While this exchange of labor and service promoted social contact i n the region, Glikson feels that the arrangement should be temporary. The village population should be increased, and farm work should revert to the villagers. The occupational structure of Kiryath Shmoneh should be balanced, with the urban functions being carried out by town residents. This would require instruction, professional training, education and community development. The village population of the Huleh region doubled from 1948 to 1958. Part of the growth occurred i n new villages and part resulted from the gradual population increase i n the older settlements. About f of the village population l i v e d i n collective villages. There were also four cooperative villages and three villages with private holdings. L i t t l e was done directly, at least u n t i l 1958, to promote social contacts between the urban and rural population. Contacts were largely incidental to the distribution of the economic, administrative and cultural focal points in the region. For example, when a villager visited the new offices of the Regional Council in Kiryath Shmoneh, he would probably also v i s i t the modern shopping center and cinema. Is the two amphitheaters and museums of the region were located in collective villages, town residents had to go to the rural area to attend theatre performances or concerts. The new football f i e l d in the town was expected to become an important meeting place for the region. The regional secondary school to be built in Kiryath Shmoneh would bring town and country children together, and was expected to play a significant role in helping to develop regional understanding and cooperation. The Lakhish Region The Lakhish Region, in the south of Israel, was underdeveloped until recently, due to scarcity of water resources. At the end of 1954- i t s development began in accordance with a regional settlement plan prepared by the Jewish Agency's Settlement Department. The lack of an adequate water supply in the region was remedied by piping water some 60 kilometers from the sources of the Zarkon River to the south of Israel. The objectives of the plan were to increase agricultural production, to integrate new immigrants into the rural community, and to settle the region intensively. This section i s based on Artur Glikson, Ibid 76 Prior to completion of the water pipeline and irrigation, extensive dry farming prevailed in the Lakhish area. There were only a few, widely dispersed villages. With provision of irrigation, cultivation changed to fie l d crops. The area of land per farm family was reduced in size to 4 hectares, with 2.5 hectares for field crops, 0.5 hectares for orchards and the rest for fodder. The population target planned for the Lakhish region was 36,000, with 50$ rural and 50$ urban population. Most of the urban workers would be engaged in services and industries in the new regional town, Kiryath Gat. The site selected for the regional town was at the intersection of the main roads crossing the region; on the dividing line between the western coastal plain, with potentially fertile agricultural land, and the eastern part of the region with eroded h i l l s best suited for pasture; and in the geographical center of i t s area of influence. Kiryath Gat was about 60 kilometers from Tel Aviv to the north, Jerusalem to the east, and Beer-Sheva to the south. Within the region, to the west there was a semi-circle around the town of four sub-regional clusters, each with 4 to 6 villages linked to a Rural Community Center. These Centers were, on the average, about 10 kilometers from Kiryath Gat. To the east, the settlement pattern was very different. Here, there were more collective villages, Kibutzim. located 10 to 15 kilometers apart. 77 The planned population for Kiryath Gat was 14,000. In 1958, the 31 villages i n the Lakhish region had a population of approximately 10,000 and the regional town, Kiryath Gat, about 7,000. Some 12,000 of these were newcomers who settled i n 23 new villages and the new town. Hew villages in the Lakhish region were mainly cooperative villages, moshavim. in which land, houses and production were individually owned and marketing and cultivation were organized cooperatively. As the villages were concerned exclusively with agricultural production, a town was needed for services and marketing. The basic functions of Kiryath Gat, therefore, were the processing of agricultural produce, the storage, marketing and transportation of raw materials and finished products, and the provision of services to the surrounding agricultural area. Kiryath Gat was established in 1956 and i t s development proceeded quickly, complementing the intensification of agriculture i n the region. By June 1958, industries related to agriculture included two cotton gins, a cotton spinning plant, and a peanut sorting plant. Other industries planned were a dye-house for cotton, a paper factory which would use cotton stalks, and a sugar factory to process sugar beets. Occupations i n Kiryath Gat included about 33% of the wage earners employed i n industry, 38% i n building, 13% i n trades, commerce and small workshops, and 10% i n public services. Glikson attributed this favorable occupational structure, just 2§ years after the town was established, to the planned integration of the town i n the regional framework. 78 By 1958, Kiryath Gat was beginning to attract the villa g e r s . Some came to town by small mule-cart,, from distances of 10 to 12 kilometers. Completion of the regional ring road was expected to enhance the drawing power of the regional center. More than 90$ of the rural population settled i n the moshavia villages. Here the social aim of planning was to provide a decent standard of l i v i n g , to develop a village community, and to ease the adjustment of immigrants to their new environment. Village size was limited to 80 to 100 families, in order to minimize distances within the village and to achieve a cohesive rural community. In areas of intensive cultivation, villages were placed close together, i n clusters of 5 to 6 villages around a service village, a Rural Community Center. This created small sub-regions, i n which services i n the individual aoshav were minimized, while the Rural Community Center combined most of the services needed for the 5 to 6 villages. The population of such a center was about 2,000, a figure considered necessary for desirable development of village l i f e and services. The distance from the Rural Community Center to the villages averaged 2 toi3 kilometers. The Rural Community Center had disadvantages as well as advantages. Glikson referred to the danger of the Center becoming a settlement of managers, o f f i c i a l s and specialists largely of European origin, while the villages contained farmers from under-developed countries. Suggestions for overcoming the problems which this situation creates were being considered i n Israel i n 1958. One suggestion was to place more teachers i n the villages. Another was to introduce « m»n 7 9 industries into the Rural Service Center, thereby diversifying the population and strengthening the link between the service center and the villages. The planning and development of these three regions shows a consistent approach to high density settlement i n rural regions. The emphasis i s on the coordination of agriculture with industry based on agriculture, plus other types of industrial growth appropriate to the region. Glikson stresses the fact that a region i s an interrelated environmental unit and must be conceived as such, i f the design for development i s to be successful. Towns and villages can and do develop balanced relationships by processes of t r i a l and error over periods of years. But where delay means human suffering and high "social costs" of readjustment, as i n Israel, some method must be found to speed up the process of achieving a balance. Thus, the pressing need for decisive action i n Israel has served to bring into sharper focus the c r i t i c a l role of regional development authorities - a rolgi designed "to shorten and alleviate such processes of balancing by the comprehensive planning 20 and ef f i c i e n t timing of regional operations'*. C0MCLUSI0MS The selected experience of three "case studies" i n planning for rural and urban nucleated settlements shows both similarities and Glikson, Ibid, 80 contrasts. I t w i l l be useful to recapitulate and explore some of the highlights, as a summation of the discussion in this chapter. Ho attempt i s made to produce all-inclusive conclusions, but rather to focus attention on key differences i n planning objectives, factors entering into the planning process, and effective policies of implementation, which emerge from the study of these regions. The primary objectives of the Columbia Basin development were to ir r i g a t e an extensive area of semi-arid land and to provide power for the Pacific Horth-West. The development policy i n the Dutch Polders was oriented exclusively towards agriculture, an orientation which Glikson 21 c r i t i c i z e s as a weakness in Polder planning. He feels that as a f i r s t step i n settlement of the Polders i t was sound, but that industrial expansion to ease the population pressure i n Holland could be super-imposed on the basic agricultural structure at a later date. I s r a e l i policy was molded from the problems created by pressures of new immigrant population, which required rapid, high density settlement. How have these policies emerged in practice? The study of service centers i n a developed irrigated area i n the Middle Yakima Valley, which was undertaken to assist i n planning for the Columbia Basin, concluded that there were only two essential types of service center - the rural service center and the local shopping center. The intermediate settlement type, the village, seemed to have Glikson, op. c i t . . p. 108. 81 l i t t l e economic justification.; The rural service center role would be to provide convenience goods, through such minimum service outlets as a combined grocery store and automobile f i l l i n g station. The local shopping center would be a town, with a minimum population of 2,000, providing a l l the basic services needed by farm families. Support for the two types of centers was measured in terms of the number of farm families in the trading area, their purchasing power, and the size of the trading area. For successful operation, the rural service center would need about 100 farm families with purchasing power comparable to that of Middle Yakima Valley families. The minimum patronage necessary would be found within a two-mile radius, where population density was comparable to the Middle Yakima. A further requirement was that the rural service center should be at least six miles from the local shopping center. The desirable support for the local shopping center was 1,000 farm families, with purchasing power similar to that of Middle VniHmp families. In areas where the trading area was limited by topography or other controlling factors, 600 families was the basic minimum. The distance from farms to the local shopping center was ten miles or less in the Yakima Valley. Unless the patronage base within such a distance was inadequate to support a center, this was f e l t to be the desirable maximum distance. Distribution of population in the Middle Yakima Valley was one farm person to at least one non-farm person in the local shopping center. Application of the ratio of 1:1 to farm population for the Columbia Basin 82 would suggest a minimum, population, which would be increased i f industry developed to a greater extent than i n the lakima Valley. The non-farm population was d i s t r i b u t e d with 75$ i n towns and 25$ i n r u r a l areas, giving a population i n the trade area of 50$ farm, 37.5$ town, and 12.5$ r u r a l non-farm. A 1953 report by the Bureau of Reclamation suggested that future population i n the Columbia Basin might approximate 29$ farm, 13$ r u r a l non-farm and 58$ town and v i l l a g e , based on the pattern i n a 22 Southwest Idaho i r r i g a t e d area i n 1950. This shows a sharp divergence from the Yakima data, which was gathered i n 1941. While the r e l a t i v e importance of r u r a l service centers i s p r a c t i c a l l y unchanged, the towns and v i l l a g e s have assumed a much more s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e i n comparison to farms. General c r i t e r i a used by the Community Development Section of the Bureau of Reclamation i n planning f o r towns i n the Columbia Basin involved town population, trading area population, and purchasing power. Desirable town population ranged from a low of 1,000 to a high of 3,500, to 4,000 persons. The minimum figu r e was based on the number necessary to provide sa t i s f a c t o r y services and the maximum figure was based on the s o c i a l needs of the r u r a l people. The trading area should have at l e a s t 700 family s i z e farms producing an annual income of $1,500. The l a t t e r c r i t e r i o n f a l l s within the range recorded i n the Middle Yakima study f o r number of farm f a m i l i e s . Indications of Business and I n d u s t r i a l Development that w i l l r e s u l t  from the I r r i g a t i o n of the Columbia River Basin Project. Bureau of Reclamation, January 1953. 83 A comparison may be drawn between the Columbia Basin studies and the Dutch Polders. In the North-East Polder, there are two types of service center - the town and the villages. The "Village" of the Polder would correspond roughly, i n terms of population size, to the "local shopping center" of the Middle Yakima, or the "towns* planned for the Columbia Basin. The village had a population range from 1,000 to 2,500 i n the North-East Polder and later, i n the Eastern Flevoland Polder, a minimum population of 2,000. The types of centers required in the two countries seem to d i f f e r , with the Polder eliminating from i t s hierarchy of settlements the smallest center, which in the United States provides convenience goods. Maximum distance from the farm to the village was three miles i n the North-East Polder and somewhat more in the Eastern Flevoland, due to the change from bicycles to motor-bicycles. This was much less than the ten miles by road i n the Yakima, as would be expected when comparing travel by bicycle to travel by automobile. The comparison indicates the need to consider time-distance rather than distance alone. The North-East Polder population distribution was 25% on farms, 50$ i n villages, and 25% in the central town. The difference between this distribution and that in the Yakima Valley or Southwest Idaho probably reflects the effects of numerous factors, including agricultural laborers liv i n g in the Polder villages, a different emphasis on l o c a l processing of agricultural produce, and different forms of settlement nucleations. 8 4 The Polders are an outstanding example of successful plan implementation. Much can be learned from the staging of farm development, the synchronization of farm and non-farm settlement, and the scheduled sequence of town and village growth, to assure that the interrelationships planned for the Polders are not distorted by uncontrolled development. The key planning problem in Israel in the past ten years has been to achieve fe. balanced distribution of the thousands of immigrants who were pouring into the State. The volume of population in relation to land resources made intensive settlement necessary. This fitted in well with the backgrounds of the immigrants, who were largely from urban environments, and i t suggested emphasis on industrial development in addition to development of land resources by irrigation of the desert or by drainage of the swamps. But the need for rapid settlement of the immigrants injected unusual pressure into both the planning and action process. The resulting policy was one of intensive, rapid settlement, at locations with a development potential, so that a later move would not be necessary. Hew settlements were supported for a temporary period by development works undertaken by the State, and the location of these development works was an important determinant in the sequence of settlement in nucleations. Historically, there were only two type3 of agglomerated settlement in Israel, the small agricultural, village and the large city of regional and national importance, such as Tel Aviv and Haifa. The National Plan introduced three new types to f i l l out a hierarchy which would permit decentralization of industry and balanced regional growth. 85 The new types were a fiural Center of about 2 , 0 0 0 population, a Rural-Urban Center of 6 ,000 to 12 , 0 0 0 , and a Medium Town of 40 ,000 to 60 , 0 0 0 , which would act as a regional center. The considerably greater population of the regional center compared to the Polder center or the towns i n the Columbia Basin reflects the urban emphasis in I s r a e l i development. Urban emphasis i s also evident i n the rural-urban population distribution. In the North-East Polder the rural-urban ratio i s 75*25} by contrast, i n the Afula region (Valley of Jezreel) i t i s 44 :56 and i n the Lakhish region, 5 0 : 5 0 . Planned population density i n the Polder i s 100 persons per square kilometer of arable land; in the Jezreel Valley, on the other hand, i t i s 240 persons per square kilometer. An indication of the rapidity of industrial growth i s evident in the development of Kiryath Gat, the center of the Lakhish region. Within 2^ years after Its establishment, the occupational structure was 33$ industry, 38$ construction, 13$ trades, commerce and smal l workshops, and 10$ public services. Thus i t becomes apparent that with positive objectives, comprehensive planning, and clearly defined development p r i o r i t i e s , dramatic results may be achieved. Chapter 3 THE PRESENT SETTLEMENT PATTERN IN THE SOUTH SASKATCHEWAN RIVER PROJECT AREA B I f the nature of the service center and i t s tributary area i s understood and applied to shifting rural relation-ships, i t may provide an effective guide in establishing an orderly and stable pattern of rural service and rural l i f e in the future," Royal Commission on Agriculture and Rural Life, Saskatchewan Chapter 3 THE PRESENT SETTLEMENT PATTERN TH TftK SOUTH SASKATCHEWAN RIVER PROJECT AREA The area referred to In this study as the South Saskatchewan River Project area comprises most of the land which will become irrigable upon completion of the Project. It includes some 431,000 acres located in compact blocks, extending roughly from Saskatoon to Elbow, and from Colonsay to Asquith. (See Map 7). An additional 24,000 acres, comprising small parcels in the Qu'Appelle Valley, has been excluded from the maps since i t s importance for this study was not commensurate with the technical difficulties of mapping the larger, scattered area of irrigable land. SOURCE OF DATA - THE LOCAL GOVERNMENT CONTINuTHG COMMITTEE. SASKATCHEWAN The analysis of the settlement pattern in the Project area i s based on unpublished data obtained from the Local Government Continuing Committee, Province of Saskatchewan. As noted in Chapter 1, one of the recommendations of the Royal Commission on Agriculture and Rural Life was that a comprehensive analysis of service centers be undertaken for the entire province. This recommendation was acted upon, and the study i i 1 was made by the Local Government Continuing Committee, which used the service center concept as a f i r s t approach to the problem of 88 reorganizing local government boundaries. Preliminary administrative areas were derived on the basis of geographic arrangement of urban centers, reflecting the system of service relationships which had evolved between the urban centers and their rural hinterlands. The natural hierarchy of service centers offered possibilities for varying the number of local government areas by choosing an appropriate level in the hierarchy - village, town or greater town - as the basis for boundary delineation. The Committee added some refinements and Introduced more corroborative material to confirm the classification of service centers based on the concept developed in the Service Centers report, which i s discussed in Chapter 1. It will be useful to outline briefly the steps taken by the Committee to develop the ranking of service centers recorded in Table 4 and shown graphically on Map 1. 1 The functional analysis was derived by cataloguing a l l the services provided in each center, and then classifying a l l centers into a limited number of categories. The rank based on functional diversity was then confirmed or adjusted by data on population growth and volume of retail sales. The sales figures were obtained by totalling the sales recorded by individual establishments on their Education and Hospitalization Tax returns to the Taxation Branch. As the entry on the tax records for total sales, as opposed to taxable sales, i s not enforced, Based on letters from B. Sufrin, who i s responsible for this research for the Local Government Continuing Committee, Regina, Saskatchewan, March 1959. 89 these date are not too reliable. For the South Saskatchewan River Project area, sales figures for centers of town rank or higher were "used, after the functional classification, as a corroboration of status. The primary trade areas were delineated by f i r s t indicating the village level of service, regardless of higher rank. Factors used were population density by township, location, direction of t r a f f i c movement, and topography. The areas served by rural telephone exchanges were checked later against the primary trade areas and were found to correspond f a i r l y closely. Satellite status of centers was based chiefly on the school superintendents' knowledge of the relationships of villages to towns, and of towns to c i t i e s . Ho attempt was made to delineate the service areas precisely, because school administration became the key consideration i n the Committee's work. Centers and their s a t e l l i t e s were grouped into areas of appropriate size for proposed county administration, in an effort to develop more efficient local government units than the present small rural municipalities. The resulting areas were then checked against the larger school unit areas proposed by the school superintendents. Some of the implications of this emphasis on school administration deserve comment. The boundaries of larger school units as proposed by the school superintendents were based on the following factors: (l) Existing centralization points which would continue to be used, plus planned as well as probable conveyance, were combined to produce larger attendance areas which should be l e f t intact. The c r i t e r i a for 90 larger attendance areas related to the number of grades per room, i conveyance time, and enrolment. The goal was not more than three grades per room for elementary school and one grade per room for high school; not more than one hour conveyance time for elementary school children and 1§ hours for high school students; and an enrolment of 150 to 200 pupils. These conditions are not mutually consistent, and they varied widely with differences in population density and road conditions. On the average, i t was found that high school centralization with a 15-mile service radius met the grade and enrolment standards* (2) The boundaries of larger school units were related also to optimum administrative scale. Hough criteria adopted by the Department of education were 80 to 100 rooms (and teachers) and a pupil enrolment of 1,800 to 2,000 for each larger school unit, (3) Some subsidiary factors used to adjust boundaries to achieve the best overall arrangement included satellite relationships between urban centers, ethnic homogeneity, topography, and communications. The establishment of local government boundaries which are coterminous with larger school unit boundaries will unite the two most important roles of local government, and will have an important bearing on the future of some urban communities. A nodal point selected as the center of both new county government and larger school unit operations will be substantially strengthened in i t s role as a service center. Similarly, the removal of the local administrative function from a center will reduce i t s importance. Where the same factors are components of the centripetal force exerted by a specific center - such factors as topography, population density, distance, road conditions, railway 91 f a c i l i t i e s - selection of a community for centralized administration and for a key service center role should coincide. Where different factors come into play, such as optimum administrative size of school f a c i l i t i e s , the decisions may d i f f e r . The f i n a l decision on location of loc a l government boundaries and centers of administration w i l l effect the future functional diversity of service centers and their s a t e l l i t e relationships. Having outlined the method used by the Local Government Continuing Committee to classify the service centers and to delineate primary trading areas for Saskatchewan, we w i l l now proceed to analyze, on the basis of the Committee's data, the service center structure of the South Saskatchewan River Project Area. FUNCTIONAL CLASSIFICATION OF SERVICE CENTERS I t was noted i n Chapter 1 that the Service Centers report, by the Royal Commission on Agriculture and Rural L i f e , classified centers i n Southwest Saskatchewan into five levels i n a hierarchy of settlements, ranging from the hamlet, through the village, town and greater town, to the c i t y . ^ The Local Government Continuing Committee, i n classifying centers for the entire province of Saskatchewan, has introduced additional ranks. These are ill u s t r a t e d by the two new designations of Village-Town and Town-Greater Town, interjected into the Village, Town, Greater Town Sequence. Based on this new analysis the South Saskatchewan River Project area includes four types of service center, exclusive of Hamlets with a population under 1,000, and the Provincial City of Saskatoon, at the See above, p.20. 92 northern fringe of the area. The four classes are Village, Village-Town, Town, and Town-Greater Town. The population of theae centers ranges roughly from 100 to 1,000, and the types of function range from 1 to 32. Details of rank, population change from 1951 to 1956, and types of function in each center, are recorded i n Table !+• Examination of Table A indicates a grouping of functional types. Group I Includes functions which occur at the lowest l e v e l i n the hierarchy, such as lumber yard, hardware, implements, grocery, hotel, and are found also i n larger centers, usually i n greater number or with a higher volume of sales. Group II includes commercial functions requiring a larger patronage base, such as appliance stores and drug store, financial services, and health services. Banks and physicians are important incremental services, appearing i n a l l Village-Towns but in only a few Villages. Newspaper publication, also i n Group II , i s an important incremental service distinguishing the Town from centers of lower rank. Group III functions r e f l e c t greater diversity and specialization. Few Group III functions are found i n the centers of the South Saskatchewan River Project area. Insurance and real estate offices are i n most of the centers of Town and higher rank, but also appear i n a number of the Villages. Plumbing and heating i s an incremental function at the Town level, and furniture stores appear i n two Towns and the Town-Greater Town. The Villages i n the Project area offer from 1 to 20 types of service. The three Villages offering 20 services may be considered i n detail, i n order to determine what distinguishes them from a Village-Town. SOUTH SASKATCHEWAN RIVER PROJECT AREA L E G E N D (§) Town ° V i l l a S e (O) Town-Greater Town (#J Village-Town /&\ C i t y S C A L E l * J M i u r S T I T L E S E R V I C E C E N T E R S SOURCE: Local Government Continuing Committee, Regina. J E A N C. D O W N I N G U.B.C. A P R I L 1 9 5 9 1 Table 4. SERVICE CENTERS IN THE 3JUTH SASKATCHEWAN RIVER PROJECT AREA. SASKATCHEWAN. GROUP I GROT TD 13 GROUP III UJ o 8 rH tore f-l ting a 0 cn cn H "H rl) I n UJ -p rrj 3 rH r - l o 2 0 • b o UJ n 0 J TJ X! PH H y -p CD •p Q rH 0 ) EI bp rl N Cl) •z S5 < U xi n UJ OJ 0 p CD ct x : CD •p •rl Q Q a 0 s. 4^ 4 J (~) o CO •p 4-' (H s >» a u u IB u rH c CO m T5 u OJ a •,•1 n 4 q •H u CD c OJ cO M M o >> IE •H H OJ o +> r l ctj OJ a> u Q ad CO o. 9 cO u -p m '/J H bO JM o -p CENTER cn U u a H to 0 o 1 £? +5 c u B •H c 3 •H *> fj CO + 5 n a s c •d g n n 0 J •o u t>> a o <« 0 •« CO B M OJ p (>» h 1 H CO a •H u OJ ^5 +"> *J a CO 0 ) * K) Q) fe •r-l V 01 H V a •rl •rl -H •H Q. x i •rl d -p •H +5 Q •r| o 1 ID o rH o cd (H +3 p M 81 tsr* I r - - • -"' *p 0 & o OJ a . • 10 - P u ctj -p H bp Q -p rj +> CP p "rj - P Q o +> •H p o UJ H i CD o 3 H CM EH CC p <i • f. u 0 Eg >» a c i j> o p. 3 is w -Q t) cd o S Q +5 •p £ to a* rH 1 3 •a o to OJ < p P P p cd H h BT Q Rl o o M a XI 4> CfJ s H u • H 0J p « cu 3 a x i g c> CO cd r l c4 H c 0 c) 0 ) erf cC m & H Xi , Q •d •rl uo x i 0 2 o. o a u T3 4 c H £> CTJ CL s CO «H +5 fi. c0 o ;- o f p r-l 5. bO Pb O- CO •rl f4 ALLAN V 337 337 - o o o o o o o o o o i c o ASQUITH V 288 255 12 .9 o o o o o o o o o • 8 i 8 8 • c 0 o o BIRSAY V 142 126 12.7 o o BLADWORTH V 173 136 29.0 o o o o BRADWELL V 134 119 12.6 o o o o o o COLONSAY V 295 228 29.4 o o o o o o o o • • • 8 © 0 CONQUEST V 292 260 12.3 o o o o o o o o • m 8 • 8 8 o G 0 DUNDURN V 421 298 41.3 o o o o o o o o 0 8 8 o ELBOW V 281 247 13.8 o o o o o o G • • o ® c o 0 • ELSTOW V 111 99 12.1 o o o o • • Q GIRVIN V 142 113 25.7 o GLENSIDE V 135 106 27.4 o o o o o HARRIS V 282 247 14.2 o o o o o o G • G • 0 0 HAWARDEN V 174 138 -7.4 o 8 o o o 0 o • « 0 • 0 KENASTON V 385 276 39.5 o o o o • LOREBURN V 197 168 17.3 G MACRQRIE V 152 123 23.6 o o o o 0 0 MEACHAM V 193 167 15.6 o o o o o o o • o STRONGFIELD V 164 127 29.1 o o Q 0 o o o -j TESSIER V 104 115 -9.6 o o • VANSCOY V 107 109 -1.8 o o o 6 HANLEY V/T 425 358 18.7 991 o o o o o o o • • • • • • 0 p i MILDEN V/T 390 314 24.2 844 o o o o o c o • 9 • • • m 0 IOTJHQ V/T 431 363 18.7 577 o o o o 0 o o • • • 8 o & 0 • 0 0 GRAIK T 607 549 10.6 906 o o 8 o e 0 o G o o o • o o 0 0 DELISLE T 482 411 17.3 948 o o c 0 0 o o G • • • • • 8 • e o DINSMORE T 368 301 28.9 880 o o o o o a o o o 0 OUTLOOK T 885 676 30.9 1,602 o o o o o o o o c G o o 0 G o o o PERDUE T 413 389 6.2 483 0 G c o o o G • • • • • • 8 o o 0 o o o DAVIDSON T / L T 651 670 27.0 2,303 o c 0 o o o o G o o 0 o Source: L o c a l G o v e r n m e n t Continuing CoiTuidt tee , Regina, Saskatchewan. Unpublished data, 1959. V - Village V/T - Village-Town T - Town T/G.T. - Town-Greater Town 95 Allan has 20 functions and a population of 337, which i s above the general population range of 100 to 300 for Villages. It showed no increase in population from 1951 to 1956, and i t lacks such important Group II functions as a bank and a physician. Asquith's 20 functions also reflect good coverage of Group I functions and Group II commercial functions, but lack Group II public services. Conquest's 20 types of service are well distributed in the three Groups. It has a bank and a dentist in Group U and a furniture store and custom tailor in Group HI. Its population in 1956 was similar to that of Asquith, 295 compared to 288, and both centers shoved a 12% population increase from 1951 to 1956. These three Villages with 20 functions are the most fully developed in the Village classification, but their functions need to be supplemented with additional key services before they will qualify as Village-Towns in the service center hierarchy. In addition to the three Villages which exceed the general range of functional diversity for their particular classification, there are Villages which exceed the general population range. One of these, Allan, has already been mentioned and described. The other two are Kenaston, with a population of 385, and Dundurn, with a population of 421. Kenaston seems to be a center where population outruns functional growth - i t offers only 6 types of function - draying, implements, hotel, pool room, restaurant, and meat market. This unusual cross section of functions may be partly due to i t s location in relation to highway routes. Kenaston is on the main highway from Regina to Saskatoon, the two Provincial Cities, and i t i s at the junction of the Regina-Saskatoon 9 6 highway and the east-west highway to Outlook and across the South Saskatchewan River to the west. This route also branches to the south and another river crossing at Elbow. (Map 4 } • Kenaston recorded a population jump of almost 40$ from 1 9 5 1 to 1 9 5 6 . Dundurn had a population of 421 in 1 9 5 6 , an increase of 4 1 $ over 1 9 5 1 . This Village has 1 4 functions, including two particularly significant ones for a center at this level - physician and vulcanizing. The imbalance between population and functions in Dundurn probably results from i t s proximity to the army camp, which attracts population not wholly related to the Village's service center functions. The vulcanizing service may also arise from the army camp effect - in this case i t s effect on traffic generation. The size of population i s not a sufficient reason to change the status of either Dundurn or Kenaston, since they do not qualify as Village-Towns on the basis of functional structure. The Village of Elbow has IS functionsj 7 In Group I, 7 in Group II, and 4 in Group III. With a population of 281 in 1 9 5 6 and a population increase of 1 4 $ from 1 9 5 1 to 1 9 5 6 , EL bow i s one of the most fully developed villages in the South Saskatchewan River Project area. The Village-Towns, with about 4 O O persons each, have a larger population than the Villages. The number of functions varies from 16 to 1 9 , which i s in the top segment of the range for Villages. The functions differ, however, with the Village-Towns offering many more in Group II. Each center has an appliance store, drug store, automobile dealer, restaurant, and meat market. Also, each has a bank and a physician. Incremental functions appearing at this level are barristers in two of 97 the centers, and a hospital In the third center. Towns i n the Project area show a wide variation i n population, from roughly 4 O O to 900, and a functional diversity ranging from 19 to 32. Functions are concentrated more heavily i n Group II than they are for centers of lower rank. A l l the centers of Town status have banks, a l l have physicians, and four centers have hospitals. Important incremental functions also appear. These include newspapers published i n a l l Towns, clothing stores i n three centers, a libr a r y i n one center, and plumbing and heating i n one center. The Town of Outlook has the greatest functional diversity (32 functions), the largest population (835), and the largest volume of r e t a i l sales ($1,602,000). I t has seven Group III functions, including an automobile body shop, vulcanizing, and plumbing and heating services, which are not found i n the other Towns. Some idea of the physical appearance of a Town with these characteristics can be seen in the a i r photograph of Outlook on the following page. The only Town-Greater Town included i n the South Saskatchewan River Project area i s Davidson, located on the Reglna-Saskatoon highway route. This center had a population of 851 i n 1956, and has 32 functions. In both population and functional diversity i t i s obviously similar to the Town of Outlook. What factors merit assigning Davidson a higher rank than Outlook? The two centers offer the same types of functions i n Group I. In Group I I , Davidson has a dentist and Outlook does not. But Outlook has a liquor store and Davidson does not. The only incremental function i n Davidson i s a photographer. So the difference .Town of Outlook, Saskatchewan, looking north-east. P .F.R.A. Pre-development farms can be seen immediately south of the town. P.F.R.A. Photograph. 99 i n functions i s not sufficient to explain the difference i n classification. Comparing r e t a i l sales volumes, Davidson shows sales of about $2.3 million and Outlook #1.6 million. This suggests that Davidson has either a greater number of establishments than Outlook or a higher volume of trade per store. This i s apparently the significant factor on which Davidson's Town-Greater Town status rests. The South Saskatchewan River Project area does not contain the f u l l hierarchy of nucleated settlement types. In addition to the lower ranking centers which have been considered, the city of Saskatoon i s located just inside the northern boundary of the area. This c i t y has a population of about 80,000 and contains the University of Saskatchewan, which serves the entire province. The Royal Commission report on Service Centers classified Saskatoon as a Provincial City, sharing with Regina the top rank in the hierarchy for Saskatchewan. SPATIAL ARRANGEMENT OF SERVICE CENTERS Christaller*s theoretical model of central places, which was discussed i n Chapter 1, resulted i n a number of locational rules which should apply to the settlement pattern provided that the assumptions basic to the theory hold true. These locational rules pertain to the number of central places i n a f u l l hierarchy of centers, the distance between centers, and the size of the service areas of centers of different rank. Therefore, we w i l l have to examine C h r i s t a l l e r ^ assumptions to determine whether the location of centers i n the South Saskatchewan River Project area can be usefully discussed i n terms of his theoretical relationships. 100 One of the basic assumptions of Christaller 1s theory i s an •ideal1* landscape, with f l a t terrain, uniform land f e r t i l i t y , equal distribution of resources, and unimpeded mobility. Such conditions suggest the possibility that rural population would be distributed evenly on the landscape, which was a further explicit assumption. It is apparent that the South Saskatchewan River Project area does not conform to these requirements. Although the area lies in a "prairie province", the local topography includes h i l l s and sand dunes, and soils vary in type and productivity. (Map2). Other resources in addition to productive land occur, such as potash. The South Saskatchewan River winds through the area, creating a natural barrier to movement. Since the rural population depends upon soils for a livelihood, the density of population varies with changes in soil productivity^ (See Map 3 in relation to Map 2). Thus, since the given conditions are not in accord with the assumptions, i t would be of l i t t l e value to attempt to apply the theoretical relationships to explain -the settlement pattern in the Project area. Moreover, since the Project area is limited in size, i t does not embrace a f u l l hierarchy of service centers within i t s boundaries. In view of these variations from Christaller*s basic assumptions, the discussion of spatial relationships among service centers in the South Saskatchewan River Project Area will be approached in a less formalized way. Since the role of the central place i s to serve areas of surrounding productive land, the service center natural1y tends to avoid areas of poor soil. Reference to Maps 1 and 2 shows the location of the 101 Towns of Delisle, Dinsmore and Craik i n pockets of good s o i l . The larger area of good s o i l east of the South Saskatchewan River, extending to the eroded land along a creek, i s served by both Outlook and Davidson. The tendency for settlements to establish and develop i n good s o i l areas i s also related to the transportation factor. The relationship of railway routes to soils i s evident when Maps 4 and 2 are viewed together. When the railways were built, opening up the west, the lines were routed through good s o i l zones in order to be most accessible to grain deliveries from good crop land. The settlements followed the railway, resulting i n a linear tendency i n their spatial arrangement, i n contrast to the theoretical areal pattern of location based on serving the entire, uniform landscape with a minimum number of centers. Reference to Maps 4 and 1 indicates the linear pattern along the r a i l routes channelling towards Saskatoon. In particular these maps show how service centers of a l l levels i n the hierarchy are strung along the railway and highway route through Craik, Davidson, Saskatoon, leaving broad expanses on either side where no centers occur. Similarly, the east-west r a i l routes through Saskatoon have attracted a l l the nucleations in the v i c i n i t y . Even at the Village le v e l , the dependence on the railway i s apparent along the line from Elbow through Outlook to Milden. I t i s worth noting that highways separate from r a i l routes do not attract settlement, as evidenced by the highway directly east of Saskatoon, and the east-west route through Milden, Outlook and Kenaston. Smaller centers seem to cluster more closely to each other than to the larger centers. Villages between Saskatoon and loung, for example, 102 are closer to each other than to the Village-Town of Young, and closer to Young than to the Provincial City of Saskatoon. (See Map 1). A close grouping i n a linear pattern occurs between Outlook and Davidson. Again, these villages are closer to each other than to centers of higher rank. This pattern appears to be similar to what Brush found i n South-west Wisconsin. He suggested that i t upheld the principle of R e i l l y f s Law of Retail Gravitation which states, i n part, that the attraction of a center varies directly with the population. I f population growth roughly parallels functional diversity, then the centers of higher rank should have a greater attractive force. Some Villages are interspersed between centers of higher rank at roughly equal distances. Thus there are two patterns which emerge in the South Saskatchewan River Project area, raising a question as to which can more lo g i c a l l y be attributed to h i s t o r i c a l persistence. Hamlets occur most often within the boundaries of trading areas of Towns and centers of higher rank, (see Map 5)• They also appear occasionally i n areas between the primary trading areas. The Hamlets are invariably located on the railway, but not necessarily on the highway. TRADING AREAS The primary trading areas of service centers in the South Saskatchewan River Project area vary considerably i n size. (Map 5). In general, the size varies directly with the functional classification 103 of the center, with the Villages having the smallest trading areas, and the provincial City the largest. This conflicts with Christaller's theory, which indicated that the primary trading area of each center was of equal size, and that the hinterland, or sa t e l l i t e range, varied with centers of different rank. The primary trading area of Saskatoon i s the largest in the Project area, containing within i t numerous hamlets. Just beyond the trade area boundary i s a ring of Villages, each with small trade areas. Beyond the Villages are Towns and Village-Towns. This pattern i s roughly i n accordance with Kolb's theory of centrifugal clustering of smaller centers, discussed i n Chapter 1. According to Kolb, a center of town rank or greater has a trading area consisting of three parts - primary, secondary and specialized. In the Saskatoon situation, the Villages are beyond the primary trade area, in the secondary service area. Here there i s competition from other centers, such as the Towns of Perdue and Deli3le. In the case of Vanscoy, for example, the link i s to Delisle rather than to Saskatoon. The Towns are s t i l l within the Saskatoon sphere of influence, but only for specialized trade. The broken lines on the map, indicating the general area where Saskatoon's influence terminates, seem to confirm this explanation. The shape of the trading areas also varies widely. On some of the transport routes, the l i n e a l arrangement of centers close together has pushed the trading areas into roughly e l l i p t i c a l shapes. This i s particularly apparent on the Regina-Saskatoon route from Craik to Hanley, and between Elbow and Hawarden. A similar pattern was found in Wisconsin 104 by Brush. Another effect of the transport route i s to draw the trade area boundary farther out along the major route. This i s clearly evident along the highway east of Saskatoon, and i s probably a phenomenon more l i k e l y to occur along a highway than along a railway, due to the general preference for using a car for shopping t r i p s . A similar eccentric stretching of a portion of the trading area boundary occurs i n the Delisle and Outlook trading areas, for different reasons than that noted above. At Delisle a branch of the r a i l line veers to the south, drawing the trading area along i t s route to serve three Hamlets. The Outlook trading area also stretches farther south to take in four Hamlets located on the railway. A rough guide to the patronage base for service centers i s the rural population density, shown by township on Map 3. Relatively high density of rural population i n the northern part of the area f a l l s within Saskatoon's service range. Dinsmore serves typical densities for the Project area of 81 - 120 persons per township. The primary trading area of Outlook includes one township in the 121 - 150 persons per township range. Davidson has low densities i n i t s primary trading area but i t s Village satellites' trading areas contain some higher density lands. The effect of the South Saskatchewan River on the settlement pattern can best be considered in terms of trading area boundaries. Immediately south of Saskatoon's trading area, extensive tracts of poor 105 s o i l on both sides of the river discourage development, so that the barrier created by the river creates no problem. At Outlook, a river crossing overcomes the natural barrier and Outlook 1s primary trading area and s a t e l l i t e ties both extend across the river. Farther south, at Elbow, the primary trading areas break at the river, despite the fact that there i s a river crossing. But here again, the influence of soils i s apparent, as the bend in the river contains eroded land and sand. Thus, i n the South Saskatchewan River Project area, there i s no evidence that the river alone creates a barrier which cannot be f a i r l y readily surmounted, except where i t i s in association with poor s o i l s . The linkage of service centers i s , i n general, from smaller centers to larger ones. Villages are linked to Towns, the Town-Greater Town and the City. Some Villages are within the sphere of two centers of higher rank. Loreburn, for example, i s related to Outlook and to Davidson, with the stronger link to Outlook. This i s probably due to the more direct highway route to Outlook. Davidson, a Town-Greater Town, has only Villages as i t s satellites, thereby skipping both Towns and Village-Towns which would be expected to appear within i t s sphere of influence. Perhaps the classification used for purposes of defining administrative boundaries i s i n s u f f i c i e n t l y differentiated to permit identification of s a t e l l i t e relationships with centers of the next lower rank. The discussion of the present settlement pattern has been, i n fact, just that. I t has not attempted to discuss, except insofar as the 106 recent population trend i s concerned, changes in the service centers over time. Obviously, service centers are not static a r t i f a c t s . The dynamic process of change w i l l be introduced not in terms of forces bringing about past trends, but as determinants of the future. The following chapter w i l l discuss some pertinent factors which must be considered in attempting to answer the question, "How w i l l i r rigation and new development in the South Saskatchewan River Project Area affect the existing nucleations and their interrelationships?" Chapter 4 THE IMPACT OF THE SOUTH SASKATCHEWAN RIVER PROJECT ON NUCLEATED SETTLEMENTS IN THE PROJECT AREA "The project is to provide facilities for the irrigation of approximately 500,000 acres of land In Central Saskatchewan and in the Qu'Appelle Valley and to provide other benefits to the area including a source of hydro electric power, a source of rural and urban water supply, flood control, and recreation facilities.• Agreement between Canada and Saskatchewan, September 1958 REGINA -The population of each settlement is indicated according to the following examples: — - M l under 500 l » 4 < 500 - 2 ,000 • Coflldale 2,000 - 25,000 • St. James 25,000 - 100,000 s WINNIPEG Provincial Capital (regardless of size) The names of incorporated cities, towns and villages are shown in red. Unincorporated places are shown in black. Site of South Saskatchewan River Dam, looking south-east. P.F.R.A. Photograph. Chapter 4 THE IMPACT OF THE SOUTH SASKATCHEWAN RIVER PROJECT  ON NUCLEATED SETTLEMENTS IN THE PROJECT AREA The purpose of this study is to apply the theoretical principles of a hierarchy of central places differentiated by functional diversity, each with its related service area, to an evaluation of the impact of the South Saskatchewan River Project on the pattern of nucleated settlements in the Project area. The impact represents a totality of numerous factors, each factor acting and interacting to produce changes both in the functional structure of individual nucleations and In the satellite relationships among them. Discussion of these pertinent factors forms the core of this chapter. The approach used i s to consider each factor in relation to the theoretical implications, experience elsewhere, and the South Saskatchewan River Project. The Project is described briefly and specific stages of its development are defined in terms of the extent of irrigated acreage, with the emphasis in this study on long-range development. The factors are then considered in relation to same actual towns and villages in the Project area, to indicate possible changes in the role and status of these centers as the Project progresses. This study makes no attempt to embrace within i t s scope conclusive evidence regarding the factors discussed. Limitations are imposed by I I l l both lack of basic data regarding farm settlement and therefore probable future population, and the proportions of the present study, which constitutes a "project in lieu of a thesis". The intention i s (l) to raise points which are vital to the process of evaluating the impact of the Project on settlement nucleations in the Project area and to the process of planning the future settlement pattern; (2) to show some of the complex interrelationships and interactions of the various factors discussed; (3) to consider !the implications of development priority decisions on the status of nucleated settlements; and ( 4 ) to note some specific areas which require research to supplement present knowledge. This i n i t i a l study of the Impact of the South Saskatchewan River Project on nucleated settlements in the Project area should suggest an orientation for future, more detailed investigation. THE SOUTH SASKATCHEWAN RIVER PROJECT Aspects of the South Saskatchewan River project which are pertinent to the present study are outlined briefly in this section, as a basis for subsequent discussion of the factors affecting the size and location of nucleated settlements in the Project area. After many years of discussion regarding the feasibility and desirability of constructing a dam on the South Saskatchewan River, an agreement between the Government of Canada and the Government of Saskatchewan was signed in September 1958, providing for construction of a dam and reservoir, power generating facilities, and irrigation 112 works.'*" in addition to the major purposes of irrigation and hydro electric power generation, the project will provide a water supply for rural and urban use, will assist in flood control, and will offer recreational opportunities related to the reservoir. The earth dam will be located about 30 miles upstream from the City of Saskatoon, at the point where Coteau Creek flows into the South Saskatchewan River. It will create a reservoir about 150 miles long, extending from Saskatchewan Landing to the Coteau Deal (Main Dam) site, and about 30 miles down the Qu1 Appelle Valley where a secondary dam will be erected. When the reservoir i s f i l l e d to f u l l supply level, i t will inundate 116,000 acres of land. Nearly 9 0 $ of this acreage i s immediately adjacent to the river and i s not suitable for cultivation, due to erosion. The f i l l i n g of the reservoir will also necessitate relocation of portions of both the highway system and the railway lines. Irrigation i s the major purpose of the Project. Some 431,000 acres of irrigable land are located In compact blocks in an area extending roughly from Saskatoon to Elbow, and from Colonsay to Asquith. (See Map 7) A further 24,000 acres occurs in small parcels in the Qu'Appelle Valley, Gravity flow will serve about 180,000 acres, while Agreement between the Government of Canada and the Government of Saskatchewan regarding the South Saskatchewan River Project, September 1958, Appendix A. Report of the Royal Commission on the South Saskatchewan River Project, Ottawa, 1952. 113 the remainder requires pumping to the various levels indicated below. Gravity 179,800 acres 15' l i f t 45,750 30' l i f t 70,400 60« l i f t 80,400 120* l i f t 78.600 3 455,000 acres Power for irrigation pumping purposes will be available from the generating station to be built at the Coteau Dam site. Initial installed capacity of 150,000 kilowatts i s scheduled to be completed at the same time as the dam and reservoir. The power generated at this plant will be tied in with the provincial power grid to serve domestic, farm and industrial needs in the project area and throughout the Province. The i n i t i a l capacity i s expected to be increased in later years. Responsibility for construction of the South Saskatchewan River Project is shared by the Government of Canada and the Province of Saskatchewan J* The dam and reservoir wil l be built by Canada, through the Prairie Farm Rehabilitation Administration, and then will be turned over to the Province for operation and maintenance. Irrigation i s the responsibility of the Province and the construction of irrigation facilities will be undertaken by the Provincial Department of Agriculture. Power is also a Provincial responsibility, with the generating works to be constructed by the Saskatchewan Power Corporation, a Crown Corporation. 3 Report. Ibid., p. 187. ^ Agreement, op. cit. 1X4 Thus, by 196$ or 1966, upon completion of the dam and reservoir, irrigation of 50,000 acres of land, and power generating capacity of 150,000 kilowatts, the Province w i l l have sole responsibility for operation and maintenance of a l l aspects of the Project, as well as for subsequent expansion of power and ir r i g a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s . The change from dry land farming to irrigation farming of half a minion acres of land i s a change which cannot be accomplished quickly. I t w i l l require provision of the physical f a c i l i t i e s for irrigation -the canals, ditches and pumps; the formulation of land policy; land preparation on individual farms; and a desire on the part of the farmers to make the change. Any r e a l i s t i c discussion must therefore recognize that stage development of an i r r i g a t i o n project of this magnitude i s both desirable and inevitable. The impact of the multi-purpose Project w i l l be discussed i n this chapter at two separate stages, defined by the extent of i r r i g a t i o n . The f u l l irrigation of 50,000 acres of land, scheduled to synchronize with the f i l l i n g of the reservoir in 1965 or 1966, i s considered to be the I n i t i a l stage" of Project development. The "later stage" i s farther i n the future, perhaps as far as 1980, when the entire irrigable area of 455,000 acres i s under i r r i g a t i o n . *• I t i s at once apparent that the more Immediate construction phase has been omitted. This i s not intended as a denial of the fact that the construction phase w i l l bring change. During the next six to eight years, while the main reservoir and dam are being built, many 115 decisions will need to be made concerning development. Already plans are being made to provide accommodation for construction workers; sites have been selected for the P.F.R.A. construction headquarters and for several contractors' campsj and school needs for the P.F.R.A. employees1 children are under study. Changes of this sort are not considered here because the purpose of this study i s to use the analysis of the settlement pattern based on a theoretical framework to measure the impact of the project on the region as a whole, over a long-term period. It can be argued that decisions during the construction phase can best be made within the framework of a longer-range, planned pattern of settlement. The two-stage approach therefore seems valid, as i t will provide benchmarks against which to consider the implications of more immediate decisions. GENERAL DISCUSSION OF FACTORS AFFECTING THE PATTERN  OF NUCLEATED SETTLEMENTS IN THE PROJECT AREA The impact of the multi-purpose South Saskatchewan River Project stems from its various development aspects, but the major change during the " i n i t i a l stage" may be expected to result from irrigation of 50,000 acres of farm land. The farm size objective i s a unit of 320 acres, 5 containing a minimum of 200 irrigable acres. Such a size will permit use of the latest techniques in irrigation, which make i t possible for a Preliminary Statement on Irrigation Development Policy for the South  Saskatchewan River Irrigation Project, Hon. I. C. Nollet, Minister of Agriculture, Saskatchewan (tabled in Legislature, April 3, 1959). 116 farmer to Irrigate relatively large acreages. The early stages of development will probably be based largely on livestock, forage and cereal crops. Later, when more specialty crops are introduced in the area, farm units of a smaller size may be desired. The size of farm unit i s a key determinant of the number of farms in a given acreage. A block of 50,000 acres, for example, in 320-acre farms, would contain about 150 farms. If land around the perimeter of the irrigable block was integrated with the irrigable acreage to provide a minimum of 200 irrigated acres on each farm unit, a greater number of farm units could be developed from irrigation of 50,000 acres. At present, in Census subdivisions partially within the irrigable blocks in the vicinity of Outlook-Elbow, the typical farm size ranges from 400 to 1,120 acres.^ In Census subdivisions 253 and 254, near Outlook, the total farm lend comprises 381,017 acres and total farm operators 543* The average farm size i s , therefore, 700 acres. The effect of such a change in farm size on population supported by agriculture i s immediately apparent, and may be illustrated by further reference to Census subdivisions 253 and 254. Here the total farm population in 1956 was 1,617. Relating this figure to the number of farms, 543, the average population per farm i s approximately 3 persons. The comparable figure for the Province of Saskatchewan was 3.5 in 1956. The United States Bureau of Reclamation, in 1953, used 3.0 persons as the Census of Canada 1956. Agriculture. Saskatchewan. Bulletin: 2-8, Dominion Bureau of Statistics, Ottawa. (Census subdivisions 253, 254, 283 and 284)• 117 average population per farm in forecasting population for the Columbia 7 Basin Project. It should be noted that in the Columbia Basin the farm size was smaller, ranging from 10 to 160 acres, depending on land classification, with the maximum of 160 acres set by federal law. The difference in farm size i s probably not a significant factor In population per farm because the increase has been made possible by new developments in the technology of irrigation farming. In 1952, for example, the Saskatchewan Department of Agriculture recommended a farm unit size of 160 acres for the South Saskatchewan River Project but in 1958, based on experience in Alberta irrigation projects, the Department g : recommended 320 acres. Assuming that the average population per farm in the South Saskatchewan River Project area might increase from 3*0 persons to about 3*5 persons with more intensive crops and livestock production made possible by irrigation, a rough comparison may be made of the farm population density now and at the i n i t i a l stage of development. It is apparent that the Project will make i t possible to more than double Report on Tentative Population Forecasts for the Columbia Basin Project Area. I960 and 1980. U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, June 1953. Compare Submissions of the province of Saskatchewan to the Royal  Commission on the South Saskatchewan River Project. 1952, p. 19, and Preliminary Statement on Irrigation Development Policy for  the South Saskatchewan River Irrigation Project. 1958, p. 3. Present Initial Stage Average farm size Size of area Population per farm Total farm population 700 acres , 320 acres 50,000 acres 50,000 acres 3.0 3.5 214 515 118 the farm population of the irrigated area. A higher density, more uniform distribution of farm population should serve to strengthen some of the smaller centers which are in key locations and to provide sufficient support to enable them to improve their relative status in the hierarchy of settlement nucleations. According to Christaller*s theory, the function of the central places is to provide services for the surrounding area of productive land. An increase in farm population would increase the services required from the central places and, in turn, require more persons i engaged in providing these services. The rural-urban population ratio varies from one region to another depending upon the development policy. In Israel, i t will be recalled, the emphasis was on urban development, in contrast to the rural emphasis in the Polders. The South Saskatchewan River Project is probably most comparable, in its i n i t i a l stage, to the Columbia River Basin. Here, in the Quincy trade area, the ratios of non-farm to farm population used in the estimates of population were 9 1.3, 1*4 and 1.5. These were based on ratios observed in other similar areas. Application of selected ratios to the farm population of the South Saskatchewan River Project area would suggest a figure for non-farm population. Once an estimate of non-farm population has been developed, the next factor to consider i s distribution of the non-farm population among the nucleated settlements in the Project area. This involves such A Comprehensive Plan for Quincy. Washington. Quincy Planning Commission, City council, and School District, June 1956. 119 factors as time-distance relationships, distribution of purchasing power, shopping habits and social needs of the rural population. In the Polders i t was noted that convenience goods centers were not used, and that there were only two types of center.- the villages and the central town. In Saskatchewan, however, the needs of grain marketing s t i l l require small hamlets located on the railway to serve as shipment points and to provide convenience goods. Comparing the Middle Xakima, for example, the rural service center seemed to be needed and i t was the intermediate viiInge center which was found to be expendable. The Saskatchewan Royal Commission on Agriculture and Rural Life indicated that present trends pointed to roles of growing importance for the Town, Greater Town and City. Although the smaller centers showed limited growth, they s t i l l played an important part in rural l i f e and seemed unlikely to disappear. The Commission also noted the inherent stability of centers, due to individual investment and social capital expenditures on schools, hospitals, roads and other public needs. This points up the need for planning the future pattern of nucleated settlement location to achieve optimum location of any new centers to serve the area efficiently and also to permit designation of strategically located existing smaller centers for more important service roles. Farm family purchasing power is an important factor affecting the size of trading area required to support a center and, therefore, the location of centers in relation to each other. In the Quincy study i t was pointed out, for example, that an increase in maximum allowable farm size from 160 acres to 320 acres would change the distribution of income. This would be likely to place a greater emphasis on shopping 120 goods and detract from the relative importance of convenience goods. The resultant effect on nucleated settlements would be to enhance the role of the larger centers above town rank and to detract from the role of smaller centers. This i s i n contrast to the South Saskatchewan River Project area, where a major effect would be the stabilization of purchasing power through control of the water supply. While the area can produce good dry-land crops i n normal years, the major problem i s s t i l l crop failures during periods of drought. Greater s t a b i l i t y of farm purchasing power strengthensthe prospects of service centers i n the region. In addition to i t s stabilizing influence, the South Saskatchewan River Project may be expected to increase the total value of production in the Project area. Based on long-term prices and yields, i t i s estimated that the average value of farm produce in the irrigable area could be increased from $4 million to $10 million annually.^ Average net income of Saskatchewan farms from 1948 to 1957 was about $3,470. I t i s estimated that the net income from a 320-acre farm in the irrigated area might be from $5,000 to $10,000 annually. Such an increase i n average income per farm, coupled with an increase i n the number of farms in the area, would increase the total volume of trade and service in the nucleated settlements. The added patronage base would tend to either increase the volume of business i n existing centers or to encourage J . Art, "Province to Foster Gradual Shift to Irrigation Fflrm-tngg, Saskatchewan flews, Vol. 14, Wo. 5, Dec 2, 1958, p. 2. 121 establishment of new centers. The result will probably be determined to a large degree by the time-distance factor. Ve have noted the effect of a change in mode of transportation on the planned location of the new Polder Tillages in relation to the farms. In Saskatchewan, the variable in the time-distance relationship i s not the vehicle but the presence or absence of all-weather roads. The construction of the municipal road grid will change the relationships between some of the towns and villages in the Project area by providing new connections which shorten the time needed to move from one point to another. Location of new highway links across the river and the reservoir may affect the hierarchy of settlement nucleations. Roads and highways will be needed in the South Saskatchewan project area for marketing produce and for recreational use. In some oases these two separate needs may be served by a single route, while in other cases i t may be desirable to separate the two uses in planning highways. Functional highway planning and i t s relationship to the pattern of nucleated settlements requires study by agencies concerned with highway, recreation and community development. Inundation.of land may bring about drastic changes in the size and shape of trading areas. A substantial reduction in the patronage base through loss of cultivated land could change the future status of a center in the hierarchy of settlement nucleations. In the Tennessee Valley, for example, the rural village of Sale Creek served a trading 122 area including a Valley which would be inundated. The reservoir would remove 7$ of the trade area, which represented 16$ of the land used for agriculture and 52$ of its best agricultural land. Some 7$ of the population of the trade area lived on the land to be flooded but as this land was the most productive the average annual expenditure per family was greater for families in this area. Losses of land, population and purchasing power should be taken into account in a detailed evaluation of the Impact of the South Saskatchewan River Project on settlement nucleations in the Project area. Shopping habits reflect both consumer mobility and technology. Universal automobile ownership and improved roads permit travelling a greater distance to shop within a given time. Coupled with this factor is the influence of rural electrification, which increases the use of refrigeration, thereby enabling preservation of foodstuffs and less frequent shopping trips. A reduction in the number of necessary trips tends to reinforce consumer willingness to drive farther to shop. Thus, the larger centers in the Project area are likely to show greater gains in functional diversity than the smaller centers. The size of a center which satisfies economic needs of rural people may differ from the size which satisfies social needs. Ve have noted that social need was the criterion for maximum size of planned new towns in the Columbia Basin Project. Optimum community size is a Harold V. Miller, "Effects of Reservoir Construction on Local Economic Units", Economic Geography. Vol. 15, Ho. 3, July 1939. 123 subject on which there i s limited definitive data. Such an area of study might be undertaken by the recently established Center for Community Studies at the University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, to determine the social needs of rural people and to describe these needs i n terms of maximum size of nucleated settlements in Central Saskatchewan. Greater insight into size needs might affect the desirable distance between centers of a similar functional rank. The provision of abundant supplies of water and power by the South Saskatchewan River Project w i l l prove attractive to industry. The choice of industrial location w i l l depend on the type of industry and i t s relative need for railway connections, labor supply and access to financial services. Undoubtedly industries needing a well developed c i t y center as their headquarters w i l l favor Saskatoon. Towns i n the Project area should be able to compete successfully for industries related to agricultural processing and for other industries i f adequate transport!on routes are provided. The effect of industrial expansion can be expected to have i t s greatest impact on nucleated settlements i n the Project area after the reservoir has been f i l l e d , the power generating plant has been completed, and irrigated lands have started to produce more specialty crops. The general effect of industry seems l i k e l y to be to encourage growth of the larger centers in the Project area and those most accessible to water, power and transport. Detailed study should be made of the potentialities of the Project area for industrial development and the characteristics of centers most attractive for industrial location. 124 The recreational potential of the reservoir, with i t s 450-mile shoreline, may be expected to stimulate functional diversification i n some of the nucleated settlements nearby. The particular centers which w i l l be affected cannot be determined u n t i l surveys of the shoreline have been made to select desirable sites for recreational development. Recreational areas should be clearly designated so that development w i l l not be scattered haphazardly along the shoreline, disfiguring the landscape and providing inadequate service. The factors which have been considered suggest some of the many influences brought into play by a project of many facets, such as the South Saskatchewan River Project. The l i s t of factors i s not exhaustive and a more detailed study would undoubtedly reveal other matters requiring consideration i n attempting to evaluate the impact of the Project on nucleated settlement relationships. The factors raised are sufficient, however, to permit proceeding to examine some examples of the impact on particular centers, as an i l l u s t r a t i o n of a possible method of evaluation which could be applied to the entire Project area. EXAMPLES OF THE IMPACT OF THE SOUTH SASKATCHEWAN RIVER PROJECT ON NUCLEATED SETTLEMENTS IN THE PROJECT AREA The provincial government's commitment for irrigation i n the South Saskatchewan River Project area i s to construct the works necessary to provide water to 50,000 acres of land within a year after the reservoir Is f i l l e d . However, the location of the i n i t i a l development of 50,000 acres has not yet been decided. The approach used in this study i s to 125 select alternative areas as " i n i t i a l stage" development areas, as a basis for consideration of some of the factors in relation to specific nucleated settlements. Selection of the i n i t i a l development areas is based on such factors as soils, drainage, topography, climate, pumping requirements for irrigation, accessibility to the source of water, present land use, and trtwrine of development. A study of soils in the irrigable area, based on a consideration of soil texture, topography, alkali salt content, stoniness, and wind and water erosion, indicates that the need for irrigation and the probable success of i t i s greater in the southern portion of the area near Elbow and Outlook than in the northern portion 12 near Saskatoon. The largest gravity flow area occurs near outlook in the area designated "A" on Map 7. It also has the advantage of proximity to the main dam. Block A i s therefore selected as one of the alternative areas. Farther south are the blocks of irrigable land designated "B", which comprise some 35,000 acres. These blocks could be developed along with some of the acreage in the Qu'Appelle Valley to the east, to make up the 50,000 acres. By developing these southernmost blocks f i r s t , there would be an opportunity to consider the technical aspects of irrigation in the more northerly areas in more detail, prior to development. Blocks V. Earl Bowser and H. C. Moss, "A Soil Rating and Classification for Irrigation Lands in Western Canada0, Sci. Agr. 30: 1950. 126 B are therefore used as the second alternative for discussion purposes. Which existing service centers may be expected to benefit from development of Block A? Outlook i s at present the only Town in the area. With a population of 885 in 1956, i t was almost double the size of Hanley, a Village-Town with a 1956 population of 425• Outlook's trading area extends at present more to the south and east than to the north, (Map 5). Hanley's trading area extends farther to the east than to the west. The distance by road from Outlook to the eastern extremity of Block A is about 30 miles. As Hanley is much closer, i t i s likely that i t will attract trade from the eastern part of the area. The effect on the boundaries of the primary trading areas will be to pull the boundaries of the Hanley trading area to the west, and those of the Outlook trading area to the north and east. Development of Block A, therefore, may be expected to add greatest impetus to Outlook's growth and to make same demands on Hanley's services. The distance between the two centers, about 35 miles, i s not sufficient to suggest any need for a new community. Blocks B are located on each side of the Village of Elbow, which had a population of 281 in 1956 and has 18 functions. The only other Village nearby is Loreburn, with a population of 197 and 1 function. We have noted in Chapter 3 that Elbow i s well developed for a center of Village status. Its primary trading area breaks at the River, a break which is reinforced by poor soils in the bend of the river. The develop-ment of Blocks B may be expected to enlarge the trading area of Elbow, stretching i t along the reservoir to the north-west and expanding i t to the east to almost double its present size. Whether the trading area 127 will then expand across the reservoir will depend on the location of crossings and on Elbow's competitive position in relation to centers to the south, beyond the boundaries of the Project area, as defined for the present study. The functional rank of Elbow cannot be wholly predicted in relation to irrigation development. Its strategic location adjacent to the reservoir extending along the South Saskatchewan River and down the Qu'Appelle River Valley, gives the Village an enormous recreation potential. If good, direct road links were provided southward to the Trans-Canada Highway and eastward to the major north-south highway in the Province, Elbow could increase its functional diversity in response to recreational needs as well as irrigation. The steep valley sides of the reservoir will consist mainly of clay and s i l t which will be difficult to handle under fluctuating water conditions. A detailed survey i s therefore necessary to determine the best sites for development of beaches and boat launching areas. Depending upon the results of such a survey, the recreation function might be concentrated in more than one existing community, or i t might conceivably lead to establishment of a new community. In any case, the repercussions of recreational development may be expected to concentrate at the main dam and upstream from i t . •SI What would be the effect on the future roles of Outlook and Elbow of developing Block A prior to Blocks B? The polder experience, discussed in Chapter 2, brought to our attention the importance of timing in implementing the planned functions of nucleated settlements. In the Wieringermeer Polder the village which was started f i r s t attracted central 128 services intended for the central town. While this experience related to new development, the same principle applies to regions already settled, where new development is taking place. Applying this principle to the South Saskatchewan River Project " i n i t i a l stage" of development, the decision as i t relates to nucleated settlements should be made on the basis of whether a center of higher than Village rank will be needed in the area roughly bounded by the South Saskatchewan River, Outlook, Davidson and Craik. If so, and i f the present Village of Elbow i s a logical existing center in which to encourage development, some conscious direction i s needed. To what degree would the future role of Elbow be impaired by prior development of Block A, which would give i n i t i a l impetus to Outlook and enlarge its already substantial sphere of influence? It seems probable that Elbow's development could best be assured by developing Blocks B before Block A. Outlook, the largest Town in the Project area, is located near the main Dam site and will develop during the period of construction of the Dam, reservoir and power generating plant. Prior development of BlockB B to encourage Elbow's growth would, therefore, in no way detract from Outlook's importance. Based on these considerations, i n i t i a l development of Blocks B would seem to be preferable. The effect on the nucleated settlement pattern is one of several aspects to be weighed in selecting the i n i t i a l development area, but in cases where other aspects are equal, i t could become the significant factor. The "later stage" of development has been defined as f u l l development of irrigable acreage. This could include a l l the northern 129 blocks on the west side of the South Saskatchewan River, extending from Outlook to north of Saskatoon. The Town in the heart of this area i s Delisle, which had a population of 482 in 1956 and has 19 functions. Most of i t s present trading area contains irrigable acreage, so that more farm units, an increase in population and greater farm purchasing power will produce greater functional diversity in Delisle, even i f the primary trading area boundaries remain unchanged. Since the blocks of irrigable acreage extend across trading area boundaries, to the north and to the south, the possibility of expansion of Delisle's primary trading area into the interstitial areas between primary trading areas of various other centers seems likely. A factor which may influence the primary trading area is the market for produce. Saskatoon, a major urban market, may tend more and more in the future to broaden its primary trading area. In the case of Delisle, however, the intervening Village of Vanscoy may act as an effective buffer, minimizing the effect on Delisle's trading area of Saskatoon's enlarging sphere of influence. Industry may be expected to have a greater impact during the "later stage" of development. If i t tends to concentrate in locations close to the source of power and to productive irrigated acreage, Outlook seems to be the most appropriate center. Where industry seeks reasonable accessibility to power and produce, plus close association with the main line of a railway, financial services and a labor supply, Saskatoon seems likely to increase its dominance. The effect of industry in the southern part of the Project area is likely to be relatively limited. CONCLUSIONS 130 The discussion of the impact of the South Saskatchewan Hirer project on nucleated settlements in the Project area has beenjjeneral and suggestive rather than detailed and definitive. Such an approach was necessitated to keep within the imposed limits of the study. The purpose has been to indicate the possibility of using a theoretical concept of settlement, applied to a particular region, to analyze the impact of a Project such as the South Saskatchewan River Project on the pattern of nucleated settlements. The value of the study lies in this practical application of Christaller's theory of central places, insofar as i t relates to functional classification of centers and delineation of their trading areas, to the process of analysis and planning of the nucleated settlement pattern. Such planning is advantageous to the region, in permitting more efficient development, with a minimum number of central places of appropriate rank to serve the population. It i s also advantageous to the central places in clarifying the opportunities and limitations of their respective roles. Each oenter is then in a position to develop its functions with the conscious goal of f u l l achievement of appropriate service center status. BIBLIOGRAPHY BIBLIOGRAPHY A. BOOKS Dickinson, Robert E. City. Region and Regionalism. A Geographical  Contribution to Human Ecology. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul Ltd., 1952. Glikson, Artur. Regional Planning and Development. Six Lectures delivered at the Institute of Social Studies at the Hague, 1953. Leiden: A. W. Sijthoff's Uitgeversmaatschappij, N.V., 1955. Kolb, J . H., and E. de S. Brunner. A Study of Rural Society. Fourth Edition. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1952. Sharon, Arieh. Physical Planning in Israel. Tel Aviv» Government Printing and Survey of Israel Press, 1951. (In Hebrew, with English translation of text) Wilson, Warren H. The Evolution of the Country Community. Boston: Pilgrim Press, 1912. B. PUBLICATIONS OF THE GOVERNMENT AND OTHER ORGANIZATIONS Agreement between the Government of Canada and the Government of Saskatchewan regarding the South Saskatchewan River Project. September 1958. Bruin, Weiger, "The Villages of -the North Eastern Polder", North Eastern Polder. G. Van Saane, Amsterdam. (Reprint from special issue of Forum. Vol. X, Hos. 1-2, 1955, the Netherlands magazine of architecture and applied arts.) Census of Canada 1956. Agriculture. Saskatchewan. Bulletin: 2-8, Dominion Bureau of Statistics, Ottawa. A Comprehensive Plan for Quincy. Washington. Quincy planning Commission, City Council, and School District, June 1956. Fresh Fields and Polders New. The Story of the Zuiderzee Works. The Netherlands Abroad, Amsterdam, 1955. Glikson, Artur, Rural Planning and Development in Israel - Two Case  Studies. United Nations Economic and social Council, Working Paper Ho. 46, June 11, 1958. 132 Preliminary Statement on Irrigation Development Policy for the South  Saskatchewan River Irrigation Project. Hon. I. C. Nollet, Minister of Agriculture, Saskatchewan, A p r i l 1959. Report of the Royal Commission on the South Saskatchewan River Project. Ottawa, 1952. Royal Commission on Agriculture and Rural L i f e , Service Centers. Regina, 1957. Submissions of the Province of Saskatchewan to the Royal Commission  on the South Saskatchewan River Project. Regina, 1952. United States Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation, Growth of Agricultural Processing and Marketing F a c i l i t i e s ,  Columbia Basin Project. Washington. August 1958. United States Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation, Indications of Business and Industrial Development that w i l l result  from the Irrigation of the Columbia River Basin Project. Ephrata, Washington, January 1953. United States Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation, Report on Tentative Population Forecasts for the Columbia Basin  Project Area. I960 and 1980. June 1953. united States Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation, Towns and Villages. Problem 18, Columbia Basin Joint Investigations, Boise, Idaho, June 1947. Venstra, A. J., "The Colonization of the North Eastern Polder"., North Eastern Polder. G. Van Saane, Amsterdam. (Reprint from special issue of Forum. Vol. X, Nos. 1-2, 1955, the Netherlands magazine of architecture and applied arts) Wisconsin Agricultural Experiment Station Research Bulletin 34, The  Social Ahatomy of an Agricultural Community. 1915. C. PERIODICALS Bowser, W. Earl, and H. C. Moss, "A S o i l Rating and Classification for Irrigation Lands in western Canada", Sci . Agr. 30x 1950. Brush, John E., "The Hierarchy of Central Places i n Southwestern Wisconsin", Geographical Review. Vol. 43, No. 3, July 1953. M i l l e r , Harold V., "Effects of Reservoir Construction on Local Economic Units", Economic Geography. Vo. 15, No. 3, July 1939. 133 Trewartha, G. T., "The Unincorporated Hamlet: One Element of the American Settlement Fabric", Annals of the. Association of American  Geographers. Vol. 33, 1943-Ullman, Edward, "A Theory of Location for Cities", American Journal of Sociology. Vol.46, May 1941. Wolfe, M* R«, "Urbanization and a New Town i n the Columbia Basin", Town Planning Review. Vol. XXVIII, No. 2, July 1957. SOURCES FOR FIGURES Figure 1. Edward Ullman, "A Theory of Location for Cities", Cities and Society. Paul K. Hatt and Albert J. Reiss, Jr., The Free Press, Glencoe, Illinois, (1957 Edition) p. 230. 2. Artur Glikson, Regional Planning and Development. A. V. Sijthoff's Uitgeversmaatschappij H.V., Leiden, 1955, p. 56. 3. John E. Brush, "The Hierarchy of Central Places in Southwestern Wisconsin", Geographical Review. Vol .43, Ho. 3, July 1953, pp. 380-402. 4. Ibid. 5. Ibid. 6. Ibid. 7 . Service Centers. Royal Commission on Agriculture and Rural Life, Regina, Saskatchewan, 1957, p. 8. 8. Ibid., p. 72. 9. Ibid., p. 73. 10. Growth of Agricultural Processing and Marketing Facilities. Columbia Basin Project, Washington, U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation, August 1958, p. 7. 11. Columbia Basin...Empire in the Making. Seattle First Rational Bank, May 1955, p. 12. 12. Towns and Villages. Problem 18, Columbia Basin Joint Investigations, Columbia Basin Project, Washington, U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation, Boise, Idaho, June 1947, p. 32. 13. Ibid., p. 79. 14. Fresh Fields and Polders Hew. The Hetherlands Abroad, Amsterdam, The Hetherlands, December 1955, p. 6. 15. Artur Glikson, op. cit.. p. 107. 155 Figure 16. Adapted from Arieh Sharon, Physical Planning i n Israel. Government Printing Press and Survey of Israel Press, Tel Aviv, 1951. 17. Artur Glikson, op. c i t . . p. 113. O Asquith • SASKATOON PERDl QVanBcoy (•) DELISLE O Tessier O Harris ConquestO (•) MILDEW (#)DINSMQRE Q Macrorie QDundurn \Meacham O ElstowO Q O Bradwell Colonsay O Allan YOUNG (O) (+) HANLEY OUTLOOK O Kenaston O Glenside O Hawarden O Strongfield O Loreburn OElbow O Bladworth (#) DAVIDSON O G i r v i n ® CRAIR SOUTH SASKATCHEWAN RIVER PROJECT AREA L E G E N D O Village (•*; Village-Town (•) Town (•f Town-Greater Town «^ City • SOURCES Local Government Continuing Committee, Regina. S C A L E » v i > / i i u e S 4 T I T L E S E R V I C E C E N T E R S J E A N C. D O W N I N G U . B . C . A P R I L 1 9 5 9 1 SOUTH SASKATCHEWAN RIVER PROJECT AREA L E G E N D Eroded Alluvium Alkali Sand & Loam Sand H i l l & Dune Sands Hil l s Pasture S C A L E I W *t I L. e S 4 T I T L E SOILS Least Productive J EAN C. DOWNING U.B.C. APRIL 1959 Z SOUTH SASKATCHEWAN RIVER PROJECT AREA L E G E N D 0-15 16-50 51-80 81 - 120 121 - 150 I 151 - 200 3 201 - 300 I 301 *• Population per township, 1956 Census. S C A L E I N IVI i i r v # T I T L E RURAL POPULATION DENSITY J E A N C. D O W N I N G U .B .C . A P R I L 1959 3 SOUTH SASKATCHEWAN RIVER PROJECT AREA L E G E N D Provincial Highways Grid Roads - approved but not necessarily constructed Railways S C A L E I N M i u r S 4 T I T L E TRANSPORTATION J E A N . C . D O W N I N G U . B . C . A P R I L 1 9 5 9 4 57 SASKATOON )PEi Di All A: T * # ) MILDE ® DINSi Macrorie ©Dundi j8> B i r s a y SOUTH SASKATCHEWAN RIVER PROJECT AREA L E G E N D Trading Center Primary Trading Area Satellite ties Source: Local Government Continuing Committee Regina. Saskatchewan S C A L E I N M I L . S t T I T L E TRADING AREAS J E A N C. D O W N I N G U . B . C . A P R I L 1 9 5 9 5 SOUTH SASKATCHEWAN RIVER PROJECT AREA L E G E N D Irrigable Areas Reservoirs S C A L E 1 W M I L I S # T I T L E IRRIGABLE AREAS & RESERVOIRS J E A N C. D O W N I N G U . B . C . A P R I L 1 9 5 9 

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