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Factors affecting the size and location of nucleated settlements in an irrigated agricultural area :… Downing, Jean Crawford 1959

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FACTORS AFFECTING THE SIZE AND LOCATION OF NUCLEATED SETTLEMENTS IN AN IRRIGATED AGRICULTURAL AREA A Case Study of the South Saskatchewan River Project A ea r  by JEAN CRAWFORD DOWNING  REPORT ON A PROJECT SUBMITTED IN LIEU OF A THESIS IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in the Department of COMMUNITY AND REGIONAL PLANNING  We accept this report as conforming to the standard required from .> candidates for the degree of MASTER OF ARTS  Members of the Department of Community and Regional Planning  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA May 1959  Abstract FACTORS AFFECTING THE SIZE AMD  LOCATION OF NUCLEATED SETTLEMENTS  IM AH IRRIGATED AGRICULTURAL AREA A Case Study of the South Saskatchewan River Project Area The purpose of t h i s t h e s i s i s to examine the f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g the size and l o c a t i o n of urban and r u r a l nucleations i n an i r r i g a t e d a g r i c u l t u r a l area*  The l o c a l e selected f o r study i e an area i n Central  Saskatchewan which w i l l become I r r i g a b l e upon completion of the South Saskatchewan River Project - a multi-purpose project designed to provide i r r i g a t i o n f o r h a l f a m i l l i o n acres of land, a source of hydro e l e c t r i c power, and a 150-mile long r e s e r v o i r with an important recreation potential.  The approach i e based on C h r i s t a l l e r ' s theory of c e n t r a l places. This t h e o r e t i c a l model assumes an " i d e a l " landscape, where the t e r r a i n i s f l a t , there are no b a r r i e r s to movement, land has equal f e r t i l i t y and population i s d i s t r i b u t e d uniformly.  The theory explains the settlement  pattern as a hierarchy of c e n t r a l places, c l a s s i f i e d by functions, and arranged s p a t i a l l y i n a regular pattern of interlocking hexagons.  The  a p p l i c a b i l i t y of the theory i s examined i n two a g r i c u l t u r a l areas Southwest Wisconsin (based on a study by John E. Brush) and Saskatchewan (based on a study by the Royal Commission on Agriculture and Rural L i f e ) . These studies conclude that the central place theory provides a useful framework of analysis against which to measure deviations and to explain  iv  the reasons for the differences from the theoretical model. Experience i n planning for nucleated settlements i n irrigated areas i s not extensive. As a means of pointing up some of the problems of Saskatchewan development by comparison and by contrast, consideration i s given to selected experience i n regional planning In the Netherlands Polders and i n Israel.  Studies related to development of the Columbia  River Basin i n the State of Washington are also considered. The experience elsewhere shows, particularly, the essential relationship of settlement planning to a clearly formulated policy of comprehensive development, the necessity for planning location and size of urban and rural nucleations in relation to the employment base for the region, and the importance of development sequence to effective implementation of a plan. With this theoretical and actual experience in planning for nucleated settlements elsewhere as a background, the present settlement pattern i n the South Saskatchewan River Project area i s then analyzed, using a functional classification of central places as the starting point, considering the size and shape of service areas, and the factors i  which distort the pattern from the theoretical model of Christaller. The effects of s o i l condition, hydrographic factors and transportation are discussed and illustrated by maps. Use of the service center analysis for planning purposes i s then considered.  I t i s apparent that the theory provides a system of  hierarchical classification that i s valuable for analytical purposes to provide an understanding of service center relationships, and that the  V  delineation of trading areas i s a further useful tool.  The changes  which may be brought about by the South Saskatchewan River Project can then be projected, not by a forced attempt at formal adherence to a theory, but by reasoned consideration of the impact of a more intensive agricultural use and recreational potential on particular parts of the region.  The method i s one of expanding and adjusting service center  areas, based on such, factors as the population to be served, road distances between service centers, and comparative drawing power of larger centers.  This permits proposals to be made for general location  of service centers of different levels in the hierarchy, reclassification of some existing centers, and desirable sequence of development. The value of the study l i e s in the practical application of the theoretical concept - i t s use in planning the nucleated settlement pattern of the future.  Such planning i s advantageous to the region, i n  permitting more efficient development, with a minimum number of central places of appropriate rank to serve the population.  I t i s also advan-  tageous to the central places in clarifying the opportunities and limitations of their respective roles. Each center i s then in a position to develop i t s functions with the conscious goal of f u l l achievement of appropriate service center status.  APPROVED:  In p r e s e n t i n g the  r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an  of B r i t i s h it  this thesis  Columbia,  freely available  agree that for  advanced degree at  that  copying  gain  shall  Department  or  not  shall  f o r reference  and  study.  I  for extensive  g r a n t e d by  representatives. of  of  of  the  further this  Head o f  thesis my  for financial  written  permission.  7' Columbia,  make  It i s understood  this thesis  a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h V a n c o u v e r 8\ C a n a d a . Date  be  copying  of  University  Library  publication be  the  the  s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may his  fulfilment  I agree that  permission  D e p a r t m e n t o r by  in partial  ACKHOWLEDGMEHTS  Assistance from many sources has contributed to my completion of the course i n Community and Regional planning and the production of this study. I wish $o acknowledge s p e c i f i c a l l y the granting of educational leave by the Saskatchewan Government from the Economic Advisory and Planning Board and assistance from Central Mortgage and Housing Corporation and from The B r i t i s h Columbia E l e c t r i c Company Limited. My thanks go also to Dr. R. I . Ruggles, who offered a course i n settlement geography of unusually broad scope which generated interest and enthusiasm i n this study. More general but just as important was the contribution of Dr. B. Savery, whose lectures i n philosophy had a r e v i t a l i z i n g influence and set a goal for which to strive i n c l a r i t y of thought. Data essential to the study was obtained from Mr. B. Sufrin, economist i n charge of research on proposed l o c a l government administrative boundaries, for the Local Government Continuing Committee, Regina, Saskatchewan. His w i l l i n g cooperation was invaluable. The assistance of-the University of B r i t i s h Columbia Library Reference staff i s gratefully acknowledged, particular thanks are due to Miss Melva J . Dwyer, Fine Arts Librarian, for constructive and w i l l i n g a i d at a l l times. The process of production of this study was instigated and aided by the advice and active assistance of Mr. Franklin A. Wiles. I also wish to thank Mrs. June Homer f o r cooperation i n producing an i n t e l l i g e n t translation of the manuscript into i t s f i n a l form.  CONTENTS Chapter  Page  INTRODUCTION  *  1. A THEORY OF LOCATION OF NUCLEATED SETTLEMENTS AND ITS APPLICABILITY TO WISCONSIN AND SASKATCHEWAN  1  The Central Place Theory  3  The Settlement Pattern i n Southwestern Wisconsin  9  Service Centers i n Saskatchewan 2. EXPERIENCE IN PLANNING THE LOCATION AND SIZE OF RURAL AND URBAN NUCLEATIONS IN SELECTED IRRIGATED AREAS  18 31  The Columbia Basin Project  33  Regional Planning i n the Polders, Holland  51  Rural Planning and Development in Israel  59  Conclusions  79  3. THE PRESENT SETTLEMENT PATTERN IN THE SOUTH SASKATCHEWAN RIVER PROJECT AREA  86  Source of Data - The Local Government Continuing Committee, Saskatchewan  87  Spatial Arrangement of Service Centers  99  Trading Areas  102  4. THE IMPACT OF THE SOUTH SASKATCHEWAN RIVER PROJECT ON NUCLEATED SETTLEMENTS IN THE PROJECT AREA  107  The South Saskatchewan River Project  111  General Discussion of Factors Affecting the pattern of Nucleated Settlements i n the project Area Examples of the Impact of the South Saskatchewan River Project on Nucleated Settlements i n the Project Area Conclusions  115 124 130  BIBLIOGRAPHY  131  SOURCES OF FIGURES  134  TABLES Page 1.  Population Distribution in the Columbia Basin, 1950  35  2.  Proposed Geographical and Occupational Distribution of Population, North-East Polder  57  Comparison of the Valley of Jezreel and the North-East Polder  68  Service Centers in the South Saskatchewan River Project Area, Saskatchewan  94  3* 4.  MAPS  1.  Service Centers  93  2.  Soils - Least Productive  3.  Rural Population Density by Township, 1956  *  4.  Transportation  *  5.  Trading Areas  *  *•  6. Regional Map - Site of South Saskatchewan Dam 7.  Irrigable Areas and Reservoirs  *  108 *  * In pocket  PHOTOGRAPHS 1.  Town of Outlook, Saskatchewan  2.  South Saskatchewan River Dam Site  9* 109  FIGURES Page 1.  Theoretical Shape of Tributary Areas  2.  C h r i 3 t a l l e r ' s Theoretical S p a t i a l Arrangement of a Hierarchy of Central Places  5  6  3.  D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Agglomerated Settlements, Wisconsin  10  4.  S p a t i a l Arrangements, Kolb  14  5.  T r a f f i c Areas, Wisconsin  16  6.  T r a f f i c Relations of V i l l a g e s to Towns or C i t i e s , Wisconsin  17  7.  D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Service Centers i n Saskatchewan  26  8.  Diagram of S p l i t Centers  27  9.  P r i n c i p a l Centers of Saskatchewan  28  10.  Columbia Basin Project Location  34  11.  Columbia Basin Town and V i l l a g e Growth  36  12.  Rural service Centers, Middle Yakima V a l l e y  40  13.  Diagrammatic L o c a l Trade Area Structure  45  14*  The P a r t i a l Reclamation of the Zuydersea  52  15.  Plan of the North-East Polder i n the Netherlands  54  16.  Planning Regions, I s r a e l  62  17.  Regional Plan f o r the V a l l e y of J e z r e e l , I s r a e l  67  Note:  Sources of the above Figures are l i s t e d on pages 154-5.  INTRODUCTION  I  INTRODUCTION The decision by the Government of Canada and the Government of Saskatchewan, i n the f a l l of 1958, to undertake construction of the South Saskatchewan River Project suggested the subject of the present study. This multi-purpose project, which has been mooted for many years, w i l l provide irrigation for about half a million acres of land* in Central Saskatchewan, power generating f a c i l i t i e s , and a reservoir with an important recreational potential.  Such a Project may be  expected to produce dramatic changes both in the areas to be irrigated and throughout the Province. The South Saskatchewan River rises on the eastern slopes of the mountains in Alberta and flows through the southern part of Saskatchewan, turning north at the "elbow* of the river and proceeding 1  through Saskatoon to i t s junction with the North Saskatchewan River east of Prince Albert, from whence the Saskatchewan River flows to Lake Winnipeg. The integrated development of the entire river basin has been advocated, as a means of realizing the maximum potentialities of the river and i t s tributaries.  1  Such a view i s undoubtedly valid, but  for purposes of the present study the project i s accepted as defined i n the agreement between the Government of Canada and the Government of  See Report of the Royal Commission on the South Saskatchewan River Project. Ottawa, 1952, and Royal Commission on Agriculture and Rural Life report on Farm Income. Regina, 1957, p. 175.  xii Saskatchewan. The present study i s focussed on the impact of the South Saskatchewan River Project on the pattern of nucleated settlements i n the Project area.  I t i s assumed that irrigation, power and recreation  development i n the Project area w i l l create changes both in individual villages and towns and in their relative importance.  By discussing  the factors affecting the size and location of nucleations, an attempt i s made to determine what some of these changes may be. to the study i s reviewed briefly in the Abstract.  The approach  Chepter 1 A THEORY OF LOCATION OF NUCLEATED SETTLEMENTS AND  ITS APPLICABILITY TO WISCONSIN AND  SASKATCHEWAN  "The i d e a l hierarchy of community associations, centred i n v i l l a g e , town, c i t y or c i t y subcentre, i s not to be thought of as something drawn out of the blue by the planner or the a r c h i t e c t . I t does r e a l l y e x i s t i n the f a b r i c of our society, and the geographical structure of t h i s society must be thoroughly mastered i f we are to discover and r e c t i f y i t s maladjustments and to elaborate p r i n c i p l e s of planning i n accordance with i t s needs." Robert E. Dickinson  r  Chapter I A THEORY OF LOCATION OF NUCLEATED SETTLEMENTS AMD ITS APPLICABILITY TO WISCONSIN AND SASKATCHEWAN  The analysis of settlement patterns has taken two major forms the development of theoretical models, and the investigation of existing communities and their interrelationships.  An early student of rural  society described the community as "that territory with i t s people, which l i e s within the team haul of a given center".''" A few years later, Dr. C. J . Galpin introduced the technique of mapping to record the community relations of centers in Walworth County, Wisconsin.  He  concluded that the "trade zone about one of these rather complete i  t  agricultural civic centers forms the boundary of an actual, i f not legal, community, within which the apparent entanglement of human l i f e i s resolved into a f a i r l y unitary system of interrelatedness."  2  Thus  emerged the idea that a community could be defined both in spatial terms and In terms of functions. The f i r s t comprehensive theoretical analysis of the settlement  Warren H. Wilson, The Evolution of the Country Community. Boston, 1912. The Social Anatomy of an Agricultural Community. Wisconsin * Agricultural Experiment Station Research Bulletin 34» 1915.  2 pattern was developed by Walter C h r i s t a l l e r , i n  1 9 3 3 H e  worked out a  t h e o r e t i c a l model, which he then tested by examining the actual settlement pattern i n Southern Germany.  C h r i s t a l l e r * s central-place  theory i s pertinent to the present study because i t assumes an i d e a l landscape, that i s , one which i s f l a t , without impediments to movement, . where the land has equal f e r t i l i t y , and where population i s d i s t r i b u t e d uniformly.  Such assumptions apply most c l o s e l y to p r a i r i e regions with  an a g r i c u l t u r a l base, such as the mid-western p l a i n s of North America. C h r i s t a l l e r s t h e o r e t i c a l model has been used as the frame of 1  reference f o r studies of nucleated settlements i n many countries.  The  two studies which have p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t and s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r the present a n a l y s i s are the investigation of central places i n Wisconsin and the study of service centers i n Saskatchewan.^  southwestern This  chapter w i l l be devoted to a discussion of C h r i s t a l l e r ' s theory and these two studies, as a basis f o r subsequent consideration of the settlement pattern of the South Saskatchewan River P r o j e c t area,  now  and i n the future.  Walter C h r i s t a l l e r , Die Zentralen Orte i n Suddeutschland Jena, 1 9 3 3 , as summarized i n Edward Ullman, "A Theory of Location f o r C i t i e s " , American Journal of Sociology. V o l . 4 6 , May 1 9 4 1 . f  1  John E. Brush, "The Hierarchy of Central Places i n Southwestern Wisconsin", Geographical Review. Volume 4 3 , No. 3, J u l y 1953; Service Centers. Royal Commission on A g r i c u l t u r e and Rural L i f e , Regina, 1957.  3 TEE CENTRAL-PLACE THEORY  The theory of central places advanced by Walter C h r i s t a l l e r i s based on the idea that a hamlet, v i l l a g e , town or c i t y develops f o r the purpose of providing services to a surrounding area of productive land.^ The services performed f o r the surrounding area are referred to as 8  central  11  functions, and the settlements as "•central  11  places.  C h r i s t e H e r ' s t h e o r e t i c a l model of the settlement pattern i s based on assumptions which acknowledge only one v a r i a b l e - the number of functions i n the central p l a c e .  He assumes an ""ideal** landscape,  i n which the topography i s f l a t , land f e r t i l i t y i s uniform, and the resources are equally d i s t r i b u t e d .  A d d i t i o n a l assumptions are that  there are no p h y s i c a l or human impediments to mobility, that the r u r a l population Is evenly d i s t r i b u t e d , that a l l of the people have incomes adequate to be i n the market f o r goods and services, that a l l goods and services i n the area are offered by the c e n t r a l places, and that each c e n t r a l ""good has a uniform p r i c e . 11  D i f f e r e n t types of goods and services require d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of aggregate purchasing power, before they w i l l be offered on the market. Each type of good w i l l seek a market area s u f f i c i e n t i n size to assure the r e q u i s i t e minimum demand. Given C h r i s t a l l e r s assumptions of uniform 1  population d i s t r i b u t i o n and purchasing power, the size of the market area  This section i s based on Edward Ullman, ibid.;and Robert E. Dickinson, C i t y Region and Regionalsim. A Geographical Contribution to Himian Ecology. London, 1952.  4  w i l l vary from one good or service to another.  This implies a hierarchy  of centers, offering different ranges of central goods and services. The highest order centers offering highest order goods w i l l have the largest market areas, while the lowest order centers offering a narrower range of goods w i l l have the smallest market areas.  Ideally,  the tributary area of a hamlet would l i e within the tributary area of a v i l l a g e , the tributary area of a v i l l a g e within that of a town, and the tributary area of a town within that of a c i t y .  Thus, the f u l l  range of goods would be available i n a l l parts of the region. The ideal spatial arrangement of central places i s one which s a t i s f i e s the maximum demand for a l l goods and minimizes the number of central places. For a central place i n i s o l a t i o n , a circular tributary area with the central place i n the middle i s the most e f f i c i e n t shape. The introduction of additional centers would result, however, i n either overlapping c i r c l e s with duplicated services, or tangential c i r c l e s with unserved i n t e r s t i t i a l areas.  C h r i s t a l l e r therefore advocated a  hexagon as the most e f f i c i e n t shape f o r the tributary area of a central place, since i t i s the closest figure to a c i r c l e which w i l l completely cover an area. Towns offering a similar range of goods would be spaced at equal distances from each other, competing at the outer edges of their service area. At these border points, centers of a lower status would be able to offer l o c a l goods more e f f i c i e n t l y .  A center of a higher  order would, therefore, have on the periphery of i t s service area s i x equally spaced centers of a lower order.  Thus, i n C h r i s t a l l e r s 1  5 theory* c e n t r a l places of lower and higher orders would be arranged s p a t i a l l y i n an interlocking series of hexagonal service areas.  F i g . 1.  T h e o r e t i c a l Shape of Tributary Areas  Goods o f f e r e d by the central places follow a gradation, varying with the size of the t r i b u t a r y area.  As i t i s a stepped gradation, the  settlements can be c l a s s i f i e d according to the goods they o f f e r .  The  hierarchy of centers worked out by C h r i s t a l l e r , based on South Germany, included seven classes of central place, ranging from a hamlet to a regional c a p i t a l : Market Hamlet Township center County seat District city Small state c a p i t a l P r o v i n c i a l head c i t y Regional c a p i t a l c i t y  M A K B G P L  Marktort Amtsort Kreisstadt Bezirksstadt Gaustadt Provinzhauptstadt Landeshauptstadt  F i g . 2.  C h r i s t a l l e r ' s T h e o r e t i c a l S p a t i a l Arrang&Tient of a Hierarchy of C e n t r a l Places  The c o r o l l a r i e s of C h r i s t a l l e r ' s theory involve several u s e f u l l o c a t i o n a l rules, based on the i n t e r l o c k i n g system of centers and the mathematical r e l a t i o n s h i p s of the hexagons:  1. The t r i b u t a r y area of any higher center invades the areas of the s i x nearby hamlets and supersedes the hamlet's services with sex*vices the hamlets do not provide. 2. Each center of a rank above the hamlet has a r i n g of s i x centers around I t of the next lower rank.  As the rank gets higher, a series  of rings of a l l lower centers intervenes. 3. Each center of a lower rank i s equidistant from three centers of a higher rank (but not n e c e s s a r i l y of the same higher rank).  7  4. The number of centers i n any given rank i s twice the number of a l l higher ranking centers. 5. Each center of a higher rank has a service area three times as large as that of the next lower rank. 6. The distance between centers of each higher rank Increased by \ 3* Christaller proceeded from his theoretical model to an investigation of the distribution and characteristics of settlements i n South Germany. I t i s unnecessary to detail herein his method or his findings, but his general conclusions are of interest.  Where actual  conditions most closely resembled the assumptions of the theory, the model provided a reasonable explanation of the settlement pattern. This occurred i n thinly populated agricultural areas of f l a t terrain.  The  pattern broke down when the physical and human conditions diverged from the model*  Industry, for example, seemed to be a more important factor  than central service in some parts of Germany. Subsequent studies of settlement patterns i n various countries have shown some of the uniformities of Christaller*a model and have revealed also deviations from i t .  The two major points on which the  theory has been criticized are i t s failure to take into account the influence of industrial location or major transportation routes. In highly industrialised areas concentrations of industry often arise i n response to availability of resources and transportation and, once established, attract further development. The central place pattern i e thereby sometimes distorted beyond recognition*  8 Transportation routes, p a r t i c u l a r l y railways, tend to create l i n e a r patterns i n contrast to the a r e a l pattern of central place services.  Such a l i n e a r arrangement of centers changes the shape of  t r i b u t a r y areas, elongating them with t h e i r long axes a t r i g h t angles to the transport route. the t r i b u t a r y areas may  Where a second p a r a l l e l transport route e x i s t s , be squeezed back into roughly concentric form  or i n t o oval shapes with t h e i r long axes p a r a l l e l to the railway l i n e . In recent writings, C h r i s t a l l e r acknowledges that transportation may  7 exert an influence on the settlement pattern. influence i s l i m i t e d to low-ranking  He f e e l s that t h i s  centers, drawing them to the main  route between higher ranking centers.  In South Germany, C h r i s t a l l e r  argues that the settlements were established before transportation played a s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e and i t s e f f e c t i s therefore n e g l i g i b l e . Other factors which d i s t o r t the t h e o r e t i c a l pattern include uneven d i s t r i b u t i o n of resources, t e r r a i n d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n , and hydrographic factors which may act either as a b a r r i e r to movement or as a cohesive f a c t o r .  The e f f e c t s of such f a c t o r s were excluded from  the theory by the o r i g i n a l assumptions, so do not i n v a l i d a t e the theory, even though they account f o r divergence from the model.  Also having  a bearing on the l o c a t i o n of settlements are p o l i t i c a l and economic considerations, chance selection of s i t e s , and the h i s t o r i c a l persistence of centers over time.  As noted by John E. Brush, I b i d . . C h r i s t a l l e r ' s l a t e s t statement of general p r i n c i p l e s i s contained i n "Das Grundgerust der raumlichen Ordnung i n Europa: Die Systeme der europaischen zentralen O r t e , Frankfurter Geogr. Hefte. Vol.24, No. 1, 1950. 0  9 Despite the highly t h e o r e t i c a l nature of C h r i s t a l l e r ' s iaodel, and the f a c t that l o c a l factors have been found to d i s t o r t the t h e o r e t i c a l expectations,  the central-place concept remains a valuable  a n a l y t i c a l t o o l , providing a consistent framework of reference with which to investigate actual settlement and to measure deviations from a norm*  THE SETTLEMENT PATTERS IK SOUTHWESTERN WISCONSIN  The  conditions assumed f o r the t h e o r e t i c a l analysis of  C h r i s t a l l e r seemed to Dr. John E. Brush to be f u l f i l l e d as nearly as possible i n the American Middle West.  He f e l t that i f the s p a t i a l  arrangements worked out i n theory were to apply to any actual pattern of settlement, i t should be i n a g r i c u l t u r a l areas removed from manufacturing and urbanizing influences.  He therefore undertook an  analysis of a portion of southwestern Wisconsin, selecting an area characterized by an even d i s t r i b u t i o n of population and dependent on agriculture.  In t h i s d a i r y fanning area the r a t i o of non-agricultural  to a g r i c u l t u r a l employment was  roughly 1 to 2, with most of the  non-  a g r i c u l t u r a l workers employed i n trade and services i n the agglomerated settlements.  ; This section i s based on John E. Brush, I b i d  10  F i g . 3.  The  D i s t r i b u t i o n of Agglomerated Settlements, Wisconsin  234- settlements included i n the study area were assigned  functional status by Brush on the basis of t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r sets of functions.  The a p p l i c a t i o n of h i s functional c r i t e r i a produced a  threefold c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , including hamlets, v i l l a g e s and towns.  The  functional c r i t e r i a f o r each of these three l e v e l s of center are outlined below.  HunQF»fr«  The hamlet was  described  by Brush as the  smallest  11 agglomerated settlement.  Using Trewarths.* s minimum requirements, he  defined a hamlet i n terms of three aspects - number of buildings i n use, clustering, and number of r e t a i l or service u n i t s . ^  The requirements  were a t l e a s t f i v e r e s i d e n t i a l structures or other buildings used f o r commercial or c u l t u r a l purposes, clustered within ^ mile l i n e a r distance, plus a t l e a s t one but not more than nine r e t a i l and service u n i t s .  The  most t y p i c a l functions i n hamlets were found to be grocery stores and elementary schools-  In addition, taverns, f i l l i n g stations and churches  were often present.  Villages  V i l l a g e s were described as incomplete trade centers,  lacking many features of an urban center, but playing a s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e i n providing goods and services.  Brush'3 c r i t e r i a f o r v i l l a g e s , which  were developed empirically, emphasized and service u n i t s .  both the number and types o f r e t a i l  The v i l l a g e required a t l e a s t ten r e t a i l and service  units of a l l types, plus a t l e a s t four r e t a i l businesses other than those found i n hamlets, and three other e s s e n t i a l services. to grocery stores, taverns and f i l l i n g  Thus, i n addition  stations, a v i l l a g e needed four  other businesses, such as automobile, implements, appliances, lumber, hardware or l i v e s t o c k feed outlets, and three other e s s e n t i a l services, such as auto repair, banking, telephone exchange or postal d e l i v e r y .  Towns  Towns had a greater m u l t i p l i c i t y of functions and were  more specialized urban centers. The r e q u i s i t e s f o r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n as a  9  G. T. Trewartha, "The Unincorporated Hamlet: One Element of the American Settlement Fabric", Annals of the Association of American Geographers. V o l . 33, 1943*  12  town i n Brush's study were et leest f i f t y r e t e l l units, t h i r t y of which were i n addition to the types found i n hamlets.  Further, towns were to  have banks and weekly newspapers, high schools, and four other professions, such as physician, dentist, veterinarian or lawyer.  Brush  cited four main causes f o r development of the multiple functions which contributed to the importance of towns as trade centers. 1. The aggregation of people i n the town provided a market large enough to permit some specialization. 2. The larger trade area permitted towns to add new types of trade and services, e.g. professional services. 3. The larger farm market enabled towns to offer goods and services solely for farmers, and attracted food-processing plants which used raw materials from the surrounding area. 4. The concentration of business and population permitted the town to develop as a distributing center, adding wholesaling to i t s other functions. Spacing of Centers. Brush continued from his functional c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of settlements to a study of their spatial relationships.  He found that smaller centers  showed an interlocking loeational pattern and a linkage to larger centers. Closest to the towns were the hamlets, with v i l l a g e s located beyond. This aspect of spatial arrangement agreed with Christaller'6 theory. The mean distance between centers i n Wisconsin was 5.5 miles between hamlets and other centers, 9.7 miles between v i l l a g e s and other v i l l a g e s end towns, and 21.2 miles between towns. These figures  13  approximated Christaller's rule that the distance between centers of each successive class increased by  T3»  Some other characteristics of the Wisconsin settlement pattern differed from Christaller*s theoretical model. Brush observed a pronounced tendency for the centers to occur in rows or clusters.  He  found that low-ranking centers were grouped together in areas farthest from large centers. Hamlets were not equidistant from each other and from centers of other rank, but were 4.8 miles from other hamlets,  5.6  miles from the nearest villages and 6.9 miles from the nearest towns. Brush turned to the centrifugal concept of the American sociologist, J. H. Kolb, to explain this spatial arrangement.^ Kolb's classification scheme included five types of service centers: Single-service Limited and simple service Semi-complete or intermediate Complete and partially specialized Urban and highly specialized  Neighborhood or hamlet Small village Village or small town Town or «m«n city City  The service areas of the higher ranking centers, such as towns and cities, had three distinct parts, according to Kolb - the primary service area in which the town provided the bulk of the service;  the secondary service  area in which there was competition from other centers, and the specialized service area in which the town attracted only specialized trade.  J. H. Kolb and E. de S. Brunner, A Study of Rural Society. 1952  Single-service centers (A) occurred near the periphery of the secondary service areas of semi-complete centers (C).  The l i m i t e d  service centers (B) were located beyond, but were s t i l l within the s p e c i a l i z e d service area of C centers.  Although A centers were c l o s e r  to B than to C centers, they were Sp.Ciol'ied  outside the primary service area of the B centers.  ;  Kolb argued that  /  /  S«COndor,  \  \  /  because of the greater p u l l exerted by the l a r g e r trade centers than by the smaller ones, due to the l a r g e r aggregate o f services offered,  Pr  F i g . 4.  '  mary  "—  S p a t i a l Arrangements Kolb  smaller centers were l i k e l y to develop c l o s e r to each other than to l a r g e centers. In addition to the centrifugal clustering of smaller centers, Brush observed l i n e a r tendencies i n the arrangement of settlements. These he was able to explain by the impetus to growth offered by the -ft  railway or to the e f f e c t o f the t e r r a i n , e.g. where settlements occurred i n v a l l e y s along the r i v e r . Brush summed up h i s conclusions on settlement l o c a t i o n i n the following words: The s p a t i a l pattern of agglomerated settlements i s the r e s u l t of s i t e and transport influences during the nineteenth century. I n e r t i a o f the settlement pattern i s so great that centers have not died out completely, though r u r a l population has decreased. Railroads, once the l i f e l i n e s of trade, have l o s t nearly a l l t h e i r l o c a l t r a f f i c , having been replaced by trucks and passenger cars. Hamlets have regressed as trade centers but remain v i a b l e as r e s i d e n t i a l settlements, retaining some of t h e i r central s e r v i c e s . V i l l a g e s are important, though incomplete, l o c a l centers; t h e i r f u n c t i o n a l a t t r i b u t e s have changed and even increased i n v a r i e t y , while t h e i r  15 population has generally remained stable or increased slightly during the past forty years. Towns are the only centers that continue to make large gains in population, mafring relatively and absolutely the greatest gains i n new functional units. Thus the functional status of settlements i s dynamic, influenced by economic and technological changes. But their locational pattern remains fixed. H Tributary Areas Having classified the trading centers by applying associated functional criteria, and compared the locational pattern of settlements to theoretical models, Brush then delineated the tributary areas of the trade centers.  His method was to use t r a f f i c data to identify points of  t r a f f i c convergence. The traffic divides, where few vehicles travelled, he interpreted as the boundaries of the tributary areas of towns and villages.  Such a method permitted delimitation of t r a f f i c areas for the  towns and villages, but there was not sufficient traffic convergence at hamlets to enable identification of i t s tributary area. Brush f e l t that t r a f f i c analysis was a satisfactory method of defining tributary areas, arguing that the poorly defined area of the t r a f f i c divide was a true reflection of the overlapping tributary areas for various commodities. Given universal automobile ownership, the movement of vehicles measured the combined influences attracting people to a trade center.  Thus the area of traffic convergence represented the  area of absolute dominance of trade near the center.  John E. Brush, ibid.. page 395  16 The analysis of t r a f f i c data corroborated the conclusions on spacing of trade centers. Clustering of centers was again observed. This clustering apparently affected the shape of the tributary areas. They tended to be elongated with their long axes at right angles to the axes of rows of centers. The v i l l a g e s were located i n belts between towns. Hamlets occurred at the margins of town or v i l l a g e areas, i n the t r a f f i c divides, and also within the town areas of dominance.  TRAFFIC  AREAS  LOCAL T R A » H C A * E A S TOWNS  ANO  Fig. 5. T r a f f i c Areas, Wisconsin  or  VILLAGES  17 Chxistaller's hexagonal system called for village tributary areas to be three times as large as hamlet areas. Brush was unable to identify hamlet areas, but found village areas to be considerably smaller than the theoretical size.  He attributed this to their linear spatial arrangement  and to the encroachment of town areas.  TRAFFIC  RELATIONS  OF V I L L A G E S  Fig. 6. Traffic Relations of Villages to Towns or Cities, Wisconsin  The local tributary areas of towns, according to Christaller, were equal in size to those of villages.  Brush found that average town  areas were four times the theoretical size (129.1 square miles for towns  18 compared to 32.2 square miles for villages).  He f e l t that this supported  Kolb'8 observations, reflecting the greater attraction exerted by the town's greater assemblage of central services. The relationship of the towns to the villages shown on the  map  indicated that the average town had four or five villages within i t s range of influence, or hinterland.  Brush found that some villages were  linked to two towns and some were linked to the c i t i e s just outside the: study area.  He estimated that each town served an area of 128.8  miles beyond the periphery of i t s local tributary area.  square  On this basis,  towns seemed to be disproportionately small in relation to the population of their hinterlands.  SERVICE CENTERS IM SASKATCHEWAN Christaller s theory formed the framework of reference for the 1  Royal Commission on Agriculture and Rural Life in Saskatchewan, in i t s 12 report on Service Centers.  Appointed by the Government of  Saskatchewan "to investigate and make recommendations regarding the requirements for the maintenance of a sound farm economy and the improvement of social conditions and amenities in rural Saskatchewan", the Commission produced a series of fourteen reports dealing with farm and rural problems.  The study of service centre structure and trading  areas was undertaken with the primary aim of finding a sound basis for the coordination of government services. The Commission f e l t that the  This section i s based on Service Centers. Royal Commission on Agriculture and Rural Life, Regina, Saskatchewan, 1957.  19 service center structure could provide a common denominator f o r delineating administrative regions f o r agencies which had s i m i l a r needs i n terms of regional size, f o c a l centers and road access. The Commission r e s t r i c t e d i t s analysis of service centers to an area i n the southwest portion of Saskatchewan.  The centers i n t h i s  area were c l a s s i f i e d according to the d i v e r s i t y of t h e i r functions, and t h e i r l o c a t i o n a l pattern was compared to the t h e o r e t i c a l model of Christaller.  The Commission* s method and general conclusions are a  valuable contribution to an understanding of service center structure i n Saskatchewan.  They w i l l therefore form the substance of t h i s section,  providing the necessary background f o r consideration of the South Saskatchewan River Project area.  One of the recommendations of the Royal Commission on A g r i c u l t u r e and Rural L i f e was that a comprehensive a n a l y s i s of service centers be undertaken f o r the entire province.  This recommendation has been acted  upon and the study has been c a r r i e d out by the Local Government Continuing Committee.  Data from the Committee forms the basis f o r  analysis of the settlement pattern of the South Saskatchewan River P r o j e c t Area i n Chapter 3* C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of Service Centers The Royal Commission on Agriculture and Rural L i f e r e l i e d on d i v e r s i t y of services as the p r i n c i p a l basis f o r c l a s s i f y i n g service centers i n Saskatchewan.  Services were tabulated f o r each center i n the  area studied, which was the  southwest quarter of the s e t t l e d portion of  20 the province.  In order that the services used f o r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  purposes would r e f l e c t as c l o s e l y as possible services r e l a t e d to the population of the t r i b u t a r y area of the center, some adjustments were made. Excluded from c l a s s i f i c a t i o n were, i n general, domestic service, maintenance and operation, manufacturing, and administrative services. More p r e c i s e l y , the excluded group covered salesmen, labourers, mail c a r r i e r s , caretakers, railway employees not concerned with railway users, manufacturing a c t i v i t y , and municipal, school, welfare and a g r i c u l t u r a l offices.  The reason f o r omitting the l a t t e r administrative group was npt  that they lacked central s i g n i f i c a n c e , but that the major purpose of the Saskatchewan study was to measure the effectiveness of l o c a t i o n of government s e r v i c e s .  A wide v a r i a t i o n was found i n the degree of development o f various centers.  For t h i s reason, considerable subjective judgment had to be  exercised i n the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n process.  The method used was to s e l e c t  the c i t y f i r s t , and then to decide the next lower class of center on the basis of s i z e , l o c a t i o n and distance.  In t h i s way, the Commission  selected f i v e types of centers, and proceeded to examine t h e i r service diversity.  The entire range o f services was then divided i n t o the  following c l a s s i n t e r v a l s :  Rank of Center Hamlet Village Town Greater Town City  Humber of Services 2 11 26 51 101  to 10 to 25 to 50 to 100 to 200  21 Services which were t y p i c a l l y found i n a center of a given rank but were not found i n centers of lower rank, termed "characteristic incremental services", were i d e n t i f i e d from a frequency distribution of central services. Hamlet The Hamlet was ranked as the lowest functional unit.  I t s role  was to 3erve the basic needs of the adjacent r u r a l population. In addition, i t provided a u x i l i a r y services i n transportation and communication, assembling farm products, r e t a i l trade, commercial, and public service. The significant services of the hamlet were the grain elevator and the general store. The general store seemed to be the most important establishment and was considered a minimum requirement f o r designation as a Hamlet. Other characteristic services were a postmaster, railway depot, telegraph service, garage, one-room school and church. Central employment i n a Hamlet averaged 7 to 10 persons.  The  typical population range was from 20 to 80 persons, and there were from 5 to 20 residential structures. village 9  The V i l l a g e had closer t i e s than the Hamlet with the surrounding rural area, due to i t s more d i v e r s i f i e d services.  Termed by the  Commission the "farmer's town", the Village provided the farmer with h i s urgent needs f o r both l i v i n g and working.  22 The lower ranking  services which f i r s t appeared i n the Hamlet  were more strongly developed i n the V i l l a g e . general stores and two garages.  The  T y p i c a l l y , there were two  school was usually a  consolidated  school, o f f e r i n g both elementary and high school education.  The V i l l a g e  also had a post o f f i c e and railway depot, 3 or 4- g r a i n elevators with a capacity of about 200,000 bushels, and 2 or 3 churches.  In addition to  the general functions of the Hamlet, the V i l l a g e sometimes offered services i n the sphere of banking and finance, usually i n the form of a c r e d i t union.  V i l l a g e services which were oriented to the a g r i c u l t u r a l community were the lumber yard, hardware store, f u e l dealer, blacksmith shop, municipal  o f f i c e and telephone o f f i c e .  Derived from these basic  center  functions were such other services as the grocery store, barber shop, beer parlour, cafe, c r e d i t union and  church.  Employment i n central services ranged from 20 to 40 persons. There were usually from 100  to 300 persons l i v i n g i n the V i l l a g e , occupying  about 25 to 75 dwelling u n i t s .  Town The Town offered a wider d i v e r s i t y of services and a l a r g e r t r i b u t a r y area -than the Hamlet and V i l l a g e . Among the lower ranking services, Towns had a greater number of units and higher sales volumes per unit.  There were, f o r example, usually L or 5 grain elevators, with a  capacity of 300,000 to 400,000 bushels.  The Town was  the lowest-ranking center i n which public services  were s i g n i f i c a n t . These included a h o s p i t a l , physician, dentist,  23 b a r r i s t e r , l o c a l newspaper, theatre, community club and bank. trade shoved an advance i n d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n over the V i l l a g e .  Retail Two  s i g n i f i c a n t incremental r e t a i l trade services were clothing and household appliance stores, both providing services f o r which there was a widespread demand which was not met i n lower ranking centers. The population of the town centers ranged from 4OO to  1,000  persons, and these centers contained from 100 to 250 r e s i d e n t i a l structures. T r a n s i t i o n a l centers between V i l l a g e s and Towns had only one or two of the higher ranking services. Some of the reasons c i t e d by the Commission f o r the occurrence of these services were the size of the population i n the center, mistaken government decisions f o r l o c a t i o n of services such as h o s p i t a l s , and l o c a l i n i t i a t i v e In such endeavors as l o c a l newspaper p u b l i c a t i o n .  r Greater Town The Greater Town showed a change i n functions from the Town, V i l l a g e and Hamlet.  Here the urban population ( 1 , 5 0 0 to 5,000) played an  important r o l e f o r the f i r s t time, i n contrast to the lower ranking canters which were based s o l e l y on a g r i c u l t u r a l s e r v i c e . The two  key  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the Greater Town were i t s s p e c i a l i z e d services and i t s Importance i n the s o c i a l and economic l i f e of the province.  Lower ranking services occurred i n the Greater Towns i n largerj numbers or with increased capacity.  There were, f o r example, more farm  Implement dealers, garages and automotive services. Some services showed  24 an increase i n capacity instead of i n the number of units, such as newspaper circulation, number of hospital beds, and theatre seats. Incremental services were numerous i n the Greater Towns. Wholesale trade f i r s t appeared at this l e v e l , i n a minor but significant role. Greater Towns provided services which were needed by rural residents, such as apparel and accessory stores, and furniture stores, but which were not provided by centers of lesser rank because of infrequent demand for them and the need f o r a larger population base for economic operation.  Public administration and transportation were also  important functions of the Greater Towns. City. The C i t y Center provided more adequately than the lower ranking centers a l l of the main types of central function. Greater diversity and specialization were evident i n r e t a i l i n g , commercial services, transportation, banking and finance, and wholesale trade.  I t was also a  l o g i c a l center, according to the Commission, for regional administration services. C i t y population ranged from 4,000 to 20,000.  Service  establishments of types occurring i n lower ranking centers were, i n the City, both larger and more numerous. The C i t y added many incremental services, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n r e t a i l trade, commercial and public services. Provincial C i t y A sixth class of center, the P r o v i n c i a l City, was i d e n t i f i e d by the Commission although i t s services were not tabulated.  Such a center  was characterized by greater specialization and was the provincial  25  headquarters f o r various a c t i v i t i e s .  Two significant province-wide  functions usually associated with a Provincial C i t y were the provincial government and university functions. Location of Service Centers Before analysing the distribution of centers, the Commission considered some of the influences which, i n Saskatchewan, might be expected to cause deviations from the C h r i s t a l l e r theoretical pattern. The most important factors were transportation and consumer mobility. Also i n f l u e n t i a l were topography, unequal distribution of resources and population, h i s t o r i c a l accident and l o c a l leadership. In the f i e l d of transportation, two significant agricultural factors h i s t o r i c a l l y affected the location of nucleated  settlements.  F i r s t was the distribution of land offering the best agricultural potential.  Branch lines of the railway penetrated areas where land was  of good quality, and generally tended to avoid sub-marginal lands.  Second  was the grain marketing need f o r shipment points located along the railway l i n e s at close intervals. i n tendencies to both settlements.  Thus the influence of agriculture was reflected  areal discrimination and l i n e a l attraction of  These tendencies were offset to some degree by the  extensive acreage of good agricultural land, which resulted i n a f a i r l y dense network of railway l i n e s .  Development of a highway and road  network added to the general coverage provided by transport f a c i l i t i e s . Today the v i s i b l e evidence of the transport influence i s most apparent i n linear location of V i l l a g e and Hamlet centers. it  26 The e f f e c t of transport was  to encourage centers to cluster  along the main communication l i n e s , to lower the rank of centers located on secondary l i n e s , and to reduce the number of centers i n areas with inadequate transportation. The clustering of centers f o r c e d the t r i b u t a r y areas out of t h e i r concentric shape, i n t o areas elongated a t r i g h t angles to the transportation route.  F i g . 7.  D i s t r i b u t i o n of Service Centers i n Saskatchewan  The Commission d i f f e r e n t i a t e d between the pattern of settlement i n densely populated and sparsely populated areas.  In areas of sub-  marginal land, which supported lower population density, centers were  27 f a r t h e r apart, and gaps i n the system of centers occurred. Neighboring pattern.  centers with s p l i t functions also d i s t o r t e d the  These were due, said the Commission, to h i s t o r i c a l accident,  settlement i n stages, or competition of l o c a l leaders.  S p l i t functions  could occur between centers of any given rank, but the distance separating the s p l i t - f u n c t i o n centers of higher rank would be greater. Regina and Saskatoon were c i t e d as examples of s p l i t - f u n c t i o n centers at the P r o v i n c i a l C i t y l e v e l .  The e f f e c t of the s p l i t was to increase  the number of s a t e l l i t e centers to eight, as indicated  i n Figure 8.  This was roughly comparable to the l o c a t i o n a l pattern of the p r i n c i p a l centers of Saskatchewan, as shown i n Figure 9.  9  9  o  i  !  JO x  o  i  i i  ex  *  or O  6 F i g . 8.  9 i i  II  A:  JO  JO  6  Diagram of S p l i t Centers  Two other anomolies noted by the Commission were i s o l a t e d centers and extended centers.  The i s o l a t e d centers appeared a t f r o n t i e r s of  settlement or i n areas cut o f f by a topographical b a r r i e r .  Extended  centers were interconnected to the service center system only through  28 another center of s i m i l a r rank. The commission  concluded that d i s t r i b u t i o n of centers by function  and size i n southwest Saskatchewan met the general t h e o r e t i c a l expectations.  According to t h e i r f u n c t i o n a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , there were  2 C i t i e s , 8 Greater Towns, 26 Towns, 65 V i l l a g e s , and 155 Hamlets.  In  instances where the l o c a t i o n of centers varied from the symmetrical pattern, the influence of transportation explained most of the d i s t o r t i o n .  O Noft:  Arcru %n  F i g . 9.  prvportwoal to population.  P r i n c i p a l Centers of Saskatchewan  /I i:  29 Vithin tha swift Current System of Greater Towns, the number of centers of each rank were compared with the minimum number required i n the model. The comparative figures were:  Cities Greater Towns Towns Villages Hamlets  Theoretical  Actual  1 6 6 24 54  1 6 7 21 60  The average distance between centers also showed reasonable agreement with the relative distances i n the hexagonal structure. Actual distances were affected by discrepancies i n the expected numbers of centers and by the linear location along transportation routes. Theoretical Distances Case I Case I I Hamlet to Village Village to Town Town to Greater Town Greater Town to City  10.0 17.3 30.0 52.0  12.0 20.8 36.0 62.3  Actual Average Distance 10.0 I 4 . 8 32.5 63.0  Adaptation of location to the railway was evident among the lower ranking centers.  In about two-thirds of the centers convenience  of transportation seemed to be a more important factor than service convenience. Many canters were related to only one higher ranking center, rather than to two or three, as the theoretical pattern called for. The frequency of these separated centers was attributed to topographical barriers, submarginal land, and the international border.  30 Assessing the value of the theory i n the l i g h t of i t s f i n d i n g s , the Commission concluded that the theory of c e n t r a l places o f f e r e d a s a t i s f a c t o r y explanation of differences i n the s i z e and functions of centers.  I t also was a guide to d i s t r i b u t i o n of the centers, both i n  terms of the number of centers of d i f f e r e n t ranks and t h e i r l o c a t i o n s . Deviations from the model could be explained by the e f f e c t s of such f a c t o r s as transport routes, topography and s o i l s .  IV  Chapter 2 EXPERIENCE IN PLANNING THE LOCATION AND SIZE OF RURAL AND URBAN NUCLEATIONS IN SELECTED IRRIGATED AREAS  "There i s , of course, no p o s s i b i l i t y o f applying ready-made formulae o f existing or i d e a l regional structure to p r a c t i c a l needs everywhere. The study of other countries experience i n the f i e l d of regional development has quite another purpose: i t helps to throw i n t o sharper r e l i e f the uniqueness of one's own planning and development problems." 1  A r t u r Glikson  Chapter  2  EXPERIENCE IK PLANNING THE LOCATION AMD AND  SIZE OF RURAL  URBAN NUCLEATIONS IN SELECTED IRRIGATED AREAS  Planning f o r the spacing and size of community nucleations i s one aspect of regional planning.  As a p a r t of regional or national  planning programs i n other countries, some experience has been gained with respect to planned community l o c a t i o n and desirable s i z e .  It is  f e l t that some f a m i l i a r i t y with the experience elsewhere can be valuable i n planning f o r the South Saskatchewan River P r o j e c t area. The areas selected f o r investigation f o r the purposes of t h i s study are a g r i c u l t u r a l areas where large-scale i r r i g a t i o n projects have been c a r r i e d out.  Three areas w i l l be discussed: the Columbia River Basin i n the State of Washington, U.S.A.;  the polders i n the Netherlands,  p a r t i c u l a r l y the North-East Polder; and three regions i n the State of Israel.  The Columbia River Basin development resembles most c l o s e l y  the s i t u a t i o n i n the South Saskatchewan area, where dry land wheat farming w i l l be replaced with i r r i g a t e d land, o f f e r i n g an opportunity f o r more d i v e r s i t y i n crop types and promising s i g n i f i c a n t changes i n the size of farm holdings and i n the r o l e of community service centers. The Netherlands s i t u a t i o n has a very d i f f e r e n t basis.  Here the land i s  claimed from the sea, by means of diking and drainage, to provide  new  33 irrigated land for agricultural use.  This i s probably as close as a  planner can get to a pure situation uncompromised by existing f a c i l i t i e s which often exercise some influence over the planning of the area. Here the planner has an area of f e r t i l e land to transform into a dynamic community. With no existing hamlets or villages, no existing road network, the location of communities, theoretically, can be decided i n terms of the best possible service to the population. The Israeli experience i s affected significantly by the pressing factor of time.  The influx of  thousands of immigrants, many of them with an urban background, demands that homes be found for them. This tends to disrupt the logical sequence of rural-urban development. Indeed, the contrasts between planned development In Israel, i n the Columbia Basin and in the Netherlands should point up the differences i n the settlement pattern resulting from the different factors which mold planning policy.  THE COLUMBIA BASIN PROJECT The Columbia Basin project, i n the State of Washington, i s a multi-purpose project designed to store and deliver stored water for land reclamation, to generate electric energy, to control floods, to improve navigation and to regulate stream flow.  The lands to be  irrigated with water impounded behind Grand Coulee Dam l i e i n the Big Bend of the Columbia River, beginning about 60 miles south of Grand Coulee*  The Project area contains some 2^ million acres, of which  about 1 million acres i s suitable for irrigation.  34  Fig. 10.  Columbia Basin Project Location  The Project was started in 1933> with construction of the Dam. By 1942 the Dam was completed and some of the power generating units were put into operation. War I I .  Work on the irrigation works started after World  The i n i t i a l irrigation, i n the Pasco area in 1948, used water  pumped from the Columbia River.  The large-scale program, using water  from the reservoir behind the Dam, did not get under way until 1952. Since that time, from 34,000 to 66,000 acres have been added each year,  35 so that by 1958 over 380,000 acres were i r r i g a t e d .  About half of the  1  1,029,000 acres planned for Irrigation ultimately should be served^ by 1963. Columbia Basin population i n 1950 was 30,232, with 12$ on farms, 16$ rural non-farm, and 72$ i n towns and villages.  The detailed  distribution of the population i s shown i n Table 1. Table 1. POPULATION DISTRIBUTION IH THE COLOMBIA BASIN. 1950 Urban  (2,500 and over)  Pasco 10,278 Ephrata 4,589 Moses Lake 2,679  Large Village (1,000 to 2,499)  Soap Bake  Small Village (200 to 999)  Quincy Othello Connell Warden  Total - Urban and Village Open-Country settlement: Farm Non-farm  2,091 804 526 465 322 21,704 3,645 * 4,883 * 30,232  * Source:  Estimated by Bureau of Reclamation  Indications of Business and Industrial Development that w i l l result from the Irrigation of the Columbia River Basin Project. Ephrata, Washington, Jan. 1953* using census of population 1950.  1 Growth of Agricultural Proceeeing and Marketing F a c i l i t i e s . Columbia Basin Project, Washington, U.S. Dept. of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation, August 1958.  36 In an i r r i g a t e d area i n Southwest Idaho, the population d i s t r i b u t i o n i n 1950 was 29% farm, 13% r u r a l non-farm, and 58% town and v i l l a g e population.  The Bureau of Reclamation suggested i n 1953  that  the future population of the Columbia Basin Project might be d i s t r i b u t e d i n a manner roughly comparable to the Idaho breakdown, when the Project i s more f u l l y developed.  F i g . 11.  Columbia Basin Town and V i l l a g e Growth  Indication of Business and I n d u s t r i a l Development that w i l l r e s u l t from the I r r i g a t i o n of the Columbia River Basin Pro.iect. U.S. Dept. of the I n t e r i o r , Bureau of Reclamation, Columbia River D i s t r i c t , project Development Division, Economics Branch, Ephrata, Washington, Jan.1953.  37 The series of reports dealing with problems of planning f o r development of the Columbie Basin Project, prepared by the Columbia Basin J o i n t Investigations f o r the United States Department of the I n t e r i o r Bureau of Reclamation, included a study of "the optimum number of towns and t h e i r advantageous p l a c e m e n t " T h i s  Towns and V i l l a g e s report i s  i n two parts - the f i r s t , the Middle Yakima V a l l e y i n Washington State, and the second, town development i n other i r r i g a t e d areas, i n Idaho, Oregon, Montana and Wyoming.  The f i n d i n g s of the report which are  pertinent to the present study form the subject matter of t h i s s e c t i o n .  The Middle Yakima V a l l e y  The Yakima V a l l e y investigations were o r i g i n a l l y c a r r i e d out i n 194l<.  The purposes of the study were twofold:  ( l ) to e s t a b l i s h the  character of towns which seemed to serve best the needs of farm f a m i l i e s i n an area of i r r i g a t i o n agriculture s i m i l a r to that expected i n the Columbia River Basin Project; and (2) to determine the support required f o r the establishment and maintenance of the more e f f e c t i v e types of towns.  The conclusions on these two points were expected to suggest  c r i t e r i a f o r planning the number and l o c a t i o n of towns which would best serve the s e t t l e r s i n the Columbia River Basin.  The area investigated i s approximately 150 miles southeast of S e a t t l e , 160 miles southwest of Spokane and L40 miles northeast of  3  Towns and V i l l a g e s . Columbia Basin J o i n t Investigations, Columbia Basin Project, Washington, Problem 18, Boise, Idaho, June 1947.  38 Portland.  Yakima, the chief commercial center i n the immediate v i c i n i t y ,  i s a few miles northwest of the area.  The Yakima River i s a p h y s i c a l  feature of major importance, providing water f o r i r r i g a t i o n but a l s o acting as a b a r r i e r to transportation, thus impairing easy access to towns from certain d i r e c t i o n s .  The study concerned i t s e l f p r i n c i p a l l y  with the r u r a l service functions of s i x towns i n the Middle V a l l e y of the Yakima River.  Towns Placed i n t h e i r regional setting and ranked according to the number of functions performed and the area served, the s i x towns covered by the study were considered to be centers of the t h i r d and fourth order.  Such a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , by function, i s based on C h r i s t a l l e r s 1  theory and, as we have seen i n the previous chaper, has been a p p l i e d i n many areas, including Wisconsin and Saskatchewan.  Towns i n the Middle  Yakima V a l l e y had fewer functions and only l o c a l service importance compared to such regional centers o f the f i r s t order as Seattle, Spokane, Tacoma and Portland, or a center o f the second order, such as Yakima. Centers of the f i r s t order served the a g r i c u l t u r a l area through wholesalers and d i s t r i b u t o r s , d a i l y newspapers, radio programs, and mail order goods shipped from warehouses i n the metropolitan areas.  These  centers were also important markets f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l products c o l l e c t e d i n the towns from the surrounding farming area.  Yakima, of second rank, provided services r e l a t e d to a g r i c u l t u r a l communities.  I t was a secondary wholesale center, had a  d a i l y newspaper, a radio station, and was the primary shopping center o f  39 the v a l l e y , with a wide v a r i e t y of shopping and s p e c i a l t y goods. Towns of the t h i r d order were referred to as l o c a l centers.  shopping  They o f f e r e d shopping goods and services which were adequate  f o r most requirements.  None of the three l o c a l shopping centers i n the  Yakima V a l l e y had as wide a d i v e r s i t y of services as Yakima, and none had the added functions of the l a r g e r center. The three towns of the fourth order had few s i g n i f i c a n t r e t a i l establishments of shopping and s p e c i a l t y classes, no p r o f e s s i o n a l o f f i c e s and few commercial amusements.  The commercial establishments, which had  l a r g e l y "convenience" goods, served a function comparable to that of the r u r a l service centers.  The primary function of towns of both the t h i r d and fourth order was as a l o c a l marketing center f o r the products of i r r i g a t i o n a g r i c u l t u r e and as l o c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n centers f o r commodities needed by farmers on i r r i g a t e d land.  They served also as s o c i a l centers f o r people  both i n the town and i n the nearby r u r a l community.  The  significant  difference between the t h i r d and fourth order towns was the extent to which t h e i r functions were performed.  Rural Service Centers The twenty-five r u r a l service centers i n the area studied provided l i m i t e d services.  They were c l a s s i f i e d into three groups,  according to the complexity of the service structure and the number of establishments.  The t y p i c a l r u r a l service center of the l e a s t complex  type consisted of a single commercial establishment offering not more  Fig. 12.  Rural Service Centers, Middle Yakima V a l l e y  41 than two types of service.  Centers of intermediate complexity generally  had two or three establishments, with a like number of different types of service.  The most complex group were centers with more than three  types of service. Three significant facts concerning distribution of the rural service centers were apparent!  (l) She rural service centers were, i n  general, not found within four miles by road from the local shopping centers;  (2) Many centers were located close to the fourth order towns;  and (3) Transportation f a c i l i t i e s differed for the three groups, e.g. centers of maximum complexity tended to have r a i l f a c i l i t i e s while the least complex centers did not.  Also, a l l centers of least and  intermediate complexity were on paved highways, while only four out of seven of the most complex centers were on paved highways. This was interpreted as an indication of the need for a means of handling bulky commodities at larger rural service centers. The possibility of providing satisfactory service by truck was raised i n the report as a matter which would require special investigation. Trade Areas The trade area of a town was defined as the "area within which most of the residents go more frequently to that town than to any other". By assuming that frequency of travel to a center was a f a i r measure of the frequency with which the services there were patronized, the study was also able to describe the trade area for each town as that ".within which residents patronize the town* s services more frequently than the services of any other town . 11  42 The study d i d not attempt to delimit service areas f o r i n d i v i d u a l commodities.  The object was to define a single-boundary trade area.  This was done by using basic data obtained from a t r a v e l - d e s t i n a t i o n survey made by the Washington State Department of Highways i n cooperation with the united States Bureau of •Public Roads i n 1936 and 1937.  This survey obtained through high school students d e t a i l e d  information on automobile t r a v e l of the students' families during the preceding twelve-month period.  Data included the number and destination  of t r i p s f o r both pleasure and business purposes, mileage per t r i p and the routes used.  The preliminary boundaries of trade areas were drawn  by p l o t t i n g data f o r 280 f a m i l i e s , showing l o c a t i o n of each family and the percentage of t h e i r automobile t r i p s to various destinations.  This  permitted d e l i m i t a t i o n f o r each of the s i x towns of the area within which most f a m i l i e s made the greatest percentage of t r i p s to that town. Tentative boundaries were then checked by 209 f i e l d interviews, along roads crossing the tentative boundaries.  The f a m i l y i n one out of every  two dwellings was interviewed to determine the town to which t r i p s were made more frequently than to any other.  The tentative boundaries were  then adjusted as required by the new information.  The outer boundaries of the trading areas coincide with the l i m i t s of the i r r i g a b l e land.  Beyond i s dry land which i n the Middle  Yakima V a l l e y i s l a r g e l y uninhabited.  I n the case of one town, located  at the outer boundary, there was some support from the sparse population of the land not i r r i g a t e d .  Support from beyond the i r r i g a t e d area was  considered to be i n s i g n i f i c a n t f o r the other towns studied.  It is  apparent that the degree to which the dry land farming area should be  43 taken into account i n studying other i r r i g a t i o n projects w i l l depend upon the s o i l conditions and density of settlement.  In the South  Saskatchewan P r o j e c t , f o r example, some blocks of i r r i g a b l e land are contiguous to productive land containing a farm population whose support could not be ignored without u n j u s t i f i e d d i s t o r t i o n of the f i n d i n g s . Support Heeded f o r parts of the Trade Area Structure The population within the entire trade area was used as a rough measure of the aggregate support required f o r maintenance of the services at the center.  This was considered to be an adequate measure because a l l  of the towns were of l o c a l service importance.  I t would not have been  considered adequate i f Yakima, f o r example, had been included, since i t depended on the patronage of residents of the entire Yakima V a l l e y . v a l i d i t y of the measurement was confirmed by the comparatively  The  constant  r e l a t i o n s h i p s found between population of the trade areas and numbers of services i n the trade centers. The general conclusions regarding the d i f f e r e n t types of centers i n the Yakima V a l l e y indicated that there were three towns serving as l o c a l shopping centers.  The other three incorporated towns had been  important p r i o r to the widespread use of the automobile but had f a i l e d to r e t a i n t h e i r importance.  Many of the r u r a l service centers had survived  and seemed to have an important r o l e , but the need f o r others questionable.  was  Expressed i n terms of road distances, the conclusions  were as follows: ( i ) at road distances of 7 or more miles from l o c a l shopping centers, r e l a t i v e l y complex r u r a l service centers are needed,  44 ( i i ) at road distances of 5 to 7 miles from such towns, r u r a l service centers of moderate complexity are l i k e l y to succeed,  and  ( i i i ) within 5 miles by road of such towns, r u r a l service centers are not needed and, except under s p e c i a l conditions, are not apt to prove successful.  Desirable Rural Area Structure The study of the Yakima V a l l e y data l e d to the conclusions that there were two e s s e n t i a l types of service center - the l o c a l shopping center and the r u r a l service center.  The l o c a l shopping center would be  i d e a l l y represented by a town of at l e a s t 2,000 population, and should provide a l l the basic services required by farm f a m i l i e s .  The  rural  service center might c o n s i s t of no more than the b u i l d i n g , or a few buildings, at which the convenience types of service would be provided. There appeared to be l i t t l e j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r v i l l a g e s of intermediate sizes to provide economic services. The r e l a t i o n s h i p between the two e s s e n t i a l types of centers, and conditions under which the desirable structure could be expected to develop i s indicated diagrammatically i n Figure 13.  The basic requirement  f o r a s a t i s f a c t o r y l o c a l shopping center  was  considered to be the presence within reasonably close distance of a r e l a t i v e l y large farm population.  With 1,000  farm f a m i l i e s i n -the trade  area having purchasing power l i k e that of f a m i l i e s i n the Middle Yakima Valley, and l i k e that anticipated i n the Columbia Basin Project, patronage would be adequate to support a l o c a l shopping center of the desired quality.  A patronage base of about 600 farm f a m i l i e s apparently would be  Fig. 13.  DIAGRAMMATIC  LOCAL  TRADE AREA  STRUCTURE  LEGEND: LOCAL  SHOPPING  CENTER  TRADE  A R E A 8 0 U N D A R Y OF L O C A L S H O P P I N G  CENTER  This trade oreo ideally includes at leost IOOO farm fami l i e s ; the minimum requirement for a s a t i s f a c t o r y local shopping center is about 6 0 0 farm families. With 1 0 0 0 families , approximate, minimum population obtained at mature development is as f o l l o w s 1  Form Rural n o n - f a r m Town and suburbs Total  4000 1000 3000 8000  Desirable maximum extent of trade area, provided ideal conditions noted above are met. RURAL SERVICE CENTER hexagonol f i g u r e . )  ( T r i b u t a r y area i n d i c a t e d by  46 s u f f i c i e n t and could be expected to support a reasonably s a t i s f a c t o r y l o c a l shopping center where distance, or other considerations, l i m i t e d the trade area.  Distance was  c i t e d as a secondary but important element i n the  development of l o c a l shopping  centers.  People would not r e g u l a r l y  t r a v e l farther than necessary to obtain the services desired.  But  adequate patronage, rather than a r b i t r a r y distance, was considered the important factor i n the location and spacing of towns f o r the Columbia Basin P r o j e c t . I t was pointed out that undue increases i n the spacing between towns from those indicated by adequate patronage bases would stimulate the development of centers a t intermediate l o c a t i o n s which had no sound prospect f o r growth as s a t i s f a c t o r y shopping centers, or would place farm f a m i l i e s i n the intermediate zone a t a disadvantage  with  respect to easy access to the r e q u i s i t e services.  The Yakima V a l l e y data provided a working guide to the distance people might reasonably be expected to t r a v e l to a l o c a l shopping Ten miles by road d i d not appear to be an unreasonable  center.  distance, i n view  of the distances r e g u l a r l y t r a v e l l e d i n the Yakima V a l l e y . In areas where the patronage base within a ten-mile radius was inadequate,  the  distance from the outer l i m i t s of the trade area to the center should be greater.  However, where population density and other conditions permit-  ted, distances shorter than ten miles were considered desirable.  In view of the location aud character of r u r a l service centers i n r e l a t i o n to l o c a l shopping centers i n the Yakima V a l l e y , s i x miles was  47 indicated as the closest distance to a local shopping center at which the u t i l i t y and the prospects for success of a rural service center seemed to be assured.  About 100 farm families with purchasing power  comparable to that of families i n the study area apparently would provide an adequate patronage base for such minimum services as a combination grocery store and automobile f i l l i n g station. With a density of farm population such as that i n the Yakima Valley, and that a n t i c i pated in most parts of the Columbia Basin Project, the minimum adequate patronage would be found within a tributary area of two-mile radius. At least in areas closer to the local shopping centers, two miles appeared to be also about the maximum attraction B  B  radius of the average  rural service center. Population distribution data for the Yakima Valley indicated that for each farm person in the trade area of a local shopping center there was at least one non-farm person.  The report suggested that this  ratio, applied to prospective farm population, would provide a means of estimating the probable minimum population within prospective trade areas of the Columbia Basin.  The results would be minimum estimates,  because the number of non-farm residents i n some trade areas undoubtedly would be increased appreciably by the growth of towns into metropolitan centers serving a wide area, and by the possible development in some towns of industries in addition to those reflected in the Yakima Valley data.  On the minimum basis, i t was estimated that about 75% of the non-  farm population would probably reside i n the towns, and about 25% i n the rural areas.  Thus, the distribution of total population of the trade  area (minimum) might be expected to be about 50% farm, 37.5% town, and  48 12.5$  r u r a l non-farm.  Tovn Development i n Other Irrigated, AreaB The second part of the Tovns and V i l l a g e s report undertook to check the conclusions based on the Yakima V a l l e y data, by considering aspects of town development i n other i r r i g a t e d areas.  The three areas  considered were a large area i n southwestern Idaho and adjacent Oregon; a similar area i n south c e n t r a l Idaho; and small i r r i g a t i o n projects i n Montana and Wyoming.  The aspects checked were:  support f o r l o c a l shopping centers,  ( i ) r e q u i s i t e patronage  ( i i ) spacing of l o c a l  shopping  centers, and ( i i i ) d i s t r i b u t i o n of population between farm and non-farm groups within the trade areas of centers.  Methods of study d i f f e r e d from those used i n the Yakima V a l l e y . Some of these differences may be noted.  This part of the report was  based on a v a i l a b l e map and census materials, rather than on f i e l d investigation.  The towns were c l a s s i f i e d according to population, with  a population of 1,500 or more being used as the c r i t e r i o n of a l o c a l shopping center.  (This f i g u r e was derived from the Yakima V a l l e y data,  where the smallest place with the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f a l o c a l center had a population of 1,449.)  Trade area boundaries were estimated  on the basis of Yakima V a l l e y findings, with adjustments census data boundaries.  shopping  being made to  Thus, the trade area data provided a rough  approximation only, f o r general checking purposes.  Purchasing power of  farm f a m i l i e s was compared with the Yakima V a l l e y , using l e v e l o f l i v i n g indices.  These were obtained by county f o r 1940, from a study by the  49 Bureau of A g r i c u l t u r a l Economics of the United States Department of Agriculture.  I t i s unnecessary f o r purposes of the present study to go i n t o the f i n d i n g s regarding the i r r i g a t e d areas i n Idaho, Oregon, Montana and Wyoming.  I t i s s u f f i c i e n t to note that, i n general, the data supported  the f i n d i n g s i n the Yakima V a l l e y . special  The few exceptions were explained by  circumstances.  The Columbia Basin - Planning For Towns and V i l l a g e s The Community Development Section of the Bureau of Reclamation was responsible f o r planning new Project area.  communities i n the Columbia Basin  In addition to the development of e x i s t i n g communities, JL  six new  towns were recommended, based upon the following general c r i t e r i a .  A. For the most e f f e c t i v e community integration, s o c i a l and commercial services f o r r u r a l people should be located i n the same center. B. The economic services offered a t a center must be extensive and varied enough to meet most of the needs of the r u r a l people or they w i l l not support them. C. Studies i n d i c a t e d that i t requires a town of at l e a s t 1,000 population to provide adequately the economic services demanded by r u r a l people. D. As towns exceed 3,500 to 4,000 population they tend to become unsatisfactory as s o c i a l centers f o r r u r a l people.  L e t t e r from Hugh H. Moncrief, Administrative A s s i s t a n t to the P r o j e c t Manager, Columbia Basin Project, Ephrata, Washington, A p r i l 13,1959.  50 E. A trade area containing 700 productive family size farms y i e l d i n g average annual farm incomes of not l e s s than |l,500 i s approximately the minimum size necessary to support the type o f center s a t i s f a c t o r y f o r the l o c a t i o n of services f o r r u r a l people. F. A high school serving the community should be located i n each service center to integrate the community and provide a nucleus f o r the development of r e c r e a t i o n a l and s o c i a l f a c i l i t i e s .  No data i s a v a i l a b l e concerning the planning, i f any, of s a t e l l i t e r e l a t i o n s h i p s among the various service centers, but Moses Lake, Pasco, Ephrata and Othello were apparently expected to be the four major centers of population.  The planned development of communities has not been followed through i n the Columbia Basin P r o j e c t .  In June 1953 the Community  Development Section was "deactivated".  Only one town has been  established a t a s i t e recommended by the Bureau.  This i s the Town of  George, i n the Burke Junction v i c i n i t y , which was planned by the Bureau f o r i t s personnel during the dam construction period.-*  Two  other towns have been established. One i s the Town of Royal, located i n the Lover Crab Creek V a l l e y , which was developed by a private corporation, a f t e r a f e a s i b i l i t y study.^  The study included estimates  of population p o t e n t i a l , f i n a n c i a l capacity of the population, and possible locations of other towns.  The need f o r storage f a c i l i t i e s f o r  crops was considered, as well as the e f f e c t of r e c r e a t i o n a l a t t r a c t i o n s .  5  Ibid.  L e t t e r February 25, 1959.  ^  M. R. Wolfe, "Urbanization and a ftew Town i n the Columbia Basin", Town Planning Review. V o l . XXVIII, No. 2, J u l y 1957.  51 The purpose of the studies for the new town of Royal was to determine whether a particular town development was economically feasible.  Similar studies undertaken by a public instead of a private  agency should take a broader view, aiming towards a pattern of settlement that would be most efficient for the whole region. The results of planning for individual towns and planning for a region as a unit, with an interrelated settlement pattern, are l i k e l y to be vastly different.  I t i s therefore most unfortunate that the operation of the  Community Development Section was terminated.  REGIONAL PLANNING INtffHE POLDERS. HOLLAND  7  Extensive areas of f e r t i l e Land are found along the coast of Holland, at a level of two to five meters below sea-level.  The goal of  the Zuiderzee Reclamation Plan was to develop 220,000 hectares of this land by dike building and drainage.  The f i r s t step i n the plan was to  erect the Zuiderzee Dike, cutting off the Wadden and the North Sea from the Isselmeer.  This project, made possible by modern engineering, was  completed i n 1932.  The Zuiderzee Dike, by excluding the sea, enabled  creation of a fresh water lake which could be used as a reservoir to supply water for agriculture, towns and industry] i t permitted drainage of the neighboring land and regulation of the water level: i t eliminated the sea tides and prevented floods; and i t provided a communications  This section i s based on Artur Glikson, Regional Planning and Development. Leiden, Holland, 1955•  52 link between Northern Holland and Eriesland.  Construction and  maintenance of this 30—kilometer sea wall made i t possible to use lighter construction for some 320 kilometers of dikes protecting the polders around the Zuiderzee.  F i g . 14.  (See Figure 14).  The Partial Reclamation of the Zuydersea  Before the Zuiderzee Dike was completed, a small experimental polder of about 100 acres was developed near the village of Andijk, i n the Province of North Holland.  Here experimental plots were seeded with  crops which would be cultivated later i n the larger polders. Fresh Fields and Polders New. The Story of the Zuiderzee Works. The Netherlands Abroad, Amsterdam, Holland, 1955.  53 The f i r s t polder to be developed was the Wieringermeer, i n the Province of North Holland.  The villages i n this polder contain shops,  churches, schools, and other services and institutions.  These villages  have been criticized as being located too close together i n the central part of the polder, where their spheres of influence overlap, and being too far from the outer boundaries of the polder. The latter results i n lack of integration with the portions of the country adjacent to the polder, as well as inadequate service to the farmers who have too f a r  9 to travel to the nearest village. The experience gained i n the Vieringermeer development was used in planning the North-East Polder, which was started i n 1937 and drained by 1942. The plan was to settle 40,000 people on the 48,000 hectares (120,000 acres) of land i n the polder. Farm size varies, with holdings of 30, 60, 90 and 120 acres. Types of crops also vary.  At the end of  1955, there were 1,213 farms ready for operation, including 1,142 agricultural farms, 33 horticultural farms, and 38 fruit-growing farms. Small farm units are located near the villages and larger farms are farther away, as the farmers with more extensive acreage are better able to provide their own transportation. The maximum distance from a farm to the nearest village i s 5 kilometers, or about 3 miles. This was considered a reasonable distance to travel at the time that the North-East Polder was planned, before World War I I , when bicycles were  Weiger Bruin, "The Villages of the North Eastern Polder", North Eastern Polder. Amsterdam, 1955.  •  v.iu « t  CiT.il fsrtu — —  Fig. 15.  •dr.  of n*w l l A i  Plan of the Morth-East Polder in the Motherlands  55 the typical means of transportation. The ten villages in the polder are located in a ring around the central town of Emmeloord. A l l the main roads lead to the town, and the villages are also linked to each other by a circular route.  These  regional roads, which provide efficient connections, are more closely related to the canal system for irrigation than to the landscape plan of the polder.  Glikson suggests that the number of rectilinear,  monotonous lines might have been reduced by developing an overall landscape plan for the region and conforming to i t . The development policy for the polder i s based on agriculture exclusively.  The goals do not include the easing of population pressure  i n Holland, nor industrial development unrelated to agriculture.  The  population density of the polder i e low, representing about one-third of the density for the country as a whole. The agricultural orientation i s reflected i n the geographic pattern for the region, with i t s town and several villages, and their respective spheres of primary and secondary influence.  This pattern may be compared to two levels in the hierarchy  of settlements described by Christaller*s theoretical model of central places which has been discussed in Chapter 2.  I t i s based on efficient  marketing of goods from a minimum number of central places, and service to the population supported by the surrounding productive land with a minimum of aggregate travel. The Borth-East Polder a 40,000 residents w i l l be distributed on 1  farms (25%), i n the ten villages (50%), and in the central town (25%).  56 The r o l e of the v i l l a g e i s to provide such s e r v i c e s as commerce, education and r e l i g i o n , and t o provide a dwelling place f o r some of the a g r i c u l t u r a l l a b o r e r s . Population i n a v i l l a g e w i l l range from 1,000 t o 2,500.  The minimum of 1,000 persons i s based on the smallest number  desirable f o r s o c i a l contacts, a school and a s m a l l nucleus o f shops. One c r i t i c i s m of the planned v i l l a g e s i z e i s t h a t i t i s i n f l u e n c e d too 10 much by the t r a d i t i o n a l s i z e o f v i l l a g e s i n Holland. Planning of the occupational d i s t r i b u t i o n of the u l t i m a t e population i n the Polder was based on experience and on research i n t o the socio-economic  s t r u c t u r e o f regions.  I t takes i n t o account the  stages of development, assuming settlement a t a r a t e of 260 farmers a year.  I n the e a r l y years o f development, the proportion of temporary  l a b o r e r s i s higher, f o r example, and the proportion of s e r v i c e occupations i s lower than i n the l a t e r stages.  The proposed geographic  and occupational d i s t r i b u t i o n of the u l t i m a t e population i s shown i n Table 2. Ho l e s s important than the planning p r i n c i p l e s a p p l i e d to polder development, are the p o l i c i e s of implementation.  A f t e r drainage  of the polder was completed, State farms were e s t a b l i s h e d to plough the l a n d , grow the f i r s t crops and prepare the s o i l f o r farming. p e r i o d of State-farming enabled research and experiment, d i s t r i b u t i o n of the land to tenants.  Workers  1  This  preceding  camps were e s t a b l i s h e d  A. J . Venstra, "The C o l o n i z a t i o n of the North Eastern P o l d e r " , North Eastern Polder. Amsterdam, Holland, 1955.  57 near the s i t e s o f future v i l l a g e s , and such development work as erecting farm buildings, constructing roads, digging canals, and i n s t a l l i n g e l e c t r i c i t y , was started.  When the f i r s t permanent farms were rented,  s i x years a f t e r drainage was completed, they were completely developed. Such a procedure was used i n order to assure organic development of the Polder. Table 2 PROPOSED GEOGRAPHICAL AMD OCCUPATIOMAL DISTRIBUTIOB OF POPULATIOH HORTH EAST POLDER Occupations (including families)  On farms Ho.  In v i l l a g e s Mo. %  -  -  Tenant farmers  6,500  A g r i c . laborers  3,500  9,000  -  Industry  Commerce & communications Crafts Education  -  Miscellaneous Total Percentage  Source:  In central town Mo. %  -  -  Total % 16  45  1,000  10  34  -  -  4,000  40  10  4,950  25  2,250  22.5  18  4,670  23  2,125  21,5  17  550  3  250  2.5  2  830  L  375  3.5  3  10,000  20,000  10,000  25%  50%  25%  100%  A. Glikson, Regional Planning and Development, pub. by A. W. Sijthoff»s Uitgeversmaatschappij M.V., Leiden, 1955.  Preparation of the farms and farm settlement i s f u l l y integrated with construction of the town and v i l l a g e s and settlement o f the non-farm  58 population.  Both farmers and workers i n other occupations are carefully  selected from numerous applicants. According to Glikson, "Holland uses the highest quality population and the most advanced technological means at i t s disposal for the creation of the Zuiderzee Polder regions, and the synchronization of the Polder developmental operations has achieved true perfection."  1  1  The policy regarding sequence of development of the villages and town i s an important aspect of effective implementation of the plan. In the earlier polder development, the Wieringermeer, a similar arrangement of service centers was planned, with a central town and subordinate villages surrounding i t .  The f i r s t farms settled were  located near one of the village sites, so this village was developed first.  The result was that i t attracted central regional services and  developed as a small town, while the planned regional center did not grow and was unable to assume i t s planned town status. Taking advantage of this earlier experience, the importance of the time factor i s acknowledged i n the development i n the North-East Polder and development of the villages i s deferred u n t i l Emmeloord, the central town, becomes established.  The Polder management encourages the establishment i n  Emmeloord of more stores and services than are perhaps justified by the population now living i n the v i c i n i t y .  By so doing, the settlers  experience some temporary d i f f i c u l t i e s , as they are a considerable  Glikson, op. c i t  59 distance from a service center.  But such an " a r t i f i c i a l  11  stimulus  during the early years i s considered both justifiable and necessary to ensure appropriate long-range development of the central town. The Eastern Flevoland polder, an area of 133,000 acres, i s currently being developed, and changing conditions are taken into account in planning this polder. The change i n -the mode of transportation from bicycles to gaaH motor-bicycles, for example, has permitted an increase in the •reasonable" distance from farm to village.  The result i s that  in the Eastern Flevoland polder six villages w i l l serve 133,000 acres, compared to ten villages i n the North-East Polder to serve 120,000 acres. Because i t can serve a larger trading area, containing more families, the minimum village population i n the Eastern Flevoland w i l l be 2,000, compared to 1,000 i n the North-East Polder.  1 2  RURAL PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT IN ISRAEL In the ten years immediately following establishment of the State 13 of Israel i n 1948, about 1 million immigrants arrived in Israel. Combined with the natural increase, this influx brought the population to approximately 2 million i n 1958, compared to 850,000 i n 1948. Letter dated January 12, 1959, from Van Rynvan Alkomade, Secretary, "The Netherlands Abroad *, Amsterdam, Holland. 1  Artur Glikson, Rural Planning and Development in Israel - Two Case Studies. United Nations Economic and Social Council, Working Paper No. 46, 1958.  60 Israel i s a small country, with an area of about 8,000 square miles. More than half of the total area i s desert (the Hegev) or i s unfit for cultivation, and much of the remainder i s suitable only for pasture.  I t vas, therefore, necessary to develop the country at a high  population density. Land, people and time were the three chief factors cited by Arieh Sharon as determinants of planning objectives i n I s r a e l i fie noted that the land varies widely i n such natural characteristics as climate, s o i l and topography. The population has a diverse cultural background, ranking social composition a v i t a l consideration i n planning, i n order to achieve integration of the old and the new population without undue difficulty.  The time factor i s more urgent i n Israel than i n most  countries because of the vast numbers of immigrants.  To take care of  them, a quick tempo of development i s required, with high priority on Immediate needs. The pressure of time called for compromise which, as Sharon pointed out, might prove detrimental to planning. The Israeli population i s expected to be about 80$ urban. In order to guide the stream of immigrants i n the direction most desirable from the national and economic standpoint, plans were prepared for a balanced distribution of population. To achieve decentralization, twentyfour planning regions were proposed, each delimited by geographical and economic factors, such as soils, mineral resources and communications.  This introductory section i s based on Arieh Sharon, Physical Planning i n Israel. Tel Aviv, 1951.  Each planning region would have an urban center to serve as a communication and trade center, as well as the c u l t u r a l and s o c i a l focus of the region.  The proposed regions are shown i n Figure 16.  The proposed d i s t r i b u t i o n of population, so important  to the  nation, could not be accomplished without a consistent planning development p o l i c y .  A National Master Plan f o r I s r a e l was  and  therefore  prepared, which would coordinate development of the a g r i c u l t u r a l p o t e n t i a l i t i e s , the location of industry, a system of communications, a nation-wide plan f o r parks and f o r e s t s , and planning f o r new  In  towns.  I948 I s r a e l had only two types of nucleated settlement - the  small a g r i c u l t u r a l v i l l a g e and the large town with regional and national functions.  The National plan proposed to introduce three new  forms, of  settlement to act as c u l t u r a l and economic centers, providing a graded continuity of settlements.  The f i v e types proposed were developed  from a survey of existing settlements and consideration of future needs.  1. V i l l a g e (population about 500)  - a basic a g r i c u l t u r a l  cell  2. Rural Center (population about 2,000) - several a g r i c u l t u r a l u n i t s linked to a common service center  3. Rural-Urban Center (population 6,000 to 12,000) - economic, c u l t u r a l , commercial and i n d u s t r i a l services f o r numerous nearby v i l l a g e s  4. Medium Town (population 40,000 to 60,000) - the center of a region 5. Large Town (population over 100,000) - regional and national f o c a l point The V i l l a g e would contain up to 100 families, each farming i r r i g a t e d area of some  2,000 to 3,000 dunaas, or l a r g e r areas of  an  PLANNING  REGIONS  IN ISRAEL Population June 15 1948  Region  First Stage  1. Huleh  4,450  50,000  2. Safed  3,750  59,000  14,000  95,500  4,450  122,000  200  81,500  6. Bet Shean  9,650  55,000  7. Afuia  5,400  86,000  8. Western Valley  19,450  95,000  9. Haifa *  95,000  260,000  4,350  63,000  11. Northern Sharon  16,600  92,000  12. Central Sharon  24,100  117,000  13. Southern Sharon  24,100  92,000  14. Dan  26,900  83,500  287,380  450,000  16. Rishon Lezion  16,120  70,000  17. Yavneh  16,900  70,000  18. Ludd  1,000  78,000  19. Yehuda  1,350  55,500  76,800  220,000  3,100  165,000  750  120,000  3. Kinneret 4. Asher  5. Nazareth  10. Carmel  15. Tel Aviv *  20. Jerusalem * 21. Darom 22. Beersheba  23. Sdom  40,000  24. Elath  22,000 655,300 2,650,000  *  Town Regions  Source:  Arieh Sharon, Physical Planning i n Israel, Tel Aviv, 1951.  63 extensive a g r i c u l t u r e . ^ I t would contain a school, community h a l l , 1  and  such economic services as a garage, store-houses and smithy. The Rural Center would be l i n k e d to 3 to 5 Moshayim v i l l a g e s ) , resembling  (cooperative  parts of a large v i l l a g e with 400 to 500 f a m i l i e s .  I t s services would include cooperative consumer stores, bakery and restaurant, store-houses and r e f r i g e r a t i o n plants, packing houses and garages, areas f o r handicrafts and l i g h t i n d u s t r i e s , schools with grounds, a community h a l l and synagogue.  sports  There would also be  s e c r e t a r i a t , dispensary, p o l i c e s t a t i o n , and r e s i d e n t i a l quarters f o r i n s t i t u t i o n a l employees.  The r u r a l canter would be located between the  v i l l a g e s , with c u l t i v a t e d lands surrounding i t .  The Rural-Urban Center would serve an a g r i c u l t u r a l area of about 100,000 dunams, with about 30 v i l l a g e s and a r u r a l population of about 15,000.  I t would be a large center containing regional services and  handicrafts, industry using the a g r i c u l t u r a l produce of the v i c i n i t y , a building materials industry, and s p e c i a l i n d u s t r i e s based on l o c a l resources or l o c a l i n i t i a t i v e .  Such regional services as a g r i c u l t u r a l  and vocational schools, administrative, commercial, c u l t u r a l and health i n s t i t u t i o n s , would also appear i n these centers.  The Medium Town would serve as the c e n t r a l c i t y f o r a planning region.  Consideration of the topographical and physical data and  economic p o s s i b i l i t i e s of a region with a population of 75,000 to  Four dunam equals one  acre.  the  1  64  120,000 at the end of the f i r s t stage of development suggested a town population of 40,000 to 60,000. This size presumably would permit healthy economic development, provision of municipal services at reasonable unit cost, and promotion of cultural and social activities.  Regional  services would include banking, administrative and medical institutions, agricultural crafts and industries, end education and communal buildings. The chief purpose of the Medium Towns would be to absorb national industries, thereby preventing undue growth of the largest conurbations. The Large Town would have special functions related to national and international trade and communication. The three large towns i n Israel are Jerusalem, Tel Aviv and Haifa. An indication of the progress made in rural settlement in Israel i s the fact that by 1958 about 200,000 immigrants had settled i n villages, and nearly 400,000 in smnl1 and medium towns i n rural regions."*"^ This amount of rural settlement was costly but Glikaon considers i t a sound investment. The reasons for this are several - i t enhanced prospects of economic independence, provided favorable conditions for absorbing new immigrants, directed growth away from large cities, and helped to achieve homogeneous settlement of the whole country. Gllkson also notes the excellent results from industrial development i n rural towns. The combination of agricultural and indust r i a l development was undertaken as a means of achieving intensive  Artur Glikson, Ibid.  65  settlement i n r u r a l regions.  Wherever a comprehensive regional concept  formed the basis f o r planned rural-urban development, the pace of development and the ease of t r a n s i t i o n were spectacular. The factors of land, people and time, which operated so f o r c e f u l l y i n molding national planning policy i n I s r a e l , do not, of course, have the same urgency i n Canada. Nevertheless, Israel* s progress i n r u r a l planning andddevelopment suggests methods which are worth examining. In the remainder of t h i s section, consideration w i l l be given to three regions - the Afula region, the Huleh region and the Lakhish region. The Valley of Jezreel, i n the Afula region, i s an agricultural area which also serves an important role i n national and international communications. The Huleh region i s an agricultural area of intensive cultivation, where swamp drainage followed by i r r i g a t i o n brought significant changes i n agricultural production.  In the Lakhish region,  dry farming has been replaced by f i e l d crops on i r r i g a t e d land. The Valley of Jezreel The Valley of Jezreel i s bounded by h i l l s and highlands and, on 17  the east, by the Jordon River.  Communications routes through the area  are of national and international importance. In addition, the Valley has h i s t o r i c significance and such natural attractions as scenic beauty and an excellent climate. This section i s based on Artur Glikson, Regional Planning and Development. Leiden, 1955.  66 There are four sub-regions i n the V a l l e y of J e z r e e l , each with an urban center.  These are the Beisan V a l l e y (Beisan), the North-  eastern sub-region (Mujdil), the Western sub-region (Yokn'am), and Central sub-region ( A f u l a ) .  the  Afula i s c e n t r a l l y located between the  two  main parts of the V a l l e y and i s a communication center of importance, being on the east-west r a i l route from Haifa to the Jordan Valley, and having a r a i l connection to the south. roads converge at A f u l a .  National as well as regional  These reasons made i t a l o g i c a l choice f o r  development as the most important center of the region, with a sphere of influence extending over the entire V a l l e y of J e z r e e l .  Glikson draws some i n t e r e s t i n g comparisons between development i n the V a l l e y of J e z r e e l i n I s r a e l and development of the North-East Polder i n the Netherlands, which was  discussed e a r l i e r .  The area of a g r i c u l t u r a l  land i n the J e z r e e l V a l l e y (67,000 Hectares) i s about l£ times "the a g r i c u l t u r a l area i n the North-East Polder.  The communications system  resembles i n general outline that i n the Bolder, with a national route traversing the V a l l e y and a regional network l i n k i n g towns and v i l l a g e s to the regional center of A f u l a .  The V a l l e y of J e z r e e l was developed during the period from to  1952.  In  1948 the population was about 34,300, including 30,600  a g r i c u l t u r i s t s and increased to  1948  3,500 urban dwellers.  By  1952, t o t a l population  had  60,000, with 37,900 a g r i c u l t u r i s t s and 22,100 urban dwellers.  In the same period the population  Population  of A f u l a had quadrupled.  density i n the V a l l e y was  kilometer of arable land i n 1948.  By 1952,  51 persons per square the density was  90 persons  U*IUI u n i i H VI LAG! NATIONAL ftOAD MGIONAL «OAO HAN. WAT VYAOI JOUST ITATt KXJNOt.  F i g . 17.  Regional Plan f o r the V a l l e y of J e z r e e l , I s r a e l  68  per square kilometer, s i m i l a r to that f o r the North-East F o l d e r .  The  preliminary plan f o r the V a l l e y of J e z r e e l suggested a s t i l l more intensive development - a density of 240 persons per square kilometer. A comparison of the Polder and the V a l l e y , i n terms of area, population, and population density, appears i n Table 3* Table 3  COMPARISON OF THE VALLEY OF JEZREEL AMD  Total  Agrlc.  Population , Total Rural Urban  48,000  40,000  40,000  75  %  ~% 25  83  100  34,300  90  10  37  51  60,000  63  37  65  90  160,000  44  56  174  240  Area (hectares) Horth-East Polder Plan J ezreel  1948 1952  Valley  92,000  Plan  Source:  THE HORTH-EAST POLDER  67,000  Pop. Density Per Sq. Km. T o t a l Arable  Artur Glikson, Regional Planning and Development. Leiden, P. U 4 .  1955,  The a g r i c u l t u r a l area i n both the North-East Polder and the V a l l e y o f J e z r e e l was s u f f i c i e n t l y extensive to j u s t i f y a town.  The Polder had  the advantage, says Glikson, of a t r a d i t i o n of town development r e l a t e d to an a g r i c u l t u r a l region.  In I s r a e l , farmers l i v e d i n the v i l l a g e s  instead of on separate farms and there was l i t t l e , i f any, r e l a t i o n s h i p between agriculture and regional towns. Apart from agriculture, the s t r a t e g i c geographical location of the V a l l e y with respect to n a t i o n a l transportation provided a more favorable urban development p o t e n t i a l than i n the Polder.  69 Opportunities  f o r regional industry related to agriculture were  s i m i l a r i n Emmeloord, the regional center of the Polder, and i n A f u l a . But actual development i n these c e n t r a l towns r e f l e c t e d the d i f f e r e n t emphasis on industry i n the two regions and the decisions  regarding  r e l a t i v e importance of urban centers i n providing employment opportunities. The difference i n planning goals f o r the Polder and f o r I s r a e l affected the rural-urban population  ratio.  optimum growth of an a g r i c u l t u r a l region.  The aim i n the Polder was The aim i n I s r a e l was  intensive and rapid settlement at l o c a t i o n s with a development p o t e n t i a l . The pace of development of services and industry i n Emmeloord was synchronized with the needs of regional a g r i c u l t u r e .  The urban  population was, therefore, r e l a t i v e l y low i n number i n r e l a t i o n to the area of the Polder.  Urban population was expected to comprise only  about 25% of the t o t a l population.  In I s r a e l , by contrast, the rate  of urban development exceeded the rate of a g r i c u l t u r a l development and the pace a t which urban f a c i l i t i e s were i n s t a l l e d .  The technological  operations necessary i n the J e z r e e l V a l l e y f o r i r r i g a t i o n and power development were comparable i n extent, to the drainage operations i n the Netherlands Polder.  Even though these p r o j e c t s were j u s t beginning  i n I s r a e l , 10,000 people had been s e t t l e d i n A f u l a .  The p o l i c y was to  s e t t l e immigrants i n the v i c i n i t y of t h e i r future sources of l i v e l i h o o d despite the f a c t that t h i s required a r t i f i c i a l economic support temporarily.  The State employed immigrants i n development of communi-  cations and i r r i g a t i o n u n t i l such time as regional services and  70 i n d u s t r i a l needs could absorb the workers. The plan f o r the V a l l e y of J e z r e e l provided f o r a hierarchy o f settlements, with A f u l a as the major center.  The l o g i c a l sequence of  development, argues Glikson, would have been to develop A f u l a f i r s t and to postpone development of l e s s e r centers.  A c t u a l l y , development of  three of the four planned centers i n the V a l l e y started a t the same time. Each center was near some development project, such as i r r i g a t i o n , a f f o r e s t a t i o n , road building or drainage, to combine the establishment  so the opportunity was taken  of the permanent settlements  provision of a labor force f o r development operations.  with  Workers' camps,  instead of being dismantled after, completion of the work, as i n the Polder, formed the basis f o r stable urban settlement.  Thus the  chronological order of settlement was determined by resource development needs f o r the region, rather than the consolidation of regional development.  This t r a n s i t i o n a l stage i n regional development i n I s r a e l ,  Glikson points out, was an obstacle to regional integration, but was a p r a c t i c a l necessity i n order to absorb the immigrants.  The Huleh Region 18 The Huleh region l i e s i n the northern corner of I s r a e l .  It  has f e r t i l e s o i l s , an abundant water supply, and a v a r i e t y of land conditions i n the v a l l e y and on the slopes and ridges of the G a l i l e e and This section i s based on Artur Glikson, Rural Planning and Development i n I s r a e l - Two Case Studies. United Nations Economic and S o c i a l Council, Working Paper No. 46, 1958.  71 Lebanon mountains.  This permits v a r i e d land uses, ranging from i r r i g a t e d  farming to sheep r a i s i n g and f o r e s t r y . Although the new urban center of t h i s region. K i r y a t h Shmoneh, i s only 20 kilometers from Haifa, the Huleh V a l l e y i s an i s o l a t e d area.  t Road connections must traverse t e r r a i n where mountains r i s e to 900 m. above sea l e v e l and the sea of Genassareth f a l l s to 200 m.  below  sea l e v e l . In 1948.  the Jewish population of  the Huleh region was 4,500 persons, l i v i n g i n 18 v i l l a g e s , most of which were c o l l e c t i v e farms.  By 1958,  the population  had grown to more than 21,000, a f i g u r e well below the capacity of the region. Much of the r a p i d population growth occurred i n Kiryath Shmoneh (Khalsa), which was established i n 1949 as the economic, administrative, and  social  center of the region.  Mixed farming, which used t o be t y p i c a l of the Huleh region, has been replaced to a great extent by i r r i g a t e d c u l t i v a t i o n of crops suited to the s o i l , water and climate of l o c a l areas.  The s i z e of the farming  u n i t per family was f i x e d by the Government A g r i c u l t u r a l Planning Center a t 3 hectares.  Crops include f r u i t orchards and i r r i g a t e d cash  such as potatoes, cotton and peanuts.  crops  Dairy farming i s f a i r l y w e l l  developed, and c a t t l e and sheep breeding are increasing as natural  72 pastures are brought into use.  I n the f e r t i l e marsh areas,  reclaimed  under the Huleh Reclamation Project, new crops were introduced,  such as  r i c e , sugar cane, asparagus, medical herbs, and bulbs. The changes i n a g r i c u l t u r a l practice i n the Huleh region had several e f f e c t s :  produce became more varied, improving I s r a e l ' s  prospects of economic independence; a g r i c u l t u r a l settlement; the processing  progress was made i n consolidating  employment was created f o r new immigrants;  of a g r i c u l t u r a l produce i n Kiryath Shmoneh was started;  and several service industries were established i n the new town.  The preferred location f o r new industry was Kiryath Shmoneh. T y p i c a l new i n d u s t r i e s were an automobile service station, bakery, packing plant, cold storage plant, and a stone and gravel quarry.  Plans  had been made by 1958 f o r a cotton g i n , t e x t i l e factory, r i c e grinding plant, and a canning factory.  A few new i n d u s t r i e s were based on  resources other than l o c a l a g r i c u l t u r e . Mats and baskets were produced i n Kiryath Shmoneh from the reeds o f the Huleh marshes. processed and sold as f e r t i l i z e r .  Peat was  Recently discovered i r o n ore near  K i r y a t h Shmoneh could be enriched and processed economically i f a l o c a l plant were started.  Other enterprises which were established a f t e r the  basic industries were building materials f a c t o r i e s , a small radio factory, a motorcycle assembly plant, and a diamond cutting plant.  The major communication route i n the Huleh region connects I s r a e l with Lebanon, following the dividing l i n e between the mountain slope and the v a l l e y .  Kiryath Shmoneh was located on t h i s main road and  73 rural settlements were connected to the town by lateral roads branching from the main road.  Most of the 27 villages i n the region were from 7  to 12 kilometers from the town, and the maximum distance was IB kilometers.  A regional ring road system was planned to improve com-  munication between the villages and Kiryath Shmoneh. No f i n a l assumptions were made i n i t i a l l y regarding the future economic development of the regional town, which might change drastically with the development of heavy industry. The f i r s t master plan prepared for Kiryath Shmoneh provided for a population of 15,000. In 1958, with a population of 13,000, the regional center had become an Important market for local agricultural produce. I t was becoming a country town, attracting villagers to such regional services as the two banks, the post office, offices of the Regional Council of Upper Galilee, various cooperative commercial firms, and the new health center.  The modern  shopping center, completed i n 1958, was expected to add shopping to the villagers  1  reasons for visiting the regional town.  The economy of the Huleh region was s t i l l i n a transitional stage in 1958.  Over 40$ of Kiryath Shmoneh* s workers were engagedeither  in resource development, such as s o i l conservation, drainage, irrigation and afforestation, or the provision of services, such as construction of roads and houses, electrification and telephone installations. Activities were s t i l l financed largely by public funds, invested In types of development which were designed to strengthen the region's economy. The occupational structures of the established villages and the new town were in sharp contrast. The klbutzia had a high percentage of  74 s p e c i a l i s t s , such as a r t i s a n s , managers and educators, while the population of Kiryath Shmoneh consisted l a r g e l y of u n s k i l l e d workers. The absence of a r t i s a n s , s p e c i a l i s t s and professional people handicapped development of the new town.  The Government improved the s i t u a t i o n to  some degree by successfully encouraging 150 s p e c i a l i s t s to s e t t l e a t Kiryath Shmoneh. Progress of a new Immigrant town, according to Glikson, requires settlement of teachers, doctors, administrators, and  engineers,  a t the same time as the r e s t of the population.  Many residents of K i r y a t h Shmoneh worked i n the v i l l a g e s as laborers and farm hands, while the v i l l a g e population supplied managers f o r i n d u s t r i e s , banks and shops, nurses, health o f f i c e r s and  social  workers i n K i r y a t h Shmoneh. While t h i s exchange of labor and service promoted s o c i a l contact i n the region, Glikson f e e l s that the arrangement should be temporary.  The v i l l a g e population should be increased, and  farm work should revert to the v i l l a g e r s .  The occupational structure  of Kiryath Shmoneh should be balanced, with the urban functions being carried out by town residents.  This would require i n s t r u c t i o n ,  professional t r a i n i n g , education and community development.  The v i l l a g e population of the Huleh region doubled from to 1958.  1948  Part of the growth occurred i n new v i l l a g e s and part resulted  from the gradual population increase i n the older settlements. f of the v i l l a g e population l i v e d i n c o l l e c t i v e v i l l a g e s .  A  bout  There were  also four cooperative v i l l a g e s and three v i l l a g e s with p r i v a t e holdings.  L i t t l e was done d i r e c t l y , a t l e a s t u n t i l 1958, contacts between the urban and r u r a l population.  to promote s o c i a l  Contacts were l a r g e l y  incidental to the distribution of the economic, administrative and cultural focal points in the region.  For example, when a villager  visited the new offices of the Regional Council i n Kiryath Shmoneh, he would probably also v i s i t the modern shopping center and cinema. I s the two amphitheaters and museums of the region were located i n collective villages, town residents had to go to the rural area to attend theatre performances or concerts.  The new football f i e l d in the  town was expected to become an important meeting place for the region. The regional secondary school to be built i n Kiryath Shmoneh would bring town and country children together, and was expected to play a significant role i n helping to develop regional understanding and cooperation.  The Lakhish Region The Lakhish Region, in the south of Israel, was underdeveloped until recently, due to scarcity of water resources.  At the end of  1954- i t s development began i n accordance with a regional settlement plan prepared by the Jewish Agency's Settlement Department. The lack of an adequate water supply i n the region was remedied by piping water some 60 kilometers from the sources of the Zarkon River to the south of Israel.  The objectives of the plan were to increase agricultural  production, to integrate new immigrants into the rural community, and to settle the region intensively.  This section i s based on Artur Glikson, Ibid  76 Prior to completion of the water pipeline and irrigation, extensive dry farming prevailed i n the Lakhish area. few, widely dispersed villages.  There were only a  With provision  of irrigation, cultivation changed to f i e l d crops.  The area of land per farm family was  reduced i n size to 4 hectares, with 2.5 hectares for f i e l d crops, 0.5 hectares for orchards and the rest for fodder. The population target planned for the Lakhish region was 36,000, with 50$ rural and 50$ urban population. Most of the urban workers would be engaged in services and industries in the new regional town, Kiryath Gat. The site selected for the regional town was at the intersection of the main roads crossing the region;  on the dividing line between  the western coastal plain, with potentially f e r t i l e agricultural land, and the eastern part of the region with eroded h i l l s best suited for pasture;  and in the geographical center of i t s area of influence.  Kiryath Gat was about 60 kilometers from Tel Aviv to the north, Jerusalem to the east, and Beer-Sheva to the south.  Within the region,  to the west there was a semi-circle around the town of four sub-regional clusters, each with 4 to 6 villages linked to a Rural Community Center. These Centers were, on the average, about 10 kilometers from Kiryath Gat. To the east, the settlement pattern was very different.  Here, there  were more collective villages, Kibutzim. located 10 to 15 kilometers apart.  77 The planned population f o r Kiryath Gat was 14,000. I n 1958, the 31 v i l l a g e s i n the Lakhish region had a population of approximately 10,000 and the regional town, Kiryath Gat, about 7,000.  Some 12,000 of  these were newcomers who s e t t l e d i n 23 new v i l l a g e s and the new town. Hew v i l l a g e s i n the Lakhish region were mainly cooperative v i l l a g e s , moshavim. i n which land, houses and production were i n d i v i d u a l l y owned and marketing and c u l t i v a t i o n were organized cooperatively.  As  the v i l l a g e s were concerned e x c l u s i v e l y with a g r i c u l t u r a l production, a town was needed f o r services and marketing.  The basic functions of  Kiryath Gat, therefore, were the processing of a g r i c u l t u r a l produce, the storage, marketing and transportation of raw materials and f i n i s h e d products, and the provision of services to the surrounding a g r i c u l t u r a l area.  Kiryath Gat was established i n 1956 and i t s development proceeded quickly, complementing the i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n of agriculture i n the region. By June 1958, i n d u s t r i e s r e l a t e d to agriculture included two cotton gins, a cotton spinning plant, and a peanut sorting plant.  Other i n d u s t r i e s  planned were a dye-house f o r cotton, a paper factory which would use cotton stalks, and a sugar f a c t o r y to process sugar beets.  Occupations i n Kiryath Gat included about 33% of the wage earners employed i n industry, 38% i n building, 13% i n trades, commerce and small workshops, and 10% i n public services.  Glikson a t t r i b u t e d t h i s favorable  occupational structure, j u s t 2§ years a f t e r the town was established, to the planned integration of the town i n the regional framework.  78 By 1958, Kiryath Gat was beginning to a t t r a c t the v i l l a g e r s . Some came to town by small mule-cart,, from distances of 10 to 12 kilometers.  Completion  of the regional ring road was expected to  enhance the drawing power of the regional center.  More than 90$ of the r u r a l population s e t t l e d i n the moshavia villages.  Here the s o c i a l aim o f planning was to provide a decent  standard o f l i v i n g , to develop a v i l l a g e community, and to ease the adjustment o f immigrants to t h e i r new environment.  V i l l a g e s i z e was  l i m i t e d to 80 to 100 families, i n order to minimize distances within the v i l l a g e and to achieve a cohesive r u r a l community.  In areas o f intensive  c u l t i v a t i o n , v i l l a g e s were placed close together, i n clusters o f 5 to 6 v i l l a g e s around a service v i l l a g e , a Rural Community Center. created  This  small sub-regions, i n which services i n the i n d i v i d u a l aoshav  were minimized, while the Rural Community Center combined most of the services needed f o r the 5 to 6 v i l l a g e s .  The population of such a  center was about 2,000, a f i g u r e considered necessary f o r desirable development of v i l l a g e l i f e and services.  The distance from the Rural  Community Center to the v i l l a g e s averaged 2 toi3 kilometers.  The Rural Community Center had disadvantages as well as advantages.  Glikson referred  to the danger of the Center becoming a  settlement o f managers, o f f i c i a l s and s p e c i a l i s t s l a r g e l y o f European o r i g i n , while the v i l l a g e s contained farmers from under-developed countries.  Suggestions f o r overcoming the problems which t h i s  creates were being considered i n I s r a e l i n 1958. place more teachers i n the v i l l a g e s .  situation  One suggestion was t o  Another was to introduce « m » n  79 industries i n t o the Rural Service Center, thereby d i v e r s i f y i n g the population and strengthening the l i n k between the service center and the v i l l a g e s . The planning and development of these three regions shows a consistent approach to high density settlement i n r u r a l regions. The emphasis i s on the coordination of agriculture with industry based on agriculture, plus other types of i n d u s t r i a l growth appropriate to the region.  Glikson stresses the f a c t that a region i s an i n t e r r e l a t e d  environmental u n i t and must be conceived as such, i f the design f o r development i s to be successful. Towns and v i l l a g e s can and do develop balanced r e l a t i o n s h i p s by processes o f t r i a l and e r r o r over periods of years.  But where delay means human suffering and high " s o c i a l costs"  of readjustment,  as i n I s r a e l , some method must be found to speed up the  process of achieving a balance.  Thus, the pressing need f o r d e c i s i v e  action i n I s r a e l has served to bring i n t o sharper focus the c r i t i c a l r o l e of regional development a u t h o r i t i e s - a rolgi designed "to shorten and a l l e v i a t e such processes of balancing by the comprehensive planning 20 and e f f i c i e n t timing of regional operations'*.  C0MCLUSI0MS The selected experience of three "case studies" i n planning f o r r u r a l and urban nucleated settlements shows both s i m i l a r i t i e s and  Glikson, Ibid,  80 contrasts.  I t w i l l be u s e f u l to recapitulate and explore some of the  h i g h l i g h t s , as a summation of the discussion i n t h i s chapter.  Ho attempt  i s made to produce a l l - i n c l u s i v e conclusions, but rather to focus attention on key d i f f e r e n c e s i n planning objectives, f a c t o r s entering i n t o the planning process, and e f f e c t i v e p o l i c i e s of  implementation,  which emerge from the study of these regions.  The primary objectives of the Columbia Basin development were to i r r i g a t e an extensive area of semi-arid land and to provide power f o r the P a c i f i c Horth-West.  The development p o l i c y i n the Dutch Polders was  oriented e x c l u s i v e l y towards a g r i c u l t u r e , an orientation which Glikson 21 c r i t i c i z e s as a weakness i n Polder planning.  He f e e l s that as a f i r s t  step i n settlement of the Polders i t was sound, but that i n d u s t r i a l expansion to ease the population pressure i n Holland could be superimposed on the basic a g r i c u l t u r a l structure a t a l a t e r date.  Israeli  p o l i c y was molded from the problems created by pressures of new immigrant population, which required rapid, high density settlement. How have these p o l i c i e s emerged i n practice? The study of service centers i n a developed i r r i g a t e d area i n the Middle Yakima V a l l e y , which was undertaken to a s s i s t i n planning f o r the Columbia Basin, concluded that there were o n l y two e s s e n t i a l types of service center - the r u r a l service center and the l o c a l center.  shopping  The intermediate settlement type, the v i l l a g e , seemed to have  Glikson, op. c i t . . p. 108.  81 l i t t l e economic justification.;  The rural service center role would be  to provide convenience goods, through such minimum service outlets as a combined grocery store and automobile f i l l i n g station.  The local  shopping center would be a town, with a minimum population of 2,000, providing a l l the basic services needed by farm families. Support for the two types of centers was measured i n terms of the number of farm families i n the trading area, their purchasing power, and the size of the trading area. For successful operation, the rural service center would need about 100 farm families with purchasing power comparable to that of Middle Yakima Valley families.  The minimum  patronage necessary would be found within a two-mile radius, where population density was comparable to the Middle Yakima. A further requirement was that the rural service center should be at least six miles from the local shopping center. The desirable support for the local shopping center was  1,000  farm families, with purchasing power similar to that of Middle VniHmp families.  In areas where the trading area was limited by topography or  other controlling factors, 600 families was the basic minimum.  The  distance from farms to the local shopping center was ten miles or less i n the Yakima Valley.  Unless the patronage base within such a distance  was inadequate to support a center, this was f e l t to be the desirable maximum distance. Distribution of population i n the Middle Yakima Valley was one farm person to at least one non-farm person i n the local shopping center. Application of the ratio of 1:1 to farm population for the Columbia Basin  82 would suggest a minimum, population, which would be increased i f i n d u s t r y developed t o a g r e a t e r extent than i n the lakima V a l l e y .  The non-farm  population was d i s t r i b u t e d with 75$ i n towns and 25$ i n r u r a l areas, g i v i n g a population i n the trade area of 50$ farm, 37.5$ town, and  12.5$  r u r a l non-farm. A 1953 r e p o r t by the Bureau of Reclamation suggested t h a t f u t u r e population i n the Columbia Basin might approximate 29$ farm, 13$ r u r a l non-farm and 58$ town and v i l l a g e , based on the p a t t e r n i n a 22 Southwest Idaho i r r i g a t e d area i n 1950.  This shows a sharp divergence  from the Yakima data, which was gathered i n 1941.  While the r e l a t i v e  importance of r u r a l s e r v i c e centers i s p r a c t i c a l l y unchanged, the towns and v i l l a g e s have assumed a much more s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e i n comparison to farms. General c r i t e r i a used by the Community Development S e c t i o n of the Bureau of Reclamation i n planning f o r towns i n the Columbia B a s i n i n v o l v e d town p o p u l a t i o n , trading area population, and purchasing power. D e s i r a b l e town population ranged from a low of 1,000 to 4,000 persons.  to a high of 3,500,  The minimum f i g u r e was based on the number necessary  to provide s a t i s f a c t o r y services and the maximum f i g u r e was based on the s o c i a l needs of the r u r a l people.  The trading area should have a t  l e a s t 700 f a m i l y s i z e farms producing an annual income of $1,500.  The  l a t t e r c r i t e r i o n f a l l s w i t h i n the range recorded i n the Middle Yakima study f o r number of farm f a m i l i e s .  Indications of Business and I n d u s t r i a l Development t h a t w i l l r e s u l t from the I r r i g a t i o n of the Columbia R i v e r Basin P r o j e c t . Bureau of Reclamation, January 1953.  83 A comparison may be drawn between the Columbia Basin studies and the Dutch Polders.  In the North-East Polder, there are two types of  service center - the town and the v i l l a g e s .  The " V i l l a g e " of the Polder  would correspond roughly, i n terms of population s i z e , to the " l o c a l shopping  center" of the Middle Yakima, or the "towns* planned f o r the  Columbia Basin.  The v i l l a g e had a population range from  1,000 to 2,500  i n the North-East Polder and l a t e r , i n the Eastern Flevoland Polder, a minimum population of 2,000. The types of centers required i n the  two  countries seem to d i f f e r , with the Polder eliminating from i t s hierarchy of settlements the smallest center, which i n the United States provides convenience goods.  Maximum distance from the farm to the v i l l a g e was three miles i n the North-East Polder and somewhat more i n the Eastern Flevoland, due to the change from b i c y c l e s to motor-bicycles.  This was much l e s s than the  ten miles by road i n the Yakima, as would be expected when comparing t r a v e l by bicycle to t r a v e l by automobile.  The comparison indicates the  need to consider time-distance rather than distance alone. The North-East Polder population d i s t r i b u t i o n was 25% on farms, 50$ i n v i l l a g e s , and 25% i n the central town.  The difference between  t h i s d i s t r i b u t i o n and that i n the Yakima V a l l e y or Southwest Idaho probably r e f l e c t s the e f f e c t s of numerous factors, including a g r i c u l t u r a l laborers l i v i n g i n the Polder v i l l a g e s , a d i f f e r e n t emphasis on l o c a l processing of a g r i c u l t u r a l produce, and d i f f e r e n t forms of settlement nucleations.  84 The Polders are an outstanding example of successful plan implementation.  Much can be learned from the staging of farm development,  the synchronization of farm and non-farm settlement, and the scheduled sequence of town and village growth, to assure that the interrelationships planned for the Polders are not distorted by uncontrolled development. The key planning problem i n Israel i n the past ten years has been to achievefe.balanced distribution of the thousands of immigrants who were pouring into the State. The volume of population i n relation to land resources made intensive settlement necessary.  This f i t t e d i n  well with the backgrounds of the immigrants, who were largely from urban environments, and i t suggested emphasis on industrial development i n addition to development of land resources by irrigation of the desert or by drainage of the swamps. But the need for rapid settlement of the immigrants injected unusual pressure into both the planning and action process.  The resulting policy was one of intensive, rapid settlement,  at locations with a development potential, so that a later move would not be necessary.  Hew settlements were supported for a temporary  period by development works undertaken by the State, and the location of these development works was an important determinant i n the sequence of settlement i n nucleations. Historically, there were only two type3 of agglomerated settlement i n Israel, the small agricultural, village and the large c i t y of regional and national importance, such as Tel Aviv and Haifa. The National Plan introduced three new types to f i l l out a hierarchy which would permit decentralization of industry and balanced regional growth.  85 The new types were a fiural Center of about 2 , 0 0 0 population, a RuralUrban Center of 6 , 0 0 0 to 1 2 , 0 0 0 , and a Medium Town of 4 0 , 0 0 0 to 6 0 , 0 0 0 , which would a c t as a regional center.  The considerably greater  population of the regional center compared to the Polder center or the towns i n the Columbia Basin r e f l e c t s the urban emphasis i n I s r a e l i development. Urban emphasis i s a l s o evident i n the rural-urban population distribution.  In the North-East Polder the rural-urban r a t i o i s 75*25}  by contrast, i n the A f u l a region (Valley of Jezreel) i t i s 4 4 : 5 6 and i n the Lakhish region, 5 0 : 5 0 .  Planned population density i n the Polder i s  100 persons per square kilometer of arable land;  i n the J e z r e e l V a l l e y ,  on the other hand, i t i s 240 persons per square kilometer.  An i n d i c a t i o n  of the r a p i d i t y of i n d u s t r i a l growth i s evident i n the development of Kiryath Gat, the center of the Lakhish region.  Within 2^ years a f t e r  I t s establishment, the occupational structure was 33$ industry, 38$ construction, 13$ trades, commerce and s m a l l workshops, and 10$ p u b l i c services.  Thus i t becomes apparent that with p o s i t i v e objectives,  comprehensive planning, and c l e a r l y defined development p r i o r i t i e s , dramatic r e s u l t s may be achieved.  Chapter 3 THE PRESENT SETTLEMENT PATTERN IN THE SOUTH SASKATCHEWAN RIVER PROJECT AREA  B  I f the nature of the service center and i t s tributary area i s understood and applied to shifting rural relationships, i t may provide an effective guide i n establishing an orderly and stable pattern of rural service and rural l i f e i n the future," Royal Commission on Agriculture and Rural L i f e , Saskatchewan  Chapter 3 THE PRESENT SETTLEMENT P A T T E R N  TH TftK  SOUTH SASKATCHEWAN RIVER PROJECT AREA  The area referred to In this study as the South Saskatchewan River Project area comprises most of the land which w i l l become irrigable upon completion of the Project.  I t includes some 431,000 acres located  i n compact blocks, extending roughly from Saskatoon to Elbow, and from Colonsay to Asquith.  (See Map 7). An additional 24,000 acres,  comprising small parcels i n the Qu'Appelle Valley, has been excluded from the maps since i t s importance for this study was not commensurate with the technical d i f f i c u l t i e s of mapping the larger, scattered area of irrigable land.  SOURCE OF DATA - THE LOCAL GOVERNMENT CONTINuTHG COMMITTEE. SASKATCHEWAN The analysis of the settlement pattern i n the Project area i s based on unpublished data obtained from the Local Government Continuing Committee, Province of Saskatchewan. As noted i n Chapter 1, one of the recommendations of the Royal Commission on Agriculture and Rural L i f e was that a comprehensive analysis of service centers be undertaken for i  the entire province. This recommendation was acted upon, and the study  i 1  was made by the Local Government Continuing Committee, which used the service center concept as a f i r s t approach to the problem of  88 reorganizing local government boundaries.  Preliminary administrative  areas were derived on the basis of geographic arrangement of urban centers, reflecting the system of service relationships which had evolved between the urban centers and their rural hinterlands. The natural hierarchy of service centers offered possibilities for varying the number of local government areas by choosing an appropriate level in the hierarchy - village, town or greater town - as the basis for boundary delineation. The Committee added some refinements and Introduced more corroborative material to confirm the classification of service centers based on the concept developed i n the Service Centers report, which i s discussed in Chapter 1.  I t w i l l be useful to outline briefly the steps  taken by the Committee to develop the ranking of service centers recorded in Table 4 and shown graphically on Map 1.  1  The functional analysis was derived by cataloguing a l l the services provided i n each center, and then classifying a l l centers into a limited number of categories. The rank based on functional diversity was then confirmed or adjusted by data on population growth and volume of r e t a i l sales. The sales figures were obtained by totalling the sales recorded by individual establishments on their Education and Hospitalization Tax returns to the Taxation Branch. As the entry on the tax records for total sales, as opposed to taxable sales, i s not enforced,  Based on letters from B. Sufrin, who i s responsible for this research for the Local Government Continuing Committee, Regina, Saskatchewan, March 1959.  89 these date are not too r e l i a b l e .  For the South Saskatchewan R i v e r Project  area, sales figures f o r centers of town rank or higher were "used, a f t e r the functional c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , as a corroboration of status.  The primary trade areas were delineated by f i r s t i n d i c a t i n g the v i l l a g e l e v e l of service, regardless of higher rank.  Factors used were  population density by township, l o c a t i o n , d i r e c t i o n of t r a f f i c movement, and topography.  The areas served by r u r a l telephone exchanges were  checked l a t e r against the primary trade areas and were found to correspond f a i r l y closely.  S a t e l l i t e status of centers was based c h i e f l y on the  school superintendents' knowledge of the r e l a t i o n s h i p s of v i l l a g e s to towns, and of towns to c i t i e s .  Ho attempt was made to delineate the service areas p r e c i s e l y , because school administration became the key consideration i n the Committee's work.  Centers and t h e i r s a t e l l i t e s were grouped into areas  of appropriate size f o r proposed county administration, i n an e f f o r t to develop more e f f i c i e n t l o c a l government u n i t s than the present small rural municipalities.  The r e s u l t i n g areas were then checked against  the l a r g e r school unit areas proposed by the school superintendents.  Some of the implications of t h i s emphasis on school administration deserve comment.  The boundaries of l a r g e r school units as proposed by  the school superintendents were based on the following f a c t o r s : ( l ) E x i s t i n g c e n t r a l i z a t i o n points which would continue to be used, plus planned as w e l l as probable conveyance, were combined to produce l a r g e r attendance areas which should be l e f t i n t a c t .  The c r i t e r i a f o r  90 larger attendance areas related to the number of grades per room,  i conveyance time, and enrolment. The goal was not more than three grades per room for elementary school and one grade per room f o r high school; not more than one hour conveyance time for elementary school children and 1§ hours for high school students; pupils.  and an enrolment of 150 to 200  These conditions are not mutually consistent, and they varied  widely with differences i n population density and road conditions.  On  the average, i t was found that high school centralization with a 15-mile service radius met the grade and enrolment standards* (2)  The boundaries of larger school units were related also to  optimum administrative scale. Hough criteria adopted by the Department of education were 80 to 100 rooms (and teachers) and a pupil enrolment of 1,800 (3)  to 2,000 for each larger school unit, Some subsidiary factors used to adjust boundaries to achieve  the best overall arrangement included satellite relationships between urban centers, ethnic homogeneity, topography, and communications. The establishment of local government boundaries which are coterminous with larger school unit boundaries w i l l unite the two most important roles of local government, and w i l l have an important bearing on the future of some urban communities. A nodal point selected as the center of both new county government and larger school unit operations w i l l be substantially strengthened in i t s role as a service center. Similarly, the removal of the local administrative function from a center w i l l reduce i t s importance. Where the same factors are components of the centripetal force exerted by a specific center - such factors as topography, population density, distance, road conditions, railway  91 facilities  -  selection of a community f o r centralized administration  and f o r a key service center r o l e should coincide.  Where d i f f e r e n t  f a c t o r s come i n t o play, such as optimum administrative size of school f a c i l i t i e s , the decisions may d i f f e r .  The f i n a l decision on l o c a t i o n o f  l o c a l government boundaries and centers of administration w i l l e f f e c t the future functional d i v e r s i t y of service centers and t h e i r s a t e l l i t e relationships. Having outlined the method used by the Local Government Continuing Committee to c l a s s i f y the service centers and to delineate primary trading areas f o r Saskatchewan, we w i l l now proceed to analyze, on the basis of the Committee's data, the service center structure o f the South Saskatchewan River Project Area.  FUNCTIONAL CLASSIFICATION OF SERVICE CENTERS I t was noted i n Chapter 1 that the Service Centers report, by the Royal Commission on Agriculture and Rural L i f e , c l a s s i f i e d centers i n Southwest Saskatchewan into f i v e l e v e l s i n a hierarchy of settlements, ranging from the hamlet, through the v i l l a g e , town and greater town, to the c i t y . ^  The L o c a l Government Continuing Committee, i n c l a s s i f y i n g  centers f o r the e n t i r e province of Saskatchewan, has introduced a d d i t i o n a l ranks.  These are i l l u s t r a t e d by the two new designations o f  Village-Town and Town-Greater Town, i n t e r j e c t e d i n t o the V i l l a g e , Town, Greater Town Sequence. Based on t h i s new analysis the South Saskatchewan River P r o j e c t area includes four types of service center, exclusive of Hamlets with a population under 1,000, and the P r o v i n c i a l C i t y of Saskatoon, a t the  See above, p.20.  92 northern fringe of the area.  The four classes are V i l l a g e , V i l l a g e -  Town, Town, and Town-Greater Town.  The population of theae centers  ranges roughly from 100 to 1,000, and the types of function range from 1 to 32. D e t a i l s of rank, population change from 1951 to 1956, and types of function i n each center, are recorded i n Table !+•  Examination o f Table A i n d i c a t e s a grouping of f u n c t i o n a l types. Group I Includes functions which occur a t the lowest l e v e l i n the hierarchy, such as lumber yard, hardware, implements, grocery, h o t e l , and are found also i n l a r g e r centers, u s u a l l y i n greater number or with a higher volume of s a l e s .  Group I I includes commercial functions  requiring a l a r g e r patronage base, such as appliance stores and drug store, f i n a n c i a l services, and health services.  Banks and physicians  are important incremental services, appearing i n a l l Village-Towns but i n only a few V i l l a g e s .  Newspaper p u b l i c a t i o n , also i n Group I I , i s an  important incremental service distinguishing the Town from centers o f lower rank.  Group I I I functions r e f l e c t greater d i v e r s i t y and  specialization.  Few Group I I I functions are found i n the centers of the  South Saskatchewan River Project area.  Insurance and r e a l estate o f f i c e s  are i n most o f the centers of Town and higher rank, but also appear i n a number o f the V i l l a g e s .  Plumbing and heating i s an incremental function  at the Town l e v e l , and f u r n i t u r e stores appear i n two Towns and the Town-Greater Town.  The V i l l a g e s i n the Project area o f f e r from 1 to 20 types of service.  The three V i l l a g e s o f f e r i n g 20 services may be considered i n  d e t a i l , i n order to determine what distinguishes them from a Village-Town.  SOUTH SASKATCHEWAN L  E  °  G  V i l l a  E  S  N  PROJECT  AREA  D  e  (#J Village-Town SOURCE:  RIVER  (§)  Town  (O)  Town-Greater Town  /&\  C  i  t  S  T  C  A  I  L  E  T  L  M  i  u  r  S  E  S E R V I C E C E N T E R S  y  Local Government Continuing Committee, Regina.  l * J  J E A N  U.B.C.  C.  DOWNING  APRIL  1959  1  SERVICE CENTERS IN THE 3JUTH SASKATCHEWAN RIVER PROJECT AREA. SASKATCHEWAN. GROTTD 13  o  UJ  cn rH  cn  •z (~)  S5  M  CENTER  *  81  < erf  r-l o  M  tsr*  Ir-  p  P  cC  8 o  -  U CO  cn  •  K)  CM  EH  m  &  P  H  p  -  xi •p  >> IE •H  u aH  X!  n  to 0 •r-l  H  o  1  s >» o +>  (H OJ  4-'  +5 V Q) fe 01 H cV -"' o OJ a . *p CC 0 & p <i •f. cd H BT Q Rl h H Xi , Q •d •rl uo x i 0  U  £?  u •Hc aB u 0o o  2 o. o  o o  o  o o o  o  o o o  o  o  o  o  o  o  o  337 288 142 173 134 295 292 421 281 111 142 135 282 174 385 197 152 193 164 104 107  337 255 126 136 119 228 260 298 247 99 113 106 247 138 276 168 123 167 127 115 109  12.9 12.7 29.0 12.6 29.4 12.3 41.3 13.8 12.1 25.7 27.4 14.2 -7.4 39.5 17.3 23.6 15.6 29.1 -9.6 -1.8  V/T V/T V/T  425 390 431  358 314 363  18.7 24.2 18.7  GRAIK DELISLE DINSMORE OUTLOOK PERDUE  T T T T  607 482 368 885 413  549 411 301 676 389  906 o o 8 o e 0 o G o o o 10.6 948 o o c G 0 0 o o 17.3 880 o o o o a o o o 28.9 30.9 1,602 o o o o o o o o c G 6.2 G c o o 483 0 o G  DAVIDSON  T/LT  651  670  27.0 2,303  HANLEY MILDEN IOTJHQ  Source:  V  T  o  "H  2  TJ  <  o  rH  V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V  ALLAN ASQUITH BIRSAY BLADWORTH BRADWELL COLONSAY CONQUEST DUNDURN ELBOW ELSTOW GIRVIN GLENSIDE HARRIS HAWARDEN KENASTON LOREBURN MACRQRIE MEACHAM STRONGFIELD TESSIER VANSCOY  GROUP III tore  GROUP I  o  o  o  OJ  y  CD  ct  u m o. a 9 <« •« n a s c t>> o 0 x•id •rl d -p •H +5 Q CO CP +> -p H bp Q -p rj u c t j cd o Eg XI >» 4>a CfJ i j> o p. 3 is w -Q t) c • H M a u 4 H £>0J CpTJ CL scu CO s Hu T3 a c  a  uu  ctj OJ a> •H *> + 5 fj CO •rl -H •H Q. • 10 - P  rl  3 •rl  T5  CO  •  i 8  i  8  •p CD  B •r|  p  "rj  3  a  S  «H +5  Q  rH •rl  0)  o  UJ EI bp  •p  •• ,1 n  1  1  1  f  s.  CD  Cl) 4^  c  JM ^5 *J +"> CD  p o  OJ  o a M  4J  cO  -p  CO 0)  3H  o toO J •a 0 c) 0 ) c CO •rl f4 c o  •  8  a  f-l r0Jrj 03 n rl N  -p  Q Q a 0 q •H u 4 cO bO u -p m '/J H H a M u OJ p CO (>» h OJ o ID o rH o cd (H •H + 3 H i +> •H p o UJ - P Q o +5 rH •p to Q 3 r l c4 £ cd a* g c> CO x fi.i c0 o ;- o p r-l 5. bO Pb O- H  x: a  OJ  «  o  rl)  b CD  • -p  0 H  UJ  c 0  o  o  o  o  o  o o  o  o  o  o  o  o  o  o  o  o  o  o  o  o  o  o  o  o  o  o  o  o  o  o  o o  o  o  o  o  PH  0 p IB u rH c u Q ad CO 0J g n n •o u UJ  In  ting  Table 4.  o  o o o o o  • •  o  G  m 0  •  o  • • 8  •  • 8  ©  8 8 8  • •  0  G  o  8  0 o  o  ®  o  c  0  Q  •  o  o o  o  o  o  o  o  o  o  o  o G  o  8  o  o  0  o  o  o  o  • •  G  «  o  o  • 0 0  G o  o o  o  o  o o  o  Q 0  o  991 844 577  o  o  o  o o  o  c  0 o  -j  6  o  o  o  •  o  •  o  o  o  o o  o  o o o o  0  0  o  o  0  • •  0  o  o  o  o 0  o o  o  c  o  o o o  o  o  0  8  o  G  • • • • •• • 9• • •m & • • • • •• • •  •• • 8  ••••  pi  0 0  0  o  e  •  0  • o  8  o  o  0  o  0 0  o 0 G  o  o 0 o o o o  o  0  o  o  o  L o c a l G o v e r n m e n t Continuing C o i T u i d t t e e , Regina, Saskatchewan. Unpublished data, 1959.  o  o  V V/T T T/G.T.  -  Village Village-Town Town Town-Greater Town  95 Allan has 20 functions and a population of 337, which i s above the general population range of 100 to 300 for Villages.  I t showed no  increase i n population from 1951 to 1956, and i t lacks such important Group II functions as a bank and a physician. Asquith's 20 functions also reflect good coverage of Group I functions and Group II commercial functions, but lack Group II public services. Conquest's 20 types of service are well distributed i n the three Groups. I t has a bank and a dentist i n Group U  and a furniture store and custom tailor i n Group H I .  I t s population in 1956 was similar to that of Asquith, 295 compared to 288, and both centers shoved a 12% population increase from 1951 to 1956.  These three Villages with 20 functions are the most f u l l y  developed i n the Village classification, but their functions need to be supplemented with additional key services before they w i l l qualify as Village-Towns i n the service center hierarchy. In addition to the three Villages which exceed the general range of functional diversity for their particular classification, there are Villages which exceed the general population range. One of these, Allan, has already been mentioned and described.  The other two are  Kenaston, with a population of 385, and Dundurn, with a population of 421.  Kenaston seems to be a center where population outruns functional  growth - i t offers only 6 types of function - draying, implements, hotel, pool room, restaurant, and meat market. This unusual cross section of functions may be partly due to i t s location in relation to highway routes. Kenaston i s on the main highway from Regina to Saskatoon, the two Provincial Cities, and i t i s at the junction of the Regina-Saskatoon  96 highway and the east-west highway to Outlook and across the South Saskatchewan River to the west. This route also branches to the south and another river crossing at Elbow. (Map 4 } • Kenaston recorded a population jump of almost 40$ from 1 9 5 1 to 1 9 5 6 . of 421 in 1 9 5 6 , an increase of 4 1 $ over 1 9 5 1 .  Dundurn had a population  This Village has 1 4  functions, including two particularly significant ones for a center at this level - physician and vulcanizing. The imbalance between population and functions i n Dundurn probably results from i t s proximity to the army camp, which attracts population not wholly related to the Village's service center functions. The vulcanizing service may also arise from the army camp effect - i n this case i t s effect on t r a f f i c generation. The size of population i s not a sufficient reason to change the status of either Dundurn or Kenaston, since they do not qualify as VillageTowns on the basis of functional structure. The Village of Elbow has IS functionsj  7 In Group I, 7 i n Group  II, and 4 i n Group I I I . With a population of 281 i n 1 9 5 6 and a population increase of 1 4 $ from 1 9 5 1 to 1 9 5 6 , EL bow i s one of the most f u l l y developed villages in the South Saskatchewan River Project area. The Village-Towns, with about 4 O O persons each, have a larger population than the Villages.  The number of functions varies from 16 to  1 9 , which i s i n the top segment of the range for Villages.  The functions  differ, however, with the Village-Towns offering many more in Group I I . Each center has an appliance store, drug store, automobile dealer, restaurant, and meat market. Also, each has a bank and a physician. Incremental functions appearing at this level are barristers i n two of  97 the centers, and a h o s p i t a l In the t h i r d center.  Towns i n the Project area show a wide v a r i a t i o n i n population, from roughly 4 O O t o 900, and a f u n c t i o n a l d i v e r s i t y ranging from 19 to 32.  Functions are concentrated more h e a v i l y i n Group I I than they are  f o r centers of lower rank.  A l l the centers o f Town status have banks,  a l l have physicians, and four centers have h o s p i t a l s . Important incremental functions a l s o appear.  These include newspapers published  i n a l l Towns, clothing stores i n three centers, a l i b r a r y i n one center, and plumbing and heating i n one center.  The Town of Outlook has the  greatest f u n c t i o n a l d i v e r s i t y (32 functions), the l a r g e s t population (835), and the l a r g e s t volume of r e t a i l sales ($1,602,000).  I t has  seven Group I I I functions, i n c l u d i n g an automobile body shop, vulcanizing, and plumbing and heating services, which are not found i n the other Towns.  Some idea o f the p h y s i c a l appearance of a Town with  these  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s can be seen i n the a i r photograph o f Outlook on the following page.  The only Town-Greater Town included i n the South Saskatchewan River P r o j e c t area i s Davidson, located on the Reglna-Saskatoon highway route.  This center had a population of 851 i n 1956, and has 32 functions.  In both population and f u n c t i o n a l d i v e r s i t y i t i s obviously s i m i l a r to the Town o f Outlook. rank than Outlook? Group I .  What f a c t o r s merit assigning Davidson a higher The two centers o f f e r the same types of functions i n  I n Group I I , Davidson has a d e n t i s t and Outlook does n o t .  But Outlook has a l i q u o r store and Davidson does not. incremental function i n Davidson i s a photographer.  The only So the d i f f e r e n c e  .Town of Outlook, Saskatchewan, looking north-east.  P.F.R.A.  Pre-development farms can be seen immediately south of the town.  P.F.R.A. Photograph.  99  i n functions i s not sufficient to explain the difference i n c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . Comparing r e t a i l sales volumes, Davidson shows sales of about $2.3 m i l l i o n and Outlook #1.6 m i l l i o n .  This suggests that Davidson has either  a greater number of establishments than Outlook or a higher volume of trade per store. This i s apparently the significant factor on which Davidson's Town-Greater Town status rests. The South Saskatchewan River Project area does not contain the f u l l hierarchy of nucleated settlement types.  In addition to the lower  ranking centers which have been considered, the c i t y of Saskatoon i s located just inside the northern boundary of the area.  This c i t y has a  population of about 80,000 and contains the University of Saskatchewan, which serves the entire province.  The Royal Commission report on  Service Centers c l a s s i f i e d Saskatoon as a Provincial City, sharing with Regina the top rank i n the hierarchy f o r Saskatchewan.  SPATIAL ARRANGEMENT OF SERVICE CENTERS C h r i s t a l l e r * s theoretical model of central places, which was discussed i n Chapter 1, resulted i n a number of locational rules which should apply to the settlement pattern provided that the assumptions basic to the theory hold true. These locational rules pertain to the number of central places i n a f u l l hierarchy of centers, the distance between centers, and the size of the service areas of centers of different rank. Therefore, we w i l l have to examine C h r i s t a l l e r ^ assumptions to determine whether the location of centers i n the South Saskatchewan River Project area can be usefully discussed i n terms of his theoretical relationships.  100  One of the basic assumptions of Christaller s theory i s an 1  •ideal * landscape, with f l a t terrain, uniform land f e r t i l i t y , equal 1  distribution of resources, and unimpeded mobility.  Such conditions  suggest the possibility that rural population would be distributed evenly on the landscape, which was a further explicit assumption. I t i s apparent that the South Saskatchewan River Project area does not conform to these requirements.  Although the area l i e s i n a "prairie  province", the local topography includes h i l l s and sand dunes, and soils vary i n type and productivity. addition  (Map2). Other resources i n  to productive land occur, such as potash.  The South  Saskatchewan River winds through the area, creating a natural barrier to movement. Since the rural population depends upon soils for a livelihood, the density of population varies with changes i n s o i l productivity^  (See Map 3 i n relation to Map 2 ) . Thus, since the given  conditions are not i n accord with the assumptions, i t would be of l i t t l e value to attempt to apply the theoretical relationships to explain -the settlement pattern i n the Project area. Moreover, since the Project area i s limited i n size, i t does not embrace a f u l l hierarchy of service centers within i t s boundaries.  In view of these variations from  Christaller*s basic assumptions, the discussion of spatial relationships among service centers i n the South Saskatchewan River Project Area w i l l be approached i n a less formalized way.  Since the role of the central place i s to serve areas of surrounding productive land, the service center natural1y tends to avoid areas of poor s o i l .  Reference to Maps 1 and 2 shows the location of the  101 Towns of D e l i s l e , Dinsmore and Craik i n pockets of good s o i l .  The  l a r g e r area of good s o i l east of the South Saskatchewan River, extending to the eroded land along a creek, i s served by both Outlook and  Davidson.  The tendency f o r settlements to e s t a b l i s h and develop i n good s o i l areas i s also related to the transportation f a c t o r .  The r e l a t i o n s h i p  of railway routes to s o i l s i s evident when Maps 4 and 2 are viewed together.  When the railways were b u i l t , opening up the west, the l i n e s  were routed through good s o i l zones i n order to be most accessible to grain d e l i v e r i e s from good crop land.  The settlements followed the  railway, r e s u l t i n g i n a l i n e a r tendency i n t h e i r s p a t i a l arrangement, i n contrast to the t h e o r e t i c a l areal pattern of location based on serving the entire, uniform landscape with a minimum number of centers. Reference to Maps 4 and 1 indicates the l i n e a r pattern along the r a i l routes channelling towards Saskatoon. how  In p a r t i c u l a r these maps show  service centers of a l l l e v e l s i n the hierarchy are strung along the  railway and highway route through Craik, Davidson, Saskatoon, leaving broad expanses on either side where no centers occur.  S i m i l a r l y , the  east-west r a i l routes through Saskatoon have attracted a l l the nucleations i n the v i c i n i t y .  Even a t the V i l l a g e l e v e l , the dependence on the  railway i s apparent along the l i n e from Elbow through Outlook to Milden. I t i s worth noting that highways separate from r a i l routes do not a t t r a c t settlement, as evidenced by the highway d i r e c t l y east of Saskatoon, and the east-west route through Milden, Outlook and Kenaston. Smaller centers seem to c l u s t e r more c l o s e l y to each other than to the l a r g e r centers. V i l l a g e s between Saskatoon and loung, f o r example,  102 are closer to each other than to the Village-Town of Young, and closer to Young than to the P r o v i n c i a l C i t y of Saskatoon. (See Map  1).  close grouping i n a l i n e a r pattern occurs between Outlook and  A  Davidson.  Again, these v i l l a g e s are closer to each other than to centers of higher rank.  This pattern appears to be similar to what Brush found i n South-  west Wisconsin.  He suggested that i t upheld the p r i n c i p l e of R e i l l y s f  Law of R e t a i l G r a v i t a t i o n which states, i n part, that the a t t r a c t i o n of a center v a r i e s d i r e c t l y with the population.  I f population growth  roughly p a r a l l e l s functional d i v e r s i t y , then the centers of higher rank should have a greater a t t r a c t i v e f o r c e .  Some V i l l a g e s are interspersed between centers of higher rank a t roughly equal distances.  Thus there are two patterns which emerge  i n the South Saskatchewan River Project area, r a i s i n g a question as to which can more l o g i c a l l y be a t t r i b u t e d to h i s t o r i c a l persistence.  Hamlets occur most often within the boundaries of trading areas of Towns and centers of higher rank,  (see Map  5)•  They also appear  occasionally i n areas between the primary trading areas.  The Hamlets  are i n v a r i a b l y located on the railway, but not necessarily on the highway.  TRADING AREAS  The primary trading areas of service centers i n the South Saskatchewan River Project area vary considerably i n s i z e .  (Map 5).  In general, the s i z e varies d i r e c t l y with the functional c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  103 of the center, with the V i l l a g e s having the smallest trading areas, and the p r o v i n c i a l C i t y the l a r g e s t .  This c o n f l i c t s with C h r i s t a l l e r ' s  theory, which indicated that the primary trading area of each center was of equal s i z e , and that the hinterland, or s a t e l l i t e range, v a r i e d with centers of d i f f e r e n t rank.  The primary trading area of Saskatoon i s the l a r g e s t i n the Project area, containing within i t numerous hamlets.  Just beyond the  trade area boundary i s a ring of V i l l a g e s , each with small trade areas. Beyond the V i l l a g e s are Towns and Village-Towns.  This pattern i s roughly  i n accordance with Kolb's theory of c e n t r i f u g a l clustering of smaller centers, discussed i n Chapter 1.  According to Kolb, a center of town  rank or greater has a trading area consisting of three parts - primary, secondary and specialized.  In the Saskatoon s i t u a t i o n , the V i l l a g e s are  beyond the primary trade area, i n the secondary service area.  Here there  i s competition from other centers, such as the Towns of Perdue and Deli3le.  In the case of Vanscoy, f o r example, the l i n k i s to D e l i s l e  rather than to Saskatoon.  The Towns are s t i l l within the Saskatoon  sphere of influence, but only f o r specialized trade. on the map,  The broken l i n e s  i n d i c a t i n g the general area where Saskatoon's influence  terminates, seem to confirm t h i s explanation.  The shape of the trading areas also v a r i e s widely.  On some of  the transport routes, the l i n e a l arrangement of centers close together has pushed the trading areas i n t o roughly e l l i p t i c a l shapes.  This i s  p a r t i c u l a r l y apparent on the Regina-Saskatoon route from Craik to Hanley, and between Elbow and Hawarden.  A similar pattern was found i n Wisconsin  104 by Brush. Another e f f e c t of the transport route i s to draw the trade area boundary farther out along the major route.  This i s c l e a r l y evident  along the highway east of Saskatoon, and i s probably a phenomenon more l i k e l y to occur along a highway than along a railway, due to the general preference f o r using a car f o r shopping  trips.  A s i m i l a r eccentric stretching of a portion of the trading area boundary occurs i n the D e l i s l e and Outlook trading areas, f o r d i f f e r e n t reasons than that noted above.  At D e l i s l e a branch of the r a i l l i n e  veers to the south, drawing the trading area along i t s route to serve three Hamlets.  The Outlook trading area also stretches f a r t h e r south  to take i n four Hamlets located on the railway.  A rough guide to the patronage base f o r service centers i s the r u r a l population density, shown by township on Map 3.  R e l a t i v e l y high  density of r u r a l population i n the northern p a r t of the area f a l l s within Saskatoon's service range.  Dinsmore serves t y p i c a l densities  f o r the Project area of 81 - 120 persons per township.  The primary  trading area of Outlook includes one township i n the 121 - 150 persons per township range.  Davidson has low densities i n i t s primary trading  area but i t s V i l l a g e s a t e l l i t e s ' trading areas contain some higher density lands.  The e f f e c t of the South Saskatchewan River on the settlement pattern can best be considered i n terms of trading area boundaries. Immediately south of Saskatoon's trading area, extensive t r a c t s of poor  105 s o i l on both sides of the r i v e r discourage development, b a r r i e r created by the r i v e r creates no problem.  so that the  A t Outlook, a r i v e r  crossing overcomes the natural b a r r i e r and Outlook s primary trading 1  area and s a t e l l i t e t i e s both extend across the r i v e r .  Farther south,  a t Elbow, the primary trading areas break a t the r i v e r , despite the f a c t that there i s a r i v e r crossing.  But here again, the influence of s o i l s  i s apparent, as the bend i n the r i v e r contains eroded land and sand. Thus, i n the South Saskatchewan River P r o j e c t area, there i s no evidence that the r i v e r alone creates a b a r r i e r which cannot be f a i r l y r e a d i l y surmounted, except where i t i s i n association with poor s o i l s .  The linkage o f service centers i s , i n general, from smaller centers to l a r g e r ones. Town and the C i t y . of higher rank.  V i l l a g e s are l i n k e d to Towns, the Town-Greater  Some V i l l a g e s are within the sphere of two centers  Loreburn, f o r example, i s r e l a t e d to Outlook and to  Davidson, with the stronger l i n k to Outlook.  This i s probably due to  the more d i r e c t highway route to Outlook.  Davidson, a Town-Greater Town, has only V i l l a g e s as i t s s a t e l l i t e s , thereby skipping both Towns and Village-Towns which would be expected to appear within i t s sphere of i n f l u e n c e .  Perhaps the  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n used f o r purposes o f defining administrative boundaries i s i n s u f f i c i e n t l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e d to permit i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of s a t e l l i t e relationships with centers o f the next lower rank.  The discussion of the present settlement pattern has been, i n f a c t , j u s t that.  I t has not attempted to discuss, except i n s o f a r as the  106 recent population trend i s concerned, changes i n the service centers over time.  Obviously, service centers are not s t a t i c a r t i f a c t s .  The  dynamic process of change w i l l be introduced not i n terms of forces bringing about past trends, but as determinants of the f u t u r e .  The  following chapter w i l l discuss some pertinent factors which must be considered i n attempting and new  to answer the question, "How  will irrigation  development i n the South Saskatchewan River P r o j e c t Area a f f e c t  the existing nucleations and t h e i r i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s ? "  Chapter 4 THE IMPACT OF THE SOUTH SASKATCHEWAN RIVER PROJECT ON NUCLEATED SETTLEMENTS IN THE PROJECT AREA  "The project i s to provide f a c i l i t i e s for the irrigation of approximately 500,000 acres of land In Central Saskatchewan and in the Qu'Appelle Valley and to provide other benefits to the area including a source of hydro electric power, a source of rural and urban water supply, flood control, and recreation f a c i l i t i e s . • Agreement between Canada and Saskatchewan, September 1958  REGINA  -  The population of each settlement is indicated according to the following examples: — -  M l l»4<  under 5 0 0 500 -  2,000  • •  Coflldale St. James  25,000 -  s  WINNIPEG  Provincial Capital (regardless of size)  2,000 -  25,000 100,000  The names of incorporated cities, towns and villages are shown in red. Unincorporated places are shown in black.  Site of South Saskatchewan River Dam, looking south-east.  P.F.R.A. Photograph.  Chapter 4 THE IMPACT OF THE SOUTH SASKATCHEWAN RIVER PROJECT ON NUCLEATED SETTLEMENTS IN THE PROJECT AREA The purpose of this study i s to apply the theoretical principles of a hierarchy of central places differentiated by functional diversity, each with i t s related service area, to an evaluation of the impact of the South Saskatchewan River Project on the pattern of nucleated settlements i n the Project area.  The impact represents a totality of  numerous factors, each factor acting and interacting to produce changes both i n the functional structure of individual nucleations and In the satellite relationships among them. Discussion of these pertinent factors forms the core of this chapter. The approach used i s to consider each factor i n relation to the theoretical implications, experience elsewhere, and the South Saskatchewan River Project.  The Project i s described briefly and specific stages of  i t s development are defined in terms of the extent of irrigated acreage, with the emphasis i n this study on long-range development. The factors are then considered in relation to same actual towns and villages i n the Project area, to indicate possible changes i n the role and status of these centers as the Project progresses. This study makes no attempt to embrace within i t s scope conclusive evidence regarding the factors discussed. Limitations are imposed by  I  Ill both lack of basic data regarding farm settlement and therefore probable future population, and the proportions of the present study, which constitutes a "project i n l i e u of a thesis".  The intention i s (l) to  raise points which are v i t a l to the process of evaluating the impact of the Project on settlement nucleations i n the Project area and to the process of planning the future settlement pattern;  (2) to show some of  the complex interrelationships and interactions of the various factors discussed;  (3) to consider the implications of development priority !  decisions on the status of nucleated settlements;  and ( 4 ) to note  some specific areas which require research to supplement present knowledge.  This i n i t i a l study of the Impact of the South Saskatchewan  River Project on nucleated settlements i n the Project area should suggest an orientation for future, more detailed investigation.  THE SOUTH SASKATCHEWAN RIVER PROJECT Aspects of the South Saskatchewan River project which are pertinent to the present study are outlined briefly i n this section, as a basis for subsequent discussion of the factors affecting the size and location of nucleated settlements i n the Project area. After many years of discussion regarding the f e a s i b i l i t y and desirability of constructing a dam on the South Saskatchewan River, an agreement between the Government of Canada and the Government of Saskatchewan was signed i n September 1958, providing for construction of a dam and reservoir, power generating f a c i l i t i e s , and irrigation  112 works.'*"  i n addition to the major purposes of irrigation and hydro  electric power generation, the project w i l l provide a water supply for rural and urban use, w i l l assist i n flood control, and w i l l offer recreational opportunities related to the reservoir. The earth dam w i l l be located about 30 miles upstream from the City of Saskatoon, at the point where Coteau Creek flows into the South Saskatchewan River.  I t w i l l create a reservoir about 150 miles long,  extending from Saskatchewan Landing to the Coteau Deal (Main Dam) site, and about 30 miles down the Qu Appelle Valley where a secondary dam 1  w i l l be erected. When the reservoir i s f i l l e d to f u l l supply level, i t w i l l inundate 116,000 acres of land. Nearly 90$ of this acreage i s immediately adjacent to the river and i s not suitable for cultivation, due to erosion.  The f i l l i n g of the reservoir w i l l also necessitate  relocation of portions of both the highway system and the railway lines. Irrigation i s the major purpose of the Project.  Some 431,000  acres of irrigable land are located In compact blocks i n an area extending roughly from Saskatoon to Elbow, and from Colonsay to Asquith. (See Map 7)  A further 24,000 acres occurs i n small parcels i n the  Qu'Appelle Valley,  Gravity flow w i l l serve about 180,000 acres, while  Agreement between the Government of Canada and the Government of Saskatchewan regarding the South Saskatchewan River Project, September 1958, Appendix A. Report of the Royal Commission on the South Saskatchewan River Project, Ottawa, 1952.  113 the remainder requires pumping to the various levels indicated below. Gravity 15' l i f t 30' l i f t 60« l i f t 120* l i f t  179,800 acres 45,750 70,400  80,400 78.600  3 455,000 acres  Power for irrigation pumping purposes w i l l be available from the generating station to be built at the Coteau Dam site.  Initial  installed capacity of 150,000 kilowatts i s scheduled to be completed at the same time as the dam and reservoir.  The power generated at this  plant w i l l be tied i n with the provincial power grid to serve domestic, farm and industrial needs i n the project area and throughout the Province.  The i n i t i a l capacity i s expected to be increased i n later  years. Responsibility for construction of the South Saskatchewan River Project i s shared by the Government of Canada and the Province of Saskatchewan J*  The dam and reservoir w i l l be built by Canada, through  the Prairie Farm Rehabilitation Administration, and then w i l l be turned over to the Province for operation and maintenance. Irrigation i s the responsibility of the Province and the construction of irrigation f a c i l i t i e s w i l l be undertaken by the Provincial Department of Agriculture. Power i s also a Provincial responsibility, with the generating works to be constructed by the Saskatchewan Power Corporation, a Crown Corporation.  3  Report. Ibid., p. 187.  ^  Agreement, op. c i t .  1X4 Thus, by 196$  or 1966,  upon completion of the dam and r e s e r v o i r ,  i r r i g a t i o n of 50,000 acres of land, and power generating  capacity of  150,000 kilowatts, the Province w i l l have sole r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r operation and maintenance of a l l aspects of the Project, as well as for  subsequent expansion of power and i r r i g a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s . The change from dry land farming to i r r i g a t i o n farming of h a l f  a m i n i o n acres of land i s a change which cannot be accomplished q u i c k l y . I t w i l l require provision of the physical f a c i l i t i e s f o r i r r i g a t i o n the canals, ditches and pumps; preparation on i n d i v i d u a l farms; farmers to make the change.  the formulation of land p o l i c y ;  land  and a desire on the part of the  Any r e a l i s t i c discussion must therefore  recognize that stage development of an i r r i g a t i o n project of t h i s magnitude i s both desirable and i n e v i t a b l e .  The impact of the multi-purpose Project w i l l be discussed i n t h i s chapter at two separate stages, defined by the extent of i r r i g a t i o n . The f u l l i r r i g a t i o n of 50,000 acres of land, scheduled to synchronize with the f i l l i n g of the r e s e r v o i r i n 1965  or 1966,  the I n i t i a l stage" of Project development.  i s considered to be  The " l a t e r stage" i s  farther i n the future, perhaps as f a r as 1980,  when the entire i r r i g a b l e  area of 455,000 acres i s under i r r i g a t i o n . *•  I t i s at once apparent that the more Immediate construction phase has been omitted.  This i s not intended as a denial of the f a c t  that the construction phase w i l l bring change.  During the next s i x to  eight years, while the main r e s e r v o i r and dam are being b u i l t , many  115 decisions w i l l need to be made concerning development. Already plans are being made to provide accommodation for construction workers;  sites  have been selected for the P.F.R.A. construction headquarters and for several contractors' campsj  and school needs for the P.F.R.A. employees  1  children are under study. Changes of this sort are not considered here because the purpose of this study i s to use the analysis of the settlement pattern based on a theoretical framework to measure the impact of the project on the region as a whole, over a long-term period. I t can be argued that decisions during the construction phase can best be made within the framework of a longer-range, planned pattern of settlement.  The two-stage approach therefore seems valid, as i t w i l l  provide benchmarks against which to consider the implications of more immediate decisions.  GENERAL DISCUSSION OF FACTORS AFFECTING THE PATTERN OF NUCLEATED SETTLEMENTS IN THE PROJECT AREA The impact of the multi-purpose South Saskatchewan River Project stems from i t s various development aspects, but the major change during the " i n i t i a l stage" may be expected to result from irrigation of 50,000 acres of farm land.  The farm size objective i s a unit of 320 acres,  5 containing a minimum of 200 irrigable acres.  Such a size w i l l permit  use of the latest techniques in irrigation, which make i t possible for a Preliminary Statement on Irrigation Development Policy for the South Saskatchewan River Irrigation Project, Hon. I. C. Nollet, Minister of Agriculture, Saskatchewan (tabled i n Legislature, April 3, 1959).  116 farmer to Irrigate relatively large acreages. The early stages of development w i l l probably be based largely on livestock, forage and cereal crops. Later, when more specialty crops are introduced i n the area, farm units of a smaller size may be desired. The size of farm unit i s a key determinant of the number of farms in a given acreage. A block of 50,000 acres, for example, i n 320-acre farms, would contain about 150 farms.  I f land around the perimeter of  the irrigable block was integrated with the irrigable acreage to provide a minimum of 200 irrigated acres on each farm unit, a greater number of farm units could be developed from irrigation of 50,000 acres. At present, i n Census subdivisions partially within the irrigable blocks in the vicinity of Outlook-Elbow, the typical farm size ranges from 400 to 1,120 acres.^  In Census subdivisions 253 and 254, near Outlook,  the total farm lend comprises 381,017 acres and total farm operators 543* The average farm size i s , therefore, 700 acres. The effect of such a change i n farm size on population supported by agriculture i s immediately apparent, and may be illustrated by further reference to Census subdivisions 253 and 254.  Here the total farm  population i n 1956 was 1,617. Relating this figure to the number of farms, 543, the average population per farm i s approximately 3 persons. The comparable figure for the Province of Saskatchewan was 3.5 i n 1956. The United States Bureau of Reclamation, i n 1953, used 3.0 persons as the  Census of Canada 1956. Agriculture. Saskatchewan. Bulletin: 2-8, Dominion Bureau of Statistics, Ottawa. (Census subdivisions 253, 254, 283 and 284)•  117  average population per farm i n forecasting population for the Columbia  7 Basin Project.  I t should be noted that i n the Columbia Basin the  farm size was smaller, ranging from 10 to 160 acres, depending on land classification, with the maximum of 160 acres set by federal law. The difference i n farm size i s probably not a significant factor In population per farm because the increase has been made possible by new developments i n the technology of irrigation farming.  In 1952, for  example, the Saskatchewan Department of Agriculture recommended a farm unit size of 160 acres for the South Saskatchewan River Project but i n 1958, based on experience i n Alberta irrigation projects, the Department g : recommended 320 acres.  Assuming that the average population per farm  in the South Saskatchewan River Project area might increase from 3*0 persons to about 3*5 persons with more intensive crops and livestock production made possible by irrigation, a rough comparison may be made of the farm population density now and at the i n i t i a l stage of development. Average farm size Size of area Population per farm Total farm population  Present  Initial Stage  700 acres , 320 acres 50,000 acres 50,000 acres 3.0 214  3.5 515  I t i s apparent that the Project w i l l make i t possible to more than double  Report on Tentative Population Forecasts for the Columbia Basin Project Area. I960 and 1980. U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, June 1953. Compare Submissions of the province of Saskatchewan to the Royal Commission on the South Saskatchewan River Project. 1952, p. 19, and Preliminary Statement on Irrigation Development Policy for the South Saskatchewan River Irrigation Project. 1958, p. 3.  118 the farm population of the irrigated area.  A higher density, more  uniform distribution of farm population should serve to strengthen some of the smaller centers which are in key locations and to provide sufficient support to enable them to improve their relative status in the hierarchy of settlement nucleations. According to Christaller*s theory, the function of the central places i s to provide services for the surrounding area of productive land. An increase in farm population would increase the services required from the central places and, i n turn, require more persons i  engaged i n providing these services. The rural-urban population ratio varies from one region to another depending upon the development policy. In Israel, i t w i l l be recalled, the emphasis was on urban development, in contrast to the rural emphasis in the Polders.  The South Saskatchewan  River Project i s probably most comparable, i n i t s i n i t i a l stage, to the Columbia River Basin.  Here, in the Quincy trade area, the ratios of  non-farm to farm population used i n the estimates of population were 9 1.3, 1*4 and 1.5. areas.  These were based on ratios observed i n other similar  Application of selected ratios to the farm population of the  South Saskatchewan River Project area would suggest a figure for nonfarm population. Once an estimate of non-farm population has been developed, the next factor to consider i s distribution of the non-farm population among the nucleated settlements in the Project area.  This involves such  A Comprehensive Plan for Quincy. Washington. Quincy Planning Commission, City council, and School District, June 1956.  119 factors as time-distance relationships, distribution of purchasing power, shopping habits and social needs of the rural population.  In the Polders  i t was noted that convenience goods centers were not used, and that there were only two types of center.- the villages and the central town. In Saskatchewan, however, the needs of grain marketing s t i l l require small hamlets located on the railway to serve as shipment points and to provide convenience goods. Comparing the Middle Xakima, for example, the rural service center seemed to be needed and i t was the intermediate viiInge center which was found to be expendable. The Saskatchewan Royal Commission on Agriculture and Rural Life indicated that present trends pointed to roles of growing importance for the Town, Greater Town and City.  Although the smaller centers showed limited growth, they s t i l l  played an important part in rural l i f e and seemed unlikely to disappear. The Commission also noted the inherent stability of centers, due to individual investment and social capital expenditures on schools, hospitals, roads and other public needs. This points up the need for planning the future pattern of nucleated settlement location to achieve optimum location of any new centers to serve the area efficiently and also to permit designation of strategically located existing smaller centers for more important service roles.  Farm family purchasing power i s an important factor affecting the size of trading area required to support a center and, therefore, the location of centers in relation to each other.  In the Quincy study  i t was pointed out, for example, that an increase in maximum allowable farm size from 160 acres to 320 acres would change the distribution of income. This would be l i k e l y to place a greater emphasis on shopping  120 goods and detract from the r e l a t i v e importance of convenience goods. The resultant e f f e c t on nucleated settlements would be to enhance the r o l e of the l a r g e r centers above town rank and to detract from the r o l e of smaller centers.  This i s i n contrast to the South Saskatchewan River  Project area, where a major e f f e c t would be the s t a b i l i z a t i o n of purchasing power through control of the water supply.  While the area  can produce good dry-land crops i n normal years, the major problem i s s t i l l crop f a i l u r e s during periods of drought.  Greater s t a b i l i t y of  farm purchasing power strengthensthe prospects of service centers i n the region.  In addition to i t s s t a b i l i z i n g influence, the South Saskatchewan River P r o j e c t may be expected to increase the t o t a l value of production i n the P r o j e c t area.  Based on long-term p r i c e s and y i e l d s , i t i s  estimated that the average value of farm produce i n the i r r i g a b l e area could be increased from $4 m i l l i o n to $10 m i l l i o n a n n u a l l y . ^ net income of Saskatchewan farms from 1948 to 1957  Average  was about $3,470.  It  i s estimated that the net income from a 320-acre farm i n the i r r i g a t e d area might be from $5,000 to $10,000 annually.  Such an increase i n  average income per farm, coupled with an increase i n the number of farms i n the area, would increase the t o t a l volume of trade and service i n the nucleated settlements.  The added patronage base would tend to e i t h e r  increase the volume of business i n existing centers or to encourage  J . A r t , "Province to Foster Gradual S h i f t to I r r i g a t i o n Fflrm-tngg, Saskatchewan flews, V o l . 14, Wo. 5, D e c 2, 1958, p. 2.  121 establishment of new centers. The result w i l l probably be determined to a large degree by the time-distance factor. Ve have noted the effect of a change i n mode of transportation on the planned location of the new Polder Tillages i n relation to the farms. In Saskatchewan, the variable i n the time-distance relationship i s not the vehicle but the presence or absence of all-weather roads. The construction of the municipal road grid w i l l change the relationships between some of the towns and villages i n the Project area by providing new connections which shorten the time needed to move from one point to another. Location of new highway links across the river and the reservoir may affect the hierarchy of settlement nucleations. Roads and highways w i l l be needed i n the South Saskatchewan project area for marketing produce and for recreational use.  In some oases these two separate  needs may be served by a single route, while i n other cases i t may be desirable to separate the two uses i n planning highways. Functional highway planning and i t s relationship to the pattern of nucleated settlements requires study by agencies concerned with highway, recreation and community development. Inundation.of land may bring about drastic changes i n the size and shape of trading areas. A substantial reduction i n the patronage base through loss of cultivated land could change the future status of a center i n the hierarchy of settlement nucleations. In the Tennessee Valley, for example, the rural village of Sale Creek served a trading  122 area including a Valley which would be inundated.  The reservoir would  remove 7$ of the trade area, which represented 16$ of the land used for agriculture and 52$ of i t s best agricultural land.  Some 7$ of the  population of the trade area lived on the land to be flooded but as this land was the most productive the average annual expenditure per family was greater for families in this area.  Losses of land, population and  purchasing power should be taken into account in a detailed evaluation of the Impact of the South Saskatchewan River Project on settlement nucleations in the Project area. Shopping habits reflect both consumer mobility and technology. Universal automobile ownership and improved roads permit travelling a greater distance to shop within a given time. Coupled with this factor i s the influence of rural electrification, which increases the use of refrigeration, thereby enabling preservation of foodstuffs and less frequent shopping t r i p s .  A reduction in the number of necessary trips  tends to reinforce consumer willingness to drive farther to shop. Thus, the larger centers in the Project area are l i k e l y to show greater gains in functional diversity than the smaller centers. The size of a center which satisfies economic needs of rural people may differ from the size which satisfies social needs. Ve have noted that social need was the criterion for maximum size of planned new towns in the Columbia Basin Project. Optimum community size i s a  Harold V. Miller, "Effects of Reservoir Construction on Local Economic Units", Economic Geography. Vol. 15, Ho. 3, July 1939.  123 subject on which there i s l i m i t e d d e f i n i t i v e data.  Such an area o f  study might be undertaken by the r e c e n t l y established Center f o r Community Studies a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, to determine the s o c i a l needs of r u r a l people and to describe these needs i n terms o f maximum size o f nucleated settlements i n Central Saskatchewan.  Greater  i n s i g h t i n t o size needs might a f f e c t the desirable distance between centers of a s i m i l a r f u n c t i o n a l rank.  The provision o f abundant supplies of water and power by the South Saskatchewan River P r o j e c t w i l l prove a t t r a c t i v e to industry. The choice o f i n d u s t r i a l l o c a t i o n w i l l depend on the type of industry and i t s r e l a t i v e need f o r railway connections, labor supply and access to f i n a n c i a l services.  Undoubtedly i n d u s t r i e s needing a w e l l developed  c i t y center as t h e i r headquarters w i l l favor Saskatoon.  Towns i n the  Project area should be able to compete s u c c e s s f u l l y f o r i n d u s t r i e s related to a g r i c u l t u r a l processing and f o r other i n d u s t r i e s i f adequate transport!on routes are provided.  The e f f e c t of i n d u s t r i a l  expansion  can be expected to have i t s greatest impact on nucleated settlements i n the Project area a f t e r the reservoir has been f i l l e d , the power generating plant has been completed, and i r r i g a t e d lands have started to produce more s p e c i a l t y crops.  The general e f f e c t o f industry seems l i k e l y t o  be to encourage growth of the l a r g e r centers i n the P r o j e c t area and those most accessible t o water, power and transport.  D e t a i l e d study  should be made of the p o t e n t i a l i t i e s of the P r o j e c t area f o r i n d u s t r i a l development and the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f centers most a t t r a c t i v e f o r industrial location.  124  The recreational potential of the reservoir, with i t s 450-mile shoreline, may be expected to stimulate functional d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n i n some of the nucleated settlements nearby. The particular centers which w i l l be affected cannot be determined u n t i l surveys of the shoreline have been made to select desirable s i t e s for recreational development. Recreational areas should be c l e a r l y designated so that development w i l l not be scattered haphazardly along the shoreline, disfiguring the landscape and providing inadequate service. The factors which have been considered suggest some of the many influences brought into play by a project of many facets, such as the South Saskatchewan River Project.  The l i s t of factors i s not exhaustive  and a more detailed study would undoubtedly reveal other matters requiring consideration i n attempting to evaluate the impact of the Project on nucleated settlement relationships.  The factors raised are  sufficient, however, to permit proceeding to examine some examples of the impact on particular centers, as an i l l u s t r a t i o n of a possible method of evaluation which could be applied to the entire Project area.  EXAMPLES OF THE IMPACT OF THE SOUTH SASKATCHEWAN RIVER PROJECT ON NUCLEATED SETTLEMENTS IN THE PROJECT AREA The provincial government's commitment for i r r i g a t i o n i n the South Saskatchewan River Project area i s to construct the works necessary to provide water to 50,000 acres of land within a year after the reservoir Is f i l l e d .  However, the location of the i n i t i a l  development of 50,000  acres has not yet been decided. The approach used i n this study i s to  125 select alternative areas  as " i n i t i a l stage" development areas, as a  basis for consideration of some of the factors in relation to specific nucleated settlements. Selection of the i n i t i a l development areas i s based on such factors as soils, drainage, topography, climate, pumping requirements for irrigation, accessibility to the source of water, present land use, and trtwrine of development. A study of soils in the irrigable area, based on a consideration of s o i l texture, topography, a l k a l i salt content, stoniness, and wind and water erosion, indicates that the need for irrigation and the probable success of i t i s greater i n the southern portion of the area near Elbow and Outlook than in the northern portion 12 near Saskatoon. The largest gravity flow area occurs near outlook i n the area designated "A" on Map 7. main dam.  I t also has the advantage of proximity to the  Block A i s therefore selected as one of the alternative areas.  Farther south are the blocks of irrigable land designated "B", which comprise some 35,000 acres. These blocks could be developed along with some of the acreage i n the Qu'Appelle Valley to the east, to make up the 50,000 acres. By developing these southernmost blocks f i r s t , there would be an opportunity to consider the technical aspects of irrigation in the more northerly areas in more detail, prior to development.  Blocks  V. Earl Bowser and H. C. Moss, "A Soil Rating and Classification for Irrigation Lands in Western Canada , S c i . Agr. 30: 1950. 0  126 B are therefore used as the second alternative for discussion purposes. Which existing service centers may be expected to benefit from development of Block A? Outlook i s at present the only Town i n the area. With a population of 885 in 1956, i t was almost double the size of Hanley, a Village-Town with a 1956 population of 425• Outlook's trading area extends at present more to the south and east than to the north, (Map 5). Hanley's trading area extends farther to the east than to the west. The distance by road from Outlook to the eastern extremity of Block A i s about 30 miles. As Hanley i s much closer, i t i s l i k e l y that i t w i l l attract trade from the eastern part of the area. The effect on the boundaries of the primary trading areas w i l l be to pull the boundaries of the Hanley trading area to the west, and those of the Outlook trading area to the north and east. Development of Block A, therefore, may be expected to add greatest impetus to Outlook's growth and to make same demands on Hanley's services.  The distance between the two centers,  about 35 miles, i s not sufficient to suggest any need for a new community. Blocks B are located on each side of the Village of Elbow, which had a population of 281 in 1956 and has 18 functions.  The only other  Village nearby i s Loreburn, with a population of 197 and 1 function.  We  have noted in Chapter 3 that Elbow i s well developed for a center of Village status.  Its primary trading area breaks at the River, a break  which i s reinforced by poor soils i n the bend of the river.  The develop-  ment of Blocks B may be expected to enlarge the trading area of Elbow, stretching i t along the reservoir to the north-west and expanding i t to the east to almost double i t s present size.  Whether the trading area  127 w i l l then expand across the reservoir w i l l depend on the location of crossings and on Elbow's competitive position i n relation to centers to the south, beyond the boundaries of the Project area, as defined for the present study. The functional rank of Elbow cannot be wholly predicted i n relation to irrigation development. Its strategic location adjacent to the reservoir extending along the South Saskatchewan River and down the Qu'Appelle River Valley, gives the Village an enormous recreation potential.  I f good, direct road links were provided southward to the  Trans-Canada Highway and eastward to the major north-south highway i n the Province, Elbow could increase i t s functional diversity in response to recreational needs as well as irrigation.  The steep valley sides of  the reservoir w i l l consist mainly of clay and s i l t which w i l l be d i f f i c u l t to handle under fluctuating water conditions. A detailed survey i s therefore necessary to determine the best sites for development of beaches and boat launching areas.  Depending upon the results of such a survey,  the recreation function might be concentrated i n more than one existing community, or i t might conceivably lead to establishment of a new community. In any case, the repercussions of recreational development may be expected to concentrate at the main dam and upstream from i t . •SI  What would be the effect on the future roles of Outlook and Elbow of developing Block A prior to Blocks B?  The polder experience,  discussed i n Chapter 2, brought to our attention the importance of timing in implementing the planned functions of nucleated settlements.  In the  Wieringermeer Polder the village which was started f i r s t attracted central  128  services intended for the central town. While this experience related to new development, the same principle applies to regions already settled, where new development i s taking place. Applying this principle to the South Saskatchewan River Project " i n i t i a l stage" of development, the decision as i t relates to nucleated settlements should be made on the basis of whether a center of higher than Village rank w i l l be needed in the area roughly bounded by the South Saskatchewan River, Outlook, Davidson and Craik. I f so, and i f the present Village of Elbow i s a logical existing center in which to encourage development, some conscious direction i s needed. To what degree would the future role of Elbow be impaired by prior development of Block A, which would give i n i t i a l impetus to Outlook and enlarge i t s already substantial sphere of influence? I t seems probable that Elbow's development could best be assured by developing Blocks B before Block A.  Outlook, the largest Town i n the Project area,  i s located near the main Dam site and w i l l develop during the period of construction of the Dam, reservoir and power generating plant. Prior development of BlockB B to encourage Elbow's growth would, therefore, i n no way detract from Outlook's importance. Based on these considerations, i n i t i a l development of Blocks B would seem to be preferable. The effect on the nucleated settlement pattern i s one of several aspects to be weighed i n selecting the i n i t i a l development area, but i n cases where other aspects are equal, i t could become the significant factor. The "later stage" of development has been defined as f u l l development of irrigable acreage.  This could include a l l the northern  129 blocks on the west side of the South Saskatchewan River, extending from Outlook to north of Saskatoon. The Town i n the heart of this area i s Delisle, which had a population of 482 i n 1956 and has 19 functions. Most of i t s present trading area contains irrigable acreage, so that more farm units, an increase i n population and greater farm purchasing power w i l l produce greater functional diversity i n Delisle, even i f the primary trading area boundaries remain unchanged. Since the blocks of irrigable acreage extend across trading area boundaries, to the north and to the south, the possibility of expansion of Delisle's primary trading area into the i n t e r s t i t i a l areas between primary trading areas of various other centers seems l i k e l y .  A factor which may influence the primary  trading area i s the market for produce.  Saskatoon, a major urban market,  may tend more and more i n the future to broaden i t s primary trading area. In the case of Delisle, however, the intervening Village of Vanscoy may act as an effective buffer, minimizing the effect on Delisle's trading area of Saskatoon's enlarging sphere of influence. Industry may be expected to have a greater impact during the "later stage" of development. I f i t tends to concentrate i n locations close to the source of power and to productive irrigated acreage, Outlook seems to be the most appropriate center. Where industry seeks reasonable accessibility to power and produce, plus close association with the main line of a railway, financial services and a labor supply, Saskatoon seems l i k e l y to increase i t s dominance. The effect of industry in the southern part of the Project area i s l i k e l y to be relatively limited.  130 CONCLUSIONS The discussion of the impact of the South Saskatchewan Hirer project on nucleated settlements i n the Project area has beenjjeneral and suggestive rather than detailed and definitive.  Such an approach  was necessitated to keep within the imposed limits of the study. The purpose has been to indicate the possibility of using a theoretical concept of settlement, applied to a particular region, to analyze the impact of a Project such as the South Saskatchewan River Project on the pattern of nucleated settlements.  The value of the  study l i e s i n this practical application of Christaller's theory of central places, insofar as i t relates to functional classification of centers and delineation of their trading areas, to the process of analysis and planning of the nucleated settlement pattern. Such planning i s advantageous to the region, i n permitting more efficient development, with a minimum number of central places of appropriate rank to serve the population. I t i s also advantageous to the central places i n clarifying the opportunities and limitations of their respective roles.  Each oenter i s then i n a position to develop i t s  functions with the conscious goal of f u l l achievement of appropriate service center status.  BIBLIOGRAPHY  BIBLIOGRAPHY A. BOOKS Dickinson, Robert E. City. Region and Regionalism. A Geographical Contribution to Human Ecology. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul Ltd., 1952. Glikson, Artur. Regional Planning and Development. Six Lectures delivered at the Institute of Social Studies at the Hague, 1953. Leiden: A. W. Sijthoff's Uitgeversmaatschappij, N.V., 1955. Kolb, J . H., and E. de S. Brunner. A Study of Rural Society. Fourth Edition. Boston: Houghton M i f f l i n Company, 1952. Sharon, Arieh. Physical Planning i n Israel. Tel Aviv» Government Printing and Survey of Israel Press, 1951. (In Hebrew, with English translation of text) Wilson, Warren H. The Evolution of the Country Community. Pilgrim Press, 1912.  Boston:  B. PUBLICATIONS OF THE GOVERNMENT AND OTHER ORGANIZATIONS Agreement between the Government of Canada and the Government of Saskatchewan regarding the South Saskatchewan River Project. September 1958. Bruin, Weiger, "The Villages of -the North Eastern Polder", North Eastern Polder. G. Van Saane, Amsterdam. (Reprint from special issue of Forum. Vol. X, Hos. 1-2, 1955, the Netherlands magazine of architecture and applied arts.) Census of Canada 1956. Agriculture. Saskatchewan. Bulletin: 2-8, Dominion Bureau of Statistics, Ottawa. A Comprehensive Plan for Quincy. Washington. Quincy planning Commission, City Council, and School District, June 1956. Fresh Fields and Polders New. The Story of the Zuiderzee Works. The Netherlands Abroad, Amsterdam, 1955. Glikson, Artur, Rural Planning and Development in Israel - Two Case Studies. United Nations Economic and social Council, Working Paper Ho. 46, June 11, 1958.  132 Preliminary Statement on I r r i g a t i o n Development P o l i c y f o r the South Saskatchewan River I r r i g a t i o n P r o j e c t . Hon. I . C. N o l l e t , M i n i s t e r of A g r i c u l t u r e , Saskatchewan, A p r i l 1959. Report of the Royal Commission on the South Saskatchewan River P r o j e c t . Ottawa, 1952. Royal Commission on Agriculture and Rural L i f e , Service Centers. Regina, 1957. Submissions of the Province of Saskatchewan to the Royal Commission on the South Saskatchewan River P r o j e c t . Regina, 1952. United States Department of the I n t e r i o r , Bureau of Reclamation, Growth of A g r i c u l t u r a l Processing and Marketing F a c i l i t i e s , Columbia Basin P r o j e c t . Washington. August 1958. United States Department of the I n t e r i o r , Bureau of Reclamation, Indications of Business and I n d u s t r i a l Development that w i l l r e s u l t from the I r r i g a t i o n of the Columbia River Basin P r o j e c t . Ephrata, Washington, January 1953. United States Department of the I n t e r i o r , Bureau of Reclamation, Report on Tentative Population Forecasts f o r the Columbia Basin P r o j e c t Area. I960 and 1980. June 1953. united States Department of the I n t e r i o r , Bureau of Reclamation, Towns and V i l l a g e s . Problem 18, Columbia Basin J o i n t Investigations, Boise, Idaho, June 1947. Venstra, A. J . , "The Colonization of the North Eastern Polder"., North Eastern Polder. G. Van Saane, Amsterdam. (Reprint from s p e c i a l issue of Forum. V o l . X, Nos. 1-2, 1955, the Netherlands magazine of architecture and a p p l i e d arts) Wisconsin A g r i c u l t u r a l Experiment S t a t i o n Research B u l l e t i n 34, S o c i a l Ahatomy of an A g r i c u l t u r a l Community. 1915.  The  C. PERIODICALS  Bowser, W. E a r l , and H. C. Moss, "A S o i l Rating and C l a s s i f i c a t i o n f o r I r r i g a t i o n Lands i n western Canada", S c i . Agr. 30x 1950. Brush, John E., "The Hierarchy of C e n t r a l Places i n Southwestern Wisconsin", Geographical Review. V o l . 43, No. 3, J u l y 1953. M i l l e r , Harold V., " E f f e c t s of Reservoir Construction on L o c a l Economic Units", Economic Geography. Vo. 15, No. 3, J u l y 1939.  133 Trewartha, G. T., "The Unincorporated Hamlet: One Element of the American Settlement Fabric", Annals of the. Association of American Geographers. V o l . 33, 1943Ullman, Edward, "A Theory o f Location f o r C i t i e s " , American Journal of Sociology. Vol.46, May 1941. Wolfe, M* R«, "Urbanization and a New Town i n the Columbia Basin", Town Planning Review. V o l . XXVIII, No. 2, J u l y 1957.  SOURCES FOR FIGURES Figure 1.  Edward Ullman, "A Theory of Location for Cities", Cities and Society. Paul K. Hatt and Albert J . Reiss, J r . , The Free Press, Glencoe, I l l i n o i s , (1957 Edition) p. 230.  2.  Artur Glikson, Regional Planning and Development. A. V. Sijthoff's Uitgeversmaatschappij H.V., Leiden, 1955, p. 56.  3.  John E. Brush, "The Hierarchy of Central Places i n Southwestern Wisconsin", Geographical Review. Vol.43, Ho. 3, July 1953, pp. 380-402.  4.  Ibid.  5.  Ibid.  6.  Ibid.  7.  Service Centers. Royal Commission on Agriculture and Rural Life, Regina, Saskatchewan, 1957, p. 8.  8.  Ibid., p. 72.  9. 10.  Ibid., p. 73. Growth of Agricultural Processing and Marketing F a c i l i t i e s . Columbia Basin Project, Washington, U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation, August 1958, p. 7.  11.  Columbia Basin...Empire i n the Making. Seattle F i r s t Rational Bank, May 1955, p. 12.  12.  Towns and Villages. Problem 18, Columbia Basin Joint Investigations, Columbia Basin Project, Washington, U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation, Boise, Idaho, June 1947, p. 32.  13.  Ibid., p. 79.  14.  Fresh Fields and Polders Hew. The Hetherlands Abroad, Amsterdam, The Hetherlands, December 1955, p. 6.  15.  Artur Glikson, op. c i t . . p. 107.  155  Figure  16. Adapted from Arieh Sharon, Physical Planning i n I s r a e l . Government Printing Press and Survey of I s r a e l Press, Tel Aviv, 1951. 17. Artur Glikson, op. c i t . . p. 113.  •  O Asquith  PERDl  SASKATOON  \Meacham O  QVanBcoy  ElstowO O Bradwell  (•) DELISLE  O O O  Q  Tessier  Colonsay Allan  QDundurn YOUNG (O)  Harris  (+) HANLEY  ConquestO (•) MILDEW  OUTLOOK  O Kenaston  O Glenside O Hawarden (#)DINSMQRE  O Bladworth  Q Macrorie  O Strongfield (#) DAVIDSON O Loreburn  OGirvin OElbow  ®  CRAIR  SOUTH SASKATCHEWAN RIVER PROJECT AREA E  L  O  G  E  N  D  Village  (•*; Village-Town  SOURCES  (•)  Town  (•f «^  Town-Greater Town  •  S C A L E  T  I  T  L  > / i i u e  S  4  E  S E R V I C E C E N T E R S  City  Local Government Continuing Committee, Regina.  » vi  JEAN U . B . C .  C.  DOWNING  A P R I L  1 9 5 9  1  SOUTH SASKATCHEWAN RIVER PROJECT L  E  G  E  N  AREA  D  Eroded Alluvium  Sand H i l l & Dune Sands  Alkali  Hills  Sand & Loam  Pasture  S C A L E  IW  *t  I L. e  S  4  T I T L E SOILS Least Productive JEAN  C.  DOWNING  U.B.C. A P R I L  1959  Z  SOUTH SASKATCHEWAN RIVER PROJECT L  E  G  E  N  AREA  D  0-15  121 - 150  16-50  I  151 - 200  51-80  3  201 - 300  81 - 120  I  301 *•  Population per township, 1956 Census.  S C A L E  IN  IVI i  i  r  v  #  T I T L E RURAL POPULATION DENSITY JEAN U.B.C.  C.  DOWNING  APRIL  1959  3  SOUTH SASKATCHEWAN RIVER PROJECT L  E  G  E  N  AREA  D S  Provincial Highways  C  A  L  E  IN  M i u r  S  4  T I T L E  Grid Roads - approved but not necessarily constructed  TRANSPORTATION  Railways JEAN.C. U.B.C.  DOWNING  APRIL  1959  4  57 SASKATOON )PEi  Di  All ©Dundi  A: T * # ) MILDE  ®  DINSi  Macrorie  j8> B i r s a y  SOUTH SASKATCHEWAN L  E  G  E  N  RIVER PROJECT  D  Trading Center Primary Trading Area  S C A L E  Local Government Continuing Committee Regina. Saskatchewan  IN  M I L .  S  t  T I T L E  TRADING AREAS  S a t e l l i t e ties Source:  AREA  JEAN U.B.C.  C.  DOWNING  APRIL  1959  5  SOUTH SASKATCHEWAN RIVER PROJECT L  E  G  E  N  AREA  D S  Irrigable Areas Reservoirs  C  A  L  E  1 W  M  I  L  I  S  #  T I T L E  IRRIGABLE AREAS & RESERVOIRS  JEAN U.B.C.  C.  DOWNING  APRIL  1959  

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