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Perceptual reactions to the thematic apperception test cards Long, Barbara 1960

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PERCEPTUAL REACTION'S TO THE THEMATIC APPERCEPTION TEST CARDS by BARBARA LONG B.S., Utah State University, 1958 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF Master of Arts i n the Department of Psychology We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standards by Candidates for the degree of Master of Arts Members of the Department of Psychology THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September, i 9 6 0 In presenting t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference and study. I f u r t h e r agree that permission f o r extensive copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e . I t i s under-stood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n permission. Nee Nee Barbara Long Wilson( flt£9») Department of Psychology The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver 8, Canada. Date October 3, I960 THE CATEGORIZATION OF PERCEPTUAL REACTIONS TO THE THEMATIC APPERCEPTION TEST CARDS Abstract This study deals with the i n i t i a l stage of a programme of research investigating the nature of the stimulus factors i n the Thematic Apperception Test. The primary function of the study was to categorize perceptual reactions to the TAT cards. A secondary aim was to compare the perceptual responses obtained from an abnormal group with those produc-ed by a normal group i n a p a r a l l e l study. Descriptions of twenty-six of the TAT cards were obtained from f o r t y mental h o s p i t a l patients. From these protocols and those of f o r t y normal subjects, empirically derived perceptual categories were developed. The perceptual responses were then assigned to these c r i t i c a l categories. Several r e l i a b i l i t y studies were carried out and a number of rules governing the assignment of the responses to the categories was developed. An inter-judge r e l i a b i l i t y of 91 per cent agreement was obtained. A frequency count was then made fo r both the normal and abnormal groups and Chi squares were computed i n order to determine whether any differences existed between the groups i n the frequency of response for each category. The number of percepts contained In each response was also counted and the two groups were then s t a t i s t i c a l l y compared on the basis of the number of single percept responses to each card. From a t o t a l of 216 categories, 16 s i g n i f i c a n t differences were found. The cards i n which these differences appeared were: 1, 2, 5 , 6BM, 7BM, 8BM, 9GF, 12BG, Ik, 15, 17GF, 19 and 20. In eight of these cards the abnormal group produced a larger number of responses i n the descriptive category than the normal group. The two groups d i f f e r e d s l i g h t l y regarding the number of percepts contained i n each response. A l l but one of the cards e l i c i t e d more single percept responses from the abnormal group than from the normal one. Nine of the cards showed s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i -cant differences between the number of abnormal and normal subjects giving single percept responses. By means of the s t a t i s t i c a l comparison, i t was shown that the perceptual reactions of the normal and abnormal i v subjects were e s s e n t i a l l y the same; certain differences, however, between the perceptual responses of the normal and abnormal groups, were suggested. The study established that r e l i a b l e perceptual categories could be developed and perceptual responses successfully categorized. ACKNOWLEDGMENT The author wishes to thank Mr. John Borthwick, head of the psychology department, Crease C l i n i c , Essondale, B.C., and the nursing s t a f f f o r t h e i r cooperation i n arranging the subject interviews. The author i s indebted to her advisor, Dr. D.T. Kenny, for his guidance and assistance during the course of t h i s study, and offers sincere thanks. CONTENTS Chapter page Abstract i i i I Theoretical Background and Statement of the Problem 1 Introduction 1 Statement of the Problem 1 The Model 2 I I Related Research . 6 Normative Studies 6 Stimulus Property Studies 8 Ambiguity Measures of the Stimulus Property 1| I I I Method 17 Materials 17 Selection of Subjects 17 Procedure 18 Development of Categories 19 IV Results 21 Interscorer R e l i a b i l i t y 21 Response Frequencies and the D i f f e r -ences between Groups 22 Analysis of Responses for Number of Percepts 30 V Discussion 33 VI Summary and Conclusions 37 v i page Bibliography 39 Appendix A Related Research Tables ^1 Appendix B Subject Data o 56 Appendix C Administration Instructions 59 Appendix D Perceptual Categories and the Rules for t h e i r use 61 TABLES Table I I I I I I IV V VI VII V i l l a VHIb IX X page Predominant Emotional Tone of Interpretive Responses to Each Picture h2 Rank Order of Pictures on the Basis of Number of Themes which each E l i c i t s . . . . *+3 Mean Rating of Emotional Tone of TAT Cards . . . kk Cards, Frequency of Use (FrU), Number of Examiners Using (#Ex), and Median Number of 'Emotional Words Per Card (Mdn.Ew) for 175 Protocols ^5 Mean Level of Response Ratings and Rank of each Card h6 A C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the Responses of One Hundred Students to Certain TAT Cards . . . ^7 Clusters of TAT Cards Securing Similar Mean Ratings on each of Seven Variables . . . . *+8 Variations i n Behavioural Response Patterns induced by Different TAT Cards Shown by the D i s t r i b u t i o n of Frequencies Expressed as Per Cent ^9 Variations i n Problems or Themas Induced by Different TAT Cards Shown by the Di s t r i b u t i o n of Frequencies expressed as Per Cent 51 Rank Order, Medians, Means, and Standard Deviations of 21 TAT Cards Judged as to Degree of Ambiguity . . . 53 Ambiguity Rank Order Values for F i f t e e n Cards Selected f o r Study 5^ XI Nosological Groupings of the Abnormal Subjects and the Frequencies 57 v i i i Table page XII Means, Range and Standard Deviation of the Age and Education Level ( t o t a l number of years of formal education), of the 'Subjects 58 X I I I Differences i n the Response Frequencies of Normal and Abnormal Subjects f or each Category 23 XIV Differences i n the Number of Responses Containing 0-1 percepts f or Normal and Abnormal Subjects 26 CHAPTER I THEORETICAL BACKGROUND AND STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM INTRODUCTION In the greater part of the previous research concerning apperceptive techniques, the ro l e of the stimulus properties of the materials has been, by and large, neglected. 'Some of the factors which have contributed toward t h i s neglect are: investigator's d i f f e r i n g approaches to the meaning of the stimulus i t s e l f , lack of adequate measures f o r the stimulus dimensions of thematic cards, and, f i n a l l y , the f a i l u r e of most workers to recognise the importance of the stimulus i n fantasy story t e l l i n g behaviour. However, the recent research l i t e r a t u r e i s beginning to recognise the f a c t that the intensive study of the stimulus properties i s essential i f one i s to understand why and how thematic tests function. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM This study deals with the f i r s t part of a program of research i n the area of the stimulus factors i n the Thematic Apperception Test. I t i s the immediate r e s u l t of a paper e n t i t l e d Theoretical and Research Reappraisal of 'Stimulus 2 Factors i n the TAT, given by Kenny (1959)) at a symposium dealing with the Thematic Apperception Test. In the present research, the descriptions of the TAT cards given by kO mental h o s p i t a l patients, and kO normal sub-jects were assigned into various thematic categories. Data on the normal subjects were gathered by Harvey ( i 9 6 0 ) i n a p a r a l l e l study. Data on the abnormal subjects were collected by the present author. These empirically derived categories, the development of which was one aim of the study, w i l l be of further use along the l i n e s suggested by Kenny (1959)• The primary function of the present study was to determine the main stimulus properties of each of the TAT cards, as determined by the frequency with which responses could be assigned to the thematic categories. Another aim of the study was to examine the d i f f e r -ences between the response frequencies of abnormal and normal subjects. THE MODEL This section contains a general statement of the t h e o r e t i c a l formulation which leads to the present study. With the s p e c i f i c concepts of Kenny's t h e o r e t i c a l model i n mind, i t w i l l then be possible to see how t h i s investigation f i t s into his proposed program of research. Kenny (1959) has stated two of the basic problems impeding the discovery of laws which govern behaviour 3 towards apperceptive techniques. "The f i r s t involves the c r i t i c a l relevance of the stimulus properties of the pictures i n the determination of the thematic s t o r i e s . The second general problem concerns the l e v e l of personality functioning r e f l e c t e d i n the thematic apperceptive s t o r i e s . " Recognizing these problems, Kenny has developed a t h e o r e t i c a l model centering around the conception that thematic s t i m u l i or "changes i n sensory input" are "...simulated into a schema after an hypothetical process of d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n or categorization of the stimulus has taken place." After a schema i s activated, instrumental s t o r y - t e l l i n g occurs, accommodating an i n d i v i d u a l to his environment and r e s u l t i n g i n themata. Perception of the s t i m u l i i s not a passive reception by the i n d i v i d u a l , but on the contrary, i s an active process of categorizing the s t i m u l i so that the r e s u l t i n g fantasy i s "...the observable sequence of either an existing or reactivated latent schema (imaginative trains or sequences of thought). The categorization may be conscious, preconscious or unconscious. In the case of TAT protocols, the categorization process i s assumed to be primarily pre-conscious, that i s , i t i s r e a d i l y available i n awareness." In t h i s model, the categorization reaction plays a c r i t i c a l r o l e . This categorizing process i s the perceptual a c t i v i t y of attempting to i d e n t i f y or l a b e l the picture s t i m u l i , f o r example, "the boy wishes to be a doctor." The four most important psychological variables determining the categorization reaction are assumed to be: past experience, k motivation, set, and a b i l i t y . I t also appears reasonable to assume that these factors w i l l have greater effect on schema than on the categorization process. These assumptions lead to the hypothesis that "...the categorizing reaction w i l l be more highly correlated with the stimulus properties of the picture s t i m u l i than w i l l be the fantasy story." If,by changing the stimulus dimensions of the picture, categoriza-t i o n reactions were to change, then the thematic content of the story should change i n the same d i r e c t i o n , since t h i s theory holds that the course that the themata follows i s dependent on the categorization process. In an attempt to test h i s model, Kenny (1959) applies the theory to the r e l a t i o n s h i p between ambiguity and personality revealingness. In regard to t h i s problem, physical ambiguity could be defined as the impoverishment of the s t i m u l i . However, on the basis of his conceptual model, such a procedure would not ensure variations i n perceptual ambiguity. Categorizing or perceptual ambiguity exists only when the s t i m u l i e l i c i t d i f f e r e n t categorizing reactions between individuals or d i f f e r e n t reactions within the same person at d i f f e r e n t times. Kenny (19593 has emphasized the f a c t that a good quantitative index of t h i s ambiguity should take into account not only the number of alternative categories but also the proportion of cases of individuals making any given categorization. The quantitative measure of uncertainty from information theory takes into account these two dimensions of categorization. U t i l i z i n g such an index, Kenny has suggested the f o l l o w i n g method of obt a i n i n g the c a t e g o r i z a t i o n r e a c t i o n s to the p i c t u r e s t i m u l i . The f i r s t step i n v o l v e s having the subjects examine each TAT card f o r twenty seconds, and w i t h the card before them describe what they see. Next, the card d e s c r i p t i o n s are assigned to c r i t i c a l thematic c a t e g o r i e s that best seem t o r e f l e c t the perceptual d e s c r i p t i o n s . The t h i r d step i s to provide a c h e c k l i s t of the main c r i t i c a l c a t e g o r i e s to subjects and have them check the category which they t h i n k best describes what they see i n the card. The u n c e r t a i n t y measure i s then a p p l i e d to the data i n order t o provide a q u a n t i t a t i v e index of ambiguity f o r each thematic card. Armed w i t h an adequate index of t h i s type, the att a c k on the problem concerning the r e l a t i o n s h i p between ambiguity and p e r s o n a l i t y revealingness should y i e l d somewhat more f r u i t f u l r e s u l t s . CHAPTER I I RELATED RESE.ARCH Since Murray Introduced h i s Thematic Apperception Test i n 1935? i t s popularity as a c l i n i c a l technique has grown ra p i d l y . Only recently though, has the p o s s i b i l i t y of probing into the problem of stimulus properties of the pictures become a source of active i n t e r e s t . Of the comparatively few studies dealing with picture cues, the more comprehensive approaches were concerned with an attempt to determine the normative nature of projective responses to the pictures. Normative Studies One of the f i r s t studies of t h i s kind was done by Coleman (19^7), who obtained protocols from children aged 8 to 15 years. He rated the stories f or l e v e l of response and emotional tone. He found the most productive pictures to be 3GF, 6BM, and-l8GF, i n that order and the least productive card to be 11. In order to determine the pre-dominant emotional tone, the stories were rated "unhappy, neut r a l , or happy" on the basis of both plot and ending. These re s u l t s are shown i n Table 1, Appendix A. Coleman also found that i n less than three per cent of the s t o r i e s , 7 a happy plot developed into an unhappy ending but that forty-one per cent changed from an unhappy plot into a happy ending. In 19^7 Rosenzweig and Flemming made an empirical inve s t i g a t i o n i n an attempt to establish apperceptive norms for the TAT. Their intention was to determine the common ways i n which the cards are described and i n t e r p r e t i v e l y used by normal men and women. The themes were analyzed with the aim of ascertaining only what descriptive material the subjects as a group included i n t h e i r thematic responses. The t o t a l responses for a l l subjects were considered s t a t i s t i c a l l y f o r each picture. These responses were then c l a s s i f i e d to determine the common, popular, or modal expressions used. Three c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s were made and. applied to each card: 1. f i g u r e s , 2. objects, 3 . problems and outcomes. About t h i s same time, Eron (1950), published his extremely comprehensive monograph dealing with normative data f o r the TAT. This paper considers "picture p u l l " , and points out that each i n d i v i d u a l picture has i t s own stimulus properties which evoke themes, i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , f e e l i n g s , etc., which are peculiar to i t and which d i f f e r from those e l i c i t e d by other pictures. In an attempt to establis h empirically that pictures d i f f e r e d i n t h e i r stimula-tory values, Eron rank-ordered the cards on the basis of the number of themes e l i c i t e d by each. These rankings are 8 shown i n Table I I , Appendix A. After analyzing the stories obtained from h i s group of 150 i n d i v i d u a l s (including both normal and abnormal subjects), he indicates that, when interpreting a protocol, due consideration must be given to the stimulus properties of the cards themselves: these properties appear to be as i n f l u e n t i a l i n determining an ind i v i d u a l ' s story as the actual c l i n i c a l group to which he may be c l a s s i f i e d . Stimulus Property 'Studies Following the suggestion that the stimulus properties of the i n d i v i d u a l cards themselves e l i c i t stories of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c emotional tone, regardless of the c l i n i c a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the subjects, Eron, Terry and Callahan (19503, developed a r a t i n g scale for the emotional tone of TAT s t o r i e s . This was to a s s i s t i n determining the r e l a t i v e emotional strengths of the cards. This f i v e point scale was empirically derived on the basis of agreements among three judges who rated 1000 stories from 25 males and 25 females. F i f t y more stories were obtained and the cards were arranged on the basis of the ratings i n order of sadness. The r e s u l t s shown i n Table I I I , Appendix A, support Eron's pre-vious implications regarding differences i n the stimulus values of the cards. A more recent study by Ullmann (1957) showed that his findings were i n agreement with those of previous i n -vestigators. He showed that the median number of emotional 9 words e l i c i t e d by the d i f f e r e n t TAT cards vary considerably. Table IV, Appendix A, r e p o r t s h i s f i n d i n g s . Weisskopf ( 1950) , introduced a transcendence index as a proposed q u a n t i t a t i v e measure of p r o j e c t i o n on the TAT. To obt a i n the index the number of comments about a p i c t u r e t h a t go beyond pure d e s c r i p t i o n was counted and the transcendence index of a p i c t u r e was the mean number of such comments per subject. Using only the TAT p i c t u r e s w i t h human f i g u r e s , her subjects were i n s t r u c t e d to describe the TAT cards. The r e s u l t s of t h i s study show the f i v e p i c t u r e s w i t h the highest transcendence i n d i c e s to be 6BM, 7GF, 7BM, 2 and h and the f i v e cards w i t h the lowest transcendence i n d i c e s to be 12M, 13G, 17GF, 20, 9BM. F o l l o w i n g Ullmann's previous study, Gurel and Ullmann (1958) i n v e s t i g a t e d the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the r e s u l t s obtained by ranking the cards as to the q u a n t i t y of m a t e r i a l they e l i c i t e d using, f i r s t the transcendence index and then emotional word count. The r e s u l t s showed a p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n between the rankings produced by the two methods. The transcendence rankings f o r the male and general s e r i e s of cards were, from the highest to the lowest transcendence score: 6 , 4 , 1 3 , 7 , 2 , 3 , 8 , 1 2 , 1 , 2 0 , 1 0 , 1 6 , 9,14, 1 5 , 1 7 , 5 , 1 9 , 1 1 . The r a t h e r h i g h c o r r e l a t i o n between the two orderings found i n t h i s study i s not, however, obtained i n other research d e a l i n g w i t h l e v e l s of ambiguity. In an i n v e s t i g a t i o n on the degree of involvement or l e v e l of response to the TAT cards, Terry (1952), developed 10 an e m p i r i c a l l y - d e r i v e d r a t i n g s c a l e , to assess the l e v e l of TAT response. She used t h i s f i v e category composite s c a l e to determine the mean l e v e l of response r a t i n g s and rank of each c a r d , f o r both o r a l and w r i t t e n s t o r i e s on the female s e r i e s . The r e s u l t s expressed i n Table V, Appendix A, showed s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between the cards i n the average l e v e l of response e l i c i t e d . I t was a l s o noted that the subjects showed c o n s i s t e n t i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n l e v e l of response. In a subsequent study, Lebo and Harrigan (1957)? i n v e s t i g a t e d the suggestion that the p i c t u r e d e s c r i p t i o n s given by Murray i n the TAT manual, i f read to the s u b j e c t s , would e l i c i t responses comparable to those obtained s o l e l y from viewing the p i c t u r e s themselves. The responses obtained from the two methods of p r e s e n t a t i o n were compared o b j e c t i v e l y on s e v e r a l bases: (a) word count, (b) idea count, (c) r a t i n g s c a l e f o r emotional tone, (d) l e v e l of response and amount of dynamic content. I t was found t h a t one method was not c o n s i s t e n t l y superior to the other and that the responses to the v e r b a l d e s c r i p t i o n s were more l i k e the responses to the cards themselves than u n l i k e them. Two assumptions employed by c l i n i c i a n s using p r o j e c t i v e t e s t s are: 1. that s u p e r f i c i a l l y s i m i l a r responses are able to i n d i c a t e t r a i t s of r e l a t i v e l y f i x e d c l a s s e s of the p a t i e n t ' s behaviour and 2. t h a t c e r t a i n s u p e r f i c i a l l y d i s -s i m i l a r responses are "dynamically" r e l a t e d to each other. 11 From these, Wittenborn (1950) generated two hypotheses: the f i r s t hypothesis holds t h a t the TAT responses which are s i m i l a r to each other i n regard to the c l a s s e s of behaviour indicated, by the responses w i l l be s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d to each more f r e q u e n t l y than w i l l an unselected group of responses; the second hypothesis claims that responses f o r which f u n c t i o n a l or dynamically determined complementary responses may be s p e c i f i e d , w i l l be s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d to t h e i r complementary responses more oft e n than w i l l u n select-ed responses. To t e s t these hypotheses one hundred Yale undergraduates were used, and t h e i r responses were cat e g o r i z e d on the basis of the r o l e s commonly a s c r i b e d by them to the f i g u r e s appearing i n the TAT cards. The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of these responses are shown i n Table V I , Appendix A. Although there were no s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s found to support the f i r s t h y pothesis, the second one proved to be more c o n s i s t e n t w i t h Wittenborn's f i n d i n g s . The author, r e f e r r i n g to the f i r s t h ypothesis, makes the s u p p o s i t i o n that s u p e r f i c i a l l y s i m i l a r responses to d i f f e r e n t TAT cards would only be b e h a v i o u r a l l y s i m i l a r i f the cards i n question were h i g h l y s i m i l a r i n t h e i r general r e s p o n s e - e l i c i t i n g p r o p e r t i e s ( i . e . , had, i n ge n e r a l , a s i m i l a r t o t a l meaning f o r a l a r g e number of s u b j e c t s ) . I t was a l s o noted that the sta t u s of t h e i r hypotheses would vary w i t h the p a t i e n t group, and w i t h the manner i n which responses are c a t e g o r i z e d . 12 Dana (1956), questions whether card p u l l per se i s a s u f f i c i e n t empirical c r i t e r i o n for selection of cards f o r an abbreviated TAT sets. In t h i s case, "card p u l l " refers to the amount of personality data e l i c i t e d . In the l i g h t of his study, Dana concluded that: 1. short form TAT sets can be evaluated f o r any available objective scoring categories by s t a t i s t i c a l comparison with the t o t a l set of cards, 2. choice of s p e c i f i c cards i n terms of quantitative c r i t e r i o n of number stimulus cues alone i s not adequate for the development of short form TAT sets, 3» although "card p u l l " and card selection are undoubtedly related, more precise and consensually v a l i d d e f i n i t i o n s of what constitutes "relevant personality data" must i n e v i t a b l y precede measure-ment of t h i s value f or each TAT card and empirical evaluation of cards thereby selected. In an investigation on sex differences, Lindzey and Goldberg (1953) showed that TAT cards d i f f e r i n t h e i r drive evoking properties. S i g n i f i c a n t differences were observed i n both mean and v a r i a b i l i t y of ratings assigned to the stories t o l d about d i f f e r e n t pictures. Table VII, Appendix A, reports t h e i r findings. In an attempt to test the TAT's a b i l i t y to discriminate between the personality dynamics of alcoholics and other hospitalized patients, Knehr, Vickery and Guy (1953) obtained protocols from 78 subjects f o r the f u l l series of twenty cards. Thirty-three of the patients were alcoholics and 13 f o r t y - f i v e were not. Table V I I I , Appendix A, shows the response frequencies f o r a l l 78 s u b j e c t s . The d i s t r i b u t i o n s show more v a r i a b l e and s c a t t e r e d behaviour responses appear-i n g i n the s t o r i e s f o r the common (male-female) cards. The authors s t a t e t h a t the TAT seems to be more s t r u c t u r e d as the problems of themas induced by the p i c t u r e s , w i t h d i f f e r e n t cards showing d i f f e r e n t patterns of problem f r e q u e n c i e s . Less s t r u c t u r i n g i s observed w i t h reference to the responses or a c t i o n s of the s t o r y characters i n d e a l i n g w i t h the problems they face. Ambiguity Measures of the stimulus Property In the f i r s t of a s e r i e s of s t u d i e s concerning the r e l a t i o n s h i p between ambiguity of p i c t u r e s t i m u l i and the extent of p e r s o n a l i t y s t r u c t u r e revealed i n the f a n t a s y produced, B i j o u and Kenny ( 1 9 5 D attempted to e s t a b l i s h ambiguity values f o r TAT p i c t u r e s . Here, the authors d i f f e r e n t i a t e between p h y s i c a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l ambiguity. F i f t y - o n e judges ranked 21 TAT cards (male and general cards) on the basis of the estimated number of p o s s i b l e i n t e r p r e t a -t i o n s that a p i c t u r e evoked ( p s y c h o l o g i c a l ambiguity). The rank-orders f o r the 21 cards are expressed i n Table IX. A f i n a l 15 cards of v a r y i n g ambiguity v a l u e , s e l e c t e d f o r use i n a subsequent study, are found i n Table X, Appendix A. The second experiment was designed to t e s t the assump-t i o n of a d i r e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p between stimulus ambiguity Ik and the extent of p e r s o n a l i t y f a c t o r s revealed i n evoked fan t a s y . U t i l i z i n g the 15 cards, Kenny and B i j o u (1953) obtained responses from 18 male c o l l e g e students. The s t o r i e s were then analyzed by two c l i n i c i a n s who judged the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the p e r s o n a l i t y f a c t o r s i n j e c t e d i n t o the themes. The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t , w i t h the increase i n stimulus ambiguity, there i s f i r s t an increase i n the extent of p e r s o n a l i t y f a c t o r s revealed i n the fa n t a s y , and then a decrease. The cards of medium ambiguity appeared to be most u s e f u l i n e l i c i t i n g p e r s o n a l i t y f a c t o r s i n the TAT s t o r i e s . I t was a l s o noted th a t w i t h the i n s t r u c t i o n s h e l d constant, the cards from the second, s e r i e s (1 and above) did. not r e v e a l more i n f o r m a t i o n about p e r s o n a l i t y than d i d the cards from the f i r s t s e r i e s . This f i n d i n g was con t r a r y to Murray's c l a i m that the second s e r i e s of the TAT cards i s more ambiguous than the f i r s t . Employing Weisskopf's transcend-ence i n d i c e s , as another measure of p e r s o n a l i t y f a c t o r s i n fa n t a s y s t o r i e s , Kenny (195^) i n a t h i r d study, i n v e s t i g a t e d the r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h i s measure and stimulus ambiguity. He a l s o made an attempt to see how transcendence i n d i c e s v a r i e d as a f u n c t i o n of p h y s i c a l ambiguity, stimulus ambiguity (which i n v o l v e s a combination of both p s y c h o l o g i c a l and p h y s i c a l p r o p e r t i e s ) , and. p s y c h o l o g i c a l ambiguity. The f i n d i n g s support Weisskopf's assumption that the extent of p e r s o n a l i t y m a t e r i a l revealed i n the TAT p i c t u r e i s c o r r e l a t e d w i t h the transcendence index of the p i c t u r e . I t was a l s o shown t h a t w i t h an increase i n p s y c h o l o g i c a l ambiguity there i s an i n i t i a l i ncrease i n transcendence, f o l l o w e d by a decrease. However, increas e s i n p h y s i c a l ambiguity were not accompanied by increas e s i n transcendence i n d i c e s . F i n a l l y , i n agreement w i t h the previous f i n d i n g s , the second s e r i e s of cards d i d not e l i c i t higher transcendence i n d i c e s than the f i r s t . M urstein (1958) by u t i l i z i n g B i j o u and Kenny's 1951 rankings of ambiguity of the male s e r i e s of cards, s u b s t a n t i a t -ed t h e i r f i n d i n g s that the moderately-ambiguous cards produced the most TAT themes. In another study, Murstein (1958) had 12 female subjects rank a female s e r i e s of 20 cards f o r both "psychologi-c a l ambiguity" and "pleasantness". H i s r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e that the more ambiguous the TAT card and the more pleasant the stimulus p r o p e r t i e s , the more pleasant the emotional tone of TAT s t o r y w i l l be. In a d d i t i o n , he found th a t the more s t r u c t u r e d p i c t u r e s are u s u a l l y n e g a t i v e l y toned, showing a tendency to e l i c i t unpleasant themes. In a more recent a r t i c l e by Murstein (1959), s e v e r a l s t u d i e s d e a l i n g w i t h the v a r i a t i o n s of the stimulus are reported. The f i n d i n g s of h i s survey can be summarized as f o l l o w s : 1. No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n transcendence were found between hazy TAT p i c t u r e s and un-a l t e r e d ones. 2. V a r i e d i l l u m i n a t i o n of the cards d i d not a f f e c t the p r o d u c t i v i t y of responses, but there i s a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between the i n c r e a s i n g degrees of darkness and pleasantness of a s s o c i a t i o n . 16 3. Continued exposure a f t e r 5 seconds has n e g l i g i b l e e f f e c t s . k. Neither a l t e r a t i o n of the background, or changes i n the c e n t r a l f i g u r e produces a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t on the responses. In a d i s c u s s i o n concerning ambiguity, Murstein proposes t h a t medium-ambiguity may stem from the t a s k of p e r c e i v i n g what i s i n the p i c t u r e or i t may r e f e r to the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of what i s c l e a r l y perceived. He a l s o p o i n t s out t h a t an i n s p e c t i o n of the medium ambiguity TAT cards r e v e a l s t h a t the objects i n the p i c t u r e s seems f a i r l y c l e a r , but what i s vague i s u n c e r t a i n t y as to the f e e l i n g s that the c h a r a c t e r s i n the p i c t u r e s seem to be experiencing. Since these s t u d i e s show that TAT s t o r i e s are i n part a f u n c t i o n of the stimulus p r o p e r t i e s of the card i t i s c l e a r that the r o l e of the stimulus i n determining the s t o r y needs to be assessed i n the c l i n i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of TAT s t o r i e s . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , the l i t e r a t u r e t h a t has been reviewed here has o f f e r e d l i t t l e i n the way of an e m p i r i c a l approach toward the q u a n t i f i c a t i o n of the s t i m u l u s , even though there i s general agreement th a t t h i s type of informa-t i o n i s e s s e n t i a l f o r o b j e c t i v e l y meaningful i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of thematic responses. The i n i t i a l phase of such an approach i s attempted i n the present study. More s p e c i f i c a l l y t h i s study attempts to define the stimulus p r o p e r t i e s of TAT cards i n terms of the perceptual responses they evoke. CHAPTER I I I METHOD (a) Materials The materials used i n the study consisted of a l l but f i v e of the complete set of TAT cards. Card 7GF was omitted because of i t s apparent l i m i t e d c l i n i c a l use. Cards 13B and 13G were not used because of th e i r u n s u i t a b i l i t y for adult subjects. Card 12F was excluded on the basis of i t s frequent appearance i n various publications. Because of the t o t a l absence of stimulus cues, the blank card 16 was of no value i n t h i s research since the subjects were asked only to describe the pictures rather than to produce fantasy material. Thus, the following TAT cards were used: I , 2, 3BM, 3 G F , 1+, 5, 6BM, 6GF, 7BM, 8BM, 8GF, 9BM, 9GF, 10, I I , 12M, 12BG, 13MF, Ik, 15, 17BM, 17GF, 18BM, 18GF, 19, 20. (b) Selection of 'Subjects To obtain the categorization (perceptual) responses evoked, by the given TAT cards, a sample of f o r t y i n s t i t u t i o n -a l i z e d patients, severely disturbed, psychoneurotic but non-psychotic, was drawn from Crease C l i n i c , where the maximum allowable period of i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n i s four months. In order that t h i s disturbed group be somewhat comparable to the normal group used i n Harvey's study, an attempt was made to 18 l i m i t the age range and educational l e v e l of the su b j e c t s . Because of t h i s r e s t r i c t i o n and time l i m i t a t i o n s , an homogenous d i a g n o s t i c group could not be obtained n e c e s s i -t a t i n g the i n c l u s i o n of eleven a l c o h o l i c s . A d e s c r i p t i o n of the n o s o l o g i c a l groups and the number of i n d i v i d u a l s i n each group i s shown i n Table X I , Appendix B. The normal subjects were s e l e c t e d from students i n the Vancouver V o c a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t e . Table X I I , Appendix B, summarizes the age and education l e v e l s of both groups. There were no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between the two groups w i t h respect to education. (c.) Procedure Each subject was seen i n d i v i d u a l l y and the e n t i r e twenty-six cards were presented i n one session of about 30-^0 minutes. I t was explained to the subjects t h a t they were being asked to help provide data f o r a research p r o j e c t and that the r e s u l t s were i n no way to be u t i l i z e d by the h o s p i t a l . The order of pre s e n t a t i o n of the cards f o l l o w e d the s e r i e s l i s t e d by Murray (19^3) i n h i s manual. The i n s t r u c t i o n s d i f f e r e d from the t r a d i t i o n a l ones i n t h a t the subjects were asked to describe what they saw i n the p i c t u r e r a t h e r than to make up a s t o r y about them. The subjects were provided w i t h a copy of the i n s t r u c t i o n s to f o l l o w w h i l e they were being read aloud by the examiner. These i n s t r u c t i o n s are reproduced i n Appendix C. In response to any questions, the examiner repeated or rephrased the , 19 p e r t i n e n t parts of the i n s t r u c t i o n s . When the subject's understanding of the task was a s c e r t a i n e d , the examiner presented the cards one at a time f o r twenty seconds and recorded the responses verbatum. (d) Development of the Categories The t o t a l responses from both the normal and abnormal groups were pooled, and a l l of the e i g h t y perceptual r e a c t i o n s to each i n d i v i d u a l card were examined, by Dr. Kenny. I n i t i a l groupings were obtained, by reading a l l of the responses to an i n d i v i d u a l card and noting w i t h a word, or phrase the content of each d i f f e r e n t card d e s c r i p t i o n . From these notes Dr. Kenny i n conjunction w i t h the examiners constructed headings t h a t were intended to r e f l e c t the main theme or content of the perceptual responses. Card, d e s c r i p t i o n s of an e s s e n t i a l l y s i m i l a r nature were entered under the appropriate headings. This process of a n a l y z i n g the responses provided a number of e m p i r i c a l l y derived c a t e -g o r i e s f o r each of the twenty-six cards. The c a t e g o r i e s were c l a r i f i e d or d e f i n e d by using example statements from the p r o t o c o l s . In the process of developing r e l i a b l e c a t e g o r i e s , the examiners conducted s i x t e s t s of r e l i a b i l i t y . Each person assigned the responses of the same ten s u b j e c t s , (using new subjects f o r each of the t e s t s ) , to the c a t e g o r i e s and the r e s u l t s were compared. A f t e r each r e l i a b i l i t y study, areas of disagreement i n the assignment of responses to the 20 c a t e g o r i e s were examined, and the c a t e g o r i e s r e d e f i n e d and c l a r i f i e d where necessary i n order to e l i m i n a t e the d i s p a r i t y . Subsequently, r u l e s governing the assignment of the responses to the c a t e g o r i e s were developed, p a r t i c u l a r l y to standardize the c a t e g o r i z a t i o n of m u l t i p l e percept responses. The c a t e g o r i e s , t h e i r d e f i n i t i o n s and the r u l e s governing t h e i r use are reproduced i n Appendix D. The assignment of the responses to these c a t e g o r i e s was then c a r r i e d out i n d i v i d u a l l y by the examiners f o r t h e i r own s u b j e c t s , and response frequencies f o r each category were determined. CHAPTER IV RESULTS (a) Interscorer R e l i a b i l i t y In a l l , s i x r e l i a b i l i t y studies were performed. In each study 5 protocols from each of the groups (normal and abnormal) were selected at random and the responses were then assigned independently to the categories by the examiners. The degree to which the examiners agreed i n the i r assignment of the responses to the categories was then determined. I t was during t h i s process that a good deal of elucidation of the categories was found to be necessary. In addition, the rules mentioned above were developed to serve as guides i n order to achieve a standard method of assignment. The f i r s t f i v e t r i a l s showed the following percentages of agreement: 8 6 . 5 , 8 l . 5 , 8 3 - 5 , 84 . 6 , 8 3 . 8 , i n that order. After the f i n a l r e v i s i o n of the categories, s p e c i f i c a t i o n of the general r u l e s , and c l a r i f i -cation of the category descriptions, t h i s figure rose to 91. These r e s u l t s indicate that not only can categories be formed empirically but also that the assignment of perceptual reactions to the categories can be done with a r e l a t i v e l y high degree of r e l i a b i l i t y . 22 (b) Response Frequencies and the D i f f e r e n c e s between Groups The t o t a l responses f o r a l l of the f o r t y subjects were assigned to the appropriate c a t e g o r i e s and a frequency count was made. Chi squares were then computed to determine the d i f f e r e n c e between the response frequencies of the normals and the abnormals f o r each category. Table X I I I presents the c a t e g o r i e s , frequencies f o r both groups and the computed c h i squares. An examination of these r e s u l t s shows only a small number of s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between the response frequencies of the normal and abnormal groups. The cards showing s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between the groups i n at l e a s t one category were: 1, 2, 5, 7BM, 8BM, 9GF, 12BG, ih, 15, 17BM, 17GF, 19, and 20. The most frequent category i n which s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were obtained was i n the d e s c r i p t i v e category. Cards No. 1, 2, 5> 1*+, 15, 17BM, 19, and 20 a l l showed d i f f e r e n c e s i n the d e s c r i p t i v e category at or beyond the 0 .05 l e v e l . In each case the abnormal group had the higher number of responses o i n the d e s c r i p t i v e category. Card 6BM showed a X d i f f e r e n c e of 6.8l i n the "other" category w i t h the abnormal group having the greater frequency. Two s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s occurred on card 7BM; the f i r s t produced a X of 6.k6 i n category 1 (Discussion) w i t h the greater frequency i n the abnormal group; the second d i f f e r e n c e was i n category 2 (Succorance from older Person) w i t h the normal group having p the greater frequency and the X being 9*30. This f i n d i n g TABLE X I I I D i f f e r e n c e s i n the Response Frequencies of Normal and Abnormal Subjects f o r each Category Card Number 1. 2. 3 BM 3 GF Frequency o Category N Ab X^ 1. I n t r a c e p t i o n 17 12 0.87 2. P a r e n t a l Pressure 2 0 0.51 3 . A s p i r a t i o n 5 1 1.62 k. Does Not want to study 12 9 0.26 5. Inadequacy 1 1 0 .00 6. Other 0 5 3.41 7. D e s c r i p t i o n 3 12 5 . 2 5 * 1. T o i l and Hardship 3 0 1.39 2. P e a c e f u l , c o n s t r u c t i v e 1 0 0.00 3. A s p i r a t i o n of G i r l 4 1 0.85 k. C o n f l i c t w i t h Parents 1 0 0.00 5 . Love 1 0 0.00 6. School or Student 15 7 3.07 7. Symbolic Content 0 2 0.51 8. Sadness 2 5 0.63 9. I n t r a c e p t i o n 2 5 0.63 10. Other 6 5 0 .00 11 . D e s c r i p t i o n 5 15 5.40* 1. Sorrow, G u i l t 22 22 0.00 2. Punishment Over wrong-doing 2 2 0.00 3 . S u i c i d e 5 3 0.14 4. Sleeping, T i r e d 3 3 0.00 5 . Sickness 0 1 0 .00 6. Person i n Trouble 2 1 0 .00 7. Other 4 1 0.85 8. D e s c r i p t i o n 2 7 2.00 1. Death or Loss 7 2 2.00 2. Bad News 2 1 0.00 3 . Sorrow 16 23 1.80 4. •Shocked by something she 4 has seen 6 0.11 5 . M a r i t a l or Romantic h F r u s t r a t i o n 1 0.85 6. Ashamed and Remorseful 0 1 0.00 7. Other 5 6 0.00 8. D e s c r i p t i o n 0 2 0.51 Card Frequency Number Category N Ab X 1. Comfort from Partner 3 k 0.00 2. Restraining or Reas-oning 5" l 1.62 3. Departure from Partner 3 h 0.00 k. Wanting Him to do some-thing he won't do 2 0.63 5. Begging forgiveness 1 0 0.00 6. Unrequited Love 2 1 0.00 7/ Restraining 3 h 0.00 8. Pleading 1 3 0.26 9. Argument 2 2 2.00 10. Conversation 3 8 " 1.69 11. Other 7 7 0.00 12 . Description 0 k 2.37 1. Surprise 14 3 1.57 2. Horror, Disapproval 0 l 0.00 3. Spying, Peeking 8 h 0.88 u. Looking for or Calling somebody 8 n 0.28 Looking for Thief 1 0 0.00 6. Curious or Inquisitive 1 1 0.00 7. Other 3 0 1.39 8. Descriptive 15 5".Uo 1. Confession to Parent Figure 10 6 0.70 2. Departure from Parent or Female 1 2 0.00 3. Parental or Authority Pressure or Disapproval 7 k 0.U2 U. Bearing, or Waiting for Bad news 7 5" 0.10 5. Receiving Consolation Succorance 1 1 0.00 6. Disappointment to Parent or Authority Figure 2 1 0.00 7. Parental Concern 2 1 0.00 8. Male Figure Concern 6 k 0.11 9. Both Figures Concerned k 3 0.00 10. Other 0 8 6.81 * 11. Description 0 $ 3.41 1. Surprise 17 17 0.00 2. Conversation 5" 10 1.31 3. Female Figure doing something Secret or E v i l i 0 0.00 - 3 - 25 Card Frequency Number Category N Ab X (cont) 6. GF 7. BM 8 BM 8 GF 9 BM u. Disinterest or Displeasure with Male Figure 1 1 0.00 5. Argument 2 0 o.5i 6. Counselling and Advising 2 0 o.5i 7. Questioning 1 0 0.00 8. Sly, Suspicious Intentions of Male Figure 3 0 1.39 9. Other 4 2 0.18 10. Description 4 10 2.16 1. Discussion 5 16 6.46 * 2. Succorance from Older Person 17 4. 9.30 * 3. Pressure or Rebuke to Younger Figure 2 1 0.00 U. Thinking, Listening or .Watching Something 3 3 0.00 5. Symbolism: Age and o.5i Youth 2 0 6. Advice Not Accepted 2 5 0.63 7. Dysphoric Mood 1 3 0.26 8. Other 1 2 2.00 9. Description 1 6 2.50 1. Operation 8 9 0.00 2. Aspiration 9 3 2.45 3. Aggression - Impersonal 8 5 0.37 4. Daydreaming 3 12 5.25 5. Aggression - Personal 9 5 0.78 6. Other 2 U 0.18 7/ De script ion 1 2 0.00 1. Dreaming, Thinking, Unspecified 16 20 o.U5 2. Dreaming, Thinking, Specified 11 4 2.95 3. Loneliness, Unhappiness Worried 3 3 0.00 u. Posing 2 1 0.00 Contentment 4 6 0.11 6. Love 2 1 0.00 7. Other 2 0 o.5i 8. Description 0 5 3.41 1. Resting - sleeping 15 18 0.21 2. Drunkeness 0 U 0.37 3. Death 2 0 o.5i 4. Tired, Exhausted 5 3 o.i4 5. Lazy 14 10 o.54 Card Frequency 2 Number Category N Ab X (Cont) 9 BM 9 G-F 10. 11. 12 M 12 BG 6, Trouble 2 0 0.51 7. Other 2 3 0.00 8. Description 0 2 0.51 1. Spying 5 6 0.00 2. Escape 20 10 4.32 * 3. Conflict Between The Two Women 2 3 0.00 4. Anger 0 2 0.51 5. Fear 2 3 0.00 6 . Hurry 2 0.63 7. Other 4 3 0.00 8. Description 5 8 0.37 1. Departure from Partner 4 2 0.18 2. Love 21 21 0.00 3. Sorrow 5 4 0.00 4. Comfort 1 6 2.50 5. Dancing 1 2 0.00 6. Conversation 4 2 0.18 7. Other 2 1 0.00 8. Description 2 2 0.00 1. Escape from Peril.or Animal 2 0 0.51 2. Aggression Towards Peers 2 0 0.51 3. Aggression from Impers-onal Source 1 0 0.00 U. Unreal, Fantastic 3 0 1.39 5. Animal Specified 11 11 0.00 6. Prehistoric Times 9 6 0.33 7. Other 2 0.63 8. Description 10 18 2.69 1. Hypnosis 19 14 . 0.83 2. Sickness, Illness or Death 5 4 0.00 3. Praying 7 6 0.00 u. Sleeping 3 3 0.00 5. Sinister 2 3 0.00 6. Talking 0 2 0.51 7. Other 2 0.63 8. Description 2 .3 0.00 1. Serenity 9 0.78 2. Spring or Summer 7 12 1.10 3. Snow 5 4 2.37 u. Reference to People 11 3 4.24 * 5. Other 4 1 0.85 - 5 -27 Card Number Frequency Category N Ab X 6. Description 9 15 1.49 1. Death or Sickness of Partner 8 2 2.86 2. Aggression Toward Part-ner 8 4 0.88 3. Sorrow over Illness or Death of Partner 9 9 0.00 4. Sorrow: No Explanation 2 4 0.18 Remorse or Guilt 3 3 0.00 6. Love Conflict 0 1 0.00 7. Rape 0 l 0.00 8. Man Has Had or is Contem-plating Heterosexual o.5i Relation With Woman 2 0 9. Other 4 5 0.00 D. Description 4 i i 2.95 1. Looking, Gazing at Something 12 24 6.11 * 2. Intraception 12 3 5.25 3. Loneliness 0 1 0.00 u. Suicide 2 2 0.00 5. Escape u 2 0.18 6. Favourable Environment 3 0 1.39 7. Aspiration 4 0 2.37 8. Other 3 1 0.26 9. Description 0 7 5.64 * 1. Death U 2 1.25 2. Loneliness 3 0 1.39 3. Figure Represents Under-taker, etc. 4 1 ' 0.85 4. Unreal or E v i l Figure 12 9 0.26 5. Religion 3 3 0.00 6. Mourning 3 3 0.00 7. Dysphoric Setting 2 6 1.25 8. Other 7 8 0.00 9. Description 0 8 6.81 * 1. Self-esteem 4 2 0.18 2. Exhibition 3 1 0.26 3. Escape 9 3 2.45 . 4. Physical Strength lU 17 0.21 5. Other 6 1 2.50 6. Description 4 16 8.07 ** (Cont$- 12 BG 13 MF 14 15. 17 BM - 6.- 28 Card Frequency Number Category N Ab X_ 17 GF 18 BM 18. GF 19 20 2 1. Men Working 12 24 6.11 * 2. Suicide 3 2 0.00 3. Slavery 6 1 2.5o 4. Piracy 1 1 0.00 5. Something Disastrous 3 0 1.39 6. Symbolic Contrast 2 0 o.5i 7. Other 9 2 3.79 8. Description 4 10 2.16 1. Escape 3 3 0.00 2. Suicide 2. 1 : 0.00 3. Restraining or Arresting Figure 13 7 1.67 4. Fear or Shock 4 0 2.37 5. Aggression Toward Peer 7 14 2.32 6. Drunkeness 6 2 o.5i 7. Helping 7 8 0.00 8. Other 4 1 0.85 9. Description 0 4 2.37 1. Strangling, K i l l i n g 10 7 0.30 2. Illness 7 7 0.00 3. Accident 3 4 0.00 4. Comfort 5 0.00 5. Grief or Unhappiness 7 5 0.10 6. Other 9 0.78 7. Description 3 3 0.00 1. Cold Weather, Winter 3 2 0.00 2. Storm 15 8 2.20 3. Refers to Person in Picture 5 3 0.14 4. Abstract 6 8 0.09 5. Unreal 6 3 o.5o 6. Other 2 3 0.00 7. Description 3 13 6.33 * 1. Waiting 6 4 0.11 2. Aggression 7 0 .5.64 -A-3. Contemplation 4 0 2.37 4. Loneliness 12 3 5.25 * 5. Other U 7 0.42 6. Description 7 26 16.71 ** * S i g n i f i c a n t at the .05 l e v e l . • • S i g n i f i c a n t at the .01 l e v e l . 2 9 i s another i n d i c a t i o n of c o n s t r i c t i o n on the part of the i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d , s u b ject. On card. 8BM, the abnormals made s i g n i f i c a n t l y more use of the ra t h e r general category of Daydreaming (Category 4) than d i d the normal group. The X 2 was 5 . 2 5 . The responses f a l l i n g i n t o category 2 (Escape) on card 90F were s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher f o r the normal group and achieved a X of 4 . 3 2 . Card 12BG responses, - category 4 (Reference to people) y i e l d e d a X d i f f e r e n c e of 4.24 w i t h the normals having greater frequency than abnormals. Two s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were found on card. 14: category 1 ( l o o k i n g , gazing at Something) being more h e a v i l y loaded w i t h abnormal group responses, whereas category 2 ( I n t r a -c e p t i on) revealed, higher frequency of normal group responses. The X were 7.11 and 5 . 2 5 r e s p e c t i v e l y . These d i f f e r e n c e s a l s o support the tendency of the abnormal group to make greater use of the more general c a t e g o r i e s . A s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher number of the abnormal group responses were found i n category 1 (Men Working) card 17GF. The X d i f f e r i n g was 6.11. On card 20, the abnormal group made no use of category 2 (Aggression), whereas the normal subjects gave a r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e number of responses to t h i s category. The comparison y i e l d e d a X 2 of £>.64. Category 4 (Lonelin e s s ) of the same card was a l s o more f r e q u e n t l y used by the normal group, w i t h a X 2 of 5 . 2 5 . 30 (c) A n a l y s i s of responses f o r number of percepts Each of the responses was then examined i n order to determine the number of d i f f e r e n t percepts each contained. The responses c o n t a i n i n g only one percept were counted f o r each card and a comparison of these t o t a l s was made w i t h those of the normal group. The r e s u l t s of t h i s comparison, shown i n Table XIV i n d i c a t e a tendency f o r the abnormal group to e l i c i t more s i n g l e percept responses, although there are only 9 s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between the two groups. These s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s appear on cards: 3BM, 6GF, 8GF, 9GF, 12BG, 13MF, lk9 19, and 20. In a l l but one of the cards the abnormal group produced a l a r g e r number of s i n g l e percept responses. 31 TABLE XIV . D i f f e r e n c e s i n the Number of Responses C o n t a i n i n g 0 - 1 Percepts  Between Normal and Abnormal Subjects Number of Number of ; Card No. 0 - 1 responses 0 - 1 responses X f o r normals f o r abnormals 1 . 2 2 28 1 . 3 3 2 . 18 2k 1 . 2 5 3BM. Ik 26 6.05* 3GP. 15 2k 3 . 2 0 1 2 1 8 1 . 3 3 5 . 28 33 1 . 1 0 6BM. 6 Ik 3 . 2 7 6 G P . 16 29 7 . 3 1 * * 7BM. 16 16 0 . 0 0 8BM. 15 2 1 1.26 8GP. il*. 3 1 1 3 . 0 0 - : : - - : : -9BM. 1 0 1 9 3.14-6 9GP. 1 0 2 0 I | - . 3 2 - : : -1 0 . 18 2 5 1.81 1 1 . 29 3 6 2 . 9 5 12M. 2 2 16 1 . 2 5 12BG. 2k 3 7 9 . 9 4 * * 1 3 M P . 13 2 6 7.20-::--::-llj.. 1 1 37 3 2 . 5 5 * * 15. 23 2 7 . 4 8 1 7 B M . 26 31 . 9 8 17GP. 30 3k . 7 0 TABLE XIV Card No. Number of 0-1 responses for normals Number of 0-1 responses for abnormals X 18 BM 18 GF 19 20 10 15 23 21 18 16 37 34. 2.69 0.00 11.27 8.35 ** * Significant at .05 level •»* Significant at .01 level CHAPTER V DISCUSSION [Since the main o b j e c t i v e of t h i s research was to develop e m p i r i c a l l y derived c a t e g o r i e s from perceptual responses to the TAT, t h i s study appears to have been q u i t e s u c c e s s f u l . I t has a l s o been shown that the assignment of the perceptual responses to these c a t e g o r i e s can be done w i t h a f a i r l y high degree of r e l i a b i l i t y . However, the generation of w e l l - d e f i n e d and i n c l u s i v e c a t e g o r i e s proved to be no simple task. One of the most perplexing problems encountered was t h a t of the treatment of responses c o n t a i n i n g two or more percepts. Although the cards were presented f o r only twenty seconds, t h i s l i m i t e d exposure seemed to have l i t t l e i n h i b i t i n g e f f e c t on the number of perceptual responses given by many of the su b j e c t s . The r u l e s governing the s e l e c t i o n of c a t e g o r i e s shown i n Appendix C were developed to l e s s e n the confusion on t h i s p o i n t . An e f f o r t was made to keep the r u l e s from becoming cumbersome and to l i m i t them to a p r a c t i c a l number. In order to minimize the use of the "Other" category and to f a c i l i t a t e the s t a n d a r d i z i n g of the c a t e g o r i z a t i o n process, a ranking or weighting of the c a t e g o r i e s on c e r t a i n cards was found to be necessary. This procedure i s admittedly more s u b j e c t i v e than i s d e s i r a b l e 3^ and i s j u s t i f i e d mainly because of i t s pragmatic value i n establishing r e l i a b i l i t y . These weightings were determined on the basis of what the authors f e l t to be the degree of emotional content i n the response. That i s , the higher the emotional charge of the percept, the more dominant that p a r t i c u l a r part of the response would be. Thus, responses containing more than one percept were assigned to the category of the higher emotional weighting. On card 3BM for example, a response ascribing either sorrow or fatigue to the figure would go into the sorrow category because of i t s higher emotional content. These weightings were considered only when the other rules did not apply. Their use was purely for the f a c i l i t a t i o n of r e l i a b l e categorizing and not intended to imply a measure of c l i n i c a l significance for the d i f f e r e n t categories. The achievement of the comparatively high r e l i a b i l i t y would, i n part, j u s t i f y t h i s procedure. Because our responses to the TAT were obtained from card descriptions, a d i r e c t comparison with other studies may be less meaningful since most previous research u t i l i z e d story material. I t i s in t e r e s t i n g to note, however, that i n Wittenborn's (1950) study the roles ascribed to the figures i n the responses shown i n Table , reveal a rather high degree of s i m i l a r i t y to many of our empirically derived categories. The apperceptive norms of Rosenzwige and Flemming (19^+7) also p a r a l l e l our findings to some extent. 35 The r e s u l t s of the comparison of response frequencies between normal and abnormal subjects showed the expected e s s e n t i a l s i m i l a r i t y i n content. In the few s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s found, there was a greater tendency towards d e s c r i p t i v e responses among the abnormal subje c t s . Further a n a l y s i s of the perceptual responses produced r e l a t i v e l y small number of s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between the groups i n the number of n i l and s i n g l e percepts t h a t were e l i c i t e d by each card. I t was shown, however, th a t i n a l l but one of the cards the abnormal group gave fewer m u l t i p l e responses. I t was a l s o noted t h a t while the content of the responses was b a s i c a l l y the same f o r both groups, the abnormals were much more c o n s t r i c t e d i n t h e i r mode of expression. This d i f f e r e n c e i n the q u a l i t y of responses between normals and abnormals i s a common f i n d i n g . In the main, however, i t would appear t h a t the abnormal subjects perceive the stimulus cues i n the TAT very much i n the same way as do normal subj e c t s . I t would t h e r e f o r e seem to be more meaningful to look f o r d i f f e r e n c e s i n other dimensions of the perceptual r e a c t i o n s . In the next phase of the research o u t l i n e d by Kenny (1959) the subjects w i l l be provided w i t h a c h e c k l i s t of the main c r i t i c a l c a t e g o r i e s and asked to check t h a t category which they t h i n k best describes what they see i n a given TAT card, a q u a n t i t a t i v e index of the ambiguity f o r each thematic card can then be obtained by the a p p l i c a t i o n of the u n c e r t a i n t y measure to the data. This method of d e f i n i n g ambiguity has two advantages: 1. i t takes i n t o account the problem of 36 weighting the p r o p o r t i o n of subjects who give d i f f e r e n t c a t e g o r i z a t i o n r e a c t i o n s ; 2. providing the subjects w i t h c a t e g o r i e s d e r i v e d from card d e s c r i p t i o n s seems to de f i n e the ambiguity of the thematic cards i n terms of stimulus (perceptual) ambiguity r a t h e r than i n terms of themata thus more d i r e c t l y r e l a t i n g the p i c t u r e s t i m u l i to the perceptual r e a c t i o n s . This new index of ambiguity can then be employed i n f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between p e r s o n a l i t y revealingness and the ambiguity of the stimulus. The present study has t h e r e f o r e been done i n order to provide the e m p i r i c a l l y derived c a t e g o r i e s as a f i r s t step i n t h i s programme of research. CHAPTER VI SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS This study i s concerned w i t h the i n i t i a l phase of a programme of research d e a l i n g w i t h the stimulus f a c t o r s i n the TAT. The primary purpose of the present study was t o ca t e g o r i z e perceptual r e a c t i o n s to the TAT cards. I t s secondary aim was t h a t of comparing the perceptual responses given by an abnormal group w i t h those produced by a normal group i n a p a r a l l e l study. I n t h i s research perceptual responses to 26 TAT cards were obtained from kO i n s t i t u t i o n a l -i z e d s u b j e c t s . U t i l i z i n g these p r o t o c o l s , and those obtained from a normal group, e m p i r i c a l l y d e r i v e d perceptual c a t e g o r i e s were developed. The perceptual responses were then assigned to these c r i t i c a l c a t e g o r i e s . Several r e l i a b i l i t y s t u d i e s were c a r r i e d out w h i l e the ca t e g o r i e s were being r e v i s e d and c e r t a i n r u l e s regarding the assignment of responses to the c a t e g o r i e s were developed. A f t e r the f i n a l r e v i s i o n an i n t e r - j u d g e r e l i a b i l i t y of 91 was e s t a b l i s h e d . The responses were then assigned to the appropriate c a t e g o r i e s and a frequency count was made f o r both normals and abnormals. Chi squares were computed to determine d i f f e r e n c e s between the two groups on frequency of response 38 f o r each category. The small number of s i g n i f i c a n t C h i square d i f f e r e n c e s i n d i c a t e s t h a t there i s e s s e n t i a l l y no d i f f e r e n c e i n the perceptual r e a c t i o n s to TAT cards between the normal and abnormal groups. However, the p a t i e n t group d i d tend to give more d e s c r i p t i v e responses than the normals. The perceptual r e a c t i o n s were f u r t h e r analysed to determine the number of percepts each response contained. C h i squares were again computed showing that although r e l a t i v e l y few s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were found between the groups i n the number of s i n g l e and m u l t i p l e percept responses,.the abnormal group c o n s i s t e n t l y produced a higher number of s i n g l e percept responses. 'Since i t was p o s s i b l e to develop r e l i a b l e perceptual c a t e g o r i e s , the study as a whole appears to have been f a i r l y s u c c e s s f u l i n l a y i n g the foundation f o r the o r i g i n a l l y out-l i n e d program of research. BIBLIOGRAPHY B i j o u , S.W. and Kenny, D.T. The ambiguity values of TAT cards. J . c o n s u l t . Psychol., 1951, 15, 203-209. Coleman, W. The Thematic Apperception Test. I E f f e c t of recent experience. I I Some q u a n t i t a t i v e observations. J . c l i n .  P sychol., 1914-7, 3 , 257-261}.. Dana, R.H. S e l e c t i o n of abbreviated TAT s e t s . J . C l i n . Psychol., 1956, 12, " 3 6 - 2 4 . 0 . Eron, L.D. A normative study of the Thematic Apperception Test. Psychol. Monogr., 1950, 61+, ( 9 ) , No. 315. Eron, L.D, Terry, D. and Callahan, R. The use of r a t i n g s c a l e s f o r emotional tone of TAT s t o r i e s . J . c o n s u l t .  Psychol., 1950, l i | . , L|.73-lj.78. G u r e l , L. and "Oilman, L.P. Q u a n t i t a t i v e d i f f e r e n c e s i n responses to TAT cards: the r e l a t i o n s h i p between transcendence score and number of emotional words. J. p r o j . Tech., 1958, 22, 399-14-01. Harvey, E.M. The c a t e g o r i z a t i o n of pe r c e p t u a l r e a c t i o n s to the Thematic Apperception Test cards. Unpublished Masters t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I960. Kenny, D.T. Transcendence i n d i c e s , extent of p e r s o n a l i t y f a c t o r s i n fantasy responses and ambiguity of TAT ca.rds. J . c o n s u l t . Psychol., 1951+, 18, 31+5-3^8. Kenny, D.T. T h e o r e t i c a l and research r e a p p r a i s a l of stimulus f a c t o r s i n the TAT. Unpublished paper d e l i v e r e d to symposium at Pels Research I n s t i t u t e , Antioch College, June, 1959. Kenny, D.T. and B i j o u , S.W. Ambiguity of p i c t u r e s and extent of p e r s o n a l i t y f a c t o r s i n fantasy responses. J . c o n s u l t . Psychol., 1953, 17, 283-288. Knehr, C.N. V i c k e r y , A. and Guy, M. Problem-action responses and emotions i n the Thematic Apperception Test s t o r i e s recounted by a l c o h o l i c p a t i e n t s . J . Psychol., 1953, 35 , 201-226. Lebo, D. and Harrigan, M. V i s u a l and v e r b a l p r e s e n t a t i o n of TAT s t i m u l i . J . c o n s u l t . Psychol.. 1957, 21, 339-31+2. I t O Lindzey, G. and Goldberg, M.J. M o t i v a t i o n a l d i f f e r e n c e s between male and female as measured by the Thematic Apperception T e s t . J . Person., 1953-54-* 22, 101-117. Murray, H.A. Thematic Apperception T e s t . Cambridge: Harvard U n i v e r s i t y Press, 194-3 • Murstein, B.I. A conceptual model of p r o j e c t i v e techniques a p p l i e d to stimulus v a r i a t i o n s with thematic t e c h n i q u e s . J . c o n s u l t . P s y c h o l . , 1959., 23, 3-14-. Murstein, B.I. The r e l a t i o n s h i p of stimulus ambiguity on the TAT to p r o d u c t i v i t y of themes. J . c o n s u l t . Psychol., 1958b, 22, 34-8. Murstein, B.I. NonprojectIve determinants of p e r c e p t i o n on the TAT. J . c o n s u l t . P s y c h o l . . 1958a, 22, 195-198. Rosenzweig, S. and Plemming, E. Apperceptive norms f o r the Thematic Apperception Test I I An e m p i r i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n . J . Person., 1949, 17, 4-83-503. Terry, D. The use of a r a t i n g s c a l e o f l e v e l of response i n TAT s t o r i e s . J . ab. soc. Ps y c h o l . , 1952, 4-7, 507-511. Ullmann, L.P. P r o d u c t i v i t y and the c l i n i c a l use of the TAT ca r d s . J . p r o j . Tech., 1957, 21, 339-4-03. Weisskopf, E.A. A transcendence index as a proposed measure i n the TAT. J . P s y c h o l . , 1950, 29, 379-390. Wittenborn, J.R. The i m p l i c a t i o n s o f c e r t a i n assumptions i n v o l v i n g the use of the Thematic Apperception T e s t . J . c o n s u l t . P s y c h o l . , 1950, 14-, 216-225. APPENDIX A -TABLE I Predominant Emotional Tone of Interpretive Responses to Each Picture (Coleman, 1947) Picture Plot Ending Unhappy Neutral Happy Unhappy Neutral Happy 18GF 31 - - 16 5 8 6BM 30 4 - 15 5 10 18BM 18 - - 10 l 7 14 22 4 1 6 4 16 3GF 29 - 2 8 4 17 5BM 28 l 2 10 3 18 20 14 3 1 3 3 10 6GF 18 9 ' 2 6 2 20 19 18 - 2 4 - 17 1 17 7 2 4 3 18 13B 17 4 3 4 6 12 7BM 21 6 4 4 6 18 4 16 5 4 5 6 12 11 4 l 1 l - 5 2 14 7 5 5 5 13 16 (in set A) 15 4 6 4 l 20 8GF 13 5 6 4 5 12 13G 13 4 7 4 4 15 7GF 19 5 12 3 5 26 16 (in set B) 10 367 2 71 9 59 4 120 68 i l 291 43 TABLE II Rank Order of Pictures on the Basis of Number of Themes  which each E l i c i t s (Eron, 1950) Stimulatory Picture Number of value Themes 1 13 MF 456 2 20 421 3 18 BM 413 U 6 BM 395 5 3 BM 373 6 4 . 361 7 12 M 352 8 15 340 9 7 BM 316 io.5 10 301 io.5 17 BM 301 12 8 BM 287 13 9 BM 273 Iii 14 264 15 5 ' 255 16 2 239 17 1 237 18 19 225 19 11 202 20 16 199 TABLE III Mean Rating of Emotional Tone of TAT Cards (Eron, et a l . , 1950) Card Rating ' Men Women Rank •Men Order Women 1 +0.06 -0.48 18 11 2 -0.18 -0.46 13 12.5 3 -i.5o -1.48 1 4 4 -1.02 -1.02 7 6 5 -o.5o -0.38 11 15.5 6 -1,20 -0.44 4 14 7 -0.60 -0.28 10 17 8 -0.12 -0.08 15 19 9 0.00 -l.o6 17 5 10 -o.i4 -0.46 14 12.5 11 0.72 -0.86 9 7 12 -0.90 -0.66 8 10 13 -1.44 -1.82 2 l 14 +0.10 -0.02 19 20 15 -1.34 -1.76 3 J3 16 -0.06 -0.16 16 18 17 +0.22 -0.70 20 9 18 -1.08 -1.78 5 2 19 -0.24 -0.38 12 15.5 20 -1.04 -0.72 6 8 A rank of 1 signifies that the mean rating for the card i s the highest in the negative direction, i.e. the saddest. A rank of 20 means that the mean rating of the card i s the least sad of the 20 cards. TABLE IV Cards, Frequency of Use (FrU), Number of Examiners Using (#Ex), and Median Number of Emotional Words Per Card (Mdn.EW) for 175 Protocols. (Ullman, 1957) Card FrU #Ex Mdn.EW 1 153 3h 5.5o 2 io4 30 4.77 3 147 3U 5.61* 4 155 3k 6.56 5 72 28 3.5o 6 157 31* 7.63 7 1U2 33 5.81 8 91 30 4.42 10 68 26 3.70 11 33 18 2.8o 12 122 33 4.09 13 154 35 5.37 Hi 70 25 3.17 15 34 18 4.50 16 Ul 17 3.50 17 69 26 3.08 18 88 30 5.31 19 18 10 2.88 20 48 22 4.38 TABLE V Mean Level of Response Ratings and Rank of each Card. (Terry 1952) Card Mean Rank 1 10.1 13 •2 11.7 3 3GF 11.6 4 4 io.4 11 5 9.2 18 6GF 10.2 12 7GF 11.1 6 8GF 10.0 14.5 9GF 10.9 7 10 ii.4 ,5 11 8.4 20 12F 12.0 1 13MF 10.8 8 14 9.8 16.5 15 10.6 9 . 16 10.0 iii.5 17GF io.5 10 18GF 11.9 2 . 19 8.5 19 20 9.8 16.5 TABLE VI A Classification of the Response of One Hundred Students to certain TAT Cards (Wittenborn 1950) Response Group Card . Figures Role Ascribed i n Response Number Frequency 7 BM Boy Impetuous 1 18 Compliant 2 28 Conflict 3 18 Man Objective and sympathetic 4 60 7 GF G i r l Accepting guidance 5 35 Resistant 6 27 Mother Pressing 7 20 Tolerant 8 51 4 Man Hostile fighter 9 36 Conflict 10 26 Woman E v i l 11 26 Good 12 67 6 GF Man Friendly 13 33 Suspicious 14 22 Preying 15 34 Woman E v i l 16 24 Good 17 66 6 BM Mother Sad, shocked, unrealistic 18 68 Man Bearing sad news 19 45 Confessing guilt 20 17 Emancipation 21 26 2 Eternal triangle 21 20 Conflict 23 20 Peaceful Constructive 24 21 9 BM Workers 25 49 Idlers 26 35 13 MF Woman Good 27 4o Temptress 28 19 Innocent 29 26 Man Guilty over violence 30 24 Guilty over neglect • 31 29 Sex conflict 32 18 TABLE VII Clusters of TAT Cards Securing'Similar Mean Ratings on Each of Seven Variables (Lindzey and Goldberg 1953) Variable High Mean Low Mean Weed Achievement 1,2 Ik 13MF,U,10,5,15 Need Aggression 13MF : 5,l5 4,1,2,10,lU Need Sex 13MF U 10 14,2,5 l 5 , l Need Nurturance 10,2 5,13MF,U l5,l,lU Need Abasement l5,13MF 10,4,lU 1,2,5 Narcism 13MF,l,U,2,l5,5,lU 10 Verbal Responsiveness 1,2,4, 5,l5,lU,13MF,10 TABLE VIII A Variations i n Behavioral Response Patterns induced by Different TAT Cards Shown by the Distribution of Frequencies Expressed as Per Cent (78 Patients) Card Number Behavioural response -1 2 4 5 10 n Aggressive Attack 1.3 - 2.6 3/8 1.3 26/9 Retribution or Revenge - - 2.6 2.6 - -Constructive Aggression 23.1 lll.O 19.2 7.7 5.1 10.3 Rational Approach 2.6 12.8 28.2 7.7 6.4 1.3 Sensuous Gratification - - 1.3 3.8 1.3 -Compromise 1.3 - - 1.3 - 1.3 Seeks Help 7.7 - 2.6 1.3 14-1 2.6 Passive Hostility 6.1 1.3 1.3 1.3 - -Anxious Suspension of Activity 3-5 - - 2.2 1.3 Acceptance of Situation 2.6 l U . l 1.3 2.05 24.4 5.1 Irrational, Ill-directed Activity - - 1.3 1.3 - 1.3 Submission 16.6 5.1 9.0 7.7 3.8 3.8 Avoidance - 1.3 2.6 6.3 1.3 -Resignation 7.7 7.7 5.1 9.0 12.8 3.8 Active Withdrawal 11.5 5.1 20.5 7.7 5.1 21.8 Suicide - - - 2.6 - -No Action 12.8 9.0 1.3 17.9 20.5 Alternative Actions • 2.6 1.3 1.3 _ (unresolved) The columns add to 10'C.O - a small error due to rounding of figures. - 2 - 50 TABLE VIII A (Cont.) Card Number Behavioural Response 13 14 15 16 19 20 Aggressive Attack 15.4 2.6 5.1 6.4 - n.5 Restribution or Revenge 1.3 1.3 3.8 2.6 1.3 -Constructive Aggression 10.3 12.8 7.7 6.4 3.8 5.1 Rational Approach 2.6 7.7 6.4 3.8 5.1 10.3 Sensuous Gratification -'5.1 - - 1.3 1.3 -Compromise - - - - - -Seeks Help 3.8 . 2.6 7.7 3.8 6.4 9.0 Passive Hostility 2.6 1.3 - - 1.3 1.3 Anxious Suspension of Activity 1.3 2.6 - 2.6 - 1.3 Acceptance of Situation 7.7 n.5 9.0 14.1 9.0 10.3 Irrational, 111-directed Activity 1.3 - 1.3 - 1.3 1.3 Submission 7.7 2.6 1.3 1.3 3.8 2.6 Avoidance 1.3 - - 1.3 -Resignation 16.6 11.5 " 16.6 10.3 2.6 20.5 Active Withdrawal 9.0 6.4 5.1 5.1 2.6 7.7 Suicide 6.4 1.3 2.6 2.6 1.3 2.6 No Action 6.4 38.5 29.5 37.2 6o.3 10.3 Alternative Actions (unresolved) 1.3 1.3 1.3 5.1 The columns add to 100.0- a small error due to rounding of figures. TABLE VIII B Variations i n Problems or Themas Induced by Different TAT Cards Shown by the Distribution of Frequencies expressed as Per Cent. (Knehr, Vickeryrahd 'Guy, 1953) (7.8 patients) Card Number Problems 1 . 2 4 5 10 11 Heterosexual Conflicts - 2.6 60.8 7.7 14.1 Homosexual Conflicts - - 3.8 1.3 3.8 1.3 Sex Triangle - 6.4 20.5 3.8 1.3 1.3 Conflict with Authority 44.9 15.4 1.3 11.5 1.3 10-. 3 Use Made of Power - - 12.8 - 23.1 Situational Hope 16.6 44.9 7.7 23.1 17.2 32.1 Situational Fate 2.6 1.3 - 1.3 19.2 5.1 Ethical Standards 2.6 - 1.3 3.8 1.3 Personal Adequacy 14.1 2.6 1.3 - 5.1 5.6 Alternative Courses of Action 7.7 15.4 - - 1.3 None Indicated 11.5 11.5 1.3 34.6 34.6 23.1 The rows add to 100.00± a small error due to rounding of figures. TABLE VIII B (Cont.) Variations i n Problems or Themas Induced by Different TAT Cards Shown by the Distribution of Frequencies expressed as Per Cent. ( Knehr, Vickery and Guy 1953) (78 patients) Card Number (Cont.) Problems 13 14 l5 16 19 20 Heterosexual 21.8 2/6 6.4 1.3 1.3 14.1 Conflicts Homosexual Conflicts - - - 1.3 1.3 -Sex Triangle 5-1 - - 2.6 1.3 2.6 Conflict with Authority 1.3 6.4 3.8 3.8 6.4 5.1 Use Made of Power 1.3 1.3 5.1 2.6 1.3 2.6 Situational Hope 7.7 34.6 14.1 24.4 38.8 39.7 Situational Fate 24.4 - 20.5 3.3 2.6 1.3 Ethical Standards 5.6 - l4.1 3.8 - 3.8 Personal Adequacy 5.1 9.0 7.7 10.3 2.6 10.3 Alternative Courses of Action 3.8 6.4 - - - 9.0 None Indicated 3.8 39.7 28.2 46.2 53-6 1.5 The rows add to 100.00* a small error due to rounding of figures. TABLE IX Rank order, Medians, Means, and Standard. Deviations of 21 TAT Cards Judged as to Degree of Ambiguity (Bijou and Kenny 1951) Rank Picture Number Median Mean Standard Deviation 1 12 BG 1.00 5.07 6.19 2 1 6.00 6.,96 4.80 3. 2 7.00 8.45" 5.31 ii 9 BM 7.00 8.00 5.19 5 17 BM 7.00 8.80 7.30 6 13 B. 7.00 7.76 5.6o 7 Iii 8.00 9.08 5.49 8 10 10.00 11.23 5.o4 9 4 11.00 12.03 4.74 10 7 BM 12.00 •12.47 4.72 11 8 BM 12.00 11.49 2.53 12 12 M 12.00 11.84 5.24 13 13 MP 12.00 11.86 5.19 l l i 20 13.00 9.07 5.49 15 3 BM 13.00 11.78 4.74 16 6 BM lli.00 32.47 4.55 17 5 Iii.00 13.15 5.31 18 15 i5.oo 12.6o •6.45 19 18 BM 17.00 14.84 5.io 20 11 18.00 13.52 7.63 21 19 19.00 14.82 7.00 TABLE X Ambiguity Rank Order Values for Fiftee Final Picture  Rank Designation 1 12 BG . 2 1 3 2 k 9 BM 5 17 BM 8 h 9 7 BM 10 8 BM 11 12 M 12 13 MF 17 5 18 15 54 Cards Selected for Study(Bijou and Kenny 1951) Description A rowboat on the banks of a wood-land stream. A boy and a v i o l i n which rests on a table i n front of him. Country scene: Young woman i n fore-ground with books; i n the background, a man working i n the fields and an older woman looking on. Four men i n overalls are lying on the grass. A naked man i s clinging to a rope. A, woman i s clutching the shoulders of a man whose face and body are averted as i f he were trying to pull away from her. A grey-haired man i s looking at a younger man who i s staring into space. An adolescent boy with a barrel of a r i f l e at one side, and in the background i s a dim scene of a surgical operation. A young man i s lying on a couch with his eyes closed. Leaning over him i s an elderly man, his hazids stretched out above the face of the reclining figure. A young man is standing with his head buried i n his arm. Behind him is a figure of a woman lying i n bed. A woman standing on a threshold of a half-opened door and looking into a room. A gaunt man with clenched hands i s standing among gravestones. TABLE X (Continued) i Final  Rank 19 20 21 Picture  Designation 18 BM 11 19 Description A man is clutched from behing by three hands A road between high c l i f f s , and obscure figures i n the distance. On one side i s the long head and neck of a dragon. A weird picture of cloud formations overhanging a snow-covered cabin i n the country. APPENDIX B TABLE XI Nosological groupings Emotionally unstable personality Chronic anxiety state Reactive depression Obsessive compulsive neurosis Psychoneurotic depressive reaction Psychoneurotic depression Acute anxiety reaction Neurotic depressive reaction Psychoneurotic - mixed order Neurotic depression Alcoholic addiction Neurotic personality Conversion reaction Adjustment reaction of adolescence Anxiety reaction Anti-social reaction Anxiety reaction with obsessive-compulsive pers onality Psychoneurotic reaction depressive type Psychoneurotic disorder depression reaction Obsessive compulsive 58 TABLE XII Means, Range and standard deviation of the age and Educational level (tot 3-! number of years of formal education), of the subjects Age Mean Ed. level Mean Group N Range Age S . D . Range Ed.Level S . D . Abnormal Male 23 21-45 31.69 6.66 7-15 10.73 2.11 Female 17 21-42 31.05 5.76 8-15 i o.o5 2.00 Total 4o 21-45 .31.42 6.29 7-15 10.45 2.04 Normal Male 23 '18-28 21.34 2.15 8-13 11.17 1.24 Female 17 18-36 23.35 5.86 8-11 10.35 .93 Total 4o 18-36 22.20 4.24 8-13 10.82 1.20 2-tailed test of significance at .01 level Age Ed. level t 7.62 1.00 * •* p rejected at .01 level of significance. APPENDIX C 6 0 INSTRUCTIONS I am i n t e r e s t e d i n having people t e l l me what they see i n p i c t u r e s . I have a set of p i c t u r e s here and I w i l l show you them one at a time f o r 20 seconds each. During the 20-second p e r i o d I want you to d e s c r i b e what you see. That i s , d e s c r i b e what i s i n each p i c t u r e . T e l l me e v e r y t h i n g you see while the c a r d i s before you. Remember, the c a r d w i l l be before you f o r o n l y 2 0 seconds, so you should s t a r t to t e l l me what you see as soon as I prese n t a c a r d to you. Are there any questions? APPENDIX D 62 Rules Governing S e l e c t i o n of C a t e g o r i e s 1. I f a person s t a t e s two perce p t s and does not e l a b o r a t e and Is n e u t r a l on both then the f i r s t p e r c e p t i s c a t e g o r i z e d . 2. I f e l a b o r a t i o n , then ijudge i n terras of emotional content ( i n c l u d e s r e p e t i t i o n ) . Thus, i f two perce p t s and one weighted put i n s t r o n g e s t category. 3. Where m u l t i p l e theme e x i s t s where one theme f i t s a category and another has been i n t r o d u c e d that does not f i t a category, put i n the "othe r " category unless theme f i t t i n g i n t o category i s dominant, then p l a c e In t h i s dominant category, otherwise "other" category. I).. I f m u l t i p l e p e r c e p t s (two or more) and not able to judge which category, put i n "other" category. 5". S p e c i f i e d p r o f e s s i o n , v o c a t i o n , race, e t c . , goes i n t o " o t h e r " . 63 RESPONSE CATEGORIES CARD 1 1. Intraception (thoughtful): absorbed, thinking, wondering, concen-tration, dreaming, pensive, meditative, pondering, introspective, intent, curious, studious (not just looking at i t or watching i t ) . parents are forcing, compelling. hoping, wishing, aspiring, ambitious, wishing he could play i t , wants to learn to play i t , wished to be a great musician. Does not include wonderment as to whether he can ever be accom-plished a r t i s t . tired of doing something e.g. studying practicing; doesn't want to play i t ; detests i t ; has had as much as he can take, doesn't care much to practice v i o l i n , not interested i n i t . discouraged about success i n playing. 6. Other. 2. Parental pressure: 3. Aspiration: U. Does not want to do study practice: 5>. Inadequacy: 7. Description. 64 CARD 2 1. T o i l and hardship: 2. Peaceful, constructive: 3. Aspiration of g i r l : 4. Conflict with parents: 5. Love. 6. School or student: 7. Symbolic contrast: 8. Other. people trying to make a li v i n g or striving to make a livelihood on a farm, working hard. peaceful scene, working to develope a new farm area. wishes to better herself, dreaming and hoping for future, wants to get away and better herself, wants future for self. over leaving farm and going to school or bettering herself, had fight with parents. going to school, coming from school, taking a course, a school teacher. of education and land. . 9. Description. 65 CARD 3 BM 1. Sorrow, guilt over some-thing : 2. Punishment over wrong-doing : 3. Suicide: h» Sleeping, tired: 5. Sickness. 6. Person i s i n trouble: 7. Other. 8. Description. sadness, despair, disheartened, depressed, broken up or sorrow over something, dejected position, crying. gotten into mischief or a crime and is being punished (e.g. locked up) or i n prison, mental institution, i n a c e l l . thinking of or has tried to take own l i f e . exhausted or t i r e d after being played out. (cause not specified) CARD 3 GF 1. Death or loss: some loved one has died or l e f t her, has lost date. 2, Bad news: 3. Sorrow: U. Shocked by something she has seen 5. Marital or romantic frustration: 6. Ashamed.and remorseful: just heard bad news, told something shocking. grief, heart broken, crying. Saw something which upset her, seen something terrible, scared of what she saw, seen something tragic. had fight with husband or boyfriend fight i n family. feels ashamed of self or something remorseful over some crime she has committed. 7. 8. Other. Description. 66 CARD h 1. Comfort from partner: 2. Restraining or reasoning with man over violent or quick impulsive action: 3. Departure from partner: 4. Wanting him to do some-thing he doesn't want to do S>. Begging forgiveness: 6. Unrequited love: 7. Restraining (general): 8. Pleading (general): 9. Argument (general): 10. Conversation: woman trying to comfort, console, counsel, conciliates, talks lovingly to man, gives advice. Tells not to worry. pleading, reasoning or attempting to restrain the man from violent or fighting action. asking, begging, pleading and trying to prevent his leaving her; doesn't want him to leave her; wants to stop him from leaving her over love conflict; turning away(physical) of husband, boy-friend; male figure. trying to talk him into something or get him to do something. asking forgeiveness of partner. holding back two people talking - one person says something - to explain, t e l l or confide something. 67 SARD 5" 1. Surprise: 2. Horror, Disapproval: 3. Spying, peeking: U. Looking for or calling somebody i n room: surprised, startled, astonished at what she sees: sees something that she did not expect to see. shocked at what she sees, shocked, finds S. T. shocking. horrified or disapproving at what she sees. spying or peeking or checking up on what i s going on i n the room, checking up on somebody. Looking for someone, seeing i f anybody i s i n room, calling somebody or t e l l i n g some-thing to somebody, expecting to see some-one, to see i f somebody home, looking at something. 5". Looking for thief: 6. Curious or inquisitive: 7. Other. 8. Descriptive. CARD 6 BM 1. Confession to parent figure: 2. Departure from parent or female figure: 3. Parental or authority pressure or disapproval: U. Bearing or waiting for bad news: 5>. Receiving consolation, succorance: 6. Disappointment to parent or authority figure: 7. Parental concern: 8. Male figure concerns 9. Both figures concerned: 10. Other. 11. Description. wants to say or t e l l something to 'mother figure', confessing or saying something which i s or is not specified; said something he did not want to say. saying good-bye to mother, son i s leaving home, going to leave. parent "gotten after son", censuring, quarrelling, hurting, disapproving, compelling by stating vhat to do, a riisunderstanding, male and female figures not agreeing, disgust. son or male figure trying to or t e l l i n g bad news such as trouble he is in, something unfortunate happened to one or both of figures. male or female figures giving or receiving advice, consolation: trying to t e l l son or male figure to better self or vice versa. disappointed i n son, "prodigal son" returns, discontented over son, ashamed. concern over something, worried. any reference to male figure as thoughtful, burdened, worried. they are having a serious discussion aboiit something. Both unhappy. He is upset - she i s worried. CARD 6 GF 1. Surprise; 2. Conversation: at what he has said, his unexpected appearance, amazed, stopped, jumped, startled, astonishment, shocked. talking, discussion, man speaking to woman or vice versa. 3. Female figure doing something secret or e v i l . k. 5. Disinterest or displeasure with male figure: Argument. Counselling and advising: 7. Questioning: 8. Sly, suspicious intentions of male figure: 9. Other. 10. Description. not interested i n what he i s saying, does not like what he i s saying. either figure explaining something or giving advice to the other figure. either figure asking the other seme questions. making passes, preying. CARD 7 BM 1. Discussion: 2. 3. h. 5. Succorance from older person: Pressure or rebuke to younger figure: both figures having a conversation, gossiping, a talk, rumination, con-ference, chat, debate.. younger figure seeking advice!, help or receives advice, comfort, sympathy, protection, information from older person. older figure lecturing, censuring, prohibiting, quarrelling with younger. Thinking, listening or watching something by both figures. Symbolism: 6. 7. Dysphoric mood Advice from older person not accepted: Age and Youth - wisdom, difference between young and old. advice not accepted, rejected, that to be ridiculous, they are not agreeing. people characterized as being unhappy, worried (covers any unpleasant feeling) 8. Other. 9. Description. 70 CARD 8 BM 1. O p e r a t i o n : 2. A s p i r a t i o n : 3« A g g r e s s i o n from im-p e r s o n a l source: Daydreaming: 5« A g g r e s s i o n from p e r s o n a l source: 6. Other. 7. D e s c r i p t i o n . having an o p e r a t i o n , b e i n g operated on, t a k i n g a b u l l e t out, o p e r a t i o n going on. t h i n k i n g about being a doctor i n f u t -ure, dreaming or hoping of f u t u r e . as d u r i n g a war, c o u l d be war p i c t u r e , a c c i d e n t a l l y shot or h u r t . imagining, v i s u a l i z i n g , t h i n k i n g about p i c t u r e or o p e r a t i o n In background. Nightmare, wondering i f f r i e n d w i l l p u l l through. man on t a b l e stabbed, shot, boy shot man on t a b l e . CARD 8 GF 1. Dreaming: 2. Dreaming: 3 . L o n l i n e s s , unhappiness, w o r r i e d : I4.. Posing: 5. Contentment; 6. Love: 7. Other. t h i n k i n g , imagining, w i s h i n g (un-s p e c i f i e d ) t h i n k i n g , imagining something spec-i f i e d i n pr e s e n t , past or f u t u r e . a lonley,woman, she i s sad. s i t t i n g f o r p o r t r a i t , p o s i n g for a r t i s t , maybe m o d e l l i n g . contented, serene, l o o k s happy or content. l o v i n g , i n l o v e . 8. D e s c r i p t i o n . 71 CARD 9 BM 1. Resting and sleeping: '2. Drunkeness: 3. Death: U. Tired, exhausted: 5. Lazy, or individuals associated with laziness. 6. Trouble: 7. Other. 8. Description. snoozing, siesta, relaxation, taking i t easy. sleeping off a drunk, passed out from liquor, too much to drink and sleeping i t off, probably on a good tear. death and k i l l i n g . they're exhausted - probably excep-tionally t i r e d . having a nice lazy time. Hobos, bums. running away from law and hiding, i n wrong. CARD 9 GF 1. Spying: 2. Escape: 3. Conflict between the two women: 4. Anger: 5. Fear: 6. Hurry: hiding, snooping. running away from something, i n fli g h t . over love, riv a l r y or something, jealousy. she looks mad. terror, alarm, scardd. going somewhere in a hurry, to meet someone (not running away); young g i r l running, two g i r l s seem to be hustling towards something. 7. Other. 8. Description. CARD 10 72 1. Departure from partner: 2. Love: 3- Sorrow: k. Comfort: 5>. Dancing: 6. Conversation: 7. Other. 8. Description. don't want to leave each other, saying goodbye. kissing, embracing, affection, dev-otion, serenity, contentment, satis-faction, warmth, happiness. grief, distress or sorrow over some-thing, sadness. comforting, consoling, nurturance to partner, condolence. whispering, talking, saying something, CARD 11 1. Escape from p e r i l or animal: 2. Aggression toward peers: 3. Aggression from impersonal source: 4. Unreal, fantastic: 6. Animal or insect specified: 7. Prehistoric times: 8. Other. 9. Description. somebody running from others. physical harm i n f l i c t e d or intended between animals or humans; fighting war, bombs, accident, nature. something unreal, lik e from outer space or bad dream. grasshopper, dragon, wild animal. prehistoric scene, prehistoric animals. CARD 12 BG 73 1. Serenity: 2. Spring or summer. 3. Snow: U. Reference to people: 5. Other. 6. Description. peaceful, serene, relaxing, quiet. i t i s snowing, a snowfall. they are boating, having picnic etc. CARD 12 M 1. Hypnosis: 2. Sickness, illness or death: 3. Praying: U. Sleeping: 5>. Sinister: 6. Talking: 7. Other. 8. Description. mesmerizing, hypnotizing figure on the couch, casting spell. figure on couch i s i l l , sick or dead. praying over or blessing the figure on the couch who i s sick, dead or sleeping. figure on the couch i s asleep or sleeping. has something e v i l i n mind, trying to do something harmful. somebody talking to figure on the couch. CARD 13 MF 1. Death or sickness of partner: 2. Aggression toward partner: 3. Sorrow over illness or death of partner: U. Sorrow (crying), sadness, remorse: 5. Remorse or guilt: 6. Love conflict: 7. Rape: 8. Man has had or is con-templating heterosexual relation with woman: 9. Other. 10. Description. CARD 1U 1. Looking, gazing at some-thing : 2. Intraception: 3. Loneliness: h- Suicide: $. Escape: 6. Favourable environment or tranquility: xtfoman i s dead, i l l or sick. physical harm i n f l i c t e d or intended on partner; murder or planning murder of woman. worry, concern, pity or grieving over her death or il l n e s s . pity, anguish, no explanation. ashamed, sorrow, guilt over something he has done to the woman. quarrel, fight. May be i l l i c i t sex. might, sky, moon sun, stars, heavenly bodies on viexir; looking or gazing out of window. thinking, wondering, dreaming, quest-ioning himself. going to jump or something. climbing out of window, trying to get out of a place. picture of calm, peacefulness; l i f e i s good, peace of mind; content with environment. 7. Aspiration: Man dreaming, thinking of his future, of what he i s going to do; hoping for some-thing better; making plans for future. 8. Other. 9. Description. 75 CARD l5 1. Death: 2. Loneliness: 3. Figure represents under-taker: U. Unreal or e v i l figure depicted: 5. Religion: 6. Mourning: 7. Dysphoric state: 8. Other. 9. Description. dead reborn, death, lost wife or child, symbol of death, loathes death. scared and alone, lost, a l l alone. undertaker, embaimer, mortician, caretaker, graveyard attendant. Frankenstein, gruesome man, morbid-looking soul, skeleton, weird, vulture skeleton, ghost, s p i r i t . prayer, seeking consolation from God. paying last respects, vi s i t i n g loved ones. Mourning or grief over death. unpleasant emotional states character-ized e.g. dreadful, unhappy, worried, depression. CARD 17 BM 1. Self-esteem: 2. Exhibition: 3. Escape: i i . Physical strength: self respect or enjoyment i n s k i l l , pride i n s k i l l , self-approbation, aspiring to strength. showing off physical strength or s k i l l . escaping from p e r i l , prison, f i r e or something or somebody. description of muscular features of an individual who i s traditionally assoc-iated with strength. Trapeze artist, aerolist. 5. Other. 6. Description. 76 CARD 17 GF 1. Men working: carrying things to put on boat, scene of labour, people bringing i n harvest, unloading boats. 2. Suicide: 3. Slavery: 1;. Piracy: 5. Something disastrous occurring: 6. Symbolic contrast: 7. Other. 8. Description. CARD 18 she's not going to jump off bridge, g i r l ready to jump off bridge, could have idea of suicide. slaves, master-slave relationship, boss-worker relationship. something has happened under water, something crude i s happening, dark day for. woman. despair and sun shining: part of world daytime - other part night. BM 1. Escape: 2. Suicide; 3. Restraining or arresting figure: U. Fear or shock: 5. Aggression toward peer: 6. Drunkeness: 7. Helping: 8. Other. struggling to free self, escaping from someone. figure trying to commit suicide, holding or holding back, being arrested. looks frightened, state of shock, heard bad news. man is being attacked, "held-upy murder, being grabbed from behind. Struggle, in fight. intoxicated man. held up, holding him up, supporting him. 9. Description. CARD 18 GF 7 7 1. Strangling, k i l l i n g , violence; 2. Illness: 3. Accident: U. Comfort: H>. Grief or unhappiness: 6. Other. 7. Description. woman must be i l l , dying, heart attack seems to have fainted, has collapsed. f e l l downstairs. giving comfort, cuddling, helping, consolation. something sorrowful may have happened, pity, despair. CARD 19 1. Cold weather, winter, places depicting cold: 2. Storm: 3. Refers to person or persons in picture: k. Abstract: 5>. Unreal: 6. Other. 7. Description. Arctic, Iceland. snowed in, blizzard, a gale wind blowing away, wind represented here, snowstorm. someone i s sitting by one of windows, artist's painting, modern art. haunted, weird, ghosts and witch. CARD 20 1. Waiting: 2. Aggression: 3. Contemplation: 4. Loneliness: 5. Other. 6. Description. Waiting for somebody or something wasting time, loitering, procrastination. Secret agent, not very good intentions, looks like up to something, could be gangster. thinking, wondering where to go, trying to forget trouble, rumination. nowhere to go, nothing to do, a l l alone, jobless, friendless, homeless. 

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