Open Collections

UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Application of silvicultural systems in the B-19 foothills region of Alberta. Lees, John Crawford 1960

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1960_A6 L35 A6.pdf [ 7.83MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0105955.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0105955-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0105955-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0105955-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0105955-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0105955-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0105955-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0105955-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0105955.ris

Full Text

THE APPLICATION OF SILVICULTURAL SYSTEMS IN THE B-19 FOOTHILLS REGION OF  ALBERTA  by JOHN CRAWFORD LEES B.Sc.(For.) U n i v e r s i t y o f Edinburgh, 1957  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT , . THE REQUIREMENT FOR THE DEGREE - OF  OF  MASTER OF FORESTRY i n the F a c u l t y of Forestry . We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o the r e q u i r e d standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA April,  I960  In presenting the  this  thesis i n partial  r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y  of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that it  fulfilment of  freely  agree t h a t for  the Library  a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . permission f o r extensive  shall  I further  copying of t h i s  thesis  s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e Head o f my  D e p a r t m e n t o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . that  copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s  gain  shall  I t i s understood  thesis  for financial  n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n  permission.  JOHN C. LEES  Faculty 0  £  Forestry  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Vancouver 8 , Canada. Date  make  -—April—15th,  I960.  Columbia,  :  - i i -  Frontispiece:  A l t e r n a t e S t r i p C l e a r c u t t i n g System i n the F o o t h i l l s . P h o t o : NW.P  & P.  Co.  Ltd  - i i i-  ABSTRACT The a p p l i c a t i o n of s i l v i c u l t u r a l systems i n the B-19 Foothills,  r e g i o n of A l b e r t a was examined  problems i n management,silviculture,and ing  i n the l i g h t  of c u r r e n t  utilisation.  a r e g i o n a l d e s c r i p t i o n , i n which a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  Followof s i t e  i s developed, c e r t a i n s i l v i c u l t u r a l systems were examined and recommended f o r the dominant stand types which occur on three major s i t e groups, v i z : 1.  Dry Upland  2.  Moist T r a n s i t i o n  3.  Wet  C o n s i d e r a t i o n was g i v e n i n each case t o c l e a r c u t t i n g , shelterwood  and s e l e c t i o n systems.  on the i n f o r m a t i o n presented a v a i l a b l e i n those  Recommendations were based  i n the preceding  chapters  and t h a t  r e f e r e n c e s c i t e d i n the b i b l i o g r a p h y .  I t has been p o i n t e d out i n c o n c l u s i o n t h a t t h e r e are three main phases i n the development of c o n t r o l of the s i l v i c u l t u r e and management of the r e g i o n . 1.  The p r e p a r a t i o n of management plans f o r  sustained 2.  These a r e : -  yield.  The s e l e c t i o n of s i l v i c u l t u r a l systems to,  b r i n g s i l v i c u l t u r a l c o n t r o l i n t o the framework of s u s t a i n e d y i e l d management. 3. The development and a p p l i c a t i o n of c u l t u r a l  - iv-  treatments  through r e s e a r c h t o improve  l o c a l c o n d i t i o n s and to h e l p s o l v e p a r t i c u l a r r e g e n e r a t i o n problems. The  importance of the hypothesis presented  in  Chapter I I I i s f i n a l l y r e - s t r e s s e d w i t h r e f e r e n c e to the above mentioned development phases.  That i s - That t h e r e are a l r e a d y  a v a i l a b l e t o the p r a c t i s i n g f o r e s t management p l a n n e r , systems which are a p p l i c a b l e , w i t h or without to  the f o r e s t stands  silvicultural  f u r t h e r adaptation,  of the r e g i o n and t o the s i t e s d e s c r i b e d .  Certain f i e l d s  of r e s e a r c h have been suggested  through-  out the t e x t and these were summarised i n a f i n a l recommendation.  —0O0—  _ vTABLE  OF  CONTENTS Page  INTRODUCTION  1  Problem Statement  1  Literature  5.  Review  The S t a t u s of N a t u r a l Regeneration i n the Region  5  Factors Affecting  6  R e g e n e r a t i o n of the Main S p e c i e s  S i l v i c a l P r a c t i c e s aimed a t R e g e n e r a t i o n  10  Utilisation  14  CHAPTER I - DESCRIPTION  17  D e s c r i p t i o n of the B-19 F o o t h i l l s Region  17.  B-19a Lower F o o t h i l l s S e c t i o n  17  B-19b Northern F o o t h i l l s S e c t i o n  17  B-19c Upper F o o t h i l l s S e c t i o n  18  Topography  18  Geology  19  Climate  19  Soils  22  Vegetation  23  Site  28  Stand Dynamics  31  Silvical Profile  34  White Spruce  34  B l a c k Spruce  35  Lodgepole P i n e  36  Aspen  37  Balsam F i r  38  Utilisation History  39 39  •- v i -  Page  CHAPTER I I - DISCUSSION AND REVIEW OF SILVICULTURAL SYSTEMS  43  C l e a r c u t t i n g Systems  43 43  With N a t u r a l Regeneration Strip Clearcut  46  Patch Clearcut  46  Block Clearcut  46 48  With A r t i f i c i a l Regeneration  50  S h e l t e r w o o d Systems  50  With N a t u r a l Regeneration In Uniform Blocks  50  Group S h e l t e r w o o d  52  I r r e g u l a r Shelterwood  53  S t r i p Shelterwood  54  S t r i p and Group System  57 58  A r t i f i c i a l Regeneration S e l e c t i o n Systems  58  CHAPTER I I I - ANALYSIS AND RECOMMENDATIONS  62  Dry Upland S i t e s  64  Lodgepole Pine-Aspen Stand Type  64  White Spruce-Pine-Aspen  65  Stand Type  66  Moist S i t e s  66  Lodgepole P i n e - A s p e n Type Lodgepole P i n e - w i t h B l a c k Spruce  U n d e r s t o r e y Type  67  B l a c k and White S p r u c e - P i n e - A l p i n e F i r - A s p e n Stand Type  68  Pure Spruce S t a n d Type  70  Wet S i t e s  71  Assumptions  72  Productivity  74  - v i iPage CONCLUSION  81  APPENDIX I  -  Tree S p e c i e s and P l a n t L i s t  85  APPENDIX I I  -  Plates  87  BIBLIOGRAPHY  90  —oOo—  - viii  -  ILLUSTRATIONS Table  Page  1.  Comparative c l i m a t i c d a t a  20  2.  C l i m a t i c d a t a - B-19  21  3.  Forest c l a s s i f i c a t i o n f o r Alberta  39  4.  S e l e c t e d systems - B-19  73  5.  Average a n n u a l h e i g h t growth above b r e a s t h e i g h t W h i t e c o u r t Management U n i t  76  6.  Gross t o t a l c u b i c f o o t volume/acre by c o v e r t y p e s  77  7.  C u r r e n t a n n u a l i n c r e m e n t by s p e c i e s - Average f o r a l l types  78  8.  E s t i m a t e d pulpwood y i e l d f r o m f i r s t c u t t i n g a r e a i n  Region Idson S t a t i o n  F o o t h i l l s region  the management u n i t  79  1.  B-19  17a  2.  Lodgepole p i n e - a s p e n  32  3. 4.  S t r i p shelterwood c u t t i n g V e r t i c a l layout  55 56  5.  H o r i z o n t a l layout  56  6.  S t r i p and group s h e l t e r w o o d  57  Typical soil profile  23  Figure F o o t h i l l s r e g i o n of A l b e r t a  Plate 1.  Note: " F o r e s t r y T e r m i n o l o g y " (Soc. Amer. F o r e s t e r s  1958)  may be used as a g e n e r a l r e f e r e n c e f o r terms used i n t h i s work. A f u r t h e r r e f e r e n c e t o c e r t a i n e c o l o g i c a l terms i s "The Use and Abuse of V e g e t a t i o n a l Concepts and Terms" ( T a n s l e y , 1 9 3 5 ) .  - ix -  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS  The t h o u g h t f u l guidance extended t o t h e a u t h o r by Dr. P.G. Haddock, A s s o c i a t e P r o f e s s o r o f F o r e s t r y , F o r e s t r y F a c u l t y , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, throughout t h e p r e p a r a t i o n  of t h e t h e s i s i s g r a t e f u l l y  acknowledged.  F u r t h e r , the author wishes t o express h i s g r a t i t u d e t o the D i r e c t o r of the F e d e r a l F o r e s t r y Branch f o r permissi o n t o use m a t e r i a l drawn from t h e r e s e a r c h f i l e s a t t h e Calgary D i s t r i c t  Office.  —©Oo—  INTRODUCTION Problem Statement F a i l u r e of r e g e n e r a t i o n i n the B-19 (Rowe, 1959)  of A l b e r t a f o l l o w i n g both f i r e and  r e c o g n i s e d f o r many y e a r s , Candy, 1951;  forest section  (Holman & P a r k e r ,  Bloomberg, 1950;  B l y t h , 1955  l e g g i n g has  1940;  Degrace,  zone between the t r u e b o r e a l mixedwood and the t r u e  transition  sub-alpine  Horton (1956) has l a t e r d e l i n e a t e d two  zones with the b o r e a l mixedwood and the s u b - a l p i n e as the and B-19c  1950;  and Horton, 1953).  Rowe (1959) has. d e s c r i b e d the r e g i o n as the f o o t h i l l s  of the mountains.  been  tension B-19a  zones, r e s p e c t i v e l y , the t r u e f o o t h i l l s zones being  designated B-19h. r e g i o n , and  Much of Northern  A l b e r t a l i e s w i t h i n the  B-19  thus a f o r e s t problem there i s a major f a c t o r i n the  economy of the P r o v i n c e , s i n c e i t i s from t h i s l a r g e area t h a t the bulk of timber  i s produced. (1)  The white spruce (Moss, 1953)  stands of the l o c a l climax  are g i v i n g way  t r e m b l i n g aspen.  more and more t o lodgepole p i n e  stands are present  p i o n e e r s p e c i e s , and  i n the area today.  The  and burned-over areas.  c r i p t i v e l i t e r a t u r e on the a r e a as i t was white man's f i r s t  and  Aspen i s the more p r o l i f i c and s u c c e s s f u l  e c o l o g i c a l l y of these two  i s e d both logged  forest  extensive aspen  s p e c i e s has  H i s t o r i c a l and  des-  at the time of the  a r r i v a l , makes i t c l e a r t h a t these  areas have a r i s e n i n comparatively  colon-  recent times.  problem  Several  works d e s c r i b e the bounty of the f o r e s t s and p r a i r i e s which (1)  B o t a n i c a l names of t r e e s p e c i e s are l i s t e d  i n Appendix I.  - 2 was  r e v e a l e d to the p i o n e e r s e t t l e r s ,  Bezanson, 1954  and McEwan, 1959).  (McGregor , 1949,  1952;  At t h a t time many of the  stands were of f i r e - o r i g i n , as c h a r c o a l d e p o s i t s found have shown. was  today  N a t u r a l f i r e s ^however, were h o t t e r and the "burn  more complete than the l i g h t e x t e n s i v e man-made f i r e s of  today.  They produced a r e c e p t i v e seedbed of bared m i n e r a l  scattered with  soil,,  ashes.  Current b u r n i n g i s not so complete and many s i t e s are the scene of repeated burns. of the a r e a but i t i s f i r e  F i r e , t h e r e f o r e , i s a major problem  s t a r t e d by man,  not n a t u r e , t h a t  l e d to poor r e g e n e r a t i o n of even the p i o n e e r p i n e .  has  T h i s i s due  to the c o n t r a s t i n g n a t u r e o f the r e s u l t i n g seedbeds, (Rowe,  1955,  p.19). Logging  o p e r a t i o n s of the past f i f t y y e a r s have been^  f o l l o w e d by poor r e g e n e r a t i o n of the commercially and p i n e .  important  T h i s has c o n t r i b u t e d to the present stand  and t o inadequate  stocking.  distribution  Thus w i t h low, patchy s t o c k i n g and  ah i n c r e a s i n g r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f aspen c r e a t i n g an unbalanced and age  spruce  species  d i s t r i b u t i o n , the maximum p r o d u c t i o n p o t e n t i a l i t i e s of  the f o r e s t s i t e s i n the r e g i o n are not b e i n g f u l l y  realised.  Some.sites are non-stocked, others are overstocked  to stagnating  lodgepole pine or b l a c k spruce.  T h i s inadequate  and u n s u i t a b l e  s t o c k i n g and poor d i s t r i b u t i o n of the commercially timber and  important  s p e c i e s p r e s e n t s a number of problems i n the  s u s t a i n e d - y i e l d management of the B-19  silviculture  f o o t h i l l s region.  (1) These most l i k e l y i n c l u d e d a b o r i g i n a l I n d i a n  fires.  -3  -  T h i s r e g i o n i s r a p i d l y becoming one important timber-producing and  sawlog o p e r a t i o n s  a v a i l a b l e , and  areas i n A l b e r t a .  present  expansion of the pulpwood i n d u s t r y i s l i k e l y  Department of lands and  has  Both pulpwood  are u t i l i s i n g the m a t e r i a l a t  t o take p l a c e i n the near f u t u r e .  s u s t a i n i n g and  of the most  F u r t h e r , the P r o v i n c i a l  F o r e s t s , a p p r e c i a t i n g the importance of  i n c r e a s i n g the f o r e s t r e s o u r c e s  of the  province,  e s t a b l i s h e d s u s t a i n e d - y i e l d management u n i t s i n which  renewal of the f o r e s t i s c o n s i d e r e d  to be of primary importance.  Adequate s t o c k i n g of the commercial s p e c i e s , at a f i g u r e v a r y i n g from level,  1+0% t o 60%  by m i l a c r e quadrats depending on s i t e  fertility  has been made o b l i g a t o r y on r e c e n t timber s a l e s . At t h i s stage, t h e r e f o r e , i t i s v i t a l t o i n i t i a t e e l e -  mentary s i l v i c u l t u r a l p r a c t i c e , not o n l y i n the mature stands but a l s o throughout the v a r i o u s age  classes.  g r e a t e r y i e l d s to meet economic needs and condition favouring n a t u r a l  problems have been sought  by the F e d e r a l F o r e s t r y Branch, P r o v i n c i a l  Department o f lands and F o r e s t s and i g a t i o n has  b r i n g the f o r e s t to a  reproduction.  S o l u t i o n s t o the r e g e n e r a t i o n i n the P r o v i n c e  T h i s would l e a d t o  by i n d u s t r y .  This  Invest-  led. t o t r i a l s of s o i l s c a r i f i c a t i o n both before  following cutting. attempts t o p r o v i d e  and  F u r t h e r , c u t t i n g methods have been t r i e d proper seed supply and  s h e l t e r f o r the i n t o l e r a n t s p e c i e s .  in  t o f u r n i s h adequate  These t r i a l s have at l e a s t  shown t h a t l o g g i n g o p e r a t i o n s must be geared t o r e g e n e r a t i o n  on  sound e c o l o g i c a l p r i n c i p l e s , while meeting the e x i s t i n g economic  conditions. recent  F i r e c o n t r o l too has been g r e a t l y s t r e s s e d i n  years. A study of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the s p e c i e s and  stand  behaviour throughout the r o t a t i o n w i l l l e a d t o  of those l i m i t i n g f a c t o r s which i n f l u e n c e the one  system of s i l v i c u l t u r e or another.  determination  s e l e c t i o n of e i t h e r  Planned a p p l i c a t i o n of  the chosen system, p a y i n g f u l l a t t e n t i o n t o maintenance of p r o d u c t i v i t y and  soil  fertility,  -  The  and w i l l f u r n i s h more  logging.  problem i s thus composite.  Alberta f o r e s t e r , regeneration ation.  site  w i l l promote s u c c e s s f u l regen-  e r a t i o n , whether n a t u r a l or a r t i f i c i a l , v a l u a b l e m a t e r i a l at  of  In the t h i n k i n g of  i s the most p r e s s i n g  the  consider-  T h i s i s f u r t h e r emphasised by the e f f o r t s of the  Provin-  c i a l Government to safeguard the f o r e s t resouces through the establishment  of s u s t a i n e d - y i e l d management u n i t s .  a t i o n w i t h i n these u n i t s i s on a b a s i s of short-term  timber s a l e s o n l y .  apart from two  Yet e x p l o i t -  competitively-bid,  Operations are  or t h r e e l o n g e r l e a s e s , and  small-scale,  sub-contracting  general.  Thus the operators  have l i t t l e or no  f u t u r e and  the work of s u p e r v i s i n g t h e i r o p e r a t i o n s  p o l i c e f u n c t i o n , l e s t the r e s o u r c e s  concern f o r the is largely a  become e z c e s s i v e l y  There i s a p r e s s i n g need i n t h i s B-19  depleted.  r e g i o n f o r the  demonstration of p r a c t i c a l measures which w i l l permit the ion  of a sound system of s i l v i c u l t u r e .  under i n i t i a l e x p l o i t a t i o n and careful consideration  The  is  area  i s at  i t Is at t h i s formative  adopt-  present stage t h a t  of s i l v i c u l t u r a l o b j e c t i v e s i s n e c e s s a r y .  - 5 These o b j e c t i v e s may  be considered  s i l v i c u l t u r a l systems i n one Any  system considered  or s e v e r a l of t h e i r b a s i c forms.  has  the  inherent  adapt-  problems of mixedwood  composition. The  evident  classical  must have great f l e x i b i l i t y and  a b i l i t y because the area species  i n terms of the  complexity of a l l the f e a t u r e s  involved w i l l  i n the f o l l o w i n g r e v i e w of p e r t i n e n t l i t e r a t u r e and  the d e s c r i p t i o n of the  be in  region. L i t e r a t u r e Review  In the f o l l o w i n g paragraphs, l i t e r a t u r e on the f o l l o w i n g aspects of the 1.  The  i s reviewed,  problem:-  s t a t u s of n a t u r a l r e g e n e r a t i o n  i n the  region. 2. f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g r e g e n e r a t i o n  of the main  species. 3.  S i l v i c u l t u r a l p r a c t i c e s aimed at  regener-  ation. 4. The  Status  Utilisation.  of N a t u r a l Regeneration i n the There i s a n o t i c e a b l e  region i t s e l f .  Region  l a c k of l i t e r a t u r e on the  However, s e v e r a l r e g e n e r a t i o n  surveys  on the problems mentioned have been c a r r i e d out. those of Candy (1947), Horton :(1956) and have shown t h a t logged and  Blyth  B-19  touching  These  include  (1957) and they  burned-over areas of h i t h e r t o product  i v e f o r e s t s are not r e s t o c k i n g t o commercially valuable  species.  - 6 -  Many of t h e spruce In the  s i t e s are r e v e r t i n g t o pine and aspen.  p a s t , an average of one p e r cent of the f o r e s t e d  area has burned over a n n u a l l y i n t h e P r o v i n c e . source  of many o f the c u r r e n t problems.  and most important  Such areas a r e t h e  F i r e c o n t r o l i s the f i r s t  step i n a l l e v i a t i n g t h i s c o n d i t i o n .  Recommen-  d a t i o n s t o t h e P r o v i n c i a l Government have been made by the Canadian I n s t i t u t e of F o r e s t r y , Rocky Mountain S e c t i o n , i n the form of a b r i e f i n 1955 t o s t i m u l a t e thought and a c t i o n on t h i s matter. C u t t i n g methods c u r r e n t l y In use have produced c o n d i t i o n s r e s u l t i n g i n the f a i l u r e of r e g e n e r a t i o n , yet experiments i n c u t t i n g methods a r e few.  Some work has been c a r r i e d out i n the t a s k o f  r e g e n e r a t i n g the problem areas produced, and Quaite i n g i n spruce  (1956) work-  i n t h e B-18 mixedwood has shown t h a t , p r o v i d e d  there  i s an adequate seed supply, r e g e n e r a t i o n w i l l occur, and t h a t success w i l l depend o n l y on t h e presence o f a few mature t r e e s per acre and on s a t i s f a c t o r y seedbed c o n d i t i o n s .  Thus, s c a r i f -  i c a t i o n experiments have been s u c c e s s f u l i n o b t a i n i n g p i n e and spruce r e g e n e r a t i o n i n these r e g i o n s o f A l b e r t a .  The nature  and r e c e p t i v i t y of many seedbed c o n d i t i o n s have a l s o been w i d e l y i n v e s t i g a t e d throughout Canada (Rowe, 1955 and P l a c e , 1955)* F a c t o r s A f f e c t i n g Regeneration Gregory  o f t h e Main S p e c i e s  (1956) has shown how temperature on c l e a r c u t  areas may be l e t h a l due t o the v a r y i n g heat-absorbing and  - 7 r e f l e c t i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f seedbed media. seedbed  A  i n open c o n d i t i o n s was found t o be l e a s t  moss-covered desirable.  The degree of i n s o l a t i o n r e q u i r e d f o r e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f seedl i n g s has been s t u d i e d by A t k i n s (1957) and moisture r e l a t i o n s h i p s a r e r e v e a l e d by the works o f B a r r (1930); (1931);  P l a c e (1955);  Fraser  l a r l y w i t h r e g a r d t o spruce.  Griffith  ,  (1957) and Rowe (1955) p a r t i c u Horton  (1956) has i l l u s t r a t e d  how the behaviour o f t h e s p e c i e s i n t h e B-19 v a r i e s w i t h p h y s i o g r a p h i c s i t e i d e n t i f i e d by moisture regime, thus underl i n i n g the e f f e c t s p r e v i o u s l y F u r t h e r seedbed  mentioned.  c o n d i t i o n s f o r r e g e n e r a t i o n o f the  f o o t h i l l s s p e c i e s have been s t u d i e d by Rowe (1955); C r o s s l e y (1956c & 1956d); Quaite  (1956);  (1950)*  Ackerman (1957);  P l a c e (1955);  P r a s e r (1957);  DeGrace (1950) and Bloomberg  There i s agreement that a m i n e r a l - s o i l seedbed can  best p r o v i d e s u i t a b l e c o n d i t i o n s f o r t h e commercially important pine and white spruce.  Spruce f u r t h e r r e q u i r e s more m o i s t -  ure and shade than p i n e and w i l l o f t e n o c c u r i n great numbers on r o t t e n wood under a f a i r l y dense canopy. are i n evidence t o o on s k i d t r a i l s .  Many s e e d l i n g s  I t has been suggested  by K a g i s (1954) t h a t f a i r l y heavy overhead  s h a d e ( i n white  spruce i n Saskatchewan t h a t c a s t by a b a s a l a r e a o f around 70 square f e e t ) i s n e c e s s a r y f o r adequate under a shelterwood system.  spruce r e g e n e r a t i o n  I t i s c e r t a i n t h a t extremes of  temperature, l i g h t and drought, such as are t o be expected f o l l o w i n g c l e a r c u t t i n g , would be i n h i b i t i n g u n l e s s m i n e r a l seedbeds  are p r o v i d e d .  between overhead  Quaite (1956) found no c o r r e l a t i o n  shade and r e g e n e r a t i o n i n f o u r r e s i d u a l spruce-  - 8 aspen stand d e n s i t i e s , but i t i s suspected that l i m i t i n g c o n d i t ions occur outside h i s sampled range. Seeding habits have been examined by Howe (1953); Grossley (1956a) and Horton (1956).  White spruce produces  seed crops at f i v e t o seven year i n t e r v a l s i n the region w i t h average germinative c a p a c i t y of 49%.  Heavy seed losses before  germination i n the region have been noted by Horton (1958). Quaite (1956) found that s e v e r a l successive l i g h t seed-years were s t i l l s u f f i c i e n t f o r adequate regeneration i n spruceaspen stands.  Cones of white spruce are non-serotinous.  Lodgepole pine produces seed more f r e q u e n t l y and an abundant seed supply i s u s u a l l y a v a i l a b l e .  Cones are both  serotinous and non-serotinous, the former p r o v i d i n g a v a l u a b l e stored seed supply.  Cone opening has been studied by Grossley  (1955d) and by Cameron (1953), r e v e a l i n g that the high temper-  ature necessary t o break the r e s i n bond i n the cone scales occurs a t s i x i n s . from the ground i n s l a s h w i t h temperatures of 4G°C.  C r o s s l e y (1956d) pointed out how temperature i n  s l a s h v a r i e s w i t h aspect.  This changes t o some extent the  optimum height of cones above the ground surface f o r r e s i n bond rupture.  F u r t h e r , the nature of seed d i s p e r s a l has been  noted and experiments by C r o s s l e y (1955d) and Horton (1956) r e v e a l how marginal supply i s of importance w i t h pine though l e s s v a l u a b l e v/ith white spruce which requires overhead supply mainly. Black spruce reproduces both by seed and by l a y e r i n g of lower branches.  LeBarron (1948) noted good reproduction  f o l l o w i n g f i r e due t o the p e r s i s t e n c e of the s e r o t i n o u s cones which may  o f t e n remain unburned at the v e r y t i p of the t r e e . Aspen comprises 43% by volume of stands i n the r e g i o n  and i s a b l e t o reproduce by i t s l i g h t t u f t e d seed and by v e g e t a t i v e means.  However, i t should be remembered t h a t some of the  aspen c o n s i s t s of overmature  and decadent  stands where r e p r o -  d u c t i o n by seeding p l a y s o n l y a minor r o l e and where networks of s u c k e r i n g r o o t s are common. In the l i g h t  of these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , the f o l l o w i n g  seed sources are presented i n summary.  Lodgepole pine has i t s  primary source i n l o g g i n g s l a s h due t o the s e r o t i n o u s cones. However, m a r g i n a l and overhead  sources may  spruce, too, has a supply i n s l a s h though more common than i n l o d g e p o l e p i n e . from an overhead  seed source  be a v a i l a b l e .  Black  overhead seeding i s  White spruce regenerates  (Quaite, 1 9 5 6 ) but m a r g i n a l stands  i n many cases provide' some seed.  P r o v i d e d that the  lateral  d i s t a n c e from the seed source i s not too g r e a t , adequate  seeding  can be o b t a i n e d from t h i s source.  seeds-  i n p r i m a r i l y from an overhead a m a r g i n a l seed source.  Balsam f i r s i m i l a r l y  seed source and s e c o n d a r i l y from  I t has been mentioned  how  aspen  can  s e e d - i n from a c o n s i d e r a b l e d i s t a n c e on c l e a r c u t areas and burns.  Seeding from overhead  sources i s l e s s common, w h i l e  v e g e t a t i v e r e p r o d u c t i o n tends t o predominate overhead  on  under a l i g h t  canopy.  Competition from other shrubby or herbaceous  veget-  a t i o n and g r a s s i s another f a c t o r i n h i b i t i n g e s t a b l i s h m e n t and growth  of the commercial  species.  Here one would i n c l u d e  aspen-  - 10 s u c k e r i n g s i n c e aspen i s as y e t unmerchantable  i n the area.  The s u b j e c t has r e c e i v e d t h e a t t e n t i o n o f Qua I t e (1953);  Atkins  (1956);  Swain  C r o s s l e y (1956c);  (1954) and Weetman ( 1 9 5 8 ) .  Howe (1953);  S u t t o n (1956);  C h e m i c a l t r e a t m e n t has been g e n e r a l l y  s u c c e s s f u l and ammonium sulphamate  has found p a r t i c u l a r a p p l i c -  a t i o n i n t h i s r e g i o n , (Quaite, 1953). S i l v i c u l t u r a l P r a c t i c e s Aimed a t R e g e n e r a t i o n I t i s from a c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e s e problems s u p p l y , seedbed  o f seed  r e q u i r e m e n t s and e n v i r o n m e n t a l f a c t o r s , t h a t  s i l v i c u l t u r a l i s t s have developed p a r t i c u l a r p r a c t i c e s .  Thus  p a r t i a l c u t t i n g w i t h s c a r i f i c a t i o n has been shown by Q u a i t e t o be s u c c e s s f u l i n w h i t e spruce stands o f t h e B - 1 8 .  (1956)  Crossley  (1956c) has found c l e a r c u t t i n g o f p i n e w i t h s c a r i f i c a t i o n and s c a t t e r i n g o f s l a s h s u c c e s s f u l i n s e c u r i n g adequate  restocking.  The development o f s u i t a b l e s i l v i c u l t u r a l p r a c t i c e s f o l l o w i n g problem a n a l y s i s has been d i s c u s s e d by S m i t h (1955) w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o Engelmann spruce and a l p i n e f i r .  From t h e s o l u t i o n s of such  p a r t i c u l a r problems, t h e c l a s s i c a l s i l v i c u l t u r a l systems have e v o l v e d . Thus s t r i p c l e a r c u t t i n g d e v e l o p e d i n German p i n e r e g i o n s p a r t i c u l a r l y under Bauer;  s e l e c t i o n system developed i n t h e Swiss  and F r e n c h A l p i n e mixedwoods under Gurnaud and B i o l l e y ;  and  s h e l t e r w o o d developed under S c h S d e l i n and o t h e r s i n l o w e r r e g i o n s of t h e European c o n i f e r o u s f o r e s t s .  However, on t h e a p p l i c a t i o n  of t h e s e systems, Sukachev (1928) had t h i s t o s a y : " I t is:'only by s i t e type c l a s s i f i c a t i o n ( i . e . f o r r e r e c o g n i t i o n ) * , however, t h a t methods o f a p p l i c a t i o n i n a p a r t i c u l a r r e g i o n have been s u c c e s s f u l l y p r a c t i s e d e l s e w h e r e . "  * A u t h o r ' s comment.  Cajander  11 -  (1926) s a i d i n h i s w o r k - "The  Theory of F o r e s t Types": ,  "The n u m e r o u s , o f t e n v e r y i n g e n i o u s l o c a l s i l v i c u l t u r a l methods t h a t have been d e v e l o p e d i n v a r i o u s d i s t r i c t s , e s p e c i a l l y i n C e n t r a l E u r o p e c a n o n l y he made o f g e n e r a l a p p l i c a t i o n w i t h a d v a n t a g e p r o v i d e d t h a t t h e l o c a l i t i e s can be c l a s s i f i e d i n t o c l a s s e s which comprise l o c a l i t i e s b i o l o g i c a l l y e q u i v a l e n t and f u r t h e r , t h a t t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e s e c l a s s e s and t h e n a t u r a l c l a s s e s o f e a c h l o c a l f o r e s t u n d e r . c o n s i d e r a t i o n ere known." Thus i n o r d e r t o a p p l y a s i l v i c u l t u r a l method t h e r e s h o u l d be a v a i l a b l e t o t h e f o r e s t e r , a p r a c t i c a l f o r e s t classification. are a v a i l a b l e . work by H i l l s  A l l have found (1952);  (1941) and  Heimburger ally,  Various approaches t o t h i s  Daubenmire  Clements  From a n examination  of the  selected physiographic while recent y i e l d broader  Duffy  classifications Horton  species d i s t r i b u t i o n , Horton  s i t e s recognised by moisture  c o n d i t i o n s and  Lochave (1957). has  regimes,  (I960) show t h a t a  o fthree moisture-regime  M o i s t T r a n s i t i o n , a n d Wet,  applicable to f i e l d  (1938);  (1959 ) and  s t u d i e s by the author  classification  Dry U p l a n d ;  (1954);  and  (1952) a r e w e l l known.  i n t h e B-19 and B-18 r e g i o n s , s i t e  been d e v i s e d by Q u a i t e  classification  a p p l i c a t i o n i n the past  B r o w n (1952);  site  groups, v i z : -  may b e more  directly  p r o d u c t i v i t y c l a s s e s i n the  region. P e r h a p s t h e t h r e e p r i n c i p a l means o f c l a s s i f y i n g a r e t h r o u g h f o r e s t a s s o c i a t i o n s and  ground v e g e t a t i o n communities,  p h y s i o g r a p h i c f a c t o r s , a n d t r e e g r o w t h and indices.  site  productivity  - 12  -  The f i r s t has been supported by Moss (1953), the second by Quaite Duffy  (1959) i n A l b e r t a , and  f o r d e s c r i p t i v e purposes (1954);  Horton (1957) and  f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i s being  carried  out by the F o r e s t r y Branch i n t o a l l t h r e e . R e g i o n a l environmental  f a c t o r s of c l i m a t e , p h y s i o -  graphy, and parent m a t e r i a l of the s o i l are f a i r l y  constant.  However f i r e and l o g g i n g have brought c o n s i d e r a b l e change t o cover-type  c o n d i t i o n s i n A l b e r t a and may  s o i l and m i c r o - c l i m a t e .  I t has been shown t h a t s i t e s c a n be  r e c o g n i s e d on moisture-regime bases 1958)  considerably a l t e r  (Horton, 1957  and A t k i n s ,  and f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n c o u l d be added from the  approaches which c o n t r i b u t e s t o our understanding u l a r environment.  other  of a. p a r t i c -  Thus i t i s w i t h i n c e r t a i n i d e n t i f i e d  sites  t h a t the r e g e n e r a t i o n problem has been t a c k l e d i n A l b e r t a . Examples of the a p p l i c a t i o n of s i l v i c u l t u r a l as a whole t o the c o n i f e r o u s f o r e s t s of Canada are few and  have been l i m i t e d mainly  to  however,  to a crude c l e a r c u t t i n g system.  S e l e c t i o n systems have tended t o be h i g h - g r a d i n g wood a simple  systems  d i a m e t e r - l i m i t c u t t i n g without  the c o n d i t i o n of the r e s i d u a l stand.  The  only and  shelter-  much thought p a i d clearcutting  been adapted t o l o c a l topography i n the form of s t r i p s  has  and  patches but a p p l i c a t i o n has been so e x t e n s i v e as t o become a blanket  o p e r a t i o n w i t h no r e g a r d t o s p e c i f i c c o n d i t i o n s .  Information  i s now  a v a i l a b l e on the most important  a f f e c t i n g the success  factors  of r e g e n e r a t i o n as a r e s u l t of the v a r i o u s  experiments and p i l o t - s c a l e t r i a l s which have been c a r r i e d  out  - 13 i n the B-19  and a d j a c e n t s u b - a l p i n e and mixedwood r e g i o n s .  U n t i l the present day, however, l o g g i n g p r a c t i c e s i n the r e g i o n have been l a r g e l y the r e s u l t of the c u r r e n t demands of u t i l i s a t i o n ,  e x t r a c t i o n , a n d marketing  problems.  There  has  been scant a p p l i c a t i o n of s i l v i c u l t u r a l p r i n c i p l e s e v i d e n t i n past timber  sales.  B o t h p a r t i a l and been s u c c e s s f u l l y t r i e d experiments  c l e a r c u t t i n g w i t h s c a r i f i c a t i o n have  on a commercial s c a l e f o l l o w i n g the  mentioned e a r l i e r .  Some f a i l u r e s are t o be  expected  and a r t i f i c i a l methods a r e , of course, a v a i l a b l e f o r s u b s t i t u t i o n i n order t o o b t a i n the r e q u i r e d s t o c k i n g .  Thus d i r e c t  seeding  has been c a r r i e d out on an experimental b a s i s by the E a s t e r n Rockies F o r e s t C o n s e r v a t i o n Board and by the F o r e s t r y Branch. R e c e n t l y developed have been used. spruce seed baiting  p r e p a r a t i o n and p r o t e c t i o n treatments of seed These i n c l u d e c o l d soaking of s p r i n g sown  ( C r o s s l e y and Skov, 195D  (Weetman, 1958)  p e l l e t i n g and poison  and d e v i c e p r o t e c t i o n from  rodents  ( B l y t h , 1955). L i t t l e p l a n t i n g has as yet been c a r r i e d out i n the P r o v i n c e other than on the E a s t Slopes of the Rockies. g e n e r a l , p l a n t i n g may  In  be used t o augment n a t u r a l r e g e n e r a t i o n .  More o f t e n , p l a n t i n g i s used as a s u b s t i t u t e i n r e s t o c k i n g " f a i l " a r e a s , or where t h e r e i s no seed  supply.  In A l b e r t a , c u t t i n g methods have been s t u d i e d by DeGrace (1950);  C r o s s l e y (1956c) and Quaite  (1956).  - 14  -  C r o s s l e y (1955b) has r e p o r t e d on improvement t h i n n i n g s a.nd s t r i p and p a t c h - c u t t i n g i n p i n e .  Quaite  p a r t i a l c u t t i n g , s e l e c t i o n c u t t i n g , diameter  (1956) has  observed  l i m i t , seed t r e e  and c l e a r c u t t i n g i n spruce-aspen a t S m i t h , A l b e r t a . However, i n g e n e r a l i t may  be s a i d t h a t t h e s e l c t i o n o f  any one o f t h e s e s i l v i c u l t u r a l s y s t e m s i s based on the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h e s p e c i e s i n q u e s t i o n , the n a t u r e of the s i t e f a c t o r s , t h e p a r t i c u l a r s t a n d s , and the o b j e c t s o f management o f the forest area. Utilisation U t i l i s a t i o n i n t h e P r o v i n c e i s c h a r a c t e r i s e d by s h o r t term t i m b e r s a l e s , c o m p e t i t i v e l y b i d .  S u b - c o n t r a c t i n g i s gener-  a l and many of the o p e r a t o r s run a. m a r g i n a l b u s i n e s s . are d i s t a n t .  Markets  Outlets include a pulp m i l l at Hinton, handling  m a t e r i a l f r o m t h e pulpwood l e a s e of N o r t h w e s t e r n  P u l p and Power  Company and o t h e r p u l p and plywood o p e r a t i o n s a t Grande and Edmonton.  Prairie  Sawtimber i s g e n e r a l l y s h i p p e d t h r o u g h Edmonton.  T h i s e x p o r t m a t e r i a l has t o compete v.ith B r i t i s h Columbia and o t h e r lumber p r o d u c t i o n  areas.  I n t r o d u c t i o n of s i l v i c u l t u r a l systems under l o c a l s u s t a i n e d - y i e l d management poses a r e a l problem w h i l e  the  enforcement of even s i m p l e s i l v i c u l t u r a l p r a c t i c e s on  current  timber s a l e s  would meet w i t h some r e s i s t a n c e .  A start recent-  l y made has been the s c a r i f i c a t i o n o f some a r e a s where  one  o p e r a t o r i s l i k e l y t o work f o r an extended p e r i o d of t i m e . Thus a r e g e n e r a t i o n c l a u s e appears I n most c u r r e n t t i m b e r s a l e s -  - 15 agreements. The  f i n a n c i a l b e n e f i t t o be g a i n e d  such as t h i n n i n g has Stewart  (1956).  by c e r t a i n o p e r a t i o n s  been i l l u s t r a t e d by Quaite  (1950) and  However, p r a c t i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n the  fMd  of l o g g i n g economics are t o t a l l y l a c k i n g i n Northern A l b e r t a . C o n s i d e r a t i o n should be g i v e n t o the t e c h n i q u e s economically  s u c c e s s f u l l y and  used elsewhere u n t i l l o c a l s t u d i e s are  Fogh (1957) has  s a i d on the  initiated.  subjeet:-  "There are g r e a t advantages .... i n being a b l e t o t r e a t each stand i n d i v i d u a l l y a c c o r d i n g t o i t s requirements and, when f u l l u t i l i s a t i o n of a l l s p e c i e s growing on an area becomes a r e a l i t y , then the c o s t of such treatments can be borne by the l o g g i n g o p e r a t i o n by v i r t u e of the l a r g e r merchanta b l e volume per acre which i s a v a i l a b l e t o the logger. I t w i l l be the job of the s i l v i c u l t u r a l i s t t o p r e s c r i b e the proper treatment f o r each type of s t a n d . " Thus i t i s argued t h a t w i t h i n c r e a s i n g u t i l i s a t i o n standards,  the c o s t of c u l t u r a l o p e r a t i o n s  seeding, p l a n t i n g , t h i n n i n g e t c . , may per a c r e .  A t y p i c a l u n i t In the  such as  be met  r e g i o n has  scarification,  by the i n c r e a s e d been reserved  r e s e a r c h by the A l b e r t a F o r e s t S e r v i c e f o l l o w i n g  yield  for  establishment,  i n c o - o p e r a t i o n v/ith the F o r e s t r y Branch, of a p i l o t management a r e a at Whitecourt. a t i o n i s envisaged  A p o t e n t i a l sawtimber and pulpwood operand  a marked improvement i n u t i l i s a t i o n w i t h i n  the area i s expected w i t h i n the next decade. i n t e g r a t e d o p e r a t i o n s develop,  However, as  i t i s l i k e l y that hardships  develop f o r the s m a l l e r operator  will  i n competing w i t h modern equip-  ment and more economic h a n d l i n g of the produce.  A l a c k of  concern f o r l o g g i n g e f f i c i e n c y i n A l b e r t a i s r e f l e c t e d i n d i s i n t e r e s t of development of improved e x t r a c t i o n and  processing  - 16 equipment.  The p r o d u c t i o n p o t e n t i a l o f t h e r e g i o n i n terms  of wood volume p e r a c r e i s q u i t e h i g h but i t i s a t p r e s e n t b e i n g approached by o n l y one o r two l a r g e o p e r a t o r s . These few r e f e r e n c e s may serve t o keep t o t h e f o r e t h e many q u e s t i o n s a r i s i n g i n management o f t h e f o o t h i l l s forest.  F u r t h e r work w i l l be r e f e r r e d t o t h r o u g h o u t t h e  t e x t while an extensive b i b l i o g r a p h y i s presented. — 0 O 0 —  - 17 CHAPTER I DESCRIPTION D e s c r i p t i o n of the B-19 F o o t h i l l s Region The  B-19 r e g i o n  c o n s i s t s of the f o r e s t e d areas of the  f o o t h i l l s of the Rocky Mountains i n western and northwestern A l b e r t a and i s l a t e l y d e s c r i b e d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n by Rowe (195 9). occurs w i t h i n t h e r e g i o n . foothills B-19a.  i n the new r e v i s e d f o r e s t About 40% o f Northern A l b e r t a  Rowe (1959) has r e c o g n i s e d  three  sections:-  Lower F o o t h i l l s S e c t i o n T h i s area a d j o i n s  t r a n s i t i o n zone.  the B-18 r e g i o n and i s c l e a r l y a  I t covers an extensive  eastern  area  covering  the low f r o n t ranges of t h e Rockies and d i s s e c t e d plateaux a t an e l e v a t i o n o f 3,000 t o 4,000 f e e t i n the south and 2,500 f e e t i n the n o r t h .  O u t l i e r s i n the C a r i b o u H i l l s and P e l i c a n Mount-  a i n s i n the n o r t h and i n t h e Cyprus H i l l s i n t h e southeast of A l b e r t a are included B-19b.  i n this section.  Northern F o o t h i l l s S e c t i o n T h i s s e c t i o n commences j u s t o u t s i d e  A l b e r t a border i n the Peace R i v e r d i s t r i c t and  t h e n o r t h west  i n B r i t i s h Columbia  extends t o the upper Rocky Mountain Trench.  Elevation  ranges from 3,000 f e e t i n the i n t e r i o r m o u n t a i n - v a l l e y s t o 5,000 f e e t where t h e s e c t i o n a d j o i n s the a l p i n e tundra  area.  - 17a B-19.  Fig. I  Foothills  Region  Of  i  i 19?  '  /Peace >River  Forest  Sections  Boreal Forest Region 17  Aspen  Grove  18a  Mixedwood  18b  Hay River  Forest Forest  19a  Foothills  Forest  19c  Foothills  Forest  22b  Athabasca  23a  Upper  South  Mackenzie  Forest Forest  SA  Subalpine  Forest  Region  M  Montane  Forest  Region  6  Grassland  Scale.-  I inch = 1 0 0 miles  Alberta  - 18 B-19o.  Upper F o o t h i l l s  Section  T h i s s e c t i o n c o n s i s t s of a long narrow s t r i p w i t h h i g h wooded h i l l s and deep v a l l e y s p a r a l l e l t o the f r o n t range of the Rocky Mountains between 4,000 and 5,000 f e e t . It  extends n o r t h and south from the aspen p a r k l a n d of south  A l b e r t a t o N o r t h e r n B r i t i s h Columbia where i t a d j o i n s the Northern F o o t h i l l s  Section.  Thus the p r e s e n t work i s concerned m a i n l y w i t h t h e Lower and Upper F o o t h i l l s S e c t i o n s which a r e r e p r e s e n t e d i n Alberta.  Horton (1957) has p o i n t e d out i n d i s t i n c t i o n t h a t  tamarack i s i n f r e q u e n t i n t h e h i g h a r e a s ;  a l s o t h a t alpine f i r  i s more common and aspen l e s s common i n the H i g h F o o t h i l l s w h i l e balsam f i r i s t o be found i n the Lower F o o t h i l l s . divisions  The  sub-  a r e shown i n f i g . l . Topography The t h r e e s e c t i o n s t y p i f y f o o t h i l l s topography which  v a r i e s from h i g h h i l l s  and deeply cut v a l l e y s i n t h e west t o the  t y p i c a l r o l l i n g t e r r a i n of the B-1S B o r e a l r e g i o n .  Between  the more d e e p l y etched topography of the mountains and the r o l l i n g B-19a. s e c t i o n l i e s the Northern F o o t h i l l s S e c t i o n w i t h t y p i c a l r i v e r i n e f l a t s and t e r r a c e s towards the east and more s t r o n g l y d i s s e c t e d topography towards t h e west. accompanying map  fig.l.,  As oan be seen from the  t h e r e g i o n i n c l u d e s the main drainage  systems of the Peace and Athabasca r i v e r s which f l o w i n t o the Arctic  Ocean.  These r i v e r systems have l o n g p r o v i d e d  r o u t e s i n t h i s a r e a and s t i l l  travel  see some t r a f f i c i n the summer.  - 19 Throughout, numerous creeks and he  seasonal water courses are t o  found. Geology "The  how  Geology of A l b e r t a S o i l s " ( A l l a n , 1943)  describes  the f o o t h i l l s s o i l s o v e r l i e f o l d e d and broken r o c k s of  sandstones,  s h a l e s , carbonaceous s h a l e s and c o a l seams.  s i v e g l a c i a l d e p o s i t s occur throughout  the area and  Exten-  this  gener-  a l l y u n i f o r m parent m a t e r i a l has r e s u l t e d i n s o i l s m o d i f i e d mainly by topography.  Two  great i c e sheets were a c t i v e i n the  f o r m a t i o n of the s o i l s of the r e g i o n . from north-west  The Keewatin sheet  extended  of Hudson Bay r e a c h i n g n o r t h - e a s t A l b e r t a , the  n o r t h e r n C o r d i l l e r a n sheet advanced eastwards from the R o c k i e s . R i v e r s have d e p o s i t e d f i n e m a t e r i a l s w h i l e l a k e s of g e o l o g i c a l times have g i v e n s t i l l  f i n e r deposits.  G e o l o g i c a l l y , the B-19 a r y o r i g i n but the forementioned  r e g i o n i s of Hesozoic g l a c i a t i o n of the  sediment-  Cordilleran  r e g i o n has d e p o s i t e d g l a c i a l m a t e r i a l over the e n t i r e a r e a w h i l e more r e c e n t g l a c i o f l u v i a l and a l l u v i a l a c t i o n has r e s u l t e d i n beds of outwash sands and g r a v e l s .  A e o l i a n caps of f i n e mater-  i a l are t y p i c a l of the r i d g e s of the r e g i o n w h i l e g r a v e l benches occur along the r i v e r courses.  Amid the r o l l i n g  topo-  graphy of the lower e l e v a t i o n s , s m a l l ponded d e p o s i t s are to be  found. Climate  The c l i m a t e i s t y p i f i e d by hot dry summers and  cold  - 20 dry w i n t e r s .  Growing season days,(over mean temperature of  32°F), range around  90 w h i l e p r e c i p i t a t i o n occurs p r i n c i p a l l y  i n l a t e s p r i n g and e a r l y summer and amounts t o about  19 inches  yearly. In t h e f o l l o w i n g t a b l e s , average measurements f o r s e v e r a l l o c a l s t a t i o n s a r e presented, t o g e t h e r w i t h d e t a i l e d measurements f o r t h e Edson s t a t i o n . TABLE 1. COMPARATIVE CLIMATIC DATA  Station.  Av.Ann. Av.Ann. P r e c i p i t . Snow  Av. Ann. Mean Temp.  Av.Jah. Mean Temp.  Deg.F.  Deg.F.  Av. J u l y . Mean Temp.  Ins.  Ins.  Watson Lake Yukon. -  15.85  67.4  29  -4  58  F o r t Nelson B.C.  15.41  59.8  31  -5  62  Hudson Hope B.C.  15.85  58.9  34  60  Beaverlodge Alberta.  17.19  70.1  35  60  18.64  57.3  36  60  Rocky Mt.House .. Alberta. -LV.-o  55.7  34  58  Ed son Alberta  1  Q  Deg.F.  - 21 TABLE 2 CLIMATIC DATA - B-19 REGION  Month.  Mean Max. Temp< Deg. F.  EDSON STATION Mean Min. Temp. Av. Snow Deg..F. Ins.  Av. T o t a l P r e c i p i t . Ins.  January  20  -2  9.3  0.95  February  28  2  5.2  9.53  March  36  11  9.1  0.95  April  51  24  7.2  0.99  May  62  33  1.8  1.52  June  69  40  3.15  July  75  44  3.21  August  73  42  2.97  September  62  35  2.3  1.63  October  51  25  5.3  0.85  November  36  14  8.2  0.99  December  21  1  8.9  0.90  Yearly  49  22  57.3  Annual avemges of extremes o f temperature:-  High o f Low  91 F.  of -42 F. U  18.64  - 22  -  These c o n d i t i o n s g e n e r a l l y r e s u l t i n a s p r i n g break-up i n l a t e April/May  and  f r e e z i n g again  r a i n f a l l i n l a t e May  or June and  d e t e r i o r a t i o n of access not heavy and  i n November.  e a r l y J u l y i s common and  c o n d i t i o n s at t h a t time.  g a l e s are i n f r e q u e n t .  causes  Snowfall  is  I t i s t o be noted t h a t  h i g h e s t r a i n f a l l i s accompanied by h i g h e s t is  Early.summer  temperatures.  thus a moisture d e f i c i e n c y a l l year round a c c o r d i n g  Thornthwaites ( 1 9 4 8 ) P r e c i p i t a t i o n / E v a p o r a t i o n r a t i o  There  to  classificat-  ion. Soils S o i l s are excepting The  composed of r e l a t i v e l y f i n e  d i s t i n c t g r a v e l l y outwash areas and  materials r i v e r benches.  s o i l s are d e r i v e d from the f o l l o w i n g m a t e r i a l s : ( A f t e r A l b e r t a Research C o u n c i l - A l l a n 1.  Glacial  2.  Lacustro  3.  Lacustrine deposited  materials  4.  A l l u v i a l and  deposits  5.  Course outwash and  6.  R e s i d u a l and m o d i f i e d  (1943)  till -  till  aeolian  shoreline material residual material  S o i l types range from the dry sandy r i d g e s through clay-loam  t o the peaty s e r i e s .  However, the  s o i l s of the  are g e n e r a l l y of the grey wooded "Braeburn" s e r i e s .  region  -  23  -  Plate 1 Typical Soil  Profile litter r a w humus m i l d humus mixed m i n e r a l and organic n a t t e r leached enriched  - sandy  silt  c l a y loam  parent heavy c l a y ones t h r o u g h o u t  P l a t e 1 shows a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e p r o f i l e .  Some  l e a c h i n g e v i d e n c e c a n he f o u n d t h r o u g h o u t t h e r e g i o n , h u t p o d s o l i s a t i o n nowhere r e a c h e s an advanced s t a g e . drained  sites,  grey-wooded and p o d s o l i s e d  are found, while topographic  tend  to inhibit  g r e y wooded  on m o d e r a t e l y w e l l - d r a i n e d t o p o o r l y  p o s i t i o n s , depression  peats a r e found.  On w e l l  podsol  profiles drained  s o i l p r o f i l e s and  S o i l pH. i s n o v h e r e a t a l e v e l w h i c h w o u l d the growth o f the main  species.  Vegetation Eight  coniferous  are found i n t h e r e g i o n : -  and t h r e e  deciduous t r e e  species  - 24 Principal  Species  White s p r u c e - P i c e a g l a u c a  (Moench) Voss  B l a c k s p r u c e - P i c e a m a r i a n a (Mill.) B.S.P. Lodgepole p i n e - P i n u s c o n t o r t a D o u g l . v a r . l a t i f o l i a Engelmann Trembling  aspen - P o p u i u s t r e m u l o i d e s  Secondary  Michx.  Species  B a l s a m f i r - A b i e s balsamea (L.)  Mill  A l p i n e f i r - A b i e s l a s i o c a r p a (Hook) M i t t Engelmann spruce - P i c e a E n g e i m a n n i i  Parry  Jack p i n e - P i n u s B a n k s i a n a Lamb Tamarack ( l a r c h ) - L a r i x l a r i c i n a  (Du R o i ) K.  Balsam p o p l a r - P o p u i u s b a l s a m i f e r a  Koch  L.  White b i r c h - B e t u i a p a p y r i f e r a M a r s h v a r . oommutata (Rege.) Plem. Engelmann spruce and A l p i n e f i r o c c u r i n the t e n s i o n zone w i t h the S u b - A l p i n e  and  jack pipe i  n  the t e n s i o n zone w i t h  the B o r e a l r e g i o n . The Northern who  o n l y comprehensive s t u d y of the v e g e t a t i o n of  A l b e r t a has been c a r r i e d out by Moss (1953  and  1955)  examined v e g e t a t i o n communities i n N o r t h Western A l b e r t a .  Recognising  the d i s t u r b e d h i s t o r y of the a r e a , he  classified  the v e g e t a t i o n on t h e b a s i s of o n l y the f o l l o w i n g s t a b l e associations: A.  The  w h i t e spruce a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h ground cover  faciations:-  - 25 Nature of F a c i a t i o n 1.  Needle c o v e r  2.  G r a s s - herb f a c i a t i o n g r a s s - Elymus i n n o v a t u s Aster  steep  Shrub - herb f a c i a t i o n Viburnum spp. Rosa spp. R i b e s spp. Gprnus spp. V i o l a spp. Linnaea b o r e a l i s  s l o p e s f l a t s and depressions; moist  4.  F e a t h e r moss f a c i a t i o n Hylocomium s p l e n d e n s Calliergonella schreberi  gentle slopes;  B.  The B l a c k Spruce a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h ground  3.  faciation  Occurrence  B l a c k s p r u c e - f e a t h e r mcs s P i c e a mariana Hylocomium splendens B l a c k s p r u c e - peat mcs s P i c e a mariana Sphagnum spp. G.  The P o p l a r a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h  1.  Balsam p o p l a r c o n s o c i a t i o n Viburnum spp.  2.  Aspen p o p l a r c o n s o c i a t i o n Arctostaphylos uva-ursi Shepherdia canadensis Elymus i n n o v a t u s  burn slopes  moist  cover  gentle  slopes  bottom s l o p e s and depressions.  bearberry buffalo berry pine grass  There i s a l s o : 1.  Tamarack v e g e t a t i o n w i t h . a Tamarack, Drepanocludus - Carex B e t u l a bog.  2.  Balsam f i r v e g e t a t i o n w i t h a s s o c i a t e d D e v i l ' s Club Oplopanax, h o r r i d u s  r  - 26 3. Lodgepole pine v e g e t a t i o n w i t h lodgepole pine and Vaccinium sp. - b l u e b e r r y and cowberry. Some b a s i s f o r Moss' s e l e c t i o n of these a s s o c i a t i o n s may be found "Northern  principal  i n t h e f o l l o w i n g comment from Tamms*  C o n i f e r o u s F o r e s t S o i l s " - Page 212:-  "The c o n c l u s i o n i s that the ground v e g e t a t i o n of these f o r e s t a s s o c i a t i o n s can be used w i t h great a d vantage as a s u i t a b l e b a s i s f o r c l a s s i f y i n g the s o i l s , a l t h o u g h i t must not be f o r g o t t e n i n t h i s c o n n e c t i o n t h a t c l i m a t i c v a r i a t i o n s and f a i r l y c o n s i d e r a b l e geologi c a l d i f f e r e n c e may a f f e c t the l i f e and p r o d u c t i o n o f the f o r e s t without making themselves apparent i n t h e ground v e g e t a t i o n . " F u r t h e r t o these a s s o c i a t i o n s w h i c h can be e a s i l y r e c o g n i s e d i n the f i e l d ,  i t might be added t h a t Tamarack i s  i n f r e q u e n t i n the h i g h areas, o n l y s c a t t e r e d t r e e s o c c u r r i n g up t o 4 , 5 0 0  feet.  Horton (1957) t o o has noted iations with Increasing a l t i t u d e .  changes i n these  assoc-  Aspen i s more abundant i n the  Low F o o t h i l l s s e c t i o n while A l p i n e f i r occurs i n i n c r e a s i n g numbers towards the High F o o t h i l l s .  Betula glandulosa i s less  common In the h i g h areas w h i l e a change i n the mosses from Sphagnum t o Malum and Thuidium can be noted s i t e s with increasing e l e v a t i o n .  on the m o i s t e r  These l a s t are the t y p i c a l  o b s e r v a t i o n s which can be made on t r a v e r s i n g the r e g i o n . Horton (1957) has shown how the ground v e g e t a t i o n o f the r e g i o n may be used i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h h i s p h y s i o g r a p h i c s i t e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n based on moisture  regime.  T h i s approach  -27 after Hills  -  (1952) i s c u r r e n t l y a p p l i e d i n the P r o v i n c e and  the  w r i t e r has used a s i m p l i f i e d grouping i n the approach to s i t e r e c o g n i t i o n f o r t h i s work, v i z : 1.  M o i s t u r e Regime 1 - 3  Dry Upland  s i t e s - Upper s l o p e  Dry Grass Herb v e g e t a t i o n type (a)  Sheperdia canadensis Symphoricarpus a l b a Aetaea r u b r a Elymus innovatus  (b) A r n i c a sp. - Juniperus sp. 2.  M o i s t u r e regiiae 4 - 5  (Oleaster family , buffaloberry) (Snowberry) (Baneberry) (Pine Grass) (Arnica) (Juniper)  Moist T r a n s i t i o n - M i d d l e s l o p e  M o i s t herb - moss v e g e t a t i o n type w i t h 1(a) above p l u s : Equisetum sp. Garex p o l y t r i c h o i d e s Carex s a l u t e n s i s Aulacomnium sp. Camptothecum sp. Mnium sp. Phaca americana 3. M o i s t u r e regime 6 - 9  Wet  (Horsetails) (Sedges)  (Milk v e t c h ) - Lowland and  Depressions  B i r c h - r u s h - moss v e g e t a t i o n type w i t h B e t u l a sp. (Birch) Juncus sp. (Rush) Drepanocladus sp. Aulac omnium"l?alustre Camptothecum n i t e n s Prom the p r e c e d i n g d i s c u s s i o n of s o i l t y p e s , and a t i o n , i t might be gathered t h a t s o i l f e r t i l i t y  veget-  and p e r m e a b i l i t y  are f a i r l y uniform other than on t h e w t t e r peaty s i t e s , and t h a t  - 28 -  it  i s t o moisture  regime c o n t r o l l e d by p h y s i o g r a p h i c s i t e and  t o p o g r a p h i c p o s i t i o n t h a t the s i l v i e u l t u r a l i s t p r i m a r i l y t u r n s for site  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n bases.  (1926) as s a y i n g , -  V a t e r i s reported by Cajander  "The p r o d u c t i v e c a p a c i t y o f the s o i l i s  dependent on" i t s most unfavourable  constituent."  However, the  major .factor a f f e c t i n g p r o d u c t i v i t y of the grey wooded s o i l i n the r e g i o n i s the supply of moisture a t v a r i o u s l e v e l s of the several s o i l p r o f i l e horizons.  T h i s e f f e c t w i l l be f u r t h e r  d i s c u s s e d i n the f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n o f s i t e . Site From the approaches t o s i t e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n mentioned i n the p r e c e d i n g paragraphs  of t h i s d e s c r i p t i v e chapter, one  b a s i s f o r s i t e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s brought c l a s s i f i c a t i o n based  t o the f o r e .  on p h y s i o g r a p h i c c o n d i t i o n s ;  those of slope p o s i t i o n and o f moisture regime.  That i s  especially This c l a s s i f -  i c a t i o n i s f u r t h e r supported by use of the a s s o c i a t e d v e g e t a t i o n communities, and a g e n e r a l p r o d u c t i v i t y r a t i n g of the s p e c i e s growing on those  sites.  U s i n g t h i s approach t h e r e f o r e , the s i t e  description  f o r the r e g i o n becomes the f o l l o w i n g : The  d r i e s t s i t e s o f t h e moisture  the Dry Upland  s i t e s of moisture  regime g r a d i e n t are  regimes 1 - 3 .  These occur  on the upper s l o p e s w i t h f r e e drainage and on the d r y sandy ridges.  T y p i c a l i s the d r y grass-herb communities  stand of Lodgepole  pine/aspen  with a  and b l a c k and white spruce  some balsam f i r as an understorey*  with  These stands are v e r y  -  29  -  p r o d u c t i v e w i t h r e g a r d t o p i n e , and m o d e r a t e l y p r o d u c t i v e regard t o white  spruce.  with  S o i l s s u p p o r t i n g t h i s community a r e  f a i r l y deep and s t o n e - f r e e w i t h optimum d r a i n a g e  and a w e l l  d e v e l o p e d p r o f i l e o f sandy loam t o c l a y loam t i l l .  The w a t e r  t a b l e i s below t h e t h r e e f o o t l e v e l t h r o u g h o u t t h e growing season. The T r a n s i t i o n s i t e s a r e m o i s t e r .  They o c c u r on m i d d l e -  l o w e r s l o p e s and on r a i s e d benches. These f r e s h s i t e s receive moisture ation.  often  f r o m t h e upper s l o p e s a s w e l l as f r o m p r e c i p i t -  The s i t e s a r e g e n t l y s l o p i n g and w e l l - d r a i n e d .  Moist-  u r e regime ranges f r o m L - 5.  S o i l s a r e deep and r e l a t i v e l y  s t o n e - f r e e except on benches.  C l a y loam i s t y p i c a l w i t h g l e y i n g  a t about one f o o t l e v e l .  The w a t e r t a b l e may be w i t h i n two  f e e t o f t h e s u r f a c e a t some t i m e d u r i n g t h e growing season. V e g e t a t i o n i s o f the m o i s t shrub .- herb - moss type v / i t h b e s t growth o f w h i t e and b l a c k s p r u c e . ented.  A l l species are w e l l repres-  I t i s a t y p e f o u n d i n l o n g , r e l a t i v e l y narrow s t r i p s  on t h e s i d e s l o p e s o f t h e r o l l i n g topography. Though s p r u c e / A l p i n e f i r i s the c l i m a x o f t h e r e g i o n i t i s on t h e T r a n s i t i o n s i t e s t h a t i t most o f t e n emerges t o dominate the p i n e a t m a t u r i t y under p r e s e n t E a r l y i n t h e d e c l i n e o f t h e p i n e , spruce and f i n a l l y , pure s p r u c e r e s u l t s . always p r e s e n t  i n the.understorey,  ant s p e c i e s i n t h e m i x t u r e .  stand c o n d i t i o n s .  emergentscan be n o t e d  Some A l p i n e f i r i s a l m o s t s i n c e t h i s i s t h e most t o l e r -  - 30 The wet  s i t e s , moisture regimes, 6, 7 and 8 a r e  extensive throughout  the f o r e s t r e g i o n .  M o i s t u r e regime 6  i s t y p i c a l l y a spruce s i t e w i t h pure b l a c k spruce o c c u r r i n g frequently. however.  White spruce and a spen are w e l l r e p r e s e n t e d  There  i s a peat l a y e r of about 12 - 20 i n c h e s , the  p r o f i l e b e i n g g e n e r a l l y s a t u r a t e d t o w i t h i n one f o o t of the s u r f a c e a t l e a s t f o r p a r t of the growing lies silt  loam or c l a y loam g l e i .  season;  Drainage  regime 6 occurs on bog border s i t e s .  Wetter  t h i s peat  i s impeded.  Moisture  s i t e s are 7 and  o c c u r i n g a t bottom s l o p e s , impressions and muskeg a r e a s . are b l a c k spruce s i t e s w i t h a l i t t l e  They  V e g e t a t i o n i s of the  b i r c h - r u s h - sedge type w i t h sphagnum mosses. may  8  These  balsam and tamarack.  are peaty w i t h s a t u r a t i o n t o the s u r f a c e .  over-  These s i t e s  be termed o n l y p o o r l y p r o d u c t i v e i n that they can support  some stands and are e x t e n s i v e throughout  the r e g i o n .  However,  m e r c h a n t a b i l i t y i s l i m i t i n g due t o s m a l l s i z e s and non-marketable species. The p r e c e d i n g d e s c r i p t i o n s are perhaps  an  oversimpli-  f i c a t i o n of the s i t e types of the r e g i o n but they do serve t o give some i n d i c a t i o n of the range  of c o n d i t i o n s covered.  Local  m o d i f i c a t i o n s are the r e s u l t of such f a c t o r s as a s p e c t , e l e v a t i o n , s o i l o r i g i n , s o i l t e x t u r e and the r e d i s t r i b u t i o n of s p e c i e s f o l l o w i n g f i r e and l o g g i n g .  Thus, f o r example, many of the  ponded areas of g l a c i a l times and south f a c i n g t r a n s i t i o n s l o p e s support e x c e l l e n t l o d g e p o l e p i n e and spruce stands, w h i l e i n other a r e a s , b l a c k spruce has been a b l e t o w i t h s t a n d p e r i o d i c f i r e s through i t s s e m i - s e r o t i n o u s cone c h a r a c t e r i s t i c .  Thus the  - 31 -  species often  outnumbers white spruce as an understorey  Pine/aspen mixtures are i n no way and  l i m i t e d to Dry Upland  occur f o l l o w i n g f i r e on a l l but t h e wettest  Thus the climax on any  site  to pine. sites  conditions.  c o n d i t i o n s , r a r e l y e x i s t f o r any  l e n g t h of time  and u n t i l f i r e c o n t r o l standards are r a i s e d ,  c o n d i t i o n s may  be u n a t t a i n a b l e  and  climax  s i l v i c u l t u r a l planning  will  be. thwarted. Stand Dynamics The  f i r e and  l e g g i n g h i s t o r y of t h i s r e g i o n has had  marked e f f e c t on s tand  s t r u c t u r e and  species  distribution.  C a t a s t r o p h i c f i r e s swept the f o o t h i l l s i n the l a t e 19th and  century  the even-age of many of the s t a n d s can be t r a c e d t o t h a t time  of o r i g i n . and  a  Obvious too are the f a i l areas f o l l o w i n g recent  logging.  ances has  The  regeneration  r e s u l t e d i n an age  fire  p e r i o d f o l l o w i n g these d i s t u r b -  range of about 30 y e a r s .  spruce and f i r form an understorey,  Where  the range i s g r e a t l y  increased. The  succession  of these f i r e  been mantioned b r i e f l y i n the p r e v i o u s  o r i g i n a t e d stands paragraphs.  A  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the p i c t u r e i s t h a t of Horton (1956) "Ecology of Lodgepole p i n e " .  has typical -  Fig  3.  Strip  Shelterwood  Cutting  Fig. 4  Vertical  Layout  3  2  I  3  Fig.  5  Horizontal  Layout  Fig.  6  Strip  and  Group  Shelterwood  Road  0 3 r d C  Q>  U  u t  0  0  regen.  Road 4  3  2  1  4  B-19.  Fig.  Forest  Foothills  Region  Of  Sections  Boreal Forest Region 17  Aspen  18a  Mixedwood  Grove  18b  Hay River  19a  Foothills  19c  Foothills  Forest Forest  Forest Forest  22b  Athabasca  23a  Upper  South  SA  Subalpine  Forest  Region  M  Montane  Forest  Region  G  Grassland  Mackenzie  Forest Forest  Scale:  I inch = 1 0 0 miles  Alberta  - 32 Fig. 2 Lodgepole  Pine-Aspen ( M i x e d overwood  D e c l i n e o f overwood  ( Mixed  R e p l a c e d by understorey  spruce/fir  2 - Aged Ground F i r e Mixture  No F i r e Dominant Pine-Aspen  Decline of pine  Few Spruce  R e p l a c e d by spruce & fir.  The c l i m a x i s , t h e n , unevenaged s p r u c e / f i r f o r e s t . Further f i r e s give pine/aspen again.  I n many cases,, r e p e a t e d  f i r e s have m a i n t a i n e d t h e p a r a - c l i m a x p i n e / a s p e n .  This l a t t e r  e f f e c t i s more p r e v a l e n t i n t h e Low F o o t h i l l s s e c t i o n where few s t a n d s have escaped f i r e f o r more t h a n 100 y e a r s . r e g i o n s where s u c c e s s i o n has advanced  I n the higher  further, spruce/fir  under  s t o r e y has developed t h r o u g h spruce emergents t o s p r u c e / f i r stands.  B l a c k spruce forms a l a r g e component o f t h e s e stands  due t o i t s a b i l i t y t h r o u g h s e r o t i n o u s cones t o s u r v i v e t h e cond i t i o n s of p e r i o d i c f i r e .  Thus i n some c a s e s , t h i s  condition  has. r e s u l t e d i n pure spruce s t a n d s and b l a c k - s p r u c e i s found t o o c c u r b o t h i n pure stands and i n m i x t u r e t h r o u g h o u t t h e e n t i r e s i t e range. p r e v a l e n t on t h e 1 - 3 f i r on t h e 4 - 5  " N o r m a l l y " , p i n e / a s p e n stands a r e more m o i s t u r e regime;  white spruce/Alpine  r e g i m e , and b l a c k s p r u c e / b a l s a m f i r on 6 - 9  - 33 -  regimes. to  Due t o t h e i r v a r i o u s a d a p t a b i l i t i e s t h e s p e c i e s  03 c u r i n pure stands o r clumps on p a r t i c u l a r s i t e  types.  T h i s d i s t r i b u t i o n may be f u r t h e r due t o f i r e o c c u r r e n c e t o t h e seed y e a r s of t h e s e p a r a t e  tend  related  species.  A n o t h e r s t a n d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h i s and o t h e r  regions  of A l b e r t a t h a t has been n o t e d by a l l w o r k e r s i n t h e a r e a i s t h e marked tendency towards heavy s t o c k i n g i n pure stands t o advanced ages.  T h i s e f f e c t has been n o t e d by S m i t h e r s (1956).; :  Crossley  (1956); B l y t h (1957 and H o r t o n (1956) i n p i n e and H o r t o n (1957) i n b l a c k spruce.  Not o n l y does t h i s e f f e c t reduce . h e i g h t growth  but i t a l s o markedly r e d u c e s t h e number o f stems w h i c h may be c l a s s e d as m e r c h a n t a b l e .  W h i l e t h e f i r e and l o g g i n g h i s t o r y  of t h e p r o v i n c e may have c o n t r i b u t e d much t o t h i s  characteristic,  f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n on a s i t e b a s i s i s w a r r a n t e d i n t h e v a r i o u s forest regions.  As f a r d i s t a n t a s t h e Crowsnest F o r e s t ,  K a n a n a s k i s and fiocky Mountain House, s t a g n a t i n g stands o f l o d g e p o l e p i n e have p r e s e n t e d  a problem;  up t o 15,000 stems p e r a c r e a t  30 - 40 y e a r s a r e common and t h e s p e c i e s under s u c h c o n d i t i o n s can o n l y be c l a s s e d as a weed. to  r e l e a s e some stems.  S e v e r a l methods have been attempted  D i s c i n g i n a l t e r n a t e s t r i p s was c a r r i e d  out by C r o s s l e y (1952) w h i l e c h e m i c a l c o n t r o l \nas c a r r i e d out by C r o s s l e y (1956).  The e f f e c t i n b l a c k spruce i s n o t q u i t e s o  d r a m a t i c , but t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i s q u i t e n o t i c e a b l e and was found t o make analysis o f growth r e l a t i o n s h i p s d i f f i c u l t i n preparing y i e l d t a b l e s f o r both lodgepole pine, (Smithers, and b l a c k s p r u c e ,  ( L e e s , I960).  D i s t i n c t clumping e f f e c t s  1956)  a  r e found on s e v e r a l s i t e s s u p p o r t i n g b l a c k s p r u c e .  A modific-  a t i o n t o t h e s e t r e n d s and t h o s e o f t h e s u c c e s s i o n mentioned p r e v i o u s l y r e s u l t s f r o m t h e v e g e t a t i v e r e p r o d u c t i o n o f aspen and b l a c k s p r u c e .  P o p l a r s u c k e r i n g has enabled  the species t o  dominate a t l e a s t f o r i t s l i f e s p a n on many s i t e s t o t h e e x c l u s i o n of o t h e r s p e c i e s .  Examination  o f a e r i a l photos o f t h e  r e g i o n r e v e a l s an a l a r m i n g spread o f t h i s g r e g a r i o u s s p e c i e s . B l a c k spruce i s n o t a p r o b l e m but many dense clumps do e x i s t o r i g i n a t i n g from v e g e t a t i v e r e p r o d u c t i o n a l o n e .  Height  growth  i n t r e e s o f t h i s o r i g i n i s g e n e r a l l y poor and t h e t r e e s seldom reach merchantable s i z e s . R e c o n c i l i a t i o n o f h e i g h t i n d e x of the s p e c i e s to. p h y s i o g r a p h i c s i t e has been so f a r p o s s i b l e f o r o n l y b l a c k spruce (Lees, I 9 6 0 ) .  -  D r y U p l a n d , M o i s t T r a n s i t i o n ana Wet s i t e s I n  t h i s r e g i o n have been found t o produce 55 f e e t , 45 f e e t and 35 f e e t h e i g h t growth a t 100 y e a r s , r e s p e c t i v e l y . F u r t h e r work i s b e i n g c a r r i e d on by t h e F e d e r a l F o r e s t r y B r a n c h . Silvical  Profile  White Spruce Occurs on t h e m o i s t 4., 5 and 6 regimes t h r o u g h o u t t h e region.  The s p e c i e s i s mature a t 120 y e a r s and produces seed  a t about 5 - 7  y e a r i n t e r v a l s f r o m an age o f 40 onward.  It  has been shown t h a t spruce r e q u i r e s shade, m o i s t u r e and no extremes o f temperature,  i n g e r m i n a t i o n and e a r l y development.  Abundant r e g e n e r a t i o n has been noted on r o t t e n wood and m i n e r a l  -  s o i l seed-bed c o n d i t i o n s .  -  35  More s u c c e s s f u l r e g e n e r a t i o n o f t e n  o c c u r s on those m a r g i n a l spruce i t i o n i s not so heavy.  s i t e s where v e g e t a t i v e compet-  Overhead or c l o s e m a r g i n a l seed  supply  i s e s s e n t i a l t o s u c c e s s f u l r e g e n e r a t i o n and i t i s d o u b t f u l i f a seed source more than f o u r c h a i n s d i s t a n t would be ive.  effect-  E x p e r i m e n t s i n p a r t i a l c u t t i n g w i t h s c a r i f i c a t i o n and i n  s t r i p C l e a r c u t t i n g have proved s u c c e s s f u l w i t h t h i s s p e c i e s . White "spruce produces h i g h q u a l i t y saw-timber t h r o u g h o u t t h e r e g i o n and forms the major p r o p o r t i o n o f the a n n u a l  cut.  Spruce seed-moth L a s p e y r e s i a youngana (Kearf.) and spruce coneworm D i o r y e t r i a a b i e t e l l a ( D. & S.)  reduce c r o p s ,  and b i r d s and s m a l l mammals a r e known t o remove l a r g e q u a n t i t i e s of seed and some s e e d l i n g s .  M o r t a l i t y of s e e d l i n g s seems t o be  around 50$ f o r the f i r s t two y e a r s , f a l l i n g o f f r a p i d l y t h e r e after. Black  spruce Occurs on t h e wet  s i t e s p r i m a r i l y but i s d i s t r i b u t e d  over m o i s t and d r y s i t e s as an u n d e r s t o r e y and i n m i x t u r e p i n e and w h i t e s p r u c e .  The  s p e c i e s i s mature at 120  with  years.  Seed i s produced a t i n t e r v a l s of one y e a r i n f o u r a f t e r  20  y e a r s o l d , on the a v e r a g e . Reproduction  i s by seeds f r o m s e r o t i n o u s and  non-  s e r o t i n o u s cones, r o o t s u c k e r i n g , l a y e r i n g and r o o t i n g o f branch t i p s .  Thus t h e s p e c i e s i s a b l e t o t a k e advantage of  the f i r e c o n d i t i o n s i n the a r e a .  S e e d l i n g s need shade and  - 36 moisture  but do not show such a need f o r m i n e r a l  soil,  r e p r o d u c t i o n being s a t i s f a c t o r y on wet sphagnum seedbeds. The  s p e c i e s shows poorer growth than white  spruce  but i s s u i t a b l e f o r h i g h q u a l i t y pulpwood due t o i t s p h y s i c a l pulping properties.  Diameters of around f o u r inches d.b.h.  are common i n t h e dense stands w h i l e h e i g h t s range up t o 70 f e e t . D i s t r i b u t i o n i n clumps i s t y p i c a l , the s p e c i e s o c c u r r ing  on d r i e r " i s l a n d s " i n peaty swamps and i n c r e s c e n t shaped  stands around swamp b o r d e r s .  The heavy s t o c k i n g i s a  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c on a l l s i t e s . Lodgepole  pine T h i s s p e c i e s o c c u r s on t h e d r i e r s i l i c e o u s  sites  n a t u r a l l y , or a f t e r f i r e on a v a r i e t y of s i t e c o n d i t i o n s . the p i o n e e r dominating history.  Reproduction  ous cones.  It i s  the a r e a a t p r e s e n t , due t o the f i r e • i s by t h e s e r o t i n o u s and n o n - s e r o t i n -  Seed years occur a t two t o three y e a r  intervals.  Cones i n the s e r o t i n o u s s t a t e need h i g h temperatures t o break t h e r e s i n bond. the ground.  T h i s c o n d i t i o n occurs i n t h e s l a s h on  S e e d l i n g s r e q u i r e abundant i n s o l a t i o n .  Scari-  f i c a t i o n o f t h e seedbed has been s u c c e s s f u l i n o b t a i n i n g adequate r e g e n e r a t i o n i n experiments and s c a t t e r i n g of the s l a s h .  of clearcutting with  scarification  Stagnation of seedlings i s not  as marked i n t h i s r e g i o n es on t h e logged and bumed-over areas o f the Sub-Alpine m g i o n but the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c has been  - 37  -  observed. Lodgepole pine i s mature at 100 v a l u a b l e timber  of u s e f u l s i z e s .  the cut i n the r e g i o n and has  - 120 years and  produces  I t forms a l a r g e p a r t of  long s u p p l i e d the r a i l r o a d s ' of  Canada w i t h l a r g e q u a n t i t i e s of m a t e r i a l . i Seed and  s e e d l i n g s are destroyed  seed los s i s q u i t e heavy. fairly  by s m a l l mammals and  As a r e s u l t m o r t a l i t y f i g u r e s are  high.  Aspen Occurs on almost a l l s i t e s i n the r e g i o n . gregarious  s p e c i e s , i t i s b e t t e r able to a c t as a  very  pioneer,on,  cut and  burned-over areas than i s lodgepole  seeder,  i t s l i g h t t u f t e d seeds are a b l e t o d i s p e r s e over l a r g e  areas. damage  I t suckers f r e e l y and and  pine.  A  A  i s s t i m u l a t e d by f i r e and  by i n c r e a s e d i n s o l a t i o n .  The  at  trees  S e e d l i n g s r e q u i r e adequate moisture  for  germination  The  s e e d l i n g s are v e r y i n t o l e r a n t and  vegetative  logging  Seed b e a r i n g begins  about 20 with.an optimum reached at 50 - 60 y e a r s . are mature at 60 y e a r s .  prolific  and f o r the s u r v i v a l d u r i n g the f i r s t  two  years.  cannot s u r v i v e heavy  competition.  G e n e r a l l y the t r e e i s short-lived a t t a i n i n g s m a l l diameters and  h e i g h t s of about 60 f e e t .  R o t a t i o n age,  i f the  s p e c i e s were u t i l i s a b l e f o r plywood would be about 50-60 years a f t e r which d e c l i n e i s f a i r l y r a p i d and cankered.  the t r e e s become r o t t e n and  L o c a l l y , sooty bark canker Cenangium s i n g u l a r e i s the most  - 38 serious disease.  -  I t has been suggested t h a t aspen i s a  n e c e s s a r y s e r a i stage i n s u c c e s s i o n  to s p r u c e - f i r  climax,.  however, the s p e c i e s i s now  so widespread f o l l o w i n g l e g g i n g  and  i s obscured and  burning  t h a t t h i s value  poisoning  has  been recommended t o reduce i t s p r o p o r t i o n . Balsam f i r . This species  occurs  on wet  s i t e s i n s m a l l pure  groups or i n mixture as an understorey. i n the r e g i o n s i n c e i t i s a climax  I t i s poorly  s p e c i e s and  represented  i s suppressed  c u r r e n t l y by the c o n d i t i o n s f o l l o w i n g f i r e . Shade and moisture are r e q u i r e d f o r germination s e e d l i n g s o f t e n s u r v i v e on nice s seedbeds due ent root system than the o t h e r s p e c i e s . the  r e g i o n i s poor and  and  t o a more p e r s i s t -  However, growth i n  the s p e c i e s i n i t s e l f  i s unmerchant-  a b l e a l t h o u g h a v a r y i n g percentage of balsam f i r lumber i s t o l e r a t e d i n both p u l p and  lumber consignments.  Many s e e d l i n g s of balsam f i r are t o be found on most s i t e s i n the r e g i o n but due release,moisture t o continue  to v e g e t a t i v e c o m p e t i t i o n ,  c o n d i t i o n s , and  fire,  i n t o the upper s t o r e y s .  produce s i z e s c o m p e t i t i v e  these are seldom At  w i t h the other  present species.  l a c k of allowed  i t cannot  -  39  -  Utilisation TABLE Forest  3  Classification for Alberta  Vegetation Belt  A r e a Sq. M i l e s  Mixedwood (B-I8a) F o o t h i l l s (B-19) S u b - a l p i n e .(S.A. ) McKenzie Lowlands ( B - 2 3 b ) N o r t h e r n C o n i f e r o u s . (B-22a) Semi p r a i r i e Aspen grove (B-17) Grasslands Totals  124,400 36,200 17,300 14,800 7,100 18,400  48.8 14.2 6.8 5.8 2.8 7.2  36,800 255,000  14.4 100.0  I n summary, r e c e n t s u r v e y s c a r r i e d out by t h e A l b e r t a R e s e a r c h C o u n c i l i n d i c a t e t h a t 52% of Alberta's t o t a l a r e a i s l a n d s u i t e d t o growing f o r e s t c r o p s . t h i s area i s 400,000,000  C u r r e n t a n n u a l p r o d u c t i o n f rom  board f e e t S c r i b n e r .  T h i s volume  comes m a i n l y f r o m t h e Mixedwood, F o o t h i l l s - a n d S u b - A l p i n e  regions.  History Some o f the f i r s t u t i l i s a t i o n c a r r i e d out i n t h e f o o t h i l l s f o r e s t r e g i o n by w h i t e man  must have been the hand  l o g g i n g f o r c o n s t r u c t i o n purposes of the N o r t h West and Hudson Bay Company i n t h e i r e x p a n s i o n  westwards.  U t i l i s a t i o n did  not i n c r e a s e t o any g r e a t e x t e n t i n t h o s e e a r l y t i m e s s i n c e s e t t l e m e n t was  l i m i t e d i n t h e n o r t h t o t h e Peace R i v e r a r e a  f u r t h e r s o u t h around Edmonton and t h e p r a i r i e s .  and  This period  of h i s t o r y might be c a l l e d the p r e - r a i l r o a d e r a when o n l y c o n s t r u c t i o n t i m b e r s and b a r k f o r canoes e t c .  was  used.  The  coming of the r a i l r o a d s , b o t h l o c a l and t r a n s - c o n t i n e n t a l saw a g r e a t upsurge of p r o d u c t i o n i n A l b e r t a .  By 1912  Alberta  had 46 s a w m i l l s p r o d u c i n g 47 m i l l i o n f e e t of w h i c h 90%  was  -  40  -  s p r u c e , amounting t o one p e r cent o f the n a t i o n a l p r o d u c t i o n . A l b e r t a however was  s u p p l y i n g o v e r one t h i r d of the n a t i o n ' s  r a i l w a y - t i e p r o d u c t i o n and materials.  World War  had a l a r g e e x p o r t t r a d e i n these  I caused a d e c l i n e but by the  mid  1 9 2 0 ' s , the number of m i l l s r o s e a g a i n t o produce t h r e e c e n t o f the n a t i o n a l o u t p u t .  D u r i n g the 1930's s m a l l m i l l  p r o d u c t i o n i n c r e a s e d w h i l e W o r l d War board f e e t e x p a n s i o n . has doubled s i n c e 1939 P r i o r t o 1939, h i l l s and and the  I I caused a 94 m i l l i o n  W i t h i n the P r o v i n c e , the a n n u a l c u t t o over 400 m i l l i o n board f e e t  (1956).  the b u l k o f t h i s cut came from the h i g h f o o t -  s u b - a l p i n e r e g i o n s snd s u p p l i e d a l a r g e m i n i n g  industry  railroad. The  spruce.  per  c u t c o n s i s t e d of t w o - t h i r d s p i n e and the r e m a i n d e r  Now  more t h a n h a l f the c u t comes from n o r t h and west  of Edmonton, and c o n s i s t s of t w o - t h i r d s  spruce.  These a r e the two major s p e c i e s u t i l i s e d p r e s e n t l y though balsam f i r and b l a c k spruce are o f t e n i n c l u d e d i n consignments. Demands have i n c r e a s e d s t e a d i l y and the P r o v i n c i a l F o r e s t S e r v i c e has e s t a b l i s h e d management u n i t s t o c o n t r o l the r emoval of the r e source.  R e c e n t l y f i r e c o n t r o l o r g a n i s a t i o n has been  and a e r o p l a n e s  set-up  a r e used i n c r e a s i n g l y b o t h i n r e c o n n a i s a n c e A t y p i c a l y e a r however, 1956,  fire extinction. of 2 0 1 , 2 9 4 a c r e s .  and  showed a l o s s  A n n u a l f i r e l o s s i s around 0 . 8 6 % .  Recent improvements i n s u p p r e s s i o n  include water  bombing and a e r i a l a p p l i c a t i o n of b o r a t e o r d r i l l i n g mud  for  f i r e b r e a k s , and  level  i t i s a n t i c i p a t e d t h ^ t a more a c c e p t a b l e  in  - 41 of 0 . 1 o r 0 . 2 % b u r n w i l l be a t t a i n e d .  The c u r r e n t r a t e o f  b u r n makes i n t e n s i v e management d i f f i c u l t  i n many r e g i o n s .  L o g g i n g i n t h e p a s t c o n s i s t e d o f economic s e l e c t i o n on Crown t i m b e r s a l e s .  I n r e c e n t y e a r s t h i s has changed t o a  f i x e d d i a m e t e r l i m i t c u t t i n g i n many a r e a s w i t h t o t a l c l e a r c u t t i n g i n a few a r e a s and on the l a r g e N o r t h w e s t e r n P u l p and Power Company's l e a s e a t H i n t o n . W i t h an i n c r e a s i n g demand f o r spruce and t h e d e p l e t i o n by f i r e , t h e r e i s a v i t a l need f o r good f o r e s t management. Province  has d i v i d e d most of the- u n r e s e r v e d l a n d i n t o  The  sustained  y i e l d management u n i t s . As mentioned i n t h e problem s t a t e m e n t ,  regeneration  f o l l o w i n g f i r e and c u r r e n t c u t t i n g l e a v e s much t o be d e s i r e d and a F e d e r a l F o r e s t r y B r a n c h s u r v e y c a r r i e d out i n 1951 by Candy showed u n s a t i s f a c t o r y s t o c k i n g o f commercial s p e c i e s i n t h e region.  Barnes, (1937);  DeGraee (1950) and Pogue  (1946),  d i s c u s s i n g c u t t i n g p r a c t i c e s i n s i m i l a r f o r e s t t y p e s have a g r e e d t h a t "heavy l o g g i n g " w i l l r e s u l t i n postponement of t h e n e x t cut by 120 y e a r s or more.  Quaite ( 1 9 5 D  has shown t h a t economic  s e l e c t i o n , c l e a r c u t t i n g as p r a c t i s e d i n the p a s t and d i a m e t e r l i m i t c u t t i n g do not l e a v e s t o c k e d reproduction  s t a n d s n o r do t h e y  favour  of s p r u c e .  The A l b e r t a F o r e s t S e r v i c e i s , however, aware of t h e p r o b l e m and a r e g e n e r a t i o n  clause- i n c l u d i n g s c a r i f i c a t i o n  - 42 -  requirements has been w r i t t e n i n t o many timber for  I960.  and  stand  Pilot  s a l e s agreements  s c a l e t r i a l s of r e g e n e r a t i o n , b a r e s t c u t t i n g  improvement w i l l soon be set-up t o o b t a i n  on some of the problems of u t i l i s a t i o n and  information  of r e s t o c k i n g .  C u r r e n t l y s m a l l s i z e s , below about 8 inches, of pine and white spruce,  b l a c k .spruce, balsam f i r ,  aspen, i s unmerchantable.  almost a l l the  There i s a l a e k o f a w e l l developed  i n t e g r a t e d wood u s i n g i n d u s t r y i n the The  and  region.  c u r r e n t s i t u a t i o n f i n d s many m a r g i n a l  inadequate c a p i t a l .  Winter l o g g i n g , w i t h CATs, i n t r e e  i s the g e n e r a l r u l e and a l t e r n a t i v e methods.  operations  there has been l i t t l e Large o p e r a t o r s  with  lengths  development of  are few.  Haulage  d i s t a n c e s are l o n g s i n c e the l a r g e c o n v e r s i o n p l a n t s are found widely  separated  at Grande P r a i r i e  Hinton  (pulpwood and  (saw-timber and  plywood),  saw-timber) and Edmonton (saw-timber  and  plywood)• A first  step towards i n c r e a s e d u t i l i s a t i o n would be  development o f p u l p m i l l s thus p r o v i d i n g a market f o r aspen, b l a c k spruce  and  s m a l l s i z e s of pine and white spruce.  i t i o n f o r markets Is i n t e n s e due  Compet-  to the l a r g e i n d u s t r i e s t o  east and west i n O n t a r i o and B r i t i s h Columbia. However, an i n c r e a s e i n the number of i n t e g r a t e d conv e r s i o n p l a n t s i s planned f o r the r e g i o n w i t h i n the near f u t u r e . These w i l l i n c l u d e pulpwood, plywood and p a r t i c l e board m i l l s . —0O0—  - 43 CHAPTER I I DISCUSSION AND REVIEW OF SILVICULTURAL SYSTEMS In the f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n , s i l v i c u l t u r a l systems w i l l he t r e a t e d s e p a r a t e l y , with reference 1.  briefly outlining their characteristics  t o p o s s i b l e a p p l i c a t i o n i n the r e g i o n .  These a r e :  C l e a r c u t t i n g Systems (a)  With n a t u r a l In  regeneration:  strips,  In patches, In (b) 2.  3.  blocks  With a r t i f i c i a l  regeneration  Shelterwood o r S u c c e s s i v e Regeneration F e l l i n g s (a)  In uniform  blocks  (b)  I n groups  (c)  Irregularly  (d)  In s t r i p s  (e)  In groups w i t h i n  strips  S e l e c t i o n Systems (a)  Group s e l e c t i o n  (b)  S i n g l e stem s e l e c t i o n C l e a r c u t t i n g Systems  With N a t u r a l  Regeneration  This i s a widely applied  system i n Northern temperate  zones.  I t has proved s u c c e s s f u l i n h a r v e s t i n g  ically  t n most cases where a p p l i e d t o s u i t a b l e  material species,  econom-  - 44 -  r e g e n e r a t i o n has f o l l o w e d . classical  I t has been r e c o g n i s e d  as a  system f o r c e n t u r i e s . By  i t s nature  the system i s p r i m a r i l y a p p l i c a b l e t o  i n t o l e r a n t p i o n e e r s p e c i e s whose t y p i c a l l i g h t , seed i s a b l e to c o l o n i s e extensive c u t - a r e a s .  wind-carried Pine  have been found t o be s u i t a b l e f o r c l e a r c u t t i n g throughout the world.  regions  operation  Many i n t o l e r a n t hardwood s p e c i e s a l s o  are managed under t h i s system and have been regenerated  success-  fully. Seed supply comes from the m a r g i n a l the s i z e of the a r e a which may  be regenerated  stands and  thus  i s l i m i t ed t o  the extent of the seed d i s p e r s a l of the s p e c i e s i n v o l v e d . In A l b e r t a , the system has been s u c c e s s f u l l y a p p l i e d i n the f o o t h i l l s and elsewhere where there was  a sufficient  and where seedbed c o n d i t i o n s have been improved by ation.  seed  scarific-  T h i s ground p r e p a r a t i o n , exposing m i n e r a l s o i l  been shown to be almost e s s e n t i a l i n the r e g i o n .  been  i n many a r e a s throughout the h i s t o r y o f the system.  Ground p r e p a r a t i o n i s p a r t i c u l a r l y w e l l developed i n Russia  has  However, i t  i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note t h a t s i m i l a r p r e p a r a t i o n has necessary  source  i n Europe  and  (E.A.O. 1955). That the system i s a p p l i c a b l e t o lodgepole pine manage-  ment has been accepted to  by s e v e r a l workers, yet i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g  note t h a t E.L. Mowat (1949) advocated s e l e c t i o n working i n  lodgepole pine i n the P a c i f i c Northwest.  He  suggested  thinnings  -  45 -  from above and removal o f crop t r e e s  by s m a l l groups o r s i n g l e  stems, due t o the i r r e g u l a r stand s t r u c t u r e and a n e c e s s i t y t o control regeneration d e n s i t y .  However, most workers i n the  p a r t i c u l a r r e g i o n s i n A l b e r t a (DeGrace, 1950;  Grossley  (1956)  B l y t h (1957) etc.) have r e c o g n i s e d the a p p l i c a b i l i t y o f the c l e a r c u t t i n g system i n one o r other of i t s v a r i o u s forms. S e v e r a l p a r t i c u l a r r e g i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s become q u i t e important  i n c o n s i d e r i n g the system.  The more complete u t i l i s -  a t i o n o f a pulpwood o p e r a t i o n would be the most s u i t a b l e . sawlog o p e r a t i o n p r o v i d e s d i f f i c u l t i e s i n the number of s t a n d i n g t e e s l e f t these  c o u l d be f e l l e d  clearing. seed  i n ground p r e p a r a t i o n  after logging.  However,  and lopped, o r knocked over i n brush-  What few are f i n a l l y  l e f t may perhaps add t o the  supply. The  s i z e of the c u t - a r e a becomes o f primary  ance when v a r i o u s s p e c i e s are i n v o l v e d .  import-  Aspen, f o r i n s t a n c e ,  could c o l o n i s e even the l a r g e s t c u t - a r e a s , w h i l e spruce e r a t i o n would be s e v e r e l y l i m i t e d . i n the next  The mixture  rotation i s therefore controlled  the cut l a y o u t and d i s t a n c e t o seed areas, slow t o regenerate  source.  regen-  of species  t o some extent by On some c l e a r - c u t  t o pine and spruce, aspen has g i v e n  some i n d i c a t i o n o f i t s t e n d ! n g completely it  A  t o take over and  appeals t h a t o n l y a s m a l l percentage o f the s p e c i e s i n the  stand i s s u f f i c i e n t t o p r o v i d e abundant r e g e n e r a t i o n from .suckers f o l l o w i n g c u t t i n g . The v a r i o u s cut l a y o u t s w i l l now be d e s c r i b e d i n the  -  1+6  -  l i g h t of t h e p a s t remarks. Strip Clearcut C l e a r c u t t i n g i n narrow s t r i p s r e s u l t s i n a w e l l organised economical spruce.  l a y o u t and i s w e l l s u i t e d t o p i n e  and  The method has been s u c c e s s f u l l y a p p l i e d i n the r e g i o n  on an o p e r a t i o n a l b a s i s , a l t h o u g h r e g e n e r a t i o n s u c c e s s i s , as y e t , uncertain.  Ground p r e p a r a t i o n i s n e c e s s a r y . S t r i p s of up t o 10  c h a i n s wide have been used.  A w e l l organized s k i d t r a i l layout  i s necessary - ( F r o n t i s p i e c e ) Patch Clearcut P a t c h c l e a r c u t t i n g has developed  from the d i s t r i b u t i o n  of m a t u r i t y c l a s s e s and f r o m the need f o r a m a r g i n a l seed  source.  P a t c h s i z e s of up t o 10 a c r e s are common and t h i s c u t t i n g method has f o u n d a p p l i c a t i o n i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a and A l b e r t a on the s l o p e s of the R o c k i e s . 1  Examples on the west s l o p e s have bee  s u b j e c t t o w i n d cdamage and the t e c h n i q u e has earned on t h i s account  alone.  n  some d i s f a v o u r  I n Alberta.', windLdamage has been v e r y l i g h t  and wind i s not a problem.  Although t h i s c u t t i n g l a y o u t i s not  t o o e f f i c i e n t due t o the s m a l l s i z e s o f patches  i t may  o f t e n be  t h e o n l y one f e a s i b l e under p r e s e n t s t a n d c o n d i t i o n s , f o r i n s t a n c e where mature groups a r e s c a t t e r e d .  O b v i o u s l y a more o r g a n i s e d  l a y o u t i s d e s i r a b l e but i t i s a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t t h e r e w i l l be many i n s t a n c e s where p a t c h o p e r a t i o n i s the most a p p l i c a b l e . Block clearcut B l o c k c l e a r c u t t i n g , s i n c e t h e c u t - a r e a s a r e l a r g e and  the  - 47  -  m a t e r i a l u s u a l l y more homogeneous, i s a more economical p r o s pect both with regard t o l o g g i n g and c u l t u r a l operations. the p i o n e e r aspen. i s an important  to c a r r y i n g out f u r t h e r  However, the system c e r t a i n l y encourages S i n c e the r e l a t i v e p r o p o r t i o n of the  species  c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r the f u t u r e , b l o c k s i z e i s a  limiting factor. Both pine and  spruce  can be regenerated  under a c l e a r -  c u t t i n g system w i t h s u i t a b l e ground p r e p a r a t i o n . stand i s e s s e n t i a l l y even-aged.  resulting  The method could w e l l be adapted  to the production, of pulpwood i n spruce and wood i n p i n e .  The  saw-timber and  pulp-  A market f o r the hardwood m a t e r i a l i s e a g e r l y  awaited. L o c a l c o n d i t i o n s w i l l determine the n e c e s s i t y f o r c o n t r o l of v e g e t a t i o n competition.  An  extended  p e r i o d would be d e t r i m e n t a l i n t h i s respect and  regeneration i s an  important  c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n d e c i d i n g t o seed or p l a n t . In summary, the c l e a r c u t t i n g systems p r o v i d e a f a i r l y straightforward logging proposition with concentration operations.  Provided  the stands  of  are c l o s e t o even-age and  v i g o r o u s , a h i g h degree of m e r c h a n t a b i l i t y i s t o be  expected,  w i t h a r e s u l t i n g improvement i n ground c o n d i t i o n and a decrease i n preparation costs.  However, i t should be noted t h a t the  i n t o l e r a n t p i o n e e r s p e c i e s are undoubtedly favoured succeeding  r o t a t i o n s , the t r e n d t o climax  p r o p o r t i o n of t o l e r a n t s p e c i e s i  dwindles.  and  i s hindered  with  and  the  - 48 -  With. A r t i f i c i a l  Regeneration  I n the f o o t h i l l s r e g i o n , the choice o f a r t i f i c i a l r e g e n e r a t i o n i s l a r g e l y an economic one a l t h o u g h there a r e a l s o s i l v i c u l t u r a l advantages t o the method.  Provided that the  m a r g i n a l seed supply i s p r e s e n t and t h a t ground p r e p a r a t i o n i s c a r r i e d out, n a t u r a l r e g e n e r a t i o n i s almost a s s u r e d .  However,  many o p e r a t o r s i n o t h e r p a r t s o f Canada and the world c o n s i d e r a r e g e n e r a t i o n p e r i o d of more than three years a s e r i o u s f i n a n c i a l loss* ivity.  s i n c e they amortize t h e t h r e e y e a r s ' l a c k o f product-  The c o s t of p l a n t i n g or seeding might be j u s t i f i e d  on a f i n a n c i a l b a s i s .  then  However, t h e r e ans.many examples o f f a i l -  ure due t o f a u l t y p l a n t - h a n d l i n g , or b a d l y timed  planting.  With s e e d i n g there a r e many examples of t o t a l l o s s through-dep r e d a t i o n of the l o c a l a v i - f a u n a and r o d e n t s .  However, both  i n s t r i p and patch o r b l o c k c l e a r c u t t i n g i n the r e g i o n , where some n a t u r a l r e g e n e r a t i o n takes p l a c e , the i n t e n s i t y of t h e a r t i f i c a l o p e r a t i o n may not need t o be h i g h.  An  o p e r a t i o n might be s a t i s f a c t o r y e i t h e r immediately or a f t e r an a c c e p t a b l e r e g e n e r a t i o n p e r i o d .  enrichment after  felling  The d e c i s i o n t o  p l a n t o r seed i s a major one and should c e r t a i n l y not be undertaken  u n t i l t e c h n i q u e s have been l o c a l l y developed  which  wJLl ensure t h a t r e g e n e r a t i o n success j u s t i f i e s the added expense.  A d d i t i o n a l t e n d i n g o f p l a n t e d s t o c k such as c l e a n -  ings may be necessary  i n c e r t a i n areas.  There a r e many s i t e s where  p l a n t i n g s i l v i c u l t u r a l l y and e c o n o m i c a l l y i s out of t h e questi o n due t o adverse  s o i l and moisture c o n d i t i o n s .  - 49 Provided  that  s i t e s e l e c t i o n f o r p l a n t i n g can be  s e n s i b l y c a r r i e d out and techniques i n h a n d l i n g , time of r e g e n e r a t i o n ,  are sound the choice  of a r t i f i c i a l  e r a t i o n l i e s i n the hands of the economist. regeneration  up t o the regen-  Where n a t u r a l  i s slow o r i s a f a i l u r e o r i s t o be improved  g e n e t i c a l l y , the replacement by a r t i f i c i a l s i l v i c u l t u r a l l y desirable.  regeneration i s  I t i s o n l y by some form of  t h i s system t h a t the l a r g e burned and cut-over  fail  areas  c o u l d ever be put under merchantable s p e c i e s w i t h i n a reasona b l e p e r i o d of time.  The f i n a n c i a l problem i s as important  as the s i l v i c u l t u r a l one. In summary, the main advantages of the system a r e ; the r a p i d r e s t o c k i n g and thus the s h o r t r e g e n e r a t i o n regeneration  t o the d e s i r e d s p e c i e s and e v e n t u a l l y  t r e e forms due t o the more even stem age  o f the r e s u l t i n g stand  advantages a r e ; ing,  period;  improved  distribution;  and thus ease of h a n d l i n g .  the evenDis-  i n i t i a l c o s t , p o s s i b l e need f o r f u r t h e r t e n d -  chance of l a r g e s c a l e l o s s of p l a n t s or seeds a f t e r the  operation. ;'The  c l e a r c u t t i n g systems are being a p p l i e d on a commercial  s c a l e i n the r e g i o n today. :  They are f i n a n c i a l l y sound, -but  a s ' y e t ^ r e g e n e r a t i o n c a n n o t be assured e i t h e r by n a t u r a l or artificial  methods.  I n d i c a t i o n s are however t h a t w i t h the  a d d i t i o n a l c u l t u r a l p r a c t i c e s mentioned, r e g e n e r a t i o n successful.  w i l l be  Shelterwood  Systems  N a t u r a l Regeneration The will  s a l i e n t f e a t u r e s of the u n i f o r m shelterwood  serve t o i l l u s t r a t e  system  the p r i n c i p l e s of shelterwood working.  The f u r t h e r m o d i f i c a t i o n s t o the system w i l l then he d e s c r i b e d . In Uniform B l o c k s In the u n i f o r m shelterwood system the s t a n d i s t r e a t e d by the a p p l i c a t i o n of s u c c e s s i v e r e g e n e r a t i o n c u t t i n g s at the of  a f i x e d r o t a t i o n , i n which the crop i s p a r t i a l l y  l e a v i n g a r e s i d u a l stand.  end  removed  The r e s i d u a l stand serves s e v e r a l  functions: It  i s the seed source f o r the next g e n e r a t i o n , i t  p r o v i d e s s h e l t e r f o r the g e r m i n a t i n g and d e v e l o p i n g s e e d l i n g s , i t f u r n i s h e s a f u r t h e r crop of timber at the s u c c e s s i v e r e g e n e r a t i o n c u t t i n g s and a t the f i n a l c u t t i n g . a f i x e d regeneration period.  Thus t h e r e i s  The key of the system then, i s  the r e s i d u a l stand and as such i t must take the form of an overhead  seed s u p p l y composed of w e l l - s p a c e d , g e n e t i c a l l y  d e s i r a b l e i n d i v i d u a l s which w i l l r e s p o n d to the r e l e a s e of c u t t i n g and put on f u r t h e r increment.  I t p r o v i d e s the shade  c o n d i t i o n s , the m o i s t u r e and temperature  c o n d i t i o n s and the  r e l a t i v e freedom from e x c e s s i v e v e g e t a t i o n c o m p e t i t i o n necessary  i n the r e g e n e r a t i o n of the t o l e r a n t s p e c i e s i n v o l v e d .  Thus  the shelterwood system i s a p p l i c a b l e t o the spruce r e g i o n s . In the B-19  r e g i o n , i t has been shown how  spruce occurs  -  pure i n whole stands occurs  51  -  and i n g r o u p s i n m i x e d s t a n d s .  i n mixed stands  i n stemwise m i x t u r e  p i n e , aspen, a l p i n e and balsam f i r Under t h e u n i f o r m  in  and a s s o c i a t e d v / i t h  mixtures.  system, i n pure spruce  60% r e m o v a l b y v o l u m e a t t h e f i r s t a s a t i s f a c t o r y r e s i d u a l stand  I t also  stands, a  c u t h a s b e e n shown t o r e s u l t  ( Q u a i t e , 1956).  However, a  s c a r i f i c a t i o n o p e r a t i o n f o l l o w i n g t h e r e g e n e r a t i o n c u t h a s a.lso b e e n siDwn t o i m p r o v e g r o u n d c o n d i t i o n s f o r g e r m i n a t i o n a n d survival. The pure stands. may  system i s a p p l i c a b l e t o mixed stands a s w e l l as t o In mixture,  be u s e d t o c o n t r o l t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e v a r i o u s s p e c i e s i n  the f u t u r e stand. in  the s e v e r i t y of the regeneration cut  Thus t h e v e r y t o l e r a n t s p e c i e s w i l l  t h e e a r l y openings i n t h e canopy.  regenerate  A f u r t h e r opening  allows  regeneration of the less t o l e r a n t species while the i n t o l e r a n t species will not regenerate.successfully u n t i l only a l i g h t r e s i d u a l stand,  o r none a t a l l , r e m a i n s .  S u c h " c a n o p y c o n t r o l " h a s b e e n p r a c t i s e d f o r many, hundreds o f years  i n f o r e s t management i n E u r o p e a n d t h e  " f i n e s s e " a t t a i n a b l e by some o f t h e f o r e s t o f f i c e r s t h e r e i s remarkable.  B o t h l e a f t r e e s a n d c o n i f e r s a r e commonly  under t h e system.  Examples of f u r t h e r c u l t u r a l a i d s t o  r e g e n e r a t i o n s u c h as s c a r i f i c a t i o n , p l o u g h i n g o f u n w a n t e d s p e c i e s a r e many. the use of unringed  handled  and p o i s o n i n g  Extreme examples might be:  p i g s t o prepare  t h e ground f o r r e g e n e r a t i o n  of hardwoods i n E u r o p e ; a n d , f o l l o w i n g t h e r e m o v a l o f t h e f i r s t  - 52 cut,  horse-drawn g n a r l e d l o g s o f t e n serve as  equipment.  scarification  Examples of as many a s a f o u r o r f i v e - c u t  wood are t o be i n the l i t e r a t u r e on the s u b j e c t , 1955, at  and Reed, 1954), but experience  most, a t h r e e - c u t  shelter-  (Troup-Jones,  i n Canada i s l i m i t e d t o ,  shelterwood.  Conditions necessary  f o r e f f e c t i v e use  of  shelterwood  are q u i t e u n a t t a i n a b l e under d i a m e t e r - l i m i t c u t t i n g methods. Tree marking i s n e c e s s a r y nature d e s c r i b e d above.  to p r o v i d e a r e s i d u a l stand of the Otherwise, the r e s i d u a l stand c o n s i s t s  merely of t r e e s too s m a l l t o l o g at the f i r s t  cut or too  dis-  eased o r malformed t o be a c c e p t a b l e , and these form a poor bank from w h i c h to draw the new  generation.  As mentioned p r e v i o u s l y , the r e s i d u a l stand should on increment.  As economic growth ceases  the time f o r f i n a l  c u t t i n g approaches and depending on the progress and  put-  of increment  r e g e n e r a t i o n , the overwood isremoved at a s u i t a b l e time.  The time from the f i r s t  r e g e n e r a t i o n cut t o the f i n a l cut i s  the r e g e n e r a t i o n p e r i o d and an e s s e n t i a l l y even-aged stand The  i r r e g u l a r , group, s t r i p , and  have been developed  results.  s t r i p , and group systems  t o s u i t a v a r i e t y of growing stock d i s t r i b -  u t i o n s , s p e c i e s d i s t r i b u t i o n s and u t i l i s a t i o n c o n d i t i o n s . Group Shelterwood  In t h i s system, the  c u t t i n g progresses  i n two  or t h r e e  c y c l e s by i r r e g u l a r l y spaced groups u n t i l the whole area i s  - 53 f i l l e d - i n w i t h newly regenerated stands.' the  uneven-aged group f o r e s t and as such has l i t t l e  our f i r e the  I t i s a system o f  o r i g i n stands.  place i n  The b e n e f i t s a r e s i m i l a r t o t h o s e o f  o t h e r s h e l t e r w o o d systems  i n that conditions f o r germination  and s u r v i v a l o f s e e d l i n g s a r e i m p r o v e d .  However, s i n c e t h e  stands i n t h e r e g i o n a r e n o t o f t e n uneven-aged, a t l e a s t chronologically, a considerable  p e r i o d o f c o n v e r s i o n w o u l d be,  r e q u i r e d t o p u t the area under t h e system. s t r i p shelterwood system i s suited of  one-aged s t a n d s .  By comparison, t h e  to relatively  large  blocks  U t i l i s a t i o n under any group system i s a  p r o b l e m s i n c e damage t o t h e r e s i d u a l  s t a n d i s i n e v i t a b l e and  s i n c e . t h e r e . i s n o . o r d e r l y , and t h u s e c o n o m i c a l l a y o u t o f extraction  routes.  Irregular  Shelterwood  T h i s system embodies an extended r e g e n e r a t i o n w i t h regeneration a r e a s being r e - a l l o t t e d at regular R e g e n e r a t i o n i s encouraged gaps.  period  intervals.  i n i n c r e a s i n g l y w i d e n i n g and opening  Many c u t s a r e g e n e r a l l y made and t h e s y s t e m t e n d s t o  resemble group s e l e c t i o n except t h a t t h e r e i s a d i s t i n c t , i f e x t e n d e d r e g e n e r a t i o n p e r i o d and a f i x e d In of  rotation.  Canada t h e system f i n d s use o n l y u n d e r t h e i n f l u e n c e  classes of merchantability.  Where t h e s t a n d s a r e r e l a t i v e l y  uneven-aged and where o n l y t h e mature  groups  are merchantable,  t h i s system a c t u a l l y i s p r a c t i s e d t o d a y i n Canada. i n a diameter l i m i t untouched  F o r example,  c u t , groups of t r e e s of s m a l l s i z e s a r e l e f t  on many c u r r e n t t i m b e r s a l e s . ' A t t h e s e c o n d c u t ,  some o f t h e s e may be m e r c h a n t a b l e due t o i n t e r i m g r o w t h a n d  - 54 -  o f t e n c l e a n - u p l o g g i n g , f o r i n s t a n c e , by h o r s e s , i s c a r r i e d out f i n a l l y t o remove a few more merchantable stems.  However,  t h e i m p o r t a n t p r i n c i p l e s of planned s i l v i c u l t u r e and management a r e l o s t here and the example i s m e r e l y one of chance circumstance.  and  N e v e r t h e l e s s the a p p l i c a t i o n o f the system  w h i c h has been d e v e l o p e d , a t t h e o u t s e t , f r o m u t i l i s a t i o n needs and f r o m t h e e f f e c t s o f s t a n d s t r u c t u r e , i s n o t u n p r a c t i c a l . I n many a r e a s i n Canada the same o p e r a t o r i s c u t t i n g on one a r e a f o r the t h i r d o r f o u r t h t i m e as u t i l i s a t i o n s t a n d a r d s change  and growth of  residual  stems t a k e s p l a c e .  The d i s a d v a n t a g e s of any i r r e g u l a r system are s e v e r a l however.  .A, l a r g e a r e a i s under the p r o c e s s o f r e g e n e r a t i o n a t  one.time.  The c u t t i n g i s d i s t r i b u t e d i r r e g u l a r l y i n t i m e and  space and an e f f i c i e n t l o g g i n g l a y o u t i s a problem.  Damage  t o r e s i d u a l stems and t o advance growth and r e g e n e r a t i o n i s inevitable.  There i s a l s o no guarantee t h a t t h e r e s i d u a l  groups w i l l e v e r become m e r c h a n t a b l e .  F u r t h e r , t h e system i s  adapted almost e x c l u s i v e l y t o t o l e r a n t s p e c i e s and f a v o u r s them i n t h e f u t u r e  certainly  rotation.  S t r i p Shelterwood S e v e r a l v a r i a t i o n s of the s t r i p s h e l t e r w o o d may applied.  be  Cuts may p r o g r e s s i n a l t e r n a t e s t r i p s at one t i m e , o r  p r o g r e s s i v e l y a c r o s s t h e a r e a i n a v a r i e t y of p a t t e r n s .  The  system developed f r o m a need f o r p r o t e c t i o n f r o m wind and f o r  - 55 an o r d e r l y e x t r a c t i o n l a y o u t . t r a t e the arrangement of the  •Pifl  3-  Strip  The  f o l l o w i n g diagram w i l l  regeneration  Shelterwood  3  -  Urt  final  1  Cut  cuts.  Culting  2  *  and  illus-  Znd  Cut  3 Uncut  However, s i n c e the main a t t r i b u t e of the system l i e s i n the organised  cut l a y o u t ,  i t w i l l be w e l l t o d i s c u s s t h i s f u r t h e r .  Often Canadian f o r e s t e r s have tended t o c a l l what v/as, i n e f f e c t , shelterwood working;a " s e l e c t i v e c u t t i n g " . pointed  out by P l a c e  (1953)  the term means n o t h i n g and  wood system as such i s r a r e l y r e c o g n i s e d . and  the  difficulties  involved. lems and  However,as i s  implicit  i n true  the  shelter-  I t has many a t t r i b u t e s  s e l e c t i o n working are  On l e v e l ground, the f e l l i n g p a t t e r n p r e s e n t s no stems are e x t r a c t e d ,  uncut stands;  Thus the new  f o l l o w i n g the f i r s t regeneration  On h i l l y ground, the  s t r i p s may  not prob-  c u t , through the  i s protected be a l i g n e d  fromdamage. horizont-  a l l y or v e r t i c a l l y , or i n c l i n e d s l i g h t l y where wind i s a problem.  Age  c l a s s d i s t r i b u t i o n can a l s o d i c t a t e s t r i p  layout.  In the h o r i z o n t a l arrangement, c u t t i n g s t a r t s at the top of slope and  timber i s e x t r a c t e d  through the  the  stands r e c e i v i n g t h e i r  - 56 first  cut.  In a v e r t i c a l arrangement, the timber  i s extracted  sideways t o the e a r l i e r cut s t r i p arid then down or up t o the h a u l road.  Fig.  4  Vertical  Layout  Rood  Road  Fig. 5  Horizontal Layout  U  Road 2nd  Regen.  Cut  Road  It  i s only by such a systematic l a y o u t t h a t d e s t r u c t i o n of  s e e d l i n g s by the heavy equipment can g e n e r a l l y be avoided. i s l e s s of a problem i n A l b e r t a where w i n t e r l e g g i n g i s  This  - 57  -  u s u a l and thus snow p r o t e c t s r e g e n e r a t i o n . greater mechanisation  In the f u t u r e ,  i n f o r e s t r y operations i s envisaged  and r e g u l a r i t y of l a y o u t now w i l l a i d t h a t end. S t r i p and Group System I n t h i s system, t h e groups a r e o r g a n i s e d i n s t r i p s i n w h i c h o p e r a t i o n s a r e c a r r i e d out p r o g r e s s i v e l y w i t h i n the s t r i p s and proceed f r o m s t r i p t o s t r i p by m a t u r i t y c l a s s e s . The method i s s u i t a b l e where m e r c h a n t a b l e t i m b e r w i t h i n age c l a s s e s r e s u l t s i n a p a t c h y dis t r i b u t i o n of u s a b l e  sizes.  By t h i s method, m a t u r i t y c l a s s e s would be i n c l u d e d by t h e s t r i p s and t h e ^ m e r c h a n t a b l e t i m b e r removed group-wise.  Fig-  6  Strip  and  Group  Shelterwood  Road  0 3 r d  Q> e> 0  C u t  0  regen.  Road  I n t h e above diagram t h e r e g e n e r a t i o n p e r i o d i s l o n g e r s i n c e t h e r e a r e t h r e e c u t s t o complete t h e group-wise r e m o v a l of the timber.  The c u t t i n g c y c l e c o u l d be extended by i n c r e a s i n g  - 58 t h e number of s t r i p s t o be r e g e n e r a t e d  i n the one a r e a .  This  would, however, i n c r e a s e t h e r e g e n e r a t i o n p e r i o d f o r t h e Under the c o n d i t i o n s of u t i l i s a t i o n and  area.  mechanisation  c u r r e n t i n C a n a d i a n f o r e s t r y , i r r e g u l a r i t y i s t o be a v o i d e d i t r e q u i r e s more c a r e f u l c o n t r o l  since  Often t h i s a/pproach has r e s u l t e d  i n d i f f i c u l t i e s , s i n c e i n n a t u r e , r e g u l a r d i s t r i b u t i o n i s uncommon. However, the n a t u r a l t r e n d i n the B-19  r e g i o n has been towards  r e g u l a r i t y and t o m a i n t a i n t h a t c o n d i t i o n s h o u l d not many problems.  Thus some f o r m of s h e l t e r w o o d  present  will find  application.  Though the i r r e g u l a r i t y of the system above l e a d s t o d i f f i c u l t i e s i n u t i l i s a t i o n , t h e r e are many stands where age  class distribution i s  n o t i c e a b l y group-wise and t h e system s h o u l d c e r t a i n l y be  given  some c o n s i d e r a t i o n . Artificial  Regeneration  A r t i f i c i a l r e g e n e r a t i o n under a s h e l t e r w o o d  i s widely  p r a c t i s e d i n Europe where a more t o l e r a n t s p e c i e s i s t o f o r m the f i n a l crop.  Thus " u n d e r p l a n t i n g " i s common and i s g e n e r a l l y used  f o r improvement of s p e c i e s c o m p o s i t i o n and t o h a s t e n The  regeneration.  c o n s i d e r a t i o n s of f i n a n c e and d e s i r a b i l i t y o f  shorten-  i n g the r e g e n e r a t i o n p e r i o d d e s c r i b e d under t h e c l e a r c u t t i n g s y s tem a p p l y e q u a l l y w e l l i n t h i s case. d e c i s i o n t o use  S u f f i c e i t t o say t h a t the  a r t i f i c i a l r e g e n e r a t i o n i s a. major one  and can  be made under the terms of t h e l o c a l i t y i n q u e s t i o n . S e l e c t i o n Systems The  s e l e c t i o n system of s i l v i c u l t u r e  has r e c e i v e d a  only  - 59 great d e a l of comment i n North America over the past 25 and one.  years  the q u e s t i o n o f i t s a p p l i c a b i l i t y i s a v e r y c o n t r o v e r s i a l Many would advocate i t s widespread a p p l i c a t i o n under pure  and mixedwood c o n d i t i o n s and workers throughout Canada have tended t o hold i t f o r t h as an answer t o s i l v i c u l t u r a l and management problems..  The system has r e c e i v e d s i m i l a r , i f not  more p o i n t e d , comment and c r i t i c i s m i n Europe s i n c e the f i f t e e n t h century and has been d e s c r i b e d i n c o u n t l e s s t r e a t i s e s  ranging  from medieval Royal decrees t o c u r r e n t f o r e s t s e r v i c e pamphlets. However, i t i s as w e l l t o be c l e a r on j u s t what the system i s . " S e l e c t i o n system" and " s e l e c t i v e c u t t i n g " are o f t e n as has been amply p o i n t e d out by P l a c e  (1953)*  confused  Despite  the l o c a l  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the terms, (ranging from "diameter l i m i t  cuts"  t o " h i g h grading") the s a l i e n t f e a t u r e s of the system remain unchanged.  These a r e : 1.  There, i s no s tand r o t a t i o n .  2.  The growing-stock i s e q u a l l y d i s t r i b u t e d  the f o r e s t 3.  area.  The stands  are a l l - a g e d and age and s i z e c l a s s e s  are mixed t o g e t h e r 4.  over  i n every p a r t of the s t a n d .  There a r e no l o n g i n t e r r u p t i o n s i n the r e g e n e r a t i o n  period. 5.  C u t t i n g and r e g e n e r a t i o n a re not l i m i t e d t o any  one  part of the a r e a , but a r e d i s t r i b u t e d over the  area;  the c u t t i n g c o n s i s t s of simultaneous regen-  e r a t i o n , t e n d i n g , developing  and e x p l o i t i n g of the  f o r e s t at r e g u l a r i n t e r v a l s , f u r n i s h i n g a s u s t a i n e d  - 60 y i e l d of produce The  system  from i n d i v i d u a l s t a n d s .  i s exceedingly d i f f i c u l t  t o apply due t o  the need f o r c a r e f u l h a n d l i n g of age c l a s s d i s t r i b u t i o n and f o r the t e n d i n g which i s necessary a t r e g u l a r The a l l - a g e d  condition  i s maintained.  most d e l i c a t e under the s e l e c t i o n "Selective  short  intervals.  Canopy c o n t r o l i s at i t s  system.  c u t t i n g " or removal of s e l e c t e d  merchantable  groups or s i n g l e stems i s c u r r e n t l y b e i n g c a r r i e d out but the o p e r a t i o n can o f t e n be- best c l a s s i f i e d as crude i r e g u l a r s h e l t e r wood' though no o r g a n i s a t i o n  of c u t t i n g i s i m p l i e d  "Selection  i s a technique adopted  system"  a t i o n of the climax f o r e s t stage and  i s applicable  t o l e r a n t of our s p e c i e s .  (1950)  "Management of Spruce advocated  DeGrace  i n the  term.  to perpetuto the most  working  on  on the E a s t Slopes of the Canadian  Rockies"  a u n i f o r m s e l e c t i o n systemtaking the form of volume  c o n t r o l c u t t i n g w i t h the cut d i s t r i b u t e d over a l l the s i z e classes.  However, he doesn't mention a c u t t i n g c y c l e and i t  might be imagined t h a t the system would not p r o v i d e an a t t r a c t i v e logging  proposition. However, i t should be s t a t e d  the system f o r amenity  purposes  that there i s a value i n  and f o r c r i t i c a l areas i n water-  shed management s i n c e the f o r e s t cover i s c o n s t a n t l y As such, i t i s extremely important i n Canada. competitively  maintained.  However, f o r  p r o d u c t i v e f o r e s t areas the system r e q u i r e s  an  i n t e n s i t y of c o n t r o l and h a n d l i n g which r u l e s i t out i n our  - 61  consideration  of a p p l i c a b i l i t y  In general,  -  i n t h e B-19  region.  t h e d i s a d v a n t a g e s o f t h e a l l - a g e d and  s i z e d f o r e s t at the present time are a l ltoo c l e a r . examples of group  and  s i n g l e stem s e l e c t i o n systems  from exceedingly small f o r e s t areas w i t h intense Forest  management i n N o r t h e r n A l b e r t s  s u f f i c i e n t l y t o handle the  system.  —0O0—  all-  Classical are  drawn  supervision.  i s not  developed  - 62 CHAPTER I I I ANALYSIS AND RECOMMENDATIONS In t h i s chapter,  i t i s now hypothesised  that:  There are a l r e a d y a v a i l a b l e t o the p r a c t i s i n g  forest  management-planner, s i l v i c u l t u r a l systems which a r e a p p l i c a b l e , w i t h o r without  f u r t h e r a d a p t a t i o n , t o the f o r e s t stands  of the  r e g i o n and t o the s i t e s d e s c r i b e d . S i l v i c u l t u r e i s the instrument  by which the o b j e c t s  of management of each u n i t area can be achieved; p r o d u c t i o n o f timber  be they the  of h i g h q u a l i t y , of pulpwood, or the  c o n s e r v a t i o n o f water o r g r a z i n g r e s o u r c e s .  Haphazard  s i l v i c u l t u r e brought i n t o o p e r a t i o n t o f u l f i l  the requirements  of i n d i v i d u a l timber  s a l e s as a "stop-gap" can never r e s u l t  i n the s u s t e n s i o n o f growing s t o c k , p r o d u c t i o n and y i e l d t h a t i s the aim of sound f o r e s t management p o l i c y  ( F r a n c o i s , F.A.O.  1950). The  c o n c l u s i o n s and recommendations which f o l l o w imply  a c e r t a i n standard  of governmental c o n t r o l and management  plann-  i n g which does not y e t e x i s t but which, i t i s a n t i c i p a t e d , w i l l emerge from c u r r e n t a c t i v i t y w i t h i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . o f t h e P r o v i n c i a l Department of Lands and F o r e s t s . To be r e a l i s t i c ,  i t i s suggested  t h a t even under a  system of i n c r e a s e d and i n t e n s i v e management, the a p p l i c a t i o n of  - 63 s p e c i a l i s e d and i n v o l v e d s i l v i c u l t u r a l t e c h n i q u e s w i t h a h i g h d e g r e e o f c o n t r o l t h u s made n e c e s s a r y ,  w o u l d be u n t i m e l y .  What m u s t , h o w e v e r , be a p p l i e d a r e t h e p r i n c i p l e s silviculture.  F o r example:  vention i n the stand;  crop  parents;  improvement a t each  r e l e a s e of suppressed  p r o v i s i o n o f a seed  trees  supply from d e s i r a b l e  seedbed p r e p a r a t i o n and m a i n t e n a n c e o f s i t e  These p r i n c i p l e s a r e n o t so d i f f i c u l t  fertility.  t o a dhere t o or t o p r a c t i s e  t h a t t h e y s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d i d e a l i s t i c . ical,  inter-  r e m o v a l o f o v e r m a t u r e , d i s e a s e d and  d y i n g t r e e s , and poor specimens; of t o l e r a n t s p e c i e s ;  o f sound  Nor a r e they  impract-  f o r i f we a r e t o i m p r o v e p r o d u c t i o n f r o m t h e o v e r - c u t a n d  over-burned  f o r e s t management d i v i s i o n s o f A l b e r t a , a n d t o s a f e g u a r d  bur f o r e s t r e s o u r c e s , i t i s by a t t e n t i o n t o t h e s e p r i n c i p l e s o u r a i m w i l l be  that  achieved.  Most, i f not a l l ,  o f the systems mentioned i n t h e  p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r have y e t t o be t r i e d  on a c o m m e r c i a l b a s i s i n  the r e g i o n , but i t i s t h e w r i t e r ' s o p i n i o n t h a t t h e r e i s s u f f i c i e n t evidence  a v a i l a b l e t o warrant  f o r t h e c u r r e n t r o t a t i o n and those  their  selection or rejection  to follow.  Thus c e r t a i n o f t h e systems w i l l  be r e c o n s i d e r e d w i t h  a p p l i c a t i o n t o t h e dominant s i t e s and s t a n d - t y p e s , Chapter  I , w i t h i n the framework of w e l l - d e v e l o p e d I t h a s b e e n shown i n C h a p t e r  nowhere l i m i t i n g  i n the region.  been s a i d r e s u l t m a i n l y  as d e s c r i b e d i n management.  I that s o i l f e r t i l i t y i s  Limiting site factors  from physiography,  especially  i t has  moisture  - 64 regime, r a t h e r than from f i n e l y d e f i n e d l i m i t s such as variation i n s o i l nutrient status.  However, l o c a l v a r i a t i o n  of even the broad s i t e groupings d e s c r i b e d i s such t h a t recommended p r a c t i c e s must be m o d i f i e d The  three major s i t e groups w i l l be  from p l a c e t o p l a c e .  discussed.  Dry Upland S i t e s Lodgepole pine-aspen stand  type.  These even-aged, f i r e - o r i g i n a t e d stands q u i t e e x t e n s i v e and proposition.  are  often  t h e r e f o r e o f f e r an economical l o g g i n g  Regeneration,  other than the marked i n c r e a s e i n  the p r o p o r t i o n of aspen from suckers, has been slow or absent. I t i s recommended t h a t the stands be c l e a r c u t , u t i l i s i n g  the  aspen wherever p o s s i b l e , s i n c e the s p e c i e s w i l l t e n d to take d u r i n g the r e g e n e r a t i o n p e r i o d . b l o c k s , patches,  Cut l a y o u t c o u l d w e l l be i n  or p r o g r e s s i v e s t r i p s .  Scarification  be c a r r i e d out e x t e n s i v e l y w i t h s c a t t e r i n g of the pine s l a s h f o l l o w i n g the o p e r a t i o n . pulpwood, i t may  over  should  cone-bearing  ¥/here u t i l i s a t i o n i s f o r  be p o s s i b l e t o f e l l r e s i d u a l stems and  snags.  A d e c i s i o n should be made by the management-planner whether t o accept may  aspen r e g e n e r a t i o n ,  be necessary  suckering.  s i n c e , i f t h i s i s unacceptable, i t .  t o p o i s o n the stumps of the aspen to  I t i s a l s o recommended t h a t , a f t e r an  w a i t i n g p e r i o d , seven y e a r s  inhibit  acceptable  being the suggested p e r i o d f o r  d r y s i t e s , r e g e n e r a t i o n should be surveyed. q u a n t i t y of advance growth should be assessed. i n c i d e n c e of competing aspen, at l e a s t 40  Quality Due  per cent  and.  t o the s t o c k i n g of  - 65 -  pine by m i l a c r e quadrats: would be a reasonable l i m i t .  The  l e v e l s should be surveyed i n the l i g h t of seed crop p e r i o d i c i t y . U n s a t i s f a c t o r y s t o c k i n g may  r e q u i r e a seeding o p e r a t i o n , or  p l a n t i n g at a wide s p a c i n g g i v i n g about 150 The  t r e e s per acre.  i n t e n s i t y of these c u l t u r a l o p e r a t i o n s depends on  the l e v e l of u t i l i s a t i o n and on the economy of l e g g i n g .  Failure  t o c a r r y out such o p e r a t i o n s , i f r e q u i r e d , should not be  excused  on the b a s i s of i n e f f i c i e n t l o g g i n g on the p a r t of an o p e r a t o r . P r o v i d e d t h a t the terms of the s a l e were c a r e f u l l y  specified,  t h e r e should be no h a r d s h i p i n v o l v e d i n c a r r y i n g them out. T  #hite spruce-pine-aspen  stand type  White and b l a c k spruce appear i n t h i s mixture on these dry s i t e s and the s p e c i e s are capable of p r o d u c i n g f i n e timber and f i r s t - c l a s s p u l p .  saw-  At m a t u r i t y , the spruce has  reached  co-dominance w i t h the p i n e , w h i l e the s h o r t e r l i v e d aspen i s o f t e n decadent. The  C l e a r c u t t i n g i s again  importance  advocated.  of the seed source f o r spruce i s  s t r e s s e d because the balance of the e c o l o g i c a l l y mixture  should be r e t a i n e d i n the next r o t a t i o n .  desirable Thus s t r i p  c u t t i n g i n p e r i o d i c b l o c k s of p r o g r e s s i v e s t r i p s i s recommended, or s m a l l patches may  be a c c e p t a b l e .  Extensive s c a r i f i c a t i o n  should be c a r r i e d out to improve seedbed c o n d i t i o n s and s c a t t e r i n g of ,cone-bearing pine s l a s h i s recommended.  Again  the d e c i s i o n on r e g e n e r a t i o n stocking c o u l d w e l l be made about seven years f o l l o w i n g l o g g i n g .  If i t i s unsatisfactory after  -  66  -  t h i s l a p s e of time both pine and spruce should be seeded o r planted.  The ations.  system i s open t o due c r i t i c i s m on c e r t a i n  loc-  G l e a r c u t t i n g on v e r y steep .slopes and exposed s i t e s  has been noted t o l e a d t o e r o s i o n and s i t e d e g r a d a t i o n i n the region.  T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e on sandy s o i l s .  Regener-  a t i o n on these s i t e s has been n o t i c e a b l y poor and the l o n g exposure t o sun,, wind, and r a i n over an extended p e r i o d i s to be deprecated.  regeneration  These s i t e s tend t o become  p a r t i c u l a r l y d r y i n summer and r e g e n e r a t i o n has been noted t o occur o n l y i n the shade o f s l a s h o r stumps.  Serious consider-  a t i o n t h e r e f o r e should be g i v e n on t h i s type t o the shelterwood system both i n the pure pine stands and i n m i x t u r e s .  Particular  care should be g i v e n t o the s e l e c t i o n of wind-firm, d e s i r a b l e r e s i d u a l s should t h i s system be chosen. Moist  Sites  On t h e moist s i t e s , moisture regimes 4, 5 and 6, on f l a t s and middle  s l o p e s , s e v e r a l stand types are found and  p r o d u c t i v i t y i s high.  Here the mixtures are m u l t i p l e and,  though many o f the stands a r e i n f a c t evenaged c h r o n o l o g i c a l l y , the p h y s i o l o g i c a l make-up i s d e c i d e l y uneven-aged. s t o r i e d stand Lodgepole  A many  results.  pine-aspen  type  P r o d u c t i o n per acre i s q u i t e h i g h and t h i s type i s an e x c e l l e n t pulpwood p r o p o s i t i o n .  Glearcutting, with  scarif-  -  67  -  i e a t i o n and s c a t t e r i n g of s l a s h , i s recommended.  On t h e s e  moist s i t e s i t i s d o u b t f u l i f competition from l e s s e r vegeta t i o n w i l l p e r m i t r e g e n e r a t i o n even on s c a r i f i e d s p o t s a f t e r f i v e or s i x years f o l l o w i n g l o g g i n g .  Hence a d e c i s i o n on  r e g e n e r a t i o n i s recommended w i t h i n f i v e y e a r s a f t e r l o g g i n g . S e e d i n g or p l a n t i n g may  be c a r r i e d out t o a c h i e v e s a t i s f a c t o r y  stocking. I t i s as w e l l , a t t h i s p o i n t , t o d i s c u s s f u r t h e r t h e s c a r i f i c a t i o n operation. of  C u r r e n t c o s t s of e x t e n s i v e s c a r i f i c a t i o n  c l e a r c u t and p a r t i a l l y - c u t a r e a s on r e l a t i v e l y d r y s i t e s amount  to t e n d o l l a r s per a c r e .  However, under i n c r e a s i n g l y m o i s t  c o n d i t i o n s , i t becomes more d i f f i c u l t to  the t h i c k n e s s of the d u f f .  t h e machine may  to reach mineral s o i l  due  The o p e r a t i o n becomes c o s t l y s i n c e  have t o back up and s c a r i f y s e v e r a l t i m e s t o  expose m i n e r a l s o i l .  F u r t h e r , t h e r e s u l t i n g s c a r i f i e d spot i s  o f t e n a deep d e p r e s s i o n , e x t r e m e l y compacted,susceptible t o w a t e r l o g g i n g i n s p r i n g and t o d r y i n g - o u t i n t h e summer.  Scarif-  i c a t i o n on m o i s t s i t e s s h o u l d t h e r e f o r e be c a r r i e d out w i t h due r e g a r d t o the economics of o p e r a t i n g the chosen machine and t o t h e v a l u e of the r e s u l t i n g seedbed.  Thus s c a r i f i c a t i o n o f t h e  m o i s t s i t e s s h o u l d be l i m i t e d t o t h e d r i e r p a r t s end t o a r e a s of low d u f f a c c u m u l a t i o n . Lodgepole p i n e w i t h b l a c k spruce u n d e r s t o r e y t y p e Lodgepole p i n e w i t h a dense b l a c k s p r u c e u n d e r s t o r e y o c c u r s f r e q u e n t l y on r a i s e d m o i s t s i t e s where m o i s t u r e regime i s  - 68  around. 5.  -  T h i s t y p e most o f t e n o c c u r s on h i g h a r e a s ;  mounds and on h i g h s i d e s l o p e s .  on  As such i t appears i n  e x t e n s i v e s t r i p s a l o n g the c o n t o u r s and seems t o be the r e s u l t of an a b n o r m a l l y h i g h w a t e r t a b l e a t t h e s e l e v e l s .  Lateral  d r a i n a g e over an i m p e r v i o u s s u b s t r a t e i s t h e suggested t h i s m o i s t u r e regime. wood whereas l i t t l e  cause of  The pine p r o v i d e s e x c e l l e n t p u l p -  of the black spruce i s of m e r c h a n t a b l e ^ s i z e .  I t i s not known whether the spruce component, i f l e f t , respond t o r e l e a s e s u f f i c i e n t l y t o r e a c h merchantable  will sizes  and  the t y p e has been p o o r l y managed t o d a t e .  The p i n e i s p r e v e n t e d  by t h e r e s i d u a l spruce from r e g e n e r a t i n g .  However,a s h e l t e r w o o d  system v / i t h removal of a l l the merchantable  p i n e i s recommended.  T h i s s h o u l d be f o l l o w e d by a two c u t removal of the s p r u c e , p r o v i d e d i t releases.  F a i l i n g t h i s , some form of t h i n n i n g i n t h e  spruce  might be p r a c t i c a l a t a l a t e r d a t e , T h i s i s an i n t e r e s t i n g type i n w h i c h t h e r e i s much r e s e a r c h needed, but i t might be a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t i f t h e  spruce  g r o w t h r a t e i s i n c r e a s e d , and the s t a n d remains v i g o r o u s f o l l o w i n g removal of t h e p i n e , r e g e n e r a t i o n of s p r u c e s h o u l d not p r e s e n t a problem.  With t h i s opportunity f o r t r i a l c u t t i n g ,  commercial  d i a m e t e r - l i m i t c u t t i n g i n such s t a n d t y p e s i s q u i t e u n i m a g i n a t i v e and i s t o be d i s c o u r a g e d . B l a c k and White S p r u c e - P i n e - A l p i n e - F i r - A s p e n Stand. Type T h i s m i x t u r e .occurs i n v a r y i n g p r o p o r t i o n s by s p e c i e s and i s an e x t e n s i v e t y p e on m o i s t s i t e s .  Due  t o the  regener-  - 69 -  a t i o n requirements  of the v a r i e t y of s p e c i e s p r e s e n t , t h i s  type does not l e n d i t s e l f t o c l e a r c u t t i n g . Shelterwood  i s recommended t o t a k e advantage of  p h y s i o l o g i c a l uneven-age and of the v a r y i n g s o c i a l s t a t u s of the s p e c i e s .  T h i s ensures  a seed  supply and  f o r the t o l e r a n t s p e c i e s i n the mixture.  overhead shade  By canopy c o n t r o l i n  marking, the d e s i r e d p r o p o r t i o n s of s p e c i e s can be  maintained.  A two-cut system i s envisaged w i t h s c a r i f i c a t i o n f o l l o w i n g the first  cut where p h y s i c a l l y and  economically f e a s i b l e .  A removal  of 60% of the growing stock i s recommended, l e a v i n g , a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of pine i n the r e s i d u a l stand.  I t i s a l s o recommended  t h a t a few sound w i n d - f i r m pine be l e f t a f t e r the f i n a l cut i n order to p r o v i d e some seed supply and sha.de. T h i s stand type should not be d i f f i c u l t t o provided  regenerate  t h a t some seed i s a v a i l a b l e f o l l o w i n g s c a r i f i c a t i o n .  However, p l a n t i n g of a mixture or seeding, may the removal c u t .  of the s p e c i e s a t wide s p a c i n g s ,  be deemed necessary a f t e r f i v e years f o l l o w i n g I d e a l l y t h i s system and  stand type r e q u i r e  a h i g h standard of u t i l i s a t i o n f o r e f f e c t i v e h a n d l i n g . cut shelterwood,  A three-  removing pine a t the l a s t , might be p o s s i b l e  and most s a t i s f a c t o r y under these c o n d i t i o n s .  However, i t i s  a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t even under a sawlog economy two  economic cuts  can be made and t h a t r e g e n e r a t i o n w i l l be s u c c e s s f u l . i n t e r v a l between cuts i s determined r e s i d u a l stand.  The  by the r a t e of growth of the  B o t h the uniform system and a l t e r n a t e s t r i p s ,  or p r o g r e s s i v e s t r i p s i n a l t e r n a t e p e r i o d i c b l o c k s are  suitable  - 70 f o r t h i s type. layout.  They have the i n h e r e n t b e n e f i t s  of we11-organised  I r r e g u l a r and group shelterwood systems are t o o i n t e n -  s i v e and complex i n l a y o u t f o r a p p l i c a t i o n i n t h e r e g i o n . Pure Spruce Stand Type Stands of pure spruce occur on these moist s i t e s i n the r e g i o n .  Until  the p r e s e n t d a t e , most of the c u t t i n g  experi-  ence i n t h i s type has been on the l i m i t s of t h e Northwestern  Pulp  and Power Company a t Hinton where a c l e a r c u t t i n g system i s c u r r e n t l y b e i n g used i n some spruce stands.  Regeneration  problems are many and both b l o c k and s t r i p c l e a r c u t s have been made. However, i t i s suggested that the type c o u l d be handled most s u c c e s s f u l l y f o r sawlog and p u l p under shelterwood or f o r p u l p by s t r i p c l e a r c u t t i n g . case.  S c a r i f i c a t i o n i s necessary i n e i t h e r  Seed d i s p e r s a l l i m i t s s t r i p w i d t h i n c l e a r c u t t i n g .  The  a g e - c l a s s d i s t r i b u t i o n may d i c t a t e p r o g r e s s i v e s t r i p s i n a l t e r n ate p e r i o d i c b l o c k s r a t h e r than a l t e r n a t e are  capable o f p r o d u c i n g q u a l i t y sawlogs  strips.  These stands  and pulpwood.  Seed  supply has been a major l i m i t i n g f a c t o r t o date i n r e g e n e r a t i o n success. Wind d i r e c t i o n should d i c t a t e the d i r e c t i o n of p r o g r e s s of the c u t t i n g w i t h i n f e l l i n g u n i t s though t h i s f a c t o r i s u n a t e l y l e s s important i n the r e g i o n than i n o t h e r f o r e s t Even poor examples of diameter l i m i t c u t t i n g have e x h i b i t e d  fortsections. the r e -  l a t i v e wind f i r m n e s s of the r e s i d u a l stands. Experiments  i n seed-tree b l o c k s have been t r i e d i n t h e  r e g i o n w i t h l i t t l e r e s u l t i n g wind damage.  Most windblows i n a  - 71 -  r e c e n t study c a r r i e d out by the a u t h o r . i n the nearby aspen were caused by weakness due  spruce-  t o unsound stems r a t h e r than  h i g h winds. Wet The wet  Sites  s i t e s of the r e g i o n , on moisture regimes 6 t o  p r o v i d e a problem of r e g e n e r a t i o n . resulted  In the past c l e a r c u t t i n g  i n a r i s e i n the w a t e r - t a b l e , and an extremely  a b l e seedbed i s produced.  #,  has  unfavour-  Yet, as evidenced by many f i n e  specimens of spruce, these s i t e s are capable of producing  high  q u a l i t y stems. S c a r i f i c a t i o n i s not p o s s i b l e under these wet c o n d i t i o n s . However, an experimental attempt  has been made by one  operator t o  s c a r i f y the f r o s t - h a r d e n e d ground a t the onset o f w i n t e r f r e e z e - u p . T h i s has r e c e n t l y  (1959) met w i t h c o n s i d e r a b l e s u c c e s s , a l t h o u g h  the s p r i n g break-up c o n d i t i o n s have yet t o be observed. c u t t i n g seems t o be d e t r i m e n t a l t o the s i t e .  Clear-  Perhaps r e s t o c k i n g  c o u l d be assured o n l y by p l a n t i n g the d e s i r e d s p e c i e s on  individ-  u a l l y - s e l e c t e d p l a n t i n g s i t e s , t a k i n g advantage of a l l physbgraphic features.  Without s c a r i f i c a t i o n and exposure of the m i n e r a l  the success of a shelterwood  i s by no means a s s u r e d .  the l i g h t of seedbed c o n d i t i o n , seed supply, and i t i o n on these s i t e s ,  soil,  However, i n  s p e c i e s compos-  two t o t h r e e cut shelterwood  i s advocated.  There w i l l be some exposure of m i n e r a l s o i l w i t h each l o g g i n g o p e r a t i o n and t h i s w i l l help t o i n c r e a s e r e g e n e r a t i o n s t o c k i n g .  - 72  -  B l a c k and white s p r u c e - a l p i n e and balsam f i r - a s p e n type, and b l a c k s p r u c e - b i r c h - l a r c h bog types are found. growth i s poor and t r e e diameters d.b.h.  100 y e a r s .  average only about f o u r inches  As has been mentioned i n Chapter  are extremely  Height  I numbers of stems  h i g h , o f t e n r e a c h i n g over 3,000 t o the acre at T h i s s i t e group i s a c h a l l e n g e to the f o r e s t e r a n d  should not be n e g l e c t e d i n c u r r e n t r e g i o n a l r e s e a r c h . The  t h r e e - c u t shelterwood,  despite i t s longer  a t i o n p e r i o d , might be a s o l u t i o n on these problem  regener-  sites.  S e l e c t i o n working i s . w e l l s u i t e d t o the stand c o n d i t i o n s but i t i s d o u b t f u l whether i t would be economical o n l y on i t s m e r i t s o f s i t e p r o t e c t i o n .  and  can be  presented  F i e l d t r i a l s are a v i t a l  n e c e s s i t y i n these e x t e n s i v e problem stand t y p e s . The p r e c e d i n g d i s c u s s i o n and recommendations have been summed-up  a l b e i t b r i e f l y and are presented  i n Table 4«  >  As p r e v i o u s l y mentioned these recommendations are based on s e v e r a l c l e a r assumptions of advance i n f o r e s t management p o l i c y on p a r t of the A l b e r t a Department of Lands and F o r e s t s . assumptions are not, however, groundless  and  indeed may  the  The become  f a c t i n the near f u t u r e . Assumptions In d i s c u s s i o n i t ba s been assumed t h a t , i n the near future:(1) A l l  timber  a sympathetic  s a l e s w i l l be c a r e f u l l y marked from s i l v i c u l t u r a l viewpoint  having  due  SELECTED SYSTEMS B- 19 FOOTHILLS REGION SITE  D r y Upland Moisture Regime 2 &3  SPECIES/COVER TYPES  Lodgepole Piae - Aspen  UTILISATION  SYSTEM  Seed, or Plant 150/ac.if failure after 7 years  Scarify, F e l l Residual Trees, Scatter Slash  Seed, o r Plant 150/ac.if failure after 7 years  Clearcut - Strip  , . Scarify, Scatter Slash  Seed, o r Plant both species i f failure after 7 years  Clearcut - Strip  Scarify, F e l l Residual Trees, Scatter Slash  Seed, or Plant both species i f failure after 7 years  Shelterwood - 2 cut  Scariry arter 1st cut, Scatter Slash  Seed, or Plant 150/ac. i f failure 5 years after 2nd eut Seed, or Plant 150/ac. i f failure after 5 years  Clearcut  Saw & Pulp  Clearcut  Lodgepole Piae «• B & VJ Spruc< Saw & Pulp - Aspen Same Types on Exposed Sites Sawlog  Clearcut  Saw & Pulp  Clearcut  Sawlog  Shelterwood - 2 cut Shelterwood - 2 cut  Lodgepole Pine ~ Aspen Moist, Slope B & W Spruce - Piae - A. F i r - Aspen  Ssw & Pulp  Moisture Segime B & W Spruce 4, 5 and 6 Lodgepole Pine - B. Spruce B & V Spruce - A . & B. F i r Aspen net, Bog  Saw & Pulp  Clearcut - Strip  Scarify where possible after 1st cut Scarify where oos&ibie  Saw & Pulp  Shelterwood - 2-3cut  Remove Pine Overstorey, Scarify after 1st Spruce Cut  Shelterwood - 2-3eut Shelterwood - 2-3cut Clearcut  Plant on selected spcts i f failure, 150/ac.  Shelterwood - 2-3cut Shelterwood - 2-3cut Clearcut  Plant on selected spots i f failure, 150/ac.  Sawlog Saw & Pulp  B. Spruce - Birch - Larch  Sawlog Sav & Pulp  Same Type  Alternative  Seed, or Plant 150/ac. after 5 years Seed, or Plant 150/ac. 5 years following last Seed, or Plant 150/ac. 5 years following last  Shelterwood - 2 cut  Sau & Pulp  6, 7 and 8  Scarify where possible Scatter Slash Scarify where possible, F e l l snafts. Scatter Slash Scarify where possible after 1st cut Scarify « a e r e possible after 1st cut  Sawlog  Same Type - Alternative Moisture Reglue  TREATMENTS  Scarify, Scatter Slash  Saw log  Sawlog  CULTURAL  Sana & Pulp  If failure i f failure cut i f failure cut  Seed,or PlantlSG/ac. i f failure 5 years following last cut f » o r Plant 150/ac. i f failure 5 years following cut Plant Pine - Spruce i f failure 5 years following removal cut e e d  TABLE 4 SELECTED SYSTEMS SPECIES/COVER TYPES  SITE  Dry Upland  UTILISATION  Lodgepole Pine - Aspen  Moisture Regime  Lodgepole  Same Types on Exposed Sites  Clearcut  Saw & Pulp  Clearcut  S c a r i f y , F e l l Residual Trees, Scatter Slash  Seed, or Plant both species i f f a i l u r e after 7 years  Scarify a f t e r 1st cut, Scatter Slash  Seed, or Plant 150/ac. i f f a i l u r e 5 years after 2nd cut  Saw log  i  Sawlog B & W Spruce  Pine - B. Spruce  B & W Spruce - A. & B. F i r Aspen Wet, Bog Moisture Regime  Clearcut Clearcut Shelterwood - 2 cut Shelt.erwood - 2 cut Shelterwood cut  - 2-  Seed, or Plant 150/ac. i f f a i l u r e after 5 years Seed, or Plant 150/ac. i f f a i l u r e 5 years following last cut  Scarify where possible after 1st cut  Seed, or Plant 150/ac. i f f a i l u r e 5 years following last cut  Scarify where possible after 1st cut  Seed, or Plantl50/ac. i f f a i l u r e 5 years following last cut  Clearcut - S t r i p  Scarify where possible  Saw & Pulp  Shelterwood cut  - 2-3-  Remove Pine Overstorey, Scarify after 1st Spruce Cut  Sawlog  Shelterwood cut  - 2-3-  Saw & Pulp ,  Shelterwood cut Clearcut  - 2-3-  7  » 150/ac. i f f a i l u r e 5 years following cut Plant Pine - Spruce i f f a i l u r e years following removal cut  S e e d  5  o  r  p  l  a  n  t  Plant on selected spots i f f a i l u r e , 150/ac.  Saw & Pulp  B. Spruce - Birch - Larch  Sawlog  Shelterwood cut  - 2-3-  Saw & Pulp  Shelterwood cut  - 2-3-  Saw & Pulp  Clearcut  Same Type - Alternative  Seed, or Plant 150/ac. i f f a i l u r e after 5 years  Scarify where possible Scatter Slash Scarify where possible, F e l l snags, Scatter Slash Scarify where possible after 1st cut  Saw & Pulp  Same Type - Alternative  6, 7 and 8  Seed, or Plant 150/ac.if f a i l u r e a f t e r 7 years  Clearcut - S t r i p  B & W Spruce - Pine - A. F i r Sawlog - Aspen ! Saw & Pulp  Lodgepole  S c a r i f y , F e l l Residual Trees, Scatter Slash  Saw & Pulp  ! Saw & Pulp  4, 5 and 6  Seed, or Plant 150/ac.if f a i l u r e a f t e r 7 years  Seed, or Plant both species i f f a i l u r e after 7 years  Pine - Aspen  Moist, Slope  S c a r i f y , Scatter Slash  S c a r i f y , Scatter Slash  •  Lodgepole  TREATMENTS  Clearcut - S t r i p  Shelterwood - 2 cut  ' < •  CULTURAL  Sawlog  1  |  Moisture Regime  Sawlog  Pine - B & W Spruce  - Aspen  2 & 3  B- 19 FOOTHILLS REGION SYSTEM  Plant on selected spots i f f a i l u r e , 150/ac.  - 74 r e g a r d t o the p r o v i s i o n of a  seed-supply  from a w e l l d i s t r i b u t e d r e s i d u a l stand of d e s i r a b l e specimens o r some other seed  reliable  source.  (2) S a l e s w i l l be' l a i d out under s u s t a i n e d y i e l d management plans i n an o r d e r l y and c o n t r o l l e d manner. (3) The a p p r o p r i a t e p r a c t i c e s r e q u i r e d of the o p e r a t o r w i l l be w r i t t e n i n the s a l e s c o n t r a c t on the advice o f a l o c a l l y  based p r o f e s s i o n a l  forester (4) There s h a l l be s t r i c t s u p e r v i s i o n o f cutting. (5) Where necessary,  a s u p p l y of c e r t i f i e d  seed and p l a n t i n g s t o c k w i l l be a v a i l a b l e e i t h e r from a commercial source  o r from  the government. (6) P e r i o d i c assessment of r e g e n e r a t i o n s t a t u s on timber s a l e s w i l l be made v/ith a view t o d i r e c t i n g p r o p e r l y e f f o r t s a t artificial  regeneration. Productivity  The  s p e c i e s and stand types d i s c u s s e d are n o t h i g h l y  p r o d u c t i v e i n the f o o t h i l l s  r e g i o n when compared v/ith  other  - 75 r e g i o n s i n Canada. i s low.  The  -  growing season i s s h o r t and the  rainfall  However, i t i s g e n e r a l l y t r u e of b o t h p i n e and  spruce  i n the B - 1 9 r e g i o n t h a t h e i g h t and growth averages one f o o t year.  T h i s i s borne out i n the data p r e s e n t e d  per  i n Table 5 .  A t 1 1 0 y e a r s , d i a m e t e r s of up t o 1 5 i n . d.b.h. are common i n b o t h spruce and p i n e .  There i s a marked d e c r e a s e i n d i a m e t e r  increment a t around 9 0 y e a r s as the t r e e s approach m a t u r i t y and as the e f f e c t s of o v e r s t o c k i n g p r e v i o u s l y noted tend  to  take place. I t has been shown t h a t a c o n s i d e r a b l e p r o p o r t i o n o f the t i m b e r produced i n A l b e r t a comes from t h i s r e g i o n . a l s o s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t the f i r s t grade produce f r o m the commands a. h i g h p r i c e on l o c a l and  export markets.  It is region  However,  the p r o d u c t i o n of the a r e a i s s t r i c t l y l i m i t e d by the h i g h meter l i m i t s of m e r c h a n t a b i l i t y .  dia-  M e r c h a n t a b l e volumes are a  f r a c t i o n of t o t a l c u b i c f o o t volume p r o d u c t i o n .  Inefficient  h a n d l i n g w i t h the s i m p l e s t of log g i n g equipment and m i l l wastage c o n t r i b u t e t o the low p r o d u c t i o n .  Most of the p o r t a b l e m i l l s  operate w i t h a s i n g l e c i r c u l a r h e a d - r i g .  These  sub-contractors  seldom can t ake advantage of even the s i m p l e s t equipment improvements and  i t i s l i k e l y t h a t t h e y w i l l go out of b u s i n e s s , o r a t  l e a s t be bought out as i n t e g r a t e d o p e r a t i o n s The  begin.  f o l l o w i n g p r o d u c t i o n f i g u r e s are drawn f r o m the  l i n e - p l o t i n v e n t o r y d a t a of the management p l a n prepared Whitecourt  P i l o t Management U n i t i n the F o o t h i l l s .  f o r the  The u n i t  has  - 76 "been s e l e c t e d as t y p i c a l utes an experiment The falling  of the r e g i o n and as mentioned c o n s t i t -  i n s u s t a i n e d y i e l d management and s i l v i c u l t u r e .  h e i g h t growth i n T a b l e 5 has been d i s c u s s e d .  o f f w i t h age i s s l i g h t  The  but n o t i c e a b l e around 110 years  of age. T o t a l c u b i c f o o t volume i s presented i n Table 6 , by cover types f o r mature and immature stands throughout S u b - d i v i s i o n of m a t u r i t y c l a s s e s i s based density.  the u n i t .  on stand height and  Immature c l a s s e s a r e below 60 f e e t and dense. TABLE 5  AVERAGE ANNUAL HEIGHT GROWTH ABOVE BREAST HEIGHT WHITEC0URT MANAGEMENT UNIT wS.  Annual growth i n f e e t . bP. IP. bS.  LI - 50  1.2  0.8  1.3  1.2  1.2  51 - 60  1.2  0.8  1.0  1.1  1.2  61 - 70  1.1  0.7  0.9  1.0  1.0  71 - 80  0.9  0.6  1.0  0.9  0.9  81 - 90  1.0  0.4  1.0  0.9  0.8  91 - 100  0.9  0.5  0.8  0.8  0.6  101 - 110  0.9  0.4  0.6  0.7  0.6  111 - 120  0.6  0.3  0.3  0.7  0.5  Average  1.0  0.6  0.9  1.0  0.9  Age  Class  A.  - 77 TABLE; 6 GROSS TOTAL CUBIC EOOT VOLUME / ACRE BY COVER TYPES Type ^  Species wS  bS  Immature  129  598  Mature  1058  Species IP  Total  A  36  733  1496  168  362  519  2214  4152  1187  960  555  2947  Immature  330  174  104  Mature  1365  184  1695  358  bF  wB  Total  G.Tota  36  204  1700  258  172  430  4582  6598  426  208  634  6282  953  1561  710  150  860  2421  232  1327  3108  1605  269  1874  4982  336  2280  4669  2315  419  2734  ,7403  1. Softwood  Total 2. S o f t / Hwd.  Total 3 . Hwd./Soft  -  Immature  137  73  60  470  740  1041  842  1883 '  2623  Mature  434  86  84  809  1412  2337  503  2840  4252  571  159  144  1279  2152  3378 " 1345  4723  6875  Total 4. Hardwood Immature Mature. Total  •  153  38  -  284  23  437  61  58  249  2660 "  351  3011  3260  36  256  599  3347 "'  265  3612  4211  36  314  848  6007  616  6623  7471  (1) P r e d o m i n a n t c o v e r i s f i r s t - m e n t i o n e d  i n mixedwbod t y p e s 2 a n d 3.  -  78 -  C u r r e n t a n n u a l increment i s n e x t p r e s e n t e d i n Table 7.  Growth p e r c e n t a g e s i n d i c a t e a f a i r l y v i g o r o u s  growing stock.  M o r t a l i t y I s not included i n these f i g u r e s  and t h u s t h e y a r e r a t h e r h i g h .  G e n e r a l l y a good growth r a t e  i s being maintained. TABLE 7 CURRENT ANNUAL INCREMENT BY SPECIES AVERAGE FOR A L L TYPES Species  No. o f Samples  Growth %  wS  135  2.9  bS  75  3.5  bP  26  3.1  IP  243  2.4  Total  479  Aspen  136  2.6  Pulpwood y i e l d i s a p p r a i s e d i n T a b l e 8 .  M a t e r i a l is  a v a i l a b l e from t h e l o d g e p o l e p i n e - b l a c k spruce s t a n d s on m o i s t t o wet s i t e s , aspen where i t o c c u r s i n v i g o r o u s s t a n d s and a l s o from t h e s m a l l e r d i a m e t e r s ( 5 i n . t o 7 i n . ) of t h e c o n i f e r s . The t a b l e f i g u r e s a r e an e s t i m a t e of m a t e r i a l from these s o u r c e s . The s m a l l e r d i a m e t e r s of c o n i f e r s could p o s s i b l y be e x p l o i t e d on the d r y and m o i s t  sites.  - 79 TABLE 8 ESTIMATED PULPWOOD Y I E L D PROM F I R S T CUTTING AREA, I N THE MANAGEMENT UNIT . .Stand 1.  Type  ,  Volume/Ac.  (Cunits)  Softwood 16.9  Pulpwood Stands Sawlog Stands  2.  C o n i f e r s - 5 " - 7" d.b.h.  7.6  Aspen - a l l diameters  3.9  Softwood/Hardwood C o n i f e r s - 5" - 7" d.b.h.  4.4 10.4  Aspen - a l l diameters 3.  Hardwoo d/S o f t w o o d C o n i f e r s - 5" - 7" d.b.h.  1.8 17.3  Aspen - a l l diameters 4.  Hardwood 25.7  Aspen - a l l diameters  Increased p r o d u c t i o n would help defray road and On  other access  costs should a l lweather access  t h e a v e r a g e a b o u t 7 - 15 c u n i t s o f m a i n l y  wood c o u l d be o b t a i n e d f r o m t h e m i x e d s t a n d s . utilisation  facilitates  the s i l v i c u l t u r a l  be  building developed.  spruce-pine This  treatments  pulp-  further mentioned  earlier. U n f o r t u n a t e l y , c u r r e n t sawlog  limits  a r e even  higher  - 80 than t h e 7 i n * d.b.h. i n d i c a t e d and some v e r y l a r g e s i z e s indeed are c u r r e n t l y being pulped. i s at once obvious.  The l a r g e volumes of aspen  present  L i t t l e of t h i s i s p r e s e n t l y merchantable  and much of i t i s overmature and unsound.  However, hardwood  p u l p and plywood are being produced from the r e g i o n and i t i s foreseeable  that aspen w i l l be grown on a short r o t a t i o n f o r both  p u l p and plywood i n the f u t u r e . The  above then i s the "raw m a t e r i a l " w i t h which the  f o r e s t e r has t o d e a l .  Every l o c a l i t y  p r o d u c t i v i t y i n t erms of t o t a l  has i t s problems and  cubic f o o t volume v a r i e s  according  t o the s e v e r a l s i t e  f a c t o r s , some of which have been p r e v i o u s l y  discussed.  the l i m i t a t i o n s of p r o d u c t i v i t y and merchant-  ability  Despite  i n any one l o c a l i t y ,  the stands should  however, i t i s again  be handled from a s i l v i c u l t u r a l  stressed  that  standpoint  compatible w i t h sound economics. Under s i l v i c u l t u r a l  c o n t r o l , i t i s a n t i c i p a t e d that  p r o d u c t i v i t y i n t e r m s of t o t a l volume y i e l d increased. yield.  per acre w i l l be  The increment on r e l e a s e d t r e e s w i l l add t o t h i s  P r o d u c t i v i t y , i n terms of merchantable m a t e r i a l ,  f u r t h e r be i n c r e a s e d , a s a r e s u l t of a h i g h e r improvement i n u t i l i s a t i o n  standards.  —0O0—  will  q u a l i t y and an  - SI CONCLUSION Throughout t h i s work, s e v e r a l aspects  of the s i l v i c -  u l t u r a l and management problems of the r e g i o n have been examined.  The n e c e s s i t y f o r sound management p l a n n i n g , a t a l e v e l  f u r t h e r advanced than t h a t a t p r e s e n t , has been i m p l i e d . v a r i e t y of suggested s i l v i c u l t u r a l systems has been  A  presented  with due regard t o s p e c i e s , stand types and s i t e c o n d i t i o n s . There has f u r t h e r been d i s c u s s i o n of c u l t u r a l o p e r a t i o n s to improve r e g e n e r a t i o n and s p e c i e s d i s t r i b u t i o n . aspects  designed  Each of these  of s i l v i c u l t u r a l treatment has i t s p l a c e i n the s o l u t i o n  of the r e g i o n a l problems.  I t i s important  t h a t these  consider-  a t i o n s be kept i n a s u i t a b l e p e r s p e c t i v e . The  primary requirement f o r the s u c c e s s f u l p r a c t i c e of  the a r t and s c i e n c e of f o r e s t r y i n any r e g i o n i s a management designed  t o provide sustained y i e l d .  Once the o b j e c t s of manage-  ment have been c l e a r l y s t a t e d , s i l v i c u l t u r e these  plan  i s the t o o l by which  o b j e c t s may be r e a l i s e d . In c a r r y i n g out a p a r t i c u l a r s i l v i c u l t u r a l  d e t a i l e d c u l t u r a l treatments may become necessary  system,.certain  t o i t s success  and t o the improvement of p a r t i c u l a r l o c a l c o n d i t i o n s . I t i s unwise t o apply p a r t i c u l a r treatments without the framework of a system l e s t  the t a i l  - d e t a i l e d c u l t u r a l treatment  s t a r t wagging the dog - management p l a n n i n g . where l o c a l p o l i t i c s a f f e c t f o r e s t r y p l a n n i n g . c u l t u r a l treatments  T h i s i s a r e a l danger The f a c t t h a t t h e  may produce the more dramatic  r e s u l t s does  - 82  not warrant t h e i r  -  over-emphasis.  D e t a i l e d management p l a n s prepared  c u r r e n t l y being  f o r t h e f o r e s t management d i v i s i o n s  i s at t h i s should  are  be  stage  of A l b e r t a .  of development t h e r e f o r e t h a t  given to c o n t r o l l e d s i l v i c u l t u r a l  It  consideration  operations.  Once  the management-planner i s i n c o n t r o l of s u i t a b l e s i l v i c u l t u r a l system, w i t h c o n t r o l of the fixed and  regeneration  the  production  management; treatments  The  That the able  of m a t e r i a l compatible can  fixed  regeneration w i t h the  presented  objects  of  i n C h a p t e r I I I , b a s e d on  d i s c u s s i o n s i n the preceding  s e v e r a l r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s may  not  be  t h e i r e a r l y i n c e p t i o n w o u l d be hardship  to  chapters,  i n the  the  becomes  region today.  immediately  i s r e l a t i v e l y unimportant s i n c e under the  and  standards  p r e s c r i b e what f u r t h e r c u l t u r a l  s t e p i n g u i d i n g management p l a n n i n g  legislation  rotation,  necessary.  hypothesis  d e s c r i p t i o n s and a vital  periods with a cceptable  t h e n he appear  cutting layout;  applic-  c u r r e n t management,  impossible without  many c h a n g e s i n  operators.  However, e q u i p p e d w i t h t h i s background m a t e r i a l , a r e g i o n a l f o r e s t e r can l o c a l l y now  p r o c e e d t o d e t e r m i n e what i s a p p l i c a b l e  and w h a t m u s t w a i t f o r f u t u r e , a n t i c i p a t e d c o n d i t i o n s .  Commensurate w i t h t h a t d e v e l o p m e n t , w o r k i s i n d i c a t e d in  several fields 1.  The  of r e s e a r c h .  These i n c l u d e :  f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n of  systems, p a r t i c u l a r l y those  silvicultural which f i n d  applic-  -  83  a t i o n i n the problem  -  stand types  mentioned  i n Chapter I I I . 2. C u t t i n g t r i a l s t o improve l a y o u t w i t h i n each s e l e c t e d  techniques and  f  system.  3. P r o v i s i o n f o r a r t i f i c i a l regeneration through the development of seed banks;  collect-  i o n and s t o r a g e methods f o r c e r t i f i e d  seed;  i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the rodent problem;  nursery  e s t a b l i s h m e n t , and provenance 4.  Improvement of c u l t u r a l treatments  t e s t i n g of new 5.  trials. and  equipment.  Logging economies and e f f i c i e n c y o f  equipment and methods. 6.  U t i l i s a t i o n and i n v e s t i g a t i o n of l o c a l  wood-using i n d u s t r i e s . 7.  Market  8.  Research i n t o the d e t a i l e d problems  p r o s p e c t s f o r the f u t u r e .  a r i s i n g from management, a p p l i c a t i o n of systems,  c u l t u r a l treatments, and  utilisation.  T h i s r e s e a r c h i s the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of every q u a l i f i e d f o r e s t e r i n the r e g i o n . scale.  Much can be accomplished on a p i l o t  trial  - 84 -  The s e v e r a l  f o r e s t r y concerns i n the P r o v i n c e a r e  equipped to handle d i f f e r e n t r e s e a r c h approaches. the  t r i a l s can best be c a r r i e d out on an o p e r a t i o n a l  Many of basis  by  I n d u s t r y or P r o v i n c i a l Government, w h i l e c e r t a i n of the d e t a i l e d problems can be t a c k l e d  by the F e d e r a l F o r e s t r y  Branch and the  F o r e s t B i o l o g y D i v i s i o n of the Department of A g r i c u l t u r e .  —0O0—  - 85 APPENDIX I Tree S p e c i e s and P l a n t  List  Tree S p e c i e s P r i n c i p a l Species B l a c k spruce - P i c e a , m a r i a n a . ( M i l l ) B.S.P. Lodgepole pine - P i n u s , c o n t o r t a Dougl. v a r . l a t i f o l i a Trembling aspen -,Populus,tremuloides Michx. (Engelmann.) White spruce - P i c e a g l a u c a (Moench)Voss. Secondary  Species  A l p i n e f i r - A b i e s l a s i c a r p a (Hook) M i t t Balsam f i r - Abies,balsamea (L.) M i l l Balsam p o p l a r - Populus b a j s a m i f e r a L. Engelmann spruce - P i c e a Engelmannii P e r r y Jack pine - P i n u s Banksjana Lamb Tamarack ( l a r c h ) , - , L a r i x , l a r i c i n a (Du R o i ) K. Koch .White b i r c h - B e t u l a p a p y r i f e r a Marsh, v a r . commutata (Rege.) Elem. Plant  List  (1)  Shrubs Alnus c r i s p a Amelanchier a l n i f o l i a A r c t: ostaphylos u v a - u r s i Betula glandulosa Chiogenes h i s p i d u l a Cornus s t o l o n i f e r a J u n i p e r i s communis " horizontalis Kalmia p o l i f o l i a Ledum groenlandicum L o n i c e r a d i o i c a var, glaucescens " involucrata Potentilla fruticosa Ribes l a c u s t r e " triste f  (1)  Rosa a c i c u l a r i s Rubus chamaamorus " parviflprus ? strigosus S a l i x spp. Sambucus melanocarpa Shepherdia canadensis Sbrbus s c o p u l i n a Spirea lucida Symphoricarpos a l b u s Vaccinium caespitosum " membranaceum " myrtilloides '.' oxycoccos vitis-idaea Viburnum edule  Nomenclature f o r shrubs, herbs and grasses f o l l o w s " F l o r a of A l b e r t a " Moss (195 9). U n i v . of Toronto P r e s s . Nomenclature f o r mosses f o l l o w s "How Conard (1944). Brown Co., Iowa.  t o know the Mosses"  - 86 Herbs  Mosses and  Lichens  Achillea millefolium Aulacomnium p a l u s t r e Actaea r u b r a Camptothecium n i t e n s A n t e n n a r i a sp. C l a d o n i a sp. Aralia nudicaulis Dicranum sp. Arnica cordifolia Drepanocladus sp. Aster c i l i o l a t u s Feather mosses (3 spp.) " conspicuus Mnium sp. A s t r a g a l u s f r i g i d u s v a r . amerieahus) Gaitha p a l u s t r i s P o l y t r i e h u m sp. C a s t i l l e j a sp. Sphagnum sp. Oornus canadensis Dryopteris disjuncta P e l t i g e r a aphthosa ( L . ) W i l l d . Epilobium angustifolium Equisetum sp. E r a g a r i a glauca Galium b o r e a l e Goodyera sp. Grasses Habenaria sp. Lathyrus ochroleucus Carex spp. Linnaea b o r e a l i s Elymus innovatus Lycopodium annotinum •Juncus spp. '* clavatum " complanatum Maianthemum canadense Menyanthes t r i f o l i a Mertensia paniculata M i t e 1 1 a nuda Orchis r o t u n d i f o l i a P e d i c u l a r i s bracteosa " groenlandica " labraderica P e t a s i t e s palmatus * sagittatus P y r o l a secunda Rubus a c a u l i s " pedatus '.' pubescens Smilacina t r i f o l i a " racemosa v a r . a m p l e x i c a u l i s Streptopus a m p l e x i f o l i u s V i o l a rugulosa Zigadenus elegans r  - 87 APFENDU I I Plates  P l a t e 1, 15 year o l d c u t o v e r . Grass i n v a s i o n i n foreground. R e s i d u a l spruce,pine,aspen i n background. Reproduction absent. photo: D.F.B.  P l a t e 2. Cutover. A l l u v i a l bottomland, l i g h t vegeta t i o n but c o n i f e r o u s r e p r o d u c t i o n absent.  Plate 3. Cutover. South s l o p e , dense v e g e t a t i o n . R e s i d u a l aspen on the r i d g e , c o n i f e r s on the lower s l o p e .  Plate 4. Cutover. T y p i c a l spruce r e g e n e r a t i o n on a s k i d t r a i l . Note aspen on either side.  Photo: D.F.B  Photo: D.F.B.  Photo: D.F. B.  - 88 -  P l a t e 5 . 1 0 year o l d burn. View of the burn f a c i n g e a s t . R o l l i n g lower f o o t h i l l s topography. Photo: D.P.B.  P l a t e 6 . Burn Lower s l o p e , r e p r o d u c t i o n present, Photo: D.F.B.  on sandy s o i l ; Plate 7. Burn. Upper s l o p e , dense pine r e g e n e r a t i o n . Height growth not yet a f f e c t e d by s t o c k i n g . Photo: D.F.B.  very l i t t l e  humus.  Photo: D.F.B.  - 89 -  P l a t e 9. S t a n d t y p e . Lodgepole pine v/ith b l a c k spruce understorey. p h o t o : D.F.B.  P l a t e 11. Scarification. JJ.9 C A T . w i t h 3 - t o o t h e d b l a d e . photo:  P l a t e 10. Cutover. Lodgepole pine, b l a c k spruce, white spruce, alpine f i r type. P h o t o : D.F.B.  P l a t e 12. Scarification. S c a r i f i c a t i o n and s n a g - f e l l i n g o p e r a t i o n on c l e a r c u t s t r i p . Photo: Ackerman.  - 90 -  BIBLIOGRAPHY Ackerman, R.F. 1957.  The e f f e c t o f v a r i o u s seedbed t r e a t m e n t s on t h e g e r m i n a t i o n and s u r v i v a l o f w h i t e spruce and l o d g e p o l e p i n e s e e d l i n g s . Canada, Dept. N o r t h e r n A f f a i r s and N a t i o n a l Resources. F o r e s t r y B r a n c h , F o r . R e s . D i v . Tech. Note No. 63.  A l e k s e e v , S.V. & A.A. Molcanov. 1954. S e l e c t i v e l o g g i n g i n t h e northern f o r e s t s of Russia. I n s t i t u t Lesa Akademija Navk, Moscow, SSSR. . A l e x a n d e r , R.R. 1956.  A comparison o f growth and m o r t a l i t y f o l l o w i n g c u t t i n g i n o l d - g r o w t h mountain s p r u c e - f i r s t a n d s . Rocky Mountain F o r e s t & Rge. E x p t . S t a t i o n . Note No. 20.  1958.  S i l v i e a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f Engelmann s p r u c e . Rocky Mountain F o r e s t & Rge. E x p t . S t a t i o n . U.S.D.A. S t a t i o n Paper No. 31.  1958.  S i l v i e a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of sub-alpine f i r Rocky Mtn. F o r . & Rge. E x p t . S t a t i o n . U.S.D.A. S t a t i o n Paper No. 3 2 .  and J.H. B u e l l . 1955* D e t e r m i n i n g t h e d i r e c t i o n o f d e s t r o y i n g winds i n a Rocky Mountain t i m b e r s t a n d . J o u r n a l o f F o r e s t r y 53 (1) J a n . pp. 19 - 23. A l l a n , J.A.  Anderson,  CH.  Anderson, M.L. A- t k i n s , E.S.  1943.  a n d E.C.  1950.  The geology o f A l b e r t a s o i l s . A l b e r t a R e s e a r c h C o u n c i l . Report No. 3 4 . P a r t I I I . Edmonton, pp. 6 0 - 1 4 6 . Cheney. 1 9 3 4 . Root development o f s e e d l i n g s i n r e l a t i o n t o s o i l texture. Journal of F o r e s t r y No. 32 ( 1 ) . The s e l e c t i o n o f t r e e s p e c i e s . O l i v e r & Boyd. E d i n b u r g h , x i v & 1 5 1 pp.  1956.  The use o f c h e m i c a l s t o r e l e a s e w h i t e p i n e reproduction. Dept. N o r t h e r n A f f a i r s and N a t i o n a l Resources. F o r e s t r y B r a n c h . F o r . Res. D i v . Tech. Note No. 37.  1957.  L i g h t measurement i n a s t u d y o f w h i t e spruce reproduction. Dept. N o r t h e r n A f f a i r s a n d N a t i o n a l Resources. F o r e s t r y Branch. For.Res. D i v . Tech. Note No. 60.  1958.  An a p p r a i s a l o f pulpwood m a t e r i a l i n t h e W h i t e c o u r t management a r e a . Department N o r t h e r n A f f a i r s and N a t i o n a l Resources. F o r e s t r y Branch. F o r . Res. D i v . Unpub. R e p o r t . 5 pp.  - 91 Barnes, G.H. 1937  Development o f unevenaged Engelmann spruce and probable development of r e s i d u a l stands a f t e r logging. Forestry Chronicle. Vol. x i i i : 3 , pp. 417 - 4 5 7 .  B a r r , P.H. 1 9 3 0 .  The e f f e c t of s o i l moisture on the e s t a b l i s h ment of spruce r e p r o d u c t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y , S c h o o l o f F o r e s t r y . B u l l . N o . 26 77 PP.  Bates, C.G. 1924.  F o r e s t types i n the c e n t r a l Rocky Mountains as a f f e c t e d by c l i m a t e and s o i l . U n i t e d S t a t e s Dept. of A g r i c . B u l l . No. 1 2 3 3 .  1917.  B e d e l l , C.H.D. 1 9 4 8 .  The b i o l o g y of lodgepole pine as r e v e a l e d by the behaviour of i t s seed. J o u r n a l o f F o r e s t r y 15. (4) A p r i l . White spruce r e p r o d u c t i o n i n Manitoba. Department Northern A f f a i r s and N a t i o n a l Resources. F o r e s t r y Branch. F o r . Res. Div. Silv.Res.Note  87.  Betts,.H.S. 1 9 4 5 .  Engelmann spruce. U n i t e d S t a t e s Dept. of A g r i c . F o r e s t r y S e r v i c e . American Woods S e r i e s .  Bezanson, A.M. 1954.  Sodbusters invade the Peace. Ryerson P r e s s , Toronto, pp. 2 0 9 .  B l a c k , R.L. & P.J". K r i s t a p o v i c h . 1 9 5 5 . Decay o f t r e m b l i n g aspen i n Manitoba and E. Saskatchewan. F o r e s t Pathology. Saskatoon. Bloomberg, W.J. 1950. F i r e and spruce. F o r e s t r y C h r o n i c l e . V o l pp. 157 - 161. B l y t h , A.W. 1 9 5 5 .  1957.  26:2.June  Seeding and p l a n t i n g o f spruce on cut-over lands of the Sub-alpine r e g i o n o f A l b e r t a . Dept. Northern A f f a i r s and N a t i o n a l Resources. Forestry Branch. F o r . Res. D i v . Tech. Note. 2. The e f f e c t of p a r t i a l c u t t i n g i n even-aged lodgepole pine stands. Department Northern A f f a i r s and N a t i o n a l Resources. F o r e s t r y Branch F o r . Res. D i v . Tech. Note 61.  K.N. 1951.  N a t u r a l r e g e n e r a t i o n of lodgepole pine on seedbeds c r e a t e d by c l e a r c u t t i n g and s l a s h d i s p o s a l Northern Rocky Mountains F o r e s t & Rge. E x p e r i mental S t a t i o n . Res. Note 9 9 .  Brown, W.G.E. 1 9 5 2 .  Suggested terminology f o r s o i l d e s c r i p t i o n s i t e i n s i t e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of f o r e s t l a n d . Rept. o f S o i l s and S i t e Comm. C.I.F. Meeting, Petawawa, O n t a r i o . 22 pp.  Boe,  - 92 C a j a n d e r , A.K. 1926.  The t h e o r y o f f o r e s t t y p e s . 21. H e l s i n k i .  Act.Forestalia  Cameron, H. 1953.  M e l t i n g p o i n t o f t h e bonding m a t e r i a l i n l o d g e p o l e p i n e and Jack p i n e cones. Dept. N o r t h e r n A f f a i r s and N a t i o n a l Resources. F o r e s t r y Branch. F o r . Res. D i v i s i o n . S i l v . Res. Note 86.  Canadian I n s t i t u t e o f Forest f i r e protection i n Alberta - A F o r e s t r y (A b r i e f ) 1 9 5 5 . r e v i e w and recommendations. Rocky Mountain Section. Candy, R.H. 1951«.  R e p r o d u c t i o n on c u t - o v e r and burned-over l a n d i n Canada. Dept. Resources and Development. F o r e s t r y Branch. F o r . Res. D i v . S i l v . Res. Note 92.  C a y f o r d , J.H. 1957.  I n f l u e n c e o f Aspen o v e r s t o r e y on W. spruce i n Saskatchewan. Dept. N o r t h e r n A f f a i r s and N a t i o n a l Resources. F o r e s t r y Branch. F o r . Res. D i v . Tech. Note No. 58.  C l e m e n t s , F.E. 1910.  The l i f e h i s t o r y o f l o d g e p o l e p i n e b u r n f o r e s t s . U n i t e d S t a t e s Dept. cf A g r i c . B u l l . No. 79.  Cooper, R.W. 1957 - 58.  Sand p i n e r e g e n e r a t i o n i n F l o r i d a . Soc. Amer. F o r .  Cormack, R.G.H. 1953*  A survey of coniferous f o r e s t succession i n t h e E a s t e r n R o c k i e s . F o r e s t r y C h r o n i c l e 29 (3): pp 218 - 232.  C r a i b , I . J . , 1929.  Some a s p e c t s o f s o i l m o i s t u r e i n t h e f o r e s t . Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y . S c h o o l o f F o r e s t r y . B u l l . 25.  C r o s s l e y , D.I. 1952.  D i s c i n g i n over dense l o d g e p o l e p i n e r e p r o d u c t i o n . Dept. N o r t h e r n A f f a i r s and N a t i o n a l Resources. F o r e s t r y Branch. F o r . Res. D i v . S i l v . L e a f l e t No. 66.  Proc  1953.  Seed M a t u r i t y i n w h i t e s p r u c e . Dept. Resources and Development. S i l v . Res. Note No. 104.  1955A.  S u r v i v a l o f w h i t e spruce r e p r o d u c t i o n r e s u l t i n g from v a r i o u s methods of f o r e s t s o i l s c a r i f i c a t i o n . Dept. N o r t h e r n A f f a i r s and Na/fcional Resources. F o r e s t r y Branch. F o r . Res. D i v . Tech. Note 1 0 .  1955B.  Lodgepole p i n e s t u d i e s a t t h e S t r a c h a n E x p e r i m e n t a l B l o c k i n A l b e r t a . Dept. N o r t h e r n A f f a i r s and N a t i o n a l Resources. F o r e s t r y Branch. F o r . Res. D i v . Tech. Note 19.  Grossley,  D.I.  ' ' ' "  93  -  1955C.  M e c h a n i c a l s c a r i f i c a t i o n to, induce white spruce regeneration i n o l d cut-over spruce stands. Dept. Northern A f f a i r s and National Resources. Forestry Branch. For. R e s .D i v . Tech. Note 24.  1955D.  The p r o d u c t i o n a n d d i s p e r s a l o f l o d g e p o l e pine seed. Dept. Northern A f f a i r s and National Resources. Forestry Branch. F o r . R e s . D i v . T e c h . .Note 25.  1956A.  Fruiting habits of lodgepole pine. Dept. of Northern A f f a i r s and National Resources. Forestry Branch. F o r . Res. D i v . Tech. Note 35.  1956B.  1956C.  The p o s s i b i l i t y o f c o n t i n u o u s planting of white spruce throughout t h e f r o s t f r e e p e r i o d . D e p t . N o r t h e r n A f f a i r s and National Resources. Fore&y Branch. F o r . Res. D i v . Tech. Note 32. Mechanical s c a r i f i c a t i o n and strip c l e a r c u t t i n g t o induce lodgepole pine regeneration. Dept. Northern Affairs and N a t i o n a l Resources. F o r e s t r y Branch. F r. R e s .D i v . Tech. Note 34. 0  195 6D.  and  L.  1951.  Skov.  Daubenmire,  R . F .  1952.  1959. Decker,  John  P.  1959.  The e f f e c t density on slashborne Dept. North Resources. Tech. Note  L . A .  1950.  cover and slash se o f seed from pine cones. rs and National Branch. F o r . Res.  D i v .  Gold soaking as a pregermination treatment f o r white spruce seed. Dept. Nathern Affairs and National Resources. Dept. Lands and F o r e s t s Res. D i v . S i l v . Leaf. N o . 59. Forest v e g e t a t i o n o f Northern Idaho and adjacent Washington and i t s bearing on concepts of vegetation c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . E c o l . Monog. 22. October. Plants and environment. N e w Y o r k , x i & 422 p p . A  system  f o r analysis  succession. June. DeGrace,  o f crown the relea lodgepole ern Affai Forestry 41.  Forest  Wiley  of  Sons.  forest  Science.  Management o f spruce of t h e Canadian R o c k Affairs andNational For. R e s .D i v . S i l v .  &  V o l .  5-2  o n the East Slope ies. Dept. Northern Resources. F o r . B r . R e s .Note 97.  - 94 D e G r a c e , L.A., E.W. and J.H.G. S m i t h .  Robinson  1952.  M a r k i n g o f s p r u c e i n t h e F o r t George District. B r i t i s h Columbia F o r e s t S e r v i c e . F o r . R e s . N o t e 20.  D u f f y , P.J.B.  1959. A n e v a l u a t i o n o f f o r e s t s i t e i n t h e  E i c h e l , G.H.  1957.  m i x e d w o o d s e c t i o n of A l b e r t . D e p t . o f N o r t h e r n A f f a i r s and N a t i o n a l Resources. F o r e s t r y Branch. For.Res. D i v . U n p u b l . Ms.  Management o f s p r u c e - b a l s a m s t a n d s towards n a t u r a l r e g e n e r a t i o n . F o r e s t r y  C h r o n i c l e 33 (3) S e p t e m b e r , p p . 233-237.  1955.  Russian scrub c l e a r i n g machinery. E q u i p m e n t N o t e B. 5. 55.  1956.  B r u s h and t i m b e r c l e a r i n g r i g . E q u i p ment N o t e B. 8. 56.  1957.  Land c l e a r i n g equipment. N o t e B. 10. 57.  F e n s o m , E.G.  1959.  The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a n d s i g n i f i c a n c e of s p r u c e . Dept. N o r t h e r n A f f a i r s and National'Resources. F o r e s t r y Branch. For.Prod. Lab. Vancouver.  Eogh, I .  1957. E f f e c t o f u t i l i s a t i o n d e v e l o p m e n t a n d  F.A.O.  t r e n d s on t h e f o r e s t .  Equipment  Forestry"  C h r o n i c l e 33 (2) p p . 114-118.  1953.  Forestry practice. Forestry i o n B u l l e t i n No. 14.  F r a n c o i s , T.  1950.  Forest p o l i c y , l a wand a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . F.A.O. F o r e s t r y a n d F o r e s t P r o d u c t s S t u d i e s . No. 2.  F r a s e r , D.A.  1954.  Tree species i n r e l a t i o n t o s o i l m o i s t u r e s e r i e s . E c o l o g y . J u l y . P . 406.  1957.  A n n u a l a n d s e a s o n a l m a r c h o f so i l m o i s t u r e u n d e r a hardwood s t a n d . Dept. N o r t h e r n A f f a i r s and N a t i o n a l Resources. F o r e s t r y Branch. For.Res. D i v . T e c h . N o t e 55.  1955.  S t r i p - c u t t i n g i n a mixed p i n e stand. Dept. o f N o r t h e r n A f f a i r s a n d N a t i o n a l Resources.' F o r e s t r y B r a n c h , F o r . R e s .  Forestry  Commission.  and J . F a r r a r .  Div.  Tech.  Note  1.  Commiss-  - 95 F u r r & Reeve.  1945.  S o i l m o i s t u r e i n r e l a t i o n t o permanent wilting. J o u r n a l A g r i c . Res. V o l . 71 No. 4 . A u g u s t .  Geiger,R.  1950.  The c l i m a t e n e a r t h e ground. Harvard U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , x x i & 4 8 4 pp.  G r e g o r y , R.A.  1956.  The e f f e c t o f c l e a r c u t t i n g and s o i l d i s t u r b a n c e on t e m p e r a t u r e s n e a r t h e s o i l , s u r f a c e i n S o u t h e a s t A l a s k a . U.S.D.A A l a s k a , S t a t i o n P a p e r 7.  Haddock, P.G. and 1 9 5 6 . J.H.G. S m i t h .  Comments on "A s i t e e v a l u a t i o n c o n c e p t " J o u r n a l o f F o r e s t r y . 5 4 : 6 : pp. 4 0 4 - 4 0 5 .  H e i b e r g , S.O. and 1 9 5 6 . D.B. W h i t e .  A s i t e e v a l u a t i o n concept. F o r e s t r y . 5 4 : 1 pp. 7-10.  Journal of  HeimburgerC.C.  1941.  F o r e s t s i t e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and s o i l i n v e s t i g a t i o n on Lake Edward F o r e s t Experiment Area.' Dept. Mines end R e s o u r c e s . D.F.S. S i l v . Res. Note No. 66.  H e i n s e l m a n , M.L.  1957.  S i l v i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of b l a c k s p r u c e . U.S.D.A. Lake S t a t e s . S t a t i o n Paper 4 5 *  H i l l s , G.A.  1952.  The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and e v a l u a t i o n o f s i t e for forestry. O n t a r i o . Dept. Lands and F o r e s t s . R e s . Rep. No. 2 4 .  Holman, H.L.  1927.  N a t u r a l r e g e n e r a t i o n o f spruce F o r e s t r y Chronicle 3 (3).  1940.  Spruce r e g e n e r a t i o n i n t h e P r a i r i e F o r e s t r y C h r o n i c l e 16 (1) March.  1955.  White spruce seedbeds as r e l a t e d t o na.tural r e g e n e r a t i o n . Canadian P u l p and Paper A s s o c i a t i o n . R e s e a r c h I n s t i t u t e o f Canada. August.  and H.A. P a r k e r . H o l t , L.  i n Alberta. Provinces  H o l t , Swan & Weetman. 1 9 5 6 . F o r e s t s o i l s c a r i f i c a t i o n . P u l p & Paper R e s e a r c h I n s t i t u t e o f Canada. Horton,  K.W,  1953.A.Causes o f v a r i a t i o n i n the s t o c k i n g o f lodgepole pine regeneration f o l l o w i n g f i r e . Dept. N o r t h e r n A f f a i r s and N a t i o n a l Resources. F o r e s t r y B r a n c h . F o r . Res. D i v . S i l v . L e a f . 95.  1 9 5 3 B . Causes o f v a r i a t i o n i n t h e s t o c k i n g o f lodgepole pine regeneration f o l l o w i n g f i r e . Dept. N o r t h e r n A f f a i r s and N a t i o n a l Resources. F o r e s t r y Branch. For.Res.Div. S i l v . Res. Note 95  Horton,  Hosie,  K.W,  R.C,  '  Jameson, J.A.  Jacks, G.V.  -  1954.  E a r l y developments i n a s u b a l p i n e lodgepole pine stand i n f i r e o r i g i n . Dept. Northern A f f a i r s and N a t i o n a l Resources. F o r e s t r y Branch. F o r . Res. D i v . S i l v . Res. Note 1954.  1956.  The ecology of lodgepole pine i n A l b e r t a . Dept. Northern A f f a i r s and N a t i o n a l Resources F o r e s t r y Branch. F o r . Res. D i v . Tech. Note 45.  1957*  The ecology and p r o d u c t i v i t y of b l a c k spruce i n the f o o t h i l l s of A l b e r t a . P t s . 1 and 2. Dept. N o r t h e r n A f f a i r s and N a t i o n a l Resources. F o r e s t r y Branch. Res. Div; Unpubl. Rep. 34 pp.  1959.  C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of sub-alpine spruce i n A l b e r t a . Dept. N o r t h e r n A f f a i r s and N a t i o n a l Resouces. F o r e s t r y Branch. For.Res. D i v . Tech. Note -76.  1950.  F o r e s t r e g e n e r a t i o n i n Ontario. Canadian P u l p and Paper A s s o c i a t i o n . Woodlands S e c t i o n No. 1069 (F-2) 1950.  I l l i n g w o r t h , K and J.W.C. A r l i d g e .  I l v e s s a l o , Y.  96  I960. I n t e r i m r e p o r t on some f o r e s t s i t e types i n lodgepole pine and s p r u c e - a l p i n e f i r stands. B r i t i s h Columbia F o r e s t S e r v i c e . Res.Note No. 35. . 1951.  The t h i r d n a t i o n a l f o r e s t survey of F i n l a n d , p l a n s and i n s t r u c t i o n f o r f i e l d work. Comm. I n s t , f o r F i n . 39 (3) pp. 67.  1951.  Occurrence of d i f f e r e n t kinds of f o r e s t stand i n F i n l a n d . F o r e s t r y A b s t r a c t s . V o l . 16 - 335 PP.  1956.  S t r i p and spaced t h i n n i n g i n overstocked j a c k pine and b l a c k spruce stands. Canada, Dept. Northern A f f a i r s and N a t i o n a l Resources, F o r e s t r y Branch. S. & M.  1954.  S o i l . Nelson. London, i x - 221  pp.  J e f f r e y , W.W.  1956.  Swiss Femel-eoupe working. Edinburgh U n i v e r s i t y , F o r e s t r y Department. B u l l . No. 2.  Johnson, R.S.  1953.  F o r e s t r y C h r o n i c l e . 29:4 64 - 74 Logging and u t i l i s a t i o n i n s p r u c e - f i r i n * the e a s t .  Jones, E.W.  1945.  The s t r u c t u r e and r e p r o d u c t i o n of v i r g i n f o r e s t i n the n o r t h temperate zone. New Phyt. V o l . 44: 130 - 148 pp.  - 97 -  Kabzems, A.  1951.  Some p r i n c i p l e s of f o r e s t s i t e - type c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . F o r e s t r y C h r o n i c l e 27 pp. 157 - 163.  K a g i s , H.I.  1952.  Some problems of mixedwood stands, F o r e s t r y C h r o n i c l e . V o l . 28 No. 2. pp 6 -  1958.  A glimpse of Russian f o r e s t r y . Forestry C h r o n i c l e 34 (2) . pp. 190 - 193.  1954.  The s t o r y of a c u t - o v e r . Forestry C h r o n i c l e 30 (2) pp. 158 - 182.  18.  K i r k l a n d , B.P 1936. and A. J.F. Brandstroni.  S e l e c t i v e timber management i n the Douglas f i r reg-jon.U.S.D.A. B u l l .  Kittredge, J.  1948.  F o r e s t i n f l u e n c e s . McGraw-Hill F i r s t New York, x & 394 pp.  Knuchel,  1953.  P l a n n i n g and c o n t r o l i n the managed f o r e s t . Trans. M.L. Anderson. O l i v e r and Boyd, Edinburgh, x v i - 36O pp.  H.  it  Silviculture. Trans. M.L. Anderson. O l i v e r and Boyd, Edinburgh, x v i - 416  K o s t l e r , J".  1956.  K o r o l e f f , A.  1952.  Lavender, D.P.  LeBarron,  Edition.  R.K.  1952.  1947.  1948.  Logging mechanisation i n the U.S.S.R. Pulp and Paper Res. I n s t . Canada. Woodlands Res. D i v . F i e l d and l a b o r a t o r y t e s t s of some f o r e s t rodent c o n t r o l p r e p a r a t i o n s Oregan S t a t e Board of F o r e s t r y . Res. Note 6. D i s c u s s i o n of lodgepole pine c u t t i n g methods. N. Rocky Mtn. F o r . & Rge. Exp. S t a t i o n . 13 pp. mimeo. C u t t i n g lodgepole pine i n the n o r t h e r n Rocky mountains. Soc. American F o r e s t e r s Proceedings. S i l v i c u l t u r a l p r a c t i c e s f o r lodgepole i n Montana. N. Rocky Mtn. F o r . & Rge. S t a t i o n . S t a . Paper No. 3 3 .  and G.M.  1953. Jemison.  Leblanc, H.  1954.  pp.  pine Exp.  S i l v i c u l t u r e of Engelmann s p r u c e - a l p i n e f i r type. J o u r n a l of F o r e s t r y . 51. pp. 349 - 355. A new approach t o the n o r t h e r n spruce regene r a t i o n problem. F o r e s t r y C h r o n i c l e 30 (4) pp. 372 - 379.  - 98 C•  I960.  Ecology and p r o d u c t i v i t y of b l a c k spruce i n the F o o t h i l l s o f A l b e r t a . P a r t I I I Growth and y i e l d . Dept. Northern A f f a i r s . a n d N a t i o n a l Resources. F o r e s t r y Branch. Res. D i v . Unpubl. Ms. 12 pp.  Lewis, R.G.  1915.  F o r e s t products of Canada - 1913. F o r e s t r y Branch B u l l . 5 2 . Dept. I n t .  L© 6 S ,  J" •  L i n d q u i s t , B. 1946.  L i n t e a u , A.  1957.  L i t t l e , S. and 1957. J . J . Mohr. Logan, K.T.  1955.  Some experiments on the r e p r o d u c t i o n o f p l a n t a t i o n spruce i n Southern S c a n d i n a v i a . Svenska. Skogsvardsforingens T i d s k r i f t . V o l . 30 pp. 7 - 3 8 . Stockholm. B l a c k spruce r e p r o d u c t i o n on d i s t u r b e d s o i l c o n d i t i o n s . Dept* Northern A f f a i r s and N a t i o n a l Resources. F o r e s t r y Branch. For.Res. D i v . Tech. Note 5 4 . Seedbed treatment i n c r e a s e s dominance of n a t u r a l l o b l o l l y p i n e reproduction-. N.E. F o r e s t Experiment S t a t i o n . F o r . Res. Note 7 6 . An i n t e g r a t i n g l i g h t meter f o r e c o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h . Dept. Northern A f f a i r s a nd N a t i o n a l Resources. F o r e s t r y Branch. F o r . Res. D i v . Tech. Note 1 3 .  Lpwdermilk, w.C. 1925* F a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g r e p r o d u c t i o n o f Engelmann spruce. J o u r n a l A g r i c . Res. 30 (11) pp. 995 1009. L u t z , H.J. and A.P. Caporaso. MacEwan, G.  1958. I n d i c a t o r s of f o r e s t l a n d c l a s s e s i n a i r photo i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the A l a s k a i n t e r i o r . U.S.D.A. A l a s k a - S t a t i o n Paper 1 0 .  1959*  MacGregor, J.G.  F i f t y mighty men. Modern P r e s s , Edmonton. pp. 342. land 1952. The/of Twelve Foot Davis. A l l i e d A r t s Products L t d . Second E d i t i o n . Edmonton., pp. 3 9 5 .  1949.  B l a n k e t s and beads. The I n s t , of A p p l i e d A r t s L t d . Edmonton, p p . 2 7 6 .  McLeod & B l y t h .  1955.  Y i e l d of even-aged, f u l l y stocked, spruce p o p l a r stahds'-In Northern A l b e r t a . Dept. Northern A f f a i r s a nd N a t i o n a l Resources. F o r e s t r y Branch. F o r . Res. Div. Tech. Note 18,  Mason, D.T  1915.  U t i l i s a t i o n and management of lodgepole pine i n the Rocky Mountains. U.S.D.A. B u l l . No. 234.  -.99  -  M o o r e , B.  1926.  I n f l u e n c e o f c e r t a i n s o i l and l i g h t c o n d i t i o n s on t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f reproduction i n northwestern conifers. E c o l . 1. p p . 191 - 2 0 0 .  M o s s , E.H.  1953;  M a r s h and bog v e g e t a t i o n i n n o r t h w e s t e r n A l b e r t a . Can. J o u r . B o t . 3 1 : pp. 448 - 4 7 0 . July.  1955•  The v e g e t a t i o n o f A l b e r t a . B o t . R e v i e w . V o l . 2 1 . No. 9 . p p . 493 - 5 6 7 .  1949.  P r e l i m i n a r y g u i d e s f o r t h e management o f l o d g e p o l e p i n e . P a c i f i c N.W. F o r . E x p t . S t a t i o n . Note 54.  Mowat, E . L .  N i e n s t a e d t , H.  1957.  S i l v i e a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of white spruce, l a k e S t a t e s F o r . E x p t . S t a t i o n . U.S.D.A. S t a t i o n P a p e r No. 5 5 .  0ntkean,G. and L.A. S m i t h e r s .  1959.  Growth of A l b e r t a w h i t e spruce a f t e r r e l e a s e from aspen c o m p e t i t i o n . Dept. N o r t h e r n A f f a i r s and N a t i o n a l Resources. F o r e s t r y B r a n c h . Res. D i v . 8 pp. Mine6.  O o s t i n g , H.J. and J.F. H e e d .  1952. V i r g i n s p r u c e - f i r f o r e s t ' i n t h e M e d i c i n e Bow M o u n t a i n . E c o l . Monog. 2 2 . 69 - 91. 1 9 5 2 . 1942.  Dominant h e i g h t and average d i a m e t e r as a measure o f s i t e i n u n t r e a t e d l o d g e p o l e p i n e s t a n d s . D e p t . M i n e s a n d R e s o u r c e s . D.F.S. S i l v . R e s . N o t e No. 7 2 .  1952.  S p r u c e r e g e n e r a t i o n on d e e p moss a f t e r l e g g i n g . D e p t . N o r t h e r n A f f a i r s and N a t i o n a l Resources. F o r e s t r y Branch. F o r . Res. D i v . S i l v . Leaf. 62.  P a t e r s o n , D.N.  1958  Some o b s e r v a t i o n s o f t h e v i r g i n s p r u c e b a l s a m f o r e s t i n the B r i t i s h Columbia I n t e r i o r . Empire For.Rev. Dec. pp. 399.  P h e l p s , V.H.  1948.  White spruce stands c u t t o d i f f e r e n t diame t e r l i m i t s i n N o r t h e r n Saskatchewan. Dept. N o r t h e r n A f f a i r s and N a t i o n a l R e s o u r c e s F o r e s t r y Branch. F o r . Res. D i v . S i l v . Res. Note 8 6 .  Place,  1953.  S e l e c t i v e c u t t i n g and t h e a l l - a g e d s t a n d . F o r e s t r y C h r o n i c l e . 29 (3) pp. 248 - 2 5 3 .  1955.  The i n f l u e n c e o f s e e d b e d c o n d i t i o n s on t h e r e g e n e r a t i o n o f spruce and balsam f i r . B u l l . 117. Dept. N o r t h e r n A f f a i r s and N a t i o n a l Resources.  Parker,  H.A.  I.C.M.  - 100  -  Pogue, H.M.  1946.  R e g e n e r a t i o n and growth o f w h i t e s p r u c e after legging. B r i t i s h Columbia F o r e s t S e r v i c e . T. 29.  Quaite, J .  1950A.  Marking c o s t s i n a white spruce stand. Dept. N o r t h e r n . A f f a i r s and N a t i o n a l Resources. F o r e s t r y Branch. S i l v . Leaf.  44.  1950B.  Severe t h i n n i n g i n an o v e r s t o c k e d l o d g e p o l e p i n e s t a n d . Dept. N o r t h e r n A f f a i r s and N a t i o n a l Resources. F o r e s t r y Branch. For. Res. D i v . S i l v . L e a f . 47.  1951.  E x p e r i m e n t a l c u t t i n g of w h i t e s p r u c e i n a mixed-wood s t a n d i n N o r t h e r n A l b e r t a . Dept. N o r t h e r n A f f a i r s and N a t i o n a l Resources. Unpub. R e p o r t .  1953.  P o i s o n i n g with "Ammate" t o e l i m i n a t e aspen. Dept. N o r t h e r n A f f a i r s and N a t i o n a l R e s o u r c e s . F o r e s t r y B r a n c h . F o r . Res. D i v . S i l v . L e a f . 94  1954.  The e v a l u a t i o n of s i t e and growth of w h i t e spruce i n the mixedwood s e c t i o n o f A l b e r t a . Dept. N o r t h e r n A f f a i r s and N a t i o n a l Resources F o r e s t r y B r a n c h . F o r . Res. D i v . Unpubl. R e p o r t . 40 pp.  1956.  S u r v i v a l of w h i t e spruce s e e d l i n g s r e s u l t i n g from s c a r i f i c a t i o n i n a p a r t i a l l y - c u t mixedwood s t a n d .  Raup, H.M.  1945.  F o r e s t s and gardens a l o n g the A l a s k a Highway. Geog. Review. "Vol. xxxv. No. 1.  Reed, J .  1954.  F o r e s t s of France. 296 pp.  R i c h a r d s & Weaver. 1 9 4 4 . Roe,  E.I.  Rowe, J.S.  Faber & Faber, London.  M o i s t u r e r e t e n t i o n by some i r r i g a t e d s o i l s Jour. A g r i c . Res. V o l . 69 No. 6. Sept.  1952.  Seed p r o d u c t i o n of a white spruce t r e e . Lake S t a t e F.E.S. Tech. Note 373.  1957.  S i l v i e a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of tamarack. Lake S t a t e s F o r . E x p t . S t a t i o n . S t a t i o n Paper No. 5 2 .  1958.  S i l v i e a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of balsam p o p l a r . Lake S t a t e s F o r . E x p t . S t a t i o n . S t a t i o n Paper No. 6 5 .  1953A.  V i a b l e seed on w h i t e s p r u c e t r e e s i n midsummer. Dept. of N o r t h e r n A f f a i r s and N a t i o n a l R e s o u r c e s . F o r e s t r y B r a n c h . F o r e s t Res. D i v . S i l v . L e a f . 9 9 .  Rowe, J . S .  101-  1953B.  Forest sites - a discussion. Forestry Chronicle 29:3. pp. 2 7 8 - 289.  1953C  D e l a y e d g e r m i n a t i o n o f w h i t e s p r u c e s e e d on burned ground. D e p t . N o r t h e r n A f f a i r s and N a t i o n a l Resources. F o r e s t r y Branch. For.Res. D i v . S i l v . L e a f . 84.  1953D.  V i a b l e s e e d on w h i t e s p r u c e i n midsummer. Dept. N o r t h e r n A f f a i r s and N a t i o n a l Resources F o r e s t r y Branch. Res. D i v . S i l v . Leaf. 99.  1955.  Factors i n f l u e n c i n g white spruce r e p r o d u c t i o n i n Manitoba and Saskatchewan. Dept. N o r t h e r n A f f a i r s and N a t i o n a l R e s o u r c e s . F o r e s t r y B r a n c h . For. Res. D i v . Tech. Note 3.  1956.  Uses of undergrowth Ecol. July. 37:3.  1959.  F o r e s t r e g i o n s o f Canada. Dept. N o r t h e r n A f f a i r s and N a t i o n a l Resources. F o r e s t r y B r a n c h . F o r . R e s . D i v . B u l l . No. 1 2 3 .  plant species i n forestry.  R u s s e l , S i r E . J . 1958. S o i l c o n d i t i o n s a n d p l a n t g r o w t h . Longmans" G r e e n & Co. New Y o r k . 8 t h E d . x v i & 635 pp. PP. 3 1 . Scofield.  1945.  S h i r l e y , H.L.  The m e a s u r e m e n t o f s o i l w a t e r . R e s . V o l . 7 1 . No. 9. November.  R e s t o r i n g c o n i f e r s t o aspen l a n d s i n t h e Lake States. U.S.D.A. L a k e S t a t e s F.E.S. T e c h . B u l l . No. 763.  I9A.I.  S m i t h , J.H.G. 1 9 5 5 .  S m i t h , J.H.G. a n d J.W. K e r .  Jour. Agric.  Some f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g r e p r o d u c t i o n o f E n g e l m a n n s p r u c e and a l p i n e f i r . B r i t i s h Columbia F o r e s t S e r v i c e . Tech. Note 43. 1 9 5 6 . Some p r o b l e m s a n d a p p r o a c h e s i n c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of s i t e i n j u v e n i l e stands of Douglas f i r . F o r e s t r y C h r o n i c l e 3 2 : 4 : 417  S m i t h e r s , L.A. 1 9 5 6 .  1959.  S o c i e t y of American Foresters.  -  428.  A s s e s s m e n t o f s i t e p r o d u c t i v i t y i n dense l o d g e p o l e p i n e stands. Dept. o f N o r t h e r n A f f a i r s and N a t i o n a l R e s o u r c e s . F o r e s t r y B r a n c h F o r . Res. D i v . Tech. Note 30. Some a s p e c t s o f r e g e n e r a t i o n s i l v i c u l t u r e i n spruce-aspen stands i n A l b e r t a . Dept. N o r t h e r n A f f a i r s and N a t i o n a l R e s o u r c e s . F o r . B r a n c h . R e s . D i v . Mimeo 1 9 5 9 . 1958.  F o r e s t r y t e r m i n o l o g y . S o c . Amer. F o r e s t e r s  W a s h i n g t o n D.C.  3 r d E d . Rev. 1 9 5 8 .  -  102 -  Sonley, G.R.  1957.  E f f e c t s of u t i l i z a t i o n developments and t r e n d s on the f o r e s t . Forestry Chronicle 33 ( 2 ) . pp. 119 - 1 2 3 .  Stewart, M.  1956.  Cost study of p a r t i a l c u t t i n g treatments i n the i n t e r i o r wet b e l t o f B r i t i s h Columbia. B r i t i s h Columbia F o r e s t S e r v i c e . Res. Note 3 2 .  Strothmann, R.0. and Z.A. Zasada.  1957. S i l v i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f quaking aspen. Lake S t a t e s F o r e s t Expt. S t a t i o n . Paper No. 4 9 .  Sukachev, V.N. 1928.  P r i n c i p l e s of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the s p r u c e communities of European R u s s i a . J o u r n a l of E c o l . February. V o l . 16. pp. 1 - 18.  Sutton, R . F .  1958.  Chemical h e r b i c i d e s and t h e i r uses i n the . s i l v i c u l t u r e of f o r e s t s of E a s t e r n Canada. Dept. Northern A f f a i r s and N a t i o n a l Resources F o r e s t r y Branch. F o r . Res. Div. Tech. Note 68.  Swain, L..C.  1954.  Economical t r e e k i l l i n g . A g r i c . Expt.'Stn. U n i v . New Hampshire. S t a t i o n B u l l . 408.  T a c k l e , D.  1959.  S i l v i c s of l o d g e p o l e p i n e . I n t e r . Mtn. F o r . & Rge. Expt. S t a t i o n . M i s c . P u b l . No. 19.  and D.I.  1953 Crossley.  Tamm, 0.  1950.  T a n s l e y , A.G-. • 1935.  Lodgepole pine b i b l i o g r a p h y . I n t e r . Mtn. F o r . & Rge. E x p t . S t a t i o n . U.S.D.A. Res. Paper No. 30. Northern c o n i f e r o u s f o r e s t s o i l s . The S c r i v e n e r P r e s s , Oxford, x i - 253 pp. Trans, by M.L. Anderson. The use and abuse o f v e g e t a t i o n a l concepts and terms. Ecology 16: pp. 284 - 307.  Thorthwaite, C.W. 1948. An approach toward a r a t i o n a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of c l i m a t e . The American G e o g r a p h i c a l Society. T i r e n , L.  1934.  Some o b s e r v a t i o n s on n a t u r a l r e g e n e r a t i o n i n Kulbachsliden e x p e r i m e n t a l f o r e s t . Svenska Skogsvards f o r e n i n g e n s T i d s k r i f t .  Troup, R.S.  1952.  S i l v i c u l t u r a l systems. Sec. E d . E.W. Jones xv - 216 pp. Clarendon P r e s s , Oxford.  Weaver, J.E. & I.E. Clements.  1938.  P l a n t ecology. McGraw-Hill, New York.  Weetman, G.F.  1958.  F o r e s t seeding and p l a n t i n g t e c h n i q u e s and "equipment. P u l p and Paper Res. I n s t . Canada.  Westveld, M.  1953.  E c o l o g y and s i l v i c u l t u r e of the s p r u c e - f i r f o r e s t s of E a s t e r n N o r t h America. Jour. F o r . 51 ( 6 ) . pp. 4 2 2 - 4 3 0 .  - 103  -  West v e l d , R.H.  1949  A p p l i e d s i l v i c u l t u r e i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s . 'Wiley & Sons, New York, x i - 5 9 0 pp.  Wright, T.G.  1959-  The Canadian spruce f o r e s t . C h r o n i c l e 35: 4. pp. 291 -  Wynnyk, A. and W. Odynsky.  1954.  E x p l o r a t o r y s o i l survey of p o r t i o n of the 'Valleyview-Whitecourt Area. Alberta s o i l survey. Univ. of A l b e r t a . Res. C o u n c i l of A l b e r t a , S o i l Survey S e c t i o n . Unpubl. Report. 10 pp.  —oOo—  Forestry 297.  

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0105955/manifest

Comment

Related Items