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Application of silvicultural systems in the B-19 foothills region of Alberta. Lees, John Crawford 1960

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THE APPLICATION OF SILVICULTURAL SYSTEMS IN THE B-19 FOOTHILLS REGION OF ALBERTA by JOHN CRAWFORD LEES B.Sc.(For.) Univ e r s i t y of Edinburgh, 1957 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF , . THE REQUIREMENT FOR THE DEGREE - OF MASTER OF FORESTRY i n the Faculty of Forestry . We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , I960 I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by t h e Head o f my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g or p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . JOHN C. LEES F a c u l t y 0 £ F o r e s t r y The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver 8 , Canada. D a t e - — A p r i l — 1 5 t h , I960. : - i i -F r o n t i s p i e c e : A l t e r n a t e S t r i p C l e a r c u t t i n g System i n t h e F o o t h i l l s . P h o t o : NW.P & P. Co. L t d - i i i -ABSTRACT The a p p l i c a t i o n of s i l v i c u l t u r a l systems i n the B-19 Foothills, region of Alberta was examined i n the l i g h t of current problems i n management,silviculture,and u t i l i s a t i o n . Follow-ing a regional description, i n which a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of s i t e i s developed, cer t a i n s i l v i c u l t u r a l systems were examined and recommended f o r the dominant stand types which occur on three major s i t e groups, v i z : -1. Dry Upland 2. Moist Transition 3. Wet Consideration was given i n each case to cle a r c u t t i n g , shelterwood and s e l e c t i o n systems. Recommendations were based on the information presented i n the preceding chapters and that available i n those references c i t e d i n the bibliography. I t has been pointed out i n conclusion that there are three main phases i n the development of control of the s i l v i c u l -ture and management of the region. These are:-1. The preparation of management plans f o r sustained y i e l d . 2. The s e l e c t i o n of s i l v i c u l t u r a l systems to, bring s i l v i c u l t u r a l control into the framework of sustained y i e l d management. 3. The development and application of c u l t u r a l - i v -treatments through research to improve l o c a l conditions and to help solve part-i c u l a r regeneration problems. The importance of the hypothesis presented i n Chapter I I I i s f i n a l l y re-stressed with reference to the above mentioned development phases. That i s - That there are already available to the p r a c t i s i n g forest management planner, s i l v i c u l t u r a l systems which are applicable, with or without further adaptation, to the forest stands of the region and to the s i t e s described. Certain f i e l d s of research have been suggested through-out the text and these were summarised i n a f i n a l recommendation. — 0 O 0 — _ v -TABLE OF CONTENTS Page INTRODUCTION 1 Problem Statement 1 Literature Review 5. The Status of Natural Regeneration i n the Region 5 Factors A f f e c t i n g Regeneration of the Main Species 6 S i l v i c a l Practices aimed at Regeneration 10 U t i l i s a t i o n 14 CHAPTER I - DESCRIPTION 17 Description of the B-19 F o o t h i l l s Region 17. B-19a Lower F o o t h i l l s Section 17 B-19b Northern F o o t h i l l s Section 17 B-19c Upper F o o t h i l l s Section 18 Topography 18 Geology 19 Climate 19 S o i l s 22 Vegetation 23 Site 28 Stand Dynamics 31 S i l v i c a l P r o f i l e 34 White Spruce 34 Black Spruce 35 Lodgepole Pine 36 Aspen 37 Balsam F i r 38 U t i l i s a t i o n 39 History 39 • - v i - Page CHAPTER I I - DISCUSSION AND REVIEW OF SILVICULTURAL SYSTEMS 43 C l e a r c u t t i n g Systems 43 With N a t u r a l Regeneration 43 S t r i p C l e a r c u t 46 Patch C l e a r c u t 46 Block C l e a r c u t 46 With A r t i f i c i a l Regeneration 48 Shelterwood Systems 50 With N a t u r a l Regeneration 50 In Uniform Blocks 50 Group Shelterwood 52 I r r e g u l a r Shelterwood 53 S t r i p Shelterwood 54 S t r i p and Group System 57 A r t i f i c i a l Regeneration 58 S e l e c t i o n Systems 58 CHAPTER I I I - ANALYSIS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 62 Dry Upland S i t e s 64 Lodgepole Pine-Aspen Stand Type 64 White Spruce-Pine-Aspen Stand Type 65 Moist S i t e s 66 Lodgepole Pine-Aspen Type 66 Lodgepole P i n e - w i t h B l a c k Spruce Understorey Type 67 B l a c k and White Spruce-Pine-Alpine Fir-Aspen Stand Type 68 Pure Spruce Stand Type 70 Wet S i t e s 71 Assumptions 72 P r o d u c t i v i t y 74 - v i i -Page CONCLUSION 81 APPENDIX I - Tree Species and Plant L i s t 85 APPENDIX I I - Plates 87 BIBLIOGRAPHY 90 — o O o — - v i i i -ILLUSTRATIONS Table P a g e 1. Comparative c l i m a t i c data 20 2 . C l i m a t i c data - B-19 Region Idson S t a t i o n 21 3 . Forest c l a s s i f i c a t i o n f o r A l b e r t a 39 4 . S e l e c t e d systems - B-19 F o o t h i l l s r e g i o n 73 5 . Average annual height growth above breast height -Whitecourt Management Un i t 76 6. Gross t o t a l cubic f o o t volume/acre by cover types 77 7. Current annual increment by species - Average f o r a l l types 78 8. Estimated pulpwood y i e l d from f i r s t c u t t i n g area i n the management u n i t 79 Figure 1. B-19 F o o t h i l l s r e g i o n of A l b e r t a 17a 2 . Lodgepole pine-aspen 32 3. S t r i p shelterwood c u t t i n g 55 4 . V e r t i c a l layout 56 5 . H o r i z o n t a l layout 56 6 . S t r i p and group shelterwood 57 P l a t e 1. T y p i c a l s o i l p r o f i l e 23 Note: " F o r e s t r y Terminology" (Soc. Amer. F o r e s t e r s 1958) may be used as a general reference f o r terms used i n t h i s work. A f u r t h e r reference t o c e r t a i n e c o l o g i c a l terms i s "The Use and Abuse of V e g e t a t i o n a l Concepts and Terms" (Tansley, 1 9 3 5 ) . - i x -ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The t h o u g h t f u l guidance extended to the author by Dr. P.G. Haddock, A s s o c i a t e P r o f e s s o r of F o r e s t r y , F o r e s t r y F a c u l t y , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, through-out the pr e p a r a t i o n of the t h e s i s i s g r a t e f u l l y acknowledged. F u r t h e r , the author wishes t o express h i s g r a t i t u d e t o the D i r e c t o r of the F e d e r a l F o r e s t r y Branch f o r permiss-i o n t o use m a t e r i a l drawn from the research f i l e s a t the Calgary D i s t r i c t O f f i c e . — © O o — INTRODUCTION Problem Statement Fa i l u r e of regeneration i n the B-19 forest section (Rowe, 1959) of Alberta following both f i r e and legging has been recognised f o r many years, (Holman & Parker, 1940; Degrace, 1950; Candy, 1951; Bloomberg, 1950; Blyth, 1955 and Horton, 1953). Rowe (1959) has. described the region as the f o o t h i l l s t r a n s i t i o n zone between the true boreal mixedwood and the true sub-alpine of the mountains. Horton (1956) has l a t e r delineated two tension zones with the boreal mixedwood and the sub-alpine as the B-19a and B-19c zones, respectively, the true f o o t h i l l s zones being designated B-19h. Much of Northern Alberta l i e s within the B-19 region, and thus a f o r e s t problem there i s a major fac t o r i n the economy of the Province, since i t i s from t h i s large area that the bulk of timber i s produced. (1) The white spruce stands of the l o c a l climax f o r e s t (Moss, 1953) are giving way more and more to lodgepole pine and trembling aspen. Aspen i s the more p r o l i f i c and successful e c o l o g i c a l l y of these two pioneer species, and extensive aspen stands are present i n the area today. The species has colon-ised both logged and burned-over areas. H i s t o r i c a l and des-c r i p t i v e l i t e r a t u r e on the area as i t was at the time of the white man's f i r s t a r r i v a l , makes i t clear that these problem areas have arisen i n comparatively recent times. Several works describe the bounty of the forests and p r a i r i e s which (1) Botanical names of tree species are l i s t e d i n Appendix I. - 2 -was revealed to the pioneer s e t t l e r s , (McGregor , 1949, 1952; Bezanson, 1954 and McEwan, 1959). At that time many of the stands were of f i r e - o r i g i n , as charcoal deposits found today have shown. Natural f i r e s ^ however, were hotter and the "burn was more complete than the l i g h t extensive man-made f i r e s of today. They produced a receptive seedbed of bared mineral s o i l , , scattered with ashes. Current burning i s not so complete and many s i t e s are the scene of repeated burns. F i r e , therefore, i s a major problem of the area but i t i s f i r e started by man, not nature, that has led to poor regeneration of even the pioneer pine. This i s due to the contrasting nature of the r e s u l t i n g seedbeds, (Rowe, 1955, p.19). Logging operations of the past f i f t y years have been^ followed by poor regeneration of the commercially important spruce and pine. This has contributed to the present stand d i s t r i b u t i o n and to inadequate stocking. Thus with low, patchy stocking and ah increasing representation of aspen creating an unbalanced species and age d i s t r i b u t i o n , the maximum production p o t e n t i a l i t i e s of the forest s i t e s i n the region are not being f u l l y r e a l i s e d . Some.sites are non-stocked, others are overstocked to stagnating lodgepole pine or black spruce. This inadequate and unsuitable stocking and poor d i s t r i b u t i o n of the commercially important timber species presents a number of problems i n the s i l v i c u l t u r e and sustained-yield management of the B-19 f o o t h i l l s region. (1) These most l i k e l y included aboriginal Indian f i r e s . - 3 -This region i s r a p i d l y becoming one of the most important timber-producing areas i n Alberta. Both pulpwood and sawlog operations are u t i l i s i n g the material at present ava i l a b l e , and expansion of the pulpwood industry i s l i k e l y to take place i n the near future. Further, the P r o v i n c i a l Department of lands and Forests, appreciating the importance of sustaining and increasing the forest resources of the province, has established sustained-yield management units i n which renewal of the forest i s considered to be of primary importance. Adequate stocking of the commercial species, at a f i g u r e varying from 1+0% to 60% by milacre quadrats depending on s i t e f e r t i l i t y l e v e l , has been made obligatory on recent timber sales. At t h i s stage, therefore, i t i s v i t a l to i n i t i a t e e le-mentary s i l v i c u l t u r a l p r actice, not only i n the mature stands but also throughout the various age classes. This would lead to greater y i e l d s to meet economic needs and bring the forest to a condition favouring natural reproduction. Solutions to the regeneration problems have been sought i n the Province by the Federal Forestry Branch, P r o v i n c i a l Department of lands and Forests and by industry. This Invest-igation has led. to t r i a l s of s o i l s c a r i f i c a t i o n both before and following cutting. Further, cutting methods have been t r i e d i n attempts to provide proper seed supply and to f u r n i s h adequate shelter f o r the intolerant species. These t r i a l s have at l e a s t shown that logging operations must be geared to regeneration on sound e c o l o g i c a l p r i n c i p l e s , while meeting the e x i s t i n g economic conditions. F i r e control too has been greatly stressed i n recent years. A study of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the species and of stand behaviour throughout the r o t a t i o n w i l l lead to determination of those l i m i t i n g factors which influence the s e l e c t i o n of either one system of s i l v i c u l t u r e or another. Planned a p p l i c a t i o n of the chosen system, paying f u l l attention to maintenance of s i t e p r o d u c t i v i t y and s o i l f e r t i l i t y , w i l l promote successful regen-eration, whether natural or a r t i f i c i a l , and w i l l f u r n i s h more valuable material at logging. - The problem i s thus composite. In the thinking of the Alberta f o r e s t e r , regeneration i s the most pressing consider-ation. This i s further emphasised by the e f f o r t s of the Provin-c i a l Government to safeguard the f o r e s t resouces through the establishment of sustained-yield management un i t s . Yet e x p l o i t -ation within these units i s on a basis of competitively-bid, short-term timber sales only. Operations are small-scale, apart from two or three longer leases, and sub-contracting i s general. Thus the operators have l i t t l e or no concern f o r the future and the work of supervising t h e i r operations i s l a r g e l y a police function, l e s t the resources become ezcessively depleted. There i s a pressing need i n t h i s B-19 region f o r the demonstration of p r a c t i c a l measures which w i l l permit the adopt-ion of a sound system of s i l v i c u l t u r e . The area i s at present under i n i t i a l e x p l o i t a t i o n and i t Is at t h i s formative stage that c a r e f u l consideration of s i l v i c u l t u r a l objectives i s necessary. - 5 -These objectives may be considered i n terms of the c l a s s i c a l s i l v i c u l t u r a l systems i n one or several of t h e i r basic forms. Any system considered must have great f l e x i b i l i t y and adapt-a b i l i t y because the area has the inherent problems of mixedwood species composition. The complexity of a l l the features involved w i l l be evident i n the following review of pertinent l i t e r a t u r e and i n the description of the region. L i t e r a t u r e Review In the following paragraphs, l i t e r a t u r e i s reviewed, on the following aspects of the problem:-1. The status of natural regeneration i n the region. 2. f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g regeneration of the main species. 3. S i l v i c u l t u r a l practices aimed at regener-ation. 4. U t i l i s a t i o n . The Status of Natural Regeneration in the Region There i s a noticeable lack of l i t e r a t u r e on the B-19 region i t s e l f . However, several regeneration surveys touching on the problems mentioned have been carried out. These include those of Candy (1947), Horton :(1956) and Blyth (1957) and they have shown that logged and burned-over areas of hitherto product ive forests are not restocking to commercially valuable species. - 6 -Many of the spruce s i t e s are reverting to pine and aspen. In the past, an average of one per cent of the forested area has burned over annually i n the Province. Such areas are the source of many of the current problems. F i r e control i s the f i r s t and most important step i n a l l e v i a t i n g t h i s condition. Recommen-dations to the P r o v i n c i a l Government have been made by the Canadian Inst i t u t e of Forestry, Rocky Mountain Section, i n the form of a b r i e f i n 1955 to stimulate thought and action on t h i s matter. Cutting methods currently In use have produced conditions r e s u l t i n g i n the f a i l u r e of regeneration, yet experiments i n cutting methods are few. Some work has been car r i e d out i n the task of regenerating the problem areas produced, and Quaite (1956) work-ing i n spruce i n the B-18 mixedwood has shown that, provided there i s an adequate seed supply, regeneration w i l l occur, and that success w i l l depend only on the presence of a few mature trees per acre and on s a t i s f a c t o r y seedbed conditions. Thus, s c a r i f -i c a t i o n experiments have been successful i n obtaining pine and spruce regeneration i n these regions of Alberta. The nature and r e c e p t i v i t y of many seedbed conditions have also been widely investigated throughout Canada (Rowe, 1955 and Place, 1955)* Factors A f f e c t i n g Regeneration of the Main Species Gregory (1956) has shown how temperature on clearcut areas may be l e t h a l due to the varying heat-absorbing and - 7 -r e f l e c t i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of seedbed media. A moss-covered seedbed i n open conditions was found to be least desirable. The degree of i n s o l a t i o n required f o r establishment of seed-li n g s has been studied by Atkins (1957) and moisture r e l a t i o n -ships are revealed by the works of Barr (1930); G r i f f i t h , (1931); Place (1955); Fraser (1957) and Rowe (1955) p a r t i c u -l a r l y with regard to spruce. Horton (1956) has i l l u s t r a t e d how the behaviour of the species i n the B-19 varies with physiographic s i t e i d e n t i f i e d by moisture regime, thus under-l i n i n g the e f f e c t s previously mentioned. Further seedbed conditions f o r regeneration of the f o o t h i l l s species have been studied by Rowe (1955); Crossley (1956c & 1956d); Ackerman (1957); Praser (1957); Quaite (1956); Place (1955); DeGrace (1950) and Bloomberg (1950)* There i s agreement that a m i n e r a l - s o i l seedbed can best provide suitable conditions f o r the commercially import-ant pine and white spruce. Spruce further requires more moist-ure and shade than pine and w i l l often occur i n great numbers on rotten wood under a f a i r l y dense canopy. Many seedlings are i n evidence too on skid t r a i l s . I t has been suggested by Kagis (1954) that f a i r l y heavy overhead shade(in white spruce i n Saskatchewan that cast by a basal area of around 70 square feet) i s necessary f o r adequate spruce regeneration under a shelterwood system. It i s cer t a i n that extremes of temperature, l i g h t and drought, such as are to be expected following c l e a r c u t t i n g , would be i n h i b i t i n g unless mineral seedbeds are provided. Quaite (1956) found no c o r r e l a t i o n between overhead shade and regeneration i n four r e s i d u a l spruce-- 8 -aspen stand d e n s i t i e s , but i t i s suspected that l i m i t i n g condit-ions occur outside his sampled range. Seeding habits have been examined by Howe (1953); Grossley (1956a) and Horton (1956). White spruce produces seed crops at f i v e to seven year i n t e r v a l s i n the region with average germinative capacity of 49%. Heavy seed losses before germination i n the region have been noted by Horton (1958). Quaite (1956) found that several successive l i g h t seed-years were s t i l l s u f f i c i e n t f o r adequate regeneration i n spruce-aspen stands. Cones of white spruce are non-serotinous. Lodgepole pine produces seed more frequently and an abundant seed supply i s usually av a i l a b l e . Cones are both serotinous and non-serotinous, the former providing a valuable stored seed supply. Cone opening has been studied by Grossley (1955d) and by Cameron (1953), revealing that the high temper-ature necessary to break the r e s i n bond i n the cone scales occurs at s i x i n s . from the ground i n slash with temperatures of 4G°C. Crossley (1956d) pointed out how temperature i n slash varies with aspect. This changes to some extent the optimum height of cones above the ground surface f o r r e s i n bond rupture. Further, the nature of seed dispersal has been noted and experiments by Crossley (1955d) and Horton (1956) reveal how marginal supply i s of importance with pine though less valuable v/ith white spruce which requires overhead supply mainly. Black spruce reproduces both by seed and by layering of lower branches. LeBarron (1948) noted good reproduction following f i r e due to the persistence of the serotinous cones which may often remain unburned at the very t i p of the tree. Aspen comprises 43% by volume of stands i n the region and i s able to reproduce by i t s l i g h t tufted seed and by veget-ative means. However, i t should be remembered that some of the aspen consists of overmature and decadent stands where repro-duction by seeding plays only a minor r o l e and where networks of suckering roots are common. In the l i g h t of these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , the following seed sources are presented i n summary. Lodgepole pine has i t s primary source i n logging sla s h due to the serotinous cones. However, marginal and overhead sources may be a v a i l a b l e . Black spruce, too, has a supply i n slash though overhead seeding i s more common than i n lodgepole pine. White spruce regenerates from an overhead seed source (Quaite, 1 9 5 6 ) but marginal stands i n many cases provide' some seed. Provided that the l a t e r a l distance from the seed source i s not too great, adequate seeding can be obtained from t h i s source. Balsam f i r s i m i l a r l y seeds-i n primarily from an overhead seed source and secondarily from a marginal seed source. I t has been mentioned how aspen can seed-in from a considerable distance on clearcut areas and on burns. Seeding from overhead sources i s less common, while vegetative reproduction tends to predominate under a l i g h t overhead canopy. Competition from other shrubby or herbaceous veget-a t i o n and grass i s another f a c t o r i n h i b i t i n g establishment and growth of the commercial species. Here one would include aspen-- 10 -suckering since aspen i s as yet unmerchantable i n the area. The subject has r e c e i v e d the a t t e n t i o n of Qua I t e (1953); A t k i n s (1956); C r o s s l e y (1956c); Howe (1953); Sutton (1956); Swain (1954) and Weetman (1958). Chemical treatment has been g e n e r a l l y s u c c e s s f u l and ammonium sulphamate has found p a r t i c u l a r a p p l i c -a t i o n i n t h i s r e g i o n , (Quaite, 1953). S i l v i c u l t u r a l P r a c t i c e s Aimed at Regeneration I t i s from a c o n s i d e r a t i o n of these problems of seed supply, seedbed requirements and environmental f a c t o r s , t h a t s i l v i c u l t u r a l i s t s have developed p a r t i c u l a r p r a c t i c e s . Thus p a r t i a l c u t t i n g w i t h s c a r i f i c a t i o n has been shown by Quaite (1956) t o be s u c c e s s f u l i n white spruce stands of the B - 1 8 . C r o s s l e y (1956c) has found c l e a r c u t t i n g of pine w i t h s c a r i f i c a t i o n and s c a t t e r i n g of s l a s h s u c c e s s f u l i n s e c u r i n g adequate r e s t o c k i n g . The development of s u i t a b l e s i l v i c u l t u r a l p r a c t i c e s f o l l o w i n g problem a n a l y s i s has been discussed by Smith (1955) w i t h reference to Engelmann spruce and a l p i n e f i r . From the s o l u t i o n s of such p a r t i c u l a r problems, the c l a s s i c a l s i l v i c u l t u r a l systems have evolved. Thus s t r i p c l e a r c u t t i n g developed i n German pine regions p a r t i c u l a r l y under Bauer; s e l e c t i o n system developed i n the Swiss and French A l p i n e mixedwoods under Gurnaud and B i o l l e y ; and shelterwood developed under SchSdelin and others i n lower regions of the European c o n i f e r o u s f o r e s t s . However, on the a p p l i c a t i o n of these systems, Sukachev (1928) had t h i s t o say: " I t is:'only by s i t e type c l a s s i f i c a t i o n ( i . e . f o r r e -r e c o g n i t i o n ) * , however, that methods of a p p l i c a t i o n i n a p a r t i c u l a r r e g i o n have been s u c c e s s f u l l y p r a c t i s e d elsewhere." * Author's comment. - 11 -C a j a n d e r (1926) s a i d i n h i s work - "The Theory of F o r e s t Types": , "The numerous, o f t e n v e r y i n g e n i o u s l o c a l s i l v i c -u l t u r a l methods t h a t have been developed i n v a r i o u s d i s t r i c t s , e s p e c i a l l y i n C e n t r a l Europe can o n l y he made o f g e n e r a l a p p l i c a t i o n w i t h advantage p r o v i d e d t h a t the l o c a l i t i e s can be c l a s s i f i e d i n t o c l a s s e s w h i c h comprise l o c a l i t i e s b i o l o g i c a l l y e q u i v a l e n t and f u r t h e r , t h a t t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e s e c l a s s e s and t h e n a t u r a l c l a s s e s of each l o c a l f o r e s t under . c o n s i d e r a t i o n ere known." Thus i n o r d e r t o a p p l y a s i l v i c u l t u r a l method t h e r e s h o u l d be a v a i l a b l e t o t h e f o r e s t e r , a p r a c t i c a l f o r e s t s i t e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . V a r i o u s approaches t o t h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n a r e a v a i l a b l e . A l l have found a p p l i c a t i o n i n t h e p a s t and work by H i l l s (1952); Brown (1952); Clements (1938); Heimburger (1941) and Daubenmire (1952) are w e l l known. L o c -a l l y , i n t h e B-19 and B-18 r e g i o n s , s i t e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s have been d e v i s e d by Q u a i t e (1954); D u f f y (1959 ) and H o r t o n (1957). From an e x a m i n a t i o n o f the s p e c i e s d i s t r i b u t i o n , H o r t o n has s e l e c t e d p h y s i o g r a p h i c s i t e s r e c o g n i s e d by m o i s t u r e r e g i m e s , w h i l e r e c e n t y i e l d s t u d i e s by the a u t h o r (I960) show t h a t a br o a d e r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f t h r e e m o i s t u r e - r e g i m e g r o u p s , v i z : -Dry U p l a n d ; M o i s t T r a n s i t i o n , a n d Wet, may be more d i r e c t l y a p p l i c a b l e t o f i e l d c o n d i t i o n s and p r o d u c t i v i t y c l a s s e s i n t h e r e g i o n . Perhaps the t h r e e p r i n c i p a l means o f c l a s s i f y i n g s i t e a r e t h r o u g h f o r e s t a s s o c i a t i o n s and ground v e g e t a t i o n communities, p h y s i o g r a p h i c f a c t o r s , and t r e e growth and p r o d u c t i v i t y i n d i c e s . - 12 -The f i r s t has been supported f o r descriptive purposes by Moss (1953), the second by Quaite (1954); Horton (1957) and Duffy (1959) i n Alberta, and further research i s being ca r r i e d out by the Forestry Branch into a l l three. Regional environmental factors of climate, physio-graphy, and parent material of the s o i l are f a i r l y constant. However f i r e and logging have brought considerable change to cover-type conditions i n Alberta and may considerably a l t e r s o i l and micro-climate. I t has been shown that sitescan be recognised on moisture-regime bases (Horton, 1957 and Atkins, 1958) and further information could be added from the other approaches which contributes to our understanding of a. p a r t i c -u l a r environment. Thus i t i s within cer t a i n i d e n t i f i e d s i t e s that the regeneration problem has been tackled i n Alberta. Examples of the a p p l i c a t i o n of s i l v i c u l t u r a l systems as a whole to the coniferous f o r e s t s of Canada are few however, and have been l i m i t e d mainly to a crude c l e a r c u t t i n g system. Selection systems have tended to be high-grading only and shelter-wood a simple diameter-limit cutting without much thought paid to the condition of the r e s i d u a l stand. The c l e a r c u t t i n g has been adapted to l o c a l topography i n the form of s t r i p s and patches but a p p l i c a t i o n has been so extensive as to become a blanket operation with no regard to s p e c i f i c conditions. Information i s now a v a i l a b l e on the most important factors a f f e c t i n g the success of regeneration as a r e s u l t of the various experiments and p i l o t - s c a l e t r i a l s which have been carried out - 13 -i n the B-19 and adjacent sub-alpine and mixedwood regions. U n t i l the present day, however, logging practices i n the region have been l a r g e l y the r e s u l t of the current demands of u t i l i s a t i o n , extraction,and marketing problems. There has been scant a p p l i c a t i o n of s i l v i c u l t u r a l p r i n c i p l e s evident i n past timber sales. Both p a r t i a l and clearcutting with s c a r i f i c a t i o n have been successfully t r i e d on a commercial scale following the experiments mentioned e a r l i e r . Some f a i l u r e s are to be expected and a r t i f i c i a l methods are, of course, available f o r substitution i n order to obtain the required stocking. Thus d i r e c t seeding has been car r i e d out on an experimental basis by the Eastern Rockies Forest Conservation Board and by the Forestry Branch. Recently developed preparation and protection treatments of seed have been used. These include cold soaking of spring sown spruce seed (Crossley and Skov, 195D p e l l e t i n g and poison ba i t i n g (Weetman, 1958) and device protection from rodents (Blyth, 1955). L i t t l e planting has as yet been carried out i n the Province other than on the East Slopes of the Rockies. In general, planting may be used to augment natural regeneration. More often, planting i s used as a substitute i n restocking " f a i l " areas, or where there i s no seed supply. In Alberta, cutting methods have been studied by DeGrace (1950); Crossley (1956c) and Quaite (1956). - 14 -C r o s s l e y (1955b) has reported on improvement t h i n n i n g s a.nd s t r i p and p a t c h - c u t t i n g i n pine. Quaite (1956) has observed p a r t i a l c u t t i n g , s e l e c t i o n c u t t i n g , diameter l i m i t , seed t r e e and c l e a r c u t t i n g i n spruce-aspen at Smith, A l b e r t a . However, i n general i t may be s a i d that t h e s e l c t i o n of any one of these s i l v i c u l t u r a l systems i s based on the c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c s of the species i n question, the nature of the s i t e f a c t o r s , the p a r t i c u l a r stands, and the objects of management of the f o r e s t area. U t i l i s a t i o n U t i l i s a t i o n i n the Province i s c h a r a c t e r i s e d by s h o r t -term timber s a l e s , c o m p e t i t i v e l y b i d . Sub-contracting i s gener-a l and many of the operators run a. marginal business. Markets are d i s t a n t . Outlets i n c l u d e a pulp m i l l at Hinton, handling m a t e r i a l from the pulpwood lease of Northwestern Pulp and Power Company and other pulp and plywood operations at Grande P r a i r i e and Edmonton. Sawtimber i s g e n e r a l l y shipped through Edmonton. This export m a t e r i a l has t o compete v.ith B r i t i s h Columbia and other lumber production areas. I n t r o d u c t i o n of s i l v i c u l t u r a l systems under l o c a l s u s t a i n e d - y i e l d management poses a r e a l problem w h i l e the enforcement of even simple s i l v i c u l t u r a l p r a c t i c e s on current timber s a l e s would meet w i t h some r e s i s t a n c e . A s t a r t recent-l y made has been the s c a r i f i c a t i o n of some ar e a s where one operator i s l i k e l y t o work f o r an extended p e r i o d of time. Thus a regeneration clause appears In most current timber s a l e s -- 15 -agreements. The f i n a n c i a l benefit to be gained by certain operations such as thinning has been i l l u s t r a t e d by Quaite (1950) and Stewart (1956). However, p r a c t i c a l investigations i n the f M d of logging economics are t o t a l l y lacking i n Northern Alberta. Consideration should be given to the techniques successfully and economically used elsewhere u n t i l l o c a l studies are i n i t i a t e d . Fogh (1957) has said on the subjeet:-"There are great advantages .... i n being able to treat each stand i n d i v i d u a l l y according to i t s requirements and, when f u l l u t i l i s a t i o n of a l l species growing on an area becomes a r e a l i t y , then the cost of such treatments can be borne by the logging operation by v i r t u e of the larger merchant-able volume per acre which i s available to the logger. It w i l l be the job of the s i l v i c u l t u r a l -i s t to prescribe the proper treatment f o r each type of stand." Thus i t i s argued that with increasing u t i l i s a t i o n standards, the cost of c u l t u r a l operations such as s c a r i f i c a t i o n , seeding, planting, thinning etc., may be met by the increased y i e l d per acre. A t y p i c a l unit In the region has been reserved f o r research by the Alberta Forest Service following establishment, i n co-operation v/ith the Forestry Branch, of a p i l o t management area at Whitecourt. A p o t e n t i a l sawtimber and pulpwood oper-ation i s envisaged and a marked improvement i n u t i l i s a t i o n within the area i s expected within the next decade. However, as integrated operations develop, i t i s l i k e l y that hardships w i l l develop f o r the smaller operator i n competing with modern equip-ment and more economic handling of the produce. A lack of concern f o r logging e f f i c i e n c y i n Alberta i s reflected i n d i s -interest of development of improved extraction and processing - 16 -equipment. The production p o t e n t i a l of the reg i o n i n terms of wood volume per acre i s q u i t e high but i t i s at present being approached by only one or two l a r g e operators. These few references may serve to keep t o the f o r e the many questions a r i s i n g i n management of the f o o t h i l l s f o r e s t . F u r t h e r work w i l l be r e f e r r e d to throughout the t e x t while an extensive b i b l i o g r a p h y i s presented. — 0 O 0 — - 17 -CHAPTER I DESCRIPTION Description of the B-19 F o o t h i l l s Region The B-19 region consists of the forested areas of the f o o t h i l l s of the Rocky Mountains i n western and northwestern Alberta and i s l a t e l y described i n the new revised forest c l a s s i f i c a t i o n by Rowe (195 9). About 40% of Northern Alberta occurs within the region. Rowe (1959) has recognised three f o o t h i l l s sections:-B-19a. Lower F o o t h i l l s Section This area adjoins the B-18 region and i s c l e a r l y a t r a n s i t i o n zone. It covers an extensive eastern area covering the low front ranges of the Rockies and dissected plateaux at an elevation of 3,000 to 4,000 feet i n the south and 2,500 feet i n the north. Outliers i n the Caribou H i l l s and Pelican Mount-ains i n the north and i n the Cyprus H i l l s i n the southeast of Alberta are included i n t h i s section. B-19b. Northern F o o t h i l l s Section This section commences just outside the north west Alberta border i n the Peace River d i s t r i c t i n B r i t i s h Columbia and extends to the upper Rocky Mountain Trench. Elevation ranges from 3,000 feet i n the i n t e r i o r mountain-valleys to 5,000 feet where the section adjoins the alpine tundra area. - 17a -F i g . I B-19. Foothills Region Of Alberta i i 1 9 ? ' / P e a c e >River Forest Sections Boreal Forest Region 17 A s p e n G r o v e 18a M i x e d w o o d F o r e s t 18b H a y R i v e r F o r e s t 19a F o o t h i l l s F o r e s t 19c F o o t h i l l s F o r e s t 2 2 b A t h a b a s c a S o u t h F o r e s t 2 3 a U p p e r M a c k e n z i e F o r e s t S A S u b a l p i n e F o r e s t R e g i o n M M o n t a n e F o r e s t R e g i o n 6 G r a s s l a n d S c a l e . - I i n c h = 1 0 0 m i l e s - 18 -B-19o. Upper F o o t h i l l s Section This section consists of a long narrow s t r i p with high wooded h i l l s and deep v a l l e y s p a r a l l e l to the front range of the Rocky Mountains between 4,000 and 5,000 f e e t . I t extends north and south from the aspen parkland of south Alber t a to Northern B r i t i s h Columbia where i t adjoins the Northern F o o t h i l l s Section. Thus the present work i s concerned mainly with the Lower and Upper F o o t h i l l s Sections which are represented i n Alberta. Horton (1957) has pointed out i n d i s t i n c t i o n that tamarack i s infrequent i n the high areas; also that alpine f i r i s more common and aspen le s s common i n the High F o o t h i l l s while balsam f i r i s to be found i n the Lower F o o t h i l l s . The sub-d i v i s i o n s are shown i n f i g . l . Topography The three sections t y p i f y f o o t h i l l s topography which varies from high h i l l s and deeply cut va l l e y s i n the west to the t y p i c a l r o l l i n g t e r r a i n of the B-1S Boreal region. Between the more deeply etched topography of the mountains and the r o l l i n g B-19a. section l i e s the Northern F o o t h i l l s Section with t y p i c a l r i v e r i n e f l a t s and terraces towards the east and more strongly dissected topography towards the west. As oan be seen from the accompanying map f i g . l . , the region includes the main drainage systems of the Peace and Athabasca r i v e r s which flow into the A r c t i c Ocean. These r i v e r systems have long provided t r a v e l routes i n t h i s area and s t i l l see some t r a f f i c i n the summer. - 19 -Throughout, numerous creeks and seasonal water courses are to he found. Geology "The Geology of Alberta S o i l s " ( A l l a n , 1943) describes how the f o o t h i l l s s o i l s o v erlie folded and broken rocks of sandstones, shales, carbonaceous shales and coal seams. Exten-sive g l a c i a l deposits occur throughout the area and t h i s gener-a l l y uniform parent material has resulted i n s o i l s modified mainly by topography. Two great ice sheets were active i n the formation of the s o i l s of the region. The Keewatin sheet extended from north-west of Hudson Bay reaching north-east Alberta, the northern C o r d i l l e r a n sheet advanced eastwards from the Rockies. Rivers have deposited f i n e materials while lakes of geological times have given s t i l l f i n e r deposits. Geologically, the B-19 region i s of Hesozoic sediment-ary o r i g i n but the forementioned g l a c i a t i o n of the C o r d i l l e r a n region has deposited g l a c i a l material over the entire area while more recent glacio f l u v i a l and a l l u v i a l action has resulted i n beds of outwash sands and gravels. Aeolian caps of f i n e mater-i a l are t y p i c a l of the ridges of the region while gravel benches occur along the r i v e r courses. Amid the r o l l i n g topo-graphy of the lower elevations, small ponded deposits are to be found. Climate The climate i s t y p i f i e d by hot dry summers and cold - 20 -dry winters. Growing season days,(over mean temperature of 32°F), range around 90 while p r e c i p i t a t i o n occurs p r i n c i p a l l y i n l a t e spring and early summer and amounts to about 19 inches yearly. In the following tables, average measurements f o r several l o c a l stations are presented, together with detailed measurements for the Edson station. TABLE 1. COMPARATIVE CLIMATIC DATA Station. Watson Lake Yukon. -Av.Ann. Av.Ann. A v. Ann. Av.Jah. Av. July. P r e c i p i t . Snow Mean Temp. Mean Temp. Mean Temp. Deg.F. Deg.F. Deg.F. Ins. 15.85 Ins. 67.4 29 -4 58 Fort Nelson B.C. 15.41 59.8 31 -5 62 Hudson Hope B.C. 15.85 58.9 34 60 Beaverlodge Alberta. 17.19 70.1 35 60 Ed son Alberta 18.64 57.3 36 60 Rocky Mt.House 1 Q .. Alberta. -LV.-o 55.7 34 58 Month. January February March A p r i l May June July August September October November December - 21 -TABLE 2 CLIMATIC DATA - B-19 REGION Mean Max. Temp< Deg. F. 20 28 36 51 62 69 75 73 62 51 36 21 EDSON STATION Mean Min. Temp. Av. Snow Deg..F. -2 2 11 24 33 40 44 42 35 25 14 1 Ins. 9.3 5.2 9.1 7.2 1.8 2.3 5.3 8.2 8.9 Av. Total P r e c i p i t . Ins. 0.95 9.53 0.95 0.99 1.52 3.15 3.21 2.97 1.63 0.85 0.99 0.90 Yearly 49 22 57.3 18.64 Annual avemges of extremes of temperature:-High of 91 F. Low of -42 UF. - 22 -These conditions generally r e s u l t i n a spring break-up i n l a t e April/May and f r e e z i n g again i n November. Early.summer r a i n f a l l i n late May or June and early July i s common and causes deterioration of access conditions at that time. Snowfall i s not heavy and gales are infrequent. It i s to be noted that highest r a i n f a l l i s accompanied by highest temperatures. There i s thus a moisture deficiency a l l year round according to Thornthwaites (1948) Precipitation/Evaporation r a t i o c l a s s i f i c a t -ion. S o i l s S o i l s are composed of r e l a t i v e l y f i n e materials excepting d i s t i n c t g r a v e l l y outwash areas and r i v e r benches. The s o i l s are derived from the following materials:-(After Alberta Research Council - A l l a n (1943) 1. G l a c i a l t i l l 2. Lacustro - t i l l 3 . Lacustrine deposited materials 4 . A l l u v i a l and aeolian deposits 5. Course outwash and shoreline material 6 . Residual and modified r e s i d u a l material S o i l types range from the dry sandy ridges through clay-loam to the peaty ser i e s . However, the s o i l s of the region are generally of the grey wooded "Braeburn" s e r i e s . - 2 3 -P l a t e 1 T y p i c a l S o i l P r o f i l e l i t t e r raw humus m i l d humus mixed m i n e r a l and o r g a n i c n a t t e r l e a c h e d - sandy s i l t e n r i c h e d c l a y loam p a r e n t heavy c l a y ones t h r o u g h o u t P l a t e 1 shows a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e p r o f i l e . Some l e a c h i n g e v i d e n c e can he found t h r o u g h o u t the r e g i o n , hut p o d s o l i s a t i o n nowhere r e a c h e s an advanced s t a g e . On w e l l d r a i n e d s i t e s , grey-wooded and p o d s o l i s e d g r e y wooded p r o f i l e s a r e f o u n d , w h i l e on m o d e r a t e l y w e l l - d r a i n e d t o p o o r l y d r a i n e d t o p o g r a p h i c p o s i t i o n s , d e p r e s s i o n p o d s o l s o i l p r o f i l e s and peats a r e fou n d . S o i l pH. i s novhere a t a l e v e l w h i c h would ten d t o i n h i b i t the growth o f the main s p e c i e s . V e g e t a t i o n E i g h t c o n i f e r o u s and t h r e e d e c i d u o u s t r e e s p e c i e s a r e found i n t h e r e g i o n : -- 24 -P r i n c i p a l Species White spruce - P i c e a glauca (Moench) Voss B l a c k spruce - P i c e a mariana (Mill.) B.S.P. Lodgepole pine - Pinus c o n t o r t a Dougl. var. l a t i f o l i a Engelmann Trembling aspen - Popuius tremuloides Michx. Secondary Species Balsam f i r - Abies balsamea (L.) M i l l A l p i n e f i r - Abies lasiocarpa (Hook) M i t t Engelmann spruce - P i c e a Engeimannii P a r r y Jack pine - Pinus Banksiana Lamb Tamarack ( l a r c h ) - L a r i x l a r i c i n a (Du Roi) K. Koch Balsam poplar - Popuius balsamifera L. White b i r c h - B e t u i a p a p y r i f e r a Marsh var . oommutata (Rege.) Plem. Engelmann spruce and A l p i n e f i r occur i n the t e n s i o n zone w i t h the Sub-Alpine and jack pipe i n the t e n s i o n zone w i t h the B o r e a l r e g i o n . The only comprehensive study of the v e g e t a t i o n of Northern A l b e r t a has been c a r r i e d out by Moss (1953 and 1955) who examined v e g e t a t i o n communities i n North Western A l b e r t a . Recognising the d i s t u r b e d h i s t o r y of the area, he c l a s s i f i e d the v e g e t a t i o n on the b a s i s of only the f o l l o w i n g s t a b l e a s s o c i a t i o n s : A. The white spruce a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h ground cover f a c i a t i o n s : -- 25 -Nature of F a c i a t i o n Occurrence 1. Needle cover f a c i a t i o n 2. Grass - herb f a c i a t i o n grass - Elymus innovatus A s t e r 3 . Shrub - herb f a c i a t i o n Viburnum spp. Rosa spp. Ribes spp. Gprnus spp. V i o l a spp. Linnaea b o r e a l i s 4. Feather moss f a c i a t i o n Hylocomium splendens  C a l l i e r g o n e l l a s c h r e b e r i burn steep slopes slopes f l a t s and depressions; moist g e n t l e slopes; moist B. The B l a c k Spruce a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h ground cover B l a c k spruce - f e a t h e r mcs s P i c e a mariana  Hylocomium splendens Bl a c k spruce - peat mcs s P i c e a mariana  Sphagnum spp. gentle slopes bottom slopes and depressions. G. The Po p l a r a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h 1. Balsam poplar c o n s o c i a t i o n Viburnum spp. 2. Aspen poplar c o n s o c i a t i o n A r c t o s t a p h y l o s u v a - u r s i  Shepherdia canadensis  Elymus innovatus bearberry b u f f a l o berry pine grass There i s a l s o : -1. 2. Tamarack v e g e t a t i o n w i t h . a Tamarack, Drepanocludus - Carex -B e t u l a bog. Balsam f i r v e g e t a t i o n w i t h a s s o c i a t e d D e v i l ' s Club -Oplopanax, h o r r i d u s r - 26 -3. Lodgepole pine vegetation with lodgepole pine and Vaccinium sp. - blueberry and cowberry. Some basis f o r Moss' se l e c t i o n of these p r i n c i p a l associations may be found i n the following comment from Tamms* "Northern Coniferous Forest S o i l s " - Page 212:-"The conclusion i s that the ground vegetation of these f o r e s t associations can be used with great ad-vantage as a suitable basis f o r c l a s s i f y i n g the s o i l s , although i t must not be forgotten i n t h i s connection that c l i m a t i c v a r i a t i o n s and f a i r l y considerable geolog-i c a l difference may a f f e c t the l i f e and production of the f o r e s t without making themselves apparent i n the ground vegetation." Further to these associations which can be e a s i l y recognised i n the f i e l d , i t might be added that Tamarack i s infrequent i n the high areas, only scattered trees occurring up to 4 ,500 f e e t . Horton (1957) too has noted changes i n these assoc-i a t i o n s with Increasing a l t i t u d e . Aspen i s more abundant i n the Low F o o t h i l l s section while Alpine f i r occurs i n increasing numbers towards the High F o o t h i l l s . Betula glandulosa i s less common In the high areas while a change i n the mosses from Sphagnum to Malum and Thuidium can be noted on the moister s i t e s with increasing elevation. These l a s t are the t y p i c a l observations which can be made on traversing the region. Horton (1957) has shown how the ground vegetation of the region may be used i n conjunction with his physiographic s i t e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n based on moisture regime. This approach - 2 7 -a f t e r H i l l s (1952) i s currently applied i n the Province and the writer has used a s i m p l i f i e d grouping i n the approach to s i t e recognition f o r t h i s work, v i z : -1. Moisture Regime 1 - 3 Dry Upland s i t e s - Upper slope Dry Grass Herb vegetation type -(a) Sheperdia canadensis (Oleaster family , buffaloberry) Symphoricarpus alba (Snowberry) Aetaea rubra (Baneberry) Elymus innovatus (Pine Grass) (b) Arnica sp. (Arnica) - Juniperus sp. (Juniper) 2. Moisture regiiae 4 - 5 Moist T r a n s i t i o n - Middle slope Moist herb - moss vegetation type with 1(a) above plus: Equisetum sp. (Horsetails) Garex polytrichoides (Sedges) Carex salutensis  Aulacomnium sp. Camptothecum sp. Mnium sp. Phaca americana (Milk vetch) 3. Moisture regime 6 - 9 Wet - Lowland and Depressions B i r c h - rush - moss vegetation type with Betula sp. (Birch) Juncus sp. (Rush) Drepanocladus sp. Aulac omnium"l?alustre  Camptothecum nitens Prom the preceding discussion of s o i l types, and veget-ation, i t might be gathered that s o i l f e r t i l i t y and permeability are f a i r l y uniform other than on t h e w t t e r peaty s i t e s , and that - 28 -i t i s to moisture regime controlled by physiographic s i t e and topographic p o s i t i o n that the s i l v i e u l t u r a l i s t p r i marily turns f o r s i t e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n bases. Vater i s reported by Cajander (1926) as saying, - "The productive capacity of the s o i l i s dependent on" i t s most unfavourable constituent." However, the major .factor a f f e c t i n g productivity of the grey wooded s o i l i n the region i s the supply of moisture at various l e v e l s of the several s o i l p r o f i l e horizons. This effect w i l l be further discussed i n the following discussion of s i t e . S i t e From the approaches to s i t e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n mentioned i n the preceding paragraphs of t h i s descriptive chapter, one basis f o r s i t e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s brought to the fore. That i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n based on physiographic conditions; e s p e c i a l l y those of slope p o s i t i o n and of moisture regime. This c l a s s i f -i c a t i o n i s further supported by use of the associated vegetation communities, and a general productivity r a t i n g of the species growing on those s i t e s . Using t h i s approach therefore, the site description f o r the region becomes the following:-The d r i e s t s i t e s of the moisture regime gradient are the Dry Upland s i t e s of moisture regimes 1 - 3 . These occur on the upper slopes with free drainage and on the dry sandy ridges. Typical i s the dry grass-herb communities with a stand of Lodgepole pine/aspen and black and white spruce with some balsam f i r as an understorey* These stands are very - 2 9 -productive w i t h regard to pi n e , and moderately productive w i t h regard t o white spruce. S o i l s supporting t h i s community are f a i r l y deep and stone-free w i t h optimum drainage and a w e l l developed p r o f i l e of sandy loam t o c l a y loam t i l l . The water t a b l e i s below the three f o o t l e v e l throughout the growing season. The T r a n s i t i o n s i t e s are moister. They occur on middle -lower slopes and on r a i s e d benches. These f r e s h s i t e s o f t e n r e c e i v e moisture from the upper slopes as w e l l as from p r e c i p i t -a t i o n . The s i t e s are g e n t l y s l o p i n g and w e l l - d r a i n e d . Moist-ure regime ranges from L - 5. S o i l s are deep and r e l a t i v e l y stone-free except on benches. Clay loam i s t y p i c a l w i t h g l e y i n g at about one f o o t l e v e l . The water t a b l e may be w i t h i n two f e e t of the surface at some time during the growing season. Vegetation i s of the moist shrub .- herb - moss type v/ith best growth of white and black spruce. A l l species are w e l l repres-ented. I t i s a type found i n long, r e l a t i v e l y narrow s t r i p s on the side slopes of the r o l l i n g topography. Though spruce / A l p i n e f i r i s the climax of the r e g i o n i t i s on the T r a n s i t i o n s i t e s that i t most o f t e n emerges to dominate the pine at m a t u r i t y under present stand c o n d i t i o n s . E a r l y i n the d e c l i n e of the pine, spruce emergentscan be noted and f i n a l l y , pure spruce r e s u l t s . Some A l p i n e f i r i s almost always present i n the.understorey, since t h i s i s the most t o l e r -ant species i n the mixture. - 30 -The wet s i t e s , moisture regimes, 6, 7 and 8 are extensive throughout the forest region. Moisture regime 6 i s t y p i c a l l y a spruce s i t e with pure black spruce occurring frequently. White spruce and a spen are well represented however. There i s a peat layer of about 12 - 20 inches, the p r o f i l e being generally saturated to within one foot of the surface at least f o r part of the growing season; t h i s peat over-l i e s s i l t loam or clay loam g l e i . Drainage i s impeded. Moisture regime 6 occurs on bog border s i t e s . Wetter s i t e s are 7 and 8 occuring at bottom slopes, impressions and muskeg areas. These are black spruce s i t e s with a l i t t l e balsam and tamarack. They are peaty with saturation to the surface. Vegetation i s of the b i r c h - rush - sedge type with sphagnum mosses. These s i t e s may be termed only poorly productive i n that they can support some stands and are extensive throughout the region. However, merchantability i s l i m i t i n g due to small sizes and non-market-able species. The preceding descriptions are perhaps an oversimpli-f i c a t i o n of the s i t e types of the region but they do serve to give some in d i c a t i o n of the range of conditions covered. Local modifications are the r e s u l t of such factors as aspect, elevation, s o i l o r i g i n , s o i l texture and the r e d i s t r i b u t i o n of species following f i r e and logging. Thus, f o r example, many of the ponded areas of g l a c i a l times and south facing t r a n s i t i o n slopes support excellent lodgepole pine and spruce stands, while i n other areas, black spruce has been able to withstand periodic f i r e s through i t s semi-serotinous cone c h a r a c t e r i s t i c . Thus the - 31 -species often outnumbers white spruce as an understorey to pine. Pine/aspen mixtures are i n no way l i m i t e d to Dry Upland s i t e s and occur following f i r e on a l l but the wettest conditions. Thus the climax conditions , r a r e l y exist f o r any length of time on any s i t e and u n t i l f i r e control standards are raised, climax conditions may be unattainable and s i l v i c u l t u r a l planning w i l l be. thwarted. Stand Dynamics The f i r e and legging h i s t o r y of t h i s region has had a marked eff e c t on s tand structure and species d i s t r i b u t i o n . Catastrophic f i r e s swept the f o o t h i l l s i n the l a t e 19th century and the even-age of many of the stands can be traced to that time of o r i g i n . Obvious too are the f a i l areas following recent f i r e and logging. The regeneration period following these disturb-ances has resulted i n an age range of about 30 years. Where spruce and f i r form an understorey, the range i s greatly increased. The succession of these f i r e originated stands has been mantioned b r i e f l y i n the previous paragraphs. A t y p i c a l representation of the picture i s that of Horton (1956) -"Ecology of Lodgepole pine" . Fig 3. Strip Shelterwood Cutting F i g . 4 V e r t i c a l L a y o u t 3 2 I 3 F i g . 5 H o r i z o n t a l L a y o u t F i g . 6 S t r i p a n d G r o u p S h e l t e r w o o d R o a d 0 Q> 0 0 3 r d C u t r e g e n . U R o a d 4 3 2 1 4 F i g . B-19. Foothills Region Of Alberta Forest Sections Boreal Forest Region 17 A s p e n G r o v e 18a M i x e d w o o d F o r e s t 18b H a y R i v e r F o r e s t 19a F o o t h i l l s F o r e s t 19c F o o t h i l l s F o r e s t 2 2 b A t h a b a s c a S o u t h F o r e s t 2 3 a U p p e r M a c k e n z i e F o r e s t S A S u b a l p i n e F o r e s t R e g i o n M M o n t a n e F o r e s t R e g i o n G G r a s s l a n d S c a l e : I i n c h = 1 0 0 m i l e s - 32 -F i g . 2 Lodgepole Pine-Aspen ( Mixed overwood ( Mixed s p r u c e / f i r D e c l i n e of overwood Replaced by under-s t o r e y 2 - Aged Ground F i r e M ixture No F i r e Dominant Pine-Aspen D e c l i n e of pine Few Spruce Replaced by spruce & f i r . The climax i s , then, unevenaged s p r u c e / f i r f o r e s t . f i r e s have maintained the para-climax pine/aspen. This l a t t e r e f f e c t i s more preva l e n t i n the Low F o o t h i l l s s e c t i o n where few stands have escaped f i r e f o r more than 100 years. I n the higher regions where succession has advanced f u r t h e r , s p r u c e / f i r under storey has developed through spruce emergents t o s p r u c e / f i r stands. Black spruce forms a l a r g e component of these stands due t o i t s a b i l i t y through s e r o t i n o u s cones t o s u r v i v e the con-d i t i o n s of p e r i o d i c f i r e . Thus i n some cases, t h i s c o n d i t i o n has. r e s u l t e d i n pure spruce stands and black-spruce i s found t o occur both i n pure stands and i n mixture throughout the e n t i r e s i t e range. "Normally", pine/aspen stands are more prevalent on the 1 - 3 moisture regime; white spruce/Alpine f i r on the 4 - 5 regime, and black spruce/balsam f i r on 6 - 9 Furt h e r f i r e s give pine/aspen again. In many cases,, repeated - 33 -regimes. Due t o t h e i r v a r i o u s a d a p t a b i l i t i e s the species tend t o 03 cur i n pure stands or clumps on p a r t i c u l a r s i t e types. This d i s t r i b u t i o n may be f u r t h e r due to f i r e occurrence r e l a t e d to the seed years of the separate s p e c i e s . Another stand c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of t h i s and other regions of A l b e r t a that has been noted by a l l workers i n the area i s the marked tendency towards heavy s t o c k i n g i n pure stands to advanced ages. This e f f e c t has been noted by Smithers (1956).:; C r o s s l e y (1956); B l y t h (1957 and Horton (1956) i n pine and Horton (1957) i n black spruce. Not only does t h i s e f f e c t reduce . height growth but i t a l s o markedly reduces the number of stems which may be clas s e d as merchantable. While the f i r e and l o g g i n g h i s t o r y of the province may have c o n t r i b u t e d much t o t h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c , f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n on a s i t e b a s i s i s warranted i n the v a r i o u s f o r e s t regions. As f a r d i s t a n t a s the Crowsnest F o r e s t , Kananaskis and fiocky Mountain House, stagnating stands of lodgepole pine have presented a problem; up to 15,000 stems per acre a t 30 - 40 years are common and the species under such c o n d i t i o n s can only be c l a s s e d as a weed. S e v e r a l methods have been attempted to r e l e a s e some stems. D i s c i n g i n a l t e r n a t e s t r i p s was c a r r i e d out by C r o s s l e y (1952) while chemical c o n t r o l \nas c a r r i e d out by Cro s s l e y (1956). The e f f e c t i n black spruce i s not q u i t e so dramatic, but the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i s q u i t e n o t i c e a b l e and was found t o make analysis of growth r e l a t i o n s h i p s d i f f i c u l t i n preparing y i e l d t a b l e s f o r both lodgepole pine, (Smithers, 1956) and black spruce, (Lees, I960). D i s t i n c t clumping e f f e c t s a r e found on s e v e r a l s i t e s supporting b l a c k spruce. A m o d i f i c -a t i o n t o these trends and those of the succession mentioned p r e v i o u s l y r e s u l t s from the v e g e t a t i v e r e p r o d u c t i o n of aspen and black spruce. P o p l a r suckering has enabled the species to dominate at l e a s t f o r i t s l i f e s p a n on many s i t e s to the e x c l u s -i o n of other s p e c i e s . Examination of a e r i a l photos of the r e g i o n r e v e a l s an alarming spread of t h i s gregarious s p e c i e s . Black spruce i s not a problem but many dense clumps do e x i s t o r i g i n a t i n g from v e g e t a t i v e r e p r o d u c t i o n alone. Height growth i n t r e e s of t h i s o r i g i n i s g e n e r a l l y poor and the t r e e s seldom reach merchantable s i z e s . R e c o n c i l i a t i o n of height index of the species to. physio-graphic s i t e has been so f a r p o s s i b l e f o r only black spruce -(Lees, I 9 6 0 ) . Dry Upland, Moist T r a n s i t i o n ana Wet s i t e s In t h i s r e g i o n have been found to produce 55 f e e t , 45 f e e t and 35 f e e t height growth at 100 years, r e s p e c t i v e l y . F u r t h e r work i s being c a r r i e d on by the F e d e r a l F o r e s t r y Branch. S i l v i c a l P r o f i l e White Spruce Occurs on the moist 4., 5 and 6 regimes throughout the re g i o n . The species i s mature a t 120 years and produces seed at about 5 - 7 year i n t e r v a l s from an age of 40 onward. I t has been shown t h a t spruce r e q u i r e s shade, moisture and no extremes of temperature, i n germination and e a r l y development. Abundant reg e n e r a t i o n has been noted on r o t t e n wood and mineral - 3 5 -s o i l seed-bed c o n d i t i o n s . More s u c c e s s f u l regeneration often occurs on those marginal spruce s i t e s where v e g e t a t i v e compet-i t i o n i s not so heavy. Overhead or c l o s e marginal seed supply i s e s s e n t i a l t o s u c c e s s f u l regeneration and i t i s d o u b t f u l i f a seed source more than f o u r chains d i s t a n t would be e f f e c t -i v e . Experiments i n p a r t i a l c u t t i n g w i t h s c a r i f i c a t i o n and i n s t r i p C l e a r c u t t i n g have proved s u c c e s s f u l w i t h t h i s species. White "spruce produces hig h q u a l i t y saw-timber throughout the r e g i o n and forms the major p r o p o r t i o n of the annual cut. Spruce seed-moth Laspeyresia youngana (Kearf.) and spruce coneworm D i o r y e t r i a a b i e t e l l a ( D. & S.) reduce crops, and b i r d s and small mammals are known to remove l a r g e q u a n t i t i e s of seed and some s e e d l i n g s . M o r t a l i t y of seedlings seems t o be around 50$ f o r the f i r s t two years, f a l l i n g o f f r a p i d l y t h e r e -a f t e r . B l a c k spruce Occurs on the wet s i t e s p r i m a r i l y but i s d i s t r i b u t e d over moist and dry s i t e s as an understorey and i n mixture w i t h pine and white spruce. The species i s mature at 120 years. Seed i s produced at i n t e r v a l s of one year i n f o u r a f t e r 20 years o l d , on the average. Reproduction i s by seeds from s e r o t i n o u s and non-serotinous cones, root s u c k e r i n g , l a y e r i n g and r o o t i n g of branch t i p s . Thus the species i s able t o take advantage of the f i r e c o n d i t i o n s i n the area. Seedlings need shade and - 36 -moisture but do not show such a need f o r mineral s o i l , reproduction being s a t i s f a c t o r y on wet sphagnum seedbeds. The species shows poorer growth than white spruce but i s suitable f o r high q u a l i t y pulpwood due to i t s physical pulping properties. Diameters of around four inches d.b.h. are common i n the dense stands while heights range up to 70 f e e t . D i s t r i b u t i o n i n clumps i s t y p i c a l , the species occurr-ing on d r i e r " i s l a n d s " i n peaty swamps and i n crescent shaped stands around swamp borders. The heavy stocking i s a ch a r a c t e r i s t i c on a l l s i t e s . Lodgepole pine This species occurs on the d r i e r s i l i c e o u s s i t e s n a t u r a l l y , or a f t e r f i r e on a va r i e t y of s i t e conditions. I t i s the pioneer dominating the area at present, due to the f i r e • history. Reproduction i s by the serotinous and non-serotin-ous cones. Seed years occur at two to three year i n t e r v a l s . Cones i n the serotinous state need high temperatures to break the r e s i n bond. This condition occurs i n the slash on the ground. Seedlings require abundant i n s o l a t i o n . S c a r i -f i c a t i o n of the seedbed has been successful i n obtaining adequate regeneration i n experiments of cle a r c u t t i n g with s c a r i f i c a t i o n and scattering of the slash. Stagnation of seedlings i s not as marked i n t h i s region es on the logged and bumed-over areas of the Sub-Alpine mgion but the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c has been - 37 -observed. Lodgepole pine i s mature at 100 - 120 years and produces valuable timber of useful siz e s . It forms a large part of the cut i n the region and has long supplied the railroads' of Canada with large quantities of material. i Seed and seedlings are destroyed by small mammals and seed los s i s quite heavy. As a r e s u l t mortality figures are f a i r l y high. Aspen Occurs on almost a l l s i t e s i n the region. A very gregarious species, i t i s better able to act as a pioneer,on, cut and burned-over areas than i s lodgepole pine. A p r o l i f i c seeder, i t s l i g h t tufted seeds are able to disperse over large areas. I t suckers f r e e l y and i s stimulated by f i r e and logging damage and by increased i n s o l a t i o n . Seed bearing begins at about 20 with.an optimum reached at 50 - 60 years. The trees are mature at 60 years. Seedlings require adequate moisture fo r germination and f o r the s u r v i v a l during the f i r s t two years. The seedlings are very intolerant and cannot survive heavy vegetative competition. Generally the tree i s short-lived a t t a i n i n g small diameters and heights of about 60 feet. Rotation age, i f the species were u t i l i s a b l e f o r plywood would be about 50-60 years a f t e r which decline i s f a i r l y rapid and the trees become rotten and cankered. Locally, sooty bark canker Cenangium singulare is the most - 38 -serious disease. It has been suggested that aspen i s a necessary s e r a i stage i n succession to s p r u c e - f i r climax,. however, the species i s now so widespread following legging and burning that t h i s value i s obscured and poisoning has been recommended to reduce i t s proportion. Balsam f i r . This species occurs on wet s i t e s i n small pure groups or i n mixture as an understorey. I t i s poorly represented i n the region since i t i s a climax species and i s suppressed currently by the conditions following f i r e . Shade and moisture are required f o r germination and seedlings often survive on nice s seedbeds due to a more p e r s i s t -ent root system than the other species. However, growth i n the region i s poor and the species i n i t s e l f i s unmerchant-able although a varying percentage of balsam f i r lumber i s tolerated i n both pulp and lumber consignments. Many seedlings of balsam f i r are to be found on most s i t e s i n the region but due to vegetative competition, lack of release,moisture conditions, and f i r e , these are seldom allowed to continue into the upper storeys. At present i t cannot produce sizes competitive with the other species. - 39 -U t i l i s a t i o n TABLE 3 Forest C l a s s i f i c a t i o n f o r A l b e r t a Vegetation B e l t Area Sq. M i l e s Mixedwood (B-I8a) F o o t h i l l s (B-19) Sub-alpine .(S.A. ) McKenzie Lowlands (B - 2 3 b ) Northern Coniferous. (B-22a) Semi p r a i r i e Aspen grove (B-17) 124,400 36,200 17,300 14,800 7,100 18,400 48.8 14 . 2 6.8 5.8 2.8 7.2 Grasslands T o t a l s 36,800 255,000 14.4 100.0 In summary, recent surveys c a r r i e d out by the A l b e r t a Research C o u n c i l i n d i c a t e t h a t 52% of Alberta's t o t a l area i s land s u i t e d t o growing f o r e s t crops. Current annual p r o d u c t i o n f rom t h i s area i s 4 0 0 , 0 0 0 , 0 0 0 board f e e t S c r i b n e r . This volume comes mainly from the Mixedwood, F o o t h i l l s - a n d Sub-Alpine regions. H i s t o r y Some of the f i r s t u t i l i s a t i o n c a r r i e d out i n the f o o t h i l l s f o r e s t region by white man must have been the hand lo g g i n g f o r c o n s t r u c t i o n purposes of the North West and Hudson Bay Company i n t h e i r expansion westwards. U t i l i s a t i o n d i d not increase t o any great extent i n those e a r l y times s i n c e settlement was l i m i t e d i n the n o r t h to the Peace R i v e r area and f u r t h e r south around Edmonton and the p r a i r i e s . This p e r i o d of h i s t o r y might be c a l l e d the p r e - r a i l r o a d era when only c o n s t r u c t i o n timbers and bark f o r canoes e t c . was used. The coming of the r a i l r o a d s , both l o c a l and t r a n s - c o n t i n e n t a l saw a great upsurge of production i n A l b e r t a . By 1912 A l b e r t a had 46 sawmills producing 47 m i l l i o n f e e t of which 90% was - 40 -spruce, amounting t o one per cent of the n a t i o n a l production. A l b e r t a however was supplying over one t h i r d of the n a t i o n ' s r a i l w a y - t i e production and had a l a r g e export trade i n these m a t e r i a l s . World War I caused a d e c l i n e but by the mid 1920's, the number of m i l l s rose again to produce three per cent of the n a t i o n a l output. During the 1930's s m a l l m i l l production increased w h i l e World War I I caused a 94 m i l l i o n board f e e t expansion. W i t h i n the P r o v i n c e , the annual cut has doubled since 1939 t o over 400 m i l l i o n board f e e t ( 1 9 5 6 ) . P r i o r t o 1 9 3 9 , the bulk of t h i s cut came from the h i g h f o o t -h i l l s and sub-alpine regions snd s u p p l i e d a l a r g e mining i n d u s t r y and the r a i l r o a d . The cut c o n s i s t e d of two-thirds pine and the remainder spruce. Now more than h a l f the cut comes from n o r t h and west of Edmonton, and c o n s i s t s of two-thirds spruce. These are the two major species u t i l i s e d p r e s e n t l y though balsam f i r and black spruce are o f t e n i n c l u d e d i n consignments. Demands have increased s t e a d i l y and the P r o v i n c i a l Forest S e r v i c e has e s t a b l i s h e d management u n i t s to c o n t r o l the r emoval of the r e -source. Recently f i r e c o n t r o l o r g a n i s a t i o n has been set-up and aeroplanes are used i n c r e a s i n g l y both i n reconnaisance and i n f i r e e x t i n c t i o n . A t y p i c a l year however, 1 9 5 6 , showed a l o s s of 2 0 1 , 2 9 4 acres. Annual f i r e l o s s i s around 0 . 8 6 % . Recent improvements i n suppression i n c l u d e water bombing and a e r i a l a p p l i c a t i o n of borate or d r i l l i n g mud f o r f i r e b r e a k s , and i t i s a n t i c i p a t e d t h ^ t a more acceptable l e v e l - 41 -of 0 . 1 or 0 . 2 % burn w i l l be a t t a i n e d . The current rate of burn makes i n t e n s i v e management d i f f i c u l t i n many region s . Logging i n the past consisted of economic s e l e c t i o n on Crown timber s a l e s . In recent years t h i s has changed t o a f i x e d diameter l i m i t c u t t i n g i n many areas w i t h t o t a l c l e a r -c u t t i n g i n a few areas and on the large Northwestern Pulp and Power Company's lease at Hinton. With an i n c r e a s i n g demand f o r spruce and the d e p l e t i o n by f i r e , there i s a v i t a l need f o r good f o r e s t management. The Province has d i v i d e d most of the- unreserved land i n t o sustained y i e l d management u n i t s . As mentioned i n the problem statement, regeneration f o l l o w i n g f i r e and current c u t t i n g leaves much t o be d e s i r e d and a F e d e r a l F o r e s t r y Branch survey c a r r i e d out i n 1951 by Candy showed u n s a t i s f a c t o r y s t o c k i n g of commercial species i n the r e g i o n . Barnes, ( 1 9 3 7 ) ; DeGraee (1950) and Pogue ( 1 9 4 6 ) , d i s c u s s i n g c u t t i n g p r a c t i c e s i n s i m i l a r f o r e s t types have agreed th a t "heavy l o g g i n g " w i l l r e s u l t i n postponement of the next cut by 120 years or more. Quaite ( 1 9 5 D has shown that economic s e l e c t i o n , c l e a r c u t t i n g as p r a c t i s e d i n the past and diameter l i m i t c u t t i n g do not leave stocked stands nor do they favour reproduction of spruce. The A l b e r t a Forest S e r v i c e i s , however, aware of the problem and a regeneration clause- i n c l u d i n g s c a r i f i c a t i o n - 42 -requirements has been written into many timber sales agreements f o r I 9 6 0 . P i l o t scale t r i a l s of regeneration, barest cutting and stand improvement w i l l soon be set-up to obtain information on some of the problems of u t i l i s a t i o n and of restocking. Currently small s i z e s , below about 8 inches, of pine and white spruce, black .spruce, balsam f i r , and almost a l l the aspen, i s unmerchantable. There i s a laek of a w e l l developed integrated wood using industry i n the region. The current s i t u a t i o n finds many marginal operations with inadequate c a p i t a l . Winter logging, with CATs, i n tree lengths i s the general rule and there has been l i t t l e development of a l t e r n a t i v e methods. Large operators are few. Haulage distances are long since the large conversion plants are found widely separated at Grande P r a i r i e (saw-timber and plywood), Hinton (pulpwood and saw-timber) and Edmonton (saw-timber and plywood)• A f i r s t step towards increased u t i l i s a t i o n would be development of pulp m i l l s thus providing a market f o r aspen, black spruce and small sizes of pine and white spruce. Compet-i t i o n f o r markets Is intense due to the large industries to east and west i n Ontario and B r i t i s h Columbia. However, an increase i n the number of integrated con-version plants i s planned f o r the region within the near future. These w i l l include pulpwood, plywood and p a r t i c l e board m i l l s . — 0 O 0 — - 43 -CHAPTER I I DISCUSSION AND REVIEW OF SILVICULTURAL SYSTEMS In the following discussion, s i l v i c u l t u r a l systems w i l l he treated separately, b r i e f l y o u t l i n i n g t h e i r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s with reference to possible a p p l i c a t i o n i n the region. These are: 1. Clearcutting Systems (a) With natural regeneration: In s t r i p s , In patches, In blocks (b) With a r t i f i c i a l regeneration 2. Shelterwood or Successive Regeneration F e l l i n g s (a) In uniform blocks (b) In groups (c) I r r e g u l a r l y (d) In s t r i p s (e) In groups within s t r i p s 3. Selection Systems (a) Group selection (b) Single stem s e l e c t i o n Clearcutting Systems With Natural Regeneration zones. i c a l l y This i s a widely applied system i n Northern temperate It has proved successful i n harvesting material econom-tn most cases where applied to suitable species, - 44 -regeneration has followed. It has been recognised as a c l a s s i c a l system for centuries. By i t s nature the system i s primarily applicable to intolerant pioneer species whose t y p i c a l l i g h t , wind-carried seed i s able to colonise extensive cut-areas. Pine regions have been found to be suitable f o r c l e a r c u t t i n g operation throughout the world. Many intolerant hardwood species also are managed under t h i s system and have been regenerated success-f u l l y . Seed supply comes from the marginal stands and thus the s i z e of the area which may be regenerated i s limit ed to the extent of the seed dispersal of the species involved. In Alberta, the system has been successfully applied i n the f o o t h i l l s and elsewhere where there was a s u f f i c i e n t seed source and where seedbed conditions have been improved by s c a r i f i c -ation. This ground preparation, exposing mineral s o i l has been shown to be almost e s s e n t i a l i n the region. However, i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that s i m i l a r preparation has been necessary i n many areas throughout the history of the system. Ground preparation i s p a r t i c u l a r l y w ell developed i n Europe and i n Russia (E.A.O. 1955). That the system i s applicable to lodgepole pine manage-ment has been accepted by several workers, yet i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that E.L. Mowat (1949) advocated selection working i n lodgepole pine i n the P a c i f i c Northwest. He suggested thinnings - 45 -from above and removal of crop trees by small groups or single stems, due to the i r r e g u l a r stand structure and a necessity to control regeneration density. However, most workers i n the p a r t i c u l a r regions i n Alberta (DeGrace, 1950; Grossley (1956) B l y t h (1957) etc.) have recognised the a p p l i c a b i l i t y of the cle a r c u t t i n g system i n one or other of i t s various forms. Several p a r t i c u l a r regional conditions become quite important i n considering the system. The more complete u t i l i s -ation of a pulpwood operation would be the most suitable. A sawlog operation provides d i f f i c u l t i e s i n ground preparation i n the number of standing tees l e f t a f t e r logging. However, these could be f e l l e d and lopped, or knocked over i n brush-cl e a r i n g . What few are f i n a l l y l e f t may perhaps add to the seed supply. The s i z e of the cut-area becomes of primary import-ance when various species are involved. Aspen, f o r instance, could colonise even the largest cut-areas, while spruce regen-eration would be severely l i m i t e d . The mixture of species i n the next rotation i s therefore controlled to some extent by the cut layout and distance to seed source. On some clear-cut areas, slow to regenerate to pine and spruce, aspen has given some i n d i c a t i o n of i t s tend!n g completely to take over and i t appeals that only a small percentage of the species i n the stand i s s u f f i c i e n t to provide abundant regeneration from .suckers following cutt ing. The various cut layouts w i l l now be described i n the - 1+6 -l i g h t of the past remarks. S t r i p C l e a r c u t C l e a r c u t t i n g i n narrow s t r i p s r e s u l t s i n a w e l l organised economical layout and i s w e l l s u i t e d t o pine and spruce. The method has been s u c c e s s f u l l y a p p l i e d i n the r e g i o n on an o p e r a t i o n a l b a s i s , although regeneration success i s , as y e t , u n c e r t a i n . Ground p r e p a r a t i o n i s necessary. S t r i p s of up t o 10 chains wide have been used. A w e l l organized s k i d t r a i l l ayout i s necessary - ( F r o n t i s p i e c e ) Patch C l e a r c u t Patch c l e a r c u t t i n g has developed from the d i s t r i b u t i o n of m a t u r i t y c l a s s e s and from the need f o r a marginal seed source. Patch s i z e s of up t o 10 acres are common and t h i s c u t t i n g method has found a p p l i c a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia and A l b e r t a on the slopes 1 of the Rockies. Examples on the west slopes have bee n subject t o wind cdamage and the technique has earned some d i s f a v o u r on t h i s account alone. In Alberta.', windLdamage has been very l i g h t and wind i s not a problem. Although t h i s c u t t i n g layout i s not too e f f i c i e n t due to the s m a l l s i z e s of patches i t may o f t e n be the only one f e a s i b l e under present stand c o n d i t i o n s , f o r instance where mature groups are s c a t t e r e d . Obviously a more organised layout i s d e s i r a b l e but i t i s a n t i c i p a t e d that there w i l l be many instances where patch operation i s the most a p p l i c a b l e . B l o c k c l e a r c u t B l o c k c l e a r c u t t i n g , since the cut-areas are l a r g e and the - 47 -material usually more homogeneous, i s a more economical pros-pect both with regard to logging and to carrying out further c u l t u r a l operations. However, the system c e r t a i n l y encourages the pioneer aspen. Since the r e l a t i v e proportion of the species i s an important consideration f o r the future, block s i z e i s a l i m i t i n g f a c t o r . Both pine and spruce can be regenerated under a c l e a r -cutting system with suitable ground preparation. The r e s u l t i n g stand i s e s s e n t i a l l y even-aged. The method could well be adapted to the production, of pulpwood i n spruce and saw-timber and pulp-wood i n pine. A market f o r the hardwood material i s eagerly awaited. Local conditions w i l l determine the necessity f o r control of vegetation competition. An extended regeneration period would be detrimental i n t h i s respect and i s an important consideration i n deciding to seed or plant. In summary, the c l e a r c u t t i n g systems provide a f a i r l y straightforward logging proposition with concentration of operations. Provided the stands are close to even-age and vigorous, a high degree of merchantability i s to be expected, with a r e s u l t i n g improvement i n ground condition and a decrease i n preparation costs. However, i t should be noted that the intolerant pioneer species are undoubtedly favoured and with succeeding rotations, the trend to climax i s hindered and the proportion of tolerant species dwindles. i - 48 -With. A r t i f i c i a l Regeneration In the f o o t h i l l s region, the choice of a r t i f i c i a l regeneration i s l a r g e l y an economic one although there are also s i l v i c u l t u r a l advantages to the method. Provided that the marginal seed supply i s present and that ground preparation i s carri e d out, natural regeneration i s almost assured. However, many operators i n other parts of Canada and the world consider a regeneration period of more than three years a serious f i n a n -c i a l l o s s * since they amortize the three years'lack of product-i v i t y . The cost of planting or seeding might be j u s t i f i e d then on a f i n a n c i a l basis. However, there ans.many examples of f a i l -ure due to f a u l t y plant-handling, or badly timed planting. With seeding there are many examples of t o t a l loss through-de-predation of the l o c a l avi-fauna and rodents. However, both i n s t r i p and patch or block c l e a r c u t t i n g i n the region, where some natural regeneration takes place, the i n t e n s i t y of the a r t i f i c a l operation may not need to be hig h. An enrichment operation might be s a t i s f a c t o r y e i t h e r immediately a f t e r f e l l i n g or a f t e r an acceptable regeneration period. The decision to plant or seed i s a major one and should c e r t a i n l y not be undertaken u n t i l techniques have been l o c a l l y developed which wJLl ensure that regeneration success j u s t i f i e s the added expense. Additi o n a l tending of planted stock such as clean-ings may be necessary i n certain areas. There are many s i t e s where planting s i l v i c u l t u r a l l y and economically i s out of the quest-ion due to adverse s o i l and moisture conditions. - 49 -Provided that s i t e selection f o r planting can be sensibly carried out and techniques i n handling, up to the time of regeneration, are sound the choice of a r t i f i c i a l regen-eration l i e s i n the hands of the economist. Where natural regeneration i s slow or i s a f a i l u r e or i s to be improved g e n e t i c a l l y , the replacement by a r t i f i c i a l regeneration i s s i l v i c u l t u r a l l y desirable. It i s only by some form of t h i s system that the large burned and cut-over f a i l areas could ever be put under merchantable species within a reason-able period of time. The f i n a n c i a l problem i s as important as the s i l v i c u l t u r a l one. In summary, the main advantages of the system are; the rapid restocking and thus the short regeneration period; regeneration to the desired species and eventually improved tree forms due to the more even stem d i s t r i b u t i o n ; the even-age of the r e s u l t i n g stand and thus ease of handling. Dis-advantages are; i n i t i a l cost, possible need f o r further tend-ing, chance of large scale loss of plants or seeds a f t e r the operation. ;'The c l e a r c u t t i n g systems are being applied on a commercial scale : i n the region today. They are f i n a n c i a l l y sound, -but as'yet^regenerationcannot be assured either by natural or a r t i f i c i a l methods. Indications are however that with the additional c u l t u r a l practices mentioned, regeneration w i l l be successful. Shelterwood Systems Natural Regeneration The s a l i e n t features of the uniform shelterwood system w i l l serve to i l l u s t r a t e the p r i n c i p l e s of shelterwood working. The further modifications to the system w i l l then he described. In Uniform Blocks In the uniform shelterwood system the stand i s treated by the application of successive regeneration cuttings at the end of a f i x e d r o t a t i o n , i n which the crop i s p a r t i a l l y removed leaving a r e s i d u a l stand. The r e s i d u a l stand serves several functions: It i s the seed source f o r the next generation, i t provides shelter f o r the germinating and developing seedlings, i t furnishes a further crop of timber at the successive regeneration cuttings and a t the f i n a l cutting. Thus there i s a f i x e d regeneration period. The key of the system then, i s the r e s i d u a l stand and as such i t must take the form of an overhead seed supply composed of well-spaced, gen e t i c a l l y desirable individuals which willrespond to the release of cutting and put on further increment. It provides the shade conditions, the moisture and temperature conditions and the r e l a t i v e freedom from excessive vegetation competition necess-ary i n the regeneration of the tolerant species involved. Thus the shelterwood system i s applicable to the spruce regions. In the B-19 region, i t has been shown how spruce occurs - 51 -pure i n whole s t a n d s and i n groups i n mixed s t a n d s . I t a l s o o c c u r s i n mixed s t a n d s i n stemwise m i x t u r e and a s s o c i a t e d v / i t h p i n e , aspen, a l p i n e and balsam f i r m i x t u r e s . Under t h e u n i f o r m system, i n pure spruce s t a n d s , a 60% r e m o v a l by volume a t the f i r s t c u t has been shown t o r e s u l t i n a s a t i s f a c t o r y r e s i d u a l s t a n d ( Q u a i t e , 1956). However, a s c a r i f i c a t i o n o p e r a t i o n f o l l o w i n g t h e r e g e n e r a t i o n cut has a.lso been siDwn t o improve ground c o n d i t i o n s f o r g e r m i n a t i o n and s u r v i v a l . The system i s a p p l i c a b l e t o mixed s t a n d s a s w e l l as t o pure s t a n d s . I n m i x t u r e , t h e s e v e r i t y o f the r e g e n e r a t i o n c u t may be used t o c o n t r o l t h e p r o p o r t i o n of t h e v a r i o u s s p e c i e s i n the f u t u r e s t a n d . Thus t h e v e r y t o l e r a n t s p e c i e s w i l l r e g e n e r a t e i n t he e a r l y openings i n t h e canopy. A f u r t h e r opening a l l o w s r e g e n e r a t i o n o f the l e s s t o l e r a n t s p e c i e s w h i l e t h e i n t o l e r a n t s p e c i e s w i l l n o t r e g e n e r a t e . s u c c e s s f u l l y u n t i l o n l y a l i g h t r e s i d u a l s t a n d , o r none at a l l , r e m a i n s . Such "canopy c o n t r o l " has been p r a c t i s e d f o r many, hundreds of y e a r s i n f o r e s t management i n Europe and t h e " f i n e s s e " a t t a i n a b l e by some o f the f o r e s t o f f i c e r s t h e r e i s re m a r k a b l e . B o t h l e a f t r e e s and c o n i f e r s a r e commonly h a n d l e d under t h e system. Examples of f u r t h e r c u l t u r a l a i d s t o r e g e n e r a t i o n such as s c a r i f i c a t i o n , p l o u g h i n g and p o i s o n i n g of unwanted s p e c i e s are many. Extreme examples might be: th e use of u n r i n g e d p i g s t o p r e p a r e t h e ground f o r r e g e n e r a t i o n of hardwoods i n Europ e ; and, f o l l o w i n g t h e r e m o v a l of the f i r s t - 52 -cut, horse-drawn gnarled logs often serve as s c a r i f i c a t i o n equipment. Examples of as many a s a four or five-cut shelter-wood are to be i n the l i t e r a t u r e on the subject, (Troup-Jones, 1955, and Reed, 1954), but experience i n Canada i s limited to, at most, a three-cut shelterwood. Conditions necessary f o r e f f e c t i v e use of shelterwood are quite unattainable under diameter-limit cutting methods. Tree marking i s necessary to provide a r e s i d u a l stand of the nature described above. Otherwise, the r e s i d u a l stand consists merely of trees too small to log at the f i r s t cut or too d i s -eased or malformed to be acceptable, and these form a poor bank from which to draw the new generation. As mentioned previously, the r e s i d u a l stand should put-on increment. As economic growth ceases the time for f i n a l cutting approaches and depending on the progress of increment and regeneration, the overwood isremoved at a suitable time. The time from the f i r s t regeneration cut to the f i n a l cut i s the regeneration period and an e s s e n t i a l l y even-aged stand r e s u l t s . The i r r e g u l a r , group, s t r i p , and s t r i p , and group systems have been developed to suit a v a r i e t y of growing stock d i s t r i b -utions, species d i s t r i b u t i o n s and u t i l i s a t i o n conditions. Group Shelterwood In t h i s system, the cutting progresses i n two or three cycles by i r r e g u l a r l y spaced groups u n t i l the whole area i s - 53 -f i l l e d - i n w i t h newly r e g e n e r a t e d s t a n d s . ' I t i s a system o f the uneven-aged group f o r e s t and as such has l i t t l e p l a c e i n our f i r e o r i g i n s t a n d s . The b e n e f i t s a r e s i m i l a r t o those of the o t h e r s h e l t e r w o o d systems i n t h a t c o n d i t i o n s f o r g e r m i n a t i o n and s u r v i v a l of s e e d l i n g s a r e improved. However, s i n c e t h e st a n d s i n t h e r e g i o n a r e not o f t e n uneven-aged, at l e a s t c h r o n o l o g i c a l l y , a c o n s i d e r a b l e p e r i o d of c o n v e r s i o n would be, r e q u i r e d t o put the a r e a under the system. By compa r i s o n , t h e s t r i p s h e l t e r w o o d system i s s u i t e d t o r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e b l o c k s of one-aged s t a n d s . U t i l i s a t i o n under any group system i s a problem s i n c e damage t o the r e s i d u a l s t a n d i s i n e v i t a b l e and s i n c e . t h e r e . i s n o . o r d e r l y , and t h u s e c o n o m i c a l l a y o u t of e x t r a c t i o n r o u t e s . I r r e g u l a r S h e l t e r w o o d T h i s system embodies an extended r e g e n e r a t i o n p e r i o d w i t h r e g e n e r a t i o n a r e a s b e i n g r e - a l l o t t e d a t r e g u l a r i n t e r v a l s . R e g e n e r a t i o n i s encouraged i n i n c r e a s i n g l y w i d e n i n g and opening gaps. Many c u t s a r e g e n e r a l l y made and t h e system tends t o resemble group s e l e c t i o n except t h a t t h e r e i s a d i s t i n c t , i f extended r e g e n e r a t i o n p e r i o d and a f i x e d r o t a t i o n . I n Canada t h e system f i n d s use o n l y under t h e i n f l u e n c e of c l a s s e s of m e r c h a n t a b i l i t y . Where the s t a n d s a r e r e l a t i v e l y uneven-aged and where o n l y the mature g r o u p s a r e m e r c h a n t a b l e , t h i s system a c t u a l l y i s p r a c t i s e d t o d a y i n Canada. F o r example, i n a d i a m e t e r l i m i t c u t , groups of t r e e s of s m a l l s i z e s a r e l e f t u ntouched on many c u r r e n t t i m b e r s a l e s . ' A t the second c u t , some o f t h e s e may be me r c h a n t a b l e due t o i n t e r i m growth and - 54 -o f t e n clean-up l o g g i n g , f o r i n s t a n c e , by horses, i s c a r r i e d out f i n a l l y t o remove a few more merchantable stems. However, the important p r i n c i p l e s of planned s i l v i c u l t u r e and management are l o s t here and the example i s merely one of chance and circumstance. Nevertheless the a p p l i c a t i o n of the system which has been developed, a t the outset, f r o m u t i l i s a t i o n needs and from the e f f e c t s of stand s t r u c t u r e , i s not u n p r a c t i c a l . I n many areas i n Canada the same operator i s c u t t i n g on one area f o r the t h i r d or f o u r t h time as u t i l i s a t i o n standards change and growth of residual stems takes place . The disadvantages of any i r r e g u l a r system are s e v e r a l however. .A, l a r g e area i s under the process of regeneration at one.time. The c u t t i n g i s d i s t r i b u t e d i r r e g u l a r l y i n time and space and an e f f i c i e n t l o g g i n g layout i s a problem. Damage t o r e s i d u a l stems and t o advance growth and re g e n e r a t i o n i s i n e v i t a b l e . There i s a l s o no guarantee that the r e s i d u a l groups w i l l ever become merchantable. F u r t h e r , the system is adapted almost e x c l u s i v e l y t o t o l e r a n t species and c e r t a i n l y favours them i n the f u t u r e r o t a t i o n . S t r i p Shelterwood S e v e r a l v a r i a t i o n s of the s t r i p shelterwood may be a p p l i e d . Cuts may progress i n a l t e r n a t e s t r i p s at one time, or p r o g r e s s i v e l y across the area i n a v a r i e t y of p a t t e r n s . The system developed from a need f o r p r o t e c t i o n f r o m wind and f o r - 55 -an orderly extraction layout. The following diagram w i l l i l l u s -trate the arrangement of the regeneration and f i n a l cuts. •Pifl 3- Strip Shelterwood Culting 3 2 1 3 * U r t C u t Z n d C u t U n c u t However, since the main attribute of the system l i e s i n the organised cut layout, i t w i l l be w e l l to discuss t h i s further. Often Canadian foresters have tended to c a l l what v/as, i n e f f e c t , shelterwood working;a "s e l e c t i v e cutting". However,as i s pointed out by Place ( 1 9 5 3 ) the term means nothing and the s h e l t e r -wood system as such i s r a r e l y recognised. It has many attr i b u t e s and the d i f f i c u l t i e s i m p l i c i t i n true selection working are not involved. On l e v e l ground, the f e l l i n g pattern presents no prob-lems and stems are extracted, following the f i r s t cut, through the uncut stands; Thus the new regeneration i s protected fromdamage. On h i l l y ground, the s t r i p s may be aligned horizont-a l l y or v e r t i c a l l y , or i n c l i n e d s l i g h t l y where wind i s a problem. Age class d i s t r i b u t i o n can also dictate s t r i p layout. In the horizontal arrangement, cutting starts at the top of the slope and timber i s extracted through the stands receiving t h e i r - 56 -f i r s t cut. In a v e r t i c a l arrangement, the timber i s extracted sideways to the e a r l i e r cut s t r i p arid then down or up to the haul road. Fig. 4 Vertical Layout Rood Road Fig. 5 Horizontal Layout U Road 2nd Cut Road Regen. It i s only by such a systematic layout that destruction of seedlings by the heavy equipment can generally be avoided. This i s l e s s of a problem i n Alberta where winter legging i s - 57 -u s u a l and thus snow p r o t e c t s regeneration. In the f u t u r e , greater mechanisation i n f o r e s t r y operations i s envisaged and r e g u l a r i t y of la y o u t now w i l l a i d that end. S t r i p and Group System In t h i s system, the groups are organised i n s t r i p s i n which operations are c a r r i e d out p r o g r e s s i v e l y w i t h i n the s t r i p s and proceed from s t r i p t o s t r i p by m a t u r i t y c l a s s e s . The method i s s u i t a b l e where merchantable timber w i t h i n age cl a s s e s r e s u l t s i n a patchy dis t r i b u t i o n of usable s i z e s . By t h i s method, m a t u r i t y c l a s s e s would be i n c l u d e d by the s t r i p s and the^merchantable timber removed group-wise. F i g - 6 S t r i p a n d G r o u p S h e l t e r w o o d R o a d 0 Q> e> 0 0 3 r d C u t r e g e n . R o a d In the above diagram the regeneration p e r i o d i s longer since there are three cuts t o complete the group-wise removal of the timber. The c u t t i n g c y c l e could be extended by i n c r e a s i n g - 58 -the number of s t r i p s t o be regenerated i n the one a r e a . This would, however, increase the regeneration p e r i o d f o r the area. Under the c o n d i t i o n s of u t i l i s a t i o n and mechanisation current i n Canadian f o r e s t r y , i r r e g u l a r i t y i s t o be avoided since i t r e q u i r e s more c a r e f u l c o n t r o l Often t h i s a/pproach has r e s u l t e d i n d i f f i c u l t i e s , s i n c e i n nature, r e g u l a r d i s t r i b u t i o n i s uncommon. However, the n a t u r a l t r e n d i n the B-19 r e g i o n has been towards r e g u l a r i t y and to maintain t h a t c o n d i t i o n should not present many problems. Thus some form of shelterwood w i l l f i n d a p p l i c a t i o n . Though the i r r e g u l a r i t y of the system above leads t o d i f f i c u l t i e s i n u t i l i s a t i o n , there are many stands where age c l a s s d i s t r i b u t i o n i s n o t i c e a b l y group-wise and the system should c e r t a i n l y be given some c o n s i d e r a t i o n . A r t i f i c i a l Regeneration A r t i f i c i a l r e g e n e r a t i o n under a shelterwood i s w i d e l y p r a c t i s e d i n Europe where a more t o l e r a n t species i s t o form the f i n a l crop. Thus "underplanting" i s common and i s g e n e r a l l y used f o r improvement of species composition and t o hasten regeneration. The c o n s i d e r a t i o n s of finance and d e s i r a b i l i t y of shorten-i n g the regeneration p e r i o d described under the c l e a r c u t t i n g sys-tem apply e q u a l l y w e l l i n t h i s case. S u f f i c e i t t o say that the d e c i s i o n t o use a r t i f i c i a l r egeneration i s a. major one and can only be made under the terms of the l o c a l i t y i n question. S e l e c t i o n Systems The s e l e c t i o n system of s i l v i c u l t u r e has r e c e i v e d a - 59 -great deal of comment i n North America over the past 25 years and the question of i t s a p p l i c a b i l i t y i s a very controversial one. Many would advocate i t s widespread application under pure and mixedwood conditions and workers throughout Canada have tended to hold i t f o r t h as an answer to s i l v i c u l t u r a l and management problems.. The system has received s i m i l a r , i f not more pointed, comment and c r i t i c i s m i n Europe since the f i f t e e n t h century and has been described i n countless t r e a t i s e s ranging from medieval Royal decrees to current forest service pamphlets. However, i t i s as well to be clear on just what the system i s . "Selection system" and "s e l e c t i v e cutting" are often confused as has been amply pointed out by Place (1953)* Despite the l o c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the terms, (ranging from "diameter l i m i t cuts" to "high grading") the sa l i e n t features of the system remain unchanged. These are:-1. There, i s no s tand rotation. 2. The growing-stock i s equally d i s t r i b u t e d over the forest area. 3. The stands are all-aged and age and size classes are mixed together i n every part of the stand. 4. There are no long interruptions i n the regeneration period. 5. Cutting and regeneration a re not limi t e d to any one part of the area, but are d i s t r i b u t e d over the area; the cutting consists of simultaneous regen-eration, tending, developing and exploiting of the forest at regular i n t e r v a l s , furnishing a sustained - 60 -y i e l d of produce from i n d i v i d u a l stands. The system i s exceedingly d i f f i c u l t to apply due to the need for c a r e f u l handling of age class d i s t r i b u t i o n and f o r the tending which i s necessary at regular short i n t e r v a l s . The all-aged condition i s maintained. Canopy control i s at i t s most delicate under the selection system. "Selective c u t t i n g " or removal of selected merchantable groups or single stems i s currently being ca r r i e d out but the operation can often be- best c l a s s i f i e d as crude i r e g u l a r shelter-wood' though no organisation of cutting i s implied i n the term. " S e l e c t i o n system" i s a technique adopted to perpetu-ation of the climax forest stage and i s applicable to the most tolerant of our species. DeGrace (1950) working on "Management of Spruce on the East Slopes of the Canadian Rockies" advocated a uniform selection systemtaking the form of volume control cutting with the cut d i s t r i b u t e d over a l l the s i z e classes. However, he doesn't mention a cutting cycle and i t might be imagined that the system would not provide an a t t r a c t i v e logging proposition. However, i t should be stated that there i s a value i n the system f o r amenity purposes and f o r c r i t i c a l areas i n water-shed management since the f o r e s t cover i s constantly maintained. As such, i t i s extremely important i n Canada. However, f o r competitively productive forest areas the system requires an i n t e n s i t y of control and handling which rules i t out i n our - 61 -c o n s i d e r a t i o n of a p p l i c a b i l i t y i n the B-19 r e g i o n . I n g e n e r a l , the d i s a d v a n t a g e s of t h e a l l - a g e d and a l l -s i z e d f o r e s t a t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e a r e a l l t o o c l e a r . C l a s s i c a l examples of group and s i n g l e stem s e l e c t i o n systems a r e drawn f r o m e x c e e d i n g l y s m a l l f o r e s t a r e a s w i t h i n t e n s e s u p e r v i s i o n . F o r e s t management i n N o r t h e r n A l b e r t s i s not d e v e l o p e d s u f f i c i e n t l y t o handle t h e system. — 0 O 0 — - 62 -CHAPTER I I I ANALYSIS AND RECOMMENDATIONS In t h i s chapter, i t i s now hypothesised that: There are already available to the p r a c t i s i n g forest management-planner, s i l v i c u l t u r a l systems which are applicable, with or without further adaptation, to the forest stands of the region and to the s i t e s described. S i l v i c u l t u r e i s the instrument by which the objects of management of each unit area can be achieved; be they the production of timber of high q u a l i t y , of pulpwood, or the conservation of water or grazing resources. Haphazard s i l v i c u l t u r e brought into operation to f u l f i l the requirements of i n d i v i d u a l timber sales as a "stop-gap" can never r e s u l t in the sustension of growing stock, production and y i e l d that i s the aim of sound forest management p o l i c y (Francois, F.A.O. 1950). The conclusions and recommendations which follow imply a c e r t a i n standard of governmental control and management plann-ing which does not yet exist but which, i t i s anticipated, w i l l emerge from current a c t i v i t y within the administration.of the P r o v i n c i a l Department of Lands and Forests. To be r e a l i s t i c , i t i s suggested that even under a system of increased and intensive management, the app l i c a t i o n of - 63 -s p e c i a l i s e d and i n v o l v e d s i l v i c u l t u r a l t e c h n i q u e s w i t h a h i g h degree o f c o n t r o l t h u s made n e c e s s a r y , would be u n t i m e l y . What must, however, be a p p l i e d a r e t h e p r i n c i p l e s of sound s i l v i c u l t u r e . F o r example: c r o p improvement a t each i n t e r -v e n t i o n i n t h e s t a n d ; removal o f overmature, d i s e a s e d and d y i n g t r e e s , and poor specimens; r e l e a s e of s u p p r e s s e d t r e e s o f t o l e r a n t s p e c i e s ; p r o v i s i o n o f a seed s u p p l y f r o m d e s i r a b l e p a r e n t s ; seedbed p r e p a r a t i o n and maintenance of s i t e f e r t i l i t y . These p r i n c i p l e s a r e not so d i f f i c u l t t o a dhere t o or t o p r a c t i s e t h a t t h e y s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d i d e a l i s t i c . Nor a r e t h e y i m p r a c t -i c a l , f o r i f we are t o improve p r o d u c t i o n from the o v e r - c u t and ove r - b u r n e d f o r e s t management d i v i s i o n s of A l b e r t a , and t o s a f e g u a r d bur f o r e s t r e s o u r c e s , i t i s by a t t e n t i o n t o these p r i n c i p l e s t h a t our a im w i l l be a c h i e v e d . Most, i f not a l l , o f the systems mentioned i n t h e p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r have y e t t o be t r i e d on a commercial b a s i s i n the r e g i o n , but i t i s t h e w r i t e r ' s o p i n i o n t h a t t h e r e i s s u f f i c -i e n t e v i d e n c e a v a i l a b l e t o w a r r a n t t h e i r s e l e c t i o n o r r e j e c t i o n f o r t h e c u r r e n t r o t a t i o n and t h o s e t o f o l l o w . Thus c e r t a i n o f t h e systems w i l l be r e c o n s i d e r e d w i t h a p p l i c a t i o n t o t h e dominant s i t e s and s t a n d - t y p e s , as d e s c r i b e d i n Ch a p t e r I , w i t h i n the framework of w e l l - d e v e l o p e d management. I t has been shown i n C h a p t e r I t h a t s o i l f e r t i l i t y i s nowhere l i m i t i n g i n the r e g i o n . L i m i t i n g s i t e f a c t o r s i t has been s a i d r e s u l t m a i n l y f r o m p h y s i o g r a p h y , e s p e c i a l l y m o i s t u r e - 64 -regime, rather than from f i n e l y defined l i m i t s such as v a r i a t i o n i n s o i l nutrient status. However, l o c a l v a r i a t i o n of even the broad s i t e groupings described i s such that recommended practices must be modified from place to place. The three major s i t e groups w i l l be discussed. Dry Upland S i t e s Lodgepole pine-aspen stand type. These even-aged, f i r e - o r i g i n a t e d stands are often quite extensive and therefore o f f e r an economical logging proposition. Regeneration, other than the marked increase i n the proportion of aspen from suckers, has been slow or absent. It i s recommended that the stands be clearcut, u t i l i s i n g the aspen wherever possible, since the species w i l l t e n d to take over during the regeneration period. Cut layout could well be i n blocks, patches, or progressive s t r i p s . S c a r i f i c a t i o n should be ca r r i e d out extensively with scattering of the cone-bearing pine slash following the operation. ¥/here u t i l i s a t i o n i s f o r pulpwood, i t may be possible to f e l l r esidual stems and snags. A decision should be made by the management-planner whether to accept aspen regeneration, since, i f t h i s i s unacceptable, i t . may be necessary to poison the stumps of the aspen to i n h i b i t suckering. It i s also recommended that, a f t e r an acceptable waiting period, seven years being the suggested period f o r dry s i t e s , regeneration should be surveyed. Quality and. quantity of advance growth should be assessed. Due to the incidence of competing aspen, at least 40 per cent stocking of - 65 -pine by milacre quadrats: would be a reasonable l i m i t . The l e v e l s should be surveyed i n the l i g h t of seed crop p e r i o d i c i t y . Unsatisfactory stocking may require a seeding operation, or planting at a wide spacing giving about 150 trees per acre. The i n t e n s i t y of these c u l t u r a l operations depends on the l e v e l of u t i l i s a t i o n and on the economy of legging. F a i l u r e to carry out such operations, i f required, should not be excused on the basis of i n e f f i c i e n t logging on the part of an operator. Provided that the terms of the sale were c a r e f u l l y s p e c i f i e d , there should be no hardship involved i n carrying them out. T#hite spruce-pine-aspen stand type White and black spruce appear i n t h i s mixture on these dry s i t e s and the species are capable of producing f i n e saw-timber and f i r s t - c l a s s pulp. At maturity, the spruce has reached co-dominance with the pine, while the shorter l i v e d aspen i s often decadent. Clearcutting i s again advocated. The importance of the seed source f o r spruce i s stressed because the balance of the e c o l o g i c a l l y desirable mixture should be retained i n the next r o t a t i o n . Thus s t r i p c u t t i n g i n periodic blocks of progressive s t r i p s i s recommended, or small patches may be acceptable. Extensive s c a r i f i c a t i o n should be carried out to improve seedbed conditions and scattering of ,cone-bearing pine slash i s recommended. Again the decision on regeneration stocking could well be made about seven years following logging. I f i t i s unsatisfactory a f t e r - 66 -t h i s lapse of time both pine and spruce should be seeded or planted. The system i s open to due c r i t i c i s m on ce r t a i n l o c -ations. Glearcutting on very steep .slopes and exposed s i t e s has been noted to lead to erosion and s i t e degradation i n the region. This i s p a r t i c u l a r l y true on sandy s o i l s . Regener-ation on these s i t e s has been noticeably poor and the long exposure to sun,, wind, and r a i n over an extended regeneration period i s to be deprecated. These s i t e s tend to become p a r t i c u l a r l y dry i n summer and regeneration has been noted to occur only i n the shade of slash or stumps. Serious consider-ation therefore should be given on t h i s type to the shelterwood system both i n the pure pine stands and i n mixtures. P a r t i c u l a r care should be given to the selection of wind-firm, desirable residuals should t h i s system be chosen. Moist Sites On the moist s i t e s , moisture regimes 4, 5 and 6, on f l a t s and middle slopes, several stand types are found and productivity i s high. Here the mixtures are multiple and, though many of the stands are i n fac t evenaged chronologically, the p h y s i o l o g i c a l make-up i s decidely uneven-aged. A many storied stand r e s u l t s . Lodgepole pine-aspen type Production per acre i s quite high and t h i s type i s an excellent pulpwood proposition. Glearcutting, with s c a r i f -- 6 7 -i e a t i o n and s c a t t e r i n g of s l a s h , i s recommended. On these moist s i t e s i t i s d o u b t f u l i f competition from l e s s e r veget-a t i o n w i l l permit r e g e n e r a t i o n even on s c a r i f i e d spots a f t e r f i v e or s i x years f o l l o w i n g l o g g i n g . Hence a d e c i s i o n on re g e n e r a t i o n i s recommended w i t h i n f i v e years a f t e r l o g g i n g . Seeding or p l a n t i n g may be c a r r i e d out t o achieve s a t i s f a c t o r y s t o c k i n g . I t i s as w e l l , at t h i s p o i n t , t o d i s c u s s f u r t h e r the s c a r i f i c a t i o n o p e r ation. Current costs of extensive s c a r i f i c a t i o n of c l e a r c u t and p a r t i a l l y - c u t areas on r e l a t i v e l y dry s i t e s amount to t e n d o l l a r s per acre. However, under i n c r e a s i n g l y moist c o n d i t i o n s , i t becomes more d i f f i c u l t to reach m i n eral s o i l due to the thickness of the d u f f . The operation becomes c o s t l y since the machine may have to back up and s c a r i f y s e v e r a l times to expose mineral s o i l . F u r t h e r , the r e s u l t i n g s c a r i f i e d spot i s o f t e n a deep depression, extremely compacted,susceptible to waterlogging i n s p r i n g and t o drying-out i n the summer. S c a r i f -i c a t i o n on moist s i t e s should therefore be c a r r i e d out w i t h due regard to the economics of operating the chosen machine and t o the value of the r e s u l t i n g seedbed. Thus s c a r i f i c a t i o n of the moist s i t e s should be l i m i t e d t o the d r i e r p a r t s end to areas of low duff accumulation. Lodgepole pine w i t h b l a c k spruce understorey type Lodgepole pine w i t h a dense black spruce understorey occurs f r e q u e n t l y on r a i s e d moist s i t e s where moisture regime i s - 68 -around. 5. This type most o f t e n occurs on high areas; on mounds and on high s i d e slopes. As such i t appears i n extensive s t r i p s along the contours and seems t o be the r e s u l t of an abnormally high water t a b l e at these l e v e l s . L a t e r a l drainage over an impervious s u b s t r a t e i s the suggested cause of t h i s moisture regime. The pine provides e x c e l l e n t pulp-wood whereas l i t t l e of the black spruce i s of merchantable^size. I t i s not known whether the spruce component, i f l e f t , w i l l respond to r e l e a s e s u f f i c i e n t l y t o reach merchantable s i z e s and the type has been p o o r l y managed to date. The pine i s prevented by the r e s i d u a l spruce from regenerating. However,a shelterwood system v/ith removal of a l l the merchantable pine i s recommended. This should be f o l l o w e d by a two cut removal of the spruce, provided i t r e l e a s e s . F a i l i n g t h i s , some form of t h i n n i n g i n the spruce might be p r a c t i c a l at a l a t e r date, This i s an i n t e r e s t i n g type i n which there i s much research needed, but i t might be a n t i c i p a t e d that i f the spruce growth r a t e i s i n c r e a s e d , and the stand remains vigorous f o l l o w i n g removal of the p i n e , regeneration of spruce should not present a problem. With t h i s o p p ortunity f o r t r i a l c u t t i n g , commercial d i a m e t e r - l i m i t c u t t i n g i n such stand types i s quite unimaginative and i s to be discouraged. B l a c k and White Spruce-Pine-Alpine-Fir-Aspen Stand. Type This mixture .occurs i n v a r y i n g p r o p o r t i o n s by species and i s an extensive type on moist s i t e s . Due to the regener-- 69 -ation requirements of the v a r i e t y of species present, t h i s type does not lend i t s e l f to c l e a r c u t t i n g . Shelterwood i s recommended totake advantage of ph y s i o l o g i c a l uneven-age and of the varying s o c i a l status of the species. This ensures a seed supply and overhead shade f o r the tolerant species i n the mixture. By canopy control i n marking, the desired proportions of species can be maintained. A two-cut system i s envisaged with s c a r i f i c a t i o n following the f i r s t cut where p h y s i c a l l y and economically f e a s i b l e . A removal of 60% of the growing stock i s recommended, leaving, a represent-ation of pine i n the r e s i d u a l stand. It i s also recommended that a few sound wind-firm pine be l e f t a f t e r the f i n a l cut i n order to provide some seed supply and sha.de. This stand type should not be d i f f i c u l t to regenerate provided that some seed i s available following s c a r i f i c a t i o n . However, planting of a mixture of the species at wide spacings, or seeding, may be deemed necessary a f t e r f i v e years following the removal cut. Ideally t h i s system and stand type require a high standard of u t i l i s a t i o n f o r e f f e c t i v e handling. A three-cut shelterwood, removing pine at the l a s t , might be possible and most s a t i s f a c t o r y under these conditions. However, i t i s anticipated that even under a sawlog economy two economic cuts can be made and that regeneration w i l l be successful. The i n t e r v a l between cuts i s determined by the rate of growth of the re s i d u a l stand. Both the uniform system and alternate s t r i p s , or progressive s t r i p s i n alternate periodic blocks are suitable - 70 -f o r t h i s type. They have the inherent benefits of we11-organised layout. Irregular and group shelterwood systems are too inten-sive and complex i n layout for app l i c a t i o n i n the region. Pure Spruce Stand Type Stands of pure spruce occur on these moist s i t e s i n the region. U n t i l the present date, most of the cutting experi-ence i n t h i s type has been on the l i m i t s of the Northwestern Pulp and Power Company at Hinton where a clearcutting system i s currently being used i n some spruce stands. Regeneration problems are many and both block and s t r i p clearcuts have been made. However, i t i s suggested that the type could be handled most succes s f u l l y f o r sawlog and pulp under shelterwood or f o r pulp by s t r i p c l e a r c u t t i n g . S c a r i f i c a t i o n i s necessary i n either case. Seed d i s p e r s a l l i m i t s s t r i p width i n cle a r c u t t i n g . The age-class d i s t r i b u t i o n may dictate progressive s t r i p s i n a l t e r n -ate periodic blocks rather than alternate s t r i p s . These stands are capable of producing qua l i t y sawlogs and pulpwood. Seed supply has been a major l i m i t i n g f a c t o r to date i n regeneration success. Wind d i r e c t i o n should dictate the d i r e c t i o n of progress of the cutting within f e l l i n g units though t h i s factor i s f o r t -unately less important i n the region than i n other forest sections. Even poor examples of diameter l i m i t cutting have exhibited the re-l a t i v e wind firmness of the r e s i d u a l stands. Experiments i n seed-tree blocks have been t r i e d i n the region with l i t t l e r e s u l t i n g wind damage. Most windblows in a - 71 -recent study ca r r i e d out by the author.in the nearby spruce-aspen were caused by weakness due to unsound stems rather than high winds. Wet S i t e s The wet s i t e s of the region, on moisture regimes 6 to #, provide a problem of regeneration. In the past clearcutting has resulted i n a r i s e i n the water-table, and an extremely unfavour-able seedbed i s produced. Yet, as evidenced by many f i n e specimens of spruce, these s i t e s are capable of producing high qua l i t y stems. S c a r i f i c a t i o n i s not possible under these wet conditions. However, an experimental attempt has been made by one operator to s c a r i f y the frost-hardened ground at the onset of winter freeze-up. This has recently (1959) met with considerable success, although the spring break-up conditions have yet to be observed. Clear-cutting seems to be detrimental to the s i t e . Perhaps restocking could be assured only by planting the desired species on i n d i v i d -u a l l y - s e l e c t e d planting sites,taking advantage of a l l physbgraphic features. Without s c a r i f i c a t i o n and exposure of the mineral s o i l , the success of a shelterwood i s by no means assured. However, i n the l i g h t of seedbed condition, seed supply, and species compos-i t i o n on these s i t e s , two to three cut shelterwood i s advocated. There w i l l be some exposure of mineral s o i l with each logging operation and t h i s w i l l help to increase regeneration stocking. - 72 -Black and white spruce-alpine and balsam fir-aspen type, and black spruce-birch-larch bog types are found. Height growth i s poor and tree diameters average only about four inches d.b.h. As has been mentioned i n Chapter I numbers of stems are extremely high, often reaching over 3,000 to the acre at 100 years. This s i t e group i s a challenge to the for e s t e r and should not be neglected i n current regional research. The three-cut shelterwood, despite i t s longer regener-ation period, might be a solution on these problem s i t e s . S election working is. well suited to the stand conditions but i t i s doubtful whether i t would be economical and can be presented only on i t s merits of s i t e protection. F i e l d t r i a l s are a v i t a l necessity i n these extensive problem stand types. The preceding discussion and recommendations have been summed-up a l b e i t b r i e f l y and are presented i n Table 4« > As previously mentioned these recommendations are based on several clear assumptions of advance i n forest management p o l i c y on the part of the Alberta Department of Lands and Forests. The assumptions are not, however, groundless and indeed may become fa c t i n the near future. Assumptions In discussion i t ba s been assumed that, i n the near future:-(1) A l l timber sales w i l l be c a r e f u l l y marked from a sympathetic s i l v i c u l t u r a l viewpoint having due SELECTED SYSTEMS B- 19 FOOTHILLS REGION SITE SPECIES/COVER TYPES UTILISATION SYSTEM CULTURAL TREATMENTS D r y Upland Moisture Regime 2 & 3 Lodgepole Piae - Aspen Saw log Saw & Pulp Clearcut Clearcut Scarify, Scatter Slash Seed, or Plant 150/ac.if failure after 7 years Scarify, Fe l l Residual Trees, Seed, o r Plant 150/ac.if failure Scatter Slash after 7 years Lodgepole Piae «• B & VJ Spruc< - Aspen Sawlog Saw & Pulp Clearcut - Strip Clearcut - Strip , . Seed, o r Plant both species i f Scarify, Scatter Slash failure after 7 years Scarify, Fe l l Residual Trees, Seed, or Plant both species i f Scatter Slash failure after 7 years Same Types on Exposed Sites Shelterwood - 2 -cut Scariry arter 1st cut, Seed, or Plant 150/ac. i f failure Scatter Slash 5 years after 2nd eut Moist, Slope Moisture Segime 4, 5 and 6 Lodgepole Pine ~ Aspen Sawlog Saw & Pulp Clearcut Clearcut Seed, or Plant 150/ac. i f failure Scarify where possible after 5 years Scatter Slash Scarify where possible, Fel l Seed, or Plant 150/ac. If failure snafts. Scatter Slash after 5 years B & W Spruce - Piae - A. Fir - Aspen Sawlog Ssw & Pulp Shelterwood - 2 -cut Shelterwood - 2 -cut Scarify where possible after Seed, or Plant 150/ac. i f failure 1st cut 5 years following last cut Scarify «aere possible after Seed, or Plant 150/ac. i f failure 1st cut 5 years following last cut B & W Spruce Sawlog Saw & Pulp Shelterwood - 2 -cut Clearcut - Strip Scarify where possible after Seed,or PlantlSG/ac. i f failure 1st cut 5 years following last cut Scarify where oos&ibie f e e d » o r Plant 150/ac. i f failure 5 years following cut Lodgepole Pine - B. Spruce Saw & Pulp Shelterwood - 2-3-cut Remove Pine Overstorey, Plant Pine - Spruce i f failure Scarify after 1st Spruce Cut 5 years following removal cut net, Bog Moisture Reglue 6, 7 and 8 B & V Spruce - A . & B. Fir -Aspen Sawlog Saw & Pulp Shelterwood - 2-3-eut Shelterwood - 2-3-cut Same Type - Alternative Sau & Pulp Clearcut Plant on selected spcts i f failure, 150/ac. B. Spruce - Birch - Larch Sawlog Sav & Pulp Shelterwood - 2-3-cut Shelterwood - 2-3-cut Same Type Alternative Sana & Pulp Clearcut Plant on selected spots i f failure, 150/ac. TABLE 4 SELECTED SYSTEMS B- 19 FOOTHILLS REGION SITE SPECIES/COVER TYPES UTILISATION SYSTEM CULTURAL TREATMENTS Dry Upland Lodgepole Pine - Aspen Sawlog Saw & Pulp Clearcut Clearcut Scarify, Scatter Slash Seed, or Plant 150/ac.if failure after 7 years Scarify, F e l l Residual Trees, Seed, or Plant 150/ac.if failure Scatter Slash after 7 years Moisture Regime 2 & 3 Lodgepole Pine - B & W Spruce - Aspen Sawlog Saw & Pulp Clearcut - Strip Clearcut - Strip Seed, or Plant both species i f Scarify, Scatter Slash failure after 7 years Scarify, F e l l Residual Trees, Seed, or Plant both species i f Scatter Slash failure after 7 years Same Types on Exposed Sites 1 | • Shelterwood - 2 -cut Scarify after 1st cut, Seed, or Plant 150/ac. i f failure Scatter Slash 5 years after 2nd cut Moist, Slope Moisture Regime 4, 5 and 6 '<• Saw log Lodgepole Pine - Aspen ! Saw & Pulp Clearcut Clearcut Seed, or Plant 150/ac. i f failure Scarify where possible after 5 years Scatter Slash 7 Scarify where possible, F e l l Seed, or Plant 150/ac. i f failure snags, Scatter Slash after 5 years B & W Spruce - Pine - A. Fir- Sawlog - Aspen ! Saw & Pulp i Shelterwood - 2 -cut Shelt.erwood - 2 -cut Scarify where possible after Seed, or Plant 150/ac. i f failure 1st cut 5 years following last cut Scarify where possible after Seed, or Plant 150/ac. i f failure 1st cut 5 years following last cut Sawlog B & W Spruce Saw & Pulp Shelterwood - 2 -cut Clearcut - Strip Scarify where possible after Seed, or Plantl50/ac. i f failure 1st cut 5 years following last cut Scarify where possible S e e d » o r p l a n t 150/ac. i f failure 5 years following cut Lodgepole Pine - B. Spruce Saw & Pulp Shelterwood - 2-3-cut Remove Pine Overstorey, Plant Pine - Spruce i f failure Scarify after 1st Spruce Cut 5 years following removal cut B & W Spruce - A. & B. Fir -Aspen Sawlog Saw & Pulp , Shelterwood - 2-3-cut Shelterwood - 2-3-cut Wet, Bog Moisture Regime 6, 7 and 8 Same Type - Alternative Saw & Pulp Clearcut Plant on selected spots i f failure, 150/ac. B. Spruce - Birch - Larch Sawlog Saw & Pulp Shelterwood - 2-3-cut Shelterwood - 2-3-cut Same Type - Alternative Saw & Pulp Clearcut Plant on selected spots i f failure, 150/ac. - 74 -regard to the provision of a seed-supply from a well d i s t r i b u t e d r e s i d u a l stand of desirable specimens or some other r e l i a b l e seed source. (2) Sales w i l l be' l a i d out under sustained y i e l d management plans i n an orderly and controlled manner. (3) The appropriate practices required of the operator w i l l be written i n the sales contract on the advice of a l o c a l l y based professional fore s t e r (4) There s h a l l be s t r i c t supervision of cutting. (5) Where necessary, a supply of c e r t i f i e d seed and planting stock w i l l be available eith e r from a commercial source or from the government. (6) Periodic assessment of regeneration status on timber s ales w i l l be made v/ith a view to d i r e c t i n g properly e f f o r t s at a r t i f i c i a l regeneration. Productivity The species and stand types discussed are not highly productive i n the f o o t h i l l s region when compared v/ith other - 75 -regions i n Canada. The growing season i s short and the r a i n f a l l i s low. However, i t i s g e n e r a l l y true of both pine and spruce i n the B - 1 9 region t h a t height and growth averages one f o o t per year. This i s borne out i n the data presented i n Table 5 . At 1 1 0 years, diameters of up t o 1 5 i n . d.b.h. are common i n both spruce and pine. There i s a marked decrease i n diameter increment at around 9 0 years as the t r e e s approach m a t u r i t y and as the e f f e c t s of o v e r s t o c k i n g p r e v i o u s l y noted tend to take place. I t has been shown that a considerable p r o p o r t i o n of the timber produced i n A l b e r t a comes from t h i s region. I t i s a l s o s i g n i f i c a n t that the f i r s t grade produce from the region commands a. high p r i c e on l o c a l and export markets. However, the production of the area i s s t r i c t l y l i m i t e d by the high d i a -meter l i m i t s of m e r c h a n t a b i l i t y . Merchantable volumes are a f r a c t i o n of t o t a l cubic f o o t volume production. I n e f f i c i e n t handling w i t h the s i m p l e s t of log ging equipment and m i l l wastage c o n t r i b u t e to the low production. Most of the p o r t a b l e m i l l s operate w i t h a s i n g l e c i r c u l a r head-rig. These sub-contractors seldom can t ake advantage of even the simplest equipment improve-ments and i t i s l i k e l y t hat they w i l l go out of business, or at l e a s t be bought out as i n t e g r a t e d operations begin. The f o l l o w i n g production f i g u r e s are drawn from the l i n e - p l o t i nventory data of the management p l a n prepared f o r the Whitecourt P i l o t Management Unit i n the F o o t h i l l s . The u n i t has - 76 -"been selected as t y p i c a l of the region and as mentioned c o n s t i t -utes an experiment i n sustained y i e l d management and s i l v i c u l t u r e . The height growth i n Table 5 has been discussed. The f a l l i n g off with age i s s l i g h t but noticeable around 110 years of age. To t a l cubic foot volume i s presented i n Table 6 , by cover types f o r mature and immature stands throughout the unit. Sub-division of maturity classes i s based on stand height and density. Immature classes are below 60 feet and dense. TABLE 5 AVERAGE ANNUAL HEIGHT GROWTH ABOVE BREAST HEIGHT WHITEC0URT MANAGEMENT UNIT Age Class wS. Annual bS. growth i n feet. bP. IP. A. LI - 50 1.2 0.8 1 .3 1.2 1.2 51 - 60 1.2 0.8 1.0 1.1 1.2 61 - 70 1.1 0.7 0.9 1.0 1.0 71 - 80 0.9 0.6 1.0 0.9 0.9 81 - 90 1.0 0.4 1.0 0.9 0.8 91 - 100 0.9 0.5 0.8 0.8 0.6 101 - 110 0.9 0.4 0.6 0 .7 0.6 111 - 120 0.6 0 .3 0 .3 0.7 0.5 Average 1.0 0.6 0.9 1.0 0.9 - 77 -TABLE; 6 GROSS TOTAL CUBIC EOOT VOLUME / ACRE BY COVER TYPES Type ^ Species Species wS bS bF IP To t a l A wB Total G.Tota 1. Softwood Immature 129 598 36 733 1496 168 36 204 1700 Mature 1058 362 519 2214 4152 258 172 430 4582 T o t a l 1187 960 555 2947 6598 426 208 634 6282 2. Soft / Hwd. Immature 330 174 104 953 1561 710 150 860 2421 Mature 1365 184 232 1327 3108 1605 269 1874 4982 T o t a l 1695 358 336 2280 4669 2315 419 2734 ,7403 3 . Hwd./Soft -Immature 137 73 60 470 740 1041 842 1883 ' 2623 Mature 434 86 84 809 1412 2337 503 2840 4252 T o t a l 571 159 144 1279 2152 3378 " 1345 4723 6875 4. Hardwood • Immature 153 38 - 58 249 2660 " 351 3011 3260 Mature. 284 23 36 256 599 3347 "' 265 3612 4211 Tota l 437 61 36 314 848 6007 616 6623 7471 (1) Predominant c o v e r i s f i r s t - m e n t i o n e d i n mixedwbod t y p e s 2 and 3 . - 78 -Current annual increment i s next presented i n Table 7 . Growth percentages i n d i c a t e a f a i r l y vigorous growing stock. M o r t a l i t y I s not included i n these f i g u r e s and thus they are r a t h e r high. G e n e r a l l y a good growth rate i s being maintained. TABLE 7 CURRENT ANNUAL INCREMENT BY SPECIES AVERAGE FOR ALL TYPES Species No. of Growth % Samples wS 135 2 . 9 bS 75 3 .5 bP 26 3 . 1 IP 243 2 . 4 T o t a l 479 Aspen 136 2 . 6 Pulpwood y i e l d i s appraised i n Table 8 . M a t e r i a l is a v a i l a b l e from the lodgepole p i n e - b l a c k spruce stands on moist to wet s i t e s , aspen where i t occurs i n vigorous stands and a l s o from the sma l l e r diameters ( 5 i n . to 7 i n . ) of the c o n i f e r s . The t a b l e f i g u r e s are an estimate of m a t e r i a l from these sources. The s m a l l e r diameters of c o n i f e r s could possibly be e x p l o i t e d on the dry and moist s i t e s . - 79 -TABLE 8 ESTIMATED PULPWOOD YIELD PROM FIRST CUTTING AREA, IN THE MANAGEMENT UNIT . . -Sta n d Type , Volume/Ac. ( C u n i t s ) 1. Softwood Pulpwood Stands 16.9 Sawlog Stands C o n i f e r s - 5" - 7" d.b.h. 7.6 Aspen - a l l d i a m e t e r s 3 .9 2. Softwood/Hardwood C o n i f e r s - 5" - 7" d.b.h. 4 . 4 Aspen - a l l d i a m e t e r s 10.4 3. Hardwoo d/S of twood C o n i f e r s - 5" - 7" d.b.h. 1.8 Aspen - a l l d i a m e t e r s 17.3 4. Hardwood Aspen - a l l d i a m e t e r s 25.7 I n c r e a s e d p r o d u c t i o n would h e l p d e f r a y r o a d b u i l d i n g and o t h e r a c c e s s c o s t s s h o u l d a l l weather a c c e s s be d e v e l o p e d . On the average about 7 - 15 c u n i t s of m a i n l y s p r u c e - p i n e p u l p -wood c o u l d be o b t a i n e d f r o m t h e mixed s t a n d s . T h i s f u r t h e r u t i l i s a t i o n f a c i l i t a t e s t h e s i l v i c u l t u r a l t r e a t m e n t s mentioned e a r l i e r . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , c u r r e n t sawlog l i m i t s a r e even h i g h e r - 80 -than the 7 in* d.b.h. indicated and some very large sizes indeed are currently being pulped. The large volumes of aspen present i s at once obvious. L i t t l e of t h i s i s presently merchantable and much of i t i s overmature and unsound. However, hardwood pulp and plywood are being produced from the region and i t i s foreseeable that aspen w i l l be grown on a short rotation f o r both pulp and plywood i n the future. The above then i s the "raw material" with which the for e s t e r has to deal. Every l o c a l i t y has i t s problems and productivity i n t erms of t o t a l cubic foot volume varies according to the several s i t e f a ctors, some of which have been previously discussed. Despite the l i m i t a t i o n s of productivity and merchant-a b i l i t y i n any one l o c a l i t y , however, i t i s again stressed that the stands should be handled from a s i l v i c u l t u r a l standpoint compatible with sound economics. Under s i l v i c u l t u r a l control, i t i s anticipated that productivity i n terms of t o t a l volume y i e l d per acre w i l l be increased. The increment on released trees w i l l add to t h i s y i e l d . P r o d uctivity, i n terms of merchantable material, w i l l f urther be increased, as a r e s u l t of a higher q u a l i t y and an improvement i n u t i l i s a t i o n standards. — 0 O 0 — - SI -CONCLUSION Throughout t h i s work, several aspects of the s i l v i c -u l t u r a l and management problems of the region have been exam-ined. The necessity f o r sound management planning, at a l e v e l further advanced than that at present, has been implied. A var i e t y of suggested s i l v i c u l t u r a l systems has been presented with due regard to species, stand types and s i t e conditions. There has further been discussion of c u l t u r a l operations designed to improve regeneration and species d i s t r i b u t i o n . Each of these aspects of s i l v i c u l t u r a l treatment has i t s place i n the solution of the regional problems. It i s important that these consider-ations be kept i n a suitable perspective. The primary requirement f o r the successful practice of the art and science of f o r e s t r y i n any region i s a management plan designed to provide sustained y i e l d . Once the objects of manage-ment have been c l e a r l y stated, s i l v i c u l t u r e i s the t o o l by which these objects may be r e a l i s e d . In carrying out a p a r t i c u l a r s i l v i c u l t u r a l system,.certain detailed c u l t u r a l treatments may become necessary to i t s success and to the improvement of p a r t i c u l a r l o c a l conditions. It i s unwise to apply p a r t i c u l a r treatments without the framework of a system l e s t the t a i l - detailed c u l t u r a l treatment s t a r t wagging the dog - management planning. This i s a r e a l danger where l o c a l p o l i t i c s a f f e c t f o r e s t r y planning. The fact that the c u l t u r a l treatments may produce the more dramatic results does - 82 -not w a r r a n t t h e i r o ver-emphasis. D e t a i l e d management p l a n s a r e c u r r e n t l y b e i n g p r e p a r e d f o r the f o r e s t management d i v i s i o n s of A l b e r t a . I t i s a t t h i s s t a g e of development t h e r e f o r e t h a t c o n s i d e r a t i o n s h o u l d be g i v e n t o c o n t r o l l e d s i l v i c u l t u r a l o p e r a t i o n s . Once th e management-planner i s i n c o n t r o l of s u i t a b l e s i l v i c u l t u r a l s ystem, w i t h c o n t r o l of the c u t t i n g l a y o u t ; f i x e d r o t a t i o n , f i x e d r e g e n e r a t i o n p e r i o d s w i t h a c c e p t a b l e r e g e n e r a t i o n s t a n d a r d s and the p r o d u c t i o n of m a t e r i a l c o m p a t i b l e w i t h t h e o b j e c t s of management; t h e n he can p r e s c r i b e what f u r t h e r c u l t u r a l t r e a t m e n t s appear n e c e s s a r y . The h y p o t h e s i s p r e s e n t e d i n C h a p t e r I I I , based on t h e d e s c r i p t i o n s and d i s c u s s i o n s i n the p r e c e d i n g c h a p t e r s , becomes a v i t a l s t e p i n g u i d i n g management p l a n n i n g i n the r e g i o n t o d a y . That the s e v e r a l recommendations may not be i m m e d i a t e l y a p p l i c -a b l e i s r e l a t i v e l y u n i m p o r t a n t s i n c e under th e c u r r e n t management, t h e i r e a r l y i n c e p t i o n would be i m p o s s i b l e w i t h o u t many changes i n l e g i s l a t i o n and h a r d s h i p t o o p e r a t o r s . However, equipped w i t h t h i s background m a t e r i a l , a r e g i o n a l f o r e s t e r can p r o c e e d t o determine what i s a p p l i c a b l e l o c a l l y now and what must w a i t f o r f u t u r e , a n t i c i p a t e d c o n d i t i o n s . Commensurate w i t h t h a t development,work i s i n d i c a t e d i n s e v e r a l f i e l d s of r e s e a r c h . These i n c l u d e : 1. The f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n of s i l v i c u l t u r a l s y s t e m s , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h o s e w h i c h f i n d a p p l i c -- 83 -ation i n the problem stand types mentioned i n Chapter I I I . 2. Cutting t r i a l s to improve techniques and f layout within each selected system. 3 . Provision f o r a r t i f i c i a l regeneration through the development of seed banks; c o l l e c t -ion and storage methods f o r c e r t i f i e d seed; invest i g a t i o n of the rodent problem; nursery establishment, and provenance t r i a l s . 4. Improvement of c u l t u r a l treatments and t e s t i n g of new equipment. 5 . Logging economies and e f f i c i e n c y of equipment and methods. 6. U t i l i s a t i o n and investigation of l o c a l wood-using in d u s t r i e s . 7. Market prospects f o r the future. 8. Research into the detailed problems a r i s i n g from management, ap p l i c a t i o n of systems, c u l t u r a l treatments, and u t i l i s a t i o n . This research i s the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of every q u a l i f i e d f o r e s t e r i n the region. Much can be accomplished on a p i l o t t r i a l scale. - 84 -The several f o r e s t r y concerns i n the Province are equipped to handle d i f f e r e n t research approaches. Many of the t r i a l s can best be carried out on an operational basis by Industry or P r o v i n c i a l Government, while cert a i n of the detailed problems can be tackled by the Federal Forestry Branch and the Forest Biology D i v i s i o n of the Department of Agriculture. — 0 O 0 — - 85 -APPENDIX I Tree Species and Plant L i s t Tree Species P r i n c i p a l Species Black spruce - Picea,mariana.(Mill) B.S.P. Lodgepole pine - Pinus,contorta Dougl. var. l a t i f o l i a Trembling aspen -,Populus,tremuloides Michx. (Engelmann.) White spruce - Picea glauca (Moench)Voss. Secondary Species Alpine f i r - Abies la s i c a r p a (Hook) Mitt Balsam f i r - Abies,balsamea (L.) M i l l Balsam poplar - Populus bajsamifera L. Engelmann spruce - P i c e a Engelmannii Perry Jack pine - Pinus Banksjana Lamb Tamarack ( l a r c h ) , - , L a r i x , l a r i c i n a (Du Roi) K. Koch .White b i r c h - Betula papyrifera Marsh, var. commutata (Rege.) Elem. (1) Plant L i s t Shrubs Alnus c r i s p a Amelanchier a l n i f o l i a Arc t: fostaphylos uva-ursi Betula glandulosa Chiogenes hispidula Cornus s t o l o n i f e r a Juniperis communis " h o r i z o n t a l i s Kalmia p o l i f o l i a Ledum groenlandicum Lonicera d i o i c a var, glaucescens " involucrata P o t e n t i l l a f r u t i c o s a Ribes lacustre " t r i s t e Rosa a c i c u l a r i s Rubus chamaamorus " p a r v i f l p r u s ? strigosus S a l i x spp. Sambucus melanocarpa Shepherdia canadensis Sbrbus scopulina Spirea l u c i d a Symphoricarpos albus Vaccinium caespitosum " membranaceum " m y r t i l l o i d e s '.' oxycoccos v i t i s - i d a e a Viburnum edule (1) Nomenclature f o r shrubs, herbs and grasses follows "Flora of A l b e r t a " Moss (195 9). Univ. of Toronto Press. Nomenclature f o r mosses follows "How to know the Mosses" Conard (1944). Brown Co., Iowa. - 86 -Herbs Mosses and Lichens A c h i l l e a m i l l e f o l i u m Actaea rubra Antennaria sp. A r a l i a nudicaulis Arnica c o r d i f o l i a Aster c i l i o l a t u s " conspicuus Astragalus f r i g i d u s var. amerieahus) Gaitha p a l u s t r i s C a s t i l l e j a sp. Oornus canadensis Dryopteris disjuncta Epilobium angustifolium Equisetum sp. Eragaria glauca Galium boreale Goodyera sp. Habenaria sp. Lathyrus ochroleucus Linnaea borealis Lycopodium annotinum '* clavatum " complanatum Maianthemum canadense Menyanthes t r i f o l i a Mertensia paniculata Mite11a nuda Orchis r o t u n d i f o l i a P e d i c u l a r i s bracteosa " groenlandica " labraderica Petasites palmatus r* sagittatus Pyrola secunda Rubus acaulis " pedatus '.' pubescens Smilacina t r i f o l i a " racemosa var. amplexicaulis Streptopus amplexifolius V i o l a rugulosa Zigadenus elegans Aulacomnium palustre Camptothecium nitens Cladonia sp. Dicranum sp. Drepanocladus sp. Feather mosses (3 spp.) Mnium sp. Polytriehum sp. Sphagnum sp. P e l t i g e r a aphthosa ( L . ) Willd. Grasses Carex spp. Elymus innovatus •Juncus spp. - 87 -APFENDU I I Plates Plate 1, 15 year old cutover. Grass invasion i n foreground. Residual spruce,pine,aspen i n background. Reproduction absent. photo: D.F.B. Plate 3 . Cutover. South slope, dense vegetation. Residual aspen on the ridge, conifers on the lower slope. Photo: D.F.B Plate 2. Cutover. A l l u v i a l bottomland, l i g h t veget-ation but coniferous reproduction absent. Photo: D.F.B. Plate 4 . Cutover. Typ i c a l spruce regeneration on a skid t r a i l . Note aspen on either side. Photo: D.F. B. - 88 -Plate 5 . 1 0 year old burn. Plate 6 . Burn View of the burn facing east. Lower slope, reproduction R o l l i n g lower f o o t h i l l s present, topography. Photo: D.P.B. Photo: D.F.B. on sandy s o i l ; very l i t t l e humus. Plate 7 . Burn. Photo: D.F.B. Upper slope, dense pine reg-eneration. Height growth not yet affected by stocking. Photo: D.F.B. - 89 -P l a t e 9. S t a n d t y p e . Lodgepole p i n e v / i t h b l a c k spruce u n d e r s t o r e y . p h o t o : D.F.B. P l a t e 10. C u t o v e r . Lodgepole p i n e , b l a c k s p r u c e , w h i t e s p r u c e , a l p i n e f i r t y p e . P h o t o : D.F.B. P l a t e 11. S c a r i f i c a t i o n . JJ.9 C A T . w i t h 3-toothed b l a d e . p h o t o : Ackerman. P l a t e 12. S c a r i f i c a t i o n . S c a r i f i c a t i o n and s n a g - f e l l i n g o p e r a t i o n on c l e a r c u t s t r i p . Photo: - 90 -BIBLIOGRAPHY Ackerman, R.F. 1957. The e f f e c t of v a r i o u s seedbed treatments on the germination and s u r v i v a l of white spruce and lodgepole pine s e e d l i n g s . Canada, Dept. Northern A f f a i r s and N a t i o n a l Resources. F o r e s t r y Branch, For. Res. Div. Tech. Note No. 63. Alekseev, S.V. & A.A. Molcanov. 1954. S e l e c t i v e l o g g i n g i n the northern f o r e s t s of Russia. I n s t i t u t Lesa Akademija Navk, Moscow, SSSR. . 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Vol. x i i i : 3, pp. 417 - 457. Barr, P.H. 1930. The effect of s o i l moisture on the e s t a b l i s h -ment of spruce reproduction i n B r i t i s h Columbia Yale University, School of Forestry. Bull.No. 26 77 PP. Bates, C.G. 1924. Forest types i n the central Rocky Mountains as affected by climate and s o i l . United States Dept. of Agric. B u l l . No. 1233. 1917. The biology of lodgepole pine as revealed by the behaviour of i t s seed. Journal of Forestry 15. (4) A p r i l . B e d e l l , C.H.D. 1948. White spruce reproduction i n Manitoba. Depart-ment Northern A f f a i r s and National Resources. Forestry Branch. For. Res. Div. Silv.Res.Note 87. Betts,.H.S. 1945. Engelmann spruce. United States Dept. of Agric. Forestry Service. American Woods Series. Bezanson, A.M. 1954. Sodbusters invade the Peace. Ryerson Press, Toronto, pp. 209. Black, R.L. & P.J". Kristapovich. 1955. Decay of trembling aspen i n Manitoba and E. Saskatchewan. Forest Pathology. Saskatoon. 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Sand pine regeneration i n F l o r i d a . P r o c Soc. Amer. For. Cormack, R.G.H. 1953* A survey of coniferous f o r e s t succession i n the E a s t e r n Rockies. F o r e s t r y C h r o n i c l e 29 (3): pp 218 - 232. C r a i b , I . J . , 1929. Some aspects of s o i l moisture i n the f o r e s t . Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y . School of F o r e s t r y . B u l l . 25. C r o s s l e y , D.I. 1952. D i s c i n g i n over dense lodgepole pine re p r o d u c t i o n . Dept. Northern A f f a i r s and N a t i o n a l Resources. F o r e s t r y Branch. For. Res. D i v . S i l v . L e a f l e t No. 66. 1953. Seed M a t u r i t y i n white spruce. Dept. Resources and Development. S i l v . Res. Note No. 104. 1955A. S u r v i v a l of white spruce reproduction r e s u l t i n g from v a r i o u s methods of f o r e s t s o i l s c a r i f i c a t i o n . Dept. Northern A f f a i r s and Na/fcional Resources. F o r e s t r y Branch. For. Res. Div. Tech. Note 10. 1955B. 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Note 95 - 96 -Horton, K.W, Hosie, R.C, 1954. E a r l y developments i n a subalpine lodgepole pine stand i n f i r e o r i g i n . Dept. Northern A f f a i r s and National Resources. Forestry Branch. For. Res. Div. S i l v . Res. Note 1954. 1956. The ecology of lodgepole pine i n Alberta. Dept. Northern A f f a i r s and National Resources Forestry Branch. For. Res. Div. Tech. Note 45. 1957* The ecology and productivity of black spruce i n the f o o t h i l l s of Alberta. Pts. 1 and 2. Dept. Northern A f f a i r s and National Resources. Forestry Branch. Res. Div; Unpubl. Rep. 34 pp. 1959. Characteristics of sub-alpine spruce i n Alberta. Dept. Northern A f f a i r s and National Resouces. Forestry Branch. For.Res. Div. Tech. Note -76. 1950. Forest regeneration i n Ontario. Canadian Pulp and Paper Association. Woodlands Section No. 1069 (F-2) 1950. Illingworth, K and J.W.C. Ar l i d g e . I960. Interim report on some forest s i t e types i n lodgepole pine and spruce-alpine f i r stands. B r i t i s h Columbia Forest Service. Res.Note No. 35. . Il v e s s a l o , Y. 1951. ' 1951. Jameson, J.A. 1956. Jacks, G.V. 1954. J e f f r e y , W.W. 1956. Johnson, R.S. 1953. Jones, E.W. 1945. The t h i r d national forest survey of Finland, plans and i n s t r u c t i o n f o r f i e l d work. Comm. Inst, f o r F i n . 39 (3) pp. 67. Occurrence of d i f f e r e n t kinds of forest stand i n Finland. Forestry Abstracts. V o l . 16 - 335 PP. S t r i p and spaced thinning i n overstocked jack pine and black spruce stands. Canada, Dept. Northern A f f a i r s and National Resources, Forestry Branch. S. & M. S o i l . Nelson. London, i x - 221 pp. Swiss Femel-eoupe working. Edinburgh University, Forestry Department. B u l l . No. 2. Forestry Chronicle. 29:4 64 - 74 -Logging and u t i l i s a t i o n i n s p r u c e - f i r i n * the east. 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Oliver and Boyd, Edinburgh, x v i - 36O pp. S i l v i c u l t u r e . Trans. M.L. Anderson. Oliver and Boyd, Edinburgh, x v i - 416 pp. Logging mechanisation i n the U.S.S.R. Pulp and Paper Res. Inst. Canada. Woodlands Res. Div. F i e l d and laboratory tests of some forest rodent control preparations Oregan State Board of Forestry. Res. Note 6. Discussion of lodgepole pine cutting methods. N. Rocky Mtn. For. & Rge. Exp. Station. 13 pp. mimeo. Cutting lodgepole pine i n the northern Rocky mountains. Soc. American Foresters Proceed-ings. S i l v i c u l t u r a l practices f o r lodgepole pine i n Montana. N. Rocky Mtn. For. & Rge. Exp. Station. Sta. Paper No. 3 3 . S i l v i c u l t u r e of Engelmann spruce-alpine f i r type. Journal of Forestry. 51. pp. 349 - 355. A new approach to the northern spruce regen-eration problem. Forestry Chronicle 30 (4) pp. 372 - 379. - 98 -L© 6 S , J " • C • Lewis, R.G. Lindquist, B. 1946. Linteau, A. L i t t l e , S. and 1957. J.J. Mohr. Logan, K.T. I 9 6 0 . Ecology and productivity of black spruce i n the F o o t h i l l s of Alberta. Part III Growth and y i e l d . Dept. Northern Affairs.and National Resources. Forestry Branch. Res. Div. Unpubl. Ms. 12 pp. 1915. Forest products of Canada - 1913. Forestry Branch B u l l . 52. Dept. Int. Some experiments on the reproduction of plantation spruce i n Southern Scandinavia. Svenska. Skogsvardsforingens T i d s k r i f t . V o l . 30 pp. 7 - 38. Stockholm. 1957. Black spruce reproduction on disturbed s o i l conditions. Dept* Northern A f f a i r s and National Resources. Forestry Branch. For.Res. Div. Tech. Note 54. Seedbed treatment increases dominance of natural l o b l o l l y pine reproduction-. N.E. Forest Experiment Station. For. Res. Note 76. 1955. An integrating l i g h t meter f o r e c o l o g i c a l research. Dept. Northern A f f a i r s a nd National Resources. Forestry Branch. For. Res. Div. Tech. Note 13. Lpwdermilk, w.C. 1925* Factors a f f e c t i n g reproduction of Engelmann spruce. Journal Agric. Res. 30 (11) pp. 995 1009. Lutz, H.J. and 1958. Indicators of forest land classes i n a i r A.P. Caporaso. photo interpretation of the Alaska i n t e r i o r . U.S.D.A. Alaska-Station Paper 10. MacEwan, G. 1959* F i f t y mighty men. Modern Press, Edmonton. pp. 342. land MacGregor, J.G. 1952. The/of Twelve Foot Davis. A l l i e d Arts Products Ltd. Second E d i t i o n . Edmonton., pp. 395. McLeod & Blyth. 1949. Blankets and beads. The Inst, of Applied Arts Ltd. Edmonton, pp . 2 7 6 . 1955. Y i e l d of even-aged, f u l l y stocked, spruce poplar stahds'-In Northern A l b e r t a . Dept. Northern A f f a i r s a nd National Resources. Forestry Branch. For. Res. Div. Tech. Note 18, Mason, D.T 1915. U t i l i s a t i o n and management of lodgepole pine i n the Rocky Mountains. U.S.D.A. B u l l . No. 234. - . 9 9 -Moore, B. Moss, E.H. Mowat, E.L. N i e n s t a e d t , H. 1957. 0ntkean,G. and 1 9 5 9 . L.A. S m i t h e r s . O o s t i n g , H.J. and 1952. J.F. Heed. P a r k e r , H.A. 1 9 2 6 . I n f l u e n c e of c e r t a i n s o i l and l i g h t c o n d i t i o n s on the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f r e p r o d u c t i o n i n n o r t h w e s t e r n c o n i f e r s . E c o l . 1. pp. 191 - 2 0 0 . 1 9 5 3 ; Marsh and bog v e g e t a t i o n i n n o r t h w e s t e r n A l b e r t a . Can. J o u r . B o t . 3 1 : pp. 448 - 4 7 0 . J u l y . 1955• The v e g e t a t i o n o f A l b e r t a . B o t . Review. V o l . 2 1 . No. 9 . pp. 493 - 5 6 7 . 1 9 4 9 . P r e l i m i n a r y g u i d e s f o r the management o f l o d g e p o l e p i n e . P a c i f i c N.W. F o r . E x p t . S t a t i o n . Note 5 4 . S i l v i e a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of w h i t e s p r u c e , l a k e S t a t e s F o r . E x p t . S t a t i o n . U.S.D.A. S t a t i o n P a p e r No. 5 5 . Growth of A l b e r t a w h i t e s p r u c e a f t e r r e l e a s e from aspen c o m p e t i t i o n . Dept. N o r t h e r n A f f a i r s and N a t i o n a l R e s o u r c e s . F o r e s t r y B r a n c h . Res. D i v . 8 pp. Mine6. V i r g i n s p r u c e - f i r f o r e s t ' i n the M e d i c i n e Bow Mou n t a i n . E c o l . Monog. 2 2 . 69 - 91. 1 9 5 2 . 1 9 4 2 . Dominant h e i g h t and average d i a m e t e r as a measure o f s i t e i n u n t r e a t e d l o d g e p o l e p i n e s t a n d s . Dept. Mines and R e s o u r c e s . D.F.S. S i l v . Res. Note No. 7 2 . 1 9 5 2 . Spruce r e g e n e r a t i o n on deep moss a f t e r l e g g i n g . Dept. N o r t h e r n A f f a i r s and N a t i o n a l R e s o u r c e s . F o r e s t r y B r a n c h . F o r . Res. D i v . S i l v . L e a f . 6 2 . P a t e r s o n , D.N. 1958 P h e l p s , V.H. 1948. Some o b s e r v a t i o n s of t h e v i r g i n s p r u c e balsam f o r e s t i n the B r i t i s h Columbia I n t e r i o r . Empire For.Rev. Dec. pp. 3 9 9 . White s p r u c e s t a n d s c u t t o d i f f e r e n t diam-e t e r l i m i t s i n N o r t h e r n Saskatchewan. Dept. N o r t h e r n A f f a i r s and N a t i o n a l R e s o u r c e s F o r e s t r y B r a n c h . F o r . Res. D i v . S i l v . Res. Note 8 6 . P l a c e , I.C.M. 1 9 5 3 . S e l e c t i v e c u t t i n g and the a l l - a g e d s t a n d . F o r e s t r y C h r o n i c l e . 29 (3) pp. 248 - 2 5 3 . 1 9 5 5 . The i n f l u e n c e o f seedbed c o n d i t i o n s on t h e r e g e n e r a t i o n o f sp r u c e and balsam f i r . B u l l . 117. Dept. N o r t h e r n A f f a i r s and N a t i o n a l R e s o u r c e s . - 100 -Pogue, H.M. 1946. Regeneration and growth of white spruce a f t e r l e g g i n g . B r i t i s h Columbia Forest S e r v i c e . T. 29. Quaite, J . 1950A. 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Report. 40 pp. S u r v i v a l of white spruce seedlings r e s u l t i n g from s c a r i f i c a t i o n i n a p a r t i a l l y - c u t mixedwood stand. 1 9 5 1 . 1 9 5 3 . 1 9 5 4 . 1 9 5 6 . Raup, H.M. 1 9 4 5 . Forests and gardens along the Alaska Highway. Geog. Review. "Vol. xxxv. No. 1. Reed, J. 1 9 5 4 . Forests of France. Faber & Faber, London. 296 pp. Richards & Weaver. 1 9 4 4 . Moisture retention by some i r r i g a t e d s o i l s Jour. Agric. Res. V o l . 69 No. 6. Sept. Roe, E.I. 1 9 5 2 . Seed production of a white spruce tree. Lake State F.E.S. Tech. Note 373. 1 9 5 7 . S i l v i e a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of tamarack. Lake Sta t e s For. Expt. S t a t i o n . S t a t i o n Paper No. 5 2 . 1 9 5 8 . S i l v i e a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of balsam poplar. Lake States For. Expt. S t a t i o n . S t a t i o n Paper No. 6 5 . Rowe, J.S. 1953A. V i a b l e seed on white spruce t r e e s i n midsummer. Dept. of Northern A f f a i r s and N a t i o n a l Resources. F o r e s t r y Branch. Forest Res. Div. S i l v . Leaf.9 9 . - 1 0 1 -Rowe, J.S. 1953B. 1 9 5 3 C 1 9 5 3 D . 1 9 5 5 . 1 9 5 6 . 1 9 5 9 . F o r e s t s i t e s - a d i s c u s s i o n . F o r e s t r y C h r o n i c l e 2 9 : 3 . pp. 2 7 8 - 2 8 9 . D e l a y e d g e r m i n a t i o n o f w h i t e spruce seed on burned ground. Dept. N o r t h e r n A f f a i r s and N a t i o n a l R e s o u r c e s . F o r e s t r y Branch. F o r . R e s . D i v . S i l v . L e a f . 84. V i a b l e seed on w h i t e s p r u c e i n midsummer. Dept. N o r t h e r n A f f a i r s and N a t i o n a l Resources F o r e s t r y B r a n c h . Res. D i v . S i l v . L e a f . 9 9 . F a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g w h i t e s p r u c e r e p r o d u c t i o n i n M a n i t o b a and Saskatchewan. Dept. N o r t h e r n A f f a i r s and N a t i o n a l R e s o u r c e s . F o r e s t r y Branch. F o r . Res. D i v . Tech. Note 3 . Uses of undergrowth p l a n t s p e c i e s i n f o r e s t r y . E c o l . J u l y . 3 7 : 3 . F o r e s t r e g i o n s o f Canada. Dept. N o r t h e r n A f f a i r s and N a t i o n a l R e s o u r c e s . F o r e s t r y B r a n c h . F o r . Res. D i v . B u l l . No. 1 2 3 . R u s s e l , S i r E . J . 1958. S o i l c o n d i t i o n s and p l a n t growth. Longmans" Green & Co. New Yo r k . 8th Ed. x v i & 635 pp. -PP. 31 . S c o f i e l d . 1 9 4 5 . S h i r l e y , H.L. I 9 A . I . S m i t h , J.H.G. 1 9 5 5 . The measurement of s o i l w ater. J o u r . A g r i c . Res. V o l . 71 . No. 9. November. R e s t o r i n g c o n i f e r s t o aspen l a n d s i n t h e Lake S t a t e s . U.S.D.A. Lake S t a t e s F.E.S. Tech. B u l l . No. 763. Some f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g r e p r o d u c t i o n of Engelmann s p r u c e and a l p i n e f i r . B r i t i s h C olumbia F o r e s t S e r v i c e . Tech. Note 4 3 . S m i t h , J.H.G. and 1 9 5 6 . 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Canada. Ecology and s i l v i c u l t u r e of the spruce-fir f o r e s t s of Eastern North America. Jour. For. 51 (6). pp. 422 - 4 3 0 . - 103 -West veld, R.H. 1949 Wright, T.G. 1959-Wynnyk, A. and 1954. W. Odynsky. Applied s i l v i c u l t u r e i n the United States. 'Wiley & Sons, New York, x i - 5 9 0 pp. The Canadian spruce f o r e s t . Forestry Chronicle 35: 4. pp. 291 - 297. Exploratory s o i l survey of portion of the 'Valleyview-Whitecourt Area. Alberta s o i l survey. Univ. of Alberta. Res. Council of Alberta, S o i l Survey Section. Unpubl. Report. 10 pp. — o O o — 

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