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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Study of soils as related to site index of Douglas fir at Haney, British Columbia. Keser, Nurettin 1960

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A STUDY OF SOILS AS RELATED TO SITE INDEX OF DOUGLAS FIR AT HANEY, BRITISH COLUMBIA BY NURETTIN KESER B.S.F., U n i v e r s i t y of I s t a n b u l , 1956 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER IN FORESTRY i n the Department of F o r e s t r y We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September, I960 I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I agree t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by t h e Head o f my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f *Fo£.&S7R.'Y  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver $, Canada. ABSTRACT These s o i l s t u d i e s were c a r r i e d out on e i g h t permanent p l o t s at the U n i v e r s i t y Research E o r e s t , Haney, B.C. These p l o t s ranged i n Douglas f i r s i t e q u a l i t y values 80 t o 180 f e e t at 100 years. The s o i l of each p l o t was examined by means of s o i l p i t s and s o i l samples were taken f o r l a b o r a t o r y a n a l y s i s . For each p l o t , topography, v e g e t a t i o n , general moisture c o n d i t i o n , degree of s t o n i n e s s , nature of s o i l and f o r each p r o f i l e depth of h o r i z o n s , s o i l c o l o r , t e x t u r e , s t r u c t u r e , consistence the amount and p o s i t i o n of organic matter, drainage, p h y s i o l o g i c depth, depth to m o t t l i n g and s p e c i a l f e a t u r e s of the p r o f i l e such as hardpan, o r s t e i n , shot m a t e r i a l , r o o t mats were determined. In the l a b o r a t o r y , per cent s o i l s k e l e t o n , t e x t u r e s p e c i f i c g r a v i t y of s o i l s , b u l k d e n s i t y , t o t a l - p o r e space, macro-pore space, micro-pore space, h y d r a u l i c c o n d u c t i v i t y and a v a i l a b l e water between 0.1 and 15*0 atmosphere ( c o r r e c t e d f o r s o i l s k e l e t o n and/or s o i l s t o n i n e s s ) , s o i l a c i d i t y , t o t a l c a t i o n exchange c a p a c i t y , exchangeable cal c i u m and potassium, and organic matter content were determined. S t a t i s t i c a l analyses were conducted to determine the s i g n i f i c a n c y of the v a l u e s obtained i n l a b o r a t o r y a n a l y s i s Regression equations were determined f o r e v a l u a t i n g s i t e index from morphological s o i l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s such as h o r i z o n t h i c k n e s s , depth to m o t t l i n g . The s o i l s of the area were mainly d e r i v e d from g l a c i a l t i l l . T i l l i s a coarse t e x t u r e (coarse sandy loam to loamy sand) c o n t a i n i n g g r a v e l s , stones, and b o u l d e r s . I t was g e n e r a l l y hard and impervious to water movement. The p r o f i l e s g e n e r a l l y have shown A Q 0 , A Q, Ag, ^11' "^12' "^ 3 a n c^ ^ h o r i z o n s , ^he development of e l u v i a l and i l l u v i a l h o r i z o n s ( e s p e c i a l l y c l a y accumulation) appeared somewhat weak. P r o f i l e s have shown coarse t e x t u r e s i m i l a r to t h a t of g l a c i a l t i l l . The depth of p r o f i l e s v a r i e d between 5 and 33 i n c h e s , the average range being from 20 t o 30 i n c h e s . Two main s o i l groups were observed among the e i g h t p l o t s . P l o t s 2 , 3 and 4- were minimal podzol (Order: P o d z o l s ) , p l o t . 1 was c o n c r e t i o n a r y brown (Order: B r u n o s o l i c ) , and p l o t s 5, 6 , 7 and 8 are c l a s s i f i e d as i n t e r g r a d e between c o n c r e t i o n a r y brown and minimal p o d z o l . G e n e r a l l y the coarse s k e l e t o n comprises more than 50 per cent of the s o i l . A l l the s o i l s were v e r y low i n c l a y content. H y d r a u l i c c o n d u c t i v i t y was high. Micro-pore space showed higher per cent l a y e r s than macro-pore space. i i i The a v a i l a b l e water was low i n general due to t e x t u r e . The preponderance of stones i n the s o i l had an adverse e f f e c t on the w a t e r - h o l d i n g c a p a c i t y of the s o i l . Consequently, s t o n i n e s s had to be taken i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n determining the a c t u a l volume of a v a i l a b l e water. A l l the s o i l s were a c i d i n r e a c t i o n . The organic matter was h i g h i n upper h o r i z o n s and decreased w i t h depth. T o t a l cation-exchange c a p a c i t y exchangeable, c a l c i u m and potassium and calc i u m base s a t u r a t i o n were low. C o r r e l a t i o n s t u d i e s between s o i l p r o p e r t i e s and s i t e q u a l i t y i n d i c a t e d t h a t the p h y s i c a l s o i l p r o p e r t i e s were more important than chemical c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as an i n d i c a t i o n of s o i l q u a l i t y . Texture, b u l k d e n s i t y , p o r o s i t i e s (macro-, micro and t o t a l ) , h y d r a u l i c c o n d u c t i v i t y d i d not show any c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h s i t e q u a l i t y but were s i g n i f i c a n t at the 5 per cent l e v e l between the p l o t s (except micro-pore space). A v a i l a b l e water^was p o s i t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h s i t e q u a l i t y when i t was c o r r e c t e d f o r ston i n e s s and coarse s k e l e t o n . Chemical p r o p e r t i e s were not s i g n i f i c a n t between the p l o t s and d i d not show any c o r r e l a t i o n to s i t e q u a l i t y . M o r p h o l o g i c a l f e a t u r e s such as t h i c k n e s s of B-^ h o r i z o n and depth to m o t t l i n g were h i g h l y c o r r e l a t e d to s i t e q u a l i t y and gave the s m a l l e s t standard e r r o r of the estimate (- 21.3 f e e t ) . i v The study i n d i c a t e s t h a t the volume of a v a i l a b l e water i n the s o i l was most important f o r the growth of Douglas f i r and th a t the s i t e index of an area c o u l d be determined from a study of those morphological f e a t u r e s of the s o i l which a f f e c t s i t s w ater-holding c a p a c i t y , as w e l l as other morphological f e a t u r e s such as depth to m o t t l i n g . v TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE INTRODUCTION 1 I . REVIEW OF LITERATURE 2 S o i l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n 2 The For e s t e d S o i l s of the Lower Mainland of B r i t i s h Columbia 12 S o i l s and Fo r e s t Growth 20 I I . EXPERIMENTAL 26 General D e s c r i p t i o n of the Area.. 26 L o c a t i o n 26 Geology 27 Climate 28 Fo r e s t Type 29 L o c a t i o n of the P l o t s 30 F i e l d Methods 30 Mapping 30 M i c r o c l i m a t e 30 V e g e t a t i o n 31 S o i l s S t u d i e s and Sampling 31 Laboratory Methods 33 S t a t i s t i c a l Analyses 35 I I I . RESULTS 36 Physiography 36 V e g e t a t i o n 38 v i PAGE M i c r o c l i m a t e 4-1 D e s c r i p t i o n of S o i l s 44 Ge n e r a l i z e d P r o f i l e D e s c r i p t i o n 44 Hori z o n Depths 50 Stoniness 52 Chemical P r o p e r t i e s 52 P h y s i c a l S o i l P r o p e r t i e s 55 S t a t i s t i c a l Analyses 58 IV. SOILS AND SITE QUALITY 60 Climate 60 Great S o i l Groups 61 P h y s i c a l P r o p e r t i e s of S o i l s 61 Chemical P r o p e r t i e s of S o i l s 64 Regression A n a l y s i s 65 V. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION 67 BIBLIOGRAPHY 73 APPENDIX 87 FOLLOWING TABLE ' :. PAGE;.. ; 1. P o d z o l i c and B r u n o s o l i c Orders from the Canadian S o i l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n (1958) 10 2 . Stand Data f o r the E i g h t Study P l o t s , October 1956 19 3. Mean Monthly, Maximum and Minimum P r e c i p i t a t i o n and Temperature Data f o r Haney Recording S t a t i o n 1946 - 1957 27 v i i TABLE 4 . Mean Weekly, A i r , Maximum Minimum Temperature and Temperature Range, R e l a t i v e Humidity and Dew P o i n t s f o r P l o t s 1 , 2 , 4 and 8 40 5 . H o r i z o n Thickness, Depth of Solum, p h y s i o l o g i c Depth and Depth to M o t t l i n g f o r a l l P l o t s . . . 4 9 6 . Stone Contents of P l o t s 1 , 3 and 5 51 7 . S o i l R e a c t i o n (pH Values) f o r S o i l s of a l l P l o t s 52 8. Organic Matter, T o t a l Exchange C a p a c i t y and Exchangeable Calcium and Potassium f o r the S o i l of P l o t s 1 , 2 , 3 and 5 . 52 9 . Mechanical A n a l y s i s and Coarse S k e l e t o n f o r S o i l s of P l o t s 1 , 2 , 3 and 5 54 1 0 . F i e l d Texture of S o i l s 54 1 1 . Bulk D e n s i t y , T o t a l , Macro, Micro P o r o s i t i e s and H y d r a u l i c C o n d u c t i v i t y of S o i l s of P l o t s 1, 3 and 5 • 54 1 2 . T o t a l P o r o s i t y C a l c u l a t e d by Two Methods f o r P l o t s 1 , 3 and 5 . • • 54 1 3 . S p e c i f i c G r a v i t y of S o i l s i n P l o t s 1 ,3 and 5«»« 54 14. R a t i o of the Macro-Porosity to M i c r o - P o r o s i t y f o r P l o t s 1 , 3 and 5 54 15* . 1 and 15 Atmosphere M o i s t u r e , i n inches per H o r i z o n f o r the S o i l s of P l o t s 1 ,3 and 54 v i i i TABLE 16. A v a i l a b l e Water ( . 1 - 1 5 atmosphere), I n Per Cent and Inches Per Horizons f o r the S o i l s of P l o t s 1 ,5 and 5 54 1 7 . Summary of E Values and S i g n i f i c a n c e from Variance Analyses of P h y s i c a l Data f o r P l o t s 1 ,5 and 5 57 18. Variance Analyses of Chemical Data f o r P l o t s 1,2 ,3 and 5 57 19. M a t r i x of Simple C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s f o r V a r i a b l e s , X-j^  ,X 2 ,X^ ,X^,X^ ,X & ,Xy ,X Q and Y. . .. 64 20. Simple L i n e a r Equations of Y on Xg,X^,X^,X^ and X Q 64-21. Anova f o r a Simple Regression of Y on 54. 22. Anova f o r a Simple Regression of Y on X^ 64 2 3 . Anova f o r a Simple Regression of Y on X^ 64 24. Anova f o r a Simple Regression of Y on X^ 64 2 5 . Anova f o r a Simple Regression of Y on X Q 64 26. M u l t i p l e L i n e a r Equations of Y on Various Combinations of X-^_g 64 2 7 . Anova f o r a M u l t i p l e L i n e a r Regression of Y on X-j^-Xg 64 28. Anova f o r a M u l t i p l e L i n e a r Regression of Y on X^ and Xg 64 2 9 . Anova f o r a M u l t i p l e L i n e a r Regression of Y on X^ and X^ 64 i x TABLE 30. Anova f o r M u l t i p l e L i n e a r Regression of Y on Xg and X^  64 31. Anova f o r M u l t i p l e L i n e a r Regression of Y on X,, and Xc 64 4 5 32. Anova f o r M u l t i p l e L i n e a r Regression of Y on X^ , X^  and Xg 64 33* Percentage of T o t a l V a r i a t i o n i n S i t e Index A s s o c i a t e d w i t h Each and A l l F a c t o r s 64 FIGURE 1. I l l u s t r a t i o n ( a f t e r K e l l e y a n d . S p i l s b u r y showing the general f u t u r e s of the s o i l zone and i t s a s s o c i a t e i n the lower F r a s e r V a l l e y 11 2. U n i v e r s i t y Research Forest Showing the s u r f i c i a l geology according to map 16-1957 of the G e o l o g i c a l Survey of Canada, Dept. and T e c h n i c a l Survey 26 3. Average monthly p r e c i p i t a t i o n and temperature at Haney, 1946 - 1^ 58 27 4. Climograph ( a f t e r Koeppe )showing the c l i m a t i c p a t t e r n of Haney 27 5 . L o c a t i o n of p l o t s i n U.B.C. Research F o r e s t , Haney. 29 6. Topographic map of p l o t 1 35 7 . P r o j e c t i o n map of p l o t 1 , 35 8. Topographic map of p l o t 2 35 x f i g u r e 9 . P r o j e c t i o n map of p l o t 2 35 1 0 . Topographic map of p l o t 4 35 1 1 . Topographic and p r o j e c t i o n map of p l o t 5 35 1 2 . Topographic and p r o j e c t i o n map of p l o t 7 35 13- Average atmospheric temperature f o r p l o t s 1 , 2 , 4,8 and average dew-points f o r p l o t s 1 and 4 f o r the p e r i o d of May 21 to August 15, 1957 4-0 14. Average weekly r e l a t i v e humidity and temperature ranges f o r p l o t s 1 , 2 , 4 and 8, f o r the p e r i o d May 21 to August 1 5 , 1 9 5 7 . . . . 40 1 5 . Weekly average dew-points f o r p l o t s 1 , 2 , 4,8 and 2 f o r the p e r i o d May 21 to August 1 5 , 1957 40 16. The p r o f i l e p i c t u r e s of p l o t s 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 and 6 . . . 4 3 1 7 . Changes i n s o i l p o r o s i t y w i t h s o i l depth f o r p l o t s 1 ,3 and 5 56 18. R a i n f a l l at s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t e l e v a t i o n s f o r J u l y and August, 1957 59 1 9 . Average depth of s o i l h o r i z o n s f o r p l o t s 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 and 5 i n r e l a t i o n to s i t e index 59 2 0 . Average t h i c k n e s s of B j ^ B ^ and f o r p l o t s l , 2 , 3 » 4 - , 5 , 6 , 7 and 8 i n r e l a t i o n to s i t e index 59 x i FIGURE 2 1 . Depth, of solum, e f f e c t i v e depth and depth t o m o t t l i n g i n r e l a t i o n to s i t e index 5 9 22 . Maximum, minimum, and average e f f e c t i v e depth f o r a l l p l o t s i n r e l a t i o n to s i t e index 5 9 x i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The author i s indebted and wishes to express h i s thanks to Dr. C.A. Rowles, Chairman of S o i l Science Department and Dr. B.G. G r i f f i t h of the F a c u l t y of F o r e s t r y . The guidance of Dr. J.H.G. Smith of the F a c u l t y of F o r e s t r y i n the s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s of the data i n the t h e s i s i s g r a t e f u l l y acknowledged by the author. The f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e from the F a c u l t y of F o r e s t r y and the l a b o r a t o r y f a c i l i t i e s p r o v i d e d by the Department of S o i l Science are a l s o acknowledged. The author wishes to thank Mr. L. Heger, graduate student i n the F a c u l t y of F o r e s t r y f o r a s s i s t a n c e i n u s i n g A l l w a c I I I , and Mrs. Mona Lambden, l a b o r a t o r y t e c h n i c i a n , f o r her help i n p r e p a r i n g the f i g u r e s . x i i i INTRODUCTION This study arose from a r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t begun s e v e r a l years ago by members of the F a c u l t y of F o r e s t r y , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, at the U n i v e r s i t y Research F o r e s t , Haney, B r i t i s h Columbia (4-6). I t s purpose was to study, by means of f i e l d o b s ervations and l a b o r a t o r y a n a l y s i s , the nature and p r o p e r t i e s of the s o i l s on a number of experimental p l o t s f o r which Douglas f i r s i t e i n d i c e s and oth e r i n f o r m a t i o n had been e s t a b l i s h e d (61). I t was hoped t h a t the r e s u l t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n could be used as a b a s i s f o r c l a s s i f y i n g the s o i l s , f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g c o r r e l a t i o n s between f i e l d o b s e r v a t i o n s and f o r e x p l a i n i n g d i f f e r e n c e s i n growth behavior on the d i f f e r e n t s i t e p l o t s . The f i e l d work was c a r r i e d out from May 1 5 t h to September 2nd, 1957 at the U n i v e r s i t y Research F o r e s t , Haney; and the l a b o r a t o r y analyses were done i n the l a b o r a t o r i e s of the Department of S o i l S c i e n c e , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. 1 I. REVIEW/OF LITERATURE 1. S o i l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n The purpose of s o i l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s are s i m i l a r to those of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s of n a t u r a l o b j e c t s i n g e n e r a l , namely, to f a c i l i t a t e the o r g a n i z a t i o n of f a c t s concerning the o b j e c t s and to d i s c o v e r order ( 9 9 ) . S o i l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , t h e r e f o r e , c o n s t i t u t e s one important element i n the present study. A l l systems of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of n a t u r a l bodies are more or l e s s p r o v i s i o n a l because they are based on incomplete knowledge of the o b j e c t s themselves and consequently, c l a s s i f i c a t i o n must be m o d i f i e d from time to time as new f a c t s are e s t a b l i s h e d . This has c h a r a c t e r i z e d s o i l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i n the past and i s s t i l l e vident at the present time. The: e a r l i e s t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of s o i l s was based e n t i r e l y on geology. However, modern concepts of s o i l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n are v e r y d i f f e r e n t and had t h e i r o r i g i n i n the work of Russian p e d o l o g i s t s about 1870. The Rus s i a n s c i e n t i s t s conceived s o i l s t o be independent n a t u r a l bodies, each w i t h a unique morphology and r e s u l t i n g from a unique combination of c l i m a t e , l i v i n g matter, parent rock m a t e r i a l , r e l i e f and time (148). The morphology of each s o i l as 2 3 expressed i n i t s p r o f i l e , r e f l e c t e d the combined e f f e c t of the p a r t i c u l a r set of g e n e t i c f a c t o r s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r i t s development. The modern concept of a s o i l i s t h a t : I t i s an i n d i v i d u a l i n a continuum. I t i s a dynamic, three-dimensional p i e c e of landscape t h a t supports p l a n t s . I t has a unique combination of both i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s - t h a t \ h a v e f ; d e f i n a b l e ranges of e x p r e s s i o n . Each i n d i v i d u a l type of s o i l has a model set of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w i t h i n the l i m i t s set by l o g i c . I t s upper s u r f a c e i s the surface of the l a n d . The lower surface i s d e f i n e d by the lower l i m i t s of s o i l - f o r m i n g processes and i t s boundaries are boundaries w i t h other k i n d s of s o i l where changes occur i n one or more d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . r e l a t e d i n t u r n to one or more of the g e n e t i c f a c t o r s (148). Marbut was l a r g e l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r i n t r o d u c i n g the Russian conception of s o i l s i n t o North America when he t r a n s l a t e d G l i n k a ' s book The Great S o i l Groups of the World  and T h e i r Development ( 7 7 )• Marbut adapted and broadened the Russian conceptions i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s . He emphasized the importance of s o i l morphology besides the s o i l g e n e t i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . He came to the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t the examination of the morphological f e a t u r e s of a s o i l p r o f i l e were e s s e n t i a l f o r the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and mapping of s o i l s . In 1921 Marbut l i s t e d e i g h t important f e a t u r e s of the p r o f i l e t h a t should be s t u d i e d by the morphologist and used as a b a s i s f o r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of s o i l s . These were: 1. Number of h o r i z o n s i n the s o i l p r o f i l e . 2. C o l o u r of v a r i o u s h o r i z o n s w i t h s p e c i a l emphasis 4-on the surface A-B. 3. The t e x t u r e of the h o r i z o n s . 4-. The s t r u c t u r e of the h o r i z o n s . 5 . The r e l a t i v e arrangement of the h o r i z o n s . 6. The chemical composition of h o r i z o n s . 7. The t h i c k n e s s of h o r i z o n s . 8 . The geology of s o i l m a t e r i a l ( 1 2 3 ) . In 1935 Marbut p u b l i s h e d a scheme of s o i l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n as an i n t r o d u c t i o n to h i s monograph of the s o i l s of the U n i t e d S t a t e s . This represented a c o n s i d e r a b l e r e v i s i o n of the e a r l i e r American system and c o n t a i n s much evidence of the i n f l u e n c e of the Russian p e d o l o g i s t s ( 7 2 ) . Marbut's c l a s s i f i c a t i o n r e c o g n i z e d s i x c a t e g o r i e s : I - s o i l type; I I - s o i l s e r i e s ; I I I - f a m i l y ; IV - s o i l groups; V - sub order; V I - o r d e r s . The concepts and d e f i n i t i o n s of these c a t e g o r i e s were subsequently m o d i f i e d by Marbut's successors ( 1 2 3)(160). The s o i l type has remained a b a s i c or common u n i t of s o i l mapping and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i n the United S t a t e s and has been d e f i n e d as "a group of s o i l s having g e n e t i c h o r i z o n s i m i l a r as to d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , i n c l u d i n g t e x t u r e and arrangement i n the s o i l p r o f i l e , and developed from a p a r t i c u l a r parent m a t e r i a l . " ( 1 3 1 ) 5 The s o i l s e r i e s represents a somewhat hi g h e r l e v e l of g e n e r a l i z a t i o n and i t s d e f i n i t i o n has remained r e l a t i v e l y -unchanged : ...a group of s o i l s having g e n e t i c horizons s i m i l a r as to d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and arrangement i n the s o i l p r o f i l e , except f o r the t e x t u r e of the surface s o i l , and developed from a p a r t i c u l a r type of parent m a t e r i a l . A s e r i e s may i n c l u d e two or more s o i l types d i f f e r i n g from one another i n t e x t u r e of the s u r f a c e s o i l . ( 1 3 1 ) The t h i r d category, the f a m i l y , was i n c o m p l e t e l y d e f i n e d by Marbut and i t s concept, d e f i n i t i o n and use have been m o d i f i e d c o n s i d e r a b l y . These three lower c a t e g o r i e s of s o i l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n I , I I , I I I have been d i s c u s s e d i n d e t a i l by Riecken and Smith ( 1 3 1 ) . These authors viewed the f a m i l y as a category of s o i l s i n t e r m e d i a t e between the great s o i l group and the s o i l s e r i e s . I n f a c t , the s o i l f a m i l y i s s t i l l i n the process of d e f i n i t i o n and development ( 1 3 1 ) . The h i g h e r c a t e g o r i e s of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , great s o i l groups, sub order and o r d e r , have been mo d i f i e d c o n s i d e r a b l y s i n c e the scheme was o r i g i n a l l y proposed by Marbut. Order was the h i g h e s t category i n the s o i l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme. The o r d e r s , as o u t l i n e d by Baldwin et a l . were z o n a l , i n t r a z o n a l and a z o n a l s o i l s . Zonal s o i l s were d e f i n e d as "any one of the great groups of s o i l s having w e l l developed s o i l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h a t r e f l e c t the i n f l u e n c e of the a c t i v e f a c t o r s of s o i l genesis; c l i m a t e and 6 l i v i n g organisms, c h i e f l y v e g e t a t i o n . "(160X14-7) I n t r a z o n a l s o i l s were d e f i n e d as "any of the great groups of s o i l s v^ith more or l e s s w e l l developed s o i l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h a t r e f l e c t the dominating i n f l u e n c e of some.'local f a c t o r of r e l i e f , parent m a t e r i a l , or age over the normal e f f e c t of the c l i m a t e and v e g e t a t i o n . 1 1 (14-7) Azonal s o i l s were d e f i n e d as "any group of s o i l s without w e l l developed p r o f i l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , owing to t h e i r youth or c o n d i t i o n s of parent m a t e r i a l or r e l i e f , t h a t prevent the development of normal s o i l p r o f i l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . "(14-7) Sub order was the second h i g h e s t category i n the s o i l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system. The Great s o i l group, .a group of s o i l s having common i n t e r n a l s o i l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , i n c l u d e s one or more f a m i l i e s of s o i l s (160). Among the zonal s o i l s , each great s o i l group i n c l u d e s s o i l s which have i n common c e r t a i n p r o f i l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s developed through the i n f l u e n c e of environmental f o r c e s of broad geographic s i g n i f i c a n c e , e s p e c i a l l y v e g e t a t i o n and c l i m a t e ; among the i n t r a z o n a l s o i l s , each great s o i l group i n c l u d e s s o i l s which have i n common c e r t a i n p r o f i l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s developed through the i n f l u e n c e of environmental f o r c e s of both broad and l o c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e ; among the azonal s o i l s each great s o i l group i n c l u d e s s i m i l a r s o i l s t h a t are without developed p r o f i l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , owing to the i n f l u e n c e of some l o c a l c o n d i t i o n of parent m a t e r i a l or r e l i e f . (160)(14-7) 7 Since 1938 some m o d i f i c a t i o n s have been made. The m o d i f i c a t i o n of order, sub order and great s o i l groups i s di s c u s s e d by Thorp and Smith (160). These authors s t a t e t h a t "although a n a t u r a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of s o i l s should be based on p h y s i c a l and chemical p r o p e r t i e s of the s o i l s themselves, i t i s d i f f i c u l t to adhere s t r i c t l y to morphology." A l s o they suggested t h a t "terms i n d i c a t i n g z o n a l i t y or l a c k of i t may be abandoned e v e n t u a l l y i n f a v o r of terms based on s o i l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . " The s o i l phases and s o i l , catena or toposequence are two other u n i t s t h a t have o f t e n been used i n s o i l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . The S o i l phase was d e f i n e d as: That p a r t of a s o i l u n i t or s o i l type having minor v a r i a t i o n s i n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s from the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s normal f o r the type, although they may be of great p r a c t i c a l importance. The v a r i a t i o n s are c h i e f l y i n such c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as r e l i e f , s t o n i n e s s , a c c e l e r a t e d e r o s i o n , s o i l depth, s o i l t h i c k n e s s or drainage. Riecken and Smith s t a t e d t h a t "the p r o p e r t i e s of a s o i l phase must be w i t h i n a d e f i n e d range of the s o i l type and s e r i e s . " ( 1 2 1 ) . The S o i l catena was d e f i n e d as "a group of s o i l s w i t h i n one zo n a l r e g i o n , developed from s i m i l a r parent m a t e r i a l , but d i f f e r i n g i n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n r e l i e f or drainage. " ( 1 2 3 )• The catena concept was o r i g i n a l l y developed by B u s h n e l l (10) and has been e x t e n s i v e l y used i n s o i l surveys. 8 E l l i s ( 1 2 3 ) advanced the same concept and suggested t h a t the term S o i l A s s o c i a t i o n be used to r e f e r to i t . A v e r y complete and d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n of s o i l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and i n s t r u c t i o n f o r the f i e l d d e s c r i p t i o n and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of s o i l s i s contained i n the S o i l Survey Manual (148), p u b l i s h e d by the S o i l Survey S t a f f of the U n i t e d S t a t e s Department of A g r i c u l t u r e . The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of Canadian s o i l s was begun about 1 9 2 0 , and s i n c e t h a t time about 250 m i l l i o n acres of s o i l have been surveyed and c l a s s i f i e d ( 1 3 5 )• The methods of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n have p a r a l l e l e d , to a c o n s i d e r a b l e degree, those o u t l i n e d above f o r the U n i t e d S t a t e s and these methods have been d e s c r i b e d i n the proceedings of the N a t i o n a l S o i l Survey Committee. (123X124)(125) Canadian p e d o l o g i s t s have reco g n i z e d the need f o r two approaches to s o i l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and t h e r e f o r e i n 1945 proposed two separate but r e l a t e d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s . The f i r s t proposed was a " f i e l d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n " and was e s p e c i a l l y adapted to s o i l surveys ( 1 2 3 ) ( 1 5 3 )• I t made use of seven c a t e g o r i e s as f o l l o w s : S o i l r e g i o n s , zones, subzones, a s s o c i a t i o n s or catenas, s e r i e s , type and phases. The broadest category, the r e g i o n , was based on common morphological f e a t u r e s and the environmental f a c t o r s under which the s o i l s developed. The three s o i l r e g i o n s 9 proposed were, the tundra s o i l s r e g i o n , the woodland s o i l s r e g i o n and the g r a s s l a n d s o i l s r e g i o n . The s o i l zones were the main s u b - d i v i s i o n of the r e g i o n and i t i s s t a t e d t h a t : They are l a r g e l y determined by s o i l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h a t can be c o r r e l a t e d w i t h c l i m a t e and v e g e t a t i o n over a comparatively broad area. The zone should he d e f i n e d as a broad b e l t of s o i l s i n which the dominant normal s o i l s correspond to the s o i l s of a great s o i l group, such as p o d z o l s , b l a c k e a r t h s , e t c . Due t o l o c a l c o n d i t i o n s many s o i l s may be focussed i n a s o i l zone which are not of the same type as the dominant soil. ( 1 2 3 ) Three main zones of the g r a s s l a n d r e g i o n were recog n i z e d as brown, dark brown, and b l a c k ; and f i v e i n the woodland r e g i o n as grey wooded, p o d z o l , grey brown, p o d z o l i c , and p a c i f i c (yellow-brown p o d z o l i c ) . S o i l sub-zones were suggested "to cover major broad s o i l v a r i a t i o n s w i t h i n a zone, which can be l i n k e d w i t h gradual c l i m a t i c and v e g e t a t i v e changes and which may or may not be accompanied w i t h changes i n parent m a t e r i a l s . " The concepts and d e f i n i t i o n s of the remaining c a t e g o r i e s were s i m i l a r t o those o u t l i n e d above. I t should be noted t h a t t h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n was designed f o r s u r v e y i n g and the p r o d u c t i o n of s o i l maps. In 1955 the Canadian S o i l Survey Committee undertook to develop and p u b l i s h a n a t u r a l taxonomic system of s o i l 10 c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . M o d i f i c a t i o n s of t h i s scheme were made i n 1957 and 1958 and a r e v i s e d taxonomic system of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n w i l l he p u b l i s h e d i n I960. Rowe, a f o r e s t e r w i t h the Department of Northern A f f a i r s and N a t i o n a l Resources, Ottawa, represented the f o r e s t r y p o i n t of view at the N a t i o n a l S o i l Survey Committee, Guelph, O n t a r i o , I960 (132). He commented on the proposed taxonomic system as f o l l o w s : When the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n becomes a v a i l a b l e , I b e l i e v e t h a t we i n the F o r e s t r y Branch should make every e f f o r t tor use - i t , f o r these reasons:-(1) The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and i t s terminology are endemic and t h e r e f o r e s p e c i f i c f o r Canadian c o n d i t i o n s . E x o t i c c l a s s i f i c a t i o n can never be t r a n s p l a n t e d from one country to another without c o n f u s i o n . (2) There are obvious advantages i n having a l l Canadian s o i l s workers speaking the same language, and i n having the common understanding t h a t makes co-operative work p o s s i b l e . S o i l s are not i d e a l s u b j e c t s f o r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n because ( l ) they are p a r t s of ecosystems, and (2) they are not d i s c r e t e e n t i t i e s , but r a t h e r are continuous and v a r i a b l e i n space. Nevertheless they are a r b i t r a r i l y c l a s s i f i a b l e . C l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s a necessary g e n e r a l i z a t i o n ; i t serves the needs of communication, summarizes knowledge, i n d i c a t e s r e l a t i o n s h i p s , p r o v i d e s the key to i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and the b a s i s f o r s c i e n t i f i c study. The N a t i o n a l S o i l Survey Committee c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s based p r i m a r i l y on type of p r o f i l e , w i t h ecology, chorology ( r e g i o n a l d i s t r i b u t i o n ) and composition ( q u a n t i a t i v e and q u a l i t a t i v e a n a l y s i s ) brought i n s e c o n d a r i l y at some p o i n t s , i n the i n t e r e s t s of c l a r i f i c a t i o n . TABLE 1. PODZOLIC AND BRUNOSOLIC ORDERS FROM THE CANADIAN SOIL CLASSIFICATION ( 1 9 5 8 ) VI ORDER V GREAT GROUP IV SUB-GROUP 3 . PODZOLIC SOILS ( 1 9 5 8 ) S o i l s w i t h leached e l u v i a l (Ae) h o r i z o n s and w i t h i l l u v i a l (B) horizons having accumulations of sesquioxides and/or organic matter or c l a y (not s o l o n e t z i c B). 3 . 1 Gray Brown P o d z o l i c ( 1 9 5 8 ) 3 . 2 Gray Wooded ( 1 9 5 7 ) 3 . 3 Humic Podzol ( 1 9 5 8 ) 3 . 4 Podzol ( 1 9 5 8 ) Under undi s t u r b e d con-d i t i o n s the s o i l s of t h i s group have an organic surface l a y e r ( 0 ) a l i g h t c o l o r e d e l u v i a t e d (Ae) h o r i z o n at l e a s t t h i c k and an i l l u v i a l B h o r i z o n i n which organic matter and sesquioxides are the main accumulation products. The main B h o r i z o n c o n t a i n s l e s s than 10% of organic matter hut a t h i n Bh h o r i z o n ( l e s s than 3 " t h i c k c o n t a i n i n g 10% or more of organic matter) may he present. The solum i s moderately t o s t r o n g l y a c i d and unsaturated. 3.41 Orterde (Modal) Podzol ( 1 9 5 8 ) P o d z o l s o i l s having an organic ( 0 ) s u r f a c e h o r i z o n , a t h i n ( l e s s than 1") l i g h t c o l o r e d e l u v i a l (Ae) h o r i z o n (may be d i s c o n t i n u o u s ) and an i l l u v i a l (B) which co n t a i n s accum-u l a t i o n s of organic matter and sesquioxides, Lacks d i s t i n c t Bh sub-h o r i z o n . 4 . BRUNOSOLIC SOILS ( 1 9 5 8 ) 4 . 1 Brown Fo r e s t ( 1 9 5 8 ) S o i l s w i t h brownish c o l o r e d 4 . 2 Brown Wooded ( 1957 s o l a without marked e l u v i a l BRUNOSOLIC SOILS (Cont'd) or i l l u v i a l horizons or both. These are w e l l d r a i n e d and i m p e r f e c t l y drained s o i l s developed under f o r e s t , mixed grass and f o r e s t or tundra. The major process i n v o l v e d i s weathering and t r a n s l o c a t i o n i s r e s t r i c t e d l a r g e l y to the e a s i l y s o l u b l e s o i l c o n s t i t u e n t s . I t i s considered t h a t these 4 s o i l s are i n a y o u t h f u l stage of development. 4.3 Brown P o d z o l i c (1958) 1 S o i l s having e i t h e r an 0 or a t h i n Ah h o r i z o n ( l e s s than 2 " t h i c k ) or both, u n d e r l a i n by a brown ( c o l o r ) B of low or medium base s a t u r a t i o n . S o i l s w i t h a t h i n Podzol Ae (}&" or l e s s ) are i n c l u d e d w i t h t h i s group. ,4 A c i d Dark Brown Fo r e s t (1958) 31 O r t h i c Brown P o d z o l i c (1958) S o i l s w i t h a s t r o n g l y to medium a c i d 0 h o r i z o n ( g e n e r a l l y of # to 2 " t h i c k ) and may have d,f, and h sub-horizons. The Ah i s l e s s than 2 " t h i c k or l a c k i n g , medium to s t r o n g l y a c i d and un-s a t u r a t e d . The Ae i s g e n e r a l l y absent, but i f present does not exceed . The B i s brown to y e l l o w i s h brown, medium to s t r o n g l y a c i d and u n s a t u r a t e d , without any n o t i c e a b l e accum-u l a t i o n of c l a y or s e s q u i o x i d e s , s l i g h t m o t t l i n g may be found i n the lower B. The C i s a c i d i c i n r e a c t i o n . 4 . 3 2 Gleyed Brown P o d z o l i c (1958) These s o i l s are s i m i l a r to the o r t h i c Brown P o d z o l i c s o i l s except f o r the presence of m o t t l i n g throughout the solum but e s p e c i a l l y i n the lower p a r t . BRUNOSOLIC SOILS (Cont'd) 4-. 5 Concretionary Brown (1958) 4-.51 A group of s o i l s having an 0 horizon, a brownish or reddish B horizon of low base saturation (below 50%) which contains concretions and prominent i r o n coatings. The parent material i s usually of low base saturation and a t h i n Ae may be present. Modal Concretionary Brown (1958) S o i l s having an 0 horizon, and a dark reddish brown, yellowish red or pale brown B horizon of low base saturation which contains concretions and prominent i r o n coatings. Mottling i s absent i n the B horizon. 11 The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme i s based on our present knowledge of Canadian s o i l s and on the concepts which g r a d u a l l y have been developed r e g a r d i n g t h e i r genesis and morphology ( 1 3 2 ) . The proposed system co n t a i n s s i x c a t e g o r i e s . Category I corresponds to the present conception of the s o i l type; I I to the s o i l s e r i e s or catenary member; I I I to the s o i l f a m i l y (low f a m i l y — c o n s i s t i n g of a group of m o r p h o l o g i c a l l y r e l a t e d s e r i e s ) ; IT sub group corresponds c l o s e l y t o the U.S. h i g h f a m i l y which c o n s i s t s of i n t e r - g r a d e or other major d i v i s i o n s of the great s o i l groups; V corresponds c i o s e l y to the present conception of great s o i l groups; and V I , the hig h e s t category, c o n s i s t s of a number of m o r p h o l o g i c a l l y and/ or g e n e t i c a l l y r e l a t e d great s o i l groups. These c a t e g o r i e s and t h e i r s u b - d i v i s i o n s are given i n d e t a i l i n the Report of the T h i r d Conference of the N a t i o n a l S o i l Survey Committee ( 1 2 3 ) . A p a r t of t h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n r e l a t e d to t h i s study i s given i n Table 1 . The s o i l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s d i s c u s s e d above may be r e f e r r e d to as "N a t u r a l S o i l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Systems" t o d i s t i n g u i s h them from t e c h n i c a l or p r a c t i c a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s . A t e c h n i c a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n groups s o i l s on the b a s i s of t h e i r s u i t a b i l i t y f o r a p a r t i c u l a r purpose ( 3 0 ) ( 9 9 ) . T e c h n i c a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s have been proposed f o r many purposes i n c l u d i n g A g r i c u l t u r e , F o r e s t r y , E n g i n e e r i n g , s u s c e p t i b i l i t y to e r o s i o n , p r o d u c t i v i t y r a t i n g and land, u t i l i z a t i o n or c a p a b i l i t y . Zonal Soils Intrazonal Soils Azonal Soils Mature profiles Subdrainage excessive v/-t 2-Mature profiles Subdrainage restricted Groundwater soils Ortstein arsd glei formation 5- Recent alluvial soils — Half-Bog 3-Mature profiles Drainage fair to medium Fig-1 Illustration (after Kelley a Spilsbury) showing the general features of the soil zone and its associates in the lower Fraser Valley (79) 12 Since the c a t e g o r i e s of a n a t u r a l s o i l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system c o n t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n about i n d i v i d u a l s o i l s , they have been used as a b a s i s f o r t e c h n i c a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s (144)(131). I t has been found t h a t the choice of a category depends upon the purpose of the t e c h n i c a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . The c a t e g o r i e s I , I I , and I I I ( t y p e , s e r i e s and f a m i l y ) are o f t e n s u f f i c i e n t f o r t e c h n i c a l grouping. L a t e l y , f a m i l i e s are being w i d e l y used i n E a s t e r n Canada. F a m i l i e s are d i f f e r e n t i a t e d on the b a s i s of t e x t u r e of solum or parent m a t e r i a l , t h i c k n e s s of solum, and the presence of impermeable h o r i z o n s of s u b s t r a t a . These c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are v e r y important i n determining the water regime or water h o l d i n g c a p a c i t y of a p r o f i l e (144)(131). S o i l s e r i e s or phases could be used f o r more d e t a i l e d work. 2. The For e s t e d S o i l s of the Lower Mainland of B r i t i s h  Columbia The s o i l s of the U n i v e r s i t y Research F o r e s t have not been s t u d i e d i n d e t a i l but there have been a number of s t u d i e s and p u b l i c a t i o n s d e a l i n g w i t h the s o i l s of the Lower Mainland. One of the f i r s t r e p o r t s on the s o i l s of the lower mainland area of B r i t i s h Columbia was by K e l l e y and S p i l l s b u r y ( 7 9 ) . These authors d i v i d e d the s o i l s i n t o z o n a l , i n t r a z o n a l and azonal orders and showed the general p o s i t i o n and r e l a t i o n s h i p . F i g u r e 1 i s from t h e i r r e p o r t . 13 I t i s evident t h a t the w e l l d r a i n e d upland s o i l s of the U n i v e r s i t y F o r e s t c o r r e l a t e w i t h the zonal s o i l s d e s c r i b e d by K e l l e y and S p i l l s b u r y , and t h a t the s o i l s of the p o o r l y d r a i n e d d e p r e s s i o n and along the streams c o r r e l a t e w i t h t h e i r i n t r a z o n a l and azonal s o i l s . These authors made a f u r t h e r s u b - d i v i s i o n of the s o i l s i n t o s e r i e s on the b a s i s of the mode or o r i g i n of the parent m a t e r i a l and then grouped the zonal s o i l s on the b a s i s of drainage d i f f e r e n c e s : 1. Zonal S o i l s , subdrainage e x c e s s i v e : E v e r e t t e S e r i e s Lynden S e r i e s 2. Zonal S o i l s , subdrainage r e s t r i c t e d ; Alderwood S e r i e s Whatcom S e r i e s 3 . Zonal S o i l s , drainage f a i r t o medium: M i l n e r S e r i e s Haney S e r i e s ( 7 9 ) The Alderwood S e r i e s was d e s c r i b e d as being " c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a 2 t o 6 f o o t l a y e r of hard, sandy boulder c l a y c o n t a i n i n g stones and g r a v e l , superimposed on a great t h i c k n e s s of s t r a t i f i e d sands and g r a v e l s , and b u r i e d under 2 to 4 f e e t of a l l u v i u m . " ( 7 9 ) The n a t i v e v e g e t a t i o n c o n s i s t s of a l u x u r i a n t second growth of f i r , cedar, hemlock, a l d e r , maple and b i r c h w i t h s c a t t e r e d dogwood. There are many v a r i e t i e s of shrubs and a dense growth of bracken. In v i r g i n areas 14-the s u r f a c e s o i l i s covered w i t h a l a y e r of o r g a n i c -matter accumulation about two inches or l e s s i n t h i c k n e s s , beneath which the s o i l i s reddish-brown to p a l e r e d d i s h -brown, f a d i n g t o brown and brownish-yellow w i t h depth. A-B h o r i z o n of c l a y accumulation i s absent, but numerous i r o n c o n c r e t i o n s are present. The s o i l p r o f i l e i s s u p e r i o r i n m o i s t u r e - h o l d i n g c a p a c i t y t o upland s o i l types of l i g h t t e x t u r e t h a t are not o v e r l a i d by an impervious l a y e r . ( 7 9 ) The Alderwood Sandy s o i l type was d e s c r i b e d by K e l l e y and S p i l l s b u r y as f o l l o w s : "Horizon Depth D e s c r i p t i o n A Q 0-2" Dark brown organic l i t t e r . A^ 2-214" Ash grey, s l i g h t l y p o d z o l i z e d . A^ 2)4-8" P a l e reddish-brown to ri c h , brown; l o o s e , open, s i n g l e g r a i n e d ; sandy loam w i t h i r o n c o n c r e t i o n s ; d e f i c i e n t i n humus; s c a t t e r e d g r a v e l and surface stones. A^ 8-20 Sandy loam, c o n c r e t i o n s of g r a v e l and stone. Colour shades from brown to y e l l o w i s h brown. Horizon ends i n mat of r o o t s which l i e s d i r e c t l y on hard boulder c l a y . D Grey boulder c l a y 20 - 24- inches t h i c k , composed of hard cement-like sandy mixture c o n t a i n i n g s t o n e s . " ( 7 9 ) Topography i s r o l l i n g or mountainous on the n o r t h s i d e of. the E r a s e r w i t h i n c l u d e d areas having more gen t l e s l o p e s . 15 The m i n e r a l composition of Alderwood S i l t loam from the Alderwood S e r i e s i s given here from the same r e p o r t : " N i t r o g e n , Organic Matter and M i n e r a l Composition of Alderwood S i l t Loam Hori z o n Depth N i t r o g e n Organic Matter S i 0 2 j ? e 2 0 3 A 1 2 0 5 VA3 0-6 .182 6.62 61.72 5.76 14.56 A 4 6-12 .153 5-90 58.79 6.66 16.81 A 4 12-24 .106 4-.33 63-32 5.95 16.41 D 24- .030 1.26 68.4-8 5.04 14.75 Ho r i z o n P2°5 CaO MgO K 20 Na 20 pH .151 2 . 5 5 1 .52 .54- 1.68 5.20 A 4 .04-7 .88 1 .35 .74- 1 .51 5-32 A 4 .056 1.68 1 .97 .75 1.58 5.49 D .032 2.4-1 1.98 .79 1.72 5.47"(79) Rowles, F a r s t a d and L a i r d d e s c r i b e d the gene r a l nature and d i s t r i b u t i o n of s o i l groups i n B r i t i s h Columbia (136). The U n i v e r s i t y Research F o r e s t occurs i n the general s o i l area d e s c r i b e d by them as c o n c r e t i o n a r y r e d d i s h brown. W i t h i n t h i s area they r e p o r t e d t h a t p r i n c i p a l upland s o i l groups were c o n c r e t i o n a r y Reddish Brown, Brown P o d z o l i c and Podzols and t h a t a s s o c i a t e d w i t h these i n the l e s s w e l l d r a i n e d p o s i t i o n s were muck, peat and g l e i z o l i c s o i l s . These authors d e s c r i b e d the upland s o i l s of the area as f o l l o w s : 16 These s o i l s have a r e l a t i v e l y t h i n organic l a y e r on the s u r f a c e ( A 0 ) d e r i v e d mainly from c o n i f e r o u s v e g e t a t i o n and mosses. Immediately below t h i s the upper m i n e r a l h o r i z o n i s a r e d d i s h brown to y e l l o w i s h brown, or strong brown h o r i z o n ( B ) , h i g h l y c o n c r e t i o n a r y ( s h o t t y ) and of h i g h p o r o s i t y and p e r m e a b i l i t y . Free oxides or i r o n are u s u a l l y concentrated i n t h i s h o r i z o n and the base exchange c a p a c i t y i s g e n e r a l l y low i n r e l a t i o n to c l a y content. The lower p a r t of the p r o f i l e i s o f t e n dense, cemented and of low p o r o s i t y and p e r m e a b i l i t y (B-C). As a consequence, i n t e r n a l s o i l drainage i s f r e q u e n t l y r e s t r i c t e d and l a r g e volumes of water move l a t e r a l l y over these impervious h o r i z o n s . The degree of base s a t u r a t i o n of the c l a y and organic c o l l o i d s i s low and hydrogen o f t e n accounts f o r 50 per cent or more of the exchangeable c a t i o n s i n the surface l a y e r s . As a r e s u l t , the s o i l s are s t r o n g l y to s l i g h t l y a c i d , the lower h o r i z o n s tending t o be somewhat b e t t e r s u p p l i e d w i t h bases and l e s s a c i d i c than those at the s u r f a c e . The s o i l s are g e n e r a l l y low i n organic matter and n i t r o g e n and respond w e l l to n i t r o g e n f e r t i l i z a t i o n . A l s o , they g e n e r a l l y are low i n a v a i l a b l e phosphorus and have a marked c a p a c i t y to f i x or t i e up phosphorus a p p l i e d as f e r t i l i z e r . C h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y , s o i l moisture i s e x c e s s i v e l y h i g h d u r i n g the w i n t e r but f a l l s to a very low l e v e l d u r i n g mid-summer. Con c r e t i o n a r y r e d d i s h brown s o i l s have developed on a v a r i e t y of m a t e r i a l s i n c l u d i n g g l a c i a l t i l l , marine sediments, outwash sands and g r a v e l . (136). Brown p o d z o l i c on w e l l d r a i n e d s i t e s , organic and g l e y s o i l s on p o o r l y d r a i n e d l o c a l i t i e s , and podzols on h i g h a l t i t u d e s were observed as a s s o c i a t e d s o i l s of t h i s group by the authors. The F o r e s t S o i l s Committee of the D o u g l a s - f i r Region s t u d i e d and d i s c u s s e d the s o i l s which occur i n the Coast, under the D o u g l a s - f i r and i t s a s s o c i a t e d s p e c i e s ( 9 ) » In the r e p o r t , the podzols and brown p o d z o l i c are c l a s s i f i e d under the zonal 17 order. The authors noted the A-^  h o r i z o n and Ag-Bg ho r i z o n s are the sequence f o r podzo l s o i l s . Brown p o d z o l i c s o i l s showed a weakly developed A^ h o r i z o n and a t h i n , f i n e , ashy A-2 h o r i z o n which was d i s c o n t i n u o u s . I n i t s absence there u s u a l l y i s an i n c i p i e n t i n the form of f l e c k s , s p r i n k l i n g s of gray. Brown p o d z o l i c s showed a t h i c k B h o r i z o n . B£ h o r i z o n had l i t t l e or no t e x t u r a l development; but had weak s t r u c t u r a l f o r m a t i o n which v/as u s u a l l y medium b l o c k y to weak p r i s m a t i c ( 9 ) . R e c e n t l y a s o i l survey was completed by H o l l a n d et a l . of P i t t Meadow M u n i c i p a l i t y i n the v i c i n i t y of the U n i v e r s i t y F o r e s t and was c l a s s i f i e d as belonging t o the Brown p o d z o l i c ( 7 0 ) . This s e r i e s was mapped on Sheridan H i l l , which shows somewhat s i m i l a r topographic f e a t u r e s to those o c c u r r i n g i n the U n i v e r s i t y F o r e s t . The Alderwood Sandy Loam had a compact and hard parent m a t e r i a l composed of g l a c i a l t i l l which was impervious to the downward movement of water. In the areas i n which the t i l l was c l o s e to the s u r f a c e , the r o o t i n g zone was r e s t r i c t e d and a summer drought was observed. The w e l l d r a i n e d p a r t s of the Alderwood S e r i e s a l s o show some c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which were observed f o r E v e r e t t Sandy Loam. The authors noted: In w e l l d r a i n e d c o n d i t i o n s there i s a d i s c o n t i n u o u s A2 h o r i z o n up to 2 inches t h i c k , which i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h i s subtype i s a c t u a l l y a t h i n podzol c o n t a i n i n g "shot" ...The w e l l d r a i n e d c o n d i t i o n of the E v e r e t t e s e r i e s i s 18 t e n t a t i v e l y i n c l u d e d under Fo r e s t e d Brown S o i l s pending f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n . ( 7 0 ) E v e r e t t Sandy Loam was a l s o c l a s s i f i e d under Shotty Brown s o i l s and was mapped on the f o r e s t e d upland i n the same general area as Alderwood Sandy Loam. A modal p r o f i l e d e s c r i p t i o n of Alderwood Sandy Loam i s g i v e n below: "Horizon A B Depth 0-6" 6-30" 3 0 " + D e s c r i p t i o n Brown to dark brown (7.5YE 4-/2 d r y ) , dark brown ( 10 YR 2/2 moist) sandy loam. Weak f i n e g r a n u l a r s t r u c t u r e , f r i a b l e and s l i g h t l y p l a s t i c , s c a t t e r e d stones. pH 5»6 Dark y e l l o w i s h brown ( 10 YR 4-/4- d r y ) , v e r y dark y e l l o w i s h brown ( 10 YR 3/4-moist) sandy loam. Weak gr a n u l a r s t r u c t u r e , v e r y few shot, f r i a b l e , s o f t , s c a t t e r e d stones. pH 5«6 L i g h t gray ( 10 YR 7 . 2 d r y ) , g r a y i s h brown ( 2 . 5 YR 5/2 moist) sandy c l a y loam; massive, hard, compact g l a c i a l t i l l c o n t a i n i n g stones and g r i t , impervious. pH 6 . 2 " ( 7 0 ) T e x t u r a l a n a l y s i s of the above p r o f i l e i s quoted here to give a more complete p i c t u r e of the Alderwood Sandy Loam: 19 "The S o i l Texture of Alderwood Sandy Loam Horizon Depth % sand % s i l t % c l a y Texture c l a s s A c 0-6" 55.6 34-.6 9.8 Sandy loam B 6 - 3 0 " 57.5 24.6 7.9 Sandy loam C 30" + 53.2 25.6 21.2 Sandy c l a y loam"(64) The chemical a n a l y s i s data of E v e r e t t e sandy loam, a s o i l d e r i v e d from a v e r y s i m i l a r m a t e r i a l to Alderwood sandy loam, are g i v e n here: "The exchangeable c a t i o n s , m i l l i - e q u i v a l e n t per 100 grams s o i l s H o r i z o n Depth EH Exch. c ap. % base s a t u r a t i o n B i 0-6" 5 . 2 18 . 7 7 5 . 3 B 2 6-16" 5 - 3 16 . 3 5 4.6 °1 14-26" 5.6 4 . 1 9 1 0 . 7 C 2 26 - 3 0 " 6 , 2 3 . 0 3 5 0 . 7 H_ Ca Ms K Na B l 1 7 . 7 7 . 3 1 . 5 2 . 1 3 .04 B 2 15-60 . 1 0 . 5 2 . 0 9 .04 ° 1 3 . 7 4 . 1 0 . 3 0 . 0 2 . 0 3 ° 2 1 . 19 . 5 2 1 . 2 1 .04 . 0 7 " ( 7 0 ) The most recent work on the s o i l s of the U n i v e r s i t y Research F o r e s t was \ done by G r i f f i t h ( 61). He examined the s o i l p r o p e r t i e s on eight p l o t s which were used i n t h i s study, and determined the s o i l moisture and s o i l temperature w i t h Coleman type s o i l - m o i s t u r e u n i t s p l a c e d at ; depths of 6, 12 and TABLE 2. STAND DATA FOR THE EIGHT STUDY PLOTS, OCTOBER 1956(61) P l o t Number 1 6 5 7 • 8 2 4 3 S i t e Index 180 170 160 150 140 115 85 80 No. of Stems per Acre Douglas E i r 210 250 190 180 200 380 530 540 Western Hemlock 50 140 200 140 213 10 130 170 We s t e r n Red Cedar 60 60 30 110 187 440 4 5 0 330 TOTAL 320 4 5 0 420 430 600 830 1110 1040 Ba s a l Area i n Square Peet Douglas F i r 446.4 380.9 364.8 291.4 3 1 7 . 4 172.0 147-9 127.3 Western Hemlock 38.6 36.0 88.4 67.5 111.7 2 . 3 8.8 42.7 Western Red Cedar 7.7 8.0 4.4 32.5 24.5 50.9 23.4 30.5 TOTAL 492.7 424.9 457.6 319.4 4-53.6 225.2 180.1 200.5 Diameter of Tree of Ave.B.A. Douglas F i r 19.8 16.7 18.8 17.3 17.0 9.1 7.2 6.6 Western Hemlock 11.9 6.9 9.0 9.4 9.8 6.5 3.5 6.8 Western Red Cedar 4.8 4-.9 5.2 7.4 4.9 4.6 3.1 4.1 Ave. He. of Dom. and Codom. Douglas F i r Trees 162.8 153.3 145.0 137.1 127.1 94.4 69.7 67-9 20 18 inches "below the s o i l s u r f a c e of each p l o t . He found "the average temperatures of the s o i l f o r the p e r i o d June 1 -September 30 were remarkably uniform f o r a l l p l o t s , averaging 54°F. f o r the 6 i n c h depth, 5 3 ° f o r the 12 i n c h depth, and 5 0 ° f o r the 18 i n c h depth."(61) Based on the work done by the v a r i o u s authors mentioned above, we may conclude t h a t the s o i l s of the area have p o d z o l i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . They are a c i d i n c h a r a c t e r , low i n exchangeable bases and are g e n e r a l l y d e r i v e d from g l a c i a l t i l l w i t h coarse t e x t u r e s having high contents of g r a v e l s , stones and cobbles. 3 . S o i l s and F o r e s t Growth The p l o t s used i n the present study were s e l e c t e d by G r i f f i t h t o represent a wide range of D o u g l a s - f i r s i t e s . The stand data f o r the p l o t s was taken from h i s r e p o r t (61) (Table 2 ) . S i t e has been d e f i n e d by C o i l e as "the combined f a c t o r s t h a t i n f l u e n c e the growth and r e p r o d u c t i o n of a f o r e s t stand" ( 3 1 ) ; the s i t e index was d e f i n e d as "the height i n f e e t t h a t a p a r t i c u l a r stand may be expected to reach at the r e f e r e n c e age, which i s commonly 100 years." ( 5 0 ) A great number of s t u d i e s have been made of s o i l p r o p e r t i e s and c o n d i t i o n s as they r e l a t e t o p l a n t growth but 21 r e l a t i v e l y few s t u d i e s have "been made w i t h s p e c i f i c r e f e r e n c e to the growth of D o u g l a s - f i r . G r i f f i t h s t u d i e d the s o i l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n r e l a t i o n t o s i t e index i n the U n i v e r s i t y Research F o r e s t , Haney, B.C. He r e p o r t e d "the l o c a t i o n of the p l o t s i n r e l a t i o n t o topography and p o s i t i o n on the slope appears to a f f e c t the amount of water present i n t h e i r s o i l s and thus p l a y s a r o l e i n determining t h e i r s i t e q u a l i t y . " ( 6 1 ) He a l s o found t h a t the s i t e q u a l i t y was i n f l u e n c e d by f a c t o r s which a f f e c t the water-h o l d i n g c a p a c i t y of s o i l s , such as depth of s o i l , depth of B h o r i z o n , and b u l k d e n s i t y . He c o r r e l a t e d the average a v a i l a b l e s o i l moisture i n the B h o r i z o n s t o s i t e i n d i c e s . I n Washington, H i l l et a l . studied, the p r o p e r t i e s of s o i l s i n r e l a t i o n to D o u g l a s - f i r s i t e q u a l i t y (65). They examined the s o i l a c c o r d i n g to s o i l s e r i e s and types which were mapped by the S o i l Bureau i n th a t area. The s o i l u n i t s and la n d c a p a b i l i t y c l a s s e s which were d e s c r i b e d by the S o i l C onservation S e r v i c e were used f o r the study. They found t h a t the s o i l u n i t s which were d e f i n e d on the b a s i s of p r o f i l e , t e x t u r e and depth were s a t i s f a c t o r y f o r the e v a l u a t i o n of the s i t e q u a l i t y . However, besides the s o i l u n i t s , v a r i a t i o n s i n the moisture regime of these s o i l s as a r e s u l t of v a r i a t i o n s i n p r e c i p i t a t i o n appeared to be an important f a c t o r . 22 F o r r i s t a l et a l . conducted t h e i r study i n Lee F o r e s t , Washington ( 4 - 9 ) . The f a c t o r s s t u d i e d were e f f e c t i v e r o o t i n g depth, h u l k d e n s i t y , t e x t u r e , and moisture e q u i v a l e n t . They re p o r t e d t h a t the depth to the hardpan l a y e r was important f o r r a t i n g s i t e q u a l i t y and t h a t s o i l e f f e c t i v e depth was r e l a t e d to h i g h b u l k d e n s i t y . They found t h a t low moisture was not a l i m i t i n g f a c t o r on the t r e e growth, hut poor drainage had the most i n f l u e n c e on the f o r e s t q u a l i t y . T a r r a n t , s t u d y i n g D o u g l a s - f i r , d i d not f i n d any c o r r e l a t i o n between s i t e q u a l i t y and the t o t a l n i t r o g e n content, the a v a i l a b l e potassium, c a l c i u m , magnesium, phosphorus content or the base exchange c a p a c i t y of s o i l s ( 1 5 7 ) . H i s c o n c l u s i o n was t h a t the n u t r i e n t content of f o r e s t s o i l s of D o u g l a s - f i r r e g i o n s appears to be too h i g h to c o n s t i t u t e a l i m i t i n g f a c t o r i n t r e e growth. Outside the D o u g l a s - f i r r e g i o n , a number of s t u d i e s have been c a r r i e d out to determine i f a c o r r e l a t i o n e x i s t s between s i t e index of c e r t a i n t r e e s p e c i e s and s o i l s . G a i s e r r e p o r t e d t h a t s i t e q u a l i t i e s of l o b l o l l y pine i n V i r g i n i a and C a r o l i n a were higher on land of poorer surface drainage than l a n d which had a b e t t e r one ( 5 2 ) . The depth to impermeable l a y e r s and i m b i b i t i o n a l water value of the l e a s t permeable h o r i z o n were e f f e c t i v e on the growth. He presented r e g r e s s i o n equations f o r e v a l u a t i n g the s i t e i n d i c e s based 23 upon the depth of the l e a s t permeable h o r i z o n and the i m b i b i t i o n a l water value of t h a t h o r i z o n . Auten s t u d i e d y e l l o w p o p l a r s i t e s (12). The f a c t o r s s t u d i e d were t e x t u r e of surface s o i l , depth or organic matter p e n e t r a t i o n , t h i c k n e s s of A^ h o r i z o n , depth to s u b s o i l , c o l o u r of s u b s o i l m o t t l i n g . He prepared two t a b l e s to code the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of each p r o f i l e f o r e v a l u a t i n g s i t e q u a l i t y . He r e p o r t e d a d i r e c t and p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n i n u n d i s t u r b e d s o i l s between o r g a n i c - e n r i c h e d m i n e r a l h o r i z o n s , t h i c k n e s s of A^ h o r i z o n s , depths to impermeable s u b s o i l and s i t e q u a l i t y . Einspahr and McComb conducted a study to determine the r e l a t i o n s h i p between s o i l , topography and s i t e q u a l i t y of oaks i n Iowa (4-5). They used the s o i l p r o p e r t i e s which were c r i t e r i a f o r d e s c r i p t i o n of s o i l s e r i e s , such as t e x t u r e and t h i c k n e s s of A and B h o r i z d n s , p e r m e a b i l i t y of s u b s o i l , and moisture c o n d i t i o n due to t o p o g r a p h i c a l p o s i t i o n of the s o i l p r o f i l e . They gave a number of r e g r e s s i o n equations based on the f a c t o r s mentioned above. They r e p o r t e d the s i t e index of oak i n c r e a s e d w i t h i n c r e a s e i n t o t a l s o i l depth and decreased as the per cent s l o p decreased. North and east aspects showed hi g h e r s i t e i n d i c e s than south and west aspects. A l s o , lower s i t e i n d i c e s appeared on the coarser s o i l s . Trimble and Weitzman s t u d i e d the e f f e c t of e n v i r o n -mental f a c t o r s on oak s i t e s i n the Northern Appalachians (162). 24 They estimated the s i t e q u a l i t y by means of r e g r e s s i o n equations based on i n f o r m a t i o n of aspect of the s i t e , p o s i t i o n of the s i t e on the s l o p e , grade of the slope at the s i t e , and t o t a l s o i l depth to bedrock. They r e p o r t e d t h a t n o r t h and east aspects had hig h e r s i t e i n d i c e s than south and west aspects. S i t e index i n c r e a s e d from the r i d g e l i n e to lower s l o p e s ; and s i t e index decreased w i t h i n c r e a s i n g s o i l depth. Copeland s t u d i e d s i t e q u a l i t y of Western pine i n the Northern Rocky Mountain Region ( 3 5 ) * He found a p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n between s i t e index and e f f e c t i v e s o i l depth, depth to zone of reduced p e r m e a b i l i t y and a v a i l a b l e water h o l d i n g c a p a c i t y . White and Wood, studying a r e d pine p l a n t a t i o n , found t h a t growth was i n f l u e n c e d by a d e e p - l y i n g s i l t y f i n e sand (172). A t h i c k e r l a y e r p r o v i d e d a d d i t i o n a l water. Also they r e p o r t e d d i f f e r e n c e s i n s o i l depth occurred between the d i f f e r e n t s i t e q u a l i t i e s . Young s t u d i e d the s i t e of white pine i n Maine (179). He found t h a t s i t e index decreased w i t h i n c r e a s i n g depth of A h o r i z o n . A l s o he r e p o r t e d t h a t the s i t e q u a l i t y of spruce-f i r stands i n Penobscot decreased w i t h i n c r e a s i n g depth of A h o r i z o n and the i m b i b i t i o n a l water value of t h a t h o r i z o n . F o r both cases, Young eval u a t e d the r e g r e s s i o n equation f o r e s t i m a t i o n of s i t e i n d i c e s . 25 The r e s u l t s show t h a t h i g h e r c o r r e l a t i o n s were obtained between s i t e index and p h y s i c a l s o i l p r o p e r t i e s . I t should be remembered t h a t the d i f f i c u l t i e s and b i a s of expressing the s o i l w i t h s i n g l e or w i t h c e r t a i n f a c t o r s are to be considered. I t i s known that s o i l has many forms and t h a t i t s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n any one p l a c e r e s u l t from the combined i n f l u e n c e of c l i m a t e and l i v i n g matter a c t i n g upon the parent rock as c o n d i t i o n e d by r e l i e f over p e r i o d s of time i n c l u d i n g the e f f e c t of the c u l t u r a l environment and man's use of the s o i l (148). I I . EXPERIMENTAL 1. General D e s c r i p t i o n of the Area (a) L o c a t i o n The U n i v e r s i t y Research F o r e s t i s s i t u a t e d n o r t h of Haney. I t i s 35 m i l e s east by northwest from the centre of Vancouver. The area i s t r a p e z o i d i n shape, extending from n o r t h to south. I t s average l e n g t h i s about 6 m i l e s . The e a s t e r n boundary i s 7 m i l e s long from n o r t h to south. The western boundary i s about 4- m i l e s l o n g . The average width of the area i s 2}£ m i l e s . The area covers approximately 10,000 acres of f o r e s t l a n d . I t i s the p r o p e r t y of the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia and i s managed by i t s F a c u l t y of F o r e s t r y . The U n i v e r s i t y F o r e s t i s s i t u a t e d i n the south-western p o r t i o n of B r i t i s h Columbia and l i e s between the Coast Mountains and the F r a s e r V a l l e y . The l a n d r i s e s towards the mountains. The a l t i t u d e ranges from about s e a - l e v e l to 2600 f e e t . The area i s bounded on the east and n o r t h by G a r i b a l d i Park, on the northwest by P i t t Lake, on the west by P i t t Meadows and on the south by the M u n i c i p a l i t y of Haney. The area c o n t a i n s three main v a l l e y s , running i n a n o r t h - s o u t h e r l y d i r e c t i o n . These are Blaney Creek, North 26 SCALE : l" =1 mile University Research Forest showing the Surficial Geology according to Map 16-1957 of the Geological Survey of Canada, Dept-of Mines & Technical Surveys Legend' Ic , rough mountainous country in which granitic and associated rock types occur at or near surface- Commonly overlain by till and outvrash sand, gravel,and sift 4 Surrey Till (glacial deposits): 4a, sandy to silty till and minor sub-stratified drift up to 75 feet thick but generally less than 25 feet 13 Whatcom Glacio- Marine Deposits = storey clayey silt and silty clay, clay, silt,and sand 25 to 300 feet thick 27 A l l o u e t t e R i v e r and Loon Lake V a l l e y s . S e v e r a l l a k e s occur i n the area. The l a r g e s t , Loon Lake, occupies the Loon Lake V a l l e y . Blaney Creek and the North A l l o u e t t e R i v e r d r a i n most of the l a k e s i n the area. (b) Geology The area i s a p a r t of the c o a s t a l mountain t r e n c h of B r i t i s h Columbia and s t u d i e s of the l o c a l geology r e p o r t e d by Armstrong ( 1 0 ) i n d i c a t e t h a t most probably f o u r g l a c i a t i o n s occurred. One of them, the Sumas, was a minor advance, and the other t h r e e , Seymour, Semiamu and Vashon, were major advances. The most important g l a c i a t i o n as f a r as the s o i l s of the area are concerned was the Sumas Valley g l a c i a t i o n . I t was the l a t e s t g l a c i a t i o n on the area. I t occurred about 1 1 , 0 0 0 years ago d u r i n g the p l e i s t o c e n e epoch ( 1 0 ) . G l a c i a l t i l l i s g e n e r a l l y present over the t e r t i a r y rock f o r m a t i o n . The t i l l i s t h i n at h i g h a l t i t u d e s and the steeper p a r t s of the l a n d . Depressions contain, a r e l a t i v e l y t h i c k e r t i l l over the bedrock. A l a r g e t i l l d e p o s i t , Surrey t i l l " ' " , occurs at the southwest s e c t i o n of the area. A l s o a 2 main d e p o s i t i o n , Whatcom Glacio-marine d e p o s i t , i s present at the edge of t h i s s e c t i o n . (Figure 2 ) . ^Surrey t i l l : Sandy to s i l t y and minor s u b - s t r a t i f i e d d r i f t up to 75 f e e t t h i c k but g e n e r a l l y l e s s than 25 f e e t deep. Throughout much of the area Surrey t i l l d e p o s i t s are mantled by Bose G r a v e l . ^Whatcom Glacio-marine D e p o s i t s : s t r o n g c l a y e y s i l t and s i l t y c l a y , c l a y , and s i l t and sand 2 5 - 3 0 0 f e e t t h i c k . Jan Feb Mar Apr- May June July Aug- Sept- Oct- Nov Dec-Fig- 3 Average monthly precipitation and temperature at Haney ,1946 -1958 9 0 8 0 7 0 6 0 h / 5 0 .c a 0 8 a> a> 4 0 • 3 0 £ 2 0 I io .0 £ 0 c o 2 o - 2 0 • 3 t; - 4 0 D e s s i c a t i n g Dry Humid Damp o / / J u l>U<Aug / J u n e -f May" / / / / / / / / / / / -April - O c t - f - i - - r M a r c h — _ Nov-o o o - _ D e c -h / J a n / I / / n — r H/ / i / / ! ' / / o o 11 ' •'°h I' II m 1 4 5 6 7 8 9 M e a n Month ly P r e c i p i t a t i o n in Inches 10 II 12 13 14 Fig- 4 Climograph (after Koeppe) showing the climatic pattern of Haney TABLE 3. MEAN MONTHLY, MAXIMUM AND MINIMUM PRECIPITATION AND TEMPERATURE DATA EOR HANEY RECORDING STATION 1946 - 1957 Months Temperature P Max. Min. Mean P r e c i p i t a t i o n , inches Max. M i n . Mean Snowfal1, i n c he s Max. Min. Mean Seasonal d i s -t r i b u t i o n of P r e c i p i t a t i o n % Jan. 41.0 18.0 32.0 21.42 1.00 10.22 60.00 19.6 Winter -. 40 . 7 6 Feb: 39.0 32.0 36.0 18 . 1 3 5.42 10.58 49.00 15.1 Mar. 41.0 34.0 39.0 16 . 3 7 4.14 9.80 59.00 13.0 Apr. 50.0 44.0 46.0 9-95 1.24 5.62 4.00 .4 S p r i n g 20.72 May 57.0 51.0 53.0 5.66 . 5 6 3 - 5 0 - -June 59.0 55-0 57.0 9.55 1.21 4.72 _ • _ -J u l y 64.0 60.0 61.0 5.80 0.02 2.81 - - - Summer 11.64 Aug. 63.0 59.0 61.0 7.28 .53 3.10 - - -Sep. 62.0 54.0 57.0 9.95 1 . 3 1 4 . 1 7 - - -Oct. 53.0 44.0 48.0 17.34 2.53 9.04 - - - Autumn 26.88 Nov. 47.0 35.0 41.0 19.73 2.78 11.34- 8.0 1.9 Dec. 40.0 34.0 36.0 22.26 7 . 1 7 14.43 31.0 8.0 28 Lakes of the area probably r e s u l t from the l a s t g l a c i a t i o n , the Sumas v a l l e y g l a c i e r , s i n c e they show f e a t u r e s of v a l l e y g l a c i e r l a k e s . They are n e i t h e r s t r u c t u r a l nor s o l u t i o n b a s i n s . The s m a l l ones, such as P l a c i d Lake, are probably r e s u l t s of K e t t l e formation. (c) C l i m a t e The c l i m a t e of the southwest p o r t i o n of B r i t i s h Columbia i n which the U n i v e r s i t y Research F o r e s t i s l o c a t e d has been c l a s s i f i e d by Kendew and K e r r as belonging t o the L i t t o r a l zone (80). This zone i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the mildness and humidity of i t s w i n t e r s , i t s heavy p r e c i p i t a t i o n - g r a d u a l l y i n c r e a s e d by the height of the mountains - and the decrease of p r e c i p i t a t i o n a f t e r March u n t i l J u l y or August (80). The c l i m a t i c s t a t i o n nearest to the p l o t s f o r which d a t a i s a v a i l a b l e f o r a c o n s i d e r a b l e p e r i o d , i s Haney. This s t a t i o n i s l o c a t e d ( w i t h i n the entrance t o ) the Research F o r e s t . C l i m a t i c data f o r the s t a t i o n are given i n Table 3, and mean monthly d i s t r i b u t i o n of p r e c i p i t a t i o n and temperature i s shown g r a p h i c a l l y i n F i g u r e 3. The t a b l e and graph i n d i c a t e t h a t most of the p r e c i p i t a t i o n occurs i n the w i n t e r months. Summers are dry and warm having 11.64- per cent of the t o t a l p r e c i p i t a t i o n (10.63 in c h e s ) and an average temperature of 58°F. When the data of the s t a t i o n are c l a s s i f i e d a c c o r d i n g to the Koeppe system (85) the area appears as a humid Fig 5 Location of plots in U- B- C- Research Forest, Haney-29 mesothermal c l i m a t e ( C f b ) . ^ The mean monthly temperature and p r e c i p i t a t i o n f o r the s t a t i o n are p l o t t e d as a climograph, according to the method given by Koeppe ( 8 5 ) , i n F i g u r e 4. The c l i m a t e of the area shows d i f f e r e n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n d i f f e r e n t p e r i o d s of the year. The l o n g e s t p e r i o d i s the cool-damp type w i t h 32 weeks, and secondly, the warm-damp w i t h 12 weeks. The s h o r t e s t p e r i o d s are the warm-humid and cold-damp types both w i t h 6 weeks each. The cool-damp type i s predominant and repeated twice w i t h 16 and 12 week p e r i o d s i n the year. In f a c t , these p e r i o d s are d u r i n g the time of year when the v e g e t a t i o n p h y s i o l o g i c a l l y i s ( l e s s a c t i v e or) r e l a t i v e l y i n a c t i v e . The t o t a l of the warm-humid and warm-damp types are 12weeks and are a l s o the most important p e r i o d s f o r the growth of the v e g e t a t i o n as w e l l as f o r the s o i l forming process. (d) F o r e s t Type The U n i v e r s i t y Research F o r e s t i s s i t u a t e d i n the Southern Coast s e c t i o n of the c o a s t a l zone as d e f i n e d by Rowe ( 1 3 2 ) . The western p o r t i o n of the F o r e s t which i n c l u d e s the study area was destroyed by a l a r g e f i r e i n 1868 (61). This ^C: Mesothermal (middle or int e r m e d i a t e heat) one or more months w i t h a mean temperature below 64°F, but no month w i t h a mean temperature below 27°F, a t l e a s t one month above 50°f. f : M o i s t : D r i e s t month has a mean p r e c i p i t a t i o n of at l e a s t 2.4 inc h e s . b:Warm summer: Mean temperature of the warmest month below 72°F; a t l e a s t f o u r months w i t h a mean temperature of 50°F or more. 30 area has s i n c e regenerated to a mixed Douglas f i r (Pseudotsuga  m e n z i e s i i (Mirb.) F r a n c o ) , western hemlock (Tsuga l e t e r o p h y l l a ( R a f f . ) S a r g . ) , western r e d cedar (Thuja p l i c a t a Donn.) f o r e s t type. The average age of the Douglas f i r i s approximately 80 y e a r s ; the western hemlock and western r e d cedar are somewhat younger. (61) (e) L o c a t i o n of the P l o t s The study area l i e s between Loon Lake and the southern boundary of the F o r e s t on e i t h e r s i d e of the main road. The area and l o c a t i o n of the p l o t s are shown i n F i g u r e 5• 2. F i e l d Methods (a) Mapping S i x of the e i g h t p l o t s were surveyed w i t h c h a i n and l e v e l and contour l i n e s p l o t t e d at 6 i n c h i n t e r v a l s . T h i s r e s u l t e d i n a d e t a i l e d map of the major and minor ph y s i o g r a p h i c f e a t u r e s of the p l o t s . (b) M i c r o c l i m a t e Four standard type weather s t a t i o n s were p l a c e d 4 f e e t above the ground on p l o t s 1, 2, 4, and 8. Maximum and minimum atmospheric temperatures were recorded each morning from May 1 5 t h to August 14th, 1957* F i v e r a i n gauges were e s t a b l i s h e d along the main road at e l e v a t i o n s of 6 5 0 , 7 5 0 , 850, 950 and 1 , 0 5 0 to determine the e f f e c t of p r e c i p i t a t i o n 31 w i t h changes i n e l e v a t i o n . The gauges were read f o l l o w i n g each r a i n storm d u r i n g J u l y and August, 1957• (c) V e g e t a t i o n The p l a n t i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s were done f o r each p l o t a c c o r d i n g to handbook f o r t h i s purpose (101). (d) S o i l s S t u d i e s and Sampling^" S o i l p r o f i l e s t u d i e s were made on the e i g h t p l o t s between May 15th and September 2nd, 1957• The procedure f o l l o w e d i n o b t a i n i n g the s o i l p r o f i l e i s given below: Three p i t s were dug on each of the ei g h t p l o t s (on p l o t 4-, however, f o u r p i t s were dug). The dimensions of the p i t s were 8 f e e t by 4- f e e t , extending i n depth t o the parent m a t e r i a l . A t o t a l of 25 p i t s were e s t a b l i s h e d . The f o l l o w i n g i n f o r m a t i o n was recorded f o r each p l o t : 1. Topography 2. V e g e t a t i o n 3. General moisture c o n d i t i o n s 4-. Degree of s t o n i n e s s 5« Nature of the s o i l (parent m a t e r i a l ) 4 The d e s c r i p t i o n s of the p r o f i l e s were made i n accordance w i t h the S o i l Survey Manual (148). Dr. Eowles, Chairman of the S o i l Science Department of the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, and Messrs. A.V. Ryswyk and W. H o l l a n d , a s s i s t a n t s o i l surveyors from the B.C. P r o v i n c i a l S o i l Survey Department, p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h i s phase of the work. 32 A d e s c r i p t i o n of each p r o f i l e was recorded in c l u d i n g : 1. Color 2. Texture 3. Structure 4-. Consistence 5 . Special features of the p r o f i l e , such as hardpan, o r s t e i n , shot material, root mats 6. The amount and p o s i t i o n of organic matter 7. Drainage Core and bulk s o i l samples were c o l l e c t e d f o r the laboratory determinations. The core samples v/ere obtained using 3 inch by 3 inch s o i l cores and a Baver type s o i l sampler. P l o t s 1 , 3> and 5 were selected on a basis of f i e l d observation f o r core sampling. Five i n d i v i d u a l cores were taken from four horizons i n each p r o f i l e sampled, making a t o t a l of 60 cores from each p l o t . The horizons sampled v/ere A, B^, B j , and C. The s o i l cores were removed from the sampling t o o l and placed i n waxed-paper cartons f o r t r a n s f e r to the S o i l Science Laboratory of the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. Bulk s o i l samples varying i n weight from one to f i v e pounds were c o l l e c t e d from each horizon, making a t o t a l of 179 i n d i v i d u a l samples from the eight p l o t s . Stone content was determined on p l o t s 1 , 3 and 5» Stones l a r g e r than 1 inch diameter were sieved from the s o i l and the content of stones calcu l a t e d on a per cent by volume 33 b a s i s . 3 . Laboratory Methods P h y s i c a l s o i l p r o p e r t i e s were determined u s i n g the samples from p l o t s 1 , 3 > a n d 5> and chemical p r o p e r t i e s u s i n g those f r o m ' p l o t s 1 , 2 , 3 , and 5« S o i l r e a c t i o n was determined on samples from a l l e i g h t p l o t s . The core samples were used to determine b u l k d e n s i t y , t o t a l pore space, macro and micro pore spaces. For the e s t i m a t i o n of pore spaces a t e n s i o n t a b l e and a t e n s i o n of 4 0 cms. "of water was used. C a l c u l a t i o n s were made by use of the f o l l o w i n g formulae: Bulk d e n s i t y = Oven <iry s o i l weight (gm) ^ Volume of the c o r e ( c c ) Weight of s a t u r a t e d core -Pore space % - ( « g ( c c ) ) x 100 Weight of water withdrawn between nff 0/ r 0 and 4 0 cm t e n s i o n (gm) >. Macro pore space % - ( Volume of the core (cc) > x 1 0 0 Weight of water remaining nff. „ 0/ , at t e n s i o n of 4 0 cms ( C T Q ^ mr» Micro pore space % = ( V o l u m e 0 f the core ( S c P x 1 0 0 H y d r a u l i c c o n d u c t i v i t y was measured u s i n g s o i l cores and a constant water head e q u i v a l e n t to 1 / 2 i n c h . The h y d r a u l i c c o n d u c t i v i t y was c a l c u l a t e d u s i n g the Darcy Flow Law ( 1 4 ) . 34-Mechanical composition of s o i l s was determined by the p i p e t t e method as m o d i f i e d by Tyner (164-). The standard C h a t e l i e r F l a s k method was used f o r the de t e r m i n a t i o n of s p e c i f i c g r a v i t y of s o i l s . F i e l d moisture c a p a c i t y was estimated u s i n g the pressure pot and 0 . 1 atmospheric pressure (128). The moisture content of the s o i l was determined a f t e r e q u i l i b r i u m was reached i n 6 days. C a l c u l a t i o n s were made on an oven-dry s o i l b a s i s . A pressure membrane was used f o r e s t i m a t i n g the permanent w i l t i n g p o i n t u s i n g 15 atmospheres per square i n c h pressure and a l l o w i n g 10 days f o r e q u i l i b r i u m . Moisture content of the s o i l s was determined and expressed on an oven-dry b a s i s ( 1 2 7 ) . The pH of the s o i l was measured by a g l a s s e l e c t r o d e u s i n g a 1:1 s o i l - w a t e r r a t i o (74-). A f t e r s t i r r i n g the s o i l w i t h an equal volume of water, the samples were allowed t o r e s t f o r 30 minutes before the measurements were taken. The samples were r e s t i r r e d b e f o r e each read i n g . A Berckman type instrument was used. The organic matter d e t e r m i n a t i o n was made by the Walkley-Black method (74-). 35 The amonium ac e t a t e method gi v e n by Peach et a l was used f o r the d e t e r m i n a t i o n of exchangeable c a t i o n s (120). Exchangeable potassium and calc i u m were determined w i t h a Perkin-Elmer flame photometer, u s i n g L i t h i u m as the i n t e r n a l standard (120). 4. S t a t i s t i c a l Analyses Variance a n a l y s i s f o r bulk d e n s i t y , t o t a l pore space, macro pore space, and p e r m e a b i l i t y were done f o r p i t s , h o r i z o n s , and p l o t s . Regression equations were evaluated from such f a c t o r s as depth of h o r i z o n s , depth of solum, t o t a l e f f e c t i v e depth versus s i t e i n d i c e s . C a l c u l a t i o n s were done by use of an A l l w a c I I I , e l e c t r i c computer. Fig - 6 Topographic map of plot I -F i g - 7 Topograph ic pro ject ion of plot I-Fig-8 Topographic map of plot 2-Fig-9 Topographic projection of plot 2-10 Topographic map of plot 4-S C A L E : l " = 2 0 ' Fig il Topographic projection (A) and map (B) of plot 5-Fig- 12 Topographic projection (A) and map (B) of plot 7 I I I . RESULTS 1. Physiography P l o t 1 i s s i t u a t e d i n the south west p a r t of the general area i n the Blaney Creek V a l l e y . I t i s about one-h a l f mile east of Blaney Creek. This p l o t has the lowest a l t i t u d e . o f a l l the p l o t s , being about 650 f e e t above sea p l e v e l . I t s aspect i s t o the southwest w i t h a 12 per cent s l o p e . The western h a l f of the p l o t i s q u i t e f l a t . I t slopes 5 to 4- per cent to the west and 5 to 6 per cent to the n o r t h . The n o r t h e r n p a r t of the e a s t e r n h a l f r i s e s q u i c k l y and reaches 650 f e e t at the n o r t h e r n corner. The slopes of the area decrease towards the v a l l e y bottom. ( F i g u r e s 6 and 7 ) . P l o t 2 i s approximately 900 f e e t east of p l o t 1 . This p l o t has a h i g h e r e l e v a t i o n than p l o t 1. I t i s 100 f e e t from Blaney Creek and 100 f e e t above the creek. I t drops a b r u p t l y , w i t h about an 80 per cent slope to the creek. Ti e e l e v a t i o n i s 715 f e e t . General aspect i s southwest w i t h 8 t o 9 per cent slope. ( F i g u r e s 8 and 9 ) . F u l l d e s c r i p t i o n s of the p l o t s are g i v e n i n appendix. 2 A l l a l t i t u d e s measured from sea l e v e l . The measurements were taken at the northwest corner of each p l o t by a barometer. 36 37 P l o t s 3 and 4 are at the other end of the area chosen f o r t h i s study. They are one m i l e n o r t h of p l o t s 1 and 2 . These two p l o t s are s i t u a t e d at the top of a h i l l , one-half m i l e from the south end of Loon Lake. The e l e v a t i o n i s 134-3 f e e t . The aspect i s southwest w i t h a 30 t o 4-0 per cent s l o p e . P l o t 4- i s 50 f e e t up the slope from p l o t 3 ; i t has a southeast aspect. I t s slope i s about 10 to 15 per cent and i t s e l e v a t i o n i s 1353 f e e t . (Figure 1 0 ) . P l o t 5 i s s i t u a t e d near the centre of the study area. I t i s 600 f e e t west of Blaney Creek and has an e l e v a t i o n of 1055 f e e t . I t s aspect i s southwest w i t h 10 to 15 per cent s l o p e . ( F i g u r e 1 1 ) . P l o t 6 i s s i t u a t e d s e v e r a l hundred f e e t northwest of p l o t 2 . I t s topography i s a d e p r e s s i o n of 2 to 3 f e e t deep to the east. I t slopes down g e n t l y to west and south. This p l o t has a s m a l l g u l l y on i t s east s i d e . I t s e l e v a t i o n i s 700 f e e t and i t has a slope of 14 per cent to the southwest. P l o t s 7 and 8 are s i t u a t e d west of Blaney Creek and south of Blaney Lake. They are a few f e e t above the creek. A steep 100 f o o t b l u f f extends between the p l o t s and the creek. P l o t 7 has an e l e v a t i o n of 1120 f e e t and i t s aspect i s southeast w i t h a 10 per cent sl o p e . The e l e v a t i o n o f p l o t 38 8 i s 1095 f e e t and has a slope of 5 to 10 per cent to the southwest. ( F i g u r e 12). 2. V e g e t a t i o n The general d e s c r i p t i o n s of the v e g e t a t i o n of the p l o t s are g i v e n below: In p l o t 1 the t r e e l a y e r c o n t a i n s Fseudotsuga m e n z i e s i i , Thuga h e t e r o p h y l l a and Thuja p l i c a t a . The shrubs, G a u l t h e r i a s h a l l o n Pursh, Vaccinium p a r v i f o l i a SM, Acer  c i r c i n a t u m Pursh are p r e s e n t . Shrubs and ground f l o o r v e g e t a t i o n are very dense and h i g h . Two to three f e e t h i g h f e r n s are q u i t e abundant. In the lower p a r t of the p l o t l e s s e r v e g e t a t i o n becomes more dense. In ground v e g e t a t i o n Polystichum mnitum P r e s l . , Blechnum s p i c a n t , Roth., T r i l l i u m  ovatum Pursh., T i a r e l l a t r i f o l i a t a L. are present. Mosses and l i c h e n s are mostly on decaying wood. Hylocomium splendens Bsg., Eurhychium oreganum Jaeg and Sauerb., Dicranum fuscescens Turn., R h y t i d i a d e l p h u s l o r e u s Warnst. In p l o t 2 the main species i n the t r e e l a y e r are Pseudotsuga m e n z i e s i i , Tsuga h e t e r o p h y l l a and Thuja p l i c a t a . Alnus r u b r a Bong., Rubus p a r v i f l o r u s N u t t . , Vaccinium  p a r v i f o l i u m , M e n z i e s i a f e r r u g i n e a Sm., Acer c i r c i n a t u m , G a u l t e r i a s h a l l o n are the species present i n the shrub l a y e r . Shrub l a y e r i s moderately dense. Ground v e g e t a t i o n i s poor. Not many p l a n t s are present i n t h i s l a y e r . The p l a n t s are: 3 9 Pleridium aquilinum Kuhn, Polystichum munitum, Blechnum spicant, T r i l l i u m ovatum. Mosses and lichens on the decaying wood, rocks and barks can he found. They are Hylocomium splendens, Rhytidiadelphus loreus, Dicranium sp., Plagiothecium  undulatum-, Mnium punctatum Hedw. In p l o t 3 the three layer contains Pseudotsuga  menziesii, Tsuga heterophylla and Thuja p l i c a t a . Very few shrubs are present and include Vaccinium parvifolium, Gaultheria shallon. Ground f l o o r vegetation also i s very sparse; t h i s l a y e r contains Monotropa u n i f l o r a L., Pyrola sp., Pteridium aquilinum. Mosses and lichens mainly are Dicranum  fuscescens, Hypnum sp., Eurinchnium oreganum. This l a y e r i s quite dense.' In p l o t 4- Pseudotsuga menziesii, Thuja p l i c a t a , and Tsuga heterophylla are the species comprising the tree layer. The shrub l a y e r i s not dense. Gaultheria shallon and Vaccinium p a r v i f o l i u m are present. Very few species of ground f l o o r vegetation e x i s t , Pteridium aquilinum being the main species. Mosses and l i c h e n s are generally present, Dicranium  fuscescens, Mnium punctatum, Eurhynchium oreganum, P l a g i s t h e s i a undulatum being the p r i n c i p a l species. In p l o t 5 the tree layer c o n s i s t s of Pseudotsuga  menziesii, Thuja p l i c a t a and Tsuga heterophylla. Not very many shrubs are present. Shrubs are Gaultheria shallon. 4-0 Vaccinium o v a l i f o l i u m , Acer c i r c i n a t u m . Ground v e g e t a t i o n i s moderately dense. P o l y s t i c h u m minutum and T r i l l i u m ovatum are present. Mosses and l i c h e n s are mostly found on the s m a l l wind f a l l s . Mnium punctatum and Hylocomium splendens are common. In p l o t 6 Pseudotsuga m e n z i e s i i , Thuja p l i c a t a and Tsuga h e t e r o p h y l l a are the main s p e c i e s i n the t r e e l a y e r . Some suppressed Alnus r u b r a i s present. As shrubs, mainly Vaccinium p a r v i f o l i u m , G a u l t h e r i a s h a l l o n , Acer c i r c i n a t u m , Rubus h e t e r o p h y l l a and Rubus s p e c t a b i l i s Pursh., are present. The shrubs are at the e a s t e r n and southern corners of the p l o t . Ground v e g e t a t i o n c o n t a i n s Pplystichum muniturn, Sambucus pubens, Blechnum s p i c a n t , D r y o p t e r i s phegopteris C h r i s t e n s , T i a r e l l a  t r i f o l i a t a . Mosses and l i c h e n s are mainly found on decaying wood, some barks and on humus l a y e r . Hylocomium splendes, Blechnum s p i c a n t , Mnium puntatum, Dicranium scoparium Hedw. and R h y t i d i d e l p h u s oreus are present. I n p l o t s 7 and 8 Pseudotsuga m e n z i e s i i , Thuja  p l i c a t a and Tsuga h e t e r o p h y l l a are the main species i n the t r e e l a y e r . Shrub and ground v e g e t a t i o n l a y e r s are moderately dense. G a u l t h e r i a s h a l l o n , Acer c i r c i n a t u m and Vaccinium sp. are common i n the shrub l a y e r . Ground v e g e t a t i o n c o n t a i n s P o l y s t i c h u m muniturn, D r y o p t e r i s p h e g o p t e r i s , T r i l l i u m ovatum. Mosses and l i c h e n s are mainly present on the ground f l o o r . Eurhychium oreganum, Mnium punctatum are common. TABLE 4. MEAN WEEKLY, AIR, MAXIMUM MINIMUM TEMPERATURE AND TEMPERATURE RANGE, RELATIVE HUMIDITY AND DEW POINTS FOR PLOTS 1,2,4 AND 8 Month Week PLOT 1 PLOT 2 Temperature a i r min. max. ran. R.H. D.P. Temperature a i r min. max. ran. R.H. D.P. May 4t h 59.9 53.8 66.0 12.2 85-0 54-7 57.6 51.4 65.8 12.4 86.4 55.5 June 1st 2nd ^3rd 4 t h 64 . 3 5 9 - 9 3 7 - 7 55.8 5 9 . 0 5 5 . 2 5 0 . 2 5 0 . 6 69.6 64 . 7 65 . 2 61.0 10.6 9 - 5 1 5 - 0 10.4 8 6 . 3 8 9 . 0 9 0 . 5 9 7 . 0 5 5 . 6 5 2 . 7 5 2 . 7 5 1 . 3 62 . 3 5 5 . 7 69.0 1 3 . 3 8 7 . 0 5 6 . 6 57-0 5 1 . 5 62 . 5 11.0 8 8 . 5 54.0 57-0 51.0 63.0 12.0 9 0 . 8 5 6 . 2 5 2 . 4 4 9 - 6 5 5 . 5 5 . 7 92.0 5 1 . 5 5 4 . 9 4 9 . 2 60 . 7 11-5 9 3 . 7 5 0 . 2 6 7 . 8 5 3 . 6 62.0 8 . 4 9 6 . 4 5 5 .0 5 9 . 3 51.0 6 7 . 7 16 . 7 9 5 . 0 5 1 . 6 5 8 . 9 52.6 6 5 . 3 1 2 . 7 98.0 5 5 - 5 J u l y 1st 2nd 3rd 4 t h 5 5 . 6 5 6 . 5 58.1 58.1 48 . 7 5 3 . 4 5 2 . 0 5 3 . 0 62.5 60.2 64.3 61.3 13.8 6.8 12.3 8.3 9 6 . 0 9 8 . 8 9 4 . 7 9 8 . 0 5 2 . 7 5 4 . 6 5 1 . 0 ^•6 1st 59.5 53 - 0 66 . 0 1 3 . 0 96 . 0 56.3 August 2nd 58.9 52.3 64.6 12.3 98 . 0 54.6 3rd 57.5 51.5 65.5 1 2 . 0 93 . 0 53 - 0 5 9 . 8 5 5 . 0 64 . 7 9 . 7 9 8 . 0 5 7 . 0 5 9 - 5 5 3 . 2 6 5 . 7 1 2 . 5 9 5 . 7 5 5 . 0 5 1 . 5 5 1 . 0 64 . 0 1 3 . 0 9 2 . 7 5 2 . 3 May 4t h PLOT 4 59.1 56.1 62.2 6.1 88.0 55-0 PLOT 8 56.9 50-1 65.7 13.6 85.2 55.0 June 1st 2nd 3rd •4th 62.1 57.6 5 ^ . 5 51.9 57.8 51.0 48.5 49.6 66.0 64.2 60.5 54.3 8 . 7 1 3 . 2 1 2 . 0 4 . 7 8 6 . 3 9 2 . 7 9 0 . 5 9 8 . 0 5 6 . 4 5 5 - 0 4 9 . 5 5 1 . 3 61.0 51.8 5 4 . 4 5 4 . 5 5 6 . 5 5 1 . 2 46.0 51.0 67.6 64.5 62.8 58.0 11.1 1 5 . 3 16.8 7 . 0 8 6 . 8 9 1 . 0 5 0 . 0 9 6 . 3 5 4 . 8 5 2 . 0 5 2 . 6 4 9 . 6 J u l y 1st 2nd 3rd 4 t h 54.6 55-2 59.5 5 7 . 0 4 9 . 0 5 7 - 8 5 1 . 0 55-Q 60.0 58.7 68.0 59.0 1 1 . 2 6 . 9 17.0 4.0 9 3 . 5 9 8 . 5 9 4 . 6 9 7 . 0 48 . 7 5 6 . 5 5 2 . 3 5 4 . 5 54.5 55.6 57.6 55.1 47.2 49.8 69.0 51.6 61.7 61.4 68.3 60.7 14.2 1 1 . 6 1 9 . 5 9 . 1 95.2 95.5 92.7 95.6 4 9 . 5 5 4 . 4 5 1 . 0 5 4 . 7 1 s t 5 8 ; 9 5 5 . 7 62.0 6 . 3 93-0 5 5 - 3 August 2nd 60 . 8 53-0 68.0 15-0 97-0 5 4 . 5 3 r d 61 . 7 5 5 . 5 68.0 1 2 . 5 97.0 5 5 . 5 5 6 . 5 5 8 . 3 5 6 . 5 5 5 . 7 5 2 . 0 5 3 . 0 63.3 64.6 60.0 9 . 6 1 2 . 6 7 . 0 9 4 . 0 9 6 . 0 9 3 . 5 55.6 5 5 . 0 5 4 . 0 6 0 -5 0 -c V <o w « a a> a. E 6 0 -5 0 Plot 8 • - - • - • P l o t I Plot 4 B J L_J . 4 / 5 1 / 6 2 / 6 3 / 6 4 / 6 1 /7 2 / 7 3 / 7 4 / 7 1 / 8 2 / 8 3 / 8 Week /Month Fig 13 A - Average weekly atmospheric temperatures for the period May 21 to August 15,1957 for plots l,2,4.and 8-B - Average dew points for the same period for plots I and 4-41 3. M i c r o c l i m a t e The m i c r o c l i m a t e or stand c l i m a t e (58) of the p l o t s f o r the summer months of 1958 are summarized i n Table 4 and some of the data i s shown g r a p h i c a l l y i n Fi g u r e s 13, 14, and 1 5 . In i n t e r p r e t i n g t h i s data i t should be remembered t h a t i t i s o n l y one year and s e v e r a l years o b s e r v a t i o n s would be r e q u i r e d to p r e d i c t the optimum c o r r e l a t i o n s between the m i c r o c l i m a t i c f a c t o r s . However one year o b s e r v a t i o n may be used to e s t a b l i s h t r e n d s . The mean weekly temperature s t a t i s t i c s are given i n Table 4 and are p l o t t e d i n Fi g u r e 13A. The temperature changes on the f o u r p l o t s tend to p a r a l l e l one another but f l u c t u a t i o n s i n p l o t s 2 and 4 are l a r g e r and more abrupt than they are i n 1 and 8. Temperature of p l o t s 2 and 4 f o l l o w a most i r r e g u l a r path. P l o t 8 has a comparatively more s t a b l e temperature than p l o t 4 and s i m i l a r l y , temperature of p l o t 1 i s more s t a b l e than t h a t of p l o t 2. The comparison of the weekly temperature range i n maximum and minimum f o r the p l o t s are g i v e n i n Table 4 and i n F i g u r e 14B. P l o t 5 shows the s m a l l e s t temperature ranges, except f o r the t h i r d week of J u l y , but l a r g e r and abrupt changes. P l o t 1 f o l l o w s an i n t e r m e d i a t e path among the p l o t s . 42 P l o t 1 shows v e r y small changes between the weekly temperature ranges compared to p l o t 4. P l o t 4 i s s i t u a t e d on the top of a h i l l . I t i s very much i n f l u e n c e d by the ma c r o c l i m a t i c changes. I t s f o r e s t and ground v e g e t a t i o n cover are not as dense as those of p l o t 1 . I t i s v e r y much a f f e c t e d by the d i r e c t i n s o l a t i o n of the sun. When the sun i s i n n e f e c t i v e the temperature w i l l drop down ve r y q u i c k l y , because of topographic f e a t u r e s of the p l o t , i . e . a l t i t u d e , d e n s i t y of v e g e t a t i o n , aspect, e t c . The r e l a t i v e h u m idity^ of the i n d i v i d u a l p l o t s are gi v e n i n Table 4. The data are p l o t t e d i n F i g u r e 14A. P l o t 4 tends t o show h i g h e s t v a l u e s , probably due to i t s e l e v a t i o n . Data of dew-points of the p l o t s are shown i n F i g u r e s 15A and 15B. P l o t s 2 and 4 show the b i g v a r i a t i o n s among the p l o t s . The p l o t s become p a r a l l e l towards the end of the season. Consequently, we conclude t h a t p l o t 4 has a more unstable and c o l d e r m i c r o c l i m a t e than the ot h e r s . P l o t s 2 and 8 show s i m i l a r i t i e s i n some cases because of s i m i l a r i t y i n t h e i r topographic s i t u a t i o n . P l o t 1 has the more s t a b l e m i c r o c l i m a t e and i t s c l i m a t e i s l e s s a f f e c t e d by m a c r o c l i m a t i c f a c t o r s . P l o t s 2 and 8 are a f f e c t e d by m a c r o c l i m a t i c f a c t o r s C a l c u l a t e d a t 3 0 . 0 inches a i r pressure. 'Calculated at 5 0 . 0 inches a i r pressure. 43 with, l e s s magnitude compared to p l o t 4. But they do not have as good a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c m i c r o c l i m a t e as p l o t 1 does. The f o l l o w i n g f o u r c o n c l u s i o n s can be drawn from a study of the data and graphs of m i c r o c l i m a t e : (1) A l l the m i c r o c l i m a t e s of the p l o t s show the main f e a t u r e s of macroclimate i n a c e r t a i n extent at the c e r t a i n time i n t e r v a l s . ( 2 ) The p l o t s may r e f l e c t the e f f e c t s of any m a c r o c l i m a t i c f a c t o r i n d i f f e r e n t magnitudes as the r e s u l t of t h e i r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f e a t u r e s , i . e . topographic, geographic and e g o l o g i c . (3) Often i n some p e r i o d s the m i c r o c l i m a t e of the p l o t s does not show any s i m i l a r i t y whatsoever to the macroclimate. These p e r i o d s occur when the macroclimate i s u n e f f e c t i v e and m i c r o c l i m a t e becomes dominant. (4) I d e n t i c a l c l i m a t i c values occur f o r some p e r i o d s on the p l o t s . These are the p e r i o d s when the "bioeffect of the p l o t s i s not dominating the macroclimate. The question a r i s e s to what extent does the e f f e c t of macroclimate a l t e r the m i c r o c l i m a t e of the p l o t s and how s t r o n g l y do they create t h e i r own m i c r o c l i m a t e , and what i s the s i g n i f i c a n t a l t e r a t i o n which has e f f e c t on p l a n t -a s s o c i a t i o n of each p l o t towards a change. U n f o r t u n a t e l y , from the a v a i l a b l e data and o b s e r v a t i o n s , i t i s i m p o s s i b l e I F i g . 16. The p r o f i l e p i c t u r e s of p l o t s 1, 2, 3 , 4- and 6 A. P l o t 1 - P.P.3 B. P l o t 2 - P.P.3 C. P l o t 3 - P.P.2 D. P l o t 4 - P.P.4 E. P l o t 6 - P.P.2 F. P l o t 6 - P.P.I 0 V 44 to answer these questions. 4. D e s c r i p t i o n of S o i l s (a) G e n e r a l i z e d P r o f i l e D e s c r i p t i o n The s o i l p r o f i l e s found i n three p i t s on each of the e i g h t p l o t s were d e s c r i b e d i n d e t a i l and these i n d i v i d u a l d e s c r i p t i o n s are i n c l u d e d i n the Appendix. I n g e n e r a l , w i t h i n each p l o t the s o i l p r o f i l e s are q u i t e s i m i l a r except f o r the t h i c k n e s s of the h o r i z o n s and the depth of solum. The i n d i v i d u a l d e s c r i p t i o n s a l s o showed t h a t the s o i l s on some of the e i g h t p l o t s are q u i t e s i m i l a r , w h i l e on others they are d i f f e r e n t . On the b a s i s of these d e s c r i p t i o n s the s o i l s may be d i v i d e d i n t o three groups. Group 1: p l o t 1 Group 2: p l o t s 2", 3 and 4 Group 3; p l o t s 5 , 6, 7 and 8 From the i n d i v i d u a l p r o f i l e d e s c r i p t i o n s , g e n e r a l i z e d p r o f i l e d e s c r i p t i o n s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of these three groups have been prepared. P r o f i l e p i c t u r e s of p l o t s 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 are g i v e n i n F i g u r e 16. G e n e r a l i z e d P r o f i l e D e s c r i p t i o n of Group 1 Horizon Depth D e s c r i p t i o n A Q Q 2%-2 Coniferous needles and t w i g s . pH. 4.78 A 2-0 Bl a c k to dark brown. S o f t and f l u f f y . 45 D e s c r i p t i o n Numerous f i n e r o o t s . pH. 4.18 G r a y i s h brown (2.5 YR 5/2-4/2, moist) sandy loam, f r i a b l e , n o n - s t i c k y , non-p l a s t i c . Some g r a n i t e rock fragments. pH. 4 .32 Very dark y e l l o w i s h brown to dark r e d d i s h brown (10 YR 3/4 to 5 YR 3/3-3/5, moist) coarse sandy loam. Strong coarse angular b l o c k y s t r u c t u r e . Firm to hard, non-s t i c k y , n o n - p l a s t i c . Contains abundant c o n c r e t i o n s and o r s t e i n fragments to 2 inches diameter. Subangular g r a n i t i c stones. pH. 5«33 Brown t o dark brown (7 . 5 YR 4/2-4/4, moist) coarse sandy loam. Weak medium to coarse subangular b l o c k y s t r u c t u r e . S l i g h t l y f i r m , n o n - s t i c k y , n o n - p l a s t i c . Some stones. pH. 5«4-3 Brown to dark brown (7 . 5 YR 4/2-4/4, moist) coarse sandy loam. Weak, coarse, subangular b l o c k y , s l i g h t l y f i r m to f i r m , n o n - s t i c k y , n o n - p l a s t i c . S l i g h t l y m o t t l e d . Some stones, g r a v e l s and cobbles. pH. 5.47 46 Horizon Depth D e s c r i p t i o n L i g h t gray ( 2 . 5 YR 7/2 moist) mottled C 27+ r e d d i s h brown ( 5 YE 4/4) coarse sandy loam. Massive, hard, compact g l a c i a l t i l l c o n t a i n i n g stones and g r a v e l s . pH. 5 . 9 1 This i s the o n l y s o i l which shows r e s t r i c t e d drainage throughout the p r o f i l e . The Texture, coarse sandy loam, does not change among the ho r i z o n s except f o r the A 0 which i s sandy loam. The strongest s t r u c t u r e development occurs i n t h i s s o i l . The B-^ h o r i z o n shows stro n g coarse subangular b l o c k y w i t h o r s t e i n development and shots. A w e l l developed k^ h o r i z o n i s found only under decaying l o g s where there i s an accumulation of organic d e b r i s , otherwise development of the A2 h o r i z o n was o n l y i n c i p i e n t . ( F i g u r e 16). The p r o f i l e i s c l a s s i f i e d as belonging to the B r u n o s o l i c Order ( 4 , 1 9 5 8 ) as there i s l i t t l e evidence of e l u v i a t e d and i l l u v i a t e d h o r i z o n s . The B h o r i z o n of the p r o f i l e showed a dark brown c o l o r and contained a c o n s i d e r a b l e content of i r o n c o n c r e t i o n s , i n d i c a t i n g t h a t the p r o f i l e belongs i n the c o n c r e t i o n a r y brown ( 4 . 3 1 , 1 9 5 8 ) and modal c o n c r e t i o n a r y brown g r e a t - s o i l group and sub-group r e s p e c t i v e l y . 4-7 G e n e r a l i z e d P r o f i l e D e s c r i p t i o n of Group I I  Horizon Thickness D e s c r i p t i o n A Q O 114-1)4 Coniferous needles and t w i g s . pH. 4 . 3 7 A Q 1)4-0 Black to very dark brown. Moderately w e l l decomposed. S o f t and f l u f f y . Many r o o t s . pH. 3 . 7 3 A 2 0-1 G r a y i s h brown ( 2 . 5 YR 5/2 moist) sandy loam. Medium b l o c k y , b r e a k i n g to medium g r a n u l a r s t r u c t u r e . F r i a b l e , n o n - s t i c k y , n o n - p l a s t i c . pH. 3.81 B ^ 1 - 3 Dark r e d d i s h brown ( 5 YR 3 / 4 ) coarse sandy loam. Weak medium subangular b l o c k y breaking to medium g r a n u l a r s t r u c t u r e a few s h o t t y c o n c r e t i o n s . N o n - s t i c k y , n o n - p l a s t i c , f r i a b l e , numerous r o o t s , some angular cobbles. pH. 4 . 9 3 B^2 309 Strong brown ( 7 . 5 YR 5/6 moist) coarse sandy loam. Weak subangular b l o c k y b r e a k i n g to weak f i n e b l o c k y s t r u c t u r e . F r i a b l e , n o n - s t i c k y , n o n - p l a s t i c . Angular cobbles, and stones. pH. 5*37 B^ 9-17 Strong brown ( 7 . 5 YR 5/6 moist) coarse sandy loam to loamy sand. Weak medium to f i n e b l o c k y s t r u c t u r e . S l i g h t l y f i r m , n o n - s t i c k y , n o n - p l a s t i c . H i g h l y mottled. 4-8 Horizon Thickness D e s c r i p t i o n Root mat. pH. 5.4-9 C 1 17+ G r a y i s h brown (2.5 YR 5/2 moist) coarse sandy loam to loamy sand. Massive, hard, compact g l a c i a l t i l l . Sometimes absent, i n which case the B, r e s t s on bedrock. 5 The s o i l s on p l o t s 2, 3 and 4- are c l a s s i f i e d i n t h i s group. In these p r o f i l e s the s t r u c t u r e i s weak. The solum i s o f t e n over bedrock, and some exposed bedrock was observed i n p l o t 5« These three p r o f i l e s show the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the P o d z o l i c Order (3,1958) having d i s t i n c t e l u v i a l and i l l u v i a l h o r i z o n s . (Table 1)(Figure 16). The s e s q u i o x i d e s accumulation occurs i n the B-^ h o r i z o n . A l s o the B-^ h o r i z o n shows an organic matter accumulation (Table 8). I t should be noted t h a t the h i g h o r g a n i c matter content of the B^ h o r i z o n of p l o t s 2, 5 and 4- i s due t o the bedrock which u n d e r l i e s the solum. C l a y accumulation i n the p r o f i l e s on p l o t s 2 and 5 i s evident (Table 9); i t i s concluded t h a t the B-^ h o r i z o n corresponds to the i l l u v i a t e d h o r i z o n i n these p r o f i l e s . These p r o f i l e s may be c l a s s e d i n the podzol great group (34-, 1958) and minimal podzol sub-group (3.4-2, 1958) s i n c e they have the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s g i ven as "having an organic (0) s u r f a c e h o r i z o n , a t h i n ( l e s s than 1 i n c h ) l i g h t c o l o r e d e l u v i a l (A ) h o r i z o n (may be d i s c o n t i n u o u s ) an i l l u v i a l (B) which c o n t a i n s an accumulation of organic matter and 4 9 s e s q u i o x i d e s . Lacks d i s t i n c t sub-horizon." (Table 1 ) ( F i g u r e 16). General P r o f i l e D e s c r i p t i o n of Group I I I Horizon Depth D e s c r i p t i o n A Q O 2)4-2 Coniferous needles and t w i g s . pH. 3 . 9 7 A Q 2 - 0 Black to very dark brown decayed l i t t e r . S o f t and f l u f f y . Many r o o t s . pH. 3«73 A 2 0 - 1 / 8 Gray brown ( 10 YR 5/2 m o i s t ) , sandy loam. F r i a b l e , massive. N o n - s t i c k y , non-p l a s t i c . D iscontinuous. pH. 3 . 9 5 B 1 ] L 1/8-1)4 Strong brown ( 7 * 5 YR V 6 moist) coarse sandy loam. Very weak subangular b l o c k y s t r u c t u r e . F r i a b l e , n o n - s t i c k y , non-p l a s t i c . S l i g h t l y m ottled, a few c o n c r e t i o n s f i n e subangular g r a v e l s . pH. 4 . 9 8 B 1 2 ^ ~ 2 0 Y e l l o w i s h brown (10 YR 5/6 moist) sandy loam. Very weak subangular b l o c k y b r e a k i n g to g r a n u l a r s t r u c t u r e a few c o n c r e t i o n s . F r i a b l e , n o n - s t i c k y , non-p l a s t i c . S l i g h t l y mottled. pH. 5*66 B^ 2 0 - 2 3 L i g h t y e l l o w brown to l i g h t o l i v e brown 5 ( 2 . 5 YR 5 / 6 - 5 A moist) sandy loam to loam. Very weak subangular b l o c k y b r e a k i n g to g r a n u l a r s t r u c t u r e . F r i a b l e , TABLE 5 . HORIZON THICKNESS, DEPTH OF SOLUM, PHYSIOLOGIC DEPTH AND DEPTH TO MOTTLING FOR ALL PLOTS (AVERAGE FOR THREE PI T S , IN INCH) Groups I I I I I I P l o t s 1 2 1 3 4 5 6 7 8 A . 2 5 .50 . 2 5 . 2 5 . 2 5 .42 . 2 5 . 2 5 00 A Q 1 . 7 0 1 . 3 3 1.66 1.41 1 . 7 5 1.41 2.00 2.83 «J A O + A Q 1 . 7 5 1.83 1 . 9 1 1.66 1 . 9 0 1.83 2 . 2 1 3-08 A 2 Trace 0 - . 5 0 0 - L 5 0 - 1 . 0 0 - . 7 5 0 - 5 0 .40 .60 B u 6.00 2 . 1 3 + 1 . 5 0 + 2.03 2 . 9 2 5.30 1 . 7 7 1-66 o •H rH B 1 2 1 2 . 0 0 1 5 . 0 0 1 4 . 6 0 6 . 5 8 1 3.36 1 3 . 1 0 1 8 . 0 0 1 9 - 1 0 o w B^ 9 . 0 0 1 5 . 0 0 1 1 . 6 6 8 . 6 6 1 3.36 1 1 . 0 0 1 3 - 3 0 2 . 6 6 Solum 2 7 . 0 0 3 2 . 1 3 2 7 . 7 6 1 2 . 2 7 2 9 . 7 4 2 9.40 3 3 - 0 7 2 3.42 (B +B +B,) y n n 3 ID. Max. 2 8 . 0 0 3 4 . 0 0 2 7 - 3 3 2 6 . 3 0 3 0 . 0 0 3 0 . 0 0 3 3 - 6 6 2 8 . 0 0 o o^P Min. 2 0 . 0 0 2 . 0 0 7 - 0 0 3 - 0 0 6 . 0 0 1 5 - 0 0 4 . 0 0 2 . 0 0 •HP, CQ CD ft* A y e . 2 4 . 0 0 1 8 . 0 0 17.OO 1 5 . 0 0 1 8 . 0 0 2 0 . 0 0 1 9 . 0 0 1 5 - 0 0 S Depth to 2 3 . 3 0 9 . 5 0 1 1.16 1 2 . 0 0 1 8 . 0 0 1 8 . 0 0 1 9 - 0 0 1 4 . 0 0 Mottling * - Discontinuous + - P a r t l y discontinuous 50 compact i n low p a r t s . N o n - s t i c k y , non-p l a s t i c . S l i g h t l y mottled. pH. 5*66 C^ 25+ "Very t h i n g l a c i a l t i l l over bedrock. Often absent. pH. 5'.70 S t o n i n e s s : subangular to rounded cobbles throughout p r o f i l e . T h i s p r o f i l e d e s c r i p t i o n i s g i v e n t o represent the s o i l s found on p l o t s 5 5 6, 7 and 8. P r o f i l e development i s considered t o be an i n t e r g r a d e between c o n c r e t i o n a r y Brown and Minimal Podzol ( F i g u r e 16). P l o t 6 shows more s i m i l a r i t y to c o n c r e t i o n a r y Brown than to Minimal P o d z o l . P l o t 5 shows the best t e x t u r e , a sandy loam throughout the p r o f i l e (Table 9 ) . The s t r u c t u r e i s g e n e r a l l y weak i n these p r o f i l e s . (b) H o r i z o n Depths The t h i c k n e s s of A q o and A Q l a y e r s and Ag, B ^ , B2.2' B^ h o r i z o n s , depth of solum, maximum, minimum and average p h y s i o l o g i c depth (depth of r o o t i n g zone) and depth to m o t t l i n g are t a b u l a t e d i n Table 5« The depth of l a y e r s and h o r i z o n s shows c o n s i d e r a b l e v a r i a t i o n s both between and w i t h i n the s o i l groups. The A h o r i z o n shows l i t t l e v a r i a t i o n among the ^ I d e n t i f i c a t i o n and nomenclature of s o i l h o r i z o n s are given i n S o i l Survey Manual (pp. 173-188). 51 p l o t s but the A Q h o r i z o n does. There i s an observed c o r r e l a t i o n between i n c r e a s i n g t h i c k n e s s of the A Q h o r i z o n and i n c r e a s i n g l e a c h i n g ( p o d z o l i z a t i o n ) of the s o i l w i t h i n groups I I and I I I . I n g e n e r a l , the p r o f i l e s i n group I I show t h i n n e r A Q l a y e r s than t h e - p r o f i l e s of groups I and I I I , probably because the former have a l i g h t e r v e g e t a t i v e cover. Only a t r a c e of A^ h o r i z o n ( e l u v i a t i o n h o r i z o n ) i s found i n p l o t 1. The t h i c k n e s s of t h a t h o r i z o n i s t h i n n e r on the s o i l s of group I I (podzols s o i l ) than the s o i l s of Group I I I , and i n a l l cases the e l u v i a l h o r i z o n i s p a r t l y d i s c o n t i n u o u s . The B-j^ h o r i z o n v a r i e s up to 6 inches i n t h i c k n e s s , and may he d i s c o n t i n u o u s i n group I I s o i l s . The t h i c k n e s s of the B.^ h o r i z o n decreases from group I to I I I and f u r t h e r decreases from I I I to I I . W i t h i n any group, as p o d z o l i z a t i o n i n c r e a s e s , the t h i c k n e s s of the B ^ h o r i z o n decreases. The B-^ 2 h o r i z o n i s g e n e r a l l y t h i c k e r than the B ^ , but t h i n n e r than the B-, h o r i z o n . The t h i c k n e s s of t h i s h o r i z o n i n c r e a s e s w i t h p o d z o l i z a t i o n w i t h i n groups I and I I I . The B^ h o r i z o n i s s i m i l a r i n t h i c k n e s s to the B ^ except on p l o t 8, which shows the t h i n n e s t B^ h o r i z o n (2.66 inches) of any p r o f i l e . TABLE 6 . STONE CONTENTS OP PLOTS 1, 3 AND 5 (Per cent by volume of whole s o i l ) P l o t s Diameter of Stones 1 - 3" 3" T o t a l F i e l d s t o n i n e s s r a t i n g P l o t 1 14 . 2 5 21 . 2 5 35-50 l i g h t P l o t 2 - - - ver y stony P l o t 3 15.92 34 . 5 2 50.44 very strong P l o t 4 - - - ver y s t r o n g P l o t 5 14.02 2 5 . 6 6 5 9 - 6 8 moderate P l o t 6 - - - moderate P l o t 7 - - mod.to severe P l o t 8 - - moderate 52 The depth of solum shows a g e n e r a l i n c r e a s e w i t h i n c r e a s i n g p o d z o l i z a t i o n i n groups I and I I . In Group I I I a decrease i n t h i c k n e s s i s evident w i t h an i n c r e a s e i n p o d z o l i z a t i o n . P h y s i o l o g i c a l depths show a decrease from group I to group I I I to group I I . A l s o w i t h i n group I I there i s a decrease i n p h y s i o l o g i c a l depth as p o d z o l i z a t i o n i n c r e a s e s . The depth of m o t t l i n g a l s o decreases w i t h an i n c r e a s e of p o d z o l i z a t i o n . I t appears t h a t there i s a c o r r e l a t i o n between the t h i c k n e s s of the h o r i z o n s and depth to m o t t l i n g w i t h degree of p o d z o l i z a t i o n . These c o r r e l a t i o n s are l e s s pronounced i n the s o i l s of group I I I . (c) Stoniness The stone content of s o i l s on P l o t s 1 , 3 and 5 i s shown on t a b l e 6 . A l l p l o t s show a h i g h stone content, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n p l o t 3 where one-half the s o i l volume i s composed of p a r t i c l e s i n excess of 1 i n c h diameter. This h i g h stone content markedly reduced the s o i l moisture h o l d i n g c a p a c i t y (Tables 15 and 16). A l s o i t i s n o t i c e a b l e t h a t f i e l d r a t i n g s are comparable to those c a l c u l a t e d . (d) Chemical P r o p e r t i e s The s o i l s are a l l a c i d i n r e a c t i o n , t h e i r r e a c t i o n T A B L E 7. S O I L R E A C T I O N ( P H V A L U E S ) E O R S O I L S O F A L L P L O T S Plots 4 5 6 7 8 4 . 3 7 4.18 4 . 6 5 3 . 9 7 4 . 2 0 3 . 7 5 3 . 7 4 4 . 2 0 3 . 7 3 3170 3.81 4 . 3 1 4 . 3 1 3 . 9 5 3 . 7 1 4 . 9 3 4 . 9 7 5 - 3 4 4 . 9 8 4 . 9 0 5 . 5 7 5 . 3 6 5 - 5 6 5 - 3 8 5 . 5 5 5 . 4 9 5 . 5 1 5 . 4 4 5 . 6 6 5-75 5 - 3 3 5 . 6 8 5 . 7 2 5 . 7 0 5-57 A 4.78 4.09 4.26 oo A Q 4.18 3.67 3-97 A P 4.32 3-96 3.80 o B,-, 5.33 4.79 4.83 | B 2 5.45 5.07 5-27 w B 3 5.47 5.27 5.42 C 5.91 5-74 TABLE 8. ORGANIC MATTER, TOTAL EXCHANGE CAPACITY AND ' EXCHANGEABLE CALCIUM AND POTASSIUM FOR THE SOILS OF PLOTS 1, 2, 3 AND 5 P l o t s Hors. Organic Matter % T o t a l Ex.Cap. me/lOOgm Ex. Ca me/lOOgm Ex. K me/100 Ca Sat-u r a t i o n gm % pH A 0 0 75-54 91.10 4.52 1.49 4.96 4.78 A 0 36.01 93.70 2 .91 1.24 3.10 4.18 P l o t 1 B l l 8.06 10.65 • 37 .22 3.47 5.33 B12 4.58 20 .50 .56 .27 2.72 5.43 B 3 4-.30 16.20 .40 .19 2.83 5.47 C • 72 6 .55 .62 .19 9.46 5.91 A 0 0 A 0 70.38 92 .50 5.82 1.05 6 .29 4 .09 62.37 97.3 3.93 .95 4.04 3.67 P l o t 2 B l l 6.68 19.5 .37 .15 1.89 4.79 B12 4.73 16.5 .40 .19 2.42 5.07 B 3 2 .90 10 .2 .52 .24 5.09 5.27 C .78 3.45 .52 .19 15.07 5.74 A o o A o 77.28 95.9 5.79 1.U2 b.U5 4.2b 69-00 113.0 5.20 .93 4.60 3.97 P l o t 3 B l l 4.22 20.45 .53 .15 2.73 4 .83 B12 3.59 15.8 .37 .19 2.34 5.27 B 3 C 5.27 27.9 .60 .19 2.14 5.42 A o o 78.66 112.80 4.03 2.20 3.57 4.18 A o 52.44 101 .70 3-62 1.52 3-55 3.74 P l o t 5 B l l 7.15 18.45 .37 .22 2.00 4.97 B12 3.40 10.80 .43 .22 3 .98 5-36 B 3 C 2.06 20.35 .50 . .19 2.13 5.51 1.24 10.35 .40 .17 3.86 5.68 53 ranging from pH 3.67 to 5 - 9 1 . G e n e r a l l y , there i s an in c r e a s e i n a c i d i t y going from the A ^ to A h o r i z o n s and helow 'that oo o the a c i d i t y tends to decrease w i t h depth. The l e a s t a c i d h o r i z o n i s the C h o r i z o n of p l o t 1 which has a pH of 5 . 9 1 . Strong a c i d i t y i s known to slow down m i n e r a l i z a t i o n of n i t r o g e n by micro-organisms and encourage h i g h f i x a t i o n of phosphorus by i r o n and aluminum. The s l i g h t l y l e s s a c i d i c c o n d i t i o n s i n p l o t 1 may tend to minimize these e f f e c t s i n the p l o t which may r e s u l t i n a h i g h s i t e v a l u e . Organic matter i s very h i g h i n the AQQ and AQ h o r i z o n s and decreases i n a l l p l o t s w i t h depth (Table 8 ) . Of the m i n e r a l horizons the B^ h o r i z o n of p l o t 3 i s h i g h i n organic matter ( 5 . 2 7 per cent) due to a r o o t mat which has formed on the u n d e r l y i n g bedrock. The organic matter content of the A Q h o r i z o n s shows an i n c r e a s e as we go from p l o t 1 to p l o t 3 (from 36.06 to 69.0 per c e n t ) . Probably t h i s i s a s i g n of a de c r e a s i n g r a t e of organic matter decomposition. P l o t 1 , has a more uni f o r m m i c r o c l i m a t e which probably p r o v i d e s b e t t e r c o n d i t i o n s f o r micro-organism a c t i v i t y . T o t a l c a t i o n exchange c a p a c i t y was found low f o r a l l s o i l s . The t o t a l c a t i o n c a p a c i t y of p l o t s 1 , 2 , 3 and 6 i s given i n Table 8 . These values i n c r e a s e w i t h depth. A Q horizons g e n e r a l l y show higher v a l u e s than A q q , probably because the organic matter i n the A Q l a y e r i s b e t t e r decomposed. Organic matter of the A Q h o r i z o n w i l l have 54-h i g h e r n e g a t i v e charges due to broken bonds as a r e s u l t of decomposition of organic compounds and consequently a higher c a t i o n exchange c a p a c i t y . The t o t a l c a t i o n exchange c a p a c i t y shows a r e l a t i o n to c l a y and organic matter content of the h o r i z o n s . The h o r i z o n of p l o t 1 and the B^ h o r i z o n of p l o t 5 have h i g h c a t i o n exchange c a p a c i t i e s (20.5 m.e./lOO gm, 20.3 m.e/100 gm r e s p e c t i v e l y ) and high c l a y values compared w i t h other h o r i z o n s and p l o t s . B^ h o r i z o n of p l o t 3 i s h i g h i n t o t a l exchange and organic matter content. High v a l u e s i n the surfac e l a y e r are due to the high o r g a n i c content. The values of exchangeable cal c i u m are g i v e n i n Table 8. A and A l a y e r s are r e l a t i v e l y h i g h i n OO O 0 / 0 exchangeable calcium. The A Q l a y e r has lower v a l u e s than the A q o l a y e r . I t seems t h a t the ca l c i u m which has been f r e e d from leaves by decomposition has been leached out by r a i n f a l l and drainage water. Values tend to be hig h e r f o r B^ and C h o r i z o n s . The valu e s of A ^ h o r i z o n i n c r e a s e as we go from o D p l o t 1 to p l o t 3.('from 2.5 m.e/100 gm to 5.2 m.e./lOO gm). Per cent c a l c i u m s a t u r a t i o n i s high on the surface l a y e r s and i n the C h o r i z o n of minimal podzols (average 5«0 per cent s u r f a c e , 15.0 per cent) because of slower decomposition of organic matter at the surface ( p l o t s 2 and 3 ) . TABLE 9. MECHANICAL ANALYSIS AND COARSE SKELETON EOR SOILS OF PLOTS 1 , 2 , 3 AND 5 (per cent by weight) S o i l Separates P l o t s Hor. Sand 2.-.02 mm S i l t .02-0^002 C l a y .002mm Clay+ S i l t Coarse S k e l e t o n 2mm P l o t 1 B12 B 3 C 7 0 . 3 1 69.97 70.89 26 . 5 8 27.97 26.54-4.11 2.36 2.57 29.69 30.33 29.11 36.4-49.2 28.2 P l o t 2 B12 B 3 C 70.88 69.17 25.77 27.88 3.33 2.95 29.12 29.32 56.5 58.0 P l o t 5 B12 B 3 C 66.94-69-98 80.80 29-38 2 5 . 1 1 17.16 3.68 4 . 5 1 2.04 33-06 30.02 19.10 61.7 64-. 8 60.5 TABLE 10. FIELD TEXTURE OF SOILS Horizons P l o t P l o t P l o t P l o t P l o t P l o t P l o t P l o t 1 2 3 4- 5 '6 7 8 Sandy loam Sandy loam Sandy loam to loamy Sandy loam Sandy loam Coarse Sandy Loam Sandy loam Coarse Sandy loam B l l Coarse sandy loam Coarse sandy loam Sandy loam Coarse sandy loam Sandy loam Coarse sandy loam Coarse sandy loam Coarse sandy loam B12 Coarse sandy loam Sandy loam Coarse sandy loam Coarse sandy loam Sandy loam Coarse sandy loam Sandy loam Coarse sandy loam B 3 Coarse sandy loam Sandy loam Coarse sandy loam Coarse sandy loam Sandy loam Coarse sandy loam Sandy loam to loam Coarse sandy loam c Coarse sandy loam Sandy loam Bedrock Bedrock Sandy loam Coarse sandy loam Bedrock Coarse sandy loam TABLE 11. BULK DENSITY, TOTAL, MACRO, MICRO POROSITIES AND HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY OF SOILS OF PLOTS 1,3 AND 5 B u l k D e n s i t y T o t a l P o r o s i t y Macro-- P o r o s i t y Micro-- P o r o s i t y Hyd. Conduct. P l o t s Hor. gm/z cm/ S.D. % S.D. % S.D. % S.D. n r . S.D. 0-3 . 9 2 .20 64.4 6.96 20.8 4 .91 37.6 12.36 83.4 63.45 B12 1.13 . 0 9 55.9 6.67 20.2 10.71 35.1 6.87 67.1 71.16 P l o t t l j 1.12 .37- 57.3 5.84 15.2 14.21 45.6 6.58 33.6 52.87 • ,C 1.81 .12 30.5 5.99 9.9 3.33 25.7 6 . 5 5 19.6 27.08 0-3 .82 . 17 59.7 5.74 2 9 . 7 1 4 .71 30.6 5.43 2 7 5 . 0 80.69 B12 1 .09 .45 57.3 5-76 25.9 5.01 3 1 . 0 3 . 2 2 315.0 97.59 P l o t 3 B3 C 1.21 . 17 52.3 6.71 17.5 4.76 5 2 . 7 9.62 170.3 5 2 . 7 7 0-3 .84 .24 67.4 1 0 . 0 1 27.1 3-95 34.6 4.59 129.50 65.22 B12 1.19 • 37 54.2 3 .79 24.4 3 .50 27.8 4.95 189.0 83-33 P l o t 5 B3 1.40 . 1 9 45.4 7-70 23.1 3.58 26.6 5.62 189.2 92.29 C 1.65 .32 35.7 5 .27 17.1 5.88 23.7 5 . 0 0 41.9 3 0 . 0 5 TABLE 1 2 . TOTAL POROSITY CALCULATED BY TWO METHODS FOR PLOTS 1 , 3 AND 5 ( P e r c e n t by Volume) 1 . 3 5 P l o t s Methods Methods Methods I I I I I I I I I H o r s . B 1 2 5 5 - 9 5 6 . 9 5 7 - 3 5 7 - 9 5 4 . 2 5 4 . 6 B 3 5 7 . 3 5 7 . 2 5 2 . 3 5 5 - 7 4-5.4 4-7.9 C 3 0 . 5 3 3 . 9 - - 3 5 - 7 3 9 . 8 ( 1 ) Method I . C a l c u l a t e d f r o m s a t u r a t e d w e i g h t o f s o i l < Method I I . C a l c u l a t e d u s i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p f B u l k d e n s i t y (gm/cm^ ) \ K S p e c i f i c g r a v i t y ; 1 0 0 TABLE 13. SPECIFIC GRAVITY OF SOILS IN PLOTS 1,3 AND 5 ( g m / c m . 3 ) P l o t s 1 3 5 Hor. 2. B12 2.62 2.59 2.62 B3 2.63 2.61 2.69 c 2.74- - 2.70 TABLE 14. RATIO OF THE MACRO-POROSITY TO MICRO-POROSITY FOR PLOTS 1, 3 AND 5 Plots 1 3 5 Hor. 0-3 • 553 .866 .783 B12 .575 .835 .877 B3 .333 .555 .868 C .382 — .72 TABLE 1 5 . . 1 AND 15 ATMOSPHERE MOISTURE, I N INCHES PER HORIZON FOR THE SOILS OF PLOTS 1 , 3 AND 5 later i n In c h e s p e r H o r i z o n Based on l e s s C o r r e c t e d f o r C o r r e c t e d f o r . 1 15 t h a n 2mm Coarse S t o n i n e s s C o r r e c t e d f o r c o a r s e s k e l e t o n atm. atm. p a r t i c l e s s k e l e t o n and s t o n i n e s s P l o t s Hor. % % . l a t m 15atm . l a t m 15atm . l a t m 15atm . l a t m 15 atm B l l + B 1 2 24 . 9 2 1 2 . 9 1 5 . 0 7 2.62 3 . 2 2 1 . 6 7 3 . 2 7 1 . 6 9 2 . 0 7 1 . 0 7 P l o t 1 B 3 C 2 3 - 8 9 1 1 . 0 1 2.40 1.11 1 .22 . 5 6 1 . 5 4 . 7 1 .78 . 3 6 14 . 9 4 7 . 9 0 1.62 . 8 5 1 .15 .61 1.04 . 5 5 . 7 4 . 3 9 B l l + B 1 2 7 . 4 7 3.73 4 . 4 4 2 . 2 3 4.81 2.40 2 . 8 5 1 . 4 3 + B 3 P l o t 3 B l l + B 1 2 B 3 / - i 2 2 . 4 5 22.06 1 5 . 5 2 12.04 3 . 5 7 4.14 2 . 0 0 2.24 1 . 5 6 1 .76 . 8 7 .94-1 . 7 6 2 . 0 5 . 9 9 1 .11 . 7 7 . 8 5 . 4 3 .46 B l l + B 1 2 7 . 7 1 4.24 3 . 3 2 1.81 3.81 2 . 1 0 1.62 . 8 9 + B ? B l l + B 1 2 23.42 1 3 . 0 0 4 . 6 6 2 . 6 3 1.80 1 . 0 3 2.80 1 . 5 7 1 . 0 9 . 6 3 P l o t 5 B 5 c 2 2 . 6 7 1 2 . 9 1 3 .81 2 . 1 7 1.34- . 7 7 2.28 1 . 3 0 .80 .46 1 2 . 0 0 6 . 2 0 1.18 .61 .48 .24 . 7 2 . 3 6 . 2 9 .14 B + B 1 2 8.47 4.80 3.14 1 . 7 0 4.08 2 . 8 7 1.89 1 . 0 9 +c TABLE 16. AVAILABLE WATER ( . 1 - 1 5 ATMOSPHERE), IN PER CENT AND INCHES PER HORIZONS EOR THE SOILS OE PLOTS 1 ,5 AND 5 A v a i l a b l e Water ( . 1 - 1 5 Atm.) . 1 atm. 15 atm. Based on l e s s than 2mm p a r t i c l e s C orrected f o r • • s o i l : -s k e l e t o n C o r r e c t e d f o r Stonin e s s C o r r e c t e d f o r coarse s k e l e t o n and s t o n i n e s s P l o t s Hor. % % % inches % • • inches % inches % inches B l l + B 1 2 24 . 9 2 1 2 . 9 1 1 2 . 0 1 2 . 4 5 7 . 6 3 1 . 5 5 7 . 7 4 1 . 5 8 4 . 9 2 . 9 9 P l o t 1 B 5 C 2 5 . 8 9 11.01 1 1 . 6 7 1.30 5 . 9 5 . 6 6 7 . 5 5 .83 3.82 .43 14 . 9 4 7 - 9 0 7.04 . 6 7 5 . 0 5 • 76 4 . 5 4 . 5 4 3 . 2 5 .40 - B l l + B 1 2 —i-' • 23 -68 3175 15-56 2 . 2 1 1 5 . 2 7 2.41 8 . 7 4 1.42 +B 2 B l l + B 1 2 2 2 . 4 5 1 2 . 5 2 9.93 1.56 6 . 0 3 . 6 8 4 . 0 2 . 7 7 1 . 9 9 .34 P l o t 5 B 3 c 22.06 12.04 1 0 . 2 0 1 . 9 0 5 . 9 1 .81 4.14 . 9 4 2 . 0 5 .39 B l l + B 1 2 + B 3 5.63 14 . 9 4 1.48 8.16 1.61 4.04 . 7 5 B l l + B 1 2 23-42 1 3 . 0 0 10.42 2 . 0 3 4 . 0 9 . 7 7 6 . 2 5 1.23 2 . 4 5 .46 P l o t 5 B 3 C 2 2 . 6 7 1 2 . 9 1 1 0 . 2 7 1.64 5.61 .57 6.16 . 9 8 2 . 1 7 .34 1 2 . 0 0 6 . 2 0 6 . 2 0 .61 2.47 .24 3 . 7 2 .37 1.46 . 15 B 1 1 + B 1 2 3 . 6 7 7.70 1.34 12.41 2 . 2 1 4.62 .80 +2h 55 The values f o r exchangeable potassium are lower than those of ca l c i u m (Table 8 ) , and the potassium v a l u e s decrease by depth. P l o t s 2 and 3 show low valu e s i n A and oo A Q l a y e r s and B.^ and B-^ ho r i z o n s (average 1 . 0 m.e./lOO gm f o r surface and 0 . 1 7 m.e./lOO f o r B h o r i z o n ) . (e) P h y s i c a l S o i l P r o p e r t i e s •The s o i l s of the area are q u i t e uniform i n t e x t u r e , being c l a s s e d g e n e r a l l y as coarse sandy loams.; The c l a y , s i l t and sand content of the s o i l s does however v a r y somewhat from h o r i z o n to h o r i z o n w i t h i n the p r o f i l e . The low c l a y content i s evident i n a l l s o i l s ( 1 . 0 -4 . 0 per c e n t ) . P l o t s 1 and 5 show h i g h e s t c l a y v a l u e s i n B-^ h o r i z o n ( 4 . 1 per cent and 3 . 3 per cent) but p l o t 5 shows t h i s i n the B^ h o r i z o n ( 4 . 5 1 per c e n t ) . I n p l o t s 1 and 3 the c l a y content decreases by depth. In a l l p l o t s , the B ^ and B^ hori z o n s have the h i g h e s t value w i t h i n the p r o f i l e . I t was concluded t h a t a s l i g h t c l a y accumulation occurs i n the B h o r i z o n . T h i s accumulation could happen by v e r t i c a l or l a t e r a l movement of water. The l a t e r a l movement of water i s q u i t e e f f e c t i v e i n the area s i n c e the p l o t s occur on slopes v a r y i n g between 5 and 30 per cent. A l s o the h i g h e r c l a y content of the upper h o r i z o n s c o u l d be due t o a breakdown of p a r t i c l e s to c l a y s i z e by means of weathering. As f o r s i l t , p l o t s 1 and 3 show u n i f o r m i t y among the h o r i z o n s . In p l o t s 2 and 5 the s i l t 56 content decreases w i t h depth. The C h o r i z o n of p l o t 2 shows the lowest s i l t content (0.7 per c e n t ) . The sand content of the p l o t s shows l i t t l e v a r i a t i o n , b e i n g h i g h i n a l l s o i l s (66 .9-85.1 per c e n t ) . In p l o t s 2 and 5 the sand content i n c r e a s e s by depth, whereas p l o t s 1 and 3 show u n i f o r m i t y w i t h depth i n the sand content of the horizons (average 26.0-27.0 per c e n t ) . The t e x t u r e c l a s s e s of the p l o t s appear v e r y c l o s e to one another. The f i e l d - h a n d t e x t u r e c l a s s e s of horizons of a l l p l o t s are given i n Table 10. The t e x t u r e v a r i e s between coarse sandy loam and sandy loam. Coarse s k e l e t o n ( l a r g e r than 2 mm. p a r t i c l e s ) o f t e n makes up a l a r g e percentage of the s o i l b u l k . I t i s 60 per cent i n p l o t 5« The lowest value occurs i n the C h o r i z o n of p l o t 1 (28.2 per c e n t ) . Bulk d e n s i t y i n c r e a s e s by depth w i t h i n a p r o f i l e (Table l l ) . The g r e a t e s t values (1.65-1.85) occur i n the C h o r i z o n because of t h e i r compaction. The surface horizons show the lowest values (0.82-0 .92) due t o a t h i c k organic l a y e r . Because the h i g h b u l k d e n s i t y r e s t r i c t s r o o t p e n e t r a t i o n i n the p r o f i l e (57), the b u l k d e n s i t y v a l u e s of p l o t 1 are more f a v o r a b l e f o r r o o t p e n e t r a t i o n compared w i t h the other p l o t s . T o t a l pore-space methods are c a l c u l a t e d by two Macroporosity Microporosity O 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Depth in Inches Fig-17 Changes in soil porosity with soil depth for plots 1,3,and 5-57 methods ( T a b l e 1 2 ) . F o r t h e f i r s t method, t h e v a l u e s a r e b a s e d on t h e s a t u r a t e d w e i g h t o f t h e c o r e s , w h i l e f o r t h e second method t h e s p e c i f i c g r a v i t y ( T a b l e 13) and b u l k d e n s i t y ( T a b l e 11) o f t h e s o i l s were u s e d . S i n c e t h e v a l u e s between t h e two methods d i d n o t show a p p r e c i a b l e d i f f e r e n c e s , t h e v a l u e s o b t a i n e d f r o m t h e f i r s t method are t a b u l a t e d i n T a b l e 1 1 . The v a l u e s f o r t o t a l and macro-pore space d e c r e a s e by d e p t h ( T a b l e 1 2 ) ( F i g u r e 1 7 ) . The v a l u e s f o r m i c r o - p o r e c o n t e n t o f t h e s o i l s ( T a b l e s 9 and 1 1 ) . The r a t i o s o f macro-pore s p a c e / m i c r o - p o r e space f o r p l o t s a r e g i v e n i n T a b l e 1 1 . The v a l u e s v a r y between 0 . 3 3 3 and 0 . 8 7 7 . The s m a l l e s t v a l u e s o c c u r i n p l o t 1. There i s a t e n d e n c y f o r t h e r a t i o s t o d e c r e a s e w i t h d e p t h . H y d r a u l i c c o n d u c t i v i t y v a l u e s show a g r e a t v a r i a b i l i t y w i t h i n a p r o f i l e and among t h e p r o f i l e s ( T a b l e 1 1 ) . There i s a p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n between macro-pore space v a l u e s and h y d r a u l i c c o n d u c t i v i t y . As t h e p e r c e n t macro-p o r e space d e c r e a s e s , t h e h y d r a u l i c c o n d u c t i v i t y d e c r e a s e s . The 0 . 1 and 15 atmosphere v a l u e s are g i v e n i n T a b l e s 15 and 16 on t h e b a s i s o f ( 1 ) l e s s t h a n 2mm. s o i l p a r t i c l e s ; ( 2 ) c o r r e c t e d f o r c o a r s e s k e l e t o n o f s o i l ; ( 3 ) c o r r e c t e d f o r s t o n i n e s s ; (4-) c o r r e c t e d f o r b o t h s t o n i n e s s and c o a r s e s k e l e t o n . The v a l u e s g e n e r a l l y d e c r e a s e by d e p t h e x c e p t f o r p l o t 3 , w h i c h shows t h e h i g h e s t v a l u e i n t h e h o r i z o n . TABLE 1 7 . SUMMARY OE E VALUES AND SIGNIFICANCE FROM VARIANCE ANALYSES OF PHYSICAL DATA FOR PLOTS 1 , 3 AND 5 P i t Hor. P l o t Source D .F. F 1 P 2 D.F. F P D.F. F Bulk Density 8 . 3 3 N.S. 4 .66 N.S 2 1 2 . 0 S Total-Pore Space 8 . 5 2 N.S 4 . 7 7 N.S 2 8 . 9 8 S % Macro-Pore Space 8 1 . 5 3 N.S 4 4 . 5 0 S 2 5 . 2 1 S % Micro-Pore Space 8 2 . 8 3 N.S 4 8.31 S 2 1 .15 S % Hydraulic Cond. 8 . 9 1 N.S 4 26.16 S 2 4.80 s cm/hr. TABLE 18. VARIANCE ANALYSES OE CHEMICAL DATA FOR PLOTS 1, 2, 3 AND 5 (A h o r i z o n = A and oo V B h o r i z o n = B l l ' B^2 ^ d V Source Horizons P l o t s D.F V.R P D.F V.R P Organic A hor i z o n s 1 7.209 N.S 5 .876 N.S Matter % B hori z o n s 2 4.933 N.S 3 .636 N.S T o t a l A horizons 1 .335 N.S 3 2.59 N.S C a t i o n Ex.Capacity B hor i z o n s 2 .22 N.S 3 .68 N.S me/100 gm. Ex. A hor i z o n s 1 9.374 N.S 3 5.433 N.S Ca me/100 gm B hori z o n s 2 1.0898 N.S 3 .375 N.S Ex. iv-A horizons 1 4 . 105 N.S 3 8.984 N.S ft. me/100 gm B horizons 2 .909 N.S 3 1.273 N.S Ca- A hor i z o n s 1 8.46 N.S 3 3.20 N.S S a t u r a t i o n % B hori z o n s 2 .208 N.S 3 .326 N.S pH A horizons 1 .206 N.S 3 .0818 N.S B horizons 2 20 .52 S 3 7-29 S 58 The m o i s t u r e r e t a i n e d by a s o i l between 0 . 1 and 15 atmospheres i s c o n s i d e r e d t h e a v a i l a b l e w a t e r . One t e n t h atmosphere v a l u e s were u s e d i n s t e a d o f 1/3 atmosphere v a l u e s because i n a l l p r o f i l e s t h e i n t e r n a l d r a i n a g e was r e s t r i c t e d by i m p e r v i o u s p a r e n t m a t e r i a l , t h u s i t i s assumed t h a t t e n s i o n i n t h e f i e l d c a p a c i t y w i l l be c l o s e r t o 1/10 atmosphere t h a n t o 1/3 atmosphere. The a v a i l a b l e w a t e r v a l u e s w h i c h a r e c o r r e c t e d f o r b o t h s t o n i n e s s and c o a r s e m a t e r i a l seem t o e x p r e s s t h e a v a i l a b l e w a t e r b e s t because t h e y s h o u l d a p p r o x i m a t e t r u e v a l u e s o f w a t e r a v a i l a b l e f o r p l a n t s . ( f ) S t a t i s t i c a l A n a l y s e s The s t a t i s t i c a l r e s u l t s f o r t h e p h y s i c a l a n a l y s e s a r e t a b u l a t e d i n T a b l e 17 and show t h e degree o f s i g n i f i c a n c e o f each f a c t o r a t t h e 5 p e r c e n t l e v e l . B u l k d e n s i t y , t o t a l -p o r e s p a c e , m i c r o - p o r e s p a c e , h y d r a u l i c c o n d u c t i v i t y a r e n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t between t h e p i t s w i t h i n a p l o t ; macro-pore s p a c e , m i c r o - p o r e s p a c e , and h y d r a u l i c c o n d u c t i v i t y a r e s i g n i f i c a n t among t h e h o r i z o n s w i t h i n a p r o f i l e , b u t t h e r e s t o f t h e f a c t o r s a r e n o t ; a l l f a c t o r s e x c e p t m i c r o - p o r e space, and macro-pore space a r e s i g n i f i c a n t among t h e p l o t s . The s t a t i s t i c a l r e s u l t s f o r t h e c h e m i c a l a n a l y s e s a r e t a b u l a t e d i n T a b l e 18. The v a r i a n c e a n a l y s e s o f A and B h o r i z o n s a r e made s e p a r a t e l y because t h e r e e x i s t s a l a r g e d i f f e r e n c e i n v a l u e s between A and B h o r i z o n s ( T a b l e 8 ) . The s t u d y o f T a b l e 18 shows t h a t o r g a n i c m a t t e r , t o t a l 59 exchange c a p a c i t y , per cent C a - s a t u r a t i o n exchangeable Ca and K are n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t between p l o t s and w i t h i n subhorizons of A and B h o r i z o n s . pH v a l u e s f o r B h o r i z o n s appear s i g n i f i c a n t between p l o t s and w i t h i n subhorizons of t h a t h o r i z o n . J I L 500 600 700 800 900 1000 ROI RG 2 R6-3 RG-4 RQ-9 Attitude in F««t R ®" 6 F i g - 1 8 Rainfall at several different elevations for Jury and August , 1957-Parent Material 80 100 120 140 S i t e Index 160 180 Fig- 19 Average depth of soil horizons for plots 1,2,3,4,and 5 in relation to site index-20 80 100 120 140 160 180 S i t e I ndex Fig- 2 0 Average thickness of B n , B i 2 , a n d B 3 horizons for plots 1,2,3, 4 ,5 ,6,7, and 8 in relation to site index-_ J I I I 1 i -8 0 1 0 0 1 2 0 140 160 1 8 0 S i t e Index Fig- 21 Depth of solum, effective depth,and depth to mottling in relation to site index-3 0 CO o 20| c C k . K! 10 8 0 100 1 2 0 1 4 0 S i t e I ndex 1 6 0 Fig 22 180 Maximum,minimum,and average effective depth for all plots in relation to site index IV. SOILS AND SITE QUALITY The e i g h t study p l o t s show s i t e i n d i c e s r a n g i n g from 80 to 180. The s i t e i n d i c e s of p l o t s are as f o l l o w s : P l o t S o i l Group S i t e Index - f e e t 1 C o n c r e t i o n a r y brown 180 6 Intergrade between 170 c o n c r e t i o n a r y brown and minimal podzol 5 • ft 11 tt 1 6 0 7 " " 150 8 " " " 140 2 Minimal podzol 115 4 " " 85 3 " 11 80 (61) 1. Climate The summer p r e c i p i t a t i o n i n c r e a s e d w i t h i n c r e a s i n g e l e v a t i o n ( F i g u r e 18). As f a r as the general m i c r o - c l i m a t e of p l o t s i s concerned, the p l o t which has a more uniform m i c r o - c l i m a t e (see H-2, pp. 41-42) shows a b e t t e r s i t e q u a l i t y as r e g u l a t i n g e f f e c t of macro-climate on s o i l and b i o t a of the p l o t . 60 61 2. Great S o i l Groups The great s o i l groups or s o i l order of a l l p l o t s show a c o r r e l a t i o n to s i t e q u a l i t y . P l o t 1 i s a c o n c r e t i o n a r y brown s o i l ( B r u n o s o l i c Order) and has the hi g h e s t q u a l i t y ( s i t e index 180). The poorest s i t e s , p l o t s 2 , 3 and 4- have minimal podzol s o i l s ( P o d z o l i c Order) having s i t e i n d i c e s of 1 1 5 , 85 and 80 r e s p e c t i v e l y . P l o t s 5> 6, 7 and 8 w i t h medium s i t e q u a l i t y ( s i t e i n d i c e s 160, 170, 150 and 14-0) have s o i l s i n t e g r a t i n g between c o n c r e t i o n a r y brown and minimal podzols. 5* P h y s i c a l P r o p e r t i e s of S o i l s Among the p l o t s 1, 5 and 5> c l a y content of B-^ and C h o r i z o n s , s i l t p l u s c l a y content of B^ and C h o r i z o n s show a r e l a t i o n to s i t e i n d i c e s (Table 10). C l a y and c l a y p l u s s i l t decrease w i t h d e c r e a s i n g s i t e index. P l o t 3 has a h i g h c l a y and c l a y p l u s s i l t s i m i l a r to p l o t s 1 and 5« Probably p l o t 5 has to be d i s c u s s e d under a d i f f e r e n t group as c l a s s i f i e d b e f o r e . I n p l o t s 1, 3 and 5 the s p e c i f i c g r a v i t y shows a decrease towards the lower s i t e s (Table 15). P l o t 5 has the lowest v a l u e most l i k e l y because of much m i n e r a l m a t e r i a l washed away by drainage water. P l o t 1 has the h i g h e s t v a l u e , probably due t o the accumulation of m i n e r a l s by l a t e r a l movement of water. 62 Bulk d e n s i t y does not show a r e l a t i o n to s i t e index. As h u l k d e n s i t y at the 0-3 i n c h l a y e r s decrease s i t e q u a l i t y a l s o decreases. In p l o t 1 the (o) l a y e r was t h i n and consequently the core samples contained more s o i l from the B ^ h o r i z o n as compared, t o the other p l o t s . T o t a l macro- and m i c r o - p o r o s i t y does not show a r e l a t i o n to s i t e index (Table 11) but to depth ( F i g u r e 17). Only the macro-pore space of 0-3 h o r i z o n decreases w i t h decrease i n s i t e i n d i c e s probably due to (0) h o r i z o n as ex p l a i n e d above. Most c o r r e l a t i o n s were found between p h y s i c a l p r o p e r t i e s of s o i l and s i t e i n d i c e s . Since p r o f i l e c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c s are the r e s u l t of more than one f a c t o r , i t may be more advantageous t o use them to evaluate the s i t e i n d i c e s . The o b s e r v a t i o n and d e t e r m i n a t i o n of t h i s type of f e a t u r e i s easy i n the f i e l d by a w e l l t r a i n e d person. The t h i c k n e s s of A ^ l a y e r s does not show a r e l a t i o n oo to s i t e index but among the p l o t s 1, 3, 6» 7 and 8 the t h i c k n e s s of the A Q l a y e r i s n e g a t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h the s i t e index (Table 5? F i g u r e 18). As the t h i c k n e s s of the Ag h o r i z o n i n c r e a s e s , p o d z o l i z a t i o n i s i n c r e a s e d which i n t u r n decreases the s i t e index. P l o t 1 having a t r a c e k^ h o r i z o n has the h i g h e s t s i t e index ( F i g u r e 18). 63 The depth of B-^ h o r i z o n shows a p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h s i t e index (Table 5» F i g u r e 1 9 ) . As the t h i c k n e s s of the B ^ decreases, s i t e index a l s o decreases (Fi g u r e 20). I t becomes d i s c o n t i n u o u s i n more p o d z o l i z e d s o i l s ( p l o t s 2, 3 and 4 ) . The higher the p o d z o l i z a t i o n the t h i n n e r the B-^ h o r i z o n . The depth of B-^ h o r i z o n shows a c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p to s i t e index (Table 5» F i g u r e 19). As the depth i n c r e a s e s the s i t e index a l s o decreases, except p l o t 3. The t h i c k n e s s of B-^ 2 h o r i z o n i n c r e a s e s u n t i l s i t e index 140 then decreases (Table 5 ) . Thickness of t h a t h o r i z o n does not show a c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h s i t e index (Figure 20). The depth and t h i c k n e s s of B^ h o r i z o n are more v a r i a b l e from p r o f i l e to p r o f i l e compared to the other h o r i z o n s . As the e f f e c t i v e depth and depth of solum decreases s i t e index i s decreased (Table 5» F i g u r e s 21, 22). I t seems t h a t p h y s i o l o g i c depth has a b e t t e r c o r r e l a t i o n than the depth of solum. A l s o the range of p h y s i o l o g i c depth i s l a r g e r i n low s i t e s . The depth of m o t t l i n g appears to be c o r r e l a t e d w i t h s i t e index. Probably minimal podzols should be d i s c u s s e d s e p a r a t e l y . Among p l o t s 1, 5» 6, 7 and 8 as the depth to m o t t l i n g decreases, so does the s i t e index (Table 5>Figure 21). 64 Stoniness shows a negative c o r r e l a t i o n to s i t e index (Table 6), w i t h i n c r e a s e s i n s i t e index, s t o n i n e s s decreases. The values of a v a i l a b l e water show c o r r e l a t i o n to s i t e index when they are c o r r e c t e d both w i t h s t o n i n e s s and coarse s k e l e t o n or w i t h s t o n i n e s s alone. As a v a i l a b l e water decreases, s i t e index a l s o decreases (Tables 1 5 , 16). Probably t h i s i s the most important c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i n r e l a t i o n to s i t e index as f a r as the D o u g l a s - f i r r e g i o n goes. 4. Chemical P r o p e r t i e s of S o i l s The a c i d i t y of AQQ and A Q l a y e r s of the p l o t s tends to i n c r e a s e towards the low s i t e s (Table 7 ) . The pH values of p l o t s 1 and 6 are much h i g h e r than the other p l o t s . The organic content values f o r A Q l a y e r i n c r e a s e w i t h d e c r e a s i n g s i t e index v a l u e s ; but the organic matter content of B-^ and B-^ h o r i z o n s decreases (Table 8 ) . T o t a l c a t i o n exchange c a p a c i t y of B ^ h o r i z o n i n c r e a s e s w i t h decreasing s i t e index v a l u e s (Table 8 ) . Exchangeable c a l c i u m of A and A l a y e r i n c r e a s e ° oo o w i t h decreases i n s i t e index v a l u e s . There i s l i t t l e r e l a t i o n s h i p between exchangeable potassium and s i t e index. In general the values f o r p l o t s 1 and 5 are h i g h e r than the v a l u e s f o r p l o t s 2 and 5 (Table 8 ) . TABLE 1 9 . MATRIX OE SIMPLE CORRELATION COEFFICIENTS FOR VARIABLES X-^ Xg, X^, X^, , X &, X„, Xg and Y X l x 2 X 4 X 6 x ? X 8 Y x l 1 . 0 0 0 . 112 . 137 .186 . 0 5 8 . 4 5 7 . 2 9 9 . 2 1 3 . 0 0 5 x 2 . 112 1 . 0 0 0 . 8 ^ 2 . 2 1 7 . 3 8 9 . 2 7 1 . 0 1 1 . 0 7 2 .124 X 3 . 137 .832 1 . 0 0 0 . 1 0 2 .404 .409 . 131 . 119 . 2 0 3 X 4 .186 . 2 1 7 . 1 0 2 1 . 0 0 0 .314- . .148 . 157 .494 . 5 8 1 X 5 . 0 5 8 . 3 8 9 .404 .314- 1 . 0 0 0 . 0 0 1 . 5 3 7 .162 . 2 2 9 X 6 .4-57 . 2 7 1 .409 .148 . 0 0 1 1 . 0 0 0 . 7 9 2 . 0 2 3 . 1 0 2 x ? . 2 9 9 . 0 1 1 . 131 . 1 5 7 . 5 3 7 • 792 1 . 0 0 0 . 1 8 9 . 1 0 5 X 8 .213 . 0 7 2 .119 .494 .162 . 0 2 3 . 1 8 9 1 . 0 0 0 . 7 2 1 Y . 0 0 5 .124 . 2 0 3 . 5 8 1 . 2 2 9 . 1 0 2 . 1 0 5 . 7 2 1 1 . 0 0 0 TABLE 20. SIMPLE LINEAR EQUATIONS OP Y ON X ?, X*, X X 0 and X 0 * 0 Equation no. X i a b r S E E 1 x 2 123.33 6.63 0.124 55.9 2 X 3 108.32 12.77 0.203. 55.4 3 X 4 100.73 11.35 0.581 29.5 4 X 7 120.23 . 0.559 0.105 36.0 5 X 8 57.40 4.98 0.721 25.1 TABLE 2 1 . ANOVA FOR A SIMPLE REGRESSION OF Y ON X. Source D.F. S.S. M.S. V.R. P Regression 1 2 0 . 1 3 2 0 . 1 3 0 . 3 3 8 N.S Residual about 22 the l i n e 1 2 9 0 . 7 0 54-. 0 T o t a l about 23 the mean 1 3 1 0 . 8 7 TABLE 2 2 . ANOVA FOR A SIMPLE REGRESSION OF Y ON X z 5 Source D.F. S.S. M.S. V.R. P Regression 1 5 3 - 7 6 5 3 . 7 6 0 . 9 1 3 N.S Residual about 22 the l i n e 1 2 5 7 . 1 1 5 2 . 6 Total about 23 the mean 1 3 1 0 . 8 7 TABLE 2 3 . ANOVA FOR A SIMPLE REGRESSION OF Y ON X 4 Source D.F. S.S. M.S. V.R. P Regression 1 Residual about 22 the l i n e 4-4-1.86 8 6 9 - 0 1 4-41.86 1 1 . 5 0 13.9.05 * * Total about 23 1 3 1 0 . 8 7 the mean TABLE 24. ANOVA FOR A SIMPLE REGRESSION OE Y ON X? S o u r c e D.F. S.S. M.S. V.R. R e g r e s s i o n 1 1 4 . 5 0 14 . 5 0 R e s i d u a l about 22 1 2 9 6 . 3 7 5 4 . 3 5 t h e l i n e T o t a l about 23 1 5 1 0 . 8 7 t h e mean 0.260 N.S TABLE 2 5 . ANOVA FOR A SIMPLE REGRESSION OF Y ON X Q S o u r c e D.F. S.S. M.S. V.R. P R e g r e s s i o n 1 681.06 681.06 25-41 ** R e s i d u a l about 22 629.81 28.6 th e l i n e T o t a l about 25 1310.87 th e mean TABLE 26. MULTIPLE LINEAR EQUATIONS OP Y ON VARIOUS COMBINATIONS OF X±_Q Equations X i a b R S E E 6 X l - 8 -2 . 1 7 20.6,-4,162,8.1, 3.04 ,1.68,-1.75, 3.89 0.844 19.4 7 x z p x 5 > x 6 24.24 8.8,2.5,3.10 0.809 21 . 3 8 X 4 ' X 8 55.66 5.81, 3.97 0.765 2 3 . 3 9 X 8 , X 3 1 5 . 1 5 18.4, 5.22 0.777 22.8 10 57 . 1 5 14 . 1 5 , 3-92 0.724 24.9 11 64 . 3 2 16.67, 11.88 0.789 27.9 TABLE 2 7 . ANOVA FOR A MULTIPLE LINEAR REGRESSION OE Y ON X l ~ X 8 Degrees Sum o f Mean V a r i a n c e S o u r c e o f freedom square Square r a t i o p (D.F. ) (SS) (MS)  M u l t i p l e 8 94-3.58 1 1 7 . 9 7 r e g r e s s i o n on X j - X g 6 6 . 5 5 ** R e s i d u a l about 207 3 6 7 . 2 9 1 .77 r e g r e s s i o n T o t a l about 215 1 5 1 0 . 8 7 t h e mean TABLE 28. ANOVA EOR A MULTIPLE LINEAR REGRESSION OE Y ON X^ and Xg Sou r c e D.E. S.S. M.S. V.R. P_ M u l t i p l e 2 768.87 384.4 r e g r e s s i o n X., and X Q 3 2 . 0 ** Res. about 45 542.54 1 2 . 0 t h e r e g r e s s i o n T o t a l about 47 1310.87 the me an TABLE 29- ANOVA EOR A MULTIPLE LINEAR REGRESSION OF Y ON X^ and X^ Sou r c e D.F. S.S. M.S. V.R. P_ M u l t i p l e 2 532 . 5 2 266.26 r e g r e s s i o n on X 4 and X^ 15-39 ** Res. about t h e 45 778.55 17-296 r e g r e s s i o n T o t a l about 47 1310.87 -the. mean TABLE 30. ANOVA FOR MULTIPLE LINEAR REGRESSION OF Y ON X 0 and X* Source D.F. S.S. M.S. V.R. P M u l t i p l e 2 791.4-9 3 9 5 - 2 9 r e g r e s s i o n on X Q and X^ 3 4 . 2 9 ** R e s i d u a l about 4 5 5 1 9 - 3 8 1 1 . 5 4 r e g r e s s i o n T o t a l about 47 1 3 1 0 . 8 7 the mean TABLE 31- ANOVA FOR MULTIPLE LINEAR REGRESSION OF Y ON X^ and X^ Source D.F. S.S. M.S. V.R. P_ M u l t i p l e 2 687 - 0 7 343-53 Regression on X,, and X. 24.78 ** 4 5 R e s i d u a l about 45 620.80 13.86 r e g r e s s i o n T o t a l about 47 1310.87 the mean TABLE 3 2 . ANOVA FOR MULTIPLE LINEAR REGRESSION OF Y ON X^, X^ and X Q Source D.F. S.S. M.S. V.R. P M u l t i p l e 3 857-67 285-89 Regression on X., and X c 42.92 ** 4 5 R e s i d u a l about 68 453-20 6.66 r e g r e s s i o n T o t a l about 71 1310.87 the mean TABLE 3 3 . PERCENTAGE OP TOTAL VARIATION IN SITE INDEX ASSOCIATED WITH EACH AND ALL FACTORS Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y T 0 "t S.1 A± A± A2 &3 X 4 A 6 JL? AQ V a r i a t i o n % 0 . 3 7 0 . 0 9 5 - 2 0 2 4 . 0 0 8 . 0 0 - 2 . 9 - 3 - 8 4 0 . 3 8 7 1 - 3 6 65 I t a p p e a r s t h a t t h e c h e m i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s d i s c u s s e d i n t h e s t u d y do n o t show s u f f i c i e n t c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h s i t e q u a l i t y t o he u s e f u l f o r t h e e v a l u a t i o n o f s i t e q u a l i t y . 5. R e g r e s s i o n A n a l y s i s I n t h i s p a r t o f t h e s t u d y r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s e s were done f o r t h e e v a l u a t i o n o f s i t e i n d i c e s from s o i l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . S i n c e s o i l s a re t h e r e s u l t and t h e dynamic e q u i l i b r i u m o f s e v e r a l f a c t o r s , i t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o e x p r e s s s o i l b e h a v i o u r c o m p l e t e l y w i t h a s i n g l e f a c t o r , b u t s i t e i n d e x p r o v i d e s a u s e f u l measure o f p r o d u c t i v i t y . E i g h t i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s - Xg and one dependent v a r i a b l e (Y) were used f o r r e g r e s s i o n s t u d i e s . V a r i a b l e s were: ( T h i c k n e s s i n I n c h e s ) X. - A 00 X„ - A X„ - 00 r o X„ - B 11 Xr- ~ B 12 X^ - B, "7 " X 8 " Y -Depth o f solum ( i n i n c h e s ) Depth t o m o t t l i n g ( i n i n c h e s ) S i t e i n d e x ( i n f e e t a t age 1 0 0 ) The c o r r e l a t i o n m a t r i x i s g i v e n i n T a b l e 1 9 . The s t u d y o f t h e t a b l e shows t h a t b o t h X^ and X g a r e h i g h l y 66 c o r r e l a t e d w i t h Y. A l s o some i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n occurs between X-^  and X^; X 2 and X^; X 2 and X^; X^ and X^; X^ and X^; X^ and X g; X^ and X,-,; Xg and X,-,. Simple l i n e a r equations of Y on X 2, X^, X^, X^, and Xg are g i v e n i n Table 20. This t a b l e a l s o i n c l u d e s c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s ( r ) , standard d e v i a t i o n s (S.D) and standard e r r o r s of estimate (SEg). The analyses of v a r i a n c e f o r a s i n g l e r e g r e s s i o n of Y on X 2, Y on X^, Y on X^, Y on X^, and Y on Xg are given i n Tables 21, 22, 23, 24, 25 r e s p e c t i v e l y . A study of the t a b l e s shows t h a t among the f i v e simple l i n e a r equations o n l y (3) and ( 5 ) c o u l d be best used f o r e v a l u a t i o n of the s i t e . The standard e r r o r of estimate (SE^,) has been reduced to 2 5 . 1 f e e t i n equation ( 5 ) . The c a l c u l a t e d m u l t i p l e l i n e a r r e g r e s s i o n equations are g i v e n i n Table 26. The t e s t s o f the r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s of Y on X-^_g, Y on X^ and Xg, Y on X^ and X^, Y on Xg and X^, Y on X^ and X^, and Y on X^, X^, and Xg are shown i n Tables 27, 28, 29, 3 0 , 31 and 32 r e s p e c t i v e l y . The standard e r r o r of estimate was reduced t o 19.4 f e e t i n equation (6) and to 21.3 f e e t i n equation ( 7 ) . Percentage t o t a l v a r i a t i o n and p a r t i a l r e g r e s s i o n of each v a r i a b l e are given i n Table 3 3 . The highest per cent v a r i a t i o n comes from Xg (depth to m o t t l i n g ) w i t h 40.38 per cent. The v a r i a b l e X ^ ( t h i c k n e s s of B-^ h o r i z o n ) c o n t r i b u t e s 24.00 per cent. V. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION The s o i l s on e i g h t p l o t s e s t a b l i s h e d on the U n i v e r s i t y Research F o r e s t Survey were s t u d i e d by means of f i e l d o b s e r v a t i o n s and l a b o r a t o r y t e s t s . The p l o t s were e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1951 f o r "a comprehensive study of s i t e " (61) and the purpose of the present study was to c h a r a c t e r i z e the s i t e s on these p l o t s which range i n D o u g l a s ^ f i r s i t e q u a l i t y v a l u e s from 80 to 180 f e e t at 100 y e a r s . Three s o i l p i t s were e s t a b l i s h e d i n each p l o t and from examination of these i t was concluded t h a t the s o i l s c o u ld be b r o a d l y c l a s s i f i e d i n t o three groups. P l o t No. S o i l Groups 1 C o n c r e t i o n a r y Brown 2,3 and 4 Minimal P o d z o l 5 , 6 , 7 and 8 Intergrade between Co n c r e t i o n a r y Brown and Minimal Podzol S o i l s of the study area are d e r i v e d from a g l a c i a l t i l l under a D o u g l a s - f i r f o r e s t . These s o i l s show a coarse t e x t u r e between sandy loam and g r a v e l l y loamy sand. The c l a y content i s low (1-4 per cent) i n general and does not show an accumulation w i t h i n a p r o f i l e . 67 68 Some p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s s uch as h u l k d e n s i t y , t o t a l - p o r e s p a c e , macro-pore space, m i c r o - p o r e space and h y d r a u l i c c o n d u c t i v i t y a r e d e t e r m i n e d f o r t h e s o i l s . B u l k d e n s i t y v a r i e d between 0 . 9 2 p e r c e n t and 1.81 p e r c e n t and i n c r e a s e s w i t h d e p t h ( T a b l e 1 1 , F i g u r e 1 7 )• The m i c r o - p o r e space was o f a h i g h e r p e r c e n t a g e t h a n t h e macro-p o r e space ( 3 5 p e r c e n t , 25 p e r c e n t r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . T o t a l -p o r e space d e c r e a s e d by d e p t h f r o m 68 p e r c e n t t o 50 p e r c e n t because o f c o m p a c t i o n . The h y d r a u l i c c o n d u c t i v i t y was h i g h , p r o b a b l y due t o t h e c o n c r e t i o n s and extreme s t o n i n e s s o f the s o i l s ( T a b l e 1 1 ) . B u l k d e n s i t y , t o t a l p o r e s p a c e , macro-pore space and h y d r a u l i c c o n d u c t i v i t y v a l u e s are f o u n d s i g n i f i c a n t between t h e p l o t s ( T a b l e 17 )• None o f t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s were s i g n i f i c a n t between p i t s , b u t some o f them were s i g n i f i c a n t between h o r i z o n s f o r example macro and m i c r o s p a c e s and h y d r a u l i c c o n d u c t i v i t y . S t o n i n e s s ( T a b l e 6 ) and t h e e f f e c t o f s t o n i n e s s on t h e a v a i l a b l e w a t e r have been found i m p o r t a n t . The a v a i a b l e w a t e r has been d e t e r m i n e d on t h e b a s i s o f l e s s t h a n 2 mm. p a r t i c l e s o f s o i l s and t h i s amount c o r r e c t e d f o r s o i l s k e l e t o n and s t o n i n e s s ( T a b l e s 16, 1 7 ) . The a v a i l a b l e w a t e r v a r i e d between 0 . 7 3 and 1.4-2 i n c h e s f o r solums a f t e r t h e c o r r e c t i o n s where t h e v a l u e s were 3«75 and 3*63 p r e v i o u s l y . 69 S o i l r e a c t i o n was a c i d i c , v a r y i n g from pH 3 . 6 7 -5 . 9 1 (Table 8 ) . T o t a l exchangeable c a t i o n s were h i g h i n organic h o r i z o n s ( h i g h e s t 113 m.e./lOO gm) and low i n m i n e r a l h o r i z o n s (10.0-20.0 m.e./lOO gm) (Table 8 ) . Exchange c a l c i u m and potassium was low, c a l c i u m 0 . 3-0.5 m.e./lOO gm. i n m i n e r a l , 2-4 m.e./lOO gm. i n organic h o r i z o n s . The amount of potassium was lower than c l a c i u m , 0.2 m.e./lOO gm. i n m i n e r a l and 1.0-2.0 m.e./lOO gm. i n organic h o r i z o n s (Table 8 ) . Calcium s a t u r a t i o n was c a l c u l a t e d f o r a l l the s o i l s analyzed. The value v a r i e s between 6.0-2.0 per cent. Parent m a t e r i a l s are g e n e r a l l y h i g h i n calcium-base s a t u r a t i o n 4.0-15.0 per cent (Table 8 ) . The organic matter content of hor i z o n s shows a sudden decrease from organic to m i n e r a l h o r i z o n , from 80 per cent to 2 per cent. O c c a s i o n a l l y a h i g h organic matter content was found where the r o o t s were r e s t r i c t e d and a r o o t mat has been developed i n m i n e r a l h o r i z o n s (Table 8 ) . Variance analyses of chemical data have shown th a t s t a t i s t i c a l l y the p r o p e r t i e s were n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t between p l o t s and p i t s , but s i g n i f i c a n t between organic and m i n e r a l h o r i z o n s . S o i l r e a c t i o n was s i g n i f i c a n t between p l o t s and hori z o n s f o r solum (Table 18). ^ 70 Those c h e m i c a l p r o p e r t i e s o f t h e s o i l ( s o i l r e a c t i o n , t o t a l c a t i o n exchange c a p a c i t y , e x c h a n g e a b l e c a l c i u m , and p o t a s s i u m , o r g a n i c m a t t e r c o n t e n t ) w h i c h a n a l y s e d i n l a b r o a t o r i e s d i d n o t show any c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h s i t e q u a l i t y . L a b o r a t o r y t e s t s f o r t o t a l and a v a i l a b l e n i t r o g e n were n o t c a r r i e d o u t . A v a i l a b l e w a t e r a f t e r b e i n g c o r r e c t e d f o r s t o n i n e s s and t h e c o a r s e s k e l e t o n o f t h e v a r i o u s s o i l s f o u n d r e l a t e d t o s i t e q u a l i t y . As t h e amount o f a v a i l a b l e w a t e r d e c r e a s e d s i t e q u a l i t y a l s o d e c r e a s e d ( T a b l e 1 1 ) . Degree o f s l o p e and exposure d i d n o t show any c o r r e l a t i o n t o s i t e q u a l i t y . S t o n i n e s s was i m p o r t a n t because o f i t s e f f e c t on t h e a v a i l a b l e w a t e r as d i s c u s s e d p r e v i o u s l y . M o r p h o l o g i c a l f u t u r e s o f t h e p r o f i l e were f o u n d most i m p o r t a n t f o r t h e e v a l u a t i n g o f s i t e q u a l i t y ( T a b l e 5)« The r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s was based on t h e d a t a o f t h o s e f e a t u r e s . C h a p t e r TV, s e c . 5 ) . Among t h e m o r p h o l o g i c a l f e a t u r e s , t h i c k n e s s o f A , A , A + A , B,, , B, 0, B-j, solum, d e p t h t o m o t t l i n g , oo' o' oo o' 11 ' 12 ' 3 t h i c k n e s s o f B^ 1 h o r i z o n and d e p t h t o m o t t l i n g were h i g h l y c o r r e l a t e d t o s i t e q u a l i t y . Two s i m p l e l i n e a r e q u a t i o n s were f o u n d u s e f u l f o r e v a l u a t i o n o f s i t e i n d e x . Y = 100.73 + 11.35 (X 4) Y = 57.40 + 4.98 (X f l) 71 Where X^ and Xg are t h i c k n e s s of and depth to m o t t l i n g . The standard e r r o r of estimate was reduced to + 2 5 . 1 f e e t at the second equation. } The s m a l l e s t standard e r r o r of estimate obtained (19.4 f e e t ) when a l l the e i g h t v a r i a b l e s were used i n the m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n equation of: Y = #2.17 + 20.4 ( X 1 ) - 0.4 ( X 2 ) + 16 . 2 (X^) + 8 . 1 (X^) + 30.4 (X 5) + 16.8 ( X 6 ) - 17.5 ( X ? ) + 58 . 9 (Xg) . The most p r a c t i c a l equation f o r p r e d i c t i o n of s i t e index was found w i t h v a r i a b l e of t h i c k n e s s of B ^ h o r i z o n and depth to m o t t l i n g . I n t h i s equation the standard e r r o r of estimate i n c r e a s e d to + 21 .3 f e e t . The equation i s given as: Y = 15.15 + 18.4 (Xg) + 5-22 (X^) I t was concluded from t h i s study t h a t a v a i l a b l e water was the most important f a c t o r as f a r as the s o i l - p l a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p was concerned. Stoniness had an important e f f e c t on the amount of a v a i l a b l e water and p l a y e d an i n d i r e c t r o l e on the a v a i l a b l e water. I t was found t h a t s i t e index was p r e d i c t a b l e from c e r t a i n s o i l m orphological c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s by r e g r e s s i o n equations. Two most important c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which were h i g h l y r e l a t e d to s i t e index were the t h i c k n e s s of B-,, 72 h o r i z o n and t h e d e p t h t o m o t t l i n g . Much work i s s t i l l n e c e s s a r y t o d e t e r m i n e t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between s o i l p r o p e r t i e s and s i t e q u a l i t y . BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. A i r d , P.L., and E.L. 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E s t i m a t i n g L o b l o l l y Pine S i t e s i n the Gul f C o a s t a l P l a i n . J . For. 52:6, pp. 448-449. 182. Zinke, P.J. 1 9 5 9 . S i t e Q u a l i t y of D o u g l a s - f i r and Ponderosa Pine i n Northwestern C a l i f o r n i a as R e l a t e d to C l i m a t e , Topography and S o i l . For. Soc. Amer. (65) Proc.: 1 6 7 - 1 7 1 . 87 A P P E N D I X PLOT #1 - PLOT #8 88 PLOT #1 PARENT MATERIAL: S o i l i s developed on hard g l a c i a l t i l l . Texture i s coarse sandy loam. Moderately stony, hut these p i t s have poorer drainage than the o t h e r s . Bedrock was not encountered and i t i s assumed t h a t the t i l l i s deeper i n t h i s l o c a t i o n . The s o i l i s not qu i t e so stony as i n the other p l o t s . TOPOGRAPHY: Slopes to the southwest at approximately 13 per cent. The micro-topography i s very hummocky. Hummocks v a r y from 1 to 5 f e e t h i g h . MOISTURE RELATIONSHIPS: These p i t s have moderate s u r f a c e drainage, hut p r o f i l e drainage i s r e s t r i c t e d . Drainage appears to be the poorest of a l l the p l o t s examined. There appears to be c o n s i d e r a b l e l a t e r a l movement of water along the upper surface of the t i l l . VEGETATION: S i t e index i s "180". Trees are mainly Douglas f i r . The f o r e s t on t h i s p l o t c o n s i s t s of the b i g g e s t and the best t r e e s of a l l the p l o t s . Ground cover i s shaded down and c o n s i s t s mainly of sword f e r n . This i s the most l u x u r i a n t 8 9 g r o w t h o f s w o r d f e r n n o t e d o n t h s p l o t s . . O n t h e s u r f a c e t h e r e i s 5-10 p e r c e n t c o v e r w o o d . S T O N I N E S S : L i g h t s t o n e s a n d b o u l d e r s . N o t a s s t o n y a s t h e o t h e r p l o t s . F i n e t o m e d i u m g r a v e l s c a t t e r e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e p r o f i l e . G R E A T S O I L G R O U P : C o n c r e t i o n a r y B r o w n . 9 0 PROFILE PIT 1 Lowest i n E l e v a t i o n . H o rizon Depth. D e s c r i p t i o n A Q Q 2%-2" Needles, t w i g s , mainly c o n i f e r o u s needles. Thickness v a r i e s j u s t a l i t t l e . A Q 2 - 0 " Thickness v a r i e s from 1 i n c h to 3 i n c h e s . Dark brown b l a c k . C o n s i s t s of p a r t i a l l y decomposed organic matter w i t h numerous f i n e angular g r a n i t i c rock fragments. Some c h a r c o a l and r o t t i n g wood, numerous f i n e r o o t s , mycelium. S o f t and f l u f f y . A 2 t r a c e J u s t t r a c e . 2 . 5 Y 5 / 2 to 4 / 2 g r a y i s h brown. Discontinuous h o r i z o n . I t v a r i e s up to 1 i n c h t h i c k i n very l o c a l spots. Sandy loam t e x t u r e . Weak medium sub-angular b l o c k y s t r u c t u r e . F r i a b l e , non-s t i c k y , n o n - p l a s t i c , numerous r o o t s , f i n e g r a v e l . This h o r i z o n i s so i n c i p i e n t . Sampled f o r pH o n l y . B^^ 0 - 6 " Minimum t h i c k n e s s 2 inches and maximum 8 i n c h e s . 1 0 Y R 3 / 4 "very dark y e l l o w i s h brown" t o "dark r e d d i s h brown" 5YR 3 / 3 -3/5• Coarse sandy loam, f i n e g r a v e l . Strong coarse angular b l o c k y s t r u c t u r e Consistence f i r m to hard. N o n - s t i c k y , 9 1 Horizon Depth D e s c r i p t i o n n o n - p l a s t i c . Numerous r o o t s . Angular g r a n i t i c stones cobbles and medium g r a v e l s . This h o r i z o n c o n s i s t s of some c h a r c o a l . Considerable o r s t e i n a l s o some white mycelium. B 1 2 6-18" 7 - 5 Y R 4/2 "brown to dark brown" to 7-5 YR 4/4 which i s "brown to dark brown". Some of s o i l 5 Y R 5/8 y e l l o w i s h r e d . Coarse sandly loam. Thickness v a r i e s from 4 t o 16 inc h e s . Weak medium to coarse subangular b l o c k y . Consistence s l i g h t l y f i r m n o n - s t i c k y , n o n - p l a s t i c , c o n s i d e r a b l e numerous r o o t s , angular stones, cobbles. Medium g r a v e l s and some weak o r s t e i n i n p l a c e s . B, 18-28" V a r i e s from 21 inches t o 3 1 inches t o the 5 C^ h o r i z o n . L i g h t c o l o r 5Y 6/1 "gray to brown to dark brown" 7 « 5 Y R 4/4 which i s "brown to dark brown" ( m o i s t ) . Some dark areas 5 Y R 4/4 which i s r e d d i s h brown. H i g h l y m ottled coarse sandy loam s t r u c t u r e ; from weak coarse subangular b l o c k y b r e a k i n g to weak subangular b l o c k y . Consistence s l i g h t l y f i r m to f i r m . Non-s t i c k y , n o n - p l a s t i c , stones, cobbles and 92 H o r i z o n Depth D e s c r i p t i o n g r a v e l s hut not numerous. Few r o o t s . T h i n r o o t mat on the C-^ . Very wet, some decaying r o o t s . 28"+ V a r i e s from 21 t o 31 inches from the s u r f a c e , 2.5Y 7/2 l i g h t gray w i t h mottles to r e d d i s h brown 5YR 4/4 which i s r e d d i s h brown, some y e l l o w i s h brown mo t t l e s 10YR 5/8. Main c o l o r y e l l o w i s h brown. M a t r i x i s l i g h t gray c o l o r . Coarse sandy loam f i n e g r a v e l , angular stones and cobbles. Massive, v e r y hard and compact. Impermeable to water p e n e t r a t i o n . No r o o t s . 93 PROFILE PIT 2 Approximately same e l e v a t i o n as p i t number 1. This i s most s o u t h e r l y p i t . T i l l v a r i e s from 24- to 26 inches from the s u r f a c e . This solum s l i g h t l y s h a l l o w e r than p i t number 1. More boulders and a l s o t h i s p i t has r o t t e d logs which are 25 inches wide and 10 inches t h i c k . T h i s p i t i s s i m i l a r to p r o f i l e number 1, except the horizons are shal l o w e r and they have l e s s o r s t e i n . H o r i z o n Depth D e s c r i p t i o n A Q Q 2H-2" This p r o f i l e same as p r o f i l e p i t number 1. Only t h i n i n some p l a c e s . A Q 2-0" Minimum % i n c h , maximum t h i c k n e s s 5 i n c h e s , r o t t e d l o g s as above. Moss, c h a r c o a l i n t h i s zone. Ag t r a c e Up t o % i n c h under l o g s . Very i n c i p i e n t . Sampled f o r pH o n l y under the l o g s . B-^ 0-6": • Minimum 5 inches maximum 8 in c h e s . I t i s not q u i t e as s t r o n g developed. O r s t e i n as i n p r o f i l e p i t number 1. Some shot. 6-18" Minimum 8 inches t h i c k . Maximum 18 inc h e s . Same as i n p r o f i l e 1. Some m o t t l i n g . There i s no o r s t e i n . B^ 18-24-,"' Minimum 2 in c h e s , maximum 9 i n c h e s . Some decayed r o o t s i n a l l h o r i z o n s exceot C^. 94. H o r i z o n Depth D e s c r i p t i o n 24-27" 24- - 27 inches from the s u r f a c e . Some hard compact t i l l , same as p r o f i l e number 1. Water moving on top of t i l l . Moving down s l o p e . C o l l e c t e d i n bottom of the p i t . Large boulders embedded i n the t i l l . 95 PROFILE PIT 3 Highest p i t i n e l e v a t i o n a t ea s t . Deepest solum about 30 i n c h e s . A l s o has the best drainage of the three p i t s of t h i s p l o t . There i s l a t e r a l movement of water o f f surface on the t i l l about 30 - 33 inches deep. Hor i z o n Depth D e s c r i p t i o n A Q Q 1#-1" V a r i e s up to % i n c h . Minimum 0 i n c h e s , e s p e c i a l l y i n the hummocks. A Q 1 - 0 " Minimum %• i n c h . Maximum 2 in c h e s . This A Q i s t h i n n e r than p i t number 1 and 2. I t i s i n p a r t covered by m i n e r a l s o i l as a r e s u l t of e r o s i o n . Average 1 i n c h . Ag t r a c e V a r i e s from 0 to t r a c e . Too t h i n t o sample. B-^ 0-6" Minimum 2 i n c h e s , maximum 8 i n c h e s . S i m i l a r to number 1 . Some o r s t e i n but not as good as p i t 1 . O r s t e i n j u s t i n pockets. B^2 6-18" Minimum 7 i n c h e s , maximum 17 i n c h e s ; m o t t l e s , r o o t s ; j u s t t r a c e o r s t e i n i n some p l a c e s . F a i r l y f i r m and y e l l o w i s h r ed c o l o r . Otherwise i s same as other p i t s . B^ 18-29" Minimum 5 i n c h e s , maximum 13 i n c h e s . Otherwise same as the other p i t s . 29"+ Gray m o t t l e d , v e r y hard compact, no root p e n e t r a t i o n and not much water p e n e t r a t i o n . Large boulder i n one 96 H o r i z o n Depth D e s c r i p t i o n end of the p i t . Drainage s l i g h t l y b e t t e r than p i t s number 1 and 2. 97 PLOT #2 PARENT MATERIAL: Mantle of t i l l (probably Alderwood type) over bedrock. Depth of t i l l i s unknown, but i s g e n e r a l l y over 4 f e e t . G r a v e l l y sandy loam t i l l and appears to be more stony than at p i t s 3 and 4. TOPOGRAPHY: About % - % m i l e of slope above the p l o t . Slope g r a d i e n t of macro-topography i s 1 0 - 1 5 per cent towards the south-southwest. Micro-topography i s hummocky. Hummocks 2 0 -30 f e e t apart and 2 - 4 f e e t h i g h . P i t s are l o c a t e d about 5 0 - 7 5 f e e t from edge of steep b l u f f i n t o Blaney Creek. MOISTURE RELATIONSHIPS: Surface r u n o f f i s moderate. I n t e r n a l drainage i s moderate t o r a p i d . Very l i t t l e water i n the p r o f i l e p i t s and probably not too much l a t e r a l water movement over the t i l l s u r f a c e . VEGETATION: P i r , cedar and hemlock coming i n . Stumps and odd o l d cedar snags. A l a r g e number of s m a l l 2 - 6 inches w i n d f a l l l o g s . Some ground cover of bracken f e r n and s a l a l . Eeather moss r e l a t i v e l y abundant. 98 STONINESS: Very stony on su r f a c e subangular to rounded cobbles and stones. Stones i n the parent t i l l m a t e r i a l are angular to subangular. GREAT SOIL GROUP: Pod z o1 (minimal). 99 P R O F I L E P I T 1 Most s o u t h e r l y and lowest of 3 p i t s . H o r izon Depth D e s c r i p t i o n A Q Q 3#-2" V a r i e s up t o 2)4 inches t h i c k . M a i n l y dead f i r and cedar needles; branches and t w i g s ; low d e n s i t y . A Q 2-0" Thickness v a r i e s from 1 - 3 i n c h e s . Charcoal wood c h i p s . White and y e l l o w mycelium. Humified p a r t i a l l y , few r e c o g n i z a b l e p l a n t remains. Odd f i n e angular g r a v e l . A 2 0-#" Thickness v a r i e s from n i l l t o Vfi inches. 10YR 7/2 l i g h t gray t o 5 Y 6/1 gray ( m o i s t ) , sandy loam. Pine angular g r a v e l . Very weak coarse subangular b l o c k y b r e a k i n g to medium weak g r a n u l a r . N o n - s t i c k y and n o n - p l a s t i c , f r i a b l e . S o f t numerous f i n e r o o t s . B^^ yb-lYz" Thickness v a r i e s from t o 2 i n c h e s . 7.5YR 5/6 strong brown to 5IR 3/4 dark r e d d i s h brown. Coarse sandy loam. Very weak subangular b l o c k y . Much f i n e angular g r a v e l and some shot. Massive t o s t r u c t u r e l e s s . Breaking to weak g r a n u l a r . 100 Hor i z o n Depth B 12 B-1^-16" 16-28" O r s t e i n 28-36" 36" + NOTE: D e s c r i p t i o n Gradual boundary to By 7-5YR 6/4 l i g h t brown (moist) t o 7 » 5 YR 4/4 brown to dark brown, m o t t l e s , sandy loam. Much f i n e angular g r a v e l and shot. Massive to s t r u c t u r e l e s s b r e a k i n g to weak g r a n u l a r . 2.5Y 4/4 brown. M o t t l e s 7.5YR 4/4 brown to dark brown (moist) s i m i l a r to B ^ above, Disco n t i n u o u s . L i g h t y e l l o w i s h brown to dark brown, m o t t l e d , s t r o n g l y cemented g r a v e l and sandy m a t e r i a l . Massive. 2.5Y 6/2 - 5/2 l i g h t brown gray to brown-i s h gray ( m o t t l e s ) . Extremely hard. M o i s t , m o t t l i n g s t r o n g brown around stones, No r o o t s . Very s l o w l y permeable. Sampled o n l y near the top of the h o r i z o n . E n t i r e p r o f i l e i s extremely cobbly and subangular. 101 PROFILE PIT 2 Horizon Depth D e s c r i p t i o n L00 "0 A, B 11 B 12 B, 114-1" Thickness v a r i e s up to 2 in c h e s . S i m i l a r to p i t 1 . Much moss and t w i g s . 1-0" Thickness up to 3 i n c h e s . S i m i l a r to p i t 1 . P a r t i a l l y decomposed wood. 0-l£" Thickness v a r i e s from n i l to 2 inc h e s . S i m i l a r to p i t 1 . 14-214" Thickness v a r i e s from 1 - 3 i n c h e s . S i m i l a r t o p i t 1. Moderately f i r m i n p l a c e s . Moderate coarse b l o c k y . 214-17" Thickness v a r i e s from 13 to 20 inc h e s . Strong coarse b l o c k y , pockets of o r s t e i n ; coarse around cobbles and between cobbles. Very f i r m . Few r o o t s and l e s s r o o t s i n bottom f l a t . H i g h l y m o t t l i n g . S i m i l a r to p i t 1 . Otherwise, small t h i n r o o t mat at the bottom. 17-40" Stronger and y e l l o w i s h m o t t l i n g and f i r m e r than p i t 1 . Very few r o o t s . 4-0"+ S i m i l a r to p i t 1 . T i l l i s d r i e r than i n p i t 1 . Sampled o n l y near the top of the h o r i z o n . 102 PROFILE PIT 3 Most e a s t e r l y p i t . Same slope as the other p i t . Solum v a r i e s from 8 inches to 28 inches above hard compat t i l l . Hummocky micro-topography. A Q i s developed but i s not. Horizon Depth D e s c r i p t i o n A Q Q 114-1" Same as i n pre v i o u s p i t s . A Q 1 - 0 " Thickness up to 4- i n c h e s . S t i c k same as i n the other p i t s . A 2 t r a c e D i s c o n t i n u o u s . Appears to be b u r i e d i n spots as a r e s u l t of e r o s i o n or turbulence w i t h i n the p r o f i l e as u p r o o t i n g of t r e e s . Too s m a l l to sample. B^^ 0 - 3 " D i s c o n t i n u o u s , v a r i e s up to 6 inches i n p l a c e s , same as the other p i t s . B^2 3-18" V a r i e s from 12 t o 30 inches. Average 13 inches t h i c k . B-, 18-28" Di s c o n t i n u o u s , s i m i l a r to p i t 1 and 2. 5 There i s ro o t mat at the bottom of t h i s h o r i z o n . C 1 28"+ T i l l v a r i e s from 8 inches to 28 inches from the s u r f a c e . Very hard and compact, solum i s moist but t i l l i s dry. Sampled on top of the h o r i z o n o n l y . No o r s t e i n observed i n t h i s p i t . 103 PLOT #5 PARENT MATERIAL: Thin mantle of t i l l (probably Alderwood) varying from 1 inch or 2 up to 4- feet thick, i n p i t observed, l y i n g over bedrock which appears to be mainly granite. T i l l i s a gr a v e l l y sandy loam texture, weathered to the bedrock. TOPOGRAPHY: Slope from 2 5 - 3 5 per cent towards south-southeast. E l e v a t i o n approximately 1 , 2 0 0 feet. P i t No. 1 i s 1 5 - 2 0 feet lower than p i t number 2 . P i t number 3 i s about 4 feet higher than p i t number 1 . Micro-topography consists of many small depressions up to 2 feet deep. Around each tree there i s an accumulation of s o i l up to 1 foot high. MOISTURE RELATIONSHIPS: Surface drainage i s rapid. Internal drainage of solum i s good, but water i s moving l a t e r a l l y along the bedrock; except f o r that which i s trapped i n pockets i n the bedrock. VEGETATION: • Douglas f i r (moderately dense), cedar with hemlock coming i n . Ground cover i s very l i g h t . Feather moss and some salal- and bracken f e r n . 104 STONINESS: Very strong numberous angular cobbles and some angular b o u l d e r s on the surface and some throughout the p r o f i l e s . A l l fragments are very angular. GREAT SOIL GROUP: Podzol (minimal p o d z o l ) . 105 PROFILE PIT 1 Most s o u t h e r l y and lowest i n e l e v a t i o n . Horizon Depth D e s c r i p t i o n A Q Q 2 3 4 - 2 " M a i n l y dead c o n i f e r o u s needles, cedar, Douglas f i r , t w i g s , barks. White and y e l l o w mycelium i n patches at the bottom of t h i s h o r i z o n . Feather or st e p - l a d d e r moss grows i n abundance i n top of t h i s h o r i z o n and i s i n c l u d e d i n the sample. Thickness v a r i e s from 1/8 to 3/4- inches. Very few seed cones, f l u f f y , low d e n s i t y . M o i s t . A Q 2 - 0 " V a r i e s from a t r a c e t o 3 inches i n t h i c k n e s s . M a i n l y unrecognizable v e g e t a t i v e remains. Decayed needles, t w i g s , b a r k s , wood b i t s , c h a r c o a l pieces, Wet, many small r o o t s , white and y e l l o w mycelium penetrate t h i s h o r i z o n . Some sm a l l rock fragments 1/8 - 1/£ i n c h i n diameter. A 2 0 - 3 " Thickness v a r i e s from t r a c e to 3 i n c h e s . Many p l a c e s absent. Some pockets up to 7 inches t h i c k a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a t h i c k A Q Q and A Q and a l s o d e p r e s s i o n i n micro-topography. 10YR 106 H o r i z o n Depth D e s c r i p t i o n 5/2 g r a y i s h brown (moist) sandy loam to loamy sand (wet). Massive to very weak medium angular b l o c k y . Won-sticky, non-p l a s t i c , f r i a b l e . Organic matter appears to be low. Numerous r o o t s , l a r g e , extending through the h o r i z o n . Much f i n e angular g r a v e l . Odd p i t s of c h a r c o a l i n t h i c k e r p o r t i o n s . Some white and y e l l o w mycelium i n t h i c k e r p o r t i o n . H o r i z o n sampled only i n p o r t i o n s % i n c h or more t h i c k . B-^ 3-7" Discontinuous h o r i z o n j4 t o 5 inches t h i c k . 5YE 4/4 - 3/4 r e d d i s h brown t o dark r e d d i s h brown ( m o i s t ) . Not a s s o c i a t e d w i t h depth of A 2« T h i c k e r B-^ seems to occur at higher p o i n t s of micro-topography. Sandy loam, much f i n e g r a v e l . Very weak subangular coarse b l o c k y b r e a k i n g , s h o t t y and crumb. F r i a b l e , s o f t . N o n - s t i c k y and n o n - p l a s t i c . Numerous r o o t s , l a r g e and s m a l l . Angular cobbles and stones through h o r i z o n . No mycelium. Pockets of 5YR 4/6 y e l l o w i s h red loam which may have been burnt by f o r e s t f i r e s . Some o c c a s i o n a l c h a r c o a l b i t s . 1 0 7 Horizon Depth D e s c r i p t i o n 7-20" Thickness v a r i e s from 10 to 1 3 i n c h e s . 10YE 4-/4- dark y e l l o w i s h brown ( m o i s t ) . Coarse sandy loam, f i n e angular g r a v e l s . Small mottles some s h o t t y c o n c r e t i o n s up to ) i i n c h i n diameter. Wet, ve r y weak subangular b l o c k y b r e a k i n g to f i n e to coarse s h o t t y . F r i a b l e , n o n - s t i c k y and n o n - p l a s t i c . Main c o n c e n t r a t i o n of r o o t s ends at the bottom of t h i s h o r i z o n . Odd b i t of c h a r c o a l along r o o t channels. Extremely permeable t o water movement. B, 20-46" Thickness v a r i e s w i t h depth t o bedrock 5 or 4 to 40 in c h e s . 5Y 5 / 3 o l i v e (moist) m o t t l e s c o l o r e d 5YE 4/4 r e d d i s h brown sandy loam, f i n e angular b l o c k y . Fine angular g r a v e l . Very wet. Few r o o t s . Moderately permeable. Weak angular coarse b l o c k y to weak angular f i n e b l o c k y . Non-s t i c k y , s l i g h t l y f i r m , n o n - p l a s t i c . Eoot Mat 46-48" Thickness from 2>M inches to 3 i n c h e s . Dark r e d d i s h brown. Water s a t u r a t e d loam. Appears to be h i g h i n organic matter. 1 0 8 PROFILE PIT 2 Most northerly p i t i n p l o t # 3 . Approximately 25 feet higher than p r o f i l e p i t 1. Horizon Depth Description A Q Q 2)4 -2" Mainly dead coniferous needles. Cedar leaves. Sparse moss cover, twigs, white mycelium growth. Very few f i r cones. E l u f f y , low density, moist. A Q 2-0" Maximum of 5 inches minimum of )4 inch. 5YR 3 / 6 , 10YR 2/2 black to reddish brown (moist). Numerous b i t s of charcoal, b i t s of wood to numerous f i n e roots, some white mycelium, some small g r a n i t i c rock fragments. A 2 0-1 Discontinuous, up to 4- inches t h i c k i n places. 2.5Y 5/2 to 4-/2 grayish brown to 5Y 4-/1 dark gray, moist. Sandy loam, some fi n e angular gravel, weak medium angular blocky structure, f r i a b l e , non-sticky, non-plastic. Numerous large and small roots. A few small angular cobbles, a few b i t s of charcoal. 1-1)4" Discontinuous, v a r i e s i n thickness from )4 to 2 inches, average 1 inch. 5Y 3/4-dark reddish brown. Seems to occur mainly 109 H o r i z o n Depth D e s c r i p t i o n where A^ i s best developed. Sandy loam, f i n e angular g r a v e l , very weak subangular b l o c k y g r a v e l , b r e a k i n g to shot. Numerous s h o t t y c o n c r e t i o n s . F r i a b l e , n o n - s t i c k y and n o n - p l a s t i c , s m a l l angular g r a n i t i c stones, numerous r o o t s . B12 114-17/2" V a r i e s from 8 to 24 inches t h i c k . F a i n t l y m o t t l e d . 10YE 4/4 dark y e l l o w i s h brown mot t l e s to 7 « 5 TR 4/4 s t r o n g brown ( t o 7.5YR 5 / 6 ) . Coarse sandy loam, v a r y weak coarse subangular b l o c k y s t r u c t u r e , h i g h l y aggregated. Some f i n e to coarse s h o t t y c o n c r e t i o n s f r i a b l e , n o n - s t i c k y and non-p l a s t i c . Numerous r o o t s . Small angular g r a n i t i c cobbles. B, 1714-28" At n o r t h end of p i t o n l y . At south end of p i t h o r i z o n stops at 10 inches t o bedrock. Very wet. 5 V 5/3 o l i v e t o 5/4 dark o l i v e , dark r e d d i s h brown to strong brown m o t t l e s . Coarse sandy loam. Weak coarse angular b l o c k y breaking to weak f i n e angular b l o c k y s t r u c t u r e . S l i g h t l y f i r m , n o n - s t i c k y and n o n - p l a s t i c , s m a l l angular g r a n i t i c cobbles and angular g r a v e l r o o t s present but not as numerous as i n 110 Horizon Depth D e s c r i p t i o n Root Mat 28"+ % - 1 i n c h t h i c k . Same as i n p r o f i l e p i t 1. Water seeping over bedrock. Water c o l l e c t e d i n n o r t h end of p i t . I l l PROFILE PIT 5 : Most e a s t e r l y p i t . Approximately 1 0 f e e t h i g h e r than p r o f i l e p i t No. 1 , and 1 5 f e e t lower than p r o f i l e p i t No. 2 . Horizon Depth D e s c r i p t i o n A Q Q VA~1" Same as i n p r o f i l e p i t number 2 . A Q 1 - 0 " V a r i e s from ^ t o 4 inches t h i c k . Same as i n p r o f i l e p i t No. 2 . A 2 0-W V a r i e s from 0 t o 1 i n c h t h i c k . , D iscontinuous. This h o r i z o n has i t s poorest r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n t h i s p i t . 3 4 - 1 " D i s c o n t i n u o u s . V a r i e s from )i to 1 i n c h t h i c k . B^2 1 - 1 6 " V a r i e s from 1 0 t o 15 inches t h i c k . Same as i n p r o f i l e p i t s 1 and 2 . B - z 1 6 " + Shallowest depth to bedrock i s 2 0 inches 5 and deepest i s 2 8 i n c h e s . H o r i z o n v a r i e s from 4 - 1 2 i n c h e s . Same as i n p r o f i l e p i t s 1 and 2 . Very wet. Seepage. 112 PLOT #4 PARENT MATERIAL: Thin mantle of t i l l (probably Alderwood) and i s found i n p r o f i l e 3 and 4. P r o f i l e s 1 and 2 are v e r y t h i n d e p o s i t s over bedrock but m a t e r i a l i s d e r i v e d from the t i l l . Bedrock appears to be mainly g r a n i t i c . T i l l i s g r a v e l l y sandy loam weathered to a depth of 4 f e e t . TOPOGRAPHY: Slopes to the east at 10 - 15 per cent, average w i t h short l o c a l slopes up to 30 per cent. E l e v a t i o n i s f i r s t over 1 , 2 0 0 f e e t , above sea l e v e l . P l o t 4 i s about 50 f e e t h i g h e r than p l o t 3 . Hummocky micro-topography, w i t h hummocks up to 6 f e e t h i g h and 2 0 f e e t apart. Roots of t r e e s s i t about 6 - 7 inches above s o i l surface i n d i c a t i n g t h a t s o i l m a t e r i a l has been eroded away from them. MOISTURE RELATIONSHIP: Surface drainage i s medium to r a p i d . I n t e r n a l drainage i s good u n t i l i t becomes r e s t r i c t e d i n the parent m a t e r i a l . Water moves l a t e r a l l y when the bedrock i s encountered. P l o t #4 i s about 50 f e e t from the c r e s t of the r i d g e , hence not much water storage to seep down. 113 VEGETATION: Moderately dense stand of s m a l l Douglas f i r , w i t h some cedar and hemlock coming i n . Ground cover i s shaded down and c o n s i s t s mainly of moss. STONINESS: Very stony on the surface and throughout the p r o f i l e . M a i n l y angular g r a n i t i c b oulders and angular cobbles. Bedrocks come to the s u r f a c e o c c a s i o n a l l y . Very rocky. GREAT SOIL GROUP: Podzo l (minimal p o d z o l ) . 114 PROFILE PIT 1: Thi s p i t i s most n o r t h e a s t e r l y i n t h i s p l o t . I t i s lowest. There i s a bedrock on the bottom ( a l l the bottom). P i t slopes from 24 inches t o 17 in c h e s ; from n o r t h t o south. There i s a few r o o t s on the bedrock. Horizon Depth D e s c r i p t i o n A Q Q 2)4-2" Dead hemlock, cedar, f i r needles, leaves and t w i g s . Very few g r a n i t i c fragments. Much r o o t s . Some c h a r c o a l present. Some hemlock cones. Much moss, a few mycelium. A Q 2-0" Minimum t h i c k n e s s 1/8 i n c h , maximum 3 i n c h e s . Numerous f i n e r o o t s , some c h a r c o a l . White mycelium pr e s e n t . Moderately decomposed. C o l o r 2.5Y 2/10 b l a c k to 10YR 2/1 b l a c k ( m o i s t ) . A 2 t r a c e J u s t t r a c e . Some pockets up 3/4 i n c h . Sampled f o r pH o n l y . 0-2)4" Minimum t h i c k n e s s 1/2 i n c h maximum 3 i n c h e s . C o l o r 5YR 3/4 dark r e d d i s h brown (moist) coarse sandy loam. Weakly angular and subangular b l o c k y . Some shot. Non-s t i c k y , n o n - p l a s t i c , numerous r o o t s . Permeable to water movement. 115 Horizon Depth D e s c r i p t i o n B 1 2 2)4-10" Thickness v a r i e s up to 12 in c h e s . 2.5Y 4/4 o l i v e . Coarse sandy loam, much f i n e angular and subangular g r a v e l . Some shot, weak. N o n - s t i c k y and n o n - p l a s t i c . Numerous r o o t s and cobbles. Permeable to water movement. B, 10-20" Minimum 12 to 20inches. 2.5Y 4/4 o l i v e 5 brown to 7.5YR 4/4 brown to dark brown, coarse sandy loam. There i s much g r a v e l subangular up to 1 i n c h . N o n - s t i c k y n o n - p l a s t i c . S e v e r a l r o o t s present. Only bedrock a l l the bottom of p i t . Some r o o t mats present on the bedrock (about 20 inches deep from the s u r f a c e ) . 116 PROFILE PIT NO. 2 Most e a s t e r l y p i t i n t h i s p l o t . A l l the bottom i s bedrock. Shallowest p i t . Depth of the p i t v a r i e s from one i n c h to 8 in c h e s . There are many r o o t s on the bedrock. Hori z o n Depth A 00 A 0 B 11 B 12 Bedrock D e s c r i p t i o n 1-1/8-1" Same as p r o f i l e p i t No. 1. 1-0" Same as p r o f i l e p i t No. 1. t r a c e Same as p r o f i l e p i t No. 1. Sampled o n l y f o r pH. 0-1)4" Minimum )4 maximum 1 i n c h . C o l o r 7.5YR 3/2 dark brown to 4/4 brown to dark brown. Otherwise same as p r o f i l e p i t No. 1. 1)4-5" Minimum 2 in c h e s , maximum 6 i n c h e s . C o l o r 7.5YR 3/2 dark brown. No B, h o r i z o n . 5 Hard g r a n i t i c rocky l a y e r . 117 PROFILE PIT NO. 5 Most n o r t h w e s t e r l y p i t and about 5 f e e t above p r o f i l e p i t 4-. This p i t i s s i t u a t e d on the sm a l l k n o l l i n one and a s l i g h t d e p r e s s i o n on the other end. This p r o f i l e i s moist whereas p r o f i l e p i t 4 and 1 are not. Horizon Depth D e s c r i p t i o n A Q Q 1 1 A - 1 " Absent i n p l a c e s . S i m i l a r to t h a t of p r o f i l e p i t 4 . A Q 1 - 0 " V a r i e s i n t h i c k n e s s from ^ to 3 i n c h e s . S i m i l a r to t h a t of p r o f i l e p i t 4 . A 0 0 - 1 / 8 " Thickness up to i n c h , absent i n most p l a c e s . S i m i l a r t o t h a t of p r o f i l e p i t 4 . B - j ^ 1 / 8 - 4 " Thickness v a r i e s up to 7 i n c h e s . S i m i l a r to tha t of p r o f i l e p i t 4 . B-^2 4 - 1 8 " Thickness v a r i e s from 4 - 2 4 i n c h e s . S i m i l a r to t h a t of p r o f i l e p i t 4 . B-z 1 8 - 2 4 " Thickness v a r i e s from 5 to 8 i n c h e s . 5 S i m i l a r t o p r o f i l e p i t 4 . 2 4 - 3 6 " Average t h i c k n e s s of C-^  i s 5 i n c h e s . S i m i l a r to t h a t of p r o f i l e p i t 4 . O r s t e i n 3 6 - 4 3 " Thickness v a r i e s from 0 - 8 i n c h e s , occurs i n pockets 5YR 4 / 8 y e l l o w i s h r ed t o 5YH 3 / 3 dark r e d d i s h brown (moist) to 7»5Y 6 / 6 r e d d i s h y e l l o w . Coarse 118 Horizon Depth D e s c r i p t i o n sandy loam, massive, breaking to stro n g l a r g e b l o c k y . N o n - p l a s t i c , n o n - s t i c k y , compact to i n d u r a t e d . Wet, f i n e angular g r a n i t i c g r a v e l . Very few r o o t s . Root Mat 4-3-4-5'1 V a r i e s from 1 i n c h to 4 i n c h e s . Very wet and spongy 5YR 3/3 - 3/1 dark r e d d i s h brown coarse g r a v e l l y sandy loam. Very weak medium subangular blocky. F r i a b l e , n o n - s t i c k y , n o n - p l a s t i c . High i n r o o t s and o r g a n i c . Odd f i n e angular g r a v e l . 119 PROFILE PIT 4-Most n o r t h - e a s t e r l y p i t i n P l o t #4- and. a l s o the deepest s o i l to bedrock—4-2 inches. I t i s second h i g h e s t p i t i n P l o t #4-. Horizon Depth L00 A, A, 1)4-1)4" 1)4-0" 0-)4" D e s c r i p t i o n Dead f i r and cedar needles and l e a v e s , h a r k s , t w i g s , o c c a s i o n a l g r a n i t i c fragments. 5 to 10 per cent of p i t area i s covered by decaying l o g s . Mycelium, some c h a r c o a l present. Moderate d e n s i t y . Ranges up to 4- inches i n p l a c e s , f i r m 10YR 2/1 to 2/2 ( m o i s t ) , Many f i n e r o o t s . Moderately w e l l decomposed. M y c e l i a concentrated i n woody p o r t i o n s . Some c h a r c o a l , some g r a n i t i c rock fragments. Dense, some c h a r c o a l present, numerous f i n e r o o t s present. D i s c o n t i n u o u s , v a r i e s up to 2 inches t h i c k . 2,.'"5Y 5/2 g r a y i s h Drown (moist) , sandy loam, numerous g r a n i t i c fragments. S t r u c t u r e : weak, medium b l o c k y breaking to medium g r a n u l a r . Consistence, non-s t i c k y t h i n h o r i z o n . S t o n i n e s s , f i n e angular g r a v e l s . 120 D e s c r i p t i o n This horizon i s discontinuous. Varies from 0 to 3 inches t h i c k . 5YR 3 / 4 -dark reddish brown (moist) coarse sandy loam. Weak subangular medium blocky, breaking to medium granular shotty concretions structure. Non-sticky, non-p l a s t i c f r i a b l e . Numerous roots, f i n e angular gravels some angular cobbles (over 3 inches). Permeable water movement. Varies up to 2 3 inches t h i c k . 2.5Y 4 / 4 -o l i v e brown (moist) with some strong brown mottling. Coarse sandy loam with f i n e angular gravel. Some shots. Very weak subangular medium blocky breaking to weak fin e blocky. Non-plastic, non-s t i c k y , f r i a b l e . Numerous roots. Angular stones and cobbles permeable to water movement. Varies from 5 inches to 10 inches. 2.5Y 6 / 2 l i g h t brownish gray to 2.5Y 4 - / 4 -o l i v e brown (moist). Highly mottled 5YR 4 - / 3 reddish brown. Coarse sandy loam. Moderately strong subangular coarse blocky. Consistence i s firm. Non-121 Horizon Depth D e s c r i p t i o n s t i c k y n o n - p l a s t i c . Numerous r o o t s w i t h s e v e r a l r o o t mats i n the lower p o r t i o n s . 23"+ t o Bedrock occurs from 42 to 50 i n c h e s . bedrock C o l o r 2 .51 7/2 l i g h t gray to 5YE. 4/7 y e l l o w i s h red. Coarse sandy loam. Non-s t i c k y . N o n - p l a s t i c . Very f i r m and compact. Very few r o o t s o c c u r r i n g as mats i n top of the h o r i z o n , s t o n i n e s s same as t h a t of the other h o r i z o n s . 122 PLOT #5 PARENT•MATERIAL: Cobbles, sandy loam t i l l . Angular and subangular cobbles. TOPOGRAPHY: 10 - 15 per cent slopes to the south. Micro-topography hummocky and hollowy, about 2 to 4- feet range i n elevation. VEGETATION: S i t e index 155-160 (approximate). Cedar, f i r , hemlock coming i n . Many small w i n d f a l l s . Ground cover i s t a l l blue huckleberry, bracken fern, s a l a l moss. Twin flowers moderately dense. MOISTURE RELATIONSHIPS: Moisture holding capacity of t h i s s o i l i s probably high as compared to p l o t 7 and 8, because solum i s deeper. Surface runoff i s moderate to rapid. Internal drainage i s rap i d . STONINESS: Moderate stoniness. Mainly subangular cobbles. 123 GREAT SOIL GROUP: I n t e r g r a d e between C o n c r e t i o n a r y Brown and P o d z o l . 124 PROFILE PIT 1 Most n o r t h - e a s t e r l y p i t . Horizon Depth D e s c r i p t i o n A Q 0 1)4-1)4" S i m i l a r t o those of p l o t 7 and 8. A Q 1)4-0" V a r i e s from )4 to 3 inches t h i c k . I t i s made up of some wood and l o g s and c h a r c o a l . Odd b i t of f i n e g r a v e l , f r i a b l e . Many f i n e r o o t s . Some y e l l o w and white mycelium. Ag 0-)4" Very d i s c o n t i n u o u s v a r i e s up to 2 inches t h i c k . 10YR 4/2 dark gray brown (moist) sandy loam, massive, wet, f r i a b l e , f i n e r o o t s , some f i n e angular g r a v e l . Sampled only f o r pH. B-j^ )4-2" V a r i e s from )4 to 4 inches w i t h some tongues extending to 6 inc h e s . 7«5YR 4/4 brown to dark brown, mottle v e r y dark brown. Sandy loam, subangular b l o c k y b r e a k i n g to g r a n u l a r and s h o t t y . Compact cemented i n the t h i c k e r p o r t i o n s which occur around cob b l e s , many l a r g e and s m a l l r o o t s . B 1 2 2-20" V a r i e s from 18 to 20 inches t h i c k . 10YR 4/4 dark y e l l o w brown. S l i g h t l y m o t t l e d , sandy loam. Pine g r a v e l , very 125 D e s c r i p t i o n weak subangular coarse b l o c k y b r e a k i n g to g r a n u l a r and s h o t t y . Some tongues of A 2 and B-^ extend i n t o t h i s h o r i z o n . Some r o o t s . F a i r l y uniform t h i c k n e s s . 2.5Y/5/4- l i g h t o l i v e brown. M o t t l e s 10YE 5/6 y e l l o w brown ( m o i s t ) . Sandy loam weak subangular coarse b l o c k y , few r o o t s . F r i a b l e , n o n - s t i c k y , n o n - p l a s t i c . Numerous l a r g e m o t t l e s , 2.5Y 6/2 l i g h t brown gray, mottles 7.5YR 5/6 s t r o n g brown (moist) sandy loam, massive very compact, n o n - s t i c k y and no r o o t s . Unmottled sandy loam. Very compact. 126 PROFILE PIT 2 Horizon Depth 'OO A. 0 A, B 11 B 12 B, 2>i-2" 2-0" 0-1" 1-4-" 4-14" 14-26" 26-34" 34" + D e s c r i p t i o n S i m i l a r to t h a t of P i t 1. S i m i l a r to t h a t of p i t , 1. Mycelium, f i n e g r a n i t i c fragments. Discontinuous t h i c k n e s s v a r i e s from 0 to 3 i n c h e s . Eine angular g r a v e l , s i m i l a r to t h a t of p i t 1. V a r i e s i n t h i c k n e s s from 1 to 6 inches. Sometimes extending t o 12 i n c h e s . Compact, and cemented. Numerous l a r g e s h o t s . Shots up to % i n c h i n diameter. V a r i e s from 8 to 12 inches t h i c k . Tongues of A 0 and B extend i n t o t h i s h o r i z o n 2 l l otherwise s i m i l a r to t h a t of p i t 1. Boundary i n t h i s B-^ and C-^  are d i s t i n c t . Otherwise s i m i l a r to p i t 1. I t i s very shallow on the end of the p i t . S i m i l a r t o p i t 1. Bottom C-^  too s m a l l r o o t mats. Other-wise s i m i l a r to t h a t of p r o f i l e p i t 1. 127 PROFILE FIT 5 H o r i z o n Depth D e s c r i p t i o n A 0 0 2)4-2" S i m i l a r to t h a t of p i t 1. A Q 2 - 0 " Thickness v a r i e s from 1 to 6 i n c h e s . Contains some p a r t i a l l y decomposed l o g s . S i m i l a r to t h a t of p i t 1. A 2 0-1" N e a r l y continuous h o r i z o n . Thickness v a r i e s from )4 to 4- inches w i t h o c c a s i o n a l tongue down to 8 i n c h e s . S i m i l a r t o t h a t of p i t 1. B 1 1 1-5" Quite v a r i a b l e t h i c k n e s s from )£ to 8 i n c h e s . N e a r l y continuous tongues to 12 i n c h e s . S i m i l a r to t h a t of p i t 1. 5-18" Thickness v a r i e s from 1 to 21 i n c h e s . S i m i l a r to t h a t of p i t 1. B j 18 - 3 0 " Thickness v a r i e s from 8 to 18 i n c h e s . S i m i l a r to t h a t of p i t number 1. C^ 3 0 - 3 6 " S i m i l a r to t h a t of p i t number 1. C 2 36"+ Hard, compact sandy g l a c i a l t i l l . S i m i l a r t o t h a t of p i t 1. 128 PLOT #6 PARENT MATERIAL: S o i l d e r i v e d from the same g l a c i a l t i l l as we have found on the area. Hard, compact, sandy loam, stony. TOPOGRAPHY: Slopes 14- per cent to the southwest. M i c r o -topography extremely hummocky about 1-4- f e e t h i g h . There i s j u s t a s m a l l g u l l y on the east side of the p l o t . MOISTURE RELATIONSHIPS: Surface drainage i s moderately r a p i d . P r o f i l e drainage i s moderate i n the solum but r e s t r i c t e d by parent m a t e r i a l . Water moves l a t e r a l l y on the t i l l s u r f a c e , which occurs 24- to 30 inches from the s u r f a c e . VEGETATION: M a i n l y Douglas f i r , t h i n ground cover of f e r n and moss. STONINESS: Moderately severe s t o n i n e s s some b i g boulders numerous stones and cobbles, medium s i z e g r a v e l s . 129 GREAT SOIL GROUP: I n t e r g r a d e between C o n c r e t i o n a r y Brown and P o d z o l . 130 PROFILE PIT 1 This i s the lowest and s h a l l o w e s t of the three p i t s of p l o t # 6 . A l s o i t i s the most southwest p i t . Horizon Depth D e s c r i p t i o n A Q Q 2 - 1 ) 4 " Dead needles, moss, wood, t w i g s . Some mycelium, some c h a r c o a l and f i n e g r a n i t i c rock fragments. A Q l ) 4 " - 0 " Minimum i n c h , maximum 3 i n c h e s . Numerous r o o t s , f i n e g r a n i t i c rock fragments, c h a r c o a l . S o f t , some mycelium hut not v e r y much. A 2 t r a c e Minimum 0 inc h e s , maximum 1 i n c h . Discontinuous 5 Y 5 / 1 which i s gray. Coarse sandy loam. Fine g r a v e l s , medium f i n e subangular b l o c k y s t r u c t u r e . S o f t and f r i a b l e . N o n - s t i c k y , non-p l a s t i c . Numerous r o o t s , f i n e g r a n i t i c rock fragments. Sampled only f o r pH. 0 - 6 " Minimum 2 i n c h e s , maximum 1 0 i n c h e s . C o l o r : 7.5XR 5 / 6 s t r o n g brown to 5YR 3/3 dark r e d d i s h brown coarse sandy loam t e x t u r e . Moderately s t r o n g t o medium f i n e subangular b l o c k y s t r u c t u r e . Firm c o n s i s t e n c e , some o r s t e i n developed. Roots, angular g r a n i t i c stones, 131 D e s c r i p t i o n g r a n i t i c g r a v e l s , s h o t t y c o n c r e t i o n s p r e s e n t . 7 « 5 Y R 5/6 strong brown f a i n t l y m ottled. Minimum 10 i n c h e s , maximum 16 i n c h e s . Coarse sandy loam. Weak moderate medium to f i n e subangular b l o c k y . F r i a b l e and f i r m . Numerous r o o t s , numerous stones, cobbles, f i n e g r a v e l s . V a r i e s from 0 to 8 inches. 5YR 6/1 gray a l s o 7.5YR 5/6 s t r o n g brown, 4/4-i s y e l l o w i s h red. Coarse sandy loam t e x -t u r e t o loamy sand. Weak, medium to f i n e b l o c k y . S l i g h t l y f i r m . N o n - s t i c k y and n o n - p l a s t i c , very few r o o t s , except some t h i n r o o t mats j u s t about on the t i l l . Numerous stones, cobbles, g r a v e l s . Very stony. 2 . 5 Y 5 / 2 which i s g r a y i s h brown. Some s l i g h t l y mottled coarse sandy loam to loamy sand. Very hard compact. Impermeable f o r moving of water. Massive, no r o o t s . 132 PROFILE PIT 2 Thi s i s the h i g h e s t p i t i n P l o t #6. I t i s c e n t r a l , H o r i z o n Depth D e s c r i p t i o n A Q Q 2)4-2" S i m i l a r to p r o f i l e p i t 1. A Q 2-0" Minimum 1 i n c h , maximum 3 i n c h e s . Otherwise same as p r o f i l e p i t 1. A 2 t r a c e Not enough to sample. 0-6" Minimum 2 inch e s , maximum 12 in c h e s . This h o r i z o n i s the same as p r o f i l e p i t 1, except a l i t t l e b e t t e r developed o r s t e i n . B l 2 6-18" S i m i l a r to p r o f i l e p i t 1 except t h i c k e r h o r i z o n . I t c o n t a i n s pockets of o r s t e i n and there i s a weak i r o n pan forming at the bottom of t h i s h o r i z o n d i r e c t l y above the t i l l . T h i s pan i s not continuous. N.B. Two samples taken from t h i s h o r i z o n . One of them mottled to B 2, the other from o r s t e i n f o r m a t i o n both i n the t o p s o i l and i n the s u b s o i l . B, 18-40" S i m i l a r to t h a t of p r o f i l e p i t 1. 3 40"+ I t i s the same as i n the other p i t , except the t i l l occurs at a g r e a t e r depth from the surfa c e than i n p r o f i l e p i t 1. 153 PROFILE PIT 5 Most w e s t e r l y p i t . This p i t represents a poor s o i l i n comparison w i t h the other two p i t s . H o rizon Depth D e s c r i p t i o n A Q Q 2)4-2" Thickness v a r i e s from 1/8 to 1 i n c h . Many t w i g s . Few mosses. Very t h i n i n some p l a c e s . Very l o o s e . Many dead f i r and hemlock, cedar needles. G r a n i t i c fragments and some f i n e g r a v e l s . Some ba r k s , b i t s of wood. A Q 2 - 0 " Thickness v a r i e s from 1/8 i n c h t o 3 i n c h e s . Many g r a n i t i c fragments. Some c h a r c o a l . Some f u n g i . White and y e l l o w mycelium. Some r o o t s . There are pockets of A Q i n B ^ , around r o o t s . A 0 0-j£" Discontinuous. Thickness v a r i e s from 0 to 1)4 inches. There are some pockets under the pockets of A Q . Otherwise same as t h a t of p r o f i l e p i t 1 . Sampled on l y f o r pH. B - ^ )4-4-1/i>" Thickness v a r i e s from 5)4 to 15 i n c h e s . S i m i l a r to tha t of p r o f i l e p i t 1 . ' B 12 4)4-20" Thickness v a r i e s from 7 to 25 i n c h e s . No o r s t e i n . S i m i l a r to t h a t of p r o f i l e p i t 1 . 134 Horizon Depth B z 20-26 C-. 26-32 D e s c r i p t i o n Thickness v a r i e s from 4 to 15 i n c h e s . S i m i l a r to th a t of p r o f i l e p i t 1 . Thickness v a r i e s from 2 inches to 5 i n c h e s . S i m i l a r to t h a t of p r o f i l e p i t 1.' 135 PLOT #7 PARENT MATERIAL: 30 t o 40 inches of t i l l ( probably Alderwood type) over bedrock which c o n s i s t s mainly of g r a n i t e and a r g i l l i t e . T i l l c o n t a i n s many l a r g e stones and cobbles which are angular to subangular, some rounded. Stones are over 2 f e e t i n diameter. T i l l may be weathered. TOPOGRAPHY: Slopes 10 per cent to south. Steep b l u f f i n t o Blaney Creek 200 to 300 f e e t to the e a s t . Land a l s o slopes o f f g r a d u a l l y t o the west, beyond the p l o t . Micro-topography i s pronounced hummocks and a l l e l e v a t i o n v a r y i n g from 3 to 4 f e e t . Slopes u p h i l l to the n o r t h , c o n t i n u i n g some d i s t a n c e . MOISTURE RELATIONSHIPS: Moderate to r a p i d on s u r f a c e . I n t e r n a l drainage i s r a p i d i n the solum. Moisture h o l d i n g c a p a c i t y i s s i m i l a r to t h a t of P l o t #8, because the impermeable l a y e r s are n e a r l y i n the same depth i n both p r o f i l e s . VEGETATION: S i m i l a r to t h a t of P l o t #8. 136 STONINESS; Moderate t o severe. Stones occupy 10 p e r cent of the surface area. TENTATIVE GREAT SOIL GROUP: Con c r e t i o n a r y Brown and P o d z o l . 137 PROFILE PIT 1 Most n o r t h e r l y p i t . Horizon Depth D e s c r i p t i o n A Q 0 1#-1)4" Dead f i r cedar, hemlock needles, f e a t h e r moss growing i n t h i s h o r i z o n , hemlock cones s c a t t e r e d on the s u r f a c e . A Q 1)4-0" Decayed f o r e s t l i t t e r . Many r o o t s . Thickness v a r i e s from 1 to 4 i n c h e s . Some h i t s of c h a r c o a l and wood. F r i a b l e . Black to dark brown. A 0 0-1/8" Discontinuous and absent i n many p l a c e s . I t i s not enough to sample. 10YR 5/2 gray brown (moist) sandy loam. F r i a b l e massive, n o n - s t i c k y and n o n - p l a s t i c . 1/8-1)4" Thickness v a r i e s from )4 to 2 inches w i t h some tongues extending to 6 i n c h e s . 7.5YR 4/6 very s t r o n g brown. S l i g h t l y m o t t l e d , f r i a b l e v e r y weak subangular b l o c k y . Very few sho t s , f i n e subangular g r a v e l . N o n - s t i c k y , n o n - p l a s t i c . Coarse sandy loam t e x t u r e . Numerous r o o t s . B12 1)4-22" V a r i e s from 16 to 25 inches t h i c k . 10YR 5/6 y e l l o w i s h brown s l i g h t l y m o t t l e d . Sandy loam, f r i a b l e . Very 138 H o r i z o n Depth D e s c r i p t i o n weak subangular b l o c k y , b r e a k i n g to gr a n u l a r and shots. N o n - s t i c k y and n o n - p l a s t i c . B 2 22-36" V a r i e s from 10 to 20 inches t h i c k . 3 2.5Y 5/6-5A l i g h t y e l l o w brown to l i g h t o l i v e brown. S l i g h t l y mottled sandy loam to loam. Very weak subangular b l o c k y breaking to g r a n u l a r . F r i a b l e compact i n low p a r t i n some p l a c e s . N o n - s t i c k y , n o n - p l a s t i c . This h o r i z o n s i t s on the bedrock (D). Some r o o t mats on the bottom of t h i s h o r i z o n . Very wet. Some r o o t s . S t o n i n e s s : Subangular to rounded cobbles and stones through p r o f i l e . E n t i r e p r o f i l e appears to be low i n organic matter. 139 PROFILE PIT 2 Most e a s t e r l y p i t . Not much, p l a n t cover. Bottom bedrock. Horizon Depth D e s c r i p t i o n A Q Q 2 - 1 / 8 - 2 " Not much moss and p l a n t l i f e . Otherwise the same as p r o f i l e p i t 1 . A Q 2 - 0 " Much more c h a r c o a l than i n the o t h e r s . Some r o t t i n g wood. Dense white and y e l l o w mycelium. Thickness v a r i e s from 1A to 4 in c h e s . Otherwise the same as p i t 1 . A 2 0 - 1 " Not continuous. V a r i e s from 0-3)4 inches S i m i l a r to that of p i t 1 . Some pockets. B - Q 1-2)4" Thickness v a r i e s from )4 to 4)4 i n c h e s . Tongues up to 8 i n c h e s . S i m i l a r to t h a t of p i t 1 . B-^ 2 2)4-19" Thickness v a r i e s from 10 inches to 25 i n c h e s . Otherwise the same as p r o f i l e p i t 1 . B^ 1 9 - 3 0 " Minimum t h i c k n e s s 6 inches. Maximum 15 i n c h e s . S i m i l a r to t h a t of p i t 1 . O r s t e i n 5 0 - 3 3 " Up to 3 i n c h e s . Cemented. Massive. D i s c o n t i n u o u s . C j 33"+ Very t h i n over the bedrock. 1 4 0 PROFILE PIT 5 The most s o u t h e r l y p i t and a l s o the deepest. 50 inches t o 30 inches s l o p e . Bedrock bottom. Horizon Depth D e s c r i p t i o n A Q Q 2 -^2>2" Not much moss and p l a n t s on the surface. Much t w i g s . Otherwise the same as p r o f i l e p i t 1 and p r o f i l e p i t 2. A Q 2)4-0" Thickness v a r i e s from )4 to 4 i n c h e s . Mycelium white and y e l l o w . Some g r a n i t i c fragments. Otherwise same. A ^ 0-)4" Not continuous. Th;ickness minimum 0 inches and maximum 1)4 inches. Sampled f o r pH only . Otherwise the same as p r o f i l e p i t 1. )4-3" Thickness v a r i e s from 0 to 5 i n c h e s . Tongues down to 12 inches. S i m i l a r to t h a t of o t h e r s . B^2 3-20" Minimum t h i c k n e s s 3 inches maximum 25 i n c h e s . Otherwise the same as p r o f i l e p i t 1 and p r o f i l e p i t 2. B-, 20-35" Thickness v a r i e s from 2 to 10 i n c h e s . 5 Otherwise the same as p r o f i l e p i t 1 and p r o f i l e p i t 2. 141 PLOT #8 PARENT MATERIAL: G l a c i a l t i l l o v e r b e d r o c k ( A l d e r w o o d t i l l p r o b a b l y ) . T i l l i s o v e r 4 f e e t t h i c k . B e d r ock. TOPOGRAPHY: M i c r o - t o p o g r a p h y , u n i f o r m s l o p e f rom 5 - 1 0 p e r c e n t . S l o p i n g t o w a r d s t h e s o u t h . P l o t i s s i t u a t e d about 100 f e e t w est o f B l a n e y Creek. There i s a s t e e p b l u f f about 50 f e e t h i g h between p l o t and B l a n e y Creek. Topography s l o p e s down, west o f t h e p l o t . M i c r o - t o p o g r a p h y c o n s i s t s o f m i n o r u n d u l a t i o n s about 1-2 f e e t h i g h and 1 0 - 1 5 f e e t a p a r t . MOISTURE RELATIONSHIPS: P r o f i l e was wet a t t h e t i m e o f o b s e r v a t i o n . S u r f a c e r u n o f f i s moderate. M o i s t u r e h o l d i n g c a p a c i t y o f t h e s o i l p r o f i l e w i l l be s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f p l o t # 2 . I n t e r n a l d r a i n a g e w i l l be moderate because o f cemented t i l l i n t h e C h o r i z o n . VEGETATION: M a i n l y c e d a r , second g r o w t h D o u g l a s f i r , g round c o v e r i s l i g h t , c o n s i s t i n g o f b r a c k e n f e r n and s a l a l . Some t a l l b l u e h u c k l e b e r r y . Moderate c o v e r , f e a t h e r moss. 14-2 STONINESS: Moderate s t o n i n e s s . S t o n e s m a i n l y g r a n i t i c a n g u l a r t o s u b a n g u l a r . GREAT SOIL GROUP: I n t e r g r a d e C o n c r e t i o n a r y Brown and P o d z o l . 14-3 PROFILE PIT 1 Most s o u t h e r l y . T h i s p i t s i t s on a k n o l l . H o r i z o n Depth D e s c r i p t i o n A 0 0 3)4 -3" S i m i l a r t o t h a t o f p r o f i l e p i t 3 and 2 . A Q 3-0" S i m i l a r t o t h a t o f p r o f i l e p i t 3 . A 0 0-)4" Ab s e n t i n many p l a c e s . V a r i e s f r o m n i l t o 1 i n c h . S i m i l a r t o t h a t o f p r o f i l e p i t 5« Sampled o n l y f o r pH. B ^ ) i - 2 " T h i c k n e s s v a r i e s 0 t o 3 i n c h e s . W i t h t h e odd tongue e x t e n d i n g t o 6 i n c h e s . S i m i l a r t o t h a t o f p i t 3- Deeper t o n g u e s a r e cemented. B^ 0 2 - 2 5 " V a r i e s f r o m 16 t o 25 i n c h e s t h i c k . S i m i l a r t o t h a t o f p i t 3- W i t h some to n g u e s o f C-^  e x t e n d i n g i n t o i t . B-, 2 5 - 2 7 " D i s c o n t i n u o u s h o r i z o n . S i m i l a r t o 5 t h a t o f p i t 5 . C 1 2 7-40" S i m i l a r t o t h a t o f p i t 3 . C 2 40"+ S i m i l a r t o t h a t o f p i t 3 . 144 PROEILE PIT 2 Hori z o n Depth D e s c r i p t i o n A 00 A 0 B. 11 B 12 B, 5)4-5" Thickness v a r i e s from 1/10 to )4 i n c h . S i m i l a r t o p i t number 3« 3 - 0 " Thickness v a r i e s from 1)4 to 6 i n c h e s . In the t h i c k e r p o r t i o n s there are decomposed woods. Otherwise s i m i l a r t o p i t number 3» 0-^" Almost continuous h o r i z o n . Thickness v a r i e s )4 t o 5 i n c h e s . Otherwise s i m i l a r to the other p i t . $-2)4" Continuous h o r i z o n v a r i e s from )4 to 3 i n c h e s . Except f o r o c c a s i o n a l tongues which may occur down to 12 inches t h i c k n e s s . T h i c k e r p o r t i o n s occur under t h i c k A 2 h o r i z o n . S l i g h t l y more cemented than t h a t of p i t 3 . 2)4-22" V a r i e s from 16 to 20 inches t h i c k . I t i s q u i t e s i m i l a r to p r o f i l e p i t 3» Except i t i s s l i g h t l y cemented. O c c a s i o n a l l y there are ro o t mats. Root mats occur near the bottom. Numerous loose pockets probably along o l d ro o t c o n c e n t r a t i o n s . 2 2 - 2 5 " N e a r l y uniform t h i c k n e s s boundary between B^ and B^ 2 i s somewhat i n d i s t i n c t 14-5 Horizon Depth. c 1 2 5 - 3 2 C 2 32"+ D e s c r i p t i o n except t h a t i s more cemented. S i m i l a r to t h a t of p i t 3 . Thickness v a r i e s 5 t o 10 inch e s . S i m i l a r t o tha t of p r o f i l e p i t 3 . S i m i l a r to tha t of p r o f i l e p i t 3 . 146 PROFILE PIT 5 This I s most n o r t h e r l y p i t . Horizon Depth D e s c r i p t i o n A Q Q 2^ -214 " M a i n l y dead f i r needles, some cedar needles, f e a t h e r moss growth on t h i s h o r i z o n . Loose, non-compact, some t w i g s , h i t s of wood; Some white mycelium. Fine g r a n i t i c fragment. A Q 2 1 4 - 0 " Thickness v a r i e s from 1 i n c h to 4 inches. B l a c k to very dark brown (moist c o l o r ) . Some c h a r c o a l , spongy, many f i n e r o o t s , v e r y few r e c o g n i z a b l e p l a n t remains some b i t s of wood, f r i a b l e . A 2 0 - 14 " Discontinuous t h i c k n e s s v a r i e s i i to 3 i n c h e s . Thick p a r t s i n t h i s h o r i z o n occur under t h i c k A Q h o r i z o n . Coarse sandy loam. 10YR 5 / 2 to 4 / 2 gray brown to dark gray brown ( m o i s t ) . Very weak medium subangular b l o c k y , wet consist e n c e f r i a b l e . Few b i t s of c h a r c o a l , n o n - s t i c k y and n o n - p l a s t i c . Many l a r g e and sm a l l r o o t s . B-^ 1 4 - 2 " Thickness v a r i e s from 14 to 3 i n c h e s . 7 . 5 Y R 4/4 - 3/6 brown to dark brown (moist) coarse sandy loam. Very weak t o 147 H o r i z o n Depth D e s c r i p t i o n m a s s i v e , many l a r g e c o n c r e t i o n a r y s h o t s . (}£ - )4 i n c h ) f r i a b l e , n o n - s t i c k y and n o n - p l a s t i c . Some p l a c e s t h e s h o t s a p p e a r t o be w e a k l y cemented t o g e t h e r . Some b i t s o f c h a r c o a l . 33^2 2 -15" T h i c k n e s s v a r i e s f r o m 10 i n c h e s t o 18 i n c h e s . S l i g h t l y m o t t l e d , 7-5YR 5/6 s t r o n g brown. The m o t t l e s 7»5YB 3/6 d a r k brown ( m o i s t ) c o a r s e sandy loam. S t r u c t u r e v e r y weak s u b a n g u l a r b l o c k y , b r e a k i n g t o v e r y weak g r a n u l a r and s h o t . T h i s s h o t i s l e s s t h a n % i n c h . Some f i n e a n g u l a r g r a v e l , n o n - s t i c k y , n o n - p l a s t i c f r i a b l e . Numerous r o o t s . S m a l l tongues o f A 2 and C-^  o c c u r , o c c a s i o n a l l y t h r o u g h o u t h o r i z o n . O r s t e i n - l i k e o c c u r s around some o f t h e s t o n e s . B^ 15-18" Q u i t e u n i f o r m , t h i c k n e s s . 7.5YR 4/4 brown t o d a r k brown ( m o i s t ) . S l i g h t l y m o t t l e d . Coarse sandy loam. Moderate s u b a n g u l a r c o a r s e b l o c k y . Some s h o t , compact, n o n - s t i c k y and n o n - p l a s t i c , s l i g h t l y cemented. Few r o o t s . ^ 18-36" T h i c k n e s s v a r i e s about from 12 t o 24 i n c h e s . 2.5Y 8/2 - 5/2 l i g h t g r a y t o 6 148 Horizon Depth D e s c r i p t i o n l i g h t brownish gray. M o t t l e s . 7.5Y 5/8 - 6/8 s t r o n g brown to r e d d i s h y e l l o w ( m o i s t ) , loam to sandy loam. Massive to coarse angular b l o c k y . Compact ve r y few r o o t s . N o n - s t i c k y , n o n - p l a s t i c . Root mat occurs d i s c o n t i n u o u s l y at the bottom of t h i s h o r i z o n . C 2 36"+ 2.5Y 5/4 l i g h t o l i v e brown ( m o i s t ) . Some m o t t l i n g loam to sandy loam. Massive. Very compact and moist. No r o o t s . Throughout whole p r o f i l e some angular to subangular g r a v e l and cobbles occur. Organic matter below A Q appears v e r y low except i n o r s t e i n - l i k e f o rmations. Zonal Soils Intrazonal Soils Azonal Soils 1- Mature profiles Subdrainage excessive-2- Mature profiles Subdrainage restricted 3- Mature profiles Drainage fair to medium IP Groundwater soils Ortstein and glei formation Half-Bog-Peat Bog 5- Recent alluvial soils-Fig- I Illustration (after Kelley a Spilsbury) showing the general features of the soil zone and its associates in the lower Fraser Valley (79)-0 J N / \ 4 a \ \ L i SCALE -1 =1 mile Ic Fig- 2 University Research Forest showing the Surficial Geology according to Map 16-1957 of the Geological Survey of Canada,Dept- of Mines & Technical Surveys Legend? Ic , rough mountainous country in which granitic and associated rock types occur at or near surface Commonly overlain by till and outwash sand, gravel,and sift 4 Surrey Till (glacial deposits)- 4a, sandy to silty till and minor sub-stratified drift up to 75 feet thick but generally less than 25 feet 13 Whatcom Glacio- Marine Deposits = stoney clayey silt and silty clay, clay, silt,and sand 25 to 300 feet thick 9 0 8 0 h Dessicating Dry Humid Damp o X 7 0 / 6 0 | - / / " f • •g 5 0 h s. Q> a > i _ o > a > Q c co 4 0 - r i / May* / / / / / .April .Oct-• i - i — r '~ — — March ~~ — — Nov O O O Dec-3 0 | - ! / I I I Jan-§ 2 0 | - l / I / o O 0) E 10 £ 0 n — r H / / I / L I ' / c o - 1 0 i » cn - 2 0 - 4 0 1 14 4 5 6 7 8 9 Mean Monthly Precipitation in Inches 10 II 12 13 Fig-4 Climograph (after Koeppe) showing the climatic pattern of Haney A F ' 9 ' 6 T ° P ° ^ P h i c mop of p l o t Fig-7 Topographic projection of plot I-Fig-8 Topographic map of plot 2-Fig-9 Topographic projection of plot 2-Fig- 10 Topographic map of plot 4-B S C A L E ; I " = 2 0 * 1 0 5 5 0 9 5 1 0 5 5 0 0 0 1 0 5 4 0 0 0 1 0 5 3 0 0 0 |P~P~2l 1 0 5 2 0 0 0 1 0 5 1 - 0 0 0 1 0 5 0 - 0 0 0 Fig- II Topographic projection (A) and map (B) of plot 5-Fig- 12 Topographic projection (A) and map (B) of plot 7 60 -50 -Plot 8 Q> c Q> m a) cu o a> a> a. E 60 50 B 4/5 Fig- 13 1/6 2/6 3/6 4/6 1/7 2/7 3/7 Week/Month 4/7 1/8 2/8 3/8 A - Average weekly atmospheric temperatures for the period May 21 to August 15,1957 for plots l,2,4.and 8-B - Average dew points for the same period for plots I and 4-Fig-14 Average weekly relative humidity (A) and temperature (B) ranges for the period May 21 to August 15,1957 for the plots I,2,4,and8-— I 1 1 I _ J J I I I I I I 4/5 1/6 2/6 3/6 4/6 1/7 2/7 3/7 4/7 1/8 2/8 3/8 Week/Month Fig-15 Weekly average dew points for (A) plots 1,2,4,and 8 , and (B) plots 2 and 4 ; for the period May 21 to August 15,1957 4 0 3 0 c o 0} Q . § 20 o 0. I 0 h Macroporosity Microporosity •Plot I Plot 3 Plot 5 10 2 0 3 0 4 0 D e p t h in Inches 5 0 6 0 Fig-17 Changes in soil porosity with soil depth for plots 1,3,and 5-7 0 I I I 500 600 700 800 900 1000 RGI RG-2 RG-3 RG-4 RG5 A l t i t u d e in Fee t "® ^ Fig-18 Rainfall at several different elevations for July and August, 1957-P a r e n t M a t e r i a l 80 100 120 140 160 18 S i t e Index Fig- 19 Average depth of soil horizons for plots 1*2,3,4,and 5 in relation to site index- • ' .. ' 20 80 100 120 140 160 180 S i t e Index Fig- 20 Average thickness of B u , B i 2 , a n d B 3 horizons for plots 1,2,3, 4,5,6,7, and 8 in relation to site index-80 100 120 140 160 180 S i t e Index Fig- 21 Depth of solum, effective depth,and depth to mottling in relation i to site index-30 -20 10 N ! 8 0 100 _J |_ 120 140 S i t e Index 1 6 0 180 Fig-22 Maximum,minimum,and average effective depth for all plots in relation to site index-

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