UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

A survey of beginning teachers in B.C. public schools Easton, Patrick Warren 1960

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1960_A8 E2 S8.pdf [ 16.9MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0105943.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0105943-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0105943-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0105943-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0105943-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0105943-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0105943-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0105943-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0105943.ris

Full Text

A SURVEY OF BEGINNING TEACHERS IN B.C. PUBLIC SCHOOLS by PATRICK WARREN EASTON B.A., Uni v e r s i t y ef B r i t i s h Columbia, 1958 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in the Department of Psychology We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 196© In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y available f o r reference and study. I further agree that permission f o r extensive copying of th i s thesis f o r scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It i s understood that copying or publication of t h i s thesis f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of PSYCHOLOGY  The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver #, Canada. Date APRIL 1, i960  A SURVEY OF BEGINNING TEACHERS IN B.C. PUBLIC SCHOOLS Abstract This study was undertaken in an attempt to provide Information regarding the attitudes of beginning teachers toward teaching in B.C. schools. The information obtained is relevant to the more genieral problem of the shortage of teachers i n B.C. The study sought to: 1. Describe the beginning teacher biographically 2. Describe her teaching s i t u a t i o n 3. Describe her attitudes toward teaching 1|. Describe her attitudes toward her teacher training In order to achieve a most representative sample, a l l beginning teachers In 1958 - 59 were sent a question-naire. This study analyzed the f i r s t Q0% of the returns and comparisons were made between the attitudes and opinions expressed by: 1. B.C. and U.S. beginning teachers 2. Men and women beginning teachers 3. Elementary l e v e l and secondary level beginning teachers 11. Urban and r u r a l beginning teachers 5. Beginning teachers trained at the U.B.C. College of Education and at V i c t o r i a College Some 591 beginning B.C. teachers in 1958 - 59 answered 91 questions, thereby providing a broad base on which to bu i l d future studies concerning related problems i n this area. It is f e l t that the findings obtained in this study can be useful to further research. TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE I INTRODUCTION AND STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM 1 II HISTORY AND PRESENT STATUS OF PROBLEM ll III METHOD OF PROCEDURE 7 IV ANALYSIS QF THE DATA 10 Analysis of results obtained from school d i s t r i c t questionnaire 10 Analysis of resu l t s obtained from the beginning teacher questionnaire 22 Analysis of comments regarding beginning teacher questionnaire 30k Analysis of general comments, beginning teacher 306 V INTEGRATION OF QUESTIONNAIRE MATERIAL 322 VI GENERAL CONCLUSIONS 3^5 VII SUMMARY 35© REFERENCES 35^ APPENDIX A The school d i s t r i c t questionnaire APPENDIX B The beginning teacher questionnaire APPENDIX C Follow-up l e t t e r s LIST OF TABLES TABLE PAGE I RESPONSE RATE FOR BEGINNING TEACHER FORM, BY SIZE OF SCHOOL DISTRICT 9 II NUMBER OF YEARS EDUCATIONAL PREPARATION BEYOND HIOH SCHOOL REQUIRED FOR INITIAL APPOINTMENT AS REGULAR TEACHER, BY SCHOOL LEVEL, 96 SCHOOL DISTRICTS l£ III TEACHING LEVEL, BY SEX 27 IV COMPARISON BETWEEN GRADE TAUGHT BY BEGINNING TEACHER AND ALL OTHER B.C. TEACHERS 28 V SEX OF BEGINNING TEACHERS IN RELATION TO TEACHING LEVEL (ELEMENTARY VERSUS SECONDARY) (B.C. aad U.S. Comparisons) 30 VI SEX OF BEGINNING TEACHERS, BY MARITAL STATUS AND TEACHING LEVEL . 36 VII AGE OF BEGINNING TEACHERS, BY SEX 38 (B.C. and U.S. Comparisons) VIII AGE BY SEX AND TEACHING LEVEL 39 IX CERTIFICATE LEVEL, BEGINNING VS. ALL OTHER B.C. TEACHERS M X EDUCATION LEVEL BY SEX AND TEACHING LEVEL kk XI HIGHEST LEVEL OF EDUCATION COMPLETED, BY SEX, MARITAL STATUS AND TEACHING LEVEL b$ i i i / TABLE PAGE XII HIGHEST LEVEL OF EDUCATION COMPLETED, BY SEX AND MARITAL STATUS (B.C. and U.S. Comparisons) XIII HIGHEST LEVEL OF EDUCATION COMPLETED BY SCHOOL DISTRICT SIZE (B.C. and U.S. Comparisons) XIV HIGHEST LEVEL OF EDUCATION BY GRADE TAUGHT XV TYPE OF UNDERGRADUATE EDUCATION,BY TEACHING LEVEL, SEX, AND MARITAL STATUS XVI PRINCIPAL TYPE OF SUBJECT TAUGHT IN SECONDARY SCHOOL, BY SEX. (B.C. and U.S. Comparisons) XVII NUMBER OF DIFFERENT SUBJECTS TAUGHT, BY TEACHING LEVEL, SEX, AND MARITAL STATUS XVIII NUMBER OF DIFFERENT SUBJECTS TAUGHT, BY SIZE OF SCHOOL DISTRICT XIX NUMBER OF CLOCK HOURS PER WEEK DEVOTED TO JOB, BY TEACHING LEVEL, SEX AND MARITAL STATUS XX NUMBER OF CLOCK HOURS PER WEEK DEVOTED TO JOB, BY TEACHING LEVEL XXI MEDIAN CLOCK HOURS PER WEEK DEVOTED TO JOB, BY DISTRICT SIZE (B.C. and U.S. Comparisons) XXII HIGHEST LEVEL OF EDUCATION COMPLETED BY PARENTS XXIII OCCUPATION OF PARENTS, BY TEACHING LEVEL XXIV OCCUPATION OF SPOUSE, BY TEACHING LEVEL. . kl 5© 52 51i 61 63 6k 61 69 71 72 i v TABLE PAGE XXV GROSS ANNUAL SALARY BY SEX AND TEACHING LEVEL (B.C. and U.S. Comparisons) XXVI SUMMER INCOME, 1958, BY SEX AND TEACHING LEVEL XXVII SPOUSE* S INCOME, HUSBAND OR WIFE FOR 12 MONTH ENDING JUNE 30, 1959 XXVIII INCOME EARNED LAST YEAR BY SEX AND TEACHING LEVEL XXIX NUMBER OF DEPENDENT CHILDREN, BY SEX AND TEACHING LEVEL XXX ANNUAL COST OF OTHER DEPENDENTS BY SEX AND TEACHING LEVEL XXXI INCREASE IN ANNUAL SALARY, BY SEX AND TEACHING LEVEL XXXII AMOUNT OF NON-TEACHING EMPLOYMENT EXPERIENCE BY SEX AND TEACHING. LEVEL XXXIII AMOUNT OF NON-TEACHING EMPLOYMENT, BY SEX (B.C. and U.S. Comparisons) XXXIV PRIOR NON-TEACHING EMPLOYMENT, BY SEX AND MARITAL STATUS (B.C. and U.S. Comparisons) XXXV TYPE OF ACTIVITY PRIOR TO ENTERING TEACHING BY.SEX (B.C. and U.S. Comparisons) XXXVI DECISION TO ENTER TEACHING, BY SEX AND TEACHING.LEVEL XXXVII PARENTS ATTITUDE TOWARD GOING INTO TEACHING, BY.TEACHING LEVEL 7k 79 82 8ii 87 89 92 96 97 98 100 102 10*1 V TABLE PAGE XXXVIII SIZE OF RESIDENCE COMMUNITY, BY SEX AND TEACHING LEVEL XXXIX RESIDENCE COMMUNITY SIZE IN RELATION TO TEACHING COMMUNITY SIZE XL LIVING ARRANGEMENTS, BY SEX AND TEACHING LEVEL XLI LIVING QUARTERS, BY SEX AND TEACHING LEVEL XLII RESIDENCY IN COMMUNITY IN WHICH TEACHING IS DONE, BY SEX AND TEACHING LEVEL XLIII RESIDENCY IN TEACHING LOCALE, BY SCHOOL DISTRICT ENROLMENT SIZE XLIV LENGTH OF RESIDENCE IN COMMUNITY RESIDED IN DURING SCHOOL YEAR, BY SEX AND TEACHING LEVEL XLV LENGTH OF RESIDENCE IN COMMUNITY RESIDED IN DURING SCHOOL YEAR, BY SCHOOL DISTRICT ENROLMENT SIZE XLVI RELATION TO COMMUNITY RESIDED IN DURING SCHOOL YEAR, BY SEX AND TEACHING LEVEL XLVII ENJOY WORKING WITH STUDENTS, BY SEX AND TEACHING LEVEL XLVI 11 TEACHING STUDENTS IN HUMAN RELATIONS ASPECTS, BY SEX AND TEACHING LEVEL XLIX TEACHING STUDENTS IN SUBJECT MATTERS, BY. SEX AND TEACHING LEVEL L WAS TEACHING FIRST OCCUPATIONAL CHOICE, BY SEX. AND TEACHING LEVEL . . , LI WOULD YOU ENTER TEACHING AGAIN, BY SEX AND TEACHING LEVEL 106 108 110 112 115 116 118 119 121 123 125 127 129 131 v i TABLE PAGE LII ACHIEVING LIFE GOALS IN CLASSROOM TEACHING, BY SEX AND TEACHING LEVEL LIII PLANS FOR NEXT SCHOOL YEAR, BY SEX AND TEACHING LEVEL LIV PLANS FOR NEXT SCHOOL YEAR, BY SEX (B.C. and U.S. Comparisons) LV CERTAINTY OF PLANS FOR NEXT YEAR, BY SEX AND TEACHING LEVEL LVI CAREER PLANS, BY SEX AND TEACHING LEVEL LVII CAREER PLANS, BY SEX (B.C. and U.S. Comparisons) LVI II FACTORS ON WHICH CAREER PLANS ARE DEPENDENT, BY SEX, MARITAL STATUS AND TEACHING LEVEL LIX SPOUSE»S ATTITUDE TOWARD CONTINUING TEACHING, BY SEX AND TEACHING LEVEL LX LIKELIHOOD OF LEAVING TEACHING, BY SEX AND. TEACHING LEVEL LXI LIKELIHOOD OF LEAVING TEACHING WITHIN FIVE. YEARS, BY SEX AND MARITAL . STATUS, BY SEX AND TEACHING LEVEL (B.C. and U.S. Comparisons) LXII LIKELIHOOD OF LEAVING TEACHING WITHIN FIVE. YEARS, BY SALARY (B.C. and U.S. Comparisons) LXI 11 REASONS FOR LEAVING TEACHING, BY SEX AND TEACHING LEVEL LXIV REASONS FOR LEAVING TEACHING, BY SEX EXCLUDING NOT STATES (B.C. and U.S. Comparisons) LXV SATISFACTION WITH VARIOUS ASPECTS OF POSITION, ALL TEACHERS 133 135 136 138 ll+l m 11*6 IL%9 150 151 155 156 158 TABLE LXVI LXVII LXVIII LXIX LXX LXXI LXXII LXXIII LXXIV LXXV LXXVI LXXVII PAGE TEACHING SUBJECTS AND/OR GRADE MOST QUALIFIED. TO TEACH, BY SEX AND TEACHING LEVEL 161 ARE YOU TEACHING SUBJECTS AND/OR GRADE LEVEL YOU LIKE BEST TO TEACH, BY SEX AND TEACHING LEVEL 163 HELPFULNESS OF EDUCATION COURSES, BY SEX AND TEACHING LEVEL ° 165 HELPFULNESS OF PRACTICE TEACHING, BY SEX AND TEACHING LEVEL . 167 ATTITUDE TOWARD ACCELERATED CLASSES, BY SEX AND TEACHING LEVEL 169 REQUIREMENTS FOR YOUR IDEAL JOB OR PROFESSION, ALL TEACHERS 173 OCCUPATIONAL VALUES OF BEGINNING TEACHERS, BY SEX (B.C.,U.S., Cornell College Students Comparison) 17^ STATEMENTS DESCRIPTIVE OF TEACHING PROFESSION, ALL TEACHERS 177 COMPARISON OF IDEAL JOB VALUES AND DEGREE OF VALUE REALIZATION IN TEACHING (EXCLUDING THOSE NOT STATING) 178 STATEMENT DESCRIPTIVE OF TEACHING PROFESSION, BY SEX (EXCLUDING THOSE NOT STATING) 179 DO YOU LIKE TEACHING, BY SEX AND TEACHING LEVEL l 8 l PLANNING TO ATTEND SUMMER SCHOOL THIS YEAR, BY SEX AND TEACHING LEVEL 181+ \ r i i i TABLE LXXVIII LXXIX LXXX LXXXI LXXXII LXXXIII LXXXIV LXXXV LXXXVI LXXXVII LXXXVIII LXXXIX XC XCI PAGE PLANNING TQ ATTEND SUMMER SCHOOL THIS YEAR, BY SCHOOL DISTRICT SIZE (ENROLMENT) l8£ THE MAIN INFLUENCE IN CAUSING YOU TO ENTER TEACHING, BY SEX AND TEACHING LEVEL 187 ATTITUDE OF OTHER TEACHERS, BY SEX AND TEACHING LEVEL . 189 AMOUNT PERSONAL LIFE RESTRICTED, BY SEX AND TEACHING LEVEL 191 AMOUNT PERSONAL LIFE RESTRICTED, BY SCHOOL DISTRICT ENROLMENT SIZE 192 PROMISE OF A PARTICULAR SCHOOL, GRADE LEVEL, OR SUBJECT FIELD AT TIME OF EMPLOYMENT, BY SEX AND TEACHING LEVEL 195 IF «YES« DID YOU ACTUALLY GET SPECIFIC ASSIGNMENT, BY SEX AND TEACHING LEVEL 196 REQUESTED TO TEACH TOO LARGE CLASSES, BY SEX AND TEACHING LEVEL 199 SIZE OF TOO LARGE CLASSES, BY SEX AND TEACHING LEVEL 2GG TEACHING LOAD, BY SEX AND TEACHING LEVEL 202 ATTITUDES TOWARD MERIT RATING PLAN, .BY SEX AND TEACHING LEVEL 205 HOW MUCH HELP WITH PROBLEMS RECEIVED, ALL TEACHERS 207 AMOUNT OF HELP NEEDED AND RECEIVED DURING FIRST YEAR TEACHING, ALL TEACHERS . 210 ATTITUDES TOWARD NUMBERS OF INSPECTOR'S VISITS AND RATINGS, BY SEX AND TEACHING LEVEL 213 ix TABLE PAGE XCII NUMBER OF INSPECTOR'S VISITS TO DATE, BY SEX AND TEACHING LEVEL XCII I NUMBER OF INSPECTOR'S VISITS TO DATE, BY SCHOOL DISTRICT ENROLMENT SIZE XCIV DIFFICULTIES ENCOUNTERED IN FIRST YEAR OF TEACHING, ALL TEACHERS XCV PERCENT DIFFICULTIES ENCOUNTERED IN FIRST YEAR TEACHING, BY SEX AND TEACHING LEVEL XCVI PERCENT DIFFICULTIES ENCOUNTERED, BY SEX XCVI I AGE BY SEX, TEACHING LEVEL AND COLLEGE ATTENDED (U.B.C. and V i c t o r i a College) XCVI 11 . EDUCATION LEVEL, BY SEX, TEACHING LEVEL & COLLEGE ATTENDED' (U.B.C. and V i c t o r i a College) XCIX SIZE OF RESIDENCE COMMUNITY BY SEX, TEACHING LEVEL & COLLEGE ATTENDED (U.B.C. and V i c t o r i a College) C RATINGS ON CERTAIN ASPECTS OF TEACHER-TRAINING PROGRAMS, BY SEX, TEACHING LEVEL & COLLEGE ATTENDED (EXCLUDING THOSE NOT STATING) (U.B.C. and V i c t o r i a College) CI VALUE OF PROFESSIONAL COURSES IN PREPARATION FOR TEACHING (EXCLUDING THOSE NOT STATING) (U.B.C. and V i c t o r i a College) CI A VALUE OF PROFESSIONAL COURSES IN PREPARATION FOR TEACHING, ALL TEACHERS (U.B.C. and V i c t o r i a College) 211; 215 220 222 22i| 225 227 229 235 21+1 2l|3 X TABLE PAGE C H CONFLICT BETWEEN COLLEGE AND PRINCIPAL, BY SEX, TEACHING LEVEL AND COLLEGE ATTENDED (EXCLUDING THOSE NOT STATING) (U.B.C. and V i c t o r i a College) 21+7 CIII VALUE OF CERTAIN TRAINING METHODS PREPARATORY TO TEACHING (EXCLUDING THOSE NOT STATING) (U.B.C. and V i c t o r i a College) 253 CIV SATISFACTION WITH FACULTY SERVICES (EXCLUDING THOSE NOT STATING) (U.B.C. and V i c t o r i a College) 259 CV ATTITUDES TOWARD AMOUNT OF TIME SPENT ON PRACTICE TEACHING, BY SEX, TEACHING LEVEL AND COLLEGE ATTENDED (EXCLUDING THOSE NOT STATING) (U.B.C. and V i c t o r i a College) 268 CVI ATTITUDES TOWARD PROGRAMMING OF PRACTICE TEACHING SESSIONS, BY SEX, TEACHING LEVEL AND COLLEGE ATTENDED (EXCLUDING THOSE NOT STATING) (U.B.C. and.Victoria College) 271 CVII PROVISION OF SUFFICIENT ACTUAL TEACHING EXPERIENCES, BY.SEX, TEACHING LEVEL AND COLLEGE ATTENDED (EXCLUDING THOSE NOT STATING) (U.B.C. and V i c t o r i a College) 276 CVIII PROVISION OF SPECIFIC HELPFUL SUGGESTIONS DURING PRACTICE TEACHING, BY SEX, TEACHING LEVEL AND COLLEGE ATTENDED (EXCLUDING THOSE NOT STATING) (U.B.C. and V i c t o r i a College) 278 xi TABLE PAGE CIX HELP GIVEN BY FACULTY ADVISORS, BY COLLEGE ATTENDED (EXCLUDING THOSE NOT STATING) (U.B.C. and V i c t o r i a College) 28l CX VALUE OF ELEMENTARY METHODS COURSES TAKEN, BY COLLEGE ATTENDED (EXCLUDING THOSE NOT STATING) (U.B.C. and V i c t o r i a College) 285 CXI VALUE OF SECONDARY METHODS COURSES TAKEN, ALL TEACHERS, BY COLLEGE ATTENDED (U.B.C. and V i c t o r i a College) 290 CXI I DEGREE OF EMPHASIS ON CERTAIN ASPECTS OF TEACHER TRAINING PROGRAM, (EXCLUDING THOSE NOT STATING) (U.B.C. and V i c t o r i a College) 296 CXIII SUMMARY OF GENERAL COMMENTS RE FIRST YEAR OF TEACHING 321 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The writer wishes to express his indebt-edness and appreciation to Dr. E.I. Sign o r i , whose guidance and encouragement has made this study possible. The writer i s also grateful to Dr. C B . Conway for his pro-v i s i o n of f a c i l i t i e s in gathering the preliminary data, to Mr. George Geddes for his invaluable assistance in the punched card processing of the data, to the beginning teachers in B.C. who pains-takingly provided the data, and f i n a l l y to his wife for her sustaining motivation throughout the project. This study was sponsored and supervised by the Royal Commission on Education for the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia. Without the f i n a n c i a l and c l e r i c a l as-sistance provided by the Commission thi s study would not have been possible. Chapter I INTRODUCTION AND STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM One of the most pressing needs in B.C. education to-day i s the a c q u i s i t i o n of q u a l i f i e d teachers for the public schools. This need has been existent f o r some time but in recent years a greater appreciation of the problem has been f e l t by both educators and public a l i k e . Rapid advances in the sciences and arts have led people to inquire into our educational strength and resources and i t is p a r t l y with t h i s purpose i n mind that the present study was undertaken. An attempt has been made to provide new Information about teachers and the teaching profession i n B.C. L i t t l e has been known about the beginning B.C. teacher p r i o r to the present survey, therefore several objec-tives are intended: 1. To attempt to f i n d some possible reasons for the shortage of teachers through an analysis of beginning teachers, the i r teaching s i t u a t i o n , and their problems. 2. To determine the adequacy of the beginning teacher's t r a i n i n g in the l i g h t of her actual experience i n teaching. 2 3 . To provide a fac t u a l and d e f i n i t i v e description of the beginning teacher and her attitudes toward teaching as a career in 1 9 5 8 - 5 9 . 1|. To est a b l i s h a base on which to structure long term studies r e l a t i v e to teaching in B.C. The study i s limited to those teachers who began teaching in the school year 1 9 5 8 - 5 9 i n B.C. There are several reasons for choosing this group. Most of them have taken teacher t r a i n i n g and commenced teaching the following term. Their reactions toward teaching thus stem from the actual s i t u a t i o n , not from what they think teaching might be l i k e . The f i r s t year in the classroom is also important because of the formation of attitudes toward teaching as a career and as a profession. It i s l i k e l y , too, that the majority of the problems i n teaching are confronted during the f i r s t year, hence some insight may be gained into the nature and effe c t of these problems on beginning teachers. The research i s limited to the urban and ru r a l public schools of B r i t i s h Columbia. Moreover, the facts reported apply to the school year 1 9 5 8 - 5 9 only and do not necessarily r e f l e c t conditions p r i o r to thi s year. A beginning teacher i n this survey i s "a regular, f u l l - t i m e teacher who devotes half or more of his time to classroom teaching at any level from kindergarten through grade 1 2 who has not held a regular f u l l - t i m e paid position 3 for a f a l l term prior to the current school year (1958-59) in any school system™. (3) The study was conducted in the Spring of 1959 by means of two questionnaires. Results were tabulated by ques-ti o n number and are treated as individual questions in the study. Inter relationships and comparisons between c e r t a i n items and with comparable items In similar studies are also made, where applicable. This study deals with questions which provide i n -formation about beginning teachers on such matters as age, c e r t i f i c a t i o n , education, s o c i a l status, r e l a t i o n to community, career plans, job requirements and problems encountered. I t also gives information about the beginning teacher's attitudes toward the adequacy of her teacher t r a i n i n g . Chapter II HISTORY AND PRESENT STATUS OF PROBLEM Although concern about the problem of the beginning teacher i s old, an actual systematic study of i t was undertaken only i n recent times. The f i r s t of these studies was conducted by the V i r g i n i a Education Association In 1952-53 (l+). On the basis of 315 questionnaires completed by beginning teachers in that state, problems r e l a t i n g to community att i t u d e s , r e s t r i c t i o n of personal l i f e , class s i z e , teaching preparation and c e r t i -f i c a t i o n were considered. Certain l i m i t a t i o n s such as small sample, r e s t r i c t e d geographical area and limited quantity of subject matter made further research by other agencies neces-sary. The study i t s e l f roused the c u r i o s i t y of the National Education Association ( 2 ) . The N.E.A. wondered about other questions and about the U.S. nation as a whole and, in A p r i l 1955, sent a questionnaire to a national sample of 5000 beginning teachers. However, only 2600 or 52# returned i t . Conclusions based upon such a sample might have many l i m i t i n g f a c t o r s . Moreover, the f a c t that the N.E.A. study included only urban schools makes comparisons with other studies d i f -f i c u l t since l a t e r studies i n this area concern representative 5 samples of a l l beginning teachers. Greater consideration might have been given to questions which described the beginning teacher's work s i t u a t i o n , both as i t existed and as i t was perceived by the teacher. More emphasis might also have been placed on the kinds of things beginning teachers want in an ideal job s i t u a t i o n . Limited returns, small sample, and untouched prob-lem areas prompted the O f f i c e of Education in the United States Department of Health, Education and Welfare to conduct a larger scale survey of the beginning teacher i n 1956-57 ( 3 ) . Their study was more comprehensive than e a r l i e r surveys. Over 10,000 questionnaires went out in the Spring of 1957 to a represent-ative sample of beginning teachers i n continental U.S. The response rate was Q6% and varied i n s i g n i f i c a n t l y between urban and r u r a l systems. The sample was designed to give represent-ation to a l l parts of the country and a l l s i x school d i s t r i c t s i z e s . The questionnaire used by the O f f i c e ©f Education was more inclusive than e a r l i e r surveys. It acquired more information about the beginning teacher's work s i t u a t i o n and an analysis of teaching as a career. There appears to have been no attempt to study the problems of the beginning teacher either i n B r i t a i n or Canada, hence comparisons are r e s t r i c t e d to research done i n the United States. 6 The present study was extended to include the beginning teacher's evaluation of her teacher t r a i n i n g . Many small studies pertaining to s p e c i f i c i n s t i t u t i o n s have been undertaken i n the United States but none are relevant to the B r i t i s h Columbia College of Education. In 1953 the Faculty of Education at the U n i v e r s i t y of Manitoba did a study dealing with graduate student evaluation of a teacher t r a i n i n g program (1). It appears to be the only Canadian study of i t s type to date and because of c e r t a i n l i m i t a t i o n s , comparison with the present study w i l l not be v a l i d . In the Manitoba experi-ment sampling was p a r t i a l , 70% of the population, and only l%8% of the sample returned the questionnaire. The study was based on 68 cases of a possible 199. Any attitudes expressed by these graduates would have to be considered i n the l i g h t of the sample siz e and method of sample determination. The present study compares beginning B r i t i s h Columbia teachers i n 1958-59 with beginning United States teachers i n 1956-57. I t also describes the attitudes of the B r i t i s h Columbia beginners towards th e i r teacher t r a i n i n g in B r i t i s h Columbia, either at the Uni v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia or V i c t o r i a College. Chapter III METHOD OF PROCEDURE The f i r s t problem was to determine who were the beginning teachers during the school year 1958-59 in B.C., according to the d e f i n i t i o n given above. The i n i t i a l step was to compile a l i s t of 7%2 teachers who reported zero years teaching experience as of September 30, 1958, to the Department of Education in V i c t o r i a , B.C. In February, 1 9 5 9 , a school d i s t r i c t questionnaire (see Appendix A) was sent to a l l d i s t r i c t superintendents of schools in B.C., asking for the names and addresses of a l l beginning school teachers who met the stated d e f i n i t i o n . By adding new names from the d i s t r i c t questionnaire to the o r i g i n a l l i s t , an augmented group of 820 teachers was obtained. Returns from the school d i s t r i c t questionnaire regarding names of new teachers were 100$. It should be borne i n mind that some of these 820 teachers were not beginners i n that some were l i s t e d by superintendents i n error and others had simply f a i l e d to state their years of experience on the September Government depart-mental form. At the end of March, 1959, questionnaires were mailed 8 to a l l teachers on the augmented l i s t . Of 820 forms mailed, 653 were returned from beginning teachers who met the d e f i n i -tion requirements and 70 from individuals who were not begin-ners In the teaching f i e l d . It is highly probable that between 7i+0 and 750 teachers began their f i r s t year of teaching in B.C. in 1958-59. Of t h i s group, 653 or QQ% returned their questionnaires. Due to time l i m i t a t i o n this report covers a detailed analysis of the f i r s t 591 teachers or $0% of the population. The beginning teacher questionnaire (see Appendix B) was designed to compare certa i n aspects of the 1956-57 U.S. study with the beginning B.C. classroom teacher. It was mailed on March 27» followed by three follow-up l e t t e r s (see Appendix C) at 3 week i n t e r v a l s . Supplementary mailings to teachers occurred as school d i s t r i c t questionnaires came in a f t e r March 27 with names of new teachers who were not already on the mailing l i s t . Since the findings to be presented are based on Q0% of the tot a l population of B.C. beginning teachers In 1958-59, the results are referred to in the form of percentage tables. Table I shows the response rate to the beginning teachers 1 questionnaire, by size of school d i s t r i c t . The largest centres were somewhat higher in their rate of response (95#) while the remainder d i f f e r e d l i t t l e (83% - 9052). It i s l i k e l y that the group analyzed in this study is a represent-ative one In terms of urban ru r a l d i s t r i b u t i o n and the overall response r a t i o of 88%. B.C. BEGINNING TEACHER 1958 - 59 • TABLE I - RESPONSE RATE FOR BEGINNING TEACHER FORM, BY SIZE OF SCHOOL DISTRICT School D i s t r i c t Number of Forms Number of Beginning Beginning Teacher Enrolment size Mailed to Beginning Teacher Respondents Response Rate (%) 1958 - 59 Teachers 25,500 or More 6 ,300 - 25A99 1,500 - 6,299 300 - 1,1*99 1 - 299 Total A l l D i s t r i c t s H i * 108 95 172 llj.2 83 353 309 83 99 89 90 6 5 . 83 7kh 653 88 Chapter IV ANALYSIS OF THE DATA ANALYSIS OF RESULTS OBTAINED FROM SCHOOL . . DISTRICT,QUESTIONNAIRE The School D i s t r i c t Questionnaire (see Appendix A) was primarily intended to e l i c i t the names of a l l the begin-ning teachers i n B.C. in the school year 1958-59 who met the terms of the d e f i n i t i o n of a beginning teacher (see page 2 ) . This information could then be cross-checked with the l i s t of beginning teachers prepared from the Dept. of Education's Form J which asks information about teachers i n B.C. Added to the questionnaire are a number of questions which attempt to assess school d i s t r i c t superintendents' attitudes toward the h i r i n g of and providing for teachers, p a r t i c u l a r l y beginning teachers. A b r i e f discussion of the res u l t s follows. Information r e l a t i n g to the questions was received from 96 school d i s t r i c t s , 3 f a i l i n g to report. However, a l l d i s t r i c t s submitted l i s t s of beginning teachers names. Questions 3, kt & 5 dealt with supplementary data not relevant to this p a r t i c u l a r study. 11 Question 6 concerned i t s e l f with whether or not the school d i s t r i c t includes a se t t l e d place of 2f?0Q or more population. It was found that i\d>% of the school d i s t r i c t s possessed such a se t t l e d place whereas over half ($3%) of the school d i s t r i c t s i n B.C. did not include a s e t t l e d place of 250© or more population. Question 7, on "length of school term", is usually prescribed by the Dept. of Education and responses to this question indicated a range of 188 - 195 school days in the school year 1958-59. The modal frequency (1+6 d i s t r i c t s ) was 190 school days. Question 8, on "paid sick leave", is also p r o v i n c i a l -l y determined and i s the same i n a l l school d i s t r i c t s through-out B.C., i . e . 10 days for a school year. Question 9, on "employment of married women", asks whether or not a school d i s t r i c t has any rule or regulation prohibiting the employment of married women as classroom teachers. Results indicated that 9i\% of the d i s t r i c t s reported no regulation and the practice was not discouraged. Another k% said "no" but the practice was discouraged. Some 2% stated "yes" to t h i s question but the rule i s not enforced. Question 10, on "supplementary employment'1, attempts to provide information concerning the existence of rules or regulations p r o h i b i t i n g classroom teachers from engaging i n a second occupation during the school year. Less than half (lj.6#) 12 of the d i s t r i c t s said "no" and the practice was not d i s -couraged. Some i%2% of the d i s t r i c t s said "no" also but the practice was discouraged. Three percent of the school d i s t r i c t s said they did have rules and these rules were en-forced, prohibiting supplementary employment. Question 11, on "accelerated classes", asks whether or not the d i s t r i c t subscribes to the practice of requiring a superior pupil to complete 1+ years work, either in elemen-tary or secondary school, in 3 years. To thi s question 9% of the school d i s t r i c t s said "yes", e n t i r e l y , 7k% said p a r t l y , and 16% said "no", not at a l l . D i s t r i c t s reporting "no" to accelerated classes were predominantly r u r a l and in the south eastern section of the province. Question 12 asks whether or not the d i s t r i c t employed beginning teachers of Industrial A r t s , Physical Education or Home Economics at a salary above the scale for that p a r t i c u l a r d i s t r i c t . Some 7% of the d i s t r i c t s said they employed begin-ning Industrial Arts teachers above the salary scale for t h e i r d i s t r i c t . In order to obtain beginning Physical Education teachers, 9% of the d i s t r i c t s paid over and above their scale while 7% of the school d i s t r i c t s did likewise i n obtaining beginning Home Economics teachers. I t i s probable that even more d i s t r i c t s may have paid above scale s a l a r i e s i n the a t -tempt to get beginning teachers i n other specialized f i e l d s such as art and music, hence caution must be exercised when 13 attempting to determine the kinds of s p e c i a l i s t s that are in demand i n B.C. at the present time. Question 13, on "recruitment", considers the prac-t i c e s followed by a school d i s t r i c t i n locating applicants for teaching positions. When asked to check those practices which are most productive, $6% of the school d i s t r i c t s reported that the publishing of announcements of positions to be f i l l e d was the most productive for them. Another 10^ found the use of applications sent i n v o l u n t a r i l y by candidates most pro-ductive while 9% of the d i s t r i c t s said they located most a p p l i -cants through making inqu i r i e s at conventions and other s i m i l a r gatherings. Of the d i s t r i c t s reporting, 22% did not specify a productive p r a c t i c e . Since this represents o n e - f i f t h of the school d i s t r i c t s , It may be that more consideration might be given by these d i s t r i c t s to an evaluation of the i r recruitment methods in an attempt to measure the productivity of their techniques in obtaining teachers. Question Ify asks, "How many years of educational preparation beyond high school graduation are required for i n i t i a l appointment as a f u l l - t i m e regular teacher in your school d i s t r i c t ? " According to Table II most school d i s t r i c t s say they want one year of educational preparation beyond high school for teachers at the elementary l e v e l , 2 years preparation for teachers at the junior high level and $ years preparation 11+ for teachers of senior high programs. It Is shown too, that a number of d i s t r i c t s w i l l accept less preparation than that mentioned above, i n f a c t , nearly o n e - f i f t h (19%) of the d i s t r i c t s reported that they would require 0 or 1 year of educational preparation beyond high school for teachers employed at the senior high l e v e l . The number of years post high school preparation required by a given school d i s t r i c t i s probably related to the d i s t r i c t s 1 a b i l i t y to at t r a c t and r e t a i n regular teachers. Question l£, deals with age l i m i t s set f o r new ap-pointees to the teaching s t a f f , and was answered negatively by a l l 96 d i s t r i c t s reporting. B.C. BEGINNING TEACHERS 1958 - 59 TABLE II - NUMBER OF YEARS EDUCATIONAL PREPARATION BEYOND HIGH  SCHOOL REQUIRED FOR INITIAL APPOINTMENT AS REGULAR  TEACHER. BY SCHOOL LEVEL, 96 SCHOOL DISTRICTS YEARS REQUIRED BEYOND HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATION, BY PERCENTS School . . . Level 0 1 2 3 k 5 Not Stated Tota Elementary 6 68 25 1 100 Junior High 6 19 29 8 9 15 lk 100 Senior High 5 lk 2 2 7 5k 16 100 16 Question 16 was negated because of the negative responses to question 15. Question 17 asks whether or not married women are given appointments as new f u l l - t i m e regular teachers. Nearly a l l d i s t r i c t s , (98%) said "yes" to t h i s question and 2% r e -ported r a r e l y , under special conditions. 17 Question 18 - IF MARRIED WOMEN MAY BE APPOINTED AS NEW TEACHERS, IS THERE A PREFERENCE FOR SINGLE WOMEN WHEN QUALIFICATIONS ARE EQUAL? To t h i s question, 69% of the school d i s t r i c t s said "yes" whereas 31% reported a "no" preference for single women. These findings appear inconsistent with the re s u l t s shown in Table LXI of Question 57 where i t is noted that 71% of the single women beginning teachers said they d e f i n i t e l y or prob-ably would leave teaching in 5 years whereas $3% ©f the married women beginning teachers indicated similar l i k e l i h o o d of leav-ing the profession. I t i s possible that l i k e l i h o o d of leaving teaching i s not the primary factor being considered by school boards who state they prefer single women. Instead the school d i s t r i c t s may be more concerned with the d i r e c t i o n and emphasis of r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s as they apply to single and married women but this too can be a questionable c r i t e r i o n for h i r i n g teach-ers. The data do not indicate any reasons why school boards should tend to prefer single rather than married women. Questions 19 and 20 did not apply to any school d i s t r i c t i n 1958-59 and were marked as such. Question 21 contributes further information about the h i r i n g of married women as regular f u l l - t i m e teachers. While 1% of the d i s t r i c t s reporting said that marriage was more of an impediment to f i n d employment in the i r school system, as compared with 1950, 2.7% of the d i s t r i c t s said the impediment 18 was about the same. Some 66% stated marriage was less of an impediment i n the i r d i s t r i c t and 6% did not comment on the question. From these data one might generalize that there i s a growing acceptance of married teachers as beginning teachers in B.C. 19 Question 22 - HOW MANY YEARS OF PREVIOUS TEACHING EXPERIENCE ARE REQUIRED FOR INITIAL APPOINTMENT AS A FULL-TIME REGULAR TEACHER IN YOUR SCHOOL DISTRICT . (minimum) Most of the school d i s t r i c t s (Q6%) said 0 years were required, l%% asked for one year, 2% two years and 1% required three years previous teaching experience prior to i n i t i a l appointment with their system. Question 23 was answered by a l l d i s t r i c t s in a similar way since the po l i c y of notice time i s l a i d down i n the Public Schools Act and Is generally recognized by the school d i s t r i c t s i n their regulations. 20 Question 2k - HOW MANY TEACHERS WHO HAD BEEN EMPLOYED REGULARLY IN YOUR SCHOOLS FOR FIVE YEARS OR MORE HAVE BEEN DISMISSED OR DENIED RE-EMPLOYMENT WITHIN THE LAST THREE YEARS BECAUSE OF UNSATIS-FACTORY SERVICE? To t h i s question, 9 school d i s t r i c t s reported d i s -missing or denying re-employment within the l a s t three years to a t o t a l of i* l teachers who had been employed re g u l a r l y In their schools for f i v e years or more. This does not necessar-i l y mean that these 1*1 teachers a c t u a l l y l e f t the teaching f i e l d but were more l i k e l y to be hired by another school d i s t r i c t and retained by the province public school system. In view of the t o t a l number of teachers in the pro-fession presently, (10,8^3)» M teachers leaving or part of them finding i t necessary to relocate in another d i s t r i c t i s a very small f r a c t i o n of the t o t a l teaching force and accord-ingly i t is to be expected that beginning teachers f i n d that teaching enables them to look forward to a stable, secure future (see Table LXXIII). 21 Question 25 - ARE YOU REQUIRING MORE TEACHERS THIS SCHOOL YEAR, 1958-59, THAN YOU PRESENTLY HAVE, IN ORDER TO GIVE AN ADEQUATE EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMME IN YOUR SCHOOL DISTRICT? Some 1*6% of the d i s t r i c t s reporting answered '*yestt to this question while 53% said they did not require more teachers t h i s school year. Of the 1*6% who said they needed more teachers, the number stated as required by them t o t a l l e d 11*6 elementary teachers and 287 secondary, a t o t a l of 1*33 teachers. It is d i f f i c u l t to interpret these findings since the d e f i n i t i o n of an adequate educational program was not given In the question. Some boards may determine their needs on the basis of pupil-teacher r a t i o s , others on additional services such as s p e c i a l i s t s and consultants. Nevertheless, i t can be inferred from the data that a number of school d i s t r i c t s seem to f e e l that they require more teachers and whether i t is simply a matter of supply and demand or f i n a n c i a l r e s t r i c t i o n s is a moot question. 22 ANALYSIS OF RESULTS OBTAINED FROM THE BEGINNING TEACHER QUESTIONNAIRE Due to the quantity of material covered in the questionnaire i t was decided for the purpose of t h i s thesis to confine the analysis to those items for which ample data had been reported and which seemed to be directed to c r i t i c a l Issues. Moreover, in the selection of items for analysis due cognizance was given to overlapping information i n the ques-tionnaire and to the a v a i l a b i l i t y of comparative material from c l o s e l y related studies conducted in the United States and additional material bearing on the B r i t i s h Columbia School system. Wherever the data on a p a r t i c u l a r item proved inade-quate or where the wording of the item may have been at f a u l t , such facts have been noted, for i t i s believed that the re-search aims i n studies of t h i s nature are to be r e a l i z e d only when d e f i c i e n c i e s and inadequacies i n the basic tool v i z . the questionnaire item have been discovered. (In dealing with the questionnaire Items, only the s i g n i f i c a n t parts of the questions are shown. For a f u l l description of the item the reader may consult the questionnaire shown in Appendix B). 23 Question 1 - (A) IS YOUR PRESENT JOB A REGULAR FULL-TIME POSITION? (B) BO YOU DEVOTE HALF OR MORE OF YOUR TIME TO CLASSROOM TEACHING? (C) IS THE SCHOOL YEAR 1958-59 YOUR FIRST YEAR AS A REGULAR CLASSROOM TEACHER? ... . A "yes 0 answer to each part of t h i s question defines a beginning teacher and formed the basis for securing those teachers who formed the population of teachers upon whom th i s study i s based. 2k Question 2 - GRADES INCLUDED IN YOUR SCHOOL This question was not analyzed i n view of the fact that there i s a degree of overlap between i t and the i n f o r -mation yielded by questions #3, #lk and #1$. 25 Question 3 - YOUR TEACHING LEVEL The fa c t u a l information yielded by t h i s question provides a numerical account ©f the grade leve l s at which beginning teachers enter the B r i t i s h Columbia school system. The grade level frequencies are shown i n Table III and are based on tabulations of the grade most taught during the year 1958-59. Beginning teachers taught at a l l grade levels from kindergarten to grade 12 but more frequently at the grade 6 l e v e l . In the elementary schools, 1* out of 5 beginners were women who taught i n every grade from kindergarten to grade6; similar proportions in grades 2, 3, k a n d 6» The beginning men, as expected, did not teach i n any of the primary grades, 1 - 3 , but were assigned l a r g e l y to grades 5 and 6. At the secondary l e v e l , beginning men outnumbered beginning women, comprising 62% of the to t a l number entering secondary classes for the f i r s t time. Both men and women beginners taught at a l l secondary grade l e v e l s , the proportion being similar at the grade 12 l e v e l . In Table IV the percentages of beginning teachers teaching i n each grade is compared with the percentage of a l l other B r i t i s h Columbia teachers found in each grade. It should be noted, however, that a s t r i c t comparison between the two percentage columns cannot be made since the grade percent-ages for a l l other B r i t i s h Columbia teachers were obtained 26 from another study i n which the tabulations represent a combination of single grades and lowest grade taught - the l a t t e r representing the teaching l e v e l of teachers employed to do multiple grade teaching. One-quarter of the beginning teachers were appointed to primary grades (1, 2 and 3) a proportion comparable to a l l B r i t i s h Columbia teachers. A t h i r d (3k%) °f the beginning teachers started In intermediate grades (k, 5 and 6), t h i s being somewhat higher proportionately than the 21% of a l l the B r i t i s h Columbia teachers who teach at these l e v e l s . This difference may be attributed to an Increase i n pupil enrolment in these grades, accompanied by a higher frequency of teachers leaving the f i e l d (who teach) at the intermediate l e v e l . Some ko% of the beginning teachers began in a junior senior grade (7 - 12), a proportion equal to the r a t i o of a l l B r i t i s h Columbia teachers teaching at that l e v e l . B.C. BEGINNING TEACHERS 1958 - 59 TABLE III - TEACHING LEVEL, BY SEX Teaching Elementary Secondary A l l Level Teachers Men Women Men Women No. % No. % No. % No. % I No. % Not Stated 2 3 1 3 1 Kindergarten 3 1 3 1 1 32 11 32 5 2 67 23 67 i l 3 53 19 53 9 k 5 7 52 18 57 10 5 21* 3k 21 7 k5 8 6 1*0 56 57 20 97 16 Total 7i 100 286 100 357 7 19 13 12 lk 31 5 8 32 22 19 22 51 9 9 35 2k 21 2k 56 9 10 13 8 8 9 21 k 11 22 15 7 8 29 5 12 25 17 21 2k k6 8 Total lk6 100 88 100 591 100 28 B.C. BEGINNING TEACHERS 1958 - 59 TABLE IV - COMPARISON BETWEEN GRADE TAUGHT BY BEGINNING TEACHER AND ALL OTHER B.C. TEACHERS B.C. Beginning Teachers (Grade Most Taught) A H Other B.C. Teachers * Grade No. No. %l Not Stated 3 1 777 8 Kindergarten 3 1 55 .5 1 32 5 139k lk 2 67 l l 7k7 7 3 53 9 786 8 . k 57 10 906 9 5 k5 8 75k 7 6 97 16 53k 5 7 31 5 I8k0 18 8 51 9 532 5 9 56 9 776 8 10 21 k 76k 8 11 29 5 136 1 12 k6 8 k5^ •k 13 7 591 100 10053 100 * Source: Data from analysis of Form J - Beginning excluded. Number based on single grades grade for multiple grade teachers. Teachers and lowest 1. Percents do not necessarily add to 100 because of rounding 29 Other information concerning t h i s question is summarized i n Table V where a comparison is made with begin-ning teachers i n the United States ( 3 ) . In t h i s table It i s noted that elementary schools in B r i t i s h Columbia acquired 60% of a l l the beginning teachers as compared with 5 6 % in the United States. However, on interpreting a l l comparisons with the United States study the fac t that i t was conducted i n 1956 - 57 - two years e a r l i e r than the B r i t i s h Columbia study should be noted. School population changes in the d i r e c t i o n of a younger school age population between the intervening years might e a s i l y account for the differences shown. The r a t i o of men beginning t h e i r career at the elementary level d i f f e r e d l i t t l e between B r i t i s h Columbia and the United States, being 2 0 % and 2 1 % respectively. The r a t i o of women was also similar for the two elementary groups, B r i t i s h Columbia receiving 8 0 % to the United States* 79%. The secondary schoels in both B r i t i s h Columbia and the United States drew more men than women. B r i t i s h Columbia acquired 62% men and 38% women at the secondary l e v e l , not unlike the United States r a t i o of 5 9 % men and 1*1% women. These facts also are likewise subject to some influences due to school age population s h i f t s between the intervening years that separate the two studies. 30 B.C. BEGINNING TEACHERS 1958 - 59 TABLE V - SEX OF BEGINNING TEACHERS IN RELATION TO TEACHING LEVEL (ELEMENTARY VERSUS SECONDARY) (B.C. AND U.S.* COMPARISONS) Total No. % , Total No. % Teaching Level in Group B.C. in Group U.S. Elementary 357 60 2296 56 Secondary 23k kO 1769 kk Total 591 100 k©65 100 Total % Total Total % Total Total Teaching Level Men B.C. Men B.C. Men U.S. Men U.S. % Elementary 71 20 k82 21 100 Secondary lk6 62 10kk 59 100 Total 217 1526 Total % Total , Total % Total Total Teaching Level Women B.C. Women B.C. Women U.S. Women U.S. % Elementary 286 80 l 8 l k 79 100 Secondary 88 38 725 k l 100 Total 37k 2539 •» Source: A Survey of New Teachers i n the Public Schools, 1956 - 57. U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare, 1958. 31 Question k - PRESENT ENROLMENT OF THE SCHOOL IN WHICH YOU TEACH This question was not analyzed in view of the fac t that errors in judgement on the part of beginning teachers in stating enrolment figures were noticed when checked against school records. 32 Question 5 " NUMBER ©F REGULAR FULL-TIME TEACHERS IN YOUR SCHOOL This question was also omitted from the analysis in view of the apparent lack of accurate knowledge beginning teachers have regarding the number of part-time or f u l l - t i m e teachers on the s t a f f of larger schools. 33 Question 6 - THE SEX OF THE BEGINNING TEACHER Table V, dealt with under Question 3, contains the information regarding the sex of the beginning teacher i n r e l a t i o n to the United States study. The comparative percent-ages shown are as follows: Men Women B.C. (1958 - 59) beginning teachers 37% 63% U.S. (1956 - 57) 31% 63% Of the beginning teachers i n both the B r i t i s h Columbia and the United States studies 37% were men and 63% women. 3k Question 7 - MARITAL STATUS Shown below i s a comparison of the marital status, by sex, of B r i t i s h Columbia beginning teachers with a l l other B r i t i s h Columbia teachers and beginning teachers i n the United Men Women Total % Group Married Married Married B.C. beginning * teachers (1958 - 59) 57% 23% 35% A l l other B.C. teachers * (1958 - 59) 81% 51% 6k% U.S. beginning teachers (1956 - 57) 6k% k l % •» Married includes separated, divorced and widowed because of the proportionately small number involved, The higher percentage of married men and women among other than beginning B r i t i s h Columbia teachers is in the expected d i r e c t i o n i n view of age differences. However an interesting point is noted i n the fa c t that 5l% of the experi-enced women teachers were married. 35 Of the B r i t i s h Columbia men beginning teachers $7% were married as compared with 6k% in the United States where-as 23% of the B r i t i s h Columbia women beginning teaching are married as compared with k l % i n the United States. These differences in part r e f l e c t the fa c t that United States be-ginning teachers enter the occupation at a s l i g h t l y older age. (See Table VII for differences In age.) Table VI shows a breakdown of B r i t i s h Columbia beginning teachers by sex and marital status in r e l a t i o n to elementary or secondary l e v e l teaching. It is noted that where-as single women constitute the largest group of beginning teachers who are appointed at the elementary teaching l e v e l , married men constitute the largest group appointed at the secon-dary l e v e l . B.C. BEGINNING TEACHER 1958 - 59  TABLE VI - SEX OF BEGINNING TEACHERS, BY MARITAL STATUS AND TEACHING LEVEL Elementary Secondary Men Women Men Women Single Marr-oth Single Marr-oth Single Marr-oth Single Marr-oth Total N u m b e r Beginning 1+3 28 232 51+ 50 96 56 32 591 Percent 1 7 5 39 9 8 16 9 5 100 1. Percents do not necessarily add to 100 because of rounding o^  37 Question 8 - AGE Table VII shows an age by sex comparison of B r i t i s h Columbia and the United States beginning teachers. It is noted that B r i t i s h Columbia beginning teachers as a group were a l i t t l e over a year younger than their United States counter-parts. This f i n d i n g in part may account for the fa c t that a smaller percentage of B r i t i s h Columbia beginning teachers were married. The men In both samples were somewhat older than the women and yielded similar median ages v i z . 25*3 for B r i t i s h Columbia and 25.5 f o r the United States. Table VIII showing the age by sex and teaching l e v e l indicates that the men and women beginning teachers entering the B r i t i s h Columbia secondary school level of teaching were about three years older than their elementary school counter-parts. However, a more pertinent finding is shown i n the f a c t that 53% °f the women who entered the elementary l e v e l of teaching were twenty years of age or under and 232 (figure from previous Table VI) of the 286 were single. It i s reason-able to assume then that marriage i s l i k e l y to prove to be a c r i t i c a l factor i n the loss and turnover of the beginning teacher in B r i t i s h Columbia. B.C. BEGINNING TEACHERS, 1958 - 59 TABLE VII - AGE OF BEGINNING TEACHERS, BY SEX (B.C. AND U.S. COMPARISONS) Sex A£L£ Total i n Group Median Age A l l Beginning Teachers, B.C. 1958 - 59 591 22.3 A l l Beginning Teachers, U.S. 1956 - 57 k,065 23.6 Men B ,C. 217 25.3 Men U.S. 1,523 25.5 Women B.C. Women U.S. 37k 2,5k2 21.3 22.8 C O Percentage Di s t r i b u t i o n 20 21 22 23 25 27 30 35 ko or Under - 2 k - 26 - 29 - 3k - 39 or Over 31 6 7 2 kk 8 16 9 7 3 20 13 11 29 11 15 12 37 13 21 19 20 9 22 7 12 15 2k 3 k 5 10 10 22 2 3 7 6 15 10 3 k k k 8 k 1 k 6 k 6 3 6 5 Total 100 100 100 100 100 100 1 Percents do not necessarily add to 100 because of rounding. B.C. BEGINNING TEACHERS, 1958 - 59 TABLE VIII - AGE BY SEX AND TEACHING LEVEL Total in Group Median Age Percent D i s t r i b u t i o n Elementary A l l Men A l l Women 71 23.1 286 20.0 Secondary A l l Men A l l Women lk6 25.8 88 23.1 vO 20 or Under 21 22 23 - 2k 25 - 26 27 - 29 30 - 3k 35 - 39 lj.0 or Over Not Stated 13 17 18 20 k 11 6 k 7 53 2k 9 5 2 1 2 1 3 5 3 8 18 21 10 20 10 5 1 18 9 19 2k 3 5 6 1 lk Total 100 100 100 100 1 Percents do not necessarily add to 100 because of rounding. kO Question 9 - TYPE QF TEACHING CERTIFICATE YOU HOLD This question was poorly answered and i s attributed to the f a c t that few beginning teachers a c t u a l l y r e c a l l e d what c e r t i f i c a t e they held at the time of completing the questionnaire. Therefore, i n so far as the present study i s concerned i t was not possible to a r r i v e at a conclusive state-ment regarding t h i s item of information. However, data from a supplementary study produced the information shown in Table IX . This table shows that the teaching c e r t i f i c a t e s of B r i t i s h Columbia beginning teachers do not compare unfavour-ably with the c e r t i f i c a t e s held by a l l other teachers when allowances are made for differences in age. B.C. BEGINNING TEACHER, 1958 - 59  TABLE IX - CERTIFICATE LEVEL. BEGINNING VS. ALL OTHER B.C. TEACHERS B.C. Beginning Teacher A l l Other B.C. Teachers C e r t i f i c a t e Level No. % No. % Not Stated 25 3 139 1 ET 39 5 103 1 EC 226 28 858 9 EB 266 33 37k5 37 EA 23 3 1036 10 ST 36 5 k l SC k8 6 398 k SB 87 11 1920 19 SA 11 1 1695 17 PC 7 1 56 .5 PB 31 k 5k .5 PA 1 8 Total 800 100 10053 100 1 Source: Analysis of Form J , Dept. of Education, V i c t o r i a , Sept. 1958 k2 Questions 10 and 11 - IF BASIC OR ADVANCES: HOW MUCH OF YOUR TIME DO YOU SPEND TEACHING GRADES OR SUBJECTS YOU ARE NOT CERTIFIED TO TEACH? IF SUB-BASIC: ARE YOU PREPARING YOUR-SELF FOR A BASIC CERTIFICATE? Answers to these questions are both affected by-answers to question #9 and therefore conclusions could not be drawn. No information from supplementary sources was a v a i l ' able at the time of th i s w r i t i n g . 1*3 Question 12 - EDUCATION: WHAT IS THE HIGHEST LEVEL OF EDUCATION YOU HAVE COMPLETED? Table X shows the educational l e v e l attained, by sex and placement in the elementary and secondary levels of teaching. As expected, i t i s noted that B r i t i s h Columbia beginning teachers i n the secondary schools, p a r t i c u l a r l y women, have had more uni v e r s i t y training than those teaching at the elementary grades. Also $$% of a l l beginning teachers have had one or two years of un i v e r s i t y education while another \%% have had more than two years. The women beginning th e i r teaching career i n the secondary school tend to have had more u n i v e r s i t y t r a i n i n g than the secondary men, a greater percentage of women having their bachelor's degree or higher. In spite of t h i s , the secondary men earn a higher median salary and intend to obtain a larger increase i n salary next school year. This matter i s dealt with more thoroughly in Question 3k» Table XXXI. Table XI provides a more detailed breakdown of the data i n terms of marital status. Here, the outstanding fact shown is the expected one, that, in general, the married woman teacher employed at the secondary l e v e l has had more education than the single woman teacher so employed. No marked differences i n marital status or sex are r e f l e c t e d i n the trends shown elsewhere in the table. However the fa c t concerning the married woman teacher suggests that perhaps a B.C. BEGINNING TEACHERS, 1958 - 59  TABLE X - EDUCATION LEVEL BY SEX AND TEACHING LEVEL Highest Level  Education Percent D i s t r i b u t i o n Not Stated - (OTH) No formal education beyond high school 2. Two years u n i v e r s i t y or less 3. More than 2, up to k years u n i v e r s i t y . No bachelors k. Bachelor's degree 5. One year or less beyond Bachelor's. No Master's 6. More than 1 year beyond Bachelor's. No Master's 7» Master's degree 8. One or more years beyond Master's. No Doctor's degree Percent Total Total No. of Teachers Elementary Secondary A l l Beginning Teachers Men Women Men Women Total Percent 1 5 6 16 3 1 1 6 3 17 3 68 76 25 25 323 55 25 17 16 11 101 17 k 3 16 27 59 10 1 1 21 20 53 9 2 9 3 17 3 1 2 3 1 100 71 100 286 100 lk6 100 100 591 B.C. BEGINNING TEACHERS, 1958 - 59 TABLE XI - HIGHEST LEVEL OF EDUCATION COMPLETED, BY SEX, MARITAL STATUS AND TEACHING LEVEL PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION Elementary Teachers Secondary Teachers % Male % Female % Male % Female Single Marr-Oth Single Marr-Oth Single Marr-Oth Single Marr-0 2. No formal education beyond high school 0 k 0 5 2 8 2 6 a Two years university or less 72 61 76 7k 26 25 32 13 3. More than 2, and up to k years university, 26 25 19 18 No B.A. 9 20 15 0 k» Bachelor's Degree 2 7 3 k 18 16 21 38 5i One year or less beyond Bachelor's. No Master's 0 k 1 2 20 22 21 19 6 More than one year beyond Bachelor's. lk 6 No Master's 0 0 0 2 6 2 7. Master's Degree 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 6 €L One or more years beyond Master's. No Doctor's 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 3 Not stated 1 2 0 7 k 9 Percent Total 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 Total No. of Teachers k3 28 232 5k 50 96 56 32 1 Percents do not necessarily add to 100 because of rounding k6 most worthwhile source of capable teachers i s to be found here. Table XII shows a comparison between the education-al levels of B r i t i s h Columbia and the United States beginning teachers. By adding percentages across the tops of the columns i t i s indicated that, i n 1956 - 57, 86% of the begin-ning United States teachers had at least completed th e i r bachelor's degree whereas this was true for only 23% of the B r i t i s h Columbia beginning teachers in 1958 - 59. Males, whether single or married i n both the B r i t i s h Columbia and the United States samples, on the whole show a higher l e v e l of educational attainment than women. The only discrepancy noted is i n the B r i t i s h Columbia sample where proportionately more women than men have completed a master's degree or more. On the other hand, both married men and women have had more tr a i n i n g than teachers of single marital status. In evaluating the United States figures i t should be noted that state requirements of a bachelor's degree i n part accounts for the higher l e v e l of educational attainment shown for the United States beginning teacher. Table XIII shows that the larger the school d i s t r i c t i s (expressed as t o t a l school enrolment), the higher the pro-portion of teachers who have completed a bachelor's degree or more of un i v e r s i t y level t r a i n i n g . Similar trends are i n -dicated in both the B r i t i s h Columbia and the United States studies. In interpreting the B r i t i s h Columbia trend i t i s to B.C. BEGINNING TEACHERS 1958 - 59  TABLE XII - HIGHEST LEVEL OF EDUCATION COMPLETED, BY SEX AND MARITAL STATUS (BEGINNING TEACHERS), B.C. AND U.S. COMPARISONS 1958 - 59 TO 1956 - 57 SEX AND MARITAL Percent by Highest Level of Education Completed STATUS Total Total % j Less than A Less than One or more A No. No. Total a Bachelor's one year years beyond Master's in In B.C.& Bachelor's Degree - beyond a a Bachelor's Degree-Group Group U.S. Degree - Bachelor's Degree . No or more Degree Master's B.C. U.S. B.C. 1 J.S. B.C. U.S. B.C. U.S. B.C. U.S. B.C. U.S. A l l Beginning Teachers 591 k,065 100 77 Ik 10 58 9 17 3 6 l 5 Men 217 1,523 100 65 8 12 k9 15 2k 6 11 0 9 Single 93 527 100 71 9 11 52 11 19 7 11 0 9 Married^ 12k 982 100 61 7 lk k7 18 25 5 11 1 9 Women 37k 2,5k2 100 83 18 9 63 6 13 1 3 1 3 Single 288 l,k31 100 88 17 6 65 5 13 0 3 O 2 Married^ 86 i,ok5 100 66 18 16 63 8 12 3 k 5 3 1. Percents do not necessarily add to 100 because of rounding. 2. Widowed, Separated and Divorced are included with Married for B.C. figures only since cases were too few to show separately. k8 B.C. BEGINNING TEACHERS, 1958 - 59 TABLE XI11 - HIGHEST LEVEL OF EDUCATION COMPLETED  BY SCHOOL DISTRICT SIZE (B.C. & U.S. COMPARISONS) Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n B.C. 1958 - 59 Enrolment 2 5 , 5 0 0 or more 6 , 3 0 0 -25,k99 1 , 5 0 0 -6,299 3©0 -l,k99 1 - 299 No College Degree 59 79 81 82 IOO Bachelor's Degree-20 7 8 10 0 More than a Bachelor 1s 21 lk 11 8 0 Total % 100 100 100 100 100 Total in Group 100 130 283 73 5 In a l l size School D i s t r i c t s 77 10 13 100 591 U.S. 1956 - 57 Enrolment 2 5 , 0 0 0 or more 6 , 0 0 0 -2 k , 9 9 9 1 ,500 -5 , 9 9 9 l,k99 1 - 299 1 No College Degree k 10 8 16 50 Bachelor's Degree^ 61 63 61 58 35 More than a Bachelor's 35 27 31 26 15 Total % 100 100 100 100 100 Total i n Group 696 1 ,057 1 ,015 k27 In a l l size School D i s t r i c t s lk 58 28 100 k , 0 6 5 1. Includes not stated, 16 cases of 591 k9 be noted that School D i s t r i c t s in the more a t t r a c t i v e urban-ized areas can be more se l e c t i v e in their choice of beginning teachers and i n addition to other c r i t e r i a probably chose these having the best educational q u a l i f i c a t i o n s . Table XIV shows educational level completed by the B r i t i s h Columbia beginning teachers i n r e l a t i o n to grade taught. An important finding shown i n thi s table i s that 3k% of the beginning teachers teaching grades 10 - 13 do not hold a u n i v e r s i t y degree; Some of these teachers however, are engaged in teaching non-academic subjects such as i n d u s t r i -a l arts and physical education. On the whole, i t i s shown that the higher the grade taught the better has been the aca-demic training of the beginning teacher. B.C. BEGINNING TEACHERS, 1 9 5 8 - 5 9 TABLE XIV - HIGHEST LEVEL OF EDUCATION BY GRABE TAUGHT Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n Teaching Level No Formal 2 Yrs. More Education Univ. Than Beyond or 2 Yrs. High Less Up To School k Yrs. Univ. No Bachelor* s Bach-lor *s Degree Kinder-1 Yr. or S S Beyond Bach. No More Mas-Than ter»s 1 Yr. Degree Beyond Bach. No Master*s Master*s 1 ©r More Stated Yrs. Be-yond Mas-ter No Doctor* s Not Total Total % i n Group grades 6 7 3 3 1 0 0 3 1 - 3 1 7 7 1 5 3 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 5 2 k - 6 1 7 3 2 2 3 1 1 0 0 199 7 - 9 6 3 6 1 0 1 7 2 2 5 l 3 1 0 0 1 3 8 1 0 - 1 2 k 9 2 1 26 2 0 9 2 1 7 1 0 0 96 Not Stated 6 7 3 3 1 0 0 3 Total No. of Teachers 1 7 3 2 3 1 0 1 59 5 3 1 7 3 2 1 6 5 9 1 o 1 . Percents do not necessarily add to 1 0 0 because of rounding 51 Question 13 - TYPE QF INSTITUTION YQU ATTENDED FOR MOST OF YOUR UNDERGRADUATE EDUCATION . . . .. From Table XV i t i s seen that during 1958 - 59 55% of the B r i t i s h Columbia beginning teachers came from the 1st year emergency course, (28%), or the 2nd year College of Education course (27%). From an average of additions across the rows in the table i t i s seen that 29% of the elementary beginning teachers were products of the 1 year emergency course which another 31% had taken 2 years i n the College of Education. In regard to secondary school beginning teachers, 16% were prod-ucts of the 1 year emergency course and another 31% were t r a i n -ed i n some other unit of a uni v e r s i t y - probably the Faculty of A r t s . A H of the indicated trends are subject to a degree of d i s t o r t i o n in view of the large percentage (15%) who pro-vided no data i n this question; the teachers placed in sec-ondary level t r a i n i n g y i e l d i n g a larger percentage of unstated r e p l i e s than those placed i n the elementary grades. B.C. BEGINNING TEACHERS, 1958 - 59  TABLE XV - TYPE OF UNDERGRADUATE EDUCATION, BY TEACHING LEVEL, SEX, AND MARITAL STATUS Percent by Sex, Marital Status and Level TYPE OF Elementary Secondary INSTITUTION Total ATTENDED Men Women Men Women No. in Total Total Single Marr-Oth Single Marr-Oth Single Marr-Oth Single Marr-Oth Group % Men Women Not stated 9 10 11 22 21 23 38 90 15 16 15 No formal educ. beyond high school 2 2 6 2 3 10 2 3 1 1st y r . univ. 2 21 5 7 k 3 2 28 5 6 k 1 yr. emer-gency course C o l l . of Educ. k2 32 30 50 16 25 lk 9 166 28 27 29 2 y r s . C o l l . of Education 33 18 51 22 lk 9 18 3 176 30 16 38 3 y r s . C o l l . of Education 7 7 l 3 k 13 2 k 1 k yrs. C o l l . of Education 2 k 2 2 8 7 5 13 25 k 6 3 Other unit of a univ. 5 18 1 6 3k 25 32 3k 83 lk 22 9 T o t a l 1 No. i n Group 100 k3 100 232 100 5k 100 50 100 96 100 56 100 32 591 100 100 217 100 37k 1. Percents do not necessarily add to 100 because of rounding. 53 Question lk - PRINCIPAL TYPE QF SUBJECT YOU ARE TEACHING IN SECONDARY SCHOOL (For Secondary Teachers Only) Table XVI indicates that 20% of the beginning teach-ers in B r i t i s h Columbia schools started teaching in Mathematics or one of the natural sciences. This compares with 21% of the United States beginning teachers teaching in secondary grades. Another 21% in the B r i t i s h Columbia study began teach-ing with other academic subjects whereas 37% in the United States study f a l l in t h i s category. Thirty-nine percent i n the B r i t i s h Columbia study as compared to k2% in the United States study are placed i n teaching assignments involving non-academic courses. The higher percentage placed i n work i n -volving non-academic courses tends to suggest the existence of a high demand for teachers i n t h i s part of the curriculum. The B r i t i s h Columbia figures however are subject to a degree of error i n view of the high percentage of unstated answers. TABLE XVI B.C. BEGINNING TEACHERS, 1958 - 59 - PRINCIPAL TYPE QF SUBJECT TAUGHT IN SECONDARY SCHOOL, BY SEX (B.C. AND U.S. COMPARISON) Not Stated Academic Mathematics or Natural Science Other Academic Subjs. e.g. English, Social Studies, Lang. Non-academic Subjects Shop Courses, Phys.Ed, Total Percent Total in Group B.C. A l l Secondary Secondary Beginning Teachers A l l Secondary (B.C.) Beginning Teachers U.S. A l l Men % A l l Women % Total Percent Percent 19 28 18 35 100 lk6 21 6 27 k5 100 88 1+7 k6 50 9 1 20 20 21 39 100 21 37 k2 100 -p-23k 1. Percents do not necessarily add to 100 because of rounding 55 Question 15 - NUMBER OF HOURS OF STUDENT OR PRACTICE TEACHING IN YOUR CLASSROOM PER TERM To t h i s question 9$% of the beginning teachers re-ported none. The question was ambiguously interpreted in that some teachers answered in r e l a t i o n to their own practice teach-ing prior to f u l l - t i m e teaching, while others answered on the basis that some other student teacher had practised i n the i r classroom during 1958 - 59. It i s highly improbable that a student teacher would be assigned to a beginning teacher ,s classroom for practice teaching except in one or two special instances. A majority of ,none t responses is therefore expect-ed. 56 Question 16 - IS YOUR SCHOOL OM A SINGLE OR DOUBLE SCHEDULE? This question concerns single and double sessions or swing s h i f t s in the school programming. A H beginning teachers reported their school was on a single s h i f t or ses-sion In 1958 - 5 9 . 57 Question 17 - i s dependent upon 16 and i s negated because no double session schedules occurred in schools that had begin-ning teachers in 1958 - 59. 58 Question 18 - INDICATE THE NUMBER OF CLASSES OF A GIVEN SIZE WHICH YOU TEACH Teaching load could not be reported because of a f a i l u r e on the part of the beginning teachers to read and f o l -low the d i r e c t i o n s . Over 9 0 % placed a check mark instead of a number i n the appropriate box, hence no adequate analysis or conclusion could be arrived at. Question 73 asks about too large classes and th e i r s i z e . Treatment of responses to that item provides a p a r t i a l picture of teaching load. 59 Question 19 - HOW MANY DIFFERENT COURSES DO YOU TEACH? Table XVII indicates that elementary beginning teachers have a proportionately higher number of d i f f e r e n t courses to teach than do secondary beginning teachers. More-over, over 50% of a l l women beginners teach more than seven subjects whereas 31# of a l l beginning men have a similar sub-j e c t load. The f a c t that beginning women teach more subjects than men is due in part to the fac t that they are predominant in primary grade teaching where they teach a l l subjects t© the i r classes. The planning of teacher tr a i n i n g programs might in part be considered in r e l a t i o n to the d i f f e r i n g sex roles i n teaching. Table XVIII shows that i n general, the larger the school d i s t r i c t size as r e f l e c t e d by enrolment, the fewer beginning teachers there are that teach more than seven d i f -ferent subjects. One would expect greater s p e c i a l i z a t i o n and fewer subjects taught i n the larger urban d i s t r i c t s and this appears to be borne out i n these findings. B.C. BEGINNING TEACHERS, 1958 - 59  TABLE XVII - NUMBER OF DIFFERENT SUBJECTS TAUGHT, BY TEACHING LEVEL, SEX, AND MARITAL STATUS PERCENT BY LEVEL, SEX AND MARITAL STATUS NO. OF DIFFERENT SUBJECTS TAUGHT Secondary Total Men Women No. in A l l A l l Single Marr-Oth Single Marr-Oth Single Marr-Oth Single Marr-Oth Group % Men Women Elementary Men Women Not Stated 7 7 15 22 k 53 9 3 12 1 5 k 7 2 12 25 6 k5 8 7 8 2 2 3 16 22 25 22 57 10 lk 7 3 k 2 2 16 12 lk 13 38 6 10 5 k k 2 20 17 9 13 38 6 12 3 5 2 11 1 12 8 7 22 32 5 8 k 6 2 7 2 2 6 9 5 3 2k k 7 2 7 12 7 10 8 6 2 6 k3 7 8 7 More than 7 70 61 63 65 16 12 12 16 261 kk 31 52 T o t a l 1 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 No. in Group k3 28 232 5k 50 96 56 32 591 217 37k ON © 1. Percents do not necessarily add to 100 because of rounding B.C. BEGINNING TEACHERS, 1958 - 59  TABLE XVIII - NUMBER OF DIFFERENT SUBJECTS TAUGHT, BY SIZE OF SCHOOL DISTRICT SCHOOL DISTRICT ENROLMENT NUMBER OF DIFFERENT SUBJECTS TAUGHT BY PERCENT .1 2 3 1+ 5 6 7 1,500 - 6,299 300 - l , k 9 9 1 - 299 More Than 7 Not Stated 25,500 or more 18 20 3 5 8 2 7 6,300 - 25,k99 1 8 8 11 7 5 7 8 8 7 k k 5 8 k k 5 8 k 1 7 20 20 31 k2 k5 62 60 6 11 11 k Total No. In Group 10© 13© 283 73 5 Total Percent 100 100 100 10© 100 0N Total k5 57 38 38 32 2k k3 261 53 591 1. Percents do not necessarily add to 100 because of rounding 62 Question 2© - AVERAGE NUMBER QF CLOCK HOURS PER WEEK THAT YOU DEVOTE TO YOUR JOB. . This question was further elaborated upon in that teachers were asked to include a l l the time they spend on a c t i v i t i e s they are expected to do whether at school, home or elsewhere. Table XIX shows that elementary beginning teachers tend to spend s l i g h t l y more hours per week on th e i r job than do secondary beginning teachers. Small sex differences are shown also between married men and women at the elementary le v e l and both single and married women at the secondary l e v e l . Table XX considers clock hours i n r e l a t i o n to teach-ing l e v e l . Some %Q% of the grade 1 - 3 beginning teachers spend 50 or more hours per week on the job; t h i s compares with of the grade k - 6 beginners, k6% of the grade 7 - 9 teachers and 5>7% of the grade 10 - 12 beginning teachers. Whether such differences are v a l i d i s a moot question since l i t t l e control can be exercised in a questionnaire on the judgement a teacher might make about teaching time spent at home or elsewhere. For this reason the use of more refined s t a t i s t i c a l devices to compute the r e l i a b i l i t y of the d i f f e r -ences shown seemed unwarranted. The trends however do suggest the need for more controlled investigation of such matters. For i t is conceivable for example that married women teachers B.C. BEGINNING TEACHERS, 1958 - 59 TABLE XIX - NUMBER OF CLOCK HOURS PER WEEK DEVOTED TO JOB, BY TEACHING LEVEL, SEX AND MARITAL STATUS PERCENT DISTRIBUTION Elementary Secondary CLOCK Total HOURS Men Women Men Women . No, PER i n A l l A l l WEEK Single Marr-Oth Single Marr-Oth Single Marr-Oth Single Marr-Oth Group % Men Women Not Stated k 1 2 2 6 i 1 1 Under 30 2 1 30 - 3k 2 2 2 6 9 2 2 35 - 39 k 3 9 6 5 7 9 29 5 k 5 ko - kk 21 lk 15 9 12 16 16 19 88 15 16 lk k5 - k9 23 21 22 33 26 2k 3k 16 lk6 25 2k 25 50 - 5k 33 29 25 28 30 27 27 3k 161 27 29 26 55 - 59 lk 18 20 13 10 17 5 3 89 15 15 15 60 - 6k 7 5 k 8 11 5 9 38 6 8 5 65 or More 2 11 6 k k 3 2k k 3 5 Total 100 100 100 10© 100 100 10© 100 100 100 100 No. in Group k3 28 232 5k 50 96 56 32 591 217 37k Median k9.5 50.5 Hours 51.1 51.8 5 l . k k9 .k 50.6 51.0 k8.7 50.9 50.1 B.C. BEGINNING TEACHERS, 1958 - 59  TABLE XX - NUMBER OF CLOCK HOURS PER WEEK DEVOTED TO JOB, BY TEACHING LEVEL CLOCK HOURS PERCENT 65 T o t a l TEACHING Under or Not To t a l No. of LEVEL 30 30-3k 35-39 kO-kk k5-k9 50-5k 55-59 60-6k More Stated Percent Teachers Kindergarten and Not Stated 6 ©\ -p-Grades 1-3 2 3 9 28 2k 22 6 5 1 100 152 Grades k - 6 1 5 19 21 28 15 3 6 2 100 199 Grades 7-9 1 7 17 28 30 8 7 1 100 138 Grades 10-12 1 1 6 13 22 27 15 11 3 1 100 96 T o t a l No. 1 9 29 88 1L6 161 89 38 2k 6 591 1. Percents do not n e c e s s a r i l y add to 100 because of rounding 65 as a group may not be i n a p o s i t i o n to devote as much time to t h e i r jobs as single women teachers and married men. Table XXI in which B r i t i s h Columbia beginning teachers are compared with United States beginning teachers, both studies show an inverse trend toward more clock hours per week spent on teaching i n r e l a t i o n to a decline in the size of d i s t r i c t enrolment. The explanation for this is a complex one involving such factors as differences i n the educational aids available to teachers. The larger d i s t r i c t s are probably better endowed in t h i s respect and consequently reduce the number of hours required for lesson preparation and other teaching duties. Another factor i s that the p o s s i b i l i t y for extra-school demands on a teacher's time and opportunity for involvement in a wider v a r i e t y of extra c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s may be greater i n the larger urban centre. However, the difference i n time spent in teaching between B r i t i s h Columbia beginning teachers and t h e i r United States counterparts i s another matter. The contaminating fac-tor in the comparison shown is as noted previously, that the United States study was made two years e a r l i e r . Hence the question arises whether the difference of approximately three hours in the medians of the two samples is v a l i d or whether i t merely r e f l e c t s the f a c t that beginning teachers i n 1958-59 are spending approximately three hours more in th e i r jobs than they did i n 1956-57. No conclusive statement can be made on 66 these points from these data, r e f l e c t what teachers say they they do in f a c t spend the time another question and c a l l s for In any case a l l of the data spend on teaching - whether they report on teaching is a d i f f e r e n t kind of study. B.C. BEGINNING TEACHERS, 1958 - 59  TABLE XXI - MEDIAN CLOCK HOURS PER WEEK DEVOTED TO JOB, BY DISTRICT SIZE B.C. AND U.S. COMPARISONS B.C. 1958 - 59 Enrolment 25,500 or More 6,300 - 25,499 1,500 - 6,299 300 - 1,1*99 1 - 299 In A l l School D i s t r i c t s Median Hoars 1*8.8 50.7 50.1* 51.2 52.0 50.6 U.S. 1956 - 57 Enrolment 25,000 or More 6,000 - 21*,999 1,500 - 5,999 300 - 1,1*99 1 - 299 In A l l School D i s t r i c t s Median Hours 1*6.6 1+7.5 1*7.7 1+9.0 1+9.1+ 1+7.8 0 s 1. Median Hours Are Midpoints Between Elementary and Secondary Level Medians 68 Question 21 - EDUCATIONAL LEVEL OF BEGINNING TEACHERS * PARENTS This question attempts to determine the educational le v e l of beginning teachers' parents and provides some data on parents whose children a c t u a l l y enter the teaching career. It i s noted in Table XXII that the modal frequency for both father and mother was the completion of grade school but not high school. Also noted i s the fac t that the modal frequency was the same f o r parents of elementary, secondary, male, female, single and married beginning teachers in 1958 - 59. This level contrasts with the modal le v e l of educational attainment of between one and two years u n i v e r s i t y t r a i n i n g for beginning teachers themselves (see question 12). B.C. BEGINNING TEACHERS, 1958 - 59 TABLE XXII - HIGHEST LEVEL OF EDUCATION COMPLETED BY PARENTS Father Mother EDUCATION Not Stated 1. Did Not Complete Grade School 2. Completed Grade School But Not High School 3. Completed High School But Not University k. Completed One But Less Than Four Years of University 5. Completed a Four Year Unive r s i t y Program 6. M.A., Ph.D. or a Professional Degree Total Total 20 97 262 108 k6 23 35 591 Percent 3 16 kk 18 8 k 6 100 Total 17 261 161 5o 18 k 591 Percent 3 lk kk 27 8 3 1_ 100 1 o> 1. Percents do not necessarily add to 100 because of rounding 70 Question 22 - OCCUPATION OF FAMILY MEMBERS BY TEACHING LEVEL This question yielded further information respecting the parents and spouses of beginning teachers. What occupation-al levels are represented and what differences occur among the parents and spouses of elementary and secondary beginners? Table XXIII shows that the elementary beginning teachers d i f f e r from those beginning at the secondary l e v e l i n terms of fathers* occupation. Some 22% of the elementary teachers* fathers were s k i l l e d craftsmen or foremen whereas the modal occupational frequency (21%) for secondary teachers* fathers was proprietors, managers and executives. Mothers f o r both elementary and secondary beginners were reported as being more frequently engaged in c l e r i c a l or sales work than in any other occupation. The large number of •unstated* responses in regard to mothers* occupation may have masked any differences that may have existed between elementary and secondary teachers. The occupation of spouses as shown in Table XXIV d i f f e r e d for elementary and secondary beginners. More elemen-tary beginning teachers had more spouses working in c l e r i c a l or sales work than In any other occupation. Secondary begin-ners had spouses who were, in the main, either teachers or homemakers. More spouses of beginning elementary teachers than beginning secondary teachers were students. This i s in keeping with age difference trends. B.C. BEGINNING TEACHERS, 1958 - 59  TABLE XXIII - OCCUPATION OF PARENTS, BY TEACHING LEVEL OCCUPATION Not Stated 1. Teacher or Other Educator 2. Professional or Semi-Prof. 3. Farmer or Farm Manager k. Proprietor, Manager, or Executive (except farm) 5. C l e r i c a l or Sales 6. S k i l l e d Craftsman or Foreman 7. Semi-Ski l i e d Operative 8. Service Worker (domestic, protective etc.) 9. Laborer (either farm or non-farm) FATHER Elementary Secondary Total Percent Total Percent 11 3 3 1 19 5 7 3 22 6 36 15 55 15 37 16 6k 18 50 21 23 6 22 9 77 22 38 16 28 8 17 7 16 5 6 3 k2 12 18 8 MOTHER Elementary Secondary Total Percent 1 Total Percent lk8 kl 8k 36 ki 11 33 lk 21 6 lk 6 11 3 6 3 k 1 7 3 58 16 k7 20 2 1 6 3 15 k 6 3 k5 13 2k 10 12 3 7 3 Total 1 357 100 23k 100 357 100 23k 100 Percents do not necessarily add to 100 because of rounding B.C. BEGINNING TEACHERS, 1958 - 59  TABLE XXIV - OCCUPATION OF SPOUSE, BY TEACHING LEVEL SPOUSE OCCUPATION Not Stated 1. Teacher or Other Educator 2. Professional or Semi-Prof. 3 . Farmer or Farm Manager k. Proprietor i Manager or Executive (except farm) 5. C l e r i c a l or Sales 6. S k i l l e d Craftsman or Foreman 7. Semi-Ski l i e d Operative 8. Service Worker (domestic, protective etc.) 9. Laborer (either farm or non-farm) 10. Homemaker 11. Student Elementary Secondary Total 5 n 5 2 23 7 1 6 7 10 Percent 6 13 6 2 28 9 1 7 9 12 Total 7 29 27 2 13 k 6 1 36 3 Percent 5 23 21 2 10 3 5 l 28 2 ro Total 82 100 128 100 1. Percents do not necessarily add to 100 because of rounding 73 Question 23 - GROSS ANNUAL SALARY This question sought information concerning s a l -aries paid to beginning teachers in B r i t i s h Columbia i n com-parison to teachers s t a r t i n g their career In the United States. Table XXV" reports the median s a l a r i e s of beginning teachers in both countries and compares sex and teaching l e v e l . Secondary teachers In both B r i t i s h Columbia and United States earn more annually than elementary teachers, due p a r t l y to the differences in academic t r a i n i n g . A two year difference between the B r i t i s h Columbia and the United States studies w i l l also account for c e r t a i n differences in beginning s a l -aries and should be kept in mind when interpreting the r e s u l t s . The B r i t i s h Columbia medians exclude teachers whose s a l a r i e s are below $2,1+00 since these represent less than a f u l l year*s employment. This c r i t e r i o n excludes those earning s a l a r i e s of $1,900 and less for elementary beginners and $2,3&0 and less for secondary teachers; and involved a t o t a l of 12 teachers. B.C. BEGINNING TEACHERS§ 1958 - 59  TABLE XXV - GROSS ANNUAL SALARY BY SEX AND TEACHING LEVEL (B.C. AND U.S. COMPARISONS) B.C. (1958-59) Median Salary-Range Total Number Elementary Secondary A l l Men A l l Women Total A l l Men A l l Women Total 3210 2500 6300 69 3155 2k00 -k700 285 3161 35k k021 2k00 - 2500 6300 5800 lk2 3867 2800 -83 395k 2500 k800 225 42-Percent Not Stating U.S. *(1956-57) iMedian Salary Total Number 36OO k85 3k50 1800 3500 3700 2285 1033 6 732 k 36OO 1765 # No additional information given in source. 1. Median Salaries have been rounded t© the nearest $25 for U.S. report. 7 5 Question 2k -This question was used as a check on Question 23 to insure that s a l a r i e s reported and included i n the gross an-nual s a l a r i e s were for a f u l l years work and not for ju s t a part of a year. 7 6 Question 25 - ADDITIONAL INCOME FROM JOB OR BUSINESS Less than 1% of the sample reported any additional income from the designated sources and involved small sums of $100 - $300. 77 Question 26 expands on Question 25 and no responses were obtained from beginning teachers. 78 Question 27 - SUMMER INCOME This question supplements Question 26 and attempts to measure the earning a b i l i t y of student teachers p r i o r to entering teaching. It i s l i k e l y too that some beginning teachers attended summer sessions in 1958 in order to make up course d e f i c i t s and would not be included as earners i n thi s a n a l y s i s . One would expect the beginning men to earn more during the summer int e r v a l than women and t h i s i s borne out in Table XXVI. Just over half of the beginning teachers re-ported summer earnings which ranged from $100 to $2 ,000. B.C. BEGINNING TEACHERS« 1958 - 59 TABLE XXVI - SUMMER INCOME, 1958, BY SEX AND TEACHING LEVEL TOTAL AMOUNT EARNED JUNE 3© TO FALL TERM 1958 Elementary Secondary A l l Men A l l Women Total A l l Men A l l Women Total Median Income Range Total Number Reporting 571 100 1300 k o 310 100 -800 116 kk5 100 -156 583 100 1000 70 325 100 -2000 36 507 100 2000 106 - 0 vO Percent Not Stating k k 60 56 52 58 55 80 Question 28 - OTHER INCOME This question was intended to show other sources of income for beginning teachers but no other income was report-ed by the sample. This should not mean that beginning teach-ers do not have additional sources of income but rather that they may f e e l d i s i n c l i n e d to report such sources of income. 81 Question 29 - INCOME OF SPOUSE This question attempts to assess the earning power of the beginning teachers 1 spouse in the case of those who are married. Less than a quarter of the beginning teachers i n -dicated that they had husbands or wives who were earning an income in 1958 - 59 and the range of earnings reported was very wide, $75 - $8,5©0 (see Table XXVII). It i s possible that an increase i n the number of academic years of tr a i n i n g p r i o r to entering teaching would mean an older beginning teacher, one more l i k e l y to be married and having a working spouse. This succession of changes w i l l tend to modify the earning power of beginning teachers i n d i r e c t l y . B.C. BEGINNING TEACHERS, 1958 - 59  TABLE XXVII - SPOUSE'S INCOME, HUSBAND OR WIFE FOR 12 MONTHS ENDING JUNE 30, 1959 Spouse's Income Median Income 30k0 ^ ro Range 75 - 8500 Number Reporting 135 or 23% Number Not Stated of Unmarried k5& or 77% Total Number 591 8 3 Question 3 0 - INCOME LAST YEAR This question endeavors to f i n d out how much money is a c t u a l l y earned by teachers i n tr a i n i n g during the year prior to the i r commencing teaching. It should be noted that some beginning teachers were not taking teacher t r a i n i n g or attending school l a s t year but came instead from jobs outside teaching. This tends to account for salary ranges earned i n previous employment as wide as 1 0 0 - 9 , 6 0 0 for men (beginning teaching) in the elementary schools. Table XXVIII r e f l e c t s a higher earnings for the men, p a r t i c u l a r l y those men beginning teaching at the secondary teaching l e v e l . A considerable number did not report any i n -come for l a s t year. It i s also noted that women beginning teachers employed at the elementary l e v e l show the lowest median income. However, t h i s group includes a large number of single women 2 0 years old and under. In view of the f a c t that many of these women come from areas removed from teacher tr a i n i n g centers i t is probable that some degree of hardship is experienced during the teacher t r a i n i n g year. In thi s r e -gard i t is worth noting that entries into teacher tr a i n i n g from the smaller urban and rur a l communities are proportionately higher than those from the larger urban centers (see i n f o r -mation given under Question kO). B.C. BEGINNING TEACHERS, 1958 - 59 TABLE XXVI11 - INCOME EARNED LAST YEAR BY SEX AND TEACHING LEVEL Elementary Secondary A l l Men A l l Women Total A l l Men A l l Women Total CO 4=-Medlan Income 975 4 9 5 590 1570 785 1300 Range 100 9600 100 3600 100 -9600 300 7800 100 -k600 100 7800 Number Reporting k2 106 l k 8 97 k2 139 Total No. 71 286 357 l k 6 88 23k 85 Question 31 - INCOME FROM ALL OTHER SOURCES This question produced f i v e responses and was i n -advertently given a separate number. I t i s in f a c t a part of Question 30. 86 Question 32 - NUMBER OF DEPENDENTS This question i s directed toward some description of the size of family of married beginning teachers. It is noted from Table XXIX that some 20% of a l l beginning teachers in 1958 - 59 had dependent children, 7% with 1, $% with 2, k% with 3, 2% with k and 1% with 5 c h i l d r e n . Whether or not the married women i n the sample are l i s t i n g children as the i r dependents rather than their husbands* dependents cannot be determined from the data. Some 252 children were dependent upon beginning teachers in 1958 - 59. Relative to the number of married beginning teachers t h i s sample y i e l d s an average r a t i o of 1.2 children - a rate that compares with the average r a t i o of 2.k for B r i t i s h Columbia as a whole. B.C. BEGINNING TEACHERS, 1958 - 59 TABLE XXIX - NUMBER OF DEPENDENT CHILDREN, BY SEX AND TEACHING LEVEL Elementary (Married) Secondary (Married) NUMBER Men Women Total Men Women Total OF DEPENDENTS No. % No. % No. % No. % No. No. % «0> or Not Stated 10 36 36 67 k6 56 31 32 17 53 k8 38 1 6 21 6 11 12 15 26 27 5 16 31 2k 2 7 25 3 6 10 12 19 20 3 9 22 17 3 3 11 7 13 10 12 11 11 3 9 lk 11 k 2 7 2 k h 5 7 7 1 3 8 6 5 2 2 3 9 5 k Total 28 100 5k 100 82 100 96 100 32 100 128 100 S3 Question 33 - OTHER DEPENDENTS - COST OF SUPPORT THEREOF Some description of the cost of dependents other than those in the immediate family was sought so as to pro-vide some indication of the f i n a n c i a l obligations that con-front the beginning teacher. Table XXX shows that only 9% of the beginning teachers reported a cost incurred by other dependents. Among these proportionately more of the second-ary school beginning teachers had a somewhat greater f i n a n c i r e s p o n s i b i l i t y in thi s matter. Though a few teachers are in volved the trend shown i s in the expected d i r e c t i o n i n view of the older age of the secondary l e v e l beginning teacher. B.C. BEGINNING TEACHERS, 1958 - 59  TABLE XXX - ANNUAL COST OF OTHER DEPENDENTS BY SEX AND TEACHING LEVEL Elementary Secondary A l l Teachers OTHER DEPENDENTS Men Women Total Men Women Total DOLLARS PER YEAR No. %l No. %l No. f} No. No. %l No. «' No. f} Not Stated 12 17 67 23 79 22 22 15 29 33 51 22 130 22 None 56 79 19k 68 250 70 110 75 k8 55 158 68 408 69 1 - k9 3 1 3 1 3 1 50 - 99 k 1 k 1 k 1 100 - 299 2 3 6 2 8 2 6 k k 5 10 3 18 3 300 - k99 7 2 7 2 k 3 3 3 7 3 lk 2 500 - 749 1 1 3 1 k 1 1 1 3 3 k 2 8 1 750 - 999 1 1 1 1 1 l 2 1 3 1 1000 - 1999 1 1 2 1 2 1 3 1 Total 71 100 286 100 357 100 lk6 100 88 100 234 10© 591 100 1. Percents do not necessarily add to 100 because of rounding 90 Question 3k - HOW MUCH OF AN INCREASE IN ANNUAL SALARY ARE YOU LIKELY TO RECEIVE NEXT YEAR? Except under unique circumstances, teachers s a l a r i e s in B r i t i s h Columbia are geared to a schedule of increments which varies by small amounts from one d i s t r i c t to another. The competitive motive among d i s t r i c t s tends to maintain a f a i r l y uniform schedule of increments governed by level of c e r t i f i c a t i o n and experience. A l l teachers are aware of these f a c t s , however, a rather contradictory phenomenon has turned up i n the data regarding the beginning teachers' expectations of salary increments. It is noted in Table XXXI that the secondary beginning men teachers though on the whole having lower academic q u a l i f i c a t i o n s than t h e i r women counterparts are expecting higher Increments for the next school year 1959 - 60. This trend would seem to r e f l e c t a current demand by school d i s t r i c t s for male i n d u s t r i a l arts and physical education teachers at the secondary level and are paying above c e r t i f i c a t i o n scale in order to obtain s k i l l e d teachers i n these f i e l d s . The interpretation of those who reported an expec-tati o n of no salary increment must be q u a l i f i e d by the f a c t that some beginning teachers do not expect to be teaching next year and the f a c t that certain teachers, p a r t i c u l a r l y married teachers are a c t u a l l y hired at a higher salary with 91 the understanding that n© increment w i l l be paid the follow-ing year. Over half, 5 5 % of the elementary beginning teachers expect to receive an increment ranging from $ 1 0 0 to $199 for the next school year whereas 60% of the secondary teachers expect increments ranging from $ 1 5 0 - $2k9. This difference is l a r g e l y to be accounted for by the explanation given above. B.C. BEGINNING TEACHERS, 1958 - 59  TABLE XXXI - INCREASE IN ANNUAL SALARY, BY SEX AND TEACHING LEVEL Elementary Secondary A l l Teachers ANNUAL SALARY Men Women Total Men Women Total INCREASE (DOLLARS) No. %l No. No. ?} No. %l No. X 1 No. f} No. %l Not Stated 2 3 15 5 17 5 9 6 1+ 5 13 6 30 5 None k 6 13 5 17 5 11 8 10 i l 21 9 38 6 1 - 1+9 2 3 25 9 27 8 2 1 3 3 5 2 32 5 50 - 99 2 3 19 7 21 6 3 2 2 2 5 2 26 k 100 - lk9 15 21 66 23 81 23 8 5 10 11 18 8 99 17 150 - 199 27 38 89 31 116 32 38 26 27 31 65 28 181 31 200 - 2k9 13 18 1+6 16 59 16 52 36 23 26 75 32 131+ 23 250 - 299 1 1 3 1 k 1 7 5 1 1 8 3 12 2 300 or more 5 7 10 3 15 k 16 11 8 9 2k 10 39 7 Total 71 100 286 100 357 100 lk6 100 88 100 23k 100 591 100 1. Percents do not necessarily add to 100 because of rounding 93 Question 35 - THE LENGTH OF TIME IN MONTHS WHICH YOU ARE REQUIRED TO WORK FOR YOUR SCHOOL. YEAR This question taken from the United States study had no relevance to the B r i t i s h Columbia school s i t u a t i o n since the number of school days are standard throughout the province. 91+ Question 36 - NON-TEACHING EMPLOYMENT EXPERIENCE PRIOR TO BEGINNING TEACHING This question was designed to provide some insight into the employment backgrounds of beginning teachers and the influence that such employment may have in a f f e c t i n g a decision to enter teaching. Table XXXII indicates that two-thirds of the beginning teachers employed at the elementary level re-ported no previous non-teaching work experience whereas k5% of those beginning at the secondary level reported no pre-vious work experience. A number of men employed at the secondary l e v e l , 2 0 % , report having had 10 or more years of work experience. Some of these men are s k i l l e d tradesmen and music teachers who bring important p r a c t i c a l experience to the school system. This accounts for the higher s a l a r i e s and higher pay increments both paid and expected by the begin-ning men teachers at the secondary l e v e l . Table XXXIII shows that while B r i t i s h Columbia and the United States beginning teachers seem to be very similar i n t h e i r p r i o r non-teaching work experience, B r i t i s h Columbia men i n general have had more non-teaching work experience than the United States men who enter teaching. Again, t h i s fact should be interpreted with due allowance to the two year d i f -f e r e n t i a l that separates the two studies. Table XXXIV shows, as expected, that more of the 95 married men i n both the B r i t i s h Columbia and United States studies have had previous employment experience than the single men. On the other hand more of the B r i t i s h Columbia married men (79%) have had previous employment experience than the married men beginning teaching referred to in the United States study (55%)• This difference in part may be ascribed to differences in labor market trends and changes i n salary schedules, the influence of which factors might e a s i l y have occurred during the i n t e r v a l separating the two studies. B.C. BEGINNING TEACHERS, 1958 - 59 TABLE XXXII - AMOUNT OF NON-TEACHING EMPLOYMENT EXPERIENCE BY SEX AND TEACHING LEVEL Elementary NON- Men Women Total TEACHING EXPERIENCE No. %l No. ?} No. %l Not Stated 2 3 20 7 22 6 None 35 50 205 72 2k0 67 Less Than One Year 3 k 20 7 23 6 One Year Less Than Three 12 17 21 7 33 9 Three Years Less Than Five 6 8 8 3 lk k Five Years Less Than Ten 3 k 5 2 8 2 Ten Years, Or More 10 lk 7 2 17 5 Total Secondary A l l Teachers Men Women Total No. JC 1 No. %l No. V No. %l 3 2 k 5 7 3 29 5 k9 3k 56 6k 105 k5 3k5 58 7 5 5 6 12 5 35 6 19 13 10 11 29 12 62 10 12 8 k 5 16 7 30 5 27 18 3 3 30 13 38 6 29 20 6 7 35 15 52 •9 71 100 286 100 357 100 lk6 100 88 100 23k 100 591 100 1. Percents do not necessarily add to 100 because of rounding. B.C. BEGINNING TEACHERS, 1958 - 59  TABLE XXXIII - AMOUNT OF NON-TEACHING EMPLOYMENT, BY SEX (B.C. AND U.S. COMPARISONS) PERCENT AMOUNT OF NON-TEACHING EMPLOYMENT None (Includes No Answer) Less Than One Year One Year But Fewer Than Three Three But Fewer Than Five Years Five But Fewer Than Ten Years Ten Years or More Total 1 (No. in Sample) B.C. (1958 - 59) Both Sexes 63 11 6 9 100 591 Men 1+1 11+ 8 11+ 18 100 217 Women 76 8 2 3 U.S. (1956 - 57) 100 371+ Both Sexes 66 10 6 1+ 100 l+,065 Men 53 13 11 9 6 100 1,523 Women 71+ 9 1+ 2 100 2,51+2 1. Percents do not necessarily add to 100 because of rounding. B.C. BEGINNING TEACHERS, 1958 - 59 (B.C. AND U.S. COMPARISONS) SEX B.C. (1958 - 59) U.S. (1956 - 57) AND MARITAL STATUS Total No. in Group T o t a l 1 With Prior Empl. Without Prior Empl. Total No. in Group T o t a l 1 With Prior Empl. Withi Prior 'i Men 217 1GG 59 k l 1,523 100 kl 53 Single 93 100 32 68 527 100 33 67 Married 12k 100 79 21 982 100 55 k 5 Women 37k 100 2k 76 2 , 5 k 2 100 26 lk Single 288 100 18 82 l , k 3 1 100 16 8k Married 86 100 k3 57 i , o k 5 100 36 6k A H Beginning Teachers 591 100 21 79 if, 065 100 3k 66 1 Percents do not necessarily add to 100 because of rounding. 99 Question 37 - ACTIVITY LAST YEAR The responses to th i s item suggest that B r i t i s h Columbia beginning teachers in the main arrive d i r e c t l y from a school s e t t i n g . Table XXXV shows that a similar trend i s indicated i n the United States study. In addition, the United States study shows higher percentages of beginning teachers who came from a homemaking s i t u a t i o n or employment outside of education. However, due to the d i f f e r e n t times at which the two studies were conducted a cautious interpretation of the l a t t e r differences i s indicated. In any case the d i f f e r -ences shown might be ascribed to age difference and difference in marital status of the beginning teachers i n the two studies. B.C. BEGINNING TEACHERS, 1958 - 59 TABLE XXXV - TYPE OF ACTIVITY PRIOR TO ENTERING TEACHING BY SEX (B.C. AND U.S. COMPARISONS) TYPE OF B.C. (1958 - U.S. (1956 - $1) ACTIVITY (B.C. As Of A p r i l 1 1958) (U.S. As Of A p r i l 1 1956) ^Both Sexes Men Women ^Both Sexes Men Women Attending School 69 70 68 73 68 76 Homemaker k 7 10 15 In M i l i t a r y Service 2 2. k 11 2 Substitute Teaching 3 3 2 7 7 7 Student or Prac. Teaching k l 3k k5 3k 27 38 Working in Education in a Non-Teaching Job 1 1 2 2 2 Working For Pay Outside of Education Full-Time 8 16 3 17 26 11 Seeking Employment k k 3 7 7 7 Total In Group 591 217 37k k,065 1,523 2,5k2 o o 1. Percents do not add to 100 either by rows or columns. Each row i s a separate item, and the a c t i v i t i e s are not mutually exclusive i . e . , beginning teacher could be engaged In more than one a c t i v i t y . 2. Less than } of 1 percent 101 Question 38 - GRADE AT WHICH DECISION TO ENTER TEACHING WAS MADE Judging from Table XXXVI the decision to enter teach-ing as a career may occur at various grade levels but for the majority i t occurs either in Grades 11 - 12 or after high school but before University. In 1958 - 59 beginning men teachers employed at the elementary level tended to decide after high school whereas their women counterparts were decid-ing to teach by the time they were pupils i n Grades 11 - 12 . Choosing s t i l l later in their academic t r a i n i n g were the women teachers employed at the secondary l e v e l . Though a large per-centage of the men employed at the secondary level make a decision to enter teaching at a time comparable to that i n d i -cated for those employed at the elementary l e v e l , a sizeable percentage (2k%) do not make this decision u n t i l after univer-s i t y . Perhaps with a more favorable beginning salary paid to teachers as compared to sa l a r i e s paid in other vocations more of t h i s group might be induced to ar r i v e at an e a r l i e r decision to enter teaching. B.C. BEGINNING TEACHERS, 1958 - 59  TABLE XXXVI - DECISION TO ENTER TEACHING, BY SEX AND TEACHING LEVEL Men Elementary Women Total Men Secondary Women A l l Teachers Total DECISION No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % Not Stated 3 k 6 2 9 3 3 2 3 3 6 3 15 3 In Grade 6 or Before 1 1 70 2k 71 20 1 1 12 lk 13 6 8k lk In Grades 7 - 1 0 12 17 k8 17 60 17 5 3 10 11 15 6 75 13 In Grades 1 1 - 1 2 lk 20 91 32 105 29 18 12 15 17 33 lk 138 23 A f t e r High School But Before Further Education 2k 3k 31 11 55 15 36 25 10 11 k6 20 101 17 In U n i v e r s i t y Before Beginning of 3rd Year 9 13 3k 12 k3 12 32 22 18 20 50 21 93 16 In U n i v e r s i t y During 3rd or kth Year 2 3 1 3 1 16 11 12 lk 28 12 31 5 A f t e r U n i v e r s i t y 6 8 5 2 l l 3 35 2k 8 9 k3 18 5k 9 © ro Total 71 100 286 100 357 100 lk6 100 88 100 23k 100 591 100 1 0 3 Question 3 9 - PARENT'S ATTITUDE TOWARD GOING INTO TEACHING This question attempts to provide some description of the attitudes parents of beginning teachers had toward the i r going into teaching. Table XXXVII shows that in general the attitudes of parents are either f a i r l y or very favorable. A more favorable attitude is reported for the parents of beginning teachers at the elementary l e v e l than by those em-ployed at the secondary l e v e l . Differences in the ages of these groups of beginning teachers and the pattern of complex factors that a difference in age implies would account for the difference i n the trend shown. B.C. BEGINNING TEACHER, 1958 - 59 TABLE XXXVII - PARENTS ATTITUDE TOWARD GOING INTO TEACHING, BY TEACHING LEVEL FATHER Elementary ,1 Total Secondary Total MOTHER Elementary Secondary Total % l Total % 1 Not Stated Very Favorable F a i r l y Favorable F a i r l y Unfavorable Very Unfavorable Deceased 10 21+5 70 10 k 18 3 69 20 3 1 5 12 126 11 30 5k 268 75 13k 58 25 13 6k 18 12 66 16 57 28 o -p-Total 357 100 23k 100 357 100 23k 100 io5 Question kO - SIZE OF THE COMMUNITY IN WHICH YOU RESIDED DURING MOST OF YOUR CHILDHOOD This question was designed to furnish information about the size Of the community from which B r i t i s h Columbia beginning teachers come. It covers longest residency up to the age of 17. Table XXXVIII shows that i n the school year 1958 - 59 the beginning teachers at the elementary level have residency backgrounds in a wide range of community sizes with proportionately more men than women coming from communities of under 10,000 population. A similar but less marked trend is indicated for the men and women employed at the secondary l e v e l . However, proportionately more of the beginning teach-ers at the secondary level than at the elementary level seem to have residency backgrounds i n communities of over 100,000 population. B.C. BEGINNING TEACHERS, 1958 - 59  TABLE XXXVIII - SIZE OF RESIDENCE COMMUNITY, BY SEX AND TEACHING LEVEL SIZE OF COMMUNITY Not Stated Elementary Secondary A l l Teachers Men Women Total Men Women Total No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % 8 3 8 2 1 9 2 Farm or Open Country 16 23 28 10 kk 12 18 12 11 12 29 12 73 12 © A V i l l a g e Less Than 2,500 11 15 k7 16 58 16 17 12 9 10 26 11 8k lk 2,500 - 9,999 12 17 k9 17 61 17 25 17 lk 16 39 17 100 17 10,000 - 2k,999 5 7 56 20 61 17 16 11 12 lk 28 12 89 15 25,000 - 99,999 12 17 39 lk 51 lk 18 12 7 8 25 11 76 13 100,000 or More 15 21 59 21 7L\ 21 51 35 35 kO 86 37 160 27 Total 71 100 286 100 357 100 lk6 100 88 100 23k 100 591 100 107 Table XXXIX provides a relat i o n s h i p of the size of the community in which beginning teachers resided most during childhood and the size of school d i s t r i c t in which they are employed. It is shown that 27% of the 1958 - 59 beginning teachers accepted teaching appointments i n communities equiv-alent i n size to the one's i n which they resided (this percent-age value is obtained from combining the values of 5 2 , l | 0 , $\\ and 15 y i e l d i n g a t o t a l of 161 as a percentage of 5 9 1 ) . A further f i n d i n g i s that 26% of those whose residency was i n communities of under 1 0 , 0 0 0 population taught in communities of over 1 0 0 , 0 0 0 population. However, over two-thirds of the beginning teachers whose residency was i n communities of 1 0 0 , 0 0 0 population or more were teaching in smaller communi-t i e s and 11% of them were teaching i n small d i s t r i c t s with school enrolments of under 1 , 5 0 0 . B.C. BEGINNING TEACHERS, 1958 - 59 TABLE XXXIX - RESIDENCE COMMUNITY SIZE IN RELATION TO TEACHING COMMUNITY SIZE Teaching In School D i s t r i c t Size (Enrolment) Of: 1-299 COMMUNITY SIZE OF RESIDENCY Not Stated Farm or Open Country A VI1lage Less Than 2,500 2,500 - 9,999 10,000 - 2k,999 25,000 - 99,999 100,000 or More 25,500 or 6,300-25,k99 1,500-6,299 300-1,1+99 More No. & % 12 10 10 10 52 No. % 11 8 15 12 11 8 13 10 ko 31 38 29 No. % 50 18 36 13 6k 23 5k 19 23 8 52 18 No. % 7 10 21 29 15 21 12 16 3 k lk 19 No. % 1 20 A l l Size D i s t r i c t s No. % k 80 73 12 8k lk 100 17 89 15 76 13 160 27 o Co Total 100 130 100 283 100 73 100 5 100 591 100 109 Question k l - LIVING ARRANGEMENTS This question attempted to provide information regarding the l i v i n g arrangements of beginning teachers i n B r i t i s h Columbia. In Table XL i t is noted that the largest percentage (k2%) of the beginning teachers who started t h e i r career i n an elementary grade were l i v i n g with parents or other r e l a t i v e s whereas the largest percentage of those em-ployed at the secondary level were l i v i n g with their husband or wife as would be expected in view of the older age and higher proportion of those married found i n t h i s group. Pro-portionately more of the women than the men beginning teachers employed at both the elementary and secondary levels are l i v i n g with friends or alone. One might infer from the data shown that proportionately more of the men beginning teachers were l i v i n g under more controlled home circumstances. B.C. BEGINNING TEACHERS, 1958 - 59  TABLE XL - LIVING ARRANGEMENTS, BY SEX AND TEACHING LEVEL LIVING ARRANGEMENTS Not Stated Live Alone Live With A Friend (s) Live With Husband or Wife Live With Parents or Other Relatives Other Elementary Men Women No. % No. % 1 7 10 29 10 6 8 58 20 A l l Teachers 25 35 2k 3k 9 13 U3 15 125 kk 30 10 Total No. % 1 36 10 6k 18 68 19 lk9 k2 39 U Men No. % 15 io 13 9 91 62 18 12 9 6 Secondary Women No. % 10 11 15 17 29 33 22 25 12 lk Total No. % 25 11 28 12 120 51 kO 17 21 9 No. % 1 61 10 92 16 188 32 189 32 60 10 Total 71 100 286 100 357 100 lk6 100 88 100 23k 100 591 100 I l l Question k2 - LIVING QUARTERS This question describes the l i v i n g quarters of B r i t i s h Columbia beginning teachers in 1958 - 59, the resu l t s of which are reported in Table XLI. It is noted that more beginning teachers, k0%, were renting a house or apartment than either buying a house or renting a room. A smaller per-centage of beginning teachers at the secondary l e v e l than elementary level are renting rooms but more of the secondary beginners are renting houses. Although the differences shown are small they are i n the expected d i r e c t i o n since the second-ary beginning teachers includes proportionately more who are older, married and are receiving higher incomes. The higher proportion of women over men at the elementary level who are renting a house or apartment is i n keeping with the previous finding that more of the women than men beginners are l i v i n g with friends, probably on a shared accommodation basis. B.C. BEGINNING TEACHERS, 1958 - 59  TABLE XL I - LIVING QUARTERS, BY SEX AND TEACHING LEVEL Elementary Secondary A l l Teachers - Men Women Total Men Women Total LIVING QUARTERS N o > % N o # % N o > % N o > % N o < % N o > % N o # % Not Stated 8 3 8 2 1 1 1 1 2 1 10 2 Own or Buy-ing House or Apartment 18 25 65 23 83 23 39 27 28 32 67 29 150 25 Rent a Room (With or Without Board) 23 32 85 30 108 30 2k 16 15 17 39 17 lk7 25 Rent a House or Apartment 19 27 103 36 122 3k 76 52 38 k3 Ilk k9 236 kO Neither Own Nor Rent Li v i n g Quarters 11 16 25 9 36 10 6 k 6 7 12 5 k8 8 ro Total 71 100 286 100 357 100 ik6 100 88 100 23k 100 591 100 113 Question 1+3 - RESIDENCE: DQ YOU RESIDE IN THE COMMUNITY IN WHICH YOU TEACH? This question gives the rati o s of beginning teachers who did or did not reside i n the community in which they taught their f i r s t year, 1958 - 59. It i s noted from Table XLII that 69% of the beginning teachers reported they l i v e d in the community in which they taught. Of the beginning teachers at the secondary l e v e l , 7l+%> a figure s l i g h t l y above that reported by the beginning teachers i n the elementary grades, said they resided i n the community i n which they taught. Although the men and women beginning teachers i n secondary positions d i f f e r e d l i t t l e In terms of residing where they taught, the men who began teaching in elementary grades r e-ported markedly d i f f e r e n t residence situations i n comparison with the women beginning teachers in the elementary grades. Nearly half (1+1+%) of the beginning men i n elementary resided in a community other than where they a c t u a l l y taught. The responses as reported in the foregoing table are in part accounted for by the fact that there is a greater discrepancy between place of residence and teaching locale as one moves from the more remoted, ru r a l communities to those adjacent to a large urban centre. Thus, for example, there is a greater discrepancy between residency and place of teach-ing for beginning teachers l i v i n g in the Greater Vancouver Ilk area than for teachers l i v i n g in such communities as A l e r t Bay. A trend of t h i s nature is implied in the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of responses concerning residency shown in Table XLIII where i t is seen that the percentage of disagreements between r e s i -dency and teaching locale decreases with the remoteness of the area from the Vancouver area shown as area Group I. B.C. BEGINNING TEACHERS, 1 9 5 8 - 5 9 TABLE XLII - RESIDENCY IN COMMUNITY IN WHICH TEACHING IS DONE, BY SEX AND TEACHING LEVEL RESIDENCY IN TEACHING COMMUNITY Elementary Men Women Total No. % No. % No. ) Secondary A l l Teache Men Women Total No. % No. % No. % No. % Not Stated 1 1 2 1 3 1 3 1 Yes No 3 9 5 5 197 69 2 3 6 6 6 1 0 6 7 3 6 8 7 7 171+ 7*+ 1+10 6 9 3 1 1+1+ 8 7 3 0 1 1 8 3 3 ko 27 2 0 2 3 6 0 26 1 7 8 3 0 Total 7 1 1 0 0 286 1 0 0 3 5 7 1 0 0 lk6 1 0 0 88 1 0 0 2 3 1 + 1 0 0 5 9 1 1 0 0 B.C. BEGINNING TEACHERS, 1958 - 59  TABLE XLII1 - RESIDENCY IN TEACHING LOCALE, BY SCHOOL DISTRICT ENROLMENT SIZE % Teaching In School D i s t r i c t (Enrolment) Size Of: 25,500 or 6,300-25,1+99 1,500-6,299 300-1,1+99 1-299 A l l Size More School D i s t r i c t s Not Stated 2 1 Yes 73 53 69 92 100 69 No 27 1+5 30 8 0 30 Total 100 100 100 100 100 100 Total No. in Group 100 130 283 73 5 591 117 Question kk - LENGTH OF RESIDENCE This question asks the length of time the beginning teacher has l i v e d in the community where he resides during the school year. I t appears from Table XLIV that in 1958 - 59, more beginning teachers in B r i t i s h Columbia, 5l%, had resided less than one year in the community li v e d in during teaching than any other period of time. Beginning male teachers in secondary school grades (6k%) were more l i k e l y to have spent less than one year in the community where they resided during the school year than beginning male elementary teachers (k5%). In the case of women beginning teachers proportionately more of those employed at the elementary level than those employed at the secondary l e v e l had resided a l l their l i f e i n the community in which they taught. It i s noted In Table XLV that an inverse r e l a t i o n -ship exists between school d i s t r i c t enrolment size and number of beginning teachers who have resided less than one year i n the community l i v e d in during the school year. The smaller the school d i s t r i c t s , the higher the proportion of *less than one year* beginning teachers. This Is due In part to higher s t a f f turnover i n smaller d i s t r i c t s , thereby providing more vacancies for beginning teachers. Conversely, there Is a di r e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p between the size of the community and the proportion of teachers who had spent a l l th e i r l i v e s in the community in which they taught. B.C. BEGINNING TEACHERS, 1958 - 59 TABLE XLIV - LENGTH OF RESIDENCE IN COMMUNITY RESIDED IN DURING SCHOOL YEAR, BY SEX AND TEACHING LEVEL LENGTH OF RESIDENCE Not Stated Less Than One Year 1 - 3 Years k - 5 Years 6 - 1 0 Years Over 10 Years But Not Born Here A l l My L i f e Elementary Men Women No. % No. % Total No. k 1 Secondary A l l Teachers Men Women Total No. % No. % No. % No. % 1 1 1 1 2 1 6 1 32 1+5 137 1+8 169 1+7 93 61+ 1+2 1+8 135 58 30k 51 0 0 7 10 23 8 30 8 15 10 6 7 21 9 51 9 2 3 9 3 11 3 5 3 8 9 13 6 21+1+ 6 8 22 8 28 8 11 8 9 10 20 9 1+8 8 13 18 ko lk 53 15 8 5 16 18 21+ 10 77 13 11 16 51 18 62 17 13 9 6 7 19 8 8l lk Total 71 100 286 100 357 100 lk6 100 88 100 23k 100 591 100 B.C. BEGINNING TEACHERS, 1958 - 59 TABLE XLV - LENGTH OF RESIDENCE IN COMMUNITY RESIDED IN DURING SCHOOL YEAR. BY SCHOOL DISTRICT ENROLMENT SIZE Teaching in School D i s t r i c t (Enr olment) Size Of: 25,500 or More 6,300-25,499 1,500-6,299 300- l , k 9 9 1-299 A l l Size School D i s t r i c t s No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % Not Stated 2 2 1 1 3 1 6 1 -Less Than One Year 20 20 kk 3k 172 61 63 86 5 100 30k 1—* vO 51 1 - 3 Years 15 15 15 12 19 7 2 3 51 9 k - 5 Years 9 9 7 5 8 3 2k k 6 - 1 0 Years 12 12 18 lk 16 6 2 3 k8 8 Over 10 Years But Not Born Here 13 13 22 17 39 lk 3 k 77 13 A l l My L i f e 29 29 23 18 26 9 3 k 81 lk Total 100 100 130 100 283 100 73 100 5 100 591 100 120 Question k5 - RELATION TO THE COMMUNITY This question sought information concerning begin-ning teachers attitudes toward the community where they re-sided during the school year. Table XLVI shows the beginning teachers reporting either a sense of belonging to or f e e l i n g close to the community where they resided i n 1958 - 59. Begin-ning male teachers at the secondary levels more so than at the elementary levels tended to f e e l quite close to their communi-ty but not consider i t to be their homes. This is related to the f a c t that a higher proportion, 6k%, of the beginning men in secondary schools had l i v e d less than one year in th i s p a r t i c u l a r community and are therefore not as l i k e l y to con-sider i t home. B.C. BEGINNING TEACHERS, 195Q - 59 TABLE XLVI - RELATION TO COMMUNITY RESIDED IN DURING SCHOOL YEAR, BY SEX AND TEACHING LEVEL RELATION TO COMMUNITY Not Stated Belong Here And This is Home Comm. Quite Close To This Comm. But Not Considered Home Elementary Men Women No. % Do Not Feel Very Close To This Comm. 12 17 Feel Like A Complete Stranger i n This Comm. No. 1 Secondary A l l Teacher Total Men Women Total No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % 1 1 1 1 2 31 1+1+ ikk 5o 175 1+9 1+5 31 1+5 5 i 90 38 265 1+5 28 39 100 35 128 36 76 52 27 31 103 1+1+ 231 39 3!+ 12 1+6 13 21 11+ 11+ 16 35 15 81 11+ 3 2 2 2 5 2 12 2 Total 71 100 286 100 357 100 li+6 100 88 100 231+ 100 591 100 122 Question k6 - DO YOU ENJOY WORKING WITH THE STUDENTS IN YOUR CLASSES? This question attempts to provide some information concerning beginning teachers 1 attitudes toward working with their students and is summarized in Table XLVII. Nearly three-quarters, 72%, of the beginning teachers stated that they enjoyed working with their students a great deal. Of the teachers beginning their career in an elementary grade, 78% enjoyed working with their students a great deal whereas 60% of the beginners at the secondary l e v e l enjoyed working with their students to the same extent, about one-third of them tending to report their enjoyment as being »fairly wel1 1. No explanation for the difference shown is provided in the present data but the reports by beginning teachers of a high-er frequency of d i s c i p l i n a r y , and motivation and interest problems encountered in the secondary grades may well play a part. The data for the l a t t e r are given under Question 79. B.C. BEGINNING TEACHERS, 1958 - 59  TABLE XLVI I - ENJOY WORKING WITH STUDENTS, BY SEX AND TEACHING LEVEL Elementary Secondary A l l Teachers Men Women Total Men Women Total No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % Not Stated 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 Yes A Great Deal 51+ 76 228 80 282 78 81+ 57 56 61+ ll+O 60 1+22 72 Yes, F a i r l y Well 16 23 56 20 72 20 60 k l 30 3k 90 38 162 27 No, Not Very Much 1 1 2 1 3 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 5 l No, Not At A H ro Total 71 100 286 100 357 100 l k 6 100 88 100 23k 100 591 100 1 2 k Question k 7 - HOW GOOD A JOB DO YOU FEEL YOU ARE DOING IN TEACHING YOUR STUDENTS IN THE HUMAN RELATIONS ASPECTS OF TEACHING? In Table XLVIII i t i s noted that the beginning teach-ers i n 1 9 5 8 - 5 9 generally f e l t that they were doing a good job of teaching human r e l a t i o n s , the beginning teachers i n the elementary grades reporting this f a c t to an even greater ex-tent than beginners in the secondary l e v e l s . Apart from the fact that i t is d i f f i c u l t to appreciate what the teacher may have i n mind i n replying to a question of this nature the findings re secondary level teachers are compatible with those reported for Questions l\.6 a n d 7 9 . B.C. BEGINNING TEACHERS, 1958 - 59 TABLE XLVIII - TEACHING STUDENTS IN HUMAN RELATIONS ASPECTS, BY SEX AND TEACHING LEVEL HUMAN RELATIONS ASPECTS Not Stated Elementary Men Women Total No. % No. % No. % 3 k 7 2 10 3 Secondary A l l Teachers Men Wemen Tetal No. % No. % No. % No. % 2 1 1 1 3 1 13 2 ro vn Excellent 8 11 18 6 26 7 18 12 3 3 21 9 kl 8 Good Fai r kk 62 209 73 253 71 92 63 56 6k lk8 63 kOl 68 16 23 51 18 67 19 31 21 28 32 59 25 126 21 Poor 3 2 Total 71 100 286 100 357 100 lk6 100 88 100 23k 100 591 100 126 Question k8 - HOW GOOD A JOB DO YOU FEEL YOU ARE DOING IN TEACHING YOUR STUDENTS SUBJECT MATTERS? This question seeks to obtain some information concerning B r i t i s h Columbia beginning teachers opinion regard-ing their teaching of subject matters to the i r students. It is noted in Table XLIX that 69% of the beginners in 1958 - 59 reported they were doing a good job of teaching subject mat-ters and another 27% stated they were doing a f a i r job. D i f -ferences shown for men and women beginners at either the elementary or secondary levels were small, beginning elemen-tary women tending to report a s l i g h t l y higher proportion of »goodtresponses than the rest of the beginning teachers. The difference in favor of women beginning teachers at the elemen-tary level may In part be due to the greater emphasis they have received over th e i r male counterparts in their "primary methods" training while in teacher t r a i n i n g . Male teachers as a rule are not earmarked for primary grade teaching and con-sequently do not receive as much training in "primary methods". Thus, It may be inferred from t h i s finding that perhaps the male teacher who as a rule i s being trained to teach the i n -termediate elementary grades i s not receiving a comparable fund of s k i l l s and techniques for that l e v e l of teaching. B.C. BEGINNING TEACHERS, 1958 - 59  TABLE XLIX - TEACHING STUDENTS IN SUBJECT MATTERS, BY SEX AND TEACHING LEVEL TEACHING SUBJECT MATTERS Not Stated Elementary Men Women Total Secondary A l l Teachers Men Women Total No. % No. % No. * % No. % No. % No. 3 k 7 2 10 3 2 2 No. % 12 2 ro Excel lent 2 3 6 2 8 2 2 1 2 2 k 2 12 2 Good kl 66 205 72 252 71 97 67 58 66 155 66 k07 69 Fair 19 27 67 23 86 2k k5 31 26 30 71 30 157 27 Poor 2 1 2 1 3 1 Total 71 100 286 100 357 100 lk6 100 88 100 23k 100 591 100 128 Question k9 - WAS TEACHING YOUR FIRST OCCUPATIONAL CHOICE OR WOULD YOU RATHER HAVE GONE INTO SOME OTHER KIND OF WORK? This question attempts to obtain data on the begin-ning teachers' strength of interest in teaching as opposed to an interest in some other occupation. Of the beginning teach-ers reporting, Table L shows that 72% claimed that teaching was their f i r s t occupational choice. Some 60% of the begin-ning teachers i n the secondary level stated teaching was th e i r f i r s t choice whereas 78% of the elementary beginning teachers placed teaching f i r s t . This difference is in the expected d i r e c t i o n in view of the age and trai n i n g differences between elementary and secondary level beginning teachers and the opportunities for selecting from a broader pattern of career p o s s i b i l i t i e s which thereby a r i s e . The f a c t that proportionately more of the beginning teachers at the secondary l e v e l than at the elementary level "would have preferred to do something else" is not wholly un-related to the greater d i f f i c u l t y such teachers seem to expe-rience in the secondary teaching s i t u a t i o n . B.C. BEGINNING TEACHERS, 1958 - 59  TABLE L - WAS TEACHING FIRST OCCUPATIONAL CHOICE, BY SEX AND TEACHING LEVEL Men FIRST CHOICE No. % Elementary Women Total No. % No. % 1 Men No. % No. % Secondary A l l Teachers Women Total No. % No. % Not Stated 8 11 9 3 17 5 17 12 5 6 22 9 39 7 ro vO Teaching Was F i r s t Choice k7 66 235 82 282 78 79 54 62 70 l k l 60 k23 72 Would Have Preferred To Do Something Else 16 23 42 15 58 16 50 34 21 2k 71 30 129 22 Total 71 100 286 100 357 100 lk6 100 88 100 23k 100 591 100 130 Question 50 - IF YOU HAD IT TO DO OVER AGAIN, WOULD YOU ENTER TEACHING? It Is noted in Table LI that 61% of the beginning teachers said they would d e f i n i t e l y enter teaching again whereas 3k% f e l t they probably would. Of the beginning teach-ers working in elementary grades, 69% stated they would d e f i -n i t e l y re-enter teaching whereas ju s t under h a l f , 1+9%, of the beginners in secondary grades were as decisive. It may be that the beginners in secondary grades f e e l that, because of their academic and p r a c t i c a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n , vocations other than teaching might be considered as p o s s i b i l i t i e s whereas beginners in elementary grades might be more limited vocational-l y . I t is also possible that the beginners at the secondary level could not achieve t h e i r desired vocational goals because of academic li m i t a t i o n s and decided to enter teaching instead. In regard to sex differences i t is noted that at both the elementary and secondary levels proportionately more women than males would enter teaching again. This trend i s to be expected in view of the fact that males have better opportunities than women to plan careers outside of teaching. B.C. BEGINNING TEACHERS, 1958 - 59  TABLE LI - WOULD YOU ENTER TEACHING AGAIN, BY SEX AND TEACHING LEVEL Elementary Secondary A l l Teachers ENTER Men Women Total Men Women Total TEACHING AGAIN? No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % >—• D e f i n i t e l y £ Yes k7 66 200 70 21+7 69 69 1+7 k5 51 Ilk k9 361 61 Probably Yes 21 30 77 27 98 27 6k kk 35 kO 99 k2 197 3k Probably No 2 3 7 2 9 3 U 8 6 7 17 7 26 k D e f i n i t e l y No 1 1 2 1 3 1 2 1 2 2 1 + 2 7 1 T tal 71 100 286 100 357 100 lk6 100 88 100 23k 100 591 100 132 Question 51 - LIFE GOALS: DO YOU FEEL THAT YOU CAN ACHIEVE YOUR LONG-RUN LIFE GOALS BY CONTINUING IN CLASSROOM TEACHING AS A CAREER? This question attempts to provide information con-cerning the career plans and l i f e goals of beginning teachers in B r i t i s h Columbia. It is shown in Table LI I that k2% of the beginning teachers reported that th e i r l i f e goals could prob-ably be achieved through classroom teaching and another 29% stated that they could d e f i n i t e l y achieve their long-run goals in classroom teaching. The beginning teachers in elementary grades d i f f e r e d in c e r t a i n respects from t h e i r secondary level counterparts in that 30% of the elementary beginning teachers reported they probably or d e f i n i t e l y could not achieve their l i f e goals in classroom teaching whereas 23% of the beginners in secondary levels reported a similar opinion. The percentage difference in this case arises because of the higher proportion (1+7%) of secondary beginning teachers who stated that they probably could achieve their l i f e goals fn teaching. Proportionately more of the beginning women, p a r t i c u l a r l y in the secondary grades, reported they probably or d e f i n i t e l y could not achieve their long-run goals in classroom teaching. This is under-standable in view of so c i a l attitudes regarding the role of women in seciety of women1s plans for marriage, homes and the rearing of children. B.C. BEGINNING TEACHERS, 1958 - 59 TABLE LII - ACHIEVING LIFE GOALS IN CLASSROOM TEACHING, BY SEX AND TEACHING LEVEL Elementary Secondary A l l Teachers Men Women Total Men Women Total LIFE GOALS No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % Not Stated 8 3 8 2 1 1 2 2 3 1 1 1 2 D e f i n i t e l y Yes 23 32 82 29 105 30 1+6 31 21 21+ 67 29 172 29 Probably Yes 35 1+9 101+ 36 139 39 77 53 32 36 109 1+7 21+8 1+2 Probably No 11 16 59 21 70 20 15 10 23 26 38 16 108 18 D e f i n i t e l y No 2 3 33 11 35 10 7 5 10 11 17 7 52 9 CO Total 71 100 286 100 357 100 11+6 100 88 100 231+ 100 591 100 131+ Question 52 - YOUR PLANS FOR THE NEXT SCHOOL YEAR This question attempts to provide some indication as to what beginning teachers are planning to be doing during the next school year, 1959 - 60. Table LIII shows that 87% of the beginning teachers reported they intended to continue teaching. Over twice as many, 13%, of the teachers who began teaching i n secondary grades as compared with 6% of the ele-mentary le v e l beginners stated their intention of going back to school for further t r a i n i n g , both in and outside of edu-cation. Some 2% of the beginning teachers stated they planned to devote time to f u l l - t i m e homemaking next year. In Table LIV i t is noted that 69% of the B r i t i s h Columbia beginning teachers state they expect to teach i n this school d i s t r i c t next year whereas 67% of the beginning teachers in the United States study report a similar intention. A larger number of B r i t i s h Columbia beginners, 10%, than United States beginners, 3%, expect to go back to school for further education. This i s to be expected in view of the higher aca-demic t r a i n i n g of the United States beginning teachers. B.C. BEGINNING TEACHERS, 1958 - 59  TABLE LI 11 - PLANS FOR NEXT SCHOOL YEAR, BY SEX AND TEACHING LEVEL PLANS Not Stated 1. Expect To Teach In This School D i s t r i c t 2. Expect To Teach In Another School D i s t r i c t 3. Working In Education But Not As A Classroom Teacher k. Expect To Devote Time To Full-Time Homemaking 5. Go Back To School For Further Training in Ed. 6. Go Back To School For Further Training Outside Education 7. Expect To Be Gai n f u l l y Employed Outside Of Ed. 8. Other Elementary Men Women Total No, % No. % No. J 1 1 Men Secondary A l l Teachers Women Total No. % No. % No« % No. % 1 1 1 1 2 1 3 1 53 75 195 68 2k8 70 100 68 6k 73 16k 70 kl2 69 8 11 66 23 lk 21 8 11 8 15 1 3 5 8 23 1 2 6 20 lk 1 1 18 12 11 13 31 13 1 3 6 3 7 3 1 2k 10 8 3 105 18 & 1 11 2 k7 8 9 2 2 1 Total 71 100 286 100 357 100 lk6 100 88 100 23k 100 591 100 B.C. BEGINNING TEACHERS, 1958 - RO- TABLE LIV - PLANS FOR NEXT SCHOOL YEAR, BY SEX (B.C. AND U.S. COMPARISONS) Percent Checking Plan For Next School Year, By B.C. (1958 - 59) U.S. (1956 - 57) PLANS FOR NEXT SCHOOL YEAR Both Sexes Men Women Both Sexes Men Womer Not Stated 1 (1) (1) I Expect To Teach In This School D i s t r i c t 69 71 69 67 67 67 I Expect To Teach In Another School D i s t r i c t 18 13 21 17 11+ 18 I Expect To Be Working In Education But Not As A Classroom Teacher (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) I Expect To Devote My Time To Full-Time Homemaking 2 3 5 7 I Expect To Be in M i l i t a r y Service 3 9 I Expect To Go Back To School For Further Training In Education 8 12 6 2 2 2 I Expect To Go Back To School For Training In A F i e l d Outside Of Ed. 2 3 1 1 2 1 I Expect To Be Ga i n f u l l y Employed Outside Of Education (1) 1 3 1+ 2 Other (1) (1) 2 2 2 Total 100 100 100 100 100 100 Total No. In Group 591 217 371+ *+,065 1,523 2,51+2 (1) Less Than £ Of 1 Percent 1 3 7 Question 5 3 - CERTAINTY OF PLANS FOR NEXT YEAR This question is related to Question 52 and endeav-ors to assess the certainty of the beginning teachers* plans described in the preceding question. Table LV shows that most of the beginning teachers, 92%, state that they are either very or f a i r l y c e r t a i n about plans for the next school year. There is a l i t t l e more uncertainty, (10%) reported by beginning teachers at the secondary levels than at the e l e -mentary levels (6%). This f i n d i n g , r e f l e c t i n g a more unset-t l e d attitude on the part of secondary beginning teachers i s in keeping with responses to other items i n which secondary teachers report a greater d i f f i c u l t y i n coping with the teach-ing s i t u a t i o n along with a preference for occupations other than teaching. B.C. BEGINNING TEACHERS, 1958 - 59  TABLE LV - CERTAINTY OF PLANS FOR NEXT YEAR, BY SEX AND TEACHING LEVEL Elementary Secondary A l l Teachers CERTAINTY Men Women Total Men Women Total OF PLANS No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % Very Certain 3k k8 lk6 5 l 180 50 69 k7 35 ko 10k kk 28k k8 F a i r l y Certain 3k k8 121 k2 155 k3 6k kk k2 k8 106 k5 261 kk F a i r l y Uncertain 3 k 16 6 19 5 11 8 10 11 21 9 kO 7 Very Uncertain 3 1 3 1 2 1 1 1 3 1 6 1 CO Total 71 100 286 100 357 100 lk6 100 88 100 23k 100 591 100 1 3 9 Question 5 4 - CAREER PLANS RELATIVE TO TEACHING This question extends Question 5 2 and seeks i n f o r -mation about the beginning teachers in terms of a longer period of time. It is noted i n Table LV1 that 23% of the beginning teachers reported an intention to teach u n t i l r e -tirement while another 18% stated they expected to continue in education but move from classroom teaching into some other area of education. Forty-two percent of the beginning teachers were women who expected to leave for homemaking but would want to return to teaching later whereas 10% stated they either would not want to return to teaching or expect to leave for another occupation. Some 35% of the beginning teachers in secondary grades and 15% in the elementary grades expressed an intention of teaching u n t i l retirement. This difference is due p r i n c i -p a l l y to the large number of women teachers in elementary grades who plan to leave for homemaking. Considerably more (71%) of the elementary level beginning women than secondary women ( 5 3 ^ )» plan eventually to leave for homemaking. D i f -ferences in age and academic training may account for the dif f e r e n t career plans in thi s instance. It i s noted in Table LVII that more of the men beginning teaching i n B r i t i s h Columbia in 1 9 5 8 - 5 9 than men beginning teaching in the United States in 1 9 5 6 - 5 7 stated lkO they expected to continue teaching u n t i l retirement, kk% as compared with 28%. A s l i g h t l y higher percentage of the United States beginning men ($0%) than B r i t i s h Columbia men (kk%) said they expected to move into some other area of edu-cation. In viewing the limited opportunities for doing so i t is questionable whether such a goal w i l l be r e a l i z e d by t h i s proportion of men in both countries. More of the B r i t i s h Columbia beginning women teachers (67%) than their United States counterparts (56%) report an intention to return to teaching after a period of homemaking. Some l k % of the United States women teachers say they expect to continue teaching u n t i l retirement whereas 11% of the B r i t i s h Columbia women teachers expect to do the same. B.C. BEGINNING TEACHERS, 1958 - 59  TABLE LVI - CAREER PLANS, BY SEX AND TEACHING LEVEL Elementary Secondary A l l Teachers Men Women Total Men Women Total CAREER PLANS No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % Not Stated 1 1 5 2 6 2 2 1 2 2 k 2 10 2 1. Expect To Continue Teaching U n t i l Retirement 29 k l 26 9 55 15 66 1+5 15 17 8 l 35 136 23 £. (—> 22.Continue in Ed. Move From Class ^ Teaching Into Other Area 30 1+2 8 3 38 11 6k kk 3 3 67 29 105 18 3. Leave For Homemaking Would Not Want To Return To Teaching 23 8 23 6 9 10 9 k 32 5 k. Leave For Homemaking would Want To Return To Teaching. 20k 71 20k 57 hi 53 hi 20 2$1 k2 5. Expect To Leave Ed. For Another Occupation 8 11 8 3 16 k 9 6 3 3 12 5 28 5 6. Other 3 4 12 k 15 k 5 3 9 10 lk 6 29 5 Total 71 100 286 100 357 100 11+6 100 88 100 23k 100 591 100 B.C. BEGINNING TEACHERS, 1958 - 59 TABLE LVII - CAREER PLANS, BY SEX (B.C. AND U.S. COMPARISONS) U n t i l eld Of Edu-pe To Move ome Other Percent Checking Career Plan, By Sex B.C. (1958 - 59) U.S. (1956 - 57) Both Both Sexes Men Women Sexes Men Women 2 1 2 23 kk 11 20 28 lk 18 k3 3 2k 50 8 Order To Would Not er 5 9 8 lk CAREER PLANS Not Stated I Expect To Continue Teaching Retirement I Expect To Continue In The F i cation U n t i l Retirement But Ho From Classroom Teaching Into S Area Of Education I Expect To Leave Teaching In i Devote My Time To Homemaking; ' Want To Return To Teaching Lat 1 Expect To Leave Teaching In Order To Devote My Time To Homemaking; Would Want To Return To Teaching Later I Expect To Leave Education For Another Occupation Other Total Total No. In Group k2 67 35 56 5 8 3 9 17 5 5 k 6 k k 3 100 100 100 100 100 100 591 217 37k k,065 1,523 2,5k2 11+3 Question 55 - ARE YOUR CAREER PLANS DEPENDENT UPON ANY OF THE FOLLOWING FACTORS? Table LVIII shows some of the factors that a f f e c t the career plans of beginning teachers. Factors such as mar-riage, rearing a family and sa l a r i e s were the important ones in 1958 - 59. Marriage was a determinant for 77% of the e l e -mentary women and 63% of the secondary women beginners. The p o s s i b i l i t y of having children was considered to be a factor a f f e c t i n g the careers of 6l% of the married elementary women and 37% of the women in secondary grades. Men were more concerned with the problem of earning enough money (57% of the secondary married men, 32% elementary married men). About one quarter of a l l the men (20% elemen-tary s i n g l e , 25% elementary married, 28% secondary single, 27 secondary married) reported th e i r career plans were dependent upon their getting a better teaching job than they had now. This was proportionately higher than the women (8%, 13%, 7%, 12%) who apparently were quite s a t i s f i e d with th e i r present teaching job. B.C. BEGINNING TEACHERS, 1958 - 59 TABLE LVIII - FACTORS ON WHICH CAREER PLANS ARE DEPENDENT, BY SEX, MARITAL STATUS AND TEACHING LEVEL Percent D i s t r i b u t i o n * -Elementary Secondary Men Women Men Women FACTORS Sing le Married S i n g l e Married S i n g l e Married S i n g l e Marri* 1. G e t t i n g Married 28 77 11+ 63 2. Having a Baby 21 61 3 7 37 3. Spouse F i n i s h i n g School 8 20 1 1+ 12 k. Spouse's Job k 5 2k 5 16 5. Spouse's Income 6 28 3 9 16 6. Being Able To Support a Family On a Teacher's S a l a r y 23 32 1 6 36 57 6 7. G e t t i n g a Better Teaching Job Than I Have Now 20 25 8 13 28 27 7 12 8. Other 18 lk 7 9 18 16 16 16 T o t a l i n Group 1+3 28 232 5k 50 96 56 32 1. The percents do not add to 100 e i t h e r by rows or columns. Each row i s a separate item, teachers were allowed more than one choice. iU5 Question 56 - SPOUSE1S ATTITUDE: WHAT IS THE ATTITUDE OF YOUR HUSBAND OR WIFE TOWARD YOUR CONTINUING IN A TEACHING CAREER? This question asks f o r information concerning spouses of beginning teachers and therefore i s l i m i t e d to a smaller group v i z . the married beginning teachers c o n s i s t i n g of 210 teachers. Responses to t h i s question were not re c e i v e d from 11 of these. Table LIX c l a s s i f i e s the responses f o r 199 married teachers. In general, the spouses of married beginning teachers were reported as being e i t h e r very (6k%) or f a i r l y (2l\.%) f a v o r a b l e toward t h e i r c ontinuing i n a teaching career. Spouses of beginning teachers at the secondary l e v e l reported to be somewhat more favorable (71%) than spouses of beginners at the elementary l e v e l (5k%). B.C. BEGINNING TEACHERS, 1958 - 59  TABLE LIX - SPOUSE'S ATTITUDE TOWARD CONTINUING TEACHING, BY SEX AND TEACHING LEVEL SPOUSE'S ATTITUDE Secondary A l l Teachers Men Women T o t a l Elementary Men Women Total No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % Not Stated 1. Very Favorable 2. F a i r l y Favorable 3. F a i r l y Unfavorable 2 7 3 6 5 6 2 2 1+ 13 6 5 11 5 " ^ 22 79 22 k l kk 5k 76 79 15 kl 91 71 135 61+ 3 11 23 1+3 26 32 15 16 10 31 25 19 51 2l+ 1 + 7 1 + 5 3 3 3 9 6 5 10 5 !+. Very Unfavorable 1 k 2 1+ 3 1+ 3 1 T o t a l 1 28 100 51+ 100 82 100 96 100 32 100 128 100 210 100 Ikl Question 57 - LIKELIHOOD OF LEAVING TEACHING What i s the l i k e l i h o o d of your l e a v i n g classroom teaching w i t h i n the next f i v e years? I t i s shown i n Table LX that i f those beginning teachers who s a i d they d e f i n i t e l y would leave i n f i v e years are combined w i t h those who s a i d they probably would leave, k8% of the new teachers do not expect to be teaching f i v e years l a t e r . In Table LXI i t i s noted that the l i k e l i h o o d of lea v i n g teaching w i t h i n f i v e years i s reported as being con-s i d e r a b l y greater f o r s i n g l e teachers than married, elementary than secondary, women than men. According to these data, s i n g l e women i n elementary grades are more l i k e l y to leave teaching w i t h i n f i v e years than any other group entering the teaching f i e l d i n B r i t i s h Columbia. In comparison w i t h the United States f i n d i n g s of 1956 - 5 7 , B r i t i s h Columbia beginning teachers d i f f e r i n t h e i r intended length of stay i n teaching. Married B r i t i s h Columbia teachers, p a r t i c u l a r l y men (11%) report l e s s l i k e l i h o o d of lea v i n g w i t h i n f i v e years than t h e i r American counterparts ( 2 3 % ) . Twelve percent of B r i t i s h Columbia's male beginners at the secondary l e v e l expect to leave teaching w i t h i n f i v e years as compared w i t h 27% reported i n the United States study. Ik8 Whereas B r i t i s h Columbia could expect to lose of the 1958 - 59 beginning men from teaching within f i v e years and 68% of the beginning women, the United States study reports similar losses of 25% of the beginning men and 66% of the women for the year 1956 - 5 7 . Table L X I I compares B r i t i s h Columbia and United States beginning teachers in r e l a t i o n to salary and l i k e l i h o o d of leaving teaching. The data indicate a more pronounced trend in the B r i t i s h Columbia beginning teachers, the expected loss for those earning under 3000 being 60% whereas the possible loss for those earning kOOO or more is 28%. Salary does appear to be one factor that influences the li k e l i h o o d of a teacher leaving the f i e l d , but salary i s also related to age, sex, and academic q u a l i f i c a t i o n s and therefore cannot be assumed to be the only factor that accounts for teacher turnover. There is also a wider discrepancy between the leaving rates at d i f f e r e n t salary levels in the 1958 - 59 B r i t i s h Columbia study than in the 1956 - 57 United States study. In regard to the problem of teacher supply the f i n d -ings for B r i t i s h Columbia suggest that perhaps more e f f o r t should be exerted to a t t r a c t more into the teaching profession and the level of salary paid would seem to play a part in this endeavour. B.C. BEGINNING TEACHERS, 1958 - 59  TABLE LX - LIKELIHOOD OF LEAVING TEACHING, BY SEX AND TEACHING LEVEL Elementary Secondary A l l Teachers Men Women T o t a l Men Women Tota l LEAVING: N o # % N o # % N o < % N o # % N o . % N o # % N o > % Not Stated 1 1 1 + 1 5 1 3 2 3 3 6 3 11 2 D e f i n i t e l y Leave Teaching Within One Year 5 7 11 k 16 1+ 3 2 5 6 8 3 1 21+ k D e f i n i t e l y Leave W i t h i n Three Years 17 6 17 5 3 2 6 7 9 1 + 2 6 1+ D e f i n i t e l y Leave W i t h i n F i v e Years 1 1 11 k 12 3 3 3 3 1 15 3 Probably Leave Within One Year 2 3 k l 6 2 1 1 5 6 6 3 12 2 Probably Leave W i t h i n Three Years 1 1 60 21 61 17 8 5 19 22 27 12 88 15 Probably Leave Within F i v e Years 2 3 92 32 9l+ 26 3 2 20 23 23 10 117 20 Might Leave W i t h i n Five Years But I t i s Not L i k e l y 12 17 58 20 70 20 32 22 13 15 k5 19 115 19 Extremely U n l i k e l y That I Would Leave Teaching W i t h i n F i v e Years 1+7 66 29 10 76 21 93 61+ ll+ 16 107 1+6 183 31 T o t a l 71 100 286 10 357 100 ll+6 100 88 100 23k 100 591 100 4=-B.C. BEGINNING TEACHERS, 1958 - 59 TABLE LXI - LIKELIHOOD OF LEAVING TEACHING WITHIN FIVE YEARS, BY SEX AND MARITAL STATUS, BY SEX AND TEACHING LEVEL B.C. AND U.S. COMPARISONS D e f i n i t e l y Or P r o b a b l y L e a v i n g , By Sex B.C. (1958 - 59) U.S. (1956 - 57) % % % Tot. No. In Group % % % Tot. No. i n Group Both Both Both Both CLASSIFICATION Sexes Men Women Sexes Men Women Sexes Men Women Sexes Men Women A l l Beginning Teachers 1+8 11+ 68 591 217 3 7 k 51 25 66 l+,065 1,523 2,51+2 By M a r i t a l Status S i n g l e 59 18 71 38l 93 288 56 30 66 1,958 527 1,1+31 M a r r i e d 31 11 53 210 121+ 86 1+7 23 69 2,027 982 l,0i+5 By Teaching L e v e l Elementary 57 15 68 357 71 286 55 20 61+ 2 , 2 9 6 1+88 1,808 Secondary 33 12 67 23I+ 12+6 88 1+6 27 72 1,769 1,035 732+ B.C. BEGINNING TEACHERS, 1958 - 59  TABLE LXII - LIKELIHOOD OF LEAVING TEACHING WITHIN FIVE YEARS, BY SALARY B.C. AND U.S. COMPARISONS Percent D e f i n i t e l y Or Probably Leaving  B.C. (1958 - 59) U.S. (1956 - 57 A l l Beginning Teachers A l l Beginning Teachers SALARY A l l Beginning Teachers fkOOO Or More 3,500 - 3,999 3,000 - 3,1+99 Under 3,000 Total No. In Group k8 28 kk 5k 60 5791 5 1 1+6 51 53 57 k,o5o 2 vn 1. Does Not Include 12 Teachers Who Earned Less Than $2k00 2. Does Not Include 15 Teachers Who Did Not Answer The Salary Item 152 Question 58 - REASONS FOR LEAVING TEACHING Regardless of the l i k e l i h o o d of your leaving teach-ing within the next f i v e years, under what conditions would you leave v o l u n t a r i l y (or for what reasons do you expect to leave?). This question provides s p e c i f i c expressed reasons why beginning teachers would leave the profession. I t i s noted in Table LXIII that 23% of a l l beginning teachers did not state any reasons why they would leave teaching v o l u n t a r i l y ; this includes 39% of the men and l k % of the women teachers. The marked discrepancy between the sexes and their f a i l u r e to give reasons for leaving teaching may be indic a t i v e of d i f f e r -ences in attitudes toward their teaching p o s i t i o n and their future in teaching. If a man were to place a certa i n amount of dependency on his position as a teacher, i t Is conceivable that he may be reluctant to state reasons why he would leave for fear of jeopardizing his p o s i t i o n . A woman, on the other hand, expecting to leave teaching in order to marry or rear a family may not l i k e l y be as reluctant to say so. Marriage is the p r i n c i p a l reason given by beginning women teachers both in elementary and secondary schools when asked th e i r reasons for leaving teaching. Men, on the other hand, report 'other employment' as the most l i k e l y reason for leaving the f i e l d , along with a desire for further education. 153 Salary does not seem to be an important factor in causing a beginning teacher to want to leave teaching. Women teachers did not mention income at a l l i n their reasons, a l -though thirteen men stated i n s u f f i c i e n t income would be a reason. However, as shown in the next question salary plays a part in a more s p e c i f i c sense in creating d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with the teaching p o s i t i o n . Table LXIV compares B r i t i s h Columbia and United States beginning teachers 1 reasons for leaving teaching. Sim-i l a r trends occur in both countries in that most women are lo s t from teaching because of marriage and for family reasons whereas proportionately more men plan to go to another occupa-t i o n than leave for any other reason. B r i t i s h Columbia begin-ning teachers appear to be more s a t i s f i e d than t h e i r American counterparts concerning money matters and sal a r i e s i f l i t t l e or no mention of pay as a reason for leaving can be interpreted as a measure of s a t i s f a c t i o n with this f a c t o r . Few B r i t i s h Columbia beginners (3% men) gave working conditions as a rea-son for leaving the teaching profession. If this i s in fac t the case, external factors are probably more i n f l u e n t i a l i n li m i t i n g the numbers of q u a l i f i e d teachers entering the f i e l d . The problem becomes one of recruitment rather than one of reducing the loss of teachers since women are going to leave the profession even though the pay and working conditions are good. 1 * It is to be expected that proportionately more B r i t i s h Columbia than United States beginners would leave teaching in order to further their education since they have less formal t r a i n i n g , on the average, than the American begin-ners. B.C. BEGINNING TEACHERS, 1958 - 59 TABLE LXI 11 - REASONS FOR LEAVING TEACHING, BY SEX AND TEACHING LEVEL REASON Not Stated Marriage Rearing Family-Further Education Other Employment 111 Health Job D i s s a t i s f a c t i o n I n s u f f i c i e n t Income Travel If Teaching Unsatisfactory Other Elementary Secondary A l l Teachers Men Women Total Men Women Total No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % 27 38 k l lk 68 19 57 39 10 11 67 29 135 23 123 k3 123 3k 30 3k 30 13 153 26 75 26 75 21 19 22 19 8 9k 16 13 18 12 k 25 7 17 12 10 11 27 12 52 9 15 21 7 2 22 6 27 18 3 3 30 13 52 9 l 1 13 5 lk k 8 5 5 6 13 6 27 5 5 7 2 1 7 2 lk 10 5 6 19 8 26 k 3 k 3 1 10 7 10 k 13 2 8 3 8 2 k 5 k 2 12 2 k 6 2 1 6 2 3 2 1 1 k 2 10 2 3 k 3 1 6 2 10 7 1 1 11 5 17 3 Total 71 100 286 100 357 100 lk6 100 88 100 23k 100 591 100 B.C. BEGINNING TEACHERS, 1958 - 59  TABLE LXIV - REASONS FOR LEAVING TEACHING, BY SEX, EXCLUDING NOT STATES B.C. AND U.S. COMPARISONS Percent By Sex 2 -REASONS FOR LEAVING B.C. (1958 - 59) U.S. (1956 - 57) Men Women ' Men Women A. E x t r i n s i c Reasons 1. Family Reasons (including marriage) 75 2 68 ^ 2. Depends On Another Person B. I n t r i n s i c Reasons 3. Mentions of Pay, Salary, Standard of Living k- Social Status of Teaching 5» Working Conditions 6. If I Should Be A Failure in Teaching 7. If Teaching Is No Longer Satisfying C. Not C l a s s i f i a b l e As I n t r i n s i c Or E x t r i n s i c 8. To Go To Another Occupation 9. To Return To School 10. Some Highly Hypothetical Condition e.g. "If I Were To Inherit A Great Deal of Money" 11. Other! Number of Cases 1. B.C. Group Includes i l l health, t r a v e l , war 2. Teachers were allowed to give more than one reason, and consequently the percents do not add to 100.    1 12 10 50 5 2 l 3 12 3 5 l 2 1 lk 2 3 2 32 3 kl 12 23 7 5 k 2 1 2 k lk 10 9 k 133 323 2602 k5k8 157 Question 59 - YOUR SATISFACTION WITH VARIOUS ASPECTS OF YOUR POSITION This question covers a number of d i f f e r e n t aspects of teaching and endeavors to provide a rating by beginning teachers on the r e l a t i v e degree of s a t i s f a c t i o n with these aspects. It i s noted in Table LXV that i f the ' f a i r l y unsatis-factory* and *very unsatisfactory* column percentages are combined three aspects appear somewhat larger than the others. Thus, some 20% of the beginning teachers report that their salary, compared to that of other occupations In th e i r area open to people with their level of education, is either f a i r l y or very unsatisfactory. Also f a i r l y or very unsatisfactory to 22% of the beginning teachers was their teaching load. When asked about the t o t a l time spent on school duties including both teaching and non-teaching r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s required or expected of them, lQ% of the beginners f e l t that t h i s was f a i r l y or very unsatisfactory. Generally, however, most aspects were reported as being either very or f a i r l y s a t i s f a c t o r y by beginning teachers. B.C. BEGINNING TEACHERS, 1958 - 59  TABLE LXV - SATISFACTION WITH VARIOUS ASPECTS OF POSITION, ALL TEACHERS Percent Reporting, A l l Teachers ASPECTS OF POSITION Not Stated Very Satlsfac. F a i r l y Sati sfac. F a i r l y Unsatisfac. Very Unsatisfac. Total Adequacy of Your School Building 1 39 1+8 10 3 100 Adequacy of Supplies & Equipment Furnished To You By The School 30 56 12 2 100 Your Present Salary 1 32 53 12 3 100 Maximum Salaries For Classroom Teachers In Your School System 2 35 53 9 1 100 Time Needed To Reach Peak Salary In Your School System For Quali-f i e d Teachers 3 25 57 12 3 100 Provisions For Sick Leave 2 1+3 k8 5 2 100 Provisions For Retirement k 36 50 8 3 100 Your Salary Compared To That Of Other Occupations In Your Area Open To People With Your Level Of Education 1 31+ 1+5 11+ 6 100 Your Teaching Load 1 23 55 17 5 100 Total Time You Spend On School Duties Including Both Teaching & Non-Teaching Re s p o n s i b i l i t i e s Required Or Expected 1 21 59 11+ 1+ 100 Helpfulness of the Supervision You Receive 2 1+1 k2 12 3 100 B.C. BEGINNING TEACHERS, 1958 - 59  TABLE LXV (CONT'D) - SATISFACTION WITH VARIOUS ASPECTS OF POSITION, ALL TEACHERS Percent Reporting, A l l Teachers ASPECTS OF POSITION Not Stated Very Satlsfac. F a i r l y S a t l s f a c . F a i r l y Unsatisfac. Very Unsatisfac. Total Fairness With Which Duties Are Distributed in Your School 2 66 28 5 1 100 Your Relations With Your Superiors 1 67 31 1 100 Your Relations With Fellow Teachers 3 75 22 100 Your Relations With Students 1 60 38 1 100 Your Relations With Parents 2 55 ko 2 1 100 Pupil Mtentiveness & D i s c i p l i n e 1 30 61 8 1 100 The Amount of Interest Shown By Your Students 1 33 59 7 1 100 General Community Attitude Toward Teaching As An Occupation 2 31 5k 11 2 100 Your Position As a Whole (Except Salary) 1 51 kk k 1 100 Your Posit i o n As a Whole (including Salary) 1 35 55 8 2 100 Non-Teaching R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s 1 36 53 8 2 100 160 Question 60 - IN YOUR PRESENT POSITION ARE YOU TEACHING THE SUBJECTS AND/OR GRADE LEVEL YOU ARE MOST QUALIFIED TO TEACH? This question might he ambiguously answered in cases where beginning teachers are not too ce r t a i n of the i r q u a l i f i -cations and the q u a l i f i c a t i o n s required for ce r t a i n subjects or grade l e v e l s . However, Table LXVI gives the breakdown of their responses to the question. Of the beginning teachers i n 1958 - 59, 57% reported they were e n t i r e l y q u a l i f i e d to teach the subjects and grades they taught. Another 38% of the begin-ners reported p a r t i a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s and k% stated they were not. at a l l q u a l i f i e d to teach what they were teaching. A greater proportion (7©%) of beginning teachers i n elementary grades reported they were e n t i r e l y q u a l i f i e d than those teach-ing at the secondary level where 38% said they were e n t i r e l y q u a l i f i e d to teach the subjects they were teaching. At the secondary l e v e l 7% reported they were not q u a l i f i e d at a l l to teach the subjects or grades a c t u a l l y being taught whereas 3% of the elementary level beginners reported they were simi-l a r l y not q u a l i f i e d . B.C. BEGINNING TEACHERS, 1958 - 59  TABLE LXVI - TEACHING SUBJECTS AND/OR GRADE MOST QUALIFIED TO TEACH, BY SEX AND TEACHING LEVEL QUALIFIED TO TEACH? Not Stated Yes, E n t i r e l y P a r t l y No, Not At A l l Elementary Men Women Total Secondary A l l Teachers Men Women Total No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % No. kk 62 205 72 2k9 70 5 l 35 38 k3 89 38 338 57 23 32 75 26 98 27 8k 57 kk 50 128 55 226 38 k 6 5 2 9 3 1 1 8 5 6 16 7 25 k Total 71 100 286 100 357 100 lk6 100 88 100 23k 100 591 100 162 Question 6 l - IN YOUR PRESENT POSITION ARE YOU TEACHING THE SUBJECTS AND/OR GRADE LEVEL YOU LIKE BEST TO TEACH? This question i s related In part to the beginning teacher 1s s a t i s f a c t i o n with his position but more pa r t i c u -l a r l y with the subjects and the grade level taught. Some 5 8 % of the beginning teachers at the elementary l e v e l said they were e n t i r e l y s a t i s f i e d with the subjects and/or grade they taught as compared with 33# of the beginning teachers at the secondary l e v e l . The women beginning teachers i n both the elementary and the secondary grades were proportionately greater in numbers than the men as regards teaching subjects and/or grades they l i k e d best to teach. Of the elementary l e v e l men begin-ning teachers, 10% were not at a l l pleased with the subjects and/or grade level they had to teach i n 1958 - 59. B.C. BEGINNING TEACHERS, 1958 - 59 TABLE LXVI I - ARE YOU TEACHING SUBJECTS AND/OR GRADE LEVEL YOU LIKE BEST TO TEACH, BY SEX AND TEACHING LEVEL Elementary Men Women Total Secondary A l l Teachers Men Women Total No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % 0N u> Not Stated Yes, E n t i r e l y P a r t l y No, Not At A l l 2 3 2 1 k l 1 1 2 2 3 1 7 1 20 28 187 65 207 58 kO 27 36 k l 76 33 283 k8 k2 59 85 30 127 36 100 69 k5 51 lk5 62 272 k6 7 10 12 k 19 5 5 3 5 6 10 k 29 5 Total 71 100 286 100 357 100 lk6 100 88 100 23k 100 591 100 16k Question 62 - HELPFULNESS OF EDUCATION COURSES: IN GENERAL, DO YOU FEEL THAT THE EDUCATION COURSES YOU HAD IN UNIVERSITY HAVE BEEN HELPFUL IN YOUR PRESENT POSITION? It is noted in Table LXVIII that, although k6% of the beginning teachers reported the education courses at uni v e r s i t y were f a i r l y h e l p f u l , 36% stated that the education courses were either not very helpful or not helpful at a l l . Some 6% of the beginners said they hadn't had any education courses at a l l . More of the women beginning teachers at the secondary l e v e l , (kk%) than any other sex group stated that the edu-cation courses were either not very helpful or not helpful at a l l . Of those beginning teachers who did not take any education courses, 12% were teaching at the secondary l e v e l and 2% at the elementary grades. B.C. BEGINNING TEACHERS, 1958 - 59  TABLE LXVII1 - HELPFULNESS OF EDUCATION COURSES, BY SEX AND TEACHING LEVEL Elementary Men Women Total Secondary A l l Teachers Men Women Total No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % Not Stated 3 k 3 1 6 2 7 5 k 5 11 5 17 3 Very Helpful 5 7 25 9 30 8 16 11 7 8 23 10 53 9 F a i r l y Helpful 35 k9 152 53 187 52 56 38 26 30 82 35 269 k6 Not Very Helpful 19 27 91 32 110 31 kk 30 32 36 76 32 186 31 Not Helpful At A l l k 6 12 k 16 k 6 k 7 8 13 6 29 5 I Haven 1t Had Any Education Courses 5 7 3 1 8 2 17 12 12 11+ 29 12 37 6 Total 71 100 286 100 357 100 lk6 100 88 100 231+ 100 591 100 0 s VJT 166 Question 63 - HELPFULNESS OF PRACTICE TEACHING: IN GENERAL, DO YOU FEEL THAT THE STUDENT OR PRACTICE TEACHING YOU DID WHILE IN TEACHER TRAINING HAS BEEN HELPFUL IN YOUR PRESENT POSITION? It i s shown in Table LXIX that 53% of the beginning teachers stated th e i r practice teaching was very helpful and another 29% stated i t was f a i r l y h e l p f u l . Some 9% of the beginners claimed they did not have any practice teaching at a l l , 2% of them teaching elementary grades and 20% of them teaching secondary grades. While 5% of the beginning teachers at the elementary level reported that the practice teaching was not very h e l p f u l , 11% of the beginners at the secondary l e v e l stated that practice teaching for them was either not very helpful or not helpful at a l l . Comparing responses made by beginning teachers to this question with responses made to the preceding item, i t appears that more of the beginning teachers f e l t they got more help from the practice teaching than they did from th e i r education courses. B.G. BEGINNING TEACHERS, 1958 - 59  TABLE LXIX - HELPFULNESS OF PRACTICE TEACHING, BY SEX AND TEACHING LEVEL Elementary Secondary A l l Teachers Men Women Total Men Women Total HELPFULNESS No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % Not Stated 3 k 2 1 5 1 6 k 3 3 9 k Ik 2 Very Helpful kk 62 171+ 61 218 61 62 k2 31 35 93 ko 311 53 F a i r l y Helpful 19 27 90 31 109 31 36 25 25 30 61 26 170 29 Not Very Helpful 17 6 17 5 11 8 12 lk 23 10 kO 7 Not Helpful At A l l 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 I Did Not Have Any Practice Teaching 5 7 3 1 8 2 30 20 16 18 k6 20 5k 9 Total 71 100 286 100 357 100 lk6 100 88 100 23k 100 591 100 168 Question 6k - ATTITUDE TOWARD ACCELERATED CLASSES: IN GENERAL DO YOU SUBSCRIBE TO THE COMPLETING OF FOUR YEARS WORK, EITHER IN ELEMENTARY OR SECONDARY SCHOOL, IN THREE YEARS BY SUPERIOR STUDENTS? The data shown in Table LXX indicate that beginning teachers are generally in favor of acceleration, 5l% e n t i r e l y and \\% p a r t l y in favor of such classes. Some 13% of the beginning teachers at the secondary l e v e l were not at a l l in favor of acceleration whereas 3% of the elementary beginners said they did not subscribe to a c c e l -eration. B.C. BEGINNING TEACHERS, 1958 - 59  TABLE LXX - ATTITUDE TOWARD ACCELERATED CLASSES, BY SEX AND TEACHING LEVEL Elementary Secondary A l l Teachers Men Women Total Men Women Total No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % ATTITUDE Not Stated 2 3 1 + 1 6 2 1 1 1 7 1 Yes, E n t i r e l y 31 kk 156 55 187 52 71 1+9 1+1 1+7 112 1+8 299 5 l P a r t l y 35 1+9 117 1+1 152 1+3 53 36 38 1+3 91 39 21+3 1+1 No, Not At A l l 3 k 9 3 12 3 21 ll+ 9 10 30 13 1+2 7 0 s X0 Total 71 100 286 100 357 100 li+6 100 88 100 231+ 100 591 100 1 7 0 Question 65 - REQUIREMENTS FOR AN IDEAL JQB OR PROFESSION This question l i s t e d ten items which have generally been regarded as the requirements for an ideal job or pro-fession. Beginning teachers were asked to specify the level (high, medium or low) of the requirement any job would have to s a t i s f y before they considered i t i d e a l . Then they were asked to state whether or not the statement was descriptive of teaching; the assumption being that i f marked differences between the r e p l i e s to the two parts of the question were shown an explanation to the question of why some of the begin-ning teachers leave teaching could be ascribed to the e x i s t -ence of reasons other than those expressed i n more s p e c i f i c terms in Question 58. It is noted In Table LXXI that beginning teachers consider an opportunity to use their special a b i l i t i e s and be helpful to others as being highly important requirements for th e i r ideal job. Reported as being of low importance to beginning teachers were such requirements as an opportunity to earn a good deal of money, obtaining s o c i a l status and prestige, being l e f t r e l a t i v e l y free of supervision by others, and provision for adventure. Only 10% of the beginning teach-ers stated that a chance to earn a good deal of money was of high importance to them. 171 Table LXXII shows a comparison between the occupa-t i o n a l values of B r i t i s h Columbia beginning teachers, United States beginners, and a sample of 2,758 Cornell students. In his Cornell study, Rosenberg postulated sets of values t i t l e d people-oriented values 1, ' e x t r i n s i c reward values', and •expressive values'. The same 10 value items were used in a l l three studies but because of the widely divergent male-female sex r a t i o in the Cornell study, differences are probably in part a t t r i b u t a b l e to the nature of the sample. In comparing the beginning teachers of the two countries one sees a close s i m i l a r i t y between them concerning •people oriented values' and 'expressive values', both rated highly In an occupation. It is Interesting to note, however, that in both the B r i t i s h Columbia and United States studies, women beginning teachers are more incl i n e d to be 'people o r i -ented' than th e i r male counterparts. Of least value to both B r i t i s h Columbia and United States beginning teachers is the opportunity to earn a good deal of money. The B r i t i s h Columbia beginners, p a r t i c u l a r l y the men, indicated this point quite f o r c i b l y , and rated e x t r i n s i c rewards including s o c i a l status and prestige less highly than the United States beginners. Noteworthy too is the f a c t that the B r i t i s h Columbia beginning men were not as prone to value s t a b i l i t y and secu-r i t y in t h e i r ideal occupation as were the B r i t i s h Columbia 172 and United States men and women. Why this is so i s not e a s i l y understood and indicates a need for further i n v e s t i -gation. B r i t i s h Columbia beginning men want greater freedom from supervision than do their female colleagues or American beginners. This may be related to their higher need for an opportunity to use their special a b i l i t i e s and aptitudes and, given the freedom, would negate the need for a stable secure future, perhaps f e e l i n g that their position was secure by d e f i n i t i o n . B.C. BEGINNING TEACHERS, 1958 - 59  TABLE LXXI - REQUIREMENTS FOR YOUR IDEAL JOB QR PROFESSION, ALL TEACHERS % Reporting By Importance Not REQUIREMENTS Stated High Medium Low Total Provide An Opportunity To Use My Special A b i l i t i e s And Aptitudes 2 82 16 1 100 Provide Me With A Chance To Earn A Good Deal Of Money 3 10 71 16 100 Permit Me To Be Creative And Or i g i n a l 2 6l 3k 3 100 Give Me Social Status And Prestige 2 15 63 20 100 Give Me An Opportunity To Work With People Rather Than Things 2 69 25 k 100 Enable Me To Look Forward To A Stable, Secure Future 2 61 3k 3 100 Leave Me R e l a t i v e l y Free Of Supervision By Others 3 30 5l 16 100 Give Me A Chance To Exercise Leadership 2 k l 50 8 100 Provide Me With Adventure 3 23 5© 2k 100 Give Me An Opportunity To Be Helpful To Others 2 76 21 1 100 A. 1. 2. B. 3. i+. 5. c . 6. 7. D. 8. B.C. BEGINNING TEACHERS, 1958 - 59  TABLE LXXII - OCCUPATIONAL VALUES QF BEGINNING TEACHERS, BY SEX B.C., U.S., CORNELL COLLEGE STUDENTS COMPARISON OCCUPATIONAL VALUE PEOPLE ORIENTED VALUES Give Me An Opportunity To Work With People Rather Than Things Give Me An Opportunity To Be Helpful To Others Percent Rating High Value Sex Men Women D i f f . Men Women D i f f . Men Women D i f f . Men Women D i f f . Men Women D i f f . Men Women D i f f . Men Women D i f f . Men Women D i f f . Men Women D i f f . Men Women D i f f . Men Women 1. Data from Morris Rosenberg, occupations and EXTRINSIC REWARDS Provide A Chance To Earn A Good Deal Of Money Give Me Social Status And Prestige Enable Me To Look Forward To A Stable Secure Future SELF EXPRESSION Provide Ah Opportunity To Use My Special A b l l i t i e s And Aptitudes Permit Me To Be Creative And Ori g i n a l OTHER VALUES Leave Me Rel a t i v e l y Free Of  Supervision By Others Give Me A Chance To Exercise Leadership 9. 10. Provide Me With Adventure Number Of Cases B.C. Beginning Teacherg 58-59 12 75 79 k 6 11 5 16 15 l 57 66 9 86 82 k 63 62 1 37 28 9 1*9 37 12 23. 2k 1 217 37k U.S. Beginning Teacherg 56-57 7? 10 80 85 5 21 17 k 31 30 1 68 67 1 8l 81 62 68 6 29 27 2 56 1+5 11 22 27 5 2602 1+51+8 College Students 1 \% 20 37 53 16 36 19 17 25 15 10 63 51 12 78 80 2 2+9 1+6 1+0 6 38 29 9 lk 17 3 values, the free press, Glencoe, 750 I l l i n o i s , 1957. 175 Question 66 -This question asks the beginning teachers to i n -dicate whether or not the " i d e a l s " referred to in Question 65 are to be found in the teaching profession. It is noted in Table LXXIII that for the majority of beginning teachers i n 195® - 59 teaching provided them with an opportunity to use th e i r special a b i l i t i e s and ap-titudes, permitted them to be creative and o r i g i n a l , allowed them t© work with people rather than things, enabled them to look forward to a stable secure future, gave them an oppor-tunity to be helpful to others. If r e a l i z a t i o n of ones occupational values is a c r i t e r i o n for job s a t i s f a c t i o n , beginning teachers should en-joy t h e i r work considerably since i t i s noted i n Table LXXIV that t h e i r ideal job conditions are more than met in teaching. Not only does teaching meet the important (to them) needs of working with and helping people while providing for the ex-pression of special a b i l i t i e s and c r e a t i v i t y , but It also offers s o c i a l status, r e l a t i v e freedom from supervision and adventure, including an opportunity for some to earn a good deal of money, p a r t i c u l a r l y women. Gne might in f e r from t h i s that the conditions in teaching are not the important factor when considering teacher shortage problems but rather the loss due to marriage and family rearing s i t u a t i o n s , this 176 being a function of the high proportion of young, single women entering the teaching f i e l d . Table LXXV provides possible answers to some of the reasons why women are more l i k e l y to enter the teaching f i e l d than men. Teaching enables proportionately more women than men (k7% compared with 23%) to earn a good deal of money, to r e a l i z e s o c i a l status and prestige (77% as compared with 68%) to be creative and o r i g i n a l (93% as compared with 79%) and provides them with adventure (63% as compared with k6%). B.C. BEGINNING TEACHERS, 1958 - 59  TABLE LXXIII - STATEMENTS DESCRIPTIVE QF TEACHING PROFESSION, ALL TEACHERS Is This Descriptive Of Teaching? % Reporting STATEMENT Provide An Opportunity To Use My Special A b i l i t i e s And Aptitudes Provide Me With A Chance To Earn A Good Deal Of Money Permit Me To Be Creative And Or i g i n a l Give Me Social Status And Prestige Give Me An Opportunity To Work With People Rather Than Things Enable Me To Look Forward To A Stable, Secure Future Leave Me Re l a t i v e l y Free Of Supervision By Others Give Me A Chance To Exercise Leadership Provide Me With Adventure Give Me An Opportunity To Be Helpful To Others Not Stated 3 2 3 2 2 3 2 k Yes 9k 37 86 71 97 95 62 90 55 97 No 60 12 25 1 3 35 7 k2 Total 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 - 0 B.C. BEGINNING TEACHERS, 1958 - 59 TABLE LXXIV - COMPARISON OF IDEAL JOB VALUES AND DEGREE OF VALUE REALIZATION IN TEACHING (EXCLUDING THOSE NOT STATING) Sex A. PEOPLE ORIENTED VALUES 1. Gives Me An Opportunity To Work Men With People Rather Than Things Women 2. Gives Me An Opportunity To Be Men Helpful To Others Women B. EXTRINSIC REWARDS 3. Provides A Chance To Earn A Men Good Deal Of Money Women k. Gives Me Social Status And Men Prestige Women 5. Enables Me To Look Forward To Men A Stable Secure Future Women C. SELF EXPRESSION 6. Provides An Opportunity To Use Men My Special A b i l i t i e s And Aptitudes Women 7. Permits Me To Be Creative And Men Or i g i n a l Women D. OTHER VALUES 8. Leaves Me Rela t i v e l y Free Q)f Men Supervision By Others Women 9. Gives Me A Chance To Exercise Men Leadership Women 10. Provides Me With Adventure Men Women Percent Reporting Ideal Job Realized In Difference High Value Teaching 63 100 37 75 100 25 75 100 25 - i 79 99 20 0 0 6 23 17 U k7 36 16 68 52 15 77 62 57 96 39 66 97 31 86 96 10 82 95 13 63 79 16 62 93 31 37 66 29 28 62 3k 49 93 kk 37 92 55 23 46 23 2k 63 k3 B.C. BEGINNING TEACHERS, 1958 - 59 TABLE LXXV - STATEMENT DESCRIPTIVE OF TEACHING PROFESSION, BY SEX Is This Descriptive Of Teaching? Total Men Women A H Teachers No. % Yes % No » % Yes % No % Yes % No Reporting A. PEOPLE ORIENTED VALUES 1. Gives Me An Opportunity To Work 581 With People Rather Than Things 100 100 100 2. Gives Me An Opportunity To Be 579 Helpful To Others 100 99 1 99 1 B. EXTRINSIC REWARDS 3. Provides A Chance To Earn A Good k.. Deal Of Money 23 77 k7 53 38 62 572 Gives Me Social Status And Prestige 68 32 77 23 7k 26 572 5. Enables Me To Look Forward To A Stable Secure Future 96 h 97 3 97 3 578 c. SELF EXPRESSION 6. Provides An Opportunity To Use My Special A b i l i t i e s And Aptitudes 96 h 95 5 95 5 582 7. Permits Me To Be Creative And Ori g i n a l 79 21 93 7 88 12 578 D. OTHER VALUES 8. Leaves Me Rel a t i v e l y Free Of Supervision By Others. 66 31+ 62 38 63 37 57k 9. Gives Me A Chance To Exercise Leadership 93 7 92 8 93 7 577 10. Provides Me With Adventure k6 5k 63 37 57 k3 570 s© 180 Question 67 - DO' YOU LIKE TEACHING? (1) MORE THAN YOU THOUGHT YOU WOULD (2) ABOUT THE SAME AS YOU THOUGHT YOU WOULD (3) LESS THAN YOU THOUGHT YOU WOULD (k) DON1T KNOW The question seeks information concerning beginning teachers feelings toward teaching in r e l a t i o n to how they thought they might l i k e teaching before entering i t . Table LXXVI shows that half of the beginners in 1958 - 59 liked teaching about the same as they thought they would, while another k3% said they liked i t more than they thought they would. Some 63% of the men who began teaching at the elemen-tary level reported they lik e d teaching more than they thought they would. On the other hand a greater proportion of the beginning women teachers at the elementary level show feelings i n agreement with their expectations. These trends imply that women more than men are more certa i n of what they expect to get out of teaching. Though the sex differences are not as marked, proportionately more men than women at the secondary level show an agreement between their l i k e or d i s l i k e of teach-ing and their expectations. Perhaps the most s i g n i f i c a n t finding in this table i s the large proportion who f i n d i t more to their l i k i n g than they expected and this suggests a need for other approaches to the problem of teacher recruitment. B.C. BEGINNING TEACHERS, 1958 - 59  TABLE LXXVI - DQ YOU LIKE TEACHING, BY SEX AND TEACHING LEVEL Elementary Secondary A l l Teachers Men Women Total Men Women Total No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % -More Than You Thought You Would k5 63 108 38 153 k3 62 k3 39 kk 101 k3 25k k3 About The Same As You Thought You Would 21 30 162 57 183 5l 73 50 39 kk 112 k8 295 50 Less Than You Thought You Would k 6 13 5 17 5 8 5 10 11 18 8 35 6 Don»t Know 1 1 3 1 U l 3 2 3 1 7 1 Total 71 100 286 100 357 100 lk6 100 88 100 23k 100 591 100 182 Question 68 - DO YOU PLAN TO ATTEND SUMMER SCHOOL THIS YEAR? Some attempt at determining the number of beginning teachers who plan to undertake in-service training this year is the purpose of th i s question. It i s shown i n Table LXXVII that half of the begin-ning teachers d e f i n i t e l y plan to go to summer school t h i s year while another 39% do not plan to attend summer sessions. More beginning male teachers at the elementary level plan to attend summer session t h i s year than any other beginning teacher group. As might be expected more of the beginning teachers at the elementary l e v e l than at the secondary level said they d e f i n i t e l y planned to go to school this summer, the reason for the difference being due probably to academic trai n i n g differences between these two groups of beginning teachers. In Table LXXVIII i t is noted that a rel a t i o n s h i p does exist between a beginning teacher's intention of going to summer school and the enrolment size of the school d i s t r i c t in which he teaches. The large urban centre of Vancouver i s an understandable exception due to the f a c t that the beginning teachers hired by th i s d i s t r i c t have higher academic t r a i n -ing and are less l i k e l y to be attending summer session. How-ever, beyond this centre, the smaller d i s t r i c t s can probably expect proportionately fewer beginning teachers to be 183 attending summer school. Geographic and economic factors may be influencing this trend since i t i s u n l i k e l y that the smaller school d i s t r i c t s have a similar proportion of begin-ning teachers with as high academic tr a i n i n g as the large urban centres. B.C. BEGINNING TEACHERS, 1958 - 59  TABLE LXXVII - PLANNING TO ATTEND SUMMER SCHOOL THIS YEAR, BY SEX AND TEACHING LEVEL Elementary Secondary A l l Teachers Men Women Total Men Women Total No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % go Not Stated 3 2 3 1 3 D e f i n i t e l y Planning To Go k8 68 16k 57 212 59 55 38 29 33 8k 36 296 50 Not Certain But Probably 6 8 29 10 35 10 lk 10 15 17 29 12 6k 11 Not Planning To Go 17 2k 93 33 HO 31 7k 51 kk 50 118 5© 228 39 Total 71 100 286 100 357 100 lk6 100 88 100 23k 100 591 100 B.C. BEGINNING TEACHERS, 1958 " 59 TABLE LXXVIII - PLANNING TO ATTEND SUMMER SCHOOL THIS YEAR. BY SCHOOL DISTRICT SIZE (ENROLMENT) Not Stated D e f i n i t e l y Planning To Go Not Certain But Probably Not Planning To Go % Reporting, By School D i s t r i c t Enrolment Size Of; .25,500 or 6,300-25,k99 1,500-6,299 More 300-1,k99 k o 12 k8 Total % 100 Total No. In Group 100 60 10 30 100 130 1 51 11 37 100 283 12 h2 100 73 1-299 20 80 100 5 A l l Size »-School ^ D i s t r i c t s 50 11 39 100 591 186 Question 69 - WHO OR WHAT WAS THE MAIN INFLUENCE IN CAUSING YOU TO ENTER TEACHING? (1) TEACHER (2) PARENT (3) FRIEND (k) OTHER Table LXXIX shows that 29% of the beginning teachers said another teacher was the main influence in causing them to enter teaching. More beginning teachers at elementary l e v e l than secondary levels said a teacher was most in f l u e n -t i a l in causing them to enter teaching. In decreasing order of importance are reported the influences of ^ parent* or •fr i e n d * . The preponderence of 'other* responses is due to beginning teachers stating they chose t© enter teaching on thei r own, by their own choice, and that no other influence could be named. B.C. BEGINNING TEACHERS, 1958 - 59  TABLE LXXIX - THE MAIN INFLUENCE IN CAUSING YOU TO ENTER TEACHING, BY SEX AND TEACHING LEVEL Not Stated Teacher Parent Friend Other Total Elementary Men Women Total Secondary A l l Teachers Men Women Total No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % 3 k 12 k 15 k 2 1 k 5 6 3 21 k 23 32 92 32 115 32 32 22 22 25 5k 23 169 29 8 11 57 20 65 18 10 7 11 12 21 9 86 15 7 10 22 8 29 8 22 15 7 8 29 12 58 10 30 k2 103 36 133 37 8o 55 kk 5© 12k 53 257 k3 71 100 286 100 357 100 lk6 100 88 100 23k 100 591 100 C O -0 188 Question 70 - WHEN YOU FIRST STARTED TO WORK, WHAT WAS "THE GENERAL ATTITUDE OF MOST OF THE OTHER CLASSROOM TEACHERS IN YOUR BUILDING TOWARD YOU? The data shown in Table LXXX indicate that the majority of beginning teachers (88%) said they were received by their colleagues in a f r i e n d l y way. Some 8% of the begin-ners said the attitude of their fellow teachers was one of indifference and no beginning teacher said he was reacted to in an unfriendly manner. B.C. BEGINNING TEACHERS, 1958 - 59  TABLE LXXX - ATTITUDE OF OTHER TEACHERS, BY SEX AND TEACHING LEVEL Elementary Secondary A l l Teachers Men Women Total Men Women Total co vO No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % Not Stated k 6 8 3 12 3 9 6 6 7 15 6 27 5 Friendly 6 l 86 261 91 322 90 123 8k 7k 8k 197 8k 519 88 Indifferent 6 8 17 6 23 6 lk 10 8 9 22 9 k5 8 Total 71 100 286 100 357 100 lk6 100 88 100 23k 100 591 100 190 Question 71 - DQ1 YOU FEEL YOUR PERSONAL LIFE HAS BEEN RESTRICTED BY SOCIAL PRESSURE SINCE BECOMING A TEACHER? (1) NOT RESTRICTED IN ANY WAY (2) RESTRICTED BUT NOT SERIOUSLY (3) SERIOUSLY RESTRICTED This question endeavors to provide information about how beginning teachers interpret the degree of r e s t r i c -t i o n they f e e l i s placed upon them since entering teaching. In Table LXXXI i t is noted that just over half (£k%) of the beginning teachers said their personal l i v e s were not re-s t r i c t e d in any way whereas 1+3% said they f e l t some r e s t r i c -t i o n but not seriously. Perhaps more interesting are the findings in Table LXXXII where i t is seen that proportion-a t e l y more of the beginning teachers in smaller communities reported they f e l t r e s t r i c t e d but not seriously in the i r per-sonal l i f e than did the i r counterparts in larger urban cen-t r e s . An exception to th i s finding is found in the beginning teachers in the smallest community group but the small number involved does not permit a conclusive statement to be made regarding them. However the main trend i s in certa i n respects to be expected i n view of the d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l conditions that characterize the smaller community. If this is a v a l i d trend i t may be one of the factors responsible for the d i f -f i c u l t i e s encountered In maintaining s t a b i l i t y in the teaching force in the smaller communities. B.C. BEGINNING TEACHERS, 1958 - 59  TABLE LXXXI - AMOUNT PERSONAL LIFE RESTRICTED, BY SEX AND TEACHING LEVEL DEGREE OF RESTRICTION Men Elementary Women Total Secondary A l l Teachers No. % No. % No. Men Women Total No. % No. % No. % No. V © Not Stated Not Restricted In Any Way Restricted But Not Seriously Seriously Restricted k l k l 1 1 1 1 2 1 6 1 35 k9 161 56 196 55 82 56 k3 k9 125 53 321 5k 3k k8 116 k l 150 k2 60 k l k2 k8 102 kk 252 k3 2 3 5 2 7 2 3 2 2 2 5 2 12 2 Total 71 1G0 286 100 357 100 lk6 100 88 100 23k 100 591 100 B.C. BEGINNING TEACHERS, 1958 - 59  TABLE LXXXII - AMOUNT PERSONAL LIFE RESTRICTED, BY SCHOOL DISTRICT ENROLMENT SIZE % Reporting, By School D i s t r i c t Size DEGREE A l l Size OF 25,500 or 6,300-25,499 1,500-6,299 300-1,k99 1-299 School RESTRICTION More D i s t r i c t s Not Stated 1 1 k 1 Not Restricted In Any Way 72 58 5© k l 80 5k Restricted But Not Seriously 26 k l 1+7 53 20 1+3 Seriously Restricted 2 1 3 1 2 Total % 100 100 100 100 100 100 Total No. In Group 100 130 283 73 5 591 V0 ro 193 Question 72 - WERE YOU PROMISED A PARTICULAR SCHOOL, GRADE LEVEL OR SUBJECT FIELD AT THE TIME YOU WERE EMPLOYED? It i s shown in Table LXXXIII that, of the begin-ning teachers who answered , y e s t to one or more of the as-pects referred to in the question, namely a par t i c u l a r school, grade level or subject f i e l d , %Q% said they were promised a par t i c u l a r school, k8% reported being promised a grade level and kO% a subject f i e l d . Although roughly half of the begin-ning teachers at elementary levels said they were promised a par t i c u l a r school, two-thirds (67%) of the beginning teachers at the secondary level claimed they were promised a par t i c u l a r school. About half of the beginners i n both elementary and secondary were promised a grade l e v e l . Promise of subject f i e l d d i f f e r e d for elementary and secondary level beginning teachers. A quarter of the elementary beginners were promised a subject f i e l d whereas nearly two-thirds (6k%) of the begin-ners at the secondary l e v e l said they were promised a subject f i e l d . This i s expected in view of the greater s p e c i a l i z a t i o n of subject matter c a l l e d for at the secondary l e v e l . In Table LXXXIV, i t is noted that of the beginners who answered •yes* to an e a r l i e r part of the question, most of them did get the s p e c i f i c assignment, s l i g h t l y more i n the secondary level than elementary. Most of these teachers said 19k they were not disappointed with what they did get, the sec-ondary level group indicating a s l i g h t l y higher r a t i o of persons who were disappointed with what they did get. B.C. BEGINNING TEACHERS, 1958 - 59  TABLE LXXXIII - PROMISE OF A PARTICULAR SCHOOL, GRADE LEVEL, OR SUBJECT FIELD AT TIME OF EMPLOYMENT, BY SEX AND TEACHING LEVEL Elementary Secondary A l l Teachers AREA Men Women Total Men Women Total PROMISED No. % No., % No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % School Not Stated 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 k 5 5 2 7 12 Yes 38 5k lk3 51 181 52 98 70 52 63 150 67 331 58 No 32 k5 135 k8 167 k8 k2 30 26 32 68 30 235 k l Total 71 100 279 100 35© 100 Ikl 100 82 100 223 100 573 100 Grade Not Stated 3 k 16 6 19 5 7 5 10 12 17 8 36 6 Yes 29 k l 130 k6 159 k5 7k 52 kk 5k 118 52 277 k8 No 39 55 138 k9 177 50 62 k3 28 3k 90 ko 267 k6 Total 71 100 28k 100 355 100 lk3 100 82 100 225 100 580 100 Subject F i e l d Not Stated 8 11 k9 17 57 16 11 8 18 22 29 12 86 15 Yes 17 2k 71 25 88 25 92 63 57 70 lk9 6k 237 kO No k6 65 166 58 212 59 k2 29 13 16 55 2k 267 k5 Total 71 100 286 100 357 100 lk5 100 88 100 233 100 590 100 B.C. BEGINNING TEACHERS, 1958 - 59  TABLE LXXXIV - IF »YES' DID YOU ACTUALLY GET SPECIFIC ASSIGNMENT, BY SEX AND TEACHING LEVEL Elementary Secondary A l l Teachers Men Women Total Men Women Total IF »YES': No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % Did You Actually Get Special Assignment Not Stated 1 1 1 1 1 Yes 36 81+ 162 91 198 89 110 95 65 90 175 93 373 91 No 7 16 17 9 21+ 11 5 1+ 7 10 12 6 36 9 Total 1+3 100 179 100 222 100 116 100 72 100 188 100 klO 100 Were You Disappointed With What You Did Get Not Stated 2 1 2 1 2 2 2 3 1+ 2 6 1 Yes 2 5 18 10 20 9 18 15 8 11 26 11+ 1+6 11 No kl 95 159 89 200 90 96 83 62 86 158 8k 358 87 Total 1+3 100 179 100 222 100 116 100 72 100 188 100 1+10 100 197 Question 73 - HAVE YOU BEEN REQUESTED TO TEACH ANY CLASSES YOU HAVE FELT TO BE TOO LARGE? According to Table LXXXV one-third of the beginning teachers i n 1958 - 59 said 'yes 1 to t h i s question. Propor-t i o n a t e l y more of the beginning teachers at the secondary le v e l than at the elementary said they had been requested to teach classes that were too large. The beginning men at the elementary level reported a higher proportion of "having to teach too large classes" than th e i r female counterparts. At the secondary level a reversal occurred wherein the women stated more frequently than the men that they had been re-quested to teach classes that were too large. Perhaps the s i g n i f i c a n t feature of these findings is that about one-third of the beginning teachers f e l t their classes were too large. Hence, the question arises as to how much this f e e l i n g i n -d i r e c t l y contributes to a teacher's decision to leave the teaching f i e l d and suggests the need for p r a c t i c a l corrective measures. Part 2 - IF «YES« HOW MANY STUDENTS ARE IN THIS TOO-LARGE CLASS? - . . . . Table LXXXVI indicates that k0% of those beginning teachers who f e l t they were teaching too-large classes reported that they were teaching from 3&-k0 pupils. Again considering only those who f e l t they had too-large classes, of those 198 employed at the elementary l e v e l stated they had classes ranging from 36-1+5 pupils whereas 53% of their secondary counterparts reported teaching classes of the same siz e . Secondary beginning teachers who f e l t they had too-large classes tended to report class sizes that were smaller than elementary beginning teachers. Thus, 13% of beginning secondary teachers as compared to only 1% of elemen-tary teachers f e l t a class size of 2 6 - 3 0 pupils to be too large. B.C. BEGINNING TEACHERS, 1958 - 59  TABLE LXXXV - REQUESTED TO TEACH TOO LARGE CLASSES, BY SEX AND TEACHING LEVEL Elementary Secondary A l l Teachers Men Women Total Men Women Total *•* No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % Not Stated 3 k 10 3 13 k 2 1 3 3 5 2 18 3 Yes 28 kO 79 28 107 30 58 k0 31 35 89 38 196 33 No kO 56 197 69 237 66 86 59 5k 62 IkO 60 377 6k Total 71 100 286 100 357 100 ik6 100 88 100 23k 100 591 100 B.C. BEGINNING TEACHERS, 1958 - 59  TABLE LXXXVI - SIZE OF TOO LARGE CLASSES, BY SEX AND TEACHING LEVEL Elementary Secondary A l l Teachers IF «YES- TO QUESTION 73 Men Women Total Men Women Total THEN HOW LARGE? No. % No. % No. No. % No. No. % No. % Under 20 2 7 k 5 6 6 2 3 1 3 3 3 9 5 21 - 25 2 3 2 6 k 5 k 2 26 - 30 1 k 1 1 11 19 1 3 12 13 13 7 31 - 35 1 k 12 15 13 12 9 16 5 16 lk 16 27 11+ 36 - kO lk 50 3k k3 1+8 1+5 21 36 10 32 31 35 79 l+o k l - k5 7 25 2k 30 31 29 11 19 5 16 16 18 1+7 2k k6 - 50 2 7 k 5 6 6 7 23 7 8 13 7 Over 50 1 k 1 l 2 2 2 3 2 2 1+ 2 Total 28 100 79 100 107 100 58 100 31 100 89 100 196 100 2 0 1 Question 7k - HOW HEAVY HAS THE TEACHING LOAD ASSIGNED TO YOU BEEN? (1) HEAVIER THAN THAT OF OTHERS ON THE STAFF ( 2 ) HEAVY BUT NOT MORE SO THAN OTHER TEACHERS (3) MEDIUM (k) LIGHT I t Is noted in Table LXXXVII that Just over half (j?k%) of the beginning teachers reported that their teaching load was heavy but not more so than that of other teachers. Another t h i r d of them (3k%) stated their teaching load was medium. No appreciable differences are shown between the elementary and secondary beginning teachers. However, the s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t i n thi s table is that 63% of a l l beginning teachers consider t h e i r load to be heavy. Thus the question arises how much this f e e l i n g , along with a desire to marry, contributes to the departure of single women from teaching. Further study of the motivational s i g n i f i -cance of such fee l i n g s i s indicated. B.C. BEGINNING TEACHERS, 1958 - 59  TABLE LXXXV1I - TEACHING LOAD. BY SEX AND TEACHING LEVEL LOAD Elementary Secondary Men Women Total Men Women Total No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % Not Stated 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 2 k 2 6 1 Heavier Than That Of Others On The St a f f 12 17 19 7 31 9 18 12 5 6 23 10 51+ 9 Heavy But Not More So Than Other Teachers Medium k l 58 15k 5k 195 55 79 5k k3 1+9 122 52 317 5k 18 25 108 38 126 35 1+3 30 3k 39 77 33 203 3k Light 3 1 3 1 k 3 1 + 5 8 3 U 2 Total 71 100 286 100 357 100 11+6 100 88 100 23k 100 591 100 203 Question 75 - WOULD YOU BE IN FAVOUR OF A FAIR MERIT RATING PLAN.IN YOUR SCHOOL DISTRICT? (1) YES (2) NO This question attempts to obtain information on attitudes of beginning teachers toward what seems to be a very controversial matter, merit r a t i n g . I t is shown in Table LXXXVUI that s l i g h t l y over one-third (36%) of the beginning teachers said they were i n favor of a f a i r merit rating plan. Over h a l f , (55%) ©f the beginners i n 1958 - 59 were against merit r a t i n g . Of the 9% who did not state their opinions about ra t i n g , many of them, made comments on the questionnaire such as 'impossible 1, 'no such thing as f a i r ' , 'who would decide and rate' etc. The trend shown here may be related to the f a c t that 61% of the beginning teachers reported i n Question 65 that i t was highly important for them to be able to look forward to a stable, secure future. Hence the question arises whether merit r a t i n g , for a large proportion of beginning teachers implies a threat to the attainment of a secure future? More s p e c i f i c a l l y , does the f a c t that 55% of the beginning teachers, who answered ''no111 to a f a i r merit rating plan, mean that these teachers f e e l they may lose something f i n a n c i a l l y i f such a plan were to be effected or is i t fear 2®k of possible unfairness and bias which may r e s u l t i n f i n a n c i a l reductions? On the other hand, do the 36% who said they were i n favor of such a scheme f e e l they might gain from merit rating because they have special aptitudes and a b i l i t i e s to offer the profession? The present analysis does not provide an answer to these questions but further inter item analysis might y i e l d some c r i t i c a l differences between those who favor and do not favor a merit rating plan. B.C. BEGINNING TEACHERS, 1958 - 59 TABLE LXXXVIII - ATTITUDES TOWARD MERIT RATING PLAN, BY SEX AND TEACHING LEVEL IN FAVOR Not Stated Yes No Elementary Secondary A l l Teachers Men Women Total Men Women Total No. % No. % No. % No. % No. No. % No. % ro o vn 8 11 27 9 35 10 11 7 10 11 21 9 56 9 26 37 99 35 125 35 51 35 36 kl 87 37 212 36 37 52 160 56 197 55 8k 58 k2 k8 126 5k 323 55 Total 71 100 286 100 357 100 ik6 100 88 100 23k 100 591 100 206 Question 76 - HOW MUCH HELP WITH PROBLEMS HAVE YOU RECEIVED FROM PRINCIPAL, SUPERVISORS AND CONSULTANTS, . FELLOW CLASSROOM TEACHERS, INSPECTORS? It ean be seen from Table LXXXIX that beginning teachers obtained help from the above people to varying ex-tents ranging from much help to no help. Three quarters of the beginning teachers reported receiving much or some help from t h e i r p r i n c i p a l i n order to deal with problems. As many again, (77%) said t h e i r fellow classroom teachers gave them much or some help with problems. About half (5l%) of the 1958 - 59 beginning teachers stated they received much or some help from supervisors and consultants and k5% said they received a comparable degree of help from inspectors. It should be noted that consultants and supervisors are limited to certa i n d i s t r i c t s , hence a number of beginning teachers would be forced to report l i t t l e or no help receiv-ed due to the f a c t that their p a r t i c u l a r d i s t r i c t cannot afford such personnel. B>C. BEGINNING TEACHERS, 1958 - 59  TABLE LXXXIX - HOW MUCH HELP WITH PROBLEMS RECEIVED, ALL TEACHERS HELP RECEIVED FROM: Not Stated % Reporting Amount Of Help Received Much Help Some Help L i t t l e Help No Help Total ro o P r i n c i p a l 37 38 13 100 Supervisors & Consultants 22 29 11+ 25 100 Fellow Classroom Teachers Inspectors 6 5 38 39 36 12 19 30 100 100 208 Question 77 - CHECK THE FOLLOWING ITEMS TO INDICATE HOW MUCH HELP YOU HAVE NEEDED AND HOW MUCH HELP YOU HAVE RECEIVED DURING THIS FIRST YEAR OF TEACHING This question l i s t s nine items and asks beginning teachers to rate the help needed and received on these items. For purposes of comparison, none' and l i t t l e categories are combined as are the some and much categories. This is done for both the help-needed and help-received sections of the question. It is noted in Table XC that 39% of the beginning teachers said they needed some or much help in developing better personal q u a l i t i e s as a teacher although 28% of the beginners received some or much help in this area. Noted too is the fac t that 63% of the beginning teachers needed some or much help in understanding and using special school ser-vices such as standardized test r e s u l t s , health, remedial reading and psychologists whereas l|7% of the beginners ac-t u a l l y received some or much help with these services. When asked about making e f f e c t i v e use of community resources, 32% of the beginning teachers said they needed some or much help but 18% of the teachers were in receipt of some or much help. The greatest discrepancy occurs i n the Item that ref e r s to planning for and working with gift e d and retarded pupils. Some 52% of the beginning teachers said they 209 needed some or much help i n thi s area but 29% reported r e -ceiving some or much help. Moreover, 66% of the beginning teachers stated they received l i t t l e or no help in planning for and working with these exceptional children. B.C. BEGINNING TEACHERS, 1958 - 59  TABLE XC - AMOUNT OF HELP NEEDED AND RECEIVED DURING FIRST YEAR TEACHING, ALL TEACHERS % Reporting Amount Of Help Needed And Received ASPECTS OF POSITION Not Stated Much Help Some Needed L i t t l e None Total Not Stated Help Received Much Some L i t t l e None Tota Understanding The Goals Of The School 3 8 36 29 2k 100 5 15 38 21 21 100 Developing Better Personal Qualities As A Teacher-Voice, Poise, Emotional Control 2 6 33 31 28 100 k 6 22 21 k6 100 Understanding And Using Special School Services Standardized Test Results Health, Remedial Reading, Psychologists » 2 18 k5 22 ik 100 3 lk 33 27 22 100 Keeping And Making Out O f f i c i a l Records And Reports 1 lk 1+2 31 12 100 3 20 38 26 lk 100 Understanding And Using Courses Of Study And Curriculum Guides 1 7 25 35 32 100 k 5 23 27 k l 100 Making E f f e c t i v e Use Of Community Resources 3 6 26 26 39 100 6 3 15 25 51 100 Handling D i s c i p l i n a r y Problems 2 9 36 30 22 100 3 lk 33 26 23 100 Planning For And Working With Gif t e d And Retarded PupiIs 2 20 32 23 23 100 k 8 21 30 36 100 Getting Acquainted With The Community And Its People 2 k 19 26 50 100 5 10 18 20 k7 100 211 Question 78 - THE NUMBER OF VISITS AND RATINGS BY INSPECTORS SHOULD BE INCREASED, LEFT AS IS, OR DECREASED The re s u l t s to t h i s question are shown in Table XCI where i t is noted that 7k% ©f the beginning teachers said they wanted the number of inspectors v i s i t s and ratings l e f t as i s . Some 23%, however, wanted an increase in the number of such v i s i t s and ratings. A l l the beginning teachers, whether male or female, at elementary or secondary levels ex-pressed similar attitudes. Part 2 - NUMBER OF INSPECTOR'S VISITS YOU HAVE HAD TO DATE Table XCII shows the analysis of the responses to this question. In dealing with this question It should be noted that the q u a l i f i c a t i o n 'to date' could mean any time from the f i r s t week i n A p r i l to the end of June, 1959, depend-ing upon the date on which the beginning teacher completed the questionnaire. I t is shown that a t h i r d (34%) of the beginning teachers had received one v i s i t from their inspector while another t h i r d had received two v i s i t s . Almost o n e - f i f t h (19%) of the beginning teachers had not been v i s i t e d at a l l , up to the time of completing the questionnaire. It is not known whether these 112 teachers did f i n a l l y receive a v i s i t from their inspector. However the f a c t that the other begin-ning teachers had already been v i s i t e d from one to seven 212 times by an inspector suggests that these may have been overlooked. The number of v i s i t s made by inspectors to begin-ning teachers in elementary grades d i f f e r s from the number of v i s i t s received by beginners at secondary l e v e l s , accord-ing to the reports of these two groups. While 22% of the beginning elementary teachers said they had not been v i s i t e d to date, 15% of the beginning secondary teachers made a similar comment. The modal frequency of v i s i t s by inspectors to elementary l e v e l beginning teachers was 'one' whereas i t was 'two' for beginners at the secondary l e v e l . Table xCTII shows the differences that exist among the school d i s t r i c t s and the number of inspector's v i s i t s to beginning teachers. Only 6% of the beginning teachers i n the large urban centers (Vancouver) stated they had not yet been v i s i t e d whereas over half (£l%) of those beginning teaching in the smaller urban or d i s t r i c t s adjacent to Vancouver ( V i c t o r i a , Burnaby, Surrey) had not yet been v i s i t e d . B.C. BEGINNING TEACHERS, 1958 - 59 TABLE XCI - ATTITUDES TOWARD NUMBERS OF INSPECTOR'S VISITS AND RATINGS, BY SEX AND TEACHING LEVEL -NUMBER SHOULD BE: Elementary Men Women Total Secondary A l l Teachers Men Women Total ro No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % ^ Not Stated Increased Left As Is Decreased Total 1 1 9 3 10 3 3 3 3 1 13 2 16 23 63 22 79 22 33 23 21 2k 5k 23 133 23 50 70 212 7k 262 73 HI 76 63 72 17k 7k I+36 7k k 6 2 1 6 2 2 1 1 1 3 1 9 2 71 100 286 100 357 100 lk6 100 88 100 23k 100 591 100 B.C. BEGINNING TEACHERS, 1958 - 59  TABLE XCII - NUMBER OF INSPECTOR'S VISITS TO DATE, BY SEX AND TEACHING LEVEL Elementary Secondary A l l Teachers NUMBER Men Women Total Men Women Total OF VISITS No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % No„ % No. % ro None 16 23 61 21 77 22 23 16 12 l k 35 15 112 19 42" 1 26 37 108 38 134 38 ko 27 29 33 69 30 203 3k 2 19 27 8k 29 103 29 60 k i 3k 39 9k ko 197 33 3 6 8 22 8 28 8 l k 10 9 10 23 10 51 9 k 2 3 k 1 6 2 9 6 3 3 12 5 18 3 5 6 1 1 5 2 2 1 6 2 2 1 1 1 1 7 2 1 7 1 1 1 1 Total 71 100 286 100 357 100 lk6 100 88 100 23k 100 591 100 B.C. BEGINNING TEACHERS, 1958 - 59 TABLE XCIII - NUMBER OF INSPECTOR'S VISITS TO DATE, BY SCHOOL DISTRICT ENROLMENT SIZE Percent By School D i s t r i c t Enrolment Size NUMBER OF INSPECTOR'S 25,500 or VISITS - More 12,7O0-25,k99 6,300 -12,699 1,500-6,299 300 -l , k 9 9 1-299 A l l Si: Schoo D i s t r i i None 6 51 20 15 7 20 19 1 k l 30 17 37 27 60 3k 2 32 15 ko 37 kl 33 3 16 3 13 7 11 20 9 k 3 1 10 2 7 3 5 2 1 1 1 6 1 7 Total % 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 Total Number In Group 100 100 30 283 73 5 591 Vancouver V i c t o r i a North Van. Burnaby Richmond Surrey 216 Question 79 - CHECK THE DIFFICULTIES YOU HAVE ENCOUNTERED IN YOUR FIRST.YEAR OF TEACHING. AND SIGNIFY THE DEGREE OF.DIFFICULTY YOU HAVE ENCOUNTERED In Table XCIV i t is shown that two similar aspects of teaching are reported by beginning teachers as giving them much more d i f f i c u l t y than the other aspects l i s t e d in the question. Some 20% of the beginning teachers in 1958 - 59 said they had much d i f f i c u l t y in adjusting to the demand for time and energy aft e r school hours. Again, 21% of the begin-ners stated they had much d i f f i c u l t y due to lack of time. Those aspects of teaching that are reported as giving some d i f f i c u l t y to about half of the beginning teachers are such problems as handling the broader aspects of teaching techniques, (1+5%) adapting to the needs, interests and a b i l i t i e s of pupils (5l%) and keeping various groups busy with planned a c t i v i t i e s (1+5%). Noted too is the f a c t that the two items on which more beginning teachers declined to comment upon than any other item were items concerning relationships with people. One was the establishing and maintaining proper relations with supervisors and administrators (ll+%) and the other was d i f -f i c u l t i e s with parents (15%). Tables XCV and XCVI point up cert a i n differences in the responses to items i n question 79 existing between begin-ning men and beginning women teachers. The beginning men 217 reported more d i f f i c u l t y than beginning women in such matters as adjusting to deficie n c i e s i n school equipment, lack of materials and supplies, and motivating pupil interest and response. Beginning women teachers, on the other hand, re-ported experiencing more d i f f i c u l t y than beginning men in adjusting to demand for time and energy after school hours, keeping various groups busy with planned a c t i v i t i e s , evalu-ating students work and reporting to parents. Beginning teachers at the secondary l e v e l , p a r t i c -u l a r l y the men (16%), expressed having more d i f f i c u l t y in motivating pupil interest and response than elementary l e v e l beginning teachers. This could be p a r t l y due to the age differences between elementary and secondary pupils and the i r consequent differences in attitudes toward the school s i t u -ation. Table XCVII separates the U.B.C. trained beginning teacher from the V i c t o r i a College trained beginner on the basis of age. It is noted that the U.B.C. College graduates, whether men or women, teaching elementary or secondary l e v e l s , were older, on the average than their V i c t o r i a College grad-uate colleagues. The age differences for each of the four grouping medians varies from .7 years to 3*2 years, secondary level men d i f f e r i n g the most. While 70% of the beginning women teachers who taught at the elementary level and were trained at U..B.C. reported they were 21 years old or younger, 218 91% of the simi l a r group trained in V i c t o r i a were this age. The f a c t that V i c t o r i a College does not offer a degree grant-ing educational training program whereas U.B.C. does w i l l l i k e l y be a factor in causing such age differences, since the older student teacher w i l l tend to have more formal education and can continue his tra i n i n g to a higher l e v e l at U.B.C. than i n V i c t o r i a . The differences i n le v e l of education between U.B.C. trained beginning teachers and those trained i n V i c t o r i a are shown in Table XCVIII.. Since the U.B.C. graduates from teacher t r a i n i n g are somewhat older than the V i c t o r i a College graduates and the tr a i n i n g program at U..B.C. includes degree programs whereas V i c t o r i a College does not, one would expect to f i n d a higher level of education in the U.B.C. graduates when they begin teaching. Of those trained at.H.B.C, men beginning teaching at the elementary l e v e l , on the average, had a higher educa-t i o n a l l e v e l than beginning elementary women. In the second-ary grades, however, proportionately more beginning women ex-ceeded beginning men in the amount of formal education ob-tained, 62% with a bachelor's or higher as compared with £l% for the men. According to Table XCIX, elementary level beginning men who attended U.B.C. for the i r teacher t r a i n i n g came large-l y from the very small or very large community (29% from the 2 1 9 farm, 2 9 % from the large urban area). Fewer of the elemen-tary men came frem the smaller sized intermediate communities, V i c t o r i a College obtained considerably more students from the smaller sized communities (68% coming from d i s t r i c t s ranging in population from less than 2500 up to 2 k , 9 9 9 ) than did U.B.C. (26% coming from communities of less than 25©0 to 2k,999). The pattern was d i f f e r e n t for the two groups of elementary level beginning women. While k0% of the U.B.C. trained women resided in centres of 25,000 or more, 2 1 % of their V i c t o r i a counterparts came from similar sized communi-t i e s , proportionately more of them (k9%) coming from centres of 2,5©0 - 2k,999 population. Comparisons between U.B.C. and V i c t o r i a College regarding secondary beginners are limited due to the few cases (18) who attended V i c t o r i a College and entered teaching i n 1958 - 59. B.C. BEGINNING TEACHERS, 1958 - 59  TABLE XCIV - DIFFICULTIES ENCOUNTERED IN FIRST YEAR OF TEACHING, ALL TEACHERS % Reporting, By Degree Of D i f f i c u l t y Not Total Stated Much Some L i t t l e % N 1. Handling Problems Of Pupil Control And D i s c i p l i n e 1+ 11 1+0 kk 100 591 2. E s t a b l i s h i n g And Maintaining Proper Relations With Super- PO v i s o r s And Administrators lk 6 80 100 591 3. Adjusting To Deficiencies In School Equipment, Physical Conditions And Materials 7 7 27 59 100 591 k. Adjusting To The Teaching Assignment 9 7 38 1+7 100 591 5. Handling Broader Aspects Of Teaching Techniques 13 7 1+5 35 100 591 6. Motivating Pupil Interest And Response 8 9 k l 1+1 100 591 7. Adapting To The Needs, Inter-ests And A b i l i t i e s Of Pupils 6 10 5 l 33 100 591 8. Adjusting To Demand For Time And Energy After School Hours 6 20 39 35 100 591 9. Crowded Conditions 11 9 23 57 100 591 B.C. BEGINNING TEACHERS, 1958 - 59 - -% Reporting, By Deg ree Of D i f f i c u l t y Not Stated Much Some L i t t l e Total % N 10. Lack Of Materials And Supplies 10 8 30 52 100 591 11. Lack Of Time 8 21 ko , 31 100 591 12. Inadequate Knowledge 11 7 38 kk 100 591 13. D i f f i c u l t i e s With Parents 15 1 7 77 100 591 l k . Evaluating Students* Work 8 6 **2 kk 100 591 l5» Covering Subject Matter 9 7 k l kl 100 591 16. Reporting To Parents 13 k 19 6k 100 591 17» Keeping Various Groups Busy With Manned A c t i v i t i e s 8 7 U5 ko 100 591 18. Dealing With Maladjusted Children 8 12 ko ko 100 591 B.C. BEGINNING TEACHERS, 1958 - 59  TABLE XCV - PERCENT DIFFICULTIES ENCOUNTERED IN FIRST YEAR TEACHING, BY SEX AND TEACHING LEVEL Elementary Secondary A l l Teachers QUESTION 79 ITEM NO. Much Men N = 71 Some L i t t l e Women N = 286 M S L Total N = 357 M S L Men N = 11+6 M S L Women N = 88 M S L Total N . S B 231+ M S L Tot. Men N = 217 M S L Tot. Worn. N = 371+ M S L 1 10 35 1+8 10 1+2 k5 i o l+o k5 10 1+0 k6 16 39 37 12 1+0 1+3 10 39 1+7 12 1+1 k3 2 6 75 5 83 5 8 i i i 75 1 3 80 8 80 9 75 5 82 3 11 31 1+9 5 23 65 6 2k 62 11 35 k9 6 25 61 9 31 5k 11 32 1+9 5 23 6k k k 3k 1+9 5 38 1+8 5 38 1+9 8 39 1+5 11 36 1+5 9 38 1+5 6 37 1+6 7 38 1+8 5 11 52 27 6 1+5 36 7 1+6 3k 8 1+3 36 9 k l 39 9 k l 37 9 1+6 33 6 1+1+ 37 6 10 k2 38 5 ko 1+5 6 k© kk 16 k l 38 10 1+1+ 38 11+ k2 38 lk 1+2 38 6 k l kk 7 11 kl ko l l 50 33 11 1+8 3k 7 58 30 10 k8 32 8 5k 31 8 52 33 11 50 33 8 15 3k 1+2 21+ 1+6 26 22 kk 29 17 29 1+6 19 36 39 18 32 1+3 17 31 1+5 23 kk 29 9 10 23 55 8 2k 58 8 21+ 57 10 23 55 12 18 57 11 21 56 10 23 55 9 22 58 TABLE XCV (CONT'D) B.C. BEGINNING TEACHERS, 1958 - 59 - PERCENT DIFFICULTIES ENCOUNTERED IN FIRST YEAR TEACHING BY SEX AND TEACHING LEVEL Elementary QUESTION Men Women 79 ITEM NO. Much N as 71 Some L i t t l e N m 286 M S L 10 17 21 2+6 6 29 55 11 20 39 32 22 1*3 27 12 1 38 1*6 8 38 k3 13 1 10 70 1 7 78 l k 7 2+2+ M 6 1*7 1*0 15 8 2+5 38 6 2*3 1+1 16 1+ 23 58 6 23 60 17 8 2+2 2+2 7 52 32+ 18 12+ 2+5 32 12+ 1+1 37 Secondary Total Men Women Total N = 357 N = 11*6 N « 88 N = 231* M S L M S L M S L ; . M S L 8 27 52+ 8 38 2+7 5 2 6 56 6 33 50 22 1+2 28 18 39 32+ 22 35 36 20 38 35 6 38 1*2+ 8 37 2+7 6 39 k k 7 38 2*6 1 8 77 1 6 77 1 7 75 1 6 76 6 2*7 2*0 6 31 52* 3 2*3 2*1* 5 35 50 6 2*2* 2+1 6 36 2+9 8 39 2*2* 7 37 2+7 6 23 59 1 12 73 15 70 13 72 8 50 36 5 3k 51 5 k5 38 5 38 1*6 lk k l 36 7 k o 1*5 8 33 50 7 38 1*7 A l l Teachers Tot, Men Tot. Worn. N = 217 N • 37k M S L M S L ro 11 32 1*7 6 28 55 ™ 19 39 32+ 22 k l 29 6 37 k7 7 39 1*3 1 7 75 1 7 78 6 35 50 6 1*6 k l 7 39 k5 6 1*2 1*2 2 15 68 5 21 6 2 6 36 1*8 7 51 35 9 1*2 k l 13 39 1+0 B.C. BEGINNING TEACHERS, 1958 - 59  TABLE XCVI - PERCENT DIFFICULTIES ENCOUNTERED, BY SEX % Teachers Encountering Much Or Some D i f f i c u l t y QUESTION 79 ITEM NO.: 3. Adjusting to Deficiencies In School Equipment, Physical Conditions And Materials 6. Motivating Fupil Interest And Response 8. Adjusting To Demand For Time And Energy After School Hours 10. Lack Of Materials And Supplies l k . Evaluating Students- Work 16. Reporting To Parents 17. Keeping Various Groups Busy With Planned A c t i v i t i e s Total Men N m 217 1+3 56 k8 1+3 1+1 17 1+2 Total Women N = 371+ 28 1+7 67 31+ 52 26 58 ro ro -p-B.C. BEGINNING TEACHERS, 1958 - 59  TABLE XCVI I - AGE BY SEX, TEACHING LEVEL AND COLLEGE ATTENDED U.B.C. AGE Total In Group Median Age Elementary A H Men A l l Women k9 20k 23.2 21.2 Secondary A l l Men A l l Women 138 78 25.9 23.3 Percent D i s t r i b u t i o n 20 Or Under 16 k6 k lk 21 ik 2k 3 8 22 16 12 5 20 23 - 2k 18 6 20 27 25 - 26 6 3 21 k 27 - 29 12 1 9 5 30 - 3k k 2 21 5 35 - 39 6 1 10 1 kO Or Over 6 3 5 15 Not Stated • 1 Total 100 100 100 100 ro ro vn B.C. BEGINNING TEACHERS, 1958 - 59  TABLE XCVI1 (CONT'D) - AGE BY SEX, TEACHING LEVEL & COLLEGE ATTENDED VICTORIA COLLEGE AGE Total In Group Median Age Elementary Secondary A l l Men A l l Women A l l Men A l l Women 22 82 8 10 2 2 . 5 1 9 . 7 2 2 . 7 2 0 . 5 Percent D i s t r i b u t i o n 20 Or Under 21 22 23 - 2k 25 - 26 27 - 29 30 - 3k . 35 - 39 kO Or Over Not Stated 5 23 23 23 9 9 68 23 1 1 1 1 12 5o 12 12 12 5o 20 10 10 10 ro ro Total 100 100 100 100 B.C. BEGINNING TEACHERS, 1958 - 59 TABLE XCVIII - EDUCATION LEVEL, BY SEX, TEACHING LEVEL & COLLEGE ATTENDED U.B.C. HIGHEST LEVEL OF EDUCATION Percent D i s t r i b u t i o n Elementary A l l Men A l l Women Not Stated 1. No Formal Education Beyond High School 2. 2 Years Univ e r s i t y Or Less 61 3. More Than 2, Up To k Years Univ. No Bachelors 31 k. Bachelor's Degree 6 5. One Year Or Less Beyond Bachelor's, No Master's 2 6. More Than 1 Year Beyond Bachelor's, No Master's 7. Master's Degree 8. One Or More Years Beyond Master's, No Doctor's Degree Percent Total 100 Total No. Of Teachers k9 2 69 21 k 1 1 100 20k Secondary A l l Men A l l Women k 7 22 16 17 22 11 1 100 138 5 h 18 12 31 22 5 3 100 78 ro ro B.C. BEGINNING TEACHERS, 1 9 5 8 - 5 9 TABLE XCVI 1 1 (CONT'D) - EDUCATION LEVEL, BY SEX, TEACHING LEVEL & COLLEGE ATTENDED VICTORIA COLLEGE HIGHEST LEVEL OF EDUCATION Elementary Secondary A l l Men A l l Women A l l Men A l l Women Percent D i s t r i b u t i o n Not Stated 1 1 . No Formal Education Beyond High School 5 ro ro C O 2 . Two Years University Or Less 8 2 92 7 5 8 0 3 . More Than 2 , Up To k Years Univ. No Bachelors lk 7 2 5 1 0 k. Bachelor's Degree 5 . One Year Or Less Beyond Bachelor's, No Master's IO 6 . More Than 1 Year Beyond Bachelor's, No Master's 7 . Master's Degree 8 . One Or More Years Beyond Master's, No Doctor's Degree Percent Total " 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 Total No. O f Teachers 2 2 8 2 8 1 0 B.C. BEGINNING TEACHERS, 1958 - 59 TABLE XCIX - SIZE OF RESIDENCE COMMUNITY BY SEX, TEACHING LEVEL & COLLEGE ATTENDED U.B.C. SIZE OF COMMUNITY Not Stated Farm Or Open Country A V i l l a g e Less Than 2,^00 2,500 - 9 , 9 9 9 10,000 - 21+,999 25,000 - 9 9 , 9 9 9 100,000 Or More Total Percent Total No. Of Teachers Elementary % A l l Men % A l l Women Secondary 29 12 12 2 16 29 100 H9 2 10 16 18 15 25 100 201+ % All Men 1 13 11 16 11 13 35 100 138 % A l l Women 10 9 18 lk 8 1+1 100 78 ro ro B.C. BEGINNING TEACHERS, 1958 - 59 TABLE XCIX (CONT'D) - SIZE OF RESIDENCE COMMUNITY BY SEX  TEACHING LEVEL & COLLEGE ATTENDED VICTORIA COLLEGE SIZE OF COMMUNITY Not Stated Farm Or Open Country A V i l l a g e Less Than 2,500 2,500 - 9,999 10,000 - 2k,999 25,000 - 99,999 100,000 Or More Total Percent Total No. Of Teachers Elementary % A H Men % A l l Women 10 23 27 18 18 5 100 22 k 10 17 26 23 11 10 Secondary % A l l Men % A l l Women 100 82 25 38 12 25 100 8 30 20 10 10 30 100 10 ro © 231 Question 80 - GENERALLY, HOW WOULD YOU RATE THE TEACHER TRAINING PROGRAM WITH REGARD TO THE FOLLOWING ASPECTS: (1) INTELLECTUAL CHALLENGE (2) CALIBRE OF EXAMINATIONS (3) INTERPRETATION-OF TEACHING AS A FIELD OF WORK (k) THE FORM OF LECTURE PRESENTATIONS ( 5 ) OPPORTUNITY TO DISCUSS EDUCATIONAL PROBLEMS This question was designed to reveal the beginning teacher's general attitude toward c e r t a i n aspects of his tra i n i n g program. Table C allows for comparisons to be made between the responding beginning teachers trained at U.B.C. and those at V i c t o r i a College. It is noted that proportion-ately more of the beginners from V i c t o r i a College than U.B.C. rated the 5 aspects of their training program as being of high standard. Conversely, beginners from V i c t o r i a College reported proportionately fewer 'low* ratings on the various aspects than teachers trained at U.B.C. S l i g h t l y over half ($2%) of the U.B.C. trained beginning teachers as compared with 29% of the V i c t o r i a College group reported that the In-t e l l e c t u a l challenge was low In their training programs. The difference between the Colleges may be due In part to the age, education and home residence differences between the gradu-ates of the two schools and pa r t l y due to differences in the schools themselves. Although no marked differences were apparent between elementary and secondary l e v e l beginners from U.B.C. con-cerning i n t e l l e c t u a l challenge, the V i c t o r i a College beginning 232 teachers who taught at the secondary level in 1958 - 59 rated the i n t e l l e c t u a l challenge more highly than their elementary level colleagues. Proportionately more beginning women teachers than men trained at U.B.C, teaching either elementary or second-ary grades, rated the i n t e l l e c t u a l challenge as being low. Beginning teachers from V i c t o r i a College teaching at the elementary level did not d i f f e r markedly in the i r evaluation of the i n t e l l e c t u a l challenge but the V i c t o r i a College women rated the i n t e l l e c t u a l challenge less highly than the second-ary l e v e l men. I t i s possible that women beginners, due to their e a r l i e r decision to enter teaching than that of the men, expect more of the teacher training program in terms of the i n t e l l e c t u a l challenge because they have perhaps formed more de f i n i t e opinions about teaching as a f i e l d of work. The beginners who attended U.B.C. rated the c a l i b r e of examinations considerably lower than the group from V i c t o r i a College, 35% of the responding U.B.C graduates reporting the examinations as being of low c a l i b r e compared with l k % of the responding V i c t o r i a students. No appreciable difference was noted between sexes or teaching levels within the U.B.C. trained teachers con-cerning the c a l i b r e of examinations but the secondary l e v e l V i c t o r i a teachers, p a r t i c u l a r l y the men rated the ca l i b r e 233 of examinations lower than their V i c t o r i a colleagues. When asked to rate t h e i r t r a i n i n g program in terms of the interpretation of teaching as a f i e l d of work, the U.B.C. graduates f e l t that i t was of lower c a l i b r e than did the V i c t o r i a teachers. Within the U.B.C. sample, sex d i f f e r -ences on t h i s question were s l i g h t but the secondary level beginners were less impressed with the interpretation of the f i e l d than were their elementary counterparts. The same question was responded to d i f f e r e n t l y by the V i c t o r i a teach-ers. Although teaching level differences were not appreci-able, the elementary level women rated the interpretation of teaching less highly than the elementary men and the second-ary level men rated i t less highly than the secondary women. The U.B.C. graduates thought less of their lecture presentations than did the V i c t o r i a trained beginners. At both colleges the beginning teachers at the elementary levels rated the form of lecture presentations less highly than the i r elementary counterparts and the women in both colleges, at either teaching level f e l t the form of lecture presenta-tions was of lower c a l i b r e than did the men. Some 23% of the responding U.B.C. teachers reported the opportunity to discuss educational problems was high whereas 39% of the V i c t o r i a group f e l t s i m i l a r l y about their opportunities in this area. Of the elementary and secondary 23k groups i n both colleges, the elementary level beginners at U.B.C. f e l t the least opportunity to discuss educational problems and c e r t a i n l y appeared to be a neglected group of students, not only i n comparison with V i c t o r i a elementary le v e l trainees but with their secondary l e v e l colleagues at U.B.C. Further investigation with the elementary l e v e l U.B.C. group might reveal possible reasons why they f e e l as they do about this question. Men B.C. BEGINNING TEACHERS, 1958 - 59 TABLE C - RATINGS ON CERTAIN ASPECTS OF TEACHER-TRAINING PROGRAMS, BY SEX, TEACHING LEVEL & COLLEGE ATTENDED (EXCLUDING THOSE NOT STATING) U.B.C. Secondary Total Men Women Total 7o H F L 1. 7 1+6 1+6 2. 10 51+ 37 3 . 2k 56 20 u. 17 1+6 37 5. 2k 37 39 Elementary Women Tot. % Tot. % No;. H F L No. H A l l Teachers  Ratine, Tot. % F L No. H Tot. % L No. H Tot. % F L No. H Tot. % Tot. L No. H F L No. +1 25 60 15 193 25 60 15 23k 18 57 26 97 23 56 21 k8 19 57 2k ll+5 23 58 19 379 1+6  1+1 7 58 35 192 9 56 35 233 21 50 29 100 10 57 33 1+9 17 52 30 lk9 12 51+ 33 382  37  1+1 18 1+8 31+ 191+ 19 1+6 3l+ 235 32 1+7 21 100 22 55 22 1+9 29 50 21 11+9 23 k8 29 38k ro vn 1. I n t e l l e c t u a l Challenge 2. Calibre Of Examinations 3 . Interpretation Of Teaching As A F i e l d Of Work 1+. The Form Of Lecture Presentations 5. Opportunity To Discuss Educational Problems H = High F = F a i r L = Low B.C. BEGINNING TEACHERS, 1958 - 59 TABLE C (CONT'D) - RATINGS ON CERTAIN ASPECTS OF TEACHER-TRAINING PROGRAMS, BY SEX, TEACHING LEVEL & COLLEGE ATTENDED (EXCLUDING THOSE NOT STATING) VICTORIA COLLEGE Elementary Secondary A l l Teachers Men Women Total Men Women Total Rating % Tot. % Tot. % Tot. % Tot. % Tot. % Tot. % Tot. H F L No. H F L No. H F L No. H F L No. H F L No. H F L No. H F L No. 1. 11+ 59 27 22 18 51 31 80 17 53 30 102 37 37 25 8 11 67 22 9 2k 53 23 17 18 53 29 119 2. 27 61+ 9 22 21 65 11+ 80 23 65 13 102 25 25 50 8 33 67 9 29 1+7 2k 17 2k 62flk 119 3. 1+3 52 5 21 3.6 53 11 80 38 53 10 101 37 50 13 8 kk kk 10 9 kl 1+7 12 17 38 52 10 118 u . 23 50 27 22 11 70 19 79 11+ 65 21 101 37 37 25 8 11 67 22 9 2k 53 2k 17 15 6k 21 118 5. 50 27 23 22 36 I4.3 21 80 39 39 22 102 37 37 25 8 33 22 k5 9 35 29 35 17 39 38 2k 119 1. Intellectual Challenge 2. Calibre Of Examinations H » High 3. Interpretation Of Teaching As A F i e l d Of Work F = Fair k. The Form Of Lecture Presentations L = Low 5. Opportunity To Discuss Educational Problems B.C. BEGINNING TEACHERS, 1958 - 59 TABLE C (CONT'D) - RATINGS ON CERTAIN ASPECTS OF TEACHER-TRAINING PROGRAMS, BY SEX, TEACHING LEVEL AND COLLEGE ATTENDED U.B.C. Elementary Secondary A l l Teachers Men Women Total Men Women Total 1 N = 2+9 N = 20k N m 253 N sa 138 N = 78 N = 216 Not % N % N % N % N % N % N % Stated High F a i r Low S H F L S H F L S H F L S H E . L S H F L S H F L 1. 16 6 39 39 5 k kO 51 7 k kO k9 28 7 33 32 38 k 20 38 31 6 29 31+ 18 5 35 1+2 2. 16 8 2+5 31 6 2+ 56 31+ 7 5 52+ 32+ 27 8 k l 2k 38 k 38 20 31 6 kO 23 17 6 k8 29 3. 17 20 2+7 16 5 2k 57 12+ 8 23 55 12+ 30 12 k o 18 39 12+ 32+ 13 33 13 38 16 19 19 2+7 15 i+. 16 12+ 39 31 6 7 51+ 33 9 8 51 32 28 15 36 21 38 6 36 20 31 12 36 21 19 10 kk 27 5. 16 20 31 33 5 17 1+6 32 7 18 k3 32 28 23 31+ 15 37 11+ 35 11+ 36 15 3k 15 20 17 39 2k 1. In t e l l e c t u a l Challenge 2. Calibre Of Examinations 3. Interpretation Of Teaching As A F i e l d Of Work k. The Form Of Lecture Presentations 5. Opportunity To Discuss Educational Problems B.C. BEGINNING TEACHERS, 1958 - 59  TABLE C (CONT'D) - RATINGS ON CERTAIN ASPECTS OF TEACHER-TRAINING PROGRAMS, BY SEX, TEACHING LEVEL AND COLLEGE ATTENDED VICTORIA COLLEGE Elementary Secondary A l l Teachers Men "omen Total Men Women Total N a 22 N = 82 N = 10k N = 8 N = 10 N a 18 N » 122 Not % N % N N % N % N % N % Stated High Fair Low S H F L S H F L S H F L S H F L S H F L S H F L 1. lk 59 27 3 17 50 30 k 16 5o 30 1 37 37 10 10 60 20 6 22 50 22 2 17 52 29 2. 27 6k 9 3 21 63 13 2 22 63 13 25 25 50 10 30 60 6 28 kk 22 2 23 61 lk 3. k kl 5o 5 3 35 51 11 2 37 51 10 1 37 50 12 10 kO kO 10 6 39 kk 11 3 37 50 10 k* 23 5o 27 k 11 67 18 3 13 6k 20 1 37 37 25 10 10 60 20 6 22 50 22 k 15 61 20 5. 50 27 23 2 35 1|2 21 1 39 39 21 1 37 37 25 10 30 20 kO 6 33 28 33 2 38 37 23 1. I n t e l l e c t u a l Challenge 2. Calibre Of Examinations 3. Interpretation Of Teaching As A F i e l d Of Work k. The Form Of Lecture Presentations 5. Opportunity To Discuss Educational Problems 239 Question 8l - OF HOW MUCH VALUE DO YOU THINK THE FOLLOWING PROFESSIONAL COURSES WERE IN PREPARING YOU FOR TEACHING? ( 1 J INTRODUCTION TQ> EDUCATION (2; EDUCATIONAL THOUGHT (3) EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY (k) AUDIO-VISUAL TECHNIQUES ( 5 ) SPEECH (6) SCHOOL ADMINISTRATION (7) DIAGNOSTIC & REMEDIAL TEACHING (8) GUIDANCE AND COUNSELLING This question may have had limited responses because of the f a c t that some beginning teachers are not l i k e l y to have taken some professional courses. These teachers are categorized under the »not stated* heading in Table CI and tend to l i m i t the usefulness of the question. Certain d i f -ferences between the two groups of college graduates are seen in Table CI. Generally, proportionately more V i c t o r i a College trained beginning teachers than U.B.C. trained beginners got much or some value from the eight professional courses l i s t e d . One outstanding difference shows that some k7% of the begin-ning teachers trained at V i c t o r i a College f e l t their Educa-t i o n a l Psychology course was of much value whereas 22% of the U.B.C. responding beginners reported deriving comparable value from a similar course. Table CI shows the discrepancies that exist between the U.B.C. beginning teachers and the V i c t o r i a College group 2k0 regarding the proportion of 'not stated* responses, A higher proportion of the teachers from U.B.C, College than V i c t o r i a College either did not take the professional courses referred to or were reluctant to comment on their value. TABLE CI - VALUE OF PROFESSIONAL COURSES IN PREPARATION FOR TEACHING (EXCLUDING THOSE NOT STATING) COLLEGE ATTENDED U.B.C. COURSE Introduction To Education Much 17 Educational Thought 17 Educational Psychology 22 Audio-Visual Techniques 19 Percent Reporting, A l l Teachers Total Some L i t t l e None % 1+1 2+5 1+2 38 30 30 25 31 11 8 10 11 100 100 100 100 Total Number 351+ 283 373 307 Introduction To Education COLLEGE ATTENDED, VICTORIA COLLEGE Percent Reporting, A l l Teachers Some L i t t l e None Much 19 Educational Thought 12 Educational Psychology k7 Audio-Visual Techniques 22 53 60 38 50 21 23 12 16 7 6 3 12 Total % 100 100 100 100 Total Number 113 10k 117 101 B.C. BEGINNING TEACHERS, 1958 - 59 TABLE CI (CONT'D) - VALUE OF PROFESSIONAL COURSES IN PREPARATION FOR TEACHING (EXCLUDING THOSE NOT STATING) COLLEGE ATTENDED U.B.C. Percent Reporting , A l l Teachers COURSE Much Some L i t t l e None Total % Total Number 5. Speech 11 2k 35 30 100 287 6. School Administration 19 U5 28 8 100 303 7. Diagnostic And Remedial Teaching 18 3k 33 15 100 2k8 8. Guidance And Counselling 17 33 31 19 100 253 COLLEGE ATTENDED, VICTORIA COLLEGE Percent Reporting , A l l Teachers COURSE Much Some L i t t l e None Total % Total Number 5. Speech 15 30 32 23 100 9k 6. School Administration 26 kl 2k 9 100 103 7. Diagnostic And Remedial Teaching 26 k3 25 6 100 100 8. Guidance And Counselling 20 38 31 10 100 99 B.C. BEGINNING TEACHERS, 1958 - 59  TABLE CI A - VALUE OF PROFESSIONAL COURSES IN PREPARATION FOR TEACHING, ALL TEACHERS U.B.C. Percent Reporting, A l l Teachers Not Total COURSE Stated Much Some L i t t l e None % N 1. Introduction To Education 25 13 31 23 8 100 1+69 2. Educational Thought 1+0 10 27 18 5 100 1+69 3 . Educational Psychology 20 18 33 20 8 100 1+69 1+. Audio-Visual Techniques 35 13 25 21 7 100 1+69 VICTORIA COLLEGE Fercent Reporting, A l l Teachers COURSE Not Stated Much Some L i t t l e None Tot % al N 1. Introduction To Education 7 17 1+9 20 7 100 122 2. Educational Thought 15 10 5 i 20 5 100 122 3. Educational psychology 1+ 1+5 36 11 3 100 122 u . Audio-Visual Techniques 17 18 1+2 13 10 100 122 B.C. BEGINNING TEACHERS, 1958 - 59  TABLE CI A (CONT'D) - VALUE OF PROFESSIONAL COURSES^ IN PREPARATION FOR TEACHING, ALL TEACHERS U.B.C. Percent Reporting, A l l Teachers COURSE Not Stated Much Some L i t t l e None Total % N 5 . Speech 39 7 15 21 18 100 k69 6. School Administration 35 12 29 18 5 100 k69 7. Diagnostic And Remedial Teaching hi 9 18 17 8 100 1+69 8. Guidance And Counselling 9 18 17 10 100 1+69 VICTORIA COLLEGE Percent Reporting, A l l Teachers COURSE Not Stated Much Some L i t t l e None Total %. N 5 . Speech 23 11 23 25 18 100 122 6. School Administration 16 22 3h 20 7 100 122 7 . Diagnostic And Remedial Teaching 18 21 35 20 5 100 122 8. Guidance And Counselling 19 16 31 25 8 100 122 2k5 Question 82 - HAVE YOU ENCOUNTERED ANY CONFLICT BETWEEN THE IDEAS AND PHILOSOPHY YOU FORMED WHILE IN COLLEGE AND THE IDEAS AND PHILOSOPHY OF YOUR SCHOOL PRINCIPAL? This question attempts to measure differences that might occur between the ideas and philosophies engendered i n the training i n s t i t u t i o n s and the ideas and philosophies cur-r e n t l y held by p r i n c i p a l s in the B.C. public school system. Table CII shows that k l % of a l l the beginning teachers in 1958 - 59 graduating from U^B.C. and 39% of the V i c t o r i a College graduates reported no c o n f l i c t in thi s area while another group (k8% U.B.C, 50% V i c t o r i a College) said they had encountered some c o n f l i c t but not of a serious nature. A s l i g h t l y higher proportion of beginning teachers trained at V i c t o r i a College rather than U.B.C. reported some c o n f l i c t with matters of ideas and philosophy. Proportionately more beginning teachers from V i c t o r i a College, teaching at the elementary l e v e l as opposed to secondary l e v e l said they experienced some c o n f l i c t . At the elementary l e v e l , beginning women teachers of both colleges more often than men stated they encountered no c o n f l i c t . Proportionately more of the elementary men than women did not state any opinion on thi s question. Secondary level beginners, on the other hand, were s t i l l more reluctant to comment on thi s question, perhaps the non-response:rate on 2k6 t h i s question is related to the need to succeed in teaching; men more than women, secondary levels more than elementary. While 1L\.% of the U.B.C. trained beginners refrained from answering the question, 6% of the V i c t o r i a group did not com-ment. Such reservations on the part of the U.B.C. trained beginners concerning t h i s question may be due to age and edu-cation differences that exist between the graduates of these colleges. B.C. BEGINNING TEACHERS, 1958 - gQ TABLE CII - CONFLICT BETWEEN COLLEGE AND PRINCIPAL, BY SEX, TEACHING 'LEVEL AND COLLEGE ATTENDED (EXCLUDING THOSE NOT STATING) U.B.C. DEGREE OF CONFLICT 1. No C o n f l i c t Men Elementary Women Total Men Secondary Women Total A l l Teachers No. % No. % No. % No. No. % No. % No. % 11 27 8k k3 95 kO kk kO 28 5l 72 kk 167 k l ro -p-2. Some C o n f l i c t But Not Of A Serious Nature 2k 59 90 k6 Ilk k8 5U k9 26 k7 80 k9 19k k8 3. Serious C o n f l i c t k 10 10 5 lk 6 5 5 5 3 19 5 k. Don't Know 2 5 13 7 15 6 7 6 1 2 8 5 23 6 5. Total k l 100 197 100 238 100 110 100 55 100 165 100 k03 100 B.C. BEGINNING TEACHERS;,1958 - 59 TABLE C H (CONT'D) - CONFLICT BETWEEN COLLEGE AND PRINCIPAL, BY SEA, TEACHING LEVEL AND COLLEGE ATTENDED (EXCLUDING THOSE NOT STATING) VICTORIA COLLEGE DEGREE OF CONFLICT 1. No C o n f l i c t Men Elementary Women Total Secondary Men Women Total No. % No.. % No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % 6 30 32 kO 38 38 5 62 2 25 7 kk k5 39 ro •p-co 2. Some C o n f l i c t But Not Of A Serious Nature 12 60 kO 51 52 52 2 25 k 50 6 38 58 50 3. Serious C o n f l i c t 1+ 5 5 5 1 12 1 12 2 12 7 6 k. Don't Know 5 3 k k k 1 12 1 6 5 k 5. Total 20 100 79 100 99 100 8 100 8 100 16 100 115 100 B.C. BEGINNING TEACHERS, 1958 - 59 TABLE CII (CONT'D) - CONFLICT BETWEEN COLLEGE AND PRINCIPAL, BY SEX, TEACHING LEVEL AND COLLEGE ATTENDED U.B.C. DEGREE OF CONFLICT Elementary Secondary A l l Teachers Men Women Total Men Women Total No. % No. % No, % No. % No. % No. % No. % 1. Not Stated 2. No C o n f l i c t 8 16 7 3 15 6 28 20 23 29 5l 2k 66 l k £ vO 11 22 8k k2 95 38 kk 32 28 35 72 33 167 36 3. Some C o n f l i c t But Not Of A Serious Nature 2k k9 90 kk I l k k5 5U 39 26 33 80 37 19k k l k . Serious C o n f l i c t k 8 10 5 lk 6 5 k 5 2 19 k 5. Don't Know 2 k 13 6 15 6 7 5 8 k 23 5 6 . Total k9 100 20k 100 253 100 138 100 78 100 216.100 k69 100 B.C. BEGINNING TEACHERS, 1958 - 59 TABLE C H (CONT'D) - CONFLICT BETWEEN COLLEGE AND PRINCIPAL, BY SEX, TEACHING LEVEL AND COLLEGE ATTENDED VICTORIA COLLEGE DEGREE OF CONFLICT Elementary Secondary A l l Teachers Men Women Total Men Women Total No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % 1. Not Stated 2 9 3 k 5 5 2 20 2 11 7 6 ro vn o 2 . No C o n f l i c t 6 27 32 39 38 37 5 62 2 20 7 39 1+5 37 3 . Some C o n f l i c t But Not Of A Serious Nature 12 55 kO 1+9 52 50 2 25 k kO 6 33 58 1+8 l+. Serious C o n f l i c t 5 k 5 5 5 1 12 1 10 2 11 7 6 5. Don't Know 5 3 U k 1+ 1 10 6. Total 22 100 82 100 101+ 100 8 100 10 100 18 100 122 100 251 Question 83 - IN YOUR OPINION, HOW VALUABLE HAVE YOU FOUND EACH OF THE FOLLOWING TRAINING METHODS IN PREPARING YOU/FOR TEACHING? (1) METHODS COURSES (2) PROFESSIONAL COURSES (3) PRACTICE TEACHING PROGRAM (1+) INTERVIEWS WITH STAFF MEMBERS (5) SEMINARS (6) CONFERENCES WITH FELLOW STUDENTS (7) READING IN LIBRARY The beginning teachers were asked to give their opinion on the value of each method and the re s u l t s are shown in Table C H I . The practice teaching program was considered by the majority of beginning teachers both from U..B.C. (7k%) end V i c t o r i a College (78%) as a program of much value. The other methods l i s t e d in the question did not receive comparable rating to that of the practice teaching. Conparisons between the beginners on the basis of College attended showed a higher proportion of V i c t o r i a Colleg graduates than U.B.C. graduates rating a l l but one tra i n i n g method more highly. The exception was professional courses which was rated the lowest of the seven methods by the V i c t o r i College beginners. The f a c t that 'interviews with s t a f f members', 'seminars', and 'reading in l i b r a r y ' were rated as being of higher value by V i c t o r i a students than U.B.C. gradu-ates may be due to a smaller student-teacher r a t i o in V i c t o r i a 2^2 and possibly less over crowding of l i b r a r y f a c i l i t i e s . As in previous questions, the beginning teachers from U.B.C. did not respond to this question in the same proportion as beginning teachers from V i c t o r i a College. B.C. BEGINNING TEACHERS, 1958 - 59 TABLE C H I - VALUE OF CERTAIN TRAINING METHODS PREPARATORY TO TEACHING (EXCLUDING THOSE NOT STATING) U.B.C. Percent Reporting Degree Of Value, A l l Teachers METHODS 1. Methods Courses 2. Professional Courses 3» Practice Teaching v Program k„ Interviews With Staff Members 5. Seminars 6. Conferences With Fellow Students ?• Reading In Library Much 23 23 7k 2k lk 3k 16 Some k5 20 kl 29 kl kS L i t t l e 26 22 25 35 15 28 None 7 6 1 10 21 k 10 Total . % 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 Total Number 379 3kk 37k 357 31+5 371 367 ro B.C. BEGINNING TEACHERS, 1958 - 59 TABLE CHI (CONT'D) - VALUE OF CERTAIN TRAINING METHODS PREPARATORY TO TEACHING (EXCLUDING THOSE NOT STATING) VICTORIA COLLEGE Percent Reporting Degree Of Value, A l l Teachers METHODS Much Some L i t t l e None Total % Total Number 1. Methods Courses 33 50 17 1 100 119 2 . Professional Courses 15 59 22 h 100 112 3e Practice Teaching Program 78 21 1 100 120 Interviews With Staff Members 37 kO 18 5 100 116 5 . Seminars 22 36 22 20 100 116 6 . Conferences With Fellow Students 38 K3 16 3 100 115 7. Reading In Library 25 k6 27 3 100 118 B.C. BEGINNING TEACHERS, 1958 - 59  TABLE C H I (CONT'D) - VALUE OF CERTAIN TRAINING METHODS PREPARATORY TO TEACHING, ALL TEACHERS U.B.C. Percent Reporting, Degree Off Value, A l l Teachers Not Total METHODS Stated Much Some L i t t l e None % No. 1. Methods Courses 19 19 36 21 6 100 U69 2 . Professional Courses 27 17 36 16 1+ 100 U69 3 . P r a c t i c e Teaching Program 20 59 16 1+ 1 100 I+69 1+. Interviews With Staff Members 21+ 18 31 19 8 100 1+69 5. Seminars 26 10 21 26 16 100 1+69 6. Conferences With Fellow Students 21 27 38 12 3 100 1+69 7. Reading In Library 22 13 35 22 8 100 1+69 B.C. BEGINNING TEACHERS, 1958 - 59  TABLE C H I (CONT-D) - VALUE OF CERTAIN TRAINING METHODS PREPARATORY TU TEACHING, ALL TEACHERS VICTORIA COLLEGE Percent Reporting Degree Of Value, A l l Teachers Not Total METHODS Stated Much Some L i t t l e None % N 1. Methods Courses 2 32 1+8 16 1 100 122 2. Professional Courses 8 11+ 51+ 20 3 100 122 3. Practice Teaching program 1 76 20 2 100 122 k. Interviews With Staff Members 5 35 38 17 5 100 122 5. Seminars 5 21 31+ 20 19 100 122 6. Conferences With Fellow Students 6 36 1+1 15 2 100 122 7. Reading In Library 3 21+ 1+1+ 26 2 100 122 257 Question 8k - HOW SATISFACTORY WERE THE FOLLOWING FACULTY SERVICES? (1) PERSONAL GUIDANCE ( 2 ) PROFESSIONAL ADVISEMENT (3) LIBRARY FACILITIES (k) VARIETY OF COURSES AVAILABLE (5) FACILITIES FOR RECREATION (6) ADMINISTRATION OF SCHOOLS (7) VISITING SPECIALISTS (8) OBSERVATION OF EXPERT DEMONSTRATION TEACHERS ( 9 ) ASSISTANCE IN PLACEMENT ( 1 0 ) PROVISION OF BIBLIOGRAPHIES ( 1 1 ) CONTACT WITH STAFF MEMBERS This question sought comparative information regard-ing attitudes of beginning teachers toward f a c u l t y services provided in their teacher training college. V i c t o r i a College graduates reported greater s a t i s f a c t i o n with their f a c u l t y services than U.B.C. graduates on a l l aspects except two, namely f a c i l i t i e s for recreation and observation of expert demonstration teachers. As in question 83, the question of college differences regarding l i b r a r y f a c i l i t i e s appears s i g -n i f i c a n t . While 62% of the V i c t o r i a College group reported they were very well s a t i s f i e d with their l i b r a r y f a c i l i t i e s , 31% of the U.B.C. graduates were s i m i l a r l y s a t i s f i e d . These differences in attitudes may be attributed to possible over crowding at U.B.C, limited volumes in the l i b r a r y or a d i f -ference in attitudes as to what constitutes a good l i b r a r y . 258 Table CIV shows the proportion of U.B.C. graduates as compared to the V i c t o r i a College beginners who did not answer th i s question. B.C. BEGINNING TEACHERS, 1958 - 59 TABLE CIV - SATISFACTION WITH FACULTY SERVICES (EXCLUDING THOSE NOT STATING) U.B.C. 1. Personal Guidance Very Well 22 F a i r l y Well kk Percent Reporting L i t t l e 3k Total % 100 Total No. 37k ro VJT. sO 2. Professional Advisement 21 k9 30 100 369 3. Library F a c i l i t i e s 31 50 20 100 373 k. Variety Of Courses Avallable 19 53 27 100 37k 5. F a c i l i t i e s For Recreati on 33 U6 21 100 359 6. Administration Of Schools 17 6k 20 100 337 B.C. BEGINNING TEACHERS, 1 9 5 8 - 5 9 TABLE CIV (CONT-D) - SATISFACTION WITH FACULTY SERVICES (EXCLUDING THOSE NOT STATING) VICTORIA COLLEGE 1 . Personal Guidance 2 . Professional Advisement 3 . L i b r a r y F a c i l i t i e s Very Well 3 9 3 2 6 2 F a i r l y Well *+8 5 3 3 5 Percent Reporting L i t t l e 1 3 1 5 3 Total % 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 Total No. 1 1 6 1 1 7 1 1 9 ro o o k. Variety Of Courses Aval 1able 2 3 62 1 5 1 0 0 1 1 7 5 . F a c i l i t i e s For Recreation 2 1 5 2 27 1 0 0 117 6 . Administration Of Schools 2 8 5 8 11+ 1 0 0 1 1 0 B.C. BEGINNING TEACHERS, 1958 - 59  TABLE CIV (CONT'D) - SATISFACTION WITH FACULTY SERVICES (EXCLUDING THOSE NOT STATING) U.B.C. Percent Reporting 7. V i s i t i n g S p e c i a l i s t s Very Well 10 F a i r l y Well 52 L i t t l e 38 Total 100 Total No. 352 ro ON 8. Observation Of Expert Demonstration Teachers 29 43 28 100 374 9. Assistance In Placement 13 38 50 100 359 10. Provision Of Bibliographies 13 52 36 100 3kk 11. Contact With S t a f f Members 21 49 30 100 369 B.C. BEGINNING TEACHERS, 1958 - 59 TABLE CIV (CONT'D) - SATISFACTION WITH FACULTY SERVICES (EXCLUDING THOSE NOT STATING) VICTORIA COLLEGE 7. V i s i t i n g S p e c i a l i s t s Very Well 19 Percent Reporting F a i r l y Well 1+3 L i t t l e 38 Total % 100 Total No. 115 ro 0 s ro 8. Observation Of Expert Demonstration Teachers 9. Assistance In Placement 19 17 1+6 37 36 1+6 100 100 118 113 10. Provision Of Bibliographies 17 1+9 31+ 100 112 11. Contact With Staff Members 28 52 21 100 116 B.C. BEGINNING TEACHERS, 1 9 5 8 - 5 9 TABLE CIV (CONT'D) - SATISFACTION WITH FACULTY SERVICES, ALL TEACHERS U.B.C. SERVICE Not Stated Percent Reporting Very-Well F a i r l y Well L i t t l e Total No. 1 . Personal Guidance 2 . Professional Advisement 2 0 21 1 7 1 6 3 5 3 9 2 8 2k 1 0 0 U 6 9 1 0 0 1+69 ro 3 . L i b r a r y F a c i l i t i e s 2 0 21+ ko 1 6 1 0 0 1+69 1+. V a r i e t y Of Courses Available 2 0 1 5 k3 22 1 0 0 1+69 5 . F a c i l i t i e s For Recreation 2 3 2 5 3 5 16 1 0 0 1+69 6 . Administration Of Schools 2 8 1 2 1+6 1 0 0 1+69 B.C. BEGINNING TEACHERS, 1958 - 59  TABLE CIV (CONT-D) - SATISFACTION WITH FACULTY SERVICES, ALL TEACHERS VICTORIA COLLEGE SERVICE Not Stated Percent Reporting Very Well F a i r l y Well L i t t l e Total % No. 1. Personal Guidance 2. Professional Advisement 37 30 46 51 12 15 100 122 100 122 ro ON 3. L i b r a r y F a c i l i t i e s 61 3k 100 122 k. Va r i e t y Of Courses Avallable 22 59 15 100 122 5. F a c i l i t i e s For Recreation 20 50 25 100 122 6. Administration Of Schools 10 25 53 12 100 122 B.C. BEGINNING TEACHERS, 1958 - 59  TABLE CIV (CONT'D) - SATISFACTION WITH FACULTY SERVICES, ALL TEACHERS U.B.C. SERVICE 7, V i s i t i n g S p e c i a l i s t s Not Stated 25 Very Well Percent Reporting F a i r l y Well L i t t l e 7 39 29 Total % No. 100 1+69 ro 0 s-vn 8. Observation Of Expert Demonstration Teachers 20 23 3k 22 1 0 0 1+69 9, Assistance In Placement 23 10 29 38 100 1+69 10, Provision Of Bibllographles 27 10 37 27 100 1+69 11. Contact With Staff Members 21 18 39 21+ 100 1+69 B.C. BEGINNING TEACHERS, 1958 - 59  TABLE CIV (CONT'D) - SATISFACTION WITH FACULTY SERVICES, ALL TEACHERS VICTORIA COLLEGE SERVICE 7. V i s i t i n g S p e c i a l i s t s Not Stated Percent Reporting Very Well 18 F a i r l y Well kO L i t t l e 36 Total % No. 100 122 ro o 8. Observation Of Expert Demonstration Teachers 18 kk 3k 100 122 9. Assistance In Placement 16 3k k3 100 122 10. Provision Of Bibllographles 8 16 k 5 31 100 122 11. Contact With Staff Members 26 k9 20 100 122 267 Question 8 5 - IN EVALUATING THE TEACHER TRAINING YOU RECEIVED DO YOU FEEL THE AMOUNT OF TIME DEVOTED TO PRACTICE TEACHING SHOULD BE INCREASED, DECREASED, OR LEFT AS IS? This question focuses attention on practice teaching and i t is noted i n Table CV that most of the beginning teach-ers irrespective of sex, teaching level or college attended, said they f e l t the amount of time devoted to practice teach-ing should be increased. The majority of beginning teachers who did not answer this question were teachers at the secondary level who were trained at U.B.C. The elementary level beginning teachers were pro-portionately higher i n number than th e i r secondary counter-parts when asking for an increase i n practice teaching time. B.C. BEGINNING TEACHERS, 1958 - 59 TIME DEVOTED SHOULD BE: TABLE CV - ATTITUDES TOWARD AMOUNT OF TIME SPENT ON PPACTICE TEACHING, BY SEX, TEACHING LEVEL AND COLLEGE ATTENDED (EXCLUDING THOSE NOT STATING) U.B.C. Elementary Secondary A l l Teachers Men Women Total Men Women Total No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % Increased Decreased L e f t As Is Total 27 66 151 77 178 75 73 73 39 78 112 75 290 75 1 1 1 2 2 2 1 3 1 lk 3k k3 22 57 2k 25 25 11 22 36 2k 93 2k k i 100 195 100 236 100 100 100 50 100 150 100 386 100 ro ON GO TIME DEVOTED SHOULD BE: Increased Decreased L e f t As Is Total VICTORIA COLLEGE Elementary Secondary A l l Teachers Men Women Total Men Women Total No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % 17 77 56 70 73 72 5 62 7 78 12 71 85 71 5 23 2k 30 29 28 3 37 2 22 5 29 3k 29 22 100 80 100 102 100 8 100 9 100 17 100 119 100 B.C. BEGINNING TEACHERS, 1958 - 59 TABLE CV (CONT'D) - ATTITUDES TOWARD AMOUNT OF TIME SPENT ON PRACTICE TEACHING, BY SEX, TEACHING LEVEL AND COLLEGE ATTENDED U.B.C. Elementary Secondary A l l Teachers TIME DEVOTED Men Women Total Men Women Total SHOULD BE: No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % Not Stated 8 16 9 4 17 7 38 28 28 36 66 31 83 18 Increased 27 55 i 5 i 74 178 70 73 53 39 50 112 52 290 62 Decreased 1 1 2 1 2 1 3 1 ro L e f t As Is lk 29 43 21 57 23 25 18 11 14 36 17 93 20 NO Total 49 100 204 100 253 100 138 100 78 100 216 100 469 100 VICTORIA COLLEGE Elementary Secondary A l l Teachers TIME DEVOTED Men Women Total Men Women Total SHOULD BE: No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % Not Stated 2 2 2 2 1 10 1 6 3 2 Increased 17 77 56 68 73 70 5 62 7 70 12 67 85 70 Decreased L e f t As Is 5 23 24 29 29 28 3 37 2 20 5 28 34 28 Total 22 100 82 100 104 100 8 100 10 100 18 100 122 100 270 Question 86 - DQ YOU PREFER PRACTICE TEACHING SESSIONS TO BE CARRIED OUT IN SESSIONS OF: (1) 2 OR 3 WEEKS (2) 1 WEEK (3) A DAY OR 2 PER WEEK (k) A COMBINATION OF WEEKLY AND DAILY SESSIONS This question attempts to give information about the kinds of practice teaching sessions beginning teachers said they preferred. The matter has been subject to many opinions and varying methods have been t r i e d out in the teach-er t r a i n i n g programs. Table CVl shows that 63% of the begin-ning teachers i n 1958 - 59 from U.B.C. and 50% from V i c t o r i a College said they preferred practice teaching sessions of two or three weeks duration. These teachers may have prefer-red even longer periods, say a month at a time, but provision was not made for such opinions i n the questionnaire. Another 28% of the U.B.C. beginning teachers and 37% of the V i c t o r i a College graduates reported a preference for a combination of weekly and d a i l y sessions of practice teaching. Some 31% of the secondary level beginning teachers from U.B.C. did not respond to the question and the findings are therefore sub-j e c t to c e r t a i n l i m i t a t i o n s . B.C. BEGINNING TEACHERS, 1958 - 59 TABLE CVl - ATTITUDES TOWARD PROGRAMMING OF PRACTICE TEACHING SESSIONS, BY SEX, TEACHING LEVEL AND COLLEGE ATTENDED (EXCLUDING THOSE NOT STATING) U.B.C. SESSIONS OF: Men Elementary Women Total No. % No. Secondary A l l Teachers Men Women Total No. % No. % No. No. % No. % rv> 2 Or 3 Weeks 25 61 125 61+ 15© 61+ 62 62 29 62 91 62 21+1 63 1 Week 5 12 8 1+ 13 5 9 9 3 6 12 8 25 6 A Day Or Two Per Week 1 2 1 1 2 1 7 7 1 2 8 5 10 3 A Combination Of Weekly And Dally Sessions 10 21+ 61 31 71 30 23 23 11+ 30 37 25 108 28 Total 1+1 100 195 100 236 100 101 100 1+7 100 11+8 100 38I+ 100 B.C. BEGINNING TEACHERS, 1958 - 59 TABLE CVI (CONT'D) - ATTITUDES TOWARD PROGRAMMING OF PRACTICE TEACHING SESSIONS, " BY SEX, TEACHING LEVEL AND COLLEGE ATTENDED (EXCLUDING THOSE NOT STATING) VICTORIA COLLEGE SESSIONS OF: Elementary Secondary A l l Teachers Men Women Total Men Women Total No. % No. % No. j No. % No. % No. % No. % ro ro 2 Or 3 Weeks 1 Week 8 ko k3 5k 51 51 k 50 k ko 8 kk 59 5o 5 25 8 10 13 13 2 20 2 II 15 13 A Day Or Two Per Week A Combination Of Weekly And Dai l y Sessions 7 35 29 36 36 36 k 50 k kO 8 kk kk 37 Total 20 100 80 100 100 100 8 100 10 100 18 100 118 100 B.C. BEGINNING- TEACHERS, 1958 - 59 TABLE CVl (CONT'D) - ATTITUDES TOWARD PROGRAMMING OF PRACTICE TEACHING SESSIONS, * BY SEX, TEACHING LEVEL AND COLLEGE ATTENDED U.B.C. SESSIONS OF: Elementary Men Women Total Secondary A l l Teachers Men Women Total No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % Not Stated 8 16 9 k 17 7 37 27 31 1+0 68 31 85 18 w 2 Or 3 Weeks 25 51 125 61 15© 59 62 1+5 29 37 91 1+2 2kl 5 l 1 Week 5 10 8 k 13 5 9 7 3 1+ 12 6 25 5 A Day Or Two Per Week 1 2 2 1 7 5 1 1 8 k 10 2 A Combination Of Weekly And Daily Sessions 10 20 61 30 71 28 23 17 ll+ 18 37 17 108 23 Total k9 100 20k 100 253 100 138 100 78 100 216 100 k69 100 B.C. BEGINNING TEACHERS, 1958 - 59 TABLE CVl (CONT'D) - ATTITUDES TOWARD PROGRAMMING OF PRACTICE TEACHING SESSIONS, BY SEX, TEACHING LEVEL AND COLLEGE ATTENDED VICTORIA COLLEGE SESSIONS OF: Elementary Secondary A l l Teachers Men Women Total Men Women Total No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % Not Stated 2 Or 3 Weeks 1 Week k k ro k 3 ^ 8 3 6 1*3 52 51 1+9 1* 5© 1* 1+0 8 k l * 59 1*8 5 23 8 10 13 12 2 20 2 11 15 12 A Day Or Two Per Week A Combination Of Weekly And Dally Sessions 7 3 2 2 9 3 5 3 6 3 5 k 50 8 1+1+ k k 3 6 Total 22 100 82 100 10k 100 8 100 10 100 18 100 122 100 275 Question 87 - HAVE THE TEACHERS UNDER WHOM YOU HAVE DONE PRACTICE TEACHING: (1) PROVIDED SUFFICIENT ACTUAL TEACHING EXPERIENCES, (2) PROVIDED SPECIFIC HELPFUL SUGGESTIONS The responses t© the two parts of this question are shown in Tables CVII and CVIII and i t is noted that there i s l i t t l e difference in the way beginning teachers answered both parts of the question. Generally, most beginning teachers said they were provided with s u f f i c i e n t actual teaching experiences and s p e c i f i c helpful suggestions by the teachers under whom they did their practice teaching. Again, proportionately more of the secondary begin-ning teachers who were trained at U.B.C. f a i l e d to comment on this question. B.C. BEGINNING TEACHERS, 1958 - 59 TABLE CVII - PROVISION OF SUFFICIENT ACTUAL TEACHING EXPERIENCES, BY SEX, TEACHING LEVEL AND COLLEGE ATTENDED (EXCLUDING THOSE NOT STATING) U.B.C. Elementary Secondary A l l Teachers Men Women Total Men Women Total No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % Yes 35 90 175 92 210 92 78 87 k3 81+ 121 86 331 89 0^ 0 s No k 10 15 8 19 8 12 13 8 16 20 111 39 11 Total 39 100 190 IOO 229 100 90 100 5 l 100 Ikl 100 370 100 VICTORIA COLLEGE Elementary Secondary A l l Teachers Men Women Total Men Women Total No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % Yes 19 86 65 8k 8k 85 8 100 9 90 17 9k 101 86 No 3 lk 12 16 15 15 1 10 1 6 16 lk Total 22 100 77 100 99 100 8 100 10 100 18 100 117 100 B.C. BEGINNING TEACHERS, 1958 - 59 TABLE CVlI (CONT'D) - PROVISION OF SUFFICIENT ACTUAL TEACHING EXPERIENCES, BY SEX, TEACHING LEVEL AND COLLEGE ATTENDED U.B.C. Elementary Secondary A l l Teachers Men Women Total Men Women Total No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % 10 20 lk 7 21+ 9 k8 35 27 35 75 35 99 21 Not Stated Yes No Total Not Stated Yes No Total 35 71 175 86 210 83 78 57 h3 55 121 56 331 71 k 8 15 7 19 8 12 9 8 10 20 9 39 8 k9 100 20k 100 253 100 138 100 78 100 216 100 k69 100 VICTORIA COLLEGE Elementary Secondary A l l Teachers Men Women Total Men Women Total No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % 5 6 5 5 5 k 19 86 65 79 8k 81 8 100 9 90 17 9k 101 83 3 lk 12 15 15 lk 1 10 1 6 16 13 22 100 82 100 10k 100 8 100 10 100 18 100 122 100 ro B.C. BEGINNING TEACHERS, 1958 - 59 TABLE CVI 11 - PROVISION OF SPECIFIC HELPFUL SUGGESTIONS DURING PRACTICE TEACHING, BY SEX, TEACHING LEVEL AND COLLEGE ATTENDED (EXCLUDING THOSE NOT STATING) U.B.C. Elementary Secondary A l l Teachers Men Women Total Men Women Total No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % Yes 3k 89 170 89 20k 89 76 8k 43 88 119 85 323 88 No k 11 20 11 2k 11 15 16 6 12 21 15 45 12 Total 38 100 190 100 228 100 91 100 49 100 140 100 368 100 VICTORIA COLLEGE Elementary Secondary A l l Teachers Men Women Total Men Women Total No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % Yes 16 76 69 87 85 85 8 100 9 100 17 100 102 87 No 5 24 10 13 15 15 15 13 Total 21 100 79 100 100 100 8 100 9 100 17 100 117 100 ro co B.C. BEGINNING TEACHERS, 1958 - 59 TABLE CVlII (CONT'D) - PROVISION OF SPECIFIC HELPFUL SUGGESTIONS DURING PRACTICE TEACHING BY SEX, TEACHING LEVEL AND COLLEGE ATTENDED U.B.C. Elementary Secondary A l l Teachers Men Women Total Men Women Total No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % Not Stated 11 22 lk 7 25 10 k7 3k 29 37 76 35 101 21 Yes 3k 69 170 83 20k 81 76 55 k3 55 119 55 323 69 ^ No k 8 20 10 2k 9 15 11 6 8 21 10 k5 10 Total k9 100 20k 100 253 100 138 100 78 100 216 100 k69 100 VICTORIA COLLEGE Elementary Secondary A l l Teachers Men Women Total Men Women Total No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % Not Stated 1 5 3 1* • k h 1 1 0 1 6 5 k Yes 16 73 69 8k 85 82 8 100 9 90 17 9k 102 8k No 5 23 10 12 15 lk 15 12 Total 22 100 82 100 10k 100 8 100 10 100 18 100 122 100 280 Question 88 - IN EVALUATING THE HELP GIVEN BY YOUR FACULTY ADVISORS, CHECK THE TYPE OF AID YOU RECEIVED IN THE FOLLOWING AREAS (1) DEVELOPING BROAD CONCEPTS OF TEACHING (2) ASSISTING WITH PRACTICAL PROBLEMS (3) ASSISTING WITH PERSONAL PROBLEMS Three areas are l i s t e d i n this question and the beginning teachers responses are shown i n Table CIX. Gen-e r a l l y , most beginning teachers said they got some help in developing broad concepts of teaching and assistance with p r a c t i c a l problems but somewhat more than half of the begin-ners reportedly got l i t t l e or no help with personal prob-lems, irrespe c t i v e of the college attended. The V i c t o r i a College graduates said they got pro-portionately more help with p r a c t i c a l problems than th e i r counterparts from U.B.C. This is expected i n view of the answers given to Question 83 wherein i t was noted that the V i c t o r i a College students reported proportionately more opportunity for interviews with s t a f f members and more sem-inars than t h e i r U.B.C. colleagues. It would seem that the s t a f f of V i c t o r i a College i n 1958 - 59 were able to estab-l i s h a closer r e l a t i o n s h i p with th e i r students than that made possible at U.B.C. and hence a s s i s t them during th e i r t r a i n i n g program. B.C. BEGINNING TEACHERS, 1958 - 59 TABLE CIX - HELP GIVEN BY FACULTY ADVISORS, BY COLLEGE ATTENDED (EXCLUDING THOSE NOT STATING) U.B.C. Percent Reporting 1. Developing Broad Concepts Of Teaching 2. A s s i s t i n g With P r a c t i c a l Problems 3. A s s i s t i n g With Personal Problems Much 16 23 12 Some 56 kk 25 L i t t l e 22 26 33 None 8 30 Total % 100 100 100 Tetal Number 377 379 375 ro co VICTORIA COLLEGE Percent Reporting 1. Developing Broad Concepts Of Teaching 2. A s s i s t i n g With P r a c t i c a l Problems 3. A s s i s t i n g With Personal Problems Much Some 18 36 22 50 k8 28 L i t t l e 29 16 25 None 25 Total % 100 100 100 Total Number 119 120 119 B.C. BEGINNING TEACHERS, 1958 - 59  TABLE CIX (CONT'D) - HELP GIVEN BY FACULTY ADVISORS, ALL TEACHERS, BY COLLEGE ATTENDED U.B.C. 1. Developing Broad Concepts Of Teaching 2. A s s i s t i n g With P r a c t i c a l Problems 3. A s s i s t i n g With Personal Problems Not Percent Reporting Stated Much Some L i t t l e None 20 19 20 13 19 9 45 35 20 18 21 27 6 24 Total % No, 100 469 100 469 ro 100 469 GO ro VICTORIA COLLEGE 1. Developing Broad Concepts Of Teaching 2. A s s i s t i n g With P r a c t i c a l Problems 3. A s s i s t i n g With Personal Problems Not Percent Reporting Stated Much Some L i t t l e None 17 21 49 35 47 27 28 16 25 25 Total % No, 100 122 100 122 100 122 283 Question 89 - WHAT IS YOUR OPINION REGARDING THE VALUE OF THE ELEMENTARY METHODS COURSES THAT YOU HAVE TAKEN? (1) LANGUAGE ARTS (2) READING ( 3 ) ARITHMETIC (k) SCIENCE (5) SOCIAL STUDIES ( 6 ) ART (7) MUSIC (8) PHYSICAL EDUCATION Table CX shows that beginning teachers trained at U.B.C. made a proportionately higher number of -not stated 1 responses than beginning teachers from V i c t o r i a College. This Is due in part to two factors, one being the higher pro-portion of secondary level teachers coming from U.B.C. and who would not have taken the elementary methods courses, the other factor being the tendency on the part of some of the U.B.C. group not to answer c e r t a i n questions on the question-naire. Bearing in mind the higher 'not stated' r a t i o of the U.B.C. trained teachers, Table CX Indicates courses such as reading, arithmetic, art and physical education could be considered as having f a i r l y high value for the U.B.C. trained beginners whereas courses l i k e science, s o c i a l studies and music were reported by these teachers as having some to l i t t l e value. 28k For those beginning teachers who graduated from V i c t o r i a College, elementary courses such as reading, a r i t h -metic and art were rated to be of high value whereas lan-guage ar t s , science, s o c i a l studies and physical education were stated as being of some or l i t t l e value generally. Science and s o c i a l studies are two courses rated of some or l i t t l e value by the beginning teachers irresp e c t i v e of the i r teacher t r a i n i n g college. It is possible that a curriculum or teaching problem could exist in these areas, p a r t i c u l a r l y at the elementary l e v e l . B.C. BEGINNING TEACHERS, 1958 * 59 TABLE CX - VALUE OF ELEMENTARY METHODS COURSES TAKEN, BY COLLEGE ATTENDED (EXCLUDING THOSE NOT STATING) U.B.C. COURSE 1. Language Arts 2. Reading 3. Arithmetic 1+. Science 5. Social Studies 6. A r t 7. Music 8. Physical Education High Value 2k 1+2 1+7 18 16 56 11+ 1+5 Some Value 57 1+3 39 1+9 39 37 1+8 1+7 Percent Reporting L i t t l e Value 20 15 11+ 33 1+5 8 38 8 Total % 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 Total No. 286 281 282 283 281+ 279 279 280 ro CO B.C. BEGINNING TEACHERS, 1958 - 59 TABLE CX (CONT'D) - VALUE OF ELEMENTARY METHODS COURSES TAKEN (EXCLUDING THOSE NOT STATING) VICTORIA COLLEGE COURSE 1. Language A r t s 2. Reading 3 . Arithmetic k. Science 5. Social Studies 6. A r t 7. Music 8, Physical Education High Value 15 58 67 27 35 68 36 38 Some Value ho 34 2 9 50 kk 2 6 hi hz Percent Reporting L i t t l e Value 45 8 h 23 21 6 17 20 Total % 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 Total No. 120 120 120 120 120 120 120 120 ro co ON B.C. BEGINNING TEACHERS, 1958 - 59 TABLE CX (CONT'D) - VALUE OF ELEMENTARY METHODS COURSES TAKEN, ALL TEACHERS, BY COLLEGE ATTENDED U.B.C. Percent Reporting COURSE 1. Language Arts 2. Reading 3» Arithmetic k. Science Not Stated 39 kO ko kO High Value lk 25 28 11 Some Value 35 2 6 2k 30 L i t t l e Value 12 8 20 100 100 Total No. k69 k69 100 k69 100 k69 ro eo -si 5. Social Studies 39 10 2k 27 100 k69 6. A r t kO 33 22 100 k69 7. Music kO 2 9 23 100 k69 8. Physical Education kO 27 28 5 100 k69 B.C. BEGINNING- TEACHERS, 1958 - 59 TABLE CX (CONT'D) - VALUE OF ELEMENTARY METHODS COURSES TAKEN. ALL TEACHERS, BY COLLEGE ATTENDED VICTORIA COLLEGE Percent Reporting COURSE 1. Language Arts 2. Reading 3. Arithmetic k. Science 5. Social Studies 6. A r t 7. Music 8. Physical Education Not Stated 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 High Value 15 57 66 26 3k 67 35 37 Some Value 39 3k 29 k9 k3 25 k6 k2 L i t t l e Value kk 23 20 6 17 20 Total % No. 100 122 100 122 100 122 100 122 100 100 100 100 122 122 122 122 ro CO 289 Question 90 - WHAT IS YOUR OPINION REGARDING THE VALUE OF THE SECONDARY METHODS COURSES THAT YOU HAVE TAKEN? It i s evident from Table CXI that only a small proportion of beginning teachers In 1958 — 59 took any secondary methods courses at a l l . The data indicate very l i t t l e in the way of beginning teachers evaluations of sec-ondary methods courses. It would appear that few had taken secondary method courses having enrolled In the elementary program. The few teachers who did report did not d i f f e r e n -t i a t e to any great extent between high, some or l i t t l e value as regards the secondary courses, hence conclusions are not warranted here. B.C. BEGINNING TEACHERS, 1958 - 59  TABLE CXI - VALUE OF SECONDARY METHODS COURSES TAKEN, ALL TEACHERS, BY COLLEGE ATTENDED U.B.C. Percent Reporting COURSE 1. English 2. French 3. L a t i n k. German 5. Spanish 6. History 7. Geography 8. Mathematics Not Stated 80 91 97 97 97 85 88 87 High Value 3 7 5 Some Value 8 1 6 k 6 L i t t l e Value 6 1 5 l 2 Total % No. 100 k69 100 k69 100 k69 100 k69 100 100 100 100 k69 k69 k69 k69 ro sO © 9. Science 86 100 k69 B.C. BEGINNING TEACHERS, 1958 - 59  TABLE CXI (CONT'D) - VALUE OF SECONDARY METHODS COURSES TAKEN, ALL TEACHERS, BY COLLEGE ATTENDED VICTORIA COLLEGE 1. English 2. French 3. L a t i n k. German 5. Spanish 6. History 7. Geography 8. Mathematics 9. Science Not Stated 71 86 95 97 98 8k 8k 83 83 Percent Reporting High Value 7 6 7 10 Some Value 16 7 9 8 6 L i t t l e Value 8 2 2 2 1 2 1 Total % No. 100 122 100 122 100 122 100 100 100 100 100 122 122 122 122 122 122 ro V0 B.C. BEGINNING TEACHERS, 1958 - 59  TABLE CXI (CONT'D) - VALUE OF SECONDARY METHODS COURSES TAKEN, ALL TEACHERS, BY COLLEGE ATTENDED COURSE 10. A r t U.B.C. Not Stated 92 High Value Percent Reporting Some L i t t l e Value 3 Value 1 Total % No. 100 L69 11. Health And Physical Development 12. Physical Education 13. Music l k . Commerce 15. Industrial Arts 16. Home Economics 17. Agriculture 18. Drama 88 87 9k 96 93 95 98 96 3 8 2 1 5 2 7 k 2 2 1 2 1 1 100 k69 100 k69 100 k69 100 k69 100 k69 100 k69 100 k69 100 k69 ro vO ro B.C. BEGINNING TEACHERS. 1958 - 59 TABLE CXI (CQNT-D) - VALUE OF SECONDARY METHODS COURSES TAKEN, ALL TEACHERS, BY COLLEGE ATTENDED VICTORIA COLLEGE COURSE 1 0 . A r t Not Stated 83 Percent Reporting High Value Some Value L i t t l e Value Total % No. 100 122 11 . Health And Physical Development 1 2 . Physical Education 1 3 . Music lk. Commerce l5» Industrial Arts 16. Home Economics 17. Agriculture 18. Drama 83 81 85 90 96 88 97 9k 7 8 5 k 2 1 1 6 8 7 3 1 k 5 100 122 3 100 122 3 100 122 2 100 122 3 100 122 6 100 122 1 100 122 2 100 122 ro 29k Question 91 - CHECK THE ITEMS WHICH YOU FEEL SHOULD RECEIVE MORE, LESS, OR THE SAME EMPHASIS IN THE TEACHER TRAINING PROGRAM This question attempts to provide information about beginning teachers attitudes toward c e r t a i n aspects of the i r teacher training program. It is possible that items reported by beginning teachers as requiring more emphasis in the t r a i n -ing program are areas that have given them d i f f i c u l t y during the f i r s t year of teaching in B.C. It is shown in Table CXII that $0% or more of the beginning teachers from both U.B.C. and V i c t o r i a College training centres expressed the fee l i n g that more emphasis should be given to the following items: methods of teaching, c o n t r o l l i n g and d i s c i p l i n i n g pupils, providing for Individual differences, knowledge of phonics, grading and evaluating stu-dent progress, knowledge of subject matter, obtaining, se-lecting and using i n s t r u c t i o n a l material and observation of teachers in action. With the remaining items the majority of beginning teachers f e l t the emphasis should be the same or less. When comparing the responses of each college sep-arately, It is noted that proportionately more V i c t o r i a College graduates than U.B.C. ones stated they f e l t more emphasis should be placed on methods of teaching, providing 295 for individual differences, knowledge of phonics and grading, evaluating student progress. Proportionately more U.B.C. graduates than V i c t o r i a College student-teachers reported the opinion that more emphasis should be placed on individual s k i l l s and planning lessons. B.C. BEGINNING TEACHERS, 1958 - 59 TABLE CXII - DEGREE OF EMPHASIS QN CERTAIN ASPECTS OF TEACHER TRAINING PROGRAM, (EXCLUDING THOSE NOT STATING) U.B.C. Percent Reporting Degree Of Emphasis ASPECT More Same Less Total % Tota No. 1. Handling Extra-Currlcular A c t i v i t i e s 36 58 6 100 363 2. Methods Of Teaching 62 29 8 100 37k 3. Using Audio-Visual Aids 31+ 55 11 100 369 i+. Controlling And D i s c i p l i n i n g Pupils 60 39 1 100 381 5. Counselling And Guidance 1+1+ 52 k 100 361 6. Providing For Individual Differences 58 ko 2 100 338 7. Knowledge Of Phonics 61 37 2 100 336 8. Keeping O f f i c i a l Records And Reports 27 65 7 100 369 9. Grading, Evaluating Student Progress 51 k6 3 100 36k .0. Organizing Classroom Schedules 33 63 k 100 366 B.C. BEGINNING- TEACHERS, 1958 - 59  TABLE CXII (CONT'D) - DEGREE OF EMPHASIS ON CERTAIN ASPECTS OF TEACHER TRAINING PROGRAM (EXCLUDING THOSE NOT STATING) VICTORIA COLLEGE Percent Reporting Degree Of Emphasis ASPECT More Same Less Total % Total No. 1. Handling Extra-Curricular A c t i v i t i e s 32 66 3 100 117 2. Methods Of Teaching 73 22 5 100 118 3. Using Audio-Visual Aids 37 55 8 100 118 k. Cont r o l l i n g And D i s c i p l i n i n g Pupils 57 k2 2 100 118 5. Counselling And Guidance 38 60 2 100 115 6. Providing For Individual Differences 67 33 100 107 7. Knowledge Of Phonics 78 22 1 100 120 8. Keeping O f f i c i a l Records And Reports 32 66 2 100 119 9. Grading, Evaluating Student Progress 6k 36 100 119 10. Organizing Classroom Schedules 31 65 3 100 118 ro vO B.C. BEGINNING TEACHERS, 1958 - 59 TABLE CXII (CONT'D) - DEGREE OF EMPHASIS ON CERTAIN ASPECTS OF TEACHER TRAINING PROGRAM (EXCLUDING THOSE NOT STATING) U.B.C. Percent Reporting Degree Of Emphasis ASPECT More Same Less Total % Tota No. 11. Dealing With Parents 33 63 k 100 366 12 © Individual S k i l l s -Musical, A r t i s t i c 27 69 5 100 348 13. Using And Administering Tests And Measurements kk 51 5 100 369 l k . Understanding Young People 36 59 5 100 368 15. Knowledge Of Subject Matter 60 37 k 100 375 16. Planning Lessons 32 61 7 100 375 17. Obtaining, Selecting And Using Instructional Material 51 k6 3 100 371 18. Observation Of Teachers In Action 71 26 3 100 373 19. Use Of Journals And Research Material 23 69 8 100 368 B.C. BEGINNING- TEACHERS, 1958 - 59 TABLE CXII (CONT'D) - DEGREE OF EMPHASIS ON CERTAIN ASPECTS OF TEACHER TRAINING PROGRAM (EXCLUDING THOSE NOT STATING) VICTORIA COLLEGE Percent Reporting Degree Qf Emphasis ASPECT More Same Less Total % Total No. 11. Dealing With Parents 36 62 3 100 118 12. Individual S k i l l s -Musical, A r t i s t i c 19 72 8 100 119 13. Using And Administering Tests And Measurements k3 55 2 100 119 lk. Understanding Young People 36 63 1 100 119 15. Knowledge Of Subject Matter 52 k6 2 100 120 16. Planning Lessons 22 72 6 100 119 17. Obtaining, Selecting And Using Instructional Material 53 k7 1 100 118 18. Observation Of Teachers In Action 66 29 5 100 121 19. Use Of Journals And Research Material 20 7k 6 100 118 B.C. BEGINNING TEACHERS, 1958 - 59 TABLE CXI I (CONT'D) - DEGREE QF EMPHASIS ON CERTAIN ASPECTS OF TEACHER TRAINING PROGRAM, ALL TEACHERS, BY COLLEGE ATTENDED U.B.C. Percent Reporting Degree Of Emphasis ASPECT Not Stated More Same Less Total % No. 1 . Handling Extra-Currlcular A c t i v i t i e s 23 28 1+5 5 100 1*69 2. Methods Of Teaching 20 5 0 23 7 1 0 0 1+69 3. Using Audio-Visual Aids 21 27 1+3 9 1 0 0 1+69 k. Controlling And D i s c i p l i n i n g Pupils 19- 1+9 32 1 1 0 0 1*69 5 . Counsel 1 ing-And Guidance 23 34 ko 3 1 0 0 1+69 6. Providing For Individual Differences 28 1+2 29 2 1 0 0 1+69 7. Knowledge Of Phonics 28 1+1+ 26 2 1 0 0 k69 8. Keeping O f f i c i a l Records And Reports 21 21 5 1 6 1 0 0 1+69 9. Grading, Evaluating Student Progress 20 5 i 28 1 1 0 0 1+69 1 0 . Organizing Classroom Schedules 22 39 36 2 1 0 0 1+69 © © B.C. BEGINNING TEACHERS, 1958 - 59 TABLE CXI I (CONT'D) - DEGREE QF EMPHASIS ON CERTAIN ASPECTS QF TEACHER TRAINING PROGRAM, ALL TEACHERS, BY COLLEGE ATTENDED VICTORIA COLLEGE Percent Reporting Degree Of Emphasis ASPECT Not Stated More Same Less Total % No. 1. Handling Extra-Curricular A c t i v i t i e s k 30 63 2 100 122 2. Methods Of Teaching 3 71 21 5 100 122 3. Using Audio-Visual Aids 3 36 53 7 100 122 k- C o n t r o l l i n g And D i s c i p l i n i n g Pupils 3 55 ko 1 100 122 5. Counselling And Guidance 6 36 57 2 100 122 6. Providing For Individual Differences 12 59 29 100 122 7. Knowledge Of Phonics 2 76 21 1 100 122 8. Keeping O f f i c i a l Records And Reports 2 31 6k 2 100 122 9. Grading, Evaluating Student Progress 2 62 35 100 122 .0. Organizing Classroom Schedules 3 30 63 3 100 122 B.C. BEGINNING TEACHERS, 1958 - 59 TABLE CXI I (CQNT-D) - DEGREE OF EMPHASIS QN CERTAIN ASPECTS QF TEACHER TRAINING PROGRAM, ALL TEACHERS, BY COLLEGE ATTENDED U.B.C. Emphasis ASPECT Not Stated More Same Less Total % No. 11. Dealing With Parents 22 26 k9 3 100 k69 12. Individual S k i l l s -Musical, A r t i s t i c 26 20 51 3 100 k69 13. Using And Administering Tests And Measurements 17 35 kO k 100 k69 l k . Understanding Young People 21 28 k7 k 100 k69 15. Knowledge Of Subject Matter 20 k8 29 3 100 k69 16. Planning Lessons 20 26 k8 6 100 k69 17. Obtaining, Selecting And Using Instructional Material 21 ko 36 3 100 k69 18. Observation Of Teachers In Action 20 56 20 3 100 k69 19. Use Of Journals And Research Material 21 18 5k 7 100 k69 O ro TABLE CXII (CONT'D) - DEGREE OF EMPHASIS ON CERTAIN ASPECTS OF TEACHER TRAINING PROGRAM, ALL TEACHERS, BY COLLEGE ATTENDED VICTORIA COLLEGE Percent Reporting Degree Of Emphasis ASPECT Not Stated More Same Less Total % No. 11. Dealing With Parents 3 34 60 2 100 122 12. Individual S k i l l s -Musical, A r t i s t i c 2 19 71 8 .100 122 13. Using And Administering Tests And Measurements 2 42 54 2 100 122 Understanding Young People 2 36 61 1 100 122 15. Knowledge Of Subject Matter 2 51 45 2 100 122 16. Planning Lessons 2 21 70 6 100 122 17. Obtaining, Selecting And Using Instructional Material 3 51 45 1 100 122 18. Observation Of Teachers In Action 1 66 29 5 100 122 19. Use Of Journals And Research Material 3 20 71 6 100 122 ANALYSIS OF COMMENTS REGARDING BEGINNING TEACHER QUESTIONNAIRE Now That You Have Completed The Questionnaire What  Bid Yog Like Or D i s l i k e About It? A variety of comments were made i n response to t h i s request and these have been c l a s s i f i e d and reported below. A t o t a l of 299 beginning teachers out of 591 commented on the questionnaire. (Numbers i n brackets where shown refer to No. of teachers commenting.) Seventy-eight beginning teachers expressed the opinion that the questionnaire covered a l l aspects of their teaching s i t u a t i o n e f f i c i e n t l y and thoroughly. Another 25 said the form was good because of the potential r e s u l t s that might lead to improvements i n the f i e l d of teaching. The check method of answering the questionnaire appeared favorable to 20 teachers and 17 commented on the c l a r i t y of the items and the ease with which the form could be completed. The questionnaire reportedly caused 16 teach-ers to evaluate their teaching role in the l i g h t of the items and suggested some s e l f analysis of t h e i r p o s i t i o n . For lk teachers, the form gave them an opportunity to comment 305 on the College of Education. Seven teachers stated that the questionnaire a l -lowed them to express their opinions where otherwise they might not have done so. •Ambiguous items' was a c r i t i c i s m mentioned by 3k beginning teachers, s p e c i f i c a l l y item k5» "Relation to the Community". Those teachers who began teaching in a larger urban centre had d i f f i c u l t y in the interpretation of the term community as i t applied to their s i t u a t i o n . The opinion that the questionnaire was too long was expressed by 28 teachers and 21 f e l t that the items did not make s u f f i c i e n t provision for subjective feelings on various issues. Nine teachers commented on the view that some questions were irrelevant and 9 said some items were too personal. Other comments included: a questioning of the form's purpose ( 8 ) , that i t was of l i t t l e value ( 3 ) , more d e t a i l was wanted (2), that i t was unethical (2), d i s l i k e d the form being numbered (2), the questionnaire was not suited to teachers from foreign countries (2), and two said they didn't l i k e the questionnaire. ANALYSIS OF GENERAL COMMENTS, BEGINNING TEACHER Any General Comments Yog Could Make About Your  F i r s t Year Of Teaching In B r i t i s h Columbia Would Be Appreciated Of the 591 beginning teachers who completed the questionnaire, k67 commented on t h i s question. Their state-ments were r e l a t i v e l y spontaneous and the groupings below were a r b i t r a r i l y set up for analysis purposes. (Numbers in brackets where shown r e f e r to No. of responses.) Teaching Job And Working Conditions The f i r s t year of teaching was enjoyed very much, according to lkO beginning teachers. Another 20 said t h e i r f i r s t year i n teaching was very s a t i s f a c t o r y , 8 found teach-ing a rewarding experience, 3 said t h e i r f i r s t year was very stimulating and one beginner f e l t she was lucky to have been in a nice school. One teacher found teaching very t i r i n g and was fed up while another beginner could l i k e teaching i f she were able to f i n d a happy school s i t u a t i o n . In a number of i n -stances, enjoyment of teaching appeared related to the help received by the beginning teacher from fellow s t a f f and p r i n c i p a l . Those s p e c i f i c a l l y stating they received much help from s t a f f numbered 20. 307 It was f e l t by 25 teachers that the f i r s t year teaching load was too heavy and 2 teachers stated they should have been prepared to expect an extra work load. Coupled with this f e e l i n g was the comment made by 21 beginners that the pupil-teacher r a t i o in their classes was too high. Problems of organization and establishing adequate routines were mentioned by 13 teachers and 11 teachers said there were too many reports and forms to complete. Lesson preparation takes a lot of time according to 10 teachers and 10 didn't think that beginning teachers should have to teach multigrade classes during their f i r s t year. Several teachers (9) said there were too many other duties to perform that were not d i r e c t l y related to teaching and 8 suggested that more s e c r e t a r i a l help ought to be provided. Two teachers stated there should be teachers aids. That teachers l i v i n g quarters, i . e . teacherages should be improved was the opinion of 5 beginners. Other views expressed regarding working conditions were: too much time is spent on extra-curricular a c t i v i t i e s of a purely s o c i a l nature ( 2 ) ; help is needed from fellow teachers for the f i r s t while ( 1 ) ; 3 spare periods per week should be given to beginning teachers ( 1 ) . 3Q8 Salaries And Fringe Benefits Salaries are inadequate according to 6 beginners. It was also f e l t that: there should be a standard wage scale throughout the province with special allowances for remote areas (1); s a l a r i e s for elementary and secondary teachers with comparable q u a l i f i c a t i o n s should be the same (1); the span between highest and lowest s a l a r i e s is too great (1), and the time required to reach maximum salary i s too long (1). ©ne teacher said married men should receive a higher salary than the present scale affords and another teacher suggested that pension payments should be optional for married women. Additional money should be paid to grade one teachers (1) and to those teachers completing extra courses beyond c e r t i -f i c a t i o n (1). Teacher Assignments The beginning teachers confined their comments to courses within the school. I t was stated by k teachers that they had been given courses for which they were not prepared whereas 3 beginners were not given courses as promised. One teacher commented on her d i s l i k e for teaching health and personal development. Super intendents Superintendents appeared to beginning teachers as one: who didn't give enough constructive advice (1), whose requirements should be stated at the beginning of the year (1), who tended to discourage, not encourage (1), and who tended to make beginning teachers nervous (1). 309 P r i n c i p a l s Some pr i n c i p a l s are d i c t a t o r i a l (1) whereas they should make comments regarding the beginners progress during the f i r s t year of teaching (1) , and should be more p o s i t i v e l y c r i t i c a l ( l ) and give more help (2). Consultants Although 3 teachers found consultants h e l p f u l , 3 also f e l t that consultants could be more helpful to them. Inconsistent ideas concerning teaching techniques seem to exist among supervisors, p r i n c i p a l s and consultants (1) while some consultants tend to think in terms of one method only as the r i g h t teaching method (1 ) . General Comments On Supervision And Administration Although 2 teachers found th e i r supervision very h e l p f u l , one teacher stated that there was not enough super-v i s i o n of beginning teachers. I t was also f e l t by one begin-ning teacher that there should be a more adequate teacher rating method. School boards become Impersonal when large (1) , are too d i c t a t o r i a l i n that there is not enough scope l e f t for teacher i n i t i a t i v e ( l ) , have expectations that are too high and lead to excessive pressure of work (1) . One teacher d i s l i k e d the length and uselessness of d i s t r i c t association meetings while one teacher suggested that teach-er-supervisor meetings should be held during school hours. 310 The school board has more control over education than the teachers one teacher pointed out. Another said teachers cannot be professionals i f controlled by non-prefessional people on school boards. Physical F a c i l i t i e s Inadequacies were f e l t to exist in classroom equip-ment (8) playground (1) physical education f a c i l i t i e s (3) vi s u a l aid material (2) paper and pencils (2) and transpor-tation (1). The opinion that school buildings could be plan-ned better ( l ) , heated t i l l 5 p.m. for work (1), and equipped for electives offered (1) was also expressed by beginning teachers. Books And L i b r a r y Many school texts were considered inadequate by 8 teachers including arithmetic texts (1) and science texts (1). There should be more Canadian textbooks (2) and more useful seatwork books (1). Five teachers commented on the inadequacy of the i r school l i b r a r y while two teachers f e l t the l i b r a r y at the U.B.C. College of Education was poor. Teacher Q u a l i f i c a t i o n s Four teachers were of the opinion that in-service training p a r t i c u l a r l y summer sessions and extra-sessional courses, was hindered by lack of finances. Relative to the qua l i t y of teachers, i t was f e l t that every teacher should have k years t r a i n i n g (1), teacher trainees should be screened (1), a l l teachers should take a B.A. followed by 1 year of 311 p r a c t i c a l experience (1) and that the B. Ed. degree was r e l a t i v e l y useless i n comparison with a B.A. ( 1 ) . Other points mentioned were: the Faculty of Education evaluated credits inconsistently ( 1 ) , a College of Education should be established at an i n t e r i o r location in B.C. ( 1 ) , and one teacher d i s l i k e d the idea of having to take a year out from teaching to attend U.B.C. for a degree. School Board in-service t r a i n i n g programmes were a waste of time, repeating College of Education training ( 1 ) . Teacher Training More practice teaching was suggested by 33 beginning teachers. While 25 teachers commented on the weakness of education courses at the College of Education, another 16 said the lectures were a waste of time. Courses were repe-t i t i o u s and overlapped too much ( 1 0 ) ; and E n g l i s h 200 was deemed of l i t t l e value to elementary teachers (k). Exam-inations were considered of low c a l i b r e by one teacher. The teaching s t a f f at the College of Education were too i d e a l i s t i c in the i r approach and procedures to teach-ing (11), were of poor c a l i b r e as instructors ( 6 ) , some being mediocre (3) and not aware of the problems in the f i e l d (3)» and others conveyed a superior attitude toward the students ( 2 ) . Eight teachers f e l t they were inadequately prepared for teaching, and some said they lacked knowledge i n subject 312 matter (10), did not receive enough in s t r u c t i o n regarding d i s c i p l i n e (6), needed more training to handle the exception-a l c h i l d (k), required more training in programming and or-ganization of teaching a c t i v i t i e s (6), f e l t that greater emphasis should have been placed on vis u a l aids (3)> on rural schools (3), phonics (2), and administration (2). Beginning teachers went on to say that more t r a i n -ing was required i n : adolescent psychology (1), the role of extra-curricular a c t i v i t i e s in the school (2), shop t r a i n i n g for Industrial A r t s (1), inter-relatedness between elementary and secondary programmes ( l ) , how to deal with parents (1), and reporting achievement of pupils (1). Practicum observers were destructively c r i t i c a l , according to 2 teachers and another said there should be more pos i t i v e c r i t i c i s m regarding teaching techniques. Suggestions r e l a t i n g to types of t r a i n i n g programmes were advanced by several beginning teachers. One proposed a two year college programme followed by 1 year teaching then returning to the college for a degree. Another f e l t that, i n the 3rd year of t r a i n i n g , students could become ap-prentice teachers. In their kth year they could teach or return to college. An apprenticeship scheme rather than teacher t r a i n i n g was advocated by 2 teachers. Other comments concerning teacher training and the College ef Education were: provision should be made for those 313 already s k i l l e d In a special area whereby c e r t a i n courses in that s p e c i f i c f i e l d do not have to be taken (1), some explanation of objectives held by the B.C.T.F. and where dues are spent should be made i n the College (1), the one year "emergency course" is of l i t t l e value, too much theory and not enough practice (6), more outside reading should be re-quired (1), there i s d i f f i c u l t y in changing courses in College of Education (1), not enough expert demonstration lessons (7)# more guidance and counselling for prospective teachers (1), more seminars (1), experienced teachers have low opinion of the College of Education (1). One teacher f e l t that the primary methods course was most valuable, and another f e l t s i m i l a r l y toward the En g l i s h 200 course. Public Relations People expect perfection of teachers (1), talk about teachers too much (1) and assume teachers to be strange (1). There was limited s o c i a l opportunity in the community, said one teacher and another found the community not too f r i e n d l y . Parent-Teacher Relationships One teacher remarked that teachers are not regarded as professionals by parents and another beginner suggested that parents ought to know more about their scheol system. The Doukobor problem was referred to by one teacher. Parents: complain about too s t r i c t d i s c i p l i n e (1), too much homework (1), are either d i c t a t o r i a l toward the teacher (1) or lack an intere s t in school (1). 31k D i s c i p l i n e Six beginning teachers reported having d i f f i c u l t y in maintaining d i s c i p l i n e and 5 suggested that the standards of d i s c i p l i n e were poor. A problem for 3 teachers was the lack of support from the administration regarding d i s c i p l i n e . That d i s c i p l i n e problems are created by s t a f f , not pupils (1) and corporal punishment should be designed to cure, not provoke d i f f i c u l t i e s (1), and there should be more s t r i c t d i s c i p l i n e (1), was also expressed by beginning teachers. One teacher found the head-teacher-priacipal admini-s t r a t i o n detrimental to d i s c i p l i n e while another reported having no guidance regarding d i s c i p l i n a r y measures. It was the opinion of one teacher that parents should be informed of d i s c i p l i n a r y methods. Promotional P o l i c y And Achievement Standards Three teachers remarked on the d i f f i c u l t y experienced in setting standards of work. The requirements for promotion are too low (2), there are too many In the un i v e r s i t y program (1), promotions with low standards are occurring In rur a l areas ( l ) , and too many weak students are entering grade 12 without a hope of passing (1). One teacher stated that the normal curve d i s t r i -bution was not p r a c t i c a l while another f e l t that an absolute standard was needed and must be met before promotion could occur. 315 Seatwarmers Seatwarmers: should be dealt with more s t r i c t l y (1), should be ousted at the grade 9 le v e l (1), should be put in special schools ( l ) , should be controlled by the regulations provided for them (1). The treatment of seat-warmers i s related to the need of a more academic atmosphere i n the classroom (1). Examinations And Standardized Testing One teacher noted that examples of well designed examinations should be provided beginning teachers. Curriculum Health and Personal Development courses are r e l a -t i v e l y useless, 5 teachers stated, and there should be less emphasis placed on H.P.D. (2). Beginning teachers should not be assigned high school H.P.D. (1). Other comments concerning curriculum were: not enough l o c a l autonomy regarding cur-riculum (k), more emphasis on reading at elementary level (2), curriculum vague (2), too much r e p e t i t i o n i n curriculum (1), more time should be a l l o t t e d for l i b r a r y work (1), more curriculum planning by supervisors (1), need new course of studies for Home Economics (1), too much r e p e t i t i o n in science courses (1), should be conversational French from Grade 5 np (1), one foreign language should be compulsory (1), s o c i a l studies courses need standardizing (1), the Art program is i l l - d e f i n e d (1), a phonetic language system should be adopted (1). 316 One teacher said there was not enough provision for the g i f t e d c h i l d i n the curriculum. Homogeneous Grouping And Streaming Classes are too heterogeneous (9), and there should be homogeneous grouping at a l l grades ( 1 ) . Two teachers suggested r e d i r e c t i o n of pupils lacking a b i l i t y and motiva-t i o n . One beginner would separate boys and g i r l s at Grade 7 and another advocated 5 streams. These were: intensive academic, terminal general, high q u a l i t y t e c h n i c a l , slow learners, and retarded. Enrichment And Acceleration It was the opinion of k teachers that g i f t e d c h i l -dren were not being expected to achieve to capacity. One teacher recommended accelerated programs for superior childr e n and another suggested a d i f f e r e n t course content for bright and slow students. Retarded And Disturbed Children Six teachers said they needed more tr a i n i n g in handling this group while another 3 stated that the retarded children need a special program. Special schools (1) and special visual aids (1) are also needed for the retarded. Report Cards Five teachers say they f i n d the report form too vague, one s p e c i f i c a l l y r e f e r r i n g to the vagueness of the N symbol. There i s d i f f i c u l t y in evaluating pupils on the 317 basis of report categories (1) and perhaps a percentage basis should be adopted ( 1 ) . Miscellaneous Comments Teacher-School board r e l a t i o n s are not good.(2) P.T.A.*s are a waste of time. (2) School D i s t r i c t disorganized regarding a l l o c a t i o n of teachers and pupils to respective schools. (1) Need more information about school d i s t r i c t ideas and educational ideals. (1) Disappointed with a 7 month delay i n getting the Departmental Teaching C e r t i f i c a t e . (2) Teacher training instructors seem to suggest that students should misrepresent themselves when applying for a teaching po s i t i o n . (1) General standard of education i n B.C. very low as compared with Europe. (1) Lack an adequate system of objective analysis of education in B.C. (1) Education is test-bound. (1) Older teachers seem to take advantage of younger ones. (1) 3 1 8 Future teacher clubs inadequate. ( 1 ) Want more job secur i t y . ( 1 ) Incorrect learning i n lower grades has to be undone. (1) B i d not l i k e being asked about Merit Rating. ( 1 ) Need more good men teachers. ( 1 ) Residential schools should be provided for children with poor home environments m ( 1 ) Comments Regarding Problems S p e c i f i c To Primary Grades Five teachers commented on the need for a more s p e c i f i c outline for primary phonics and language i n the program of studies. Other problems mentioned included the weakness of the Quance Spellers ( 1 ) , poor s o c i a l studies texts for grades 1 - 3 ( 2 ) , incomplete outline of arithmetic courses ( 1 ) , d i f f i c u l t y in obtaining seatwork material ( 1 ) . One teacher said that top a b i l i t y teachers should teach primary grades. Comments re Problems S p e c i f i c To Intermediate Grades Grade k readers are uninteresting ( 1 ) , and too d i f f i c u l t ( 1 ) , the so c i a l studies course content i s too heavy ( 1 ) , and needs good reference texts ( 2 ) , and the Grade 6 science course i s inadequate ( 1 ) . A foreign language should begin i n Grade 6 ( 1 ) . 319 Comments Regarding Problems S p e c i f i c To Janitor High It was f e l t that the general program was too weak ( l ) , standards were nmch too low (1) and junior high and senior high should be separate schools (1). The science courses are poor (1), and need r e v i s i o n (1). Language texts are disorganized, one teacher stated. Comments Regarding Problems S p e c i f i c To Senior High Gne teacher wanted a more academic orientation in senior high with separate schools for vocational t r a i n i n g . Another beginning teacher f e l t there was too great a gap between the standards of achievement expected i n Grade 11 English and Grade 12 E n g l i s h . S t a f f Relations There should be more teacher discussion groups i n school (3), although s t a f f room conversations are t r i v i a l (1) and s t a f f meetings are valueless (1). According to one teacher, some s t a f f behave uneth-i c a l l y toward their fellow s t a f f . When the general comments of beginning teachers i n 1958 - 59 were summarized, as shown in Table CXIIT, the most frequently stated single comment was one of enjoyment and r e -ward found i n teaching. The work i t s e l f seemed heavy to a number of beginners, some aspects of the teaching load being considered too heavy. Some k l % (191) of the teachers who commented chose to express an opinion regarding various 320 weaknesses i n their t r a i n i n g . These opinions included an evaluation of courses, lectures, lecturers, methods, and an appraisal of their degree of preparedness as beginning teachers entering a profession. Mention was also made of existing school c u r r i c u l a , d i s c i p l i n e problems, school and schoolbook inadequacies and school organization d i f f i c u l t i e s with the organization of their work were also commented upon. According to these comments, two main problems were encountered by beginning teachers when they began teaching in 195® - 59. They f e l t inadequately trained for a demanding and heavy work load. It would follow from these statements that Improvements made in the beginning teachers* work s i t u -a t i o n would involve some modification of the teacher training program in the l i g h t of the problems suggested by beginning teachers In t h i s study and a r e v i s i o n and r e d i s t r i b u t i o n of the work load assigned during the beginners f i r s t year, p a r t i c u l a r l y in those s p e c i f i c tasks that appear to be too heavy for her. 321 B.C. BEGINNING TEACHERS, 1958 - 59 TABLE CXI 11 - SUMMARY OF GENERAL COMMENTS RE FIRST YEAR OF TEACHING ASPECT COMMENTED ON Frequency-Teaching Was Enjoyed, S a t i s f a c t o r y , Rewarding 172 Various Aspects That Make Teaching L©ad Too Heavy 98 Adverse Comments Re College Of Education Courses, Lectures And Programs 76 Comments Re Weaknesses In Their Training As Teachers 57 More Practice Teaching Needed 33 Weaknesses In School Curriculum And Curriculum Planning 27 Adverse Comments Re College Of Education S t a f f 25 Comments Re D i s c i p l i n e (problems and suggestions) 20 Inadequacies In Physical F a c i l i t i e s 19 Inadequacies In Books And Li b r a r y 16 Problems Of Organization And Routines 13 Comments Re Lack Of Proper Class Grouping And Student Streaming 13 1. No. of teachers commenting - teachers commented on more than one aspect hence tot a l s are mutually independent. Chapter V INTEGRATION OF QUESTIONNAIRE MATERIAL The teaching profession In B r i t i s h Columbia during 1958 - 59 continued to a t t r a c t more women than men, the r a t i o being i d e n t i c a l to beginning teachers in the United States i n 1956 - 57, v i z . 63% women and 37% men. - One might expect a predominance of women to enter teaching in view of several factors, one being the generally held opinion that teaching is a woman's r o l e , another the fe e l i n g held by women begin-ning teachers that the salary i s good in comparison to the years of academic tr a i n i n g required and conversely men f e e l -ing the salary i s perhaps not as good as that offered i n competitive business vocations. Perhaps one of the most s i g n i f i c a n t differences noted between the B r i t i s h Columbia beginning teachers of 1958 - 59 and those in the United States i n 1956 - 57 was the difference i n l e v e l of education. Of the beginning teachers entering the B r i t i s h Columbia public school system in 1958 - 59, 23% of them held a Bachelor's degree or higher whereas 86% of the United States beginning teachers had obtained the same degree or higher. Since proportionately more of the B r i t i s h Columbia beginners spent less time i n 3 2 3 t h e i r formal training than their American counterparts did two years e a r l i e r , i t Is l i k e l y that the average B r i t i s h Columbia teacher would be younger than the United States beginner when she a c t u a l l y began teaching. This is borne out by the f a c t that the median age of the B r i t i s h Columbia beginning teacher in 1958 - 59 was 22.3 years whereas the United States beginner i n 1956 - 57 was 23.6 years of age. Being older, the United States beginning teacher is more l i k e l y to be married and i t is noted that 50% of them were, in comparison to 35% of the B r i t i s h Columbia beginning group. Because of the marital status differences between the B r i t i s h Columbia and United States beginner, such factors as annual income and number of dependents also w i l l probably be either d i r e c t l y or i n d i r e c t l y affected. Information concerning these factors for the American beginning teacher was not available at the time of t h i s writing but i t was found that 6k% of the spouses of B r i t i s h Columbia beginning teachers earned on the average approximately $3000 per year, thereby roughly doubling the annual income for married beginning teachers with working spouses. However, married teachers beginning the i r career i n B r i t i s h Columbia had an average of 1.2 children to support. The fact that the B r i t i s h Columbia and the United States beginning teachers d i f f e r e d l i t t l e i n the amount of 32k non-teaching employment engaged i n prior to entering teaching ( B r i t i s h Columbia beginners showing a s l i g h t l y higher amount) tends to emphasize the conclusion that the age differences between them are largely a t t r i b u t a b l e to the length of formal tra i n i n g obtained by each group. Related to the question of non-teaching employment i s the type of a c t i v i t y engaged i n immediately prior to entering teaching. Most beginning teachers i n B r i t i s h Columbia were attending school j u s t before commencing teaching, hence their income for the year prior to teaching was considerably lower (a median of $59© for elementary teachers, $1300 for secondary beginners) than If they had been regul a r l y employed in a f u l l - t i m e occupation. Proportionately more of the United States beginners than B r i t i s h Columbia ones came from home-making and work outside of education. This^would account for a higher proportion of married teachers beginning in the United States and an older starting age. Most of the B r i t i s h Columbia beginning teachers in 1958 - 59 had acquired two years u n i v e r s i t y or less i n the College of Education, holding either an elementary conditional or elementary basic c e r t i f i c a t e . This is a somewhat higher level of academic tr a i n i n g than that obtained by their parents who generally had either completed grade school or high school only. Fathers of beginning teachers i n 1958 - 59 were varied i n their occupations, a number of them being farmers 325 or farm managers, proprietors, or s k i l l e d craftsmen. Mothers had also worked or were working at various occupations, many of them being in c l e r i c a l or sales types of employment. Differences exist between elementary and secondary beginning teachers r e l a t i v e to t h e i r father*s occupation. Proportion-at e l y more secondary beginning teachers than elementary be-ginning teachers* fathers were employed i n professional, farmer or farm manager, proprietor, manager or executive and c l e r i c a l or sales positions. On the other hand proportion-a t e l y more elementary than secondary beginning teachers* fathers were teachers, s k i l l e d craftsmen, foremen, semi-s k i l l e d operative, service workers or laborers. If teaching is considered to be more *professional* or s o c i a l l y more desirable than c e r t a i n other occupations, i t is l i k e l y to expect that parents of elementary beginning teachers w i l l be more favorably Inclined toward their c h i l -dren entering teaching than would the parents of secondary beginners since the elementary beginning teachers* parents would tend to place teaching on a higher occupational level than their own type of work. The findings tend to support th i s Inference. Not only were the parents of the elementary beginners more favorable i n their attitudes toward teaching but were more i n f l u e n t i a l too in that 1&% of the elementary beginning teachers stated parents as the main influence i n 326 causing them to enter teaching whereas 9% of the secondary beginners attributed the main influence to th e i r parents. Teachers i n B r i t i s h Columbia who entered classrooms for the f i r s t time in 1958 - 59 grew up in communities rang-ing from farms to urban centres of 100,000 or more, the lowest single percentage (27%) came from the large urban centers. Most, (69%) of the beginning teachers resided i n the commu-n i t y where they taught but half of the beginners (5l%) had been there less than one year, probably l i v i n g with r e l a t i v e s or f r i e n d s . Elementary beginning teachers (k2%) l i v e d with parents or other r e l a t i v e s during the f i r s t teaching year and secondary beginners, because of th e i r age and consequent marital status, l i v e d with their spouse (5l%). Since k7% of the elementary beginning teachers had resided i n t h e i r teaching community less than one year as compared with 58% of the secondary beginning teachers, i t is not surprising to f i n d k9% of the elementary beginners as compared to 38% of the secondary beginners stating they belong in their community, that i t is home. Secondary beginning teachers are more l i k e l y to be teaching in a d i f f e r e n t community from the one they grew up in because many of them, (37%), came from the large urban centres and due to the very limited number of positions available i n these areas, secondary beginners would not f i n d 327 s u f f i c i e n t openings in their own community and would be expected to teach elsewhere. About half (5l%) of a l l beginning teachers had resided less than one year in t h e i r teaching community. This could be accounted for in various ways. Because of the high demand for urban positions, a number of beginners who grew up in the urban centre would be forced to take suburban or rural posts. It has also been hinted that some beginning teachers would prefer to teach i n a se t t i n g other than their home town, and this would explain the number of beginners who either l i v e alone, with friends or r e l a t i v e s . Since beginning teachers are j u s t starting their career, and are young and single, i t is not surprising to f i n d that 65% of them are renting their l i v i n g quarters. Roughly one half of the new teachers in B r i t i s h Columbia i n 1958 - 59 were promised a p a r t i c u l a r school and grade at the time of employment while (k0%) were promised a pa r t i c u l a r subject f i e l d at t h i s time. Most of the beginners who were given a promise ac t u a l l y did receive the s p e c i f i c assignment although a few (11%) were disappointed with what they did get. Many school boards did not or could not promise s p e c i f i c schools, grades, and subjects to new ap-pointees i n i t i a l l y because a l l possible vacancies and changes would not be known to them. 3 2 8 Beginning teachers commenced teaching duties i n grades ranging from kindergarten to Grade 12 i n c l u s i v e , the modal frequency being Grade 6. A f i f t h of the secondary B r i t i s h Columbia beginners taught mathematics or natural science, a proportion similar to the 1956 - 57 U.S. beginner. Another f i f t h of the secondary B r i t i s h Columbia group taught academic subjects such as English and so c i a l studies, t h i s proportion being somewhat lower than for the United States beginner. Because of the more specialized nature of the shop courses and courses i n physical education, school boards, both in B r i t i s h Columbia and the United States demanded more people to f i l l such teaching positions and consequently 39% of B r i t i s h Columbia's secondary beginners and k2% of the United States secondary beginners were assigned such non-academic teaching duties. It is found that, in general, elementary beginning teachers report spending more clock hours per week on their job than do the beginners at the secondary teaching l e v e l s ; elementary men reporting .5 to .8 hours more and elementary women reporting 2.7 hours more than secondary beginning women. In view of the d i f f e r i n g teaching conditions, the differences in time spent on the job might well be greater. Two-thirds of the elementary beginning teachers taught 7 or more d i f f e r e n t subjects whereas 12% - 15% of the 329 secondary beginners experienced a similar course load. Another factor that could influence teaching load is the fa c t that elementary beginners had proportionately larger classes to teach than their secondary counterparts. However, i n spite of t h i s difference, the secondary beginners notion of what constitutes a "too large" class was even smaller than that of the elementary beginners. When asked about t h e i r teaching load, beginning teachers answered r e l a t i v e to their fellow elementary or secondary teachers 1 loads and thus the d i f f e r -ences between elementary and secondary were ne g l i g i b l e for this reason. The greater the number of d i f f e r e n t courses taught, by the elementary beginner the more time would t h e o r e t i c a l l y be spent on lesson preparation. Also, the larger the class in the elementary grades the greater the amount of marking, correcting and supervising w i l l be expected. For th e i r f i r s t year of teaching, secondary begin-ners on the average earned nearly $800 more, than their e l e -mentary level colleagues, $3,954 as compared with $ 3 , l 6 l . In the same year, 1958 - 59, secondary beginners, generally, looked forward to an increment ranging between $150 - $21*9 whereas the elementary beginning teachers anticipated a salary increase ranging from $100 - $199. Differences i n salary between elementary and secondary beginning teachers are due almost e n t i r e l y to differences In amount of formal 330 education obtained, not the amount of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y or work done, since s a l a r i e s are pre-determined on t h i s basis at the time of employment. Beginning teachers received most of their help from fellow classroom teachers and the p r i n c i p a l . This i s to be expected since supervisors, consultants and inspectors are not as close to the beginners 1 actual teaching s i t u a t i o n as are the p r i n c i p a l and s t a f f . When problems of d i f f i c u l t i e s encountered are considered, differences are again observed between elementary and secondary beginning teachers, p a r t i c u -l a r l y i n adjusting to the demands of time and energy a f t e r school hours. In view of differences i n the teaching s i t u -ation mentioned above, one would expect the elementary begin-ners to experience more d i f f i c u l t y in matters of time and energy. Thus, some 66% of the.elementary beginners reported much or some d i f f i c u l t y with the problem of adjusting to the demands of time and energy after school hours while $0% of the secondary beginning teachers reported the same d i f f i -c u lty. No beginning teacher in 1958 - 59 reported teaching in a double session or 'swing-shift 1 s i t u a t i o n . The Beginning Teachers Attitudes Toward Teaching At what period do teachers decide to become teachers? It was found that 66% of the elementary beginning teachers in 1958 - 59 decided to enter the f i e l d before completing high 331 school whereas the beginners i n secondary grades decided quite a b i t l a t e r ; (26% before completing high school, $1% during or aft e r u n i v e r s i t y ) . Since the majority of secondary beginning teachers decided to enter teaching aft e r high school and largely during and a f t e r u n i v e r s i t y , the decision to enter teaching could be attributed in part to t h e i r u ni-v e r s i t y experience. One p o s s i b i l i t y is that u n i v e r s i t y training causes students to f e e l that teaching, p a r t i c u l a r l y in a public school, is a very important task and might be worth considering as a vocation. Another p o s s i b i l i t y is that the u n i v e r s i t y student has f a i l e d i n another f i e l d of endeavor e.g. Medicine, Engineering, Law and turned to teach-ing as an appropropriate outlet for his or her higher edu-cation. Whatever the factors may have been, experiences during their u n i v e r s i t y t r a i n i n g were highly i n f l u e n t i a l i n causing secondary beginning teachers to enter teaching. I t is i n t e r e s t i n g to note also that 16% of the elementary be-ginning teachers said they would have preferred to do some-thing else other than teach whereas J>Q% of the secondary beginners reported a desire to work in another f i e l d . Hence the question arises as to why they did not pursue their preference, assuming they were to continue t h e i r u n i v e r s i t y t r a i n i n g . Unfortunately t h i s study does not provide the answers to this question. 332 When asked whether or not they would enter teach-ing again i f they had i t to do over, secondary l e v e l begin-ners were less emphatic in their willingness to re-enter teaching, expressing more doubt about their vocational choice than t h e i r elementary grade counterparts. This hesitancy about teaching by the secondary beginning group tends to support the point noted above that they entered the f i e l d because of f a i l u r e or displeasure with other f i e l d s of endeavor rather than a genuine desire to teach, per se. Once having chosen teaching as a career and working at i t , most beginners stated they f e l t they could achieve their l i f e goals i n I t , secondary beginners somewhat more so than elementary beginners. This is predictable in view of the e a r l i e r findings which point to better working conditions in the secondary grades as compared with elementary level teaching. In keeping with the above mentioned attitudes toward teaching as a career, 87% of the beginning teachers expect to teach i n 1959 - 60 while 10% of them plan to return to school for further education. These intentions compare favorably with the United States beginner in 1956 - 57 except that fewer American beginning teachers planned to return for further education since most of them held a Bachelor's degree or higher. The B r i t i s h Columbia beginners were quite c e r t a i n about their plans for 1959 - 60 but the trends changed 333 regarding their long term career plans are d i f f e r e n t . Thus, less than one quarter (23%) of the B r i t i s h Columbia beginning teachers i n 1958 - 59 expected to teach u n t i l retirement, 15% of the elementary group and 35% of the secondary begin-ners. The reason so few of the elementary group intend to continue in the f i e l d u n t i l retirement is due to the greater proportion of women included among them, 79% of whom intend to leave for homemaking. It is l i k e l y that t h e i r l i f e goals w i l l be directed more toward the home than to classroom teaching, and this c l a r i f i e s the statement that, though they f e l t they could achieve their l i f e goals In teaching, they don't intend to do so. The men i n both elementary and secondary levels were comparable in proportion concerning their views on teaching u n t i l retirement. When do the beginning women teachers intend to leave the f i e l d ? Some 32% of the elementary women beginners expect to leave d e f i n i t e l y or probably within three years, 69% by f i v e years. Among the secondary women, k l % expect to leave d e f i n i t e l y or probably within three years, 66% by f i v e years. Since 83% of the elementary beginning men and 86% of the secondary beginning men stated that i t was either not l i k e l y or extremely u n l i k e l y that they would leave teaching within f i v e years, one way to reduce loss and turnover i n the teaching f i e l d i s to Induce proportionately more men than women to enter the teaching f i e l d . Moreover, since 37% of 33k the men who began teaching i n the elementary grades i n 1958 - 59 decided to enter teaching between Grades 7 and 12 whereas k l % of the elementary beginning women had decided before Grade 11 (2k% in Grade 6 or before) some consideration should be given to the reasons for sex differences in early choice of teaching as a career. Is i t because a l l or nearly a l l primary teachers i n B r i t i s h Columbia are women? Should an attempt be made to o f f s e t this imbalance with a predominance of male teachers i n Grades k, 5 and 6 in the hope that more boys may aspire to become teachers one day? Further research into t h i s area seems worthwhile because of these differences in vocational decisions. The most important reason given by;women beginning teachers as to why they intend leaving teaching i s marriage and family and not pay or working conditions. Men would leave to engage i n another occupation or to return to school, but few intend to. In an analysis of the general comments (see page 306) the most popular comment Involving 172 begin-ning teachers was that they enjoyed teaching very much. Coupled with the finding that k3% of the beginning teachers said they liked teaching more than they thought they would, and 50% l i k e d the work about the same as they thought they would, i t would appear then that the problem of teacher short-age i n B.C., is not one of conditions within the f i e l d but rather a desire on the part of women teachers to marry, become homemakers and rear children. 335 Regarding other aspects of teaching, i t was found that 72% of the beginning teachers enjoyed working with their students a great deal, 21% f a i r l y w e l l . In general they f e l t they were doing a good job in both the human rel a t i o n s and subject matter aspects of teaching. Elementary beginning teachers as compared with the secondary beginners were more e n t i r e l y s a t i s f i e d with subjects and grade l e v e l they had to teach, even though they taught, on the average, more subjects than their secondary colleagues. When asked to indicate their degree of s a t i s -f a c t i o n with various aspects of the i r p o s i t i o n , the percent-age of beginners reporting s a t i s f a c t i o n on each aspect ranged from 1%% to 9 8 % . Salary and teaching load were Items that appeared to be less s a t i s f a c t o r y to beginners than the rest of the items but 9 0 % of the new teachers said they were either very or f a i r l y s a t i s f i e d with their positions as a whole, including salary. Half of the beginning teachers (54%) f e l t t h e i r personal l i f e was not r e s t r i c t e d in any way by entering teaching, while k3% stated they f e l t r e s t r i c t e d but not seriously, with proportionately less in large urban centres than in the small urban and r u r a l areas. When asked about attitudes toward accelerated classes, opinions were varied but 9 2 % of the beginners were in favor, at least In part, of acceleration. 336 Merit rating appeared to be a controversial item and the attitudes expressed on t h i s question are many. While 36% of the beginning teachers were i n favor of a f a i r merit rating plan, 55% were against i t . At some point, either during training or soon afte r entering the f i e l d , •merit rating* is learned as something •bad 1 by a number of teachers. Some beginning teachers probably have l o g i c a l rea-sons for or against merit r a t i n g schemes but others appear to have been l e f t with a c e r t a i n f e e l i n g tone and are not sure why they f e e l as they do. A number of beginning teach-ers questioned the honesty or fairness of a merit rating plan. Since the plan would be effected by the administration, such doubts can be interpreted as a mistrust of the admin-i s t r a t i o n . This attitude can hardly foster good labor-management r e l a t i o n s . Nevertheless merit and money can be problematic for beginning teachers as they begin their career. The attitudes of parents and spouses toward the beginner*s choice of vocation is generally favorable, as Is her acceptance by fellow s t a f f members. Encouragement to continue teaching i s apparently received from these sources. The Beginning Teacher*s Attitudes Toward Teacher Training What are some of the factors that tend to influence the beginning teachers attitudes toward th e i r training? This study shows a v a r i a t i o n i n attitudes between persons who attended U.B.C. College of Education and V i c t o r i a College, 337 suggesting the p o s s i b i l i t y that the school and i t s organi-zation may be a factor in determining the students* attitudes toward t h e i r t r a i n i n g program. Noted too, are differences i n age, education and in sources of students between the stu-dents who attended U.B.C. and those who enrolled i n V i c t o r i a College. Beginning teachers who attended U.B.C. were older, had more formal education and came p r i n c i p a l l y from very small or very large communities. Hence, i t would appear that the two colleges i n ef f e c t are concerned with d i f f e r e n t kinds of pupils. Thus both differences in college practices and i n kinds of student w i l l , in part, account for the eval-uations student-teachers made of either U.B.C. or V i c t o r i a College teacher t r a i n i n g . When asked to rate c e r t a i n general aspects of the i r teacher t r a i n i n g programs, beginning teachers who attended U.B.C. d i f f e r e d in th e i r ratings from th e i r V i c t o r i a College counterparts. Thus, for 52% of the U.B.C. trained teachers, the i n t e l l e c t u a l challenge was f e l t to be Tow, whereas 29% of the V i c t o r i a College students said they found t h i s to be the case. I n t e l l e c t u a l challenge would also be related to the c a l i b r e of examinations and the form of lecture presen-tations and since half of the U.B.C. group rated the i n t e l -l e c t ual challenge to be of low c a l i b r e , i t is not surprising that 35% of them reported the c a l i b r e of examinations as low and 33% s i m i l a r l y rating the form of lecture presentations. 338 In contrast to these findings only l k % of the teachers trained at V i c t o r i a College rated the c a l i b r e of examinations as low and 21% f e l t the form of lecture presentations was low in quality. In other aspects of the teacher t r a i n i n g program, students from both colleges expressed more favorable ratings. Thus for interpretation of teaching as a f i e l d of work and opportunity to discuss educational problems, 23% of the teach-ers trained at ¥.B.C. rated them of high q u a l i t y whereas the V i c t o r i a College group numbered 38% and 39% respectively. Such differences would i n part be explained by the f a c t that the smaller student enrolment at V i c t o r i a College would allow more opportunity to discuss educational problems with the s t a f f thus permitting a clearer interpretation of teaching as a f i e l d of work. This point is further supported by the finding that 37% of the V i c t o r i a College student-teachers reported they obtained much value from interviews with s t a f f members as compared with 2k% of the U.B.C. teacher trainees. The greater use of Seminars would also offer an opportunity to discuss educational problems and interpret the f i e l d to the student and i t is found that 22% of the V i c t o r i a College students compared with l k % of the U.B.C. group f e l t seminars were of much value to them. 339 On the matter of the value of professional courses as related to teaching, proportionately more U.B.C. trained students than V i c t o r i a College rated them as being of much value. (U.B.C. 23%, V i c t o r i a College This difference is probably due to the f a c t that V i c t o r i a College, being a junior college at that time did not offer a f u l l professional coarse program and hence was rated accordingly. For both Colleges (U.B.C. 7k%, V i c t o r i a College 78%) the practice teaching program was f e l t to be the most valu-able t r a i n i n g method to them. The question arises as to the reasons Why the prac-t i c e teaching program should be rated so much higher than the methods and professional courses by most beginning teachers In 1958 - 59. One reason could be that practice teaching is c l o s e l y related to the actual teaching s i t u a t i o n . The problems encountered are real and meaningful to the student-teacher and demand a so l u t i o n . The preparation of lessons and material i s for a real class of pupils and hence has a more reality-determined purpose for the student-teacher. Another reason f o r the discrepancy between ratings In courses and i n practice teaching may l i e in the courses themselves. In the summary of the beginning teachers general comments regarding the t r a i n i n g they received, (see page 306) some, though infrequent references concerning poor lecture tech-niques, weak course content, d i s s o c i a t i o n from the actual 34© f i e l d conditions by college s t a f f , i d e a l i s t i c thinking on the part of some lecturers, etc. are noted. Are the methods and professional courses of limited value to beginning teachers in 1958 - 59 because of t h e i r q u a l i t y and limited a p p l i c a b i l i t y to teaching or Is i t because teaching as a f i e l d of endeavor may not require as much emphasis on course material as on experience derived from the actual teaching s i t u a t i o n , similar to a craftsman's apprenticeship? The problem i s then one of q u a l i t y and/or quantity in formal teacher training and the beginning teach-ers attempted to provide some solution to i t . Practice teaching alone, however, Is not enough since the beginning teachers who graduated from W.B.C. wanted more emphasis on methods of teaching (62%) while 73% of the V i c t o r i a students wanted more emphasis on the same methods. Beginning teachers from both colleges wanted more emphasis on c o n t r o l l i n g and d i s c i p l i n i n g pupils (U.B.C. 60%, V i c t o r i a College 57%), and knowledge of phonics (U.B.C. 61%, V i c t o r i a College 78%). According to beginning teachers, formal teacher tr a i n i n g is essential and the reason why this t r a i n i n g is of limited value would appear to be directed to i t s q u a l i t y . Generally, beginning teachers have expressed the opinion that practice teaching has been very valuable to them whereas their courses i n teacher training have not met the needs of the actual teaching s i t u a t i o n . A closer exam-ination of these two areas may provide a better understanding 3-+1 of the differences between them. Eighty-two percent of the beginning teachers i n 1958 - 59, reported their practice teaching was either very or f a i r l y helpful to them. Some (9%) had no practice teaching at a l l . Since practice teach-ing was helpful to them, 75% of the U.B.C. graduates and 71% of the V i c t o r i a students stated they wanted more time spent on i t , preferably in sessions of 2 or 3 weeks (U.B.C. 63%, V i c t o r i a 5©%), or even longer. During the amount of practice teaching they were given, 89% of the U.B.C. group and 86% of the V i c t o r i a graduates f e l t they were provided with a s u f f i c i e n t number of actual teaching experiences, and 88% of the U.B.C. students and 87% of the V i c t o r i a graduates reported receiving s p e c i f i c helpful suggestions during t h e i r practice teaching. Whereas 7% of a l l the beginning teachers found their practice teaching to be not very helpful or not helpful at a l l , 36% of them f e l t s i m i l a r l y towards their education courses. An analysis of the elementary methods courses provided a more s p e c i f i c description of the weak-nesses i n the methods courses as they were evaluated i n each college. When asked about the value of Individual elementary methods courses, U.B.C. graduates reported the following courses to be of l i t t l e value to them: s o c i a l studies (1+5%) music (38%), science (33%) and language arts (20%). Of l i t t l e value to students from V i c t o r i a College were language arts (1+5%), science (23%), s o c i a l studies (21%) and physical 3k2 education {20%), Comparisons were not meaningful with the secondary methods courses due to the small number of begin-ning teachers having taken them. Professional courses for students of both colleges were considered to be of less value than the methods courses by beginning teachers i n 1958 - 59. This finding has impor-tant implications i n view of the fact that teachers organi-zations seem to be s t r i v i n g for the attainment of status and professional recognition for teachers. The following professional course aspects were reported to be of l i t t l e or no value to U.B.C. student teach-ers: Introduction to Education ( k l % ) , Educational Thought (38%), Educational Psychology (35%), Audio Visual Techniques (k2%), Speech (65%), School Administration (36%), Diagnostic and Remedial Teaching (k8%), Guidance and Counselling (50%). V i c t o r i a College graduates said they obtained proportionately more value from t h e i r professional ceurses. Of l i t t l e or no value to them were: Introduction to Education (28%), Education-a l Thought (29%), Educational Psychology (l$%), Audio Visual Techniques (28%), Speech (55%), School Administration (33%), Diagnostic and Remedial Teaching (31%), Guidance and Counsel-l i n g ( k l % ) . S a t i s f a c t i o n with the fac u l t y services was reported as limited, p a r t i c u l a r l y for U.B.C. graduates. Of l i t t l e s a t i s f a c t i o n to U.B.C. teacher trainees were: Assistance i n 343 Placement (5©%), V i s i t i n g S p e c i a l i s t s (38%), Provision of Bibliographies (36%), Personal Guidance (3k%), Professional Advisement (3©%) and Contact With S t a f f Members (30%). V i c t o r i a College graduates reported l i t t l e s a t i s f a c t i o n with: Assistance i n Placement (k6%), V i s i t i n g S p e c i a l i s t s (38%), Observation of Expert Demonstration Teachers (36%), and Provision of Bibliographies (3k%). When asked about the help given by f a c u l t y advisors on three aspects, the U.B.C. graduates stated they received l i t t l e or no help In the following matters: A s s i s t i n g With Personal Problems (66%), A s s i s t i n g With P r a c t i c a l Problems (3k%)» and Developing Broad Concepts of Teaching (2&%). V i c t o r i a graduates, report-ing on the same topics and receiving l i t t l e or no help f e l t as follows: A s s i s t i n g With Personal Problems ($0%), Develop-ing Broad Concepts of Teaching (32%), A s s i s t i n g With P r a c t i c a l Problems (17%). In general, the V i c t o r i a College student teacher appeared to be helped to a greater extent both by the f a c u l t y themselves and the services they provided than did their U.B.C. counterparts. Again, size differences i n the colleges must be considered when making such comparisons. Part of the student-teacher's training involved the formation of certai n ideas and philosophy towards edu-cation. When asked about the degree of c o n f l i c t experienced between their ideas and those of their p r i n c i p a l , half of a l l the beginners in 1958 - 59, Irrespective of college 3411. attended, reported some c o n f l i c t but not of a serious nature whereas k l % of the U.B.C. group and 39% of the V i c t o r i a College group stated they experienced no c o n f l i c t in these matters. I t does not appear that beginning teachers, in general, encounter severe c o n f l i c t s of a philosophical nature that might cause them d i r e c t l y to want to leave teaching but in the 5% to 6% who reported serious c o n f l i c t , such attitudes could be a s i g n i f i c a n t factor in causing them to leave the f i e l d . Chapter VI GENERAL CONCLUSIONS In the Interests of avoiding needless r e p e t i t i o n the conclusions given here represent the major findings of this study. Other d e t a i l s are given in the preceding section on integretion of r e s u l t s . One of the objectives of this study was to provide a factual and d e f i n i t i v e description of the beginning teach-er and her attitudes toward teaching as a career i n 1958 - 59. 1. Beginning teachers in B.C. were, on the average, younger and had less formal u n i v e r s i t y t r a i n i n g than the beginning public school teachers in the U.S. in 1956 - 57. In spite of these differences, beginning teachers of both B.C. and the U.S. had similar occupational values i n that they looked for p r a c t i c a l l y the same attributes in an Ideal job s i t u a t i o n . The career plans of both B.C. and U.S. beginners were very similar i n terms of the length of time they intended to stay i n teaching. It would appear that the difference In age and i n the amount of formal education between the B.C. and the U.S. beginning teacher does not appreciably a f f e c t the problem of loss of teachers from the f i e l d . 3k6 No conclusive statement can be made regarding differences i n s a l a r i e s earned between B.C. and U.S. begin-ning teachers due to differences i n the amount of tr a i n i n g and differences i n the time during which the two studies were conducted. 2 . Although the large urban centres, namely Vancouver and V i c t o r i a , contributed to the supply of begin-ning teachers in a proportion comparable to the proportion of the pupil enrolment i n these areas, they acquired the highest r a t i o of beginning teachers who held bachelors degrees or higher, thereby contributing to urban r u r a l d i f -ferences regarding teacher q u a l i f i c a t i o n s . 3 . Beginning teachers, in general, enjoyed their f i r s t year of teaching but did not enter the f i e l d with the idea of making a career of i t since only 2 3 % of them expected to remain in classroom teaching u n t i l retirement. Sex is the most important single determinant when considering the length of a teaching career; proportionately more of the men beginning teachers intend to stay in teaching for a longer period than women. k. Teaching as a f i e l d of work more than met the beginning teachers concept of the necessary conditions for an ideal job. They were s a t i s f i e d with the working conditions but because of other goals, they did not intend to stay in teaching permanently. 3k7 5. Attitudes toward teaching d i f f e r e d between elementary and secondary l e v e l teachers. Elementary teachers seemed to be more s a t i s f i e d with their role as a classroom teacher whereas the secondary group would have preferred to do something else, wondered whether they would enter teach-ing i f they had to do i t over again, decided later in uni-v e r s i t y on a teaching career, and appeared to experience more d i f f i c u l t y in their work with students. Part of this study involved a description of the beginning teachers 1 teaching s i t u a t i o n . 1. Working conditions did not appear to be the same for both elementary and secondary beginning teachers. The elementary beginners had larger classes, taught more subjects, tended to have a longer work week in hours devoted to the job, and found the demands on their time quite ex-tensive in comparison with t h e i r secondary level counterparts. It was also the intent of t h i s study to determine the adequacy of the beginning teachers' training i n the l i g h t of their f i r s t year of teaching experience. 1. Generally, the beginning teachers did not f e e l they were adequately trained for their positions as teach-ers. Their comments referred to weaknesses i n courses, in the presentation of material and the o v e r a l l i n t e l l e c t u a l challenge. New teachers who graduated from the U.B.C. College of Education expressed greater d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with 348 the c a l i b r e of th e i r t r a i n i n g than did the graduates from V i c t o r i a College. It should be remembered, however, that the U.B.C. group were older, had more formal education, and came from quite d i f f e r e n t community backgrounds in terms of population than did the V i c t o r i a College student teachers Proportionately more U.B.C. teacher trainees than V i c t o r i a College students f e l t their t r a i n i n g program had low i n t e l l e c t u a l challenge, low c a l i b r e examinations and went on to state they derived low value from a number of s p e c i f i c courses. On the other hand, U.B.C. trained teach-ers rated their professional courses more highly than did the V i c t o r i a College trainees. 2. The practice teaching program was of much value to almost a l l beginning teachers in 1958 - 59 and they wanted more time devoted to i t . One objective was an attempt to find some possible reasons for the shortage of q u a l i f i e d teachers i n B.C. In this regard several i n f l u e n t i a l factors appeared to be relevant in an analysis of the 1958 - 59 beginning teacher. 1. Over three-quarters (77%) of a l l the beginning B.C. teachers as compared with &0% of U.S. beginners in 1956 - 57 did not expect to stay in classroom teaching u n t i l retirement. 2. Almost one-half (k8%) of the B.C. beginning teachers i n 58 - 59 and $1% of the U.S. beginners i n 1956 -349 said they were d e f i n i t e l y or probably leaving teaching within f i v e years. 3. Almost one-half (49%) of a l l the beginning teachers were single women in elementary and secondary schools, about 21 years of age, over f o u r - f i f t h s of whom expected to leave teaching within f i v e years, presumably to marry and rear a family. k. One-quarter of a l l the beginning teachers were men teaching at the secondary l e v e l , 34% °? whom would have preferred to do something else. The most frequently given reason why they would leave teaching is for other employment. 5. The generally unfavorable attitude of beginning teachers toward the c a l i b r e of the i r teacher training com-bined with those beginning teachers who would have prefer-red to enter some other f i e l d than teaching could be a de-terrent to those who otherwise might be attracted to teaching. 6. Working conditions and s a l a r i e s do not appear to exert much influence on the beginning teacher's decision to leave teaching since only 13% of the men and none of the women reporting reasons for leaving teaching a c t u a l l y made reference to these aspects. Moreover they were generally s a t i s f i e d with most aspects of their teaching s i t u a t i o n , hence the s i g n i f i c a n t factor influencing the beginning teacher's contribution to the teacher shortage problem is by and large a personal matter (e.g. marriage). Chapter VII SUMMARY This study attempts to assess the opinions and attitudes of beginning teachers toward teaching i n B.C. schools. The beginning teachers in 1958 - 59 were chosen with the hypothesis that an analysis of them, t h e i r teaching s i t u a t i o n , their attitudes toward teaching and teacher t r a i n -ing would y i e l d important information relevant to the teacher shortage. No other study on the beginning teacher appears to have been done in Canada to date although several recent studies have occurred in the U.S. Because of the limited data available regarding the B.C. beginning teacher, another objective was to set f o r t h a comprehensive description of the beginning teacher i n such a way as to provide a structure for continuing research over longer periods of time. In order to obtain information, a questionnaire was designed in which four broad areas were represented. These were: 1. The Biographical Picture of the Beginning Teacher 2. Description of the Teaching Situation 3. Attitudes Toward Teaching k. Attitudes Toward Teacher Training 351 The study represented $0% or 591 of a l l the begin-ning teachers i n 1958 - 59 thereby giving some credence to the findings. Analysis of the survey was done by treating each of the 91 questions separately, followed by an integration of trends. This group of beginning teachers was analyzed by age, sex, marital status, formal education, teaching l e v e l and on c e r t a i n questions i n terms of size of school d i s t r i c t and source of teacher training i . e . U.B.C. College of Education and V i c t o r i a College. Comparisons were also made between B.C. beginners i n 1958 - 59 and U.S. beginners in 1956 - 57. Several conclusions were made possible through analysis of the data. These were: 1. Beginning teachers in B.C. in 1958 - 59 were young-er and had less formal education than beginners in U.S. schools in 1956 - 57. Elementary beginning teachers were, on the average, younger than secondary level beginners, women were younger than men, V i c t o r i a College trainees were younger than U.B.C. student teachers. 2. In general, more formal education was held by: the men beginning teachers in B.C., by those teachers teach-ing at the secondary l e v e l , by those graduating from the U.B.C. College of Education and by those teaching their f i r s t year i n a large urban centre. 3. The beginning teachers who would f i n d the f i r s t year of teaching e s p e c i a l l y demanding and heavy would more l i k e l y be women teaching at the elementary l e v e l . 352 k. Women teaching at the elementary level generally, are more s a t i s f i e d with their working conditions and salary and enjoy teaching more than men and secondary l e v e l begin-ning teachers. 5. Beginning teachers, p a r t i c u l a r l y women, do not enter the f i e l d with the intention of teaching for a long period of time, since most of them expect to leave teaching within 5 years. 6. Secondary level beginning teachers, for a v a r i e t y of reasons, do not appear to be as s a t i s f i e d with a teaching career as are the elementary beginners. 7. Generally, the beginning teachers were unfavorably impressed with their teacher t r a i n i n g program although the practice teaching program was of much value to them. Begin-ners from U.B.C. College of Education were, on the whole, more c r i t i c a l of the adequacy of their t r a i n i n g than were the V i c t o r i a College trained teachers. This difference could be due to many factors such as differences i n age, l e v e l of education, community backgrounds, size of classes and pos-s i b l y though unexplored i n t r i n s i c differences in the teacher tr a i n i n g situations provided by the two colleges. It i s f e l t that this study has been reasonably f r u i t f u l due to the comprehensive nature of the survey and i t s relevance to the problem of the teacher shortage in B.C. Further follow-up research on the same group of teachers 3 5 3 would be of value. Such follow-up studies would indicate the number of drop-outs in each successive year, their rea-sons for doing so and the problems encountered i n t h e i r second year of teaching. A t t i t u d i n a l differences between graduates of the two teacher t r a i n i n g colleges should be Investigated more thoroughly in an endeavor to assess specif -i c reasons why beginning teachers f e e l t h e i r t r a i n i n g is inadequate. REFERENCES Katz, J . , Graduates Evaluate a Teacher-Training Pro-gram, Unive r s i t y of Manitoba, Faculty of Education  Research B u l l e t i n , 1953, 1 7 , 2 3 - 3 3 . National Education Association, Research D i v i s i o n , F i r s t Year Teachers in 1954-55, Research B u l l e t i n , 1956, 34, 3-47. United States O f f i c e of Education, A Survey of New Teachers i n the Public Schools, 1956-57. U.S. De- partment of Health, Education and Welfare, C i r c u l a r  No. 510, 1958. V i r g i n i a Education Association, L i v i n g and Working Conditions of Beginning Teachers, Richmond; the  Association, 1953. A P P E N D I X A THE SCHOOL DISTRICT  QUESTIONNAIRE THE ROYAL COMMISSION ON EDUCATION D i v i s i o n of Tests, Standards & Research Department of Education 3h7 Douglas B u i l d i n g V i c t o r i a , B. C. TO DISTRICT SUPERINTENDENTS OF SCHOOLS The attached questionnaire asks f o r information concerning the beginning teachers i n your school d i s t r i c t . I t i s part of a l a r g e r survey whose success depends upon your f u l l e s t co-operation. The c o n f i d e n t i a l nature of some items i s apprec-ia t e d , and we would ask that you answer the questions i n such a way as to r e f l e c t an accurate p i c t u r e of your p a r t i c u l a r school d i s t r i c t . K i ndly complete and return your questionnaire to the attention of the writer at the above address as soon as pos s i b l e . P. W. EASTON For Royal Commission on Education A SURVEY OF BEGINNING PUBLIC SCHOOL CLASSROOM TEACHERS I N B. C. A . SCHOOL DISTRICT SCHEDULE 1. I n f o r m a t i o n s u p p l i e d b y : (Name) ( T i t l e ) . PLEASE L I S T ON THE INSIDE PAGE t h e name and s c h o o l a d d r e s s o f a l l b e g i n n i n g c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s i n y o u r s c h o o l d i s t r i c t . D e f i n i t i o n : F o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f t h i s s t u d y a b e g i n n i n g t e a c h e r i s d e f i n e d as a r e g u l a r f u l l - t i m e t e a c h e r who d e v o t e s h a l f o r more o f h i s t i m e t o c l a s s r o o m t e a c h i n g a t any l e v e l , f r o m k i n d e r g a r t e n t h r o u g h g r a d e 12, who has n o t h e l d a r e g u l a r f u l l - t i m e p a i d p o s i t i o n f o r a f u l l t e r m p r i o r t o t h e c u r r e n t s c h o o l y e a r (1958-59) i n any s c h o o l s y s t e m . INCLUDE: (1) T e a c h e r s w i t h p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e p a r t - t i m e or as s u b s t i t u t e s i f t h i s i s t h e i r f i r s t f u l l - t i m e p o s i t i o n ; (2) T e a c h e r s who c o m p l e t e d t h e i r e d u c a t i o n s e v e r a l y e a r s ago b u t d i d n o t a c c e p t a r e g u l a r f u l l - t i m e p o s i t i o n u n t i l t h i s s c h o o l y e a r ; (3) T e a c h i n g p r i n c i p a l s and s u p e r v i s o r s i f t h e y d e v o t e h a l f o r more o f t h e i r t i m e t o c l a s s r o o m t e a c h i n g and f u l f i l l t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s i n t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e b e g i n n i n g t e a c h e r . EXCLUDE: (1) T e a c h e r s who a r e new t o t h e i r p r e s e n t s c h o o l s y s t e m b u t who have been r e g u l a r f u l l - t i m e t e a c h e r s i n o t h e r s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s o r o t h e r p r o v i n c e s p r e v i o u s l y ; (2) T e a c h e r s who a r e new t o t h e p u b l i c s c h o o l s b u t who have t a u g h t p r e v i o u s l y as r e g u l a r f u l l - t i m e t e a c h e r s i n a p r i v a t e or p a r o c h i a l s c h o o l o r c o l l e g e ; (3) T e a c h e r s who a r e w o r k i n g as s u b s t i t u t e s or who d e v o t e l e s s t h a n h a l f o f t h e i r t i m e t o c l a s s r o o m t e a c h i n g . NOTE: Even i f t h e r e a r e no b e g i n n i n g t e a c h e r s i n y o u r s c h o o l d i s t r i c t a c c o r d i n g t o t h i s d e f i n i t i o n , p l e a s e answer q u e s t i o n s 3 t o 25 on t h e l a s t pages o f t h i s f o r m and r e t u r n i t t o t h e D i v i s i o n o f T e s t s , S t a n d a r d s and R e s e a r c h , D o u g l a s B u i l d i n g , V i c t o r i a , B. C. - L i s t E l e m e n t a r y and S e c o n d a r y t e a c h e r s s e p a r a t e l y - C l a s s i f y 7th o r 8th g r a d e t e a c h e r s as Secondary S. D. NO. ! j - I n d i c a t e M r . , Mrs . ' , o r M i s s f o r each t e a c h e r . BEGINNING ELEMENTARY TEACHERS check here i f none TEACHER'S NAME SCHOOL ADDRESS POST OFFICE ADDRESS (Continue the l i s t of Beginning Elementary Teachers on another sheet i f necessary) BEGINNING SECONDARY TEACHERS check here i f none ?EACKER|S_NME... SCHQOL....ADDBE.S.S.... ....PQS.I.....QEEI.CE MttTOP .Continue ths l i s t of B^ gipr-.'ing Secondary Teachers on another sheet i f necessary) - 3 -3. GRADES INCLUDED IN YOUR SCHOOL DISTRICT: Circle the lowest and highest grades. K 1 2 3 U 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 1 3 h. Enrolment i n grades K-12 on January 1, 1959 (or as of ) (Date) Include pupils attending from other d i s t r i c t s . Exclude any nursery-school, evening-school or adult education enrolment. ENROLMENT: 5. Total number of f u l l time ELEMENTARY and SECONDARY Teachers i n your school d i s t r i c t on January 1, 1959 (or as o f ) (Date") Exclude any exclusively nursery school, evening-school or adult education teachers and a l l part-time and substitute teachers. C l a s s i f y teachers as Grade 1-6 elementary, 7 -13 Secondary. Total Elementary Teachers Total Secondary Teachers 6. Inclusion of Urban Place: 1. | | This school d i s t r i c t INCLUDES a settled place of 2^00 or more population. 2. | "| This school d i s t r i c t does NOT include a settled place of 2500 or more population. 7. Length of School Term: Indicate the number of days that school i s open i n your school year days. 8. ...Paid Sick Leave : How many days of paid sick leave are beginning teachers allowed during their f i r s t year i n your school d i s t r i c t ? For the purpose of t h i s study "paid sick leave" refers to leave with f u l l pay without having to pay any part of a substitute's salary. 1. 2. 3 . h. None each case handled i n d i v i d u a l l y 1-k days 5-6 days 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 7-8 days 9-10 days 11-12 days 13-lk days over lk days - h -?. Employment o f M a r r i e d Women: Does y o u r s c h o o l d i s t r i c t have any r u l e o r r e g u l a t i o n p r o h i b i t i n g t h e employment o f m a r r i e d women as c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s ? 1 . 2 . 3 . i l . Y e s , and t h e r u l e i s e n f o r c e d . Y e s , b u t t h e r u l e i s NOT., e n f o r c e d . No, b u t t h e p r a c t i c e i s d i s c o u r a g e d . No, and the p r a c t i c e i s NOT d i s c o u r a g e d . LO. .Supplemen.tar;/- Emp loynen t? Does y o u r s c h o o l d i s t r i c t have any ru<be or r e g u l a t i o n p r o h i b i t i n g c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s f r o m e n g a g i n g i n a second o c c u p a t i o n d u r i n g t h e s c h o o l y e a r ? 1 . 2 . 3 . i i . Y e s , and t h e r u l e i s e n f o r c e d . Yes , b u t t h e r u l e i s N O T . e n f o r c e d . No, b u t t h e p r a c t i c e i s d i s c o u r a g e d . No, and t h e p r a c t i c e i s NOT d i s c o u r a g e d . 1 1 . A c c e l e r a t e d C 1 a s s e s : I n g e n e r a l , does y o u r s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s u b s c r i b e t o t h e c o m p l e t i n g o f i i y e a r s w o r k , e i t h e r i n e l e m e n t a r y o r s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l , i n 3 y e a r s by s u p e r i o r s t u d e n t s ? 1 . 2 . 3 . Yes , e n t i r e l y . P a r t l y . No, n o t a t a l l . 1 2 . I n t h e p r e s e n t s c h o o l y e a r , d i d y o u r s c h o o l d i s t r i c t emp loy b e g i n n i n g t e a c h e r s o f I n d u s t r i a l A r t s , P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , Home Economics e t c . a t a s a l a r y above t h e s c a l e f o r y o u r d i s t r i c t ? I n d u s t r i a l A r t s 1 . P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n 2. Home Economics 3 . 1 3 . R e c r u i t m e n t Yes Yes Yes 1 . 2 . 3 . No No What p r a c t i c e s u s u a l l y a r e f o l l o w e d by y o u r s c h o o l d i s t r i c t i n l o c a t i n g a p p l i c a n t s f o r t e a c h i n g p o s i t i o n s : (Check) 1 . Use a p p l i c a t i o n s s e n t i n v o l u n t a r i l y by c a n d i d a t e s 1 . 2 . P u b l i s h announcements o f p o s i t i o n s t o be f i l l e d 2. 3. Get names f r o m p l a c e m e n t b u r e a u s o f t e a c h e r s c o l l e g e s 3. _ t _ L. Get l i s t from Department of Education 5. Get names from Teachers Federation 6. Make i n q u i r i e s i n other school d i s t r i c t s it. 6-1 i r 7. Make i n q u i r i e s at conventions and other s i m i l a r gatherings 1. 8. Other procedure 8, ( s p e c i f y ) Add a second check f o r the one which i s most pr o d u c t i v e . How many years of educational p r e p a r a t i o n beyond high-school graduation are re q u i r e d f o r i n i t i a l appointment as a f u l l - t i m e r e g u l a r teacher i n your school d i s t r i c t ? 1. Elementary 2. J u n i o r High 3. Senior High No. of years 1. No. of years 2. No. of Years 3. Are age l i m i t s set f o r new appointees to the teaching s t a f f ? Yes j j No I f age l i m i t s are set, what are the age l i m i t s i n years? 1. Elementary School 2. J u n i o r High 3. Senior High Are married women given appointments as new f u l l - t i m e r e g u l a r teachers? 1. 2. 3. Lower L i m i t r 1. 2. 3. Upper L i m i t Yes No Rar e l y , under s p e c i a l c o n d i t i o n s I f married women may be appointed as new teachers, i s there a preference f o r s i n g l e women when q u a l i f i c a t i o n s are equal? Yes No I f married women u s u a l l y are not appointed as new teachers, i s the p o l i c y of nonappointment based on a r u l e o f f i c i a l l y adopted by the board? Yes No I f married women u s u a l l y are not appointed as new teachers, are exceptions made f o r married women who are resp o n s i b l e f o r the support of dependents? Yes No - 6 -! 1 . In 1958-59, as compared w i t h 1950, to what extent i s marriage an impediment to f i r s t employment of women teachers i n your school system. More of an impediment About the same Less of an impediment !2. How many years of previous teaching experience are req u i r e d f o r i n i t i a l appointment as a f u l l - t i m e r e g u l a r teacher i n your school d i s t r i c t (minimum) 1 . Elementary 2. J u n i o r High 3. Senior High No. of years ii tt it !3. I f a teacher does not expect to r e t u r n to your system f o r the next year of teaching, what i s the l a t e s t date at which he i s expected to n o t i f y you of h i s i n t e n t i o n to leave? 1. March 2. A p r i l 3. May i i . June 5. J u l y 6. August ?ii. How many teachers who had been employed r e g u l a r l y i n your schools f o r f i v e years or more have been dismissed or denied reemployment w i t h i n the l a s t three years because of u n s a t i s f a c t o r y s e r v i c e ? No. o f teachers 5. Are you r e q u i r i n g more teachers t h i s school year, 1958-59, than you p r e s e n t l y have, i n order to give an adequate ed u c a t i o n a l programme i n your school d i s t r i c t ? Yes No I f yes, s t a t e number of elementary teachers secondary teachers required. A P P E N D I X B THE BEGINNING TEACHER  QUESTIONNAIRE THE ROYAL COMMISSION ON EDUCATION D i v i s i o n of Tests, Standards & Research Department of Education 3hl Douglas B u i l d i n g V i c t o r i a , B. C. TO THE BEGINNING TEACHER The attached q u e s t i o n n a i r e asks f o r i n f o r m a t i o n concerning the beginning B. C. school teacher. Because of the personal nature of some items, we would ask that each question be given c a r e f u l consider-a t i o n so t h a t your answer w i l l be the most accurate one. A l l i n f o r m a t i o n w i l l be h e l d i n s t r i c t e s t confidence by the s t a f f members of the Commission and w i l l be summarized f o r r e p o r t purposes. K i n d l y complete t h i s q u estionnaire as soon as p o s s i b l e and r e t u r n i t d i r e c t l y to the w r i t e r ' s a t t e n t i o n at the above address. Your f u l l e s t cooperation i n t h i s survey i s appreciated. P. W. Easton For: Royal Commission on Education THE ROYAL COMMISSION ON EDUCATION DIVISION OF TESTS, STANDARDS AND RESEARCH DOUGLAS BLDG., VICTORIA, 3.' C. A SURVEY OF BEGINNING PUBLIC SCHOOL CLASSROOM TEACHERS The i n f o r m a t i o n obtained from t h i s q u estionnaire w i l l be kept s t r i c t l y CONFIDENTIAL. You w i l l note that some of the questions ask f o r your opinions about c e r t a i n aspects of teaching. Please express YOUR OWN OPINIONS about your s i t u a t i o n , not what you th i n k other teachers might say. NOTE: Throughout t h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e , "school" means a b u i l d i n g or b u i l d i n g s on the same pr o p e r t y under one p r i n c i p a l or teacher-in-charge. CHECK ONLY ONE BOX FOR EACH QUESTION unless other d i r e c t i o n s are provided. 1. Your Present P o s i t i o n : Type of P o s i t i o n : Is your present job a REGULAR FULL-TIME POSITION? ( I f you are a s u b s t i t u t e teacher, check "No".) Time Devoted to TeachingJ Do you devote HALF OR MORE OF YOUR TIME TO classroom teaching i n one or more grades from k i n d e r g a r t e n through 12? C. Experience: Is the school year 1958-59 your FIRST YEAR as a r e g u l a r c l a s s -room teacher? ( I f you have been a r e g u l a r classroom teacher i n another school d i s t r i c t or i n a p r i v a t e or pa r -o c h i a l school or c o l l e g e p r i o r t o t h i s school year, check "No".) Yes • No Yes No. l.| j Yes 2. | } No. IF YOU CHECKED "NO" FOR ONE OR MORE OF THE THREE PARTS OF THE QUESTION ABOVE, RETURN THIS QUESTIONNAIRE TO THE DIVISION OF TESTS, STANDARDS AND RESEARCH, DOUGLAS BUILDING, VICTORIA, B. C. WITHOUT FILLING OUT THE REST OF IT. OTHER-WISE PLEASE GO TO THE NEXT QUESTION. 2. Grades i n c l u d e d i n your SCHOOL: C i r c l e both the'LOWEST AND HIGHEST grades r e g u l a r l y taught i n the school where you are teaching. K 1 2 3 h 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13. 3. Your Teaching L e v e l : C i r c l e ALL the grades i n which you are teaching t h i s term. K 1 2 3 i i 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13. NOW pla c e a check [v) above the grade i n which you do the MOST teaching. Present Enrollment of the SCHOOL i n which you te a c h : I f you don't know e x a c t l y , make the best estimate you can. 1 | j l - 2 k S\ ]200-399 9[ j 1000-1199 2 [ I 25-49 61 |k00-599 01 )1200-1399 3 [ j 50-99 71 )600-799 Y [ 1 lkOO- or more ^ I ) 1 0°- 199 81 J 800-999 Number of Regular Full-Time Teachers i n your SCHOOL: Include y o u r s e l f . I f you don't know e x a c t l y , make the best estimate you can. l | I 1 g [ j 11-20 9 f J51-60 2 CD 2 6 Q J 2 1 - 3 0 0 Q 6 1 - 7 0 3 J I 3-5 7[ )3l-lx0 Y [ [Over 70 h I ) 6-10 81 ) k l - 5 0 Sex: 1 I ] Male 2[ )Female M a r i t a l S t a t u s : l [ ] S i n g l e , never married 2 j j Married 3 [ ] Widow or widower U |^  j Divorced or l e g a l l y separated Age on L a s t B i r t h d a y : 1 [ [ 20 or under i i [ ] 23-2k 71 ] 30-34 z[ I 21 5 [ )25-26 8( ) 35-39 3 j [ 22 6 [ [27-29 ?\ 1 40 or over Type of Teaching c e r t i f i c a t e you h o l d : 1 ] Basic or Advanced 2 ( ~ _ _ J Temporary 3 ("""J C o n d i t i o n a l 3 -10. I f Basic or Advanced: How much of your time do you spend teaching classes or grades or subjects you are NOT c e r t i f i e d to teach? 1. 2. None 5. 60-79% 3.[ [ 20-39^ 6. [ ) 80-99^ 7. [ [ 100£ 11. it. [ ) JiO-59-I f SUB-BASIC: Are you preparing yourself f o r a BASIC c e r t i f i c a t e ? j Yes 1. 2. No. 12. Education; What i s the highest l e v e l of education you have completed? No formal education beyond high school Two years of u n i v e r s i t y or l e s s 1. 2. 3. i i . 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 0. More than two and up to four years of u n i v e r s i t y , no bachelor's degree Bachelor's degree One year or LESS beyond bachelor's degree, NO master's degree MOKE than one year, beyond bachelor's degree, NO master's degree Master's degree One or more years beyond master's degree, no doctor's degree Doctor's degree Other, please describe: 13. Type of I n s t i t u t i o n You Attended for MOST of Your Undergraduate Education: Check only ONE box. 1. 2. 3. h. 5. 6. No formal education beyond high school 1 s t year u n i v e r s i t y 1 year "Emergency Course" - College of Education 2 years College of Education 3 years College of Education ii years College of Education - h -7* r_~J O t h e r u n i t o f a u n i v e r s i t y 8 . f ) O t h e r , p l e a s e d e s c r i b e ? THE FOLLOWING QUESTION IS FOR SECONDARY TEACHERS ONLY. ELEMENTARY TEACHERS GO TO QUESTION 15". P r i n c i p a l Type o f S u b j e c t You a r e T e a c h i n g i n Secondary S c h o o l ; Wh ich t y p e o f s u b j e c t do you spend t h e Most Time t e a c h i n g ? Check o n l y ONE. 1 . Academic m a t h e m a t i c s o r one o f t h e n a t u r a l s c i e n c e s ( b i o l o g y , p h y s i c s , c h e m i s t r y , o r g e n e r a l s c i e n c e ) 3 . J Academic s u b j e c t s o t h e r t h a n m a t h e m a t i c s o r n a t u r a l s c i e n c e ( f o r example E n g l i s h , s o c i a l s t u d i e s , o r l a n g u a g e s ) Non-academic s u b j e c t s ( f o r example home e c o n o m i c s , b u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s ^ p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n , o r shop c o u r s e s ) Number o f Hours o f S t u d e n t o r P r a c t i c e t e a c h i n g i n y o u r c l a s s r o o m p e r t e r m : 1 . None h* 2 . j j 1-3 h o u r s p e r t e r m 5 . 3 . j j l i - 6 h o u r s p e r t e r m 6 7-9 h o u r s p e r t e r m 1 0 - 1 2 h o u r s p e r t e r m Over 12 h o u r s p e r t e r m T e a c h i n g S c h e d u l e : I s y o u r s c h o o l on a s i n g l e o r d o u b l e s e s s i o n s c h e d u l e ? (By a d o u b l e s e s s i o n s c h e d u l e i s meant an a r r a n g e m e n t i n w h i c h two d i f f e r e n t g r o u p s o f p u p i l s use t h e same s c h o o l a t d i f f e r e n t t i m e s o f t h e d a y . ) 1 . 2 . My s c h o o l i s on a s i n g l e s e s s i o n s c h e d u l e My s c h o o l i s on a d o u b l e s e s s i o n s c h e d u l e I F YOUR SCHOOL I S ON A DOUBLE SESSION SCHEDULE, do you t e a c h : O n e - h a l f o f a d o u b l e s e s s i o n B o t h h a l v e s o f a d o u b l e s e s s i o n 1 . 2 . T e a c h i n g L o a d : I n d i c a t e be low t h e number o f c l a s s e s o f a g i v e n s i z e w h i c h y o u t e a c h . C o n s i d e r a c l a s s t o be a g roup o f p u p i l s t a u g h t d u r i n g one c l a s s p e r i o d a p p r o x i m a t i n g one hour i n l e n g t h . I f you t e a c h one g roup f o r two c l a s s p e r i o d s , o r " h o u r s " , ( a c l a s s i n A r t , f o r e x a m p l e ) , c o n s i d e r i t t o be 2 c l a s s e s . I f you t e a c h t h e same g roup t h r o u g h o u t t h e s c h o o l d a y , and t h e s c h o o l day i s n o t d i v i d e d i n t o c l a s s p e r i o d s , c o n s i d e r t h e number o f c l a s s e s t o be t h e same as t h e number o f h o u r s t a u g h t . 1 . f" | c l a s s e s o f 1 -5 p u p i l s 2 . | j c l a s s e s o f 6 - 1 0 p u p i l s - 5 3. j ] c l a s s e s o f 11-15 p u p i l s k. j j c l a s s e s o f 16-20 p u p i l s 5. c l a s s e s o f 21-25 p u p i l s c l a s s e s o f 26-30 p u p i l s c l a s s e s o f 31-35 p u p i l s 6. 7. 8. |"~ ] c l a s s e s o f 36-UO p u p i l s 9. I J c l a s s e s o f hl-h5 p u p i l s NOTE: I f you t e a c h any c l a s s e s o f more t h a n k5 p u p i l s , p l e a s e f i l l i n t h e b l a n k s be low t o i n d i c a t e t h e number and s i z e o f such c l a s s e s : 1. 2. c l a s s e s o f h6-55 p u p i l s c l a s s e s o f 56 and o v e r 19. How Many D i f f e r e n t c o u r s e s do You Teach? ( E g . A r t , M u s i c ) One L. Two 5. Three 6. 1. 2. 3. F o u r F i v e S i x 7. Seven 8. | j More t h a n Seven 20. Average Number o f C lock Hours p e r Week T h a t You Devo te t o You r J o b : I n c l u d e a l l t i m e s p e n t on a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h a r e r e q u i r e d o r d e f i n i t e l y e x p e c t e d o f you as p a r t o f y o u r j o b WHETHER YOU DO THE WORK AT SCHOOL, AT HOME, OR ELSEWHERE. 1. 2. 3. Under 30 30-3U | j 3^-39 h. 5. 6. ao-uu L5-!i9 50-54 7. 8. 9. ^ 9 60-6k 65 o r more 21. H i g h e s t L e v e l o f E d u c a t i o n Comple ted by You r P a r e n t s ( o r G u a r d i a n s ) : Check TWO b o x e s , one f o r y o u r f a t h e r and one f o r y o u r m o t h e r . F a t h e r Mother 2 - D - • 1. | D i d n o t c o m p l e t e g rade s c h o o l 2. ^ j Comple ted g rade s c h o o l b u t n o t h i g h s c h o o l 3. | | Comple ted h i g h s c h o o l b u t n o t u n i v e r s i t y h* | j Comple ted one b u t l e s s t h a n f o u r y e a r s o f u n i v e r s i t y 6.r 5. |^  | Completed a four-year u n i v e r s i t y program 6. J M. •., PhD. or a professional degree 22. Occupation of Family Members: What i s (was) the M'MN occupation of your father, mother and husband or wife? I f you were raised by a step-father or step-mother or by guardians answer for them. Check ONE box i n each column. Father 1. Mother 1. | 2 - r Spouse 1. ' 3-( Ii." 5-6. 7. 8. ] 3 - C D 2. 3. Teacher or other educator Professional or semi-professional Farmer or farm manager Proprietor, manager, or executive (except farm) 6 . [ 6 - L 6. 7. [ C l e r i c a l or sales S k i l l e d craftsman or foreman J Semi-skilled operative 1 9. • Service worker (domestic, protective, etc.) '•I 0 Y. j Laborer (either farm or non-farm) Homemaker j Student I am not married NOTE: The following s i x questions concern your income from various sources. May we repeat that t h i s information w i l l be treated c o n f i d e n t i a l l y and w i l l be seen only by a few survey s t a f f members on the Commission. PLEASE FOLLOW THESE GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS: 1. Note the TIME PERIOD for which the data i s requested. 2. Note the TYPE OF INCOME which i s indicated. 3. I f you are not sure of exact amounts, MAKE ESTIMATES. i i . I f you had no income of that type for that time period, write ZERO. 5. Do not report the SAME income i n more than ONE place, 23. Gross Annual Salary: Indicate the gross annual salary you expect to receive for the SCHOOL YEAR 1958-59. INCLUDE c o s t - o f - l i v i n g and emergency increases, i s o l a t i o n bonuses, and any salary supplement paid i n a lump sum. - 7 -INDICATE the amount of your annual s a l a r y BEFORE V I T DEDUCTIONS ( f o r example, deductions f o r taxes or r e t i r e m e n t ) . GROSS ANNUAL SALARY: $ 2k. NOTE: I f you s t a r t e d work a f t e r the beginning of school i n the F a l l of 1958, i n d i c a t e the number of months t h i s s a l a r y covers: 25. A d d i t i o n a l Income From a Job or Business: How much income from the operation of a business, s a l a r i e s , wages, commissions or fees i n a d d i t i o n to your r e g u l a r school s a l a r y do you expect to r e c e i v e f o r THE SCHOOL YEAR 1958-59 from each of the f o l l o w i n g sources? FROM A SECOND SCHOOL JOB: (e.g. n i g h t school c l a s s e s , maintenance work or bus d r i v i n g ) $ 26. FROM A JOB OR BUSINESS OUTSIDE THE SCHOOL SYSTEM: 27. SUMMER INCOME: How much income d i d you r e c e i v e LAST SUMMER (from June 30 to the opening of the FALL term i n 1958) from the operation of a business, s a l a r i e s , wages, commissions or fees? SUMMER INCOME: $ 28. Other Income: ' How much do you estimate you y o u r s e l f w i l l have r e c e i v e d f o r the 12 MONTH PERIOD ENDING JUNE 30, 1959 from r e n t s , r o y a l t i e s , d i v i d e n d s , i n t e r e s t , and other sources of income? OTHER INCOME: $ 29. Income of Spouse: I n d i c a t e the t o t a l income a n t i c i p a t e d by your husband or wife from a l l sources f o r the 12 MONTH PERIOD ENDING JUNE 30, 1959. SPOUSE'S INCOME: $ 30. Income L a s t Year: I n d i c a t e your income from each of the f o l l o w i n g sources f o r the 12 MONTH PERIOD ENDING JUNE 30 1958. FROM A JOB OR BUSINESS: Give the gross f i g u r e before deductions . . $ 31. FROM .ALL OTHER SOURCES: Include money from s c h o l a r s h i p s or other .. $ 32. Number of Your C h i l d r e n Who are Dependents: Months No dependent c h i l d r e n 3 c h i l d r e n 1 C h i l d 2 C h i l d r e n k c h i l d r e n 5 or more c h i l d r e n - 8 -O t h e r D e p e n d e n t s : P l e a s e e s t i m a t e t h e a n n u a l money c o s t t o y o u o f s u p p o r t i n g d e p e n d e n t s o u t s i d e o f y o u r i m m e d i a t e f a m i l y ( t h a t i s , o t h e r t h a n y o u r c h i l d r e n or husband o r w i f e , e i t h e r i n y o u r home or e l s e w h e r e ) . I n c l u d e paymen ts t o d e p e n d e n t s s u p p o r t e d by y o u r husband o r w i f e . I n c l u d e c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o t h e s u p p o r t o f d e p e n d e n t s w i t h o u t r e g a r d t o w h e t h e r t h e y a r e d e d u c t i b l e f o r t a x p u r p o s e s . 1. one 2. [ ) $1 - h9 3. ( ) 150-99 5. 6. $100-299 $300-h99 $500-?ii9 7. a $750-999 8. [ [ $1000-1999 9. j" j $2000 o r o v e r I f you r e m a i n i n y o u r p r e s e n t p o s i t i o n d u r i n g t h e n e x t s c h o o l y e a r , how much o f an i n c r e a s e i n a n n u a l s a l a r y a r e y o u l i k e l y t o r e c e i v e ? M I 2 Q 3 - C J u. i None $1 - k9 $50 - 99 $100 - 11*9 5. 6. 7. 8. $150 - 199 $200 - 2h9 $250 - 299 #300 o r more Work P e r i o d : I n d i c a t e t h e l e n g t h o f t i m e i n months w h i c h y o u a r e r e q u i r e d t o work f o r y o u r s c h o o l s a l a r y . I n c l u d e t i m e o u t s i d e o f t h e r e g u l a r s c h o o l t e r m i f t h i s i s p a r t o f y o u r d u t y . I n d i c a t e t h e l e n g t h o f t i m e you work f o r y o u r s a l a r y e x c l u s i v e o f a summer v a c a t i o n . a 2-C 3.1 7-g- months 8 months 8-|- months 9 months 5. 6. 7. 8. 9g months 10 months 10f months 11 months N o n - T e a c h i n g Employment E x p e r i e n c e P r i o r t o B e g i n n i n g T e a c h i n g : I n d i c a t e t h e l e n g t h o f t i m e you were i n f u l l - t i m e g a i n f u l employment i n o c c u p a t i o n s o t h e r t h a n t e a c h i n g b e f o r e y o u began f u l l - t i m e t e a c h i n g . Do n o t i n c l u d e t e m p o r a r y summer employment . Do n o t i n c l u d e m i l i t a r y s e r v i c e u n l e s s y o u i n t e n d e d t o make i t y o u r c a r e e r . 1 Was n o t employed f u l l - t i m e i n a n o t h e r o c c u p a t i o n b e f o r e b e g i n n i n g t o t e a c h . Employed l e s s t h a n 1 y e a r . Employed 1 y e a r b u t l e s s t h a n 3 y e a r s . Employed 3 y e a r s b u t l e s s t h a n 5 y e a r s . ( q u e s t i o n 36 c o n ' t on n e x t p a g e ) 5. 6. - 9 -Employed 5 years but l e s s than 10 years. Employed 10 or more years. A c t i v i t y L ast Year. What were you doing on or about A p r i l 1 1958? CHECK AS MANY AS APPLY. 1. 5.r 6 . [ 8 . [ 0.r I was a t t e n d i n g school. I was a homemaker. I was i n m i l i t a r y s e r v i c e . I was working i n education as a s u b s t i t u t e teacher. I was engaged i n student or p r a c t i c e teaching. I was working i n education i n a non-teaching j ob. I was working f o r pay outside of education. Describe your work: I was seeking employment. Other, please describe." D e c i s i o n t o Enter Teaching: At What Grade were you i n school when you d e f i n i t e l y decided to become a teacher? 2 Q 3 - L J In grade 6 or before. In grades 7 - 10. In grades 11 - 12. A f t e r h i g h school but before f u r t h e r education. In u n i v e r s i t y , before beginning of 3rd year. In u n i v e r s i t y , d u r i ng 3rd or kth year. A f t e r u n i v e r s i t y . 39. Parents' A t t i t u d e : What was the a t t i t u d e of your parents toward your going i n t o teaching? Check TWO boxes, one f o r your f a t h e r and one f o r your mother. Father Mother 1. T Very favorable 2. |" | F a i r l y f a v o r a b l e (question 39 con't on next page) 3. i i . 5. 3. F a i r l y u n f a v o r a b l e ^ ' V e r y u n f a v o r a b l e Deceased i | . 5. S i z e o f t h e Community i n w h i c h you Res ided D u r i n g Most o f You r C h i l d h o o d I f y o u l i v e d i n s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t c o m m u n i t i e s , check t h e t y p e i n w h i c h y o u l i v e d t h e l o n g e s t up t o t h e age o f 17. I f y o u d o n ' t know e x a c t l y t h e s i 7 , e o f t h e communi ty when you l i v e d t h e r e , g i v e y o u r b e s t e s t i m a t e . 1. 2. 3. i i , 5. 6. Farm o r o p e n o o u n t r y A v i l l a g e or s e t t l e m e n t o f l e s s t h a n 2,500 p o p u l a t i o n 2,500 - 9,999 p o p u l a t i o n 10,000 - 2ii,999 p o p u l a t i o n 25,000 - 99,999 p o p u l a t i o n 100,000 o r more p o p u l a t i o n L i v i n g A r r a n g e m e n t s 1. 2. 3» J... 5. I l i v e a l o n e I l i v e w i t h a f r i e n d ( s ) I l i v e w i t h my husband or w i f e I l i v e w i t h my p a r e n t s o r o t h e r r e l a t i v e s O t h e r , s p e c i f y : L i v i n g Q u a r t e r s : I (we) own o r a r e b u y i n g a house or a p a r t m e n t I (we) r e n t a room ( w i t h o r w i t h o u t b o a r d ) 1. 2. 3. |~~ | I (we) r e n t a house o r a p a r t m e n t i i . |~~ | I (we) n e i t h e r own nor r e n t l i v i n g q u a r t e r s R e s i d e n c e : Do you r e s i d e i n t h e commun i t y i n w h i c h you t e a c h ? 1. 1 Yes 2. No - 11 -L e n g t h o f R e s i d e n c e ; How many y e a r s have y o u l i v e d i n t h e communi ty where y o u r e s i d e d u r i n g t h e s c h o o l y e a r ? 1. 2. 3. L e s s t h a n 1 y e a r 1-3 y e a r s h-5 y e a r s 5. 6. 6-10 y e a r s Over 10 y e a r s b u t n o t b o r n h e r e A l l my l i f e R e l a t i o n t o t h e Communi ty : How c l o s e do y o u f e e l t o t h e commun i ty where y o u r e s i d e d u r i n g t h e s c h o o l y e a r ? 1. 2. I f e e l t h a t I b e l o n g h e r e and t h a t t h i s i s my home communi ty I f e e l q u i t e c l o s e t o t h i s communi ty b u t do n o t c o n s i d e r i t t o be my home 3. |~ [ I do n o t f e e l v e r y c l o s e t o t h i s commun i ty k01"~ [ I f e e l l i k e a c o m p l e t e s t r a n g e r i n t h i s commun i t y Do you e n j o y w o r k i n g w i t h t h e s t u d e n t s i n y o u r c l a s s e s ? 3. 1. 2. Y e s , a g r e a t d e a l Y e s , f a i r l y w e l l No, n o t v e r y much J No, n o t a t a l l I n g e n e r a l , how good a j o b do y o u f e e l y o u a r e d o i n g i n t e a c h i n g y o u r s t u d e n t s i n t h e HUMAN RELATIONS a s p e c t s o f t e a c h i n g ? 1. 2, E x c e l l e n t Good 3. k. F a i r Poor I n g e n e r a l , how good a j o b do you f e e l y o u a re d o i n g i n t e a c h i n g y o u r s t u d e n t s SUBJECT MATTERS? 1. 2, E x c e l l e n t Good 3. F a i r i t . f Poo r Was t e a c h i n g y o u r f i r s t o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e or w o u l d you r a t h e r have gone i n t o some o t h e r k i n d o f work? 1. 2„ T e a c h i n g was my f i r s t c h o i c e I w o u l d have p r e f e r r e d t o do s o m e t h i n g e l s e I f y o u had i t t o do o v e r a g a i n , w o u l d y o u e n t e r TEACHING? D e f i n i t e l y yes 3. P r o b a b l y yes i t . 1. 2. P r o b a b l y no D e f i n i t e l y no L i f e G o a l s : Do y o u f e e l t h a t you can a c h i e v e y o u r l o n g - r u n l i f e g o a l s by c o n t i n u i n g i n c l a s s r o o m t e a c h i n g as a c a r e e r ? 1. 2. D e f i n i t e l y yes P r o b a b l y y e s 3. h. P r o b a b l y no D e f i n i t e l y no Your P l a n s f o r t h e N e x t S c h o o l Y e a r : Your p l a n s f o r t h e n e x t y e a r may be i n d e f i n i t e a t t h i s t i m e , b u t p l e a s e g i v e us y o u r b e s t guess as t o w h a t you w i l l be d o i n g n e x t f a l l (1959). 1. 2. 3. h. 5. 6. I e x p e c t t o t e a c h i n t h i s s c h o o l d i s t r i c t . I e x p e c t t o t e a c h i n a n o t h e r s c h o o l d i s t r i c t . I e x p e c t t o be w o r k i n g i n e d u c a t i o n b u t NOT as a c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r . I e x p e c t t o d e v o t e my t i m e t o f u l l - t i m e homemaking. I e x p e c t t o go b a c k t o s c h o o l f o r f u r t h e r t r a i n i n g i n e d u c a t i o n . I e x p e c t t o go back t o s c h o o l f o r t r a i n i n g i n a f i e l d o u t s i d e o f e d u c a t i o n : What f i e l d ? I e x p e c t t o be g a i n f u l l y emp loyed o u t s i d e o f e d u c a t i o n . S p e c i f y : I n d i c a t e t h e k i n d o f work y o u w i l l be d o i n g , n o t t h e t y p e o f b u s i n e s s o r i n d u s t r y you w i l l be i n : O t h e r , p l e a s e d e s c r i b e C e r t a i n t y o f P l a n s f o r N e x t Y e a r : How c e r t a i n do you f e e l o f t h e p l a n s f o r n e x t y e a r w h i c h y o u i n d i c a t e d i n q u e s t i o n 5>2 above? 1. 2. V e r y c e r t a i n F a i r l y c e r t a i n 1.. F a i r l y u n c e r t a i n V e r y u n c e r t a i n C a r e e r P l a n s : Your p l a n s may n o t be d e f i n i t e a t t h i s t i m e , b u t p l e a s e i n d i c a t e y o u r p r e s e n t e x p e c t a t i o n s , , r 3. I e x p e c t t o c o n t i n u e t e a c h i n g u n t i l r e t i r e m e n t . I e x p e c t t o c o n t i n u e i n t h e f i e l d o f e d u c a t i o n u n t i l r e t i r e m e n t , b u t hope t o move f r o m c l a s s r o o m t e a c h i n g i n t o some o t h e r a r e a o f e d u c a t i o n e v e n t u a l l y * I e x p e c t t o l e a v e t e a c h i n g i n o r d e r t o d e v o t e my t i m e t o homemaking; I WOULD NOT w a n t t o r e t u r n t o t e a c h i n g l a t e r . I e x p e c t t o l e a v e t e a c h i n g i n o r d e r t o d e v o t e my t i m e t o homemaking; I WOULD w a n t t o r e t u r n t o t e a c h i n g l a t e r . ( q u e s t i o n Sh c o n ' t on n e x t p a g e ) 5 . I e x p e c t t o l e a v e e d u c a t i o n f o r a n o t h e r o c c u p a t i o n . P l e a s e d e s c r i b e : 6. O t h e r , p l e a s e d e s c r i b e : A r e y o u r c a r e e r p l a n s d e p e n d e n t upon any o f t h e f o l l o w i n g f a c t o r s ? CHECK AS M N Y AS APPLY. G e t t i n g m a r r i e d . H a v i n g a baby . Spouse f i n i s h i n g s c h o o l . S p o u s e ' s j o b . S p o u s e 1 s i n c o m e . B e i n g a b l e t o s u p p o r t a f a m i l y on a t e a c h e r ' s s a l a r y . G e t t i n g a b e t t e r t e a c h i n g j o b t h a n I have now. O t h e r , p l e a s e d e s c r i b e : S p o u s e ' s A t t i t u d e : What i s t h e a t t i t u d e o f y o u r husband o r w i f e t o w a r d y e a r c o n t i n u i n g i n a t e a c h i n g c a r e e r ? 1 . 2. V e r y f a v o r a b l e F a i r l y f a v o r a b l e 3 . h. 5 . F a i r l y u n f a v o r a b l e V e r y u n f a v o r a b l e I am n o t m a r r i e d L i k e l i h o o d o f L e a v i n g T e a c h i n g : What i s t h e l i k e l i h o o d o f y o u r l e a v i n g c l a s s r o o m t e a c h i n g WITHIN THE NEXT FIVE YE-'RS? 1 . I w i l l d e f i n i t e l y l e a v e t e a c h i n g w i t h i n 1 . 2. 3 . 1 y e a r 3 y e a r s 5 y e a r s 2„ I w i l l p r o b a b l y l e a v e t e a c h i n g w i t h i n ho [ | 1 y e a r 3 y e a r s 5 y e a r s 3 . I m i g h t l e a v e t e a c h i n g w i t h i n 5 y e a r s b u t i t i s n o t l i k e l y - - ?• k. I t i s e x t r e m e l y u n l i k e l y t h a t I w o u l d l e a v e t e a c h i n g w i t h i n 5 y e a r s - - 8 . - lk -58. Reasons for Leaving Teaching: REGARDLESS OF THE LIKELIHOOD OF YOUR LEAVING TEACHING TOTHIN THE NEXT FIVE YEARS, under what conditions would you leave v o l u n t a r i l y (or for what reasons do you expect to leave?). 59. Your Satisfaction with Various Aspects of your P o s i t i o n : Please write the code number which best expresses your fe e l i n g about each item i n the space to the l e f t of each item. Use the following code: k - Very satisfactory 3 - F a i r l y s a t isfactory 2 - F a i r l y unsatisfactory 1 - Very unsatisfactory Adequacy of your school building Adequacy of supplies and equipment furnished to you by the school Your present salary . aximum salaries for classroom teachers i n your school system Time needed to reach peak salary i n your school system f o r teachers with f u l l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s for t h e i r positions Provisions for sick leave Provisions for retirement Your salary compared to that of other occupations i n your area open to people with your l e v e l of education Your teaching load Your non-teaching r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s Total time you spend on school duties, including both teaching and non-teaching r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s required or d e f i n i t e l y expected of you Helpfulness of the supervision you receive Fairness with which duties are distributed i n your school Your relations with your superiors Your relations with fellow teachers Your relations with students Your relations with parents P u p i l attentiveness and d i s c i p l i n e The amount of interest shown by your students General community attitude toward teaching as an occupation Your position as a whole (except salary) Your pos i t i o n an a whole (including salary) 60. In your present position are you teaching the subjects and/or grade l e v e l you are MOST QUALIFIED to teach? 1. 3 = Yes, e n t i r e l y 3c ,-Partly No, not at a l l In your present position are you teaching the subjects and/or grade l e v e l you LIKE BEST to teach? (Question 61 con't on next page) 15 -65. l . Yes 5 e n t i r e l y 3. No, not at a l l 2. |~ | P a r t l y Helpfulness of Education Courses: In general, do you f e e l that the education courses you had i n u n i v e r s i t y have been h e l p f u l i n your present position? 2. 3. Very h e l p f u l F a i r l y h e l p f u l Not very h e l p f u l 5. Not h e l p f u l at a l l I haven't had any courses i n education Helpfulness of Practice Teaching: In general, do you f e e l that the student or p r a c t i c e teaching you d i d while i n teacher t r a i n i n g has been h e l p f u l i n your present p o s i t i o n ? 1. 2. Very h e l p f u l F a i r l y h e l p f u l Not very h e l p f u l h* |~~ | Not h e l p f u l at a l l 5. I did not have any p r a c t i c e teaching 6h» Attitude toward Accelerated Classes: In general, do you subscribe to the completing of h years work, e i t h e r i n elementary or secondary school, i n 3 years by superior students? Yes, e n t i r e l y P a r t l y No, not at a l l i . Below i s a l i s t of things which various people have mentioned as REQUIREMENTS FOR AN IDEAL JOB OR PROFESSION. As you read the l i s t , consider to what extent ANY job or career would have to s a t i s f y each of these requirements before you could consider i t IDEAL. Indicate your opinion by checking the appropriate box to the l e f t of each item. Check HIGH f o r requirements you consider highly important. Check MEDIUM f o r requirements you consider of medium importance. Check LOW f o r requirements you consider of l i t t l e or no importance, i r r e l e v a n t , or even d i s t a s t e f u l . Your Job Requirements High 1 Medium Low Is This Statement Descriptive of Teaching Yes 2, 2. — 1 3-r \ 3» Ac Provide an opportunity to use my 1. s p e c i a l a b i l i t i e s and aptitudes No 2 J " B. Provide me with a chance to earn a good deal of money 1. (Question 65 con't on next page) - X O — Your Job Requirements Is This Statement Descriptive of Teaching High Medium Low • Yes No 1. f~" | 2.[ \ 3»P ) C. Permit me to be creative and l{ J2. [ ] original 1. j"" | 2»P ] 3.(~ ] D. Give me social status and prestige l | " J2. j " j l . r 1 •L 2 . f ~ j 3»[~ ] E. Give me an opportunity to work . with people rather than things lj J2. |" j 2.[ ) 3.P ] F. Enable me to look forward to a stable 5 secure future l£ J 2. |"" j 2. |" j 3«{__ j G. Leave me relatively free of supervision by others lF j 2. F J 2.1 3.f 1 H. Give me a chance to exercise . \ 1 leadership i f j 2.[ J 2.[~ | 3 . Q ~ ~ | I . Provide me with adventure l [ ~ ) 2 < [ l. ( J 2.j j 3»f ) J. Give me an opportunity to be ,—. \ 1 I » l /. helpful to others ' i f 12.[ j 66. Now GO BACK and indicate whether you think each statement i s descriptive of the teaching profession by checking "yes" or "no" in the boxes provided to the right of each item. 67. Do you like teaching? 1. f ~ ~ l More than you thought you would 2. |~ j About the same as you thought you would 3. j"" ] Less than you thought you would it.|~ j Don't know 68. Do you plan to attend summer school THIS year? j Definitely planning to go 2. j~ j Not certain but probably 3. |~ j Not planning to go 69. Who or What was the MAIN Influence i n Causing you to Enter Teaching? 1. [" ) Teacher 3.( ) Friend 2. [~ ] Parent h.[ ] Other, Explain: 17 70. 71. 72, 73. When you f i r s t started to work, what was the general attit u d e of most of the other classroom teachers i n your b u i l d i n g toward you? 1. F r i e n d l y 2. I n d i f f e r e n t 3. Unfriendly Do you f e e l your personal l i f e has been r e s t r i c t e d by s o c i a l pressure since becoming a teacher. Check (i/O one. 1. 2, 3. Not r e s t r i c t e d i n any way Restric t e d but not s e r i o u s l y Seriously r e s t r i c t e d Were you promised a p a r t i c u l a r school, grade l e v e l or subject f i e l d at the time you were employed? 1 0 School 1. 2. Grade 2. 3. Subject F i e l d 3. Yes Yes Yes 1. 2. 3. No No No If you Answered YES to any part of the above question did you a c t u a l l y get that s p e c i f i c assignment? 1. Yes 2. Were you disappointed with what you d i d get? Yes ~~ ' 2. No No Have you been requested to teach any classes you have f e l t ,to be too large? 2. 1 Yes No I f yes, how many students are i n th i s too-large class? Has the teaching load assigned to you been: Heavier than that of others on the s t a f f 1 2 . | | Heavy but not more so than other teachers Medium 3. L i g h t Would you be i n favour of a FAIR Merit Rating Plan i n Your School D i s t r i c t ? Yes 2. No _ 18 -76. How much help with problems have you received from Much Help Some Help L i t t l e Help 1. P r i n c i p a l 1. f 2, Supervisors & Consultants 3 . Fellow c l a s s -room teachers i i . Inspectors 2 . f " " " " " " 1 2 . • No Heli It.; 1 . 1 . 2 . 2 . i i . i i . i i . 77. Check (\/) the following items to indicate how much help you have needed and how much help you have received during t h i s f i r s t year of teaching: Check each item under both sections, Help Reeded. None L i t t l e Some Much 1 . Understanding the _^ goals of the school 1 . 2.-T j3.j [ i i . 2 . Dvlpg. better per-sonal q u a l i t i e s as a teacher - voice, 1 j |2 . | |3«[ |lu poise, emotional con t r o l , etc. 3. Understanding and using s p e c i a l school services-standardized t e s t r e s u l t s ^ health, remedial l j p | 2 . | \3f~\k.\ reading, psychologists, etc. i i . Keeping and making out o f f i c i a l records and reports iJj ]2.| |3«1 lit. f>. Understanding and using courses of 1 j | 2 j |3«| [ii* study & curriculum guides 6. Making e f f e c t i v e use l j |2j |3J IM of community resources 7. Handling d i s c i p l i n a r y , problems ^ - O ^ O ^ O M 8. Planning f o r & work-ing with g i f t e d & l j 12J 1 3 . 1 i i i . retarded p u p i l s 9 . Getting acquainted with the community & i t s 1^ l2«f 13J |ii.[ people Halo Received None L i t t l e Some Much i Q 2.r ] 3.n u. 1a2a3.au. i j f 2 ; r ~ i 3 , [ [ U.T 1 0 2 Q 3 . [ l Q 2 Q 3 . [ i i . l Q 2 Q 3 . [ ia2Ci3,r 1 J J 2 J J 3 . L lk. "Iii.' 19 78. The Number of V i s i t s and Ratings by Inspectors should be: 1. J | Increased 3. Decreased 2.1 ) L e f t as Is Number of Inspector's V i s i t s you Have had to Date: 79. Check ( i / ) the d i f f i c u l t i e s you have encountered i n your f i r s t year of teaching and s i g n i f y the degree of d i f f i c u l t y you have encountered. 1. Handling problems of p u p i l c o n t r o l and d i s c i p l i n e 2. E s t a b l i s h i n g and maintaining proper r e l a t i o n s w i t h s u p e r v i s o r s and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s 3. A d j u s t i n g to d e f i c i e n c i e s i n school equipment, p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n s and m a t e r i a l s $. Handling broader aspects of teaching techniques 6. M o t i v a t i n g p u p i l i n t e r e s t and response 7. Adapting to the needs, i n t e r e s t s and a b i l i t i e s of p u p i l s 8. A d j u s t i n g to demand f o r time and energy a f t e r school hours 9. Crowded c o n d i t i o n s 10. Lack of m a t e r i a l s and s u p p l i e s 11. Lack of time 12. Inadequate knowledge 13. D i f f i c u l t i e s w i t h parents l k . E v a l u a t i n g students' work 15>. Covering subject matter 16. Reporting to parents Much 1. 1. It. Ad j u s t i n g to the teaching assignment 1. 1. 1. 1. 1. 1. 1. 1 • a i . i . i . i . Some 2. 2. H 2. " 2. 2. 2. 2. 2. 2. 2. 2. 2. 2. 2. 2. L i t t l e 3. 3. 3. 3. 3. 3. 3. 3-L 3-C 3 l H 3. 3CJ (Question 79 con't on next page) Much Some L i t t l e 17. Keeping various groups busy with planned a c t i v i t i e s 1. 18. Dealing with maladjusted c h i l d r e n 1. • — 1 2. 2. 3. 3. THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS ARE CONCERNED WITH THE ADEQUACY OF THE TEACHER TRAINING YOU RECEIVED AT U. B. C. OR VICTORIA COLLEGE AS YOU JUDGE THE TRAINING IN THE LIGHT OF YOUR TEACHING EXPERIENCES. College A.ttended 1. U. B. C. 2. V i c t o r i a College 80. Generally, how would you rate the teacher t r a i n i n g programme with regard to the following aspects: 1. I n t e l l e c t u a l challenge 2. Calibre of examinations 3. Interpretation of teaching as a f i e l d of work li. The form of le c t u r e presentations 5. Opportunity to discuss educational problems High 1. F a i r 2. Low 3. ' 3: 1. 1. 1. 2. 2. 81. Of how much value do you think the following p r o f e s s i o n a l courses were i n preparing you f o r teaching? 1. Introduction to education 2. Educational Thought 3. Educational Psychology 1*. Audio-visual techniques 5. Speech 6. School administration 7. Diagnostic and remedial teaching 8. Guidance and counselling Much 1 Some 2. L i t t l e 3. None 1. 1. 1. 1, 1. 2. 2, 2. 2. 2. 2» 2, 3. 3. 3, 3. J C 3. h. lu l i . IN U. a. a. 82. Have you encountered any c o n f l i c t between the ideas and philosophy you formed while i n college and the ideas and philosophy of your school p r i n c i p a l , - check ( / j one: 1. 2. j No c o n f l i c t Some c o n f l i c t but not of a serious nature (Question 82 con't on next page) 3. j J Serious c o n f l i c t Don't know 83. In your opinion, how valuable have you found each of the following t r a i n i n g methods i n preparing you f o r teaching? Much 1. 1. Some 2. L i t t l e None 1. 1. 1. 1. 1. 2. 2. 2,j~~ ) 3. [ ) h. 2 - C J 3 - D H 2 . Q 3 3. 1. Methods courses 2„ P r o f e s s i o n a l courses 3. P r a c t i c e teaching programme k. Interviews with s t a f f members 5>. Seminars 6, Conferences with fellow students 7. Reading i n l i b r a r y 8L. How s a t i s f a c t o r y were the following f a c u l t y services? Very w e l l F a i r l y well 1. Personal guidance 2. P r o f e s s i o n a l advisement 3° L i b r a r y f a c i l i t i e s i l . Variety of courses a v a i l a b l e 5. F a c i l i t i e s f o r r e c r e a t i o n 6. Administration of schools 7. V i s i t i n g s p e c i a l i s t s 3 - 0 - • a i . i . i» i . [ i . i . 2. 2. 2. 2. 2, 2. 2o 1 J L i t t l e 3. 3. 3. 3. 3. 3< 3 - a 8. Observation of expert demonstra-t i o n teachers 9. Assistance i n placement 10. P r o v i s i o n of bi b l i o g r a p h i e s 11. Contact with s t a f f members l o 1. H J l . • 2, 2. 2. 2< 3o 3. 3. 3. 85« In evaluating the teacher t r a i n i n g you received do you f e e l the amount of time devoted to p r a c t i c e teaching should be: 1. Increased 2. Decreased 3. L e f t as i s - 22 -86. Do you p r e f e r p r a c t i c e teaching sessions to be c a r r i e d out i n sessions of: two or three weeks one week 3. a day or two per week a combination of weekly and d a i l y sessions 87. Have the teachers under whom you have done p r a c t i c e teaching: 1. Provided s u f f i c i e n t a c t u a l teaching experiences 1. 2. Provided s p e c i f i c h e l p f u l suggestions 2. Yes l . | ]NC l Y e s 2.[ ~*)NC 88. In e v a l u a t i n g the help given by your F a c u l t y A d v i s o r s , check (\/) the type of a i d you r e c e i v e d i n the f o l l o w i n g areas: 1. Developing broad concepts of teaching 2. A s s i s t i n g w i t h p r a c t i c a l problems 3. A s s i s t i n g w i t h personal problems Much l . ~ ~ ~ Some 2.1 L i t t l e 3. None 1. 1. 2. 2. 89. What i s your o p i n i o n r e g a r d i n g the value of the elementary.methods courses t h a t you have taken 1. Language a r t s 2. Reading 3. A r i t h m e t i c lu Science 5. S o c i a l s t u d i e s 6. A r t 7. Music 8. P h y s i c a l Education High Value 1. Some Value 2-CJ 2. l c 1. 1. 1. 1. 1. 2. 2. 2. 2. 2 2. L i t t l e Value 3. 3. 3-[ 3. 3. • o 3 - a 3 Q 3. 3. 90. What i s your o p i n i o n regarding the value of the secondary methods courses that you have taken? High Some L i t t l e Value Value Value 1. E n g l i s h 1. _ J 2. 3-(Question 90 con't on next page) - 23 2. French 3. L a t i n l i . German 5. Spanish 6. H i s t o r y 7. Geography 8. Mathematics 9. Science 10. A r t 11. Health and P h y s i c a l Development 12. P h y s i c a l Education 13. Music i l l . Commerce l£. I n d u s t r i a l A r t s 16. Home Economics 17. A g r i c u l t u r e 18. Drama High Value c 1. J M 1. 1. 1. 1. 1. 1. 1. 1. 1. 1. 1. 1. Some Value 2. 2. 2. 2. 2. 2. 2. 2. 2. 2, 2 -[ 2. 2. 2. 2. 2. 2. L i t t l e Value 3. 3. 3 3. 3. 3. 3. 3. C 3. 3 - U 3. 3. 3, 3. 3. 3, Check ( i / ) the items which you f e e l should r e c e i v e more, l e s : same emphasis i n the teacher t r a i n i n g programme. More Same or the Less 1. Handling e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i -t i e s . 1. 2. Methods of teaching 1, f 3. Using a u d i o - v i s u a l a i d s 1. L. C o n t r o l l i n g and d i s c i p l i n i n g p u p i l s 1. 2. 2 6 H 2-C 3. 3. 3. 3 - D (Question No. 91 con't on next page) 5. C o u n s e l l i n g and guidance 6. P r o v i d i n g f o r i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s 7. Knowledge of phonics 8. Keeping o f f i c i a l records and r e p o r t s 9. Grading, e v a l u a t i n g student progress Organizing classroom schedules Dealing w i t h parents I n d i v i d u a l s k i l l s - m u s i c a l , a r t i s t i c Using and a d m i n i s t e r i n g t e s t s and measurements Understanding young people Knowledge of subject matter P l a n n i n g lessons Obtaining, s e l e c t i n g and us i n g i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l 18. P r o v i d i n g f o r i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s 19« Observation of teachers i n a c t i o n 20 0 Use of j o u r n a l s and research m a t e r i a l 2h -More 1. 1. 1. 1. 1. 1. 1. 1. 1. 1. 1. 1. 1. • Same 2. 2. 2. 2. H 2. 2. 2. 2. 2. 2. 2 { 2. Less 3. 3. 3. 3. 3. 3. 3. 3. 3. 3. ' 3 - L J 3. 2. - — 3. *— > ) 1. <-—- 2, • 3. r ) J 1. ,_ 2. - 3. r-) 1 ., 2.5 -1. Now that you have completed the q u e s t i o n n a i r e , what d i d you l i k e or d i s l i k e about i t ? 2. Any general comments you could make about your f i r s t year of teaching i n B. C. would be appreciated. A P P E N D I X C FOLLOW-UP LETTERS ROYAL COMMISSION ON EDUCATION 34/7 Douglas Bldg . , V i c t o r i a , B.C. TO THE BEGINNING TEACHER Since we have not r e c e i v e d your completed qu e s t i o n n a i r e i n s p i t e of the requests already made, the Commission has i n s t r u c t e d me to inform you t h a t t h i s p r o j e c t i s a u t h o r i z e d by the terms of reference of the Royal Commission and i s s u b j e c t to a l l powers of access and enforcement, i n c l u d i n g the power to sub-poena a witness, vested i n the Commission under the P u b l i c E n q u i r i e s Act f o r the purpose of d i s c h a r g i n g i t s r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . You are t h e r e f o r e requested to complete and r e t u r n the "Beginning Teacher Questionnaire" immediately upon r e c e i p t of t h i s l e t t e r . P.W.Easton For: S.N.F.Chant Chairman, Royal Commission on Education. 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0105943/manifest

Comment

Related Items