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Geographical aspects of school construction and location in the Greater Victoria School System Drummond, Jack Murray 1960

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GEOGRAPHICAL ASPECTS OF SCHOOL CONSTRUCTION AND LOCATION IN THE GREATER VICTORIA SCHOOL SYSTEM by Jack Murray Drummond B.A., University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1947 A Tnesis submitted m p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t or Tne Requirements r o r tne Degree of Master of A r t s i n tne Department of Geograpny We accept t m s t h e s i s as conforming to the re q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , i % 0 . In presenting t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference and study. I f u r t h e r agree that permission f o r extensive copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood tha t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n permission. Department of GEOGRAPHY  The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver 8, Canada. Date APRIL 13, 1960.  ABSTRACT The ob jeetiwea of the t h e s i s i s to discuss; the s i g n i f -i c a n t f a c t o r s i n v o l v e d i n the establishment of each school i n the Greater V i c t o r i a area, and on the b a s i s of that a n a l y s i s to f o r e c a s t f u t u r e needs: and i n d i c a t e appropriate s i t e s * H i s t o r i c a l , documents; concerning the e a r l y s e t t l i n g and development of d i s t r i c t s now comprising Greater V i c t o r i a were.1 examined and p e r t i n e n t information i n p r o v i n c i a l and municipal records wass; obtained. E a r l i e r documents were incomplete; some gaps;existt even i n l a t e r records, which were e v e n t u a l l y f i l l e d by personal interviews; with o l d r e s i d e n t s . The study i n v e s t i g a t e s the s i g n i f i c a n t h i s t o r i c a l and geographical background f o r settlement; i n V i c t o r i a . Each d i s t r i c t of the Greater V i c t o r i a r e g i o n has been discussed, r e c o r d i n g the reason f o r i t s economic expansion and n o t i n g p o p u l a t i o n s t a t i s t i c s — t o t a l numbers, d e n s i t i e s , age groupings, patterns of d i s t r i b u t i o n . The problem of future 7 schools i n terms of optimumiconditions of l o c a t i o n , space; and enrollment i s ; o u t l i n e d . The f i r s t settlement by the Hudson*ssBay Company on Vancouver I s l a n d r e s u l t e d from the company's fea r that the i n t e r n a t i o n a l boundary might be placed north of t h e i r f o r t om the Columbia R i v e r . Three h a r b o u r s — Esquimalt, V i c t o r i a and Sooke — and p a r t i c u l a r l y the f e r t i l e p l a i n s around V i c t o r i a , , i n f l u e n c e d the choice of. the present Greater V i c t o r i a . The economy of t h i s area developed through three d i s t i n c t , stages:' the e a r l y f u r trade before 1859; the gold rush* with consequent colonization and more diverse; activity;: and f i n a l l y the commerce; and: industry of this; century* It was; the p o l i c y o f the Hudsont!s Bay Company that i t s f o r t s must be self-supporting a f t e r the f i r s t ; year;; therefore; although Esquimalt harbour was; superior, V i c t o r i a , with better farming p o s s i b i l i t i e s , became" the s i t e of the f i r s t , f o r t . Although Esquimalt became the port, farms developed near there? which were; more important than; those? i n V i c t o r i a , These; s e t t l e m e n t of the fur trade; regime wares responsible^, for the; f i r s t t schools;: the Fort, inside? the f o r t atfc Victoria,; and the Craigflower and the Esquimalt Villager; Schools in; Esquimalt* With the Gold Rush the Town became an important comm-e r c i a l centre,; mores heavily s e t t l e d thaniEsquimalt* Fringe; farming settlements; consequently increased!. Ref l e c t i n g the settlement pattern large;; schools were established i n the Town and smaller: ones i n the farming d i s t r i c t s * By 1900, however„ i t was; apparent thatt Vancouver was to be the i n d u s t r i a l and commercial centre of the Canadian: West.; and that: the b a s i c economy of the Greater V i c t o r i a region) wass to depend! upom the c i v i l , service, the tourist, and the pensioner* Under t h i s economy the t o t a l population grew slowly but s t e a d i l y from 56^875 i n 1921 to 116,300 i n 1956;. The main densities; were located near the c i t y centre. Gradually as pressure? for land increased settlements spread! im a concentric pattern; by I960 urban densities: were found some three miles; from the c i t y centre* Two other settlement: patterns emerged, namely an increase? i n fringe settlement and a greater, density i n the inner section* By 1956 the locations, of schools r e f l e c t e d these patterns,, the; majority being insidea the urban d i s t r i c t * With continued: concentric growth urban d e n s i t i e s w i l l encompass the fringe settlements; and new, schools must be planned; for these outer districts;, p a r t i c u l a r l y since a large; percentage of school-age population; l i v e s there*. Schools; have not always been placed so ses to cope with expanding population densities and increasing t r a f f i c hazards;* Studies of settlement trends should therefore precede; the a c q u i s i t i o n of land for new; schools* The correlated! discussion of economic outlook, population,; settlement, and school location, expressed] i n general terms, beseome more apparent i n the graphs and maps of the thesis, and indicate; the need for such studies; i n the planning of new schools* TABLE OF CONTENTS PREFACE INTRODUCTION PART ONE Chapter 1 11 111 PART TWO Chapter IV THE LOCATIONS AND FACTORS BEHIND THESE LOCATIONS, OF ALL PUBLIC SCHOOLS IN THE GREATER VICTORIA AREA TO THE YEAR i860 The H i s t o r i c a l , Geographic and Economic Factors Associated with Greater V i c t o r i a T s Early Developments 1 Prerequisites of a good s i t e 2 Advantages of Camosach 6 The Gold Rush 9 The H i s t o r i c a l , Geographic and Economic Factors contributing to Esquimalt*s Growth, P r i o r to 1860 10 Farming 11 Royal Navy 13 The Gold Rush 15 The Correlation of Population D i s t r i b u t i o n and School Locations, P r i o r to l£60 16 Letters revealing the size of population 17 The f i r s t school 18 The second school 19 The t h i r d school 19 Size of population 1853 21 Census 1855 21 Craigflower School 22 Esquimalt School 24 THE GROWTH YEARS FROM I860 to 1900 Factors Behind the Growth of Greater V i c t o r i a from I860 - 1900 27 Diverse Economy of V i c t o r i a 27 Diverse Economy of Esquimalt 29 The Population D i s t r i b u t i o n and School Locations of Greater V i c t o r i a I860 - 1900 33 Census Chart 33 New Schools 34 1881 Census 41 Other Schools 41 PART THREE GREATER VICTORIA SINCE 1900 Chapter VI The Major Factors Behind V i c t o r i a ' s Growth Since 1900 53 In d u s t r i a l Decline 55 Role of Governments 57 Climate 60 V l l Population D i s t r i b u t i o n and School Locations 1901 - 1914 6g Greater V i c t o r i a ' s Population D i s t r i b u t i o n 70 V i c t o r i a C i t y 1901 - 1911 74 Other M u n i c i p a l i t i e s 1901 - 1911 S l V i c t o r i a City 1911 - 1913 39 Other M u n i c i p a l i t i e s 1911 - 1913 92 V l l l Population D i s t r i b u t i o n and School Locations 1914 - 1921 101 Greater V i c t o r i a 101 V i c t o r i a C i t y 105 Other M u n i c i p a l i t i e s 111 IX Population D i s t r i b u t i o n and School Locations 1922 - 1931 116 Greater V i c t o r i a 120 V i c t o r i a City 121 Other M u n i c i p a l i t i e s 123 X Population D i s t r i b u t i o n and School Locations 1932 - 1941 125 Total Population 125 V i c t o r i a C i t y 129 Other M u n i c i p a l i t i e s 132 XI Population D i s t r i b u t i o n and School Locations 1942 - 1951 13S Total Population 139 V i c t o r i a C i t y 139 Other M u n i c i p a l i t i e s 143 X l l Population D i s t r i b u t i o n and School Locations 1952 - 195S 151 Total Population 152 V i c t o r i a City 154 Other M u n i c i p a l i t i e s 153 PART THREE (cont'd) Chapter X l l l The Future 169 Total Population 169 V i c t o r i a C i t y ' s Population and Schools 170 Other M u n i c i p a l i t i e s 176 XIV The Development of Greater V i c t o r i a ' s Senior and Junior High Schools 202 XV/ A Look At A New School 209 Problems 209 The Uplands School 210 XVI Conclusion 215 BIBLIOGRAPHY 220 APPENDIX 222 LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS MAPS following or on page 1 Greater V i c t o r i a and Setting 1 2 School D i s t r i c t No. 61 1 3 Rock Outcrop Surrounding the Harbours 4 4 Elevations 5 5 Greater V i c t o r i a Subdivided 1858 7 6 Puget Sound Farms 12 7 Esquimalt to V i c t o r i a 14 8 Schools P r i o r to i860 25 9 Population D i s t r i b u t i o n and School Locations 1855 26 10 Some Early Industries and Defence Establishments 31 11 Populated Areas and Schools 1363^ 32 12 Location of the Cedar H i l l School and Surrounding Farms 37 13 V i c t o r i a C i t y — Heavily Populated Areas and School Locations 1873 40 14 Heavily Populated Areas of V i c t o r i a C i t y and Greater V i c t o r i a Schools, 1891 42 15 Cadboro Bay School and Homes of Students 45 16 Greater V i c t o r i a Schools 1900 48 17 Gordon Head School and Homes of Students 1891 50 18 Oak Bay — Residences and Schools 1910 54 19 Population D i s t r i b u t i o n 1956 - 1976 66 20 Main Roads 71 21 Population D i s t r i b u t i o n Greater V i c t o r i a 1911 72 22 Street Railway System 73 23 V i c t o r i a City — Population D i s t r i b u t i o n and School lo c a t i o n 1911 76 24 Elementary Schools and D i s t r i c t s 1911 33 25 Elementary School Enrollments and Population D i s t r i b u t i o n 1911 37 26 V i c t o r i a City Elementary Schools and D i s t r i c t s 1913 90 27 Elementary Schools and D i s t r i c t s 1913 93 23 Enrollment Changes by D i s t r i c t s 1911 - 1913 99 29 Greater V i c t o r i a Transportation System 1921 102 30 V i c t o r i a City — Population D i s t r i b u t i o n and Elementary School locations 1921 103 31 School Locations and Population D i s t r i b u t i o n Greater V i c t o r i a 1921 104 32 V i c t o r i a City School Enrollment Changes 1913 -1921 107 33 Enrollment Changes 1913 - 1921 112 34 V i c t o r i a City — Population D i s t r i b u t i o n and Elementary School Locations 1931 117 35 Population D i s t r i b u t i o n Greater V i c t o r i a 1931 119 36 V i c t o r i a C i t y School Enrollment Changes 1921 - 1931 122 37 Enrollment Changes 1921 - 1931 126 38 V i c t o r i a City Population D i s t r i b u t i o n and Elementary School Locations 1941 127 MAPS 39 School Locations and Population D i s t r i b u t i o n Greater V i c t o r i a 1941 123 40 V i c t o r i a C i t y School Enrollment Changes 1932 - 1941 131 41 Enrollment Changes 1931 - 1941 133 42 School Locations and Population D i s t r i b u t i o n Greater V i c t o r i a 1951 137 43 V i c t o r i a C i t y Population D i s t r i b u t i o n and Elementary School Locations 1951 140 44 V i c t o r i a C i t y School Enrollment Changes 1941 - 1951 142 45 Enrollment Changes 1941 - 1951 144 46 School Locations and Population D i s t r i b u t i o n Greater V i c t o r i a 1956 150 47 V i c t o r i a City Population D i s t r i b u t i o n and Elementary School Locations 1956 153 48 V i c t o r i a C i t y School Enrollment Changes 1951 - 1958 155 49 Enrollment Changes 1951 - 1958 157 50 Schools 1951 - 1958 159 51 Population Density of School-Age Students 171 52 Growth Areas of School-Age Children 1951 - 1956 172 53 Subdivision 1958 175 54 School Locations i n 1953 178 55 Population D i s t r i b u t i o n of School-Age Students 182 56 Saanich — Present (1958) and Future Schools 133 57 Oak Bay, Present (1958) and Future Schools 188 58 Esquimalt — View Royal — Subdivisions and Schools 193 59 Present (1953) and Past Senior and Junior High Schools 201 60 Future Senior and Junior High Schools 203 61 The Uplands School 212 SKETCH MAPS 1 Bank Street School and S i r James Douglas School 77 2 Location of Doncaster School 145 3 Location of Richmond School 166 GRAPHS AND TABLES 1 Farm Production 13 2 Population by D i s t r i c t s and Ages, Greater V i c t o r i a 1355 26 3 Census 1363 31 4 Employment 1956 54 5 Rates of Employment by Pr o v i n c i a l and Federal Governments 59 GRAPHS AND TABLES (cont'd) 6 Climatic Comparisons of V i c t o r i a , Winnipeg, Toronto, Halifax 60 7 School Enrollments — Greater V i c t o r i a 1911 - 1956 101 g Greater V i c t o r i a ~ Total Population 101 9 Greater V i c t o r i a ~ Births and Marriages 1921 - 1941 116 10 School Age Population (0 - 19) 113 11 Greater V i c t o r i a — Total Population (Graph) 113 12 Greater V i c t o r i a ~ B i r t h Rates 1946 - 1956 133 13 Sampling of Uplands School D i s t r i c t 211 14 School Enrollments Grades 1 - 3 , 1911 - 1953 223 15 Schools With Dates of Opening 224 PICTURES 1 Old Colonial School 19 2 Craigflower School 21 3 Central School 1376 41 4 Cadboro Bay School 1335 42 5 Rock Bay Ward School 1336 43 6 Fourth Ward or Spring Ridge School 1337 44 7 North Ward School 1395 43 8 A Modern Motel 65 PREFACE I, as a former student of Greater V i c t o r i a Schools and now as a teacher i n the D i s t r i c t have n a t u r a l l y a great i n t e r e s t i n the Region. To know i t s h i s t o r y and understand i t s geography i s an i n t e r e s t i n g challenge — a challenge at le a s t p a r t i a l l y met with the compilation of t h i s t h e s i s . Acknowledgements Much of the d e t a i l has been gained through research completed at the P r o v i n c i a l Archives and at the P r o v i n c i a l and Public L i b r a r i e s . The thesis could not have been written without the very w i l l i n g assistance offered by the o f f i c i a l s associated with these i n s t i t u t i o n s . Useful s t a t i s t i c s were most w i l l i n g l y supplied by the Engineering and B u i l d i n g Departments of the various Municipal-i t i e s as w e l l as the B.C. E l e c t r i c Company and the P r o v i n c i a l Departments of Trade and Industry and V i t a l S t a t i s t i c s . I am also indebted to the members of the Town Planning Commission and to the Greater V i c t o r i a School Board. Thanks are due to the many, many old-timers who so co-operatively gave t h e i r assistance. I am g r a t e f u l f o r the continued guidance offered by Dr. J . L. Robinson of the University of B r i t i s h Columbia. INTRODUCTION Purpose of the Study The central purpose of the study i s to discover the s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r s involved i n the establishing of each school i n the Greater V i c t o r i a area. The intent of the author i s to present a report which w i l l not only reveal the s i t e s of a l l past, present and even possible future schools; but w i l l also discuss the various features which determine each l o c a t i o n , Bofining the Area The area under consideration centres i n the c i t y of V i c t o r i a and opens out to include the surrounding municipal-i t i e s of Esquimalt, Oak Bay, southern Saanich and the prov-i n c i a l d i s t r i c t of View Royal — a l l of which are situated i n the south-eastern section of Vancouver Island. The i s l a n d , which l i e s between l a t i t u d e s forty-eight and f i f t y - o n e degrees North and longitudes one hundred and twenty-three and one hundred and twenty-nine degrees West, i s some two hundred and eighty miles long and averages f i f t y miles i n width; giving an approximate area of 13,000 square miles. A narrow mountainous backbone juts i t s way through the i s l a n d u n t i l on the west, through deep fiorded i n l e t s , i t reaches the P a c i f i c Ocean. On the east a narrow coastal p l a i n slopes gently to the Gulf of Georgia which separates the i s l a n d from 11 the mainland. The Greater V i c t o r i a Area snuggles behind Sooke H i l l s on the west and the Gulf on the south and east; and opens to the Saanich P l a i n on the north. The Greater V i c t o r i a School D i s t r i c t #61 includes only the south-eastern 1 section of t h i s Greater V i c t o r i a Area. School D i s t r i c t #61 came int o existence i n 1946 and includes as indicated previously, V i c t o r i a C i t y , the munici-p a l i t i e s of Esquimalt, Oak Bay, and southern portion of Saanich and the p r o v i n c i a l d i s t r i c t of View Royal. P r i o r to t h i s date the c i t y and m u n i c i p a l i t i e s were educational e n t i t i e s (as they s t i l l are f o r most other administrative departments such as polic e , f i r e , e t c . ) . As View Royal had no school, i t s pupils were educated i n the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . P r i o r to 1946, separate educational systems existed i n a l l small areas throughout the province so that hundreds of l o c a l school boards existed. There was, however, i n 1946, a movement throughout the whole province of B r i t i s h Columbia towards amalgamation; and as a r e s u l t of t h i s policy Greater V i c t o r i a became one of many united p r o v i n c i a l school d i s t r i c t s . Method of Work A study i n school location i s i n r e a l i t y a composite of various studies. -An educational survey such as attempted i n t h i s thesis must have as i t s basis a population study. The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the population, i t s age.grouping, i t s 1 Legal description I l l permanancy or i t s tendency to s h i f t within a region i t s e l f , a l l must be known. But population expansion only follows economic expansion; and therefore to comprehend t r u l y the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of an area fs population requires a basic knowledge of the r e g i o n ^ economy. To gain t h i s economic understanding of a region such as V i c t o r i a involves an intense h i s t o r i c a l study. Only when one learns what features have attracted or w i l l a t t r a c t people to a certain area can one t r u l y appreciate the educational system adopted there* To plan schools simply on the basis of school e n r o l l -ments without f i r s t r e l a t i n g these figures to the economic p o s s i b i l i t i e s of the area can lead to gross errors i n school construction, B r i t i s h Columbia has experienced, as a r e s u l t of misleading economic studies, such constructional f a u l t s . Mistakes such as t h i s have been made at Kitimat and i n Fernie School D i s t r i c t . Kitimat has a new fourteen room school b u i l t i n 1957 which has never been occupied. In the Fernie School D i s t r i c t a new Senior High School was b u i l t which has never enrolled s u f f i c i e n t students to j u s t i f y i t s oper-ation. Perhaps these errors were unavoidable, but they do emphasize the need f o r very thorough economic studies before 1 schools are planned. 1- The Department of Education r e a l i z e s t h i s problem and now employs a consultant, whose r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i t i s to rule over a l l new school construction. This, i n c i d e n t a l l y , appears as a growing f i e l d well suited to the geography student interested i n education. IV The f i r s t task involved i n t h i s thesis was to locate the s i t e s of a l l public schools o r i g i n a l l y e x i s t i n g i n Greate V i c t o r i a but no longer i n use. V i c t o r i a , being over one hundred years of age, has had many schools the locations of which have never been o f f i c i a l l y recorded. Two techniques have been followed to gain t h i s information J 1. The basic source was the P r o v i n c i a l Archives. 1 2. The opinions of old time residents. A study of population d i s t r i b u t i o n resulted. This study, i n turn, involved research i n t o the economic reasons why people had immigrated into the regionand whether the population was l i k e l y to fluctuate or remain stable. As before two methods were followed. The f i r s t again was some basic research i n the P r o v i n c i a l Archives. More extensive was the study of h i s t o r i c a l literature« A l l schools have been mapped. For the f i r s t time one may now locate i n one report a l l known public schools which existed i n Greater V i c t o r i a . Greater V i c t o r i a ' s economy has developed through thre d i s t i n c t stages. The early era, to i860, may be c a l l e d the f u r trading regime. The second period from i860 to 1900 was an era of great expansion. These were the years of great optimism. During these years, i t was thought that V i c t o r i a and not Vancouver would become the great P a c i f i c Coast port. 1 This second method i n many cases has proved most unr e l i a b l e . Many "old-timers" were positive of c e r t a i n locations; but l a t e r research-has proved that time played t r i c k s with t h e i r memories. ¥ The t h i r d period extends from 1900 to the present. This can be c a l l e d the "Age of R e a l i t y " . Vancouver soon outpaced V i c t o r i a . Very slowly but very s t e a d i l y Victorians have been forced to adjust t h e i r views as to the area»s future. Though Greater V i c t o r i a * s population has continually increased throughout these years, the gains have been c y c l i c rather than steady; at no time, however, did the great optimism of the ^O1a and ^O's reappear. The changes i n population d i s t r i b u t i o n consequent on these three stages of development have been mapped and the population c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s noted. The future of the area has been treated more l i g h t l y . Predictions of the size of the future population (based on the Capital Region Planning Board's estimates) have been made. Maps showing population d i s t r i b u t i o n and density have been drawn. School locations have been chosen. F i n a l l y the author has made a precise study of one school: — the Uplands School. This study considers the suggested location, both as to i t s p o s i t i o n within i t s own school boundaries and also i n respect to the streets adjacent to the school s i t e . The i n i t i a l enrollment of the school has been anticipated and subsequent future enrollments predicted. The predictions are based on a population study conducted by the author i n the area enclosed by the school boundaries. I t would seem sane po l i c y that no school should ever be b u i l t u n t i l a s i m i l a r survey s h a l l have been made of the d i s t r i c t that the school proposes to serve. THE HISTORICAL, GEOGRAPHIC AND ECONOMIC FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH GREATER VICTORIA'S EARLY DEVELOPMENT It was stated i n the introduction that a school l o c a t i o n a l study demands as i t s basis an economic study. I t becomes necessary to understand a l l f a c t o r s which influence a region's population before one can appreciate school e n r o l l -ments. People s e t t l e an area because i t has economic possib-i l i t i e s a t t r a c t i v e to them. This settlement expands or declines as a d i r e c t r e s u l t of the economic p o s s i b i l i t i e s a v a i l a b l e . As the population grows so, too, must the schools. Here then i s the basis of our study. The growth of schools can only be substantiated on the basis of economic opportun-i t i e s a v a i l a b l e i n the area. Our knowledge of Vancouver Island goes back into the hi s t o r y of Spain and B r i t a i n , to the time when t h e i r navi-gators made voyages to f i n d the North-West Passage. These voyages, however, did not lead to colonization and therefore lend l i t t l e s ignificance to t h i s study which needs to go back no further than the year 1825* I t was i n that year that the Hudson's Bay Company, l a r g e l y responsible f o r the develop-ment of V i c t o r i a , set up headquarters at Fort Vancouver near the mouth of the Columbia River. I t was not long a f t e r t h i s date that company o f f i c i a l s , recognizing the expansion of the United States, feared that the boundary between Canada and the United States might be placed north of the f o r t . 1 Excluding Esquimalt z Because of t h i s and other fears, the company decided to explore the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of a settlement f a r t h e r north. Many areas were studied f o r the s i t e of a new f o r t but V i c t o r i a was the ultimate choice. A study of the reasons behind V i c t o r i a ' s choice reveals the facto r s upon which the area's early economy was based. "The founding of Fort V i c t o r i a i n 1843 marked the climax of a controversy —- one might almost say a series of 1 controversies — that had lasted f o r nearly twenty years."' I t i s not necessary to record i n t h i s thesis a l l these controversies. Only those that influenced the future economic development of Greater V i c t o r i a w i l l be treated. In 1843 the Governor and Committee of the Hudson's Bay Company had come to the conclusion that some change i n the depot arrange-ments was necessary. Mr. Lamb quotes t h e i r f i n d ings: The unhealthy state of Fort Vancouver for several years past, and the distance at which i t i s situated from the Sea render i t by no means so well adapted f o r the sole depot of the West side of the mountains, now that the trade i s extended to the Coast: we therefore think i t advisable that a Depot should be situated on the shores of the Puget Sound .... 2 Two issues constantly aroused controversy 5 1. the trading requirements of the company, 2. the boundary question. U n t i l 1843 the whole area from C a l i f o r n i a to Alaska was under dispute between Great B r i t a i n and the United States. In 1836 John McLaughlin wrote to the Chief Trader: The Captain •.• should also be directed to examine ... 1 W. K. Lamb, "Founding of Fort V i c t o r i a . " ' BS.C. H i s t o r i c a l Quarterly. 1943. p. 22 2 Ibid. , p. 73 3 the south end of Vancouver Island f o r the purpose of selecting a convenient s i t u a t i o n f o r an Establishment on a large scale, possessing a l l the re q u i s i t e s f o r farming, r a i s i n g of c a t t l e , together with a good harbour, and abundance of timber . . . . 1 This request by McLaughlin was granted f o r i n 1838 we read i n James Douglas's l e t t e r s : ... on reaching the south end of the Island a decided improvement was observed on the appearance of the Country. Three good harbours of easy access, were found .... The land around these harbours i s covered with wood to the extent of half a mile, i n t e r i o r l y , where the forest i s replaced by a more open and b e a u t i f u l l y d i v e r s i f i e d Country presenting a succession of plains with groves of oaks and pine trees f o r a distance of 15 to 20 miles. The most Easterly of the harbours ... i s said to be the best on the Coast and possesses the important advantage, over the others of a more abundant supply of fresh water .... 2 The plains are said to be f e r t i l e ... but I think i t (the s o i l ) .... rather l i g h t ... even admitting of t h i s disad-vantage I am persuaded that no part ... w i l l be found better adapted f o r the s i t e of the proposed Depot or to combine, i n a higher degree, the desired r e q u i s i t e s , of a secure harbour accessible to shipping of every season, of good pasture, and, to a cert a i n extent of improvable t i l l a g e land .... 3 McLaughlin held strongly to the opinion that Fort Vancouver on the North bank of the Columbia was s t i l l the better s i t e f o r the large Depot. Because of his great i n f l u -ence the Company hesitated to proceed with the development of Vancouver Island. Chief Trader Simpson writing to the Governor of the Hudson's Bay Company i n 1842 reveals to us that the company was much more than just a fur trading company. I t profited greatly from f o r e i g n trade and i n t h i s capacity found Fort 1 I b i d . . p. 75 . 2 I b i d . . p. 76 3 The most easterly port i s that now known as V i c t o r i a . This quotation reveals some geographic factors of the V i c t o r i a area, along with cert a i n suggestions f o r the future economic developments of the area. 6 Vancouver too dangerous f o r shipping. Simpson i n 1842 wrote: In measure as the natural resources and sources of Commerce of the Northern P a c i f i c and i t s shores and i n t e r i o r country develop themselves ... we cannot a v a i l ourselves of them advantageously, while e n t i r e l y dependent on Fort Vancouver .... The Southern end of Vancouver Island ••• appears to me the best s i t u a t i o n f o r such an establishment as desired ... there are several good harbours; ... however no place yet has been found combining a l l l the advantages required, the most important of which are, a safe and accessible harbour, well situated f o r defence, with Water power fo r G r i s t and Saw M i l l s , abundance of timber f o r home consumption and exportation and the adjacent Country well adapted f o r t i l l a g e and pasture Farms on an extensive scale .... 1 Simpson also pointed out that both the salmon and whale f i s h e r i e s would develop on a large scale and that a port on the S t r a i t of Juan de Fuca would benefit from t h i s trade. Douglas f i n a l l y sums up f o r us i n h i s report dated 1842 why Port Camosach was chosen: ... as a harbour i t i s equally safe and accessible and an abundance of timber grows near i t f o r home consump-ti o n and exportation. There being no f r e s h water stream of s u f f i c i e n t power, f l o u r or saw m i l l s may be erected on the canal of Camosach. In the several important points just mentioned, the position of Camosach can claim no superiority oyer some other excellent harbours on t h i s south coast ... but the l a t t e r present day Esquimalt ... i s surrounded by rock and f o r e s t s , 2 which i t w i l l require ages to l e v e l and adapt extensively to the purpose of agriculture whereas at Camosach there i s a range of plains nearly s i x miles square containing a great extent of valuable t i l l a g e and pasture land equally well adapted f o r the plough or f o r feeding stock. ? i t was t h i s advantage and distinguishing feature of Camosach, ... which l e d me to choose a s i t e ... at-that place .... * be the s i t e of the Depot. The building of the f o r t i t s e l f 1 Simpson's Letters — P r o v i n c i a l Archives, 2 Map 3, page 4 3 Map 4 , page 5 4 W.. K. Lamb, op.cit.. p. 83 V i c t o r i a then with i t s p o t e n t i a l farming land was to 8 commenced i n 1343, but formal sanctions on the P a c i f i c Coast Depot did not come u n t i l 1349. This Depot would receive seed the f i r s t year and from then on would have to be s e l f -supporting. In f a c t i t would have to be much more than s e l f -supporting, i t would have to produce a surplus f o r export. This part of the early economy i s c l a r i f i e d by studying an agreement reached between the Hudson's Bay Company and the Russian American Company i n 1339. In return f o r a ten year's lease of the Alaskan Panhandle ... the B r i t i s h Company agreed to supply the Russians with 560,000 pounds of wheat, 19,920 pounds of f l o u r , 16,160 pounds of barley. 36,630 pounds of ham. The hasty growth of the Hudson*s Bay Company's farming enterprises led to the formation of the Puget Sound A g r i c u l t u r a l Company ... a wholly owned subsidiary of the Company. 1 Douglas did not favour t h i s trend to farming and he c e r t a i n l y did not encourage farmers. The Hudson's Bay Company had received Vancouver's Island as a Royal Grant with the s t i p u l a t i o n that i t would be colonized, but c o l o n i s t s i n t e r -fered with f u r trading. So i t was that the V i c t o r i a area was very slowly populated. Blanshard, appointed Governor and Commander-in-Chief i n and over the Island of Vancouver i n 1349, arrived on the Island i n 1350. Soon however, he r e a l i z e d that Douglas was supreme; and that the c h i e f - f a c t o r had no intention of colon-i z i n g the Island. In a despatch to E a r l Grey i n 1351 the Governor remarked that only one bona f i d e sale of land had 1 B. Robinson, Esquimalt ( V i c t o r i a : Quality Press) 1947, page 50-1. 9 1 been made. After one year, therefore, Blanshard resigned and Douglas became both Governor and c h i e f - f a c t o r u n t i l 1364* Douglas feared that as a r e s u l t of t h i s lack of colonization the company might lose i t s franchise. He there-fore had h i s top o f f i c i a l s purchase land. The whole Greater V i c t o r i a area was l e g a l l y subdivided although only a 2 r e l a t i v e l y small portion was a c t u a l l y s e t t l e d . Then-, i n 1853, came the Gold Rush which completely transformed V i c t o r i a . Within a few months i t grew to a town with a population of several thousand. P r a c t i c a l l y the whole heterogeneous mob of miners and l i k e poured through V i c t o r i a . Supplies from the Hudson's Bay Trading Post were bought up as soon as they were made a v a i l a b l e . Stores were soon opened outside the stockade. V i c t o r i a was a town 0 With t h i s unforeseen i n f l u x of population the Hudson's Bay Company l o s t c o n t r o l . In 1359 the Royal Grant of the whole of Vancouver's Island to the Company was annulled and a l l unsold land reverted to the Crown. The Colony of Vancouver Island now i n i t i a t e d a land settlement policy by which they sought to persuade some miners to remain and become farmers. Greater V i c t o r i a was then started on i t s future expansion* 1 Howay and Scholefield, B r i t i s h Columbia (Chicago: S. J . Clark Co., 1914) page 201, 2 Map 5, page 7» 10 CHAPTER 11 THE HISTORICAL, GEOGRAPHIC AND ECONOMIC- FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO ESQUIMALT* S GROWTH, PRIOR TO i860 The development of Esquimalt was closely related to the growth of V i c t o r i a but had at least four d i s t i n c t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s or influences of i t s own. The f i r s t and most important of these was the harbour. Many people f e l t that Esquimalt and not V i c t o r i a would become the future c i t y . Douglas had chosen V i c t o r i a because i t possessed a g r i c u l t u r a l land. His report on Esquimalt must be studied to appreciate t r u l y t h i s community's future growth. Is - why - malth i s one of the best harbours on the Coast being p e r f e c t l y safe and of easy Access but i n other respects i t possesses no at t r a c t i o n s .... The shores of the Harbour are'rugged and precipitous and I did not see one l e v e l spot clear of Trees of s u f f i c i e n t Extent to b u i l d a large Fort upon, there i s i n f a c t no clear land within a Quarter of a Mile of the Harbour, and that l i e s i n small patches here and there •••• Another serious objection to the Place i s the Scarcity of fresh water. 2 Other people did not share Douglas's opinion. Two B r i t i s h Army o f f i c e r s reported i n 1345, Fort V i c t o r i a ... the entrance to which i s rather i n t r i c a t e ... i t i s badly situated with regards to water and position, which l a t t e r has been chosen f o r i t s a g r i c u l t u r a l advantages only. The Squimal Harbour, which i s very commodious and accessible at a l l times of f e r i n g a much better position and having also the advantage of a supply of water i n the v i c i n i t y . Thus, although Douglas and the army o f f i c e r s disagreed 1 Map 3, page 4. 2 Douglas Letters, P r o v i n c i a l Archives. 11 on the supply of fresh water, both reports emphasized that Esquimalt possessed a magnificent harbour. Large ships, even i n these early days, landed i n Esquimalt. There, a ship, because of the harbour's precipitous shores, could t i e up to the land but i n Camosack Harbour a large wharf would have been needed. The Army o f f i c e r s v i s u a l i z e d the future i n terms of c i t i e s and harbours; while Douglas, conceding the advantage of the harbour, nevertheless r e a l i z e d the necessity to chose a s i t e that could be self-supporting. Seed was to be sent out f o r the f i r s t year only and from then on the Fort must maintain i t s e l f . Esquimalt, he considered, offered few opportunities f o r farming. I t i s i r o n i c then that the second f a c t o r i n Esquimalt's early economy was farming. Events forced the Hudson's Bay Company into developing farms i n t h i s regions a f t e r the settlement of the Oregon Boundary dispute came i n 1846, the Company feared the loss of t h e i r immense farm lands surrounding Fort Vancouver and r e a l i z e d that the small farms surrounding Fort Langley and V i c t o r i a could not f u l f i l the committments to the Russia-American Company. Four large farms, Colwood, Constance Cove, Craigflower (Maple Point) and Viewfield, were 1 established between 1$50 and 1853. They were developed i n the present municipality of Esquimalt by the Puget Sound A g r i c u l t u r a l Company, a subsidiary of the Hudson's Bay Company. Although these -farms never reached t h e i r f u l l expectations, - 1 Map 6, page 12. 12 they did produce large quantities of a g r i c u l t u r a l produce 1 and rai s e much li v e s t o c k . In 1359 the Royal Grant by which the whole of Vancouver Island had been ceded to the Company was cancelled. A l l unsold land was to revert to the Crown. At t h i s time, the Esquimalt farms were subdivided and put up f o r auction (not a l l were sold). As much of t h i s farm land was rocky, i t proved unsuitable f o r agriculture and most has never been farmed since. The Viewfield Farm did possess good a g r i c u l t u r a l 2 land but had been poorly managed. The t h i r d prop to the economy of Esquimalt was the Royal Navy's i n t e r e s t i n Esquimalt Harbour. During the Crimean War the Royal Navy found i t necessary to have a supply depot and h o s p i t a l on the north-western P a c i f i c Coast. Esquimalt was not o f f i c i a l l y chosen as t h i s depot u n t i l 1365 but u n o f f i c i a l recognition commenced at le a s t 15 years previous to t h i s . Many ships such as the H. M. Ships Constance, Pandora, Inconstant and Portland had been stationed i n the base p r i o r to 1350. In 1355 Douglas had three sturdy huts 3 b u i l t on Esquimalt Harbour to be used as a h o s p i t a l . These were to serve navy personnel and not Hudson's Bay employees. These huts were the start of the large navy establishments which now encompass Esquimalt Harbour. 1 Table 1, page 13 . 2 The Hudson's Bay Company retained possession of t h i s l a t t e r farm land u n t i l 1933 when i t reverted to Esquimalt f o r unpaid taxes. 3 The huts were constructed on Duntze Head. TABLE: 1 FAflM PRODUCTION: i m Constance Graigflower Cove Colwood V/iewfield Wheat 80 300 315 36 bu. Oats 30 bu. Peas SO 390) 12 bu. Barley 100 60 bu. Wool yoo 600 l b . Potatoes 300 40 bu. Biitter 150 l b . Turnips 100: 1000 bu. 60 Improved 70 190 35 Acres Unimproved 830 540 410 565 Acres Horses 14 3 13 24, Milch 15 9 9 7 Cows Oxen 12 10 3 7 Other 33 43 14 21 Cattle Sheep 1126 200 523 676 Swine 27 12 97 12: Poultry 30 12 30 Census of Vancouver Island 1355, P r o v i n c i a l Archives. There was no road from the Harbour to Fort V i c t o r i a at that time. Two modes of t r a v e l were a v a i l a b l e . The f i r s t was by small vessel to the Inner Harbour. This proved extremely dangerous, e s p e c i a l l y i n winter. The second was by foot, along a muddy t r a i l . This path led through the woods to the Songhees V i l l a g e . From the V i l l a g e the t r a v e l l e r would be f e r r i e d to the Fort. F i n a l l y i n 1853, s a i l o r s of the H.M.S. 1 Thetis b u i l t and macadamized Old Esquimalt Road. The f i n a l influence was the Gold Rush. Within a few months Esquimalt became the landing s i t e f o r hundreds of men. During one period of thirteen days i n the summer of 1#53, 5,500 men embarked at the v i l l a g e . As i n V i c t o r i a , r e a l estate values sky-rocketed. Wharves were b u i l t on Esquimalt Harbour, with warehouses to store the incoming t i d e of goods. The influence of these four f a c t o r s — the harbour, the Royal Navy, the farms and f i n a l l y the Gold Rush — was substantial. Slowly at f i r s t , and then more rapidly, a small community of naval f o l k and a few c i v i l i a n s had grown up 2 outside the Dockyard. 1 (a) lor^insQn^ op. ..cit., p. 12. (b) Map 7, page 14. 2 Map 7, page 14. CHAPTER 111 THE CORRELATION OF POPULATION DISTRIBUTION AND SCHOOL LOCATIONS PRIOR TO i860 Chapters 1 and 11 present the h i s t o r i c a l , geographic and economic aspects of the early development of Greater V i c t o r i a . Several f a c t o r s which influenced people to s e t t l e the region were studied. To appreciate these factors i s to understand both the size and d i s t r i b u t i o n of the population. As a r e s u l t of c o n f l i c t i n g i n t e r e s t s , the population of "Victoria was to grow slowly. The Company had been given Vancouver Island under the condition that i t would be s e t t l e d as a B r i t i s h Colony. The r e s t r i c t i o n s involved i n t h i s agreement meant two things. F i r s t l y , as a B r i t i s h Colony i t must come under B r i t i s h rule and a Governor would be i n charge. Secondly, i n order that the condition of settlement be achieved, colonists must be encouraged to occupy the land. Douglas was opposed to both these conditions. The f i r s t would reduce his authority and the second would complicate h i s administration and i n t e r f e r e with h i s prime i n t e r e s t — the fu r trade. I t d i d not take Douglas long to es t a b l i s h his p o s i t i o n . The Company received the Island i n 1849 and i n the same year Richard Blanshard was duly appointed Governor and Commander-i n - c h i e f . He reached V i c t o r i a on March 10, 1850, but Douglas had neglected to have a residence prepared f o r the Governor 17 and Blanshard was forced to remain aboard ship. Howay and Sc h o l e f i e l d comment on Douglas's attitude: The Company entrenched as i t was, did not fear the new power that the creation of the l i t t l e colony of Vancouver Island had established on the land; nor did i t show much respect f o r her Majesty's representative. No o f f i c i a l Census of Greater V i c t o r i a p r i o r to 1855 i s a v a i l a b l e . But cer t a i n l e t t e r s do give an idea of the extent of the settlement. In I848 Captain Courtenay wrote: The Hudson's Bay Company's Settlement of Fort V i c t o r i a i s only three miles from Esquimalt, so that we got our d a i l y supplies of Beef without much trouble. The Company have 300 acres under t i l l a g e there, and a dairy farm of 80 cows, together with numerous other c a t t l e and 24 brood Mares, the whole under the superintendence of a C i v i l but hard Scot, named F i n l a i s o n (Finlayson) who has about 30 people of a l l descriptions under him. They are likewise building a Saw M i l l at the head of Port Esquimalt which w i l l be ready f o r work at the end of the Year. d This l e t t e r reveals that at least t h i r t y adult white males were i n the V i c t o r i a area. I t does not l i s t the women nor the children, but as the i n t e r n a t i o n a l boundary dispute had been s e t t l e d i t may be assumed that f a m i l i e s were commencing to a r r i v e . These people were a l l connected with the Company and would mainly l i v e i n the Fort. Already 300 Acres of land were improved but not many whites would l i v e on the farms, as most of the labour was done by Indians. There was no o f f i c i a l records available which indicate the location of the 300 Acres. But i n the Memoirs of John Robert Anderson we read: Parts under c u l t i v a t i o n were f i e l d s i n F a i r f i e l d , James Bay and the l e v e l parts extending from Church H i l l l! Howay and Scholefield, op. c i t . . p. 500 2 Robinson, op. c i t . , p. 44* 18 to the Road leading east and now known as Fort Street-also the North Dairy Farm, Mr. Tods and the Reverend Staines - a farm near Mount Tolmie. At t h i s date no school existed i n the Fort but the next year, 1849, the f i r s t school was established. This was established i n the messhall of the Fort and was presided over by Reverend and Mrs. Staines. The f a c t that t h i s was maintained as a boarding school indicates that c e r t a i n children l i v e d some distance from the Fort and that t r a v e l was s t i l l most d i f f i c u l t . T r a i l s rather than roads were the connecting l i n k of the small colony. Another l e t t e r written by Douglas i n 1851 indicated that the school age population was s u f f i c i e n t l y large to require more schools. He wrote: I w i l l take the l i b e r t y of c a l l i n g the attention of the Governor and Committee to the subject of education by the recommending the establishment of one or two elementary schools i n the colony, to give a proper moral and r e l i g i o u s t r a i n i n g to the children of s e t t l e r s , who are at present growing up i n ignorance, and the utter neglect of a l l t h e i r duties to God and to Society. That remark applies with peculiar force to the childr e n of Protestant parents; the Roman Catholic f a m i l i e s i n t h i s country having had u n t i l l a t e l y a very able and zealous teacher i n the Reverend Mr. Lamffrit, a French p r i e s t of the Society of "Oblats", who i s now l i v i n g with the Indians i n the "Cowitchin" Valley. One school at V i c t o r i a and one at Esquimalt w i l l provide f o r the present want of the settlements and a f i x e d salary of £50 a year to be paid by the colony with an annual payment by the Parents of a c e r t a i n sum not to exceed t h i r t y s h i l l i n g s f o r each c h i l d , with a free house and garden i s the plan and amount of remuneration I would propose to the Committee. In regard to the character of the teachers, I would venture to recommend a middle-aged married couple f o r each school of s t r i c t l y r e l i g i o u s p r i n c i p l e s , and capable of giving a good sound English education and nothing more, these schools being intended f o r the children of the labouring and poorer classes. Children of promising tale n t s , or 1 Memoirs of James Robert Anderson — P r o v i n c i a l Archives OLo COLONIAL SCHOOL /856 The f i r s t elementary school i n B r i t i s h Columbia. This school l a t e r became the f i r s t high school i n B r i t i s h Columbia, 1876. whom t h e i r parents wish to educate further, may pursue t h e i r studies and acquire other branches of knowledge at the Company's school, conducted by the Rev'd and Mrs, Staines , I would also recommend that a good supply of school books from the alphabet upwards with slates and pencils be sent out with teachers, as there are very few i n t h i s country. Douglas asked f o r a new school i n V i c t o r i a . This might indicate one of two things or perhaps both : ei t h e r school population had outgrown the f a c i l i t i e s , or that adequate school accommodation had not been previously provided. At any rate, action soon followed Douglas's request. In another of Douglas's l e t t e r s written i n 1852 he states, "I have opened a day school for boys; the children of the company's 2 labouring servants at t h i s place. "T Mr. Douglas Bailey (not being p a r t i c u l a r l y useful as a mere labourer) was chosen teacher on March 18, 1852. This was the f i r s t Common School i n B r i t i s h Columbia. I t was not a "free school" since fees of one pound per annum were charged. In 1853 the two e x i s t i n g V i c t o r i a Schools were replaced by a new one. This school c a l l e d , the Reserve School, or Colonial School was the f i r s t school house b u i l t i n B r i t i s h Columbia. I t was also t h e . f i r s t Public School i n that a l l students, regardless of s o c i a l status, might attend. I t was b u i l t on the School Reserve or Minies P l a i n , on the same grounds as those where the present Central Junior High i s 3 now located. 1 Governor Douglas's Letters — P r o v i n c i a l Archives. 2 Locw c i t . 3 Map 8, page 25. 20 This l o c a t i o n c e r t a i n l y d i d not suit the needs of the new colony. I t was approximately a mile distant from the centre of population. The s i t e had been reserved by the Company f o r school purposes at the time of the o r i g i n a l grant. One cannot be sure just why t h i s s i t e was chosen but perhaps two ideas predominated. The Directors of the Company perhaps r e a l i z e d that i t would not be too long before the area surrounding the Fort would develop into a town and as such would be no place f o r a school. Linked with t h i s idea was the f a c t that as t h i s area developed the property would become most valuable. I t would seem a shrewd judgment, then, to grant a large reserve outside of the pot e n t i a l town s i t e . The above theory received some substantiation from the o f f i c i a l map of 1358, f o r here the c i t y i s shown subdivided p r a c t i c a l l y 1 to the western l i m i t s of the school reserve. Whatever the reason f o r t h i s s i t e , the choice, although suited to future needs, proved the centre of many controversies during the 1850's and l860«s. In the Reminiscences of Old V i c t o r i a , we read: I t was b u i l t of square logs and whitewashed, and was occupied by the master and h i s family. The school proper occupied only about one-third of the building extending from the front to the back of the building. The school was a mile distant through poor t e r r a i n from the Fort. After you l e f t Blanchard Street the way to the school was by a path through the woods. The country around View and Fort Street, up to Cook was very swampy and covered mostly by Willow and Alder trees. In f a c t there was a small swamp or lake on View Street where there was good duck hunting i n winter. 2 w e children always took our lunches, i t being considered too f a r to go home f o r the mid-day meal, 3 1 Map 9, p. 26. 2 Map 8, p. 25. 3 C. Fawcett, Reminiscences of Old V i c t o r i a (Toronto 12; W. Briggs, 1912) p. 3. CRAIGPLOWER SCHOOL Opened i n 1855 21 This quotation reveals that the centre of population to t h i s date was the f o r t and the town immediately surrounding the Fort, This i s further substantiated i n a l e t t e r to the B r i t i s h Colonist of 1858 written by the Rev'd Cridge. Parsonage V i c t o r i a , August 18, 1858, I am cognizant of a widespread and long-continued f e e l i n g on the part of the people, that the school (Reserve School) should be removed and brought near town. Edward Cridge. This l e t t e r written i n 1858, f i v e years a f t e r the school was b u i l t , indicates that the centre of population s t i l l had not shifted i n the d i r e c t i o n of the school. The size of the population i s revealed i n c e r t a i n l e t t e r s written about t h i s date. In 1853 correspondence by a Captain Grant states: The population of the Island i n the end of the year 1853 was about 450 souls, men, women and children (whites), of these 300 are at V i c t o r i a and between i t and Sooke In October of the same year Douglas wrote, "... the white population of the town of V i c t o r i a consisted of 111 men, 2 50 women, and 93 children or a t o t a l of 254 persons." I f Grant's f i g u r e s were correct i t would appear that there were no more than 50 addit i o n a l persons then i n Esquimalt, Metchosen and Sooke. 1 W. Galguhoun Grant, "Description of Vancouver Island", Journal of Royal Geographical Society 1857, p. 233 2 Douglas to Barclay, 1853, P r o v i n c i a l Archives, 22 ' The Esquimalt farms had been established i n the early 1850*3 but only gained t h e i r f i r s t public school i n 1855. This school was located on the Craigflower Farm (the largest of the four farms) and i s s t i l l standing, the oldest remaining school i n B r i t i s h Columbia. As there was no Admirals Road to t h i s date i t would appear that children from the Viewfield and Constance Cove farms did not attend t h i s school. Only a t r a i l existed where the road was l a t e r b u i l t i n 1864. Colwood Farm had a private school of i t s own. Douglas i n 1855 made the f i r s t o f f i c i a l Census of the Vancouver Island. From the figures we learn not only the size of the population of Greater V i c t o r i a but also the d i s -1 t r i b u t i o n of t h i s population. In 1853 Douglas stated that the town of V i c t o r i a had a population of 254 persons. The Census of 1855 shows only 232 persons. There were therefore, i n 1855 fewer people l i v i n g i n the town than two years previously. Captain Grant's figures i n 1853 claimed the Island's population to be 450 but the Census of 1855 shows 774. Therefore the population of the whole i s l a n d had greatly increased between 1853 and 1855• The figures indicate a decrease i n population i n the Town, 2 and an increase i n the surrounding areas. Even though the population was becoming more dispersed the people were s t i l l mainly concentrated i n the Town. Out 1 Census chart p. 26. 2 Map 9, P. 26. of 492 residents l i v i n g i n the Greater V i c t o r i a area some 232. (47%) l i v e d i n the Town. The Town also held 41% of the 1 children under f i f t e e n years of age. The s h i f t i n d i s t r i b u t i o n , while maintaining a concentration i n the Town, presented a problem i n schooling f o r the outlying areas. V i c t o r i a i t s e l f had thirty-one children of school age (5-14) but only twenty-six were 2 enrolled i n the school. Since the school served the Town and a l l regions to the south, east and north, i t can be re a l i z e d that many children did not attend schools. Maple Point (Craigflower) was i n 1855 sole d i s t r i c t school and although only twelve children l i v e d on the Craigflower farm, twenty-six were enrolled i n the school. Many therefore must have t r a v e l l e d to attend t h i s school. Since there i s no mention of the Esquimalt V i l l a g e i n Douglas* census of 1855, i t must be assumed that t h i s development occurred a f t e r 1855. In summary then the economy of V i c t o r i a p r i o r to I858 had been based on the f u r trade. Population increase had been slow, because colonists had not been welcomed. The people were mainly concentrated i n the town although farms had been started as f a r distant as Uplands and Strawberry 3 Vale. There was i n 1859 only one public school serving the whole region now known as V i c t o r i a , South Saanich and Oak Bay. This was the Reserve School situated on Minies P l a i n about one mile from the c i t y centre. 1 Census chart page 26. 2 Table 2, page 26. 3 Map 9, page 26. 2 ^ Esquimalt's economy was more diverse. The area around the Esquimalt Harbour gradually showed signs of progress. The harbour was the docking place of a l l large ocean ships and the Royal Navy u n o f f i c i a l l y used i t as a North P a c i f i c Depot. The Gold Rush of 1858 speeded t h i s pace. A small community quickly grew outside of the o r i g i n a l Dockyard. As previously mentioned, the f l a t lands i n Esquimalt had been possessed by the Puget Sound A g r i c u l t u r a l Company and four large farms were established. Two schools were necessary to serve the d i s t r i c t : the Craigflower School, which enrolled the children from the farms, and the Esquimalt School, which enrolled the childre n from the v i l l a g e . This l a t t e r school opened i n 1859 and was located just outside the old Dockyard 1 2 Gate • 1 Robinson, op. c i t . , page 104. 2 Map 8, page 18. POPULATION BY DISTRICTS AND AGES - GREATER VICTORIA (WHITES) 1855 M F under ' " ' ' 1 1-4 5-9 10-14 15-19 20-29 30-39 40-49 50-59 Tot. V i c t o r i a Town of 5 1C 9 24 14 7 4 6 3 2 58 27 36 12 9 1 5 - 232 F a i r f i e l d 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 7 Beckley 3 1 4 Foul Bay 1 2 1 4 Staines 1 1 1 1 4 Cloverdale 2 ,2 Oak Bay 2 1 1 1 1 1 7 North Dairy 1 3 1 5 Coulcouts 1 2 3 George. McKenzie 1 3 2 1 1 1 9 Uplands 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 2 15 •( Burnside 2 5 5 1 2 -2 1 4 2 2 26 Strawberry 3 3 Mr. Work 2 1 2 1 1 3 3 1 1 1 1 17 Gonzalo 1 1 1 1 1 5 Mr. Thorne 2 1 1 1 1 6 McPhail 1 s Dairy 1 1 1 3 Bishop Demens 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 8 M.L. Yates 1 1 Constance Cove 1 1 4 3 3 2 2 3 2 7 5 1 34 Esquimalt Farm Maple Point 5 1 7 5 4 3 2 3 1 3 16 8 9 6 3 76 Vie w f i e l d 1 2 3 2 1 2 1 2 14 H.B.C. Sawmii: 3 1 1 1 1 7 T o t a l 492. PARI II THE; GROWTH; TEEMS FROM i860 TO 1900 CHAPTER IV/ FACTORS BEHIND THE GROWTH OF GREATER VICTORIA FROM. i860 - 1900. The Gold Rush of 1858 transformed the whole Greater V i c t o r i a area. Thousands of people passed through Esquimalt and V i c t o r i a . The narrow economy of the f u r trading company was f i n i s h e d . In 1859 the Hudson's Bay Company's grant of Vancouver Island was withdrawn and the Island reverted to the Grown. Colonization was encouraged and f o r the next f o r t y years Greater V i c t o r i a looked to a most optimistic future. I t was i n 1871 that B r i t i s h Columbia joined Confed-eration. This act brought the promise of a transcontinental railway, which would terminate i n V i c t o r i a . As a r e s u l t B r i t i s h Columbia could expect further colonization from the east and V i c t o r i a could look towards a great commercial, i n d u s t r i a l and a g r i c u l t u r a l expansion to serve the needs of the new c o l o n i s t s . Greater V i c t o r i a became the metropolis of the P a c i f i c North-West. During these f o r t y years the i s l a n d c i t y ' s economy was more diverse than at any other time i n i t s h i s t o r y . The number of V i c t o r i a ' s farms multiplied i n order to supply 1 the l o c a l and mainland needs. Her harbours during the 1880's and 1890's enjoyed more shipping than those of any 1 V i c t o r i a I l l u s t r a t e d , Colonist, 1891. other Western Canadian port. Approximately 70% of a l l imports entering Vancouver, V i c t o r i a , Nanaimo, or New Westminster i n 1890 used a Greater V i c t o r i a port, (Inner Harbour or Esquimalt), 1 TABLE:. IMPORTS V i c t o r i a 1987,672.17 New Westminster 98,639.00 Nanaimo 62,956.00 Vancouver 331,955.00 Approximately 50% of a l l exports from these same 2 harbours used Greater V i c t o r i a ' s harbours. Many of the imports to and--exports from the other Western Canadian ports were transhipped to and from V i c t o r i a . V i c t o r i a was the home of the f i s h i n g f l e e t . Nearly two m i l l i o n d o l l a r s of f i s h and f i s h products were exported annually. F i f t y sealing schooners were based i n the Inner Harbour. A large ship-b u i l d i n g company c a l l e d the V.M.D. was established on Bay Street. The Rithet Piers or Outer Wharves were b u i l t at t h i s time, and these docks could accommodate the largest ocean 3 vessels. Many other industries were attracted to V i c t o r i a . The Lemon and Gonnason Lumber Company was established during these years. The Brackman and Kerr M i l l i n g Company located i t s main plant i n V i c t o r i a . The largest company was the 1 I b i d . , p. 2. 2 I b i d . , p. 1. 3 Map 10, page 31. 29 Albion Iron Works situated at Chatham and Store Streets, This Company, employing 230 men, had a most d i v e r s i f i e d output. Ship-building and repairs; power units f o r the new e l e c t r i c a l tramway system; and the drain and sewer pipes f o r V i c t o r i a were a l l manufactured at t h i s plant, Esquimalt shared t h i s tremendous boom with V i c t o r i a , In 1865 the Dockyard was o f f i c i a l l y recognized as the P a c i f i c Naval Depot, In 1873 one of the o r i g i n a l huts was enlarged to become a house f o r Mr. James Innes, the f i r s t c i v i l i a n o f f i c e r i n charge of the Dockyard. With the establishment of the naval base, the t i n y sea-girt v i l l a g e began to expand. Houses were b u i l t along both sides of the narrow neck of 1 land between the Dockyard and Signal H i l l , Building f o r the future continued during the l 8 8 0 Ts and carried on into the 1890 Ts with increased momentum. Large bri c k buildings surrounded by red brick boundary walls were established. Across the harbour, on the present s i t e of HMCS, Naden, permanent residences and hos p i t a l wards were added, and i n the 1890»s Work Point and Signal H i l l Army Barracks 2 were b u i l t . The Old Drydock was f i n a l l y completed i n 1887. In 1896 the present Yarrow Ship Building Company (then the Esquimalt Marine Railway Company) was started. Regular Army troops have been stationed i n Esquimalt since 1887. 1 Map 10, page 31, 2 Map 10, page 31. 3 Map 10, page 31. Even at t h i s early date the Army and Navy spent l o c a l l y an approximate t o t a l of #950,000 annually. In 1887 the f i r s t transcontinental t r a i n reached Vancouver. I t was t h i s momentous achievement that shattered the dreams of Victo r i a n s . Vancouver and not V i c t o r i a was to be the c i t y of the future. V i c t o r i a , being older and possess-ing better docking, commercial and a g r i c u l t u r a l f a c i l i t i e s , competed successfully with Vancouver f o r a few more years but by 1901 Vancouver had f o r the f i r s t time a larger popula-t i o n than V i c t o r i a . TABLE CENSUS 1901 Vancouver 27,010 V i c t o r i a 20,919 LEGEND TO MAP JL SOME EARLY INDUSTRIES AND DEFENCE ESTABLISHMENTS 1. Rithets Piers 2. V i c t o r i a Machinery Depot 3. Lemon-Gonnason Lumber Company 4. Brackman and Kerr M i l l i n g Company 5. Albion Iron Works 6 . Rice Works 7. Esquimalt Marine Railway Company 8. H.M.c.S. Naden 9. Signal H i l l Army Barracks 10• Work Point Barracks 11, Old Drydock i n the Dockyard, POPULATED AREAS AND SCHOOLS 1868 A. V i c t o r i a West B. James Bay C. V i c t o r i a C i t y D. Cadboro Bay E. Burnside Road F. Esquimalt G. South Saanich LEGEND TO MAP XI 1. Central School 2. Esquimalt School 3. Craigflower School 4. Cedar H i l l School CHAPTER V POPULATION DISTRIBUTION AND SCHOOL LOCATIONS OF GREATER VICTORIA I860 - 1900 V i c t o r i a was not included i n the Dominion Census u n t i l the year 1881. In 1868, however, the census sponsored by the Colonial and Municipal Governments was taken. This was 1 2 recorded i n the Colonist of October 6, 1868. 1 TABLE 3 CENSUS 1868 White M Adults F Coloured M F Males uncles over 15 14 Females undsi' over 15 14 Totals City 630 390 26 34 325 56> 346 53 186® V i c t o r i a West 44 32: 4 3 2 1 2; 25 131 James Bay 111 108 2 1 110 10 7<S 2 420) Cadboro Bay 9 mm - 7 3 7 - 3 1 Burnside Road 28 8 2L 2 9 3 13 65 Esquimalt 73 40 6 - 32c 27 29 8 215 S. Saanich 29 14 6 1 39 - 11 1 101 TOTAL 545 101 507 64 2823 The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the population had changed greatly since 1855. Over 40$ of the t o t a l population were children i n 1868, compared! with 23$ i n 1855* In the early days of the f u r trade regime adult men had formed the major 2 Map 1 1 , page 3 2 . 34 part of the population; but by 1868 p r a c t i c a l l y every d i s t r i c t had more children than adults. The d i s t r i b u t i o n of the pop-u l a t i o n was also changed. Such d i s t r i c t s as V i c t o r i a West, James Bay and Cadboro Bay were not named i n the e a r l i e r census* Both James Bay and Cadboro Bay had farms i n 1855 but by 1868 a d e f i n i t e settlement was established i n each of these areas. The Census figures revealed that James Bay had approximately an equal number of adults (male and female) and c h i l d r e n . The C i t y with i t s large predominance of males provided hotels and rooming houses rather than private homes. The other Census areas had a predominance of male adults but these were mainly farming regions and employed male farm labourers. The only school serving the Greater V i c t o r i a area (exclusive of Esquimalt) i n the year i860 was the Reserve School situated one mile east of the town. The population, however, was mainly settled i n the town or to the west of the town. V i c t o r i a West, James Bay and Burnside were a l l to the 1 west of the c i t y . Voicing the general d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with t h i s s i t u a t i o n Reverend Cridge had i n 1858 written a l e t t e r protesting the school s i t e and demanding that the school be 2 moved nearer town. In 1859 when the Island reverted to the Crown a new enthusiasm f o r free education swept the colony. In a l e t t e r to the Acting Colonial Secretary, Reverend Cridge launches 1 Map 11, page 32. 2 B r i t i s h Daily Colonist, December 24, 1862. 35 the suggestion of a free type of school: ... u n t i l more ample means be provided these schools cannot be suspectible of any considerable improvement beyond that which the zeal and e f f i c i e n c y of t h e i r i n d i v -idual teacher may e f f e c t . While forbearing to enter on the question of how enlarged means may be found f o r the support of the Public Schools s h a l l be provided •••• I would deprecate seeking i t by any considerable increase i n p u p i l s ' fees, i This i s the f i r s t report which, while not advocating free elementary schools, did advocate that schools should be 2 as free as possible. Three years l a t e r , perhaps as a r e s u l t of the Reverend's former complaint, the Central School was established on Fort Street near Government Street. This building had formerly served as the Congregational Church but was completely reno-vated f o r school purposes. The teacher was a Mr. Jessop, The Colonist announced proudly: "The school-house i s situated on Fort Street, a short distance from Government and i s the larg e s t building i n the c i t y consecretated to the service of 3 education." I t housed both boys and g i r l s . The year 1863 i s a commemorable one f o r Greater V i c t o r i a ' s education f o r i t was i n that year that Esquimalt opened the f i r s t free school. "We are pleased to be able to record the g r a t i f y i n g circumstances of the opening of the f i r s t free school i n the colony which took place yesterday at 4 Esquimalt." 1 Cridge Edward (Inspector of Schools) l e t t e r 24 to Acting Colonial Secretary, W. A. C. Young Esq. 2 Donald L e s l i e MacLauren, History of Education i n the  Crown Colonies of Vancouver Island and B.C. and i n the province  of B.C.. (University of Washington — a thesis, 1938),page 42. 3 - B r i t i s h D a i l y Colonist, Dec. 24, 1862. 4 B r i t i s h Colonist, February 18, 1863. 36 The school was opened i n St. Paul's H a l l . This was a small building located not f a r from the old graving dock. I t 1 was used as a school on week days and as a church on Sundays. I t was also i n t h i s year that the f i r s t Cedar H i l l School was opened (July 7, 1863). I t s l o c a t i o n was on the s i t e of the present St. Luke's Church. Like the Esquimalt School i t belonged to the church and was rented f o r school purposes. The area surrounding the Cedar H i l l School had been subdivided into farms owned by the o f f i c e r s of the Hudson's Bay Company. The Census of 1855 does not mention these farms 2 and so i t i s assumed they were not i n production. Probably at the termination of the Hudson's Bay Company's contract i n 1859, the owners l e f t the Company and commenced farming. This theory i s supported by a l e t t e r written i n i860 demanding a road be b u i l t from the town to Cedar H i l l (now Mount Douglas). October i860. BiW. Pearse, Esq. S i r : I am deputed by some of the Settlers of the V i c t o r i a D i s t r i c t on the l i n e of the Road to Cedar H i l l to make appl i c a t i o n to you as Acting Colonial Surveyor, to allow them to commence making such Roads with a l l dispatch .... I am S i r Your Obedient Servant C.A. Bayley. 3 The road must have been b u i l t some time during the next year since another l e t t e r written i n I864 we read that 1 F. V. Longstaff, Esquimalt Navy Base. Clark & Stuart Co., Vancouver, 1941, page 26. 2 Table 2, page 25. 3 Bayley's Letters — P r o v i n c i a l Archives* 3ouxcESi i. /esa O F F I C I A L M A I * 2. LAALD HEGISTRy LEGEND TO MAP' 111 LOCATIONS OF THE ORIGINAL CEDAR HILL SCHOOL AND SURROUNDING FARMS 1. J* Work's Farm 2. J . Swanson's Farm 3. J . Irving*s Farm 4. CJ» Gulliam's Farm 5. P, Merriman's Farm 6 . R. Scott's Farm 7. J . Todd's Farm A, Cedar H i l l School 38 the road needed re p a i r s . September, 1864. To His Excellency A.G. Kennedy, Governor of Vancouver Island. May i t please your Excellency the Humble petitions of the undersigned farmers residing along the road to Cedar H i l l showeth (1th) That c e r t a i n portions of the road to Cedar H i l l require stoning and g r a v e l l i n g •••• 1 These l e t t e r s reveal that the farms were i n production i n i860 and that an extensive farming community had grown up. The school was opened at the same time as the road was completed I t enrolled thirty-seven students and was located at the 2 i n t e r s e c t i o n of Cedar H i l l Road and Cedar H i l l Cross Road. Greater V i c t o r i a was, i n 1863, served by four schools 1 the Central or town school, Esquimalt, Craigflower, and Cedar H i l l . The outlying areas seemed adequately serviced but the town area was very much i n need of more schools. Children from V i c t o r i a West, Burnside, James Bay, Uplands and Willows had to t r a v e l to the Central School. Only f i v e classrooms 3 existed i n the c i t y , with 346 students enrolled. The three d i s t r i c t schools each had one classroom. New schools were not to be b u i l t f o r some time. P o l -i t i c s entered into the picture and educational advance on Vancouver Island and i n V i c t o r i a City i n p a r t i c u l a r was delayed f o r at l e a s t ten years. The Island Colony had passed, i n 1 Archives. This i s an o r i g i n a l l e t t e r and many of the signatures are not c l e a r . Such names as Irvine, Merriman, Tod and Langley are l e g i b l e . The farms of these men have been indicated where possible. 2 This road had been b u i l t i n the 1850*3 f o r i t i s shown on the o f f i c i a l map of 1858. 3 Fortunately f o r teachers attendance was most i r r e g u l a r . Page 37. 39 1865, the Common School Act, by which a l l schooling was made f r e e . The Mainland Colony, however, was very much opposed to free education and a l l students i n t h i s l a t t e r colony paid fees. When the two colonies were united i n 1866 the govern-ment refused to supply the Island school d i s t r i c t s with suff-i c i e n t funds to operate free schools. A new act c a l l e d the Common School Ordinance was passed i n 1869. This l e g i s l a t i o n permitted a l l residents between f i v e and eighteen to attend schools as long as they behaved and the fees required of them 1 were discharged. Any l o c a l School Board could make a p p l i -cation to the Governor-in-Council f o r a grant of money i f required to a i d the establishment or maintenance of a common school. Schools on the Island were therefore no longer f r e e . Educationalists i n V i c t o r i a refused to accept t h i s change and had a l l c i t y schools closed. However, School Boards i n Esqui-malt, Cedar H i l l and Craigflower made application under the Common School Ordinance Act of 1869 and schools i n these d i s t r i c t s remained open. The progress of education was advanced greatly a f t e r B r i t i s h Columbia became a province i n 1871* The School Act of 1869 was repealed and replaced by the Public School Act, This l a t t e r Act i s the basis of our present school act and among i t s many provisions i t established free schools on a permanent basis. In 1872 the schools of V i c t o r i a re-opened. Schools i n the area were: the Boys* School (the old Colonial 1 Donald L e s l i e Maclauren, op. c i t . , page 52. S A A N I C H MAP XDJ V I C T O R I A C I T Y HEAVILY POPULATED ARE*A.5 and S C H O O L L O C A T I O N S 1 8 7 3 I. B O Y S ' SCHOOL * . G I R L S ' CAPITAL REGION PLANNING BOARD 41 D i s t r i c t School on the present Central Grounds), the G i r l s ' School (Broughton near Government), Esquimalt, Craigflower, and Cedar H i l l School, The next year, 1873, a new school building was erected 1 at Cedar H i l l on the present school grounds, V i c t o r i a C i t y was at that time very inadequately served by schools. The old Reserve School had been reopened f o r boys; t h i s meant that boys l i v i n g i n James Bay, V i c t o r i a West and Burnside had to t r a v e l approximately two miles to school. The G i r l s ' School was located i n town (Broughton near Government), which meant that g i r l s l i v i n g i n the Willow's area had to t r a v e l 2 some three miles each way. The 1881 Census showed Greater V i c t o r i a to have a pop-u l a t i o n of 7,301, of which the c i t y possessed 80%. The people were, however, moving away from the centre of the town; approx-imately 45% l i v e d north of Pandora Avenue and west of Cook Street to the waters of Rock Bay. Another 34% l i v e d i n James Bay. No more than 20% therefore could have been l i v i n g i n the c i t y centre. By 1891 the population had reached 18,323 of which 16,847 l i v e d i n V i c t o r i a C i t y . The trend of population move-ment to the north and south continued; but a greater thrust to the east was experienced. Fort Street centred a heavy 3 concentration of population as f a r east as Stanley Street, 1 St. Luke's Church records prove that contrary to the opinion of most "old timers", t h i s was not the f i r s t school. 2 Map 13, page 40. -3 Map 14, page 42. *. ARCHIVES 42 LEGEND TO MAP XIV HEAVILY POPULATED AREAS OF VICTORIA CITY AND GREATER VICTORIA SCHOOLS 1891 1. James Bay Ward (Kingston Street School) 2. Central School 3. Fourth Ward School (Spring Ridge School) 4« H i l l s i d e Ward School (King's Road School) 5. Rock Bay Ward School 6. V i c t o r i a West School 7» Esquimalt School 8. Craigflower School 9. Tolmie School 10. Cedar H i l l School 11. Cadboro Bay School ROCK BAY WARD SCHOOL Opened i n 1886 Whereas the schools p r i o r to 1875 were inadequate to serve the needs of the Greater V i c t o r i a students, f o r twenty-f i v e years a f t e r that date schools sprang up i n many sections of the present Greater V i c t o r i a School D i s t r i c t . Unfortun-a t e l y many of these schools have since been demolished and 1 records as to t h e i r locations were never kept. In 1876 the Old Boys 1 Central School was b u i l t on the 2 present Central Junior High School s i t e . In t h i s school boys studied downstairs and g i r l s u pstairs. I t contained ten classrooms and i n 1881 had an enrollment of 680 students. I t was fortunate f o r the teachers that many students seldom attended classes. Out of 310 boys enrolled the average attend 3 ance was only 180. This school was the only elementary school serving the present V i c t o r i a and Oak Bay areas. Many students from James Bay, V i c t o r i a West, Burnside and Willows were t r a v e l l i n g over two miles to school. These distances probably were the chief factors contributing to poor attend-ance. At the time t h i s school was b u i l t the o r i g i n a l log 4 5 cabin school was taken over as a High School. This was the f i r s t High School i n B r i t i s h Columbia. 1 Much research has then gone into the f a c t s recorded i n the following pages i n an attempt to discover the s i t e s of a l l these schools. To the best of the writer. 1 s knowledge a l l schools have been accurately located. 2 I t has since been demolished. 3 Annual Report, Department of Education 1881, 4 Page 18. 5 Map 59, P. 200. FOURTH WARD or SPRING RIDGE SCHOOL Opened i n 1887 44 Six years l a t e r , i n 1882, I s q u i m a l t b u i l t a new school adjacent to the old St. Paul's School. In 1884 Central School was again crowded and parents were complaining about the distances from James Bay, Rock Bay and V i c t o r i a West. To solve these problems two ward schools were b u i l t . The schools enrolled primary students only, who upon completion of these grades, entered the Central School. James Bay Ward, known l a t e r as Kingston Street School, and Johnston Street Ward School, known l a t e r as H i l l s i d e Ward School and s t i l l l a t e r 1 as King's Road School, were both opened i n 1884. Both schools have since been demolished. These two schools f i l l e d a very great need i n the community. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that H i l l s i d e Ward School was located just beyond the densely populated area. I t would seem that the School Board envisaged the town spreading fart h e r north and f e l t that t h i s new location might s u f f i c e f o r some years into the future. I t was situated approximately half-way between the centre of town and the c i t y ' s northern border. V i c t o r i a West was i n 1884 the only heavily populated area i n the c i t y from which children had to walk more than one mile to school. The next year, i n 1885, the Cadboro Bay School was b u i l t . I t was located at the corner of Lansdowne and Cadboro Bay Road on the s i t e of the present 18 th tee of the Uplands 2 Golf Club. This school served the children from a large area. 1 Map 14, P. 42. 2: Map 15, p. 45. HAW&Qv If J I M I L S CADBORO BAY SCHOOL and H0ME6 Q{ 6TUDEN TS. # Homes X Schoc) 1 Children were enrolled from as f a r north as Telegraph Bay, some two and a h a l f miles away, and from as f a r south as the v i c i n i t y of the Jubilee Hospital. Most children who attended l i v e d on farms and many were children who previously, because of the great distances, had not been able to attend any public 2 school. In 1886 Rock Bay Ward School was b u i l t on the corner of Johnson and Turner Street, and although i t s t i l l stands i s no longer used. This school served the heavily populated northern and north-western sections of the c i t y . Many indus-t r i e s were located along the Rock Bay waterfront. This was the harbour f o r the large P a c i f i c Coast sealing f l e e t and as a consequence many ship-repair companies were attracted to t h i s section. The V i c t o r i a Machinery Depot situated only one block from the school, became the largest ship-building com-pany on the Island. The large Puget Sound Lumber M i l l was situated at the foot of Rock Bay Avenue. Greater V i c t o r i a had no street railway system by 1886 and as a r e s u l t V i c t o r -ians were forced to l i v e close to the source of t h e i r employ-ment. As a consequence the Rock Bay and the adjacent V i c t o r i a West d i s t r i c t s quickly developed into r e s i d e n t i a l areas. Students from both d i s t r i c t s attended Rock Bay 1 The s i t e of the o r i g i n a l Powder Works. 2 Information on t h i s school has been gained from Mrs. J . McLennan, a former student. Mrs. McLennan provided a l l the information f o r the accompanying map. 47 1 2 School. The next year the Fourth Ward School was constructed i n the Fernwood Street Area. This school was l a t e r c a l l e d the Spring Ridge School. I t s t i l l stands but i s no longer used. Like the Johnson Street Ward School, the Fourth Ward School was b u i l t i n a fringe area. Again i t would seem that the educationalists recognized the continuing expansion and were planning for the future. This foresight was j u s t i f i e d f o r , by 3 1911, t h i s area was included i n the heavily populated sections. Two schools were b u i l t i n 1888: Tolmie School, and V i c t o r i a West. Tolmie School s t i l l used as an Annex, was to serve the Burnside area which u n t i l that year, though i t had 4 been farmed since 1855, had no school. The V i c t o r i a West School also served an area which had been heavily populated twenty years before but had been without a school, i t s students 5 attending Rock Bay School. The f i r s t Gordon Head School was b u i l t i n 1891 i n a farming area which had no r e a l road connection to town. A wagon t r a i l connected to Cedar H i l l Road, along what i s now Torquay Drive. To the present day t h i s road has never been straightened and one becomes aware of t h i s f a c t as one t r i e s 1 A l l t r a f f i c from Esquimalt and V i c t o r i a West reached the Town v i a the Point E l l i c e Bridge as the Johnson Street Bridge had not been constructed by 1886. 2 Map 16, p. 48. 3 Map 14, p. 42. 4 Map 9, p. 26. 5 The school constructed i n 1888 i s not the present school but was on the same s i t e . MAP XVT SCHOOL D I S T R I C T NO.. 61 GREATER VICTORIA SCHOOLS 1 9 0 0 LEGEND TO MAP XVI GREATER VICTORIA SCHOOLS 1900 1. James Bay Ward School (Kingston Street School) 2. South Park School 3. Central School 4. Fourth Ward School (Spring Ridge School) 5. Oak Bay School 6. Esquimalt School 7. V i c t o r i a West School 8. Rock Bay Ward School 9. North Ward School 10. Johnson Street Ward ( H i l l s i d e Ward ) (King's Road) 11. Burnside School 12. Gadboro Bay School 13. Cedar H i l l School 14. Gordon Head School. 15. Craigflower School 16. Strawberry Vale School 49 to manoever an automobile around i t s various twists and turns. These farmers were therefore to a great extent independent of the town. Soap, butter and clothes were fashioned on the farms. The children, i f they attended school, were enrolled at the Cedar H i l l School and had to make a journey of some two and a h a l f miles each way over very poorly-kept wagon t r a i l s . Gordon Head parents complained b i t t e r l y about these distances and f i n a l l y a f t e r a Mr. Dean donated the land, the school was started. Twelve students o r i g i n a l l y attended and the locations of t h e i r homes are plotted on map 17, page 50. Strawberry Vale, an area which had been farmed since 1 1855 1 opened i t s f i r s t school i n 1893. The school house; was located on the present s i t e but behind where the present 2 school stands. In 1895 two heavily populated areas i n town acquired further schools. South Park School was b u i l t f o r eastern 3 James Bay; North Ward, f o r the northern section of the 4 c i t y . Three schools: H i l l s i d e Ward -— North Ward — and Rock Bay — were serving the northern area with l e s s than h a l f a mile separating the schools. The population growth of these areas can best be seen by a study of school e n r o l l -ments. James Bay Ward School was the only school i n 1881 1 Map 9, P. 26. 2 A second b u i l d i n g was l a t e r constructed i n front of the present school. 3 I t i s s t i l l i n use. 4 I t i s s t i l l i n use. 51 r e g i s t e r i n g students from south ward. I t had an enrollment of 195 students. By 1891 two schools, James Bay and South Park, accommodated students from t h i s area and these schools had a combined enrollment of 588 students. The North Ward reveals the same picture. Two schools were located here i n 1891, with a combined enrollment of 388 students. Three schools accommodated students from t h i s same area i n 1901 with a combined enrollment of 808 students. V i c t o r i a West School had an increased enrollment from 140 to 340 students. The fact that enrollments had increased i n the North and South Wards by over 600 students indicates very c l e a r l y how heavily populated these two sections had become. I t i s in t e r e s t i n g to note at t h i s point the attitude of the School Board (and i n d i r e c t l y the c i t i z e n s of the day), towards auditoriums. In 1959, at a time when a l l homes are demanding every type of modern convenience, auditoriums are often condemned as "expensive f r i l l s " . We are continually reminded of the grand old days when schools had only the minimum e s s e n t i a l s . But one reads i n the School Trustees 1 report of s i x t y years ago, "and each school has an assembly h a l l capable of not only seating a l l the pupils attending school but being large enough also to allow numerous v i s i t o r s Z to witness the half-yearly c l o s i n g exercises with comfort."' 1 North Ward and South Park. 2 School Trustees Report to the Superintendent of Education 1894, P. 194. 52 In 1894, Oak Bay acquired i t s second school. I t no longer stands but occupied that property known as 943 Foul Bay Road. Residences have since been b u i l t on t h i s s i t e . Map 18, page 52, indicates that t h i s school was not c e n t r a l l y located. Most of the students l i v e d north of Oak Bay Avenue while the school was situated on the very western boundary of the municipality and to the south of the Avenue. From the population d i s t r i b u t i o n map 18, page 52, i t would seem that the school should have been located near the corner of Mon-terey and Oak Bay Avenue. No reason can be found f o r the Foul Bay Road s i t u a t i o n but perhaps, as was the case i n many schools, the land was donated to the municipality. PART" 111 VICTORIA SINCE 1900 CHAPTER 11 THE MAJOR FACTORS BEHIND VICTORIA'S GROWTH SINCE 1900 The a r r i v a l of the f i r s t transcontinental t r a i n i n Vancouver was the event which i n d i r e c t l y transformed the i s l a n d c i t y of V i c t o r i a . The great hopes that V i c t o r i a would remain the Canadian port on the P a c i f i c Ocean were shattered. Since that event i n 1887, Victorians slowly and hesitantly have been forced to appraise t h e i r c i t y ' s future with a new realism. Although V i c t o r i a has continued to grow i n popula-t i o n and to expand a r e a l l y , never since that date has t h i s port been able to o f f e r any serious threat to the leading position of i t s mainland competitor, the c i t y of Vancouver. The educator i s interested i n many aspects of a population study. To understand the reasons behind the growth of the c i t y ' s population i s fundamental to h i s purpose. The size of the population determines the number of classrooms necessary. The s t a b i l i t y or f l u c t u r a t i n g nature of the pop-ul a t i o n d i c t a t e s whether the classrooms should be permanent or temporary. The d i s t r i b u t i o n defines where these c l a s s -rooms should be b u i l t . Age c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s reveal the number of children i n r e l a t i o n to the t o t a l population and t h i s , i n turn, reveals i f more or l e s s schools than the average number are needed. To a large extent people populate an area i n d i r e c t M A P 7VTTT O A K B A Y RESIDENCES and SCHOOLS 1910 • RfSIDENCE • - S C H O O L S O U R C E ' , » o Permits , OaK Bay Monitipal H&M EMPLOYMENT 1956 TOTAL Predominantly Basic Primary Manufacturing Shipbuilding Wood Products Miscellaneous Products U t i l i t i e s Government Service Defence: navy army c i v i l i a n Other Federal Government P r o v i n c i a l Government Predominantly Service Manufacture U t i l i t i e s Construction Transportation, Storage & Comm. Trade Wholesale R e t a i l Finance, Ins. & Real Estate Service Community Local Government Recreation Business Personal TABLE 4 Employment 50,600 20,500 1,200 2,000 1,500 1,100 400 5,000 1,000 3,300 1,850 3,150 30,100 1,760 400 3,000 2,890 1,500 8,000 2,000 4,300 1,000 350 700 4,200 Source: Population Forecast and Land Use Requirements, page 8 Capital Region Planning Board of B r i t i s h Columbia. 55 r e l a t i o n to i t s employment p o t e n t i a l . "Employment i s the most comprehensive and r e l i a b l e index f o r the projection of 1 population and land requirements." The following para-graphs are therefore, devoted to the study of the major employ-ment p o s s i b i l i t i e s on the Greater V i c t o r i a area since 1900. Planning f o r the future i s always a most d i f f i c u l t task and should be attempted only a f t e r much research. Schools to-day cost m i l l i o n s of d o l l a r s , and to b u i l d one unnecessarily, or to locate one improperly, can be an expensive experience. This chapter records the re s u l t s of the research necessary to answer the important problem, "Can Greater V i c t o r i a confid-ently b u i l d new schools?" A d e f i n i t e trend can be noted i n the economic develop-ment of Greater V i c t o r i a since 1900 and the following para-graphs stress the o v e r a l l picture. I t i s true that p a r t i c u l a r events such as wars and depressions occurred to influence the progress of the area's economic development but the treatment of these events and t h e i r influences w i l l be undertaken i n l a t e r chapters. V i c t o r i a ' s Commercial and I n d u s t r i a l Decline V i c t o r i a , p r i o r to 1900, had been, as previously mentioned, the i n d u s t r i a l and commercial centre of the Can-adian P a c i f i c Coast. Steadily since that date the i s l a n d c i t y has been l o s i n g i t s position of leadership. V i c t o r i a ' s 1 Capital Region Planning Board of B r i t i s h Columbia, Population Forecast and Land Use Requirements, 1958, p. 7. 56 i n d u s t r i e s suffer not only from possessing a smaller home market than mainland c i t i e s ; but i n addition, from having to pay high f r e i g h t rates when competing i n the more l u c r a t i v e , mainland markets. This f r e i g h t rate d i f f e r e n t i a l has increased through the years and the reduction of isla n d i n d u s t r i e s has continued to the present. The types of industry to leave V i c t o r i a have been varied. The old r i c e m i l l , once located on Store Street, was the f i r s t to change from the i s l a n d to the mainland. At the present time, the large Sidney Roofing Company has been forced to follow t h i s trend and w i l l be completely reestablished i n Vancouver by I960, Two very large V i c t o r i a lumber companies, the Puget Sound Lumber Company and the Lemon-Gonnason M i l l , have been forced out of business, V i c t o r i a used to be the home of the sealing and whaling f l e e t s . Nearly two m i l l i o n d o l l a r s worth of f i s h products were exported annually. 1 Nothing remains to-day of these two f l e e t s . Closely a l l i e d to t h i s i n d u s t r i a l decline has been the associated decline i n commercial prestige. Ocean l i n e r s which once made V i c t o r i a t h e i r West P a c i f i c port, now steam by her harbours. The great Rithet Piers b u i l t i n 1888 with the expectation of handling an ever-expanding ocean t r a f f i c , were seldom used a f t e r 1920. For years they stood on V i c t o r i a ' s waterfront as sad reminders of a great past. Only f o r a few 1 Fortunately, however, B*C. Packers has established a large plant on the Outer Harbour.. 57 years during World War 11, when they were incorporated into the V i c t o r i a Machinery Depot, did they regain some of t h e i r past glory. Many navy vessels and war f r e i g h t e r s were launched alongside these p i e r s . This temporary wartime a c t i v i t y , how-ever, could not a f f e c t the inevitable declining of V i c t o r i a ' s dock trade. V i c t o r i a ' s economy, although badly shaken by these i n d u s t r i a l and commercial losses, gradually adjusted to new conditions and developed on a very s o l i d foundation. The Role of Governments Already i t has been shown (chapters 1 and 2) how gov-ernment played a substantial role i n the area's development. V i c t o r i a has always been the Ca p i t a l of the province and thus enjoys the economic advantages which go with such a preferred p o s i t i o n . Esquimalt had achieved i t s early development with the aid of the B r i t i s h Government. After 1906, when the f e d e r a l government accepted r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r Canada's own defence, the municipality came under that government's influence. The two governments, P r o v i n c i a l and Federal, form the true basis of Greater V i c t o r i a ' s economy. In 1956 there were 50,600 people employed i n Greater V i c t o r i a and of these 20,500; 1 were i n so-called basic employment. Of these 20,500 basic employees, the two governments employed d i r e c t l y or i n d i r e c t l y 1 Table 4, P. 57. 16,300. This means that eight out of ten basically-employed people work f o r the governments. The other 30,100 jobs f a l l i n t o the category of service employment; and most would not e x i s t , i f government employment f a i l e d . While a great v a r i e t y of positions are offered by the two governments, c l e r i c a l and professional opportunities greatly predominate. This i s e s p e c i a l l y true of the provin-c i a l government where p r a c t i c a l l y a l l positions f a l l i nto these two categories. The Federal Government employs approx-imately 7000 c i v i l i a n s (including shipyard workers) and 600 m i l i t a r y personel. Approximately 3000 of these are employed i n ship b u i l d i n g and ship maintenance, some d i r e c t l y by the government; others i n d i r e c t l y . A l l trades are represented i n these categories. The postal and customs o f f i c e s employ many c i v i l i a n s but, here again, c l e r i c a l help predominates. This type of employment greatly influences Greater V i c t o r i a Schools. Because the job opportunities are mainly i n the professional and stenographic f i e l d s , the schools must stress academic and commercial subjects. Opportunities i n the t e c h n i c a l f i e l d s are comparatively few, so that one finds few courses of t h i s nature offered i n the d i s t r i c t ' s schools. Slower students or students adapted f o r manual labour f i n d few job opportunities i n the V i c t o r i a area. This creates a 1 The Greater V i c t o r i a Shipbuilding industry employed '2000 people but as p r a c t i c a l l y a l l contracts are government these 2000 people must be included as i n d i r e c t government employees. 2 Capital Region Planning Board of B.C. l o c . c i t . , p.8. 59 further problem f o r the schools. Many students unsuited f o r academic courses are forced by the unusual labour opportun-i t i e s to t r a i n themselves along academic l i n e s . high dependence on government employment; but government employment i s steady and leads to economic s t a b i l i t y . While i t i s true that governments cannot ignore a l l economic f a c t o r s , they do not encounter the peaks and depressions known to industry. Industries associated with farming, f o r example, may be suffering from depressed prices while industries asso-ciated with mining may be enjoying a "boom". Governments under such circumstance remain r e l a t i v e l y unaffected and there-fore, make no employment adjustments. This steady employment, coupled with the f a c t that both governments have i n the past t h i r t y years been gradually h i r i n g a higher r a t i o of employees compared to t o t a l population gives V i c t o r i a a very secure plan schools with confidence. V i c t o r i a ' s population w i l l 1 TABLE, 5 Rates of Employment By P r o v i n c i a l and Federal Governments In B.G. 1931 - 1951 (per 1,000 population) I b i d . . p. 19 Victorians have continually shown concern over the 1 and steady economy. Educators, appreciating t h i s employment picture, can P r o v i n c i a l Federal 1931 6.1 2.3 1941 5.7 5.3 1951 9.0 7.8 CHART 6 CLIMATIC COMPARISONS BETWEEN VICTORIA, WINNIPEG. TORONTO. HALIFAX  Monthly Temperatures Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May Jun. J u l . Aug. Sep. Oct. Nov. Dee ' •• \ / i f * .- 1 \ '' \ V Vs! s f 1 \ s S 1 t ' 4 • f t t % % * \ •>* / r \ \ T y ' i $ t * / — 0 0 • * 9 » t • t» i * > — *• W 0 m 70 65 60 55 50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 -5 ANNUAL SUNSHINE AND PRECIPITATION Hours of Sunshine Inches of P r e c i p i t a t i o n Days with P r e c i p i t a t i o n V i c t o r i a 2207 27.13 144 Winnipeg 2124 21.19 l i s Toronto 2048 32 a 18 145 H a l i f a x 1835 55.74 156 Sourcei Climatic Summaries f o r Selected Meteorlogical Stations l n the Dominion of Canada, (averages shown are f o r minimum of 55 years.) 60 gain and continue to grow as long as the o v e r a l l economies of Canada and B r i t i s h Columbia expand. Climate and I t s Influences The climate of Greater V i c t o r i a i s the second fa c t o r which influences the economy of the area. The influences of climate are so varied that i t i s d i f f i c u l t to comprehend the f u l l importance of t h i s f a c t o r on the economy. Agriculture, f o r e s t r y , "tourism"- and the age-characteristics of the pop-ula t i o n , a l l are d i r e c t r e s u l t s of climate. As previously mentioned, V i c t o r i a i s protected from the d i r e c t influence of the e asterly-moving a i r masses by the Sooke H i l l s and, as one of the r e s u l t s of t h i s protection, V i c t o r i a has one of the most favourable climates i n Canada. While the West Coast of the Island suffers from one hundred-inches or more of annual r a i n f a l l V i c t o r i a enjoys twenty-seven inches. This same protection r e s u l t s i n V i c t o r i a having a much d r i e r and warmer summer than i s usual on the west coast of the Island. Victorians enjoy more hours of sunshine than most Canadians and do not experience the great extremes of temperature known to the residents of the p r a i r i e s and eastern Canada. The climate and geographic position of Greater V i c t o r i a gives the area its...only true basic industry ~ lumbering. Logging has been associated with V i c t o r i a since the f u r trade regime. To-day logs are cut along the West Coast of the Island and i n the i n t e r i o r from Shawnigan Lake 1 Table 6, p. 59. 61 north, V i c t o r i a i s the closest harbour to these logging operations. Logs arrive by boom, truck or railway and are processed at one of the large m i l l s situated along the Inner Harbour. The B, C, Forest Product M i l l handles the largest percentage of the export trade; while Moore-Whittington, Stewart-Hudson, Sidney Lumber, and others, concentrate on the l o c a l trade. In 1956 there were 1,500 people employed i n Greater V i c t o r i a ' s lumber industry with a p a y r o l l of over f i v e m i l l i o n d o l l a r s . As has been stated, climate i s one of the most valu-able assets of t h i s area; but i t i s an asset that has been very slowly, and somewhat unwillingly, recognized by V i c t o r -ians, They have been blinded by the desire for i n d u s t r i a l development and have greatly neglected the opportunities that t h i s unique climate has made possible. Only i n the l a s t few years has such an organization as the Chamber of Commerce faced the r e a l i t y of l o s t industry and commenced to develop the opportunities presented by the climate. V i c t o r i a o f f ers i d e a l l i v i n g conditions f o r r e t i r e d people. I t s mild climate i s a t t r a c t i v e to older people no longer able to withstand the extreme temperature of central 1 and eastern Canada. The temperate climate, i n c i d e n t a l l y , means that f u e l b i l l s can be kept to a minimum, an important factor i n a r e t i r e d person's budget. People from a l l parts of Canada and the Commonwealth gravitate towards V i c t o r i a 1 Table 6, p. 59 on retirement and as a r e s u l t , Greater V i c t o r i a ' s population shows a high proportion of older people, 17% being over s i x t y -f i v e years of age compared with 9% f o r the province of Saskat-chewan. Moreover 13% of a l l males are r e t i r e d compared with 1 9% f o r the rest of B r i t i s h Columbia. The influence of these r e t i r e d people on school construction i s two-fold. Each r e t i r e d person assumes the same role as a basic employee. His pension each month enters int o the economy of the region and others must be employed to. serve him. Thus, although the pensioner usually has no school-age children, h i s needs are often catered to by younger parents and schools must be b u i l t to accommodate the children of t h i s l a t e r group. There seems l i t t l e doubt that t h i s i n -f l u x of r e t i r e d people w i l l continue and probably at an increased rate. Gradually V i c t o r i a business men are r e a l i z i n g t h i s compound r o l e played by the pensioner and are becoming keen to point out the area's advantages. In 1956, 21,800 people over s i x t y - f i v e years of age resided i n V i c t o r i a . I f each spent only $1000 a year- t h i s would r e s u l t i n some twenty m i l l i o n d o l l a r s entering the economy, which i s double the present amount r e a l i z e d from the t o u r i s t trade. Each year, pension schemes become more common and V i c t o r i a should f i n d pensioners very much to her advantage. However, pensioners can prove a hindrance to a school developmental schemes. They usually have no young children, 1 Census 1956. 63 and being r e s t r i c t e d by a fi x e d income, are often against any issue which w i l l raise taxes. Since the general public i s usually divided on the question of more money f o r education i t i s possible f o r pensioners to hold the power i n t h e i r hands. Being older, they are usually conservative, and thus vote against educational changes to which they have not been accustomed. This i s a r e a l problem i n V i c t o r i a , one that i s not so pronounced i n younger i n d u s t r i a l centres. V i c t o r i a has the i d e a l climate f o r the growing of bulbs and early flowers. Japan and Holland, however, compete i n t h i s market. The former can produce bulbs at a lower cost and, strange as i t may seem, Dutch bulbs enter the Ontario market with lower f r e i g h t costs than do those from Vancouver Island. Because of t h i s keen competition, Greater V i c t o r i a has suffered losses i n the r e t a i l bulb trade. V i c t o r i a ' s e a r l y spring and dry summer however, contribute to the produc-t i o n of a high quality, e a r l y - f o r c i n g bulb. This " c e r t i f i e d " bulb i s as good as the Dutch bulb and can be forced much 1 e a r l i e r . Bulb Growers i n the area are now concentrating on t h i s aspect of the business. Closely related to the bulb trade i s the flower trade, V i c t o r i a has f o r years been able to produce the e a r l i e s t outdoor flowers i n Canada. In the past there was no through a i r f r e i g h t to eastern Canada and thus l i t t l e advantage could 1 J . H. Crossley, H o r t i c u l t u r i s t Ornamental, Dominion Experimental Farm, Saanichton, B. C , 1958. be gained from t h i s s i t u a t i o n . In 1950 Trans-Canada Airways made such a service ava i l a b l e , and V i c t o r i a ' s spring flowers can now be sold i n eastern Canada within a few hours of being picked. This business demands a great deal of c a p i t a l ; at present, one grower who has doubled his acreage i n the past 1 s i x years produces 80% of the flowers. Employment, of course, varies with the seasons, over one hundred people being needed at cutting time, whereas only eight are employed throughout the winter. The future of the bulb and flower trade i s , however, uncertain. The farmer i s induced to s e l l land f o r two reasons. The land i s needed f o r r e s i d e n t i a l purposes and as i t i s valued so highly he can r e a l i z e a great p r o f i t from i t s sale. On the other hand, i f he continues farming, the land i s gradually being taxed as r e s i d e n t i a l and he cannot af f o r d the high cost. Gordon Head, once the proud farming d i s t r i c t of Greater V i c t o r i a , i s quickly becom-ing r e s i d e n t i a l . Farmers are moving north along the Saanich Peninsula towards Sidney (map 19, p. 64) but i f the Town Planning Commission's forecast proves true, t h i s area must 2 also become r e s i d e n t i a l by 1975. Thus V i c t o r i a ' s future trade i n flowers and bulbs seems l i m i t e d . The l i m i t a t i o n s of t h i s industry should be recognized by Greater V i c t o r i a ' s educationalists f o r schools can only be planned wisely when the strength and weaknesses of a region's economy i s under-stood. 1 Geoffrey Vantreight J r . , Gordon Head. 2 C a p i t a l Region Planning Board of B.C., l o c . c i t . . p. 17. V i c t o r i a ' s climate and geographic l o c a t i o n a t t r a c t thousands of t o u r i s t s to the c i t y each year. Miles of ocean beaches blend b e a u t i f u l l y with the mountainous background while flower gardens are resplendent throughout the warm, dry summer. In i t s English accents and manners, V i c t o r i a has fo r most t o u r i s t s the charm of a foreign c i t y . I t i s close to the United States border and thus r e a d i l y accessible to "Americans"; moreover the f e r r y t r i p through the Gulf Islands 1 i s d e l i g h t f u l . While t o u r i s t s spend ten m i l l i o n d o l l a r s annually i n 2 the Greater V i c t o r i a area the t o u r i s t trade has, however, never been f u l l y developed. I t i s true that small sections of the population have always been conscious of t h i s industry but l a r g e r sections have ignored i t or even frowned upon i t . Ten m i l l i o n d o l l a r s i s only 6% of V i c t o r i a n s ' t o t a l earnings. I t would seem that t h i s amount could be compounded many times. V i c t o r i a n s are beginning to appreciate the t o u r i s t . Recently some of the f i n e s t motels on the continent have been construc-ted here, and gradually more and more summer entertainment 3 i s being provided. In a few years one can hope that V i c t o r i a w i l l have developed t r u l y into a t o u r i s t c i t y . Tourists l i k e pensioners add greatly to a region's economy. A very large service industry must develop to cater to the v i s i t o r s and once again the people employed i n these expanded 1 Map 1, p. 1 2 Ibid Greater V i c t o r i a P u b l i c i t y Bureau Annual Report 1959. P. 2. 3 Picture page 65 . 67 service industries w i l l have children and schools must there-fore be provided. Many Victorians do not understand the basic economy of the region. I t i s s t i l l not unusual to be asked, "How can V i c t o r i a support so many new residents when industries are leaving rather than entering the c i t y ?" Location has been the main a t t r a c t i o n to the government; while l o c a t i o n and climate combined, have been the a t t r a c t i o n to the pen-sioners and t o u r i s t s . V i c t o r i a ' s economy w i l l i n d i r e c t l y strengthen with the growth of B r i t i s h Columbia and Canada, and d i r e c t l y strengthen with the increase of pensioners and t o u r i s t s . As yet, none of these factors has made i t s maximum contribution. V i c t o r i a n s , then, can look forward to a secure future and educationalists can plan schools with confidence. CHAPTER ¥11 POPULATION DISTRIBUTION AND SCHOOL LOCATIONS 1901 - 1914 Prosperity 1908 - 1913 The f i r s t seven years of t h i s century were not encouraging to Victorians, f o r the trend to the mainland was becoming obvious to a l l . By 1908, however, the c i t y was 1 beginning to enjoy the influences of "McBride Prosperity", A l l B r i t i s h Columbia shared a tremendous boom between 1908 and 1913 and V i c t o r i a commenced to enjoy a prosperity not known since the fur trade days. Dr. Ormsby i n her recent h i s t o r y of B r i t i s h Columbia notes evidences of the boom: A m i l l i o n f r u i t trees planted i n the Okanagan; the i n f l u x of s e t t l e r s from B r i t a i n , tempted by the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway's $40 fare; the moves of Vancouver business uptown to Granville Street, and the growth of Vancouver's population by 1000 persons per month. These conditions influenced Greater V i c t o r i a and Dr. Ormsby reports: "....the new Empress Hotel at V i c t o r i a was a t t r a c t i n g crowds of t o u r i s t s , many of whom intended to become s e t t l e r s .... The sounds of hammering could be heard everywhere ..." The years from 1909 to 1911 were exc i t i n g years f o r the province. The premier, S i r Richard McBride, was most enthusiastic about the province's future and gave p r o v i n c i a l 1 Margaret A. Ormsby, B r i t i s h Columbia: A History. The McMillan Co., of Canada Ltd., 1958, p. 353. 69 guarantees amounting to m i l l i o n s of d o l l a r s f o r railway construction- Much c r i t i c i s m was l e v e l l e d at him because of t h i s railway p o l i c y and suggestions of patronage were strongly hinted. The Premier ignored t h i s c r i t i c i s m , however, and f o r a few years i t seemed as i f his optimism were well founded: "American c a p i t a l and American s e t t l e r s were attracted to the province. Prominent eastern Canadian lumbermen made large investments. European c a p i t a l also poured i n ... Some $5,000,000 of German c a p i t a l were invested i n coal-lands and r e a l estate. Frenchmen invested some $1,500,000 i n r e a l estate and Belgians purchased f r u i t land i n the Okanagan at a cost of $950,000. A colony of Doukobors ... invested $1,500,000. 1 2 In 1911 danger signals could be seen i n the province's economy. A rash of speculative buying broke out: "Cautious business men had begun to warn the govern-ment that a r e a l estate boom was unhealthy and that attention should be paid to the f a c t that mining had f a l l e n •••• Agriculture had not kept pace with other developments ... and the new f r u i t industry was already experiencing marketing and other d i f f i c u l t i e s . " 3 In 1913 the r e a l estate and building boom collapsed. B r i t i s h c a p i t a l was withdrawn and soon Vancouver's streets were f i l l e d with unemployed. Economic problems, however, became subordinate when World War 1 broke out. B r i t i s h Columbia with a population of only 450,000 contributed 55,570 4 men to Canada's war e f f o r t . 1 Ibid page 359. 2 A l l these events had t h e i r influence on V i c t o r i a . These influences are treated on the following pages. 3 Ibid page 361. 4 Ibid page 3 7 1 . 70 Population and I t s D i s t r i b u t i o n 1901 - 1913 These economic and h i s t o r i c a l events influenced the size of Greater V i c t o r i a ' s population and the pattern of settlement followed by the new population. During these 1 years V i c t o r i a ' s population increased by 50%. Map 21, page 72, indicates the areas which were considered urban i n 2 1911. In the City the areas were South (A) and Central (B) James Bay, South F a i r f i e l d (C), East F a i r f i e l d (H), North Ward (D.), Spring Ridge (E), much of V i c t o r i a West (F), and a narrow section along Fort Street. Oak Bay's urban popu-l a t i o n stretched along Oak Bay Avenue to the water (G). Esquimalt's population was concentrated i n an area which has to-day been incorporated i n t o the Dockyard. Greater V i c t o r i a had by 1872 developed many roads (map 20, page 71), and by 1909 many more had been completed. Roads, themselves were of l i t t l e use to the residents unless some means of transportation was av a i l a b l e . V i c t o r i a City did have a very limited horse-drawn omnibus system i n 1885; but residents outside the c i t y 3 l i m i t s had to f i n d t h e i r own transportation. The lack of transportation p r a c t i c a l l y prevented any worker from l i v i n g outside the c i t y l i m i t s and so most people tended to l i v e close to t h e i r work. Greater V i c t o r i a ' s streetcar system, which had originated i n 1890 was extended by 1912 to the 1 Census 1901 - 11. 2 Urban - as used i n t h i s t h e s i s i s not an exact term. One house or three people per acre has; been the approximate base. 3 C i t y l i m i t s were much smaller than to-day. The boundaries were approximately H i l l s i d e Avenue, Fernwood Road, and the water to the west and. south. SOURCES-, i — • /. JTX££T ATAPS, /8S8-/68+ ~ I9€>9 *. WAT£R WORKS' MAP, iS7Z. MAP XXI S C H O O L D I S T R I C T N O . 61 72 LEGEND TO MAP XXI POPULATION DISTRIBUTION GREATER VICTORIA 1911 1. Defence Establishments 2. Parks 3. Golf Course A Southern James Bay B: Central James Bay C Southern F a i r f i e l d E North Ward E Spring Ridge F V i c t o r i a West G Oak Bay H Eastern F a i r f i e l d 0 URBAN — as used i n t h i s thesis i s not an exact term. One house or three people per acre has been the approx imate base. MAP u n S C H O O L D I S T R I C T NO. 61 STREET RAILWAY SYSTEM /. PARKER, DM z PUBL IC INFORM* TION OFFIC E B.CS.R: A .90 Y£ARS OF PUBLIC UTILITY SEXVICE. ff/iTRS Gorge, Burnside, Fernwood, H i l l s i d e , F a i r f i e l d and Upland D i s t r i c t s . Map 21, page 72, reveals that the population was mainly d i s t r i b u t e d i n a concentric pattern around the town. The extensions to the street railway system made i t easier f o r the people to l i v e farther from the c i t y centre. Enrollments and New Schools School enrollments between 1901 and 1911 increased to 4,016, an increase of 38$. Seven new schools were added to accommodate the new students. Five of the new schools were located i n heavily populated areas and two, the Willows and North Dairy Schools, were located beyond the areas of 2 concentration. 3 School Enrollment i n V i c t o r i a City 1901 - 1911 A comparative study of enrollments reveals the exact areas of increase. " S i r James Douglas" was the name of a new school catering to the newly-populated section of South 4 F a i r f i e l d (A). I t i s to be noted that F a i r f i e l d Road i t s e l f was a very old road, but that transportation to the F a i r f i e l d area was not provided u n t i l 1909. The opening of 1 Map 22, p. 73. 2 A l l schools mentioned i n t h i s chapter are located on map 24, P. 83. 3 V i c t o r i a City Schools and D i s t r i c t s are also located on map 23, p. 75. 4 A l l school d i s t r i c t s mentioned i n t h i s chapter are located on maps 22 or 23, p. 73 or p. 76. 75 the school i n 1909 indicated that population had preceded transportation. This school enrolled 351 students and map 23, p. 76 indicates that i t was located on the eastern fringe of the populated area. Most pupils l i v e d between the school and Beacon H i l l Park, but with transportation available, one might have reasonably expected that the population d e n s i t i e s would have spread rapidly to the east. The technique of lo c a t i n g schools on the outward fringes was not new to V i c t o r i a . Previously the same method had been applied to H i l l s i d e Ward and Spring Ridge Schools. The p o s i t i o n of the S i r James Douglas School i n r e l a t i o n to the adjacent roads was good. In 1909 vehicle t r a f f i c was r e l a t i v e l y l i g h t and therefore the safety of students was not a main f a c t o r . The school, however, was and s t i l l i s situated i n a good po s i t i o n with regards to 1 surrounding roads. Undoubtedly the builders of t h i s school did not v i s u a l i z e the s i t u a t i o n f i f t y years ahead but the f a c t that the school has remained safe c e r t a i n l y holds a challenge f o r future planners. I t i s located at a f i v e -cornered junction (sketch 1). Students thus have access to the school from many d i r e c t i o n s . While i t i s true that students must cross busy F a i r f i e l d and Moss Streets, i t i s also true that no student need cross these streets u n t i l he 1 Sketch map 1, page 75. S A A N I C ti MAP TXTTT V I C T O R I A C I T Y o > POPULATION DIS TRIBUTION AND EL EM EN TARy SCHOOL LOCATIONS 1311 • URBAN LEGEND TO MAP XX111 POPULATION; DISTRIBUTION AND ELEMENTARY SCHOOL LOCATIONS 19111 A South F a i r f i e l d B> Spring Ridge area C North-Central area D:< North-West area E Bank Street area 1. Kingston Street School 2. South Park School 3. S i r James Douglas School 4. Fisguard Street School 5. Central School 6. Bank Street School 7. V i c t o r i a West School 8. Rock Bay School 9. North Ward School 10. H i l l s i d e School 11. George Jay School 12. Spring Ridge School 77 SKETCH MAP 1 SANK STREET SCHOOL • Oa.h B&y A-*c S I R J A M E S D O U G L A S S C H O O L 78 reaches t h i s one junction. These corners, being so close to the school, can e a s i l y be patrolled by students and super-vised by teachers. Thus such a school, although situated on a busy i n t e r s e c t i o n , can be a safe school. Map 23, page 83, i l l u s t r a t e s how the population spread, ribbon-fashion, along the main thoroughfares of Fort Street and Oak Bay Avenue. Bank Street School, opened i n 1909, was c e n t r a l l y located to cater to the students l i v i n g i n t h i s d i s t r i c t . The settlement of t h i s area was unique. I t was the f i r s t d i s t r i c t to become urbanized which possessed few employment p o s s i b i l i t i e s of i t s own, and which was at the same time, located as f a r as two miles from the main centre of employment. Although i t i s true that the Jubilee Hospital provided employment f o r a few of these residents, most were attracted because t h i s d i s t r i c t was situated away from the centre of town and yet possessed good transportation f a c i l i t i e s to the town. Bank Street School, although c e n t r a l l y located to the school population was and s t i l l i s dangerously situated. I t s s i t e i s a block away from each of three busy streets — Richmond, Oak Bay Avenue and Foul Bay Road. Street cars were running on two of these streets before the school opened and continued to run u n t i l replaced by buses. Many of the students must cross one of these busy streets and none of the 1 Sketch map 1, p. 76. crossings can be seen from the school. School patrols at these corners are away from the school and teacher-super-v i s i o n i s d i f f i c u l t to administer. S u p e r f i c i a l l y , the school located as i t i s away from busy streets appears to have a safe pos i t i o n ; i n r e a l i t y just the opposite i s true. George Jay School was opened i n 1909, to provide more accommodation f o r the Spring Ridge area (B). I t has already been shown on page 46 how Spring Ridge School was b u i l t to the east of the populated area i n 1887. Map 23, page 83,; indicates that the eastward spread of population had con-tinued and by the early 1900*3 Spring Ridge was i n t h i s r e s i d e n t i a l area. The spread was aided by an extension of the street railway system through t h i s d i s t r i c t to Fernwood 1 Road i n 1903. Spring Ridge, however, was a small school with a l i m i t e d play area and could not possibly accommodate a l l the new students. To r e l i e v e the older school the much large r George Jay School was b u i l t a block away. Because the area was densely populated both schools remained open. George Jay enrolled four hundred and f i f t y - f o u r students while Spring Ridge enrolled two hundred and eighteen* In 1901 Spring Ridge had two hundred and twenty students but i n that year some students l i v i n g i n the western section of t h i s school d i s t r i c t attended North Ward School. George Jay School was well located to serve i t s d i s t r i c t . A heavy concentration of students l i v e d on a l l 1 Map 22, p. 73. 80 sides of the school. From the point of safety i t s position was quite good. Cook Street, only half a block away was the only busy s t r e e t that most students were forced to cross. New population had spread to the north-central (C) and north-west sections (D) of the c i t y (map 23, page 76) but school enrollment there appeared to drop. Four schools served t h i s area — V i c t o r i a West, North Ward, Rock Bay and H i l l s i d e — and i n t o t a l t h e i r enrollments dropped a f t e r 1901. There are perhaps four reasons f o r t h i s anomaly: 1. In 1901 many students l i v i n g i n Esquimalt had attended V i c t o r i a West School but i n 1911 they attended t h e i r own school. 2. Some students who attended the new George Jay School previously had enrolled at North Ward. 3. Fisguard Street School had been opened i n the centre of the c i t y and some students who had previously attended North Ward attended t h i s school. 4. This area had a high percentage of children of foreign parents who did not attend school or who l e f t school at a very early age. Undoubtedly, there was no r e a l l o s s i n enrollment from t h i s d i s t r i c t ; the apparent losses r e s u l t mainly from school boundary changes. The two Central Schools show a somewhat s i m i l i a r pattern. The t o t a l enrollments of these two schools remained 1 p r a c t i c a l l y the same between 1901 and 1910. In the 1 Table 13, p. 40. 81 i n t e r v a l , however, four new schools were opened which drew students from within the o r i g i n a l Central School area. S i r James Douglas, Bank, Fisguard and George Jay Schools a l l drew pupils from within the o r i g i n a l boundaries. Even a f t e r the narrowing of boundaries, the two Central Schools s t i l l showed a s l i g h t increase i n enrollment, i n d i c a t i n g a notable increase i n population within the two school d i s t r i c t s . Map 23, page 76, shows that p r a c t i c a l l y the whole of James Bay was heavily populated by 1911, A sharp increase of 130% i n enrollment at the Kingston Street School accom-panied t h i s concentration of population. South Park School which also served James Bay had l o s t students; but again the l o s s was the res u l t of a boundary change with the new S i r James Douglas School and not a true l o s s . Map 23, page 76, emphasizes the concentric pattern of population d i s t r i b u t i o n followed i n V i c t o r i a City, Only three small sections located i n the north-west, north-east and south-east were urbanized i n advance of the main wave of population. School Enrollments i n Saanich 1901 - 1911 Saanich b u i l t the North Dairy and Cadboro Bay Schools during t h i s ten year period. Neither was a large school and neither served a t r u l y congested population. The old Cadboro Bay School had been i n Oak Bay. The new Cadboro Bay School was located on Finnerty Road and served the populated area (G) » 82 1 which included Cadboro Bay and extended to Gordon Head. The North Dairy School b u i l t on North Quadra Street, served a large ribbon-like section (H) and enrolled f i f t y - n i n e stu-2 dents. The slow development i n these two regions,Gadboro Bay and North Quadra, indicated that suburban regions poss-essing roads but lacking transportation did not prove a t t r a c t -ive to most people. The enrollments of the older Saanich Schools reveal that three d i s t r i c t s had large percentage increases between 1901 - 1911. Between these same years Craigflower School, which served the e a r l y developed region north of the Gorge ( I ) , n a d an increase i n .nrolL-nt o f 300*. 3 Tnis increase indicated that the area had become even more densely pop-ulated. Tolmie School, also serving an older r e s i d e n t i a l area (J), increased by 100$, i n d i c a t i n g once again that inner Saanich was popular as a r e s i d e n t i a l area i n the early part of the century. Street car transportation was provided by 1906 to the areas served by both these schools. The service to the Craigflower area, although better than none at a l l , was cer-t a i n l y inadequate. The Gorge Line served the d i s t r i c t but residents had to walk over one mile from the terminus. A street car service had operated i n the Tolmie area i n 1892 1 I t s t i l l stands but i s converted to a residence. 2 I t s t i l l stands but i s converted to a convalescent home. 3 Table 13, p. 40. N HA II BOO* nut MAP "XTTV" SCHOOL DISTRICT NO. 61 EL E ME NTAft Y SCHOOLS AND DISTRICTS 1911 83 LEGEND TO MAP XXIV ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS AND DISTRICTS - 1911 Q} Cadboro Bay D i s t r i c t H North Dairy - Quadra Street D i s t r i c t I Gorge D i s t r i c t J Burnside - Tolmie D i s t r i c t K Gordon Head D i s t r i c t L Cedar H i l l D i s t r i c t M Strawberry Vale D i s t r i c t N Esquimalt D i s t r i c t 1. Kingston Street School 2. South Park School 3. S i r James Douglas School 4. Fisguard Street School 5. Central School 6. Bank Street School 7. Oak Bay Avenue School 8. Lampson Street School 9. V i c t o r i a West School 10. Rock Bay School 11. North Ward School 12. H i l l s i d e School 13. George Jay School 14. Spring Ridge School 15. Willows School 16. Craigflower School 17. Tolmie School 18. Strawberry Vale 19. North Dairy School 20. Cedar H i l l School 21. Cadboro Bay School 22. Gordon Head School but was subsequently discontinued f o r lack of patronage. This l i n e , however, was re-established again i n 1906 and the 1 track was extended to Cloverdale Avenue, Gordon Head was the t h i r d school to show a 100% increase but numerically t h i s added only twenty-four students, Gordon Head remained a r u r a l farming area (K) People were not attracted to Cedar H i l l (L) area and the school's enrollment proved s t a t i c . Strawberry Vale was another early populated r u r a l area (M) which showed no increase. These l a t t e r three d i s t r i c t s were between three and four miles from the c i t y centre and a l l lacked trans-portation to town. These two handicaps retarded the develop-ment of the areas f o r some time. Saanich had no region that could be c l a s s i f i e d as urban, but was developing very r a p i d l y along i t s southern border and i n a concentrated s t r i p north along Quadra Street, School Enrollments i n Oak Bay 1901 - 1911 Oak Bay possessed an urban population along Oak Bay Avenue as f a r as the water. A new school was b u i l t i n 1909 2 on t h i s Avenue. The older Oak Bay School had been located f a r to the west of the centre of population but t h i s new 3 school centered on the population. In r e a l i t y the choice of t h i s central l o c a t i o n showed lack of planning. In V i c t o r i a , 1 Map 22, p. 73. 2 The present s i t e of the Municipal Hall.. 3 Map 18, p. 54. educationalists appeared to fore-see the future spread of population and b u i l t schools on fringe areas; but the Oak Bay School Board d i d not fore-see that a central school would soon be inadequate. Oak Bay settlement extended over a mile to the north and a mile to the south of the Avenue and i t should have been apparent that each of these expanding sec-tions would soon require a school. The new school had been b u i l t on a very small and rocky s i t e , allowing l i t t l e poss-i b i l i t y f o r enlargement; i t could therefore never have been 1 expanded to e n r o l l students from such a large area. School Enrollment i n Esquimalt 1901 - 1911 Esquimalt's population, l i v i n g i n what i s now the Dockyard, was urban, (N). The reason f o r t h i s area's poss-essing such a concentration of population has already been explained. (p. 27). During these years the Dockyard was transferred to the Federal Government and an increase of employment resulted, though not a l l of t h i s increase was a r e s u l t of new population. School enrollments increased from 65 i n 1901 to 334 i n 1911. Before 1903, students residing i n eastern Esquimalt had attended V i c t o r i a West School; but when Lampson Street School was opened i n Esquimalt i n 1903, Esquimalt students attended the school i n t h e i r own municipal-i t y . 1 The Oak Bay School served as an elementary school f o r four years only; a f t e r which i t became a high school. Lampson Street School was i n an excellent position to serve the Municipality, situated on the corner of Old Esquimalt Road — a main east west thoroughfare and Lampson Street a north, south route. This school, with added classrooms, adequately served Esquimalt f o r approximately f i f t y years. Map 25, page 87, brings out ce r t a i n relationships which are d i f f i c u l t to describe. I t reveals c l e a r l y that the le s s densely populated areas, which had schools with low enrollments, were located on the outer fringe of D i s t r i c t 61. The Willows was the only exception to t h i s pattern. This school was d i f f e r e n t from the other low enrollment schools i n that i t was b u i l t on the fringe of urbanized area, while the others were located f a r i n advance of the urban de n s i t i e s I f the increase i n urbanization experienced previous to 1911 were to continue, Willows School a f t e r that date would be i n a heavily populated l o c a t i o n . This would not have been so f o r the schools i n any of the other f i v e "low enrollment, non-urbanize d d i s t r i c t s " since these l a t t e r d i s t r i c t s were fa r from the urbanized section and the population densities would not reach them f o r many years. There are other relationships to be seen from map 25, page 87. Most areas within a mile and one-half of the c i t y centre were urbanized and had schools with large enrollments. 1 Rock Bay and Fisguard Schools did not have large enrollments, but both of these schools served only a small section of a much larger d i s t r i c t . They therefore could not be c l a s s i f i e d as d i s t r i c t schools. r /J 1 tSqutHALT^ Htittouir zo I I M I L T | I 15 MAP X X 2 " S C H O O L D I S T R I C T NO. 61 <7 •51 ) / I J lABIJMwMC / rt-1 / < ELEMENTARY SCHOOL fNROLLMENTS POPULATION DIS TRIBUTION 1911 HIGH ENROLLMENT URBAN POPULATION HIGH ENROLLMENT NON URBAN P O P U L A T I O N LO\J | ENROLLMENT NON-URBAN POPULATION NO SCHOOL URBAN \POP U L A TION LEGEND TO MAP XXV ELEMENTARY SCHOOL ENROLLMENTS AND POPULATION DISTRIBUTION 1911 0 Bank Street School 1. Kingston Street School 2. South Park School 3. V i c t o r i a West School 4. S i r James Douglas School 5. Central School 6,, Rock Bay School! 7. Spring Ridge School Fisguard School 9o. George Jay School 10. H i l l s i d e School 11* North Ward School 12. Craigflower School 13. Strawberry Vale School 14. Tolmie School 15. North Dairy School 16. Cedar H i l l School 17. Gordon Head School 18. Cadboro Bay School 19. Oak Bay Avenue School 20. Larapson Street School 21. Willows School $8 The east F a i r f i e l d d i s t r i c t was the only urbanized area without a school located within one-half mile of i t s centre. Here then, was a s i t u a t i o n which required the planning of a new school. Burnside and Gorge d i s t r i c t s were the only large areas with non-urban populations and high enrollment schools. The high enrollments indicated that many people l i v e d i n these areas but as the d i s t r i c t s were c l a s s i f i e d as non-urban t h i s population must have been wide-spread. Students, there-fore, must have walked long distances to school. These were popular areas with much room f o r future home development. Here, too, was a s i t u a t i o n which c l e a r l y demanded the planning of new schools. Hew Schools 1911 - 1913 As already indicated "McBride 1s Prosperity" extended to the year 1913. The influence of t h i s prosperity on Greater V i c t o r i a School construction was f a n t a s t i c . In the two years between 1911 and 1913> elementary school e n r o l l -ments jumped by approximately 3000 students i . e . s l i g h t l y over 50%. In these two years, seven new schools were opened i n V i c t o r i a Gity, two i n Oak Bay and one i n Saanich. In 1912, ninety students received t h e i r schooling i n tents. New schools i n V i c t o r i a City included Burnside, Fernwood, Margaret Jenkins, Oaklands, Pembroke Street, 1 Willows had previously been only one room i n an old home. 89 Protestant Orphanage, (Cook Street), and Quadra Street. The geographical d i s t r i b u t i o n pattern of t h e i r locations w i l l be discussed i n the following paragraphs. School Enrollments in* V i c t o r i a City 1911 - 1913 The north-western section (A) of V i c t o r i a City-exclusive of V i c t o r i a West (B), i n 1913 was served by five; schools: Burnside, H i l l s i d e , North Ward, Rock Bay and Fisguard. Burnside was a new school situated to e n r o l l 2 students from the north-west extremity of the area. This e a r l i e r developed area proved to be one of the regions with the greatest increase i n school enrollments between 1911 and 1913. Margaret Jenkins School opened with only s i x t y - s i x students. I t mainly served the small area of concentrated population on the border of Gonzales Bay (C). Undoubtedly pupils came also from that section to the north of the school bounded by Richmond Road, Oak Bay boundary and Oak Bay Avenue (D) f o r t h i s section while not c l a s s i f i e d as urban (map 23, page 76) possesses scattered homes which reveal architecture contemporary to that date..,The p o s i t i o n of the Margaret Jenkins School, located along a main east-west and north-south thoroughfare with p r a c t i c a l l y a l l busy crossings i n close proximity to the school, was excellent. 1 This school was located i n the centre of town but the school d i s t r i c t ' s northern border extended into the above area. Perhaps one-third of the students l i v e d i n t h i s section. Zl Map 26, page 90. S A A N i C H MAP X T V T 90 LEGEND." TO MAP XXVI Elementary Schools and D i s t r i c t s — 1913 A North-Western D i s t r i c t B3 V i c t o r i a West D i s t r i c t G Eastern F a i r f i e l d - Gonzales Bay D i s t r i c t D North-Eastern F a i r f i e l d D i s t r i c t E North-Eastern V i c t o r i a D i s t r i c t F Quadra D i s t r i c t G; Spring Ridge Fernwood Road D i s t r i c t 1. Kingston Street School 2. South Park School 3* S i r James Douglas School 4. Margaret Jenkins School 5. Fisguard Street School 6. Central School 7. Bank Street School 8. Fernwood Road School 9. Spring Ridge School 10. Pembroke Street School 11. George Jay School 12. King's Road School 13. North Ward School 14. Rock Bay School 15. V i c t o r i a West School 16. Burnside School 18. Cook Street School 17. Quadra Street School 19. Oaklands School 91 The l o c a t i o n of t h i s school reveals again the appar-ent wisdom of the early school board f o r i t i s another V i c t o r -i a school b u i l t i n advance of the urban d e n s i t i e s . The street car system had served t h i s area since 1909 and the f a c t that a school was not required 'until 1914 indicates that t h i s was another outlying area which was populated a f t e r transportation f a c i l i t i e s were provided. The sequence of development could be expected since the area i s over two miles from the c i t y centre and walking to town on streets of mud and without sidewalks would prove undesirable. Oaklands and Quadra Schools were two more V i c t o r i a Schools opened i n 1913 and b u i l t i n advance of the urban population. Students attending Oaklands School came from a wide section of north-east V i c t o r i a (E) and yet very few had to t r a v e l much over one-half mile to school. These two areas became r e s i d e n t i a l a f t e r being linked to transportation. The H i l l s i d e l i n e served Quadra (F) and the western sections of Oaklands; while the Mount Tolmie l i n e served the south-eastern section of Oaklands. A newspaper of 1912 has the following to say on the Mount Tolmie l i n e , "As a r e s u l t of t h i s l i n e , many people began to b u i l d homes along t h i s route." Fernwood School was opened at the corner of Fernwood 1 Road and Gladstone Avenue i n 1913- This school was b u i l t 2 to r e l i e v e further the crowded Spring Ridge School. 1 On the present high school grounds. 2 I t has already been related how Spring Ridge was a small school on a very l i m i t e d s i t e . George Jay School had been b u i l t to replace Spring Ridge but the population was too great and Spring Ridge remained open. 92 Although the new school was only two blocks to the east of the l a t t e r school, i t was necessary i n order to e n r o l l those students l i v i n g i n the rapidly developing area east of Fern-1 wood Road (G). Areas closer to town were b u i l t up and East Fernwood formed one of the new r e s i d e n t i a l sections. Street car f a c i l i t i e s as f a r as Fernwood Road had been provided f o r the d i s t r i c t i n 1903 and thus when the pressure f o r residen-t i a l t e r r i t o r y became great enough, t h i s section gained i n popularity. Margaret Jenkins, Fernwood, Oakland and Quadra Schools 1 locations on the periphery of the populated areas indicated the concentric pattern of population d i s t r i b u t i o n . Areas closer to town were b u i l t up and most people did not desire to l i v e i n outer fringe areas but located themselves as close to the town as i t was possible. School Enrollments i n Oak Bay 1911 - 1913 Oak Bay by 1913 had r e a l i z e d that a central school was not adequate and, as stated, on page 87, b u i l t two elementary schools. Monterey served south Oak Bay (H) and Willows served the north ( I ) . For f o r t y years these two schools proved most adequate for the needs of the municipality. Both North and South Oak Bay awaited transportation before developing as r e s i d e n t i a l sections. South Oak Bay had street car transportation as f a r as Windsor Road a f t e r 1891, but on 1 After a few years t h i s school was moved to the 1200 block Denman Street where i t helped reduce the pressure on Oaklands, Bank, and Spring Ridge Schools. Later when Oaklands had an addition b u i l t the school was again moved to the present arena s i t e . There the school reduced pressure on George Jay and North Ward. LEGEND TO MAP XXV/ll ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS AND DISTRICTS -- 1913 • H South Oak Bay D i s t r i c t I North Oak Bay D i s t r i c t J McKenzie Avenue School D i s t r i c t K Cedar H i l l D i s t r i c t L North Dairy D i s t r i c t M Strawberry Vale D i s t r i c t N Douglas Street - Maplewood D i s t r i c t 0 Panhandle 1. Monterey School 2. Willows School 3. Cadboro Bay School 4. Gordon Head School 5. Cedar H i l l School 6. North Dairy School 7. Tolmie School B. McKenzie Avenue School 9. Strawberry Vale School 10,. Craigflower School 11. Lampson Street School 94 1 the whole the area was very poorly serviced. The F a i r f i e l d street car l i n e on the west ran only to the border of Oak Bay, People i n a large section of south Oak Bay were therefore located over a mile from transportation. Only that section of south Oak Bay i n the proximity of street car tracks devel-oped home-sites. Of the 110 homes b u i l t before 1910, ninety 2 were b u i l t within two blocks of the street car l i n e s . The Uplands Line, made operative i n 1912, gave excellent service to the Willows and provided transportation f o r the area between Cadboro Bay Road and the water, no section of 3 which was over one-quarter mile from the tracks. The Willows School was located adjacent to the 4 Uplands Line, I t i s true that by 1912 few homes were located as f a r west or as f a r north as the school. However, although i t was not well suited to serve the population of 1912, i t did centre the d i s t r i c t and c e r t a i n l y was well located for future needs. The Monterey School was located some f i v e blocks south and west of the Oak Bay Line, while most of the students l i v e d along the Line to the north and west, (map 18, page 52 ) . Like the Willows School, Monterey was not well situated to serve the population as di s t r i b u t e d i n 1912 but the school did centre the d i s t r i c t of South Oak Bay and was, therefore, 1 Map 22, p. 73. 2 Building Permits, Municipal H a l l , Oak Bay, 3 Map 22, p. 73. 4 Map 27, P. 93. well located f o r future needs. So well were these two schools located that they served as the only two elementary schools i n Oak Bay f o r some f o r t y years. School Enrollments i n Saanich 1911 - 1913 Saanich opened McKenzie Avenue School i n 1912. This school, situated nearly two miles from the southern border of that municipality, enrolled 108 students. In addition to the numbers enrolled at the McKenzie Avenue School, there were increased enrollments at each of three other outlying Saanich Schools — Cedar H i l l , North Dairy and Strawberry 2 Vale — between 1911 and 1913. The numerical increase i n enrollment i n each of the l a t t e r three schools was not great but percentage-wise the increase was s i g n i f i c a n t . I t was evident that even without transportation, people were w i l l i n g to move to these outlying areas. Three reasons are suggested f o r t h i s trend: 1. With the growth of Greater V i c t o r i a ' s population, more farm produce was needed, and many of the new r u r a l r e s i -dents were farmers or farm labourers. 2. Saanich was incorporated as a municipality; new roads were being b u i l t and old ones paved. Work was therefore 1 McKenzie Avenue School D i s t r i c t i s marked (J) on map 27, page 93. This d i s t r i c t i s also referred to as.Carey Road - Glanford area, 2 The Cedar H i l l , North Dairy and Strawberry Vale School d i s t r i c t s are marked (K),.(L}, (M), respectively on map 27, p. 93. 96 available i n Saanich i t s e l f , and residents were not forced to t r a v e l to V i c t o r i a f o r employment. 3. Roads were then i n good condition f o r b i c y c l e - r i d i n g and many people went to work on t h e i r b i c y c l e s . Gordon Head and Cadboro Bay, however, were s t i l l considered remote areas. Saanich schools i n 1913 were not well located to serve the growing municipality, e s p e c i a l l y i n the inner wards. As has been indicated, the population was mainly concentrated along the southern border. The municipality had been inc o r -porated i n 1906 with i t s south-western boundary running close to Craigflower School. The nearest school to that was the Tolmie School, over two miles away. Students l i v i n g between the schools therefore had over a mile to t r a v e l . In 1913 Tolmie School had a high enrollment and was situated i n an increasingly populated d i s t r i c t . There were no schools i n the d i s t r i c t bounded by Douglas Street, Maplewood and the V i c t o r i a boundary (N). Students l i v i n g there had to t r a v e l to Tolmie School or North Dairy School, some going a distance 1 of two miles. Those l i v i n g north of the Jubilee Hospital 2 (0) t r a v e l l e d over two miles to the Cedar H i l l School. Saanich by 1913 was the only Greater V i c t o r i a municipality with schools so poorly located. 1 Concession was given by V i c t o r i a f o r a few students to attend Quadra Street School i n the c i t y , 2 This section was c a l l e d the "Panhandle". School Enrollments i n Esquimalt 1911 - 1913 97 In the period .1911 - 1913 Lampson Street School i n Esquimalt had an increased enrollment of over one hundred students but as t h i s was the only school i t was d i f f i c u l t to t e l l i n which d i s t r i c t s the new students l i v e d . Map 31, page 103, reveals that i n 1921 many people were l i v i n g i n the central and eastern sections of the municipality as well as 1 i n the previously established area near the Dockyard. Ey 1913 people were undoubtedly moving into the central and eastern sections. Summary Map 28, page 99, i s intended to complement the f o r e -going paragraphs. While the writing i s purposely directed to changes i n i n d i v i d u a l d i s t r i c t s , the map i s planned to show not only the i n d i v i d u a l changes but also general trends. James Bay stands out as the only older d i s t r i c t to have a s t a t i c enrollment. From t h i s , one might conclude that t h i s d i s t r i c t had l o s t i t s appeal and perhaps would never again a f t e r 1913 show a great gain i n population. The only other two d i s t r i c t s with s t a t i c enrollments were Gordon Head and Cadboro Bay. These two areas were considered too remote by most c i t i z e n s and had to await much better transportation f a c i l i t i e s before being developed. The growth of McKenzie Avenue D i s t r i c t i s probably the most s t a r t l i n g f a c t shown 1 Map 31, p. 104. 98 on the map. No school had existed there i n 1911 but two 1 years l a t e r the school enrolled 108 students. While i t i s d i f f i c u l t to explain the f a c t o r s which contributed to t h i s sudden popularity, perhaps three reasons can be suggested: 1. Carey and Glanford Roads provided t h i s d i s t r i c t with well established roads. 2. Lots i n t h i s d i s t r i c t were one-half acre, or greater, and many people maintained small farms to supplement t h e i r earnings. 3. Lots i n t h i s area were probably cheaper than they were i n the established small-holding areas such as Cedar H i l l . The l a t t e r d i s t r i c t had been subdivided into small farms many years before and undoubtedly there had been sales of property. The Carey Road area on the other hand, was sub-divided f o r the f i r s t time. As has already been mentioned the pattern of popula-t i o n development was a concentric one, with the town forming the centre of the c i r c l e s . Gradually the r a d i i of the c i r c l e s were increasing as more and more people moved int o the area. By 1913, however, i t was clear that exceptions to the general pattern had occurred. While most people preferred the c i t y , 1 While i t may be true that some of these students had been transferred from Tolmie i t c e r t a i n l y could not have been the majority. McKenzie Avenue School opened i n 1912 with 69 students and the next year had 39 more. Certainly no boundary changes would have been made within the year and so the 39 was a true increase. Tolmie School jumped i n enrollment by 140 students i n the two years. I t does not appear therefore that McKenzie School enrolled.many former Tolmie School students. LEGEND TO MAP XXWlll ENROLLMENT CHANGES BY DISTRICTS 1911 - 1913 1. Tolmie School 2. Quadra Street School 3. Oaklands School 4. Willows School 5. Margaret Jenkins School 6. Monterey School 7. McKenzie' Avenue School 8. Fernwood Road School increasingly others were showing a preference f o r the other three m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . The improvement i n transportation allowed t h i s preference to become a r e a l i t y . Each of the four areas had i t s peculiar advantages to o f f e r to the homeowner. V i c t o r i a was a well organized region which offered residents a v a r i e t y of homesites complete with roads, street l i g h t s , sewers and surface drains. One great advantage lay i n the fact that p r a c t i c a l l y a l l sections were within 1| miles of the c i t y centre. Esquimalt offered employment within i t s boundaries. Saanich appealed to people with very low incomes. This municipality offered l o t s with very few improvements. Sidewalks and surface drains d i d not e x i s t . Street l i g h t i n g was very poor and sewage was by septic tank. Open ditches were common throughout the whole populated area, As a consequence of t h i s lack of improve-ments low taxes were the main appeal of Saanich i n 1913. Oak Bay was the picturesque municipality with p r a c t i c a l l y a l l parts within a mile of fine ocean beaches. I t developed i n a very orderly fashion, introducing a l l physical improve-ments whenever a street was b u i l t . Oak Bay thus appealed to people with higher incomes. CHAPTER m i l POPULATION DISTRIBUTION AND SCHOOL LOCATIONS 19H - 1921 Two events which set back the economy of the whole province occurred i n 1914. McBride fs "Prosperity" ended and World War 1 commenced. Ry 1921, however, the province was very slowly emerging from these catastrophies and the pop-u l a t i o n of Greater V i c t o r i a reached 56,875• V i c t o r i a C i t y possessed 38,727 residents, but the rate of increase which had been 50$ between 1901 and 1911 declined to 21$ between 1 1911 and 1921. P r i o r to 1914, Greater V i c t o r i a had developed a reasonably good transportation system but during the war i t proved inadequate f o r the tremendous increase i n population r e s u l t i n g from the troops based there and the ship-yard 2 workers employed i n the d i s t r i c t . As a consequence jitn e y s and buses were introduced to complement the street car system. These two means of conveyance not only remained but increased i n number when the war was over. Work for the returned s o l d i e r s was very scarce and many used t h e i r g r a t u i t i e s to buy j i t n e y s . At times, twenty j i t n e y s would be running along 3 Douglas Street. Map 29, page 102, reveals that while 1 Map 29, p. 102. 2 Jitney, an automobile used to transport people f o r a f a r e , 3 Seedhouse, E,, former Jitney Driver. TABLE 8 GREATER VICTORIA - TOTAL POPULATION YEAR- GREATER. VICTORIA SAANICH OAK BAY ESQUIMALT VICTORIA 1921 56,875 33,729 10,534 4,159 3,458 1931 61,713 39,082 12,968 5,892 3,774 1941 73,213 44,082 18,173 9,240 3,737 1951 99,020 51,082 28,481 11,960 10,153 1956 116,300 54,000 38,358 13,500 11,000 Source: Census $RAPH 7 SCHOOL ENROLLMENTS - GREATER VICTORIA  1611 - 1956 7000 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 / / —• - — " , " -~ f » o 1 3 1 z 1 b 1 5 i s — 6 " 71 V - V i c t o r i a ; S - Saanich; 0 - Oak Bay; E - Esquimal S A A N I C ti MA P X X X 103 LEGEND TO MAP XXX POPULATION DISTRIBUTION AND ELEMENTARY SCHOOL LOCATIONS- 1921 A North-Eastern D i s t r i c t B North-Western D i s t r i c t C; South F a i r f i e l d D i s t r i c t D Central F a i r f i e l d D i s t r i c t a Rocky b Swampy 1. Kingston Street School 2. South Park School 3. Beacon H i l l School 4« S i r James Douglas School 5. Margaret Jenkins School 6. Central School 7. Bank Street School 8. V i c t o r i a West School 9. Rock Bay School 10. North Ward School 11. King's Road School 12. Quadra Primary School 13 . George Jay School 14. Spring Ridge School 15. Fernwood Road School 16. Burnside School 18. Gook Street School 17. Quadra Street School 19. Oaklands School LEGEND TO MAP XXXI SCHOOL LOCATIONS AND POPULATION DISTRIBUTION GREATER VICTORIA 1921 1. Lampson Street School 2. Craigflower School 3. T i l l i c u m School 4. -Tolmie School 5. Cloverdale School 6 . Model School 7. Willows School £. Monterey School 9. Gordon Head School 10. Cedar H i l l School 11. North Dairy School 12. McKenzie Street School 13. Strawberry Vale School 105 Greater V i c t o r i a i n 1921 had a comprehensive transportation system, south-eastern Oak Bay, the northern Gorge and north-1 2 central Saanich lacked good transportation f a c i l i t i e s . Map 30, p. 103, shows that i n 1921 only three sec-tions of V i c t o r i a C i t y were not c l a s s i f i e d as urban. Two of these d i s t r i c t s , the north-eastern (a) and north-western (D), were located on the periphery of the populated area. The obvious suggestion i s that as these two regions lay beyond the concentric pattern of the population density (map 30, p. 103) the pressure f o r l o t s was therefore not great enough by 1921 to force people to l i v e so f a r from the c i t y centre. This suggestion breaks down however, since, as map 3 1 , P« 104, indic a t e s people were concentrated much farther from the town i n eastern Oak Bay. Undoubtedly there i s some v a l i d i t y i n the above theory but there must have been other reasons besides distance which dissuaded the people from l i v i n g i n north-eastern and north-western V i c t o r i a . The f i r s t section had very few good l o t s to o f f e r — many to the west (a) were rocky and many to the east (b) were swampy. The approach to the north-western section was probably i t s worst feature. To reach t h i s area a prospective home-owner had to t r a v e l through the much older d i s t r i c t s around Government and 1 Jitneys had run i n Oak Bay but apparently the residents did not appreciate them f o r they were soon d i s -continued. H. Court, former Jitney Driver. 2 Gorge Road had a large rock obstruction and cars could not pass i t . E. Burgess, former Jitney Driver. 106 Douglas Street with t h e i r shabby houses of e a r l i e r days. Central F a i r f i e l d (D) was the t h i r d d i s t r i c t i n the c i t y s t i l l not urbanized. This d i s t r i c t consists of two parts and each part had a d i s t i n c t reason f o r i t s lack of popula-t i o n . In the north-western section wealthy Victorians bought exclusive estates, building t h e i r homes on l o t s of f i v e and s i x acres each. The r e s u l t of course was a sparse population. The south-eastern section was very swampy and few people cared to l i v e there. Of the other three m u n i c i p a l i t i e s two had urban 1 sections. Most of Central Oak Bay was urban and Esquimalt 2 had three d i s t i n c t such d i s t r i c t s . Saanich, however, even with 10,534 people, had no area with a population s u f f i c i e n t l y concentrated to be so c l a s s i f i e d . School Enrollments 1913 - 1921 A study of school enrollment figures reveals a strong c o r r e l a t i o n between t o t a l population and school population increases; both increased between 1913 and 1921 though at a slower rate than between 1901 and 1911. V i c t o r i a c i t y ' s school enrollment grew by approximately 500 between 1913 and 1921, but t h i s was only an 11% growth over an eight year period. Saanich increased by approximately 70%; Oak Bay, by 1 Map 31, P. 104. 2 The reasons f o r t h i s popularity of Oak Bay and Esquimalt was discussed on page 100. S A A N I C H n A p u n I C T O R I A C I T Y SCHOOL ENROLLMENT CHANCE 5 H l i - ^ i LARGE INCKEA5E LIT TLB CHANCE LARGE DECREA5E I I LEGEND TO MP XXX11 SCHOOL ENROLLMENT CHANGES 1913 - 1921 A James Bay D i s t r i c t B North Ward D i s t r i c t G; North-East D i s t r i c t D Central D i s t r i c t E Eastern F a i r f i e l d D i s t r i c t F C i t y Centre G V i c t o r i a West H Bank Street D i s t r i c t I Spring Ridge - George Jay D i s t r i c t J South-Central D i s t r i c t a Quadra Street School D i s t r i c t b Rock Bay School D i s t r i c t 108 1 approximately 60%; and Esquimalt, by 25%. It i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that although V i c t o r i a possessed twice as many pupils as the other three municipal-i t i e s combined, i t showed much the lowest rate of increase. As f a r back, then, as 1921, one might have v i s u a l i z e d Saanich as becoming the heaviest populated section of D i s t r i c t #61, The enrollments of Oak Bay Schools were also increasing r a p i d l y but the municipality, being smaller i n area than Saanich, had l i m i t e d space available f o r new settlement. School Enrollment i n V i c t o r i a C i t y 1913 - 1921 In 1914 Beacon H i l l School opened on Douglas Street 2. to serve the well established d i s t r i c t of James Bay (A). This area, approximately one mile square, already had two schools: Kingston Street and South Park, After the new school was b u i l t i n 1914, the old schools remained open but the combined enrollments of the two l a t t e r schools dropped by 140 students. The new Beacon H i l l School enrolled 170 students. The t o t a l enrollments therefore of James Bay Schools showed l i t t l e change i n the ten years previous to 1921. James Bay was therefore not one of the growth areas of 1913 - 1921. 1 A l l enrollment figures given i n t h i s chapter are recorded on table 14, P. 223 2 This school d i s t r i c t and a l l school d i s t r i c t s l i s t e d subsequently i n t h i s chapter are located on map 32, p. 107, or map 33, p. 112. 109 The Worth Ward area (B) was at t h i s time served by North Ward, Quadra, Quadra Primary, Burnside and Rock Bay Schools. Quadra Primary was a new school opened i n t h i s area i n 1921. The t o t a l enrollment of these schools had soared a f t e r 1913, by 376 students; however the increase was not evenly d i s t r i b u t e d through t h i s d i s t r i c t . Quadra Street School served the previously undeveloped northern section (a) and i t s enrollment increased between 1913 and 1921 by 212 students. This expansion was a l o g i c a l progression of the concentric pattern of population d i s t r i b u t i o n . The Quadra Street School d i s t r i c t was located just beyond the urbanized section of 1911. By 1921 the pressure f o r l o t s was s u f f i c i e n t to force people into t h i s section. The d i s t r i c t offered some f i n e view l o t s and street car and j i t n e y transportation was provided. Rock Bay School serving the older, already heavily-1 populated section, (b) nearly doubled i t s enrollment — why, i t i s d i f f i c u l t to say. The d i s t r i c t had been s e t t l e d f o r over t h i r t y years and c e r t a i n l y few new homes were b u i l t . Perhaps by 1921 a greater insistence on school attendance was demanded or perhaps a boundary change with the Burnside School occurred. This l a t t e r school was located i n an area where homes were c e r t a i n l y increasing and perhaps the Burnside School was at capacity and students were transferred to the older school. No substantiation f o r t h i s theory was found i n School Board minutes but l a t e r enrollments of the Burnside School 1 Table 14, p.223. 110 (table 14, page 213) indicate that the 1921 enrollment was near the maximum. Oaklands School, which served the large area of north-east V i c t o r i a (C);, increased i n enrollment by approximately 80$. This whole north-eastern section was developing but not i n a concentrated pattern. P r a c t i c a l l y a l l streets i n the area had new homes but few streets were completely b u i l t up, because much space was available and l o t s were chosen with d i s c r e t i o n . Rocky or low-lying l o t s were passed over. The central portion of t h i s d i s t r i c t — most of which l i e s within one and a h a l f miles of town — had very poor transportation f a c i l i t i e s p r i o r to 1918 and as a consequence t h i s section lagged i n home construction. After the war, however, a good j i t n e y service was inaugurated (map 22, page 73) and the area soon became one of the most popular. For the f i r s t time a decline i s noted i n the older sections of the c i t y . The Fisguard School which served the c i t y centre (F) had been closed and both Central Schools had 1 lower enrollments. Some of the houses between the Central Schools and the C i t y Centre were over s i x t y years of age and were f o r the f i r s t time being vacated. People were moving to more modern subdivisions and commercial structures were b u i l t on the former home-sites. Although V i c t o r i a ' s t o t a l enrollments had increased on the average only by 11$ between 1913 and 1921, that average 1 Central School D i s t r i c t i s marked (D) on map 32, p. 107. I l l i s misleading. The trend was away from the c i t y centre to the outer d i s t r i c t s of the c i t y . Eastern F a i r f i e l d (E), served by the Margaret Jenkins School, was the fastest-growing section of the c i t y . Quadra Street area (a) served by the Quadra Street School, was close behind. As previously men-tioned (page 109), t h i s l a t t e r section possessed some very f i n e home-sites but transportation to the northern part had been lacking. By 1921, however, ji t n e y s ran to t h i s section and people quickly took advantage of the good s i t e s . The growth of these outer d i s t r i c t s , Quadra Street and East F a i r f i e l d , i l l u s t r a t e d once again the concentric growth patt-ern of population d i s t r i b u t i o n . A new f a c t o r , however, was added: the older sections nearer the town centre were l o s i n g t h e i r popularity. School Enrollments i n Oak Bay 1913 - 1921 In Oak Bay, the complete central section was urbanized by 1921. School enrollments, however, reveal a new trend i n Oak Bay's school-population d i s t r i b u t i o n . The population had been mainly concentrated i n south Oak Bay (F) where, i n 1913, 70$ of the students attended Monterey School i n compar-ison with 30$ at Willows. In 1921, although Monterey s t i l l had the la r g e r number, i t enrolled only 55$ of the students. The trend was to an increased enrollment but with the greater increase showing i n north Oak Bay (G). Building permits show that between 1910 - 1920 fewer than one-third of the new homes were constructed i n the north and yet school enrollments LEGEND TO MAP XXX111 ENROLLMENT CHANGES 1913 - 1921 F South Oak Bay D i s t r i c t G North Oak Bay D i s t r i c t H South-Western Saanich I Inner-Central Saanich J Panhandle K North-Western Saanich L Cadboro Bay^District M Cedar H i l l D i s t r i c t d T i l l i c u m School D i s t r i c t 113 reveal the greater increases i n the north. North Oak Bay-fa m i l i e s must, therefore, have had a higher r a t i o of school age children. School Enrollments i n Esquimalt 1913 - 1921 Esquimalt had three small urbanized sections i n 1921, and school enrollments increased greatly, but as there was only one school i t i s impossible to trace the exact areas of increase. School Enrollments i n Saanich 1913 - 1921 Saanich as yet had no area c l a s s i f i e d as urban, but school enrollments nearly doubled: 975 i n 1913 to 1620 i n 1921. This was the greatest t o t a l increase of any section of Greater V i c t o r i a . As noted i n Chapter V l l Saanich did not have adequate schools to accommodate the students i n the more developed, inner wards. By 1921, however, t h i s s i t u a t i o n had to a great extent been corrected. Three new schools — T i l l i c u m , Cloverdale and the Model School — were opened to supply education to the more populated sections. The south-western (H) section was then served by Craigflower, T i l l i c u m and Tolmie Schools, which enrolled h a l f the school children of Saanich. T i l l i c u m was the new school, well located near cross-streets to serve t h i s c e n t r a l portion of the south-western section (d). The new Cloverdale School, located on an excellent s i t e , accommodated the students from the inner central section ( I ) . The school was on a main thoroughfare, 114 one-half mile from the V i c t o r i a border and about one mile from Tolmie School. The Panhandle (J), that section of Saanich dipping between Oak Bay and V i c t o r i a , proved most d i f f i c u l t to serve. Because most of the region i s very low-l y i n g not many houses had been b u i l t there and unfortunately they were wide-spread. Model School located at the corner of Richmond and Lansdowne, provided some accommodation for t h i s 1 area and f o r the south-eastern section of Saanich i n general. A few students, however, t r a v e l l e d over two miles to Cedar H i l l School while a few others received permission to attend Oaklands. The various outlying sections of Saanich did not show a consistent, pattern of development, the two northern extremes ex h i b i t i n g opposite trends. The north-western section (K) was, served by the McKenzie Avenue and Strawberry Vale Schools. This area attracted population, f o r reasons noted e a r l i e r (page 95), and the increase was refl e c t e d i n a rapid r i s e i n school enrollment. Across the municipality, at Cadboro Bay (L ) , the school was closed, only twenty-six students having 2 attended i n 1913. This was low-lying land, popular i n e a r l i e r days because of the proximity to the large Hudson's 3 Bay farm, the slaughter house and the Chemical Works. Ey 1921, however, these industries were gone; and the workers 1 Model School was the elementary school associated with the Normal School and located i n the same b u i l d i n g . 2 This was f i v e l e s s than i n 1911. 3> page 46;. 115 had moved nearer town. The long-established area of Cedar H i l l (M) was slowly, but continually, a t t r a c t i n g a population. School enrollment had increased by f o r t y - f i v e . Summary In Oak Bay a l l the Central section was urbanized; i n V i c t o r i a a l l except the north-east, north-west and central F a i r f i e l d . Thus the urbanization continued to develop i n widening c i r c l e s . Esquimalt had three areas c l a s s i f i e d as urban. These areas, located i n advance of the main popula-t i o n d e n s i t i e s , provided the only exception to the general concentric pattern of population d i s t r i b u t i o n . Saanich, though without any urbanized section, had many new homes i n the inner wards, and fringe r e s i d e n t i a l d i s t r i c t s i n McKenzie Avenue, Strawberry Vale and Cedar H i l l , Only Cadboro Bay had l o s t residents. School enrollments had increased more i n t h i s municipality than i n any other Greater V i c t o r i a section. With the growth i n population the school enrollments increased though at a declining rate. Five schools were opened during these years; two i n the urbanized section of the c i t y and three i n the populated inner wards of Saanich, CHAPTER IX POPULATION. DISTRIBUTION AND SCHOOL LOCATIONS 1922: - 1931 While the early years of the decade, 1922 - 1931, saw a slow recovery from the war, during the remaining years except f o r a b r i e f spurt i n the l a t e twenties, the economy lagged. Indeed, fewer homes were actually constructed i n that 1 decade than i n the previous ten years. By 1930 the depress-ion had struck and V i c t o r i a did not escape i t s e f f e c t s . As a r e s u l t the p r o v i n c i a l and f e d e r a l governments were forced to reduce the number of t h e i r employees and as previously stated, the majority of basic employees worked f o r one or 2 other of the two governments. When the governments reduced employment, therefore, the repercussions on business were soon apparent. When basic employment f a l t e r e d ; service employ-ment s t a l l e d and V i c t o r i a , having p r a c t i c a l l y no industry, could provide no a l t e r n a t i v e employment. The i n s u l a r p o sition of the region made i t impossible to c a p i t a l i z e on the lower island's f i n e a g r i c u l t u r a l p o s s i b i l i t i e s . Though the climate allowed very f i n e market garden opportunities the cost of shipment to the mainland markets was p r o h i b i t i v e . As has been stressed previously, V i c t o r i a n s have l i t t l e control over the region's economy and as a r e s u l t the residents during the 1 In Oak Bay l e s s than h a l f the homes were constructed. 2 Table 4, p. 54. BIRTHS 900 600 300 MARRIAGES GRAPH 9 GREATER VICTORIA BIRTHS AND MARRIAGES 1921 - 1941 600 300 Zi 31 41 V i c t o r i a ; Saanich; Oak Bay; Esquimalt Marriage figures not available f o r other municipalities i n 1931 S A A N I C H H A P y y y i v V I C T O R I A C I T Y o > POPULA TION m DISTRIBUTION < AND ELEMEN TARY J C H O O L L OC A T ION S 13$ I URBAN LEGEND TO MAP XXXIV POPULATION DISTRIBUTION AND ELEMENTARY SCHOOL LOCATIONS - 1931 A East F a i r f i e l d D i s t r i c t B North-East V i c t o r i a 1. Burnside School 2. Quadra Street School 3. Oaklands School 4. V i c t o r i a West School 5. North Ward School 6. Quadra Primary School 7- George Jay School 8. Spring Ridge School 9. Central School 10. Bank Street School 11. Monterey School 12. S i r James Douglas School 13. Kingston Street School 14. South Park School 15. Beacon H i l l School 118 depression could do l i t t l e except wait f o r the federal and p r o v i n c i a l economies to improve. Total Population 1922 - 1931 Between 1901 and 1911 V i c t o r i a C ity's population had 1 an average increase of 35$. The rate of increase had declined during World War 1 but even then the average increase from 1912 to 1921 was 22$. Between 1922 and 1931, however, the increase dropped to .9 percent. In f a c t , V i c t o r i a City's population increased by only 355 people. For a l l p r a c t i c a l purposes, the size of V i c t o r i a ' s population did not change i n the ten years. These figures, however, being f o r the whole c i t y , do not show regional or age-group v a r i a t i o n s . Although the number of people l i v i n g i n the c i t y did not change, there was a large decrease i n the number of children and a compar-ably large increase i n the number of older people, mainly pensioners attracted by V i c t o r i a ' s climate and encouraged by the devalued currency of a depression. Marriage rates 2 declined a f t e r 1921 and the b i r t h rate decreased. As a consequence the number of young people l i v i n g i n V i c t o r i a 3 decreased considerably. 1 This and a l l subsequent population s t a t i s t i c s i n t h i s chapter are recorded on table £, p. 101. 2 Table 9, P. 116. 3 Graph 10, p. 118. GRAPH 10 SCHOOL - AGE POPULATION ( 0 - 1 9 years) V - V i c t o r i a S = Saanich 0 - Oak Kay GRAPH 11 GREATER VICTORIA - TOTAL POPULATION ( 1QQQ) V - Greater V i c t o r i a ; V - V i c t o r i a ; S - Saanich; 0_B - Oak Bay; E - Esquimalt 1 0 0 9.5 9 0 8 5 8 0 7 5 7 0 6 5 6 0 5 5 5 0 4 5 4 0 V -* 3 5 1 / r / 3 0 / / 2 5 • 2 0 •15 S _ — 10 • * 5 CrB _ —]_*» — • — • * ' * • • 21 31 41 51 56 61 66 71 LEGEND TO MAP XXXV; POPULATION DISTRIBUTION GREATER VICTORIA - 1931 B South-Western V i c t o r i a C North Oak Bay D South Oak Bay E North Esquimalt F North Esquimalt G South Esquimalt 1. Lampson Street School 2. Craigflower School 3. T i l l i c u m School 4. Burnside School 5. Cloverdale School 6. Model School 7. Willows School 8. Monterey School 9. Strawberry Vale School 10. Gordon Head School 11. Cedar H i l l School 12. North Dairy School 13. McKenzie Avenue School 120 Population D i s t r i b u t i o n 1922 - 1931 In spite of the lagging economy the urbanization of 1 Greater V i c t o r i a did advance a f t e r 1921. In the c i t y only that small section (A) i n east F a i r f i e l d and (H) i n the north-2 east remained unpopulated. The population of Saanich and Oak Bay increased considerably during these ten years. As already indicated (page 98) Saanich, with i t s low taxes, was a municipality which appealed to those people on lower incomes. In the depression years with many people on lower incomes the appeal of Saanich would have been very widespread. Oak Bay on the other hand appealed to the people on higher incomes and these people would not have been so adversely affected by the depression. The well established trend to north Oak Bay (a) continued and although fewer homes were b u i l t i n a l l Oak Bay during t h i s period a higher r a t i o of those b u i l t were i n the north. The southern part of South Oak Bay (D) was s t i l l without adequate transportation and, as a r e s u l t of t h i s inconvenience, only t h i r t y of the 385 homes b u i l t i n t h i s 3 d i s t r i c t were located south of Central Avenue. Esquimalt had only the two rocky sections i n the north (E) and (F) and 4 the unsubdivided land to the south (&) without homes. 1 Map 34, p. 117, shows V i c t o r i a C i t y and map 35, p. 119 shows a l l Greater V i c t o r i a , 2 Reasons f o r t h i s are given on p. 105. 3 Oak Bay Municipal Building Permits. 4 This section was part of the old Viewfield Farm. The Hudson's Bay Company had retained ownership u n t i l 1933 when the land reverted to Esquimalt f o r unpaid taxes. 121 The concentric pattern of population d i s t r i b u t i o n was main-tained during t h i s period. Map 35, p. 119, shows very v i v i d l y the new outer r i n g added to the former urbanized section. A study of school enrollments reveals some s t a r t l i n g f a c t s . V i c t o r i a City's enrollment actually dropped by 922 students and Esquimalt's by sixty-eight. Saanich maintained the same number, while Oak Bay had sixty more. The Greater V i c t o r i a area a c t u a l l y had 900 fewer students i n 1931 than i n 1922. 1 School Enrollment i n V i c t o r i a City 1922 - 1931 Not one section of V i c t o r i a C i t y possessed schools where enrollments increased. Three long established d i s t r i c t s i n the C i t y — Central (A), North Ward (B), and V i c t o r i a West (G) — suffered the greatest losses. George Jay-Spring Ridge area (D) and the James Bay d i s t r i c t (E), also older sections, had medium losses i n enrollment. Many of the people l i v i n g i n these older sections of the c i t y possessed very low incomes and insecure employment. These residents were the f i r s t to lose t h e i r jobs and the f i r s t to leave the C i t y f o r i n d u s t r i a l or farming communities. Three schools — Cook Street, Fernwood and Rock Bay — were closed, and the surrounding schools accepted t h e i r students. There was very l i t t l e change i n enrollment i n a l l the other schools of V i c t o r i a . 1 School enrollment changes i n V i c t o r i a City are shown on map 36, p. 122. S A A M C H M A P X X X V I V I C T O R I A -C I T Y § . S C H O O L E N R O L L M E N T CHANGES 1 9 2 1 - 3 1 CD LITTLE CHANG£ MEDIUM DECREASE LARGE DECREASE LEGEND TO MAP XXXVI SCHOOL ENROLLMENT CHANGES 1921 - 1931 A Central D i s t r i c t B North Ward D i s t r i c t G V i c t o r i a West D i s t r i c t D Spring Ridge - George Jay D i s t r i c t E James Bay D i s t r i c t F Quadra Street D i s t r i c t G North-Eastern D i s t r i c t H South-Central D i s t r i c t I Eastern F a i r f i e l d J Bank Street D i s t r i c t 123 No new school was opened during the ten year period. During these years, 1922 - 1931, the concentric pattern of population d i s t r i b u t i o n i n V i c t o r i a C i t y was d i s -turbed. The growth on the periphery developed normally but a decline, especially i n numbers of children, occurred i n the inner, older sections of the town. During the depression business stagnated and therefore there was l i t t l e expansion — perhaps even a withdrawl of the commercial section. 1 School Enrollment i n Saanich, Oak Bay and Esquimalt 1922 - 1931 Outside V i c t o r i a C i t y , only four schools had s i g n i f -icant changes i n enrollment. Craigflower School, which served a very long established area (K) had f o r the f i r s t time a decreased enrollment. This section had been popular since the days of the f u r trade, and l i k e s i m i l i a r areas i n V i c t o r i a , 2 i t was l o s i n g i t s appeal. Cedar H i l l School, centering; a d i s t r i c t (L) which had increased i n popularity a f t e r 1913, continued to e n r o l l more students. The area within t h i s school's boundaries was large, and as the trend of settlement was to the outer areas, t h i s school continued to accommodate an increased number of students. The school, however, was b u i l t on a very rocky s i t e with limited play area and there-fore offered no great p o s s i b i l i t y f o r expansion. Certainly 1 School Enrollment changes are shown on map 37, p.126. 2 The Craigflower area s t i l l possessed some very f i n e property which by 1931 had not been serviced. there was a need to replace the old school by a new one with l a r g e r grounds. Esquimalt (M) and North Dairy (N) were two other schools where s i g n i f i c a n t l y fewer students were r e g i s -tered. . A l l other school d i s t r i c t s had i n s i g n i f i c a n t changes i n enrollment. Map 35, p. 119, emphasizes the concentric pattern of population d i s t r i b u t i o n followed between 1922 and 1931. The strength and consistency of t h i s movement can be appreciated when one r e a l i z e s that the pattern predominated even though many Greater V i c t o r i a d i s t r i c t s experienced great v a r i a t i o n s i n population d i s t r i b u t i o n when compared with the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the previous ten years. CHAPTER X. POPULATION DISTRIBUTION AND SCHOOL LOCATIONS 1932 - 1941 The depression described i n Chapter IX continued f o r perhaps three more years. There was no d e f i n i t e end to the depression but a t r a n s i t i o n a l period followed which led into a pre-war economy. F i n a l l y , of course, i n 1939 the country entered World War 11. Since the e f f e c t s of the depression were described on preceding pages the new fa c t o r — the war — i s emphasized i n t h i s chapter. 1 Population D i s t r i b u t i o n 1932 - 1941 Two d i s t i n c t changes i n population d i s t r i b u t i o n occurred during 1932 - 1941. In the early part of t h i s decade the influences of the depression were s t i l l prevalent. Greater V i c t o r i a ' s population changed very l i t t l e i n t o t a l but the difference noted i n the previous chapter i n age char-a c t e r i s t i c s and d i s t r i b u t i o n continued. Fewer children were born and many others moved away with t h e i r f a m i l i e s . The i n f l u x of older people, e s p e c i a l l y pensioners, compensated f o r t h i s l o s s . The older sections of town were act u a l l y occupied by fewer f a m i l i e s while new residents concentrated on the periphery of the urbanized sections. From the middle 1 The c i t y ' s d i s t r i b u t i o n i s shown on map 3d, p. 127, 126 LEGEND TO MAP XXXV11 ENROLLMENT CHANGES 1921 - 1931 K Craigflower D i s t r i c t L Cedar H i l l D i s t r i c t M Esquimalt N North Dairy D i s t r i c t S A A ,\ I C n V I C T O R I A C I T Y o > PO PULATION a D IS TR IB UTlON < A A/2) £"Li*MEN TAR Y SCHOOL LOCATIONS 1141 URBAN LEGEND TO MAP XXXV111 POPULATION DISTRIBUTION AND ELEMENTARY SCHOOL LOCATIONS -A Central F a i r f i e l d B North-Eastern V i c t o r i a 1. Burnside School 2. Quadra School 3. Oaklands School 4. V i c t o r i a West School 5. North Ward School 6. Quadra Primary 7. George Jay School 8. Spring Ridge School 9 . Central School 10. Bank Street School 11. Margaret Jenkins School 12. S i r James Douglas School 13. Kingston Street School 14. South Park School 15. Beacon H i l l School N A P Z Z Z J X 5CHO0L D I S T R I C T NO, 61 I < [ ) [ / S C H O O L LOC/\TIOWS' A N D PO P U L A T / O W Dl STRIBUTION GREATER v/c rofl /A 128 LEGEND TO MAP XXXIX SCHOOL LOCATIONS AND POPULATION DISTRIBUTION GREATER VICTORIA IQJfcl A Eastern F a i r f i e l d B; Cedar H i l l Golf Links i C Portage I n l e t D Recreational Areas E M i l i t a r y Establishments F I n d u s t r i a l Area d Rocky land e Low-lying land 1. Lampson Street School 2. T i l l i c u m School 3. Tolmie School 4. Cloverdale School 5. Model School 6. Willows School 7. Monterey School 8. Gordon Head School 9. Cedar H i l l School 10. McKenzie Avenue School 11. Strawberry Vale School to the end of the decade the influences of the war predominated. The economy of Greater V i c t o r i a , as previously emphasized, i s at a l l times greatly influenced by the m i l i t a r y services. During the war, however, the influence was even greater. The populations of the City, Saanich, and Oak Bay 1 a l l increased during these years. Saanich once again had the highest numerical increase. Esquimalt fs population, according to the Census, ac t u a l l y decreased; but the Census' 2 figures f o r t h i s municipality must be interpreted f o r 1941. By the late t h i r t i e s Greater V i c t o r i a ' s large ship-yards were working twenty-four hours a day and workers moved in t o the region from a l l parts of western Canada. Map 39, page 127> indicates those sections which were urbanized. In the c i t y , only that small section i n central F a i r f i e l d (A) and the rocky land i n the north-east (B) remained unpopulated. The trend to Saanich continued. A wide s t r i p along the southern border from the Cedar H i l l Golf Course (B) to Portage I n l e t ( C ) , was also urbanized though the rocky (d) and low-l y i n g (e) parts east of the golf course had l i t t l e settlement. Oak Bay increased i t s population by 3000 people during these years. The southern h a l f of South Oak Bay, because of poor transportation f a c i l i t i e s , had been ignored i n previous years. 1 A l l population figures are shown on Table 9, p. 116 2 The permanent navy and army are located i n Esquimalt and therefore many men attached to these services have estab-l i s h e d t h e i r homes i n t h i s municipality. During the war many of these men were overseas and t h e i r names were recorded on the m i l i t a r y census but not on the l o c a l one. 130 In the l a t e t h i r t i e s , however, the Blue Line Bus Company-i n s t i t u t e d an excellent transportation system throughout Oak Bay and, as a r e s u l t , the very f i n e section i n South Oak-Bay was quickly s e t t l e d . Map 39, page 127, reveals that by 1941, the entire south and south-eastern section of Greater V i c t o r i a was occ-upied, i n the f a m i l i a r pattern of concentric waves spreading from the town. By that time, the advance i n the easterly d i r e c t i o n had reached the water and from then on most r e s i -dents s e t t l e d to the north. Even by 1941, a narrow peninsula of settlement stretched to the north of Oak Bay (map 39, page 127). Two factors encouraged t h i s northward development: 1. As previously mentioned the choice i n the south was l i m i t e d . 2. The Blue Line Bus Gompany i n s t i t u t e d i t s l i n e s through t h i s northern region. School Enrollments i n V i c t o r i a City 1932 - 1941 The decline i n school population i n V i c t o r i a City continued. In 1941 there were 1100 fewer students than i n 1931 and 2000 fewer than i n 1921 — the c i t y a c t u a l l y enrolled l e s s students than t h i r t y years e a r l i e r . Again the oldest d i s t r i c t s suffered the greatest losses. The reason f o r the losses, however, was d i f f e r e n t from that i n the early t h i r t i e s f o r at that time the depression had been the prevalent fa c t o r 1 Over 500 homes were b u i l t i n t h i s section i n the l a t e t h i r t i e s and early f o r t i e s . Building Permits, Oak Bay Municipal H a l l . S A A N K h V I C T O R I A C I T Y o > > .SCHOOL ENROLLMENT CHANCE 5 LITTLE CHANGE Li T Til DECREASE LARGE DECREASE LEGEND TO MAP XL School Enrollment Changes 1932 - 1941 A Spring Ridge - George Jay D i s t r i c t B North Ward D i s t r i c t C Central D i s t r i c t D James Bay D i s t r i c t E V i c t o r i a West D i s t r i c t F Quadra Street D i s t r i c t Gl North-Eastern D i s t r i c t H South-Central D i s t r i c t I Eastern F a i r f i e l d J Banks Street D i s t r i c t but by 1940 the gradual change within the older areas from r e s i d e n t i a l to commercial functions was more important. Sig-n i f i c a n t declines were registered from the George Jay - Spring; Ridge (A), North Ward (B>), Gent r a l (G), and James Bay (D) areas. The V i c t o r i a West (B) and North Central (F) areas of the c i t y were the only two d i s t r i c t s to have the same number of school students as i n 1931. The former section located close to the shipyards was a popular r e s i d e n t i a l section dur-ing the war. The l a t t e r section was a newer r e s i d e n t i a l d i s -t r i c t possessing some very f i n e home-sites. A l l d i s t r i c t s as a r e s u l t of the lower b i r t h rate during the depression had fewer students but the losses were not as great i n the newer d i s t r i c t s . School Enrollments i n Saanich 1932 - 1941 In 1941, Saanich enrolled some 200 students fewer than i n 1931 and yet the t o t a l population of Saanich had increased by 5000. The low b i r t h rate of the t h i r t i e s was undoubtedly the main contributing f a c t o r f o r the losses. The municipality, however, showed; regional d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n i n these losses. In the south-west the Craigflower School was closed and the T i l l i c u m School now accommodated a l l students 1 from t h i s south-western section (Gl). This area had s i g n i f -i c a n t l y fewer students than i n 1931. Strawberry Vale (H) and 1 This and a l l subsequent school d i s t r i c t s mentioned i n t h i s chapter may be located on map 41, p. 133* 133 LEGEND TO MAP XL1 ENROLLMENT CHANGES 1931 - 1941 G South-Western section H Strawberry Vale D i s t r i c t I Tolmie D i s t r i c t J North Oak Bay K South Oak Bay 134 Tolmie D i s t r i c t s (I) were other regions from which there was a noteworthy decline i n the number of students enrolled. There seems to be no l o g i c a l explanation why these d i s t r i c t s had the greatest declines i n enrollment. Certainly no obvious pattern of losses was followed throughout the municipality. McKenzie Avenue d i s t r i c t , which l i e s between the T i l l i c u m and Straw-berry Vale d i s t r i c t s , a c t u a l l y showed a s i g n i f i c a n t gain i n enrollment — the only Saanich d i s t r i c t that d i d . Thus an inner ward (Tillicum) and an outer ward (Strawberry Vale) suffered losses but the middle section (McKenzie Avenue) had a s i g n i f i c a n t gain. The two areas which suffered the losses had at l e a s t one thing i n common: both were sections i n which l i v e d people with p a r t i c u l a r l y low incomes. Perhaps the pov-erty there was the reason f o r the decline i n b i r t h rate. At any rate, contrary to the usual s o c i o l o g i c a l p r i n c i p l e Saanich, the poorer d i s t r i c t , suffered between 1921 and 1931 a greater percentage decline i n b i r t h rate than did more wealthy Oak 1 Bay. School Enrollments i n Oak Bay 1932 - 1941 The difference i n enrollment between north (J) and south (K); Oak Bay had f o r years been narrowing. In 1941» f o r the f i r s t time, the Willows School enrolled more students than did Monterey School. The reason was not that more homes 1 Graph 9, p. 116. 1 were b u i l t i n the north but that f a m i l i e s i n the north were la r g e r . Oak Bay was the only municipality i n Greater V i c t o r i a to have more school students than i n the previous ten years. People there, f o r the most part of higher income, were not so adversely affected by the depression and the b i r t h rate did 2 not decrease at the same rate as i t had i n Saanich, School Enrollment i n Esquimalt 1932 - 1941 Esquimalt School had a s i g n i f i c a n t decline i n e n r o l l -ment. Two factors contributed to the l o s s r 1, The lower b i r t h rate (graph 9, page 116). 2. The loss of federal defence contracts i n the early and middle t h i r t i e s , which l e f t many of Esquimalt's s k i l l e d shipyard workers without employment. Many of these workers l e f t Esquimalt i n the hope of gaining employment i n p r i v -ately owned shipyards located i n the Vancouver area. The l a t t e r yards suffered also but did gain contracts f o r repairs to coastal vessels. Summary As i n the years 1921 - 1931, there was no co r r e l a t i o n between population s t a t i s t i c s and school enrollments. While on the average population rose f o r the d i s t r i c t , the school 1 Two hundred more were ac t u a l l y b u i l t i n the south, Building Permits, Oak Bay Municipality H a l l . 2 Graph 9, p. 116. enrollments f e l l . The low b i r t h and marriage rates of the 1930's were the main causes of the lower enrollments of the 1940»s. The concentric pattern of population d i s t r i b u t i o n continued with a l l southern V i c t o r i a and southern Oak Bay-urbanized. Afte r 1941, the majority of new residents would be forced to s e t t l e to the north. Although the schools of Greater V i c t o r i a enrolled, i n t o t a l , fewer students than i n the previous decade, there were regional d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n s i n these losses. The greatest losses occurred i n the poorer d i s t r i c t s of Greater V i c t o r i a — the older sections of the c i t y — and i n the T i l l i c u m and Strawberry Vale areas i n Saanich. Oak Bay, a wealthier municipality, was the only one i n which more students were enrolled. LEGEND TO MAP XL11 SCHOOL LOCATIONS AND POPULATION DISTRIBUTION GREATER VICTORIA 1. Strawberry Vale School 2. McKenzie Avenue School 3. Gordon Head School 4. Cedar H i l l School 5. Doncaster School 6. Willows School 7. Monterey School 8. Cloverdale School 9. Tolmie School 10. T i l l i c u m School 11. Craigflower School 12. View Royal School 13. Lampson Street School CHAPTER XI POPULATION DISTRIBUTION AND SCHOOL LOCATIONS 1942 - 1951 Size of Population The t o t a l population of Greater V i c t o r i a between 1942 and 1951 increased by some 40,000 people and each municipality 1 2 shared i n the increase. For the f i r s t time since 1913 economic conditions were se t t l e d and people looked more con-f i d e n t l y towards the future. Government employment i n the V i c t o r i a area increased, with the re s u l t that the d i s t r i c t ' s 3 economy was once again on a stable basis. Population D i s t r i b u t i o n Map 42, page 137, shows f o r 1941 - 1951 a surprising s i t u a t i o n ^ that there was a large population growth with almost no increased urbanization. Three reasons may be given to explain t h i s unusual s i t u a t i o n . 1 This and a l l subsequent population figures stated i n t h i s chapter are recorded on table 11, p. 118. 2 According to the 1951 Census, Esquimalt had nearly t r i p l e d i t s population since 1941* While i t i s undoubtedly correct that the municipality increased i t s population, the recorded increase was too high. The previous Census, as already stated, indicated too low a figure and i n the 1951 Census, navy personnel were included. These two errors com-pounded each other with the r e s u l t that the recorded increase was f a r too high. Esquimalt municipal authorities have not as yet, been able to gain corrected figures f o r these years. 3 Table 5, p. 59. GRAPH 12 GREATER VICTORIA BIRTH RATES 1946 - 1956 (IOO) G V - Greater V i c t o r i a ; 0 - Oak Bay; V - V i c t o r i a ; S - Saanich; E - Esquimalt 139 1 1. Children made up one-quarter of the increased population. The parents of these children i n many cases owned homes i n the already urbanized sections and thus new home-sites were not needed to accommodate the increased c h i l d population. 2. Apartments, located near the c i t y centre, became very prom-inent. In 1921 only 2% of Greater V i c t o r i a ' s f a m i l i e s l i v e d i n apartments; but by 1951, the number had reached 2 3136. 3. Previously s e t t l e d areas, became more densely populated. The new population preferred, probably because of better transportation within the c i t y , to b u i l d on i n f e r i o r l o t s i n the already s e t t l e d d i s t r i c t s , rather than move farther from town. Lots which had i n e a r l i e r days been neglected because of poor drainage or rock were b u i l t upon. Con-sequently there are to-day i n V i c t o r i a many new homes located among much older homes. School Enrollments School enrollments increased i n each of the municipal-i t i e s and i n the c i t y . C i t y Enrollments U n t i l 1941, the pattern of the c i t y ' s settlement had been a movement away from the older sections to the new outer 1 Graph 10, p. 118. 2: Ca p i t a l Region, p. 7. N 5 MAP XLTIT V I C T O R I A C I T Y > POPULATION M DISTRIBUTION <• AND ELEMENTARY SCHOOL LOC AT IONS I9SI ( Z D URBAN LEGEND TO MAP XL111 POPULATION DISTRIBUTION AND ELEMENTARY SCHOOL LOCATIONS 1951 1» Burnside School 2. Quadra School 3. Oaklands School 4. V i c t o r i a West School 5. North Ward School 6. Quadra Primary School 7. George Jay School 8. Bank Street School 9. Central School 10. Margaret Jenkins School 11. S i r James Douglas School 12. Kingston Street School 13. South Park School 14. Beacon H i l l School 141 sections. In the years 1941 - 1951, the outward movement was retarded; but s t i l l the predominant increase occurred i n the more recently s e t t l e d sections. Most V i c t o r i a schools enrolled more students, but Bank Street (A), Oaklands (B), Margaret . Jenkins (C) , George Jay (D), and Quadra Street Schools (E), 1 2 registered a s i g n i f i c a n t l y greater number. A l l these schools, with the exception of George Jay, enrolled students who l i v e d i n the outer sections of the c i t y . Spring Ridge School was closed and George Jay, more than previously, reg-i s t e r e d students from east of Fernwood Road (a). Some of t h i s 3 section i s rocky (1) and some i s low. Many l o t s i n t h i s section had reverted to the c i t y f o r taxes and were sold f o r $50. The schools serving the older sections of James Bay (F), V i c t o r i a West (G), and North Ward (H), and Central (I), had l i t t l e change i n enrollments. These sections declined i n the war years and by 1951 f a i l e d to show the progress of the other d i s t r i c t s . S i r James Douglas School, r e g i s t e r i n g students from south-western F a i r f i e l d (J), enrolled approximately the 1 Enrollment figures f o r t h i s chapter are given on table 14, p. 223 . The S. J. W i l l i s Junior High School opened i n 1951* The enrollment figures f o r a l l i t s feeder schools are d i f f e r e n t from those recorded i n the Annual Report of the Department of Public Instruction. To be consistent with pre-vious enrollment figures used i n t h i s thesis a l l grades 7 and 8 students attending S. J. W i l l i s have been recorded as i f they were s t i l l attending t h e i r previous schools. This same technique has been used i n following chapters whenever a Junior High School opened. 2' Four techniques were used to e n r o l l more students i n these older schools: (l) larger classes per teacher, (2) add-i t i o n of i n f e r i o r rooms usually i n basements, (3) temporary annexes, (4) f i n a l l y permanent additions. y A-street map of 1872 shows a lake occupying t h i s section. Archives. H A P X L IV I C T O R I A C I T Y SCHOOL ENROLLMENT CHANGES 1941-51 LARGE INCREASE LI T T L F CHANGE LEGEND TO MAP XL1V; SCHOOL ENROLLMENT CHANGES 1 9 U - 1951 A Bank Street D i s t r i c t E North-Eastern D i s t r i c t C) Eastern F a i r f i e l d D i s t r i c t D George Jay - Spring Ridge D i s t r i c t E Quadra Street D i s t r i c t F James Bay D i s t r i c t G V i c t o r i a West H North Ward D i s t r i c t I Central D i s t r i c t J South-Central D i s t r i c t a East Fernwood 1. Rocky 2. Low-lying 143 same number as i n 1941. This i s the f i r s t i n d i c a t i o n that t h i s d i s t r i c t was no longer proving a t t r a c t i v e to younger people. South-western F a i r f i e l d was completely s e t t l e d around the year 1913* I t was a highly desirable section: close to the sea, to town, to Beacon H i l l Park; and i t possessed f i n e transportation f a c i l i t i e s . Most homes i n t h i s d i s t r i c t were, however, i n 1951, close to f o r t y years of age and many were occupied by older people with few children of school age. Young people were beginning to pass over t h i s area, preferring the newer subdivisions. Oak Bay Enrollments North Oak Bay continued to have heavy settlement. As there were no large, undeveloped sections south of the Avenue, people wanting to l i v e i n Oak Bay were forced to choose s i t e s north of the Avenue. The Willows School enrolled approximately two hundred more students than Monterey School and the e n r o l l -ment at the l a t t e r school remained s t a t i c . Saanich Enrollments Saanich schools had a la r g e r percentage gain i n enrollments than did the schools from any other Greater V i c t o r i a municipality. The number of students increased from every section of Saanich but the increases from the Cedar H i l l (I) and south-western (J) sections were most rapid. The Cedar H i l l School was f i n a l l y augmented by the new Doncaster School. The Model School which had also served t h i s d i s t r i c t SCHOOL D I S T R I C T NO. 61 NR OL L ME N T C H A N G E S H4 I - 5 I LARGE ] NCREASF SL I G HT J INCREASE R L I T T L E C H A N C E LEGEND TO MAP XLV ENROLLMENT CHANGES 1941 - 1951 I Cedar H i l l D i s t r i c t J South-Western section K Gordon Head L D i s t r i c t south of L y a l l Street M C o l v i l l e - Street D i s t r i c t N Tolmie D i s t r i c t 0 McKenzie D i s t r i c t a Gorge D i s t r i c t b Carey Road D i s t r i c t c Glanford Road D i s t r i c t /¥6~ SKETCH MAP Z ' * MILE 146 1 was closed. This school d i s t r i c t was most extensive, stretching from the southern Saanich border to Gordon Head (K). Pupils, therefore, walked long distances to attend the schools. There were three hundred more students residing i n t h i s d i s -t r i c t than i n 1941 but the area was not c l a s s i f i e d as urban. Here, again, one can see a large, non-urban d i s t r i c t with high-enrollment schools and as t h i s was an extensive d i s t r i c t , growing i n popularity, and yet served by only two schools, 2 new school-sites should have been purchased. The Doncaster School would appear to have been b u i l t 3 too f a r north. The school i s located a l i t t l e over a mile from Oaklands School and as many students cannot walk a d i r e c t route to school, the walking distances between the two schools f a r exceed the desired maximum one-half mile. The d i s t r i c t between these two schools possessed many building l o t s and thus school enrollments would c e r t a i n l y increase. Here then were two widely separated schools located i n growth areas and one, the Oaklands School, already possessed too large an enrollment. Land was available between the schools and a more southerly s i t e could well have been chosen; now, however, the problem can only be solved by these two schools becoming very large or by building a new school between the two. 1 Greater V i c t o r i a School D i s t r i c t #61 was formed i n 1946 and students l i v i n g i n the Saanich Panhandle then could e n r o l l at eithe r Oaklands School or Willows School. 2 Page 144. 3 Sketch map 2, p. 145. 147 Dxmcaster School i s r e a d i l y accessible from the north and south along Gedar H i l l Road but many east-west roads do 1 not connect with i t . This f a c t forces many students to walk long distances on Cedar H i l l Road which, i n 1958, s t i l l did not have a sidewalk. For safety reasons, both the east-west access roads should continue to Cedar H i l l Road, and sidewalks should be b u i l t . Many more students were also enrolled from the south-western section of Saanich ( J ) . The f i n e area north of the Gorge (a) was subdivided and the Craigflower School had to re-open i n the l a t e f o r t i e s to accommodate students from t h i s and the surrounding sections. The Tolmie (N) and McKenzie School (0) d i s t r i c t s showed a greatly increased enrollment from the new subdivisions opened i n the Carey Road (b) and Glanford (c) areas, a large unurbanized d i s t r i c t . This was then another area where new school s i t e s were soon to be needed. Although enrollments increased i n a l l other sections of Saanich, the increases i n the remaining d i s t r i c t s did not match those increases noted i n the preceding paragraphs. Map 44, page 142, reveals the d i s t r i b u t i o n of these enrollment increases. Again the expansion was generally a l o g i c a l extension of the concentric pattern followed i n pre-vious years. A l l the sections with heavy enrollments were 1 Sketch map 2, p. 145. 2 Map 45, P. 144. 148 extensions of the urbanized d i s t r i c t s . Two sections, the Carey Road - Glanford and Doncaster extended peninsula-like well ahead of the urbanized sections. In both these l a t t e r cases good roads (map 35, page 119) and transportation played important r o l e s . The Cloverdale section (P) was the only inner section of Saanich where the increase i n enrollment was s l i g h t . The inner part of t h i s d i s t r i c t had been heavily populated f o r years; immigration to t h i s section was therefore l i m i t e d and increases were limited to natural causes. The outer parts of the d i s t r i c t were not subdivided u n t i l the l a t e f o r t i e s and increases from t h i s d i s t r i c t were therefore l i m i t e d . Esquimalt 1s Enrollment 1 Two new sections were subdivided: — the v a l l e y along G o l v i l l e Road, to take a large war-time housing project, and the desireable section south of L y a l l Street. Lampson Street School was already the largest i n the Greater V i c t o r i a area and the opening of the L y a l l Street d i s t r i c t further increased i t s enrollment. The opening of t h i s l a t t e r d i s t r i c t extended the boundaries of the school to the distance where students must walk over a mile to the school. Undoubtedly Esquimalt i n 1951 needed a new school. Summary Between 1942 and 1951, f o r the f i r s t time i n twenty 1 Map 42, p. 137. years the t o t a l school enrollment of Greater V i c t o r i a schools increased. The concentric pattern of population d i s t r i b u t i o n continued to be followed but an additional pattern was super-imposed. While many people b u i l t i n new subdivisions located on the periphery of the urbanized sections, others preferred to l i v e c loser to town. Many of the l a t t e r l i v e d i n apart-ments or i n homes b u i l t on c i t y l o t s once considered substand-ard. Transportation to town was readily available but Victorians d i d not appreciate ten to f i f t e e n minute bus r i d e s . LEGEND TO MAP XLV1 SCHOOL LOCATIONS AND POPULATION DISTRIBUTION GREATER VICTORIA 1256 A Pot e n t i a l Esquimalt Subdivision B Potential Esquimalt Subdivision c Lansdowne Subdivision D Burnside D i s t r i c t E Ten Mile Point 1. Lampson Street School 2. View Royal School 3. Craigflower School 4. T i l l i c u m School 5. Tolmie School 6. Cloverdale School 7. Doncaster School 8. Richmond School 9. Willows School 10. Monterey School 11. Frank Hobbs School 12. Gordon Head School 13. Cedar H i l l School 14. McKenzie Avenue School 15. Glanford School 16. Strawberry Vale School CHAPTER: XI1 POPULATION DISTRIBUTION AND SCHOOL LOCATIONS 1952: - 1958 Greater V i c t o r i a ' s economy/ was greatly strengthened during the years 1952 - 1958. The gross p r o v i n c i a l i n d u s t r i a l 1 output increased between 1951 and 1958 by 40$. This rapid r i s e resulted i n f i r m confidence being displayed by the people of B r i t i s h Columbia i n the province's future. Government f a c i l i t i e s expanded i n order to handle the many new respon-s i b i l i t i e s which accrued from the i n d u s t r i a l progress. In V i c t o r i a , the p r o v i n c i a l C i v i l Service increased i t s number 2 of employees from 2,784 i n the year 1951 to 3,150 i n 1956. The i n d u s t r i a l output of Canada had increased consid-3 erably during these years; and the confidence shown i n the p r o v i n c i a l economy, was equalled by a s i m i l i a r confidence shown i n the federal economy. The number of federal c i v i l servants i n the V i c t o r i a area increased by 2,750 employees 4 between the years 1951 and 1956. The increase i n the number of c i v i l servants (federal), 1 Department of Trade and Industry, P r o v i n c i a l Govern-ment • 2 (a) The Capital Region Takes Stock — Capital Region Planning Board of B.C., page 10, 1954. (b) Population Forecast and Land Use Requirements, Capital Region Planning Board of B.C., page 8, 1958. 3 36$ — Department of Trade, P r o v i n c i a l Government. 4 Ibid, pages B and 10. 152 and provincial) employed i n the region was the main reason why Greater V i c t o r i a ' s economy was strengthened during these years. The trend of increased population and expanded r e s i -d e n t i a l development continued through these years. In the f i v e years a f t e r 1951 the number of people l i v i n g i n the area increased by 17,000. This was the greatest increase recorded since 1921. The population of the municipality of Saanich increased by more than the t o t a l increase of a l l other d i s t r i c t s i n Greater V i c t o r i a . In 1956, only Saanich possessed numerous potential home-sites and i n t h i s municipality, the future home-owner could chose from the very reasonable l o t s offered i n the Burnside area (D) to the most expensive ones offered 1 i n the Ten Mile Point D i s t r i c t (B). Map 46, page 150, indicates the Greater V i c t o r i a d i s -t r i c t s which were urbanized i n 1956. The strong desire of the people to stay close to the town i s evident. Even i n 1956, when the ownership of a car was common, people were s t i l l concentrated i n those available areas closest to town. By 1956 the rocky sections or low areas which existed close to town, and which i n former years had been ignored, were a l l occupied. As an example, the very swampy section of east F a i r f i e l d , which had remained the only large unurbanized section i n the c i t y i n the year 1951, was i n 1956 subdivided. In the c i t y and i n southern Saanich, not one large section of land remained to be subdivided. In Esquimalt, the two rocky 1 Map 46, p. 150 MAP 'X LVII V I C T O R I A C I T Y o > > POPULATION DISTRIBUTION AND EL E M EN TAR y 5"C HOO L L OCAJIONS 11S6 URBAN LEGEND TO MAP XLV/11 POPULATION DISTRIBUTION AND ELEMENTARY'SCHOOL LOCATION 153 -1956 1. Burnside School 2. Quadra School 3. Oaklands School 4. V i c t o r i a West School 5. North Ward School 6. Quadra Primary School 7. George Jay School 8. Bank Street School 9* Central School (Junior High) 10. Margaret Jenkins School 11. S i r James Douglas School 12. James Bay School 13. South Park School 14. Beacon H i l l School 154 sections (A) and (Bi); s t i l l remained only sparsely occupied; i n Oak Bay the unimproved Hudson's Bay land north of Lansdowne Road (G), was the only section s t i l l to be subdivided. The community surrounding Cadboro Bay was by 1951 considered urban. Map 46, page 150, indicates that the urbanization of t h i s community was an exception to the general concentric pattern of population d i s t r i b u t i o n . P r a c t i c a l l y a l l other urban settlement had taken place i n a wave-like pattern reach-ing outwards from the centre of town. This l a t t e r d i s t r i c t , however, formed a narrow peninsula well ahead of the main urban settlement. People moved i n t o the Cadboro Bay region to take advantage of the d i s t r i c t ' s proximity to the f i n e ocean beach. Elementary School enrollments i n Greater V i c t o r i a 1 nearly doubled between the years 1951 and 1958. The number of children who attended Saanich schools increased by over 100%; and i n 1958 while the t o t a l population of Saanich was approx-imately 15,000 l e s s than V i c t o r i a C ity, only 1,600 fewer students were enrolled i n the Saanich schools. School Enrollments i n V i c t o r i a C i t y 1951 - 1958 Two schools, Oaklands and Margaret Jenkins, which enrolled students from the north-eastern and south-eastern sections respectively, had s i g n i f i c a n t increases i n e n r o l l -ments. In f a c t , one-half the t o t a l enrollment increase of 1 A l l school enrollments referred to i n t h i s chapter are l i s t e d on Table 14, p. 223. S A A N I C H MAP XL v m I C T O R I A C I T Y S C H O O L E N R O L L M E N T C H A N G E S N S I - 5 8 L A R & E I N C R E A S E SLI G H T I N C R E A S E LEGEND TO MAP XLV111 SCHOOL ENROLLMENT CHANGES 1951 - 1958 tt k A Bank Street D i s t r i c t B3 North-Eastern Section C Eastern F a i r f i e l d , D George Jay D i s t r i c t E Quadra Street D i s t r i c t F James Bay D i s t r i c t G V i c t o r i a West H North Ward D i s t r i c t I Central D i s t r i c t J South Central D i s t r i c t V i c t o r i a c i t y schools was attributed to the attendance of students i n these two schools. While both these schools had a greatly increased enrollment the d i s t r i c t s which they served developed very d i f f e r e n t l y from one another. In the Oaklands School D i s t r i c t , a l l subdivisions had been completed i n the 1920 fs. A few homes had been b u i l t on p r a c t i c a l l y every street throughout the d i s t r i c t . However, scarcely any street was completely b u i l t up. The pattern of settlement i n t h i s d i s t r i c t was f o r people to b u i l d homes on scattered vacant l o t s . New homes between much older homes, are very common i n t h i s north-eastern section. In the south-eastern section, d i f f e r e n t d i s t r i c t s were subdivided i n d i f f e r e n t years. One new subdivision was completely occupied before another was started. Streets with homes a l l b u i l t at approximately the 1 same time are common i n t h i s d i s t r i c t . Most other schools, besides Margaret Jenkins and Oaklands, had increased enrollments; but the increases were not large enough to be classed as s i g n i f i c a n t . The schools serving the e a r l i e r - established d i s t r i c t of Central V i c t o r i a — George Jay - Spring Ridge, James Bay and North Ward — registered only s l i g h t increases. The enrollments of these l a t t e r schools i n 1958 probably were at maximum, and w i l l 2 decline i n the following years. The higher b i r t h rate of 1 On Wildwood Street one can see numerous homes a l l b u i l t approximately f i f t y years ago. On Warren Gardens, one can see numerous homes a l l b u i l t i n 1958. 2 Map 48, p. 155. 157 LEGEND TO MAP XL1X ENROLLMENT CHANGES 1951 - 1958 A South-Eastern Saanich B McKenzie D i s t r i c t a Willows F a i r Grounds b Old Hudson's.Bay Farm c North Craigflower d North Craigflower 158 the f o r t i e s accounted f o r any increased enrollment i n these schools. The d i s t r i c t held few undeveloped home-sites; i n f a c t many of the homes were over seventy years of age, and gradually those closest to town were being razed to make space f o r commercial establishments or apartments. While apartments brought more f a m i l i e s to the d i s t r i c t these f a m i l i e s seldom had school-age children and as the apartments replaced homes i n which school-age children had l i v e d , the net r e s u l t was that fewer children would a f t e r 1956 l i v e i n these older d i s t r i c t s . The James Bay School was opened i n 1954 to replace the very old Kingston Street School (1884). School Enrollments i n Saanich 1951 - 1958 In the years between 1951 and 1958, the number of children attending Saanich schools more than doubled. Every school i n the municipality had a very large increase i n enrollment. Three new schools — Frank Hobbs, Glanford and Richmond — were opened; and the Craigflower School, closed i n 1940, had to be reopened. While more students were enrolled from a l l school d i s t r i c t s , f i v e d i s t r i c t s had very large increases. The south-eastern section of Saanich (A), much of which i s low-l y i n g or rocky land, and which had been p r a c t i c a l l y ignored p r i o r to 1951, possessed twice as many school pupils i n 1958 as i t had i n 1951. Between 1951 and 1958, the section had-been subdivided into 300 r e s i d e n t i a l l o t s . The Richmond 159 LEGEND TO MAP L SCHOOLS 1951 - 1958 1. Macaulay School 2. James Bay School 3. Gordon Head School 4. Frank Hobbs School 5. Richmond School 160 School was opened i n 1956 to serve the most southernly part of t h i s section. Also i n the heavily populated south-western part of Saanich, served by the T i l l i c u m and Craigflower Schools, enrollments increased as a re s u l t of both the building on existent l o t s and the opening of new subdivisions along T i l l i c u m Road. In following both settlement patterns instead of one only, as did most other areas, t h i s development was unusual• The McKenzie Avenue (B) d i s t r i c t was another area from which many more students were enrolled. This d i s t r i c t which up u n t i l 1950 had been considered remote, was i n 1956 on the fringe of the urbanized section. Glanford School was opened i n 1956 to e n r o l l those students who l i v e d i n the north-eastern section of the d i s t r i c t . Three large subdivisions had been opened i n the Cadboro 1 Bay area between 1951 and 1956. As a re s u l t the number of students who l i v e d i n the Cadboro Bay d i s t r i c t increased 2 so rapi d l y that a new school had to be opened. This was the Frank Hobbs School, which opened i n 1951 with an e n r o l l -ment of eighty-three students, and seven years l a t e r , i n 1958, had 380 students. Gordon Head was the other d i s t r i c t i n Saanich from which many more students were enrolled. This area, once con-sidered the true farming section of Greater V i c t o r i a , had by 1 Map 53, P. 175. 2 Map 47, P. 153. 161 1958 become r e s i d e n t i a l . While i t i s true that much farm land s t i l l remained i n Gordon Head, each year more and more 1 of t h i s land was being subdivided f o r r e s i d e n t i a l purposes. In 1951, Gordon Head School registered eighty-eight students; but by 1958, although the school boundaries had been reduced to exclude the Cadboro Bay section, the enrollment had reached a t o t a l of 300 students-The enrollment increases registered at the Gordon 2 Head and the Cadboro Bay Schools were the two highest i n -creases registered from a l l the schools i n the Greater V i c t o r i a D i s t r i c t . The pattern of these enrollment increases was again mainly a l o g i c a l extension of the concentric pattern of pop-u l a t i o n d i s t r i b u t i o n which had been followed i n the past years. By superimposing map 49, page 157, on map 46, page 150, one can see that most high enrollment areas are included i n the urbanized areas. Most of the new population, therefore, b u i l t i n the already heavily populated sections or on the outward fringe of these sections. Besides t h i s concentric pattern,' however, another pattern emerged. Increasingly, people ignored the urban section and se t t l e d i n fringe areas. The r e l a t i v e l y heavy settlements at Cadboro Bay and Gordon Head i l l u s t r a t e t h i s v a r i a t i o n . By 1956 the concentric patt-ern of d i s t r i b u t i o n s t i l l dominated the fringe pattern but 1 Map 53, P. 175. 2. Frank Hobbs School. 162 the prominence of the l a t t e r had forced the School Board to open new schools i n suburban sections, while most people preferred the inner sections of Greater V i c t o r i a the increased ownership of automobiles encouraged others to move to the more remote sections. School Enrollments i n Oak Bay 1951 - 1958 In the year 1958, both the Monterey School, serving south Oak Bay, and Willows School serving north Oak Bay, reg-i s t e r e d more students than they did i n 1951; the increase noted at the Willows School, however, was approximately three times greater than the one registered at Monterey School, The pattern of settlement i n the two sections of the munici-p a l i t y was quite d i f f e r e n t . In south Oak Bay, old estates were subdivided into smaller l o t s , and p r a c t i c a l l y every new home was b u i l t on one of these former estates. A common sight to see i n t h i s area i s several new homes b u i l t adjacent to a very much older, larger home. In most cases, the older home has been renovated into s u i t e s . Although t h i s settlement subdivision resulted i n increased numbers of pupils i n Monterey School, these increases were not as great as those to the north where e n t i r e l y new subdivisions were opened. In t h i s northern section, two large t r a c t s of land — the old Willows F a i r Ground (a) and a section of the old Hudson's Bay 1 farm (b) — were subdivided f o r r e s i d e n t i a l purposes. 1 Map 49, p. 157. 163 The pattern of settlement i n these two subdivisions was to open a few streets and to have p r a c t i c a l l y a l l l o t s b u i l t upon, before another street was opened. Streets upon which a l l new homes have been b u i l t , are common sights i n north Oak Bay. School Enrollments i n Esquimalt 1951 - 1958 The number of children who l i v e d south of L y a l l Street, i n the Esquimalt Municipality, had increased so rapi d l y be-tween the years 1951 and 1956 that the Macaulay School was b u i l t i n 1956 to serve t h i s section. The t o t a l enrollment i n the two Esquimalt Schools, Lampson and Macaulay, increased a f t e r 1951, but the major portion of the increase came from the section south of L y a l l Street, where i n the f o r t i e s a large subdivision had been opened (page 107). Smaller i n -creases were noted from the new subdivisions north of Craigflower Road (c) and (d). School Enrollment i n View Royal 1951 - 1958 View Royal i s a p r o v i n c i a l d i s t r i c t (E), which l i e s to the west of Esquimalt and Saanich. P r i o r to 1946, a l l school child r e n l i v i n g i n t h i s d i s t r i c t had attended V i c t o r i a schools. Although i t had been included i n the Greater V i c t o r i a School D i s t r i c t i n 1946, no school was b u i l t i n the d i s t r i c t u n t i l 1950. View Royal, l i k e the Cadboro Bay D i s t r i c t , appealed to l o c a l residents because of the proximity to s a l t water. Although the d i s t r i c t extended well over a mile to the north of the water, most people l i v e d between the 164 Old Island Highway and the water. The new school was b u i l t on Helmecken Road, the main north-south road, and about one-half mile from the water. The school was well located to s u i t the school population of 1950, although students l i v i n g i n the heavily populated section south of the Old Highway had to cross at an i n t e r s e c t i o n some distance from the school. The area to the north, however, possesses pot e n t i a l settlement, s i t e s ; and students who w i l l eventually l i v e i n these sections w i l l have at l e a s t a mile to walk to school, unless a new 2 school i s provided. Location of Hew Schools Five new schools were b u i l t i n the Greater V i c t o r i a area between 1951 and 1958: Frank Hobbs, Glanford, Macaulay, Richmond and James Bay. The James Bay School had been b u i l t 3 to replace the very old Kingston Street School. The new school has a large play area and i s located to the west of the former school on a site closer to the centre of population. Glanford School i s surrounded by newly subdivided land. The school, being located about one-half mile south of the northern border of D i s t r i c t #61, i s i n a good lo c a t i o n to serve the northern section around Glanford Avenue. Since the school i s approximately one-half mile from the proposed Lake H i l l School 1 Map 58, p. 193. 2 See section on the future, page 169. 3 A l l new schools i n t h i s chapter are located on map 50, p. 159. i n the east, and the same distance from Strawberry Vale School i n the west, students l i v i n g between any two of these schools w i l l be no more than one-half mile from the closer of the two. The Frank Hobbs School D i s t r i c t i n 1958 was most extensive. The school i s well located to serve the population but new schools w i l l have to be b u i l t within the present 1 boundaries of the Frank Hobbs. The location of these two l a t t e r schools beyond the concentrated area of population i l l u s t r a t e s the fri n g e pattern of growth which developed i n these years. Macaulay School i n Esquimalt possesses a fine play area but i s located too f a r to the east. Most of the area to the east of the school i s a National Defence Area, where few students l i v e . On the west, however, students l i v e over a mile from the school. Unfortunately when the large subdiv-i s i o n south of L y a l l Street was planned no school s i t e was included and l a t e r the school had to be b u i l t on the only large vacant space to the east. The Richmond School D i s t r i c t consists mainly of the land l y i n g south of Lansdowne Road and between Foul Bay Road 2 and Shelbourne S t r e e t . Most of t h i s section proved d i f f -i c u l t to drain and was the l a s t section i n southern Saanich to be subdivided. Three hundred new l o t s were opened i n t h i s d i s t r i c t between the years 1951 and 1958, with approximately 1 See chapter on the future on page 169. 2 Sketch map 3, p. 166. 166 LEGEND TO SKETCH MAP 3 LOCATION OF RICHMOND SCHOOL A Subdivision west of Richmond Road B Subdivision east of Richmond Road C Old Willows F a i r Grounds l a t e r to become Carnarvon Park - Residential Subdivision 1. Doncaster School 2. Oaklands School 3 . Richmond School 4 . Bank Street School 5. Willows School 167 one hundred and f i f t y located on each side of Richmond Road. New homes were b u i l t on these l o t s immediately and the sub-d i v i s i o n was almost completely occupied by 1958. The Richmond School had been constructed i n 1956 as a temporary school only; but by 1958 the enrollment had reached 235 students and the school could not accommodate a l l the students who l i v e d i n the 1 area. There seems l i t t l e doubt that t h i s school should have been constructed as a permanent one. Probably i t can best be u t i l i z e d as a large primary school, e n r o l l i n g students from grades one to three, and acting as a feeder school f o r Oaklands, Doncaster and Willows Schools. I t could have served the d i s t r i c t more favourably i f i t had been located a few blocks farther south. Unfortunately, however, i t s p o s i t i o n had to be i n r e l a t i o n to the p o s i t i o n of Doncaster School to the north and to have placed the Richmond School farther south would have increased the already great distance between these two schools. The d i f f i c u l t y i n l o c a t i n g Richmond School points out once again the great need f o r a comprehensive planning system designed to operate f a r i n t o the future. Summary The years between 1951 and 1958 were t r u l y growth years f o r the Greater V i c t o r i a area. The figures f o r t o t a l population and school enrollments were much higher. The urbanized section of Greater V i c t o r i a increased greatly. A l l 1 Some students from t h i s d i s t r i c t attended Oaklands. 168 the City, much of Oak Bay and Esquimalt, and a large section of southern Saanich with a narrow projection to Cadboro Bay, were urbanized. Generally the concentric pattern of popu-l a t i o n d i s t r i b u t i o n was followed with the urban areas grad-u a l l y but surely increasing i n r a d i i . Superimposed on t h i s major pattern, however, were two other patterns: 1. The f i l l i n g i n of l o t s r e l a t i v e l y close to town which had previously been considered i n f e r i o r — an i l l u s t r a t i o n that many people s t i l l wished to l i v e near the c i t y centre. Another manifestation of t h i s desire was the great increase i n apartment l i v i n g . 2. The fringe developments such as Gordon Head and Cadboro Bay which were se t t l e d i n advance of the urban densities — an i l l u s t r a t i o n that a minority of people, but s t i l l a considerable number, preferred the advantages of large suburban l o t s to the amenities of the c i t y . CHAPTER X l l l THE FUTURE The Size and D i s t r i b u t i o n of the Population The number of people l i v i n g i n the Greater V i c t o r i a area has ste a d i l y increased f o r over one hundred years and w i l l undoubtedly continue to increase. As already stated, Greater V i c t o r i a ' s economy i s d i r e c t l y related to the economy of the p r o v i n c i a l and federal governments; and there seems no reason to doubt that, f o r the near future at l e a s t , the econ-omies of these two governments w i l l continue to strengthen. Growth of V i c t o r i a City's Population and I t s Future D i s t r i b -ution Between the years 1931 and 1956, V i c t o r i a City's 1 population continued to increase at a f a i r l y steady rate. During these years, land was available f o r new homes; but a f t e r 1956, the c i t y did not possess a single large parcel of vacant land suitable f o r a r e s i d e n t i a l subdivision. This does not mean that the c i t y ' s population w i l l not continue to increase for each year more apartments are being b u i l t i n 2 Greater V i c t o r i a , the majority i n V i c t o r i a C i t y . In 1921 only 2$ of Greater V i c t o r i a f a m i l i e s l i v e d i n apartments; but 1 Graph 11, p. 118. 2 In 1941, 14.1$ of a l l housing units were apartments, i n 1951, the percentage was 17.9 and by 1956 the percentage had reached 19.6$. 170 1 by 1951 the number had reached 31%. The increase i n the size of V i c t o r i a ' s population w i l l be mainly attributable to t h i s increase i n the number of apartment dwellers. The age-distribution of the population w i l l therefore be expected to change. People who l i v e i n apartments seldom have small children and, thus the older age groups w i l l gradually become more dominant i n the t o t a l pop-u l a t i o n . There w i l l also be a s h i f t i n the locations of the various age groups. As most apartments are b u i l t close to the centre of town, and as older people tend to l i v e i n apartments, a r e l a t i v e l y high proportion of older-aged people w i l l be concentrated i n the town area. The trend to c i t y apartment l i v i n g w i l l undoubtedly continue, f o r while i n the past many r e t i r e d people moved to Saanich to take advantage of the low taxes, t h i s condition no longer e x i s t s . Saanich i s being forced to i n s t a l l the many l o c a l improvements which were f o r -merly ignored and as a r e s u l t taxes i n that sparsely populated municipality are r i s i n g r a p i d l y . Transportation fares have increased three-fold and the number of scheduled buses has been reduced. People w i l l f i n d i t more economical to l i v e i n an apartment than to pay higher taxes and higher transportation fares, V i c t o r i a City's School Age Population — I t s Growth The number of young people l i v i n g i n V i c t o r i a w i l l 1 Capital Region, page 7 . POPULATION D E N S I T Y OF SCHOOL - AGE STUDENTS N M A P L I I SCHOOL Df5 T R J C T NO. 61 GROUTH AREAS \or SCHOOL-AGE C H I L D R EN IS 5 1-54, L O S S • 0 - 9 7. G A I N cm io-1? 30-39 • 4 0 - 4 9 (ZD 5 0 - 5 9 m 4 0 - 6 9 173 probably continue to increase f o r a few years, l e v e l o f f and gradually decline. Various facts lead to t h i s conclusion. The b i r t h rate i n the C i t y , although not increasing at the 1946 - 48 rate, s t i l l continues to increase; and there seems to be no good reason why t h i s increase should not continue 1 2 f o r at least a few more years. The main factor contrib-uting to t h i s growth was not that Victorians were having 3 larger f a m i l i e s but that many new fa m i l i e s had moved int o the c i t y . V i c t o r i a , however, has few home-sites available and when these are occupied the number of fa m i l i e s i n the c i t y and the b i r t h rate w i l l l e v e l o f f . Steadily a f t e r that time the number of homes i n the c i t y w i l l decline since those near the c i t y centre are being razed to make way f o r the expanding commercial and apartment enterprises. The fa m i l i e s who l i v e d i n these homes have been forced to seek new ones outside the c i t y and as the expansion of the business section continues, the number of young children l i v i n g i n the c i t y w i l l decrease. School Age Population — I t s D i s t r i b u t i o n I t has already been forecast that few children w i l l 1 Graph 9, p. 116. 2 Graph 10, page 118 indicates the sharp increase i n the numbers of young people l i v i n g i n the c i t y between 1951 and 1956; and map 51, p. 171, indicates that p r a c t i c a l l y every section of the c i t y had, i n 1956, more children l i v i n g i n i t than i n 1951. 3 (a) Map 52, p. 172, reveals that most V i c t o r i a areas have a low percentage of children. (b) Only 9% of V i c t o r i a f a m i l i e s have 3 or 4 c h i l -dren compared with 11$ of Saanich f a m i l i e s . 174 l i v e near the c i t y centre. However, i n most other s e c t i o n s of the c i t y the numbers should show l i t t l e v a r i a t i o n since the number of homes i n these other s e c t i o n s w i l l remain f a i r l y constant. South-east F a i r f i e l d w i l l probably be the only exception, f o r t h e r e , i n 1956, a new s u b d i v i s i o n c o n s i s t i n g of one hundred and f i f t y l o t s was opened and many homes were immediately c o n s t r u c t e d . This d i s t r i c t w i l l undoubtedly be the l a s t i n V i c t o r i a t o be completely urbanized and i t there-f o r e can be expected that the number of c h i l d r e n l i v i n g there w i l l i n c r e a s e . New Schools For an elementary school the maximum enrollment con-s i d e r e d d e s i r a b l e by the Greater V i c t o r i a School Board i s 1 f i v e hundred. I n 1958, Oaklands, Margaret Jenkins, George Jay and S i r James Douglas Schools each e n r o l l e d more than t h i s number. I f the enrollments were t o be r e s t r i c t e d to the f a v -ourable maximum, new schools would be needed i n the C i t y . An elementary school s i t e , however, should possess approximately f i v e acres; and there i s not one p r o p e r l y - l o c a t e d , p o t e n t i a l school s i t e a v a i l a b l e w i t h i n the c i t y l i m i t s . There would seem t h e r e f o r e l i t t l e a l t e r n a t i v e but to increase the capacity of the present schools, w i t h the unfortunate r e s u l t that school grounds, which i n many in s t a n c e s are already inadequate, w i l l have t o be s a c r i f i c e d f o r a d d i t i o n a l b u i l d i n g s . However, 1 Desired by the Greater V i c t o r i a School Board. 176 most c i t y schools w i l l probably not again have large increases i n enrollment. Population of Saanich — I t s Growth The population of Saanich has not only continued to increase since the municipality was incorporated i n 1906 but the numbers have continued to increase more ra p i d l y i n every 1 decade. I t i s expected that the growth w i l l continue f o r many more years and that the rate w i l l be even more rapid. Such expectation hinges, of course, on the assumption that the economy of Greater V i c t o r i a w i l l continue to expand s u f f i c i e n t -l y to provide employment f o r new residents. Greater V i c t o r i a depends c h i e f l y upon the c i v i l services, the t o u r i s t trade, and the pensioners and r e t i r e d people who come here to l i v e , I f the populations of Canada and B. C. increase — and there i s every i n d i c a t i o n that they w i l l — then the c i v i l services w i l l probably be expanded, — and thus the basic employment increased. The t o u r i s t i s being lured to V i c t o r i a as never before:; a f i n e new f l e e t of f e r r i e s goes i n t o operation i n I960; some of the f i n e s t motels on the continent have been b u i l t ; and gradually entertainment f o r the summer v i s i t o r i s being provided. The increased number of pensioners who w i l l l i v e i n the area w i l l provide a t h i r d b o l s t e r i n g f a c t o r . Pensions are st e a d i l y becoming more common i n Canadian economy, and V i c t o r i a has some of the f i n e s t f a c i l i t i e s to o f f e r 1 Graph 11, p. 118. r e t i r e d people, (page 61).. The V i c t o r i a and Island Publicity-Bureau i s adopting an aggressive policy of p u b l i c i z i n g these features by advertising i n p r a i r i e papers. I t i s reasonable, therefore, to anticipate employment opportunities f o r an i n -creased population. Where w i l l these new people f i n d homes? Map 53, page 175, shows that Saanich has land available — t r a c t s of land not yet subdivided, as well as l o t s already on the market, and i n v a r i e t y from the small medium priced l o t s i n the Burnside area to the large expensive ones i n Ten Mile Point. Moreover, Saanich i s the only municipality i n Greater V i c t o r i a which does have such an appreciable amount of vacant land: i f new people come i n , they must come to Saanich. Hence the forecast of continuing mounting population i n that mun-i c i p a l i t y . Some idea of the size of Saanich's future population may be gained by extending the l i n e s on graph 11, page 118, u n t i l these l i n e s cross. The point of i n t e r s e c t i o n indicates that, i f the past rate of increase continues, the t o t a l pop-u l a t i o n of Saanich w i l l equal the population of V i c t o r i a C i t y by the year 1966. The population w i l l , by that date, have increased by over 20,000 people i n ten years. A forecast of 20,000 more people i s probably conservative, f o r i t i s based on the assumption that growth w i l l continue at the same rate as i n the past; whereas as already indicated i n t h i s chapter the expectation i s that the rate w i l l increase. Should t h i s expectation be r e a l i z e d , then the Saanich l i n e on THEJAANIICH JFCTION OF DISTRICT 61 M A P L I V • NOW U R B A N 178 LEGEND TO MAP L1V/ SCHOOL LOCATIONS IN 1958; POSSIBLE POPULATION DISTRIBUTION TO  1966 A West Burnside D i s t r i c t B Glanford D i s t r i c t C North Quadra Street - Cedar H i l l Road D i s t r i c t D Cadboro Bay D i s t r i c t E Gordon Head D i s t r i c t F Strawberry Vale D i s t r i c t 1. Strawberry Vale School 2. Craigflower School 3. T i l l i c u m School 4 . Tolmie School 5. Cloverdale School 6. Doncaster School 7. Richmond School 8. Frank Hobbs School 9. Cedar H i l l School 10. Glanford School 11. McKenzie School 12. Gordon Head School 179 the graph would become much more perpendicular than previously, and therefore the increase by 1966 would be considerably higher than 20,000 people. Future Population of Saanich — I t s D i s t r i b u t i o n Where i n the Saanich Municipality w i l l 20,000 new residents l i v e ? Two patterns of settlement have been followed by the present residents of Saanich, and i t seems probable that these same two patterns w i l l continue. Most Saanich residents l i v e i n the urbanized section of the municipality. These people had perhaps set t l e d there to take advantage of the low taxes, nevertheless as commuters they wished to l i v e as close to the town as possible. The most densely populated sections of Saanich are along i t s southern border. Other Saanich residents have not wished to follow the pattern of settlement which has been c l o s e l y linked to urbanization and these people have settled i n widely separated sections of the municipality. Such distant sections as Cadboro Bay, Gordon Head, McKenzie Avenue and Strawberry Vale, were set t l e d very early i n the hi s t o r y of Saanich. However, i f the conventional concentric pattern p e r s i s t s most new residents w i l l probably s e t t l e just north of the present urbanized section, pushing 1 further north the boundary of the densely s e t t l e d area. Newly urbanized t e r r i t o r y would i n that case include the West Burnside (A), Glanford (B), north Quadra-Cedar H i l l Road (C), 1 Map 54, P. 178. 180 and the Cadboro Bay regions (D). Gordon Head (E) promises to be much more extensively populated — but, because of the large extent of available land, the d i s t r i c t probably w i l l not be c l a s s i f i e d as urban even by the year 1966, The north-western section, Strawberry Vale ( F ) , w i l l undoubtedly have more residents — and a small section perhaps w i l l be urban-ized. This area, however, has never been popular with most Vict o r i a n s , Two main factors have attracted V i c t o r i a n s to a p a r t i c u l a r r e s i d e n t i a l area: i t s proximity.to the town, or to the s a l t water. Strawberry Vale, while possessing some very fi n e home-sites, has neither of these advantages, and i n the whole north-western section there was not one large, developed 1 subdivision i n 1958. This however, merely emphasizes that here i s an area waiting to be s e t t l e d . School Age Population — I t s Size The t o t a l population of Saanich i n 1956 was approx-imately 15,000 les s than the t o t a l population of V i c t o r i a . In school-age population, however, the difference between V i c t o r i a and Saanich was l e s s than 2,000. In 1959, the number of children who reside i n Saanich i s probably equal to the number of children who l i v e i n V i c t o r i a . Since the b i r t h rate i n Saanich i s increasing much more rapidly than the rate i n 1 The prediction r e l a t i n g to the new d i s t r i b u t i o n of the population has been based on the following sources: (a) subdivision maps (b) previous patterns of settlement followed by residents of Saanich. V i c t o r i a and since new fam i l i e s w i l l soon have to locate i n Saanich i t i s apparent that i n a very few years Saanich w i l l have many more children than the C i t y . An estimate of the increase i n the number of children who might l i v e i n Saanich within the next f i v e years i s plotted by the extension of the l i n e on graph 10, page 118. An approximate increase of some f i v e thousand children i s indicated. As previously explained the estimate of a f i v e thousand increase i n c h i l d population i n Saanich would, undoubtedly, be a conservative one. Because i n 1956 Saanich possessed more than twice as many children between the ages 0 - 4 as between the ages 15 - 19, the future increase i n the number of children w i l l be at a much higher rate than the increase i n 1951 - 56. The number of children i n the 15 - 19 age-bracket was extremely small during the l a t t e r period, since these children were born eith e r at the end of the depression, or during the war — both periods with very low b i r t h rates. The enrollments i n Saanich schools w i l l increase greatly i n the next ten years. Increases i n school e n r o l l -ments, however, usually lag behind increases i n school-age population. This lag .occurs because the increase i n school-age population r e s u l t s from two sources; the immigration of children into a region and the natural increase within the region. The f i r s t of these sources reacts immediately on enrollments, only f o r those new residents over s i x years of age. The second source does not react on enrollment u n t i l s i x years a f t e r increased b i r t h s take place. Even with t h i s THE S A A N I C H 5 F C T I 0 N OF DISTRICT 61 MAP TVT LEGEND TO MAP LV1 PRESENT (1958) AND FUTURE SCHOOLS a Craigflower School b T i l l i c u m School c Tolmie School d Cloverdale School e Richmond School f Doncaster School g Cedar H i l l School h Frank Hobbs School i Gordon Head School j McKenzie Avenue School H Trans-Canada Highway k Glanford School 1 Strawberry Vale School 1. New school to augment the T i l l i c u m School 2. New school to augment the Cloverdale School 3. New school to augment the Doncaster School 4. New Ten Mile Point School 5. 6, 7, 8, 9« To augment the Gordon Head and Frank Hobbs Schools 10. New school to replace the Cedar H i l l School. 11. New school f o r north Cedar-Hill D i s t r i c t . 12. New school f o r north Central section. 13. New school to augment Glanford School 14. 15. New schools f o r south-western Burnside. 16. New school for north Strawberry Vale. time-lag, there seems l i t t l e doubt that the enrollment i n Saanich Schools w i l l double i n l e s s than ten years. School Age Population — I t s D i s t r i b u t i o n In Saanich the d i s t r i b u t i o n of school-age children i n r e l a t i o n to the t o t a l population was r e l a t i v e l y consistent throughout the municipality i n 1956; a l l d i s t r i c t s having a 1 high percentage of young residents. In t h i s way, Saanich d i f f e r e d from V i c t o r i a where the d i s t r i b u t i o n was most uneven. Saanich has p r a c t i c a l l y no apartments or large commercial sections; the whole municipality i s b a s i c a l l y a r e s i d e n t i a l area, and children, therefore are concentrated i n the same sections as the t o t a l population. New Schools — Their Locations Although map 54, page 178, indicates that a l l sections of Saanich probably w i l l not be urbanized by 1966, schools should be planned f o r the whole area. The Capital Region Planning Board predicts: "At the end of the planning period (1976) the Greater V i c t o r i a School D i s t r i c t w i l l be almost 2 f u l l y developed". Elementary School s i t e s should have an area of f i v e acres and, unless these s i t e s are purchased i n the very near future, l e v e l land i n such quantities and i n 3 the desired areas w i l l not be a v a i l a b l e . 1 Map 54, page 178. 2 A plan f o r the Capital Region of B.C., the Capital Region Planning Board, p. 55. 3 Greater V i c t o r i a School Board. 185 Map 56, page 183, indicates the suggested locations fo r the required new schools. The municipality has s u f f i c i e n t 1 schools located along the southern border. A l l these schools, however, except Craigflower and Richmond, had, i n 1958, approximately the maximum desired enrollments. Tolmie School centres an already heavily populated d i s t r i c t ; i t i s doubtful i f the enrollment i n t h i s school w i l l increase. T i l l i c u m , Cloverdale and Doncaster Schools have, however, many vacant l o t s nearby and the enrollments i n these schools can be expected to become larger. I f the f i v e hundred max-imum enrollment fig u r e i s to be maintained, new schools w i l l have to be b u i l t . The areas to the north of T i l l i c u m and Cloverdale Schools are the d i s t r i c t s s t i l l possessing land fo r potential settlement; the new schools therefore should be located to the north of those two schools. The new school to augment the T i l l i c u m School should be b u i l t h a l f way between T i l l i c u m School and McKenzie Avenue School. Unfortunately there i s no land available f o r a school s i t e i n t h i s l o c a t i o n . Two other properties, however, are available, to the north and to the south of the desired l o c a t i o n . The more northerly one (I) probably should be chosen since i t i s from t h i s area that the new children w i l l come, and i n addition children from t h i s northern section would no longer have to cross the 2 Trans-Canada Highway. The proposed school (2) to augment 1 Map 54, P. 178. 2 This proposed school and a l l other proposed Saanich schools are located on map 56, p. 183. 186 the Cloverdale School should be b u i l t about one-half mile north of the Cloverdale School since the unpopulated sections l i e i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n . Good school locations are available i n t h i s general area. The school to augment the Doncaster School (3) should be b u i l t approximately one-half mile to the south of the l a t t e r school where good property i s a v a i l a b l e . The more northern sections of Saanich w i l l also need several more schools. In the north-east — i n the Ten Mile Point area — much settlement has taken place, and i n 1958, many students were walking over one and one-half miles to school. A suggested location (4), which would p r a c t i c a l l y centre the area, i s indicated on map 56, page I83. The Gordon Head area w i l l eventually need more schools. In 1958, the pupils from t h i s d i s t r i c t had long distances to walk. Five new schools ( 5 ) , ( 6 ) , ( 7 ) , (8 ) , (9 ) , are suggested f o r t h i s d i s t r i c t . Gordon Head, as indicated on page 180, i s already a popular d i s t r i c t and undoubtedly w i l l be heavily populated within the next few years. While these f i v e schools may open with small enrollments they w i l l with expansions serve adequate l y f o r many years. To postpone the purchasing of any one of these s i t e s would probably r e s u l t i n inadequate f a c i l i t i e s i n the very near future. The d i s t r i c t from Cedar H i l l School north w i l l soon be much more highly urbanized and w i l l require new schools. The present Cedar H i l l School grounds are rocky and possess very li m i t e d play area. The s i t e should be sold f o r r e s i d e n t i a l purposes, and a new one purchased s l i g h t l y further north (10) . A choice of good potential locations i s 187 available i n t h i s area. Farther to the north of the suggested l o c a t i o n , i n a section very l i g h t l y populated i n 1958, land should also be purchased (11). Much of t h i s l a t t e r section w i l l be d i f f i c u l t to drain but eventually the pressure f o r new homes w i l l force the settlement of the area. A new school (12) w i l l be required also i n the north-central section. Many homes are being b u i l t i n t h i s d i s t r i c t and i t probably w i l l be urbanized by 1966. Between t h i s proposed school (12) and the Glanford School (k) l i e s another area which w i l l be d i f f i c u l t to d rain. Here too the pressure f o r homes may become so great that even t h i s section w i l l be u t i l i z e d . This land i s low priced, i t would seem a safe p o l i c y to purchase a . possible school s i t e (13) even though i t may be some years before a school may be required. Again land i s being sub-divided i n the Western Burnside area, and schools must follow. Two locations are suggested (14) and (15). Between school (15) and the d i s t r i c t ' s western boundary, l i e s an undeveloped section, which possesses inadequate access roads and u n t i l such time as these roads are provided new schools cannot be located. To the-north of Strawberry Vale School i s an area which i n 1958 was very sparsely populated. I t does, however, contain some f i n e home-sites and w i l l undoubtedly be developed i n the future. School (16) has been suggested f o r the l a t t e r area. A l l suggested schools are located on good roads and i f the properties were purchased Saanich could then b u i l d adequate schools to meet the needs of any future population. I8S MAP TVTT OAK BAY 5 PRESENT ( 1 9 5 8 ) A N D PUT U RE SCHOOLS I S U G G E S T E D S C H O O L 1 S U G G E S T E D S C H O O L 3 W I L L O W S S C H O O L 4 M O N T E R E X SC H 00 L A (JPLANbS GOL F COURSE B L A N S D O W N E SUBDIVISION ""-E C U P L A N D S ^ D) S O U T H U P L A N D S . E C A R N A R V O N ' , P A R K 189 Oak Bay's Total Population — I t s Growth The t o t a l population of Oak Bay has continued to increase ever since the municipality was inaugurated i n 1906. The growth a f t e r 1921 i s plotted on graph 11, page 118. The municipality has had a very d i f f e r e n t develop-mental policy from that of Saanich. Since the time of the l a t t e r municipality's inauguration, a l l sections of Saanich have been made available f o r settlement. In Oak Bay, however, only r e l a t i v e l y small sections were opened at any one time. The r e s u l t of t h i s settlement p o l i c y i n Oak Bay has been that population increases have been r e l a t i v e l y small, but always steady. There i s a strong p r o b a b i l i t y that the number of people r e s i d i n g i n Oak Bay w i l l continue to increase s t e a d i l y u n t i l 1961; a f t e r that date, with no more land available the rate of increase should drop sharply. In 1958, Oak Bay had only one large t r a c t of undeveloped land available f o r r e s i -d e n t i a l purposes — the Lansdowne Subdivision. This land, situated between the Uplands Golf Course and the Saanich border, possessed approximately three hundred highly desireable 2 l o t s (B). The area, which i s close to town and to s a l t water, has a high a l t i t u d e . Trees grace most of the l o t s ; and a l l improvements such as sidewalks, sewers, drains and street l i g h t s are provided. Because of these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s there 1 Graph 11, page 118. 2 Map 57, page 188. 190 seems l i t t l e doubt that the subdivision w i l l be completely occupied by 196l. A f t e r 1961 Uplands w i l l be the only d i s t r i c t 1 i n Oak Bay which w i l l contain a number of p o t e n t i a l homesites. Lots i n t h i s l a t t e r d i s t r i c t , however, are very expensive and because of the cost many potential home-owners w i l l s e t t l e i n Saanich rather than i n Oak Bay. Therefore, a f t e r the Lansdowne Subdivision i s completely occupied, probably i n 1961, the rate of increase of Oak Bay's population w i l l lessen. The Population — I t s D i s t r i b u t i o n After 1940, f o r the f i r s t time, more homes were b u i l t i n North Oak Bay then i n the South. This s h i f t to the north w i l l be greatly emphasized i n the next few years, f o r some f i v e hundred homes w i l l be constructed there while p r a c t i c a l l y none can be constructed i n the south. For the reasons ex-plained i n the above paragraphs, most people who between the years 1958 and 196l purchase new homes i n Oak Bay w i l l purchase them i n the Lansdowne Subdivision. A smaller number of people w i l l buy homes i n the Uplands. After 1961, p r a c t i c a l l y every new home bought i n Oak Bay w i l l be located i n the Uplands. School Age Population — I t s Growth The number of young people l i v i n g i n Oak Bay increased 2 sharply between 1951 and 1956. Two subdivisions, the south 1 One hundred and f i f t y home-sites are s t i l l available i n the Uplands, Oak Bay Municipal O f f i c e , 1958. 2 Graph 10, p. 11$. 191 Uplands (D) and the Carnarvon Park (E), were opened during these years. These two subdivisions contained a t o t a l of 275 home-sites. The Carnarvon Park Subdivision was made up of 175 r e l a t i v e l y small, medium-priced l o t s and many couples with 1" young families bought homes i n t h i s area. By 1958 very few vacant l o t s remained i n t h i s subdivision. The South Uplands subdivision contained one hundred large, r e l a t i v e l y expensive l o t s . Middle-aged people with older children were attracted to t h i s section and property was s t i l l available there i n 1958. In a l l probability, the rate of increase i n school age popu-l a t i o n maintained between 1951 and 1956, w i l l continue u n t i l 1961. Because the Carnarvon Park Subdivision i s mainly pop-ulated by young f a m i l i e s , the natural growth i n the size of the d i s t r i c t ' s population w i l l continue. The increase from the Carnarvon Park area w i l l be supplemented by the i n f l u x of new residents i n t o the Lansdowne Subdivisions. After 1961, as previously mentioned, the Lansdowne Subdivision w i l l prob-ably be completely occupied; any addition to the Oak Bay's school-age population w i l l be,mainly from natural b i r t h s . From that date, then, the rate of increase of Oak Bay's school-age population w i l l decline. I f , as suggested, the rate increase between 1951 and 1956 continues u n t i l 1961, then there w i l l be approximately 1000 more school-age children l i v i n g 1 The author used the 2100 block N e i l Street as a sample. The block contains twenty-nine homes and forty-seven school-age (0-19) children l i v e i n t h i s block. Twenty-four of the children were too young to attend school and only two homes had no children. 192 1 i n Oak Bay. Many more children w i l l be l i v i n g i n both the Carnarvon Park and the Lansdowne Subdivisions. The South Uplands Sub-d i v i s i o n w i l l probably be completely occupied by 1961 and therefore, a few more children w i l l reside there and w i l l provide a small increase i n school age population. Schools The Greater V i c t o r i a School Board has planned a new school (1) f o r the Lansdowne Subdivision. This school i s to be b u i l t as a six roomed school. However, as the subdivision 2 develops, t h i s size w i l l be inadequate. The Carnarvon Park area i s the other Oak Bay d i s t r i c t which requires a school, but there i s not s u f f i c i e n t property available i n t h i s d i s t r i c t . However, across Foul Bay Road i n Saanich, possible locations s t i l l e x i s t , and undoubtedly 3 property should be bought i n t h i s section. I f a school i s not b u i l t at such a l o c a t i o n , the students w i l l have to attend Willows School (3) and t h i s school, i n 1958, already enrolled 818" students — well over the desired maximum. In a l l p r o b a b i l i t y , south Oak Bay w i l l not require another school. The d i s t r i c t i s completely urbanized and map 52, page 172, reveals that the increase i n the number of 1 Graph 10, p. 118. 2 In the Greater V i c t o r i a School D i s t r i c t children do not attend the schools which exist i n the municipality i n which the children l i v e . 3i Graph 11, p. 118. E S Q U I M A L T -V I E W R O Y A L SUBDIVISIONS a n d SCHOOLS LEGEND TO MAP LV11L ESQUIMALT - VIEW ROYAL SUBDIVISIONS AND SCHOOLS A Po t e n t i a l Subdivision i n Western Esquimalt Pot e n t i a l Subdivision north of OLD ESQUIMALT ROAD C Gorge Vale Golf Links D Federal Government Property E H.M.C.S. Naden 1. Lampson Street School 2. Esquimalt High School 3 . Proposed Junior High School 4 . Macaulay School 5. Proposed Elementary School 6. View Royal School. young people l i v i n g there, between the years 1951 and 1956, was f a r below the Greater V i c t o r i a average increase, Esquimalt Ts Total Population — I t s Size Unfortunately, the figures quoted i n the 1941 and 1951 1 Census f o r the population of Esquimalt require i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . The 1941 figure should have been higher and the 1951 figure should have been lower. When the 1951 figure i s adjusted downwards, the rate of increase i n Esquimalt fs population between the years 1951 and 1956 becomes higher. In a l l prob-a b i l i t y , the rate of increase i n the population between 1956 and 1961 w i l l be lower than the rate of increase between 1951 and 1956. The large subdivision south of L y a l l Street was opened during the l a t t e r f i v e years; and, by 1956 was completely occupied. Since 1956, Esquimalt has had no new subdivision into which large numbers of people have moved and thus the increase i n population due to immigration was eliminated. Immigration might well become important again i f any of the four possible subdivision areas e x i s t i n g i n the munic-2 i p a l i t y were developed. Two areas, the one along the mun-i c i p a l i t y ' s western boundary (A), the other, the section north of Old Esquimalt Road (B3), are both very rocky; l o c a l improve-ment costs w i l l prove very expensive. Stories have often c i r c u l a t e d that the Golf Course (c) w i l l be subdivided, making 1 Graph 11, p. 118. 2 Map 53, P. 175. 195 a t h i r d area; but up to 1959 these have proved to be only-rumors. The fourth possible subdivision s i t e i s the property owned by the Federal Government (D). Homes f o r m i l i t a r y per-sonel have already been constructed on t h i s property and there i s always the p o s s i b i l i t y that the government w i l l construct more homes on the property. Esquimalt had, therefore, i n 1959, no large section available f o r new residents. Nor i s i t l i k e l y to have one i n the near future since there i s no i n d i c a t i o n of any immediate development of the four areas mentioned. Map 44, page 142, reveals the d i s t r i b u t i o n of Esqui-malt' s population i n 1956. For the reasons presented i n the above paragraphs, the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the population, at lea s t u n t i l 1961, w i l l probably be very s i m i l i a r to that of 1956. School Age Population — I t s Size The size of the school age population w i l l , most l i k e l y , continue to increase between 1956 and 1966; but not to the extent of the increase shown between 1951 and 1956. While predictions of the changes i n size of the population a f t e r 1966 may prove unreliable, predictions on the changes up to 1966 can be well supported. The rate of growth of Esquimalt's school age population w i l l probably decline between 1956 and 1966. P r i o r to 1956, homes had been b u i l t on p r a c t i c a l l y every available s i t e . After t h i s date therefore, the number of fam i l i e s l i v i n g i n the municipality did not increase; and the increase of school age children as a r e s u l t of immigration 196 was cut o f f . I t i s true that many Esquimalt families are connected with the m i l i t a r y services; transfers and retirements are therefore numerous. As a r e s u l t , immigration and emigra-t i o n are common to the municipality but they cancel each other. The older children of r e t i r e d personnel are replaced by the younger childre n of the new r e c r u i t s and thus the number of children remains approximately the same. As the retirements and recruitments form a continuous cycle the age d i s t r i b u t i o n of the municipality's children shows l i t t l e v a r i a t i o n . Although the rate of growth i n the school age popula-t i o n w i l l decline, the actual number of young people l i v i n g i n the municipality w i l l increase. Map 55, page 182, reveals that f a m i l i e s i n Esquimalt have a greater number of children than most f a m i l i e s i n the other sections of Greater V i c t o r i a . For example, although the population of the Esquimalt munic-i p a l i t y was l e s s than that of Oak Bay, more children were born to Esquimalt parents since 1948 than to those of Oak Bay. The population of Esquimalt i n 1951 was a r e l a t i v e l y young population; 40% of the people i n the l a t t e r municipality were between twenty and t h i r t y - f o u r years of age, while i n the 2. municipality of Oak Bay only 17% were between the same years. Because the Esquimalt Municipality had such a young population, the increase i n population due to natural b i r t h s undoubtedly w i l l continue. 1 Graph 12, p. 138 2 Census 1951. 197 The period f o r which the increase w i l l continue may not extend beyond 1966. As few home-sites i n the municipality were available a f t e r 1956, the number of families l i v i n g i n the municipality i n 1966 w i l l be r e l a t i v e l y the same number 1 as i n 1956. By 1966, then, most fa m i l i e s would have been established f o r at least ten years; and, a f t e r that period of time, there probably would be very few additional children born. School Age Population — I t s Size a f t e r 1966 The subdividable land i n Esquimalt includes approx-imately 400 l o t s and i f t h i s land were opened the number of 2 c h i l d r e n i n the municipality would be increased by over 680. I f , however, as already explained, the property i s not opened there w i l l be very l i t t l e v a r i a t i o n i n the number of children a f t e r 1966. School Age Children — Population D i s t r i b u t i o n to 1966 A l l sections of Esquimalt possess a high r a t i o of children (map 50, page 159), and as there are few apartments located i n the municipality the children are concentrated i n the same areas as the t o t a l population. 1 Assuming that the undeveloped subdivisions were not occupied, 2 The 1956 Census shows the average family had 1,7 children. Parents, however, were young and therefore the average family would undoubtedly increase. 198 New Schools Two elementary schools served the municipality i n 1958, The Lampson Street School i s situated i n approximately the middle of the municipality and i n 1958 enrolled 660 students. The Macaulay School was opened i n 1956, to serve the newly-developed, southern section of the municipality, and i n 1958 enrolled 325 students i n grades one to four only. Esquimalt i s one of the Greater V i c t o r i a d i s t r i c t s without a Junior High School; and such a school i s badly needed i n t h i s municipality. In 1958, grade seven students were taught at Lampson Street School, and the grades eight and nine students were taught i n the High School. Between the two schools, 440 students were enrolled i n the grades seven, eight and nine. The l o c a t i o n of the Junior High School should be central and a good s i t e 1 i s a v a i l a b l e . The opening of such a school would re l i e v e the Lampson Street School, but not the Macaulay School. This l a t t e r , therefore, w i l l require more classrooms. New Schools a f t e r 1966 As the population of Greater V i c t o r i a increases, and property becomes even more d i f f i c u l t to procure, the two rocky sections of Esquimalt w i l l undoubtedly be developed. A new school s i t e should therefore be purchased to the East of the 2 Naden Barracks (E). This school would serve the western 1 Chapter XIV, p. 202. 2 Map 58, p. 193. 199 section of the municipality, a section from which i n 1958 many students walked a mile to school. Summary Nineteen new elementary schools have been suggested f o r the Greater V i c t o r i a area. Some are needed immediately while others w i l l not be required f o r perhaps f i f t e e n years. However, as r e s i d e n t i a l subdivisions are gradually encroaching on many of the suggested locations a l l should be purchased immediately. The proposed locations of the new schools (map 56,57, 58) are based on the concentric pattern of population d i s t r i b -ution which has been continually followed; -T of the nineteen schools, fourteen w i l l be located beyond the urban densities of 1956 (map 54, page 178). Gradually as the population spread from the centre of town most subdividable land was b u i l t upon and schools were b u i l t to accommodate the new f a m i l i e s . In V i c t o r i a City a l l large sections of land are now b u i l t upon and although some schools have become too large, no desirable locations are available f o r new ones. Oak Bay, Esquimalt and Saanich, however, did not so rapidly or completely b u i l d up t h e i r vacant land; that land i s now being occupied and f i v e new schools (1) (3) i n Saanich; (l) (2) i n Oak Bay and (5) i n Esquimalt have been suggested to serve those areas. The remainder of the new schools w i l l serve the outer d i s t r i c t s which gradually w i l l be occupied. The locations of the new schools as designated i n t h i s 200 thesis match very c l o s e l y those plotted by the Capital Region 1 Planning Board. There are, however, at l e a s t four major differences: 1. School (1) i n Saanich (page 183) has been located north of the Highway while the Town Planners have located i t south of the Highway. 2. School (3) (page 183) i n Saanich has not been suggested by the Town Planners, 3. School (2) (map 57, page 188) has not been recommended by the Planning Board. 4. School (5) (map 58, page 193) has also been ommitted. In each case the reasons f o r these locations have been given at the time of the discussion. 1 Capital Region Planning Board of B. C , The Capital  Region Plan. V i c t o r i a , 1959, p. 36. LEGEND TO MAP L1X PRESENT (1958) AND PAST SENIOR AND JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOLS 1. O r i g i n a l V i c t o r i a High School 2. O r i g i n a l Oak Bay High School 3. Present V i c t o r i a High School 4. Present Oak Bay High School 5. Or i g i n a l Saanich High School 6. Mount View High School 7. O r i g i n a l and Present Esquimalt High School 8. Mount Douglas High School a Central Junior High School b Oak Bay Junior High School c Lansdowne Junior High School d S.J. W i l l i s Junior High School e Colquitz Junior High School CHAPTER XIV THE DEVELOPMENT OF GREATER VICTORIA SENIOR AND JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOLS A l l Senior High Schools i n the Greater V i c t o r i a area were b u i l t before the Greater V i c t o r i a School D i s t r i c t was created i n 1946. These schools were b u i l t therefore to serve the i n d i v i d u a l m u n icipalities and not the d i s t r i c t as a whole. On the other hand, of the f i v e Junior High Schools e x i s t i n g i n 1958, a l l but one had opened a f t e r the Greater V i c t o r i a School D i s t r i c t was established and were constructed to serve the whole d i s t r i c t . In 1878 the f i r s t V i c t o r i a City High School was estab-l i s h e d i n the old log cabin Colonial School. The elementary school, which to that date had occupied the log cabin school, had i n 1876 been moved to a new building.- This High School was not only the f i r s t High School i n V i c t o r i a but also the f i r s t i n the province. The years from 1880 to 1900 were those during which the size of V i c t o r i a ' s population increased greatly. The number of students enrolled at the High School r e f l e c t e d t h i s increase: i n 1901 the enrollment was nearly three times that of the 1BB1 enrollment. The log cabin school proved inadequate to cope with the increased number of students and a new brick building was opened i n 1902. This new b u i l d -ing was on the same si t e but to the east of the old school, and was c e n t r a l l y located to serve the population as i t was 203 1 d i s t r i b u t e d i n 1901. By 1911, elementary school enrollments had increased by over 1000 students and the High School enrollment stood at 365» The High School building was badly needed to house the greater number of elementary students and the School Board members must have r e a l i z e d that a new High School would soon be required. The members caught the enthusiasm of the time: i n 1910, a f t e r studying twenty d i f f e r e n t locations they pur-chased a s i t e on the eastward fringe of the population den-s i t i e s , and by 1914 had an excellent thirty-two roomed school constructed. At that time most students l i v e d to the west of the school (map 21, page 72) but i t s lo c a t i o n , close to mid-point of V i c t o r i a City, was well chosen for future populations. I t has remained the only c i t y high school and i n 1958 very few students t r a v e l l e d over two miles to reach i t . 2 Saanich High Schools Before 1925 High School students from Saanich t r a v e l l e d to V i c t o r i a High School. In 1925, however, a Saanich High 3 School was opened i n the old Tolmie Elementary School. The location was well suited to serve the urbanized section of Saanich but no one school could f u l l y serve a t e r r i t o r y which extended over four miles to the east of i t , as t h i s 1 Maps 14, p. 42; map 21, p. 72. 2 Saanich refers to only that part of Saanich within D i s t r i c t 61. 3 This b u i l d i n g i s s t i l l used as an annex to-day. 204 1 d i s t r i c t did. Two High Schools were b u i l t i n Saanich i n 1931* The Mount View High School, with eleven classrooms, was located i n the heavily populated western Saanich d i s t r i c t . The Mount Douglas High School, with four classrooms, was con-structed to serve the sparsely populated eastern section of the municipality. These two schools, with additions, remained i n 1958 the.only two High Schools i n the Saanich section of D i s t r i c t #61. New High Schools w i l l have to be b u i l t i n the near future to augment the o r i g i n a l two and the suggested s i t e s f o r the new schools are indicated on map 60, page 208. Oak Bay High Schools The o r i g i n a l Oak Bay High School was opened i n 1913 2 i n what had been the Oak Bay Elementary School. The loca-t i o n had proved inadequate to serve such a large d i s t r i c t as Oak Bay and two new elementary schools had been b u i l t . The High School, though i t served well the population of 1913, was b u i l t on a rocky s i t e and very l i t t l e space was available for playgrounds. In 1929 a new High School was constructed i n Oak Bay on the corner of Cranmore and Cadboro Bay Roads. This building i s c e n t r a l l y located i n the municipality (map 59, page 201), and p r a c t i c a l l y a l l students l i v e within two miles of i t . With additions the High School should continue to be adequate f o r the future. 1 Map 59, p. 201. 2 Page 68. 205 Esquimalt High Schools Esquimalt opened a high school i n 1915. I t occupied two classrooms and, l a t e r , a small annex-like room on the upper f l o o r of the present Lampson Street Elementary School. Some years l a t e r i t moved to what i s now the Island Weavers and eventually i n 1926 a three roomed school was b u i l t . This school was located on the present (1958) High School grounds. Large additions were made to t h i s school i n 1943 and 1951. The school i s well located and with renovations could s a t i s f y the future requirements. P r a c t i c a l l y a l l pupils l i v e within two miles of the school. Junior High Schools The Junior High Schools are r e l a t i v e l y new additions to the Greater V i c t o r i a School System. The Central Junior High School, which opened i n 1936 i n the old Central Elementary School, was the only one opened before D i s t r i c t #6l was estab-l i s h e d . This school did not e n r o l l a l l the grade 7, 8, and 9 students from V i c t o r i a City schools but only those who wished a more p r a c t i c a l course. Students who desired a more academic programme remained i n the elementary schools. The central l o c a t i o n of the school was therefore most suitable, as students from a l l d i s t r i c t s i n the c i t y attended. I t was not opened i n response to population pressures but to serve an advance i n educational philosophy. As mentioned, t h i s was not a new school but simply an elementary school converted to a Junior High School and thus no greater school accommodation was 206 provided. A l l other Junior High Schools were new schools i n s t i -tuted i n accordance with the new educational philosophy but 1 also i n response to s p e c i f i c population pressures. The S. J. W i l l i s opened i n 1950 to r e l i e v e the overcrowded elemen-tary schools serving the central western sections of the school d i s t r i c t . The area surrounding the school was very heavily populated but the school served students as f a r as d i s t r i c t 6 l T s northern boundary and t h i s l a t t e r section was sparsely populated (map 42, page 137) . Most students l i v e d within one mile of the school but some from the northern section t r a v e l l e d up to four miles. The east-central and south-eastern sections of Greater V i c t o r i a were heavily populated by the early 1950 fs. Oak Bay Junior High was opened i n 1952 to r e l i e v e the south-western elementary schools and Lansdowne i n 1954 to serve the east-central and north-eastern sections. Students attending the Oak Bay Junior High School had short distances to t r a v e l . Many of those attending Lansdowne came from the t h i c k l y pop-ulated area surrounding i t , but a number from the north came a long distance. In t h i s l a t t e r s i t u a t i o n Lansdowne was sim-i l a r to the S. J. W i l l i s Junior High School. Unfortunately the population densities to the north of these two were not 1 By 1950 the philosophy of the Junior High School had been accepted i n Greater V i c t o r i a . These schools offered a broader course than was available i n the elementary schools and because of the large concentration of students i n any one grade l e v e l more homogeneous grouping was possible. heavy enough i n the early f i f t i e s to warrant the construction of a d d i t i o n a l Junior High Schools. By 1956, however, the Burnside, T i l l i c u m , McKenzie Avenue d i s t r i c t s north of S. J . W i l l i s were quite heavily populated (map 54, page 178), and the Colquitz Junior High School was b u i l t f o r these sections. Map 59, page 201, indicates that many students l i v i n g north of Colquitz School have long distances to t r a v e l . The Esquimalt Municipality was the only municipality i n 1958 which did not contain a Junior High School. As pre-vi o u s l y mentioned, such a school should be constructed i n 1 that municipality. Summary A l l the new Junior and Senior High Schools (except the Esquimalt School) w i l l be located to the north of the present schools (map 60, page 208). These outer locations are based of course on the b e l i e f that the concentric pattern of population d i s t r i b u t i o n which has been followed w i l l con-tinue . The inner section i n a l l areas except Esquimalt have constructed s u f f i c i e n t Junior and Senior High Schools to serve the population. 1 Map 58, p. 193. 208 LEGEND TO MAP LX PRESENT (1958) AND FUTURE SENIOR AND JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOLS 1. Future Cadboro Bay Junior High School 2. Future Gordon Head Junior High School 3. Future Cedar H i l l Junior High School (this school i s at present the Mount Douglas High School) 4. Future North Quadra Junior High School 5. Future L a k e h i l l Junior High School 6. Colquitz Junior High School 7. Future Strawberry Vale Junior High School 8. Future Esquimalt Junior High School 9. Central Junior High School 10. Oak Bay Junior High School 11. Lansdowne Junior High School 12. S.J. W i l l i s Junior High School a Future Gordon Head Senior High School b Future Mount Douglas Senior High School c Future Glanford Senior High School, d Mount View Senior High School e Esquimalt Senior High School f V i c t o r i a Senior High School g Oak Bay Senior High School CHAPTER XV A LOOK AT. A NEW SCHOOL There are many problems associated with the planning of a school and the help of the planner i n solving these prob-lems i s more and more being recognized. School Boards to-day usually seek the advice of a municipal or p r o v i n c i a l Town Planner before new schools are located and the p r o v i n c i a l government employs a consultant whose r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s i t to 1 rule on the size and location of new schools. The s i t e of a new school can be established only a f t e r much study. The pattern of settlement within the school d i s t r i c t must be known and predictions must be made as to the future settlement pattern. I f the school i s to be an elementary one i t s bound-ari e s should not exceed one-half mile i n radius. The safety of the students must be considered and therefore the s i t u a t i o n of the school i n r e l a t i o n to busy streets becomes of major concern. A thorough population study must be made to determine the proper size of the school and f i n a l l y a s u f f i c i e n t l y large s i t e i n the desired l o c a t i o n must be found. This f i n a l prob-lem i s most acute i n Greater V i c t o r i a since few large parcels 1 Many educationalists f e e l that the role of the con-sultant i s too l i m i t e d i n that schools are not planned f a r enough i n t o the future. However, the f a c t that a consultant has been employed, emphasizes that the problems associated with school construction have been recognized and i t i s hoped that gradually the government w i l l recognize the need f o r a more comprehensive planning programme and that schools can be planned well before they are required. of land well situated f o r schools remain. As an example of the research required to plan a school, the problems r e l a t i n g to the future Uplands School have been studied i n t e n s i v e l y and the results reported i n the following paragraphs. This school w i l l be located i n the 1 Lansdowne Subdivision i n north Oak Bay. The complete sub-d i v i s i o n has not been planned but w i l l eventually include the V i c t o r i a College property, the school, a church, a business section, i n addition to approximately f i v e hundred homes. One hundred homes have already been b u i l t . The boundaries of the school d i s t r i c t w i l l enclose 2 four sections. The f i r s t w i l l be the subdivision which l i e s between Cedar H i l l Road and Lansdowne Road and w i l l 3 eventually include approximately three hundred homes. The second section i s located to the south of Lansdowne Road, where one hundred homes are already b u i l t and occupied. North of Cedar H i l l Road, the t h i r d area w i l l include another poten-4 t i a l subdivision with one hundred potential homesites. On the west, the Mount Tolmie d i s t r i c t with one hundred homes forms the fourth section. In 1958 the school d i s t r i c t possessed two hundred and eighty homes, but by 1961 the subdivision w i l l probably be 1 Map 57, P. 188. 2 Map 61, p. 212. 3 Estimate by B. C. Land and Investment Company. 4 £QG^ c i t . 211 completely developed and i f so the school d i s t r i c t w i l l then. include approximately s i x hundred homes. I t i s desirable that the section south of Lansdowne be excluded from the d i s t r i c t , because children from t h i s section must cross busy Lansdowne Road at int e r s e c t i o n s located too f a r from the school to be supervised by the teachers or by the students' t r a f f i c p a t r o l . For these students, the alternatives would be to send them to Willows School or to b u i l d a new school to the west of Carnar-1 von Park. The Willows School i s already too large and thus the new school seems the better plan. What size school should be planned? A population sample which included f o r t y of the two hundred and eighty f a m i l i e s l i v i n g i n the area i n 1958 has been taken by the 2 author. 2 CHILDREN Ages 0 - 5 6 - 1 2 Total 27 22 Per family .675 *k .55 The sampling indicates that there are .55 school children per family. Children between 0 - 5 years s l i g h t l y predominate over those between 6 - 1 2 years and therefore i f the sampling i s r e l i a b l e i t can be predicted that the number of school-age children per family w i l l increase s l i g h t l y . 1 Map 57, P. 188, School 2. 213 The d i s t r i c t i n 1958 had two hundred and eighty homes and as each home averages .55 school children the enrollment of the school would be approximately one hundred and f i f t y - f o u r students. One hundred and f i f t y - f o u r students would require a five-roomed school with an average of thirty-one students per room. By 1961 when the subdivision i s completed six hundred homes w i l l be included and therefore the enrollment might be three hundred and s i x t y to three hundred and seventy-1 f i v e students, requiring a school of at l e a s t ten rooms. The i n i t i a l school should therefore have a minimum of f i v e classrooms but be so planned that another f i v e rooms could be 2 added i n the near future. The s i t e of the school has been well chosen i n r e l a t i o n to the boundaries. The school l i e s approximately one-half mile from both the north and south borders and le s s from the east and west. The approach to the school i t s e l f w i l l be safe, since the school grounds do not touch any through street. On the east i s the Golf Course and to the south and west are "dead-end" streets. The church yard w i l l form the northern border. The students l i v i n g north of Cedar H i l l Road or south of Lansdowne Road, (unless the Carnarvon Park School i s b u i l t ) , 1 Average per family would i n 1961 be .61 school children. 2 Planning f o r the future indicates the necessity f o r at l e a s t a ten room school but i f present needs only are considered a permanent f i v e room school might be b u i l t . Additions can not be properly constructed unless the o r i g i n a l design of the school allowed f o r t h i s p o s s i b i l i t y . 214 however, w i l l have these busy streets to cross and the distance of the streets from the school w i l l make i t impossible to supervise the crossings. CHAPTER XVI CONCLUSION1 I t i s appropriate to summarize the major conclusions which have been reached. The objective of the study has been to discover the s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r s involved i n the e s t a b l i s h -ing of each school i n the Greater V i c t o r i a area. H i s t o r i c a l and economic studies of the region were necessary i n order that the questions posed by the objective might be answered. The V i c t o r i a region progressed through three stages. The early stage, that of the f u r trade, was associated with the monopoly of the Hudson's Bay Company and settlement was not encouraged. A choice had to be made between Esquimalt which possessed the better harbour and V i c t o r i a which possessed the f i n e r a g r i c u l t u r a l land. James Douglas r e a l i z i n g that the Fort must be s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t a f t e r one year established V i c t o r i a as the administrative centre and Esquimalt as the port. The completion of the i n t e r n a t i o n a l boundary dispute took place during the early stage of V i c t o r i a ' s history and as a r e s u l t the Hudson's Bay Company feared the loss of i t s large farms on the Columbia River. As a consequence to t h i s fear, four large farms were established i n the Greater V i c t o r i a region. Douglas, however, fearing that an i n f l u x of farmers would weaken his influence had the farms established i n Esquimalt despite s o i l not e a s i l y adapted to the plough (map 3, page 4). 216 Greater V i c t o r i a during the fur trade regime had therefore three d i s t i n c t s e t t l e d areas — the Fort, the Esquimalt Harbour environs, and the Esquimalt farms. Of these, the Fort became the centre of the concentric pattern of s e t t l e -ment which has been t y p i c a l of t h i s region. Esquimalt Harbour and farms were outlying. The e a r l i e s t V i c t o r i a schools — the Fort (1849), the Colonial (1853), the Craigflower (1855) and the Esquimalt V i l l a g e (1859) — served a l l three areas. The positions of these schools emphasized the close l i n k between settlement and school locations. The Gold Rush of 1858 with i t s associated i n f l u x of population quickly transformed V i c t o r i a from a remote fur trading post to a highly important commercial centre. Many people who had been attracted to the Colony by the lure of gold remained as permanent residents. During these years (i860 and 1900) the majority of the new population was located i n that area immediately surrounding the town. Fringe farming areas developed i n such regions as Cedar H i l l , Gordon Head, Strawberry Vale and Cadboro Bay. The locations of the schools during t h i s period r e f l e c t the settlement pattern. By 1891 there were eleven elementary schools serving the Greater V i c t o r i a area and s i x of these were located i n the c i t y . Outlying areas such as Cedar H i l l , Burnside and Cadboro Bay also had schools by that time. The importance of these years, with regard to t h i s study, i s the increase of population, demanding new schools, and the concentration'of settlement around the town with, at 217 the same time, a sparser settlement i n fringe areas. By 1900 i t had become apparent that V i c t o r i a was not to be the i n d u s t r i a l and commercial centre of the west. The Canadian P a c i f i c Railway had terminated at Vancouver; industry l e f t V i c t o r i a and the c i t y moved into i t s t h i r d phase of economic development. The employment provided by the provin-c i a l and federal governments became basic to the region. Gradually the area's f i n e climate became more widely known and consequently the region's economy was bolstered by the a r r i v a l of many t o u r i s t s and pensioners. The hi s t o r y of these years i s s i g n i f i c a n t i n an account of school development because i t was during t h i s period that the present economy of the region evolved. Since 1900 the general pattern of settlement has not changed. The main population densities had located as near the c i t y centre as possible. Gradually, however, as the pressure f o r r e s i d e n t i a l land increased Victorians d i s t r i b u t e d themselves i n a concentric pattern about the town. This patt-ern of population d i s t r i b u t i o n has continued to the present and w i l l continue i n t o the future. The r a d i i of the c i r c l e s have, of course, continually increased u n t i l to-day urban densities are located some three miles from the c i t y centre. While the concentric pattern has been dominant, two others have been i n f l u e n t i a l , 1, Fringe settlements, common to Greater V i c t o r i a p r i o r to 1900 i n such areas as Gordon Head and Cadboro Bay, continued a f t e r that date. 218 2. Inner areas became even more heavily populated. As a con-sequence, the outward spread of the population densities was retarded and the c i t y ' s population became further con-centrated. The three settlement patterns have of course greatly influenced the Greater V i c t o r i a school system. In 1956 of the t h i r t y elementary schools serving the d i s t r i c t , twenty-four were located i n urbanized areas. Only six — View Royal, Strawberry Vale, Glanford, McKenzie Avenue, Gordon Head and Cadboro Bay — were b u i l t f o r fringe settlements. By I960, however, because of the lack of vacant property close to the town, p r a c t i c a l l y a l l new settlement w i l l take place beyond the 1956 urban densities and most new schools w i l l be located i n the outer d i s t r i c t s (map 56 , page 183)« Of the twenty planned elementary schools sixteen w i l l be located more than three miles from the c i t y centre. Educationalists can look to the future of t h i s area with confidence. Its economy i s mainly based on government employment and evidence exists which suggests that t h i s employ-ment w i l l expand. Gradually but continually the region's economy w i l l be bolstered by an i n f l u x of pensioners and tour-i s t s . While t h e i r influence on education i s i n d i r e c t i t i s most consequential. These people cause service employment to expand i n the Greater V i c t o r i a region and of course school 1 populations are affected. Future school s i t e s should 1 Page 6 0 . 219 therefore be planned; and the land which i s required be pur-chased immediately. The purpose of t h i s thesis has been two-fold: to provide a history of the Greater V i c t o r i a School System from those early fur-trading days to the present d i s t r i c t #61, and i n so doing, to c a l l attention to the close c o r r e l a t i o n between population densities and school locations. I t i s hoped that the l a t t e r material w i l l emphasize the need for population studies i n planning schools. 220 BIBLIOGRAPHY A. BOOKS Chapman, Frederic C., Esquimalt. B. C . St. Paul's Royal Navy  Station and Garrison Church. Esquimalt: St. Paul's Church, 1926. 16 pp. Fawcett, C., Reminiscences of Old V i c t o r i a . Toronto 12: W. Briggs, 1912. 249 pp. Howay and Sch o l e f i e l d , B r i t i s h Columbia. Chicago: S. J. Clark Co., 1914. 4 v o l . Longstaff, F. V., Esquimalt Navy Base. Vancouver: Clark & Stuart Co., 1941. 189 PP. Ormsby, M. A., B r i t i s h Columbia. Toronto: the MacMillan Co., 1958. pp. 5W. Robinson, B., Esquimalt. V i c t o r i a : Quality Press, 1947. 128pp, B. PERIODICALS Lamb, W.K./'Founding of Fort V i c t o r i a " , B r i t i s h Columbia  H i s t o r i c a l Quarterly. 1943, P 22. C. GOVERNMENT PUBLICATIONS Capi t a l Region Planning Board, A Plan f o r the Capital Regions. V i c t o r i a , 1959. 50 pp. Capital Region Planning Board, Population Forecast and Land  Use Requirements. V i c t o r i a , 1958. 66 pp. Capital Region Planning Board, The Capital Region Takes Stock. V i c t o r i a , 1954. 64 pp. Government of Canada, Climatic Summaries of Selected Meteor- l o g i c a l Stations i n the Dominion of Canada. P r o v i n c i a l Department of Public Instruction, Annual Reports from 1880, Pr o v i n c i a l Department of V i t a l S t a t i s t i c s , Annual Reports. 221 BIBLIOGRAPHY C. GOVERNMENT PUBLICATIONS (cont'd) V i c t o r i a School Trustees Report 1894. D. . UNPUBLISHED MATERIALS Anderson, J. R., Memoirs. P r o v i n c i a l Archives, V i c t o r i a , McLauren, D.L., "History of Education i n the Crown Colonies, Vancouver Island and B.C., and i n the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia", Unpublished Doctorate Thesis, University of Washington, Seattle, 1936. Myers, T., "Ninety Years of U t i l i t y Service". Unpublished . research on the B.C. E l e c t r i c Railway, V i c t o r i a , 1953> 359 PP. E. ORIGINAL LETTERS Bayley, C.A., P r o v i n c i a l Archives. Cridge, E., Pr o v i n c i a l Archives. Douglas, J. , P r o v i n c i a l Archives. Grant, W.C., P r o v i n c i a l Archives. Simpson, Chief Trader, P r o v i n c i a l Archives. E. ;MAPS Army Survey Maps 1947. Municipal Subdivision Maps. O f f i c i a l Map of V i c t o r i a 1858, P r o v i n c i a l Archives. S o i l Survey Maps, 1944. Street Maps 1884, 1909, P r o v i n c i a l Archives. Water Works Map 1872. BIBLIOGRAPHY G. OTHER MATERIAL, B r i t i s h Daily Colonist, various issues, B.C. Land and Investment Co., Estimate of l o t s i n Lansdowne Subdivision. APPENDIX. 223 TABLE 14 SCHOOL ENROLLMENTS GRADES 1 - 8 " School 1^ 11 1921 1^11 1951 1?;>8 lank Street 193 149 123 95 152 145 Boys1' Central 542 453 316 350 357 620 S i r James Douglas 351 572 515 465 420 583 Fisguard (Chinese) 66 G i r l s ' Central 443 474 359 H i l l s i d e (King's) 65 George Jay 454 484 449 360 549 674 Kingston 322 195 152 37 135 North Ward 608 401 427 261 213 315 Rock Bay 58 171 South Park 340 341 344 337 265 312 Spring Ridge 218 191 161 102 V i c t o r i a West 356 422 303 289 353 456 Beacon H i l l 170 144 79 99 123 Burnside 227 243 198 219 247 Cook Street 22 22 Fernwood 60 60 Margaret Jenkins 343 343 318 256 400 600 Oaklands 506 506 515 435 627 887 Quadra 291 250 249 334 450 Quadra Primary 222 153 192 142 124 Oak Bay 212 Willows 18 257 267 376 585 818 Monterey 315 365 371 370 447 T i l l i c u m 275 301 341 407 462 Cedar H i l l 58 132 187 198 181 223 Craigflower 102 177 115 176 263 Gordon Head 44 49 63 52 90 237 North Dairy 59 70 39 Strawberry Vale 70 112 111 71 125 218 Tolmie 242 297 284 233 36£ 483 Cadboro Bay 25 283 Cloverdale 25 274 314 304 430 Model 83 75 63 McKenzie 178 164 212 294 326 Doncaster 393 578 Frank Hobbs 81 288 Esquimalt (Lampson)344 581 513 429 745 591 View Royal 170 283 Total Enrollment V i c t o r i a 4016 5754 4872 3705 4576 6458 Oak Bay 230 572 632 747 912 1763 Saanich 597 1627 1622 1484 2229 4798 Esquimalt 334 581 513 429 745 888 The 1951 and 1958 t o t a l enrollments include grades seven and eight students from Junior High Schools. 224 GREATER VICTORIA SCHOOLS AND OPENING DATES ELEMENTARY Fort 1849 Bailey's 1852 Colonial (Reserve) 1853 Maple Point (Craigflower) 1855 Esquimalt V i l l a g e School 1859 Central(on Fort near Government) 1862 Cedar H i l l 1863 G i r l s ' School (Broughton near Government) 1872 Old Boys' Central I876 James Bay l a r d (Kingston Street) 1884 Johnston Street Ward ( H i l l s i d e Ward, Kings Road) I884 Cadboro Bay 1885 Rock Bay 1886 Fourth Ward (Spring Ridge) 1887 Tolmie 1888 V i c t o r i a West 1888 Gordon Head 1891 Strawberry Vale 1893 Oak Bay (located on Foul Bay Road) 1894 South Park 1895 North Ward 1895 Lampson Street: 1903 Cadboro Bay (Finnerty Road) 1906 S i r James Douglas 1909 Bank Street 1909 George Jay 1909 North Dairy (Lake H i l l ) 1909 Oak Bay Avenue 1909 Willows (Old House) 1909 Fisguard 1910 Willows (present school) 1911 Monterey 1911 Burnside 1912 McKenzie Avenue 1912-1 T i l l i c u m 1913 Fernwood 1913 Oaklands 1913 Cook Street (Protestant Orphanage) 1913 Pembroke (Ghildrens' Aid) 1913 Quadra Street 1913 Margaret Jenkins 1914 Keacon H i l l 1914 Cloverdale 1914 Model 1921 Quadra Primary 1921 Doncaster 1946 View. Royal 1950 225 GREATER VICTORIA SCHOOLS AND OPENING DATES ELEMENTARY (cont'd) Frank Hobbs 1 9 5 1 James Bay 1 9 5 4 Glanford 1 9 5 6 Richmond 1 9 5 6 Macaulay 1 9 5 6 HIGH SCHOOLS F i r s t V i c t o r i a High School 1878 Second V i c t o r i a High School 1902 Oak Bay (F i r s t ) 1913 V i c t o r i a (Present) 1914 Esquimalt High 1915 Saanich High School 1925 Esquimalt High (Second) 1926 Oak Bay (Present) 1929 Mount View 1931 Mount Douglas 1931 JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOLS Central 1936 S. J. W i l l i s 1950 Oak Bay 1952 Lansdowne 1954 Colquitz 1956 

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