UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

An evaluation of the training programs for commerce teachers at the University of British Columbia of… Heywood, Robert Henry 1960

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AN EVALUATION OF THE TRAINING PROGRAMME FOR COMMERCE TEACHERS AT THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA COLLEGE OF EDUCATION by Robert Henry Heywood B. A., University of British Columbia, 193$ A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in the Department of Education We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA April, I960 I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e a n d s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e Head o f my D e p a r t m e n t o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . D e p a r t m e r i t o f The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a V a n c o u v e r B, C a n a d a . ABSTRACT AN EVALUATION OF THE TRAINING PROGRAMME FOR COMMERCE TEACHERS AT THE UNIVERSITY OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA COLLEGE OF EDUCATION The t r a i n i n g programme f o r Commerce t e a c h e r s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a h a s b e e n d e v e l o p i n g s l o w l y s i n c e 1917. The l a t e s t , and i n many ways t h e most p r o m i s i n g , p r o d u c t o f t h i s d e v e l o p -ment i s t h e programme now o f f e r e d a t t h e C o l l e g e o f E d u c a t i o n : a f i v e - y e a r d e g r e e programme s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f f e r e d a l l p r o -s p e c t i v e s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l t e a c h e r s . T h i s s t u d y a t t e m p t s t o a n s w e r t w o q u e s t i o n s a b o u t t h e l a t e s t t r a i n i n g p l a n : (1) S h o u l d Commerce t e a c h e r s be t r a i n e d i n t h e same g e n e r a l p a t t e r n a s t e a c h e r s o f o t h e r s u b j e c t s ? (2) Does t h e C o l l e g e o f E d u c a t i o n programme a l l o w f o r t h e s p e c i a l n e e d s o f Com-m e r c e t e a c h e r s ? The a n s w e r t o t h e f i r s t q u e s t i o n i s s o u g h t i n t h e r o l e t h a t Commerce c o u r s e s p l a y i n o u r s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s and i n t h e a i m s o f t h e Commerce programme. E x a m i n a t i o n o f t y p i c a l p u p i l programmes and a n a l y s i s o f e n r o l m e n t s i n Commerce c o u r s e s i n d i c a t e a w i d e d e p e n d e n c e on Commerce s u b j e c t s i n o u r s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s . The v o c a t i o n a l p o s s i b i l i t i e s i n Com-m e r c e c o u r s e s may a t t r a c t many p u p i l s who h a v e a n a r r o w and a s h o r t - s i g h t e d v i e w o f t h e i r own e d u c a t i o n a l n e e d s . The Commerce t e a c h e r , i n t h i s s i t u a t i o n , h a s t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o e x e r t more i n f l u e n c e o v e r t h e s e p u p i l s t h a n h a s a n y o t h e r t e a c h e r : h i s r o l e c a l l s f o r someone who i s more t h a n a mere t e c h n i c i a n . The s p e c i a l n e e d s o f Commerce t e a c h e r s a r e i n d i c a t e d b y t h e demands o f t h e c o u r s e s he i s e x p e c t e d t o t e a c h a n d b y t h e l i a i s o n he s h o u l d m a i n t a i n w i t h b u s i n e s s . T h e s e n e e d s a r e c o m p a r e d w i t h t h e c o m p e t e n c e a f f o r d e d t h r o u g h c o u r s e s g i v e n a t t h e C o l l e g e o f E d u c a t i o n . The c o u r s e s p r o v i d e d b y t h e C o l l e g e show a n a w a r e n e s s o f s t u d e n t n e e d s , b u t t h e v a r i e t y a n d e x t e n t o f t h e Commerce f i e l d p r e c l u d e s t h e l i k e l i -h o o d o f c o m p l e t e c o v e r a g e f o r a l l n e e d s . I n most a c a d e m i c s u b j e c t s t h e u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t b u i l d s on h i s h i g h s c h o o l e x p e r i e n c e : s u c h i s u s u a l l y t h e c a s e i n E n g l i s h , h i s t o r y , g e o g r a p h y , m a t h e m a t i c s , s c i e n c e , a n d f o r e i g n l a n g u a g e s . Com-mer c e s t u d e n t s o f t e n b e g i n a t t h e b o t t o m i n s e c r e t a r i a l s k i l l s , e c o n o m i c s , a c c o u n t i n g , a n d f i n a n c e . -F o r t u n a t e l y , t h e C o l l e g e o f E d u c a t i o n h a s r e c o g n i z e d t h e p r o b l e m p r e s e n t e d b y d i v e r s i t y o f s u b j e c t m a t t e r i n Com-merce a nd p r o v i d e s f o r two m a j o r s . T h i s p r o v i s i o n e n a b l e s s t u d e n t s t o t a i l o r t h e i r t e a c h i n g s u b j e c t s t o t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l a b i l i t i e s more e f f e c t i v e l y t h a n t h e y c o u l d i f Commerce w e r e i n d i v i s i b l e a s a g r o u p o f t e a c h i n g s u b j e c t s . D e t a i l e d e x a m i n a t i o n o f t e a c h i n g l o a d s i n t h e s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s shows t h a t a b o u t one h a l f o f a l l t h o s e who t e a c h i v Commerce s u b j e c t s a l s o t e a c h o t h e r s u b j e c t s o r have o t h e r d u t i e s i n t h e s c h o o l . T h i s f a c t i s e n c o u r a g i n g f o r two r e a s o n s : (1) T h e r e a p p e a r s t o be a d e g r e e o f i n t e g r a t i o n b e t w e e n s u b j e c t a r e a s t h a t s h o u l d do much t o p r e v e n t n a r r o w s p e c i a l i z a t i o n . (2) The a r r a n g e m e n t u n d e r w h i c h t e a c h e r s may be p a r t l y t e a c h e r s o f Commerce a n d p a r t l y t e a c h e r s o f some o t h e r s u b j e c t w i l l n o t hamper p r i n c i p a l s i n a s s i g n i n g w o r k l o a d s . V TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE I . INTRODUCTION 1 S t a t e m e n t o f t h e p r o b l e m 1 D e f i n i t i o n o f t e r m s 2 P r o c e d u r e 3 D e l i m i t a t i o n 4 S u r v e y o f l i t e r a t u r e . . . . . 4 I I . THE BACKGROUND OF THE PROBLEM £ The p a s t & Q u a l i f y i n g e x a m i n a t i o n s and summer c o u r s e s 9 E q u a t e d c e r t i f i c a t e s a f t e r 1937 11 U n i v e r s i t y g r a d u a t e s a s Commerce t e a c h e r s 12 The p r e s e n t 13 The s h o r t a g e o f q u a l i f i e d Commerce t e a c h e r s 13 The i n c r e a s e d i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e Commerce c o u r s e s . 14 Summary 17 I I I . THE PRESENT ROLE OF COMMERCE COURSES I N BRITISH COLUMBIA SCHOOLS 19 The e v o l u t i o n o f t h e programme 19 T y p i c a l programmes u s i n g Commerce c o u r s e s . . 22 Commerce e n r o l m e n t s and t o t a l e n r o l m e n t s . . 28 Summary . 32 v i CHAPTER PAGE IV. THE OBJECTIVES OF THE COMMERCE PROGRAMME . . . 34 . General business knowledge 34 Vocational t r a i n i n g . .. 36 The aims of secondary education 3& The Commerce teacher and his objectives . . 42 Summary . . . . . 45 V. TRAINING FOR THE S K I L L SUBJECTS 47 S k i l l courses i n the secondary schools . . . 47 Alternative ways of providing teachers with s k i l l s 49 Credits for s k i l l s at other u n i v e r s i t i e s . . 54 Summary 57 VI. THE COMMERCE TEACHER AND BUSINESS 58 Understanding the problems of business . . . 58 Liaison between school and o f f i c e 62 Follow-up Techniques 65 Summary 67 VII. THE SOCIO-BUSINESS SUBJECTS 68 Business fundamentals 68 Law and economics 77 Accounting 78 Summary . 80 VIII. THE DOUBLE MAJOR . 82 The shortcomings of the single major . . . . 82 v i i CHAPTER PAGE The problem of assigning loads #7 Summary 92 IX. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 93 Summary 93 Conclusions 9$ BIBLIOGRAPHY 102 APPENDICES 106 A. Certification requirements 106 B. Commerce courses in British Columbia Schools . 113 C. University course outlines 11& v i i i L I S T OF TABLES TABLE PAGE I . C e r t i f i c a t e s H e l d b y T e a c h e r s o f Commerce S u b j e c t s i n G r a d e s X t o X I I o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a H i g h S c h o o l s i n 1957-5&1 13 I I . E n r o l m e n t s i n Commerce C o u r s e s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a H i g h S c h o o l s , 1957-5$, Compared w i t h T o t a l S c h o o l P o p u l a t i o n 29 I I I . Commerce C o u r s e s U s e d f o r H i g h S c h o o l G r a d u -a t i o n C r e d i t b y 1956 G r a d u a t i n g C l a s s o f V i c t o r i a H i g h S c h o o l 30 I V . Numbers o f Commerce C o u r s e s U s e d by U n i v e r s i t y Programme S t u d e n t s f o r H i g h S c h o o l G r a d u a -t i o n C r e d i t b y 1956 G r a d u a t i n g C l a s s , V i c t o r i a H i g h S c h o o l 31 V, C o u r s e C o n t e n t - B u s i n e s s F u n d a m e n t a l s . . . . 71 V I . F r e q u e n c y w i t h W h i c h Commerce T e a c h i n g Was Combined w i t h O t h e r S u b j e c t s a n d S c h o o l D u t i e s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l s i n 1955-56, 1956-57, 1957-53 91 i x ACKNOWLEDGMENT The w r i t e r i s p l e a s e d t o r e c o r d h i s a p p r e c i a t i o n o f t h e a s s i s t a n c e g i v e n h i m i n t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s . T h a n k s a r e due t o D r . D e n n i s S m i t h , who s e r v e d a s t h e s i s a d v i s e r ; t o D r . R o b i n S m i t h a n d P r o f e s s o r C o l i n G o u r l a y , t h e o t h e r members o f t h e r e a d i n g c o m m i t t e e ; and t o D r . J . F. K. E n g l i s h , D e p u t y M i n i s t e r o f E d u c a t i o n , f o r p e r -m i s s i o n t o u s e m a t e r i a l i n t h e f i l e s o f t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n . CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION I. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM B r i t i s h Columbia embarked on a new system of teacher. education and teacher t r a i n i n g i n September, 1956. This study i s an attempt to evaluate the new t r a i n i n g programme as i t af f e c t s Commerce teachers, who are now, afte r many years of improvisation and emergency action, being trained with t h e i r academic colleagues by an i n s t i t u t i o n that under-takes to do the following things f o r a l l teachers: The Faculty and College of Education has four main functions, (a) It provides through courses offered by Arts and Science, Commerce, Physical Education, Home Economics, Agriculture, a general c u l t u r a l education to promote the growth and development of teachers as persons, (b) I t provides, also through these f a c u l t i e s and schools, specialized information i n p a r t i c u l a r sub-ject f i e l d s i n order to promote a scholarly outlook and a d i s c i p l i n e d mind, (c) I t provides special information within the College about children, schools, and society so that teachers acquire a sound s o c i o l o g i c a l , h i s t o r i -c a l , psychological, and philosophical basis for t h e i r profession, (d) I t provides i n s t r u c t i o n i n the art and s k i l l of the teacher as well as opportunities to prac-t i s e the art i n schools. The f i r s t three functions might s t r i c t l y be called Teacher Education. The fourth function i s often c a l l e d Teacher Training. The l a s t two functions only are the special work of the College proper.1 The objectives proclaimed by the College are worthy ones but two broad questions should be answered before the xThe Calendar. Forty-fourth Session. (Vancouver: The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1958), p. 325. 2 C o l l e g e o f E d u c a t i o n programme i s assumed t o be an a p p r o -p r i a t e one f o r Commerce t e a c h e r s : f i r s t , s h o u l d Commerce t e a c h e r s be t r a i n e d i n t h e same g e n e r a l p a t t e r n a s o t h e r s e c o n d a r y t e a c h e r s ; s e c o n d , d o e s t h e C o l l e g e o f E d u c a t i o n programme p r o v i d e f o r t h e s p e c i a l n e e d s o f Commerce t e a c h e r s ? T h i s s t u d y w i l l a t t e m p t t o a n s w e r t h o s e q u e s t i o n s . I I . D E F I N I T I O N OF TERMS T h r o u g h o u t t h e d i s c u s s i o n , t h e t e r m s s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l and h i g h s c h o o l may be u s e d i n t e r c h a n g e a b l y t o r e f e r t o G r a d e s I X t o X I I . A l t h o u g h G r a d e s V I I and V I I I a r e i n c l u d e d i n t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s , Commerce c o u r s e s , w i t h one u n i m p o r t a n t e x c e p t i o n , ^ a r e c o n f i n e d t o t h e f o u r u p p e r g r a d e s . Commerce c o u r s e s , i n t h i s c o n t e x t , w i l l mean a l l t h e c o u r s e s l i s t e d i n t h e Commerce B u l l e t i n a s w e l l a s A p p l i e d E n g l i s h ( E n 9 3 ) , B u s i n e s s Law (Law 9 3 ) and E c o n o m i c s ( E c 9 2 ) . T h e s e t h r e e c o u r s e s a r e i n c l u d e d b e c a u s e a l l w e r e o r i g i n a l l y d e v e l o p e d f o r Commerce s t u d e n t s ; Commerce s t u d e n t s s t i l l f o r m t h e l a r g e s t g r o u p s i n t h e c l a s s e s ; and Commerce t e a c h e r s a r e f r e q u e n t l y e x p e c t e d t o t e a c h them. The w o r d p u p i l w i l l be u s e d t o r e f e r t o c h i l d r e n e n r o l l e d i n t h e s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s ; s t u d e n t o r s t u d ent t e a c h e r w i l l be u s e d t o r e f e r t o t e a c h e r s - i n - t r a i n i n g ; t e a c h e r v a i l be u s e d i n r e f e r r i n g t o s t u d e n t s i f t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s a r e p r o j e c t e d i n t o C o u r s e e n r o l m e n t t a b l e s ( m i m e o g r a p h e d ) s u p p l i e d b y t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n f o r S e p t e m b e r , 195$, show 271 p u p i l s e n r o l l e d i n a t r y - o u t t y p e w r i t i n g c o u r s e i n G r a d e V I I I . 3 s i t u a t i o n s t h e y w i l l meet a f t e r t h e y h a v e c o m p l e t e d t h e i r p e r i o d o f t r a i n i n g . C o u r s e w i l l i n d i c a t e a s p e c i f i c body o f o r g a n i z e d s u b j e c t m a t t e r and s k i l l s , a s o u t l i n e d i n a D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n b u l l e t i n ; programme w i l l r e f e r t o a l l t h e c o u r s e s t a k e n by one p u p i l , o r a g r o u p o f p u p i l s , d u r i n g h i s h i g h s c h o o l c a r e e r . P r e s u m a b l y a programme w i l l e n a b l e a p u p i l t o q u a l i f y f o r a h i g h s c h o o l g r a d u a t i o n c e r -t i f i c a t e , and i f he h a s b e e n p r o p e r l y c o u n s e l l e d , h i s p r o -gramme w i l l e n a b l e h i m t o a c h i e v e h i s e d u c a t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e . Thus a v o c a t i o n a l programme w o u l d c o n s i s t o f a number o f c o u r s e s t h a t w o u l d l e a d t o h i g h s c h o o l g r a d u a t i o n and w o u l d a l s o q u a l i f y t h e p u p i l f o r some s p e c i f i c t y p e o f e m p l o y m e n t . I l l . PROCEDURE The w r i t e r w i l l e x a m i n e t h e n e e d f o r f u l l p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g o f Commerce t e a c h e r s ( a s o p p o s e d t o s p e c i a l t e c h n i c a l t r a i n i n g ) b y a n a l y z i n g t h e r o l e t h e Commerce t e a c h e r p l a y s i n t h e s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l and by e x a m i n i n g t h e o b j e c t i v e s he i s e x p e c t e d t o a c h i e v e . C h a p t e r s I I I and I V w i l l be d e v o t e d t o t h i s p u r p o s e . C h a p t e r s V, V I , and V I I w i l l be d e v o t e d t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e demands p u t u p o n t h e Commerce t e a c h e r by t h e s u b j e c t m a t t e r o f t h e c o u r s e s he must t e a c h and t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h h i s t r a i n i n g w i l l e n a b l e h i m t o meet t h o s e demands. F i n a l l y , t h e w r i t e r w i l l d e a l w i t h t i m e t a b l i n g p r o b l e m s o f t h e h i g h 4 s c h o o l s and t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h e o f f e r i n g o f two Commerce m a j o r s may a f f e c t t h e n e e d s o f h i g h s c h o o l a d m i n i s t r a t o r s . I V . DELIMITATION The w r i t e r w i l l assume t h a t t h e c o n t e n t o f t h e p r o -v i n c e ' s Commerce c o u r s e s i s c o r r e c t f o r what t h e y a r e i n t e n d e d t o d o . W h e t h e r o r n o t i t i s i n f a c t s h o u l d be t h e s u b j e c t o f a n o t h e r s t u d y . He w i l l assume t h a t t h e o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l c o u r s e s a nd t h e o v e r - a l l o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e programme a r e v a l i d and t h a t c o u r s e s a r e b e i n g s c h e d u l e d i n t h e b e s t i n t e r e s t s o f t h e p u p i l s . On t h e s e a s s u m p t i o n s , he w i l l m a t c h t h e c o n t e n t o f t h e u n i v e r -s i t y c o u r s e s p r e s c r i b e d f o r Commerce t e a c h e r s a g a i n s t t h e c o n t e n t a nd a i m s o f t h e h i g h s c h o o l c o u r s e s t h e y may be a s k e d t o t e a c h . F o r t h e b e n e f i t o f t h e r e a d e r who i s n o t f a m i l i a r w i t h B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a Commerce c o u r s e s , a b r i e f c ommentary on e a c h o f them i s g i v e n i n A p p e n d i x B. R e q u i r e -m e n t s f o r c e r t i f i c a t i o n a s a t e a c h e r o f Commerce s u b j e c t s a r e g i v e n i n A p p e n d i x A. V. SURVEY OF LITERATURE U n i v e r s i t y t r a i n i n g programmes f o r t e a c h e r s o f Commer.ce h a v e l o n g b e e n e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , a nd a c o n s i d e r -a b l e b o d y o f l i t e r a t u r e on t h i s s u b j e c t e x i s t s . A s o f 1 9 5 5 , Hammond^ reported four-year t r a i n i n g programmes i n f o r t y - s i x states and five-year programmes i n two states. Many of the four-year trainees proceed to a f i f t h year of t r a i n i n g to meet the employment requirements of the larger school systems Adams found that i n s t i t u t i o n s accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools main-tained "a reasonable balance between the various areas of learning: general education, 39.1 per cent; professional education, 17.9 per cent; business and related matter, 37.1 5 per cent." Tonne emphasizes the importance of general edu-cation when he writes: Unless the business teacher understands contemporary c i v i l i z a t i o n as well as his special f i e l d , he w i l l not understand the r e l a t i o n of his work to that of the rest of the world. Enterline detected a trend away from s p e c i a l i z a t i o n i n the thinking of business educators when he reported: Business teachers should be trained not only to teach e f f e c t i v e l y one or more business subjects, but i n addi-t i o n should be encouraged to elect a second teaching •'Nellie May Hammond, "A Survey of C e r t i f i c a t i o n Requirements f o r High School Business Teachers E f f e c t i v e i n the Forty-eight States as of 1955", The National Business  Education Quarterly. F a l l , 1957, p. 337 ^"Lucy Rose Adams, f,An Analysis of the Pre-service Preparation of Business Teachers i n In s t i t u t i o n s Accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools The National Business Education Quarterly. F a l l , 195^ , p. 'Herbert A. Tonne, P r i n c i p l e s of Business Education (New York: The Gregg Publishing Company, 194777 P» 479. 6 f i e l d . A s e c o n d t e a c h i n g f i e l d a s a m i n o r n o t only-i n c r e a s e s t h e t e a c h e r ' s b r e a d t h o f t r a i n i n g , b u t a l s o o p e n s a d d i t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r e m p l o y m e n t . ^ S o c i a l s t u d i e s i s f a v o r e d a s a s e c o n d t e a c h i n g field.° The s t u d i e s o f B r u c e ? and Weeks,^ t h o u g h n o t c o n -c e r n e d p r i m a r i l y w i t h p r o b l e m s o f t e a c h e r t r a i n i n g , d e v o t e d s p a c e t o t h e s u b j e c t and a r e o f p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t b e c a u s e t h e y d e a l w i t h Commerce t r a i n i n g i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a a s i t was i n 1940 and 1941. B r u c e f e l t t h a t t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e t e a c h e r - t r a i n i n g programme s h o u l d p a r a l l e l t h e d e v e l o p -ment o f t h e a i m s a n d p h i l o s o p h y o f t h e Commerce programme o f s t u d i e s and t h a t t h e f o r m e r h a d f a l l e n b e h i n d i n i t s f a i l u r e t o p r o v i d e t e a c h e r s w i t h t r a i n i n g i n g e n e r a l b u s i n e s s k n o w l e d g e . I n 1940, t h e p r o s p e c t s f o r a C o l l e g e o f E d u c a -t i o n seemed p o o r t o most e d u c a t o r s , a n d B r u c e a p p a r e n t l y f e l t t h a t some m o d i f i c a t i o n o f t h e e x i s t i n g programme was a l l t h a t h e c o u l d h ope f o r . Weeks, w o r k i n g a t H a r v a r d , w i t h t h e b a c k g r o u n d o f A m e r i c a n t e a c h e r - t r a i n i n g i n m i n d , was e v e n more c r i t i c a l H. G. E n t e r l i n e . T r e n d s o f T h o u g h t i n B u s i n e s s  E d u c a t i o n ( M o n o g r a p h 72). C i n c i n n a t i : The S o u t h - W e s t e r n P u b l i s h i n g Company, 1949), p. 27. ^Graham B r u c e , " B u s i n e s s E d u c a t i o n i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a " ( u n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r ' s t h e s i s , t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , V a n c o u v e r , 1941), pp. 113-127. & H a r o l d L. Weeks, " O r g a n i z a t i o n , A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , and S u p e r v i s i o n o f B u s i n e s s E d u c a t i o n ' i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a " ( u n p u b l i s h e d D o c t o r a l t h e s i s , H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y , C a m b r i d g e , 1943), PP. 241-263. 7 of the patchwork t r a i n i n g programme then offered f o r the Commerce teachers of B r i t i s h Columbia. (See Appendix A.) He advocated four years of univer s i t y t r a i n i n g to provide general education, specialized s k i l l s , professional t r a i n -ing, and occupational experience. R e a l i z i n g that the type of programme he advocated was un l i k e l y to be implemented within a reasonably short time, Weeks also advanced cert a i n proposals f o r amendments to the ex i s t i n g one. He agreed with Bruce on the need f o r more general business knowledge but placed greater stress on the need f o r occupational ex-perience. Weeks f e l t that occupational experience was indispensable f o r the teacher of vocational subjects. He was also sharply c r i t i c a l of the methodology courses as they were then constituted, advocating strongly that they be related to practice teaching and to demonstration lessons with high school classes. Week's recommendations with respect to methodology courses have now been implemented for regular-session students i f not f o r those i n the summer session. ' CHAPTER II THE BACKGROUND OF THE PROBLEM This chapter contains a b r i e f outline of the pro-vince's attempts to r e c r u i t and t r a i n Commerce teachers up to the time the College of Education was established. I t also indicates the scope and the urgency of the teacher-t r a i n i n g problem i n Commerce under the conditions that now p r e v a i l . I. THE PAST B r i t i s h Columbia made i t s f i r s t attempts to t r a i n Commerce teachers i n 1917, eleven years aft e r the f i r s t Commerce programme was set up i n the province's secondary schools. 1 The annual report of the Department of Edu-cation f o r 1913 contains the following statement by the Inspector of High Schools, J . B. DeLong: Recently the Education Office decided to admit to Normal School pupils who are successful i n passing the Departmental examinations for t h i r d year Commerce pupils. I understand that four Vancouver pupils, who have completed three years of high school Commercial work, are planning on attending Normal School next year. The pr o b a b i l i t y i s that i n future a number of such teachers w i l l -'-Bookkeeping was taught i n B r i t i s h Columbia schools from.the e a r l i e s t (Jays but shorthand and typewriting were not introduced u n t i l 1906. 9 be sent from our Normal Schools each y e a r ; i f s o , the School Boards w i l l not exper ience the d i f f i c u l t y they 2 have i n the past i n s e c u r i n g Commercial t r a i n e d t e a c h e r s . M r . DeLong was unduly h o p e f u l . The p r o v i n c e secured some teachers under the p l a n , but not enough to match the growth i n demand. I n any e v e n t , i t i s d i f f i c u l t to b e l i e v e t h a t the Department of E d u c a t i o n regarded the programme mentioned by M r . DeLong as a permanent s o l u t i o n to the p r o -blem of s e c u r i n g Commerce t e a c h e r s . At a t ime when o ther h i g h s c h o o l c l a s s e s were be ing taught by u n i v e r s i t y gradu-a t e s , the Department of E d u c a t i o n was s t a f f i n g Commerce c l a s s e s w i t h teachers f r e s h from Normal S c h o o l . I t should be noted t h a t , i n 1918, p u p i l s who were not r e t a r d e d spent o n l y seven years i n the elementary s c h o o l and three years i n h i g h s c h o o l . I f we assume, and i t i s reasonable so to assume, t h a t candidates f o r the t e a c h i n g p r o f e s s i o n were among the b e t t e r p u p i l s , most of them would complete t h e i r teacher t r a i n i n g before they were e ighteen years of age and would be c a l l e d upon, i f they taught Commerce s u b j e c t s , to teach p u p i l s as o l d as themse lves . Fur thermore , the young teachers would have no e d u c a t i o n a l advantage over t h e i r s e n i o r p u p i l s o ther than one year o f Normal S c h o o l . Q u a l i f y i n g Examinat ions and Summer Courses I n 1921, the p r o v i n c e r e s o r t e d to a s e r i e s of q u a l i f y -i n g examinat ions t h a t c o u l d be w r i t t e n by anyone h o l d i n g a 2 j 3 r i t i s h Columbia Department of E d u c a t i o n , Annual  R e p o r t : 1917-18. ( V i c t o r i a : The K i n g ' s P r i n t e r , 1918) , p . 62 . 10 f i r s t - c l a s s t e a c h i n g c e r t i f i c a t e , w h i c h a t t h a t t i m e was g i v e n f o r s e n i o r m a t r i c u l a t i o n s t a n d i n g a n d one y e a r a t N o r m a l S c h o o l . S p e c i a l summer c l a s s e s ( u n d e r t h e U n i v e r -s i t y u n t i l 1 9 2 4 , u n d e r t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n a f t e r t h a t d a t e ) w e r e o f f e r e d f o r t h e b e n e f i t o f t h e c a n d i d a t e s , who w e r e p e r m i t t e d t o w r i t e t h e e x a m i n a t i o n s w i t h o u t a t t e n d -i n g c l a s s e s i f t h e y f e l t c o m p e t e n t t o do s o . The q u a l i f i c a t i o n s w e r e e s t a b l i s h e d on two l e v e l s : t h o s e f o r t h e A s s i s t a n t ' s c e r t i f i c a t e ( i n t e r i m ) and t h o s e f o r t h e S p e c i a l i s t ' s c e r t i f i c a t e ( p e r m a n e n t ) . The u s e o f t h e t e r m " a s s i s t a n t " h a d no p a r t i c u l a r s i g n i f i c a n c e i n Com-m e r c e , e x c e p t t o d e n o t e a l o w e r g r a d e o f c e r t i f i c a t i o n . I t was p r o b a b l y b o r r o w e d f r o m i n d u s t r i a l a r t s , w h e r e a n " a s s i s t -&ntn was e m p l o y e d a s a n a u x i l i a r y t e a c h e r f o r c l a s s r o o m s c o n t a i n i n g more t h a n t w e n t y s t u d e n t s . So f a r a s t h e w r i t e r i s a w a r e , no Commerce t e a c h e r was e v e r u s e d a s a n a s s i s t a n t i n t h a t s e n s e o f t h e t e r m . The l i s t o f r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r t h e c e r t i f i c a t e s ( A p p e n -d i x A) i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e a s s i s t a n t was r e q u i r e d t o m a s t e r most o f t h e s u b j e c t m a t t e r he m i g h t be e x p e c t e d t o t e a c h h i s p u p i l s i n a n y g r a d e and t o d e m o n s t r a t e t h e s k i l l s r e q u i r e d o f t h e f i r s t two g r a d e s o f h i g h s c h o o l . He was p r o b a b l y more m a t u r e , a t l e a s t i n y e a r s , t h a n t h e g r a d u a t e s o f t h e 1913 p l a n b e c a u s e he must h a v e h a d two y e a r s ' t r a i n i n g a f t e r l e a v i n g h i g h s c h o o l a n d w o u l d most l i k e l y h a v e h a d some 11 teaching experience as well. The specialist was required to bring his ski l ls in shorthand and typewriting up to the level expected of graduating high school pupils and to demonstrate a reasonable knowledge of business background. Education-ally , he would s t i l l be beneath the requirements for teachers of academic subjects, with their university degrees, and salary scales throughout the province usually reflected that difference. Equated Certificates after 1937 Only minor changes were made in certification regu-lations between 1921 and 1937. In 1937, the Department of Education attempted to equate the requirements of special-subject teachers to those of academic teachers. Pay differ-entials in most districts had been based largely on the pos-session or non-possession of a degree. This yardstick was unfair to teachers of special subjects because they needed their own special qualifications as well as a degree for f u l l status as secondary school teachers. The new arrange-ment retained the Assistant's certificate and stiffened the requirements for the Specialist's certificate. The Special-is t ' s certificate now required two years of university and one year of normal school: mastery of Commerce subjects and the completion of additional university courses were assumed to bring the requirements to a five-year level and equate them with those for the Academic certificates. 12 W h e t h e r t h e y d i d o r n o t , p a y s c a l e s t h r o u g h o u t t h e p r o v i n c e w e r e b a s e d o n t h e e q u a t e d c e r t i f i c a t e s and Commerce t e a c h e r s f e l t t h a t some o f t h e i r h a n d i c a p s h a d b e e n r e m o v e d . U n i v e r s i t y G r a d u a t e s a s Commerce T e a c h e r s Some Commerce t e a c h e r s went o n t o e a r n u n i v e r s i t y d e g r e e s a f t e r t h e y h a d c o m p l e t e d c e r t i f i c a t i o n b y q u a l i f y -i n g e x a m i n a t i o n s a n d summer c o u r s e s ; o t h e r s e n t e r e d Commerce t e a c h i n g w i t h A c a d e m i c c e r t i f i c a t e s , a d d i n g Commerce q u a l i -f i c a t i o n s t o t h o s e t h e y a l r e a d y h a d . V a r i o u s a t t e m p t s w e r e made t o a t t r a c t g r a d u a t e s i n t o Commerce t e a c h i n g . H o l d e r s 3 o f B a c h e l o r o f Commerce d e g r e e s w e r e a c c e p t e d , a f t e r 1950 , f o r t h e o n e - y e a r s e c o n d a r y t e a c h e r - t r a i n i n g c o u r s e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i f t h e y c o u l d d e m o n s t r a t e p r o f i c i e n c y i n s h o r t h a n d and t y p e w r i t i n g . S e c o n d a r y A d v a n c e d c e r t i f i c a t e s , c a r r y i n g s a l a r y b o n u s e s , w e r e g i v e n t o h o l d e r s o f A c a d e m i c c e r t i f i c a t e s i f t h e y t o o k f i f t e e n u n i t s o f e l e m e n t a r y Commerce c o u r s e s i n s t e a d o f t h e a d v a n c e d w o r k i n t h e i r own s u b j e c t f i e l d s t h a t was u s u a l l y r e q u i r e d . 3 I n 1951 t h e S c h o o l o f Commerce a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f f e r e d a n o p t i o n i n Commerce a n d T e a c h i n g t h a t gave t h e g r a d u a t e a B a c h e l o r o f Commerce d e g r e e a nd a s e c o n d a r y t e a c h e r ' s c e r t i -f i c a t e i n f i v e y e a r s . The w e a k n e s s i n t h i s programme was t h e l a c k o f c r e d i t s f o r s h o r t h a n d a n d t y p e w r i t i n g . S t u d e n t s w e r e r e q u i r e d t o m a s t e r t h e s e s k i l l s a s e x t r a s t o a f u l l F r o m d e t a i l e d e x a m i n a t i o n o f c a l e n d a r r e g u l a t i o n s . 13 u n i v e r s i t y programme and were thus faced with a heavier burden than other students working f o r the same degree. I I . THE PRESENT The Shortage of Qu a l i f i e d Commerce Teachers In spite of the varied e f f o r t s made to r e c r u i t teachers f o r Commerce, the demand continues to exceed the supply. In September, 195$, as i n most Septembers since 1906, school boards were making last-minute e f f o r t s to f i l l vacancies i n Commerce classrooms. . The extent of the shortage i s indicated i n Table I, TABLE I CERTIFICATES HELD BY TEACHERS OF COMMERCE SUBJECTS IN GRADES X TO XII OF BRITISH COLUMBIA HIGH SCHOOLS IN 1957-58 C e r t i f i c a t e s Number Secondary Advanced . 85 Secondary Basic 134 Secondary Conditional 14 Elementary Advanced . . . . 3 Elementary Basic 42 Elementary Conditional 3 Temporary § Total 289 Source: B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Education, "K" forms (organizational reports submitted annually by school pri n c i p a l s ) analyzed by the writer. 14 The t a b l e shows that one q u a r t e r of a l l the teachers d i d not h o l d the Secondary B a s i c c e r t i f i c a t e , but i n f a c t the shortage of q u a l i f i e d teachers i n Commerce was g r e a t e r than the f i g u r e s i n d i c a t e . At a c o n s e r v a t i v e e s t i m a t e , based on the w r i t e r T s p e r s o n a l knowledge of the s i t u a t i o n , one q u a r t e r of the Advanced and B a s i c c e r t i f i c a t e h o l d e r s were teachers of academic s u b j e c t s " p i n c h - h i t t i n g " because the s c h o o l c o u l d not o b t a i n a Commerce teacher or because the Commerce t e a c h -i n g l o a d was too heavy f o r the a v a i l a b l e s t a f f . The s h o r t -age of Commerce teachers may not be e n t i r e l y a t t r i b u t a b l e t o the l a c k of a s u i t a b l e t r a i n i n g programme, but i t may w e l l be p a r t l y s o . The new programme, t h e r e f o r e , should be one that makes reasonable demands upon s tudents w h i l e g i v i n g them competence i n a l l aspects of t h e i r chosen work. A p r o -gramme t h a t does l e s s w i l l c e r t a i n l y not a t t r a c t s t u d e n t s . The Increased Importance of the Commerce Courses Ten per cent^ of a l l t e a c h i n g time i n the f o u r s e n i o r grades (IX to X I I ) of B r i t i s h Columbia Schools i s devoted to s u b j e c t s taught by Commerce t e a c h e r s . The i n c i d e n c e of Com-merce courses—and the r e s u l t a n t i n f l u e n c e e x e r c i s e d by Com-merce t e a c h e r s — i s n o t , of course , spread u n i f o r m l y over the ^ C a l c u l a t e d from mimeographed r e p o r t s on grade and course enrolment f u r n i s h e d by the B r i t i s h Columbia Department of E d u c a t i o n . Students e n r o l l e d (Grades IX to X I I ) , 57 ,231 ; enrolments i n the same grades i n a l l Commerce c o u r s e s , 3 9 , 2 § 2 . Each s tudent may take 7 c o u r s e s , so Commerce share i s : 39292/57231 X 1/7 - .09$ 1 5 secondary school population. It varies widely from Prince of Wales High School, in Vancouver, where economics is the only Commerce subject taught, to Fairview High School of Commerce, also in Vancouver, where every pupil spends more than half his time in Commerce classes. Between the ex-tremes represented by these two examples, the composite schools cater to some pupils wishing programmes heavily weighted with Commerce studies and to many more seeking one or two elective courses. The manner in which Commerce courses are employed for programme-building in the composite high school wil l be discussed fully in Chapter III, Changing conditions in the schools have been partly responsible for the growth of Commerce courses from a negli-gible proportion of the teaching load to the present ten per cent. The schools have had to develop courses outside the traditional university-entrance pattern for a large num-ber of pupils who, fifty or sixty years ago, would have terminated their schooling at an earlier age than they do now. Furthermore, the growth of urban populations and the consolidation of schools in rural areas have increased the number of high schools with sufficient enrolment for varied 5 curricula. Weeks' reported only thirty-nine British Columbia centers offering Commerce courses in 1 9 4 0 - 4 1 ; reports to the 'Weeks, op_. c i t . , p. 1 7 0 16 Department of Education^ for 1957-58 showed that the number had grown to eighty-nine. (The latter figure does not i n -clude new high schools in centers already reported by Weeks.) Changing patterns of employment have also been partly responsible for increased interest in Commerce courses. Business, growing in size and complexity and burdened with the record-keeping tasks of an instalment-buying age, has sought ever more clerical and secretarial help. Governments, faced with the administration of workmen's compensation, hospital insurance, old-age pensions, family allowances, and other welfare schemes, have augmented the demands for white-collar workers. Consequently, executives and officials , in business and in government, look to the schools for trained help. The trained help will not be forthcoming i f Commerce teachers are poorly prepared. Failure to maintain the efficiency of office staffs will have serious effects on business and society: failure to train competent office workers', will also have serious implications for our schools, Employers, aware of the tax burden imposed on them to finance the educational system, want value for their money. They can, and do, react vigorously to those aspects of educa-tion that affect the competence of their employees. Thus, one of the factors that has increased the need for Commerce teachers has also made i t imperative that they be well 6j3ritish Columbia Department of Education. "K" Forms (organizational reports submitted annually by principal of secondary schools.) 17 trained, f o r Commerce teachers and t h e i r pupils are, so f a r as employers are concerned, the show window of the school. The s i t u a t i o n i n which the Commerce teacher works d i f f e r s from that facing his.academic colleague i n two important respects. In the f i r s t place, some of his courses, such as C l e r i c a l Practice and Office Practice, are loosely defined, and he must often assume r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r s e l e c t -ing and organizing content i n l i n e with l o c a l needs. In the second place, his work i s seldom supervised by a person trained i n Commerce. In a l l B r i t i s h Columbia, i n 195$, so f a r as the writer was able to determine from departmental reports, only s i x pr i n c i p a l s of secondary schools and only one d i s t r i c t superintendent were former teachers of Commerce. Although the province employs a director of technical and vocational education, he i s t r a d i t i o n a l l y a "shop" man. Whereas there are spe c i a l inspectors of home economics and of i n d u s t r i a l a r t s , there are no supervisors of Commerce on the p r o v i n c i a l or municipal l e v e l . As a r e s u l t , Commerce teachers must often show an unusual degree of s e l f - s u f f i -ciency on the job. I I I . SUMMARY The f i r s t t r a i n i n g programme i n B r i t i s h Columbia f o r Commerce teachers c a l l e d f o r one year at a normal school: that was i n 1918. Twenty years l a t e r , through a hodge-podge o f n o r m a l s c h o o l , u n i v e r s i t y , summer s e s s i o n s , a n d s p e c i a l e x a m i n a t i o n s , a t e a c h e r c o u l d a c c u m u l a t e e n o u g h c r e d i t s t o e q u a t e h i s s t a n d i n g w i t h t h a t o f t h e u n i v e r s i t y g r a d u a t e . The l o n g , r o u n d - a b o u t p r o c e s s f a i l e d t o s t a f f t h e c l a s s r o o m s , a n d s e v e r a l a l t e r n a t i v e means o f q u a l i f i -c a t i o n , d e s i g n e d t o a t t r a c t g r a d u a t e s , w e r e i n t r o d u c e d . S t i l l t h e s u p p l y o f Commerce t e a c h e r s f a i l e d t o meet t h e demand, a demand t h a t h a d , b y 1 9 5 $ , grown t o a l m o s t one t e n t h o f t h e t e a c h i n g l o a d i n s e n i o r g r a d e s . I t i s t h e r e -f o r e e s s e n t i a l t h a t t h e C o l l e g e o f E d u c a t i o n o f f e r a p r o -gramme t h a t w i l l a t t r a c t s t u d e n t s i n g r e a t e r n u m b e r s . I t must a l s o p l a n i t s programme w i t h a n eye t o t h e s p e c i a l p o s i t i o n t h a t t h e Commerce t e a c h e r o c c u p i e s i n t h e "show wi n d o w " o f t h e s c h o o l s y s t e m a n d a n a w a r e n e s s o f t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h he may be t h r o w n on h i s own r e s o u r c e s on t h e j o b . CHAPTER III THE PRESENT ROLE OF COMMERCE COURSES IN BRITISH COLUMBIA SCHOOLS This chapter wi l l show the varied ways in which Com-merce courses help the British Columbia secondary schools cater to the individual needs of their pupils. The informa-tion given here should provide a background for the discussion in subsequent chapters: i t should, in conjunction with the material in Chapter IV, indicate the need for professionally trained teachers, rather than mere technicians, in the Com-merce courses. I. THE EVOLUTION OF THE PROGRAMME Commerce courses in British Columbia have a long his-tory: "single and double entry" bookkeeping was taught in the elementary schools from 1871 until 1906. After 1906, bookkeeping was no longer taught in the elementary schools and became part of a secondary Commerce programme,1 From 1907 until 1933, the British Columbia schools offered a Commerce programme as one of several patterns available to secondary school students. The programme provided training in English, typewriting, shorthand, bookkeeping, business •^ •Bruce, o£. c i t . , pp. 20-46. 20 l a w , a n d a r i t h m e t i c , b u t b o t h B r u c e 2 a n d Weeks^ f o u n d i t d e f i c i e n t i n s o c i o - b u s i n e s s b a c k g r o u n d . F u r t h e r m o r e , i t was a n a l l - o r - n o t h i n g programme. No Commerce p u p i l , no m a t t e r how b r i g h t o r a m b i t i o u s , c o u l d e l e c t a n y a c a d e m i c s u b j e c t s t o s u p p l e m e n t h i s Commerce s t u d i e s : no p u p i l o n t h e u n i v e r s i t y - e n t r a n c e ^ programme c o u l d t a k e a n y Commerce c o u r s e a s a n e l e c t i v e . T h i s r i g i d i t y was n o t o n l y u n d e s i r -a b l e f r o m a n e d u c a t i o n a l s t a n d p o i n t , b u t i t a l s o p r o d u c e d u n f o r t u n a t e s e c o n d a r y r e s u l t s when g r a d u a t e s w e r e p l a c e d i n t h e o f f i c e s s e r v e d b y t h e s c h o o l s . T h i s p o i n t i s d i s c u s s e d more f u l l y on page 24. B a r r i e r s b e t w e e n t h e Commerce programme a n d t h e u n i -v e r s i t y - e n t r a n c e programme w e r e f i r s t l o w e r e d i n 1933, l o w -e r e d s t i l l f u r t h e r i n 1937, and a g a i n i n 1941.^ I n c r e a s i n g numbers o f p u p i l s a v a i l e d t h e m s e l v e s o f t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o t a k e Commerce c o u r s e s a l o n g w i t h t h e i r a c a d e m i c s t u d i e s and w e r e a b l e t o g r a d u a t e f r o m h i g h s c h o o l w i t h v o c a t i o n a l s k i l l s a s w e l l a s w i t h u n i v e r s i t y - e n t r a n c e s t a n d i n g . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h e Commerce p u p i l who u s e d a l l h i s s p a r e t i m e f o r 2 I b i d 3weeks, op_. c i t . . p. 61, 4 p r i o r t o 1933, what i s now t h e u n i v e r s i t y programme was commonly c a l l e d t h e " g e n e r a l c o u r s e " t o d i s t i n g u i s h i t f r o m " s p e c i a l c o u r s e s " s u c h a s Commerce. ^ B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n , Programme  o f S t u d i e s f o r S e n i o r H i g h S c h o o l s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , ( V i c -t o r i a : The K i n g ' s P r i n t e r ) . The i n f o r m a t i o n must be d e d u c e d f r o m a n e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e B u l l e t i n s f o r t h e y e a r s i n d i c a t e d . 21 a c a d e m i c e l e c t i v e s c o u l d g a i n c r e d i t i n s e v e r a l u n i v e r s i t y -e n t r a n c e s u b j e c t s . T e n y e a r s l a t e r , The C a n a d i a n R e s e a r c h C o m m i t t e e o n P r a c t i c a l E d u c a t i o n s a i d : We recommend t h a t s c h o o l s o f f e r a v a r i e t y o f c o u r s e s t o s u i t t h e v a r i e d i n t e r e s t s a n d a p t i t u d e s o f t h e p u p i l s a n d make p r o v i s i o n f o r t h e ready,-t r a n s f e r o f p u p i l s f r o m one c o u r s e t o a n o t h e r . 0 I n 1949, t h e f i r s t m a j o r c u r r i c u l u m c h a n g e i n t w e l v e y e a r s i n t r o d u c e d a s y s t e m o f a d v a n c e d e l e c t i v e s f o r h i g h -s c h o o l g r a d u a t i o n : t h i s s y s t e m , w i t h some m o d i f i c a t i o n s , i s 7 s t i l l i n e f f e c t . ' U n d e r t h e new r e g u l a t i o n s , Commerce c o u r s e s may be u s e d a s p a r t o f a u n i v e r s i t y - e n t r a n c e programme, e i t h e r a s f r e e e l e c t i v e s o r a s a d v a n c e d e l e c t i v e s . I t w o u l d b e i n -c o r r e c t , h o w e v e r , t o s a y t h a t Commerce s u b j e c t s e n j o y e q u a l s t a t u s w i t h t h e t r a d i t i o n a l a c a d e m i c ones f o r u n i v e r s i t y e n t r a n c e : t h e p r e r e q u i s i t e s f o r a c a d e m i c m a j o r s a r e c o v e r e d i n t h e r e q u i r e d c o u r s e s ; t h e p r e r e q u i s i t e s f o r Commerce m a j o r s must be t a k e n f r o m f r e e - e l e c t i v e t i m e . P e r h a p s t h e b e s t way t o i l l u s t r a t e t h e u s e made o f t h e new s y s t e m i s t o e x a m i n e t y p i c a l p u p i l programmes now i n u s e . I n g e n e r a l , t h e c o u r s e names a r e s e l f - e x p l a n a t o r y (H. P. D. i s t h e a b b r e v i a t i o n The C a n a d i a n R e s e a r c h C o m m i t t e e on P r a c t i c a l E d u c a t i o n , B e t t e r E d u c a t i o n f o r C a n a d i a n Y o u t h ( T o r o n t o : The C a n a d i a n R e s e a r c h C o m m i t t e e on P r a c t i c a l E d u c a t i o n , 1951), p. 1 1 . ^ D i v i s i o n o f C u r r i c u l u m , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n , A d m i n i s t r a t i v e B u l l e t i n f o r S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l s , ( V i c t o r i a : The Queen's P r i n t e r , 195oT, pp. 28-41. 2 2 f o r H e a l t h a n d P e r s o n a l D e v e l o p m e n t , a c o u r s e t h a t i n c l u d e s h e a l t h e d u c a t i o n , p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n , a n d g u i d a n c e ) ; c o u r s e s numbered i n t h e 1 0 ' s a r e n o r m a l l y o f f e r e d i n G r a d e I X ; t h e 2 0 ' s i n G r a d e X; t h e 3 0 ' s i n G r a d e X I ; a n d t h e 4 0 * s i n G r a d e X I I . A d v a n c e d e l e c t i v e s a r e numbered i n t h e 9 0 * s a nd may be t a k e n i n G r a d e X I b u t a r e u s u a l l y t a k e n i n G r a d e X I I . I n t h e e x a m p l e s g i v e n i n t h i s c h a p t e r , t h e p u p i l . 1 s m a j o r s a r e i n d i c a t e d b y t h e a d v a n c e d e l e c t i v e s he i s t a k i n g . I I . T Y P ICAL PROGRAMMES USING COMMERCE COURSES E x a m p l e A - U n i v e r s i t y E n t r a n c e w i t h a S e c r e t a r i a l M a j o r C o u r s e s M a j o r s C r e d i t s E n g l i s h 1 0 , 2 0 , 3 0 , 4 0 91 o r 9 3 25 S o c i a l S t u d i e s 1 0 , 2 0 , 3 0 1 5 F r e n c h 1 0 , 2 0 9 1 a n d 9 2 2 0 S c i e n c e 1 0 , 2 0 1 0 M a t h e m a t i c s 1 0 , 2 0 , 3 0 1 5 H. P. D. 1 0 , 2 0 , 3 0 1 5 Commerce 1 0 , 2 0 , 2 1 , 3 1 9 2 2 5 E l e c t i v e s 0 - 1 5 The p u p i l . - who u s e d a programme s u c h a s t h a t shown i n E x a m p l e A c o u l d h a v e o b t a i n e d a m a j o r i n m a t h e m a t i c s o r s o c i a l s t u d i e s w i t h o n l y one a d v a n c e d e l e c t i v e o r a m a j o r i n s c i e n c e w i t h two a d v a n c e d e l e c t i v e s , l e a v i n g a g r e a t d e a l more t i m e f o r c o u r s e s o f h e r c h o i c e . S e l e c t i o n o f s e c r e t a r i a l p r a c t i c e a s a t h i r d m a j o r r e q u i r e d f i v e a d d i t i o n a l c o u r s e s a l t h o u g h some p u p i l s a r e a b l e t o r e d u c e t h e number t o f o u r by d o i n g t w o y e a r s o f t y p e w r i t i n g i n one. I n a l m o s t e v e r y c a s e t h e p u p i l s e l e c t i n g s u c h a n a r r a y o f c o u r s e s i s a g i r l . 23 A l l o f t h e m a r e r e q u i r e d t o o f f e r E n g l i s h a s a s e c o n d m a j o r b u t t h e y w o u l d n o t n e c e s s a r i l y s e l e c t F r e n c h a s t h e i r t h i r d . Some r e a s o n s f o r t h e s e l e c t i o n o f a programme s u c h a s t h a t o u t l i n e d i n E x a m p l e A m i g h t b e : (1) A g i r l i s u n c e r t a i n o f h e r p o s t h i g h - s c h o o l p l a n s b u t h e r p a r e n t s want h e r t o h a v e u n i v e r s i t y - e n t r a n c e s t a n d i n g . The programme g i v e s h e r u n i -v e r s i t y - e n t r a n c e s t a n d i n g i n c a s e she d e c i d e s t o go t o u n i -v e r s i t y b u t p r o v i d e s h e r w i t h a v o c a t i o n a l s k i l l i n c a s e she d o e s n o t . (2) The g i r l may w ant a v o c a t i o n a l c o u r s e a n d h a s no o t h e r - a p p a r e n t i n t e r e s t . H e r c o u n s e l l o r , k n o w i n g h e r a b i l i t y , p e r s u a d e s h e r t o t a k e t h e u n i v e r s i t y - e n t r a n c e p r o -gramme w i t h a Commerce m a j o r so t h a t t h e d o o r t o f u r t h e r e d u c a t i o n w i l l r e m a i n o p e n . (3) The g i r l , who i n t e n d s t o go t o u n i v e r s i t y , w a n t s a Commerce m a j o r a s a " m e a l t i c k e t " f o r summer e m p l o y m e n t , o r w a n t s s h o r t h a n d and t y p e w r i t i n g s k i l l s b e c a u s e s h e i s i n t e r e s t e d i n j o u r n a l i s m o r a Commerce c a r e e r a f t e r u n i v e r s i t y . The w r i t e r , h a v i n g t a u g h t Commerce c o u r s e s and p l a c e d Commerce g r a d u a t e s f o r t h i r t y y e a r s , a d m i t s t o a b i a s f o r t h e t y p e o f programme g i v e n i n E x a m p l e A. I t w o r k s t o t h e a d v a n t a g e o f t h e p u p i l b e c a u s e s h e f i n i s h e s h i g h s c h o o l w i t h a m a r k e t a b l e s k i l l t h a t s h e may u s e on a f u l l - t i m e j o b i f f o r some r e a s o n she d o e s n o t go t o u n i v e r s i t y . I f she d o e s go t o u n i v e r s i t y , s h e h a s a s k i l l f o r summer employment a n d a s u p -p l e m e n t a r y s k i l l f o r many c a r e e r s t h a t m i g h t a r i s e o u t o f h e r 24 u n i v e r s i t y t r a i n i n g s G r a d u a t e s o f t h i s t y p e a r e i m p o r t a n t i n b u i l d i n g t h e s c h o o l ' s r e p u t a t i o n w i t h b u s i n e s s men. I f t h e g i r l f i n i s h e d h i g h s c h o o l w i t h o u t a m a r k e t a b l e s k i l l , s h e w o u l d p r o b a b l y e n r o l l i n a b u s i n e s s c o l l e g e f o r one y e a r , g r a d u a t e w i t h t h e b u s i n e s s - c o l l e g e l a b e l on h e r a n d be p l a c e d t o i t s c r e d i t . The f a c t t h a t she h a d s p e n t t w e l v e o f h e r t h i r t e e n y e a r s o f s c h o o l i n g i n t h e p u b l i c s c h o o l s m i g h t w e l l be o v e r l o o k e d b y h e r e m p l o y e r s b e c a u s e she came t o them f r o m t h e b u s i n e s s s c h o o l . I n g e n e r a l , t h e b u s i n e s s c o l l e g e w o u l d g e t t h e c r e d i t f o r s u c h g r a d u a t e s ; t h e p u b l i c s c h o o l w o u l d g e t t h e c r e d i t , o r b l a m e , f o r t h e c o m p a r a t i v e l y p o o r p e r f o r -mance o f t h e g e n e r a l - p r o g r a m m e p u p i l s p l a c e d d i r e c t l y f r o m h i g h s c h o o l . E x a m p l e B - U n i v e r s i t y E n t r a n c e w i t h a B u s i n e s s M a j o r C o u r s e s M a j o r s C r e d i t s E n g l i s h 1 0 , 2 0 , 3 0 , 40 20 S o c i a l S t u d i e s 1 0 , 20 , 30 Law 93 20 H. P. D. 1 0 , 2 0 , 30 15 M a t h e m a t i c s 1 0 , 2 0 , 30 91 20 F r e n c h 1 0 , 20 10 S c i e n c e 1 0 , 20 10 Commerce 2 4 , 34 91 15 E l e c t i v e s 10 -30 T h i s programme i s u s u a l l y c h o s e n b y a b o y who i s u n c e r -t a i n o f h i s p o s t h i g h - s c h o o l p l a n s o r b y one who e x p e c t s t o p r o c e e d t o t h e F a c u l t y o f Commerce a n d B u s i n e s s A d m i n i s t r a t i o n a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y . I t i s a l s o a v a l u a b l e programme f o r a b o y who p l a n s t o e n t e r t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l a c c o u n t i n g f i e l d a s a 25 chartered accountant, c e r t i f i e d general accountant, or r e g i s -tered i n d u s t r i a l accountant. Example C - U n i v e r s i t y Entrance w i t h Commerce E l e c t i v e s Courses Majors C r e d i t s E n g l i s h 10, 20, 30, 3 2 , 40 91 30 S o c i a l Studies 10, 20, 30 H i s t . 91 20 H. P. D. 10, 20, 30 15 Mathematics 10, 20, 30 15 French 10, 20 91, 92 20 Science 10, 20 10 Commerce 10, 21, 31 15 Spanish 10, 20 10 E l e c t i v e 0-5 Example C i s given t o show the use made of Commerce courses as e l e c t i v e s f o r a s p e c i a l need. This was the a c t u a l programme of a g i r l who a s p i r e d t o be a j o u r n a l i s t , and who planned to continue her education at a u n i v e r s i t y a f t e r she l e f t h i g h s c h o o l . Other examples of the uses to which Com-merce courses are put as f r e e e l e c t i v e s may be found i n the d i s c u s s i o n concerning i n d i v i d u a l courses i n Appendix B. Example D - General Programme w i t h S e c r e t a r i a l Major Courses Majors C r e d i t s E n g l i s h 1 0 , 20 or 2 1 , 30 or 3 1 , 40 or 41 93 25 S o c i a l Studies 1 0 . 2 0 , 3 0 . 32 Law 93 25 H. P. D. A 1 0 , 2 0 , 30 15 Mathematics* 5 10 or 12 5 Commerce 1 0 , 2 0 , 2 1 , 2 4 , 3 1 , 3 4 , 44 92 40 E l e c t i v e s 1 0 - 3 0 °The re q u i r e d three-year sequence of mathematics courses i s met through completion of Co 24 and Co 3 4 . 2 6 The l a r g e s t g r o u p o f p u p i l s s e r v e d b y Commerce c o u r s e s c o n t i n u e s t o be t h e g i r l s , e n r o l l e d i n t h e g e n e r a l programme, who a s p i r e t o o f f i c e p o s i t i o n s a s s t e n o g r a p h e r s . E x a m p l e D i s t y p i c a l o f t h e i r p r ogrammes. A s e r i o u s p r o b l e m w i t h t h i s g r o u p i s t h e h i g h m o r t a l i t y t h a t r e s u l t s f r o m t h e i r f a i l u r e t o meet t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d s i n s h o r t h a n d . Some l a r g e s c h o o l s , t h r o u g h t h e i r c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e s , weed o u t t h e w e a k e r p u p i l s a n d d i r e c t t h e m i n t o a c l e r i c a l c o u r s e ; o t h e r s c h o o l s u s e E n g l i s h a s t h e c r i t e r i o n , s e t t i n g a n a r b i t r a r y s t a n d a r d o f C o r b e t t e r i n G r a d e I X E n g l i s h f o r e n t r a n c e t o s h o r t h a n d c l a s s e s . B e c a u s e s h o r t h a n d i s a p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r s e c r e t a r i a l p r a c t i c e c l a s s e s , t h o s e b a r r e d must s e e k o t h e r c o u r s e s . S t i l l o t h e r s c h o o l s a l l o w a n y p u p i l t o t a k e s h o r t -h a n d who w i s h e s t o do s o , r e l y i n g o n t h e s h o r t h a n d e x a m i n a -t i o n t o make p r o p e r s e l e c t i o n . The f o r m e r s t a n d a r d , i f i t c a n be u s e d , i s more a c c e p t a b l e f o r t h r e e r e a s o n s : (1) Some " d e a d wood" i s k e p t o u t o f t h e s h o r t h a n d c l a s s e s . (2) The p u p i l d o e s n o t w a s t e t i m e on a c o u r s e t h a t i s t o o d i f f i c u l t f o r h e r . (3) Some p u p i l s who l a c k t h e a b i l i t y t o h a n d l e s t e n o g r a p h i c p o s i t i o n s may, t h r o u g h h a r d w o r k , p a s s t h e s h o r t h a n d c o u r s e o n l y t o f i n d t h a t t h e i r a b i l i t y t o t r a n -s c r i b e i s l i m i t e d b y p o o r m a s t e r y o f E n g l i s h . S u r v e y s show t h a t o n l y a s m a l l p r o p o r t i o n o f o f f i c e w o r k e r s a r e c a l l e d upon t o u s e s h o r t h a n d . The t r a i n i n g o f l o w - a b i l i t y p u p i l s i n t h a t d i f f i c u l t a r t c a n l e a d o n l y t o 27 f r u s t r a t i o n f o r them a n d p o o r p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s f o r t h e s c h o o l . E x a m p l e E - G e n e r a l Programme w i t h C l e r i c a l P r a c t i c e C o u r s e s M a j o r s C r e d i t s E n g l i s h 10, 20 o r 21, 30 o r 31, 40 o r 41 93 25 S o c i a l S t u d i e s 10, 20, 30 15 H. P. D. 10, 20, 30 15 M a t h e m a t i c s 10 o r 12 5 Commerce 10, 11, 20, 24, 32, 34, 39, 42 40 E l e c t i v e s 20-40 The c l e r i c a l p r a c t i c e o p t i o n s e r v e s a t w o f o l d n e e d : (1) I t p r o v i d e s s u i t a b l e c o u r s e s f o r p u p i l s o f l o w - a v e r a g e a b i l i t y who c o u l d n o t hope t o meet t h e demands o f s t e n o -g r a p h i c w o r k . (2) I t t r a i n s o f f i c e w o r k e r s f o r g e n e r a l c l e r i c a l p o s i t i o n s . E x a m p l e F - G e n e r a l Programme w i t h B u s i n e s s M a j o r C o u r s e s M a j o r s C r e d i t s E n g l i s h 10, 20 o r 21, 30 o r 31, 40 o r 41 93 25 S o c i a l S t u d i e s 10, 20, 30 Law 93 20 H. P. D. 10; 20, 30 15 M a t h e m a t i c s 10 o r 12. 5 Commerce 10, 20, 24, 34, 32, 39 91 35 E l e c t i v e s 20-30 C o m p a r a t i v e l y f e w p u p i l s a r e now e n r o l l e d o n t h e p r o -gramme o u t l i n e d i n E x a m p l e F. I t was d e s i g n e d f o r b o y s who p l a n t o e n t e r " w h i t e - c o l l a r " o c c u p a t i o n s on c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e i r h i g h - s c h o o l t r a i n i n g , b u t d u r i n g p o s t - w a r y e a r s , f e w e r b o y s h a v e b e e n a t t r a c t e d d i r e c t l y t o " w h i t e - c o l l a r " j o b s . 28 The s t a r t i n g pay compares unfavourably w i t h earnings i n the b u i l d i n g trades and i n " b l u e - c o l l a r 1 * jobs g e n e r a l l y . Fur-thermore, employers are l e s s l i k e l y to demand s p e c i f i c s k i l l s of boys than of g i r l s , hence, the banks, t r u s t companies, and l a r g e r e t a i l o r g a n i z a t i o n s give no preference to boys with t h i s type of t r a i n i n g over those w i t h purely academic backgrounds. I I I . COMMERCE ENROLMENTS AND TOTAL ENROLMENTS The examples given i n t h i s chapter i n d i c a t e some of the ways i n which the composite school may use Commerce courses but the examples do not show the numbers of p u p i l s i n v o l v e d . Table I I shows the enrolment i n Commerce courses compared w i t h the t o t a l school population i n the grades i n which the courses are normally o f f e r e d . The f i g u r e s i n Table I I I were obtained by a n a l y z i n g the programmes of the e n t i r e 1956 graduating c l a s s at V i c t o r i a High School. The f i g u r e s show, f o r example, that out of 76 g i r l s on the u n i v e r s i t y programme, 65 took one year of type-w r i t i n g but only 34 continued t y p e w r i t i n g i n t o a second year. Table I I I does not r e v e a l the extent of d u p l i c a t i o n i n the enrolments: the 34 g i r l s on the u n i v e r s i t y programme who took Typewriting 20 are included i n the 65 who took Type-w r i t i n g 10 and some of them may be i n c l u d e d i n other courses. Table IV gives an a n a l y s i s of frequencies f o r the u n i v e r s i t y 29 TABLE I I ENROLMENTS I N COMMERCE COURSES I N B R I T I S H COLUMBIA HIGH SCHOOLS, 1957-195$, COMPARED WITH TOTAL SCHOOL POPULATION C o u r s e C o u r s e E n r o l m e n t G r a d e E n r o l m e n t 12,757 3,192 19,334 ( I X ) B u s i n e s s F u n d a m e n t a l s . . . . 3,790 4,$52 3,306 15,663 (X) B u s i n e s s M a c h i n e s P r a c t i c e 39 2,57$ 1,577 1,046 67 456 12,073 ( X I ) S e c r e t a r i a l P r a c t i c e 92 . . . S e c r e t a r i a l P r a c t i c e 93 . . . 224 34 651 463 741 917 215 1,553 636 3,310 ( X I I ) S o u r c e : B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n : m i m e o g r a p h e d b u l l e t i n . 30 TABLE III COMMERCE COURSES USED FOR HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATION CREDIT BY 1956 GRADUATING CLASS VICTORIA HIGH SCHOOL University General programme programme Girls Boys Girls Boys . 76 86 39 31 . 65 33 38 12 . 1 1 17 0 . 34 7 37 1 . 25 1 35 0 . 24 0 29 0 . 5 0 14 0 Secretarial Practice 9 2 . . . . 24 0 27 0 Secretarial Practice 93 . • • . 2 0 7 0 Business Fundamentals 24 . . . 3 7 35 7 . 3 11 16 6 . 1 5 6 2 . 8 0 13 0 0 3 0 Business Machines Practice 39 . 10 3 32 2 . 18 14 20 2 4 25 1 Source: progress record cards of pupils 3 1 TABLE I V NUMBERS OF COMMERCE COURSES USED BY UNIVERSITY PROGRAMME STUDENTS FOR HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATION CREDIT BY 1 9 5 6 GRADUATING CLASS, VICTORIA HIGH SCHOOL Number o f Commerce c o u r s e s t a k e n G i r l s B o y s . 23 28 7 4 3 . 3 1 2 5 . 6 1 6 . 3 0 7 8 1 8 . 5 0 5 7 3 7 T o t a l number o f u n i v e r s i t y -. 7 6 86 g r o u p , a n d i t shows f o r e x a m p l e , t h a t t w e n t y - t h r e e g i r l s t o o k o n l y one Commerce c o u r s e w h e r e a s f i v e t o o k e i g h t c o u r s e s d u r i n g t h e i r f o u r y e a r s o f h i g h s c h o o l . I t w o u l d a p p e a r f r o m t h i s a n a l y s i s t h a t b o y s t e n d t o make a s much use o f Commerce c o u r s e s f o r p e r s o n a l u s e b u t a r e l e s s l i k e l y t o s e e k s k i l l s on t h e v o c a t i o n a l l e v e l . V i c t o r i a H i g h S c h o o l i s a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e c o m p o s i t e h i g h s c h o o l . I t s c o u r s e p a t t e r n s w i l l d i f f e r somewhat f r o m t h o s e o f s u c h h i g h s c h o o l s a s Oak B a y and West V a n c o u v e r , w h e r e t h e s o c i o - e c o n o m i c l e v e l o f t h e p u p i l s t e n d s t o be u n i f o r m l y h i g h . T h e y w i l l a l s o d i f f e r somewhat f r o m s u c h s c h o o l s a s K i n g G e o r g e a n d V a n c o u v e r T e c h n i c a l , w here t h e s o c i o - e c o n o m i c l e v e l i s somewhat l o w e r . I t w o u l d a p p e a r t h a t V i c t o r i a H i g h S c h o o l u s e s Commerce c o u r s e s a l i t t l e more t h a n t h e p r o v i n c i a l a v e r a g e , d e v o t i n g a b o u t e l e v e n p e r c e n t o f i t s t e a c h i n g t i m e t o Commerce a s c o m p a r e d w i t h t e n p e r c e n t f o r t h e p r o -v i n c e a s a w h o l e . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e V i c t o r i a p a t t e r n , w i t h m i n o r v a r i a t i o n s may be f o u n d i n many c o m p o s i t e h i g h s c h o o l s t h r o u g h o u t t h e p r o v i n c e . A t V i c t o r i a H i g h S c h o o l , a s a t t h e o t h e r s c h o o l s , t h e Commerce t e a c h e r must w o r k w i t h p u p i l s f r o m b o t h t h e u n i v e r s i t y programme a n d t h e g e n e r a l programme; h i s i n f l u e n c e i s n o t c o n f i n e d t o a n a r r o w g r o u p o f u n d e r p a r p u p i l s , b u t r a t h e r i t p e r m e a t e s a good s e c t i o n o f t h e s c h o o l f o r b e t t e r o r f o r w o r s e . I V . SUMMARY The Commerce programme i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , now i n t h e f o u r t h s t a g e o f i t s e v o l u t i o n , s e r v e s a l a r g e c r o s s -s e c t i o n o f s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l p u p i l s i n a v a r i e t y o f w a y s . A p u p i l may want o n l y a s i n g l e c o u r s e i n t y p e w r i t i n g f o r p e r s o n a l u s e o r he may want a n i n t e g r a t e d s e q u e n c e o f c o u r s e s f o r v o c a t i o n a l p u r p o s e s . He may want a f o r e t a s t e o f b u s i n e s s i n f o r m a t i o n a s a p r e l u d e t o Commerce w o r k a t a u n i v e r s i t y o r he may want some k n o w l e d g e o f b u s i n e s s m a t t e r s b e c a u s e he c a n s e e no p r o s p e c t o f a c q u i r i n g s u c h k n o w l e d g e i n t h e u n i v e r s i t y programme he p l a n s . W h a t e v e r h i s n e e d s , t h e v a r i e t y o f 33 c o u r s e s a n d t h e f l e x i b i l i t y o f t h e r e g u l a t i o n s g i v e h i m a good c h a n c e o f g e t t i n g what he n e e d s i n t h e way o f Commerce c o u r s e s i n h i g h s c h o o l . CHAPTER I V THE OBJECTIVES OF THE COMMERCE PROGRAMME I t i s t h e p u r p o s e o f t h i s c h a p t e r t o e x a m i n e t h e s t a t e d o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e Commerce programme i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s and t o i n f e r f r o m t h e s e o b j e c t i v e s t h e q u a l i f i c a t i o n s r e q u i r e d o f t h e t e a c h e r s who a r e e x p e c t e d t o a c h i e v e them. The o f f i c i a l s t a t e m e n t o f t h e o b j e c t i v e s i s a s f o l l o w s : A c o m p r e h e n s i v e b u s i n e s s e d u c a t i o n programme must i n c l u d e c o u r s e s d e s i g n e d t o p r o v i d e b o t h g e n e r a l b u s i n e s s k n o w l e d g e a n d v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g a n d , i n , a d d i t i o n , must f u r t h e r t h e a i m s o f s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n . I . GENERAL BUSINESS KNOWLEDGE What i s meant b y " g e n e r a l b u s i n e s s k n o w l e d g e " ? A b o y i n a G r a d e V I I m a t h e m a t i c s c l a s s may be t a u g h t t o c a l c u l a t e s i m p l e i n t e r e s t : t h i s may be r e g a r d e d a s a v o c a t i o n a l s k i l l . Does he know, h o w e v e r , t h a t f i n a n c e c h a r g e s , a d v e r t i s e d a s s i x p e r c e n t , o f t e n amount t o t w e n t y - t w o p e r c e n t ? Does he know t h a t t h e l e g a l r a t e o f i n t e r e s t i n Canada i s f i v e p e r c e n t y e t t h e c a s u a l l e n d e r may c h a r g e a n y r a t e t h e b o r r o w e r a g r e e s t o pay ? Does he know what f a c t o r s g o v e r n t h e r a t e s o f i n t e r e s t c h a r g e d f r o m t i m e t o t i m e o n d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f l o a n s ? Does he know t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e l i a b i l i t y a ssumed b y i D i v i s i o n o f C u r r i c u l u m , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n , Commerce. 1958 ( V i c t o r i a : The Queen's P r i n t e r , 1953) p. 7. 35 a n e n d o r s e r ? Does he u n d e r s t a n d t h e m e d i e v a l o b j e c t i o n s t o u s u r y , and d o e s he u n d e r s t a n d t h e i n f l u e n c e t h o s e o b j e c t i o n s h a d on t h e J e w i s h p e o p l e s o f W e s t e r n E u r o p e ? The l i s t o f q u e s t i o n s c o u l d be l e n g t h e n e d e n d l e s s l y , a n d t h e number o f s u c h q u e s t i o n s t h e p u p i l c a n a n s w e r i s a m e a s u r e o f h i s " g e n e r a l b u s i n e s s k n o w l e d g e " : t h e i n f o r m a t i o n a n d u n d e r -s t a n d i n g t h a t w i l l g i v e m e a n i n g a n d s t r e n g t h t o h i s v o c a -t i o n a l s k i l l . I f a g i r l who g r a d u a t e s f r o m a B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a h i g h s c h o o l i s e m p l o y e d a s a s c h o o l s t e n o g r a p h e r , h e r k n o w l e d g e o f s c h o o l c o u r s e s i s b u s i n e s s b a c k g r o u n d f o r h e r : t h e c o u r s e numbers and c o u r s e names t h a t o c c u r i n h e r n o t i c e s and h e r c o r r e s p o n d e n c e h a v e m e a n i n g f o r h e r a n d g i v e h e r a n a d v a n t a g e o v e r a g i r l who h a s j u s t a r r i v e d , s a y , f r o m G r e a t B r i t a i n . I f s h e h a s t o p r e p a r e a s t e n c i l f o r a F r e n c h e x a m i n a t i o n , a k n o w l e d g e o f F r e n c h i s u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n . O t h e r t h i n g s b e i n g e q u a l , t h e b e s t s t e n o g r a p h e r f o r a l a w o f f i c e i s one who h a s q u a l i f i e d , a t l e a s t i n p a r t , a s a l a w y e r ; and t h e b e s t s e c r e t a r y f o r a n e n g i n e e r i n g o f f i c e i s a g i r l who h a s s t u d i e d e n g i n e e r i n g . Any w e l l o r g a n i z e d , w e l l t a u g h t s c h o o l s u b j e c t c o n t a i n s e l e m e n t s o f v o c a t i o n a l v a l u e t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t i t g i v e s t h e p o t e n t i a l o f f i c e w o r k e r i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t , a n d u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f , t h e w o r l d i n w h i c h he i s g o i n g t o w o r k . Some c o u r s e s , 36 n o t a b l y m a t h e m a t i c s a nd s o c i a l s t u d i e s , c o n t a i n many t o p i c s u s e f u l a s b u s i n e s s b a c k g r o u n d , b u t t h e i n s t r u c t o r s do n o t , a s a r u l e , d e v e l o p t h e t o p i c s s u f f i c i e n t l y f o r t h e n e e d s o f o f f i c e w o r k e r s : t h e i n s t r u c t o r may n o t h a v e s u f f i c i e n t b a c k g r o u n d k n o w l e d g e h i m s e l f , o r he may f e e l t h a t t h e t i m e a t h i s d i s p o s a l i s n e e d e d f o r o t h e r m a t e r i a l p r e s c r i b e d f o r h i s c o u r s e . B u s i n e s s e d u c a t o r s h a v e , t h e r e f o r e , d e v e l o p e d c o u r s e s t o f i l l t h e g a p s l e f t b y t r a d i t i o n a l c o u r s e s a n d t o p r o v i d e s t u d y i n d e p t h o f t h o s e t o p i c s i n a d e q u a t e l y c o v e r e d . S u c h s p e c i a l l y p l a n n e d c o u r s e s i n c l u d e B u s i n e s s F u n d a m e n t a l s , Law, E c o n o m i c s , a n d A p p l i e d E n g l i s h . T h e s e s u b j e c t s may be t a u g h t b y a t e a c h e r o f s o c i a l s t u d i e s o r o f E n g l i s h , b u t more f r e q u e n t l y t h e y a r e t a u g h t b y Commerce t e a c h e r s . I n e i t h e r e v e n t , t h e c o n c e p t s a n d k n o w l e d g e t a u g h t i n t h e c o u r s e s a r e d e s i g n e d t o p r o v i d e b a c k g r o u n d f o r t h e p r a c t i c a l s i t u a -t i o n s o f o t h e r Commerce c o u r s e s , a n d t h e t e a c h e r s h o u l d be p r e p a r e d t o e x p l o i t t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p . I I . VOCATIONAL TRAINING The d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n a v o c a t i o n a l c o u r s e a n d a n o n -v o c a t i o n a l c o u r s e i s one o f d e g r e e r a t h e r t h a n o f k i n d . A l l s c h o o l c o u r s e s f a l l i n t o a c o n t i n u u m i n r e s p e c t t o t h e i r v o c a t i o n a l c o n t e n t : t h e p l a c e o f a c o u r s e i n t h e c o n t i n u u m w i l l d e p e n d u pon t h e o c c u p a t i o n b e i n g c o n s i d e r e d . A t t h e v o c a t i o n a l end o f t h e s c a l e a r e t h o s e c o u r s e s , c o n t a i n i n g h i g h l y s p e c i a l i z e d s k i l l s o r s u b j e c t m a t t e r , d e s i g n e d t o meet 37 t h e n e e d s o f a p a r t i c u l a r o c c u p a t i o n : t h e c o u r s e s may o r may n o t be r i c h i n o t h e r e d u c a t i o n a l v a l u e s . S h o r t h a n d , f o r e x a m p l e , i s u s u a l l y t h o u g h t o f a s a v o c a t i o n a l s u b j e c t . C e r -t a i n l y i t i s n o t l i k e l y t o be f u n c t i o n a l o u t s i d e a b u s i n e s s o f f i c e . l e t s h o r t h a n d h a s e d u c a t i o n a l v a l u e s i f one c o n -s i d e r s m a s t e r y o f a d e m a n d i n g s u b j e c t a v i r t u e f o r t h e c o n -c e n t r a t e d e f f o r t i t r e q u i r e s o f t h e p u p i l . A d v o c a t e s o f a c a d e m i c s u b j e c t s h a v e l o n g u s e d t h a t a r g u m e n t t o j u s t i f y t h e s t u d y o f L a t i n . I n y e t a n o t h e r way, s h o r t h a n d a n d L a t i n a r e a k i n . Many a n a d u l t c l a i m s t h a t t h e s t u d y o f L a t i n g a v e h i m h i s f i r s t i n s i g h t i n t o t h e i n t r i c a c i e s o f E n g l i s h gram-mar; s i m i l a r l y , many a s t u d e n t o f s h o r t h a n d f i n d s t h a t t h e n e e d f o r a m a i l a b l e t r a n s c r i p t f o r c e s h i m t o be c o n c e r n e d a b o u t t h e u s e o f c o r r e c t E n g l i s h . To s a y , t h e n , t h a t a c o u r s e h a s l i t t l e f u n c t i o n a l v a l u e o u t s i d e o f a p a r t i c u l a r o c c u p a t i o n i s n o t t o d e n y i t s e d u c a t i o n a l w o r t h . O f f i c e w o r k i s n o t one o c c u p a t i o n : i t i s a w h o l e r a n g e o f o c c u p a t i o n s . B e c a u s e t h e s c h o o l c a n n o t know i n a d v a n c e what j o b t h e p u p i l w i l l s e c u r e o n g r a d u a t i o n , i t must p l a n v o c a t i o n a l c o u r s e s w i t h e l e m e n t s t h a t a r e common t o many j o b s . I t i s w o r t h n o t i n g t h a t many e l e m e n t s o f v o c a t i o n a l The N a t i o n a l O f f i c e Management A s s o c i a t i o n c l a s s i f i e s t w e n t y - f o u r s e p a r a t e o f f i c e o c c u p a t i o n s i n i t s a n n u a l s a l a r y s u r v e y . T h i s number may be r e g a r d e d a s a c o n s e r v a t i v e f i g u r e b e c a u s e t h e a s s o c i a t i o n c o u p l e many j o b s t h a t a r e o f t e n c l a s s -i f i e d a s s e p a r a t e o c c u p a t i o n s b y e m p l o y e r s . N a t i o n a l O f f i c e Management A s s o c i a t i o n , S u r v e y Summary Number 22, ( W i l l o w G r o v e , P e n n s y l v a n i a , 195$). 38 t r a i n i n g i n Commerce h a v e a p p l i c a t i o n s i n j o b s t h a t a r e n o t n o r m a l l y t h o u g h t o f a s o f f i c e w o r k , a n d t h e y n o t i n f r e q u e n t l y h a v e a p p l i c a t i o n s i n t h e p e r s o n a l a f f a i r s o f p u p i l s . The Commerce t e a c h e r may, t h e r e f o r e , r e a s o n a b l y c l a i m t h a t most o f h i s c o u r s e s a r e b r o a d l y v o c a t i o n a l . T y p e w r i t i n g , f o r e x a m p l e , i s a u s e f u l t o o l f o r so many p u r p o s e s t h a t i t c a n h a r d l y be c a l l e d a v o c a t i o n a l c o u r s e u n l e s s i t i s t a k e n t o t h e h i g h e r r a n g e s o f s k i l l t h a t o n l y a p r o f e s s i o n a l n e e d s . I I I . THE AIMS OF SECONDARY EDUCATION A s s u m i n g t h a t t h e Commerce t e a c h e r s u c c e e d s i n g i v i n g h i s p u p i l s t h e g e n e r a l b u s i n e s s k n o w l e d g e a n d t h e s p e c i a l -i z e d s k i l l s t h a t he r e q u i r e s f o r most t y p e s o f o f f i c e w o r k , he must a l s o be c o n c e r n e d t o s e e t h a t i n d o i n g s o he h a s f u r t h e r e d t h e a i m s o f s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n . T w e l v e a i m s a r e 3 p u b l i s h e d b y t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n : t h e y a r e q u o t e d s i n g l y o r i n g r o u p s s o t h a t t h e y may i m m e d i -a t e l y p r e c e d e t h e d i s c u s s i o n c o n c e r n i n g t h e m , 1. To e n s u r e t h a t a l l p u p i l s m a s t e r t h e f u n d a m e n t a l s k i l l s o f l e a r n i n g t o t h e l i m i t o f t h e i r a b i l i t i e s . The f u n d a m e n t a l s k i l l s a r e n o t d e f i n e d , b u t i f t h e y a r e t h e t r a d i t i o n a l t h r e e R f s , t h e Commerce t e a c h e r h a s many o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r r e n e w i n g a nd e x p a n d i n g t h o s e s k i l l s i n s e t -t i n g s t h a t h a v e s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r t h e p u p i l . A p p l i c a t i o n s o f ^ B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n , A d m i n i s t r a t i v e  B u l l e t i n f o r S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l s , p. 9 39 arithmetic are required in such courses as Record-keeping, Business Fundamentals, Bookkeeping, Clerical Practice, and Retail Selling; a special course in English is offered for Commerce pupils, and the Commerce pupil is exposed to an extensive vocabulary of business, economic, and legal terms. 2. To help a l l pupils develop healthy minds and bodies. Though some people might regard this aim as the special function of the physical education teachers and the guidance department, mental health is a product of the pupil's total environment. The fact that he is working with a purpose in his Commerce classes affords the Commerce teacher a better opportunity than most teachers have to contribute to this aim, 3 . To help pupils to become familiar with that which is great and valuable in history, science, and the arts. 4. To develop in a l l pupils an understanding of the responsibilities and privileges of l i fe in a democracy. 5. To encourage self-discipline in pupils by requiring acceptable standards of performance and behaviour in a l l phases of the school programme. 6. To co-operate with parents in guiding the growth and development of their children. The teacher of business law may claim, with some truth, that his course is ideally tailored to assist pupils to under-stand the responsibilities and privileges of l i fe in a 40 d e m o c r a c y , b u t t h e c h i e f c o n t r i b u t i o n o f t h e Commerce p r o -gramme t o t h e a c h i e v e m e n t o f t h e a i m s i n t h i s g r o u p i s a n i n d i r e c t o n e . E d u c a t o r s , e v e n Commerce t e a c h e r s , may n o t b e l i e v e t h a t v o c a t i o n a l a i m s a r e t h e most i m p o r t a n t o n e s i n s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n , b u t many p e o p l e — p u p i l s , p a r e n t s , a n d e m p l o y e r s — d o t h i n k s o . The w i s e t e a c h e r knows t h a t t h e p u p i l ' s i n t e r e s t i n v o c a t i o n a l c o u r s e p r o v i d e s s t r o n g m o t i -v a t i o n i n t h e c l a s s r o o m , a n d he u s e s t h a t m o t i v a t i o n a s a l e v e r t o a c h i e v e t h e a i m s t h a t he t h i n k s a r e most i m p o r t a n t . I n e f f e c t t h e s c h o o l s a y s t o t h e p u p i l , " S t a y w i t h us f o r f o u r y e a r s , do a s a t i s f a c t o r y j o b i n t h e c o u r s e s we t h i n k a n e d u c a t e d p e r s o n n e e d s , a n d i n r e t u r n we w i l l g i v e y o u t e c h -n i c a l s k i l l s a n d h e l p y o u f i n d a j o b . " I f t h e " l e v e r " i s a p p l i e d s u c c e s s f u l l y , t h e p u p i l , d u r i n g h i s f o u r y e a r s a t s c h o o l , may be p e r s u a d e d t h a t t e c h n i c a l s k i l l s a r e more v a l u a b l e when s u p p o r t e d by good s k i l l s i n E n g l i s h and m a t h -e m a t i c s , a n d by a n i m p r o v e d u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f h i s e n v i r o n m e n t ; t h a t t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n a " v o c a t i o n a l " c o u r s e a n d a n " a c a d e m i c " c o u r s e i s one o f d e g r e e r a t h e r t h a n o f k i n d , b e c a u s e a n y c o u r s e t h a t a i d s h i s d e v e l o p m e n t w i l l i n c r e a s e h i s v o c a t i o n a l c o m p e t e n c e . He may a l s o be p e r s u a d e d t h a t t h e r e a r e o t h e r v a l u e s t o a n e d u c a t i o n t h a n t h o s e w i t h a d o l l a r s i g n p r e f i x e d . The s c h o o l may r e a s o n a b l y e x p e c t t h a t i n c r e a s i n g a w a r e n e s s o f j o b r e q u i r e m e n t s w i l l h e l p t h e p u p i l t o i m p r o v e h i s t a c t , h i s s p e e c h , h i s m a n n e r s , h i s a p p e a r a n c e , 41 a n d h i s a b i l i t y t o w o r k w i t h o t h e r p e o p l e . V o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g i s t h e c a r r o t b e f o r e t h e d o n k e y ' s n o s e , t h e i c e c r e a m p r o m i s e d i f t h e s p i n a c h i s e a t e n . The " l e v e r " o r " b a i t " t e c h n i q u e may n o t a l w a y s g e t t h e d e s i r e d r e s u l t s , b u t t h e w r i t e r c a n c i t e many c a s e s i n w h i c h i t h a s b e e n e f f e c t i v e . 7. To g u i d e p u p i l s i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f s u c h q u a l i t i e s o f c h a r a c t e r a n d c i t i z e n s h i p a s good p e r s o n a l h a b i t s , w i l l i n g n e s s t o w o r k w i t h o t h e r s , h o n e s t y , o b e d i e n c e , a n d s e l f - c o n t r o l . 8. To t e a c h e a c h p u p i l t o do h i s b e s t w o r k b y m a i n t a i n -i n g h i g h s t a n d a r d s o f p e r f o r m a n c e i n a l l p h a s e s o f t h e s c h o o l programme, 9. To i n s t i l i n a l l p u p i l s r e s p e c t f o r h i g h s t a n d a r d s o f w o r k a n d a n a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r t h e e f f o r t s o f o t h e r s . 10. To s e e k o u t and d e v e l o p p u p i l s ' s p e c i a l t a l e n t s a n d p o t e n t i a l i t i e s , a n d t o a s s i s t them i n d e v e l o p i n g t h e i r s t r e n g t h s a n d o v e r c o m i n g o r a d j u s t i n g t o h a n d i c a p s o r w e a k n e s s e s . I s n o t t h e a c h i e v e m e n t o f t h e s e a i m s a f u n c t i o n o f p e d a g o g y t h a t i s i n d e p e n d e n t o f s u b j e c t m a t t e r ? Does n o t t h e a c h i e v e m e n t d e p e n d on t h e t e a c h e r ' s i n t e r e s t . a n h i s p u p i l s a s p e o p l e , h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e i r d r i v e s a n d o f t h e i r r e a c t i o n s t o h i s d i r e c t i o n ? Does i t n o t de p e n d on h i s a b i l i t y t o d e v e l o p c o u r s e s a n d t e a c h i n g methods t h a t demand h i g h s t a n d -a r d s o f a l l p u p i l s , w i t h due r e g a r d f o r t h e i r n e e d s a n d t h e i r i n h e r e n t c a p a c i t y ? 11. To g i v e p u p i l s some g u i d a n c e i n t h e c h o i c e o f a c a r e e r a n d some o p p o r t u n i t y t o b e g i n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r o c c u p a t i o n a l l i f e . 42 1 2 . To t e a c h p u p i l s some common m a n u a l s k i l l s a s a means o f h e l p i n g them become p r a c t i c a l a n d u s e -f u l c i t i z e n s . H e r e , t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n o f t h e Commerce t e a c h e r c a n be a v i t a l o n e e H i s s u c c e s s w i l l d e p e n d l a r g e l y u p o n h i s know-l e d g e o f t h e b u s i n e s s w o r l d f o r w h i c h he i s t r a i n i n g h i s p u p i l s , h i s a b i l i t y t o r e l a t e h i s t e a c h i n g t o t h e p u p i l s ' n e e d s , and h i s w i l l i n g n e s s t o m a i n t a i n a n d e n l a r g e h i s c o n -t a c t s i n t h e b u s i n e s s w o r l d . I V . THE COMMERCE TEACHER AND HIS OBJECTIVES An i t e m i z e d l i s t o f a i m s s e r v e s a u s e f u l p u r p o s e , b u t i t s h o u l d be u n d e r s t o o d t h a t e a c h a i m i s o n l y one f a c e t o f a l a r g e r a i m : t h e g r o w t h o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l t o h i s maximum c a p a c i t y . C o n t r a r y t o what many p e o p l e a s s u m e , t h e Commerce t e a c h e r i s n o t s o l e l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h v o c a t i o n a l a i m s ; he i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e l a r g e r a i m a n d must t h e r e f o r e be a p r o -f e s s i o n a l l y t r a i n e d p e r s o n who t h i n k s i n t e r m s o f c h i l d d e v e l o p m e n t , and who c o n s i d e r s h i s s u b j e c t m a t t e r a t o o l t o t h a t e n d . C o n c e i v a b l y , a mere t e c h n i c i a n c o u l d t e a c h s u c h s k i l l s a s t y p e w r i t i n g w i t h v o c a t i o n a l c o m p e t e n c e a s h i s o n l y a i m . I f we a l l o w h i m t o do s o , h o w e v e r , t h a t f r a c t i o n o f p u p i l t i m e s p e n t i n t h e t y p e w r i t i n g c l a s s may be l o s t t o t h e o t h e r e d u c a t i o n a l a i m s . P e r h a p s more t h a n a p r o p o r t i o n a t e f r a c t i o n w i l l be l o s t b e c a u s e t h a t c l a s s may be t h e one i n w h i c h t h e s t u d e n t h a s t h e g r e a t e s t m o t i v a t i o n t o w o r k , t h e one i n w h i c h he i s most w i l l i n g t o i d e n t i f y h i s a i m s w i t h t h o s e o f t h e t e a c h e r . The general educational background of the Commerce teacher i s at lea s t as important as his professional t r a i n -ing. He must appreciate the values that other school sub-ject s can give h i s pupils because he may influence t h e i r programmes i n at lea s t three ways: (1) He may give advice d i r e c t l y to the pupils on t h e i r course selections. Because of t h e i r vocational inte r e s t i n h i s subjects, many pupils, and i n some cases t h e i r parents, w i l l regard him as the l o g i c a l person to give such advice. (2) He may advise school counsellors on suitable options and course combina-tions f o r i n d i v i d u a l pupils or groups of pupils. (3) He may advise h i s p r i n c i p a l on group offerings f o r vocational pupils or on suitable single e l e c t i v e courses f o r academic pupils. The teacher who i s too closely wedded to his specialty may be tempted to boost h i s enrolments i n his courses to the detriment of a pupil who should be taking other work; conver-sely, he may discourage a pupil who would p r o f i t from i t . Once again, the narrow t r a i n i n g of the s p e c i a l i s t i s a handi-cap: the Commerce teacher must be a person of broad educa-t i o n a l background, one who w i l l use the vocational interest of h i s pupils to further t h e i r complete education, and one who can speak i n s t a f f conferences as a teacher and an educa-ted man among equals. 44 I n h e l p i n g t o p l a n c o u r s e o f f e r i n g s a n d c o u r s e s e l e c t i o n s , t h e Commerce t e a c h e r i s a c t i n g a s a member o f t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e t e a m . However, i n h i s c l a s s r o o m he i s on h i s own. H i s t r a i n i n g a n d t h e o u t l o o k i t e n g e n d e r s w i l l d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r h i s c o u r s e s a r e n a r r o w l y s p e c i a l i z e d o r b r o a d l y i m a g i n a t i v e . He s h o u l d l o s e no o p p o r t u n i t y t o a s s o -c i a t e h i s a i m s w i t h t h o s e o f o t h e r t e a c h e r s b y d i r e c t a n d i n d i r e c t r e f e r e n c e a n d by c o - o p e r a t i v e p r o j e c t . T h e s e t h i n g s he c a n n o t do u n l e s s he i s a p e r s o n o f b r o a d i n t e r e s t s who s e e s i n v o c a t i o n a l b u s i n e s s e d u c a t i o n t h e k e y t o a n e x p a n d i n g v o c a b u l a r y ; a n e x p a n d i n g w o r l d , i n d e p t h a n d c o l o u r , t h r o u g h a n u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f how b u s i n e s s i s o r g a n i z e d a n d c o n t r o l l e d f o r t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f w e a l t h ; how i t s o p e r a t i o n s a f f e c t , a n d a r e a f f e c t e d b y g o v e r n m e n t s , a n d how t h e y i m p i n g e o n t h e a f f a i r s o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l . The w r i t e r h a s s t r e s s e d t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n t h a t Commerce c o u r s e s may make t o g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n when t h o s e c o u r s e s a r e a d m i n i s t e r e d a n d t a u g h t b y c o m p e t e n t , w e l l e d u c a t e d t e a c h e r s . I n s o d o i n g , he d o e s n o t d e n y t h e v a l u e o f v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n -i n g f o r i t s own s a k e . S u r e l y t h e r e i s no n e e d t o a p o l o g i z e f o r s p e n d i n g t h e p u p i l s ' t i m e a n d t h e p u b l i c ' s money i n t r a i n i n g y o u n g p e o p l e t o e a r n t h e i r l i v i n g i n u s e f u l e m p l o y -ment. S u c c e s s f u l r e s u l t s mean b e t t e r a d j u s t e d w o r k e r s a nd a more e f f i c i e n t s o c i e t y . B u t what o f t h o s e p u p i l s who w i l l n o t be e n g a g e d i n o f f i c e w o r k ? Many o f them w i l l h a v e 45 c l e r i c a l d u t i e s t o p e r f o r m i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h o t h e r j o b s ; most o f them w i l l own i n s u r a n c e , c a r s , a n d homes; many o f them w i l l manage p r o p e r t y a nd i n v e s t i n s e c u r i t i e s . I n s h o r t , t h e c o n d i t i o n s u n d e r w h i c h we l i v e make i t n e c e s s a r y t h a t e v e r y c i t i z e n h a v e b u s i n e s s u n d e r s t a n d i n g s f o r p e r s o n a l u s e e v e n t h o u g h he d o e s n o t r e q u i r e them i n h i s v o c a t i o n . No b o d y o f k n o w l e d g e f o r Commerce c a n r e m a i n s t a t i c . The t e a c h e r must be p r e p a r e d t o make and t o m a i n t a i n c o n t a c t s w i t h b u s i n e s s p e o p l e t o l e a r n o f t h e i r c h a n g i n g n e e d s . He s h o u l d s y s t e m a t i c a l l y a nd o b j e c t i v e l y s t u d y t h e p r o b l e m s o f t h e b u s i n e s s w o r l d i n o r d e r t o m a i n t a i n h i s r o l e a s a n e x p e r t i n t h e f i e l d o f h i s s p e c i a l t y . T hough v o c a t i o n a l a i m s a r e n o t f i r s t on t h e l i s t , h e must a c h i e v e them o r l o s e t h e " l e v e r " he n e e d s t o a c h i e v e h i s o t h e r o b j e c t i v e s . He must a c h i e v e h i s v o c a t i o n a l a i m s o r l o s e p r e s t i g e w i t h t h e b u s i n e s s c o m m u n i t y a n d w i t h t h e p a r e n t s o f h i s p u p i l s . V . SUMMARY Commerce c o u r s e s a r e d e s i g n e d t o g i v e p u p i l s v o c a t i o n a l s k i l l s a n d g e n e r a l b u s i n e s s k n o w l e d g e : t h e y a l s o a r e d e s i g n e d t o f u r t h e r t h e g e n e r a l a i m s o f s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n . T h e s e o b j e c t i v e s a r e c o m p l e m e n t a r y and i n t e r d e p e n d e n t . The d i f f e r -e n c e b e t w e e n a v o c a t i o n a l c o u r s e a n d a c u l t u r a l c o u r s e i s one o f d e g r e e r a t h e r t h a n o f k i n d , a nd b o t h t y p e s o f c o u r s e s h o u l d 46 be f u l l y exploited f o r the benefit of the pupils. Such exploitation of subject matter can usually be done more e f f e c t i v e l y by a professionally trained teacher. Though vocational aims are worthwhile i n t h e i r own ri g h t , they may contribute further to the pupils' develop-ment because they provide incentive f o r them to remain at school and to accept educational experiences they might otherwise eschew. The teacher who i s wedded to h i s s p e c i a l t y may not appreciate the importance of educational experiences outside h i s f i e l d , hence the Commerce teacher should possess a broad c u l t u r a l background. E f f e c t i v e use of vocational t r a i n i n g as an incentive to serious study i s , however, dependent on the school's prestige i n i t s community. The Commerce teacher must, there-fore, be competent i n h i s own specialty because he can more e a s i l y achieve one aim i f he has f i r s t achieved the other. CHAPTER V TRAINING FOR THE S K I L L SUBJECTS The w r i t e r h a s a r g u e d t h a t t h e a i m s o f t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a Commerce programme c a n be a c h i e v e d o n l y by w e l l e d u c a t e d men a n d women who a r e a l s o p r o f e s s i o n a l l y t r a i n e d t e a c h e r s . I f h i s a r g u m e n t s a r e s o u n d , t h e a i m s o f t h e C o l l e g e o f E d u c a t i o n , q u o t e d o n page 1, a r e t h e r i g h t o n e s f o r Commerce t e a c h e r s . H owever, i t i s now n e c e s s a r y t o e x a m i n e t h e t r a i n i n g programme i n more d e t a i l . T h i s c h a p t e r w i l l be d e v o t e d t o a n e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e t r a d i t i o n a l s k i l l s i n s h o r t h a n d a n d t y p e w r i t i n g . A r e t h e y g i v e n t h e t i m e a n d t h e a t t e n t i o n i n t h e t r a i n i n g programme t h a t t h e i r i m p o r t a n c e w a r r a n t s ? I . S K I L L COURSES I N THE SECONDARY SCHOOLS An e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e c o u r s e s u m m a r i e s i n A p p e n d i x B w i l l show t h a t s e v e n o f t h o s e c o u r s e s (Co 10, 20, 3 2 , 4 2 , 9 2 , 93 , a n d 44) c a l l f o r t r a i n i n g i n t y p e w r i t i n g o r f o r t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f t y p e w r i t i n g a s a t o o l , w h i l e f o u r o f them (Co21, 3 1 , 92, a n d 93) i n v o l v e t h e use o f P i t m a n s h o r t h a n d . The c r i t i c m i g h t c l a i m , w i t h some j u s t i f i c a t i o n , t h a t t h e Commerce programme c o n t a i n s t o o many c o u r s e s i n v o l v i n g t y p e -w r i t i n g a n d s h o r t h a n d s k i l l s , b u t he s h o u l d r e a l i z e t h a t no 48 one p u p i l t a k e s a l l o f them. The u s u a l p a t t e r n i s f o r a p u p i l t o g a i n b a s i c t y p e w r i t i n g s k i l l s i n Co 10 a n d 20, b a s i c s h o r t h a n d s k i l l s i n Co 21 a n d 31, t h e n c o m b i n e t y p e -w r i t i n g a n d s h o r t h a n d i n Co 92. The f i v e c o u r s e s c o n s t i t u t e a s e c r e t a r i a l m a j o r . Co 44 a n d Co 93 p r o v i d e e x t r a t r a i n i n g f o r h i g h e r s k i l l s a n d may be e s p e c i a l l y u s e f u l f o r s l o w e r p u p i l s , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h o s e on t h e g e n e r a l programme, whose p l a n s a r e p r i m a r i l y v o c a t i o n a l , a n d who may h a v e t r o u b l e r e a c h i n g v o c a t i o n a l s k i l l s o n Co 92 a l o n e . S u r e l y no one w i l l q u a r r e l w i t h t h e i d e a t h a t some p u p i l s n e e d more t i m e t h a n o t h e r s t o r e a c h a g i v e n g o a l . Co 32 a n d Co 42 w e r e i n t r o d u c e d t o c a r e f o r g e n e r a l - p r o g r a m m e p u p i l s who a r e u n w i l l i n g o r u n a b l e t o m a s t e r s h o r t h a n d . T y p e w r i t i n g a n d s h o r t h a n d a r e o f t e n assumed t o be t h e h e a r t o f t h e Commerce programme, a n d a n a n a l y s i s o f p u p i l e n r o l m e n t s b y c o u r s e s ( T a b l e I I ) c e r t a i n l y s u p p o r t s t h a t a s s u m p t i o n . The s e r v i c e s o f a t l e a s t one h u n d r e d a n d f i f t y f u l l - t i m e t e a c h e r s w o u l d be r e q u i r e d t o t e a c h a l l t h e c o u r s e s i n v o l v i n g s h o r t h a n d and t y p e w r i t i n g i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s . I n p r a c t i c e , a b o u t d o u b l e t h a t number a r e s o e n g a g e d b e c a u s e most t e a c h e r s c o n c e r n e d h a v e o t h e r c o u r s e s i n c l u d e d i n t h e i r t e a c h i n g a s s i g n m e n t s . Work t h a t i n v o l v e s s o many p u p i l s a n d s o much c o s t l y t e a c h i n g t i m e s h o u l d be done e f f i c i e n t l y . T e a c h e r s s h o u l d , o f c o u r s e , be t r a i n e d i n t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l p r i n c i p l e s t o s k i l l d e v e l o p m e n t 49 a n d i n p r o v e n m e t h o d s o f p r e s e n t i n g t h e i r s u b j e c t s , b u t t h e y s h o u l d a l s o be a b l e t o do what t h e y e x p e c t t h e i r p u p i l s t o d o . W i t h r e s p e c t t o t y p e w r i t i n g , t h e b u l l e t i n , "Commerce, 195&"" 1 " s a y s : The t e a c h e r s h o u l d be a b l e a n d r e a d y a t a l l t i m e s t o d e m o n s t r a t e a n y s p e c i f i c s k i l l s he w i s h e s t h e p u p i l s t o m a s t e r . A s h o r t , d e x t e r o u s d e m o n s t r a t i o n i s f a r more e f f e c t i v e t h a n a n y amount o f e x p l a n a t i o n . I t s t i m u l a t e s t h e c l a s s a n d , a t t h e same t i m e , b u i l d s up t h e c o n f i d e n c e o f t h e p u p i l s i n t h e w o r k o f t h e i r i n s t r u c t o r . The a b i l i t y t o g i v e a " s h o r t , d e x t e r o u s d e m o n s t r a t i o n " w i l l b u i l d t h e t e a c h e r ' s c o n f i d e n c e , t o o . I I ALTERNATIVE WAYS OF PROVIDING TEACHERS WITH S K I L L S T h e r e a r e t h r e e ways i n w h i c h t h e p r o b l e m o f s k i l l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s f o r Commerce t e a c h e r s may be h a n d l e d . F i r s t , t h e s t u d e n t may be r e q u i r e d t o m a s t e r t h e s k i l l s a s b e s t he c a n , i n w h a t e v e r manner he w i s h e s , w i t h o u t c r e d i t ; s e c o n d , h i g h s c h o o l c o u r s e s i n s h o r t h a n d a n d t y p e w r i t i n g may be demanded a s p r e r e q u i s i t e s f o r e n t r y t o t h e t r a i n i n g programme; t h i r d , c o u r s e s f o r c r e d i t may be o f f e r e d a s p a r t o f t h e t r a i n -i n g programme. I f t h e f i r s t method i s u s e d a n d t h e s t u d e n t i s l e f t t o h i s own d e v i c e s , he may d e v e l o p a l l t h e f a u l t y t e c h n i q u e s he s h o u l d t r a i n h i s p u p i l s t o a v o i d . I f he h a s c o m p l e t e d a l l ^ D i v i s i o n o f C u r r i c u l u m , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n , Commerce. 195$ ( V i c t o r i a : The Queen's P r i n t e r ) p. 12. 50 o t h e r r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r c e r t i f i c a t i o n , p e r h a p s w i t h h i g h s t a n d i n g , t h e r e w i l l be p r e s s u r e on t h e a u t h o r i t i e s t o g r a n t a c e r t i f i c a t e i n s p i t e o f t h e f a c t t h a t h i s s k i l l s a r e i n a d e -q u a t e l y d e v e l o p e d . F rom 1951 t o 1956, t h e S c h o o l o f Commerce a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a o f f e r e d a t e a c h i n g o p t i o n i n w h i c h s t u d e n t s w e re r e q u i r e d t o d e v e l o p minimum s k i l l s i n s h o r t h a n d a n d t y p e w r i t i n g , w i t h o u t c r e d i t . C l a s s e s h a d I t o o b e s c h e d u l e d f o r t h e l a t e h o u r s o f t h e a f t e r n o o n t o a v o i d c l a s h e s w i t h t h e f u l l l o a d o f c r e d i t c o u r s e s and g r e a t d i f f i c u l t y was e x p e r i e n c e d i n m e e t i n g e v e n t h e minimum s t a n d -2 a r d s s e t f o r t h e c o u r s e s . The s t u d e n t m i g h t w e l l a s k , "Why s h o u l d a t e a c h e r o f Commerce s u b j e c t s be r e q u i r e d t o d e v e l o p a n i m p o r t a n t p a r t o f h i s c o m p e t e n c e i n h i s s p a r e t i m e ? O t h e r t e a c h e r s a r e n o t r e q u i r e d t o do s o . " The s e c o n d way, r e q u i r i n g s k i l l s a s p r e r e q u i s i t e s f r o m h i g h s c h o o l , i s t h e most s a t i s f a c t o r y s o l u t i o n . S t u d e n t s who h a v e c o m p l e t e d t h e s e c r e t a r i a l m a j o r i n h i g h s c h o o l h a v e a d e -q u a t e s k i l l s t h a t c a n be m a i n t a i n e d and e x t e n d e d t h r o u g h l a b -o r a t o r y e x e r c i s e s i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h o t h e r c o u r s e s a t t h e C o l l e g e . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , a c o m p a r a t i v e l y s m a l l number o f t h o s e who g r a d u a t e f r o m h i g h s c h o o l w i t h s e c r e t a r i a l m a j o r s a r e i n t e r e s t e d i n u n i v e r s i t y c a r e e r s , a n d t h e y o f t e n succumb t o o f f e r s o f employment i n b u s i n e s s . F u r t h e r m o r e , i n t h e 2 F r o m c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h P r o f e s s o r C. C. G o u r l a y , now A s s i s t a n t D e a n o f t h e F a c u l t y o f Commerce a n d B u s i n e s s A d m i n i s t r a t i o n 51 h y s t e r i a o f t h e " p o s t - S p u t n i k " a g e , a l l n o n - a c a d e m i c m a j o r s a r e u n d e r s u c h v i g o r o u s a t t a c k t h a t t h e s u p p l y o f u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s w i t h a d v a n c e d s k i l l s i n s h o r t h a n d a n d t y p e w r i t i n g may be c u t o f f a l t o g e t h e r . The t h i r d way, a n d t h e one now b e i n g t r i e d i n t h e C o l l e g e o f E d u c a t i o n , i s t o o f f e r c r e d i t c o u r s e s a s p a r t o f t h e t r a i n i n g programme. T h r e e c o u r s e s a r e o f f e r e d , a n d t h e y a r e d e s i g n e d t o g i v e t h e t e a c h e r s p e e d s i n s h o r t h a n d a n d t y p e w r i t i n g e q u i v a l e n t t o t h o s e o f h i g h s c h o o l g r a d u a t e s who h a v e c o m p l e t e d Commerce 92 a n d 44 . I n e f f e c t , t h r e e u n i v e r -s i t y c o u r s e s a r e e q u a t e d t o s i x h i g h s c h o o l c o u r s e s . E a c h o f t h e t h r e e c o u r s e s i s s c h e d u l e d f o r f i v e h o u r s a week: i n t e r m s o f c l a s s h o u r s , t e a c h e r s - i n - t r a i n i n g a r e e x p e c t e d t o a c q u i r e t h e s k i l l s i n h a l f t h e t i m e a l l o w e d h i g h - s c h o o l p u p i l s . I t may be a r g u e d t h a t t h e y s h o u l d h a v e no t r o u b l e m e e t i n g t h e s t a n d a r d s u n d e r s u c h c o n d i t i o n s b e c a u s e t h e y a r e more m a t u r e , a n d a s a g r o u p t h e y a r e more s e l e c t t h a n t h e i r h i g h - s c h o o l c o u n t e r p a r t s . H o w e v e r , i t may a l s o be a r g u e d t h a t a d d e d m a t u r -i t y , o nce f u l l c o - o r d i n a t i o n h a s b e e n a c h i e v e d , i s o f d o u b t -f u l v a l u e i n t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f a s k i l l . The f i r s t g r o u p o f s t u d e n t s t o c o m p l e t e s k i l l t r a i n i n g u n d e r t h e new a r r a n g e m e n t i s now e n r o l l e d i n S e c r e t a r i a l P r a c -t i c e (Commerce 201) . Of t h e t w e l v e s t u d e n t s i n t h e c l a s s , s i x c o m p l e t e d s e c r e t a r i a l m a j o r s i n h i g h s c h o o l , s o t h e y w e r e p e r -m i t t e d t o s u b s t i t u t e a c a d e m i c e l e c t i v e s f o r t h e two p r e p a r a t o r y 52 c o u r s e s , T y p e w r i t i n g (Commerce 90) and S h o r t h a n d (Commerce 101). The o t h e r s i x b e g a n t h e i r s k i l l t r a i n i n g a f t e r t h e y came t o u n i v e r s i t y a n d w e r e t h u s r e q u i r e d t o t a k e botho;of t h e e l e m e n t a r y c o u r s e s . So f a r a s t h i s c l a s s i s c o n c e r n e d , i t may be s a i d t h a t a l l o f them w i l l be a b l e t o d e m o n s t r a t e t h e s k i l l s r e q u i r e d o f t h e i r p u p i l s , b u t t h e g r o u p w i t h h i g h s c h o o l t r a i n i n g w i l l do s o w i t h g r e a t e r e a s e and c o n f i d e n c e . T h o s e who a c q u i r e d t h e i r s k i l l s a f t e r c o m i n g t o u n i v e r s i t y c l a i m t h a t t h e i r w o r k i n s h o r t h a n d and t y p e w r i t i n g h a s p l a c e d a h e a v y b u r d e n on t h e i r t i m e . ^ The s u b j e c t o f s k i l l t r a i n i n g w o u l d n o t be c o m p l e t e w i t h o u t some c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f o f f i c e m a c h i n e s o t h e r t h a n t h e t y p e w r i t e r . D i c t a t i n g and t r a n s c r i b i n g m a c h i n e s , common e q u i p m e n t i n b u s i n e s s o f f i c e s o f t o d a y a r e made a v a i l a b l e t o s t u d e n t - t e a c h e r s i n t h e S e c r e t a r i a l P r a c t i c e c o u r s e : t h e t e c h n i q u e s o f o p e r a t i o n a r e s i m p l e and c a n be m a s t e r e d i n a f e w h o u r s b y c o m p e t e n t t y p i s t s who a l s o h a v e good command o f t h e E n g l i s h l a n g u a g e . F i f t e e n h o u r s o f l a b o r a t o r y t i m e i n t h e O f f i c e Manage-ment c o u r s e , Commerce 391, a r e d e v o t e d t o t r a i n i n g on a d d i n g m a c h i n e s , p o s t i n g m a c h i n e s , r o t a r y - t y p e c a l c u l a t o r s , a n d k e y -d r i v e n c l a c u l a t o r s . Of t h e s e m a c h i n e s , o n l y t h e k e y - d r i v e n c a l c u l a t o r p r e s e n t s a p r o b l e m i n s k i l l m a s t e r y . (The Comp-t o m e t e r c o u r s e o f f e r e d b y t h e m a n u f a c t u r e r o f t h a t m a c h i n e The w r i t e r i s t h e i n s t r u c t o r o f t h i s c l a s s 53 c o v e r s one h u n d r e d a nd e i g h t y h o u r s o f i n s t r u c t i o n a n d p r a c t i c e . ) A l l t h e o t h e r s c a n be e a s i l y m a s t e r e d , e s p e c i a l l y i f t h e o p e r a t o r has. a l r e a d y a c q u i r e d good f i n g e r i n g s k i l l s i n t y p e w r i t i n g . H i g h e r s k i l l s t h a n t h o s e g i v e n i n t h e s h o r t t i m e a v a i l a b l e a r e no d o u b t d e s i r a b l e , b u t t h e t e a c h e r d o e s n o t r e q u i r e them u n l e s s he i s a s k e d t o t e a c h B u s i n e s s M a c h i n e s P r a c t i c e (Co 39). T h i s i s a n u n l i k e l y c o n t i n g e n c y b e c a u s e , i n 195$, o n l y e i g h t h i g h s c h o o l s o f f e r e d Co 39, and n o t more t h a n t w e l v e t e a c h e r s i n t h e e n t i r e p r o v i n c e t a u g h t t h e c o u r s e . ' F u r t h e r m o r e , e v e r y c l a s s i n Co 39 was t a u g h t b y a t e a c h e r w i t h a t l e a s t t e n y e a r s ' e x p e r i e n c e . K n o w l e d g e o f t h e o p e r a t i o n and t h e f u n c t i o n s o f e a c h m a c h i n e i n t h e b u s i n e s s o f f i c e i s i m p o r t a n t b a c k g r o u n d f o r a l l Commerce t e a c h e r s , b u t i n v i e w o f t h e o t h e r demands o n t r a i n i n g t i m e , t h e f i f t e e n h o u r s o f f a m i l i a r i z a t i o n w o r k w o u l d a p p e a r t o be a r e a s o n a b l e com-p r o m i s e b e t w e e n w h a t i s d e s i r a b l e and what i s e x p e d i e n t i n t h e way o f m a c h i n e s t r a i n i n g . I n most h i g h s c h o o l c o u r s e s , t h e t e a c h e r i s e x p e c t e d t o h a v e g r e a t e r m a s t e r y o f t h e s u b j e c t c o n t e n t t h a n t h a t r e q u i r e d o f t h e p u p i l . A t e a c h e r o f m a t h e m a t i c s , f o r e x a m p l e , u s u a l l y knows much more a b o u t h i s s u b j e c t t h a n t h e c o n t e n t o f t h e G r a d e X I I m a t h e m a t i c s c o u r s e . Y e t t h e C o l l e g e o f E d u c a t i o n a p p e a r s t o be s e n d i n g Commerce t e a c h e r s i n t o t h e s c h o o l s w i t h -o u t g i v i n g them more t h a n G r a d e X I I s k i l l s t a n d a r d s . H o w e v e r , ' B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n , "K" F o r m s . 54 t h e r e i s good r e a s o n why t h e C o l l e g e cannot demand t h a t t e a c h e r s have a wide m a r g i n o f s u p e r i o r i t y o v e r t h e i r p u p i l s i n s h o r t h a n d and t y p e w r i t i n g : t h e p o i n t o f d i m i n i s h i n g r e t u r n s i s r e a c h e d r a p i d l y i n s k i l l development, and more i n r o a d s on academic study t i m e would not y i e l d a commensurate r e t u r n . P e r h a p s , i n any ev e n t , mathematics i s not t h e b e s t s u b j e c t t o choose f o r comparison w i t h s k i l l s . The t e a c h e r o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n i s not ex p e c t e d t o o u t r u n , outswim, and o u t p l a y a l l h i s p u p i l s so l o n g as he can g i v e a competent performance and u n d e r s t a n d s t h e t e c h n i q u e s by w h i c h s k i l l s a r e d e v e l o p e d . So i t i s w i t h t e a c h e r s o f s h o r t h a n d and t y p e -w r i t i n g : g i v e n moderate s k i l l s t h e y show t h e i r s u p e r i o r i t y i n t h e i r g r a s p o f t h e o r y and t h e i r knowledge o f s k i l l a p p l i -c a t i o n s t o o f f i c e work. I I I . CREDITS FOR SKILLS AT OTHER UNIVERSITIES The s t a t u s o f s k i l l c o u r s e s i n t e a c h e r - t r a i n i n g p r o -grammes o f o t h e r u n i v e r s i t i e s may be o f i n t e r e s t f o r purposes o f comparison. I n Western Canada, M a n i t o b a ^ and Sa s k a t c h e w a n 0 are?; s t i l l i s s u i n g s p e c i a l c e r t i f i c a t e s f o r Commerce t e a c h e r s t h r o u g h c o u r s e s and e x a m i n a t i o n s o f f e r e d by t h e p r o v i n c i a l d epartments o f e d u c a t i o n . C e r t i f i c a t i o n i s t h u s g i v e n o u t s i d e ^ C i r c u l a r l e t t e r from t h e ' O f f i c e o f t h e R e g i s t r a r , M a n i t o b a Department o f E d u c a t i o n . °Department o f E d u c a t i o n , Saskatchewan, R e g u l a t i o n s  G o v e r n i n g Teachers' C e r t i f i c a t e s ( R e g i n a : The Queen's P r i n t e r , 1957), pp. 4^37 55 t h e r e g u l a r f r a m e w o r k o f t h e t e a c h e r - t r a i n i n g programme, a method u s e d i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a b e f o r e t h e C o l l e g e o f E d u c a -t i o n was e s t a b l i s h e d . No c o m p a r i s o n i s made h e r e w i t h M a n i -t o b a o r S a s k a t c h e w a n b e c a u s e t h e y do n o t g i v e u n i v e r s i t y c o u r s e s e s p e c i a l l y f o r Commerce t e a c h e r s . A l b e r t a ? o f f e r s two s k i l l c o u r s e s i n s h o r t h a n d a n d two i n t y p e w r i t i n g , b u t w i l l a l l o w c r e d i t f o r o n l y one o f e a c h t o w a r d a b a c h e l o r o f e d u c a t i o n d e g r e e . A f u r t h e r r e s t r i c t i o n , one n o t i m p o s e d i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , p r e v e n t s s t u d e n t s o t h e r t h a n Commerce m a j o r s f r o m u s i n g t h e c o u r s e s f o r c r e d i t . Time a l l o t m e n t s o f f i v e h o u r s p e r c o u r s e a r e t h e same as t h o s e a t t h e U n i -v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . I t w o u l d seem, t h e r e f o r e , t h a t A l b e r t a i s l e s s g e n e r o u s i n i t s t r e a t m e n t o f t h e s k i l l s t h a n i s B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , a t l e a s t s o f a r a s c r e d i t s a r e c o n c e r n e d . O n t a r i o p r o v i d e s s p e c i a l c o u r s e s a n d e x a m i n a t i o n s for9 q u a l i f i c a t i o n o f Commerce t e a c h e r s , b u t i t w i l l a l s o g r a n t a c e r t i f i c a t e ( H i g h S c h o o l A s s i s t a n t , T ype A, C o m m e r c i a l Sub-j e c t s ) w i t h o u t e x a m i n a t i o n t o g r a d u a t e s i n B u s i n e s s A d m i n i -s t r a t i o n a n d S e c r e t a r i a l S c i e n c e f r o m t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f W e s t e r n O n t a r i o who c o m p l e t e t h e o n e - y e a r t e a c h e r - t r a i n i n g 7 T h e C a l e n d a r . F a c u l t y o f E d u c a t i o n . 1957-5$ (Edmonton: U n i v e r s i t y o f AlbertaTl p. 40 3 I b i d . 9The C a l e n d a r , O n t a r i o C o l l e g e o f E d u c a t i o n . 1957-58 (Toronto.: University o f T o r o n t o ) , pp. ~2h and 41. 56 c o u r s e a t t h e O n t a r i o C o l l e g e o f E d u c a t i o n . ^ The d e g r e e c o u r s e a t W e s t e r n O n t a r i o t a k e s f o u r y e a r s f r o m s e n i o r m a t r i c u l a t i o n . I n t h e t h r e e s e n i o r y e a r s , s t u d e n t s a r e r e q u i r e d t o d e v o t e t w e l v e , t w e l v e , a n d f i f t e e n h o u r s r e s p e c t -i v e l y , t o t y p e w r i t i n g , s h o r t h a n d , and s e c r e t a r i a l p r a c t i c e . I t s h o u l d be n o t e d , h o w e v e r , t h a t t h e s t u d e n t s a r e r e q u i r e d t o c a r r y f o u r t e e n h o u r s o f o t h e r l e c t u r e t i m e d u r i n g t h e i r s e c o n d y e a r , a n d t w e l v e h o u r s i n e a c h o f t h e t h i r d a n d f o u r t h y e a r s . I n s p i t e o f t h e g e n e r o u s a l l o t m e n t o f t i m e t o t h e s k i l l s , t h e y a p p e a r t o be e q u a t e d , i n e a c h y e a r , w i t h o n e r e g u l a r t h r e e - h o u r l e c t u r e c o u r s e . W e s t e r n O n t a r i o d o e s n o t o p e r a t e on a u n i t - c r e d i t s y s t e m i n t h e same was a s B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a d o e s , b u t s t u d e n t s on t h e S e c r e t a r i a l S c i e n c e o p t i o n a r e a p p a r e n t l y r e q u i r e d t o do t w e l v e o r f i f t e e n h o u r s o f c l a s s w o r k f o r what w o u l d be t h r e e u n i t s o f c r e d i t . ^ " ' " T h ough W e s t e r n C a n a d a and O n t a r i o a r e t h e l o g i c a l j u r i s d i c t i o n s f o r c o m p a r i s o n , t h e P a c i f i c C o a s t s t a t e s , w i t h t h e i r e s t a b l i s h e d programmes i n b u s i n e s s e d u c a t i o n , a r e o f i n t e r e s t t o B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a e d u c a t o r s . O r e g o n - ^ a l l o w s t w e n t y - f o u r t e r m h o u r s ( c r e d i t s a t O r e g o n a r e synonymous w i t h t e r m h o u r s ) i n a t o t a l o f one h u n d r e d a n d n i n e t y - f o u r f o r 1 Q F a c u l t y o f A r t s a n d S c i e n c e . A n n o u n c e m e n t . 1957-5$. ( L o n d o n : U n i v e r s i t y o f W e s t e r n O n t a r i o ) , p. 38. ^ I b i d . , p p . 33 a n d $5. 12 • ^ U n i v e r s i t y o f O r e g o n B u l l e t i n . 1958-59 ( E u g e n e : The U n i v e r s i t y o f O r e g o n ) , pp. 206, 2 2 2 . 57 s k i l l s . W a s h i n g t o n p e r m i t s t h i r t y - o n e c r e d i t s o u t o f one h u n d r e d e i g h t y , . " ^ t h o u g h t h e minimum r e q u i r e m e n t i s o n l y t w e n t y - o n e . A p p a r e n t l y A l b e r t a i s l e s s g e n e r o u s , O r e g o n and W a s h i n g t o n s l i g h t l y more g e n e r o u s t h a n t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a C o l l e g e o f E d u c a t i o n i n c r e d i t a l l o t m e n t s f o r s k i l l s . W e s t e r n O n t a r i o g i v e s t h e same c r e d i t s , b u t makes g r e a t e r demands o n i t s s t u d e n t s , p e r h a p s b e c a u s e t h e u n i v e r -s i t y t r a i n s women f o r b u s i n e s s employment r a t h e r t h a n f o r t h e t e a c h i n g p r o f e s s i o n . I V . SUMMARY The C o l l e g e o f E d u c a t i o n programme f o r t r a i n i n g Com-m e r c e t e a c h e r s makes r e a s o n a b l e a l l o w a n c e f o r s k i l l t r a i n i n g i n s h o r t h a n d a n d t y p e w r i t i n g . C r e d i t a l l o w a n c e s a p p e a r t o be more g e n e r o u s t h a n any o f f e r e d i n t h e n e a r e r C a n a d i a n p r o v i n c e s t h o u g h l e s s g e n e r o u s t h a n t h o s e i n t h e n e i g h b o u r -i n g s t a t e s o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . S t u d e n t s s h o u l d be e n c o u r -a g e d t o a c q u i r e a t l e a s t t h e b a s i c s k i l l s w h i l e t h e y a r e s t i l l i n h i g h s c h o o l . H i g h e r s k i l l r e q u i r e m e n t s i n u n i v e r -s i t y w o u l d p l a c e a n u n w a r r a n t e d d r a i n on t h e t i m e a v a i l a b l e f o r a c a d e m i c w o r k . ' C o l l e g e o f B u s i n e s s A d m i n i s t r a t i o n B u l l e t i n . 1957-59 ( S e a t t l e : U n i v e r s i t y o f W a s h i n g t o n ) p. 4 1 . CHAPTER V I THE COMMERCE TEACHER AND BUSINESS T e a c h e r s o f Commerce s u b j e c t s c a n g i v e t h e i r w o r k g r e a t e r v a l i d i t y i f t h e y t h e m s e l v e s u n d e r s t a n d t h e p r o b l e m s o f b u s i n e s s , a r e p r e p a r e d t o k e e p s t e p w i t h c h a n g e s i n b u s i -n e s s p r a c t i c e , and a r e w i l l i n g t o c h e c k t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e i r t e a c h i n g t h r o u g h r e g u l a r f o l l o w - u p p r a c t i c e s . A c c o r d -i n g l y , t h i s c h a p t e r w i l l d e a l w i t h t h e p r o b l e m f a c e d by t h e C o l l e g e o f E d u c a t i o n i n t r y i n g t o g i v e s t u d e n t s t h e k n o w l e d g e and e x p e r i e n c e t h a t w i l l e n a b l e them t o u n d e r s t a n d b u s i n e s s p r o b l e m s a n d t h a t w i l l e n c o u r a g e t h e m t o e s t a b l i s h a n d m a i n -t a i n b u s i n e s s c o n t a c t s . I . UNDERSTANDING THE PROBLEMS OF BUSINESS The o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e Commerce programme i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s c a l l f o r c o u r s e s t h a t w i l l g i v e p u p i l s t h e f o l l o w i n g : ' ' " I n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t b u s i n e s s o c c u p a t i o n s — i n f o r m a t i o n i n t e n d e d t o a i d p u p i l s i n t h e s e l e c t i o n o f v o c a t i o n s . S k i l l s a n d t e c h n i c a l k n o w l e d g e r e q u i r e d i n t h e i n i t i a l c o n t a c t j o b i n a c h o s e n f i e l d . R e l a t e d k n o w l e d g e w i t h r e f e r e n c e , n o t o n l y t o t h e i n i t i a l p o s i t i o n , b u t t o t h e more a d v a n c e d p o s i t i o n a s w e l l . I D i v i s i o n o f C u r r i c u l u m , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n , Commerce, 1 9 5 3 , o p . c i t . , p . 7 . 59 The o b j e c t i v e s l i s t e d on t h e p r e v i o u s page e x p r e s s l y demand a f i r s t - h a n d k n o w l e d g e o f b u s i n e s s , and t h e c o u r s e c o n t e n t r e i n f o r c e s t h e demand a t e v e r y t u r n . The t e a c h e r s h o u l d know how o f f i c e s a r e o r g a n i z e d f o r t h e n e e d s o f b u s i n e s s , how j o b s a r e c l a s s i f i e d , what s k i l l s a n d k n o w l e d g e e a c h j o b r e q u i r e s , how a p p l i c a n t s a r e s c r e e n e d f o r p o s i t i o n s , how w o r k e r s a r e r a t e d on t h e j o b , what f a c t o r s w i l l i n f l u e n c e p r o m o t i o n . He c a n n o t a p p r e c i a t e f u l l y t h e n e e d s o f b u s i n e s s u n l e s s he s e e s e a c h d e p a r t m e n t o f t h e o f f i c e i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e p r o b l e m i t was c r e a t e d t o s o l v e . One b u s i n e s s p r o b l e m w i l l s e r v e a s a n i l l u s t r a t i o n . How c a n a b u s i n e s s k e e p s a t i s f a c t o r y r e c o r d o f i t s c r e d i t s a l e s ? The s t u d e n t l e a r n s i n h i s a c c o u n t i n g c l a s s t h e j o u r -n a l e n t r y t h a t r e c o r d s a s a l e o f m e r c h a n d i s e : a . d e b i t t o t h e c u s t o m e r ' s a c c o u n t a n d a c r e d i t t o t h e m e r c h a n d i s e s a l e s a c c o u n t . P r o b a b l y he w i l l a p p r e c i a t e t h e e f f e c t s o f s u c h a n e n t r y on t h e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e f i r m ' s a s s e t s and o n t h e o w n e r ' s e q u i t y ; he may a l s o r e a l i z e t h e harm t h a t c a n be d one t o c u s -t o m e r r e l a t i o n s i f t h e e n t r y i s n o t r e c o r d e d a c c u r a t e l y . On t h e p r a c t i c a l s i d e , h o w e v e r , t h a t s i m p l e e n t r y , m u l t i p l i e d t h o u s a n d s o f t i m e s , c o m p l i c a t e d b y d e t a i l e d i n v o i c i n g n e e d s , b a c k o r d e r s , e r r o r s , c r e d i t r a t i n g s , q u a n t i t y d i s c o u n t s , s p e c i a l d i s c o u n t s , s h i p p i n g c h a r g e s , s a l e s t a x , s a l e s r e b a t e s , s a l e s r e t u r n s , s a l e s a n a l y s i s , c o m m i s s i o n s , d e l i v e r y i n s t r u c -t i o n s , c o v e r i n g l e t t e r s , s t o c k r e c o r d s , a n d m o n t h l y s t a t e m e n t s , 60 makes n e c e s s a r y a h o s t o f r o u t i n e s . The r o u t i n e s w i l l , o f c o u r s e , v a r y w i t h t h e s i z e a n d n a t u r e o f t h e b u s i n e s s . As t h e y i n c r e a s e i n s i z e a n d c o m p l e x i t y , t h e y t e n d t o b r e a k down i n t o more h i g h l y s p e c i a l i z e d t a s k s u n t i l e a c h one may seem t o h a v e l o s t a l l c o n n e c t i o n w i t h i t s o r i g i n a l p u r p o s e . The Commerce t e a c h e r s h o u l d be a b l e t o f i t t h e p i e c e s t o -g e t h e r i n s u c h a j i g - s a w p u z z l e . P a y r o l l p r e p a r a t i o n , s t o c k c o n t r o l , r e c o r d s manage-ment, p u r c h a s i n g p r o c e d u r e s , p e r s o n n e l r e c o r d s , o f f i c e s e r -v i c e s , t r a f f i c , e x p e n s e c o n t r o l , a n d m a i l h a n d l i n g , t o l i s t t h e commoner o f f i c e p r o b l e m s , may e a c h p r o l i f e r a t e i n i t s own way, c h a n g i n g a s new e q u i p m e n t comes on t h e m a r k e t , a s v o l u m e g r o w s , o r a s g o v e r n m e n t r e g u l a t i o n s c a l l f o r new r e c o r d s a n d r e p o r t s . I t i s o b v i o u s l y i m p o s s i b l e — a n d i t i s p r o b a b l y n o t d e s i r a b l e — t o t r a i n h i g h s c h o o l p u p i l s f o r a l l t h e p o s i t i o n s c r e a t e d b y t h e n e e d s o f b u s i n e s s , b u t i t s h o u l d be t h e a i m o f t h e s c h o o l a n d t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f t h e Com-merce t e a c h e r t o s e l e c t t h e commonest f a c t o r s f r o m e v e r -c h a n g i n g b u s i n e s s r o u t i n e s and u s e them a s a b a s i s f o r t r a i n -i n g . T r a i n i n g c a n be p r o s e c u t e d w i t h more a s s u r a n c e a n d more v i g o u r i f t h e t e a c h e r knows h i s e x e r c i s e s a r e f u n c t i o n a l ; t h e p u p i l s , s e n s i n g h i s a s s u r a n c e , w i l l r e s p o n d more r e a d i l y t o h i s t e a c h i n g . An o b s e r v e r m i g h t w e l l a s k a t t h i s p o i n t i f t h e a n s w e r t o f i r s t - h a n d k n o w l e d g e o f b u s i n e s s d o e s n o t l i e i n b u s i n e s s 61 e x p e r i e n c e . C e r t a i n l y b u s i n e s s e x p e r i e n c e i s v a l u a b l e and s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s s h o u l d be e n c o u r a g e d t o s e e k summer e m p l o y -ment i n o f f i c e s . F u r t h e r m o r e , e x p e r i e n c e d o f f i c e w o r k e r s who a r e p r e p a r e d t o e a r n a c a d e m i c q u a l i f i c a t i o n s s h o u l d be w e l c o m e d i n t o t h e p r o f e s s i o n . The w r i t e r w o u l d d o u b t , how-e v e r , t h a t most o f f i c e w o r k e r s p o s s e s s a n o v e r - a l l v i e w o f o f f i c e p r o b l e m s and o f f i c e o r g a n i z a t i o n . U n l e s s t h e i r e x p e r -i e n c e h a s b e e n e x t e n s i v e a n d u n l e s s t h e y h a v e h e l d r e s p o n s -i b l e p o s i t i o n s , t h e y w i l l t e n d t o v i e w t h e o f f i c e f r o m t h e n a r r o w w e l l o f a j u n i o r p o s i t i o n . A t one t i m e t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n a c c e p t e d "two y e a r s ' a p p r o v e d b u s i n e s s e x p e r i e n c e " a s p a r t i a l c r e d i t f o r c e r t i f i -c a t i o n , b u t t h e d i f f i c u l t y o f a s s e s s i n g t h e e x p e r i e n c e was t o o g r e a t f o r p r a c t i c a l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p u r p o s e s , a n d c r e d i t s f o r e x p e r i e n c e w e re d i s c o n t i n u e d . P e r h a p s t h e o f f i c i a l v i e w m i g h t be e x p r e s s e d by a c o m p a r i s o n : b u s i n e s s e x p e r i e n c e i s t o Commerce t e a c h e r s what r e s i d e n c e i n F r a n c e i s t o t e a c h e r s o f F r e n c h : s o m e t h i n g g r e a t l y t o be d e s i r e d , b u t s o m e t h i n g t h a t i t i s n o t e x p e d i e n t t o demand. The C o l l e g e o f E d u c a t i o n a t t e m p t s t o p r o v i d e a n a l t e r -n a t i v e ( o r i d e a l l y a s u p p l e m e n t ) t o b u s i n e s s e x p e r i e n c e t h r o u g h a c o u r s e i n O f f i c e Management (Commerce 3 9 1 ) ^ . The c o u r s e was p l a n n e d e s p e c i a l l y f o r Commerce t e a c h e r s - i n - t r a i n i n g o ^ D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , C o u r s e s o f  S t u d y f o r t h e E l e m e n t a r y , H i g h , T e c h n i c a l . a n d N o r m a l S c h o o l s ( V i c t o r i a : t h e K i n g ' s P r i n t e r , 1 9 2 3), p. 7 7 . 3 'See A p p e n d i x C f o r t h e c o u r s e o u t l i n e . 62 b e c a u s e no c o u r s e a l r e a d y o f f e r e d b y t h e u n i v e r s i t y c o v e r s a l l t h e t h i n g s t h a t t h e c o u r s e s h o u l d c o v e r . Commerce d e a l s w i t h a c c o u n t i n g s y s t e m s b u t t h e c o u r s e i s d e s i g n e d f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l a c c o u n t a n t s , a n d i t s m a j o r e m p h a s i s i s on i n t e r n a l c o n t r o l . Commerce 3$3 i n c l u d e s m e t h o d s a n a l y s i s , t i m e s t u d y , a n d l a y o u t p r o b l e m s , b u t i t i s d i r e c t e d t o w a r d t h e f a c t o r y r a t h e r t h a n t h e o f f i c e . 5 Commerce 321 a n d Com-m e r c e 422 d e a l w i t h p e r s o n n e l management a n d l a b o u r l e g i s -l a t i o n . ^ 1 The f o u r c o u r s e s named w o u l d a l l be v a l u a b l e c o u r s e s b u t t h e y d o d n o t i n c l u d e a l l t h e t o p i c s l i s t e d i n Commerce 391, and t h e y do i n c l u d e o t h e r s o f r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l v a l u e t o t h e t e a c h e r . The p r o v i s i o n o f a s p e c i a l c o u r s e h a s t h e d r a w b a c k o f r e m o v i n g s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s f r o m some a s s o c i -a t i o n w i t h o t h e r u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s : on t h e o t h e r h a n d , i t g i v e s more f u n c t i o n a l t r a i n i n g w i t h g r e a t e r economy o f t i m e . I I . L I A I S O N BETWEEN SCHOOL AND OFFICE The m a t e r i a l c o n t a i n e d i n Commerce 391 s h o u l d g i v e t h e t e a c h e r t h e t h e o r e t i c a l b a c k g r o u n d t h a t he n e e d s b u t i t w i l l be more v a l u a b l e t o h i m i f he c a n s e e t h e p r o b l e m s a t f i r s t h a n d . S e l e c t e d f i e l d t r i p s , p l a n n e d t o i l l u s t r a t e t h e l e c t u r e m a t e r i a l a s t h e c o u r s e p r o c e e d s , a r e t h e r e f o r e a p a r t o f t h e c o u r s e . T h e y i n c l u d e v i s i t s t o l a r g e o f f i c e s a n d s m a l l ^The C a l e n d a r . F o r t y - f i f t h S e s s i o n . ( V a n c o u v e r : The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1959}, p. 319. 5 lbid, p. 321. 6 I b i d . , p . 31$. o f f i c e s , a nd t o f i r m s o f d i v e r s e k i n d s . 63 V i s i t s p l a n n e d by t h e c o u r s e i n s t r u c t o r w o u l d p r o -b a b l y be s u f f i c i e n t t o i l l u s t r a t e t h e t h e o r y o f t h e c o u r s e i f k n o w l e d g e o f b u s i n e s s p r o b l e m s and p e r s o n n e l p r a c t i c e s c o u l d be l e a r n e d o n c e and f o r a l l . The Commerce t e a c h e r must r e a l i z e , h o w e v e r , t h a t he i s o p e r a t i n g i n a d y n a m i c s i t u a t i o n a n d c a n n o t k e e p a b r e a s t o f h i s w o r k u n l e s s he i s i n r e g u l a r c o m m u n i c a t i o n w i t h t h e s o u r c e s o f h i s k n o w l e d g e . H i s t r a i n i n g s h o u l d c o n v i n c e h i m o f t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f m a i n -t a i n i n g t h a t c o m m u n i c a t i o n , a n d i t s h o u l d show h i m how t o u s e o f f i c e v i s i t s f o r t h e b e n e f i t o f h i s p u p i l s . By t h e t i m e a Commerce t e a c h e r h a s b e e n i n a c o m m u n i t y two o r ; t h r e e y e a r s , h e s h o u l d be a w e l l known and w e l c o m e v i s i t o r i n a number o f o f f i c e s . P e r h a p s most p e o p l e who embark on t e a c h i n g c a r e e r s do n o t t h i n k o f t h e m s e l v e s a s s a l e s m e n and so t e n d t o be r e t i -c e n t a b o u t c a l l i n g on o f f i c e m a n a g e r s w i t h o u t i n v i t a t i o n s . I t m u s t , t h e r e f o r e , be t h e f u n c t i o n o f some c o u r s e t a k e n by Commerce t e a c h e r s — a n d Commerce 3 9 1 i s t h e l o g i c a l o n e — t o show t h e m how t o b r e a k t h e i c e . T hey w i l l be a g r e e a b l y s u r -p r i s e d t o f i n d t h a t , i n d e f i a n c e o f p h y s i c a l l a w s , t h e w a t e r i s warm u n d e r n e a t h . O f f i c e v i s i t s o r g a n i z e d by t h e i n s t r u c -t o r must t h e r e f o r e be s u p p l e m e n t e d by v i s i t s t h a t s t u d e n t s , s i n g l y o r i n p a i r s , make on t h e i r own i n i t i a t i v e ( f o l l o w i n g a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e t e c h n i q u e s t o be f o l l o w e d and t h e 64 a m e n i t i e s t o be o b s e r v e d ) . R e p o r t s s h o u l d be r e q u i r e d , — r e p o r t s t h a t r e l a t e t h e t h i n g s o b s e r v e d t o t h e t h e o r y t a u g h t i n c l a s s . I f t i m e p e r m i t s , t h e more v a l u a b l e r e p o r t s may be g i v e n o r a l l y t o p r o v i d e f u l l e r u s e o f t h e e x p e r i e n c e s g a i n e d . The w r i t e r i s c o n v i n c e d t h a t t h e m a j o r i t y o f o f f i c e m a n a g e r s a n d s u p e r v i s o r s want t o h e l p t e a c h e r s and w i l l do s o i f t h e y a r e a s k e d . He a l s o b e l i e v e s t h a t much c r i t i c i s m o f o u r e d u c a t i o n a l s y s t e m s t e m s f r o m i g n o r a n c e o f what t h e s c h o o l s a r e t r y i n g t o do and many o f t h e o f f i c e p e o p l e c o u l d p r o f i t f r o m t h e s e r v i c e s o f a n i n t e r p r e t e r . One b a n k manager c o m p l a i n e d t h a t p u p i l s who l e a r n e d t o t y p e a t h i g h s c h o o l w e r e i n f e r i o r t y p i s t s . I n q u i r y r e v e a l e d t h a t he h a d h i r e d a u n i v e r s i t y - p r o g r a m m e p u p i l who had t a k e n o n l y one y e a r o f t y p e w r i t i n g : he was s u r p r i s e d t o l e a r n t h a t t h e r e w e r e d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s o f t y p e w r i t i n g i n t h e s c h o o l s . A n o t h e r b u s i n e s s man c o m p l a i n e d o f t h e p o o r c a l i b e r o f one o f h i s e m p l o y e e s , s u p p o s e d l y a h i g h s c h o o l g r a d u a t e : he was s u r p r i s e d t o l e a r n t h a t t h e g i r l had n o t c o m p l e t e d G r a d e X, and e v e n more s u r p r i s e d t o l e a r n t h a t he c o u l d h a v e c h e c k e d h e r c l a i m s by t e l e p h o n i n g t h e s c h o o l . The two e x a m p l e s c i t e d h e r e ( b o t h f r o m t h e w r i t e r ' s e x p e r i e n c e ) c o u l d be m u l t i p l i e d many t i m e s , a n d a l l t o o o f t e n t h e c r i t i c i s m g o e s u n a n s w e r e d . T h e r e i s a n i m p o r t a n t j o b t o be done i n i n t e r p r e t i n g t h e s c h o o l p o l i c i e s t o e m p l o y e r s and t h e Commerce t e a c h e r s h o u l d be p r e p a r e d t o do h i s s h a r e o f i t . 65 One o t h e r d i v i d e n d w i l l a c c r u e t o t h e Commerce t e a c h e r who f i n d s t h e t i m e t o m a i n t a i n h i s c o n t a c t s w i t h t h e o f f i c e : he w i l l f i n d t h a t m a n a g e r s w i l l come t o h i m f o r p l a c e m e n t s . M a t c h i n g p u p i l s t o j o b s f o r w h i c h t h e y a r e s u i t e d i s a r e w a r d -i n g c l i m a x t o a t e a c h e r ' s w o r k and a w o r t h w h i l e s e r v i c e t o t h e c o m m u n i t y . Some w o r d s o f c a u t i o n s h o u l d be a d d e d t o t h e a r g u m e n t f o r c l o s e r l i a i s o n b e t w e e n s c h o o l and o f f i c e . I n e x p e r i e n c e d t e a c h e r s must be i m p r e s s e d w i t h t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f s h o w i n g p r o p e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r t h e i r h o s t s . An o f f i c e manager may be d e l i g h t e d t o show h i s o f f i c e t o a v i s i t i n g t e a c h e r , b u t he w i l l n o t be h a p p y t o h e a r i n a r o u n d a b o u t way t h a t t h e t e a c h e r u s e d h i s o f f i c e a s a " h o r r i b l e e x a m p l e " i n c l a s s . The o f f i c e manager may be g l a d t o s p e n d an h o u r e x p l a i n i n g h i s r o u t i n e s t o a t e a c h e r one d a y , b u t he w i l l n o t be so h a p p y t o h a v e a n o t h e r t e a c h e r a s k f o r t h e same e x p l a n a t i o n t h e n e x t d a y : he v a i l w onder why t h e y d i d n ' t team up f o r t h e v i s i t . I t i s i n c u m b e n t u p o n t h e t e a c h e r s t o t r e a t t h e i n f o r m -a t i o n t h e y a r e g i v e n i n a p r o f e s s i o n a l manner, and i t i s i n -cumbent u p o n them t o o r g a n i z e t h e i r v i s i t s so t h a t a minimum amount o f i n t e r r u p t i o n i s o c c a s i o n e d t h e o f f i c e . I I I . FOLLOW-UP TECHNIQUES F o l l o w - u p w o r k w i t h h i g h s c h o o l g r a d u a t e s i s a n o t h e r a c t i v i t y t h a t s h o u l d be i n c l u d e d i n t h e t r a i n i n g o f Commerce 66 t e a c h e r s . A Commerce t e a c h e r may be a s k e d w i t h p r o p r i e t y : "Where a r e t h e members o f y o u r l a s t g r a d u a t i n g c l a s s e m p l o y e d ? What k i n d o f w o r k a r e t h e y d o i n g ? Have t h e y f o u n d t h e i r t r a i n i n g a d e q u a t e f o r t h e i r j o b s ? T h r e e t e c h n i q u e s a r e com-m o n l y u s e d f o r f o l l o w - u p work a n d e a c h one h a s some a d v a n t a g e s t o recommend i t . One m e t h o d i s t o t e l e p h o n e t h e home, n o t i n g t h e a n s w e r s t o a p r e p a r e d l i s t o f q u e s t i o n s . M o s t p a r e n t s a r e d e l i g h t e d t o t a l k a b o u t t h e i r c h i l d r e n , and t h e y o f t e n i n t e r p r e t t h e c a l l s a s e v i d e n c e o f t h e s c h o o l ' s c o n t i n u e d i n t e r e s t i n i n d i v i -d u a l s , w h i c h p e r h a p s i t i s , t h o u g h i t h a s o t h e r p u r p o s e s a l s o . O c c a s i o n a l l y t h e t e a c h e r w i l l e n c o u n t e r s u s p i c i o n o r r e s e n t -m ent, b u t t h e f r i e n d l y r e a c t i o n s f a r o u t w e i g h t h e u n f r i e n d l y o n e s . I n a n y e v e n t , i f t h e r e i s a n y c o n s i d e r a b l e amount o f d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h e s c h o o l , t h e t e a c h e r s h o u l d know o f i t . A s e c o n d method i s t o p r e p a r e a s h o r t q u e s t i o n n a i r e arid h a v e t h i s y e a r ' s c l a s s do t h e f o l l o w - u p on l a s t y e a r ' s c l a s s , e x p l a i n i n g t o t h e m t h e r e a s o n s why t h e f o l l o w - u p i s i m p o r t a n t . P u p i l s may be g i v e n t h e names o f f r i e n d s o r n e i g h b o u r s i f any a r e i n c l u d e d i n t h e g r o u p t o be s t u d i e d . T h i s m e t h o d p r e p a r e s t h e way f o r n e x t y e a r ' s f o l l o w - u p b e c a u s e t h e g r a d u a t e s know t h e r e a s o n s f o r t h e s u r v e y and a r e more l i k e l y t o c o - o p e r a t e . 67 A t h i r d m e t hod i n v o l v e s m a i l i n g o u t q u e s t i o n n a i r e s and e x p l a n a t o r y l e t t e r s . I t u s u a l l y y i e l d s a l o w e r r a t e o f r e t u r n t h a n t h e o t h e r t w o , b u t g r a d u a t e s who h a v e h a d t i m e t o c o n s i d e r t h e i r a n s w e r s i n p r i v a t e may r e p l y t o some q u e s -t i o n s a n d v o l u n t e e r some comments by m a i l t h a t t h e y w o u l d n o t g i v e o v e r t h e t e l e p h o n e o r t o a n i n t e r v i e w e r . I V . SUMMARY Commerce t e a c h e r s who h a v e f i r s t - h a n d k n o w l e d g e o f o f f i c e c o n d i t i o n s s h o u l d be b e t t e r a b l e t o t r a i n t h e i r p u p i l s f o r v o c a t i o n a l c o m p e t e n c e t h a n a r e t h o s e whose k n o w l e d g e i s p u r e l y t h e o r e t i c a l . B u s i n e s s e x p e r i e n c e , t h o u g h v a l u a b l e , i s o f t e n t o o r e s t r i c t e d t o p r o v i d e a n o v e r - a l l v i e w o f o f f i c e p r o b l e m s . A c o u r s e i s r e q u i r e d t h a t p r o v i d e s t h e o r e t i c a l c o n -s i d e r a t i o n o f o f f i c e p r o b l e m s p l u s v a r i e d c o n t a c t w i t h t h e o f f i c e p e o p l e who a r e t r y i n g t o s o l v e them. M a i n t e n a n c e o f k n o w l e d g e i n a d y n a m i c s i t u a t i o n a l s o c a l l s f o r t h e d e v e l o p -ment o f a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d t h e b u s i n e s s w o r l d t h a t w i l l e n c o u r -age t e a c h e r s t o t a k e t h e i n i t i a t i v e i n e s t a b l i s h i n g s a t i s f a c -t o r y l i a i s o n b e t w e e n t h e o f f i c e a n d t h e s c h o o l on t h e one h a n d , a n d t h e s c h o o l a n d i t s g r a d u a t e s o n t h e o t h e r . P r o v i d e d t h a t t h e e x e c u t i o n i s e q u a l t o t h e e x p r e s s e d i n t e n t , Commerce 391 w o u l d a p p e a r t o meet t h e s e i m p o r t a n t r e q u i r e m e n t s o f t e a c h e r - t r a i n i n g i n Commerce. CHAPTER V I I THE SOCIO-BUSINESS SUBJECTS Commerce t e a c h e r s may be c a l l e d upon t o t e a c h one o r more o f t h e s o c i o . - b u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s t a u g h t i n B r i t i s h C o l u m -b i a s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s : B u s i n e s s F u n d a m e n t a l s , Law, E c o n o m i c s , o r A c c o u n t i n g . I n t h i s c h a p t e r , t h e demands o f t h e s e c o u r s e s u p o n t h e t e a c h e r w i l l be co m p a r e d w i t h t h e t r a i n i n g o p p o r t u -n i t i e s a f f o r d e d h i m by t h e C o l l e g e o f E d u c a t i o n . I BUSINESS FUNDAMENTALS One m i g h t c l a i m w i t h some j u s t i f i c a t i o n t h a t n o n - s k i l l c o u r s e s i n Commerce h a v e a v o c a t i o n a l p u r p o s e b e c a u s e t h e y h e l p t h e p u p i l t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e m i l i e u i n w h i c h he w i l l w o r k , b r o a d e n h i s v o c a b u l a r y , a n d a d d t o h i s f u n c t i o n a l e f f i c i e n c y . I n d e e d , some t e a c h e r s o f Commerce may r e g a r d t h e v o c a t i o n a l p u r p o s e a s t h e p r i m a r y a i m o f t h e s o c i o - b u s i n e s s c o u r s e s . W i t h o u t d e n y i n g t h e i r v o c a t i o n a l v a l u e , o t h e r s , i n c l u d i n g t h e w r i t e r , w o u l d s t r e s s t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n t h a t s u c h c o u r s e s c a n make t o g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n . The l a t t e r g r o u p f e e l t h a t b u s i -n e s s i n s t i t u t i o n s , t h e i r c o m p a n i o n d e p a r t m e n t s i n g o v e r n m e n t , a n d t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s among them a r e f a c e t s o f o u r s o c i o -e c o n o m i c l i f e t h a t r e c e i v e t o o l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n i n t h e r e g u l a r s o c i a l s t u d i e s programme. "Too l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n " i n t h i s 69 c o n t e x t w o u l d r e f e r t o t h e i n s t r u c t i o n g i v e n a l l s e c o n d a r y p u p i l s , n o t j u s t t h o s e e n g a g e d i n v o c a t i o n a l p rogrammes. The Commerce t e a c h e r , a d m i n i s t r a t o r , o r w r i t e r who a d v a n c e s t h e c l a i m t h a t s o c i o - b u s i n e s s c o u r s e s c o n t r i b u t e t o g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n i s h a r d l y a d i s i n t e r e s t e d p a r t y . The t e a c h e r may be t r y i n g t o make h i m s e l f a c a d e m i c a l l y r e s p e c t a b l e ; t h e a d m i n i s t r a t o r may be b u i l d i n g h i s e m p i r e ; t h e w r i t e r may be s e e k i n g t o w i d e n t h e m a r k e t f o r h i s t e x t b o o k s . T h e s e p e o p l e h a v e , o f c o u r s e , a s much r i g h t a s t h o s e f r o m a n y o t h e r s u b j e c t f i e l d t o a r g u e f o r a n e x p a n s i o n o f t h e i r i n f l u e n c e , b u t t h e y a l s o h ave t h e o b l i g a t i o n t o s u p p o r t t h e i r v i e w s w i t h s o m e t h i n g more t h a n o p i n i o n s . The w r i t e r i n v i t e s e x a m i n a t i o n , t h e r e f o r e , o f some m a t e r i a l t h a t i s u s u a l l y i n c l u d e d i n t h e s o c i o - b u s i n e s s c o u r s e s . T h i s m a t e r i a l i s s e t f o r t h i n T a b l e V. He s u b m i t s , w i t h a l l due r e s p e c t t o t e a c h e r s o f s o c i a l s t u d i e s , t h a t many o f them a r e n o t w e l l g r o u n d e d i n t h i s m a t e r i a l . A t t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a C o l l e g e o f E d u c a t i o n , t e a c h e r s o f s o c i a l 1 s t u d i e s may t r a i n w i t h a G e o g r a p h y m a j o r (two h i s t o r y c o u r s e s a n d f i v e g e o g r a p h y c o u r s e s ) o r a H i s t o r y m a j o r (one g e o g r a p h y c o u r s e a n d f i v e h i s t o r y c o u r s e s ) : some s t u d e n t s t a k e b o t h a G e o g r a p h y and a H i s t o r y m a j o r . E l e c t i o n o f a n a d d i t i o n a l c o u r s e i n g e o g r a p h y , h i s t o r y , a n t h r o p o l o g y , p o l i t i c a l s c i e n c e , s o c i o l o g y , o r e c o n o m i c s i s recommended b u t n o t r e q u i r e d . The w r i t e r a l s o s u b m i t s t h a t t h e c o n c e p t s l i s t e d i n T a b l e V a r e ^The C a l e n d a r , F o r t y - f i f t h S e s s i o n ( V a n c o u v e r : The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1959), p. 346. 70 i m p o r t a n t t o a n y o n e who s e e k s t o u n d e r s t a n d h i s e n v i r o n m e n t i n t h e y e a r 1959. I n T a b l e V, t h e s i d e h e a d i n g s a r e t h e u n i t t i t l e s p r e -s c r i b e d by t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n f o r t h e c o u r s e i n B u s i n e s s F u n d a m e n t a l s (Co 24) . The c o l u m n h e a d e d " T o p i c s " shows some o f t h e r e l a t e d i d e a s t h a t a t e a c h e r m i g h t u s e i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e u n i t . The t e a c h e r may a p p r o a c h t h e s e t o p i c s f r o m t h e i r p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n s t o t h e p u p i l ' s a f f a i r s o r he may s t r e s s t h e i r v o c a t i o n a l i m p o r t a n c e , b u t i f he i s a w a r e o f t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s i n h e r e n t i n t h e m a t e r -i a l , he w i l l n o t s t o p w i t h t h i n g s o f p r a c t i c a l v a l u e a n d i m -m e d i a t e i n t e r e s t . He w i l l l e a d h i s p u p i l s , t o t h e f u l l l i m i t o f t h e i r s e v e r a l a b i l i t i e s , i n t o t h e s o c i a l a n d t h e o r e t i c a l a s p e c t s o f e a c h t o p i c . He w i l l know when and how t o l i n k h i s m a t e r i a l w i t h t h e h i s t o r y , g e o g r a p h y , l i t e r a t u r e , s c i e n c e , a n d m a t h e m a t i c s a l r e a d y f a m i l i a r t o h i s p u p i l s e The o b s e r v e r may be i n c l i n e d t o s a y , " I f t h i s m a t e r i a l h a s v a l u e f o r s o c i a l s t u d i e s , why n o t l e a v e i t f o r t h e s o c i a l s t u d i e s p e o p l e t o do i n s t e a d o f t r y i n g t o make s o c i a l s t u d i e s t e a c h e r s o u t o f Commerce s t u d e n t s ? " The a n s w e r l i e s i n t h e demands o f t r a i n i n g a n d i n t h e a t t i t u d e s o f t h e p r o s p e c t i v e t e a c h e r s . Can t h e s o c i a l s t u d i e s s t u d e n t s a f f o r d t h e t i m e t o t a k e t h e c o u r s e s t h e y n e e d t o m a s t e r t h i s m a t e r i a l ? A r e t h e y ^ B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n , Commerce. 1953 ( V i c t o r i a : The Queen's P r i n t e r , 195$), pp 27-43. TABLE V COURSE CONTENT - BUSINESS FUNDAMENTALS TOPICS SENIOR COURSES COVERAGE BY EDUCATION MAJORS DOUBLE BUSINESS SECRETARIAL Home Ownership and Renting Law of landlord and tenant Land tenure: historical . . Land registry system Mortgages, agreements of sale . Mechanics l i e n Land u t i l i z a t i o n Real estate appraisals Automobile Ownership Highway safety Motor Vehicle Act Automobile insurance Economic problems created by the automobile Insurance Principle of loss sharing and the Law Com 376 Law Com 376 Law Com 376 Law Com 376 Law Com 376 Economics . . . Economics . . . Com 376 Law Law Com 376 Com 376 Com 376 Com 376 Com 376 Com 376 Com 376 Com 376 Com 376 Com 376 Com 376 Com 376 Economics . . . Com 376 Com 376 Com 376 Law . . . . . . Com 376 Com 376 Com 376 Law . . . . . . Com 376 Com 376 Com 376 Law . . . . . . Com 376 Com 376 Com 376 Government regulation of the insurance industry . . . . . Com 376 Com 376 Com 376 Insurance company investments and the economy . . . . . . Com 376 Com 376 Com 376 Planning a personal insurance programme . . . . . . . . . Com 376 Com 376 Com 376 . . . . . Com 376 Com 376 Com 376 TABLE V - CONTINUED TOPICS SENIOR COURSES COVERAGE BY EDUCATION MAJORS DOUBLE BUSINESS SECRETARIAL Investments The nature of capital and i t s importance . to our economy Avenues through which capital is made available to entrepreneurs . . . . . . . Speculation: i t s importance to society; i t s dangers to the individual . . . . . Forms of business organization: single proprietorships, partnerships, limited . companies Suitable investment programmes for the individual Operation of security markets . Economics . Banking Legal relationship of depositor to his bank Law of negotiable instruments . Law Interest rates: economic factors Economics . Interest rates: legal aspects Law . . . Bank credit: i t s use and control i n Canada; role of the Bank of Canada; role of the . . . Economics chartered banks Monetary theory and the problems of maintaining a stable currency Economics Foreign exchange Economics Econ 200 Econ 200 Com 376 (part) Com 376 Com 331 Econ 200 Com 376 Com 331 Com 376 Com 331 Econ 200 Com 376 Com 331 /Com 376 /Com 376 ^Econ 200 ^Econ 200 Econ 200 Econ 200 Econ 200 Econ 200 . Economics . . Com 376 Com 376 Com 376 • Economics . . /Economics •)Law . . . . . . /Com /Com Com 376 151 331 /Com /Com C^om 376 151 331 /Com 376 vCom 151 ^Accounting . Economics . . . Economics • . • Com . Com 376 376 Com Com 376 376 Com 376 Com 376 376 Com 376 Com 376 Com 376 (part) Com 376 (part) Com 376 TABLE V - CONTINUED COVERAGE BY EDUCATION MAJORS TOPICS SENIOR COURSES DOUBLE BUSINESS SECRETARIAL Personal Finance Budgeting techniques Sources of personal credit and comparative costs from various sources . . . Credit Unions Act, Small Loans Act, Conditional Sales Act Wills and intestate succession • <. . Estates tax Our Legal System Sources of law Delegated authority: rule by board and commission Functions of law: preservation of order; arbitration of disputes; means to social betterment Operation of the courts Contractual obligations i n an interdependent society: requisites of a valid contract . . . . . . Com 376 Com 376 Com 376 Economics . . . Com 376 Com 376 Com 376 /Com 331 (Com 331 Law vCom 376 Com 376 Com 376 Law Com 376 Com 376 Com 376 Law Com 376 Com 376 Com 376 Law . . . . . . Com 331 Com 331 Law Com 331 Com 331 Law Com 331 Com 331 Law Com 331 Com 331 Law Com 331 Com 331 Marketing and Merchandising The economic basis of trade Functions of the middleman Marketing problems and marketing agencies with special reference to primary producers i n Western Canada . . . . . . Stock control . . . . . . Economics Economics Accounting . . . Econ 200 Com 261 Com 261 Com 261 Econ 200 Com 151 Com 151 TABLE V - CONTINUED TftPTPS SENIOR COURSES COVERAGE BY EDUCATION MAJORS T 0 P I G S S E N I 0 R G 0 U R S E S DOUBLE BUSINESS SECRETARIAL Transportation and Public U t i l i t i e s The organization of transportation services , Transportation economics with s p e c i a l reference to Canadian problems , L i a b i l i t y of the Common c a r r i e r Theory of monopoly and rate c o n t r o l problems Economics Economics Law Economics Econ 200 Com 331 Econ 200 Econ 200 Com 331 Econ 200 The Community Problems of municipal finance Economics Problems of town planning and zoning The r o l e of voluntary organizations i n a community Our Government Functions of government Economics The f e d e r a l system Government finance Economics Government and business Economics Trademarks, patents, copyrights Law Labour l e g i s l a t i o n Law S o c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n Law Our Economic System Development of the f a c t o r y system Economics S p e c i a l i z a t i o n and mass production . . . . . . Economics Demand and supply Economics D i s t r i b u t i o n of the nation a l income Economics Real and nominal wages Economics Factors of production . . . . . . Economics Econ 200 Econ 200 Econ 200 Econ 200 Com 391 Com 391 Com 391 Econ 200 Econ 200 Econ 200 Econ 200 Econ 200 Econ 200 Econ 200 Econ 200 Econ 200 Econ 200 Econ 200 Econ 200 75 s y m p a t h e t i c t o t h e u s e o f t h e m a t e r i a l ? To u s e i t p r o p e r l y , t h e t e a c h e r s h o u l d h a v e a b a c k g r o u n d b o t h i n Commerce a n d i n h i s t o r y a nd g e o g r a p h y . T h o u g h t h e Commerce t e a c h e r may h a v e o n l y one u n i v e r s i t y c o u r s e i n h i s t o r y and none i n g e o g r a p h y , he a t l e a s t h a s s t u d i e d t h o s e s u b j e c t s t h r o u g h o u t many y e a r s o f h i s s c h o o l i n g . I f he knows l e s s a b o u t them t h a n he s h o u l d , a t l e a s t he u s u a l l y knows more a b o u t them t h a n t h e a v e r a g e h i s t o r y m a j o r knows a b o u t Commerce. The w r i t e r d o e s n o t a r g u e t h a t t h e s o c i o - b u s i n e s s c o u r s e s s h o u l d be t h e s o l e p r e r o g a t i v e o f t h e Commerce t e a c h e r . When, a s o f t e n h a p p e n s , t h e s c h o o l h a s a s o c i a l s t u d i e s man w i t h a s u i t a b l e b a c k g r o u n d a n d o u t l o o k , by a l l means l e t h i m t e a c h B u s i n e s s F u n d a m e n t a l s , Law, o r E c o n o m i c s . The i m p o r t a n t a i m i s n o t t o p r e s e r v e d e p a r t m e n t a l l i n e s , b u t t o h a v e t h e m a t e r i a l t a u g h t by t h e p e r s o n s b e s t e q u i p p e d t o h a n d l e i t . By and l a r g e , h o w e v e r , t h e Commerce t e a c h e r i s t h e l o g i c a l one t o t e a c h t h e s o c i o - b u s i n e s s c o u r s e s . M o s t t h i n g s w o r t h l e a r n i n g c a n be t a u g h t u n d e r more t h a n one d i s c i p l i n e a nd i t i s w e l l t o h a v e them s o t a u g h t : a n i d e a v i e w e d f r o m s e v e r a l a n g l e s h a s g r e a t e r b r e a d t h a n d d e p t h t h a n one v i e w e d f r o m a s i n g l e v a n t a g e p o i n t . T h e n , t o o , t h e p u p i l w i l l b e n e f i t f r o m h a v i n g a n i d e a r e i n f o r c e d by more t h a n one t e a c h e r . Commerce h a s , o f c o u r s e , no m o n o p o l y on t h e r e i n -f o r c i n g p r o c e s s : i t c a n be u s e d i n most s u b j e c t s . The w r i t e r 76 w a t c h e d a l e s s o n i n a Home E c o n o m i c s c l a s s on t h e b a k i n g o f a C h r i s t m a s c a k e . When s p i c e s were b e i n g a d d e d , t h e o r i g i n o f e a c h was t h e s u b j e c t o f a q u e s t i o n . F o r g ood m e a s u r e , t h e r e was a q u e s t i o n a n d a b r i e f d i s c u s s i o n on t h e h i s t o r i c a l i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e s p i c e t r a d e , a l l c o n d u c t e d w h i l e t h e t e a c h e r m i x e d t h e c a k e . H e r e was r e i n f o r c e m e n t o f t h e s o c i a l s t u d i e s , s k i l f u l l y h a n d l e d , u n d e r c i r c u m s t a n c e s t h a t w e r e more c o n -d u c i v e t o l e a r n i n g f o r many o f t h e p u p i l s , t h a n t h o s e t h a t p r e v a i l e d i n t h e s o c i a l s t u d i e s c l a s s . I n e v e r y s u b j e c t f i e l d t h e r e a r e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r t h e t e a c h e r t o weave i d e a s t o -g e t h e r , t o a d d h i s w a r p t o someone e l s e ' s w o o f . Commerce t e a c h e r s a r e o f t e n r e g a r d e d a s s p e c i a l i s t s . I n t h e w r i t e r ' s e x p e r i e n c e t h e y a r e l e s s i n c l i n e d t o be " s u b j e c t - c e n t e r e d " t h a n a r e t e a c h e r s o f a c a d e m i c s u b j e c t s . A moment's t h o u g h t w i l l show t h a t t h e w r i t e r ' s i m p r e s s i o n s , i f t r u e , a r e n o t s u r p r i s i n g l y s o . M o s t t e a c h e r s h a v e done a t l e a s t a minimum o f w o r k i n a c a d e m i c s u b j e c t s a t some t i m e o r o t h e r : f e w " a c a d e m i c " t e a c h e r s h a v e done w o r k i n Commerce. I f t h e n , t h e Commerce t e a c h e r i s t o t e a c h t h e s o c i o -b u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s , how w e l l d o e s t h e C o l l e g e o f E d u c a t i o n p r e p a r e h i m t o t e a c h them? The a n s w e r w i l l v a r y w i t h t h e c o u r s e a n d w i t h t h e programme f o l l o w e d by t h e s t u d e n t t e a c h e r . A l l m a j o r s a r e e x p e c t e d t o t e a c h B u s i n e s s F u n d a m e n t a l s a n d s h o u l d t h u s h a v e m a s t e r y o f t h e T o p i c s l i s t e d i n T a b l e V. 77 T h e r e i s no s h o r t a g e o f u n i v e r s i t y c o u r s e s o n t h e s e t o p i c s : two o r t h r e e may be f o u n d f o r e a c h h e a d i n g . F o r e x a m p l e , The F a c u l t y o f Commerce and B u s i n e s s A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f f e r s one c o u r s e i n L i f e I n s u r a n c e a nd one i n G e n e r a l I n s u r a n c e : t h r e e u n i t s o f u n i v e r s i t y c r e d i t t o c o v e r a b o u t one t w e l f t h o f t h e B u s i n e s s F u n d a m e n t a l s c o u r s e . S u c h c o n c e n t r a t e d p r e -p a r a t i o n may b e d e s i r a b l e , b u t i t c a n h a r d l y be a c h i e v e d when a s i n g l e m a j o r i s a l l o t t e d o n l y e i g h t e e n u n i t s a l t o g e t h e r . The k i n d o f c o v e r a g e r e q u i r e d f o r Commerce t e a c h e r s a t t h e G r a d e X l e v e l ( B u s i n e s s F u n d a m e n t a l s i s t a u g h t i n G r a d e X) i s e x t e n s i v e r a t h e r t h a n i n t e n s i v e , s o i t was n e c e s s a r y t o w r i t e a s p e c i a l c o u r s e f o r t e a c h e r s . An e x a m i n a t i o n o f T a b l e V r e v e a l s t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h i s c o u r s e ( P e r s o n a l a nd B u s i n e s s F i n a n c e , Commerce 376) p r o v i d e s t h e d e s i r e d c o v e r a g e . T a k i n g a l l c o u r s e s i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n , i t may be o b s e r v e d t h a t p r e p a r a t i o n i s most n e a r l y c o m p l e t e f o r D o u b l e m a j o r s , some-what l e s s a d e q u a t e f o r B u s i n e s s m a j o r s , a n d f a r f r o m s a t i s -f a c t o r y f o r S e c r e t a r i a l m a j o r s . I I . LAW AND ECONOMICS M o s t t o p i c s t a u g h t i n B u s i n e s s F u n d a m e n t a l s a r e d e v e l -o p e d f u r t h e r i n Law 93 and E c o n o m i c s 92. T a b l e V shows t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e s e t o p i c s t o t h e s e n i o r c o u r s e s . B o t h D o u b l e m a j o r s a nd B u s i n e s s m a j o r s r e q u i r e t h e q u a l i f i c a t i o n s t o d e a l w i t h t h e more a d v a n c e d ' t o p i c s a n d t o meet t h e demands 73 o f t h e more s e l e c t and s o p h i s t i c a t e d G r a d e X I I p u p i l s . F o r -t u n a t e l y , t h e E c o n o m i c s a n d B u s i n e s s Law c o u r s e s on t h e h i g h s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m f o l l o w c l o s e l y t h e t r a d i t i o n a l p a t t e r n s s e t by s u c h c o u r s e s i n t h e u n i v e r s i t y so t h e r e i s a h i g h c o r -r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e t o p i c s c o v e r e d i n E c o n o m i c s 200 on t h e one hand and E c o n o m i c s 92 on t h e o t h e r , and b e t w e e n Commerce 331 on t h e one h a n d and Law 93 on t h e o t h e r . The s t u d e n t t e a c h e r w i l l a l s o h a v e e n c o u n t e r e d a p p l i c a t i o n s o f many o f t h e t o p i c s i n h i s a c c o u n t i n g and f i n a n c e , and ( i n t h e c a s e o f D o u b l e Commerce m a j o r s ) h i s m a r k e t i n g s t u d i e s . I n s p i t e o f t h i s c r o s s - r e f e r e n c i n g o f t o p i c s , h o w e v e r , i t i s i d l e t o p r e -t e n d t h a t e i t h e r m a j o r h a s a l l t h e b a c k g r o u n d he s h o u l d h a v e t o h a n d l e G r a d e X I I work i n Law and E c o n o m i c s . Once a g a i n h i s t r a i n i n g i s a c o m p r o m i s e b e t w e e n what he s h o u l d i d e a l l y h a v e and what i t i s p r a c t i c a b l e t o g i v e w i t h i n t h e l i m i t s o f a B a c h e l o r o f E d u c a t i o n d e g r e e . I I I . ACCOUNTING A c c o u n t i n g i s l i s t e d among t h e s o c i o - b u s i n e s s c o u r s e s a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h i s c h a p t e r . Some q u e s t i o n may be r a i s e d a s t o t h e p r o p r i e t y o f i t s i n c l u s i o n i n t h e s o c i o - b u s i n e s s g r o u p b e c a u s e o f t h e r e p e t i t i v e r e c o r d - k e e p i n g a c t i v i t i e s t h a t a r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e s u b j e c t . A d m i t t e d l y , s u c h a c t i v i t i e s b e l o n g i n t h e c a t e g o r y o f v o c a t i o n a l s k i l l s . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , s u c h t o p i c s a s d e p r e c i a t i o n , a s s e t v a l u a t i o n , c r e d i t * 79 p o l i c i e s , d i s t i n c t i o n between c a p i t a l and revenue, accumula-t i o n of c a p i t a l , and amortization are cl o s e l y related to p a r a l l e l problems i n law, economics, finance, and govern-ment. The writer prefers, therefore, to class accounting as a socio-business subject i n the hope that i t w i l l be taught as such. What t r a i n i n g does a teacher need to teach bookkeeping and accounting i n high school? An examination of course con-tent shows that the university course required of a l l Com-merce majors, Commerce 151, covers s l i g h t l y more ground than the two high school courses, Bookkeeping (Co 3 4 ) and Account-ing (Co 91). Accounting p r i n c i p l e s are a compact cycle usually developed i n a s p i r a l manner. V e r t i c a l development of the s p i r a l occurs as the pupil i s required to handle more complex transactions.i.involving more accounts, r e s u l t i n g i n more complicated f i n a n c i a l statements and more i n t r i c a t e preparation f o r a renewal of the cycle. Horizontal develop-ment c a l l s f o r app l i c a t i o n of rules of law to accounting pro-blems and f o r the use of accounting p r i n c i p l e s to throw l i g h t on a variety of business problems. The student teacher who has successfully completed Commerce 151 has ascended the s p i r a l at l e a s t as f a r as he would be expected to take his Co 91 class and a good deal farther than he would be expected to take his Co 3 4 c l a s s . At f i r s t glance the t r a i n i n g would 80 seem t o be i n a d e q u a t e , l e a v i n g t h e t e a c h e r o n l y "one jump a h e a d o f h i s p u p i l s " . However, t e a c h e r s on t h e D o u b l e Com-m e r c e m a j o r a r e r e q u i r e d t o t a k e a s e c o n d c o u r s e i n a c c o u n t -i n g , and t h o s e on t h e S e c r e t a r i a l m a j o r w i l l , p r e s u m a b l y , n o t be a s k e d t o t e a c h Commerce 91. T e a c h e r s on t h e B u s i n e s s m a j o r w o u l d t h e n a p p e a r t o be t h e c h i e f c a u s e f o r c o n c e r n . A g l a n c e a t t h e r e s t o f t h e i r programme, h o w e v e r , shows t h a t t h e y t a k e c o u r s e s i n O f f i c e Management, P e r s o n a l a n d B u s i n e s s F i n a n c e , a n d B u s i n e s s Law, a l l t h r e e o f w h i c h i n v o l v e some a s p e c t s o f a c c o u n t i n g t h e o r y a n d g i v e t h e t e a c h e r s " h o r i z o n t a l " d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e a c c o u n t i n g s p i r a l . I V . SUMMARY Commerce c o u r s e s i n B u s i n e s s F u n d a m e n t a l s , Law, E c o n -o m i c s , a n d A c c o u n t i n g c o n t a i n many c o n c e p t s o f g e n e r a l e d u c a -t i o n a l v a l u e t h a t w i l l a s s i s t p u p i l s t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e i r e n v i r o n m e n t . The c o n c e p t s i n q u e s t i o n c a n n o t be t a u g h t e f f e c t i v e l y by most t e a c h e r s o f s o c i a l s t u d i e s b e c a u s e t h e y h a v e an i n a d e q u a t e b a c k g r o u n d i n t h e s t u d y o f b u s i n e s s i n s t i -t u t i o n s . Commerce t e a c h e r s s h o u l d be t r a i n e d t o t e a c h t h e s e s o c i o - b u s i n e s s c o n c e p t s a n d t o r e l a t e t h e m t o t h e t r a d i t i o n a l s u b j e c t s o f t h e s e c o n d a r y programme. A l t h o u g h t h e r e a r e s e r i o u s i n a d e q u a c i e s i n t h e t r a i n i n g o f Commerce t e a c h e r s f o r t h i s p u r p o s e , t h e i n a d e q u a c i e s a r e p r o b a b l y l e s s s e r i o u s t h a n a r e t h o s e o f s o c i a l s t u d i e s t e a c h e r s . I n g e n e r a l , t h e r e f o r e , t h e s c h o o l s s h o u l d r e l y on Commerce t e a c h e r s t o h a n d l e t h e s o c i o - b u s i n e s s c o u r s e s a n d Commerce t e a c h e r s s h o u l d be t r a i n e d a c c o r d i n g l y . CHAPTER V I I I THE.DOUBLE MAJOR The Commerce t e a c h e r i s u s u a l l y r e g a r d e d a s a s p e c i a l -i s t a n d , p r i o r t o 1 9 5 6 , h i s c e r t i f i c a t e l a b e l l e d h i m a s s u c h . ^ What j u s t i f i c a t i o n h a s t h e C o l l e g e o f E d u c a t i o n f o r s p l i t t i n g Commerce i n t o two m a j o r s ? What e f f e c t w i l l t h e s p l i t m a j o r s h a v e on t h e s c h e d u l i n g p r o b l e m s o f s c h o o l a d m i n i s t r a t o r s ? The w r i t e r w i l l a t t e m p t t o a n s w e r b o t h q u e s t i o n s i n t h i s c h a p t e r . I . THE SHORTCOMINGS OF THE SINGLE MAJOR The C o l l e g e o f E d u c a t i o n r e q u i r e s t h a t a c a n d i d a t e f o r t h e b a c h e l o r o f e d u c a t i o n d e g r e e ( s e c o n d a r y ) s a t i s f y t h e r e -q u i r e m e n t s o f two t e a c h i n g m a j o r s . T w e n t y - t w o s u b j e c t s a r e l i s t e d a s p o s s i b l e m a j o r s , a n d s u c h c o m b i n a t i o n s a s E n g l i s h a n d M a t h e m a t i c s , G e o g r a p h y a n d F r e n c h , M u s i c a n d H i s t o r y , a n d P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n a n d B i o l o g y may be c h o s e n . H o n o u r s c o u r s e s , w i t h h e a v y c o n v e n t r a t i o n i n one s u b j e c t f i e l d , a r e p e r m i t t e d i n s e v e n t e e n s u b j e c t s , b u t o n l y s i x s u b j e c t s p r o v i d e f o r a 2 d o u b l e m a j o r on t h e p a s s c o u r s e . Commerce i s one o f t h e s i x . 1 B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n , B u l l e t i n o f  t h e Summer S c h o o l o f E d u c a t i o n ( V i c t o r i a : The Queen's P r i n t e r , 1 9 5 5 T T P P T 5 8 , 6 4 . The C a l e n d a r , F o r t y - f i f t h S e s s i o n . ( V a n c o u v e r : The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1 9 5 9 ), p p . 3 4 4 - 3 4 8 , S3 The D o u b l e m a j o r i n Commerce r e q u i r e s t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f t e n u n i v e r s i t y c o u r s e s i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e o t h e r r e q u i r e -m e n t s f o r t h e d e g r e e . The c o u r s e s a r e : ^ T y p e w r i t i n g T e c h n i q u e s a n d M e t h o d s (Commerce 90) E l e m e n t a r y A c c o u n t i n g (Commerce 151) I n t e r m e d i a t e A c c o u n t i n g (Commerce 252) S h o r t h a n d (Commerce 101) S e c r e t a r i a l P r a c t i c e (Commerce 201) C o m m e r c i a l Law (Commerce 331) M a r k e t i n g (Commerce 26l) P e r s o n a l a n d B u s i n e s s F i n a n c e (Commerce 376) O f f i c e Management (Commerce 391) I n t r o d u c t o r y E c o n o m i c s ( E c o n o m i c s 200) A t e a c h e r who q u a l i f i e s f o r t h e D o u b l e m a j o r s h o u l d be com-p e t e n t t o t e a c h a l l Commerce c o u r s e s , i n c l u d i n g Law 93, E c o n o m i c s 92, a n d E n g l i s h 93. Two s i n g l e m a j o r s a r e o f f e r e d , w i t h e i t h e r o f w h i c h t h e s t u d e n t w o u l d r e q u i r e a c o m p a n i o n m a j o r . E i t h e r s i n g l e m a j o r s h o u l d e n a b l e a s t u d e n t t o t e a c h t h e e l e m e n t a r y Com-mer c e c o u r s e s . T h e s e m i g h t be r e g a r d e d a s Co 10, 20, 32, 42, 24, 34, a n d E n 93, none o f w h i c h r e q u i r e s t h e s h o r t h a n d t h a t B u s i n e s s m a j o r s l a c k o r t h e Law and E c o n o m i c s ( t o a n y g r e a t e x t e n t ) t h a t S e c r e t a r i a l m a j o r s h a v e n o t t a k e n . S t u d e n t s q u a l i f y i n g f o r t h e S e c r e t a r i a l m a j o r w o u l d , i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e c o u r s e s l i s t e d e a r l i e r i n t h i s p a r a g r a p h , be q u a l i f i e d t o t e a c h Co 21, 31, 92, 93, a n d 44. The r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r t h e i r m a j o r a r e : ^ 3fhe C a l e n d a r . F o r t y - f i f t h S e s s i o n . ( V a n c o u v e r : The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1959), p. 345. ^ I b i d . 84 T y p e w r i t i n g T e c h n i q u e s a nd M e t h o d s (Commerce 9 0 ) S h o r t h a n d (Commerce 1 0 1 ) E l e m e n t a r y A c c o u n t i n g (Commerce 1 5 1 ) S e c r e t a r i a l . P r a c t i c e (Commerce 2 0 1 ) P e r s o n a l a n d B u s i n e s s F i n a n c e (Commerce 3 7 6 ) O f f i c e Management (Commerce 3 9 1 ) S t u d e n t s t a k i n g t h e B u s i n e s s m a j o r w o u l d be q u a l i f i e d t o t e a c h Co 9 1 , E c 9 2 , a n d Law 9 3 i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e b a s i c c o u r s e s l i s t e d i n t h e t h i r d s e n t e n c e o f t h i s p a r a g r a p h . The r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r t h e B u s i n e s s m a j o r a r e : ^ T y p e w r i t i n g T e c h n i q u e s a n d M e t h o d s (Commerce 9 0 ) E l e m e n t a r y A c c o u n t i n g (Commerce 1 5 1 ) C o m m e r c i a l Law (Commerce 3 3 1 ) P e r s o n a l a n d B u s i n e s s F i n a n c e (Commerce 3 7 6 ) O f f i c e Management (Commerce 3 9 1 ) E c o n o m i c s ( E c o n o m i c s 2 0 0 ) T h e r e a r e f o u r r e a s o n s why Commerce i s one o f t h e f e w s u b j e c t s i n w h i c h two s i n g l e m a j o r s a n d a d o u b l e m a j o r a r e o f f e r e d . I n t h e f i r s t p l a c e , t h e t e a c h e r o f Commerce may be c a l l e d u p o n t o t e a c h , a n y one o f e i g h t e e n c o u r s e s f r o m G r a d e I X t o X I I , w h e r e a s t h e t e a c h e r o f m a t h e m a t i c s must be p r e p a r e d t o t e a c h e i g h t ; t h e t e a c h e r o f s o c i a l s t u d i e s , e i g h t ; t h e t e a c h e r o f F r e n c h , f o u r . C o m p a r i s o n s made i n C h a p t e r s V, V I , a n d V I I o f t h i s s t u d y i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e c o u r s e s p r e s c r i b e d f o r t h e D o u b l e Commerce m a j o r p r o v i d e a minimum m a r g i n o f s u p e r i o r i t y f o r t h e t e a c h e r o v e r h i s p u p i l s : t h e m a r g i n , w o u l d d i s a p p e a r e n t i r e l y a n d i n some c a s e s become a d e f i c i e n c y i f a t e a c h e r w e r e e x p e c t e d t o t e a c h a l l Commerce c o u r s e s w i t h o n l y s i x u n i v e r s i t y c o u r s e s i n p l a c e o f t h e t e n g i v e n f o r t h e D o u b l e m a j o r . fcbid. 85 I n t h e s e c o n d p l a c e , a l m o s t a n y a c a d e m i c c o u r s e a s t u d e n t t a k e s a t u n i v e r s i t y b e g i n s where t h e h i g h s c h o o l w o r k e n d s a n d t h u s c a r r i e s h i m f a r t h e r a b o v e t h e l e v e l o f t h e p u p i l s he must t e a c h . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e e l e c t i v e s a r e a c a d e m i c c o u r s e s a n d may r e l a t e d i r e c t l y t o h i s t e a c h i n g f i e l d . The Commerce t e a c h e r , on t h e o t h e r h a n d , may g e t h i s f i r s t i n t r o d u c t i o n t o h i s s u b j e c t m a t t e r . _ a f t e r he r e a c h e s u n i v e r s i t y , a n d t h o u g h t h e a c a d e m i c e l e c t i v e s a r e o f u n d o u b t e d v a l u e t o h i m , t h e y h a v e n o t t h e same d i r e c t a p p l i c a t i o n t o h i s . t e a c h i n g s u b j e c t s , a s t h e y may h a v e f o r t e a c h e r s o f F r e n c h , m a t h e m a t i c s , E n g l i s h , o r s o c i a l s t u d i e s . T h i r d l y , t h e r e i s a d i s t i n c t d i c h o t o m y i n Commerce c o u r s e s b e t w e e n t h e s e c r e t a r i a l s k i l l s o n t h e one h a n d and t h e s o c i o - b u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s on t h e o t h e r . By way o f i l l u s -t r a t i o n , t h e d o u b l e m a j o r i n m u s i c m i g h t be c o n s i d e r e d . I f m u s i c w e r e a s i n g l e m a j o r c a l l i n g f o r b o t h v o c a l a n d i n s t r u -m e n t a l c o m p e t e n c e , a f i r s t - r a t e i n s t r u m e n t a l i s t m i g h t be l o s t t o t h e t e a c h i n g p r o f e s s i o n b e c a u s e he c o u l d n o t s i n g . The w r i t e r knows two e x t r e m e l y c a p a b l e y o u n g women who i n t e n d e d t o q u a l i f y a s Commerce t e a c h e r s b u t c h a n g e d t h e i r p l a n s a f t e r one e n c o u n t e r w i t h a n e c o n o m i c s c o u r s e . ( T h r e e c o u r s e s i n e c o n o m i c s w e r e p r e s c r i b e d u n d e r t h e f o r m e r c e r t i f i c a t i o n p l a n . ) He a l s o knows s e v e r a l men whose c e r t i f i c a t i o n was l o n g d e l a y e d b e c a u s e t h e y c o u l d n o t r e a c h t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d -a r d s i n s h o r t h a n d o r t y p e w r i t i n g t h o u g h t h e y w e re d o i n g a 86 f i r s t - c l a s s job of t e a c h i n g bookkeeping a t the time. P s y c h o l o g i s t s accept the s u p e r i o r i t y of women i n c l e r i c a l a p t i t u d e and d i g i t a l d e x t e r i t y ; u n i v e r s i t y women are acknow-5 ledged to be s u p e r i o r to men i n E n g l i s h . These q u a l i t i e s are important i n s e c r e t a r i a l work. On the other hand, s t u d i e s i n d i c a t e the s u p e r i o r i t y of men over women i n u n i -v e r s i t y mathematics and they a l s o i n d i c a t e a g r e a t e r i n t e r e s t i n economic concepts. Even i f there were no evidence t o suggest group advantages i n the a l t e r n a t i v e Commerce majors, i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n a b i l i t i e s , i n t e r e s t s , and tempera-ments would suggest that, a person who taught t y p e w r i t i n g w i t h s k i l l and enthusiasm might do a poor job of busi n e s s law and th a t the converse might be t r u e . The f o u r t h j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r the s p l i t major i s r e l a t e d to the w r i t e r ' s c l a i m (Chapter IV) t h a t a Commerce tea c h e r must be a f u l l y q u a l i f i e d t e a c h e r , not an a u x i l i a r y who r e -l i e v e s other t e a c h e r s of troublesome and i n e p t p u p i l s . I f i t i s the scho o l ' s p o l i c y to "dump" the incompetent p u p i l s i n t o the Commerce cour s e s , the Commerce tea c h e r may, through h i s companion academic major, spend at l e a s t p a r t of h i s time w i t h ab l e p u p i l s and thus r e t a i n some f a i t h i n the f u t u r e o f the human r a c e . Furthermore, i f he teaches academic s u b j e c t s , h i s recommendations t o the c o u n s e l l o r s or the p r i n c i p a l w i l l not ^Leona E. T y l e r , The Psychology o f Human D i f f e r e n c e s . ^N:ew York: D. Appleton-Century Company, Inc., 1947), s t u d i e s c i t e d on pp. 74, 71. I b i d . , s t u d i e s c i t e d on pp. 72, $1. 8? b e v i e w e d a s s p e c i a l p l e a d i n g when t h e y c o n c e r n Commerce s u b j e c t s . I I . THE PROBLEM OF ASSIGNING TEACHING LOADS The C o l l e g e o f E d u c a t i o n a c c e p t s t h e d o u b l e m a j o r a n d t h e s i n g l e m a j o r s a s r e a s o n a b l e a r r a n g e m e n t s t o e n s u r e t e a c h -i n g c o m p e t e n c e a n d t o a l l o w f o r i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s , b u t s c h o o l p r i n c i p a l s may o b j e c t t o t h e s e a r r a n g e m e n t s f o r o t h e r r e a s o n s . What e f f e c t w i l l t h e v a r i e d q u a l i f i c a t i o n s o f Com-merce t e a c h e r s h a v e upon t h e p r i n c i p a l ' s p r o b l e m of. p l a n n i n g h i s t i m e t a b l e a n d o f m a t c h i n g s t a f f c a p a b i l i t i e s w i t h c o u r s e o f f e r i n g s ? The w r i t e r a n a l y z e d t h e t e a c h i n g a s s i g n m e n t s o f a l l t e a c h e r s o f Commerce s u b j e c t s i n t h e p r o v i n c e f o r t h e s c h o o l y e a r s 1 9 5 5 - 5 6 , 1 9 5 6 - 5 7 , a n d 1957-58 t o d e t e r m i n e t h e q u a l i f i c a t i o n s t h e t e a c h e r s w o u l d r e q u i r e f o r t h e i r w o r k . A l l t h r e e y e a r s w e re t a b u l a t e d t o g e t h e r , a v a l i d p r o c e d u r e b e c a u s e e a c h y e a r ' s t i m e t a b l e i s a s e p a r a t e p r o b l e m f o r t h e p r i n c i p a l . Of #92 a s s i g n m e n t s e x a m i n e d , 407 c o u l d h a v e b e e n h a n d l e d b y a t e a c h e r w i t h a n y o f t h e t h r e e Commerce m a j o r s , 86 b y one w i t h a B u s i n e s s m a j o r , a nd 325 by one w i t h a S e c -r e t a r i a l m a j o r . O n l y 74 w o u l d h a v e n e e d e d a D o u b l e m a j o r . A s s u m i n g t h a t t h e 892 t e a c h i n g l o a d s were t o be a s s i g n e d t o f u t u r e g r a d u a t e s o f t h e p r e s e n t programme, how s e r i o u s l y w o u l d a t e a c h e r w i t h t h e " w r o n g " m a j o r d i s r u p t t h e p r i n c i p a l ' s p l a n n i n g ? 88 The p r i n c i p a l w o u l d s u f f e r no i n c o n v e n i e n c e i n a s s i g n -i n g w o r k f o r t h e 4 0 7 t e a c h e r s i n t h e f i r s t g r o u p . T h e i r t e a c h i n g l o a d s c o n t a i n e d o n l y b a s i c c o u r s e s i n Commerce, and i f a t e a c h e r w i t h a n y m a j o r i n Commerce were a v a i l a b l e , he s h o u l d be a b l e t o h a n d l e t h e a s s i g n m e n t . A t f i r s t g l a n c e , t h e S e c r e t a r i a l g r o u p w o u l d a p p e a r t o p r e s e n t a p r o b l e m o f some m a g n i t u d e , b u t a n a l y s i s o f t h e s i t u a t i o n shows t h a t 3 0 0 o f t h e 3 2 5 t i m e t a b l e s w e re p r e p a r e d i n s c h o o l s t h a t h a d more t h a n one Commerce t e a c h e r a n d t h e 3 0 0 c o u l d be r e d u c e d t o 1 5 0 b y t h e s i m p l e e x p e d i e n t o f t r a n s f e r r i n g one o r two s u b -j e c t s f r o m one t e a c h e r on t h e s t a f f t o a n o t h e r . O f t e n t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n a t e a c h i n g a s s i g n m e n t f o r one m a j o r a n d t h a t f o r a n o t h e r may be no more t h a n one c o u r s e . Two t e a c h e r s may be t e a c h i n g s h o r t h a n d b e c a u s e t h e y b o t h l i k e t h e w o r k : i f one o f t h e m were t o l e a v e t h e o t h e r c o u l d t a k e o v e r t h e s e c o n d c l a s s , s o i t w o u l d m a t t e r l i t t l e w h e t h e r t h e r e p l a c e m e n t t e a c h e r w e r e a S e c r e t a r i a l m a j o r o r a B u s i n e s s m a j o r . The o t h e r 25 c a s e s were a l l a t s m a l l h i g h s c h o o l s , w h e r e t h e p r i n -c i p a l s a r e a c c u s t o m e d t o l i v i n g , a s one e x p r e s s e d i t , " f r o m one c r i s i s t o a n o t h e r " s o f a r a s s t a f f i n g p r o b l e m s a r e c o n -r c e r n e d . The w r i t e r d o e s n o t w i s h t o i m p l y t h a t t h e p r o b l e m s o f s m a l l h i g h s c h o o l s a r e u n i m p o r t a n t , b u t he d o e s s u g g e s t t h a t t h e i r p r o b l e m s o f t i m e t a b l i n g a r e r e l a t e d t o t h e i r s i z e a n d t o t h e d i f f i c u l t y o f s e c u r i n g q u a l i f i e d t e a c h e r s ( i n a n y s u b j e c t f i e l d ) d u r i n g t h e p r e s e n t t e a c h e r s h o r t a g e . M o r e 89 t h a n h a l f o f t h e t e a c h e r s i n t h i s g r o u p o f 25 s c h o o l s w e r e u n d e r q u a l i f i e d . The q u e s t i o n m i g h t a l s o be r a i s e d a s t o w h e t h e r s c h o o l s w i t h f e w e r t h a n 150 p u p i l s i n G r a d e s X t o X I I — a n d 22 o u t o f t h e 25 w e r e i n t h a t c l a s s — s h o u l d embark on t h e v o c a t i o n a l programmes t h e y w e r e a t t e m p t i n g t o g i v e . E x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e 74 programmes r e q u i r i n g a D o u b l e m a j o r t e l l s much t h e same s t o r y a s i s t o l d by e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h o s e r e q u i r i n g S e c r e t a r i a l m a j o r s . A l l e x c e p t 15 o c c u r r e d i n l a r g e r s c h o o l s and f a i l u r e t o r e p l a c e a D o u b l e m a j o r w i t h a n o t h e r w o u l d u s u a l l y mean no more i n c o n v e n i e n c e t h a n a r e - s h u f f l i n g o f l o a d s . I n t h e s m a l l e r s c h o o l , t h e " w r o n g " r e p l a c e m e n t m i g h t mean t h e abandonment o f a c o u r s e f o r one y e a r o r t h e a s s i g n i n g o f t h a t c o u r s e t o someone u n d e r q u a l i -f i e d t o t e a c h i t , a p r o c e s s t h a t m i g h t w e l l o c c u r u n d e r e x i s t i n g c o n d i t i o n s . The f o r e g o i n g a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e s t h a t some d i f f i -c u l t y m i g h t be e x p e r i e n c e d i n t h e s m a l l e r s c h o o l s b e c a u s e o f t h e ; new p a t t e r n o f d o u b l e and s i n g l e m a j o r s . Some r e -e d u c a t i o n o f p r i n c i p a l s may be n e c e s s a r y among t h e o l d e r h a n d s b e c a u s e t h e y h a v e b e e n a c c u s t o m e d t o t h i n k i n g o f a Commerce t e a c h e r a s one who i s p r e p a r e d t o t e a c h a n y Com-m e r c e c o u r s e . H owever, many more h a v e a l s o b e e n a c c u s t o m e d t o a c c e p t i n g w h a t t h e y c o u l d g e t i n t h e way o f a Commerce t e a c h e r a n d m a k i n g t h e b e s t o f t h e s i t u a t i o n . 9 0 The s p l i t m a j o r s may s o l v e more p r o b l e m s f o r t h e p r i n -c i p a l t h a n t h e y , c r e a t e . Many s m a l l s c h o o l s do n o t h a v e a f u l l - t i m e l o a d f o r a Commerce t e a c h e r , and t h e p r i n c i p a l must a s s i g n h i m o t h e r w o r k . E v e n i n l a r g e r s c h o o l s , t h e number o f Commerce c l a s s e s d i v i d e d by t h e number o f Commerce t e a c h e r s w i l l o f t e n show a n e e d f o r f r a c t i o n a l t e a c h i n g l o a d s i n Com-m e r c e . The p r i n c i p a l m i g h t w e l l be g l a d t o h a v e a Commerce t e a c h e r who c a n d o u b l e i n F r e n c h , E n g l i s h , s o c i a l s t u d i e s , m a t h e m a t i c s , o r home e c o n o m i c s ( a l l o f t h e s e c o m b i n a t i o n s a r e p r e s e n t l y e n r o l l e d i n t h e C o l l e g e o f E d u c a t i o n ) . T h i s s t a t e -ment c a n be s u p p o r t e d b y t h e f a c t t h a t 452 o f t h e 892 t i m e -t a b l e s e x a m i n e d c o n t a i n e d s u b j e c t s o t h e r t h a n Commerce. T a b l e V I shows t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h o t h e r d u t i e s w e re c o m b i n e d w i t h t e a c h i n g o f Commerce s u b j e c t s . The t o t a l d o e s n o t e q u a l 452 b e c a u s e many t e a c h e r s w e re a s s i g n e d two o r more o t h e r d u t i e s . The e x a m i n a t i o n o f t e a c h i n g l o a d s w o u l d h a r d l y be com-p l e t e w i t h o u t r e f e r e n c e t o t h o s e o f two t e a c h e r s who "were r e a l l y c a l l e d upon t o d i s p l a y v e r s a t i l i t y . A t M a s s e t E l e m e n -t a r y - H i g h S c h o o l , i n 1 9 5 5 - 5 6 , M r . W. J . W r i g h t t a u g h t Co 1 0 , 2 0 , 2 1 , a n d 3 1 ; E n 2 0 , 3 0 , 4 0 ; SS 2 0 , 3 0 ; Geo 9 1 ; H.P.D. 1 0 , 2 0 , 3 0 ; Ma 2 0 , 2 1 ; and Sc 2 0 . A t H o u s t o n E l e m e n t a r y - S e n i o r H i g h S c h o o l , i n 1 9 5 4 - 5 5 , M r . R. C. B a k e r t a u g h t Co 1 0 , and 2 1 ; Ma 2 0 , 3 0 , 9 1 ; S c 1 0 ; Chem 9 1 ; A r t 1 0 ; H.P.D. 1 0 , 3 0 ; E n 7 , 8 , 1 0 , 2 1 , 3 1 , 4 0 , 9 1 ; SS 1 0 , 3 0 ; Geo 9 1 ; and Ma 1 0 . 91 TABLE V I FREQUENCY WITH WHICH COMMERCE TEACHING WAS COMBINED WITH OTHER SUBJECTS AND SCHOOL DUTIES I N B R I T I S H COLUMBIA SECONDARY SCHOOLS I N 1955-56, 1956-57, 1957-5$ S u b j e c t o r D u t y F r e q u e n c y E n g l i s h 142 H e a l t h a n d P e r s o n a l D e v e l o p m e n t 1 2 5 M a t h e m a t i c s 1 2 3 S o c i a l S t u d i e s 1 0 7 S c i e n c e 5 0 C o u n s e l l i n g 3 4 F r e n c h 3 3 A d m i n i s t r a t i o n 18 M u s i c 15 P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n 1 4 L i b r a r y 8 A r t 7 A g r i c u l t u r e 5 I n d u s t r i a l A r t s 3 Home E c o n o m i c s 3 German 1 L a t i n 1 S o u r c e : B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n , "K" f o r m s ( o r g a n i z a t i o n a l r e p o r t s s u b m i t t e d a n n u a l l y b y s c h o o l -p r i n c i p a l s ) a n a l y z e d by t h e w r i t e r . 92 I I I . SUMMARY The Commerce c o u r s e s encompass a w i d e r a n g e o f s k i l l s a n d s u b j e c t m a t t e r . S t u d e n t t e a c h e r s e n r o l l e d f o r t h e D o u b l e m a j o r b a r e l y e x c e e d a minimum c o m p e t e n c e w i t h t e n c o u r s e s : t h e y w o u l d be p o o r l y e q u i p p e d w i t h o n l y s i x . The s p l i t m a j o r p e r m i t s t e a c h e r s t o c o m b i n e some Commerce s u b j e c t s w i t h o t h e r s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l w o r k i n ways t h a t p r o -v i d e f o r d i f f e r e n c e s i n a p t i t u d e s a n d i n t e r e s t s . F u r t h e r -m o r e , a c o m b i n a t i o n o f Commerce a n d a c a d e m i c w o r k e n c o u r a g e s t h e i n t e g r a t i o n o f Commerce t e a c h e r s w i t h t h e t e a c h i n g s t a f f a s a w h o l e . I t w o u l d a p p e a r t h a t p r i n c i p a l s a r e a l r e a d y u s i n g Commerce t e a c h e r s i n t h e way t h a t t h e C o l l e g e o f E d u c a t i o n a n t i c i p a t e s t h e y w i l l u s e them. The s p l i t m a j o r a p p e a r s t o be i n o p e r a t i o n now and l i t t l e , i f a n y , a d j u s t m e n t w i l l be n e e d e d t o f i t new t e a c h e r s i n t o programmes o f t h e s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s . CHAPTER I X SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS I . SUMMARY B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a h a s b e e n d e v e l o p i n g i t s t r a i n i n g p r o -gramme f o r Commerce t e a c h e r s s i n c e 1 9 1 7 . The f i r s t demanded one y e a r o f t r a i n i n g b e y o n d h i g h s c h o o l a n d s o m e t i m e s p l a c e d e i g h t e e n - y e a r o l d t e a c h e r s i n h i g h s c h o o l c l a s s r o o m s ; t h e l a t e s t one r e q u i r e s f i v e y e a r s o f u n i v e r s i t y w o r k • The c o n t e n t o f t h e new programme i s i m p o r t a n t b e c a u s e i t s a d e q u a c y may a f f e c t t h e number a nd c a l i b e r o f c a n d i d a t e s a t t r a c t e d t o i t . I t i s a l s o i m p o r t a n t b e c a u s e Commerce t e a c h e r s a r e s u c h a l a r g e segment o f t h e t e a c h i n g b o d y , c o n -t r i b u t i n g a b o u t one t e n t h o f t h e i n s t r u c t i o n i n G r a d e s X t o X I I a n d i n f l u e n c i n g a t l e a s t h a l f o f a l l p u p i l s who g r a d u a t e f r o m h i g h s c h o o l . Many o f t h e s e p u p i l s go d i r e c t l y i n t o o f f i c e p o s i t i o n s w h e r e t h e y make o r mar t h e s c h o o l ' s r e p u t a -t i o n . The t r a i n i n g programme o f t h e i r t e a c h e r s t h e r e f o r e w a r r a n t s c l o s e s c r u t i n y . The r o l e p l a y e d b y Commerce c o u r s e s i n t h e s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l h a s c h a n g e d i n t h e p a s t t w e n t y - f i v e y e a r s . The r i g i d i t y o f p u p i l programmes t h a t c h a r a c t e r i z e d e a r l i e r c u r r i c u l a h a s g i v e n way t o more f l e x i b l e a r r a n g e m e n t s . I t i s 94 now p o s s i b l e f o r a p u p i l t o t a k e one Commerce c o u r s e f o r p e r s o n a l u s e o r a n i n t e g r a t e d g r o u p o f Commerce c o u r s e s t o p r o v i d e v o c a t i o n a l k n o w l e d g e a n d s k i l l s . T h i s c h o i c e i s a v a i l a b l e t o p u p i l s on t h e u n i v e r s i t y programme a s w e l l a s t o t h o s e on t h e g e n e r a l programme. The f l e x i b i l i t y o f t h e r e g u l a t i o n s a n d t h e v a r i e t y o f Commerce c o u r s e s a r e o f p a r t i c u l a r a d v a n t a g e t o b r i g h t g i r l s whose f u t u r e e d u c a -t i o n a l p l a n s a r e i n d o u b t . A g i r l o n t h e u n i v e r s i t y p r o -gramme c a n a c q u i r e v o c a t i o n a l c o m p e t e n c e f o r employment on h i g h s c h o o l g r a d u a t i o n , f o r summer w o r k w h i l e a t t e n d i n g u n i v e r s i t y , o r a s a s u p p l e m e n t a r y s k i l l t o w h a t e v e r t a l e n t s s h e d e v e l o p s a t u n i v e r s i t y . The v a r i e d a n d e x t e n s i v e u s e o f Commerce c o u r s e s i n t h e s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s makes t h e p r o b l e m s o f p r o g r a m m i n g a nd c o u n s e l l i n g more c o m p l e x . I f Commerce t e a c h e r s a r e t o p r o -v i d e o b j e c t i v e a d v i c e f o r p r i n c i p a l s a n d c o u n s e l l o r s , i f t h e y a r e t o w o r k w i t h v o c a t i o n a l a n d n o n - v o c a t i o n a l p u p i l s , t h e y must be p r o f e s s i o n a l l y t r a i n e d p e o p l e who w i l l p l a c e t h e w e l f a r e o f t h e i r p u p i l s a h e a d o f t h e i r own d e p a r t m e n t a l c o n c e r n s . The Commerce c o u r s e s a r e d e s i g n e d t o g i v e g e n e r a l b u s i n e s s k n o w l e d g e a n d v o c a t i o n a l s k i l l s ; t h e y a r e a l s o i n t e n d e d t o f u r t h e r t h e g e n e r a l a i m s o f s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n . T h e s e a i m s a r e i n t e r d e p e n d e n t . I f t h e s c h o o l a c h i e v e s p r e s -t i g e w i t h e m p l o y e r s t h r o u g h t h e c o m p e t e n c e o f i t s g r a d u a t e s , 95 p u p i l s a r e more l i k e l y t o r e s p e c t i t s t e a c h e r s a n d may be more w i l l i n g t o i d e n t i f y t h e i r a i m s w i t h t h o s e o f t h e s c h o o l . H e r e , t h e Commerce t e a c h e r i s i m p o r t a n t , n o t o n l y f o r h i s a b i l i t y t o a c h i e v e h i s v o c a t i o n a l a i m s , b u t a l s o f o r h i s a p p r e c i a t i o n o f n o n - v o c a t i o n a l v a l u e s and h i s w i l l i n g n e s s t o c o n t r i b u t e t o them. The n e e d f o r e d u c a t i o n b e y o n d h i s own s p e c i a l t y i s i n d i c a t e d h e r e . A l a r g e p a r t o f t h e t e a c h i n g l o a d i n . Commerce d e p e n d s on t h e t w i n s k i l l s o f t y p e w r i t i n g a n d s h o r t h a n d . Though a t h l e t i c c o a c h e s a r e n o t n o r m a l l y e x p e c t e d t o s u r p a s s t h e i r p u p i l s i n s k i l l , t h e y h a v e more p r e s t i g e w i t h t h e i r c h a r g e s a n d more c o n f i d e n c e i n t h e m s e l v e s i f t h e y a r e c a p a b l e o f r e a s o n a b l y h i g h p e r f o r m a n c e . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f s k i l l s i n s h o r t h a n d a n d t y p e w r i t i n g i s a t i m e - c o n s u m i n g a n d l a b o u r i o u s t a s k . I f s t u d e n t s a r e r e q u i r e d t o m a s t e r t h e s k i l l s w i t h o u t b e i n g g r a n t e d c r e d i t , t h e y h a v e a h e a v y a d d i -t i o n a l b u r d e n p l a c e d upon them t h a t o t h e r t e a c h e r s a r e n o t a s k e d t o a s s u m e . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e d e n i a l o f c r e d i t s i s p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y u n s o u n d : i n e f f e c t t h e d e n i a l b r a n d s t h e s u b j e c t m a t t e r a s u n w o r t h y . P e r h a p s t h e b e s t s o l u t i o n t o t h e p r o b l e m o f s k i l l a c q u i s i t i o n i s t o e n c o u r a g e p u p i l s t o m a s t e r t h e s k i l l s i n h i g h s c h o o l . They w i l l t h e n h a v e t i m e f o r two e x t r a c o u r s e s o f a n a c a d e m i c n a t u r e i n u n i v e r s i t y . M e a n w h i l e , t h e c r e d i t s now a l l o w e d by t h e C o l l e g e o f E d u c a -t i o n g i v e s t u d e n t s w i t h o u t s h o r t h a n d a n d t y p e w r i t i n g a n 96 o p p o r t u n i t y t o a c q u i r e r e a s o n a b l e s k i l l s a s p a r t o f t h e i r d e g r e e programme. V o c a t i o n a l s k i l l s a r e u s e d i n a b u s i n e s s s e t t i n g a n d t h e Commerce t e a c h e r s h o u l d be f a m i l i a r w i t h t h a t s e t t i n g . O c c u p a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e i s d e s i r a b l e , b u t e v e n l e n g t h y o c c u p a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e may be t o o r e s t r i c t e d t o g i v e t h e p r o s p e c t i v e t e a c h e r a n o v e r - v i e w o f b u s i n e s s p r o b l e m s a n d b u s i n e s s p r a c t i c e s . The C o l l e g e a t t e m p t s t o meet t h i s n e e d w i t h a c o u r s e i n O f f i c e Management (Commerce 391) t h a t p r o -v i d e s a s y s t e m a t i c s t u d y o f o f f i c e p r o b l e m s . The c o u r s e a l s o a t t e m p t s t o d e v e l o p a t t i t u d e s t h a t w i l l e n c o u r a g e t h e t e a c h e r t o e s t a b l i s h c l o s e l i a i s o n w i t h o f f i c e p e o p l e i n h i s c o m m u n i t y , a n d t o a s s e s s t h e a d e q u a c y o f h i s w o r k t h r o u g h a f o l l o w - u p o f h i s g r a d u a t e s . The c o n d i t i o n s u n d e r w h i c h t h e Commerce t e a c h e r w o r k s w o u l d a p p e a r t o demand t r a i n i n g o f t h i s k i n d . The s u b j e c t s o f l a w , e c o n o m i c s , a n d a c c o u n t i n g , o f t e n c a l l e d t h e s o c i o - b u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s , o f f e r many o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o g i v e t h e h i g h s c h o o l p u p i l b a c k g r o u n d i n f o r m a t i o n o f v o c a -t i o n a l v a l u e . Some t e a c h e r s b e l i e v e t h a t t h e c o n c e p t s d e v e l -o p e d i n t h e s e s u b j e c t s h a v e i m p o r t a n t i m p l i c a t i o n s b e y o n d t h e i r v o c a t i o n a l v a l u e s , e s p e c i a l l y i f t h e y a r e r e l a t e d t o t h e i r h i s t o r i c a l a n d g e o g r a p h i c a l s e t t i n g . T e a c h e r s o f s o c i a l s t u d i e s , h o w e v e r , may be u n a b l e t o e x p l o i t t h e s e 97 c o n c e p t s b e c a u s e t h e y o f t e n l a c k t r a i n i n g i n Commerce t o a g r e a t e r d e g r e e t h a n t e a c h e r s o f Commerce l a c k t r a i n i n g i n h i s t o r y a n d g e o g r a p h y . I f t h i s i s t r u e , t h e n Commerce t e a c h e r s s h o u l d n o r m a l l y be e x p e c t e d t o t e a c h t h e s o c i o -b u s i n e s s c o u r s e s , a n d t h e C o l l e g e o f E d u c a t i o n i s r i g h t i n p r o v i d i n g s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g t o t h a t e n d . T r a i n i n g p l a n s d e v e l o p e d b e f o r e 1956 a l l t r e a t e d Commerce t e a c h e r s a s s p e c i a l i s t s . The C o l l e g e o f E d u c a t i o n programme p e r m i t s a Commerce t e a c h e r t o be a s p e c i a l i s t i n t h a t he may t a k e a d o u b l e m a j o r i n Commerce i f he w i s h e s . H o w e v e r , t h e C o l l e g e a l s o r e c o g n i z e s t h e v a r i e t y o f s k i l l s a n d s u b j e c t m a t t e r c o v e r e d b y t h e t e r m "Commerce", a n d i t a l l o w s f o r d i f f e r e n c e s i n t a l e n t s a n d i n t e r e s t s b y p e r m i t -t i n g a t e a c h e r t o t a k e one o f two Commerce m a j o r s , l e a v i n g h i m f r e e t o t a k e h i s s e c o n d m a j o r i n some o t h e r f i e l d . T h u s , a man who l a c k s i n t e r e s t i n s e c r e t a r i a l s k i l l s m i g h t c o m b i n e a - h i s t o r y m a j o r w i t h a Commerce B u s i n e s s m a j o r a n d e q u i p h i m s e l f t o do a f i r s t - c l a s s j o b on t h e s o c i - b u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s ; a woman who h a s no e n t h u s i a s m f o r e c o n o m i c c o n c e p t s m i g h t c o m b i n e a m a j o r i n E n g l i s h w i t h one i n Commerce S e c r e t a r i a l , a n a r r a n g e m e n t f r o m w h i c h h e r p u p i l s w o u l d p r o b a b l y p r o f i t . A d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s o f t e a c h i n g l o a d s t h r o u g h o u t t h e p r o v i n c e , t a k e n o v e r a t h r e e - y e a r p e r i o d , i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e new a r r a n g e m e n t o f s p l i t m a j o r s w i l l c a u s e no s p e c i a l 93 p r o b l e m s i n t i m e t a b l i n g . E i t h e r Commerce m a j o r w i l l be a b l e t o t e a c h most Commerce c o u r s e s a n d any f l e x i b i l i t y l o s t t h r o u g h h i s i n a b i l i t y t o t e a c h them a l l w i l l be c o m p e n s a t e d f o r by h i s a b i l i t y t o assume o t h e r d u t i e s . I n f a c t , a l m o s t h a l f o f t h o s e now t e a c h i n g Commerce c o u r s e s a r e p r e s e n t l y a s s i g n e d t o work o t h e r t h a n Commerce t e a c h i n g . I I . CONCLUSIONS The w r i t e r p o s e d two q u e s t i o n s i n t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h i s s t u d y : (1) S h o u l d Commerce t e a c h e r s be t r a i n e d i n t h e same g e n e r a l p a t t e r n a s t e a c h e r s o f o t h e r s u b j e c t s ? (2) Does t h e C o l l e g e o f E d u c a t i o n programme a l l o w f o r t h e s p e c i a l n e e d s o f Commerce t e a c h e r s ? He b e l i e v e s t h a t t h e a n s w e r t o b o t h q u e s t i o n s s h o u l d be g i v e n i n t h e a f f i r m a t i v e , b u t he a l s o f e e l s t h a t some q u a l i f i c a t i o n s h o u l d be made. The r o l e o f Commerce c o u r s e s i n t h e s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s , t h e aims o f t h e Commerce programme, and t h e demands o f t h e c o u r s e c o n t e n t a l l show t h e n e e d f o r Commerce t e a c h e r s who r e g a r d t h e i r s u b j e c t m a t t e r a s means t o an end a s w e l l a s an e nd i n i t s e l f . S y m pathy w i t h t h e a i m s o f o t h e r s u b j e c t f i e l d s a n d an a p p r e c i a t i o n o f o u r c u l t u r a l e n v i r o n m e n t c a l l f o r a b r o a d g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n , y e t Commerce t e a c h e r s on t h e D o u b l e m a j o r h a v e o n l y t w e n t y - f o u r u n i t s o f g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n o u t o f t h e i r t o t a l d e g r e e r e q u i r e m e n t o f s e v e n t y - e i g h t u n i t s ; 99 twenty-four being required for their professional courses and thirty for their teaching competence. On a percentage basis, general education is allotted 30.8 per cent of the time; professional education, 30.8 per cent; and the teaching com-petence, 38.5 per cent. Adams1 found the averages for i n s t i -tutions accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools to be 39.1, 17.9, and 37.1 respectively. Comparisons of programme weighting are diff icult to make unless one knows the use made of elective time, the academic content of the professional courses, and the nature of the teaching competence. Yet there is enough discrepancy be-tween the 30.8 per cent allowed for professional courses by the British Columbia College of Education and the 17.9 per cent allowed by Southern universities to suggest that pro-fessional courses may be getting more than their fair share of student time in this province. Apart from any redistribution of time allotments, i t is possible to overcome the lack of general education by en-couraging students to take split majors along the lines indi-cated on the preceding page. Double majors could be reserved for students who have mastered their skills in high school. Fortunately, the same steps that wil l mitigate the shortcomings in general education wil l alleviate those in the teaching competence. The lack of a positive superiority •^ Adams, op_. c i t . 100 i n s k i l l s w i l l be o v e r c o m e i f more s t u d e n t s come t o u n i -v e r s i t y w i t h t h e s k i l l s a l r e a d y m a s t e r e d . The l a c k o f a b a c k g r o u n d f o r s o c i o - b u s i n e s s s u b j e c t s w i l l be o v e r c o m e i f s t u d e n t s c o m b i n e one Commerce m a j o r w i t h a s o c i a l s t u d i e s m a j o r . S p l i t t i n g o f m a j o r s w i l l h a v e t h e f u r t h e r a d v a n t a g e o f i n t e g r a t i n g s t u d e n t t e a c h e r s i n Commerce w i t h o t h e r t e a c h e r s - i n - t r a i n i n g . I t may be h o p e d t h a t f a m i l i a r i t y , f a r f r o m b r e e d i n g c o n t e m p t , may b r e e d u n d e r s t a n d i n g . B I B L I O G R A P H Y BIBLIOGRAPHY Alberta Department of Education. Regulations Governing  C e r t i f i c a t i o n of Teachers. Edmonton: The Queen's Pr i n t e r , 1954. B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Education. Annual Report: 1917-1$, V i c t o r i a : The King's Pr i n t e r , 1918. B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Education. Courses of Study  f o r the Elementary, High, Technical, and Normal'3cEools« VTctorTal The King's Pr i n t e r , 1923. B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Education. B u l l e t i n of the  Summer School of Education. V i c t o r i a : The Queen's Pri n t e r , 1955. D i v i s i o n of Curriculum, B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Edu-cation. Senior High School S o c i a l Studies, 1958. V i c t o r i a : The Queen's P r i n t e r . D i v i s i o n of Curriculum, B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Edu-cation. Commerce. 195$. V i c t o r i a : The Queen's Pr i n t e r . D i v i s i o n of Curriculum, B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Edu-cation. Administrative B u l l e t i n for Secondary Schools. V i c t o r i a : The Queen's Prin t e r , 1"75%. Saskatchewan Department of Education. Regulations Governing  Teachers' C e r t i f i c a t i o n . Regina: The Queen's Prin t e r , TWT. ~ ~~ The Calendar. Forty-fourth Session. 1958-59. Vancouver: The University of B r i t i s h Columbia. University of Oregon B u l l e t i n . 1958-59. Eugene: The Uni-v e r s i t y of Oregon. Announcement of the Faculty of Arts and Science. 1957-58. London, Ontario: The University of Western Ontario. Calendar. Ontario College of Education. 1957-58. Toronto: TTTe university ol ToronTToT — Edmonton: 103 College of Business Administration B u l l e t i n , 1957-59* Seattle: The University of Washington. Survey Summary Number 22. Willow Grove, Pennsylvania: T h e National Of f i c e Management Association, 1958. Gress, John J . Teaching D i f f i c u l t i e s of Beginning Business Teachers. Monograph 73. Cincinnati!": South-western Publishing Company, 1952. E n t e r l i n e , H. G. Trends of Thought i n Business Education, Monograph 72 . C i n c i n n a t i : South-Western Publishing Company, 1949. Bruce, Graham. "Business Education i n B r i t i s h Columbia." Unpublished Master's t h e s i s , The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, 1941 . Weeks? Harold L. "Organization, Administration, and Super-v i s i o n of Business Education i n B r i t i s h Columbia." Unpublished Doctoral thesis, Harvard University, Cambridge, 1943. Better Schooling f o r Canadian Youth, F i n a l Report. Toronto: The Canadian Research Committee on P r a c t i c a l Education, 1951. Adams? Lucy Rose. "An Analysis of the Pre-service Prepara-t i o n of Business Teachers i n I n s t i t u t i o n s Accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools." Unpublished Doctoral thesis, Ohio State University, 1957. The National Business Education  Quarterly. F a l l , 19W7 Hammond, N e l l i e May. "A Survey of the C e r t i f i c a t i o n Require-ments f o r High School Business Teachers E f f e c t i v e i n the Forty-eight States as of 1955. " Kansas State Teachers College, 1956. The National Business Education Quarterly . F a l l , 1957. ~~ Hogancamp, Thomas B. "A Comprehensive Analysis and Synthesis of Research Findings and Thoughts on Business Teacher Education" Unpublished Doctoral t h e s i s , Indiana Univer-s i t y , Bloomington, 1957. The National Business Education Quarterly. F a l l , 1953. — Tonne, Herbert A. P r i n c i p l e s of Business Education. New York: The Gregg Fublishing~Company, 1W7~. 104 Tyler, Leona E. The Psychology of Human Differences, New York: D. Appleton-Century Company, Inc., 1947 Walters, R. G, and Nolan, C. A. Pr i n c i p l e s and Problems  of Business Education. Cincinnati: South-Western Publishing Company, 1950, B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Education, Form K Organiza-t i o n a l Reports from Secondary Schools B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Education, Mimeographed l i s t of course enrolments. A P P E N D I X APPENDIX A CERT I F I C A T I O N REQUIREMENTS I . B R I T I S H COLUMBIA REGULATIONS - 1923 H i g h S c h o o l A s s i s t a n t C o m m e r c i a l T e a c h e r ' s C e r t i f i c a t e ( I n t e r i m ) C a n d i d a t e s who h o l d a n A c a d e m i c C e r t i f i c a t e o r a F i r s t - c l a s s t e a c h e r ' s C e r t i f i c a t e o f t h i s P r o v i n c e , o r i t s e q u i v a l e n t , a n d who h a v e p a s s e d t h e e x a m i n a t i o n s s e t b y t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n on t h e s u b j e c t s s p e c i f i e d h e r e u n d e r , w i l l be g r a n t e d a H i g h S c h o o l A s s i s t a n t C o m m e r c i a l T e a c h e r ' s C e r t i f i c a t e ( I n t e r i m ) . S t e n o g r a p h y Theory-S t e n o g r a p h y P r a c t i c e - t h e w r i t i n g f r o m d i c t a t i o n , i n I s a a c P i t m a n S h o r t h a n d , a t a s p e e d o f n o t l e s s t h a n e i g h t y w o r d s p e r m i n u t e f r o m m a t t e r h a v i n g a s y l l a b i c i n t e n s i t y o f 1.5 w i t h t y p e w r i t t e n t r a n s c r i p t a t a r a t e o f n o t l e s s t h a n t w e l v e w o r d s p e r m i n u t e . T y p e w r i t i n g T h e o r y a n d P r a c t i c e - t h e m e c h a n i s m a n d m a n i p u l a t i o n o f t h e s t a n d a r d m a c h i n e s , w i t h a b i l i t y t o w r i t e a t a r a t e o f a t l e a s t f o r t y w o r d s p e r m i n u t e f o r t e n o r more m i n u t e s f r o m s t a n d a r d t e s t m a t e r i a l . B o o k k e e p i n g T h e o r y B o o k k e e p i n g P r a c t i c e B u s i n e s s a n d S t a t u t e Law P e n m a n s h i p C o m m e r c i a l A r i t h m e t i c E c o n o m i c s a n d E c o n o m i c G e o g r a p h y C o m m e r c i a l S p e c i a l i s t ' s C e r t i f i c a t e ( P e r m a n e n t ) C a n d i d a t e s who h o l d H i g h S c h o o l A s s i s t a n t C o m m e r c i a l T e a c h e r ' s C e r t i f i c a t e s p a s s t h e e x a m i n a t i o n s s e t by t h e D e p a r t -ment o n a n y f o u r o f t h e s u b j e c t s s p e c i f i e d h e r e u n d e r w i l l ; , b e g r a n t e d a C o m m e r c i a l S p e c i a l i s t ' s C e r t i f i c a t e f o r t h i s P r o -v i n c e . A u d i t i n g B u s i n e s s F i n a n c e O f f i c e P r a c t i c e a n d B u s i n e s s O r g a n i z a t i o n 107 History of Commerce and Industry Commercial Correspondence and Filing Commercial French or Commercial Spanish Shorthand - a speed of at least 120 words per minute from matter having an intensity of 1.5 syllables. Typewriting - a speed of sixty words per minute from standard test material. Two Years' Approved Business Experience. II . BRITISH COLUMBIA REGULATIONS - 1937 Assistant Commercial Teacher's Certificate Prerequisite: First-class or Academic Certificate Requirements: Stenography (Theory and Methods) Stenography (Practice and Speed) Typewriting (Theory and Methods) Typewriting (Practice) Bookkeeping (Theory and Methods) Bookkeeping (Practice) ~ Business Law (Economics 17 and IB) Correspondence and Filing Commercial Arithmetic Economics (Economics 1) Commercial Specialist Certificate Prerequisites: Assistant Commercial Teacher's Certificate Academic Certificate or First-class Certificate with a minimum of two years in Arts. Requirements: Accounting Office Routine, Business Forms, and Secretarial Practice Economic Geography (Economics 10) Money and Banking (Economics 4) B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Education, Courses of Study for the Elementary. High, Technical, and Normal ScHools  of British Columbia. (Victoria: The King's Printer, 1923), pp. 74-77. 2 Numbered courses in the 1937 regulations refer to University of British Columbia courses allowed as alternates to Departmental courses or examinations. 108 Economic History (Economics 2 or Senior Matriculation Economic History), or Corporation Economics (Economics 7), or International Trade and T a r i f f P o l i c y (Economics 6), or Mathematics of Investment (Mathematics 3 ) . 0 I I I . FOUR-YEAR UNIVERSITY PROGRAMME PROPOSED BY WEEKS F i r s t Semester Second Semester F i r s t Year Subject Philosophy of Education Economics E l e c t i v e Subject Educational Psychology A business s k i l l (type-writing, bookkeeping, short-hand, salesmanship, c l e r i c a l ) E l e c t i v e Second Year School Administration and Law Economic Geography E l e c t i v e History of Education Business Law El e c t i v e Third Year Business Organization and Management Vocational Guidance E l e c t i v e Methods i n Teaching S k i l l Subjects Tests and Measurements E l e c t i v e Fourth Year Methods of Teaching General Business Subjects General Business and Junior Business Practice Teaching Problems and Issues i n Business Education Administration and Supervision of Business Education Practice Teaching I t w i l l be noted immediately that no provision has been made here f o r the t r a i n i n g of those persons who w i l l be en-gaged i n the teaching of vocational business subjects. It can re a d i l y be seen that there i s i n s u f f i c i e n t time available i n a four-year programme f o r such t r a i n i n g . Provision must be made for so many subjects that are completely new to the teach-ing candidate. He must receive a l l the t r a i n i n g that i s ' B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Education, C e r t i f i c a t i o n of Teachers. ( V i c t o r i a : The King's Pr i n t e r , 1940), p. 11. 109 afforded the academic teacher. T h i s alone could q u i t e e a s i l y be spread over a four-year p e r i o d without i n v o l v i n g any waste of time or e f f o r t . In a d d i t i o n to t h i s , however, the prospective commercial teacher must be equipped w i t h at l e a s t one business s k i l l and must be prepared to teach that s k i l l . He must, as w e l l , secure a c e r t a i n business background and be informed on the p r o f e s s i o n a l aspects of h i s work. A l l these must be f i t t e d somehow i n t o an already crowded four-year program. A f i f t h year could be u t i l i z e d to great advantage but the request f o r an extra year would not be regarded favourably by any i n s t i t u t i o n already operating four-year programs l e a d i n g to the bachelor degree. I V . B R I T I S H COLUMBIA REGULATIONS - 1955 Secondary C o n d i t i o n a l - Commercial (S-C) Requirements 1. A B r i t i s h Columbia Permanent F i r s t C l a s s or Academic C e r t i f i c a t e . 2. Second-year standing at a u n i v e r s i t y recognized by the Department of Education, i n c l u d i n g at l e a s t two o f the f o l l o w i n g courses: Economic H i s t o r y Tic. 100), P r i n c i p l e s of Economics (Ec. 200), Human and Economic Geography (Geog. 201), Funda-mentals of Accounting (Comm. 151). 3. F i f t e e n u n i t s of c r e d i t here p r e s c r i b e d . T r a i n i n g 1. Two and a h a l f u n i t s of c r e d i t f o r approved courses i n each of the f o l l o w i n g f i e l d s : (a) Bookkeeping P r a c t i c e (626) (b) General Business and Business Law (62$ and 628A or 634) 2. One and a quarter u n i t s of c r e d i t f o r approved courses i n each of the f o l l o w i n g f i e l d s : (a) Typewriting P r a c t i c e (624) (b) Typewriting: Teaching Procedures (623) jc) A p plied Typewriting (627) (d) Bookkeeping Teaching Procedures (625) (e) Correspondence and F i l i n g (629) (f) Commercial A r i t h m e t i c (630) 3. C r e d i t f o r one of the f o l l o w i n g u n i v e r s i t y courses not p r e v i o u s l y taken: Economic H i s t o r y (Ec. 100), P r i n c i p l e s of Economics (Ec. 200), Human and Economic Geography (Geog. 201), Fundamentals of Accounting (Comm. 151), Business Finance (Comm. 371). % e e k s , on. c i t . , pp. 248-249. 110 Secondary Basic - Commercial (S-B)  Requirements 1. A Secondary Conditional Commercial c e r t i f i c a t e . 2. F i f t e e n units of credit here prescribed. Training 1. Two and a half units of credit i n approved courses i n each of the following f i e l d s : (a) Philosophy and Methods of Secondary Education (100) (Note—The following courses offered by the University of B r i t i s h Columbia w i l l be accepted i n place of Summer School of Education Course 100: E. 522 and Ed. 560; or one of Ed. 522 and Ed. 560, plus one of Ed. 532, Ed. 512, Ed. 509.) (b) Stenography (Pitman): Theory and Teaching Methods (620). (c) Stenography (Pitman): Practice and Speed (62l). (Note—Teachers with the old Assistant Commer-c i a l c e r t i f i c a t e w i l l substitute for courses 620 and 621 two of the following second-year university courses: Economic History (Ec. 100), Pr i n c i p l e s of Economics (Ec. 200), Human and Economic Geography (Geog. 201).) 2. One and a quarter units of credit i n approved courses i n each of the following: (a) Office Routine, Business Forms, and S e c r e t a r i a l Practice (633). (b) Business Machines (631). 3. Summer School or approved university courses i n two of the following: (a) Fundamentals of Accounting (632, Comm. 151). (b) Money and Banking (Ec. 300). (c) Business Finance (Comm 371). (d) International Trade and T a r i f f s (Ec. 310). (e) Mathematics of Investment (Math. 201). (fj R e t a i l Marketing (Comm. 363). (g) Elementary S t a t i s t i c a l Analysis (Math. 205). OR A B r i t i s h Columbia F i r s t Class or Academic c e r t i f i c a t e . A degree i n Commerce from a university recognized by the Department of Education. Approved courses i n the following f i e l d s : Two and a half units i n each of: (a) Typewriting Practice (624). (b) Stenography (Pitman): Theory and Methods (620). (c) Stenography (Pitman): Practice and Speed (621). 1. 2. 3. I l l One a n d a q u a r t e r u n i t s i n e a c h o f : (a) T y p e w r i t i n g M e t h o d s (623). (b) E l e m e n t a r y B o o k k e e p i n g : T e a c h i n g M e t h o d s (625). -(c) C o r r e s p o n d e n c e a n d F i l i n g (629). (d) O f f i c e R o u t i n e , B u s i n e s s F o r m s , a nd S e c r e t a r i a l P r a c t i c e (633). (e) A p p l i e d T y p e w r i t i n g (627).' V. B R I T I S H COLUMBIA COLLEGE OF EDUCATION PROGRAMME - 1959 T h i s i s t h e s t a n d a r d programme d e s i g n e d f o r t h e t r a i n -i n g o f s e c o n d a r y t e a c h e r s . I t c o n s i s t s o f a t o t a l o f 7$ u n i t s , E v e r y s t u d e n t i s r e q u i r e d e i t h e r t o m a j o r i n two s u b j e c t s o r d i n a r i l y t a u g h t i n h i g h s c h o o l o r t o t a k e a n H o n o u r s C o u r s e i n one s u c h s u b j e c t . I n e a c h m a j o r , i n a d d i t i o n t o p r e -r e q u i s i t e c o u r s e s , a t l e a s t 15 u n i t s must be t a k e n , 9 o f w h i c h m u s t be f r o m s e n i o r y e a r s . A c a n d i d a t e who e l e c t s t o t a k e a n H o n o u r s C o u r s e i n one t e a c h i n g f i e l d must be p r e p a r e d t o com-p l e t e 84 u n i t s f o r t h e d e g r e e . F i r s t Y e a r U n i t s E n g l i s h 100, 101 H i s t o r y 102 Two o f M a t h e m a t i c s 101, 120, f i r s t y e a r s c i e n c e c o u r s e , f i r s t y e a r l a n g u a g e o t h e r t h a n E n g l i s h F i n e A r t s 101 o r P h i l o s o p h y 100 o r P s y c h o l o g y 100, o r M u s i c 120, o r n e e d e d p r e r e q u i s i t e s C o m p u l s o r y P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n 3 3 S e c o n d Y e a r E d u c a t i o n 200 E n g l i s h 200 N i n e o r 12 u n i t s i n A r t s , S c i e n c e , Commerce, A g r i c u l t u r e , Home E c o n o m i c s , o r P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n t o c o m p l e t e a n y o m i t t e d c o u r s e s o f t h e F i r s t Y e a r a n d t o c o m p l e t e p r e -r e q u i s i t e s o r t o commence w o r k i n t e a c h i n g m a j o r s C o m p u l s o r y P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n E d u c a t i o n 298 ( O b s e r v a t i o n a n d P r a c t i c e T e a c h i n g ) T h i r d Y e a r 3 0 U n i t s 3 3 9-12 0 0 U n i t s E d u c a t i o n 301 i n c l u d i n g a s e m i n a r l a b o r a t o r y programme 3 C o u r s e s r e q u i r e d f o r m a j o r s o r H o n o u r s 15 ^ D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n , B u l l e t i n o f t h e Summer S c h o o l  o f E d u c a t i o n , ( V i c t o r i a : The Queen's P r i n t e r , 1955) pp.58-65. 112 F o u r t h Y e a r E n g l i s h 300 ( C o m p o s i t i o n ) o r l a n g u a g e o t h e r t h a n E n g l i s h E d u c a t i o n 404 ( C u r r i c u l u m a n d I n s t r u c t i o n ) i n one s u b j e c t a r e a E d u c a t i o n 435 ( I n t r o d u c t i o n t o E v a l u a t i o n ) M a j o r s o r H o n o u r s E d u c a t i o n 498 ( O b s e r v a t i o n a n d P r a c t i c u m ) F i f t h Y e a r U n i t s lk lh 9-12 0 E d u c a t i o n 332 ( A d o l e s c e n t P s y c h o l o g y ) E d u c a t i o n 400 ( S u r v e y o f E d u c a t i o n a l T h o u g h t ) E d u c a t i o n 403 ( G u i d a n c e S e r v i c e s ) E d u c a t i o n 404 ( s e e F o u r t h Y e a r ) E d u c a t i o n 410 ( A d m i n i s t r a t i o n ) E d u c a t i o n E l e c t i v e 5 E d u c a t i o n 499 ( O b s e r v a t i o n a n d P r a c t i c u m ) U n i t s 3 k l l 3 3 0 N o t e : C o u r s e s r e q u i r e d f o r Commerce m a j o r s a r e l i s t e d o n p a g e s 83 a n d 84.of t h i s s t u d y . °The C a l e n d a r . F o r t y - f i f t h S e s s i o n . ( V a n c o u v e r : The U n i v e r s i " E y ~ o i ' B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1959) , PP 336, 337. APPENDIX B COMMERCE COURSES I N B R I T I S H COLUMBIA HIGH SCHOOLS A c o m p l i c a t i n g f a c t o r i n t h e p r o b l e m o f t r a i n i n g Com-merce t e a c h e r s i s t h e number a n d v a r i e t y o f c o u r s e s t h e y may be r e q u i r e d t o t e a c h . B e c a u s e t h e y a r e r e f e r r e d t o f r o m t i m e t o t i m e i n t h e t e x t o f t h i s r e p o r t , i t seems w i s e t o a p p e n d a. b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n a n d commentary on e a c h c o u r s e . R e c o r d - k e e p i n g (Co 1 1 ) R e c o r d - k e e p i n g was d e s i g n e d t o p r o v i d e t r a i n i n g f o r r o u t i n e o p e r a t i o n s i n t h e b o o k k e e p i n g a n d c l e r i c a l f i e l d s . I t s t r e s s e s a c c u r a c y a n d s p e e d i n t h a t t y p e o f r e p e t i t i v e o p e r a t i o n common t o j u n i o r o f f i c e p o s i t i o n s . C o n s i d e r a b l e a r i t h m e t i c a l p r a c t i c e i s i n v o l v e d ; some c o n t e n t t e a c h i n g i s r e q u i r e d t o g i v e t h e b a c k g r o u n d o f t h e o p e r a t i o n s . No one c o u l d h o n e s t l y c l a i m t h a t R e c o r d - k e e p i n g w i l l c h a l l e n g e t h e b r i g h t e r p u p i l u n l e s s he n e e d s t o l e a r n c o n -t i n u e d a t t e n t i o n t o a r o u t i n e t a s k . The c o u n s e l l o r s h o u l d e n c o u r a g e l o w e r - a b i l i t y p u p i l s t o t a k e t h e c o u r s e . I f t h e y l e a v e b e f o r e c o m p l e t i n g G r a d e X, t h e y w i l l h a v e some t r a i n i n g f o r a j u n i o r p o s i t i o n a n d some u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f b u s i n e s s p r o c e d u r e s . I f t h e y c o n t i n u e t o Co 2 4 a n d Co 3 4 , some o f t h e g r o u n d w i l l h a v e b e e n p r e p a r e d f o r t h e m , a n d t h e y w i l l h a v e a b e t t e r c h a n c e o f h o l d i n g t h e i r own w i t h b r i g h t e r c l a s s m a t e s . Some t e a c h e r s h a v e m i s u n d e r s t o o d t h e p u r p o s e o f t h e R e c o r d - k e e p i n g c o u r s e a n d h a v e t r e a t e d i t a s a p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r B o o k k e e p i n g 3 4 . S u c h a p r o c e d u r e d e f e a t s t h e p u r p o s e o f t h e B o o k k e e p i n g c o u r s e a l s o : i t i s d e s i r a b l e t h a t b e t t e r p u p i l s be a b l e t o e n t e r i t w i t h o u t h a v i n g h a d R e c o r d - k e e p i n g . T y p e w r i t i n g (Co 1 0 ) T h i s i s t h e b e g i n n e r ' s c o u r s e i n T y p e w r i t i n g . No d i s -t i n c t i o n i s made b e t w e e n p u p i l s who t a k e t h e c o u r s e f o r p e r -s o n a l u s e a n d t h o s e who p l a n t o c o n t i n u e w i t h more a d v a n c e d w o r k . A l l a r e e x p e c t e d t o make a minimum s p e e d o f 2 4 w o r d s p e r m i n u t e , b u t t h e b e t t e r p u p i l s a c h i e v e s p e e d s o f 5 0 w o r d s p e r m i n u t e o r m o r e . 114 Typewriting 10 i s the most popular of a l l Commerce courses. I t i s b a s i c to f u r t h e r t r a i n i n g i n Commerce and i t i s h i g h l y regarded by p u p i l s as a personal-use course. P u p i l s f i n d the i n f o r m a l i t y of the classroom and the mech-a n i c a l nature of the work a welcome break between two periods of academic study. Typewriting (Co 20) The second year of t y p e w r i t i n g i s designed to develop f u r t h e r the speed and mastery of t y p e w r i t i n g o p e rations. P u p i l s are expected to increase t h e i r , speed from a minimum of 24 words per minute to 40 words per minute, but most of the growth should be devoted to a p p l i c a t i o n s of t h e i r s k i l l to a v a r i e t y of set-up work. Most p u p i l s who take Co 20 have v o c a t i o n a l aims, those t a k i n g t y p e w r i t i n g f o r personal use being content as a r u l e w i t h one year's t r a i n i n g . Business Fundamentals (Co 24) Business Fundamentals i s the base of the general-know-]e.dge pyramid i n business j u s t as Typewriting 10 i s the base of -the s k i l l pyramid. I f p r o p e r l y taught, i t w i l l help p u p i l s to understand the means by which business attempts to supply the p u b l i c ' s needs and the problems i t encounters i n so doing. Business Fundamentals should be a complement to the s k i l l s u b jects taken i n Grades XI and X I I ; i t should pro-vide the vocabulary and background necessary f o r the best u t i l i z a t i o n of those s k i l l s . The personal-use value of the course may be e x t e n s i v e , d e a l i n g as i t does w i t h such t o p i c s as land ownership, mort-gages, personal f i n a n c e , insurance, personal savings, and investments. Bookkeeping (Co 34) The f i r s t year of formal bookkeeping, u s u a l l y given i n Grade X I , covers the double-entry c y c l e and a l l the bookkeeping theory any ,high-school graduate i s l i k e l y to need f o r s e v e r a l years on h i s f i r s t job. Bookkeeping (Co 91) Co 24, 34, and 91 taken i n sequence, c o n s t i t u t e a major f o r u n i v e r s i t y entrance. Much of the work taken i n Co 91 i s t h e o r e t i c a l and c a l l s f o r a type of t h i n k i n g above the l e v e l 115 of many job-minded general-programme pupils. The course might better serve superior pupils who plan university careers i n Commerce or who expect to a r t i c l e as students i n accounting o f f i c e s . Other pupils should be accepted only on the basis of i n t e r e s t and a b i l i t y . Shorthand (Co 21) The f i r s t year of shorthand may be given i n Grade X, but i t i s frequently postponed u n t i l Grade XI. Co 21 covers the theory of Pitman shorthand: some d i c t a t i o n s k i l l may be achieved on a l i m i t e d vocabulary, but as a rule no marketable s k i l l i s obtained i n one year. Shorthand (Co 31) The second year of shorthand extends the pupil's short-hand vocabulary and gives him (more often her) the a b i l i t y to take d i c t a t i o n at 60-80 words per minute. Most business men do not dictate beyond those speeds, but a stenographer with such l i m i t e d s k i l l has no reserve and may lack confidence i n her work. S e c r e t a r i a l Practice (Co 92) The twin s k i l l s of shorthand and typewriting must be integrated to be e f f e c t i v e . S e c r e t a r i a l Practice 92 i s intend-ed to do that while consolidating and extending the separate s k i l l s . S e c r e t a r i a l Practice 92 may be used as a major f o r uni-v e r s i t y . I t i s an "expensive" major i n terms of credits f o r a l l of the prerequisites are e l e c t i v e courses and must be taken on e l e c t i v e time. S e c r e t a r i a l Practice (Co 93) This course i s a further development of S e c r e t a r i a l Prac-t i c e 9 2 , c a l l i n g f o r s t i l l higher s k i l l s . Most university-entrance pupils go no farther than the 92 course, but general-programme pupils who are going d i r e c t l y to o f f i c e employment f i n d the extra year of t r a i n i n g useful. 1 116 O f f i c e P r a c t i c e (Go 44) T h i s c o u r s e i s d e s i g n e d a s a c o m p a n i o n c o u r s e t o S e c r e t a r i a l P r a c t i c e 9 2 . I t i s i n t e n d e d t o g i v e t h e p u p i l s a p i c t u r e o f t h e o f f i c e s i t u a t i o n i n w h i c h t h e y e x p e c t t o wo r k a n d t o f a m i l i a r i z e them w i t h many o f t h e d u t i e s t h e y w i l l be e x p e c t e d t o p e r f o r m . I t i n c l u d e s u n i t s o n : w o r k o f t h e r e c e p t i o n i s t , o f f i c e o r g a n i z a t i o n , f i l i n g , e mployment p r a c t i c e s , s o u r c e s o f b u s i n e s s i n f o r m a t i o n , a n d a p p l i e d t y p e -w r i t i n g . I f m a c h i n e s a r e a v a i l a b l e , p u p i l s a r e a l s o t r a i n e d t o u s e d u p l i c a t i n g m a c h i n e s a n d t r a n s c r i b i n g m a c h i n e s . C l e r i c a l P r a c t i c e (Co 32 a n d 42) T h e s e two c o u r s e s a r e o f f e r e d i n G r a d e s X I a n d X I I r e s p e c t i v e l y . T h e y o f f e r t r a i n i n g on t h e t y p e w r i t e r b e y o n d Co 20 f o r p u p i l s who do n o t t a k e s h o r t h a n d . E m p h a s i s i s p l a c e d on c l e r i c a l t a s k s , f i l i n g , p a y r o l l w o r k , a n d i n v o i c i n g . B u s i n e s s M a c h i n e s P r a c t i c e (Co 39) Few s c h o o l s a r e e q u i p p e d w i t h enough m a c h i n e s t o g i v e t h i s c o u r s e , a n d u n t i l r e c e n t l y t h e r e was no r e a s o n t o o f f e r i t o u t s i d e t h e V a n c o u v e r a r e a . The c o u r s e c a l l s f o r i n s t r u c -t i o n o n t e n - k e y a n d f u l l - k e y b o a r d a d d i n g m a c h i n e s , k e y - d r i v e n c a l c u l a t o r s , r o t a r y - t y p e c a l c u l a t o r s , p o s t i n g m a c h i n e s , a n d d u p l i c a t i n g m a c h i n e s . I t i n v o l v e s a n i n v e s t m e n t o f a b o u t $ 1 0 , 0 0 0 f o r e q u i p m e n t . The c o u r s e h a s a t r e m e n d o u s a p p e a l f o r p u p i l s a n d i t s e r v e s two p u r p o s e s b e s i d e s g i v i n g them some m e a s u r e o f s k i l l . I n t h e f i r s t p l a c e i t r e v i v e s m a t h e m a t i c a l s k i l l s , i n t h e s e c o n d i t t e a c h e s t h e p u p i l t h e f u n c t i o n o f e a c h m a c h i n e i n t h e o f f i c e . T h e r e i s d a n g e r , h o w e v e r , t h a t g i r l s p l a n n i n g s e c r e t a r i a l c a r e e r s may be won away f r o m s u c h v a l u a b l e b a c k -g r o u n d c o u r s e s a s Law o r E c o n o m i c s by t h e " s i r e n c a l l " o f t h e k e y s a n d w h i r r i n g m o t o r s . R e t a i l i n g P r a c t i c e (Co 33 and 43) O n l y two s c h o o l s i n t h e p r o v i n c e o f f e r e d R e t a i l S e l l i n g i n t h e 1 9 5 7 - 5 $ t e r m : B u r n a b y S o u t h a n d C o w i c h a n . C o u r s e s h a v e b e e n o f f e r e d i n t h e p a s t , w i t h c o n s i d e r a b l e s u c c e s s , a t P o r t A l b e r n i a n d V a n c o u v e r T e c h n i c a l S c h o o l . T h r e e ' f a c t o r s a r e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e n e g l e c t o f R e t a i l S e l l i n g : t h e d i f f i c u l t y o f f i n d i n g c o m p e t e n t a n d e n t h u s i a s t i c t e a c h e r s ; t h e t r a d i t i o n a l f e e l i n g o f p a r e n t s t h a t " b e h i n d - t h e -c o u n t e r " w o r k i s b e n e a t h t h e d i g n i t y o f t h e i r c h i l d r e n ; a n d t h e s p l i n t e r i n g e f f e c t t h a t r e d u c e s t e a c h i n g g r o u p s t o u n e c o n -o m i c s i z e i n a l l b u t t h e l a r g e s t s c h o o l s . 117 E c o n o m i c s ( E c 9 2 ) T h i s e l e m e n t a r y o u t l i n e o f e c o n o m i c s i s now one o f s e v e r a l c o u r s e s t h a t may be t a k e n i n p l a c e o f E u r o p e a n H i s -t o r y f o r a S o c i a l S t u d i e s m a j o r . Much o f t h e c o n t e n t i s t o o a b s t r a c t a n d t h e o r e t i c a l t o be r e a d i l y a p p r e c i a t e d b y some o f t h e g e n e r a l - p r o g r a m m e p u p i l s , a n d t h e t e a c h e r w i t h a w i d e r a n g e o f t a l e n t s i n h i s c l a s s i s c a l l e d u p o n t o accom-p l i s h a d i f f i c u l t t a s k . Law 9 3 Law i s a l s o a c c e p t a b l e a s a S o c i a l S t u d i e s m a j o r a n d , when o f f e r e d , a t t r a c t s a n d h o l d s some o f t h e b e s t m i n d s i n t h e s c h o o l . I n t h e w r i t e r * s e x p e r i e n c e t h e c o u r s e h o l d s more i n t e r e s t f o r t h e a v e r a g e p u p i l t h a n d o e s E c 9 2 . T h i s c o u r s e , b e s i d e s o f f e r i n g p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r t r a i n i n g i n - - c i t i z e n s h i p a n d p r a c t i c e i n l o g i c a l t h i n k i n g , i s a w o n d e r f u l v o c a b u l a r y b u i l d e r . A p p l i e d E n g l i s h ( E n 9 3 ) The c o u r s e i n A p p l i e d E n g l i s h c o m b i n e s w o r k i n t h e m e c h a n i c s o f w r i t t e n a n d o r a l E n g l i s h w i t h t h e t e c h n i q u e s o f b u s i n e s s c o r r e s p o n d e n c e , s e c r e t a r y s h i p , a n d r e p o r t w r i t i n g . A p p l i e d E n g l i s h may be u s e d a s a g r a d u a t i o n m a j o r b y g e n e r a l programme p u p i l s u n d e r a l l c i r c u m s t a n c e s ; b y u n i v e r s i t y - p r o -gramme p u p i l s who a r e a l s o u s i n g S e c r e t a r i a l P r a c t i c e a s a m a j o r . APPENDIX C UNIVERSITY COURSE OUTLINES COMMERCE 376 - PERSONAL AND BUSINESS FINANCI Course O u t l i n e Summer Session - 1953 Topics J u l y 7-11 Our monetary system and the plan-ning of personal f i n a n c e s ; c r e a t i o n of bank c r e d i t ; The Bank of Canada; the chartered banks; n e g o t i a b l e instruments; banking s e r v i c e s . J u l y 14-16 General insurance: determination of r a t e s ; automobile insurance; personal-property insurance; per-sonal l i a b i l i t y . J u l y 16-22 A n n u i t i e s ; teachers' pensions. L i f e insurance: determining r a t e s ; m o r t a l i t y t a b l e s ; l e v e l premiums and l e g a l r e s e r v e s ; types of con-t r a c t s ; c o n t r a c t p r o v i s i o n s ; adapting insurance t o personal needs; insurance as an investment. Readings Hanson & Cohen, Ch. 5 Bruce, Heywood, Aber-crombie, Ch. IV and V, a l s o pp. 190-191. Anger (Summary of Cana-dian Law) - Ch. VI, V I I , V I I I . Pamphlets: Workbook on Bank Deposits; You, Money, and P r o s p e r i t y . Hanson & Cohen, Ch. 9 Bruce, et a l , Ch. I I I . Jennings (Canadian Law) pp. 202-209 Insurance Act, B. C. Hanson & Cohen, Ch. 7 Teachers' Pension Act,B.C, Hanson & Cohen, Ch. 8 L i f e Insurance - A Canadian Handbook. L i f e Insurance and L i f e Insurance T i p s t e r s . The Story of L i f e Insurance. 119 Topics Readings July 23-25 Corporate organization: legal Anger, Ch. XVI status of the limited company; B. C. Companies Act formation; management and control; R.S.B.C. 194$ and amend-sources of corporate capital; common ments. stocks and preferred stocks; bonds and debentures. July 2$ Mid-term examination July 29 - August 1 Investments: social significance, personal significance; general investment principles; bonds, pre-ferred shares; common shares; evaluating corporate securities; security investment plans. Hanson & Cohen, Ch. 12, 13, 14, 15 How to Read a Financial Report. Home Study Course - How to Invest Your Money in Bonds and Stocks. August 4 Business ownership as an invest-ment; real estate as an investment. August 5-6 . Personal finance, consumer credit; true interest rates; conditional sales. August 7-9 Home ownership: selection of site; zoning; safeguarding t i t l e ; appraisal factors for a completed home; the building contract. Financing: mortgages; second mortgages; agreements of sale and purchase. Hanson & Cohen, Ch. 16. Summary of Canadian Com-mercial Law, Ch. XV. Hanson & Cohen, Ch. 3, 6. Conditional Sales Act, B.C. Interest Act, Canada. Small Loans Act, Canada. Easy Credit Can Be Tough. Sales Financing and Better Living. Hanson & Cohen, Ch. 10. Bruce, et a l . , Ch. I. M. H. A. Loans for Homes Land Registry Act, B. C. Mechanics Lien Act, B. C. Mortgages Act, B. C. 120 Topics Readings August 11-12 The family budget: techniques of preparation and control. August 13-15 Wills; intestate succession; succession dues; the proposed new estates tax. August 18-19 Reports and evaluation of teaching units prepared as term projects. Ch. 1, 2. XIII, Hanson & Cohen, Ch Bruce, et a l . , Ch. IX, X. Hanson & Cohen, Ch. 17. Wills Act, B. C. Descent of Property, B. C, Commorientes, B. C. Succession Dues, Canada. Anger, Ch. XVIII, XIX. COMMERCE 391 - OFFICE MANAGEMENT Topical Outline - 1957-58 The prime objective of this course is to acquaint the teacher with the environment in which his students plan to work. It should give him a detailed picture of the organiza-tion of which the junior employee is a part; indicate the ski l l s , knowledge, and attitudes required in that organization; and show the teacher how to maintain continuous contact with office managers so that his information wil l keep pace with new developments. Fifteen hours of laboratory time for business machines practice will be required as a supplement to the lectures. Field trips involving the study of two offices wil l con-stitute the term assignments. Instructions for the a ssignments wil l be given later in the term. Text: Neuner and Haynes, Office Management (Third Edition) South-Western Publishing Company, Cincinnati. Week Topics 1 Role of the office manager Functions of the office Principles of management and the office Liaison between the school and office 2 Physical plant Furniture and equipment 3 Job analysis, description, specification, classification 4 Selection of employees: recruiting, screening, testing, placement 5 Induction and training Preparation of manuals 6 Supervision: maintenance of morale and discipline, standard output 7 Pay and promotion: merit rating, fringe benefits Union organization in the office 3 Labour legislation: Labour Relations Act 9 Labour legislation: Minimum Wage Act Apprenticeship Act Holidays with Pay Act Semi-monthly Payment of Wages Act 10 Labour legislation: Workmen's Compensation Act Unemployment Insurance Act 11 December examination 12 Organization and control of corres-pondence; dictating equipment; the mailing room 13 Communication: letter forms and letter-writing c l inic . Paper qualities, sizes, costs 14 Internal communication: equipment 1$ Records management: f i l i n g systems 121 Reading Ch. 1, 2 Ch. 3, 4, 5, 6 Ch. 10 Ch. 11 Ch. 12, 24 Ch. 14, 15, 16 Ch. 13 Statute Statutes Statutes Ch. 17, 13, 22 Ch. 19 Ch. 20 Ch. 19 1 2 2 Week T o p i c s R e a d i n g s 1 6 D e s i g n , u s e , and c o n t r o l o f o f f i c e Ch. 23 f o r m s 1 7 D u p l i c a t i n g s y s t e m s : c o m p a r a t i v e c o s t s Ch. 2 1 18 O f f i c e c o s t s a nd b u d g e t a r y c o n t r o l ; Ch. 2 5 , 2 6 , r e p o r t s t o management 28 1 9 Work s i m p l i f i c a t i o n ; p r o c e d u r a l a n a l y s i s Ch. 2 7 2 0 A c c o u n t s r e c e i v a b l e s y s t e m s ; a p p l i c a t i o n s o f e q u i p m e n t ; o p e r a t i o n s o f e q u i p m e n t . 2 1 A c c o u n t s p a y a b l e s y s t e m s : p u r c h a s i n g a n d r e c e i v i n g p r o c e d u r e s 2 2 P a y r o l l s y s t e m s ; t i m e k e e p i n g p r o c e d u r e s ; p a y r o l l d e d u c t i o n s 2 3 I n v e n t o r y c o n t r o l ; s t o c k - t a k i n g p r o c e d u r e s ; p e r p e t u a l i n v e n t o r i e s 2 4 O f f i c e e q u i p m e n t a nd m a c h i n e s ; c o s t s i n C h . 7 r e l a t i o n t o 25 F i n a l e x a m i n a t i o n 

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