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An investigation of the relationship between some motivational factors and academic achievement Craig, Kenneth Denton 1960

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AN INVESTIGATION OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SOME MOTIVATIONAL FACTORS AND ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT by KENNETH DENTON CRAIG B.A., S i r George Williams College, 1958 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in the Department of Psychology We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard. THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA May, I960 In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y available f o r reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It i s understood that copying or publication of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of Psychology  The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver $, Canada. Date -Hay, 28, I960 AN INVESTIGATION INTO THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SOME MOTIVATIONAL FACTORS AND ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT Abstract This study was an attempt te determine the r e l a t i o n -ship between the reasons which students ascribe to them-selves for attending u n i v e r s i t y and subsequent academic achievement. The study was exploratory and assumed that self-ascribed reasons were tentative indicators of student motivation for achievement. The p r i n c i p a l reasons for attending u n i v e r s i t y which students ascribe to themselves and a t t r i b u t e to others were determined by administering a preliminary question-naire to 133 f i r s t year students at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia and then grouping the students 1 responses according to s i m i l a r i t y . F i f t e e n representative reasons resulted from this grouping. A paired comparison questionnaire was constructed and administered to I 6 3 f i r s t year students of close to median i n t e l l e c t u a l a b i l i t y , as measured by the Cooperative School and College A b i l i t y Test from the Faculty of Arts and Science. For purposes of analysis, students i n the sample were c l a s s i f i e d into subgroups according to: (1) level of academic achievement; and ( 2 ) sex. Average rank orders of the p r i n c i p a l reasons were derived for each group. Differences were not found between the average rank orders of subgroups representing d i f f e r e n t levels of achievement, nor were differences found between males and females, thus indicating that variations in s e l f - a s c r i b e d reasons did not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e l e v e l s of academic achievement. A further individual analysis of each p r i n c i p a l rea-son: indicated that one of the reasons was related to differences i n academic achievement. Relationships were not found between the other fourteen p r i n c i p a l reasons and academic performance. Attending university because the student requires i t for his preferred profession was considered to be a more important factor in influencing decisions to attend university by the superior students than by the under-achieving students. It was suggested that this r e l a t i o n s h i p may be due to several f a c t o r s . Students considering t h i s reason to be an i n f l u e n t i a l factor in determining a decision to attend university may be expressing a seriousness of orientation with respect to l i f e purpose, a c l a r i t y of perceived purpose, a general-ized need for status or motivation towards long range goals whereas other students are oriented towards short range goals. F a i l u r e to f i n d more s i g n i f i c a n t relationships between academic achievement and reasons for attending university was attributed largely to an i n a b i l i t y to determine the underlying motivation for the decision to attend using the present techniques and to indications that students' responses to the paired comparison questionnaire were based large l y upon some c u l t u r a l stereotype of s o c i a l d e s i r a b i l -i t y . ACKNOWLEDGMENT The writer wishes to express his sincere appreciation to his advisor, Professor D.L. Sampson, for his encouragement and helpfal guidance during t h i s study. In addition, I should also l i k e to express my sincere thanks to Professor E.S.W. Belyea and to Professor W.H. Read for many valuable suggestions. Their advice and the advice of the rest of the members of the Faculty in the Department of Psychology were Invaluable during the course of thi s thesis. F i n a l l y , I am grate-f u l to Mr. A.F. Shirran, Assistant Director of Student and Personnel Services for his active interest and help in many phases of this study. V CONTENTS CHAPTER P A G E Abstract i i i I INTRODUCTION AND STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM 1 Statement of the problem 1 Self-ascribed reasons as measures of motivation 2 P r a c t i c a l objective of the study 5> II REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 7 Predictors of motivation for academic achievement 9 The paired comparison questionnaire as a research tool 17 III DERIVING THE PRINCIPAL REASONS 22 Procedure: 22 Pre-testing the preliminary questionnaire 23 Administration 22+ Selection of the sample 2S> C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the reasons 26 Results of the preliminary questionnaire: 27 IV CONSTRUCTION OF THE PAIRED COMPARISON QUESTIONNAIRE 31 Pre-testing the paired comparison questionnaire 32 v i CHAPTER PAGE V ADMINISTRATION AND ANALYSIS OF THE PAIRED COMPARISON QUESTIONNAIRE The v a l i d i t y of the measure of academic achievement Selection of the subjects Procedure Analysis of the data VI RESULTS OF THE PAIRED COMPARISON QUESTIONNAIRE VII DISCUSSION AND CONCLUDING REMARKS VIII SUMMARY REFERENCES 3k 3$ 36 37 38 k2 52 57 60 APPENDIX A: Preliminary questionnaire administered to a sample of f i r s t year students to obtain a large and varied sample of the reasons for coming to univer-s i t y 6k APPENDIX B: Students reasons for coming to univ e r s i t y c l a s s i f i e d according to the derived p r i n c i p a l reasons 67 APPENDIX C: Order of the 15 p r i n c i p a l reasons in the 105 items on the paired comparison questionnaire 91 APPENDIX D: The paired comparison questionnaire 93 APPENDIX E: Norms for the Cooperative School and College A b i l i t y Test used in selecting the sample for the paired comparison questionnaire admini-s t r a t i o n based on 1959-60 f i r s t year students at the u n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 102 TABLES TABLE 1 2 3 k 5 6 PAGE Mean Rank Orders of the P r i n c i p a l Reasons and the Rank of these Means for Sub-groups of Students Above and Below the Median kk Mean Rank Orders of the P r i n c i p a l Reasons and the Rank of these Means for Subgroups of Honours and F a i l u r e Students kS Mean Rank Orders of the P r i n c i p a l Reasons and the Rank of these Means for Subgroups of Male and Female Students lj.6 Mean Rank Orders of the P r i n c i p a l Reasons and the Rank of these Means for Subgroups of Male Honours Students and Male F a i l u r e Students. I48 The R e l i a b i l i t y of the Mean Rank Orders as Estimates of the Individual Rank Orders in the Subgroups and the Co e f f i c i e n t s of Concordance ij.9 Analysis of Variance in Means of the Average Grades of Students C l a s s i f i e d into Groups According to their Ranks Assigned to "Each P r i n c i p a l Reason 5l CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION AND STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM Precise d e f i n i t i o n of the factors determining academic success at un i v e r s i t y and the development of techniques for their assessment is of v i t a l Importance to uni v e r s i t y admin-i s t r a t o r s and o f f i c i a l s and to students who are considering a u n i v e r s i t y education as the necessary background for a proposed career. Many investigators have recognized the need for the comprehensive investigation of the factors determining academic performance and, as a r e s u l t , extensive studies have attempted to i s o l a t e these factors and to specify t h e i r relationship to performance. Research in this f i e l d has dealt with a large and varied number of variables including those of a b i l i t y and aptitude, personality and socio-economic background f a c t o r s . This study was designed to consider a limited aspect of t h i s broad area. What are the reasons which students w i l l ascribe to themselves for attending u n i v e r s i t y and what w i l l be the rel a t i o n s h i p between these reasons and subse-quent academic performance? Statement of the problem The purpose of t h i s study was to test the hypothesis that there is a re l a t i o n s h i p between the reasons which a 2 student w i l l ascribe to himself and his level of academic achievement. However, in order to do t h i s , i t was neces-sary to determine empirically the p r i n c i p a l reasons that students w i l l ascribe to themselves and a t t r i b u t e to others for attending university. Self-ascribed reasons as measures of motivation The individual's choice of academic or vocational pursuits upon graduating from high school is determined by the pattern of motivation d i r e c t i n g him. Limitations of i n t e l l e c t u a l capacity, i n t e r e s t , s o c i a l adjustment and other personality and environmental factors r e s t r i c t the range of decisions that are a v a i l a b l e . In addition, however, the pattern of motivation provides the d i r e c t i o n for deci-sions about future actions. The individual is predisposed to c e r t a i n behavioral actions by the motive patterns which are latent in his personality structure. Operation.of stimulus cues upon the individual's motive pattern produces a se l e c t i v e action upon the various behavioral alternatives available to him and the d i r e c t i o n of the individual's behavior towards ends or goals is determined. Uni v e r s i t y provides a complex of incentives which influence the individual's decisions and can induce a student to e n r o l l . Whether or not the student w i l l work towards excellence i n academic achievement depends upon the extent 3 to which his decisions are based upon goals which demand high standards of academic attainment. If the student i s not motivated towards the e f f i c i e n t u t i l i z a t i o n of his i n t e l l e c t u a l c a p acities, the expected academic standards of the p a r t i c u l a r student w i l l not be met in his performance. The student may express many reasons which he f e e l s j u s t i f y his attendance at uni v e r s i t y . Many of these reasons imply academic and vocational goals which demand high levels of academic achievement, whereas others are related to a c t i v i t i e s and goals that do not demand that that student s t r i v e for high standards of performance. For instance, such reasons given as attending to s a t i s f y environmental pressures and enrolli n g for the recreational and a t h l e t i c a c t i v i t i e s are not d i r e c t l y related to motivation for aca-demic achievement. Other reasons while not being d i r e c t l y related to motivation for achievement imply this insofar as excellence i n academic attainment is required to reach the goals which these other reasons,are related to. These reasons are i l l u s t r a t e d by such stated reasons as wanting the prestige and status associated with a f f i l i a t i n g oneself with a un i v e r s i t y . The student's stated reasons are not necessarily the real ones for h i s behavior and may not have any di r e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p to the underlying motivation for his behavior at u n i v e r s i t y . A great many factors may transform the i n -t r i n s i c motivation for an act prior to conscious awareness of what the Individual perceives as a reason for behavior. Indeed, considerable emphasis has been given in modern motivational theory to the contention that the individual may not be able to perceive consciously the motivation behind his behavior. A l l p o r t , in a review of the problem, refers to Macdougal, Darwin, Schopenhauer, and Freud and states that they " c o r r e c t l y perceived that the main springs of conduct may be hidden from the searchlight of conscious-ness" and that i t is "naive to accept the r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n s ef s e l f j u s t i f y i n g mortals" (1953, PP. 107). Motivation may be consciously apprehended or function unconsciously, but there is no simple way to determine whether or not what the individual states as motivation is responsi-ble for his behavior. It seems a plausible assumption that no d i r e c t causal r e l a t i o n s h i p may exist between the student*s sel f - a s c r i b e d reasons for behavior and his actual behavior. It was noted, however, that the extent to which relationships are found between academic achievement and these s e l f -ascribed reasons provides some assurance that the students* reasons may be ''signs" or indicators of the actual dynamic forces which have directed the student's behavior. There are several advantages to the use of self-assess-ment in attempting to determine personality differences in motivational patterns. There is s t i l l a considerable need for exploratory work on the r e l a t i o n of motivational v a r i -ables to performance. Therefore, the j u s t i f i c a t i o n for the 5 evaluation of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between self-ascribed reasons and academic achievement i s primarily pragmatic since: (1) the student's stated reasons are r e a d i l y available and e a s i l y determined through the use of questionnaires; (2) there Is no elaborate interpretation of subject responses involving as-sumed relationships between responses and some Inner dynamic forces, as there is in the projective techniques of Murray (1938), and Atkinson (1958). The individual's responses are accepted at face value u n t i l some attempt at v a l i d a t i o n has disproved them. If there does not seem to be any r e l a t i o n -ship between his reported motivation and his conduct, then, some more v a l i d technique must be employed. It was not the intention of the present study to d i r -e c t l y question the individual as to his motivation and derive some index of motivational strength. Attempts to correlate such an index with a number of variables have f a i l e d i a the past (BeCharms, 1955). The present study was designed to investigate the reasons which the student perceived as the motivation for his behavior. P r a c t i c a l objective of the study The p r a c t i c a l value of this study l i e s In the p o s s i -b i l i t y that Its results may be used i a the prediction of the academic grades of students e n r o l l i n g at u n i v e r s i t y . Administrative o f f i c i a l s can u t i l i z e any r e l a t i o n s h i p feund 6 between se l f - a s c r i b e d reasons for behavior and academic achievement to c l a s s i f y students according to a predicted l e v e l of performance and make recommendations for accept-ing or r e j e c t i n g applicants for enrolment. In addition, such a r e l a t i o n s h i p would be of value in counselling pro-spective students. CHAPTER II REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE The f i e l d of predicting academic achievement has been a popular l i n e of research for the l a s t four decades. The l i t e r a t u r e presents a m u l t i p l i c i t y of experimental variables dealing with a l l academic levels and u t i l i z i n g a large number of d i f f e r e n t experimental designs. Investigations have included prediction with such variables as i n t e l l i -gence and aptitude, standard achievement tests, s o c i a l and economic data, personal and educational data, person-a l i t y f a c t o r s , and a l l combinations of these v a r i a b l e s . The status of the prediction of academic achievement has been summarized and reviewed by Bloom and Heyns, (1956); Garrett, (191*9); Harris, (1931 & 191+0); Segel, (193^); and Travers, (19^9). Within the past twenty years there has been consider-ably more emphasis placed upon the measurement of those variables which cause v a r i a t i o n In college performance other than i n t e l l i g e n c e and scholastic aptitude. Since almost a l l the evidence c i t e d i n the above reviews has i n d i -cated that measures of i n t e l l e c t u a l variables may be expect-ed to correlate with college grades at about .5 and ranging through to .7, a substantial proportion of the v a r i a t i o n in performance must be determined by the influences of no a - i n t e l l e c t u a l f a c t o r s . Travers indicates the contribution to be made by the study of n o n - i n t e l l e c t u a l factors in one of the more recent reviews: The present writer f e e l s that educational counselors have tended to underestimate the importance of these non-intellectual factors and too often have placed excessive reliance on standard measure of sc h o l a s t i c aptitude. Academic counselors in u n i v e r s i t i e s or colleges must give greater recog-n i t i o n to the non-intellectual factors which c o n t r i -bute to academic success (Travers, 191+9, p. 171+). Among those non-intellectual variables which have been receiving attention are those which may be considered motivational influences. Although, as indicated by Travers, we have not given adequate consideration to the influence of motivational factors, there has always been a convic-t i o n that these variables are of c r u c i a l importance. The success of indices of former achievement as the most ef-f e c t i v e predictors of academic achievement has been a t t r i -buted to the f a c t that they r e f l e c t prior motivation i n a similar s i t u a t i o n (Travers, 191+9). Jones (1932) found that the higher the c o r r e l a t i o n between unive r s i t y grades and i n t e l l i g e n c e test scores, the greater must be the scholas-t i c motivation of the students. Thus, there appears to be considerable i n t e r e s t and value in the continued exploration 9 of the influences of motivational variables. Predictors of motivation for academic achievement Although there is a voluminous l i t e r a t u r e on the pre-d i c t i o n of academic achievement, there is s t i l l a sparsity of knowledge on the Influence of motivational f a c t o r s . This meagerness is demonstrated by the r e l a t i v e l y few studies which have attempted th i s type of investigation and a lack of conclusive evidence for existing r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Undoubt-edly, the research has been hampered by a lack of clearcut d e f i n i t i o n s of the motivational factors Involved and a deficiency of precise measuring t o o l s . The development of a technique for measuring motivation through content analysis of responses to projective tests of personality by McClelland ( 1 9 5 3 ) has stimulated consider-able interest in the re l a t i o n s h i p between his "need for Achievement 1 1 and academic performance. Moderate success has been made in distinguishing between high and low achievelng students with McClelland's measure. McClelland (1953) reports a c o r r e l a t i o n of .51 between grade-point average and his measure of need for achievement. Morgan ( 1 9 5 2 ) , in a study of high achieving and low achieving l i b e r a l arts students of high a b i l i t y , found that the former group stood higher in the achievement motivation scoring. Further substantiation has been reported by Applezweig, Moeller, and Bnrdick ( 1 9 5 6 ) , Chabazzi ( 1 9 5 6 ) , and Weiss, Werthelmer, and Groesbeck ( 1 9 5 9 ) . Chabazzi reports correlations of ,kl and . 3 5 respectively between f i r s t term college grades and the achievement motivation measure oa two projective tests (Sound Stimuli Test and Picture Stimuli Test). Weiss et a l derived a c o r r e l a t i o n of ,3k between McClelland 1s measure and grade-point average. Applezweig et a l , using similar measures, found a s i g n i f i -cant but small c o r r e l a t i o n of . 1 6 . These findings have not been corroborated by a l l investigators, however. Lowell (1952) did not f i n d any r e l a t i o n between grade-point average and McClelland*s measure of need for achievement (r= . © 5 ) . P a r r i s h and Rethlingshafer (1951+), in a study of the contention that McClelland's measures are r e s t r i c t e d in nature and not capable of long range prediction, were unable to f i n d any differences on a scale of need for achievement between a group of low achievers and a group of high achievers. They concluded that McClelland*s need for achievement is not related to s c h o l a s t i c achievement. It is d i f f i c u l t to account for the d i s p a r i t y among the investigator«s findings. McClelland (1958) attributed the f a i l u r e of Parrish and Rethlingshafer to confirm the findings of the others to the f a c t that they used individual 11 administration whereas the others had used group admini-s t r a t i o n s . Loss of anonymity and decreased v a r i a b i l i t y in scores were hypothesized due to the interpersonal r e l a t i o n -ship involved. The f a c t that several investigators have foand s i g n i f i c a n t correlations between McClelland's measure of need for achievement and academic grades suggests that uncontrolled factors In both Lowell's and Parrish and Rethlingshafer's studies reduced the c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t of a r e l a t i o n s h i p which does e x i s t . They have not refuted claims for a re l a t i o n s h i p between academic achievement and McClelland's measure of need for achievement. Several investigators have suggested that there appears to be a complex of motives involved and that analysis of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between academic achievement and motivation for achievement must give consideration to the Influence of factors other than need for achievement. Applezwelg et a l (1956), in the study mentioned above, hypothesized that academic achievement i s a function of more than one moti-vational variable in addition to a b i l i t y . They found that students' peer groups exert a pressure to conform to t h e i r standards. When the students were c l a s s i f i e d according to the groups to which they a f f i l i a t e d themselves, s i g n i f i c a n t differences in levels of achievement appeared between the groups. Atkinson (1958), one of McClelland's coworkers, has acknowledged the complexity of the motivational factors which may influence academic achievement. He considers performance c r i t e r i a such as academic performance to be determined by several of the Individual's motives. The approach used by McClelland and his co-workers p o t e n t i a l l y seems to offe r some p o s s i b i l i t i e s for the c l a r i f i c a t i o n of the motivational factors involved i n academic performance and ultimately may allow for i t s a p p l i -cation in u n i v e r s i t y counseling centers. A number of additional studies have attempted to es-t a b l i s h the re l a t i o n s h i p between a v a r i e t y of variables purported to measure or r e f l e c t motivation and academic achievement. Attempts have been made to determine the rela t i o n s h i p between the Need Achievement scale of the Edwards Personal Preference Schedule and academic performance. Bendig (1958) reported a c o r r e l a t i o n of .23 when the scale was correlated with average grades and Weiss et a l (1959) reported a c o r r e l a t i o n of ,t\2 with grade-point average. Thus moderate predictive a b i l i t y appears in t h i s scale. Although Edwards measures, in a d i f f e r e n t way, a con-ceptual variable of need for achievement similar to McClelland's, Bendig (1957) and Weiss et a l (1959) have 13 investigated the p o s s i b i l i t y that the two measures of need for achievement are related. C orrelation studies of the re l a t i o n s h i p between Edward's and McClelland's measures have given c o n f l i c t i n g r e s u l t s . Although Bendlg (1957) reported that he found no c o r r e l a t i o n between, the two measures ( r = . l l ) , Weiss et a l (1959) reported the small but s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n of .26 and suggested that these two measures may be indices of the same thing to a small extent. It appears, however, that the two measures are only related to each other to a very small extent, i f at a l l , and that the "need for achievement" which these authors profess to measure are not e s s e n t i a l l y the same. Crawford (1929) noted that there is some indicati o n that the seriousness of educational purpose is linked with academic success. When the students in his sample were grouped according to their degree of seriousness of orien-t a t i o n with respect to l i f e purpose, with i n t e l l i g e n c e held constant, a hierarchy of grades appeared. The most s e r i -ously motivated students averaged the highest grades and the least s e r i o u s l y motivated students averaged the lowest grades. Divesta, Woodruff, and Hertel (191+9) have developed an orientation inventory which correlated .1+1 with college grades. The inventory r e f l e c t e d motivation through i t s expression i n their behaviour. The students were requested to select from among general statements descriptive of their behavior at u n i v e r s i t y . As a p r a c t i c a l empirical technique this inventory appears to have some use. An additional study of the motivational differences in college students is reported by Brown, Abeles, and Iscoe (1951+). Brown et a l revealed differences among groups of students c l a s s i f i e d according to grades i n terms of t h e i r conformity with academic requirements and their willingness to p a r t i c i p a t e i n several a c t i v i t i e s . Several studies have attempted to derive a r e l a t i o n -ship between a measure of level of a s p i r a t i o n and academic performance. Holt (191+0) could not f i n d a r e l a t i o n between the discrepancy between goals established by an individual and his previous performance on the task and s c h o l a s t i c performance. He concluded that levels of a s p i r a t i o n do not r e f l e c t the degree of an individual*s motivation i n a task. Schultz and R i c c i u t i (1951+) in a s i m i l a r l y designed experiment using the same measure of level of a s p i r a t i o n were unable to f i n d a r e l a t i o n s h i p either, however, their conclusions were q u a l i f i e d . They concluded that the level of a s p i r a t i o n measure they had derived either did not r e f l e c t any meaningful motivational c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s or those c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s did not operate in the process of succeeding In college courses. Further work appears to be warranted on this problem. Two studies (Crawford, 1929; I f f e r t , 1958) were unable to substantiate the hypothesis of a r e l a t i o n s h i p between the motivation r e f l e c t e d i n the reasons for attending unive r s i t y and academic achievement. Crawford (1929), in a d i f f e r e n t phase of the study mentioned above, grouped his sample according to the students 1 stated reasons for coming to u n i v e r s i t y . No d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n appeared between high and low achieving students. I f f e r t (1958) could not f i n d a r e l a t i o n s h i p between the student's ratings of reasons for going to u n i v e r s i t y and the student's persistence ( i . e . length of stay) in remaining in college. Neither investigator appeared discouraged by their f a i l u r e to detect any association between the v a r i a b l e s . I f f e r t ' s study was b a s i c a l l y exploratory and the students did not rate the reasons u n t i l they had already graduated from u n i v e r s i t y . It would be expected that the students would not have any clear idea of their motivation p r i o r to attending u n i v e r s i t y after they had graduated. I f f e r t f e l t that, i n terms of the experience gained In his study, a tool useful to college administrators and counselors could be developed. Crawford, on the basis of his data, f e l t that a questionnaire, i f more c a r e f u l l y constructed than h i s , may have some se l e c t i v e value. Two sttadies (Katz, and A l l p o r t , 1931? Greenshields, 1957) have provided analysis of the reasons why students attend u n i v e r s i t y . Farther investigation was not made of the influences of these reasons upon college success. In summary, i t is noted that the persistent e f f o r t s of investigators to f i n d and measure v a l i d relationships between a number of variables and academic achievement have shown that i t is multi-determined and no one single measure w i l l provide complete understanding and prediction of the r e l a t i o n s h i p . Among the more successful attempts to define and measure the motivational variables involved in academic achievement have been the studies by McClelland and his co-workers (the most recent account of developments has been by Atkinson, 1 9 5 8 ) . Although t h e i r attempts have been moderately successful, further revisions of their procedures and exploration appear to be needed before the techniques they have developed can be of use i n applied settings. Farther r e v i s i o n must be in terms of an analysis of the d i s p a r i t y between the various investigator's conclusions about the r e l a t i o n of t h i s measure to performance c r i t e r i a . Of the two studies most d i r e c t l y relevant to the present investigation, (Crawford, 1929, and I f f e r t , 1958) neither has been able to substantiate the hypothesis of a r e l a t i o n s h i p between reasons for attending university and academic achievement. In spite of their negative findings, both investigators f e l t that inadequacies of t h e i r methods limited the p o s s i b i l i t y of their finding a r e l a t i o n s h i p between the variables and that farther investigation was warranted on the problem through the a p p l i c a t i o n of more precise techniques than they had used. The paired comparison questionnaire as a research tool The questionnaire, in addition to having several advantages and disadvantages, has been a useful tool for psychological measurement i n the past. Although i t has not been used j u d i c i o u s l y in sojne instances and has been sub-j e c t to c r i t i c i s m as a psychological technique, the ques-tionnaire can be a useful tool i f the purpose for which i t is to serve has been c a r e f u l l y selected and defined; i f i t is constructed and administered i n an objective manner; and If the data obtained from i t is analysed i n terms of i t s l i m i t a t i o n s (Katz et a l , 1931). A questionnaire i n the form of paired comparisons was selected for use i n t h i s study. The technique of paired comparisons has a number of advantages which must be considered i n i t s construction, administration, and in the analysis of the data obtained. Since t h i s technique was selected as being appropriate for this investigation early in the study, methodological considerations have been limited to i t s use. The device has been t r a d i t i o n a l l y used to scale stimuli according to the hypothesized psychological absolute con-tinuum of some attr i b u t e (Guilford, 195fy» Edwards, 1957a; Torgerson, 195$)• The use of the technique i n the present study deviates from the usual application i n that there is not necessarily a continuum of the reasons for attending u n i v e r s i t y on which a l l students can be placed. The basic premise i n t h i s study is that a continuum of reasons for behavior exists for each individual according to the extent to which the student perceives a reason was i n f l u e n t i a l i n determining his decision to attend u n i v e r s i t y . Each student w i l l , therefore, rank the reasons according to his perception of t h e i r Importance to him. The rank order Is obtained through the method of paired comparisons by having every item in turn serve as a standard to which each of the others i s compared. This allows for maximal discrimination In the ordering of the items on the basis of judgments. In other methods of rank ordering (ranking, single stimulus r a t i n g , sorting into successive intervals (Torgerson, 1958)) the subjects may not take into consideration the merits of a l l the items since they are not forced to do so. A further advantage of the technique i s noted in the fact that where the number of items is r e l a t i v e l y large, the method of paired comparisons reduces the error that may occur due to the i n a b i l i t y of the subjects to perceive a l l the items at once. An additional advantage is noted in the f a c t that the rank orders which are obtained are susceptible to s t a t i s t i c a l treatment. A number of hypotheses may, therefore, be tre a t -ed at an objective and precise l e v e l . There are, however, d i s t i n c t l i m i t a t i o n s to the use of this technique. Thurstone (19^8) has pointed out that error may be introduced through v a r i a t i o n in the attributes of the stimuli other than the variable under consideration. Self-ascribed reasons for attending u n i v e r s i t y have many attributes other than that which is d i r e c t l y related to motivation for achievement. One such a t t r i b u t e of importance in the present study is that a t t r i b u t e of the reasons which Edwards has named the " s o c i a l d e s i r a b i l i t y v ariable" and describes as; the tendency of subjects to a t t r i b u t e to them-selves, In s e l f description, personality state-ments with s o c i a l l y desirable scale values and to r e j e c t those with s o c i a l l y undesirable scale values (Edwards, 1957B, p. v i ) . It was recognized that the students 1 reasons for attending u n i v e r s i t y would vary considerably in the degree to which they are s o c i a l l y acceptable to the students. Rank orders obtained through the method of paired comparisons would be based, therefore, not only upon the Importance of the reasons as factors determining decisions to attend u n i v e r s i t y but upon how the students would perceive the reasons i n the questionnaire to be s o c i a l l y acceptable reasons for attending u n i v e r s i t y . Although Edwards reports several techniques which have been devised to eliminate the effects of t h i s v a r iable, the paired comparison technique does not allow these influences upon the data to be reduced. Thus, consideration of t h i s factor must be given i n the analysis of data in which i t may have an influence. An additional l i m i t a t i o n to the paired comparison tech-nique Is that the Individual does not have complete freedom of expression. Reasons which may be of high importance to the individual may not be Included in the questionnaire's construction. The rank order of the individual's motives may not be completely descriptive of his behavior. Consider-ation of t h i s factor must be given in the construction of the questionnaire to include as comprehensive and complete a series of reasons as possible. In spite of these l i m i t a t i o n s , the paired comparison technique provides the most exact method of ranking the students stated reasons for attending u n i v e r s i t y and there-fore was the most suitable technique for the present study. CHAPTER III DERIVING THE PRINCIPAL REASONS The I n i t i a l problem was to determine empirically the pr i n c i p a l reasons which students w i l l claim as being fac-tors influencing their decisions to enroll at uni v e r s i t y . Students subscribe to, and at t r i b u t e to others, a large v a r i e t y and number of d i f f e r e n t reasons. This section of the study was designed to ascertain, as comprehensively as possible, the f u l l range of these reasons, and to resolve them according to the i r common features into a small number of representative reasons. These p r i n c i p a l reasons were then used as the basis for the construction of a paired comparison questionnaire (See chapter IV). In order to determine the p r i n c i p a l reasons for attend-ing university, a sample of f i r s t year students was surveyed. The responses of these students were c l a s s i f i e d according to the common features which appeared in them and a number of reasons representative of a l l the students* responses were developed. I. PROCEDURE A preliminary questionnaire was constructed to be administered to a sample of f i r s t year students requesting 23 that they give as accurately as possible the reasons why they f e l t that (a) students in general, (b) an intimate f r i e n d , and (c) they themselves came to univer s i t y (See Appendix A). The questions the students were requested to answer were as follows: 1. Give the reasons why you f e e l that students in general come to uni v e r s i t y . L i s t form is suggested. 2. Why do you think a very close friend of yours carae to university? Think of an intimate friend s p e c i f i c a l l y and write down his fac u l t y and year along with the reason. 3. As accurately as possible, give your reason(s) for coming to university. Questions one and two were given i n order to ensure that the students would give as many reasons as possible. The p o s s i b i l i t y existed that the students would not be w i l l i n g to express some of their reasons or would not recognize others as being descriptive of their behavior. The f a c u l t y and year of the student's intimate f r i e n d were requested to ensure that a s p e c i f i c f r i e n d was thought of. Pre-testing the preliminary questionnaire The preliminary questionnaire was i n i t i a l l y admini-stered to a sample of ten male f i r s t year Arts and Science students to check the instructions and questions for ambi-g u i t i e s ; to see i f the students would be w i l l i n g to respond to the questions; and to ascertain whether the responses would be susceptible to reduction to a number of representative 2k reasons according to their common elements. The pre-testing indicated that problems were not l i k e l y to be encountered when the preliminary questionnaire was given to the larger sample. The students were cooperative and the questionnaire did not need any additional instruc-tions or c l a r i f i c a t i o n . The students volunteered an average of ij.,2 reasons on the f i r s t question, 2 . 6 on the second, and 3 .6 on the t h i r d . Their responses offered such va r i e t y that of the 101+ reasons they gave, six appeared to be d i s t i n c t reasons. A rough c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of these reasons, however, indicated that there was s u f f i c i e n t s i m i l a r i t y among them to warrant their c l a s s i f i c a t i o n into a reduced number of reasons. Administration The preliminary questionnaires were administered to 133 students while they were in class during the month of February. Complete instructions for f i l l i n g in the ques-tionnaire were given v e r b a l l y to make certain the students understood. Their cooperation was requested. The students 1 names were not requested and they were advised that their responses would be kept confidential to allow them complete freedom of response. Selection of the sample , The subjects were a l l f i r s t year U n i v e r s i t y students and enrolled at the univer s i t y for the f i r s t time i n September, 1959. With the exception of those enrolled in the Faculties of Education and Ag r i c u l t u r e , a l l undergraduates are re-quired to complete the f i r s t year i n Arts and Science before they w i l l be admitted into their preferred f a c u l t i e s . Since only 37 of the 2712 f i r s t year students were enrol-led in the Faculty of Agriculture, i t was decided not to include them. However, the 1+17 students enrolled i n the f i r s t year in the Faculty of Education represented such a considerable proportion of the t o t a l f i r s t year students that a portion of them was included. Therefore, a sample of 133 students was selected from among the f i r s t year students i n the Faculty of Arts and Science and the Faculty of Education. The sample included 16 female and 1+ male f i r s t year students enrolled In the Faculty of Education taking a course in educational methods and assigned to this course on a random basis, and 1+8 female and 65 male f i r s t year students enrolled in the Faeuli of Arts and Science taking a course in introductory psychol-ogy. Since only two-thirds of the students in f i r s t year Arts and Science are enrolled in this course, the sample does not Include representatives from the remainder and, therefore, bias may have resulted. Most of these are probably Science majors and i t i s not known to what extent the lack of representatives from this group may have biased the findings. It was expected that the sample would provide a wide vari e t y of stated reasons for attending university. C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the reasons The students 1 responses were c l a s s i f i e d and grouped according to their common features. Each of the student's reasons was typed upon a separate card to f a c i l i t a t e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . The primary consideration during the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n was that the number of p r i n c i p a l reasons must be limited i n order to make the paired comparison questionnaire of reasonable length. Since several reasons were unique and highly Individual reasons for attending u n i v e r s i t y , they could not be categorized separately i f the number of p r i n -c i p a l reasons was to be limited. They were c l a s s i f i e d , however, according to the p r i n c i p a l reason to which they were most nearly related. In addition, the p r i n c i p a l reasons decided upon had to be as d i s t i n c t from each other as possible. Minimal vagueness of meaning or ambiguity should exist within each individual p r i n c i p a l reasons or between the p r i n c i p a l reasons when compared with each other. It was recognized that the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the reasons was subject to d i s t o r t i o n due to the investigator's preconceptions of what the p r i n c i p a l reasons should be. To provide a check for the r e l i a b i l i t y of the d i s t r i b u t i o n , a graduate student in Psychology was provided with the p r i n c i p a l reasons which had been resolved and requested to c l a s s i f y independently each of the students' reasons under them. The percentage of agreement between the two c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s was regarded as a measure of r e l i a b i l i t y . Disagreement between the two c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s was discussed and the reasons for this disagreement were c l a r -i f i e d . II. RESULTS OF THE PRELIMINARY QUESTIONNAIRE The 133 students who completed the preliminary ques-tionnaire i d e n t i f i e d approximately l6I|.0 factors which influenced their decisions to attend u n i v e r s i t y — 7 ^ 2 rea-sons why students in general came, 398 reasons why intimate friends came, and SOty. reasons why they came. Elimination of repetitions reduced the number to 2ij.7 separate reasons. C l a s s i f i c a t i o n according to the s i m i l a r i t i e s gave the following f i f t e e n p r i n c i p a l reasons. They are expressed in the form of U I came to univer s i t y because:1' since t h i s was the form desired for the construction of the paired compari-son questionnaire. Appendix B l i s t s the students' reasons c l a s s i f i e d according to the p r i n c i p a l reasons. I came to un i v e r s i t y because: 1. It w i l l provide me with security for the future. 2. It w i l l give me greater s o c i a l prestige and status. 3. It provides an opportunity for well rounded personality development. i+. I received encouragement or strong pressure from family, friends or others. f?. I t w i l l provide opportunities for I n t e l l e c t u a l develop-ment and s a t i s f a c t i o n of my I n t e l l e c t u a l c u r i o s i t y . 6 . My preferred profession requires a Un i v e r s i t y education. 7. It may provide me with a better job in terms of salary, personal s a t i s f a c t i o n , and opportunity for advancement. 8. I t w i l l enable me to be of more help and service to others. 9. I wanted to explore various f i e l d s in order to decide upon a profession and future plans. 29 1 0 . I wanted a change from my home community and to assume some independence. 11. I didn't f e e l that I was ready to, or wanted to, s t a r t working. 1 2 . I wanted to remain with my old fr i e n d s . 13. It provides opportunities to meet d i f f e r e n t people and make new fr i e n d s . l l | . I t provides many opportunities for p a r t i c i p a t i o n in s o c i a l and a t h l e t i c a c t i v i t i e s . 15 . It provides an opportunity to meet a marriage partner. Consideration was given to the extent to which the reasons descriptive of the formulated p r i n c i p a l reasons were subscribed to by the students themselves. In general, a l l of the derived reasons were attributed to themselves by a number of the students. In addition, both sexes Indicated a l l of these p r i n c i p a l reasons. Results of the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n by the independent ob-server indicated that there was substantial r e l i a b i l i t y in this d i s t r i b u t i o n . Eighty-nine percent of the students' reasons were dis t r i b u t e d in agreement with the o r i g i n a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . Discussion of the disagreements revealed that they were generally due to ambiguities in the students* reasons. Those which were not c l a s s i f i e d s i m i l a r l y generally had doable meanings and could have been placed in more than one category. Thus, these l£ p r i n c i p a l reasons were accepted as being the most i n f l u e n t i a l In forming decisions to attend U n i v e r s i t y . CHAPTER IV CONSTRUCTION OF THE PAIRED COMPARISON QUESTIONNAIRE The paired comparison questionnaire was developed to provide an objective technique whereby students might rank order the importance of the i r reasons for attending Univer-s i t y . The paired comparison questionnaire achieves this by t o t a l l i n g the frequency of choice for each p r i n c i p a l reason. Standard procedures (Torgerson, 1958; Ross, 193H, 1939) were followed in the construction of the questionnaire. Several c r i t e r i a have been established (Ross, 193!*, 1939) for the optimal order in the presentation of the pairs to the subjects i n order to avoid bias which may re s u l t from grouping or patterning the items. The general scheme pre-sented by Ross (193^, 1939) has been followed. Mis c r i t e r i a were followed so that each p r i n c i p a l reason appeared equally often and was alternated in f i r s t and second position in the pairs as far as conditions permitted, and each p r i n c i p a l reason was spread as f a r apart in the pairs as possible before appearing again. See Appendix C for the order of the pr i n c i p a l reasons in the pa i r s . 32 Each p r i n c i p a l reason was paired with each other giving 10$ pairs (N(N-l)/2) of p r i n c i p a l reasons for attending u n i v e r s i t y . The order of pairing and the consecutive order of the pairs on the questionnaire were followed as s p e c i f i e d by Ross's technique. International Business Machine forms, No. 255, were used as answer sheets. Instructions provided for the student to indicate their choice on the answer sheet by making a heavy black mark in the column corresponding to the p r i n c i p a l reason i n each pair of statements which they f e l t came closest to indicating t h e i r reason for coming to u n i v e r s i t y . Since i t was recognized that there might not be a plausible choice for each student in each p a i r , they were further requested to make the choice even though they f e l t that either reason might not s t r i c t l y apply to them. The complete paired comparison questionnaire appears in Appendix D. Pre-testing the paired comparison questionnaire To evaluate the completed questionnaire i n terms of ambiguity of the instructions and questions, and to determine the extent to which students would be w i l l i n g to respond to the questionnaire, a pre-testing of the paired comparison questionnaire was undertaken. The questionnaire was administered to eight male stu-dents from the Faculty of Arts and Science. They were requested to f i l l out the questionnaire according to the instructions and were l e f t alone u n t i l f i n i s h e d . Discussion of the questionnaire af t e r i t had been completed revealed that the students had no d i f f i c u l t y in understanding the instructions and in following them to complete the questionnaire. Moreover, the students did not discern any lack of c l a r i t y or ambiguity in the statements of the p r i n c i p a l reasons. They did not express any concern about divulging the information which was required, and in no instance did they block in coming to a decision over any of the p a i r s . In addition, the p i l o t study disclosed that the students required approximately t h i r t y - f i v e minutes to complete the questionnaire, a not unreasonable demand to make upon the students* time. There seemed to be, therefore, s u f f i c i e n t evidence to conclude that the items were, on the whole, clear and s p e c i f i c in their content and phrasing, and that the stu-dents would be w i l l i n g to complete the paired comparison questionnaire according to the Instructions. CHAPTER V ADMINISTRATION AND ANALYSIS OF THE PAIRED COMPARISON QUESTIONNAIRE The purpose of t h i s study was to assess the degree of association between academic achievement and an ind i c a t i o n of the student's motivation for attending u n i v e r s i t y . Rank orders of the p r i n c i p a l reasons for attending u n i v e r s i t y according to responses on the paired comparison questionnaire were u t i l i z e d to represent indicators of motivation. Aca-demic achievement was represented by average grades obtained on examinations at the end of the f i r s t term. Since this study was designed to determine the r e l a t i o n -ship between a n o n - i n t e l l e c t i v e variable and academic achieve-ment, the influence of aptitude factors had to be controll e d . The sample was r e s t r i c t e d , therefore, to a group of students of r e l a t i v e l y common i n t e l l e c t u a l a b i l i t y according to t o t a l scores on the Cooperative School and College A b i l i t y Test (SCAT). This test Is administered to a l l f i r s t year students who report to the Uni v e r s i t y Personnel O f f i c e for guidance. A l l f i r s t year students are requested to do so at the begin-ning of the year, although a l l students do not comply with t h i s request. 35 The v a l i d i t y of the measure of academic achievement Prediction from the measure of motivation to academic achievement is r e s t r i c t e d by the v a l i d i t y of the measure of achievement selected. At the time this study was con-ducted there were no objective data available to support the assumption that f i r s t term grades are v a l i d estimates of subsequent academic performance. Correlation of f i r s t term grades with f i n a l examination grades would have made pos-s i b l e such a test of v a l i d i t y but the f i n a l grades were not yet a v a i l a b l e . However, several considerations led to the selection of f i r s t term grades as the measure of academic achievement. The establishment of new goals and concepts of un i v e r s i t y after the student has had an opportunity to examine i t obj e c t i v e l y and experience un i v e r s i t y l i f e may change the students 1 motivational patterns. Because of the close temporal r e l a t i o n s h i p between f i r s t term grades and the student fs i n i t i a l enrolment, they are the single index of achievement most l i k e l y to be related to his motivation at that time. Additional j u s t i f i c a t i o n for the use of f i r s t term grades was the f a c t that the grades on f i r s t term examinations are generally included as a portion of the f i n a l grades in most courses. 36 Therefore, on the basis of these considerations, the students* grades on examinations given at the end of the f i r s t term were selected as the measure of academic achieve-ment. Selection of the subjects A H students who completed the SCAT, scoring in the middle-one-tenth of a b i l i t y range (c^£ to according to t o t a l raw scores {7k to 78 1) on the SCAT, and meeting the following q u a l i f i c a t i o n s were i n i t i a l l y selected as the group to whom the paired comparison questionnaire would be administered. Students were selected only from the Faculty of Arts and Science. In order to ensure as common an educational background as possible, subjects had to have attended an English-speaking high school. To maintain a r e l a t i v e l y constant level of d i f f i c u l t y in the course content the stu-dents had selected for t h e i r years work, students must have been enrolled in at least If? units during the 1959-60 session and have written at least four examinations at the end of the f i r s t term. One hundred and ninety students f u l f i l l e d the above q u a l i f i c a t i o n s . *Based upon norms developed on the 1959-60 f i r s t year students at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. See Appendix E. The investigator was unable to contact 16 students and an additional 11 students either refused to volunteer or did not report for their appointments. Thus the questionnaire was administered to 163 (56 f e -males and 107 males) of 190 students i n i t i a l l y meeting the established c r i t e r i a for s e l e c t i o n . Since only 75# of the 2128 f i r s t year students enrolled in the Faculty of Arts and Science completed the SCAT, the sample was not composed of a l l f i r s t year students in this Faculty. Procedure The students selected for the sample were contacted by telephone and requested to volunteer to f i l l out a questionnaire for the investigator. Appointments were made at times convenient for the subjects. The paired comparison questionnaires were administered to the students in groups of from one to eight. Instructions were read to the subjects and their cooperation in f i l l i n g out the form as completely and as accurately as possible was requested. The subjects were kept naive as to the pur-pose of this study and were led to believe that the study was simply investigating the students' reasons for coming to u n i v e r s i t y . Answer forms for the paired comparison questionnaire were scored upon an International Test Scoring Machine. Answer forms with discrepancies in their t o t a l score (frequency of responses had to t o t a l 1©5 on a l l the answer forms) were rescored by hand to eliminate error due to scoring u n r e l i a b i l i t y . Examination grades were made available by the Univer-s i t y Personnel O f f i c e . Average grades were computed for each i n d i v i d u a l . Analysis of the data For purposes of analysis and testing the hypothesis of a r e l a t i o n s h i p between the motivation measure and acade-mic achievement, the sample was divided into various kinds of subgroups: 1. The sample was divided into two groups at the median average grade. 2. To avoid the p o s s i b i l i t y that the rank orders of the individuals whose average grades were near the median were reducing the sig n i f i c a n c e of differences between high achieving students and low achieving students, two subgroups of extreme achievement were drawn from the sample; an honours group (average grades of 65% or better) and a f a i l u r e group (average grades less than $0%). 3. The p o s s i b i l i t y e x i s t e d that a f a i l u r e to d i s c l o s e a r e l a t i o n s h i p between academic achievement and the mot i v a t i o n f o r attending u n i v e r s i t y f o r the t o t a l sample could be a t t r i b u t e d to sex d i f f e r e n c e s i n the rankings of the p r i n -c i p a l reasons. The sample, t h e r e f o r e , was d i v i d e d i n t o male and female groups to determine whether s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t e d between the rankings of t h e i r reasons f o r attending u n i v e r s i t y . ij.. To provide an a d d i t i o n a l check on the p o s s i b i l i t y t hat sex d i f f e r e n c e s may account f o r any f a i l u r e to discover d i f f e r e n c e s i n m o t i v a t i o n among groups c l a s s i f i e d according to grades i n the t o t a l sample, a l l males were drawn from the sample and d i v i d e d i n t o an honours group (average grades of 6$% or b e t t e r ) and a f a i l u r e group (average grades of l e s s than $0%) The hypothesis t h a t d i f f e r e n c e s i n academic performance between the subgroups i n the p a i r s were a s s o c i a t e d w i t h d i f f e r e n c e s i n average rankings of the p r i n c i p a l reasons of the subgroups was t e s t e d . The hypothesis te s t e d where the sample had been d i v i d e d i n t o males and females was that d i f f e r e n c e s i n the average rankings between the two sub-groups would be s i g n i f i c a n t . The average rankings f o r the subgroups were obtained by computing the mean of the ranks assigned to each of the p r i n c i p a l reasons by the members of ko the subgroups and ranking these. The test for the significance of differences between the average rankings was calculated according to procedures developed by White (1952). The r e l i a b i l i t i e s of the average rank orders as e s t i -mates of each individual*s rank order i n the subgroups were calculated for each of the subgroups (Edwards, 195^). In addition, the c o e f f i c i e n t of concordance (Kendall, 1955) was calculated on each subgroup to determine the extent to which members of the groups agreed in their comparative judgments. It was f e l t that this c o e f f i c i e n t of concordance would provide an estimate of the extent to which the groups were responding to some c u l t u r a l stereotype (perhaps the soc i a l d e s i r a b i l i t y value of each p r i n c i p a l reason). Corrections for inconsistencies of judgments were made throughout the analysis i n a l l s t a t i s t i c a l techniques requir-ing them (Edwards, 195J+). Inconsistencies appeared where c i r c u l a r t r i a d s were present. The students chose a f i r s t p r i n c i p a l reason over another, and then after choosing the second over a t h i r d , chose the t h i r d over the f i r s t . Errors i n judgment, therefore, appeared. Since each p r i n c i p a l reason was expected to be indicative of some motivation towards academic achievement or a lack of i t , the p o s s i b i l i t y existed that the rank assigned to each of the p r i n c i p a l reasons by the individual would indicate the student 1s motivation for academic achievement. Further analysis, therefore, was conducted to test If the predominance of any p r i n c i p a l reason in each student's ranking was related to his le v e l of academic achievement. Subjects were assigned to one of three groups according to the rank they assigned to each p r i n c i p a l reason and the a-nalysis of variance was computed upon the means of their average grades to determine i f the three groups d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n their grades. The analysis of variance in the means of the students* grades was computed for the individual p r i n c i p a l reason to test If the predominance of any p r i n c i p a l reason in the students* rankings was related to their level of academic achievement. Significance tests were computed for the F values. The students were a r b i t r a r i l y assigned to one of three groups for each p r i n c i p a l reason according to the rank assigned to each. P r i n c i p a l reasons ranked from position 1 to were considered as of importance to the student, those assigned the ranks of 5 to 9 . 5 were considered as of medium importance, and those assigned the ranks of 1€ to 15 were considered as having no influence on the student's behavior according to his perception. *TIed ranks received the mean of the ranks o r d i n a r i l y assigned to them. CHAPTER VI RESULTS OF THE PAIRED COMPARISON QUESTIONNAIRE Analysis was conducted on the data from the paired comparison questionnaire to test the hypothesis that d i f f e r -ences i n academic performance among the students were asso-ciated with differences i n the rank orders of the f i f t e e n p r i n c i p a l reasons for attending u n i v e r s i t y . The sample was divided into various pairs of subgroups according to d i f f e r -ences in academic grades and differences in sex and the pairs were examined for differences between the subgroups in them. In addition, analysis was conducted to test If the predominance of any p r i n c i p a l reason; in each student's ranking was related to his level of academic achievement. The results of the tests for the significance of the differences between the average rank orders of the p r i n c i p a l reasons for the various subgroups and the res u l t s of the analysis of variance are presented below. The results of the analysis of the four pairs of subgroups follows the same order as i n the preceding chapter. 1. The average rank order of the group c l a s s i f i e d above the median in grades was found not to d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y from the average rank order of the group c l a s s i f i e d below the median, according to grades. The mean rank order for each individual p r i n c i p a l reason and the ranks of these means for these subgroups are given in Table 1. Table 1 2. Differences between the average rank orders of the honours group and the f a i l u r e group were found not to be s i g n i f i c a n t . Therefore, differences in average rankings for the subgroups did not appear to be associated with differences in average grades. Mean rank orders of the pr i n c i p a l reasons and the rank of these means for these subgroups are given in Table 2. Table 2 3. S i g n i f i c a n t differences were not disclosed between the average rank orders of the males and the females. The average rank orders did not seem to d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y between the sexes. The mean rank order for each individual p r i n c i p a l reason and the ranks of these means for each sub-group are given in Table 3» Table 3 TABLE 1 Mean Rank Orders of the P r i n c i p a l Reasons and the Rank of these Means for Subgroups of Students Above and Below the Median A l l subjects A l l subjects above median below median in grades (N=s8o) i n grades (N=S3) P r i n c i p a l Reasons * Mean Rank Mean Rank 1 3 i+.21 2 2 11.11 13 11.10 13 3 6.51 6 7.07 7 k 9.03 9 8.05 9 5 5.26 5 $.kk 5 6 3.87 2 5.17 3 7 3.86 1 3.61 1 8 7.85 8 7.57 8 9 i+.98 k 5.»+o k 10 10.38 12 9.6k 11 11 9.2k 10 9.61 10 12 13.®3 15 12.81+ lk 13 7.32 7 7.0k 6 lk 9.87 11 9.81+ 12 15 12.76 11+ 13.33 * Numbers refer to the l i s t i n g on pp. 28-29 and i n Appendix TABLE 2 Mean Rank Orders of the P r i n c i p a l Reasons and the Rank of these Means for Subgroups of Honours and Fai l u r e Students F a i l u r e Honours students students (N=59) (N=30) P r i n c i p a l Reasons * Mean Rank Mean Rank 1 k.kl 2 5.32 5 2 10.91+ 13 11.32 13 3 7.01 7 6.88 6 k 8.25 9 9.27 9 5 5.05 3 1+.80 1+ 6 5.23 h 3.90 1 7 3.55 1 1+.07 2 8 7.1+1+ 8 7.95 8 9 5.59 5 l+.t+Q 3 10 9.26 10 10.60 12 11 10.30 12 9.33 10 12 13.11+ 11+ 12.53 11+ 13 6.95 6 6.91 7 11+ 9.1+5 11 9.37 11 15 13.3© 15 13.28 15 *Numbers refer to the l i s t i n g on pp. 28-29 and i n Appendix TABLE 3 Mean Rank Orders of the P r i n c i p a l Reasons and the Rank of these Means for Subgroups of Male and Female Students Male Female students students (N=l©7) (N-56) P r i n c i p a l Reason •» Mean Rank Mean Rank 1 3.88 2 5.85 5 2 10.51 13 12.22 3 7.36 6 5.76 k k 8.88 9 7.86 9 5 5.21 5 5.62 3 6 1+.09 3 5.38 1 7 2.79 1 5.53 2 8 8.33 8 6.51 8 9 1+.73 k 6.06 7 1© 10.36 12 9.30 11 11 9.92 11 8.1+8 10 12 12.86 11+ 13.06 15 13 7.83 7 5.92 6 lk 9.66 1© 10.22 12 15 13.51 15 12.16 13 ^Numbers refer to the l i s t i n g on pp. 28-29 and i n Appendix k» The test for the significance of differences be-tween the average rank orders of the male honours group and the male f a i l u r e group f a i l e d to reveal any s i g n i f i c a n t differences. Mean rank orders of the p r i n c i p a l reasons and the rank of these means for these subgroups are given in Table k» Table k The average rankings of the p r i n c i p a l reasons for the subgroups were found to be highly r e l i a b l e estimates of the individual rank orders i n the subgroups. The c o e f f i c i e n t s of r e l i a b i l i t y for each of the subgroups are summarized i n Table 5. In addition, the c o e f f i c i e n t s of concordance were s i g n i f i c a n t in a l l groups indicating a high degree of agree-ment among the members of the subgroups in their comparative judgments. These c o e f f i c i e n t s are also summarized in Table 5. Table 5 With the exception of two cases, the analysis of v a r i -ance i n the means of the average grades did not reveal any TABLE k Mean Rank Orders of the P r i n c i p a l Reasons and the Rank of these Means for Subgroups of Male Honours Students and Male Fa i l u r e Students. Male honours Male f a i l u r e students stmdents (N=20) (N=l+2) P r i n c i p a l Reason * Mean Rank Mean Rank 1 3.95 3 3.69 2 2 10.85 12 10.56 12 3 7.65 6.5 7.61 6 k 9.35 9 8.06 9 5 k . l k 5 k 6 3.28 1 ^.28 3 7 3.38 2 2.78 1 8 8.75 8 7.91+ 8 9 1+.35 k 5.51+ 5 10 11.30 13 9.69 l l 11 9.72 11 11.82 13 12 12.00 lk 13.12 lk 13 7.65 6.5 7.77 7 1^  9.1+2 10 9.39 10 15 13.50 15 ^ ... . 13.63 15 ^Numbers refer to the l i s t i n g on pp. 28-29 and i n Appendix TABLE 5 The R e l i a b i l i t y of the Mean Rank Orders as Estimates of the Individual Rank Orders in the Subgroups and the C o e f f i c i e n t s of Concordance Subgroups W A l l above median .98 .1+8 A l l below median .98 .1+5 Honours students .96 .1+8 F a i l u r e students .97 .1+5 Males .98 .51+ Females .95 .38 Male honours .98 .55 Male f a i l u r e s .98 .5t+ so s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t differences in average grades amongst the three c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s of students grouped according to the i r assigned rank on each p r i n c i p a l r e a s o n -important, medium importance, no perceived influence on thei r behavior. The computed F values for the p r i n c i p a l reasons are summarized In Table 6. (See pp. 28-29 for the p r i n c i p a l reasons). Table 6 Attending university because i t Is required for the student's preferred future profession (#6) appears to d i f f e r e n t i a t e students according to grades with the superior student ascribing i t to himself more often than the under-achieving student. The F value for p r i n c i p a l reason 6 equaled 5«78, s i g n i f i c a n t at the .01 l e v e l . The extremely high F value for p r i n c i p a l reason 12 has been attributed to sampling error. Only one student rated this p r i n c i p a l reason as of high importance to him. In addition, this student's average grade was highly a t y p i c a l . These factors compounded to give the unusually high F value. Inspection of the data y i e l d s no evidence to support a claim that t h i s p r i n c i p a l reason d i f f e r e n t i a t e s students according to grades. TABLE 6 Analysis of Variance in Means of the Average Grades of Students C l a s s i f i e d into Groups According to their Ranks assigned to Each P r i n c i p a l Reason P r i n c i p a l P r i n c i p a l Reason Reason 1 .11* 9 .07 2 1.28 10 2.1+0 3 .19 11 l.k$ k »kk 12 31.86a 5 .12 13 .97 6 5 .78 # lk 1.33 7 .56 15 .77 8 1.13 / S i g n i f i c a n t at the .01 l e v e l . a S I g n i f i c a n c e attributed to sampling error. CHAPTER VII DISCUSSION AND CONCLUDING REMARKS The hypothesis that the motivation expressed i n the students* reasons for coming to uni v e r s i t y is related to academic achievement has received only limited support in the data of this study. Attempts to f i n d associations of s u f f i c i e n t magnitude to support the hypothesis by comparing the f i f t e e n p r i n c i p a l reasons developed from a sample of the students* stated reasons with the students* academic grades has met with f a i l u r e with one exception. Attending unive r s i t y because this education is a prerequisite for the student*s profession was considered to be a more important factor in influencing decisions to attend u n i v e r s i t y by the superior students than by the under-achieving students. The motivation for academic achievement appears to be related to this s e l f - a s c r i b e d reason for behavior. It may have indicated seriousness of orientation with respect to l i f e purpose which Crawford (1929) found to be linked with academic success. Students ranking this reason high appear to have a stronger goal orientation. In addition, these students express a c l a r i t y in their purpose for attending univ e r s i t y in their expression of an 53 orientation towards an occupational goal. This definiteness of an occupational goal would seem to indicate these students recognize the necessity of superior academic performance i f their goals are to be attained. The significance of t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p may also be a t t r i b u t e d , in part, to a r e f l e c t i o n of a more generalized need for status in oar highly mobile society. Successful completion of a u n i v e r s i t y course and entering professional occupations are conceived to be highly desirable symbols of status in our society. A f i n a l factor which may account for part of the r e l a -tionship between t h i s reason and academic achievement Is the f a c t that the student who states that i t i s an i n f l u e n t i a l factor in determining his decision to e n r o l l at u n i v e r s i t y may be expressing a long range goal whereas the other stu-dents may be oriented by short range goals. The long range goals may provide a continuous orientation towards and recognition of a continual need for superior academic achieve-ment. There does not appear to be any bias in the sample due to the 27 students refusing to complete the paired comparison questionnaire or f a i l i n g to report for appointments. These students appear to be t y p i c a l of the others in the sample insofar as their average grades are concerned. The mean average grade of these students was 5fy.9% whereas the mean of the average grades of the students to whom the question-naire was administered was 5k'5%>* No estimate is available of the l i k e l y performance of the students who dropped oat of classes p r i o r to the examinations. It has been concluded, therefore, that either the motivation determining the decision to attend u n i v e r s i t y is not a s i g n i f i c a n t factor contributing to academic achieve-ment or that the underlying motivation for the decision i s not r e f l e c t e d in th i s paired comparison questionnaire. The second conclusion seems to be the more tenable in l i g h t of the d e f i c i e n c i e s of the technique and in terms of the s i g -n i f i c a n t c o e f f i c i e n t of concordance. It is suggested that the c o e f f i c i e n t of concordance may be an ind i c a t i o n of the extent to which the students 1 responses were simply opinions based upon some c u l t u r a l stereotype of s o c i a l d e s i r a b i l i t y and did not r e f l e c t the underlying motivation, although i t s significance may in part be due to the fac t that students do attend u n i v e r s i t y for highly common and similar reasons. The significance of the one self-ascribed reason for behavior related to academic achievement may be attributed to the f a c t that even though i t has a s o c i a l l y desirable value i t s e l f , the low achieving students s t i l l did not consider t h i s to be an important reason for attending u n i v e r s i t y whereas the superior students did. The questionnaire, in i t s present form without some control of the factor of s o c i a l d e s i r a b i l i t y present in each of the p r i n c i p a l reasons does not have any value in d i f f e r -entiating between students of close to median a b i l i t y as measured by the SCAT according to grades. It i s suggested, however, that i f i t s use was r e s t r i c t e d to individual ad-ministration and interpretation, and i f accompanied by a set of norms developed on the s o c i a l d e s i r a b i l i t y scale values of the p r i n c i p a l reasons, the questionnaire might allow recognition of the entering student who has p a r t i c u -l a r l y strong motives for e n r o l l i n g . Further questioning may s t i l l be needed to determine reasonsofor coming to univer-s i t y which are not included on the questionnaire. These highly individual reasons may be of great significance to the individual and have considerable influence on subsequent performance. It has been recognized that the conclusions that have been reached have relevance to a very limited group since the study was based upon students of close to median a b i l -i t y . There has been no evidence provided In this study to either refute or support claims that a r e l a t i o n s h i p may exi s t between the stated reasons for coming to u n i v e r s i t y and the academic performance of students of high and low a b i l i t y . The p o s s i b i l i t y exists that these students would subscribe to e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t reasons for attending uni-v e r s i t y . Further research, therefore, may be warranted on the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the self-ascribed reasons for attending university which these students subscribe to and the i r academic attainment. CHAPTER VIII SUMMARY The primary purpose of t h i s study was to determine the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the reasons students ascribe to them-selves for coming to u n i v e r s i t y and their subsequent academic achievement. A p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between the two v a r i -ables was hypothesized. Assumption of some degree of v a l i d -i t y of the self-ascribed reasons as measures of motivation provides a j u s t i f i c a t i o n for the investigation which is p r i m a r i l y pragmatic. In order to test the hypothesis, i t was necessary to determine empirically the p r i n c i p a l reasons that students w i l l ascribe to themselves and a t t r i b u t e to others for attending university. A preliminary questionnaire was constructed requesting these reasons and administered to 133 f i r s t year students. The students 1 responses were c l a s s i f i e d and grouped according to s i m i l a r i t i e s in order to reduce the reasons to the number required for a paired comparison ques-tionnaire. F i f t e e n representative and unambiguous p r i n c i -pal reasons were resolved. Consideration was given to the advantages and l i m i t a -tions of the questionnaire method, and the questionnaire technique using paired comparisons was f e l t to be the most suitable technique for the present study. The paired comparison questionnaire was constructed and administered to 163 f i r s t year students from the Faculty of Arts and Science of close to median a b i l i t y as measured by the SCAT. To test the hypothesis, students in the sample were c l a s s i f i e d Into subgroups according to l e v e l of achieve-ment and, in order to determine whether sex differences were reducing the significance of differences between subgroups on achievement, the sample was divided into male and female groups. In addition, analysis of variance In the students' grades was computed on the individual p r i n c i p a l reasons to test i f the predominance of any p r i n c i p a l reason for a student was related to his l e v e l of academic achievement. Analysis of the average rank orders of the p r i n c i p a l reasons for the d i f f e r e n t subgroups f a i l e d to indicate that differences in these rank orders between the groups c l a s -s i f i e d according to level of achievement and sex were s i g -n i f i c a n t . With the exception of one case, the analysis of variance did not reveal any s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between this measure of motivation and academic achievement. At-tending university because i t is considered by the students to be required for their preferred profession was considered to be a more important factor in influencing decisions to attend u n i v e r s i t y by the superior students than by the under-achieving students. Therefore, the hypothesis that the motivation expressed In the students* responses for coming to u n i v e r s i t y is related to academic achievement received only very limited support i n t h i s study. This has been att r i b u t e d largely to a f a i l u r e to determine the underlying motivation for the decision to attend and to indications that students* re-sponses to the paired comparison questionnaire were based large l y upon some c u l t u r a l stereotype of s o c i a l d e s i r a b i l i t y . REFERENCES A l l p o r t , G.W. The trend in motivational theory. Amer. J . Orthopsychiat., 1953, 23, 108-119. Applezweig, M.H., Moeller, G., & Burdick, H.A. Multi-motive prediction of academic success. Psychol. Rep., 1956, 2, 489-496. Atkinson, J.W. (Ed.) Motives i n fantasy, action, and  society. Princeton, N.J.: Van Nostrand, 1958. Bendig, A.W. Comparison of the v a l i d i t y of two temperament scales in predicting college achievement. J . educ.  Psychol., 1958, $1, 605-609. Bendig, A.W. Manifest anxiety and projective and objective measures of need for achievement. J . consult. Psychol., 1957, 21, 354. Bloom, B.C., & Heyns, I.D. Development and applications of tests of educational a enlevement. Rev, educ. Res., 1956, XXVI, 72-88. Borow, H. Current problems i n the prediction of college performance. J . Amer. C o l l . Registr., 194&, 22, 14-26. Brown, W.F., Abeles, N., & Iscoe, I. Motivational d i f f e r -ences between high and low scholarship college students. J . educ. Psychol, 1954, 45, 215-223. Chabbazi, P. Use of projective techniques In predicting college achievement. Educ. psycho1. Measmt., 1956, 16, 538-542. Cooperative school and college a b i l i t y t e s t . Princeton, N.J.: Education Testing Service, 1955. Crawford, A.B. Incentives to study. New Haven, Conn.: Yale U n i v e r s i t y press, 1929. DeCharms, R., Morrison, H.W., Reitman, W., & McClelland, D.C. Behavioral correlates of d i r e c t l y and i n d i r e c t l y measured achievement motivation. In D.D. McClelland (£d.), Studies i n motivation. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1955. Pp. 414-423. Divesta, F.J., Woodruff, A.D., & Hertel, J.P. Motivation as a predictor of college success. Educ. psycho1. Measmt., 191+9, 9, 339-3^+8. Edwards, A.L. S t a t i s t i c a l methods for the behavioral  sciences. New York: RInehart, 195k., Edwards, A.L. Techniques of attitude scale construction. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1957. Edwards, A.L. 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S i g n i f i c a n t research on the prediction of academic success. In W.T. Donahue, C H . Coombs, and R.M.W. Travers (Eds.), The measurement of student  adjustment and achievement. Ann Arbor, Mich.: Univ. of Mich. Press, 191+9. U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia calendar, lj.6th session, 1 9 6 0 _ 6 K Weiss, P., Wertheimer, M., & Groesbeck, B. Achievement motivation, academic aptitude, and college grades. Educ. psychol. Measmt., 1959, 19, 663-666. White, C. The use of ranks in a test of significance for comparing two treatments. Biometrics, 1952, 8, 33-41. APPENDIX A PRELIMINARY QUESTIONNAIRE ADMINISTERED TO A SAMPLE OF FIRST YEAR STUDENTS TO OBTAIN A LARGE AND VARIED SAMPLE OF THE REASONS FOR COMING TO UNIVERSITY THESIS QUESTIONNAIRE February, I 9 6 0 Names are not requested. Co n f i d e n t i a l . Faculty; Year; C i r c l e M or F Answer the following questions as completely as possible. Use the back of the page i f needed. 1. Give the reasons why you f e e l that students i n general come to un i v e r s i t y . L i s t form is suggested. 2. Why do you think a very close f r i e n d of yours came to university? Think of an intimate f r i e n d s p e c i f i c a l l y and write down his f a c u l t y and year along with the reason. As accurately as possible, give your reason(s) for coming to u n i v e r s i t y . Thank you. APPENDIX B STUDENTS REASONS FOR COMING T© UNIVERSITY CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO THE DERIVED MOTIVES 68 1. It w i l l provide me with secarity for the fatare. I wanted security. Secarity - better chance when I apply for a job. For an education in terms of security. I don't l i k e working at jobs with not much future. (related to 6 & 7). To provide w i l l for a wife and family in the future. To gain knowledge so that future l i f e may be secure. Training in Education w i l l help raise her c h i l -dren. To get a fee l i n g of secarity, pride, and superi-o r i t y , (related to 2 ) . To gain security in the future. To take advantage of an opportunity t© make his future secure. Looking for a secure future. If ever needs a job again in the future aft e r marriage, she can always get one. (related to 7). W i l l be able to work after marriage to help get good s t a r t . Want to have a good paying job to be able to r e l y upon, If something happens to husband, etc. She is a singer and she wants to have some other profession in case she loses her voice or does not l i k e singing in a few years. W i l l better their l i v e s , make the i r futures more secure and happy. It w i l l give me greater s o c i a l prestige and status. To put myself that much above as many other people as possible educationally i . e . an incentive not only to come to uni v e r s i t y but to success-f u l l y complete my courses. Can't have the kind of l i f e you want without a good education, (related to 3 , 5 , 6 , & 7). To rais e myself above the socio-economic level of parents and s i b l i n g s . To be more s o c i a l l y acceptable. To work towards eventually gaining authority and prestige. Prestige of u n i v e r s i t y . Some students come to a un i v e r s i t y with the sole purpose of bragging because they are going to a univ e r s i t y with no desire to complete a k year course. He wants to get ahead i n the world and r e a l i z e s that the knowledge he w i l l get at the uni-v e r s i t y w i l l enable him to achieve his goal more rapidly, (related to 6 & 7 ) . He figures when he gets out he w i l l l i v e and be associated with the better peoples of the nation (higher educated). Gain prestige when: job hunting; l i v i n g in the community. To gain knowledge i n order to be accepted by high society. To get ahead in a specialized age and culture, (related to 5 , 6 , & 7 ) . In order to be generally recognized as an "edu-cated person". Because i t was the only thing an i n t e l l i g e n t person should do who wishes to get ahead. Desire to be "Collegiate". (related to It).). For the sake of appearance in later l i f e to say that he has attended such and such a uni v e r s i t y . To s a t i s f y their dreams of materialism i . e . good job, large income, large house, etc. To prove s u p e r i o r i t y over masses. To become more acceptable s o c i a l l y . (related to 3 ) . To gain a c e r t a i n amomnt of prestige. They w i l l enjoy greater esteem in their communi-ti e s due to t h e i r above-average education. Some, I think, come out here just so that they can become the president of a number of clubs no matter how dumb they are or how much i t s going to cost them in t u i t i o n . (related to 14). It provides an opportunity for well rounded personality  development. I f e l t i t would be an excellent preparation for the time when I would take my place in the adult work, because I wanted to be w e l l -informed, mature in outlook, and be able to get along with a l l types of people. To Improve myself - to gain confidence and so on. To learn how to cope with many types of prob-lems. When I marry I want to marry an i n t e l l e c t u a l equal or better and the only way I w i l l r e a l l y f e e l I deserve t h i s is by educating myself as well as possible. I would l i k e to obtain an education that would allow me to get more out of l i f e , seeing things perhaps I would never see, and be able to ta l k i n t e l l i g e n t l y with most people. W i l l enable to lead a better and f u l l e r l i f e , (related to 1,2,5,7 & 8 ) . Search for insight and understanding, (related to 5 ) . I believe also that three or four years of l i b e r a l education w i l l enable me to think, write, and speak more l o g i c a l l y and force-f u l l y and help me to form a sounder basic philosophy for l i v i n g . To grow up, more mature. Sophistication. (related to 2 & 5 ) . To develop a more rounded personality. To enter new f i e l d s and a way of l i f e thus enabling people to become more mature and accept r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . She hoped to broaden her understanding of people To broaden their scope of learning In order to become more useful individuals, (related to 8 & 5 ) . I want to understand problems in t h i s world that continually puzzle me and to f i n d some an-swers to questions I have always asked. I think univ e r s i t y is the best place to f i n d these solutions, (related to 5 ) . To develop mental a b i l i t y for personal s a t i s -f a c t i o n . To gain an understanding of many d i f f e r e n t types of people - race, creed, colour, etc. To gain a c r i t i c a l mind. I primarily wanted to get a good education that would enable me to enjoy my l i f e . To r e f i n e my personal tastes - that i s , learn more about the a r t s . I received encouragement or strong pressure from family, friends or others. Parents were very enthusiastic about my coming. My parents and high school teachers thought I had enough in t e l l i g e n c e to take on higher education. To a ce r t a i n extent, in defiance of his parents who f e l t he didn't need u n i v e r s i t y education for the work he was going Into. Parents request or make children go because i t gives them a sense of pride to say children have a univer s i t y education. Expected of him. Pushed by parents when r e a l l y didn't want to go. Father died and came pa r t l y because father would have wanted him to. Taken for granted that they would go to univer-s i t y by teachers, friends, etc. and didn't want to disappoint them. Everything was made easy for her: her r e l a t i v e s finance her, and a l l she has to do is t r y to make good grades. My father achieved his degree in science at UBC and I heard many tales about university l i f e which furthered my in t e r e s t . I followed the group feeling that I would need education for farther attainment in l i f e . Because i t is "the thing to do". Some come because the "Jones" boy or g i r l across the street has gone, (related to 12 & 2 ) . Attended a school that had only a univer s i t y program so i t was assumed from grade nine that I would e n r o l l . 75 Some due to influence on them by their class of society. It seemed the best thing to do. They are able to obtain the money. It is the t r a d i t i o n of the family to send their sons and daughter to uni v e r s i t y . Feel they should: parental and so c i a l pressures. Mother e s p e c i a l l y wished me to gain as much education as possible. Recognition of the f a c t that a good education is becoming a necessity and is no longer the exception but the r u l e . Parents f e l t that he should have an opportunity to get a better education than they had. She was raised to believe that i t was what her parents wanted f o r her and by coming she s a t i s f i e d them. Because of high family education ( a l l college grads). 5. It w i l l provide opportunities for my i n t e l l e c t u a l development and s a t i s f a c t i o n of my I n t e l l e c t u a l c a r i o s i t y . Sincere i n t e l l e c t u a l c a r i o s i t y . To develop your i n t e l l e c t for a higher than average knowledge. To learn as much as 1 can. I wanted to Increase my awareness of the world by learning more. To be able to express their own opinions and get a f a i r chance at what Is r i g h t . Established a goal as long as can remember to attend and complete university (related to 6 & 7). It is merely the next step beyond f i n i s h i n g high school. (related to 7 & 6). To obtain further knowledge in a f i e l d that a student already knows for personal gain or s a t i s f a c t i o n . Because I have enjoyed school since the day I was enrolled. (related to l l | ) . To understand the problems and a f f a i r s which take place in our everchanging world. To broaden their scope of knowledge. T h i r s t for knowledge. Many come because they f e e l that they w i l l "get cultured" —much l i k e cottage cheese. I have just never considered the p o s s i b i l i t y of not coming to u n i v e r s i t y . I have always li k e d learning, and i t seemed natural that I should continue doing something I enjoy. She is f i t t e d for further mental t r a i n i n g . Mentality is such that i t could only be g r a t i f i e d in a seat of higher learning. Her exceptional a t h l e t i c a b i l i t y coupled with her high I.Q. make inevitable the fac t that she should be here. (related to 1+ & 111), To learn more than they now know. The urge to f i n d out new things ( c u r i o s i t y ) . Because they have a genuine desire to learn. Because they are interested in learning and discovery. To widen a person's conception of the world today and how he would f i t in such a world. In order to f u l f i l l t h e i r need of knowledge personally. Interest i n , e.g. engineering, languages, which are taught at uni v e r s i t y . (related to 6 & 7). To acquire an education — to learn about many varied things. She is very smart and won several scholarships so she pretty well had to come, (related to 6). A means of laying groundwork necessary for study out of un i v e r s i t y . To continue studying a course that they f i n d i n t e r e s t i n g . She was interested i n languages and u n i v e r s i t y was the place where she could develop her knowledge of them. To s p e c i a l i z e in a f i e l d of study they f e e l they are interested i n . (related to 6 & 7). I went to u n i v e r s i t y to get a better under-standing and appreciation of the a r t s , e s p e c i a l l y l i t e r a t u r e as I read a l o t and want to read good books. I f e e l that I am presently a r e l a t i v e l y ignorant person and the vast store of knowledge a v a i l -able at a u n i v e r s i t y is a stimulating challenge Primarily, to become educated and to learn. To secure a sound l i b e r a l education. Because they have a c u r i o s i t y about subjects which cannot be s a t i s f i e d as quickly or completely elsewhere. The reason (other was j u s t run of m i l l ) why she is attending university and why she would not be s a t i s f i e d with a monotonous job i s her i n t e l l i g e n c e , which prompts her to want to further her knowledge. 79 6. My preferred profession requires a U n i v e r s i t y education. Enable them to get into a c e r t a i n profession of their desire. Profession wish to enter, requires a univ e r s i t y degree, I wanted to be a teacher. To be able to teach. Hard to get a good job without specialized t r a i n i n g . (related to 7 ) . To work with children after graduating in edu-cation, (related to 8 ) . I enjoy working with children and I f e e l teaching is one of the best ways of working with them. They desire to become a professional in a c e r t a i n f i e l d One year is needed before one can enter into some professions (lab. tech.). So that I would be able to pass what I learn on to school students. To get into the f i e l d of work he f e l t himself suited to. Vocational choice (teaching) requires u n i v e r s i t y education. For preparation to hold higher positions in Nursing. To a t t a i n s p e c i a l i z a t i o n in their chosen f i e l d such as Education, Engin 1, etc. To obtain training in some specia l i z e d f i e l d quite often with the objective of earning more money when they graduate, (related to 7). Dreamed of doing s o c i a l work, (related to 8). Can further interest developed by working with children in summer camps by taking up educa-ti o n . I want to become a teacher because 1 f e e l that I have something to offer in the teaching profession. To pursue chosen f i e l d . Doesn't f e e l work in any other f i e l d w i l l be s a t i s f y i n g . To obtain background for ones future occupation, (related to 7). It may provide me with a better job in terms of salary, personal s a t i s f a c t i o n , and opportunity for advancement. To gain the knowledge necessary for the higher income bracket. Opportunities of advancement are better. Preparation or tra i n i n g required to secure a better job (related to 6). This f r i e n d came to uni v e r s i t y a f t e r working two years. In that time he found out just how hard i t was to get anywhere without an education. Greater personal s a t i s f a c t i o n in work. I could think of nothing worse than working at a routine job. The desire to work for himself, to do things when and how he sees best. I wanted to do something more than s i t at a typewriter a l l day. Was t i r e d of swinging a hammer a l l day as did before, (related to 6). G i r l s come because do not f e e l l i k e getting married taking s e c r e t a r i a l job'. (related to 11). To get a better education to secure better jobs with more pay. It w i l l enable me to be of more help and service to  others So she could go out and help the community. To help others. F e l t t h i s i s the only way he could serve mankind and obtain security at the same time, (related to 2 ) . I wanted to explore various f i e l d s in order to decide  upon a profession and future plans. To explore various f i e l d s for determining one's profession. A means of finding out what one's purpose is in L i f e through a large range of electlves (courses, pastimes, e t c . ) . Search of a p r o f e s s i o n — n o t sure of which one. Some students don't know what they want to do so they come out here to make up their minds. To f i n d out i f I was suited for i t and had the a b i l i t y to do uni v e r s i t y work. W i l l give me a good basis for my decision in choosing my occupation. I came to fin d out my l i k e s and d i s l i k e s and what I am good at or bad at. Some come because they are as yet undecided as to their future. (related to 11). To determine whether 1 wished to become a teacher. Because I didn't have a d e f i n i t e goal i n mind such as a nurse or stenographer and the only other.\obvious place to go was univ e r s i t y , (related to 7). Because I didn't know what else I wanted to do. To decide on a vocation and master i t . They are undecided as to what they should do i f anything. Hadn't decided upon a profession and thought maybe one year at un i v e r s i t y would allow him to make a decision. To decide on future plans. To f i l l in time while they are trying to decide what to do with their l i v e s . When I go out to work, I won't have to be bored with the same type of monotonous work ( l i k e dltchdigging, house painting, etc.). I had been working for two years and found that I was not achieving goals that I had wished f o r . In some cases i t is a stepping stone to a f a i r l y good job which w i l l open opportunities for doing other things, (a g i r l becoming a • teacher a f t e r 2 or 3 years, saving money -then t r a v e l l i n g ) . Qk To enable to command better positions i n later l i f e than with high school. Don't l i k e manual or s k i l l e d labour. She didn't want to be just any "ordinary person" (working g i r l ) . Very few people without a good education get steady, well-paid jobs, (related to 1 ) . Want a good job and security and this is one of the acceptable ways of doing i t . (related to 7). I want to prepare myself for an interesting job that w i l l ensure my independence. (related to 1) . To a v a i l myself of a wider range of jobs. Not interested in any work connected with com-merce so decided to come to uni v e r s i t y , (related to 6 & 7). The educated are usually in a better p o s i t i o n to a t t a i n f i n a n c i a l and s o c i a l success, (related to 2 ) . To get jobs - don't care which one - that pro-duces good wages and not give a darn about the society in which they l i v e , (related to 2 ) . Almost a necessity to have education past grade 12 to get a decent paying job. 85 Am a year younger than most kids and would j u s t get the very minimum in salary, (related to 1 1 ) . Salaries are higher. Escape from many problems of the working man. (related to 1 1 ) . To provide background for farthering career opportunities. (related to 6 ) . 10* I wanted a change from my home commonity and to assume  some independence. Get away from home and be s l i g h t l y Independent. In order to get to a bigger c i t y . To get away from a small town. To a ce r t a i n extent I wanted to leave home and be independent and responsible for myself. Came In spite of my parents—so I ' l l gain some independence not dependence upon them as they would l i k e . To get away from home. In order to escape eternal parental nagging. To get into a d i f f e r e n t way of l i f e . -II. I didn't f e e l that I was ready to, or wanted to, s t a r t  working. To have a reason for not working. Do not accept r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of steady job tinder employer. No training for a s p e c i f i c job and didn't wish to get married. (related to 6 ) . Because they don't want to leave home or their parents yet. (related to 1). She came because she is not mature enough to support he r s e l f by working and is thus more or less f i l l i n g time. I can have as much free time as I want. To avoid manual work. Because the person is unprepared to accept the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of working for a l i v i n g and can f i n d the necessary escape from r e a l i t y in a sheltered academic l i f e . To avoid having to go out to work for another year. Nothing else to do--no ambition or incentive to get a job—attempt to f o r e s t a l l getting a job for another !+ years. Because they think i t is easier than working for a l i v i n g . A f r a i d to leave world of the student and become a wage earner. 87 I am too immature right now to work and the $obs I would get are unsatisfactory (pay, personal accomplishment). 12. I wanted to remain with my old fri e n d s . Come to be with fr i e n d s . Came because her boy fr i e n d came. 13 . It provides opportunities to meet d i f f e r e n t people and  make new fr i e n d s . So she could be accepted into a new group of people d i f f e r e n t from her previous f r i e n d s . (related to 2 ) . To meet the r i g h t people. (related to 2 ) . Being a new Canadian, meeting other young people who l i v e here. Opportunities of making new friends are so numerous here. Want to meet d i f f e r e n t people. To meet people who were at about the same level that she was wherein she could share common hopes and int e r e s t s . I want to share my r e l i g i o u s convictions. To meet people and make associations for la t e r business l i f e . Search for intimacy - feminine companionship at i n t e l l e c t u a l , s o c i a l and physical l e v e l s , (related to 2 ) . It provides many opportunities for p a r t i c i p a t i o n in  so c i a l and a t h l e t i c a c t i v i t i e s . To j o i n in the a c t i v i t i e s and clubs. To play sports. To have a good time—e.g. - s o c i a l l i f e revolving around f r a t e r n i t i e s - v a r s i t y functions, g i r l s , etc. To have a s o c i a l l i f e — a b a l l . Expect a well-rounded so c i a l l i f e . Heard a l o t about i t and a l l the a c t i v i t i e s so they want to try out university l i f e . Want to get in on the varied s o c i a l l i f e here. Social l i f e : now and l a t e r . Some come just to see what i t is l i k e . I was too young to go to a hospital for nurses t r a i n i n g . (related to 11). Some people come out ju s t to have something to do—they're not r e a l l y interested In learning at a l l . (related to 11). To j o i n f r a t e r n i t i e s and s o r o r i t i e s . U n i v e r s i t y l i f e is a real experience in i t s e l f . Some are entering professions (e.g. nursing) where there is an age l i m i t or a waiting l i s t so they came to f i l l in time while waiting, (related 11). To experience u n i v e r s i t y l i f e — c l u b s , debates, etc. I wanted to go for the new people, new events that take place, and many new things and types you are introduced to. Desire to be " c o l l e g l a t I am very interested i n sports and would probably have had to give them up i f I hadn»t come to univ e r s i t y . It provides an opportunity to meet a marriage partner. G i r l s come to, at least, keep the i r eyes open for a l i k e l y prospect for a husband. To f i n d a marriage partner. Mostly the female students come to the un i v e r s i t y j u s t to spend their time, because th i s is an easy l i f e , can get together with the boys, and later f i n d a husband and be married, (related to ll+). To get a husband/or wife. Husband hunting. The following were not c l a s s i f i e d because of their humorous q u a l i t y . To get a f r a t e r n i t y man and i f not, twenty ordinaries to compensate. To be able to express the extent of her assets to a much larger body of people. Boys to see i f they can get a much better look-ing g i r l considering how many are out here. To get a taste of poor food. He had a chance to play for the B.C. Lions but could not do so without a f i r s t year univer-s i t y education, and without playing for the Thunderbirds f i r s t . APPENDIX C ORDER OF THE 15 PRINCIPAL REASONS IN THE 1©5 ITEMS ON THE PAIRED COMPARISON QUESTIONNAIRE P r i n c i p a l 1 P r i n c i p a l P r i n c i p a l Item Reasons Item Reasons Item Reasons 1 1 - 2 36 9 - 1 3 71 4 - 9 2 3 mm 15 37 10 - 12 72 3 - 10 3 k - 14 38 1 1 - 1 * 73 2 - 11 4 5 - 13 39 4 - 5 74 15 - 12 5 6 - 12 40 3 - 6 75 14 - 13 6 7 11 k l 2 - 7 76 1 - 7 7 8 - 10 42 1 5 - 8 77 8 - 6 8 9 mm 1 43 1 4 - 9 78 9 - 5 9 2 - 3 44 13 - 10 79 I© - 4 10 15 k 1+5 12 - 11 80 11 - 3 11 14 - 5 46 1 - 5 * 81 12 - 2 12 13 - 6 47 6 - 4 82 13 - 15 13 12 - 7 48 7 - 3 83 14 - 1 lk 11 - 8 49 8 - 2 84 7 - 8 15 10 - 9 5© 9 - 1 5 85 6 - 9 16 1 - 3 * 51 10 - 14 86 5 - 10 17 k - 2 52 11 - 13 87 4 - 11 18 5 - 15 53 1 2 - 1 * 88 3 - 12 19 6 - 14 54 5 - 6 89 2 - 13 20 7 - 13 55 4 - 7 90 15 - 14 21 8 - 12 56 3 - 8 91 1 - 8 22 9 - 11 57 2 - 9 92 9 - 7 23 10 - 1 * 58 15 - 10 93 10 - 6 2k 3 - 4 59 14 - i i 94 11 - 5 25 2 - 5 60 13 - 12 * 95 12 - 4 26 15 - 6 61 1 - 6 - 96 13 - 3 27 lk - 7 62 7 - 5 97 14 - 2, 28 13 - 8 63 8 - 4 98 15 - 1 29 12 - 9 64 9 - 3 99 8 - 9 30 11 - 10 65 1 0 - 2 100 7 - 10 31 1 4 * 66 11 - 15 101 6 - 11 32 5 mm 3 67 12 - 14 102 5 - 12 33 6 - 2 68 1 3 - 1 * 103 4 - 13 3k 7 - 15 69 6 - 7 104 3 - 14 35 8 - 14 70 5 - 8 105 2 - 15 *- Space errors (12). Defined by Ross (1939) as those errors occurring when an item f a i l s to alternate.between f i r s t and second place i n the pai r s . 1 See pages 28-29 for a l i s t i n g of the p r i n c i p a l reasons. APPENDIX D THE PAIRED COMPARISON QUESTIONNAIRE Indicate on the answer sheet which statement i n each of ^ the following pairs of statements "comes closest to i n d i c a t i n g your reasons f o r coming to u n i v e r s i t y , even though you f e e l i t may not s t r i c t l y apply to you. Make a heavy black p e n c i l mark under either 1 or 2 for each item. A l l responses w i l l be kept s t r i c t l y CONFIDENTIAL "I CAME TO UNIVERSITY BECAUSE: 1. ( l ) It w i l l provide me with security f o r the future. (2; I t w i l l give me greater s o c i a l prestige and status. 2. ( l ) It provides an opportunity f o r well rounded personality development. (2) I t provides an opportunity to meet a marriage partner. 3 . ( l ) I received encouragement or strong pressure from family, friends or others. (2) It provides many opportunities f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n s o c i a l and a t h l e t i c a c t i v i t i e s . 4 . ( l ) It w i l l provide opportunities f o r my i n t e l l e c t u a l development and s a t i s f a c t i o n of my i n t e l l e c t u a l c u r i o s i t y . (2) It provides opportunities to meet d i f f e r e n t people and make new f r i e n d s . 5. ( l ) My preferred profession requires a u n i v e r s i t y education (2) I wanted to remain with my old f r i e n d s . 6. ( l ) It may provide me with a better job i n terms of salary, personal s a t i s f a c t i o n , and opportunity f o r advancement. (2) I didn't f e e l that I was ready to, or wanted to st a r t working. 7. (1) It w i l l enable me to be of more help and service to others. (2) I wanted a change from my home community and to assume some independence. 8. (1) I wanted to explore various f i e l d s i n order to decide upon a profession and future plans. (2) It w i l l provide me with security f o r the future. 9. (1) It w i l l give me greater s o c i a l prestige and status. (2) It provides an opportunity f o r well rounded personality development. 10. ( l ) I t provides an opportunity to meet a marriage partner. (2) I received encouragement or strong pressure from family, friends or others. 11. (1) It provides many opportunities f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n s o c i a l and a t h l e t i c a c t i v i t i e s . (2) It w i l l provide opportunities for my i n t e l l e c t u a l development and s a t i s f a c t i o n of m y i n t e l l e c t u a l c u r i o s i t y . 12. ( l ) It provides opportunities to meet d i f f e r e n t people and make new f r i e n d s . (2) My preferred profession requires a u n i v e r s i t y education. 95 13 (l) I wanted to remin-with my old f r i e n d s . ... ...(2) It may. provide me with a "better job in terms of salary, ' paxsonal s a t i s f a c t i o n , and opportunity f o r advancement. 14. ( l ) I didn't f e e l that I was ready to, or wanted to start working. (2) It w i l l enable me to be of more help and service to others, 15. (l) I wanted a, change from my home comv.ninits'- and to assume some independence. (2) I wanted to explore various f i e l d s in order to decid.e upon a profession and future plans* 16. (l) It w i l l -provide me with security f o r the future. ( 2 ; It providos an opportunity f o r well rounded, personality development. 17. ( l ) I received, encouragement or strong pressure from -family, friends or others. (2) It w i l l give me greater s o c i a l prestige and status. 18. ( l ) It w i l l provide opportunities f o r my i n t e l l e c t u a l development and s a t i s f a c t i o n of my i n t e l l e c t u a l c u r i o e i t y . (2) t provides an opportunity to meet a marriage partner, 19. ( l ) Ky preferred profession requires a University education. (2) It provides many opportunities f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n s o c i a l and a t h l e t i c a c t i v i t i e s , 20. ( l ) * t may provide me with a better j-o-"b- i n terms of salary, personal s a t i s f a c t i o n , and opportunity f o r advancement. (2) i t provides opportunities to meut d i f f e r e n t people and make new f r i e n d s . 21 (l) ^ t w i l l enable me to be of more help and service to others (2) I wanted to remain with my old f r i e n d s . « 22. (l) I wanted to explore various- f i e l d s in order to decide upon a profession and future i)lano. (2) I didn't f e e l that I was roads'- to, or wanted to st a r t working. 23. ( l ) I wanted a change from my home community and to assume some independence. (.2) * t w i l l provide me with security f o r the future. 24. (l) It provides an opportunity f o r well rounded personality development. (2) I received -encouragement or strong pressure from family, friends or others, 25. (l) It w i l l give me greater s o c i a l prestige a,nd status. (2) It w i l l provide opportunities f o r my i n t e l l e c t u a l development and s a t i s f a c t i o n of ray i n t e l l e c t u a l c u r i o s i t y . 26. ( l ) It provides an opportunity to moot a raa.rria.ge partner. (2) Ky preferred profession requires e. University education. 27. ( l ) -'•t provides many opportunities f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n s o c i a l and a t h l e t i c a c t i v i t i e s . (2) It may provide me with a better job i n terms of salary, •oersonal s a t i s f a c t i o n , and opportunity f o r advancement. -3- 96 •*-t p r o v i d e s o p p o r t u n i t i e s to meet d i f f e r e n t people and m?„ke new f r i e n d s . I t w i l l enable me to be of more i i c l p and s e r v i c e t o o t h e r s , I wanted to remain w i t h my o l d f r i e n d s . I wanted to expl o r e v a r i o u s f i e l d s i n order to decide upon a p r o f e s s i o n and f u t u r e p l a n s . I d i d n ' t f e e l t h a t I was ready t o , or wanted to s t a r t working, I wanted a change from my home community a,nd to assume some independence. I t w i l l p r o v i d e me w i t h s e c u r i t y f o r the f u t u r e , I r e c e i v e d encouragement or st r o n g pressure from f a m i l y , f r i e n d s or o t h e r s . I t w i l l p r o v i d e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r my i n t e l l e c t u a l development and s a t i - . f a c t i o n of my i n t e l l e c t u a l c u r i o s i t y . I t p r o v i d e s an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r w e l l rounded p e r s o n a l i t y development. My p r e f e r r e d p r o f e s s i o n r e q u i r e s a U n i v e r s i t y e d u c a t i o n . I t w i l l g i v e nie g r e a t e r s o c i a l p r e s t i g e a,nd s t a t u s . It ma,y p r o v i d e me w i t h a b e t t o r j o b i n terms of s a l a r y , persona,! s a t i s f a c t i o n , and o p p o r t u n i t y f o r advancement* ±t p r o v i d e s an o p p o r t u n i t y to meet a, ma,rria,ge p a r t n e r . I t w i l l enable me to be of more he l p and s e r v i c e to o t h e r s . I t p r o v i d e s ma>ny o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n s o c i a l and a , t h l e t i c a c t i v i t i e s . I wanted t o explore v a r i o u s f i e l d s i n order to decide upon a p r o f e s s i o n and f u t u r e p l a n s * I t p r o v i d e s o p p o r t u n i t i e s to meet d i f f e r e n t people and make new f r i e n d s , I wanted a. change from ray home community and t o assume some independence. I wanted to remain w i t h my o l d f r i e n d s . I d i d n ' t f e e l t h a t I was ready t o , or wanted t o s t a r t working. It w i l l p r o v i d e me w i t h s e c u r i t y f o r the f u t u r e . I r e c e i v e d encouragement or stro n g p r e s s u r e from f a m i l y , f r i e n d s or o t h e r s . I t w i l l p r o v i d e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r my i n t e l l e c t u a l development and s a t i s f a c t i o n of my i n t e l l e c t u a l c u r i o s i t y . I t p r o v i d e s a,n opportunity^ f o r w e l l rounded p e r s o n a l i t y development. My p r e f e r r e d p r o f e s s i o n r e q u i r e s a U n i v e r s i t y e d u c a t i o n . I t w i l l g i v e me g r e a t e r s o c i a l p r e s t i g e .and s t a t u s . I t ma,y p r o v i d e me w i t h a, b e t t e r j o b i n terms of sa,lary, p e r s o n a l s a t i s f a c t i o n , and o p p o r t u n i t y f o r advancement* I t p r o v i d e s an o p p o r t u n i t y to meet a, marriage p a r t n e r . I t w i l l enable me to be of more h e l p and s e r v i c e to o t h e r s . 43. (1 (2 44. (1 (2 45, 47, 53. 46. ( l (2 (1 48. (1 (2 49. (1 (2 50. ( l (2 51. (1 ( 52. 1 54. (1 (2 55. (1 (2 56. ( l (2 57. (1 (2 -4-97 I t p r o v i d e s many o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r IT, r t i c i p a t i o n i n s o c i a l a n d " a t h l e t i c a c t i v i t i e s . I wanted to expl o r e v a r i o u s f i e l d s i n order t o decide upon a p r o f e s s i o n and f u t u r e p l a n s . I t p r o v i d e s many o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n s o c i a l and a t h l e t i c a c t i v i t i e s . I wanted a change from my home community and to assume some independence. I wanted to remain w i t h my o l d f r i e n d s . I d i d n ' t f e e l that I was ready t o , or wanted to s t a r t working. I t w i l l p r o v i d e me w i t h s e c u r i t y f o r the f u t u r e . I t w i l l p r ovide o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r my i n t e l l e c t u a l development and s a t i s f a c t i o n of my i n t e l l e c t u a l c u r i o s i t y . My p r e f e r r e d p r o f e s s i o n r e q u i r e s a U n i v e r s i t y e d u c a t i o n . I r e c e i v e d encouragement or strong pressure from f a m i l y , f r i e n d s or o t h e r s . I t may provide me w i t h a "better j o b i n terms of s a l a r y , persona,! s a t i s f a c t i o n , and o p p o r t u n i t y f o r advancement. I t p r o v i d e s a,n o p p o r t u n i t y f o r " - e l l rounded p e r s o n a l i t y development. I t w i l l enable me to "be of more he l p a,nd s e r v i c e to o t h e r s . I t w i l l g i v e me g r e a t e r s o c i a l p r e s t i g e and s t a t u s . I wanted to explore v a r i o u s f i e l d s i n order to deci d e upon a p r o f e s s i o n and f u t u r e plains. I t p r o v i d e s an o p p o r t u n i t y to meet a marriage p a r t n e r , I wanted a changes from my home community and to assume some independence. ) I t p r o v i d e s many o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n s o c i a l a.nd a t h l e t i c a c t i v i t i e s . I d i d n ' t f e e l t h a t I was ready t o , or wanted to s t a r t working. I t p r o v i d e s o p p o r t u n i t i e s to meet d i f f e r e n t people and make new f r i e n d s , I wanted t o romatn w i t h my o l d f r i e n d s . I t w i l l p r ovide me w i t h s e c u r i t y f o r the f u t u r e . I t w i l l p r o v i d e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r my i n t e l l e c t u a l development and s a t i s f a c t i o n of my i n t e l l e c t u a l c u r i o s i t y . Hy p r e f e r r e d p r o f e s s i o n r e q u i r e s a U n i v e r s i t y e d u c a t i o n . I received, encouragement or strong p r e s s u r e from f a m i l y , f r i e n d s - or o t h e r s . I t may pro v i d e me w i t h a b e t t e r j o b i n terms of s a l a r y , p e r s o n a l s a t i s f a c t i o n , and o p p o r t u n i t y f o r advancement. I t p r o v i d e s an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r " e l l rounded p e r s o n a l i t y development. I t w i l l enable me to be of more h e l p and s e r v i c e to o t h e r s . I t w i l l giveme g r e a t e r s o c i a l p r e s t i g e and s t a t u s . I -./anted to explore v a r i o u s f i e l d s i n order to decide uioon a p r o f e s s i o n a,nd f u t u r e p l a n s . 58. ( l ) I t w o v i d e s an opportunity to moot a marriage p a r t n e r . 98 (2) I wanted a change from my home community and to assume some independence, 59. ( l ) I t p r o v i d e s many o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n s o c i a l and a t h l e t i c a c t i v i t i e s , (2) I d i d n ' t f e e l that I was ready t o , or wanted t o s t a r t working. ,60. ( l ) I t p r o v i d e s o p p o r t u n i t i e s to meet d i f f e r e n t people and make new f r i e n d s , (2) I wanted to remain w i t h my o l d f r i e n d s . 61, ( l ) I t w i l l .provide me w i t h s e c u r i t y f o r the f u t u r e . (2) My p r e f e r r e d ' p r o f e s s i o n r e q u i r e s a. U n i v e r s i t y e d u c a t i o n . 62. ( l ) I t may provide me w i t h a h a t t e r j o b i n terms of s a l a r y J personal s a t i s f a c t i o n , and opportunity f o r advancement. (2) * t w i l l p r ovide o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r my i n t e l l e c t u a l development and s a t i s f a c t i o n of my i n t e l l e c t u a l c u r i o s i t y . 63, (l) I t w i l l enable me to be of more he l p and s e r v i c e to o t h e r s , (2) I r e c e i v e d encouragoraent or strong pressure from f a m i l y , f r i e n d s or o t h e r s . 64, ( l ) I wanted to expl o r e v a r i o u s f i e l d s i n order to decide upon a p r o f e s s i o n and f u t u r e p l a n s , (2) I t p r o v i d e s an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r w e l l rounded personality development. 65, ( l ) I wanted a change from my home community and to a s s u n e some independence. • (2) t w i l l g i v e me g r e a t e r s o c i a l p r e s t i g e a.nd s t a t u s . 66, ( l ) I d i d n ' t f e e l t h a t I was ready t o , or wanted to s t a r t working, (2) I t provi d e s an o p p o r t u n i t y to meet a marriage p a r t n e r . 67, ( l ) I -./anted to remain w i t h my o l d f r i e n d s , (2j I t pr o v i d e s many o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n s o c i a l and a t h l e t i c a c t i v i t i e s . 68, ( l ) I t provides o p p o r t u n i t i e s to meet d i f f e r e n t people and make new f r i e n d s . (2) I t w i l l p r ovide me w i t h s e c u r i t y f o r the f u t u r e , 69, (l) My p r e f e r r e d p r o f e s 3 i o n r e q u i r e s a U n i v e r s i t y e d u c a t i o n . (2) I t may provide me w i t h a b e t t e r j o b i n terms of s a l a r y , p e r s o n a l s a t i s f a c t i o n s , and o p p o r t u n i t y f o r advancement, 70, ( l ) I t w i l l p r ovide o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r my i n t e l l e c t u a l development and s a t i s f a c t i o n of my i n t e l l e c t u a l c u r i o s i t y . (2) I t w i l l enable- me to be of more h e l p and s e r v i c e to ot he 1 71. ( l ) I r e c e i v e d encour-ognent or s t r o n g -oressure from f a m i l y , f r i e n d s or o t h e r s . (2) I wanted to expl o r e v a r i o u s f i e l d s i n order to decide moon a p r o f e s s i o n .and f u t u r e p l a n s . 72. ( l ) I t p r o v i d e s an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r w e l l rounded p e r s o n a l i t y . develo'oment. w 1 \an-coo. a CiV.ni'e :crom ny hc'u community ^nd to assure 3 0 ; ^ independence. -6~ 99 73. 74. 75, 76. 77. 78, 79, 80, 81. 82. 83. 84. 85, 86. 87. I t w i l l g i v e me g r e a t e r s o c i a l p r e s t i g e and s t a t u s . I d i d n ' t f e e l t h a t I was ready t o , or wanted to s t a r t working. *t p r o v i d e s an o p p o r t u n i t y to meet a marriage p a r t n e r , I wanted to remain w i t h my old. f r i e n d s . I t p r o v i d e s many o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n s o c i a l and a t h l e t i c a c t i v i t i e s . I t p r o v i d e s o p p o r t u n i t i e s to meet d i f f e r e n t people and make new friends". . I t w i l l p r o v i d e me w i t h s e c u r i t y f o r the f u t u r e . I t may pro v i d e me w i t h a b e t t e r j o b i n terms of s a l a r y , persona,! s a t i s f a c t i o n , and o p p o r t u n i t y f o r advancement. I t w i l l enable me to be of more h e l p and s e r v i c e to o t h e r s . My p r e f e r r e d p r o f e s s i o n r e q u i r e s a U n i v e r s i t y e d u c a t i o n , I wanted to expl o r e v a r i o u s f i e l d s i n ordw-r to decide upon a p r o f e s s i o n and f u t u r e p l a n s . I t w i l l provide o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r my i n t e l l e c t u a l development and s a t i s f a c t i o n of my i n t e l l e c t u a l c u r i o s i t y . I wanted a, change from my home community and to assume some i ndepe ndenee, I r e c e i v e d encouragement or str o n g p r e s s u r e from f a m i l y , f r i e n d s or o t h e r s . I d i d n ' t f e e l t h a t I was ready t o , or wanted t o s t a r t working. It p r o v i d e s an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r w e l l rounded p e r s o n a l i t y development, I wanted to remain w i t h my o l d f r i e n d s . I t w i l l g i v e me g r e a t e r s o c i a l p r e s t i g e and s t a t u s . I t p r o v i d e s o p p o r t u n i t y .:." t o . . c t d i f f e r e n t people and make new It p r o v i d e s an o p p o r t u n i t y to meet a, ma,rri;?,ge p a r t n e r . il f r i e n d s . I t p r o v i d e s many o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n s o c i a l , and a t h l e t i c a c t i v i t i e s . I t w i l l p r o v i d e me w i t h s e c u r i t y f o r the f u t u r e . I t may pro v i d e me w i t h a, b e t t e r job i n terms of s a l a r y , p e r s o n a l s a t i s f a c t i o n , a,nd o p p o r t u n i t y f o r advancement. I t w i l l enable me to be of more h e l p and s e r v i c e to o t h e r s . p r e f e r r e d p r o f e s s i o n r e q u i r e s a U n i v e r s i t y e d u c a t i o n . I wanted t o expl o r e v a r i o u s f i e l d s i n order to decide upon a p r o f e s s i o n a,nd f u t u r e p l a n s . It w i l l p r o v i d e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r my i n t e l l e c t u a l development and s a t i s f a c t i o n of my i n t e l l e c t u a l c u r i o s i t y . I wanted a, change from my home community and to assume some independence. I r e c e i v e d encouragement or strong p r e s s u r e from f a m i l y , f r i e n d s or o t h e r s , I d i d n ' t f e e l t h a t I was ready, t o , or wanted to s t a r t working. 100 88, (l) It provides an opportunity f o r well rounded personality development, (2) I wanted to remain with my old f r i e n d s , 89, l l ) It w i l l give me greater s o c i a l prestige and status, {2) It provides many opportunities f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n s o c i a l and a t h l e t i c a c t i v i t i e s , 90, ( l ) It provides an opportunity to meet a marriage partner, (2) It provides many opportunities f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n in s o c i a l and a t h l e t i c a c t i v i t i e s , 91, ( l ) It w i l l provide me with security f o r the future, (2) It w i l l cna"blc me to loo of more hclpand service to others, 92, ( l ) I wanted to explore various f i e l d s in order to decide upon a profession and future plans, (2) It may provide me with a better job i n terms of salary, personal s a t i s f a c t i o n and opportunity f o r advancement• 93, ( l ) I wanted a change from my home community and to assume some independence, (2) My preferred profession requires a-University education, 94, ( l ) I didn't f e e l that I was ready to, or wanted start working. (2) It w i l l provide opportunities f o r my i n t e l l e c t u a l development and s a t i s f a c t i o n of my i n t e l l e c t u a l c u r i o s i t y . 95, ( l | I wanted to remain with my old f r i e n d s , (2) I received encouragement or strong pressure from family, friends or others. 96 0 ( l ) It provides opportunities to meet d i f f e r e n t people and make new f r i e n d s , (2) It provides an opportunity for well rounded personality development, 97, (l) It provides many opportunities f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n s o c i a l and .athletic a c t i v i t i e s . (2) It w i l l give me greater s o c i a l prestige and status, 98, ( l ) It provides a,n opportunity to meet a marriage partner, (2) It w i l l provide me with security f o r the future, 99, ( l ) It w i l l enable me to be of more help a,nd service to others. (2) I wanted to explore various f i e l d s i n order to decide upon a profession and future plans. 100, ( l ) It may provide me with a better job in terms of salary, personal s a t i s f a c t i o n , and opportunity f o r advancement. (2) I w. nted a change from my home community and to assume some ind.ependenc e • 101, (l) My preferred -profession requires a University e ducat ion. (2) I didn't f e e l that I was rca,dy to, or wanted to st a r t working, 102, (l) It w i l l provide opportunities f rr my i n t e l l e c t u a l development and s a t i s f a c t i o n of my i n t e l l e c t u a l c u r i o s i t y . (2) I ro j d to r V i a i n \ "ith ny old f r i ^ n d c . . ' -8- 101 103, ( l ) I r e c e i v e d encouragement or stro n g p r e s s u r e from f a m i l y * f r i e n d s or o t h e r s , (2) I t p r o v i d e s o p p o r t u n i t i e s to meet d i f f e r e n t people and make now f r i e n d s , 104, ( l ) I t p r o v i d e s an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r w e l l rounded p e r s o n a l i t y development, (2) I t p r o v i d e s many o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r par t i c i p a t i o n i n s o c i a l and a t h l e t i c a c t i v i t i e s . 1) I t w i l l g i v e me g r e a t e r s o c i a l p r e s t i g e and s t a t u s . 2) I t pr o v i d e s an o p p o r t u n i t y to meet a marriage par t n e r . APPENDIX E NORMS FOR THE COOPERATIVE SCHOOL AND COLLEGE ABILITY TEST USED IN SELECTING THE SAMPLE FOR THE PAIRED COMPARISON QUESTIONNAIRE ADMINISTRATION BASED ON 1959-60 FIRST YEAR STUDENTS AT THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA SCAT V Q 1 17.16 19.21+ 1+5.53 5 21.00 25.11 53.3 10 23.60 28.62 58.21 20 30.20 32.27 65.25 30 33.21+ 31+.73 70.02 1+0 36.03 36.91 73.30 1+5 71+. 97 50 38.78 38.92 76.65 55 78.35 60 1+1.50 1+0.68 80.05 70 ¥+.21+ 1+2.1+5 83.70 80 1+7.26 1+1+.1+2 88.10 90 51.1+1 1+6.61 93.67 95 53.99 1+8.10 97.79 99 57.35 50.10 103.65 M 38.82 38.06 76.35 N 1832 I836 1830 3D 9.1+ 7.0 12.25 ^Derived by linear interpolation. *Total scores only were used i n selecting the sample. 

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