UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Economic developments in the British West Indies Bayne, Clarence Sylvester 1960

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ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENTS IN THE BRITISH WEST INDIES by CLARENCE SYLVESTER BAYNE B.A., U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1958  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF  MASTER OF ARTS  i n t h e Department of Economics  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s conforming t o the required  standard  THE UNIVERSITY  OF BRITISH COLUMBIA  April,  I960  In the  presenting  this thesis  r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an  of  B r i t i s h Columbia,  it  freely available  agree that for  Department  copying  gain  shall  or  not  his  shall  for reference  and  study.  I  for extensive be  copying of  granted  representatives.  the  It i s  of t h i s t h e s i s  a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my  Department The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h V a n c o u v e r .8, C a n a d a .  by  Columbia,  of  University  Library  publication be  the  the  p u r p o s e s may  o r by  that  advanced degree a t  fulfilment  I agree that  permission  scholarly  in partial  make  further this  Head o f  thesis my  understood  for financial  written  permission.  ABSTRACT  This t h e s i s i s not concerned w i t h economic growth as the name might suggest. However, i t doesnot discount the valuable t o o l s of a n a l y s i s which the t h e o r i s t s of economic growth provide.  I t uses these  techniques f r e e l y without t r y i n g t o develop them out of the m a t e r i a l treated.  This i s a question which requires separate a n a l y s i s andbne  which t h i s t h e s i s anticipates.. I t i s the i n t e n t i o n of the author to b r i n g to l i g h t , with the helpof the t o o l s of economic a n a l y s i s , the problems of economic development i n the B r i t i s h West Indies.  The treatment of t h i s subject i s based on  the tenet that the h i s t o r i c a l background, delineated i n Chapter I , has a long-run i n f l u e n c e on economic developments I n the area.  Itis  impossible t o r e a l l y apprehend the extent andpattem of growth tafcing place i n the two p r i n c i p a l areas, Jamaica and Trinidad without the h i s t o r i c a l background. Economic developments are discussed around the c e n t r a l theme'of population pressure on scarce land resources.  The author has been c a r e f u l  to keep the discussion,as f a r as p o s s i b l e , w i t h i n t h i s sphere of analysis i n order to avoid incoherence.  Moreover, he b e l i e v e s that any growth observed  i n the area has most s i g n i f i c a n c e when•discussed, i n r e l a t i o n to the employment that i t makes p o s s i b l e . For t h i s reason t h e r e f o r e , Chapter 5, Part I I I , places most emphasis on f i s c a l p o l i c i e s which are c a l c u l a t e d t o encourage f o r e i g n c a p i t a l with a high' labour complement. I t should not, however,*be construed that the author i s unappreciative of the value and importance of other p o l i c i e s .  TABLE OF CONTENTS  Chapter I  HISTORICAL BACKGROUND  Page 1  Chapter II"  AN ECONOMIC REVIEW UP' TO 1938  Page 27  Chapter I I I POPULATION AND ECONOMIC GROWTH Part I P o p u l a t i o n and Economic Grovrth Part I I E m i g r a t i o n and B i r t h C o n t r o l as Solutions t o Overpopulation  Page 4-8 Page 4-8 Page 71  Chapter I V  Page 84.  REGIONAL ECONOMIC PLANNING  Chapter V  ANALYSIS OF THE STRUCTURE OF THE WEST INDIAN ECONOMY Part I Level of E f f i c i e n c y of Factors of P r o d u c t i o n i n t h e B r i t i s h West I n d i e s Part I I S t r u c t u r e of the A g r i c u l t u r a l Economy Part I I I P l a n n i n g I n d u s t r i a l Development  Chapter VT  BIBLIOGRAPHY  APPENDICES  CONCLUSION  Page 103 Page 107 1938—50 Page 134Page 182  Page 218  ACKNOWLEDGMENT  I for  wish t o thank Dr.  R.  C l a r k of t h e Department o f  t h e v a l u a b l e t i m e he has made a v a i l a l b e t o my d i s p o s a l .  e x p r e s s my g r a t i t u d e Library for thesis.  to the s t a f f  of  Economics I  also  t h e R i d i n g t o n R e a d i n g Room i n  t h e c o n c e s s i o n s t h e y g r a n t e d me w h i l e I  was w r i t i n g  the  this  CHAPTER 1.  HISTORIC  It i s imperative any  C-K.C,fo) MX) U  t h a t one has some h i s t o r i c p e r s p e c t i v e o f  c o u n t r y i n o r d e r t o understand i t s s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l o r economic  development. I t i s a l s o n e c e s s a r y t h a t one apprehends and f u l l y app r e c i a t e s t h e c u r r e n t s o f e v o l u t i o n a r y change which c a r r y i t on i n t o the f u t u r e . T h i s i s a f a c t which needs no e l a b o r a t i o n , a f a c t which i s b o r n e o u t i n t h e p a t t e r n o f development elsewhere - E n g l a n d , Europe, and the U n i t e d  States o f America.  The h i s t o r y o f a c o u n t r y i s i t s l i f e b l o o d .  I t i s from t h e  h i s t o r i c s t o c k o f e v e n t s which b r o u g h t i t s people t o g e t h e r pact  and t h e im-  o f the o r i g i n a l c u l t u r e s o f t h e s e v a r i o u s e t h n i c groups on each-  o t h e r i n t h e i r new human and p h y s i c a l environment t h a t f l o w s the s y n t h e s i s e d c u l t u r e . T h i s f l o w may be t r u n c a t e d I:; cannot d i s c u s s i n t h i s t h e s i s . I t w i l l  f o r s e v e r a l r e a s o n s which  s u f f i c e t o s a y , however,  t h a t i n t h e West I n d i e s i t has been i n t e r r u p t e d . The  dominant e t h n i c group i n the West I n d i e s i s the Negro as  Table 1.1 shows. The  Negro was t r a n s p l a n t e d  as s l a v e l a b o u r f r o m h i s home i n  West Coast A f r i c a t o t h e West I n d i a n p l a n t a t i o n . The predominant c u l t u r a l i n f l u e n c e i n t h e B r i t i s h West I n d i e s i s E n g l i s h . However, t r a c e s o f S p a n i s h and the P r e n c h c u l t u r e s t i l l  s u r v i v e i n t h e r u r a l areas and  i s m a n i f e s t e d i n t h e i r songs, dances, and r u s t i c language - " p a t o i s " o r "papieraento".  I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t however t h a t no where i n the r e g i o n  2  TABLE  1.1  RACIAL ORIGIN OP THE POPULATION OF CARIBBEAN Ethnic  Groups  Percentage o f T o t a l Population  Black  78.2  Mixed  18.5  East  Indian  1.8  Chinese  1.0  White  0.4  Syrian  0.1  Source;  i s any A f r i c a n d i a l e c t  THE  -ti dd J j . R. A d u l t Educat i o n i n the C a r i b b e a n , p.6. spoken. Only a few words can be f o u n d as t h e  symbols o f many forms o f r e l i g i o u s r i t u a l s p r a c t i c e d by the c o u n t r y f o l d . The e f f e c t o f E n g l i s h c u l t u r e on the A f r i c a n masses i n the West I n d i e s was a new  way  t o d e s t r o y t h e n a t i v e language e n t i r e l y and t o superimpose o f l i f e on the s l a v e . Because o f t h e preponderant number o f Negroes t o whites t h e  f e a r o f a s l a v e u p r i s i n g became imminent. T h i s l e d t o the enactment o f laws f o r b i d d i n g t h e g a t h e r i n g t o g e t h e r o f s l a v e s i n l a r g e numbers and s p e a k i n g i n any language unknown t o t h e i r m a s t e r s . T h i s was  i n effect,  the major f a c t o r r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the l o s s o f t h e A f r i c a n d i a l e c t s . The s i n g i n g o f songs and d a n c i n g was p e r m i t t e d , however, and i t i s i n the dance and songs which have s u r v i v e d i n many r u r a l a r e a s t h a t we must now l o o k f o r t h e A f r o - c u l t u r e . At emancipation ( I 8 3 6 ) many o f t h e Negroes l e f t  the p l a n t a t i o n  under the m i s a p p r e h e n s i o n t h a t freedom meant d o i n g no f o r m o f work a t all,  an a t t i t u d e which i s u n d e r s t a n d a b l e . I n Jamaica, T r i n i d a d , a n d  3  B r i t i s h G u i a n a many o f t h e s e went o f f i n t o the bush away f r o m t h e p l a n t a t i o n where t h e y s e t t l e d and s t a r t e d s u b s i s t e n c e f a r m i n g  communities.  T h i s had two important r e s u l t s . F i r s t , i t was t h e cause o f s e r i o u s shortage o f p l a n t a t i o n l a b o u r . To surmount t h i s problem i n d e n t u r e d l a b o u r m a i n l y from I n d i a and C h i n a was i m p o r t e d . Secondly,and more  impor-  t a n t t o t h e p r e s e n t a n a l y s i s , these groups o f Negroes away from c o n t a c t w i t h European  c u l t u r e o r c i v i l i s a t i o n began t o r e v i v e t h e i r o l d c u l t u r e  i . e . what remained  of i t .  Of course they were deeply i n f l u e n c e d b y what  they l e a r n e d from master and m i s s i o n a r y . As a r e s u l t v a r i o u s h i g h l y emot i o n a l i s e d r e l i g i o u s c u l t s e v o l v e d which r e f l e c t e d s t r a n g e v a r i a t i o n s o f A f r i c a n Voodoo o r W i t c h c r a f t w i t h e v a n g e l i s t i c and orthodox  christian  worship. The "Shango" and t h e " B a p t i s t " o r "Shouter" a r e some o f those t y p e s . P r o f e s s o r M e l v i l l e J . H e r s k o v i t s and F r a n c e s S. H e r s k o v i t s , j o i n t a u t h o r s o f the book e n t i t l e d t h e " T r i n i d a d V i l l a g e ' ^ /in C h a p t e r V I I I "The S h o u t e r s " and "Notes on Shango Worship", Appendix 1.,  outline  t e n t o f the p r a c t i c e s o f t h e s e c u l t s i n t h e V i l l a g e o f Toco.  the exElsewhere  he c a p t u r e s t h e l o c a l s u p e r s t i t i o n s . The a u t h o r s t r a c e d Shango worship t o the Yoruban p e o p l e s o f N i g e r i a and noted t h a t i t r e p r e s e n t e d an imp o r t a n t body o f d i r e c t A f r i c a n c u l t u r a l r e t e n t i o n s .  (1)  These forms o f worship which were combined w i t h the p r a c t i c e o f "obeah" ( t h e s c i e n c e o f b r i n g i n g e v i l s p i r i t s t o p r e v a i l on t h e human w i l l and t h e a r t o f c a s t i n g o u t d e v i l s ) were r e g a r d e d as u n c i v i l i s e d and n o n - c h r i s t i a n . Laws were e n a c t e d f o r b i d d i n g them on t h e p a i n o f imprisonment  o r f i n e . The s o c i a l s t a t i s t i c s f o r Jamaica i n d i c a t e d t h a t i n  1954-55 22  o f f e n c e s o f obeah were r e p o r t e d t o the p o l i c e and i n  1957-58  4  6 such c a s e s were r e c o r d e d .  ^ '  S o c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n of t h i s t y p e , t h e stigma a t t a c h e d b y  19th  Negro t o s l a v e r y ^ a n d i t s a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h r a c i a l i s m i n the l a t e and  20th  the  S e n t u r i e s p r e j u d i c e d the mind o f the West I n d i a n a g a i n s t  any  ;  o u t f l o w f r o m h i s h i s t o r y which reminded him o f "dark" A f r i c a and the i n s t i t u t i o n o f s l a v e r y . The did  little  e d u c a t i o n system which was  typically British  t o h e l p . T h i s f a c t c o u p l e d w i t h the tendency t o p l a c e a p r e -  mium on w h i t e pigment as compared w i t h b l a c k pigment made t h e s i t u a t i o n more complex. One  s i g n i f i c a n t manifestation of this: c u l t u r a l stagnation i s  the i n v e r s i o n o f the e d u c a t i o n a l p r o c e s s  i n the West I n d i e s . The  West I n d i a n u n t i l r e c e n t l y l e a r n e d f i r s t  about the geography, h i s t o r y ,  and  c u l t u r e of other peoples  and knew v i r t u a l l y n o t h i n g about h i s geo-  graphy, h i s h i s t o r y and h i s way demand standards has been one  average  of l i f e .  As a r e s u l t t h e tendency t o  o f l i v i n g which t h e i r s c a n t y r e s o u r c e s cannot  support  of the major problems of p u b l i c a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n the  area.  The a t t i t u d e o f the i n d i v i d u a l towards a g r i c u l t u r e a f f o r d s another of  example. To many West I n d i a n s the s o i l has  the n a u s e a t i n g  the i m p e r i a l s l a v e d r i v e r : manual l a b o u r has no d i g n i t y . The  c o l l a r " job and  smell  "white  the p r o f e s s i o n s o f f e r him the d i g n i t y and p r e s t i g e which  he t h i n k s he needs to c r o s s the g u l f between b l a c k and white - i . e . t o g i v e him w e a l t h and power o f  control.  These p a t t e r n s of s o c i a l s t r a t i f i c a t i o n have been changing the l a s t  decade and new  v a l u e s and symbols a r e t a k i n g the p l a c e of o l d  ones i n the development o f new is  symbolic  over  norms. Much o f the o l d l i n g e r s , but i t  o f the f u l l e r emancipation  o f the West I n d i a n t h a t i n the  5 last  decade these  s u r p r e s s e d c u l t u r a l images have been f l o w i n g out o f  the c o l l e c t i v e psyche o f the n a t i o n . The l i f e b l o o d i s b e g i n n i n g  to c i r -  c u l a t e and i s f i n d i n g e x p r e s s i o n i n the a r t , dance, l i t e r a t u r e and p o l i t i c s of the r e g i o n .  (4) In the f i e l d o f c r e a t i v e w r i t i n g E d g a r M i t h e l h o l z e r , a B r i t i s h Guianese and West I n d i a n n o v e l i s t i n h i s book " C h i l d r e n o f Kaywana"tries to  capture l i f e  i n a s l a v e community  i n B r i t i s h Guiana, p r o j e c t i n g as he  goes along the s o c i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e master - s l a v e r e l a t i o n s h i p . H i s "Kaywana B l o o d " i s an e x t e n s i o n o f t h i s theme. In the f i e l d liams, notwithstanding  o f f o r m a l l i t e r a t u r e and p o l i t i c s , D r . E r i c W i l the performances o f S i r Bustamante and Mr. Manley  of J a m a i c a , and S i r G r a n t l e y Adams, p r e m i e r  o f Barbados and t h e West I n -  d i a n F e d e r a t i o n , d i s t i n g u i s h e s h i m s e l f as an o u t s t a n d i n g West I n d i a n , s o c i a l o g i s t , premier  o f T r i n i d a d and one o f t h e l e a d i n g West  p o l i t i c i a n s . He has the fame,  Indian  o f d e l i n e a t i n g the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f s l a v e r y (5)  i n the economic development of b o t h E n g l i s h c a p i t a l i s m and what seems to be t h e s o c i a l , c u l t u r a l and economic s t a g n a t i o n o f the b l a c k West Indian,  ; u n t i l 1938  a t l e a s t . I n h i s r o l e as the t e a c h e r o f t h e m a s s e s ^  he gave s e v e r a l l e c t u r e s a t what he c a l l s the " U n i v e r s i t y C o l l e g e o f Woodford Square') P o r t o f S p a i n , T r i n i d a d . H i s purpose was  t o expose t h e .  m a l p r a c t i c e s o f the l o c a l c o n s t i t u t i o n a s a v e h i c l e f o r f u r t h e r p o l i t i c a l and economic growth and the consequent need f o r r e f o r m and. t o r e - o r i e n t a t e West I n d i a n e d u c a t i o n and c u l t u r e t o t h i n g s West I n d i a n ; he expounded a t p u b l i c l e c t u r e s , i n newspaper a r t i c l e s and at p r i v a t e i n s t i t u t i o n s t h e c e n t r a l theme o f h i s book,  " C a p i t a l i s m and Slavery'.' s e e k i n g  always t o e n -  courage the West I n d i a n t o a c c e p t h i m s e l f and what he i s , t o d e l v e  into  6  h i s p a s t and p i c k up the s t r a n d s o f h i s t r u e b u t , u n t i l now, t u r e . I t i s i n t h i s v e r y v e i n t h a t he  lost  cul-  criticised:  I t i s taken as a matter o f c o u r s e t h a t the c u r r i c u lum i n the c o l o n i a l c o u n t r i e s i s b a s e d v e r y l a r g e l y on f o r e i g n m a t e r i a l s t h a t have no r e l a t i o n t o the d a i l y l i v e s o f the p u p i l s ^ o r t o t h e i r environment. The e d u c a t i o n a l system o f t h e s e c o u n t r i e s v i o l a t e s t h e fundamental p r i n c i p l e t h a t e d u c a t i o n s h o u l d proceed from the known t o the unknown, from t h e v i l l a g e t o the g r e a t wide w o r l d , f r o m the i n d i g e nous p l a n t s , a n i m a l s and i n s e c t s t o the f l o r a and f a u n a o f s t r a n g e c o u n t r i e s , from t h e economy o f the v i l l a g e and h o u s e h o l d to the economics o f the w o r l d . The b e s t modern p r a c t i c e i n e d u c a t i o n i s one o f g r a d u a l l y widening h o r i z o n s , f r o m the f a m i l y t o the l o c a l community from the community t o the n a t i o n , and from the n a t i o n to the w o r l d  (7)  T h i s i s a statement o f the p r i n c i p l e o f o r g a n i c n a t i o n a l i s m pure and  simple. There were many who  d i d not understand the r e a s o n f o r h i s  s t r e s s on the h i s t o r y o f s l a v e r y and i t s s i g n i f i c a n c e i n t h e West I n d i a n c o n t e x t . As i t were, ashamed o f t h e i r p a s t t h e y c r i e d out " l e t s l a v e r y l i e i n peace I' To t h i s he r e p l i e d w i t h the whole o f h i s book " C a p i t a l i s m and S l a v e r y " , which p o r t r a y s the human c i r c u m s t a n c e s o f t h e i r e x i s t e n c e and the base on which the f u t u r e o f the West I n d i e s must n e c e s s a r i l y be p r o j e c t e d f o r a l o n g time - the l e g a c i e s o f s l a v e r y , the s o i l and a g r i c u l t u r e . I w i l l d i s c u s s these m a t t e r s i n the r e s t o f t h i s c h a p t e r and i n Chapter 2 r i g h t up t o 1938^but b e f o r e t h i s I s h a l l g i v e >  a b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n o f the economic geography o f the C a r i b b e a n a r e a . A B r o a d Geographic  Sketch  In t r a d i t i o n a l p h r a s e o l o g y the C a r i b b e a n I s l a n d s a r e d e s c r i b e d as an a r c h i p e l l a g o o f i s l a n d s s t r e t c h i n g from F l o r i d a , l i k e s t e p p i n g s t o n e s i n a " C a r i b b e a n Pond", down t o V e n e z u e l a . The Caribbean a r e a  7  i n c l u d e s B r i t i s h Guiana on the South American c o n t i n e n t and B r i t i s h Hond u r a s . The a r e a can be b r o a d l y d i v i d e d t h e n i n t o the ( l ) G r e a t e r A n t i l l e s , c o n s i s t i n g o f Cuba, The Dominican R e p u b l i c , P u e r t o R i c o , Jamaica, (2)  The  Bahamas, (3) The L e s s e r A n t i l l e s which comprise the Leev/ard and Windward I s l a n d s and  (4) B r i t i s h Honduras and B r i t i s h Guiana. T r i n i d a d i s the  most s o u t h e r l y o f the i s l a n d s ; Barbados i s the most e a s t e r l y , Bermuda and the Bahamas d e f i n e the n o r t h e r n l i m i t s . The whole a r e a i s c o n t a i n e d b e tween the T r o p i c o f Cancer and t h e E q u a t o r and l o n g i t u d e s 90° and west  59°  Greenwich. There a r e two important d e d u c t i o n s t o make from t h i s ,  one,the  c l i m a t e o f the a r e a v a r i e s between s u b - t r o p i c a l t o t r o p i c a l . U n l i k e the temperate c o u n t r i e s , t h e r e are no f o u r d i s t i n c t  seasons, S p r i n g , Summer,  Autumn and W i n t e r w i t h g r e a t annual ranges o f temperature. There i s a d r y season and two wet  s e a s o n s . The time and d u r a t i o n o f t h e s e seasons v a r i e s  from one group o f i s l a n d s t o a n o t h e r . One wet type and the o t h e r o r o g r a p h i c - due  season i s c o n v e c t i o n a l i n  t o the North East, t r a d e s o r Wester-  l i e s . L o c a l s e a b r e e z e s p l a y an important p a r t i n m i t i g a t i n g the heat o f the midday sun i n the d r y season. Temperatures  a r e about 80 P throughout  the y e a r . Heat waves s u c h as k i l l many p e o p l e i n the mid-west  states  d u r i n g summer are unknown, i n the West I n d i e s . C o l d s p e l l s are n o n - e x i s t e n t . H u r r i c a n e s are t h e r e f o r e the o n l y k i l l e r s and t h e s e a r e r e l e g a t e d t o the northern-most t e r r i t o r i e s , b u t when t h e y o c c u r t h e y b r i n g much damage t o c r o p s , p r o p e r t y , and human l i v e s . Jamaica has e x p e r i e n c e d a h u r r i c a n e o f t h i s n a t u r e j u s t about e v e r y seven y e a r s . The name " J a n e t " i s f a m i l i a r even t o N o r t h The  Americans. second d e s t r u c t i o n i s l e s s o b v i o u s and i t i s one which so  8  many p e o p l e are apt t o f o r g e t when t h e y t h i n k o f the West I n d i e s .  The  West I n d i a n I s l a n d s are s e p a r a t e d b y l a r g e s t r e t c h e s o f water. J a m a i c a occupies  a n o d a l p o s i t i o n and  steamer from most areas  i s w i t h i n 500  i n the C a r i b b e a n .  - 700  i s approximately about 200  m i l e s away from  Kings-  d i s t a n c e from P o r t o f S p a i n t o S t . Georges, Grenada, 100  m i l e s ; from S t . Georges t o Kingstown,  St.Vincent,  m i l e s ; f r o m Kingstown t o C a s t r i e s , S t . L u c i a , 250  f r o m C a s t r i e s to Rosseau about 300  m i l e s . The  town t o P o r t of S p a i n c o v e r s  358  miles;  d i s t a n c e from P o r t  Spain t o St.Thomas i n the V i r g i n I s l a n d s i s about 500  250  by  Barbados, T r i n i d a d , the L e e -  ward and t h e Windward I s l a n d s are a l l about 1060 t o n , Jamaica. The  miles travel  and  of  m i l e s . Prom George-  m i l e s . Bridgetown, Barbados, i s about  m i l e s f r o m P o r t o f S p a i n . T h i s t h e n g i v e s some i d e a o f t h e p h y s i c a l  separateness  o f the i s l a n d s , a s e p a r a t e n e s s  which has been f o s t e r e d b y  t h e l a c k o f r e g u l a r i n t e r - i s l a n d t r a n s p o r t and t r a d e . T h i s i s a  charac-  t e r i s t i c o f the a r e a which assumes immense importance i n c o n s i d e r a t i o n s  (8) o f the working b a s i s o f f e d e r a t i o n . The  * '  t o p o g r a p h i c a l f e a t u r e s o f the t e r r i t o r i e s a r e v a r i e d .  They range from the e l o n g a t i o n o f Cuba and t h e Bahamas I s l a n d s t h e i r indentured  c o a s t l i n e s to the compactness o f Barbados,  R i c o , Dominica and  T r i n i d a d and  Puerto-  the c o n t i n e n t a l c h a r a c t e r o f B r i t i s h Hon-  duras and B r i t i s h Guiana. A s s o c i a t e d w i t h these  'geographic p r o f i l e s  are the deep r i c h s o i l s of some areas compared w i t h the l i g h t s o i l s o f o t h e r s , the r e l a t i v e ruggedness and wet  m  of. wet  shallow  c l i m a t e o f some areas  c o n t r a s t e d w i t h the extreme f l a t n e s s and d r y n e s s o f o t h e r s . I n category  with  the  and rugged i s l a n d s we f i n d Jamaica, Cuba, Dominica, S t .  L u c i a , S t . V i n c e n t , Grenada and  i n t h a t o f d r y and f l a t i s l a n d s ,  9  A n g u i l l a , A n t i g u a and Barbados. T r i n i d a d f a l l s  i n t o a s e p a r a t e category-  b e i n g p a r t o f t h e S o u t h American s t r u c t u r e . I t has h i g h mountain r i d g e s i n t h e n o r t h e r n s e c t i o n and i s f l a t t h e i s l a n d . Jamaica  i n the c e n t r e and s o u t h e r n p a r t o f  and Dominica a r e b y f a r the most mountainous. The  p l a t e a u area o f Jamaica  r i s e s t o about 3,000 f e e t and the Blue mountain  r e a c h e s up t o 7,000 f e e t . T h i s l i m e s t o n e p l a t e a u accounts f o r about f o u r - f i f t h s o f t h e t o t a l l a n d a r e a . Elsewhere  i n the area, excepting  B r i t i s h Guiana and B r i t i s h Honduras, t h e e l e v a t i o n s a r e r e l a t i v e l y s p e a k i n g , l e s s o u t s t a n d i n g and 2,000 - 3,000 f e e t i s u s u a l . The ruggedness and compactness o f some a r e a s r - S t . V i n c e n t , Dominica, and S t . L u c i a r— however predominate.* and pose; e r o s i o n , denudation  economic problems i n the f o r m o f  and l a c k o f a v a i l a b l e l a n d space f o r e x p a n s i o n . The  available-land-space /  population r a t i o s n a t u r a l l y p l a y a very  p a r t i n any g e o g r a p h i c  o r economic c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e Caribbean  r i t o r i e s . 'I; s h a l l d e a l w i t h t h i s i n d e t a i l i n C h a p t e r  vital ter-  3. But f o r t h e  p r e s e n t a c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f g r o s s a r e a compared w i t h p o p u l a t i o n would s e r v e t o g i v e some i d e a o f comparative T a b l e 1.2 i l l u s t r a t e s  g r o s s d e n s i t y w i t h i n the r e g i o n .  this.  A q u i c k g l a n c e a t the s t a t i s t i c s i n Table 2.1 may suggest t o t h e c u r s o r y r e a d e r t h a t i n some o f the B r i t i s h c o l o n i e s t h e r e i s an abundance o f l a n d a v a i l a b l e p e r person, t h a t i s , i n some a r e a s ; l a n d i s not a s c a r c e f a c t o r ; b u t the v e i l when l i f t e d p r e s e n t s t h e core o f West I n d i a n economic problems o v e r p o p u l a t i o n i n terms o f l a n d r e s o u r c e s . Chapter tie  3. develops t h i s theme more c a r e f u l l y and t h e f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r s  i t i n w i t h t h e l o o s e ends which have been l e f t o f f i n t h i s d e s c r i p -  tion.  10  TABLE 2.1. GROSS POPULATION DENSITY FOR SELECTED CARIBBEAN ISLANDS Population  Area Country British  lq.  miles  Land a r e a / population r a t i o s (miles) • - •  Colonies 4,400  92,598  210  166  229,119  1,380  20  41,169  2,058  83,000  492,950  6  B r i t i s h Honduras  8,866  80,888  9  J a m a i c a ( w i t h Cayman I s . and Turks & Cocos I s . )  4,680  1,568,389  Bahamas ( a ) Barbados Bermuda British.Guiana  Leeward I s l a n d s Antigua, Montserrat, N e v i s and A n g u i l l a , St.Christopher, V i r g i n I s . (Br.)  335  422  127,140  301  1,980  720,450  363  829  308,117  3,435  2,264,000  659  Guadeloupe  680  230,600  339  Martinique  425  239,130  562  44,164 19,124 10,714 352,143  5,870,528 2,539,325 3,111,973 5,845,260  133 133 290 166  T r i n i d a d & Tobago Windward I s l a n d s Dominica, Grenada, S t . L u c i a , S t . V i n c e nt  371  U.S. T e r r i t o r i e s . Puerto Rico French  Territories.  *•  Republics. Cuba Dom. R e p u b l i c Haiti Venezuela  (a) note t h a t the Bahamas i s b r o k e n i n hundreds o f s m a l l c o r a l i s l a n d s many o f which a r e n o t i n h a b i t e d . The c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f p o p u l a t i o n i s on t h e i s l a n d o f P r o v i n c e w i t h Nassau as c a p i t a l f o r the area. Source:  West I n d i e s and C a r i b b e a n Y e a r Book.  1956-1957. p . 9.  11  In many i s l a n d s t h e r e a r e l a r g e a r e a s c o v e r e d w i t h n a t u r a l t r o p i c a l f o r e s t s . These however p r e s e n t s e r i o u s t e c h n i c a l when c o n s i d e r e d as p o t e n t i a l s o u r c e o f a lumber  difficulties  industry. Like a l l  t r o p i c a l f o r e s t s t h e t r e e s a r e o f many v a r i e t i e s , , t o name a few, mahogany, g r e e n h e a r t , teak, a l l o f which a r e t o o heavy t o f l o a t down r i v e r s as i s t h e p r a c t i c e i n Canada. B r i t i s h Guiana  w n  ich  i s the only  a r e a w i t h l a r g e r i v e r s t o undertake such a method f i n d s h e r s e l f u n a b l e t o t a k e advantage  o f t h e cheap  s o u r c e o f t r a n s p o r t . Added t o t h i s i s  t h e f a c t t h a t t r e e s a r e g r e a t l y d i s p e r s e d o v e r l a r g e areas i n a c c e s s i b l e t o man and machine. They do n o t grow-  i n f a m i l i e s l i k e t h e Douglas  fir v  and o t h e r N o r t h American t y p e s . The problem o f i n a c c e s s i b i l i t y i s t h e g r e a t e s t s i n g l e f a c t o r r e s p o n s i b l e f o r h e r l a r g e under-developed  forest  r e s o u r c e s . M o r e t h a n two t h i r d s o f B r i t i s h Guiana's 83,000 s q . m i l e s i s c o v e r e d i n T r o p i c a l f o r e s t . I n o t h e r a r e a s such as T r i n i d a d and J a m a i c a c o n d i t i o n s a r e much b e t t e r b u t t h e acreage under f o r e s t i s n o t l a r g e enough t o g i v e r i s e t o an i n d u s t r y o f l a r g e economic  dimensions.  In s e v e r a l c o l o n i e s t h e r e are a r e a s i n which water  supplies  are i n s u f f i c i e n t f o r human need o r p r e c l u d e easy development  o f a sys-  tem o f i r r i g a t i o n a l f a r m i n g . I n many a g r i c u l t u r a l d i s t r i c t s ,  ponds,  streams and minature s p r i n g s f o r m t h e o n l y s o u r c e o f water s u p p l y . A l s o , because o f r a p i d e v a p o r a t i o n and r u n o f f t h e volume o f water c a r r i e d i n r i v e r s i s never l a r g e enough t o make h y d r o - e l e c t r i c i t y p o s s i b l e . I n the d r i e r i s l a n d s such as Barbados, M o n t s e r r a t , A n t i g u a , S t . K i t t s , N e v i s , A n g u i l l a , and t h e drought areas o f Jamaica, t h e problem o f i r r i g a t i o n assumes major importance. I n b o t h Barbados  and J a m a i c a  irrigation  water from w e l l s aj.Si u s e d . Many o f t h e schemes a r e f i n a n c e d b y C o l o n i a l  12  Development and W e l f a r e f u n d s . As a m a t t e r o f f a c t i r r i g a t i o n consumes the major p a r t o f t h e funds made a v a i l a b l e t o the a r e a b y t h i s way. Because o f t h e absence o f l a r g e r i v e r s , h y d r o - e l e c t r i c i t y i s not a source o f i n d u s t r i a l power. F o r t h i s r e a s o n Aluminum cannot be produced  i n Jamaica  and t h e B a u x i t e and Alumina must be c a r r i e d  over  6,000 m i l e s t o b e smelted i n Canada and the U n i t e d S t a t e s . B r i t i s h Guiana has l a r g e r i v e r s , and g r e a t p o t e n t i a l h y d r o - e l e c t r i c power b u t t e c h n i c a l d i f f i c u l t i e s , m a i n l y e n g i n e e r i n g and l a c k o f l a r g e market f o r t h e p r o d u c t  ( e l e c t r i c i t y ) make i t uneconomical  industrial  t o undertake  s u c h a p r o j e c t . F o r many y e a r s b a u x i t e has been s h i p p e d over  thousands  o f m i l e s from t h e o r e d e p o s i t s i n B r i t i s h Guiana t o t h e r e f i n e r i e s o f t h e parent companies i n Canada. I t i s not u n t i l q u i t e r e c e n t l y t h a t an American Company has s t a r t e d b u i l d i n g a $60. M i l l i o n (B.W.lO hydroe l e c t r i c plant  t o p r o c e s s b a u x i t e f o r export as alumina.  E x c e p t f o r n a t u r a l gas, o i l ,  and a s p h a l t i n T r i n i d a d and  n a t u r a l gas i n Barbados t h e r e are no o t h e r known d e p o s i t s o f " m i n e r a l f u e l " . T o t a l consumption o f f u e l c o n s i s t s o f imported c o a l , c h a r - c o a l made from l o c a l timber and f i r e w o o d and p r o d u c t s o f t h e o i l i n d u s t r y . There a r e l a r g e d e p o s i t s o f b a u x i t e i n B r i t i s h Guiana and Jamaica, There  which i s now t h e world's g r e a t e s t p r o d u c e r o f t h e m i n e r a l .  a r e no known l a r g e economic d e p o s i t s o f i r o n o r e ; B r i t i s h  Guiana,  . which remains y e t t o be f u l l y e x p l o r e d , has s m a l l d e p o s i t s o f g o l d , s i l v e r , diamonds which c o n t r i b u t e i n a s m a l l measure to. t h e c o u n t r y ' s g r o s s n a t i o n a l p r o d u c t . The i n d u s t r i a l s e c t o r o f t h e B r i t i s h West I n d i a n economy accounts f o r a s m a l l p a r t o f the area's g r o s s domestic and employe a s m a l l percentage  product  o f t h e t o t a l l a b o u r f o r c e . The b u l k o f  13  t h e p h y s i c a l o u t p u t , raw and p r o c e s s e d , i s a g r i c u l t u r a l produce. a r e sugar and i t s b y - p r o d u c t s , cocoa, c o c o n u t s , bananas, r i c e spices, citrus f r u i t s ,  These  arrowroot  3ea I s l a n d c o t t o n , tobacco, p i n e a p p l e s , yam  c a s s a v a , eddoes, t a n n i a h , tomatoes and v e g e t a b l e s such as peas and l e t tuce, t o name b u t a few. Market g a r d e n i n g I n d i a n economic l i f e  i s an important aspect o f West  a l t h o u g h no p r o p e r account o f i t can be found i n  s t a t i s t i c s f o r the F e d e r a t e d West I n d i e s . The West I n d i a n economy i s t h e r e f o r e b a s i c a l l y  agricultural  and t h e average West I n d i a n i s t i e d t o the s o i l , d i r e c t l y o r i n d i r e c t l y . L a n d i s t h e most v a l u a b l e n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e and t h i s i n terms o f p o p u l a tion i s scarce. I s h a l l now t u r n t o a d i s c u s s i o n o f the development o f the West I n d i e s w i t h r e g a r d t o those s o c i a l and economic phenomena which were t h e g e n e r a t i v e f o r c e s o f i t s p r e s e n t form and which s e t t h e parameters of i t s f u t u r e growth and s t r u c t u r e . In t h i s d i r e c t i o n  I am i n d e b t e d t o  Dr. E . W i l l i a m s f o r t h e c o p i o u s amount o f i n f o r m a t i o n he makes a v a i l a b l e ( 1 0 )  "  i n h i s a r t i c l e "Golden Age o f t h e S l a v e System i n B r i t a i n ,  and h i s  book C a p i t a l i s m and S l a v e r y , and t o W.I. Burn f o r h i s c o n t r i b u t i o n s i n his  two w e l l w r i t t e n books "The B r i t i s h West I n d i e s , and  "Emancipation^"^ (12)  and A p p r e n t i c e s h i p i n the West I n d i e s . " An Economic and S o c i a l H i s t o r y up t o 1 9 0 0 The f a c t  t h a t the West I n d i e s were c o l o n i z e d a t a p p r o x i m a t e l y  the same time as Canada ( C e n t r a l Canada), the New England S t a t e s (now a p a r t o f the U n i t e d S t a t e s o f A m e r i c a ) , A u s t r a l i a ,  and New Z e a l a n d , y e t  t o d a y t h e i r s t a n d a r d s of l i v i n g a r e so much l o w e r t h a n these c o u n t r i e s  14  c a l l s f o r some e x p l a n a t i o n . T h i s can be p a r t l y a t t r i b u t e d t o h i s t o r i c a l developments i n t h e r e g i o n and p a r t l y to o v e r p o p u l a t i o n ,  w h i c h c a n be  t r a c e d back 130 y e a r s f o r Barbados, the "Sugar I s l a n d " o f the B r i t i s h West  Indies. I w i l l t r e a t t h e h i s t o r i c a l developments i n t h e paragraphs  •which f o l l o w . The matter o f o v e r p o p u l a t i o n comes under t h e c a t e g o r y p o p u l a t i o n and r e s o u r c e s  and i s d i s c u s s e d i n f u l l i n C h a p t e r 3.  E l i z d b e t h ^ a n p o l i c y from l.yfQQ t o .P&QQ was e s s e n t i a l l y t o maint a i n the b a l a n c e o f power i n Europe and keep peace on t h e home f r o n t , w h i l e u s i n g the C a r i b b e a n as an a r e n a where Englishmen c o u l d  effectively  a p p l y h e r d i p l o m a t i c p r e s s u r e by d i s c r e d i t i n g the S p a n i s h i n l a n d b a t t l e and  s e a c o n f l i c t s ; h o s t i l i t i e s f o r h e r was not the same as war. Moreover  success  i n these e x p l o i t s had the double advantage o f p r o v i d i n g E n g l a n d  w i t h b u l l i o n (which she u s e d t o buy o f f t h e Dutch) w h i l e witiKholding  a t the same time  i t from S p a i n . P a r t l y because o f such a s t a t e o f p o l i c y and .  p a r t l y because o f the inadequate r e s o u r c e s  and i n e f f i c i e n t  organization  of the E n g l i s h as w i t n e s s e d b y t h e f a i l u r e o f G i l b e r t ' s c o l o n y i n New -  Ci f o u n d l a n d and o f R a l e i g h ' s  i n V i r g i n i a , A n g l o - c o l o n i z a t i o n was t o await  a-change i n s t a t e p o l i c y and improvement i n the c o u n t r y ' s business  wealth and  organization. T h i s change o f c l i m a t e was t o come i n t h e p e r i o d  preceding  "  t h e i n d u s t r i a l r e v o l u t i o n , and became m a n i f e s t  immediately  i n the p o l i t i c o -  economic i n s t i t u t i o n o f m e r c a n t i l i s m . Most o f the e a r l y m e r c a n t i l i s t s saw i n t h e c o l o n i e s a means o f o b t a i n i n g cheap raw m a t e r i a l s f o r t h e growing i n d u s t r i e s o f E n g l a n d . Since  these c o l o n i e s were r e g a r d e d as a p a r t o f  the f&ngdom, t h i s would improve h e r b a l a n c e o f payments, f o r the c o l o n i e s a l s o provided  markets f o r t h e i r manufactures.  15  The m e r c a n t i l i s t p o l i c y o f the day aimed at a empire. C o l o n i a l i s m was  self-sufficient  t h e i m p e r i a l framework i n which i t was  t o "be  a c h i e v e d and t h e n a v i g a t i o n laws the s t a p l e s t h a t were t o h o l d the frame t o g e t h e r and s e c u r e a g a i n s t t h e S p a n i s h , Dutch and l a t e r the F r e n c h t r a d e r s ; t h e y a l s o caused the e d i f i c e t o t o p p l e i n i t s own as e v i d e n c e d b y the s u c c e s s f u l r e v o l t o f t h e New A c c o r d i n g t o a few  England  dust o f  decay,  colonies.  (not a l l ) d i e - h a r d proponents  ism the c o l o n i e s were supposed to aid t h e Mother Country.and  of mercantildid this  b e s t when t h e y d i d not puraue p o l i c i e s which c o n f l i c t e d w i t h the i n t e r e s t s of B r i t i s h  manufacturers. These few  (some o f whom happened, u n f o r t u n a t e l y , t o be i n  the L o r d North a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ) propounded a t h e o r y o f the c o l o n i e s which p r o v e d i n i m i c a l t o the i d e a o f b u i l d i n g Empire.  I t was  also  inconsistent.  They s a i d t h a t the c o l o n i e s e x i s t e d f o r the Mother Country and were u s e f u l o n l y i f they p r o c u r e d f o r her a g r e a t e r consumption o f home produc-rt i o n s ; . i f t h e y . o c c u p i e d a greater.:number o f  English  manufacturers,  f i s h e r m e n and seamen; i f they p r o v i d e d her w i t h a g r e a t e r supply o f cheap raw m a t e r i a l s and w i t h a s u p e r f l u i t y f o r export t o o t h e r n a t i o n s .  ^  F o r them the c o l o n i e s were j u s t an e x t e n s i o n o f the r e a l m o f E n g l a n d . The  i m p r a c t i c a l n a t u r e o f the p o l i c y i n t h e scheme o f t h i n g s  among the N o r t h American C o l o n i e s and t h e i n c o n s i s t e n c y of the  logic  b e h i n d i t i s r e a d i l y observed i n the t r a d e t h e s e c o l o n i e s c a r r i e d on i n — c o m p e t i t i o n w i t h the Mother C o u n t r y both i n European markets and i n t h e West I n d i a n markets, f o r which t h e y became the c h i e f s u p p l i e r o f n e c e s s i t i e s . The v e s t i g e o f t h i s t r a d e i s perhaps  seen i n the p r e f e r e n c e which  the West I n d i e s e n j o y i n Canada f o r t h e i r sugar, and t h e Canada - West I n d i e s Agreement o f  1925.  ,  16  The  West I n d i e s were, u n l i k e t h e New England C o l o n i e s ,  c o l o n i e s . They produced goods which B r i t a i n c o u l d not s u p p l y . little  ideal  There was  t e m p t a t i o n , b y r e a s o n o f t h e i r c l i m a t e , t o e s t a b l i s h manufacturers  which would compete w i t h t h o s e a t home, though s t r i c t m e r c a n t i l i s t s were quick to r e s e n t  the. tendency o f the c o l o n i e s t o r e f i n e t h e i r  own sugar (15)  as d e t r i m e n t a l  t o the " i n t e r e s t s o f the sugar r e f i n e r s a t home'.'  '  Moreover t h e system o f s l a v e r y and t h e preponderant number o f Negroes o v e r whites were n o t conducive t o t h e growth o f any d e s i r e t o compete w i t h E n g l a n d . F o r t h e s l a v e was t h e s o l e p r o p e r t y no p r o p e r t y .  o f h i s master and p o s s e s s e d ^ ^  On the o t h e r hand, the f r e e white servant  and t h e o r i g i n a l  s m a l l - s c a l e w h i t e f a r m e r were d i s p l a c e d and r e d u c e d t o p o v e r t y b y t h e l a r g e plantation. The  t e a - d r i n k i n g Europeans needed sugar to sweeten the t e a t h a t  came f r o m t h e E a s t  i n t h e Levant t r a d e , tobacco t o smoke (then a s i g n o f  i n c r e a s i n g wealth and l e i s u r e ) and c o t t o n as raw m a t e r i a l f o r t h e E n g l i s h t e x t i l e i n d u s t r y which p r o v i d e d East.  c l o t h f o r t h e New World, I n d i a and t h e f a r  I n these t h r e e words, sugar, t o b a c c o , cotton,, E . W i l l i a m s  explains  the o r i g i n o f s l a v e r y a s e s s e n t i a l l y economic, d e p i c t s t h e d e p r e d a t i o n and e x p l o i t a t i o n of t h e e x - i n d e n t u r e d white s e r v a n t ,  t h e growing w e a l t h  o f t h e E n g l i s h merchant and the development o f t h e system o f absentee ownership i n the West I n d i e s . He summarizes: Sugar, t o b a c c o , and c o t t o n r e q u i r e d t h e l a r g e p l a n t a t i o n and.hordes o f cheap l a b o u r , and the s m a l l farm o f the ex-infientured w h i t e s e r v a n t c o u l d not p o s s i b l y s u r v i v e . The t o b a c c o o f the s m a l l f a r m i n Barbados was d i s p l a c e d b y t h e sugar o f t h e l a r g e p l a n t a t i o n . The use o f t h e sugar i n d u s t r y i n t h e C a r i b b e a n was t h e s i g n a l f o r a g i g a n t i c d i s p o s s e s s i o n o f the s m a l l farmer' . Here i n d e e d we see i n t h e West I n d i a n  /, \ \ ()  c o l o n i e s a p a r a l l e l to the E n g l i s h  7  17  E n c l o s u r e ; the s m a l l f a r m e r and the Negroes i n A f r i c a were the v i c t i m s . Had  the w e a l t h accumulated i n t h e West I n d i e s been i n v e s t e d  t h e r e , t h e r e i s no doubt t h a t the p o v e r t y an3 t h e R o y a l Commission o f 1938  d e p r a v i t y d e s c r i b e d by  would not have s u l l i e d and s c a r r e d b o t h  h i l l s i d e and v a l l e y s a l i k e . But t h i s was beyond the economic v i s i o n o f m e r c a n t i l i s m and v i r t u a l l y i m p o s s i b l e i n a s l a v e economy. I t took A. Smith and t h e e m a n c i p a t i o n i s t s t o change the o r d e r o f the  day.  The proceeds o f the s a l e o f West I n d i a n sugar which had a v i r t u a l monopoly of the w o r l d market f r o m t h e s e v e n t e e n t h t o the e a r l y n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s was  syphoned  ceeds were used t o f i n a n c e the new  o f f i n E n g l i s h ships. P a r t of the proi n d u s t r i a l developments.  Liverpool  0.8 and B r i s t o l and t h e i r h i n t e r l a n d f u r n i s h the c l a s s i c a l T h i s w e a l t h a c q u i r e d i n t h e West I n d i e s encouraged s h i p as i s a t t e s t e d t o i n the persons o f men who  example.  absentee  proprietor-  such as W i l l i a m B e c k f o r d  i s r e p o r t e d t o have g a i n e d a l l h i s w e a l t h i n the West I n d i a n sugar  t r a d e . The f e a r expressed i n 1753  t h a t the "speedy a c c u m u l a t i o n o f w e a l t h  might prove p e r n i c i o u s t o the p l a n t e r s themselves, b y promoting  idleness  and e x t r a v a g a n c e , b y e n c o u r a g i n g them t o abandon t h e i r p l a n t a t i o n s to a t t o r n e y s and stewards, and b y making the d i s p r o p o r t i o n between whites  (19) and b l a c k g r e a t e r than i t a l r e a d y was',' i s i t s e l f i n d i c a t i v e o f the  x  '  growth o f absenteeism i n the West I n d i e s . T h e c a m a r i l l a o f absentee c a p i t a l i s t magnates w i t h t h e i r mass o f a l i e n p r o l e t a r i a n s which became e s t a b l i s h e d c r e a t e d the p l a n t o c r a c y which was  t o haunt  t h e West I n d i a n s c e n e s , i t s p o l i t i c s , i t s c u l t u r e and  i t s economics, f o r many y e a r s ahead. I t s entrenchment  was  marked by t h e  p r o g r e s s i v e c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f w e a l t h i n the hands o f the few w h i t e s  and  18  t h e phenominal  i n c r e a s e o f m i s e r y among t h e many Negroes,the  "poor  w h i t e s " and l a t e r t h e i n d e n t u r e d I n d i a n l a b o u r e r . T h i s c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f w e a l t h was  (20)  i n e v i t a b l e , f o r sugar was  and  e s s e n t i a l l y i s a c a p i t a l i s t u n d e r t a k i n g r e q u i r i n g p l e n t y o f good l a n d  and  a l a r g e s u p p l y o f cheap l a b o u r . I t i n v o l v e d not o n l y a g r i c u l t u r a l o p e r a t i o n s but the crude s t a g e s o f r e f i n i n g a s w e l l . Today the West I n d i a n sugar i n d u s t r y i s l i t t l e  removed beyond t h i s stage o f p r o c e s s i n g . There  i s a marked absence o f the p r o c e s s i n g o f white sugar and o t h e r forms o f refined  ( h i g h v a l u e d ) sugar used i n the c o n f e c t i o n a r y i n d u s t r y . The Yfest  I n d i e s as a whole i s a n e t i m p o r t e r o f sugar. T h i s i s one example o f economic i n e r t i a w h i c h can be, i n p a r t ,  attributed  t o e a r l y m e r c e n t i l i s t p o l i c i e s . But o t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n s such as the d i s tance of markets f o r c o n f e c t i o n a r i e s and t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f those mark e t s weigh h e a v i l y i n an e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h i s phenomenon. In s p i t e o f the f a i l u r e  o f the i n d u s t r y t o go beyond the more  r u d i m e n t a r y p r o c e s s i n g stages the sugar i n d u s t r y ( i . e . t h e growing  of  s u g a r cane and the manufacturing o f crude sugar f o r e x p o r t ) has become more c e n t r a l i s e d o v e r the l a s t h a l f c e n t u r y . I t i s p a r t l y because i n c r e a s i n g c e n t r a l i s a t i o n , p a r t l y because terest  of the f o r e i g n c o n t r o l l i n g i n -  ( i . e . m a i n l y E n g l i s h ) , and f i n a l l y because  o f the p r e p o n d e r a t i n g  importance o f s u g a r i n the West I n d i a n economy t h a t sugar was w i t h " I m p e r i a l i s m " and absentee  of t h i s  associated  ownership.  In the f a c e o f ftherecent s p i r i t  o f n a t i o n a l i s m and the h a r d s h i p s  s u f f e r e d i n the r e g i o n o v e r t h e depressed y e a r s 1920 - 1940  this  absenteism  i n c u r r e d t h e b u t t o f p o l i t i c a l i n v e c t i v e . Many o f the a c c u s a t i o n s l e v e l ed a t f o r e i g n ownership  of c a p i t a l wee.,  however, misguided and  surrepti-  19  t i o u s . One  valid criticism,  made is,, t h a t the l o c a l l a b o u r f o r c e  was  never g i v e n a chance to l e a r n the more advanced techniques  w h i c h would  enable i t s members t o r e p l a c e imported s k i l l e d l a b o u r . The  result  t h a t the l o c a l l a b o u r f o r c e was t h e r e f o r e cheap l a b o u r .  was  e x p l o i t e d as a source o f p l e n t i f u l  In r e c e n t t i m e s t h i s c r i t i c i s m has  and  lost i t s  v a l i d i t y . A l s o , the argument t h a t l a r g e r p a r t s o f the p r o f i t s  of  sugar i n d u s t r y went b a c k to E n g l a n d i s no l o n g e r a u t h e n t i c . In  Trini-  dad  out  t o t a l consumption e x p e n d i t u r e  f o r 1951  was  $205.0 m i l l i o n  o f a N a t i o n a l Income o f $259.9 m i l l i o n ; In J a m a i c a p e r s o n a l  sumption e x p e n d i t u r e was  $24.3 'mil-  t h e net f a c t o r income payments t o o t h e r c o u n t r i e s was  l i o n and  f o r 1950  £66.3 m i l l i o n . Net  was  the  con-  £67.8 m i l l i o n w h i l e N a t i o n a l Income  f a c t o r incomes from abroad was  £35,000. I t  seems c l e a r from the f i g u r e t h a t t h e g r e a t e r p a r t o f the N a t i o n a l come o f b o t h exported  c o u n t r i e s waSe consumed i n the u n i t s themselves and  b y f o r e i g n e r s . I n M o n t s e r r a t and t h e  smaller  Innot  Islands  C o l o n i a l g r a n t s - i n - a i d and r e m i t t a n c e s  f r o m a b r o a d h e l p to make up  t h e i r annual d e f i c i t  t h i s the f a c t t h a t the terms  o f c o n t r a c t of the  i n trade. Besides  I n t e r n a t i o n Sugar Agreement 1947  make p r o v i s i o n s i n  the form of a s u b s i d y on the p r i c e of sugar f o r a l a b o u r w e l f a r e ( i . e . f o r c a p i t a l works f o r improvement o f the w e l f a r e and  a sugar r e h a b i l i t a t i o n f u n d  of  labourers)  i s f u r t h e r and ample p r o o f t h a t  days o f economic absenteeism are gone: t h e y are f a d e d  fund  the  i n the d i s t a n t  horizon. Besides  the economic i m p l i c a t i o n s o f absenteeism t h e r e i s  i t s p o l i t i c a l i n f l u e n c e t o c o n s i d e r . T h i s has b e e n r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the slow pace o f p o l i t i c a l p r o g r e s s .  I t can be  s a i d t h a t much of  the  20  c u l t u r a l and  i n t e l l e c t u a l p o v e r t y , and  o f J a m a i c a i n the n i n e t e e n t h s e n t e e i s m . But a whole. W.I.  century  some o f the economic  can be  l a i d at t h e d o o r o f  what i s t r u e o f Jamaica i s t r u e o f the l e s t Burn put  the  decline ab-  Indies  as  s i t u a t i o n uniquely:  (23)  S i n c e the men who had r e c e i v e d the l e a s t educat i o n were absent from t h e i r p r o p e r t i e s the management o f p u b l i c a f f a i r s f e l l i n t o the hands o f o t h e r s , a t t o r n e y s and o v e r s e e r s , i l l - f i t t e d t o manage them. Some were l i t t l e removed by b i r t h f r o m t h e c l a s s o f n a t i v e poor white, many were uneducated, i l l b r e d men who had come out from B r i t a i n t o make the g r e a t e s t p o s s i b l e amount of money i n the s h o r t e s t p o s s i b l e time. Narrow, i n s u l a r and, the y e a r s brought not p r o s p e r i t y b u t d i s t r e s s more and more e m b i t t e r e d , they were seldom f i t to h o l d the p o s i t i o n s t h e y d i d i n e v i l a f f a i r s and more seldom s t i l l f i t t o be t r u s t e d w i t h a d e l i c a t e r a c e problem. The  c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e Jamaican Assembly was  eased s t a t e of a s o c i e t y deprived the c o n d i t i o n s  dis-  o f i t s n a t u r a l l e a d e r s h i p and  t h a t might have r e p l a c e d  the Jamaican c o n s t i t u t i o n should  a symptom o f t h i s  i t . I t i s not  have r e g r e s s e d  of  surprising that  from a h i g h degree o f  s e l f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o a Crown C o l o n y system, a p r o t o t y p e which r e mained a f e a t u r e oftfteWest I n d i a n  scene down t o the p r e s e n t  Absenteeism d i c t a t e d the t u t i o n s but  s t r u c t u r e o f the p o l i t i c a l  i t d i d more, i t p e r p e t u a t e d them. The  Wood, Member o f P a r l i a m e n t , U n i t e d  said that  advancement of Jamaica and Barbados was s o c i a l background. He  population  Honourable E.P.L.  the c o n s t i t u t i o n a l  p e c u l i a r to t h e i r  historic  s a i d t h a t "the whole h i s t o r y o f t h e A f r i c a n  i n e v i t a b l y d r i v e s them towards r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  tions fashioned  insti-  Kingdom,in h i s r e p o r t on c o n s t i t u -  t i o n a l r e f o r m i n the West I n d i e s , 1922,  and  day.  a f t e r the B r i t i s h model" y e t he  strongly  instituadvised  21  a g a i n s t any movement f o r r e s p o n s i b l e government or p o l i t i c a l a l o n g l i n e s s i m i l a r t o Jamaica and Barbados. H i s r e a s o n :  advance  the time  not come. He n o t e d the l a c k o f a l e i s u r e d c l a s s which c o u l d take  has on  p o l i t i c a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . I n s t e a d o f more r e s p o n s i b l e government he  rec-  ommended an i n c r e a s e i n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s on the c o u n c i l which a d v i s e d  the  Governor. S i n c e then the essence o f c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r e f o r m  i n the  British  West I n d i e s , Barbados and J a m a i c a e x c e p t e d , has been i n t h e form o f g r e a t e r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n w i t h an i n c r e a s e d measure o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n a framework o f an e n l a r g e d f r a n c h i s e and a d u l t s u f f r a g e . The i t s s t a g n a t i o n p o i n t i n T r i n i d a d i n the p e r i o d 1950  system reached  - 57 when c o n s t i t u -  t i o n a l reform  came to mean no more than a mere i n c r e a s e i n the number o f  M i n i s t e r s who  owed no a l l e g i a n c e t o any p o l i t i c a l p a r t y . T h i s phenomenon  has  i t s o r i g i n i n the a r c h a i c c o l o n i a l p a t e r n a l i s m o r t u t e l a g e system.  Dr. E . W i l l i a m s  i n a p u b l i c l e c t u r e described t h i s process  p u t t i n g "a p a t c h on a p a t c h " when indeed what was k e t . The r e s u l t was  a chequered b l a n k e t , and  as a k i n t o  needed was  a new  blan-  i n d e e d the h i s t o r y o f West  I n d i a n p o l i t i c s and p a r t i e s o r l a c k o f p a r t i e s i s a chequered one. f e s s o r A y h e r r s t d e s c r i b e d i t as c h a o t i c . The p r e s e n t  Pro-  t r e n d o r movement ('  toward more r e s p o n s i b l e government f a s h i o n e d a f t e r Jamaica w i t h i t s t r u e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e system and t h e f a c t o f f e d e r a t i o n when viewed i n t h e light  o f the  1920's  sense t h a t t h e s e  and  1930*s  a r e n o t h i n g s h o r t o f a r e v o l u t i o n i n the  events r e p r e s e n t  a b r e a k w i t h t h e a r c h a i c forms  and  norms. T h i s f i n d s i t s r e c e n t m a n i f e s t a t i o n i n c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r e f o r m T r i n i d a d . The  s i g n a l moment came w i t h the abandonment o f the  — l e g i s l a t i v e c o u n c i l , and the e s t a b l i s h m e n t ,  on 10, J u l y 1959  ancient of a  in  22  parliamentary  system based on p a r t y l i n e s . The  I t was  i n e v i t a b l e t h a t a system of p a t e r n a l i s m o r economic  and p o l i t i c a l t u t e l a g e s h o u l d have l e f t of  time has come.  i t s stamp on the  the a r e a , and t h i s i s nowhere more v i s i b l e than i n the  which has developed  institutions insularity  w i t h i n t h e a r e a , an i n s u l a r i t y which i s r e f l e c t e d i n  the s e v e r a l c o n f e r e n c e s  on f e d e r a t i o n and  i s directly responsible f o r  the break-down o f the f e d e r a t i o n c o n f e r e n c e September t o 8 t h November, 1959.  I t was  h e l d i n T r i n i d a d f r o m 28th  a l s o t h e p r i n c i p a l cause f o r  i n d e c i s i o n on the m a t t e r o f the movement o f people  ^ )  i n the f e d e r a t i o n .  (27) T h i s i n s u l a r i t y i s a d i r e c t r e s u l t o f ( l ) the p h y s i c a l s e p a r a t e n e s s the i s l a n d s , a s i t u a t i o n much aggravated the i s l a n d s and the parent  of  by poor t r a n s p o r t a t i o n between  (2) the s i n g u l a r h i s t o r i c dependence o f each i s l a n d  on  nation. These f a c t o r s combined w i t h the d e f e c t s o f a cash-crop  economy  have a l s o been r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the s m a l l t r a d e between t h e i s l a n d s . A t one  stage o f the l i f e  export  o f the c o l o n i e s , Canada took the b u l k o f the  trade, at another  import-  the U n i t e d S t a t e s had a much l a r g e r share,and  o v e r the l a s t decade ( c o n t i n g e n t on d e v a l u a t i o n and  the import  t i o n s ) t h e U n i t e d Kingdom predominated, but a t no time was tween the i s l a n d s l a r g e enough t o be  restric-  the t r a d e  o f any s i g n i f i c a n c e . The West  c o n f e d e r a t o r s o f today l i k e the Canadian f a t h e r s of C o n f e d e r a t i o n aware o f the p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r some economic advance from the  be-  Indian are  exploita-  t i o n o f the i n t e r n a l o r domestic markets^but l i t t l e can be done b e f o r e f e d e r a t i o n becomes more o f a working r e a l i t y - and the f e d e r a l cabinet-« given a l i f e of i t s  own.  23  Another sphere i n which t h e B r i t i s h West I n d i e s stand out t h e i r marked separateness i s that of currency  and  s t r i k i n g dependence on t h e  and b a n k i n g . The  u  in  n i t e d Kingdom  s i t u a t i o n i s summarised i n two  dis-  c u s s i o n s , one  i n V o l . 1 No.  4 o f t h e S o c i a l and Economic S t u d i e s under  the pen  title  " A n a l y s t " and  another i n Great B r i t a i n C o l o n i a l R e s e a r c h  Studies  (10 - 11.  1953)  by  Ida Greaves whose study was  sponsored by  the  C o l o n i a l Economic R e s e a r c h Committee and f i n a n c e d f r o m C o l o n i a l Development and Welfare f u n d s .  She  said:  A c o l o n y i s l e s s o f a separate e n t i t y e c o n o m i c a l l y than i t i s a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l y . I t s i n t e r n a l s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l , a f f a i r s can be, and u s u a l l y a r e , d i s t i n c t and separate from those o f the metropole, b u t i t s economic a f f a i r s n e v e r , and i t s money i s i n e f f e c t an e x t e n s i o n o f the m e t r o p o l i t a n system. So  l o n g as the West I n d i a n c u r r e n c y  remains p i n n e d  to s t e r l i n g but  (28) es-  p e c i a l l y so l o n g as the Crown Agents i n London, remain the e s s e n t i a l instruments  (^9)  i n t h e West I n d i a n monetary system t h e f e d e r a t e d u n i t s  "are i n c a p a b l e o f p u r s u i n g  any  p o l i c y or b a n k i n g p o l i c y , b u t  independent monetary p o l i c y ,  credit  must r e f l e c t a u t o m a t i c a l l y p o l i c i e s pursued  i n t h e U n i t e d Kingdom". Dr. I d a Greaves i n h e r study s t a t e s : The o n l y agency o f a C o l o n i a l Government which forms p a r t o f i t s monetary system i s t h e C u r r e n c y A u t h o r i t y , (the l o c a l body r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the w i t h d r a w a l and s u p p l y o f l o c a l c u r r e n c y ) , and the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h i s body i s a d m i n i s t r a t i v e , not monetary. C o l o n i a l Government f i n a n c e i s c o n d i t i o n e d by two main f a c t o r s : the absence o f a c e n t r a l bank t o c o n t r o l d e p o s i t s and h o l d p u b l i c debt; and the use o f the London money market f o r most c a p i t a l p u r pose., w i t h an u l t i m a t e c l a i m upon P a r l i a m e n t f o r s p e c i a l f u n d s t h a t c o u l d not be o b t a i n e d upon a market basis.  \  In o r d e r t o u n d e r s t a n d t h i s p r o p e r l y we must comprehend the framework o f p u b l i c c r e d i t  i n which i t o p e r a t e s . I s h a l l d i s c u s s t h i s i n  24  Chapter  5 P a r t 111  under the sub-head P l a n n i n g I n d u s t r i a l Development.  S u f f i c e i t t o say here t h a t the system c a l l s f o r r e f o r m . The West I n d i a n c o l o n i e s had d u r i n g the e i g h t e e n t h and  nine-  t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s p r o v i d e d much wealth f o r the E n g l i s h merchant. And a l though no a c c u r a t e s e r i e s o f s t a t i s t i c s e x i s t t o support  the f a c t ,  know from book a c c o u n t s , memoirs, l e t t e r s , t r a v e l books, and and s c h o l a r l y work, t h a t t h e r e was  we  historical  a period of rapid c a p i t a l build-up  and t h a t the v a l u e of c a p i t a l i n l a n d r o s e i n Barbados and J a m a i c a . T h i s p r o s p e r i t y was  the p r o s p e r i t y o f the few f o r t u n a t e w h i t e s . On t h e  o f emancipation  eve  i t had become e v i d e n t , i n the l i g h t o f h i s t o r i c a l r e -  s e a r c h , t h a t t h i s p r o s p e r i t y was  coming t o an end. S o i l e x h a u s t i o n i n  the o l d sugar i s l a n d s , Barbados, A n t i g u a , A n g u i l l a , N e v i s , S t . K i t t s , S t . V i n c e n t and S t . L u c i a , the a d o p t i o n of f r e e t r a d e b y England, new  the e n t r y o f  areas i n t o the world market and the i n c r e a s e d p r o d u c t i o n o f the sub-  s t i t u t e sugar b e e t under heavy s u b s i d y and b o u n t i e s were the major f a c t o r s which t e r m i n a t e d  the West I n d i a n sugar monopoly and brought an  end  t o the " P l a n t e r C l a s s " . The  e x t e n t t o which emancipation  c o n t r i b u t e d t o the immediate  d e c l i n e o f sugar from the l 8 4 C ' s i s marked, b u t  s h o r t r u n , i n v i e w o f the  range o f economic p e r s p e c t i v e t r e a t e d h e r e . I t was  r e a d i l y f o r e s e e n t h a t i n the immediate c i r c u m s t a n c e s  t h e sugar i n d u s t r y t h a t u n a d u l t e r a t e d emancipation  would cause a d e c l i n e  i n p r o d u c t i o n . To t h i s end a system o f a p p r e n t i c e s h i p was 1834  t o f a c i l i t a t e a smooth change-over. P u l l emancipation  i n 1838.  of  instituted in was  t o come  However, f o r r e a s o n s w h i c h I cannot s t o p t o e x p l a i n here  the  25  system came to an end about two The  y e a r s b e f o r e the  time.  Indians anda^asmall  i n d e n t u r e d l a b o u r o f Chinese,  tage o f Negroes c a p t u r e d from s l a v e s h i p s was  percen-  resorted to i n order to  s o l v e the problem o f s h o r t a g e o f l a b o u r r e s u l t i n g from the mass abandonment o f the p l a n t a t i o n b y Negroes. The r e s u l t was semi-slave  s o c i e t y and  an e s t a b l i s h m e n t  the f i n a l breakdown o f the system i n 1917  the p r o t e s t o f b o t h the C h i n e s e  of a  under  and. I n d i a n governments. I t d i d however  serve i t s p u r p o s e ; i t p r o v i d e d a continuous f l o w o f l a b o u r t o the p l a n t e r s . Today the I n d i a n s form a major m i n o r i t y i n the West I n d i e s . They are t h e major e t h n i c group i n B r i t i s h Guiana and the l a r g e s t m i n o r i t y i n T r i n i d a d where i t i s e s t i m a t e d t h a t they w i l l  surpass the Negro  p o p u l a t i o n by v i r t u e o f the h i g h e r f e r t i l i t y r a t e observed E a s t I n d i a n women compared w i t h Negresses.  These I n d i a n s a l o n g w i t h the  A f r i c a n p o p u l a t i o n formed the back-bone o f the s u b s i s t e n c e a g r i c u l t u r e t h a t grew up and was  among the  peasant  the c e n t r e o f the v i l l a g e and upkeep o f  f a m i l y u n i t which began t o e v o l v e out o f the d i s o r g a n i z e d s o c i a l  con-  ditions of slavery. The  o l d system o f p r o v i s i o n l a n d s which p r e v a i l e d i n the s l a v e  economy f u r n i s h e d the base f o r negro peasant  a g r i c u l t u r e and  the s l a v e  b a r r a c k s t h a t o f the i n d e n t u r e d i n d i a n . "The  former s l a v e b a r r a c k s c o u l d  be adapted t o s u i t the newcomers ( I n d i a n s ) , a l l n e c e s s i t i e s b e i n g  pro-  v i d e d as b e f o r e ; wages had t o be p a i d and c o n t r o l c o u l d no l o n g e r be e x e r c i s e d b,y f l o g g i n g o r t o r t u r e , b u t i n g e n e r a l , arrangements on e s t a t e d i d not r e q u i r e any g r e a t a l t e r c i ' f i o i ^ " . 1  was  The  i g n o r a n c e which  n e c e s s a r y t o m a i n t a i n the s l a v e m e n t a l i t y d u r i n g s l a v e r y  "long a f t e r e m a n c i p a t i o n .  the (33)  remained  The u n s c i e n t i f i c a g r i c u l t u r e and h i g h m o r t a l i t y  26  r a t e s w i t n e s s e d i n the s u c c e e d i n g y e a r s a t t e s t t o the e x t e n t o f t h i s illiteracy. Many d e n o m i n a t i o n a l b o d i e s t r i e d t o educate they had v e r y l i t t l e  the masses but  c a p i t a l t o f i n a n c e t h e i r s e r v i c e s and as a r e s u l t  most o f the e d u c a t i o n was  v e r y i n f o r m a l . F a c i l i t i e s f o r academic and  s c i e n t i f i c e d u c a t i o n were v e r y l i m i t e d and a t f i r s t r e s t r i c t e d t o the m u l a t t o c l a s s - by v i r t u e o f t h e i r g r e a t e r w e a l t h and p r i v i l e g e s . Moreo v e r s u c h e d u c a t i o n tended t o t u r n the West I n d i a n away f r o m the and h i s environment  soil  t o a f o r e i g n c u l t u r e . Even at t h i s day the West  I n d i a n e d u c a t i o n c u r r i c u l u m i s geared t o the requirements U n i v e r s i t i e s . Many young men  (^4)  o f the E n g l i s h  and women l e a v i n g home f o r s t u d i e s abroad  has h i s eyes on s o c i a l d i s t i n c t i o n r a t h e r than n a t i o n a l need. F o r u n t i l r e c e n t l y Law  and M e d i c i n e were the much c o v e t e d p r o f e s s i o n s o f West I n -  d i a n s . Today much i s b e i n g done b y a l l governments t o d e l i n e a t e the r i g h t p e r s p e c t i v e s i n t h e i r c o n s e r t e d e f f o r t s t o combat d i s e a s e , maln u t r i t i o n and g e n e r a l p o v e r t y , and t o r a i s e t h e i r s t a n d a r d o f l i v i n g . We  can now  understand more r e a d i l y the d i f f i c u l t i e s i n v o l v e d  i n u n d e r t a k i n g i n d u s t r i a l development i n such a t e r r i t o r y l a c k i n g  so  much i n f o r m e r e x p e r i e n c e o f the i n d u s t r i a l a r t s and s t e e p e d deep i n the t r a d i t i o n o f p r i m i t i v e s h i f t i n g - c r o p system. When we the d i f f i c u l t i e s o f a s t i l l  rudimentary  superimpose on  this  s o c i e t y i n many ways, the t a s k  i s even g r e a t e r : The problems o f the West I n d i e s c a l l f o r the s e r v i c e s o f p o l i t i c i a n , S o c i o l o g i s t , and economist:  s u c c e s s depends on how  knowledge i s p o o l e d and made f u n c t i o n a l b y these  specialists.  well  27  CHAPTER 2  AW ECONOMIC REVIEW UP TO 1938  We have seen t h a t the West I n d i e s enjoyed g r e a t p r o s p e r i t y d u r i n g t h e days o f t h e s l a v e t r a d e , t h e g o l d e n age o f the sugar p l a n t o c r a c y . T h i s p r o s p e r i t y r e s t e d upon t h e monopoly p o s i t i o n o f the C o l o n i e s , a monopoly which was guaranteed b y I m p e r i a l p r e f e r e n c e i n t h e B r i t i s h market. The p l a n t e r s i n t e r e s t i n Barbados was w e l l aware o f t h i s  advan-  tage and t o o k p r e c a u t i o n s t o prevent t h e p l a n t i n g o f sugar i n Jamaica, T r i n i d a d and B r i t i s h Guiana. However s o i l e x h a u s t i o n and t h e l a b o u r problem  a t emancipation  c r e a t e d d i f f i c u l t i e s o f s u p p l y . T h i s was f u r t h e r  a g g r a v a t e d b y the e n t r y o f competing i n Europe. Nevertheless,West tion  a r e a s and t h e growing  o f beet  sugar  I n d i a n sugar c o n t i n u e d t o r e c e i v e p r o t e c -  and t h e b e s t p l a n t a t i o n s o p e r a t i n g on a b a s i s o f p a i d l a b o u r  still  made a good p r o f i t . The new areas were those w i t h p l e n t y o f r i c h l a n d , B r i t i s h Guiana, Jamaica  and T r i n i d a d , b u t f o r t h e same r e a s o n t h e y were  a l s o t h e a r e a w i t h the l a b o u r problems. important r e s u l t s . ( l ) Chinese  The shortage o f l a b o u r had two  I t s t a r t e d the i m m i g r a t i o n o f I n d i a n s , Portuguese  t o the West I n d i a n scene. They brought w i t h them t h e i r  culture,  new hope and a s p i r a t i o n s . Today i t i s no a c c i d e n t t h a t the Portuguese and C h i n e s e form t h e b a s i s o f t h e t r a d i n g and w h o l e s a l e b u s i n e s s i n many i s l a n d s and t h e I n d i a n s t h e background o f t h e peasant  farming i n B r i t i s h  Guiana and T r i n i d a d . They v i r t u a l l y s t a r t e d t h e r i c e i n d u s t r y i n B r i t i s h Guiana and t h e sugarcane  i n d u s t r y i n T r i n i d a d . I t was t h e Indians t h a t  formed t h e f i r s t n u c l e u s o f permanent r e s i d e n t l a b o u r . (2) I t h a s t e n e d  28  t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f a wage economy which marks the b e g i n n i n g o r i e n t a t i o n o f West I n d i a n w e a l t h t o the l o c a l a r e a and  o f the  re-  the exposure o f  b o t h p l a n t e r and p e a s a n t t o the u n c e r t a i n t y and r i s k s o f e x t e r n a l economic f o r c e s . The  abolishment o f s l a v e r y i n 1938  saw  the e s t a b l i s h m e n t  f r e e h o l d i n g a g r i c u l t u r a l peasant c l a s s and t h e b e g i n n i n g e a r n i n g l a b o u r f o r c e . In the Demarara d i s t r i c t b y 1851  E s s e q u i b o d i s t r i c t from 379 In 1852,  o f a wage  o f B r i t i s h Guiana,  the t o t a l f r e e h o l d p r o p e r t i e s i n the v i l l a g e s and  increased from 2,943 acquired  of a  i n the p e r i o d 1834  -  1842  hamlets  had  to 5,672; i n  t o 2 , 2 5 4 ; i n B e r b i c e from 1,184  3,226.  to  at the end o f t h i s e r a o f peasant e x p a n s i o n the l a b o u r i n g  class-  es numbered 7 0 , 0 0 0 i n a l l B r i t i s h Guiana. S i m i l a r developments were (2) t a k i n g p l a c e e l s e w h e r e . In J a m a i c a , C u r t i n d e s c r i b e s the s i t u a t i o n as t h e decay o f the White J a m a i c a and the r i s e o f B l a c k Jamaica. I n T r i n i d a d Dom  B a s i n Mathews d e p i c t s the same n o r m a t i v e p r o c e s s  C r i s i s o f the West I n d i a n F a m i l y . L i f e c e n t e r e d a g r i c u l t u r a l v i l l a g e and  b a r t e r t r a d e and  the s o c i e t y  p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e o f T r i n i d a d . Throughout  a r e a the l o c a l names "Gayap" a n d " E s u s u " a t t e s t  one  isolated  away from the p l a n t a t i o n . In the e a r l y  however, much o f the t r a d e done was communal. T h i s was  around the  i n his  time e s t a b l i s h e d comrnuiial l i f e .  haps forms the b a s i s f o r the  The  success  Jamaica, T r i n i d a d and Barbados and  t o the f a c t o f  stages, was  the a  (4)  (5)  (6)  t r a d i t i o n o f the "gayap" p e r -  o f the s e l f h e l p programmes i n  t h a t o f the'Hsusu" may  be  responsible  f o r t h e p o p u l a r i t y o f the f r i e n d l y s o c i e t y and the growth o f the c o o p e r a t i o n system and c r e d i t s o c i e t i e s o v e r the l a s t The  decade.  growth o f t r a d e between e s t a t e s and  s m a l l farmers and  the  29  development of a wage system marks t h e complete b r e a k down of the s l a v e s o c i e t y . J u s t a t the end was  o f the f e u d a l e r a i n Great B r i t a i n boon l a b o u r  r e p l a c e d by p a i d l a b o u r so i n t h e p o s t emancipation  y e a r s wage;\e*bs*ot-  s u b s t i t u t e d f o r f r e e s l a v e l a b o u r . In times o f p r o s p e r i t y the peasant f a r m e r s were dependent on wages r e c e i v e d from the e s t a t e s t o make up their  s u b s i s t e n c e ; i n times o f d e p r e s s i o n when the c o l o n i e s ' i n c o m e  s u g a r was  from  reduced, the e s t a t e s depended on the l o c a l s u p p l y o f f o o d  f r o m the peasant f a r m s . In Jamaica, the e s t a t e s , f i n a l l y became the i n t e r m e d i a r i e s f o r t h e m a r k e t i n g o f peasant cane s u p p l i e d t o the The  growth i n the i n t e r r e l a t i o n between these  c u l t u r a l economy was  two  s e c t o r s o f the a g r i -  marked by the development o f t h e p r i c e  is alsignificant fact  factories.  system. I t  t h a t w i t h i t s advance more l o c a l f a c t o r s had  be p a i d as an expense o f b u s i n e s s . T h i s meant more and more of w e a l t h o f t h e u n i t s s t a y e d a t home i n the form o f wages and  to  the  expenditure  on l o c a l consumer goods and s e r v i c e . The p e n e t r a t i o n o f t h e p r i c e system i s seen i n J a m a i c a i n t h e commerce ( t r a f f i c ) i n bananas This trade stood at  £ 1 , 4 0 0 , 0 0 0  ( i 8 6 0 )  in  w i t h the U n i t e d S t a t e s o f America.  1910  and was  a natural extension  t h e t r a d e between Cuba and the U n i t e d S t a t e s . I t p r o v i d e d the  of  small ( 7 )  f a r m e r w i t h c a s h t o make h i s n e c e s s a r y p u r c h a s e s and b r e a k h i s t r a (8)  d i t i o n a l dependence on p l a n t a t i o n l a b o u r . In t h e main, however, l a b o u r was  t o be  d i v i d e d between s u b s i s t e n c e f a r m i n g  and work on the l a r g e  " p l a n t a t i o n o r s m a l l peasant cane farms f o r cash  t o purchase the  t h a t the c o l o n i e s c o u l d not p r o d u c e a n d which Canada, the U n i t e d ?  o f America and  Great B r i t a i n s u p p l i e d . The f o r m e r dependence o f  things States the  farmer__on h i s l a b o u r on the f a r m i n s u l a t e d him a g a i n s t r i s k s i n the  30  market f o r p a i d l a b o u r . Cumper w r i t e s o f Jamaica, l i k e Eawle o f B r i t i s h Guiana, t h a t t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e s m a l l farmer from 1865 t o 1910 of very considerable  economic s u c c e s s .  In c o n t r a s t  i s one  t o that o f the  (9) p e a s a n t r y , the h i s t o r y o f t h e sugar i n d u s t r y i n t h e p e r i o d 1850 t o 1900 i s one o f f a i l u r e and s t a g n a t i o n . However, as a wage; system became  (10) e s t a b l i s h e d t h e s m a l l farmer became more dependent on the l a r g e  estate  t o g a i n h i s share o f the n a t i o n a l income w i t h which t o purchase f o r e i g n consumer goods. This, change i n t h e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e economy made t h e peasant s u b j e c t t o a d v e r s i t y and p r o s p e r i t y abroad. I t i s not a c c u r a t e  t o s t a t e without q u a l i f i c a t i o n t h a t the  West I n d i a n economy d e c l i n e d w i t h the development o f f r e e t r a d e B r i t a i n and t h e f i n a l abolishment o f a l l p r o t e c t i o n i n  i n Great  I856. I t i s e v i -  dent t h a t t h e s i t u a t i o n c o u l d n o t be as s e r i o u s as the e x p o r t f i g u r e s f o r sugar show, s i n c e t h e d e c l i n e o f the sugar i n d u s t r y i n most i s l a n d s was accompanied b y t h e r i s e o f a s u c c e s s f u l peasant a g r i c u l t u r e . T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e i n the a r e a s , t h e r e was l a n d on which l a b o u r  Jamaica, T r i n i d a d , B r i t i s h Guiana, where c o u l d s e t t l e . I n Barbados where t h e Crown  owned no l a n d and almost the whole acreage o f t h e i s l a n d was devoted t o sugar p l a n t i n g , t h e independent peasant f a r m e r had no p l a c e ^ a n d from e a r l y emigration  population  became a dominant p o l i c y i n s o l v i n g i t s p r o b l e m o f o v e r (ll)  i n periods  of c r i s i s .  In. the s m a l l e r i s l a n d s , M o n t s e r r a t ,  v  '  A n t i g u a , S t . K i t t s , N e v i s , S t . L u c i a , t h e d e c l i n e o f sugar v&S a l s o followed by emigration, The century  continued  mainly t o the south. d e c l i n e o f t h e sugar i n d u s t r y throughout t h e 1 9 t h  l e d t o the West I n d i a n R o y a l Commission o f 1897. The f i n d i n g s o f  — - t h e - commission formed t h e b a s i s f o r l a t e r p o l i c y and mark t h e b e g i n n i n g  31  o f the West I n d i a n t u t e l a g e system a d m i n i s t e r e d S t a t e f o r the C o l o n i e s . The a i d t o c o l o n i e s . T h i s had  by  the S e c r e t a r y  of  r e p o r t e n u n c i a t e s the p r i n c i p l e o f economic  i t s p o l i t i c a l counterpart  i n the p r i n c i p l e  o f t u t o r s h i p towards complete r e s p o n s i b l e government. The  commission  stated:  (12) The b l a c k p o p u l a t i o n of these c o l o n i e s was o r i g i n a l l y p l a c e d i n them by f o r c e as s l a v e s . . . we c o u l d n o t , by the s i n g l e a c t of f r e e i n g them d i v e s t o u r s e l v e s o f the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e i r f u t u r e , which must n e c e s s a r i l y be the outcome o f t h e p a s t and o f the p r e s e n t . F o r g e n e r a t i o n s the g r e a t mass of the p o p u l a t i o n must remain dependent on B r i t i s h i n f l u e n c e f o r good government, and g e n e r a l l y f o r the maintenance o f the p r o g r e s s t h a t they have made h i t h e r t o . We c a n not abandon them, and i f economic c o n d i t i o n s become such t h a t p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e and p r o f i t s o f t r a d e and c u l t i v a t i o n cease t o a t t r a c t white men t o the c o l o n i e s , o r keep them t h e r e , t h i s may r e n d e r i t more d i f f i c u l t f o r B r i t i s h Government t o d i s c h a r g e i t s o b l i g a t i o n s , but w i l l not i n any way d i m i n i s h the f o r c e o f them. We have p l a c e d the l a b o u r i n g p o p u l a t i o n where i t i s , and c r e a t e d f o r i t the c o n d i t i o n s , moral and m a t e r i a l , under which i t e x i s t s , and we cannot d i v e s t o u r s e l v e s of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r i t s future.  The  commission d e s c r i b e d  c o n d i t i o n s i n the c o l o n i e s as e x t r e m e l y  de-  p r e s s e d . S t a n d a r d s of c u l t i v a t i o n had been r e d u c e d and no a t t e n t i o n  was  p a i d t o the maintenance o f s o i l f e r t i l i t y . M a n u f a c t u r e r s of sugar -were not up t o the  standard  l a n d , A u s t r a l i a . The  r e a c h e d i n l a r g e p r o d u c i n g areas such as Queens-  predominant t y p e o f sugar was  Moscovado and a l t h o u g h t  i n B r i t i s h Guiana, T r i n i d a d and S t . L u c i a sugar f a c t o r i e s had been e s t a b l i s h e d , many o f them were p o o r l y equip. , Sugar p r o p e r t i e s w i t h o u t exception ruptcy.  were h e a v i l y encumbered w i t h debt and  on the verge o f bank-  In some areas d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n o f the peasant type eased the  dis-  t r e s s , but peasant l a n d ownership, except f o r B r i t i s h Guiana, T r i n i d a d and Jamaica was  n e g l i g i b l e . F o r t u n a t e l y t h e r e were c o n s i d e r a b l e  outlets  32  f o r s u r p l u s p o p u l a t i o n by e m i g r a t i o n t o the U n i t e d S t a t e s , the Panama C a n a l Zone and elsewhere  i n C e n t r a l America,  some e x t e n t the a l l p r e v a i l i n g p o v e r t y and  which s e r v e d t o r e l i e v e t o  distress.  The c o n c l u s i o n ; o f t h e commission was; t h a t the p r i n c i p a l o f t h e d e p r e s s i o n was o f b o u n t i e s was  due  t o the f a c t t h a t beet  sugar under the  causes  support  t a k i n g the market from sugar.cane; t h a t i f the e x i s t i n g  c o n d i t i o n s p e r s i s t e d t h e e x t i n c t i o n o f the West I n d i a n sugar i n d u s t r y c o u l d not be l o n g d e l a y e d ; t h i s would have the most p r o f o u n d e f f e c t s  on  the c o l o n i e s s i n c e i t was  and  apparent  t h a t no i n d u s t r y c o u l d c o m p l e t e l y  s a t i s f a c t o r i l y r e p l a c e sugar; t h a t i n view o f these c i r c u m s t a n c e s a l l e f f o r t s s h o u l d be made t o b r i n g the sugar b o u n t i e s t o an end. I t p h a s i z e d the importance  em-  o f a d i v e r s i f i e d a g r i c u l t u r a l economy as a  solu-  t i o n t o the West I n d i a n problem, and recommended towards t h i s end t h a t government should d i r e c t a t t e n t i o n t o s e t t l i n g p e o p l e on the l a n d . I n the case o f S t . V i n c e n t , peasants were t o be enabled t o a c q u i r e l a n d w i t h a s s i s t a n c e f r o m t h e I m p e r i a l government. The momentous words which t h e y spoke t h e n were t o be h e a r d a g a i n and a g a i n the 50's b e f o r e t h e y were f i r s t  1940's  (13) and  heeded. They s a i d :  I t may be t h a t no i n d u s t r y , o r s e r i e s o f i n d u s t r i e s , can be i n t r o d u c e d i n t o t h e West I n d i e s which w i l l e v e r c o m p l e t e l y take the p l a c e o f sugar, and c e r t a i n no such r e s u l t w i l l be a t t a i n e d w i t h i n the space o f a few y e a r s , b u t i t i s o f the utmost importance t h a t no time should be l o s t i n making a b e g i n n i n g o f subs t i t u t i n g o t h e r i n d u s t r i e s f o r the c u l t i v a t i o n o f s u g a r cane ... I f work cannot be found f o r l a b o u r i n g p o p u l a t i o n on e s t a t e s , t h e y must e i t h e r emigrate o r support themselves b y c u l t i v a t i n g s m a l l p l o t s o f l a n d on t h e i r own a c c o u n t . No l a r g e i n d u s t r y o t h e r t h a n A g r i c u l t u r e , o f f e r s any p r o s p e c t of s u c c e s s . . . . and when l a r g e e s t a t e s cannot be p r o f i t a b l y worked the a d o p t i o n o f the . . system o f c u l t i v a t i o n b y p e t t y p r o p r i e t o r s i s i n e v i t a b l e . (•"+•) On the matter o f the s e t t l e m e n t o f l a b o u r on the l a n d the  -33  r e p o r t goes on t o say t h a t t h i s p r a c t i c e ...has n o t as a r u l e been viewed w i t h f a v o u r i n the p a s t by t h e persons i n t e r e s t e d i n sugar e s t a t e s . What s u i t e d them b e s t was a l a r g e s u p p l y o f l a b o u r e r s , e n t i r e l y dependent on b e i n g a b l e t o f i n d work on t h e e s t a t e s , and, c o n s e q u e n t l y , s u b j e c t t o t h e i r c o n t r o l and w i l l i n g t o work at low r a t e s o f wages. But i t seems t o us t h a t no r e f o r m a f f o r d s so good a p r o s p e c t f o r permanent w e l f a r e i n the f u t u r e o f t h e West I n d i e s as the s e t t l e m e n t o f t h e l a b o u r i n g p o p u l a t i o n on the l a n d as s m a l l peasant p r o p r i e t o r s ; and i n many p l a c e s t h i s i s the o n l y means b y which the p o p u l a t i o n can i n the f u t u r e be supported. The drawbacks t o the system of peasant p r o p r i e t o r s have h i t h e r t o been t h e i r want o f knowledge and c a r e i n c u l t i v a t i o n , and the h a b i t o f what i s c a l l e d p r a e d i a l l a r c e n y . Nothing i n the r e p o r t p r e c l u d e d the p r a c t i c e o f l a r g e - s c a l e farming  p r o v i d e d p l a n t a t i o n c u l t i v a t i o n c o u l d be c a r r i e d on under n a t u r a l  economic c o n d i t i o n s . On t h e c o n t r a r y the commissioners were c o n v i n c e d t h a t i n many p l a c e s they a f f o r d e d the b e s t , and some times, the o n l y p r o f i t a b l e means of c u l t i v a t i n g c e r t a i n p r o d u c t s , and t h a t i t i s not i m p o s s i b l e f o r the two systems, o f l a r g e e s t a t e s and peasant h o l d i n g s , t o e x i s t s i d e by s i d e w i t h mutual advantage. The p l i g h t o f the West I n d i a n s u g a r economy c o u l d be e x p l a i n e d b y adage which warns a g a i n s t t h e r i s k o f c a r r y i n g a l l one's eggs i n  (1°) the one  basket: I t i s never s a t i s f a c t o r y f o r any c o u n t r y t o be e n t i r e l y dependent upon one i n d u s t r y , such a p o s i t i o n i s , f r o m t h e v e r y nature o f the case, more o r l e s s p r e c a r i o u s , and must i n the case o f the West I n d i a n , r e s u l t i n a p r e p o n d e r a t i n g i n f l u e n c e i n one t e n d i n g t o r e s t r i c t d e v e l o p ment i n otherways. The r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f the sugar i n d u s t r y i n the West I n d i e s have had s p e c i a l means o f i n f l u e n c i n g the governments o f the d i f f e r e n t c o l o n i e s , and o f p u t t i n g p r e s s u r e on the home Government t o s e c u r e a t t e n t i o n t o t h e i r views and w i s h e s . T h e i r i n t e r e s t s have been t o a v e r y g r e a t e x t e n t l i m i t e d t o the sugar i n d u s t r y , and they have seldom t u r n e d t h e i r a t t e n t i o n t o any o t h e r c u l t i v a t i o n e x c e p t when the sugar i n d u s t r y ' c e a s e d t o be p r o f i t a b l e . The s e t t l e m e n t o f the l a b o u r i n g p o p u l a t i o n on the l a n d , and the encouragement o f the p r o d u c t s and forms  34  of c u l t i v a t i o n s u i t a b l e f o r a c l a s s o f peasant prop r i e t o r s formed no p a r t o f t h e i r p o l i c y . . . I f a d i f f e r e n t p o l i c y had found f a v o u r the c o n d i t i o n s o f t h e West I n d i e s might have been l e s s s e r i o u s t h a n i t i s at p r e s e n t i n view o f t h e p r o b a b l e f a i l u r e o f the sugar i n d u s t r y . T h i s was t r u e o f t h e  1890's b u t i t remained the main c r i t i c i s m o f t h e  West Indian economy r i g h t down t o the 1929  1940's. The sugar commission o f  a g a i n r e i t e r a t e d and re-emphasized t h e need f o r e n l i g h t e n e d  s a n t f a r m i n g b a s e d on secure l a n d t e n u r e . I n 1947 mission  pea-  t h e C a r i b b e a n Com-  i n i t s L a n d Symposium and Crop I n q u i r y S e r i e s r e s t a t e d t h e  s i t u a t i o n and made recommendations. Today f o r t h e f i r s t attention i s being tor  (17)  time c a r e f u l  p a i d t o t h e development o f t h i s l o n g n e g l e c t e d  sec-  o f t h e economy a l o n g w i t h a p l a n n e d programme o f i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n . It  i s important t o note t h a t t h e commissioners i n t h e i r recom-  mendations f o r a d i v e r s i f i e d economy d i d n o t envisage t h e development of a n o n - a g r i c u l t u r a l o r i n d u s t r i a l s e c t o r which would a t t r a c t people off  the l a n d . They d i d n o t seem t o r e c o g n i s e  population  t h e problem o f o v e r -  as l o n g term b u t o n l y as a r i s i n g o u t o f c r i s e s o r t h e b u s i n e s s  c y c l e . Moreover they s p e c i f i c a l l y s t a t e d t h a t there was a l a c k o f adequate n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s  w h i c h would make t h i s p o s s i b l e . They  therefore  could only v i s u a l i z e the introduction o f other a g r i c u l t u r a l enterprises which would serve  t o cushion  t h e e f f e c t s o f such c r i s e s . The emphasis on  the d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n o f t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l economy, as d i s t i n c t from the p u r s u i t o f m a n u f a c t u r i n g i n d u s t r i e s b a s e d on n o n - a g r i c u l t u r a l raw m a t e r i a l , s t a n d s out i n marked c o n t r a s t t o p r e s e n t It  should  day p o l i c y .  a l s o be observed t h a t a l t h o u g h t h e s e f i r s t  o f economic r e - o r g a n i z a t i o n f o r t h e c o l o n i e s c o n s i d e r e d  beginnings  the B r i t i s h  area  as a whole u n i t , y e t i n d e t a i l a p p l i c a t i o n each u n i t d i c t a t e d i t s own  35  development. The attempt  at d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n i n the absence o f a u n i f i e d  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n the c o l o n i e s meant i n most c a s e s the s u b s t i t u t i o n o f one c a s h c r o p f o r another. T h i s , as we West I n d i e s s t i l l  s h a l l see l a t e r , l e f t the  British  s u b j e c t to the f u l l f o r c e o f the i n f l u e n c e o f p r o s -  p e r i t y and d e p r e s s i o n abroad and s u s c e p t i b l e t o the u n f a v o u r a b l e comp e t i t i o n o f new  a r e a s o f s u p p l y . A t the same time drought, p l a n t d i s e a s e  and h u r r i c a n e d i d t h e i r p a r t at home t o reduce Two  the standards o f l i v i n g .  important changes took p l a c e as a r e s u l t o f the recommen-  d a t i o n s o f the R o y a l Commission o f 18975 1.  The b e e t sugar b o u n t i e s , which were r e p o r t e d t o be  c h i e f cause o f the f a i l u r e o f the sugarcane West I n d i e s , came t o an end i n 1903  the  i n d u s t r y i n the  as a r e s u l t o f the B r u s s e l s  Convention. 2.  The  I m p e r i a l Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e f o r Barbados, the  Leeward I s l a n d s and t h e Windward I s l a n d s was Barbados i n  e s t a b l i s h e d at  1895.  P a r t o f the c o s t o f t h i s department was  t o be d e f r a y e d from  Colonial  g r a n t s . T h i s p o l i c y o f making g r a n t s f o r development purpose r e p r e s e n t e d the b e g i n n i n g o f the g r a n t - i n - a i d system i n the B r i t i s h West I n d i e s . I t a n t i c i p a t e d the C o l o n i a l Development and W e l f a r e Scheme recommended b y the R o y a l Commission o f 1938  and i n s t i t u t e d i n 1940.  pursued a v e r y v i g o r o u s a g r i c u l t u r a l p o l i c y . I t was, for  p r o j e c t s o u t s i d e the f i e l d  The  department  * a/iso-r, r e s p o n s i b l e  of agriculture. I t s s c i e n t i f i c research  i n sugar cane p r o d u c t i o n i s the crowning  f e a t u r e o f i t s development  schemes. The work i t began i n t h e s e a r c h f o r new  disease r e s i s t a n t  sugar-  cane v a r i e t i e s w i t h h i g h e r s u c r o s e content r e p r e s e n t s the b e g i n n i n g o f  36  t e c h n o l o g i c a l change w i t h i n t h e i n d u s t r y . With improved  varieties, i n -  t e n s e c u l t i v a t i o n of sugar p r o d u c t i o n and the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f b e t t e r equipment i n f a c t o r i e s the y i e l d o f sugar p e r a c r e i n c r e a s e d c o n s i d e r a b l y . T h i s has b e e n t h e t r e n d observed i n T r i n i d a d , B r i t i s h Guiana, Barbados, and Jamaica o v e r the l a s t h a l f c e n t u r y . (See T a b l e The Department has s i n c e 1921  3.5)  l o s t i t s wide sphere o f i n -  f l u e n c e t o the more i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y important i n s t i t u t i o n i n T r i n i d a d -,\t, the I m p e r i a l C o l l e g e of T r o p i c a l A g r i c u l t u r e . T h i s c o l l e g e was founded 1921,  in  as the West I n d i e s A g r i c u l t u r a l C o l l e g e . I t s s e r v i c e s are a v a i l a b l e  t o the B r i t i s h C o l o n i a l a r e a as a whole. The main o b j e c t s of the C o l l e g e are t o p r o v i d e i n s t r u c t i o n , and t o conduct t u r e . P r i o r t o 1940  research i n T r o p i c a l A g r i c u l -  i t s r e s e a r c h f a c i l i t i e s were geared t o t h e need of  the e x p o r t c a s h c r o p s , i . e . sugar, bananas, cacao. As s u c h i t r e a c h e d o n l y a s m a l l p a r t of t h e f a r m i n g community. The e x t e n s i o n of i t s r e s e a r c h p o t e n t i a l i n 1946  - 52 was  c o n c e n t r a t e d on f o u r major schemes o f i n v e s t i -  g a t i o n - cacao, bananas, s o i l s and sugar c h e m i s t r y . A l o n g w i t h these,however jwork was  s t a r t e d on i n v e s t i g a t i o n s o f s m a l l f a r m i n g . A f t e r the  war  the change i n a g r i c u l t u r a l p o l i c y f r o m a s p e c i a l i s e d c a s h c r o p system a c a s h - c r o p - f o o d - c r o p type gave new  importance  t o the peasant  to  farming  s e c t o r . The need t o r e o r g a n i s e peasant f a r m i n g t o meet t h e needs caused t h e C o l l e g e t o t u r n t o t h e s e problems (on the r e q u e s t o f l o c a l u n i t s ) f o r the f i r s t  time i n  1946.  The recommendations made as a r e s u l t o f the s t u d i e s c a r r i e d out over the s i x y e a r p e r i o d 1946  - 1952  p r e s e n t an i n t e r e s t i n g case f o r  a g r i c u l t u r a l r e f o r m . The e f f o r t marks the i n t e g r a t i o n o f a v a i l a b l e  (18)  — t e c h n o l o g i c a l knowledge o r pure s c i e n c e t o i n d u s t r y i n the West I n d i e s .  37  This process  i s s t i l l going  on. I t i s becoming more complete and con-  s i s t e n t . A t a meeting o f the C o u n c i l o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y C o l l e g e o f t h e West I n d i e s , Jamaica, i n O c t o b e r i t was decided  t h a t the proposed i n -  corporation i n the College o f the Imperial College o f T r o p i c a l A g r i c u l t u r e w i l l take p l a c e on 1st August, i 9 6 0 ,  and t h a t from t h a t date the  Senate and C o u n c i l o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y C o l l e g e w i l l  take over t h e I m p e r i a l  C o l l e g e , and t e a c h i n g w i l l b e g i n f o r a degree i n a g r i c u l t u r e . T h i s (19) p u t s t h e Collegeafrfocentre o f B r i t i s h West I n d i a n f a r m i n g  a c t i v i t y and  g i v e s i t a new sphere o f i n f l u e n c e . In t h e s m a l l e r i s l a n d s t h e scenes a l s o changed on the a g r i c u l t u r a l h o r i z o n . S e a I s l a n d c o t t o n r e p l a c e d sugar i n M o n t s e r r a t , S t . Vincent  and N e v i s as the p r i n c i p a l i n d u s t r y . Lime c u l t i v a t i o n r a p i d l y -  i n c r e a s e d i n D o m i n i c a and S t . L u c i a . I n J a m a i c a as t h e r e s u l t o f s a t i s f a c t o r y market p r i c e s banana c u l t i v a t i o n extended v e r y g r e a t l y b o t h on e s t a t e s and s m a l l h o l d i n g s , and t h e i n d u s t r y began t o a t t a i n the p r e dominant p o s i t i o n which i t o c c u p i e d  i n t h e e a r l y 1940's b u t l o s t  again  t o sugar l a t e r ; I n Grenada the c o c o a and s p i c e i n d u s t r y predominated. It i s d i f f i c u l t i n the absence o f proper  t o measure the e x t e n t o f new economic a c t i v i t y s t a t i s t i c s , f o r t h i s p e r i o d and t h i s i s a d i f -  f i c u l t y which r e s t r i c t s the scope o f many works and thesds We, t h e r e f o r e , cannot say a n y t h i n g  such as t h i s .  about n e t c a p i t a l f o r m a t i o n  f o r the  pre-world  war I I and immediate post-war p e r i o d s , e x c e p t  formation  was o f the form o f replacement and r e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e e s -  t a b l i s h e d i n d u s t r i a l s t r u c t u r e which was a l l o w e d  t h a t much o f t h i s  t o r u n down from t h e  dawn o f e m a n c i p a t i o n and a p p r e n t i c e s h i p . The major developments  along  - — t h e — l i n e s o f n e t economic growth were t h e e r e c t i o n o f a c e n t r a l sugar  38  f a c t o r y i n S t . K i t t s i n 1912;  the c o n t i n u e d t r a n s f o r m a t i o n i n Barbados  o f the s u g a r i n d u s t r y from the r u d i m e n t a r y Muscavado system t o a f a c t o r y system; and the g r e a t e x t e n s i o n o f t h e use o f implements  and  machinery.  F o r t h e r e g i o n as a whole the p r o c e s s o f c e n t r a l i z a t i o n o f the sugar i n d u s t r y w i t h i n the t e c h n i c a l l y p o s s i b l e l i m i t s was  slow, and was i n -  duced o n l y b y the i n c r e a s e d c o m p e t i t i o n from beet sugar and the ex« (20) p a n s i o n o f cane c u l t i v a t i o n i n o l d a r e a s o r i t s i n t r o d u c t i o n i n t o o n e s - L o u i s i a n a , Hawaii, Java, F i j i ,  new  and the P h i l l i p p i n e s . By 1939  B r i t i s h West I n d i e s , t h e Netherlands, and U.S.  the  t e r r i t o r i e s i n the C a r i b -  bean, produced l e s s t h a n 10 p e r c e n t o f t h e world's s u p p l y . I n t e c h (21) n i c a l language then we  may  observe t h a t the p e r i o d under  consideration  i s m a i n l y one o f r e t a r d e d r a t e o f " c a p i t a l deepening". . The p r o s p e r i t y of the p e r i o d 1908 - 1920  was  due more t o ex-  t e r n a l i n f l u e n c e r a t h e r than any r a d i c a l change i n the e x i s t i n g  economies.  The f r u i t s o f t h e change made on the a d v i c e o f the r e p o r t o f 1897> were t o r i p e n l a t e r on i n the l a t e t h i r t i e s . P r i c e s o f most West I n d i a n produce r o s e r a p i d l y w i t h t h e approach o f war  and t h e economies r e s p o n d -  i n g t o these p r i c e s t i m u l i e n j o y e d p r o s p e r i t y throughout the p e r i o d . T h i s reached i t s summit i n the war y e a r s . The annual revenue and  expen-  (22) d i t u r e f o r the v a r i o u s i s l a n d s show t h i s c l e a r l y . I t was  i n particular  the good p r i c e s p r e v a i l i n g f o r sugar and i t s b y - p r o d u c t s which  accoun-  t e d f o r the i n c r e a s e d w e l f a r e , b u t i t s h o u l d be o b s e r v e d i n the case o f T r i n i d a d and Grenada t h a t cocoa accounted f o r the l a r g e s t share o f the i n c r e a s e d p u r c h a s i n g power i n the c a t e g o r y o f a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c e . In Grenada s p i c e s and Sea I s l a n d c o t t o n a l s o took prominent p l a c e as i n come e a r n e r s . In S t . V i n c e n t a r r o w r o o t r o s e t o f i r s t  p l a c e w i t h Sea  39  I s l a n d c o t t o n next  to i t . The  V i n c e n t a l s o deserve  p a r excelence  c r i s i s came i n 1921,  The  f a n c y molasses began t o f a l l -  o f the  Caribbean.  when the p r i c e s o f sugar, rum  1940^set i n . C o n c u r r e n t l y w i t h sugar and i t s b y - p r o d u c t s The  distress  t h e d r a s t i c c u t i n incomes o f b o t h government and p r i v a t e i n d i -  v i d u a l s c o n t i n g e n t on t h i s o v e r a l l f a l l ted  and  o f f s h a r p l y and the l o n g p e r i o d o f s t a g -  the p r i c e s o f o t h e r a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t s began t o f a l l . of  St.  s p e c i a l mention; though Dominica l a t e r r o s e t o  the p o s i t i o n l i m e producer  n a t i o n , 1920  lime i n d u s t r y i n S t . l u c i a and  i n p r i c e was  b y the r e d u c t i o n i n the supply o f produce due  f u r t h e r aggrava-  to t h e i n c r e a s e d  v i r u l e n c e o f p l a n t d i s e a s e s . The panama and l e a f spot d i s e a s e o f bananas, r o s i l l i n i a r o o t and w i t h e r t i p o f l i m e s , the p i n k b a l l o f c o t t o n and w i t c h broom o f cacao were a l l w e l l known i n t h e a r e a . Moreover a  the  series  of  h u r r i c a n e s occured r e d u c i n g the p r o d u c t i o n o f bananas i n Jamaica  to  a p o s i t i o n from which i t n e v e r r e c o v e r e d f u l l y and r u i n i n g the  lime  economy o f Dominica. Superimposed on a l l t h i s was ing  p o p u l a t i o n . The problem was  the problem o f a r a p i d l y i n c r e a s e -  p a r t l y met  b y the m i g r a t i o n of West  I n d i a n s t o the Panama C a n a l and the U n i t e d S t a t e s o f America, but when the U n i t e d S t a t e s c l o s e d h e r door t o West I n d i a n immigrants t h i s avenue was  cut o f f and the West I n d i a n problem i n t e n s i f i e d . I t was  circumstances.of  human e x i s t e n c e i n the 1920's and 30's  West I n d i e s and the l o n g drawn out s t a t e o f hidden which touched o f f the r i o t s o f 1934 p o s s e s s i o n s . T h i s was -mission o f 1938.  -  1938  and  a l l these  o f the B r i t i s h unemployment  t h a t swept through the  t h e cause f o r t h e appointment o f the Royal  I t s terms o f r e f e r e n c e was  t o i n v e s t i g a t e the  British Com-  position  40  of  the West I n d i a n Sugar I n d u s t r y , and t h e g e n e r a l l i v i n g  conditions  i n the West I n d i e s . The problem o f the Yfest I n d i e s as i t e v o l v e d from 1897 1938 of  was 1929  m a i n l y a m a r k e t i n g problem. T h i s i s how  to  the Sugar Commission  and l a t e r on the L o r d Mayne R e p o r t o f 1938  saw  i t . Perhaps  G. S t . J . Orde Brown i n h i s r e p o r t Labour C o n d i t i o n s i n t h e West I n d i e s supports  t h i s p o i n t o f view more p r e c i s e l y , when he  says:  . . . t h e r e i s the wage e a r n i n g l a b o u r e r who i s a l s o p a r t p e a s a n t p r o p r i e t o r , owning some two o r t h r e e a c r e s o f l a n d ; p o s s e s s i o n w i l l i n h i s case encourage more s u b s t a n t i a l b u i l d i n g and t h r i f t i e r methods o f husbandry. T h i s . . . t h i r d type i s t h a t most d e s e r v i n g of encouragement, f o r t h e purpose i n view.. H i s f a t e i s n o t e n t i r e l y bound up w i t h t h a t o f the e s t a t e , s i n c e he grows h i s own f o o d ; p l a n t d i s e a s e s o r f a l l i n g markets t h e r e f o r e do not i n v o l v e him i n d i s a s t e r , b u t merely r e s t r i c t ; , h i s o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r e a r n i n g e x t r a money. F o r t h i s r e a s o n , a t t e n t i o n s h o u l d be f o c u s s e d p r i m a r i l y on f o o d p r o d u c t i o n , r a t h e r than upon e x p o r t a b l e c r o p s ; the peasant p r o p r i e t o r who depends on s a l e a b l e produce f o r purchase o f h i s own s u b s i s t e n c e , w i l l be exposed t o d i s a s t e r as much as the g r e a t e s t a t e s , w i t h o u t t h e i r r e s o u r c e s f o r s u s t a i n i n g i t . . . The p o i n t i s o f some moment, s i n c e t h e r e i s a n o t i c e a b l e tendency i n c e r t a i n i s l a n d s f o r l a n d s e t t l e m e n t t o be taken up by p e o p l e who o n l y i n t e n d t o produce an e x p o r t a b l e a r t i c l e , and who w i l l t h u s be r e n d e r e d d e s t i t u t e by i t s f a i l u r e .  (23)  I t i s an i n d i s p u t a b l e f a c t t h a t i n g e n e r a l the West I n d i e s had  developed  a d i v e r s i f i e d a g r i c u l t u r a l economy s i n c e the Report o f  The e n t e r p r i s e s b e s i d e sugar and i t s b y - p r o d u c t s c o t t o n ( a l s o marie g a l a n t e ) , s p i c e s , arrowroot, products  and  were, c a c o a ,  1897  sea i s l a n d  coconuts, bananas, l i m e  c i t r u s f r u i t s . But a l l these were cash c r o p s and as such  s u b j e c t e d the peasant p r o p r i e t o r who  made them the b a s i s o f h i s  liveli-  hood t o t h e u n c e r t a i n t y o f p r o d u c t i o n and marketing t h a t surrounded  41  them a t home and abroad. And t h i s i s e s s e n t i a l l y the d i f f e r e n c e between the peasant p r o p r i e t o r s d e s c r i b e d b y Cumper and Rawle and the c l a s s o f peasant f a r m e r s o f the l a t t e r p a r t o f t h e Jlftth c e n t u r y . The f o r m e r  was  n o t t i e d t o e x t e r n a l supply-demand c o n d i t i o n s , t h e l a t t e r became p i n n e d t o i t through the p r i c e system which p e n e t r a t e d t h e economy w i t h t h e i n c r e a s i n g use o f money as a medium o f exchange. C o n s e q u e n t l y the peasant f a r m e r s enjoyed unbroken p r o s p e r i t y w h i l e the sugar p l a n t a t i o n p r o p r i e t o r s s u f f e r e d d e p r e s s i o n . Now and the dependent  rHve- peasant f a r m e r s , p l a n t a t i o n owners  wage e a r n i n g c l a s s a r e a l i k e s u b j e c t t o the same  f o r c e s . Not o n l y are they bfeU; dependent  on f o r e i g n markets f o r the  o f t h e i r produce b u t t h e y are a l s o dependent  sale  on f o r e i g n p r o d u c e r s f o r  almost the e n t i r e s u p p l y o f o r d i n a r y n e c e s s i t i e s . The West I n d i e s must s e l l t h e i r produce consumption. He  i n o r d e r t o purchase t h e i r r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r home  Orde Brown found room f o r improvement i n t h i s  s t a t e d c l e a r l y t h a t much o f what was  direction.  imported. i n the c a t e g o r y o f  f o o d , d r i n k s , t o b a c c o e t c . , c o u l d be produced l o c a l l y o r r e p l a c e d b y home grown produce War  t o the g r e a t advantage  o f the a r e a . I t t o o k World ^  I I and the i n c o n v e n i e n c e and h a r d s h i p s s u f f e r e d when c u t o f f from  t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l s p h e r e s o f supply, f o r the West I n d i e s t o r e a l i z e full  the  impact o f t h i s message. To o b v i a t e t h i s f o o d shortage problem d u r i n g the war y e a r s  A g r i c u l t u r a l and M a r k e t i n g Boards were e s t a b l i s h e d i n the v a r i o u s u n i t s b y s t a t u t e . These o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n i t i a t e d grow-more-food programmes and were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r p u t t i n g governments' p r i c e support p o l i c i e s e f f e c t . S i m i l a r developments duction f o r export r e f l e c t  into  a t the l e v e l o f West I n d i a n domestic p r o -  t h e type o f r e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f the marketing  42 i n d u s t r y i n B r i t a i n d u r i n g t h e war.  Under the B u l k P u r c h a s i n g Agreements  between the C o l o n i e s and t h e Commonwealth n a t i o n s ^ t h e c e n t r e o f c o n t r o l s h i f t e d from the p r i v a t e s e c t o r t o the p u b l i c s e c t o r . S i n c e the war e x t e n s i o n o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l p r i c e support f o r key p r o d u c t s , sugar,  the  cocoa,  c o f f e e and o t h e r a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t s n e c e s s i t a t e d t h e c o n t i n u a t i o n o f government c o n t r o l s . The f i x i n g o f sugar p r i c e s and quotas i s a matter f o r government n e g o t i a t i o n . The campaign and p r i c e support expansion  i n t e g r a t i o n o f the l o c a l grow-more-food  schemes i n t o t h e p o s t war p l a n s f o r economic  i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e B r i t i s h West I n d i e s had l e a r n e d t h e i r  l e s s o n . Of c o u r s e the memory o f the deep d e p r e s s i o n o f the the  1930's a v i d l y  reformers  supported  1920's and  recommendations f o r such r e f o r m . I t h e l p e d  t o u n d e r l i n e the t r u e nature o f t h i s aspect o f the West  I n d i a n economic problem, i . e . d i s t a n c e f r o m h e r markets f o r s u p p l y o f consumer goods. The B r i t i s h West I n d i a n a r e a s produce a g r i c u l t u r a l  products  the s a l e o f which i t depends on t o purchase i t s i m p o r t s , and f i n a n c e i t s a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a f f a i r s . But t h e r e are a l s o many o t h e r areas i n the t r o p i c s which can grow the same p r o d u c t s q u a n t i t i e s . Hence i n the  1920's  j u s t as w e l l , and  i n greater  when t h e s e p o t e n t i a l c o m p e t i t i v e  areas  began t o produce and dump on the market p r i c e s f e l l and w i t h them the p r o s p e r i t y o f the West I n d i e s dwindled. Moreover i n c r e a s i n g wealth i n o t h e r c o u n t r i e s and t e c h n o l o g i c a l progz^ess worked e q u a l l y a g a i n s t the s t a t i c s t r u c t u r e on which economic a c t i v i t y i n the B r i t i s h West I n d i e s was  based. On  the supply s i d e sugar had t o f a c e expansion  i n Cuba and  o t h e r a r e a s ; c o c o a extended p r o d u c t i o n i n West A f r i c a ; oranges  and  43  g r a p e f r u i t s had  t o meet r a p i d l y e x t e n d i n g p r o d u c t i o n i n F l o r i d a  and  l a t e r C a l i f o r n i a , P a l e s t i n e and South A f r i c a . On the demand s i d e , the demand f o r c o n c e n t r a t e d l i m e the p r i n c i p a l p r o d u c t d i s c o v e r y of new  juice,  of the l i m e i n d u s t r y f e l l away because o f the  and cheaper methods o f p r o d u c i n g c i t r i c a c i d . Today  low p r i c e s and c o m p e t i t i o n from Mexico are the c h i e f d e t e r e n t s t o the West I n d i a n i n d u s t r y . F i n a l l y , s e a - i s l a n d c o t t o n went out o f demand b e cause o f change i n women's f a s h i o n s I n s h o r t , the o n l y p r o d u c t t h e demand remained f a i r l y  steady was  f o r which  bananas.  (25)  With the predominance of the p r i c e system and the change i n the s t r u c t u r e o f the peasant  f a r m i n g from p r o d u c t i o n f o r home consump-  t i o n t o a s h i f t i n g cash-crop  system w i t h i t s a t t e n d a n t  and  soil  exhaustion  e r o s i o n , low p r o d u c t i v i t y and p o v e r t y , the p r i c e o f f e r e d f o r sugar  and t h e p r o s p e c t o f a good o r bad c r o p became matters i n d i v i d u a l s i n the West I n d i a n environment, w i t h few  o f concern f o r a l l exceptions.  The volume o f sugar e x p o r t s now became undoubtedly a r e l i a b l e i n d i c a t o r of West I n d i a n p r o s p e r i t y . I t accounts share o f v a l u e of domestic though i t has  been  f o r a substantial  e x p o r t s f o r the B r i t i s h West I n d i e s and  even  d w i n d l i n g i n importance i n terms o f i t s p e r c e n t a g e  t o t a l v a l u e o f domestic  exports, i t occupies f i r s t place i n value of  p o r t s of a g r i c u l t u r a l produce f o r the a r e a as a whole. I t i s t h e employer o f l a b o u r i n the r e g i o n and as a d o l l a r e a r n e r f o r the  of ex-  largest  Common-  w e a l t h i n the c a t e g o r y o f p l a n t a t i o n crops sugar f o r the B r i t i s h West I n d i e s was and of  the second l a r g e s t d o l l a r earner i n 1938  the t h i r d l a r g e s t  i n 1956  i t s importance - K> ~J h WN.'it  - $28  Million  - $13  Million  (U.S.)  (U.S.). F u r t h e r e v i d e n c e  I the many commissions t h a t have been sent  ( ) 2 6  44  down t o the West I n d i e s t o i n v e s t i g a t e i t s p r o d u c t i o n and Two  of these  and  (2)  marketing. 1897,  are worthy o f mention ( i ) the R o y a l Commission o f  the Sugar Commission o f 1929.  More testimony  o f the f a c t  of  i t s weight i n the West I n d i a n economy comes from t h e account t h a t depression  o f the i n d u s t r y i n the 1 9 3 0 ' s was  p a r t l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the  l a b o u r d i s o r d e r s of t h i s p e r i o d - the r i o t s o f 1934 the i n t e r n a t i o n a l sugar r e g u l a t i o n o f 1937 to remedy the market s i t u a t i o n j and t h a t U n i t e d Kingdom b u l k p u r c h a s i n g  was '  -  d e l e g a t e s w i t h guaranteed quotas and  1938;  that  e s t a b l i s h e d t o attempt  t h i s was  p l a n d u r i n g W o r l d War  quent i n t e r n a t i o n a l sugar agreements. The  the  f o l l o w e d by  the  I I and the conse-  concern o f the West  Indian  i n c r e a s e s i n p r i c e i s undoubtedly  an e x p r e s s i o n o f the f e a r o f having t h e i r economies undermined by  a  p o s s i b l e "Cuban dumping" and at the same time, t h e i r d e s i r e to improve (27)  t h e i r economic p o s i t i o n by improvements i n the p r i c e f o r sugar. On t h e o t h e r hand the p r e s e n t  Imperial p o l i c y of preferences  f o r West  I n d i a n sugar i s e q u a l l y a r e a l i s a t i o n o f the importance o f the i n d u s t r y t o the maintenance o f the s t a b i l i t y o f the r e g i o n a l economies. The y e a r 1938  s t a r t s a new  i n the sense t h a t t h e r e was the b e g i n n i n g  e r a f o r t h e West I n d i e s . Not  new  any r e v o l u t i o n , but because i t r e p r e s e n t e d  o f economic r e o r g a n i z a t i o n and a new  p o l i t i c a l awareness  o r the growth o f n a t i o n a l i s m . On the o t h e r s i d e we  see the w i l l i n g n e s s  o f the Home Government t o a c c e p t n a t i o n a l i s m so l o n g as they  could  g u i d e or i n f l u e n c e i t . With t h i s came the t e r r i f i c clamour f o r improved standards  o f l i v i n g . T h i s was the r e s u l t ' o f the spread  of education,  / < !  through the v e h i c l e o f the r a d i o and the newspaper and the s e v e r a l church  o r g a n i z a t i o n s ; and a l s o the coming i n t o c o n t a c t with more advanced  45 c u l t u r e s m a i n l y through t r a v e l abroad..  (28)  On t h i s m a t t e r P.L. Engledow o f Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y w r i t i n g i n 1937  says: I t would be wrong t o f o r g e t t h a t the mass o f t h e p e o p l e i n those C o l o n i e s have now t h r o u g h educat i o n and e x t e r n a l c o n t a c t s c o n c e i v e d for.thems e l v e s h i g h e r s t a n d a r d s o f l i f e than have as y e t been e n v i s a g e d b y o t h e r T r o p i c a l p o p u l a t i o n s dependent on r e s o u r c e s o f a comparable l a n d .  (29)  Government p o l i c i e s i n t h e new e r a aimed a t b r e a k i n g w i t h what A.R. P r e s t d e s c r i b e d as an a d m i n i s t r a t i o n b a s e d on t r a d i t i o n ,  laissez-faire^"^  and i g n o r a n c e . The p r o s p e r i t y e x p e r i e n c e d i n "World War I had, other times, induced expenditure  as a t  i n p u b l i c works which d i d n o t make f o r  immediate r e t u r n s . I n many u n i t s t h e r e was n o t enough f l e x i b i l i t y i n t h e t a x system. G e n e r a l l y ^ t h e p r a c t i c e o f p u b l i c f i n a n c e was p o o r . The p u b l i c debt  i n most a r e a s was so heavy t h a t no room was l e f t f o r econom-  i c expansion b y f u r t h e r c r e a t i o n o f p u b l i c debt. The l i m i t o f t h e t a x a b l e c a p a c i t y was r e a c h e d  i n most u n i t s . The t o t a l n e t indebtedness a t  the end o f December as a percentage p e n d i t u r e f o r 1938 Honduras 20.0, Grenada 10.2,  o f t o t a l p r i v a t e and Government e x r  f o r Barbados was 5.3.,  J a m a i c a 11.1, S t . L u c i a 12.4  R o y a l Commission o f 1938  A n t i g u a 4.6,  B r i t i s h Guiana 21.1,  British  T r i n i d a d and Tobago  9.5,  and S t . V i n c e n t 6.7.  The West I n d i a n  made a thorough study o f t h e s o c i a l and econo-  mic c o n d i t i o n s and made recommendations a c c o r d i n g l y . I t p o i n t e d out the temporary b a s i s o f t h e p r o s p e r i t y t h a t would come as a r e s u l t o f war  and t h e consequent improvement i n t h e p r i c e o f sugar; w i t h peace  the problem o f w o r l d o v e r - p r o d u c t i o n would be aggravated b y the i n c r e a s e i n C o l o n i a l p r o d u c t i o n . I t s purpose t h e n was t o a v o i d t h e chaos o f t h e f a u l t y p u b l i c f i n a n c e and inadequate  economic p o l i c i e s o f p a s t y e a r s .  46  I t r e c o g n i s e d the need f o r f i n a n c i a l a i d and p r o p e r economic p o l i c y o u t l i n e d a scheme f o r t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t under the c o n t r o l o f the  o f a West I n d i a n Welfare  and  Fund  Comptroller.  There i s a p r e s s i n g need f o r l a r g e e x p e n d i t u r e on s o c i a l s e r v i c e s and development which not even the l e a s t p o o r of the West I n d i a n C o l o n i e s can hope t o u n d e r t a k e from t h e i r own r e s o u r c e s . We t h e r e f o r e recommend the e s t a b l i s h m e n t f o r t h e purpose o f a West I n d i a n Welfare Fund t o be f i n a n c e d by an annual g r a n t o f £1,000,000 from the I m p e r i a l Exchequer f o r a p e r i o d o f 20 y e a r s , and o f a s p e c i a l o r g a n i s a t i o n to a d m i n i s t e r t h i s f u n d under the charge o f the Compt r o l l e r . The o b j e c t s o f the f u n d s h o u l d be t o f i n a n c e schemes f o r the g e n e r a l improvement o f e d u c a t i o n , t h e h e a l t h s e r v i c e s , h o u s i n g and slum c l e a r a n c e , the c r e a t i o n o f l a b o u r departments, the p r o v i s i o n o f s o c i a l w e l f a r e f a c i l i t i e s , and l a n d s e t t l e m e n t , a p a r t from t h e c o s t s o f purchase o f l a n d . T h i s p l a n which l a t e r became a p a r t o f the C o l o n i a l Development and W e l f a r e P l a n ( f o r t h e C o l o n i a l T e r r i t o r i e s ) under the  auspices  of  the S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e f o r the C o l o n i e s r e p r e s e n t e d the f i r s t  to  put p o l i c i e s i n t o e f f e c t which would remedy the i l l s which s e v e r a l  commissions and l o c a l committees have p o i n t e d out s i n c e 1897. r e s e n t e d the f i r s t  s t e p on the l o n g way  towards n a t i o n h o o d .  I t rep-  towards r e o r g a n i z a t i o n i n t h e  West I n d i a n economies and i s t h e economic c o u n t e r p a r t t o the movement f r o m 1938  attempt  steady-  The Commission r e p o r t e d t h a t  W i t h i n the l i m i t s imposed upon them by t h e i r own f i n a n c i a l p o s i t i o n by the u n c e r t a i n economic o u t l o o k and by the p r e v a i l i n g system o f I m p e r i a l g r a n t s , most C o l o n i a l Governments i n the West I n d i e s have made some e f f o r t t o f o l l o w the modern t r e n d by engaging i n s t a t e a c t i v i t i e s unknown a c e n t u r y ago. But those e f f o r t s - o f which•the l a t e s t example t o be f o u n d i n most o f these c o l o n i e s i s the c r e a t i o n o f Labour Departments - have so f a r done no more t h a n t o u c h the f r i n g e o f the problem, and they must be i n t e n s i f i e d and extended i n scope i f governments i n the West I n d i e s are to assume the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s now taken f o r g r a n t e d i n many o t h e r c o u n t r i e s .  (33/  47  Economic development and c o n s t i t u t i o n a l advance i n the B r i t i s h West I n d i a n s i t u a t i o n became i n t i m a t e l y i n t e r t w i n e d . They r o s e t o g e t h e r out o f t h e whole ferment o f s o c i a l and economic f o r c e s which began t o e v o l v e i n t h e 1930's and came t o a head i n 1934 - 1938 w i t h t h e g r a n d s p e c t a c l e o f the cane f i r e s and r i o t s . With t h e p o l i t i c a l awake-^^"^ n i n g i n the 1940*s and the abandonment o f economic l i b e r a l i s m , t h e West Indian u n i t s , separate  as they were i n t h e i r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s b u t u n i t e d  i n t h e i r economic and s o c i a l problems, t u r n e d t o the o f f i c e o f t h e C o m p t r o l l e r f o r a i d . SiKT.Macpherson, C o m p t r o l l e r ,  i n t h e Development  and "Welfare Report,1945 - 1946, c l e a r l y s t a t e s the West I n d i a n paradox of separate but u n i t e d : The B r i t i s h West I n d i e s have as y e t no c e n t r a l l e g i s l a t i v e o r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a u t h o r i t y ; on the o t h e r hand t h e y do have a number o f problems t h a t can o n l y be h a n d l e d on a r e g i o n a l b a s i s ; and t h e r e has been manif e s t e d an e v e r - i n c r e a s i n g tendency t o e n l i s t c o o p e r a t i o n o f the C o m p t r o l l e r ' s O f f i c e i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e i r problems - i f o n l y because t h e r e i s no where e l s e i n the a r e a where they c a n be d e a l t w i t h .  (35)  He goes on t o s a y : Thus d u r i n g 1945 - 46 the o r g a n i z a t i o n convened a c o n f e r e n c e which worked out arrangements t o make the B.W.I, c o l o n i e s s e l f s u f f i c i e n t i n o i l s and f a t s ; as w e l l as a c o n f e r e n c e on the t o u r i s t t r a d e ; a meeting t o d i s c u s s a i r t r a v e l , a c u r r e n c y c o n f e r e n c e , which a r r i v e d a t unanimous recommendation f o r t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n of new u n i f i e d c u r r e n c y i n t o the E a s t e r n group; and a c o n f e r e n c e o f l a b o u r o f f i c e r s . By 1948 mon  i t was e v i d e n t t h a t these  weal o f the T e r r i t o r i e s  f e d e r a l system w h i c h i n f a c t over  i n h e r e n t economic f o r c e s and the com-  ... would b e s t be m i n i s t e r e d t o u n d e r a t e n y e a r s l a t e r , on August 3, 1958, t o o k  the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f Development and W e l f a r e  f r o m the C o m p t r o l - ^ ^  l e r . With t h i s background I s h a l l now t u r n t o an a n a l y s i s o f the e c o nomic development o f the B r i t i s h West I n d i e s f r o m 1938 up t o F e d e r a t i o n .  48  CHAPTER 3  • POPULATION AND ECONOMIC GROWTH PART I  The Mayne Report o f 1938 and O u t l o o k " s t a t e s e m p h a t i c a l l y  i n C h a p t e r 2 "The Economic P o s i t i o n  : "The p o p u l a t i o n s i n a l l t h e B r i t i s h  West I n d i a n c o l o n i e s a r e now i n c r e a s i n g w i t h g r e a t r a p i d i t y " .  This  f a c t o f r a p i d i n c r e a s i n g numbers (See Appendix l ( a ) and (i(£>|t  '•">..  ,  1;  i n t h e f a c e o f wide spread p o v e r t y has been t h e c e n t r a l problem o f West I n d i a n economic and s o c i a l  development s i n c e t h e t u r n o f t h e t w e n t i e t h  c e n t u r y . The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e shows t h e r a t e o f p o p u l a t i o n growth up t o 1953  f o r the B r i t i s h Caribbean  population.  TABLE  1.3.  ANNUAL. INTERCENSAL RATES OP GROWTH {%) FOR BRITISH CARIBBEAN POPULATION + British InterWindBritish Leeward HonBarbados ward censal Jamaica T r i n i d a d Islands Guiana duras Is. Interval  -'  1.17  -  0.59  -0.36  0.16  0.59  1.06  0.88  0.65  0.62  1.38  0.33  0.79  -0.39  -0.29  1.26  0.92  -0.02  0.42  -0.91  -0.95  1.13  1.21  0.48 0.94  0.98  0.84  2.4  1.2  2.0  2.50*  1.87  1.66  1.38  2.41  2.71  1.37  1871-81  1.38  3.06  2.31  1.25  1881-91  0.97  2.46  1.03  2.14  0.92  1851-61 1861-71  1891-15H 1911-21  0.32  1921-31 1931-46 1953(1)  1.67+ 1.9  *1841 Source;  51  -  1.53  1.84  1844-51  2.03  1.15  2.8  2.9 + 1921  0.82  -  1.26 0.96  3.3  - 43  ( l ) P r e s t ; : A . , A F i s c a l Survey o f t h e B r i t i s h C a r i b b e a n , p . 1 6 (2) Roberts , 1  Gj-W.The P o p u l a t i o n o f Jamaica,  Cambridge,  1957.p. 50  49  The b e s t  study on p o p u l a t i o n t r e n d s  i n any a r e a i n the B r i t i s h West  I n d i e s i s w r i t t e n b y George W. R o b e r t s ,  a n a t i v e o f the B r i t i s h West  I n d i e s , and a f o r m e r v i t a l s t a t i s t i c s o f f i c e r o f the C o l o n i a l and  Wel-  f a r e O r g a n i z a t i o n at Barbados. R o b e r t s study i s on Jamaica, but makes frequent  r e f e r e n c e s t o o t h e r West I n d i a n u n i t s . He  f o l l o w i n g 1644  dates f r o m 1844  1921,  The  the t h i r d 1921  - 46.  i s t h a t i t i s the o n l y one the y e a r s f o l l o w i n g 1921 any  a p p r e c i a b l e net  p e r i o d two  century  i n t o t h r e e b r o a d p e r i o d s o f p o p u l a t i o n growth f o r the  B r i t i s h West I n d i e s , the f i r s t and  d i v i d e s the  - 81,  the second 1881  main c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f p e r i o d  i n the p o s t emancipation y e a r s  one  (apart f r o m  when s p e c i a l c o n d i t i o n s o b t a i n e d ) d u r i n g which  immigration  t o o k p l a c e . The  dominant f e a t u r e o f  i s t h a t i t i s a r e v e r s a l o f the d i r e c t i o n o f n e t  migration.  In p l a c e of the s m a l l net inward movement t h a t c h a r a c t e r i z e d the v i o u s 40 y e a r s ,  pre-  t h e r e appeared a n e t outward movement, which i n c r e a s e d  w i t h the passage o f t i m e , a t t a i n i n g c o n s i d e r a b l e dimensions d u r i n g decade 1911 ly  -21.  I n f a c t , t h i s i s the p e r i o d which has been most  i n f l u e n c e d by m i g r a t i o n ,  o r about  -  the net outward movement b e i n g n e a r l y  the strong-  146,000  3,600 a y e a r . As a consequence o f t h i s outward movement, r a t e s  of p o p u l a t i o n growth d e c l i n e d a p p r e c i a b l y . The up t o t h e next census i n 1946, s i n c e the e s t a b l i s h m e n t  t h i r d p e r i o d , from  1921  i s the l o n g e s t i n t e r c e n s a l i n t e r v a l  o f census t a k i n g . N a t u r a l l y t h i s l o n g l a p s e  time obscures many a s p e c t s o f p o p u l a t i o n change s i n c e 1921.  of  However^three  f a c t o r s c o n f e r a degree o f u n i f o r m i t y on the whole p e r i o d subsequent 1921.  They are  (l) declining f e r t i l i t y ,  to  (2) d e c l i n i n g m o r t a l i t y and(3)  a change i n the d i r e c t i o n o f net m i g r a t i o n . In a d d i t i o n , t h e r e was  a  pronounced i n c r e a s e i n i n t e r n a l m i g r a t i o n .  (l)  50  The a n n u a l r a t e o f g r o w t h f o r R o b e r t s ^ t h i r d p e r i o d ,  -  t h e C a r i b b e a n was a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1.5  percent  lation.  I n t h e decade f o l l o w i n g  i n c r e a s e d t o 2,2  I n 1953  e s t i m a t e d r a t e s o f g r o w t h f o r B r i t i s h Honduras and D o m i n i c a  46,  for  1921  were  3.3  percent  a n d 3.1  this,  percent  rates  respectively.  In contrast  rates  of increase  -1.0.  The d e c l i n e i n M o n t s e r r a t h a s b e e n o f f s e t  This period after  i n the area, Montserrat  p o p u l a t i o n a b o v e one y e a r f o r rates  the whole area,  (per thousand p o p u l a t i o n ) ,  (deaths under 1 y e a r ) . expectancy throughout  There i s the  area. This  to the  high  i n the l a s t  of  five  i n death rates  years. for  a r a p i d increase i n  and a d e c l i n e therefore  percent.  showed a n e g a t i v e r a t e  i s marked b y a sharp f a l l  1946  p e r thousand popu-  in infant  birth  mortality  a remarkable increase  i s p a r t i c u l a r l y marked i n  in  life  Trinidad  and J a m a i c a , w h e r e t h e r e h a v e b e e n g a i n s o f 10 - 20 y e a r s i n age  groups  0 - 45, b e t w e e n 1921  is  a n d 1957.  t h e r e f o r e one o f c o n t i n u o u s factors responsible for high levels is natural  this  of f e r t i l i t y increase  a r e a . These r a t e s  rapid population increase. Again, the t r e n d are the great  or the consistent  of natural  increase f o r  i n the world,  o f West I n d i a n p o p u l a t i o n On t h e o t h e r  side i t  factor responsible f o r loss gration.  - 1958  decline  increase  i n death  in birth  rates,  rates.  some o f t h e West I n d i a n  It the  Is-  illustrates  (k^&v^hQ-  this  growth.  i s observed that  the greatest  single  i n the p o p u l a t i o n o f the t e r r i t o r i e s  is  emi-  Net e m i g r a t i o n f r o m the whole B r i t i s h C a r i b b e a n , w h i c h can be  e s t i m a t e d o n l y i n t e r m s o f n e t passenger movements, i n d i c a t e s loss of  main  and n o t m i g r a t i o n w h i c h d o m i n a t e s e x p a n s i o n i n  l a n d s r a n k as t h e h i g h e s t feature  The w h o l e p e r i o d f r o m 1921  26,000 p e r s o n s  from the region i n  1955  and o f  30,200  a  total  in  1956.  51  In 1955  n e t e m i g r a t i o n exceeded deaths i n Barbados, Jamaica, S t . K i t t s  and the V i r g i n  18,900, 1956  I s l a n d s . Deaths d u r i n g 1955  whereas they l o s t  23,500 persons  i n these i s l a n d s amounted t o  as a r e s u l t  of migration. In  e m i g r a t i o n exceeded deaths i n s t i l l more t e r r i t o r i e s : Barbados,  B r i t i s h Honduras, Jamaica, M o n t s e r r a t , S t . K i t t s , V i r g i n Grenada. The t o t a l deaths f o r a l l these i n t h e i r t o t a l n e t e m i g r a t i o n was  26,900  from m i g r a t i o n was In  1954  26,100. I n 1955  27  or  1956  I s l a n d s and  amounted t o  20,200  the t o t a l l o s s  while  resulting  percent o f the t o t a l n a t u r a l i n c r e a s e .  t h e e s t i m a t e d net e m i g r a t i o n o f  percent of the t o t a l n a t u r a l i n c r e a s e  30,200  was e q u i v a l e n t t o  (92,274) o f  30  the r e g i o n . ( A p p e n d i x  No. 1(a) and 1 ( b ) ) . T a b l e No. 2.3  aca&  So/ '<<' show*,the n a t u r e o f p o p u l a t i o n  growth w i t h i n the B r i t i s h C a r i b b e a n T e r r i t o r i e s 1921  - 1956.  tween 1921 about  The v a r i a t i o n  and 1956  20,000.  Jamaica  i n growth over t h e area i s i n t e r e s t i n g .  2,100  f o r Barbados and  1,300  t h e r a t e o f n a t u r a l i n c r e a s e p e r 1,000  Jamaica was 27.8,  Be-  e x p e r i e n c e d an annual a b s o l u t e i n c r e a s e o f  In c o n t r a s t t o  I s l a n d s . I n 1956  f o r 1841 - 1921 and  compared w i t h 35.6  i n the Leeward  populationf o r  and 31.1 f o r B r i t i s h Honduras and  B r i t i s h Guiana r e s p e c t i v e l y . S t . K i t t s - N e v i s shows a r a t e o f 33.1 and S t . V i n c e n t 34.3.  16.0.  Elsewhere G.W.  100,000 to  The r a t e f o r M o n t s e r r a t r e a d s a low f o r t h e a r e a o f  i n the r e g i o n the range i s Roberts  23.37 p e r 1,000  population.  e s t i m a t e s t h a t w i t h i t s a n n u a l i n c r e a s e o f about  the B r i t i s h Caribbean would have to, e x p e r i e n c e a n e t e m i g r a t i o n  the U n i t e d Kingdom o f about  80,000  i n order t o a t t a i n  a l e v e l of  (2) e m i g r a t i o n comparable t o t h a t now a f f e c t i n g  Puerto R i c o , - Eighty  p e r c e n t o f h e r annual n a t u r a l i n c r e a s e . D e s p i t e , t h e r e f o r e , the dampen-  TABLE 2.3 POPULATION INCREASE, 1841-1921 AND Census P o p u l a t i o n Country 1841 - 1 9 4 4  1921  .Average .Annual Increase 1841 - 1 9 2 1  1921-1956  Post censal Population  Average Annual Increase  1956(est)  1921-1956  1951  1956  Rate o f N a t u r a l Increase p e r 1,000 p o p u l a t i o n  377,433  858,118  6,240  1,579,600  20,600  21.8  27.8  Trinidad  73,023  365,913  3,810  752,000  11,000  24.7  27.3  Barbados  122,198  156,774  450  230,500  2,100  17.7  20.2  Windward Islands  99,641  199,313  1,290  321,600  3,500  22.8  26.3  Leeward Islands  83,487  85,183  20  131,600  1,300  21,4  28.2  98,133  288,541  2,470  486,900  5,700  29.0  31.1  10,000  45,317  460  82,300  1,100  30.2  35.6  863,917  L,999,159  14,740  3,584,500  45,300  23.3  27.8  Jamaica  British Guiana British Honduras T o t a l Region Source:  ( l ) R o b e r t s , G.W.,*Note on P o p u l a t i o n and Growth'! S o c i a l and Economic V o l . 7 No. 3. e p t . 1958. U.C.W.I. Jamaica. P . 2 5 . s  ( 2 ) Appendix No. 2.  Studies  53  ing  e f f e c t t h a t the p r e s e n t r a t e o f e m i g r a t i o n has on i n c r e a s e i n p o p u l a -  t i o n and  consequently  on growth o f the l a b o u r f o r c e , e s p e c i a l l y i n Jamaica  and Barbados, p o p u l a t i o n f o r the B r i t i s h C a r i b b e a n w i l l c o n t i n u e t o e x e r t a p o w e r f u l p r e s s u r e on the l i m i t e d r e s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e f o r human use. R o b e r t s u s e s t h r e e components o f growth c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f the West I n d i a n area t o d e p i c t p o p u l a t i o n t r e n d s up t o 1970.  These are m o r t a l i t y r a t e s ,  f e r t i l i t y r a t e s , a n d e m i g r a t i o n . From t h e s e he d e r i v e d t h r e e p r o j e c t i o n s . The f i r s t  i s based on the assumption t h a t as m o r t a l i t y d e c l i n e s f e r t i l i t y  i s c o n s t a n t and no m i g r a t i o n takes p l a c e ; the second makes the same mortality  and f e r t i l i t y  assumptions but i n t r o d u c e s the assumption o f some  e m i g r a t i o n f r o m the r e g i o n . The p r i n c i p a l i m p l i c a t i o n o f the t h i r d p r o j e c t i o n i s t h a t i t i n v o l v e s v e r y l a r g e increments  t o t h e mainland  terri-  t o r i e s . I t assumes the a b s o r b t i o n o f 295,000 immigrants f r o m West I n d i a n I s l a n d s , and  s l i g h t d e c l i n e s i n f e r t i l i t y . There are s i x g e o g r a p h i c a l  u n i t s i n v o l v e d : Jamaica, T r i n i d a d , the m a i n l a n d t e r r i t o r i e s , the Windwards, the Leewards and Barbados. The i n i t i a l y e a r i s 1955 for  and t h e e s t i m a t e s  I 9 6 0 , 1965 and 1970. The r e s u l t s are summarized i n T a b l e 3.3.  j e c t i o n s N05  L and 1 1 are more s i g n i f i c a n t  I n d i a n c a s e f o r reasons  are  Pro-  to the a n a l y s i s o f the West  o u t l i n e d i n P a r t 1 1 . B r i e f l y , the f i r s t two  pro-  j e c t i o n s are made o n l y on the assumptions o f f e r t i l i t y and m o r t a l i t y r a t e s e x i s t i n g at 1955. No  assumptions about immigration  a r e made. The  t h i r d p r o j e c t i o n p o s t u l a t e s heavy e m i g r a t i o n t o the mainland  territories.  T h i s l i m i t s i t s u s e f u l n e s s , f o r i n the p r e s e n t c i r c u m s t a n c e s  this i s  not p o s s i b l e . Another important West I n d i a n p o p u l a t i o n t r e n d i s the g r a v i .  t a t i o n o f p o p u l a t i o n to  the towns. T h i s d r i f t  from c o u n t r y t o towns i s  ^  54 noted by the Mayne Commission.  I t has increased i n i n t e n s i t y during  the war years and today presents a very d i f f i c u l t short term employment problem. TABLE 3.3. SUMMARIES OF POPULATION PROJECTIONS IN 000's .Mainland T o t a l .  Year  Jamaica  Trinidad  Windwards  Barbados  Leewards  Territories'  British Caribbean  Projection No. 1_ 1955  1,553.5  742.  316.2  23o.l  129.0  554.5  3,525.6  I960  1.739.5  856.9  372.6  257.0  148.8.  648.3  4,023.1  1965  1,950.0  989.8  438.6  287.3  171.6  757.1  4,594.4  1970  2,193.6  1,150.4  515.5  322.3  197.6  890.0  5,269.4  Projection No. I I 360.9 248.4  144.2  648.3  3,943.4  I960  1,684.7  856.9  1965  1,824.0  989.8  410.8  266.9  160.3  757.1  4,408.7  1970  1,984.3  1,150.4  467.5  288.8  179.1  792.3  4,012.8  Projection No. I l l I960  1,678.6  861.5  359.3  247.5  143.6  772.3  4,012.8  1965  1,798.7  993.3  403.2  263.2  157.8  925.1  4,541.3  1970  1,924.9  1,142.7  450.0  280.1  172.9  1:,163.7  5,134.3  Source; Roberts, G.W. and F. Rampersaud, Three Population Projections f o r the B r i t i s h C a r i b b e a n . T e a h n i c a l Conference on the Demographic problems of the area served by the Caribbean Commission Caribbean Commission, 1957. c i t . S i r Stephen Luke report on Development and Welfare i n the B r i t i s h West Indies. H.M.8.O., London, 1957. p.84. See also S o c i a l and Economic Studies Vol 7. No. 3, Sept. 1958. pp 30-32. Table 4.3 i l l u s t r a t e s the extent of t h i s i n t e r n a l migration f o r the period of 1921 to 1946.  55 , TABLE A. 3. POPULATION OF TO¥KS\AT.CENSUS DATES - B.W.I. ONLY TOINS IN EXCESS OF 500 ARE INCLUDED Dolony o r P r e s i d e n c y  Census o f 1921 Census o f 1931 Census o f 1946  Barbados  156,312  B r i t i s h Guiana  307,391*  318,312*  376,146+  51,347  59,149  British  Honduras  45,317  Leeward  Islands  85,183  192,841  29,767 12,120 38,214 5,082  Antigua Montserrat St.Kitts-Nevis Virgin Is.,  108,847  ++  .  a , 757 14,322 46,253 6,508  858,118  1,289,072#  Cayman I s . ,  5,253  6,670®  Turks I s . ,  5,612  6,138®  Jamaica  412,783  558,413  T r i n i d a d and Tobago  365,913  Windward I s l a n d s  199,313^  251,671  37,059 66,302 51,505 44,447  47,682 72,374 69,955 61,660  Dominica C o l o n y Grenada St.Lucia St.Vincent  47,961  2,028,412 * E s t i m a t e of number o f a b o r i g i n a l Indians  2,848,947 included.  * I n c l u d e s a b o r i g i n a l Indian a c t u a l l y enumerated i n 1945 ++ Not i n c l u d i n g Dominica  * Estimated a t  Dec. 1945  @ Census o f •'" -i J a n . 1943 ## I n c l u d i n g D o m i n i c a . Source:  R e p o r t o f S i r John Macpherson. H.M.S.O. London,  C o l . 2 1 2 , pp I56-7.  '  1947.  "  56 TABLE 4.3. POPULATION OF TOWS  AT -GENCUS DATES - B.W.I, (cont'd.)  ONLY TOWNS IN EXCESS OF 500 ARE INCLUDED Town Barbados  Census o f  Bridgetown  1921  Census o f  1931  Georgetown  (2) New Amsterdam  1946  13,486  -  13,345  59,624  69,663  94,358  7,651  8,002  9,588  12,423  10,687  21,837  (1) British Guiana  Census o f  British Honduras  Belize  Antigua  St.Johns  6,997  10,837  St.Kitts  Basseterre  7,730  12,201  Jamaica  Kingston Spanish  Trinidad  Town  201,911(4)  62,707 (3) 8,694  12,007(5) 11,547(5)  Montego B a y  6,580  Port-ofSpain  61,580  70,334  92,782  San Fernando  10,610  14,353  28,830  Dominica  Roseau  6,803  9,751  Grenada  S t . Georges  4,629  5,774  St.Lucia  Castries  5,899  7,056  3,836  S t . V i n c e n t Kingstown  (3)  1. A r e a d e f i n e d b y t h e A c t o f 2. I n c l u d i n g  4,269  4,831  1891  environs  3. P a r i s h o f K i n g s t o n o n l y ; i n c l u d i n g town o f Half-Way-Tree and v i c i n i t y , now p a r t o f urban a r e a o f Kingston-St.Andrew c o r p o r a t i o n , p o p u l a t i o n was 88,044 4. Urban and Sub-urban p o r t i o n o f Kingston-St.Andrew c o r p o r a t e a r e a . Census o f ? J a n . 1943. !  5. Not i n c l u d i n g suburbs. Snm~r.e:  Rftnm-t  nf  S i r - .Tnhn Mflnphpr-gnn^  K.M..S.0....."London....19.S7..  57  I t i s observed  t h a t f o r B r i t i s h Honduras and B r i t i s h Guiana  t h e i n c r e a s e s i n p o p u l a t i o n i n the c a p i t a l towns o f B e l i z e and  George-  town i s about 4 0 p e r c e n t - 50 percent of t h e a b s o l u t e i n c r e a s e i n popul a t i o n f o r the c o l o n i e s between 1921  and 1 9 4 6 .  F o r Jamaica K i n g s t o n seems  t o have accommodated about 3 0 p e r c e n t o f the i n c r e a s e and i n T r i n i d a d the towns o f P o r t of S p a i n and San Fernando accounted  f o r about 2 5  per-  cent o f the i n c r e a s e f o r the c o l o n y between the same census p e r i o d s . St.. Johns, A n t i g u a and Rosea.u, Dominica, show a r a t i o o f i n c r e a s e i n p o p u l a t i o n f o r p e r i o d 1921 30 - 4 0  -  1946  t o a b s o l u t e i n c r e a s e f o r the i s l a n d s o f about  percent. About 18 p e r c e n t o f the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n o f T r i n i d a d and  Tobago l i v e d i n the t h r e e p r i n c i p a l towns, P o r t o f S p a i n , San Fernando and A r i m a i n 1 9 5 8 .  The p o p u l a t i o n p e r square m i l e i n P o r t o f S p a i n  2 5 , 5 1 4 ; f o r San Fernando i t was  14,920,  shows t h a t the d e n s i t y p e r square  and Arima, 1 8 , 6 6 0 . Table  was  6.3  m i l e i n K i n g s t o n and P o r t R o y a l , J a m a i c a  i n c r e a s e d o n l y by 18 p e r cent between 1 9 4 3  and 1 9 5 3 ,  which i s lower  than  the average f o r the i s l a n d as a whole, 2 0 p e r c e n t . I t i s observed,  how-  ever, t h a t the d e n s i t y p e r square m i l e was 1953.  1 0 , 8 9 9 i n 1943  and 1 2 , 8 5 9 i n  The a b s o l u t e f i g u r e s f o r o t h e r p a r t s o f t h e i s l a n d a r e e x t r e m e l y  low r e l a t i v e to t h e s e . The  i n c r e a s e between 1 9 2 1  b e i n g i n t h e o r d e r o f 72 p e r  cent.  and 1 9 4 3  was  phenominal,  58  TABLE  5.3  ESTIMATED POPULATION OP TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO AT 30TH JUNE,1958 BY ADMINISTRATION AREAS Population per s q . mile  Published  Revised  T r i n i d a d and Tobago  788,600  788,600  398  Port o f Spain  121,150  94,401  25,514  San Fernando  39,800  37,500  14,920  Arima  12,650  16,800  18,666  199,500  226,600  639  Caroni  86,850  86,300  403  Nariva/lfeyaro  73,500  72,150  63  St.Andrew/ St.David  40,050  38,000  105  128,900  127,100  405  98,650  106,250  407  36,900  32,850  282  650  650  St.  George  Victoria St.  Patrick  Tobago T e r r i t o r i a l Waters Source;  -  Annual S t a t i s t i c a l D i g e s t . G o v e r n m e n t ' S t a t i s t i c a l O f f i c e , Port^-of-Spain, 1958, No. 8 E r r a t a .  59  TABLE POPULATION OF JAMAICA 1921, Parish and County  Area Square miles  1943  6.3 and 1953  BY, AMINISTRATIVE AREA.  D e n s i t y p e r Square  1921  1943  Mile  1953 *  Percentage increase of 1953 o v e r 1943  Total a l l Parishes  4411.21  195  280  335  20  Total Surrey  820.10  256  439  576  31  Kingston & Port Royal  10.10  6,380  10,899  12,859  18  St.Andrew  101.30 300.17  707 202  1,105 290  56  St.Thomas  301 142  Portland  328.53  149  185  167  Dotal M i d d l e sex.  2026.04  190  259  .280  8  St.Catherine  200  14 11  176  St.  481.05  147  250 358 264 200  285  Clarendon  483.27 254.04 467.89  248  339.79  188  273  238  1565.07 474.44  168  226 211  276 264  135 264 292  209  281  333  St.Mary  Ann  Manchester Total Cornwall St.Elizabeth  281  167 98  St.James  352.55 240.61  Hanover  177.08  174 216  Westmoreland  320.39  215  Trelawny  1 * Sourcet  399 275  305 300  44  4 24 22 25 55 16 3 19  Sample Survey o f P o p u l a t i o n .  department o f S t a t i s t i c s . Jamaica - West I n d i e s . A b s t r a c t o f S t a t i s t i c s Ne. I B . Dec. 1958. Government jPri.nter,.1959.. p. 8. Table.1.10.  60  T h i s demographic h i s t o r y o f t h e West I n d i e s F e d e r a t i o n and B r i t i s h Guiana i s i n t e r e s t i n g i n i t s e l f , b u t i t s importance t o t h i s study l i e s i n the r e l a t i o n o f populations t o n a t u r a l resources o r l a n d . I t has been r e c e n t l y re-emphasized t h a t l a n d i s the main n a t u r a l r e source o f t h e F e d e r a t e d West I n d i e s , f o r , i t i s shown, t h a t  agricul-  (5) t u r a l produce c o n s t i t u t e s the b u l k o f West I n d i a n p u r c h a s i n g power b o t h at  home and a b r o a d . T h i s was t r u e f o r a l l i s l a n d s up t o 1946, b u t i s  (6) t r u e t o a !'«««:*- e x t e n t  i n the post-war p e r i o d e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e case o f  t h e c o l o n y o f T r i n i d a d and Tobago and t h e i s l a n d o f Jamaica. I n these two  i s l a n d s s t r u c t u r a l changes i n t h e economies have g i v e n r i s e t o a  significant non-agricultural sector. Gross f i g u r e s o f p o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t y give a f a i r  i d e a o f the  s t a t e o f t h e economy. These a r e e a s i l y c a l c u l a t e d and e s t a b l i s h a rough t o o l f o r e s t i m a t i n g the pressure  o f p o p u l a t i o n on t h e r e s o u r c e s o f t h e  a r e a . Table 7.3 p r e s e n t s such a measure. A c c o r d i n g t o t h e g r o s s  density  f i g u r e s then t h e l e s s e r A n t i l l e s and T r i n i d a d o r t h e E a s t e r n group show more s i g n s o f t h e p r e s s u r e o f p o p u l a t i o n on. l a n d r e s o u r c e s than Jamaica. T h i s i s made v e r y obvious from t h e f a c t t h a t J a m a i c a i s i n t h e n i n t h p o s i t i o n i n terms o f p o p u l a t i o n p e r square m i l e f o r t h e u n i t s o f t h e B r i t i s h Caribbean  for  1943 - 46.  I n the p e r i o d  1921 -(1943 - 46)  w i t h a l a n d a r e a which i s about 25 p e r cent o f Jamaica's,  Trinidad  experiences  the h i g h e s t r e l a t i v e i n c r e a s e (52.4 p e r c e n t ) . Barbados f o r i t s s m a l l a r e a p r e s e n t s the extreme case o f 1159 persons p e r square m i l e . I t s d e n s i t y i s among t h e h i g h e s t i n t h e w o r l d . Other a r e a s o f h i g h r e l a t i v e according t o world  standards  density  a r e S t . L u c i a , S t . V i n c e n t , M o n t s e r r a t and  Grenada. T h i s h i g h p o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t y i n t h e E a s t e r n group compared  ^)  61  w i t h Jamaica must be a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e f a c t t h a t , e x c e p t i n the case o f Barbados,  t h e f e r t i l i t y r a t e o f t h e s e i s l a n d s o f the E a s t e r n group has  been g r e a t e r than i n Jamaica s i n c e 1 9 4 1 .  See Appendix,  7.  The economic  s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h i s i s t h e e x i s t i n g d i s p a r i t y i n standards.and  levels  o f l i v i n g between t h e p o o r e r t e r r i t o r i e s and the r i c h e r ones. E s t i m a t e s o f d i s t r i b u t i o n o f the p r o j e c t e d p o p u l a t i o n suggest t h a t t h e r e i s some (8)  danger o f a continuous widening o f t h i s gap.  TABLE  7.3  MILE) IN WEST INDIAN ISLANDS AT SELECTED.BATES  DENSITIES (PERSONS PER SQUARE  1841-4  1881  1911  1921  1943-6  Percent  1956 i n c r e a s e 1921-46  Area Sq. Miles  Jamaica  86  132  188  195  280  336  43.6  4411  Trinidad  37  86  168  185  282  375  52.4  1980  Barbados  735  1033  1036  943  1159  1404  22.9  166  Grenada  217  319  502  499  544  742  90  165  209  221  301  382  36.2  233  182  270  279  296  411  520  38.9  150  74  92  111  121  156  211  28.1  304  Antigua  215  205  189  175  245  311  40.0  108  St.KittsNevis  214  289  283  250  302  466  20.8  118  Montserrat  230  315  381  379  448  424  18.2  32  4  6  St.Lucia St.Vincent Dominica  British Guiana Source:  ( l ) Bbbert&G.W., ( 2 ) i^dd.,,jJ«ji..,  9.01  The P o p u l a t i o n o f Jamaica, p . 5 6 . A d u l t Education i n the Caribbean.  120  83000  62  Gross d e n s i t y f i g u r e s are convenient  b u t they can be  v e r y mis-  l e a d i n g . T h i s becomes o b v i o u s when they a r e u s e d t o compare an a r e a Barbados where v i r t u a l l y e v e r y w i t h one  square i n c h o f l a n d i s under  like  cultivation  l i k e B r i t i s h Guiana where thousands o f square m i l e s o f l a n d Are  unused and  i n a c c e s s i b l e . S i m i l a r misrepresentation  a r i s e s when compari-  sons are w i t h a r e g i o n where l a r g e areas are h i g h l y under—developed i n r e l a t i o n t o o t h e r r e g i o n s w i t h i n the same c o u n t r y . B r i t i s h Guiana  and  B r i t i s h Honduras f i t t h i s c a t e g o r y . B r i t i s h Guiana shows a p o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t y o f about  6 persons (1956) p e r square m i l e . Such a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n  does not t e l l the t r u e s t o r y . What i s more important  i s the number o f  p e r s o n s p e r square m i l e o f c u l t i v a t e d l a n d . When t h i s i s u s e d we t h a t the g r e a t v a r i a t i o n s between areas as shown i n the g r o s s  find  density  f i g u r e s a r e r e d u c e d c o n s i d e r a b l y . Moreover the measure^ persons p e r  square  m i l e of c u l t i v a t e d land) r e f l e c t s the c a p a c i t y o f a c o u n t r y t o s u s t a i n i t s p o p u l a t i o n f r o m i t s a g r i c u l t u r a l r e s o u r c e s . A s t i l l more u s e f u l r a t i o  (q) however would be d i s t r i b u t i o n of males engaged i n a g r i c u l t u r e p e r square m i l e o f c u l t i v a t e d l a n d . However, due t h i s study,  w  t o the time and p l a c e  y  of  alsof&the p a u c i t y of s t a t i s t i c s on the s t r u c t u r e o f the  l a b o u r f o r c e i n b r e a k downs of male and female, r a t i o s o f males engaged i n a g r i c u l t u r e p e r square m i l e o f c u l t i v a t e d l a n d are n o t o b t a i n a b l e . Nevertheless,  the f o l l o w i n g p r o v i s i o n a l t a b l e showing c u l t i v a t e d  i n a c r e s p e r head o f p o p u l a t i o n s e r v e s my o n l y rough averages and  should be  ^  land  purpose. These f i g u r e s a r e ,  i n t e r p r e t e d w i t h c a r e , f o r they  o n l y i n t e n d e d t o g i v e some o r d e r o f magnitude and do n o t aim a t  are  accuracy.  TABLE  8.3.  CULTIVATED LAND IN ACRES PER HEAD OP POPULATION 1938 Total area 000's o f acres  Colony  Estimated T o t a l pop.  at 31.12.38 i n 000*s  Estimated pop. i n 1956 i n 000's  Estimated*** Total c u l t i v a t e d area 000*s acres at 1938  Jamaica  2,848  1,174  1,585  Trinidad  1,192  437  743  331  170 52  Cultivated land i n acres per head o f pop.  1955-56  .57  .50 .26  212 94  .44 .41  .75  41  .42  11  48  11  32  .53 .50  28+  .53  7  .50  77  80  85 152 192  58  89 78  49  89 64  Antigua  69  34  53  17  St.Kitts-NevisAnguilla  96  38  55  24*  Montserrat  21  14  14  7  Windward  Cultivated Cultivated land i n land at acres per 1955-56 head or pop. 000's o f 1938  430 (1956)  500  Barbados  1956  .42  337 193  B r i t i s h Guiana  AND  662  Not Known  74 57,280 106  Tobago  AND ABOUT 1955  .31** •  28  228  Islands  Grenada S t . Vincent St. Lucia Dominica  68  Not Known  Leeward I s l a n d s  .50  * A n g u i l l a not i n c l u d e d ; ** P o r 1943 see R o b e r t s . P o p u l a t i o n o f Jamaica, *** Permanent meadows and p a s t u r e s n o t i n c l u d e d . Source;  ( l ) C o l o n i a l Reports  f o r the I s l a n d .  (2) R o y a l Commission o f 1938  - 39  p.57  (Mayne R e p o r t ) .  64  We  can now  a p p r e c i a t e the s e r i o u s n e s s o f the West I n d i a n  problem: s c a r c e r e s o u r c e s and has  reached  i n c r e a s i n g p o p u l a t i o n p r e s s u r e . Barbados  the l i m i t o f expansion.  Approximately  90 p e r c e n t o f i t s t o -  t a l l a n d acreage i s i n c r o p s o f some k i n d . B r i t i s h G u i a n a which seemed t o have an abundant s u p p l y o f l a n d a c c o r d i n g t o T a b l e 8.3 s e r v e d t o be a r e a . The  i s now  ob-  s u b j e c t t o the same p o p u l a t i o n p r e s s u r e as the r e s t o f  the  d e c l i n e i n B r i t i s h Guiana o f c u l t i v a b l e l a n d ( a c r e s ) p e r head  o f p o p u l a t i o n d e s p i t e the c o n s i d e r a b l e i n c r e a s e i n c u l t i v a b l e l a n d between 1938  and 1954  g i v e s a t r u e measure o f i n c r e a s i n g p o p u l a t i o n p r e s -  sure on l a n d : B r i t i s h G u i a n a showed an annual r a t e o f growth o f 2.9 1953.  In Jamaica and T r i n i d a d the r a t i o s are not as s i g n i f i c a n t  comparable w i t h the r e s t o f the r e g i o n o f b a u x i t e i n d u s t r y i n Jamaica and  because o f t h e  in  as i n o r  ( l ) predominance  the r e l a t i v e importance o f l i v e s t o c k  (permanent meadows and p a s t u r e s are not  i n c l u d e d i n T a b l e 8.3)and  (2)  the overwhelming c o n t r i b u t i o n o f t h e o i l i n d u s t r y t o the growth o f g r o s s domestic p r o d u c t  o f T r i n i d a d . However on the b a s i s o f the measure  chosen some improvement i s observed The  circumstances  the  i n Jamaica between 1943  o f a g r i c u l t u r e o f T r i n i d a d remain,  and  1955.  r e l a t i v e l y stable  throughout the same p e r i o d . L i k e a l l the o t h e r u n i t s h o w e v e r t h e 7  (  culti-  v a b l e l a n d p e r head o f p o p u l a t i o n i s too s m a l l , b e i n g l e s s than h a l f  an  a c r e i n the case o f Jamaica and a l i t t l e more than h a l f an acre f o r Trinidad. The West I n d i a n problem i n i t s simple t e c h n i c a l form has dimensions, space, time p o p u l a t i o n . Land space i s l i m i t e d and  fragmented  (by v i r t u e o f the many s m a l l i s l a n d s s t r e t c h i n g from F l o r i d a t o Venezuela).  three  C u l t i v a t e d l a n d p e r head o f p o p u l a t i o n i s s m a l l and  the  65  q u a n t i t y o f p o t e n t i a l l y c u l t i v a b l e l a n d i s v e r y s m a l l and r e l e g a t e d a l most e n t i r e l y t o Dominica, T r i n i d a d and Jamaica. I n Barbados, and Grenada there i s l i t t l e  c u l t i v a b l e l a n d which i s n o t u t i l i s e d ,  t h i s d i s t r i b u t i o n o f l a n d w i t h time and p o p u l a t i o n  when we c o r r e l a t e  o r rates of popula-  t i o n growth ( i n terms o f time) t h e r e s u l t i s o v e r p o p u l a t i o n sense t h a t t h e r e has been a p r o g r e s s i v e  i n the  d e c l i n e i n numbers engaged i n  a g r i c u l t u r e i n t h e West I n d i e s d e s p i t e i n c r e a s i n g r a t e s o f p o p u l a t i o n growth. T h i s i s i t s e l f evidence t h a t l a n d has been f u l l y u t i l i s e d , i . e . w i t h i n t h e t e c h n o l o g i c a l l i m i t s o f these t e r r i t o r i e s . T h i s p r o c e s s o f d e c l i n e s t a r t e d some time i n t h e p a s t . D r . W.A. L e w i s , P r i n c i p a l o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y College  o f t h e West I n d i e s ^ e x p r e s s e d  t h e opinion that t h e  West I n d i a n economy had reached t h e l i m i t s o f i t s simple labour  about 30 o r 40 y e a r s ago.  The p o i n t o f a b s o l u t e  b u t e d t o the m e c h a n i z a t i o n o f l a r g e - s c a l e farming  economy o f l a n d  d e c l i n e he a t t r i -  o f sugar cane i n t h e  1930's. T h i s m e c h a n i z a t i o n i s b e l i e v e d t o r e s u l t f r o m t h e tendency f o r wages t o r i s e i n t h e i n d u s t r y , A major p a r t o f i t i s however due t o t h e p h y s i c a l exhaustion drift life  o f l a n d i n a g r i c u l t u r e as a whole. A l s o t h e s t e a d y  o f young p e o p l e i n t o t h e towns i n t h e hope o f making a b e t t e r accounts i n p a r t f o r t h i s t r e n d . Dr. A. L e w i s p o i n t s o u t t h a t one  consequence o f t h e c o n t i n u o u s l y  decreasing  working f o r c e i n a g r i c u l t u r e  has been the i n c r e a s i n g number o f u n p r o d u c t i v e employments and the  small  p r o p o r t i o n o f women i n t h e l a b o u r f o r c e which are t h e t r u e i n d i c a t o r s of over population.  The argument h e r e i s t h a t i f wages a r e s m a l l e n o u g h  }  employment can b e found f o r a l l and as such unemployment i s no true  (10) measure o f over p o p u l a t i o n . He p o i n t s out and G.W. R o b e r t s it,  substantiates  t h a t t h e absence o f so many women from the l a b o u r f o r c e i s a t t r i b u -  66  t a b l e t o the competition  o f men f o r most job p o s i t i o n s . T h i s i s a c h a r a c -  t e r i s t i c o f most underdeveloped a r e a s . G.W.  Roberts' s t u d y on P o p u l a t i o n  Growth i n Jamaica i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s p o i n t f u l l y . Careless  (ll)  l a n d u t i l i s a t i o n and u n s c i e n t i f i c a g r i c u l t u r e except  i n t h e case o f sugar cane p l a n t a t i o n s , ha^fe l e d t o s e r i o u s problems o f s o i l e x h a u s t i o n , l e a c h i n g and d e n u d a t i o n . So t h a t a low p r o d u c t i v i t y f o r a g r i c u l t u r e i n the a r e a i s one f a c t o r r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the low s t a n d a r d s o f l i v i n g . The s e r i o u s n e s s when we r e c a l l  o f t h e problem i s more r e a d i l y u n d e r s t o o d  t h a t a g r i c u l t u r e i s the mainstay o f t h e B r i t i s h C a r i b b e a n  T e r r i t o r i e s . The ' e f f e c t o f the low p r o d u c t i v i t y i s c u m u l a t i v e . F o r the f a i l u r e of the lands drift  t o support the growing p o p u l a t i o n and t h e consequent  away from a g r i c u l t u r e meant t h a t people were f o r c e d i n t o many non-  a g r i c u l t u r a l p u r s u i t s o f e q u a l l y low o r s m a l l e r p r o d u c t i v i t y . I n Jamaica b e g g i n g i n K i n g s t o n and Montego Bay i s a d e f i n i t e i n d i c a t o r o f t h e squeeze of population productive  on l a n d r e s o u r c e s  employment o u t s i d e  and the comparative absence o f a l t e r n a t i v e  a g r i c u l t u r e t o take i n the s u r p l u s e s .  Mr.  Orde Browne i n h i s r e p o r t (l938) commenting on the s i t u a t i o n o f underemployment s t a t e s : One source o f d i f f i c u l t y l i e s i n the f r e q u e n c y w i t h which i l l p a i d work, s u i t a b l e o n l y f o r j u v e n i l e s and b e g i n n e r s , i s done by men who have h e l d t h e i r p o s t f o r a number o f y e a r s . No o t h e r employment i s a v a i l a b l e , and p o o r wages a r e b e t t e r than none, so t h e worker c l i n g s t o h i s j o b l o n g a f t e r he s h o u l d have passed on t o something b e t t e r .  (12)  The r e s u l t i s , b r o a d l y speaking, t h e h i g h and low wage s e c t o r t o which D r . A. Lewis r e f e r s i n h i s p a p e r a t t h e 1956 c o n f e r e n c e on economic development h e l d a t the U n i v e r s i t y C o l l e g e o f t h e West  Indies,  ..^Jamaica. Of course i t was an easy step from t h i s p o i n t t o t h e r e c o m - ^ ^ )  67  mendation o f a programme f o r i n d u s t r a l i s a t i o n . But a l l f a i l e d t o see i n i n d u s t r a l i z a t i o n a complement t o an improved p . A s  agriculture  (see Chapter  5  e a r l y as t h e 1950's many o f f i c i a l r e p o r t s d i s m i s s e d such a  p o l i c y w i t h the mere comment;: the West I n d i e s l a c k the r e s o u r c e s n e c e s s a r y f o r a s u c c e s s f u l i n d u s t r i a l economy based on m a n u f a c t u r i n g .  There  were p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f some p r o c e s s i n g i n d u s t r i e s b u t l a r g e programmes were n o t f e a s i b l e ^ a t was  l e a s t , i n the n e a r f u t u r e . I t was  o b v i o u s t h a t what  l a c k i n g most b e s i d e s m i n e r a l ore d e p o s i t s (the b a s i s f o r heavy i n -  d u s t r i e s ) and s u f f i c i e n t s a v i n g s ( i n consequence o f t h e c o n t i n u o u s p r o d u c t i v i t y ) was  low  i m a g i n a t i o n , i n i t i a t i v e , and t h e t r a d i t i o n o f i n d u s t r y  and f r u g a l i t y which Hume spoke o f i n h i s " D i s c o u r s e o f Wealth  (1752)".  T.S. Simey a t t r i b u t e s t h i s o p t i m i s t i c a t t i t u d e t o the e r r o r o f u s i n g s t a t i c a n a l y s i s t o f i n d a s o l u t i o n t o what i s e s s e n t i a l l y a dynamic s i t u a t i o n .  (14)  D e s p i t e t h i s s h o r t s i g h t e d n e s s i n p o l i c y d i r e c t i v e the need to d e v e l o p peasant a g r i c u l t u r e on a secure l a n d tenure b a s i s was emphasised,  duly  b o t h b y the Moyne Report and t h e Committee on A g r i c u l t u r e ,  N u t r i t i o n , F i s h e r i e s and F o r e s t r y o f the C a r i b b e a n R e s e a r c h C o u n c i l . Crop I n q u i r y s e r i e s f o r the C a r i b b e a n Nos.  1-6  emphasised  The  the need  f o r improvement i n a g r i c u l t u r a l p r a c t i c e s i n the e n t i r e a r e a and p o i n t e d out t h a t i n most cases p r o d u c t i o n o f f o o d c r o p s and cash c r o p s c o u l d be g r e a t l y i n c r e a s e d without f u r t h e r expansion o f l a n d acreage• The I n q u i r y S e r i e s No.  -Crop  6;"The. Sugar I n d u s t r y o f the Caribbean, shows t h a t  t h i s has been the case i n the sugar i n d u s t r y i n a l l sugar p r o d u c i n g i s l a n d s w i t h the e x c e p t i o n o f Jamaica; t o a l e s s e r e x t e n t , B r i t i s h  Guiana.  _ I n ~ T r i n i d a d , i n c r e a s e i n sugar output has been a c t u a l l y accompanied by  68  a decrease  i n acreage p l a n t e d i n cane. I t i s v e r y obvious t h a t , i f  R o b e r t ' s p o p u l a t i o n p r o j e c t i o n s are a c c u r a t e , the West I n d i a n f a r m e r must i n t e n s i f y h i s a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n immensely i f he i s g o i n g  to  improve h i s l o t a c c o r d i n g t o some West I n d i a n s t a n d a r d and c o n t r i b u t e to  the s a t i s f a c t i o n o f the i n c r e a s e d demand f o r f o o d which must come  w i t h i n c r e a s e d numbers and the p r o g r e s s i v e p o l i c i e s o f One  industrialization.  farmer must be a b l e i n the f u t u r e t o f e e d h i s f a m i l y and s e v e r a l  o t h e r f a m i l i e s on the minimum o f l a n d . In short, l a n d must i f p o s s i b l e  (15) employ more p e o p l e , ing  and produce more. T h i s can be  d e r e l e c t l a n d s under s c i e n t i f i c  ards peasant f a r m e r s advanced n a t i o n s . The  a c h i e v e d by b r i n g -  a g r i c u l t u r e . At the p r e s e n t  have not been p e r f o r m i n g  stand-  on the l e v e l s s e t b y more  road t o such a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o g r e s s l i e s i n ( l ) the  c r e a t i o n of an i n d u s t r i a l s e c t o r which would take s u r p l u s p o p u l a t i o n s off  l a r g e p l a n t a t i o n s and  (2) the p u r s u i t o f a s c i e n t i f i c  peasant  agri-  culture . The problem o f over p o p u l a t i o n , as i t i s e v i d e n c e d by the symptom under-employment i n the West I n d i e s ^ i s n o t o f r e c e n t o r i g i n . I t i s i n e v i t a b l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the Ri-*f©r.«ie*<lidevelopments i n the sugar i n d u s t r y . Barbados which was  the f i r s t  i s l a n d t o be f u l l y p l a n t e d s u f f e r e d  from the i l l s o f b o t h un-employment and under-employment when s o i l h a u s t i o n and  ex-  severe competion from o u t s i d e the West I n d i e s s e t i n . Emi-  g r a t i o n south t o the v i r g i n S o i l s o f T r i n i d a d and B r i t i s h Guiana, marked the movement o f the s h i f t i n g f o r c e s o f e q u i l i b r i u m . F o r a l o n g emigration  s e r v e d as a p o t e n t means t o o f f s e t depressed  while  c o n d i t i o n s which  came w i t h d r a s t i c f a l l s i n the p r i c e s f o r sugar. These movements o f pe.oples were b o t h i n t e r n a l ( i . e . t o the r e g i o n ) and e x t e r n a l . The i n -  69  t e r n a l movements were m a i n l y t o Cuba, T r i n i d a d , B r i t i s h Guiana,  and the.  Panama. The e x t e r n a l movements were mainly t o the U n i t e d S t a t e s o f America. I t was  t h i s , p l u s g r o s s ignorance o f the s t r u c t u r e o f the West  I n d i a n economies, t h a t s e r v e d t o obscure the s e r i o u s n e s s o f o v e r - p o p u l a t i o n t h a t e x i s t e d even t h e n . In p a r t i c u l a r a l l governments o f the time f a i l e d t o t a k e account o f the e x i s t e n c e o f a permanent o r r e s i d e n t labour force, f i r s t  r e p r e s e n t e d by the i n d e n t u r e d l a b o u r e r s . (16)  A s e r i e s o f e v e n t s converged problem.  The 1930's was  t o show up the c o r e o f t h i s  an e r a o f g r e a t economic change and  conflict  the w o r l d over; f o r t h e West I n d i e s i t marked the f i n a l charge from a s l a v e economy t o a free-wage economy. The change c o i n c i d e d w i t h a f a l l off  i n the demand f o r the p r o d u c t s o f the C a r i b b e a n c o u n t r i e s and the  West I n d i a n c o l o n i e s a l i k e . T h i s brought  an end t o i n t e r n a l e m i g r a t i o n  and s t a r t e d a s p e l l o f r e p a t r i a t i o n by some r e c i p i e n t governments. By the 1920*s work on the Panama C a n a l was  f i n i s h e d and t h i s brought  an  end t o any f u r t h e r movement i n t o the Panama. F i n a l l y t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s t e r m i n a t e d h e r quota f o r West I n d i a n s . E m i g r a t i o n now relief  ceased t o be a s o l e  t o d e p r e s s i o n i n the West I n d i e s . I t i s t h e s e events which brought  the q u e s t i o n o f o v e r p o p u l a t i o n i n t o f u l l p e r s p e c t i v e . The r e p o r t o f Orde Browne, Labour C o n d i t i o n s i n the West I n d i e s and the R o y a l Commiss i o n o f 1938 as we  g i v e due emphasis f o r the f i r s t  time t o the problem much  are accustomed t o d i s c u s s i t today. Under-employment i s n o t  b u t e d , as i n the case o f the sugar commission Commission o f 1897  o f 1929  attri-  and the R o y a l  (Norman R e p o r t ) t o c r i s e s i n the sugar i n d u s t r y , n o r  does the s o l u t i o n l i e simply i n the d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n o f the a g r i c u l t u r a l economy o f the i s l a n d s . The f i n d i n g s o f the Browne r e p o r t i n d i c a t e d t h a t  70  the West I n d i e s would have t o l o o k beyond the immediate c i r c u m s t a n c e s sugar and o t h e r a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t s and t o means o t h e r t h a n  of  emigration  t o s o l v e t h i s p r o b l e m o f un-employment which r e s u l t e d from o v e r - p o p u l a t i o n . The tion found,in ;  expansion  t r a d i t i o n a l s o l u t i o n s t o t h i s p r o b l e m a r e , b e s i d e s emigra-^"''^ ( l ) Industrialisation,  i . e . t h e o c c u p a t i o n o f new  (2)  " l i m i t a t i o n o f p o p u l a t i o n and  l a n d s . The  (3)  t e s t o f the s u c c e s s o f  t h e s e p o l i c i e s i s whether n a t i o n a l income p e r c a p i t a o f the c o u n t r y i s i n c r e a s e d as a r e s u l t of the p a r t i c u l a r p o l i c y o r whether as a minimum cond i t i o n i t i s s u s t a i n e d . When the q u e s t i o n i s c o n s i d e r e d from t h i s rough w e l f a r e o b j e c t i v e we f i n d t h a t the range o f p o l i c y d e c i s i o n s broaden, two 1.  and  major d i v i s i o n s emerge: P o l i c i e s which a f f e c t the r a t e o f p o p u l a t i o n growth, i. ii.  emigration. l i m i t a t i o n , b y b i r t h c o n t r o l , i . e . c h e m i c a l , mechanical  andybr  v o l u n t a r y abstenance. 2.  P o l i c i e s which a f f e c t r a t e s o f growth o f n a t i o n a l income r e l a t i v e t o p o p u l a t i o n growth. i.  expansion  of trade i n a g r i c u l t u r e produce,  ii.  expansion  o f t r a d e i n new  iii. iv.  products,  development o f an i n d u s t r i a l s e c t o r , r e d u c t i o n i n imports  o f e s s e n t i a l s w h i c h can be r e p l a c e d by home  produce, encouragement of f o o d - c r o p p r o d u c t i o n f o r t h e  domestic  market; v. No.  r e d u c t i o n of i l l i t e r a c y and d i s e a s e .  2 forms t h e t o p i c of g e n e r a l d i s c u s s i o n i n Chapter  5 but  i n the r e s t  o f t h i s c h a p t e r I w i l l d i s c u s s the p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f p o l i c i e s o u t l i n e d i n No.  1 as a means t o s o l v i n g the  problem o f uur»employment o r o v e r - p o p u l a t i o n  i n the West Indies,' f o r these are j u s t d i f f e r e n t f a c e s o f t h e same c o i n in this  context.  71  PART EMIGRATION AND  S.  BIRTH CONTROL AS SOLUTIONS TO OVERPOPULATION  The problem o f unemployment a r i s e s when the compounded r a t e o f growth o f the l a b o u r f o r c e exceeds the r a t e o f growth o f new that iSjWhen  job p o s i t i o n s ,  the numbers s e e k i n g work at t h e g o i n g r a t e o f pay  increases  f a s t e r than o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r employment. Underemployment r e f e r s to  the  s i t u a t i o n i n which the l a r g e r p r o p o r t i o n o f the l a b o u r f o r c e i s employed i n unproductive o f pay.  The  p u r s u i t s o r o n l y p a r t i a l l y employed u s u a l l y a t low r a t e s  f a c t t h a t t h e l a b o u r u n i t i n t h e B r i t i s h West I n d i e s i s  p l o y e d o n l y p a r t the y e a r may  be due  e i t h e r t o the s e a s o n a l n a t u r e  em-  of  the  job and the l a c k o f a l t e r n a t i v e employments o r an i n f o r m a l p o l i c y aimed a t s p r e a d i n g employment around t h e l a r g e numbers s e e k i n g work. The a c c o r d i n g t o 0. i n 1938.  of  Browne, seems t o have been t h e case i n the sugar i n d u s t r y  However whatever the c a u s e , i t r e p r e s e n t s  f o r c e on l i m i t e d  latter,  job o p p o r t u n i t i e s and  the p r e s s u r e  of t h e  i s an a c c u r a t e measure of the  labour extent  over-population. T h i s s i t u a t i o n may  the p r o d u c t i v i t y o f r e s o u r c e s  a r i s e because o f ( l ) the g r e a t e r d e c l i n e o f r e l a t i v e t o p o p u l a t i o n , o r (2)  as a r e s u l t  i n c r e a s i n g p o p u l a t i o n and f i x e d o r r e l a t i v e l y f i x e d p r o d u c t i v e  of  resources.  I n the West I n d i e s b o t h cases h e l d i n the 1940's. F i r s t , l a n d the most v a l u a b l e r e s o u r c e was  l i m i t e d i n terms o f the p o p u l a t i o n on i t .  an u n s c i e n t i f i c a g r i c u l t u r e caused c o n t i n u o u s p r o d u c t i v i t y . And,  s o i l d e p l e t i o n and d e c l i n i n g  t h i r d t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f working age  i n c r e a s e d r a p i d l y and  y  i s estimated  1678.3 thousand i n 1955  to  Secondly,  t o i n c r e a s e b y about  (age group 15  -  64)  30,000 a year^.from  2,227.7 thousand (1970). (Appendix No.  4).  72  The economic s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h i s i s t h a t when the h i g h wage s e c t o r has t a k e n what i t can employ w i t h the g i v e n c a p i t a l  resources  a v a i l a b l e f o r l a b o u r , the r e s t w i l l be f o r c e d i n t o the low wage s e c t o r o r the unremunerative employments. The low wage s e c t o r absorbs  therefore  the mass o f the r a p i d l y i n c r e a s i n g l a b o u r f o r c e . The more t h e s e numbers i n c r e a s e the g r e a t e r the c o m p e t i t i o n f o r t h e s e  j o b s and  consequently  t h e l e s s p r o d u c t i v e Ubour become$. Thus, wages f o r l a b o u r may  be reduced  to  v e r y low l e v e l s i n the low wage s e c t o r . T h i s i s so m a i n l y because no r e sources o r o n l y u n p r o d u c t i v e to  the l a b o u r f o r c e who  f a m i l y u n i t o r beg  r e s o u r c e s are a v a i l a b l e f o r new  additions  are f o r c e d t o e i t h e r become dependent on  the  i n the s t r e e t s . Begging i n K i n g s t o n and Montego  J a m a i c a must p a r t l y be s t t r i b u t e d s c a n t r e s o u r c e s o f the  Bay,  to t h i s p r e s s u r e o f p o p u l a t i o n on  the  area.  S i n c e s a v i n g and investment are the l i f e b l o o d o f n a t i o n a l p r o d u c t i v i t y , i t i s expected  t h a t as p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e s and  productivity  d e c l i n e s , as d e s c r i b e d above, t h e p r o p e n s i t y t o save d e c l i n e s u n t i l p o i n t o f n e g a t i v e investment  i s reached.  In underdeveloped a r e a s such  t h e West I n d i e s s i g n s of t h i s n e g a t i v e investment h i g h p r o p e n s i t y t o import  the  a r e e v i d e n t i n ( l ) the  consumer goods d u r i n g good times and  (2)  the  wear and t e a r o f human r e s o u r c e s - h i g h i n f a n t m o r t a l i t y , s h o r t l i f e t a n c y and g e n e r a l l y bad s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s . The way  as  b a c k f o r the  expec-  Caribbean  t e r r i t o r i e s l i e s i n i n c r e a s i n g c a p i t a l f o r m a t i o n . T h i s must e i t h e r be a c h i e v e d b y domestic of  s a v i n g s o r f r o m net f o r e i g n borrowing  and  importation  capital. U n t i l the l a t t e r h a l f o f the l a s t decade, however, the  ing  unfounded o p i n i o n t h a t a programme o f i n d u s t r i a l i s a t i o n was  p r a c t i c a l threw the weight o f adjustment on the  prevailnot  ( l ) reorganization of  73  the e x i s t i n g  s t r u c t u r e o f the economy and  f o r e m i g r a t i o n . Barbados has had a p l a n n e d  (2)  on f o r m u l a t i o n o f  e m i g r a t i o n scheme i n  o p e r a t i o n f o r about 1 3 0 y e a r s . , .'.The works o f G.W. and D.O.  plans  (19)  Roberts  M i l l ^ a n d R o b e r t s and Rampersaud p r e s e n t t h e p o i n t o f v i e w  that^  1  because o f the  s m a l l s i z e o f u n i t s o f the B r i t i s h West I n d i e s , e m i g r a -  t i o n from the a r e a , a l t h o u g h low b y world  standards,  a p p r e c i a b l y r a t e s o f i n c r e a s e . More important,  s u f f i c e s to  curb  however, i t c o n s t i t u t e s an  immediate means o f c o n t r o l l i n g e x p a n s i o n o f t h e l a b o u r f o r c e . P o r  this  r e a s o n , R o b e r t s w r i t e s , i t tends t o be encouraged i n c o n d i t i o n s o f heavy  (21' X)reemployment, is,  as i s e x p e r i e n c e d  can e m i g r a t i o n be  i n Barbados and  J a m a i c a . The  question  v  '  the f i n a l s o l u t i o n t o the problem o f mounting pop-  u l a t i o n , the g r a v i t a t i o n o f p e o p l e  t o the c i t i e s  and  employment t h a t s t a l k s the t e r r i t o r i e s o f the B r i t i s h  the r e s u l t i n g  un-  Caribbean.  There are about f i v e f a c t o r s w h i c h are r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the success o r f a i l u r e o f a sponsored e m i g r a t i o n  scheme. They a r e :  1.  Economic c o n d i t i o n s i n the p r o s p e c t i v e c o u n t r y which must absorb the excess p o p u l a t i o n .  2.  The c o s t o f s e t t l e m e n t the settlement.  3.  Q u a l i t i e s o f the  4.  Political  5.  The c o s t o f m i g r a t i o n t o the c o u n t r y l o s i n g t h e excess population.  and  a v a i l a b l e means f o r f i n a n c i n g  immigrants.  and ."racial p o l i c i e s  i n the r e c i p i e n t  I t i s i n the l i g h t o f t h i s o u t l i n e t h a t we  country.  must c o n s i d e r the  question  posed. I have a l r e a d y shown t h a t i n t h e 1 9 2 0 ' s the g e n e r a l economic  de-  p r e s s i o n o r f a l l o f f i n p r o s p e r i t y t h e w o r l d over e s p e c i a l l y i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s o f A m e r i c a and the C a r i b b e a n brought an end t o the m i g r a t i o n and e m i g r a t i o n  internal  t o the U n i t e d S t a t e s o f A m e r i c a . In the f o u r  74  decades f o l l o w i n g 1920 i s due  the d e c l i n e i n movement w i t h i n the  ( l ) t o economic s t a g n a t i o n o f the p e r i o d 1920  territories  - 1940  r a p i d i n c r e a s e i n n a t u r a l r a t e o f growth s i n c e the l a t e  and  1930's  (2)  the  in a l l  the u n i t s . F e d e r a t i o n presupposes f r e e movement w i t h i n the f e d e r a t e d i s l a n d s . Given t h i s c o n d i t i o n t h e r e w i l l , no doubt, be some improvement i n l i v i n g standards  due  t o the r e - d i s t r i b u t i o n o f p o p u l a t i o n s from  o f low p r o d u c t i v i t y t o those o f h i g h p r o d u c t i v i t y . Any  areas  further solution  however through m i g r a t i o n must be c o n s i d e r e d i n . the l i g h t o f  possibili-  t i e s of c o n t i n u e d outward movement. In the case o f Canada and the U n i t e d S t a t e s job o p p o r t u n i t i e s are good, wage d i f f e r e n t i a l s and  d i f f e r e n c e s i n the standards  of  living  are s u f f i c i e n t l y g r e a t t o be o f g r e a t a t t r a c t i o n to the immigrant; a l s o t r a n s p o r t t o these  areas i s cheap and easy. But  p o l i t i c a l and  economic  c o n s i d e r a t i o n s debar B r i t i s h West Indians f r o m e n t e r i n g as l a n d e d  immi-  g r a n t s . P o s s i b i l i t i e s e x i s t f o r some e m i g r a t i o n o f West Indians t o c o u n t r i e s e i t h e r as  these <I  ( l ) permanent r e s i d e n t s when the i n d i v i d u a l has  /  f a m i l y l i v i n g t h e r e o r can show t h a t h i s coming t o the c o u n t r y would be o f b e n e f i t t o the n a t i o n - i . e . he must have some v e r y ' s p e c i a l (2)  as domestics o r temporary f a r m l a b o u r . But  i n the p r e s e n t  skill; circumstan-  c e s t h e f l o w of B r i t i s h West I n d i a n s t o the N o r t h America.- i s not  likely  t o i n c r e a s e t o any e x t e n t comparable w i t h t h a t o f P u e r t o R i c o . Move-  (22) ments t o Commonwealth c o u n t r i e s o t h e r than the U n i t e d Kingdom s u f f e r t h e same set b a c k s as o u t l i n e d i n the case o f Canada. M i g r a t i o n t o Europe has  i t s own  p e c u l i a r problems, which I cannot o u t l i n e i n d e t a i l  However^the language b a r r i e r s h o u l d be noted a l o n g w i t h economic s i o n s u f f e r i n g d u r i n g the p a s t war  p e r i o d . I s h a l l now  here. depres-  consider the  75  p o s s i b i l i t y of m i g r a t i o n t o the U n i t e d Kingdom and t o the B r i t i s h ColonVyif. i n the South American continentX  B r i t i s h Guiana^and B r i t i s h  Honduras. R o b e r t s summarize the f u t u r e o f m i g r a t i o n t o England admirab l y . He  says:  While t h e ready a c c e s s t o the U n i t e d Kingdom enj o y e d b y West I n d i a n s , the r e l a t i v e l y cheap means o f t r a n s p o r t and the ready job o p p o r t u n i t i e s gave promise, i n the e a r l y phase of the movement, o f keeping e m i g r a t i o n a t a v e r y h i g h l e v e l , t h e r e are f a c t o r s which, c o n c e i v a b l y , may i n t h e n e a r f u t u r e reduce t h e o u t f l o w . The growing d i f f i c u l t i e s o f a s s i m i l a t i o n may u l t i m a t e l y not o n l y d i s c o u r a g e t h e movement but may even induce many now s e t t l e d t h e r e t o r e t u r n t o the West I n d i e s , w h i l e . i t i s always p o s s i b l e t h a t the B r i t i s h Government may take p o s i t i v e s t e p s t o r e s t r i c t the e n t r y o f c o l o n i a l s . So t h a t w h i l e . i t seems r e a s o n a b l e t o c o n s i d e r a cont i n u a n c e o f the movement, i t i s h a r d l y l i k e l y t o . a t t a i n a l e v e l comparable to t h a t now a f f e c t i n g Puerto Rico. The  2  case f o r B r i t i s h Guiana and B r i t i s h Honduras as o u t l e t s  f o r s u r p l u s West I n d i a n p o p u l a t i o n can be out  ( 3)  t h a t b o t h c o u n t r i e s r e f u s e d t o be  e a s i l y dismissed by pointing  a p a r t o f the c l o s e r a s s o c i a t i o n  p l a n and have c l o s e d t h e i r doors t o i m m i g r a t i o n t o r i e s . B r i t i s h Honduras pursues a i m m i g r a t i o n a g a i n s t A s i a t i c s . She  from the B r i t i s h  terri-  p o l i c y which d i s c r i m i n a t e s  i s the A u s t r a l i a o f the C a r i b b e a n .  In B r i t i s h  Guiana the s i t u a t i o n c a l l s f o r some more a t t e n t i o n , s i n c e i t i s q u i t e p o s s i b l e t h a t a s t r o n g West I n d i a n F e d e r a t i o n might be a b l e to l u r e i n . P o l i t i c a l f o r c e s such as the s t r u g g l e f o r power between the  her  Indian  and Negro s e c t o r s w i l l prove the g r e a t d e t e r e n t however f o r some u n f o r seeable time t o come. N e v e r t h e l e s s  i t i s u s e f u l to observe,  a s i d e , t h e p l a n f o r e m i g r a t i o n of the t y p e envisaged Settlement  i n 1948  a l l else by  the  Commission t o B r i t i s h G u i a n a and B r i t i s h Honduras. Hfte  i n s t r u c t i o n s of the Commission were t o a d v i s e whether and  i n what  (24) way  76  migration  t o t h e mainland c o l o n i e s i s p o s s i b l e . They r e p o r t e d  was o n l y e c o n o m i c a l l y latent resources. for  p o s s i b l e through a v i g o r o u s  that  this  development o f t h e i r  T h e i r p l a n , t h e y e s t i m a t e d , would make i t p o s s i b l e  the two c o l o n i e s t o absorb about  100,000 men women and c h i l d r e n .  There were t o be 25,000 f a m i l i e s o f f o u r members o r 25,000 income e a r n ers.  What t h e y had i n mind was a l a r g e s c a l e l a n d settlement  scheme. But  a l l such schemes a r e v e r y e x p e n s i v e and t h e i r s u c c e s s depends upon the f i n a n c i a l support o f the government concerned s i n c e the p o t e n t i a l immig r a n t s a r e n e v e r l i k e l y t o be a b l e t o f i n a n c e  o r p l a n such a p r o j e c t .  S e t t l e m e n t o f t h e P r a i r i e s i n b o t h t h e American and Canadian case a f f o r d two f i t t i n g  examples, t h a t s u c c e s s o f such schemes <MS dependent  on government s u p p o r t . I n the West I n d i a n case t h e l a c k o f c a p i t a l i n a l l spheres o f l i f e r u l e s out the opening up o f the i n t e r i o r o f B r i t i s h Guiana i n t h e n e a r f u t u r e . Moreover the problems o f m a i n t a i n i n g  soil  t i l i t y on the p o o r s o i l s o f t h e i n t e r i o r l a n d s make l a n d s e t t l e m e n t  fereven  more d i f f i c u l t and c o s t l y . T h i s c o s t would c o n s i s t o f e x p e n d i t u r e on b u i l d i n g s , equipment, r o a d s , l o a n s  t o immigrant^, and e x p e n d i t u r e on ex-  t e n s i o n work w h i c h would be n e c e s s a r y t o e q u i p t h e u n s k i l l e d West agriculturist f o r life  Indian  i n h i s new environment. 'The problem o f s p r e a d i n g  such a l a r g e p u b l i c debt a s would be n e c e s s a r i l y i n c u r r e d over a s m a l l population  o f about 500 thousand can be p a r t l y surmounted i f B r i t i s h  Guiana becomes a p a r t o f t h e f e d e r a t i o n . But t h e r e  isstill  t h e dim p r o s -  pect;; o f b r i n g i n g poor s o i l s i n t o c u l t i v a t i o n which darken t h i s economic h o r i z o n . F a i l i n g the opening up o f t h e i n t e r i o r any a d d i t i o n t o t h e popul a t i o n o f B r i t i s h Guiana must be accommodated on t h e narrow a l r e a d y -crowded c o a s t a l s t r i p . With a r a t e o f p o p u l a t i o n  over-  growth t h a t i s among the  77 highest  (2.9%)in  t h e r e g i o n and a g r o s s n a t i o n a l p r o d u c t which l a g s  siderably behind that  con-  o f T r i n i d a d and Jamaica, B r i t i s h Guiana c o u l d n o t  i n t h e n e a r f u t u r e b e e x p e c t e d t o accommodate t h e W e s t I n d i a n  surplus  populations. Assume, on t h e b a s i s a n e m i g r a t i o n o f 80 p e r c e n t  of the Puerto Rican experience,  of the natural  that  100,000  growth (estimated at  p e r annum) i s n e c e s s a r y t o s o l v e t h e o v e r - p o p u l a t i o n p r o b l e m , t h a t emigration outside t h e r e g i o n remainsat growth. about  Given these assumptions  50 p e r c e n t  50,000 p e o p l e .  of t h i s  t h e n B r i t i s h Guiana w o u l d have t o  o f t h e n a t u r a l p o p u l a t i o n g r o w t h p e r annum o r  British  creases a t about  a b o u t 30 p e r c e n t  Guianafepopulation i s about  15 t h o u s a n d p e r annum. W i t h  c r e a s e t o more t h a n a m i l l i o n  520  (l)  (2) natural absorb  about  thousand and i n -  this emigration  it  would i n -  i n 8 y e a r s . Even i f t h i s were s p r e a d o u t  over B r i t i s h Honduras and B r i t i s h G u i a n a , t h e r e s o u r c e s o f t h e economies could not support from the i s l a n d s  them. T h i s would s i m p l y be transporting-f^^sc problems t o the  continent.  There a r e t w o o t h e r s i d e s  t o e m i g r a t i o n i n t h e West I n d i e s  we h a v e n o t d i s c u s s e d y e t . The f i r s t  which  i s the loss or gain incurred by t h e  c o u n t r y l o s i n g t h e p e o p l e . R e c e n t mass movement o f J a m a i c a n s t o t h e U n i t e d K i n g d o m made i t the e f f e c t periences  p o s s i b l e f o r such a c o s t  o f e m i g r a t i o n on t h e w o r k i n g o f J a m a i c a , 1953  - 1955,  c  a  n  b  e  t o be c a l c u l a t e d .  The s e c o n d  is  f o r c e o f t h e a r e a . Again t h e exused*  A  First, of  G. R o b e r t s and D. M i l l s  t h e monetary l o s s  considered i n terms  point  t o a c o u n t r y as a r e s u l t of the public  "the problem ^ ^ ) 2  of emigration,...,  and p r i v a t e ,  b r i n g i n g u p a c h i l d t o t h e age o f e n t r y i n t o  out that  expenditure  is  incurred  the labour f o r c e " .  often in  On t h i s  78 view, " t h e " . a c q u i s i t i o n o f a number o f i n d i v i d u a l s , a t the b e g i n n i n g o r t h e e a r l y p a r t of t h e o p r o d u c t i v e p e r i o d o f t h e i r l i v e s , on whom i t has spent n o t h i n g d u r i n g t h e i r n o n - p r o d u c t i v e  c h i l d h o o d and adolescence"'  means an a p p r e c i a b l e g a i n t o t h e r e c e i v i n g country.and a c o r r e s p o n d i n g l o s s t o t h e sending c o u n t r y .  They s t a t e , however, t h a t t h e i r study  con-  s i d e r e d s o l e l y t h e l o s s p e r p e r s o n when t h e s i z e , and hence t h e g r o s s f i n a n c i a l c o n t r i b u t i o n , o f a cohort o f workers i s s u b j e c t t o decrements due t o e m i g r a t i o n a t t h e r a t e s p r e v a i l i n g I n 1955. r e l i a b l e age schedule o f wages was c o n s t r u c t e d .  I n theabsence  of a  T h i s s c h e d u l e was as  follows: Age  Source:  Group-!  Weekly wage i n s h i l l i n g s .  20 - 24  38  25 - 29  49  30 - 34  57  35-39  62  40 - 49  64  50 - 59  70  60 - 69  56  Roberts, G.W. and D.0. M i l l s , Study o f E x t e r n a l M i g r a t i o n A f f e c t i n g Jamaica 1953-55. S o c i a l and Economic S t u d i e s , (Supplement) V o l . 7 No. 2, U. C.W.I., Jamaica, June, 1958. p . 84.  From t h e s e f i g u r e s i t i s observed t h a t t h e maximum e a r n i n g s p e r worker a r e found w i t h i n theage  span which t h e s t u d y showed t o be most a f f e c t e d by  26 e m i g r a t i o n i . e . between t h e ages 25 and 65f.  I t i s not surprising there-  f o r e t h a t t h e e s t i m a t e d l o s s s u f f e r e d by Jamaica i s s u b s t a n t i a l . e s t i m a t e s however a r e o n l y t r u e i n . a s t r i c t l y s t a t i c situation.  These They do  not c o n s i d e r t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f workers r e c e i v i n g wages h i g h e r t h a n  79  those t h e y r e c e i v e d i n Jamaica and making s u b s t a n t i a l r e m i t t a n c e s , which would n e c e s s a r i l y o f f s e t some o f t h e s e l o s s e s . A more r e a l i s t i c  reapprai-  s a l o f t h e s i t u a t i o n i s the monetary a f f e c t s o f the movements. When such an a n a l y s i s i s made the l o s s i n d i c a t e d i s a l s o c o n s i d e r a b l e . The t a b l e below g i v e s an i d e a o f t h e extent o f the c o s t o f p r i v a t e f i n a n c i n g o f emigration. TABLE 9.3 NET REMITTANCES PROM THE UNITED KINGDOM BY POSTAL ORDERS AND MONEY ORDERS 1953 - 1955 fear  B r i t i s h P o s t a l U.K. Money O r d e r s P a i d i n Orders p a i d i n Jamaica. Jamaica  Total  British Postal Orders s o l d i n Jamaica  Net Remittances.  1952  275,900  39,700  315,600  74,600  241,000  1953  324,200  42,700  366,900  88,500  278,400  1954  528,700  81,100  609,800  99,100  510,700  1955  1,314,100  194,000.  1,508,100  107,200  1,400,900  Total  2,442,900  357,500  2,800,400  369,400  2,431,000  Note 1.  P o s t a l O r d e r s p a i d i n Jamaica may have been i s s u e d i n Jamaica . o r abroad, P o s t a l Orders s o l d i n Jamaica may have been cashed here o r a b r o a d . The d i f f e r e n c e s between these two sums thus g i v e rough i n d i c a t i o n s o f t h e l e v e l o f r e m i t t a n c e s b y p o s t a l o r d e r from the U n i t e d Kingdom.  Note 2.  A g a i n s t the n e t r e m i t t a n c e s must be s e t the c o s t o f passages, which, because t h e c a r r i e r s a r e foreign-owned, c o n s t i t u t e an immediate l o s s t o the i s l a n d . R o b e r t s and M i l l s seem to t h i n k t h a t p a r t o f the r e m i t t a n c e s s e r v e t o f i n a n c e t h e passages o f r e l a t i v e s i n t e n d i n g t o emigrate o r t o repay l o a n s on t h e s t r e n g t h o f which emigrants had p r e v i o u s l y s e c u r e d passages, (p.125).  Source;  Egberts,G.W, and:;D.O.Mills, Study o f E x t e r n a l M i g r a t i o n A f f e c t i n g j"amaica, 1959 - 1 9 5 5 . ' C C t W f l . , Jamaica,  These f i g u r e s s u b s t a n t i a t e d the e s t i m a t e s o f c a p i t a l i s e d v a l u e o f l a b o u r p r e s e n t e d i n the R o b e r t s and M i l l s R e p o r t . I t may b e assumed t h e n t h a t ( ? ) 2  _a scheme o f c o n t i n u o u s m i g r a t i o n would n o t b e b e n e f i c i a l t o the West  80  I n d i e s money-wise and may  t h e o r e t i c a l l y g i v e r i s e t o b a l a n c e o f payments  problems. These arguments must however be r e g a r d e d w i t h much c a u t i o n . They suggest  rather than s t a t e d e f i n i t e p r o p o s i t i o n s .  Another important  aspect o f the Roberts  - M i l l s a n a l y s i s which  throws some l i g h t on the p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f f u t u r e m i g r a t i o n i s the of  effect  6 shows t h a t the occupa-  e m i g r a t i o n on the l a b o u r f o r c e . Appendix No.  t i o n a l c l a s s e s which c o n t r i b u t e d most t o the e m i g r a t i o n from Jamaica t o t h e U n i t e d Kingdom were s k i l l e d workers. Per  1000  males, c a r p e n t e r s showed an i n c r e a s e f r o m 1 8 . 5 masons f r o m 23.6  gainfully  i n 1953  occupied  t o 113.0  t o 2 1 0 . 6 , mechanics and o t h e r s from 2 7 . 3  to 183.3.  c o n t r a s t t o t h i s the r a t e s f o r the p l a n t e r s , farm w o r k e r s , and l a b o u r were r e s p e c t i v e l y 0 . 2  to 0 . 2 ,  2.1  to 20.4  and  2.2  in  t o 12.5  1954; In  unskilled f o r the  same two y e a r s . T h i s means t h a t the a r e a i n which s u r p l u s p^^J&H&r.r: i s c o n c e n t r a t e d - a g r i c u l t u r e and u n p r o d u c t i v e w h i l e the h i g h e r wage s e c t o r was  jobs - was  l i t t l e affected,  most h e a v i l y a f f e c t e d . The  t h e r e f o r e achieves the unfavourable  migration  r e s u l t o f r e d u c i n g the a l r e a d y s h o r t  s u p p l y o f s k i l l e d l a b o u r and e n t r e p r e n e u r s h i p n e c e s s a r y f o r making i n d u s t r i a l i s a t i o n a s u c c e s s , w h i l e on the o t h e r hand i t does not take  any  s i g n i f i c a n t amount out o f a g r i c u l t u r e o r low p r o d u c t i v i t y j o b s . I f t h i s p a t t e r n i s t y p i c a l o f l a r g e s c a l e West I n d i a n m i g r a t i o n , i t , i s e a s i l y seen t h a t i n d u s t r i a l i s a t i o n and e m i g r a t i o n are not c o m p a t i b l e o b j e c t i v e s in  t h e move t o reduce ^unemployment and r a i s e t h e s t a n d a r d s  of l i v i n g i n  t h e t e r r i t o r i e s . F o r some o f the major o b s t a c l e s t o p l a n n i n g a d i v e r s i f i e d economy i n the West I n d i e s i s the s e r i o u s shortage t r a i n e d p e r s o n n e l and m a n a g e r i a l for  skill;  of s k i l l e d labour,  a l s o the s h o r t a g e  of f a c i l i t i e s  t r a i n i n g the u n s k i l l e d masses. C l e a r l y any r e d u c t i o n i n these occupa-  81  t i o n a l c l a s s e s a t t h e r a t e s shown i n t h e appendix would b r i n g any such programme t o a h a l t w i t h i n t e n y e a r s u n l e s s t h e r a t e o f adjustment i s s u c h as t o o f f s e t the n e g a t i v e p r o c e s s . And i t i s n o t , as i s t o b e expected, one  i n t h e e a r l y stages o f development i n any young c o u n t r y .  To quote  example i n the West I n d i e s , i t i s observed t h a t i n c r e a s e i n t h e c o s t  i n t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n i n d u s t r y i n T r i n i d a d i s due t o t h e shortage  o f sup-  p l y o f s k i l l e d workers i n t h e i n d u s t r y . On  the question o f l i m i t a t i o n o f population b y b i r t h c o n t r o l  I cannot make any statement o f aixatyt(&'.<U v a l u e ; f o r as y e t t h e r e has not been any s u r v e y done which would g i v e r e l i a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n . The q u e s t i o n , however, r a i s e s o b j e c t i o n s on moral grounds and has been c l e a r l y denounced b y  Catholics  i n t h e a r e a . Attempts b y Dr. E . Y f i l l i a m s i n t h e  1950's t o advocate b i r t h c o n t r o l as a measure f o r s o l v i n g t h e problems of o v e r p o p u l a t i o n b r o u g h t him i n t o f u l l f r o n t a l a t t a c k o f o p i n i o n . O n l y r e c e n t l y a t a conference  Catholic  on demographic problems i n the  West I n d i e s h e l d under the a u s p i c e s o f the C a r i b b e a n Commission the r e p resentative f o r the Netherland  A n t i l l e s made a f i r m statement of p o l i c y  on t h i s m a t t e r which i n my o p i n i o n echoes t h e g e n e r a l a t t i t u d e p r e v a i l i n g i n the West I n d i e s towards a p u b l i c supported  scheme o f b i r t h c o n t r o l .  He s a i d : "On moral and p r a c t i c a l grounds t h e N e t h e r l a n d birth  control "by use of mechanical  and c h e m i c a l  A n t i l l e s reject  c o n t r a c e p t i o n , and do  not c o n s i d e r any measure to promote t h i s p r a c t i c e " . (28) The that t h i s  Catholic Church  does  not  appeal  advocates a b s t i n e n c e , b u t i t i s q u i t e c l e a r  t o the masses. Much can be done b y making p e o p l e  more aware o f the problem o f o v e r - p o p u l a t i o n ——"certain  and c r e a t i n g t h e d e s i r e f o r  types o f l u x u r y a r t i c l e s . S o c i a l r e f o r m  s h o u l d a c h i e v e much i n  82  t h i s d i r e c t i o n ; f o r i l l e g i t i m a t e b i r t h s accounts f o r about b i r t h s i n any y e a r f o r t h e t e r r i t o r i e s . I t i s argued t h a t s a t i o n would cause  lOfo o f the industriali-  the b i r t h r a t e s t o f a l l but e x p e r i e n c e shows t h a t  t h i s i s a l o n g r u n e f f e c t and t h a t i n the i n i t i a l  s t a g e s o f any c o n s i d -  e r a b l e economic growth b i r t h r a t e s are l i a b l e t o i n c r e a s e . J.>; AlSp;/, s o c i a l r e f o r m would i n c r e a s e the f e r t i l i t y o f t h e N e g r e s s by making h e r r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h h e r mate a more permanent  one.  When a l l these t h i n g s a r e c o n s i d e r e d we  can come t o no  definite  c o n c l u s i o n on the p o i n t of f e r t i l i t y c o n t r o l as a means f-vv s o l v i n g  the  unemployment problem. The s i t u a t i o n i s f u r t h e r aggravated b y the movement of people f r o m the c o u n t r y towards the towns. T h i s u r b a n i z a t i o n c h a r a c t e r i z e s the whole a r e a . The r e a s o n f o r i t i s t h a t the b e t t e r l e v e l s o f l i f e enjoyed i n towns compared w i t h the r u r a l d i s t r i c t s c o n s t a n t l y a t t r a c t more and more young p e o p l e from t h e i r modest e x i s t e n c e t o what t h e y r e g a r d as " c i t y l i f e " . The over-crowding  and c o n g e s t i o n o f West I n d i a n  towns which meet the eye o f the t r a v e l l e r speak,  of t h i s d i f f i c u l t  lem. I t reminds even the c a s u a l r e a d e r o f European h i s t o r y o f the  probsocial  c o n d i t i o n s o f the poor i n t h e E n g l i s h towns d u r i n g the I n d u s t r i a l Revol u t i o n and  the circumstance which gave r i s e to the Poor Laws. D r . A.Lewis  speaking o f the unemployment which a r i s e s from such movement s a y s : It i s very d i f f i c u l t  t o know how  to deal with t h i s  .  i n c r e a s e i n urban unemployment. The normal way t o cope w i t h unemployment i s t o p r o v i d e work, b u t t h i s i s no s o l u t i o n i n t h i s c a s e . On the c o n t r a r y i t merely a g g r a v a t e s the problem, because the more work you p r o v i d e i n the towns the more people w i l l d r i f t i n t o the towns, and t h e r e i s no c e r t a i n t y you can win the r a c e . . . no one ought to say t h a t he knows how to c u r e unemployment r a p i d l y f o r a l l t h o s e who are unemployed i n the towns.  .  .  83  For him t h e problem i s i n s o l u b l e f o r the o n l y way o u t would be t o con;  centrate  on developments i n r u r a l a r e a s t o stop the d r i f t . But 5c c i t - c i * ^  of n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s  i n r u r a l a r e a s combined w i t h r a p i d p o p u l a t i o n  growth  makes i t q u i t e c e r t a i n t h a t however much you do t o d e v e l o p the r u r a l areas you w i l l The  s t i l l have a s u r p l u s which w i l l be d r i f t i n g  i n t o the towns.  s o l u t i o n t o t h i s problem i s a long r u n p r o p o s i t i o n . Much t h e n depends on ( l ) t h e f u t u r e and t h e d i r e c t i o n o f change  i n t h e mores o f t h e s o c i e t y and (2) the improvement i n l e v e l s o f employment. As regards e m i g r a t i o n  i t can be s a i d d e f i n i t e l y t h a t i t s e r v e s t o  curb t h e r a t e s of n a t u r a l i n c r e a s e and o f f e r s a s o l u t i o n t o an i n c r e a s i n g labour  f o r c e i n the f a c e o f l i m i t e d o p p o r t u n i t i e s , b u t from a p o i n t o f  v i e w o f t h e scope f o r e m i g r a t i o n estimated natural increase  t o t h e extent  o f 80% o f the t e r r i t o r i e s  (100,000 p e r annum), and t h e c o s t t o the a r e a  o f s u c h e m i g r a t i o n ^ i t must be c o n c l u d e d t h a t i t does not o f f e r a f i n a l solution.  1  84  CHAPTER 4. REGIONAL ECONOMIC PLANNING  The  l a s t c h a p t e r d i s c u s s e d t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f the West I n -  d i e s s o l v i n g t h e i r problem o f unemployment b y i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l mig r a t i o n . The c o n c l u s i o n r e a c h e d was t h a t . O / i n t e r n a l m i g r a t i o n o r m o b i l i t y o f l a b o u r w i t h i n the F e d e r a t i o n i s extremely  d e s i r a b l e i f labour i s  to f i n d i t s most p r o f i t a b l e employment and the b e s t use made o f a v a i l a b l e r e s o u r c e s o f man povjer and c a p i t a l . Moreover i t h e l p s t o r e d i s t r i b u t e p o p u l a t i o n and ease t h e p r e s s u r e o f p o p u l a t i o n . The p o i n t made i s t h a t the scope f o r e x t e r n a l m i g r a t i o n was i n t h e main l i m i t e d b y p o l i t i c a l , and r a c i a l p o l i c i e s , a n d economic c o n d i t i o n s i n the p o t e n t i a l c o u n t r i e s . Also that continuous term b a l a n c e steady  recipient  e m i g r a t i o n was l i k e l y t o impose s h o r t -  o f payments problems i f t h e immigrants were unable t o f i n d  j o b s which would enable  them t o r e m i t enough t o o f f s e t the monetary  l o s s t o the c o u n t r y w h i c h they i n c u r r e d . More s i g n i f i c a n t , however, i s t h e fact  t h a t a study of e m i g r a t i o n t o t h e U n i t e d Kingdom f r o m Jamaica shows  t h a t e m i g r a t i o n a f f e c t e d the s k i l l e d workers o f t h e l a b o u r f o r c e most. Any  o u t movement o f p e o p l e s  from t h e West I n d i e s i s almost c e r t a i n t o f o l -  low t h i s p a t t e r n . The West I n d i e s w i t h an e x i s t i n g s h o r t a g e labour f i n d s i t d i f f i c u l t  of s k i l l e d  t o pursue i n d u s t r i a l development u n l e s s  they  i n c u r t h e c o s t o f t r a i n i n g n a t i v e s t o do t h e new jobs t h a t a r e c r e a t e d . Any  mass e m i g r a t i o n t o t h e e x t e n t o f 80,000 a y e a r which d e p l e t e s t h e  s k i l l e d l a b o u r f o r c e and robs t h e n a t i o n o f i t s young men does not f i t i n w i t h a p l a n o f immediate and r a p i d i n d u s t r i a l i s a t i o n . W h i l e t h e r e f o r e m i g r a t i o n has i n t h e p a s t curbed  t h e growth o f mounting p o p u l a t i o n on  85  t h e meagre r e s o u r c e s  o f the a r e a and w i l l c o n t i n u e  t o do so g i v e n  p r e s e n t o u t l e t s , the f i n a l s o l u t i o n to o v e r p o p u l a t i o n  and unemployment  must be sought w i t h i n the t e r r i t o r i e s themselves. T h i s means t h a t p l a n n i n g f o r i n c r e a s e d standards  any  must be done w i t h i n the p o p u l a t i o n asump-  t i o n s o f the R o b e r t s - Rampersaud p r o j e c t i o n s No. page  the  1 and 11  (See Chapter 3«  5-4). On the b a s i s o f the components o f p o p u l a t i o n growth t h e  t i o n i n the age groups 15 - 64 y e a r s was TABLE POPULATION (ACTUAL AND FALLING WITHIN THE AGE  e s t i m a t e d as f o l l o w s :  1.4  PROJECTED) OP THE FEDERATION GROUP 15 - 64 YEARS.  1955  I960  1965  1970  Jamaica  909.3  966.3  1,031.7  1,127.0  Trinidad  402.7  459.7  531.8  614.1  Barbados  137.4  143.1  150.7  161.1  74.2  79.3  85.5  93.2  174.7  191.5  208.8  232.3  1,698.3  1,839.9  2,008.5  2,227.7  Leeward I s l a n d s Windward I s l a n d s  Source:  popula-  The Economics o f Nationhood: Government Pif'int** i n g - O f f i c e , P o r t - p f ^ S p a i n , 1 9 5 9 > • p.34. 1  c  To meet t h i s f u t u r e i n c r e a s e i n the w o r k i n g p o p u l a t i o n and n o t o n l y maint a i n +ke :' p r e s e n t r  standards  o f l i v i n g but  improve them r e q u i r e s an  increase  i n n a t i o n a l income s u f f i c i e n t to accomodate the i n c r e a s e i n p o p u l a t i o n  and  a t the same time r a i s e the n a t i o n a l income p e r c a p i t a . The problem o f overpopulation  i n the West I n d i e s , as I have shown above, c e n t r e s around  low p r o d u c t i v i t y i n a g r i c u l t u r e . The d u c t i v i t y i n a g r i c u l t u r e and w i l l accomodate those who  accepted  c r e a t e new  p o l i c y i s to increase  pro-  j o b s o u t s i d e o f a g r i c u l t u r e which  are thrown o f f o r cannot be absorbed by  the  86  l a n d on the b a s i s o f some planned r e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f p e a s a n t f a r m i n g . I will  d i s c u s s the t h e o r y b e h i n d t h i s l a t e r i n the s e t t i n g o f a West  Indian  economy but  first  l e t us r e v i e w the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e mechanism i n  which, i t i s t o come a b o u t . It  i s my  t h e s i s t h a t the problems o f the West I n d i e s must  approached on b o t h a r e g i o n a l and  a l o c a l l e v e l . But  t h a t r e g i o n a l con-  s i d e r a t i o n s must t a k e precedence o v e r l o c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s welfare is  of the  area  i s to be  s o u r c e s i n the  i f the  general  improved at the l e a s t p o s s i b l e c o s t s .  a s t i p u l a t i o n which r e q u i r e s g r e a t  o r g a n i z a t i o n and  This  emphasis i n any programme o f r e -  development i n the West I n d i e s ^ f o r the s c a r c i t y o f r e -  a r e a as  'hvy  been p o i n t e d out a g a i n and  a s t r o n g argument f o r c o n s e r v a t i o n s o u r c e s e r v i c e s . The  and economic use  again i s by  first  o r even w i t h o t h e r Caribbean i s l a n d s . The d i e s i s about 8,000 square m i l e s  federate  i s t h a t the i s l a n d s are v e r y  compared w i t h the l a r g e c o n t i n e n t a l l a n d masses and  small  continental islands,  a r e a o f the f e d e r a t e d West  In-  o r somewhat over t w i c e the s i z e o f  P u e r t o R i c o . Moreover they have the  added d i s a d v a n t a g e of b e i n g  fragmen-  t e d or s c a t t e r e d o v e r thousands o f m i l e s o f water - i . e . s e p a r a t e d l a c k of t r a n s p o r t . The  itself  of a l l a v a i l a b l e r e -  diseconomies of s m a l l s c a l e a f f e c t the  u n i t s i n a marked degree. The  sea and  be  by  r e s u l t of t h i s p h y s i c a l smallness i s that  e v e r y sphere o f economic a c t i v i t y i s s m a l l . A d m i n i s t r a t i v e  u n i t s as  cen-  t r a l and l o c a l government u n i t s ; economic u n i t s , such as peasant farms and  e s t a t e s and m a r k e t i n g units,' are a l l too s m a l l to g i v e any  a c o n t r o l l i n g say ive ~  organization  i n the world c o m p e t i t i v e of f a c t o r s of p r o d u c t i o n  one  markets o r t o a l l o w the  island effect-  on western s t a n d a r d s .  Perhaps the most economical u n i t o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n f o r a  region  87  such as the West I n d i e s i s u n i t government. However the f o r c e o f a  tra-  d i t i o n o f independence r u l e d t h i s c o n s i d e r a t i o n out a t an e a r l y stage  of  the t a l k s on c l o s e r a s s o c i a t i o n . A s t r o n g f e d e r a l government i n the West I n d i e s would be of g r e a t advantage to p l a n n i n g the economic development which i s n e c e s s a r y  i n o r d e r t o a t t a i n t h e r a t e o f growth r e q u i r e d to  p l o y a s t e a d i l y growing l a b o u r f o r c e , and  to p r o v i d e  em-  the i n c r e a s i n g de-  mand f o r b e t t e r housing  i n town and  tals clinics,  equipment. The problem o f c r e a t i n g employment,  and  t o o l s and  'providing; housing,  country, v o c a t i o n a l schools, h o s p i -  e d u c a t i o n and  o t h e r p u b l i c s e r v i c e s to meet an  i n c r e a s e o f p o p u l a t i o n of l,700,000,(over 1955)jby 1970 i n the c i r c u m s t a n c e s  i s an  undertaking  )  o f the West I n d i e s , f o r a c e n t r a l p l a n n i n g u n i t .  I t i s i d l e t o hope t h a t each s m a l l u n i t working independently o f the  other  can s o l v e t h i s problem. Take, f o r example, the m a t t e r o f the freedom of movement of peoples w i t h i n the  a r e a . Q u i t e a s i d e from b e i n g  a p r e r e q u i s i t e to c l o s e r  a s s o c i a t i o n t h i s p r i n c i p l e i s d e f i n i t e l y c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the economic o b j e c t i v e o f i n c r e a s i n g n a t i o n a l income p e r c a p i t a by moving o r i n g people f r o m a r e a s of low p r o d u c t i v i t y t o areas o f h i g h e r i t y . Now  I have p o i n t e d out t h a t the  the 1920*s v i r t u a l l y put an end West I n d i e s t h e r e b y  to a l l movement o f p e o p l e s w i t h i n  i n c r e a s i n g the  the more p r o s p e r o u s a r e a s . T h i s i n my  -It i s my  the  s e v e r i t y o f the d e p r e s s i o n i n some t h a t f r e e movements o f p e o p l e  i n the f e d e r a t e d a r e a would mean the l o w e r i n g o f standards  I t makes no  productiv-  independent a c t i o n o f the u n i t s i n  a r e a s . Today the o p i n i o n i s s t i l l e x p r e s s e d  i n s u l a r separatism.  attract-  of l i v i n g i n  judgment, i s more an e x p r e s s i o n  attempt at an e v a l u a t i o n o f the  c l a i m t h a t w i t h improved t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and  of  situation.  a c e n t r a l labour  88  bureau s y n c h r o n i z i n g i t s work w i t h l o c a l u n i t s and p r o v i d i n g a l l n e c e s s a r y i n f o r m a t i o n as r e g a r d s employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r a l l i s l a n d s t h a t much c o u l d be done by way  o f r e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f p o p u l a t i o n and meeting the s h o r t -  age of l a b o u r which has been e x p e r i e n c e d a t c r o p season i n many o f the i s l a n d s . I t i s o n l y unplanned movement t h a t can b r i n g about u n f a v o u r a b l e s u l t s . Planned  re-  o r d i r e c t e d p o p u l a t i o n movements w i t h i n the a r e a isija,:de..sir-r:  a b l e - t h i n g ^ u t i t ^ e b j l i r e s c e n t r a l ' c o n t r o l ^ .... :  t.;.  I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o measure the exact p o p u l a t i o n s i z e -which i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h p l a n n i n g f o r s u s t a i n e d economic growth. E x p e r t s seem t o think^however^that i z e such  t h r e e m i l l i o n p e o p l e make an adequate quantum t o  a p l a n . Of c o u r s e t h i s means t h r e e m i l l i o n p e o p l e working  economic u n i t p r o d u c i n g a c o n s t a n t f l o w o f goods and s e r v i c e s .  organin  The  F e d e r a t e d West I n d i a n p o p u l a t i o n i s e s t i m a t e d 3.5 m i l l i o n . 3 0 O f about 1.6  m i l l i o n inhabit Jamaica  and 0.78  live  an^^  this^  i n T r i n i d a d and Tobago,  the r e s t a r e f o u n d i n the Leeward and Windward I s l a n d s . While  as a r e -  g i o n a l economic u n i t the West I n d i a n a r e a c e r t a i n l y has the p o p u l a t i o n component n e c e s s a r y f o r s e l f p e r p e t u a t i n g growth, c l e a r l y no one meets the r e q u i r e m e n t ,  and o n l y Jamaica  i s l i k e l y t o g e t c l o s e to  unit such  l i m i t s i n the next t e n y e a r s . I t i s v e r y o b v i o u s t h e r e f o r e t h a t f e d e r a t i o n w i t h freedom of movement o f people  i s complementary t o economic r e o r g a n i -  z a t i o n i n the West I n d i e s . A g a i n i n the p l a n n i n g o f i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n t h e r e should be  con-  s t a n t c o n s u l t a t i o n a t the f e d e r a l l e v e l of government. The u n i t s ' i n d u s t r i a l p l a n s should be made t o s y n c h r o n i z e w i t h the r e g i o n a l p l a n f o r t h e development o f the a r e a as a whole. C o n f l i c t between p o l i c y on t h e r e g i o n a l -  level  and the l o c a l o r u n i t l e v e l may  r e s u l t i n much economic waste  and  89  create bottlenecks example i s c i t e d of the h i g h e r  which l a t e r on cannot be  e a s i l y remedied. A p o s s i b l e  i n the b u i l d i n g of the o i l r e f i n e r y i n Jamaica. Because  c o s t of p r o d u c t i o n ,  compared w i t h the  Trinidad  the Jamaican government guaranteed the company a s u b s i d y would g i v e i t e p r o d u c t s a monopoly i n Jamaica. The paying.the s u b s i d y got  w i l l c o n t i n u e to get the  i f t h e r e were no  the  y  same revenue as i t would have case o f g a s o l i n e ,  consumer w i l l not  take i n t o account  e x t r a t a x i n v o l v e d . I t i s c l e a r t h a t t h i s s o r t o f haphazard u n i -  l a t e r a l way but  which i n f a c t  government ( a ) a f t e r  r e f i n e r y i n Jamaica; (b) i n t h e  d i e s e l and f u e l o i l the p r i c e s to the  products,  o f d o i n g t h i n g s i s not  t o the b e n e f i t o f the f e d e r a l u n i t  r a t h e r o n l y promotes the s a l e o f U n i t e d S t a t e s p r o d u c t s i n a West  d i a n market t o the detriment of the T r i n i d a d domestic market. T h i s  In-  vio-  l a t e s the p r i n c i p l e o f f r e e t r a d e w i t h i n the f e d e r a t i o n f o r the f u l l e r p l o i t a t i o n o f the West I n d i a n market^and may, i f the precedence s e t J a m a i c a and  o v e r l o o k e d by the C o u n c i l of S t a t e  ex-  by  a 3 "an unusual expedient  i n u n u s u a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s " i s c a r r i e d t o i t s l o g i c a l conclusions,make genuine i n t e r n a l f r e e t r a d e become Br. E r i c Williams  impossible.  i n a l e t t e r d a t e d 21st May,  Prime M i n i s t e r expresses h i s p o i n t o f v i e w  1959  to  the  thus:  As the F e d e r a l Government i s w e l l aware, the government o f T r i n i d a d and Tobago, i n f u r t h e r a n c e of the s p i r i t and o b j e c t i v e s o f the F e d e r a t i o n , has sought by u n i l a t e r a l a c t i o n to g i v e f u l l e f f e c t to the i d e a o f freedom of movement o f p e r s o n s w i t h i n the f e d e r a t i o n e v e n b e f o r e the p e r i o d s t i p u l a t e d i n the f e d e r a l c o n s t i t u t i o n . I t has done so i n the c o n f i d e n t knowledge t h a t i t was t h e r e b y c o n t r i b u t i n g t o the strengthening o f the f e d e r a l p r i n c i p l e . I t i s a l l the more t o be regretted, therefore, that Trinidad's e f f o r t s i n t h i s c o n n e c t i o n should appear t o be o f f s e t by a c t i o n o f the J a m a i c a government c a l c u l a t e d to r e s t r i c t the movement o f goods w i t h i n the f e d e r a t i o n .  (5)  90  I f , n o t withstanding  the F e d e r a l Government's r e s p o n s i b i l i t y under the  c o n s t i t u t i o n , t h e i n t e n t i o n i s t o d e l a y the i n t r o d u c t i o n of customs union u n t i l the s p e c i a l requirements o f every vested i n t e r e s t have been met, then i t would appear t h a t the Government o f T r i n i d a d and Tobago should r e t a i n i t s r i g h t t o r e s t r i c t e n t r i e s t o the colony u n t i l the time;: s t i p u l a t e d . I t would be u n f a i r t o expect i t t o continue t h i s p o l i c y o f f r e e movement of peoples i n the f e d e r a t i o n when other u n i t t e r r i t o r i e s are pursuing  a  contrary p o l i c y i n respect to" the movement of goods. A f u r t h e r argument f o r c e n t r a l planning  i s the need f o r large  s c a l e undertakings i n planning an i n d u s t r i a l sector i n underdeveloped areas i n order t o reduce c o s t s and a t t r a c t c a p i t a l . The c o s t of i n d u s t r i a l production such as the West Indies i s very h i g h .  i n underdeveloped countries  This i s so because o f the le,ck o f  former experience i n the i n d u s t r i a l a r t s , absenteeism and other i r r e g u l a r i t i e s i n the behaviour of t h e labour f o r c e , general  low standards o f  labour e f f i c i e n c y , extra c o s t o f t r a i n i n g men t o do the jobs made a v a i l a b l e , t r a n s p o r t d i f f i c u l t i e s and so on.  Then there i s too the higher cost of  i n s t a l l i n g p l a n t which n e a r l y always involves importation  o f technicians  and other s k i l l e d labour from the c a p i t a l exporting country. i n i t i a l c o s t suggest*that  This  higher  a l a r g e output i s r e q u i r e d so t h a t f i x e d cost  may be spread over many u n i t s and some advantages o f t e c h n i c a l e f f i c i e n c y gained. exist.  T h i s i n t u r n means t h a t a l a r g e enough market f o r the product must A cement industry means t h a t there must be a b u i l d i n g i n d u s t r y and  p u b l i c works which would consume enough t o make i t p o s s i b l e to e s t a b l i s h optimum s i z e p l a n t s .  The c o s t of any one i n d u s t r y must be estimated i n some  way from the sum of a l l i n d u s t r i e s - primary)  91  secondary, and t e r t i a r y that i s n e c e s s a r y f o r i t s most e f f i c i e n t  opera-  t i o n . T h i s i s the a r e a i n which i n d u s t r i a l p l a n n i n g i n the West I n d i e s ^ ) must pursued. I t i s o b v i o u s l y a s t u p i d t h i n g f o r a l l the u n i t s t o e s t a b l i s h a cement i n d u s t r y i n an independent b l i n d e f f o r t t o s o l v e o v e r p o p u l a t i o n , by i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n and t h e n r a i s e t a r i f f j o r g i v e s u b s i d i e s to  keep out s i m i l a r p r o d u c t s f r o m o t h e r a r e a s . N a t u r a l l y , many would  f a i l because  the t o t a l consumption  o f cement p r o d u c t s i n each u n i t  i s not  l a r g e enough t o support an optimum s i z e cement i n d u s t r y . The wages, s a l a r i e s , and o t h e r c o s t s p a i d out would b y s.fphoned o f f i n t o o t h e r d i r e c t i o n s such as f i n a n c i n g imports o f f o o d and o t h e r consumer goods w h i l e none or l i t t l e  o f i t would r e t u r n t o the i n d u s t r y . The r e s u l t must be  f a i l u r e and consequent  waste o f a s c a r c e f a c t o r - c a p i t a l . I f , however,  as i n T r i n i d a d and Jamaica, l a r g e b u i l d i n g and i r r i g a t i o n schemes are embarked on as a r e s u l t o f t h e i r  speeded up i n d u s t r i a l programmes then  t h e o p e r a t i o n o f a. cement i n d u s t r y i n b o t h t h e s e a r e a s would be  economi-  c a l l y f e a s i b l e . The o t h e r u n i t s would be a b l e t o s p e c i a l i z e i n i n d u s t r y which r e q u i r e s a smaller, s c a l e o f ope r a t i o n ^ a n d import cement.at a lower c o s t than t h e y can produce The  i t , f r o m T r i n i d a d and Jamaica o r from  abroad.  same goes f o r the o i l r e f i n e r y i n Jamaica. It  i s c l e a r t h e n t h a t i n underdeveloped  c r e a t e an i n d u s t r i a l s e c t o r may  areas that i n order t o  e n t a i l the b u i l d i n g o f p l a n t s and  laying  out o f i n d u s t r i a l s i t e s ; the s t a r t i n g o f i n d u s t r i e s and t r a i n i n g o f l a b o u r the c r e a t i o n o f secondary and t e r t i a r y i n d u s t r i e s n e c e s s a r y f o r i t s p r o p e r f u n c t i o n . The more p i e c e meal t h e p l a n n i n g , t h e g r e a t e r the must r e s u l t  from the s m a l l u n i t s which are e v e n t u a l l y choked  diseconomies o f f when t h e  -flow o f c a p i t a l and income becomes t r u n c a t e d ; t h e l a r g e r and more  92  coordinated  t h e scheme,the g r e a t e r the economies o f s c a l e which accrue  t o t h e n a t i o n and  the  sooner the t a k e - o f f p o i n t t o s e l f - s u s t a i n e d economic  growth i s reached. Of c o u r s e such n a t i o n a l p l a n n i n g  cannot be l e f t  to the  designs  o f u n i t governments o r p r i v a t e i n d i v i d u a l s i n or o u t s i d e the West L o c a l u n i t s must m a i n t a i n be  served by  Indies.  t h e i r autonomy b u t the good o f the n a t i o n must  the F e d e r a l Government, f o r the l o c a l u n i t s do n o t have the  power nor are t h e y l i k e l y t o have the d e s i r e to p u r s u e u n s e l f i s h p r o grammes. T h i s can o n l y come about i f the c o u n c i l o f s t a t e e x e r c i s e s i t s powers without f e a r . Planning c a p i t a l . But be  development on the s c a l e suggested above r e q u i r e s much  mere a v a i l a b i l i t y o f c a p i t a l i s not  f u n c t i o n a l i n the West I n d i a n c o n t e x t .  s u f f i c i e n t . C a p i t a l must  That i s , i t must employ the  g r e a t e s t number p o s s i b l e w i t h i n the l i m i t s o f economic r e a s o n . C a p i t a l is,  however, a scaree f a c t o r i n the West I n d i e s because p e o p l e produce  so l i t t l e  and  t h e r e f o r e can save so l i t t l e .  the n a t i o n must e i t h e r borrow, beg,  To g e t  the n e c e s s a r y  s t e a l , save more ( i . e . by  capital  voluntary  o r f o r c e d s a v i n g ) , or encourage s t r a n g e r s to b r i n g i t i n f r o m abroad. Because o f the  low  l e v e l of performance i t i s not  r a p i d development aimed a t o u t s  the q u e s t i o n .  possible to finance  o f domestic s a v i n g s ;  There r e m a i n s t h e r e f o r e , y  borrowing, begging, f o r g i f t s and  s t e a l i n g i s out  of  t h r e e avenues a c c e s i b l e to i t ,  a t t r a c t i n g c a p i t a l from abroad. A l l  t h e s e c a l l f o r t r a n s a c t i o n s at the government l e v e l ^ i n view of the sent i n t e r n a t i o n a l economic s i t u a t i o n o f c u r r e n c y exports  the  c o n t r o l and  pre-  import-  r e s t r i c t i o n s . The b i g g e r t h e n a t i o n a l v o i c e the b e t t e r the  o f n e g o t i a t i o n s i t i s l i k e l y to s e t t l e ^ o r , the more l i k e l y i t i s to  terms  93  succeed i n a t t r a c t i n g p o t e n t i a l i n v e s t o r s i n t o s p e c i f i c f i e l d s of i n v e s t ment and  r a i s i n g loans  i n f o r e i g n money markets. A s t r o n g  government w i t h the power to r a i s e i t s own  revenues c a n be  central  much more  e f f e c t i v e as a spokesman f o r the n a t i o n than each u n i t s e e k i n g of the  independent}))  other. Since  the West I n d i e s a r e not  as poor as h a l f the w o r l d populace^  t h e y can f i n a n c e much of t h e i r own  economic development. But  t o do  c a l l s f o r public i n i t i a t i v e  absence o f p r i v a t e n a t i v e  capacity.  The  i n the  this  c a p i t a l f o r p u b l i c work schemes, such as r o a d s , i n d u s t r i a l s i t e s , dams  education,  h e a l t h and  government. The  s a n i t a t i o n , and housing can  and  i s provided  l o c a l u n i t s would i n e v i t a b l y be r e s p o n s i b l e  the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f such p r o j e c t s , but  by  f o r much of  i t i s obvious t h a t p r o j e c t s such  as improvement o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n between i s l a n d s and  the e s t a b l i s h m e n t  of  a c e n t r a l b a n k i n g system r e q u i r e s a s t r o n g c e n t r a l government c o n t r o l s i n c e no  s i n g l e u n i t can f i n a n c e  i t . Economic p r o g r e s s of the  s i z e sugges-  t e d by e s t i m a t e d p o p u l a t i o n growth i n the R o b e r t s - Rampersaud p r o j e c t i o n s _I^and IJ, < 'Cannot be  achieved  o u t s i d e t h i s g e n e r a l framework. Hence f u r t h e r  p r o g r e s s i s dependent upon the m a t u r i t y w i t h i n the p o l i t i c a l u n i t s and  the  of the i d e a o f working  together  speed w i t h w h i c h West I n d i a n s a r e  wil-  l i n g to r e l i n q u i s h c o n t r o l t o a c e n t r a l organ. Further considerations  o f the economics o f f e d e r a l c o n t r o l  c e n t r a l r e o r g a n i z a t i o n l e a d s us to a c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the of customs u n i o n and I now  and  implications  a common t a r i f f i n West Indian economic development.  t u r n t o a d i s c u s s i o n o f the economic s i g n i f i c a n c e o f f r e e  trade  w i t h i n the  area - which i n the F e d e r a t e d West I n d i e s i m p l i e s common  t a r i f f and  customs u n i o n . Free: movement o f goods w i t h i n the  federation,  94  a p a r t from the p o l i t i c a l  i m p l i c a t i o n s , has  the same economic  as freedom of movement o f p e o p l e s and c a p i t a l . One o t h e r . The  C r o f t Commission p u t s i t the o t h e r way  justifications  i s a c o u n t e r p a r t of  the  around: I t s t a t e s :  I f customs u n i o n means f r e e t r a d e between the members of such a Union - freedom of movement o f goods - i t i n e v i t a b l y a l s o c a r r i e s w i t h i t , as a c o r o l l a r y , t h e freedom of movement o f p e r s o n s ; f o r i t i s i n c o n c e i v a b l e t h a t any u n i t would agree t o g i v e up t h e r i g h t t o deny e n t r y to the m a n u f a c t u r e r s o f i t s neighbours w h i l e p e r m i t t i n g them t h e l i b e r t y o f r e f u s i n g i t s c i t i z e n s the o p p o r t u n i t y t o e n t e r t h e i r c o u n t r i e s t o secure employment i n t h e i r manufacturing industries; and i f customs u n i o n were t o be attempted on such a r e s t r i c t e d b a s i s i t would s u r v i v e o n l y so l o n g as t h e r e was no a c t u a l r e s t r i c t i o n o f the p e r s o n s i n s e a r c h o f work or o t h e r b u s i n e s s o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n o t h e r member c o u n t r i e s o f the Union. Freedom o f movement o f c a p i t a l i s f o r s i m i l a r reasons a c o r o l l a r y o f customs u n i o n , as has b e e n r e c o g n i s e d by the s i g n a t o r i e s o f the T r e a t y o f Rome. It  (7)  continues: We a r e not o u r s e l v e s concerned w i t h t h e movement o f p e r s o n s , e x c e p t t h a t t h e r e i s an obvious and n e c e s s a r y c o n n e c t i o n between t h a t and the movement o f goods... To c r e a t e a West I n d i a n n a t i o n and a West I n d i a n economy the exchange of persons and goods b y sea i s n e c e s s a r y , and the improvement o f s h i p p i n g must go hand i n hand w i t h an a c t i v e and growing demand f o r space b o t h f o r passengers and f o r f r e i g h t .  T r i n i d a d then can take more people  (8)  p r o v i d e d t h a t i t can m a i n t a i n i t s l e v e l  of p r o s p e r i t y . T h i s depends on i t s s a l e of p r o d u c t s n o t o n l y i n f o r e i g n markets b u t w i t h i n the F e d e r a t i o n . I f i t s p r o d u c t s a r e d e b a r r e d from  other  u n i t s b y an i n c r e a s e i n t a r i f f o r what amounts t o t h a t , t h e n the r a t e o f i n c r e a s e i n n a t i o n a l income i s reduced  and  s u r p l u s p o p u l a t i o n f r o m t h e s e u n i t s ceases  the b a s i s f o r accommodating to e x i s t . Free trade i s there-  fore a necessary  supplement t o the p r i n c i p l e of freedom o f movement of  peoples. Besides  t h i s t h e r e i s much s a v i n g o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c o s t s t o  be  95  g a i n e d by way  of a r e d u c t i o n i n d u p l i c a t i o n o f f u n c t i o n s by h a v i n g  a  c e n t r a l customs a u t h o r i t y . A l s o a p o s s i b l e i n c r e a s e i n t r a d e between the West I n d i e s and  the o u t s i d e world  may  r e s u l t when t h e present  complica-  t e d t a r i f f system i s s i m p l i f i e d . The  r e p o r t o f the Standing  C l o s e r A s s o c i a t i o n Committee  (The  Ranee R e p o r t ) which became the b a s i s o f the terms o f F e d e r a t i o n which were u l t i m a t e l y agreed upon e n u n c i a t e s  t h i s economic p r i n c i p l e i n un-  q u a l i f i e d terms. T h i s i s what i t s a i d : The e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a customs u n i o n , i n v o l v i n g a f r e e t r a d e a r e a , u n i f o r m t a r i f f s , and a s i n g l e customs a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , i s the f o u n d a t i o n o f a f e d e r a l s t r u c t u r e , p a r t i c u l a r l y o f one o f which the c h i e f f u n c t i o n s w i l l i n c l u d e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r economic and commercial  matters.  E s p e ^ M V ^ " 1 / one which depends t o more t h a n 50 percent 1  its  on t a r i f f s f o r  revenue. The  it  . .  t h i r d argument f o r customs u n i o n  i n the West I n d i e s i s t h a t  o f f e r s the advantages o f a common t a r i f f which can be m a n i p u l a t e d b y  a  • c e n t r a l a u t h o r i t y (the F e d e r a l a u t h o r i t y ) f o r the development o f domestic " ^ i n d u s t r i e s w i t h i n a p r o t e c t e d f r e e t r a d e a r e a . I t has been the c e n t r a l o b j e c t i v e of most custom u n i o n s t o p r o t e c t the member u n i t s and promote i n d u s t r i a l development w i t h i n a f r e e trade, a r e a . We a t the Canadian N a t i o n a l p o l i c y from 1878 full  i m p l i c a t i o n s o f s u c h a p o l i c y . The  need o n l y g l a n c e  up t o today to u n d e r s t a n d  whole f o r c e o f past  and t r a d i t i o n p o i n t s t o the need f o r customs u n i o n  back the  experience  i n the West  Indies  w i t h i n the machinery o f the l o c a l organs o f governments themselves i n p a r t n e r s h i p w i t h the F e d e r a l Government. T r a d i t i o n p o i n t s t o t h i s because e x i s t s no f e d e r a t i o n which has f a i l e d to secure  t h i s advantage. I t i s  there  96  t h e r e f o r e reasonable  t o assume t h a t the West I n d i e s F e d e r a t i o n may not  f o l l o w an e x c e p t i o n a l c o u r s e .  On the o t h e r hand, the l o n g e x p e r i e n c e o f  p r i c e f l u c t u a t i o n , and economic i n s t a b i l i t y , l a c k o f b a r g a i n i n g  powers  because o f t h e s m a l l p r o p o r t i o n o f w o r l d output they account f o r , and t h e i n c r e a s e d c o s t to t h e a r e a o f a l l o w i n g t h e e x i s t e n c e o f so many d i f f e r e n t u n i t s o f customs a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s for  having  and customs laws, a r e a l l c l a i m s  a common customs p o l i c y . But t h e s t r o n g e s t  argument  follows  from t h e d i r e need f o r i n d u s t r i a l development i n the West I n d i e s (see Chapter 5, page  ).  The C r o f t Commission r e p o r t s Dr.WA. Lewis as s a y i n g : The f i r s t e s s e n t i a l t o any v i g o r o u s i n d u s t r i a l i s a t i o n i s a customs u n i o n . . I t i s i d l e t o t a l k about making a s e r i o u s e f f o r t a t i n d u s t r i a l i s a t i o n u n t i l , the whole a r e a i s b r o u g h t w i t h i n a s i n g l e customs u n i o n .  (10)  The r e p o r t goes on to say t h a t : The customs u n i o n w i l l be a b a s i c and i n d i s pensable p a r t o f t h e f e d e r a l mechanism f o r t h e promotion o f economic growth upon a r e g i o n a l basis. A p l a n n e d economy must be on a r e g i o n a l b a s i s . Once agreement on t h i s i s reached and a l l member u n i t s accept the s p i r i t  o f compromise  i t b o t h i n p r i n c i p l e and p r a c t i c e ,  and good judgement and the a u t o m a t i c f o r c e s o f  adjustment w i l l do the r e s t . O u t s i d e o f t h i s , p o l i c i e s w i l l operate i n f u l l this light  i n s u l a r i t y and i n c o n s i s t e n t  force t o deter progress  i n t h e long. r u n . I n  t h e -works of the c o l o n i a l development and w e l f a r e  were commendable and c o n s t r u c t i v e . The e x p e r t and t h e c a p i t a l t h a t i t has p r o v i d e d improvement o f e d u c a t i o n ;  organisation  knowledge i t c o n t r i b u t e d  t o f i n a n c e "schemes f o r t h e g e n e r a l  f o r h e a l t h s e r v i c e s ; f o r slum c l e a r a n c e and  97  housing;  f o r t h e c r e a t i o n of l a b o u r departments; f o r l a n d  settlement;  (12)'  and f o r the p r o v i s i o n o f s o c i a l w e l f a r e f a c i l i t i e s " viere i n d i s p e n s i b l e ,  v  A l t h o u g h t h e C o l o n i a l Development O r g a n i s a t i o n l a c k e d the mechanism o f c e n t r a l c o n t r o l which i s needed to b u i l d a n a t i o n i t d i d a l l i n i t s power t o i n f l u e n c e o p i n i o n i n the d i r e c t i o n o f F e d e r a t i o n . I t made l o c a l u n i t s more aware o f the urgency for c o n s u l t a t i o n and It  r e f o r m and  c o - o p e r a t i o n on economic and  t h e machinery f o r r e g i o n a l social  matters.  i s because o f t h i s need f o r g r e a t e r c o o r d i n a t i o n i n p l a n -  n i n g between the i s l a n d s t h a t the o r g a n i s a t i o n found i t s e l f ,  i n the  sence o f a f e d e r a l body, c o n s u l t e d on a l l problems of s o c i a l and s i g n i f i c a n c e a f f e c t i n g the i s l a n d s . I t was body would have to g i v e way  t o one  beccaning  ab-  economic  quite clear that  the  which u n i f i e d the t e r r i t o r i e s r a t h e r  than tended to keep them a p a r t by a p o l i c y o f s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n f o r each u n i t . I t i s not  s u r p r i s i n g , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t the g r e a t e s t support  West I n d i a n F e d e r a t i o n came from t h e Development and W e l f a r e i n the  Organization  region. It  f e r e n c e was for  for  was  i n an attempt to meet t h i s need t h a t the Montego Bay  Con-  c a l l e d through t h e i n s t r u m e n t a l i t y o f the S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e  the C o l o n i e s . He  had the c o o p e r a t i o n o f t h e l e g i s l a t u r e s o f t h e  British  West I n d i a n u n i t s . P r i o r to t h i s Conference and the subsequent f o r m a t i o n Standing  C l o s e r A s s o c i a t i o n Committee, 1948,  West I n d i a n F e d e r a t i o n t h e r e was  of  the  which drew up the p l a n f o r  much r e g i o n a l c o o p e r a t i o n . T h i s  o p e r a t i o n r e s u l t e d from the common g e o g r a p h i c a l and  co-  economic s i t u a t i o n o f  the West I n d i e s . A l t h o u g h i f on the s u r f a c e such forms o f c o o p e r a t i o n seem t o suggest the e v o l u t i o n o f the s p i r i t  may  of nationalism, c l o s e r analy-  99  War  c a u s e d the p r o c e s s o f c o o p e r a t i o n t o grow i n  attt&rvitSi sphere  o f c o n t r o l . I n the economic f i e l d  t h e r e was  intensity the  develop-  ment o f b u l k p u r c h a s i n g and b u l k s a l e o f p r o d u c t s . As a r e s u l t , o f the B r i t i s h West I n d i a n Sugar A s s o c i a t i o n was g a t e s from each i s l a n d  founded.  this  Through i t , d e l e -  n e g o t i a t e s the quota p r i c e f o r sugar each  year  w i t h the U n i t e d Kingdom Government. A R e g i o n a l O i l and F a t s Agreement was agreement shows a j o i n t  effort  s i g n e d i n 1947.  This  on the p a r t o f Barbados, Jamaica,  the Windward and Leeward I s l a n d s t o p r o v i d e t h e i r  own  Trinidad  s u p p l i e s o f coco-  n u t s , c o p r a , coconut p r o d u c t s . These t e r r i t o r i e s have u n d e r t a k e n  not t o  p e r m i t e x p o r t s o f these p r o d u c t s o u t s i d e the t e r r i t o r i e s , e x c e p t  t o the  extent t h a t such e x p o r t s are s u r p l u s to l o c a l r e q u i r e m e n t s , imports o f t h e s e p r o d u c t s o r o t h e r o i l s and f a t s which may  or to allow be  i n commer-  c i a l c o m p e t i t i o n w i t h them, u n l e s s s u p p l i e s a r e not a v a i l a b l e w i t h i n the a r e a c o v e r e d b y the Agreement. The p r o c e s s e d p r o d u c t s a r e e d i b l e o i l , margarine  and l a r d , l a u n d r y soap, and t o i l e t A l s o i n 1947  Caribbean w i t h t h e i r  soap.  B r i t i s h Guiana undertook  t o supply the B r i t i s h -  f u l l need o f r i c e t o r e p l a c e the s u r p l u s f r o m  E a s t . The B r i t i s h West I n d i e s on the o t h e r hand agreed t o buy f r o m B r i t i s h Guiana  their  the rice  i n s t e a d o f f r o m sources o u t s i d e the C a r i b b e a n .  These p a r a l l e l movements were c a l c u l a t e d t o promote r e g i o n a l t r a d e and s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y . tinued after  the war.  The  T h i s e n l a r g e d West I n d i a n c o o p e r a t i o n  machinery s e t up b y t h e Mont ego Bay  f o r C l o s e r A s s o c i a t i o n between the I s l a n d s f a c i l i t a t e d and  con-  Conference  perpetuated  this cooperation. The Chairman o f the S t a n d i n g C l o s e r A s s o c i a t i o n Committee  100  which had been a p p o i n t e d by t h e Montego Bay C o n f e r e n c e , t i a t i v e i n s u g g e s t i n g the c a l l i n g  ini-  o f a c o n f e r e n c e i n o r d e r t o implement  the r e s o l u t i o n s o f t h a t C o n f e r e n c e . Barbados. I t was  took t h e  T h i s was  done i n F e b r u a r y ,  1949,  in  recommended t h a t the Trade Commissioner S e r v i c e i n  Canada and t h e proposed  s e r v i c e i n the U n i t e d Kingdom should be  brought  i n t o a s i n g l e s e r v i c e : t h a t the whole c o s t s s h o u l d be borne b y the p a r t i c i p a t i n g governments on t h e b a s i s o f the p r o p o r t i o n o f t r a d e o f each c o u n t r y w i t h Canada and t h a t pending  the U n i t e d Kingdom. I t was  a l s o suggested  (15)  t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a F e d e r a l Government a R e g i o n a l Econo-  mic Committee s h o u l d be s e t up w i t h the Chairman of the S t a n d i n g C l o s e r A s s o c i a t i o n Committee a c t i n g as t r u s t e e f o r the e x p e n d i t u r e o f f u n d s . The  a c t u a l work o f the R e g i o n a l Economic Committee has been  c l a s s i f i e d under the f o l l o w i n g headings: 1.  Inter-Regional Shipping S e r v i c e .  2.  Trade Commissioner S e r v i c e i n Canada and i n the U n i t e d Kingdom. T h i s s e t up c o n s u l t a t i v e machinery of  3.  independent  t h a t of the Crown Government.  Information S e r v i c e s . The  I n f o r m a t i o n S e r v i c e s which the R e g i o n a l Economic Committee  i n i t i a t e d were: i.  The assembling  and d i s t r i b u t i o n o f s t a t i s t i c s on West I n d i a n  e x t e r n a l and i n t e r n a l r e g i o n a l t r a d e ; ii.  I s s u i n g monthly i n f o r m a t i o n b u l l e t i n s p r e s e n t i n g r e g i o n a l developments i n the economic f i e l d ;  iii.  F u r n i s h i n g the governments, producers* o r g a n i z a t i o n s , Chambers o f Commerce w i t h weekly a i r m a i l d i g e s t s  101  on market c o n d i t i o n s .  (16)  These p o l i c i e s were p a r t i c u l a r l y v i t a l t o economic  develop-  ment i n the West I n d i e s as a whole. 4.  Trade and Commodity  Surveys.  Much o f the Committee's work concerned the promotion o f e x t e r n a l t r a d e . I t has b e e n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t r a d e d e l e g a t i o n s and c o n c e r n i n g n e a r l y a l l the primary p r o d u c t s  agreements  of the a r e a . I t has a l s o under-  t a k e n r e g i o n a l surveys on t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f t h e development o f r e g i o n a l t r a d e . The  inter-  surveys o f the p r o d u c t i o n o f c o r n and c o r n meal  and  the p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f r e g i o n a l markets f o r s a l t have been e x p l o r e d by  the  Committee. Thus p r i o r  to a c t u a l F e d e r a t i o n i t was  found  necessary  to have  a c e n t r a l body - the R e g i o n a l Economic Committee - which would h e l p c o - o r d i n a t e p o l i c i e s w i t h i n the a r e a . The  committee d i d i t s b e s t  to  to (17)  i n f l u e n c e development on a r e g i o n a l b a s i s . However the terms o f i t s r e f e r e n c e , l i k e t h a t o f the p r e s e n t F e d e r a l Government, were toonarrow t o assume any l a r g e measure o f s u c c e s s . As a r e s u l t most o f the economic development proceeded on p a r a l l e l l i n e s i n the s e v e r a l u n i t s . The t r i e s or  e n t e r p r i s e s s t a r t e d i n the a r e a were i n a l l c a s e s  indus-  competitive  r a t h e r t h a n complementary. B r i t i s h Guiana i s by f a r t h e most e f f i c i e n t producer  o f r i c e , y e t T r i n i d a d and J a m a i c a adopted a p o l i c y of b e i n g  s e l f s u f f i c i e n t i n r i c e . The h i g h e r p r i c e f o r the l o c a l r i c e grown i n both  these c o u n t r i e s as opposed  the advantage l o s t  i n not  T h i s tendency to s p l i t up  t o imports from B r i t i s h Guiana i n d i c a t e s  importing a l l r i c e supplies from that  country.  i n d u s t r i a l development, as I have d i s c u s s e d  above, i s r e f l e c t e d i n t h e s m a l l t r a d e between the i s l a n d s . Again, i n  102  the l i g h t o f t h e above arguments, I emphasise, t h a t i t i s n o t p o s s i b l e t o develop t h e West Indian economy t o i t s f u l l e s t  capacity unless r e -  o r g a n i z a t i o n t a k e s p l a c e on a r e g i o n a l b a s i s . C o m p e t i t i v e  p o l i c i e s can  o n l y r a i s e t h e c o s t s o f c r e a t i n g t h e n a t i o n a l product,typreventing t h e f l o w o f goods and s e r v i c e w i t h i n t h e r e g i o n . Complementarity i n p l a n n i n g i n d u s t r i a l i s a t i o n , not c o m p e t i t i o n , i s the o n l y s e n s i b l e p o l i c y i n s u c h s m a l l l a n d areas, so d i v i d e d b y d i s t a n c e .  103  CHAPTER 5  ANALYSIS OF THE STRUCTURE OF THE WEST INDIAN ECONOMY  I n Chapter 3 P a r t  I I o u t l i n e d t h e trends  of population  growth  J i n t h e B r i t i s h C a r i b b e a n . Appendix l ( b ) shows t h a t f o r t h e B r i t i s h C a r i b bean a r e a i n 1956  as a whole n a t u r a l i n c r e a s e moved from  74,358  in  1951  to  99,011  - that i s i n f i v e years i t experienced a percentage increase o f  40 p e r c e n t  over 1951.  thousand p o p u l a t i o n  The r a t e o f n a t u r a l i n c r e a s e i n 1956  compared with 23 i n 1951.  The growth i n t h i s r a t e  has been c o n s i s t e n t . Death r a t e s p e r thousand p o p u l a t i o n 13 p e r thousand p o p u l a t i o n thousand p o p u l a t i o n The  i n 1951  t o 10 i n 1956.  i n c r e a s e d from 36 i n 1951  was 28.4 p e r  d e c l i n e d from  Also b i r t h rates per  t o 38.0  in  1956.  components o f the n e t n a t u r a l growth a r e death r a t e s and  b i r t h r a t e s . The extent  t o which t h e y b o t h c o n t r i b u t e d a r e shown below: i n b i r t h rates  1951-1956  Net  increase  Net  d e c l i n e i n d e a t h r a t e s 1951  Net  i n c r e a s e i n n a t u r a l r a t e o f growth  - 1956  2.0 3.0 5.0  It i s observed that although the j o i n t gross reproduction  41$ 59$ 100 or f e r t i l i t y  r a t e s f o r t h e B r i t i s h C a r i b b e a n T e r r i t o r i e s have been c o n s i s t e n t l y h i g h s i n c e the m i d - n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y  y e t t h e d e c l i n e i n death r a t e s ha"?s  been the major f a c t o r r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the r a p i d i n c r e a s e over the l a s t t h r e e decades. T a b l e 1.5 s i o n o f t h i s growth.  '"A,  A::-  serves  •:'<:. o\\\-  A--.  i n population  t o re-emphasise t h e dimen'  <.•:•.  -Y'AA-.*.  TABLE 1.5 POPULATION INCREASE Census P o p u l a t i o n Units  1841  - 44  1921  1841 - 1921  AND 1921  Average Annual Increase  1841 - 1921  377,433  858,118  6,240  Trinidad  73,023  365,913  Barbados  122,198  Wind-ward Islands  -  1956  Post Censal Population Estimate  1956  Average A n n u a l Increase  1921 - 1956  1,579,600  20,600  3,810  752,000  11,000  156,774  450  230,500  2,100  99,641  199,313  1,290  321,600  3,500  Leeward I s l a n d s  83,489  85,183  20  131,600  1,300  B r i t i s h Guiana  98,133  288,541  2,470  486,900  5,700  British Honduras  10,000  45,317  460  82,300  1,100  863,917 1,999,159  14,740  3,584,500  45,300  Jamaica  B r i t i s h Caribbean area Source:  R o b e r t s , G.W. Note on P o p u l a t i o n and Growth. S o c i a l and Economic S t u d i e s V o l , 7. J V : •^. w.C.W.I. Jamaica.. Sep*. 19JR. p._ 25.  105  I n p a r t 1 o f C h a p t e r 3 the p o i n t i s a l s o made t h a t the major e f f e c t o f t h i s r a p i d growth o f p o p u l a t i o n  has r e s u l t e d i n an enormous  increase  i n the p o t e n t i a l working f o r c e ; i . e . p o p u l a t i o n  age.  f a c t t h a t r a p i d d e c l i n e i n the  The  greatest  o v e r 15 y e a r s  i n f a n t m o r t a l i t y has  exerted  i n f l u e n c e on the downward t r e n d i n d e a t h r a t e s means t h a t  number o f dependents, i . e . p o p u l a t i o n sents a g r e a t e r p r o p o r t i o n The  increase  i n the age groups 0 - 1 5 ,  o f the t o t a l  i n the working f o r c e has  per cent  f u l l y o c c u p i e d . The  was  un-  c e n s u s f o r Jamaica  aged 15  o n l y 64.4  and  o v e r was  gain-  p e r c e n t . I have d i s -  c u s s e d the nature o f t h i s problem i n some d e t a i l i n C h a p t e r s 3 and Chapter 3, P a r t  I I , d e a l s w i t h the p o s s i b i l i t y o f s o l v i n g t h e  problem of o v e r p o p u l a t i o n s i o n r e a c h e d was  by  that emigration  t i o n o f unemployment. I t was supply  emigration  of l a b o u r over the  i s not  the  repre-  created serious  In 1921  o f the p o p u l a t i o n  f i g u r e f o r 1943  the  population.  employment i n the B r i t i s h C a r i b b e a n a r e a . shows t h a t 85.1  of  and b i r t h c o n t r o l . The  economic conclu-  the f i n a l s o l u t i o n t o the  i m p l i e d i n C h a p t e r 4 t h a t the  demand f o r l a b o u r  i s not  4.  ques-  excess o f  the  the s o l e cause o f  the  under employment and unemployment e x p e r i e n c e d . P u t t i n g i t i n more p r e c i s e terms; a l t h o u g h the supply  o f l a b o u r may  o f development of the p r o d u c t i v e g e n e r a l l y the l e v e l o f t h i s  be  i n excess of the n a t u r a l r a t e  c a p a c i t y o f the  area the f a c t i s t h a t  development i s f a r beneath any  margin o f e f f i c i e n c y t h a t i s p o s s i b l e i n the Chapter 4 d e a l t w i t h the  reasonable  region.  i n s t i t u t i o n a l framework i n which a  r e a l l o c a t i o n of f a c t o r s of production  c o u l d come about t o the  advantage o f the t e r r i t o r i e s . In g e n e r a l , t h e  present  greatest  c h a p t e r examines  the p r o g r e s s which has been made i n t h e B r i t i s h West I n d i e s s i n c e  1938.  106  In p a r t i c u l a r  i t i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h an a n a l y s i s o f the e f f i c i e n c y o f a g r i -  c u l t u r e i n the West I n d i e s and  the need f o r  Industrialisation.  107  PART 1  I t i s true that except i n a s o c i e t y of gatherers •'•.1 on, increase ;  i n numbers must be accompanied by an increase i n t o o l s , machinery, b u i l d ings and other type o f c a p i t a l even i f only the very b a s i c needs of the population are to be s a t i s f i e d . Simon Kuznet,(-1-) JC-. C l a r k , v^) ^. ^. Lewis and other a u t h o r i t i e s on the theory of economic growth are (3) agreed on the point that i n a l l i n d u s t r i a l i z e d or advanced countries^ economic growth, as expressed by gross domestic product,  \o been p o s i -  t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d with i n c r e a s i n g c a p i t a l formation. The hope i s expresy  sed that by reorganizing underdeveloped economies w i t h i n the general framework of the pattern traced out by developed countries higher  TJb  stand-  ards of l i v i n g can be achieved. These t h e o r i s t s of the economies of growth make the r e s e r v a t i o n that each underdeveloped country w i l l have to make t h e experiment w i t h i n the l i m i t s imposed by t h e i r t r a d i t i o n s , p h y s i c a l environment and t h e i r a s p i r a t i o n s . I t i s not my i n t e n t i o n to develop a theory of economic development i n underdeveloped countries f o r t h i s i s c l e a r l y outside the scope of t h i s t h e s i s . I w i l l however make use of those t o o l s that are a v a i l a b l e to analyse the B r i t i s h West Indian situation.  THE LEVEL- OP EFFICIENCY OF FACTORS OF PR0DUCTION IN THE BRITISH WEST INDIES 1938-50 Two e a r l y studies deal with the l e v e l s of production i n the  B r i t i s h West I n d i e s . They are the "Moyne Report" 1938 and the "Report on A g r i c u l t u r e , F i s h e r i e s , F o r e s t r y and Veterinary Matters" of the same year.  108  The Moyne Report g i v e s an a c c u r a t e d e s c r i p t i o n o f the type o f economy e x i s t i n g  i n the B r i t i s h West I n d i e s at 1938.  I t does not c o n t a i n  any p r e c i s e a n a l y s i s o f the e f f i c i e n c y o f l a n d and labour'; but the g e n e r a l account o f the l e v e l o f o r g a n i z a t i o n of these f a c t o r s c a p t u r e s the essent i a l f e a t u r e s o f the system. P r o f e s s o r F.L. Engledow's  'Report on A g r i -  c u l t u r e , F i s h e r i e s , F o r e s t r y and V e t e r i n a r y M a t t e r s " g i v e s a c l e a r i n s i g h t i n t o the a g r i c u l t u r a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s o f the a r e a . I have t r e a t e d some o f t h e s e i n the b r o a d geographic here i s not new  o u t l i n e i n Chapter  1. What i s r e v e a l e d  but i t i s necessary f o r a f u r t h e r understanding of the  problems d i s c u s s e d l a t e r . The f o l l o w i n g paragraphs Adequate r a i n f a l l  p r e s e n t t h e s e facts,;'. ' -  i s a v i t a l f a c t o r i n primary  agricultural  p r o d u c t i o n ; and what i s d e f i n e d as adequate depends on the l o c a t i o n o f the i n d u s t r y and the type o f crops grown. I n t h e West I n d i e s the  chief  export c r o p s , sugar, bananas, cocoa, and most of the l o c a l l y grown f o o d s , m a i n l y r o o t c r o p s , need abundant s u p p l i e s o f water a t t h e growing p e r i o d and l o n g hours o f sunshine o f the c r o p s e a s o n . R a i n d u r i n g t h e c r o p season f o r sugar cane reduces the output  o f sugar and may  i n many cases  a f f e c t the next y e a r ' s c r o p . An e a r l y d r y season o f l o n g d u r a t i o n has t h e same e f f e c t . R a i n f a l l i s almost everywhere so abundant as t o c o n s t i t u t e w i t h e q u a b i l i t y of temperature,  c o n d i t i o n s very favourable to plant  growth. However the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f p r e c i p i t a t i o n o v e r the y e a r and between r e g i o n s c r e a t e s s e r i o u s economic problems i n the T e r r i t o r i e s . • Jamaica w i t h a mean a n n u a l r a i n f a l l o f about extremes i n 1953  77 i n c h e s showed r e g i o n a l  o f 31 i n c h e s f o r K i n g s t o n , and 155  i n c h e s f o r the P o r t -  l a n d p a r i s h . An e x c e l l e n t example o f the p o s s i b l e range o f v a r i a t i o n s  over  a number o f y e a r s i n some p a r i s h e s i s f u r n i s h e d by S t . James and Westmore-  109  land-sR«>>*s4.o.:'.('i.-vr-ic, ,  f o r the r e s p e c t i v e y e a r s , vsufc 77,  G e n e r a l l y speaking  little  153,  and  73.  o r no r a i n f a l l s a t a l l i n the  f o u r o r f i v e months i n the y e a r i n the West I n d i e s . May  first  to September are  u s u a l l y the w e t t e s t months. In Jamaica and B r i t i s h Guiana t h e r e are marked d r y seasons. season. The  In o t h e r i s l a n d s t h e r e i s u s u a l l y one d i s t i n c t  dry  i n t e n s i t y and d u r a t i o n o f t h e dry seasonsvary f r o m i s l a n d  i s l a n d . P e r i o d s of drought  to  are u s u a l .  A r e g u l a r and marked d r y season, agricultural  two  w i t h p e r i o d i c droughts  limits  development and r e q u i r e s s p e c i a l husbandry systems, es-  p e c i a l l y on l i g h t s o i l s . In Barbados, p r a c t i c a l l y n o t h i n g grows i n the l o n g d r y season. Sugar cane p l a n t e d towards the end o f the season  before  the s o i l becomes too d r y t o be worked, m e r e l y remains a l i v e u n t i l r a i n  (5) f a l l s a g a i n . Animal husbandry i n a l l c o l o n i e s i s h i n d e r e d by the l a c k o f g r a z i n g or f o d d e r i n the Pangola  dry months. In Jamaica, the d i s c o v e r y o f the  g r a s s which grows w e l l i n drought  areas as w e l l as i n those o f  abundant r a i n f a l l i s a boon t o animal husbandry. T h i s g r a s s grows v e r y f a s t and p e r m i t s one a c r e t o be grazed about s i x times under r a i n f a l l c o n d i t i o n s of 30 i n c h e s . W i t h a r a i n f a l l o f about 100  i n c h e s 10 -  11  (6) g r a z i n g s a r e p o s s i b l e . Marked f l u c t u a t i o n s i n the l e n g t h and of the d r y and wet  intensity  '  seasons are of p a r t i c u l a r concern t o many West I n d i a n  a r e a s . Jamaica, B r i t i s h Guiana and Barbados, and the Leeward I s l a n d s a r e examples. Sugar makes up about 90 p e r c e n t of the t o t a l v a l u e o f Barbados e x p o r t s and  about 44 p e r c e n t o f B r i t i s h Guiana's. I t c o n t r i b u t e s a  significant  share o f the g r o s s domestic  product  i n both countries, being  46 p e r cent i n Barbados i n 1953 and 12 p e r cent i n B r i t i s h Guiana. I t -can be seen t h a t a r e d u c t i o n i n the s u p p l y o f sugar would have s e r i o u s  110  e f f e c t s on the income o f the c o u n t r i e s concerned. The s i t u a t i o n i s even more s t r i k i n g i n S t . K i t t s - N e v i s and A n t i g u a . I n the f o r m e r , sugar ( i n c l u d i n g m i l l i n g ) a c c o u n t e d f o r 48 p e r cent o f the g r o s s domestic p r o d u c t i n 1953  and i n A n t i g u a 28 p e r c e n t . I t i s no wonder t h e n t h a t weather  c o n d i t i o n s p l a y such an important p a r t i n the p r o s p e r i t y o f these i s l a n d s . Drought  causes low sugar y i e l d s . Annual d a t a o f output i n the  West I n d i e s show t h i s c l e a r l y . As a r e s u l t o f t h i s h a z a r d p r o v i s i o n s were made i n the Sugar Agreements o f 1937  W-(o<ys.fcsli{«*f<?s c a r r y - o v e r o f s u r p l u s ;  sugar i n y e a r s o f e x c e p t i o n a l l y h i g h y i e l d . Moreover the terms o f c o n - ^ ^ t r a c t of the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Sugar Agreements o f 1951  r e g a r d the West I n d i e s  as one u n i t f o r the purpose o f the a l l o c a t i o n o f sugar quotas. I t was left  t o the U n i t e d Kingdom t o r e a l l o c a t e t h i s b l o c k "quota" among the  u n i t s . The advantage drought i n one  o f t h i s was  (8)  t h a t shortages of supply on account of  a r e a c o u l d be made up by s u r p l u s e s i n another u n i t . I t was  a p r e c a u t i o n t a k e n b y the consumer c o u n t r i e s t o make sure t h a t t h e y got a r e g u l a r s u p p l y o f sugar from the a r e a . Thus i t i s important t o note t h a t drought i n t h e West I n d i e s has v e r y e x t e n s i v e economic It  significance.  should a l s o be noted t h a t r a i n f a l l at c r o p season may have s i m i l a r ad-  v e r s e e f f e c t on the cane  economies.  The problem o f i n s u f f i c i e n t  r a i n f a l l i n $t  overcome b y i r r i g a t i o n . In f a c t i t i s p a r t l y because  e « r t ^ . « * \ <VT<«LS  can be  o f the l a r g e expen-  d i t u r e s on i r r i g a t i o n i n the drought a r e a s of K i n g s t o n - S t . Andrew, S t . C a t h e r i n e and C l a r e n d o n i n M i d d l e s e x , J a m a i c a j t h a t h e r sugar i n d u s t r y has d e v e l o p e d so r a p i d l y . B r i t i s h Guiana i n a d d i t i o n t o the need f o r i r r i g a t i o n water t o s p r e a d out the s u p p l y o f water over the y e a r a l s o p r e s e n t s a problem o f d r a i n a g e . B r i t i s h Guiana has ample s u p p l y o f water  Ill  f o r i r r i g a t i o n f r o m the t h r e e l a r g e r i v e r s , the E s s e q u i b o , the Demerara and  C o r r a n t y n e . Her  dependence on i r r i g a t i o n and f l o o d c o n t r o l i s v i t a l  t o h e r export economy. In Barbados i t i s r e c o g n i s e d to increase by  a g r i c u l t u r a l production  i r r i g a t i o n . The  t h a t the o n l y  way  i n the d r i e r p a r t s o f the i s l a n d i s  porous l i m e s t o n e s o i l and  the consequent absence of  r i v e r s makes i r r i g a t i o n by streams or r i v e r i m p o s s i b l e .  The  use  of  •  pump-wells f o r i r r i g a t i o n purposes has been r e c e n t l y e x p l o i t e d i n B a r b a dos. and  Other areas which are now T r i n i d a d . The  present  making use  o f these systems are J a m a i c a  s m a l l e r i s l a n d s ^Montserrat )t $\ vS^r'^.v.'s". -o^Js,  combined problems o f l a c k of s u f f i c i e n t r a i n f a l l and poor O t h e r e n v i r o n m e n t a l f a c t o r s which a f f e c t a g r i c u l t u r e  i n the r e g i o n are h u r r i c a n e s ,  p l a n t and a n i m a l d i s e a s e s  t u r e . I have d e a l t w i t h h u r r i c a n e s quately.  I t i s enough to add  most s u s c e p t i b l e  and p l a n t  to p l a n t d i s e a s e  s e r i o u s s e t backs f r o m h u r r i c a n e s are the major . caw,  disease  s i n c e 1938  disease  and  adversely  soil  struc-  i n C h a p t e r 1 ade-  the h a z a r d o f h u r r i c a n e s .  twice i n the l a s t t e n y e a r s .  <?  export market must be  In  the banana i n d u s t r y have s u f f e r e d Hurricanes  the d e c l i n e o f the banana i n d u s t r y  i n J a m a i c a . In T r i n i d a d f a i l u r e o f the  remain i n the  and  soils.  t h a t the coconut i n d u s t r y and bananas are  Jamaica b o t h the coconut i n d u s t r y and  and  Antigua,  coconut i n d u s t r y  to  a t t r i b u t e d to a fungus w h i c h spreads  upwards f r o m the r o o t s o f coconut t r e e s . On  the matter of s o i l s , P r o f e s s o r Engledow s a i d i n h i s  r e p o r t o f 1938  " t o speak i n any but  guarded g e n e r a l  or c o n d i t i o n e r m a n u r i a l r e q u i r e m e n t s i s i m p o s s i b l e " . t r u e to a l a r g e e x t e n t ,  terms of s o i l Today t h i s i s  f o r , except i n sugar, bananas, l i m e s , and  - c u l t i v a t i o n , knowledge o f s o i l s i s not  (l^ )  enough to be o f g r e a t  1  types still cocoa  practical  112  importance. A l l r e p o r t s o r s u r v e y s s o i l surveys  I have r e a d s t r e s s the d i r e need f o r  i n t h e West I n d i e s . I t i s o n l y r e c e n t l y t h a t the Govern-  ments o f T r i n i d a d and Tobago, Jamaica, and Barbados have t u r n e d  their  a t t e n t i o n to s o i l c o n s e r v a t i o n and peasant a g r i c u l t u r e . S o i l surveys  are  not c a r r i e d out b y the I m p e r i a l C o l l e g e o f T r o p i c a l A g r i c u l t u r e i n T r i n i d a d . The at  p i o n e e r r e s e a r c h done b y Dr. A. J o l l y , Economic l e c t u r e r  the I m p e r i a l C o l l e g e o f T r o p i c a l A g r i c u l t u r e , on peasant f a r m manage-  ment i s o f s i g n i f i c a n c e to the Vfest I n d i e s as a whole. But. the  detailed  a p p l i c a t i o n o f h i s recommendations on s o i l c o n s e r v a t i o n depends on knowledge o f the s o i l c o n d i t i o n s i f the n e c e s s a r y fertilizers  and manures are t o be  denudation  a r e major detersreivt?.  a g r i c u l t u r a l development i n the West I n d i e s as a whole. S o i l e r o s i o n  b y l e e c h i n g i s a c h e m i c a l p r o c e s s which r e s u l t s , i n most t r o p i c a l f r o m the c o n s t a n t d e s o l v i n g o f s o i l n u t r i e n t s b y water and of  chemical  applied.  S o i l e r o s i o n by l e e c h i n g and to  ingredients of  proper  s o i l s b y the c o n s t a n t  the  areas,  parching  exposure t o t h e sun. Denudation i s a simple  re-  moval o f t h e top s o i l e i t h e r b y e x c e s s i v e s e a s o n a l r u n o f f o r wind. B o t h processes  operate  i n t h e West I n d i e s . S t . L u c i a i s a good example where  c u l t i v a t i o n i n some a r e a s are i m p o s s i b l e because the s t e e p g r a d i e n t makes e r o s i o n an imminent danger. L a c k o f knowledge of p r o p e r  soil  conservation  i s a t the r o o t of most c a s e s o f extreme s o i l e r o s i o n . The S i l v e r district  i n the n o r t h of M o n t s e r r a t  i s a s t r i k i n g example i n the B r i t i s h  West I n d i e s o f the r e s u l t o f such i g n o r a n c e  and c a r e l e s s n e s s . S i r F r a n k  S t o c k d a l e , C o m p t r o l l e r f o r Development and Welfare 1940  - 45,  Hill  i n t h e West I n d i e s ,  i n h i s r e p o r t d e s c r i b e s the r e g i o n as b e i n g b a d l y eroded.  113  He goes on to s a y t h a t ; The l a n d i n t h i s a r e a o f the i s l a n d has been r e d u c e d w i t h i n l i v i n g memory to a gaunt t r e e l e s s a r e a where p e a s a n t s , h a v i n g nowhere e l s e t o go, are s t i l l endeavouring t o e x t r a c t a l i v i n g . T h i s d i s t r i c t o f the i s l a n d stands out as a warning t o a l l and the n e c e s s i t y o f e a r l y a t t e n t i o n t o the p r e v e n t i o n o f f u r t h e r e r o s i o n .  , *  . '  In N e v i s . p r o g r e s s i v e s o i l e x h a u s t i o n and t h e f a l l i n p r o d u c t i v i t y made the c o s t o f p l a n t a t i o n a g r i c u l t u r e uneconomical. The r e s u l t was  that  es-  t a t e s were r e n t e d or s h a r e - c r o p p e d by t e n n a n t s o r p a r t s o f them were s o l d  (12) to  s m a l l h o l d e r s . The f o l l o w i n g paragraphs  show t h a t the system o f  f a r m i n g c a r r i e d out under t h e s e t y p e s o f l a n d tenure was  '  v  the cause o f  i r r e p a i r a b l e s o i l e r o s i o n i n many a r e a s throughout the B r i t i s h C a r i b b e a n . In  s h o r t , t h e system of. f a r m i n g i n g e n e r a l c o n s t i t u t e d a c o n s i s t e n t waste  of  the s c a r c e r e s o u r c e l a n d . The q u e s t i o n i s what was  I have a l r e a d y mentioned ing  (13) the s t r u c t u r e o f a g r i c u l t u r e a t  i n Chapter 2 t h a t a peasant a g r i c u l t u r e  1938.  produc-  c a s h - c r o p f o r e x p o r t s had grown up next t o the p l a n t a t i o n economy b u t  I d i d n o t d e f i n e the s t r u c t u r e o f the West I n d i a n a g r i c u l t u r a l economy. T h i s i s p r e d o m i n a n t l y a c a s h c r o p economy. The p r o d u c t i o n and export o f sugar h e l d a prominent  p o s i t i o n i n most u n i t s . T a b l e 2.5  shows the  impor-  tance o f sugar i n the B r i t i s h West I n d i a n e x p o r t t r a d e . The d e c l i n i n g  importance  (see T a b l e 2.5  ) o f sugar and i t s b y -  p r o d u c t s d e s p i t e the a b s o l u t e i n c r e a s e i n volume and v a l u e p o i n t s t o the f a c t t h a t o t h e r p r o d u c t s have been i n c r e a s i n g i n importance 1935  t o 1945.  over the y e a r s  However, the e s s e n t i a l t h i n g here i s t h a t except  in-the  case o f T r i n i d a d , S t . V i n c e n t and Dominica sugar and i t s b y - p r o d u c t s -accounted f o r the g r e a t e r p a r t o f the v a l u e o f domestic e x p o r t . I t v a r i e s  I  j I  I  ( I  TABLE  2.5  SUGAR AND BY PRODUCTS AS PER CENT OP TOTAL DOMESTIC EXPORTS  Barbados British  Guiana  1939  1940  194L  1942  1943  1944  1945  98.5 98.37 98.75  97.85  97.66  95.1  96.5  96.4  96.6  1935  1936 1937  97.7  98.0  1938  72.0 67.7 64.3  63.9  61.0  54.0  48.4  42.4  36.5  55.2  57.7  Jamaica  19.1  22.2  23.4  22.4  26.7  38.8  48.8  51.7  56.6  56.7  57.2  Antigua  76.1  92.6  98.2  93.3  72.1  77.7  73.6  82.2  96.7  91.2  92.0  89.8  81.1  71.4 79.0  89.2  76.8  81.8  70.2  88.5  76.2  74.7  Trinidad  20.5 23.8  23.3 15.2  15.0  10.0  17.6  13.0  10.3  9.6  10.0  St.  Lucia  49.8  51.6  47.9  53.4  60.1  60.2  65.1  62.0  53.9  44.4  42.4  St.Vincent  10.0  8.2  1.6  1.0  Dominica *  3.1  -0.-3  1.03  0.75  St.Kitts-Nevis  * Rum e x p o r t s Source:  9.2  8.1  .75 1.1  6.07  5.3 .  3.6  0.1  1.6  0.88  0.57  0.80  only.  Caribbean Commission, Sugar Trade i n t h e C a r i b b e a n .  1.25  115  from 42.4  p e r cent f o r S t . L u c i a 1945  t o 96.6  per cent f o r Barbados,  1945.  From the above and what I have o u t l i n e d i n t h e e a r l y economic h i s t o r y o f the B r i t i s h C a r i b b e a n i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t the  sugar  cane as a s i n g l e c r o p o c c u p i e s the g r e a t e s t acreage of c u l t i v a b l e l a n d i n the B r i t i s h West I n d i e s ( t h i s i s i n most p a r t t r u e o f the C a r i b b e a n  Ter-  r i t o r i e s ) . Moreover i t u t i l i s e s the b e s t l a n d s a v a i l a b l e f o r a g r i c u l t u r e . In those a r e a s where sugar cane i s not the major c a s h c r o p , bananas, arrowroot, cocoa, c i t r u s , r i c e and o t h e r c a s h c r o p s f o r e x p o r t take o r i t y i n the a l l o c a t i o n o f a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d s . ( 1 • •  The  domestic consumption was f o r cash c r o p  o f t h i s was  .'o;- "... ~-. ;  that food production f o r  r e l e g a t e d t o the p o o r l a n d s which a r e u n s u i t a b l e  cultivation.  T h i s s i t u a t i o n may first  result  pri-  be e x p l a i n e d b y the f a c t t h a t sugar was  cash crop s u c c e s s f u l l y grown on a commercial  b a s i s . I t has  the  failed  on s e v e r a l o c c a s i o n s because o f low p r i c e s and c o m p e t i t i o n from o t h e r a r e a s , b u t i t remained  the most economical  agricultural enterprise. It i s  l e s s . p r o n e to d i s e a s e and most a d a p t a b l e t o the c l i m a t i c c o n d i t i o n s o f the West I n d i e s . The  s t e a d y i n c r e a s e i n p r i c e s have made i t more a t t r a c -  t i v e t o f a r m e r s when the sugar i n d u s t r y i n the West I n d i e s was  threatened  b y c o m p e t i t i o n o u t s i d e the r e g i o n t h a t o t h e r cash crops were t r i e d ,  so  t h a t sugar and the c a s h c r o p s , bananas, l i m e s , cocoa, coconuts, came t o occupy the b e s t l a n d s . The i n t e n s e c o m p e t i t i o n o f cash c r o p s f o r more f e r t i l e  and  b e t t e r l o c a t e d c u l t i v a b l e l a n d s i s a l s o , i n p a r t , a r e s u l t o f the h i g h p r o p e n s i t y to consume f o r e i g n grown foods such as f l o u r , b a r l e y , o a t s , and o t h e r c e r e a l s , p o t a t o e s , s a l t e d and canned f i s h , f r e s h and  prepared  116  meats. I t i s t h e r e f o r e n e c e s s a r y t o produce crops w h i c h have a demand i n t h e s e markets i n o r d e r t o g a i n t h e income to pay f o r t h e s e  imports.  T h i s p r e f e r e n c e was a major r e a s o n p r i o r t o the Second World War t h a t the p r o d u c t i o n of domestic  f o o d c r o p s were w i d e l y n e g l e c t e d b y t h e  far-  mers. Recourse was made t o f o o d crop p r o d u c t i o n o n l y d u r i n g times o f extreme h a r d s h i p as were e x p e r i e n c e d during, the d e p r e s s i o n o f the West I n d i a n sugar market i n t h e 1890's and t h e 1920's. I n the p e r i o d 1939 - 45 t h e i s l a n d s were c u t o f f from t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l source o f s u p p l i e s , England,  Canada and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s o f  America. As a r e s u l t , the p r o m o t i o n o f l o c a l f o o d p r o d u c t i o n r e c e i v e d ample a t t e n t i o n and encouragement from o f f i c i a l to  say whether t h e severe s h o r t a g e  mendations o f t h e Mayne Report initiative  sources. I t i s d i f f i c u l t  o f b a s i c f o o d s u p p l i e s o r t h e recom-  c o n t r i b u t e d more to l o c a l governments'  i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n . However i t seems most c e r t a i n t h a t t h e  f o r m e r added p o i g n a n c y t o t h e Commissioner's e x h o r t a t i o n s f o r a g r i c u l - ^ ^ " 1  tural  reform. A g e n e r a l s u r v e y o f p r o d u c t i o n , t h e s i z e o f t h e working u n i t ,  and the l i v e s t o c k and crops used i s a p p r o p r i a t e here. The L e v e l o f P r o d u c t i o n a t 1938. The Mayne Report a balanced  states emphatically that the f a i l u r e t o evolve  system o f a g r i c u l t u r e i n t h e West I n d i a n C o l o n i e s r e s u l t e d i n  a g e n e r a l l y poor s t a n d a r d o f p r o d u c t i o n ; t h a t b o t h c r o p s and s t o c k s were produced without r e g a r d t o s c i e n t i f i c methods. I n consequence t h e f e r tility  o f the l a n d was, w i t h a few e x c e p t i o n s , most o f which were  on sugar e s t a t e s , a t a low l e v e l . A g r i c u l t u r e i n t h e West I n d i e s f a l l s  found (15)  i n t o two d i s t i n c t  118  TABLE 3.5 YIELDS OP SUGAR IN TONS PER ACRE IN CERTAIN PRODUCING COUNTRIES Average  1937-38 1950 to  to  1939-40 1951  1951  195?  1953  to  to  to  to  1954  1955  1952  1953  1954  1955 to  1956  1956 to  1957  Cane Sugar: Barbados (a)  3.0  4.4  3.8  3.5  3.9  3.7  3.2  4.4  British  2.9  3.1  3.3  3.3  3.0  2.9  3.4  3.8  Jamaica  2.1  2.4  2.2  2.4  2.4  2.7  2.6  2.6  Trinidad  1.7  2.4  2.6  2.4  2.3  2.8  2.0  2.1  Mauritius  2.2  2.7  2.7  2.9  2.8  3.0  3.2  Australia  3.2  3.4  2.9 2.6  3.4  3.7  3.6  3.1  3.3  Fiji  2.6  1.9  2.5  2.5  2.9  2.1  2.4  2.1  Union o f South A f r i c a  2.7  2.8  2.3  2.7  2.9  3.2  3.4  3.0  Cuba  1.6  1.8  2.1  2.4  2.1  2.2  2.1  1.9  iDominican (Republic  1.9  2.1  1.6  1.8  1.6  _  [Peru ( b )  5.1  5.6  2.3 6.2  6.8  7.1  7.1  7.6  7.7  [Hawaii  6.3  8.2  8.4  9.1  8.9  9.4  9.3  9.1  (Puerto R i c o  3.5  3.0  3.1  2.7  2.9  2.9  2.9  United States  1.7  1.6  1.3  1.7  1.7  1.9  1.9  2.4 2.2  Indonesia  6.5  3.8  5.8  6.8  6.4  2.9  2.2  3.9 3.6  5.6  Formosa  3.9 1.8  3.0  4.7  3.9  4.3  U n i t e d Kingdom  1.3  1.9  1.6  1.6  2.0  1.5  1.7  1.8  Canada  1.5  2.7  1.5 2.6  1.3 2.1  1.6  2.4  1.3 2.1  1.6  Netherlands  1.5 2.1  2.5  1.5 2.0  Belgium  1.8  2.8  1.6  2.0  2.8  2.4  2.7  2.1  Sweden  2.4  2.3  2.2  1.8  2.7  2.0  1.8  2  France  1.2  1.2  1.0  1.6  1.7  1.7  1.5  Denmark  2.4  1-5 2.0  2.0  1.4  2.4  1.6  2.0  2.3  United States  2.0  2.0  2.0  2.0  2.2  2.1  2.1  2.2  Beet  Guiana  Sugar:  (a) I n c l u d i n g raw sugar e q u i v a l e n t o f f a n c y m o l a s s e s . (b) I n c l u d i n g low-grade sugar c o n v e r t e d a t 10.8. Source: (G.E.6. P l a n t a t i o n C r o p s . Lomd'am 195®.. P«21.  -3  117  categories,  ( l ) Estate a g r i c u l t u r e and  (2)  peasant  agriculture.  E s t a t e a g r i c u l t u r e s p e c i a l i s e s i n t h e p l a n t a t i o n c r o p -which i s f o r exp o r t . These c r o p s a r e sugar, bananas, cocoa, c i t r u s , etc.  Sugar, bananas, cocoa, c i t r u s and some o t h e r s are c a l l e d  c r o p s because For  arrowroot,  coffee,  continuous  t h e y do not b e l o n g t o a r o t a t i o n system o f a g r i c u l t u r e .  i n s t a n c e , a f r e s h crop i s  c-f•dooming  from the same r a t o o n s ( i n the  case o f bananas and sugar cane) o v e r a p e r i o d o f t h r e e or f o u r y e a r s . S i m i l a r l y the cacao t r e e has a l i f e makes i t s c u l t i v a t i o n a continuous  expectancy  of 20 t o 30 y e a r s , which  type.  The o r g a n i z a t i o n of p r o d u c t i o n on l a r g e e s t a t e s such as Frome i n Jamaica and S t . Ifedeleine i n T r i n i d a d can be d e s c r i b e d as t h e h o r i z o n t a l type and h i g h l y o r g a n i z e d . They grow sugar cane, t h e y sugar, rum of  manufacture  and molasses, and t h e y market t h e i r p r o d u c t s . T h i s i s t y p i c a l  the sugar i n d u s t r y i n t h e West I n d i e s . However i n more r e c e n t times  t h e r e have been a tendency towards h o r i z o n t a l d i s i n t e g r a t i o n . I n Barbados the p r o d u c t i o n o f molasses, however, i s more a - f u n c t i o n o f the s m a l l manufacturer  t h a n the more c e n t r a l i s e d c o n c e r n . S i m i l a r l y i n Jamaica the  p r o d u c t i o n o f rum f a l l s t o the l o t of the s m a l l manufactur-trs who b e s t s u i t e d t o produce p r o d u c t i o n i n 1925  t h i s commodity. In f a c t  the i n c r e a s e i n sugar cane  l e d t o an accompanying i n c r e a s e i n the output o f rum  from t h e s e s m a l l s c a l e o p e r a t o r s w i t h a consequent l e v e l o f p r o f i t s which t h e y enjoyed up t o 1930. gave s t a t u t o r y e x i s t e n c e t o a "rum of for  are  d e c l i n e i n the h i g h  p o o l " which came under the  the Sugar M a n u f a c t u r e r s A s s o c i a t i o n . T h i s body was the c o n t r o l o f rum p r o d u c t i o n . No one was  1934-  Legislation i n  control  made r e s p o n s i b l e  to d i s t i l l  rum u n l e s s they  had the p e r m i s s i o n of t h i s body. Revenues f r o m s a l e s were t o be  distri-  119  b u t e d a c c o r d i n g t o the amount o f sugar cane grown. T h i s was t o i n c r e a s e sugar p r o d u c t i o n and i n c r e a s e the p r i c e o f rum  calculated and hence  p r o f i t s b y r e d u c i n g t h e s u p p l y . I t tended t o p r e v e n t u n h e a l t h y competit i o n i n the i n d u s t r y . However, i n f a c t , t o d i s t i l more rum  the s m a l l e r f a c t o r i e s c o n t i n u e d  i n p r o p o r t i o n t o t h e i r sugar output t h a n the  Another s t r i k i n g example o f the movement toward  larger^"^  specialisa-  t i o n i s seen i n the p r a c t i c e of b u y i n g cane f r o m the s m a l l cane f a r m e r s t o make up the t o t a l requirement o f sugar, r a t h e r t h a n i n c r e a s i n g acreage i n e s t a t e  the  cultivation.  These changes have come about s i z e of sugar output  ('.  -.c*  as a r e s u l t o f t h e growth i n the  cY-.rt V..' and  the growing  significance of  economies o f s c a l e i n d e t e r m i n i n g the l e v e l of p r o d u c t i o n o f sugar  and  i t s b y - p r o d u c t s . Cumper's q u a n t i t a t i v e a n a l y s i s o f the i n d u s t r y i n Jamaica i s v e r y i n f o r m a t i v e and may be t a k e n as an e x p l a n a t i o n o f d e v e l opments elsewhere i n the B r i t i s h West I n d i e s . He found t h a t i n 1927,  about  the mid p o i n t  o f the growth o f the  modern Jamaican sugar i n d u s t r y , t h a t l a r g e e s t a t e s w i t h f a c t o r y o u t p u t s o f over 4,000 tons o f sugar had an e f f i c i e n c y between 60 and 90 per c e n t b e t t e r than s m a l l e r e s t a t e s p r o d u c i n g l e s s than 1,500 'economic'  i n d e x o f the n e t c o s t p e r t o n of sugar produced,  4-0i$>erilc eritj greatest. :  t o n s ^ bjfrt t h a t I W H S  the  only'^nce  He p o i n t e d out t h a t t h e r e were many reasons f o r  t h i s d i s c r e p a n c y , ( l ) t h e l o c a t i o n of the s m a l l e r f a c t o r i e s i n r e l a t i v e l y i s o l a t e d areas where c o s t s o f l a n d and l a b o u r were low and (2) fact  t h a t s m a l l e r f a c t o r i e s have t e n d e d t o f o l l o w a regime  which p e r m i t t e d the use o f lower q u a l i t y l a n d , so t h a t an m e r e l y on a r e a o f l a n d u s e d was  d e c e p t i v e . Moreover,  the  of c u l t i v a t i o n i n d e x based  the economies of  120  s c a l e g a i n e d i n t h e use o f been the r e s u l t into  of greater capital  t h e economic  discrepancy,  economies w h i c h accrue t o and i n s m a l l e r  however,  is  flexibility  cost of  the  scale accrue l a r g e l y at  sugar.  sugar,  Por t h e  small  possible  their products.  its  rum p e r u n i t  the  es-  factory  >  in this  i s homogeneous a n d t h e r e f o r e  therefore  this  5  direction.  t o make  More-  t h e demand f o r  T h e r e a r e , o n t h e o t h e r h a n d many  o f rum where t h e y c o u l d c o n t r o l p r i c e  for  those  factory however greater  b r a n d s o f rum w h i c h are s o l d u n d e r m o n o p o l i s t i c r i v a l r y . factories found i t  in  ex-  However i n t h e m a n u f a c t u r e o f rum  large factory.  one p r o d u c e r i s h i g h l y e l a s t i c .  The  profits  any-  different  smaller i n t h e manu-  i n a monopolistic  market  I n 1927j t h e s m a l l e r f a c t o r y made a s h i g h a p r o f i t  p r o d u c e d as d i d t h e l a r g e r .  p r o d u c t i o n t o some e x t e n t , sugar,  entered  o f r u m and s u g a r i n l a r g e  i n o p e r a t i o n g i v e them an advantage  over the p r o d u c t ,  facture  which  estates.  i n the production of  less true for  the  is the difference  the manufacture  T e c h n i c a l economies o f level  investment,  i n d e x a n d n o t t h e t e c h n i c a l . The m o s t s i g n i f i c a n t  planation of t h i s  tates  l a b o u r and l a n d o f t h e l a r g e e s t a t e may h a v e  at least,  By c o n c e n t r a t i n g on rum  a t t h e expense o f t h e r e c o v e r y  t h e s m a l l e r f a c t o r y was a b l e t o o f f s e t  on  its  relative  of  inefficency  (17) i n . s u g a r p r o d u c t i o n a n d t o make a p r o f i t  on i t s  overall  The t e n d e n c y i n b o t h T r i n i d a d a n d J a m a i c a f o r  operations. large  t o depend on s u p p l i e s o f cane f r o m p e a s a n t  cane f a r m e r s r a t h e r  grow i t  the f a c t  t h e m s e l v e s may b e e x p l a i n e d b y ( l )  i n g s on c o s t than the  accrue t o t h e l a r g e r f a c t o r y  s m a l l f a c t o r y . M o r e o v e r even g r e a t e r  terms o f l a b o u r e f f i c i e n c y ;  and,  (2) t h e f a c t  estates than  that greater  i n the production of  v  sav-  sugar  economies a r e g a i n e d t h a t t h e economies  of  in  121  s c a l e i n cane c u l t i v a t i o n are c h i e f l y i n r e s e a r c h , c h e m i c a l c o n t r o l maintenance  o f equipment, has: a marked e f f e c t on the t e c h n i c a l  and  indices  o f p r o d u c t i o n but e x e r t l e s s i n f l u e n c e on the economS/ : a g r e a t e r  (l&)  output o f sugar p e r acre o f cane r e a p e d may be o b t a i n e d a t a p r o p o r t i o n ately greater cost. In 1927  i t was  f o u n d t h a t f a c t o r i e s o f l e s s than 1,500  output i n c u r r e d a c o s t o f £4.9  p e r t o n o f sugar manufactured.  tons  This  was  60 p e r c e n t g r e a t e r t h a n f a c t o r i e s o f over 4,000 tons o u t p u t . Nonm a n u f a c t u r i n g c o s t i n the s m a l l e r f a c t o r i e s w&$  • £10.5, o r o n l y  40 p e r  cent g r e a t e r t h a n i n the l a r g e r . The d i f f e r e n c e i s even g r e a t e r i n terms o f l a b o u r r e q u i r e m e n t s . F a c t o r i e s w i t h an i n p u t o f l e s s  than  25,000 t o n s o f cane i n 1945 had a l a b o u r i n p u t per ton o f sugar two-anda - h a l f times that of f a c t o r i e s with i n p u t s over corresponding r a t i o of f i e l d duced from e s t a t e cane was  50,000 t o n s , w h i l e the  l a b o u r r e q u i r e m e n t s p e r t o n "of sugar p r o -  o n l y about 1.25:1. I t i s c l e a r from t h i s t h a t  i t p a i d the s m a l l e s t a t e o r peasant f a r m e r to s p e c i a l i s e i n sugar cane c u l t i v a t i o n and l e a v e sugar p r o d u c t i o n t o the l a r g e e s t a t e s . S i m i l a r l y , it  i s t o "the advantage  o f t h e l a r g e e s t a t e to g e t A'w  i n c r e a s e d supples  o f cane f r o m the peasant f a r m e r r a t h e r than expand i t s acreage cane; f o r i t has l e s s advantage  under  t o g a i n by t h i s than i f i t purchased  from the peasant farm. Moreover problems o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n become a c u t e when the cane a r e a of an e s t a t e i s expanded beyond a c e r t a i n s i z e , the c o s t o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n r i s e s s h a r p l y .  and (19)  On the o t h e r hand the c a r e l e s s , i n e f f i c i e n t methods o f a g r i c u l t u r e p r a c t i s e d b y the peasant cane f a r m e r d i d not p e r m i t him t o b e n e f i t f u l l y i n terms o f r e t u r n s p e r hour worked on the f a r m . D r .  Jolly  122  l e c t u r e r i n Economics a t the I m p e r i a l C o l l e g e o f T r o p i c a l A g r i c u l t u r e , s t a t e d t h a t i n T r i n i d a d t h e average y i e l d p e r acre o f p e a s a n t s more than 15  t o n s . He s a i d w i t h c a r e f u l c u l t i v a t i o n t h i s s h o u l d i n c r e a s e  t o 25 tons p e r a c r e . T h i s would i n c r e a s e t h e i s l a n d b output  35,000  sugar by  of refined  (20)  tons p e r annum.  Up u n t i l 1950,  i n B r i t i s h Guiana, T r i n i d a d and Barbados i n -  c r e a s e d p r o d u c t i o n o f sugar has b e e n a c h i e v e d without acreage  was not  increase i n the  under cane c u l t i v a t i o n . I n Jamaica, however, t h e i n c r e a s i n g  s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e sugar i n d u s t r y s i n c e 1944  i s marked b y an expansion  o f the acreage under c u l t i v a t i o n . The r e a s o n f o r t h i s i s t h a t l a n d s f o r m e r l y i n banana c u l t i v a t i o n became a v a i l a b l e f o r use i n t h e sugar cane i n d u s t r y i n consequence o f t h e r u i n o f t h e l a t t e r b y h u r r i c a n e  (1944)  and d i s e a s e ( l e a f s p o t ) . D e s p i t e t h i s d i f f e r e n c e f r o m the g e n e r a l  B r i t i s h West I n d i a n t r e n d , J a m a i c a has b e n e f i t e d from i n c r e a s e d e f f i c i e n c y i n t h e Sugar I n d u s t r y . G.E. Cumper i n the Jamaica Sugar I n d u s t r y 18TO tons p e r a c r e i n c r e a s e d f r o m 0.9  Labour Demand and Supply i n  - 1950" i n f o r m s us t h a t the y i e l d i n i n 1897  t o 2.9  i n 1943,  w h i l e over t h e  same p e r i o d the man-days r e q u i r e d t o produce 1 t o n o f sugar d e c l i n e d from 155  t o 40.  ( ) 2 1  I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o l o o k a t t h e o r g a n i s a t i o n o f the sugar cane i n d u s t r y i n J a m a i c a and T r i n i d a d . The i n d u s t r y i s d i v i d e d i n t o two  s e c t i o n s , ( l ) e s t a t e s ' c u l t i v a t i o n and (2)  t i o n o r peasant important  cane f a r m e r s '  (  2 2  cultiva-  c a n e - c u l t i v a t i o n . I n b o t h p l a c e s cane farmers make an  c o n t r i b u t i o n t o the t o t a l p r o d u c t i o n o f c a n e . I n T r i n i d a d  cane farmers a c c o u n t e d 35 p e r cent i n 1955.  f o r 33 p e r c e n t o f t o t a l cane grown i n 1954  T h i s d e c l i n e d t o 29 p e r cent i n 1957.  and  The number  )  123  o f cane farmers i n Jamaica i n c r e a s e d f r o m i n 1943. i n 1938  3,674 i n 1939-40 t o 8,709  Here they c o n t r i b u t e d 25 p e r cent o f the t o t a l cane o u t p u t and 35 p e r cent i n 1944.  I t remained a t t h i s l e v e l e v e r s i n c e .  I n T r i n i d a d , t h e number o f cane f a r m e r s have been d e c r e a s i n g s t e a d i l y since to  1921. The number d e c l i n e d from 26,425 i n 1921,to 15,485 i n 1938,  9,443 i n 1946. Whereas i n Jamaica the i n c r e a s e i n cane f a r m e r s i s  a t t r i b u t e d mainly to the d i v e r s i o n o f banana l a n d s t o sugar, i n T r i n i d a d s e v e r a l f a c t o r s o p e r a t e t o cause the d e c l i n e i n the importance o f the cane f a r m e r . The major f a c t o r s a r e the a t t r a c t i o n o f t h e n o n - a g r i c u l t u r a l i n d u s t r i e s on the a g r i c u l t u r a l l a b o u r f o r c e . In T r i n i d a d t h e c l i n e o f the sugar- cane i n d u s t r y began b e f o r e t h e war y e a r s . The  de-  indus-  t r y today s t i l l o p e r a t e s below the c a p a c i t y o f t h e f a c t o r i e s i . e . 200,000 tons o f sugar The output o f 193  thousand tons i n 1955  t o t h i s , but p r o d u c t i o n d e c l i n e d a g a i n i n 1956  and 1957  came c l o s e  on account  of  r a i n a t the h a r v e s t season.. The d e c l i n e o f the i n d u s t r y i s due t o low p r i c e f o r cane  ($2.64 p e r ton) p r i o r t o 1940 and t h e f e a r o f the cane f a r -  mers t h a t r e s t r i c t i o n o f output under t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l Agreement would d e p r i v e them o f a market f o r t h e i r cane. T h i s d e c l i n e was  accelerated  d u r i n g the war when employment a t the American b a s e s o f f e r e d b e t t e r p o r t u n i t y than cane f a r m i n g . A l s o much l a n d under.sugar ground p r o v i s i o n s t o a s s i s t  was  op-  diverted to  i n the c o l o n y ' s f o o d shortage under war  con  d i t i o n s . Of c o u r s e the s u s t a i n e d h i g h p r i c e s f o r l o c a l f o o d c r o p s were a major i n c e n t i v e . But much o f t h i s r e a l l o c a t i o n o f l a n d was  due  to the  "grow more f o o d campaign". I t i s d o u b t f u l whether t h i s d i v e r s i o n o f l a n d to o t h e r c r o p s was  always e c o n o m i c a l l y j u s t i f i e d .  As a r e s u l t o f the sudden exodus o f l a b o u r f r o m the  sugar  124  i n d u s t r y i n the 1940's, acreage under sugar was r e d u c e d c o n s i d e r a b l y i n the e a r l y war y e a r s and remained low u n t i l o f t h i s was a f a l l  the l a s t  decade. The r e s u l t  o f f i n sugar p r o d u c t i o n i n t h e West I n d i e s f o r these  y e a r s , f o r a l l t h e u n i t s came under the s i m i l a r i n f l u e n c e s d e s c r i b e d above. I n T r i n i d a d i t i s observed t h a t e s t a t e canes ground during the f i r s t  decreased  two war y e a r s f r o m 684,112 tons i n 1941 b y more t h a n  50 p e r cent t o 383,380 tons i n 1943. The response o f t h e e s t a t e s shortage  tothe  o f l a b o u r s u p p l y was more i n t e n s i v e use o f l a n d . The d i f f i c u l t y  of g e t t i n g s u p p l i e s o f a r t i f i c i a l f e r t i l i z e r and machinery d u r i n g ~'~' v  v  the war, however^did h i n d e r t h e r a t e o f r e c o v e r y . But d e s p i t e t h e f a c t that nitrogenous,  phosphatic  and p o t a s s i c f e r t i l i z e r s were d r a s t i c a l l y  reduced d u r i n g t h e wa;r, and o t h e r compounds and n a t u r a l f e r t i l i z e r s had t o be used e x t e n s i v e l y ; a l t h o u g h t h e p r o g r e s s i v e s u b s t i t u t i o n o f machine r y f o r labour processes had  t h a t c h a r a c t e r i s e d t h e i n d u s t r y p r i o r t o 1940  come t o an end, T r i n i d a d e s t a t e s were s t i l l a b l e t o i n c r e a s e p r o d u c -  t i o n a f t e r t h e sharp f a l l o f f i n 1941 - 43. Output moved from 383,380 t o n s o f cane up t o 652,655 i n 1946 and 737,400 i n 1947 o r about 16,800 tons more than p r o d u c t i o n a t 1938. A t t h e same time t h e amount o f a c r e s of e s t a t e canes r e a p e d d e c l i n e d s t e a d i l y from 28,244 i n 1938 t o 25,816 i n 1946. I t rose t o 29,731 i n 1947. I n s h o r t the 16,800 tons o f cane produced i n 1947 above t h a t i n 1938 was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a n i n c r e a s e i n acreage r e a p e d o f o n l y 487 above t h a t i n 1938. In T r i n i d a d , t h e s u b s t a n t i a l i n c r e a s e s i n 1944 and 1945 o f t o n s o f e s t a t e cane p e r a c r e  (20.38 and 19.83) over 1940 (16.13) must b e (it)  a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e i n t e n s i v e c u l t i v a t i o n o f l a n d . F o r i t i s reasonable to  expect t h a t t h e p r o d u c t i v i t y o f l a n d w i l l  increase i f l e s s o f i t i s  '  125  u s e d w i t h the o r i g i n a l o u t l a y on machinery, p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y l e s s manh o u r s and about the same e x p e n d i t u r e on f e r t i l i z e r s  (total  expenditure  on f e r t i l i z e r was about.•$5'.'200,f romr'1940-47. f h i s g e n e r a l p a t t e r n e s i  t a b l i s h e d d u r i n g t h e war c o n t i n u e d i n t h e post-war y e a r s . Except  i n the  case o f Jamaica, i n c r e a s e s i n p r o d u c t i o n have been a c h i e v e d without an i n c r e a s e i n cane a c r e a g e . by  The t e c h n i c a l and economic e f f i c i e n c i e s  the use o f more f e r t i l i z e r ,  increased mechanization,  t i o n o f the p r o d u c t i o n and marketing  gained  and s p e c i a l i s a -  p r o c e s s e s i l l u s t r a t e s what can be  g a i n e d b y way o f r e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f a g r i c u l t u r e i n the r e g i o n . The  cane farmer  i n the West I n d i e s has n o t been a b l e t o take  advantage o f a v a i l a b l e t e c h n o l o g y  t o the same e x t e n t  t h a t the e s t a t e s  have. I t i s not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t t h i s i s so when we c o n s i d e r t h a t ( l ) the m a j o r i t y o f these farms a r e between 1 and 5 a c r e s and (2) t h e o p e r a t o r s e a s i l y depend on wages e a r n e d p a t i o n s . Fragmentation  on the l a r g e e s t a t e s o r o t h e r  occu-  o f farms i n many c a s e s make i t i m p o s s i b l e t o use  machinery t o any d e s i r a b l e e x t e n t . Moreover, t h e i r dependence on o t h e r s e c t o r s of t h e economy f o r wages make the e l a s t i c i t y of supply o f cane f a r m e r s , g e n e r a l l y , v e r y h i g h . T h i s p o i n t was w e l l i l l u s t r a t e d war y e a r s . I t i s enough t o say here t h a t i n t h e p e r i o d 1941 percentage  i n the  t o 194-7 t h e  o f f a r m e r s ' cane g r o u n d . o f the t o t a l cane ground f e l l  44 p e r cent i n T r i n i d a d , t o 30 p e r cent, ( T a b l e 3.5). Farmer's cance d e c l i n e d b o t h a b s o l u t e l y and percentage c r e a s e between 1941 and 1945  from  signifi-  w i s e . The a b s o l u t e de-  was more than 50 p e r c e n t .  126  TABLE  3.5  CANE FARMING INDUSTRY, 1936-47 TRINIDAD Percentage f a r m e r s cane ground o f t o t a l canes ground  Year  P r i c e per ton f o r f a r m e r s * cane *  1936  43.2  2.64  1937  43.7  2.64  1938  44.2  2.64  1939  43.9  2.89  1940 .  36.4  3.35  1941  43.6  3.73  1942  45.7  4.50  1943  46.5  4.50  1944  33.1  5.50  1945  32.4  5.84  1946  34.9  6.77  1947  30.4  6.00  +  Interim p r i c e paid t o farmers. Source;  R e p o r t o f the Economics Committee. T r i n i d a d and Tobago. 1959*. fabl-e 5. p.81.  The r a p i d i n c r e a s e i n t h e Jamaican sugar i n d u s t r y was made p o s s i b l e p a r t l y because o f t h e d e c l i n e i n the banana i n d u s t r y . I t s ( s u g a r ) growth has been more c o n s i s t e n t a n d r a p i d than t h a t of the T r i n i d a d i n d u s t r y s i n c e 1939  (Chart 4.). The i n c r e a s e  i n output has been  accompanied b y major changes i n the i n t e r n a l s t r u c t u r e o f t h e i n d u s t r y . The t e n d e n c y s i n c e 1938 has been towards c o n s o l i d a t i o n a t t h e f a c t o r y l e v e l and an i n c r e a s e  i n importance of l a r g e f a r m s . I n t h e p e r i o d  127  1939  t o 1957 t h e number o f cane f a r m e r s producing  o f cane i n c r e a s e d t o a p p r o x i m a t e l y  between 0 - 5  tons  70 p e r c e n t ; those p r o d u c i n g  5 -  20 tons i n c r e a s e d b y more than 130 p e r c e n t ; 20 - 50, b y more t h a n 210 p e r c e n t ;  50 - 100 tons b y about 350 per c e n t ; 100 - 500 t o n s , b y  200 p e r c e n t and over 1,000  b y more than 300 p e r c e n t . In 1920,  there  were 57 e s t a t e s w i t h a t o t a l acreage i n sugar o f 24,750 which g i v e s an average o f 419 a c r e s per e s t a t e . The l a r g e s t e s t a t e was 1,440 the s m a l l e s t e s t a t e was 25 a c r e s . In 1946  acres,  t h e r e were j u s t 26 e s t a t e s .  T h i s means t h a t there was a r e d u c t i o n b y more than 50 p e r c e n t i n 26 y e a r s . On t h e o t h e r hand t h e s i z e o f e s t a t e s i n c r e a s e d c o n s i d e r a b l y which i n d i c a t e s t h a t the change i n the number o f e s t a t e s r e s u l t e d from a c e n t r a l i s a t i o n o f e s t a t e s . The t o t a l a c r e s i n sugar cane i n 1946 36,482, about 30 p e r cent above t h a t i n 1920.  was  The average s i z e o f e s -  t a t e s had i n c r e a s e d by about 3«5 t i m e s . The maximum s i z e o f an e s t a t e was 6,443 o r f o u r times l a r g e r t h a n t h a t i n 1920; the s i z e o f the minimum e s t a t e was 393 a c r e s o r about 15 times g r e a t e r than t h a t i n  (2 1920.  In 1955  21 e s t a t e s produced the 3,564,881 s u p p l i e d t o f a c t o r i e s .  I t i s b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e c o m b i n a t i o n o f Frome and WonymusK formed the b i g g e s t  i n 1950  sugar e s t a t e i n t h e Commonwealth.  I n T r i n i d a d the same c e n t r a l i s a t i o n i s o b s e r v e d . S t e Madel e i n e accounts f o r 2,400 a c r e s , B r e c h i n C a s t l e , C a r o n i and Waterloo were combined and c o n s t i t u t e 25,428 a c r e s . These two h e l d a l i t t l e  less  than 50 p e r cent o f t h e t o t a l l a n d acreage i n sugar cane farms a t 1946. The  i n c r e a s i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r b e t t e r wages i n o t h e r p a r t s o f the  economy^which mark', the r a p i d economic development i n the p e r i o d 1954 - 57, have, taken many ifiane f a r m e r s o f f t h e l a n d o r caused them to  128  d i v e r t l a n d to o t h e r u s e s . The r e s u l t number of cane farms and  of t h i s i s a r e d u c t i o n i n the  a d e c l i n e i n the importance of the cane f a r -  mers c o n t r i b u t i o n to t o t a l sugar cane ground. T h e i r share d e c l i n e d b o t h i n T r i n i d a d and Jamaica as i i i - i s  shown above.;. On the o t h e r hand t h e  e s t a t e s have b e e n i n the l a s t 10 y e a r s c u l t i v a t i o n . In 1957 t h a n i t was  i n 1938  i n c r e a s i n g t h e i r acreage under  the. t o t a l acreage under c u l t i v a t i o n was f o r T r i n i d a d and the acreage reaped had  greater doubled  o v e r t h a t p e r i o d . T h i s i n c r e a s e i n s i z e has n o t , however, been accomp a n i e d by,a p r o p o r t i o n a t e  i n c r e a s e i n the l a b o u r f o r c e g a i n f u l l y  i n the i n d u s t r y . In the B r i t i s h West I n d i e s t h e r e has been a decrease i n labour occupied  i n sugar p r o d u c t i o n  occupied  constant  s i n c e the m i d - n i n e t e e n t h  c e n t u r y . T h i s d e c l i n e i n l a b o u r on t h e sugar e s t a t e s marks the s i v e m e c h a n i z a t i o n of the i n d u s t r y . M e c h a n i z a t i o n  has  progres-  i n part r e s u l t e d  f r o m the tendency of wages to i n c r e a s e . I n T r i n i d a d l a b o u r on the  es-  t a t e s has been s t a b i l i s e d at about 21 thousand over the l a s t f i v e  years.  F u r t h e r d e c r e a s e o f l a b o u r engaged i n the sugar i n d u s t r y i s e x p e c t e d t o come about as more and more p r o c e s s e s  are mechanized. The  sugar l a n d s  of the a r e a would g a i n e f f i c i e n c y o n l y at the expense o f the numbers of f a r m l a b o u r h o u r s u t i l i s e d per annum. T h i s t r e n d has  a l r e a d y been noted  i n Jamaica. L e v e l s o f E f f i c i e n c y i n Peasant A g r i c u l t u r e - e x c l u d i n g cane The  s t r u c t u r e o f peasant a g r i c u l t u r e does not submit  t o e a s y d e f i n i t i o n as e s t a t e a g r i c u l t u r e , however, a s t u d y f e a t u r e s present world  normally  farming. itself  of i t s s a l i e n t  c u r i o u s c o n t o u r s . Peasant farmers i n other p a r t s o f  c o n s i s t o f the f a m i l y u n i t l i v i n g on farms which  range between 50 and  300  may  a c r e s o f l a n d . These farms grow a v a r i e t y o f  the  129  crops and o p e r a t e on a r o t a t i o n system w h i c h i s c a l c u l a t e d t o m a i n t a i n s o i l f e r t i l i t y and maximize the net f a r m income. As f a r as i s p o s s i b l e i n the g i v e n p r i c e - c o s t c o n d i t i o n s a l l l a n d on the f a r m i s f u l l y And the f a r m e r may  utilised.  add a n o t h e r e n t e r p r i s e i n o r d e r t o a c h i e v e f u l l e r  use  o f the f a c t o r s o f p r o d u c t i o n . Few peasant f a r m e r s s p e c i a l i s e i n one c r o p o r e n t e r p r i s e . E n t e r p r i s e a r e chosen so t h a t man  hours and machine hours  are as f u l l y employed throughout t h e y e a r as p o s s i b l e . I t i s t h e r e f o r e , u s u a l t o f i n d that, on a l l such farms a n i m a l husbandry  form a v i t a l p a r t  of the system. Take f o r example a farm w h i c h has a d a i r y e n t e r p r i s e .  The  f o u r o r f i v e y e a r r o t a t i o n system e n a b l e s the farmer to grow g r a s s , o a t s , and o t h e r t y p e s of f o d d e r d u r i n g the summer on p a r t o f the f a r m . T h i s i s c u t , s t o r e d and used as w i n t e r f e e d f o r t h e l i v e s t o c k . D u r i n g the w i n t e r t h e dung from the a n i m a l s a r e put i n manure P i t s . And i n t h e summer i t i s used as manure f o r r e p l e n i s h i n g and i n c r e a s i n g s o i l f e r t i l i t y . The s a v i n g on c o s t i n p r o d u c i n g m i l k i n a farm, making use o f t h i s system i s o b v i o u s . I n a d d i t i o n to such s y s t e m a t i c f a r m i n g c a r e f u l b u d g e t i n g e n a b l e s the modern peasant f a r m e r i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s , N o r t h E a s t e r n E u r o p e a n d ;  Canada t o a l l o c a t e h i s r e s o u r c e s t o t h e b e s t u s e s . P e a s a n t farmers i n t h e s e c o u n t r i e s have b e n e f i t e d from the many s t u d i e s on farm management, a g r i c u l t u r a l s u r v e y s , f a r m b u d g e t i n g , and s o i l c o n s e r v a t i o n s t u d i e s c a r r i e d out by t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l  economists.-  The f u n c t i o n a l e x t e n s i o n work promoted b y t h e v a r i o u s a g r i c u l t u r a l e x p e r i mental s t a t i o n s i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s b r i n g s the t e c h n i c a l knowledge g a i n e d i n the r e s e a r c h l a b o r a t o r i e s and on the e x p e r i m e n t a l f a r m to t h e peasant farmer i n as simple a f o r m a s p o s s i b l e . Peasant farmers who  wish to  keep i n the f a r m i n g i n d u s t r y and i n c r e a s e t h e i r net f a r m incomes keep  130  i n f o r m e d on the work done a t the e x p e r i m e n t a l s t a t i o n s . T h e i r t e c h n i c a l and management problems a r e , i n p a r t , s o l v e d at the e x p e r i m e n t a l The r e s u l t  farm.  of t h i s i s i n c r e a s e d e f f i c i e n c y o f r e s o u r c e use and t h e r e -  f o r e a b e t t e r s t a n d a r d o f l i v i n g f o r the farmer i n t h e s e c o u n t r i e s . I n come f o r these farmers  i s d e r i v e b o t h i n the export market and the domes-  t i c market. For the m a j o r i t y of f a r m e r s  i n some American s t a t e s t h a t  the domestic market i s the d i r e c t o u t l e t f o r the y e a r ' s  produce.  In t h e B r i t i s h Y/est I n d i e s , however ,aain most c o l o n i e s i n the t r o p i c s jthe peasant  farmer  i s a v e r y d i f f e r e n t type o f o r g a n i z e r . In  f a c t jhe i s not o r g a n i z e d at a l l .  The Engledow R e p o r t  (1938) s t a t e s t h a t  the West I n d i a n C o l o n i e s show j o i n t l y a d i v e r s i t y i n peasant too g r e a t to a l l o w a sharp c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . A t one  agriculture  extreme i s the (28)  l a b o u r e r on t h e l a r g e p l a n t a t i o n who  r e l i e s almost  e n t i r e l y on  these  wages b u t r e n t s 5 t o a 5 a c r e t o grow f o o d crops t o supplement h i s wages and t o occupy h i s time when no wage work i s a v a i l a b l e i n t h e o f f - c r o p season. On t h e other extreme i s t h e o c c u p i e r - t y p e u s u a l l y a l s o owner, o f some 20, 30 o r more a c r e s m a i n l y growing c a s h - c r o p s but s t i l l  rely-  i n g on the l a b o u r o f h i m s e l f and h i s f a m i l y i n a d d i t i o n to h i r e d l a b o u r . The  first  c a t e g o r y c a r r y on a s u b s i s t e n c e f a r m i n g . The  extent o f i t may  be c o n s i d e r e d as some measure of the endemic n a t u r e of unemployment i n the B r i t i s h West I n d i e s . T h i s p a r t o f the f a r m i n g community cannot e v e r be r i g h t l y c o n s i d e r e d i n the b r o a d c a t e g o r y o f peasant i s not  surprising  how-  farming. I t  t h a t w i t h the extreme p o p u l a t i o n p r e s s u r e on s m a l l  a v a i l a b l e l a n d space i n the B r i t i s h West I n d i e s and no a l t e r n a t i v e o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o take i n the s u r p l u s l a b o u r f o r c e , t h a t s u b s i s t e n c e f a r m i n g i s as important  as the census f i g u r e s f o r 1946  shows.  job  131  In Barbados out of  31,296 farming u n i t s ( i . e . t o t a l s m a l l  p l o t s and farms as d e f i n e d b y t h e census of A g r i c u l t u r e 1946)  (^9)  84^  were s m a l l p l o t s c a r r y i n g on s u b s i s t e n c e f a r m i n g . In S t . L u c i a s m a l l p l o t s represented  50 p e r c e n t , farms between 1 and  and farms above 20  20 a c r e s 30 p e r c e n t  a c r e s 20 p e r cent of the t o t a l farming u n i t s .  t h e Windward I s l a n d s , out o f a t o t a l  In  18,982 f a r m u n i t s 13,593  were s m a l l p l o t s . I t i s e s t i m a t e d t h a t t h e r e were a 100,000 farms l e s s than one  a c r e i n Jamaica i n 1942.  In T r i n i d a d t o t a l s m a l l p l o t s were'- "'  65 p e r c e n t o f the t o t a l farms and  s m a l l p l o t s . The f i g u r e i s h i g h f o r  T r i n i d a d c o n s i d e r i n g the much h i g h e r s t a n d a r d o f l i v i n g  she enjoye<J above  t h e o t h e r i s l a n d s a t the t i m e . However t h i s may <haye'-been due  t o the' number  o f s m a l l k i t c h e n gardens which came i n t o o p e r a t i o n d u r i n g t h e war result  of the f o o d shortages  f o o d " campaign. I t i s my  and  i n response  as a  t o the l o c a l "grow-more-  o p i n i o n t h a t t h i s f i g u r e i s , under normal con-  d i t i o n s , much l o w e r . However, i n the smaller.: i s l a n d s and J a m a i c a , the g r e a t e r dependence on a g r i c u l t u r e a t t h a t time would suggest  that  s e a s o n a l unemployment would make i t n e c e s s a r y t o supplement the weekly e a r n i n g s by s u c h means. In 1954 i n Jamaica was  only  the number o f farms l e s s t h a n one  acre  42,911 compared w i t h 100,000 i n 1942. T h i s i s i n ^ ^  i t s e l f an i n d i c a t i o n o f the d r i f t  1  out of a g r i c u l t u r e i n t h e p e r i o d  1943 - I954. In 1950 there was-c about 18 p e r cent o f t h e l a b o u r f o r c e o c c u p i e d on p e r s o n a l s e r v i c e s which r e f l e c t s the p r e s s u r e o f t h i s p l u s p o p u l a t i o n on job o p p o r t u n i t i e s o u t s i d e o f  sur-  agriculture.  I t might be argued t h a t d e s p i t e t h i s b i a s on a g r i c u l t u r e  ob-  served i n the s m a l l e r i s l a n d s and Jamaica a t 1946 and c o n s e q u e n t l y  the  ;  tendency to r e n t s m a l l l o t s o r empty b a c k y a r d s to grow f o o d crops f o r  132  domestic use the importance  o f s m a l l p l o t might be overvweighted  cause o f war c o n d i t i o n . However, t h i s p o s s i b i l i t y i s r e a d i l y  be-  dispelled  when a comparison between the 194-6 census and the 1956-58 surveys (32) i\S'j made: I n S t . V i n c e n t the number o f farms under 1 a c r e i n c r e a s e d i n numbers from o f farms  2,044 i n 194-6 t o 5192 i n 1958. I n S t . V i n c e n t the number  s m a l l e r t h a n one a c r e was  3,923 i n 1946, i n 1958 i t was 3,874;  f o r M o n t s e r r a t t h e f i g u r e s f o r the r e s p e c t i v e y e a r s a r e  1,436 and 1,693«  The d e c r e a s e between 1946 and 1958 e x p e r i e n c e d i n M o n t s e r r a t and S t . V i n c e n t i s p a r t l y e x p l a i n e d b y t h e f a c t t h a t i n the s u r v e y the limit by  o f s i z e was h i g h e r than t h a t u s e d i n t h e 1946 census, and  lower partly  the d i f f e r e n c e i n the d e f i n i t i o n o f a farm. F o r i n s t a n c e , i n the  1956-58 s u r v e y s , l a n d had t o be a c t i v e l y farmed d u r i n g the y e a r p r i o r to the date o f the enumeration b e f o r e i t was c o u n t e d a s f o r m i n g p a r t o f an o p e r a t o r ' s farm. I n 1946 on t h e o t h e r hand, a l l o f an o p e r a t o r ' s l a n d , whether a c t i v e l y farmed o r not was i n c l u d e d i n the average o f l a n d i n farms and s m a l l p l o t s . The  i n c r e a s e o f over 50 per cent i n S t . L u c i a i s p a r t l y due  ( l ) t o under enumeration  i n t h e 1946 census and (2) the s u r v e y t e c h n i q u e  o f r e c o r d i n g s e p a r a t e p o r t i o n s o f ' f a m i l y * l a n d a s farms where i n d i v i d u a l members o f the f a m i l y c l a i m e d t h a t t h e y d i d i n f a c t o p e r a t e t h o s e p o r t i o n s as though t h e y were s e p a r a t e farms. I n a c t u a l f a c t ,then, ^34-) s i n c e 1946 t h e r e were no major changes i n the number o f farms i n t h e s e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e u n i t s . I t may be c o n c l u d e d t h e r e f o r e t h a t the f i g u r e s above b a s e d on the census o f 1946 and the Jamaican 1943 g i v e a r e l i a b l e e s t i m a t e o f importance  percentage  census o f  of subsistence farming;  133  f o r the f a c t t h a t changes a r e accounted f o r b y the 1956 suggest t h a t war influence this  surveys  c o n d i t i o n s d i d n o t , as might be the case i n T r i n i d a d ,  situation.  The phenomenon t h e r e f o r e i s a good  o f the v..yircteiQeveloped s t a t e o f these economies a t 1946. t h a t i n o t h e r p a r t s o f the w o r l d s m a l l farms l i k e form of a hobby  - 58  indicator  It i s true  these may  but i n the West I n d i e s t h e y h e l p t o make up  t a k e the the  total  r e a l wage e a r n i n g s f o r the y e a r . Small farms o f t h i s type might not be bad  i f t h e y become p a r t o f a r e g u l a r p a t t e r n w i t h t h e s e a s o n a l f l o w o f  work, but when t h e y cause f e r t i l e  l a n d t o be fragmented,  and  subjected  t o p r i m i t i v e s h i f t i n g a g r i c u l t u r e o n l y to be abandoned when the c r o p season has  s t a r t e d , t h e n the whole system becomes i n e f f i c i e n t .  134 PART I I I  STRUCTURE OF THE AGRICULTURAL ECONOMY  The peasant  farmer  as an economic u n i t i n the  agricultural  s e c t o r s o f the s e v e r a l i s l a n d s has been a s u b j e c t of much debate s p e c u l a t i o n s i n c e 1938.  and  I t has not been u n t i l the l a s t t e n y e a r s , how-  ever, t h a t s c i e n t i f i c data on t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s of making an adequate  wage income i n s m a l l scale peasant f a r m i n g have become a v a i l a b l e . Such an annual  income  would be about §1,200 (B.W.l) which i s the average  s a l a r y o r wage p a i d i n t h e i n d u s t r y . The ing  s t r u c t u r e o f the peasant  i n d u s t r y can be d e f i n e d i n terms o f s i z e , and tenancy.,  i n terms o f tenancy peasant ved i n the f a r m i n g  farms f a l l  t i v a t o r and  I f defined  i n t o the same c a t e g o r i e s obser-  i n d u s t r y as a whole. These a r e , i n accordance  t h e Census o f A g r i c u l t u r e 1946,  farm-  ( l ) owner c u l t i v a t o r s ,  with  (2) t e n a n t  cul-  (3) Manager.  Table  4.5 shows t h a t i n the Leeward Islands about 60 t o 70 p e r -  cent o f the t o t a l farms over one  a c r e a r e c l a s s i f i e d as  vator.: ; about 20 - 30 p e r cent a r e c l a s s i f i e d as  tenant  culti-  owner c u l t i v a t o r s and  2 p e r cent managers. In the Windward Islands the s i t u a t i o n i s r e v e r s e d ; 60  - 80 p e r cent o f t h e farms are i n the c a t e g o r y owner c u l t i v a t o r s ,  20 - 30 p e r cent are r e n t e d out, and L u c i a 80  p e r cent o f the  5 t o 10 p e r c e n t managed. In S t .  farms a r e o f the owner c u l t i v a t o r type.  3 p e r cent are r e n t e d . In Barbados and  T r i n i d a d the p a t t e r n o f  Only  distri-  b u t i o n o f l a n d a c c o r d i n g t o type o f h o l d i n g i s s i m i l a r . Owner c u l t i v a t o r s account  f o r 58 p e r cent o f the farms i n Barbados and 46.1  i n T r i n i d a d . Tenants o p e r a t e  35.5  p e r cent  p e r cent i n the former and 47.8  i n the  135 latter.  Managers c o n t r o l 6 p e r cent i n b o t h c o u n t r i e s .  survey t a k e n i n Jamaica i n d i c a t e s t h a t 56.8  The 194-3  census  p e r cent of the acreage  farms above one a c r e (1,068 a c r e s ) were owned by the o p e r a t o r s and i m a t e l y 34 p e r cent was  managed..  approx-  A l i t t l e more than 6 p e r 'cent was  However, t h i s amount representsc.about land a c t u a l l y  in  rented.  30 p e r cent o f t h e t o t a l acreage  of  cultivated.  These v a s t v a r i a t i o n s i n the type of l a n d tenure i n t h e West I n d i e s a r e remarkable.  T h i s s i t u a t i o n rai.sec.many problems i n any  of r e g i o n a l a g r i c u l t u r e r e o r g a n i z a t i o n . make a comparative  The  cumulative f r e q u e n c y  survey of t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f farm acreage  s i z e of farms i n t h e d i f f e r e n t u n i t s .  The  c h a r t s show up two  plan charts  and a l s o t h e important  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e West I n d i a n l a n d d i s t r i b u t i o n i n a g r i c u l t u r e . The  first  s t r i k i n g f e a t u r e i s the f a c t t h a t , g e n e r a l l y , between  30 and 40 p e r c c e n t of t h e farms above one a c r e a r e between one and  three  acres", and about t w o - t h i r d s of the t o t a l farms l a r g e r t h a n one a c r e a r e one t o f i v e a c r e s i n s i z e . S i n c e 1946  a s e r i e s o f surveys i n 1956  - 58 were taken under  t h e a u s p i c e s o f t h e M i n i s t r y of N a t u r a l Resources and A g r i c u l t u r e f o r some of the i s l a n d s . ward I s l a n d s . Montserrat  These surveys were o n l y t a k e n i n t h e Windward and The  s t a t i s t i c s f o r S t . L u c i a , S t . V i n c e n t , Dominica,  have been p u b l i s h e d .  ted are s t i l l being prepared. t i o n has not  Those f o r t h e r e s t of t h e a r e a  Leeand  investiga-  These f i g u r e s show t h a t t o date t h e  situa-  changed much. I n f a c t , i n Jamaica t h e number o f farms between  1 and 10 a c r e s i n c r e a s e d about t h r e e - f o l d w h i l e farms, above 25 a c r e s t e n ded t o d e c r e a s e . T h i s i s due  t o t h e c o n s o l i d a t i o n o f sugar e s t a t e s . I n  TABLE  5.5  FARMS CLASSIFIED BY SIZE (1943) Acreage  i n 000's  Class  Number o f Farms i n  acres  000's-  Percentag e o f A r e a Under c u l tivation  In Pasture  Legal Position Owned Rented | Managed i n 000's a c r e s ,  1-2  acres  10  8  77  6  6  4  „ -"•  2-3  "  23  10  71  7  15  8  0.2  3-4  "  27  8  64  10  19  7  -  4 - 6  »  54  12  55  13  42  12  •• T. •  6-10  "  83  11  45  18  71  12  0.1  10 - 25  "  172  12  31  24  152  19  i.o  25-50  "  99  3  21  30  87  9  2  50 - 100 "  71  1  16  36  61  6  •4  100- 200  67  0.5  16  35 "  52  4  11  200 - 500 " .  120  0.4  16  36  85  4  31  500-1000"  146  0.2  18  42  73  5  68  pver  921  0.3  15  37  407  24  491  11  1000"  Source;  Jamaica Census 1943. The Economic Development o f J a m a i c a . R e p o r t o f I n t e r n a t i o n a l Bank o f R e c o n s t r u c t i o n and Development. John Hopkins P r e s s . p.J-59.  138  Dominica the number o f farms between 1 and 5 a c r e s i n c r e a s e d from thousand i n 194-6 t o 3.8 thousand i n 1958.  2.8  The r e d u c t i o n i n t h e number  o f farms above 100 a c r e s r e s u l t e d p a r t l y f r o m t h e requirement that, l a n d had t o be a c t i v e l y farmed i n 1958 t o be c o n s i d e r e d  a farm, whereas t h i s  was not so i n 1946. P a r t o f t h e r e d u c t i o n i n the acreage o f farms o f 10 a c r e s was due t o m i g r a t i o n o f f a r m e r s t o t h e U n i t e d Kingdom i n t h e p e r i o d 1953  - 1955,  and p a r t was due t o t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f a farm. The i n c r e a s e  i n the group 1 t o 5 a c r e s was not dependent on the decrease i n t h e l a r g e r farms as i t would appear a t f i r s t The  sight.  second remarkable t h i n g about t h e use o f l a n d i n a g r i c u l -  t u r e i s t h e f a c t t h a t t h e g r e a t e r p r o p o r t i o n o f l a n d i s u t i l i z e d b y farms above 100  acres. I t i s a l s o observed t h a t t h e g r e a t e s t p o s i t i v e changes i n l a n d  u t i l i z a t i o n and number o f farms s i n c e 1946 between 1 - 1 0  acres  have been t a k i n g p l a c e i n farms  (Table 6.5). Table 6.5  shows t h a t w h i l e t o t a l  i n t h e group o f f a r m s 50 a c r e s and o v e r haS~ d e c r e a s e d a b l y remained c o n s t a n t 1 -:10  ( i n terms o f t h e 1946  s i n c e 1946  acreage o r prob-  census)^ t h a t acreage i n farms  a c r e s ha^e i n c r e a s e d i The  i n c r e a s e i n acreage i n s m a l l farms and t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g  d e c r e a s e i n acreage i n l a r g e r farms i s e x p l a i n e d i n t h e 1956 - 58  surveys.  In t h e c a s e o f S t . V i n c e n t , the i n c r e a s e i n the number o f s m a l l farms between the s i z e one t o l e s s than t e n a c r e s cannot be a t t r i b u t e d t o a r e d u c t i o n i n t h e number o f l a r g e farms (100 a c r e s and o v e r ) b u t p a r t l y to fragmentation  o f s m a l l e r farms (Table 6.5)  d e f i n i t i o n of a farm. I t i s estimated  and t o d i f f e r e n c e s i n the  that these  two account f o r a  1,000  a c r e s i n c r e a s e . In S t . L u c i a t h e i n c r e a s e i n farms 'sized''one•'• a c r e - t o ^ ^  139  t e n a c r e s can be a t t r i b u t e d t o the enumeration o f l a n d i n 1958  which  was  used as m i l i t a r y bases i n 194-6, and t o t h e s e t t l e m e n t o f former Crown l a n d between the two  d a t e s . Under enumeration i n 1946  i s estimated to  be p a r t l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the g r e a t i n c r e a s e between the two  d a t e s . How-  ever t h i s e r r o r i s not l a r g e enough t o compensate the observed In J a m a i c a t h e number o f gji&eiably  r  by 1954.  ' f a r m l e t s ' l e s s than one a c r e  declined- eonl  On the other hand farms w i t h i n the range one to t e n  acres i n c r e a s e d three times illustrate  growth.^'  s i n c e t h e 1943  census. The f o l l o w i n g f i g u r e s  this point: Jamaica: Number of farms a c c o r d i n g t o s i z e 1 and  over  1  - 10  10 -  25  (acres) 25  and  1942  66,169  49,198  11,509  5,462  1954  156,087  130,700  18,474  6,883  Source:  over  jDgjpatrtmetit o£ § i . a t i § t £ < § § . *F§n>3ioa: A g r i c u l t u r a l s t a t i s t i c s , 1954 and 1955.  136  TABLE 4.5 NUMBER OP FARMS BY TENANCY STATUS OF OPERATOR AND PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION,1946 Owner No. o f Tenant Managers Cultivator Cultivator Farms 4,881  100$  2,832 (58.0)  1,731 (35.5)  318 (6.5)  Antigua  8,261 100$  2,294 (27.8)  5,748 (69.6)  217 (2.6 )  Montserrat  1,485 100$  433 (29.2)  1,023 (68.9)  29 (1.9)  St.Kitts-Nevis Anguilla  2,676 100$  924 (34.5)  1,698 (63.5)  54 (2.0 )  756 100$  572 (75.7)  178 (23.5)  4  Grenada  6,528 100$  4,709 (72.1)  1,434 (22.0)  St.Lucia  2,980 100$  2,391 (80.2)  96 (3.2)  S t . Vincent  4,579 100$  2,923 (63.8)  1,513 (33.0)  142 (3.1)  Dominica  4,895 100$  3,224 (65.9)  1,129 (23.D  540 (11.0)  399511 100$  14,058 (46.1)  14,599 (47.8)  Barbados  Leeward I s l a n d s  Virgin  Islands  Windward I s l a n d s  Trinidad  * Figures i n brackets Source:  382 (5.9) 216 (7.2 )  1,835 (6.0)  are percentages  Censas o f A g r i c u l t u r e f o r the West I n d i e s , 1946..  140 TABLE  6.5  THE ACREAGE OP LAND IN FARMS OF ONE ACRE OR MORE 1946 and 1958 S i z e GrouLp ( a c r e s )  Year  1 -  5 -  10 -  50 -  100 +  St. Lucia  1946  2,404  5,800  22,066  4,112  31,745  66,127  1958  10,492  9,300  17,136  3,706  38,212  +78,846  Change  +8,088  +3,500  - 4,930  406  + 6,467  +12,719  -  St.\I n c e n t  1946  5,866  4,697  5,852  1,726  22,114  40,255  1958  7,930  4,758  5,422  882  16,264  35,256  430  - 844  -5,850  -4,999  Change  +  +2,064  61  Dom jnica  1946  7,320  6,946  17,509  5,753  42,363  1958  8,027  7,047  9,769  6,274  40,072  Change  + 707  + 701  -7,740  + 521  -2,291  Source:  A g r i c u l t u r a l S t a t i s t i c s . M i n i s t r y o f N a t u r a l Resources and A g r i c u l t u r e . F e d e r a l House. P o r t of- S p a i n . S e r i e s 1. The 1956 - 58 Survey Nos. 5.6.7. The changes between 1942 and 1954 i n Jamaica a c c o r d i n g t o s i z e  are-shown i n Table 7.5. TABLE  7.5  ACREAGE OF LAND IN FARM ABOVE ONE ACRE-JAMAICA 1942 and 1954 A r e a i n f a r m 1942 A r e a i n farm 1954 S i z e (acres) 000's a c r e s 000's a c r e s  1-10  197.0  469.0  10 - 25  172.0  264.8  25 - 100  170.0  232.2  100 - 200  67.0  71.9  200 - 500  120.0  142.3  1,067.0  716.1  Over 500  . ( l ) A g r i c u l t u r a l S t a t i s t i c s . Jamaica .19,55 P.1.6 (2) T a b l e 5.5.  141  The c h a n g e s o b s e r v e d i n f a r m s b e l o w one a c r e a r e p a r t l y counted f o r by the f a c t  that  A t t h e same t i m e n o t l a r g e acres. But i t  1-9  the expense of  is  a c r e s were  underestimated  changes have o c c u r e d i n t h e number o f  not  known w h e t h e r t h i s  change has t a k e n p l a c e  known t o b e l a r g e l y g e n u i n e , b u t  t o some e x t e n t b y t h e f a c t  that  is  in part,  larger farms. parcels,  of  exaggerated  many l a r g e u n p r o d u c t i v e u n i t s  It  is believed that  of  land  the reduction i n  of farms i n o t h e r size groups over 10 acres also probably least  at  1943, e s p e c i a l l y p a t e n t s , w e r e e x c l u d e d f r o m t h e 1 9 5 4 s u r v e y  as n o t b e i n g g e n u i n e f a r m s .  at  farms  s m a l l f a r m s . The r e f l e c t i o n i n t h e n u m b e r s o f f a r m s  500 a c r e s and o v e r i s  included i n  farms 1 - 4  ac-  genuine  represents,  c h a n g e s due t o p r o g r e s s i v e f r a g m e n t a t i o n  I n Jamaica, however,  so t h a t  numbers  the  of  "average" farm consists of  changes i n t h e s i z e - d i s t r i b u t i o n  two  o f f a r m s ejre a n i m p e r -  (38) feet  index of the rate of fragmentation It  of  is  statistics  impossible t o say,  for  the  of unit  parcels  of  land.  i n t h e absence o f a r e g u l a r  intervening years, f o r the islands  t h e response t o a g r i c u l t u r a l p o l i c y -  encouragement  to  series  surveyed what  small-scale  farm-  i n g , b a s e d on f o o d - c r o p e n t e r p r i s e s and a n i m a l h u s b a n d r y - has b e e n . is  therefore not  due t o  of  t h e observed e x p a n s i o n has been  s u b s i s t e n c e f a r m i n g and w h a t p a r t  prises. the  c e r t a i n what p a r t  However t h e p o s t w a r p o l i c i e s  t o genuine commercial  enter-  a i m e d a t s e t t l i n g more p e o p l e  l a n d h a v e no d o u b t b e e n r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e i n c r e a s e d a c r e a g e  i n farms 5-10 i n t o use,  acres.  The p o l i c y h a s b e e n t o b r i n g r u i n a t e l a n d s  t o r e c l a i m swamp l a n d s b y p r o p e r d r a i n a g e  l a n d use g e n e r a l l y b y p r o p e r c o n s e r v a t i o n methods. about  It  systems and It  on  observed back  increase  was e s t i m a t e d  that  150,000 a c r e s o f l a n d i n J a m a i c a c o u l d b e a d d e d t o e x i s t i n g a g r i -  142  cultural land. In Trinidad probably about 125 thousand acres i n abandoned crops, bush and secondary growth, at 1956,could be added to the 4.22 thousand acres under cultivation. In the words of the. International Bank of Reconstruction and Development. With proper use of land and water resources a much greater output can be achieved. A rigorous s o i l conservation campaign i s required to build the f e r t i l i t y of the h i l l lands which have been largely destroyed by reckless, shifting cultivation. In the plains and valleys i r r i g a t i o n must be extended and part of the swamp land reclaimed. A. pasture improvement program should be undertaken.  (40)  This was said with reference to Jamaica but i t also holds true f o r the entire Federated West Indies. Of course there i s less land space a v a i l able i n one island than on theother but land use needs improvement i n every island. The persistent tendency f o r farms t o cloister within the range 1 to 5 acres i n a l l the islands i s not amazing, for as i t has. already been shown, i n the West Indies land i s scarce, and population i s increasing as rapidly as 3 percent f o r the area.  The result i s  that the highest population densities per square mile known i n the world are found i n the B r i t i s h West Indies. The concentration of people on the land as the primary means of satisfying their needs must lead to a progressive increase i n peasant farms of very small sizes, and i n some cases fragmentation w i l l be the means whereby this w i l l be achieved.  The fact that i n most islands the lands are owned by large  estates and used for sugar cane cultivation or some othercash crop' probably helps to speed up thepprocess of fragmentation i n farm group 10 to 1 0 0 acres.  For i t withholds land from use for food crop, thus  making t h i s land?inaccessible to the new labour'-force.  143  Where the system o f l a n d t e n u r e does not permit the f o r c e to acquire  l a n d t o c u l t i v a t e o r does not  enough s e c u r i t y e m i g r a t i o n dos  there  i s no new  labour  g i v e the f a r m  operator  seems to have been more p r e v a l e n t .  l a n d a v a i l a b l e f o r use by  In B a r b a -  the i n c r e a s i n g  labour  f o r c e . Hence, i n the absence o f a l t e r n a t i v e employments the young males are f o r c e d t o emigrate. A l s o i n the Leeward I s l a n d s as a whole, p e c i a l l y M o n t s e r r a t , the phenomena o f i n c r e a s i n g p o p u l a t i o n o f s c a r c e a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d and share-cropping),  insecure  es-  i n the  face  systems o f l a n d t e n u r e ( i . e .  have f o s t e r e d c a r e l e s s a g r i c u l t u r e , and  t i o n to other  i s l a n d s , the U n i t e d Kingdom and  f a c t t h a t the  l a n d has been u n a b l e , i n the  t  caused emigra-  C e n t r a l America;::.  The  e x i s t i n g t e c h n o l o g i c a l frame-  (41) work t o absorb more p e o p l e i s e x p l a i n e d by Dr. W.A. t h a t a l t h o u g h the l a b o u r y e t t h e r e was t o 1946.  The  L e w i s . He  showed  f o r c e i n c r e a s e d r a p i d l y between 1891  and  a steady d e c l i n e i n the number engaged i n a g r i c u l t u r e up f i g u r e s i n T a b l e 8.5  be  due  to the  show t h i s . The  sharp r e d u c t i o n  at 1946  may  the war  y e a r s when work on the American b a s e s ( i n the i s l a n d s ) i n  a t t r a c t i o n o f p e o p l e away from the  time e n t e r p r i s e s and r e c r u i t m e n t  offered opportunity  i n normal c o n d i t i o n s , much h i g h e r  observed  land  during war  f o r b e t t e r wages.  I t i s q u i t e p r o b a b l e t h e r e f o r e t h a t the f i g u r e s f o r 1946  The  1946 >  would have been,  than t h e y a c t u a l l y s*e*-e.  t r e n d i s observed t o have c o n t i n u e d  i n t o the post war  period,  In T r i n i d a d , Barbados, and Jamaica the numbers engaged i n a g r i c u l t u r e at the d a t e s g i v e n are c a s e o f Barbados not  s u b s t a n t i a l l y below the 1921  f a r removed f r o m the 1946  At t h i s p o i n t t h e r e  l e v e l . And  i n the  figure.  i s need to e x p l a i n the  apparent i n c o n s i s -  t e n c y i . e . t h a t the numbers engaged i n a g r i c u l t u r e have been  decreasing  144TABLE'8,5. NUMBER OF PERSONS ENGAGED I N AGRICULTURE' 1881  P o s t War .000s  1921  1946  271,000  236,000  288,000  £ 253. (1950)  66,000  97,000  96,000  54,000  77.4 (1955)  57,000  54,000  61,000  67,000  54,000  Not available  Barbados  46,000  45,000  33,000  34,000  26,000  28.3 (1955)  Leeward Islands  40,000  34,000  27,000  26,000  25,000  Not-. available  1891  1911  209.000  271,000  Trinidad 39,000 and Tbbagjo Windward Islands  Jamai ca  •&. E s t i m a t e d . See Great B r i t a i n , C o l o n i a l O f f i c e , An Economic Survey of t h e B r i t i s h C a r i b b e a n . C o l No. 231-34. Note: These f i g u r e s s h o u l d be used w i t h c a r e because t h e census c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s have changed from one census t o a n o t h e r . The computer o f 1911 census i n Jamaica, s p e c i f i c a l l y drew a t t e n t i o n t o bad c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i n t h e 1891 census. S o u r c e : ( l ) L e w i s , Dr. W.A., I n d u s t r i a l Development i n t h e C a r i b b e a n , C a r i b b e a n Commission, Kent House, T r i n i d a d , West I n d i e s , 1951. p.26 (2) Government o f T r i n i d a d , C e n t r a l S t a t i s t i c a l O f f i c e , The S i z e and S t r u c t u r e o f t h e L a b o u r F o r c e No. 2, 1956 p, 9« (3) Cumper, G.E. "Employment i n Barbados"-, S o c i a l and Economic S t u d i e s , V o l . 8 No. 2. U.C.W.I., Jamaica, 1959. a t t h e same t i m e t h a t t h e r e i s observed a c o n s i d e r a b l e i n c r e a s e i n t h e number o f s m a l l farms between 1 t o 10 a c r e s . tency.  There i s r e a l l y no i n c o n s i s -  F o r t h e b u l k o f t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l l a b o u r f o r c e i s employed i n sugar  c u l t i v a t i o n b u t o v e r t h e l a s t decade the:":.industry has become h i g h l y mechanized.  As a r e s u l t t h e i n d u s t r y has become l e s s and l e s s dependent on  labour.  Dr. W.A.  Lev/is s t a t e s t h a t t h i r t y y e a r s ago, t h e s u g a r i n d u s t r y  employed one p e r s o n f o r every one and a h a l f a c r e s ; today i t employs one  (42) p e r s o n f o r every two a c r e s , o r 25 p e r cent l e s s .  The f a c t t h a t t h e  t o t a l acreage i n farms above 100 a c r e s has not changed much s i n c e 1946, a l -  145  though t h e number of farms has' d e c r e a s e d r e f l e c t s , i n p a r t , the y  i d a t i o n that i s taking place  x  consol-  /  i n p l a n t a t i o n a g r i c u l t u r e and t h e p r o g r e s -  s i v e m e c h a n i z a t i o n i n the sugar i n d u s t r y , e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e l a r g e i s l a n d s . In so f a r as t h e l a b o u r  f o r c e r e l e a s e d from the p l a n t a t i o n t h r o u g h mechan-  i z a t i o n i s engaged i n s m a l l  s c a l e f a r m i n g no change i s r e f l e c t e d i n the  l a b o u r f o r c e engaged i n a g r i c u l t u r e . B u t t e c h n o l o g i c a l p r o g r e s s o f t h i s t y p e d i s l o c a t e s t h e permanent l a b o u r f o r c e , so t h a t those a f f e c t e d b y the change have been, i n t h e main, p e r s o n n e l s o l e l y dependent on work i n the  sugar i n d u s t r y f o r wages. Most o f the p e r s o n s l e a v i n g a g r i c u l t u r e have been women. T h i s  i s not due t o an improvement i n the s t a n d a r d s o f l i v i n g b u t r a t h e r r e f l e c t s the competition  o f the i n c r e a s i n g male l a b o u r f o r c e f o r work and  i n consequence the compulsory r e t i r e m e n t As a r e s u l t of* the p r e c e d i n g first by  o f women from i n d u s t r y .  d i s c u s s i o n two q u e s t i o n s  (4-3) arise.The  i s what has become o f t h e work f o r c e which c o u l d not be absorbed  a g r i c u l t u r e , and t h e second i s whether the f a r m w i t h i n t h e range 1 -  5 a c r e s c a n produce an income which c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d West I n d i a n s e t t i n g - ( i . e .  adequate i n t h e  $1,200). I s h a l l d e a l w i t h the f i r s t  question  l a t e r on. A t t h i s p o i n t I w i l l t u r n a t t e n t i o n t o t h e second problem. P r i o r t o 1950 t h e p o i n t o f view c o n c e r n i n g  t h i s was t h a t one  r e a s o n f o r the p o v e r t y e x i s t i n g i n t h e West I n d i e s was t h a t farms were g e n e r a l l y too s m a l l t o be s u f f i c i e n t l y p r o d u c t i v e  and t h a t t h e system of  l a n d tenure i n many i s l a n d s , m a i n l y M o n t s e r r a t and S t . K i t t s - N e v i s ,  pre-  v e n t e d t h e peasant farmer from p r a c t i c i n g a more s c i e n t i f i c type o f farmi n g t h a n s h i f t i n g a g r i c u l t u r e . E r . W.A. Lewis s t a t e d e m p h a t i c a l l y the  that  s i z e o f f a r m t h a t was g e n e r a l l y found i n t h e West I n d i e s was t o o  146  s m a l l t o enable a man the world  to make a "decent l i v i n g " i n almost any p a r t  ( e x c l u d i n g t r u c k c r o p s ) . H i s exact  of  l i n e s were:-  The t y p i c a l West I n d i a n peasant i s working on a h o l d i n g f a r m of 2 or 3 a c r e s . Near the towns money can be made i n s u p p l y i n g f r e s h v e g e t a b l e s and f l o w e r s , which have a v e r y h i g h money y i e l d p e r a c r e , even perhaps as much as £500 g r o s s p e r a c r e per annum. But the market f o r such c r o p s i s v e r y l i m i t e d , and the b u l k o f the p e a s a n t r y must depend on the s t a p l e c r o p s . However c a r e f u l l y the peasant may work h i s h o l d i n g on such c r o p s - and o f c o u r s e , at p r e s e n t he i s v e r y backward—he cannot make 2 o r 3 a c r e s y i e l d him a r e a s o n a b l e s t a n d a r d o f l i v i n g . He cannot get from 2 or 3 a c r e s even t h e 6/- a day or more which he hopes t o earn i n the town, so t h a t i t i s not at a l l s u r p r i s i n g t h a t t h e r e i s a cont i n u a l d r i f t t o the towns.  ^  (44,)  Dr. Lewis f i r m l y e s t a b l i s h e d the p o i n t i n h i s a r t i c l e "JP^^y^c?^?^? -*-  We^ar«^^n_-Wbe: West . M i e s , , JPart  1  o f the t y p i c a l West I n d i a n farms was  t h a t the  size  so s m a l l t h a t the farmer c o u l d  make use o f the t e c h n i c a l economies o f s c a l e which are a s s o c i a t e d l a r g e r outputs. o f output  As  such the f a r m e r was  t h a t t o o much labour was  simple  a p p l i e d to the  land.  T h i s p o i n t o f d i m i n i s h i n g r e t u r n s t o s c a l e had been reached l o n g I n Barbados and 60 y e a r s ago;  with  always o p e r a t i n g w i t h i n a range  which d e f i n i t e l y i n c u r r e d diseconomies o f s c a l e . The  t r u t h o f the m a t t e r was  not  ago.  the Windward I s l a n d s t h i s p o i n t has been passed about  T r i n i d a d r e a c h e d i t at about World War  Grenada about World War  1, S t . L u c i a  11 and Dominica o n l y r e c e n t l y . F o r Dr.  L e w i s the s o l u t i o n t o t h i s problem of low ment and i underemployment was  and  W.A.  l a b o u r p r o d u c t i v i t y , unemploy-  a d r a s t i c r e d u c t i o n i n the numbers engaged  i n a g r i c u l t u r e by about h a l f . T h i s would i n c r e a s e the s i z e of the average f a r m t o u n i t s of about 5 - 1 0  a c r e s . T h i s was  to be a c h i e v e d b y c r e a t i n g  jobs o u t s i d e of a g r i c u l t u r e which would a t t r a c t the s u r p l u s i n a g r i c u l -  147  t u r e and accommodate the i n c r e a s e i n the l a b o u r f o r c e from y e a r He  estimated  t h a t about  413,000  new  jobs o u t s i d e o f a g r i c u l t u r e would  1950  have t o be c r e a t e d i n the West I n d i e s between b r i n g about f u l l  to year.  and  I960 i n o r d e r t o  employment. T h i s i n v o l v e d i n c r e a s i n g the s i z e o f  f a r m u n i t and hence the e f f i c i e n c y of the peasant f a r m e r . T h i s  the(^)  formula  f o r the s o l u t i o n o f the problem of under employment i n a g r i c u l t u r e p l a c e s the burden o f adjustment on t h e i n d u s t r i a l s e c t o r . I t i s i n d u s t r y which must p r o v i d e the new o f a g r i c u l t u r e and permit r a t i o s t h a t would be  j o b s t h a t would t a k e  the n e c e s s a r y  surplus labour  i n c r e a s e i n the  out  land/labour  conducive t o t h e i n c r e a s e d p r o d u c t i v i t y of  agricul-  t u r a l l a b o u r . I n d u s t r i a l development must a l s o p r o v i d e work f o r the members unemployed, the new  e n t r i e s t o the l a b o u r f o r c e , and must reduce  the numbers engaged i n u n p r o d u c t i v e  j o b s . The  i n c r e a s e i n the  c a p a c i t y of l a b o u r engaged i n a g r i c u l t u r e i s n e c e s s a r y demand f o r i n d u s t r i a l The  productive  to c r e a t e  the  products.  p o i n t t h a t I want t o emphasize here f o r the purpose o f  the  next s t e p i n t h i s a n a l y s i s i s the o p i n i o n t h a t the s i z e o f the u n i t i n peasant a g r i c u l t u r e must be  i n c r e a s e d by two  o r t h r e e times.. T h i s i n  f a c t means t h a t the number i n a g r i c u l t u r e must be reduced by about h a l f . I t i s e s s e n t i a l t o what f o l l o w s , to note t h a t t h i s readjustment does not c o n s i d e r employment i n a g r i c u l t u r e as a source c r e a s i n g l a b o u r f o r c e . The circumstances technology^  of employment f o r the i n -  a n a l y s i s i s long-run;  and  i n the economic  of the West I n d i e s and the e x i s t i n g s t a t e of  agricultural  P r o f e s s o r A. Lewis * recommendations were u n d o u b t e d l y v a l u a b l e  and p o i n t e d the one way  1  out  i n the f u t u r e . T h i s i s e s p e c i a l l y t r u e i f  s m a l l farms below 5 a c r e s c o n t i n u e  t o emphasize cash crops  i n their  148  p a t t e r n of a g r i c u l t u r e . I t i s at t h i s l e v e l that the studies c a r r i e d out i n Trinidad 1 9 4 6 - 1 9 5 2 on small s c a l e farming i n the West Indies enter the a n a l y s i s .  The studies i n v e s t i g a t e d the opportunities f o r  s u c c e s s f u l peasant farming on the scale e x i s t i n g i n the West Indies.  The  research work was done a t Imperial College o f T r o p i c a l A g r i c u l t u r e , Trinidad.  The f i n d i n g s of the team of a g r i c u l t u r a l s p e c i a l i s t s are sum-  marised i n Dr. A.L. J o l l y ' s "Readings i n Small Scale Farming"" and h i s "Experiment i n Small Scale Farming i n the West Indies". Dr. J o l l y ' s study i s not concerned with the expansion of the whole B r i t i s h West Indian economy and i t s movement through time but r a t h e r . w i t h a p a r t i c u l a r aspect of i t . and p a r t l y economic.  His problem i s p a r t l y t e c h n i c a l  The t e c h n i c a l knowledge that the experiments pro-  vided i s p a r t i c u l a r l y enlightening. The Problem of the Small Scale Farmer i n the West Indies Dr. J o l l y emphasises an aspect of economic development that i s not always stressed s u f f i c i e n t l y i n the theory of economic growth and general economic theory.  That i s , the economies which are a v a i l a b l e to  the small scale economic u n i t .  Many books on economic theory emphasise  the economies of s c a l e which accrue to the f i r m as i t increases i t s c a p i t a l outlay and output.  The small scale u n i t i s o f t e n associated with  diseconomies of s c a l e and i n e f f i c i e n c y .  I t i s commonly believed that be-  cause of the diseconomies of smallness the large f i r m w i l l squeeze the small f i r m out of the market.  This i s probably more l i k e l y t o be the  case i n highly monopolistic markets f o r manufactured products. i n g , however, t h i s c e r t a i n l y does not hold t r u e ,  I n farm-  (47) Dr. E a r l Heady i n *"  149  a joint  study on the c o m p e t i t i v e  advantages of the s m a l l s c a l e and  the  l a r g e s c a l e farm i n the g r a i n growing i n d u s t r y of Iowa shows t h a t i n fact  the s m a l l e n t e r p r i s e may  p o s i t i o n . The  a c t u a l l y be  competitive  study b r i n g s out the importance of tirae and  of production i n lowering  supervision  c o s t to the s m a l l farm e s p e c i a l l y i n a g r i c u l -  t u r e where weather, r e q u i r e m e n t s important.  i n very great  make the time o f sowing and r e a p i n g  On.the l a r g e f a r m t r a n s p o r t problems, l a b o u r problems,  so  and  d i s e c o n o m i e s of l a r g e s c a l e management operate t o r e d u c e t h e margin o f profits. Dr. J o l l y ' s a n a l y s i s of s m a l l s c a l e f a r m i n g has the that  advantage  i t attempts t o s o l v e the problem o f s c a r c e c a p i t a l i n s m a l l s c a l e  f a r m i n g b y u s i n g cheap l o c a l b u i l d i n g m a t e r i a l s i n o r d e r t o c o n s t r u c t the farm u n i t . The  c o s t s a v i n g e f f e c t e d i n t h i s way  enables  the most e f -  f i c i e n t use o f s c a r c e c a p i t a l . Moreover h i s p l a n becomes more f u n c t i o n a l i n the whole scheme t o reduce unemployment and r a i s e the g e n e r a l  standard  o f l i v i n g i n the a r e a . The core o f the problem f o r Dr. J o l l y i s not farms are too s m a l l but r a t h e r t h a t s m a l l f a r m s a r e not o p e r a t e d i e n t l y . He  effic-  said: One.of the most o b v i o u s ways i n which t r o p i c a l a g r i c u l t u r e can p r o g r e s s i s the e v o l u t i o n o f more c o m p l i c a t e d and more s k i l l - d e m a n d i n g systems o f a g r i c u l t u r e than can be developed on the l a r g e e s t a t e .  He  c i t e d the c a s e  s m a l l - s c a l e farms founded on t h e f o u r course Small  (.48;  of E n g l a n d at the end o f the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y when  the e n c l o s e d sheep runs were superseded by the c o m p l i c a t e d ly  that  scale farming  and  relative-  rotation.  i n the B r i t i s h West I n d i e s  numerous problems which must be overcome b e f o r e p r o g r e s s  rtic  beset  with  i s made. Some  150  o f these problems a r e d i s c u s s e d below: 1.  S m a l l f a r m e r s , as may be expected from t h e d i s c u s s i o n on d i s -  t r i b u t i o n o f l a n d b y c a s h c r o p s u s u a l l y have t o be c o n t e n t e d w i t h the l e a s t a c c e s s i b l e l a n d . These a r e n e a r l y always poor i n q u a l i t y . The r e a s o n f o r t h i s can be a t t r i b u t e d t o h i s t o r i c a l causes i . e . from v e r y e a r l y t i m e s t h e b e s t l a n d s were a c q u i r e d b y t h e p l a n t a t i o n and used  first  f o r sugar cane c u l t i v a t i o n and l a t e r on f o r o t h e r cash c r o p s . We a r e t o l d t h a t the ex-white squeezed  s e r v a n t s who s t a r t e d peasant  farms i n Barbados were  out and i m p o v e r i s e d when t h e e x p a n s i o n o f sugar p l a n t a t i o n s  s t a r t e d . There a r e o t h e r f a c t o r s , t o o , which a r e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the l o w p r o d u c t i v i t y o f the peasant  l a n d . I t has been observed t h a t even when  s m a l l f a r m e r s have s e t t l e d on good l a n d s t h e y u s u a l l y degraded  i t rapidly  because o f o t h e r h a n d i c a p s , which a r e d i s c u s s e d below. D r . J o l l y says, " s h i f t i n g c u l t i v a t i o n i s a s much e v i d e n c e o f a poor f a r m i n g system as i n h e r e n t poor l a n d . " On account average  o f t h e poor q u a l i t y o f t h e l a n d , the (^-9)  a r e a a v a i l a b l e t o an i n d i v i d u a l i s u s u a l l y i n s u f f i c i e n t t o g i v e  f u l l - t i m e p r o d u c t i v e employment throughout 2.  the year.  I have s a i d above the s e a s o n a l employment on e s t a t e s o r f a c -  t o r i e s p l u s t h e produce  o f t h e peasant h o l d i n g o r s m a l l p l o t make up the  t o t a l wage e a r n i n g s f o r the y e a r . When the time o f o c c u r r e n c e o f t h e s e economic a c t i v i t i e s c o n f l i c t s , t h e r e s u l t s may be u n h e a l t h y f o r t h e economy as a whole. D u r i n g the war the h i g h wages p a i d on t h e American b a s e s caused  s e r i o u s l a b o u r d i s l o c a t i o n i n the sugar i n d u s t r y i n a l l t h e i s l a n d s .  Because o f t h i s dependence on wages, the s m a l l f a r m e r must h i r e c a s u a l l a b o u r . The p a r t - t i m e farmer who employs s e a s o n a l l a b o u r w h i l e he works a t the e s t a t e o r f a c t o r y a t c r o p season s a c r i f i c e s the fundamental  151  advantage  o f s m a l l - s c a l e o p e r a t i o n . He cannot e x p l o i t h i s t h e o r e t i c a l  advantage  o f c l o s e and keen management i f he i s on h i s f a r m o n l y h a l f  the time and has t o r e l y p a r t l y on h i r e d l a b o u r i n p l a c e o f h i s . 3.  Land tenure^a's.I have a l r e a d y s t a t e d ^ i s not. s a t i s f a c t o r y . The  system o f s h a r e - c r o p p i n g i s p r i m i t i v e and f e u d a l i n i t s o r i g i n . I t c a n not be the base o f a p r o g r e s s i v e a g r i c u l t u r e . Cash t e n a n c i e s ( o r r e n t e d t e n a n c i e s ) a r e u s u a l l y v e r y i n s e c u r e ; t h e tenant may be e v i c t e d a t s h o r t n o t i c e ; the farmer may l e a v e when he w i s h e s . The r e s u l t  of this i s that  n e i t h e r l a n d l o r d n o r tenant undertakes t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s n e c e s s a r y t o the s a t i s f a c t o r y working o f the systems. N e i t h e r o f t h e two p a r t i e s t o the c o n t r a c t i s w i l l i n g t o i n v e s t c a p i t a l under such c o n d i t i o n s . 4.  F r a g m e n t a t i o n o f s m a l l farms i s common i n t h e C a r i b b e a n because  t h e y a r e h i s t o r i c a l l y so r e c e n t . The l a c k o f c a p i t a l i s p a r t l y f o r t h i s f r a g m e n t a t i o n . Farmers  responsible  have had t o b u y p i e c e s o f l a n d as the  c a s h became a v a i l a b l e . As a r e s u l t  t h e y found i t v e r y d i f f i c u l t  to get  l a n d f o r e x p a n s i o n , which was c o n t i g u o u s w i t h t h e i r e x i s t i n g h o l d i n g s . Another cause o f f r a g m e n t a t i o n i s the p a r c e l i n g o u t o f t h e f a r m t o s e v e r a l members o f the f a m i l y i n w i l l s . T h i s may reduce the farm t o t o o s m a l l a s i z e . F r a g m e n t a t i o n of t h e f i r s t  type handicaps f a r m i n g i n r e s p e c t  to  the t o o l s and equipment t h a t can be used i n t h e use o f o r g a n i c manure and o t h e r m i l k b y - p r o d u c t s . I t a l s o makes the f a r m e r more s u s c e p t i b l e t o losses b y p r a e d i a l l a r c e n y . The fundamental disadvantage,however,  i s that  the whole of t h e f a r m cannot be c o n s t a n t l y under the farmers o b s e r v a t i o n . 5.  The m a r k e t i n g o f domestic p r o d u c t s i s another cause f o r t h e  c a r e l e s s a t t i t u d e taken towards a g r i c u l t u r e i n a l l t h e i s l a n d s . T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y so i n t h e s m a l l e r i s l a n d s , where the home market i s t o o  152  small t o take a l l  t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c e . The s u r p l u s  because of t h e i r r e g u l a r example o f t h i s  inter-island  transport. Montserrat  s i t u a t i o n . Her g r o s s domestic p r o d u c t  $ 2 . 5 m i l l i o n . Volume o f t r a d e  is  This t r a n s p o r t  difficulty  makes i t  This problem i s  There i s  common t o S t .  a small trade  economies and t h e  consequent  these i s l a n d s  grow  i n vegetables  s m a l l volume o f  and whole  imports  and  exports jfcakesti^imprbfita*biLe^forr.large„ships;%o c a l l at these small Also the lack of  storage f a c i l i t i e s  and p r o c e s s i n g  get  Kitts-  w i t h J a m a i c a , Bermuda a n d e v e n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . B u t o n t h e  size of the  often  to  A n t i g u a , B a r b u d a , and D o m i n i c a . A l l  the  about  extremely d i f f i c u l t  Nevis - A n g u i l l a ,  fruits  is only  it  shipped i n t i m e .  amount o f f r u i t .  a good  l a r g e e n o u g h t o make  domestic products  a considerable  is  exported  v e r y s m a l l . S h i p s do n o t c a l l t h e r e  because t h e i n g o i n g and o u t g o i n g c a r g o i s n o t profitable.  cannot be  islands.  industries  w h i c h c a t e r t o t h e p r i m a r y p r o d u c e o f t h e i s l a n d s l e a d s t o much w a s t e b y spoilage,  s h r i n k i n g , and d e s t r u c t i o n b y r o d e n t s . W e e v i l s and r a t s  havoc w i t h t h e  stoned p r o d u c t s .  damage ^ n d r o t > f o r  t h e 1944  I n Antigua losses from shrinkage,  c r o p qrt r e p o r t e d t o h a v e a m o u n t e d t o  wreak rat nearly (51)  one q u a r t e r  of i t .  These c o n d i t i o n s f r u s t r a t e  sant f a r m e r s and k i l l the imports  of  is,  the peapurchase  necessities. the marketing of  as a w h o l e , h i g h l y o r g a n i z e d a n d e f f i c i e n t ,  of products for  of  t h e t r a d e w h i c h :is s o b a d l y n e e d e d t o h e l p  I n t h e B r i t i s h West I n d i e s export  the e f f o r t s  l o c a l consumption i s most i n e f f i c i e n t  staple products but  the  for  marketing  and d i s o r g a n i z e d .  The s h o r t a g e a n d h i g h p r i c e s f o r f r e s h v e g e t a b l e s , , m i l k ^ a n d e g g s , a r e examples o f t h e r e s t r i c t i o n on s u p p l y w h i c h u n c e r t a i n t y and c o s t o f k e t i n g h a s . The r e c e n t  revival  o f t h e banana t r a d e i n M o n t s e r r a t  was  maronly  153  p o s s i b l e because of the arrangements to have the bananas shipped to Dominica,'. 6.  ^ ••-<->-•.. '.  :•;  ', ; •  The large dependence on a cash economy has had two  effects.(l)  I t made the farmer more commercial minded which i n i t s e l f i s a good t h i n g but (2) i t fostered the b i a s on foreign foodstuffs w i t h the adverse  ef-  f e c t s discussed above. The domestic market has been g r o s s l y neglected and e n t e r p r i s e s which can be added to the farm to great advantage are often l e f t aside i n favour of the cash c r o p . The r e s u l t i s that f u l l  advantage  i s not taken of labour .hours and diseconomies r e s u l t . The question of labour "land r a t i o and capital—land r a t i o i n the West Indies i s p a r t i c u l a r l y s i g n i f i c a n t . i n an explanation of the low p r o d u c t i v i t y of the peasant farmer. I t i s t r e a t e d i n the f o l l o w i n g paragraphs. In no sector of the West I n d i a n economy i s the l a c k of c a p i t a l more obvious than In peasant farming. This i s one reason f o r the low r e turns experienced on most peasant farms throughout the t e r r i t o r i e s . The -cause of - t h i s u n d e r - c a p i t a l i z a t i o n i s not p r i m a r i l y  1  :j  the l a c k of  investment p o s s i b i l i t i e s or a low marginal e f f i c i e n c y of c a p i t a l i n small  C 50 ) farming; f o r i t i s not land that i s unproductive i n the West Indies^  K  '  (53)  but l a b o u r . Moreover i t i s not e n t i r e l y due to the shortage of c a p i t a l . C a p i t a l i s scarce because people do not save enough, and people do not make t h i s s a c r i f i c e of present consumption e i t h e r because they do not produce enough^or they do not have the i n c e n t i v e to save. When an enterp r i s e i s making a c l e a r margin of p r o f i t s and t h i s i s w e l l known people w i l l i n v e s t i n i t . This i s true i n any economy whether i t i s advanced, un-der^eveloped or p r i m i t i v e . In the West Indies three f a c t o r s seem to be e s s e n t i a l l y r e s -  154  ponsible f o r  the l a c k of c a p i t a l  2. The d i f f i c u l t y 3. The s y s t e m o f  o f b o r r o w i n g c a p i t a l , and tenure.  s a i d under c a p i t a l i z e d small f a r m i n g i s  t e d as t h e r e c o g n i z e d s y s t e m t h a t nc<? n a g r i c u l t u r a l u n d e r t a k i n g s . that  such a poor l i v i n g  production of Again t h i s cent  f a r m i n g . They a r e :  Tradition  1.  Dr. J o l l y  i n peasant  This a t t i t u d e  is attributed  the i s l a n d ,  1952-54 shows t h a t  the importance of  farm units  consumed t h e  In these  c o n s u m p t i o n on t h e  peasant f a r m i n g  f o r a d o m e s t i c market chosen such t h a t equipment  is  not  they w i l l  farm u n i t .  and greater studies  It  is  not  animal  on t h e a v e r a g e  system o f f a r m i n g i s n e c e s s a r y i f says o f  labour this  o f man h o u r s  A well  income i s t o be  is strikingly  significant.  The  not  and  organised  maximised.  farm.  caters  o r g a n i z e d on an economic b a s e . Crops are  ensure the b e s t u t i l i s a t i o n  of  a commer-  i n t h e W e s t I n d i e s e v e n when i t  o v e r t h e y e a r and m a i n t a i n s o i l f e r t i l i t y .  What D r . J o l l y  sav-  possible  islands l i k e Montserrat  c i a l e n t e r p r i s e w h i c h supplements o t h e r economic u n i t s of fact  re-  despite  s a v i n g was  t h e h o l d i n g . Subsequent  the  a n d A n t i g u a and B a r b u d a show t h e i m p o r t a n c e  s u b s i s t e n c e f a r m i n g on t h e s e u n i t s .  As a m a t t e r  of  The  s u b s i s t e n c e f a r m i n g . Most households  o f t h e i n c o m e f r o m wages e a r n e d o f f  mainly f o r  fact  t h e r e was a s u b s t a n t i a l d o m e s t i c  t o t a l a g r i c u l t u r a l produce and saved the  on S t . K i t t s - N e v i s - A n g u i l l a  in  farm.  than i n the Leeward I s l a n d s .  income a c c o u n t s f o r M o n t s e r r a t  because of  husbandry i s  to the  consumed on t h e  i n g made o u t o f wages a n d r e m i t t a n c e s f r o m a b r o a d . T h i s  part  v  i s made f r o m m o s t f a r m i n g . The g r e a t e r p a r t  s m a l l f a r m s i n t h e West I n d i e s i s  t h e d e p r e s s e d economy o f  accep- -^  surplus funds are u s u a l l y invested  i s n o w h e r e more e v i d e n t  study of  so u n i v e r s a l l y  155  f o l l o w i n g passage o u t l i n e s h i s  observations:  The l a c k of c a p i t a l i s exaggerated by the f a c t that the most urgent i n v e s t m e n t s on a s m a l l farm are not power machinery or s p e c i a l b u i l d i n g s t h a t from t h e i r a t t r a c t i v e and s o l i d appearance are o b v i o u s l y good v a l u e f o r money; t h e y are i n w e l l c u l t i v a t e d and w e l l f e r t i l i z e d c r o p s , i n systems of f a r m i n g ( p r o b a b l y i n c l u d i n g l i v e s t o c k ) t h a t w i l l m a i n t a i n and i n c r e a s e s o i l f e r t i l i t y . These are r a t h e r i n t a n g i b l e and e a s i l y eroded a s s e t s . They can o n l y be m a i n t a i n e d by a good f a r m i n g programme and a steady p u r p o s e . Any d e t e r i o r a t i o n from an i n i t i a l l y d e s i r a b l e system i s a s a c r i f i c e o f c a p i t a l . Once s a c r i f i c e d the farm w i l l be l e s s w e l l equipped t o r e - a c c u m u l a t e the l o s t . c a p i t a l out o f p r o fits. I t i s t h e r e f o r e not too l i t t l e  m e c h a n i z a t i o n which i s r e s p o n s i b l e  (55) for  the poor s t a t e o f s m a l l f a r m i n g ^ b u t r a t h e r the waste of c a p i t a l i n terms of s o i l f e r t i l i t y ,  and p r o f i t s ^ ^ c o n s e q u e n t  i n g a g r i c u l t u r e and The  on an inadequate.• system of' s h i f t -  share-cropping.  question  of l a c k o f f a c i l i t i e s f o r p r o v i d i n g s m a l l f a r m e r s  w i t h l o a n s i s a p r o b l e m common t o most c o u n t r i e s . I t i s a f i e l d o f i n vestment where government i s b e s t a d v i s e d are not to t h e  l i k e l y to f i l l  t o operate s i n c e p r i v a t e i n t e r e s t s  the need. However, g e n e r a l l y t h i s a t t i t u d e i s  f a c t that i n many i s l a n d s , e s p e c i a l l y the Leeward I s l a n d s , most  peasant f a r m s are on a tenant l e a s e b a s i s and own  due  the b e s t  as such the f a r m e r does not  c o l l a t e r a l f o r l o a n s . I n o t h e r a r e a s the f a c t t h a t the mar-  g i n a l p r o d u c t i v i t y of labour  i s so low  farm income which would p r o v i d e  does not permit a l a r g e enough n e t  s u b s t a n t i a l s e c u r i t y f o r l o a n s . Moreover  the u n c e r t a i n t y which surrounds a g r i c u l t u r e p r e j u d i c e s t h e  mind o f p o t e n t i a l  f i n a n c i e r s against i t . The  system of l a n d tenure reduces the c a p i t a l r ' l a n d r a t i o i n y e t  another i m p o r t a n t way.  Contracts  between tenant and  landlord, especially  156  the  share  tenant  crop t y p e , a r e v e r y a r b i t r a r y and  i n s e c u r e . As a r e s u l t n e i t h e r %  nor 1 . l a n d l o r d d e s i r e t o s i n k f i x e d c a p i t a l i n the l a n d i n the f o r m  o f permanent improvements. The  tendency i s t h e r e f o r e t o p r a c t i c e s h i f t -  i n g a g r i c u l t u r e i n which l a b o u r h o u r s a r e s u b s t i t u t e d f o r c a p i t a l ,  that  i s a h i g h l a b o u r l a n d r a t i o becomes the major t e c h n i c a l c o e f f i c i e n t  of  production. On owner o c c u p i e d farms and ment does not a p p l y s i n c e t h e y own  managed farms however, t h i s  the l a n d s or o p e r a t e  i t under  argusecure  l e g a l c o n t r a c t s . D e s p i t e t h i s , most f a r m e r s attempt to'remedy t h e i r l a c k of l i q u i d  c a p i t a l by  i n c r e a s e d a p p l i c a t i o n of l a b o u r . The  over a p p l i - ^ v  c a t i o n o f l a b o u r comes f r o m a f a i l u r e t o impute a r e a l i s t i c v a l u e t o i t . Most f a r m e r s c o n s i d e r l i q u i d c a p i t a l as s c a r c e and v a l u a b l e , b u t l a b o u r as abundant and  t h e r e f o r e cheap. The  regard  g r o s s e r r o r t h e y make i s t o  v a l u e l a b o u r i n a b s o l u t e terms not i n terms o f i t s o p p o r t u n i t y c o s t . Dr. J o l l y p o i n t s out  t h a t maize i s p r o b a b l y  the most p o p u l a r  s m a l l farm  c r o p among peasant f a r m s , a l t h o u g h i t y i e l d s a r e t u r n p e r hour worked which i s t h r e e times s m a l l e r than sugar cane grown on a w e l l managed s m a l l f a r m . Comparative c o s t i n g s a t the I m p e r i a l C o l l e g e of T r o p i c a l  Ag-  r i c u l t u r e on s i m i l a r farms showed t h a t o v e r a number of y e a r s maize gave a r e t u r n o f about 1 c e n t s p e r hour worked.while, p r o p e r l y p l a n t e d sugar cane e a r n e d an average o f 23 reason  cents an h o u r . J o l l y e x p l a i n e d t h a t  t h a t maize t a k e s p r e f e r e n c e over  o r no c a s h o u t l a y and  the  sugar i s t h a t i t i n v o l v e s l i t t l e  g i v e s a q u i c k r e t u r n , so i t t e n d s t o be over  pro-  duced. Sugar cane, d e s p i t e the f a c t t h a t i t g i v e s a h i g h e r r e t u r n t o l a b o u r p e r hour, t o o k second p l a c e because i t i n v o l v e s 18 months of p e n d i t u r e b e f o r e the f i r s t  harvest  is  reached.  ex-  '  157  Similarly farmers r a r e l y plant t h e y g e t no cash r e t u r n and w i l l vamdervalue. This  grass f o r l i v e s t o c k  save o n l y t h e i r t i m e , w h i c h  because (57)  they  i s w h a t i s so o f t e n e x p l a i n e d as t h e e r r o r o f  the  money d e l u s i o n .  It  i s the f a l l a c y of the cash-basis a g r i c u l t u r e  peasant  It  can o n l y lead t o low labour p r o d u c t i v i t y per hour.  farmer.  "Few f a r m e r s e v e n i n T r i n i d a d e a r n a n e t i n c o m e o f farms, Jolly  a l t h o u g h many s u g a r e s t a t e  $500 a y e a r f r o m t h e i r  l a b o u r e r s e a r n more t h a n t h a t " .  q u o t e s C . T . S h e p p a r d as r e p o r t i n g a n income o f  Indian^for  the average peasant f a m i l y  W i n d w a r d I s l a n d s f o r 1939 prices.  of the  of  5? p e r s o n s  - 42. T h i s i s b e f o r e  (58)  $187, B r i t i s h lest i n t h e Leeward and  the p o s t war r i s e  in  T h i s income a m o u n t s t o $34. p e r h e a d p e r annum i n i s l a n d s w h e r e  the national  income i s i n t h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d o f |60 - $70 p e r h e a d  (59) p e r annum.  \->;/  Possibilities  o f S m a l l S c a l e F a r m i n g i n t h e B r i t i s h West  The d i f f i c u l t i e s  of  t h e o r e t i c a l l y unsurmountable.  small scale farming just  run significance;  mentioned are not  I n p r a c t i c e most o f them can be  s o l v e d o n c e f a r m e r s become a w a r e o f t h e m . H o w e v e r , may p r o v e a s t r o n g o b s t a c l e  Indies.  to reform. But, t h i s  easily  t r a d i t i o n and custom  problem i s o n l y . o f  f o r t h e A m e r i c a n f a r m e r y: z d e s c r i b e d i n t h e l a t e  c e n t u r y as an e a r t h s c r a t c h e r , l y organized and e f f i c i e n t e x t e n s i v e programme o f  cultivator.  There  i s no r e a s o n t h a t  u n d e r an  a g r i c u l t u r a l r e f o r m that ?; tthieb. West I n d i e s  the t u r n of the century.  1  cannot  since  But the progress i n a g r i c u l t u r e has been  gated t o sugar c u l t i v a t i o n ,  19th  h a s i n a h u n d r e d y e a r s become a v e r y h i g h -  cover e q u a l grounds i n t h e n e a r f u t u r e . . M u c h I h a s been a c h i e v e d  disease  short  rele-  c o c o a , b a n a n a s a n d c o c o n u t s . The c o n t r o l  of  i n s u g a r c a n e , c o c o a , a n d r e c e n t l y b a n a n a s • i-3. t h e h a l l mark;? o f  158  the p r o g r e s s . The p o s t war p e r i o d marks t h e b e g i n n i n g o f a g r i c u l t u r a l r e s e a r c h on the s m a l l peasant The f o l l o w i n g paragraphs  type farm. I have o u t l i n e d t h e problems above.  o u t l i n e t h e success^sl"£hafc..have- .beeat met.Loti.these  l i n e s . My c h i e f source o f r e f e r e n c e i s J o l l y ' s  "Report  on F e a s a n t E x p e r i -  mental Farms a t t h e I m p e r i a l C o l l e g e o f T r o p i c a l A g r i c u l t u r e , T r i n i d a d . 1  The purpose o f t h e study was . . . " t o a s c e r t a i n whether i t i s p o s s i b l e t o develop a system o f peasant  f a r m i n g t h a t w i l l p r o v i d e a f u l l e r time em-  ployment and a reasonable s t a n d a r d o f l i v i n g b y e l i m i n a t i n g t h e handicaps under which a peasant  n o r m a l l y works". The p l a n f o r t h e experiment  s t i t u t e d a s t u d y o f f i v e u n i t h o l d i n g s . The f i r s t in  con-^^  y  h o l d i n g was e s t a b l i s h e d  1946, under systems o f f a r m i n g which seemed p r o m i s i n g on t h e l a n d  a v a i l a b l e . The u n i t c o n s i s t e d o f one man and one woman, a l l o t h e r factors,w.., the s i z e o f l a n d , t h e amount o f c a p i t a l e t c . , were, t o be v a r i e d u n t i l a s a t i s f a c t o r y s t a n d a r d was f o u n d . A t 1954 (the time the R e p o r t  was p u b l i s h e d ) f i v e h o l d i n g s were  e s t a b l i s h e d , a l l o f them on t h e C o l l e g e Farm. The s i z e o f t h e manuala r a b l e u n i t i n o p e r a t i o n a t 1952 was 3? a c r e s . The c o s t o f e s t a b l i s h m e n t b e f o r e t h e peasants  e n t e r e d the h o l d i n g s was e s t i m a t e d a t  $1,562  c o s t o f m a i n t a i n i n g t h e peasants and t h e i r animals f o r t h e second w i t h advances a t c u r r e n t wage r a t e s  $1,299. A p p r o x i m a t e l y $3,000  q u i r e d t o c r e a t e the n e c e s s a r y tenants a s s e t s on t h i s  and t h e year i s re-  3JF a c r e manual-  (61) a r a b l e h o l d i n g . The c r o p s grown on h o l d i n g s g e n e r a l l y were cane, yam, maize, p i g e o n peas, sweet p o t a t o e s , v e g e t a b l e s , r i c e . Some h o l d i n g s were d e s i g n e d t o i n c l u d e l i v e s t o c k e n t e r p r i s e s : - d a i r y i n g , p o u l t r y , and p i g s . On t h e manual-arable  farm l o s s e s were i n c u r r e d f o r t h e f i r s t  four years  159  1946/47, 1947/48, 1948/49 and 1949/50. A c a r e f u l a n a l y s i s of t h e f i r s t f o u r y e a r s working on t h i s h o l d i n g showed t h a t the o n l y f i e l d c r o p s l i k e - . [ l y t o be p r o f i t a b l e were sugar cane and yams, and these two had l a b o u r demands which c o u l d be made complementary. The combination o f any  (^2)  t h r e e e n t e r p r i s e s , cane, yams and l i v e s t o c k , has i n f a c t proved completely  sound. J o l l y goes on t o say t h a t t h e s e e n t e r p r i s e s b e s i d e s  allowing  e x c e l l e n t l a b o u r u t i l i z a t i o n throughout the y e a r a r e e v e n t u a l l y  contri-  b u t o r y . L i v e s t o c k p r o v i d e s pen manure f o r the yams, one o f the few crops a p a r t from market garden ones t h a t responds p r o f i t a b l y t o t h i s i n e x p e n sive f e r t i l i z e r ; for  cane s u p p l i e s d r y season f o d d e r f o r l i v e s t o c k and t r a s h  t h e yam t r e n c h e s ;  yams improve the f e r t i l i t y o f t h e cane l a n d b y  b u i l d i n g up t h e o r g a n i c matter content The  success  of the s o i l and s u p p r e s s i n g  weeds.  of the combination i l l u s t r a t e s the importance o f  c a r e f u l o r g a n i z a t i o n o f e n t e r p r i s e s on a peasant farm. As a r e s u l t of the r e o r g a n i z a t i o n i t was p o s s i b l e t o i n c r e a s e the a r a b l e a r e a o f the farm  from 1.6  t o 2.6 a c r e s the s i z e o f the h o l d i n g now i n c r e a s e d from  3-g- a c r e s t o 4§- a c r e s . When a f t e r t h r e e y e a r s , t h e new r o t a t i o n had become f u l l y e s t a b l i s h e d , the g r o s s the t o t a l l a b o u r  income had r i s e n f r o m $800  t o $1,800 and  income from $500 t o $1,200. These were not the b e s t  r e s u l t s p o s s i b l e ; an e a r l y d r y season o f u n u s u a l d u r a t i o n which reduced the y i e l d o f o v e r y e a r cane. F u r t h e r r e d u c t i o n i n c o s t o f p r o d u c i n g and  i n c r e a s e s i n i t s y i e l d p e r a c r e a r e a l s o p o s s i b l e . Table  the y i e l d s o f good y e a r s w i t h 1952/53.  10.5.  yams shows  160  TABLE 9.5 • MANUAL ARABLE CURRENT REVENUE AND EXPENDITURE 1952/53 Expenditure 1,827  Revenue * #146.16  lbs feed  1,343 l b s f e r t i l i z e r  107.44  422 g a l l o n s 62^ t o n s  milk  cane  1,240 l b s s e e d  57.20  11,859 l b s yam  Supplies  19.91  65 l b s p u m p k i n s  208.16  Services + 12,195 l b s g r a s s purchased/  $443.00 625.63 592.95 3.90  F i n a l payment on M 1951/52 c a n e  199.97  36.58  D e p r e c i a t i o n and h o l d i n g maintenance  120.00 $695.45  * Excludes a two year h e i f e r + Include  $1,865.45  s o l d f o r $250.  some c a r t i n g a n d l o a d i n g  ($156) l i v e s t o c k s e r v i c e ,  rent e t c .  # Peasant's guatemala grass (Tripsacum laxum) r e p l a n t e d d u r i n g the year ( a f t e r 20 y e a r s ) ; n o c u t t i n g b e t w e e n O c t o b e r a n d F e b r u a r y . Source:  Jplly,A^L.  Readings i n Small Scale Farming,  p.11.  TABLE 10.5 Ffi^M-^oj?v<r«i*.f- BEST YIELDS COMPARED WITH 1952/53 Best Over y e a r  cane  Yields  1952/53  95 t o n s p e r a c r e  54 t o n s p e r a c r e  1st R a t o o n  49 t o n s p e r a c r e  48 t o n s p e r a c r e  Ratoon  42 t o n s p e r a c r e  40 t o n s p e r a c r e  3rd R a t o o n  53 t o n s p e r a c r e  2nd  Yams  37,000 l b s p e r a c r e 620 g a l l o n s p e r cow  Milk Source:  -  30,000 l b s p e r a c r e 422 g a l l o n s p e r cow  J o l l y A . L . R e p o r t on Peasant E x p e r i m e n t a l Farms a t t h e I m p e r i a l C o l l e g e o f T r o p i c a l A g r i c u l t u r e , T r i n i d a d_. B . W .1.  p. 47.  161  It  was p r o p o s e d i n 1955 t o i n c r e a s e t h i s  holding by extending the arable  a c r e a g e b y one more a c r e b y i n c o r p o r a t i n g  a n o t h e r yam-cane s h i f t .  "Readings i n S m a l l S c a l e Farming', J o l l y s a i d t h a t that  this  increased arable  or l i v e s t o c k .  If  this  s e l f - s u p p o r t i n g farmer  ;  possible high  is practical  i n c o m e o f $1,800 a y e a r w o u l d b e p o s s i b l e .  he s a y s w o u l d p l a c e t h e p e a s a n t  his products  seemed q u i t e  area could be farmed a t the previous  s t a n d a r d s w i t h no more l a b o u r t o t a l labour  it  .In his  then a  S u c h a n income  i n a n i m p r e g n a b l e p o s i t i o n as a p e r m a n e n t  i n the face o f any f o r s e e a b l e f a l l  i n prices  i n the f u t u r e .  of (63)  A n o t h e r t y p e o f h o l d i n g l i s t e d was t h e A r a b l e - D a i r y ,  the  D r a u g h t O x e n , S p e c i a l i z e d D a i r y a n d t h e M a r k e t G a r d e n . The l a s t two w e r e i n t e n d e d t o be complementary i n respect  o f p e n m a n u r e . The A r a b l e - D a i r y  t y p e o f f a r m p r o v e d t o b e s u c c e s s f u l . An e s t i m a t e d l a b o u r i n c o m e o f was e a r n e d o n f i v e a c r e s o f l a n d . The r e s u l t s  o f the market  garden are  presented below: TABLE  11.5  MARKET GARDEN RESULTS AFTER THE; F I R S T YEAR Year  1948/49  Gross C u r r e n t Revenue #  1949/50  P r o f i t (+) Loss (-)  T o t a l Labour  income  #400.  816.  ( - ) $430.  992.*  (+)  20.  906.  1950/51  1,272  (-)  265.  638.  1951/52  1,728  GO  397.  1,462.  1952/53  2,032  (+)  499.  1,749.  * E x c l u d e d h i g h c a r r y - o v e r v a l u e o f c r o p s ($267) o n t h e h o l d i n g at t h e end o f t h e f i n a n c i a l y e a r . Source:  Jolly.,  A.L.  $1,620  Readings i n Small Scale Farming, p. 1 5 .  162  The w o r k done o n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l influence.  I n 1956,  Jolly  complained t h a t  s y m p a t h y p r o b a b l y due t o a l a c k o f achievements of the work. done on t h e s m a l l u n i t It  is  farm i f  understanding  i s very evident  experiment  success i s  t o be  and  that  t h e r e i s need  supervision of  grown s u c c e s s f u l l y on t h e s e  The r e a s o n t h a t i s because i t  the  acreage  s o , when yams w e r e made t h e d o m crops w h i c h c o u l d be  s i z e f a r m s w e r e v e r y l i m i t e d . Above  all,the  m a i z e made v e r y p o o r r e t u r n s p e r man h o u r w o r k e d it  was p l a n t e d more t h a n a n y o t h e r c r o p b y  required a smaller  initial  expenditure of  peasant  capital  a n d p r o v i d e d c a s h more r e a d i l y . Yams a n d c a n e p r o v e d t o b e t h e m o s t ductive pursuits. The w o r k , J o l l y  S o y a b e a n s were n o t  said is  just  }  in its  s u c c e s s f u l as a p a r t  infant  s t a g e and t h a t  tural  a distinct  extension services  i n proper  timing of  economic p o s s i b i l i t y  if  can be p r o v i d e d t o t h e f a r m e r s .  the enterprises  is  significant.  much r e m a i n s small  proper The  success  who managed i t  plant  Timing of  the  important f a c t o r  on t h e s m a l l f a r m . T h i s i s  t h e peasant farmer i s not g e n e r a l l y  aware.  scale  agricul-  the A r a b l e - D a i r y r e v o l v e d around whether the couple  is  to  importance  The f i n a l  a c e r t a i n a c r e a g e o f yams w i t h i n a g i v e n t i m e .  pro-  o f any scheme.  b e d o n e a n d c a n be d o n e . He h a s p r o v e n c l e a r l y h o w e v e r t h a t f a r m i n g on 5 acres i s  for  achieved.  On t h e w h o l e > t h e n u m b e r o f  experiments proved t h a t  ^^"^  organization.  t h e e x p e r i m e n t s p r o v e d s u c c e s s f u l o n l y when t h e  rotation crop.  farmers  the objects  of  h o w e v e r how much c a n be  c a r r i e d out  u n d e r c r o p was i n c r e a s e d b y a n a c r e o r  on i t .  of  c u l t i v a t i o n and t h e c l o s e s t p o s s i b l e  Most o f  inant  t h e r e was e v i d e n t l y a l a c k  f a r m i n t h e West I n d i e s w i t h p r o p e r  also clear from the  very intensive  It  s t a t i o n has., n o t h a d wide  something of  of  could  operations which  163  The g e n e r a l a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e s e experiments i s c e r t a i n t o be fraught with serious i n i t i a l d i f f i c u l t i e s . the government s h o u l d not h i r e l a b o u r a s was  But,  t h e r e i s no reason t h a t  set up such farms as p u b l i c e n t e r p r i s e s and  done a t t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l farm t o r u n them. When the  farms become an economic p r o j e c t . t h e l a b o u r e r s o r f a m i l y u n i t be g i v e n a l e a s e f o r a t w e n t y - f i v e y e a r p e r i o d . At p r e s e n t t h e  should settle-  ment p o l i c y i n T r i n i d a d aims at a c h i e v i n g such o b j e c t i v e s , but the of  the farms u.sr. o f the medium s i z e above, i . e . 10 a c r e s . The  size  essential  c o n d i t i o n s f o r a l l h o l d i n g s of which the government has become l a n d l o r d are: 1.  The  h o l d i n g must be r e s i d e n t i a l ; the peasant  and h i s f a m i l y  must l i v e on i t . 2.  The h o l d i n g must be a l l i n one  3.  Such h o l d i n g must have a k i t c h e n garden, f r u i t  l i v e s t o c k and  block. trees, poultry  fodder.  4.  The h o l d i n g must be r u n on mixed f a r m i n g  principles.  5.  The  of the f a m i l y on the  f a c i l i t i e s a f f o r d e d i n establishment  h o l d i n g must be one which s h o u l d n o r m a l l y be a v a i l a b l e to any peasant > Peasants are(awarded f o r any  improvements t o the s o i l or farm  property.  They a r e f i n e d f o r d e l a p i d a t i p n of the s o i l and b u i l d i n g s through l e s s a g r i c u l t u r e and n e g l e c t . The of  system o f farm must conform t o  carethose  the A g r i c u l t u r a l E x p e r i m e n t a l S t a t i o n .  6.  The peasant  f a m i l i e s are to be,  i n the most p a r t , m a r r i e d  couples. C a r e f u l screening of peasants to  rrs; c a r r i e d out b e f o r e l a n d s a r e l e a s e d  p e r s o n s . A l l a p p l i c a n t s are f i r s t put on a p r o b a t i o n a r y p e r i o d b e f o r e  164  a 25 y e a r (lease i s made. In t h i s way o f f i c e r s t o c o n t r o l the peasant  i t becomes e a s i e r f o r t h e e x t e n s i o n  farmers  the experiment f a r m a c r o s s t o the f a r m Effect  and get the knowledge g a i n e d i n community.  og Employment. In summary, then, the e x p e r i m e n t s o f Dr. J o l l y and h i s team  seem t o suggest  t h a t i n the f u t u r e a g r i c u l t u r e i n the West I n d i e s might  w e l l be a b l e t o s u p p l y those a t p r e s e n t engaged i n i t w i t h g r e a t e r i n comes. T h i s can be made p o s s i b l e b y c o n t i n u e d experiment with t y p e s o f peasant  undertakings  and t h e f i n a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f s u c c e s s f u l  schemes to commercial o p e r a t i o n s t h r o u g h an a l e r t peasant  different  an a c t i v e e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e and  f a r m i n g community. T h i s i s not a w i l d dream. I s a m a t t e r  o f f a c t , the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Bank f o r R e c o n s t r u c t i o n and Development i n i t s r e p o r t on the economic development o f Jamaica e s t i m a t e d t h a t a g r i c u l t u r e under a more i n t e n s i v e c u l t u r e may t u n i t i e s i n Jamaica f o r  i n the end f u r n i s h employment oppor-  30,000 t o 40,000 more p e o p l e . T h i s r e p r e s e n t s an  i n c r e a s e of 13 p e r c e n t t o 18 p e r cent as compared w i t h the i n c r e a s e o f 44 p e r cent which t h e y hoped would be a c h i e v e d i n p r o d u c t i o n . I t i s clear,however,from except  the p r e s e n t s t a t e o f a f f a i r s t h a t  i n Jamaica, Dominica and T r i n i d a d expansion  of the economy o f the  F e d e r a t e d West I n d i e s by e x t e n s i v e a d d i t i o n t o t h e l a n d acreage c u l t i v a t i o n would not be p o s s i b l e . The  under  severe p r e s s u r e o f p o p u l a t i o n on  t h e l a n d makes i t i m p o s s i b l e t o accommodate the whole a d d i t i o n t o f u t u r e l a b o u r f o r c e i n a g r i c u l t u r e without  the  any f u r t h e r f r a g m e n t a t i o n  of  t h e t o t a l a v a i l a b l e a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d . A l r e a d y the g r e a t e r p a r t o f the number of farms i n the B r i t i s h West I n d i e s f'ss w i t h i n the range  0-5  165  acres. According to Dr. J o l l y i e x p e r i m e n t s , i t  seems t h a t  f a r m i n a n i n t e n s i v e West I n d i a n s y s t e m w o u l d b e a b o u t F u r t h e r f r a g m e n t a t i o n w o u l d make f a r m s t o o would a f f o r d  the  marginal  5 acres i n  size.  s m a l l t o g i v e an income w h i c h  t h e p e a s a n t f a r m e r an income c o m p a r a b l e w i t h t h o s e p a i d  o t h e r employments. F a i l i n g t h i s  t h e numbers employed i n  in  unproductive  pursuits  a n d t h o s e u n e m p l o y e d m u s t n e c e s s a r i l y i n c r e a s e u n l e s s new em-  ployment  opportunities  a r e made a v a i l a b l e .  help to solve the problem i n I  so f a r  h a v e a l r e a d y shown t h a t ib i s n o t  problem of  over  as i t likely  Of c o u r s e , e m i g r a t i o n  would  reduces the labour f o r c e .  But  t o be a f i n a l  this  solution to  population.  This b r i n g s  t h e d i s c u s s i o n b a c k t o D r . W.A. L e w i s ' p o l i c y .  recommendation stands u p .  I  be an i m m e d i a t e and d r a s t i c  s t r e s s one p o i n t  however;  i.e.  His.  t h e r e need n o t  d e c r e a s e i n t h e numbers e m p l o y e d i n  agricul-  (66 ture,  at  least  i n T r i n i d a d a n d Tobago a n d J a m a i c a j f o r  As a m a t t e r o f f a c t available Irrigation tain  ment  has been p o s s i b l e  f o r a g r i c u l t u r e by proper  to  increase  Vincent,  The C h r i s t i n a L a n d S e t t l e m e n t  scheme a r e e x a m p l e s , i n J a m a i c a , w h e r e  cer-  land  s u p p o r t i n g a l a r g e r number o f f a r m e r s . L a n d  t h i s point of view.  the Yullaln V a l l e y  land  areas of  c a p a c i t y of the  schemes s u c h a s a r e i n o p e r a t i o n i n J a m a i c a , S t .  support  amount o f  i n the d r i e r  also help to increase the productive  potential for  the  come.  s o i l c o n s e r v a t i o n and r e c l a m a t i o n .  schemes w h i c h make w a t e r a v a i l a b l e  islands  and i t s  it  many y e a r s t o  settle-  and  Trinidad  scheme and  steep  also  easily  e r o d e d l a n d h a v e b e e n r e c l a i m e d and u s e d as p r o d u c t i v e a g r i c u l t u r a l  land.  T h i s h a s b e e n made p o s s i b l e  proper  soil  conservation. I n terms of  o n l y b y i m p r o v e d methods o f f a r m i n g and  the l o n g r u n , however,  improvements i n  agriculture  166 can o n l y be a c h i e v e d b y commensurate g r o w t h - i n t h e n o n - a g r i c u l t u r a l tor  o f t h e economy.  T h i s i s made e v i d e n t  p o p u l a t i o n on t h e l i m i t e d l a n d r e s o u r c e s ,  by t h e f a c t  of the pressure  and i s p a r t l y  reflected ,in  underemployment  can be t r a c e d t o t h e  labour i n agriculture,  and t h e  General-  extremely low p r o d u c t i v i t y  consequent tendency t o  of  1 1  some i s l a n d s b y t h e u n e m p l o y m e n t a n d u n d e r e m p l o y m e n t p r e v a i l i n g . ly,  sec-  shift  of\  into  casual  l a b o u r and o t h e r t y p e s o f l o w p a y i n g j o b s i n t h e n o n a g r i c u l t u r a l  sector  w h i c h e a r n s l a b o u r a l a r g e r aggregate income p e r annum t h a n  farming.  U n e m p l o y m e n t ; i n B a r b a d o s h a s been i n c r e a s i n g s i n c e Gumper s a i d i n 1955  that  of the labour force a t crop season. region. crop,  t h e numbers u n e m p l o y e d r e p r e s e n t e d 19 p e r  c r o p t i m e a n d 23 p e r c e n t o f i t  T h i s he s a i d was n o t u n l i k e  The J a m a i c a c e n s u s o f  f o u n d an unemployment  194-3,  rate  for  Further,  UD  cent  out-ofthe  example, w h i c h wag/taken, out-of-  Dr.  f o u n d 25 p e r c e n t o f t h e  A. Lewis i n h i s evidence t h a t  study,  labour  "Industrial^''')  the increase i n  j o b s h a v e b e e n i n c r e a s i n g i n t h e a r e a as a w h o l e - a t  t o 1951.  G.E,  (among wage e a r n e r s o n l y ) o f 30 p e r c e n t ,  Development i n t h e C a r r i b e s n " ' p r e s e n t s productive  i n the  r a t e s found elsewhere i n  a n d a s a m p l e s u r v e y o f A n t i g u a i n J u l y 1950 f o r c e t o be unemployed.  194-6.  un-  least  E v e n i n T r i n i d a d t h e r e has b e e n a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount o f  un-  (68) .employment. That i s ,  I n 1955  - 56 a b o u t 6 p e r  c e n t o f t h e l a b o u r f o r c e was u n e m p l o y e d .  a b o u t 3 p e r c e n t more t h a n t h a t  f o r a p o p u l a t i o n o f 780 t h o u s a n d . T r i n i d a d a n d Tobago shqws t h a t underemployment 33 h o u r s p e r  which c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d  A report  there  normal  on t h e man-power s i t u a t i o n  has b e e n a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount  — 23 p e r c e n t o f t h e l a b o u r f o r c e w o r k e d l e s s t h a n  of (69)  week.  The s i z e o f  t h i s umemployment a n d u n d e r e m p l o y m e n t i s  remark-  in  167 a b l y l a r g e compared w i t h a n y t h i n g e x p e r i e n c e d o f the  i n the advanced economies  world. The  I n t e r n a t i o n a l Bank fir R e c o n s t r u c t i o n and Development  p o i n t e d out i n i t s r e p o r t on Jamaica t h a t much employment can be  created  b y means of an improved a g r i c u l t u r e . E s t i m a t e s of l a n d use f o r 1954 t h a t t h e r e were about  150,000  acres of p o t e n t i a l a g r i c u l t u r a l land i n  J a m a i c a which wereioot b e i n g used. The o r c h a r d s was  662,000  show  acresjand  There i s a sharp l i m i t  t o t a l acreage  620,000  a c r e s was  i n arable land  and  u s e d as p a s t u r e .  however t o which a g r i c u l t u r e i n the  F e d e r a t e d West I n d i e s can be expanded. The f i r s t  l i m i t i s s e t by  the f a c t  t h a t the market f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l produce i s l i m i t e d . T h i s i s t r u e o f b o t h the domestic  market and t h e f o r e i g n market.  The West I n d i e s produce cash p r o d u c t s f o r s a l e i n f o r e i g n markets but these p r o d u c t s  are s o l d under severe c o m p e t i t i o n from o t h e r  p r o d u c e r s . Only Jamaica has a v i r t u a l monopoly i n annato, and  pimento.  However, t h e s e p r o d u c t s are a v e r y s m a l l p a r t of the v/orld t r a d e and  the  t o t a l Jamaican t r a d e j bananas, sugar, c o t t o n t o a l e s s e x t e n t , cocoa,ouv«l. c i t r u s a l l met ;  severe c o m p e t i t i o n from o t h e r s u p p l i e r s . The  o f f i n p r i c e s f o r most Jamaican p r o d u c t s i n 1958  fall—  i s partly a result  t h i s c o m p e t i t i o n and p a r t l y a r e s u l t o f the depressed i n g i n the c h i e f markets f o r her product  sharp  - England,  of  conditions exist-  the U n i t e d States_>  and Canada. The market f o r bananas has been expanding r a p i d l y over the f i v e y e a r s . T h i s has brought  last  much p r o s p e r i t y t o S t . L u c i a , Dominica,  S t . V i n c e n t , J a m a i c a . But the market f o r sugar jj^gr- been g r a v e l y r e s t r i c t e d by c o m p e t i t i o n f r o m o t h e r a r e a s , d e s p i t e the commonwealth agreement  168  p l a n . T o t a l p r o d u c t i o n f o r t h e F e d e r a t e d West I n d i e s a n d B r i t i s h  Guiana  a n d B r i t i s h Hondur-us h a s - ; r e m a i n e d f a i r l y  ;  It sugar w i l l  is true  that  s i n c e 1954.  increases i n population are experien-  and A f r i c a n block:;..  These c o u n t r i e s ^ i n  development programmes,have emphasised a g r i c u l t u r a l sult  is that  '../.:'  a s t h e w o r l d p o p u l a t i o n g r o w s t h e demand f o r  increase b u t the greatest  ced i n t h e A s i a t i c  stable  pursuing  development.  The r e -  i n t h e f u t u r e many o f t h e m w i l l become s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t  in  s u g a r a n d o t h e r a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t s w h i c h t h e y now p u r c h a s e , ^ b r i n s t a n c e , I n d i a and M a l a y a a r e now n e t i m p o r t e r s o f s u g a r b u t t h e y a r e e x p a n d i n g t h e acreage u n d e r sugar cane w i t h t h e u l t i m a t e g o a l o f their pect for  own n e e d s . . A s t h e s e c o u n t r i e s g r o w i t that  supplying  i s not unreasonable t o ex-  t h e y w i l l become n e t e x p o r t e r s o f t h e s e p r o d u c t s . T h e i r  imports of a g r i c u l t u r a l products w i l l  t h e r e f o r e be c l o s e d .  and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s t h e markets a r e e i t h e r p r e f e r e n t i a l o r by high protective  tariffs.  I n Europe  surrounded  The A m e r i c a n m a r k e t i s s u p p l i e d b y C u b a ,  H a w a i i , Puerto Rico and t h e Indonesian I s l a n d s . high t a r i f f s  markets  are r a i s e d against  I n t h e European m a r k e t s  cane s u g a r i n o r d e r t o p r o t e c t  sugar industry.. General market c o n d i t i o n s  suggest  that  the beet-  there i s not  like-  l y t o b e a n i n c r e a s i n g demand f o r West I n d i a n s u g a r i n t h e f u t u r e . As a result  o f t h i s , i n 1 9 5 5 , l e g i s l a t i o n was p a s s e d i n J a m a i c a f o r a r e d u c t i o n  i n t h e acreage under estates extent  s u g a r cane c u l t i v a t i o n .  a b o u t 100 a c r e s - t h e medium s i z e  This law a p p l i e d only  to  e s t a t e s were n o t a f f e c t e d . The  o f t h i s r e d u c t i o n was t o b e b e t w e e n 10 p e r c e n t  a n d 12 p e r c e n t l ^ O )  o A p a r t f r o m t h e s e demand c o n d i t i o n s - - i n Kitts,  like  a n d B a r b a d o s where- m o s t . o f . ' t h e l a n d a c r e a g e i s p l a n t e d i n  cane - ' i t w o u l d be i m p o s s i b l e r  some i s l a n d s  St.  sugar-  t o expand p r o d u c t i o n c o n s i d e r a b l y beyond t h e  169  present  t o t a l a r e a i n c a n e . I n o t h e r a r e a s s u c h as J a m a i c a a n d  this  can o n l y be a c h i e v e d a t t h e expense o f o t h e r c r o p s .  this  is  doubtful,  as p a s t  experience  shows: i t  Trinidad  The w i s d o m o f  makes t h e economy t o o  de-  p e n d e n t o n one c a s h c r o p . Finally, that  continue  i n output of ment.  I have p o i n t e d out e a r l i e r  t h e g e n e r a l t r e n d i n s u g a r cane c u l t i v a t i o n  and m e c h a n i s a t i o n . will  b u t most i m p o r t a n t ,  It  is  in  is  This process of mechanisation i s  the f u t u r e .  It  is  still  n o t t o be e x p e c t e d t h a t  s u g a r w i l l be a c c o m p a n i e d b y a n y l a r g e observed that  the sugar i n d u s t r y of  over the l a s t f i v e  expansion of the source o f  consolidation  g o i n g on and an  increase  increase i n  years that  employ-  employment  T r i n i d a d a n d Tobago h a v e r e m a i n e d a t a b o u t  22 t h o u s a n d d e s p i t e t h e e x p a n s i o n o f t h e i n d u s t r y  a large  towards  on  sugar i n d u s t r y i f employment f o r  at  a l l possible  Future  i s not l i k e l y context  to  21  since the war.  labour i n the present  in  t o be  of  develop-  ment. O t h e r c a s h c r o p s s u c h as a r r o w r o o t , scope f o r  development,  p r o v i d e employment f o r very l i m i t e d  bananas,  and c o c o a have  and can w i t h good m a r k e t i n g expand o u t p u t many.  The m a r k e t f o r West I n d i a n c o c o a , h o w e v e r , i s  since T r i n i d a d w h i c h i s the ;  chief  supplier, produces a  t y p e o f r a w c o c o a w h i c h i s u s e d f o r f l a v o u r i n g t h e West A f r i c a n The demand f o r  it  is  therefore highly  The d o m e s t i c f i n a l  the f a c t  large part  f r o m a speeded up a g r i c u l t u r a l that  cocoa.  t o o s m a l l and t o o of  the  divided  increased  output  development programme.  First,  a l l t h e u n i t s p r o d u c e t h e same k i n d o f  d u c t s means t h a t  special  inelastic.  c o n s u m e r max-ket i s  and i s o l a t e d t o t a k e a s u f f i c i e n t l y resulting  and  agricultural pro-  t r a d e w i t h i n t h e a r e a must b e r e s t r i c t e d ,  and a l l  the  -  170  u n i t s must l o o k t o t h e f o r e i g n m a r k e t t o trend i s  observed i n i n d u s t r i a l  development  Second, i n t e r - r e g i o n t r a n s p o r t to foster fruit the  sell  their products.  i n the  i s too i r r e g u l a r  scope f o r  this  type  of  t r a d e seemsgood, g i v e n t h e t r a n s p o r t  the exports  o f banana  stems  export.  ficulties.  It  was n o t p o s s i b l e  Montserrat  until  goods and t h a t things  facilities. employment  It  is  repor-  start  an e x p o r t  in  the shipping  trade  dif-  i n bananas  t h e s e bananas c o u l d be s h i p p e d f r o m t h e  I n d u s t r i e s Oo. i n is  to  The  f r o m D o m i n i c a wetnenot l a r g e  1958 a n d 1959 c o m p a r e d w i t h o t h e r i s l a n d s b e c a u s e o f  It  and  supplying  i n t r a n s p o r t a t i o n b e t w e e n i s l a n d s much more  c o u l d be c r e a t e d b y t h e e x p a n s i o n o f p r o d u c t i o n f o r  The f i r s t  inadequate  a r e a s o f J a m a i c a and T r i n i d a d i s n o t p o s s i b l e y e t .  W i t h improvements  the  and  trade between the i s l a n d s . For t h i s reason^a vegetable  industrial  same  territories.  i n d u s t r y c e n t e r e d i n t h e L e e w a r d and Windward i s l a n d s  ted that  This  from  island to  Guesst  Dominica.  often said that  t h e West I n d i e s d e p e n d t o o much o n  much e m p l o y m e n t c o u l d b e c r e a t e d i f  they import.  This  observation is  that  is  very true but  it  foreign  t h e y p r o d u c e some  n e e d s some  explanation.  t h e r e a r e f e w t h i n g s w h i c h t h e West  Indies  p u r c h a s e a b r o a d w h i c h t h e y c a n p r o d u c e t h e m s e l v e s . The b u l k o f West imports are machinery,  appliances  and h a r d w a r e ,  T h e y do n o t h a v e t h e p r i m a r y n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s  on i m p o r t s  of raw m a t e r i a l s .  It  is  t o produce  steel  start  such  argued t h a t l o c a l food  s h o u l d be e n c o u r a g e d as a s u b s t i t u t e f o r f o r e i g n f o o d s a n d t h a t h u s b a n d r y s h o u l d be f o s t e r e d i n o r d e r t o has been t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l  and o t h e r induscrops animal,  s u p p l y m i l k and f r e s h m e a t .  p o l i c y throughout  Indian  and f o o d a n d b e v e r a g e s .  m e t a l s , n o r do t h e y h a v e t h e c h e a p p o w e r ' n e c e s s a r y t o tries  of  This  t h e r e g i o n s i n c e W o r l d War 11,.  171  The  e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f m i l k c o n d e n s e r i e s i n Jamaica  and i n  T r i n i d a d and Tobago mark the measure o f s u c c e s s enjoyed. These schemed have s u p p l i e d more employment by p r o c e s s i n g l o c a l raw m a t e r i a l s . However, t h e expansion  of production of l o c a l food-crops i . e .  ground p r o v i s i o n o r r o o t c r o p s , becomes r e s t r i c t e d as the w e a l t h o f the n a t i o n grows. F o r p e o p l e w i l l d i r e c t e x p e n d i t u r e f r o m these f o o d s t o more n u t r i t i o u s t y p e s . Moreover t h e y w i l l  spend a s m a l l e r p r o p o r t i o n o f  t h e i r incomes on f o o d and a l a r g e r share on l u x u r i e s as n a t i o n a l income per c a p i t a i n c r e a s e s . Because the income e l a s t i c i t y f o r f o o d crops ; .? h i g h , as i s the case w i t h many p r i m a r y a g r i c u l t u r a l productSjirfen^asthe n a t i o n ' s i n come i n c r e a s e s i n p r o p o r t i o n t o t h e i n c r e a s e i n g r o s s domestic  product^  a sharp l i m i t w i l l be put t o expansion of the f o o d crop i n d u s t r y . The i n come e l a s t i c i t y f o r meats and d a i r y p r o d u c t , v e g e t a b l e s would become f a i r l y e l a s t i c . These t r e n d s a r e a l r e a d y o b s e r v e d i n T r i n i d a d and Tobago and  Jamaica. The expansion o f the f o o d c r o p i n d u s t r y cannot, t h e r e f o r e ,  o f f e r any l o n g term s o l u t i o n i n a r a p i d l y i n c r e a s i n g l a b o u r f o r c e and i n c r e a s i n g under employment and unemployment. However, i n so f a r as the f a r m l a b o u r can d i v e r t  i t s a t t e n t i o n t o o t h e r a g r i c u l t u r e .enterprises as  the p a t t e r n o f consumption changes - d a i r y i n g , v e g e t a b l e f a r m i n g s t o c k , t h e r e w i l l be g r e a t e r o p p o r t u n i t y f o r expansion'and I n the l i g h t o f t h i s the J o l l y experiment d a i r y type o f farms i s a s t e p i n the r i g h t  live-  employment.  w i t h v e g e t a b l e and a r a b l e direction.  In the l i g h t of t h e s e arguments i t seems abundantly c l e a r t h a t t h e b e s t way  t o c r e a t e jobs i s by i n d u s t r i a l development. A g a i n i n d u s -  172  trial  development  i n t h e West I n d i a n c o n t e x t s h o u l d n o t b e u n d e r s t o o d  be a s u b s t i t u t e f o r a g r i c u l t u r e .  I t s purpose i s t o r e l i e v e  the pressure  o f p o p u l a t i o n on the l a n d b y t a k i n g persons employed on farms l e s s five  acres  tural  (as a minimum^ o u t o f a g r i c u l t u r e  jobs f o r them. I t  and p r o v i d i n g  s h o u l d b e r e m a r k e d t h a t much o f t h i s  I f this  standards o f l i v i n g s m a l l e s t f a r m (5  objective  can be achieved t h e n t h e  c o u l d be i n c r e a s e d c o n s i d e r a b l y .  acres) would,  than  non-agriculindustrial  development would take t h e f o r m o f t h e p r o c e s s i n g o f a g r i c u l t u r a l duce o f t h e a r e a .  pro-  general  The f a r m e r o n t h e  according t o D r . J o l l y ' s  f i n d i n g s , be  earning about  §2,000 p e r annum i n c o n t r a s t t o $500 a t p r e s e n t and t h e  general d r i f t  o u t o f u n p r o d u c t i v e e m p l o y m e n t s i n t h e l o w wage s e c t o r  b e t t e r p a i d j o b s i n t h e new i n d u s t r i e s w i l l and  ensure a s u b s t a n t i a l  cannot be o v e r emphasised t h a t  industrial  the excessive  drift  out o f a g r i c u l t u r e  goods w h i c h a r e m a n u f a c t u r e d b y t h e d o m e s t i c I n T r i n i d a d , The R e p o r t a n d Tobago shows t h a t employment  the d i s t r i b u t i o n  amount o f  in  s i z e and t h a t  in  i s considered that  Trinidad  opportunities  compared w i t h o t h e r s e c t o r s . A l s o  of the labour force  i n T r i n i d a d vary between  t o purchase t h e  o n t h e Man p o w e r s i t u a t i o n  show t h a t b e t w e e n 1955  10,200 men a n d women t r a n s f e r r e d o u t o f a g r i c u l t u r e i n t o When i t  agriculture  industries.  t h e r e were a c o n s i d e r a b l e  in agriculture  in  i n the  n o t e d i n J a m a i c a and T r i n i d a d ,  must b e checked; and t h e f a r m i n g community i s t o be a b l e  of  income  development  West I n d i e s m u s t b e a c c o m p a n i e d b y i n c r e a s e d p r o d u c t i v i t y  for  to  security. It  if  to  estimates and  1956  industry.  the returns to labour  in  agriculture  $400 a n d $ 8 0 0 p e r annum o n f a r m s a b o v e 100 a c r e s  t h e a v e r a g e a n n u a l wage o r s a l a r y i n t h e  industrial  173  s e c t o r i s $1,200 i t becomes c l e a r why t h e r e i s such a heavy f l o w o f l a b o u r f o r c e out of a g r i c u l t u r e . T h i s c r e a t e s a constant demand f o r i n d u s t r i a l j o b s . T h i s demand i s i n excess o f t h e s u p p l y o f such employment  opportun-  i t i e s , a s t h e f i g u r e s showing t h e e x t e n t o f under employment and unemployment i n d i c a t e . I t i s t h e r e f o r e n o t s u r p r i s i n g t h a t i n Jamaica, T r i n i d a d , and Barbados t h a t t h e r e has been much more unemployment and undf&r employment i n the i n d u s t r i a l i s i n g urban a r e a s than i n the r u r a l  areas.  I f the p r o d u c t i v i t y o f l a b o u r i n a g r i c u l t u r e remains t i a l l y lower  substan-  than t h a t i n o t h e r s e c t o r s o f t h e economy t h e r e w i l l be a  c o n t i n u a l f l o w o f l a b o u r from the country, i . e . out o f a g r i c u l t u r e , t o the i n d u s t r i a l u r b a n a r e a s . T h i s i s so because i n the c i t i e s i t i s p o s s i b l e t o make a h i g h e r wage p e r annum d o i n g c a s u a l l a b o u r than one can e a r n i n full  employment on a f a r m . I n o r d e r t o h e l p s o l v e the problem o f unemployment i t i s neces-  s a r y t o i n c r e a s e p r o d u c t i v i t y i n a g r i c u l t u r e . I t i s o n l y when a g r i c u l t u r e produces a r e t u r n t o l a b o u r commensurate w i t h employment i n o t h e r s e c t o r s o f t h e economy t h a t a complementary demand f o r domestic manufacture w i l l be c r e a t e d and a l s o the d r i f t from c o u n t r y to town w i l l s u b s i d e . A mere s h i f t o f people  out o f a g r i c u l t u r e i s not enough t o i n c r e a s e the produc-  t i v i t y o f l a b o u r on the l a n d . S c i e n t i f i c methods must be adopted t o West Indian a g r i c u l t u r e . Kind of Industries. I have j u s t d i s c u s s e d the p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f expanding the c a s h crop i n d u s t r i e s and the f o o d - c r o p employment and unemployment  i n d u s t r y t o meet the problem o f under-  i n the f u t u r e . The argument f o r d e v e l o p i n g  home p r o d u c t i o n o f f o o d s and beverages r e s t on the assumptions o f the  174  t h e o r y o f s e l f s u f f i c i e n c y . I t i n v o l v e s a r e d u c t i o n o f imports l o n g r u n which would h e l p t o s o l v e the problem o f c h r o n i c balance  i n the  unfavourable  of t r a d e o r merchandise w i t h the r e s t o f t h e world, f o r the  g e n e r a l l y . There remains two possibilities  stands o f the argument t o d i s c u s s now  area - the  of p r o d u c i n g consumer d u r a b l e goods i n the West I n d i e s  which are n o r m a l l y imported, duce f o r the e x p o r t  and  t h a t o f d e v e l o p i n g i n d u s t r i e s which p r o -  market.  I n d u s t r i a l development may  be d i v i d e d i n t o f o u r c l a s s e s o r  processes: 1. and  Development of n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s such as d e p o s i t s o f o r e s other mineral d e p o s i t s .  2.  P r o c e s s i n g of a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t s and o t h e r domestic  indus-  t r i a l raw m a t e r i a l s . 3.  Importation  4.  Assembling  o f raw m a t e r i a l f o r manufacture. o f machinery and c a r s .  I n d u s t r y w i l l l o c a t e i n those p l a c e s where aggregate  production  c o s t s are a t a minimum. I t i s n e c e s s a r y t o take t h i s i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n when c o n s i d e r i n g the p o s s i b i l i t i e s tries  o r f e a s i b i l i t y o f encouraging  indus-  i n t h e West I n d i e s . Por  t h i s r e a s o n no p l a n f o r i n d u s t r i a l i s a t i o n s h o u l d encourage  and p r o t e c t i n d u s t r i e s f o r the domestic market which produce p r o d u c t s h i g h e r c o s t s than t h e imported  a r t i c l e ; f o r t h i s S o r t of p r o t e c t i o n r e s -  t r i c t s p r o d u c t i o n and p r e v e n t s economic growth, e s p e c i a l l y i f the t i r e s provide, efficient  at  indus-  i n t e r m e d i a t e p r o d u c t s . To encourage h i g h c o s t o r i n -  i n d u s t r i e s t o produce and  would r a i s e the aggregate  s e l l t h e i r p r o d u c t s under p r o t e c t i o n  c o s t s of p r o d u c t i o n i n the a r e a and hence  175  discourage other business from l o c a t i n g t h e r e . Because an i n d u s t r y seeks t o minimize t h e aggregate c o s t of. d o i n g b u s i n e s s t h e y t e n d t o be near the narket  when t r a n s p o r t c o s t i s  an i m p o r t a n t p a r t o f t h e p r i c e o f t h e commodity o r n e a r the source o f raw  m a t e r i a l when t h e c o s t o f moving raw m a t e r i a l i s l a r g e i n compari-  son  t o the value  o f t h e raw m a t e r i a l . T h i s o f c o u r s e depends on  whether raw m a t e r i a l i s moving b y water o r over l a n d ; f o r water t r a n s port  i s considerably  cheaper than l a n d . S i n c e , however, l a b o u r i s  l a r g e ; i component o f the c o s t o f p r o d u c t i o n ,  low l a b o u r  cost u s u a l l y  c o n s t i t u t e s t h e g r e a t e s t a t t r a c t i o n t o i n d u s t r y , even though o t h e r d i t i o n s of i n d u s t r i a l production  may t e n d t o r a i s e i t - h i g h  con-  transport  c o s t f o r moving t h e f i n i s h e d product t o a market, h i g h c o s t o f moving b a s i c raw m a t e r i a l s , l a c k o f cheap power and s e v e r a l o t h e r f a c t o r s . However i t i s t h e l o w e s t aggregate c o s t s which determine whether an i n d u s t r y w i l l l o c a t e i n A i n s t e a d o f B. In underdeveloped a r e a s i t i s b e l i e v e d t h a t low wage r a t e s have been t h e f a c t o r which i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the l o c a t i o n o f i n d u s t r i e s i n their territories. respect  Puerto R i c o , Jamaica, Trinid.ad a l l b e n e f i t i n t h i s  t h a t t h e i r wage r a t e s a r e below t h a t o f the l a r g e c a p i t a l i n t e n -  s i v e c o u n t r i e s o f Canada, the U n i t e d S t a t e s and t h e U n i t e d However p r o d u c t i o n the  question.  Kingdom.  i s o n l y concerned with t h e s u p p l y  The problem a f t e r p r o d u c t i o n  side of  i s i n what market t h e p r o d u c t s  w i l l be s o l d . F o r t h e u l t i m a t e check on p r o d u c t i o n ,  given f a l l i n g  average  c o s t , i s t h e s i z e o f t h e market. I t i s t h e r e f o r e t h e c o s t o f s u p p l y i n g goods and s e r v i c e s and t h e demand f o r t h e s e goods and s e r v i c e s which w i l l . i n - p a r t , determine the amount o f employment t h a t can be g i v e n e s p e c i a l l y when f a l l i n g  l a b o u r cost-' o r r i s i n g  l a b o u r p r o d u c t i v i t y i s t h e major t  176  f a c t o r r e s p o n s i b l e f o r f a i l i n g average c o s t s . It  should a l s o be n o t e d  that l a b o u r - i n t e n s i v e i n d u s t r i e s  will  p r o v i d e more employment than c a p i t a l — i n t e n s i v e i n d u s t r i e s . T h i s means t h a t the c h o i c e of technology must be adapted to the c i r c u m s t a n c e s  of  i n d u s t r i a l development i n an a r e a o f h i g h p o p u l a t i o n p r e s s u r e . Another l i m i t a t i o n on the k i n d of c a p i t a l f o r m a t i o n t h a t must take p l a c e i s the market p o s s i b i l i t i e s - .  P r o f e s s o r W.A.  Lewis showed  t h a t i n 1 9 4 3 the extent of t h e Jamaican consumption of manufactured goods was  not l a r g e enough t o p r o v i d e jobs f o r persons wh:0^> -were e i t h e r  un-  employed o r und.'Cremployed i n a g r i c u l t u r e and the p e r s o n a l s e r v i c e s . showed t h a t o f the £ 1 0 . 3 m i l l i o n spent cent was  deducted  duce and another  He  on manufactures t h a t when 3 0 p e r  f o r imported m a t e r i a l which the i s l a n d c o u l d not 1 0 p e r cent f o r i n t e r e s t and d e p r e c i a t i o n on  pro-  imported  c a p i t a l o n l y £ 6 . 2 m i l l i o n or 1 5 . 4 p e r cent o f her n a t i o n a l income would remain i n the i s l a n d i f she undertook t o manufacture those goods which she imported.  (71)  T h i s would make a v e r y s m a l l c o n t r i b u t i o n t o employment f o r the r e a s o n t h a t output per man  i s h i g h e r i n manufacture than i t i s i n the  r e s t of the economy. In 1 9 5 2 the M i s s i o n o f U n i t e d Kingdom I n d u s t r i a l i s t s e s t i m a t e d t h a t i t would take an e x p e n d i t u r e a d d i t i o n of  15,000  to  17,000  of £ 3 0 m i l l i o n to make.an  workers. To t h i s must be a d d e d the  capital  c o s t of a d d i t i o n a l s e r v i c e s such as power, water s u p p l i e s and t r a n s p o r t , which t h e y c a l c u l a t e d would bring; the sum up to £ 5 0 m i l l i o n or