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Survey of forest regeneration in the Nimpkish Valley of British Columbia and recommendations for future… Bunce, Hubert William Ferdinand 1960

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A SURVEY OF FOREST REGENERATION IN THE NIMPKISH VALLEY OF BRITISH COLOMBIA AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE MANAGEMENT by HUBERT WILLIAM FERDINAND BUNCE B. Sc., University of Wales, 1955  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT GF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF FORESTRY i n the Faculty of Forestry  We accept this Thesis as conforming to the required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA APRIL, I960  In presenting the  this  r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an  thesis  in partial  advanced degree a t  of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that it  freely  agree that for  available  f o r r e f e r e n c e and  the  s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may  be  Library  s h a l l make  study.  I  copying or p u b l i c a t i o n  g a i n s h a l l not  be  g r a n t e d by  his representatives. of t h i s  a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my  the  Forestry  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h V a n c o u v e r $, C a n a d a . Date  26  September I960  Columbia,  further this, thesis  Head o f  my  I t i s understood thesis for written  H.W.F. Bunc e.  Department of  of.  University  permission f o r extensive copying of  D e p a r t m e n t o r by that  the  fulfilment  financial  permission.  ii  ABSTRACT  Logging has proceeded continuously since 1915 i n the Nimpkish valley.  The cutting has been of the old-growth Douglas  f i r (Pseudotsuga t a x i f o l i a (Poir.) B r i t t , western red cedar (Thuja p l i c a t a Donn.), western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (RAF.) Sarg.) and balsam f i r (Abies amabilis (Bougl.) Forbes.  Many of the areas  cut have become restocked naturally with various species of trees which are classified as second-growth.  The excess of low-value  trees and the slow rate of regeneration are not economically satisfactory.  Since 192U various plantations have been established.  A study of the results of this natural regeneration and this a r t i f i c i a l regeneration indicates practical methods for future procedure.  Additional information comes from experiments that have  been completed, and from those that are s t i l l i n progress.  The  synthesis of the collected material and the silvicultural discourse form the basis for recommendations for future management of forestry operations i n the Nimpkish valley.  iii TABLE OF CONTENTS Abstract Acknowledgements FART I HISTORY AND BACKGROUND Introduction Chapter I.  Geology. i. ii. iii. iv. V.  vi. vii. vlii.  General Physiography.  3  Geology.  h  Intrusive Rocks.  6  Drift.  7  Alluvium.  7  Historical Geology.  8  Soils.  9  Ground Water.  Climate.  15  Classification.  15  ii.  General.  15  iii.  Rainfall.  16  Wind.  ^  Storms.  17  i.  iv. v. III.  11  Ecology. i. ii. iii.  19  Forest Types.  19  Site.  22  Vegetation.  2k  iv. gage 17.  i.  V.  25  Biotic Factors.  25  Animals. a.  Red Squirrel.  2$  b.  American Beaver.  20  c. White Footed Deer Mouse.  25  d.  Black Bear.  26  e.  Elk or Wapiti.  26  f.  Coast or Columbia Blackball Deer  27  g.  Cougar.  28  h.  Birds.  28  i.  Insects.  29  j.  Fungi.  30  k.  Man and Logging History.  30  Fire. i. ii. iii.  32 Historical Aspects.  32  Hazard and Protection.  33  Slash Burning.  3U  PART I I . REGENERATION. Chapter. VI.  Natural Young Growth i.  36  Origin.  36  Surveys.  36  iii.  Methods of Survey.  37  iv.  Results of Survey,  ii.  v. vi.  Pruning i n Natural Young Growth. Thinning i n Natural Young Growth.  51  v. Page VII.  53  Plantations. i.  ii.  Experimental Plantations.  53  a.  Description.  53  b.  Results.  53  Operational Plantations.  59  a.  Selection.  59  b.  Seed Sources and Collection.  6U  c.  Planting Method.  67  d.  Labour.  70  e.  Method of Survey.  70  f.  Analysis of Areas Planted.  71  g.  Results.  h.  Spacing.  . 73  76  VHI.  i.  Protection of Plantations.  77  j.  Future Plans.  78  k.  Costs.  78  Direct Seeding. i.  ii.  Experiments i n Direct Seeding.  83 83  a.  A study of Direct Seeding of Sitka Spruce. 83  b.  Seed Spotting of Douglas F i r and Hemlock.  c.  Rodent Control i n Direct Seeding of Douglas f i r . 8U  d.  Seed Trees.  Operational Direct Seeding.  83  87 88  vi. PART i n . MANAGEMENT  Page  Chapter. IX.  Methods of Logging. i. ii. iii.  Railroad and Truck Road.  91  High-lead Systems and Cat-logging.  92  Degree of Utilization.  9h  Pre-logging and Salvage Logging.  95  Slash-burning according to Logging Requirements.  95  iv. v. X.  91  Policy.  97  i.  Present Logging Policy.  97  ii.  General Forestry Policy.  98  Present Slash-burning Policy.  98  Present Planting Policy.  99  iii. iv. v.  Tree Farm License Requirements.  100  PART IV. SILVICULTURAL RELATIONSHIPS. Chapter XI. XII. XIII.  Silvicultural Relationships.  101  Summary.  119  Conclusions.  126  vii. Page  APPENDICES  I.  S i t e I n d e x b y Stump D i a m e t e r f o r  Douglas F i r  Growing  in  'the Nimpkish V a l l e y . H .  130  A L i s t o f B o t a n i c a l Specimens c o l l e c t e d and i d e n t i f i e d W.K.  MacLeod, Nimpkish V a l l e y , Vancouver I s l a n d , i.  i i . i i i . iv. v.  by  B.C.  Dicotyledons.  131  a.  Herbs and Shrubs*  131  b.  Trees.  137  c.  P a r a s i t e s and S a p r o p h y t e s .  137  Monocotyledons.  138  Gymnosperms.  139  Pteridophyta.  UiO  Bryophyta.  Precipitation.  m. IV.  1U3  Mammals N a t i v e t o t h e N i m p k i s h V a l l e y .  V.  Experimental i.  to x.  Ihh  Plantations.  Douglas F i r , Plantation,  i i .  131  Hemlock, Cedar,  and Spruce  1U6  192J*.  S u r v i v a l and Growth o f  Douglas F i r .  150  xi.  and x i i .  S u r v i v a l and Growth o f Western Hemlock.  163  x i i i .  to x v i .  S u r v i v a l and Growth o f E x o t i c S p e c i e s .  165  E f f e c t on t h e Growth of  178  xvii.  to x x i i .  Douglas F i r of Treatment  w i t h Three C h e m i c a l s , G i b b e r e l l i c A c i d , Formaldehyde, xxiii  and x x i v . xxv. xxvi.  Douglas F i r  Urea  a n d Ammonium N i t r a t e ,  Provenance S t u d i e s .  187  A l d e r Underplanted w i t h Douglas F i r . T e s t i n g whether T w i s t i n the Stem i s an C h a r a c t e r i s t i c i n Douglas F i r .  197 Inherited 198  Tiii.  Page VI.  An Experiment i n Direct Seeding of Sitka Spruce  2  0  0  20£  Literature Cited,  TABLES. Table. I.  Rainfall i n each Quarter as a Percentage of Total Rainfall 16  for the Whole Season. II. III, IV. V. VI.  Regeneration Classification.  37  Degree of Stocking Classified by Seedlings per Acre.  38  Area of Types surveyed by Forest Service, i n Acres.  1*2  Percentage Bistribution of Plots.  k2  Distribution of Seedlings per Acre, by Type of Treatment, U3  Number per Acre, Species and Year of Survey, VH.  Comparative Figures for Five Cruises of Second Growth, U5  i n the Lower Nimpkish Valley, VIII. IX. X. XI.  Stocking of Regeneration by Area and Percent.  ii7  Average Number of Trees per Acre, and Stocking Percent,  hi  Summary of Data of Nimpkish Thinning Plots.  52  Summary of Data of Growth Stimulation Treatments of Douglas F i r Planted Stock.  XII. xm, XIV. XV. XVI.  Planting Program, 1959-1961.  XVIII.  .  6  2  Distribution of Plantations by Land Condition.  73  Summary of Data of Plantation Survival, Douglas F i r .  Ik  Comparison of 1*0 and 2*0 Douglas F i r Stock.  75  Summary of Three Regeneration Surveys to Study Plantation Spacing and " F i l l - i n " .  XVH.  58  ,  76  Seed Costs f o r Cones Picked i n the Nimpkish Valley, 195U-59. 79 Plantation Costs, 195U-1959.  80  ^  1  Page  Table. XIX.  Number of Man-days of Work Required per Acre of Trees Planted, at Varying Densities.  XX.  81  Seedling Survival i n Seed Spots, Douglas F i r and Western  8U  Hemlock. Results of Seed Germination Test i n Nursery.  85  XXII.  Percentage of Mil-acres with Thrifty Seedlings.  85  XXIU.  Percentage of Seed Spots Containing Seedlings.  86  XXI.  XXI7.  Summary of Regeneration Survey to Test the Effect of  87  Leaving Seed Trees. XXV. XXVI. XXVII.  Operational Direct Seeding,  88  19k9-1950,  Environmental Influences on Seedling Establishment. Site Index, by Stump Diameter, for Douglas F i r Growing i n  130  the Nimpkish Valley. XXVIII. XXIX. XXX. XXXI.  xxxn. XXXIII.  90  Table of Precipitation at Nimpkish Camp,  19U1+-1958.  11*3  Summary of Results, Arboretum, Gamp A .  167  Summary of Results, Arboretum, Camp Woss.  171  Strip Survey of Direct Seeding of Sitka Spruce, 1930.  202  Density of Reproduction by Species per Acre.  203  Comparative Density of Reproduction by Species per Acre.  203  t,  M  ILLUSTRATIONS Figure. I. II.  Map to show Location of the Nimpkish Valley  -(following  2  Map to Illustrate the Typical Stream-bed Pattern Developed i n Glaciated Valleys, E l l i o t Creek, Nimpkish Valley -(following 8  in.  Graph f o r Checking Prediction of Percentage of Area Restocking Naturally.  -(following  59  PAGE  Summary o f  Three Regeneration Surveys t o Study P l a n t a t i o n  S p a c i n g and " F i l l - i n " . R e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e Number o f  -(following  71*  Trees p e r Acre and t h e  Number o f A c r e s P l a n t e d p e r M a n - d a y .  -(following  82  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  The material upon which the bulk of this thesis i s based was drawn from the f i l e s of the Forestry Department of Canadian Forest Products Ltd, These records represent the work and thinking of various foresters i n the Company's employ.  The co-operation  and assistance of the management of Canadian Forest Products Ltd* i s gratefully acknowledged.  Whole hearted thanks are also due i n  general to the foresters concerned and i n particular to Messrs. T.G. Wright, R. M i l l s , G.A. Patterson, R.S. Jewesson and R.G. McCullough.  The studies made by the personnel of the B . C . Forest  Service are also gratefully acknowledged, especially because they pioneered this f i e l d i n the Nimpkish area several decades ago. The assistance and advice of the Faculty of Forestry of the University of British Columbia are too remembered with pleasure, i n particular of the thesis director Dr. P.G. Haddock, and the two members of the committee, Drs. J.W, Eer and J.H.G. Smith,  1  Part I  HISTORY AMD BACKGROUND Introduction A mass of information exists i n the silvicultural f i l e s  of the Forestry Department of Canadian Forest Products Ltd,, Beaver Cove, B,C,  Much of this knowledge i s only partially recorded and  l i t t l e available for reference.  The purpose of this thesis i s to  u t i l i z e this material i n reviewing methods of managing the reforestation of the logged-off lands i n the Nimpkish Valley, Vancouver Island, B.C. The material i s open to various interpretations.  The one  presented here i s based upon f i e l d observations, discussions with foresters, University lectures, and various forestry texts.  References  to these sources are not credited except where quotations are used, because over a period of years i t becomes impossible to recall the source of each item of knowledge. Specific reference to company f i l e s are likewise omitted.  For the omission of any particular acknowledge-  ment or reference, pardon i s begged. In this area reforestation i s usually attained by natural means. It may take twenty to thirty years to attain f u l l stocking. The new species composition i s l i k e l y to be different from that of the previous stand.  These two factors do not contribute to the best economic  utilization of the site.  A r t i f i c i a l reforestation i s of value i n  increasing productivity.  I t shortens the rotation and controls the  species i n the f i n a l crop.  Attention has been concentrated on Douglas  F i r , (Pseudotsuga taxifolia (Poir.) B r i t t . because of i t s high value and favourable yield.  Western red cedar (Thuja plicata Donn.), Western  2  hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (RAF,) Sarg,) and balsam f i r (Abies amabilis (Dougl,) Forbes are also important f o r the production of merchantable material i n this region.  Other species are under  consideration on an experimental basis.  to  MAP  To  OP THE  -SHOW  follow  LOCflTioH  r4ir\ pKkSH  VALLEY.  page 2  3 Chapter I  GEOLOGY  ( i ) General Physiography (Hoadley 1953). The Nimpkish Valley l i e s within the mountain mass of the northern part of Vancouver Island, The mountains range from U,000 to 6,000 feet above sea level.  The valley runs i n a general  north-westerly direction, from i t s divide with the Oktwanch at an elevation of 950 feet, for 56 miles to i t s outfall into -the Broughton Strait between Vancouver Island and the mainland. I t has a drainage area of i|29,000 acres or 670 square miles. The valley obtained i t s present form during Pleistocene times by the action of a continental glacier that covered the land to a maximum elevation of k,000 feet. Below this level the surface has been modified by glacial action so that i t now has a rounded, subdued character, whereas above i t there was alpine glaciation which strongly sculptured the higher ground. The ice originated i n the high mountain area northwest and southeast of Woss Lake. From here i t flowed outwards gradually f i l l i n g the valleys, causing the formation of the major lakes and overflowing onto the surrounding land surface so forming an almost continuous sheet of ice over the entire area. The main valley has -the typical U-shaped glacial form* Its width ranges from a half to three miles. Eight smaller rivers are tributary to i t besides innumerable creeks.  ( i i ) Geology, (Hoadley 1953) The Nimpkish area being part of the belt of batholithic rocks of the Coast Mountains resembles them i n geological structure. The primary division i s two-fold} f i r s t i t i s a great unconformable series of interbedded volcanic and sedimentary rocks capable of subdivision into recognizable map units; second i t i s made up of bodies of plutonic rock of acidic to intermediate composition. These plutonic bodies form part of the Coast intrusions, and intrude the rocks of the Vancouver group. Triassic fossils occur i n the sedimentary rocks of the Vancouver group, and the Coast intrusions are believed to have formed i n late Jurassic or early Cretaceous times, during part of the long period of igneous activity in which the batholithic rocks of the Coast Mountains of the British Columbia mainland were intruded. Younger than the Coast intrusions are a few small basic dykes. The Vancouver group has been divided by Gunning (Hoadley 1953) into three conformable parts. His names for these, from oldest to youngest are:- the Karmutsen group, the Quatsino formation and the Bonanza group. The Karmutsen group consists of a thick series of medium to basic highly amygdoidal volcanic flows with very l i t t l e sedimentary material. Fossils indicate the period to be Upper Triassic. Conformable above the Karmutsen group i s the Quatsino limestone, a relatively thin band of white to light blue limestone from which Triassic fossils have been collected.  5  The limestone is overlain conformably by the Bonanza agglomerates, lavas of intermediate composition and sedimentary rocks* The last, apart from minor inter-calations of limestone, are almost entirely confined to the lower 500 to 1,000 feet of the group. They include dark blue-grey limestone, argillites, quartzite, and tuff.  The diagnostic Upper Triassic f o s s i l Monotis subcircularis,  has been collected* The Karmutsen group occupies the greatest proportion of the Nimpkish Valley's area. The rocks consist almost entirely of volcanic flows and fragmentary materials falling from the eruptions of numerous volcanoes.  There are also many dykes and s i l l s and  irregular intrusive bodies of rock similar i n appearance and composition to the flows. The lavas are predominantly basic, being primarily andesite and basalt, with only small amounts of acidic types such as dachite and rhyolite. The prevailing colour i s green, due to chlorite. Calcite occurs commonly throughout the area of the basaltic rocks, which are the commonest of the group. The Quatsino formation i s almost entirely limestone varying i n depth from 500 to 3,500 feet. I t i s limited to several areas adjacent to Nimpkish Lake and contributes only five per cent of the Valley's surface area. The colour varies from white to black and erosion has formed sink holes and deep canyons wi-th natural bridges. The third group, the Bonanza, i s the smallest of the three appearing on the surface along the sides of Nimpkish Lake and representing 1,6 per cent of the total area. The lower parts are sedimentary, the upper and thicker parts are almost entirely volcanic  6  flows. The sedimentary rocks include a r g i l l i t e , calcareous a r g i l l i t e , impure limestone, tuffs, and peculiar agglomeratic rocks composed of volcanic fragments i n a limestone matrix. The volcanic rocks that overlie the sedimentary division of the Bonanza group include andesitic and basaltic flows, coarse volcanic breccias, and tuffs.  They are i n general more acidic  than the Karmutsen Series and andesites are more abundant than basalts. Potassium, calcium, and phosphorus are a l l present i n andesite; the tuffs are very low i n phosphorus and relatively low in calcium.  (iii)  Intrusive Rocks Most.of the intrusive rocks of Vancouver Island form  part of the Coast intrusions, which were emplaced during Jurassic or Cretaceous time and which now occupy much of the Coast mountain area of British Columbia.  They are holocrystalline, igneous rocks  that range i n colour from pink and brown to grey and dark greenish grey, and i n composition from basic to acidic, with rocks of the granitic clan predominating.  They form s i l l s , dykes, stocks and  batholithic bodies. The Nimpkish Intrusions have been forced up between and are separated by areas of Vancouver group rocks, but at depth probably form parts of one large batholith extending from beyond Woss Lake i n the southeast to beyond Nimpkish Lake i n the northwest, a distance of about f i f t y miles.  7  Throughout this area, the intrusive rocks are l i t h ologically very siniilar, and except for the more basic border phases, a l l belong to the granitic group of rock types,  (iv) Drift. Throughout the length of the Valley the lower elevations are i n general covered with glacial d r i f t , derived from the previously described rock formations by glacial action. This d r i f t i s not deep and the underlying bedrock i s commonly exposed especially where a river has eroded a deep channel or canyon. These canyons vary from 50 to 200 feet i n depth. Their formation i s related to a recent period of minor uplift and resettling of the general land mass. This affected the sea level and made i t possible for alluvial erosion to vary and for the rivers to cut back into the easily eroded glacial d r i f t l e f t throughout the Valley. The formation of riverine benches has occurred i n association with these changing sea levels. At some points i t i s possible to count five or six separate bench formations. Projecting through the drift material there are occasional isolated low h i l l s of the underlying rock formation, i n general these have been strongly scoured by the ice.  (v) Alluvium. There i s not a great deal of alluvial s o i l because the last ice age was quite recent. The main river has sorted d r i f t  8  i n t o v a l l e y - g r a v e l s , sand and s i l t along i t s l e n g t h , t h e b e s t development b e i n g a t t h e c o n f l u e n c e  o f t h e Woss and Nimpkish E l v e r s  and i n t h e s m a l l d e l t o i d r e g i o n t o t h e e a s t o f t h e s o u t h end o f Nimpkish Lake where t h e r i v e r e n t e r s t h e l a k e .  Through most o f  i t s l e n g t h , t h e main stream meanders s t r o n g l y , f o r m i n g  frequent  oxbows and s l o u g h s . The major t r i b u t a r i e s o f t h e Nimpkish R i v e r have a s i m i l a r form b u t t h e minor c r e e k s v a r y c o n s i d e r a b l y because o f t h e steep s l o p e o f t h e U-shaped g l a c i a t e d v a l l e y . creeks  o r i g i n a t e on a h i g h p l a t e a u .  T y p i c a l l y , t h e minor  They t h e n f o l l o w a g e n t l e grade  u n t i l they r e a c h t h e l i m i t o f t h e r e c e n t g l a c i a t i o n i n t h e main v a l l e y , where e a c h s t r e a m becomes a tumbling descending r a p i d l y t o the v a l l e y f l o o r . e r o s i v e powers a r e g r e a t l y i n c r e a s e d . accumulation  of boulders  m a t e r i a l spreading  series of w a t e r f a l l s ,  I n so d o i n g i t s speed and T h i s a c t i o n b r i n g s down an  and s m a l l e r r o c k s c r e a t i n g a f a n o f t a l u s  o u t i n t o t h e main v a l l e y .  T h i s type o f creek i s  v e r y common and t e n d s t o f l o w d i r e c t l y t o the r i v e r .  A map showing  the d r a i n a g e p a t t e r n t h u s appears t o have a snakes s k e l e t o n drawn on it.  (See f i g . I I )  (vi)  H i s t o r i c a l Geology On t h e c o a s t o f N o r t h A m e r i c a , Mesozoic  vulcanism  p r o b a b l y r e a c h e d a peak i n Upper T r i a s s i c and J u r a s s i c t i m e s and e r u p t i o n s t o o k p l a c e , i n p a r t a t l e a s t under submarine c o n d i t i o n s .  t o f o l l o w page  F i g . I I kap t o I l l u s t r a t e Developed i n G l a c i a t e d  the T y p i c a l otream-bed Valleys; Elliott  8  Pattern  G r ^ e k , i'.impkish V a l l e y .  9  The b a s a l t i c and a n d e s i t i c r o c k s o f the Karmutsen group were formed i n the e a r l y p a r t o f t h i s p e r i o d .  During t h e waning s t a g e s  Karmutsen v u l c a n i s m , n o r t h e r n Vancouver I s l a n d was  of  o c c u p i e d by  s h a l l o w s e a f a v o u r a b l e t o t h e d e p o s i t i o n o f l i m e s t o n e , thus Quatsino  f o r m a t i o n s were c r e a t e d .  sedimentation, vulcanism  a  the  A f t e r t h i s p r o l o n g e d p e r i o d of  a g a i n became a c t i v e o v e r t h e e n t i r e  area  a t the c l o s e of t h e T r i a s s i c Epoch and c o n t i n u e d t h r o u g h much o f t h e Jurassic period.  The r e s u l t was  the great accumulation  of t h e  a n d e s i t i c l a v a s of t h e Bonanza group. The J u r a s s i c p e r i o d ended i n a g r e a t d i s t u r b a n c e accompanied by, batholithic intrusions. end  o r immediately  orogenic  f o l l o w e d by, the  coast  A c t i v e erosion then followed, u n t i l by  o f Paleocene t i m e , t h e l a n d s u r f a c e was  nearly f l a t .  During  Upper Eocene t i m e , major d i a s t r o p h i s m r e s u l t e d i n t h e u p l i f t o f peneplaned s u r f a c e .  F u r t h e r u p l i f t took p l a c e i n P l i o c e n e  A l l o f n o r t h e r n Vancouver I s l a n d underwent  the prethe  time.  extensive  g l a c i a t i o n d u r i n g P l e i s t o c e n e t i m e , c a u s i n g pronounced deepening of p r e g l a c i a l r i v e r v a l l e y s along which major movement o f I c e A t t h e time when -the g l a c i e r s r e a c h e d l a n d s u r f a c e was level.  depressed  t h e i r maximum t h i c k n e s s the  s e v e r a l hundred f e e t below t h e p r e s e n t  sea  During t h e waning s t a g e s , s i l t , c l a y s and sand were d e p o s i t e d .  D e p o s i t s of r e c e n t stream g r a v e l , a l l u v i u m , and t h e reworking  (vii)  occurred.  sand have formed  of g l a c i a l m a t e r i a l and e r o s i o n of b e d r o c k .  Soils " S o i l i s the c o l l e c t i o n of n a t u r a l bodies occupying a p o r t i o n of the e a r t h ' s s u r f a c e t h a t s u p p o r t s p l a n t s and t h a t has p r o p e r t i e s due t o t h e i n t e g r a t e d e f f e c t of c l i m a t e and l i v i n g m a t t e r , a c t i n g upon p a r e n t m a t e r i a l , as c o n d i t i o n e d b y t h e  by  10  r e l i e f , over periods of time." (Soil Survey Staff 195D. The parent material has already been described i n this section, while climate i s covered i n the nextj following that i s the description of living plant matter.  The time factor  involved i s that period since the last ice retreated, estimated between 6,000 and 8,000 years ago.  The relief f a l l s into three  categories, the Straight sidehill condition, the more complex broken h i l l y country i n the wider parts of the valley, and the river terraces. The last glaciation was recent, therefore, the soils are immature. The parent materials range i n f e r t i l i t y from the poorer tuffs and acidic lavas to the base-rich basalts and the f e r t i l e soils derived from the granodiorites of the major intrusive bodies.  These granodiorites have provided the greater part of the  high site soils and have contributed to the production of the big timber for which the Nimpkish Valley i s best known. The drift material deposited by the glaciers throughout so much of the valley has i t s own characteristics, but also carries to a lesser extent those of the bedrock from which i t was derived. The very localized topographical variations i n the d r i f t deposits give rise to gleys and ground-water podsols over the higher slightly elevated ground. On the rock bluffs and where the bedrock i s emergent through the d r i f t , podzols are the typical formation. These podzols generally are less developed than the ones formed on the drift because of the thinness of the material available for s o i l formation.  11  The bench f o r m a t i o n s d e r i v e d i n p a r t f r o m t h e r i v e r a c t i o n and i n p a r t f r o m the v a r i a t i o n s i n t h e l e v e l s o f t h e s e a i n the immediate p a s t u s u a l l y have d e v e l o p e d p o d z o l s *  I n t h e sloughs  t y p i c a l o f the changed r i v e r c o u r s e s t h e r e o f t e n i s a s t r o n g p e a t formation*  The f o r m a t i o n o f t h e p e a t i s due t o t h e impeded d r a i n -  age and t h e low mean annual temperature, decomposition  of vegetable m a t e r i a l *  r i v e r c u t s o f f an o v e r - d e v e l o p e d  b o t h o f which d i s c o u r a g e  Sloughs f o r m when t h e main  oxbow a t t i m e o f h i g h water, thus  l e a v i n g b a s i n s o r p o o l s o f w a t e r w h i c h do n o t d r a i n away*  Over a  p e r i o d o f t i m e , v e g e t a t i o n grows and i t s d e b r i s g r a d u a l l y f i l l s t h e h o l l o w s w i t h peat*  This also takes place a t the various divides o f  the Nimpkish d r a i n a g e w i t h o t h e r d r a i n a g e s such as t h e Adam, S i t i k a , and Oktwanch R i v e r s , where t h e grade i s i n s u f f i c i e n t t o p r o v i d e good drainage* There a r e a l s o some immature s o i l s  such a s t h e l i t h o -  s o l s a t t h e base o f r o c k s l i d e s and t a l u s s l o p e s , and t h e h i g h l e v e l alpine  soils.  (viii)  Ground Water The p r o d u c t i v i t y o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l s i t e i s v e r y  r e l a t e d t o t h e ground water a v a i l a b l e .  T h i s i n t u r n i s r e l a t e d t o the  d e p t h o f t h e s o i l b e f o r e a n impervious l a y e r o c c u r s . i n f l u e n c e s t h e l e v e l o f t h e ground w a t e r . topography  closely  Topography a l s o  The l o c a l f a c t o r s o f  and t h e depth t o which w a t e r may f r e e l y p a s s l i m i t the  s i t e value c l o s e l y .  12  S i d e h i l l c o u n t r y u s u a l l y has f r e e d r a i n a g e down t h e prevailing slope.  There i s continuous  movement o f seepage water  w i t h i n t h e s o i l and t h i s w a t e r tends t o become e n r i c h e d w i t h n u t r i e n t s as i t p a s s e s t o l o w e r e l e v a t i o n s . . The p o t e n t i a l enrichment i s , however, o n l y as h i g h as t h e n u t r i e n t c o n t e n t o f t h e s o i l  and  bedrock t h r o u g h w h i c h i t moves, so t h a t water d r a i n i n g f r o m such a s i d e h i l l of r o c k o f low f e r t i l i t y w i l l n o t have such b e n e f i c i a l e f f e c t s as t h a t o f r o c k of h i g h n u t r i e n t c o n t e n t . t h e w a t e r may  The  movement o f  e x h i b i t a c e r t a i n amount o f c o n c e n t r a t i o n i n t o g u l l e y s  o r s m a l l canyons which l a t e r f a n out on r e a c h i n g t h e l o w e r concave p a r t of t h e s l o p e .  I t i s i n t h i s r e g i o n where the water spreads  out  t h r o u g h a p i l e o f l o o s e r o c k and d e b r i s brought down b y a creek t h a t some o f t h e h i g h e s t s i t e s o c c u r . f o r the t r e e s i s considerable.  Here t h e d e p t h o f f r e e r o o t i n g space There i s ample water even when o t h e r  areas b e g i n t o d r y out and the seepage water i s g e n e r a l l y r i c h i n n u t r i e n t s , f r e e l y moving and w e l l - a e r a t e d . The r e v e r s e s i t u a t i o n a r i s e s on t h e s m a l l r o c k y where t h e bedrock o u t c r o p s i n the m i d d l e o f t h e v a l l e y .  hills  Ih t h i s  t h e r e i s no u p h i l l r e g i o n f o r water t o come f r o m , o r where snow  case may  l i e and m e l t , r e l e a s i n g w a t e r t h r o u g h o u t the s p r i n g and e a r l y summer. Such r a i n - w a t e r as t h e r e i s soon runs o f f t h r o u g h t h e s h a l l o w and t h e r e i s no source of r o c k d e b r i s o r o f more s o i l t o be down and d e p o s i t e d t o e n r i c h the s i t e . p r o v i d e s t h e lowest and shore  pine.  soil,  carried  As a r e s u l t t h i s -type of a r e a  s i t e p r o d u c t i v i t y c a r r y i n g o n l y s m a l l Douglas f i r  13  Intermediate situations range between these two extremes. The irregular, drift-covered land across the valleybottoms has a deeper s o i l potential, though lateral movement of water i s not so great. The development of impervious layers of material tends to keep the water from sinking very far into the drift material. If i t were not for this, some of these sites would be very dry i n summer. The hollows and declivities act as storage for water, and while growth conditions are poor i n the hollows they do hold a reserve of water which assists trees growing on the adjacent higher land. Another situation where varying depths of water-table influence site quite markedly occurs on the bench formations. These benches tend to have high site conditions where they l i e close to a sidehill and receive seepage water from i t , but in the sections further from the h i l l the site i s lower, until the lowest i s reached at the deeply drained edge of the bench. This applies to varying degrees according to the height of the individual bench. The highest benches exhibit the greatest range of site. Relatively low site conditions can also occur i n the valley bottoms where lack of free lateral drainage exists even i n a free-draining sandy s o i l because -there i s insufficient grade to take the water away. The depth of s o i l required for Douglas f i r to grow well i s 36 inches. In soils with less than 18 inches the production of timber i s generally low, though good stands may be found on soils with an effective depth of only 2k inches. In fact, many of the Nimpkish stands are underlain by consolidated impervious materials at this depth.  Hi  By considering the l i k e l y soil-water relationships according to topography and making some allowance for local geology i t i s possible to estimate reasonably accurately the site quality of the timber producing lands i n the Nimpkish Valley, (cf. H i l l s 1952).  IB  Chapter I I  (i)  CLIMATE  Classification, A c c o r d i n g t o Koppen's system t h e Nimpkish  f a l l s i n t o the Cfb c l a s s *  Valley  T h i s , he d e f i n e s a s : -  "Mean o f t h e c o l d e s t month l e s s t h a n 6k*k degrees F . b u t more t h a n 26*6 d e g r e e s F . Mean o f t h e warmest month o v e r 50*0 degrees F . No d i s t i n c t d r y s e a s o n , d r i e s t month of summer exceeding 1.2 inches of r a i n f a l l * Mean o f t h e warmest month n o t e x c e e d i n g 71*6 degrees F . (Chapman 1952) w  (ii)  General I t i s b a s i c a l l y a temperate  and warm summers*  climate with mild winters  L y i n g a s i t does g e o g r a p h i c a l l y on t h e edge o f a  l a r g e c o n t i n e n t a l l a n d mass a g a i n s t a b r o a d ocean, t h e a r e a i s on the  b o r d e r between two competing weather systems.  The ocean  supplies  a s e r i e s o f low p r e s s u r e systems b r i n g i n g m o i s t a i r t h a t does n o t v a r y much i n temperature throughout t h e y e a r .  The c o n t i n e n t p r o d u c e s  h i g h p r e s s u r e systems w i t h extremes o f h i g h and low  temperature,  c a u s i n g r e l a t i v e l y d r y hot s p e l l s o f c l e a r weather i n t h e summer and c o l d snaps i n w i n t e r * competing  The e x t e n t t o w h i c h e i t h e r of t h e s e two  systems i s dominating t h e r e g i o n determines t h e c u r r e n t  weather p a t t e r n *  The mountainous n a t u r e o f t h e c o u n t r y f o r c e s t h e  m o i s t P a c i f i c a i r t o r i s e and r e l e a s e much r a i n * r a i n f a l l f o r Nimpkish Camp i s 81, U i n c h e s *  The average  (Appendix I I I ) .  annual  16  (iii)  Rainfall R a i n f a l l r e c o r d s a r e a v a i l a b l e f o r N i m p k i s h Camp  for  a f i f t e e n year period,  (Appendix  HI).  The t o t a l r a i n f a l l  r e l a t i v e l y h i g h and i n t e n s e s t o r m s c a n p r o d u c e f i v e i n a twenty-four hour period.  i n c h e s of  Complete absence of r a i n f o r  t h a n a c o u p l e of weeks i s n o t t y p i c a l and i n f i f t e e n y e a r s was o n l y o n e m o n t h when t h e r e w a s n o r a i n . do o c c u r when t h e h i g h p r e s s u r e This dry dry  there however,  in.  a i r i n summer w i l l a b s o r b a v a i l a b l e m o i s t u r e c r e a t i n g  very  conditions. The d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e r a i n f a l l i s t a b u l a t e d  w i t h some l o c a l s t a t i o n s f o r  I.  R a i n f a l l of each Quarter as a Percentage of  Winter  Location N i m p k i s h Camp, V . I . n o r t h Nanaimo, V . I . e a s t . Vancouver A i r p o r t , Lower Fraser Quatsino, V . I . west Estevan, V . I . west  Spring  Total Rainfall  Summer  Fall  Total  k6% hh%  175? 17*-  7% 9%  30% 30%  8l.it« 37.7"  h0% 37% 39%  1758  9% 9% 10%  31% 3h% 29%  57. k 95.6"  20% 22%  I t w i l l be n o t i c e d t h a t the v a l l e y c o n d i t i o n s c l o s e l y those of the e a s t c o a s t of  of the west.  below  comparison:-  TABLE  very  rain  longer  Long d r y s p e l l s ,  c o n t i n e n t a l a i r mass m o v e s  is  the I s l a n d  n  108.9"  parallel  rather than  those  T h i s i s a f u n c t i o n o f t h e t e n d e n c y f o r t h e i s l a n d mass  17  t o e x h i b i t a s l i g h t c o n t i n e n t a l i t y o f i t s own.  Thus t h e weather  s t a t i o n f a r t h e s t up t h e v a l l e y shows extremes f r o m z e r o t o 9 9 degrees F . w h i c h cannot be matched elsewhere i n t h e v a l l e y and which a r e v e r y d i f f e r e n t from t h e s e a l e v e l s t a t i o n s .  F o r t h i s r e a s o n the f r o s t -  f r e e p e r i o d i s c o n s i d e r a b l y l o n g e r l o w e r down t h e v a l l e y .  This i s  i n a d d i t i o n t o the e f f e c t o f e l e v a t i o n . Snow o c c u r s most w i n t e r s and u s u a l l y p e r s i s t s t h r o u g h out t h e w i n t e r i n t h e upper h a l f o f t h e v a l l e y .  The q u a n t i t y v a r i e s ;  depths t o f i v e f e e t can o c c u r i n t h e v a l l e y bottom. wet and heavy due t o subsequent r a i n . thawing i s common f o r s h o r t p e r i o d s .  I t o f t e n becomes  A l t e r n a t i n g f r e e z i n g and The f i r s t  snow appears d u r i n g  October a t the h i g h e r e l e v a t i o n s ,  (iv)  Wind. The maximum wind speed i s 20 t o 25 raph, even i n exposed  places.  S t r o n g d i u r n a l winds a r e common i n summer when a h i g h  p r e s s u r e system has d e v e l o p e d o v e r t h e a r e a .  These blow up t h e v a l l e y s .  The p r e v a i l i n g winds blow from t h e s o u t h e a s t b r i n g i n g r a i n w h i l e t h e winds f r o m t h e northwest a r e d r y .  The v a l l e y ' s a x i s i s northwest and  southeast,  (v)  Electric  Storms  Electric  storms a r e r a r e , though o c c a s i o n a l ones do  d e v e l o p when a h i g h p r e s s u r e r i d g e i s becoming u n s t a b l e .  O n l y two o r  t h r e e o c c u r i n a summer b u t t h e i r importance may be g r e a t i f t h e  18  l i g h t n i n g they b r i n g s t a r t s wild The accumulated location i s  2,500  degree-days.  fires.  summer warmth f o r s e a - l e v e l a t t h i s I n t h e upper r e g i o n s o f t h e v a l l e y  i t tends t o be h i g h e r . In  summary t h e c l i m a t e i s such a s t o p r o v i d e a  moderate "type o f c o n d i t i o n w i t h o u t extremes o f temperature, wind o r precipitation.  The summer c o n d i t i o n s o f low h u m i d i t y , when t h e y do  occur, create p a r t i c u l a r l y favourable c o n d i t i o n s f o r the spread o f f i r e , w h i l e t h e ample r a i n f a l l h e l p s t o produce  a vigorous f o r e s t .  19  Chapter I U  (i)  ECOLOGY  F o r e s t Types. The system o f f o r e s t type d e f i n i t i o n and numbers u s e d  (195U).  i s t h a t o f the S o c i e t y o f American F o r e s t e r s , Douglas f i r - western hemlock  #229  #230 are the major t i m b e r t y p e s i n t h e v a l l e y .  and Douglas  They occupy  fir  nearly  a l l the v a l l e y bottom t h a t i s w e l l d r a i n e d and grow on t h e h i l l s i d e s to  2,000 f e e t above s e a l e v e l .  Where d r a i n a g e i s poor due t o l a n d  f o r m , and swampy c o n d i t i o n s p r e v a i l , t h e western r e d cedar t y p e #228 r e p l a c e s them.  On t h e s c a t t e r e d low r o c k y h i l l s throughout the  v a l l e y where t h e water s u p p l y i s low i n d r y weather the c l i m a x s p e c i e s i s t h e shore v a r i e t y o f l o d g e p o l e p i n e ( P i n u s c o n t o r t a Dougl.) (Type #218).  T h i s t y p e a l s o r e p l a c e s t y p e #228 on s i t e s w i t h impeded  d r a i n a g e where p e a t f o r m a t i o n has become pronounced, as a p i o n e e r on s i t e s m a r g i n a l f o r o t h e r s p e c i e s .  as w e l l as a c t i n g  At the northern  extreme o f t h e v a l l e y t h e S i t k a spruce ( P i c e a s i t c h e n s i s (Bong) C a r r . ) w e s t e r n hemlock t y p e  #225  r e p l a c e s the Douglas f i r t y p e s because  more maritime c l i m a t e i n summer.  of t h e  There i s always t h e tendency f o r  t h e Douglas f i r t y p e s t o be r e p l a c e d because t h e y a r e a f i r e The e x p e c t e d s u c c e s s i o n i s as f o l l o w s :  Douglas f i r t y p e  sub-climax.  #229,  with  w e s t e r n hemlock forming an u n d e r s t o r y and o c c a s i o n a l l y r e a c h i n g a dominant p o s i t i o n , and a f t e r a time l a p s e o f 700 t o 1,000  years a  replacement by the s h a d e - t o l e r a n t hemlock, c e d a r and balsam,  (1957).  T h i s p r o c e s s may  Schmidt  be speeded up somewhat b y i n s e c t damage such  as t h a t caused b y the Douglas f i r bark b e e t l e , Dendroctonus  pseudotsugae,  20 or by windthrow or root rot, a l l causing gaps i n the canopy  0  These  openings are not large enough for f i r reproduction. Western red cedar gains increasing prominence as time passes. Generally these trees establish themselves when the stand i s regenerated but are unable to compete with the f i r i n height. Thus a 500 year-old f i r stand w i l l have a percentage of cedar i n i t s understory but a 1,000 year-old stand w i l l number big cedar amongst i t s dominants which w i l l show i t to he, by annual ring counts, of the same age as the scattered remaining f i r . About 1,100 years after f i r e the cedar and f i r w i l l have been replaced by hemlock and balsam and the Pacific Silver f i r (balsam)-western hemlock type #226 w i l l begin to form. Such old stands are rare i n the middle and upper reaches of -the valley at the lower elevations because major fires usually occur and the cycle recommences. After a f i r e , occasional large, thick-barked Douglas f i r are l e f t alive favouring the regeneration of Douglas f i r rather than hemlock or some other species which was k i l l ed by the f i r e .  I f there  i s no fire with the passing of further centuries, balsam becomes the dominant species. The hemlock i n such stands suffers badly from dwarf mistletoe, (Arceuthobium camphyopodium) and also i s at a disadvantage because i t cannot regenerate i n quite such shady conditions as can balsam, being less shade tolerant. The balsam then constitutes the stand. Balsam does not appear earlier because i t has a large heavy seed and cannot be disseminated over great distances, Schmidt (1957). Other species present include western white pine, (Pinus monticola, Dougl.), western yew (Taxus brevifolia, Nutt.), scattered individual Sitka spruce, red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.), big  21 leaf maple (Acer macrophyllum Pnrsch.), black cottonwood (Populus tricocarpa T. & G.-) and cascara (Rhanmus pursiana Dc.). The black cottonwood on alluvial sites can form a f a i r stand but this i s uncommon (Type #222). Red alder i s a pioneer species especially on temporarily disturbed, compacted soils such as the main cat-roads and disused grades.  I t w i l l also take over quite large areas of  logged-off land i f i t has a seed source, but i s replaced i n about 1+0 to 60 years by a coniferous stand. This may be largely Sitka spruce which frequents the damper sites that alder occupies. Hemlock also reproduces i n the shade of the disintegrating stand, while a few red cedar and Douglas f i r may be present. At the higher elevations the major type i s the Pacific silver f i r (balsam or balsam f i r ) type #226. Balsam, western hemlock or mountain hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana Carr.) may predominate i n this type, but the balsam i s i n significant quantities. Yellow cedar (Chamaecyparis Nootkatensis Don. Spach) also forms stands at high elevations. "Some of the finest yellow cedar stands anywhere are found on the Mount Cain Plateau within the Nimpkish drainage," (Forest Soils Committee 1957).  This i s type #216.  The associated type #20$,  mountain hemlock-sub-alpine f i r also occurs at elevations i n excess of U,000 feet. The forest occupies a l l land, except peat deposits, mountain peaks, glaciers, rock bluffs and slides. Twenty to thirty years after any disturbance the forest cover has usually re-established itself naturally.  22  (ii)  Site " S i t e i s t h e c a p a c i t y o f an a r e a to produce  (Forest  timber."  S o i l s Committee l°f>7). S i t e i n d e x as u s e d i n t h i s s t u d y i s t h e  average  h e i g h t o f the dominant and co-dominant Douglas f i r t r e e s a t 100 of age.  (McArdle, Meyer and Bruce  19k9)»  years  Site class refers to five  d i v i s i o n s o f s i t e i n d e x i n d i c a t e d b y the Roman Numerals I t o V, m i d - p o i n t o f s i t e c l a s s I e q u a l s s i t e i n d e x 200, o f H of H I  equals  e q u a l s lltO, o f IV e q u a l s 110 and o f V e q u a l s 80.  the summation o f a l l i n t e r a c t i o n s and e d a p h i c  Site  The  170, expresses  of c l i m a t i c , b i o t i c , t o p o g r a p h i c  factors* F o r the Nimpkish  index are i n use.  Valley  two systems o f c a l c u l a t i n g  site  Douglas f i r h e i g h t s and ages a r e used i n c o n j u n c t i o n  w i t h height-age curves t o i n d i c a t e  average t r e e h e i g h t a t 100 y e a r s and  t o determine  Alternatively  s i t e index d i r e c t l y .  measurement o f the average measure o f s i t e i n d e x .  i n logged areas,  stump d i a m e t e r a t 80 y e a r s g i v e s a  (Schmidt 19f>U).  satisfactory  A t l e a s t t h r e e stumps a r e  measured f o r e a c h s i t e i n d e x d e t e r m i n a t i o n .  The  average  stump  diameter  i s found b y t a k i n g two measurements a t r i g h t a n g l e s t o each o t h e r . Expected accuracy of estimate of the c o r r e c t or b e t t e r .  Surveys o f n e a r l y t h i r t y thousand  the v a r i o u s age c l a s s e s of H ,  acres d i s t r i b u t e d  through  show 1 p e r cent o f s i t e c l a s s I , 21 p e r c e n t  I46 p e r cent o f H I ,  average s i t e i n d e x was  s i t e c l a s s i s 75 p e r c e n t  13k,  h i g h a t 100 y e a r s o f age.  22 p e r c e n t o f IV and 10 p e r c e n t o f V. i . e . t h e Douglas f i r t r e e would be 13k  The feet  The o r i g i n a l o l d growth stands p r o v i d e  c o n v i n c i n g e v i d e n c e o f t h e h i g h s i t e o f many a r e a s .  The t a l l e s t  tree  23  r e c o r d e d i n the v a l l e y was  measured as 305  f e e t h i g h a t U00  years of  age. Appendix I g i v e s i n t a b u l a r f o r m , t h e diameter v a l u e s used t o determine  the s i t e i n d e x by the method o f c o u n t i n g r i n g s .  The diameters f o r b o t h 80 y e a r s and 100  y e a r s a r e g i v e n , though the  b e s t r e s u l t s have been o b t a i n e d f r o m the 80 y e a r r i n g method. Other methods o f measuring s i t e i n d e x (Warrack and F r a s e r 1955)  have been c o n s i d e r e d .  t i o n must i n some way  The r a t e o f growth of t h e  r e f l e c t t h e q u a l i t y o f the s i t e .  regenera-  There a r e ,  however, so many v a r i a b l e i n f l u e n c e s on young t r e e s t h a t t h i s approach has n o t been u s e d .  Smith and Ker  (1956)  made t h e f o l l o w i n g comments:-  " C l a s s i f i c a t i o n s b a s e d on j u v e n i l e h e i g h t growth r e p r e s e n t c u r r e n t s i t e i n d e x r a t h e r t h a n l o n g - t e r m s i t e i n d e x . They w i l l not i n d i c a t e t r u e s i t e q u a l i t y where c o n d i t i o n s f o r growth a r e t e m p o r a r i l y more o r l e s s f a v o u r a b l e t h a n u s u a l because o f u n d e r l y i n g hardpan, abnormal weather, e x c e s s e s o f n u t r i e n t s f o l l o w i n g b u r n i n g , browsing damage, o r t e m p o r a r i l y f a v o r a b l e seepage. I t must a l s o be assumed t h a t t h e t r e e s used f o r t h e s i t e e v a l u a t i o n are t r u l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e i n terms o f crown c l a s s , v i g o u r , age, s p a c i n g and s p e c i e s . I n s p i t e o f t h e s e l i m i t a t i o n s methods based on j u v e n i l e h e i g h t growth p r o v i d e e a r l y and r e a s o n a b l y a c c u r a t e e s t i m a t e s o f s i t e q u a l i t y t h a t may be d e t e r mined b o t h e a s i l y and r a p i d l y , "  I n t h e a r e a s o f mature hemlock-balsam t h a t a r e now l o g g e d t h e r e a r e no Douglas f i r  stumps t o i n d i c a t e s i t e i n d e x .  be n e c e s s a r y i n t h e s e c a s e s t o use a new  technique.  being  It will  2h  (iii)  Vegetation F o u r v e g e t a t i o n t y p e s t h a t have b e e n d e s c r i b e d b y  (19ii7)  S p i l s b u r y and Smith (a)  P type  (b)  PG t y p e  (c)  G type  (d)  GPa t y p e  occur w i t h i n t h i s drainage.  P o l y s t i o h u m (Sword f e r n  They a r e s -  type)  P o l y s t i c h u m - G a u l t h e r i a (Sword f e r n - s a l a l Gaultheria (Salal  type)  type)  G a u l t h e r i a - P a r m e l i a ( S a l a l - p a l e green l i c h e n  These r e p r e s e n t a s u b d i v i s i o n , i n terms o f s i t e o f t h e Douglas f i r type  #230.  B.C.  (Forest Club  type  #229  type)  quality  a n d the Douglas f i r - w e s t e r n hemlock  These t y p e s a r e d e s c r i b e d i n the F o r e s t r y Handbook f o r  1959)*  The T h u j a p l i c a t a - A l n u s r u b r a - L y s i c h i t u m americanum  a s s o c i a t i o n (Red c e d a r - r e d a l d e r - s k u n k cabbage a s s o c i a t i o n ) and t h e P i n u s contorta-Ledum  groenlandicum-Sphagnum c a p i l l a c e u m a s s o c i a t i o n  (Lodge-  p o l e p i n e - L a b r a d o r t e a - P e a t moss a s s o c i a t i o n ) are a l s o d e s c r i b e d . Appendix I I g i v e s a l i s t  of p l a n t s c o m p i l e d f r o m an  herbarium c o l l e c t i o n made i n the Nimpkish V a l l e y .  I t p r e s e n t s a good  c r o s s - s e c t i o n o f t h e p l a n t s t h a t grow i n t h e l o w e r p a r t s o f the V a l l e y .  25  C h a p t e r 17  (i)  BIOTIC FACTORS  Animals. A list  i s g i v e n i n Appendix  o f t h e mammals o c c u r i n g i n t h e Nimpkish IV.  Valley  The f o r e s t s and t h e r i v e r s a r e t h e b a s i c  s o u r c e s o f f o o d f o r a l l forms o f l i f e . f e e d e r s on o t h e r a n i m a l s and f i s h .  The p r e d a t o r s a r e secondary  For t h i s t h e s i s the animals  r e l a t e d t o t h e f i s h f o o d source a r e n o t o f i n t e r e s t and t h e p r e d a t o r s are  o f c o n c e r n o n l y i n t h e i r e f f e c t o n the r e m a i n d e r .  (a) the  Red S q u i r r e l .  length of the v a l l e y .  -  T h i s animal i s common throughout  I t s f o o d c o n s i s t s o f seeds o f c o n i f e r s ,  f l o w e r and l e a f buds, mushrooms a n d f r u i t s . f o o d a r e s t o r e d , p a r t i c u l a r l y f i r cones. f o u r o r f i v e cones t o each c a c h e . eat  Large q u a n t i t i e s of  These i t p i c k s and h i d e s ,  I t i s not generally believed to  enough seed t o e f f e c t s e r i o u s l y seed s u p p l i e s f o r r e g e n e r a t i o n ,  except i n p o o r seed y e a r s .  (b)  American  Beaver.  -  Subsequent  p o p u l a t i o n was r e d u c e d t o a low l e v e l . been t o o l o w t o encourage  to past trapping the  S i n c e t h e n f u r p r i c e s have  t r a p p e r s and t h e number o f a n i m a l s i n t h e  v a l l e y h a s been i n c r e a s i n g .  There a r e s t i l l t o o few t o have any g r e a t  e f f e c t on t h e f o r e s t e i t h e r b y t h e i r dams, o r by t h e i r f e e d i n g on the  black  cottonwood.  (c)  "White-footed o r Deer Mouse. -  The d e e r mouse i s t h e  most i m p o r t a n t mammal t h a t i n f l u e n c e s t h e f o r e s t . omnivorous  I t i s an almost  animal t h a t f e e d s o n a wide v a r i e t y o f p l a n t and a n i m a l  26  foods, such as conifer and other seeds, f r u i t s , succulent stems of grasses, insects and flesh. There are two, three, four or more l i t t e r s per year, depending on habitat. The number of young i n a U t t e r varies from two to eight with a mean of k»5» The omnivorous nature of this mouse means that i t can maintain a fair population under most conditions. After logging, the food supply i s increased and the population rises rapidly. This mouse also prefers the f a i r l y large Douglas f i r seed and i s capable of eating up to 300 per day. For this reason seed falling on slash areas where there are deer mice, has a poor chance of ever being allowed to grow. Unless the seed f a l l i s exceptionally heavy, there i s none l e f t to provide for restocking. A r t i f i c i a l seeding, i f the seed i s not protected by deterrent chemicals, i s not effective because i t i s eaten by the miceo (d) Black Bear. - The bears i n the Valley, while numerous, do l i t t l e damage except i n the vicinity of the camp garbage dumps. Here the damage i s usually restricted to claw scars on the lower parts of second growth trees, (e) Elk or Wapiti. - There are three or four herds of elk present but the total number of animals probably does not exceed twenty-five. Their diet consists of a large variety of grasses, herbs, shrubs and deciduous trees. Normally they eat about eighty per cent grasses and herbs and twenty per cent browse, though they may eat up to eighty per cent browse. The effect of the elk i s not harmful at present.  27  (f)  C o a s t o r Columbian B l a c k t a i l Deer.  d e e r v a r i e s w i t h t h e time o f y e a r .  -  The f o o d o f the  (Cowan and Q u i g u i t  1956).  The  f o o d p r e f e r e n c e o f deer i n s p r i n g i s f o r Douglas f i r f o l i a g e w i t h red  cedar f o l i a g e next.  I n the f a l l , f i r i s f o u r t h i n o r d e r o f  p r e f e r e n c e , and c e d a r i s e i g h t h , w h i l e i n w i n t e r c e d a r i s f i r s t f i r t a k e s second p l a c e .  T a k i n g the y e a r as a whole, c e d a r i s t h e  p r e f e r r e d f o o d , w i t h f i r i n second p l a c e . to  d e e r on Vancouver  and  Island.  These p r e f e r e n c e s r e f e r  I n w i n t e r , d e e r f o r s a k e the s l a s h  and  g a t h e r i n s t a n d i n g t i m b e r o r t a l l second growth, w h i l e a l s o moving to lower e l e v a t i o n s .  I n s p r i n g t h e d e e r r e t u r n t o the s l a s h and i t  i s t h e n t h a t most damage i s l i k e l y t o be done i n p l a n t a t i o n s or i n second growth.  Browse c o n t r i b u t e s s i x t y - e i g h t p e r c e n t of t h e  normal  d i e t and a f u l l grown a d u l t needs e i g h t pounds o f browse d a i l y . Deep snow l i m i t s p o p u l a t i o n s , depths i n e x c e s s of t h r e e t o f o u r f e e t are  usually fatal.  Long c l o u d y p e r i o d s i n w i n t e r can a l s o  cause  s t a r v a t i o n by r e d u c i n g t h e p r o t e i n c o n t e n t o f the browse below f i v e per c e n t dry weight.  When t h i s happens the d e e r are u n a b l e t o g e t  enough nourishment and d i e o f s t a r v a t i o n even though t h e i r stomachs are  full. Under v i r g i n f o r e s t c o n d i t i o n s on Vancouver  normal d e e r p o p u l a t i o n i s around two per square m i l e .  Island the  Logging  and  s l a s h b u r n i n g improve t h e browse c o n s i d e r a b l y by c r e a t i n g l a r g e open spaces and s t i m u l a t i n g the growth o f t h e l e s s e r v e g e t a t i o n . makes i t p o s s i b l e f o r t h e d e e r p o p u l a t i o n t o i n c r e a s e .  This  In f i v e to ten  y e a r s t h e r e c o u l d be twenty or more d e e r p e r square m i l e .  The  d e n s i t y o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n i s a f u n c t i o n of t h e c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y o f  28  the range. Experience, in the Nimpkish Valley does not confirm this, though i t i s true for other parts of the Island. The statistics of the Game Department based on hunting returns estimate a total of 300 deer in the Valley or 1*8 per square mile for 1958* In the same year a figure of 2»h9 deer per square mile and 2*3h deer per square mile, six months later, was obtained with the pellet count technique* Forty-seven permanent plots in three sections of the Valley were used for this purpose*  These plots sample the slash areas so this  estimate may be low* Even so, the expected build-up since logging i s not present. The average time since logging is seven years for the areas sampled by the plots* At present the effect of deer on regeneration i s not critical* (g) Cougar - Several years ago the cougars were becoming a nuisance and a Government cougar hunter was brought in* This man killed the cougars and subsequently took a regular job in the Valley* He continues to k i l l any stray cougars entering the Valley, so there is no predator control on the deer* One cougar will k i l l 30 to 35 deer in a year* (h) Birds and other animals. -The population i s generally beneficial*  effect of the bird  Most are insectivorous and so  reduce insect damage* Grouse, both blue and willow, occur and do some harm to Douglas f i r by eating the buds  e  There i s only one variety of  snake present. This snake i s not poisonous&  29  (i)  Insects.  -  i n the Nimpkish V a l l e y .  There a r e many s p e c i e s o f i n s e c t s p r e s e n t Most o f them g e t t h e i r sustenance f r o m the  f o r e s t b u t few are o f importance i n t h e r e g e n e r a t i o n of t r e e s . few, however, c a n s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e the development of new  Those  stands.  The p a r t s o f the t r e e most a f f e c t e d are the c o n e s , t h e n e e d l e s and the shoots. F i r cones c a n be s e r i o u s l y damaged b y the cone moth, Barbara c o i f a x i a n a Kearf.  T h i s moth w i l l i n f e c t n e a r l y e v e r y cone  i n a poor seed y e a r and d e s t r o y what l i t t l e c r o p o f seed t h e r e i s . The grub b o r e s i t s way t h e cone s c a l e s .  t h r o u g h t h e cone and e a t s t h e seed h e l d w i t h i n  Another seed d e s t r o y i n g i n s e c t i s the c h a l c i d  Megastigmus spermatrophus  Wachtl.  egg w i t h i n an i n d i v i d u a l seed. t h e seed f r o m w i t h i n .  T h i s i s a s m a l l wasp t h a t l a y s i t s  Here t h e grub h a t c h e s and d e s t r o y s  I t damages fewer seed t h a n does t h e cone moth.  The f o l i a g e of young s t a n d s i s a t t a c k e d b y defoliating caterpillars.  several  I n o r d e r of importance f r o m r e c e n t damage  t h e s e a r e : - A c l e r i s v a r i a n a F e r n . , t h e b l a c k - h e a d e d budworm, and M e l a n o l o p h i a i m i t a t a Wlk.  the g r e e n - s t r i p e d f o r e s t l o o p e r .  The b l a c k -  headed budworm has caused e x t e n s i v e d e f o l i a t i o n and die-back i n 20 t o 30 y e a r - o l d w e s t e r n hemlock stands i n a t h r e e y e a r epidemic i n t h e n o r t h e r n and w e s t e r n p a r t s of t h e V a l l e y . The grubs o f t h e S i t k a s p r u c e w e e v i l , P i s s o d e s s i t c h e n s i s Hopk. f e e d i n t h e o n e - y e a r - o l d s h o o t s of t h e S i t k a s p r u c e k i l l i n g o r deforming the stem.  T h i s s p o i l s the form o f t h e t r e e  much t h a t i t cannot be c o n s i d e r e d a c o m m e r c i a l l y u s e f u l  species.  so  30  The Douglas f i r enemies or spruce g a l l aphid, Adelges cooleyi G i l l , causes "pineapple" galls on the Sitka spruce.  Its alternate generation  infects the needles of the Douglas f i r as sap-sucking l i c e , but though often common they are rarely c r i t i c a l * (j)  Fungi. - The most damaging fungi i n the Valley i s the  white pine blister rust Cronartium ribicola.  I t attacks and k i l l s the  western white pine and this tree i s now no longer a commercial timber species*  Another kind of blister rust attacks shore pine causing  round ball-shaped swellings on the branches, but this i s not serious. Root rots are f a i r l y common on a l l the conifers and occasionally trees are killed i n the second growth stands*  The total loss i s negligible*  The active rots are Poria Weirii, Fomes annosus, and Armillaria mellea. (h)  Man, Logging History - One of the major influences i s  man's logging and his effect i n increasing the chance of f i r e * Logging started at Englewood and around Beaver Cove i n 191$, proceeding inland and westwards along the coast of the Island as the railroad was extended*  Settings were generally contiguous but the  logging did not extend very f a r up the sidehills. a fringe of timber above the logged areas*  There was generally  The logging reached the  north end of Nimpkish Lake by 1°23 and then utilized the lake for booming logs along i t s length* Because of the rocky nature of the shores of the lake and the irregular timber, l i t t l e logging was done along the shore line*  In 1°U3 logging began at the southern end of the  lake and from about 19k$ proceeded up the Valley at a rate averaging 2,000 acres a year*  During the next ten years semi-permanent camps  31  were e s t a b l i s h e d a t t h e l a k e head and a t twenty m i l e i n t e r v a l s up Valley.  The f u r t h e s t  i n l a n d o f t h e s e was s e t up t o  a c r e s o f t i m b e r damaged b y a f i r e A H  immediately south t r u c k logged*  originating in a lightning  and e a s t o f t h e s o u t h e r n e n d o f  T h i s has k e p t the  6,U00  salvage  l o g g i n g has been by r a i l r o a d w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n of t h e  strike.  area  the l a k e which was  s e t t i n g s l a r g e and a d j a c e n t t o  other creating extensive c l e a r - c u t areas.  Even w i t h the  each  truck  l o g g i n g much o f t h e c u t c o m e s f r o m a s k i d d e r w h i c h i s d e s i g n e d c o v e r a l a r g e p i e c e of  to  land at each s e t t i n g .  The g r o s s e f f e c t o f t h e l o g g i n g h a s b e e n t o r e m o v e heavy t i m b e r of t h e f i r - h e m l o c k t y p e i n t h e v a l l e y b o t t o m s and the l e s s  the  accessible s i d e h i l l timber  of t h e hemlock-balsam  the  leave  stands.  32  Chapter V (i)  FIRE Historical Aspects. The only known natural cause of f i r e i n t h i s area i s  lightning. storms.  During a normal summer there are usually several electric  If these follow a long dry spell and are not accompanied by  heavy rain there i s the possibility that lightning w i l l start a f i r e . The required conditions do not occur more than once or twice a year on the average.  This has been often enough to set large f i r e s i n  the Nimpkish Valley. The frequency of such f i r e s has been about one i n each century. 1685,  1550,  Thus there were major f i r e s dating from about 1820,  HiOO, 1320,  and 1200.  (Canadian Forest Products Ltd. 1955)•  This has led to large areas of the valley being regenerated at approximately the same time, so creating large blocks of even-aged timber. The Douglas f i r , by virtue of i t s a b i l i t y to establish i t s e l f on bare mineral s o i l exposed after a f i r e , has been the main species to re-seed these burnt areas.  It i s therefore the dominant species wherever the  previous stand has been removed by f i r e .  The extent of these f i r e s  has been mapped by Forest Service personnel and Company foresters and nearly a l l the area of the Valley below 2,000 feet has been shown to have burnt at one time or another during the last thousand years, with the exception of the ten miles of the Valley closest to the sea. Individual bums have ranged f i f t y miles along the Valley, though i t i s likely that such burns do not occur a l l i n one year but represent one or more extensions of an original burn over a period of several years. The snags l e f t by a f i r e present an ideal starting point for another lightning f i r e at a later time.  33  (ii)  Hazard and  Protection  The n a t u r a l source f i r e s i n snags. set  of hazard  i s l i g h t n i n g which s t a r t s  A n a t u r a l stand i s exposed t o the r i s k o f l i g h t n i n g -  f i r e s twice i n i t s l i f e .  During t h e f i r s t y e a r s of t h e  stands  e x i s t e n c e t h e dead t r e e s o f t h e p r e v i o u s s t a n d a r e s t i l l s t a n d i n g endanger t h e new till  forest.  T h i s r i s k may  l a s t t h i r t y or f o r t y  a l l the snags have r o t t e d and f a l l e n .  Douglas f i r and  and  years red cedar  w i l l l a s t l o n g e s t because of t h e i r d u r a b l e wood, but t h e r e d cedar i s u s u a l l y consumed b y the o r i g i n a l f i r e , w h i l e t h e hemlock and b a l s a m soon r o t away. likely  A f i r s t a n d b u r n t by a n a t u r a l l y c a u s e d f i r e i s q u i t e  t o b u r n a g a i n b e f o r e a new  forest i s safely established.  The  second p e r i o d o f r i s k of n a t u r a l f i r e comes a t t h e n a t u r a l r o t a t i o n age  of t h e Douglas f i r .  A t t h i s time i n d i v i d u a l t r e e s d i e and  the l i g h t n i n g a good chance t o s t a r t f i r e s .  T h i s may  be one  offer  of t h e  c h i e f r e a s o n s f o r t h e maintenance of the s p e c i e s i n such a dominant p o s i t i o n e v e n though i t i s o n l y a sub-climax s p e c i e s e c o l o g i c a l l y . The h a z a r d sources.  due  t o man  i s r e c e n t and  a r i s e s from  two  The l o g g i n g i n v o l v e s machines o f v a r i o u s t y p e s w h i c h c r e a t e  a fire risk.  T h i s r i s k i s r e a l i z e d by the o p e r a t o r s  a minimum.  However, i n t h e p a s t ,  fires.  p r e s e n c e of man  The  camp f i r e s ,  and r e d u c e d t o  steam-powered machines caused many  a c c o u n t s f o r t h e o t h e r form of r i s k  smoking and t h e g e n e r a l use  with  of f i r e f o r heating or t o  d e s t r o y waste. E x t e n s i v e f i r e p r e v e n t i o n i s p r a c t i c e d i n the Nimpkish V a l l e y t o p r o t e c t t h e timber t i o n by f i r e . falling.  The  stands  a g a i n s t the p o s s i b i l i t y of d e s t r u c -  h a z a r d i s reduced by s l a s h b u r n i n g  and b y  snag  3k  (iii)  Slash Burning. The B r i t i s h Columbia F o r e s t S e r v i c e r e q u i r e s t h a t t h e  h a z a r d i n 3lash l e f t a f t e r l o g g i n g be a b a t e d b y b u r n i n g .  It is  company p o l i c y t o burn more s l a s h t h a n a c t u a l l y r e q u i r e d i n o r d e r t o increase the s a f e t y f a c t o r .  D u r i n g p e r i o d s o f d r y summer weather,  f i r e s i n logging slash are v i r t u a l l y uncontrollable.  I t i s best t o  b u r n t h e s l a s h a t t h e end o f t h e d r y season j u s t a f t e r "the w i n t e r r a i n s have s t a r t e d .  Then t h e m a t e r i a l i s d r y enough t o b u r n w h i l e t h e  r a i n keeps t h e f i r e f r o m d e v e l o p i n g t o o much h e a t o r f r o m  spreading  so r a p i d l y t h a t i t may n o t be c o n t a i n e d w i t h i n any a r e a p r e s c r i b e d . I n t h e o r y t h i s i s q u i t e simple b u t t o g e t t h e r i g h t weather c o n d i t i o n s and t o e s t i m a t e t h e p r e c i s e moment a t which t h e f i r e s s h o u l d be l i t r e q u i r e s v e r y h i g h l y s k i l l e d judgement.  Some s l a s h f i r e s b u r n  green  timber a d j a c e n t t o t h e s e t t i n g on w h i c h i t was i n t e n d e d t o b u r n o n l y the s l a s h .  S l a s h burning i n v o l v e s both r e d u c t i o n o f hazard and a t  the same t i m e an element o f r i s k o f f i r e damage. I n p r a c t i c e s l a s h b u r n i n g may be grouped i n t o t h r e e classifications.  F i r s t , by i n t e n t i o n o r by r e a s o n o f weather o n l y  t h e v e r y heavy a c c u m u l a t i o n s burn.  o f wood, such a s a t t h e l a n d i n g s , may  Second,by b r o a d c a s t f i r e when t h e g r e a t e r p a r t o f t h e s l a s h  b l a z e s b u t no g r e a t h e a t i s c r e a t e d so t h a t the s o i l i s n o t a f f e c t e d , t o any e x t e n t .  T h i r d , by t h e l i g h t i n g o f s l a s h f i r e s when c o n d i t i o n s  a r e t o o d r y and t h e f i r e s g e t out o f c o n t r o l and s p r e a d i n t o green timber.  adjacent  Such f i r e s may b u r n so h o t t h a t t h e s o i l c o v e r i s  d e s t r o y e d and t h e s o i l s t r u c t u r e changed.  Of t h e s e t h r e e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s ,  35  t h e second i s t h e most f a v o u r a b l e t o r e g e n e r a t i o n o f f i r , w h i l e the f i r s t f a v o u r s hemlock and balsam, the t h i r d b e i n g the l e a s t f o r subsequent r e g e n e r a t i o n .  suitable  As a r u l e s l a s h f i r e s remove t h e  l e a s t amount o f m a t e r i a l on n o r t h e r n e x p o s u r e s , a r e a s l o g g e d f o r p u l p wood s p e c i e s , f l a t p l a c e s w i t h i n s u f f i c i e n t wind and on shaded ground. The b e s t r e s u l t s a r e o b t a i n e d on s t e e p s o u t h e r n e x p o s u r e s , i n c e d a r s l a s h on s i d e h i l l s , on t r a c t o r - l o g g e d a r e a s , i n heavy f i r s l a s h and i n some c a s e s on l e v e l c o u n t r y w i t h a 10 mph.  wind.  To i l l u s t r a t e  e x t e n t of t h i s t y p e of t r e a t m e n t , l e t us t a k e a y e a r when 1,29k o f l o g g i n g s l a s h were t o be b u r n e d . had been burned.  the acres  A t t h e end o f t h e f a l l 811 a c r e s  The r e m a i n i n g 1*83 a c r e s were p a r t l y b u r n t but  r e q u i r e d s l a s h b u r n i n g a g a i n t h e next y e a r . The weather t h a t y e a r was n o t t o o f a v o u r a b l e and average y e a r p r o b a b l y s e e s c o n s i d e r a b l y more ground b u r n t o v e r . the p e r i o d 1953-1957, 72 p e r c e n t o f the t o t a l a r e a l o g g e d was over b y s l a s h f i r e s .  an For burnt  36  Part I I  REGENERATION  Chapter VI (i)  NATURAL YOUNG GROWTH  Origin For the purpose of this thesis second growth w i l l be  considered to include those stands that are younger than 90 years old, i.e. the rotation age. These stands originate from the logging operations since 1915« There are also a few small groups of second growth dating from a severe windstorm i n 1895, and some around Vernon Lake from a lightning strike f i r e i n 1938. A l l the areas were seeded naturally and have restocked adequately over their entire area with the exception of swamps, sloughs, and rock bluffs, although even these show some scrub development. Some experimental seeding and planting was laid out i n 1923 and 1921+ i n these areas, (ii)  Surveys The f i r s t regeneration surveys were carried out by the  B.C Forest Service i n 1928 with extension and re-examination i n 193l+» e  "This was i n order that these lands might be placed under intensive forest management". (McKinnon 1928). Between 191+7 and 195U Canadian Forest Products Ltd. carried out surveys on most of the logging of the ^O's and *30's to assess the stands they held. As their own logging proceeded, a routine system of survey of a l l land was established, to be carried out five years after logging. This i s a continuing survey.  37  (iii)  Methods o f Survey The F o r e s t S e r v i c e (McKinnon 1928)  was  method of s u r v e y  t o s e t up permanent p l o t s o f t h e t r a n s e c t t y p e .  P l o t s were  l o c a t e d t o g i v e a t y p i c a l c r o s s - s e c t i o n o f each c u t - o v e r s e t t i n g examined. i.e.  1/100  These p l o t s were each 6.6 o f an a c r e i n a r e a .  f e e t wide and 66 f e e t l o n g ,  The p l o t s were l a i d  down i n  c o n t i n u o u s s t r i p s w h i c h were u s u a l l y r u n from a p o i n t near a r a i l way  grade and t i e d i n t o a s p a r t r e e , o r a r e f e r e n c e p o i n t near a  r a i l w a y grade, as a means of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n f o r f u t u r e A s u b s t a n t i a l p o s t was  examinations.  e r e c t e d on t h e c e n t r e l i n e a t each  one-chain  p o i n t t o mark t h e e x t e n t o f i n d i v i d u a l p l o t s . The s e e d l i n g s were t a l l i e d and s e g r e g a t e d i n t o t h e f o l l o w i n g  i n each p l o t b y s p e c i e s ,  classes:-  TABLE I I  Regeneration C l a s s i f i c a t i o n  Class  Remarks  Yearling L e s s t h a n 6" 6" t o 18" up 1" DBH  At was  Germinated y e a r o f e x a m i n a t i o n . Less than 6 inches h i g h . By 1 f o o t c l a s s e s up t o 15 f e e t . T r e e s o v e r 15 f e e t i n h e i g h t .  t h e end o f each f i f t h p l o t a q u a d r a t , 6.6  f e e t square, ( a m i l - a c r e )  examined t o determine t h e p r o p o r t i o n s o f t h e ground s u r f a c e  o c c u p i e d b y p l a n t c o v e r , d e b r i s , and b a r e s o i l .  An e s t i m a t e was  also  made on t h i s q u a d r a t o f the r e l a t i v e abundance of each s p e c i e s o f plant.  F o r each s e r i e s o f f i v e p l o t s g e n e r a l n o t e s were t a k e n o f  topography,  s o i l , v e g e t a t i v e c o v e r , s l a s h d i s p o s a l , and l o g g i n g h i s t o r y .  38  TABLE I I I Degree of Stocking Classified, by Seedlings per Acre Seedlings per Acre Less than 1,000 1,001 - 2,000 2,001 - 5,000 Over 5,000  Not satisfactory Satisfactory Very satisfactory Heavily stocked  Summaries were made by operation and type. In the surveys done i n 191+7, l/lO acre plots were established throughout the 20 to 25 year old stands concerned. For each plot the following were calculated:- Basal area per acre i n square feet, stand age i n years, site index, average dbh. i n inches, number of trees per acre i n hundreds, and composition by percentage for a l l coniferous species. Strips were generally 20 chains apart and plots 10 chains apart along -the strips. Later work done i n 195U was on a similar basis. The strips were 20 chains apart with the plots one chain apart and grouped i n tens unless there was a change of type i n which case a new t a l l y was started. Plot size varied according to tree size. Where the stems average two to three inches a 1/250 acre plot was used, denser stands were sampled with a l/l,000 acre plot and stands with trees over 6 inches i n diameter with 1/100 acre plots. I f the stand contained groups of trees of different sizes then more than one plot was used. The survey was designed to give a one per cent sample. Trees were t a l l i e d by species and one inch dbh. classes. Stand age  39  was  determined by t a k i n g increment b o r i n g s o f the dominant t r e e  the p l o t a t one f o o t above ground l e v e l . t h e average h e i g h t of t r e e s a t stand age. were a v a i l a b l e t h e n stumps were u s e d .  S i t e was  determined  from  I f no t r e e s s u i t a b l e  Measurement o f s i t e was  a t t h e t h i r d and e i g h t h p l o t i n a group.  on  made  Burning, per cent s l o p e ,  a s p e c t , n a t u r e of s o i l and r o c k , weed d e n s i t y , h e i g h t , c o m p o s i t i o n , s u r f a c e c o v e r , and any g e n e r a l remarks c o n c e r n i n g i n s e c t o r f u n g a l damage were r e c o r d e d . The  c u r r e n t form o f s u r v e y f o r r e c e n t l y l o g g e d l a n d  i s b a s e d on t h e s t o c k e d quadrat method ( F o r e s t Club  1959).  The  s u r v e y i s c a r r i e d out on a r e c o n n a i s s a n c e l e v e l o f i n t e n s i t y of a p p r o x i m a t e l y 0.32  per cent.  a "poke" s t i c k o f 7.U5  A one-man crew measures d i s t a n c e s w i t h  f e e t l e n g t h , which a l s o d o u b l e s f o r l a y i n g  out  four mil-acre quadrats. Four o n e - m i l - a c r e q u a d r a t s of a f o u r - m i l - a c r e c i r c u l a r p l o t a r e examined a t each  sampling p o i n t .  The  spaced one c h a i n a p a r t a l o n g t h e sample l i n e . i s pre-determined  on the o r i g i n a l  sampling p o i n t s are The  sample l i n e l a y o u t  s e t t i n g maps i n t h e o f f i c e .  The  lines  are a r r a n g e d so as t o form a r o u t e which samples t h e whole a r e a , and a t the same time a v o i d s l o n g d i s t a n c e s between t h e t e r m i n a t i n g p o i n t o f one l i n e and the s t a r t i n g p o i n t of t h e n e x t .  They are g e n e r a l l y  r u n a t r i g h t a n g l e s t o the t i m b e r edge and t h e c o n t o u r l i n e s .  The  minimum d i s t a n c e between l i n e s i s f i v e c h a i n s , and the maximum d i s t a n c e i s 20 c h a i n s .  1*0  The o n e - m i l - a c r e not  stocked regardless  In indicating  topographic mapping.  appropriate  future  stocked, the  t h e t o t a l number o f  e t c . , are a l s o  Class Class Class Class  species i s Pertinent  seedlings  c o n d i t i o n of the  is acre  slash  r e c o r d e d a t each f i f t h  plot  s t o c k i n g c l a s s e s and  class  I II H I IV  are the  for  purposes:-  Inadequate s t o c k i n g . Inadequate s t o c k i n g Adequate s t o c k i n g Adequate s t o c k i n g  - 0% - 20% - .21% - h0% - hl% - 70% - 71% - 100%  The l o w e r a n d u p p e r c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n number o f  l i m i t s of  Class II  are based on  the  t r e e s p e r a c r e and s t o c k i n g p e r c e n t  whereas the d i v i s i o n between C l a s s I H  and C l a s s I V  by is  one. The  areas greater are f i r s t  ploto  assessment.  l i m i t s u s e d f o r mapping  an a r b i t a r y  or  s t r i p to f a c i l i t a t e accurate  Site information,  The f o l l o w i n g  one-mil-acre,  dominant  the  a c o r r e l a t i o n between number o f t r e e s p e r  the s l o p e ,  planting  t a l l i e d as stocked  space on the t a l l y c a r d .  At every f i f t h p l o t ,  and s t o c k i n g per c e n t . and d u f f ,  is  d e t a i l s a r e mapped a l o n g t h e  t a l l i e d to provide  are  of the o v e r - a l l stocking density of  that a quadrat  recorded i n the  quadrats  summary  than f i v e  of  the f i e l d data i s designed to  acres i n extent,  averaged i n groups  of  five,  reveal  t h a t need p l a n t i n g .  (twenty,  one-mil-acre  on a " r u n n i n g a v e r a g e " b a s i s t o l o c a t e and d e f i n e inadequately  s t o c k e d s e c t i o n s of  plot-average  method i s t h e n a p p l i e d t o the  Plots samples)  the boundaries  of  A straight  five-  each sample l i n e . remaining  s e c t i o n s of  each  ia line to determine the approximate boundaries of the higher stocking classes.  Delineation of these higher stocking classes i n mapping the  adequately stocked areas i s considered to be a refinement for comparing five-year and ten-year stocking maps. Site class is estimated by stump diameter measurements (Appendix I) as recorded i n the f i e l d .  Species composition i s  determined on an extensive area basis to show the general trend. A very recent revision of this method to make i t comparable to Forest Service data was to relocate the sample line layout.  It now  takes the Forest Service pattern of parallel lines every 10 chains and quadrats located every one and a quarter chains. A comparative check on the relationship of the Forest Service method to the previously used method was made on a theoretical basis using a dot grid.  Each dot was taken to represent a tree and an  overlay of circles i n lines to represent the circular plots of the f i e l d survey. patterns.  The overlay was applied according to the two different  A continuous strip 0.2 chains wide i n overlay was also tried.  The continuous strip showed $2 per cent stocking, the Forest Service pattern k7 per cent stocking and the previous method kk per cent stocking. The results were relative and not absolute as regeneration does not occur i n this way.  However the difference between the two methods  practiced i s apparently negligible. (iv)  Results of Surveys. In 1928 the Forest Service (McKinnon 1928) set up 189  0.01 acre plots representing 0.02  of one per cent of the logged area  1*2  under examination. In 193k they extended them slightly and re-examined the 1°28 plots, covering 209 plots representing 0.016 of one per cent of the logged area concernedo TABLE 17 Areas of Types Surveyed by Forest Service, i n Acres Year  Areas Logged and Burned  Logged only  A l l other Types  Total Studied  l*,7i*7 6,763  2,725 6,821  2,175  9,61*7 15,759  1928 1931*  2,175  TABLE V Percentage Distribution of Plots  Classification  Number of Seedlings per acre 0  Under-stocked  Stocked  1-500  501-1,000 Sub-total 1,001-2,000 2,001-5,000  over 5,000 Sub-total  Percentage of Plots Logged and Burned Logged only 1928 1928 1931* 193U 1*0 28 9 77  1 17  7 6 10 23  26 21 ll* 61  21  39  0 29 29 5B  6 1* 10  ll* 18 10  19 20  1*2  0  51  90  This table shows the distribution of the plots expressed as a percentage of the total number of plots for each type. In 1928 only 23 per cent of the plots on the logged and burned type carried  k3 more than 1,000 seedlings per acre. By 193k, 61 per cent of the plots had more than 1,000 seedlings to the acre, a density which may be regarded as the minimum necessary to restock the area i f evenly distributed. This was an increase of 38 per cent i n the number of plots carrying more than the minimum stocking within six years. The table also shows that on the "logged only" type U2 per cent of the plots carried more than the minimum of 1,000 seedlings per acre i n 1928.  By 193k, this figure had advanced to 90 per cent, an  increase of k8 per cent i n six years. I t i s interesting to note that on the "logged and burned" type k0 per cent of the plots were completely bare of a l l reproduction i n 1928, whereas by 193k only one per cent of the plots were i n this class. The relative abundance of each species as they occur per plot Is shown i n the following:TABLE VI Distribution of Seedlings per Acre, by Type of Treatment, Number per acre, Species^ and Year of Survey Year Fir 1928 193k  22k k08  Hemlock  Logged . Number per Acre Balsam Cedar Spruce  19k l,k57 k,573 - j2,22k  39 53  67 8k  White Pine  Yew  Shore Pine  Total  10k 163  82 k  0 8  2,167 7,517  Species Composition i n Per Cent 1928 193k  10 5  67 61  9 30  2 1  3 1  5 2  k 0  0 0  100 100  10 20  13 8  0 1  1,173 2,611  0 0  100 100  Logged and Burned Number pe3r Acre 1928 193k  708 2k0 312 1,71*2  180 k8k  1 1  21 k3  Spe cies Comp Dsition i n Per Cent 1928 193k  20 12  60 66  16 19  0 0  2 2  1 1  1 1  The p r o p o r t i o n o f D o u g l a s f i r Burning  doubles the percentage of  i s low i n a l l  Douglas f i r .  T h i s i s because  m a i n t a i n s i t s l e v e l of  s t o c k i n g w h i l e t h e number o f h e m l o c k  balsam s e e d l i n g s drops  sharply.  The l o g g e d a r e a h a s p r o d u c e d a h e m l o c k hemlock-  The o l d g r o w t h w a s t h e D o u g l a s f i r - h e m l o c k  type.  T h i s s t a n d does n o t a p p e a r t o have b e e n r e - e s t a b l i s h e d , t h o u g h h e m l o c k - c e d a r - f i r s t a n d may come t o r e s e m b l e i t is  f o r the Douglas f i r  i n time.  t o m a i n t a i n i t s dominance  n u m e r i c a l l y s u p e r i o r c e d a r and h e m l o c k .  The  and s u p p r e s s  The p e r c e n t a g e o f  As long  the proportion  as the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the f i r of merchantable f i r  the tendency the  Douglas  i n the s t a n d r i s e s w h i l e t h a t of t h e c e d a r , hemlock and o t h e r falls.  fir  and  c e d a r stand w h i l e t h e l o g g e d and burned a r e a has produced a cedar-fir stand.  cases*  is satisfactory  fir  species then  i n t h e f i n a l s t a n d may b e  acceptable. The 19U7 a n d 19Sh Forest Products L t d . covered the d i d i n 1 9 2 8 a n d 193 U. identical.  second growth surveys by same a r e a s a s t h e F o r e s t  Canadian  Service  The d e s i g n a n d l o c a t i o n o f t h e p l o t s w e r e  not  TABLE VII Comparative Figures for Five Surveys of Second Growth, Lower Nimpkish Valley  Surveyors  C.F.P.  B.C.F.S. All  Camps  Camp 8  1928  193U  Camp 3  Camp 2  19k7  191*7  195U  Av. Stand Age i n Years  16.7  18.3  22.2  Av. h i . of Crop Trees i n Ft•  31.U  38.2  1*2.0  Av. Dbh. of Crop Trees i n I 1 .  1*.2  7.1*  Location of Survey Tear of Survey  Av. No. of Trees per Acre  1,533  5,072  2,710 1*6.0  Av. Basal Area, sq.ft.per a * •  136  Av. Site Index of Stand  3,350  1,591  78.8  78.2  151  11*0  Species Composition jC-ages Hemlock  67.6  63.6  69.8  31.8  88.0  Douglas f i r  16.1  7.3  9.5  1*1.2  0.0  Red Cedar  12.7  27.3  15.7  7.5  8.0  3.7  17.7  0.0  Alder Balsam  1.0  0.5  1.5  0.0  2.0  Spruce  2.6  1.3  1.1*  1.8  2.0  100.0  100.0  100.0  100.0  100.0  Total  1  1*6  These figures indicate a strong relationship between the intensity of the burn and the amount of f i r i n the subsequent stand.  Camp 3 received the most intense burning, Camp 8 was inter-  mediate and Camp 2 the least.  The ratio of f i r to hemlock for Camp 3  was 1*1:32, for Gamp 8 was 10:70 and for Camp 2 was 0:88.  Since these  areas were logged there has been l i t t l e real change i n logging practice except that f i r e prevention has been improved and the intensity of slash burning i s much reduced.  The exception to this was the 6,1*00  acre wild f i r e i n the upper regions of the Valley. Slash burning as now practiced does not equal the intensity of the Camp 3 burning. The normality of the stand according to McArdle, Meyer, and Bruce (191*9) was obtained.  The average basal area was 78 square  feet per acre whereas for a normal stand of 22 years of age i t would be ll*5 square feet per acre.  This gives a normality of 51* per cent for  the average site index of li*0 feet at 100 years.  Site curves evolved  locally from f i e l d measurements made by company foresters were used. The third series of surveys i s related to the current logging. Five years after logging a l l settings are surveyed by sampling mil-acre quadrats located on a pre-determined grid as described i n the previous section ( i i ) . This began i n 1952. up to the beginning of 1955 follows:-  A summary of results  1*7 TABLE m i Stocking of Regeneration by Area and Per Cent Stocking Classes Percent Comp. by 1-rail-acre Plots  0%-2Q% 21%-k0%  Camio A Area i n 2 of Total Acres  712-1002  7U1 1,518 2,127 1,1*67  12 26 36 25  Total  5,85U  100  Camp ¥ Area i n % of Total Acres  10,970  No. of Plots Survey Intensity  2,1*52  1,101  0.1872  57  713 51*  26 16 1  1*,320  100  Combirled Area i n 2 of Total Acres 3,193 2,619 2,81*1  1,521  31 26 28 15  10,171*  100  10,100  21,070  0.2332  0.2072  The stocked quadrat method of survey was used, with a pre-determined grid, (section i i , Methods of Survey). When some !+,083 acres located i n both the Camp A and Camp W areas had been surveyed a graph was drawn up to show the relationship between percentage stocking by one-mil-acre quadrats and the average total number of trees per acre for a l l species. From the graph a table was derived showing the average number of trees per acre, with reference to the arbitary stocking percentage groups used i n the stocking maps: TABLE IX Average Number of Trees per Acre and Stocking Percent Group  1 2 3 1*  Percent Stocking by one-mil-acres  71 +  la - 70 21-1*0 0-20  Average No, of trees per acre  3,201 + 1,031 - 3,200 321 - 1,030 0 - 320  These figures h ve a very limited r e l i a b i l i t y but do a  indicate the trend even though they w i l l not be accurate i n any specific location.  The coefficient of variation ranges from 2h9 per cent  at the upper limit of group h down to 78 per cent at the lower limit of group 1.  This i s explained by the fact that the system of survey was  designed primarily to show the distribution of seedlings rather than the actual number of seedlings per acre.  Thus, while there exists a relation-  ship between the two factors, stocking by mil-acres cannot be directly related to "Number of Trees," and vice-versa. The species composition was obtained from samples of the U,083 acres at Camp A and Camp ¥ previously mentioned. Douglas f i r showed only 5 per cent, red cedar 35 per cent, hemlock 51 per cent and the others 9 per cent.  This shows again that Douglas f i r i s not present  i n any quantity and the stand at the f i f t h year after logging i s a hemlockcedar type. (v) Pruning i n Natural Young Growth Douglas f i r s i n two blocks of second growth were pruned i n order to obtain data for future operational pruning.  Located a mile to  the south-east of Nimpkish Camp, 9 acres were pruned i n 1952 in 1958.  and 12 acres  The stand i s 30-year old second growth with well-spaced Douglas  f i r dominant above a mixture of hemlock and cedar. alder reduce the effective area of the stand. tend to be concentrated i n groups.  Patches of almost pure  This means the pruned trees  A l l sound, straight, well-formed,  dominant and co-dominant Douglas f i r trees were pruned. In 1952  four different tools were used. Most of the work  was done with a curved lU-inch pruning saw.  The tree was climbed and the  branches cut as the pruner came down the tree.  An alternative method was  h9  to use a lineman's belt and spin's to climb the tree and an axe to cut the branches.  A pruning or hebo club and a machete were also tried.  The club, a mattock handle bound at the end with a band of steel was effective on dead branches but useless on live ones. found to be too dangerous when wielded i n a tree.  The machete was  The axe was also  dangerous and the belt and spurs treacherous, partly because of ice on the trunks.  The. saw was found to be the most useful tool,, though'.,it was  slower than the club on the dead branches. The 1952 pruning produced the following data:  The average  number of trees pruned per acre was U6, the average time per tree for pruning was 0.30 man-hours, the average tree was 8 inches dbh.  and  pruned to 23 feet, the average cost per tree was 61 cents (at |2.00  per  hour, i.e. labour cost inclusive of transportation, tools, board, and overhead), the average cost per acre was #28.00. Permanent sample plots were l a i d out i n the 1952 and rechecked i n 1958.  pruning  The following observations on the effects of  pruning were made at that time. (a)  There was no sign of sunscald on the pruned trees, even  though the aspect of the stand was (b)  southerly.  There i s no reduction of growth rate shown by the re-  measurement figures for height and diameter. was 0.138  The basal area increment  sq. f t . per tree for the pruned trees and 0.138  for the unpruned trees. the pruned trees and 10.3  sq. f t . per tree  The height increment per tree was 15*8 feet for unpruned trees.  feet for  It was unfortunate  that the figures for height of the unpruned were scanty for 1952  and  50 allowance must be made for the fact that only the dominants  and  co-dominants were measured i n the pruned plot whereas i n the unpruned plots a l l trees were recorded. (c)  Increase i n f i r e hazard i s not to be disregarded but no  fires have started attributable to the pruning.  A compensating factor  i s the reduction i n likelihood of a f i r e crowning after pruning. (d)  The wounds have occluded without any signs of disease  externally. (e) Epicormic branches have not started to grow. (f)  The proportion of hemlock to Douglas f i r i n terms of the  number of trees, by species has dropped by H.7  per cent i n the pruned  stand and by 22.1* per cent i n the unpruned stand.  There are a greater  number of hemlock i n the pruned stand, notably 33 as opposed to 19.  It  does not appear that the pruning favours the hemlock. (g)  No detrimental effects were recorded. The 1958 work projected the previous pruning on a more  operational basis. Only one technique was used, that of the saw for live branches and the club for dead ones. A lineman's belt was provided for safety but no spurs so as not to damage the trees. A l l trees were pruned to a standard height of 20 feet.  The intent was to represent two  eight and one half foot peeler blocks, plus a one foot stump allowance, plus a two foot error i n height estimation.  In practice the resulting  length of clear bole was i n excess of twenty feet.  If for example the  last whorl of branches pruned was at or just below the twenty foot mark then the next internode would be included i n the total clear length. can mean an additional two or three feet.  This  Pruning must not remove more  51 than one third of the live crown or serious loss of growth results. (Stein 1955).  In stands less than 20 years old or on low sites this  must be considered.  A l l trees selected were dominants of well placed  co-dominants and only those that appeared likely to be part of the f i n a l crop were pruned. For this reason a minimum of twenty feet distance between any two trees pruned was set i n order to control the spacing of the pruned trees.  Selected trees were marked with coloured tape.  The results for the 1958 pruning were as follows: average number of trees pruned per acre was 31.1  The  trees, the average time  per tree for pruning was 0.35 man-hours, the average tree was 11.0  inches  dbh. and pruned to 20 feet, the average cost per tree was 85 cents, the average cost per acre was $26.1*2. This work showed that pruning was practical and could be carried out on an operation basis i f required. The economics of pruning have been shown to be justifiable (Shaw and Staebler 1950  and Smith 1951+) i n terms of investment.  The  necessity to prune was shown by Kotok (1951)* ' "Twenty-two year old trees on average sites had dead branches to a height of 17 feet. Dead branches persist for another 55 years, therefore, the bole was not clear at 17 feet until the tree was 77 years old. No clear material was produced at 33 feet until an age of 107 years was attained. These figures indicate that i n a rotation of 90 years Douglas f i r w i l l grow l i t t l e clear wood without a r t i f i c i a l pruning." Inspection of 130-year-old stands i n the Nimpkish Valley shows that under the conditions prevailing even these figures are very optimistic. (vi)  Thinning i n Natural Young Growth While no operational thinning has been carried out nor  is any immediately envisaged, a group of six pairs of plots, thinned and  52 c o n t r o l , p l u s one w i t h o u t c o n t r o l were s e t up i n 1950. a r e a c o v e r e d b y t h e s e p l o t s was 1*,5  acres.  The t o t a l  A surround o f 0,5 c h a i n s  was a l l o w e d t o a l l c o n t r o l p l o t s . The t r e e s i n e a c h p l o t were t a l l i e d b y d i a m e t e r and species.  O c c a s i o n a l h e i g h t s were measured.  were t h i n n e d .  The p l o t s t o be t r e a t e d  T h i s procedure was c a r r i e d o u t on an i n d i v i d u a l t r e e  selection basis.  I t s purpose was t o enable t h e t r e e s remaining t o  a t t a i n a maximum growth r a t e and t o d e v e l o p good form.  During -the  t h i n n i n g p r o c e s s a l l b r u s h and deciduous t r e e s , m a i n l y a l d e r , were girdled.  T h i s was done t o p r e v e n t damage t o t h e r e s i d u a l s t a n d . A l l  t r e e s r e m a i n i n g i n t h e t h i n n e d p l o t s were t a l l i e d and tagged. The stand was 26 y e a r s o l d a t t i m e o f t h i n n i n g and composed of Douglas f i r , w e s t e r n hemlock and c e d a r . l a t e r i n 1955,  was v e r y l i g h t i n degree.  A second t h i n n i n g , f i v e y e a r s R e s u l t s of both t h i n n i n g s f o r  four pairs of plots are tabulated:  Table X Summary o f Data o f T h i n n i n g P l o t s . Nimpkish  No. o f Trees per ac.  Treatment  Thinned  1950  Control Thinned  1950 1955  Control  1955  Before After Before After  The average  3,1*50 690 2,800 690 530 2,090  Camp 1950  Av.Basal Area i n square f e e t p e r acre p e r t ree  191 119  0.07 0.17  11*9  0.13  s i t e i n d e x was 120.  193  135 22i*  0.07  0.25 0.11  Av. dbh. in inches  3.2 5.6 3.5 6.3 6.8  53 Chapter VII (i)  PLANTATIONS  Experimental Plantations. (a)  Descriptions.  Twenty-six experimental plantations that  have been established i n the Nimpkish Valley are described i n f u l l i n Appendix V under "Experimental Plantations."  The f i r s t sixteen deal with  the growth and survival of different species under the climatic conditions of the region.  Species tested include Douglas f i r , western hemlock, western  red cedar, Sitka spruce (Experiment I) and a selection of exotics from the spruces, the pines, the true f i r s with Port Orford cedar, a poplar and a birch (Experiments XIII to XVI).  Nine of the experiments test Douglas f i r  alone at various locations because these species quickly showed several advantages over other trees tested alongside i t . Further experiments (Experiments XVIII to XXII) applying chemical treatments to planted Douglas f i r were l a i d out using three chemicals, gibberellic acid, urea formaldehyde, and ammonium nitrate.  The f i r s t of these is a growth stimulating  hormone while the second and third are f e r t i l i s e r s .  The variations due  to provenance are under study currently i n two experiments, (Experiment XXIII and XXIV) one of which i s part of the Oregon State Cooperative Douglas F i r Study involving the whole coastal range of the species.  Douglas f i r  is being tested for use i n underplanting red alder (Experiment XXV)  and  its genetical character i n a test of progeny (Experiment XXVI). (b)  Results.  The purpose of this plantation was to find:  the  survival percentages of wild stock planted on unprepared burnt-over lands; the effect of density of stocking on growth; the mortality of western hemlock, Douglas f i r , Sitka spruce, and western red cedar where occurring in mixed stands; the best method of handling and planting stock and the  5U cost of planting wildlings.  The following extract i s from the report  on this plantation made by Robertson and Allen (Pickford, 192k)s "Re-examinations were made i n 1928, 1930 and f i n a l l y in 1931+, from which the following conclusions were drawn: The last bum over the plot area was i n 1923 but the original notes do not state whether there was any natural reproduction present at the time of planting. The planted seedlings were not staked or marked i n any way to distinguish them from subsequent reproduction which might establish i t s e l f . When the re-examinations were made i t was found that a large number of natural seedlings had become established often making i t d i f f i c u l t or even impossible to know which were planted stock and which natural. The result of this i s that the survival shown i n the summary, while i t may be a good indication of what has happened, does not present a true picture. The survival found i n 193k or 1 0 years after planting was as follows: Pure Douglas f i r , 36 per cent, pure hemlock, 3k per cent, pure cedar, 7 per cent; fir-hemlock mixture, f i r , 1+5 per cent, hemlock, $k per centj fir-spruce-hemlock mixture, f i r 57 per cent, spruce, 9 3 per cent, and cedar 20 per cent. The otitstanding feature of the above results i s the high survival shown f o r spruce - of lk spruce planted 1 3 are s t i l l alive and growing t h r i f t i l y , maximum height 1 1 feet. Such a high survival indicates that the Nimpkish Valley i s a favourable site for spruce but the small number of trees planted does not permit of much else than this general conclusion. The survival of f i r and hemlock i s much lower than for spruce while that of cedar i s very poor. F i r varies from 36 per cent to 57 per cent, (568 trees planted), hemlock 3k per cent to 5U per cent (528 trees planted), and cedar 7 per cent to 20 per cent (1+79 trees planted). The survival rate of a l l species i s higher i n the mixtures than in the pure plantings but the mixtures are of such small area that definite conclusions are not warranted. With so many natural seedlings crowding i n among the survivors the effect of any variation i n the density of planting i s lost and no conclusion can be made on the effect of density of stocking on height growth. The cost of using wild stock rather than nursery stock for reforestation purposes i s prohibitive and therefore the finding that the total labour expense of planting on this plot was $28,00 per thousand i s only of incidental interest." a  Experiment II showed satisfactory establishment on unburned ground. Experiment III indicated good survival of f i r under typical conditions. Ninety-five per cent were s t i l l alive at the end of  55  the f i r s t winter. Experiment IV.  Brush and wet ground caused some failure i n  Fair success attended Experiment V and at the end  of  the tenth season the trees had reached an average height of 6.1 feet. Ninety-eight trees checked i n Experiment VI showed 82 per cent survival on August 18th, 19h9* The plantation was rechecked on June 17th, 1958* A strip 9 chains long and 0.2 chains wide was surveyed diagonally across the plantation and along the contour. 0.18 acres.  The area surveyed amounted to  The following stockings were calculated: Planted f i r  U33 trees per acre  Natural f i r  29k  «  ti  it  Total f i r  727  n  it  «  Hemlock  1*50'  it  »  ti  Cedar  9h  it  ii  tt  Pine  83  it  n  II  1,35U  ti  it  Total a l l species  II  Three f i r s had died from a root rot. The general appearance of the plantation was very good  a  Ten Douglas f i r s measured  on  the strip averaged 6.7 feet i n height ranging from U.l feet to 13.7 high.  feet  Experiment VII showed satisfactory establishment on the intensively  burned ground of the wild f i r e i n the Vernon Camp area. seasons the average height of the trees was U.7 feet.  After five  Growth on the  compacted areas where tracked vehicles had been operating was noticeably less than on the uncompacted mineral s o i l .  Experiment VIII used 1+0  stock rather; than the 2+0 stock that was used i n other experiments. Survival dropped from 87 per cent i n May 1955 the average annual height growth was 0.11  to 50 per cent i n 1958 while  feet.  Weed competition for  56  moisture, browsing and frost damage to newly flushed shoots a l l contributed to the low rate of growth. Experiment IX was a matched experiment with # VIII on a low site class area.  Survival from 1955  to 1958 dropped from 95 per cent to 82 per cent and the annual height increase was 0.23 feet.  The lower site class area produced better  results for the f i r s t four years than did the higher i n terms of survival and growth.  This may be related to less competition from  other vegetation. Experiment X was designed to test Douglas f i r at higher elevations than previously planted. Survival was 92 per cent at the most recent checking. Western hemlock i n the two experiments XI and X U failed to become established at a l l .  No further work was done, due  in part to the relative ease with which i t appears i n cut-overs naturally. The exotic species tried are l i s t e d i n f u l l i n Appendix V, (Experiments XIII and XIV) with the growth and survival figures i n tables XXXIV and XXXV. Survival was better than 60 per cent for the Interior Douglas f i r , Scots pine from northern Sweden, Norway spruce and white spruce.  For six seasons growth interior  Douglas f i r showed an average height of 2.82 feet; Norway spruce 1.35 feet; Scots pine of the northermost origin 2.3U feet; from central Sweden 2.25 feet and from southern Sweden 5.95 feet; while some from Germany grew 6.5k feet; ponderosa pine grew 2.11; feet; Port Orford cedar grew 2.93 feet; while other species grew insignificant amounts. Scots pine was again tried i n (Experiment XV) and grew to 2»k feet i n six seasons with 1*6 per cent survival for  57  four seasons.  Monterey pine after a promising start was k i l l e d by  frost. The results of the chemical treatments are included i n Table XI.  The only useful treatment that emerged was the two  p i l l dosage with urea formaldehyde.  This produced an increase over  the control of 1*1.7 per cent which was significant at the 0.01 per cent level by the analysis of variance. No other treatment showed any beneficial effect at a l l .  The chemicals ammonium nitrate and  gibberellic acid produced detrimental effects reducing growth and increasing mortality.  At low concentrations these i l l effects were  reduced but no favourable stimulation could be produced  a  Provenance studies are represented i n two  experiments.  Experiment XXIII showed that stock from Campbell River, B. C. seed was hardier than local giving 25 per cent survival against 3 per cent survival for the Nimpkish stock.  The second provenance study  (Experiment XXIV) has not yet been established long enough to produce results.  These w i l l be published by the Oregon State Forest  Lands Research Centre. The underplanting of alder with Douglas f i r (Experiment XXV) and the genetical study of progeny (Experiment XXVI) have not been established long enough to produce any results.  58  TABLE XI Summary of Growth Stimulation Treatments of Douglas F i r Planted Stock Height Growth i n Treated Control  Analysis of Variance  Significance  Expt.  Age  xvn  2+0  16  76  0,0  1.2  n n  xvni  1*0  91  92  0.3  O.k  N.S. .  None  XIX  240  7k  72  0*6  0*7  N.S.  None  av.  82  82  0-5  0,5  N.S..  None  0.5  N.S.  None  N.S.  None  XX  XXI  XXII  2+0  2+0  2+0  Dose  Survival Percentage Treated Control  lpill  90  o,5  2pills  80  o.l+  av.  85  lpill  67  2.1*  2pills  65  2V5  av.  66  81  o*5  75  2.1*  lpill  100  2pills  100  3pills  100  av.  100  1.1*  6 oz-.  37  1* oz.  0.5  N.S, N.C. N.C.  1.3  1.2 .  mm  None Uncertain Uncertain  N.C... .Uncertain N.S.  None Very  1.7 N.S.  None  0*7  N.S.  None  33  0.7 .  N.S.  None  2 oz.  hi  1.2  N.S.  None  av.  38  N.S.  None  97  93  1.2  Failure  0.9  1.2  1.1  ##+ indicates a positive significance at the 0.01 per cent level i n the analysis of variance " f " test. degree of significance i n the negative direction.  **- indicates the same N.S. i s not significant  59  for the same test and N.C. means that the test was not conclusive, i.e. the difference between the replications were as great as the differences between treatments. Experiment XX was checked twice, hence the double set of results.  Experiment XXII showed very poor survival and i n analysis  the treatments effect was significant at the 0.01 per cent level i n k i l l i n g the seedlings at a l l dosages, (ii)  Operational Plantations. (a)  Selection of Areas to be Planted. A l l logged areas  are surveyed 5 years after logging (see Chapter VI, Section i i i ) to determine the site values and the intensity of natural regeneration. These surveys are compiled and maps drafted to show the acreage under the various degrees of stocking.  A l l land with a stocking of less  than iii per cent Douglas f i r , hemlock or balsam i s considered to require planting.  A f i l e i s maintained l i s t i n g these areas and when  the planting program for each season, spring and f a l l , i s planned this record i s used.  However, a l l the planting i s not done on areas that  have been logged for more than five years. It i s considered good policy to plant the high site areas as soon as practicable after logging and slash burning has been completed.  One reason i s that the  higher the site the greater the yield from the stands established upon i t and hence the greater the return on the investment of planting. Another reason i s that the rate of invasion of brush i s faster on the higher sites than on the lower ones. on river flats and beside creeks.  This i s especially noticeable  "Brushing up" of the planting site  t o f o l l o w page $9 Figure I I I  No.  2 5 3  G R A P H  PAD.  T H E  W I L L S O N  STATIONERY  CO.  LTD.  A N D  C L A R K E ft S T U A R T  CO.  LTD.  ,60  makes i t harder and therfore more expensive to carry out the operation of planting and also lowers the chances of survival of the planted trees.  Generally speaking, low sites remain clear of any appreciable  amount of brush for five to ten years after slash burning. The exact acreage to be planted i n any one year i s based upon the number of acres requiring planting at the beginning of a given period. This i s calculated by the use of the previous considerations.  However, regeneration surveys are always five years  behind current logging by the nature of their design.  To overcome this  d i f f i c u l t y a graph of the rate of restocking of logged areas has been drawn up from the previous surveys.  It i s thus possible to estimate the  proportion of any area that w i l l be "unsatisfactorily stocked" at any given number of years since logging or slash burning.  These estimates  are not accurate for small areas, but applied over several areas or for several seasons are very useful.  It i s also necessary to determine  or estimate how much of the logged area w i l l be planted immediately after logging on the basis of high site selection.  Areas thus to be  planted are removed from the total available to receive any natural stocking.  This increases the area that to be planted i f a l l areas were  f i r s t l e f t for five years to partially restock naturally.  Finally any  backlog, plantation failures or new burns may be added to the next seasons planting or distributed over several seasons, i f large. As an example of this, i n January 1959 regeneration surveys showed that there were 900 acres requiring planting i n land logged five or more years.  There were 1,900 acres of high site land logged since  61  January 195k 2,800 acres.  available for planting.  The backlog was therefore  The annual addition to this was 230 acres of lower site  land last disturbed i n 1953 and s t i l l unstocked plus 700 acres of high site land currently logged.  This i s based on the assumptions  that logging continues at a rate of 2,000 acres per year and that areas logged continue to contain an average of 35 per cent high site. The 230 acre estimate, for 1959 only, i s based upon the fact that 22 per cent of a l l lower site plantable lands disturbed i n 1953 were s t i l l unstocked i n 1959. From i960 to 1963 there w i l l be an average annual addition of 700 acres of high site and 210 acres of low site because the fouryear average of plantable lands unstocked 5 years after disturbance was 210 acres. After 1963-1969 there w i l l be an average annual addition of 700 acres of high site and 200 acres of lower site.  If 2,000 acres  are logged per year, 200 acres i s the average per year of plantable lands unstocked after 5 years. Assuming the availability of stock from the B.C. Forest Service nursery the following program develops.  The aim i s to  eliminate the backlog and put the annual planting program on a current basis by the spring of 1 9 6 l  c  62 TABLE XII Planting Program  1959-1961 Year  Season  1959  Jan. 1st  Average Available i n acres  Planted  2,800 Backlog 930 Current  3,730  500 ac.  -500  Spring  3,230 Fall Less 20% Add I960  Spring Fall  750 ac.  -750  2,kb0 -1*96  To allow for annual regen.  910 Annual addition 2,89U  750 ac.  -750 2,1UU  1,000 aco  -1,000 l,H|lt  Less 20%  -218  Add  910  To allow for annual regen. Annual addition  1,82$ 1961  Spring  -500 1,325  5oo ac..  -5oo 825  5oo ac.  Fall  Balance kept as buffer  No reduc-iion  I  Add  910  Add  90  1,825  Annual addition Begin " f i l l - i n " planting of Hemlock-balsam-cedar areas As at end of I960  63 In calculating the average area to be planted each year, an additional 20 per cent of the remaining unstocked and unplanted backlog has been subtracted for annual natural regeneration on these areas.  An allowance has been made, after the f a l l of i960 to retain  the equivalent of one year's plantable area) as a buffer.  It i s  impracticable to keep plantations completely current. Variation i n annual logged area, site distribution, slash burn, natural restocking and nursery stock availability make uncertain the exact acreage to be planted i n any one year.  Planting can be done most efficiently when  the seasonal program can be concentrated i n one area. A backlog of plantable area helps i n this respect. The net result i s a planting program that levels-off at 1,000  acres per year.  This includes 100  acres per year which are stocked with trees but lack Douglas f i r . F i r i s introduced into such places. The location of the acreage to be planted i n any one season depends on several factors.  Access may be c r i t i c a l .  Any area l i k e l y  to become inaccessible because the railroad steel i s to be removed has priority.  Concentration of the operation i s also desirable. It  i s more economical to operate a crew from one camp rather than move them around. Operation adjacent to current logging i s not good practice because there i s the danger that subsequent slash f i r e s w i l l escape into planted blocks. Once a potential planting site i s found the area plantable i s checked by walking the ground.  Regeneration  may have become more extensive since the regeneration survey or, i f high site land, i t w i l l not yet have been surveyed.  Heavy duff accum-  ulations or unburned slash, swamp and heavy salmpnberry may limit  planting or make i t impossible to establish the desired number of trees per acre.  There are few settings where no suitable  spots to plant trees can be found but i t may not be possible to discover enough good places to maintain the required ten feat by ten feet spacing.  Aspect and the chance of snow lying late i n the  spring are considered and alternative locations chosen. A provisional l i s t of planting areas i s drawn up for the next four seasons. (b) Seed Source and Collection,  It i s considered safest  to use planting stock grown from seed from cones picked i n the Nimpkish valley for lack of specific knowledge on provenance.  The  provenance studies now under way may produce evidence that this practice should be changed. The Nimpkish valley l i e s at the northern limit of the Douglas f i r range. Favourable conditions combining summer warmth for the initiation of primordia and low humidity i n the spring for the flight of pollen do not occur often. Good crops occurred i n 19h$ and 1959,  The intervening years have been variable but generally the  cone borer, Barbara coelfaxiana and the seed chalcid, Megastigmus spermotropus, have concentrated their attentions on the limited number of cones produced with the result that nearly every cone i s infested and the crop not very profitable to gather,  Isaac (19U3) found that  these two insects may destroy 75 per cent of the crop.  The best  locations for picking are the second growth stands originating from the logging of the 1920-30 period.  Only those stands around Nimpkish  Camp contain enough Douglas f i r to be worth picking and these also have good access.  Access i s important as i t i s not practicable to  65 pack sacks of cones any great distance through second growth.  A  network of t r a i l s and roads i n a picking area i s almost a necessity i f the stand i s to be worked to f u l l advantage.  The more open  stands are preferable as i n these the crown development i s greater, which favours cone production. Picking usually starts sometime after the 2 0 t h of August, i f cutting tests show that the seed i s set and mature.  To test the  seed, cones picked from the upper, middle and lower parts of the cone bearing section of the tree are cut with a clean sharp knife. seed i f present w i l l then show as scales.  The  white ovals at the base of the cone  Each seed that the knife has cut through should be f u l l of  firm white meat extending to and f i l l i n g the seed case to the lower extremity. place.  If the' meat i s shriveled then pollination did not take  If the seed i s not completely f i l l e d , the seed i s not yet  mature enough for picking.  A count of at least five f u l l seeds per  section i s required to make cones worth picking, eight to ten i s a normal value and twelve to fifteen very good. Only the seeds on the cut face of one half of the cone are counted.  At eight to ten seeds  per cone a yield of one pound of seed per cone f i l l e d sack i s to be expected.  A potato sack contains about two bushels of cones. Under supervision the cones are picked from only those trees  that have the desirable characteristics of a straight stem, clean branching and no apparent sign of disease.  The pickers climb the trees,  with a potato sack tied to their belt to put the cones i n . For ease in picking i t i s simplest to climb to the t i p of the tree and pick the whorl of branches directly above, then those adjacent and then draw  66 up those branches immediately below. A. short stick with a hook can be useful. It i s quickest to take hold of the branches one at a time bending the t i p of the branch with a clawing action of the other hand. The cones are sacked and stored i n empty bunkhouses or other clean dry buildings.  I t i s necessary that the sacks are not  packed too close together.  A i r should be able to circulate freely  amongst them. If a lot of sacks are stored i n a limited space then racks w i l l increase the effective storage space.  The windows are  l e f t open to give good ventilation and any sign of the cones heating or moulding i s watched for. No a r t i f i c i a l heating i s used to dry the cones i n the sacks as i t w i l l encourage moulding. A temperature not exceeding 00 deg. F. i s best.  The cones are allowed 6 to 8 weeks to  cure during which period the ripening process i s completed and maxcimum yield ensured.  Cones extracted immediately on picking do not  release a l l their seed.  The extraction i s done on a contract basis  to a set of specifications designed to achieve the maximum yield of viable seed. A l l seed i s registered and stored by the Forest Service at the Duncan Nursery, i n cold rooms at 32 deg. F. or at 0 de§. F., i n sealed air-tight containers.  Under these conditions Douglas f i r may  be expected to retain i t s v i a b i l i t y for 10 years. The type of trees from which cones are picked i s specified i n order to improve the quality and increase the quantity of the wood produced from the plantations. Cruising i s also carried on to discover superior trees i n the existing stands.  These trees can then become  the parents of the future plantations through the techniques of taking  67 scions, grafting, establishing seed orchards and progeny testing. Specifications of quality and relative size are used to select "Candidate Plus Trees",  A. total of 23 such trees has been located  and these w i l l probably yield 2 or 3 "Plus Trees" from which scions w i l l be taken.  These, when established and multiplied i n seed  orchards, should produce high quality seed from which future plantations w i l l probably be derived. Two experiments to increase or stimulate cone yields on selected trees have been designed and one of these has been set up.. Ammonium nitrate f e r t i l i z e r was applied to thirty trees.  The trees  were selected and the following treatments allocated i n a random manner: 1 lb.; 2 l b . ; k lb»; 8 l b . and 0 l b . , (the control) per tree.  Each treatment was therefore applied to six trees.  dominant and co-dominant trees were selected.  Only  Height and d.b.h. were  recorded at time of application of the f e r t i l i z e r , which was scattered on the ground beneath the trees.  Observation during the next summer  season and collection and measurement of relative quantities of cones i n the f a l l should reveal any effects of the chemical. An identical experiment i s to be set up using a spray application of N-meta-tolyl-pthalmic acid (Anon 1955), on the female cones and foliage i n the spring.  This chemical stimulates the activity of  the reproductive elements of plants. (c) Planting Method.  The Forest Service nurseries at  Campbell River, Duncan and New Westminster grow stock from seed! collected i n the Nimpkish valley and stored at the Duncan nursery. Trees of 2+0 root-pruned stock are the standard age-class produced* They are shipped i n bales by truck, boat and r a i l to the planting site.  68  Care i n handling i s essential for good survival because of the long haul and the frequent transfers. The bales are shipped to the planting site, opened and "heeled-in" i n furrows.  These furrows should be as deep as the  roots are long so that the roots are completely covered with earth. If the roots are exposed to the a i r and dry-out the trees w i l l die* It i s always best to "heel-in" the seedlings i n moist soft ground beside a stream or i n some damp shaded place. spot3  The location of these  for "heeling-in" should be convenient to the planting area. It  i s preferable to have several locations rather than one main one so that time may not be wasted fetching stock from a distant point. For the operation of planting each foreman has a crew of six to nine planters.  The foreman keeps a t a l l y of the number of trees  planted, controls and checks the planters, and maps the daily production of the crew. He runs a compass l i n e , blazing stumps and logs, using a Silva hand compass, and sets flags to maintain a control on the width of the strip planted and the straightness of the lines. Each planter i s equipped with a bag in which he carries the plants. This i s made of heavy canvas and strapped to his waist.  Water i s  poured into the bag at the beginning of the day and more added when necessary to keep the roots moist. mortality results.  This i s essential or else much  Each bag w i l l hold UOO trees, half a days supply.  The planting tool i s a long-bladed mattock with which the planter makes a vertical slot i n the ground deep enough for the longest roots of the seedling.  The seedling's roots are inserted i n the slot so  69 that the roots are well-spaced-out and vertical.  The s o i l i s then  tamped down by the planter with his heel u n t i l the tree i s quite firm i n the ground and cannot be easily pulled out.  The tree's  roots must be completely covered with mineral s o i l .  Exposed loca-  tions, duff, moss, or rotting wood may not retain enough moisture during dry weather for the tree to survive. avoided.  These may be removed or  In the f l a t areas of the valley bottom i t i s common to find  a grass sod or heavy mat of minor herbaceous cover.  In such places  i t i s practice to remove a foot Square Of this ground cover to expose the mineral soil free of vegetation and roots.  Observation where this  has not been done shows that the planted trees f a i l to compete with the well-developed root systems of the established vegetation, causing high mortality and poor growth. plantation #VTH (Appendix V).  An example of this i s the experimental Here percentage survival dropped from  87 per cent to 50 per cent i n three years subsequent to planting.  The  decline was at a constant rate. If the condition of both ground and weather i s favourable then even poorly planted trees w i l l survive but when any factor i s unfavourable the poorly planted trees die* The trees are planted ten feet apart and the distance between lines i s ten feet. theoretically.  This ten by ten spacing gives U35 trees per acre  In practice between 350 and ij.00 trees per acre are  planted because there i s always some ground that i s implantable  due  to sloughs, uriburnt patches of rotten wood, small rock bluffs, stumps, advanced growth and other obstacles.  70  In some cases there are partially stocked blocks adjacent to the planting area which would benefit by the introduction of Douglas f i r into the mixture of species.  Such areas may be just  within the satisfactorily stocked class but are commonly worked over by the crew as convenient.  This type of planting rarely needs  more than one to two hundred trees per acre. (d) Labour, Experience has shown that the most suitable type of labour available i s to be found amongst recent immigrants. Many of these men having a background of fanning experience are used to handling growing plants and treat them i n a way which i s not f a t a l * Labour drawn from other sources, particularly when used to machines, i s not very successful. The usual practice i s to hire the crew on a temporary basis which means they must complete the work within 3 0 days.  This has the advantage that the planting i s done quickly and  advantage taken of favourable weather.  Ih the spring planting i s  limited to the time between the snow melting and the onset of the fine dry weather typical of late April or early May, started as soon as possible i n the spring.  Planting should be  In the f a l l the plants may  not harden-off u n t i l the beginning of October and by the middle of November snow and intense cold are l i k e l y .  No two years are the same  and the time available for planting may extend from September to  May,  at a l l but the highest elevations, but this cannot be relied upon, (e) Method of Survey, A l l plantations are surveyed f o r survival subsequent to planting.  Semi-permanent plots are located  throughout each plantation at the rate of about one to every 25 acres.  71 The plots are located beforehand on maps i n the office i n order to avoid the bias of selecting them i n the f i e l d .  Every type of.  terrain i s sampled and the plots equably spaced. Each plot consists of 25 trees immediately adjacent to some central marker, usually a t a l l stump. The marker i s painted with yellow logmarking paint to make i t conspicuous. Each tree i s marked with a four-foot cedar stake, the top of which has been dipped i n yellow paint, and tagged with an aluminum tag showing the tree and plot number. A l l plots are recorded on the planting map. The plots are checked for mortality i n the subsequent spring or f a l l and then re-checked once a year for the next three years or until there i s no increase i n mortality.  This record indicates any plantations  needing replanting. At the time of survey the planted trees are checked for signs of any insect, fungi or other harmful agency. (f) Analysis of Areas Planted.  The planting sites avail-  able i n the Nimpkish valley may be divided into three classes based on their topographical location. The best type occurs along the sidehills and includes the lower slopes of the h i l l s reaching out into the valley. The second type i s the f l a t valley bottom land, mainly a l l u v i a l and very variable.  The third type i s the rather  indefinite hummocky terrain l e f t by the retreating glaciers i n the wider sections of the main valleys.  '  Type I i s generally well drained but i s also well supplied with seepage water. Slash burning i s most effective on such sites because of the concave nature of the slope and i f there i s a southern exposure the effect i s increased.  The slash i s therefore at a  72 minimum and the mineral soil exposed creating good planting conditions. In some cases when the sidehill i s only part of a low rocky h i l l there may not be a large reserve of ground water so that during a very dry summer the seepage water supply may f a i l and any plantations on the sidehill suffer. Type H contains some very good site but can be intermixed with poor site depending on how the river has sorted the material i t has been carrying.  This land i s almost of agricultural quality*  Drain-  age i s poor i n places and the water table i s generally f a i r l y close to the surface though some of the coarser gravels can be very dry sites at times and the death of trees i s noticeable i n a long dry summer.  Brush  invades here most rapidly and because of the f l a t and wet nature of the ground, slash burning i s least effective i n exposing the s o i l . for  If l e f t  a few years a vigorous grass sod may develop and this w i l l provide  serious root competition for planted trees. poor.  Planting conditions are  Frosts are often damaging to young trees. Type III contains a mixture of medium and poor site on the  hummocks with implantable cedar swamp i n between. Slash burning i s effective on the humps but the water relationships do not favour high site. An analysis of 29 plantations covering U,l66 acres grouped according to these three types shows that the f i r s t type has been selected i n preference to the other two for planting sites.  73  Table XIII Distribution of Plantations by Land Condition  Type  No, of Trees per acre  No, of acres i n  I  362  II  268  200 (  III  300  6U7 (1U«  3,87U (82J6)  Plantations  20  k%)  3 6  The number of trees per acre reflects directly the amount of the site suitable for planting.  The f l a t t e r the ground the greater the  loss of planting space due to the unburned slash.  Survival figures  showed a spread of only Ik per cent and any pattern was marked by the over-riding effect of seasonal variation. (g) Results of Growth and Survival. Some ijOO trees were measured for annual height growth i n 15 plantations.  The relation-  ship of site was tested against height growth and the following graph indicates that site had not influenced height growth during the f i r s t few years after planting.  It i s possible that during these years site  and competition are confounded* Survival records are compiled for a l l plantations. The variation i s by seasons rather than by other factors. The following table shows this:  7k Table XIV Summary of Data of Plantation Survival, Douglas F i r Season  No. of Plantations  Year  Acreage  Percentage Survival (Percent, Wted. Ave. Individual  kzk  90,91,78,91-  86  1*29  83,88,89,89  87  3  238  30,1*5*51*  1*0  1957  2;  1*01*  97,78  81  1958  k  501  3k ,60 ,53  Spring  195k  Spring  1955  Spring  1956  Spring Spring  1*  17  Total  1*8  ,U  1,97k  69  Fall  1955  3  1*82  3, 7, 17  11  Fall  1957  1  102  72  72:  Fall  1958  3  735  96,93,91*,9k  91*  7  1,319  Total  61  The f a l l of 1955 was notable for a low temperature of 5 degrees above zero accompanied by strong winds on November l l t h  e  This cold snap  was wide-spread and damaged nursery stock which was used the next spring. The trees did not appear harmed but the very poor survival indicated that they had been.  In the f a l l of 1957 there were various crew d i f f i -  culties that made for poor planting and the survival percentages were lower than was expected with favourable weather conditions.  The spring  planting of 1958 continued into early May and was located on a southern slope with no shelter.  Lack of rain and temperatures up to 89 deg. F*  at the end of April and i n May caused considerable mortality.  If the  survival figures for the plantings affected by exceptional weather are  to f o l l o w page ','7U ' Figure IV  No.  2 5 3  G R A P H  P A D .  T H E W I L L S O N  STATIONERY  CO.  L T D . A N D C L A R K E a. S T U A R T  CO.  LTD.  75 removed then the average survival i s 8k per cent. It i s noticeable that there i s l i t t l e real difference between spring and f a l l planting in terms of survival,,  It i s sometimes possible to plant trees at any-  time through the winter as the 93 per cent survival of the control plots of Experiment # XXII which was planted on January 29th indicate. AV comparison between 1+0 and 2*0 stock was set up i n two locations (Expt. #7111 and Expt. #IX).  The following table shows the  results using adjacent 2*0 operational planting as the control. Table XV Comparison of 1*0 and 2+0 Douglas F i r Stock Season  Year  Location  Age of Stock  Per Cent Survival  Spring  1953  K-26  80  2+0  Unknown  Spring  195U  K-26  80  1+0  Fall  195U  KK  170  Fall  1955  KK  170  Site  Av. Ht. i n Feet at Planting 5th Year Q*k7  1.59  82  0.16  1.13  1+0  50  0.28  0.70  2+0  83  0*53  0.96  A l l height measurements were taken for an equivalent number of seasons since the seed was sown i n the nursery. This eliminates the i n i t i a l mathematical advantage the 2+0 stock has at planting.  This does  introduce the consideration that different growing seasons are not truly comparable, one being more favourable for growth than another.  The  growth data mentioned i n the f i r s t part of this section did not show any relation between season and age for this period. invalid.  This criticism i s thus  76 The conclusion from these figures would seem to be that 2+0 stock w i l l show better growth under, comparable conditions for the same number of seasons from the date of sowing of the seed than w i l l 1+0 stock. The difference i n the examples quoted was hO per cent on a poor site and 37 per cent on a good site.  The survival  figures indicate that 2+0 stock i s better able to compete with the heavier vegetative growth on the good site than i s the 1+0 stock. The 2+0 stock also averages 127 per cent t a l l e r than the 1+0 stock at planting. (h) Spacing and Natural F i l l - i n *  The planting spacing of  ten feet by ten feet for Douglas f i r i s based partly on the ideas that the intervening space w i l l f i l l i n with natural Douglas f i r and other species.  Three areas were surveyed to check on this*  The  survey was a strip 0*2 chains wide i n which a l l regeneration was noted. Strips were run diagonally to the contour across the plantation.  The  following table illustrates the result. Table XVI A. Summary of Three Regeneration Surveys to Study Plantation Spacing and " F i l l - i n " Expt. and Location  Age in Yrs.  #VI K-26  9  32.9  20,8  k6*k  727  628  1,335  9  U  U9..0  All others  51.0  U90  510  1,000  10  11  100.0  0.0  570  570  12  W-it #V  Br5A'.  Trees per Acre Percentage Composition Fir Other Planted Natural Species F i r Others Total  II  Chainage Run  77 These results indicate that very variable f i l l - i n i s obtained. The factors are complex as i s usual with natural regeneration. Another survey was made immediately after planting to determine within a normal plantation, how much of the area was not actually planted due to irregularity of the planters and unsuitable ground. A typical low sidehill location was selected and a 10 chain strip run diagonally across i t . The t a l l y showed 315 trees per acre while the planting records gave 317 trees per acre indicating good agreement. Bach planted tree was t a l l i e d and recorded on a cruise map from which the area not effectively planted was derived.  This worked out at 19  per cent of the t o t a l area.. (i) Protection of Plantations.  Checks for insect activity,,  are made on a l l plantations at regular intervals.  In addition the  exotic plantations are checked annually by the Dominion Science Service ranger to spot the introduction of any new insect or fungi., In 1*0 plantations Adelges coolyii occurred 7 times on Douglas f i r and once on spruce. An unidentified weevil had been at work i n one plantation on the bark of a few,seedlings. Any signs of fungi are also observed.  The only recorded  damage i s by a root rot k i l l i n g 9-year-old Douglas f i r . A survey showed 3o8 per cent dead but occasional additional ones have died since. Notices are posted requesting people not to cut Christmas trees i n plantations.  A circular, aiming to persuade people to cut  western white pine instead of Douglas f i r for Christmas trees, has achieved f a i r success. The whole valley i s embraced by an intensive f i r e control, program.  This protects equally green timber, logged areas, plantations  and second growth.  78 A survey of the deer population i n the Nimpkish valley i s maintained i n order to locate high concentrations or excessive buildup of the whole population.  The results of the survey are relative  i n accuracy but have not shown any great changes i n the f i r s t two years* The area i s under populated according to the game biologists. Special protection i s provided for the "Douglas F i r Provenance Study", (Expt. XXI7). Appendix V.  This i s i n the form of an electric fence described i n  A special protection permit for shooting deer i s also  maintained for this experiment. In the spring of 1959 three different deer repellents were obtained and applied to three experimental plantings and to the season's operational planting. No survey of their effect i s yet available, though two seedlings were observed that had apparently been pulled-up and spat out. (j) Future Plans.  Operational plantings are run on a planned  basis to level-off at 1,000 acres per year subsequent to 1961.  This may  be adjusted according to policy or revision of estimates or unpredicted disasters, such as large f i r e s . Experimental plantings w i l l include species t r i a l s of Corsican pine (Pinu3 nigra var. Corsica.), Monterey pine (Pinus radiata) and western red cedar which are at present being grown i n the Forest Service nursery at Quinsam, Campbell River. ,Seed of mountain hemlock, yellow cedar, Pacific silver f i r (balsam) and western hemlock has been collected for this same purpose. (k)  Costs.  Cone picking costs vary with the density of the  crop, the standards of selection of the trees to be picked and the  79 efficiency of the pickers.  Four years work are tabulated below. The  f i r s t picking listed was by climbing and cutting branches of old growth„ The second was picking i n second growth stands i n a moderately good crop year with some cutting of branches.  The third was second growth  picking only, with some tree selection i n a moderately poor crop year. The last was a good crop year with increased tree selection. Table XVII Seed Costs for Cones Picked - Nimpkish Valley 1951+-1959 Year  Quantity in bushels  Total Cost (dollars)  Pounds of seed obtained  Seed cost Pounds Extraction cost (dollars) (dollars) per per pound bushel per pound  195U  15  49  6*2  Ojjl  2.06  10.01  1956  125  767  51.5  0.1+1  2.78  H+.89  573  22*5  0.21+  1+.35  25.1+7  0.1+8  2.01  15.00  1957  92  1959  1,191  8,715  581.0  Seedlings are grown by the B.C. Forest Service nurseries and provided for reforestation free of charge.  No change i n this policy i s  at present likely but this could become a charge against planting i f the Forest Service either decided to charge for their service or to discontinue it.  Eecent planting costs are as follows:  80 Table XVLTI Plantation Costs 195U-1959 Season  Year  Area i n Acres  Spring  195U  h2h  350  Spring  1955  407  373  2.00  7.46  Fall  1955  h82  290  2.10  6.11  Spring  1956  238  394  1.9#  7»U6  Spring  1957  hoh  371  2.2^  8.32  Fall  1957  102:  490  2.60  12.61  Spring  1958  501  399  2M  9.40  Fall  1958  735  282  2M  6.85  Spring  1959  601  344  2*50  8.79  No„ of Trees; per Acre  Cost per Seedling  Cost per Acre #7.45  The cost per acre reflects the number of trees per acre, whereas the cost per seedling planted i s a better indication of real cost, showing rises due to wage increases and variation i n efficiency of different crews. The f a l l 1957 costs were distorted by labour turnover due to the reaction of layoff and seniority claims throughout a very short planting period. any planting s k i l l .  This resulted i n none of the crew accumulating  In a l l seasons i t i s the case that the whole crew  has to be taught the planting method as skilled men are not available from season to season. For future estimates this table indicates that the 1959 figures of 2.50 per seedling planted and 350 trees per acre costing $8.75 would be reasonable to use.  Allowance should be made  that normal wage increases w i l l boost the cost by 5 per cent per year*  81 In five years the cost has increased 0,50 from 2,00, a 25 per cent increase of 5 per cent per year* For the f a l l of 1958 a comparison of planting density, efficiency and cost was compiled.  In some areas of the planting,  the density, i»e. the number of trees per acre, f e l l much below the normal.  The land was already partially but insufficiently stocked  with natural regeneration.  Fewer trees per acre were planted but more  acres per man per day were covered. Now i f the tree-planter covers a greater area to plant the same number of trees i t would be expected that he spends more of his time walking and less planting trees. The efficiency would be lower and the cost per tree higher, though the cost per acre might f a l l .  In order to measure this relationship the  following data were used. Table XIX Number of Man-days of work required per Acre of Trees Planted at Varying Densities Location  No. of Trees per Acre  Man-days  Acres  Acres per Man-day  #L  193.5  19.5  74.3  3.83  #2?  101.1.  13*5  105.8  7*83  #3  361.9  9*0  21.0  2*33  #4  289.5  54.0  1U2*6  2.64  #5  331.3  13.5  32*9  2*43  #6  194.0  23  Jt  5.15  m  352.0  155.0  334.9  2.16  269.0  735-2  Totals Averages  281*9  4*5  2.73  82 From the curve, figure V. plotted from these statistics the following points can be read: Planting 1+00 trees on 1 acre takes § day, - 2 acres i n 1 day, Planting 200 trees on 1 acre takes 4 day, - 1+ acres i n 1 day, Planting 100 trees on 1 acre takes l / 8 day, - 8 acres i n 1 day. This indicates that, within the range of this experience 800 trees may be concentrated on two acres or spread over eight acres without much likelihood of difference i n cost.. The cost per tree planted may not be expected to be dependent on spacing i n the range from one hundred to four hundred trees per acre and l i k e l y not dependent for a somewhat wider range. The seed-spotting records for 191+9-1950 provide an additional point on the graph confirming this trend. at 10l+ spots per acre covered and 7.15  Then 980.8 acres were spotted  acres were spotted per man-day.  Work has been done i n this f i e l d by Ware and Stahelin (I9I+8) and Smith and Walters (1957).  t o f o l l o w page >82 Figure V  No.  2 S 3  G R A P H  PAD.  T H E  W I L L S O N  STATIONERY  CO.  LTD.  A N D  C L A R K E  a  STUART  CO.  LTD.  83 Chapter VTTI  Direct Seeding  (i) Experiments i n Direct Seeding. Seeding of Sitka Spruce.  (a) A Study i n Direct  The B.C. Forest Service established this  study at Nimpkish Lake i n 1923 (Alexander and Garman 1923). A complete description i s included under Appendix VI,  The intent was  to test the practicality of seeding Sitka spruce direct on Douglas f i r sites.  The results were very promising and the primary stages  of the experiment quite successful.  The plot was surveyed i n 1934  when 1,U00 spruce seedlings held the dominant position i n the plot and had a maximum height of 7 feet, eleven years after sowing. Subsequent experience has shown that the Sitka spruce i s attacked by two insects, Pissodes sitchensis, the Sitka spruce weevil, and Adelges cooleyi, the pineapple g a l l .  These insects so distort the  leaders and shoots of the spruce that the tree becomes a misshapen twisted mass of distorted branches and does not produce the straight clear bole required for commercial purposes.  For this reason no  further work was done with the species. If a strain of Sitka spruce was bred that did not suffer from these insects, direct seeding would be a possible way to establish the tree i n the Nimpkish valley. (b) Seed Spotting of Douglas S i r and Western Hemlock. experiment i n seed spotting was carried out at Woss Camp, setting K-26.  The location i s described under Experiment #8, Appendix V.  Spotting was done on 16 and 17 March, 1949, dropping 10 seeds at every spot, each spot being located with a cedar stake. A check was made on October 29th, 1949 and the following table summarizes the results to that date:  An  Qk Table XX Seedling Survival i n Seed Spots, Douglas F i r and Western Hemlock  Duff No. of Spots Successful  Douglas F i r Mineral Total Soil  3  Western Hemlock Duff Mineral Total Soil  26  29  0  7  7  No. of Spots Unsuccessful  17  1U  31  30  13  43  Total No. of Spots  20  ko  60  30  13  50  Percentage of Spots Successful  15  65  48  0  35  lk  2  k  A\v. No. of Seedlings/Spot  3.9  0  2.6  2.6  Seed spotting on mineral s o i l was f a i r l y successful with Douglas f i r but not with western hemlock. (c) Rodent Control i n Direct Seeding of Douglas F i r . B.C. Forest Service carried out an experiment, E.P. 1959)  #437  The  (Finnis,  to try to find a method of protecting Douglas f i r seed from  seed-eating rodents.  It consisted of four 10 acre blocks located at  Woss Camp, Setting H-63.  The setting i s of eastern aspect and had  been logged and burned i n 1952  and was seeded i n January 1955.  treatments were allotted at random, as follows:  Seed  ( i ) Tetramine-methocel,  ( i i ) Tetramine-acetone, ( i i i ) control and (iv) Endrin. The seeding was carried out at the rate of one-half pound of seed per acre using Cyclone seeders.  Seed-spotting was also tested,  using the Brohm seeder developed by the Ontario Dept. of Lands and Forests.  85 The laboratory and nursery germination tests showed that the tetramine-acetone seed treatment reduced the germination to nearly zero.  There was l i t t l e difference between the germination  of the control, tetramine-methocel or endrin treated seed.  For  example, results of the nursery test were: Table XXI Results of Seed Germination Test i n Nursery Seed Treatment  Seed Treatment  Percent Germinated  35.00  Control  38.75  8.00  Endrin  Uo.oo  Percent Germinated  Tet ramine -me thoc e l Tetramine-acetone  The germination of treated and control seed under wire enclosures i n the f i e l d followed the same pattern. After one growing season and one winter the broadcast section of the experiment was surveyed giving the following results: Table XXII Percentage of Mil-acres with Thrifty Seedlings Seed Treatment  Percent of Mil-acres with Thrifty Seedlings  Tetr amine-methocel  U8.2  Tetramine-acetone  11.8  Control  40*9  Endrin  34*5  86 The mil-acre measure of stocking i s the standard used for regeneration so these units are directly comparable with normal surveys.  A direct measure was also made checking marked seed spots  and indicated that there was l i t t l e difference between the two methods of estimating these results. Table XXIII Percentage of Seed Spots Containing Seedlings Seed Treatment  Percentage of Spots with Seedlings  Tetramine-methocel  U8.5  Tetramine-acetone  * 2.5  Control  22.5  Endrin  34.5  The Brohm seeder was better than any tool previously tested but s t i l l l e f t much to be desired.  The base plugged up i n wet weather  and the seed-metering action was unreliable. The following conclusions were arrived att First the tetramine-acetone treatment has a drastically adverse effect on seed germination; second both the tetramine-methocel and endrin offer some protection against seed-eating rodents, but further improvement i s s t i l l required; third, an improved spot-seeder i s required.  The site  index was lUO. The area was seeded three years after slash-burning. It should have been seeded immediately after burning, or i f delay until 1955 was inevitable, then planting would have been a preferable method of a r t i f i c i a l regeneration.  87 (d) Seed Trees. Setting KT-10, i n 195U,  An experiment was made at Vernon Camp,  to test the usefulness of the practice of  leaving seed trees for regeneration purposes. A group of 8 old growth Douglas f i r was reserved from logging as seed trees.  These  trees were survivors subsequent to an extensive wild f i r e burn i n 19^2.  The following advantages were listed by the foresters at  that time as arguments for reservation: "The trees would be windfirm as they were located on a rocky promontory and had already been exposed and well tested since 1952. The trees were located centrally to the area of the burn and the slight elevation would aid seed dispersal* The trees were producing cones actively and some natural seedlings had already appeared and were about six inches high. The reserving of these trees would not interfere with the logging of the remainder of the area." A\ survey was made on the 28th of May 1957  as a standard  regeneration survey with the exception that the strips were l a i d out radially from three of the trees sampled, using eight cardinal compass points and strips 10 chains i n length. were noted.  Only Douglas f i r seedlings  The following summarizes the results. Table XXIV Summary of Regeneration Survey to Test the Effect of Leaving Seed Trees  Tree Number IL  Total Mil-acres Sampled Stocked 320 3  Percentage Stocked loO  Total h Mil-acres Sampled Stocked 80 3  2  320  6  1.9  80  6  3  ho  5  3*1  40  U  Percentage Stocked 3.8  7»5 10.0  88 Total stocking i s 3 per cent or less and a l l seedlings were in the north-west through south to west quadrants.  In 1956 there was  a moderately good cone crop and i n 1954 and 1955 there were some cones produced. Factors contributing to the failure of these seed trees to regenerate the area could have been mice eating the seed, felling the seedlings, the severe frost i n November 1955,  and summer drought and  excess isolation i n this the hottest section of the valley.. ( i i ) Operational Direct Seeding by Seed Spots of Douglas Fir.  Seed spots were planted over an area of 981 acres i n the f a l l of  1949 and the spring of 1950.  The method used by the seeders of the  working crew was to make a furrow i n the mineral soil with a long-handled hoe somewhat like a planting tool.  If necessary the s o i l was cultivated  or debris removed to prepare the seed spot.  The seeds were covered with  a thin layer of s o i l and the spot compressed firmly.  The individual  spots were 15 feet apart and the distance between the lines 25 feet. This gave a theoretical stocking density of 116 spots per acre but i n practice i t worked out at 10U spots per acre because of swampy patches and other unworkable ground. Test plots were located by staking i n a representative area every day.  These were checked i n September 1950.  The following  summarizes the work and results: Table XXV Operational Direct Seeding 1949-1950 Season Year  No. of Spots  No. of Survival Man-Days Percent  Area i n Acres  Seed Source  1949  5U,790  73.0  29*6  570.8  Nimpkish  Spring 1950  Ii7,080  63*5  22*6  410.0  Washington  27.7  980.8  Fall  Total  101,870  136.5  89 This gives 10U spots per acre and 7U6 spots per man-day or 7»15 acres per man-day, which i s equivalent to the efficiency of a normal planting crew when planting trees at the same density. Costs may therefore be estimated as similar to those for planting though the quantity of seed required would be somewhat larger and i f seed i s expensive because of limited supply this could increase the costs.  The  f a l l seeding appears to have produced slightly better results than the spring seeding which i s i n accord with the work of Finnis (1959) who favoured seeding before February: "Late spring seeding i s to be avoided even when using stratified seed,..*. It appears that the best results are obtained by f a l l seeding or at any rate, seeding before February." The average number of seedlings per spot was 1*6 seedlings. Subsequently crews went over the areas and thinned each spot to one seedling per spot.  No costs were available for this.  Operational seeding has been under consideration for the f a l l of 1959 using the mouse poison "1080" as a cooperative t r i a l i n conjunction with the B.C. Forest Service. A series of observations were made on the establishment of the seeds i n the seed spots when the plots were checked i n September 1950. It was intended to discover the effect of mice upon seedling establishment, the effect of shade or direct exposure, the effect of duff i n contrast to bare mineral soil and the effect of f l a t ground, depressions and humps. The following table gives the results of these observations.  90 Table XXVI Environmental Influences on Seedling Establishment Treatment  Percentage of Seed Spots with Established Seedlings  Total No. of Seed Spots in each test  Spots Screened from Mice  80  10  Spots Unscreened (Control)  40  10  Spots i n Shade  75  105  Spots i n Direct Sunlight  68  429  Spots on Mineral S o i l  68  502  Spots on Duff  94  32  Spots on Flat Ground  68  461  Spots i n Depressions  72  25  Spots on Humps  79  48  The two definite indications given by this experiment are that duff favours production of seedlings and protection from mice i s essential* The duff might not produce such good results i n a dry year and experience with planted seedlings has indicated that duff i s satisfactory as long as there are no long dry spells. medium than mineral s o i l .  Damp duff i s probably a better germinating  91 Part H I  Management  Chapter IX  Methods of Logging  (i) Railroad and Truck Road.  Logging from a railroad i s the  technique used to clear the heavy valley-bottom and low sidehill stands of Douglas f i r and hemlock.  The truck logging works the stands  above 1,000 feet i n the hemlock-balsam type.  This therefore establishes  the basic pattern* A railroad logged area usually has had a good clear slash burn. The mineral s o i l w i l l be exposed over about $0 per cent of the surface area immediately after burning.  This makes i t possible to find plenty of good  places to plant Douglas f i r seedlings. duff has been found to be useless.  Planting Douglas f i r i n heavy  Douglas f i r stands can be re-established  after logging by planting. Natural regeneration of Douglas f i r i s similarl y favoured by the burning that i s associated with railroad logging. The truck-shows log the steep sidehills and ridgetops for their hemlock-balsam stands, leaving material which i s much less inflammable than the debris from the Douglas f i r stands.  This lower inflammability i s partly  due to the poor burning qualities of the hemlock but mostly to the increase in average humidity with increase i n elevation. Slash burning therefore removes a smaller proportion of the accumulated mass of debris. In addition, because of the lack of wild f i r e s i n the historic past, the accumulation of duff has continued uninterrupted and the lower tempera*tures of the higher elevation have contributed by slowing the rate of decomposition..  Compensating for this the hemlock and balsam regenerate  more plentifully under the cooler damper conditions of these higher  92 elevations, i«.e. between 1,500 and 3,000 feet. This means that Douglas f i r cannot be re-introduced by planting as economically as at lower elevations.  There i s no ecological reason why Douglas f i r should not  be established at this elevation Schmidt (1957), because i t i s common experience to find occasional old Douglas f i r up to the 3,000-foot contour i n drainages predominantly hemlock-balsam. of these trees has not been discovered.  The exact origin  This indicates the a b i l i t y of  the tree to grow on these areas currently being truck-logged for their hemlock-balsam stands.  I t may not be that the productive capacity of  the land i n terms of Douglas f i r i s as high i n volume per acre as hemlock-balsam but this i s compensated f o r by the considerable price differential between the species, especially i n times of poor market conditions.  The logging show cutting Douglas f i r w i l l continue to  operate while the one i n hemlock-balsam w i l l shut down t i l l prices rise. This would indicate that for stability of operation at the higher elevations planting Douglas f i r on the best sites i s advantageous. ( i i ) High-lead Systems and Cat-Tractor-Logging.  Cat-logging tends  to be advantageous i f planting i s to follow because i t i s considerably cleaner than high-lead logging. The machines tend to break down the slash by their movement across the ground.  This does not occur with  high-lead systems because the machine i s stationary. The degree of utilization i s also slightly higher, more of the smaller pieces and chunks being picked up i n the logging. Slash burning on cat-logging tends to be more effective i n removing debris.  This i s because slash f i r e s can be started under f a i r l y dry  93 conditions thus removing a greater proportion of the debris. two reasons for this.  There are  The limitation of cats to the logging shows i n  f l a t t e r country means that the slash f i r e s w i l l spread less readily.. Steep sidehills logged by high-lead systems are very difficult to burn without damaging the fringe of timber along the upper edge of the setting.  The second reason i s that the cat-roads themselves cut the  area up into small sections thus acting as f i r e breaks and limiting the rate of spread of the f i r e .  Planting of cat-logged sites i s therefore  more readily carried out* On the other hand the cat-roads themselves, particularly the main ones, become compacted by the weight of the machines and logs passing over them. This compaction of the mineral s o i l encourages the soil to become water-logged and favours the growth of alder which i s especially adapted to colonization of water-logged sites and disturbed subsoil.  It  i s easy to observe the lay-out of the old cat-roads and railroad grades when flying over an area of second growth by reason of the alder lining them. The site class of the cat-roads i s lowered by the combined effects of compaction, and erosion but this may be only a temporary condition. The same thing does occur to a lesser extent on the skid-roads of a high-lead system but the logs bumping across the ground do not compact i t so systematically* Another aspect of cat-logging i s the pronounced tendency to erosion.. The pattern of the roads generally follows the natural drainage of the land and the roads are converted into stream beds during the heavy winter rains typical of this region.  These streams rapidly erode the s o i l down  9h to the consolidated hardpan of the glacial f i l l material, carrying the topsoil to the landing which becomes a sea of mud.  If the hardpan i s  not too impervious or f a i r l y deep, gullies may form which i n extreme cases may be up to 8 feet deep.  There i s , however, i n this a certain  natural equivalent that may be observed i n the regular stream beds. Where these streams flow from the s i d e h i l l across a section of glacial deposit and the topography i s favourable they have carved natural canyons down to bedrock.  The pattern this produces i s one of low site values  immediately above the sides of the canyon and increased site values where the stream emerges from the canyon i n an a l l u v i a l fan or flush. The material i n the fan i s loosely piled giving free drainage yet has ample ground water high i n nutrients from the stream above.  This condition  seems most favourable to Douglas fir.. ( i i i ) Degree of Utilization.  Economic limitations make i t undesire-  able to take out every log that could be cut into lumber or utilized by a pulp m i l l .  This i s because the logs taken from this valley have a long  r a i l haul before they reach salt water and then a 200-mile tow to the mills.  After a setting has been logged there remains considerable number  of logs, tops and chunks besides the normal slash from the branches.  This  adds to the total debris remaining and obstructs planting by covering the s o i l and obstructing the passage of the planters.  Obviously any improve-  ment i n the degree of utilization would benefit planting and future cultural practices.. If the degree of utilization were increased to a point where no slash burning were required for f i r e control reasons, i t could have a  95 strong influence on whether a policy of burning for silvicultural reasons were maintained and hence on the species composition of newly regenerated areas.  This i s unlikely i n the immediate future.  (iv) Pre-logging and Salvage-logging.  Pre-logging of stands to  remove windfall, snags and smaller trees increases the total yield per acre from old growth stands and helps to remove a major source of the slash l e f t after the f i n a l logging. In the normal process of logging, a l l snags and trees down to 10 inches d.b.h. are felled even though they may not be economically removed as logs.  Salvage-logging of dead trees  i s valuable i n that i t eliminates potential snags.  Seventy-five million  board feet of timber were killed i n one outbreak of the Douglas f i r bark beetle, much of which has been salvage-logged.  If this were not done  then, by the time the settings were logged normally the dead trees would be standing columns of decayed wood. Such snags when cut smash into a mass of rotten wood spreading across the ground i n a strip perhaps 150 feet long and 10 feet wide. An appreciable amount of planting site i s lost i f there are many like this.  The type of burning required to  dispose of this material involves too great a hazard relative to the protection values obtained.  In future i t i s l i k e l y that where there are  heavy deposits of this debris bulldozers w i l l be used to windrow i t and so condition the site for planting. (v) Slash Burning Requirements According to Logging Methods. Slash burning results do vary with the type of logging carried out on the setting but the greatest influence on the slash burn i s the weather at the time the setting i s f i r e d .  There i s , however, considerable relation  between the degree of slope and intensity of burn and also between degree  96 of slope and type of logging. in excess of 1x0 per cent.  Cat-logging i s not practical on slopes  In such cases high-lead logging would be  practised and so i n general would receive hotter bums.  The multitude  of roads i n a cat-logged setting make for spot burning rather than broadcast burning.  The cats also tend to pile up the remaining debris  and by concentrating i t increases the intensity of burn on the ground beneath the piles.  High-lead logging leaves the material more scattered  and so the burn w i l l be cooler and more extensive.  Cold-decking as a  form of high-lead logging leaves a large pile of accumulated cull logs and chunks i n the centre of the setting which, when fired, burn intensely over a limited area. Salvage-logging and right-of-way-logging may not require burning at a l l or, at the most, only spot-burning of accumulations.  97 Chapter X  Policy  (i) Present Logging Policy. Current logging policy requires that the total cut in the Nimpkish drainage be stabilized at the sustained yield cut of the unit on a ninety-year rotation.  The cut of Douglas;  f i r i s to be such as to maintain the organization's plywood plant at an optimum level until such time as a l l the f i r logs suitable for peeling by the plant have been removed. For this reason i t i s necessary to extend access and logging to the limits of the area.  The requirement to  do this i s related to the form of tenure under which the greater volume of the Douglas f i r stands are held.  The capitalization of the cost and  annual taxation costs are such that the liquidation of these assets at the earliest practical date i s a basic consideration of policy. The economic circumstances of railroad logging as compared with truck logging i n relationship to the type of country presently available for logging involve a policy of conversion.  Truck logging w i l l replace  railroad logging creating a system of short truck-to-rail transfer points.  This program i s essentially related to the completion of the.  removal of the valley-bottom stands which are predominantly Douglas f i r . It w i l l make accessible types of country at the higher elevations not previously available for reforestation. Some experimental work has started on this, (See experimental plantation X.) The railroad logging has also been responsible for the policy of clear-cutting large contiguous areas.  This i s modified i n the prelimin-  ary stages for the control of slash burns by leaving temporary f i r e breaks but these are removed after the settings on either side have been logged and burned.  98 ( i i ) General Forestry Policy.  The primary aim of forestry  policy i s to return a l l lands logged to f u l l production by natural means or to restock them a r t i f i c i a l l y i f natural means are slow.  The  standard set i s to bring a l l logged areas up to a minimum of Ul per cent stocked by one-mil-acre quadrats six years after logging. A l l existing timber stands must be protected against f i r e and insect damage. Current thinking and practice i n B.C. are followed i n order to be aware of any possible improvements i n technique.  Any ideas which might  have possible advantageous application are tried on an experimental basis.  If they prove useful then they are carried into practice.  Fire hazards are continually under observation and removed or guarded against as and when they occur. in the following order of preference: balsam f i r and western red cedar.  It i s the policy to grow species  Douglas f i r , western hemlock,  Sitka spruce and western white pine  are considered unsatisfactory due to the Sitka spruce weevil and the white pine blister rust.  Shore pine, western yew, black cottonwood,  red alder and big-leaved maple are non-merchantable species. ( i i i ) Present Slash-burning Policy.  The f i r s t essential of any  slash-burning policy i s to comply with the Forest Service requirements. These change from time to time i n the degree of intensity of bum ified.  spec-  At present the Forest Service enforces somewhat less than  company fire-control policy.  The practice of policy, either Forest  Service or company, depends very much on the weather conditions i n the fall.  The aim i s to reduce hazard on a l l logged settings to a minimum  at the f i r s t safe opportunity i n the f a l l . Slash burning i s also applied on a silvicultural basis i n order  99  t o make p o s s i b l e t h e p l a n t i n g o f the h i g h - s i t e , f l a t a r e a s t h a t c a r r y s l a s h and b r u s h b u t may hazard.  T h i s may  l a n d i n g s and (iv)  mean a b r o a d c a s t  bum  not r e p r e s e n t a v e r y where o t h e r w i s e o n l y  any b i g a c c u m u l a t i o n s would be  Present  Planting Policy.  of f o r e s t r y p o l i c y .  attempted*  P l a n t i n g p o l i c y i s a major element  s a t i s f a c t o r y stocking.  the  Land o f  o r b e t t e r i s p l a n t e d as soon a s p r a c t i c a l a f t e r l o g g i n g *  Douglas f i r s e e d l i n g s a r e u s e d a t a s p a c i n g  o f t e n f e e t by t e n f e e t *  l a n d i s s u r v e y e d f o r n a t u r a l r e g e n e r a t i o n f i v e years  or a f t e r burning  i f t h i s was  u n f a v o u r a b l e weather*  delayed  one  a f t e r logging  o r more seasons due  to  I f i t does n o t c o n t a i n t h e r e q u i r e d u l p e r  s t o c k i n g t h e n i t must be p l a n t e d w i t h Douglas f i r as soon a s The  the  Douglas f i r , hemlock and balsam are  o n l y merchantable s p e c i e s c o n s i d e r e d  AH  great  F o r t y - o n e p e r c e n t s t o c k i n g by o n e - m i l - a c r e q u a d r a t s  i s the minimum r e q u i r e m e n t .  s i t e i n d e x 125  valley-bottom  cent  practical.  a p p l i c a t i o n of t h i s i n p r a c t i c e i s o u t l i n e d i n Chapter VII,  section i i ,  subsection j .  I t involves p l a n t i n g a c e r t a i n backlog  regenerated  a r e a l a s t d i s t u r b e d more t h a n f i v e y e a r s  ago and  the  a p p l i c a t i o n of the p r i n c i p l e of p l a n t i n g the h i g h - s i t e l a n d .  of  un-  full  I t does  i n c o r p o r a t e , f o r r e a s o n s o f p r a c t i c a l i t y , a m a r g i n o f p l a n t a b l e acreage as a b u f f e r .  I t i s not always good p o l i c y t o p l a n t l a n d i m m e d i a t e l y  a d j a c e n t t o c u r r e n t l o g g i n g because o f t h e r i s k o f damage f r o m l o g g i n g and fir  subsequent s l a s h b u m *  adjacent  I t i s a l s o a p o l i c y t o p l a n t Douglas  on a p e r c e n t a g e o f t h e l a n d s a t i s f a c t o r i l y s t o c k e d w i t h hemlock  and balsam i n o r d e r t o improve the v a l u e of t h e s t a n d and i n c r e a s e u t i l i z a t i o n of the  the  site.  T h i s p l a n t i n g p o l i c y i s l i a b l e t o r e v i s i o n w i t h changes i n l o g g i n g p r a c t i c e o r because of f i r e damage o r o t h e r  catastrophy*  100  (v) Tree Farm License Requirements, Although there i s no Tree Farm License issued for this area, an application has been f i l e d since 1952.  The general terms of such a license would probably require a l l  logged lands to be satisfactorily re-stocked five years after logging on good sites and eight years after logging on poor sites.  "Satisfactorily  usually i s taken as 3 1 per cent or better stocked by one-mil-acre quadrats i n Douglas f i r , hemlock, balsam or cedar, with no three consecutive 4-mil-acre quadrats completely unstocked, A sustained yield cut would have to be determined and applied. This would not directly affect reproduction but the issuance of the cutting permits would probably have some bearing on possible regeneration. As under the present organization a l l unregenerated areas are taken care of to a standard somewhat higher than that usually applied i n Tree Farm Licenses, the requirements relating to the regeneration of logged areas should not change the design of the cutting.  11  101 Chapter XI  Silvicultural Relationships  The growth of any living organism i s controlled by a multitude of different factors.  Any of these factors can become limiting.  Liebig's law of the Minimum states that "It is the factor i n plant nutrition that is present i n the minimum that determines the total amount of production".  It i s therefore essential to consider each and  any factor that can be determined to be limiting the growth of the organism to be grown. In this case Douglas f i r i s the organism and the product i s timber. Heat i s essential to growth and extremes are f a t a l .  The fine old  Douglas f i r stands of the Nimpkish valley show that conditions are favourable, but because finer stands do exist farther south they are not at an optimum. This area i s near the northern limit of Douglas f i r ' s natural range. Extremes of temperature are"not great and mature trees are rarely harmed though seedlings may suffer from insolation i n rocky places with southern aspect and cold has been f a t a l .  In November, 1955,  temperatures just above zero killed the f a l l planting. Frost does most damage to planted Douglas f i r i n the river f l a t s i n the spring.  On  s t i l l nights cold a i r collects i n these low-lying areas and may k i l l back early growth.  It can therefore be harder to establish plantations  in these locations, although once started further damage i s unlikely. Water i s another essential to the growth of the trees. The rainfall of the region i s high though the summer can sometimes be quite dry.  The  s o i l i s not generally of great depth, much being underlain by a hardpan of compacted glacial t i l l two or three feet below the surface.  The  102 water-storage capacity of the s o i l is therefore not very great.  Because  of the mountainous nature of the country, however, there i s considerable lateral movement of the water i n the s o i l .  The availability of this  seepage water i s often the limiting factor that determines the rate of growth of individual trees.  Optimum conditions occur i n the flushes where  small streams coming down the steep mountain side fan out onto the f l a t t e r valley-bottom*  A. good example of this i s given by the location where grew  a Douglas f i r tree that was 305 feet high.  This tree grew where the  finer sorts of debris, sands and gravels, were deposited by a small stream that here reached the valley floor after descending from the ridge of a mountain mass 4,500 feet high.  It also had the advantage that the geo-  logical formation of the mountain included granodiorite which weathers to provide the nutrients required by Douglas f i r . The exposure of the location i s to the south, thus plentiful sunlight and warmer than average conditions prevailed.  This tree was as favourably situated as could be  hoped i n the Nimpkish valley.  The limiting factor to growth then becomes  the metabolism of the tree.  The metabolic rate i s established by i n -  herited genetical patterns.  This can be increased only by changing the  genetical make-up of the tree, i . e . by tree-breeding. a l l trees growing under good conditions. tree i s stunted by some other factor.  This applies to  In many places the growth of the  It may be easier to improve the tree  so i t can u t i l i z e the existing site more readily rather than improve the site so that the tree benefits.  Improvement of the site might be possible  by changing the water relations of the s o i l or by increasing the supply of nutrients. Either of these approaches require massive and hence expensive operations which are aimed at improving the yield of a product  103 that has a small unit value and i s produced i n quantity rather slowly. I t i s d i f f i c u l t to justify irrigation schemes or the applications of 1  f e r t i l i z e r s to increase yield on an extensive basis. Fire does offer one economically available means of influencing site condition. It has a somewhat temporary effect and involves the risk that i t w i l l get out of control.. The chief uses of f i r e are to remove the obstruction provided by an excess of accumulated and undecomposed organic material and to release the nutrients held within this material.  This w i l l i n -  fluence regeneration and may affect the site for a short period. Intensive hot burning can destroy the s o i l structure and result i n loss of some nutrients i n organic matter consumed, and repeated burning can encourage erosion leading to loss of site value. Douglas f i r i s the dominant species occurring throughout the drier sections of the valley. Its presence i s related almost entirely to catastrophic wild fires i n the historic past.  Any areas not affected by  f i r e for over a thousand years do not contain more than the occasional very old f i r snag.  The absence of f i r e has been limiting for Douglas f i r  and the stands have been converted to natural selection forest In which balsam i s the dominant species.  (Schmidt 1957).  Douglas f i r as the chief timber-producing  Therefore to maintain  species i n the valley, selec-  tion systems would not appear suitable. Partial cutting systems have been considered for Douglas f i r stands by Isaac, (1956).  He said:  "The forest would yield no net volume increase i n 25 to 30 years following a partial cutting •••• Except i n the largest openings only a few Douglas f i r seedlings were reported, but none vigorous enough to be considered well established. Seedlings of the more tolerant species, hemlock, grand f i r , silver f i r , and cedar were well established i n many places.... The records to date indicate that the percentage of Douglas f i r i n the stand i s  10k reduced by this type of cut, and since no regeneration i s becoming established the species w i l l eventually be eliminated. If an all-age forest can be developed, i t w i l l contain l i t t l e i f any Douglas f i r . . . . The partial cutting system has not proved to be a successful method of harvesting the crop and converting normal virgin Douglas f i r forests to new and t h r i f t y stands on average or better sites i n the region." Windthrow and felling and skidding damage neutralizes the advantages gained by increased increment on the trees that remain.. The natural means of maintenance has been f i r e . parable situation arose during the last century.  In India, a com-  Stands of one of the  most valuable timber species known as sal, (Shorea robusta) were brought under management and protected from f i r e and grazing.  The result of this  was the gradual replacement of the sal by other species of low value because the lack of burning did not give the sal the opportunity that i t s ecological characteristics required i n pioneering burnt ground. Other stands unmanaged by the forestry department s t i l l held the same proportion of sal in their species composition.  A return to the practice of burning  was required to restore the managed stands to productivity.  In the Nimpkish  valley studies of natural regeneration, (Chapter VI) have shown a close correlation between the intensity of burning of logged areas and the percentage of Douglas f i r i n the subsequent stand.  Some of the areas around  the south end of Nimpkish Lake that were burned over two and three times after logging now carry the best stands of second growth Douglas f i r that there are i n the valley.  The less intensively burned or untouched areas  at the northern end of the lake and along the coast contain l i t t l e Douglas f i r and are mainly composed of hemlock. The climatic variation between the  105 two ends of the lake i s considerable, due to the maritime influence of the Queen Charlotte Strait.  During periods when high pressure  systems are dominant i n summer a damp cool sea fog invariably comes in off the sea.  This modifies the climate reducing the chances of  f i r e and at the same time producing a much more favourable condition for the reproduction of hemlock. Douglas f i r i s the most shade intolerant conifer i n the Nimpkish valley even though i n general terms i t i s only moderately light demanding.  This i s why i t cannot compete with the other conifers i n a second  rotation.  It i s a sub-climax species maintaining i t s position by out-  growing i t s competitors and can only remain with physical interference. Douglas f i r i n the Nimpkish does not regenerate under coniferous cover. In relation to the hardwood species present i t i s shade tolerant and for this reason under-planting of alder or of other hardwood stands should not f a i l f o r reason of low light intensity. Experimental Plantation No.  This i s being tested i n  XXV.  The regeneration of Douglas f i r occurs readily i n logged areas provided that seed i s adequate and that s o i l conditions are favourable. Garman and Orr-Ewing (1°U9) found that mice were the greatest single obstacle to natural regeneration by direct seeding and that no single method of control was effective.  Local experience (Chapter VIII,  Section i i ) , concluded the same to be true and experimentation i n protection of the seed has been tried without complete success, (Chapter VIII, Section i , sub-section c )  u  The functions of the s o i l for forest growth are to provide available  106 water, chemical nutrients and physical anchorage. The lack of exposure to strong winds and the mutual support provided by the dense forest mean that the last factor i s rarely limiting, even though the s o i l i s often shallow and the depth of penetration of the roots not great. The soils most favourable to Douglas f i r are to be found where the granodiorite of the intrusive rocks has weathered down to a granular, coarse, gritty composition.  The least favourable are offered by the soils der-  ived from the rocks of volcanic origin. of intermediate status.  The limestone rock provides s o i l  The water relationships of the s o i l are one of the  chief factors i n determining site for f i r .  I t i s often possible to make  good estimates of the potential site of an area by considering the topographical features and hence the l i k e l y water relations. (Hills, 195>2) Fans and flushes formed by steep creeks cutting canyons i n the sides of the typical U-shaped glacial valley create optimum site conditions along their lower edge before the relative flatness of the valley floor begins to reduce the speed of the water movement and raise the water table so reducing rooting space. (Tansley 1949)  Also, the valley floor w i l l  often consist of glacial deposits which are of a very fine-textured nature and under the pressure of the ice have become so compacted that they form a hard consolidated layer many feet thick which i s impervious to water and tree roots.  This i s often known as "hardpan" but is not  the hardpan developed by a podsol through the leaching and deposition of ferric and aluminium complexes but a grey coloured compacted glacial till.  The depth of the s o i l i s important i n i t s influence on drainage.  Shallow soils often have poor drainage and this can be detrimental to the growth of Douglas f i r .  Excessively well-drained soils, as in the  107 case of deep very coarse alluvial gravel beds, can be too well-drained and limit growth i n this respect.  Poor drainage conditions generally  are c r i t i c a l i n the regular pattern of sloughs developed along river terraces and i n the intermittent swamps that occur scattered through the irregular topography of the drift material deposited by the glaciers i n the wider stretches of the valley.  These are often not f i r sites.  Generally i t i s not practical to remove or ameliorate the limiting factors associated with s o i l .  Experimentation with f e r t i l i z e r s to i n -  crease growth rates immediately subsequent to planting, Experiments XVLT to XXII, have shown that l i t t l e real economic benefit i s to be obtained. The only statistically significant increase i n growth was with the application of urea formaldehyde.  The control grew an average of 0,12 feet  and the treated seedlings 0,17 feet, a 1+1 per cent increase, but i f applied operationally the cost of the materials alone would double the cost of planting.  For larger trees the rate of application needed to produce use-  f u l results i s much greater and uneconomic.  Similarly, irrigation tends  to f a l l i n the same class though i t might be possible to ameliorate the condition of many of the sloughs and swamps by drainage, thus bringing new land into production. For the germination and survival of Douglas f i r i t i s generally necessary for the mineral s o i l to be exposed.  There should be, moreover, no  overhead shade, both lack of moisture and moderately intense shade being limiting,  Douglas f i r w i l l germinate and survive on duff i f conditions  remain humid and there i s good illumination. Such conditions may occur along a timber edge with a northerly aspect, or along railroad cuts put i n ahead of the current logging.  In the open, duff limits regen-  eration because i t dries out i n the summer months.  Mineral soil continues  108  to remain moist because capillary action brings some water from below the surface and seepage brings water from higher up the slope. Douglas f i r i s a relatively easy species to use i n a r t i f i c i a l reforestation by planting.  The usual limiting factor i s the supply  of sufficient moisture to meet the plants transpiration demands. For this reason, the weather at planting i s of major importance.  The most  favourable state i s when the weather i s cool and moist. Warm weather increases the water loss of forest plants as do low atmospheric levels of humidity.  This means that i n the f a l l planting cannot safely begin  u n t i l the rainy season has established i t s e l f and temperatures have begun to decline.  The plants must also have had sufficient time to harden-off  in the nursery and i f the stock has made a second flush late i n the summer this may delay the start of operations t i l l the second or third week i n October.  Climatic conditions are normally suitable at the beginning of  October. By the beginning of November f a l l i n g temperatures have begun to bring snow. Snow i s not detrimental to planting i n i t s e l f but the associated freezing temperatures are.  There i s also the tendency on the  part of the planters to bury snow i n the planting hole which later melts and leaves, a void causing subsequent drying-out.  A plantation established  during snow, which f e l l to a depth of about h inches, showed an average survival of 9 1 per cent one season after planting.  Snow deeper than this  becomes too great a physical obstruction* Ih the spring i t i s not until the snow has melted that planting can start and i t i s preferable that i t be finished by the middle of April because subsequent weather can be hot and dry with temperatures i n the mid-eighties.  This can leave only a very short time for planting.  109 Another aspect of the necessity for moisture i s that unless the roots of the seedlings are kept damp from the time they leave the s o i l of the nursery to the time they are planted i n the s o i l of the planting site, high mortality i s l i k e l y .  To this end bundling,  enclosing the roots with damp moss, heeling-in, and the use of planting bags containing some water are a l l necessary for success i n planting.  Related again to water supply i s the competition provided by  herbaceous cover.  If vegetation, especially grass sward, i s heavy,  a square foot around the planting spot is removed. Frost damage i s also noted to a greater extent on grassy sites, but this may not be directly due to the grass but rather to the type of site the grass occupies which i s often a natural frost pocket.  Frost may cause  damage i n the f a l l before the seedlings are sufficiently hardened-off or, i n the spring the plants may flush too soon and be damaged by a late frost* Deer browsing has caused some damage to planted trees but the population of deer i s not very large at present. moderately successful for a short time. for plantations of high value.  Deer repellents are  Fencing i s only practical  Grouse and other biotic influences  have not affected plantations seriously to the present time. Height growth measurements of the growing seedlings for the f i r s t few years, show no relationship to site as measured by height of dominants at 100 years, nor i s there any noticeable difference between planted growth and natural growth, (Smith and Ker 1956), (Isaac and Dimmock 1958).  There i s an exception i n that the nursery treatment  no gives the planted stock a slight height advantage i n the f i r s t two years which i t may later lose due to the shock of transplanting. The 2+0 stock i s , however, superior to 1+0 stock i n that i n two tests on high and low site, i t was shown to have 37 and 1+1 per cent greater height growth at the end of the f i f t h season after the seed was sown i n the nursery. The success of planting, apart from unforeseen and unpredictable weather, depends largely on the amount of care exercised in planting, which i n turn depends on the degree of supervision of the crew.  It is  possible to transplant Douglas f i r successfully at almost any time of the year i f enough care i s taken.. The selection of the spacing distance i s important.  A l l planta-  tions have been made at ten feet by ten feet which gives a theoretical stocking of 1+35 to the acre.  In practice this works out at a somewhat  lower density due to the lack of suitable spots i n which to plant the trees to the specific pattern.  This spacing was selected because s i l -  viculturally a closer spacing requires thinning and i n this location thinning i s not profitable, rather an expense. planted do not have to be cut out.  Trees that are not  The Wind River Experimental Plots  (Eversole 1955 and Reukema 1959) have also shown that trees spaced at a distance of 12 feet by 12 feet produced the highest volume yield on trees of merchantable size and increased the average height of the dominants and co-dominants i n a series of spacing t r i a l s run for 35 years. Allowing for irregularities i n operational 10 by 10 spacing the net result probably approaches 12 by 12 feet.  There i s , of course, the  consideration that the stand w i l l consist of trees carrying heavier  Ill branches.  This w i l l be offset to some extent by the f i l l - i n of  natural trees as a sub-story to the planted f i r .  In cases where  this does not occur or does not reduce the size of the branches, pruning w i l l be practised. Experimental consideration of pruning on an operational basis has developed a satisfactory and economic technique.  It i s considered desireable to prune selected trees  regardless of density at or slightly after the twentieth year, according to site.  Thinning i n the older, established second-growth  stands has not been considered necessary or advantageous from the results of the thinning plots established during the last ten years. One reason for the lack of definite gain i n thinning these stands has been that the trees seeded-in over a period of time and the f i r s t ones gained sufficient dominance to maintain their position easily without the assistance of thinning techniques.  The i n i t i a l spacing  of the dominants was such that they are not now competitive.  It i s  hoped that because of the wide spacing somewhat s m i l a r results w i l l follow i n the plantations.  The cost per acre of planting i s also  greatly reduced and available funds put to better use. Provenance of the seed and the seed source i s important.  The  seed i s collected under supervision from trees selected for their lack of obvious defects and for their form, straightness of stem, light branching, and rapid growth.  The seed i s also collected locally  in the Nimpkish valley i n order that no unfavourable reactions due to unsuitable climate or photo-periodic response w i l l be introduced.  When  shortage of seed has occurred, seed from adjacent climatically similar regions has been sown. In order to find "Plus Trees" to form the basis  112 for the establishment of seed orchards, cruising of suitable stands i s i n progress so that superior seed suited to local conditions may be obtained.  Provenance studies (Expt. Plantations XXEI and XXIV)  w i l l provide additional information on how to improve the planted stock of the future. In second-growth stands two particular characteristics are noticeable.  Some of the trees have definite "Interior" characteristics,  with t a l l slim crowns and the branches short even when there i s plenty of room to spread.  In the same stands heavy-branched trees of the  "Coastal"" form occur which have marked "snaking" i n the main stem, a most undesireable habit. Western hemlock as a species has not received the same attention as Douglas f i r .  This i s i n part because of i t s lower economic value  and the ease with which natural regeneration occurs. Seed crops are regular and at times very heavy.  The seed i s very light, produced i n  large quantities and easily carried by the wind. With the steep-sided valleys of this region no logging i n the lower parts of the valley can escape the seed-fall of hemlock. However, conditions may not always be suitable for i t s germination and survival. quirement.  Moisture i s the chief re-  The nature of the seed-bed does not seem so important, as  hemlock seedlings can be found growing on duff, mineral s o i l , old logs, stumps and even high on snags.  They w i l l do this only within the stand  where moisture can be retained i n the material they are growing upon and the cool humid atmosphere of the interior of the forest does not make excessive demands on their water supply. On cleanly burned ground, hemlock w i l l not establish readily until some other species, usually Douglas f i r , has begun to create shade and  113 retain moist a i r around i t .  Direct insolation on very young hemlock  seems critical,. Planting of hemlock seedlings has not been successful i n the Nimpkish area, but l i t t l e has been tried.  The dense natural stands  of hemlock i n the older logged areas have reduced the attention given this species for plantation purposes.  Second-growth hemlock  stands have suffered attacks of the hemlock looper Lambdina f i s c e l l a r i a and the black-headed budworm Acleris variana. Spraying from planes with DDT was carried out effectively to combat an epidemic of the budworm.. Drought conditions, such as produced by the dry summer of 1958, affect hemlock causing top-kill and complete death of some trees i n locations where the s o i l i s excessively well-drained or i s thin, or insolation severe. Mountain hemlock merges imperceptibly with the western hemlock at about 2,500 feet.  I t i s much inferior to western hemlock i n rate  of growth but the timber i s considered very similar.  No second-growth  occurs i n the valley but seed has been collected from old-growth mountain hemlock. Western red cedar i s an adaptable species that tends to f i l l the niches l e f t by other species. Thus i t occurs on wet swampy sites, as; an understory species to the Douglas f i r and western hemlock which i t may eventually replace given time, some thousand years or soj and i t occurs at higher elevations i n rocky places. With increasing height i t i s replaced by the complimentary species, yellow cedar.  It i s a  particularly shade tolerant species and w i l l persist i n a mixed stand  114 u n t i l the other species, except balsam, the last i n succession, have diedo  The over mature spike-topped cedar are typical of areas of the  valley that have not been disturbed by f i r e for many centuries. It has a relatively low growth rate and does not s e l l too readily on the present log market, compared with Douglas f i r , western hemlock and balsam and, therefore, i s not looked upon with favour for planting but i s acceptable as an additional crop or as a f i l l - i n on d i f f i c u l t sites where other species w i l l not grow. The seed supply i s f a i r l y regular and plentiful and the small seed readily wind-borne. Germination i s favoured by damp conditions and layering does occasionally increase the representation of cedar i n a stand. It appears to regenerate readily on limestone. According to Schmidt (1955) "Cedar regeneration i s more prevalent on areas disturbed by logging than beneath natural undisturbed commercial stands .... Regeneration of cedar from seed i s largely a failure beneath undisturbed commercial stands. However, cedar can reproduce successfully from seed on open areas disturbed by logging, windfall or f i r e s " . Yellow cedar i s a somewhat similar species. old-growth attaining large diameters and great age.  I t i s of value as As a second growth  species i t s future i s unpredictable because of i t s slow growth rate. Balsam or Pacific silver f i r i s a species that i s very shade tolerant and will survive under denser shade than w i l l western hemlock. It i s similar to hemlock i n many of i t s characteristics but i t s large heavy seed limits i t s rate of dispersal considerably.  The seed i s  released over a short interval of time and so does not have the best opportunity to take advantage of occasional strong winds.  115 The species i s commonest at the higher elevations where the forest has been undisturbed the longest (Schmidt 1957)«  It does  occur at a l l elevations from sea level to k,$00 feet and w i l l grow as well as any other species.  Its wood i s not considered of the  greatest value but i t i s a merchantable species  0  Future prospects  are somewhat clouded by the presence of the balsam woolly aphid, Ghermes piceae. Attack by this insect has been f a t a l i n Oregon and Washington and has been recorded i n B.C. (Dimmock 1958)*  It i s to be  assumed that with the passage of time i t w i l l arrive here and so u n t i l some satisfactory solution i s discovered, the species does not warrant as much interest as i t otherwise might. Sitka spruce i s potentially useful species ruined by damage caused by the spruce weevil, Pissodes sitchensis and the spruce aphid, Aphis abietina.  It occupies less than one per cent of the s tands,  occurring chiefly along the main rivers©  Direct seeding and planting  have both been successful i n the early phases but no satisfactory stands have been produced.  (Chapter VII, Section I and Chapter VIII,  Section I, Sub-section a.) Western white pine, Pinus monticola, i s attacked by the white pine blister rust Cronatium ribicola, removing i t from the stands i n the valley.  Until a rust resistant strain i s available i t does not  justify much attention.  Individual trees have been cured of the blister  rust by the application of a basal spray of a chemical called "Actidione", according to recent researches. Results indicate 95 to 99 per cent success.  116 Shore pine, Pinus contorta, i s a minor species that occupies marginal sites at a l l elevations but never grows to any size though having rapid i n i t i a l growth.  It i s a species to consider for a few  rocky and dry sites i f i t i s required that they be stocked. an available species as a nurse tree for difficult  It i s  dry sites but no  work has been done on this subject. Western yew, Taxus brevifolia, i s a minor understory species of very slow growth occurring i n many places but never i n quantity. Experimental plantations # XHI  to XVI, of various exotic species  have shown that the genus Pinus i s worth further attention. The spruces and true f i r s tried have shown very l i t t l e suitability and virtually no growth under the climatic conditions of the Nimpkish valley. Interior Douglas f i r has been limited i n growth by late spring frost damage on early flushing shoots.  Port Orford cedar, Chamaecyparis  lawsoniana, has reacted moderately favourably i n terras of growth but does not appear to continue to have much commercial value as the disease Phytopthora l a t e r a l i s i s crippling, (Torgensen, Young and Milbraith 195U).  This fungus occurs i n the native habitat of the cedar  but has not yet appeared i n the Nimpkish. Of the pines Pinus radiata has been completely destroyed by frost but may be tried again at lower elevations near the coast with a longer frost-free period, though i t i s unlikely to succeed.  Pinus ponderosa  has shown medium growth equal i n the f i r s t few years to local Douglas f i r but i t has a low survival rate. Pinus sylvestris native to southern Sweden and to parts of Germany has produced juvenile growth  117 better than the average for Douglas f i r of local origin.  It i s l i k e l y  that the f i r w i l l surpass the pine as i t gets older i f the pattern of relative growth by age for the two species i s considered. These plantations were established i n 1953 so the indications they have given so far do not bear too much weight. The most p r o l i f i c hardwood species i s red alder.  This tree  occupies a lot of the second growth land i n parts as a pure stand and i n parts with an understory of conifer.  I t has a short natural rotation  but produces timber of a size feasible to log i n a second growth economy. By nature, alder i s a pioneer species adapted to growth on moist soils.  It occupies the damper parts of logged-off settings very  rapidly, appearing i n dense stands along the old skid-roads and landings. It has a small light wind-disseminated seed and produces seed crops mcB t years thus assuring a plentiful supply of seed.  Under normal  circumstances there are few areas which do not receive seed-fall. The tree i s light-demanding and w i l l only tolerate moderate shade for the f i r s t year or so of l i f e .  I t i s , therefore, only found i n open  spots that have enough moisture to satisfy i t s demands. Because of rapid growth at f i r s t , i t outstrips the coniferous species for the f i r s t twenty to thirty years, but beyond this time i t cannot continue to maintain superiority and because i t cannot tolerate shade gradually disappears from the mixed stands as the conifers become t a l l e r . The presence of alder i s beneficial i n that i t improves the s o i l by pioneering d i f f i c u l t wet sites, adds to the humus content of the s o i l by a heavy leaf f a l l and to the nitrogen-content of the s o i l by the by the action of the nitrogen-fixing (micro-organisms) that live i n the nodules which form on the tree's roots.  118 The black cottonwood, Populus trichocarpa, grows along watercourses i n the alluvial sections of the valley bottoms. It i s limited to a very small proportion of the total area of the valley by i t s site requirements but grows well when these are met. The tree i s light demanding but grows rapidly keeping ahead of a l l other trees.  Cotton-  wood producing large-sized logs are regularly cut where they are intermingled with conifers so that they w i l l not be l e f t to form snags after slash-burning.  The logs are not extracted.  Big-leaf maple, Acer macrophylum, occurs scattered throughout the better sites i n the valley. feet high but i s not logged. older trees.  It grows well, producing trees up to f i f t y It seeds p r o l i f i c a l l y i n some years from  Regeneration occurs i n cutovers but not to sufficient  extent to compete seriously with the conifers.  119 Chapter X H  SUMMARY  The environment provided by the Nimpkish Valley i s typical of the coastal region of British Columbia.  The terrain i s very rugged,  U-shapCd glacial valleys separating five to seven thousand foot high mountain ranges. This severe topography i n association with the moist westerly winds coming from the Pacific Ocean produces a high r a i n f a l l , while the effect of the warm Japanese current moderates the extremes of temperature typical within the continental mass that l i e s to the east. The geological history of the area i s dominantly igneous, comprising volcanic series and the intrusions of the coast batholith. Subsequent glaciation has shaped the topography and covered the lower lands with glacial d r i f t .  The soils derived from these rocks are  thin immature podzols or gleys, depending on the water relations of the soil.  These water relationships, while basically dependent themselves  on the topography and particle size of the bedrock, are the dominant factor i n the determination of the site quality for tree growth. The major commercial forest type i s the Douglas f i r - western hemlock association occurring throughout the valley at the lower elevations and under optimum conditions carrying a stand of 150 thousand board feet per acre with trees to 305 feet high, at U00 years of age. Associated species are western red cedar and balsam f i r . At higher elevations the western hemlock-balsam f i r type replaces the Douglas f i r - western hemlock forest and yellow cedar replaces red cedar with increasing elevation while the mountain hemlock replaces western hemlock.  120  These various types, their variants and associates are described i n the text along with the lesser vegetation* The animal population of the valley i s sparse beneath the massive forest cover*  The most significant i s one of the smallest,  the white-footed deer mouse*  This creature can eat up to 3 0 0 Douglas  f i r seeds a day and multiplies rapidly i n cut-overs where i t can seriously limit regeneration*  The Coast or Columbian blacktail deer  i s considered a l i k e l y danger to plantations but has not as yet developed a population i n proportion to the cut-overs available to it*  If this is due to some characteristic of the locality and not a  purely temporary effect, then i t may never be of serious concern except i n relation to exotic or experimental plantations of exceptional value. Two insects, a cone-borer and a seed chalcid, destroy large amounts of seed and i n poor years this may amount to the greater part of the crop*  Second-growth pests include the black-headed budworm  which has occurred i n epidemic form and has been treated successfully by aerial spraying*  The Sitka spruce weevil is sufficiently active  i n deforming the one-year-old shoots of the Sitka spruce while the white pine blister rust i s spreading throughout the valley k i l l i n g western white pine trees so that neither the Sitka spruce nor the western white pine can be considered as merchantable second growth species unless resistant strains are developed* One of the strongest natural influences on regeneration i s fire* In the past, extensive wild fires have occurred i n the general area about once every hundred years.  At present the extensive protection  121 extended to the forest against fire may change this and the intensive wild burning of the ground be replaced by the controlled moderate slash burning of logged areas. Ecologically there i s a strong relationship between burning and the occurrence of Douglas f i r . The percentage of Douglas f i r in second growth stands i s greater the more intensively the land was burnt previous to the stand's establishment. Similarly, in practice i t has been found desirable for plantation areas to have been burnt-over previous to planting them. Surveys of natural regeneration have been carried out since 1928 and under the present system a l l areas are surveyed five years after logging. Density of stocking and species composition are the chief considerations in order to decide whether planting i s necessary. A l l areas with less than 4I per cent stocking by one-mil-acre plots on the stocked quadrat system of survey are planted. Surveys in 1928 and 1934 of the same location showed that the percentage of stocked ground increased from k2 per cent to 90 per cent on the "logged only" type and from 60 per cent to 99 per cent on the "logged and burned" type. Subsequent surveys in 1947 and 195>U showed the area to be fully stocked but to have a normality of $h per cent by basal area thus reflecting the delay i n the progress of the regeneration. A graphical representation of the rate of restocking for the first eight years subsequent to disturbance has been compiled from regeneration studies. The species composition data indicate three times as much hemlock as Douglas f i r or red cedar. Due to the nature of the three species, however, the Douglas f i r tends to dominate. With the passage  122 of  time the c o m p e t i t i o n i n c r e a s e s , r e d u c i n g t h e t o t a l number o f stems  p e r a c r e which means t h a t the p e r c e n t a g e increases.  The  of Douglas f i r i n t h e stand  Douglas f i r appears t o be p r e s e n t a t the r a t e o f 300  t o 1*00 stems p e r a c r e .  T y p i c a l l y t h e s e stands c o n t a i n Douglas f i r  s c a t t e r e d r e l a t i v e l y t h i n l y through  a mixture o f hemlock and  cedar.  The f i r i s g e n e r a l l y dominant and emergent above the canopy, a s i t u a t i o n which p r o v i d e s i t w i t h l i t t l e competition i n the stages of the stand's establishment. Douglas f i r v e r y much.  The  latter  T h i n n i n g does n o t b e n e f i t the  dominant p o s i t i o n l e a d s t o heavy b r a n c h  f o r m a t i o n and p r u n i n g i s n e c e s s a r y and has been p r o v e n e c o n o m i c a l l y f e a s i b l e on an o p e r a t i o n a l b a s i s . Twenty-six e x p e r i m e n t a l p l a n t a t i o n s have been e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h e Nimpkish V a l l e y , s i x t e e n o f w h i c h d e a l w i t h the growth and s u r v i v a l o f d i f f e r e n t s p e c i e s p l a n t e d under t h e c l i m a t i c c o n d i t i o n s of  the r e g i o n .  The  s p e c i e s t e s t e d i n c l u d e Douglas f i r , w e s t e r n hemlock,  w e s t e r n r e d c e d a r , S i t k a spruce and a s e l e c t i o n o f e x o t i c s from the spruces, the pines, the t r u e f i r s with Port Orford cedar, a poplar and a b i r c h .  Douglas f i r i n n i n e o f t h e s e experiments showed  itself  s u i t a b l e f o r a r t i f i c i a l r e g e n e r a t i o n on an o p e r a t i o n a l s c a l e so f u r t h e r t e s t s were made t o d i s c o v e r a c h e m i c a l i n i t i a l growth.  s t i m u l a n t t o i n c r e a s e the  G i b b e r e l l i c a c i d , u r e a formaldehyde and  n i t r a t e were u s e d .  The  o n l y u s e f u l treatment  t w o - p i l l dosage w i t h u r e a formaldehyde.  t h a t emerged was  the  T h i s produced an i n c r e a s e  over t h e c o n t r o l o f 1*1.7 p e r c e n t w h i c h was p e r c e n t l e v e l by the a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e . any b e n e f i c i a l e f f e c t a t a l l .  ammonium  s i g n i f i c a n t a t the No o t h e r t r e a t m e n t  The chemicals ammonium n i t r a t e  0.01 showed and  123  gibberellic acid produced detrimental effects reducing growth and increasing mortality. At low concentrations these i l l effects were reduced but no favourable stimulation could be produced. It was also found that 2+0 stock was preferable to 1+0 stock and that lower site areas produced better results i n growth than did high sites for the f i r s t few years, probably due to competitive influences. Douglas f i r at high elevations showed itself to survive as well as at low ones. The exotic species showed f a i r results though i n many cases survival was poor. The pines did best and Scots pine from southern Sweden and Germany grew to an average height of 6.0 and 6.5 feet respectively i n six seasons. The spruces and true f i r s were not impressive but Port Orford cedar showed an average height growth of three feet. The other experiments on provenance and genetics have not yet been running long enough to produce useful results. Planting techniques have been achieved that produce the required results and are economically feasible. They incorporate the planting by hand of 2+0 Douglas f i r seedlings at a spacing of 10 feet by 10 feet during March and October. A l l land of site index 125 and better i s planted as soon as possible after logging and slash-burning. The remainder i s surveyed for natural regeneration and a l l suitable parts are planted where the natural stocking does not exceed ijO per cent by one-mil-acre plots, applying the stocked quadrat method of survey. At the current rate of logging this involves an annual plantation of 900 acres. In addition to this area an annual amount of 100 acres of ground that i s already f u l l y stocked but lacks Douglas f i r , i s planted  12U  on a " f i l l - i n " basis i n order to increase the value of the new stand. Planting stock i s grown from seed collected i n the Nimpkish valley picked from trees of good form and having desirable growth characters*  Seed years are spasmodic but a stock of seed i s maintained  sufficient to supply seed for plantation purposes or for limited direct seeding*  Sufficient local seed for aerial seeding i s not  available. The valley has been cruised for "Plus Trees" as part of the program for the Vancouver Island section of the coastal Douglas f i r type tree breeding improvement scheme. This should lead to the availability of superior seed for future use.  Fertilizer applications  to selected trees have also been made with a view to increasing seed yields. Survival and growth studies are maintained on a l l plantations. Failure occurred i n the f a l l 1955 and spring 1956 plantations due to exceptionally low temperature i n November 1955 but apart from these the average survival for a l l operational plantations has been 8U per cent.  I t i s noticeable that there i s l i t t l e difference between f a l l  and spring plantations and that seedlings planted on 29th January showed 93 per cent survival. Growth studies showed no correlation between site and height increment i n the f i r s t six years. Costs of cone picking and planting are variable and listed by seasons. A comparative study of density of planting and cost indicated that the cost per tree planted may not be expected to be dependent on spacing i n the range from one hundred to four hundred trees per acre. Direct seeding was started on an operational basis but found to be unreliable due to the deer mice eating the seed. Chemicals to  12$  protect the seed from the mice were subsequently tested* A tetramineacetone treatment had a drastically adverse effect on seed germination, both tetramine-methocel and endrin offered some protection against seed-eating rodents but further improvement i s s t i l l required and an improved spot-seeder i s necessary. I f seeding cannot follow burning then planting i s preferable* An experiment to measure the effect of leaving large isolated Douglas f i r seed trees i n an extensive burn area failed to show any beneficial results* Logging practice i s not modified to effect natural regeneration and though there are some differences with different logging techniques the most significant factor i s whether or not slash burning i s carried out* As this i s primarily a protective measure to benefit the high value old-growth timber, consideration of the regeneration must be secondary*  In some cases burning to increase the plantable nature of  a site i s practised* Forest regeneration i n the Nimpkish valley i s ample, given time. The natural process may be speeded up by direct seeding and planting. These conclusions agree with those of Allen (1955).  The composition  of the new stand i s influenced by the condition of the land after logging and whether or not burning i s carried out. Hemlock i s favoured by lack of burning and by existing logging techniques to the detriment of Douglas f i r . Douglas f i r .  This trend can be reversed by slash-burning and by planting  126 Chapter X U I  CONCLUSIONS  Under the natural conditions of the Nimpkish valley, i t appears that i n a l l areas where the original forest has been disturbed, destroyed or removed by man or nature the forest will regenerate itself.  This may be slow and take twenty to thirty years, Allen  (1955)* The new forest will not necessarily be composed of the same species as was the original forest, nor will these be the most valuable species ttat the site i s capable of carrying. The land, therefore, is not producing the maximum possible financial return when natural regeneration alone i s accepted. The objectives of management require that a l l productive land be brought into f u l l production as soon as possible after logging*  Allen (1950) says that  "The pre-requisites for good regeneration of Douglas f i r and associated species include an adequate and well-placed source of seed, one or more heavy seed crops within the l i f e of the seed source, favourable ground conditions with some shade afforded by debris, and a fair proportion of mineral soil exposed". Management requires f u l l production in terms of the high value Douglas f i r . Adequate natural seed years do not occur at regular intervals here. This limits the dependability of natural regeneration for intensive management. Therefore an alternative approach such as direct seeding or planting is desirable. Direct seeding is not sufficiently successful unless the seeds are protected from deer mice. Since stratification i s not practical, seeding should be done before February. The seed is then able to become conditioned in the soil by the time the weather is most suitable for germination.  According to Isaac (19U9) -  127  "Spot-seeding w i l l not be a success u n t i l a hand planter i s perfected that w i l l plant a single seed (or two) i n a spot, either i n pelleted form or naked. Several seedlings growing i n a small spot w i l l not develop into a good stand unless thinned. Thinning raises the cost of seeding above that of planting . 11  This i s i n accordance with subsequent experience at Nimpkish where several different machines were designed and tried, but no completely satisfactory one evolved. Planting has been established as a suitable economical technique for establishing Douglas f i r on unstocked lands i n the Nimpkish valley. It i s therefore practical as a means to maintain the forest at i t s present level of production.  However, i t may be possible to improve  the productive capacity of the forest. Fertilizers have been applied to planted stock but only one of several treatments produced a significant increase i n growth and the cost of the material alone equalled the cost of planting. Fertilizers do not appear to offer much advantage at present.  Provenance studies are also underway but  these are slow to produce any definite results and no specific advantage can now be predicted. Another approach i s to attempt possible improvement of the planting stock i n i t s genetical constitution by selecting seed from the better local phenotypes. The selection of these "Plus Trees i s made through an intensive cruising of high quality stands. 11  These trees w i l l be propagated i n seed orchards and thence by progeny testing,only the highly superior trees w i l l be retained for seed production to provide planting stock as good as or better than the best now available. Subsequent breeding may be expected to further increase the advantage obtained.  128  Consideration given to various species depends on their merchantable value, their rate of growth and their resistance to disease. The preferred species for regeneration i n order are* Douglas f i r , western hemlock, balsam f i r , and western red cedar. Mountain hemlock, yellow cedar, shore pine and western yew grow too slowly and Sitka spruce and western white pine suffer from disease. It i s possible that balsam f i r may enter this last group i n due course, and that disease resistant strains may be evolved. Exotic species tried have not shown a combination of survival and growth sufficient to make them superior to the native trees. Hardwood species do not attract much attention i n the general region at present, but i t i s l i k e l y that red alder and black cottonwood may at some later date. Studies i n second growth stands have indicated that while i n the younger age classes thinning i s not a useful operation, pruning to a height of 20 feet at about 20 years of age i s both desirable and economical. The general conclusion that may be derived from this survey i s that the Nimpkish valley i s a location ideally suited to the growth of trees and the production of timber; that natural regeneration i s advantageously supplemented by planting i n order to shorten the rotation period and increase the value of the crop; and that current research should discover ways of further improving the growth and yield of the forests growing there. This means that the current planting plan for Douglas f i r should be continued with revision i f later regeneration surveys  129  Indicate the necessity* The immediate planting of a l l high site land i s essential i f f u l l utilization of the site i s to be attained* The provenance studies and the "Plus Tree Program" w i l l likely make possible even greater yields and these two projects must be continued* In particular, the immediate establishment of a "Plus Tree" seed orchard w i l l not only improve the quality of the planting stock i n the long run, but w i l l provide a reliable source of Douglas f i r seed*  To have an a r t i f i c i a l regeneration program tied to the  unreliable, natural seed crops i s not satisfactory management* The use of shore pine and Scots pine of the southern Swedish and the German provenance as nurse species for Douglas f i r on dry, exposed, or difficult sites should be tried with a view to increased growth and survival of Douglas f i r . The planting of Douglas f i r on hemlock-balsam sites at high elevations should also be extended. Any signs of the balsam woolly aphid should be watched f o r , and complete dependence on balsam i n regeneration should be avoided* In areas where natural growth i s tending toward pure balsam, Douglas f i r should be introduced on a " f i l l - i n " basis. Similarly, the development of disease resistant varieties of balsam, Sitka spruce or western white pine by other research groups should be checked, and i f and when trees become available, they should be considered for introduction into the valley on appropriate sites. The techniques of pruning derived and applied on a limited scale should be expanded and a l l Douglas f i r second-growth stands should be treated on an operational basis when and where required.  130  Appendix I  Table XXVII Site Index by Stump Diameter for Douglas F i r Growing i n the Nimpkish Valley  Range of Site Index (Height at 100 years) 185 or higher  Site Class I  Stump BJLameter At 80 years At 100 years 2.22 feet plus  155 to 1§4  II  1.75 to 2.21 f t .  1.66 f t . plus  125 to 15U  III  1.25 to 1.74 f t .  1.39 to 1.65 f t .  95 to 12h  IV  0.75 to 1.24 f t .  0.94 to 1.38 f t .  94 or less  V  0.74 f t . or less  0.93 f t . or less  These figures were compiled from f i e l d inspections and calculations carried out by Canadian Forest Products I«td. and from Schmidt (195U). At least three stumps should be measured for each site index determination.  The average stump diameter can be found either by  visual inspection or better by taking two measurements at right angles to each other. Expected accuracy i s 75 per cent or better.  131 Appendix I I A List of Botanical Specimens collected i n 19kl and identified by W.K. MacLeod, i n the Nimpkish Valley, Vancouver Island, B.C.  (The herbarium i s now i n the possession of Canadian Forest Products Ltd.) (i)  Dicotyledons. (a)  Herbs and Shrubs Family - Berberidaceae  Achlys triphylla (D.C.)  May leaves  Generally abundant  Berberis aquifolium Pursh.  T a l l Oregon grape  Scarce  Berberis nervosa Pursh.  Oregon grape  Common  Family - Caprifoliaceae Linnaea borealis L. var. Americana (Forbes) Rehder  Twinflower  Generally abundant on the drier cutovers  Sambucus racemosa L.  Red-fruited elderberry  Locally abundant  Viburnum pauciflorum Raf.  Squashberry  Lakeshores  Family - Campanulaceae Campanula rotundiflora L.  Harebell  Locally rare, more common higher.  Family - Caryophyllaceae Stellaria crassifolia Ehrh.  Ghickweed  A common weed  132  Family - Compositae Briophyllum lanatam (Pursh) Forbes  Woolly sunflower  Erigeron Philadelphicus L. Common Fleabane  River Delta site Lakeshore  Anaphalis margaritacea Beuth.  Pearly Everlasting  Locally abundant  Carduus arrense (L) Scop.  Canada thistle  General but not abundant  Lactuca canadensis  Wild lettuce  Abundant  Taraxacum dumentorum Greene,  Horned dandelion  Common near camps  Sonchus asper L, ( H i l l j  Spiny sowthistle  Generally rare.  Brickellia oblongata Nutt.  Throughwort  Rock bluffs.  Senecio vulgaris L.  Common Groundsel  Locally abundant by camps.  Adenocaulon bicolor (Hook)  Silver Green  High site land  Achillea sp.  Yarrow  Common on sandy s o i l .  Family - Cornacaeae Cornus canadensis L.  Bunch berry  Locally common Very common along lake shores.  Cornus pubescens Nutt. Family - Cruciferae Capsella bursapastoris (L) ifedic  Shepherd's purse  weed.  Family - Ericaceae Pyrola bracteata Hook.  Pyrola  Locally rare.  133 Chimaphila Menziesii (Spreng)  Chimphila Prince's Pine  Deep woods  Cladotharanus pyrolaefloras Bong.  Copper Bush  2000 feet.  Vaccinium parviflorum Smith  Red Huckleberry  General  Cassiope Mertensiana Don.  Moss heather  Above 2,000 feet.  Gaultheria shallon Pursh.  Salal  General  Kalmia p o l i f o l i a Wang.  American laurel  3,000 feet  Phyllodoce glandiflorus Hook.  False heather  Above 2,000 feet.  Vaccinium ovaliflorum Smith.  Blue huckleberry  Common  Family - Fumariaceae Dicentra formosa D.sg.  Bleeding heart  Commoner on the east side of the valley than on the west  Family - Hypericaccae Hypericum onagalloides G&S  St. Johns Wort,  Common lakeshores  Family - Labiateae Prunella vulgaris L.  Self-heal  Lakeshores  Mentha cardiace Gerardi  Mint  Common i n damp moist hollows i n open.  Family - Leguminosae Vicia americana Muhl.  Pea Vine  Locally scarce.  Trifolium  Common clover  Introduced.  131*  F a m i l y - Onagraceae E p i l o b i u m adenocaulon Haus. Epilobium augustifolium L.  Willow  herb  Fireweed.  L o c a l l y and g e n e r a l l y rare. Common a f t e r  fire.  E a m i l y - Polygonaceae Rumex a c e t o s e l l a L.  Sour grass s o r r e l  L o c a l l y abundant  Family - Portulacaceae Montia s i b i r i c a ( L ) Howell  Miner's  Montia p a r v i f o l i a (Dougl.) Howell  Spring  Lettuce  S c a t t e r e d , medium moist s i t e s .  beauty  Family - Plantaginaceae P i a n t a g o major L .  Common p l a n t a i n  Sandy d r y p l a c e s .  F a m i l y - Peimulaceae Trientalis latifolia Hook.  S t a r flower  General  distribution  F a m i l y - Ranunculacae Ranunculus  Crowfoot  Lakeside  T r u t r e t l e r i a grandis Nutt.  F a l s e bugbane  High  Crowfoot  Not abundant, river s i l t soil  Columbine  S c a t t e r e d i n more moist r e g i o n s .  Ranunculus B o n g a r d i (Greene) v a r . G r e e n e i (Piper) A q u i l e g i a formosa Fischer  flat  sites  135 F a m i l y - Rosaceae R o s a nutkana Presi.  Nutkana r o s e  Generally scattered  Rosa gymnocarpa Mutt,  Wild rose  Common on d r y s a n d y soils.  Physyocarpus o p u l i f o l i u s L . Maxim.  Nine b a r k .  Common m o i s t r e g i o n s  F r a g a r i a sp  Strawberry  Abundant i n s i l t y soil river flats  Fragaria grandiflora Ehrh.  L o c a l l y rare on rocky b l u f f s 800 f e e t .  Spiraea Douglasii Hook.  Hardhack o r Spiraea  Swampy r e g i o n s  Spiraea discolor Pursh.  Ocean s p r a y  Scattered through moist t o d r y s i t e s .  Rubus macropetalous Dougl.  Trailing blackberry  G e n e r a l l y abundant on b u r n t and c u t o v e r , r o a d s i d e s where s o i l sandy.  Rubus l e u c o d e r m i s Dougl.  Black cap  Roadsides  Rubus p a r v i f l o r u s Nutt.  Thimbleberry  Generally  Rubus s p e c t a b i l i s Pursh.  Salmonberry  Common where m o i s t  Rubus  Wild raspberry  Wet p l a c e s  Prunus emarginata Dougl.  Wild  Cutovers.  cherry  abundant  L a r g e .storub  F a m i l y - Rosaceae Pyrus d i v e r s i f o l i a Bong.  Crab a p p l e  Geum c a l t h i f o l i u m Menzies.  Avens  Geum macrophyllum Willd,  Large l e a v e d y e l l o w avens  L o c a l l y abundant wet sites. Large shrub.  136  F a m i l y - Rubiaceae Gallium triflorum Michx.  Sweet s c e n t e d bed s t r a w  Common i n t h e open*  G a l l i u m Kamtschaticum Stell  Karatsenatea bed straw  Not common.  Family - Saxifragaceae Tiarella Hook.  lacinata  Cut leaved Tiarella  Common i n w e s t o f valley  Boykinia occidentalis T&B  Western Boykinia  Wet shady h a b i t a t s .  Ribes d i v a r i c a t u m BougL  Common gooseberry  On s i d e h i l l o f moist hollow  Family - Scrophulariaceae Mimulua Bonn*  Langsdorfii  Monkey f l o w e r  Locally rare.  Penstemon M e n z l e s i i Hook*  Beard tongue  Rock b l u f f s , abundant.  Castelleja angustifolium Nutt©  Indian p a i n t brush.  L o c a l l y rare*  locally  Family - Umbelllferae Osanthe sarmentosa Presi*  Wild parsley  A n g e l i c a genuflexa Nutt.  Angelica  Oplopanax h o r r i d u s  D e v i l s club  Family - Valerianaceae Valeriana sitchensis Bong. v a r . S c o u l e r i (Rydb) P i p e r .  Valerian  Moist pockets.  Moist r i c h  sites  137 Family - Violaceae V i o l a sempervirens (Greene) (b)  Yellow v i o l e t  Trees F a m i l y - Aceraceae  A c e r macrophyllum Pursh.  Broad-leaved Maple  Local  A c e r glabrum Torr.  Rocky Mt. Maple  F a i r l y common  Alnus r u b r a Bong*  Red A l d e r  Common, e s p e c i a l l y after logging  Alnus t e n u i f o l i a Nutt.  Mb* A l d e r  Family - Betulaceae  0  A t 1+00 f e e t .  F a m i l y - Rhamnaceae Cascara  Locally rare.  S a l l x Hpokeriana  Willow  Common.  Populus t r i c o c a r p a T &G  Black  Rhamnus P u r s l a n a D. C.  Family - Salicaceae  (c)  cottonwood  Alluvial  sites  P a r a s i t e s and s a p r o p h y t e s . F a m i l y - Droseraceae  1.  Round-leaved sundew  Drosera anglica Huds.  Long-leaved sundew  Drosera r o t u n d i f o l i a  Common i n s u i t a b l e locations  F a m i l y - Loranthaceae Arceuthobium Engelm.  Douglasii  Small mistletoe  Common o n Hemlock on poor s i t e and i n pure s t a n d .  138  Family - Mbnotropaceae (Ericaceae) Hypopites Hypopites  ar  Finesap  Saprophyte  w i r ^ —  Hypopites fimbriata (Gray) Howell  Pinesap  Monotropa uni.flora (L.) —  Indian Pipe  Newberrya congesta Torr.  Locally abundant Saprophyte  ( i i ) Monocotyledons Family - Araceae Lysichiton Kamtschatcense Schott  Yellow Arum Skunk cabbage  Very wet hollows locally abundant*  Family - Cyperaceae Carex sp.  Sedge  Shallow lake  Agrostis exarata Trin.  Bent grass  1,000 feet.  Agrostis alba L*  Red top bent grass  Fairly common  Agropyron trachycaulon (Link) Malte var. unilaterale (Cassidy) Malte  Wheat grass  Lake shore.  Galamagrostis Scribneri  Reed bent grass  Locally rare  Danthonia spicata (L) Beaux var. pinetorum Piper  Hillside oat grass  sparsly abundant, rocky bluffs.  Deschampsia elongata (Hook) Munro  Slender hair grass  Family - Gramineae  =  239  Blymus glaucus Buck.  Wild rye  locally abundant  T.  Holcus lanatus  Velvet grass  Introduced.  Phleum praetense L.  Common Timothy  Family - Liliaceae Lilium montanum A. Nels.  Mountain l i l y  Allium yancouverense (Macoun)  Wild Onion  orum^oreaganum Britt.  Fairy bells  Streptopus roseus Michx.  Twisted stalk  Maianthemum bitolium Wood var. Kamchaticum (Qniel)  Wild l i l y of the  Family - Nymphaceae Nymphaea polysepala (Engelra) Greene  Yellow pond lily.  Family - Orchidaceae Several genera and species common. (iii)  Gymnosperms• Coniferales Pinaceae Family - Abietineae  Tsuga heterophylla (RAF.) Sarg,  Western hemlock  common  loo Abies amabilis (Dougl.) Forb.  Pacific silver f i r , balsam  common at higher elevations  Pseudotsuga taxlfolia (foir.J Britt  Douglas f i r  common  Picea sitchensis (Bong,) Carr,  Sitka spruce  occasional  Pinus monticola Dougl,  Western White Pine  common  Pinus contorta Dougl,  Shore Pine  rocky bluffs and peat swamp  Tsuga mertensiana (Bong,) Carr*  Mountain hemlock  High elevations  Family - Cupressaceae Thuja plieata Bonn.  Western red cedar  General  Chamaecyparis nootkatensie Spach, (D. Iton)  Yellow cedar  Usually common at high elevation  Western yew  Occasional  Family - Taxaceae Taxus brevifolia Nutt. (Iv) Pteriodophyta Iycopodinae, Club Mosses - Lycopodiaceae Lycopodium clavatum  Common Club Moss  Common i n second growth  Lycopodium selago L«  Selago Club Moss  Locally abundant  Equisetineae - Equisetaceae Equisetum arvense  Horsetail  Sandy s o i l  iia  E q u i s e t u m hymenale  Horsetail  Sandy p l a c e s  Filicineae - P o l y p odiaceae Adiantum pedatum L.  Maiden hair fern  A s p l e n i u m trochomanes L«  Speenwort f e r n  Asplenium cyclosorum Rubr.  Lady f e r n  P l e n t i f u l i n moist draws.  Gryptogramma a c t o s t i c h o i d e s R.Br,  Parsley fern  Rocky b l u f f s  Phegopteris dryopteris L.  Oak  Associated with hemlock and balsam.  Polypodium v u l g a r e L . v a r . Occidentale Hooke  Common polypody  P o l y s t i c h u m munitum ( K a u l t ) Underw.  Sword  Pteris aquilina L. v a r . l a n u g i n o s a Bong.  Bracken f e r n  Struthiopteris spleant L . Scop.  Deer f e r n  (v)  fern  fern  Shady moist s p o t s  grows i n deep moss  G e n e r a l l y abundant  Common  Common i n m o i s t regions.  Bryophyta Musci  Dicranium sp. Hylocomium p r o l i f e r u m Hylocomium t r i q u e t r i u m Eurhynchium oreganum Mnium punctatam Rhytidiadelphus loreus  Hepaticae  Scapanla bolanderi  11*2  Thallophyta - Lichens Lobaria sp  Foliose green leaf lichen  on trees  Parmelia sp.  Green leaf  on trees  lichen Peltigera sp.  Foliose  on ground  Sphaerophorus sp.  Coral lichen  By stream on the ground.  1U3 Appendix I H  PRECIPITATION  Weather r e c o r d s have been m a i n t a i n e d a t t h e Nimpkish Camp o f C a n a d i a n F o r e s t P r o d u c t s L t d . , Beaver Cove, B.C. s i n c e 1944.  The  s t a t i o n i s a t 100 f e e t above mean s e a l e v e l , l a t i t u d e 50 degrees N. l o n g i t u d e 126 degrees W.  A copper r a i n gauge w i t h a n i n t e r n a l  c o n t a i n e r f o r r a i n and a s e p a r a t e g l a s s measuring c y l i n d e r i s u s e d .  TABLE X X V I I I  Month  January  Average P r e c i p i t a t i o n 1944 t o 1958 10*8 i n c h e s  RAtige  ^9  February  9.U  n  March  6.2  it  April  5*2  ti  May  2.2  it  June  2.1  n  0.3  July  2.0  n  0.0  August  1.8  it  0.2  September  4.6  tt  October  10.9  November  12.8  December  13 .4  Year  81.U  it tt  of  Minimum  4.7  1.3 0.7  0.U  1.7 3.4 3.9  inches it it ii it it  Da+.a Maximum 21.4 i n c h e s 19.2 11.7 11.2  5.2 5.1  it it it II  8  n  6.2  It  tt  6.2  It  tt  8.2  II  tt  22.6  tt  it  22.6  II  it  U.6  n  2U.9  tt  60.9  tt  99.2  It H  Appendix  17  Mammals N a t i v e t o t h e Nimpkish V a l l e y (Cowan and G u i g u e t  Order  Ihsectivora  Family  Genus  Common name  Soricidae  S o r e x obscurus i s o l a t u s  Dusky shrew  J ackson. Sciuridae  Marmota v a n c o u v e r e n s i s  Vancouver marmot  Swarth. Tamiascurius hudsonicus l a n u i n osus Castoridae  Red s q u i r r e l  Bachman  Castor canadensis leucodontus  American Beaver  Gray Cricetidae  Peromyscus m a n i c u l a t u s i n t e r -  White-footed o r  d i c t us  d e e r mouse  Anderson  M i c r o t u s townsendi l a i n g e  Townsend v o l e  Anderson and Rand Ondarata z i b e t h i c a osoyoosensis  Muskrat  Lord  Order  Carnivora  Family  Genus  Canidae  Canis l u p i s crassodon H a l l  Wolf  Ursidae  E u a r c t o s americanus P a l l as  B l a c k bear  Procyonidae Procyon l o t o r p a c i f i c u s  Raccoon  Merriam Mustelidae  M a r t e s americana c a u r i n a Merriam  Marten  1956)  145 M u s t e l a erminea anguine a H a l l  Mink  Gulo l u s c u s v a n c o u v e r e n s i s  Wolverine  Goldman Lutra canadensis Felidae  Schreber  F e l i s concolor vancouverensis  Otter Cougar  N e l s o n and Goodman  Order  Artiodactyla  Family  Genus  Cervidae  Cervus canadensis  roosevelti  Elk  or w a p i t i  Merriam O d o c o i l e u s hemionius ianus  Richardson  columb-  C o a s t or  Columbian  b l a c k t a i l deer  11*6 Appendix V (1)  EXPERIMENTAL PLANTATIONS  Douglas F i r , Hemlock, Cedar and Spruce Plantation 192k* B.C, Forest Service Piekford (192k)  Object The purpose of this plantation was to f i n d i (i) The survival of wild stock planted on unprepared burnt over lands» ( i i ) The effect of density of stocking on growth, ( i l l ) The mortality of hemlock, f i r and cedar where occurring i n mixed stands, (iv) The best method of handling and planting stock, (v)  The cost of planting wildlings.  Location Wood and English operation, on a bench half a mile east of the Nimpkish River i n T.L. 6£oU. Area (Reserved) Starting at a point 11* chains south and 22 chains west of the northeast corner of T.L, 6£0li, thence 10 chains south, thence 10 chains west, thence 10 chains north, thence 10 chains east to the point of commencement, containing 10 acres. A l l corners marked by squared posts. Area (Planted) Starting at point 2,76 chs, south and 2 76 chs. east north west 0  corner of reserved area, thence 1*.1*7 chs. west, 1**47 chs, south, thence 1**47 chs. east, thence 10 chs. north to point of commencement, containing two acres* A l l corners marked by squared posts.  U*7  Sub Plots Planted plot subdivided into 16 sub-plots of 0,125 acres. Elevation  300 feet.  Topography  Undulating bench with irregular surface. The planting  plot i s traversed by a small creek, which i s dry i n summer. Surface  irregular.  Slope  % - 10#  Aspect  South-west.  Soil  Red sandy loam freely mixed with coarse sand and  considerable small stones. Moderate depth. Moisture  Fully irrigated i n the wet season leaving the s o i l  i n a pockety condition. Impeded drainage i n winter. Litter and Humus  Very l i t t l e due to successive fires.  Ground cover  Fireweed, medium density.  Slash  A l l small slash destroyed by successive fires,  A considerable number of the larger pieces remain which hamper the planting and increase the cost. Previous stand  Species  - F i r Cedar  Age  - 250 years (192U)  D.B.H. (average, merchantable) Cut History  - 70 Mbm per acre.  Logged 1921 Burned 1919 - very hot f i r e . 1921 - f i r e patchy. 1922 -  «•  •  1923 - reburn Weather while planting. September 12-20, 1924.  F i r 50" Cedar U0  n  1U8 V e r y h o t and b r i g h t s u n f o r f i r s t t h r e e d a y s , t h e n l i g h t showers and d u l l f o r r e m a i n d e r o f t i m e .  A t t h e end o f t h e p l a n t i n g  p e r i o d a l l e x c e p t f o r $% o f t h e s e e d l i n g s were i n good c o n d i t i o n . The  o t h e r s had a s l i g h t d i s o o l o u r a t i o n o f t h e f o l i a g e .  Planting  Stock.  W i l d s t o c k c o l l e c t e d near t h e p l a n t i n g a r e a was u s e d .  T h i s was  c a r e f u l l y l i f t e d w i t h a s h o v e l s o t h a t t h e r o o t s were damaged as l i t t l e as p o s s i b l e .  The c o a r s e s o i l f r o m which t h e p l a n t s were l i f t e d made  i t i m p o s s i b l e t o o b t a i n a l l the r o o t f i b r e s , and o n l y p l a n t s which appeared t o have a t l e a s t $0% o f t h e r o o t f i b r e s u n i n j u r e d were u s e d .  Method o f h a n d l i n g During t h e f i r s t two days of p l a n t i n g t h e weather was v e r y h o t and d r y .  Under t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o keep the r o o t s  c o n s t a n t l y i n water up t o the time immediately i n the s o i l .  b e f o r e t h e y were p l a c e d  A s a n experiment wet sacks were l a i d  over small p i l e s of  p l a n t s w h i l e t h e h o l e s were b e i n g dug, b u t d i d n o t a f f o r d p r o t e c t i o n t o t h e r o o t h a i r s which d r y o u t r a p i d l y .  sufficient  The hemlock s t o c k  so t r e a t e d s u n s c a l d e d soon a f t e r p l a n t i n g and 10 d i e d b e f o r e t h e remainder o f t h e p l o t was completed.  These were l i f t e d and r e p l a c e d  by f r e s h m a t e r i a l . T h r e e men equipped w i t h one s h o v e l and two buckets was t h e most satisfactory organization t r i e d out. a c u t i n t h e s o i l about 9  n  deep and opened t h e h o l e b y p u s h i n g t h e  handle o f t h e s h o v e l away f r o m him. of  The man h a n d l i n g t h e s h o v e l made  stock b r i n g i n g h i s buckets,  The second man k e p t up t h e s u p p l y  i n which the s e e d l i n g s were  puddled,  U+9 along the l i n e and h a n d i n g the p l a n t s as r e q u i r e d , t o the t h i r d who  p l a c e d them i n the h o l e and c l o s e d the s l i t by pushing t h e  down w i t h h i s h e e l and  tamping w i t h  man soil  a b l u n t s t i c k where n e c e s s a r y *  Cords w i t h markers of c o t t o n a t r e g u l a r i n t e r v a l s were u s e d f o r marking the p o s i t i o n s f o r p l a n t s so t h a t the  s p a c i n g would be  regular  and the p o s i t i o n o f each p l a n t c o u l d be e a s i l y p l o t t e d on a p l a n .  Planting Practice No  attempt was  made t o t a k e advantage o f any l o c a l  s o i l c o n d i t i o n f o r each p l a n t as i t was  shade o r  c o n s i d e r e d d e s i r a b l e t o have  the s e e d l i n g s p l a n t e d under d i f f e r e n t c o n d i t i o n s so t h a t the e f f e c t The  on  m o r t a l i t y and growth c o u l d be  determined l a t e r .  l i n i n g i n by  strings required considerable  t i m e , e s p e c i a l l y as s h o r t l i n e s were u s e d  and t h i s system would g r e a t l y i n c r e a s e the c o s t on l a r g e p r o j e c t s . A l s o i t would be a d v i s a b l e i n p l a n t i n g l a r g e a r e a s t o take advantage o f any l o c a l c o n d i t i o n i n p l a n t i n g each s e e d l i n g at the having t h e  spacing f a i r l y  Labour and  Costs  regular.  The whole work a p a r t f r o m p o s t i n g H a l f of t h i s time was plants.  The  and t a l l y i n g t o o k 3 men  k days.  spent i n c o l l e c t i n g s t o c k o r 3^ man-days f o r  s e e d l i n g s were s c a t t e r e d and a c o n s i d e r a b l e time was  i n searching f o r p l a n t s .  The  s t o c k i n g and where s c a t t e r e d the  would p r o b a b l y be g r e a t e r t h a n f o r n u r s e r y man  f o r t h r e e and  1000 spent  cost of c o l l e c t i n g wildlings varies  g r e a t l y w i t h the d e n s i t y o f the  One  same time  one  costs  stock.  h a l f days a t  $4.00  p e r day c o s t  $lU.00  p e r thousand p l a n t s c o l l e c t e d , (Douglas f i r t r a n s p l a n t s a t Wind R i v e r nursery cost  $8,00  to  $22.00  p e r thousand i n  1923  while  other stock  was  150 a v a i l a b l e a t #9.23 p e r thousand i n B r i t i s h Columbia, and a t $4.40 p e r thousand f r o m o t h e r sources i n Washington and Oregon.) t o o k t h r e e and  Planting  one h a l f man-days p e r thousand t r e e s p l a n t e d g i v i n g  a t o t a l c o s t o f $28.00 p e r thousand o r 2.80  per tree planted.  This  i n c l u d e s t h e c o s t of l a y i n g out the a r e a b y s t r i n g s w h i c h would n o t be n e c e s s a r y  i n o t h e r t h a n e x p e r i m e n t a l work.  l e s s where a r e g u l a r p l a n t i n g gang was t h e swing o f t h e work and developed time.  One  I t may  be n o t e d  1959  man  s h o u l d be  be  employed which had g o t t e n i n t o  s m a l l d e v i c e s f o r t h e s a v i n g of  a b l e t o keep two p l a n t e r s s u p p l i e d w i t h  stock.  t h a t p l a n t i n g c o s t t o Canadian F o r e s t P r o d u c t s i n _ 2.U#  o p e r a t i o n a l p l a n t i n g was  p r o v i d e d b y the B.C.  (II)  The c o s t s would  per tree planted.  F o r e s t S e r v i c e a t no  Stock  was  charge.  S u r v i v a l and Growth o f Douglas F i r .  Location Camp A, K m a i n l i n e t o Woss camp, S i d i n g 4. S e t t i n g K-3.  About  J46O  f e e t n o r t h and  6 6 0  S.T.L.  5215*  f e e t west of most 5215.  e a s t e r l y s o u t h e a s t c o r n e r p o s t o f S.T.L.  History Previous  stand.  F i r w i t h hemlock.  Age  400  Logged  1946.  S l a s h burned.  Unburned.  Planted.  S e p t . 8,  years.  19U7.  Douglas f i r .  Topography A t t h e lower edge <cf a s i d e h i l l which r i s e s flat.  2,000  feet.  Slope  151 Aspect  Southerly.  Elevation  1*00  Site Class  III  Soil  Normal p o d s o l i c t y p e .  feet. 11*0 M i n e r a l s o i l exposed.  Ground Water W e l l d r a i n e d b u t w i t h l a t e r a l seepage w a t e r . Weather  Showery, o v e r c a s t ,  Rainfall August  Vegetation  8/10  J  -l  n  1.7"  Sept.3-10  -  Sept.10-30  - 0"  coverage ( E l d e r b e r r y , b l a c k b e r r y , ) 2 f e e t h i g h .  Some s l a s h and  duff.  Many n a t u r a l f i r .  Planting Douglas f i r , 6 by 6 f e e t .  21  2+0  by 12  s t o c k f r o m Green Timbers N u r s e r y . rows, t o t a l 2^2  trees.  Spacing  Seed s o u r c e unknown.  Results T h i s p l a n t a t i o n e s t a b l i s h e d w e l l and i s c o n s i d e r e d No  satisfactory.  s t a t i s t i c s were k e p t o f s u r v i v a l .  (HE)  S u r v i v a l and Growth o f Douglas f i r .  Location Camp A, Campsite.  A d j a c e n t t o g u e s t house, n o r t h end o f camp.  History Previous stand,  F i r w i t h hemlock and  Age.  130  Logged  19l*3  S l a s h burned.  Unburned.  Planted  S e p t . 10th,  cedar.  years.  19U7.  Douglas f i r .  152 Topography  G e n t l e s l o p e towards l a k e t o w e s t .  Aspect  Westerly.  Elevation  100  feet  Site Class  n i  HJO  Soil  P o d s o l i c w i t h exposed m i n e r a l  Ground Water  Fair  Weather  Showery, o v e r c a s t .  soil.  1"  August 3-10  September  1.7"  11-30  September  0.0"  1 9/10  102,  drainage.  Rainfall  Vegetation  Slope  rain.  October  B r a c k e n f e r n , sword f e r n , R i b e s , b l a c k b e r r i e s ,  elderberry, thimbleberry, vaccinium,  3 feet high.  S l a s h and d u f f .  Planting Douglas f i r 2+0 at 6 by 6 f e e t .  s t o c k , f r o m Green Timbers N u r s e r y .  2 8 rows by 30  rows.  8 4 O plants.  Spacing  Seed source unknown.  Results Checked March 7th,  (Vf)  19U8,  4 row  sample.  952  survival.  S u r v i v a l and Growth o f Douglas F i r .  Location Camp A, immediately S 43,  about 800  t o t h e south o f t h e s o u t h e r n boundary o f  f e e t e a s t o f t h e s o u t h west c o r n e r o f S 4 3 .  History Previous stand.  F i r w i t h hemlock and  Age.  130  years.  cedar.  Branch 2 »  153  Logged.  I9I+U  S l a s h burned  19kk  Planted  11  Topography  A t l o w e r edge o f s l i g h t  patches.  S e p t . 19U7.  Douglas f i r .  The c o u n t r y i s m i l d l y r o l l i n g  the l o w e r p a r t o f one o f t h e t r o u g h s .  s l o p e w i t h some swampy  and t h e p l a n t a t i o n l i e s i n S l o p e 10% v a r i a b l e .  Aspect  Southerly.  Elevation  300 f e e t .  Site Class  III  Soil  Tending t o swampiness i n l i m e s t o n e r o c k . U/lO  li*0  m i n e r a l s o i l , 2/10 swamp, U/lO d u f f .  Ground Water  Ample movement even i n t h e swampy p a r t s .  Weather  As f o r  Vegetation  8/10,  Planting  Douglas f i r 2*0 s t o c k from Green Timbers  2 f e e t , fireweed.  Spacing 6 f e e t by 6 f e e t .  Hesults  (V)  #1.  15 rows b y 15 rows.  Nursery.  Seed s o u r c e unknown.  Moderate s u c c e s s except i n wet a r e a .  S u r v i v a l and Growth o f Douglas f i r .  Location Camp A, Branch 5A, M i l e 1.5,  S e t t i n g R, S.T.L. UI+23 L o t 518,  South-west s i d e o f r o a d .  History P r e v i o u s Stand  F i r - h e m l o c k , some c e d a r .  Age  130 y e a r s .  15U  Logged  191+6.  Slash burned I9I+6 Planted  Sept. 1947.  Douglas f i r .  Topography On side of low h i l l i n centre of larger valley. Slope about 10% variable. Aspect  South-westerly..  Elevation  600 feet.  Site Class  17 110  Soil  Thin on limestone rock with some glacial d r i f t . Some  rocky patches with good s o i l i n between. Ground Water Fairly well drained. Weather  Dry though s o i l moisture content high. Following summer wet.  Vegetation  Salal, huckleberries some salmonberry.  Planting  2+0 stock from Green Timbers Nursery.  Spacing 6 feet by  6 feet. Seed source unknown. Results  A strip cruised diagonally across the area l/5 chain wide  and 12 chains long showed 68 trees i.e. $70 trees/acre. Average height of 12 trees along the strip was 6.1 feet i n June 1958.  Deer browing  common.  (VI) Survival and Growth of Douglas f i r . Location Woss Camp, about l/2 mile west of Woss campsite along the K mainl i n e , lying to the south side of the track towards the river. S 21.  Kla-anch,  155 History Previous  stand.  F i r with  hemlock.  Age  1*00 y e a r s .  Logged  1947  S l a s h burned  19U8  Planted  19l*9 A p r i l .  Douglas f i r .  Topography R i v e r s i d e bench above t h e Kla«anch r i v e r . 500 f e e t i n a s m a l l h i l l b e h i n d t h e p l a n t a t i o n . Aspect  The ground r i s e s Slope  52*  Southwesterly.  Elevation  500  feet.  Site Class  IV"  110  Soil  P o d s o l i c t y p e , on g r a n o - d i o r i t e .  Ground Water  W e l l d r a i n e d b y n a t u r a l s l o p e and t h e edge e f f e c t o f  t h e r i v e r t e r r a c e ' s bank. d r y i n summer.  The ground a d j a c e n t t o t h i s edge i s f a i r l y  The h i l l b e h i n d n o t b e i n g v e r y h i g h does n o t p r o d u c e  much seepage w a t e r .  Weather  R a i n a f t e r p l a n t i n g f o l l o w e d by a f a i r l y d r y summer. Rainfall.  April  11.2"  May  1.3"  June  0.6"  July  1.9"  Aug.  3.5"  Sept. Oct.  2.1*"  5.3"  156 Vegetation  None.  S l a s h 3/10,  D u f f U/lO, m i n e r a l s o i l  s t o c k from G r e e n Timbers  2/10,  1/10.  Rock  Planting  Douglas f i r .  2*0  10  66 rows by 35  rows t o t a l 2,310  b y 10 f e e t .  source - C h i l l i w a c k - seed l o t  (VII)  seedlings.  Nursery. Seed  "MP*.  S u r v i v a l and Growth o f Douglas f i r .  Location Vernon Campsite, o l d m a r r i e d q u a r t e r s a d j a c e n t t o KT b r i d g e . T.L.  7223.  Setting  KT-1.  History Previous stand  Douglas f i r w i t h hemlock.  Age  270  years.  195u  Legged Burned  Intense w i l d f i r e  Planted  S p r i n g 1955.  1952.  Douglas f i r 2*0  Topography I n t h e c e n t r a l p a r t of the main v a l l e y on low Aspect  North and  Elevation  850  feet.  Site Class  HI  lijO  Soil  P o d s o l developed  hills.  east.  on g l a c i a l d r i f t .  Mineral s o i l largely-  exposed. Ground Water  F a i r drainage b u t no seepage water a v a i l a b l e .  Vegetation  Fireweed.  157 About 1,500  Planting b y 10  Douglas f i r 2*0.  feet.  Results  10  t r e e s were p l a n t e d a t a spacing o f  Establishment  Seed Source unknown. o f t h i s p l a n t a t i o n was  satisfactory  Growth t o November 195?  but no s u r v i v a l r e c o r d s were k e p t .  showed an 6.2  average h e i g h t o f l i . $ f o r twenty t r e e s measured w i t h a range o f f e e t f r o m 2.2  f e e t t o 8,4  feet.  The  growth o f t r e e s on a c o n s o l i d a t e d  s t r e t c h o f ground where c a t s had been o p e r a t i n g was the f o l i a g e of t h e s e t r e e s was Conversely, ground.  noticeably less  n o t so g r e e n and h e a l t h y as the  and  others.  s u r v i v a l appeared t o have been lower i n t h e l e a s t d i s t u r b e d  Optimum c o n d i t i o n s seemed t o e x i s t where l o g g i n g had  removed  t h e s u p e r f i c i a l d e b r i s e x p o s i n g m i n e r a l s o i l but n o t compacting i t b y t h e weight o f the machines.  (VIII)  S u r v i v a l and Growth o f Douglas f i r .  Location Woss Camp, K m a i n l i n e , B r a n c h KK spur l i n e .  Lot  about 1500  f e e t along  the  123*  History P r e v i o u s Stand.  F i r w i t h hemlock and some  Age  UOO  cedar.  years,  lagged  1953  S l a s h burned  1954  Planted  1954.  November.  TopograpSaSr Flat.  R i v e r bottom w i t h  steep s i d e h i l l s r i s i n g  2000  e i t h e r s i d e , shading t h e a r e a f r o m the southwest and the Elevation 600  feet.  feet  on  northeast.  158 Site Class  U  Soil  A l l u v i a l , sandy, deep*  Ground Water  A s l o u g h r u n n i n g p a r a l l e l w i t h the p l a n t a t i o n  170  m a i n t a i n s a good w a t e r t a b l e * vegetation  G r a s s , b r a c k e n , and b e r r y bushes such a s salmonberry  Planting  Douglas f i r 1*0  Nimpkish  s e e d p l a n t e d o n November  s t o c k f r o m Green Timbers N u r s e r y o f  15th, 195U*  °U00  s e e d l i n g s were  p l a n t e d , o f w h i c h some 102 were s t a k e d and numbered f o r s u r v i v a l * Spacing 10 b y 10  feet.  Checked.  Survival.  Results.  May  Survival.  31 1955  87.32  1956  66.02  May 10  22 1957  59*02  June 17  1958  50*02  June 17  1958  May  H e i g h t Growth.  Percentage  Nov.  average  total height  ti  15 195U  n  average  it  0.25 f t .  annual i n c r e a s e 0.11 f t *  Weed c o m p e t i t i o n f o r m o i s t u r e , browsing and f r o s t damage t o newly f l u s h e d s h o o t s a l l c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e low r a t e o f growth.  (IK)  S u r v i v a l and Growth of Douglas f i r .  Location Woss Camp, K m a i n l i n e K-26, the R i c e Creek B r i d g e .  S.  about 1500  f e e t n o r t h north-west o f  21.  History Previous Stand*  F i r w i t h hemlock.  Age  270 y e a r s .  159 Logged  1951  Burned  1952 Escaped f i r e .  Planted  Nov. 1954  Intense burn,  Douglas f i r  1*0  Topography 202  slope.  Upper p a r t of s m a l l h i l l r i s i n g above t h e K l a - a n c h  river. Aspect  S o u t h - w e s t e r l y , Exposed,  Elevation  700  Site Class  V  Soil  Loose g r a v e l on g r a n o - d i o r i t e .  Ground Water  L i t t l e s i d e - h i l l seepage due t o rounded t o p o g r a p h y and  the  feet. 80  low e l e v a t i o n o f t h e h i l l  giving l i t t l e  s t o r a g e space f o r ground  w a t e r d u r i n g d r y weather. Vegetation  S a l a l , vaccinium, fireweed.  Planting  Douglas f i r 1*0  10  dense.  s t o c k f r o m Green Timbers N u r s e r y o f  Nimpkish seed p l a n t e d on November 15th and o f t h e s e 100  Not  195U,  U00 s e e d l i n g s were p l a n t e d  were s t a k e d and number c o n s e c u t i v e l y .  S p a c i n g 10  by  feet.  Results Survival  Height  Growth  Percentage S u r v i v a l  Checked May  31 1955  952  May  10 1956  872  May  22 1957  662  Nov.  1U 1958  Nov.  15 195a  822 0.16 f  t .  0.25  ft.  1956  0.38  ft.  1957  0.61  ft.  1955  Av. t o t a l h e i g h t  it  «  it  160  Nov. l i t 1958  (X)  Average T o t a l H e i g h t  1.13 f t .  Av. a n n u a l i n c r e a s e  0.23 f t .  S u r v i v a l and Growth o f Douglas f i r  Location Gamp A.  Branch 8 and Branch 12. Plot A  -  Setting  M3-3  L o t 564, T.L. 4433.  Plot B  -  Setting  121  kot 523> T.L. 4432  Setting  BR-4  L o t 520, T.L. 4426  Plot C -  Plot  Five plots.  Plot D  -  Setting  R-75  L o t 991, X57924  Plot E  -  Setting  R-77  Lot 991, X57924  A  History Previous stand.  Hemlock->Bal sam  Age  Un-even aged.  Logged  1953  S l a s h burned  1953  Planted  1958  November.  Topography On upper edge o f p l a t e a u , s l i g h t s l o p e Aspect  10J6.  North-westerlyo  Elevation  2800 f e e t .  Site Glass  Medium-high f o r hemlock-balsam.  Soil  Heavy d u f f w i t h few p a t c h e s o f s o i l on porous l i m e s t o n e r o c k .  Ground Water stone r o c k .  E x c e s s i v e l y w e l l d r a i n e d by the n a t u r e o f t h e porous l i m e -  161 Weather and  Wet  a t time o f p l a n t i n g *  summer f o l l o w i n g .  Favourable  Vegetation  Fireweed,  Planting  Douglas f i r s t o c k  o f s e e d c o l l e c t e d a t low  Wet  m i l d w i n t e r and wet  spring  conditions.  Moss 2*0  f r o m Campbell R i v e r , Quinsam N u r s e r y  e l e v a t i o n i n the  a d j a c e n t p a r t s o f the  Nimpkish  valley, 20  trees planted  as s u i t a b l e l o c a t i o n s a v a i l a b l e .  t r e e marked w i t h a c e d a r s t a k e and  Plot B  -  as f o r P l o t A w i t h the f o l l o w i n g  Aspect  Westerly  Elevation  2000  Plot C  -  History  numbered  consecutively.  exceptions:-  feet.  as f o r P l o t A w i t h the  Logged  following  exceptions:-  1955  Unburned. Aspect  North-east,  Elevation  2100  Site  feet.  C l a s s y Medium hemlock-balsam  Vegetation  Fireweed, s a l a l , vaccinium.  Planting  10  Plot D  -  t r e e s o n l y were s t a k e d .  as f o r P l o t A w i t h t h e f o l l o w i n g  History Logged  1957  Burned  1957  exceptions:-  Each  162  Topography Upper part of the sidehill forming the southern side of the main Nimpkish valley. Aspect  Slope 352.  Northerly.  Elevation  1750  Site Class  Medium-high hemlock balsam.  Soil  Podsol formed from grano-diorite.  Ground Water  feet.  Good lateral supply down s i d e h i l l , but well drained.  Vegetation  Fireweed, moss.  Plot E  as for Plot D with the following except!onsj-  -  History 1956  Logged Topography  In slight basin formed above the upper edge of the sidehill as D.  Slope 52  Elevation  2000 feet.  Results  Checked 1st. Oct.  Total  1959  Plot A  survival  16 trees.  802  Plot B  survival'  17 trees  852  Plot C  survival  9 trees  90%  Plot D  survival  17 trees  852  Plot E  survival  18 trees  90%  survival  77 trees  85.52  cf. routine plantations checked 12 May 1959  survival 92%  163 (XI)  S u r v i v a l and Growth o f W e s t e r n Hemlock  Location Camp A, l o g g i n g a r e a , Branch  2, Sl+2, Sli3  about one m i l e  south-west o f Anutz Lake, and about 660 f e e t n o r t h o f t h e south-west  Sli3,  corner o f  l y i n g a c r o s s t h e l o t boundary i n an east-west  direction.  History Previous stand,  F i r w i t h hemlock and c e d a r . 130 y e a r s . 19kk  Logged  1944  S l a s h burned  1948 May,  Planted  W. Hemlock.  Topography Low Aspect Elevation  rolling,  500 f e e t 110  F a i r , on l i m e s t o n e  Ground Water Weather  202  Southerly  S i t e (Class IV Soil  Slope  rock.  W e l l d r a i n e d , no seepage w a t e r .  D r y though s o i l moisture  content high.  F o l l o w i n g summer  was wet. Vegetation  7/l0  n a t u r a l cedar  Height  2-3 f e e t .  Mainly fireweed with bracken.  Some  and white p i n e *  Planting  2000  hemlock were p l a n t e d i n  40  rows, running n o r t h and s o u t h .  These were o b t a i n e d l o c a l l y b y d i g g i n g up n a t u r a l s e e d l i n g s . was  marked w i t h a 2 f o o t c e d a r s t a k e .  E a c h row  16k Results 0% S u r v i v a l ,  The t e c h n i q u e used f o r t h e h a n d l i n g o f hemlock  w i l d l i n g s would n o t appear t o have been s a t i s f a c t o r y . #1 t h e r e was t h e same  (XII)  Survival  I n Experiment  difficulty.  and Growth o f Western Hemlock,  Location Camp A, Branch 2, Sk2, about one m i l e south-west o f A n u t z Lake, and about 660 f e e t west and 660 f e e t n o r t h o f the s o u t h - e a s t of  corner  Su2,  History Previous  stand.  F i r w i t h hemlock and c e d a r  Age.  130 y e a r s .  Logged  19kk  S l a s h burned.  19kh  Planted  19U8  - Oct. 18th.  W. Hemlock.  Topography Low and r o l l i n g .  Slope  202.  Aspect  South.  Elevation  500 f e e t ,  Site Class  IV  Soil  F a i r on l i m e s t o n e .  Ground Water  W e l l d r a i n e d , no seepage water.  Weather  T h i s i s a r e l a t i v e l y exposed s i t e .  planting  110  t h e r e was much r a i n .  Vegetation  7/10  height 2 f e e t mainly  fireweed.  A t the time of  165 Planting 5 rows o f hemlock w i l d i n g s . Row A. Row B  e a s t end.  Row G.  25 s m a l l 6" •  Row D.  25 s m a l l 6" - 2' c u t .  17th,  Checked Aug.  2'uncut.  25 medium t o p s h e a v i l y  21; dead  Survival  k%  Row B.  2k dead  Survival  k%  Row C.  23 dead  Survival  Q%  Row D,  25 dead  Survival  0%  Row E .  25 dead  Survival  0%  Survival  3.22  121  cut.  19k9»  Row A.  Total The  25 t a l l 2* - 3» uncut. 25 t a l l 2« - 3 ' c u t .  #  Row E . west end  Results  25 i n each row.  dead  same d i f f i c u l t y o c c u r r e d as w i t h experiment  S u r v i v a l and Growth o f E x o t i c  #10.  Species.  Description A t f i v e l o c a t i o n s i n t h e Nimpkish V a l l e y e x o t i c t r e e have b e e n i n t r o d u c e d .  Success has v a r i e d .  been man and t h e c l i m a t e .  (XUI)  species  The major i n f l u e n c e s  Each l o c a t i o n i s d e s c r i b e d  have  i n turn.  Arboretum - Camp A  Location Camp A l o g g i n g  a r e a , Branch 5 . S.T.L. 5215.  s i d e o f the main l o g g i n g  r o a d t h a t j o i n s Nimpkish Camp t o Woss Camp,  a t a p o i n t a p p r o x i m a t e l y 10§ m i l e s b y r o a d s o u t h e a s t The  On t h e s o u t h e r n  o f Nimpkish Camp,  Nimpkish r i v e r f l o w s northwest, p a r a l l e l t o the r o a d .  166  History Previous  stand.  Fir-Hemlock.  Age  137  Logged  1948  S l a s h burned  1948  years. by c a t s .  Topography On t h e a l l u v i a l f l a t formed b y t h e Nimpkish R i v e r . r i d g e between 50*  and 150'  A low  spur  h i g h c u t s a c r o s s the v a l l e y below t h i s  point. Aspect  F l a t , s h e l t e r e d t o t h e south and west b y h i g h ground.  Elevation  250  Site Class  feet.  IH  Soil  A l l u v i a l s i l t and  sand.  Water  Well drained, l i t t l e  seepage water.  Micro-climate The topography of t h i s a r e a i s such as t o c o l l e c t c o o l e r a i r draining o f f higher land at r i g h t . winds.  There i s l i t t l e  exposure t o d r y i n g  Dust f r o m the main road blows over the a r e a i n a d r y summer.  Vegetation T y p i c a l o f s u c h a v a l l e y bottom s i t e but n o t e x c e s s i v e l y dense. On p a r t s c o n s o l i d a t e d d u r i n g l o g g i n g , r e d a l d e r has f l o u r i s h e d caused to  suppression of the exotic species.  The  and  a l d e r has been c u t back  r e l e a s e the e x o t i c t r e e s .  Biotic Deer a r e p r e s e n t i n the a r e a . i n 1958  the p o p u l a t i o n was  According to a survey c a r r i e d  5e>28 p e r square  mile.  out  TABLE XXIX SUMMARY OF RESULTS. ARBORETUM. GAMP A. RIVER ROAD. BRANCH $. Specific Name  A  Pseudotsuga taxifolia  B  Picea abies  C SW 1 SW 2 SW 3  Pinus. sylvestris n tt  Common Name  Interior Douglas Fir Norway spruce Scots pine II  tt  White spruce  U.B.C. Number seed planted lot. Apr.'53  June 1957 Survival No.  Oct. 1958 Av.Ht. Survival feet No. %  Av.Ht. feet  Height Increment «57-'58  4803  12  12  100  2.24  12  100  2.82  0.58  German  5  5  100  1.26  5  100  1.35  0.09  Sweden n  21 4 6  17 2 2  .81  50 33  1.56 1.45 4.06  16 2 2  76 50 33  2.34 2.25 5.95  0.78 0.80 1.89  4916  16  12  75  0.95  12  75  1.45  0.50  it  D  Picea glauca  E  Pinus ponderosa  Yellow pine  4805  24  11  46  1.30  11  46  2.14  0.84  F  Picea  Englemann  4806  54  12  22  0.54  12  22  0.64  0.10  H  Abies concolor  White fir  4930  24  8  33  0.49  8  33  0.66  0.03  I  Chamaecyparis lawsoniana  Port Orford cedar  Coos* Co. Oregon  31  10  32  1.13  10  32  2.41  0.17  SUMMARY  Specific Name  Common Name  U.B.C. seed lot.  Number planted  CONTINUED  Survival No. % G  Picea Englemann e n g l e m a n n i i spruce  J  Abies lasiocarpa  Alpine fir  Betula  Swedish curly birch  L  M  Populus deltoides  Carolina poplar  Colorado  U915  U807  cuttings  Av.Ht. feet  Survival No.  4 3  7  16  0.53  7  2U  2  8  o Sk  2  5  3  60  12  0  0  A l l species Averages Totals  ,0ct. 1958  June 1957  Apr.«53  9  0  16  8  3  60  0  0  1.23 26?  103  39  Height Incre, , ment 57- 58 Av.Ht. feet  0.56  1.28  O.46  0.08  O.89  0 I.84  102  #«•  M  0.61  38  o  CO  169  Apparent Damage  O c t . 1958  Loss o f t h e l e a d i n g  s h o o t was common i n I n t e r i o r Douglas F i r ,  severe i n C o l o r a d o Englemann S p r u c e , and o c c a s i o n a l i n P o r t O r f o r d Cedar. Spruce.  S u p p r e s s i o n due t o a l d e r o c c u r r e d w i t h t h e A r i z o n a Englemann Deer b r o w s i n g was bad o n t h e Norway Spruce, o c c a s i o n a l o n the  w h i t e Spruce, b a d on t h e C o l o r a d o Englemann Spruce, and c o n s i d e r a b l e on t h e White F i r .  170 (XIV)  Arboretum - Woss Camp  Location To t h e n o r t h o f Woss Campsite b e h i n d t h e schoolhouse, to the K l i n e  adjacent  cut-off.  History Previous stand.  Fir-Hemlock  Age  270 y e a r s w i t h some p o l e s .  Land c l e a r e d b y c a t s f o r camp e x t e n s i o n .  Topography I n c e n t r e o f Nimpkish V a l l e y on a r i v e r bench. Aspect  F l a t w i t h s l i g h t s l o p e t o southwest.  Elevation  500 f e e t .  Site Class  17  Soil  Sandy g r a v e l .  Water  W e l l d r a i n e d , w i t h a s m a l l creek t o t h e west.  Micro-climate Timber around t h e p l a n t a t i o n s h e l t e r s i t f r o m d r y i n g winds and the s l o p e p r o v i d e s adequate a i r drainage t o s t o p c o l d a i r s t a g n a t i n g i n a frost  pocket.  Vegetation Bare ground b u t n a t u r a l t r e e r e g e n e r a t i o n f l o u r i s h i n g  s i n c e the  p l a n t a t i o n was e s t a b l i s h e d .  Biotic C h i e f damage due t o c h i l d r e n f r o m t h e camp and t h e c r e a t i o n o f a pond f o r i c e - s k a t i n g .  TABLE XXX SUMMARY  Specific Name  A  B  C  Common Name  Pseudotsuga taxifolia  Interior Douglas Fir  Picea  Norway Spruce  abies  Pinus sylvestris  Scots Pine  •i  OF  RESULTS.  " U.B.C. seed lot  1*803  ARBORETUM  Number Planted  Apr.'58. H*  -  WOSS CAMPSITE  O c t . 1953 Survival No.  11  27 June 1959 Survival No.  Av. H t .  -  79  0  0  100  k  100  Salmon Arm Gordon Roche Jaraptland, Ragunda Sweden, 63° 2 0 % 2°W. o f Stockholm 700-800 f e e t .  1*  1*  2.31*  G a s t i k l a n d Vangsbo  61°20°N. 2°S Stockholm 350-600» Sweden Germany ( F o r e s t Club)  D  P i c e a fungens  White spruce  1*916 C o l o r a d o  E  Pinus ponderosa  Y e l l o w Pine  1*805 San F r a n s i s c o Peaks. A r i z o n a * 10,000 f e e t  3U  26  3  3  8  8  9  1*  76 100 100  1*1*  1U 3  1+1 100  2.76  6.51*  0  0  -  0  0  *•  F  Picea Englemannii  Englemann Spruce  1*806 ( A r i z o n a )  30  29  97  10  33  1.30  H  Abies  White F i r  1*930 Colorado  30  28  93  6  20  0.91  I  Charaaecyparis lawsoniana  Port Orford Cedar  Coos. 100« Co. Oregon  31*  28  82  10  29  3.1+5  concolor  SUMMARY CONTINUED  Common Name  Specific Name  G  Picea Englemannii  Englemann Spruce  Totals -  (U.B.C, seed lot.  Number Planted Apr.'58  1+915 (Colorado) 166  Oct. 1953 Survival No. t  27 June 1959 Survi v a l No. %  Av. Ht.  32  9k  6  18  0.88  li+5  87  53  32  2.38  173  Apparent Damage  June 1959  The c l o s e n e s s t o t h e camp a c c o u n t s f o r some l o s s e s due t o c u t t i n g f o r C h r i s t m a s t r e e s and wanton damage.  Land c l e a r i n g t o  c o n s t r u c t t h e a d j a c e n t pond caused f u r t h e r damage. o c c u r r e d o n some o f t h e Spruce.  The White f i r  Adelges  Coolyii  shows C h l o r o s i s .  17k  (XV)  Pinus S y l v e s t r i s .  Scots  Pine  Location Immediately t o t h e n o r t h s i d e o f the m a i n l i n e % m i l e n o r t h - K 26.  west o f Woss Camp.  - L o t 21.  History Previous stand. Age.  Fir-Hemlock 270 y e a r s .  Logged  1951  S l a s h burned  1952  Planted  October  1953.  Topography A t t h e base o f a 15 degree s l o p e . Aspect South w e s t . Elevation  560  Site Class  IV  feet.  Soil  Loose sandy g r a v e l f r o m g r a n o - d i o r i t e r o c k .  Water  W e l l d r a i n e d w i t h seepage w a t e r down t h e s l o p e .  Microclimate Moderately  exposed t o winds w i t h no a i r s t a g n a t i o n .  Vegetation Vaccinium,  f i r e w e e d and mosses.  No damage  observed.  Biotic  175  Results May  1954  86$ Survival  May  1955  782 Survival  June  1956  462 Survival  Average height of 20 trees measured January 1959 was 2.4 feet  176  (XVI)  Pinus Radiata P l a n t a t i o n  Location About a q u a r t e r o f a m i l e north-west o f WosS Camp b e s i d e the Nimpkish R i v e r .  History Previous Stand, Age  Fir-Hemlock.  $$0 y e a r s . 19U8  Logged  S l a s h burned  19k9.  Topography A l l u v i a l F l a t a d j a c e n t t o r i v e r backed b y r i s i n g r i v e r  terrices.  r  Aspect  F l a t exposed t o South.  Site Class  Water  17  H i g h f r e e moving water t a b l e .  Microclimate  A n a t u r a l f r o s t h o l l o w where c o l d n i g h t a i r w i l l  c o l l e c t and f r o s t o c c u r on c l e a r n i g h t s when r a d i a t i o n i s h i g h . Vegetation  Willow Salal. Huckleberry  Biotic  L i t t l e a c t i v i t y being  c l o s e t o camp and Hound Dog k e n n e l s .  177  Planting Date Oct, 19U9 Stock 1+0 Locally grown* Number 1300 Spacing 2" x 12". Mulch applied after planting. Results 3>00 k i l l e d by frost before the mulch applied, January 19!>1 a low of -9 degrees F, k i l l e d 788 seedlings. Check July 1953,  Average ht. 2». Healthy and vigorous.  Check May 195U.  Remaining two killed by frost.  178 (XVH)  Effect on the Growth of Douglas f i r of Treatment with Gibberellic Acid.  Location Woss Camp, H. Mainline, mile 1, Setting H-2,  S 21, east side  of track.. Since obliterated by location of Davie Road. History Previous stand.  Fir-Hemlock.  Age  270 years.  Logged  19U7  Slash burned  19U8  Planted  May 9, 1957  Topography Flatish country i n the centre of the Nimpkish valley . Aspect  North-east by reason of standing timber.  Elevation  550 feet.  Site Class  Site III l l | 0 .  Soil  Podsol.  Ground Water  Sufficient. Rain-April 1-15  Weather  May  1-15  Temperature May Vegetation Bare ground.  1.39"j 16-30 0.50"j  16-31  max. 88  0.51" 0.7h"  min. U2.  Total 3.lh  179 Planting  2 * 0 Douglas f i r stock was planted in four rows at a spacing of k by k feet. There were 2$ trees i n each row. Alternate rows were treated the in-between ones to act as control-. Seed origin of stock unknown. Treatment Half ( 0 0 trees) of the stock were immersed in a solution of Gibrel, potassium tetracyclic dihydroxylactonate,  0.22$  in water,  and left to soak i n i t overnight. The trees were then planted i n the normal manner. Results Checked.  7 t h June 1 9 5 8 . Survival  - Average Original Total Height height height increment  Untreated  762  7.8"  9.0«  1.8«  Treated  162  7.3"  7.3"  0.0"  The trees had been burned and killed by the chemical.  (XVIH) Effect on the Growth of Douglas f i r of Treatment with Gibberellic Acid. Location Camp A, River Road, Setting R.60, (landing) Lot 23. History Previous Stand  Fir-Hemlock  Age  130 years  Logged  1952  Slash burned  1953  180  13 May 1958.  Planted Topography  A small alluvial f l a t perched above the valley bottom.  Aspect  North.  Elevation  350 feet.  Site Glass  17 110  Soil  Sandy with partially developed podsol. Bare mineral  s o i l throughout. Ground Water  A small creek runs through the plot providing seepage  water but the area i s v e i l drained by nature of the sandy s o i l and lower level of the adjacent valley floor. Weather  Rainfall  April 1-21  6,00"  22*30  0.00"  1-31  0.20"  May  The following summer was hot and dry. The temperature rose to 89° F. i n the f i r s t week of May and later to 95° F. Vegetation  Very l i t t l e at planting, some fireweed and elderberry.  Planting  125 1+0 and 125 2+0 Douglas f i r of Campbell River origin  were planted i n 10 plots, of 25 trees each, to give a total of 250 trees planted. Each tree planted was staked and numbered using aluminum tags. The numbers designated trees and plots. Treatments Four treatments and a control were laid out. Trees foliage only dipped i n a solution of glbrel at the co nc entration:-  181 A. &F.0 oz. per gallon  0,0%  B. &G.1/20 oz. »  "  0,00$2  n  C. &H.1/2 oz. "  "  0.0532  »  D. &I. 1  oz. «  E . &J. 5  oz. »  solution  0.1072  n  •  tt  0.5352  n  Surplus liquid was shaken off. The group of plots A to E were 1+0 trees and the group P to G were 2+0 trees. The plots were allocated on a randomized pattern using random numbers. Results Each tree was measured on July 29, 1958 for total height and current height increment. Complete analysis of the data obtained showed the following 1. The effect of gibbereHic acid onta. Height growth (not including dead trees) 1+0 trees.  Not significant.  2+0 trees.  "  •  b. Survival percentage. 1+0 trees. 5 oz. per gallon  significant.  a l l other concentrations 2+0 trees  Negative  not significant "  "  between age classes a l l trees 1+0 and 2+0 controls only  M  very significant. not significant.  Positive  182 A f u r t h e r check i n August 1959  showed no new r e s u l t s  developing. The v e r y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e o f the h i g h e r percentage  f o r t h e 2+0  over t h e 1*0  survival  stock i s i n accord with  experience  i n operationalplantations.  (XIX)  E f f e c t on t h e Growth o f Douglas f i r o f Treatment w i t h Gibberellic Acid.  Location As f o r E x p t . ( X V U I ) except s e t t i n g 5 9 . Site Class Planting  H I  lUO.  P a r t o f the r o u t i n e s p r i n g p l a n t a t i o n o f 1*0  Douglas f i r . Treatment  and  2*0  Seed o r i g i n unknown.  The same s o l u t i o n s a s i n Expt.XVJQEwere u s e d b u t t h e a p p l i c a t i o n  was b y s p r a y u n t i l s a t u r a t i o n o f t h e a l r e a d y p l a n t e d t r e e s was a t t a i n e d . F o u r rows o f t r e e s were t r e a t e d and a f i f t h l o c a t e d f o r c o n t r o l .  Results  As f o r E x p t . X V I I I t h e h i g h e r c o n c e n t r a t i o n s b u r n t and  k i l l e d the t r e e s w h i l e the l o w e r c o n c e n t r a t i o n s d i d n o t produce a positive  (XX)  result.  E f f e c t on t h e Growth o f Douglas f i r o f Treatment w i t h U r e a formaldehyde.  As f o r E x p t .  XVUI.  Treatment P e l l e t s o f a c h e m i c a l f e r t i l i z e r c o n s i s t i n g of U r e a formaldehyde and a b i n d e r were i n s e r t e d i n h o l e s b e s i d e t h e p l a n t e d t r e e s .  The  183 selection of the trees to receive treatment was randomized to confound the effect of the previous treatment with gibberellic acid.  There  were sixteen blocks with five trees to each block. The f e r t i l i z e r came i n two forms and was applied, at two concentrations, one pellet and two pellets, 7gm, and lit gm. respectively. Results The results of height measurements, total height and current increment and survival which were taken June 12, 1958; and analysed by the analysis of variance.  None of the treatments produced an effect  significant at the $% level of probability and no effect of the f e r t i l i z e r on the survival and mortality of the planted trees was apparent. The plantation was rechecked on Aug. 11, 1959 and analysis showed a significant difference at the 52 level between blocks and treatments thus confounding and invalidating any further results.  (XXI)  Effect on the Growth of Douglas f i r of Treatment with Urea formaldehyde.  Location Camp A, Kaipit valley, Branch 5G-1, Setting 159, L. 992, T.L. 697.  Old landing.  History Previous stand.  Fir-hemlock.  Age  kOQ years.  Logged  1949  Burned  1951  18U  1959 5th March. Douglas f i r 2+0  Planted  Fertilizer applied  5th March 1959.  Flat at base of long steep slope. Aspect  West  Elevation  1000 feet.  Site Glass  I I 170  Soil Podsol on d r i f t and colluvial material from grano-dioriic bedrock. Superficial horizons removed by logging machines i n constructing landing. A l l exposed mineral s o i l with some consolidation. Ground Water  •  Well drained, lateral seepage from adjacent s i d e h i l l . Weather February 5»82 rain.  snow.  tt  March 1-7  1.57"  March 8-lU 3.61" March 15-31 5.49" April  1-lii 3.30«  Max. temp. "  11  o  n  51  Min. temp. 2k  6U  "  37  n  » •»  29 32  April continued warm and dry until April 25 when rain and low temperatures returned. The s o i l remained moist throughout the dry spell. Vegetation Very l i t t l e , some elder, salmonberry and fireweed. Planting Douglas f i r 2+0 stock Merville, V.I. elevation 500» was planted at 8 by 8 feet. 20 blocks with 6 trees i n each block.  185  Treatment F o u r t r e a t m e n t s were a p p l i e d and r e p l i c a t e d f i v e times each to eliminate s o i l v a r i a t i o n .  They were 3 p e l l e t s , 2 p e l l e t s , 1  p e l l e t , and 0 p e l l e t s r e s p e c t i v e l y . a l l o c a t e d t o the p l o t s .  The t r e a t m e n t s were randomly  The p e l l e t s were p l a c e d  i n t h e h o l e i n which  the t r e e was p l a n t e d b u t covered s l i g h t l y t o p r e v e n t immediate  contact  w i t h t h e r o o t system. Results The  experiment was checked and measured o n t h e  lath September.  T o t a l h e i g h t and c u r r e n t i n c r e m e n t and m o r t a l i t y were r e c o r d e d  for a l l  trees. Analysis of the f i g u r e s by the analysis of variance  showed t h a t  the two p e l l e t treatment produced a n i n c r e a s e i n h e i g h t growth o v e r the c o n t r o l s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e 1% l e v e l . any v a r i a t i o n a t a l l . block.  No o t h e r treatment  revealed  O n l y one t r e e had d i e d and t h a t was i n a c o n t r o l  The f e r t i l i z e r d i d have t h e e f f e c t o f p r o d u c i n g second f l u s h e s  on some o f t h e t r e e s i n e a c h o f t h e f e r t i l i z e r t r e a t m e n t s b u t none occurred i n the c o n t r o l blocks. The  i n c r e a s e i n h e i g h t growth due t o t h e f e r t i l i z e r  p e l l e t l e v e l was 4l«6j5 over t h e c o n t r o l . horizons  The removal o f t h e s u p e r f i c i a l  p r e v i o u s l y i n t h e l o g g i n g would perhaps make t h e t r e e s more  responsive  (XXII)  a t t h e two  to the a d d i t i o n of n u t r i e n t s .  E f f e c t on t h e Growth o f Douglas f i r f r o m Treatment w i t h Ammonium N i t r a t e .  Location Woss Camp, Woss o l d m a i n l i n e M i l e 4, S e t t i n g ¥8, l a n d i n g .  S.21.  186  History Previous stand.  Fir-hemlock.  Age  270 y e a r s .  Logged  19h9  S l a s h burned  unburoed.  Planted  2 9 t h J a n u a r y 1959.  2+0 Douglas f i r .  Fertilized  2nd F e b r u a r y 1959.  Ammonium n i t r a t e .  Topography On  s l i g h t t e r r a c e on l o v e r p a r t o f s i d e h i l l above main  v a l l e y a t c o n f l u e n c e o f K l a - a n c h and Woss r i v e r s . Aspect North-east. Elevation  650 f e e t .  Site Class  I I I lUO.  Soil  Podsol.  Landing w i t h c o n s o l i d a t i o n and u p p e r  horizons  stripped o f f . Ground Water S o i l c o n s o l i d a t i o n c a u s e s t h e seepage water t o move near o r on t h e s u r f a c e and some e r o s i o n has o c c u r r e d . Weather M i l d and damp a t time o f p l a n t i n g . i h any r e s p e c t  The w i n t e r was n o t extreme  and q u i t e s u i t a b l e f o r p l a n t i n g t h r o u g h o u t .  Vegetation None. Planting 120 t r e e s each.  2+0 Douglas f i r t r e e s were p l a n t e d  i n 20 b l o c k s  of 6  187  Treatment Ammonium nitrate commercial grade agricultural f e r t i l i z e r , 362 available nitrogen was applied at four levels of treatment; 6;oz. h oz.j 2 oz.j and 0 oz. The chemical was sprinkled on the s o i l surface, around the base of the tree so as to be available to the roots without being i n contact with the stem of the seedling. Results The plantation was checked on the lath August 1959.  The  figures for height growth showed no significant differences but the survival showed a very significant difference at the 12 level i n a negative direction for a l l three applications of ammonium nitrate. The average survival of the three treatments at 6 oz,, k oz., and 2 oz, was 382 and for the control was 932. The effect of the chemical •throughout the range of treatments i s noticeable and maybe related to the fact that the application and planting were i n mid-winter  (XXni) Douglas F i r Provenance Study. 1955 Location Camp Vernon K mainline, siding 28, setting 82 Lot 118, T.L, lil062. History Previous Stand.  Fir with hemlock  Age  270 years.  Logged  1953  Slash burned  Wild fire 19i;2, 1952  Planted  Oct. 18, 1955  Topography 202 s l o p e f r o m l o w r i d g e t o v a l l e y bottom* Aspect South-westerly Elevation 1200 f e e t . Site  Glass 17  110  Soil P o d s o l , on g r a n o - d i o r i t e .  Loose crumbly c o a r s e g r a v e l .  Ground Tflater Good f l o w o f s i d e h i l l seepage t h r o u g h t h e a r e a . Weather October wet t h r o u g h o u t t o t a l r a i n . November.  Wet t i l l November 1 1 t h .  13*66 i n c h e s . 3.70 i n c h e s  November H t h temp. 5 degrees F . c o n t i n u i n g c o l d w i t h s t r o n g winds* November 1 6 t h  snow  8*0 i n c h e s *  Vegetation F i r e w e e d , some v a c c i n i u m , Oregon g r a p e , and s m a l l  salal.  Planting Douglas f i r .  2+0 s t o c k .  Provenance  100 t r e e s Nimpkish s e e d l o t T-U 1$ A. 100 t r e e s Campbell R i v e r .  ( l o c a l t o Nimpkish  L o t T-L 1 1 - 5 .  b o t h grown i n G r e e n Timbers N u r s e r y .  test. Lake)  189  A l l seedlings staked and tagged with aluminium tags marked N for Nimpkish seed and C for Campbell River seed, numbered consecutively 1 to 1G0. Results This plantation was tested severely by the frost of November H t h , 1955 when the temperature f e l l to 5 degrees and stayed cold u n t i l i t snowed on 16th November. Examination  May 21. 1957 Nimpkish stock  3%  Campbell River Stock  252  It i s noticeable that the local stock has not done as well as the imported. This may be due to some indiscernable factor but there i s asLight climatic difference between the seed source for the Nimpkish stock and the actual location of the planting. The seed was collected lower down the valley near Nimpkish Lake, where the mass of water of the lake has a modifying effect on local climate, whereas the planting site i s i n the section of the valley with the maximum extremes of climate experienced i n the region.  (XXIV) Douglas F i r Co-operative Seed-Provenance Study This experiment i s part of a large scale seed provenance study being operated co-operatively between twelve separate organizations. The objective i s to test the hypothesis that distinct races of Douglas f i r are attributable to temperature, altitude and latitude or a combination of these factors. Seed was collected from seventeen locations and out planted at sixteen of the same locations, the most  190  n o r t h e r l y n o t r e c e i v i n g an o u t - p l a n t i n g .  The f o l l o w i n g i s a l i s t  o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n s and l o c a t i o n s c o n c e r n e d .  Seed Source No.  Co-operating Organization  Elevation in feet.  Location  2600-2900  Sugar L o a f Mb., B.C.  E l k F a l l s Co. I * d .  1300-1700  Courtenay, B.C.  3.  B.C. F o r e s t S e r v i c e  570- 750  Mesachie Lake, B.C.  4.  Canadian F o r e s t Products L t d .  hOO- 600  Nimpkish F o r e s t , B.C.  5.  Weyerhaeuser Timber Co.  6.  Simpson Olympic Tree Farm  7.  S t a t e Board o f F o r e s t r y , O r e .  8.  Oregon F o r e s t R e s e a r c h Centre  1.  MacMillan  2.  & Bloedel L t d .  1850-2000 100- 500 1600-2200  E l b e a r e a , Wash. S h e l t o n a r e a , Wash. Tillamook, Ore.  Willamette  200  V a l l e y , Ore.  Crown Z e l l e r b a c h C o r p o r a t i o n  1600-2000  M o l l a l a area Ore.  10.  Crown Z e l l e r g a c h C o r p o r a t i o n  3200-3800  M o l l a l a area Ore.  11.  Oregon S t a t e  1800-2000  McDonald F o r . O r e .  12.  U.S. F o r e s t S e r v i c e  1800-2000  Oakridge a r e a Ore.  13.  U.S. F o r e s t S e r v i c e  2500-3000  High P r a i r i e , Ore.  Hi.  Medford  2700-3300  Butte F a l l s , Ore.  15.  U n i v e r s i t y o f B.C.  16.  Weyerhaeuser Timber Co.  17.  B.C. F o r e s t S e r v i c e  9.  College  Corporation  500-  700  3900-4100 800-1100  Haney, B.C. White R i v e r , Wash. B e l l a C o o l a , B.C.  The B e l l a C o o l a l o c a t i o n r e p r e s e n t s a c o l l e c t i o n o f s e e d o n l y and no o u t - p l a n t i n g was done t h e r e . The 52 d e g r e e s .  experimental  areas range f r o m l a t i t u d e U2 degrees t o l a t i t u d e  They a r e a l l i n the c o a s t a l b e l t o f t h e Douglas f i r r e g i o n .  191  The individual seed lots are each represented at each of the out-plantings where they are each replicated four times, once i n each of four blocks. In the Nimpkish Forest experiment the blocks are square and i n pairs, the two pairs of blocks being some three miles apart i n equable locations.  Each replication has a corner post  tagged with an aluminum strip indicating the provenance of the particular replication.  The replications are a l l f u l l y randomized  independently i n each block. The description of the pairs of blocks, Plantation I, blocks A and B, and Plantation I I , blocks C and D, follows with procedure and practice.  192 B l o c k s A and B  (i)  Location,  B r a n c h £ , R i v e r Road, Camp A. - S.T.L.  5215.  South o f t h e main r o a d a t a p o i n t about 1600 f e e t west o f t h e s t a r t o f the K a i p i t road,  (ii)  History.  Previous  (Any t i e t o a c o r n e r p o s t a v a i l a b l e . )  stand,  Fir-Hemlock,  A n even aged stand o f second  growth d e r i v e d f r o m a f i r e about I 4 O y e a r s ago. 137 y e a r s . of  C u r r e n t age  A l s o s c a t t e r e d o l d growth t r e e s f r o m hOO t o 6£0  years  age - a l l f i r . C a t - logged 19U8,  (iii) (iv)  2J>0  Elevation. Site.  S l a s h burned 19hB  feet.  S p i l s b u r y and Smith - P t y p e . T.Q.  Wright.  Stump 80 y e a r diam, b y r i n g  count  S i t e c l a s s H I S . I , l£0. R,L. c l a s s I H S.I. The  Schmidt.  F o r e s t A s s o c i a t i o n - moss - S i t e  II4O-I50.  s l a s h b u r n and l o g g i n g d i s t u r b a n c e make e s t i m a t i o n o f  s i t e a c c o r d i n g t o t h e f i r s t t e c h n i q u e r a t h e r weak. (v)  Vegetation.  C o l o n i z a t i o n o f s l a s h b u r n b y f i r e w e e d and moss.  A l s o p r e s e n t a r e swordfern,  salmonberry,  elderberry, willow, a l d e r ,  h u c k l e b e r r y r e d , and b r a c k e n . (vi)  Soil.  A l l u v i a l s i l t and sand.  Well drained but l i t t l e  l a t e r a l seepage w a t e r .  Slope, Aspect, e t c , (i)  S l o p e - F l a t , t h e ground drops about 10 f e e t t o t h e n o r t h and  193  west, beyond t h e l i m i t s o f t h e p l o t * w e s t e r n end o f the (ii)  Aspect,  An o l d s l o u g h d r a i n s the  plots,  none.  R i s i n g ground i m m e d i a t e l y t o the s o u t h and  a t a s l i g h t d i s t a n c e t o the west w i t h g r e e n t i m b e r t o the s o u t h s h e l t e r the (iii)  plots.  Micro-climate.  The low l y i n g n a t u r e o f the ground g i v e s  a p o s s i b i l i t y o f l a t e f r o s t b u t an arboretum has been s u c c e s s f u l l y established adjacent to t h i s  area.  V e r y l i t t l e exposure t o w i n d ,  w h i c h w i t h t h e deep s o i l s h o u l d remove r i s k o f damage.  19k B l o c k s C and (i)  D.  Location.  2000  About  Branch $  23.  the R i v e r Hoad, Camp A, L o t  t  f e e t e a s t o f t h e s t a r t o f t h e Eve Creek r o a d on  the  s o u t h s i d e o f t h e main r o a d . (ii)  History.  Previous  stand.  F i r - H e m l o c k as f o r b l o c k s A and Cat-logged  1952  1952  -  1955.  S p i l s b u r y and Smith - P  type.  S l a s h burned (iii)  Elevation  (iv)  Site.  e a s t h a l f 195U  300  R.L.  west h a l f .  feet.  T.G. W r i g h t . S i t e Class I I I S.I.  B.  Stump 80 y e a r diam. b y r i n g c o u n t ,  HiO.  Schmidt.  F o r e s t a s s o c i a t i o n - moss - S i t e  C l a s s I I I S.I. U J C . G.A. 130  -11*0  P a t t e r s o n - 19U7  cruise.  HE - Age  Six.  West - E a s t .  S l a s h b u r n and l o g g i n g d i s t u r b a n c e make e s t i m a t i o n o f s i t e v e g e t a t i o n weak. (v)  Vegetation.  (vi)  Soil.  Slope, Aspect, (i) (ii)  Slope.  As A and B p l o t s .  A l l u v i a l s i l t and  sand.  etc. Flat.  A s p e c t , None.  S h e l t e r e d by r i d g e t o the e a s t and  south.  ( i i i ) Micro-climate.  S l i g h t l y more exposed t o wind t h a n p l o t s  A and B but o t h e r w i s e  similar.  Note:  There i s l i t t l e r e a l d i f f e r e n c e between t h e two though t h e y a r e about t h r e e m i l e s a p a r t .  blocks  by  195 Weather April  3-9  "Rain 3.02"  Max. temp. 76  Min. temp. 30  Rain 0.18"  n  11  76  n  it  31  Rain 0.02»  n  n  68  it  n  29  April 22-28  Rain 1.80"  n  n  71  11  11  29  April 29-30  Rain 5.02"  it  H  76  11  it  29  1-31  Rain 7.52"  ii  II  80  n  11  29  April 10-Ui April  May  15-21  The summer was mild and rain occurred at regular intervals there being only two weeks without any rain at a l l . Weather stations were established at each plantation. Vegetation The site was cleared of a l l small stumps, slash and debris previous to planting. Subsequently a growth of bracken, fireweed and berry bushes colonized the ground to about $0% of the total area. Biotic Because of the danger of deer browsing the planted trees and invalidating growth measurements, an electric fence was set up around the two plantations. This consisted of four strands of wire carried on two rows of posts. One set of wires were respectively 1.5 feet, k»$ feet and 7.5 feet above the ground and the other 2.5 feet above the ground some 3 feet outside the t a l l e r posts. The wiring was electrified by an agricultural type fencer with the voltage boosted to double strength. I t proved effective i n keeping out a l l large deer but some fawns and yearlings did occasionally get through the fence presumably without touching the wires. The amount of damage done was negligible.  196  Damage b y growse and o t h e r c r e a t u r e s was v e r y l o w .  Some  few t r e e s s u f f e r e d some d e f o l i a t i o n , b u t the cause was n o t i d e n t i f i e d .  Planting P l a n t i n g was c a r r i e d o u t between A p r i l 5 and A p r i l 23, 1959. The  t r e e s were spaced a t 8 b y 8 f e e t each t r e e b e i n g s t a k e d and There were 6k b l o c k s w i t h 121  tagged.  provenances r e p l i c a t e d k t i m e s e a c h .  t r e e s i n each, r e p r e s e n t i n g  16  The c e n t r e k9 t r e e s i n e a c h  b l o c k were numbered c o n s e c u t i v e l y f o r r e f e r e n c e i n measuring h e i g h t growth and m o r t a l i t y . modifying  The s u r r o u n d i n g  double row o f t r e e s a c t as a„  i n f l u e n c e s o t h a t t h e measured t r e e s w i l l p e r f o r m a s though  t h e y were i n a l a r g e continuous  s t a n d o f t h e i r own provenance and a l l  f r i n g e e f f e c t s w i l l be e l i m i n a t e d .  Results A l l t h e numbered t r e e s were checked f o r m o r t a l i t y on 10 May and kt>0% were f o u n d dead.  A l a t e r check on t h e 25 S e p t . showed t h i s  had  i n c r e a s e d t o k»6% w h i l e a t t h i s date t h e m o r t a l i t y i n t h e surrounds  was  12.5/6.  T h i s d i f f e r e n c e i s because when t h e t r e e s were p l a n t e d t h e  h e a l t h y l a r g e s t r o n g ones were p u t i n t h e c e n t r e p a r t s o f each b l o c k and t h e second r a t e ones i n t h e s u r r o u n d s .  Height  measurements o f  t o t a l h e i g h t and c u r r e n t increment, were a l s o t a k e n t o t h e n e a r e s t m i l l i m e t e r , on 25 S e p t . 1959 obtained.  but no c o n c l u s i o n s f r o m t h e d a t a were  197 (XXV)  A l d e r Under P l a n t i n g w i t h Douglas F i r .  Location S o u t h e a s t o f b r i d g e between Camp A t r a n s f e r and Boneyard across Kla-anch r i v e r .  Branch  $k.  Lower S.T.L.  6507.  History Previous Stand.  F i r w i t h hemlock.  Age  4 O O years  Logged  19U5  S l a s h burned  19U6 10 Nov. 1959.  Planted  Douglas f i r 2*1  Topography F l a t beside the r i v e r . Aspect  South  Elevation  lf>0 f e e t I H U4O  S i t e Class Soil  .  Sandy w i t h f a i r humus development.  Ground Water  Permanent w a t e r t a b l e n o t f a r below s u r f a c e due t o  proximity of r i v e r . Weather  Sept.  Iu39  rain.  Oct.  5.93"  rain.  Nov. 1-10  0.86"  rain.  tt  F a l l was m i l d and wet b u t e a r l y November was d r y and becoming c o l d e r w i t h some f r o s t s . Vegetation P l a n t e d a r e a c o n s i s t e d o f w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d 3O-I4O f oot a l d e r w i t h a l i g h t g r a s s sward o r s a l m o n b e r r y below.  high  198 Planting  2000  t r e e s were p l a n t e d  b y 10 f e e t where p r a c t i c a b l e .  a t an approximate spacing  No t r e e s were p l a n t e d  c l o s e r than 3  f e e t f r o m an a l d e r stem, b u t salmonberry was n o t c o n s i d e r e d respect.  i n this  The s e e d l i n g s were 2+1 s t o c k f r o m Green Timbers N u r s e r y  L o t 35 T.U. 0,5 w i t h w e l l d e v e l o p e d r o o t s b u t s h o r t t o p s . t r e e was p l a n t e d in  o f 10  Each  i n a s l o t made i n a p a t c h about one f o o t square  t h e t u r f t o bare s o i l .  screefed  F o u r p l o t s o f t e n t r e e s each s c a t t e r e d  t h r o u g h o u t t h e l e n g t h o f t h e p l a n t i n g were e s t a b l i s h e d f o r s u r v i v a l and growth c h e c k s .  Each t r e e marked w i t h a 3 f o o t c e d a r s t a k e  painted  y e l l o w a t t h e t i p f o r ease i n r e l o c a t i o n and t a g g e d and numbered. c e n t r e s were marked b y p a i n t i n g a l d e r b o l e s with y e l l o w p a i n t . attempt was made t o k i l l of f a l l  planted  the a l d e r .  Plot  No  The i d e a i s t o t e s t t h e a b i l i t y  Douglas f i r t o e s t a b l i s h under a f u l l c o v e r o f a l d e r .  Presumably w h i l e t h e f i r w i l l n o t grow a t t h e n o r m a l r a t e f o r t h e s i t e i t w i l l be r e a d y t o take o v e r when t h e a l d e r s t a n d b e g i n s t o break up a t m a t u r i t y .  The a l d e r c o u l d be g i r d l e d o r k i l l e d b y a p p l y i n g  Ammonium Sulfammite p o i s o n i n a f r i l l spraying costs.  c u t around t h e s tern o r b y b a s a l  b u t t h e s e p r o c e s s e s a r e expensive because o f the h i g h Work h a s been done w i t h a e r i a l s p r a y i n g  labor  of alder but i t i s  n o t n e c e s s a r i l y d e s i r a b l e t o k i l l t h e a l d e r a s i t may a t t a i n v a l u e i n its  own r i g h t .  (XXVI)  To T e s t Whether T w i s t i n t h e Stem i s a n I n h e r i t e d i n Douglas F i r .  Location Branch  5,  R i v e r Road, Camp A, L o t .  23.  About  Character  2,000  feet  199  east of the start of the Eve Creek road on the south side of the main road. Within the central section of the Cooperative Provenance Study, History Douglas f i r seed was collected from a single particularly "snaky-stemmed" parent tree with heavy persistent branching.  Two  similar trees were growing to the windward of this tree and i t i s more than l i k e l y that most of the female cones would have been fertilized by pollen from this source. The seed was sown on October 15th, 1959 i n order to test whether or not the twisty-stemmed feature i s inherited by the progeny.  200 Appendix V I  An Experiment i n D i r e c t S e e d i n g . F o r e s t S e r v i c e , 1923. Permanent P l o t #58.  Purpose o f Study:  (Nimpkish Lake, B.C. A l e x a n d e r and Garman  To determine t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f e s t a b l i s h i n g S i t k a  spruce on c u t - o v e r Douglas f i r - r e d c e d a r type b y d i r e c t  boundary between L o t U6 0.60  seeding.  Wood and E n g l i s h o p e r a t i o n ; on Timber L i c e n c e 1167}  Location:  and  Timber L i c e n c e 1167.  along  The p l o t i s l o c a t e d  c h a i n s n o r t h o f t h e main l i n e l o g g i n g r a i l w a y between Camp 7  t h e beach.  The  1923)  a r e a i s 0.5  acre (2.23  c h a i n s b y 2.23  and  chains).  Elevation:  300  Topography:  Most n o r t h e r l y bench between Nimpkish R i v e r and f o o t of  feet.  mountains t o n o r t h .  Surface: Slope:  F a i r l y regular Level  Aspect: Soil:  South-western Red  sandy loam t y p i c a l o f Douglas f i r t y p e s , w i t h c o a r s e  and c o n s i d e r a b l e s m a l l  Moistures  stones.  F a i r l y dry; t h e r e a r e some low p o c k e t s  w a t e r l i e s d u r i n g the wet  L i t t e r and Humus: Ground C o v e r : Slash:  sand  w i t h i n t h e p l o t , where  season, b u t a l l d r y d u r i n g summer.  Very l i t t l e  due t o  fires.  F i r e w e e d of medium d e n s i t y , c o n s i d e r a b l e moss.  Most of the s l a s h was  b u r n e d b y s u c c e s s i v e f i r e s and a c o n s i d e r a b l e  amount o f t h e l a r g e r p i e c e s r e m a i n s .  201 Precipitation:  The average precipitation at Alert Bay for the  preceding 10 years was as follows:  Previous Stand:  May  2.5h inches  June  2.31 inches  July  2.71 inches  August  l.hU inches  September  4.57 inches  Douglas f i r and western red cedar cutting 60 thousand  board feet per acre, was logged i n 1919 and burned by a very hot f i r e . Patchy burning occurred i n 1921 and 1922. Seed:  From the 1920 seed crop collected i n the Queen Charlotte Islands  and extracted i n New Westminster, having a germination per cent of 15 per cent i n 1920. Sowing: 1^ l b . was broadcast on half an acre and ^ l b . was spotted along the west boundary. Time of Sowing: Examinations:  September 12, 1923 The plot was examined on September 5th, 1924 by Pickford.  Four strips one tenth chain i n width were run across the plot from east to west. A total area of 0.0892 acres were examined. The total number of trees on the strip were 113 spruce, 2k hemlock, 22 Douglas f i r , and 11 yew.  The spruce averaged 0.5 inches high and 50 per cent  of them were on decaying wood. The plot was examined on April 2, 1927 by the logging superintendent, N.B. McCauley, who found that there were 250 spruce plants per 0.5 acre plot, t h r i f t y , with a height of 3-6 inches.  202 The p l o t was who  examined on August 30, 1930  r a n n i n e s t r i p s , 0,10  b y F . McKinnon,  c h a i n s wide, spaced e v e n l y a p a r t and  r u n n i n g f r o m e a s t t o west.  The  a r e a t a l l i e d was  0,2007 a c r e s .  TABLE XXXI Strip_.Survey o f D i r e c t Seeding o f S i t k a Spruce, T o t a l Number o f T r e e s p e r Acre per Strip  Species  1930, Range of T r e e Height  280  11*00  2-30  inches  66  330  1-12  inches  Douglas f i r  8  1*0  1-30  inches  Western  1  5  7  35  3-15  inches  H*  70  1-10  inches  Sitka  spruce  Western hemlock  yew  W e s t e r n white  pine  Western r e d c e d a r  The  -  spruce s e e d l i n g s i n the case o f the l a r g e r i n d i v i d u a l s , a r e  s l i g h t l y a f f e c t e d w i t h s p r u c e w e e v i l , but t h e remainder  are  thrifty  and appear t o be making good growth. The p l o t was G.S,  Allen,  i n 1930  The  examined i n June 1931* b y J,C,H, R o b e r t s o n  same s t r i p s e s t a b l i s h e d and t a l l i e d by F.S,  were r e c h e c k e d .  R e p r o d u c t i o n on t h e n i n e s t r i p s was  b y one f o o t h e i g h t c l a s s e s , 0,0 and so on.  The S i t k a spruce was  s p e c i e s on the p l o t .  f e e t t o 1,0  f e e t , 1.1  and  McKinnon tallied  f e e t t o 2,0  v e r y h e a l t h y and i s the dominant  feet  203 TABLE XXXII Density of Reproduction by Species per Acre. Species 03"  Spruce  By 1 foot Height Classes Mid-point of Each Class  33"  Total  73"  "63" 73" Surveyed Per Acre  51  72  77  50  lit  5  0  280  lliOO  8  5  3  3  1  0  0  1  21  105  Hemlock  43  33  16  6  1  0  0  0  99  495  W. Pine  1  0  1  0  1  3  2  1  9  U5  Cedar  9  15_  0  0  0  0  0  29  145  Total  72  86  53  17  438  2190  11  Fir  10k  197  TABLE XXXIII Comparative Density of Reproduction by Species per Acre. Tear  Spr.  Number of Trees per Acre F i r Hem. Pw. Ced. lev  Total  Max. Height of Spruce  1924  1266  22  269  0  0  11  1568  0.5 feet  1930  1400  40  330  35  70  5  1880  2.5 feet  193U  lUOO  105  495  45  145  0  2190  7.0 feet  Table XXXIII indicates that the most vigorous spruce grew 3.5 feet between 1930 and 1934.  I t also compares the 192U, 1930 and 193k plot  examinations. The 1927 examination i s omitted as i t was an estimate. The 1924 examination was not a good sample because of the inconsistency i n the number of spruce. I t i s remarkable that the 1930 and 193U  20k  t a l l i e s for spruce are exactly the same, not a single, of the 11*00 trees per acre having died during the four year period between examinations, Robertson and Allen commented (Alexander and Garman 1923) "When we consider that spruce i s the dominant species on the plot, this would indicate that the establishment of Sitka spruce i n the upper Nimpkish valley area would prove very useful, n  Subsequent experience has shown that the spruce weevil and the chermes insect so damage the Sitka spruce i n later years that i t i s not a merchantable species.  205 Literature Cited  A l l e n , G.S.  " A p p l i e d S i l v i c u l t u r e i n B,C."  V o l . 26, (Sept. 1950) A l l e n , G,S. (March 1955)  Forestry Chronicle,  pp. 221-226.  " E s t a b l i s h i n g t h e Crop." F o r e s t r y C h r o n i c l e , V o l , 31, pp. 31-34. "~  A l e x a n d e r , J . L . and Garman, E.H, Study o f D i r e c t Seeding o f S i t k a Spruce a t Nimpkish L a k e , V i c t o r i a , B.C. F o r e s t S e r v i c e , 1923 P r o j e c t # M.R,6, E x p e r i m e n t a l P l o t # 58, Anon, D u r a s e t I n f o r m a t i o n Summary # 1, Naugatuck Chemical Company, 1955*  Naugatuck, C o n n e t i c u t ,  Canadian F o r e s t P r o d u c t s L t d , Submission t o t h e R o y a l Commission F o r e s t r y . Vancouver, Canadian F o r e s t P r o d u c t s L t d , 1955* Chapman, J.D. The C l i m a t e o f B r i t i s h Columbia, Resources Conference, 1952. Cowan, I , MoT, V i c t o r i a , B.C,  and G u i g u e t , G,J, 1956.  Victoria,  The Mammals o f B r i t i s h  Department o f N o r t h e r n A f f a i r s and N a t i o n a l R e s o u r c e s , Canada, Ottawa, 1956. B u l l e t i n #61, 5th E d i t i o n .  on  B.C.  Columbia,  Native Trees of  Ddnmock, E . J . S i l v i c a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f P a c i f i c S i l v e r F i r . P o r t l a n d , U.S. F o r e s t S e r v i c e , 19f>5. S i l v i c a l S e r i e s #4. E v e r s o l e , K.E. B e t t e r Marking Means Cheaper P r u n i n g . U.S. F o r e s t S e r v i c e , 1953. R e s e a r c h Note. #24,  Portland,  E v e r s o l e , K.E, " S p a c i n g T e s t s i n a Douglas F i r P l a n t a t i o n . " F o r e s t S c i e n c e , V o l . 1 (March 1955) PP 14-18. F i n h i s , J.M. E x p e r i m e n t a l P r u n i n g o f Douglas F i r i n B r i t i s h Columbia, V i c t o r i a , B.C., B.C. F o r e s t S e r v i c e , 1953. R e s e a r c h Note #24. F i n n i s , J*M. "Rodent C o n t r o l i n t h e D i r e c t S e e d i n g o f Douglas F i r , Nimpkish V a l l e y , " F o r e s t R e s e a r c h iReyiew, V i c t o r i a , B.C, F o r e s t S e r v i c e , June 1959. E.P. 437, page 44. F o r e s t C l u b , F o r e s t Handbook f o r B r i t i s h Columbia. U n i v e r s i t y o f B.C., 1959.  Vancouver,  F o r e s t S o i l s Committee, An I n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e F o r e s t S o i l s o f the Douglas F i r R e g i o n o f t h e P a c i f i c Northwest. Seattle, University o f Washington, 1957.  206  Garman, E.H. and Orr-Ewing, A.L. Direct Seeding Experiments i n the Southern Coastal Region of British Columbia. Victoria, B.C. Forest Service, 1949, Technical Publication # 3 1 . Garman, E.H. Seed Production of Conifers i n the Coastal Region of British Columbia Related to Dissemination and Regeneration. Victoria,tf.C.Forest Service, 1951. Technical Publication # 3 5 . Garman, E.H. Regeneration Problems and Their Silvicultural Significance i n the Coastal Forests of British Columbia. Victoria, B. C. Forest Service, 1955, Technical Publication # T.ijl. Hayes, G.L. S i l v i c a l Characteristics of Port Orford Cedar. U/.S. Forest Service, 1958. S i l v i c a l Series # 7 .  Portland,  H i l l s , G.A. The Classification and Evaluation of Site for Forestry, Ontario, Department of lands and Forests, August 1952, Research Report #21*. Hoadley, J.W. Geology and Mineral Deposits of the Zeballos-Nimpkish Area, Vancouver Island, British Columbia. Ottawa, 1953. Hunt J . Phytophthora lateralis on Port Orford Cedar. U.S. Forest Service, 19^9.  Portland,  Isaac, L.A. Factors Affecting Establishment of Douglas F i r Seedlings , Washington, D.c, U.S. l*epartment of Agriculture, 1938. Circular #486.  Isaac, L.A. Reproduction Habits of Douglas F i r , Washington, B.C., C. L. Pack Forestry Foundation, 19U3. Isaac, L.A. Results of Pruning to Different Heights i n Young Douglas F i r . Portland, U.S. Forest Service, 1945, Forest Research Note # 3 3 . Isaac, L.A. "Recent Development i n Silvicultural Practices i n the Douglas F i r Region". Journal of Forestry, Vol. 4 7 , (Dec. 1949) pp. 957-960.  Isaac, L.A. The Place of Partial Cutting i n Old Growth Stands of the Douglas F i r Region. Portland, U.S. Forest Service, 1956. Research Paper 0 I D . Isaac, L.A., and Dimmock, E.J. S i l v i c a l Characteristics of Douglas F i r var. menziesii, Portland, U.S. Forest Service, 1958, S i l v i c a l Series # 9 . Kotok, E.S. "Shall we Prune to Provide Peeler Logs for the Future?" The Timberman, Vol. Ul #10, 1951, pp. 1 0 4 - 1 0 9 .  207 Kverno, N.3. and Hartwell, H.D. Pacific Northwest 1955-56 and 1956-57 Experimental Seeding Studies. Denver, U.S. Department of the Interior, 1957. McArdle, R.E., Meyer, W.H, and Bruce, D. The Yield of Douglas F i r i n the Pacific Northwest. Portland, U.S. Forest Service, 191*9. Technical Bulletin #201. Revised. McOullogh, W.F.  Timber Talk.  Dictionary of Logging Terms, 1959.  McKinnon, F. The Natural Regeneration on the Operation of the Wood and English Company, Nimpkish Lake, B.C. Victoria, B.C. Forest Service, 1928. Project # M.R. 9, History Map Study, Vancouver Forest District. McLay, T.A. Economic Considerations i n Douglas F i r Stand Establishment. Portland, U.S. Forest Service, 19J>3>. Research Paper #15. Morris, W.Q. The Influence of Slash Burning on Regeneration, other Plant Cover and"Fire Hazard i n the Douglas F i r Begion. Portland, U.S. Forest Service 1958. Hesearch Paper #29. Pickford, A.E. Planting Study of F i r , Hemlock, Cedar and Spruce At Nimpkish Lake, camp 7, B.C. Victoria, ii.C. Forest Service, 1924. Experimental Plot #32. Reukema, D.L, Some Recent Developments i n the Wind River Douglas F i r Plantation Spacing Tests. Portland, U.S, Forest Service, 1959. Research Note #167. Schmidt, R.L. A Method of Estimating Site Quality of Logged Land i n the Coastal Douglas F i r Belt of British Columbia." Victoria, B.C. Forest Service, i95U. Research Note #27. Schmidt, H.L. Some Aspects of Western Red Cedar Regeneration i n the Coastal Forests"of British Columbia! Victoria, B.C. Forest Service 1955, Research Note #29. Schmidt, H.L. The Silvics and Plant Geography of the Genus Abies, i n the Coastal Forests of British Columbia. Victoria, B.C. Forest Service 1957. Technical Publication #T.l*6. Shaw, E.W. and Staebler, G.R. Financial Aspects of Pruning, Portland, U.S. Forest Service, I9fl>0. Smith, J.H.G. "The Economics of Pruning". Forestry Chronicle. Vol. 30, (June 1951*) pp 197-211*. Smith, J.H.G. and Ker, J.W. "Some Problems and Approaches i n Classification of Site i n Juvenile Stands of Douglas F i r . " Forestry Chronicle . Vol. 32 (Dec. 1956) pp. 1*17-1*28.  208  Smith, J.H.G. and W a l t e r s , J . "The I n f l u e n c e o f S p a c i n g on C o s t o f P l a n t i n g Douglas F i r . " F o r e s t r y C h r o n i c l e . V o l . 33 (Dec, 1957)  PP. 392-394. S m i t h , J.H.G. " B e t t e r Y i e l d s through Wider S p a c i n g . " F o r e s t r y , V o l . £6 ( J u l y 1958) p p . U92-497.  J o u r n a l of " :  S o i l S u r v e y S t a f f . S o i l Survey Manual. Washington, D.C., Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1951. Handbook #18.  U.S.  S o c i e t y of American F o r e s t e r s . F o r e s t Cover Types o f N o r t h America Washington, D.C. S o c i e t y o f American F o r e s t e r s , 1954. S p i l s b u r y , R.H. and Smith, Northwest. V i c t o r i a , B.C. P u b l i c a t i o n #T.30.  D.S. F o r e s t S e r v i c e , 1947.  Technical  S t e i n , W.I. "Pruning t o D i f f e r e n t H e i g h t s i n Young Douglas F i r . " J o u r n a l o f F o r e s t r y . V o l . 53, (May 1955) PP 352-355 T a n s l e y , A.G. The B r i t i s h I s l a n d s and T h e i r V e g e t a t i o n . U n i v e r s i t y Press 1949.  Cambridge,  T o r g e n s e n , D.C., Young, R.A., and M i l b r a i t h , J.A. Phytopthora root r o t d i s e a s e s o f Lawson Cypress and o t h e r Ornamentals. Portland Oregon A g r i c u l t u r a l E x p e r i m e n t a l S t a t i o n , 195U. B u l l e t i n #537. Ware, L.M.  and S t a h e l i n , R.  at Various  Spacings."  "Growth o f Southern Pine  J o u r n a l of F o r e s t r y ,  V o l . U6,  Plantations 19U8.  pp 267-274.  Warrack, G.S. and F r a s e r , A.R. E s t i m a t i o n of S i t e Q u a l i t y i n J u v e n i l e Douglas F i r S t a n d s . V i c t o r i a , B.C. F o r e s t S e r v i c e , 1955. Research Note. #28. Wood, R.F. S t u d i e s o f Northwest American F o r e s t s i n R e l a t i o n t o S i l v i c u l t u r e i n Great B r i t a i n . London, Her M a j e s t y ' s S t a t i o n e r y O f f i c e , 1955. F o r e s t r y Commission #25.  to  ^ * ,C  L  MAP  To  6? TH£  >SHoW  follow  .lOCftTioH  I^(M PKiSH  VALLEY .  p a g e CL  t o f o l l o w page 8'  g.II  Map  to Illustrate  1  Developed i n G l a c i a t e d  the T y p i c a l Stream-bed Valleys,' E l l i o t t  Pattern  Creek, Nimpkish V a l l e y .  

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